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V- 



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*E*i^ 




THIRTEEN 



'icUo.i.Mu 



m 

Satires of Juvenal^ 

IV/TH ENGLISH NOTES 

m 

BY THE 

REV. A. J. MACLEANE, M.A., 

TSINITY OOLLBGB, CAMBRIDGB. 



ABRID6BD, WITH ADDITIONS, 



BY THB 



REV. SAMUEL HART, M.A., 

PROFBSSOR IN TRINITY COLLBGB| HARTFORD. 



BOSTON : 
JOHN ALLYN, PUBLISHER, 

Latb Sbvbr, FRANas, & Co. 

1873- 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by 

JOHN AlLYN, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington 



cambrxdgb: 
prbss of john wilson and 80n. 



278 

T7 

H33 



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PREFACE TO AMERICAN EDITION. 



My purpose in preparmg this edition of the Satires 
of Juvenal has been to make Mr. Macleane's 
notes accessible to American undergraduates. The 
text is that of Mr. Long's revision of Mr. Macleane's 
work, without alteration, except that three Satires 
are omitted. The greater part of the notes consists 
of an abridgment of those which are contained m 
the same work, the matter omitted being chiefly 
quotations from other classical authors and discus- 
sions as to readings and interpretations. In making 
this abridgment, the arrangement of sentences has 
been sometimes altered ; and material " has been 
freely incorporated into the notes from the new 
edition of Mr. Mayor's commentary (extending 
now to the end of the seventh Satire), from that of 
Heinrich, and from other sources. Notes on con- 
struction have also been inserted ; and, wherever 
they seemed necessary or desirable, references have 
been given to several of the Grammars in most com- 



IV PEBFACB TO AMEEICAN EDITION. 

mon iise. The Life of Juyenal is from Macleane; 
and the arguments are based on his, but they haye 
been entirely rewritten. I may add that I haye pro- 
ciu*ed from the English publishers their full consent 
to the publication of the work which is now sub- 
mitted to American teachers and students. 

S. .XI. 

Trinitt Collbob, July, 1878. 



LIFE OF JUVENAL. 



The character of Horace's mind was such, tbat his own 
experience and the events of his life come naturally into 
his wiitings, and a tolerably full and accurate biography 
of that poet has been gathered from his own pen. His 
poems form a gallery of contemporary portraits, including 
his own picture in every stage of life. It is not so with 
Juvenal. He had to deal with vice and foUy more than a 
century older than the vice and foUy of Horace'8 day, and 
a tyranny which Horace never witnessed. The playful 
personalities of Horace did not suit JuvenaVs subject, and 
would not have represented his way of viewing it ; nor 
did they suit the severe and defiant spirit in which he 
approached it. The consequence is that the traces of 
Juvenal's life in his Satiires are very slight. 

Adopting such data as appear to have any probability 
in them, the following may be laid down as a sketch of 
Juvenal's life, without pretending to accuracy, for which 
there are no materials. 

His name was Decius Junius Juvenalis. 

He was born possibly at Aquinum, in Latium, about the 
beginning of Nero's reign, that is soon after a.d. 54, of 
respectable parents, his father being a rich libertinus, and 



n 

I 



VI LIFE Or JCJVENAL. 

he himself therefore ingenuus. He received the usual 
education of a Ronian boy and youth. He took the ' toga 
virilis ' about the beginning of Vespasian's reign, a.d. 70 ; 
and, having learnt rhetoric in the schools, he continued 
to practise it as a man, not professionally, but for his 
own amusement, through the reign of Yespasian and the 
greater part of Domitian's, that is till the year a.d. 94, in 
which year, or the next, he by somo means offended Domi- 
tian, and was sent by him into Egypt with a military 
command, such as civilians often received during the 
Empire. In a.d. 96, Domitian was killed and Nerva 
sncceeded him. Then, or soon aflerwards, Juvenal was 
allowed to give up his command and retum to Rome, 
being at the time of his return about forty years of age. 
An epigram of Martial proves that he was not altogether in- 
depeudent or corafortable about this time. Nerva reigned 
less than two years, and Trajan succeeded to the empire 
A.D. 98; and in the early part of his reign, soon after a.d. 
100, Juvenal first published a volume of Satires (of which 
the first in our collection was one), having already recited 
them to large audiences. It is not unlikely that some of 
these, or parts of them, had been composed in the reign of 
Domitian, or even earher, but that the poet had not ven- 
tured to make thera public. He continued to write freely 
during Trajan'8 reign, which ended a.d. 117, when Juvenal 
was about sixty, and during the early years of Hadrian's 
reign, that is till about a.d. 120. During this reign he 
may have lived in comfort through the liberality of the 
emperor, though his household was on a frugal scale, as he 
tells us in Satire xi., frora which we learn that he had 
property at Tibur. It is not irapossible that he may have 
lived till the accession of Antoninus Pius, who succeeded 



/ 

LIFB OF J0VENAL. ^ v 

Hadiian a.d. 1B8, wh6n Juvenal was, according to tw 
fiketch, eighty or a little more. n 

Thus the etatements of the Grammarians in reepect to 
the poet'e age, and of that writer who eaye he died of old 
age in the time of Antoninus Pius, would be bome out. 
I have also allowed the fact of an honorable banishment 
into Egypt, ihough not tiie cause assigned by the Gram- 
marians (the supposed attack on the pantomimo Paris), 
which is impossible. That Juvenal did not professedly 
compose eatiro' till late in life, is admitted and accounted 
for. Likewise that he may have written verses before he 
ventured to publish them, and that some of these were 
afterwards incorporated with his Satires, is allowed. It is 
also admitted that he attended the usual schools in early 
life, and practised rhetoric till middle age. Beyond these 
^ts the Grammarians, I believe, have been misled. 

