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Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

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THE 

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

AND 

JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



/THE\ 

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

/// / AND 

JOURNAL 



OF THE 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY 

JOHN EVANS, D.C.L., LL.D., TBEAS.R.S., P.S.A., 

CORBE8PONDANT DE I/IHSTITUT DE FRANCE, 

BARCLAY V. HEAD, D.C.L., PH.D., 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER OF COINS, BRITISH MUSEUM, CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THB 
IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, 

AND 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, F.S.A. 



THIED SEEIES. VOL. VIII. 




Factum abiit monumenta manent. Ov. Fast. 

LONDON : 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY. 

PARIS: MM. ROLLIN ET FEUARDENT, PLACE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 

1888. 



NC, 

sar. 3 
v.8 

^41205 



PRIKTKO BIT J. S . VIETUK AND CO., L1M1TKD, 
CITY BOAD. 



CONTENTS. 



ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

Page 

Greek Coins acquired by the British Museum in 1887. By 

Warwick Wroth, Esq 1 

On a Hoard of Eoman Coins found at East Harptree, near 

Bristol. By John Evans, D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., P.S.A. 22 

Coins of the Indo-Scythian King Miaiis, or Heraiis. By 
Major-General Sir A. Cunningham, E.E., K.C.I.E., 
C.S.I 47 

Monnaies grecques, inedites et incertaines. By J. P. Six . 97 

On the Jewish "Lulab" and "Portal" Coins. By Dr. 

Graetz. Translated by H. Montagu, F.S. A. . . .165 

Coins of the Indo-Scythians. By Major-General Sir A. 

Cunningham, E.E., K.C.I.E., C.S.I 199 

The Eastern Capital of the Seleucidse. By H. H. Howorth, 

M.P., F.S.A., M.E.A.S. ....... 293 

Germanicopolis and Philadelphia in Cilicia. By Barclay V. 

Head, D.C.L., Ph.D 300 

A New Type of Carausius. By C. Oman, M.A., F.S.A. . 308 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

MEDLEVAL AND MODEKN NUMISMATICS. 

Is it certain that the Anglo-Saxon Coins were always struck 
at the Towns named on them ? By Samuel Smith, jun., 
Esq. 138 

English Personal Medals from 1760. By Herbert A. 

Grueber, F.S.A 59, 249 

German Medallists of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Cen- 
turies. By T. Whitcombe Greene, B.C.L. . . .145 

On the Half-noble of the Third Coinage of Edward III. By 

H. Montagu, F.S.A 310 

Medals of Scotland. By ft. W. Cochran-Patrick, F.S.A. . 316 
On Swiss Tir Medals. By A. Prevost, Esq. . 323 



ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 



. 325 



CONTENTS. Vll 

NOTICES OF EECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

Page 

Beschreibung der antiken Miinzen (Konigliche Museen zu 

Berlin) .......... 154 

Kleine Beitrage zur antiken Numisuiatik Siidrusslands . 156 
Revue Numismatique ....... 158, 286 

Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik ...... 160, 285 

Bulletin de Numismatique ....... 289 

Eepertoire des Sources imprimees de la Numismatique 



e .......... 289 

Trois royaumes de 1'Asie Mineure. T. Reinach . . . 364 

The Coins and Tokens of the Possessions and Colonies of the 

British Empire. By James Atkins . . . . 364 



MISCELLANEA. 

Find of Stycas . 95 

Rare and Unpublished Commonwealth 'Coins . . 96 

The North Borneo Coinage 96 

Find of Roman Coins on Great Orme's Head . . . 163 

The New Coinage, 1887 v . . 290 

Fiud of Coins at Denby, near Barnsley, Yorkshire . . 36(i 



ii CONTENTS. 

LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. VIII. 

Plate 
I. Acquisitions of the British Museum in 1887. 

II. Coins from the Harptree Hoard. 

III. Coins of Miaiis or Heraiis, Chief of the Kushans. 

IV. English Personal Medals. 
V. Monnaies grecques inedites. 

VI. Jewish "Lulab" and " Portal" Coins. 
VII. Indo- Scythians Native Legends. 
VIII. Do. Do. 

IX. Do. Monograms. 

X. Bactriana, Ariana, North- West India. 
XL English Personal Medals. 
XII. Scottish Medals. 
XIII. Coins of the Durranis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC 
SOCIETY. 



SESSION 18871888. 

OCTOBER 20, 1887. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

Thomas W. Minton, Esq., was elected a Member of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 21 42, 1887. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Sitzungsberichte der k. Preussischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Parts I XVII, and XIX XXXIX. 
1887. From the Academy. 

3. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, Bd. II. 
Heft I III. From the Society of Northern Antiquaries, 
Copenhagen. 

4. Bulletin historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. Livraison 142. From the Society 

5. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Parts VI VII, 1887. 
From the Institute. 

6. Annuaire de la Societe Fra^aise de Numismatique et 
d'Archeologie. May August, 1887. From the Society. 

7. Revue Beige de Numismatique. Parts III IV, 1887. 
From the Society. 

a 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

8. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 
Parts I II, 1887. From the Society. 

9. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Vol. xi. No. 3. From the Society. 

10. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 4750, 1887. From the Society. 

11. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Bd. XV. Part I. From 
the Editor. 

12. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland. Vol. viii. Nos. 70 72. From the 
Association. 

13. Catalogue of Roman Coins in the Public Museum, Moscow. 
Part II. From the Museum. 

14. Archa3ologia Aeliana. Part XXXIII. From the Society 
of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. From the Society. 

15. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. viii. No. 1. 
Text and Plates. From the Hellenic Society. 

16. Hints to Coin Collectors in Southern India. Part I. By 
Captain R. H. C. Tufnell. From the Author. 

17. Somerset Trade-tokens of the seventeenth century, and 
from 1787 1817. By W. Bidgood. From the Author. 

18. Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 18867. 
From the Editor. 

19. Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im 
Rheinlande. Part LXXXIII. From the Society. 

20. Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Antiquitets Academiens 
Monadsblad, 18781885. From the Academy. 

21. Zur Miinzkunde Grossgriechenlands, Siciliens,Kretas,&c 
By Dr. F. Imhoof-Blumer. From the Author. 

22. Monnaies Lyciennes. By M. J. P. Six. From the Author 

23. Anniversary Address to the Society of Antiquaries, 1887. 
From the President. 

24. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum 
Peloponnesus, by P. Gardner, and Crete, *.., by W . Wroth ; 
From the Trustees of the British Museum 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 3 

25. Catalogue of English Coins. Anglo-Saxon Series. Vol. i. 
By C. F. Keary. From the Trustees of the British Museum. 

Mr. H. Montagu exhibited twenty-eight varieties of gold 
coins of James I. not recorded in Kenyon's recent work on the 
Gold Coins of England. 

Mr. Deakin exhibited a base shilling of James I, counter- 
marked with a castle and the letter K, possibly an obsidional 
piece of Kilkenny, 1650 4, of which city the arms are a castle. 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther exhibited a set of Newark money, 
viz., a half-crown and shilling of 1645, and a ninepence and six- 
pence of 1646. 

Mr. Copp exhibited two patterns of George IV with obverses 
by Pistrucci. These pieces were probably intended for half- 
crowns, though larger in diameter than usual. 

The Rev. W. G. Searle exhibited a rare and unpublished 
copper denarius of Constantine the Great, struck in London 
shortly before he was proclaimed emperor, 25th of July, 
A.D. 306 : Obv., FL. VAL. CONSTANTINVS NOB. C. ; rev., 
VIRTVS AVGG. ET CAESS. NN. ; exergue, P.L.N. Type, 
emperor on horseback spearing prostrate foe. 

Professor P. Gardner read a paper on some unpublished 
coins of Bactria and India, the most remarkable of which was 
a decadrachm, having on the obverse a Greek horseman pur- 
suing an elephant on whose back are two apparently Scythian 
warriors, and on the reverse a standing figure of Alexander 
the Great holding the thunderbolt of Zeus. This important 
coin, which was found two or three years ago at Khullum, 
in Bokhara, has been purchased by Mr. A. W. Franks, and 
generously presented by him to the Department of Coins in 
the British Museum. 

Mr. A. J. Evans read a paper " On a Coin of a Second Car- 
ausius, Caesar in Britain in the Fifth Century." (This paper is 
printed in vol. vii, p. 191.) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



NOVEMBER 17, 1887. 
JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 

in the Chair. 

J. Harris Gibson, Esq., and Major H. Trotter, C.B., were 
elected Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 43 46. 1887. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Bd. XV. Parts II, III. From 
the Editor. 

3. Bulletins de 1'Academie Royale des Sciences de Belgique. 
Tomes 9 13, and Annuaires 1886 7. From the Academy. 

4. Catalogue des livres de la Bibliotheque de 1'Academie 
Royale des Sciences, &c., de Belgique, (i) Lettres, (ii) Sciences. 
From the Academy. 

5. Bulletin historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. 143 me livraison. From the Society. 

6. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 51. From the Society. 

7. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. viii, Part VIII. 
From the Institute. 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther exhibited, on behalf of Mr. H. 
Symonds, a penny of Edward III struck at Durham, with mint- 
mark crown on obverse instead of the usual cross patee ; also 
a penny of Henry VIII, " Cantor " second coinage, with W-A 
at sides of shield, and mint-mark T on obverse only. 

Mr. L. A. Laurence exhibited a gold crown of Henry VIII, 
with the reverse inscription on both sides. 
^ Mr. H. Montagu exhibited specimens of rare or unpublished 
sixpences of the Commonwealth, dated 1657 and 1659 

Mr.Krumbholz exhibited a rare half-crown of Charles II, 

81, with elephant and castle under bust 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. O 

Mr. Durlaclier exhibited a half-guinea of George II, 1730, 
young head, with E.I.C. under bust, no gold coins having been 
previously known of that year. 

Mr. F. W. Pixley exhibited a complete set of the Jubilee 
coinage. 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther read a paper " On Groats of 
Henry VII with the arched crown, second issue." (See vol. vii, 
p. 316.) 

Mr. B. V. Head read a paper, by Prof. P. Gardner, " On the 
Exchange Value of Cyzicene Staters," in which the writer 
maintained that the Cyzicene and the Daric were of the same 
value, and passed at Athens as equivalent to 28 Attic drachms, 
in the Persian dominions to 25, and at Panticapaeum to 22. 
(See vol. vii, p. 185.) 

Mr. Head fully agreed with Prof. Gardner's conclusions, and 
stated that he hoped to be able to lay before the Society at an 
early date accurate specific gravities of a series of early electrum 
coins, together with the per-centages of gold and silver con- 
tained in each specimen. 



DECEMBEK 15, 1887. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LLJ)., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

M. W. Cockayne, Esq., J. L. Henderson, Esq., and E. F. 
Weber, Esq., were elected Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 47 50. 1887. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Kongl. Vitterhets Historic och Antiquitets Academiens 
Monadsblad. Stockholm, 1886. From the Academy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



3. Histoire Monetaire de Geneve, 15351792. ByE.Demole. 
From E. Prevost, Esq. 

4. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
From the Society. 

5. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. viii, Part IX. 
From the Institute. 

6. Biographie historique de 1'arrondissement de St. Omer. 
By B. Dard. From the Societe des Antiquaires de la Morinie. 

7. De Munten der frankische en deutsch nederlandische 
Vorsten. By P. 0. Van der Chijs. From Dr. 0. Codrington. 

Mr. B. V. Head exhibited an electrotype of a unique coin of 
the town of Maronea in Thrace, which has recently been 
acquired by the British Museum. It is a tetradrachm of light 
Attic weight, having on the obverse a very fine head of the 
youthful Dionysus wearing an ivy wreath. The style of the 
work resembles that of some of the beautiful heads of Apollo on 
the coins of Chalcidice. The reverse, instead of the usual vine 
with four or more bunches of grapes, has a single vine-branch 
with a large bunch of grapes occupying the whole field of the 
coin. Mr. Head fixed the date of the coin at about B.C. 400. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a thaler of Matthew Schiner, Bishop 
of Sitten (Sion), Valais, struck in A.D. 1501, having on the 
obverse St. Theodolus in episcopal robes, and by his side 
Satan carrying the bell, in allusion to the well-known local 



tradition. 



Mr. H. Montagu exhibited a noble and a quarter-noble of 
Edward Ill's second coinage, 1344, each with the letter L (for 
London) in the centre of the reverse. 

Mr. B. A. Hoblyn exhibited a set of patterns, proofs, and 
currency of the Kiichler copper coinages for Great Britain and 
eland struck in the years 1799, 1805, 1806, and 1807 

Mr. Webster read an account of an ingenious trick by which 
American dollars, probably of 1801, have been, by some former 
converted into dollars of 1804 (the rare date), the figure 1 
bavmg been effaced, and a new figure 4 laid on with silver 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 7 

solder in such a perfect manner that the junction was invisible. 
(See vol. vii, p. 340.) 

Mr. Evans read a paper on an important and extensive hoard 
of Koman silver coins recently discovered at East Harptree, in 
Somersetshire. The hoard covered the period between the 
reigns of Constantine the Great and Gratian. It consisted of 
1,476 specimens, for the most part in fine condition, and 
included some rarities. (See vol. viii, p. 22.) 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Kettlewell, the owner of 
the coins, for his kindness in placing the hoard in Mr. Evans's 
hands for examination. 



JANUARY 19, 1888. 
R. S. POOLE, Esq., LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Captain A. H. Warren, G. J. Crosbie-Dawson, Esq., the Rev. 
F. Binley-Dickinson, and Messrs. J. P. Lambros and J. H. 
Pinches, were elected Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 1887. 
Part III. From the Society. 

2. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 51, 52, 1887, 
and Nos. 1, 2, 1888. From the Publishers. 

3. Revue Beige de Numismatique. l re livraison, 1888. 
From the Society. 

4. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 53. From the Society. 

5. Annuaire de la Societe Franchise de Numismatique et 
d'Archeologie, Nov., Dec., 1887. From the Society. 

6. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. ix, Part I. 
From the Institute. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

7. Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im 
Rheinlande. Heft 84. From the Society. 

8. Catalogue of the Coins of the Shahs of Persia in the 
British Museum. By K. S. Poole, LL.D. From the Trustees 
of the British Museum 

9. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum Attica 
-Megaris Aegina. By B. V. Head, D.C.L., Ph.D. From 
the Trustees of the British Museum. 

10. Bronze medal commemorating the Colonial and Indian 
reception at the Guildhall, 25th June, 1886. From the Corpo- 
ration of the City of London. 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther exhibited a penny of Cnut (Hilde- 
brand, type G ; Hawkins, 213), a variety without the sceptre, 
struck at York ; also a penny of Edward the Confessor (Hilde- 
brand, G, variety a), a combination type with obverse of Haw 
kins's 228 and reverse of 222, struck by the moneyer Thorr at 
York. 

Mr. Hall exhibited a gold coin of the Emperor Postumus, 

A.D. 258-267, of rude style, said to have been found at 

iter, with the inscription ROMAE AETEBNAE (Cohen 

voL vi. 327, new edition), weight 104 grains ; al so . gold coin 

Cannus with the inscription VICTORIA AVG, weight 69 
grams. 






A.E.COPP e a very beautifn]Iy 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 9 

work on English coins, dedicated to Sir George Duckett, and 
including a catalogue of his coins. 

Admiral T. Spratt communicated a paper on three small gold 
coins procured by him in Crete, near the site of the Poly- 
rhenium. (See vol. vii, p. 309.) 

Mr. C. Roach Smith sent an account of a discovery of Roman 
coins at Springhead, near Gravesend. (See vol. vii, p. 312.) 

Mr. B. V. Head read a paper on electrum coins recently 
acquired by the British Museum, and on the composition of 
early electrum coins calculated from their specific gravities. 
(See vol. vii, p. 277.) 



FEBRUARY 16, 1888. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

G. M. Arnold, Esq., was elected a Member of the Society. . 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 36, 1888. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 54, 55. From the Society. 

3. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Vol. xi. No. 4. From the Society. 

4. Les Monnaies de Charlemagne. By M. Carexhe. From 
C. Roach Smith, Esq. 

5. Etudes sur les Monnaies de Boulogne et Calais. By L. 
Deschamps de Pas. From C. R. Smith, Esq. 

6. On the Roman Walls of Chester. By C. R. Smith, Esq. 
From the Author. 

7. Report on the Marine Fauna of Rameswararu and the 
Neighbouring Islands. By Edgar Thurston. From the Author. 

b 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

8. Memoires de la Societe d'Emulation d'Abbeville. 3rd 
series, vol. iv. From the Society. 

9. Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. Vol. 
ix. From the Society. 

10. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring 
1886. Kunst og Haandverk for Norges Fortid. Vol. vii. From 
the Musee d'Archeologie de Christiania. 

11. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. ix. Part II. 
From the Institute. 

12. Two bronze medals of William Joseph Taylor, medallist, 
one representing him as a young man, the other as an old man. 
On the reverse is a modeller at work. From W. Taylor, Esq. 

The following exhibitions were made : 

Mr. Evans, a rare aureus of Licinius II, with full-faced bust ; 
Mr. H. Montagu, a series of proofs and patterns in gold and 
silver of Charles I ; the Rev. G. F. Crowther, some unpublished 
groats, half-groats, pennies, and halfpennies of Henry VI, Ed- 
ward IV, and Henry VII ; Dr. Codrington, two rare coins of 
the Moghuls of Persia, viz., a deenar of Arghun and a dirhem 
of Arpa, the latter struck at Tebreez, A.H. 736; Mr. J. Clark, 
proofs in copper of the double sovereign and half-crown of 
1824 ; Mr. Durlacher, a bronze medal of the Catch Club by 
Thomas Pin go ; and Mr. A. E. Copp, a manuscript volume on 
English coins and medals dated 1826, being a catalogue of the 
coins in the collection of Sir George Duckett ; it was compiled 
by W. Long. 

Mr. S. Smith, jun., communicated a paper on a penny which 
ie attributed to Magnus the Good, King of Denmark, but hav- 
ing on the reverse the inscription LEFVINE ON LINGO 
(Lincoln), and raised the question whether the Anglo-Saxon 
coins were always struck at the towns named on them This 
paper is printed in vol. viii. p. 138. 

Mr T W Greene communicated a paper on German medal- 
J* * the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (See vol. viii, 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 11 

MARCH 15, 1888. 
B. S. Poole, Esq., LL.D., Vice -President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 711, 1888. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Memoires de la Societe royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1887. From the Society. 

3. Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. xviii. From the Kent Ar- 
chaeological Society. 

4. ihe Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. viii. No. 2. Text 
and Plates. From the Hellenic Society. 

5. Laws of the United States relating to Loans, Currency, 
Coinage, and Banking. From H. Phillips, Esq., jun. 

6. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. ix. Part III. 
From the Institute. 

7. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Bd. XV. Part IV. From the 
Editor. 

8. Der Sterlingfund bei Rebnitz. By H. Dannenberg. From 
the Author. 

9. The Coinage of Scotland. 3 vols. By Edward Burns. 
From James Coats, Jun., Esq. 

The Chairman proposed, and Mr. Montagu seconded, a special 
vote of thanks to Mr. James Coats for his valuable donation of 
Mr. Burns's work on Scottish coins, and desired to express on 
behalf of the Society its appreciation of the great service 
rendered to the study of Scottish numismatics by the produc- 
tion of this national work. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited an aureus of Trajan Decius (A.D. 
244251) having for reverse type VBERITAS AVG., Fertility 
standing holding bag and cornucopias. This coin came from the 
Belfort collection. 

Sir A. Cunningham communicated a paper on coins of the 
Indo-Scythian king Miaus or Heraiis. (See vol. viii, p. 47.) 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



APRIL 19, 1888. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

M. Hodgkinson Bobart, Esq., was elected a Member of the 
Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 1115, 1888. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 56. From the Society. 

3. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Asso- 
ciation of Ireland. Nos. 7374. From the Association. 

4. Revue Beige de Numismatique. 2 me livraison, 1888. From 
the Society. 

5. Repertoire des Sources Imprimees de la Numismatique 
FranQaise. By A. Engel and R. Serrure. Tom. I. From the 
Authors. 

6. Verzeichniss der Miinzsammlung des Schleswig-Holstein- 
schen Museums Vaterlandischen Alterthiimer. Bd. I. By Drs. 
Hendelsmann and Klander. From the Directors. 

7. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol. ix. Part IV. 
From the Institute. 

8. Sitzungsberichte der Roniglich-Preussichen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Parts 40-44. From the 
Academy. 

9. Bulletin Historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de l a 
Monme. 145'Mivraison. From the Society 

^ W^Eivista Italiana di Numismatica. Part I. From the 



Heft IV Aar !r r * rS l ^ Ai ^ g Historie. Bd. ii, 
.eft IV. From the Society of Northern Antiquaries. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 13 

12. The Coin Collectors' Journal. No. 147. From the 
Editor. 

13. Catalogue des Monnaies Mussulmanes de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris. (Khalifs Orientaux.) By H. Lavoix. From 
the Author. 

14. Moneta Novgoroda. Moneti Pskovskiya and Ruskiya 
Monetui. By G. S. Tolstoi. From the Author. 

15. Guide to the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland. Second 
Edition. Part I. By the late Colonel Thorburn. From the 
Publishers. 

Mr. B. V. Head exhibited, on behalf of Mr. J. W. Trist, some 
very clever modern forgeries of rare Greek coins, the originals 
of which are nearly all in the British Museum. These coins 
were purchased at the sale of a well-known collection of Greek 
coins held in London in June last, and now notorious for the 
number of forgeries it contained. The coins were presented 
by Mr. Trist to the Society as specimens of ingenious 
forgeries. 

Mr. Evans exhibited, on behalf of Mr. C. H. Drinkwater, a 
barbarous copy of a Venetian sequin of Aloysio Mocenigo 
(1763 78), struck recently for circulation in North Africa. 
On the obverse, instead of the Venetian legend SIT . T . 
XPE . DAT . Q . TV REGIS ISTE DVCA., are the words 
IOHANNES ILLE COQVVS SVI FILIIQVE. The reverse 
legend contains a meaningless imitation, of the name Mocenigo. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited an aureus of Licinius I, struck at 
Siscia, probably soon after A.D. 307, the bust on the obverse of 
which bears a marked resemblance to that of Diocletian. 

The Rev. G. F. Crowther exhibited some unpublished varie- 
ties of coins of Charles I, viz., a Shrewsbury half-crown, a 
York threepence, and a contemporary forgery of the Tower 
shilling of 1638, weighing less than 76 grains. 

Mr. H. Montagu exhibited a number of rare patterns in gold 
and silver of Charles II, chiefly by Simon. 

Mr. H. Montagu read a translation, by himself, of a paper by 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Dr. Graetz, of Breslau, on the Jewish shekels bearing the types 
of the Lulab and the Portal, the latter of which Dr. Graet/ 
sought to prove to be a representation of a facade of a festival 
tabernacle. The writer also argued that no genuine shekels of 
the time of the second revolt were in existence. The paper 
will be found in vol. viii, p. 165, 



MAY 17, 1888. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

Ernest Baggallay, Esq., M.A., Major B. Lowsley, R.E., and 
M. Arthur Engel, were elected Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. Nos. 16 19, 1888. 
From the Publishers. 

2. Bulletin Mensuel de Numismatique et d'Archeologie. 5 th 
year, Nos. 8-9. By R. Serrure. From the Editor. 

3. Catalogue of the Coins of the Government Central 
Museum, Madras. No. 1, Mysore. By E. Thurston. From 
the Museum. 

4. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 
8867. From the Society. 

5. Guide to the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland By 
lonelThorburn. Second Edition. Parts II, III. From the 

Publishers. 

6 . Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien 
No. 68. From the Society. 

7. Journal of the Institute of Bankers. Vol iy Part V 
From the Institute. ' V- 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 15 

Mr. Laurence exhibited a penny of Edward IV, mint-mark 
pall, with quatrefoils at sides of neck, struck at Canterbury ; 
a groat of Edward IV, mint-mark on obverse, star ; on reverse, 
crown ; also a penny of Mary with a pomegranate between 
words of legend on both sides. 

Mr. Hall exhibited a cast of a gold coin of Constantino the 
Great struck at Siscia, rev. IOVI CONSERVATOR!, bearing, 
like the coin of Licinius exhibited by Mr. Hall at the last 
meeting, a portrait resembling Diocletian. 

Mr. Churchill exhibited a penny of a Danish king, probably 
Magnus the Good, 1042 1047, with the name of the English 
moneyer LEFVINE ON LINCO on the reverse. 

Mr. Copp exhibited a proof or pattern sovereign of the Sydney 
mint, dated 1855, with a head of the Queen on the obverse 
almost identical with that on the ordinary English sovereign, 

Mr. B. V. Head read a paper by M. J. P. Six, of Amsterdam, 
on some rare and unpublished Greek coins. (This paper is 
given in vol. viii, p. 97.) 

Mr. Hall read a paper on the prices realised by Roman 
Imperial aurei at the present time as compared with the prices 
realised by the same or similar coins in the last century, and 
the early part of the present century. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



JUNE 21, 1888. 
ANNIVEESARY MEETING. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Anniversary Meeting were read and 
confirmed. 

The Report of the Council was then read to the meeting as 
follows : 

GENTLEMEN, The Council again have the honour to lay 
before you their Annual Report as to the state of the Numis- 
matic Society. 

With great regret they have to announce their loss by death 
of the five following ordinary members : 

Prince Alfred Emmanuel de Croy. 

A. Harford Pearson, Esq. 

Richard Popplewell Pullan, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.B.A. 

George Sim, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

George B. Simson, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

And of the following Honorary Members : 

M. le Vicomte de Ponton d'Amecourt. 
M. Ch. Robert, Membre de 1'Institut. 

Also by resignation of the following five Ordinary Members :- 



Robert Blair, Esq., F.S.A. 
Captain C. H. I. Hopkins. 



G. J. Rowland, Esq. 



W. C. Pearson, Esq. 
Mrs. Priestley. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 17 

The name of one Ordinary Member has also been erased from 
the list. 

On the other hand the Council have much pleasure in record- 
ing the election of sixteen new Members : 



G. M. Arnold, Esq. 

Ernest Baggallay, Esq., M.A, 

Rev. F. Binley-Dickinson. 

M. H. Bobart, Esq. 

M. W. Cockayne, Esq. 

G. J. Crosbie-Dawson, Esq. 

M. Arthur Engel. 

J. Harris Gibson, Esq. 



J. L. Henderson, Esq. 
M. J. P. LambroF. 
Major B. Lowsley, R.E. 
T. W. Minton, Esq. 
J. H. Pinches, Esq. 
Major H. Trotter, C.B. 
Captain A. H. Warren. 
E. F. Weber, Esq. 



According to our Secretary's Report our numbers are, there- 
fore, as follows : 

Ordinary. Honorary. Total. 

June, 1886 242 36 278 

Since elected 16 











Deceased .... 


258 
.... 5 


36 
2 


294 

7 


Resigned .... 


.... 5 




5 


Erased 


.... 1 




1 











June, 1887 247 34 281 



The Council have also the honour to report that the copies 
of the Rules of the Society being out of print, they have care- 
fully revised them, and have incorporated with them the 
regulations already sanctioned by the Society. They have also, 
after due consideration, thought fit to raise from Twelve Guineas 
to Fifteen Guineas the sum payable by Members who may desire 
to compound for their Annual Subscriptions. 

With the exception of these additions, which will be found 

c 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

under Sections XV and XVI, the Kules of the Society remain 
essentially unchanged. 

Copies of the Rules as amended by the Council, will lie on 
the table for the approval of the meeting. 

The Council have further the honour to announce that they 
have unanimously awarded the Medal of the Society in silver to 
Dr. F. Imhoof-Blumer, of Winterthur, for his distinguished 
services to the Science of Numismatics as exemplified by his 
numerous works and articles on Greek coins. 

The Treasurer's Report is as follows : 







S 






33 P 




C~t~. 00 



II 



. 

.g g 



&*j "Ai Is H! 

Mi?/*li r ;^j; * "8*^8 



s 

9 -a'!l."-s 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

At the conclusion of the reading of the Report of the Council, 
the President addressed Mr. B. V. Head as follows : 

Mr. Head, I much regret that Dr. Imhoof-Blumer is unable 
to attend here this evening to receive the medal which has been 
awarded to him by the Council in recognition of his long and 
valuable services to numismatics, especially those of ancient 
Greece. There is, however, no one in the Society who can 
appreciate more fully than you the long-continued and suc- 
cessful labours of Dr. Imhoof-Blumer, and I am sure that you 
will be able to transmit to him, together with the medal which 
I now have the pleasure of placing in your hands, our assur- 
ance of the high esteem in which his works are held in this 
country, and of our sincere satisfaction in being able to pay this 
small tribute of respect to one to whom numismatic science is 
so deeply indebted. 

When I look at the list of the numerous essays and larger 
works that have come from the pen of Dr. Imhoof-Blumer, I 
am almost at a loss which of them to select for mention on 
an occasion like the present. Their issue has already ex- 
tended over a period of twenty years, and German, French, 
and English numismatic periodicals have all been favoured 
with contributions from him. But, perhaps, above all his 
separate works, that on Greek Coins and on those of the 
Dynasty of Pergamon, and lastly the Numismatic Commentary 
on Pausanias, written conjointly with our countryman, Prof. 
Percy Gardner, may be best cited as proofs of his learning and 
industry. In conveying this medal to him you will express our 
fervent hope that he may long be spared to continue his labours, 
and that future years may show that much as he has already 
accomplished, it is but a specimen of what he has still in store 
for historians and numismatists. 

In reply Mr. Head said, 

Mr. President, it is with unmingled satisfaction that I rise to 
return thanks to you and to the Council of this Society in the 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 21 

place of my friend and fellow- worker, Dr. Imhoof-Blumer, for 
the well-merited honour which you have conferred upon him. 
Before I say more I will, with your permission, read a portion 
of a letter from Dr. Imhoof, which he has sent to me in reply 
to my announcement that our medal had this year been awarded 
to him : 

" DEAR MB. HEAD, 

" When your letter was handed me this morning I 
thought I was about to have the rare opportunity of furnishing 
you with information on some numismatic question. Instead 
of this, and to my great surprise, your letter conveys to me the 
announcement that the Numismatic Society has conferred upon 
me a new and rare mark of distinction by inviting me to go 
and receive at its hands the medal of the Society. I am 
deeply touched by the consideration you and your colleagues 
have shown to the works of a foreigner, and as I have never 
sought for recognition of any kind, I feel all the greater pleasure 
when it comes thus unexpectedly from my English fellow- 
workers. My health, I am sorry to say, will not permit me to 
undertake the journey to London, I must therefore beg that 
you will yourself be kind enough to represent me at the general 
meeting, and to express my most grateful thanks both to the 
President and to the Society, and to assure them of my desire 
to prove myself in the future worthy of the high honour they 
have conferred upon me. * * * * 

(Signed) " F. IMHOOF-BLUMER." 

Now, Sir, before I sit down I should like to say a few words 
on my own account with regard to Dr. Imhoof's work in the 
past, and to what I trust we may look forward to from him in 
the future. I may be, perhaps, allowed to do this for the sake 
of those present this evening, if there be any such, who, having 
made a particular study of modern numismatics, may not bo 
already familiar with the great reputation which Dr. Imhoof has 
attained as a Greek numismatist. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Dr. Imhoof began his numismatic career as a collector of fine 
and rare Greek coins. Little by little, however, as his collection 
increased he ceased to be a mere amateur, and became a 
scientific student, until at last he has come to occupy the 
foremost position in Europe as an authority on almost every 
branch of Greek numismatics. 

In the course of his studies he has visited again and again 
all the great coin cabinets in Europe, both public and private, 
and has diligently added to his collection of originals casts of 
innumerable specimens selected far and wide. His original 
specimens alone now number nearly 20,000, and I am afraid to 
hazard a guess what the number of his casts may amount to. 
Including these I may safely say that the Imhoof cabinet is in 
many respects unrivalled either at Paris, London, or Berlin. 

Several of my friends who have visited him at Winterthur 
tell me that his home is a complete museum of numismatics, 
and that he himself is an ideal custodian, who is always ready 
to place his wide knowledge at the disposal of the student, no 
matter whence he comes. 

He has never been one of those dog-in-the-manger collectors 
whose one object in collecting would seem to be the pleasure 
they derive from filling their trays with unpublished specimens 
which they neither make known themselves nor allow others to 
publish for them. Dr. Imhoof, on the contrary, has always 
been eager to advance the cause of science by the publication 
of his treasures. I speak from experience, for when I was 
engaged on the compilation of my recent work, the Historia 
Numorum, it was brought very forcibly home to me that my 
Manual could hardly have been written at all had it not been 
for the ready aid which Dr. Imhoof was always willing to afford 
me. There is hardly a page in that book on which Dr. Imhoof 
is not cited as an authority, and I shall always feel that without 
his assistance my work would have been lacking in whatever 
scientific value it may now possess. 

The authority of Dr. Imhoof s writings on Greek numis- 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 23 

matics is now, I am happy to say, a matter of general recog- 
nition not only in his own country but throughout Europe. 

The latest evidence of this recognition is the fact that the 
Royal Academy of Berlin has, on the recommendation of no 
less a person than the venerable Prof. Mommsen, selected Dr. 
Imhoof to compile a universal Corpus of Greek Coins. 

This, indeed, is a grand undertaking, and one which I do not 
hesitate to say no other man than Dr. Imhoof could have 
ventured even to contemplate. 

My own labours in the field of Greek numismatics enable me 
to speak with some knowledge of the enormous difficulties with 
which even Dr. Imhoof will find himself confronted in the 
colossal work to which, under great pressure, he has at last 
made up his mind to devote the remainder of his life. 

I fervently trust that he may be spared to see this great and 
useful work brought to a successful termination, and I am 
proud this evening to stand here in his name and receive at the 
hands of our President the medal which I hope will be an 
earnest of the more lasting reward which he cannot fail to reap 
as the editor of the great Corpus Numorum of the future. 



The President then delivered the following address : - 

The time has again come round when it becomes my duty to 
offer you a few words in the form of an Annual Address, and I 
may, as I have now for some years been able to do, con- 
gratulate the Society on its prosperous condition. As you have 
heard from the Report of the Council our losses by death and 
other causes have been but eleven, while sixteen new members 
have been elected, so that at the present time the Society 
numbers 247 exclusive of its honorary members. 

We therefore have entered upon the second half century cf 
our existence in a highly satisfactory manner so far as numbers 
are concerned, and our Treasurer's statement shows that not- 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

withstanding the heavy call upon our resources, resulting from 
the issue of our Jubilee Medal, the finances of the Society are 
in a healthy condition. 

Beyond the distribution of this medal among the members of 
the Society, there is no event of importance in our career to 
which I need call attention on the present occasion. I may, 
however, mention that in consequence of its having been found 
necessary to reprint the Rules of the Society, the Council have 
taken the opportunity of revising them, with the view of making 
them both more comprehensive and more comprehensible, and 
they have been submitted to you for your approval at this 
meeting. The alterations, which are not extensive, have already 
been pointed out to you, and will, I think, have commended 
themselves to your judgment. 

The medal of the Society, as you are all aware, has this year 
been bestowed upon one of our most distinguished foreign 
members, Dr. Imhoof-Blumer. I am sure that all the Society, 
and especially those members who are interested in Greek 
Numismatics, will cordially concur in the award to one who 
has done so much to advance and at the same time popu- 
larize our science. 

I must now dwell for a short time upon the losses which 
during the past twelve months death has caused in our ranks. 
Among our ordinary members they have, I am glad to say, 
been fewer in number than usual, but among those who have 
gone from among us there are some whom we could ill afford to 
lose. 

Mr. Richard Popplewell Pullan, F.S.A., M.R.I.B.A., who 
had been a member of our body since the year 1863, died at 
Brighton on the 80th of April last. He was, however, better 
known as an architect and an antiquary than as a numismatist. 
In the former capacity he published jointly with Texier a work 
on " Byzantine Architecture " and The Principal Ruins of 
Asia Minor," and in the latter he assisted Sir C. T. Newton in 
the exploration of Halicarnassus, and more recently Sir John 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 25 

Savile Lumley in his excavations at Lavinium and Lake Nemi, 
an account of which has appeared in the Arch&ologia. 

Mr. George Sim, F. S.A.Scot., had for very many years 
been a member of our Society and a contributor to the pages of 
the Numismatic Chronicle. In 1861 he communicated to the 
Society a short paper, in which he showed that the " Lee 
Penny," which in a recent edition of Sir Walter Scott's novels 
had been described as a " shilling" of Edward I, was actually 
formed of a groat of Edward IV, of the London mint. 1 From 
that time forward he was in the habit of favouring us with 
notices of the principal discoveries of coins that took place in 
Scotland. The last of these notices referred to the great hoard 
found at Aberdeen, consisting of no less than 12,236 coins, the 
whole of which were examined and for the most part deter- 
mined by Mr. Sim. Though his taste lay more among ancient 
than mediaeval coins, he was no mean authority on the latter, 
and it was mainly through his exertions that on the death of 
Mr. Edward Burns the important work on the coinage of 
Scotland, which he had undertaken at the request of the late 
Mr. Thomas Coats of Ferguslie, was completed and finally 
published, though Mr. Sim did not survive to see it issued from 
the press. 

Mr. Sim's private collection of coins was very extensive, and 
comprised at least 12,000 coins, of which about 2,000 were in 
silver. His Greek series was the m'ost important, consisting 
of nearly 8,500 coins, of which many are of great rarity and 
importance. A privately -printed Catalogue exists of which 100 
copies only were struck off in 1879, from which it appears that 
many of the coins are the identical pieces described by the late 
Dr. Scott in a succession of papers in the First Series of the 
Numismatic Chronicle. 

Personally he was one of the kindest and simplest of men, 
and I can look back with much pleasure to a long series of 

1 See Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv, p. 222. 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

numismatic and antiquarian gatherings beneath his hospitable 
roof, to which he was good enough to invite me on the occasion 
of my annual visits to Edinburgh. 

Among our Honorary Members we have lost the Vicomte 
de Ponton d'Amecourt, elected in 1878, and M. 1'Intendant 
General Charles Kobert, Membre de 1'Institut, elected in 1882. 

M. de Ponton d'Amecourt was well known as one of the 
founders of the Societe Francaise de Numismatique, as an 
accomplished numismatist, and as having formed almost, if not 
quite, the finest private collections of Roman aurei and of 
Merovingian coins that were ever brought together. Already 
in 1855, an essay of his on the attribution of a Gaulish coin 
appeared in the Revue de Numismatique, and shortly afterwards 
he began to devote his principal attention to the Merovingian 
and Carlovingian Series. Of the former his cabinets contained 
nearly 1,700 examples at the time of his decease. By the year 
1863, his series comprised upwards of 1,200 Merovingian coins, 
and his Essai sur la Numismatique Mdrovingienne comparee a la 
Geographie de Grfyoire de Tours, which appeared in that year, 
proves how well he was able to appreciate the information to 
be derived from the coins. For the list of his other works in 
this department I must refer to the memoir of d'Amecourt from 
the pen of M. Caron, which will be found in the Annuaire de 
la Societe Frangaise de Numismatique for 1888. 

His collection of Roman gold coins was equally remarkable. 
Those who visited the Exhibition at the Trocadero in Paris in 
1878, must have been struck by the remarkable series of between 
600 and 700 then on view, but the collection had increased to a 
thousand pieces when M. d'Amecourt determined on its sale by 
auction in the spring of last year. The Illustrated Catalogue, 
then prepared, with its 37 autotype plates of the coins, forms a 
real handbook for the collector of the Roman gold series. 
Even those who acquired desiderata at this sale must have 
felt some compunction in aiding to disperse what had been 
brought together with such skill, perseverance, and expense 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 27 

On one occasion M. Ponton d'Amecourt gave this Society the 
benefit of his intimate acquaintance with the Merovingian coinage, 
having in 1872 favoured us with an essay on the remarkable 
hoard of gold coins found at Crondal, Hants, 2 which set at rest 
many questions connected with the coins, and afforded grounds 
for supposing that out of the 96 specimens found, nearly one 
half had been struck in this country. Not a few of the attribu- 
tions of the earlier pieces described in Kenyon's Gold Coins of 
England, are in the main due to M. d'Amecourt's perspicacity. 

While still engaged on the study of the Merovingian royal 
coinage he was attacked by a tedious illness which resulted in 
his death, on the 20th of January of the present year, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. 

His friend and colleague, M. Pierre Charles Eobert, prede- 
ceased him by a few weeks only, but he had already entered on 
his seventy-sixth year, having been born in 1812. Having studied 
at Metz and at the Scole Polytechnique, he became a Lieutenant 
of Engineers in 1834, and after passing through successive 
grades in the army and seeing much service, he finally retired in 
1877. So early as 1842 M. Robert commenced his career as a 
numismatic writer, and in 1844 one of his important mono- 
graphs, Recherches sur les monnaies des eveques de Toul, made its 
appearance. At that time he was in garrison at Lille, and was 
already laying the foundations of two other important works 
the Etudes Numismatiques sur une.-partie du JSTord-est de la 
France, and the JViimismatique de Cambrai, which were pub- 
lished in 1852 and 1862 respectively. Apart from these a 
very large number of essays and monographs relating to 
Gaulish, Roman, Merovingian, and French numismatics came 
from his active pen, the last appearing during the present year. 
There was one subject in Roman numismatics which he made 
especially his own the history of contorniate medallions, of 
which he possessed one of the finest collections ever formed. 

2 Num. Chron., N.S., vol. xiii, p. 72. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Five of his essays upon this subject appeared in various 
periodicals. He was also a devoted antiquary and student of 
epigraphy, and at one time was President of the Society of 
Antiquaries of France. In 1871 he became a member of the 
Institute, and took an active part in the proceedings of the 
Academie des Inscriptions. 

To give some idea of the extent of his numismatic labours, I 
may mention that appended to a memoir of him by M. Raymond 
Serrure, 3 to which I am much indebted, there is appended a list 
of no less than sixty-five works and articles in this department 
of archaeology alone. As the centre of a large circle of friends, 
whom he was ever ready to serve, his loss will be widely felt 
in France, and by not a few on this side of the Channel. 

There are three other names which I think that I ought to 
mention, though they are not those of numismatists who at the 
time of their decease were members of our body. I mean 
those of the Rev. C. W. King, M. Paul Lambros, and Admiral 
Spratt. Mr. King was better known as our first authority on 
ancient gems than as a writer on numismatics ; but a love and 
knowledge of coins is essential to any one who would wish to 
appreciate the art, the portraiture, or the classical and mytho- 
logical allusions to be found on engraved gems. Of his works 
on Antique Gems and Rings, The Gnostics and their Remains, 
his Horace, and numerous other publications, I need hardly 
speak ; but I may call attention to his treatise on Early Christian 
Numismatics, to a paper in the Archceological Journal on the 
true nature of the Contorniate Medals, and to a letter from him 
in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1845 on a coin with the mint- 
mark L ON, and on another of Carausius. 4 For the last fifty 
years, except during occasional absence in Italy, he resided at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was the Senior Fellow. 

Another name that I will cite is that of M. Paul Lambros, who 
died at Athens on the llth October last, at the age of sixty-eight 

3 Ann. de la Soc. Franc, de Num., 1888, t> 100 

4 Vol. xviii, 1871, p. 210. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 29 

years. He was born in Epirus in 1819, and at an early age, 
having lost his father under the Turkish domination, had to 
emigrate to Corfu, where he received his education, and soon 
developed a special taste for Numismatics. He subsequently 
established himself at Athens, where he became an active worker 
in public life, and gained for himself a high character not only as a 
dealer in coins and antiquities, but as a writer on Numismatic 
subjects. His knowledge of mediaeval coins, and especially 
those of the dynasties of the Crusaders, was most extensive and 
accurate, and M. G. Schlumberger acknowledges with gratitude 
the great assistance rendered to him by M. Paul Lambros in 
the preparation of his great work, the Numismatique de V Orient 
Latin. His published works and papers exceed twenty in 
number, and relate, not only to mediaeval, but to ancient coins. 
His treatise on the coins of the Island of Amorgos forms the 
basis of an article in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1873. 5 One 
of his latest works includes a notice of the coins and medals 
struck for the Ionian Islands while under British rule. 

In Admiral Spratt, who, within the last twelve months, 
communicated to us a paper on some gold coins from Crete, 
the world has lost an ardent antiquary and excellent geographer, 
and many of us a sincere friend. 

In looking back upon our meetings during the past year, I 
think that I may safely say that on an average they have been 
more fully attended than in former years, and that the various 
exhibitions and papers that have been laid before us have not 
been less than usually interesting. The Numismatic Chronicle 
has, I think, been quite up to its usual standard, both in the 
importance and the variety of its contents, and I shall proceed 
to pass in review the principal subjects to which our attention 
has been called in its pages. 

The electrum coinage of Cyzicus, on which such an exhaustive 
paper was communicated by Canon Greenwell to the last volumo 
of our Chronicle, has continued to occupy the attention of the 

5 Num. Chron. N.S., vol. xiii, p. 125. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Society, and papers upon it have appeared from the pens of 
Professor Gardner and Mr. B. Y. Head. The former has dis- 
cussed the exchange value of the Cyzicene stater, and concludes 
that in all probability the Cyzicene and the Daric, notwith- 
standing the argument to the contrary derived from the Oration 
of Demosthenes against Phormio, were equivalent. Judging 
from the specific gravity it would appear that in the Cyzicene 
the proportion of silver to gold is about 54 per cent., and 
taking the proportionate value of gold to silver as about 14 
to 1, the resulting values of the Cyzicene of electrum and the 
Daric of gold very closely agree. The rate of exchange between 
Attic drachms and the staters of Cyzicus varied even more than 
would be the case with similar currencies at the present day, in 
accordance with geographical position and means of intercourse. 

Mr. Head, reverting to a subject that he dealt with in 1875, 
has gone more fully into the details of the ancient coins of 
electrum, giving in the first place particulars of such coins recently 
acquired for the British Museum, both as regards types and 
weight, and in the second, tables showing the composition of 
early electrum coins calculated from their specific gravities. It 
would appear from these tables that there is a great range in 
the colour of the metal, and in the proportion of gold that they 
contain, which varied from 5 to 80 per cent. The question is, 
however, much complicated by the probability of there being a 
small percentage of copper in some of the coins, inasmuch as 
this metal would affect the colour, and also the specific gravity 
as being less heavy than silver. It is, moreover, to be observed 
that most of the coins here dealt with are either of the Phoenician 
or of the Euboic standard, and not of the Phocaic, which is 
that of the Cyzicenes. The few coins of this class that were 
examined give a somewhat larger percentage of gold than 
those cited by Professor Gardner, perhaps because they belong 
to an earlier period. 

I have already briefly mentioned the paper on three gold coins 
from Crete communicated to us by the late Admiral Spratt, F.R.S., 
F.S.A. It was but a few years ago that gold coins struck in 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 31 

this island were almost unknown, not a single specimen being 
mentioned in the British Museum Catalogue published so recently 
as 1886. Since that date, however, a few specimens, besides 
those acquired by Admiral Spratt, have made their appearance, 6 
and probably future excavations will make us acquainted with 
many more. Their small size and light weight seems indi- 
cative of gold having been very scarce in the island. 

Mr. Warwick Wroth has given us an account of the Greek 
coins acquired by the British Museum in 1887, among which 
may be noted a fine and unique tetradrachm of Maronea, and a 
Jewish shekel of the year 5. A stater of Abydos with the name 
of Metrodoros ; a tetradrachm of Antiochus IX, and a coin 
of Polemo II, of Pontus, with the name of his mother Antonia 
Tryphaena on the reverse, are also remarkable coins. Some 
other additions to the Museum Series of the Greek and Scythic 
Kings of India have been described by Professor Gardner. Fore- 
most among these stands out a unique and most interesting deca- 
drachm, for which the nation is indebted to the liberality of Mr. 
A. W. Franks. On it are represented a Macedonian horseman 
attacking two warriors who are mounted on an elephant, and on 
the other side a king with the attributes of Zeus. An accom- 
panying monogram may be that of Alexander the Great. There 
can be little doubt that this medal for so we may venture to 
call it commemorates a victory of some Graeco-Bactrian king 
over a horde of Scythic invaders, but it is unfortunate that those 
who struck it forgot that after -ages might not be so well ac- 
quainted with the historical events of the second century B.C. as 
those who lived in it ; and that glorious and never-to-be-for- 
gotten victories over which a whole kingdom rejoiced, might 
pass into the realms of oblivion. Among the Bactrian additions 
to the Museum collection are hitherto unpublished examples of 
thejcoinage of Diomedes, Strato and Agathocleia, Philoxenus, 
and Hermaeus. 

Sir A. Cunningham has given us a paper on the coins of 

6 See Num. Chron. 1888, pp. 13, 14. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the Indo-Scythian King Miaiis or Heraiis showing cause why 
the former reading on some coins with rather obscure legends 
should be preferred. Instead of attributing these pieces to 
Heraiis, King of the Sakas, he assigns them to Miaiis, a ruler 
of the Kushans, and fixes their date in the latter half of the first 
century B.C. Some curious extracts from Chinese records are 
cited in corroboration of his views. Of all living authorities 
on the Graco-Indian coinage, Sir A. Cunningham ranks the 
highest, and we have only to turn to the pages of the Numis- 
matic Chronicle to bring home to our minds the, value and extent 
of his services to that branch of Numismatics. The choicest of 
his coins of Alexander's successors in the East he has, with great 
liberality, offered for purchase by the Trustees of the British 
Museum, who, however, owing to the unprecedented manner 
in which the grant for purchases has been cut down by the 
Treasury, have no funds at their command. It remains to be 
seen whether an application to the Government for a special 
grant to purchase these memorials of our great precursors as 
European rulers in the East will be successful, or whether a 
series of coins of the highest national interest to Englishmen 
will, owing to mistaken parsimony, either be dispersed, or find 
a resting place in one of the Continental Cabinets. 

But to return to our own Proceedings. Our honorary member, 
M. J. P. Six, of Amsterdam, has sent us a long and interesting 
paper on some unpublished Greek coins, including some which 
he attributes to Phlius, Pheneus, Thaliadse, Issos, and Cyprus. 
He also describes some interesting coins of Tissaphernes, 
Baalram, and Baalmelek II, Kings of Citium, and of Sabaces, 
Satrap of Egypt under Darius. The paper is one of considerable 
importance, and the transference of the unique coin recently 
attributed by Mr. Head to ^gina to Phlius, and of the archaic 
coins with what may be termed totems on the obverse, such as 
the Germans call Wappenmunzen, to the cities of Peloponnesus 
rather than to those of Eubcea, will probably lead to further 
discussion. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 33 

A paper on the Jewish coinage, by Dr. Graetz of Breslau, 
has been kindly translated and communicated to the Society by 
Mr. Montagu. It has not as yet been printed, but it will be 
found to contain some curious illustrations of Jewish manners 
and customs, and some suggestions well worthy of consider- 
ation, though the author is evidently better acquainted with 
history and literature than with actual coins and their cha- 
racteristics. 

In Roman numismatics we have had a few papers, one of 
them by Mr. C. Roach Smith, on a hoard of Roman coins 
found at Springhead, Kent, and mainly of the time of Postumus, 
though including specimens of Tetrieus II. It belongs to a 
troubled period when many such hoards were deposited for safe 
keeping in the ground. 

Another paper by my son, Mr. Arthur Evans, relates to a 
coin which, though evidently an imitation of a familiar piece of 
Constans or Constantius II, bears on the obverse the legend 
DOMINO CARAVSIO CES, and on the reverse DOMIN . . . 
CONTA . . . NO. The suggestion of the author is that the 
legend on the reverse refers to the Emperor Constantine III, 
who had dominion in Britain in the early years of the fifth 
century, and that the Carausius of the obverse was a Caesar 
appointed by him. That the name of Carausius still survived 
in Britain is proved by the monumental inscription at Pen- 
machno, Caernarvonshire, in which the ligatures and forms of 
the letters singularly approximate to those on the coin. There 
is, however, no necessity for identifying the Carausius of the 
coin with the person of the same name recorded on the sepul- 
chral slab. It will require further evidence to establish beyond 
all doubt the existence of a Carausius the Second, but the 
legend on the coin gives the name clearly and accompanied by 
titles which do not belong to Carausius the First ; and whether 
we accept the author's conclusions or reserve our judgment, all 
will acknowledge the interest and value of his historical dis- 
sertation. 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF. THE 

The only other paper relating to the Roman period is one in 
which I have given an account of a hoard of silver coins found 
at East Harptree, near Bristol. It consisted of nearly 1,500 
coins, extending from the time of Constantine the Great to that 
of Gratian. Among these were several of rarity and interest, 
which by the liberality of Mr. Kettlewell, on whose property the 
hoard was found, have been presented to the British Museum. 

Turning to the Saxon coinage, I find that Mr. Nathan Hey- 
wood has given us a woodcut of a styca, which he attributes, 
with good show of reason, to Elfwald II of Northumbria. He 
has also favoured us with an account of a small hoard of stycas, 
including one in silver of Vigmund. 

Mr. Samuel Smith, junior, has again raised the question 
whether the Anglo-Saxon coins were always struck at the towns 
named on them. Certain it is that, like the coin of Magnus of 
Denmark that he adduces, there are many Danish coins which 
purport to have been struck by English moneyers at English 
towns, and though the use of surnames was in the eleventh 
century hardly established, yet it seems possible that the 
moneyers who went over to Denmark, and such there appa- 
rently were, retained as a sort of surname the name of the 
town whence they came. Even then the use of the word ON, 
which signifies in, instead of OF, is remarkable. Both the late 
Archdeacon Pownall and Mr. Ernest Willett have had some- 
thing to say on this question. If the view of the latter be 
correct that in some cases the moneyers were itinerant, and the 
name of the town gave the place where they happened to be 
working, and was changed from time to time as they moved 
from one town to another, an additional difficulty is raised in 
regarding the town name as a sort of permanent surname. In 
whatever way we are to account for the abnormal appearance 
of the names of English moneyers and towns on Danish and 
Irish coins, I think that, looking at the constitution of the 
English mints, we must hesitate before we can accept any view 
which implies that the name of a town when it appears on an 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 35 

English coin is not indicative of the place where it was 
struck. 

Perhaps this will be the proper place for mentioning the 
interesting paper by Dr. Hans Hildebrand on the earliest 
Scandinavian coinage, obligingly abridged for us by Mr. Keary. 
The modifications which the Dorstat coins of Charlemagne 
underwent in their transmission northwards afford another 
instance of the manner in which a type may entirely lose its 
original meaning, of which the ancient British coinage affords 
such good instances. 

The papers relating to the English coinage have not been of 
very high importance, but Mr. Crowther has written a valuable 
paper on the groats of the second coinage of Henry VII, in 
which he has gone far towards establishing the true sequence of 
the different mint-marks. Mr. Montagu has called our attention 
to a number of unpublished gold coins of James I, and to some 
of the Commonwealth ; Mr. Symonds to a penny of Henry VIII ; 
Mr. Walter Andrew to a passage in de Taxter's Chronicle 
relating to the issue of the short -cross coinage ; Mr. Webster to 
an ingenious falsification of an American dollar, and Mr. Pixley 
to the North Borneo coinage. 

A paper relating to some peculiar Milanese types has been 
communicated to us by Mr. Hall, who has illustrated the type 
of St. Ambrose charging on horseback with his triple scourge 
from a sixteenth- century painting, probably by Giovenone of 
Vercelli, in his own possession. 

With regard to medallic art, a paper by Mr. J. Whitcombe 
Greene, giving a resume of M. Adolph Erman's Essay op the 
German medallists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
will be read with interest ; while those by Mr. Grueber on 
English Personal Medals from 1760, will be found to contain 
much illustrative historical matter. 

It only remains for me to notice Part VI of the Fasti Arabici, 
by Mr. Stanley Lane Poole, which gives notices of rare Arabian 
and other coins from the collections of Colonel Gosset, Major 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Trotter, and Mr. Avent, which will, as usual, be found to 
contain information of value to the Oriental numismatist. 

Of separate numismatic publications that have appeared 
within the last year, there do not seem to be many that require 
special notice. The British Museum Catalogue of Greek coins 
has, however, received an important addition in respect of the 
coins of Attica, Megaris, and Aegina, which have been described 
by Mr. Head. The introduction, which extends over nearly 
sixty pages, gives an exhaustive account of the present state of 
our knowledge with regard to these three important coinages, 
and adds most materially to the value of the Catalogue. The 
illustrations as usual consist of autotype plates, which in this 
volume are twenty- six in number. Admirably as photographic 
processes serve for the reproduction of well-preserved coins, or of 
those in gold and silver which are only subject to abrasion, and 
not like those in copper and its alloys to corrosion, yet it must 
be acknowledged that for these latter it is at times eminently 
unsatisfactory. A legend or type which on the original coin 
may be fairly legible or visible, becomes often almost imper- 
ceptible in a cast, and disappears in a photograph. To appre- 
ciate this we have only to compare some of the figures in the 
plates, such, for instance, as PI. XVII. 1, with the description in 
the text. In such cases a representation by an engraver, even 
if less accurate than that by a photographer, gives, on the 
whole, a more faithful idea of the coin. The great difficulty in 
this country is to find an engraver with any appreciation of a 
coin, but I hope that difficulty may be overcome. 

Mr. K. Stuart Poole, who is the official editor of these cata- 
logues, has himself compiled and issued one on the coins of the 
Shahs of Persia from A.D. 1502 to the present day. In this 
volume also the introduction forms an important feature, and 
embodies the first attempt at any exact chronology of the reigns 
of the Persian Shahs that is to be found in any European work. 

Among recently published foreign works I may mention the 
first volume of the Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the Berlin 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 37 

Cabinet, which has been drawn up on much the same lines as 
our own Museum catalogues. It conclusively shows how im- 
portant the collection is, and how great has been the zeal and 
assiduity of late years in adding to it. towards which the Ger- 
man Government has contributed with no stinted liberality. 

I may also say a few words on the completion of M. Ernest 
Babelon's Description Historique et Chronologique des Monnaies 
de la Republique Romaine, which, though to some extent a 
second edition of Cohen's Medailles Consulaires, and embodying 
his plates in the form of cuts inserted in the text, treats of the 
history and chronology of the coins in a far more exhaustive 
and scientific manner. The labours of Cavedoni, Borghesi, and 
Mommsen, have done much to illustrate the interesting series 
of coins of which M. Babelon treats, and he has conscientiously 
availed himself of all that they have done, so that his work may 
be regarded as embodying the whole of our present knowledge 
in this department. It is in consequence indispensable to the 
student of Eoman numismatics. 

I have little more to add. The interest taken in this country 
in numismatic pursuits is abundantly manifested by the high 
prices that coins have realised at the numerous and important 
sales that have taken place during the past year. The zeal for 
collecting is in itself commendable, and eventually advantageous 
to knowledge, but I trust that it will ever be borne in mind that 
the true value and interest of coins -consist in the light that 
they throw on contemporary history, art, and literature. Some 
slight variations in a detail in the die of a modern engraver are 
of interest, as showing the phases through which his mind 
must have passed during the period he was carrying out some 
principal idea ; but it is a question that has occasionally crossed 
my mind whether the pecuniary value which attaches to these 
variations in the case of modern coins, is a real criterion of 
their actual value and importance. However this may be, it is 
gratifying to find that the number of coin-collectors is appa- 
rently on the increase, and I make but little doubt that this 



83 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

circumstance will tend both to the preservation of coins from 
destruction and to the advancement of that knowledge to pro- 
mote which this Society was founded. 

It only remains for me now to express my thanks to the 
Council and the Society for their cordial co-operation with me 
during the past year, and for the kind manner in which they 
have listened to me on the present occasion. 

The Meeting then proceeded to ballot for the Officers of the 
ensuing year, when the following gentlemen were elected : 

President. 

JOHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., 
F.G.S. 

Vice- Presidents. 
i 

H. MONTAGU, ESQ., F.S.A. 
B. STUAKT POOLE, ESQ., LL.D. 

Treasurer. 
ALFBED E. COPP, ESQ., M.R.A.S. 

Secretaries. 

HERBEBT A. GRUEBEB, ESQ., F.S.A. 
BABCLAY VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., D.C.L., PH.D. 

Foreign Secretary. 
WABWIOK WBOTH, ESQ. 

Librarian. 
OLIVEB CODBINGTON, ESQ., M.D. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 39 

Members of the Council. 

JOSEPH BROWN, ESQ., Q.C. 

THE REV. G. F. CROWTHER, M.A. 

ARTHUR J. EVANS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

PROF. P. GARDNER, LITT.D., F.S.A. 

J. G. HALL, ESQ. 

R. A. HOBLYN, ESQ. 

C. F. KEARY, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 

F. W. PIXLEY, ESQ. 

J. W. TRIST, ESQ., F.S.A. 

HERMANN WEBER, ESQ., M.D. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 

DECEMBEE, 1888. 



LIST OF MEMBEKS 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON, 
DECEMBER, 1888. 



Asterisk prefixed to a name indicates that the Member has compounded 
for his annual contribution. 



*ALEXIEFF, M. GEORGE DE, Chambellau de S.M. 1'Empereur do 

Russie, Ekaterinoslaw (par Moscou), llussie Meridionale. 
ANDRE, J. H., ESQ., 127, New Bond Street, W. 
ANDREW, W. J., ESQ., Moss Side, Ashton-uuder-Lyne. 
ANDREWS, R. THORNTON, ESQ., Castle Street, Hertford. 
ARNOLD, G. M., ESQ., Milton Hall, Gravesend, Kent. 
ARNOLD, W. T., ESQ., Guardian Office, Manchester. 

BACKHOUSE, J. E., ESQ., The Rookery, Middleton Tyas, Rich- 
mond, Yorks. 

BAGGALLAY, ERNEST, ESQ., 106, Elm Park Gardens, S.W. 

BAGNALL-OAKELEY, MRS., Newland, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

BAKER, W. R, ESQ., Bayfordbury, Hertford. 

BARRETT, T. B., ESQ., 20, Victoria Terrace, Welshpool, Mont- 
gomery. 

BASCOM, G. J., ESQ., 109, Lexington Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 

*BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., The Platanes, Champion Hill, S.E. 

BIGGE, FRANCIS E., ESQ., Hennafryn, Torquay. 

BIRD, W. S., ESQ., 74, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

BLACKETT, JOHN STEPHENS, ESQ., C.E., Southerton, Kirkcaldy. 



4 LIST OF MEMBERS, 

BLACKMORE, H. P., ESQ., M.D., Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 
*BLiss, THOMAS, ESQ., Coningsburgh, Bethune Eoad, Amlierst 

Park, N. 

* BOBART, M. HODGKINSON, ESQ., The Yews, Alvaston, Derby. 
BOM, M. ADRIAAN, Spuistraat, 135, Amsterdam. 
BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Cheapside, E.G. 
*BRIGGS, ARTHUR, ESQ., Cragg Royd, Rawden, Leeds. 
BROWN, G-. D., ESQ., 63, Albert Street, Eegent's Park, N.W. 
BROWN, JOSEPH, ESQ., Q.C., 54, Avenue Road, Eegent's 

Park, N.W. 

BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 15, Barrack Street, Dundee. 
BUICK, DAVID, ESQ., LL.D., Sandy Bay, Lame Harbour, Ireland. 
BULL, EEV. HERBERT A., Wellington House, Westgate-on-Sea. 
BUNBURY, SIR EDWARD H., BART., M.A., F.G.S., 35, St. James's 

Street, S.W. 
BURSTAL, EDWARD K, ESQ., Sinclair House, Holy well Street, 

Oxford. 

BUSH, COLONEL J. TOBIN, 29, Rue de 1'Orangerie, le Havre, France. 
BUTLER, CHARLES, ESQ., F.E.G.S., Warren Wood, Hatfield. 
BUTLER, JOHN, ESQ., Alexandra Mill, Bolton. 
*BUTTERY, W., ESQ. (not known.) 



CALDECOTT, J. B., ESQ., 12, Croom's Hill, Greenwich, S.E. 

CALVERT, EEV. THOS., 15, Albany Villas, Hove, Brighton. 

CARFRAE, ROBERT, ESQ., E.S.A.Scot., 77, George Street, Edinburgh. 

CAVE, LAURENCE TRENT, ESQ., 13, Lowndes Square, S.W. ; ^ f 

CHURCHILL, Wm. S., ESQ., 24, Birch Lane, Manchester. 

*CLARK, JOSEPH, ESQ., 14, Mount Place, Whitechapel Eoad, E. 

*CLARKE, HYDE, ESQ., F.E.H.S., 32, St. George's Square, S.W. 

COCKAYNE, MORTON W., ESQ., Exeter House, Eoehampton, S.W. 

COCKBURN, JOHN, ESQ., Abbotsdene, Greenside, Eichmond. 

CODRINGTON, OLIVER, ESQ., M.D., M.E.A.S., 35, Upper Eich- 
mond Eoad, Putney, Librarian. 

*Copp, ALFRED E., ESQ., M.E.A.S., Hatherley, Wimbledon Hill, 
and 37, Essex Street, Strand, Treasurer. 

COTTON, W. A., ESQ., High Street, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 



I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. -J 

CREEKE, MAJOR ANTHONY BUCK, Ashleigh, Burnley. 
*CROMPTON-EOBERTS, CHAS. M., ESQ., 16, Belgrave Square, 

S.W. 

CROWTHER, EEV. G. F., M.A., 25, Bloomsbury Square, W.O. 
*CROY, PRINCE ALFRED EMMANUEL DE, Chateau du Rceulx, Hainaut, 

Belgium. 

CUMING, H. SYER, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 63, Kennington Park Road. 
CUNNINGHAM, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR A., E.E., K.C.I.E., C.S.I., 

96, Gloucester Eoad, South Kensington, S.W. 

DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ., C.S., M.E.A.S., Dera Ismail Khan, 

Panjab, India. 

DAVIDSON, J. L. STRACHAN, ESQ., M.A., Balliol College, Oxford. 
DAVIES, WILLIAM RUSHER, ESQ., Overthorpe House, Walliugford. 
DAVIS, WALTER, ESQ., 23, Suffolk Street, Birmingham. 
DAWSON, G. J. CROSBIE, ESQ., Winton Square, Stoke-upon-Trent. 
DEAKIN, GEO., ESQ., 238, Camden Eoad, N. 
*DEWICK EEV. E. S., M.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde Park, W. 
DICKINSON, EEV. F. BINLEY, M.A., Manor House, Ottery St. Mary. 
DORMAN, JOHN WM., ESQ., B.A., C.E,, Kinsale. 
DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN R. J. H., Junior United Service Club, Charles 

Street, St. James's, S.W. 

DOULTON, J. DUNEAU, ESQ. 8, Eaton Gardens, Brighton. 
DRYDEN, SIR HENRY, BART., Canon's Ashby, Byfield, Northampton. 
DURLACHER, A., ESQ., 15, Old Burlington Street, W. 
DURRANT, EEV. CHRISTOPHER EAWES, Freston Eectory, Ipswich. 

EADES, GEORGE, ESQ., The Abbey, Evesliam, Worcestershire. 

ENGEL, M. ARTHUR, 29, Eue Marignan, Paris. 

ERHARDT, H., ESQ., 9, Bond Court, Walbrook, E.C. 

EVANS, ARTHUR J., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

EVANS, JOHN, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., Corr. de 1'Inst, 
Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, President. 

EVANS, SEBASTIAN, ESQ., LL.D., 10, Eosary Gardens, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

FAY, DUDLEY B., ESQ., 37, Franklin Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A. 



6 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

FSWSTER, C. E., ESQ., Hornsea, near Hull, Yorks. 

FORD, JOHN WALKER, ESQ., Chase Park, Enfield. 

FRANKS, AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON, ESQ., M.A.. F.E.S., F.S.A., British 

Museum. 

FREMANTLE, THE HON. 0. W., C.B., Eoyal Mint. 
FRENTZEL, RUDOLPH, ESQ., 20, New Broad Street, E.G. 
*FRESHEIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., LL.D., F.S.A., 5, Bank Buildings, 

E.G. 

GARDNER, PROF. PERCY, Litt.D., F.S.A., 31, Norham Eoad, Oxford. 

GEORGE, A. DURANCE, ESQ., 112, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.G. 

GIBSON, J. HARRIS, ESQ., 73, Eenshaw Street, Liverpool. 

GILL, HENRY SEPTIMUS, ESQ., Tiverton. 

GILLESPIE, W. J., ESQ., Whitehall, Foxrock, co. Dublin, Ireland. 

GOODMAN, T. W., ESQ., Clifton Lodge, 155, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

GOSSET, COL. MATTHEW W. E., care of Messrs. Cox & Co., Craig's 

Court, Charing Cross, S.W. 

GRANT, ALEXANDER, ESQ., C.I.E., 16, Lypratt Terrace, Cheltenham. 
GREENE, T. W., ESQ., B.O.L., Newlands, Salisbury. 
GREENWELL, REV. CANON, M.A., F.E.S., F.S. A., Durham. 
GRUEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., F.S. A., British Museum, Secretary. 

HALL, J. Q-., ESQ., 1, Masbro' Eoad, Hammersmith, W. 
HALL, ROBERT, ESQ., Albert Cottage, Victoria Eoad, Button, Surrey. 
HARVEY, WILLIAM G. L., ESQ., 22, Mersey Road, Aigburth, 
Liverpool. 

HAVELOCK, COL. ACTON C., 23, Charleville Eoad, West Ken- 
sington, W. 

HEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., D.C.L., Ph.D., British Museum, 
Secretary. 

HENDERSON, JOHN L., ESQ., 14, Athole Gardens, Kelvinside, 
Glasgow. 

*HENDERSON, JAMES STEWART, EsQ.,F.E.G.S., M.E.S.L.,M.C.P., 

7, Hampstead Hill Gardens, N.W. 
HEYWOOD, NATHAN, ESQ., 3, Mount Street, Manchester. 
HOBLYN, RICHARD A., ESQ., Hollywood, 79, Priory Eoad, West 

Hampstead, N.W. 



LIST OP MEMBERS. 7 

HODGKIN, T., ESQ., D.C.L., F.S.A., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 

*HOFFMANN, M. H., 1, Eue du Bac, Paris. 

Ho WORTH, H. H., ESQ., M.P., F.S.A., M.E.A.S., Bentcliff, Eccles, 

Manchester. 
HUBBARD, WALTER E., ESQ., 9, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 

Glasgow. 

HUGEL, BARON F. YON, 4, Holford Eoad, Hampstead, N.W. 
HUMPHRIES, GEO. H., ESQ., Thanet Lodge, Norbiton. 
HUNT, J. MORTIMER, ESQ., 4, Airlie Gardens, Campden Hill, W. 

*!ONIDES, CONSTANTINE ALEX., ESQ., 8, Holland Villas Eoad, 
Kensington, W. 

JAMES, J. HENRY, ESQ., Kingswood, Watford. 
JENNINGS, JOHN, ESQ., Lagrange House, Newmarket. 
*JEX-BLAKE, EEV. T. W., D.D., Alvechurch, Eedditch. 
JOHNSTON, J. M. 0., ESQ., The Yews, Grove Park, Caniber- 

well, S.E. 

JONES, JAMES COVE, ESQ., F.S.A., Loxley, Wellesbourne, Warwick. 
JONES, THOMAS, ESQ., Eglwyseg Manor House, Llangollen, North 

Wales ; and 2, Plowden Buildings, Temple. 

KAY, HENRY CASSELLS, ESQ., 11, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 
KEARY, CHARLES FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 200, Cromwell Eoad, 

S.W. 

*KENYON, R. LLOYD, ESQ., M.A., Pradoe,' West Felton, Shrops. 
KING, L. WHITE, ESQ., Bengal Civil Service, Bannu, or Edwards- 

abad, Panjab, India. 
KITCHENER, COLONEL H. H., E.E., care of Messrs. Cox & Co., 

Craig's Court, Charing Cross, S.W. 
*KiTT, THOS. W., ESQ., Auckland, New Zealand. 
KRUMBHOLZ, E. C., ESQ., 38, Great Pulteney Street, W. 

*LAGERBERG, M. ADAM MAGNUS EMANUEL, Chamberlain of H.M. 
the King of Sweden and Norway, Director of the Numismatic 
Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and Eada, Sweden. 

*LAMBERT, GEORGE, ESQ., F.S.A., 10, Coventry Street, W. 



8 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

*LAMBROS, M. J. P., Athens, Greece. 

*LANG, ROBERT HAMILTON, ESQ., Pila Lodge, South Norwood 

Park, S.E. 

LATCHMORE, F., ESQ., High Street, Hitchin. 
LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgrave Eoad, Sutton, Surrey. 
*LAWRENCE, L. A., ESQ., Trehurst, 35, Maresfield Gardens, N.W. 
LAWRENCE, W. F., ESQ., M.P., Cowesfield House, Salisbury. 
*LAWRENCE, EICHARD HOE, ESQ., 31, Broad Street, New York. 
*LAWSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Imperial Ottoman Bank, Smyrna. 
LEADER, J.D., ESQ., F.S.A., Moor End, Sheffield. 
LEES, W., ESQ., 44, Queen Street, Horncastle, Lincolnshire. 
LEGGETT, E., ESQ., Kurrachee, India (care of Mr. E. C. Poulter, 

4 A, Middle Temple Lane). 
*LEWIS, REV. SAMUEL SAVAGE, F.S.A., Corpus Christi College, 

Cambridge. 

LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 
LONGSTAFFE, W. HILTON DYER, ESQ., F.S.A., 4, Catherine Terrace, 

Gateshead. 

Low, LYMAN H., ESQ., 853, Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 
LOWSLEY, MAJOR B., E.E., Eoyal Engineers' Offices, Limerick, 

Ireland. 
*LYELL, A. H., ESQ., 21, Sumner Place, Onslow Square, S.W. 

MACKERELL, C. E., ESQ., Dunningley, Balham Hill, S.W. 
MADDEN, FREDERIC WILLIAM, ESQ., M.E.A.S., Hilton Lodge, Sude- 

ley Terrace, Brighton. 

MARSDEN, REV. CANON, B.D., Great Oakley Rectory, Harwich, Essex. 
MARTIN, ALFRED TRICE, ESQ., 10, Upper Belgrave Eoad, Clifton, 

Bristol. 

MASON, JAS. J., ESQ., Maryfield Cottage, Victoria Eoad, Kirkcaldy. 
*MATJDE, EEV. S., Needham Market, Suffolk. 
MclNTYRE, ^NEAS J., ESQ., Q.C., 1, Park Square, Eegent's 
Park, N.W. 

MCLACHLAN, R. W., ESQ., 55, St. Monique Street, Montreal. 
MIDDLETON, PROF. JOHN H, M.A., F.S.A., King's College, Cam- 
bridge. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

MINTON, Tiros. W., ESQ., Congleton, Cheshire. 

MITCHELL, E. 0., ESQ., Meppadi S. Wynaad, Madras Pres., India 

(care of Messrs. H. S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill). 
MONTAGU, H., ESQ., E.S.A., 34, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W., 

Vice- President. 

MONTAGUE, L. A. D., ESQ., Penton, near Crediton, Devon. 
MOORE, GENERAL, Junior U.S. Club, Charles St., St. James's, S.W. 
MORRIESON, LIEUT. H. WALTERS, E.A., care of Mr. J. Bumpus, 

350, Oxford Street, W. 
MURDOCH, JOHN GLOOG, ESQ. , Huntingtower, The Terrace, Camden 

Square, N.W. 
MYERS, WALTER, ESQ., F.S.A., 21, Queensborough Terrace, Hyde 

Park, W. 

NASH, CHARLES HENRY, ESQ., Elmhurst, South Norwood Park, 

S.E. 
NECK, J. F., ESQ., care of Mr. F. W. Lincoln, 69, New Oxford 

Street, W.C. 

NELSON, EALPH, ESQ., 55, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 
*NUNN, JOHN JOSEPH, ESQ., Downham Market. 
NUTTER, MAJOR, W. Eough Lee, Accrington, and Cleveley's, 

Poulton-le-Fylde. 

OLIVER, E. EMMERSON, ESQ., M E.A.S., M.Inst.C.E., Holly Oak, 

Simla, India. 
OMAN, C. W. C., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., All Souls College, Oxford. 

PACKE, ALFRED E., ESQ., 1, Stanhope Place, Hyde Park, W. 
*PATRICK, ROBERT W. COCHRAN, ESQ., F.S.A., Beith, Ayrshire. 
*PEARCE, SAMUEL SALTER, ESQ., Bingham's Melcombe, Dorchester. 
PEARSE, GEN. G. G., C.B., E.H.A., Godfrey House, Cheltenham. 

*PECKOVER, ALEX., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., F.E.G.S., Bank House, 

Wisbech. 

*PERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 
PHILLIPS, HENRY, ESQ., JUN., A.M., Ph.D., Numismatic Society 

of Philadelphia, U.S.A. 



10 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

PINCHES, JOHN HARVEY, ESQ., 27, Oxenden Street, Haymarket. 

PIXLEY, FRANCIS W., ESQ., 23, Linden Gardens, W. 

POLLEXFEN, REV. JoHNH., M.A., F.S.A., Middleton Tyas, Richmond, 
Yorkshire. 

POOLE, REGINALD STUART, ESQ., LL.D., Corr. de 1'Institut, British 
Museum, Vice- President. 

POOLE, STANLEY E. LANE, ESQ., M.R A.S., Birling House, East- 
dean, Eastbourne. 

POWELL, SAMUEL, ESQ., Ivy House, Welshpool. 

PREVOST, AUGUSTUS, ESQ., 79, Westbourne Terrace, W. 

PRIDEAUX, LIEUT.-COL., W. E., F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., 2, Sidlaw 
Terrace, Bognor, Sussex. 

RANSOM, W., ESQ., F.L.S., Fairfield, Hitchin, Herts. 
RASHLEIGH, JONATHAN, ESQ., 3, Cumberland Terrace, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
RAWLINSON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HENRY C., K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

21, Charles Street, Berkeley Square, W. 
READY, W. TALBOT, ESQ., 55, Rathbone Place, W. 
REED, P. R., ESQ., Rusholme, Grove Road, Surbiton. * 

RICHARDSON, A. B., ESQ., F. S.A.Scot., 16, Coates Crescent, 

Edinburgh. 

*ROBERTSON, J. D., ESQ., M.A., Caen Leys, Ashtead, Surrey. 
RODGERS, C. J., ESQ., Archaeological Surveyor, Panjab Circle, 

Amritsar, India. 
ROSTRON, SIMPSON, ESQ., 1, Hare Court, Temple. 

*SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, "Florida Street, Buenos Ayres. 
*SANDEMAN, LIEUT.-COL. JOHN GLAS, 24, Cambridge Fquare, 

Hyde Park, W. 
SCHINDLER, GENERAL A. H., care of Messrs. W. Dawson and Son, 

121, Cannon Street, E.G. 

SCHLUMBERGER, M. G., 140, Faubourg St. Honord, Paris. 
SELBORNE, THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF, F.R.S., Blackmoor, 

Selborne, Hants. 

SHORTHOUSE, E., ESQ., 5, Charlotte Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
SMITH, H. P., ESQ., 269, West 52nd Street, New York. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 11 

SMITH, R. HOBART, ESQ., 70, Broadway, New York. 

SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ., Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. 

SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ., JUN., 25, Croxteth Road, Prince's Park, 

Liverpool. 
SMITHS, J. DOYLE, ESQ., F.G.S., National Church Club, 135, 

New Bond Street, W. 

SOAMES, REV. CHARLES, Mildenhall, near Marlborough, Wilts. 
SPENCE, ROBERT, ESQ., 4, Rosella Place, North Shields. 
SPICE R, FREDERICK, ESQ., Catteshall, Godalming, Surrey. 
SPINK, C, F., ESQ., 2, Gracechurch Street, E.G. 
STEPHEN, C., ESQ., District Judge, Tullundur, Panjab, India. 
*STREATFEILD, REV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Vicarage, Streatham Common, 

S.W. 
*STUBBS, MAJOR-GEN, F. W., R.A., M.R.A.S., Dromiskin House, 

Castle Bellingham, co. Louth, Ireland. 
STUDD, E. EAIRFAX, ESQ., Oxton, Exeter. 
STULPNAGEL, DR. C. R., Govt. College, Lahore, Panjab, India. 
SUGDEN, JOHN, ESQ., Dockroyd, near Keighley. 
SYMONDS, HENRY, ESQ., Oakdale, Farquhar Road, Edgbaston. 

TABLEY, THE RIGHT HON. LORD DE, F.S.A., 62, Elm Park Road, 

Chelsea, S.W. 
TALBOT, MAJOR THE HON. MILO GEORGE, R.E., 2, Paper Buildings, 

Temple. 

TALBOT, THE HON. REGINALD, LL.B., 2, Paper Buildings, Temple. 
TATTON, THOS., ESQ., Wythenshawe, Northenden, Cheshire. 
TAYLOR, W. H., ESQ., Ivy Yiew, Erdington, near Birmingham. 
THAIRLWALL, T. J., ESQ., 12, Upper Park Road, Haverstock Hill, 

N.W. 

^THEOBALD, W., ESQ., Budleigh Salterton, S. Devon. 
THURSTON, E., ESQ., Central Government Museum, Madras. 
TREVOR, HON. GEORGE HILL, 25, Belgrave Square, S.W. 
TRIST, J. W., ESQ., F.S.A., 62, Old Broad Street, E.G. 
TROTTER, MAJOR HENRY, C.B., British Embassy, Constantinople. 
TUFNELL, CAPT. R. H. C., 8, High Road, Nungumbankum, 

Madras, India. 
TUNMER, H. G., ESQ., 38, Tacket Street, Ipswich. 



12 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

VERITY, JAMES, ESQ., Earlsheaton, Dewsbury. 

VIRTUE, JAMES SPRENT, ESQ., 294, City Road, E.G. 

VIZE, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 4, Loraine Eoad, Holloway, N. 

*WADDINGTON, MONSIEUR W. H., Membre de 1'Institut, 31, Eue 

Dumont Durville, Paris. 

WAKEFORD, GEORGE, ESQ., Knightrider Street, Maidstone. 
WALKER, E. K, ESQ., M.A., Trin. Coll. Dub., 9, St. James's 

Terrace, Miltown, Co. Dublin, Ireland. 
WARREN, CAPT. A. E., Hillside, Marischal Eoad, Lee, S.E. 
WEBB, HENRY, ESQ., 11, Argyll Street, Regent Street, W. 

* WEBER, EDWARD F., ESQ., 58, Alster, Hamburg, Germany. 
*WEBER, FREDERIC P., ESQ., 10, Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor 

Square, W. 

* WEBER, HERMANN, ESQ., M.D., 10, Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor 

Square, W. 

WEBSTER, W. J., ESQ., 1, Bloomsbury Place, Bloomsbury Square, 
W.C. 

WHELAN, F. E., ESQ., 61, Great Eussell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

WHITE, GEORGE, ESQ., Bank of England, E.C. 

*WIGRAM, MRS. LEWIS, Woodlawn, Bickley, Kent. 

WILKINSON, JOHN, ESQ., E.S.A., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C. 

WILLETT, ERNEST H., ESQ., F.S.A., 6, Fairneld Eoad, Croydon, S.E. 

WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., Dunstanbeorh, Church Hill, Guild- 
ford, Surrey. 

WINSEII, THOMAS B., ESQ., 81, Shooter's Hill Eoad, Blackheath, S.E. 

WOOD, HUMPHREY, ESQ., Chatham. 

WORMS, BARON GEORGE DE, F.E.G.S.,E.S.A., M.E.S.L., E.G.S.,D.L., 
J.P., 17, Park Crescent, Portland Place, Regent's Park, W. 

WRIGHT, COL. CHARLES I., The Bank, Carlton Street, Nottingham. 

WRIGHT, EEV. WILLIAM, D.D., The Avenue, Beulah Hill, Upper 
Norwood, S.E. 

WROTH, W. W., ESQ., British Museum, Foreign Secretary. 

WYON, ALLAN, ESQ., 2, Langham Chambers, Portland Place, W. 

YOUNG, ARTHUR W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 13 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

ADRIAN, DR. J. D., Giessen. 

BARTHfiLEMY, M. A. BE, 39, Rue d' Amsterdam, Paris. 
BERGMANN, J. BITTER vo^, Vienna. 

CASTELLANOS, SENOR DON BASILIO SEBASTIAN, 80, Rue S. Bernardo, 

Madrid. 

CHABOUILLET, M. A., Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
CHALON, M. RENIER, 113, Rue du Trone, Brussels. 
COLSON, DR. ALEXANDRE, Noyon (Oise), France. 

DANNENBERO, HERR H., Berlin 

GONZALES, CAV. CARLO, Palazzo Ricasoli, Via delle Terme, Florence. 
GROTE, DR. H., Hanover. 
GUIOTH, M. LEON, Liege. 

HART, A. WELLINGTON, ESQ., 16, Ex Place, New York. 
HEISS, M. ALOISS, 48, Rue Ckarles-Laffitte, Neuilly, Seine. 
HERBST, HERR C. F., Director of the Museum of Northern Anti- 
quities and Inspector of the Coin Cabinet, Copenhagen. 
HILDEBRAND, DR. HANS, Riksantiquarien, Stockholm. 
HTJCHER, M. E., Le Mans. 

IMHOOF-BLUMER, DR. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 
KENNER, DR. F., K. K. Museum, Vienna. 

LEEMANS, DR. CONRAD, Direct, du Musee d' Antiquity's, Leyden. 
LEITZMANN, HERR PASTOR J., Weissensee, Thiiringen, Saxony. 
Lis Y RIVES, SE^OR DON V. BERTRAN DE, Madrid. 

MINERVINI, CAV. GIULIO, Rome. 

MOMMSEN, PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR, Berlin. 

MULLER, DR. L., Insp. du Cab. des Medailles, Copenhagen. 



Sk 



R. ALFRED VON, Konigliche Museen, Berlin. 



14 LIST OP^ MEMBERS. 

Six, M. J. P., Amsterdam. 

SMITH, AQUILLA, EsQ.,M.D., M.K.I.A., 121, Baggot Street, Dublin. 
SMITH, C. ROACH, ESQ., F.S.A., Temple Place, Strood, Kent. 
STICKEL, PROFESSOR DR. J. G., Jena, Germany. 

TIESEXHAUSEX, PROF. W., Pont de la Police, 17, St. Petersburg. 

VALLEUSANI, IL PROF., Florence. 
VERACiiTtfR, M. FREDERICK, Antwerp. 

WEIL, DR. RUDOLF. Komgliche Museen, Berlin. 

WITTE, M. LE BARON DE. 5. Rue Fortin, Faubourg St. Honore, Paris. 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 



i. 

GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
IN 1887. 

DURING the year 1887 the Department of Coins in the 
British Museum has acquired 176 coins of the Greek class, 
8 of which are in gold, 58 in silver, 84 in bronze, and 26 
in billon. A description of the most noteworthy of these 
acquisitions is given in the following pages. 

SYRACUSE. 

Obv. Head of Apollo 1., laur. ; behind, thunderbolt : 
border of dots. 



Rev. 5YPAK OSiniSI. Tripod-lebes : plain border. 
Eiectrum. Size '6. Weight 55'5 grains. 

Of the period B.C. 345 317. It is similar to the specimen 
described in the Brit. Mus. Cat., Sicily, " Syracuse," p. 183, 
No. 253, and photographed in Head, Syracuse, JN\C. xiv. 
PI. VI., 2, but has a new symbol, the thunderbolt. 

AEROPUS, KING OF MACEDONIA, B.C. 396 392. 
Obv. Head of young Herakles r. in lion's skin. 



Wolf's head r. ; beneath, club : the whole 
in slight incuse square. 
JR. Size -3. Weight 7 grs. [PI. I. 7.] 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 



2 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Hitherto Aeropus was only known to have issued bronze 
money. 1 The present coin is identical, except as regards 
the inscription, with a half obol struck by Archelaus I., 
the predecessor of Aeropus (B.C. 413399), and engraved 
in Brit Mus. Cat., Macedonia, p. 165, No. 11. 

AENUS (THRACE). 
Oh\ Head of Hermes r. in pileus. 

jR 6 ^. AINI. Goat r. ; in field r. ; dog r. : the whole in 

incuse square. 
^R. Size 1. Weight 253'5 grs. 

The symbol on the reverse is not mentioned in Mionnet, 
nor in the Historia Numorum (p. 213). The treatment of 
the head is somewhat softer and less archaic than on some 
of the other coins of Aenus of the same period (B.C. 
450400). 

MARONEA (THRACE). 
Obv. Head of young Dionysos 1., wreathed with ivy. 

Rev. MAPflNI TEQN 2 Within square com- 
partment, vine-branch from which hangs a large 
bunch of grapes with leaves and tendrils ; on r. 
of compartment, thyrsus filleted : the whole in 
incuse square. 
M. Size -45. Weight 249 -5 grs. [PI. I. 11.] 

A fine tetradrachm of light Attic weight, probably 
struck shortly before B.C. 400. 3 A few other specimens 



1 Cp. Head, Hist. Num., p. 194 ; Imhoof, Portratkopfe, 
p. 13, 

* Magistrate's name, nearly obliterated: traces of AOHl. . . (?). 
8 Cp. Head, Hist. Num., p. 216. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM 3 

with similar though not identical types have already been 
published as follows : 

1. Obv. Head of young Dionysos 1., wreathed with ivy. 

Rev. MAPI1 NITON EPIA 0HNEH. Within 
square compartment, vine-branch from which 
hang four small bunches of grapes : the whole in 
incuse square. 

M. Mionnet's size 6. Described in Mion- 
net, i. p. 389, No. 164. 

The head (judging from Mionnet's sulphur cast) is of 
careless workmanship. 

2. Obv. Caput Bacchi hedera coronatum ad s. 

Rev. MAPflNITEflN EHI HPCWIAOY. Vitis 
botris gravida intra quadrum et quadratum in- 
cusum. 

JR. Described in Sestini, Mus. Hedervar., 
Europe i. p. 57, No. 5. 

A specimen with the same magistrate's name (Rev. vine- 
branch with four small bunches of grapes) came to the 
British Museum with the Woodhbuse collection. It is 
certainly a modern forgery. 

3. Obv. Head of young Dionysos 1., wreathed with ivy. 



!MHTP[O4>A] NEO^. 

Within square compartment, vine-branch from 
which hang four small bunches of grapes : the 
whole in incuse square. 

JR.. Mionnet's size 6. Described in Mionnet i. 

p. 389, No. 165. (A sulphur cast of it 

in the Brit. Mus.) 



4 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The head is treated in a soft and pleasing style, and 
differs a good deal from the head on the coin lately 
acquired by the British Museum. The latter head, 
though of fine style, is less ideal and more portrait-like. 

. 4. Qto m Head of young Dionysos 1., wreathed with ivy. 

I?*?. MAPfiNI TEHN EP I MHTPO4> AN EOS. 

Within square compartment, vine-branch, from 
which hang four small bunches of grapes ; beneath 
vine-branch a Silenus-head : the whole in incuse 
square. 

M. Size 25 m . Weight 16 '20 grammes. 
Collection of Dr. Imhoof-Blumer : see 
Zeit.f. N. iii. p. 286, PI. VI. 18. 



The head is of the same character as that on No. 3, 
but is more beautifully rendered. A specimen (weight 
261*7 grains) with similar types, though inferior on the 
obverse, was acquired by the British Museum in 1839. 
It was not described in the Museum Catalogue, Tauric 
Chersonese . . . Thrace, &c., as its genuineness was sus- 
pected. Though the obverse is not in a very satisfactory 
condition, I do not myself see any pressing reason for 
doubting the coin. Mr. P.oole and Mr. Head are also now 
inclined to believe it genuine. 



5. Obv. " Head of a bacchante to the left, bound with a 
crown composed of ivy leaves and fruits." [i.e. 
Head of young Dionysos 1., wreathed with ivy.] 

tf. MAPHNITEnN ER I 0EOAOTO. "Vine 
with large bunches of grapes within a square 
described by four equilateral bars in relief ; out- 
side these bars is the above legend and a thyrsus: 
the whole within a flat sunk square." 

-ffi. Mionnet's size 7. Weight 255 i s - grs. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 5 

Formerly in the collection of Mr. H. P. Borrell. It was 
described by him in the Num. Chron. iii. (1841) p. 110, 
No. 9. The thyrsus also occurs on the new specimen in 
the British Museum. 

OLBIA. (After circ. B.C. 850.) 

Obv. Bearded and horned male head 1. (River-god 
Borysthenes ?). 

Rev. oABIo. Axe, and bow in case ; in field, MH. 

JE. Size -85. 

A variety of the specimens already described in Brit. 
Mus. Cat., Tauric Chersonese, &c., p. 11, Nos. 4 12. 
(Cp. Burachkov, Coins of Olbia, &c. (Odessa, 1884), vol. i., 
p. 45 ; Koehne, Mus. Kotsvhoubey, i., p. 43, No. 31 ; 
von Sallet, Beschreibung der. ant. Munzen (Berlin) i. p. 24, 
No. 102.) 

PELINNA (THESSAI/S). 
Obv. Horseman wearing causia and chlamys, riding 1. 

Rev. P EAI NNAIfl. Draped female figure, wearing 
wreath and veil, standing r. and opening casket 
with her right hand. 

M. Size -7. [PI. I. 8.] 

This specimen belongs to the period B.C. 300 190 of the 
coinage of Pelinna. Several others with similar types are 
known, of which one is in the National Collection at 
Athens (Postolaca, No/*. eV r. 10. Movo-., 1885, PL I. 1 ; 
p. 232). A horseman, and a warrior armed with a spear 
are common types at Pelinna. The reverse type is 
curious, and recalls the toilet- scenes in the vase paint- 
ings where an attendant holds or opens a casket. Per- 
haps the veiled female figure on this coin is a priestess of 



6 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

some local goddess, or possibly the goddess herself. On 
copper coins 4 of Pelinna of the same period a veiled 
female head occurs as the obverse type. Professor 
Gardner has described the head as that of a queen, but 
perhaps it is the same local priestess or goddess who is 
seen opening the casket. 

THEBAE (THESSALY). 

Obv. Head of Demeter 1., veiled and wreathed with 
corn : border of dots. 

Eev. 0HBAin[NJ. Horse r. ; beneath, X (monogram 
of the Achaeans of Phthiotis). 
M. Size -7. 



Belongs to the period B.C. 302286. A similar specimen 
in the Berlin Cabinet is described in Zeitschnft far 
Num. i., p. 175. 

PANDOSIA (EPIBUS). 
Obv. Head of Zeus of Dodona 1., laureate. 

Rev. Thunderbolt ; above it, ME ; below it, HAN : 
the whole in oak-wreath. 
M. Size -85. 



Of the period B.C. 238168. The specimen with the 
same types already in the British Museum (Cat., 
ThessalyActolia, p. 109, PL XXXII., 9) has an inscrip- 
tion (AflAC) on the obverse and (apparently) no letters 
above the thunderbolt. 



Tkessahj Aetolia > P- 38 Nos. 6, 7. [PI. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 7 

DELPHI (Pnocis). 
Obv. Head of negro (Delphos ?) r. : border of dots. 

Rev. T thrice repeated. 

M. Size -4. Weight 9 grs. [PI. I. 2.] 

A tritartemorion, 5 probably of the beginning of the 
fourth century B.C. It is not described in Head's Ilistoria 
Numorum. 

THEBES (BCEOTIA). 
Obv. Breotian shield. 

Rev. O E. Head of bearded Herakles in lion's skin, 
facing : the whole in incuse square. 

M. Size -9. Weight 186 grs. [PI. I. 5.] 

A rare stater (unfortunately somewhat rubbed on the 
reverse) of the period B.C. 426395. (Cp. B. V. Head, 
Coins of Bceotia, N.C. 1881, p. 211, where this type is de- 
scribed.) It is remarkable for the rugged treatment of the 
full-face head of Herakles. A specimen with similar types 
is in the Berlin Museum, 6 and another with a head of 
Herakles of slightly different style is photographed in 
the Num. Zeitschrift 1 from the original in the Naples 
Museum. 

ATHENS. 
(Period of Hadrian and the Antonines.) 

Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet. 

5 Cp. Head, CataL Central Greece, p. xxxii., and Gardner, 
Catal. Peloponnesus, p. xviii. 

6 From the Fox Collection : see Fox, Engravings of Unedited, 
$c., Supplemental Plate, No. 12. 

7 Vol. ix. (1877), PI. II., No. 129 ; p. 42, No. 129. 



8 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Bev. A0HN. . . N Athena standing r., wearing 
crested Corinthian helmet, long chiton with 
diplois and aegis ; she holds in r. spear, and on 1. 
arm, shield ; before her, serpent. 
JE. Size -8. 

Acquired since the publication of Mr. Head's Cat. 
Attica. It is a variety of p. 94, No. 680 (without serpent) 
in that work, and the reverse (and obverse ?) is similar to 
Imhoof-Blumer and Gardner, Num. Comm. on Pausanias, 
PL A A, No. IX. (from the Loebbecke coll.). 

ATHENS. 

Obv. Bust of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet. 

Rev. A0HNA I.QN Athena standing 1., wearing 
crested Corinthian helmet, chiton and peplos ; 
her raised r. resting on spear ; behind her, ser- 
pent and shield. 

M. Size *8. 

Not in Cat. Attica, A similar reverse- type is described 
and photographed in Imhoof and Gardner, op. cit., p. 134, 
PI. A A, No. VII., but the serpent has not been noted. 



PATKAE (ACHAIA). 
Obv. Head of bearded Herakles r., bare. 



AYZIATTATPEniSI (round the 
coin) ; in field r., JJJJ2. Pallas wearing helmet and 
chiton with diplois advancing r. ; in r. spear ; 
in 1. shield. 

M. Size -9. 

Belongs to the series of coins of Patrae, assigned by Pro- 
fessor Gardner, in his catalogue of Peloponnesus, p. 23, to 






GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 9 

B.C. 146 32. It has been acquired since the publication 
of that work. 8 

ACHAEAN LEAGUE. CALLISTA. 
Obv. Zeus HomagyrhiH standing 1. ; in r. Nike ; 



in 1., sceptre : border of dots. 

[KAAAir|TATAN Demeter Pal > achaea ( or 
Achaia personified ?) seated 1. ; in r. , wreath ; in 1., 
sceptre : border of dots. 
M. Size -7. 



This rare coin has been acquired since the publication 
of the Brit. Mus. Cat., Peloponnesus. A similar speci- 
men, in the Turin collection, is engraved in the Zeit.fur 
Num. for 1882 (vol. ix., p. 258), and is attributed by Dr. 
Weil to a town Callista, not otherwise known, but probably 
situated in Arcadia. 

Ens. 

Obv. Head of Apollo r., laureate : border of dots. 

F A 

Rev. I, p Zeus, naked, striding r. ; in r., thunderbolt ; 

on 1., eagle ; in field r., wreath. 
JE. Size '8. 

Struck after B.C. 191. It has been acquired since the 
publication of Cat. Peloponnesus. (Cp. Gardner, Coins of 
Elis, N.C. 1879, p. 267.) The wreath, presumably of olive, 
appears as a type on other coins of Elis, which are later in. 
style than the present specimen. 

8 A similar specimen is described in Mionnet, Sup. vol. iv., 
p. 134, No. 905. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. C 



10 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ABGOS. (B.C. 228146.) 

Obv. Forepart of wolf r. 

A 
Ifo;. A ; beneath it, thunderbolt ; in field, I O : the 

2. X I A 
whole in shallow incuse square. 

M. Size -6. Weight 36'9 grs. 

Obv. Forepart of wolf r. 

A EY 

fi cv ./\ ; beneath it, term ; in field, K I : the whole 

o Z 
in shallow incuse square. 

.St. Size -6. Weight 36'9 grs. 

Obv. Head of Argive Hera r., wearing Stephanos. 

^.Quiver ; in field, lo AE; in field 1., helmet ; in 
field r., Q. 

JE. Size -6. 

Not described in the Cat. Peloponnesus. "With the bronze 
compare the specimen described in Num. Zeitschrift, iii. 
p. 403, No. 30 (with GO AE). 

THE ARCADIANS. 9 (Circ. B.C. 480417.) 

Obv. Zeus Aphesius, wearing himation, seated 1. ; on 
back of seat, eagle perched 1. ; in r. of Zeus, 
sceptre. 

Rev. Head of Artemis r., in net: incuse square. 

M. Size '6. Weight 46 grs. [PI. I. 6.] 

Obv. Zeus Aphesius, wearing himation, seated r. ; in r., 
eagle, with wings closed, r. ; in 1., sceptre. 

Rev. Head of Artemis r., in net : incuse square. 
M. Size -6. Weight 40-8 grs. 

These are not described in the Cat. Peloponnesus. 

9 Cp. Gardner, Cat. Peloponnesus, p. Ivii. f, and the reff. to 
Imhoof and Weil there given. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 11 

ALEA (ARCADIA). 

The Museum has lately acquired an example of the 
bronze coin of Alea with obv., Head of Artemis r. Rev. A A 
Strung bow, 10 described in Imhoof, Monnaies grecques } p. 186, 
No. 165, and figured in Revue Numismatique, PL YL, 10 
(Soutzo coll.) and Cat. Lcmme, 1872, PI. I., 157. 

TEGEA (ARCADIA). (B.C. 431370.) 
Obv. Head of Pallas r., wearing crested helmet. 

Rev.TErE Cock r. 

M. Size -5. [PI. I. 12.] 

Not in Brit. Mm. Cat., Peloponnesus. 

A similar specimen is engraved by Dr. Imhoof-Blurner 
in his Choix, PI. III. No. 85 (cp. his Monn. grecques, 
p. 209, No. 279). He suggests that the cock may be an 
agonistic symbol, alluding to the games celebrated at 
Tegea in honour of Athene Alaia. 

Axus (CRETE). 
Obv. Head of Apollo r., laureate. 



Aw. FAIE inN Tripod. 

M. Size -75. Weight 77 grs. [PI. I. 1.] 

Probably issued B.C. 350 300. A similar specimen is 
engraved in Num. Zeit., vol. viii. PL I. 4, and several 
examples are known (see Kenner in Num. Zeit. y viii. 
p. 17)." 



10 Cp. the M coin of Alea in Cat. Peloponnesus, p. 177. 

11 For the types, cp. Wroth, Cat. Crete and Aegean 
PI. III. 15. 



l^ NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The coins attributed in the Brit. Mus. Cat, Crete, to 
the Cretan town Naxos (p. 59, cp. p. xxxviii.) belong 
to Axos, as Halbherr (Mitth. d. arch. Inst. in Athen. 
xi., 84), has now shown. 12 

GORTYNA (CRETE). 

Obv. Europa, wearing Stephanos and peplos over lower 
limbs, seated r. (head facing) in tree; in 1., 
sceptre surmounted by bird; her r. caresses 



Eev. Bull r., looking back : border of dot?. 
JR. Size 1. Weight 175'6 grs. [PI. I. 8.] 

This fourth century didrachm with the Hera- like figure 
of Europa 13 has been acquired since the publication of the 
Catalogue of Crete, &c. It is from the same die as the 
specimen described by Mionnet (ii. p. 279, No. 171), and 
photographed (from one of Mionnet's casts) by Gardner 
in his Types (PL IX. 18, obv. only). Several similar 
specimens are known, e.g. one engraved in Descrip. Mus. 
Hunter, PL 28, No. 22 (with fly under bull). 

GORTYNA (CRETE). 
Obv. Head of Apollo r., laureate. 

12 1 take this opportunity of making two corrections in my Cat. 
Crete, &c. The head on No. 6, p. 2 [PI. I. 4], described as 
" Antonia ? " is, doubtless, as M. J. P. Six has suggested to me, 
the head of Livia, the grandmother of Claudius. The copper 
coin, p. 5, No. 80 [PI. I. 12] , with a nearly illegible inscription 
in the exergue, is as M. Svoronos has kindly pointed out a 
coin of Alexandria. I may also notice that the coin No. 27, 
p. 85 [PL VII. 7], of Prof. Gardner's valuable catalogue, 
Peloponnesus, attributed to Phlius, belongs to Gortyna, and is 
similar to Cat. Crete, PI. XI. 13. The inscription on the speci- 
men bad unfortunately become illegible. 

13 Cp. Gardner, Types, p. 165. 






GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 13 

Eev. Head and neck of bull r., in circular incuse depres- 
sion. 

-ffl. Size -7. Weight 86'6 grs. [PI. I. 15.] 

A coin 14 of the latter part of the fourth century, B.C. 
In its fabric and reverse-type it closely resembles the 
specimen photographed in Brit. Mus. Cat., Crete, &c., 
PL XI. No. 2. The head of Apollo is of commonplace 
style and resembles the head on silver coins of Cnossus 
(Cat. Crete, PI. Y. 13). 

LATUS (CRETE). (B.C. 20067.) 

Obv. Head of Artemis 1. [wearing stephane] ; hair tied 
in knot behind : border of dots. 

Eev. A A Draped bust of Hermes 1., wearing petasus ; 
at his shoulder, caduceus ; the whole in incuse 
square. 

M. Size -4. 

Not in the Museum Cat. Crete (cp. p. 54). A similar 
specimen (without the caduceus ?) is described by Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer (Monn. Gr. p. 217) from his own collec- 
tion. 

Lisus ? (CBETE): 

Obv. | 4 Eagle flying r. ; two linear borders united 
by crossing bars. 

Jtei>. AAEEA NAPo Y Eagle flying r. : border of 

dots. 
N. Size -45. Weight 157 grs. [PI. I. 13.] 

Belongs to a series of very thin gold coins, of which seve- 
ral types and varieties are known (see Spratt, Travels in 

14 Not published in Brit. Mus. Cat., Crete, &c. 



14 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Crete, ii. p. 215, and his paper in Num. Chron., 1887, 
p. 309; Margaritis in Rev. Num., 1886, p. 20). The 
Cretan provenance of the specimens is certain. They all 
bear an eagle on one side and sometimes on both ; this 
type and the presence of the letters Y A on some of 
the pieces have led numismatists to suppose that they were 
issued at Lyttus. The eagle and border of dots on the 
specimen now before us resemble those on a copper coin of 
Lyttus photographed in my Cat. of Crete, &c., PL XIV. 8, 
and there assigned to B.C. 300 220. The inscription seems 
to be I 4, for what appear at first sight to be additional 
letters are merely striations in the metal. M. Svoronos has 
suggested (in a private letter to the British Museum) that 
I 4 = A I, and that this coin was issued at the town of 
Lisus, in Crete. M. Svoronos is further of opinion that 
none of the coins of this class belong to Lyttus, one of his 
reasons being that the specimens (including some in 
silver, 15 ) are found in the western part of. Crete, and thus 
far from Lyttus. He has an ingenious theory as to their 
attribution, on which, however, as he (I believe) intends 
publishing it, it would not be fair to enlarge. 

SIPHNOS. 

Obv. Female head r. (Artemis ?) ; hair rolled and bound 
with cord. 

Rev. I $ Eagle flying r. ; above head, leaf. 
M. Size -55. Weight 57'5 grs. [PI. I. 4.] 

A coin of the latter part of the fifth, or of the early part 
of the fourth century B.C. In the Brit. Mus. Cat., Crete and 
Aegean Islands (p. 121) the Siphnian coins described are 

15 Cp. Margaritis in Rev. Num. 1886, p. 20, No. 21. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 15 

silver of the seventh and sixth centuries, and of the early 
part of the fifth century, and bronze coins of the fourth 
century. The present specimen, though of good style, with 
the eye correctly drawn in profile, is the offspring of the 
early fifth century coins (see Cat. Crete, &c., PL XXVIT. 
11 13), as may be seen not only in the close similarity 
of the types, but also in the severely simple treatment of 
the hair. 

Dr. Weil (Hist. u. phil. Aufsatze, E. Curtius gewidmet. 
Berlin, 1884, p. 128) considers the archaic head on coins 
of Siphnos (Cat. Crete, &c. f PL XXVII. 1113) to be 
that of Apollo, 16 but the head is not necessarily male, and 
on the silver and copper of a later period the head is un- 
doubtedly female (cp. Cat. Crete, &c., PL XXVII. 14, 
15). There is a remarkable unity in the style of the 
Siphnian coinage, and in my catalogue of Crete, &c., I have 
therefore described both the archaic and the fine heads as 
female. The personage represented may be Artemis, a 
goddess who is known to have been worshipped at Siphnos. 

POLEMO II. (KING OF PONTUS, &c.). 

Obv. BACIA6UJC HOA6M Head of Polemo 

II. r., diademed : border, of dots. 

Rev.- BAZI 

TDvihA i (Name of Antonia Tryphaena, mother 

NHZ f Polemo IL ) encircled b J diadema. 

JR. Size -7. Weight 51 '7 grs. [PI. I. 18.] 

A specimen of this rare coin was in Mr. Borrell's collec- 

16 So also Overbeck, Griechische Kunstmytlwlogie, vol. iii. 
(Apollo), p. 72; Miinztafel, ii. No. 1. 



16 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

tion (wt. 46 grains) and is described in his MS. Catalogue 
in the British Museum. 

SAUROMATES I. (KING OF BOSPORUS). 

Obv.-T\ IOYAIOC BACIA6YC CAYPO- 
MATOY (sic). Bust of Sauromates I. r., 
diademed and draped ; with moustache and long 
hair ; border of dots. 

Jteu.Head of Nerva r., laur. ; beneath f^T (393 = 

A.D. 97). 
N. Size -8. Weight 120-2 grs. [PI. I. 19.] 

This rare stater is remarkable for the unusually fine 
treatment of the king's portrait. A specimen with the 
same date (393) is published by Burachkov (Olbia, &c., 
PL XXVIII., No. 134 ; p. 255). 

CYZICUS (MYSIA). 
Obv. Tunny within wreath formed of two ears of corn. 

Rev. [K] Wreath, within which fa ; beneath wreath, 
I A (or $). 

JE. Size -65. 

Coins of this type have sometimes been attributed 
to Dyme in Achaia, and to other places. Dr. Imhoof- 
Blumer, who has published a list of the varieties (Monnaies 
GrecqueSy pp. 243 244 ; cp. p. 164) has shown that they 

belong to Cyzicus. The full inscription is ^ y but this 

rarely, if ever, appears complete on the specimens. Our 
specimen is similar to one in Dr. Imhoof's collection (No. 
83 in his Mbnn. Gr., p. 244) and may possibly, like his, 
be a re-struck coin. It apparently belongs to the fourth 
century B.C. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 17 

GARGARA (MYSIA). 
Obv. Head of Apollo r., bare. 

Rev. PA PP. Bull grazing 1. ; the whole in incuse 

square. 
JR. Size -6. Weight 48*3 grs. [PL I. 17.] 

Probably of the end of the fifth or of the beginning of 
the fourth century B.C. A laureate head of Apollo is the 
usual obverse type at Gargara, and the youthful head on 
this coin, which is treated with fine * distinction of style/ is 
probably also Apollo. 17 A similar head occurs on a 
British Museum coin of Gargara already published in the 
Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd S., vol. vi. (1886), p. 254 ; 
PL XL 8. 

SPITHRIDATES (LAMPSACUS ?). 

Obv. Bearded male head (Spithridates ?) 1., wearing 
Persian head-dress. 



Rev. ^Pl 0PI. Half sea-horse r., winged. 
M. Size -55. Weight 44-4 grs. [PL I. 14.] 

This coin has the same types, and is probably from the 
same die, as the specimen first published by Yon Rauch, 
from his own collection, 18 and re-published by Dr. Von 
Sallet in the Num. Zeit. iii. (1871), p. 424. Two Persian 
commanders named Spithridates are historically known, 19 
one, the General who revolted from Pharnabazus (B.C. 39 6 j, 
the other, the Satrap of Ionia and Lydia (circ. B.C. 334). 

17 General Fox, Engravings of Unpublished, &c., Part II. p. 5, 
No. 29, and Plate, No. 29, describes (correctly ?) a somewhat 
similar coin with obv. Young male head diademed. 

18 Berliner Blatter, v. (1869), p. 29. 
w See Head, Hist. Num., p. 512. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. I) 



18 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Dr. Von Sallet 20 attributes the coins 21 to the second 
Spithridates, chiefly on the ground that their style is that 
of the end rather than that of the beginning of the fourth 
century B.C. But a comparison of these coins with those 
of Orontas the Satrap 22 (circ. B.C. 360), and with the 
obverse of the Satrapal coin attributed to Colophon 2 * 
(circ. B.C. 400) will probably suggest that they may be 
so far as style is concerned of the beginning of the fourth 
century, and thus of the time of the first Spithridates. It 
must be granted, however, that, considerations of style 
apart, the second Spithridates (the Satrap) is more likely 
to have issued coins than the first Spithridates (the General). 
And between these conflicting claims it is difficult to 
decide, on our present evidence. The winged hippocamp 
on the silver coins may indicate (as suggested by Von 
Rauch) that they were struck at Lampsacus. 

ABYDOS (TKOAD). 
Obv. Head of Apollo 1., laureate. 

Rev. ABY MHTPOAIIPO^. Eagle with closed 
wings standing r. ; in front, aplustre ; in field r., 
(g : the whole in slight circular incuse. 
M. Size -9. Weight 232-3 grs. [PI. I. 10.] 

A fine and rare stater 24 issued probably not later than 

20 Num. Zeit. iii. p. 424 ; so also Von Rauch, I.e., and Imhoof, 
Portratkopfe, p. 23. 

21 Bronze coins, as well as silver, are known ; see v. Sallet, I.e., 
and a similar specimen in the British Museum acquired in 1874. 

Von Sallet, Num. Zeit. iii. p. 419 f. ; Waddington, Melanges, 

23 Gardner, Types, PI. X. 14. 

24 Cf. a specimen in the French collection (headr.) mentioned 
by Brand*, Miimwesen, &c., p. 444 ; cf. Pellerin, Recueil, ii. 

.ri. LI. JNo. y. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 19 

circ. B c. 400, being the earliest coin of the long series at 
Abydos with types, Head of Apollo ; rev. Eagle and magis- 
trates' names. The aplustre and the slight incuse connect 
this coin with the gold stater of Abydos 25 issued about the 
end of the fifth century (obv. Nike sacrificing ram. Rev. 
Eagle ; in front, aplustre : all in incuse) . 

The head of Apollo is one of unusual beauty, and differs 
considerably from other heads of that god found on Greek 
coins (compare a good representative series in Overbeck's 
Griechische Kumtmythologie (Apollo) Mimztafel iii.). It 
recalls the finest Apollo heads on the coins of Chalcidice 
(Overbeck, op. cit. Miinztafel ii., JSTo. 30 ; Gardner, 
Types, PI. VII., No. 13), but has an expression of greater 
earnestness. 26 

LESBOS (circ. B.C. 450 ?) 
Obv. AE Call's head 1. 



Rev. Rough incuse square. 

JR. (base?). Size -3. Weight 14-2 grs. 
[PI. I. 9.] 



TYANA (CAPPADOCIA). 

Obv. ...... AlANoCKAI. Bust of Trajan r., 

laureate. 

^._ TVANUJNiePACACVAAVTON. Pallas, 
draped and helmeted, standing looking towards 
1. ; in her r., Nike ; with 1. she supports shield 
and spear ; in field, GT A. 
M. Size -8. 



26 Head, Guide to the Coins of the Ancients, PI. XVIII. 14. 
26 Compare a Demeter head at Cyzicus, Gardner, 
PI. X. 45 ; and see Head, Hint. Num., p. 448, Fig. 270. 



20 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Compare a specimen with similar reverse type (T I) 
published in the Annali for 1847, p. 281 ; PI. P. No. 7. 



SYRIA. 
ANTIOCHUS IX. 

Obv. Head of Antiochus IX. r., diademed ; with whisker 
and slight beard : fillet border. 

Rev. BAZIAEflZ Tyche, wearing chiton, peplos 
ANTIoXoY and niodius, standing 1. ; 

<t>IAonAToPoZ i n r., rudder ; in L, cornu 
copia ; in exergue, 



(date, A. S. 216 = B.C. 96); to L, ; to r., 

rose : the whole in olive-wreath. 
JR. Size 1-15. Weight 250*7 grs. [PI. 1. 21.] 

A rare tetradrachm not described in Prof. Gardner's 
Catalogue of the Seleucid Kings (cp. a drachm, p. 92, 
No. 15 ; and Loebbecke, Zeit. f. Num., xv. 1887, p. 53). 



SELEUCIS AND PIERIA. 
Tetrapolis of Antioch, Seleucia, Apameia and Laodiceia. 

Obv. Two Zeus-like heads r., jugate, wearing taenia 
(the Demi of Antioch and Seleucia ?) : border of 
dots. 

Eev. AAEA4>.QN Zeus seated 1. ; in r., Nike; in 1., 

AHMHN sceptre; in exergue, tHP (year 

BY 165 of Seleucid era - B.C. 148) ; 

in field r., monogram. 
M. Size 1. 



Not described in Mr. Head's Ifistoria Numorum (cp. 
p. 656). 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM 21 
JUDJEA. 

The Museum acquired at the beginning of 1887 a good 
specimen of a Jewish shekel (weight 216 '5 grains 27 ) dated 
" year 5 " [PL I. 20]. So far as I am aware, only two 
other examples of this coin are known, one (from a 
different die) in the collection of the Rev. S. S. Lewis, of 
Cambridge, 28 the other lately purchased by MM. Rollin 
and Feuardent (Rev Num. vol. v., 3rd S. (1887) p. 
371). 

BACTRIA (MAUES). 

Obv. BAZIAEJQZ BAZIAEHN MEfAAoY 
MAYoY. Zeus standing 1., clad in liimation ; 
r. hand extended j in 1., long sceptre. 



Rev. Rajadirajasa mahatasa Moasa (Prakrit inscr.). 
Nike standing r., holding wreath and paliu bound 
with fillet ; in field r., $ 
M. Size '15. Weight 37'1. [PI. I. 16.] 

This hemi-drachm (Persian standard) is not described 
in the Brit. Mm. Cat., Gr. and Scythic Kings, where, 
however, a didrachm with similar types and inscriptions is 
described (p. 68, No. 3 ; PL XVI. 2). It seems to be 
unpublished. 29 

A remarkable decadrachm of the- time of Eucratides, or 
earlier, and other Bactrian coins of importance recently 
acquired by the Museum have been already described in 
the Numismatic Chronicle (vol. vii. 3rd S. (1887), p. 177 ff.) 

by Prof. Gardner. 

WARWICK WROTH. 

27 Types and inscriptions as usual ; see f Madden, Coins of the 
Jews, pp. 68, 69. 

28 Madden, Coins of the Jews, p. 69. 

29 For other coins of Maues, see von Sallet in Z. f. N. vi. 
p. 834 f. 



II. 

ON A HOARD OF ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST 
HARPTREE, NEAR BRISTOL. 

THE County of Somerset is rich in Roman remains, and 
numerous hoards of Roman coins have at various times 
been discovered within its boundaries. At an early period 
of the Roman occupation the metalliferous mines in the 
Mendip Hills appear to have been worked, and the lead, 
of which many " pigs " of Roman date are formed, was 
probably derived from this source. 

In the Numismatic Chronicle for 1866 1 I described a 
hoard of about 450 brass coins found in the Mendip Hills, 
about six miles from Frome, and belonging for the most 
part to the Constantino period, the latest being of Con- 
stantius II. Another hoard of about 350 brass coins, for 
the greater part struck in the London mint, seems to have 
been found in the district around Bristol, and was also 
described by me in 1885. 2 These coins were likewise of 
the Constantine period, the latest being of Constantino II. 
A far larger hoard of silver coins, belonging to a some- 
what later date, was discovered somewhere in the same 
neighbourhood above twenty years ago, and came into my 
possession. The list of the types that it comprised I hope 
on some future occasion to communicate to the Society ; 



Num. Chron., N.S. vol. vi. p. 157. 
Num. Chron. 3rd S., vol. v. p. 118. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 23 

but in the meantime, I may observe that in the hoard 
were a large number of the coins of Magnus Maximus, 
among which were two bearing on the exergue AYG.P.S. 
and AYG., struck at London, which at that time bore the 
name of Augusta. An account of these two coins will be 
found in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1867. 3 Both are 
now preserved in the national collection in the British 
Museum. 

The Rev. Prebendary Scarth, in a paper on Roman 
Somerset, 4 has given a long list of localities in that county 
in which Roman coins have been found, and to the list 
there given \nay be added King's Weston 5 and Milver- 
ton, 6 and probably several other places. The Milverton 
hoard, though the metal of which the coins consisted is 
not mentioned in the Archaeological Journal, was probably 
of silver. The coins are said to have ranged from the time 
of Julianus to that of Arcadius, but among the 45 coins 
which are attributed to various reigns, 7 are described as 
being of Faustina ! 

Some silver coins found at Holway, and described by 
Dr. Hurly Pring, comprise specimens of Julianus II., 
Valens, Gratianus, Yalentinianus II., Theodosius, Euge- 
nius, and Arcadius. 

A remarkable hoard, described as'having been found in 
an urn of red Samian ware at Holwel, near Taunton, was 
brought under the notice of this Society on Dec. 28, 1843, 
by the late Rev. Henry Christmas. It comprised silver 
coins from the time of Constantius II. to that of Hono- 
rius, and consisted of 285 coins of the ordinary module 



3 Num. Chron., N.S. vol. vii. pp. 62 and 331. 

4 Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Proc., 1878, N.S. vol. iv. p. 18.' 

5 Arch. Jour., vol. ii. p. 209. 

6 Arch. Jour., vol. iv. p. 145. 



24 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and 33 so-called medallions. These latter were of Con- 
stans, Julianus II., Yalentinianus L, Yalens, Gratianus, 
Valentinianus II., Magnus Maximus, Theodosius L, and 
Eugenius. Holway and Holwel seem to be two names 
of the same place, for Dr. Hurly Pring, of Taunton, in- 
forms me that no such place as Holwel exists, and that 
Mr. Christmas must have fallen into an error in thus de- 
scribing Holway. 

The important and extensive hoard of silver coins which 
I am now about to describe belongs to a somewhat earlier 
period. My attention was kindly called to it by the Rev. 
Prebendary Scarth, and the owner of the hoard, Mr. W. 
W. Kettlewell, of Harptree Court, East Harptree, near 
Bristol, on whose property it was found, has most liberally 
placed it in my hands for examination and description. 

The hoard was brought to light in the following manner. 
During the late dry summer the water supply to the vil- 
lage of East Harptree had run very low, and it was 
desirable to make search for some additional spring on the 
Mendips that could be conducted into the main pipes and 
supplement the supply. A swampy and boggy piece of 
ground, which is always wet, seemed to promise what was 
required. The spot is about a mile to the S.~W. of the 
village of East Harptree, just to the west of the Frances 
Plantation, close to where the word " spring " occurs on 
the six-inch Ordnance Map. A man named William Cur- 
rell was engaged in the search for water, and his spade 
struck upon a pewter or white metal vessel, not more than 
five or six inches below the surface, which had already been 
broken into several pieces. It was, however, dug out from 
the ground, and was found to contain no less than 1,496 

7 Som. ArcJi. and Nat. Hist. Proc., 1881, N.S. vol. vii. p. 55. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTKEE. 



silver coins, some cast silver ingots that had been cut into 
strips, and a silver ring set with an intaglio. The vessel 
has, so far as possible, been restored to its original form, by 
Mr, Talbot Ready, and the annexed woodcut will give some 
idea of its character. It maybe described as bottle-shaped. 
In height it is about 9J inches, and 7 inches in greatest 
diameter, the base being 4 inches across. Since the 
woodcut was made, the neck of the vessel, about 1J inches 
in length, has been found by Mrs. Kettlewell. It is about 




psp^ / A -^ 

Vf J ( 





1J inches inside diameter, and shows traces of there hav- 
ing been a handle to the vessel. I have been unable to 
discover any traces of writing or marks of ownership upon 
it. The material of which the vase is formed is doubtless 
for the most part lead from some of the neighbouring 
mines. I have not ascertained what admixture of tin it 
contains. The use of lead in Roman times must have 
been very extensive. A good instance is afforded by the 
lining of the large bath at Bath, which was of lead, about 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. E 



26 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

half an inch in thickness. It was recently stripped from 
its position under the direction of the Corporation of Bath, 
and sold as old metal for the sum of 70. 

The silver ring, of which also a woodcut is given, is of 
a not uncommon character, with the gem a carnelian 
projecting a considerable distance beyond the socket in 
which it is mounted. It presents the flattened oval open- 
ing for the finger so common in Roman rings. The gem 
has a figure of Mars bearing a trophy and spear engraved 
in intaglio upon it. 

Its general character and style of ornamentation is 
shown in the annexed cut, and no further comment seems 
necessary. 





The pieces of cast silver are five in number, not count- 
ing a small fragment, which has probably been broken off 
from one of them. One is a small lenticular cake about 
lj inch in diameter, which seems to have been run into a 
depression in clay or sand. It has an indentation from 
a chisel on its upper surface. Its weight is 516 grains. 

Two of the other pieces are portions of another and 
larger flat cake of silver about 2J inches in diameter, 
which has been cut into three by means of two parallel 
cuts with a chisel. Only the middle strip, which is about 
& inch wide, was present, and one of the outside segments. 
These weigh 248 and 806 grains respectively. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 27 

The two other pieces are segments of cakes of the same 
character ; one of them, about 2J inches long and 1 inch 
broad in the middle, weighs 818 grains ; the other, 
2J inches long and f inch in extreme breadth, weighs 
644 grains. This latter has had a small triangular piece 
chopped off from one end. The occurrence of such lumps 
of unwrought silver is more frequent in the hoards of 
Saxon times than in those of Roman date. The melting 
and casting of the silver must have been effected by some 
comparatively skilled hand, and the metal may have come 
into the possession of the owner of the hoard in the course 
of business. It no doubt represented some money value, 
but the pieces do not seem to have been adjusted to 
any regularly graduated weight. In the somewhat later 
hoard of Roman coins discovered at Coleraine, 8 in Ireland, 
in 1854, a considerable amount of silver plate, including 
some ingots, was present, weighing in all over 200 
ounces. 

The coins when found were to some extent coated with 
dirt, and with what was probably a little chloride of 
silver. When carefully washed and brushed their re- 
markably good preservation became apparent, and there 
were none but what could with certainty be attributed to 
the emperor under whom they were struck, and there was 
only a small percentage of which the place of mintage 
could not be determined. 

The following is a summary list of the emperors repre- 
sented in the hoard, and of the number of pieces struck 
under each. It includes twenty coins which had been 
dispersed when the hoard was first brought under my 
notice, making the total number 1,496. 

8 See Num. Chron., vol. xvii. p. 101. 



28 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Constantino the Great 



1 



Constans 
Constantius II. 
Decentius 

JulianusII. . 718 

Jovianus .... 

Valentinianus I. . . . .165 

Valens . . ' 199 

Gratianus .... . 60 

1,496 



A detailed list, showing the number of the coins of each 
type and the places of their mintage, is appended. The 
mints were situated in eleven different places, and in 
some of these there seems to have been several different 
establishments or qfficinae. These are sometimes desig- 
nated by the letters P . S . T ., &c., for Prima, Seeunda, 
Tertia, &c., or by the letters on the field OF . I ., OF . 
II ., OF . III. The letters S. M., by which the initials of 
the town are sometimes preceded, have been thought to 
stand for Signata Moneta, and the letters P. S. following 
the designation of the town for Pecunia Signata. The 
coins in the Harptree hoard were issued from the follow- 
ing mints : 

Antioch. ANT 22 

Aquileia. SMAQ 1 

Aries (Constantina). CONST . . 27 
P.CON P.CON'ST .... 166 
S.CON S.CONST .... 183 
T.CON T.CONST .... 177 

553 

Constantinople. C>, CB, CA, CZ . . 4 

Lyons. LVG . . . . 313 

P.LVG, &c. . 114 

S.LVG, &c. . . . .142 

574 

Nicomedia. SMN ... 4 

Carried forward Tl58 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 29 

Brought forward . . .1158 

Rome. R.P., KB., R.T., R.Q., &c. . . 99 

Sirmium. SIRM . . . . . 6 

Siscia. SIS . .... 1 

Thessalonica. TS8 .TES 12 

Treves. TR.,TRl>S. . . . . .207 

Uncertain 13 



1,496 

It will be at once seen that though the issues from the 
Gallic mints largely predominate, yet that not a few coins 
struck in towns far distant from Britain are present in the 
hoard. Antioch was the city from which some of the coins 
of Constantius II., Julianus, Jovianus, Yalentinianus I., 
and Yalens were issued. Nicomedia produced coins of Con- 
stantius II., Jovianus, arid Valens. Thessalonica is repre- 
sented by coins of Constantino the Great, Constantius II., 
Yalentinianus I., and Valens. The name of Sirmium 
appears on coins of Constantius II. and Yalentinianus I., 
and those of Siscia and Aquileia on single coins of the 
latter emperor. Constantinople appears in addition on a 
coin of Gratianus. Eome was the mint place of pieces 
of Constaiis, Yalentinianus I., and Yalens, especially of 
those of the second named. More than three-quarters 
of the whole hoard were struck in the two mints of Aries 
and Lyons, and nearly a seventh in that of Treves. The 
division of the mint at Lyons into two offlcinae must, to 
judge from the coins, have taken place in the reign of 
Julianus. At Aries the subdivision of the mint appears 
to have already existed in the time of Constantius II. 

The attribution of the coins bearing the exergual mint- 
mark CONST, to the town of Constantina in Gaul instead 
of to Constantinople was first made by the late Mr. Bor- 
rell, of Smyrna. It was suggested to him by a coin of 



30 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Fausta bearing that mark, which could not have desig- 
nated Constantinople, as Fausta died before Byzantium 
was refounded under its new name. 9 The town of Arelate, 
or Aries, was also one of those to which Constantine gave 
an almost new existence, for on the opposite side of the 
Rhone he built a new and important town, to which he 
gave the name of Constantina, 10 a name which, at all events 
for a time, overshadowed and, indeed, superseded the old 
name of Arelate. In the days of Honorius, however, 
when Aries became the residence of the Pracfect of 
Gallia, under whom also the government of Britain was 
placed, it resumed its old name. Ausonius, who was tutor 
to Gratianus as a boy, has commemorated the place among 
his Clara) Urbes. 

"Pande, duplex Arelate, tuos blanda hospita portus, 
Gallula Roma Arelas ; quam Narbo Martius, et quam 
Accolit Alpinis opulenta Vienna colonis : 
Praecipitis Rhodani sic intercisa fluentis, 
Ut mediam facias navali ponte plateam. 
Per quern Romani commercia suscipis orbis, 
Nee cohibes." 

I have sought in vain in the modern suburb of Aries, 
Trinquetaille, for any traces of the ancient Constantina. 

Another Constantina which has retained its name until 
the present day was originally the town of Cirta, in 
Numidia. At first a Phoenician city or Kiriath, it next 
became the Roman Colonia Julia, then the Colonia Sittia- 
norum and then Constantina, the name it still retains as 
one of the chief towns in French Algeria. I do not think, 

9 Num. Chron., N.S. vol. i. p. 121. 

Scaliger has suggested that the new town was built b v 
Constantine III., who fixed his capital at Aries ; but in this he 
must have been in error. Note to Ausonius, Clara Urbes viii 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE* 31 

however, that there was ever a Roman mint in that 
place. 

The fabric of the coins bearing the mint mark CONST, 
is so similar to that of those bearing the mark of Lugu- 
dunum or Lyons that we may with some confidence regard 
the letters as designating the Gallic Constantina. The 
few coins in this hoard assigned to the mint of Constan- 
tinople are of a different style and bear a C only accom- 
panied by a Greek letter to denote the omcina, and a 
star, wreath or other symbol. 

The coins struck at Treves are proportionally far fewer 
in number than is usual in the hoards of coins buried in 
the days of Constantino the Great and his sons, whose 
residence was frequently in that city. The retreat south- 
ward of the more important centres of Roman power and 
commerce had already begun in the days of Gratianus, 
though Treveri was still the fourth of the Clarce Urbcs, 
where, 

" Lata per extentum procurrunt mcenia collem," 
and where 

" Largus tranquillo praelabitur amne Mosella, 
Longinqua omnigense vectans commercia terrae." n 

To return, however, to the coins 'in the hoard. Among 
them are pieces of at least three different modules. By 
far the greater number are of small size and varying in 
average weight from about 31 to about 33 grains. These 
would appear to have been struck at the nominal rate of 
144 to the Roman pound of about 5,053 grains troy. This 
would make the proper weight of each to be about 35 
grains. 

11 Auson., Clara Urles, iv. 



32 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The coins of somewhat larger module and weight belong 
to a rather earlier period and were probably struck on 
the standard of 96 to the pound, which though dating 
from the time of Nero, had been re-established under 
Diocletian. 12 Such pieces if of full weight would weigh 
about 52 J grains troy. The coins of Constantine the 
Great, Constans, Constantius II., and that of Julianus 
with the star on the reverse (PL II., 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10), 
range from 40f grains to 54J grains, the average of the 
eight coins being 49 grains. 

The largest pieces, which are usually termed medallions, 
seem to have been intended to represent double the value 
of the ordinary small pieces, and to have been coined at 
the rate of 72 to the pound. Of these there were 15 
present in the hoard, ranging in weight from 59 to 70J 
grains ; the average weight being 66J grains, as against 
70 grains, the calculated weight at the rate of 72 to the 
pound. These pieces were at a later period known as the 
Miliarense. 

It is remarkable that in several of the west country 
hoards a large proportion of these medallions has been 
present. In that of Holway already mentioned, there 
were 33 medallions to 285 of the small coins or siliquso. 
As a general rule they are in a high state of preservation, 
and it seems likely that they were more treasured by those 
into whose possession they came than the ordinary current 
coins. Those in the Harptree hoard were for the most 
part coined in distant mints ; one at Antioch, five at 
Thessalonica, three at Rome, two at Aries, and four 
at Treves. In the Holway hoard the mints of Siscia, 



12 See Mommsen, Hist, de la Monn. Horn., Trad., De Blacas, 
vol. iii. p. 75. 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 33 

Sirmium, Lyons, Aquileia and Milan were also re- 
presented. 

Full particulars of the types and legends of the 1,496 
pieces forming the Harptree hoard are given in the 
following list, but it will be well to call attention to some 
of the more remarkable coins. 

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. A.D. 306 337. 

But a single coin of this emperor (PI. II., 1) was found. 
It is in fine condition and of considerable rarity. It was 
struck at Thessalonica, but in what year it is difficult to 
say, though it must belong to the close of his reign, as 
coins of a similar character exist with the head of Con- 
stans as Caesar, a title which was not conferred upon him 
until A.D. 333. 

CONSTANS. A.D. 337 350. 

The four coins are of the ordinary module, but are all 
rare. Two are engraved in PL II., 2 and 3. The date 
of the particular issues of his coins it is almost impossible 
to fix, as the Decennalia Yota, which at first were cele- 
brated at intervals of ten years, had by his time been 
made to recur far more frequently. Though he actually 
reigned less than thirteen years, or seventeen if the 
period during which he was Caesar is included, yet coins 
of his are extant with VOT. XX MVLT. XXX, as if 
the first twenty years of his reign had been completed, 
and prayers had been offered for its continuance during 
another period of ten years. The legend of Felix Tempo- 
rum Reparatio first came in on the coinage of Constans, 
and became of extremely common occurrence on the coins 
of his successors. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. F 



34 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

CONSTANTIUS II. A.D. 337361. 

He was the elder brother of Constans, with whom he 
reigned jointly until 350, when by his death he became 
sole emperor. Of his coins, 332 were present in this hoard, 
of which 4 have been selected for engraving (PI. II., 
47). That with the reverse PAX AYGYSTORYM is 
rare, and probably belongs to the early part of his reign. 
The medallions with the legends TRIYMFATOR GEN- 
TIYM BARBARAEYM and YIRTYS EXERCITYS 
are also scarce. As the former legend occurs on the 
medallions of Constans, the piece was probably struck 
before A.D. 350. The legend YIRTVS EXERCITYM 
occurs also on coins of Constans, but was unknown to 
Cohen among the coins of Constantius. The form is 
probably a genitive plural of Exercitus. The fabric of 
the medallion differs materially from that of the others of 
the same emperor struck in more southern and eastern 
mints than Aries. The coin (PL II., 7) with SPES 
REIPYBLICE is rare; that cited by Cohen is in the 
Museum of Yienna. The coin No. 8 with the reverse 
YOT XXXX is also scarce. The coin reading CONSTIYS 
offers a singular example of an error in sinking the die. 
This coin is in perfect preservation and is of the large 
module. His other coins require no comment. They 
belong for the most part to the latter part of the reign of 
Constantius. 

DECENTIUS. A.D. 351 353. 

Of this prince, who was the brother of Magnentius, who 
held Gaul for three years against Constans and Constan- 
tius II., but one piece, and that a medallion, was present 
in the hoard. It is of great rarity and is remarkable for 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 35 

reading PRINCITI instead of PRINCIPI. A similar 
piece is in the French national collection. 

JULIANUS II. A.D. 355363. 

Nearly one half of the coins in the hoard are of Julian, 
either as Csesar or Emperor, there being no less than 712 
pieces bearing his name. Among these are a medallion 
as Emperor, and a coin of the old standard of 96 to the 
pound, both of which are figured in the Plate (Figs. 9 and 
10). Both are scarce. Of the coins of the ordinary 
module, No. 8 and 16 offer varieties not mentioned by 
Cohen. As Julian reigned but eight years it is some- 
what remarkable to find YOTIS XXX MYLTIS XXXX 
on his coins. Possibly the reverse die may have been 
intended for Constantius II. His other coins range over 
the whole of his reign from the time when he was first 
made Caesar, and his portraits vary from that of a boy to 
that of a full-bearded man. The form in which his titles 
appear varies considerably, the D.N. for Dominus Noster 
being sometimes prefixed and sometimes left out, and the 
letters after his name sometimes P.P. AYGr, sometimes 
P.F. AYG-, and sometimes simply AYG. The letters P.P. 
which indicate the title Pius Perpetuus, or possibly Perpe- 
tuus only, seem to be confined to the coinage of the Lyons 
mint. 

JOVIANUS. A.D. 363364. 

Of Julian's successor eight coins were present, one of 
which, the medallion PI. II., Fig. 11, is of considerable 
rarity. In the title after the name it seems to read PEP 
or PPP rather than P.F. P. as given by Cohen from the 
Catalogue d'Ennery. An example in my own cabinet, 
also struck at Antioch, seems to read PPP likewise, which 



36 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

may probably be extended as Pius Perpetuus. Though 
Jovianus held the empire for seven months only his coins 
commemorate both the Yota Quinquennalia and the Vota 
Decennalia, as if his reign had extended over at least ten 
years. The coin with YOT. X MYLT. XX is very rare 
and is cited by Cohen from the Yienna Museum. 

YALENTINIANUS I. A.TX 364 375. 

The coins of Yalentinian the Elder are 164 in number, 
including three medallions of two types, both rather rare. 
The rarest of his smaller coins is No. 4 with the legend 
EESTITYTOE EEIPYBLICAE in full, a legend which 
first came into use on the coins of this Emperor. 

YALENS. A.D. 364378. 

Of Yalentinian's brother and associate in the Empire 
there were 196 coins in the hoard, including one medallion 
minted at Treves with the usual reverse of YIETYS 
EXEECITYS. The coins with EESTITYTOE EEIP. 
belong to the earlier part of his reign and are scarcer 
than those with YEBS EOMA, which were probably 
struck after Yalentinian's death, for the majority of the 
coins of the latter type were coined at Treves, which was 
not strictly speaking originally within the dominion 
of Yalens as Emperor of the East. 

GKATIANUS. A.D. 375 383. 

Of Gratian, the elder son of Valentinian I., there are 58 
coins in the deposit, mostly of the common type of YEBS 
EOMA, which, like those of Yalens recently mentioned, 
were struck in the mint of Treves, and probably belong 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 37 

to the same period. The only other coin of Gratian pre- 
sent in the hoard gives a type not known to Cohen, 
VOTIS Y. 

"We must now briefly consider what was the probable 
date at which the Harptree hoard was deposited, and in 
so doing we must take into account not only the coins 
that are present in the deposit, but also some of those 
which were absent from it. Now of Valentinian II., who 
at the age of four years was associated in the empire by 
his half-brother Gratian and his uncle Valens in Novem- 
ber, 375, a short time after the death of his father, Yalen- 
tinian I., no coins are present. Those of Gratian are 
limited to two types, both in all probability belonging to 
quite the early part of his reign. There is, however, some 
little difficulty in determining the date at which current 
coins were first struck bearing the image and superscrip- 
tion of Gratian, inasmuch as his father had conferred upon 
him the title of Augustus so early as A.D. 367. He was, 
however, only sixteen years old at the time of Yalenti- 
nian's death, in A.D. 375. If we are right in supposing 
that the YKBS ROMA type was not in use at Treves 
until towards the close of the reign of Yalentinian, and 
that the coins of Yalens with the same reverse were issued 
from that mint, in immediate succession to those of Yalen- 
tinian, we may, I think, conclude that those of Gratian 
were struck and issued synchronously with those of Ya- 
lens, and that no coins of Gratian were struck in his 
father's lifetime. The reverse of YOTIS Y., judging from 
the analogy of the coins of Jovianus, might have been 
struck immediately after his virtual accession in A.D. 375, 
or it may even bear reference to his nominal accession in 
A.D. 367. At how early a period coins were struck in the 
name of Yalentinian II., to whom was assigned the 



38 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

empire of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, is not absolutely 
certain, but probably his coinage commenced with his 
reign, as some of the portraits upon it are extremely 
young. At all events, from the absence of his coins in 
this hoard, and the paucity of types of those of Gratian, I 
think that we cannot far err in assigning the deposit of 
this hoard to a date not much removed from A.D. 376. 
Who was its owner and what were the circumstances under 
which he buried his treasure, are questions which I will 
not waste time in discussing. 

I have only to add that a selection of twenty-five of the 
coins has most liberally been presented to the National 
Collection by Mr. Kettlewell. These are indicated in the 
following list by the letters B. M. in brackets being 
appended to their description. 

JOHN EVANS. 



CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. 

1. Obv. Diademed head of Constantine r. 

&w. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Victory 1., with 
wreath and palm. In exergue, TSG. 
(Cohen, No. 42.) (PI. II. 1.) 48| gr.' 



CONSTANS. 

1. Obv.L. IVL. CONSTANS P.F. AVG. Dia- 
demed and draped bust r. 

^.-VICTORIA DD. NN. AVGG. Victory 
L, with wreath and palm. In exergue 
TR. (Cohen, No. 73.) (PL II. 2.) 4l! 
54, 40-J grs. ;vu . 

Carried forward 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 39 

Brought forward . .31 
2. Obv. As No. 1. 

Rev. FEL. TEMP. REPARATIO. Victory in- 
scribing VOT. XX. on a shield held up 
by a kneeling captive. In exergue, K 

(Cohen, No. 35.) (PI. II. 3.) 48f grs. 1 

_ 

CONSTANTIUS II. 

1. Obv. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVS P.F. AVG. 

Diademed and draped bust r. 

Rev. PAX AVGVSTORVM. Emperor 1., hold- 
ing labarum. In exergue, TR. M. 1. (Cohen, 
No. 93.) (PL II. 4.) 49 grs. . 1 

2. Obv. As No. 1. 

Rev. TRIVMFATOR GENTIVM BARBARA- 
RVM. Constantius 1., holding standard 
and resting left hand on shield. In ex- 
ergue, TES. (Cohen, No. 40.) Med. 
(PL II. 5.) 68i grs< ... 1 

3. Obv. D. N. CONSTANTIVS P.F. AVG. Bust 

as before. 

^t;. VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Soldier r., hold- 
ing spear and shield. In exergue, TES. 
and R ? C Z. Med. (Cohen, No. 52.) 
7(H, 67$, 59, 69, 70 grs . . 5 

4. Obv. As No. 3. 

JBw.VIBTVS EXERCITVM. As No. 3. In 
exergue, P. CON. Med. (PL II. 6.) 
[B. M.] 66 grs ..... 1 

5. Obv.FL. IVL. CONSTIVS P.F. AVG. Bust 

as before. 



. DD. NN. AVGG. Victory 
1., holding wreath and palm. In ex- 
ergue, TR. 55^ grs. ... 1 

6. Obv. As No. 3. 

Reo. SPES REIPVBLICE (sic) Constantius 

Carried forward 14 



40 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Brought forward . . 14 

helmeted, holding globe and hasta. In 
exergue, TES. [B. M.] (Cohen, No. 
105.) (PI. II. 7.) 28 grs. . . 

7. Obv.As No. 3. 

Rev. As No. 5. In exergue, LVG . 49 

8. Obv.A.s No. 3. 



XXX MVLTIS XXXX in wreath. 
In exergue, ANT .... 2 
SMN .... 1 
SIRM .... 2 
P.CON .... 78 
S.CON . . . .78 
LVG. (Cohen, 150 152). 114 
Uncertain mints ..... 5 

-- 280 

9. Obv. As No. 3. 

Eev.VOT . XXXX in wreath. In exergue C B ? 

(Cohen, No. 153.) [B. M.] 1 



DECENTIUS. 

1. Oto.D.N. DECENTIVS NOB. CAES. Bare 
bust r., with cuirass. 

7^. PRINCITI (we) IVVENTVTIS. Decen- 
tius holding globe and slanting spear. 
In exergue, TR. Med. (Cohen, No. 3.) 
(PI. II. 8.) [B. M.] 60 grs. . . 1 

JULIANUS II. 

1. O^.D.N. FL. CL. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG. 

Diademed and draped bust r. 

Rev. VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Julian r. hold- 
ing spear in r., in 1. a shield and an 
eagle with wreath in its beak. Med. 
In exergue, S. CONST. (Cohen, No. 5.) 
(PL II. 9.) 67| grs. 1 

Carried forward . 347 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 41 

Brought forward . . 347 

2. Obv. FL. CL. IVLIANVS NOB. C. Youth- 

ful bare bust draped r. 

Her. Uninscribed. A star of eight points in 
centre of a wreath. In exergue, T.CON. 
A\. 1. (Cohen, No. 46.) (PL II. 10.) 
[B.M.] 47grs. . . 1 

3. Obv.'FL. CL. IVLIANVS P.P. AVG. Dia- 

demed and draped bust r. 

Hev. VICTORIA DD. NN. AVG. Victory!., 
holding wreath and palm. In exergue, 
LVG. (Cohen, Supplement No. 2) . 26 

4. Obv. D.N. IVLIANVS NOB. CAES. Draped 

bust r., the head bare. 

i^. VOTIS V MVLTIS X. in wreath. In 

exergue, T CON. (Cohen, No. 30) . 61 

5. Obv. D.N. CL. IVLIANVS AVG Diademed 

and draped bust 1. 

Rev. As No. 4. In exergue, P. CON . . 2 

S. CON . . 3 

,, T.CON . . 16 

TR[B. M.] . 16 

TR^, . .36 

(Cohen, No. 33.) 73 

6. Obv. D.N. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG. As No. 5. 

Rev. As No. 4. In exergue, P. CON . .24 

S. CON . . 26 
T. CON . . 39 
Uncertain mint ... 1 
(Cohen, No. 55.) 90 

7. OAt\PL. CL. IVLIANVS P.P. AVG. As 

No. 5. 

Rev. As No. 4. In exergue, LVG . ' ."' . 125 

P. LVG ,nj* a. . 28 

S. LVG ,oH . 36 

Uncertain mints . . . 2 

(Cohen, No. 37.) 191 

Carried forward 789 

Gin r 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. G 



42 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Brought forward . . 789 

8. Obv. As No. 7. 

Bev.VOI. V MVLT. X. in wreath. In ex- 
ergue, P. LVG, (Not in Cohen.) [B. M.] I 

9. Obv.FL. IVLIANVS P.P. AV. As No. 7. 

Rev. As No. 8. In exergue ? Contemporary 
forgery ? . 

10. Obv.FL. CL. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG. Bearded, 

diademed, and draped bust. 

jR^.VOT. X MVLT. XX. in wreath. In 

exergue, ANT. (Cohen, No. 41.) 7 

11. Oiu.D.N. FL. CL. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG. 

Beardless, diademed, and draped bust r. 

Rev.VOT. X MVLT. XX. in wreath. 

In exergue, P. LVG . . . .11 
S. LVG. (Cohen, No. 42, 
var.) . . . .14 

25 

12. Obv. As No. 11, but bust bearded. 

Rev. As No. 11. In exergue, P. CONST . . 1 

8. CONST. . 10 
T. CONST. . 5 

16 

18. Obv. As No. 11. 

Rev. As No. 11, but small eagle in centre of 

wreath. In exergue, P.CONST . . 53 

S. CONST . . 63 

T.CONST . . 52 

Uncertain, but CONST > T; . 11 

179 

14. 06v.-FL.CL. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG. As No. 11. 

Rev. As No. 13. In exergue, P. CON ST. (Cohen, 

No. 41, var.) p. M.] 1 

15. Olv.FL.CL. IVLIANVS P.P. AVG. Beardless, 

diademed, and draped bust. 

Carried forward . . 1,019 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 43 

Brought forward . . 1,019 
Rev. V01. X MVLT. XX. in wreath. 

In exergue, LVG [1 B.M.J ... 4 
P.LVG [1 B.M.] . . 19 
S.LVG. (Cohen, No. 40) . 21 

44 

16. Obv. D.N. CL. IVLIANVS AVG. Beardless, 
diademed, and draped bust r. 

tat'. VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in wreath. 
In exergue, S. CON. (Not in Cohen). 
[B. M.] . 1 

JOVIANUS. 

1. Obv. D.N. IOVIANVS PPP AVG. Diademed 

and draped bust r. 

Rev. GLORIA ROMANORVM. Jovian holding 
spear and globe, standing within an 
arch. In exergue, ANT. Med. (Cohen, 
No. 2.) (PI. II. 1.1.) 64i grs. . 1 

2. Obv. D.N. IOVIANVS. P.F. AVF. As No. 1. 

Rev.VOT. V MVLT. X within a wreath. 

In exergue, P. CONST ... 4 
SMN .... 1 

5 

b. Obv. As No. 2. 

Rev. NOT. X MVLT. XX in wreath. In ex- 
ergue, T. CONST. (Cohen, No. 14) . 2 



VALENTINIANUS I. 

1. Obv. D.N. VALENTINIANVS P.F. AVG. Dia- 
demed and draped bust r. 

tat;. VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Emperor 1. hold- 
ing labarum and resting left hand on 
shield. In exergue, S.M.TR. Med. 
(Cohen, No. 11), 68 grs. .' J 1 

Carried forward . . 1,073 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Brought forward 

2. Obv. As No. 1, but bust in cuirass. 

Rec. VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM. Victory 
with left foot on globe, inscribing VOT. 
V. MVLT. X on a shield resting on a 
cippus. In exergue, R.B. and R.T. 
(Cohen, No. 8.) (PI. II. 12). 62, 65fc 
grs. . 

3. Obt'. As No. 1. 

/tec. RE8TITVTOR REIP. Emperor stand- 
ing, holding labarum and Victory. 
(Cohen, No. 19.) 
In exergue ANT ... . 

TES 

P. CONST, * in field 1. [B.M.] 
T. CONST, * in field r. [B.M.] . 
CONST, in field OF I . 
OF II 



1,073 



CON. 

CONST 

CONST 

P. LVG 

P. LVG. . 

S. LVG 
S. LVG- v 
SMAQ [B.M.] 
Uncertain mints 



OF II [1 B.M.] 
OF II* 

OF. Ill [B.M.] 
OF. Ill* 



11 

5 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

2 

8 

84 
29 

1 

4 
102 



4. Obv. D.N. VALENTINIANVS P. AVG. Bust 

as No. 1. 

Rev. RESTITVT(OR) REIPVBLICAE. As 
last. (Cohen, No. 22, var.) In exergue, 
SIS. [B.M.] . . 1 

5. Obv. As No. 1. 

Rev. VOT. V in wreath. In exergue # C'A 

[B.M.] (Cohen, No. 43.) . 1 

6. Obv. As No 1. 

Rev. VOT. V. MVLT. X. In exergue, R B [B.M 1 1 

RT. . 23 
(Cohen, No. 44.) 24 

.Carried forward . 1,203 



ROMAN COINS FOUND AT EAST HARPTREE. 45 

Brought forward . . 1,203 

7. Obv.A.s No. 1. 

Jfev.VOTIS V MVLT1S X. in wreath. 

In exergue, TB [B.M.] ... 1 

S1BM[1B,M.] . . 4 

(Cohen, No. 45.) 

8. Obv.As No. 1. 

Rev. VBBS ROMA. Rome seated, holding 

Victory and sceptre. 

In exergue, R P . . . . .17 
BQ. ... 8 

B T 2 

TRPS- . . 7 

(Cohen, No. 48.) 29 

YALENS. 

1. Ol)i\ D. N. VALENS P.F. AYG. Diademed 

and draped bust r. 

Rei\ VIBTVS EXEBCITVS. Emperor hold- 
ing standard and shield. In exergue, 
TRPS (Cohen, No. 17.) (PI. II. 13.) 
Med. 67 and 69 grs. . . . 2 

2. Oii\ As No. 1. 

Jfev. BESTITVTOB REIP. Emperor holding 
labarum and globe surmounted by a 
Victory. 

In exergue, P. LVG . . . .24 
P. LVG . . . .25 
S. LVG-. ... 8 
ANT [B. M.]. . . 1 
TES . . . . 1 
P. CONST . . .1 
S. CONST, * in field . 1 
CONST, OF I . 1 
CONST,OFI* 1B.M.1 . 3 
CONST, OF III* . . 1 
(Cohen, No. 29.) 66 

Carried forward . 1,305 



46 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Brought forward 
8. Ohv. As No. 1. 

1^.__VOT. V MVLTIS. X. in wreath. In ex- 
ergue, SMN ..... 
VOT. V MVLT. X In exergue, R B . 

Ditto RT 

(Cohen, No. 55.) 

4. Obv.Aa No. 1. 

Rev. VRBS ROMA. Rome seated, holding 
Victory and sceptre. 
In exergue, P. LVG 

RP . . . . 
RQ . 
TRPS . 
TRPS 



1,305 



2 

19 
6 



27 



. 1 

. 4 
. 20 
. 13 
. 66 
104 



GRATIANUS. 

1. Obv. D.N. GRATIANVS P.F. AVG. 
demed and draped bust r. 



Dia- 



;. VOTIS V. in wreath. In exergue, *OB O. 
(Not in Cohen.) (PI. II. 14.) [B. M.] 
SHgrs. . 



2. Ok'. As No. 1. 



. VRBS ROMA. Rome seated holding 
sceptre and Victory. In exergue, 
TRPS. 81-grs ..... 



59 



1,496 



III. 

COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIAN KING MIAUS, 
OR HERAUS. 

IN 1874 Mr. Percy Gardner published a tetradrachm 
similar to those represented in the accompanying Plate. 
He attributed the piece to Heraiis, King of the Sakas, by 
reading the legend 1 

TYIANNOYNTOZ MIAOY ZAKAB KOIIANOY, 

as Tvpavvovvros 'Hpaov 2aKa Kotpavov. 

This assignment of the coin to a Saka king was eagerly 
adopted by Mr. Fergusson, who, by a bold conjecture, 
metamorphosed the Turushka king Kanishka, the sove- 
reign of the Kmhdns, into a king of the Sakas, and the 
founder of the Sdka era. 2 

But Mr. Fergusson was not the only rebel against 
" time-honoured " Salivahana, wHose name, as Professor 
Kern boldly suggested, 3 had been added to the Saka era 
by the English. But this suggestion is utterly without 
foundation, as there are many inscriptions, both in Southern 
and in Northern India, dated in the Salivahana Sdka era. 
I need only quote one of S. S. 1466, or A.D. 1544, from 

1 Num. Chron., N.S., xii. p. 161. 

2 Royal Asiatic Society Journal, 1880, " On the Saka, 
Samvat, and Gupta Eras." 

3 Dr. Max Miiller, India What can it teach us? p. 300. 



48 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

B&dami in Southern India, and another of S. S. 1583, or 
A.D. 1561, from Chamba, in the Punjab. 4 Does Professor 
Kern believe that the English ruled over India in those 
years ? 

In 1881 Dr. Oldenberg published a notice of the same 
coin, 5 in which he retained the reading of ZAKA, and 
ignored the existence of the following letter B, while he 
objected to Koipavov, and proposed to read either Koranou or 
Korranou. He thus found "adecisive proof" that the Korano 
or Gtishdn princes, and more especially " Kanishka, must be 
regarded as Sakas." He then goes on to say that " we 
know from coins as well as from inscriptions of a mighty 
Sdka king Kanishka." With this statement I altogether 
disagree. I am well acquainted with all the inscriptions 
and coins of the Indo-Scythian princes, and I can state 
positively that neither coins nor inscriptions give the title 
of Saka to Kanishka. In the inscriptions he is always 
called by his own tribal title of Eushdn, or Gushdn, and 
on his coins he is invariably called Korano. 

I presume, however, that Dr. Oldenberg refers to this 
coin of Ileraus as establishing his conclusion that Kanishka 
was a king of the Sakas, or Saka-KwhAm. But the read- 
ing of ZAKA I dispute, as all my coins read ZANAB and 
not ZAKA. This word is, however, not always spelt in 
the same way. I find ZANAB on six coins, the N being 
sometimes reversed, ZANAOB on one coin, and 

ZANAB I Y on one coin/ 

'"-' Sj&l *ii[oij.Drnjol 

It is true that the N is sometimes reversed, but so it is 

sometimes both in TYPAMHOYHTOZ and in KOIIA- 



p. loo. 



Indian Antiquary, x. p. 67. Archaol. Survey of India, xxi. 
oo. 



. 

5 Indian Antiquary, x. p. 215 

1 >?< . - 7i?M -iC[ K 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIAN KING MIAUS OR HERAUS. 49 

I/1OY. Of the latter form Mr. Gardner has given an 
instance in his footnote, page 47, quoting M. Tiesen- 
hausen's coin. 

Taking the various readings of Sanab, Sanaob, and 
Sandbiu, I think it probable that the term may be intended 
to represent the native title of tmnyu, or chanyu, "chief/* 
or " king." As the last word on the small silver 
oboli is KOPCANOY, there can be no doubt that the 
king belonged to the Korsdn, or Kushan tribe. Tsanyu 
is a contraction of Tsemli-Khuthu-tanjii, "Heaven's son 
great," or "Great Son of Heaven," = Devaputra. As 
the common pronunciation of the Greek B was V, the 
Greek form of ZANAB, or ZANABIY, would approach 
very nearly to the native title. 

With respect to the tribal name of Kushdn, an exami- 
nation of the earlier coins of Kujula Kadphizes shows that 
the first Greek forms of the name were Korsna, Korsan, 
and Ehoransu, which agree with the title of KOPCANOY 
on the oboli of Miaiis in the Plate. In common speech 
this name might become either Korano by the omission of 
s, or Kushdn by the omission of r. But the Greek form I 
prefer to derive from the common practice of changing s 
to h, which would change Kormno into Korhano, or into 
Korrhano, or KOPPANOY. 

That the original form of the name was Korsan, or 
Kkorsan, is, I think, supported by the name of the province 
of Khorasdn, which was certainly occupied by this tribe. 
I suspect also that Chorsari, which Pliny says was the 
name given by the Scythians to the Persians, must refer 
to the Kushans of Khorasan, who had come to be looked 
upon as Persians by the Scythians of the Jaxartes. 

According to my view the legend of the tetradrachms 
is simply 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. H 



50 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



TvpavvovvTOS Miaou ^avayS Kopcravou, 
"Of. the supreme king Miaiis, chief of the Kushans." 

On the oboli the legend is restricted to two lines, in 
which the name of the prince is spelt in two different 
ways, as MIAOYC and MIAIOY. With the tribal 
title of KOPCANOY below, the whole legend is simply 
" Miaiis, the Kushan," or rather the Korsan. 

The unique copper coin is unfortunately too much worn 
to give any assistance in reading either the name or the 
titles. But as it bears an Arian legend in addition to the 
Greek inscription it is invaluable as a proof that the 
territory over which the king ruled was not Bactria, but 
some country to the south of the Hindu Kush. On the 
Greek side I can read TYPAN and KOPCAN ; but of 
the Arian legend I can make nothing certain. 

Of the find-spots of the tetradrachms I am unable to 
speak. But of the oboli I can say positively that my 
twelve specimens all came from Western Afghanistan, 
that is from Kabul and the country to the south of Kabul. 
A thirteenth obolus was actually found by Masson in 
No. 2 Tope at Kotpur, along with ten copper coins bear- 
ing the joint names of Hermaeus and Kujula Kadphizes. 6 
Masson describes the coin as " a small circular piece of 
silver, doubtful whether a coin from its smooth reverse, 
but on the obverse bearing the bust of a king, whose head 
was bound with the Greek diadem." I saw the piece in 
the Indian Museum in 1870 amongst Tope relics, and I at 
once recognised it as a coin of Miaiis, from the king's head 
being an exact representation of the head on the two 
tetradrachms which I then possessed. In the same Stupa 

6 Ariana Antiqua, p. 66. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTH1AN KING MlAtJS OR HERAUS. 51 

Masson obtained a clay seal (see Ariana Antiqua, Plate 
IV. Fig. 6 of Antiquities), with an armed figure standing 
with lance in hand. As my new coins of Kujula Kad- 
phizes present the same armed figure we thus obtain a 
second connection with Kujula. 

With respect to the date of Miaiis I think that the fol- 
lowing facts all point to the latter half of the first cen- 
tury B.C. 

1. One of his coins was found in company with ten 
copper coins bearing the joint names of Hermaous and 
Kujula. 

2. The Greek S is used always in Turannountos and 
JSanab, but in Korsano it takes the round form, which is 
also found on some of the later coins of Hermaeus. 

3. The type of the king on horseback, with Victory 
flying behind to place a wreath on his head, is the proto- 
type which was afterwards copied on the coins of Gron- 
dophares. 

Taking these facts in conjunction with the find-spots of 
the coins, I infer that Miaiis must have ruled over the 
country to the south-west of Kabul, about Wardak and 
Ghazni, some time during the latter half of the first cen- 
tury B.C. 

If my inference be correct we may, perhaps, gain some 
further information about this unknown king from the 
Chinese records. Turning, then, to their, account of 
Kipin, that is of the country to the south-west of Kabul, 
I find the following facts recorded. 

1. The first King of Kipin known to the Chinese is 
named U-theu-lao by Remusat 7 (or Woo-tow-laou by 
Wylie). He was reigning about the beginning of the 

7 Eeinusat, Nouv. Melanges Asiatiques, i. p. 207. 



52 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

first century B.C. He was succeeded by his son, who was 
defeated and killed by a rebel named Yin-mo-fu y son of 
the King of Yung-Khiu, assisted by the Chinese. Yin- 
mo-fu thus became King of Kipin. Having imprisoned 
the Chinese general Chao-te and killed some seventy of 
his officers, he sent an embassy to China to excuse his 
conduct. But the Emperor Hiao-yuan-ti had then stopped 
all communication with foreign countries, and the embassy 
was not received. As this emperor began to reign in 
48 B.C., the conquest of Kipin by Yin- mo-fu may be placed 
about 50 B.C. 8 

2. The people of Kipin had gold and silver money which 
bore on one side the figure of a horseman, and on the 
reverse the head of a man. Wylie says a man on horse- 
back and a man's face. 9 Now it is remarkable that the 
only coins which tally with this description are those of 
Miaiis and of the nameless king. But as there are neither 
gold nor silver coins of the latter the description can apply 
only to the former. This being the case, the coins with a 
horseman on one side and a king's head on the other should 
belong to Yin-mo-fu, the conqueror of Kipin, and Yin- 
mo-fu should therefore be Miaiis, or Miaios. There is a 
tempting resemblance between the two names, which, 
supported by both time and place, suggests the possibility 
of identifying Yin-mo-fu, King of Kipin, with Miaiis, or 
Miaiiis, whose coins belong to the same country as well as 
the same age. 

With respect to the name of the king, I must confess 
that it is still uncertain. Twenty-five years ago, when I 
got my first two tetradrachms, I read the name as HPAOY, 



8 Kemusat, Now. Melanges Asiatinucs, i p. 206 
. Chon., N.S., ix. p. 79. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHiAN KING MIAUS OR HERAUS. 53 

or Heraiis, as I noted at the time in the Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society. In 1874, after Mr. Percy Gardner 
had published the British Museum coin, on which he also 
read the name as Heraiis, I was induced to examine the 
silver oboli of the same king which I had lately acquired. 
On some of them I found a sloping stroke in the first letter 
of the name, which seemed to agree with the first letter on 
the two tetradrachms, Nos. 3 and 4 of the accompanying 
Plate. I then read the names as NIAOYC, or MIAOYC, 
and also on some of the oboli as NIAIOY, or MIAIOYC. 
On looking over the recorded names of Indo-Scythian 
kings, it struck me that the Greek name might possibly be 
a variant form of the Chinese name of Ym-mo-fu. Except 
for this possibility I cannot say that my present reading 
of Miaiis is preferable to my early reading of Heraiis. 
For the solution of the doubt we must await the discovery 
of a second specimen of the bilingual copper coinage, as 
the native rendering of the two names in Arian characters 
would be very different. Heraus would most probably 
be ^A~lt> Herayasa, while Miaiis would be ?A7Y, Mia- 
yasa. 

But whether the name of the king be Heraus or Miaiis, 
it is certain that he belonged to the KOPCANO, or 
Kushan tribe, and consequently that he could not have 
been a Saka. I will now try to make this clear. For 
many centuries before the arrival of the Yuechi horde in 
Bactriana, the provinces on the Jaxartes and Oxus had 
been occupied by the Sakas, or Sacae, where they succes- 
sively opposed the armies of Cyrus, Darius, and Alex- 
ander. Their language, as shown by their names as well 
as by the Scythian version of the cuneiform inscriptions 
of Darius, has little in common with that of the Kushans 
who formed one of the five tribes of the Yuechi a great 



54 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Turkish horde. Darius records the suppression of the 
rebel Sarukha, a leader of the Sakas. Herodotus describes 
the Scythians in the army of Xerxes as Amurgian Scyths 
who carried the battle-axe called Sagaris. They were 
therefore the same people whom Darius calls Saka-Hu- 
mavarga. There can be little doubt therefore that they 
were the same as the Sagaraitkee, who also carried the 
Sagaris, from which they must have derived their name. 
I have long ago identified the Sagaraukce with the Sar- 
duchce of Trogus by reading A for A, and eliding the g. 
The words of Trogus are very important : 10 " Scythicae res 
additsc, reges Thocarorum Asiani, interitusque Sardu- 
charura." Now the Thocari are the Yuechi, who were 
called Tushdras, or Tukharas, by the Indians, and Tu-ho-lo 
by the Chinese ; and the Asiani must be the Kmh&W, or 
Gushans, whose chief conquered the other four tribes, and 
took the title of " King of the Kushans." The Sarduchao 
are the Sai, or Sakas, who were driven out by the Kushans. 
Now this title of " King of the Kushans " is found on all 
the coins of Kujula Kadphizes, the Yuechi chief who con- 
quered Hermaeus, the last of the Greek kings of India. 

That the Yuechi were a different race from the Sakas 
is shown by their history as related by the Chinese 
annalists. In the beginning of the second century B.C. 
they were driven by the Hiungnu from their home in the 
province of Shensi, near the Great "Wall of China. They 
retired to the west, and, being again defeated and their 
king killed by the Hiungnu, they migrated still farther to 
the west, arid settled in the country along the Jaxartes in 
B.C. 163. In a short time they spread over the whole of 
the provinces on both banks of the Oxus, from which, 

10 Jasfcini, Pro!., chap. xlii. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIAN KING MIAUS OR HERAUS. 55 

about 130 to 126 B.C., they expelled the Ta-Hia, or Bac- 
trian Greeks, and the Sai, or Sakas. One hundred years 
later the chief of the Kuei-shwang, or Kushan tribe, hav- 
ing subdued the other four tribes, united the whole horde 
of the Yuechi, and took the title of " King of the Ku- 
shan s," after which he conquered the Kabul Valley, where 
he came into contact with the Greek king Hermaous. 

JSTow this title of " King of the Kushans " is the same 
that was borne by Kanishka, who is styled in Court's 
Manikyala inscription " Samvardhaka Gushana vansa," or 
" the aggrandizer of the Kushan race." In the Sanskrit 
history of Kashmir he is called a Turushka, or Turk. 
Hwen Thsang calls him a Tu/iolo, or Tukhara, while 
Biruni and other early Muhamedan writers call him a 
Turk, to which Biruni adds that his ancestor, the founder 
of the family, was Barhatigin. As Tigin is a Turki word, 
this statement furnishes another proof of the Turki origin 
of the Kushans. 

Hwen Thsang says that the language of Folishisatangua, 
or Kabul, was different from that of Tsau-ku-ta, or Kipin. 11 
Again, in speaking of Tsau-ku-ta^ or Kipin itself, he says 
that the writing and language were different from that of 
other countries. 12 But if the Kushans were Sakas, the 
language of the Kushans of Kabul and of the Sakas of 
Kipin (Sakastene) would have been the same. The 
KusMns are, in fact, separately distinguished from the 
Sakas in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudra 
Gupta under the well-known title of Daivaputra Shtihi, 
which was used by Kanishka and his successors in all 
their inscriptions. 

Beal, ii. p. 285 ; Julien, ii. p. 190. 
12 Beal, ii. p. 284 ; Julien, iii. p. 188. 



56 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

In the face of all these facts I do not see how it is pos- 
sible to maintain the identity of the Sakas and the 
Kushans. Even if the word which I read as ZANA 
should hereafter be found to be actually ZAKA, as read 
by Mr. Gardner and Dr. Oldenberg, I should object to 
these two distinct peoples being rolled into one tribe of 
Saka-Kmhdns. My explanation would rather be that Heraus, 
or M-iauSj was the king of both peoples of the Kushans 
by inheritance, and of the Sakas by conquest. 

I will now describe the different coins of this king 
which I have given in Plate III. 

TETRADRACHMS. 

Obv. Bare head of king, diademed, to right, with long hair 
and moustaches, surrounded by border of fillets. 

Eev. King on horseback, to right, left hand holding bridle, 
right hand resting on bow-case attached to saddle. 
Victory flying behind with wreath in outstretched 
hand to crown the king. Legend in corrupt Greek 
characters in one half-circle above, and two straight 
lines below. 

No. l.-TY/ANNOYNTOZ HIAOY ZAMAB 
. . . IANOY. 

2.-TY/ANNOYNTOZ HIAOY ZAHAB 
KO((ANOY. 

3.-TY/ ANNOYNTOZ MIAOY Z . I . N . I . OB 
HNY^NOY. 

4. TY/ANNOTOYOZ HAOY ZAHAB 
n nAHOY. 

5.-TV/ANNOYOYNZ OAO //, ZANABIV 
"I/I AHOY. 

6.-TV/ANNOYN EOA BY 

YnilANOY. 

The British Museum specimen agrees very closely with 
Nos. 1 and 2, but the coin of M. Tiesenhausen, quoted by 
Mr. Gardner, appears to be more like lS T o. 4. My No. 6 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIAN KING MIAUS OR HERAUS. 57 

is an ancient forgery thickly plated. The other five coins 
average 226 grains, the heaviest, No. 4, being 240 grains. 

OBOLI. 

The small silver coins preserve very successfully the 
portrait of the king as shown on the tetradrachms. The 
weight varies from 8 to 9, 9i, 10i, and 11 grains. Mr. 
Thomas 13 notices one of these oboli in the possession of 
General Pearse, but he seems to have looked upon it as 
belonging to the barbarous imitations of the oboli of 
Eukratides, as he describes it as " an example of an excep- 
tionally common class of silver coins," whereas General 
Pearse's and Masson's specimens are the only coins that 
I know of in addition to my own. 

Obv. Bare head of king to right, as on the tetradrachm, in a 
dotted circle. 

Rev. Male figure, standing to right, with both hands raised. 
Greek legend in two perpendicular lines. 

No. 7. % I AIOY. KOPC ANOY. 

8. -IIAIOY. iCOPCANou. 

9. WIAIOY. KOFCANOY. 

10. /MlAOYC. . OMAvou. 

11. MIAOY KOrCANOY 

12.-IAIIAOYL -OPCA. 

COPPER CHALKOUS. 
13. Obv. King's head to right, with Arian legend illegible. 

Rev. King on horseback to right, with Victory flying 
behind, as on the tetradrachms. Greek legend im- 
perfect. 

I can read TYPAN to left, and KOIC below, but I 
do not see any trace of letters between the horse's feet- 

13 Bactrian Coins and Indian Dates. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. I 



58 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Some day, perhaps, a lucky find will give us the king's 
name in Arian characters. The legend on the right looks 
as if it was Maharayasa. 

With respect to the letter B at the end of the word 
ZANAB, Mr. Thomas has a curious note in which, by 
some legerdemain, he makes it an undeveloped form of a 
well-known monogram B. This he takes for Drangia; 
but unfortunately in the Greek spelling of the name 
APAPflA there is no N, while there are two gammas, of 
which there is no trace in the monogram. 

A. CUNNINGHAM. 



IV. 

(Continued from Vol. VII., page 272.) 
ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 

JOHN BELL, NATURALIST AND ANTIQUARY, 17361770. 
DEATH, 1770. 

Obv. Shield of Bell, ermines, on a chief sa., an escallop 
shell between two bells ar., on either side beetle 
and spider ; above, ANNO XXVII ; below, 
NAT. MDCCXXXVI DENAT MDCCLXX. 
Leg. IOANNI BELL NATVRJE ET ANTI- 
QVITATIS INDAGATORI * 

Rev. Pedestal ornamented with two ancient bronze celts 
and raised on three steps, inscribed SEDULO, 
FELICI, PROBO ; on either side of monument, 
coins and shells. Leg. LABIA SCIENTLE 
VAS PRETIOSVM. 

1-35. MB. &. PL IV. 1. 

This medal is by John Kirk, but I have been unable to 
find any particulars about John Bell, whom it com- 
memorates. The inscription on the reverse is from Prov. 
xx. 15. 

JOHN BELLINGHAM, 1771 1812. 

ASSASSINATION OF THE RT. HON. SPENCER PERCEVAL, 1812. 

Obv. Bust of Bellingham to left wearing frock-coat, &c. 
Leg. JOHN BELLINGHAM EXECUTED 
MAY 18. 1812. AGED 42. YEARS. 

Rev. In the field, ASSASSINATED THE RIGHT 
HONOURABLE SPEN : PERCEVAL MAY 11. 
1812. Around, garter inscribed THOU SHALT 
DO NO MURDER. 