Independently of the chronological difficulties in respect 
to Paris, it does not appear that the verses quoted by the 
Grammarians (vii. 90-92) were ever intended as a satire on 
him, but if any thing as a compliment. So at least they 
appear in the connection in which we have them. And it 
is perfectly clear that in that connection they could not / 
have given offence to the emperor, whoever he was, since 
the Satire eete out from the firet with sach praise as the 
worst of these princes coveted and rewarded, praise for 
his exclusive support of leaming. If therefore it had been 
possible to admit these verses as the cause of Domitian's 
displeasure, it must have been when they appeared sepa- ^ 
rately as an epigram, or with a different context from the 
present, whidi it must be admitted tibey do not very well 
euit, if, as seems certain, the rest of the Satire was written 
loDg Sifter Paris^s death. 



\ 



/ Vin LIFB OP JUVBNAL. 

Of JuvenaPs personal eharacter it is not very easy to 
form an estimate from his writings. That his invectives 
against the vices of his time are not the mere artistic 
and declamatory compositions which some writers suppose 
them to be, but the fruits of an honest indignation, of rare 
powers of sarcasm, and of a large knowledge of the world, 
I think is manifest. His language is unreserved in dealing 
with the foulest vices, but there is no appearance of his 
being himself a loose liver in any part of his writings. 
When Horaco is coarse, he betrays something of sympathy 
with vice, while Juvenal shows only contempt for it. 
Although therefore an expurgated edition of Juvenal 
would have more gaps than an expurgated edition of 
Horace, a well-regulated mind would be less offended 
with ^he entire text of Juvenal than with that of Horace. 
Juvenars morality was of a higher and less technical sort 
than Horace's, and has led somc into the notion that he 
drew it from the purest source, and was in understanding, 
if not by profession, a Ghristian. This of course is absurd. 
He knew human nature, and he knew right from wrong, 
and was not blinded by self-indulgence, and so was able 
to state the law of conscience in a way to astonish some\ 
Christians to whom that law is very imperfectly known. / 

Apart from his morality, Juvenal was a great master of 
words, and had a largc fund of illustration. His pictures. 
drawn from real life, as I have observed in the counse of 
the notes, are particularly happy ; whether they represent 
the common room of a tavem, or the deck of a ship, or 
the inside of a soldier^s hut or of a camp, or a school-room, 
or the greedy crowd at the sportula, or the streets of 
Rome, or a drunken brawl, these and a hundred other 
scenes are so drawn that an artist would have no difficulty 



( 



UFE OF JUVENAIi. IX 

in transferring tbem to canvas. But his hand miist be 
vigoroas and his brush firee, or he would do no justice to 
Juvenal. 

There is one particular form of lust firom which modem 
wickedness shrinks, but which was one of the worst evila 
of Roman society under the Empire. This vice is exposed 
in two Satires of great power (ii., ix.). The wickedness 
of women was never so unsparingly handled as it is in the 
sixth Satire, a composition of extraordinary power and 
yariety.* The general degradation of Roman life and 
manners is exposed in the first, third, and fourteenth 
Satires, and in the last of these the chief cause of the 
universal wickedness is laid open in the indifference of 
parents to the morals of their young children, and the 
example which handed down vice as an inheritance firom 
father to son. The degradation of the Senate, once the 
fountain of honor and authority and the proudest in- 
Btitution of a haughty people, but now obedient to the 
wantonness of a tyrant who mocked its weakness and 
played with its servility, is amusingly shown in the fourth 
Satire. The fiflh exposes a difierent sort of servility, that 
of parasites, who sell their independence and accept con** 
tempt for the sake of a meal grudgingly given ; a low 
practice which was more systematized at Rome, if it was 
not much more common, than it is in our own country. 
The neglect of literary men has a Satire to itself (the 
seventh) ; aristocratic pride has another (the eighth). The 
cunning of will-hunters is hit off at the end of the twelfth, 
which is not among the most interesting of these compo- 
sitions. It relates chiefiy to the arrival of a fnend after a 

* The three Satires Just mentioned are omitted firom tblB edition. 



X LIFB OP JUVENAL. 

dangerons yoyage, and is more of the natnre of a familiar 
letter than of a Satire. The dishonesty of the age is de- 
Bcribed in the thirteenth Satire, which contains some of 
Javenars finest verses, and shows hiTn in the best char- 
acter. This also is in the form of an epistle to a friend, 
and so is the eleventh, which contains an invitation to 
dinner and contrasts the poet^s own plainness of living 
with the luxurious habits of his contemporaries. Thus 
Juyenal goes throagh all the great scandals of his day, 
and treats them onsparingly. The crimes and criminals 
of former reigns are freely introdnced by way of illustra- 
tion, but this is because the vices of one reign represented 
those of another, and the names of the dead could be 
more safely used than of the living. Tiberius, Caligula, 
Claudius, Nero, Otho, Domitian, are all brought up from 
time to time to point a moral or illustrate some aspect of 
crime. 