1-55. MB. ST. PL IV. 2. 



60 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

John Bellingham, who assassinated the Right Hon. 
Spencer Perceval on the llth May, 1812, was a native of 
St. Neots, in Huntingdonshire, and was born about 1771. 
His 'father having removed to London in 1775, the son 
was apprenticed to a jeweller, and afterwards set up in 
Oxford Street as a tin-plate worker. Having become 
bankrupt, he entered a merchant's counting-house, and 
went to Archangel and commenced business as a timber 
merchant with a certain Mr. Borbecker. Bellingham, 
having returned to Hull, was thrown into prison on 
account of the failure of his partner, and when released 
went back to Archangel, where he was seized by the 
Russian authorities for debt and again imprisoned. On 
his release he repaired to England full of complaints 
against the Russian Government, and continued from 
time to time to present memorials to the British Govern- 
ment on the subject of his claims. Exasperated with 
the failure of these memorials, Bellingham went to the 
House of Commons on the llth May and shot Mr. Per- 
ceval as he was entering the lobby. For this crime 
Bellingham was hanged seven days afterwards. 

GIOVANNI BATTISTA BELZONI, 1778 1823. 
OPENING OF THE PYKAMID OF CEPHRENES, 1818. 

1. Obv. Bust of Belzoni to left; below, T. i. WELLS., F. 
THOMASON & JONES . DiBEx. Leg. GIOVANNI 
BELZONI. 

Rev. View of the pyramid ; above, OPENED BY G. 

BELZONI; below, MARCH 2 ND 1818. 
2-1. MB. m. PI. IV. 3. 

Giovanni Battista Belzoni, actor, engineer, and traveller, 
was born at Padua in 1778, came to England in 1803, 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 61 

and, being a man of great height and muscular power, 
gained a living in London by performing feats of strength. 
Having studied hydraulics at Rome he invented some 
improvements in water-engines, which he exhibited in 
various parts of England. In 1815 he was in Egypt, and 
was employed to remove the colossal granite bust of 
Rameses II. for transport to England. Encouraged by 
the success of this undertaking, and endowed with great 
instinct for discovery, Belzoni spent the next four years in 
excavating various sites throughout Egypt, Nubia, and 
Libya. He uncovered the site of the great temple of 
Rameses II. at Abu-Simbel ; opened the grotto sepulchre 
of Seti I. in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings, in the 
Libyan mountains, from which he procured the beautiful 
alabaster sarcophagus now in the Soane Museum, in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields ; discovered the opening to the 
pyramid of Cephrenes, or, as it is generally called, the 
second pyramid of Gizon, and identified the ruins of the 
city of Berenice, on the eastern gulf of the Red Sea. 
In 1819 Belzoni returned to Europe and published a 
narrative of his operations and discoveries. In 1822 he 
set out again on a voyage of exploration to Timbuctoo, 
in the hope of tracing the source of the Niger. He 
started on his journey from Cape Coast, but on arriving 
at Gato, in Benin, he was attacked by dysentery and 
died there, 3rd December, 1823. 

The above medal refers to the discovery of the passage 
leading to the centre of the pyramid of Cephrenes on the 
2nd March, 1818. After many days' labour in search of 
the opening Belzoni came upon three blocks of granite in 
an inclined direction towards the centre. Having cleared 
the front of the three stones the entrance proved to be a 
passage 4 feet high, 3 feet 6 inches wide, formed of large 



62 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

blocks of granite, which descended towards the centre for 
104 feet 5 inches, at an angle of twenty-six degrees. 
Nearly all this passage was filled up with large stones. 
At the end of the passage his way was barred by a port- 
cullis, which, having been raised with great difficulty, 
disclosed beyond further passages, which finally led to the 
central chamber, in which lay the sarcophagus, not of the 
great King Rameses II., as Belzoni thought, but of the 
builder of the pyramid, King Khafra (Cephren). 



DISCOVERIES IN EGYPT, 1819. 

2. Obv. Two statues of Sekheh seated to left; below, 
L. MANFREDINI. Leg. OB . DONVM . PATRIA . 
GRATA A. MDCCC.XIX. 

Rev. Inscription, 10. BAPT. BELZONI PATAVINO 
QVI . CEPHRENIS . PYRAMIDEM APIDISQ . 
THEB. SEPVLCRVM PRIMVS . APERVIT 
ET . VRBEM . BERENICIS NVBIAE . ET . 
LIBYAE . MON IMPAVIDE . DETEXIT. 

2-1. MB. jr. PI. IV. SA. 

When Belzoni revisited his native city of Padua in 
1819 the inhabitants caused the above gold medal to be 
struck. It commemorates his presentation of various 
statues and objects of antiquity from Egypt to Padua, and 
also his principal discoveries during 1817 1818. The 
explorations on the site of the pyramid of Cephrenes were 
conducted in 1817 and 1818, the sepulchre of Seti I. was 
found in 1817, and the site of the city of Berenice in 
October, 1818. This medal has a ring for suspension, and 
was the one presented to Belzoni himself. It was subse- 
quently given by a descendant of Belzoni to the National 
Collection. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 63 

JEREMY BENTHAM, 17481832. 
DEATH, 1832. 

Obv. Head of Bentham to right. Leg. JEREMY BEN- 
THAM ESQ. M.A. HALLIDAY F. 

Rev. Within wreath formed of one palm-branch, DIED 

JUNE 6 1832 AGED 85. 
1-25. MB. m. PL IV. 4. 

Jeremy Bentham, the eminent writer on ethics and 
jurisprudence, born in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch, 
15th February, 1748, was educated at Westminster School 
and at Queen's College, Oxford, where he took his Master's 
degree at the early age of eighteen. On graduating, his 
father, who had conceived the most ambitious hopes as to 
his future, set him to study law at Lincoln's Inn, where 
he was called to the bar in 1772. Though Bentham had 
a great love for legal studies he disliked the profession of 
a barrister, and refused to practise, but turned his atten- 
tion to the theory of the law, and became the greatest 
critic of legislation and government of his time. On both 
these subjects he produced many learned works. In 1792, 
on the death of his father, Bentham came into possession 
of a handsome inheritance, and settled in Queen Square 
Place, Westminster, once Milton's house, where he passed 
the life of a recluse, scarcely ever allowing any one to visit 
him. He died there on the 6th June, 1832. Bentham 
was a man of very nervous temperament, and conceived a 
horror of society. In his appearance he made a curious 
picture ; his hair white, long, and flowing, his neck bare, 
wearing a Quaker-like hat and coat, list shoes, and white 
worsted stockings, drawn over his breeches above the 
knees. His peculiar expression of countenance is well 
depicted by the above small medal. 



64 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, 18021848. 

DEATH, 1848. 

Obv. Head of Lord Bentinck to left. Leg. LORD 
GEORGE BENTINCK BORN 1802 DIED 

1848. B. WYON SO. 

Rev. Inscription : BRAVE EARNEST GENEROUS 
UNSELFISH TRUE HE WON THE 
CONFIDENCE & RIVETED THE ATTACH- 
MENT OF A GREAT PARTY WHICH HIS 
PATRIOTISM HAD INSPIRED WITH COU- 
RAGE & HIS SELF DEVOTION HAD ANI- 
MATED WITH ZEAL. 

2. MB. ^E. PI. IV. 5. 



Lord William George Frederick Cavendish Bentinck, 
commonly called Lord George Bentinck, was the third 
son of the fourth Duke of Portland ; born 27th February, 
1802; entered the army when young, and eventually 
attained the rank of major. Elected in 1826 M.P. for 
Lynn-Regis, he sat for that borough till his death. At 
first attached to no party, Lord George voted for Catholic 
emancipation and for the principles of the Reform Bill. 
He subsequently joined the Conservative party, which 
acknowledged Sir Robert Peel as its leader ; but when 
Peel introduced his free trade measures in 1845 Lord 
George placed himself at the head of the Protection party, 
in which character he appears on the above medal. He 
was a man of handsome countenance and of a fine physique, 
and was deeply interested in all kinds of sport, especially 
the race-course, at all times showing the utmost zeal to 
suppress the dishonest practices of the turf. He died 
suddenly on the 21st September, 1848, whilst walking in 
the park at Welbeck Abbey. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM .1760. 65 

WILLIAM CARR, LORD BERESFORD, 1768 1854. 
BATTLE OF ALBUEKA, 1811. 

Obv. Bust of Lord Beresford to right in military dress 
and wearing the chain and badge of the Spanish 
military order of St. Hermenegild ; below, MUDIE . 
DIB. WEBB . P. Leg. MARSHAL GEN. LORD 
BERESFORD. 

Eev. A Polish Lancer attacking with his spear a High- 
lander, who defends himself with his sword ; 
beneath horse's feet a prostrate figure, dead ; 
in the field, MUDIE. D. BENNET . F. In the 
exergue, BATTLE OF ALBUERA XVI. MAY 
MDCCCXI. 

1-55. MB. M. ST. Mudie's Medals, No. XVIII. 

William Carr, Lord Beresford, afterwards Viscount, the 
natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford, was born 
2nd October, 1768, and entered the army in 1785. After 
serving in various parts of the world he attained the rank 
of brigadier-general in 1806, and was present at the battle 
of Corunna in 1808. In 1809 lie took the command of the 
army in Portugal, and, joining his forces with those of 
Wellington, acted with great valour at the battle of 
Busaco in 1810, for which service he was created a 
Knighfc of the Bath. In 1811 he commanded at the 
battle of Albuera, and for this victory received the thanks 
of Parliament. He was present at Badajoz, Salamanca, 
and at the various battles of the Pyrenees, and subse- 
quently distinguished himself at Toulouse. In August, 
1814, he was created a baron, and in 1823 Viscount 
Beresford. In the Wellington administration, from 1828 
to 1830, he was Master General of the Ordnance. He 
bore several foreign titles, and was a knight of various 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. K 



66 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

foreign orders. He died 8th January, 1854, when the 
title became extinct. 

The reverse of the medal refers to an incident in the 
battle of Albuera, which nearly lost the day to the allies. 
The Polish Lancers, taking advantage of a thick mist, 
attacked the right flank of the allies in the rear, when in 
the act of charging the enemy, and threw it into utter 
confusion, taking many prisoners. The day now seemed 
lost, but by a rapid advance on the part of General Stewart 
and General Cole the enemy were driven back and the 
victory secured. In the onset the Polish Lancers did 
dreadful execution. They galloped about in all directions, 
spearing many of the wounded men and their defenceless 
supporters. The destruction of life is represented by the 
prostrate figure. 

COUNT BARTOLEMO BERGAMI. 
TRIAL OF QUEEN CAROLINE, 1820. 

1. Obv. Bust of Bergami facing, bare, head to right. Leg. 
COUNT B. BERGAMI. 

Rev. Bust of Queen Caroline to left, laureate, her hair 
bound with pearls ; she wears low dress edged 
with lace and ermine mantle ; around her neck, 
string of pearls, to which is attached a medallion 
of George IV. Below x (C. H. Kiichler). Leg. 
CAROLINE D : G . BRITT : REGINA. 

1-6. MB. M. PL IV. 6. 

Count Bartolemo Bergami, with whom Queen Caroline, 
wife of George IV., was accused of having committed 
adultery, entered her service as courier in 1814, during 
her visit to Italy in that year. Bergami is said to have 
been of an old family, and to have served in the Italian 
campaigns of 18121814. He soon rose in favour with 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 67 

the Queen, who advanced him. to the rank of an equerry, 
and then to that of chamberlain. She also procured for 
him a barony in Sicily, the knighthood of Malta, and 
decorated him with several orders of knighthood. Ber- 
gami's constant attendance on the Queen, added to the 
number of favours which he received at her hands, caused 
the circulation in Italy of many reports much to the 
Queen's disadvantage, and formed the grounds for a bill 
of divorce, brought by George IY. in 1820, which was, 
however, abandoned at the third reading. Bergami 
remained in the Queen's service till 1820, when he 
returned to Italy, and died at his villa of Fossombrone, 
near the town of San Marino, 23rd March, 1841, his death 
being caused by a fall from his horse. 

TRIAL OF QUEEN CAROLINE, 1820. 

2. Qbv. Bust of Bergami facing, bare, &c., as on previous 
medal. 

R ev , Within wreath of laurel, united below by orna- 
mented shield, COURIER TO HER MA- 
JESTY. 1820. 

1-6. MB. ST. 

WILLIAM HENRY WEST BETTY, ACTOR, 17911874. 
His APPEARANCE IN LONDON, 1804. 

1. Qbv. Bust of Betty to right, wearing open shirt with frill, 
coat, and cloak ; below, i. WESTWOOD p. 
Leg. WILLIAM HENRY WEST BETTY. 

Eev. Oak- wreath, within which BRITISH TRAGEDIAN 
AGED XIH. YEARS . MDCCCIV. 

1-95. MB. ST. 

William Henry West Betty, actor, better known as the 
young Roscius, was born 13th September, 1791, at St. 



68 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Chad's, Shrewsbury. At an early age having shown signs 
of possessing a very retentive memory, he was encouraged 
by his father to practise declamation. In 1801 he was so 
taken with Mrs. Siddons's acting as Elvira at Belfast that 
he determined to become an actor. Two years later, in 
1803, then only twelve years old, he appeared at Belfast 
in the character of Osman in the tragedy of Zara, a version 
of Voltaire's Zaire. His first appearance was a complete 
success, and he continued to take various parts in various 
plays, acting in Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Glasgow, and 
Edinburgh. In 1804 Betty came to London and played 
at the Covent Garden and Drury Lane theatres as Selim 
in Barbarossa, Hamlet, and other characters. His repu- 
tation as a youthful actor attracted the whole of London, 
and on one occasion Mr. Pitt adjourned the House of 
Commons in order that members should be in time to 
witness his representation of Hamlet. His last appearance 
as a boy-actor was in March, 1808, at Bath. After that 
time he retired into private life and studied under Mr. 
Wollaston, one of the masters of Charterhouse, and 
afterwards proceeded to Christ's College, Cambridge. 
On his father's death in 1811 Betty again took to the 
stage and acted till his thirty-third year, his farewell 
benefit taking place at Southampton in August, 1824. 
He lived for fifty years in the enjoyment of the large 
fortune amassed in his early days, and died 24th August, 
1874, at his residence in Ampthill Square, London. This 
and the following medals all refer to Betty's first appear- 
ance in London. 



2. Obv. Bust of Betty to right, similar to. the preceding; 
below, i. WESTWOOD. Leg. WILLIAM HENRY 
WEST BETTY. 






ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 69 

Eev. Within oak-wreath, BRITISH TRAGEDIAN 
AGED 13 YEARS A . D 1804. 

1-75. MB. ST. 

3. Qi) Vt Bust of Betty to right, bare, except for mantle 

thrown over his shoulders : hair very curly : on 
truncation, WESTWOOD . F. Ley. WILL M HENRY 
WEST BETTY BORN 13 SEPT E 1791. 

Rev. Above and within oak-wreath, BRITISH TRAGE- 
DIAN WITH FEELING AND PROPRIETY 
HE ASTONISHES THE JUDICIOUS OB- 
SERVERS OF HUMAN NATURE 1804. 

1-75. MB. M. ST. 

4. Qi Vt Bust of Betty to right, &c., similar to the preceding, 

but on truncation, KETTEK. 

U eVm Above, and within oak-wreath, BRITISH TRA- 
GEDIAN HE ASTONISHES THE JUDICI- 
OUS OBSERVERS OF HUMAN NATURE, 
1804. 

95. MB. M. 

This is a medalet copied from the preceding one, and 
probably made for sale in the streets. 

5. Obv. Bust of Betty to right, wearing open shirt with frill 

and coat. Leg. THE YOUNG ROSCIUS. 

T. WEBB. F. 

Rev. Theatrical emblems, lyre, cup, sword, scroll, &c., 
encircled by wreath : above, on scroll, BORN 
SEPT R 13 1791. Leg. NOT YET MATURE 
YET MATCHLESS . MDCCCIV. 

1-65. MB. M. ST. PL IV. 7. 

6. Obv. Bust of Betty to right, wearing shirt with frill and 

cloak fastened with brooch in front : below, w. F. 
(T. Webb fecit). Leg. THE YOUNG ROSCIUS. 

Rev. Theatrical emblems, lyre, "cup, sword, &c., as on the 
previous medal. 

1-65. MB. M. 



70 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

JOSEPH BIRCH. 

THE NOTTINGHAM ELECTION BILL, 1803. 

Obv. Arms of Nottingham, gu. two staves, ragulee couped, 

one in pale, surmounted by the other in fess, 
vert ; between two ducal coronets in chief, or ; 
the bottom part of the staff in pale, enfiled with 
a ducal coronet of the last ; above, BIRCH ; 
below, CIVIL & RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. 

J^t;. Within oak-wreath, FOX. Leg. DEFENDER OF 
OUR CHARTER * MDCCCIII *. 

1-45. MB. M. 

In July, 1802, consequent on a dissolution of Parlia- 
ment, an election was held at Nottingham, and Sir 
J. B. Warren and Mr. Joseph Birch, of the Hazles, near 
Liverpool, were returned ; Mr. Daniel P. Coke, one of the 
former sitting members, being defeated. On account of 
certain irregular proceedings connected with the election, 
a petition was presented against the return of Mr. Birch, 
and the election was declared invalid. A second election 
was in consequence held in May, 1803, and on that occa- 
sion Mr. Birch was defeated and Mr. Coke was successful. 
In the meantime the two political parties at Nottingham 
(the yellows and the blues) had been carrying on a sharp 
struggle in connection with a bill before Parliament for 
extending the jurisdiction of the justices of the peace for 
the county of Nottingham into the town of Nottingham. 
The proposal arose out of the very serious riots which 
had taken place during the election of 1802. The bill 
was strongly opposed by Mr. Birch and his friends, the 
yellows, as an infringement of the charter and the civil 
rights of the Corporation. When the bill was discussed 
in the House of Commons on the 29th April, the Right 
Hon. C. J. Fox most vehemently opposed it in an able 






ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 71 

speech in which he defended the conduct of the local 
magistrates, and met the inuendoes thrown out against 
them, and also characterized the bill as a bill of pains and 
penalties upon the magistrates, and a disfranchisement of 
the people of Nottingham. In spite of Fox's eloquence 
the bill passed, and was read a third time on the 3rd May, 
1803. 



SAMUEL BIRCH, LORD MAYOR OF LONDON, 1815. 
OPPOSITION TO THE COKN BILL, 1815. 

Obv. Bust of Birch to right, wearing frock-coat, shirt 
with frill, and hair en queue. On truncation, w 
(T. Webb). Leg. THE RT. HON. THE LORD 
MAYOR OF LONDON. 

Rev. Wheatsheaf, from which proceed rays. Leg. A 
FREE IMPORT ATION+ PEACE & PLENTY+. 

1-55. MB. ST. PI. IV. 8. 

Samuel Birch, dramatist and pastrycook, born 8th 
November, 1757, at an early age was apprenticed to his 
father, who carried on the business of a pastrycook at 
15, Cornhill, was elected Alderman for the Candle wick 
Ward in 1807, one of the Sheriffs for London in 1811, 
and Lord Mayor in 1814. In politics he was a strenuous 
supporter of Pitt's administration, though he vigorously 
opposed the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. 
During his year of office as Lord Mayor he opposed the Corn 
Bill of 1815 ; and at a meeting of the livery of the City of 
London, 23rd February, he made a bold attack upon the 
intended prohibition of the free importation of foreign 
corn. The course which he took on this occasion is com- 
memorated by the above medal. In 1836 Birch retired 



72 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

from business, and died 10th December, 1841. He was a 
man of considerable literary attainments, and wrote a 
number of poems and musical dramas, some of which 
were produced at the Drury Lane, Covent Garden, and 
Haymarket Theatres. 

MARSHAL BLUCHER, 17421819. 

PEACE OF PAEIS, 1814. 

1. Obv. Bust of Bliicher to left in military dress, and wear- 
ing various decorations : ribbon across his breast. 
Inner Leg. G. L. VON BLUCHER . PRINCE 
DE WAGSTADT. Outer Leg. THE HERO 
OF FREEDOM THE PRIDE OF OUR 
COUNTRY AND ORNAMENT OF HUMAN 
NATURE .;. 

Rev. A lion and a lamb lying side by side ; between them 
a cornucopia ; in the background, church ; in 
the foreground, wheatsheaf and book inscribed, 
PEACE 1814 : above, rays of light, from which 
descends a bird with laurel branch. Leg. WE 
PRAISE THEE, GOD, WE ACKNOW- 
LEDGE THEE TO BE THE LORD. 

1-G5. MB. JE. ST. 

Gebhard Leberecht von Bliicher, Prince of Wahlstadt, 
Field Marshal of Prussia, born at Rostock, in Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin, 16th December, 1742 ; served during the 
Seven Years' War in a regiment of Swedish hussars, but 
being taken prisoner by the Prussians, he soon afterwards 
exchanged into the Prussian army. He served through- 
out the French campaign, first as a colonel, and after- 
wards as commander-in-chief of the Prussian army, and 
was present at the battles of Auerstadt, Lutzen, Bautzen, 
Haynau, and Leipzig. On the 1st Jan., 1814, he crossed 
the Ehine and determined to press forward for Paris, 






ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 73 

and in spite of a severe check which he received from 
Napoleon, which compelled him to retire for a time to 
Chalons, he defeated the latter at Laon, and entered the 
French capital with the allied armies on the 31st March. 
This campaign was closed by the Peace of Paris ; and for 
his distinguished services Bliicher was created Prince of 
Wahlstadt. After Napoleon's return from Elba in 1815, 
Bliicher again resumed the chief command of the Prussian 
army, but was defeated by Napoleon at Ligny. He, 
however, soon recovered his ground, and arrived on the 
field of Waterloo in time to complete the defeat of the 
French army, which he pursued to Paris, and entered 
that city with the Allies for the second time on the 
7th July. This campaign terminated Bliicher's brilliant 
military career, and he died 12th September, 1819. The 
medals of Bliicher described were all struck in England, 
and therefore form a part of the National series ; those 
struck in Germany are not given. 

The above medal refers to the state of affairs brought 
about by the Peace of Paris, which, however, was destined 
to be of short duration. It is the work of John West- 
wood, who made similar medals of George (IV.)> Prince 
of Wales, Wellington, Frederick William III. of Prussia, 
Alexander, Emperor of Russia, &c. 



PEACE OF PARIS, 1814. 

2. Qbv. Busts jugate to right of the Emperor of Russia, 
the King of Prussia, the Duke of Wellington, and 
Marshal Blucher : above, a scroll. NON NOBIS 
SED MUNDO NATI; below, MDCCCXIV. 
Ley EMP:OF RUSSIA. KING OF PRUSSIA. 
DUKE OF WELLINGTON & MARSHAL 
BLUCHER. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. L 



74 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

R eVt Britannia seated on rock in sea, rests her right 
hand on shield bearing the royal arms of England, 
and her left on rudder: at her feet, a child 
holding book, inscribed XIX within serpent and 
PEACE TO EURO MAY 30 1814 : below, on 
rock, K & s (Kettle & Sons). Leg. NULLA 
DIES PACEM NEC FCEDERA RUMPET. 

1-9. MB. ST. 



The Emperor Alexander of Russia and Frederick Wil- 
liam III. of Prussia were present with the allied armies 
when they entered Paris on the 31st March, 1814. Wel- 
lington did not arrive till some weeks afterwards, as the 
defeat of Marshal Soult at Toulouse occurred on the 
10th April, or nearly a fortnight after the fall of Paris. 

PEACE OP PARIS, 1814. 

3. Obv. Busts jugate to right of the Emperor of Russia, 
the King of Prussia, Wellington, and Bliicher. 
Leg. EMP R RUSS A KING PRUSS A WEL- 
LINGTON BLUCHER : 

Rev. Within oak-wreath, PEACE OF 1814; above, 

rays ; around, BE THANKFUL REJOICE. 
95. MB. ST. 

The obverse of this medal is copied from the preceding; 
it is a cheap memorial of the Peace of Paris. There is a 
variety (MB. ST.) without the rays above the wreath on 
the reverse. 



PEACE OF PARIS, 1814. 

4. 0&i<.-Bust of Bliicher to left in military dress, wearing 
ribbon across his breast and cross Lea F 
MAR . G . L . VON BLUCHER. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 75 

Eev. Inscription, THE LIBERTIES OF EUROPE 
REST D . BY THE UNITED EFFORTS OF 
ENGLAND AND HER AUGUST ALLIES. 
THE PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE SIGNED 
MAY 30 1814. 

95. MB. Brass. 
A medalet of the same character as the preceding one. 

RELIEF OF THE HANSEATIC TOWNS, DEPASTURE OF NAPOLEON 
FOR ELBA, ETC., 1814. 

5. Obv. Bliicher in military dress and holding his marshal's 
staff in his right hand, on horseback, to left, and 
trampling on Davoust, who lies extended on his 
back, his broken staff at his side. In the distance, 
before the horse, is a view of the Hanseatic towns, 
with people praying, and behind, Napoleon taking 
his departure for the Island of Elba : above, on 
scroll, BLUCHER . THE FALL OF HAM- 
BURGH'S TYRANT, DAVOUST. ELBA'S 
EMPEROR. Around edge, STRUCK BY J. 
PARISH . IN HONOUR OF HIS OLD 
FRIEND BLUCHER. In the exergue, HALLIDAY, 

FECIT. 

Rev. Within oval medallion ornamented with scrolls and 
palm and laurel branches, bust of Wellington 
facing, in military dress and wearing ribbon and 
star of the Garter : above, angel and crown, from 
which proceed rays : below, on mantle 
SUCH WELLINGTON ART THOU, TRIUM- 
PHANT FAME 
SHALL THRO THE WORLD IMMORTALIZE 

THY NAME. 
T. H. F. (Thomas Halliday fecit.) 

2-9. MB. M. M. 

After the battle of Leipzig all the French garrisons in 
the Prussian towns were compelled to surrender ; and 
amongst these were the Hanseatic Cities, over which 
Napoleon had placed Marshal Davoust, one of his most 
able generals. Davoust is said to have treated the inhabi- 



76 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

tants of these cities, especially those of Hamburg, where 
he resided, with great harshness. Napoleon abdicated on 
the 4th April, 1814, and was allowed to retain the title 
of emperor with the sovereignty of the island of Elba, to 
which he retired on board a British vessel. Hence on 
the medal he is called " Elba's Emperor." 

SUCCESSES OF 1814. 

G. Oit'. Head of Bliicher to left : below, M. (John Milton.) 
Leg. MARSHAL VON BLUCHER. 

Rev. Inscription, THE GLORY OF PRUSSIA AND 
THE DREAD OF HER FOES. 

1-3. MB. JE. 

Bliicher, by his military tactics, had made himself a 
terror to the French, especially during the campaigns of 
1813 and 1814. The chief feature of his generalship 
was to attack the enemy impetuously, then to retreat 
when the resistance offered was too great for his troops to 
overcome. The mode of his attacks gained for him the 
nickname of " Marshal Forward " from the Russians; but 
by Napoleon, who knew the effect of them only too 
well, he was called u le vieux diable." 

BATTLE OF WATEELOO, 18 JUNE, 1815. 

7. Obv. Bust of Bliicher to left, bare : on shoulder, HALLI- 
DAY. F. Leg. G. L. VON BLUCHER PRINCE 
OF WAGSTADT (sic). 

Rev. Bust of Wellington to left, in military dress, wear- 
ing ribbon across his breast, and various orders. 
Inner leg. DUKE OF WELLINGTON. Outer 
leg. TO COMMEMORATE THE GLORIOUS 
AND EVER MEMORABLE VICTORY OF 
WATERLOO . JUNE 18 . 1815 :: . 

2-1. MB. JE. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 77 

A very great share of the credit of the victory is due to 
Bliicher. Though driven back by Napoleon two days 
previously he was not discouraged ; and his timely arrival 
at Waterloo perhaps did more to complete the victory 
than if he had been present at the commencement of the 
battle. 

BATTLE OF WATERLOO, 18 JUNE, 1815. 

8. Obv. Within laurel wreath heads of Bliicher arid Wel- 

lington facing each other : above, BLUCHER 
WELLINGTON : below, outside wreath, LOOS. 

Rev. Inscription, DER SIEGGEWOHNTEN HELDEN 
HERRLICHSTER SIEG VON GOTT GEGE- 
BEN ZUM UNVERWELKLICHEN LOB- 

BEERKRANZ VERNICHTUNG DES 

MEINEIDIGEN FEINDES NACH VIER- 
T^GIGER SCHLACHT BEI LA BELLE 
ALLIANCE D. 18 JUNI 1815. 

1-45. MB. Al. 

The four days' fighting refers to the repulse of Bliicher 
by Napoleon at Ligny on the 16th June, and the fruit- 
less attack by Marshal Ney on the Belgians and Welling- 
ton on the same day at Quatre Bras, and to skirmishing 
which preceded and followed the engagement at Waterloo 
on the 17th June. The battle of Waterloo is called by 
the Germans, " The battle of La Belle Alliance." 

THE ALLIES ENTER PARIS, 7 JULY, 1815. 

9. Obv. Heads of Bliicher and Wellington, with wreath as 

in previous medal. 

Rev. Inscription, DER ENTSCHEIDENDEN HEL- 
DEN-SCHLACHT GLORREICHE VOLLEN- 

DUNG EINZUG DER PREUSSICHEN 

UND ENGLISCHEN SIEGER IN PARIS 
D. 7 JULIUS 1815. 

1-45. MB. M. 



78 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

It is said that when the Allies occupied Paris for the 
second time, Bliicher manifested a strong desire to 
retaliate on that city the spoliation that other capitals 
had suffered at the hands of the French, but that he was 
held in check by the Duke of Wellington. 

THE ALLIES ENTER PARIS, 10 JULY, 1815. 

10. Obe. Bliicher and Wellington holding right hands over 
lighted altar : above, Victory crowning each with 
laurel-wreath. Leg. AUFS NEUE SIEGSTEN 
SIE ZU ALLER VOLCKER GLUCK. In the 
exergue, BLU : U : WELLIN JETTON. 

Rev. The Allies entering Paris. Leg. ZWEITER 
EINZUG DER ALLIERTEN MONAR : IN 
PARIS. In the exergue, DEN 10. JULY. 1815. 

1-8. MB. JR. 

This is a well-executed German medalet, after the 
style of Dutch jetons of the seventeenth century. The 
allied sovereigns who entered Paris on the 10th were the 
King of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, and the Emperor 
of Austria. 

LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN BoLTON, 17561837. 

ROYAL LIVERPOOL VOLUNTEERS DISBANDED, 1806. 

Obv. Ornamented shield with arms of Bolton : below, on 
scroll, ROYAL LIVERPOOL VOLUNTEERS. 

Rev. Below crown, LIEU T COLONEL BOLTON TO 
SERGEANT IEAGER FOR HIS FAITHFUL 
SERVICES AUGUST 25 1806. 

1-6. MB. M. 



In 1803 the inhabitants of Liverpool showed their 
loyalty and their promptitude to aid the Government in 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 79 

the defence of the ports of England, by forming them- 
selves into military associations for the protection of their 
own city. Amongst those who took an active part in 
the movement was John Bolton, who offered to raise and 
equip at his own expense a regiment of volunteers, to 
consist of six hundred men. This offer was accepted by 
the War Office, and the regiment was embodied and 
equipped in a very short period. Bolton was appointed 
colonel, and the regiment was commanded by thirty-seven 
commissioned and non-commissioned officers. It was 
estimated at the time that the cost of raising this troop 
was over 10,000. The regiment was reviewed by Prince 
William of Gloucester when he visited Liverpool in the 
same year. On the 25th August, 1806, in consequence 
of a new code of regulations for volunteer corps, the regi- 
ment was disbanded ; and on the occasion Colonel Bolton 
presented one of the above medals in silver to each of the 
non-commissioned officers, of whom three survived Bolton, 
and were present, wearing their medals, at his funeral in 
1837. 

There is a second specimen in the British Museum of 
the same type, but entirely engraved. 

J. BOLTON. 
WATERLOO ESTATE MEDAL, 1835, 

Obv. Within wreath formed of roses, shamrocks, and 
thistles, bust of Bolton to left : on neck, T. H. F. 
(Thomas Halliday fecit) : above, J. BOLTON, 
ESQ.: WATERLOO ESTATE . On band of 
wreath, 1835. 

Rev. Within laurel-wreath, A REWARD FOR GOOD 
BEHAVIOUR. 

2-1. MB. M. PI. IV. 9. 



80 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

I have been unable, after a long search, to find any 
particulars about the Waterloo Estate ; but I am disposed 
to identify the J. Bolton on this medal with the Colonel 
Bolton who issued the previous one. Bolton was a most 
liberal supporter of all scientific, industrial, and charitable 
institutions connected with Liverpool and its vicinity. 

CHARLES PHILIP DE BOSSET, DIED 1844. 
GOVERNOR OP CEPHALONIA, 1810 1813. 

1 Ql Vm Head of De Bosset to right: behind, monogram of 
K P (KAPOAOZ PIAIPPOZ): before, 
monogram of A B (AE BOZZET). Below, 
monogram of A B (Antoine Bovy). 

R ev . Within wreath of laurel and oak, KAPOAfl <f>l- 
AIPPH AE BOZZET APIZTfl HfE- 
MONI KAI KOZMHTOPI THZ 
NHZOY TAYTIZ (sic) H BOYAH 
KE<I>AAHNnN A.ftlT (The Council of 
Cephalonia dedicates this medal to Charles Philip 
De Bosset, the most able military and civil 
Governor of this island, in the year 1813.) 

1-05. MB. E. PI. IV. 10. 

Charles Philip de Bosset, a native of Switzerland, 
entered the service of the British army in August, 1796, 
and was actively employed in his own country until Sep- 
tember, 1798, in which month he was advanced to the 
rank of lieutenant. In 1799 he was engaged on special 
service on the Continent with the Swiss, Austrian, and 
.Russian armies, and was present at various actions ter- 
minating in the battle of Zurich in the same year. He 
was taken on board the Dolphin packet by a French 
privateer in June, 1800, after an action of two hours. 
He was promoted to a captaincy in October, 1803 ; and in 
1805 served in the expedition to Hanover, and afterwards 
in Zealand, being present at the siege and surrender of 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 81 

Copenhagen in 1807. He joined the expedition to 
Sweden under Sir John Moore ; and from there went to 
Portugal in 1808, where he received the rank of major. 
In 1810 he was engaged at the siege of St. Maura, in the 
Ionian Islands, and at the storming of the enemy's 
entreDchments before that place. When Colonel Lowe 
was appointed civil and military chief of Cephalonia, 
Santa Maura, Ithaca, and Zante, he nominated De Bosset 
his deputy in Cephalonia. De Bosset was a man of great 
abilities and firmness, and was animated by a love of the 
strictest justice. Colonel Lowe invested him with full 
powers, and punishments were often inflicted without 
trial on such officers as were guilty of bribery, corruption, 
or other crimes. With such freedom of action De Bosset 
endeavoured to maintain justice and good order, and he 
laboured hard to re-establish better government in Cepha- 
lonia, where he remained till 1813. The high opinion in 
which his actions were held is well attested by the above 
medal, which was struck in his honour by the local 
council of Cephalonia. He does not appear after this 
date to have been in active service again. In June, 1814, 
he was promoted to a lieutenant- colonelcy, and in 1815 
was created a Military Companion of the Bath, and in 
1831 a Knight of Hanover. In 1837 he was made a full 
colonel. He appears to have died in 1844, as his name 
is not to be found in the Army List after that date. De 
Bosset was the author of a treatise on the coins of Cepha- 
lonia and Ithaca, Proceedings in Perga and the Ionian 
Islands, &c. 

I have attributed this medal to Antoine Bovy, a Swiss 
artist, on account of the initials under the bust ; and this 
attribution is probably correct, as De Bosset was of the 
same nationality. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. M 



82 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

GOVERNOR OF CEPHALONIA, 1810 1813. 

2 Obv Within wreath of laurel and oak, inscription, A 
CARLO FILIPPO DE BOSSET OTTIMO 
REGGITORE ED ILLVSTRATORE DI 
QVEST' ISOLA IL CORPO AMMINISTRA- 
TIVO CEFALENO MDCCCXIII. 

R eVt Within wreath of palm and olive, inscription, 

KAPOAH <i>iAinnn AE BOSZET, &c., 

as on previous medal. 
1-25. MB. M. 

BERIAH BOITIBLD, 18071863. 
HARROW SCHOOL PRIZE MEDAL, 1854. 

1. Obv. Head of Botfield to right : on neck, L. c. WYON. 

Below, 1854. 

Rev. Inscription, PRAESTANTIAE IN LINGUIS 
COLENDIS RECENTIORIBUS HOC PRAE- 
MIUM SOLENNE BERIAH BOTFIELD 
HARROVIENSIBUS PROPOSUIT SUIS : 
below, two branches of laurel. 

1-8. MB. M. PJ. IV. 11. 

Beriah Botfield, born at Earl's Ditton, in Shropshire, 
5th March, 1807, was educated at Harrow and Christ 
Church, Oxford. In early life he studied botany and 
geology, but afterwards abandoned these pursuits for 
that of bibliography. He sat in Parliament for Ludlow 
from 1840 to 1847, and again from 1857 to his death, 
7th August, 1863. The above medal was established in 
1854 as a prize for the encouragement of the study of 
modern languages at Harrow School. 

His RE-ELECTION FOR LUDLOW, 1857. 

2. Obv. Head of Botfield to right, &c., as on previous medal. 

Bev. Within beaded circle, BERIAH BOTFIELD M : P: 

F:R:S: 
1-8. MB. M. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 83 

The reverse of this medal was made in 1857, when 
Botfield was again elected M.P. for Ludlow. This medal 
was issued for presentation to his friends. Botfield was a 
member of a large number of literary and scientific 
societies, for which he edited many works ; his attention 
to literature obtaining for him distinguished honours. 
He was President of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion in 1860. 



MATTHEW BOULTON, 17281809. 

His NEW MACHINE FOE STRIKING COINS, 1798. 

1. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, wearing frock-coat and 
shirt with frill ; hair en queue. Leg. MATT . 
BOULTON ESQ E . F.R.S.L.&ED. F.R.I. & A.S. 

Ilev. Inscription, arranged in concentric circles, M: 
BOULTON ERIGEA A SOHO ANGL : 1788 
UNE MACH : A VAPEUR PR : FRAP : 
MONN : 1798 . IL ER : UNE BIEN SUPE- 
RIEURE A 8 . BALANCIERS NOUVEAUX . 
CES CERC : & CHIF : MARQ : LE DIAM : & 
NO : DE PIECES FRAP : P : MIN : P : 8 
ENFANS SANS FATIG : DU PL : PET : OU 
PL : GR : VOLUME. OU DE 8 DIFF : 
GRAND : ENSEMBLE . ON PEUT AUGM : 
L'EFF : AU DEG : NECESS. In centre, head 
of Science facing, rayed. Opposite each circle 
of inscription is a number, showing how many 
pieces of that size could be struck per minute by 
Bolton's new machine. 

1-6. MB. M. 

Matthew Boulton, engineer, born at Birmingham, 
3rd September, 1728, was apprenticed in early life to his 
father's business of a silver stamper and piercer. At his 
father's death in 1757, with a view to extending his 
business, he founded the famous Soho works, which soon 



84 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

obtained a great reputation for the high character of work 
executed there. Boulton not only exerted himself to 
.improve the workmanship but also the artistic merits of 
his wares, and with that aim procured the finest examples 
of art work, not only in metal, but also in pottery and 
other materials. The growth of his factory, and the con- 
sequent increased need for motive power, induced Boulton 
to direct his attention to the steam engine ; but it was not 
until he obtained the help of Watt that he was able to 
bring this invention to any perfection. Provided with 
his new machine, Boulton occupied himself with the 
reform of the copper coinage, and in 1788 set up several 
coining presses at Soho to be worked by steam. After 
striking large quantities of coins for the East India Com- 
pany and for foreign governments, he undertook, in 1797, 
the production of a new copper coinage for Great Britain, 
than which no better coinage of that class has ever been 
issued. In the preparation of his dies Boulton employed 
the most skilful artists, both English and foreign. In 
the scientific world Boulton held a prominent place, and 
he was a Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and 
Edinburgh. His house at Soho was a meeting-place for 
all scientific men. He died there, August 17th, 1809. 
The above medal was struck as a record of the rapidity 
of his coining machines. 

His DEATH, 1809. 

2. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, wearing frock-coat, shirt 
with ^ frill; hair en queue: on truncation, 
P. WYON : below, MODELED BY KOUW PUB- 
LISHED BY THOMASON. Leg. MATTHEW 
BOULTON ESQ R . F.B.S. L N . & ED F.K I 
& A.S. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 85 

Rev. Inscription across the field, THE LIBERAL & 
ENLIGHTENED PATRON OF ARTS AND 
MANUFACTURES; around, BORN AT BIR- 
MINGHAM SEP. III. MDCCXXVIII. DIED 
AUG. XVII. MDCCCIX. AGED LXXXI. 

4. MB. M. 

The obverse is in very high relief, and is interesting 
as showing the perfection of the machinery for striking 
medals invented by Boulton and Watt. 

His DEATH, 1809. 

8. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, wearing frock-coat and 
shirt with frill, hair en queue: below a plain 
scroll. Leg. MATTHEW BOULTON, ESQ. 
F.R.S. &c. 

Rev. Within wreath of palm, FAREWEL. Leg. 
BRIGHTER SCENES I SEEK ABOVE IN 
THE REALMS OF PEACE AND LOVE. 

1-9 M.B. M. ST. (Obverse.) PI. IV. 12. 

This medal is the work of C. H. Kiichler, a native of 
Flanders, who was employed by Boulton at the Soho 
Mint. There is in the British Museum an unfinished 
plaque, with the bust slightly altered from the obverse of 
the above piece, and with the scroll inscribed, DIED AT 
SOHO. M : 7. 180 AGED . 00y s . OM : OD : 



His DEATH, 1809. 

4. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, similar to the preceding ; 
below, two genii, one holds lighted torch, the 
other places laurel branch on model of the mint 
at "SOHO." Leg. MATTHEW BOULTON 
F.R.S. 

Kev. Inscription, BY THE SKILFUL EXERTION OF 
A MIND TURNED TO PHILOSOPHY & 



86 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

MECHANICS, THE APPLICATION OF A 
TASTE CORRECT & REFINED, & AN 
ARDENT SPIRIT OF ENTERPRISE, HE 
IMPROVED, EMBELLISHED, & EXTENDED 
THE ARTS & MANUFACTURES OF HIS 
COUNTRY; LEAVING HIS ESTABLISHMENT 
OF SOHO A NOBLE MONUMENT OF HIS 
GENIUS, INDUSTRY, & SUCCESS. THE 
CHARACTER HIS TALENTS HAD RAISED, 
HIS VIRTUES ADORNED & EXALTED. 
ACTIVE TO DISCOVER MERIT, & PROMPT 
TO RELIEVE DISTRESS. HIS ENCOU- 
RAGEMENT WAS LIBERAL, HIS BENE- 
VOLENCE UNWEARIED. HONOURED 
AND ADMIRED AT HOME & ABROAD, HE 
CLOSED A LIFE EMINENTLY USEFUL, 
THE 17 TH AUGUST 1809 AGED 81. ES- 
TEEMED, LOVED, AND LAMENTED. 

1-75. MB. M. 



This medal is probably by Rouw. The inscription is 
taken from the mural monument erected to Boulton's 
memory in the side aisle of Hands worth Church, in the 
composition of which his partner, James Watt, assisted. 

His DEATH AND BURIAL, 1809. 

5. Obv. Inscription, MATTHEW BOULTON DIED AU- 

GUST 17 TH 1809 AGED 81 YEARS. Above 
and below, plain line. 

Rev. Within wreath of palm, IN MEMORY OF HIS 

OBSEQUIES AUG ST 24 TH 1809. 
1-6. MB. M. 

This medal is probably the work of C. H. Kiichler. 

MEMORIAL, 1809. 

6. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, wearing frock-coat, shirt 

with frill ; hair en queue; below, PIDGEON F. 
Leg. MATTHAEVS BOVLTON. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 87 

Rev. Within laurel-wreath, INVENTAS AVT QVI 

VITAM EXCOLVERE PER ARTIS. 
2-5. MB. m. 

MEMORIAL, 1809. 

7. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, wearing frock-coat, shirt 

with frill ; hair en queue. 

1-9. MB. ST. 

This is a proof for the obverse of a medal by C. II. 
Kiichler. It is struck on the flan of the medal com- 
memorating the battle of Trafalgar, which had been issued 
by Boulton in 1805 for presentation to those who took 
part in that engagement. 

MEMORIAL, 1809. 

8. Obv. Bust of Boulton to right, &c., similar to the pre- 

ceding; below, GALLE F. Leg. MATTHEW 
BOULTON. 
No reverse. 

2-3. MB. ST. 

This medal is by Andre Galle, a French artist. No 
reverse appears ever to have been executed for it. 

FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON, EARL OF BRIDGE WATER, 

17581829. 

MEMORIAL. 
Obv. Head of the Earl of Bridgewater to right ; on neck, 

DONADIO F. 

Jfetf.- Inscription, FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON, 
EARL OF BRIDGEWATER. 

1-6. MB. m. PL IV. 13. 

The subject of this medal was the son of John Egerton, 
Bishop of Durham, and grand-nephew of the first Duke 



88 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of Bridge water. He was born in 1758, and succeeded his 
brother as eighth earl in 1823. He had been educated for 
holy orders, and was appointed Prebendary of Durham. He 
died unmarried in February, 1829, when the title became 
extinct. By his will he left 8,000 invested in the public 
funds to be paid to the author of the best treatise " On 
the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God as Manifested 
in the Creation." The then President of the Royal Society 
of London, Davies Gilbert, to whom the selection of the 
authors was left, with the advice of others, decided that 
instead of being given to one man for one work the money 
should be allotted to eight different persons for eight 
separate treatises, though all connected with the same 
primary theme. These contributions are known as the 
" Bridgewater Treatises." The Earl of Bridgewater also 
left upwards of 12,000 to the British Museum, the 
interest to be employed in the purchase and care of the 
MSS. for public use. 

The above medal is one of the Durand series of cele- 
brated men of all countries issued between 1820 and 1846. 

[VISCOUNT BRIDPORT, see HOOD, ALEXANDER.] 



JOHN BRIGHT and others. 
CORN LAW AGITATION, 1846. 

Obv. Within four ornamented compartments the bust of 
J. BRIGHT ESQ. M.P., R. OOBDEN ESQ 
M.P., C. WILSON ESQ. M.P., and HON. C. 
PELHAM VILLIERS M.P. In centre a scroll 
inscribed CORN BILL PASSED JUNE 25 
1846 ; above, caduceus and rudder ; below, 
branches of laurel and oak, on which scales and 
fasces inscribed LEAGUE. Leg. ANTI-CORN 
LAW LEAGUE ESTABLISHED 1839. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 89 

Rev. Britannia standing facing, holding palm-branch and 
resting her left hand on rudder, which is placed 
on a globe ; at her side her shield. She is sur- 
rounded by various emblems of arts and com- 
merce ; in the distance, sea with ships ; below, 
A & M . BIRM M (Allen & Moore, Birmingham). 
Leg. FREE TEADE. In the exergue, 184G. 

1-75. MB. M. 



This medal refers to the formation of the Anti-Corn 
Law League on the 20th March, 1839, the result of 
the unsuccessful efforts of Yilliers and others to obtain an 
inquiry into the general effect of tbe Corn Laws. The 
object of the league was accomplished by the repeal of 
the Corn Laws in 1846. 

DANIEL DE LISLE BROCK, 1762 1842. 
EXPORT PRIVILEGES OF THE CHANNEL ISLANDS DEFENDED, 1835. 

Obv. Bust nearly facing of Brock in frock-coat. Leg. 
DANIEL DE LISLE BROCK, ESQ. CHIEF 

MAGISTRATE & PRESIDENT OF THE STATES, GUERN- 
SEY. BORN DEC. 10. 1762. HALLIDAY, F. E . LE . 
BAS PINXT. 

Rev. Within laurel wreath, WHOSE DEVOTION TO 
HIS COUNTRY'S WEAL HAS OBTAINED 
HIM A NAME MORE LASTING AND IM- 
PERISHABLE THAN ALL THE HONOURS 
WHICH RANK AND TITLES COULD BE- 
STOW. 1835 ; above, shield and crest of 
Guernsey. 

2. MB. M, 

Daniel De Lisle Brock, third son of John Brock of 
Guernsey, born 10th Dec., 1762, was elected, in 1798, 
a jurat of the Royal Court of Guernsey, and on four 
separate occasions, between 1804 and 1810, was de- 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. N 



90 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

puted by the States of Guernsey to represent them 
in London in respect of certain measures affecting the 
trade and ancient privileges of the island. In 1821 he 
was appointed bailiff, or chief magistrate, of the island, 
and at that time, and again in 1832, was despatched to 
London to protect the interests of Guernsey. Three years 
later, in 1835, he was once more despatched to London, at 
the head of a deputation, to protest against a Bill to 
deprive the Channel Islands of their right of exporting 
corn into England free of duty, and chiefly through his 
remonstrances the Bill was withdrawn. On this occasion 
Brock was presented with a service of plate, his portrait 
was placed in the Royal Court-house of Guernsey, and the 
above medal was struck. He died in Guernsey 24th Sept., 
1842, and received a public funeral. 

SIR ISAAC BROCK, 17691812. 
MEMORIAL, 1816. 

Obv. Funeral urn on base, crowned by two genii ; base 
inscribed FELL OCT 13 1812. Leg. S R ISAAC 
BROCK THE HERO OF UP R CANADA. 

Rev. Between two stars, 1816. Leg. SUCCESS TO 

COMMERCE & PEACE TO THE WORLD. 
1-05. MB. M. 

Sir Isaac Brock, eighth son of John Brock of Guernsey, 
and brother of Daniel De Lisle Brock (see preceding 
medal), born 6th Oct., 1769, entered the army in 1785, 
and purchased a lieutenancy in the 8th (King's) in 1790, 
and in the next year exchanged into the 49th foot, with 
which he proceeded to Jamaica and Barbadoes. Having 
returned to England, he joined General Moore in his 
expedition to North Holland in 1799, and was present at 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 91 

the battles of Egmont-op-Zee and Copenhagen, and in the 
operations in the Baltic in 1801. In 1802 he returned to 
Canada, and in 1810 held the command of the troops of 
TJpper Canada, which he defended against the attacks of 
the Americans under General Hull in 1812. With a much 
inferior force he compelled General Hull to retire to 
Detroit, and afterwards to surrender with all his forces 
(16th Aug., 1812). For the judgment and skill dis- 
played at this juncture, Brock was made an extra 
Knight of the Bath 10th Oct., 1812, but a few days 
afterwards, 13th Oct., he was killed in an engagement at 
the village of Queenstown against the forces of Major- 
General Van Rennselaer. He was buried in one of the 
bastions of Fort St. George, but his remains were after- 
wards, in 1824, carried to a vault in Queenstown heights. 
A monument was also erected to him in the south tran- 
sept of St. Paul's. 

SIR BENJAMIN BRODIE, 17831862. 
^ HONORARY MEDAL, 1844. 

Obv. Head of Brodie to left : behind, BRODIE ; below, 

W. WYON . R.A. 

Rev. Science, naked to waist, kneeling to left on left knee 
and lighting lamp, which is" placed on an orna- 
mental stand ; her left hand rests on small jug. 
Leg. E . TENEBRIS . TANTIS . TAM . 
CLARUM . EXTOLLERE . LUMEN . QUI . 
POTUISTI. In the exergue, CONSOCII . ET . 
DISCIPULI GRATULANTES MDCCCXLI. 

W. WYON . R.A. 

2-85. MB. M. PI. IV. 14. 

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, the eminent surgeon, born 
in 1783, came to London at the age of eighteen, ana 
devoted himself to the study of anatomy. He entered 



92 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

St. George's Hospital in 1803, of which he was elected 
assistant surgeon in 1808, and surgeon from 1822 to 
1840. For papers contributed he was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1810, and having operated suc- 
cessfully on George IV. was made sergeant-surgeon by 
William IV. He was President of the Royal College of 
Surgeons in 1844, and of the Royal Society in 1858. He 
died at Broorne Park 21st Oct., 1862. The above medal 
was presented to Sir Benjamin Brodie in 1844, upon his 
resignation of the office of surgeon to St. George's Hospital 
after thirty years of office in that institution. 

LiEUT.-CoL. WILLIAM BRODIE. 
SALISBURY VOLUNTEERS PRIZE MEDAL, 1832. 

Obv. Inscription, SALISBURY VOLUNTEER INFAN- 
TRY Grenadier Company. ^resenUi) Jbp LIEU T 
COL L . RRODIE TO 

lie*. Inscription, JOSEPH PICKETT, one of the Eight 
best shots in the REGIMENT ivhen firing with 
Ball on the 18th of Jan y . 1832. 
1-55. MB. JR. 

On account of the agricultural riots which had taken 
place in Wiltshire during the months of November and 
December, 1830, arrangements were made in January, 
1831, for the formation at Salisbury of a body of local 
volunteers for the protection of the city and the sur- 
rounding districts. The corps was speedily completed 
and consisted of four companies, which were to be placed 
under the command of two field officers, a colonel, and a 
major. William Brodie, an active inhabitant of Salisbury, 
who had taken charge of the special constables who were 
sworn in to protect the city during the recent riots, was 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 93 

chosen colonel. When Parliament was dissolved in Dec., 
1832, Brodie was returned as the representative of the 
city at the head of the poll. The above medal was pre- 
sented to the corps by Col. Brodie. There is a second 
specimen in the National Collection which is entirely 
engraved. 

CHARLES BROOKER. 
BRIGHTON ELECTION, 1841. 

Obv. Inscription, around, CHARLES BROOKER ESQv: 
CANDIDATE FOR BRIGHTON-:'- ; in field, 
NINETEEN VOLUNTARY VOTES JUNE 30 
1841. 

Rev. Inscription, ADVOCATED ADOPTION OF THE 
PEOPLE'S CHARTER SEPARATION OF 
CHURCH AND STATE REPEAL OF THE 
NEW POOR LAW. 

1-35. MB. JE. 

Qharles Brooker, of Alfriston, in Sussex, was one of the 
candidates for the borough of Brighton at the general 
election of 1841. He stood as the Chartist candidate, and 
held very advanced views, being in favour of vote by 
ballot, universal suffrage, payment of members of Par- 
liament, separation of Church and State, and the repeal 
of the New Poor Laws. At the nomination the show of 
hands was against him, but he proceeded to the poll on 
the 30th June, and only obtained the support of 19 voters, 
by whom this medal was ordered to be struck. 

LORD BROUGHAM, 1778 1868. 
REPEAL OF THE OKDEKS IN COUNCIL OF 1807 ADVOCATED. 

1. Oil'. Head of Brougham to right, bare. Leg. HENRY 
BROUGHAM ESQ KE ., M.P. MDCCCXII. HAL- 
LID AY F. 



94 KUMISMATTC CHRONICLE. 

7^._ Inscription, OF COMMERCE, THE ENLIGHT- 
ENED FRIEND, OF NATIONAL INTEG- 
RITY, THE VIRTUOUS, ELOQUENT, AND 
UNDAUNTED, SUPPORTER. 

1-9. MB. M. 

Henry Peter, Baron Brougham and Vaux, born at 
Edinburgh, September 19, 1778, was educated at the 
High School and University of that city. In 1805 he came 
to London, and having been called to the English bar in 
1808, he soon signalised his powers as an orator. Elected 
M.P. for Camelford in 1810, he sat for that borough till 
1813, and afterwards for Winchelsea, 18151830, and 
York County, 1830 ; was appointed Attorney-General to 
Queen Caroline in 1820, and Lord Chancellor, 1830 
1834 ; after which date he held no further office, but took 
an active part in all social and political matters till his 
death in 1868. His miscellaneous writings are of great 
extent and upon an almost incredible number of subjects. 
This and the following medal refer to Brougham's oppo- 
sition to the Orders in Council of November, 1807, pro- 
hibiting trade with France and the countries dependent 
upon her, and insisting on American vessels coming first 
to our ports and paying a tax. These Orders were con- 
sidered very detrimental to the commercial interests of 
the country, and those relating to America were re- 
pealed on June 23, 1812. 

REPEAL OF THE ORDERS IN COUNCIL OF 1807 ADVOCATED. 
2. Obv. Head of Brougham, &c., as on the preceding. 

Rev. Inscription, A MEMORIAL OF GRATITUDE 
FROM THE INHABITANTS OF BIRMING- 
HAM. AUG T . 1 1812. 

1-9. M.B. ST. 

H. A. GRUEBER. 



MISCELLANEA. 



FIND OP STYCAS. About the year 1867 a small find of eight 
stycas took place, and they have recently come into my 
possession. 

They proved, after careful cleaning, to be all in fine condition 
(three were of bronze and five of silver), and I am therefore 
enabled to supply their exact descriptions, as follow : 

1. Obv. + EANBALD = + 

Bev.+ EDILVEARD = + M. 

2. Obv. + VIGMVND IIREP = :H 
Rev.+ COENRED = + JR. 

3. Obv. + VIGMVND AREP (retrograde) = X 
Rev.+ EDILVEARD = + M. 

4. Qbv.+ EANRED REX = + 
Rev.+ HRRED = + 2R. 

5. Obv. + EANRED REX = + 
Rev.-+ HVA ETRED = + -31. 

6. Obv.+ EANRED REX = 
Eev.+ VILHEAN = JR. 

7. Obv. + EDILRED REX = + 
Rev,+ BROGE -.- R - + M. 

8. Obv.+ EDILRED RE (retrograde) = + 
Rev.+ VENDELGERH = + M. 

Although these coins do not present any new type, it is 
worthy of notice that we have for the first time met with an 
unmistakable silver styca of Vigmund. 



96 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The significance of so many stycas being struck in silver is 
not easy to be satisfactorily accounted for, unless they formed part 
of a silver currency, but I will not venture so bold an assertion. 

I have in my cabinet over twenty silver stycas (about one- 
fifth of the total number) of Eanbald, Vigmund, Eardulf (?), 
and Eanred ; and I have seen specimens of Vulfhen and 
Ethelred II. 

No silver stycas of Redulf or Osberht have hitherto come 
under my notice. 

NATHAN HEY WOOD. 



RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COMMONWEALTH COINS. I have on 
previous occasions noted rare or unknown pieces of the Com- 
monwealth, and to these I can now add two sixpences of that 
period, both of which are in my own collection, and are dated 
respectively 1657 and 1659. Mr. Hawkins states that the 
former of these existed in the Hunter Museum, and Mr. Kenyon, 
in a later edition, mentions that one with the figure 7 struck 
over 6 was also in the possession of Mr. Wakeford. My speci- 
men, purchased at the sale of the late Major Stewart-Thorburn, 
is probably the same piece as the latter. The sixpence of 1659 
is given with some expression of doubt by Mr. Hawkins, on the 
authority of a manuscript note by Mr. Tutet. 

H. MONTAGU. 



THE NORTH BORNEO COINAGE. Mr. Acting Consul-General 
Treacher, writing from Brunei, says that during 1884 the 
copper coinage of British North Borneo was proclaimed legal 
tender in Brunei, taking the place, to a large extent, of the 
Chinese cash, which used to be imported by one of the Chinese 
traders. The new coinage is of the same intrinsic value as that 
of the Straits Settlements, and is taken freely hi the colony of 
Labuan, where, however, it has not been made a legal tender. 

FRANCIS W. PIXLEY. 






/am. Ghm.Ser.MK!Mm 




ACQUISITIONS OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM IN I88Z 



Num. Mrm.SerlEW.MPUf. 




COINS FROM THE HARPTREE HOARD. 




it* - -0>- v 














MIAUS OR HERAUS CHIEF OF THE KUSHANS. 



Num. arm.SerIirMMI.PLtf 




ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS. 
(i of the actual 



V. 

MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 
I. PHLIUS. 

1. TCoue, formee par un triscele tournant a droite dans un 

cercle autour d'un globule central. 

Rev. Carre creux rude divise en qtiatre triangles par des 
barres. 

JK 5/4. 8 gr. 11. Mus. de Berlin, 1 Fox ; Imhoof, Monatsb. 
d. Berl. Akad., 1881, p. 671 ; Annuaire d. I Soc. Fr. 
de num., 1882, p. 103. PI. V, 1. 

2. Autre, le triscele tourne a gauche. 

JR 3. 2,00. Cab. de France, Mion. II p. 112, n. 3, Suppl. 
VII, PI. V, 2 ; Cousinery, Voyage en Maced. II, p. 125, 
PI. IV, 3 ; Beule, Monn. d'Athenes, p. 19, Eev. Num. 
1856, PI. XI, 6. Trouve a Athenes. 

3. Meme type. Les genoux du triscefe, tournant a gauche, 

attaches au cercle. Dans le champ 4>. 

Eev. Carre creux divise par des barres en sept triangles, 
comme a Egine. 

M 3i/3. 7,21. Ma coll. Trouve en Attique. PI. V, 2. 

Un autre exemplaire, trouve en Arcadie, doit avoir 
passe, m'a-t-on dit, dans la collection de Hirsch, a Paris. 

1 Je dois une empreinte de ce didrachme, comme de 1'obole, 
n. 7, a 1'obligeance de M. de Sallet, Directeur du Musee. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. O 



98 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

4. Meme triscele, mais tournant a droite ; le cercle ne parait 

pas. Dans le champ (J) . 

Rev. Carve creux divise par de larges barres n sept 

triangles. 
M 3. 7,16 7 . Coll. du Dr. H. Weber, a Londres, Head, 

Hist. Num. p. 579 (Phaselis). PL V, 3. 

5. Tortue de mer, comme sur les stateres d'Egine. 

Eev. Meme triscele, mais d'assez mauvais style, tournant 

a droite autour d'un gros globule, entoure de feuilles ? 

Carre creux. 
JR 5/4. 12,15. Brit. Mus. Head, I. c. p. 332 (Egine) ; 

Cat. Br. Mus. Attica, p. 136, 143, PL XXIV, 8. 

PL V, 4. 

Le didrachme, n. 1, et son triobole, n. 2, appartiennent 
a un groupe bien connu de monnaies archa'iques, recon- 
naissables a leur poids eubo'ique et leur carr creux rude 
divise en quatre triangles et dont le classement est toujours 
un sujet de controverse entre les numismatistes les plus 
compe tents. 

Les uns, comme M. Head, 2 les distribuent entre les villes 
d'Eube*e, d'autres, comme Beule, 3 les croient frappees en 
Attique, ou on les deterre le plus souvent. 4 

Les trouvailles, faites aux environs d' Ere trie et a Eleusis, 
decrites par M. Koehler, 5 demontrent qu'elles circulaient, 
en Eubee comme en Attique, entremelees aux monnaies 
d'Eretrie anterieures a 490 et d'Athenes. Aussi M. 
Koehler se range-t-il a Topinion de M. Imhoof, 6 et incline- 

2 Cat. Br. Mus. Centr. Greece, p. XLVILVI, p. 106 
137, PL XX, XXII, XXIV ; Hist. Num. p. 301309. 

3 Mann. d'Ath. p. 15 suiv. ; Rev. Num. 1856, p. 347 suiv. 

4 D'apres Prokesch, Ined. 1859, p. 7, elles se trouveraient 
aussi en Macedoine. 

5 Mittheil. d. D. Arch. Inst. aus Athen. 1884, IX p. 354 
862. 

" H se peut que plusieurs de ces monnaies aient ete frap- 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INED1TES ET INCERTAINES. 99 

t-il y voir les Emissions de villes diverses, dont les mon- 
naies circulaient ensemble parcequ'elles e* talent du meme 
poids, ainsi que les stateres eginetiques de plusieurs iles 
et villes ont ete recueillis entremeles dans les depots de 
Melos et de Thera. 7 J'ajoute qu'il y a des monnaies au 
meme carre creux, divise en quatre triangles et du meme 
poids euboique, qui ne sont ni d'Athenes, ni d'Eubee, mais 
de Potidee, 8 et de Gyrenes. 9 

Aussi Mionnet a-t-il cru pouvoir separer le triobole, 
n. 2, du reste de la trouvaille qu'il decrit T. II, p. 112, 
n. 2 18, en le classant a Selge de Pisidie, 10 tandis que 
M. Head s'est demande s'il ne serait pas Lycien. n 

En effet, une piece qui ne s'est rencontree qu'une seule 
fois, en un seul exemplaire, dans les nombreux depots 
attiques et eubeens, ne peut guere etre consideree comme 
attique ou comme euboique. 

La provenance du didrachme n. 1 est inconnue. 

II ne m'a done pas semble temeraire de placer ces deux 
pieces en tete de ma liste, me fondant sur Pidentite de 
type avec celui des monnaies suivantes, emises, sans doute, 
par une ville dont le nom commen9ait par 0, et qui 
n'e'tait, par consequent, situee ni en Eubee, ni en Attique. 

II est vrai que le poids n'est pas 1 meme, mais comme 
il va en decroissant, le didrachme euboique de 8 gr, 11 

pees aAthenes ; mais laplupart proviennent sans doute de 1'Eu- 
bee et d'autres contrees alliees ou tributaires des Atheniens." 
Annuaire d. 1. Soc. Fr. de num. 1882, p. 90, ou M. Imhoof 
donne la liste la plus complete de ce groupe de monnaies. 

7 Wroth, Num. Chron. 1884, p. 269280. 

8 Cat. Br. Mus. Maced. p. 99 n. 1 ; Head, Guide, PI. IV, 9. 

9 Miiller, Num. de Vane. Afr. I, p. 10 n. 7 ; Sitppl. p. 1 n. 
14_14c. 

10 Mion. Suppl. VII, p. 740. 

11 Hist. Num. p. 309. 



100 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

se sera peut-etre affdibli a fur et a mesure jusqu'a ce qu'il 
ne correspondit plus qu'a la moitie du statere egine"tique 
de 12 gr. 15. 

Les stateres d'Egine paraissent avoir circule en telle 
masse en Peloponnese qu'il leur en est venu le nom de 
rnonnaie peloponnesienne. 12 C'est done dans cette contree 
qu'aura ete situee la ville, qui copie le carre creux et la 
tortue d'Egine sur les n. 3 et 5, et qui adopte le poids 
e*ginetique. 

En cherchant une ville, dont le nom commencerait 
par un 0, entre Tile d'Egine, 1'Attique, d'ou proviennent 
les n. 2 et 3, et 1'Arcadie, ou un exemplaire du n. 3 (ou 
peut-etre du n. 4) doit avoir ete trouve, je me suis arrete 
a Phlius, & laquelle le type du triscele convient tout 
particulierement. 

En effet, comme la Phliasie consiste, pour la plus grande 
partie, en une vallee de forme triangulaire, entouree de 
tous cote's par des montagnes, 13 il serait difficile de s'ima- 
giner un symbole plus appropri a cette vallee triangu- 
laire, telle qu'elle est figuree sur les cartes, que le triscele 
des monnaies en question. 14 

De plus ce triscele forme une roue avec le cercle auquel 
il est attach^ et une roue est le type bien connu des mon- 
naies poste*rieure8 de Phlius qui sont aussi de poids 
^ginetique. 15 

Puis, la legende ne consiste souvent, sur les monnaies 



12 Hesychius, ^eXuiv^, i/o/u<r/ia IleXoTrovv^o-taKov. Pollux IX, 
74, TO rUAoTrovnjo-iW vo/Aicr/Aa xcXuvrjv rwes $&ovv tcaXtiv OLTTO 

TOD TVTTtOjUaTOS. 

13 Bursian, Geogr. Griechenl. II, p. 82. 

14 On sait que, depuis Agathocle, le triscele symbolise, sur 
les monnaies, la forme triangulaire de la Sicile. 

19 Cat. Br. Mus. Pdoponn. p. 88, n. 1, 2, 6, 7, PI. VI n. 19, 
20, 23. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, 1NEDITES ET IXCERTA1NES. 101 

de date plus re*cente, comme sur les n. 3 et 4, qu'en un 
seul 0, qui sert meme de type au revers. 16 

Enfin, on montrait a Phlius, situee au pied du mont 
nomme Tricaranos a cause de ses trois cimes, 17 un omphalos 
qui etait cense marquer le point central du Peloponnese, 18 
et cet omphalos semble indique par le globule central 
tres apparent du triscele, comme M. Head 1'a retrouve au 
centre de la roue des monnaies posterieures. 19 

Tout concourt done, il me semble, pour rendre 1'attri- 
bution de cette petite serie a la Phliasie, non pas certaine, 
mais au moins tres probable. 

Si elle etait admise, il s'en suivrait que le Peloponnese 
n'est pas aussi pauvre en monnaies archaiques, anterieures 
aux guerres mediques, qu'on ne Fadmet generalement, 20 
et que, puisqu'il y en a de Corinthe et de Phlius, d'Heree 
et de Mantinee, il est permis de croire qu'on en trouvera 
d'autres villes encore. 

M. Koehler 21 remarque, avec raison, que les monnaies, 
sur lesquelles le type est entoure d'uri cercle, forment un 
groupe separe ; ce groupe doit son existence, a mon avis, 
au desir de copier aussi servilement que possible les mon- 
naies d la roue qui sont beaucoup plus abondantes que les 
autres et qui d'apres leur style varie doivent avoir ete 
emises pendant un assez grand nombre d'annees consecu- 
tives, peut-etre a Chalcis, ou bien a Athenes, 22 ou meme 

16 Cat. Br. Mus. I. c. n. 2, 8, 826, PI. VI, 21, 22, 24, VII 
13, 5, G. 

17 Bursian, L c. 

18 Ibid. p. 34 ; Pausan. II, 13, 7. 

19 Head, Hist. Num. p. 344. 

20 Ibid. p. 343. 

21 Mitth. aus Athen. 1884, IX p. 361. 

22 Si les didrachnies, drachmes, etc. a la roue sont de 
Chalcis, ce dont je doute encore, parceque les monnaies cerr 



102 NUMISMATIC CHROJXICLE. 

a Me"gare. 23 Si done le triscele, faisant roue dans un cercle, 
estde Phlius, les autres types entoures du cercle, 1'astragale, 
Famphore, la chouette, le cheval et la partie anterieure et 
posterieure du meme animal 24 seraient les types de villes 
assez voisines de la Phliasie et de 1'Attique pour motiver 
un monnayage aussi uniforme. 

Je laisse volontiers a d'autres le soin de combattre ou 
de poursuivre plus loin cette hypothese ; il me suffit 
d'avoir appele* 1'atten tion des numismatistes sur cette 
question qui ne me semble pas denuee d'interet. 

II. PHENEUS THALIADAE. 

6. Hermes nu et imberbe, 1'oeil de face, volant & droite, 

tenant de la main gauche le caducee et coiffe du 
petase. Style archaique. 

R eVt Carre creux divise par trois barres, qui se croisent, 
en six triangles. Dans le chanip, des traits et un glo- 
bule, qui ne sont qu'une premiere esquisse que le 
graveur corrigea, mais oublia de faire disparaitre. 

^ 4/3. 3,93. Brit. Mus. PL V, n. 5. 
3. 3,90. Ma coll. 

Ces deux exernplaires sont du meme coin. Ce sont les 
trites d'un statere eginetique de 11 gr. 79. 

7. Meme Hermes, dans la meme attitude, 1'oeil de face, mais 

les cheveux releves en chignon, le caducee dans la 

taines de la ville semblent prouver que le statere s'y divisait 
comme a Corinthe en trois drachmes, Athenes, en adoptant le 
poids euboique, aurait choisi le type de la tete de Gorgone pour 
obtenir un type de forme ronde aussi semblable que possible 
a une roue. 

23 Sur quelques monnaies de Megare cinq ou trois croissants 
font la roue en tournant autour d'un point central, dans un 
cercle. Head, Hist. Num. p. 329. 

24 Un cheval est le type de Cleitor et semble avoir aussi ete 
usite a Cleones, Imhoof, Monn. Grecq. p. 187 n. 42. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTA1NES. 103 

main droite et lea pieds chausses de bottines munies 
de deux ailes. Dans le champ, a gauche, MAO 
). Tres beau style archaique. 



Rev. Croix gammee dans un carre creux. 
M 2/1J. 1,01. Mus. de Berlin. PI. V, n. 6. 

C'est 1'obole d'un statere e"ginetique de 12 gr. 12. Au 
Musee de Berlin elle est classee a Thaliadae d'Arcadie, 
nominee par Pausanias parmi les localites situees dans le 
territoire de Cleitor, sur le Ladon, entre les sources de ce 
fleuve et la frontiere du territoire de Thelpouse. 25 

Cette attribution est, en effet, tres plausible. II n'y a 
pas d'autre ville grecque connue, dont le nom commence 
en Thali. Puis, la croix gammee indique une relation 
avec Corinthe, dont ce symbole est un des types les plus 
anciens. On le voit, en creux, sur le revers de toute une 
serie de pieces arcnaiques, depuis le statere jusqu'aux plus 
petites divisions, 26 et, en relief, sur des oboles un peu plus 
recentes ; 27 on le rencontre parmi les types Corinthiens 
dont Timoleon orna les revers de la serie qu'il emit a Syra- 
cuse ; 28 enfin sur des monnaies archa'iques de Corcyre, 



25 Pausanias VIII, 25, 2 : TO> de AaStoi/t ap^erai /*,/ TO vStop 
ev Trrjycus r^s KXetrop/as pet $. Trpwrov /xcv Trapa Aevicao-iov 
^wptov /cat Me(ro^8oa Kat Sta rwv Nacr&)v ITTL TC "Opvya re Kat 
'AAowra evofia^o/xci/ov, e 'AXovvros 8e CTTI aXtadas re KO.I CTTI 
A^/x^rpos tcpov Karftfftv 'EAevcrtvias. To 8( fepoi/ TOVTO evn /xev 
A.7rovcrtcov cv opois. Bursian, Geogr. Griechenl. II p. 263, 
n. 2. D'autres nomment la ville Thaliades. 

26 Head, Hist. Num. p. 335, seconde serie, 585500. 

27 Ibid. p. 337, cinquieme serie, 400 388. Je crois ces 
oboles plus anciennes. 

28 Ibid. p. 157 ; Imhoof, Monn. Grecq. p. 31, n. 62, PI. B, 18. 
Les monnaies de Syracuse, qui portent un type corinthien sur 
les deux faces, ne sont pas de Timoleon, mais de Dion, a mon 
avis. 



104 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

colonie de Corinthe. 29 II n'est done pas surprenarit de le 
voir adopt^ dans une petite ville d'Arcadie, assez voisine 
de Corinthe pour s'inspirer des types de la cite la plus 
commercante du Peloponnese. 

La date de cette jolie obole parait etre indique'e par la 
coiffure d' Hermes. Au commencement du 5 e siecle lea 
homines la portaient encore, mais elle passa de mode chez 
eux bientot apres les guerres mediques. L'attitude 
d'Hermes differe si peu de la pose du meme dieu sur la 
trite, n. 6, qu'on serait tente d'assigner celle-ci au meme 
atelier. Mais, comme Thaliadae semble avoir ete trop peu 
importante pour que 1'on puisse croire qu'elle ait emis des 
pieces de poids superieur, il me semble qu'il vaut mieux 
songer a Pheneus, ville bien plus considerable, situee non 
loin de Thaliadae, et dont on n'a pas retrouve jusqu'ici 
des monnaies anterieures aux guerres mediques, mais qui 
nous a laisse une serie de monnaies plus recentes, re- 
marquables par leurs types et leur execution artistique. 30 

Hermes portant le caducee est le type principal des 
Pheneates, 31 qui avaierit pour lui une veneration toute 
speciale ; Qetov ce ri/uLwaiv 'EpjU/yi/ 3>evearai paXiara, dit 
Pausanias (VIII. 14, 10), et Pheneus etait situee assez 
pres de Thaliadae pour comprendre comment le type 
favori des Pheneates ait pu etre adopte par la ville arca- 
dienne. 

Le carre creux assez particulier du n. 6 me semble con- 

29 Ibid. p. 276 ; Cat. Br. Mm. Thessaly, p. 120 n. 94 98, 

PI. XXI, 22, et n. 99; Postolacca, Monn. des lies, n. 569, 

30 Head, Hist. Num. p. 878 ; Cat. Br. Mus. Peloponn. p. 
193, 194, PI. XXXVI, 19. 

11 La pose d 'Hermes est fort analogue, eu egard a la differ- 
ence d'epoque et de style, a celle du meme dieu sur les stateres 
du 4 e siecle. 



MONNA1ES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET 1NCERTA1NES. 105 

firmer 1'attribution proposed. D'un cote* il presente une 
grande analogie avec celui du n. 4 des monnaies que je viens 
de classer a Phlius, de 1'autre avec celui des drachmes de 
Cleitor, 32 qui, bien que plus recentes, ont conserve ail 
revers le creux divise en triangles par des barres. PL V. 7. 

Enfin le flan est mince et plat comme ceux des plus 
anciennes series de Corinthe. 33 

Done, Pheneus, situe"e entre Cleitor et Phlius et rioii 
loin de Corinthe, remplit exactement les conditions 
requises pour y placer une monnaie du type et de la 
fabrique qui caracterisent la trite n. 6. 

Reste a expliquer pourquoi Phe'ne'us aurait pre'fe're 
e*mettre des trites du statere eginetique plutot que des 
hemistateres. 

C'est que ces trites correspondent environ a une drachme 
euboi'que faible. Vers la fin du 6 e siecle, le poids euboi'que 
etait encore en usage a Phlius, comme j'ai tach^ de le 
demon trer, et il resta toujours le poids de la monnaie 
corinthienne. Corinthe elle-meme, ou le statere se 
divisait en trois drachmes, fit souvent battre des hemi- 
stateres, au type de Belle rophon combattant la chimere, 
qui ne rentrent pas dans le cadre de ses Emissions regu- 
lieres, uniquement, a ce qu'il parait, pour avoir des 
drachmes eubo'iques, dont le besoin se faisait sentir dans 
le commerce. 



32 Cat. Br. Mvs. 1. c. p. 179, 2, PI. XXXIII, 9 ; 2 gr. 93 ; 
Imhoof, Monn. Grecq. p. 187, n. 169 ; Prokesch, Ined. 1859, 
PI. II, 88. Car ce sont des drachmes corinthiennes de poids 
normal plutot que des trioboles eginetiques faibles. Le poids 
euboique etait done usite a Cleitor. 

33 Head, 1. c. p. 336. 

VOL. VHI. THIRD SERIES. P 



106 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

III. TlSSAPHERNE - ORONTE. 

8 Tete barbue, les cheveux frises sur le front, enveloppee de 

la tiare basse des Perses, nouee sous le menton, a 

droite. 

Eev. BAZIAews, lyre. Traces de carre creux. 
M 5. 15,30. Brit. Mus. Mion. Suppl. IV, p. 274 n. 22 ; 

Luynes, Satrap, p. 50, PI. VI; Waddington, Rev. 

Num. 1861, p. 15, PL II, 4 ; Leake, Kings, p. 53 ; 

Head, Coins of Lydia, &c., p. 50, PL III, 24; 

Guide, p. 88, PL 19, 27 ; Imhoof, Portrait*, p. 22, 

PL III, 1. 
9. Tete lauree d'Apollon, les cheveux releves en chignon, a 

droite. 

R0t>. IAZE HN, me-me lyre. Carre creux. 
JR 2. 1,83. Dans le commerce. 

1,77. Coll. Imhoof, Monn. Grecq. p. 811, n. 64, 

PL F, 7. 



10. Meme tete, I 

Rev. ZY(N)/xax<m/ ou ov^ayjiKO^ o-rarrjp. Hercule 

enfant agenouille & droite, etouffant les serpents. 
M 5/4. 10,73. Coll. Imhoof, I c. n. 63, PL F, 6. 

D'apres les types, la legende et le style admirable du 
n. 8, ce magnifique statere a ete emis, vers 400 av. J.-C., 
par un satrape perse, 34 au nom du grand roi et dans une 
ville grecque d'Asie mineure. Comment se nommait ce 
satrape et de quelle ville s'agit-il ? 

Leake a propose Colophon, dont les monnaies ont pour 
type du revers une lyre 35 pareille a celle du statere et je 
me garderais bien de douter de cette attribution tres 
plausible, 36 si je pouvais imaginer un motif qui ait pu in- 

34 M. Head a montre que la coiffure n'est pas la tiare droite 
des rois de Perse, mais la tiare basse des satrapes, Coins of 
Lydia, 1. c. 

a6 KoAo0o)T/ IL\V yap e\L TJJV Xvpav. Himerius, Orat. 21, 8. 

26 D'apres Thucyd. Ill, 84, 1'acropole de Colophon avait ete 
occupee, en 430, par les Perses, comme 1'ont rappelle Leake 
et M. Waddington. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITE8 ET INCERTAINES. 107 

duire le satrape d'lonie a placer sa propre image sur la 
monnaie qu'il faisait battre au nom de son maitre dans une 
ville ionienne. 

C'est ce qui m'a fait chercher autre part le mot de 
Fenigme et je crois 1'avoir trouve en comparant la monnaie 
d'lasos, n. 9, recemment publiee par M. Imhoof et qui ne 
differe que par la legende des monnaies de Colophon, dont 
elle est une copie ; la lyre est la meme. 

Or lasos a ete, pendant quelque temps, en possession 
d'un satrape, un des plus puissants et des plus celebres de 
tous, celui-la meme dont le Due de Luynes aurait aime 
reconnaitre le portrait sur ce statere. 

Quand la revolte du satrape de Lydie, Pissuthnes, fils 
d'Hystaspe, eut ete comprimee, son fils Amorges continua 
1'insurrection en Carie, avec Paide des Atheniens. Tissa- 
pherne, auquel la satrapie de Pissuthnes avait ete confiee 
par son roi, mais qui residait habituellement en Carie, ou 
son palais etait situe, 37 ne parait pas avoir dispose" de forces 
suffisantes pour combattre en personne les mercenaires 
grecs dont Amorges s'etait entoure. II profita du voisi- 
nage de la flotte Lacedemonienne, qui etait venue en aide 
aux Milesiens contre les Atheniens, pour mettre fin a la 
revolte. Les navires peloponnesiens parurent inopinement 
devant lasos, ou Amorges s'etait retranche, s'emparerent 
sans resistance de la ville, la pillerent, vendirent les 
prisonniers au satrape et le laisserent maitre absolu de la 
ville et de ses habitants. 38 C'etait en 412. 

Le beau statere, n. 10, de poids beotien, et au type beoticn 
d'Hercule enfant etoufiant les serpents, date de 394; le 
revers ne montre plus de traces du carre creux. 39 

37 Xenophon, Hell. Ill, 2, 12; 4, 12. 

38 Thucydide, VIII, 28; Hicks, lasos, Journ. of Hellen. Stud. 
VIII, 1887, p. 86, 87. 

39 lasos n'a pas et devastee en 405 pas Lysandre, comme le 



108 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Le triobole, n. 9, dont la tete est la mme, mais sur 
lequel le carre creux est encore tres apparent, a done etc* 
emis quelques annees auparavant, avant 400 peut-tre. 

A en juger par ce triobole, lasos parait s'etre relevee 
assez promptement du desastre qui venait de 1'atteindre. 
II n'y aurait pas lieu de s'en etonner. Tissapherne, des 
qu'il y fut le maitre, se sera empresse* de re*parer de son 
mieux les maux causes par 1'invasion lacedemonienne. 
Thucydide nous dit qu'il y rait une garni son. II irapor- 
tait de ne pas miner une cite* prospere qui avait paye 
un tribut annuel d'abord d'un talent et plus tard de trois 
talents a la symmacbie atbe*nienne et qui pourrait en 
contribuer autant an grand roi. 

C'est bien alors et jusqu'a ce qu'il fut reraplace, 
en 408, 40 par Cyrus le jeune, 41 que Tissapberne a pu battre 
monnaie au nom du roi de Perse, & sa propre image et au 
type de la ville, dont il e"tait devenu seigneur et maitre en 
en prenant possession au nom de son souverain. 42 

A moins done que le satrape n'ait copie* la lyre de 
Colopnon pour assurer un meilleur cours a sea stateres, 
je proposerais de dater les trioboles autonomes d'lasos, 

disent quelques editions de Diodore, XIII, 104. Les MSS. ne 
portent pas "Icurov, mais ao-ov, ce qui me semble a corriger en 



ao-(^ap)ov. Les a^ap^s sont mentionnes parmi les peuplades 
cariennes dans les listes des tributaires, Coi-p. inscr. Att. I, 
n. 229, 281, 239. 

40 Krumbholz, de Asiae win. Satrap, persic. p. 41. 

41 L'opinion de Ch. Lenormant, Annales de VInstit. Archeol. 
T. XIX, p. 880 suiv., qui proposait de voir dans la tete de 
satrape, n. 8, le portrait de Cyrus le jeune, a ete refutee par 
M. Waddington, I c. p. 18. 

42 Les portraits de dynastes et de satrapes, frequents sous le 
regne du faible Artaxerxes II, ne se voyent plus sous son etier- 
gique successeur. Ochus ne semble pas avoir tolere ces signes 
d'independance relative. Nous avons, par centre, sur le bronze, 
la tete du roi lui-mcme Head, Coins of Lydia, PI. Ill, 9. 



MOTfNAIES GHECQUES, INDITES ET INCERTAINES. 109 

n. 9, d'un peu avant la de*faite d'Amorges. Quelques- 
unes peuvent avoir etc" mises pendant la reVolte, aux 
frais ou par ordre d'Amorges, pour la solde des nombreux 
mercenaires qu'il avait enroles. L'idee de copier la 
monnaie de Colophon convient encore mieux a ce fils 
revolte* de Pissuthnes qu'au puissant satrapo. 

Si mon attribution etait acceptee 1'ingenieuse hypothese 
du Due de Luynes serait devenue certitude et nous serions 
en possession d'un admirable portrait du celebre Tissa- 
pherne, le plus beau, sans doute, de tous ceux que nous 
offre la numismatique grecque du 5 et du 4 siecle. 

Serait-ce le seul qui nous reste de ce satrape ? 

M. Waddington a cru reconnaitre la meme tete sur 
un statere d'or de Lampsaque, dont le seul exeraplaire 
connu est conserve dans le Musee Hunter a Glasgow 43 
et sur les monnaies suivantes. 

11. Tete semblable a celle du n. 1. 

Rev. BAZIAEQZ, lo roi de Perse, la tiare droite, 
crenelee, en tete, courant h droite, tenant de la main 
droite la haste et de la gauche 1'arc. Dans le champ, 
a gauche, un navire d la rame. Carre creux. 

M 5. 14,92. Mus. de Berlin. Fox, Un. Gr. Coins, II, 
p. 31, PI. VIII, 164 ; Waddington, /. c. p. 16, PI. II, 
5; K. Miinzk. Berlin, 1877, n. 812 ; Head, Coins of 
Lydia, p. 50, PI. Ill, 25. 

12. Meme tete. 

Rev. BAZI, meme type, sans navire. Carre creux. 
M 8. 8,42. Brit. Mus. Head, I. c. n. 26. 

En effet, la tete de satrape de ces deux dernieres 
monnaies est assez semblable a celle du statere, n 8, pour 

43 Mns. Hunter, p. 165, 1, T. 81, 22; Rev. Kum. 1861, p. 16, 
PL II, 6. 



110 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

admettre que la legere difference entre les deux profils ne 
provient que de ce que ces deux pieces, dont les revers 
sont d'un style bien mauvais, ont ete executees par un 
graveur tres mediocre, tandis que le statere a la lyre est 
1'ceuvre d'un artiste grec de premier ordre. 

II est done fort probable qu'elles ont ete frappe"es par 
ordre de Tissapherne, peut-etre en Carie, comme 1'a 
propose M. Waddington, ou il residait habituellement. 
Mais, comme le navire a ]a rame, dans le champ du n. 11, 
ne ressemble pas a un vaisseau grec, mais, par contre, tres 
exactement a un de ces navires qui forment le type du 
droit des monnaies pheniciennes, 44 et que le roi de Perse 
avait place la flotte phenicienne sous les ordres de Tissa- 
pherne, 45 je voudrais assigner cette emission a Tan 411, 
quand le satrape se rendit a Aspendos, ou Pattendait une 
flotte de 147 vaisseaux de guerre pheniciens. 46 Cette 
flotte resta inactive et ne vint en aide ni a Sparte ni d 
Athenes, mais Tissapherne aura du pourvoir a son entretien 
et il peut avoir eu ses raisons pour payer la solde en 
monnaies a sa tete et au nom comme a 1'effigie du grand 
roi. C'est 1'explication la plus plausible de cette emission 
reinarquable qui me soit venue a 1' esprit. 



Le statere d'or de Lampsaque du Musee Hunter est de 
beaucoup plus recent. 

Lorsqu'on range les stateres de Lampsaque 47 du meme 

41 Head, Coins of Lydia, PI. II. 

15 Krumbholz, /. c. p. 40; Thucyd. VIII, 46, 81, &c. 

6 Thucyd. VIII, 87. 

47 La plupart de ces stateres ont ete decrits par M. Head, 
Hist. Num r p. 457. J'ai ajoute a sa liste les n. 6, 9, 11. Le 
n. 7 n'estpas Demeter voilee, comme dit M. Head, mais Apollon 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, LNEDITES ET INCERTAINES. Ill 

genre en ordre chronologique d'apres le style du demi- 
cheval aile, qui forme le type du revers, on s'apercoit 
bientot que les pieces les plus ancieDnes sont celles qui 
portent : 1, Hercule enfant etouffant les serpents, type 
be*otien adopt par les villes confederees en 394, et, 2, 
Helle monte sur le belier. Le demi-cheval est tourne a 
droite, le carre* creux tres apparent. Sur les stateres 
suivants le cheval aile est tourne* a gauche et le carre" 
creux disparait de plus en plus. Les types sont : 3, 
The"tis sur un dauphin portant les armes d'Achille ; 4, 
Nike sacrifiant un belier ; 5, tete d'Helios sur son disque 
radie'; 6, tete jeunede femme (Nike?) ; 7, tete d'Apollon; 
8, tete voilee, couronnee de fleurs de grenade ? 9, tete 
couronnee de lierre, avec boucles d'oreille ; 10, tete de 
satrape ; 11, tete de Pallas ; 12, Nik^ erigeant un trophee; 
13, Gaia tenant des e*pis, aya\pa F?/9 iKerevovatjs veal 
ol TOV Ala, Pausan. I, 24, 3; 48 14, tete barbue portant 
un casque laure et pointu ; 15, tete de Zeus; 16, tete 
lauree de Nik ailee ; 17, tete de Menade couronnee de 
lierre avec boucles d'oreilles et collier et diademe royal 
(la reine-mere Olympias) ; 49 18, tete couronnee de lierre, 
avec boucles d'oreilles et collier, les oreilles de chevre ; 
19, tete d'Ammon de face ; 20, tete imberbe, qui me 
semble celle d'Achille, Tancetre d'Alexandre le grand, 
avec le profil du jeune roi lui-meme. 

Ces dernier s stateres, 17, 19, 20, nous menent a Tan 
331, quand Alexandre visita 1'oracle d'Ammon et fut 
declare fils de ce dieu egyptien et a Fan 334, quand 

48 Drexler, en Roscher's Lexik. d. Griech. u. Rom. Mythol. 
I, p. 1577, 1581, 

49 Droysen, Gresch. des Hellen. I, 1, p. 90, " In den 
nachtlichen Orgien sah man sie vor Allen in wilder Begeis- 
terung durch die Berge stiirmen." Plutarque, Alex. c. 2. 



112 KUMISMAT1C CHRONICLE. 

Lampsaque fut epargnee par Alexandre, a la requete 
d'Anaximene. 50 La ville avait done une raison toute 
speciale de rendre hommage au jeune roi, en placant sur 
ces stateres la tete de sa mere Olympias, divinisee eu 
Menade, celle de son pere Ammon, et la sienne propre, 
idealisee en Achille, dont il se disait descendre. 

Ces vingt stateres dateraient done de 394 a 330 
environ et la tete de satrapa, n. 10, se placerait au-milieu 
de cette periode, vers 360. Or, en 362, en 352 et en 348 
les textes et les inscriptions mentionnent un satrape du 
nom d'Orontas, qui d'abord se revolta centre Artaxerxes, 
avec lequel il se reconcilia plus tard et qui parait s'etre 
maintenu assez longtemps en Mysie, aux environs de 
Pergame, et y avoir install^ une petite dynastie inde- 
pendante. 51 

Les monnaies d'Oronte, en argent et en bronze, ont 
pour revers un demi-cheval aile, tout-a-fait pareil a celui 
du statere d'or. De plus les bronzes du plus petit 
module offrent au droit la meme tete de satrape et, 
d'apres mon exemplaire, avec le meme profil. 52 



60 Ibid. p. 188. 

51 Waddington, Rev. Num., 1863, p. 286 suiv. ; Krumbholz, 
1. c. p. 75, n. 2 ; Diodore, XV, 91 (362) O< 8' afao-TyKOTcs TOV 
y3ao-iXeo)s elXovro <TT par^y ov 'Opovrrjv. OVTOS Se 7ra/oaA.a^3o>i/ 
rt\v ^ye/xoviav KOL xprjpara irpos ^evoXo-y/av, SwfJivptQts o-Tpartwrats 
fViav<Tiov /u,io-Sov, iyevf.ro Trpo^orrjs TOOV TrioTttxrai/Tan'. 'YiroXafiuv 
yap Trapa TOV /SacriXecos Swpcwv re /teyaAcuv rcv^eo-^at KOLL r^s irapa- 
SaXarriov TrdfTijs irapaXi/j{f/ea$ai rrjv o-arpaTrtav, etc." Inscr. de 
Pergame, Die Ergebn. d. Ausgrab. zu Peryamon, 18831886, 
p. 56 :^ 'Opovr^s 8c 'Aprao-v(pou, TO yeVjos BaKrpios, aTroaras ctTro 
' - 



etc. EtTa'Opovr^s (rr)j/ TroXtv )7rt(rpev//as ' 

Polyen VII, 14, 2, 3, 4 : 'OpoVrijs ei/ Kvpy Traperalero Avro<J>pa- 

IdTT) avTOS X< V f-vp/ovs OTrXtVas "EXXrjvas. 

62 Iinhoof, Monn. Grecg. p. 246, 247, n. 89, 95 95 6 . 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, TNEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 113 

Pourquoi done ne reconnaitrions nous pas la tete 
d'Oronte sur le statere de Lampsaque ? Meme en ad- 
mettant que cette ville n'ait pas ete en son pouvoir et que 
la plupart de ses monnaies aient ete f rappees a Adramytion, 
comme le propose M. Imhoof, 53 il n'y a rien qui s'oppose, 
a mon avis, a croire, avec M. Krumbholz, 54 que le dynaste 
.ait fait executer, a ses frais, dans 1'atelier de Lampsaque, 
les stateres d'or dont il avait besoin pour la solde de ses 
troupes, d'autant plus que les dariques royales ont du lui 
faire defaut, tant que dura son insurrection. 

Reste a expliquer comment il se fait que le profil 
d'Oronte ressemble tant a celui de Tissapherne que M. 
Waddington ait cru voir dans les deux portraits un seul 
et meme personnage. 

Ce n'esfc pas si j'ai bien compris M. Imhoof, 55 parce 
que les graveurs de ce temps avaient une tete de barbare 
ideale, dont ils se servaient en Mysie comme en Carie, en 
Lycie comme en Cilicie, quand il s'agissait de representer 
un dynaste indigene ou un noble Perse, mais plutot, il 
me semble, parcequ'Oronte, comme Tissapherne, etaient 
issus des families les plus nobles, toutes plus ou moins 
apparentees avec les Achemenides et qu'ils avaient par la 
un air de famille, qui doit avoir rendu difficile aux 
Grecs de les distinguer a premiere vue et qui nous oblige 
parfois EI y regarder de bien pres pour ne pas les con- 
fondre. 

Pourtant je ne crois pas me tromper en separant le 

63 Ibid. p. 245248. 

54 1. c. p. 75 n. 2. Nummi autem illi Lampsaceni nihil pro- 
bant, cum satrapa, qui defecerat et exercitui praeerat, facile in 
alius satrapise urbe nunimos facere posset. 

55 Portrait^, p. 4, 22. Je ne vois aucune ressemblance entre 
le portrait de Tissapherne et celui de Pharnabaze, ib. T. Ill, 
1,2. 

VOL. VIIT. THIRD SERIES. Q 



114 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

statere d'Oronte, qui date, comme les pieces en argent 
et en bronze a son nom, du milieu du 4 e siecle, d'avec les 
Emissions en argent de Tissapherne, qui me paraissent 
etre d'un demi-siecle au moins plus anciennes. D'autant 
plus que la coiffure est essentiellement differente. Les 
satrapes fi deles au grand roi, Pharnabaze, Tissapherne, 
nouent la tiare autour du menton, selon Tetiquette perse. 
Chez les dynastes et les satrapes revoltes ? les bouts 
de la coiffure pendent librement le long du cou. Aussi 
le dynaste de Cilicie, Tarcomos, ne se couvre le menton, 
si j'ai bien vu, que depuis qu'il est investi de la dignite 
de satrape perse. 56 

Enfin, c'est encore la tete d'Oronte que je voudrais 
reconnaitre sur une hecte de 2 gr. 50 de ma collection, 57 
qui d'apres le style et le carre creux me semble avoir etc* 
frappee dans 1'atelier de Phocee, quoique le petit phoque 
usuel ne paraisse pas, peut-etre parceque ce n'est pas une 
monnaie autonome de la ville. 



IY. Issos. 

18. Partie anterieure de lion, la gueule beante, & gauche ; 
la patte gauche est seule exprimee. 

Rev. Carre creux, a fond brut et inegal, divise en deux 
triangles par une large barre. 

M Imhoof, Portraitk. T. Ill, 3 5. La monnaie de Spithri- 
date, que M. Wroth vient de publier plus haut, p. 17, PI. 1, 14, 
est venue a ma connaissance trop tard pour m'en servir dans 
cet article. Elle parait posterieure aux emissions d'Oronte et 
frappee dans la meme localite, Adramytion, ou peut-etre lolla, 
dont Spithridate aurait ete dynaste, en meme temps ou avant 
qu'il etait satrape d'lonie et de Lydie vers 334. 

57 Incorrectement gravee Zeitschr.f. Num. VI, 1879, p. 98, 
1 J- 111, 4lo. 



MCXNNAIES GEECQUES, IN&DITES ET INCKRTA1NES. 115 

M 4J/4. 10,68. Brit. Mus., Cat. Whittall, 1884, n. 1070, 
Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1885, p. 10, PI. I, 10, 1 ; 
Gardner, ibid. 1886, p. 259, n. 1. 

14. Aulre, la barre moins large, et le fond divise en losanges 

par des lignes qui se croiseut. 

M 6/5. 10,82. Cab. de Munich. PI. V, 8. 
4. 10,24. Brit. Mus., Greenwell, I. c. p. 10, 2, PI. I, 
11. 

Ces deux exemplaires sont de coin different. 

15. Type du n. 13 et de meme style, mais les deux pattes 

du lion sont exprimees. 

Rev. Homme barbu, vetu d'un chiton court, retenu par 
une ceinture, debout, a droite, et percant d'une longue 
lance un lion dresse* devant lui. En haut et en bas 



M /> I 



tout dans un carre creux profond. 



Au milieu du champ, ft dans une contrernarque 
ronde. Sur le bord du statere, O dans une contre- 
niarque oblongue. ^^ 

M 6/4. 10,60. Ma coll. PI. V, 9. 

La derniere lettre de la legende I ^^ A I ON est a peine 
visible ; pourtant il semble que ce soit un N plutot 
qu'un 2. 

Les stateres, n. 13 et 14, ont ete classes a Cnidos dans 
le catalogue Whittall et par M. Greenwell qui les publia le 
premier ; mais cette attribution n'a pas paru satisfaisante 
a M. Gardner, /. c. t ni a M. Head, Hist. Num. p. 523, n. 1. 

En effet, quoique le type convienne a Cnidos, ou un 
lion fort semblable, mais presque toujours tourne a droite, 
se voit sur la plupart des monnaies archai'ques de la ville, 
le poids est fort au-dessous de celui d'environ 12 gr., 
usite a Cnide et a Chersonese, 58 et le carre creux difiere 

88 Chersonesos : 12 gr. 59, Cab. de France, Mion. VI, p. 630 n. 
128, Eec. PL L, 5 ; 12 gr. 57, Mus. de Berlin, Beschreib. d. 



116 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

entitlement, comme M. Greenwell 1'a remarqu^ lui- 
merne, de ceux qu'on rencontre sur les monnaies cari- 
enties. 

Par contra, le poids de 10 gr. 82 re*pond exactement a 
celui des stateres ciliciens 59 et le lion, quoiqu'il soit peut- 
etre copie d'apres les monnaies cnidiennes, est tellement 
semblable au meme animal represente sur le statere inedit 
d'Issos, decrit sous le n. 15, qu'il n'est pas necessaire, 
ce me semble, de chercher d'autres arguments, pour pro- 
poser Issos de Cilicie au lieu de Cnidos de Carie comme 
lieu d'emission de ces rares stateres anepigraphes. 

Le singulier carre creux, tout couvert de losanges qui 
rappellent 1'ecusson de Baviere, se comprend mieux aussi au 
fin fond de la Cilicie qu'en Carie ou il n'a pas d'analogie. 

Le statere, n. 15, est le premier qui nous donne 1'eth- 
nique d'Issos, tel que Findique Etienne de Byzance : 
'lcr<709, TroXts fjiera^v ^vpias xal Kf\f KICLS G0 6 TroX/T^s" 
'Iffaaios, et par consequent la premiere monnaie autonome 
certaine de la ville. Toutes celles qui ont ete publiees 
jusqu'ici ont pour legende I $^ IKON 61 en signe qu'elles 

antik. Munz. I, 1888, p. 249, 1 ; Prokesch, Ined. 1859, p. 5; 
11 gr. 88, Brit. Mus., Head, Guide, p. 6, n. 26. Cnidos: 
11 gr. 70, Inihoof, Monn. grecq. p. 309, n. 44. Les hemi- 
stateres montent jusqu'a 6 gr. 34, Imhoof, I. c. p. 308, n. 36. 
D'uii autre cote, le poids de 10 gr. 82 est trop eleve pour con- 
venir a la Lycie a laquelle M. Gardner a pense. 

59 Celenderis, 10 gr. Sl.Nagidos, 10 gr. 78. Soli, 10 gr. 88. 
Brandis, p. 498, 499. 

Xenophon, Anabas. I, iv. 1. e t s 'IcrrrowT^s KtXi/c/ag 



7roA.tv, 7rt TJ) SaXaTTrj oiKovptvrjv fJicyaXrjv KCU cvocu/tova. Du temps 
d'Herodote (V, 52), la Cilicie s'etendait, du cote de 1'Armeme 
jusqu'a 1'Euphrate et (III, 92) au sud jusqu'a Poseidion, et 
par consequent bien au-dela d'Issos. 

31 Sur le statere, a types communs ^ au moins quatre villes 
ciliciennes, decrit par M. Head, Hist. Num. p. 604, IZ peut 
etre complete en IZZIKON tout aussi bien qu'en 
PI. V, n. 10. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 117 

furent e*mises d Tssos sous 1'autorite d'un dynaste ou d'un 
des satrapes commandant I'arnie'e perse et non, comme le n. 
15, par les citoyens d'une ville libre, en vertude leur droit de 
battre monnaie. 62 Elles sont d'un siecle posterieures a celles- 
ci, qui, malgr leur aspect fort archa'ique, ne me semblent 
pourtant pas aussi anciennes qu'elles en ont 1'air au pre- 
mier abord. 

Le carre creux est trop orne pour etre de beaucoup 
anterieur au 5 e siecle. Le n. 15 porteune legende grecque 
et convient le mieux a 1'epoque ou Xerxes confia a 
un grec, Xenagoras d'Halicarnasse, le gouvernement de 
la, Cilicie, 63 ou, apres le bataille de 1'Eurymedon, la sym- 
machie athenienne avait acquis sa plus grande extension, 
et ou la flotte d'Athenes, sous Cimon, venait en aide au 
roi d'Egypte, assiegait les villes de Cypre et battait les 
navires pheniciens et ciliciens que lui opposaient les 
Perses. C'est done dans la premiere moitie du 5 e siecle 
que je voudrais placer cette petite serie. 

Elle ne consiste encore qu'en stateres. Les divisions 
apparaitront, sans doute, des qu'on aura recherche parmi 
les pieces incertaines, au type d'un lion, qui se trouvent 
dans toutes les collections, celles que le style et le poids 
permettront de classer a Issos. 

Le type, au revers du n. 15, n'est pas difficile a recon- 
naitre. C'est un chasseur qui tue un lion d'un coup de 
lance. On voit un chasseur pareil, vetu de me me, accom- 
pagner le roi qui chasse les lions, monte sur un char, sur 
le basrelief, trouve a Saktchegheuksou, non loin d'lssos, 



62 C'est M. Waddington qui a determine le sens de ces dif- 
ferentes formes des legendes ciliciennes. Eev. Num. 1856, 
p. 60. 

63 Herodote, IX, 107. 



118 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

decrit et figure* dans Perrot et Chipiez, Hist, de VArt, IV. 
p. 534, 553555, vign. n. 279. 

Ce n'est done pas un roi 64 ou dynaste, qui d'ailleurs 
est represente tout differemment tant sur le basrelief que 
sur les monnaies de Tarse et sur celles que j'ai propose" 
de classer a Sidon. La, le roi, reconnaissable a son cos- 
tume et a sa tiare, perce le lion, debout devant lui, de son 
glaive. 65 Ce n'est pas non plus, comme a Tarse, 66 Hercule 
qui e*toufie le lion de ses bras, ou qui I'assomme de sa 
inassue et qui, coinme d'autres divinite*s orientales, par sa 
force surhumaine, se joue des betes fauves et les enleve en 
les tenant suspendues par la queue. 

Pourtant ce ne doit pas etre un chasseur ordinaire, 
mais plutot le heros phenicien, eponyme des chasseurs, 
qui est mentionne* dans les extraits de Sanchoniathon, 
traduit par Philon de Byblos, que nous a conserves Eusebe, 
Praep. Evang. I. 10 : XpoVots 1 5e varepov TroXXo?? a?ro 
'\^rovpaviov yevea.9 yevea^ai 'A<y/9ea Kal 'AXtea, 
ciypav KOL a\ieia.9 evperas, e wv K\vfit]vai aypevras 
ical aXteiV. C'est cet Agreus, en phenicien "T^, Sad ou 
Sid, a ce qu'il parait, 67 Tinventeur de la chasse, que je crois 

64 A moins que le sujet ne soit empruute a un tableau pareil 
a celui qui se voyait, forme de briques emaillees, sur le mur de 
1'enceinte interieure du palais royal a Babylone. II represen- 
tait une grande chasse de toutes sortes d'animaux. Semiramis, 
a cheval, lan^ait un javelot centre une pan there, et Ninos, & 
pied, percait un lion de sa lance, NtVos TratW IK \eipbs Xeoi/ra 
\6yxy- I)iodore, II, 8, d'apres Ctesias. Le meme chasseur se 
retrouve sur un petit objet en or et sur un des poignards 
provenants des fouilles de Mycenes. Schliemann, MykentB, 
p. 202, Fig. n. 253 ; L. Mitchell, Hist, of Anc. Sculpt. 1883, 
p. 155, Fig. 80 ; Perrot, Bull, de Corr. Hell. X, 1886, p. 341 
suiv. PL II, 3. 

65 Head, Coins of Lydia and Persia, PI. II, 7, 10, 17, III, 
4, 6, 11, 12; Num. Chron., 1877, p. 202, 2 ; 1884, p. 153, 4. 

65 Ibid., 1884, p. 152, 2, 3; PL V, 1, p. 156, 15. 

67 Vogue, Mel. d'arch. Orient, Suppl. p. 38 : " Les conimen- 



MONNAIES GRECQTJES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 119 

repre*sente sur le statere, de preference a Ousoos qui, 
d'apres Sandioniathon, inventa de se vetir de la peau des 
animaux sauvages dont il parvenait a s'emparer et dont 
le sang lui servait de libation aux steles qu'il avait erigees 
et devant lesquelles il se prosternait. Qvaoov, 09 
rw awjjLaTi Trpwros iit cep/uLaTcw wv ta^vae 
wv evpe' aviepwaai 8e ari'jXas KCU 
8e aTTcv'tieiv aura?? c wv tfrypeve < &rjptwv- Car ces 
animaux, offerts en sacrifice, n'etaient probablement pas 
des lions, mais des betes moins feroces et plus faciles a 
saisir dans des pieges ou des fosses, tandis qu'une chasse 
plus importante et plus perilleuse est representee sur le 
statere d'Issos. 

Quoique cette ville n'etait pas situee en Phenicie meme, 
elle n'en etait pas fort eloignee et la ville voisine, Myri- 
andos, etait habitee par des Pheniciens. 68 On peut done 
bien admettre que les divinites et les heros qu'on 
venerait a Issos, ne differaient guere de ceux que 
Sancnoniathon attribue aux Pneniciens. 69 



tateurs de Sanchoniathon ont remarque que le mot 'AAuus etait 
la traduction de ps (Hebr. 1*11^), dieu eponyme de la ville de 
Sidon, dont le nom signifie pecheur, peche. 'Ay/aevs, traduction 
de TSi chasseur, paraissait un pleonasme ; DOS inscriptions 
prouvent que le texte original portait bien la mention de deux 
personnages divins distincts, 1'un du nom de is, Tsid, 1'autre 
du nom de pS, Tsidon" Le nom du dieu 12 entre dans 
la composition de plusieurs noms propres puniques, "TS3.IT, 
^n^lS* ISnn. "TS1D3?, Corp. inscr. semit. I, n. 102a, 135, 184, 
235, 302, etc. ; voir la note an n. 102a, p. 123 : " Quinam 
autem sit ille deus (is, Sad), incertum. Eenan 'Aypea Kat 
'AAtea illos a Philone Bybliensi memoratos Phoenicio sermoue 
pS*) IS, hue referendos putat. Habes quoque in fragmentis 
Sanchoniathonis SaStSov." 

68 Xenoph. Anab. I, iv. 6 : ets Mvp/av8pov TTU\LV 

V7TO QotVlKW CTTt T"fj ^aXaTTT/, IfJLTTOplOV ft'ty TO ^(OptO 

c. 102 : MvpmvSos &oiviK<Dv. 

69 Imhoof, Monn. yrecq. p. 860, a propos des divinites ailees 
sur les monnaies de Mallos. 



120 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Le type du cbasseur de lions se retrouve, mais traite 
dans un style beaucoup plus recent, sur une petite mon- 
naie dont je me suis deja occupe plus d'une fois, mais 
sans pouvoir en determiner le lieu d'emission. 

16. Tete barbue a droite. Devant ^ (to). Peut-etre le por- 
trait d'un dynaste. 

jfet,. Personnage nu, s'avancant a droite, vers un lion 
dresse devant lui, qu'il perce de sa lance. Dessous 

^l 1. 0,52. Coll. Imboof, Monn. grecq. p. 448, n. 52, 
Clwix, PI. VII, 230; Num. Chron. 1877, p. 211, 7, 
1878, p. 123, 1, PI. VI, 7. 

Si cette obole est d'Issos, comme le type le fait supposer, 
les lettres to et ^to pourraient etre considerees comme les 
initiales du nom d'un dynaste, car le nom de la ville 
parait avoir ete ^ F*\\~> U^> Ssissos. C'est du moins 
ce que je crois voir sur le statere public par M. Imboof, 
Monn. grecq. p. 355, n. 24% PL F, 21. Les Grecs, chez 
qui un nom ne pouvait commencer par un double S, en 
auront fait Issos, pour Ississos, comme les LXX ont 
rendu y% 2 Cbr. 20, 16, par 'Aao-eis. 

Cette obole, qui ne porte plus de traces d'un carre 
creux, date sans doute du quatrieme siecle, comme lea 
autres monnaies d'Issos, publiees jusqu'ici, que M. Head 
a e*numerees. 70 Leur poids, 10 gr. 70 et 10 gr. 82, reste 
toujours celui des anciens stateres et confirmeainsi 1'attri- 
bution proposee pour les n. 13 et 14. 

Issos ne parait plus avoir battu monnaie depuis la 



70 Hist. Num. p. 604, ou il faut lire 165 et 167 au lieu de 166 
et 168 164 gr. Voir aussi Imhoof, Monn. grecq. p. 355 n. 24, 
24a, et Von Sallet, Zeitschr. f. Num. TV. p. 145, 10 gr. 40, 
fruste. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 121 

fondation de Nicopolis 71 par Alexandre en memoire de la 
victoire qu'il remporta pres d'Issos sur Darius. Aussi le 
nom d'Issos ne parait plus sur les monnaies que dans la 
legende AASHANAPeilN KAT 1C CON d'une suite 
de bronzes de 1'epoque imperiale. 72 

Y._CYPRE. 

17. Figure nue, 73 sans indication de sexe masculin, munie 
d'ailes aux talons et de grandes ailes recoquillees aux 
epaules, marchant a droite, la main gauche etendue. 
Style archa'ique. 

Rev. Taureau debout a droite ; au-dessus A. Le tout 
dans un carre creux borde de perles. 

M 5/3. 11,60. Ma coll. PI. V, n. 11. 

II est dommage que la tete et le bras droit de la deesse 
ne soient pas venus a la frappe et qu'il soit incertain, par 
consequent, si la tete etait en profil ou de face et si le 
bras droit etait baisse ou etendu. 

Pourtant il est vraisemblable que le bras manquant 
etait dans la meme position que 1'autre, si on compare 
une figure tres ressemblante qui se voit sur un Cyzicene 
environ contemporain 74 et qui pourrait bien etre imitee 
de celle-ci, suivant la coutume a Cyzique de copier les 
types monetaires, meme des villes les plus eloignees, avec 
1'addition, s'entend, d'un ou de deux thons, le vrai type 
de Cyzique. Malheureusement cette figure est trop peu 
distincte pour pouvoir servir a expliquer celle-ci. 

71 Steph. Byz., v. 'lo-o-os, identifie Nicopolis avec Issos. 

72 Head, Hist. Num. p. 598. 

73 Une ligne a travers la poitrine, qu'on pourrait prendre 
pour une ceinture, ne provient que d'une cassure du coin, dont 
les traces se laissent poursuivre le long du bras jusqu'au bout 
des doigts. 

74 Greenwell, Num. Chron. 1887, PI. Ill, 10. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. R 



122 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Aussi je laisse volontiers a d'autres le soin de chercher 
un nom a donner a cette deesse que ses sandales ailees 
semblent caracteriser comme un messager des dieux et je 
me borne a noter qu'une deesse ailee et nue, mais dans 
une pose toute differente, se voit sur un bas-relief decouvert 
a Djerablus 75 et que, d'apres Sancnoniathon, 76 tous les 
dieux pheniciens etaient muriis d'ailes pour pouvoir suivre 
le dieu supreme, Cronos, dans son vol a travers 1'espace. 

Ce qui me parait le plus remarquable c'est que la 
deesse Cypriote, malgre ses ailes levees et ses bras 
etendus, ne semble pas bouger de place. C'est environ 
la pose de la Nike sur un tres ancien tetradrachme de 
Syracuse, 77 qui date comme le statere Cypriote du com- 
mencement du 5 e siecle. Evidemment le graveur n'avait 
pas encore appris des sculpteurs de Chios, Micciades et 
Arcnermos, 1'art de representer une figure volante 78 et 
se bornait, suivant les traditions de Tart oriental, a 
indiquer par le nombre des ailes, la plus ou moins grande 
vitesse de la course des divinites. 

Le caractere Cypriote A, A-O ou ry , concourt avec le 
poids pour faire classer ce statere archaique a une des 
villes de Cypre. Le meme signe se lit au-dessus d'un 
taureau cornupete sur des stateres plus recents, 79 et sur 
des monnaies en or d'Evagoras I de Salamine. 80 II est 
done peu probable que cet A soit Tinitiale d'un nom de 
roi ; c'est plutot le nom d'une ville, que ce soit Golgoi, 
Corone ou une autre. 

75 Perrot et Chipiez, Hist, de Vart, IV, p. 808, Fig. 390. 
6 Sanchon. p. 38, Orelli. Tot S 8^ XOLTTO^ ^eols gv'o blurr 



pco/iara eVt TWV tf/xwi/, (o? OTL $rj awL-nravTO rw Kpoi/w. 

7 Head, Guide, PL 9, 35. 

6 Petersen, Mitth. d. D. Arch. Inst. am Athen. 1886, p. 386. 
' 9 Rev. Num. 1883, p. 305, n 11 
80 Ibid, p. 280. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET 1NCERTAINES. 123 

VI. BAALRAM, ROI DE CITIUM. 

Plusieurs inscriptions et quelques monnaies, re*cemment 
de'couvertes, sont venues eclaircir quelque peu 1'histoire 
encore bien obscure des rois pheniciens de Citium et me 
permettent de rectifier, sur plusieurs points, le classement 
propose dans la Revue Numismatique de 1883, 81 pour les 
monnaies anterieures an roi Pumiaton. 

La premiere inscription, copiee en Mars 1887 par 
M. Onefalsch Richter a Dali, a e'te' publiee, plus ou 
moins completement, par M. Ph. Berger, 82 M. Pierides, 83 et 
par M. J. Euting. 84 II y est dit qu'en Tan III de son 
regne, Baal(melek), roi de Citium et d'Idalie, fils du roi 
Azbaal, roi de Citium et d'Idalie, fils du roi Baalmelek, 
roi de Citium, offrit un objet en cuivre repousse (une 
vasque) a la deesse Anath. 

La seconde moitie du nom de 1'auteur de la dedicace est 
tres indistincte sur la pierre. M. Berger a restitue Baal- 
melek, ^bab^n, MM. Richter, 85 Pierides et Euting ont pre- 
fere Baalra?7?, rrhyz. Mais M. Euting a bien voulu m'in- 
former qu'un nouvel examen a conduit MM. Richter et 
Pierides a reconnaitre que la lecon m, ram, ne Concorde 
pas avec ce qui reste des lettres et que lui-meme prefere 
en ce moment Baalwe'M*. 86 

L'examen attentif des monnaies royales de Citium m'a 
conduit a la meme conclusion. 



81 Revue Numism. 1883, p. 324337, n. 649. 

82 Comptes rendus de fAcad. des inscr. et belles-lettres, 1887, 
p. 203 210. (Tirag9 a part : Mem. s. deux nouv. inscr. phenic. 
de Chypre, p. 1522.) 

83 Academy, 23 Apr. et 7 Mai, 1887, p. 293 et 329. 

84 Sitzungsber. d. Berl Akad. d. Wiss. 1887, p. 420422. 
i5 Comptes-rendus, 1. c. p. 205, n. 1. 

88 Voir maintenant Berger, Meinoire cite, p. 30. 



124 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Celles qui portent le nom de Baalmelek se divisent en 
deux groupes distincts. Le premier est forme par les 
pieces, de style archa'ique, qui ont au revers un lion 
accronpi* 1 et ne peut etre attribue qu'au premier Baal- 
melek, pere du roi Azbaal. 

Le second groupe consiste en monnaies, au revers d'un 
claim attaque par un lion, 88 de style plus recent, dont la 
plupart ressemblent tellement aux monnaies d j Azbaal, 
aux memes types, 89 qu'on les dirait contemporaines et 
gravees par les memes artistes et qu'il ne parait pas, au 
premier abord, si elles sont anterieures ou posterieures 90 a 
son regne et si, par consequent, il faut les assigner a son 
pere Baalmelek ou a un fils d'Azbaal qui aurait porte le 
nom de son grand-pere. 

La seule difference que j'ai pu constater c'est que, sur 
quelques pieces non sur toufces, comme la planche du 
Due de Luynes 91 pourrait le faire supposer les lettres 
37 et n sont ouvertes par en haut, detail qui ne se voit ni 
sous Azbaal, ni sur les monnaies de Baalram dont il sera 
question tantot, mais qui semble etre 1'indice d'une epoque 
assez recente. 

II est aussi plus rationnel d'admettre que le changement 
de type ait eu lieu au commencement du regne d' Azbaal 
apres la conquete d'Idalie, que pendant le regne de son 
pere qui n'etuit roi que de Citium. 

87 Revue Num. 1883, p. 324327, n. 619. 

' 8 Ibid, p. 327329, n. 2127. Le D. 20, s'il est de Baal- 
melek, conviendrait mieux au second roi de ce nom qu'au 
premier. 

>i*v^ e p - 3 3 330) D - 28> 29; Lu ^ nes ' 8atr "P- et Panicle, 
ri. AY, do 40. 

" M. de Yogue place Azbaal avant Baalmelek, Rev. Num. 
#7, p. 368, Mel. d'Arch. Orient. App. p. 7, mais les stateres 
au type du lion accroupi ne lui ctaient pas encore connus 
Luynes, Satrap. PI. XIV, n. 22 25 bis 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, 1NED1TES ET INCERTAINES. 125 

Heureusement que quelques rares stateres de Baalmelek 
permettent de decider la question. Us font voir, en 
meme temps, qu'un roi de ce nom a eu pour successeur 
immediat le roi Baalram, 92 comme il a succede lui-meme a 
Azbaal. M. Berger a done vu juste en donnant au fils 
d'Azbaal le nom de son grand-pere. 

Ces stateres qui ne proviennent pas, comme ceux de 
Baalmelek I, de la grande trouvaille de Dali, mais dont 
un exemplaire a ete recueilli au meme lieu dans un petit 
tresor de date plus recente, 93 ou il n'y avait pas d'autre 
statere, se distinguent par une croix ansee placee dans le 
champ du droit et par leur style, bien superieur a celui 
des autres stateres de Baalmelek et d'Azbaal. Us se 
relient par la aux monnaies de Baalram, qui ont le meme 
symbole et sont du meme style. En voici la description. 

BAALMELEK II. 

18. Hercule, revetu de la peau de lion, marchant a droite, 

tenant de la main gauche etendue 1'arc et brandis- 
sant de la droite levee la massue. Devant lui croix 
ansee. 

Rev. Lion, a droite, attaquant un daim, couch e a droite ; 
au-dessus y/vy4 o<J^, (ibftb 37 H 1 /) ; le tout dans 
un carre creux borde de perles. Beau style. 

M 6/5. 10,90. Coll. Imhoof. 94 

19. Autre, . . -fA o . , (-p)EM-n(b). 

92 Quand j'ai place Baalram aprds Demonicus, Zeltschr.f. 
Numism. XIV, 1886, p. 144, je ne savais pas encore que 
Melekiaton a regne 30 ans au-moins. 

93 Num. Ghron. 1871, p. 13. 

94 Sur 1'exemplaire du Cab. de France, Luyn. Satrap. Pi. XIV, 
22, du reste tout pareil, 1'arc et le symbole ne paraissent pas 
etre visibles. 



126 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Al 5. 11,01. Brit. Mus. Num.. Chron., 1871, p. 17 n. 1. 
Rev. Num., 1883, p. 827 n. 21, trouvaille de Dali. 
10,48 fruste. Ma coll. Cat. Badeigs de La Borde, 
n. 512 ; Rev. Num. 1. c. n. 22, incorrectement. 



20. Autre, 

Al 2. Drachme. Luynes, Clioix, PL XI, 13. 

BAALRAM. 

21. Memes types et probablement meine syrubole ; 

^\L c 9 _ Z-, n-ibsn-b. 

M 5. 11,05. M. Sorlin-Dorigny, Rev. Num., 1884, p. 290 
vign. 



22. Autre, wwww? symbole, 

^ 2. 3,50. Ma coll., Rev. Num. 1883 /. c. n. 23. 

23. Autre, me me symbole, sans Uyende. 

M 2. 1,80. Ma coll., Rev. Num. 1. c. n. 30 ; Num. Chron. 
1871, p. 17, n. 5, 6. 

24. Tete d'Hercule, dans la peau de lion, a droite. 

Rev. Meme revers, sans legende. 

M 1. 0,97 ; 0,90 ; Rev. Num. 1. c. n. 31 ; Num. Chr. I. c. n. 7, 10. 
1. 0,500,33 n. 32 ,, n. 8. 

i. 0,24, 0,20 n. 33 n. 9. 

Ces divisions, qui proviennent du meme depot que le 
n. 14, me semblent de trop beau style pour les classer au 
regne precedent. L'absence de legende s'explique par 
Fexiguite du flan. 

25. Hercule combattant du n. 18. Meme symbole. 



Rev. Mme revers, 
Meme beau style. 

M 4^. 10,92. Coll. de M. Irnhoof, a 1'amitie duquel je 
dois le plaisir de pouvoir publier cette monnaie im- 
portante. PI. V, n. 12. 



MONNAIES GRECQTTES, INEDITES' ET INCERTAINES. 127 

Quoique plusieurs de ces legendes soient incompletes, 
elles se laissent pourtant toutes restituer avec certitude. 

Sur le statere n. 25 et la drachme n 22, il n'y a place 
apres le b que pour deux lettres dont la premiere est a 
moitie visible ; il faut done lire Baal raw. Sur le statere 
n. 19, par contre, il y a place pour trois lettres et il reste 
assez de la premiere pour s'assurer que c'est un to. En 
outre, la maniere dont la legende est divisee d'ordinaire 
par le bois du daim, est diffe rente sous les trois regnes. 
En rangeant les empreintes que M. Head et M. Imhoof 
ont bien voulu me donner, en ordre cnronologique, 
d'apres la difference ou 1'identite des coins, j'ai obtenu le 
resultat suivant : bsn-rob, bint-^b, bsQT^-b ; -fbfcbsnb. 

lbtob-3?nb, -fbab^-nb ; nnbsn-b, Dnbrrn-bab. On pent 

done, meme quand les lettres finales font defaut, dis- 
tinguer les emissions de Baalme'lek de celles de Baalram. 

II resulte des monnaies qui viennent d'etre decrites 
que Baalram a d'abord suivi la coutume de ses prede- 
cesseurs qui, quoique rois, ne s'intitulent pas ainsi sur 
leurs monnaies, et qu'il n'a place son titre que sur ses 
emissions posterieures, exemple suivi par ses successeurs 
Melekiaton et Pumiaton. C'est ce que nous ignorions 
encore et c'est le statere de M. Imhoof qui nous 1'apprend. 

II s'en suit aussi que ce roi Baalram n'est pas le Baal- 
ram, pere de Melekiaton. que mentionnent les inscriptions 
idaliennes de la II e et III 6 annee de ce roi, 95 et qui ne 
porte aucun titre. Ce n'est pas non plus, comme le sup- 
pose M. Sorlin-Dori gn 3^, Yanax Baalram, fils d'Abdimilcon 
(Abdmelek), qui dedie une statue la IY e annee 96 et qui a 
ete identifie par M. Renan avec le pere du roi. 97 

95 Corp. inscr. Scmit. I, p. 106, n. 90 et p. 101, n. 88. 

96 Ibid. p. 104, n. 89. 

97 Ibid. p. 106. 



128 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

A moms done de supposer que le roi Baalram ait ete 
oblige par une revolution ou par ordre du roi de Perse 
d'abdiquer en faveur de son fils, ce qui me parait peu 
probable, vu que son fils lui aurait toujours conserve* 
son titre dans les inscriptions, il vaut mieux, ce me 
semble, admettre que Baalram est mort, apres un regne 
fort court, d'apres la rarete' de ses monnaies, sans 
laisser de fils, et qu'il a ete succede par son plus procbe 
parent, et son gendre ? 98 Melekiaton, issu d'un autre 
Baalram, cousin " peut-etre du roi defunt. 

Si ce second Baalram est a identifier avec I 9 anax Baal- 
ram, comme Tadmet M. Renan, son pere Abdmelek pour- 
rait etre considere comme le fils cadet de Baalmelek I et 
nous obtlendrions la genealogie suivante, ou les mots Baal 
et Melek alternent d'une facon tres reguliere. 

Les dates appose'es seront discutees plus loin. 

(470) (450) Roi Baalmelek I. 
I 

(450) (425) Roi Azbaal. Abdmelek. 

(425) (405) Roi Baalmelek II. Anax Baalram. 

(405) 394 Roi Baalram. 

393362 Fffle?- Roi Melekiaton. 

387suiv. RoiDemonicus. 

I 
361312 R, 



38 Si Melekiaton n'avait pas ete le gendre du roi, on ne voit 
pas pourquoi il aurait succede au trone de preference a son 
pere qui vivait encore. 



anax est en Cypre le titre des fils et des freres du 
roi, il ne m'a pas semble trop hardi de voir en Baalram le petit- 
nls du premier Baalmelek. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET 1NCERTAI3ES. 129 

Les inscriptions publics dans le Corpus inscr. Semitic. 
ne mentionnent que la 2 e , 3 e , 4 e et 6 e anne*e du regne de 
Melekiaton et comme les monnaies qui portent son nom 
sont peu nombreuses et ne sont point datees, j'ai cru 
autrefois pouvoir bonier eon regne a ces six annees et le 
placer entre 368 et 362. 10 Depuis, deux nouvelles in- 
scriptions bilingues, trouvees en 1885 a Tamassos, sont 
venues me tirer d'erreur. 101 L'une est datee de 1'an 17, ou 
plus probablement 18 ou 19, 1'autre de 1'an 30 du roi. Mele*- 
kiaton a done compte au-moins 30 ans de regne et comme 
1'accession de son fils Pumiaton tombe en 361, ainsi que 
j'ai tache de le deinontrer, 102 le pere est a placer d'avant 
392 a 362. 

Comment se fait-il que nous n'ayons que si peu de 
monnaies pour un si long regne ? 

La vraie cause me semble avoir ete indiquee, plutot 
qu'exposee, par M. Euting. 103 En 387, les Atbeniens, 
sous le commandement de Chabrias, aiderent Evagoras I 
a se rendre maitre de 1'ile entiere. 104 C'est alors que le roi 
de Citium aura ete detrone' et remplace par un grec, 
designe par le roi de Salamine et il ne sera parvenu 



100 Rev. Num. 1883, p. 335, ou 468462 est une faute d'iin- 
pression que je regrette fort de n'avoir pas remarque"e a temps. 
M. de Vogue donne une dixaine d'annees a Melekiaton, Rev. 
Num. 1867, p. 372, Mel. d'arch. App. p. 11. 

101 Deecke, Philol Wochenschr. 1886, n. 42, col. 1322 suiv. ; 
Proceed. Soc. of Bill. Arch. 1886/7, Wright, p. 4751, 
Berger, p. 100 104, 153 156; Berger, Comptes-rendus d& 
VAcad. des Imcr.,XV, 1887, p. 187198, Memoirs cite, p. 114; 
Euting, Sitzungsb. d. Berl. Akad. 1887, IX, p. 115123. 

102 Rev. Num. 1883, p. 338342. Depuis j'ai acquis une 
hemidarique de 1'an 28 de Purniaton, et j'ai constate que la 
date de celle du Cab. de la Haye n'eet pas 25, mais 47. 

103 1. c. p. 119. 

104 Nepos, Chabr. 2 ; Diodor. XV, 2 ; Beloch, Att. Politik 
seit Perikles, 1884, p. 356, 359; 

VOL. VIII. TH1RP SERIES. S 



130 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

reconquerir son autorite* que quelques annees plus tard, 
pendant qu'Evagoras etait bloque dans Salamine par les 
Perses ou meme en 379/8, quand la paix fut con- 
clue. 105 

Les inscriptions ne s'opposent pas a cette hypothese. 
Si on place les six premieres annees avant 387, de 393 a 
388, la duree du regne de Melekiaton aurait ete de 32 ans. 
Les dates 17/19 et 30 tomberaient en 377/375 et en 364 
et il resterait une dixaine d'annees, de 387 a 378, pour le 
regne passager d'un grec. Get espace est plus que suffi- 
sant pour y placer les rares monnaies que M. de Vogue 
a assignees a un roi de Citium du nom de Demonicus 106 et 
celles que j'y ai ajoutees, surtout depuis que j'ai reconnu 
que ce nom ne se lit pas, comme je 1'ai cru a tort, sur le 
statere du British Museum, aux types de Zeus assis et 
d'Aphrodite debout devant un thymiaterion. 107 La legende 
du revers est en realite, fiaaiXefos TV/xo%a/9*/~b9 et non 
paatXefos Aa/zoV* icaaiye . , et M. Head, qui a bien voulu 
examiner le statere confie a sa garde, confirme ma lecture 
rectified. 108 

Si done, comme les types et les le*gendes semblent Pin- 
diquer, un Demonicus a regne sur Citium et Idalie, 109 ce 
regne ephemere peut etre place de 387 jusqu'a 379 peut- 

105 J. Scharfe, de Euagora vita, 1866, p. 30. 

106 Eev. Num. 1867, p. 377379; Mel. d'arch. ^pp.-p. 16, 18. 

107 Num. Chron. 1882, p. 89102, PI. V.; Rev. Num. 1883, 
p. 287, n. 24, PL VI, 13. 

108 Hist. Num. p. 625. J'ai deja eu 1'occasion d'indiquer la 
correction dans la Z.f, N. XIV, 1886, p. 144. 

109 Comme 1'Hercule combattant est le type de Citium, la 
Pallas armee des monnaies de Demonicus me semble etre le 
type d'Idalie, ou, d'apres les inscriptions Cyriotes, cette deesse 
etait veneree specialement. Le type de Pallas, assise sur la 
proue, ferait allusion a la flotte Athenienne ; sans son secours 
Demonicus ne serait pas monte sur le trone. 



MOXNA1ES GRECQUES, INED1TES ET INCERTAINES. 131 

etre, celui de Melekiaton d'environ. 393 jusqu'en 387 et 
d'environ 379 jusqu'en 362 et par consequent celui de 
Baalram d'environ 405 a 394. 

Les dates a assignor aux trois premiers rois seront alors, 
en donnant 25 ans a Azbaal dont les monnaies sont nom- 
breuses, et 20 ans a chacun des deux autres, 470 a 450 
pour Baalmelek I, 450 a 425 pour Azbaal et 425 a 405 
pour Baalmelek II. 

Puisque Baalmelek I ne porte pas le titre de roi d'Idalie, 
comme ses successeurs, cette ville parait avoir etc* encore 
autonome sous son regne, quoique les stateres du roi soient 
sou vent surfrappes sur ceux de la ville. C'est done Azbaal 
qui s'en sera rendu maitre, bien probablement lorsque 
les Atheniens apres avoir vainement assiege Citium en 
449, 110 eurent renonce a soutenir les villes grecques de 
Cypre contre les Perses. 111 

C'est encore a 1'epoque de Baalram, sin on a son regne, 
qu'on pour rait assigner la drachme anepigraphe suivante, 
jusqu'ici inedite. 

26. Hercule marchant a droite, sans peau de lion, brandis- 
sant la massue de la main droite levee, et saisissant 
de la gauche etendue un petit lion qui, retournant la 
tete, grimpe sur la cuisse gauche du heros. Derriere 
lui croix ansee. Grenetis. 

Rev. Lion rugissant, accroupi a gauche, la patte droite 
levee. Dans le fond, derriere la patte gauche du lion, 
un bceuf marchant & gauche, la tete levee. Le tout 
dans un carre creux, peu profond, borde de perles. 

M 3. 3.20. Coll. Imhoof. PI. V, 13. 



110 Busolt, Griecli. GescUclite II, 1888, p. 509. 

111 Je n'ai pas admis dans ma liste Abdemon, qui ne parait 
pas avoir regne a Citium, mais a Salamine, dont ses monnaies, 
encore inedites, portent les types. 



132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Quoiqu'un lion accroupi soit le type des plus anciennes 
inonnaies de Citium et de celles de Baalmelek I, cette 
drachme-ci est d'un style beaucoup trop recent pour la 
classer parmi les emissions du 5 e siecle. II est plus pro- 
bable qu'au commencement du siecle suivant, on aura 
renouvele les anciens types de la ville en leur donnant 
une forme plus recente. Cela doit avoir eu lieu avant 
Demonicus, dont les monnaies portent un Hercule luttant 
contre le lion, de style bien posterieur a celui-ci et apres 
Taccession d'Evagoras I, puisque le seul boeuf qui res- 
semble a celui de la drachme, se voit sur la plus ancienne 
monnaie d'Evagoras, ou il est conduit par Nike, 112 ce qui 
motive sa pose. 



VII. SABACES, SATRAPE D'EGYPTE. 
333. 

Voici enfin quelques monnaies qui ne sont pas incon- 
nues, mais dont la legende, en caracteres arameens, est 
reste"e obscure jusqu'ici. Le poids et les types sont ceux 
des tetradrachmes d'Athenes du 4 e siecle ; aussi est-ce a 
la suite des monnaies d'Athenes qu'elles ont ^te classees. 

27. Tete de Pallas Athena, portant le casque athenien, a 
cimier, orne d'un sarment de vigne et de trois feuilles 
d'olivier, a droite. 

Rev.-- -Chouette debout a droite. Derriere elle, pousse 
d'olivier et croissant ; devant, croissant au-dessus de 
, et *JMM> TID; beau style. 



112 Zeitschr. f. Niimi&m, XIV, 1886, p. 147 n. 1. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 133 

a. M 7. 17,20. Empreinte communiquee par M. Feu- 

ardent ; provenance Egypte. 

b. M 7. 16,21. Coll. de M. H. B. Earle Fox, a Athenes. 

Autre, ^ \ 1 V\ . 

c. M 7. -- Coll. de Luynes, Beule, Monn. d' Athenes, 

p. 45 vign. ; Blau, Numism. Zeitsckr. IV, 1872, p. 133 
vign. ; Num. Chron. 1877, p. 223, n. 14. 

d. Si 6i. 14,97 fruste. Brit. Mas., Cat. Attica, p. 25, 

n. 263, PI. VII, 1. 

e. M 7. 15,98. Ibid. n. 264, legende illisible. 
/. 6. 15,08. Ibid. n. 265. 

Ces trois exemplaires proviennent d'Egypte. 

Autre, H \ \ 
g. JSi 6. 16,69. Ma coll. 

28. Autre, meme legende, et a gauche de la chouette, 
b^ 113 ou 



M 6. -- fruste. M. le Dr. W. Froehner, a Paris, Num. 
Chron. 1. c. 



29. Autre, U/s^-\X et, a gauche, ^ t j, yn? 114 sans pousse 
d'olivier. 

-31 5. 16,27. Mus. de Berlin ; Von Sallet, Zeitschr. fur 
Numism. XV, 1887, p. 14 vign. Trouve a Beyrouth. 

Une entaille, plus ou moms profonde, en forme de 
a e*te* apposee, en contremarque, sur la tete de Pallas, c t et 
sur la chouette, a, b, c, /, g. En outre, une rosette est 
poinconnee sur la chouette d, et ^ooD sur la chouette g 
et la tete a. 

La legende, tracee d'abord en caracteres tres reguliers 
et bien forme's, devient a la fin si cursive qu'elle n'est 



113 Cp. n9\ 

114 Cp. r?*? et V7. 



134 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

lisible qu'en la comparant a celle des Emissions an- 
terieures. 

Elle est a transcrire -p3 car la derniere lettre n'est 
pas un nun, comme 1'a cru Blau, mais un caph, comme je 
crois 1'avoir demontre ailleurs. 115 

Pendant longtemps je n'ai pu deviner quel nom se 
cachait sous ces quatre lettres, jusqu'a ce qu'enfin la pro- 
venance egyptienne de plusieurs exemplaires me fit penser 
qu'il s'agissait d'un nom propre egyptien se terminant 
en k y comme Psamtik, ^Ta^^TL^o^ et autres. Or les noms 
> > 2<x t9 ? Ilao-oux^, Ylerecrov^, Soir^a?, Se- 
var - 2eu>7XW9, 116 derives de celui du dieu Sebek, 
m'induisent a transcrire -pD par 2ew%w? ou Se^t'x^ 9 ' 
comme les grecs nommaient le second roi de la 25 e dynas- 
tie egyptienne, Sabataka, tandis que son predecesseur 
Sabaka est nomme Sa|3a/cwi/. 117 

D'apres Arrien, le satrape d'Egypte, tu^ a la bataille 
d'Issos, en Novembre 333, se nommait SctjSa^?, 118 et c'est 
a ce personnage que je voudrais attribuer les tetradrachmes 
attiques qui viennent d'etre deer its. 

Us sont du moins de son temps ; le style en est identique 
d celui des tetradrachmes d'Athenes que M. Head date, 
avec raison, d'avant 322 et ils sont mieux graves que ceux 
qu'il a fait figurer sur sa planche. 119 

Une emission de tetradrachmes atheniens au nom du 



115 Num. Chron. 1884, p. 115. 

116 Parthey, Mgypt. Personennamen, 1864. Sur la prononcia- 
tion v du b egyptien dans plusieurs mots, v. de Rouge, Mem. sur 
Vorig. egypt. de V alphabet phen. p. 82. 

"' SlD, 2 Rois 17, 4 ; Wiedemann, Aegypt. Gesch., p. 583. 

118 Arrien, Anab. II, 11, 8; Quinte Curce III, 11, 10, et 
IV., 1, 28, donne Sabaces, Sataces, et autres variantes. Dans 
Diodore XVIII, 34, le nom est corrompu en Ta<ria/o;s. 

119 Cat. Brit Mus., Attica, f I V, 36, p. 13, 14, n. 132^-147. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 135 

satrape d'Egypte convient aussi parfaitement aux circon- 
stances. 

Quand le roi Darius III apprit la mort de Memnon, 
auquel il avait confie, apres la bataille du Granique, le 
commandement de la flotte et de 1'armee d'Asie-mineure, 
il resolut de marcher lui-meme en tete de 1'armee a la 
rencontre d'Alexandre et donna Pordre d'enroler le plus 
grand nombre possible de mercenaires grecs et de les faire 
transporter par la flotte perse a Tripolis, d'ou Thymondas, 
le fils de Mentor, les conduisit vers Parmee perse. 120 

Les preparatifs de la guerre et la solde de tant de 
mercenaires exigeaient de fortes sommes, et les satrapes 
de Syrie, de Phenicie et d'Egypte, les plus proches du 
theatre de la guerre, ont du etre requis les premiers a 
faire battre monnaie en quantite suffisante. Nous 
connaissons les emissions faites alors par ordre du satrape 
de Syrie, Mazaios. 121 Pourquoi n'en admettrions nous pas 
de Sabaces ? 

Mais les Egyptiens n'avaient pas de monnaies a eux ; il 
fallait en outre des especes que les mercenaires accepteraient 
avec confiance. Le satrape n'avait done le choix qu'entre 
des dariques d'or, solde ordinaire des grecs 122 et des 
chouettes atheniennes qui circulaient de longue date en 
masse en Egypte, ou les apportait le commerce et les 
relations in times qu'Athenes a toujours entretenues avec 
1 J Egypte. II est bien probable que le satrape n'avait pas 
Tautorisation de battre de Tor ; il ne lui restait done 
qu'une emission de chouettes et je suis persuade qu'il l'a 
faite. 

120 Arrien, Anab. II, 13, 2 ; Q. Gurce, III, 3, 1 ; 8, 1 ; 9, 2 ; 
Droysen, Hellen. I, 1, p. 239241, 267. 

121 Num. Chron. 1884, p. 115. 

122 Xenophon, Anab. I, 3, 21 ; VII, 6, 1. 



136 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Mais ou ont-elles te frappees s'il n'y avait pas d'atelier 
monetaire en Egypte ? 

En comparant attentivement les tetradrachmes de 
Sabaces avec ceux d'Athenes, je n'ai pu constater aucune 
difference de style ou d'execution ; c'est tout-a-fait le 
meme faire. Seulement ceux du satrape semblent frappes 
avec plus de soin et le flan en est plus large ; il leur 
manque cet aspect d'archaisme affecte qui caracte*rise les 
dernier es emissions atheniennes, anterieures a 1'an 322. 

II faut done admettre que le satrape ait trouve en Egypte 
des ouvriers capables de graver des coins qui ne se laissent 
pas distinguer de ceux de 1'atelier d'Athenes, ou bien, 
ce qui ne me parait pas improbable, qu'il s'est adresse 
aux Atheriiens et que ceux-ci lui ont procure les coins d 
son nom et peut-etre meme les tetradrachmes tout frappes, 
contre remboursement en ble ou autre marchandise. Cette 
supposition serait trop hasardee si nous ne savions que 
les Atheniens etaient fort hostiles au roi de Macedoine, 
que leur ambassadeur se trouvait alors a la cour de Darius 
avec ceux de Thebes et de Sparte, et qu'eux-memes 
n'attendaient qu'un revers de 1'arm^e grecque pour se 
declarer ouvertement contre Alexandre. 123 Auraient-ils 
neglige de profiter de 1' occasion pour rendre service au 
satrape d 5 Egypte, surtout s'il etait egyptien, comme son 
nom semble 1'indiquer ? 

Ce qui me confirme dans cette opinion, c'est que les 
contremarques et les entailles, souvent tres profondes, 
apposees au beau milieu de presque tous les exemplaires 
du n. 27, s'expliquent le mieux comme marques de con- 
trole ; avant d'accepter les pieces re9ues de Tetranger, le 



Droysen, 1. c. p. 242, 272275, 277. 



MONNAIES GRECQUES, INEDITES ET INCERTAINES. 137 

satrape les aura fait peser et poinconner une a une, pour 
s'assurer qu'elles n'etaient pas fourrees. 

Quoi qu'il en soit de cette hypothese et . que les coins 
soient I'oBuvre d'artistes egyptiens ou ath^niens, il ne me 
semble pas douteux que les tetradrachmes en question ont 
et& ^mis par ordre de Sabaces, dans Panne'e meme de sa 
mort a Issos, en 333. 

Les noras, peu distincts, qui se lisent, outre le sien, sur 
les n. 28 et 29, a gauche de la chouette, sont peut-etre 
ceux de questeurs, charges du payernent de la solde aux 
mercenaires debarques a Tripolis. C'est dans cette ville, 
qui possedait sans doute un atelier monetaire, que cee 
chouettea, dont la legende est bien moins soignee, auront 
^t^ executees en grande hate, a Tapproche d^Alexandre. 

II se peut que ces tetradrachmes ne sont pas les seules 
mommies aux types d'Athenes, emises en Egypte avant 
que ce pays ne se soumit a Alexandre, mais jusqu'ici je 
n'en ai pas rencontr^ q\ii puissent etre attributes avec 
certitude a cette contree, tandis que celles qui ont ^te 
f rappees en Arabic sont nombreuses et variees. 124 

J. P. Six. 

Amsterdam. 

Head, Hist. Num. p. 687, 688- 



VOL. VIII. THIKD SERIES. 




VI. 

IS IT CERTAIN THAT THE ANGLO-SAXON COINS 
WERE ALWAYS STRUCK AT THE TOWNS NAMED 
ON THEM? 

A CURIOUS little coin came into the possession of my friend 
Mr. W. S. Churchill, of Manchester, not long ago, and 
in studying it a question was raised in my mind which, 
unorthodox as it is, seems to be worth bringing before 
the Numismatic Society. The coin may be described as 
follows : 

Obv. +REXXEVNAM. Rude bust, resembling the so- 
called Irish type of ^Ethelred II. (Hawkins, 207) to 
right ; four pellets "> in place of mouth. 

j ft w ._+LEFVINE ON LINE0. In inner circle a simple 
cross, cantonned with four crescents, the ends of 
each crescent terminating in pellets. Size *7 in. 
Weight 11 grs. 

I attribute this coin to Magnus the Good, King of Den- 
mark, 1042 1047, believing the obverse legend to be 
partially retrograde, EVNAM for MANVE, and I am con- 
firmed in this by the following coins : 1st. The coin 
described in Herr C. F. Herbst's letter to the late Mr. 
Henfrey, published in Num. Chron. N.S. xx. p. 230. 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 139 

Obv. +MS1]NVX EEX. Type as Hawkius, 218 (ffilde- 
brand, Danish). 

Rev.- +LEFJ7INE 0N LINE0. Type as Hawkins, 217 
(Hildebrand, type A). 

2nd. A coin described in the catalogue of the mediaeval 
coins of the late Herr C. J. Thomsen, No. 9,975. 

Obv. +MAHNVS + LI. Buste a gauche avec un casque 
raye ; devant, une petite tete de face. 

Rev. +AEEIL ON LVND. Oroix simple, cantonnee de 
quatre croissants, dans un cercle. 

This coin, of which the type closely resembles Mr. 
Churchill's, is of nearly the same size and weight. Size, 
17 mm. ; weight, about '80 gramme. 

With reference to the reverse of the first coin, Herr 
Herbst writes, " Of course Magnus could not strike money 
in Lincoln. But it is easy to read the riddle. In the 
royal Danish cabinet is an English penny of Magnus's 
predecessor, Harthacnut, struck with exactly the same 
reverse die as the above-described coin of Magnus. Thus 
it appears that Lefwine was mint-master at Lincoln under 
Harthacnut, at whose death he takes service under King 
Magnus and removes to Denmark. When here, quite 
disregarding the changes which had taken place, on one 
of the coins which he strikes for his new master, Magnus, 
he uses one of his old dies which he had brought over 
with him from England." 

The late Herr Hildebrand, in the second edition of his 
Anglosachsiska Mynt, in a note on page 196, also states 
that English moneyers were employed in the Scandinavian 
kingdoms. "Examples are also found that English 
moneyers in foreign lands struck coins, upon which they 
placed the names of the English towns from which they 
came. In the Royal Swedish Coin Cabinet there is a 



140 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coin of Olof Skotkonung, of .ZEthelred's type C, on the 
reverse of which is read ^LFRIE A pALIINBFOD ( JElfrie, 
under King ^Ethelred, struck a number of coins of dif- 
ferent types in Wallingford). It is not probable that 
Olof Skotkonung had coins struck in England, but he 
employed English moneyers." See again, on page 390, 
in his remarks on the types of Harthacnut. Further, the 
editor of the catalogue of Herr Thomsen's mediaeval coins 
adds the following note to the description of the coin 
above mentioned. " This coin is very remarkable. Ac- 
cording to the legend it was struck at Lund ; but the 
types and its light weight cause us to attribute it with 
certainty to Jutland. Examples are even known of coins- 
belonging indisputably to Jutland, which claim by their 
legends to have been struck in English mints." And he 
further refers to another coin in the same catalogue, 
No. 10,141, attributed to Sven ^Estrithsen, Magnus's suc- 
cessor, of the Danish Byzantine type, with Obv. } Christ 
standing, and Rev., a modification of .ZEthelred's Irish 
type and the legend + LEOEPINE Oil DOF. 

Seeing that it is now allowed that "the first coins 
certainly struck in Denmark, Norway, or Sweden are all 
copied from types of -ZEthelred IL's coins " (Keary's In- 
troduction to the Catalogue of English Coins in the British 
Museum, p. xxx.), it is not unreasonable to suppose that 
English moneyers were employed to start the coinage in 
those countries. In confirmation of this it may be noted 
that JELFKIE, who appears in Hildebrand's list of money- 
ers at Wallingford under ^Ethelred II., on coins Nos. 
3,891 and 3,899, does not again appear in Hildebrand's 
lists of moneyers at that town under any of the succeed- 
ing kings. The Lefwine, Lefvine, or Leofwine, who 
appears in Hildebrand's lists of moneyers at Lincoln 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 141 

under Cnut, Nos. 1,5934, and 1,6081,621, under 
Harold I., Nos. 405 6 and 415 16, and who, according 
to Herr Herbst, also figures on an English penny of Har- 
thacnut, does not appear under Lincoln on any coin of 
Edward the Confessor in Hildebrand, nor in Mr. Head's 
account of the Chancton find (Num. Chron. N.S. vii. p. 63), 
but his name does appear in Mr. Willett's list of the City 
hoard (Num. Chron., N.S. xvi. p. 354), and in Dr. Evans's 
further account of the same (Num. Chron., 3rd S. v. 
p. 271) as occurring on Mr. Willett's type I (Hilde- 
brand, type A, var. C), and the Leofwine, Leoffwine, or 
Lufwine, who appears in Hildebrand's lists of moneyers 
at Dover, under Cnut, Nos. 335 and 347, under Harthac- 
nut on a coin of type A, No. 27, and under Edward the 
Confessor on two coins of type C, Nos. 78 and 79, does 
not appear on any Dover coin in the Chancton find nor in 
the City hoard. 

From which it would appear that the three above- 
named moneyers were not actively employed in England 
at the times when the coins bearing their names were 
struck for the Scandinavian kings ; and it is therefore 
not improbable that ^Elfric on Wallingford, moneyer 
under ^thelred II., took service under King Olof, and 
perhaps settled in Sweden ; that Lef wine on Lincoln, 
moneyer in England under Cnut, Harold, and Hartha- 
cnut, after the latter's death (as suggested by Herr 
Herbst), or perhaps in his lifetime, took service in Den- 
mark, but returned to England towards the close of the 
reign of Edward the Confessor ; whilst Leofwine on 
Dover, moneyer in England under Cnut and Harthacnut, 
and during the early part of Edward the Confessor's 
reign, afterwards went to Denmark, and was a moneyer 
there under Sven ^Estrithsen. 



142 NI T MISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

With the evidence afforded by these coins, confirming 
the statement of the great Swedish numismatist, that 
" English moneyers in foreign lands struck coins upon 
which they placed the name of the English towns from which 
they came," the question suggested itself, Is it quite 
certain that the towns named on the coins of the Anglo- 
Saxon kings always represent the mints where the coins 
were struck ? or may they not be simply the names of 
the towns from which the various moneyers came ? 

Such an interpretation would explain the curious and 
puzzling coins of ^Ethelred II. with the names of Irish 
towns, and those of the Irish king Sihtric with the names 
of English towns ; for if the Scandinavian kings called in 
the aid of English moneyers at home, it seems probable 
enough that the Hiberno-Scandinavian king, under 
whom, as Dr. Aquilla Smith has shown (Num. Chron., 
3rd S., ii. p. 308), the Irish coinage began, did likewise at 
his newly established mint in Dublin, nor would it be un- 
reasonable to suppose that he also sent some of his own 
subjects to be instructed in the art of coining at one or 
more of the English mints. Here, however, Hildebrand 
fails to support my suggestion, for in his introductory 
remarks on Sihtric's coins, after noticing some previously 
offered explanations, he ventures on no more decided 
opinion than that " one should perhaps simply assume 
that both English and Irish moneyers, each one in his 
own home, sometimes found themselves induced to 
strike coins with the names of contemporary foreign 
princes on. the obverse." A rather unsatisfactory con- 
clusion. He might have applied the same reasoning to 
the coin of Olof Skotkonung, already cited ; perhaps even 
to the coin of Magnus, described by Herr Herbst, for 
Hawkins includes the obverse type of this coin in his 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 143 

English types of Harthacnut. It is true that Hildebrand 
does not agree with him, believing the type to be Danish 
(A. M., p. 391). But Mr. Churchill's coin and the coin of 
Sven JEstrithsen in Thomsen's catalogue are both evidently 
Danish, and require some other explanation. The sugges- 
tion quoted in the second edition of Hawkins's English 
Silver Coins, p. 150, that Edgar had possessed himself of 
Ireland, and that it therefore was not surprising that his 
son should have struck money there, would no doubt, if 
tenable, explain ^Ethelred's coins with the names of Irish 
towns ; but it would leave those of Sihtric with the names 
of English towns unexplained. Whereas if we could 
believe that Sih trie's coins with the names of English 
towns were struck by English moneyers in his employ, 
and that -ZEthelred's and Cnut's coins with the names of 
Irish towns were struck by subjects of Sihtric, who were 
learning their business in English mints, both would be 
explained. 

If the reason given by Hawkins (p. 428) for placing 
the moneyers' names on the coins be true, viz. : "It was 
probably in order that each moneyer's coins might be 
separated at the trials of the Pix, and that each might be 
responsible only for his own works," it was the money er's 
name which was of importance, for doubtless the coins 
sent for trial from each mint would not be sent singly, 
but in quantity, so that there would be no difficulty in 
keeping the pieces from each mint separate. 

The papers by the late Archdeacon Pownall (Num. 
Chron., ii. p. 236, and xx. p. 67) and by Mr. Willett 
(Num. Chron., N.S. xvi. p. 327, and 3rd S., i. p. 32) on 
the meaning of the word " ON," and the evidence afforded 
by Danish coins in favour of Archdeacon Pownall's read- 
ing of it as IN, the Danish I replacing the Anglo-Saxon 



144 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ON on the coins of the later Danish kings, published in 
Thomsen's catalogue, make me feel some diffidence in 
bringing this question before the Numismatic Society, and 
I only do so in the hope that, if it be thought worth con- 
sidering, some other member may have more time and 
better opportunities of studying it than I have here. 

In conclusion, from the weight of Mr. ChurchilFs coin, 
viz. 11 grains, or '71 gramme, it would appear, according 
to the editor of Thomson's catalogue, to have been struck 
for Jutland, and the same test of weight applied to the 
curious coin which gave rise to the correspondence between 
Herr Herbst and the late Mr. Henfrey, described by the 
latter in Num. Chron. N.S., xix. p. 220, confirms Herr 
Herbst's attribution of it to Denmark. Mr. Henfrey 
described the coin as being in " very perfect preservation," 
and yet as weighing only 11 \ grains ; now Hildebrand, who 
gives the highest and lowest weights of each type of the 
3,869 English coins of Cnut described by him, had 
apparently met with no coin amongst them weighing less 
than -90 gramme, or nearly 14 grains. 

Since writing the above I find that the type of Mr. 
Churchill's coin was also in use under Harthacnut. 
Thomsen had a coin, No. 9,891, described as: "Type, 
Buste a gauche, avec un casque forme* de rais, dans un cercle. 
Ren, Croix simple, cantonnee de quatre croissants, dans un 
cercle. Obv. + N-AEDEENVT. Rev. AEDEIN ON OEBEZ." 
Size 17-18 mm., weight about -75 gramme. It should be 
noted that, in his catalogue, the coins of Denmark are 
divided into those of Eastern and Western Denmark. To 
the first, comprising .Scania and Zealand, he assigns the 
coins weighing 1 gramme ; to the latter, comprising Jut- 
land, Schleswig, and Fiinen, he assigns the smaller coins, 
weighing 70 to *80 gramme. 

SAM. SMITH, JR. 



VII. 

GERMAN MEDALLISTS OF THE SIXTEENTH AND 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. 1 

To M. Adolf Erman, attached to the Royal Cabinet of 
Medals at Berlin, we are indebted for the first attempt 
to distinguish and classify the works of the German 
medallists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
This tentative sketch, for such it admittedly is, de- 
serves more prominent notice than it has hitherto 
received. 

The German medallists differ essentially from the Italian 
in this respect, that, as a rule, they abstain from adding a 
signature to their work, and such a tribute to the amour 
propre of the artists as is familiar to the students of 
Pisano, Sperandeo, Boldu, and others, is generally want- 
ing beyond the Alps. Even when a name is hinted at 
it is only by means of initials, monogram, or mysterious 
cipher, and there is hardly an instance in the whole of 
M. Erman's work of a full signature being given. 
Hence it occurs that previous writers have either 
ignored the subject of authorship altogether, or at- 
tempted attributions have turned out to be palpable 

1 Deutsche Medailleure des Sechszehnten und Siebzehnten 
Jahrhunderts, von Adolf Erman. Berlin : Wiedmannsche 
Buchhandlung, 1884. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. U 



NUMISMATIC CHftONlCLE. 

blunders. However, science is advancing, museums 
and private persons have been collecting and collat- 
ing, and archives have been searched, till at last we 
are in a fair way not only to distinguish with certainty 
the different schools, such as those of Nuremberg, Augs- 
burg, Austria, and Saxony, but to range in order the pro- 
ductions of the different medallists. Thus one monogram 
discovered on a medal may easily become the key to the 
authorship of a whole series, for in some cases there is 
enough individuality to enable it to be identified without 
the closest scrutiny. Others, of course, are more difficult 
to determine by the style alone. 

M. Erman sweeps away as untrustworthy the traditional 
information supplied by the earlier writers (with the single 
exception of Bergmann), taking contemporary records as 
the only source of certain knowledge, and applying the 
methods of his late chief, Dr. Friedlander, when dealing 
with the Italian medallists. His plan has been to bring 
together all the medals bearing a similar signature, and 
to add to each list such others as may be indisputably 
assigned to the same hand, the precaution being taken of 
distinguishing by an asterisk the pieces that are unsigned. 
As in the case of the Italian medals, a grave difficulty is 
encountered when a whole series is found without a single 
signature, and this unfortunately occurs with some of the 
best work. In such cases the artist is described by the 
leading date of his work, as, for example, the medallist of 
1525-6, a year in which portraiture in medals seems to 
have reached its most brilliant point at Nuremberg and 
Augsburg. 

M. Erman well remarks that a particular artist was in 
fashion at a particular time, so that one favourite succeeded 
another somewhat rapidly, and the greater part of one 



GERMAN MEDALLISTS. 147 

individual's work was not spread over a long period. At 
any rate an artist would exhaust one place or court and 
proceed to another. This fact greatly assists the work of 
scientific attribution, so far as it is affected by considera- 
tions of time and place. 

An important feature of M. Erman's study is that it 
relates only to the cast medals, as opposed to those that 
were struck. The Germans of the sixteenth century 
excelled all others in the perfection of their casting, and 
it is only with medals obtained from models in relief that 
we are now concerned. This leads to the question of the 
nature of the material of the models. At first wood seems 
to have been the usual medium, but the use of stone soon 
followed, a species of hone stone of the hardest quality 
being chosen, such as was obtained from the noted quarries 
of Kelheim, in Bavaria. This material in the hands of the 
great German masters was capable of yielding work of 
extraordinarily fine character, and, owing to the highly 
successful methods of casting above referred to, the medal 
that resulted almost equalled the model itself in sharpness. 
The models in wood, on the other hand, costing much less 
labour, admitted of that bold, free, and strikingly artistic 
style which is to be observed in the incomparable work of 
Hans Schwartz. Another material was a composition of 
the nature of putty, which had the double advantage of 
being easily manipulated, and of becoming hard enough to 
admit of a mould being made from it. Wax models do 
not appear to have been used in Germany till after the 
middle of the sixteenth century, having no doubt been 
introduced from Italy. Specimens of models in all these 
substances may be seen in most collections of importance. 

That the carved portrait model was the parent of the 
medal, and that this mode of producing the medal in 



148 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

Germany was indigenous, seems to be clearly shown. 
Italy, however, must be taken to be indirectly responsible 
for the custom, which had prevailed there for more than 
half a century, of the friendly exchange of these portable 
likenesses. They answered exactly the same social require- 
ment as the modern photograph, and it was precisely the 
necessity of multiplying the original that caused the 
medal to proceed from the portrait in wood or stone. In 
the first instance it was without a reverse, but that soon 
followed. M. Erman assigns 1510 as the date when the 
use of medals began, generally with an obverse only, and 
in 1526 we get the complete reverse executed on distinct 
rules. The fashion then became completely established, 
first about the courts of Germany, both temporal and 
spiritual, and as " where the great ones lead the smaller 
follow," it descended through the different classes of 
society that were able to afford such expensive luxuries. 

Some interesting information is given as to the letter- 
ing of the legends. It is not uncommon to find that the 
original model, from which complete medals with legends 
have been cast, has no lettering whatever. The explana- 
tion is that some of the early masters (e.g. Hans Schwartz) 
impressed on the mould the letters of the legend, appa- 
rently one by one a proceeding somewhat clumsy and 
tending to inaccuracy, while others seem to have glued 
them on to the model before making the mould. Some 
wax models on slate by Abondio and Valentine Maler, are 
without any form of letters, which must have been im- 
printed on the mould, probably with ordinary printing 
type. This accounts for the changes in the legend so 
often to be observed. 

With regard to the metal used and the method of cast- 
ing M. Erman also gives some instruction. In the older 



GERMAN MEDALLISTS. 149 

medals, owing to their large size, bronze was the usual 
substance, and the earliest date of the use of silver known 
to the author is 1526. The question whether medals in 
tin and lead were in common use is answered in the 
affirmative. It appears that such medals have been found 
with others in gold and silver, deposited for commemora- 
tion purposes in the foundations of buildings, and it is 
well known that the goldsmiths used to take castings in 
lead of their productions, either as souvenirs or trial pieces, 
or for communication to other craftsmen. The Italian 
artists, from Pisano downwards, did the same thing. 

The earlier German medallists, when employing a re- 
verse at all, cast their medals in one piece, but the best 
artists of the middle of the sixteenth century cast from 
two moulds (i.e. one for each side), always maintaining a 
thin substance. This method would naturally result from 
the great liability to imperfections in the process, as it 
reduced by half the risk of the medal being spoilt. 

The quality of thinness, it is to be noted, is one of the 
first tests of a genuine German medal and is a remark- 
able "point." 

Another peculiar method sometimes adopted was to 
cast the portrait and the reverse separately, and to attach 
them with pins to a silver plate, which thus formed the 
field of the medal. 

The fact that certain artists, such as Schwartz, Hagen- 
auer, Valentine Maler, and Tobias Wolff, from their gene- 
rally recognised excellence, became so highly in favour, 
caused them by reason of the pressure on their time to 
make their work too much of a trade routine, and this 
accounts for the strong resemblance running through their 
respective series. The same reproach has been levelled at 
Sperandeo, Pastorino, and others among the Italians, 



150 NUMISMATIC CHKON1CLE. 

Turning to the more immediate subject of the work, we 
find the list beginning with a good name Peter Yiseher 
(1507 1511), not the father, but the son. Whether 
Diirer is to rank among medallists is not absolutely de- 
cided, but at any rate three pieces bear his monogram. 
Passing to Hans Schwartz, the author is on safer ground, 
for he has discovered a medal of the artist himself, which 
he gives good reasons for assigning to his own hand. 
Those who have not closely studied the magnificent series 
of Nuremberg and Augsburg medals will find a rich field 
in the work of this exponent of the art. His medals are 
numerous, but (so far as they are dated) range over but a 
short period (1518 1523). He was evidently one of 
those whom fashion favoured, and an examination of the, 
specimens figured in M. Erman's work, or in the Tresor de 
Numismatique (Med. Allem.), will show how deservedly this 
predilection was bestowed. He was the person to whom 
Albert Diirer himself entrusted the execution of his por- 
trait (Erman, PL I. 4), and for which, as the author states 
in a note, he entered in his diary at Antwerp the payment 
of two florins in gold. Besides this his list presents an, 
array of important and familiar names : the Pfinzings, 
the Imhofs, the Tuchers, Tetzel, Behaim, Frederick II. of 
the Palatinate, Joachim I. of Brandenburg, Burgkmair 
the painter, Cardinal Lang, and all the aristocracy of 
Franconia. 

The next long list is attached to an anonymous artist of 
the years 1525-6, whose work is of very special merit, 
and the discovery of whose name is to be awaited with 
interest. The epoch of the use of silver medals begins 
with his time. The following specimens belonging to his, 
series may be found in the Tresor de Num., Bastian Starcz 
(5, 7), Hedwig of Miinsterberg (45, 3 ter), Ambrosius 



GERMAN MEDALLISTS. 151 

Quez (6, 1), Johannes von Gutenberg (6, 8), Frederick, 
Marquis of Brandenburg (6, 2), George Koetzler (6, 7), 
Christopher Fiierer (6, 4), Jordan von Herzheim (5, 8), 
Lypold von Kliezenk (5, 4), Friedrich Behaim (6, 9), 
Linhat Wickel (6, 6), and others. 

The famous Friedrich Hagenauer follows on from this 
date to 1546, thus covering a space of twenty years. Some 
of his medals are signed with the familiar " H " in the 
field (wrongly ascribed to Jean Heel by the authors of 
the Tresor), while a considerable proportion are without 
signature. He was probably a native of Strasburg, and 
worked at Cologne and other places, but is more especially 
associated with Augsburg. Many of his medals are figured 
in Bergmann and in the Tresor, and they include portraits 
of Otto Heinrich, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Joachim I. 
of Brandenburg (Tresor, 45, 2), Melancthon (Tresor, 16, 
2 & 3), Herman, Archbishop of Cologne, and others of the 
Reformers. The evidences of his work are said to consist 
of low relief, thin casting, peculiar reverses (for the most 
part only a sentiment or a date), and especially the 
peculiar form of the lettering, which is distinguished by 
small low characters, the up and down strokes being 
imperfectly defined. His earlier medals represent chiefly 
citizens of Augsburg, or persons who were present at the 
Diet, his work at Cologne being of later date. 

The familiar medals of John Frederick of Saxony 
(Tresor, 14, 3) and Charles Y. (Trtsor, 20, 5), signed H*, 
and formerly attributed to Heinrich Reitz, are now 
declared to be the work of Hans Reinhard, of Leipzig. 

Among the medallists of the latter part of the sixteenth 
century Valentine Maler, of Nuremberg, was the most 
prolific, his medals ranging from 1568 to 1593. His 
marriage with the daughter of Wenzel Jamnitzer, the 



152 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

greatest of German goldsmiths, gave him a high position 
in the artistic world. He executed both cast and struck 
medals, the latter being produced chiefly as articles of 
commerce, and he enjoyed by imperial grant the privilege 
of issuing them as marketable commodities. It was 
perhaps to certify to purchasers the correctness of the 
portraits that such expressions as " Imago ad vivam effi- 
giem expressa," " Warhaftig conterfeit," are to be found 
even in the earlier medals executed for sale. 

Another important artist of about the same date is 
Tobias Wolff, of Breslau. His works form the subject of 
an interesting paper in the Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, 
(viii. S. 199) by Dr. A. von Sallet. His monogram, W, 
was formerly supposed to stand for Tobias Wost, but his 
identity is now satisfactorily proved. His portraits are 
strikingly true to life, and possess a powerful charm on 
that account, as well as for their delicate casting and 
chasing. Dr. von Sallet considers him to be of the 
highest rank, and quite the equal of Jamnitzer. 

The seventeenth century presents but few names of 
interest, though the list includes those of Hans Petzoldt, 
who reproduced Schwartz's medal of Diirer ; Christian 
Maler, the son of Valentine, Gaspar Enderlein, Paul 
Zeggin, and I.D.B., the author of the pretty medal of 
Frederick IV., of the Palatinate, and his wife Elizabeth, 
the daughter of James I. of England. 

To sum up, M. Erman has collected fifty -seven com- 
plete names of medallists, and eighty-seven known only 
by their monogram ; and though not a single medal is 
fully described, some eight hundred are referred to under 
the headings of the different artists. A valuable addition 
to the text will be found in ten plates, giving represents- 



GERMAN MEDALLISTS, 153 

tive specimens of the medals, admirably reproduced by the 
autotype process. Unpretentious, therefore, as the work 
is, and claiming only to be a forerunner of greater things, 
it must be considered as of the highest value in treating a 
most difficult subject, and it is only to be hoped that its 
further development may fulfil the hopes of its author 
with the attainment of equal success. 

T, WHITCOMBK 



VOL. viu. THIRD SERIES. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

Beschreibung der antiken Milnzen (Konigliclie Museen zu 
Berlin}. Bd.' I. Berlin, 1888. Price 25 marks. 

In the neatly printed little volume before us we have at last 
the long-expected first instalment of the Catalogue of the Ber- 
lin Coin-Cabinet. For some reason, doubtless a good one, 
the learned director of the Berlin Miinzkabinet, Dr. Alfred von 
Sallet, has seen fit to deviate from the time-honoured order of 
Eckhel, and to begin his catalogue with the Tauric Chersonesus. 
The present volume contains the coins of the Tauric Cher- 
sonesus, Sarmatia, Dacia, Pannonia, Moesia, and Thrace, in- 
cluding the kings and dynasts of that region. The compiler in 
a short preface acknowledges his indebtedness to his prede- 
cessor, the late Julius Friedlaender, whose manuscript he has, 
however, to a great extent re-written, incorporating with it all 
the recent acquisitions, including those from the famous collec- 
tions of Gen. Fox and Count von Prokesch Osten, which have 
added so enormously to the value and importance of the German 
Coin-Cabinet. Dr. von Sallet has also been assisted in some 
portion of the work by Dr. B. Pick. The volume ia illustrated 
by eight autotype plates representing about seventy-five coins, 
and by sixty-three zincographic cuts in the text. 

In form and general arrangement, the method of our own 
British Museum catalogues, now familiar to all numismatists, is 
closely followed, i.e. the obverses and reverses are described in 
parallel columns. There is, however, an additional column 
which gives the names of the collections from which the coins 
have passed into the Royal collection. 

In the case of certain famous cabinets this is an undoubted 
improvement, but the space available for the descriptions, 
already far too narrow, is seriously encroached upon by this 
extra side-column. Another innovation which we may here 
mention (and this last is of more practical utility), is the addi- 
tion of short explanatory notes in the text in which the writer 
gives, as often as occasion requires, references to works where 
similar coins are published, or adds concise remarks of his own 
which cannot fail to be a great help to the student. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 155 

A comparison of this volume with the corresponding volume 
of the British Museum catalogue by Head and Gardner, which 
appeared as long ago as 1877, shows how very much richer in 
this portion of the collection the Berlin Museum is than our own, 
as a few instances taken at random will suffice to show : Thus 
of Panticapaeum the Germans have 108 coins, while the 
British Museum has only 53 ; of Olbia they have 145 against 
23 in our own cabinet; of Viminacium 138 as against 48 ; of 
Abdera 144 against our 108 ; of Aenus 75 against 49 ; of 
Maronea 115 against 99 ; of the towns of the Thracian Cher- 
sonesus 268 against 146, and so throughout. 

The great advantage in absolute weight of material possessed 
by the German catalogue over the English is, we confess, a 
matter of no small surprise to us, accustomed as we have been 
to look upon our national collection as second only, and not 
always second, to that of France ; and this advantage largely 
compensates for some of the small failings of the new volume, 
regarded from a scientific point of view, to which we feel bound 
to call attention, not in any carping spirit, but in the hope that 
a too strict attention to mere outward uniformity, a matter of 
very slight consequence, may not prevent the adoption of useful 
improvements in future volumes. 

The greatest defect in our opinion is the entire omission of 
chronological headings in the autonomous series of the various 
towns. Surely a numismatist of such eminent skill and accu- 
rate insight as Dr. von Sallet might have ventured to give us 
his idea of the approximate dates of the coins which he de- 
scribes. Without too much dogmatism it would have been for 
him an easy matter to have classed the autonomous coins 
under at least five distinct periods, such as (i.) archaic, 
(ii.) fifth century, (iii.) fourth century to Alexander the Great, 
(iv.) after Alexander, (v.) Period of Eoman Dominion. And 
yet, except for a note here and there, and that but rarely, 
appended to a description, we search in vain for dates. As the 
illustrations are far too scanty, it is for the most part quite 
impossible for one who is unacquainted with the originals to 
form any judgment of the periods to which they belong merely 
from the verbal descriptions, admirably accurate as they 
generally are. 