The most celebrated of Juvenars poems, the tenth, has 
more of the declamatory character, which some of his 
critics attribute to all. It is on the vanity of human 
wishes, which is illustrated chiefly by historical examples, 
and the poem has not much beanng upon the particular 
character of his times. It is the finest specimen of that 
sort of composition that I am acquainted with. The 
fifteenth Satire is connected with a scene of little general 
interest, an Egyptian squabble, JuvenaPs own interest in 
which can only be accounted for by his having been in the 
country where it happened. The last Satire, if it had been 
completed, would have fumished a sketch of military life, 
sarcastic but good-humored, from which a good deal of 
information might have been derived. 



D. JUNH JUYENALIS 

SATIRAE. 



SATIRA I. 

SEMPER ego auditor tantum ? nunquamne reponam 
Vexatus toties rauci Theseide Codri ? 
Impune ergo mihi recitaverit ille togatas, 
Hic elegos ? impune diem consumpserit ingens 
Telephus, aut summi plena jam margine libri 6 

Scriptus et in tergo, nec dum iinitus, Orestes ? 
Nota magis nulli domus est sua quam mihi lucus 
Martis, et Aeoliis vicinum rupibus antrum 
Vulcani. Quid agant venti, quas torqueat umbras 
Aeacus, unde alius furtivae devehat aurum 10 

Pelliculae, quantas jaculetur Monychus ornos, 
Frontonis platani convulsaque marmora clamant 
Semper et assiduo ruptae lectore columnae. 
Exspectes eadem a summo minimoque poeta. 
Et nos ergo manum ferulae subduximus, et nos 15 

Consilium dedimus Sullae privatus ut altum 
Dormiret. Stulta est clementia, quum tot ubique 
Vatibus occurras, periturae parcere chartae. 

Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo 
Per quem magnus equos Auruncae flexit alumnus, 20 

Si Tacat et placidi rationem admittitis, edam. 



2 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Quum tener uxorem ducat spado ; Maevia Tuscum 

Figat apram et nuda teneat venabula mamma ; 

Patricios omnes opibus quum provocet unus, 

Quo tondente gravis juveni mihi barba sonabat ; 25 

Quum pars Niliacae plebis, quum verna Canopi 

Crispinus, Tyiias humero revocante lacemas, 

Ventilet aestivum digitis sudantibus aurum, 

Nec sufTerre queat majoris pondera gemmae : 

Difficile est satiram non scribere. Nam quis iniquae 30 

Tam patiens XJrbis, tam ferreus, ut teneat se, 

Causidici nova quum veniat lectica Mathonis 

Plena ipso ; post hunc magni delator amici 

Et cito rapturus de nobilitate comesa 

Quod superest ; quem Massa timet, quem munere palpat 35 

Carus et a trepido Thymele summissa Latino ; 

Quum te summoveant qui testamenta merentur 

Noctibus, in caelum quos evehit optima summi 

Nunc via processus, vetulae vesica beatae ? 

TJnciolam Proculeius habet, sed Gillo deuncem, 40 

Partes quisque suas ad nvensuram iuguinis heres. 

Accipiat sane mercedem sanguinis, et sic 

Palleat ut nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem, 

Aut Lugdunensem rhetor dicturus ad aram. 

Quid referam quanta siccum jecur ardeat ira, 45 

Quum populum gregibus comitum premit hic spoliator 

Pupilli prostantis, et hic damnatus inani 

Judicio (quid enim salvis infamia nummis ?) 

Exsul ab octava Marius bibit et fruitur dis 

Iratis ; at tu, victrix provincia, ploras. 60 

Haec ego non credam Venusina digna lucema ? 

Haec ego non agitem ? Sed quid magis Heracleas 

Aut Diomedeas aut mugitum Labyrinthi 



SATIRA I. 8 

Et mare percussum puero fabrumque volantem, 

Quum leno accipiat moecbi bona, si capiendi 55 

Jus nullum uxori, doctus spectare lacunar, 

Doctus et ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso ; 

Quum fas esse putet curam spectare cobortis 

Qui bona donavit praesepibus, et caret omni 

Majorum censu dura pervolat axe citato 60 

Flaminiam puer ? Automedon nam lora tenebat 

Ipse lacernatae quum se jactaret amicae. 

Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces 

Quadrivio, quum jam sexta cervice feratur, 

Hinc atque inde patens ac nuda paene catbedra 65 

Et multum referens de Maecenate supino, 

Signator falso, qui se lautum atque beatum 

Exiguis tabulis et gemma fecerat uda? 

Occurrit matrona potens, quae raolle Calenum 

Porrectura viro miscet sitiente rubetam, 70 

Instituitque rudes melior Locusta propinquas 

Per famam et populum nigros effeiTe maritos. 

Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum, 

Si vis esse aliquis : probitas laudatur et alget. 