Another, though far less striking blemish, appears to have 
arisen from a too strict adherence to the order and classifica- 
tion of the coins as they lie in the trays. Thus on p. 48, seven 
coins are catalogued under Callatia, with an added note in the 
text stating that they belong probably to Calchedon. Again, on 
p. 137 the silver coins with a lion's scalp on the obverse, and 



156 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

APOA on the reverse, are retained under the heading of 
Apollonia in Thrace, while the writer nevertheless accept* 
Giel's recent restoration of these pieces to Pantieapaeum, on 
the ground that they are always found at Kertsch, which appa- 
rently was at one time called Apollonia, Also on p. 166 we are 
referred to Eubrogis Galatiase for the coins reading EYBP, 
which as Imhoof has shown (Mew. Gr. p. 461) belong in 
reality to a Thracian dynast of the fourth century. As Dr. von 
Sal let acknowledges the justice of all these reattributions there 
would seem to be no sufficient reason for his retention of obso- 
lete classifications. Would it not have been a simpler matter 
to transfer all these coins to the towns to which the writer 
believes they properly belong, rather than to deliberately cata- 
logue them under wrong headings ? All these , however, are 
but small defects, and, as they are not numerous, detract but 
little from the value of the catalogue as a whole. 

The notes appended to the descriptions contain a mass of 
interesting information which will be invaluable to serious 
students, and they compensate in some measure for the want 
of a general historical introduction, the absence of which is never- 
theless to be regretted. Among these notes we have space 
only to refer to two of the most important : on p. 55 we learn 
that Dr. Pick reads the letters YP which precede the name of 
the Roman Governor on the coins of Marcianopolis and Nico- 
polis_notas YPO, but as YP[ATIKOY], and similarly 
HFOYM on coins of Marcianopolis (p. 65) ot as HFOYM- 
[ENOY] but as Hr[EMONOZ} followed by a gentile name 
beginning with the syllable OYM (Urn). The Roman Go- 
vernor (Legatus Consularis) was therefore called in Greek either 
j/ye/x-wv or vTrariKos. The coins of Marcianopolis and Nicopolia 
here described furnish a long series of these Legati Consulares. 

We conclude these remarks with an earnest hops that the 
learned and zealous Director of the Berlin Coin-Cabinet will 
before long give us another volume of a work, which taken in 
connection with our British Museum Catalogue of Greek coins 
will go far to lay the foundations for the corpus of Greek coins 
which cannot be satisfactorily compiled until the contents of all 
the great collections of Europe have been put on record. 

B. V. H. 

Chr. Giel, Kleine Beitrage zur antiken Numismatik Sudruss- 
l>mds. Moscow, 1886. 4to, pp. 43. With 5 Plates. 

Russian numismatists have naturally some peculiar facilities 
for studying the ancient coinages of the Crimea and the Kingdom 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 157 

of Bosporus, and during the last few years contributions to this 
section of Greek numismatics have been made by several 
writers, among whom may be mentioned Burachkov, Oresch- 
nikow, and Podschiwalow. Another Russian numismatist, Mr. 
Giel, must be thanked for publishing in the little volume now 
before us a description of several interesting coins in his own 
collection (photographed in Plates I. and II), and for discussing 
some of the problems suggested by other coins which he illus- 
trates in his Plates III., IV., V. The coins described by Mr. 
Giel are as follows : 1. Olbia. 2. Tyra. 3. T auric Chersonese. 
4. Nymphaeum. 5. Panticapaeum. 6. Sindika. Several speci- 
mens of the coinage of the Sindi are here published. Mr. Giel 
(p. 6) attributes a curious silver coin with obv., Herakles 
kneeling r. Rev. XINAjQ[N] owl with spread wings, in incuse 
square, to the beginning of the third century B.C., but this ap- 
pears to be far too late, as the style of the coin is that of the 
early part of the fourth century. 7. Mithradates Eupator. A 
tetradrachm dated 209 (Pontic Era) == B.C. 89 88, with an 
interesting and somewhat unusual portrait of Mithradates. 
8. Pharnaces II. 9. Asander. Mr. Giel considers that 
Asander did not portray his own head on his coins until he 
became king ; the heads which appear on the coins issued by 
Asander as Archon (Giel. PI. II, 22; V. 7, 8) are here 
named J. Caesar and M. Antonius. But the resemblance in 
both cases is very slight. 10. An important coin of Pythodoris, 
obv. Head of Augustus. Rev. BAZIAIZZA flYeOAIlPIZ 
ETOYZ r Capricorn r. ; behind, cornucopiae. JR. wt. 3'92 
grammes. The date JE F (63) is unpublished, and involves a 
modification of the usual chronology of the reign of Pythodoris 
as Queen of Pontus. Oreschnikow (whom Giel cites at length) 
is of opinion that the era employed by Pythodoris on her coins 
begins in B.C. 31, and not in B.C. 47 as hitherto supposed. 
The coin dated 63 would thus correspond to A.D. 32 33. 
11. Polemo II. A new silver coin with the date ' 13 ' and the 
heads of Claudius and Nero facing one another. Also a silver 
coin with date * 17 ' and obv. Head of Nero. 12. Sauromates I. 
M. Rev. King galloping r. There does not appear to be any 
special reason for attributing this coin to Sauromates I. rather 
than to the king usually called Sauromates II. 13. Sauro- 
mates II. 14. Ininthimeiis. A stater with the rare date 
< 534.' 

Pages 20 24 deal with a class of small silver coins with the 
types of an ant or a lion's head facing, and (in many cases) the 
inscription APOA. (Cp. Imhoof, Monn. Gr., pp. 41 43.) 
A list of these is drawn up with illustrations (Plate III.). Mr. 



158 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Giel, relying chiefly on the evidence of the find-spots, attributes 
them all to Panticapaeum. He supposes Apollouia (APOA) 
to have been another name of that city. 

Pages 25 ff. deal with certain monograms which appear on 
the earlier coins of the Kingdom of Bosporus, (a) The first of 
these is the much-discussed monogram $ on various bronze 
coins which (as Mr. Giel shows) were struck for Bosporus. 
These coins are generally supposed to have been issued by 
Mithradates Eupator (the Great). Mr. Giel admits that the 
monogram is that of Mithradates Eupator, but shows that there 
are good reasons for thinking that the coins were actually issued 
by his son Machares, who ruled in Bosporus, at first, doubtless, 
in dependence upon his father, (ft) The monogram BAY on 
other bronze coins of Bosporus is also attributed to Machares, 
Mr. Giel reading it as BacrtXews Ma^apov Ytov MttfpaSarov. Von 
Sallet has read the monogram as BAM I, and referred the coins 
to Mithradates Eupator. (y) Giel next discusses the mono- 
grams , "j^\, f$p, which occur on a series of gold staters, 
having on the obverse a head of Augustus and on the reverse a 
beardless male head. He maintains that the head on the re- 
verse is that of Agrippa, though the resemblance is certainly 
very slight. The coins with these three monograms have been 
sometimes assigned to three different kings, but Giel, on 
reasonable grounds, assigns them all to Aspurgus, a King of 
Bosporus known from lapidary inscriptions. This attribution 
had already been determined on (independently of Mr. Giel) for 
the arrangement of these coins in the British Museum. Mr. 
Giel's interpretation of these three monograms is ingenious, pos- 
sibly too ingenious. In pP he sees the letters AZF1P 
(Aspurgus); in , A (Aspurgus), AY (Dynamis, mother of 
Aspurgus), and M (Mithradates Eupator, uncle of Dynamis) ; 
in "R\E Kai<rap Tt/3epios Nepwv or TtjSfjOtos KAai'Stos Nepwv. 
(3) In the monogram YrF which occurs on coins of Pantica- 
paeum, Gorgippia and Phanagoria in the time of Mithra- 
dates Eupator, Giel considers that we have the name 
MISPAAATOV. 

WARWICK WROTH. 



The Revue Numismatique, 1887, Pt. IV. contains the following 
articles : 

1. Th. Reinach. Essay on the numismatics of the kings of 
Bithynia. M. Reinach has followed up his valuable paper on 
the kings of Cappadocia, with another no less important investi- 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 159 

gation of the coinage of the kings of Bithynia. The chief 
points which the writer has satisfactorily established are the 
following: First, that the so-called Pontic eia was in reality 
the royal Bithynian era, adopted by Nicomedes II. in B.C. 148, 
and calculated from B.C. 297, the year in which Zipoetes, dynast 
of Bithynia, first adopted the royal title. This era continued 
to be used down to B.C. 74, when Nicomedes III. left his king- 
dom to the Romans. The first occurrence of this Bithynian 
era on coins of Pontus was not until B.C. 96. Secondly, that the 
era according to which the Roman Proconsuls of Bithynia dated 
their coins was distinct from the royal era, and was in fact the 
local era of the city of Nicaea B.C. 283, extended by the Romans 
to the whole province of Bithynia. With regard to the rare 
coins of the two Queens of Prusias ad mare, named Orsobaris 
Musa, and Oradaltis, daughter of King Lycomedes, M. Reinach 
here proposes to identify the former with Orsobaris, a daughter 
of Mithradates, whom he supposes to have been installed as 
ruler of the city of Prusias by Pompey, and the latter with a 
daughter of Lycomedes, a noble Bithynian, whom Caesar made 
High Priest of Comana in Pontus B.C. 47 31. He further 
supposes that this Lycomedes was identical with Nicomedes, a 
son of Nicomedes III (Philopator), the last King of Bithynia, 
and a grandson on his mother's side of Ariarathes VI., Epi- 
phanes, of Cappadocia. In virtue of this double royal descent, 
Lycomedes appears to have been allowed by Ca3sar to retain 
the title of king. Appended to M. Reinach's paper is a useful 
genealogical stemma of the kings of Bithynia which covers a 
period of nearly four centuries. 

2. A. Sorlin-Dorigriy and E. Babelon. Unpublished Naba- 
thaean coins. The most important of the new varieties here 
published is a silver didrachm of Obodas I., having on the ob- 
verse jugate busts of the king and his queen. 

3. E. Babelon. Tarcondimotus, dynast of Cilicia. The 
coin of this king here published is the first which gives the 
true legend of the reverse, viz., BAZIAEHZ TAPKONAI 
MOTOY <NAANTQN[iW|. Hitherto numismatists have 
read A . ANTflNlOY, but it is now proved that Tarcondi- 
motus, who took the side of Antony against Octavius, and was 
killed at the battle of Actium B.C. 81, formally adopted the title 

Of 4>t\OD 'Al/TCOVtOV. 

4. A. Engel. Notes on some ancient countermarks and on 
some numismatic peculiarities. The writer, out of a large 
number of countermarks chiefly on Roman coins, is only able 
here and there to suggest a probable explanation. The subject is 
not a very attractive one, as owing to the difficulties of explain- 



160 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ing these marks satisfactorily, it offers few inducements to 
students. 

5. E. Caron. On a coin of Jean de Chateauvillain, Baron 
of Bourbon-Lancy, probably struck at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century. 

6. J. Rouyer. On jetons, apparently French, struck at Sedan 
in the time of Louis XIII. before that town was united to 
France. 

The Revue Numismatique, 1888, Pt. I., contains the following 

articles : 

1. A. Sorlin-Dorigny. On a funeral gold obol of Cyzicus. 
The piece here described is a thin gold bracteate with a Capri- 
corn upon it. 

2. E. Drouin. Chronology and Numismatics of the Indo- 
Scythian kings. This is the first portion of an important 
treatise which will throw much light upon a very obscure and 
difficult subject. We hope to notice it at greater length when 
the work is completed. 

3. J. N. Svoronos. On some unpublished Cretan coins of 
the towns Anopolis, Dreros, Erannos, and Myrina. These coins 
are of late and very rude work. M. Svoronos's attributions 
seem to be quite incontrovertible, except, perhaps, those to 
Erannos, for the monogram on these coins appears to stand for 
the letters NEA rather than EPAN. 

4. M. Prou. On Merovingian trientes in the British Museum. 

5. P. C. Robert. On a double Mouton d'or of the Chapter of 
Cambrai. 

6. M. de Vienne. On the establishment and reductions of 
the silver pound of account from the time of Charlemagne to 
the twelfth century. 

7. N. Rondot. Claude Warin, Engraver and Medallist, 
16801654. 

The Zeitschrift fur Nwnismatlk, Bd. XV. Parts II. and III., 

contain the following articles : 

1. J. Menadier. On finds of German medieval coins in 
Holstein, Silesia, Posen, &c. 

2. Th. Mommsen. On the coins of C. Clodius Vestalis. 

3. Th. Mommsen. Mithradates Philopator Philadelphus. In 
this paper Prof. Mommsen combats M. de Ballet's attribution 
of the tetradrachms reading BAZIAEIiZ MI0PAAATOY 
4>IAOriATOPOZ KAI <NAAAEA<K)Y to Mithradates 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 161 

Euergetes, the father of Mithradates the Great. The writer, on 
the strength of an inscription lately published in the Bullettino 
della comm. arch, mimic, di Roma, 1886, p. 403, in which 
Mithradates Philopator Philadelphus is said to have been a son 
of Mithradates, endeavours to prove that he was a son of 
Mithradates the Great. We think, however, that most numis- 
matists will agree with M. de Sallet and with M. Th. Reinach 
that the coin is distinctly earlier in date than the time of Mith- 
radates Eupator. 

4. Weber. On two interesting mediaeval coins of uncertain 
attribution. 

5. F. van Vleuten. On a double-struck coin of Brabant. 
The Part concludes with notices of Keary's Catalogue of 

English Coins in the British Museum, Anglo-Saxon Series, Vol. I., 
and of Head's Historia Numorum. 



The Zeitschrift fur JVumismatik, Band XV. Part IV., contains 
the following articles : 

1. Th. Mommsen. The fifteen mints of the fifteen Dioceses 
of Diocletian. The writer here shows that after the reorganiza- 
tion of the empire by Diocletian, circ. A.D. 296 301, each of 
the fifteen dioceses of the empire had its own special mint and 
procurator monetae as follows : 

1. Orientis mint A r=Antiochia. 

2. Aegypti ,, ALE Alexandria. 
8. Asiana ,, KV =Kyzicus. 

4. Pontica ,, N =Nicomedia. 

5. Thraciarum ,, HT ^Heraclea Thracum. 

6. Macedoniae ,, TS =Thessalonica. 

7. Daciae SD =Serdica. 

8. Italiae AQ =Aquileia. 

9. Urbis Romae ROM or R=Roma. 

10. Pannoniarum or Illyrici SO or SIS=Siscia. 

11. Africae K =Karthago. 

12. Hispaniae T =Tarraco. 

13. Galliarum TR =Treveri. 

14. Viennensis ,, L or LG=Lugudunum. 

15. Britanniae L Londinium. 

The coins of Carausius and Allectus struck in Britain with 
the mint-mark C, standing for Camulodunum, belong to the 
period before A.D. 296. When the coinage was reorganized by 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. Y 



162 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Diocletian the mint of Camulodunum appears to have been 
abolished. 

2. Th. Mommsen. Equitius. This paper must be read in 
connection with Missong's article in Num. Zeit. 1873, p. 102, 
on the meaning of the letters occurring on coins of the Emperor 
Probus struck at Rome and Tarraco. According to Mommsen, 
these letters A, E, Q, V, I, T, I, &c., distributed on different 
specimens in conjunction with marks of value, conceal the name 
of the official who superintended the coinage under Probus, viz. 
Aequitius or Equitius. 

3. M. Schmidt. On the meaning of the letters |\KXC on 
Roman gold coins struck at Nicomedia. The writer suggests 
that this curious combination of letters may stand for the words 
Nicomedensi lege valente XC = - Q of the Nicomedian gold pound. 
Prof. Mommsen. on the other hand, p. 243, note 1, quotes the 
description as equivalent to Nucofu?$cui lux Cpvitatum], Some 
remarks upon this singular legend will be found in the Numis- 
matic Chronicle, Third Series, Vol. VI., p. 281, which suggest 
still another interpretation. 

4. J. N. Svoronos. On the Cretan coin with the legend 
M-QAAIflN. These rare didrachmas, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. 
Bull's head facing, must have been struck in the earlier half of 
the fourth century at an unknown town called Modaia, which is 
probably identical with the present village of Mode, in the 
neighbourhood of Polyrhenium. 

5. H. Buchenau. On coins of the Provosts of Wildeshausen 
(Oldenburg) of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

6. H. Dannenberg. On three finds of tenth and eleventh 
century German coins, 

7. K. E. H. Krause. On the Frisian words Tuna and 
Tahnbir. 

8. H. Dannenberg. On the Ribnitz find, consisting chiefly of 
long-cross pennies of Henry III. of England. 

9. U. Wilcken. On the current value of the Egyptian drachm 
in the middle of the third century A.D. 

10. U. Wilcken. On the titles of Vabalathus on Syrian 
and Alexandrian coins, viz. VCRIMDR = V[ir] CQarissimus] 
R[ex] IM[perator] D[ux] R[omanorum] and YACP or 

AYTCPQ= c Y[waTtKds] AvT^OKparup Ofi-parm/os] 'PcoraatWl 

B. V. H. ' 



MISCELLANEA. 



FIND OF ROMAN COINS ON GREAT ORME'S HEAD. A short time 
ago Mr. Thomas Kendrick, the proprietor of a small museum and 
camera obscura on Great Orme's Head, while engaged upon an 
alteration of the roadway, came upon what he believes to have 
been an ancient fire-place, near which, embedded in the clay, 
were seventeen Roman coins with one piece of pottery. The 
coins, which have been kindly forwarded to me by Dr. H. 
Thomas, of Llandudno, may be thus described: 



OBVERSE. 

GALLIENVS . P. F. AVG. 
Bust r., radiate. 



GALLIENUS, A.D. 253268. 

KEVEBSE. 

GER[MA]NICVS MAXV. 
Trophy, on either side of 
which a captive . . 



. Gaul? 



YICTORINUS, A.D. 265 267. 



IMP. C. VICTORINVS P.F. AVG. 
Bust r., radiate. 



Do. 



SALTS AVG. Salus stand- 
ing 1., holding sceptre and 
patera, towards which a 
serpent rises from an altar 
in front of Salus .... Gaul. 

SALYSAVG. Salus stand- 
ing r., feeding serpent 
from patera Gaul. 



TETRICUS, A.D. 267273. 



t. TE[TRI]CVS P. F. 
Bust r., radiate. 



AYG. 



PAX AVG. Pax standing 
1., holding olive-branch 
and sceptre Gaul. 



5. IMP. CARAYSIVS P. F. AYG. 
Bust r., radiate. 



G. 



Do. 



Do. 



CARAUSIUS, A.D. 287 293. 

A DYX (sic}. 

For tuna Redux seated 1., 
holding rudder and cornu- 

copiae. Wheel beneath 

her seat. 

No mint letters. 

HELERITAS AVG (sic). 
Hilaritas standing r., 
holding branch and cornu- 
copias. 

In field, F O. 

In ex., ML, . . London. 

[MAR]S YICTOR. Mars 
walking r., holding 
trophy and spear. 
No mint letters ? 



164 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



OBVERSE. 

8. IMP. C. CARAVSIVS . P. F. AVG. 
Bust r., radiate. 



9. IMP . CARAVSIVS . P. F. AVG. 

Bust r., radiate. 



10. 

11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



15. IMP CARAVSIVS P. AVG. 

Bust r., radiate. 

16. IMP. C. CARAVSIVS P. F. AVG. 

Bust r., radiate. 

17. IMP CARAVSIVS P. F. AVG. 

Bust r., radiate. 



REVERSE. 

PAX AVG. Pax standing 
1., holding "branch and 
sceptre. 

No mint letters. 

PAX AVG. Pax standing 
1., holding branch and 
spear, and with shield on 
ground behind her. 

In field, B E. 

In ex., ML? . . . 



MINT. 



London. 



[PA]X AVG. Pax stand- 
ing 1., holding branch and 
sceptre. 

In field, F-0. 
In ex. ? 

Do. Small size. 

In field, F 0. 

PAX AVG. Pax as above. 
In field, F 0. 
In ex., ML. . . 



London. 



PAX AVG. Pax as above. 
In field, F 0. 
In ex., ML London. 

PAX AVG. Pax as above. 
In field, L. 
In ex., ML London. 

PAX AVG. Pax as above. 

In ex., C. . . . Camulodunum. 

PAX AVG. Pax as above. 
In field, S C. 
In ex., C Camulodunum. 



PROVIDENT. AVG. Pro- 
videntia standing 1., hold- 
ing globe and transverse 
sceptre. 

In field, B E. 

In ex., [ML]XXI. 



. . London. 
B. V. HEAD. 



Num. C 



















VIII 

JEWISH COINS. 

IN submitting the following translation of an article 
written by the learned Dr. Grraetz, of Breslau, our chief 
living authority on Jewish history, and on all that per- 
tains to it, I add no comment or criticism of my own. 
The article was written for the purpose of being read 
by its author at one of the meetings lately held in connec- 
tion with the Anglo- Jewish Exhibition. At this Exhi- 
bition selections of ancient Jewish coins were sent from all 
the principal collections, always excepting those of the 
British Museum, which, under its rules and regulations, 
could not be lent for that purpose, but were, by the kind- 
ness of the authorities, exhibited separately at the same 
time within the precincts of the Museum. I was entrusted 
with the pleasurable task of cataloguing and of writing a 
short account of these coins in the official catalogue of the 
Exhibition, and hence my having been authorised by Dr. 
Graetz at the same time to translate his contribution. I 
may fairly ask some of our friends who have made a 
special study of the coins of the period referred to by 
him to give their views on the subject of the propositions 
which he has enunciated. 

H. MONTAGU. 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



ON THE SIGNIFICATION OF THE JEWISH COINS 

WITH THE LULAB (PALM-BRANCHES) AND 

PORTAL. 

BY DR. GBAETZ. 

JEWISH numismatics for there are such bear eloquent 
testimony to the struggles and victories of the Jewish 
people from the Maccabaean period until, perhaps, after the 
destruction of the Second Temple. The coins which come 
within the scope of this study are invaluable records, 
inasmuch as they not only faithfully represent historical 
facts connected with personages and events, but also 
reflect, without distortion, their sense and importance. 
In addition to this, such of them as bear dates furnish 
fixed and certain aids to chronology. 

For two centuries those who presided over the Jewish 
mints issued coins with Hebrew legends for current use ; 
Simon Maccabaeus and his successors, the Asmonaean 
princes and kings, in the beginning, and, afterwards, vari- 
ous eminent personages at the time of the defection from 
Rome and of the great war under Vespasian, and perhaps 
even in later times. These last come under the denomination 
of coins of the Revolts. All these coins have acquired so 
great an importance that historians whose work extends 
over the period of their issue study them, and are com- 
pelled to study them, and the public museums of all 
European States have zealously devoted their energies 
towards the acquisition of genuine specimens, for which 
payment is at times made to the extent of a thousandfold 
their intrinsic value. Jewish numismatics have at the 
present day become the subject of a study of itself. 

It is interesting to trace how this branch of archaeology 



167 



has from rudiments originally so slight attained the im- 
portance now attributed to it. It was always known in 
Jewish circles that there were once Jewish coins with 
Hebrew inscriptions and with lettering similar to the 
Samaritan characters. Maimuni saw some of these in 
Egypt in the twelfth century. When Machmani was 
exiled, and sought an asylum in Palestine owing to the 
persecution of the Dominicans, he found, on his arrival at 
Acre in the year 1267, shekels and half shekels in the 
possession of the Jews there settled. This did not in the 
least astonish him ; he was more interested in considering 
the question whether their weight was in harmony with 
the declarations of the Talmud. In the first quarter of the 
sixteenth century Moses Alaschkar saw, in Tunis, several 
similar specimens in silver and copper, and with varied 
types and legends. He was also informed that three or 
four examples in gold, of the extraordinary value of six 
ducats each, were in the possession of a certain magnate 
there. In the same century the existence of similar pieces 
with the so-called Samaritan lettering was not unknown 
to the Jews in Italy. No one, however, devoted any 
attention to them, or seemed to have any knowledge of 
their historical value. Neither did the savants in 
Christian circles devote much more attention to Jewish 
numismatics even in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies, although Hebrew literature and archaeological 
studies were then fostered and led to fame, and although a 
considerable number of specimens of this class of coins had 
been brought together and were accessible in public and 
private collections. Many Orientalists doubted their 
genuineness, owing to their peculiar striking and letter- 
ing, and considered them to be fabrications of astute 
dealers in Jerusalem or Italy, and bestowed more -atten- 



168 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

tion upon the formation of the letters than upon the 
importance of the legends. 

It was only towards the end of the eighteenth century 
that the study of Jewish numismatics was treated with more 
consideration and zeal, and thereby attained the rank of a 
study in itself. A Spanish priest with a German patro- 
nymic, the Archdeacon of Valencia, Francisco Perez 
Bayer, gave to it a lasting impulse. His treatise, De 
numis Hebrceo-Samaritanis (1781), to which he added 
drawings of a substantial number of different specimens, 
marked an era in this branch of archaeology chiefly owing 
to the opposition which he at first experienced. 

Tychsen, a German professor of Rostock, who had 
learnt Hebrew from the heretical Rabbi, Jonathan Eibe- 
schiitz, of Altona, and who wished to utilise this know- 
ledge for the conversion of the Jews, maintained, without 
any valid reason, that all the specimens preserved as such 
rare treasures in public museums and private collections 
were the productions of forgers in Palestine or Italy. It 
was, however, just this dogmatical opinion (behind which 
lurked his own idiosyncrasy), and the manner also in 
which he treated the honourable and well-informed 
Bayer, that awakened interest in the study of Jewish 
numismatics, and its defender, Bayer, in his reply, 
Vindicia Numorum Hebrceo-Samaritanorum (1790), pro- 
duced more evidence as to the genuineness of the coins, 
and published several more specimens, which he had 
discovered on his journey through Spain. Numismatists 
of authority confirmed his arguments. The venerable 
French archaeologist, Jean Jacques Barthelemy, whose 
opinion was of importance, remarked, " Si Ton doutait de 
leur authenticite (des medailles hebreo-samaritaines) il 
faudrait douter de celles des medailles grecques et 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND "PORTAL" COINS. 169 



time, Joseph Eckhel, of Vienna, treated of the Jewish 
coins in his great work, Doctrina Numorum (1794), and 
entirely disposed of Tychsen by his superior authority. In 
the meanwhile, owing to the French Revolution and the 
great wars, the study of Jewish numismatics made no pro- 
gress for a long time. It was only in the middle of the 
present century that it gained further strength and eluci- 
dation. M. de Saulcy, a captain of artillery, mainly con- 
tributed to this. Entrusted with the task of writing the 
history of the Jewish nation before and after the second 
destruction of Jerusalem, and full of love for his subject, 
and especially for Judaism, as he averred in Les dernier s 
jours de Jerusalem, he was so fortunate on his journey 
through Palestine as to obtain a large collection of Jewish 
coins. His work Recherches stir la Numismatique juda'ique 
(1854) marked a second epoch in the treatment of this sub- 
ject. On the one hand he excited emulation in connection 
with his acquisition of such genuine coins, inasmuch as he 
at the same time furnished proofs of their genuineness ; 
and on the other hand he advanced the cause of original 
research into the history of the Jews from the Maccabaean 
era until the time of Hadrian, this being found indispensable 
to a proper understanding of the coins. In the same way 
as, formerly, theologians sought to verify the chronology 
of the New Testament by reference to historical records 
and to Jewish literature generally, so were the same 
sources of knowledge now examined by those learned 
in the matter in the interests of Jewish numismatics. 
The Talmud, hitherto a sealed book, not to say an object 
of abhorrence so far as Christian savants were concerned, 
was now honoured by being called into the councils of 
the investigators, to throw, if possible, some light upon 



170 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

obscure numismatic points. To this also De Saulcy gave 
an impetus, and he thereby showed his right appreciation 
of the subject. For, in fact, without a knowledge of the 
hints which are given, or, perhaps rather, let fall unde- 
signedly, and, therefore, all the more credibly, in the 
Talmud with respect to the customs and events connected 
with the actual life of the time in which the coins 
originate, or are said to originate, the history of that 
epoch is not altogether intelligible. 

The evidences of Josephus, notwithstanding their great 
worth, might excite some suspicion, owing to the fact that 
out of consideration for his Greek and Roman readers, he 
either wilfully or unintentionally effaced the original 
colouring as being too glaring for such readers. Much 
less information is on purely secular matters afforded by 
the Gospels, with their epics, dialogues, and monologues. 
For, independently of the fact that these are not contem- 
poraneous, the circle from whom they originate held aloof 
from public life, and despised it too much to understand 
it. " Render to Ccesar the things that are Ccesar's " is a 
sentence which reflects clearly the Ebionitic conception 
of Mammon or of money. On the other hand, the Tal- 
mudic literature gives a faithful representation of the 
different aspects of public life within the cycle to which 
these coins belong, and to which, therefore, numismatic 
science must have regard. It is proposed to demonstrate 
in the following pages how certain casual expressions in 
the Talmud with reference to ancient customs indisputably 
elucidate an obscure point in Jewish numismatics. Al- 
though all difficulties connected with that portion which 
relates to the Maccabaean period have for the most part 
been dissipated, there still exists a difference of opinion 
concerning that portion of which the chronological 
position and date are not clearly defined. 



171 



There is especially a great controversy as to the class of 
coins upon which the name of Simon more or less dis- 
tinctly appears. Some numismatists identify this Simon 
with the elder or younger Simon Ben Gamaliel (of Hillel 
descent), the latter being the grandson of the former, or 
to some extent also with Simon Bar-Gioras, the wild hero 
of the zealots ; others ascribe the coins of this class, or a 
section of them, to the heroic Simon Bar-Cochab, who, in 
the time of Hadrian, kept the Roman legions at bay for 
three years. There are some pieces, too, which are called 
Eleazar coins. There is a controversy also as to these. 
Some attribute them to Eleazar, a leader of the zealots 
during the revolt of the Jews against the Romans, but, on 
the other hand, De Saulcy refers them to the little-known 
Eleazar of Modin, a Hagadist. It has, in short, been found 
impracticable hitherto to decide with any degree of cer- 
tainty which coins belong to the first and which to the 
second Revolt, notwithstanding the amount of discussion 
that has taken place. 

There is a series of coins also concerning which the 
same doubts have arisen, and which are called " lulab " 
pieces. They are all of almost identical types, but their 
legends differ. The types are of the following varieties, 
viz., on the one side is a bundle of branches better known 
by the name of a lulab (composed of a long palm-branch 
between two shorter ones of myrtle and willow), and near 
it is the representation of a fruit which is rightly considered 
to be the citron or ethrog, and is inseparably connected 
with the lulab. On the other side of these pieces the type 
is that of a portal or colonnade ; four columns with an 
architrave, and other ornamentations above. This tetra- 
style portal is not, however, struck in identically the 
same manner on all the pieces, but exhibits several varia- 
tions in form. The legends on these lulab pieces differ 



172 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

still more. One kind distinctly bears on the lulab side 
the words, "First Year of the Deliverance of Israel" 
(b-)ttP nbtfnb nn raitf), and on the portal side, on both 
sides of the columns and over the architrave, the word, 
"Jerusalem" (Dba7YT), but no proper name. 

Several pieces, on the contrary, have on the lulab side 
the legend, " The second year of the freedom of Israel " 
(bNiK^ "inb 2' a?) and on the portal side, similarly to the 
last, " Jerusalem," also without any proper name. Others, 
again, have more or less distinctly on the portal side the 
name of "Simon" instead of Jerusalem. Finally, a 
third or fourth kind has on the lulab side the words, " On 
the freedom of Jerusalem" (own^ nnnb in full) but 
not the year of striking, and on the portal side the name 
" Simon." 

"What makes the exact chronological attribution of this 
class of coins so doubtful is the circumstance that on some 
specimens traces of the head of an emperor, or Greek 
letters, occur in one case the termination NOC, and one 
has somewhat distinctly, in Greek lettering, an abbrevia- 
tion of the name Titus Flavius Vespasianus. These 
specimens are, therefore, surfrappe coins that is to say, 
that over Greek imperial coins of Vespasian, Domitian 
or Trajan, the impression of a Jewish coin has been 
struck, as is the case with other coins, which clearly show, 
under the Jewish striking, the full name of Trajan with 
his titles. 

Now Vespasian was proclaimed Emperor in July, 
A.D. 69, during the Jewish war. He only arrived at 
Rome A.D. 70. His first coin, therefore, could only at the 
very earliest have been struck in this year. Is it to be said 
that the besieged in Jerusalem had already become pos- 
sessed of coins of Vespasian a few months before the 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 173 

destruction of the city, and had impressed upon them 
Jewish devices and inscriptions ? This is scarcely 
credible. But assume for one moment that these were 
coins of Trajan. It would be more readily conceded that 
this surfrappage had taken place much later, during the 
second Revolt. At all events, therefore, these pieces upon 
which the surfrappage is visible would belong to the 
period of Bar-Cochab. As then the similarity of the 
types points to a contemporaneous date, the class of 
lulab coins must also, one and all, belong to the same 
period. De Saulcy arrives at this conclusion, though not 
by the same method of reasoning. He claims that this 
class, as also many others, belong to the second Revolt, 
and the occurrence on some of the pieces of this class of 
the name " Simon " appears to support his attribution. 
Other numismatists, particularly Merzbacher and Madden, 
do not concur in this result. The former attributes tho 
types with the dates "first and second year" (Figs. 1, 2, 3) l 
to the first, and those without date (Figs. 4, 5, 6), to the 
second Eevolt. Madden attributes Type I. only to the 
first Revolt. Another class of coins gives rise to similar 
differences of opinion on the part of these authorities. 
The Eleazar coins belong most probably to the first 
Revolt ; and these also have the date " First year of the 
freedom of Israel," the same as one kind of the lulab coins. 
The latter kind, at all events, therefore belong also to the 
period of the first Revolt. In short, the most eminent 
numismatists move in a circle in their attempts to fix the 
date of this class of coins. 

To find a way out of the difficulty a fresh path must be 

1 Plate VI., in illustration of this translation, is an exact 
copy, with all faults, of that which accompanied Dr. Graetz's 
original paper, but the module of the coins has, in the process 
of reproduction, been slightly diminished. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. A A 



J74 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

struck. In the next place, the exact significance of the 
types and legends must be ascertained. For the lulab 
and portal, which all coins of that class have in common, 
are striking enough, and must have originated from ascer- 
tainable sources. The most obvious meaning of the lulab 
is given by the numismatic writers : " The type of these 
shekels the ethrog and lulab reminded the Jews of the 
Feast of Tabernacles." (Madden.) It should be added 
that they are represented as they were accustomed to be 
held during the recital of the psalms contained in the 
prayer of the Hallel in connection with which they were 
used, the lulab to the right, and the ethrog to the left. 
The numismatists have, however, omitted to notice a 
slight detail which is visible in connection with the form 
of the lulab. On all the coins the latter, with the small 
twigs appertaining to it, is depicted as being in an orna- 
mented receptacle. This has the appearance of a chalice. 
It is clearly an embellishment. What then is the meaning 
of this embellishment or receptacle ? The Talmud at once 
clears up the difficulty. 

Rabbi Me'ir states quite casually that the men of posi- 
tion in Jerusalem carried their lulab in a small golden 
basket. The bundle of palm, myrtle, and willow-branches, 
according to the laws of the ritual, was obliged to be 
bound together at the ends. Now Rabbi Meir, in oppo- 
sition to the assertion that the connecting band must be 
in the nature of vegetable fibre, refers to the fact that the 
leading inhabitants of Jerusalem did not observe that cus- 
tom, but effected the binding together by means of a 
small golden basket. His Halachic adversary concedes 
that fact, but gives it as his opinion that the bundle was 
connected together by bands of thread inside the basket. 
It may, in addition, be remarked that Rabbi Me'ir, as a 
disciple, of Rabbi Akiba, may have received from him 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 175 

traditions on the subject of the customs and usages in 
Jerusalem ; for the latter was of an advanced age at the 
time of the destruction of Jerusalem. 

Let us now consider the meaning of the tradition con- 
cerning this gold lulab basket. The custom was not in 
vogue during the lifetime of Rabbi Me'ir, but only pre- 
viously thereto, during the existence of Jerusalem. This 
somewhat unorthodox custom, also, did not prevail outside 
Jerusalem. It happened, therefore, that it was in Jeru- 
salem alone that a display was made with the lulab. They 
not only made use of it in the Temple, and in the house of 
prayer when the Hallel psalms were recited, but it was 
seldom out of their hands daring the day. The Talmud 
contains a tradition which has a bearing upon this also. 
The rich and those who were of note in Jerusalem, to make 
a show of their lulab, adorned it with a gold basket ; they 
could not grudge themselves this luxury. 

Regarding now the receptacle in which the lulab is 
placed on the type of the lulab coins, can there be any 
doubt but that it represents this very basket ? It appears 
to be ribbed and twisted like a basket ; it can clearly be 
called a basket. It has a foot or a handle by which it can 
be held, and two or three openings. The lulab-bundle on 
the coins is depicted in the same manner as the men of 
rank in Jerusalem used to hold and display it. It requires 
no further argument on that subject to make it clear that 
these coins could only have been struck during the exis- 
tence of Jerusalem ; and as the custom of depositing the 
lulab in a basket did not prevail subsequently, the later 
moneyers would not have taken it into their heads to de- 
pict bundles in that shape. That shape it is evident could 
not have been in vogue at the time of Bar Cochab, as Rabbi 
Meir, who was then living, refers to the custom as having 
been one existing in earlier times, and which, therefore, 



176 NUMISMATIC CHKONTCLE. 

was not practised in his own time. It can also scarcely be 
argued that the receptacle in which the lulab is depicted 
on the coin-types is only an embellishment, and this is all 
it could have been if it had been met with in the ordinary 
course as a kind of ornamental basket-work. I dwell 
somewhat upon this circumstance as it constitutes the 
centre of gravity for the chronological attribution of the 
lulab coins. 

Let us now consider the reverses of these pieces. They 
clearly bear only the representation of a portal, always 
with two columns on each side, and generally with an 
architrave. 

Numismatists are as wanting in unanimity on the 
subject of this type as they are unanimous with regard to 
the lulab and the ethrog at its left-hand. Perez-Bayer 
maintains that the portal is a representation of the Mau- 
soleum which Simon Maccabaeus (or rather his son) caused 
to be erected in memory of the Asmonaean family in Mo- 
din. This explanation has been rightly rejected, inas- 
much as most examples of this class bear the name of 
Jerusalem. It was also interpreted as depicting the Ark 
of the Covenant, which is somewhat paradoxical, as in 
post-exile times the ark and its form were utterly un- 
known. Other numismatists have been willing to see in 
it the form of the Temple, or of the entrance to the 
Temple. (Cavedoni, Levy, Merzbacher.) But this interpre- 
tation can scarcely be correct, as the Temple of the time 
of the Herods had no ornamentation of columns at the 
entrance ; and it can still less be regarded as a gate, inas- 
much as the opening is in a certain measure barricaded 
by a three-barred decoration. Merzbacher for that reason 
denominates the emblem as a closed gate. But a closed 
gate affords no entrance, and therefore it cannot symbolize 



ON THE JEWISH " LT7LAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 177 

the gate of the Temple. What then is the meaning of 
the portal side of these lulab coins ? 

It must be remembered that on the other side the 
lulab is represented optimd in forma to the right, bound up 
with the two other branches ; on the left the ethrog fruit, 
and in addition an embellishment to the bundle, as must 
have occurred in actual use. What deeper significance 
has this type ? 

It is a great departure from the emblems which occur 
on most of the Jewish coins. These latter, such as the 
palm-tree, or palm -leaf, or the vine, are symbols repre- 
senting the Holy Land or the Jewish people. What 
meaning, however, was there in the striking of a lulab on 
coins ? It was, without encumbering the argument with 
subtleties, simply and solely intended to commemorate the 
Festival of Succoth (Tabernacles), and beyond this the 
period of this festival, which was celebrated by means of 
two several ritual symbols, the branches of four kinds of 
plants (D^D 372"i), and the lightly constructed Festival 
Tabernacle (n31D). If this festival is to be typically 
depicted it should be represented in both of these aspects, 
not only by means of the lulab, but also by means of the 
tabernacle. The portal, therefore, represents the facade 
of the Festival Tabernacle, not, of course, that of the 
very first or best description, but, as in the case of the 
lulab, that of a Jew in a superior position, who has made 
a parade of it as with the lulab. It must have been a 
tabernacle of elegant construction. 

As a matter of fact, tabernacles of this elegance of con- 
struction, with columns, did actually occur. In Tal- 
mudical literature mention is made of one of these sur- 
rounded on all sides by columns, and that these columns 
were regarded as being in accordance with the ritual as 



178 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

representing walls, and the whole building considered to 
be an orthodox form of the Festival Tabernacle. The 
example is certainly borrowed from actual reality. Many 
a man of position has used as a Sukka (Festival Tabernacle) 
the TrepLGTvXov in the court-yard of his house, furnished 
with a roof consisting of a light covering of leaves. It is 
stated of the proselyte of Adiabene, Queen Helena, who in 
48 A.D. had come to Jerusalem with her grandchildren in 
order to give them a Jewish education, that she caused to 
be built for herself a very noble Festival Tabernacle. 
It is difficult to imagine that its walls were of mas- 
sive construction, as this could scarcely have been 
tolerated, having regard to the high temperature at this 
festival time. The tabernacle would, with greater proba- 
bility, have been built so as to secure a large access of 
fresh air, and the queen, who spoke Greek, no doubt 
would also have had a taste for the light airy Greek 
style of building, and her tabernacle was doubtless, there- 
fore, ornamented with columns, at all events so far as the 
fagade was concerned, which, according to the ritual, need 
not be a wall. A Festival Tabernacle with a facade of 
columns, such as was in use among people of position in 
Jerusalem, certainly served as a model for the type of this 
series of coins. It formed the complement to the lulab, 
which, as we have proved, was used for show. 

Now, regarding the portal with the tetrastyle as the 
representation of a decoratively constructed Festival 
Tabernacle, we shall also find on the portal on these coins 
a trifling detail, little regarded heretofore by numismatists, 
but which has its signification. Upon most specimens 
there is introduced into the cavity of the portal a semi- 
circle of little rings, and upon this semicircle are three 
lines, upon which may be observed little globules, those 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 179 

in the middle smaller than those above or below. These 
beaded lines can only be of the nature of an ornamen- 
tation, and this again can be explained by a reference to 
Talmudical literature. It was the custom to decorate the 
Festival Tabernacles with strings of nuts or almonds, 
grapes, or wreaths consisting of ears of corn. This deco- 
ration has a technical term applied to it, rDIDn ^la, i.e. the 
ornament of the Tabernacle. The ritual law provided 
that such a decoration when once added to the Tabernacle 
should not be eaten or made use of until after the expira- 
tion of the festival. 

The semicircles and the lines with little rings or glo- 
bules on the portals represented on the coins are only to 
be regarded as decorations of the Festival Tabernacle. 
The portal is, therefore, not closed at the bottom, but it 
exhibits a decoration in accordance with the custom in 
connection with Festival Tabernacles ; and it is therefore 
in no wise to be considered as a colonnade of a temple, 
but only as a representation of the Festival Tabernacle 
of a man of rank or position who decorated the subject 
matter of his ritual duty, in the same manner as the lulab 
is provided with an ornament. Both types on the coins, 
the lulab on the one side and the decorative fa9ade of the 
Festival Tabernacle on the other, together serve to repre- 
sent the Festival of Tabernacles. These symbols of the 
festival have a deeper meaning still, and one which the 
types on the coins were intended to represent. The lulab 
reminds us of rejoicings ; as we read in the Law, " You shall 
take of the fruit of the tree Hadar and palm-branches, 
&c., and shall rejoice before the Lord." 

The Second Book of the Maccabees, in fact, relates that 
at the consecration of the Temple by the Maccabees, palm- 
branches, and especially lulabs, were, as a sign of rejoicing, 



180 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

swung to the tune of the hymns. 2 It being granted that 
the lulab symbolises a joyful mood, it may likewise be 
taken that the Festival Tabernacle records another train 
of thought, namely, God's protection of his people. The 
Law distinctly lays down, in its prescription for the abode 
in tents or tabernacles during this festival, that it should 
be remembered at this period how the Lord protected our 
forefathers in the wilderness. The verse Isaiah vi. 17, 
nmDl, &c., has made this line of thought plainer still, and 
in later times it was so extended as to render the Festival 
Tabernacle a protection against all ill-doers, and even 
against evil demons. 3 There was a reason, therefore, on 
the part of the engravers of this series of coins in choos- 
ing the emblems discussed by us. They were intended 
to represent the rejoicings over their acquisition, and at 
the same time confidence in the protection of His people by 
the Lord. The types, therefore, indicate the frame of mind 
of the people, and the legends give the facts and the dates 
which brought it into play. " The first year of the free- 
dom of Israel," "The second year of the freedom of Israel," 
compress into a very small compass a subject rich with 
historical interest, and arising at a time when Jerusalem 
was still independent. Although the legend Db^7'n > on 
the lulab coins sufficiently points to this conclusion, it is 
established with still greater force by the decoration on the 
bundle of leaves, the basket -shaped tress- work, which re- 
presents the golden basket of the upper classes of Jerusalem. 
Here, however, we have to surmount a somewhat serious 
difficulty. Although on the one hand it is certain that the 
basket ornamentation points to the independence of Jeru- 
salem, and that therefore the lulab coins must have been 

2 2 Maccab. x., 6, 7. 

3 Pesikta, K. Kahana, ed. Buber, p. 187, &c. 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 181 

struck before the destruction, it is equally certain, on the 
other hand, that they must be attributed to some period 
after the destruction, if regard is to be had to the traces 
which occur on some of these coins of the bust of a Roman 
emperor, and to the name in distinct characters of one of 
those emperors. The view taken by Dr. Merzbacher, and 
partly also by Madden, that some examples of these belong 
to the first and others to the second Revolt is altogether 
untenable. It were better to fully concur in the decision 
of Von Sallet which he expresses concerning the Simon 
coins as a whole : " It is unexampled and impossible, in 
connection with ancient numismatics, that coins which 
absolutely resemble each other in style, and can even be 
readily confused the one with the other, should be separated 
in point of time by a period of sixty years." 4 Therefore all 
the lulab coins must, according to our author, belong to 
the time of Bar-Cochab. This theory, however, cannot 
be right, since the emblem which represents the custom 
of the nobility in Jerusalem proves them to be of a time 
before Bar-Cochab. How then shall we escape this di- 
lemma ? Only by dealing with the matter in the most 
critical manner. All those examples, the legends upon 
which indicate an epoch after the destruction, and which 
are in addition of an extremely suspicious nature, must 
be the fabrications of a forger. But an imitation pre- 
supposes an original. There must, therefore, have been 
genuine lulab coins which served as patterns to the forger, 
and these genuine pieces were certainly of the time before 
the fall of Jerusalem. I always return to that point, 
because it was only during the independence of the capital 
that the decoration of the basket- shaped tress-work could 
have been designed. 

4 Zeitschr.fiir Numism. v. 113. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. B B 



132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Those examples only are genuine which give a date, 
" first and second year of the deliverance, or of the freedom 
of Israel," but which have not the name of the ruler who 
struck them. Those kinds, also, which have the date and 
the name of Simon may also be genuine. The trace of 
the emperor's bust which may be observed upon one 
example need not discredit its authenticity, it may be the 
head of Nero ; and so also NO in large letters upon one 
example of the second year without "Simon" does not make 
it a suspected piece, as it is possibly part of the termina- 
tion of N EPniMOC, and the coin may be struck over one of 
Nero. But certainly those pieces are not genuine which 
have the absurd legend " The freedom of Jerusalem," and 
not bhnttf' 1 inb ; and also the piece which, instead of 
nbltfYT rmnb, distinctly has nbtt7m, PP being at some 
distance from it, and the Samaritan n being clumsily 
formed with three little limbs instead of, as is usual 
throughout, with two (Fig. VI.). The example, which is 
struck over a coin issued after Nero, must especially be 
considered to be false. 

Treating the lulab coins which have a date as genuine, 
it must be observed that their legends bear upon his- 
torical events, upon matters of fact at the time of the 
Revolt from Rome under Nero, in the same way as their 
types, the lulab and facade of the tabernacle, represent 
the sentiments of the people at that period. The differ- 
ence between nbab and nnnb is particularly note- 
worthy. The former signifies "Deliverance," i.e. the 
beginning of the liberation from foreign rule ; rvnn 1 ?, on 
the other hand, signifies " Freedom," i.e. the continuance 
of the liberation achieved. It marks a further stage in 
the desired independence. To nbbtf? belongs nns nattf, 
and to rmrfo the date "3 roitf. There is, therefore, no 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 183 

coin to be found which has the legend nvinb 'N n3U7 or 
nbsnb '2 rottf . A published piece belonging to Reichardt, 
which has the latter legend, was rightly condemned as 
false by Levy, De Saulcy, and Madden (Madden, Numism. 
Orient. II. 236, No. 10). The example of a lulab coin 
which bears the legend bfcnap nbnb nns FS (Fig. I), 
was certainly struck during the first period of the Revolt 
from Rome, and with equal certainty at the time of the 
Feast of Tabernacles, as is proved by the types. In point 
of chronology this thoroughly agrees with the historical 
events in the beginning of the Revolt as they are 
narrated by Josephus. On the day of the Festival of the 
Boughs, the 15th day of the month Ab, 5 the Roman 
cohorts stationed in the citadel (Acra) under the Tribune 
Metilius, and Agrippa's troop under the leadership of the 
Babylonian Philip, were so hard pressed by the Zealots 
that they were compelled to seek refuge and entrench 
themselves in Herod's Palace on the Market Place. On 
the 6th Gorpiaios, i.e. 6th Elul, the Zealots allowed 
Agrippa's host to withdraw and continued the conflict 
with the Roman cohorts. Then these capitulated and were 
cut to pieces, with the exception of Metilius, who went 
over to Judaism. From that time the people of Jeru- 
salem felt themselves free from the foreign yoke. The 
day and month of this victory are, it is true, not given by 
Josephus, but the commemorative scroll for the day 
in question (Megillath Taanit) briefly declares "on the 
17th Elul, the Romans were driven out of Jerusalem and 
Judah." The rejoicings at this victory were so great,* 

5 Josephus' Declaration (Jew. Ckr. II. 7, 7, 8) that the 
Festival of the Boughs was observed on the 14th Ab rests upon 
a slip of memory. The Talmud is more accurate, and so often 
speaks of the Festival as occurring on the 15th Ab. 



184 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that the whole of the inhabitants of the not unimportant 
city of Lydda repaired to Jerusalem for the Tabernacle 
Festival. 6 

The inhabitants of other neighbouring cities probably 
betook themselves to the capital at the same time in order 
to take part in the triumph over the Romans. The 
rejoicings were universal. It was only after this victory 
that they could proceed to strike their own coins. This 
occurred in the month of Tishri, which, according to the 
calendar in those times, commenced the year. The 
legend naturally was, " In the first year of the liberation 
of Israel," and " Jerusalem," which was the essence of all 
sanctity, and the object of all reverence on the part of 
the whole nation. But what types were to be selected 
for the new coins? As the striking of them did not 
commence long before the Feast of Tabernacles, it was 
natural that resort should be had to the symbols of this 
festival, viz., the lulab and the tabernacle. Both were 
represented with their most beautiful attributes, the 
lulab with the decorations of the basket tress-work as it 
used to be borne by the higher ranks in Jerusalem, and the 
tabernacle also after an agreeable pattern, the fagade 
being depicted with columns and architrave and with the 
ornamentation of the lines of circles, the pictorial repre- 
sentation of strings of nuts, almonds, or other fruits. It 
was sought to represent at one and the same time the 
rejoicings over the victory and the liberation from the 
Romans by means of the lulab, and the hope for God's 
further protection by means of the symbol of the Sukka 
(tabernacle). These were no doubt the motives which 

6 Josephus, Jew. Chr. II. 29, 1, Sta yap TVJV rfjs a-KyvoTryyias 
f.oprr]v av<JLJ3f{3r]KCi irav TO TrXfjOos (rrjs TroXews AuSSa) cts 'lepoao \vfJia. 



185 



influenced those who were engaged in the striking of the 
first Liberation Coins. 

Who was at that time the ruler who struck these 
pieces ? The fact that the coins of the first year bear no 
name is full of significance, for this omission proves that 
the coins were struck at a time when none of the pro- 
minent individuals who had contributed to the Revolt 
from Rome had as yet attained any position of authority. 
It was the honeymoon of Freedom in its youth. The 
Sanhedrin, with Simon Ben-Gamaliel at its head, had no 
political privileges, only rights of legislation in connection 
with religious matters, "et inter arma silent leges." 
There are other coins with the legend, " First year of the 
Liberation" which were certainly coined in the same 
year, particularly the Eleazar coins before mentioned. 
These must have been struck later at the time when the 
bearer of this name was at the head of affairs in Jeru- 
salem. They, therefore, also bear other types than the 
lulab coins ; they have no connection with the Festival of 
Tabernacles. 

Those examples of the lulab coins which have the 
legend " The second year of the Freedom of Israel " (as 
Fig. II.), differ though but little from the type of the 
first Year in the ornamentations on the lulab basket, 
and to some extent also in the beaded lines on the 
portal. They must, however, have been struck at the 
time of the first Revolt, and in fact during the month of 
the Festival of Tabernacles (about October, 67 A.D.). If 
also there be any example of this type which bears the 
Greek NO, that circumstance in no wise proves that 
they are struck over coins of Vespasian. As I have 
already stated, this can be amplified to [N6PH]NO[C] 
(in the genitive). Large coins of Nero were still known in 



186 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Palestine (nwa 2?bD). 7 Much more surely does the 
presence of the ornamental basket on the lulab bundle 
point to the time before the destruction of Jerusalem. 
Madden and others, therefore, erroneously attribute the 
coins with the legend " The second year " to the time of 
the second Revolt. 

There are, however, two varieties of this type, one with, 
and the other without, the name of " Simon." According 
to the acceptation of many numismatists, this name of 
Simon refers to the President of the Sanhedrin, Simon 
Ben-Gamaliel, whose name bsntZP WHW JTODI& more or 
less distinctly occurs upon several copper coins. There 
was no other Simon who bore the title " Nasi " (Prince) 
in existence at that time. As one of these varieties has 
round the name a wreath, the upper part of which is 
fastened with some gem, and on the other side within the 
inscription bsit> nbwnb nn roa? ; another also being 
known with the same types (only with some letters 
effaced), and the Berlin Cabinet possesses a coin which 
has the same types, but with inb n"ttf bs'iltf' 1 round 
the Diota, and within the wreath the name "p^attf only 
(Merzbacher in Yon Sallet I. 232 et seq.\ there remains 
no doubt that this name of Simon can also only refer to 
Simon Ben-Gamaliel. 

Another proof that 'p^Ettf can plainly be considered 
to be identical with bhntt^ H^tCO fTODtP may also be 
gathered from the so-called Eleazar coins, for there are 
examples of these which distinctly have on the one side 
7 man -robs or the letters struck from right to left 
sb^n ron? (by a mistake of the engraver), and on 
the other side bfcnttP ribwab nriN nattf. No numis- 



Kelim, 17, 12, and parallel passages. 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 187 

matist has disputed the authenticity of these coins. 
It is clear, therefore, that a priest named Eleazar caused 
coins to be struck in the first year of the Liberation 
(i.e. from the Romans). 

This Eleazar was either Eleazar, the son of Ananias, 
who threw considerable energy into the Revolution, or 
more probably Eleazar, the son of Simon, who on the 
flight of the Romans and of their leader Cestius Gallus 
had the care of the treasures and military chest which 
had been wrested from them, and who especially had in 
his hands the management of the finances of the State. 
Although he was passed over at the commencement, when 
the election of rulers of the different districts took place, 
yet by degrees, and because he was the Controller of the 
Finances, he obtained the supremacy in Jerusalem. 8 

No other Eleazar is known who attained such eminence 
as to entitle him to strike coins. The theory advanced 
by De Saulcy that the Eleazar in question may have 
been the Eleazar of Modin (^YlEn "TO^N "~0 men- 
tioned in Talmudic literature, and of whom nothing 
further is known than that, during the siege of Bethar, he 
besought, in sackcloth and ashes, the aid of heaven, and 
was destroyed by Bar-Cochab through motives of jealousy, 
and that the Eleazar coins, therefore, belonged to the 
second Revolt, has received but little assent. The only 
author who agreed with it was Yon Sallet, 9 but his total 
ignorance of Talmudic literature scarcely enabled him to 
judge how little this Eleazar of Modin was fitted for the 
rdle of a ruler. In the absence of any coin of Eleazar 

8 Josephus' account of this Eleazar is important in connection 
with the rivalry of the leaders of the revolution, Jew. Chronicle II. 



20, 3, TOV yap TOI) 2,i[JUDvo<5 viov 'EAed^apov, /ca/Trep, &C. 
9 Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, v. 113. 



188 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

bearing evidence of being struck over other pieces, either 
at the time of Yespasian or afterwards, it must be agreed 
that these coins belong to the first Revolt. Their genuine- 
ness is at all events more certain than that of the bulk 
of the coins bearing the name of Simon, either with 
or without traces of overstriking, for the one reason only 
that the Judaeo-Samaritan letter T occurs on no other 
coins, and therefore could not well be imitated. 

If then these coins of Eleazar are genuine and were struck 
before the time of Yespasian, those pieces also are equally 
genuine and belong to the same time, which have on one 
side the word Eleazar round a vase, and on the other side 
3?D i.e. "p^Eltf within a wreath, with a gem ; the exact 
type of the example which distinctly bears the legend 
bwitiP fcW3 "p^Ett?. 10 It is, therefore, proved by this that 
at least some coins which have the name " Simon " with- 
out any title, are likewise attributable to Simon Ben- 
Gamaliel. This is at all events true of the series which 
has as emblems the lulab and the tabernacle (Fig. III.). 
The more incontrovertible the weight of suspicion that 
the numerous coins bearing the name of Simon are 
forgeries, the more we are convinced that there must 
have been genuine coins with this superscription, and 
which served as patterns to the forgers. Notwith- 
standing the occurrence of a star upon the example in 
the Paris Cabinet which might engender some suspicion, 
this type with the name of " Simon " can be treated as 

De Vogue, who had only seen a cast of this coin, has 
doubted its genuineness, but Friedlander and Von Sallet, 
directors of the Berlin Cabinet, state that in that cabinet is a 
genuine example, and the one from which the cast was taken. 
The occurrence of the names Eleazar and Simon upon one and 
the same piece is attributed by numismatists to an error of 
the engraver. 



ON THE JEWISH u LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 189 

genuine, as it bears more resemblance to the Types I. 
and II. than to the doubtful examples of Type IV. 
(Fig. IV.-VL). 

The result of the inquiry can now be summed up. It 
is ascertained that after the Maccabaean series, there are 
some coins with the lulab which must be held to be 
genuine, viz., those with the type of the festival bunch 
and the fagade of a tabernacle accompanied by certain 
ornamentations. For what coin-forger of the time when 
antiquities and old coins had acquired a value could have 
conceived the idea of providing a basket-shaped receptacle 
for the stems of the lulab ? For the same reason, also, 
these must have been struck before the destruction of 
Jerusalem, at a time when this decoration was in use 
among the higher classes in Jerusalem, and could then 
only have served as a pattern to the die engraver. I 
repeat that they cannot be of a period after the destruc- 
tion, because such an ornamentation was then no longer 
in practical use and was only remembered as a matter of 
tradition. 

The first lulab coins with the portal facade which 
bear the legend, " First year of the Liberation of Israel/' 
were struck shortly before the Feast of Tabernacles, 
A.D. 66, after the victory over the Roman cohorts in 
Jerusalem, and when there ceased to be any Romans in 
the country except those at the Legionary station at 
Caesarea. The types chosen served as a symbol, both of 
rejoicing at this victory and of God's protection. There 
was at that time no individual person in power whose 
name could appear upon these coins as authorising their 
coinage. It was a period of transition. 

In the course of the year 66, Eleazar Ben Simon, chief 
of the Zealots, obtained by means of their assistance the 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. C C 



190 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

possession of the State Treasury, and by means of his 
popularity, the ruling power in Jerusalem. The coins, 
therefore, which were issued at that time were struck in 
his name, " The Priest Eleazar," and " First year of the 
Deliverance of Israel." 

But the Sanhedrin, of which Simon Ben- Gamaliel was 
President, also exercised authority in the same year. 
This Simon was, according to Josephus, his opponent, of 
a noble stock (great-grandson of Hillel, who appears to 
have been a descendant of the Royal House of David), and 
at the same time of such discernment and power of mind 
that he might have greatly improved the position of the 
affairs of the State if he could only have held absolute 
power. 11 As he also belonged to the party of Pharisees, as 
Josephus has recorded, or, as we are bound to say, was 
their chief, he must have had a considerable following 
among the people, the greater portion of whom held the 
doctrines of that party, a fact prominently set forth by 
Josephus in many passages of his work. It naturally 
followed that this Simon was regarded as the head and 
representative of the Commonwealth, and equally so that 
his name should appear as the coining authority upon 
the coins. Eleazar Ben Simon was obliged to retire to 
the background. We have no means of ascertaining the 
exact events which led up to this change, in connection 
with which coins were struck with the legend, "First 
year of the Liberation of Israel," and with the name 
" Simon, the Prince of Israel." 

The high-sounding title of Prince of Israel appears, 
however, to have been distasteful to the Zealots, who had 
included in their programme and inscribed on their 

11 Josephus, Vita, 38. 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 191 

standards, the democratic principle of equality and 
freedom from personal rule. For this Simon was after all 
only head of the Sanhedrin (rro N V JW b"nnn "pi) ; to 
recognise him as Prince of all Israel was to subject 
themselves to a ruler. 

After Josephus had suffered the loss of Galilee owing 
to his want of judgment, cowardice, or treachery, and 
after other aristocratic leaders had been found wanting, 
the sensibilities of the democratic Zealots caused them to 
be especially enraged against the Jewish aristocracy. 
This opposition to any sovereignty over Israel appears to 
have brought about that the title bbDttp fcW3 was no 
longer allowed to be struck upon coins, and it gave 
way to the simple name ] 1371212 (as to the coin which has 
both Simon and Eleazar, see Yon Sallet, 167). There is 
no other Simon in question, Simon Bar-Gioras being 
excluded owing to his only having been called in during 
the third year of the Revolt in Jerusalem. 

The commencement of the second year was now ap- 
proaching, i.e. the month Tishri and the Feast of Taber- 
nacles (October, 67). Of this period occur only those 
coins which have the legend, " The Second year of the 
Liberation of Israel" (II. III.). The types of both are 
very similar, except that some specimens have only "Jeru- 
salem "as a legend, and others the name of " Simon " 
instead. This difference is of course remarkable ; for if 
at that time Simon Ben-Gamaliel still maintained his 
position, on what ground was his name passed over in 
another series ? The cause may perhaps be traced to the- 
party conflicts which broke out about this time. The 
Zealots in Jerusalem, who attributed the defeat in Galilee 
to the treachery of the aristocrats, removed the nobles and 
priests from the offices in the city and in the temple which 



192 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

they had hitherto enjoyed, and appointed in their stead 
persons from their own ranks. They even divested the 
high-priest Matthias, son of Theophilus, of his dignity, 
and installed into it a simple priest, Phineas, son of 
Samuel, an inhabitant of the village Aphta, upon 
whom the choice had fallen by lot. 12 This produced a 
tumult among the aristocratic party. Anan, the son of 
Anan, who had formerly been called in for the protection 
of the city and had been high-priest, thundered against 
the blasphemy of the democratic Zealots, and the inso- 
lence of their pretensions. Simon Ben- Gamaliel also was 
irritated at the subversion of the previously existing order 
of things. He called upon his hearers in the popular 
assemblies to oppose the " Destroyers of Liberty " and " the 
Blasphemers of the Holy One." 13 This naturally arose 
from a breach between the Zealots and their chief Eleazar 
Ben Simon on the one hand, and Simon Ben-Gamaliel 
on the other. The Zealots initiated a reign of terror 
against their adversaries. The Sanhedrin was purged 
of its anti-Zealot members, and seventy fresh members 
were appointed in their stead from the general mass. 14 
Josephus does not, it is true, mention the month in 
which the election of the new high-priest took place. 
The election was probably taken in hand in view of 
the necessary functions on the Day of Atonement in 
the second year, and so as to remove a high-priest who 
had been appointed by the detested King Agrippa, and 
who was in addition suspected to have Roman tendencies 
a suspicion well founded, as was proved by his subse- 
quent conduct. 

12 Josephus, iv. 3, 68. 

13 Josephus, 9. 

14 Josephus, v. 3, 4. 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 193 

The rupture between the Zealots and Simon Ben-Gama- 
liel may possibly, therefore, have taken place as early as 
in the month of Tishri, in which the Feast of Tabernacles 
was celebrated, and the former being indignant at Simon's 
partisan agitation against them, may have struck coins 
with the same types and emblems as those which bore 
his name, so as to demonstrate that he was no longer at 
the head of the commonwealth. In the course of events 
his name was, in fact, no longer employed, and Josephus 
also points to the fact that this Simon was deposed, inas- 
much as he remarks, " He had been in a position to im- 
prove the wretched position of affairs (8uva/xei/o<r re 
TT pay jLtar a KCLKWS KeljULeva. . . . SiopOwaaffOai)." There 
are also no further coins of the second year in existence 
which bear the name of this Simon. The example which 
has on one side fcW3 ]TOEtP, and upon the other bsiti?* 1 (in 
the Wigan Collection 15 ), in addition to which Merzbacher 
wished to read "inb S"itf, offers no certainty on this sub- 
ject, as Madden has rightly observed. 

It may especially be mentioned further that no genuine 
coins are known which bear the date of the second year 
or even of the fourth. The remarkable pieces which read 
M"iN roitf are subject to suspicion, for the reason that they 
exhibit either two lulab-like types, or two ethrogiin 
(citrons), and in addition the legend ]i>2 nbsnb. Zicn 
was in later times only used poetically and metaphorically 
for Jerusalem. The genuineness of this class f coins, 
which have always been attributed to Simon Maccabaeus, 
has yet to be proved. There was after the second year ne 
individual who can be said to have represented the com- 
monwealth, or who could have had the necessary autho- 

15 Now presumably in the Rev. S. S. Lewis's Cabinet. H. M. 



194 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

rity to strike coins. In the spring of the year 67, John of 
Giskala, who had a considerable following, and who be- 
came a rival of Eleazar Ben Simon, arrived in Jerusalem. 
In the third year Simon Bar-Gioras also came thither, 
and each of these leaders sought to assume the supremacy, 
and would scarcely have granted to the other the right of 
appearing to have authority to strike coins. In the first 
year only were there two men who had such an authority, 
first, Eleazar, and subsequently Simon Ben-Gamaliel. 16 



NOTE I. 

So far as is known there are four types of the series of lulab 
coins. 

TYPE I. appears to be unique in the Paris Cabinet, and is in 
silver. On the lulab side, beginning from beneath the holder or 
little basket is the legend bfc-ntE^ rrbsab fins ri3tt7 round the 
coin. The ethrog, somewhat rudely formed, particularly at the top, 
partly projects above the basket. On the side with the portal, 
on the column to the right, is n\ above the architrave the let- 
ters itfl, and on the left column CD = DbtPYT ; within the 
opening of the portal a semicircle with little rings or pellets ; 
within this semicircle, towards the upper part of the centre, is a 
short line of four little rings, further beneath, two more, and 
lower again four more ; a longer line above the architrave 
consisting of about twenty little rings (see Fig. I.). 

TYPE II. Of this type six or seven specimens are known. 

(1) In the collection of the Comte de Vogue (Rev. Num. 
1860, 2, note), imperfectly engraved by De Saulcy, Tab. XI. 3, 
cf. Fig. II. 



16 The example in De Saulcy, Tab. XIII. 6, which has on one 
side bsi^^ rfftXfo nn naitf, and on the other five letters, 
which Levy has read pan p ?ian, and wished to attribute to 
the high-priest Anan, is thoroughly untrustworthy, as has been 
shown by Garrucci, Merzbacher, and more lately also by 
Madden. Whether we can read instead fron "HY^bs is open to 
question. (Merzbacher in Von Sallet I. 230, note iv. ; 35 J ,No.89.) 



ON THE JEWISH " LIJLAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 195 

(2) In the collection of Dr. Eugen Merzbacher of Munich (to 
whose courtesy I ani indebted for an impression). 

(3) In the collection of Dr. Babington (Madden, Num. Orient. 
II. 244, No. 37). 

(4) In the collection of Dr. Welcher v. Moltheim (Madd. id.). 

(5) In the collection of Senor Infante, in Spain (deemed 
genuine by numismatists according to the statement of Dr. 
Merzbacher. See Von Sallet, Zeitsch. fur Numismatik, I., 224, 
No. 6; IV., 256, No. 112). 

(6) In the Hunter collection (communicated by Woide in 
Bayer, de Numis, p. XII. No. 2). 

(7) In the possession of a Mr. Lurie of Mohilew there is said 
to be a similar example (Merzbacher). On the lulab side is 
D^bttJVT' "inb D'lZ? round the coin, commencing from the bot- 
tom. The upper edge of the lulab holder is of a somewhat 
more substantial form than No. 1. The ethrog in No. 2 
projects but little over the holder. On the other hand, it is set 
down lower in Nos. 1 and 3 ; so that its head only reaches as 
far as the centre of the holder. On the portal side is the word 
DbtPTT, half on the right and half on left side, in Nos. 1 
and 3 ; but on No. 2 as on Type No. I. Nos. 1 3 have above 
the portal also a representation of a small cross with limbs of 
equal size. These two also have, in common with Type I., the 
linear ornamentation (the semicircle and the line in the middle) 
within the porch, but with slight differences so far as No. 3 is 
concerned. In Mr. Babington's example the line also occurs 
above the architrave. I do not know how the ornamentations of 
the other examples are arranged, or whether they have the small 
cross before mentioned, as I have not seen any representations 
of them, and numismatists have not considered these points. 
Some variations in this type indicate that more than one die 
was used. According to the statement of its possessor, Dr. 
Moltheim, the Greek letters NO are distinctly visible under the 
porch on No. 4. 

TYPE III. Of this type only two examples are known, 
(1) In the Paris collection (De Saulcy, Tab. XIV. 4). (2) In 
the collection of Mr. L. Hamburger, of Frankfurt-am-Main, 
who most courteously obliged me with a cast of it, clearly 
taken from a struck example. I do not know whether 
other examples exist. On the lulab side is D^bttfVT' "inb DtT, 
as in Type II. The ethrog is towards the centre of the lulab- 
holder. On the portal side is EtP to the right and "p^ to the left 
(on No. 2 the former is effaced). Above are what appear to be 
two architraves, instead of the linear ornamentation, and above 
the second a small star (effaced on No. 2). The decoration 



196 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

within the porch is different from Fig. II. The arch of the 
semicircle is not like a circle of dots, and the little lines on 
No. 2 are like the others, but on No. 1 resemble two wands, 
one beneath the other. No. 2 shows indistinct traces of the 
head of an emperor, with the ends of a diadem (see Fig. III.). 

TYPE IV. Five examples are known : (1) In the Paris Cabi- 
net (De Saulcy, Fig. IV. 1). (2) In the Berlin Cabinet (of which, 
the director, Von Sallet, has kindly sent me a plaster cast). 
It bears traces of an emperor's head, with the diadem. (3) In 
the collection of Rev. S. S. Lewis (see Madden, Joe. cit. p. 239, 
No. 19). It shows traces of the letters T. 4>AAYI. OY. (Tiros 
3>A.ainos Oveo-Trao-iavos). (4) In Bayer, de Numis, p. 141, No. 2 
(see Fig. V.). (5) In the Museum Kircherianum (engraved by 
Merzbacher, in Von Sallet, III. 214, Tab. V. No. 114). This 
example has somewhat legibly on the upper portion of the 
lulab side the letters NOC, and on the right hand distinctly 
the head of an emperor ; towards the right are the outlines of 
the mouth, nose, brow, eye, and the leaves of the laurel 
wreath (see Fig. VI.). All these examples have, in common, the 
inscription DbttJY")^ /Tprib on the lulab side, and "p^tttP, 
more or less distinctly, on the portal side. But some differ from 
others in points of detail. Fig. VI. least resembles the others. 
This specimen has not nbtPYT m~inb m frdl but at the foot 
of the lulab holder are the letters nb ; then there is a wide 
interval, which is occupied by the emperor's head wreathed, and 
then still further, close to the left side, is the word dblpnv 
There is ample space to have admitted the striking of the full 
inscription nbttJT^ rmnb but it gives one the impression 
that it was desired that the head should not be effaced by the 
striking over it. Only Nos. 1 and 2 are alike. In these the 
lulab-holder is divided into four parts, on No. 4 into five, 
and on No. 5 only into two parts, as in the case of Types 
I., II., and III. Nos. 1, 2, and 5 have but a faint trace of an 
architrave, but above it two straight lines. No. 4, on the other 
hand, has scarcely any trace of an architrave over the columns, 
but only the decoration of a straight line, and above it a wavy 
line. All the examples have a star above the decoration over 
the columns with the exception of No. 4, which has none. The 
numismatists have not observed this peculiarity, though this 
is just what excites a suspicion that it is not a genuine piece. 
The n also in nb on No. 5, has by no means the appearance of 
that letter on other coins or in the Samaritan alphabet. The 
letter i also, in the word nbttfm is peculiarly formed. 

The decoration within the opening of the portal also differs. 
If we take into consideration that the legend 



ON THE JEWISH " LULAB " AND " PORTAL " COINS. 197 

by itself is meaningless in the absence of any statement as to 
tbe year of striking (which is wanting throughout in the case 
of these pieces), and even if this had occurred, that refer- 
ence would be due on the coins, not only to the freedom of the 
capital, but to that of the people and of the land in general, 
and if we further take into consideration that some of the 
examples of these coins bear signs of surfrappaye of a time 
after Vespasian, when Jerusalem had long since been de- 
stroyed, and if we finally take into consideration that the exam- 
ples cannot be of one and the same make, the certainty arises that 
all the examples of this type are equally open to suspicion. The 
star upon some examples of this Type IV. cannot in any 
degree serve as representing the guiding star of the Pseudo- 
Messiah Bar-Cochab. Especially may it be urged that the 
genuineness of the proportionately large number of examples of 
this type with obtPVV' HVinb and "p^ftiz;, with or without 
signs of surfrappage, must be better evidenced than has at 
present been the case. It is probable that we possess no 
genuine example of the period of the Bar-Cochab revolt. This 
suspicion extends also to those examples which have the words 
burial "inb n" W by the side of prttltf, as in the Berlin Cabi- 
net there is one example with the palm-tree and vine, and with 
this legend, which bears traces also of the Latin letters NVS 
under the vine (Von Sallet, V. III.). It is struck, therefore, either 
over a coin of Vespasian, Domitian, or Trajan, and in either 
case after the destruction of Jerusalem. This city was, how- 
ever, not rebuilt during the second Revolt, and did not fall 
into the possession of Bar-Cochab. The name of this hero 
also was not Simon. Can these coins, therefore, have been 
engraved or struck over other coins in his time and in his 
name ? 



FURTHER NOTE TO PAGE 183. 17 

The Rev. Dr. Babington's cabinet contains a similar silver coin 
of an abnormal type, with a lyre and grapes and the same legends 
as the Reichardt example, but the legends are rendered less leg- 
ible owing to a hole towards the side. On one side is bs" 1 ^ 
"in t&i and on the other ^NHtt^ n b n M, which means bwiH?* 
nbfcdb nnw natP- This is described as No. 2570 in the 
Catalogue of the Anglo-Jewish Exhibition, but Madden treats it 



17 This is attached in manuscript to my copy of the original 
work, and is in Dr. Graetz's own handwriting. H. M. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. D D 



198 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

as false (Num. Orient.) : "I do not consider this piece to be genu- 
ine." Mr. H. Montagu, on the other hand, maintains " This coin 
appears to be perfectly genuine, but the use of two reverse dies 
with different dates is remarkable." But it is just the use of 
these different words nbw^b nY"inb> which stamps it as being 
a false coin. Mr. Montagu was kind enough to lend me this 
coin, and its appearance has convinced me more effectually of 
its want of genuineness. The coin is not struck but is cast, 
and every cast must be regarded as false of which no struck 
original is forthcoming to prove the contrary. 18 This example 
of Dr. Babington's is therefore in the same category with 
the Reichardt example, which experienced numismatists have 
condemned. Both prove that forgers have existed who have 
driven a trade by striking or casting scarce pieces in feeble 
imitation of genuine coins. 



18 I have again examined this coin by the kindness of its 
owner, and have submitted it to the highest authorities. It is 
clearly struck and not cast. H. M. 



IX. 

COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 

PREFACE. 

ON three sides India is protected from invasion ; by the 
Himala Mountains on the north, and on the east and 
west by the sea. But on the north-west side, along the 
line of the Indus, she is open to attack. On this side 
she was successfully invaded in ancient times by the 
Persians, the Greeks, and the Indo-Scythians. On this 
side also, in modern times, she was successfully assailed 
by the Turks under Mahmud Ghaznavi and Muhammad 
Ghori, and by the Mongols under Baber. 

The Persian rule in IN". "W. India lasted for about two 
centuries, from B.C. 500 to 330, from the time of Darius 
to the invasion of Alexander the Great. The Greek 
dominion lasted for about three centuries, from B.C. 330 
to 26, when the Kabul valley and the Panjab were con- 
quered by Kujula, king of the Kushan Scythians. The 
nourishing period of Indo- Scythian rule also lasted for 
about three centuries, or from B.C. 26 down to the end of 
the third century A.D./ when it came into contact with the 
rapidly growing power of the Gupta dynasty of N. India. 

1 Pauthier, Le Thiun-tchu, ou VInde, p. 9 note, quoting 
Ma-twan-lin. 



200 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The rise of this great dynasty deprived the Indo- 
Scythians of N. W. India ; but they still retained posses- 
sion of the Kabul valley and the Panjab in the north 
and of Sindh in the south. In the latter country they 
remained until the seventh century, when they were 
dispossessed by the Brahman Chach. In the former they 
remained until the end of the ninth century, when they 
were displaced by the Brahman Kalar. 

The three centuries of Indo-Scythian rule in N. India 
form a very striking period, as it separates Sanskrit litera- 
ture into two broadly marked divisions, named by Dr. 
Max Mttller the ancient and the modern, the former com- 
prising the Brahmanical Yeda and the Buddhist Tripitaka, 
and the latter all other works, 2 including even the 
Eamayana and Mahabharata, which in their present 
form are probably not older than the period of Gupta 
rule. 

In the present account I propose to treat at some length 
of the three centuries of the more flourishing period of 
Indo-Scythian rule previous to the rise of the Gupta 
empire. For this period we possess not only a profusion of 
coins but also a considerable number of inscriptions. 
For the later period of almost four centuries, from about 
A.D. 300 down to the advent of the Muhammadans, the 
materials are comparatively scanty. The coins indeed are 
numerous, but they are unfortunately of uncertain dates, 
and their inscriptions, even when expressed in Indian 
characters, are either limited to single letters or to 
general titles which give but little useful information. 
The long legends on most of the silver coins of this period 
are at present quite useless, as they are expressed in an 

2 India What can it teach us ? p. 88. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 201 

unknown Scythian character, and no doubt also in some 
Scythian language. According to the Chinese pilgrim, 
Hwen Thsang, the characters in use to the north of the 
Indian Caucasus in A.D. 630 were 25 in number, and were 
written from left to right. Not a single name is known, 
and as all the characters on the coins are joined together, 
it is difficult to find out where any particular letter begins 
or ends. I think that I have discovered the combination 
that corresponds with the title of Shdhi, and as this was 
the native title the characters should correspond. 

In the following account I have aimed at giving a 
description of all the known coins of the Indo-Scythians, 
together with such historical notices as I have been able 
to gather from various sources. I have divided the work 
into three parts, as follows : 

Part I. Historical notices of the Indo-Scythians. 
Part II. Notes on the coins of the Indo-Scythians. 
Part III. Descriptive lists of the coins. 

There are three minor subjects, which, as they are brief, 
may be conveniently discussed at once. These are 

1. The Arian legends on the coins. 

2. The monograms on the coins of the Saka kings. 

3. The monetary systems. 

1. THE ARIAN ALPHABET. 

When Wilson published his Ariana Antiqua in 1840, 
no progress whatever had been made in reading the 
native legends beyond the point where James Prinsep 
had left it. The native forms of several important names 
still remained unread, such as Gondophares and Abdagases, 
and the legend on the reverse of Queen Agathokleia's 



202 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coin. I was the first to discover the true form of the 
letter G on the coins of Gondophares and Abdagases in 
1841, which I followed up by applying it to the word 
Strategasa, ^rparrfjo^) on the coins of Aspa Varma, the son 
of Indra Yarma. The discovery of GH followed imme- 
diately afterwards, as this letter is formed by the simple 
addition of H to G. At the same time I discovered the 
form of BH in bhrdta-putrasa, or " brother's son," as the 
translation of AAEA0IAEQZ on the coin of Abdagases, 
and in Ihrdtasa, or "brother," as the translation of 
AAEA4>OY on the coins of Vonones and Spalahores. 
This was followed up by reading the name of Amogha- 
Ihuti on the coins of the King of the Kunindas. 

The compound character answering to STR I found 
on the coins of Hippostratus, which led to the discovery 
that the native legend of the coins of Agathokleia gave 
the name of King Straton. 

In the proceedings of the Bengal Asiatic , Society for 
April (just received) I find that Dr. Hoernle objects to the 
readings of Stratasa and Hipastratasa, on the ground that 
the st of Sanskrit becomes th in Pali. This is true for 
Eastern India, but not for Western India and the Pan jab 
and Kabul, where we know that the people preserved 
the pronunciation of st in the names of the Princes 
Haustanes and Astes. But the most direct and satis- 
factory proof is afforded by the different versions of 
Asoka's inscription. On comparing the Girnar version, 
which is recorded in Indian Pali characters, I find ndsti 
in Edicts II. and VI. as in the Shahbazgarhi text, while the 
Kalsi, Dhauli, and Jaugada versions have ndthi. I find also 
asti and vista in Edict XIV. of Girnar and Shahbazgarhi 
where Kalsi and Dhauli have athi and vitha. 

For Western India I may refer to the inscription of 



COINS OF THE IN DO- SCYTHIANS. 203 

Chashtan, the Tiastanes of Ptolemy, as the most convincing 
proof that the compound st was not pronounced as th in 
Ujain and Surashtra. 

In India also we know that aswa, a horse, was shortened 
to assa and asa in Pali. But in the west we find Tu&haspa, 
the Yavana satrap of Surashtra under Asoka ; and to 
the west of the Indus we have Khoaspes. It will be suffi- 
cient, however, to note that the Arian compound letter 
read as sp, is the equivalent of the Greek ZF1 in the 
names of Spalahora and Spalgadama. 

I was the first to read the name of ITushdn on the coin 
of Kozoulo Kadphises, and that of Khushdn on the coins of 
Kozola Kadaphes, and to identify both with the Greek 
KOPANO and XOPAN. After this followed the name 
of Kanishka in Court's Manikyala inscription as king of 
the Gush am. 

Two forms of PH were obtained from the coins of 
Telephus and Gondophares. 

CH and CHH I discovered about the same time, by 
identifying Chhatrapa as the true reading of Kshatrapa, or 
Satrap. 

SW I found in Mahiswara and Sarva-lokeswara on the 
coins of Hima Kadphises. 

The prefixed R was another valuable discovery, as it 
led to the correct reading of RM in d/iarma, as well as in 
Aspa Yarma and Indra Varma. Then followed Sarva 
and acharya, to which I can now add Gondopharna. 

But my chief discovery in the reading of names in the 
native characters was the decipherment of the names of 
the Macedonian months Arthamisiyasa, Panemasa, and 
Apilaesa in three different inscriptions. 

In the Indian Pali alphabet I claim the discovery of the 
title of Rdjine on the coins of Pantaleon and Agathokles, 



204 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

which had baffled every previous writer. Rajine is the 
Pali form of the Sanskrit genitive Rdjnya, " of the king." 
The middle letter j had been read by Lassen ; but the 
undulating form of the initial r had puzzled him. 

I also discovered the true reading of the title of ZAOOY, 
or zavou, which had always been read previously as 
ZA0OY, or zathou. It is the Greek rendering of the 
native title which the Chinese have preserved as Ska-wu 
(Cha-wou). 

I may add also that the true reading of the name of 
BAZO-AHO or Yasu Deva, was due to me. On the 
small copper coins the name is shortened to BAZ-AHO, 
which is the true spoken form of Bds-deo. 

It is perhaps curious to note, that though all these 
readings have now been generally adopted, scarcely one of 
them has been acknowledged as mine. 

The accompanying Plate VII. gives the native names 
and titles of all the Indo-Scythian kings in the Arian Pali 
characters, as found upon their coins. The transliterations 
of all the legends are given in Plate VIII. 

2. MONOGRAMS. 3 

The Greek monograms on the coins of the Indo- 
Scythians are comparatively few, there being only about 
fifty on the coins of the Saka kings, but not even one on 
those of the Kushan kings. I am fully aware of the 
difficulty of any attempt to explain these monograms ; but 
as they occupy a very prominent place on the faces of the 
coins, I do not think it right to leave them unnoticed. 
My previous attempt to explain the monograms on the 
coins of the Greek princes of Bactria and India was con- 

3 For illustrations of monograms see Plate IX. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 205 

fessedly tentative. But I still feel that I was right in my 
original opinion, that the occurrence of the same monograms 
on the coins of many consecutive princes of different dates is 
sufficient evidence to show that they cannot be the names 
either of magistrates or of mmtmasters, and must therefore 
almost certainly be the names of cities where the coins were 
struck. 

It has been objected by M. Chabouillet that my early 
attempt to explain these monograms does not give the 
name of any one of the seventeen towns of Bactria 
recorded by Ptolemy. To this I can reply that only six 
of the thirty known Greek princes of the East were kings 
of Bactria, and that the number of monograms on their 
coins can be counted on the fingers. As all the other 
monograms are found upon coins bearing native legends, 
they must certainly be referred to the south of the 
Caucasus. I may note, however, that the letter N, which 
is found singly on the coins of Antiochus I., Antiochus II., 
Diodotus, and Antimachus I., perhaps denotes Nautaka, 
where Alexander wintered, as I find a monogram forming 
NA on the tetradrachm of Antimachus with the head of 
Diodotus on the obverse. 

Mr. Percy Gardner accepts M. Chabouillet's opinion, 
and adds that I profess to have found in the monograms 
" the names of most of the cities of Bactria and the 
Panjab." Mr. Gardner has evidently overlooked my 
actual profession on this point, in which I distinctly state 
that " I do not suppose that all, or even one half, of the 
names that occur on the coins of the Bactrian and Arian 
Greek, are the names of mint cities." 

Mr. Gardner then proceeds to state his " entire agree- 
ment with M. Chabouillet," that there are but few cities, 
such as " Odessus, Patrae, and Panormus, which are known 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. E E 



206 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to have placed on their coins a monogram to represent 
their names." 

To this argument I reply that as the coins of cities 
usually give their names at full length, their repeti- 
tion in the form of monograms was quite unnecessary. 
There are, however, many examples of the names of 
cities expressed by monograms, but only on those coins 
where the name itself is not given. I may quote the 
following : 

1. Monogram forming AK on coins of Akarnania. (Head, 

Hist. Num., p. 283.) 

2. Monogram forming AN A on coins of Anaktorium. (Head, 

Hist. Num., p. 279.) 

8. Monogram forming APKAA on coins of Arkadia. (Head, 
B. M. Guide, pi. 23, 37.) 

4. Monogram forming AEONTIN on coins of Leontini. 

(B. M. Cat. Sicily, p. 94.) 

5. Monogram forming KPA on coins of Kranii. (B. M. Cat. 

Pelop., p. 80.) 

6. Monogram forming KOP on coins of Korkyra. (B. M. Cat. 

Corcyra, p. 128.) 

7. Monogram forming EP on coins of Hermione. (B. M. Cat. 

Pelop., p. 160.) 

8. Monogram forming ZA on coins of Same. (B. M. Cat. 

Pelop., p. 91.) 

9. Monogram forming FA on coins of Gaza. (Head, Hist. 

Num., p. 680.) 

10. Monogram forming FITO on coins of Ptolemais. (B. M, 

Cat. Ptolemies, p. Ixxxvi.) 

11. Monogram forming AX A I on coins of Achaia. (B. M. Cat. 

Pelop., p. 1.) 

12. Monogram forming KAH on coins of Kleitor. (B. M. Cat. 

Pelop., p. 180.) 

13. Monogram forming MAT on coins of Mateolum. (5, M. 

Cat. Italy, p. 141.) 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 207 

Monograms for the names of kings are not unknown, 
as 

AHMHTP for Demetrius of Macedon. (Head, Hist. Num., 
p. 204.) 

NIK for Nikokreon of Cyprus. (Head, Hist. Num., p. 626.) 
HYP for Pyrrhus. (Head, Hist. Num., p. 203.) 
ANTI for Antigonus of Macedon. (Head, Hist. Num., p. 204.) 
MOAr for Moagetes of Kibyra. (Zeit.f. Num., I. p. 330.) 

Again Mr. Gardner states his opinion that M. Cha- 
bouillet is clearly right in saying that these mono- 
grams are usually merely " the private mark of a magis- 
trate or a contractor." That this may have been the case 
with many of the cities of the West I freely admit, but we 
are now dealing with the kings of the East, and not with 
the cities of the East. In the East, the right of coinage 
has always been a royal prerogative, which from the time 
of Darius Hystaspes has been jealously guarded, and its 
infringement severely punished. The story of Aryandes 
as told by Herodotus is familiar to every one. 

But both M. Chabouillet and Mr. Gardner have 
evidently overlooked the case of the well-known coins, 
called Cistophori, on several of which the names of the 
cities where the coins were minted are certainly given in 
monogram, while the names of the magistrates are usually 
confined to the two initial letters. 

1. On cistophori of Adramyteum, monogram forming AAPA. 

(Head, Hist. Num., p. 446.) 

2. On cistophori of Parium or Apameia, monogram forming fl A. 

(Head, Hist. Num., p. 459.) 

8. On cistophori of Pergamus, monogram forming F1EP. (Head, 
Hist. Num., p. 462.) 

Might not the same system have prevailed in other 



208 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

countries besides Asia Minor ? For instance, on a large 
copper coin of Alexander, I find the monogram which I 
have read as Demetrias coupled with another forming TH, 
and on another copper coin the same Demetrias monogram 
with the letter A- If one of these must be the mintmaster's 
name it certainly cannot be the first, as that monogram 
is found on the coins of no less than twelve different 
princes from the time of Demetrius down to Hermaeus, or 
for upwards of a century and a half. Similarly I find a 
common monogram of the coins of Hippostratus repeated 
on the coins of Azas. It forms the syllable APT, which 
I take to be the name of the mint city. On the coins of 
Hippostratus it stands alone, but on those of Azas it is 
variously accompanied, sometimes by A I in monogram, 
sometimes by M I P in monogram. As it is scarcely pos- 
sible that these two kings could have had the same mint- 
master, I incline to the opinion that the monogram is 
more likely to be the name of a town than that of a man. 

On the coins of the neighbouring kingdom of Parthia 
we have the names of at least three cities given at full 
length : Katastrateia, Traxiane, and Margiane. The last 
Mr. Gardner takes for the name of the province of 
Margiana ; but surely it must be intended for the ancient 
city of Merv, which was rebuilt by Antiochus as Antiocheia 
Margiane. The names of at least three other Parthian 
cities are given in an abbreviated form, and not in mono- 
gram. A single monogram accompanied by the word 
P1OAIZ undoubtedly refers to a city; and this example 
serves to strengthen the opinion that several of the other 
monograms found on Parthian coins may be the names 
of cities. Some of these monograms form combinations 
so simple as scarcely to admit of any other readings. 
Amongst these I find PA for Ehagce, APTA for Artamita, 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 209 

XAPA for Khar ax, APIA for Apamea, ANT for Antiochia, 
HP and HPAK for Herakka, <I>YA for Phulake, TA for 
Gaza, and AFIOAA for Apollonia. 

The question now arises, From whence did the Parthians 
derive this practice of putting the names of cities on their 
coins ? As the kings of Syria did not as a rule do so, the 
Parthians themselves must either have originated the 
practice or they must have copied it from the Bactrian 
Greeks. But as I have noticed a prevailing desire to 
trace all the coin types of the Parthians to Syrian or 
Bactrian types, I presume that the Parthian origin of the 
custom will be disputed. In any case the custom must 
have been familiar to the Eastern Greeks. The name of 
one city I have found beyond all doubt on some coins of 
Eukratides, namely Karisiye-nagara, that is the city 
(nagara) of Karisi. This city I take to be the same as 
Kdlsi or Kdrisi of the Buddhist chronicles, which was the 
birthplace of Menander. 

The practice of the Arsakidan kings was followed by 
the Sassanians ; and on the coins of Feroz are found the 
names of no less than twenty- six different mint cities, 
accompanied by the years of the reign. 

So also did the Khalifs of Baghdad give the names of 
their mint-cities with the Hijra dates on all their coins. 
Their example was followed by the Turki Sultans of 
Ghazni, and afterwards by the Turk and Mughal Em- 
perors of India down to our own times. 

To prevent misapprehension I may here state my views 
as to the information to be derived from the monograms. 
Such of the combinations as are simple and easily resolv- 
able into well-known names, either in full or in part, 
may I think be accepted as actual names. But unless 
the places fulfil the condition of being within the territory 



210 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

held by the particular prince on whose coins they occur, 
they cannot be accepted. As an example of my method 
I will take the monogram forming EY, which is found on 
the coins of Euthydemus, Eukratides, Menander, Straton, 
Zoilus, Apollophanes, and Kajubul. I take this mono- 
gram to stand for Euthydemia or Sangala, a well-known 
city in the Pan jab, which most probably received its name 
from Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus, during his Eastern 
campaigns. That the place was certainly in the Eastern 
Panjab is declared by its occurrence on the ruder coins of 
Straton, Zoilus, and Apollophanes, which are restricted to 
that district. Lastly, the monogram, is common on the 
copper coins of Menander, who, in the Pali work named 
the " Questions of Milindra " is distinctly said to be the 
King of Sakala. 

As another example I will take the common monogram, 
No. 15, of the coins of the Yonones family, which I read 
as KOTTOBAPA in full. The princes of this family held 
Arachosia, of which the capital in the time of Isidorus 
was Sigal. As the letter g is very commonly elided, I 
think that Sigal may be read as Sial or Shal, a large town 
close to Quetta. As the last name is a peculiarly British 
rendering of Kotta, or " the forts/' I think that Ptolemy's 
Kottobara must be simply Kotta or Quetta, with the town 
of Shdl close by to represent Sigal. I would remark 
that the same reasons which have led to the British occu- 
pation of this position must have had equal weight with 
the Saka Indo-Scythians when they made it their capital. 

The monogram of PAZAKA, for Ghazni, No. 14, also 
seems unobjectionable. 

Another example which I consider as almost certain 
is No. 3 and No. 37 monograms, which I read as 



COINS OF THE INDO- SCYTHIANS. 211 

KAZFlAriYPA in full. This was the ancient well-known 
name of Multan, and it was from Multan, and not from 
Kashmir, that Skylax must have started. There are two 
objections fatal to Kashmir : 1, the city was not named 
Kasyapapur ; and 2, no boat could descend the Jhelam or 
Hydaspes below Barahmula. 

In the Plate of Monograms (IX.) I have included all 
that I could find on the coins of Moas and of the Vonones 
family. But I have been obliged to be content with a 
selection of the very numerous monograms on the coins 
of Azas and Azilises. Some day, perhaps, a key may be 
found to unlock the mystery which lies hidden in these 
little knots of letters. 

When I made an attempt nearly twenty years ago 
to unravel some of the monograms on the Greek coins 
of Bactria and India, I stated my opinion that all the coin 
monograms " which are common to a number of different 
princes can only be the names of cities, and cannot possibly 
be the names either of magistrates or of mint-masters, or 
of any other functionaries." 4 Some of the numismatists 
of Europe, as I have already noted, seem to think that 
because magistrates' names are found on the coins of 
Greek cities, the same custom must have prevailed in the 
East with the coins of kings. 

One example of the name of a city I can now offer 
which I think is not open to objection. I allude to the 
name of Sangala, the Shakala or Sakala of the Hindus. 
According to Ptolemy this place was also called Euthy- 
demia (corrected from Euthy media). At the top of the 
Plate I have given several different monograms of this 

4 Num. Chron., II. Ser., viii. p. 185. 



212 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

place, which seem to me to be quite satisfactory. I have 
marked them A, B, C, D. A is found on the coins of 
Euthydemus and Menander. It forms EY, which I refer 
to Euthydemia, as we might naturally expect to find it on 
the coins of Euthydemus, after whom Sangala must haye 
received its Greek name of Euthydemia. We might also 
expect to find the same monogram on the coins of Me- 
nander, as in the Milinda Prasna Sagal is said to have 
heen the capital of Raja Milindra. Sangala was in the 
Eastern Pan jab ; and we learn from Strabo that Menander 
had actually crossed the Hypanis or Bias river. 

B is also found on the coins of Euthydemus. It forms 
simply EY for Euthydemia. 

C consists of two monograms which are found together 
on a coin of Eukratides. The upper one reads EY, as 
before, but the lower one gives the alternative name of 
ZAITAAA in full. 

D is found on the coins of no less than four kings 
Straton, Zo'ilus, Apollophanes, and Rajubul. It forms EY. 
As the coins of all the four princes on which this mono- 
gram occurs are of coarser and ruder work, and are found 
only in the Eastern Panjab, I think we may admit that 
they were most probably struck at Euthydemia or San- 
gala, which was certainly the capital of that part of the 
country. 

Of the monograms given in the Plate, Nos. 1 to 11 are 
found on the coins of Moa or Mauas; Nos. 12 to 19 are 
found on the coins of the Yonones dynasty ; Nos. 21 to 
49 on the coins of Azas and Azilises ; and Nos. 50 to 52 
on the coins of the Gondophares dynasty. No. 55 occurs 
on the base silver coins of Rajubul. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 213 

Monograms of Moas or Mauas. 

The coins of Moas are found chiefly in the Northern 
Panjab and as far south as Multan ; but so far as I am 
aware none have yet been found either in Sindh or in the 
Kabul valley to the west of Peshawur. If any of these 
monograms represent the names of mint cities, I would 
suggest that No. 2, which forms NIK, may be Nikaia y 
the city which was built by Alexander on the site of his 
battle with Porus. In my "Ancient Geography of India" 
I have shown some good reasons for fixing the site of 
Nikaia at Mong, which is said to have derived its name 
from Ruja Moga. 

No. 3 I would read as KAZriAflYPA, which was the 
old name of Multan, and which I would therefore identify 
with the city of Kaspapuros, recorded by Hekatseus and 
Herodotus. If the monogram is intended for the name 
of a city, I think that my reading has a fair claim to be 
accepted. I am aware that the closet geographers of 
Europe have generally taken Kaspapuros for Kashmir. 
But I have marched along the bank of the Hydaspes 
after it leaves the valley as far as Muzafarabad, and I can 
safely assert that no boat could stem the rapids below 
Barahmula. 

The remaining monograms of Moas I must leave unat- 
tempted. I confess, however, to a feeling of disappoint- 
ment at not finding any knot of letters that might be 
united to form the name of Taxila. 

Monograms of the Vonones Dynasty. 

The coins of this family were found in Kandahar by 
Stacy and Hutton in 1840-41, and by Ventura and my- 
self in the Western Panjab. As only five specimens 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. F F 



214 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

were got by Masson at Begram in a three years' collec- 
tion, I conclude that these princes must have ruled over 
Arakhosia from Kandahar to the Indus. The metropolis 
of this tract of country according to Isidorus was Sigal, 
which by elision of the letter g I would identify with 
Shdl, a large town close to Quetta. The proper name of 
Quetta is Kotta, which may be identified with Ptolemy's 
Kottolara. If any of the monograms on the coins of the 
Vonones family represent the names of cities, I should 
expect to find both Sigal and Kottobara tied up in some 
of these letter-knots. Nos. 12 to 19 are Vonones mono- 
grams. 

No. 16 forms Z1PAA in full, but as it may be read in 
other ways I only propose Sigal on account of the pro- 
bability of its being represented on the coins. 

No. 15 I read as KOTTOBAPA in full, and as this 
monogram cannot well be read in any other way, I think 
that there is a strong presumption in favour of its accuracy. 
I do not deny the possibility that Kottobaros might have 
been the name of some subordinate officer of the Yonones 
dynasty, and that his son might have borne the same 
name and have held the same office under successive 
rulers. But all these possibilities scarcely amount to a 
probability, and I must confess that I prefer the city 
Kottolara. 

No. 17 offers simply KOTTO, which I take for Kotta or 
Quetta, without any addition. 

No. 14 I read as TAZAKA, or Ghazni, with some con- 
fidence, as I do not see that it can be read in any other 
way. 

No. 13 may be read as HAPAABA0PA, a city placed 
by Ptolemy on the western bank of the Indus. I presume 
that this must be the same place as the Barda of Isidorus ; 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 215 

but I am unable to identify it. Perhaps No. 12, which 
seems to be simply B, may be intended for Barda. 

Another town mentioned by Isidorus is Min, which has 
been identified with Ptolemy's Binagara on the Indus. 

Monograms of the Azas Dynasty. 

The monograms of Azas and his successor Azilises are 
very numerous ; and in the present Plate I have given a 
selection of those which are found on the principal coins, 
ranging from No. 21 to No. 49. As the successors of 
Moas they must have ruled over the Northern Panjab, 
from Taxila to Multan. 

No. 25 monogram may be read as ZAPPA A A, a place 
which was certainly within the dominions of Azas. 

No. 37 is similar to No. 3 of Moas, which I have 
already explained as making KAZPIAPIYPA in full, for 
the ancient city of Multan. 

No. 40 may be read as nANTAPPAMMA, a town 
placed by Ptolemy on the Indus. It has been identified 
by Mr. McCrindle in his Indian Geography of Ptolemy, 
with Panjpur, near Embolima, because, as he says, it 
" agrees closely, both in its position and the signification 
of its name, with the Pentagramma of Ptolemy." But 
the true name of the place here referred to is Panj-pir, or 
the " Five Saints " of the Muhammadans ; whereas the 
Hindus call it Panch-Mr, or the " Five Heroes," and refer 
the name to the five Pandu brothers. This monogram 
might form BAT ANAPA PA, a name preserved by 
Ptolemy in the Eastern Panjab. I would identify it with 
Pathdniya, or Pathdnkot, one of the oldest places in the 
country. Its original name was Pratisthdna, which was 
shortened to Paithana, or Paithdn. It was the capital of 



216 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the Odumbaris, of whom I possess coins as old as the time 
of Apollodotus. 

No. 41 forms BAPAA, which I suppose to be the same 
place as Ptolemy's Pardabathra on the Indus. As Azas 
seems to have outlived the last of the Vonones dynasty, 
he may have succeeded to some of the eastern portions of 
their dominions ; or he may have held Bar da during the 
lifetime of his contemporary Spalirises, as their names 
appear together on several of the coins. 

Monograms of the Gondophares Dynasty. 

The principal monogram of this family is No. 51, which 
forms the name of TONACWAPA in full. I have no 
reason for supposing that he actually founded any city, but 
I note the fact of this possible reading as being curious, 
if not important. 

Monogram of Hajubul. 

No. 55 monogram is found on the base silver coins of 
Rajubul, which have been found in the Eastern Pan jab 
as well as at Mathura. His copper coins, with Arian 
legends, are found only in the Eastern Panjab. I have 
therefore no hesitation in placing him at Sangala, as the 
monogram EY almost certainly refers to the city of 
Euthydemia, which was the Greek name of Sangala. 



3. MONETARY STANDARD. 

Two very marked and sudden changes took place in 
the weights of the gold and silver coins of N. W. India 
during the rule of the Greeks and Indo-Scythians. The 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 217 

first change took place in the weights of the Greek silver 
coins after the time of Eukratides. From the existing 
gold and silver coins of Diodotus and Euthydemus, we see 
that the Attic standard of weight had been preserved 
with a rate of 10 silver to 1 gold. The gold stater at its 
full weight was 134*4 grains, which at 10 rates gave the 
equivalent silver value at 1,344 grains. This divided by 
20 gave the weight of the silver drachma as 67*2, that 
of the didrachma 134*4, and that of the hemidrachma as 
33' 6 grains. Suddenly we find that the silver coins of 
the sixteen kings who followed Eukratides have become 
heavier, the average weight of 16 didrachmas having be- 
come 146*3 grains, while that of 82 hemidrachmas had 
risen to 36*48 grains. As many of the latter are over 
37 grains, I take this to be the full weight of the hemi- 
drachma, while that of the didrachma must have been up 
to 148 grains. Now this change must represent either 
a rise in the value of gold or a fall in that of silver, by 
which the relative values of the two metals had become 
11 S. = 1 G., that is, one-tenth had been added to the 
weight of the silver coins. Thus : 

Grains. Grains. 

134-4 didrachmas 33*2 hemidrachmas 

Add TV = 13*44 + TV = 3-32 

147*84 36*52 

or 148 new didrachmas, or 37 new hemidrachmas 

This rate appears to have been maintained down to the 
time of the Indo-Scythian Kushans, when the great issue 
of new gold coins took place and the coinage of silver 
ceased. Up to this time the gold money in circulation 
must have consisted of the staters of Alexander, Seleu- 
kus, Antiochus, Diodotus, and Euthydemus. The Saka 



218 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Scythians coined no gold, but they issued a very large 
amount of silver didrachmas and hemidrachmas of the 
same weights as those of the Greek successors of 
Eukratides. 

We now come to the second sudden change in the 
weight of the new gold staters of the Kushans, which was 
reduced from the full Attic standard of 1344 grains 
down to something over 122 grains. 

I have taken the weights of more than a hundred gold 
coins of the four Kushan kings, Wema Kadphises, Ka- 
nerki, Hoverki, and Yasu Deva, which give an average of 
122-50 grains. But rejecting all the specimens under 
123 grains, I find 

2 of Wema Kadphises average 1231 grs. out of 10 specimens 
llofKanerki . . 1231 31 
25 of Hoverki . . ,, 123'4 ,, 125 
21ofVasuDeva 123'3 21 



492-9 187 



59 coins of four kings 123*2 ,, 

The fourth part of this stater would be 30;8 grains, which 
agrees with the existing coins, as I find that 16 quarter 
staters of the same four kings give an average of 30*63 
grains for the quarter stater. 

The actual name of these gold coins has not been dis- 
covered ; but as the gold money of the Gupta kings is 
called Dinar in several inscriptions, I have no doubt that 
the same name was applied to the Kushan gold coins, 
as they preserve the weight of the early imperial denarii 
aurei of Rome. 

I would explain this change in the same manner as the 
other, that is, either by a rise in the value of gold or by 
a fall in the value of silver. As the Kushans struck no 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 219 

silver money, the old silver coins of the Greeks and the 
Saka Scythians must have continued current ; and as less 
gold was now given for the same quantity of silver, 
I conclude that the silver had fallen to 12 rates for 1 of 
gold. Adopting this rate for calculation, we get from the 
didrachma of 148 grains of silver a value of 1,480 grains 
of silver for the stater, which divided by 12 gives 123'33 
as the weight of the gold stater, equivalent to 10 silver 
didrachmas of 148 grains. 

The paucity of gold coins amongst the Indian Greeks 
may be explained by supposing that the old Persian 
darics had remained current down to the beginning of 
the Christian era, about which time the commercial inter- 
course between Europe and India had fallen into the 
hands of the Romans. The Roman empire had then 
advanced to the banks of the Euphrates, and as early as 
the reign of Claudius the Roman merchants had already 
taken advantage of the trade winds to make direct voyages 
to India from the Arabian Gulf. The trade rapidly 
increased in value until before the death of Pliny, A.D. 70, 
Rome annually sent to India no less a sum than fifty 
thousand sestertia, or about 400,000. 5 This import of 
specie still continued when the author of the Periplm 
visited India in A.D. 80 89, as he notes that Ayvapiov 
-%pv<rov KOL apyvpovv, or both gold and silver denarii, were 
exchanged at Barygaza (or Baroch) at a profit for native 
money. At the same time he notes that old drachmas 



5 Hist. Nat., XII. 41 (18). Minimaque computatione 
millies centena millia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres, 
peninsulaque (Arabia) imperio nostro adimunt." The sum is 
about 800,000, of which in another place Pliny gives half, 
or quingenties HS to India. Gibbon, c. 2, values the amount 
at 400,000. 



220 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

bearing the Greek inscriptions of Apollodotus and Menan- 
der were still current in Barygaza. 6 At other places in 
Southern India the principal import was great quantities 
of specie, ^p^/jLara TrXeiara. 

These statements are specially valuable for the light 
which they throw upon the question of the coinage of the 
Kushan Indo-Scythians. Both writers were contemporary 
with the two great Kushan princes Wema Kadphises 
and Kanishka ; and there can be little doubt that a large 
portion of the Roman gold denarii imported at Barygaza 
must have been carried to the Panjab, where they were 
recoined as dinars by the Kushan princes. That the 
Roman gold did find its way to the north is certain, as 
many specimens have been extracted from Stupas in the 
Kabul valley and Panjab. But so far as I am aware very 
few specimens have been found elsewhere. In Southern 
India the Roman gold was not recoined, but remained 
current in company with the punch-marked silver coins. 
In the north the Kushans struck no silver, and this fact 
is explained by the statement of the Periplus that the 
silver coins of Apollodotus and Menander were still 
current in his time. Along with them the tetradrachmas 
of Euthydemus and Eukratides must have been in com- 
mon circulation, as well as the numerous hemidrachmas of 
the Greek princes Menander, Apollodotus, Antimachus II., 
and Hermaeus, and the great mass of the native punch- 
marked silver coins. 

To this influx of Roman gold I attribute the adoption of 
the Roman standard of 123 grains, with the name of 
dinar, both of which continued in use for many centuries 
in Northern India. 

6 McCrindle's translation of Periplus, pp. 121-123. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 221 

Herr Yon Sallet calls the silver coins with native legends 
a " reduced standard," by which I suppose him to mean 
that the 37 and 148 grain coins are reduced drachmas and 
tetradrachmas. Mr. Gardner, however, seems rather to 
look upon them as belonging to some Persian standard, 
with hemidrachmas of 40 grains and didrachmas of 160 
grains. But I am not aware of any Persian standard 
comprising coins of these weights. The Persian siglos 
weighed upwards of 86 grains, and its double 172 grains. 
There are also many large silver pieces of 5 sigli, or 
quarter darics, which range up to 438*5 grains. My own 
heaviest piece weighed 433'5 grains, which would give a 
siglos of 86 '6 grains. But surely the Indian Greeks and 
Indo-Scythians might be allowed the faculty of adjusting 
the weights of their coins to suit their own wants. My 
own opinion is that the change in the weights first of the 
silver coins and afterwards of the gold coins was made 
simply to adjust the pieces to the rate of the day. 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. O G 



222 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 
PART I. HISTORICAL NOTICES. 

The name of Indo-Scythia is first found in Ptolemy's 
Geography, where it is confined to the provinces on 
both banks of the Indus, from the junction of the Kabul 
river down to the sea. Dionysius Periegetes uses the 
term "Southern Scythians," NOTIOC Siruflcu, for the people 
of the provinces, 7 for which his commentator Eustathius 
substitutes the now well-known name of "Indo-Scythians." 
At the present day the name is made to include all the 
races of Scythian origin who held the countries lying be- 
tween Persia and India for nearly nine centuries, from 
the occupation of Bactriana by the Sakas and Kushans 
down to the conquest of Sindh and Kabul by the Arabs 
in the beginning of the eighth century A.D. 

The countries thus occupied by the Indo-Scythians 
were 

I. Bactriana, or the provinces lying between the river 
Jaxartes and the Indian Caucasus, comprising Sogdiana, 
Bactria, and Margiana. 

II. Ariana, or the provinces to the south of the In- 
dian Caucasus, from Herat on the west to the Indus on 
the east, comprising Aria and Drangiana, Arakhosia and 
Gedrosia, with the Paropamisade of the Kabul valley. 

III. The Parydb, or upper provinces of the Indus and 
its tributaries, from Taxila to the junction of the Five 
Rivers. 

IV. Sindh, or the lower provinces of the Indus valley, 
which, according to Ptolemy, included both Patalene and 
Syrastrene. 

7 V. 1088, IvSov Trap TroTa.fj.ov 2,Kv6ai ewcuowiv. 



COINS OF THE 1XDO-SCYTHIANS. 223 

The Scythians who opposed Cyrus and Alexander on 
the Jaxartes are described by the Greeks as Massagetae, 
while their Persian neighbours knew them only as Sakas, 
or Sacae. 8 Pliny says that the more ancient writers 
called them Aramii, and adds that both in their life and 
habits they resembled the Parthians. This is confirmed 
by Justin, who declares the Parthians to be only a sepa- 
rate branch of the Scythian family. 

The country which the Scythians occupied between the 
Jaxartes and Oxus was known to the ancient Persians by the 
general name of Turan, and the name of Turanian is now 
applied to designate the Scythic version of the cuneiform 
inscriptions of Darius. All the provinces to the south of 
the Jaxartes belonged to the Aehaemenian kings of Persia, 
and the Scythic version of the inscriptions must have been 
published for the information of the Turanian subjects of 
Darius. There can be no doubt therefore that the great 
bulk of the people on both banks of the Oxus were of 
Scythian origin. Thus, according to both Herodotus and 
Ktesias, the Parthians, Hyrkanians, and Derbikkae, who 
were all of Scythian descent, were located to the south of 
the Oxus as early as the time of Darius. In the cuneiform 
inscriptions the Umu-icarka, or Amurgii Scythians, are 
described as forming an integral part of the Persian em- 
pire ; and in the time of Xerxes they furnished a contin- 
gent for the invasion of Greece. During the long Persian 
rule it is probable that the people of the fertile provinces 
of the Oxus had become more civilised than those to the 
north of the Jaxartes, by continued intercourse and 



8 Plinii, Xat. Hist., vi. p. 19. In the Babylonian version of 
the inscriptions of Darius, Xamiri is substituted for Saka. 
Perhaps Aramii should be Amarii. 



224 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

frequent intermarriage with their Aryan rulers. In fact, 
Strabo describes the manners of the Bactrians and Sogdi- 
ans as more civilised, although their mode of life was still 
nomadic. 9 

The language spoken by these Turanian subjects of 
Persia must therefore have been closely connected with 
that used in the cuneiform inscriptions of Darius. The 
names of people and of things which have come down to 
us show no traces of Semitic origin, but have many strong 
affinities with the Aryan language of India and Persia. 
Thus saprakim, " battle," must be connected with the San- 
skrit samara, which is found in the name of Samarkand, 
while tipi, a " tablet/' is the same as the Pali lipi. But 
the bulk of the language would appear to be different, 
and to have more affinity with some of the dialects 
of Northern India. Justin calls the language mixed 
Scythian and Median. 10 The following examples may 
be given in illustration of this opinion. 

Amongst the Dards of the Indus the king's title is 
Tham, which is perhaps only a dialectic variety of the old 
Hiong-nu Yarn, and is probably connected with the San- 
skrit dam, the Greek Sa/xaw, the Latin dominus, and the 
English tame. This title, I think, corresponds exactly 
with Justin's Tanaus, King of the Scythians. Herodotus 
mentions Tomyris as Queen of the Getse, and Pliny 
explains Temerinda as " mother of the sea." By adding 
the feminine suffix ere to tham, we get both Tomyris and 
Temeri, and by adding da = " water," we get Temerinda, 
as " Queen of Waters." The common terms for water 
amongst the aborigines of N. India are da, de, di, or td, te, 



9 Geography, xi., 11, 3. 

10 Justin, xli. p. 2. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTH1ANS. 225 

ti. The longer name of Thamimasada, which Herodotus 
gives for the "King of the Sea," may perhaps be explained 
by the interposition of massa= great, thus making Thami- 
masa-dd, or " king of the great water," or " lord of the 
sea." 

That this word for water once prevailed over Northern 
India may be seen in the names of Pad-da, or Ganges, 
Bahu-dd, or Brahmaputra, Narma-dd, or Narbada, Mana- 
dd, or Mahanadi, Vara-dd, or Warda River, alias " Ban- 
yan-tree River." Other names are Kalin-di, or Jumna, 
Betwan-ti, or Betwa, and Kiydn-ti, or Ken. I think it pro- 
bable also that such names as Charmanvati, Airdvati, and 
others may have been Sanskritized from older forms in ti. 
We have an example in the Pdra-ti, a principal branch of 
the Satlej, which has no connection whatever with Pdrvati. 

The different races of Scythians which have successively 
appeared as conquerors in the border provinces of Persia 
and India are the following, in the order of their arrival : 

B.C. ? Sakas or Sacce, the Su or Sai of the Chinese. 

B.C. 163. KushdnSj or Tochari, the Great Yue-chi of the 
Chinese. 

A.D. 440. Kidarita, or later Kushans, the Little Yue-chi of 
the Chinese. 

A.D. 470. Ephthalites, or white Huns, the Ye-tha-i-li-to of 
the Chinese. 

The most detailed accounts of these different races we 
owe to the Chinese ; but the short notices of classical 
authors, both Greek and Roman, are often of great value, 
either in confirming the Chinese accounts or in fixing 
the dates of important events. Generally they serve to 
corroborate each other, but there is a lamentable paucity 
of intelligible names in the Chinese records, owing chiefly 
to the incapacity of the Chinese syllables to express 



226 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

foreign names, and partly also to an absurd practice of 
the Chinese people in altering some of the names so as to 
obtain an opprobrious or derogatory meaning in Chinese. 
Thus the Ta-yue-chi meant only the "Great Lunar Race," 
who were not recognised by the later Chinese writers 
under the name of Tu-ho-lo, or Tochari, as described by 
Hwen Thsang. Similarly the ancient name of Kipin (or 
Kophene) was concealed under the later appellation of 
Tsau-ku-ta, and was absolutely lost under that of Siei-iu, 
which was imposed by the Empress Wu-hen, shortly after 
A.D. 684. Similarly also the Ye-tha-i-li-to, by having 
their name curtailed to Ye-tha, were not recognised as the 
Ephthalites, or White Huns, although they were both 
recorded to have been dominant in the same country at 
the same time. On the other hand the ancient name of 
Hien-yun was changed to Hiong-nu, or " unhappy slaves," 
which effectually disposes of their supposed connection 
with the Huns. With these preliminary remarks I will 
now try to put together the scattered links of Indo- 
Scythian history as derived from all sources. 

During the sway of the Achgemenian kings the inroads 
of the Scythians of the Jaxartes were kept in check by 
the frontier satraps. After the death of Alexander the 
same check was maintained under the vigorous rule of 
Antiochus, the Governor of the Eastern Provinces, who 
resided at Margiane, or Merv. But about eighty years 
later they had already begun to give trouble to the Bac- 
trian Greeks, and Euthydemus was allowed by Antiochus 
the Great to retain his kingdom, on the plea that, if he 
was weakened, he would not be able to withstand the 
Scythians. Early in the second century B.C., as related 
by the Chinese, the horde of the great Yue-chi, or Tochari, 
was driven across the Jaxartes by the Hiong-nu, and, after 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 227 

the loss of their king in battle, settled in Sogdiana in 
B.C. 163. The Sus or Sais, or the Massagetae or Sakas of 
the Greeks and Persians, retired before them, and after a 
time the Yue-chi continued their advance into Bactria, to 
the south of the Oxus, of which they took possession 
about 130 B.C. The Ta-hia, or Dahse, then retired to the 
west towards Margiana, while the Su or Sakas retreated 
to the south towards Drangiana. 11 

Mithridates I. of Parthia, who died in B.C. 135, took 
advantage of this period of confusion to wrest the two 
satrapies of Aspiones and Turiva from Eukratides, at the 
same time that he checked the Scythians. The position of 
these satrapies is unknown, but I conclude that they must 
have been on the west and south-west frontiers of the Bac- 
trian kingdom, i.e. in Margiana and Aria, along the rivers 
Margus and Arius. The annexation of these provinces 
would have been easy, and would have brought the Par- 
thians face to face with the retiring Saka Scythians. The 
victories of Mithridates would have stopped the further 
progress of the DahaB, while the Sakas managed to make 
good their retreat into Arachosia and Drangiana. That 
they reached the latter province we know from the fact 
that after their occupation it received the name of Sakas- 
tene [Sa/raoT^i/t; ^CLKWV ^ / Kv6wv'] ) a name which was 
altered to Sejistan by the mediaeval writers, and is now 
preserved in the modern Sistan. 

The Chinese fix the date of the occupation of Bactria 
by the Great Yue-chi or Tochari about B.C. 130, which 
agrees with the period of the defeat of Phraates II. of 
Parthia, who fell in battle with the Saka Scythians in 
B.C. 127 or 126. These Scythians had been engaged to 

11 Remusat, Nouveaux Melanges Asiatiques, i. p. 205. 



228 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

join him in his war against Antiochus, but as they arrived 
too late he refused to pay them, on which they invaded 
his territory. 

His successor, Artabanus II. , was killed three years 
later, B.C. 124-123, in battle with the Tochari. The 
notice of these Yue-chi is derived from the Chinese 
General Chang-Kian, who in B.C. 126 was sent by the 
Chinese Emperor Wuti to obtain their aid against the 
Hiong-nu. He was captured by them, but after ten years 
managed to escape, and returned to China in B.C. 116, 
having failed to induce the Yue-chi to join in a campaign 
against the Hiong-nu. He reported that he had found 
the Yue-chi in full possession of Bactriana. From an- 
other notice we learn that about 100 years later, or say 
about B.C. 16, the chief of the Kushans conquered the 
other four tribes of the Yue-chi, and assumed the title of 
" King of the Kushans." This chief, who was named 
JDiieu-tseu-kio, has been identified with Kujula Kadphises 
of the coins. He crossed the Indian Caucasus and overran 
Pota and Kipin, and took possession of the Kabul valley. 
Pota has been identified by Viv. de St. Martin with Pa- 
thdnka or Pukhtdnka, the country of the Pathans, while 
Kipin is generally admitted to be Arakhosia, which was 
anciently known as Kophene. 

Later notices of the progress of the Sakas and Kushans 
will be best kept separate. There can be no doubt that 
they came into conflict at an early date in the Pan jab, as 
that province was annexed by the Kushan King Yun-kao- 
ching, the son of Kujula, in the first century A.D., while 
we know from the evidence of the coins that the great 
Saka kings, Moas, Azas, and Azilises must have had a 
firm hold of it during the first century B.C. 

The origin of the name of Sakd is still uncertain. The 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 229 

general opinion is in favour of the Persian Sag, a "dog," 
which is still used as a derogatory term by the Persians 
for their enemies. I have seen a short history of Baha- 
walpur, in which the Eaja of Bikaner was throughout 
designated as the Sag. But there still exists a tribe to 
the north-east of Ladak who bear the name Sok-po, or 
simply Sok as po is the masculine suffix in Tibetan, 
Sok-po meaning a Sok-man, and Sok-mo a Sok woman. 
Pliny's statements that they were anciently called Aramii 
is perhaps supported by the Babylonian version of the 
inscriptions of Darius, in which Namiri, or the " hunting 
leopards," is substituted for Saka. By a slight transposi- 
tion the Aramii would become Amarii or Namiri. 



SAKAS, or SAC^-SCYTHIANS. 

According to the Chinese accounts the Su or Sai, or Sakas, 
on being driven out of the countries on the Oxus by the 
Yue-chi, or Tochari, retired to the south and occupied 
Kipin, or Kophene, comprising Arakhosia and Drangiana. 
The tribes of the Sai then spread over the country and 
formed different kingdoms, and it is specially stated that 
all the dependencies of Hiau-siun and Siun-tu (Sindh) 
were inhabited by ancient tribes of the Sai. 12 The country 
which they occupied was then called Sakastene after 
them. 13 It is the Sejistan of the early Muhammadans, 
and the Sistan of the present day. Isidorus of Kharax 



12 Remusat, Nouv. Melanges Asiatiques, i. p. 205. Pauthier, 
Chine, i. p. 242. A third tribe of the Sai was named Kuen-to. 
It numbered 300 families. 

13 Avienus, v. p. 1297, uses the form of Sagam infidum ; and 
Orosius also uses Sagam as the name of the country to which 
St. Thomas was sent. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. H II 



230 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

calls it SaKaaTrjVYj ^cucwv *2icv6a)V, and gives the follow- 
ing names of its towns : 1. Barda ; 2. Min ; 3. Palakenti; 
4. Sigal ; 5. Alexandria ; 6. Alexandropolis. The fourth 
town Sigal, which is designated as Regia Sacarum, or the 
" capital of the Sakas," I would identify with SMI, by 
the simple elision of the letter g. Shal or Kotta (" the 
forts," vulgo Quetta) has always been a place of conse- 
quence. Its commanding position, on the high road from 
Kandahar to the Lower Indus, must have insured its occu- 
pation at a very early date. For the same reason it is 
now occupied by a British garrison. It is most probably 
the Kottobara of Ptolemy. 

According to Stephanus of Byzantium the two cities 
named Arakhosia and Arakhoti, were near the country of 
the Massagetae, or in other words near Sakastene, the 
country of the Sakas, who were of the same race as the 
Massagetae. 

I will now give a few notices of each of the three 
different provinces which the Sakas occupied : 1. Sakas- 
tene or Sejistan ; 2. Sindh ; 3. The Panjab. 

1. THE SAKAS OF SAKASTENE AND KIPIN. 

Closely connected with the Su or Sakas were the Ta- 
hia, or Dahce, who were driven out of their country by 
the Tochari or Kushans at the same time. These Dahce 
are said to have retired to the west. Now Dahae was not 
a true national name, but only a term of reproach or abuse 
given to the nomads by their Persian and Indian neigh- 
bours. The original word in the Sanskrit, dasyu, "an 
enemy or robber/' which in Persian became dahyu, from 
which the Greeks formed Dahce, Aacu, and also Aaaai. The 
spoken form in India is Ddku, which is found in the Latin 



COINS OF THE INDO- SCYTHIANS. 231 

Dacia. A similar term is still applied to the people on 
the east of the Caspian, whose country is now called 
Ldghistan or Dahistan, or " Rebel-land." 

Strabo couples the Dahae with the Sacse and Massagetse, 
and adds that they were divided into three tribes 1. 
Parni or Aparni ; 2. Xanthii or Xandii ; and 3. Parii or 
Pissuri. As Justin H calls the first tribe Spartani, I 
conclude that Strabo's name must have been Saparni, and 
that these people, the worshippers of Sapal or Herakles, 
must have given their name to Zdlmlistan, or Arakhosia 
and Drangiana, which is only another name for Sakas- 
tene. 

The Xanthii are very probably the Zaths of the early 
Arab writers. As the Zaths were in Sindh to the west of 
the Indus, this location agrees very well with what we 
know of the settlement of the Sakas on the Indian fron- 
tier. In fact the Chinese expressly say that all the 
dependencies of Hien-siun and Siun-tu (Sindh) were occu- 
pied by ancient tribes of Sai, or Sakas. 15 

According to the Chinese these Saka tribes afterwards 
separated, and formed several distinct states under sepa- 
rate rulers. This statement seems to be borne out by the 
three distinct dynasties of kings, whose names have been 
preserved to us on the coins ; the one proceeding from 
Yonones in Arakhosia, a second from Moas and Azas in 
the Panjab, and a third from the Kshaharata tribe in 
Sindh, to which the great Satrap Nahapana belonged. 

The Kshaharatas would appear to have extended their 
territories beyond the limits of Sindh into Kachh (the 
Odombeores or Audumbara) and Gujarat (Surashtra), and 



14 Justin, xli. p. 1. 

15 Remusat, Xouc. Melanges Asiatiques, i. p. 206. 



232 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

perhaps even to Malwa. One inscription of the Satrap 
ISfahapana is dated in the year 42, but unfortunately no 
era is mentioned. If referred to the Seleukidan century 
beginning in 12 B.C., the date would be 42 12 = 30 
A.D., or just forty-eight years before the establishment of 
the Saka era, and the probable date of Chashtana of 
Ujain (Tiastanes of Ozene). 

I think it probable that some reference to this southern 
invasion of the Sakas may be preserved in the short 
Sanskrit work named Kalakacharya Kathd, describing the 
"Inroads of the Indo-Scythians into India.'* This short 
treatise was brought to notice by Dr. Bhau Daji, in the 
Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society. 16 The account is 
as follows : " Shortly before the Christian era the Sakas 
held possession of the country on the western bank of the 
Indus under petty chiefs called Sdki, who were subject to 
one paramount ruler named Sdhina-sahi. The Sakas 
crossed the Indus into Surashtra, and advanced to Avanti- 
desa (Malwa), where they defeated Raja Gardabhilla, and 
took possession of Ujain. Here they remained for four 
years until they were driven out by Vikramaditya, son of 
Gardabhilla, in B.C. 57." 

As the dynasty of the Kshahardtas was succeeded by 
the new dynasty of Chashtana (or Tiastanes), I think it 
most probable that the notice by the author of the 
Periplus of Parthian rivals driving out one another must 
refer to these two dynasties of Scythian princes. The 
names of Nahapana and Chashtan, which are certainly not 
Indian, seem to have some connection with the similar 
forms of Artapanus and Haustanes, both Parthian or 
Partho-Scythian names. 



16 Journal, ix. p. 139. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 233 

How firmly settled were these Sakas of Western India 
is most decidedly shown by some of their inscriptions 
which still exist in the Nasik caves. Thus I find that 
the son-in-law of the Kshaharata King Nahapana calls 
himself a Saka. In one inscription he is designated as 
the Saka Ushavaddta, the son of Dinika, and the husband 
of Dakshamitra, the daughter of Nahapana. None of these 
names are Indian, except perhaps that of Dakshamitra. 
Another inscription is dated in the year 42, on the loth 
of the bright half of Chaitra. As it must precede the 
establishment of Chashtana in A.D. 78, I am inclined to 
refer the year to the Seleukidan century which began in 
12 B.C., which would fix the date to B.C. 12 42 = A.D. 
30. 17 

Two other short inscriptions record the gifts of another 
Saka chief named Ddma-cheka. 1 * 

The Sakas of Sejistan are repeatedly mentioned in the 
history of the Arsakian and Sassanian kings. 

In B.C. 77 or 76, Sanatroikes obtained the throne by the 
aid of the Sakarauli Scythians, amongst whom he had 
previously sought refuge. 19 

In B.C. 33 Phraates IV. fled to the Scythians, who 
replaced him on the throne. 

In A.D. 16 Artabanus III., with the assistance of the 
Dahse and Sakse, obtained the throne. He had previously 
lived amongst the Dahse. 20 

In A.D. 40 Goterzes was similarly assisted by the Dahae. 



17 See Bombay Journal, vii., West's Inscriptions from Nasik, 
No. 14. 

18 Ibid., Inscriptions Nos. 1 and 2". 

19 Phlegon apud Photium, quoted by Mr. Percy Gardner, and 
Lucian, Macrob. 15. 

20 Josephus, Ant. Jud. ; Tacitus, Ann. ii. 3. 



234 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

A.D. 230 Artaxerxes, the founder of the Sassanian 
monarchy, was unable to reduce the Sejistanis. Accord- 
ing to Agathias (ii. 164), quoted by Gibbon, " the princes 
of Sejistan defended their independence during many 
years," and were not finally conquered until the reign of 
Varaban II., A.D. 275 292. Gibbon calls the Sejistanis 
" one of the most warlike nations of Upper Asia." 

From this time the province of Sejistan, or Sakastene, 
formed one of the tributary provinces of the Sassanian 
empire. Accordingly in A.D. 350 357 the Sejistanis 
furnished a contingent to Sapor II. for the siege of Amida. 
They were reckoned the bravest of his troops, and they 
brought into the field a large body of elephants. 21 

In A.D. 650 Yezdegird, the last Sassanian king, fled 
from Istakhar through Kerman and Sejistan to Khorasan, 
and in the following year a Muhammadaii army occupied 
Zarang, the capital of Sejistan. 22 

2. THE SAKAS IN SINDH. 

An early notice of the Saka Scythians on the Indus is 
given by the author of the Periplus, who says that 
" Minnagar, the metropolis of Scythia, was in his time 
governed by Parthian princes, who were perpetually at 
strife among themselves, expelling each the other." 23 The 
date of the Periplus is not accurately known. But the 
mention of Zoskales (Za Hakale), King of Abyssinia, who 
reigned from 77 to 89 A.D., and of a King of the Naba- 
thaians, whose kingdom was absorbed by Trajan in A.D. 
105, serve to fix his date between 80 and 100 A.D. As we 

21 Ammian, Marcell., xix. pp. 2, 3. 

22 H. M. Elliot, Muhammadan Hist, of India, by Dowson, 
ii. p. 218. 

23 Translation by McCrindle, p. 108. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 235 

know that the Kings of Parthia proper at this time did not 
possess any territory even near the Indus, the so-called 
Parthian rulers must refer to the Indo-Scythian Sakas, 
who were of the same race as the Parthians. 

The position of Minnagar has not been identified, but I 
feel nearly certain that it must have been at Brah- 
man abad, which is one of the oldest sites in Sindh. It 
was the " city of Brahmans " of Alexander's historians. 
Its Hindu name was Brahmanawasi, which was changed 
to Brahmanabad by the Muhammadans, who afterwards 
built Mansura close to it. 

As Pliny lived within a very short time of the 
author of Periplus, it is quite possible that the dynasty of 
Parthian kings then ruling on the lower Indus might be 
mentioned by him. I find the Odombeores or Audumbaras, 
the people of Kachh, duly recorded, and immediately 
preceding them are the Varetatce or Suarataratce?* As 
the name has evidently been corrupted, I think it not 
impossible that the true reading may have been Suaratce, 
and that they may be identified with the Kahahardtas of 
the western cave inscriptions, of one of whose rulers, 
named Nahapana, we possess coins as well as inscriptions. 
As the Kshaharatas were certainly succeeded by another 
Scythian race under Chashtan (Tiastanes of Ptolemy), the 
description of Parthians expelling each other would seem 
to be well illustrated by the proposed identification. 

There is now a gap of several centuries in the history 
of Sindh which is not likely ever to be filled up, as all 
the histories of Sindh begin with the Sahasi dynasty 
which ruled for one hundred and thirty-seven years pre- 
ceding the accession of the Brahman Chach, that is from 

24 Plinii, Nat. Hist, vi. p. 23. 



236 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

A.D. 505 to 642. The names given in the Chachnama are 
corrupt, but they are quite sufficient to prove that the 
kings were Scythians. All of them are named Sdhi, or 
Sdhasi, which is the well-known Scythian title. Five 
kings are mentioned, of whom the only thing related is 
that the fourth king was attacked and killed by Nimroz 
(Parvez, King of Persia) in A.D. 627. But on the autho- 
rity of Kosmas the new dynasty must have been White 
Huns or Ephthalites. They would therefore have had 
no connection with the first Saka conquerors. Unfortu- 
nately no names are recorded in the histories of Sindh, 
but each is called simply Rai Sdhi or Sdhasi. As this 
seems to be only the common Scythian title of Shdki, we 
have no means of discriminating one prince from another. 
I believe, however, that I have found the name of the 
leader in Jibaivin, who formed the great reservoir of Suraj 
Kund at Multan. His name is also variously written as 
Jaswin, Jasur, and Jalbur, but as I possess coins bearing 
the names of Jabubal and Jabukha, I incline to adopt 
Jabuwan as the correct form. 

The testimony of Kosmas, who actually visited the 
country to the west of the Indus about A.D. 530, is per- 
haps sufficient to show that the Scythian dynasty which 
ruled over Sindh from A.D. 507 to 642 must have been 
White Huns. As the inscription of Yasodharma, King of 
Malwa, A.D. 532, mentions that he ruled over countries 
which neither the Guptas nor the Hunas had possessed, 
there is some difficulty as to what countries are intended. 
The Panjab is most probably alluded to, as no trace of 
Gupta rule has yet been found there. Perhaps Sindh is 
also referred to, in which case the rule of the Hunas in 
the time of Kosmas must have been confined to the 
western bank of the middle Indus. The histories of 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 237 

Sindh are unanimous in claiming Mekran as one of the 
provinces of the kingdom during the rule of the Sahasi 
kings. I infer therefore that Yasodharma's conquests 
did not extend to Sindh, but may probably have included 
Northern Rajputana. The mention of the overthrow of 
Sakas in JRuma (in the Salt country) by Vikramaditya 
about A.D. 530 must refer either to the Sdmbhar lake dis- 
trict near Ajmer, or to the Salt Mines in the Panjab, and 
at Kalabagh to the west of the Indus. The latter 
seems the more probable, as the city of Rhon, f Po>i/, 
is described as belonging to the Scythian Gandarike, just 
as Hekataeus describes Kaspapuros. 

I annex a list of these Scythian kings of Sindh as pre- 
served in the native histories. If their title was Shahi, 
they would have some claim to be taken as Sakas, as the 
White Huns had adopted the title of Khakan. 

A.D. Kings of Sindh. 

505. Diwaij, ? Jibawin. 

533. Siharas, Sahiras, ? Gollas of Kosmas Indicopleustes. 

566. Diwaij, or Rai Sahasi, or Shahi-shahi. 25 

600. Siharas, Sahiras invaded by Persians in A.D. 627, killed. 

627. Sahasi, Rai Shahi. 

642. Chach Brahman conquers Sindh. 

The territory held by these princes extended from the 
frontier of Kashmir to the mouths of the Indus, and from 
Mekran to the frontier of Kanauj. In A.D. 641, Hwen 
Thsang says that the reigning king was a Siu-to-lo y that is 
a Sudra. The names seem so much alike, Sahasi, Sahiras, 
and Rai Shahi, that I cannot help suspecting they may 
be only a title repeated with slight changes as Rai-Shahi 
or Shahi-Rai. Now Shahi is a well-known Scythian 

25 H. M. Elliot, MuU. Hist., i. p. 405, gives five names from 
the Tuhfat ul Kiram. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. I I 



238 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

title which is found on most of the Indo-Scythian coins 
of the Sassanian period. This is the more probable as I 
find mention of an ancient King of Multan named Jibawtn, 
who excavated the Suraj Kund and built a great temple 
containing a golden image. He may perhaps be the 
founder of the dynasty Diwdij. A more probable identi- 
fication is that of Diwdij with the prince named Devajari, 
two of whose silver coins were found in the great 
Manikyala Stupa by General Ventura. 26 The Indian 
legend on these coins I read as follows . 

Sri Hitivi-cha Airdn cha parameswara. 

Sri Shdhi-tigin Devajari. 

The fortunate lord of India and Persia. 

The fortunate valiant prince (Shahi) Devajari. 

It will be observed that all the leading consonants 
d, v, j, occur in both names joined with a long d. 

All the other recorded names appear to be only corrup- 
tions of the title of Shahin Shahi. 

I am disappointed at not finding any trace of the name 
of Gollas in these lists of the native historians of Sindh. 
I am even more disappointed at the omission of all men- 
tion of Yasu Deva, King of Multan, Uch, and Bahmana, 
as declared on his coins. He was almost certainly one of 
the rulers of Sindh of this very dynasty, as the style of 
bis coins shows that he belonged to the later Sassanian 
period. 27 

Both of the coins just noticed might perhaps be said to 
belong properly to Multan. But there is a large number 
of coins in all three metals, which bear only the title of 
Sri- Shahi, or in some cases only Shahi, which might 

26 See my Archaeological Report, v. p. 121, and PL XXXVII. 
* Ibid. 



COINS OF THE 1NDO-SCYTHIANS. 239 

belong to the kings of Sindh, whose names have not been 
handed down. But as most of these anonymous coins, and 
as I believe that all of the gold ones, have been found in 
the Northern Panjab or Lower Kabul valley, I am inclined 
rather to assign them to the Rajas of Sakala and Gandhara. 
It is unfortunate that very few of the names have been 
preserved, and these mostly disguised in the strange forms 
of Chinese monosyllables. 

Masudi records that a prince named Ranbal, who 
reigned in the valley of the Indus, after subjugating 
Eastern Persia, had " advanced to the banks of the Tigris 
and Euphrates." 28 This conqueror may, I think, be iden- 
tified with the king who on his coins claims to be lord 
"both of India and of Persia" (Sri Hitim-cha Airdn-cha 
parameswara). Such an inroad might perhaps have been 
successful after the murder of Khusru II. in 628 A.D. 
This is the more probable as the ruler of Sindh had to 
revenge the invasion of his own country and the death of 
his predecessor. As Parvez had invaded Sindh by Tirman 
and Mekran, the Sindhian king would no doubt have 
followed the same route. I see nothing improbable in 
this raid, as the Persian empire never recovered its 
strength after the death of Parvez. 

Kaikdn or Kikdn, an outlying district of Sindh on the 
west towards Mekran, suffered from several early in- 
vasions of the Muhammadans, who were intent upon 
seizing horses of a fine large breed for which the country 
was famous. It is the Ki-kiamg-nu of Hwen Thsang, who 
also mentions its good horses. Biladuri calls the people 
Turks, by which term he probably meant Indo-Scythians, 
The province seems to be identical with the northern and 

28 Elliot's Muham. Hist, of India, ii. p. 418. 



240 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

hilly half of Biluchistan, comprising Kilat and the 
country of the Brahui's. In the Chachnama mention is 
made of a high mountain called Kaikavan. I suspect that 
this name may be identified with the fort of Kapishkanish, 
in Arakhosia, which was seized by a rebel against Darius 
Hystaspes. We know that the name of the town of 
Kaithal is a simple contraction of Kapisthala (the Kam- 
bistholi of Arrian). In the same way I think that Kapish- 
kanish might be contracted to Kaikan. Sir Henry Raw- 
linson thinks that the place must be looked for in the 
direction of Sistan, as the satrap of Arakhosia would pro- 
bably have met the force advancing from Persia on the 
frontier of his province, 

3. SAKAS IN THE PANJAB. 

There is no direct historical evidence that the Sakas 
ever occupied the Panjab, but the three great kings, Moas, 
Azas, and Azilises, whose coins are found chiefly in the 
Panjab, and very rarely to the west of the Indus, are 
universally accepted as Saka Scythians. They certainly 
preceded the Kushan Prince Kujula Kadphises and his 
successors, with whom they seem to have nothing in 
common, whereas their connection with the Saka dynasty 
of Vonones and his successors is undoubted, as the name 
of Azas is found joined with those of Yonones and Spali- 
rises. They agree also in having an extensive silver 
coinage of the same types, without a single specimen of 
gold, 29 while the Kushans have an abundant gold coinage 
and no silver money, excepting only a solitary piece of 
Wema Kadphises. 

29 I may note here that my friend Pandit Bhagwan Lai had 
a gold coin of Spalahores, but it was a forgery. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 241 

There is, however, a decided testimony of Saka occupa- 
tion of some portion of Western India as late as the latter 
half of the fourth century in the mention by Samudra 
Gupta of the presents received from the Kushans, Sakas, 
and Murundas : " Daiuaputra Shdhi-Shahanu Shahi, Saka, 
Murundaih." 

Sakas are also mentioned in the beginning of the fifth 
century as opponents of a Vikramaditya of Malwa, and to 
them I would attribute the rude Indo-Sassanian coins 
which are now so abundant in Rajputana. According to 
the Hindu accounts this prince conquered the Sakas in 
Ruma. m He is perhaps the same prince as Yasodharma, 
of Mr. Fleet's Mandisur inscription, who possessed 
countries which neither "the Gupta kings nor the Hunas 
couJd subdue." 31 The same prince also boasts of having 
subdued King Mihirakula. As Yasodharma's inscription 
is dated in A.D. 532, it seems very probable that he must 
be the Vikramaditya of the native legend, the contem- 
porary of Kalidas and Varahamihira. But the Mihirkul 
whom he subdued must have been the Mihirkul, son of 
Toramana of Malwa, and not the great Mihirkul, Raja of 
Kashmir. 

It is worthy of remark also that these Saka princes, 
Azas and his successors, must have employed Indian 
servants, such as the General Aspa Yarma, son of Indra 
Yarma, as well as a son of Yijayamitra, whose name is 
lost on my coins. Others were no doubt only Scythian 
adventurers, like Jihonia and Rajubul, whose coins belong 
to the same period. They must have been in the service 
of some of the later Greek princes, and who, as their 

30 Bhau Daji in Journal of Bombay Asiatic Society, vi. p. 26 

31 Indian Antiq., xv. p. 255, Mr. Fleet's inscription. 



242 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

masters' power became weaker, had gradually acquired 
strength, until some of them became independent. Moas, 
for instance, may have been a successful general under 
Menander and Apollodotus, and after their death a suc- 
cessful rebel, who wrested the Panjab from Hermseus. 
The coins of Moas are found chiefly about Taxila (Shah- 
dheri and Mansera) and in the country between the Indus 
and Chenab rivers. 

Some of the later Greek princes would seem to have 
been driven towards the East Artemidorus perhaps to 
Kashmir, and Dionysius, Zoilus, and Straton II. to 
Kangra. 

The coins of Azas are also found chiefly in the "Western 
Panjab ; only a few specimens are found in the lower 
Kabul valley. I obtained a small find from Bajawar, but 
I saw twelve large pieces dug up from the inside of a 
temple at Shahdheri or Taxila. Not even one was found 
by Masson at Begram, and I may say the same for Mat- 
hura, which has yielded a considerable number of the coins 
of Menander and Apollodotus, Antiochus II. and Straton, 
with a single type of the nameless king. 

The find-spots of the coins of Azilises are the same as 
those of Azas. One large find of silver coins was made on 
the bank of the Jhelam river, in the hills between Barah- 
mula and Jhelam. 

The rule of Moas and his two successors may have 
lasted from about 100 B.C. down to the beginning of the 
Christian era, when the country fell into the hands of the 
Kushans. 

I can perhaps best illustrate my idea of what may have 
taken place in the Panjab on the break up of the Greek 
power by referring to what actually took place in the 
same country after the break up of the Muhammadan 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIANS. 243 

empire of Delhi. All over the country the petty chiefs 
made themselves independent, or nearly so. Musalman 
chiefs in Multan and Mamdot, Sikh chiefs in Gujranwala, 
Kapurthala, Patiala, Nabha, and Kaithal, and an English- 
man, George Thomas, in Hansi. After a time Ranjit 
Singh of Gujranwala gradually managed to overcome 
most of his rivals, just as I suppose Moas to have done in 
ancient times. 

There would appear to have been several other adven- 
turers in early days in the Panjab, who are known to us 
chiefly from coins. Such are the satrap Jikonia, son of 
the satrap Manigul, who perhaps gave his name to Ma- 
nikyala, and the satrap Rajubul, who almost certainly 
held Sangala, as his coins are found in the Eastern Panjab, 
and bear the Greek monogram EY for Euthydemia or 



There are coins also of rajas of the same period, who 
must have been more or less dependent on the greater 
chiefs. One of these was Dhdra Ghosha, Raja of Odum- 
bara, that is of the country of Dameri or Niirpur. Other 
chiefs are the Kuninda Raja Amoghabhuti, and two others 
named Mahadeva and Rudra Yarma. All of these, by 
their names, must have been native Hindus. 

Apparently the Sakas never held any possessions in the 
Kabul valley, but they probably held Ghazni, which 
would account for some of their coins being found about 
Kabul. Whatever hold they may have had on the Pan- 
jab must have been soon lost on the conquest of the 
country by the Kushans under Yun-kao-ching, in the 
first century A.D. 

There is a curious passage in the Mojmal ut Tawarikh, 
which certainly refers to these countries on the Indus, 
and though the period mentioned is said to be that of 



244 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Alexander the Great, it is probable that it may preserve 
some distorted account of the history of the early Saka 
kings of Sindh, as it cannot possibly refer to the time of 
Alexander. The following is a brief summary of the 
passage. 32 

In Sindh there were three kings until the time of 
Kafand, J^-5, who conquered them all. Kafand was 
not a Hindu. In the Chachnama he is called Kaid the 
Hindu. Kafand sent his brother Samid to Mansura to 
expel Mahra, s^*, the Persian. Samid sought the 
assistance of Hal, King of India, and Mahra fled. When 
Kafand died his son Ayand, J^J, succeeded him, and 
divided his territories into four principalities. 

1. Askalandusa, or Askalandra. 

2. Zor (Alor) with Anj (? Uch). 

3. Samid's territory (? Saminagar, or Thatha). 

4. Hindustan, Nadama, and Lohana. 

Ayand's son Kasal, JJ^, succeeded him, but after a 
time he was expelled by a rebel. Rasal left two sons, 
Rowal J^, and Barkamaris, ^J^^. The latter killed 
his brother, and became so powerful that all India sub- 
mitted to him. 

Hal is the well-known name of Salivahan, the founder 
of the Saka era in A.D. 78. 

A similar division of the kingdom of Sindh into four 
principalities is given in the Chachnama, as follows : 33 

1. Askalandra, with Pabiya. 

2. Alor (with Sewistan). 

3. Brahmanabad. 

4. Multan and Sikka. 

32 Elliot's Muham. Hist., i. p. 108. 
53 Ibid., i. p. 138. 



COINS OF THE INDO- SCYTHIANS. 245 

These divisions seem to be intended for the same as those 
of the Hojmal ut Tawarikh. They were in existence during 
the rule of the Sahi kings (A.D. 505 642), and were up- 
held by Chach, their immediate successor. Pabiya is said 
to have been to the south of the Bias River. It was there- 
fore in the Panjab, and consequently must have been to 
the north-east of Multan. I would identify it with De- 
palpur, and then the strong fort of Askalandra would 
correspond with Shcrkot, or Alexandreia Soriane. 

The dominions of the Saka kings of Sindh are said to 
have included Mekran up to the frontiers of Kirman and 
Kaikan or Kikan up to the frontiers of Khorasan. Before 
this time Sakastene or Sistan had become tributary to the 
Sassanian kings of Persia, while Arakhosia or Kandahar, 
the Kipin of the Chinese, would appear to have formed an 
independent kingdom. 

About A.D. 530 Kosmas Indicoplanates travelled over 
the country to the west of the Indus, which was then 
under the rule of a king named Oollas. He calls the 
country OiW*a, Unnia. Apparently at that time the name 
of the White Huns of Sogdiana, the opponents of the Sas- 
sanian kings, had become so well known that all peoples 
between India and Persia were supposed to be of the same 
race. At this very time also, or A.D. 550, Varaha Mihira 
places a tribe called Hara-Hauras in the north-western 
Panjab. 

The coins afford but little or no assistance. According 
to the Chinese the people of Kipin had coins both of gold 
and silver, with the head of a man on one side and a 
horseman on the other side. 34 This description agrees only 

34 Remusat, Nouv. Melanges Asiat., i. p. 206. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. K K 



246 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

with the coin types of Miaiis and the nameless king. But 
there are no gold coins of either of these kings, and only 
copper coins of the latter. In fact there are no known 
gold coins of any of the Saka kings. 

I see that Wilson describes the coins of the Sakas as 
having a horseman on one side and a portrait or figure of 
a man on the other. 35 If this description be correct it 
would include all the coins of the known Saka kings of 
Kipin, Yonones, Spalahora, Spalgadama, and Spalirisha, 
as well as the Pan jab kings Moas, Azas, and Azilises. 

In the Chinese notices of Kipin it is said that a king 
named -U-to-lao was a contemporary of the Emperor Wuti 
(d. 87 B.C.), and that his son was driven from the throne 
by a rebel. This looks like a repetition of the story of 
Ay and and his son Rasal. But these names seem to offer 
no resemblance to any of the coin names of Yonones, 
Spalahora, Spalgadama, or Spalirisha. I suspect, however, 
that the rebel chief may be the king named In-mo-fu, 
who, according to the Chinese, drove U-to-lao's son from 
the throne and made himself King of Kipin in B.C. 49. 
This date is ascertained by the accession of the Emperor 
Hiao-yuan-to in B.C. 48, who broke off all relations with 
foreign countries, and would not receive In-mo-fu's 
embassy. 

To this king I would ascribe the large silver coins 
(tetradrachms) v/ith the title of Turannountosand the name 
of Herdus or Midus. In 1861 I read the names as Heraus, 
but some years later, when I obtained some oboli of the 
same king, I adopted the reading of Miaiis or Miaius. Mr. 
Gardner prefers Heraus, and attributes the coins to a king 

35 Ariana Antiqua, p. 311. 



COINS OF THE INDO-SCYTHIAXS. 247 

of the Sakas, by reading the continuation of the legend as 
ZAKA KOIPANOY. But to this reading I strongly 
demur. I possess half-a-dozen tetradrachms and thirteen 
oboli, and on none do I find the letter K of ZAKA, while 
on every "specimen I find the addition of the letter B to 
th ; s word. On one of my coins the word is distinctly 
ZANAB ; on another specimen I find ZANAOB. I also 
find KO?CANOY instead of KOIPANOY, and as this is 
the early rendering of the tribal name of the Kushans on 
the coins of Kujula Kadphises I feel inclined to adopt it, and 
to read the difficult word Sanaob as a Greek rendering of 
the native title of Tsanyu or Chanyu, " Son of Heaven," or 
king. The whole legend would then be of the paramount 
ruler ; Miaiis (or Her aus) would therefore be a Kushan 
king. 36 On one of my coins I find HNYANOY instead 
of KOPCANOY. 

In the passage which I have quoted from iheMojmal ut 
Tawankh the names of four kings are given as the suc- 
cessive rulers of Sindh. As they are specially said to be 
not of Indian origin there is a strong presumption that 
they must have been the Scythians who conquered Sindh. 
Their names, as already quoted, are : 1, Kafand or Kid ; 2, 
Ay and ; 3, Rdml ; and 4, the two sons of the last-named, 
Rowal and Barkamdris. It is curious that we possess the 
coins of just four princes who might possibly be identified 
with them were it not for the difference in the names. 
But it seems probable that Vonones and his relatives of 
the coins must have belonged to Kipin or Arachosia, while 
Ay and and his posterity belonged to Sindh and the 
Panjab. 

56 Remusat, Nouv. Melanges Atiat,, i. p. 207. 



248 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

It is possible, however, that they may be represented 
by Azas and his successors, thus : 

Ayand may be Aya or Azas. 

Rasal may be Ayilisha or Azilises. 

The rebel might be Jihonia or Zeionises. 

Rowal might be Sapaleizes. 

Barkamaris might be The Nameless King. 

Should Barkamaris turn out to be a corrupt rendering 
of Bikramadit this last identification might not be impro- 
bable, as several of the different types of the Nameless 
King have the single Arian letter Vi in the field. The 
founder of the dynasty, named Kafand, would then be 
identified with Moga or Moas. 

A. CUNNINGHAM. 



X. 

ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 

(Continued from page 94.) 

LORD BROUGHAM, 1778 1868. 
WESTMORELAND COUNTY ELECTION, 1818. 

3. Obv. Head of Brougham to right, bare : on neck, MILLS F. 
Leg. HENRY BROUGHAM. 

Jfet;. Within oak-wreath, TO THE PATRIOTIC IN- 
CORRUPTIBLE AND UNBOUGHT FREE- 
HOLDERS OF THE COUNTY OF WEST- 
MORELAND IV JULY MDCCCXVIII. 

1-4. MB. ^E. PL XL 1. 

This medal was struck to commemorate Brougham's 
candidature for the county of Westmoreland, at the 
general election in 1818. At the end of the contest 
Brougham was at the bottom of the poll, his opponents 
being Lord Lowther and Col. Lowther, whose success 
was in a great measure due to the support they received 
from the magistrates and clergy of the neighbourhood. 
In thanking those who had voted for him, Brougham said 
he had now to congratulate the people of Westmoreland, 
for in spite of the acts, the urgent endeavours, and the 
bribery of the agents of his opponents he had polled 
" 900 votes, free, independent and unbought votes." 



250 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

MEDALLION BY STOTHABD, 1831. 

4, Qi Vf Head of Brougham to left, bare ; on neck, STOT- 
HABD P. 1831. 

No reverse. 
2-75. MB. ST. 

No reverse appears to have been executed for this 
medal. It is one of a large series made by Stothard of 
illustrious men of his time. 

For other medals of Lord Brougham, see Grey, Earl of. 

THOMAS BROWN, 17781869. 
THE STATIONERS' SCHOOL PRIZE MEDAL FOUNDED, 1871. 

Obv. Head of Brown to left, bare ; below, T. s. & A. B. 
WYON so. Leg. THOMAS BROWN BORN 1778 
DIED 1869. 

Re V . Within ornamented trefoil, shields of the Stationers' 
Company, the Brown family, and the City of 
London ; quatrefoil ornaments and oak-leaves in 
angles of trefoil. Leg. v THE STATIONERS' 
SCHOOL .'. BROWN MEDAL . FOUNDED 
1871. 

2. MB. M. PL XL 2. 

Thomas Brown, born in 1778, was for many years a 
member of the well-known firm of Messrs. Longmans 
& Co., Publishers in Paternoster Row. He died in 1869, 
having bequeathed 5,000 to the Stationers' Company, 
and a like sum to the School of that Company. The 
above prize-medal was founded in 1871, and is annually 
given in bronze with a purse of 5 every midsummer, 
to the pupil who has done best in the yearly examination. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 251 

SIR WILLIAM BROWNE, Physician, 16921774. 
CAMBRIDGE PRIZE MEDAL. 

Obv. Bust of Browne to left, wearing wig and robes. 
Leg. Below, D. GYLIELMVS BROWNE, 
EQUES . NAT . Ill . NON . IAN . A . I . 
MDCXCII. Above, ESSE ET VIDERI. 

Rev. Apollo seated to left on raised platform, resting his 
left hand on his lyre, and with right placing 
laurel wreath on the head of kneeling figure, 
wearing academical robes and holding scroll and 
cap. Leg. SVNT SVA PRAEMIA LAVDI. 
In the exergue, ELECTUS COLL . MED . 
LOND . PRAESES A . S . MDCCLXV. 

1-4. MB. N. JE. PL XI. 3. 

Sir William Browne, Physician, a native of the county 
of Durham, and the son of a physician, was educated at 
Cambridge and practised medicine at Lynn, Norfolk, 
where he lived for over thirty years, but in 1749 he came 
to live in London. Browne was a Fellow of the College 
of Physicians and of the Koyal Society, and in 1748 he 
was knighted through the interest of the Duke of 
Montagu. In 1765 1766, he was President of the 
College of Physicians, and only held that office for one 
year on account of the want of respect shown to him on 
the part of some of the licentiates of the college. He 
died 10th March, 1774, and by his will founded a scholar- 
ship of twenty guineas a year, the holder of which was to 
remove to Peterhouse, Cambridge, and also three gold 
medals worth five guineas each, of which the above is an 
example, to be given to undergraduates at Cambridge for 
Greek and Latin odes and epigrams. 



252 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLT5. 

SIR MARC ISAMBARD BRUNEL, 1769 1849. 
COMPLETION OF THE THAMES TUNNEL, 1842. 

1. Obv. Head of Brunei to left, bare; below, DAVIS BIRM. 
Leg. SIR ISAMBART MARC BRUNEL, F.R.S. 
&c. 

p k ev. View of the interior of the Thames Tunnel with 
horseman and foot passengers. Below, THAMES 
TUNNEL 1200 FEET LONG COMMENCED 
1824. COMPLETED 1842. L. 180,000 SUB- 
SCRTB D BY PROPRIETORS 1828. L. 270,000 
GRANTED BY PARLIAMENT 1836. SIR 
I. M. BRUNEL . ENGINEER. Above, Jos. 

DAVIS. MEDALLIST BIRMINGHAM. 

2-5. MB. M. 

Sir Marc Isambard Brunei was born at Hacqueville, near 
Gisors, in Normandy, 25th April, 1769 ; at an early age 
he entered the navy, but quitting his country on account 
of the revolution he went to New York, in 1793, and 
adopted the profession of civil engineer and architect. 
Having been successful in several competitions, including 
the designs for the New House of Assembly, at Washing- 
ton, and the Bowery Theatre, New York, he was appointed 
Chief Engineer of New York, which office he held till 
1799, when he came to England. For the next twenty-five 
years, Brunei was actively engaged in bringing out new- 
machines of various kinds, for writing and drawing, for 
winding cotton thread, for knitting, for stereotyping 
plates for printing, &c., also in the construction of the 
" block machinery " for the Admiralty, in erecting saw- 
mills for the Government and other useful works, by 
which an immense saving of labour was made. In 1812, 
Brunei made his first experiments in steam navigation on 
the Thames, but his proposals for the construction of 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 253 

steam vessels were not favourably received by tlie govern- 
ment of the day, as being " too chimerical to be seriously 
entertained." In 1824, he brought before the public his 
proposals for the construction of the Thames Tunnel, and 
under the auspices of the Duke of Wellington, a company 
was formed to carry out the scheme. After a long series 
of mishaps and delays the tunnel was completed, and 
opened in March, 1843. Brunei died from the effects of 
paralysis on the 12th December, 1849. He was a fellow 
of the Royal Society, being elected in March, 1814, of 
which body he was a Yice- President in 1832, a member 
of the French Institute and of various other scientific 
societies at home and abroad. 

There is a variety of this medal. It has below the 
head on the obverse the artist's name, j. TAYLOR 
MEDALLIST BIRM M ., and on the reverse below the 
tunnel, the inscription, THAMES TUNNEL 1200 FT. 
LNG. COMMENCED 1824 RECOMMENCED 1835 
COMPLETED 1842. (1-9. MB. ST.) 

COMPLETION OF THE THAMES TUNNEL, 1842. 

2. Obv. Head of Brunei to left, &c., similar to the pre- 
ceding. Below, W. J. TAYLOR F. WASHINGTON . D. 

Rev. View of the interior of the Thames Tunnel ; below, 
THAMES TUNNEL 1842 ; above, river with 
steamboat and sailing-boats. In the field, w. j. 

TAYLOR F. WARRINGTON . D. 

1-65. MB. JE. PL XL 4. 

This medal refers also to Brunei's experiments in steam 
navigation on the Thames, and to the establishment 
through his endeavours of a line of steamers to ply 
between London and Margate. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. L L 



254 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



COMPLETION OF THE THAMES TUNNEL, 1842. 
3. Obv. Head of Brunei to left, &c., similar to No. 1 ; 

below, J. TAYLOR MEDALLIST BIRM^ 

Eev. Longitudinal view of the Thames Tunnel ; above, 
ships. Leg. Above, LONGITUDINAL SEC- 
TION OF THE THAMES TUNNEL FROM 
ROTHERHITHE TO WAPPING 1200 F T 
L 180 000 SUBSCRIBED BY PROPRIETORS 
BY PARLIAMENTARY GRANT L. 270. 000. 
Below, COMMENCED 1824 BROKE IN 
MAY 1827 & JAN 1828 SUSPENDED TILL 
1835 OPENED TO PEDESTRIANS 1842. 

2-45. MB. ST. 

In consequence of a serious irruption of the river into 
the tunnel, in 1828, the works were stopped and the 
tunnel was bricked up for seven years. 



COMPLETION OF THE THAMES TUNNEL, 1842. 

4. Obv. Head of Brunei to left, &c., same as No. 2. 

Eev. Outer Leg. THAMES TUNNEL . FROM RO- 
THERHITHE TO WAPPING 1200 FEET. 
Inner Leg. COMMENCED JANT 1826 PRO- 
GRESSED 600 FEET JANT 1828. 180,000 
SUBSCRIBED BY PROPRIETORS RE- 
COMMENCED 1836 BY PARLIAMENTARY 
GRANT 270,000 AND COMPLETED 1842. 

1-65. MB. M. 

SIR FRANCIS BURDETT, 17701844. 

COLDBATH FIELDS PRISON ENQUIRY, 1797. 

1. Obv. Bust of convict to left in prison dress. Leg. BURDET 
FOR EVER NO BASTILE 

Rev. Man flogging convict, naked and tied to post. 
1-6. MB. Lead. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 255 

Sir Francis Burdett, third son of Sir Robert Burdett, 
born 25th January, 1770, was educated at Westminster 
and Oxford, and entered Parliament in 1796 as member 
for Boroughbridge. He was an ardent liberal and rose 
quickly in public favour by his repeated attacks on the 
government in his efforts to expose the genuine grievances 
of the day. His popularity was further increased by the 
inquiries which he caused to be made into the mis- 
management of the Coldbath Fields Prison, where 
suspected persons were usually detained under the Habeas 
Corpus Suspension Acts, and no distinction made in the 
treatment of these persons and convicted felons. This 
subject is referred to by the above medal. At the general 
election in J802, Burdett was returned for the county of 
Middlesex, but being unseated he was returned in 1807 
by the electors of Westminster, for which borough he 
sat for thirty years. In 1808 and 1809, several abortive 
attempts were made to raise the question of reform, all of 
which were supported by Burdett; and in 1810, having 
published a speech which he made in the House of 
Commons, advocating the release of John Gale Jones, a 
well-known radical orator, who had been imprisoned by 
the House for breach of privilege, he was judged guilty 
by the House of the same offence and confined to the 
Tower, where he remained for several weeks. In 1828, 
he carried a resolution affirming the expediency of con- 
sidering the state of the laws affecting the Roman 
Catholics, and when the Reform Bill came before the 
House, Burdett supported it with his utmost strength. 
When the Conservative reaction took place in 1835, 
Burdett was inclined to support it, and in consequence 
came into conflict with a large section of his constituency 
and resigning his seat,_was, however, soon re-elected. At 



256 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the general election which followed the accession of the 
Queen, Burdett joined the Conservatives and was returned 
for North Wiltshire, which county he represented till his 
death, 23rd January, 1844. 

EIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF THE PEOPLE ADVOCATED, 1810. 

2. Obv. Bust of Burdett to right, wearing frock-coat, &c. 
Leg. SIR FRANCIS BURDETT BART M P . 
FOR WESTMINSTER . MDCCCX. 

Rev. Within radiated circle, THE INTREPID CHAM- 
PION OF FREEDOM, THE ENLIGHTENED 
ADVOCATE OF THE RIGHTS & LIBERTIES 
OF THE PEOPLE. 

1-9. MB. M. ST. 



This and the next medal refer generally to the many 
acts of Burdett in defence of the public liberties ; but the 
immediate cause of their issue was no doubt his defence of 
John Gale Jones, who was imprisoned for raising a dis- 
cussion upon the practice of the House as to the exclusion 
of strangers. 

RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF THE PEOPLE ADVOCATED, 1810. 

8. Obv. Bust of Burdett to left, similar to the preceding. 
Leg. SIR FRANCIS BURDETT. 

Rev. Within palm-wreath, ELECTED M.P. MDCCXCVI. 
Below. MDCCCX. 

1-65. MB. M. PI. XI. 5. 

This medal also commemorates Burdett's first election in 
1796, when he was returned for Boroughbridge in the 
Newcastle interest. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 257 

His COMMITTAL TO THE TOWER, 1810. 

4. Obv. Bust of Burdett to right, wearing frock-coat, &c. ; 

around his shoulders, cloak. Leg. THE DE- 
TERMINED ENEMY OF CORRUPTION & 
THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRIEND OF HIS 
SOVEREIGN 

Rev. Inscription, S? FRANCIS BURDETT BART M P 
COMMITTED TO THE TOWER 6 T . H APRIL. 
1810 BY THE HOUSE OF COMMONS FOR 
FIRMLY AND DISINTERESTEDLY ASSERT- 
ING THE LEGAL RIGHTS OF THE BRI- 
TISH PEOPLE. 

1-6. MB. JR. 

When the Speaker issued a warrant for his arrest, 
Burdett refused to surrender except to superior force. 
His house was surrounded by the soldiery and much fear 
was entertained lest a serious riot would occur. On 
the fourth day of the warrant a forcible entry was made 
into Burdett' s house and he was conveyed to the Tower, 
the whole city being guarded by many thousands of 
soldiers. 

EMANCIPATION OF ROMAN CATHOLICS ADVOCATED, 1828. 

5. Obv. Bust of Burdett to left, &c., same as No. 8. 

Eev. Within laurel -wreath, THE ZEALOUS ADVO- 
CATE OF CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION MAY 

8 1828. 

1-7. MB. ^E. 

The cause of Catholic Emancipation had, for many years 
previous to 1824, been advocated both by Mr. Canning 
and Lord Castlereagh. In that year the question was 
strongly supported by the press, and in March, 1825, its 



2o8 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

importance was so deeply felt by Sir Francis Burdett, that 
he ventured to introduce a Belief Bill, which passed 
the Commons by a majority of 268 to 240, but was 
rejected by the Lords. A slight reaction now took place, 
and when a New Relief Bill was introduced in 1827, it 
was lost in the Commons by a majority of 4, though 
supported by the last effort of Canning's eloquence ; but 
the very same measure was, however, carried on the 
8th May, 1828, by a majority of 6. The King's speech 
of the following year (February, 1829), contained a recom- 
mendation to Parliament to consider the advisability of 
removing the civil disabilities of the Catholics, and in 
consequence, Mr. Peel, on the 5th March, brought for- 
ward the necessary Bill, which after passing through 
Committee was carried by a majority of 178 in the House 
of Commons, and in the House of Lords by a majority 
of 106; and it became a law of the land on the 13th 
April, 1829. 

GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON, 1788 1824. 

MEMOKIAL, 1824. 

1. Obi\ Bust of Byron to left, wearing cloak and shirt with 
deep collar ; below, WILLIAM . B . F . (William 
Binfield). Leg. LORD BYRON. 

^.Inscription, NATUS MDCCLXXXVIII . OBIIT 
MDCCCXXIV. 

1-6. MB. M. PI. XI. 6. 

George Gordon, Lord Byron, the famous poet, was born 
in Holies Street, London, 22nd January, 1788, and died 
at Missolonghi, a town of 2Etolia, Greece, on the 19th 
April, 1824. We do not give any particulars of Byrjn's 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 259 

life, as the chief events of his remarkable career are so 
well known, and this and the following medals are simply 
commemorative and refer generally to his fame as a poet. 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

2. Obv. Head of Byron to left, bare ; below, w. BINFIELD F. 

Leg. LORD BYRON. 

Rev. Harp on clouds within floral wreath. Leg. NATUS 
ABERDEEN M.DCC.LXXXVIII. OBIIT MIS- 
SOLONGHI M.DCCC.XXIV. 

2. MB. M. 

Byron's native place was London and not Aberdeen, 
as stated on this medal. 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

3. Obv. Bust of Byron three-quarters to left, wearing cloak 

and shirt with deep collar. Leg. GEORGE 
GORDON LORD BYRON. MUDIE D. FAULK- 
NER F. 

Rev. Byron as Apollo standing facing, holding lyre, 
which he rests on rock ; in the background 
mountains, clouds, and lightning ; in the exergue, 
BORN JAN . 22 . 1788. In the field, MUDIE D. 

FAULKNER F. 

2. MB. m. 



This medal was struck after Byron's death, though it 
mentions only the date of his birth. 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

4. Obv. Bust of Byron three-quarters to left, wearing coat 
and shirt with deep collar ; on truncation, 
HALLIDAY . F . Leg. GEORGE GORDON BY- 
RON, LORD BYRON. 



260 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

R eVm Soldier in mournful attitude, resting his elbow on 
tomb, the base of which is inscribed BYRON 
NAT . JAN . 22 1788 MORT . APR . 19 1824. 
At side of monument a burning torch reversed. 
Leg. NOMEN FASTI MISCET SUIS GR^ECIA 
MEMOR. In the exergue, MISSOLONGHI. 

1-5. MB. M. 



MEMORIAL, 1824. 

5. Obv. Head of Byron to left, in high relief; behind, 
BYPHN. 

Rev. Bay -tree uninjured by lightning. Leg. A4>0ITON 
AIEI. (Always imperishable.) 

Edge inscribed, F . HIKEPINP . KAI . F . FOP 

eirsirmisiToz . KAGIEPJIZIZ .A.I, 

ZTO0APA . EH , aco X S (Dedication of F. Pick- 
ering and F. Forthington, made by A. J. Stot- 
hard, 1824). 

2-5. MB. JE. 



This medal likens the fame of Byron to the bay-tree, 
which was deemed imperishable and incapable of injury 
by lightning. 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

6. Obv. Head of Byron to left, bare ; below, L . M . (Luigi 
Manfredini.) 

Rev. Funeral urn, ornamented with laurel - wreath 
and inscribed BYPHIM. Leg. MNHMA 
PIOOOY. (A memorial of affection.) 

6. MB. JR. M. 

This and the following pieces are small memorials, and 
form part of a series executed by the artist Manfredini, a 
native of Milan, in Italy. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 261 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

7. Obv. Head of Byron to left, &c., as the preceding. 

Eev. Prometheus naked, seated on rock and holding 
rock ; above, hand with torch. Leg. EFE- 
NE0HTO <J>nZ. (Let there be light.) 

6. MB. M. 

MEMORIAL, 1824. 

8. Ofry. Head of Byron to left, &c., as No. 6. 

Eev. Female figure, turreted, seated to left on globe 
and holding scroll and cornucopias. Leg. DIS 
ALITER VISVM. Below, Ifi. 



6. MB. 



MEMORIAL, 1824. 



9. Obv. Bust of Byron to left, wearing coat and shirt with 
deep collar. Leg. LORD NOEL BYRON. 
FECI . L. M. (Luigi Manfredini.) 

Rev. Inscription across and around field, BYRON THE 
PRIDE OF ENGLAND DECEASED AT 
MISSOLONGHI 17 APRIL 1824. 

45. MB. ^R. 



This piece consists of a medalet in silver surrounded by 
a steel border with loop for suspension. 

CHARLES CALVERT, DIED 1832. 
MEMORIAL, 1832. 

Obv. Bust of Calvert to left, wearing frock-coat. On 
truncation, w . WYON A . R . A . MINT. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. M M 



262 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ret-. Inscription, A TRIBUTE FROM THE ELEC- 
TORS OF SOUTH WARE TO THE MEMORY 
OF CHARLES CALVERT ESQ? THEIR 
FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIVE IN FIVE 
SUCCESSIVE PARLIAMENTS FIRST 
ELECTED 1812 DIED SEPT? 1832. 

1-7. MB. M. 