Criminibus debent hortos, praetoria, mensas, 75 

Argentum vetus et stantem extra pocula caprum, 

Quem patitur dormire nurus corniptor avarae, 

Quem sponsae turpes et praetextatus adulter ? 

Si natura negat facit indignatio versum, 

Qualemcunque potest, quales ego vel Cluvienus. 80 

Ex quo Deucalion nimbis tollentibus aequor 
Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit, 
Paullatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa, 
Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas, 
Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 85 



4 D. JUNU JUVENALIS 

Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli. 

Et quando uberior vitiorum copia ? quando 

Major avaritiae patuit sinus ? alea quando 

Hos animos ? Neque enim loculis comitantibns itur 

Ad casum tabulae, posita sed luditur arca. 90 

Proelia quanta illic dispensatore videbis 

Armigero ! Simplexne furor sestertia centum 

Perdere et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo ? 

Quis totidem erexit villas, quis fercula septem 

Secreto coenavit avus ? Nunc sportula primo 95 

Limine parva sedet turbae rapienda togatae. 

llle tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne 

Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas. 

Agnitus accipies ; jubet a praecone vocari 

Ipsos Trojugenas ; nam vexant limen et ipsi loo 

Nobiscum. " Da Praetori, da deinde Tribuno." 

ged libertinus prior est. " Prior," inquit, " ego adsum : 

Cur timeam dubitemve locum defendere, quamvis 

Natus ad Eiiphraten, molles quod in aure fenestrae 

Arguerint licet ipse negem : sed quinque taberaae 105 

Quadringenta parant. Quid oonfeit purpura major 

Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro 

Conductas Corvinus oves ? ego possideo plus 

Pallante et Licinis." Exspectent ergb Tribuni ; 

Vincant divitiae, sacro nec cedat honori lio 

Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis ; 

Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima divitiarum 

Majestas, etsi funesta Pecunia templo 

Nondum habitas, nuUas nummorum ereximus aras, 

Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus, 115 

Quaeque salutato crepitat Concordia nido. 

Sed quum summus honor finito computet anno 



SATIRA I. 5 

Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat, 

Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est 

Et panis fumusque domi ? Densissima centum 120 

Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritum 

Languida vel praegnans et circumducitur uxor. 

Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte, 

Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam. 

" Galla mea est," inquit ; " citius dimitte ; moraris." 125 

" Profer, Galla, caput." " Noli vexare, quiescit." 

Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum : 

Sportula, deinde forum, jurisque peritus ApoUo 

Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere 

Nescio quis titulos Aegyptius atqua Arabarches, 130 

Cujus ad effigiem non tantum meiere fas est. ^ 

Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes 

Votaque deponunt, quanquam longissima coenae 

Spes homini : caulis miseris atque ignis emendus. 

Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit 136 

Rex horum, vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit. 

Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam 

Antiquis una comediint patrimonia mensa. 

Nullus jam parasitus erit : sed quis ferat istas 

Luxuriae sordes ? Quanta est gula quae sibi totos 140 

Ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum ! 

Poena tamen praesens, quiim tu deponis amictus 

Turgidus et crudum pavonem in balnea portas. 

Hinc^ubitae mortes atque intestata senectus. 

It nova nec tristis per -cunctas fabula coenas : 145 

Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis. 

Nil erit ulterius quod nostris moribus addat 
Posteritas ; eadem cupient facientque minores ; 
Omne in praecipiti vitiuni stetit. Utere velis. 



6 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Totos pande sinus. Dicas hic forsitan, Undo 160 

Ingenium par materiae ? unde illa priorum 

Scribendi quodcunque animo flagi*ante liberet 

Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen ? 

Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius an non ? 

Pone Tigellinum : taeda lucebis in illa 155 

Qua stantes ardent qui fixo gutture fumant, 

Et latum media sulcum deducis arena — ^ — . 

Qui dedit ergo tribus patruis aconita vehatur 

Pensilibus plumis, atque illinc despiciat nos ? 

" Quum veniet contra digito compesce labellum : ico 

Accusator erit qui verbum dixerit, Hic est. 

Securus licet Aeneam Rutulumque ferocem 

Committas ; nuUi gravis est percussus Achilles, 

Aut multum quaesitus Hylas umamque secutus. 

Ense velut stricto quoties Lucilius ardens 1G5 

Infremuit, rubet auditor cui frigida mens est 

Criminibus, tacita sudant praecordia culpa. 

Inde irae et lacrimae. Tecum prius ergo voluta 

Haec animo ante tubas : galeatum sero duelli 

Poenitet." — Experiar quid concedatur in illos 170 

Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina. 



SATIRA m. 



SATIRA IIL 

QUAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici, 
Laudo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis 
Destinet atqne unum civem donare Sibyllae. 
Janua Baiarum est et gratum litus amoeni 
Secessus. Ego vel Prochytam praepono Suburrae. 6 

Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non 
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus 
Tectorum assiduos ac mille pericula saevae 
Urbis et Augusto recitantes mense poetas ? 