Charles Calvert, who sat during six parliaments for the 
borough of Southwark, first appeared as a candidate for 
that place in the general election of 1807, was first re- 
turned in 1812, and subsequently in 1818, 1820, and 1826. 
He was defeated at the general election in 1830, but his 
opponent dying before the meeting of parliament, Calvert 
was restored to his seat and again re-chosen in 1831. He 
died Sept. 8th, 1832. 

DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, 1774 1850. 
THE ENGLISH RE-ENTER HANOVER, 1814. 

Obv. Bust of the Duke of Cambridge, three-quarters to 
left, in military dress, Star of the Garter on his 
breast ; on truncation, WEBB . F. Leg. H . R . H. 
DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE. 

Rev. Female figure seated to right with lion at her feet 
and feeding two horses with corn. Leg. THE 
ENGLISH RE-ENTER HANOVER. In the 
exergue, M.DCCCXIV. MUDIE D. BARRE F. 

1-55. MB. ST. Mudie's Medals, No. xxxi. 

This is one of Mudie's series of national medals. Adol- 
phus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, son of George III. 
and Queen Charlotte, born 24 Feb., 1774, was in 1793 
appointed colonel in the Hanoverian army. He served in 
the campaign of 1794 5, and in 1803 was appointed 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 263 

Colonel-in- Chief of the King's German legions, a force in 
British pay, and destined to relieve Hanover then menaced 
by the French armies. The Duke of Cambridge, how- 
ever, soon transferred his command to Count Walmoden, 
and coming to England was charged with the superintend- 
ence of a home district. In 1814, when the French were 
expelled from Hanover, the Duke again took command 
of the electorate, which under the Treaty of Vienna was 
elevated to the rank of a kingdom, the Duke being 
appointed Governor -General in 1816. He continued to 
discharge these important duties till the year 1837 when 
the death of William IV. placed Hanover under the rule 
of the next male heir, the Duke of Cumberland. The 
Duke afterwards took up his residence at Cambridge 
House, Piccadilly, where he died 8 July, 1850. He was 
very popular in this country, and for many years was 
regarded as emphatically the connecting link between the 
throne and the people. 

EARL OF CAMDEN, 17141794. 
APPOINTED LORD CHANCELLOR, 1766. 

1. Obv. Bust of Camden to right in Chancellor's robes. 
Leg. CHARLES LORD CAMDEN CHAN- 
CELLOR OF BRITAIN. T . PINGO . F . 

jfcy. Liberty and Justice standing facing and holding 
their emblems. Leg. LIBERTY EQUITY. In 
the exergue, MDCCLXVI. 

1-55. MB. &. M. PI. XI. 7. 

Charles Pratt, First Earl of Camden, son of Sir John 
Pratt, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, was born in 
1714. Educated at Eton and Cambridge he studied for 



264 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the bar, and was called in 1738. In 1757 he was 
appointed Attorney- General, and four years afterwards 
accepted a seat on the Bench in the Court of Common 
Pleas. His popularity was very great at the time of the 
trial of Wilkes, as he declared that general warrants were 
altogether illegal. In 1765 he was created Baron Camden 
of Camden Place, Kent, and in the following year was 
made Lord Chancellor, which office he resigned after a 
period of four years, being opposed to the principles of 
the government relating to their American policy. His 
judicial career ended with his resignation of the Chancellor- 
ship, but for more than twenty years he took an active 
part in politics, strenuously combating the ill-advised 
American policy of Lord North. He filled the office of 
President of the Council during the Rockingham 
administration in 1782, and also from the following year 
until his death under Pitt. He died on the 13th of April, 
1794. This and the following two medals refer to Cam- 
den's great reputation for uprightness and impartiality as 
a judge. 

APPOINTED LORD CHANCELLOR, 1766. 

2. Obv. Bust of Camden to right, in Chancellor's robes. 

Leg. C. PRATT LORD CAMDEN. i . KIRK . F . 

Eev. Justice seated to left on pile of books, one inscribed 
MAGNA CHARTA, head facing, holding scales and 
staff surmounted by Cap of Liberty. Leg. TRUE 
TO HIS TRUST, i . KIRK . F . In the exergue, 
MDCCLXVI. 

1-35. MB. M. 

APPOINTED LORD CHANCELLOR, 1766. 

3. Obv. Bust of Camden to left, in close-fitting coat with 

straps ; hair long. Leg. CAMDEN THE 
GREAT. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 265 

Jte. Inscription, LONG LIVE LORD CAMDEN 
BRITAIN'S GLORY. 

95. MB. m. 

MEMORIAL, 1773. 

4. Obv. Bust of Camden to right, in Chancellor's robes : on 

either side, KIRK FEC. 

Rev. Inscription, LORD CAMDEN 1773. 

This small medal is one of a series of thirteen, which 
were given away with as many numbers of a magazine 
called The Sentimental published in the years 1773 
1775. Some were struck in silver and given as prizes. 

MEMORIAL, 1794. 

5. Obv. Bust of Camden to right, mantle over shoulders, 

head bare. 

Rev. Plain. 
1-8. MB. Lead. 

This is an impression from an unfinished die. It is 
unsigned, but it may be a work of the elder Mossop. 

MARQUIS OF CAMDEN, 1759 1840. 
OPENING OF THE SENATE HOUSE AT CAMBRIDGE, 1835. 

Obv. Bust of Camden to left, wearing robes, collar, and 
star of the Garter. Leg. JOAN : JEFFREYS 
MARCH : CAMDEN : NOBILISS : AC AD : 
CANTAB : CANCELL : 1835. 

jRet?. View of the interior of the Senate House at Cam- 
bridge ; above, angel with wreath ; below, 
DEUM TIMETO : REGEM HONORATO : 
VIRTUTEM COLITO : DISCIPLINE BONIS 
OPERAM DATO. 

1-7. MB. M. 



266 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

John Jeffreys, First Marquis of Camden, the eldest son 
of Charles, First Earl of Camden (see preceding medal], 
born llth February, 1 759, was educated at Cambridge, and 
on his coming of age was returned to Parliament as one 
of the members for Bath. This was the beginning of a 
long and successful political career in the course of which 
he filled various high offices a Lord Commissioner of the 
Admiralty in 1783, one of the Lords of the Treasury in 
1789, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1795 1798, Secretary 
for the Colonies in 1804, President of the Council 1806 
1812, and a Teller of the Exchequer for over sixty years. 
He succeeded his father in the peerage in April, 1794, 
and in September, 1812, he was created Marquis of Cam- 
den. On the 14th August, 1799, he was elected a Knight 
of the Garter, and Chancellor for the University of Cam- 
bridge in 1884, and in the following year the new Senate 
House was opened, an event which occasioned the striking 
of the above medal. He died on the 8th October, 1840. 

GEORGE CANNING, 17701827. 
FREE TRADE WITH INDIA ADVOCATED, 1812. 

1. Olv. Inscription, THE RIGHT HON. GEO E CAN- 
NING. Above and below, rose and oak branches. 

Rev. Inscription, A FREE TRADE TO INDIA THE 
ZEALOUS OPPOSER OF ORIENTAL MO- 
NOPOLY. Above and below, oak and laurel 
branches. 

1-8. MB. ST. 

George Canning, the distinguished statesman and orator, 
born in London llth April, 1770, was educated at Eton and 
Oxford, and was entered at Lincoln's Inn. At Burke' s 
suggestion Canning relinquished the bar, and devoting 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 267 

himself to politics, was returned as member for Newport, 
in the Isle of Wight, in 1793, under the banner of Pitt. 
In 1796, he was appointed an Under-Secretary of State, 
and was returned for the Treasury borough of Wendover. 
It was, however, not before 1798 that he came promi- 
nently into public notice as an orator and statesman, 
giving valuable assistance to the ministry in the debates 
on the abolition of Slave Trade, the Habeas Corpus Sus- 
pension Act, the Union with Ireland, and other important 
questions. In 1801, when Pitt resigned office, Canning 
joined the Opposition, and upon Pitt again becoming 
premier in 1804, he was rewarded with the office of 
Treasurer ship of the Navy. In 1807 he was appointed 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, under the Portland Ministry, 
and in 1812 he strongly supported Catholic Emancipa- 
tion. In the same year he was elected member for Liver- 
pool, for which place he was returned three successive 
times, and it was at this period that he advocated free 
trade with India as commemorated by the above medal. 
He went to Lisbon as Ambassador in 1814, and returning 
in 1816, he was made President of the Board of Control, 
and supported the Liverpool Ministry in all their repressive 
measures known as the Six Acts, which were considered 
by some as unnecessarily severe. Nominated Governor- 
General of India in 1822, he was on the eve of departure 
from England when the suicide of the Marquis of London- 
derry put him at the head of Foreign Affairs, and during 
his term of office he rendered great and valuable service to 
the country by the remarkable tact and diplomacy dis- 
played in his foreign policy. In February, 1827, an 
attack of paralysis having compelled the Earl of Liverpool 
to resign, Canning was called upon to form a new admin- 
istration. His health, however, gave way under the cares 



268 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

of office, and he died on the 8th August of the same year. 
The above and the following medal refer to the attempt 
made in 1812 to prevent the renewal of the Charter of the 
East India Company, which expired on the 24th May of 
that year, on the ground that the exclusive privileges 
granted to that Company were detrimental to the com- 
mercial welfare and general interests of the country at 
large. In spite of Canning's opposition the Charter of the 
Company was renewed. 



FREE TRADE WITH INDIA ADVOCATED, 1812. 

2. Ok'. Within laurel-wreath, CANNING FOR EVER. 

Eev. Inscription in field, FREE TRADE TO INDIA. 
Around, THE ZEALOUS OPPOSER OF 
ORIENTAL MONOPOLY. 

1-6. MB. ST. 

THE GOVERNOR-GENERALSHIP OF INDIA ABANDONED, 1822. 

3. Obi-. Head of Canning to left ; on neck, BAIN. F. 

Eev. Inscription, INDI.E IMPERIO DESTINATUM, 
VOTA BRITANNORUM RETINENT. SEPT. 
MDCCCXXII. 

1-95. MB. M. Lead (obv. proof). PL XL 8. 

In 1822, Canning accepted the Governor- Generalship 
of India, but just before his departure Lord Castlereagh, 
then Marquis of Londonderry, committed suicide, and both 
Lord Liverpool and the Duke of Wellington urged upon 
George IV. the necessity of giving the post of Minister of 
Foreign Affairs to Canning. In 1820 Canning having 
declined to take any part in the proceedings against 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 269 

Queen Caroline, had resigned the Presidency of the Board 
of Control, and the King on that account refused to receive 
him in 1821, when Lord Liverpool wished to bring him 
back into office. The King gave way on the present occa- 
sion and Canning abandoned the Indian appointment for 
that in the Ministry. At the same time he exchanged 
his seat at Liverpool for Harwich. 

THE STOTHAKD MEDAL, 1826. 

4. Obv. Head of Canning to left : on neck, A. j. STOTHAED. 
F. ; below, F. L. CHANTEEY B.A.D. Leg. CAN- 
NING. 

Rev. The Muse, Cleio, seated on low column, holding 
stilus in right hand, and in left scroll inscribed, 
TO GREAT MEN; below, on pedestal, PUB. 

BY PARKER, LONDON. AlOUnd, T. STOTHARD R A 
D MDCCCXXVI. A J STOTHARD F. 

2-45. MB. E. 

This is one of a series of medals of illustrious men issued 
in 1826 by A. J. Stothard. 



THE NEW ADMINISTRATION, 1827. 

5. Obv. Bust of Canning to left ; drapery over shoulders. 
Leg. R T . HON BLE . GEORGE CANNING 
BORN 1771. 

Rev Inscription, THE CABINET MINISTERS. 
PEERS L D . LYNDHURST E. OF HARROW- 
BY DUKE OF PORTLAND LORD BEXLEY 
VISCOUNT DUDLEY VISCOUNT GODERICH. 
COMMONERS R T . HON. W. STURGES 
BOURNE R T . HON. W. HUSKISSON R T . 
HON. C. W. WYNN VIS. PALMERSTON R T . 
HON. G. CANNING. APRIL, 1827. 

1-8. MB. m. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. N N 



270 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This medal bears the names of the administration 
formed by Canning in 1827. 

MEMORIAL, 1827. 

6. Ok'. Bust of Canning to left ; drapery over shoulders. 

Leg. R 1 . HON BLE . GEORGE CANNING 
BORN 1771. 

Jfcv. Inscription, DIED AT CHISWICK THE SEAT 
OF THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE AUGUST 

THE 8 TH . 1827. 

1-8. MB. m. 

Overwhelmed with a combination of difficulties and 
suffering from bodily sickness, Canning, on Parliament 
being prorogued 2nd July, 1827, went for change of air 
on a visit to the Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick. He 
rapidly got worse and died on the 8th August, in the same 
room in which, twenty-one years before, his early friend, 
Charles Fox, had expired. 

MEMORIAL, 1827. 

7. Obv. Bust of Canning to right, wearing frock-coat, &c. ; 

on truncation H. (T. Halliday). Leg. R T . HON. 
GEORGE CANNING M.P. 

Rev. Sepulchral monument, on which Britannia weeping 
rests her arm, and holds in right hand a scroll 
inscribed GREEKS CATHOLICKS. The monu- 
ment is inscribed, CANNING DIED AUG. 8. 
1827 AGED 56. On right is a cypress-tree. 
Leg. THE FRIEND OF CIVIL & RELIGIOUS 
FREEDOM. 

1-5. MB. M. 

The inscription on the scroll on the reverse, and also 
the legend refer to two popular movements advocated by 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 271 

Canning just before his death. One was the obtaining of 
practical independence for Greece by the Treaty of 
London, 27th July, 1827 ; the other his determined efforts 
to relieve Roman Catholics from the disabilities imposed 
upon them, and which resulted in the passing of the 
Roman Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829. (See p. 257.) 

MEMOEIAL, 1827. 

8. Obv. Head of Canning to left ; below, GALLE F. Leg. 
GEORGE CANNING. 

Rev. Inscription in centre, LIBERT& CIVILE ET RE- 
LIGIEUSE DANS L'UNIVERS. 1827. Around, 
A LA CONCORDE DES PEUPLES. 

2. MB. N. M. 

This medal by Andre Galle, the well-known French 
medallist, commemorates the same events as the previous 
medal. It was probably not made till after Canning's 
death. 

MEMORIAL, 1827. 

9 Obv. Head of Canning to left. Leg. R T . HON BLE . 
GEORGE CANNING. PREMIER. T. w. IN- 
GRAM. BIRM N . 

R ev . Sepulchral monument, on which Angel places laurel 
garland, and near which kneel a woman and a 
child weeping, holding shield of Great Britain. 
Leg. FOR LIBERAL & ENLIGHTEN'D 
POLICY SURPASS'D BY NONE. In the 
exergue, DIED . AUG. 8. 1827 AGED . 57. 

1-45. MB. M. 

Canning's political views were similar to those of the 
second Pitt, modified by considerations, the outcome of the 



272 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

French revolution. He upheld strongly the maintenance 
of the royal prerogative, and at the same time advocated 
the repeal of the Roman Catholic disabilities, and the 
gradual removal of restrictions upon trade and commerce. 
Canning did not, however, share his master's views on 
the subject of parliamentary reform, and in consequence 
opposed it on several occasions, being convinced that the 
old system was capable of being administered in a 
thoroughly popular manner, and that any change, so soon 
after the effects caused by the French revolution, would 
be hazardous. 

MEMOKIAL, 1827. 

10. Obv. Bust of Canning to left, in frock-coat, &c. Leg. 

GEORGE CANNING. 

^.Inscription, N A LONDRES EN 1771. MORT 
A CHISWICK EN 1827. 

1-6. MB. M. 

This is probably one of the series of medals of illus- 
trious men issued by Jean Henri Simon, a Belgian 
medallist. 

MEMORIAL, 1827. 

11. Obv. Bust of Canning to left, in frock-coat, &c. Leg. 

R T . HON. GEORGE CANNING. M.P. 

Rev. Funeral urn on base, inscribed, BORN 1771 
DIED AUG 8 1827; over all hangs a willow- 
tree. Leg. THE FRIEND OF RATIONAL 
FREEDOM *. 

95. MB. m. 

This and the following three pieces were struck as cheap 
memorials of Canning for sale in the streets. They were 
all made by John Ingram, a die engraver of Birmingham. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 273 

MEMOKIAL, 1827. 
12. Obv. Bust of Canning to left, &c., same as the preceding. 

Rev. Funeral urn on base, &c., similar to the preceding, 
but form of urn varied. 



95. MB. JE. 



MEMORIAL, 1827. 



13. Obv. Head of Canning to left, bare. Leg. R T . HON BLE . 
GEO E . CANNING . PREMIER. INGRAM. BIBM. 

Rev. Urn veiled on base inscribed CANNING. Leg. 
LIY'D BELOVED & DIED LAMENTED. In 
the exergue, DIED . AUG T . 8 . 1827 ^E T . 57. 

95. MB. M. 



MEMORIAL, 1827. 

14. Obv. Bust of Canning to right in frock-coat. Leg. R T . 
HON. GEORGE CANNING. M.P. 

BOT. Within oak-wreath, BORN 1770 DIED AUG. 8 . 
1827. Leg. THE FRIEND OF CIVIL & RE- 
LIGIOUS LIBERTY. 

95. MB. 2B. 



JOHN CAPEL. 
THE QUEENBOROUGH ELECTION, 1826. 

Obv. Head of Capel to left ; below, s. CLINT. F. Leg. 
JOHN CAPEL ESQ. M.P. FOR QUEEN- 
BOROUGH ^> JUNE 10 H . 1826. $> 

Eev. Within laurel-wreath, Samuel Steele ONE OF THE 
144 INDEPENDENT FREEMEN WHO VOTED 
FOR JOHN CAPEL ESQ R . 

1-75. MB. JR. 



274 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This medal was apparently struck by order of Capel for 
presentation to those who had supported him on the 10th 
June. The election caused but little public interest, the 
number of voters being under 200 ; Capel polled 144 votes. 



WILLIAM CAREY, 17611834. 
JUBILEE OF THE BAPTIST MISSION, 1842. 

1. Obv. Bust of Carey facing, wearing frock-coat with high 
collar, &c. Leg. WILLIAM CAREY. DAVIS 

BIEM. 

^.Inscription in centre, BAPTIST MISSION 
FORMED OCT E . 2 ND , 1792 COMMENCED IN 
E. INDIES 1793. W. INDIES 1813. W. 
AFRICA 1840. STATIONS 157. MISSION- 
ARIES 71. TEACHERS & NATIVE PREACH- 
ERS 127. MEMBERS UPWARDS OF 30,000. 
SCHOLARS ABOUT 19,000. SCRIPTURES 
TRANSLATED INTO 40 LANGUAGES & 
DIALECTS. COPIES ISSUED IN THE YEAR 
1841 . 85,000. SLAVERY ABOLISHED AUG T . 
1 ST . 1838. DAVIS . BIBM. Around, EXPECT 
GREAT THINGS FROM GOD. ATTEMPT 
GREAT THINGS FOR GOD. 

1-7. MB. M. PI. XI. 9. 



William Carey, the eminent Oriental scholar and 
Baptist Missionary, was born at Paulerspury, in North- 
amptonshire, in 1761. In early life he was apprenticed 
to a shoemaker, and in 1786 was chosen preacher of the 
Baptist congregation at Moulton. In 1792, an association 
of ministers settled at Kettering formed themselves into 
a Baptist Missionary Society, and selected Carey as their 
first agent. India was the field chosen for his labours, 
and in 1793 he left England, arriving early in the 
following year in Bengal. Having a family to support he 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 275 

could not devote all his time to his missionary duties, and 
so took charge of an indigo factory near Malda. In 1795, 
he issued the first Bible in the Bengalee language, and 
some years later he removed to the Danish settlement in 
Serampore, where he set up a large school, established a 
printing press, and published a number of religious and 
philological works in the native language. In 1801, 
Carey was appointed by the Marquis of Wellesley, 
Professor of Sanskrit, Bengalee, &c., at the newly- 
founded college of Fort William, and for many years he 
was occupied with the duties of that office and in 
promoting the society of which he was a founder, and 
under the auspices of which he issued a large number of 
grammars, dictionaries, philological and religious works 
in the various Indian languages. He also superintended 
numerous translations of the Bible. After being weakened 
by many attacks of fever, he was attacked with apoplexy 
in 1833, and died in the following year on the 9th June. 
This medal was struck in 1842, on the celebration of the 
Jubilee of the foundation of the Baptist Mission. 

JUBILEE OF THE BAPTIST MISSION, 1842. 

2. Obv. Within five medallions arranged around open radiate 
Bible the busts of CAREY, FULLER, PEARCE, 
RYLAND, and SUTCLIFF. Around, the in- 
scription, NOT BY MIGHT, NOT BY POWER, 
BUT BY MY SPIRIT, SAITH THE LORD. 
ZECH. c. 4, v. 6. 

Rev. View of the facade of the house at Kettering ; below, 
DAVIS BIKM.' Leg. BAPTIST MISSION JUBI- 
LEE 1842. In the exergue, THE HOUSE AT 
KETTERING IN WHICH THE BAPTIST 
MISSIONARY SOCIETY WAS FORMED 
OCT. 2 ND 1792. 
1-5. MB. M. 



276 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Those who chiefly supported Carey in his project of the 
Baptist Mission were Andrew Fuller, of Kettering ; 
Samuel Pearce, the zealous minister of the Cornish Street 
Chapel, Birmingham ; John Ryland, Jun., of North- 
ampton ; and John Sutcliff, of Orney. 

NICHOLAS CARLISLE, 17711847. 
BIRTHDAY MEMORIAL, 1842. 

Obv. Bust of Carlisle to right, wearing Doctor's robes. 
Rev. Inscription, NICHOLAS CARLISLE ^ETAT 71. 
2. MB. JE. Lead. PI. XL 10. 

Nicholas Carlisle, antiquary, born at York in 1771, 
entered the Naval Service of the East India Co., but 
left it early, as in 1806 he became a candidate for the 
office of Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, which he 
obtained early in the next year. In 1812, he became 
an Assistant Librarian of the Royal Library, and accom- 
panied that collection to the British Museum, where he 
attended two days in the week. He was the author of 
several topographical dictionaries of England, Ireland, 
Wales and Scotland, of an historical account of Charitable 
Commissioners, of Foreign Orders of Knighthood, &c. He 
died at Margate, 27th August, 1847. The above medal 
was struck to commemorate his seventy-first birthday. 

THOMAS CARLYLE, 17951881. 
BIRTHDAY MEMORIAL, 1875. 

1. Obv. Bust of Carlyle to left, wearing frock-coat, &c. ; 
on truncation, BOEHM. Leg. THOMAS CAR- 
LYLE. G. MORGAN, SC. 

^.Inscription, IN COMMEMORATION . DECEM- 
BER 4 . 1875. 

2-2. MB. Al. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 277 

Thomas Carlyle, the well-known essayist and historian, 
was born on the 4th December, 1795, at Ecclefechan, in 
Annandale, and died at Chelsea on the 4th February, 
1881. His death being so recent, and the chief events of 
his life being so well known, it is not necessary in this 
instance to enter into any details. This medal was struck 
under the direction of the subscribers to the Carlyle 
Birthday Memorial Fund on his attaining his eightieth 
year. 

MEMOKIAL, 1875 ? 

2. Obv. Bust of Carlyle to left, in cloak and wide-brimmed 
hat. Leg' THOMAS CARLYLE. 

No reverse. 
4-4. MB. M. 

This medal is the work of Professor A. Legros. It is 
cast after the manner of Italian medals of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. 

LIEUT. -COLONEL JOHN CARRICK. 
BETHNAL GREEN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY DISEMBODIED, 1814. 

Olv. Britannia standing facing, on dragon, and looking 
up at olive-branch which she holds in her left 
hand ; her right is placed on a low column, 
against which rests her shield. Leg. ENG- 
LAND'S PERSEVERANCE DETHRONED 
BUONAPARTE, p. WYON . s : 

Rev. Inscription around and inside oak-wreath, L T . COL 
CARRICK . BETHNAL GREEN VOLUN- 
TEER INFANTRY . ENROLLED 13 TH AUG. 
1803, AND DISEMBODEID AT THE GENE- 
RAL PEACE OF EUROPE, 24 TH . JUNE, 1814. 

1-95. MB. JR. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. O O 



278 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

In consequence of the cessation of hostilities with 
France by the Treaty of Paris in 1814, all the Volunteer 
Corps which had been formed throughout the country for 
its defence, except the Bank Corps, were ordered to be 
disbanded. This general order took effect on the 24th 
June of the same year. Lieut. -Colonel Carrick, who had 
been appointed to the chief command of the Bethnal 
Green Volunteer Infantry upon its formation in 1803, 
retained the post during the entire existence of that 
corps ; and upon its being disembodied in 1814, ordered 
the above medal to be struck and to be presented to each 
member of the regiment. 

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM PARKER CARROL. 
Died 1842. 

VICTORY AT PENAFLOR, 1809. 

Obv. Head of Carrol to left. Leg. MAJ. GEN. SIR 
W. P. CARROL, K r . C.B. &c. T. i. WELLS . p. 

Hev. Mars walking to right, armed with sword and shield. 
Leg. PENAFLOR 1809. In the exergue, T. i. 

WELLS . F. 

1-6. MB. M. PI. XL 11. 

Sir William Parker Carrol entered the army as a volun- 
teer in 1794, served in the expeditions against Holland and 
Buenos Ayres, and throughout the Peninsular War, being 
present at twenty-eight battles. He was appointed a 
Lieut. -Colonel in the British Army in 1811, and Lieut.- 
General in 1841 and a Major-Gen eral in the Spanish 
Army in 1814. He was created a Knight Bachelor in 
1815, and Knight Commander of Hanover in 1832. He 
died in active service in 1842. 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 279 

We have been unable to trace the particular event to 
which this medal refers. Penaflor is a small place not 
far from Saragoza, which was the principal scene of the war 
in 1808 and 1809. Carrol was probably in command of 
a Spanish contingent. 

ROBERT OTWAY CAVE. 
LEICESTER ELECTION, 1826. 

Obv. Inscription, ROBERT OTWAY CAVE, ESQ R . 
Above, laurel-branches ; below, oak-branches and 

I. OTTLEY MEDALLIST. 

Rev. Inscription, LEICESTER ELECTION 1826 THE 
TRUE BLUE INTEREST FOR EVER. In 
centre, two branches of laurel. 

1-8. MB. ST. 

This medal commemorates the severe contest at Leicester, 
which lasted ten days, at the general election of 1826. 
On the 23rd June, the last day of the contest, Sir Charles 
Hastings and Robert Otway Cave, the ministerial candi- 
dates, headed the poll. 

THOMAS CHALMERS, D.D., 17801847. 

FIEST ASSEMBLY OF THE FREE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF 
SCOTLAND, 18 MAY, 1843. 

Obv. Bust of Chalmers facing, in academical robes. Leg. 
THOMAS CHALMERS D.D. LL.D. MODE- 
RATOR OF THE FIRST ASSEMBLY OF 
THE FREE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF 
SCOTLAND. 

Rev. The burning bush; above, on scroll, NEC TAMEN 
CONSUMEBATUR. Leg, IN COMMEMORA- 



280 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

TION OF THE FIRST ASSEMBLY OF THE 
FEEE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SCOT- 
LAND -<>. HELD AT EDINBURGH 18 MAY 

1843. J. TAYLOR MEDALLIST BIRM M . 

1-7. MB. M. PL XI. 12. 

Thomas Chalmers, theologian and philanthropist, born 
at Anstruther, Fifeshire, 17th March, 1780, was educated 
at St. Andrews, turned his attention chiefly to mathematics, 
natural philosophy and theology, and at the early age of 
nineteen, being licensed as preacher, was ordained minister 
of the parish of Kilmeny, in Fife. Having to prepare an 
article on Christianity for Brewster's Edinburgh Ency- 
clopaedia, he commenced an extensive study of the 
evidences, in the course of which he became firmly con- 
vinced of the entire truth of the Bible. In 1815, he was 
translated to the Tron Church and parish in Glasgow, 
and finding his parishioners most ignorant of the first 
tenets of Christianity, he laboured hard to bring about a 
better state of things by establishing schools and classes, 
and dividing the parish into small districts. In 1823, he 
accepted the chair of Moral Philosophy at St. Andrews, 
and five years later was transferred to that of Theology at 
Edinburgh. About this time he was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society of London, a corresponding member of 
the French Institute, and the University of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degree of D.C.L. Ten years later 
Chalmers took a leading part in what is commonly called 
" the non-intrusion controversy," or the right of the 
State to legislate in certain matters relating to the Church. 
The parties were divided into two sections called the 
" Moderates " and the " Evangelicals." Chalmers was of 
the latter, and when the courts of law decided in the 
" Auchterarder case " against the Veto law, a separation 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 281 

took place, and those of the Evangelical party, to the 
number of 470 ministers, threw up their benefices and 
established the " Free Church." The great separation 
occurred on the 18th May, 1843, and Chalmers was 
elected first Moderator of the Free Protesting Church of 
Scotland. This step of Chalmers was prompted by the 
conviction, that under the fetters of the civil courts the 
Church could never grapple effectually with the great 
work of reclaiming and elevating the whole population of 
the country. In his new capacity Chalmers adopted in 
Edinburgh the scheme which he had so successfully 
carried out in Glasgow, and it became a great success 
before his death, which took place on the 30th May, 1847. 

SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS, 1725 1796. 

SOMEKSET HOUSE REBUILT, 1781. 

Obv, Head of Chambers to right ; on neck, B. WYON ; 
below, AFTER WESTMACOTT. Leg. CHAMBERS 
17251796. 

Rev. View of the facade of Somerset House. Below, 
B. WYON. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781. SIR. 

WILLIAM CHAMBERS R.A. ARCHITECT. On edge, 

ART-UNION OF LONDON, 1857. 
2-15. MB. M. PL XI. 13. 

This is an Art-Union medal executed by Benjamin 
"Wyon. 

Sir William Chambers, the distinguished architect, was 
born at Stockholm of English parents in 1725, came to 
England to be educated, and being intended for a com- 
mercial life, went to the East Indies. Having developed 
at an early period a taste for architecture, he abandoned 
his commercial pursuits and went to Italy to study the 



282 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

masterpieces of architecture in that country. Soon after 
his return to England he was selected as instructor in the 
study of architecture to the Prince of Wales, afterwards 
George III., and the royal pupil became so much attached 
to his instructor as to appoint him subsequently his chief 
architect. When the Royal Academy was established in 
London, Chambers was very instrumental in its formation 
and was appointed treasurer. His best work as an 
architect is Somerset House, which was finished in 1781, 
and the erection of which is commemorated by the above 
medal. Chambers died on the 8th March, 1796. 

SIR FRANCIS CHANTREY, 17821841. 

MEDAL BY BAIN, 1825. 
1. Obv. Head of Chantrey to left ; on neck, BAIN. F. 

Bw. Inscription, F. CHANTREY. SCULPTOR 
MDCCCXXV. 

1-95. MB. M. 

Sir Francis Chantrey, the eminent sculptor, born 7th 
April, 1782, at the village of Norton, in Derbyshire, of 
humble parents, was apprenticed to a carver and frame- 
maker, and evincing great taste for painting came under 
the notice of John Raphael Smith, a portrait painter, who 
gave him some valuable instruction. In 1802, he came 
to London, and being eater ed as a student at the Royal 
Academy, exhibited his first portrait in oil at the 
exhibition of 1804. In the following year he turned his 
attention to the more congenial pursuit of sculpture, in 
which he was most successful, receiving in a short time 
numerous orders. In 1817, Chantrey was elected an 



ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS FROM 1760. 283 

A.R.A., and an R.A. in 1818, and in 1835 received the 
honour of knighthood, but declined a baronetcy. He was 
an honorary member of many foreign academies, a D.C.L. 
of Oxford, and M.A. of Cambridge, &c. He died at his 
residence in Pimlico, 25th November, 1841. This medal 
was presented by the artist Bain to the British Museum. 

MEMORIAL, 1843. 
2. Obv. Head of Chantrey to right. 

Rev. Statue of Watt ; he is seated in a chair, and holds 
compasses in right hand and scroll in left. 

2-15. MB. ST. PL XL 14. 

This medal, probably also by Bain, is said to have been 
made in 1843. The statue of Watt is a copy of the one 
made by Chantrey and placed in Westminster Abbey. 

EARL OF CHARLEMONT, 1728 1799. 
THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY FOUNDED, 1786. 

1. Obv. Bust of the Earl of Charlemont to left, wearing coat 
with epaulettes, ribbon and star of the Order 
of St. Patrick ; on truncation, MOSSOP. Leg. 
IACOBVS . COMES . DE CHARLEMONT . 
PR^ES. 

Rev. Hibernia seated to left on books, holding her shield 
with right hand and staff surmounted by cap in 
left; behind, various scientific implements, &c., 
and before her, in the distance, ruins ; below, 
MOSSOP. F. Leg. VETERES REVOCAVIT 
ARTES. In the exergue, ACAD . REG . HIB . 
INST . JAN. 28 MDCCLXXXVI. 

2-05. MB. M. PI. XL 15. 



284 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

James Caulfield, 4th Viscount and 1st Earl of Charle- 
mont, born at Dublin, 18th August, 1728, was privately 
educated and spent several years in Holland, Germany, 
Italy, Greece and Asia Minor, studying art and 
antiquities. In 1763, in consequence of important 
services in quelling an insurrection in Ulster, he was 
raised to the earldom of Charlemont. In 1764, he 
visited London and became acquainted with Johnson, 
Goldsmith, Reynolds and Hogarth, and was chosen 
chairman of the committee of the Dilettanti Society. 
In 1778, he took the command of the armed association 
named the Irish Volunteers, who embodied themselves 
during the American War for the defence of the country, 
and who in 1779 numbered 42,000. To Lord Charlemont's 
love of letters, Ireland owes the establishment of the 
Royal Irish Academy, which was incorporated by Royal 
Charter in 1786, and of which he acted as President till 
his death on the 4th August, 1799. Lord Charlemont 
was a Knight of St. Patrick. 

MEMORIAL, 1820 ? 

2. Obv. Head of the Earl of Charlemont to left. 
Rev. Plain. 
1-6. MB. ST. 

This is a model for a medal executed by the medallist 
William Mossop, Jun., about seven years before his 
death, which occurred in 1827. Mossop commenced a 
series of medals of distinguished Irish characters, of 
which he only produced six pieces, the above being one 
of them. 

H. A. GRUEBER. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 



The Zeitsclirift fur Numismatik, Band XVI. Parts I. II., con- 
tain the following articles : 

1. A. v. Sallet. Acquisitions of the Berlin coin cabinet, April, 
1887, to April, 1888. 

The Royal Collection has been increased during the year by 
99 Greek, 8 Roman, 5 Oriental, and 658 Mediaeval and Modern 
coins. 

Among the Greek may be mentioned a unique tetradrachm 
of Samothrace, Obv. Head of Pallas, Eev. ZAMO, seated 
Kybele, magistrate's name MHTPflNA [KTOC] circ. B.C. 300 ; 
a didrachm of Damastium of the usual types, but of remarkably 
fine style ; an electrum coin of Ininthimeus, King of Bosporus, 
A.D. 235 239 ; a rare silver stater of Heraclea in Bithynia, 
circ. B.C. 302 281, similar to Head, Hist. Num., p. 442; a 
hitherto unknown silver stater of Stratonicea in Caria, Obv. 
Head of Zeus, Eev. ZTPATONIKEftN, Hekate or Artemis 
standing, wearing modius, surmounted by crescent and holding 
patera and torch, magistrate's name MEAANOIOZ, second 
cent. B.C. ; an inscribed silver stater of Camirus in Rhodes ; 
a bronze coin of Mostene in Lydia, of imperial times, Obv. 
0EA PUMH, Rev. MOCTHNttN AYAHN, tripod; a 
small bronze coin of late style attributed to Etenna in Pamphylia, 
under the name Ketenna, Obv. Head of Artemis, Rev. KET, club, 
found in Pamphylia ; a small bronze coin, perhaps of Iconium, 
Obv. Head of Zeus, Rev. Lion, Inscr. KO, suggesting the possible 
occurrence of the form Koviov in addition to the ordinary form 
'I/cdi/ioi> ; a very rare coin of Dioclea in Phrygia, Obv. Bust of 
Elagabalus, Rev. AIOKA6ANHN MOZ6ANHN, Demeter 
standing (cf. Head, Hist. Num., p. 562). 

The Berlin Museum has also been fortunate enough to acquire 
an important selection of Indo-Bactrian silver staters, evidently 
from the same find as those recently purchased by the British 
Museum, which have been already described in these pages by 
Professor Gardner (Num. Chron., 1881, p. 181 sqq.). The 
most important among the specimens which have found their 
way to Berlin is a stater bearing the two names of Archebius 
and Philoxenus, the former in Greek, the latter in the Arian Pali 
character, BAZIAEHZ ANIKHTOY APXEBIOY, and 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. P P 



286 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa (= BAZIAEQZ ANI- 
KHTOY 0IAOZENOY). This joint issue by Archebius 
and Philoxenus proves that these two kings reigned at the same 
time and in the same district. The inference is that they were 
brothers. 

A stater of King Diomedes, of whom only small coins were 
known before the present find, is also worthy of mention. Dr. 
Von Sallet concludes his report with a description of some in- 
teresting Renaissance medals, of which he also gives two auto- 
type plates. 

2. F. Kupido. On a Find of Mediaeval Coins at Kakwitz, in 
Southern Moravia, comprising coins of the Dukes of Olmiitz, 
Briinn, Znaim, and Jamnitz, between A.D. 1055 and 1130. 

3. Rhousopoulos. A Thessalian bronze coin of the fourth 
cent. B.C., bearing the inscription PET0AAHN retrograde. 
Obv. Head of Zeus, Her. Forepart of horse springing from rock. 

The name of this people has been recently discovered in a 
Thessalian inscription (Miiiheilungen des deutschen arch. Inst. 
in At/ten. Bd. VII. 64, 67 ; cf. Bd. VIII. 103, 120), where it 
occurs in the forms HertfaAow and neT0aAeioi>, the former 
being the Thessaiian gen. plur., and the latter the adjective. 
Professor Rhousopoulos doubts whether there was ever a town 
of Petthalia. and thinks it more probable that the Petthali, like 
many other tribes in Northern Greece, had no town called after 
them, and that they were known only by their ethnic. 

4. E. Bahrfeldt. Supplement to Dr. Menadier's paper on Finds 
of German Mediaeval Coins (Zeit.f. Num. XV. p. 97 sqq.). 

5. H. Dannenberg. On the Numismatics of Pomerania and 
Mecklenburg, with an autotype plate. 

6. E, Bahrfeldt. Contributions to the mediaeval numismatics 
of Silesia. 

7. R. Bergau. On sixteenth cent, medals, by Wenzel Jam- 
nitzer, a famous goldsmith of Nuremberg. 

B. V. HEAD. 

Revue Numismatique, 1888. Part II. 

1. E. Drouin. Chronology and Numismatics of the Indo- 
Scythians (conclusion). 

M. Drouin's articles on the " Chronologie et Numismatique 
des Rois Indo-Scythes " in the last two numbers of the Revue 
Numisniatigue form an excellent resume, such as was much 
needed, of all that we can be said to know of the history of a 
deeply interesting period. After briefly sketching the progress 
of Indo-Scythic numismatics since the first notice of the coins 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 287 

by Major Tod in the year 1827, M. Drouin proceeds to sum- 
marize the historical results which have been obtained from a 
study of all the available sources of information the works of 
Greek topographers, Chinese and Arab historians, inscriptions, 
and coins. The greater portion of M. Drouin's work is, how- 
ever, naturally devoted to a consideration of the actual coins 
of the six known kings, who are included under the term Indo- 
Scythic, beginning with Kadphises I., who conquered Hermaeus, 
the last Greek king of Bactria, about the year 25 B.C., and 
ending with Vasudeva or Bazodeo, who, as is known from in- 
scriptions, was reigning in the year 176 A.D. These kings fall 
naturally into two well-defined groups, Kadphises I., Kadaphes, 
and Kadphises II., constituting the first, and Kanishka, Huvishkti, 
and Vasudeva, known collectively under the name Turushkas, 
the second. To these latter M. Drouin devotes the whole of 
his second article, and rightly, since they suggest many pro- 
blems of the highest interest, and have been quite recently the 
subject of much controversy. It is manifestly impossible for a 
writer to deal with this period without taking into full con- 
sideration the ingenious theory of Dr. Aurel Stein, who sees in 
the modified form of the Greek P ( t>), which first occurs on the 
coins of Knnishka, a representation of the Persian sound sh 
a theory which leads him to identify most of the names occur- 
ring on these coins as being those of Zoroastrian deities After 
a full and impartial discussion of Dr. Stein's theory, M. Drouin 
decides absolutely in its favour, accepting also most, but not all, 
of Dr. Stem's identifications. 

In Professor Gardner's catalogue will be found noted 
(Hooerkes 15, 52. 53, 110, 111), a curious and interesting 
variant of the name OOHPKI. viz. OYOH t>KI, whi;h brings 
us a step nearer to the proper Sanskrit form Huvishka. This 
variant M. Drouin refuses to acknowledge on the ground that 
what has been read as Y is in reality nothing more than a por- 
tion of the king's head-dress " Une sorte d'ornement faisant 
partie du diademe." This ornament and the letter Y are, how- 
ever, quite distinct, both occurring on some of the British 
Museum coins, e.g. Hooerkes 53, where the ornament is as 
usual in the front of the helmet and the letter quite away from 
the helmet, and at the back of the head. It was unfortunate 
that none of these specimens were represented in Professor 
Gardner's Plates. 

M. Drouin mentions with approbation the conjecture of Pro- 
fessor Cecil Bendall, who reads on certain copper coins of 
Kanishka OAYOBOY CAKAMA, and regards this as 
equivalent to the Sanskrit " Advaya Buddha Sakyamuni." 



288 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

To obtain this reading it is, however, necessary to read the 
coin in two directions OAYOBOY from the top to the right 
and CAKAMA from the top to the left ; and as will be seen 
from Professor Gardner's Plate XXVII. 2, this necessitates 
reading the B of OAYOBOY backwards. The position of 
the letters thus shows that the reading of the inscription should 
be from left to right continuously, and, if correct, CAKAMA 
YOBOYAO. In this form we may certainly recognise the 
name Buddha written at length in the last five letters, and per- 
haps Sakyamuni, or some equivalent title, in the rest ; but the 
reading is as yet altogether too uncertain to form a firm basis 
for further speculation. 

E. J. RAPSON. 

2. Th. Reinach. Essay on the Numismatics of the kings of 
Pontus (Dynasty of Mithradates), first article. 

The writer gives a clear account of the origin of the Pontic 
kingdom under Mithradates (KTIO-T^S), son of Mithradates, a 
dynast of Cius, who was put to death by Antigonus B.C. 802. 
The reign of this first king of Pontus extended from B.C. 281 
266. The only coin which can be attributed to him is a 
unique gold stater of Alexander the Great's types, reading 
MIOPAAATOY BAZIAEHZ (Waddington Coll.). He 
was succeeded by his son Ariobarzanes, B.C. 266 250, of 
whom no coins are known. Mithradates II., son and successor 
of Ariobarzanes, reigned from B.C. 250 190, and has left us 
the realistic tetradrachms engraved in Head, Hist. Num. Fig. 
263. The next king, Pharnaces I., B.C. 190169, is repre- 
sented by the tetradrachm (Hist. Num. Fig. 264), having on 
the reverse a standing Pantheistic divinity, probably M//> 
3>apva.Kov. This king was succeeded by his brother Mithradates 
Philopator Philadelphus, surnamed Euergetes, B.C. 169 121, 
whose tetradrachms bear on the reverse a standing figure of 
Perseus, the reputed ancestor of the Persian kings. On the 
death of Euergetes his widow Laodice reigned supreme for 
seven years B.C. 121 114. Of this queen M. Waddington 
is the fortunate possessor of a unique tetradrachm, Obv. Bust of 
Queen veiled, Rev. BAZIAIZZHZ AAOAIKHZ, standing 
figure of Pallas resting on her spear. Laodice was succeeded 
by her son, Mithradates the Great (Eupator), whose reign 
nominally dates from the death of his father in B.C. 121, but in 
reality only from that of his mother in B.C. 114. 

The coins of Mithradates the Great will form the subject of 
M. Reinach's second article. 

3. G. Schlumberger. On Coins of Amr Ghazi, A.D. 1106, 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 289 

Danishmend Emir of Cappadocia, bearing on the obverse the head 
of Christ, and on the reverse the Greek legend O M6PA(s) 
AMHPA(s) AMP PAZ(t). 

4. N. Rondot. Claude Warm, engraver and medallist. This 
paper is accompanied by five beautifully executed Plates by 
Dujardin of medallions by or attributed to Claude Warin. 
Among the specimens selected for illustration are medals of 
Thomas Gary and his wife Margaret, 1683, of William and 
Anna Blake, 1684, of Sir William Ducy, 1636, of Richard 
Weston, Duke of Portland, and of Sir Thomas Bodley. The 
writer points out that Claude Warin worked in London from 
1633 to 1642, and that these English medals, although signed 
simply Varin and not C. Warin, are nevertheless probably by 
his hand and not by that of Jean Warin, the chief engraver of the 
Paris Mint, 1646 1672. In this opinion M. Rondot differs from 
Mr. Franks and Mr. Grueber, the editors of Hawkins's Medallic 
Illustrations of British History. 

5. J. J. Guiffrey. The Medal Mint. Metallic history of 
Louis XIV. and Louis XV. 

B. V. HEAD. 

In the Bulletin de Numismatique, M. E. Caron contributes a 
notice of some coins in the cabinet of M. le Comte de Chasteigner 
of Bordeaux. Among these the most interesting to English 
collectors is a hoard consisting of 618 coins of the Black Prince 
struck at Agen, Bordeaux, Figeac or Fontenay, Limoges or 
Lectoure, Poitiers, La Rochelle or La Reole, Tarbes, and pro- 
bably Dax. The last-mentioned mint is new, and is indicated by 
a monogram which appears to consist of the letters A and Q, 
standing for Aquis. 

B. V. HEAD. 

Repertoire des Sources imprimees de la Numismatique frangaise, 
Tome I., by A. Engel and R. Serriire. Paris, 1887. This 
compendium of all that has been written on French numismatics 
reflects great credit upon the diligent compilers. The title in 
fact hardly gives us a sufficiently comprehensive idea of the 
wide range of material which is included in the work. Part I. 
contains a complete list of all numismatic periodicals classed 
under the various countries in which they are published. Part II. 
comprises under the authors' names, in alphabetical order, all 
works, papers, dissertations, and eveJi casual notes, which con- 
tain references to the numismatics of France in any period, and 
many others which can hardly be said to have much to do with 



290 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

France at all, such, for instance, as Head's Historia Numorum, 
Imhoof Blunder's Portratkopfe, Dannenberg's numerous articles 
on mediaeval German coins, Cohen's Monnaies de la Repubhque 
romaine, and Babelon's more recent work on the same subject. 

The present volume takes us down to the end of the letter J, 
and has reached the prodigious number of 3,219 works, great 
and small. We cannot help thinking that the compilers would 
have done better either to have confined themselves more 
strictly to the subject indicated by their title, or to have extended 
the scope of their work so as to embrace the whole field of the 
numismatics of Europe, beginning with the Gaulish and British. 

This Repertoire will be found very useful to the ever-widening 
circle of French numismatists. 

B. V. HEAD. 



MISCELLANEA. 

THE NEW COINAGE, 1887. 

(From the London Gazette.} 
By The QUEEN. A PROCLAMATION. 
VICTORIA R. 

Whereas by an Act passed in the thirty-third year of Our 
reign, intituled " An Act to consolidate and amend the law re- 
lating to the Coinage and Her Majesty's Mint," it is among 
other things enacted, 

That We, by and with the advice of Our Privy Council, shall 
from time to time by Proclamation determine the design for 
any coin. 

We have, therefore, thought fit to order that certain of the 
coins made at the Mint, mentioned in the first schedule to the 
aforesaid Act of the weight and fineness specified in that 
schedule, shall bear designs as follows : 

That every Five Pound Piece should have for the obverse 
impression our effigy, with the inscription "Victoria D. G. 
Britt : Reg: F. D.," and for the reverse the image of Saint 
George, armed, sitting on horseback, attacking the Dragon 
with a sword, and a broken spear upon the ground, and the 
date of the year, with a graining upon the edge ; and that 
every Two Pound Piece should have the same obverse and 
reverse impression and inscription in all respects- as the Five 
Pound Piece, with a graining upon the edge ; and that every 



MISCELLANEA. 291 

Sovereign should have the same obverse and reverse impression 
and inscription in all respects as the Five Pound Piece, with a 
graining upon the edge ; and that every Half Sovereign should 
have for the obverse impression the aforesaid effigy, with the 
inscription "Victoria Dei Gratia," and for the reverse the 
ensigns armorial of the United Kingdom contained in a garnished 
shield surmounted by the Royal Crown, with the inscription 
" Britanniarum Regina Fid : Def: " and the date of the year, 
with a graining upon the edge ; and that every crown should 
have the same obverse and reverse impression and inscription 
in all respects as the five pound piece, with a graining upon the 
edge ; and that every half-crown should have for the obverse 
impression the aforesaid effigy, with the inscription " Victoria 
Dei Gratia," and for the reverse the ensigns armorial of the 
United Kingdom contained in a plain shield surrounded by the 
Garter, bearing the motto " Honi soit qui mal y pense," and 
the Collar of the Garter, with the inscription " Britanniarum 
Regina Fid : Def : " and the date of the year, with a graining 
upon the edge ; and that every florin should have for the 
obverse impression the aforesaid effigy, with the inscription 
kk Victoria Dei Gratia," and for the reverse the ensigns armorial 
of the United Kingdom contained in four shields arranged cross- 
wise, each shield crowned, and between the shields four 
sceptres surmounted by orbs, a thistle, and a harp, and a Star 
of the Garter in the centre, with the inscription " Britt : Reg : 
Fid : Def: " and the date of the year, with a graining upon the 
edge ; and that every shilling should have for the obverse im- 
pression the aforesaid effigy with the inscription " Victoria Dei 
Gratia Britt : Regina F. D.," and for the reverse the ensigns 
armorial of the United Kingdom, contained in a plain shield 
surrounded by the garter bearing the motto " Honi soit qui mal 
y pense," and the date of the year with a graining upon the 
edge ; and that every sixpence should have the same obverse 
and reverse impression and inscription in all respects as the 
shilling, with a graining upon the edge ; and that certain other 
pieces of silver money called " The Queen's Maundy Monies," 
of fourpence, threepence, twopence, and one penny, should 
have for the obverse impression the aforesaid effigy, with the 
inscription " Victoria Dei Gratia Britt : Regina F. D.," and for 
the reverse the respective figures "4," "3," "2," " 1 " 
(according to the denomination or value of the piece) in the 
centre, with the date of the year placed across the figure, and 
encircled by an oak wreath, surmounted by the Royal Crown, 
with a plain dge : 

And whereas by the aforesaid Act it is also enacted that it 



292 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

shall be lawful for Us, by and with the advice of Our Privy 
Council, from time to time, by Proclamation, to determine the 
denominations of coins to be coined at the Mint, and it is by 
the said Act provided that any coin of gold, silver, or bronze, 
of any other denomination than that of the coins mentioned in 
the first schedule to the aforesaid Act, which is hereafter coined 
at the Mint shall be of a weight and fineness bearing the same 
proportion to the weight and fineness specified in that schedule 
as the denomination of such coin bears to the denominations 
mentioned in that schedule : 

We have therefore further thought fit to order that a new 
coin, to be called a double-florin, should be coined, of the 
standard weight of 349*09090 grains, and of the fineness of 
thirty- seven-fortieths fine silver and three-fortieths alloy, and 
should pass and be received as current and lawful money of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at the rate of 
four shillings, or one-fifth of a pound ; and that every such 
coin should have the same obverse and reverse impression 
and inscription in all respects as the florin, with a graining 
upon the edge. 

And whereas, pieces of money of the above descriptions 
respectively have been coined at Our Mint, and will be coined 
there, in pursuance of which orders We have given for that 
purpose, We have, therefore, by and with the advice of Our 
Privy Council, thought fit to issue this Our Royal Proclamation ; 
and We do hereby ordain, declare, and command that the said 
pieces of money respectively so coined and to be coined as 
aforesaid shall be current and lawful money of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and that this, Our 
Royal Proclamation, shall come into operation on the date 
hereof. 

Given at our Court at Windsor, this thirteenth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-seven, and in the fiftieth year of Our reign. 
GOD save the QUEEN. 






Num. Chron. Ser. III., Vol. VI1L PI. VI. 









JEWISH "LULAB" AND "PORTAL" COINS. 



Mm. Chrori.Ser.ll!MWLPL Vll. 



ML 



WfJT? 



vn ix 



ZSpalaJwrou 



11 Mmteless 

ISng 

12 Guduphama. 



Orthagrux 



11 



ZlArshaJaxJ 



Num. Chron., SEE. III. VOL. VIII. PL VIII. 



1. Eajatirajasa mahatasa MO ASA. 

2. Maharaja-bhrata dhramikasa SPALAHOEASA. 

3. Spalahora-putrasa dhramiasa SPALAGADAMASA. 

4. Maharaja -bhrada dliramiasa SPALIEISASA. 

5. Maharajasa maliatakasa SPALIEISASA. 

6. Eajatirajasa mahatasa AYASA. 

7. Maharajasa maliatakasa AYASA. 

8. Maharajasa rajarajasa AYASA. 

9. Maharajasa mahatasa dhramikasa rajatirajasa AYASA. 

10. Maharajasa rajarajasa AYILISHASA. 

11. Maharajasa rajatirajasa mahatasa tradatasa. 

12. Maharajasa tradatasa GUDUPHAENASA. 

13. Maharajasa dhramikasa apratihatasa devahadasa GUDUPHAEASA. 

14. Maharajasa rajatirajasa Gudupharasa GUDANASA. 

15. Maharajasa mahatasa GUDANASA. 

16. Maharajasa HAEADAGASASA tradatasa. 

17. Maharajasa AVADAGASASA tradatasa. 

18. Guduphara bhrata-putrasa maharajasa tradatasa AVADAGASASA. 

19. Maharajasa mahatasa tradatasa devahadasa Gudupharasa SASASA CO. 

20. Maharajasa rajatirajasa mahatasa. 

21. Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa AESHAKASA. 

22. Maharajasa rajatirajasa mahatasa PAKUEASA. 

23. Kushana yavugasa KUYULA KAPSASA sacha dharma thidasa. 

24. Yauasa Khushanasa KUYULA KAPHSASA sacha dharma thidasa. 

25. Maharajasa rajatirajasa devaputrasa KUYULA-KAEA-KAPASA. 

26. Maharajasa rajadirajasa sarvaloga-iswarasa mahiswarasa HIMA- 

KATHPISASA tradata. 

27. Indra-varma putrasa ASPA-VAEMASA strategasa jayantasa. 

28. Manigulasa Chhatrapasa putrasa Chhatrapasa JIHONIASA. 

29. Chhatrapasa apratihatachhakrasa EANJUBULASA. 

30. Mahakhatapasa EAJUBULASA. 



Nam Chron. Ser.lll Vol. Vlll.R II. 



* . K 



c . 



H 



Eutftydarms 



rw 



5 A 



* Ifl 



12 



& 



75 



9 



" 



KHKA1A 
K/IZnAAYPA 



APTOAPTA 
a 

APA 



HATA 



Milcun/ 



TAZAKA 
(rhasxrvu 

KOTTOBAPA 



SialorShoui 

KOTTO^cot 
jBb&a/or@nttcu 



21 



27 



neYKEAADTII 



33 



APA 
A 



KAZnAHYPA 
Kasyapcuyura' 

AHMHTPIAZ 



1 t d 



42 



EL 



A? 







53 



Ull 

XT 



RAPAA 



ya/ . a/ 

AP 

J)h \ 



symbol CQNOOPHAKE& 
Itynasty 



coins oC 



Symbol NAMELESS 

of KING 

Ccfuvs of 
ZEIONISES 



(HlHtEadphi 
\HOVERK I 



later Symbol 



Num. Chm.Ser.lll Vol. V11LPLX. 




60 



Jfum. 




ENGLISH PERSONAL MEDALS. 



XI. 

THE EASTERN CAPITAL OF THE SELEUCID^E. 

I WOULD ask for a little room in the Numismatic Chronicle 
for a short communication, in which I venture upon some 
new conclusions based upon the famous find of coins made 
a few years ago beyond the Oxus, and about which you 
have had more than one paper from Professor Gardner 
marked, as usual, by learning and sobriety. I cannot 
agree, however, with all of his conclusions. The hoard, 
so far as we have evidence, comprised coins of the early 
Seleucidan kings, of the Parthian satrap Andragoras, of a 
king whose name Professor Gardner reads Phahaspes, 
and also tetradrachms of Alexander the Great, imitations 
of the coins of Athens, and lastly coins of Lysimachus, 
Tarsus, Sinope, Aspendus, and Ephesus. In regard to 
these last coins, Professor Gardner suggests that they were 
possibly purchased en route by the traders who brought 
down the Oxus coins. I cannot think it possible that coins 
of these various cities are to be met with in the bazaars of 
Afghanistan, and it seems to me much more probable that 
all the coins named, as the report alleges, were found 
together, and formed the motley gathering of some adven- 
turous soldier, or were the result of some raid into the 
West, and are thus a parallel to the varied hoard of gold 
ornaments from the same district, many of which have 
come into the hands of Mr. Franks. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. Q Q 



294 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The question is only of importance as affecting the con- 
clusion which I would draw from it, namely, that the coins 
were not struck in the neighbourhood, and that they did 
not even belong to it, but were imported, just as the coins 
of Ethelred and of the Samani princes were imported into 
Sweden. Sogdiana at this time, in my view, was largely 
occupied by Scythic races incapable of such artistic work 
as the gold coins of the early Seleucidae from this find. 
Nor do I believe they were brought from Bactria. A 
number of them are Western coins, and were brought from 
the West ; and of those struck in the East it is very impro- 
bable any were struck in Bactria. There is no evidence 
that the first successors of Alexander struck coins in Bac- 
tria at all. If they had had a mint there turning out 
such beautiful coins as these specimens, we should assuredly 
have had numbers of them found with the well-known 
Bactrian coins of Diodotus and his successors, but, so far 
as I know, the only coins of this class which have come from 
India are traceable to this find. Let us now examine these 
coins a little more closely. There can be no doubt that 
some of them were struck in the East. The type of the 
horned Bucephalus, as Mr. Gardner says, is unknown 
among the coins of the Seleucidse in the West, nor are the 
monograms found on these coins like those found on the 
coins from the western part of their dominion. The ques- 
tion is, where were they struck ? 

One remarkable fact about the monograms upon them 
is, that they are nearly all alike, or represent the same 
meaning. As Prof. Gardner says, " It is very noteworthy 
that the mint-marks of almost all the coins which can be 
traced to the Oxus find have a A in them. They are Q 
A A I, and so forth." Prof. Gardner goes on to 
conjecture that the letters indicate the mint of Dionyso- 



THE EASTERN CAPITAL OF THE SELEUCID^E. 295 

polls or Nysa, "a city of Paropamisus, identified by 
Greneral Cunningham with the modern Begram, near 
Cabul." 

In this conjecture I cannot at all agree. The very fact 
of the coins all being struck at one place, and being of 
excellent fabric, goes to prove that they were issued at the 
capital city of the eastern dominions of the Seleucidae. It 
is most unlikely that this capital was situated south of the 
Hindu Kush, which would have been a most inconvenient 
position for it. Besides, it is probable that this area was 
made over to Chandra Gupta in the famous treaty he made 
with Seleucus, and was therefore not subject to the early 
Seleucidans at all. Secondly, if the chief mint- town of 
the early Seleucidae had been in the district south of the 
Hindu Kush some of their coins would no doubt have 
occurred there in large numbers, whereas they do not 
occur at all in that district, where the fresh coins of the 
so-called Bactrian series are so abundant. Lastly, and 
most important of all, the monograms just referred to are 
quite unknown among the so-called Bactrian and Indo- 
Scythic coins, showing the Bactrian and Indo-Scythic 
kings had no such mint within their dominions. All 
these facts concur in making it most improbable, if not 
impossible, that these coins were struck, or were generally 
current, either in Bactria, or Aria, or the country imme- 
diately west of the Indus, and make it very probable that, 
like the other coins found with them, they were brought 
to their hiding-place from farther west. 

Whence, then, did they come? I am only going to 
offer a tentative solution, since at present no other solution 
is possible. 

We have hardly any notices of what took place in the 
eastern portion of Alexander's conquest from his death 



296 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to the battle of Ipsus in 302, which finally placed Seleu- 
cus on the throne, and, as I shall endeavour to show in 
another communication, it is probable that there was a 
good deal of confusion there unnoticed by his historians, 
and that Seleucus's eastern journey involved a reconquest, 
and not merely an assertion of his right as successor to 
Alexander. 

When by his victory over Antigonus the position of 
Seleucus was definitely secured, and he became the master 
of Asia from the Mediterranean to the Pamir Steppes, he 
appointed his son Antiochus governor of the eastern por- 
tion of his dominions, and it is from this date that their 
definite organization began. Antiochus, like other mem- 
bers of his dynasty, was a founder of towns, and this in 
the east as well as the west. We are told by Pliny that 
he refounded a city of Alexandria in Margiana, which had 
been first planted by Alexander the Great, and been after- 
wards destroyed by the barbarians, and which he renamed 
Antiocheia. (Nat. Hist., vi. 18.) This fact is also men- 
tioned by Ptolemy. Strabo (Book xi. ch. x.) says that 
Antiochus admired the fertility of the place, and he 
enclosed a circuit of 1,500 stadia with a wall. Stephen of 
Byzantium tells us that Antiochus also founded a city in 
Aria, the modern province of Herat, which he called 
Soteira (vide sub wee). Pliny describes Artacabene as a 
very ancient and beautiful city, which was strengthened 
by Antiochus. This is the Artakoana of Arrian. General 
Cunningham identifies it with the Alexandreia of other 
writers, and urges that here, as in the case of the capital 
of Margiana, Antiochus renamed the city already founded 
by Alexander with his own name. It was probably Herat. 
It would seem, therefore, that Antiochus refounded and 
re-named the capitals of Margiana and Aria, but neither 



THE EASTERN CAPITAL OF THE SELEUCID^E. 297 

Margiana nor Aria was, in my view, the focus and centre 
of the Seleucidan Empire in the East at this time. If 
we take analogy as our guide and it is very useful 
indeed in Eastern history, which is very conservative we 
must conclude that Khorasan was in those days what it 
was in the time of the Seljuks and other great Eastern 
dynasties, the kernel of this part of the empire, its richest 
and most prosperous portion. It also occupied a central 
and strategical position, not only towards the rest of the 
empire, hut also towards its most dangerous enemies, the 
Parthians and other nomads on the north ; and I have 
very little doubt that it was in Khorasan that the seat of 
the Eastern government of the empire was situated. 
What, then, was the capital of Khorasan ? Khorasan, in 
the earliest notice we have, namely, in the Vendidad, is 
called Nisaya. The famous sacred horses of Nyssa are 
referred to by Herodotus, and, according to Isidore of 
Charax, a very good authority, in the Parthian times its 
chief town was Parthaynisa, which, he says, the Greeks call 
JNisaea. This is also no doubt the " regio Nisisea Parthyenis 
nobilis " of Pliny. Isidore tells us that the Parthian kings 
were buried there, which doubtless means that it was their 
first capital after they had attacked and secured their first 
province of Parthia, whose limits were very nearly those 
of Khorasan. 

It is exceedingly probable that when the Parthians 
overthrew the Greeks they fixed upon the old Greek 
capital as their capital also, and thus there is a converg- 
ence of evidence going to make Nissa the chief town of 
the Seleucidae in the East. Some have identified the 
town of Nissa with Nishapur, which tradition distinctly 
points to as having been founded by the Sassanian king, 
Sapor. It is possible, however, that this view may be a 



298 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

mistaken one, and that the real Nissa still remains under 
its old name, overlooking the Karakum desert, and situ- 
ated west of Merv-ur-rud, the site of the capital of the 
ancient and adjoining province of Margiana. This town 
of Nissa is a very famous place, and was more than once 
ravaged. Sultan Takish, the Seljukian, we are told, razed 
its citadel and ploughed over its site. The founder of the 
Ottoman royal stock originally migrated thence, and it 
was destroyed by the Mongols. According to a contem- 
porary, who was a native of the place, Muhammed of 
Nissa, 70,000 of its inhabitants were then destroyed. 

I believe that in all probability it was the capital of 
Parthiene or Khorasan in the days we are writing about, 
and that it was here that Antiochus fixed the seat of his 
government. 

Now it is a curious fact that, almost without exception, 
wherever the Seleucidse either founded a new city or 
gave an old one some importance they changed its name 
and gave it a new Greek name. This is so general a rule 
that we may take it as exceedingly probable, in the absence 
of definite information on the subject, that they did so in 
the case of Nissa. Can we make a guess as to what this 
name was ? 

It is singular that generally when we meet with this 
name it is in connection with Dionysus. Thus Homer 
connects Nysa in Thrace with him (//. vi. 132). Sophocles 
does the same, " A city Nysa, between the Indus and the 
Kaubul River, is said to have been built by Dionysus, who 
planted the ivy there " (see Strabo, book xv. c. 1 ; Diodorus, 
i. 2). Ptolemy, who refers to it, tells us the place was 
also called Dionysopolis, and Arrian has a long story 
about it in connection with Dionysus (Vit. Alex., lib. v.). 
Herodotus says that Dionysus was no sooner born than he 



THE EASTERN CAPITAL OF THE SELEUCIDJE. 299 

was sewn up in Jupiter's thigh and carried off to Nysa, 
above Egypt in Ethiopia (ii. c. 146). Diodorus tells us 
Osiris, whom some of the Greeks called Dionysus, was 
brought up in Nysa, a town of Arabia Felix, near to 
Egypt, and there he learnt the use of the vine. He says 
further that he received his name from his father and 
the place (lib. 1, c. i. ; lib. 3, c. iv.). He also describes 
how Lycurgus, King of Thrace, set upon him and his fol- 
lowers at a place called Nisius, in Thrace. Elsewhere he 
connects him with Nysa, an island of the river Triton, in 
Libya (id. 3, iv.). 

This very curious fact, of the intimate connection 
of Nysa and Dionysus, makes it not improbable that 
the Nissa or Nysa of Parthia should have been called 
Dionysopolis by Antiochus, just as the Indian Nysa was 
so called by the Greeks. In both cases the name lends 
itself very easily to the change. Of course this is a mere 
conjecture, but it is one with a good deal of probability 
.about it, and if it be well founded it at once accounts for 
the monograms A, Al, &c., which occur on the coins of 
the Seleucidans which we have been discussing, and which, 
I would urge, were struck and issued in the Eastern 
capital of the dominions of Seleucus, which was Nissa or 
Dionysopolis, the capital of Parthiene or Parthia. 

I have not exhausted what I have to say about this 
very interesting find of coins, but will reserve the rest for 
another communication. 

H. H. HOWORTH. 




XII. 

GERMANICOPOLIS AND PHILADELPHIA IN CILICIA. 

THE British Museum lias recently acquired an interesting 
little bronze coin which, as I believe it to be unpublished, 
may be worth a short notice in the pages of the Numis- 
matic Chronicle. It may be thus described : 

Obv. PAIOZ KAIZAP Head of Caligula, r. ; behind 
neck, star. 

Rev. Two beardless heads jugate, of which the nearest (and 
perhaps the other also) is laureate ; in front, [ZA] 
N00ZIEPEYZ [TE]PMANIK; behind, <J>IA 
AAEA<!>. ^B. Size -65. 

It is evident both from the style and fabric of this coin 
that it belongs to the Cilician Germanicopolis, and not to 
the Paphlagonian city of the same name ; but in addition 
to the name of Germanicopolis it bears that of another 
Cilician city, viz., Philadelphia. "We may note in the 
outset that Germanicopolis, Philadelphia, and Olba, were 
in all probability within a short distance of one another, 
and all situate about, the middle of the valley of the river 
Calycadnus, in the district which went by the name of Cetis, 
above and below the junction of the main stream with its 
largest northern arm. Olba is called on coins MHT. KH. 
(MrjTpoiroXis Krjrtios, Hist. Num. 610). 

Of Philadelphia two coins only are known, one of 



GERMANICOPOLIS AND PHILADELPHIA IX CILICIA. 301 

Trajan and one of Maximinus (Rev. Num. 1858, 173, and 
Longperier, CEuvres ii. 10). Both of these read <|>IAA- 
AEA4>EttN (or 4>IAAAEA<J>,nN) KHTIAOZ. 

Of Germanicopolis, the site of which is fixed at the 
modern Ermenek, in the upper valley of the Calycadnus, 
the only coin hitherto published belongs to the reign of 
Hadrian (Hist. Num. p. 603). On the reverse is a laureate 
bust of Apollo with hair arranged in three formal curls ; 
the inscription is AAPIANH TEPMANIKOnOAI- 
[TQN]. 

The coin of Caligula which I now publish is therefore 
of importance, not only as the earliest known coin both of 
Germanicopolis and of Philadelphia, but as showing that 
these two cities were at one time closely connected with 
one another. 

Philadelphia, as its name implies, was perhaps founded 
either by one of the later Seleucidee bearing the surname 
Philadelphos, or, as is far more probable, by Antiochus IV 
of Commagene, and his queen, lotape, the latter of whom 
bore the title Philadelphos, perhaps because she was sister 
as well as wife of Antiochus IV. To this prince, as is 
well known, Caligula presented Cilicia Tracheia, and part 
of Lycaonia, A.D. 38, and coins prove that his dominion 
extended from Elaeusa-Sebaste in the east, to Anemurium 
in the west, and to Lycaonia in the north. There was 
also a town in Cilicia Tracheia, in the district called Seli- 
nitis, which was called after lotape. 

If this conjecture be well founded the heads on the 
coin may be intended to represent Antiochus and lotape 
as the founders of the city of Philadelphia, an event which 
must in this case have taken place after A.D. 38, the year 
of their accession. 

As another alternative, we may suppose the heads to 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. R R 



302 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

stand for Germanfcus and Agrippina, the father and 
mother of Caligula, whose head appears on the obverse ; 
or, again, they may be merely intended for the Dioscuri. 

The sister city, Germanicopolis, may have been founded 
somewhat earlier, while Germanicus held command in the 
East, A.D. 18 19 ; or the two towns may have been 
founded simultaneously in the reign of Caligula (who 
also bore the surname Germanicus), A.D. 37 41 ; Ger* 
manicopolis by Caligula, and Philadelphia by Antiochus 
and lotape. 

From the occurrence of the title *lepevs on our little 
coin, we may infer that under Caligula the district of 
Cetis, in which Philadelphia and Germanicopolis were 
situated, maintained a kind of quasi- autonomy, and that 
the magistrate or dynast Xanthus, entitled *\.epevs, was 
permitted to exercise a limited authority over the terri- 
tory of the two cities; an authority similar, perhaps, 
to that which was exercised by the 'Ap-^tepev^ under 
Augustus and Tiberius at the neighbouring city of Olba, 
which, as M. Waddington has pointed out (Melanges de 
Numismatique, ii. 109 sqq. t had been allowed by the 
Romans to remain under the government of its native 
dynasts. 1 



1 On this question Professor W. M. Ramsay writes to me as 
follows: "I am unable to accept your suggestion that Antio- 
chus permitted a local Hiereus to retain a limited authority 
and strike coins, as that would be tantamount to giving up the 
royal rights in the district. I think it is necessary to separate 
between the rule of Antiochus and that of Xanthus." Professor 
Ramsay thinks that this coin must have been struck between 
A.D. 88 and 41, during which time Antiochus, having lost 
favour, was temporarily deprived of his kingdom. The coin 
shows that the rule over part at least of Cilicia Tracheia was 
permitted by Caligula to a dynast who ruled in the hereditary 
Olbian fashion as 'lepcv's. This dynast perhaps imitated the 



GERMANICOPOLIS AND PHILADELPHIA IN CILIC1A. 303 

Of these rulers we know from coins the names of two 
only Polemon, B.C. 3929, or later, and Ajax, the son 
of Teucer, A.D. 1115, or later. Polemon styles himself, 
9 Afy%iepevs Svvdarrp 'O\/3eW rjjs iepas Kevvdrwv ical 
AaXaavewv, and Ajax 'Ap^iepevs TOTTC^O? Kevvdrwv Kal 
Aa\a<T(TeW. They appear to have been descendants of a 
famous princely family, who maintained under Roman 
protection their local independence as hereditary High 
Priests of the Temple of Zeus, Dynasts of Olba, and 
Toparchs of the neighbouring regions Cennatis and 
Lalassis. Whether Ajax was the last of these rulers, or 
whether he had successors during the twenty-six years 
which elapsed between A.D. 15, the date of his last known 
coin, and A.D. 41, we cannot say. The history of Olba is 
a complete blank during this period. We next hear of it 
A.D. 41, when the Emperor Claudius conferred the prin- 
cipality of Olba upon Polemon II, King of Pontus, in 
exchange for his kingdom of Bosporus. 

It is by no means improbable that before this country 
was handed over to the King of Pontus, and perhaps on 
the occasion of the foundation of Germanicopolis and 
Philadelphia (A.D. 38?), these towns were placed by the 
reigning dynast of Olba, with the sanction of Caligula, 
under the government of some scion of his own priestly 
family, and if so, that Xanthus may be the last of the 
race of the Teucridae. 

But this, of course, is mere conjecture, and all that we 
are able to affirm with certainty on the evidence of the 

coins of his predecessor, who associated his wife lotape with 
himself on his coins. In A.D. 41 Claudius again restored the 
kingdom to Antiochus and lotape, who ruled until A.D. 72, not, 
however, over the whole of Cilicia Tracheia, for a part of it, 
including Kennatis and Lalassis, was bestowed upon Polemon 
of Pontus in exchange for his own kingdom. 



GERMANICOPOLIS AND PHILADELPHIA IN C1L1CIA. 305 

coin now before us is that in the reign of Caligula the 
neighbouring towns of Germanicopolis and Philadelphia 
in Cilicia struck money in the name and by the authority 
of one Xanthus, who bore the title *lepevs. This specimen 
is thus the earliest coin of these little known cities. Sub- 
sequently we possess a coin of Germanicopolis struck under 
Hadrian, and coins of Philadelphia struck by Trajan (A.D. 
98117) and Maximinus (A.D. 235238) respectively. 

But though our numismatic records are unfortunately 
at present so incomplete there is reason to hope that the 
series of coins may be increased by future discoveries, for 
we know, on the authority of the geographer Ptolemy, 
A.D. 150, of the grammarian Hierocles, A.D. 530, the author 
of the Syve/rB^jLtos-, or The Travelliny Companion, as well 
as on that of the Acta Conciliorum and of the Byzantine 
NotiticB Episcopatuum, that the three towns of Olba, Ger- 
manicopolis, and Philadelphia continued to exist side by 
side as independent cities and bishoprics at least down to 
the tenth century A.D. 

The following is the order in which these and the other 
towns of this part of Cilicia are mentioned in Ptolemy, 
Hierocles, the Notitice, &c. 



PTOLEMY, A.D. circ. 150. 

Me<7o'yetoi Se cicrt TroXets ev rr) Ki\i/aa rrjs /uev 



37 10' 
37 5' 
37 25' 
37 55' 
37 10' 



Kavtrrpos 


. 64 45' 


Ao/UTlOTToAlS . 


. 65 25' 


<J>iXa8eX0eia . 


. 66 


^eXevKeta Tpa^cta . 


. 66 10' 


AtoKuwapeia . 


. 66 20' 


K^rtSos Se 


-, 


"OX^ao-a 


. 64 30' 



. . 37 30' 
(Lib. V. cap. 8, 5, 6.) 



306 



"NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



It is needless to remark that Ptolemy's latitudes and 
longitudes, calculated from distances in stadia given in 
itineraries to which he had access, and which probably 
contained many errors, afford no trustworthy indication of 
the exact positions of the places he mentions. 

CONCILIUM CHALCEDONENSE (p. 659), A.D. 451. 

In the list of bishops present at this council are the 
names of those both of Germanicopolis and of Philadel- 
phia, viz. : Tvpavvos YeppaviKovTroXews and Meyers 



HIEROCLIS SYNECDEMUS ( 45), A.D. 530. 

Aio/caecrapeia 
"OA/fy 



AaAio-avSos 



Notitia I. 
AD. 883. 



} 0\va 
'JepaTToAis 
NcaTroAis 
AaXtaavSos 



EPISCOPATUUM. 

Notitia III. Notitia X. 

A.D. 10th cent. 

6 AioKaicrapems 6 
6 

o KAavotovTroAecos 6 KAavStoinroAeajs 

6 NeaTToAcws 6 NeaTroAews 

6 AaAtcrav^ov 6 
6 
6 'ASpao-ov 

6 

o 
o 



6 'ASpacrov 
6 MeA.or/5 



GERMANICOPOLIS A1\'D PHILADELPHIA IN CILICIA. 307 
CONSTANTINK PoRPHYROGENITUS, A.D- 911 - 959. 

De Thematwm, I. p. 15. 

DECAPOLIS. 
To. 8e tti/w ^e/XeuKetas /cat /xeo-oyata fcaXetrat AeKaTroAt? KCU, ta-rt 



oeurepa oe TiriO7r7roA.cs 



KA.avStou7roA.is 
Elpr)vov7To\is 
6y$6rj Katcrapeta 



In the accompanying sketch map of Cilicia Tracheia I 
have inserted the names of Philadelphia, Diocaesarea, 
Olba, and Coropissus conjecturally. Domitiopolis and 
Zenopolis I have placed at the modern Dindebol and Isne- 
bol (see map in Sterrett's " Wolfe Expedition to Asia 
Minor " in the Papers of the American School of Classical 
Studies at Athens, vol. iii.). The site of Eirenopolis at 
Irnebol, on the southern side of the river, may also be 
considered as fixed. Leake's conjecture (Num. Hell. Asia, 
p. 61), that Eirenopolis stood near the promontory of 
Zephyrium, must now be definitely abandoned. It rested 
solely on a coin which was supposed to read EIPHNO- 
nOAEITON ZE^YPinTON (Vaillant, Num. Gr. y and 
Banduri, i. p. 68), the true legend of which was doubtless 
AAPIANOnOAITON ZE4>YPIf2TnN (Hist. Num. 
p. 618), and it belongs, not to Eirenopolis, but to Adri- 
ana-Zephyrium, on the coast of Cilicia Campestris, be- 
tween Tarsus and Soli. But whether the coins reading 
EIPHNOnOAEITflN, dating from an era commencing 
A.D. 52, belong to the Eirenopolis in the Calycadnus 
valley, or to another Eirenopolis, which Professor Ramsay 
believes to have been situated on the upper course of the 
Pyramus, in the neighbourhood of Anazarbus, is not quite 
c } ear . BARCLAY V. HEAD. 



XIII. 
A NEW TYPE OF CARAUSIUS. 

THE type of Carausius described below appears to be 
unpublished it is at any rate unknown to the British 
Museum, and does not appear in the second edition of 
Cohen, or in the Monumenta Historica Britannica and may 
be regarded as of some interest. 

M3. Obv. IMP. C. CARAVSIVS AVG. Draped bust 
of Carausius to right, with radiated crown. 

Rev. HERC DEVSENIENSI. Hercules standing 
to left, leaning his right hand on his club, and 
holding out in his extended left hand a patera, 
from which he pours a libation. 

The inscription reads backwards, but every letter is 
perfectly distinct. 

The type of Hercules Deusoniensis is one which has 
hitherto been found on the coins of Postumus alone. It 
is of a distinctly Gallic character, the title Deusoniensis 
being given to Hercules either from some unknown Gallic 
town Deuso, or as being the name of a Celtic god identified 
with him, just as Sul was identified with Minerva, or 
Belatucadrus with Mars. On the coins of Postumus, 
Hercules Deusoniensis and Hercules Magusanus are both 
commemorated. The latter god was certainly worshipped 
in Britain, as an altar dedicated to him by a Tungrian 
cohort has been dug up at Mumerills, near Falkirk 



A NEW TYPE OF CARAUSIUS. 30') 

(Corpus Inscr. Britann., 1090). But I am not aware that 
any similar dedication to Hercules Deusoniensis has been 
discovered. 

The type of this coin is not a servile copy of that found 
on the money of Postumus. It does not exactly resemble 
any of the three main varieties of the earlier reign, which 
give respectively a bust of the god, and his figure placed 
in a tetrastyle temple, or standing full face with the club 
resting on a rock. The type is, therefore, an original one, 
witnessing to the worship of Hercules Deusoniensis in 
Britain, probably by the Gallic troops stationed in this 
country. 

It will be observed that on this coin one letter of the 
god's title is mis-spelt, Deuseniensi appearing instead of 
DeusoniensL 

The coin, which is in excellent preservation, was pur- 
chased, along with several other coins of Carausius, in a 
miscellaneous lot of late Roman bronze sold at Messrs. 
Sotheby's in August last. 

C. OMAN. 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 




XIV. 

ON THE HALF-NOBLE OF THE THIRD COINAGE OF 
EDWARD III. 

THE gold coinage of Edward III. has been very properly 
divided under four heads. The first coinage was that of 
the florin, half-florin, and quarter-florin, in 1343. All 
these pieces are of excessive rarity. The second coinage 
was in 1344, and consisted of the noble, weighing 138 T %th 
grains, and its divisions, the half (or maille) and quarter 
(or ferling) noble. The noble and quarter-noble have L, 
for London, in the centre of the reverse, but it is said that 
one of the latter in the possession of Mr. Rashleigh, and 
weighing 34J grains, has f instead of L. I have not 
had the advantage of seeing this piece, and should be 
slow to form any conclusion as to its attribution simply 
on the ground of its weight. At the same time I do not 
doubt the statement made, as it is very probable that im- 
mediately before the third coinage the one letter may 
have been substituted for the other. No specimen of the 
half- noble is known, but it may fairly be assumed to have 
existed, and one may yet be discovered. The third coin- 
age, generally known as that of the twentieth year, was 
authorised in 1346, and likewise consisted of the noble 
and its divisions. The noble of this coinage, which is 



HALF-NOBLE OF EDWARD III. 31 1 

very rare, was 128f th grains only in weight ; the quarter 
noble is not of uncommon occurrence. 

As to the half-noble, which is the fons et origo of this 
short note, I postpone my observations in order to refer 
here more conveniently to the fourth and last coinage. 
This, issued in 1351, again consisted of the noble and its 
divisions. There is a considerable variation in the smaller 
details of the type and legends on these, and particularly 
in connection with the titles of the king, who was desig- 
nated King of France on coins struck before the Treaty 
of Bretigny, and not afterwards until the year 1369, when 
that treaty was broken by Charles V. The noble of this 
issue was further reduced to the weight of 120 grains, 
which continued to be the standard weight until 1412, the 
thirteenth year of Henry TV. 

Now with regard to the half-noble of the third coinage, 
no specimen was ever said to exist, nor was any example 
pretended to be described or figured, until Mr. Kenyon, 
in his Gold Coins of England (1884), described and gave 
an illustration of a half-noble in the national collection, 
which he unhesitatingly attributed to this coinage. With 
great submission I cannot accept this attribution. The 
half-noble referred to is clearly one of the fourth coin- 
age. It is true that the weight, although the flan is 
somewhat clipped, is as much as 60J grains, but in deal- 
ing with the smaller pieces, both of the gold and silver 
coinage of this country, it is eminently unsafe to be 
guided by considerations of weight only. In connection 
with other characteristics the question of weight is, of 
course, very often of great importance, and more so in some 
series than in others, but as I have before had occasion 
to assert in these pages, the type and style of workman- 
ship are much more trustworthy guides, and, in fact, very 



312 KTIMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

often the only safe ones. The workmanship and lettering 
of the noble and quarter-noble of the third coinage are 
very peculiar, and differ in essential respects from those 
of the coins of the fourth issue. This is apparent even 
to an unpractised eye, which could scarcely fail to detect 
the more careful work, coupled nevertheless with the freer 
and bolder rendering of the letters, which are also always 
larger and more distinct than on the pieces of the fourth 
coinage. The & in the centre of the reverse is always 
large and conspicuous and never small, as on the coin 
figured by Mr. Kenyon, and the R's are of the Lombardic 
and not of the Roman shape, as on that coin. A dis- 
tinguishing feature also is the form of the A's and 'F's, 
which differs from that on any pieces that I have ever 
seen of the subsequent coinage, but resembles the form of 
the same letters on coins of the previous issue ; although 
on this .point I may observe that the noble of the second 
coinage in the national collection has the same kind of &, 
though my example of the same coin has the simple barred 
7T. In addition to the characteristics mentioned, the 
coins of this issue are wider spread, and the gold has the 
appearance of being less alloyed. 

On a noble of the third coinage in Mr. Evans's collec- 
tion the form K occurs on the obverse, while on the 
reverse it is 71. 

A keen numismatist is always on the watch for a desi- 
derated rarity, and the late Mr. William Brice, who was 
well versed in all the subtleties of our English coinage, 
thought that he had at last obtained a half-noble of the 
third issue when, at the sale of the coins of the late Rev. 
E. J. Shepherd (Lot 134), he secured a piece of this denomi- 
nation which weighed over 61 J grains. His manuscript 
note is as follows : " This very rare half-noble is of the 



HALF-NOBLE OF EDWARD III. 313 

twentieth year, and it is of the same type as lot 130. Re- 
verse, m.m. cross patee. Legend, DOMIR^ IR FVEOE^ 
TVO 7TE6VTVS (sic) SUQ, omitting R3. Though slightly 
clipped, the weight is over 62 grains. In centre of reverse 
is a large 3 as on the noble. W. B." 

This piece was purchased by Mr. Shepherd at Forster's 
.sale (lot 17), and was described in that catalogue as being 
" a very rare variety, and of the weight of 61 J grains." 
It certainly has the large 3 in the centre of the reverse, 
but here again an excessive reliance upon mere weight 
caused Mr. Brice to err in his judgment. I have two other 
specimens identical in type with his coin, both weighing 
more than 60 grains, and I have seen several other 
examples, all being of the so-called " cursing " type, i.e. 
omitting the H^ in the reverse legend. It is clear that 
they must all be referred to the fourth coinage, not only 
for the considerations already urged by me, but also be- 
cause the king's title as King of France is omitted ; a 
fatal omission, proving that they must have been struck 
after the Treaty of Bretigny. 

Was then any half -noble of the third coinage issued, and 
does any example still exist ? This question I venture to 
answer in the affirmative on the strength of a piece in my 
possession, which I now describe, and of which an illus- 
tration accompanies this paper. Obv. The usual type, 
but of the same careful work and free and bold character 
as on the noble, the shield of the king being in like 
manner large and with large bearings ; four ropes from 
the stern and two to the prow, a (sic) DWBBD*D*6BB* 
E^X * &R6L * -^- *^EAR(1 DRS f]YB. Rev. Same type 
as the noble, m.m. cross, slightly patee, and in that 
respect similar to the m.m. on the noble and quarter noble ; 
R3 ** IR * *VEOE3 * TVO * 



311 KUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

large 3 in centre of the reverse. It will be seen that the 
S's and F's are of the peculiar formation before referred 
to. There is, moreover, another important peculiarity 
that must be mentioned the shape of the central com- 
partment enclosing the letter C on the reverse. On all 
the nobles and half-nobles of Edward III. the shape of 
this compartment or frame is that of a quaterfoil, with 
four projecting angles or points between the foils. On 
all the half-nobles of the fourth coinage of Edward III. 
at present known, there are close to each of these four 
points either three small pellets arranged as a trefoil or else 
an annulet. It is probable that some may also exist with 
a single large pellet at each of these points, as nobles 
with this peculiarity occur ; and there are corresponding 
quarter- nobles with a pellet in each of the angles of the 
central cross on the reverse. In the half-noble to which 
I am calling attention there are no ornaments whatever 
at the points of the compartment, so that in this respect 
also there is a marked distinction between my coin and 
those of the fourth coinage. The coin is of a wide- 
spread module, and I should be glad to be able to add 
that the weight is, or should be, 64 grains or there- 
abouts. I am, however, bound to admit that the piece 
which, though cracked, is in very good condition, weighs 
but 54 grains. This forms, of course, a powerful argu- 
ment, if weight alone be relied upon, against the accuracy 
of my attribution, but it must be pointed out that this 
weight is also very abnormal for a half-noble of even the 
fourth coinage, and I can only explain it by suggesting 
that it was either struck as a specimen (the gold being 
certainly in appearance of a finer quality than that of the 
last coinage) or in error, on a flan of less than the proper 
weight, or that all the half-nobles of this coinage which 



HALF-NOBLE OF EDWARD III. 315 

were issued were of too light a weight, and were for that 
reason withdrawn. This would account for the excessive 
rarity of this coin, and in fact for its total absence from 
our cabinets, unless it be agreed that my piece supplies 
the gap. I have very little doubt myself but that it does, 
both for the reasons stated and on account of the general 
appearance of the coin, which is an important feature to 
the student of the varied types of our third Edward. 

If, however, I fail to satisfy others on this point, I 
think they will be disposed to agree that the coin is, in 
any event, struck from dies prepared for the half-noble 
of the third coinage ; as the half-noble of that coinage 
must certainly have been struck in accordance with the 
express terms of the king's indenture and proclamation, 
although it would appear that pieces of that denomination 
of all the coinages were probably issued in less quantities 
than either the noble or quarter-noble, and are therefore 
considerably scarcer to this day. 

H. MONTAGU. 



XV. 

MEDALS OF SCOTLAND. 

SINCE the publication of my Catalogue of the Medak of 
Scotland, many specimens not known to me at the time 
of the issue of that work have come under my notice. I 
have thought that it might be of some interest from time 
to time to record them, in the hope that at some future 
day a complete catalogue may be possible. 

To the historical medals not much can be added. The 
medals of the earlier kings of Scotland noticed as probably 
the work of Tassie, may now certainly be ascribed to that 
artist. At a recent sale I acquired a complete set from 
David II. to James VI., and including one, hitherto unde- 
scribed, of Mary Queen of Scots, from a much younger 
portrait than the one described at page 15. The 
following medals are additions to the Catalogue, and 
the references are to the pages of that work. 

490, page 116. BARCLAY DE TOLLY, 17591818. 

Prince Michael Barclay de Tolly was descended from 
the Barclays of Tolly or Towie, in Aberdeenshire, and 
became one of the most distinguished of Russian generals. 

Obv. His head to the left in a wreath of laurels. Above 
it, BARCLAY DE TOLLI: below, in small 
letters, LOOS. 

Rev. His arms on mantle, crowned. 

Size, lA- in., 29 m. Metal, *JR. *jB. PL XII. 1. 



MEDALS OF SCOTLAND. 317 



, page 125. 
Of Sir James Wylie the following rare medal exists : 

.The obverse bears his bust bareheaded, to the left, in court 
dress, with orders and decorations ; below it, IACOB WYLIE 
EQUES. BARONETTUS. MED. ET. CHIR. DR. PLURR* 
ORDD EQUES. Across the arm, |. A 51 AHHb (I. Lialen): 
with the legend (in two circles) IMPERAT ROS A 
CONSIL. INTIM. ET ARCHIATER. SUPR REI MED* 
CHIB. CASTREN. INSPECTOR QUONDAM. ACADEM.' 

^/S?* PRTROP - ET - MOSQ. XXX. A. PR^S. 
ATQ. CUR. MED. MIL. DIRECT. 

The reverse bears within a wreath of laurel the following 
inscription ; viz. 

& 

VIRO, ILLUSTRISS. 

SUB. TRIUM. IMPERAT. AUSPIC 

EGREGIO. MEDICINE. CASTRENS. 

IN. ROSSIA. MODERATORI 

ANNOS. L. ARTL SALUTARI. CONSECRATOS. 

VENERABUNDI. GRATULANTUR. 

ROSSLE. MEDICI, 
PETROPOLI : D.IX. DEC. MDCCCXL. 



DECORUM. 
FORTITER. PRO. PATRIA. PUGNASSE. 

NON. MINUS. DECORUM. 
SAUCIUM. SANASSE. MILITEM. 

Size, 2-iV in,, 54 m. Metal, M*. PI. XII. 2. 

3*, page 131. 

Of Law, of Lauriston, the following medals have been 
added to my cabinet : 

On the obverse, a man, partially undressed, lighting his 
pipe and emitting coins, some of which are flying away. Above 
is the inscription : NVMMVS VBI LOQUITVE. [Money, when he 
speaks.] The legend (chronogrammatic) is : BEETER IN DE 
wYDE WERELT ALs IN DE NAUE sU-YK of K!ST. [Better is 
the wide world, than in the narrow stomach or chest. 1613.] 
In the exergue : NOO!T BREEKT YSER. 22 PRO. CENT. [Neces- 
sity breaks iron. 22 per cent. 101.] 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. T T 



318 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The reverse has an inscription (chronogrammatic) in seven 
lines : EN MAGNAS DAT OPES CELEBES LAW FOENORE 
QVESTVs. [Behold, the renowned Law, by usury of gain, gives 
great wealth. 1720.] And the legend : KoMT SEHT DAS FRANTZ- 

VoLcK AN ! HERE LAW TfiVT GROSSE THATTEN ! [Come, S66 

the people of France; Mr. Law doeth great things. 1720. "j 
Size, 1$ in., 33 m. Metal, <ffi*. 



4*, page 131. 

Another has on the obverse a man blowing script or bank- 
notes from a pair of bellows, and calling out WER KAVFT 
ACTIEN ? [Who will buy shares ?] with the legend, WER 
SICH DVRCH DIESEN WIND DEM GELDGEITZ LAES- 
SET FVHREN. [Who in his desire for money will allow himself 
to be led by this wind?] In the exergue, SEY KLVG V. 
WIZIG IN VERKEHREN. [Be prudent and cautious in 
your transactions.] 

The reverse shows a dog crossing a bridge over a stream 
and dropping a bundle of script, the shadow of which is seen in 
the water below. The legend is, DER KAN VERWIRRVNGS 
VOLL SEIN HAAB . V. GVTH VERLIEREN. [Full of con- 
fusion he may lose his goods and possessions.] In the exergue 
is SOLL DICH ESOPI HVND NICHT LEHREN. 1720. 
[Will you not learn a lesson from the dog of JSsop ?] 

Size, l^V in., 44 m. Metal, M*. PL XII. 3. 



5*, page 131. 
Another has 

On the obverse : Law standing looking through a magni- 
fying glass at bank-notes on a table to his right ; at left, a 
money-chest. The legend, in three lines, is 

VERGROSRVNGS GLAS THVTS HIER VND AN 

SO VIELEN ENDEN 

DAS SICH DIE KLVGSTEN AVCH DIE 

GELDSVCHT LASSEN BLENDEN. 

[The magnifying glass makes here and there so many sides 
that the wisest are blinded in their greed for money.] In the 
exergue, in two lines 

DER ACTIEN BETRVG VND LIST. 
[The deceit and fraud of the bonds.] 



MEDALS OF SCOTLAND. 319 

On the reverse : a figure hanging on a tree, another running 
off to the right, a third walks to the edge of the water-pool, 
into which a fourth has just fallen. The legend, in two lines 
DAS SPIEL 1ST NVN ENDECKT DAS BLAT HAT 
SICH GEWEND . V. SO MACCHT DER BETRVG EIN 
SCHRECKENVOLLES END. [The game is now discovered, 
the tables now are turned, and so the fraud comes to a fearful 
end.] In the exergue, in three lines 

DER GANZEN WELT EIN 
DENKMAL 1ST, 

1720. 
[A warning (lit. a memorial) to the whole world.] 

Size, H in., 40 m. Metal, M. PI. XII. 4. 

15% page 139. 

A medal of the High School, Edinburgh, bears on the obverse 
the arms of the school, and on the reverse a long engraved in- 
scription in Latin. Awarded to Matthew Kinnaird in 1855. In 
a gilt rim, with loop for suspension. 

.Size, 2- 1 1 - in., 54 m. Metal, &*. 
[For description of PI. XII. 5, see page 131, Scot. Med.] 

16*0, page 139. 

A medal to commemorate the Centenary of the S. S. C., 
bears on the obverse a figure of Justice in the clouds, with the 
Sword and Scales, surrounded by the legend, IN COMME- 
MORATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE SOCIETY. 
MDCCCLXXXIV. 

The reverse has the arms and motto of the Society, with the 
legend, in two lines, SOCIETY OF SOLICITOES IN THE SUPREME 
COURTS OF SCOTLAND. INST. 12 JAN 1784. INCOR. BY ROYAL 
CHARTER 20 FEE 1797. INCOR. BY ACT OF PARL. 13 JULY 
1871. Below, ADMITTED MEMBER. 

Size, 2-iV in., 54 m. Metal, JR*. 

The following additional engraved tickets have been 

acquired : 

33% page 144. 

On the obverse, the Castle of Edinburgh engraved on one 
side, with the legend, RUNNING STATIONER. 



320 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The reverse has ALEX R CALLENDER 2 JAN EY 1802, engraved 
in four lines. 

33*6, page 144. 

Another has CORRIS NEW ROOMS No. 4. N. COB. 
engraved in three lines. 
Reverse plain. 

33*c, page 144. 

Another circular has ROYAL INSTITUTION 1819. 
And on the reverse, LORD HERMAND, engraved. 

15*#, page 154. 

In the University of Glasgow a new medal has been 
added. 

The obverse bears the figure of S. Kentigern, and the 
legend, on a raised rim, THE CUNNINGHAMS MEDAL 
FOR MATHEMATICS. 1887. 

The reverse, the bust of Professor Sirason, with the legend, 
ROB. SIMSON. MATH. PROF. GLASG. 1711. 1761. In 
the exergue, 1746 . Below the bust (on the shoulder) in 
spiral letters, A. KIRKWOOD, sc. 

Size, lf- in., 48 m. Metal, M. 

This medal was founded in 1886, by the late Andrew 
Cunningbame, who was a native of Irvine and Depute 
Town Clerk of Glasgow. The portrait of Simson is from 
the Opera Reliqua published with bis portrait under the 
superintendence of bis friend and colleague, Clow, shortly 
after bis death. The sum of 8 a year goes to the 
medallist. It is given annually for proficiency in mathe- 
matics. 

6*, page 162. 

A new medal has also been given to the University of 
Aberdeen. 



MEDALS OF SCOTLAND. 321 

The obverse bears a bust of Principal Bain to the left, with 
the legend, BAIN MEDAL FOR PHILOSOPHY 
M-DCCC-LXXXIII- In small letters, below the bust, A. KIRK- 
WOOD & SON SC. 

The reverse has the arms and motto of the university, with 
the legend, UNIVERSITY. OF. ABERDEEN. 

Size, If in., 45 m. Metal, N. &*. PI. XII. 6. 

7*, page 162. 
The following local Aberdeen pieces are also new : 

A small silver circular medal, with loop and ribbon, having 
on the obverse the arms, with supporters and motto, of the 
town of Aberdeen. 

On the reverse, engraved, HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, 
LANDED AT ABERDEEN. 8th September, 1848. HONORARY GUARD 
OF CITIZENS & FOOT DEE QUARTER. Round the edge, ARTHUR 
THOMSON, CAPTAIN. 

Size, l-i - in., 29 m. Metal, M*. 

8*, page 162. 
An oval silver badge having on the one side engraved, FROM 

THE TRUE BLUE SOCIETY OF GARDENERS. ABERDEEN . 2. 

On the other side, REWARD OF MERIT 1799. To 



4*, page 163. PERTH GOLFING CLUB. 

The obverse bears the thistle imposed on golf clubs within 
a wreath, and crowned. Below, the date 1838, with the 
legend, PRESENTED TO THE ROYAL GOLFING SO- 
CIETY BY THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH. 

The reverse has a group of golfers engaged in the national 
game. Below, in small letters, B. WYON, sc. 

Size, 2f in., 63 m. Metal, N. M. M*. 

Mr. Wyon informs me (July, 1888) that this medal is 
very rare. The dies were destroyed immediately after 
the gold specimen was struck. One specimen in silver 



322 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

was struck for Mr. Wyon's own collection, and one or two 
in bronze have been seen. 

9*, page 186. 
Of curling medals the following is new : 

On the obverse a curler, bearded, in the act of delivering 
a stone ; another stone and broom on the ice. Trees and hills 
in the distance. Below, in small letters, KIRKWOOD AND SON 
EDINK. 

Size, If in., 41 m. Metal, M*. 

(1887.) 

1*, page 187. BOWLING. 

The obverse bears four figures on a bowling-green, with trees 
and cottage in the background. One is in the act of delivering 
the bowl. Below, in small letters, KIRKWOOD AND SON EDIN- 
BURGH. 

Size, If in., 41 m. Metal, M*. 

(1887.) 

K. W. COCHRAN PATRICK. 



XYL 

ON SWISS TIB MEDALS. 

IT occurred to me that the series which I exhibit to-day, 
of what I suppose ought properly to he called silver 
medals, might offer some interest, as at the time of their 
issue they also partook of the nature of coins. They were 
issued in Switzerland, from 1842 to 1885, as prizes to 
marksmen at the well-known federal rifle shooting meet- 
ings, which take place approximately every other year in 
one or other of the cantons, and which commenced in 
1824 ; but, although struck as medals for the above pur- 
pose, there was this peculiarity about them, that they 
passed as money during the meetings, and were then 
called " ecus/' say crowns. Tip to 1855 there was some 
irregularity in their weight : the first struck in 1842 had its 
value, four Swiss francs equivalent to six modern ones 
stamped upon it ; another, that of 1847, had forty batz, 
being the same value, whilst others were of slightly dif- 
ferent weights ; but during the thirty "years from 1855 to 
1885 inclusive, they were all struck at the Swiss Govern- 
ment Mint, were of the weight of the modern five-franc 
piece, and passed as such, " 5 francs " being actually 
stamped upon them, except in two cases (1861 and 1874). 
The 1855 coin, the first of this new series, was identical 
with the current five-franc piece, excepting the edge, 
which, instead of being milled, had upon it the name of 



324 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the canton and town Solothurn (Soleure) where the meet- 
ing then took place, and the date. 

These medals or coins, many of which have considerable 
artistic merit, several bearing the name of the well-known 
medallist, Bovy, for instance, record various historical 
or traditional events. For instance, the Schaffhausen 
"ecu" of 1865 has on its obverse the town of Schaff- 
hausen, represented as a female figure with a mural 
crown, guarding the son of William Tell, who holds in 
his hand an arrow which has pierced the traditional 
apple. Again, the 1883 ecu, struck for the meeting at 
Lugano, the capital of the Italian canton of Tessin, repre- 
sents the Swiss Confederation, in her female form, seated 
with the above-mentioned canton on the St. Gothard 
Mountain, and a railway train just emerging beneath 
them from that magnificent engineering work, the St. 
Gothard Tunnel, which had not been long completed. 

These crowns continued to be coined until 1885, but 
the Federal Government refused to sanction any more 
being issued for the next meeting at Geneva in 1887 or 
thereafter, very properly considering that this interfered 
with its monopoly of coinage, for as many as twenty-five 
thousand were struck for the Bern meeting of 1885, and 
thirty thousand for each of the previous meetings at Bale, 
Fribpurg, and Lugano, in 1879, 1881, and 1883. 

The medals (bronze or silver) offered at Geneva last 
year had no pretence to being coins. 

An interesting pamphlet appeared on this ^subject 
during the last meeting at Geneva, written by Mr. 
Eugene Demole, the chief of the coin department of the 
Geneva Museum, and by another gentleman of that 
city, from whom I have gleaned some^of the above 
details. 

A. PREVOST. 



XVII. 

THE COINS OF THE DURRANlS. 

THE object of this paper is to give an account of the 
coinage of the kings of the Durrani Dynasty, who reigned 
in Khorasan and North-west India until they were 
superseded by the Barakzai family, the Sikhs, the Kajar 
kings of Persia, and the Amirs of Sindh. The coins of 
Ahmad Shah, the founder of the dynasty, have been 
described by Mr. C. J. Rodgers (J. A. S. Bengal, 1885, 
pt. i.), and I shall now deal only with the coinage of his 
successors from the date of Taimur Shah's accession in 
A.D. 1773, to their final expulsion from Kabul by the 
Barakzais in A.D. 1842. The coins of the Barakzais will 
not be described in this paper. 

On the death of Ahmad Shah in June, 1773 (A.H. 1187), 
Taimur succeeded to a widespread but unstable kingdom, 
including Kashmir and Multan on the east, Khorasan on 
the west, and the nominal suzerainty over Kalat on the 
south. During his life he was able to keep together the 
majority of the dominions he inherited, and it was reserved 
for his sons to see the kingdom fall to pieces on account 
of their intestine feuds. The Khanat of Kalat became 
practically independent during .Zaman Shah's reign. 
Western Khorasan, where Shah-Rukh, Nadir Shah's grand- 
son, had been maintained in a nominal sovereignty by 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. U U 



326 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Ahmad Shah and Taimur Shah, was seized by Agha 
Muhammad Kajar (1796=A.H. 1211). Kashmir rebelled 
immediately on Taimur Shah's death, and, although 
conquered, it became a perfect hotbed of rebels and 
pretenders, until finally taken possession of by the Sikhs 
in A.D. 1819. 

Multan was a precarious possession even in Taimur 
Shah's reign. It was taken by the Sikhs in 1781 (A.H. 
1195), and Taimur Shah was himself forced to lead an 
army to its recovery. It finally fell into the hands of the 
Sikhs in 1818 (A.H. 1234). This was followed by the 
conquest of Dera GhazI Khan and the whole of the 
Southern Derajat in 1819 (A.H. 1235), and Dera Isma'il 
Khan with the Northern Derajat in 1821 (A.H. 1237). 
Dera Isma'il Khan was however administered up to 1836 
(A.H. 1252) by the Saddozai Nawabs, Hafiz Ahmad and 
Sher Muhammad, who continued to strike coins in 
Mahmiid Shah's name, even after his death. In 1836 
Nannibal Singh took formal possession on behalf of Ranjlt 
Singh. 

Peshawar was stoutly contested by the Barakzai Sardars, 
who upheld the puppet king Ayyfib Shah, but it too fell 
into Ranjlt Singh's hands in 1834 (A.H. 1250). 

Northern Sindh was also in frequent rebellion from the 
time of Taimur Shah's succession, but was nominally re- 
tained till Mahmud Shah's second reign, 1809 (A.H. 1224), 
when it fell into the hands of the Baloch Amirs and of 
Ranjlt Singh. Bahawalpur, under its Daudpotra Chiefs, 
also threw off its nominal allegiance about this time. 

The province of Turkistan lying south of the Oxus 
became independent, but was afterwards reconquered by 
the Barakzais. This province, with Herat and Sistan, 
are the only outlying provinces- attached to the Afghan 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 327 

kingdom which are still retained by the Barakzai 
dynasty. Herat was retained by Mahmud Shah after 
he had lost the rest of his dominions till 1829 (A.H. 
1245), and his son Kamran maintained himself there till 
1842 (A.H.* 1258). In 1839 Sh5h Shuja'-ul-mulk again 
obtained possession of Kabul with British assistance, and 
was killed there in February, 1842. His son Fath Jang 
nominally succeeded him, and was for a short time 
maintained by Muhammad Akbar Khan, son of Dost 
Muhammad, but he had to leave the country the same 
year, and the Durrani Dynasty came to an end in Kabul 
in name as well as in reality. Kamran, the son of 
Mahmud Shah, who had maintained .himself at Herat 
since his father's death in 1829, was also murdered by 
his Wazlr, Yar Muhammad Khan, in 1842, shortly after 
Shah Shuja'-ul-mulk's death, and thus the last remaining 
trace of the family's power disappeared. 

The history of the Durranls is an almost unparalleled 
series of treasons, rebellions, plots, and murders, and it 
would be impossible to go into it with any fulness in 
such a limited space. The Chronological Table appended 
will suffice to mark a few of the more important dates, 
and to illustrate the bearing of the course of events upon 
the coinage. 1 



1 The following are among the more accessible works referring 
to this period : 

Elphinstone's Caubool, 2 vols. London, 1839. 

Ferrier's History of the Afghans, 1 vol. London, 1858. 

Mohan Lai's Life of Dost Muhammad Khan, 2 vols. London, 1846. 

Shahamat All, Sikhs and Afghans, London. 

Shahamat All, Picturesque Sketches in India, London, 1843. 

"Waki'at-i-Durrani (in Urdu). 

Tarikh-i-Sultam, by Sultan Muhammad Khan. 



328 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

THE COINAGE. 

The mints of the Durrani kings were situated at the 
following places : 

Kabul. 

Peshawar. 

Ahmadshahl (Qandahar). 

Herat. 

Meshhed. 

Khoi. 

Atak. 

Multan. 

Lahore. 

Derajat (Dera Isma'il Khan). 

Dera (Dera GhazI Khan). 

Dera Path Khan. 

Bhakhar. 

Kashmir. 

Bahawalpur. 

Kabul always bears the title of Dar-us-saltanat, * The 
Capital/ and this is also usually borne by Herat. 
Kashmir is described on the coins as Khita-i Kashmir, 
'the province of Kashmir/ and on a coin of Zaman 
Shah's it is called Dar-us-saltanat. Ahmadshahl is the 
name given to Ahmad Shah's new foundation at Qan- 
dahar. It always bears the prefix of Ashraf-ul-bilad ' the 
most illustrious of cities/ This name was dropped by 
the Amir Dost Muhammad after the expulsion of Ahmad 
Shah's descendants, and he reverted to the old name 
Qandahar. The Amir Abd-ur-rahman, however, has 
again introduced the name Ahmadshahl on his coins. 

Meshhed is described, as on the coins of the Safavis and 
Afsharls, by the title of Meshhed-i-muqaddas. Taimur 



COINS OF THE DURRANlS. 329 

Shah, following the example of his father, struck coins 
at this place which bear a strong resemblance to those 
struck by Shah-Rukh, Nadir Shah's grandson, whom they 
maintained there. This mint does not appear after 
Taimur Shah's death. 

Khoi (in Adharbaijan) also appears in Taimiir Shah's 
reign only. It is not included in the series here 
described, but Mr. Leggett 2 has a coin of Taimur Shah's 
struck there in A.H. 1198. 

At this time Southern Persia was still under the rule 
of 'All Murad Khan Zendl, and Agha Muhammad Kajar 
was establishing his independence in Mazandaran. He 
was soon to reunite Adharbaijan and Khorasan to the 
Persian kingdom. 

Multan retains its old appellation of Dar-ul-aman, but 
none of the other mints have any distinctive title. 

The accompanying table of mints shows the dates and 
the kings found under each. The fluctuations of power 
are faithfully reflected in the coinage. This is clearly 
shown in the very full series of rupees of the Derajat 
mint, where the alternations of power between Mahmud Shah 
and Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah may all be traced. The Peshawar 
mint also illustrates these fluctuations, and shows the 
establishment of the puppet king Ayyub Shah, under the 
control of Muhammad 'Azlm Khan Barakzai, as a rival 
to Mahmud Shah, from 1817 (A.H. 1233) until the 
capture of Peshawar by the Sikhs. The Kashmir series 
also possesses many points of interest, commencing with 
the posthumous coin of Taimur Shah which marks the 
revolt of the province on his death, with difficulty sup- 

2 Notes on the mint-towns and coins of the Mohamedans. By 
E. Leggett. London: Stevens and Sons, 1885. p. 51,.y. Khoi. 



330 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

pressed by Zaman Shah. Again, the coins of Qaisar Shah, 
son of Sha"h Zaman, dated 1221 and 1223 (A.D. 1808), 
mark the revolt of that prince against his uncle Shuja'- 
ul-mulk Shah at the instigation of the Wazlr Fath Khan. 
After him, during the years 1223 1225, the governors 
of Kashmir, Nur-ud-dm, and Muhammad Shah, 3 struck in 
their own names, and afterwards, in 1233, Ayyub Shah's 
coins were struck in Kashmir, as well as at Peshawar. 
Possibly the couplet on these coins (Nos. 148, 149, 150) 
bears some allusion to the name of his protector, Muhammad 
'Azlm Khan. It runs : 

Sikka-i Ayyub Shah ba-zar o sim 
Shud ba-hukm-i Yadgar-i 'Azim. 

Mahmud Shah's coins of the Kabul and some of the 
Peshawar mint bear the title Sultan Mahmud, and on these 
he appears to reckon the year of his accession as 1224 or 
1225, the year he drove out Shuja'-ul-mulk, and not as 
1216, the date of the commencement of his first reign. 4 
These Sultan Mahmud coins have a Persian couplet 
differing from that on his other coins, although he keeps 
the title of Khusrau. Mahmud Shah's coins of the Herat 
mint are most abundant, and they seem to have sufficed 
for the needs of the currency during Kamran's reign. As 
far as I am aware, no coins struck in Kamran's name have 
yet been met with. In the Derajat mint, Mahmud Shah's 
name was continued on the coins by the Saddozai Nawabs 



3 Muhammad 'Azim Khan was Governor of Kashmir from 
18111816 (A.H. 12271232), and the coins bearing the name 
Muhammad Shah must have been struck by him (see Nos. 
139140). 

4 See also No. 94 of the Derajat mint, which is dated 1224, 
year 1 (ahd), although coins of an earlier date had been struck 
at the same mint in Mahmud Shah's name. 



COINS OF THE DURRANlS. 331 

even after his death, till A.H. 1250 (1834), after which 
date the Sikhs, having taken over the administration, 
began to strike in the name of Guru Govind Singh. I 
have a coin of this mint dated Sambat 1906 (1849), when 
the Khalsa army was making its last struggle against the 
British Government. 5 

The Lahore mint, so common on the coins of Ahmad 
Shah, is found on those of Taimur Shah, as his father's 
Nizam in A.H. 1170 (1756), but never after his accession 
to the throne. The Sikh power was then too firmly 
established to admit of any such coins being struck at 
Lahore. 

At the Multan mint gold and silver were struck by 
Taimur Shah as Nizam, and he and his successors con- 
tinued to use the mint. Copper was extensively struck 
in the names of Taimur Shah, Zaman Shah and Mahmud 
Shah. Some in Mahmud Shah's name were struck long 
after the Sikh conquest, as is shown by No. Ill, A.H. 
1244 (1828). A very fine series in gold and silver was 
struck at the Bahawalpur mint in Shuja'-ul-mulk's first 
year, and the fine double mohar of MahmQd (No. 79, 
pi. xiii. No. 11) was struck also in his first year. 

The mint at Dera (Dera GhazI Khan) seems to have 
struck gold and silver during the reigns of Ahmad Shah 
and Taimur Shah, but afterwards to have been confined to 
copper. There is also a very curious series struck at Dera 
Eath Khan, bearing on one side a sort of monogram of 
the words Dera Fath, and on the other the figure of an 
animal, popularly supposed to be a cat, from which these 



6 Sikh coins of the Derajat mint are figured in Mr. C. J. 
Rodgers's paper on the Coins of the Sikhs (J.A.S. Bengal, 1881, 
pt. i. pi. viii. Nos. 49, 50). 



332 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coins are known in the Derajat as " Billshahl paisa." 
These continued into the Sikh times, as the dates (up to 
A.H. 1267) show. They seem to have been imitated from 
the copper coinage of the Safavi kings, of which many 
specimens bearing figures of lions and other animals are 
found in the Derajat. There is also a small square coin, 
dated 118# (No. 55), bearing on one side the figure of 
a peacock, which is locally stated to have been struck 
at Fazilpur, a small town in the Southern Derajat. 

WEIGHTS AND STANDARDS. 

The standard followed by the Durrani gold and silver 
coinages seems to have been the same as the Indian 
system of the Mughals. Five gold pieces give an average 
of 170 grains each. The silver coin is a rupee, and may 
be considered as aiming at a standard of 180 grains. A 
Kabul rupee of Taimur Shah's actually reaches that 
weight, and a double rupee of Zaman Shah's, though 
rubbed at the edges, still weighs 365 grains. This re- 
mark applies to the issues of the Kabul, Peshawar, 
Qandahar, Herat, Meshhed, Multan and Bhakhar mints 
through the reigns of Taimur Shah and Zaman Shah, to 
the early issues of Shah Shuja* at Bahawalpur, Ahmadshahl 
and Peshawar, and Mahmud Shah's Herat, Peshawar, and 
Qandahar coinage. Twenty-six coins of this period show 
an average weight of 177 grains. 

The Derajat coins throughout the series are subject to 
another and lower standard. Ahmad Shah's coins at the 
beginning of the period weigh only 165 grains ; and the 
heaviest in the series is one of Taimur Shah's of 172 
grains. The average weight of 26 specimens ranging 
from A.D. 1770 to 1849 is 168 grains. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 333 

The Peshawar coinage of Sultan Mahmud and Ayyub 
Shah shows a still lower standard, 5 specimens averaging 
161 grains. The Kashmir rupees described average 167 
grains. Mahmud Shah's Bhakhar rupee is only 150 
grains, but this is an isolated specimen. 

Leaving the Derajat and late Peshawar and Kashmir 
issues out of consideration, the standard was well main- 
tained at all the mints till the Durrani kingdom began 
to go to pieces. The Barakzais degraded the coinage 
considerably. Their rupees struck immediately before 
and after the British occupation of 1839-91 (see Nos. 
154 and 155) average only 140 grains, and Shah Shuja's 
rupees struck during that occupation (Nos. 129 and 130) 
weigh only 143 and 144 grains. The rupees of Dost 
Muhammad, Sher 'All, Muhammad Ya'qub, and the 
present Amir 'Abd-ur-rahman average only 142 grains, 
though Sher 'All was careful to put the legend <*-/ 
yak-rupia in the centre of his coins, and nlm-rupia on 
the half rupees, which barely weigh 70 grains. 

Silver coins averaging 85 grains have also been struck 
at Qandahar, of which No. 156 is a specimen. These 
still continue to be struck, and may perhaps be referred to 
the Persian type known as 'abbasl. The nearest approach 
to the depreciated rupee is the coin occasionally struck 
under the Safavls known as an " 'abbasi of five shahis" 
(Marsden, vol. ii. No. DLX.). Marsden's specimen 
weighed 134J grains. Mr. E. E. Oliver gives others 
of 141, 138, 135, and 147 ; 6 the average of these 
specimens being 139 grains, or nearly the same as the 
Barakzai rupee. 

6 The Safavi Dynasty of Persia. By E. E. Oliver. J.A.S. 
Bengal, vol. i. part i. 1887. 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. X X 



334 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The style and execution of the coins vary considerably. 
Those struck at Kabul and in Kashmir are the best. The 
double rupee of Zaman Shah (No. 61, PL xiii. No. 8) and 
the double mohar of Nur-ud-dm (No. 135, PI. xiii. No. 16) 
are fine and artistic coins, worthy of the palmy days of the 
Mughal Empire. The Bahawalpur mohar and rupee of 
Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah (Nos. 112, 114) are clearly struck and 
handsome coins, with milled edges, and are apparently 
imitated from the Farrukhabad Sikka rupees of the East 
India Company. The double mohar of Mahmud Shah of 
the same mint (No. 79) is also a beautiful coin. The 
Peshawar coins are also of a good style, as are some of 
those of Herat and Qandahar, but the Derajat issues are 
poor, and show signs of having been struck in a backward 
and uncivilized province. 

The coins described here are, when not otherwise 
specified, from my own cabinet. Some are in the Lahore 
Museum, and some from the cabinets of Mrs. Stoker, 
Mr. C. J. Eodgers, and Mr. W. Theobald, to whom I am 
much indebted for assistance received and for permission 
to describe their coins. 

M. LONGWORTH DAMES. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 335 

PERSIAN COUPLETS ON THE COINS OF THE DURRAN! 
KINGS. 

The Durrani kings, following the example of the 
Mughal emperors of India and the kings of Persia, made 
use of Persian couplets or baits on their coins, each king 
adopting a new one on his accession, and usually adhering 
to it throughout his coinage in gold 'and silver. The 
following are the couplets which have been observed on 
the Durrani coins. Ahmad Shah's well-known verse is 
added to complete the series. 

1. Ahmad Shah. 



" The order proceeded from the Incomparable Creator to 
Ahmad the King." Strike coins in silver and gold from the 
Ascension of Pisces up to the Moon. 

Mr. Rodgers also gives the following couplet of Ahmad 
Shah's from a Kashmir rupee. It will be noticed that the 
Kashmir coinage frequently shows a variation from that 
of the other mints. 



The world-protecting king Ahmad Shah struck coins in gold 
by God's grace. 



336 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

2. Taimur Shah, as Nizam, under his father. 



Jl jjj i) ^ ] J. >. fc v ^ 

or 

r l 
r l 

The latter reading is given by Mr. Rodgers, 7 with the 
following translation : 

" The coin of Taimur Shah got curreftt in the world by the 
order of God and the Prophet of the people." 

There is here evidently a pun upon the word Nizam, 
which means both " Governor" and "currency." 

3. Taimur Shah as king. 
The usual couplet is 



The revolution (of the heavens) brings gold and silver from 
the sun and moon, that it may make on its face the impression 
of the coinage of Taimur Shah. 

In the Kashmir coinage this is varied by the substitution 
of the word Joj "may strike," for J^ "may make." 
The Tarlkh-i-Durram gives this version as the usual form 
of the couplet, but I have only found it on the Kashmir 
coins. 



7 Couplets of Kings after the time of Jahangir. By C. J. 
Rodgers, J. A. S. B. No. 1, 1888. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 337 

4. Zaman Shah. 



The currency of the coin of the realm in the name of Shah 
Zaman obtained permanency by the order of the Lord of both 
worlds. 

The following line is added on some coins as a marginal 
inscription, and in others occurs by itself. 



He has struck coins in silver and gold by the order of the 
God of the age ; or, Zaman has struck coins in silver and gold 
by God's order. 

5. Mahmud Shah. The usual couplet is : 



The world-conquering Khusrau Mahmud Shah struck coins 
in gold through God's support. 

On the coins struck by Mahmud Shah, under the title 
of Sultan Mahmud, the following appears : 



Sultan Mahmud, the second Khusrau, increased the coinage 
of the realm in gold and silver. 



338 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

6. Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah. The couplet usually found 
on his coins is : 






The religious King, Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah, struck coins in 
silver and gold like the sun and moon. 

The author of the Tarlkh-i-Sultam (quoted by Mr. 
Bodgers in the paper mentioned above) gives the following 
as occurring on the coins of Shah Shuja', but I have never 
met with it on any coin. 






The light of the eyes, the pearl of pearls (or, of the Durranis) 
King Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah, struck in gold and silver coins more 
brilliant than the sun and moon. 



7. Qaisar Shah. I have not seen enough coins to be 
certain of the reading of the couplet on Qaisar Shah's 
coins, but it appears to read as follows : 



The coinage in gold and silver in the name of Qaisar Shah (is) 
current in the world by God's grace. 

8. Nur-ud-din. The only silver coin of Nur-ud-dm's 
which I have seen gives the couplet in a very fragmentary 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 339 

form, which I am unable to read. On his double gold 
mohar here described the following occur : 



The world is carrion, and the seekers thereafter are dogs. 
And in the margins : 

&\p*~ +)&^* V. (ji^ J? *\~* V. 
Oh king Nuru'd-dm, Oh (thou) served by the world. 

9. Ayyub Shah. The couplet on the Peshawar coins is: 



In the world the sun and moon were illuminated by the 
darting forth of the rays of the coinage of Ayyub Shah. 

On the Kashmir coins the following is found : 



The coinage of Ayyub Shah in gold and silver came into 
existence by the order of the Exalted Creator. 



340 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



A.D. A.H. 

Accession of Ahmad Shah 1747 1 160 

Appointment of Taimur Shah as Nizam of Lahore 

andMultan 1756 1170 

Accession of Taimur Shah 1773 1187 

Multan taken hy Sikhs and retaken by Taimur Shah 1781 1196 

Death of Taimur Shah and accession of Zaman Shah 1793 1207 

Zaman Shah's first invasion of Punjab 1795 1209 

Agha Muhammad Kajar seizes Persian Khorasan 1796 1210 

Murder of Painda Khan Barakzai by Zaman Shah 1799 1214 
Zaman Shah dethroned and blinded by Mahmud 

Shah 1800 1215 

Mahmud Shah proclaimed King at Kabul, Shah 

Shuja' at Peshawar 1800 1215 

Shah Shuj a' expelled from Peshawar 1801 1216 

Meshhed taken by Persians 1802 1217 

Shah Shuja' takes Kabul 1803 1218 

Sindh invaded by Shah Shuja' 1804 1219 

Qandahar taken by Kamran, retaken by Shuja'. . 1806 1221 

Qaisar Shah proclaimed King by Path Khan 1807 1222 

Defeat of Shah Shuja' by Mahmud at Nimla 1809 1224 

Invasion of Kashmir by Path Khan, Muhammad 

'Azim becomes Governor 1812 1227 

Path Khan defeated by Sikhs at Chach 1812 1227 

Path Khan joins Piroz Shah at Herat 1816 1232 

Path Khan murdered by Kamran, Multan taken 

by the Sikhs 1818 1233 

Sultan 'All Shah proclaimed King by Dost Mu- 
hammad 1819 1234 

Ay yub Shah proclaimed by Muhammad 'Azirn Khan 1819 1234 

Kashmir conquered by the Sikhs 1819 1234 

Dera Ghazi Khan conquered by the Sikhs 1819 1235 



COINS OF THE DURRANTs. 341 

A.D. A.H. 

Dera Isma'il Khan conquered by the Sikhs .... 1821 1236 

Mahmud flees to Herat 1821 1236 

Battle of Naushehra 1822 1238 

Dost Muhammad established at Kabul, Sultan 

Muhammad at Peshawar 1822 1238 

Death of Mahmud Shah 1829 1245 

Dost Muhammad takes title of Amir 1834 1250 

Peshawar taken by the Sikhs 1834 1250 

Shah Shuja' unsuccessfully attacks Qandahar. . . . 1834 1250 

Shah Shuja' restored by British intervention 1839 1255 

Shah Shuja' killed. His sons expelled from Kabul. 

Kamran killed near Herat by Yar Muhammad 1842 1258 



KlNGS OF THE DUREANI DYNASTY. 

Date of Accession. 

A.H. A.D. 

I. Ahmad Shah 1160 1747 

II. Taimur Shah . . , 1187 1773 

III. Zaman Shah 1207 1793 

IY. Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah. First reign 1216 1801 

Y. Mahmud Shah. First reign 1216 1801 

Shuja'-ul-mulk. Second reign 1218 1803 

Mahmud Shah. Second reign 1224 1809 

to 1245 1829 

YI. Qaisar Shah (in Kashmir) 1221 1806 

to 1223 1808 

VII. Sultan 'All Shah (at Kabul) 1233 1817 

VIII. Ayyub Shah (Kashmir and Peshawar). . . . 1233 1817 

IX. Kamran (at Herat) 1245 1829 

to 1258 1842 

Shuja'-ul-mulk Shah (Third reign) 1255 1839 

X. FathJang 1258 1842 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. YY 



342 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



^ 
o 



p 
*i 



CO 












w 



I* 

'GO 





.02 



I 



M 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



343 



CATALOGUE OF COINS. 

I. TAIMUR SHAH. 
(1) As Nizam under Ahmad Shah. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 










GOLD. 








1 tvi 




Multan 


Obv. 


fliaJ *l&jjwJ AC L^Jb Jl*J 


1 


1176 




A\j\ J^~>J ^ lA>- f^7 






Rev. 


^laU ^U\,b c^y ^1 








^. -75. Wt. 170. 


2 


Multan 


Same, 


but date 1 1 v *. 




1177 






3 


Multan 


Same, 


but date 1 1 VA. 




1178 




N -76. Wt. 170. 








tf 


4 


Multan 


Same, 


but date 1 1 Af t and <U-> 




1184 




SILVEE. 


5 


Lahore 


Same, 


but date 1 1 v . j^ ^^> 




1170 




(Mr. C. J". Rodgers.) 


6 


Multan 


Same, 


but date it ve. jjl^L* ^W^J ^-y* 




1175 




^R. -9. Wt. 176. 








(2) As King. 








GOLD. 


7 


Kabul 


Obv. i 


^ JLJ^ j! ^ j & jjT ^ ^^ 




1190 




1 / A " . ^1 " 

^Li %'*-^ Ax~s ^j^-W Xjj^>-ji & *J 






Rev. 


Jl Jj\? toLUIjb c^y 








^". (Lahore Museum.) 


8 


Peshawar 


Obv. 


As on 7. Date xxx*. 




1192 


Rev. 


,.Uxj ( ^ ^^y U c^^-*^ i j^r/^r 








jV. '8. Wt. 167. 



344 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




9 


Peshawar 


Obv. As on 7. Date 1 r-f. 




1204 


Rev. As on 8. Year tv. 






N. -8. Wt. 169. 


10 


Dera 


Obv. As on 7. Date x^ r. 




1192 


T 






Rev. *JJ (Jj*a <U~s 






N. -75. Wt. 170. 


11 


Dera 


Obv. As on 7. Date t r v. 




1207 


Rev. Circular area surrounded by dots 






rr j^jj S-y-z (Lotus-flower ornament). 






N. "'76. Wt. 170. PI. xiii. No. 1. 


12 


Herat 


Obv. As on 7. 




1197 


1 1 <iv 






Rev. CL?U> ^y U L^:**~ u*jW- <-^ 






AT. -75. Wt. 168. 


13 


Herat 


The same. No date. 






N. -75. Wt. 168. 


14 


Ahmadshahl 


Obv. As on 7. 






Rev. JbU.Jc4.sJ jLJt cJ^-ll L-je 






N. (Lahore Museum.) 


15 


Kashmir 


Kashmir. Date t r . Year t r. 




1200 


N. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


16 


Kashmir 


Kashmir. Dateir*r. Year to. 




1203 


N. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 






SlLVEE. 


17 


Kabul 


Obv. As on 7. 




1186 


Rev. Circular area surrounded by line 






and dots. 






M. -85. Wt. 174. 


18 


Kabul 


The same. HAV. j^l <U-o. 




1187 


yR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


19 


Kabul 


Obv. As on 7. Date tin. 




1192 


T 






Rev. Jjli 4-l2LJ\ j)J c_->r^ ^i . 






^51. -95. Wt. 180. PI. xiii. No. 2. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



345 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




20 


Kabul 


Obv. As on 7. 




1190 


Rev. As on 19. Year f . 






JR. (Lahore Museum.) 


21 


Herat 


Obv. As on 7. 




1195 


Rev. 






JR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


22 


Herat 


Obv. As on 7. 




1198 


Rev. Circular area surrounded by double 






line enclosing line of dots. 






1 1 IA ci?y> ^y U L^CS^, u^j^r <-r>> 






JR. -8. Wt. 174- 


23 


Herat 


Herat. Date t r I . 




1201 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


24 


Herat 


Herat. Date t rv. 




1207 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


25 


Herat 


Obv. As on 7. 




1208 


I r A 






Rev. CuLfc &Ja3uJ|^4) ^-^ 






^R. -85. Wt. 178. PI. xiii. No. 3. 


26 


Peshawar 


Obv. As on 7. 




1198 


Rev. jjjliJ (-.jJ U C^*~* (J*jL>- ' r <rrir* 






JR,. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


27 


Atak 


Obv. As on 7. Date n Sv. 




1197 


Rev. Circular area surrounded by line 






and dots. , , 






^ "^R". -85. Wt. 176. 


28 


Meshhed 


Obv. tU\ J^yj ^jjj^ * 






Rev. Centre, in a heart-shaped arabesque 






surrounded by dots. 






JR. '9. Wt. 176. PI. xiii. No. 4. 


29 


Derajat 


Obv. As on 7. Date xx^. 




1197 


\ \ 






Rev. l **^ ^~ r* ^ "^7*^ ^*** } 






^R. -85." Wt. 171. PL xiii. No. 5. 



346 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




30 


Derajat 


The same. Date xx\*. Year t r. 




1198 


JR. -8. Wt. 168-5. 


31 


Derajat 


The same. Date t m . Year 1 r. 




1199 


JR. -8. Wt. 170. 


32 


Dera 


Obv. As on 7. Date til A. 




1198 


\r 






Rev. te~o jjjj t-rV^' 






JR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


33 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 7. Date t nr. 




1192 


-p 1 1 \ i-, 






Jb U*> <X4h- 1 J-LJl UJ.-ll 






;R. -8. Wt. 171. 


34 


Ahmadshahi 


The same. No date. 






JR. '8. Wt. 175. 


35 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 7. No date. 






Rev. ^tol^Js^-l jLS! uJ^-1 c-^J 






" (enclosed in double circle). 






^l. -85. Wt. 176. 


36 


Ahmadshahi 


The same. Date t no. 




1205 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


37 


Ahmadshahi 


The same. Date t ri. 




1206 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


38 


Bhakhar 


Obv. As on 7, with flower-ornament. 




1189 


Rev. Area surrounded by circular line 






and dots. f , A ^ 






^R. -85. Wt. 176. PI. xiii. No. 6. 


39 


Bhakhar 


Obv. Margin : 




1196 


U, ^j* jl *jSj ti**Jif tj- 






Centre, in sixfoil &\ \]+*i 






Rev. In sixfoil : 






ll^ jjmijjU C^^*-,^ (jMJ^-j^L^ C-^J 






^R. -9. Wt. 176. 


40 


Bhakhar 


Date 1 1 IA. 




1198 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



347 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




41 


Bhakhar 


Date tm. 


Year e. 




1199 




^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


42 


Kashmir 


Obv. 


_ 




1201 


*U j s^tij 


jrL \\ Xj& j No Jjl ^ >r >- 








t r t 






*\ Jf 


-J *L> /AAJ y^>. j & to* 






Rev. In an arabesque : ( ^ 


* 




(j*yu *z^ 


Jwi ^ i L/^y^ it ^** J > ;*' 4> ^ ^-r-V^ 








^R. '9. Wt. 168. 


43 


Kashmir 


The same. 


Date 'Mo. Year A . 




1195 




^R,. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


44 


Kashmir 


The same. 


Date !Hv. Year 1 . 




1197 




^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


45 


Kashmir 


The same. 


Date t r-r. Year ie. 




1202 




^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


46 


Kashmir 


The same. 


Date I r r. Year 1 1 . 




1203 




^R. (Lahore Museum.) 


47 


Kashmir 


The same. 


Date i rA. Year r. 




1208 


JR. 


95. Wt. 166. Pl.xiii. No. 7. 


48 


Multan 


Obv. As 


on 7. Date ir-F. 




1204 




t A 






Rev. 


<!UJ (^uL 10^**' J' 1 ^ t ^ i r 9 j* a 








j&. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


49 


Multan 
1205 


The same. 


Date t ra. Year tl. 
^R. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 








COPPEE. 


50 


Kashmir 


Obv. 


trt ,j\j *L!*jy*-J (jy^ 




1201 




A x >., 






Rev. 


^^xwJ . _^/*^ 








^. -9. Wt. 272. 


51 


Dera 


Obv. In 


an arabesque : 




1192 




Mir 






Rev. 


KJ j (j-^ ^r^ 








M. '85. 



348 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




52 


Dera 


The same. No date. 






M. -8. 


53 


Dera 


Obv. An animal, probably intended for a 




(Fath Khan) 
1203 


lion, with the date I r r reversed 






over its back, thus "I'll. 






Rev. A monogram or tughra probably 






meant for -^ \ -> J. 






M. '7. 


54 


Dera 


Obv. t rf al2>jbj^*.J 




(Fath Khan) 


Rev. As on 53. Year M. 




1204 


M. -75. 


55 


Fazilpur (?) 


Obv. The figure of a peacock. 




1180 


1 !A 






Rev. ^V9 .... (juwjU 






JE. (square). P 7. 






II3F 


56 


Derajat 


Obv. <SWUMO 




1194 


Rev. CuV>- . . 






M. -7. 


57 


Multan 


Obv. 




1204 


1 1 *)P . . . -J 1 t) t) iwJiiU #U*J tiA^J LJ"Ji 






Rev. ^\ixL/ C ?,*? c^SiLs^i ^jwi.>- 






J3. -8. 


58 


Multan 


Obv. i rc .xl^ijlj i wi *^MJ 




1205 


Rev. ^uxL S-V^ t ^ (j**y^r 






II. ZAMAN SHAH. 






GOLD. 




Kabul 




59 


1213 


Obv. uVr j<^ ^^ j-X*: ur-^lj jly 






^WJ *U*j j*UJ C^J^t) <OJ ^U^ 






T 






Rev. &.-J J.jl^ ^ilaLJl ^,M u-J.*? 






j^. (Lahore Museum.) 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



349 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




60 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 59. 




1215 


Eev. Centre : f n c 






Margin illegible; probably the line 
given in the Obv. Margin No. 59. 
-AT. '75. Wt. 168. 






(Marsden's Numismata Orientalia, vol. ii. 
p. Ivii. No. MCCCXXVIII.) 






SILVER. 


61 


Kabul 


Obv. Centre : 




1212 


oVrrV* ^^- (&*? ^V.j!/ 






^,Uj &\i |*bo e^JjJ 4xj _.'jj 
Margin : 






Rev. U ^K} J^11ui>'L> 






^R. 1-1. Wt. 356. Pl.xiii. No. 8. 


62 


Kabul 


The same. Date f rn. Year *. 


63 


1211 
Ahmadshahi 


^R. (Mr. C. J. Eodgers). 
Obv. As on 61. 




1214 


Obv. Margin divided into sections. 






Eev. v ^l-iaJk^^l jLJ! <-Jj-$j! <r-^ 






^R. 1-15. Wt.348. PLxiii. No. 9. 


64 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 59. 




1209 


tr-1 






Eev. r jjfculxXfcs*-' jLJi 4_^-ii ^-^/^ 






^R. -85. Wt. 178. 


65 


Peshawar 


Obv. As on 59. Date xx*v. 




1207 


Eev. ^c^dc^Lr 






^R. -9. Wt. 177. 


66 


Peshawar 
1210 


Peshawar. Date t *xx. Year f . 
^R. (Mr. C. J. Eodgers.) 


VOT.. VITT. THIRD SERIES. Z Z 



350 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




67 


Peshawar 


Obv. Area and margin, as on 61 . Date t r t c 




1215 


Rev. A^yU(^~*^^^lAJL.^ 






JR. -95. Wt. 177. 


68 


Peshawar 


Obv. trio (jl*j ,c-^ f^^'j) ) f?* 3 ^ ^} ^** J 




1215 


Rev. As on 67. " Imperfect. 






JR. -95. Wt. 177. 


69 


Bhakhar 


Obv. As on 59. 




1216 


Rev. 






" JR. -85. Wt. 175. 


70 


Herat 


Obv. alfcjb all ^Uj 




1212 


(i) j L_5"r v*^* JJ 5 (*^* > ^S' ^J &**> 






Rev. t rt r L ** *\ N (ti^juuuji it} e -_ -> pff 






JR. (Mrs. Stoker.) 


71 


Derajat 


Obv. As on 59. 




1210 


P 






Rev. <Uw-j CL?lsj- yb j J S-^ 






"^R.'-85. Wt. 169. 


72 


Derajat 


The same. Date t rt r. Year 1. 




1212 


^l. -85. Wt. 166-5. 


73 


Derajat 


The same. Year v. 




1213 


^R. -85. Wt. 169-5. 


74 


Derajat 


The same. Year A. 




1215 


^R. -85. Wt. 169. PI. xiii. No. 10. 


75 


Kashmir 


Obv. As on 59. 




1209 


XvGV 1 r * ( ^^4<JUU^ Alrti^r W) 1 l^ ^^^ +*& 






JR. (Lahore Museum.) 






COPPEE. 


76 


Dera 


Obv. f r . ^\j6j ill ^Uj 




1209 


f 






Rev. <!j**} $Jt) c.-?-ttf 






JE. -8. 


77 


Multan 


Obv. As on 76. Date trip. 




1214 


Rev. A jo^*L* ^***i' ^-V^ 
-SI. -9. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



351 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




78 


Multan 


The same. Date trie. 






1215 


M. '9. 






III. MAHMUD SHAH. 








(a) With the title Mahmud Shah. 








GOLD. 




79 


Bahawalpur 


Obv. &JJ) ^*i*2j .\ j J>j <Jj 


f 

vw) 




1217 


t rtv *[ jy^^l^ jsJfjf* 


r>- 






\ 








Rev. <^U ^^^ e^U <L 


' 






^.1-1. Wt. 344. PL xiii. No 


r^ 
. 11. 






(Two other specimens examined show tho 
date 1217 on the Obverse, but the years 
11 and 12 on the reverse.) 






(b) With the title Sultan Mahmud. 




80 


Kabul 


Obv. tyj ft!*" 4 3 JJ J^ v "~" ^ ^ 


f 
w> 




1224 


t r rf t>y4.^^ (^UaL-j Jo J .***, 


^_ 








r 






Rev. Jjl^" ^ulaLJ^ j\4 <-Jj* & 


K~~- 






N. -9. Wt. 


169. 






SILVER. 








(a) With the title Mahmud Shah. 




81 


Peshawar 


Obv. As on 79. Date ?rtv. 






1217 


r 
Rev. ui*-> <*Jj& &+> 
M. -85. Wt. 


175. 


82 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 79. No date. 








Rev. JbiJbJ^*.! jLJl uJ^ <>;*> 








M. '85. Wt. 


175. 



352 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 


- 


83 


Ahmadshahi 


The same. Date t r rf . 




1224 


JR. (Lahore Museum.) 


84 


Herat 


Obv. As on 79. 




1216 


t rt i 






Rev. CU^fc <LdaLJljb c-^J 






JR. '65. Wt. 176. 


85 


Herat 


The same. Date t HA. 




1218 


JR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 


86 


Herat 


The same. Date t r r . 




1220 


JR. "75. Wt. 178. 


87 


Herat 


The same. Date trn. 




1221 


M. -75. Wt. 178. 


88 


Herat 


The same. Date t r r r. 




1222 


JR. -75. Wt. 178. 


89 


Herat 


The same. Date t rrr. 




1223 


JR. -75. Wt. 178. 


90 


Herat 


The same. Date t rre. 




1225 


JR. -65. Wt. 174. 


91 


Herat 


The same. No date. 






JR. *7. Wt. 172. 


92 


Derajat 


Obv. As on 79. f 




1218 


Rev. C^b-ajJ *_ y* <U**a 












JR. -75. Wt. 170. 


93 


Derajat 


The same. Date I m. 




1216 


M. -75. Wt. 170. 


94 


Derajat 


The same. Date t rrf. Year J^l. 




1224 


A new date of accession 1 224, referring to 






Mahmiid Shah's second reign. See also 






the coins with the title Sultan Mahmud. 






M. -75. Wt. 169. 


95 


Derajat 


The same. Date trn. 




1226 


M. -75. Wt. 169. 


96 


Derajat 


The same. Date trrv (?) 




1227 


M. -75. Wt. 170. PI. xiii. No. 12. 


97 


Derajat 


The same. Date t rft. 




1241 


Cross of flower ornaments on Obverse. 






M. -8. Wt. 168. 



COINS OF THE DURRAN1S. 



353 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




98 


Derajat 
1244 


The same. Date t rf f . 
JR. -8. Wt. 167. 


99 


Derajat 
1246 


The same. Date trfi. 
M. -75. Wt. 166. 


100 


Derajat 
1250 


The same. Date irc. 
JR. '75. Wt. 166. 






(These four rupees were struck under Sikh 
influence. On the Obv. of No. 100 there 






is an ornament resembling the arisi of 
Mora, as found on the Sikh coins. The 
paper on the Coins of the Sikhs by C. J. 
Rodgers, J.A.S.B. 1881, pi. v. No. 16.) 


101 


Kashmir 


Obv. As on 79. Date in A. 




1218 


Rev. Centre in a small arabesque (as in 
the Meshhed mint). 






"jR. -8. Wt. 166. 


102 


Kashmir 


Obv. As on 79. v 


103 


1222 (?) 
Bhakhar 


' JR. (Mrs. Stoker.) 
Obv. Margin, illegible. 






Centre *^ ^<*^ 






Rev. <j-j3l e^X4~ u^^Tj^^ ^j* 






JR. -8. Wt. 151. 






(b) With the title Sultan Mahmud. 


104 


Peshawar 


Obv. Margin, in four compartments. 




1233 


| X> J/**S- I ^Jj*\ \ ^ jjjj*. \ ^^^ ^~* 






Centre, in quatrefoil. 






i rrr j^s^ ^UaLo 






Rev. Octagonal area, surrounded by 
arrow-head pattern. 






^jlj L-Jje L/T^ *"~* 
JR. '9. Wt. 164. V PL xiii. No. 13. 


105 


Peshawar 
1227 


The same. Date trr.v. Year r. 
JR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 



354 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




106 


Peshawar 


The same. Date t rrr. Year A. 






1232 


M. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 






COPPER. 








i rn 


107 


Peshawar 


Obv. aLljlj *Li> <J>j^ 


ks* 




1221 


Rev. J^i U"^ *-: 


^J 






JB. 


8. 


108 


Multan 


Obv. t IT* .J\j3j& *Lit3b *L2 ^ 


^f 




1230 


Rev. (jlsl* (j*^J <- 


^ 






2. 


85. 


109 


Multan 


The same. Date t rn. 






1231 


M. 


85. 


110 


Multan 


The same. Date I rn. 






1236 


M. 


85. 


111 


Multan 


The same. Date t rf f . 






1244 


M 


85. 






(The last two were struck under Sikh rule.) 






IV. SHUJA'-UL-MULE: SHAH. 








[Abbreviated form, Shah Shuja'.] 








GOLD. 




112 


Bahawalpur 


Obv. ^^^j^jy 


^ 




1218 


1 MA A& ujUl jls^ tjift ^ 


*\ 






Key. ^yU c^^, ^^r ^1 


^ 






N. -99. "Wt. 172. PL xiii. No 


. 14. 


113 


Multan 


Obv. As on 112. Date irrf. 






1224 


Rev. A ^l^L ^jILiSi^iJ c 


rV* 






^. -7. Wt. 


171. 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



355 



No. 


Mint and Date. 








SlLVEK. 




114 


Bahawalpur 


Obv. As on 112. 






1217 


Rev. As on 112. Date j^-1. 








M. '99. 


Wt. 178. 


115 


Peshawar 


Obv. As on 112. Date irrr. 






1222 




i 






Eev. ^yU i^i*-* (j 


*jLr ^ 






M. -8. 


m. ne. 


116 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 112. 






1220 


Eev. In an arabesque. 








t r r 


M 






M. '8. 


Wt. 178. 


117 


Ahmadshahi 
1224 


The same. Date I r rf . 
M. (Lahore 


Museum.) 


118 


Ahmadshahi 


Obv. As on 112. 








Eev. ^UX4^1 < ^ No 


date. 






JR. (Lahore 


Museum.) 


119 


Derajat 


Obv. As on 112. Date triA. 






1218 


'JP" \ 


. . 






Eev. ^^ < ?V5 T* 


/r. .r^ 




^R. '75. 


Wt. 168. 


120 


Derajat 
1218 


The same. Date IMA. Year 
M. '8. 


r. 

m. no. 


121 


Derajat 
1219 


The same. Date ml. 
M. '8. 


Wt. 168. 


122 


Derajat 
1220 


The same. Date I r r 
M. -75. 


Wt. 168. 


123 


Derajat 


The same. irn. Year e. 
/R. -8. 


Wt. 170. 




1221 





356 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




124 


Derajat 


The same, t r TX. Year ^ . 




1225 


JR. '75. Wt. 169. 


125 


Kashmir 


With name Shah Shuja'. Date 1 n A 




1218 


JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 


126 


Kashmir 


With name Shuja'ul-mulk Shah. Date t r r 




1220 


JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 


127 


Kashmir 


The same. Date t rrr. 




1222 


JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 


128 


Kashmir 


The same. Date t rrr. 




1223 


JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 


129 


Kabul 


Obv. #rcc> $Ls, i (\*\\ clsA . IkLo 




1255 


Rev. In a " mehrabi" area. 






JR. -9 Wt. 144. PL xiii. No. 15. 


130 


Kabul 


The same. Date t rc#. 




125# 


JR. -8. Wt. 144. 


131 


Kabul 


Obv. djfy'* ?^^ ^ 






Rev. As on 129. 






JR. (Mr. C. J. Rodgers.) 






COPPER. 


132 


Bhakhar. 


Obv. Illegible, except the word ^^ 






Counterstruck t_xL*Jl ?W^ 






Rev. J** ^j^ 






M. 1-0. 






Y. QAISAR SHAH. 






SILVER. 


133 


Kashmir 


Obv. ^Lyj j*&+3 (* JJ J (*^** i ^ ^) ^^** J 




1223 


t rrr <dli /UoJ \\ 1^^'^ ^^j 






r 






Rev. k~i rt*i tb~*~ c_^? 






JR. (Mrs. Stoker.) 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



357 



No. 


Mint and Date. 




134 


Kashmir 
1221 


The same. Date t r r i . 
JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 






VI. NtJR-UD-DIN. 






GOLD. 


135 


Kashmir 
1225 


Obv. Centre, in square : 

r 






Margin, in four segments : 


136 


Kashmir 
1225 


Eev t r r $ <_ _di. \&*\ lb * <UL^- w Jo i 
N. -85. Wt. 338. PL xiii. No. 16. 
Another double mohar of different types 
and treatment to the above. Date I rro. 

Year 3. 
N. (Mr. C. J. Eodgers.) 






SILVER. 


137 
138 


Kashmir 
1223 

Kashmir 
1224 


Obv. i rrr *li ^^1 ^^'J' f[j 

Eev. ^^^ ^j++ d*- <-*j* 
JR. (Mrs. Stoker.) 

The same. Date i rrf. Year J^-l 
JR. (Mr. C. J. Eodgers.) 






VII. MUHAMMAD SHAH. 






SILVER. 


139- 
142 


Kashmir 
1227 
1228 
1230 
1232 


Eupees of the Kashmir mint, dated t rrv, 
irrA irr trrr. 
JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 

1 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 



3A 



358 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



No. 


Mint and Date. 








VIII. ATYUB SH!H. 






SlLVEE. 


143 


Peshawar 


Obv. *UjJ^^*Jui^ w l^J 




1234 


t rrf 






r 






JR. -95. Wt. 164. PI. xiii. No. 17. 


144 


Peshawar 
1240 


The same. Year A . 
JR. -9. Wt. 163. 


145 
146 


Peshawar 
1241 

Peshawar 
1244 


The same. Date t rfi. 
JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 
The same. Year t 1 . 
JR. -95. Wt. 163. 


147 
148 


Peshawar 
1248 

Kashmir 


The same. Year t rfA. 
JR. (Lahore Museum.) 




1233 (?) 


pkc^b^jJi 






Rev. j^l t**j+* *k>- c-,y5 






JR. -9. Wt. 168. 


149 
150 


Kashmir 
1234 
Kashmir 
1235 


The same. Date i rrf. 
JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 
The same. Date 1 rro. 
JR. (Mr. W. Theobald.) 






COPPEE. 


151 


Peshawar 


Obv. ^jU *luV ^ ^ 




1234 


xv6V t * i -^O / juwftX3 ^^^ *& 






M. '9. 


152 


Kashmir 


1 rr 
Obv. t^jlc iub Ju il-i> UJ^i' u^u/ AXJ 




123* 


Rev. ^"^ cr^ <-r>* 






^? .0 e 
-/-I j oO 



COINS OF THE DURRANLS. 



359 



No. 



Mint and Date. 



153 



154 



155 



156 



Kabul 
1258 



Ahmadshahi 
1254 



Kabul 
1258 

Ahmadshahi 
1261 



IX. ALTAF JANG. 
SILVER. 



Obv. 
Rev. 

^l. -85X-75. Oval. Wt. 141 

Obv. 

Eev. In an arabesque : 
t ref 

" ^R. '9. Wt. 138. 
Obv. Not deciphered. Possibly Path Jang. 

Eev. t roA J^ <ukU^b c-^J 

^R. -9X-8. Oval. Wt. 140. 
Obv. 

Rev. 

"^R. '75. Wt. 85, 



360 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



MINT. 


METAL. 


A.H. 


NAME OF KING. 


No. 


Atak. 


A 


1197 


Taimur Shah. 


27 


Ahmad shahi 


7ft 


1192 


Taimur Shah. 


33 


(Ashrafu'l-hilad) 


}J 


1205 


f> 


36 


jLJI u-JnM 


5) 


1206 


tt 


37 


1 \ 




1209 


Zaman Shah. 


64 


( <JJ>U>J^1 


^ 


1214 


M 


63 




N 


1215 


yj 


60 




yft 


^ 


Mahmud Shah. 


82 






1224 


>f 


83 






1220 


Shah Shuja* 


116 






1224 


ff 


117 






1254 


Anonymous. 


152 






1261 




153 


Bahawalpur. 


JT 


1217 


Shah Shuja'. 


112 


\ Uj 


^ft 


}) 


f> 


114 


Jff j^t 


^ 




Mahmud Shah. 


79 


Bhakhar. 




1189 


Taimur Shah. 


38 


H^V 


tt 


1196 


>f 


39 


yirnp 


n 


1198 


f| 


40 






1199 


M 


41 






1216 


Zaman Shah. 


69 




j; 


X 


Mahmud Shah. 


103 


Dera. 


^ 


1192 


Taimur Shah. 


10 




^ft 


1198 


tt 


32 


*ji** 


N 


1207 




11 




JE 


1192 


9t 


51 




M 


1209 


Zaman Shah. 


76 


Derajat (Derahjat 
Derahujat). 


^ft 


1194 
1197 
1198 


Taimur Shah. 


56 
29 
30 


^^j!** 


>; 


1199 


, f 


31 


(cuWajj 


M 


1210 


Zaman Shah. 


71 


/vjU^jj, j'!o 


>f 


1212 


)t 


72 


> JT. 




1213 


9t 


73 




,, 


1215 


;, 


47 



COINS OF THE 



361 



MINT. 


[ETAL. 


A.H. 


NAME OF KING. 


No. 




A 


1216 


Mahmud Shah. 


93 




fj 


1218 


tt 


92 




f| 


1218 


Shah Shuja'. 


119-20 




tf 


1219 


)f 


121 




77 


1220 


77 


122 




>} 


1221 


|f 


123 




>} 


1224 


Mahmud Shah. 


94 




^ 


1225 


Shah Shuja'. 


124 






1226 


Mahmud Shah. 


95 




n 


1227 


tj 


96 




7 7 


1241 


M 


97 







1244 


7 7 


98 




M 


1246 


M 


99 






1250 


77 


100 




JE 


1203 


Taimur Shah. 


53 


Dera Path Khan. 





1204 


" 


54 


Herat. 


A 


1195 


Taimur Shah. 


21 





^ 


1197 


n 


12 


J 


^ 


1198 


tt 


22 






1201 




23 






1207 




24 






1208 


f 


25 






1212 


Zaman Shah. 


70 






1216 


Mahmud Shah. 


84 






1218 


;t 


85 






1220 




86 




5 J 


1221 




87 






1222 


fj 


88 




> > 


1223 


M 


89 






1224 


n 


90 




" 


X 


7 7 


91 


Kahul. 


M 


1186 

1187 


Taimur Shah. 


17 
18 


Jjl 


N 


1190 


M 


7 










20 


(Dar-us-saltanat 


M 


77 

1192 
1211 


Zaman Shah. 


19 
62 


J 


' 


1213 


,, 


61 




AJ 






60 






1224 


Sultan Mahmud. 


80 



362 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



MINT. 


METAL. 


A.H. 


NAME OF KING. 


No. 




A 


1255 


Shah Shuja'. 


129 




,, 


1257 


Altai Jang. 


151 




,, 


1258 


Anonymous. 


154 




,, 


125# 


Shah Shuja'. 


130 


Kashmir 


JR, 


1195 


Taimur Shah. 


43 


(Khita-i) 


,, 


1197 




44 


\ ( A k.Q 


N 


1200 




15 


jt** 


& 


1201 




42 




M 


tt 




50 




M 


1202 




45 




N 


1203 




16 




jR, 






46 






1208 




47 






1209 


Zaman Shah. 


75 




n 


1218 


Shah Shuja'. 


125 






1219 


Mahmud Shah. 


101 




)t 


1220 


Shah Shuja'. 


126 






1221 


Qaisar Shah. 


134 




f , 


1222 


Shah Shuja'. 


127 




n 


1223 


tt 


128 






Jt 


Mahmud Shah. 


102 






}) 


Qaisar Shah. 


133 




}> 


n 


Nur-ud-dm. 


137 




n 


1224 


tt 


138 




jy 


1225 


tl 


136 




JR, 


1227 


Muhammad Shah. 


139 




?> 


1228 


f> 


140 







1230 


,, 


141 






1232 


?> 


142 




lf 


1233 


Ayyub Shah. 


148 






1234 


}) 


149 




yi 


1235 


99 


150 




JE 


123# 




152 


Khoi. 


^El 


1198 


Taimur Shah. 


Seep. 


Jft. 








329 


Lahore. 


./TV 


1170 


Taimur Shah Nizam. 


5 


i%M 

Meshhed 










(i-Mukaddas). 


^TV 


X 


Taimur Shah. 


28 



COINS OF THE DURRANIS. 



363 



MINT. 


METAL. 


A.H. 


NAME OF KING. 


No. 


Multan 


JR 


1175 


Taimur Shah Nizam. 


6 


(Dar-ul-Aman). 


^ 


1176 


,, 


1 


lllL \^\ ta 




1177 


M 


2 


U * cJ J 


jjr 


1178 


Taimur Shah Nizam. 


3 




}) 


1184 


}) 


4 






1204 


)f 


48 




?> 


1205 


ft 


49 




JE 


1204 




57 




n 


1205 




58 




j > 


1214 


Zaman Shah. 


77 






1215 


> j 


78 




N 


1224 


Shah Shuja'. 


113 




JE 


1230 


Mahmud Shah. 


108 






1231 


)? 


109 






1236 


t 


110 


Peshawar. 




1244 


M 


111 


i 


N 


1292 


Taimur Shah. 


8 


JJ v 


jC\\> 


1298 


9t 


26 




N 


1204 


t 


9 




M 


1207 


Zaman Shah. 


65 




5 


1210 


fl 


66 






1215 


M 


67,68 






1217 


Mahmud Shah. 


81 




JE 


1221 




107 




^ 


1223 


Shah Shuja'. 


115 






1227 


Sultan Mahmud. 


105 






1232 


n 


106 




" 


1233 


?) 


104 






1234 


Ayyub Shah. 


143 




^E 




,, 


151 




^R 


1240 


n 


144 






1241 


M 


145 




9 5 


1244 


M 


146 






1248 


,, 


147 



M. LONG WORTH DAMES. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 



Trois royaumes de VAsie Mineure : Cappadoce, Bithynie, Pont. 
Par Theodore Reinach. Paris, 1888. 

The three valuable monographs here collected into a single, 
handsome volume, illustrated by 12 plates, have already been 
separately noticed in the Numismatic Chronicle (1886, p. 240 ; 
1887, pp. 174, 352, 854; and 1888, pp. 158, 288). On the 
present occasion we have, therefore, only to congratulate the 
author on the completion of his work, which will be indis- 
pensable, not only to numismatists, but to students of history, 
who, as the writer justly remarks in his preface, usually make 
far too little use of numismatic documents as thoroughly trust- 
worthy data for the reconstruction of obscure periods of history. 
We cannot but hope that this interesting volume, which contains 
fully as much historical as numismatic matter, will contribute in 
no small degree to break down the barrier which unfortunately 
still exists between the Science of History and her handmaid 
Numismatics. 

B. V. HEAD. 



THE COINS AND TOKENS OF THE POSSESSIONS AND COLONIES 
OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. By James Atkins. 1 vol. 8vo. 
This book, published by Mr. Quaritch, uniform with those of 
Hawkins and Kenyon on the silver and gold coinage of England, 
supplies, as it claims to do, a want long felt by collectors, and 
gives a very good view of the coins and tokens of all the British 
possessions abroad. 

The work is divided into sections geographically, with short 
accounts of the British possessions in and money struck for each 
country, followed by lists of the coins and tokens arranged 
according to their metal and their dates. The illustrations are 
numerous and distributed in the letter-press, and the descrip- 
tions are concise and generally plain and good. 

A very full list is given of the Anglo-Hanoverian coinage, 
which occupies nearly one hundred pages. In the Asiatic sec- 
tion of one hundred pages, a fairly correct sketch is given of 
that difficult subject, the British Indian coinage, with some 
accounts of the Hindu and Musalman systems adopted in the 



MISCELLANEA. 365 

early times of it. It would have been useful to have added to 
the tables on p. 131 the relative value of the coins of the two 
systems viz.: 3 rupees=l pagoda; 12 fanam=l rupee; 75 
aS 



( al8 ' too > should be iven ^ a division of 
the Musalman rupee instead of the Hindu fanam, it being the 
same com as was afterwards called a paisd, and at one time a 
pie Sikha. A transcript of the Persian legend on the Madras 
copper coins of 1803 bearing on this, viz. that 20 kas make 4 
fals, is omitted in the notice of them (No. 131 Madras). The list 
of the coins in this section is a good one, but sadly marred by 
numerous errors in the copying of the Oriental inscriptions and 
the translations of them ; for example, Nos. 49, 50, 52, and 54 
of Bengal; <&; on the first of these is read 



of which the translation is fortunately not attempted, and on 
the last ^ ^Jb is read ^ and translated "The 



Emperor Shah Aulum." Even the Hindustani jcjy. . ^ so 
familiar to Indians, on the rupees of her Majesty, is read ^, 
t _ fj No mention is made of ashrafi, which was a name V for 
the gold coin as well as mohur, and is inscribed on some of 
them, notably on the Lion and Palm-tree gold coin (No. 9 India, 
general). Of course there are many difficulties in reading Oriental 
coins even to those familiar with the written languages, owing 
to the proper positions of words and letters being altered to suit 
the taste of the designer for appearances, and to the errors 
made by a die-cutter who could not read what he was trying to 
copy. But there are persons who can read them, and it is a pity 
this part of the work was not revised by such an one. Excep- 
tion has been taken to the relative rareness of coins and tokens 
not being given in the work, but probably that is much better 
entirely left out of a book of this kind, for it is a question on 
which there must be several opinions ; for instance, some may 
not see why the Tasmanian Saw-mill token (page 337) should 
be mentioned as a very rare piece, whilst nothing is said of the 
rarity of some of the Hog money (page 315). 

The sections on American and Australasian coins and tokens 
are very good, and full lists are given. The work is well got up 
and has a fair index. 

0. CODRINGTON. 



VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 3 B 



366 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



MISCELLANEA. 



FIND OF COINS AT DENBY, NEAR BAENSLEY, YORKSHIRE. 
On Oct. 2nd, 1888, a small find of English coins was made 
at Denby, by a farmer named James Slater. The specimens 
consisted of 9 Groats of Mary I. ; 1 shilling and 10 six- 
pences of Elizabeth ; 4 shillings and 2 sixpences of James I., 
and 10 other coins not identified. Most of the coins were in 
bad preservation, and many of them fell to pieces when being 
cleaned by the finder. The coins were found just below the 
surface of the earth in the bottom of a hedge. There was no 
trace of any jar or other receptacle that might have enclosed 
them. It will be remembered that there was also a find at 
Denby last year, consisting of fifty-one silver coins of Philip and 
Mary, Elizabeth, James I. and Charles I. (See Numismatic 
Chronicle, 1887, p. 340.) 

W. WROTH. 




SCOTTISH MEDALS. 



INDEX. 



Aberdeen medals, 320, 321 
Abydos (Troad), coin of, 18 
Achaean League, coin of, 9 
JEnus (Thrace), coin of, 2 
Aeropus, King of Macedonia, coin 

of, 1 

Alea (Arcadia), coins of, 11 
Altaf Jang, coins of, 359 
Anglo-Gallic coins, hoard of, 289 
Anglo-Saxons and their Mints, 138 
Antiochus IX., coin of, 20 
Arcadians, the coins of, 10 
Argos, coins of, 10 
Arian Alphabet, the, 201 
Athens, coins of, 7, 8 
Atkins, James, his Colonial coins 

noticed, 364 

Axus (Crete), coins of, 1 1 
Ayyub Shah, coins of, 358 

B. 

Baalmelek II., coins of, 125 
Baalram, coins of, 123, 126 
Bactria, coin of, 21 
Bain medal, the, 321 
Barclay de Tolly, medal of, 316 
Bell, John, medal of, 59 
Bellingham, John, medal of, 75 
Belzoni, medals of, 60 
Benthani, Jeremy, medals of, 63 
Bentinck, Lord George, medals of, 

64 

Beresford, Lord, medals of, 65, 
Bergami, Count B., medals of, 66 
Berlin Museum, Catalogue of Coins 

in, noticed, 154 

Betty, W. H. W., medals of, 67 
Birch, Joseph, medal of, 70 
Birch, Samuel, medal of, 71 
Bliicher, Marshal, medals of, 72 



Bolton, Colonel, medal of, 78 
Bolton, J., medal of, 79 
Borneo, North, the coinage of, 96 
Bosset, C. P. de, medals of, 80 
Bottield, Beriah, medals of, 82 
Boulton, Matthew, medals of, 83 
Bowling medal, 322 
Bridgewater, F. H. Earl of, medal 

of, 87 

Bright, John, Free trade medal of, SS 
British Museum, Greek coins ac- 
quired by, 1 

Brock, D. de Lisle, medal of, 89 
Brock, Sir Isaac, medal of, 90 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, medal of, 91 
Brodie, Lieut. -Col. William, medal 

of, 92 

Brooker, Charles, medal of, 93 
Brougham, Lord, medals of, 93249 
Brown, Thomas, medal of, 250 
Browne, Sir William, medal of, 251 
Brunei, Sir M. I., medals of, 252 
Bulletin de Numismatique noticed, 

289 

Burdett, Sir Francis, medals of, 254 
Byron, Lord, medals of, 258 

C. 

Caligula, coin of, 300 
Callista, coins of, 9 
Calvert, Charles, medal of, 261 
Cambridge, Duke of, medal of, 262 
Camden, Earl of, medals of, 263 
Camdtn, Marquis of, medals of, 265 
Canning, George, medals of, 266 
Capel, John, medal of, 273 
Carausius, coins of, 163, 308 
Carey, William, medals of, 274 
Carlisle, Nicholas, medal of, 276 
Garlyle, Thomas, mednls of, 276 
Carrick, Lieut. -Col. John, medal 
of, 277 



368 



INDEX. 



Carrol, Sir W. P., medal of, 278 
Cave, R. Otway, medal of, 279 
Chalmers, Dr. Thomas, medal of, 

279 

Chambers, Sir W., medal of, 281 
Chantrey, Sir F., medals of, 282 
Charlemont, Earl of, medals of, 283 
Cilicia, mints in, 305 
Citium, coin of, 123 
CODRINGTON, DR. O., notice of 

Atkins's Colonial Coinage, 364 
Commonwealth coins, rare, 96 
Constans, coins of, 33, 38 
Constantina, the mint of, 29 
Constantino the Great, coins of, 33. 

38 

Constantius II., coins of, 34 39 
Crete, coins of, 11 
CUNNINGHAM, MAJ.-GEN. SIR A. : 

" Coins of the Indo-Scythian 
King Miaiis or Heraus," 47 

" Coins of the ludo-Scythians," 

199 

Cunninghame medal, the, 320 
Curling medal, 322 
Cyprus, coins of, 121 
Cyzicus, coins of, 16 

D. 

DAMES, M. LONGWORTH, ESQ. : 
The coins of the Durranis, 325 
Decentius, coins of, 34, 40 
Delphi, coin of, 7 
Dionysopolis, the mint of, 294 
Durranis, coins of the, 325 

E. 

Edinburgh High School, medal of, 

317 
Edward III., half-noble of his third 

coinage, 310 
Elis, coins of, 9 
English personal medals from 1760, 

by H. A. Grueber, F.S.A., 59 
Erman, Mr. A., On German medals, 

145 

EVANS, JOHN, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
P.S.A. : 

Hoard of Roman coins found at 
East Harptree, near Bristol, 22 

F. 
Finds of coins : 

Denby, near Barnsley, Yorkshire, 

366 

East Harptree, near Bristol, 22 
Great Orme's Head, 163 



G. 

Gallienus, coin of, 163 
Gargara (Mysia), coins of, 16 
Germanicopolis, coin of, 300 
Giel, Chr., Antike Numismatik 

Siidrusslands noticed, 156 
Glasgow University medal, 320 
Gortyna (Crete), coins of, 12 
Graetz, Dr., On Jewish coins, 165 
Gratianus, coins of, 36, 46 
Greek coins acquired by the British 

Museum in 1887, by W. Wroth, 

Esq., 1 

Greek coins, unpublished, 97 
GREENE, T. WHITCOMBE, B.C.L. : 

German medallists of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, 145 
GRUEBER, HERBERT A., F.S.A. : 

English personal medals from 
1760, 59, 249 

H. 

Harptree, near Bristol, hoard of 

coins found at, 22 
HEAD, B. V., D.C.L., Ph.D. : 
"Notice of the Berlin Cata- 
logue," 154 
" Find of Roma a coins on Great 

Orme's Head," 163 
" Germanicopolis and Philadel- 
phia in Cilicia," 300 
" Notice of Reinach's Trots roy- 
aumes de V Asie Minettre," 364 
Heraiis or Miaiis, coins of, 47 
Hercules Deusoniensis, 30l> 
HEYWOOD, NATHAN: 

On a find of Stycas, 95 
HOWORTH, H. H., F.S.A. : 
The Eastern capital of the Seleu- 
cidse, 293 

I. 

lasos, coins of, IOC 
Indo-Scythian coins, 47, 199, 286 
Issos, coins of, 114 

J. 
Jewish coins with the " Lulab " 

and "Portal," 165 
Jewish shekel of year 5, 21 
Jovianus, coins of, 35, 43 
Jubilee coinage proclamation, 290 
Julianus II., coins of, 35, 40 

K. 

Kettlewell, W. W., Esq., sends 
hoard of coins for examination, 24 



INDEX. 



Khorasan, coins of, 325 
Kushans, the, 48 

L. 

Lampsacus, coins of, 110 

Latus (Crete), coins of, 13 

Law of Lauriston, medals of, 317 

Lesbos, coin of, 19 

Lincoln, on a Danish coin, 138 

Lisus (Crete), coin of, 13 

" Lulab," the, on Jewish coins, 166 

M. 

Macedonian coins, 1 
Magnus the Good, pennies of, 138 
Mahmud Shah, coins of, 351 
Maronea (Thrace), 2 
Maues of Bactria, coin of, 21 
Medallists, German, 145 
Medals, English personal, 59, 249 
Medals of Scotland, 316 
Miaiis or Heraiis, coins of, 47 
Mint-marks, Roman, 28 
Mints of Durrani coins, 360 
Monetary standard of Indo-Scy- 

thian coins, 216 
Monograms on Indo - Scythian 

coins, 204 
MONTAGU, H., ESQ., F.S.A. : 

On the Jewish "Lulab" and 

"Portal" coins, by Dr. Graetz, 
165 

Rare and unpublished Common- 
wealth coins, 96 

On the half -noble of the third 

coinage of Edward III.. 310 
Muhammad Shah, coins of, 357 

N. 
Nissa, the capital of the Seleucidae, 

297 
Nur-ud-din, coins of, 357 

O. 

Olbia, coin of, 5 
OMAN, C., F.S.A. : 

A new type of Carausius, 308 
Orontes, coins of, 106 

P. 

Pandosia, coin of, 6 
Panjab, the Sakas in the, 240 
Patrje (Achaia), coin of, 8 
PATRICK, R.W. COCHRAN, F.S.A. : 

Medals of Scotland, 316 
Pelinna, coin of, 5 

VOL. VIII. THIRD SERIES. 



Persian couplets on coii-s, 335 
Perth Golfing Club medal, 321 
Pewter vessel in which Roman 

coins were found, 25 
Pheneus, coins of, 102 
Philadelphia in Cilicia, coin of, 

300 

Phlius, coins of, 97 
PIXLEY, F. W., ESQ. : - 

The North Borneo coinage, 96 
Polemo II., coin, of, 15 
" Portal," the, on Jewish coins, 160 
PKEVOST. A., ESQ. : 

On Swiss Tir medals, 323 
Proclamation as to new coinage in 

1887, 290 

Q. 

Qaisar Shah, coins of, 356 

R. 

Reinach, T. Trois royaumes de 

1'Asie Mineure noticed, 364 
Repertoire des sources imprimees de 
la Num. fran9aise, par A. Engel 
et R. Serrure, noticed, 289 
Revue numismatique noticed, 15S, 

286 

Ring, Roman, from Harptree, 26 
Roman coins found at Harptree, 22 
Russian numismatics, ancient, 156 



Sabaces, coins of, 132 

Sakas, the, 47, 229 

Sauromates L, coins of, 16 

Scottish medals, 316 

Seleucidse, the Eastern capital of, 

293 

Seleucis and Pieria, coin of, 20 
Shuja-ul-Mulk, coins of, 354 
Sind, Kings of, 237 
Siphnos, coin of, 14 
Six, M. J. P. :- 

Monnaies grecquea medites et 

incertaines, 97 
SMITH, SAMUBL J., ESQ. : 

Were Anglo-Saxon coins always 

struck at the towns named on 

them? 138 
Society of Solicitors of Scotland, 

-medal of, 317 
Spithridates, coin of, 17 
Stycas, find of, 95 
Swiss Tir medals, 323 
Syracuse, coin of, 1 

3 c 



370 



INDEX. 



T. 

Taimur Shah, coins of, 343 
Tegea (Arcadia), coin of, 11 
Tetricus, coin of, 163 
Tnaliadse, coin of, 102 
Thebes (Boeotia), coin of, 7 
Th^bas (Thessaly, coin of, 6 
Ticket engraved " Running Sta- 
tioner," &c., 317, 318 
Tissaphernes, coins of, 106 
Tryphsena of Pontus, 15 
Tyana (Cappadocia), coin of, 19 



V. 

Yalens, coins of, 36, 45 
Valentinianus I., coins of, 36, 43 



Victormus, coins of, 163 
Vigmund, styca of, 95 

W. 

Waterloo medals, 76 
"Weights of Durrani coins, 332 
WROTH, WARWICK, ESQ. : 

Greek coins acquired by the 

British Museum in 1887, 1 
Notice of Giel's Antike Numis- 

matik Sudriisslauds, 156 

Find of coins at Denby, 366 

Wylie, Sir James, medal of, 317 

Z. 

Zaman Shah, coins of, 348 
Zeitschrift fur Numismatik no- 
ticed, 160, 285 



END OF VOL. VIII. 



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