Sed dum tota domus rheda componitur una, 10 

Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam. 
Hic, ubi noctuiTiae Numa constituebat amicae, 
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur 
Judaeis, quorum cophinus foenumque supellex. 
Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est 15 

Arbor, et ejectis mendicat silva Camenis. 
In vallem Aegeriae descendimus et speluncas 
Dissimiles veris. Quanto praestantius esset 
Numen aquae, viridi si mai^gine clauderet undas 
Herba nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophura. 20 

Hic tunc Umbricius, Quando artibus, inquit, honestis 
NuUus in Urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum, 
Res hodie minor est here quam fuit, atque eadem cras 
Deteret exiguis aliquid, proponimus illuc 
Ire fiitigatas ubi Daedalus exuit alas, 25 



8 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Dom nova canities, dum prima et recta Benectus, 
Dum superest Lachesi quod torqueat, et pedibus me 
Porto meis nullo dextram subeunte bacillo. - 
Cedamus patria : vivant Artorius istic 
Et Catulus ; maneant qui nigrum in candida vertunt, 30 
Quis facile est aedem conducere, flumina, portus, 
Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver, 
Et praebere caput domiua venale sub hasta. 
Quondam hi cornicines et municipalis arenae 
Perpetui comites notaeque per oppida buccae 35 

Munera nunc edunt, et verso poUice vulgi 
Quem libet occidunt populariter : inde reversi 
Conducunt foricas : et cur non omnia ? quum sint 
Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum 
ExtoUit quoties voluit Fortuna jocarL 40 

Quid Romae faciam ? Mentiri nescio ; librum 
Si malus est nequeo laudare et poscere ; motus 
Astrorum ignoro ; funus promittere patris 
Nec volo nec possum ; ranarum viscera nunquam 
Inspexi. Ferre ad nuptam quae mittit adulter, 45 

Quae mandat, norint alii : me nemo ministro 
Fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes exeo, tauquam 
Mancus et exstinctae corpus non utile dextrae. 
Quis nunc diligitur nisi conscius et cui fervens 
Aestuat occultis animus seraperque tacendis ? 60 

, Nil tibi se debere putat, nil conferet unquam, 
Participem qui te secreti fecit honesti : 
Carus erit Verri qui Verrem tempore quo vult 
Accusare potest. Tanti tibi non sit opaci 
Omnis arena Tagi quodque in mare volvitur aurum, 65 
TJt somno careas ponendaque praemia sumas 
Tristis et a magno semper timearis amico. 



SATIRA III. 9 

Quae nunc divitibus gens acceptissima ncstris 
Et quos praecipue fugiam properabo fateri, 
Nec pudor obstabit. Non possiim ferre, Quirites, 60 

Graecam urbem : quamvis quota portio faecis Achaei ? 
Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes 
Et linguam et mores et' cum tibicine chordas 
Obliquas, nec non gentilia tympana secum 
Vexit et ad Circum jussas prostare puellas. 65 

Ite quibus grata est picta lupa barbara mitra I 
Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna, Quirine, 
Et ceromatico fert niceteria coUo. 
Hic alta Sicyone, ast hic Amydone relicta, 
Hic Andro, ille Samo, hic Trallibus aut Alabandis, 70 

Esquilias dictumque petunt a vimine collem, 
Viscera magnarum domuum dominique futuri. 

Ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo 

Promptus et Isaeo toiTentior. Ede quid illum 
Esse putes ? quem vis hominem secum attulit ad nos : 75 
Grammaticus, rhetor, geometres, pictor, aliptes, 
Augur, schoenobates, medicus, magus : omnia novit. 
Graeculus esuriens in caelum jusseris ibit. 
Ad summam, non Maurus erat neque Sarmata nec Thrax 
Qui sumpsit pennas, mediis sed natus Athenis. 80 

Horum ego non fugiam conchylia ? me prior ille 
Signabit ? fultusque toro meliore recurabet 
Advectus Romam quo pruna et cottona vento ? 
Usque adeo nihil est, quod nostra infantia caelum 
Hausit Aventini, bacca nutrita Sabina ? 86 

Quid, quod adulandi gens prudentissima landat 
Sermonem indocti, faciem deformis amici, 
Et longum invalidi colhim cervicibus aequat 
Herculis, Antaeum procul a tellure tenentis, . 



10 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Miratur vocem angustam, qua deterius nec 90 

Ille sonat quo mordetm* gallina marito. 

Haec eadem licet et nobis laudare ; sed illis 

Creditur. An melior quum Thaida sustinet, aut quum 

Uxorem comoedus agit vel Dorida nullo 

Cultam palliolo ? Mulier nempe ipsa videtur 95 

Non persona loqui: vacua et plana omnia dicas 

Infra ventriculum et tenui distantia rima. 

Nec tamen Antiochus, nec eiit mirabilis illic 

Aut Stratocles aut cum moUi Demetrius Haemo : 

Natio comoeda est. Rides, majore cachinno 100 

Concutitur ; flet si lacrimas conspexit amici, 

Nec dolet ; igniculum brumae si tempore poscas, 

Accipit endroraidem ; si dixeris, aestuo, sudat. 

Non suraus ergo pares ; melior qui semper et omni 

Nocte dieque potest alienum sumere vultum, 105 

A facie jactare manus, laudare paratus 

Si bene ructavit, si rectum minxit amicus, 

Si trulla inverso crepitum dedit aurea fundo. 

Praeterea sanctum nihil est et ab inguine tutum : 

Non matrona Laris, non filia virgo, neque ipse lio 

Sponsus levis adhuc, non filius ante pudicus. 

Horum si nihil est, aviam resupinat amici. 

Scire volunt secreta domus atque inde timeri. 

Et quoniam coepit Graecorum mentio, transi 

Gymnasia atque audi facinus majoris abollae. 115 

Stoicus occidit Baream, delator amicum 

Discipulumque senex, ripa nutritus in illa 

Ad quam Gorgonei delapsa est pinna caballi. 

Non est Bomano cuiquam locus hic, ubi regnat 

Protogenes aliquis vel Diphilus aut Hermarcus, 120 

Qui gentis vitio nunquam partitur amicum, 



SATIRA III. 11 

Solus habet. Nara quum facilem stillavit in aurem 

Exiguum de naturae patriaeque veneno, 

Limine summoveor ; perierunt tempora longi 

Servitii. Nusquam minor est jactura clientis. 125 

Quod porro officium, ne nobis blandiar, aut quod 
Pauperis hic meritum, si curet nocte togatus 
Currere, quum praetor lictorem impellat et ire 
Praecipitem jubeat dudum vigilantibus orbis, 
Ne prior Albinam et Modiam collega salutet ? 130 

Divitis hic servi claudit latus ingenuorum 
Filius : alter enim quantum in legione tribuni 
Accipiunt donat Calvinae vel Catienae, 
Ut semel atque iterum super illam palpitet : at tu, 
Quum tibi vestiti facies scorti placet, haeres 135 

Et dubitas alta Chionen deducere sella. 
Da testem Romae tam sanctum quam fuit hospes 
Numinis Idaei ; procedat vel Nuraa vel qui 
Servavit trepidara flagranti ex aede Minervam ; 
Protinus ad censum, de moribus ultima fiet 140 

Quaestio : " quot pascit servos ? quot possidet agri 
Jugera ? quam multa magnaque paropside coenat ? " 
Quantum quisque sua numraorura serv^at in arca 
Tantura habet et fidei. Jures licet et Saraothracura 
Et nostrorura aras contemnere fiilmina pauper 146 

Creditur atque deos, dis ignoscentibus ipsis. 
Quid, quod materiam praebet causasque jocomm 
Oranibus hic idera, si foeda et scissa lacema, 
Si toga sordidula est et rupta calceus alter 
Pelle patet : vel si consuto vnlnere crassum 150 

Atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix. 
Nil habet infelix paupertas durins in se 
Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. " Exeat," inquit. 



12 D. JUNU JUVENALIS 

" Si piidor est, et de pulvino surgat equestri 

Cujus res legi non suHicit, et sedeant hic 155 

Lenonum pueri quocunque in foraice nati, 

Hic plaudat nitidi praeconis filius inter 

Pinnirapi cultos juvenes juvenesque lanistae." 

Sic libitum vano qui nos distinxit Othoni. 

Quis gener hic placuit censu minor atque puellae 160 

Sarcinulis impar ? quis pauper scribitur heres ? 

Quando in consilio est Aedilibus ? Agmine facto 

Debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quintes. 

.Haud facile emergunt quorum virtutibus obstat 

Res angusta domi : sed Romae durior illis 165 

Conatus ; magno hospitium miserabile, magno 

Servorum ventres et frugi coenula magno. 

Fictilibus coenare pudet, quod turpe negavit 

Translatus subito ad Marsos mensamque Sabellam 

Contentusque illic veneto duroque cucullo. 170 

Pars magna Italiae est, si verum adraittimus, in qua 

Nemo togam sumit nisi mortuus. Ipsa dierum 

Festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro 

Majestas tandemque redit ad pulpita notum 

Exodiura, quum pereonae pallentis hiatum 176 

In gremio matris forraidat rusticus infans, 

Aequales habitus illic similemque videbis 

Orchestram et populum : clari velamen honoris, 

Sufficiunt tunicae summis Aedilibus albae. 

Hic ultra vires habitus nitor ; hic aliquid phis 180 

Quam satis est interdum aliena sumitur arca. 

Commune id vitium est : hic vivimus ambitiosa 

Paupertate omnes. Quid te moror ? Omnia Romae 

Cum pretio. Quid das ut Cossum aliquando salutes ? 

Ut te respiciat clauso Veiento labello ? 186 



SATIBA m. 13 

IUe metit barbam, crinem hic deponit amati ; 
Plena domus libis venalibus ! Accipe et istud 
Fermentum tibi habe : praestare tributa clientes 
Cogimur et cultis augere peculia servis. 

Quis timet aut timuit gelida Praeneste ruinam 190 

Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis, aut 
Simplicibus Gabiis, aut proni Tiburis arce ? 
Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam 
Magna parte sui ; nam sic labentibus obstat 
Villicus et veteris rimae contexit hiatum, 195 

Securos pendente jubet dormire ruina. 
Vivendum est illic ubi nulla incendia, nuUi 
Nocte metus. Jam poscit aquam, jam fiivola transfert 
Ucalegon ; tabulata tibi jam tertia fumant ; 
Tu nescis : nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis, 200 

Ultimus ardebit quem tegula sola tuetur 
A pluvia, moUes ubi reddunt ova columbae. 
Lectus erat Codro Procula minor, urceoli sex, 
Omamentum abaci ; nec non et parvulus infra 
Cantbarus et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron ; 205 
Jamque vetus Graecos servabat cista libellos, 
Et divina opici rodebant carmina mures. 
Nil habuit Codrus : quis enim negat ? et tamen illud 
Perdidit infelix totum nihil : ultimus autem 
Aerumnae cumulus, quod nudum et frusta rogantem 2lo 
Nemo* cibo, nemb hospitio tectoque juvabit. 
Si magna Asturici cecidit domus, horrida mater, 
PuUati proceres, difFert vadimonia praetor ; 
Tunc geraimus casus Urbis, tunc odimus ignem. 
Ardet adhuc et jam accumt qui marmora donet, 215 

Conferat impensas. Hic nuda et candida signa, 
Hic aliquid praeclarum Euphranoris et Polycleti, 



14 D. JTJNII JUVENALIS 

Haec Asianorum vetera oraamenta deorum, 

Hic libros dabit et forulos mediamque Minervam, 

Hic modium argenti : meliora et plura reponit 220 

Persicus orborum lautissimus, et merito jam 

Suspectus tanquam ipse suas incenderit aedes. 

Si potes avelli Circensibus, optima Sorae 

Aut Fabrateriae domus aut Frusinone paratur, 

Quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum. 225 

Hortulus hic puteusque brevis nec reste movendus 

In tenues plantas facili diffunditur haustu. 

Vive bidentis amans et culti villicus horti, 

Unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis. 

Est aliquid, quocunque loco, quocunque recessu, 230 

Unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae. 

Pluiimus hic aeger moritur vigilando : sed ilhim 
Languorem peperit cibus imperfectus et haerens 
Ardenti stomacho. Nam quae meritoria somnum 
Adraittunt ? Magnis opibus dormitur in Urbe. 235 

Inde caput morbi. Rhedarum transitus arto 
Vicorum inflexu et stantis convicia mandrae 
Eripient somnum Druso vitulisque marinis. 
Si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur 
Dives et ingenti curret super ora Liburno, 240 

Atque obiter leget aiit scribet vel dormiet intus, 
Namque facit soranum clausa lectica fenestra. 
Ante tamen veniet : nobis properantibus obstat 
Unda prior, magno populus premit agmine lumbos 
Qui sequitur ; ferit hic cubito, ferit assere duro 245 , i 

Alter, at hic tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam. ' 

Pinguia crura luto, planta mox undique magna 
Calcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis haeret. 
Nonne vides quanto celebretur sportula fumo ? 



SATIBA m. 15 

Centum convivae ; seqaitur sua quemque culina . 250 

Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res 

Lnpositas capiti, quot recto vertice portat 

Servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem. 

Scinduntur tunicae sartae modo ; longa coruscat 

Sarra<?o veniente abies, atque altera pinum 255 

Plaustra vehunt ; nutant alte populoque minantur : 

Nam si procubuit qui saxa Ligustica portat 

Axis et eversum fudit super agmina montem, 

Quid superest de corporibus ? quis membra, quis ossa 

Invenit ? Obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver 260 

More animae. Domus interea secura patellas 

Jam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis 

Striglibus et pleno componit lintea gutto. 

Haec inter pueros varie properantur : at ille 

Jam sedet in ripa tetrumque novicius horret 266 

Porthmea, neo sperat coenosi gurgitis alnum 

Infelix, riec habet quem porrigat ore trientera. 

Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis : 
Quod spatium tectis sublimibus, unde cerebrum 
Testa ferit, quoties rimosa et curta fenestris 270 

Vasa cadunt ; quanto percussum pondere signent 
Et laedant silicem. Possis ignavus haberi 
Et subiti casus improvidus, ad coeniam si 
Intestatus eas/ Adeo tot fajba quot illa 
Nocte patent vigiles te praetereunte fenestrae. 276 

Ergo optes votumque feras miserabile tecum, 
Ut sint contentae patulas defundere pelves. 

Ebrius ac petulans qui nullum forte cecidit 
Dat poenas, noctem patitur higentis amicum 
Pelidae, cubat in faciem, mox deinde supinus. 80 

Ergo non aliter poterit dormire? Quibusdam / ,; 



16 D. JVmL JTJVENALIS 

Somnum rixa facit : sed quamvis improbus annis 
Atque mero fervens cavet hunc quem coccina laena 
Vitari jubet et comitum longissimus ordo, 
Multum praeterea flammarum et aenea lampas : 285 

Me quem Luna solet deducere vel breve lumen 
Candelae, cujus dispenso et tempero filum, 
Contemnit. Miserae cognosce prooemia rixae, 
Si rixa est ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum. 
Stat contra starique jubet ; parere necesse est ; 290 

Nam quid agas, quum te furiosus cogat et idem 
. Fortior ? " Unde venis ? " exclamat : " cujus aceto, 
Cujus conche tumes? quis tecum sectile porrum 
Sutor et elixi vervecis labra comedit ? 
Nil mihi respondes ? Aut dic aut accipe calcem. 295 

Edeubi consistas: in qua te quaero proseucha?" 
Dicere si temptes aliquid tacitusve recedas, 
Tantundem est ; feriunt pariter ; vadimonia deinde 
Irati faciunt. Libertas pauperis haec est : 
Pulsatus rogat et pugnis condsus adorat, 300 

Ut liceat paucis cum dentibus inde reverti. 

Nec tamen haec tantum metuas : nam qui spoliet te 
Non deerit, clausis domibus postquam omnis ubique 
Fixa catenatae siluit compago tabemae. 
Interdum et feiTO subitus grassator agit rera, 305 

Armato quoties tutae custodo tenentur 
Et Pomptina palus et Galliuaria pinus : 
Sic inde huc omnes tanquam ad vivaria currunt. 
Qua fornace graves, qua non incude, catenae ? 
Maximus in vinclis ferri modus, ut timeas ne 310 

Vomer deficiat, ne marrae et sarcula desint. 
Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas 
Saecula, quae quondam sub regibus atque tribunis 



SATIBA m. ' 17 

Yiderant uno contentam carcere Romam. 

His alias poteram et plures subnectere causas : 315 

Sed jumenta vocant et sol inclinat ; eundum est« 
^N^am mihi commota jam dudum mulio virga 
Innuit. Ergo vale nostri memor, et quoties te 
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino, 
Me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam 
Converte a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni piidet illas, 321 
Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus iu agros. 



18 * D. JUNH JUVENALIS 



SATIRA IV. 

ECCE iterum Crispinus, et est mihi saepe vocandus 
Ad partes, monstrum nuUa virtute redemptum 
A vitiis, aeger solaque libidine fortis : 
Delicias viduae tantum aspematur adulter. 
Quid refert igitur quantis jumenta fatiget 6 

Porticibus, quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra 
Jugera quot vicina foro, quas emerit aedes ? 
Nemo malus felix, minime corruptor et idem 
Incestus, cum quo nuper vittata jacebat 
Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitura sacerdos. lo 

Sed nunc de factis levioribus : et tamen alter 
Si fecisset idem caderet sub judice morum. 
Nam quod turpe bonis Titio Seioque decebat 
Crispinum. Quid agas quum dira et foedior OB<Li>i t 
Crimine persona est ? MuUum sex millibus emSt 15 

Aequantem sane paribus sestertia libris, 
Ut perhibent qui de magnis majora loquuntur. 
Consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto 
Praecipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi. 
Est ratio ulterior magnae si misit amicae, 20 

Quae vehitur clauso latis specularibus antro. 
Nil tale exspectes : emit sibi. Multa videmus 
Quae miser et frugi non fecit Apicius. Hoc tu 
Succinctus patria quondam, Crispine, papyro. 
HcrC pretium sqnamae ! Potuit fortasse rainoris 25 

Piscator quam piscis emi. Provincia tanti 



SATIRA IV. 19 

Yendit agros : sed majores Apulia yendit. 

Quales tunc epulas ipsum glutisse putamus 

Induperatorem, quum tot sestertia, partem 

Exiguam et modicae sumptam de margine coenae, 30 

Purpureus magni ructarit scurra Palati, 

Jam princeps Equitum, magna qui voce solebat 

Vendere municipes fracta de merce siluros. 

Incipe, Caliiope, licet et considere : non est 

Cantandum, res vera agitur : narrate, puellatf 35 

Piendes : prosit mihi vos dixisse puellas. 

Quum jam semianimum laceraret Flavius orbem 
Ultimus et calvo serviret Roma Neroni, 
Inddet Hadriaci spatium admirabile rhombi 
Ante domum Veneris quam Dorica sustinet Ancon, 40 
Implevitqne sinus : neque enim minor haeserat illis 
Quos operit glacies Maeotica ruptaque tandem 
Solibus effundit torpentis ad ostia Ponti, 
Desidia tardos et longo frigore pingues. 
Destinat hoc monstrum cymbae linique magister 45 

Pontifici summo. Quis enim proponere talem 
Aut emere auderet, quum plena et litora multo 
Delatore forent ? Dispersi protinus algae 
Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo, 
Non dubitaturi fugitivum dicere piscem 60 

Depastnmque diu vivaiia Caesaris ; inde 
Elapsum veterem ad dominum debere reverti. 
Si quid Palfurio, si credimus Armillato, 
Quidquid conspicunm pulcrumque est aequore toto 
Res fisci est ubicunque natat. Donabitur ergo 55 

Ne pereat. Jara letifero cedente pruinis 
Autnmno, jam quartanam sperantibns aegris, 
Stridebat deformis hiems praedamque recentcm 



20 D. JUNII JUVEXALIS 

Servabat : tamen hic properat velut urgeat Auster : 

Utque lacus suberant, ubi quanquam diruta servat 60 

Ignem Trojanum et Vestam colit Alba minorem, 

Obstitit intranti miratrix turba parumper. 

Ut cessit, facili patuerunt cardine valvae ; 

Exclusi spectant admissa obsonia Patres. 

Itur ad Atiiden. Tum Picens, " Accipe," dixit, 65 

^ Privatis majora focis : genialis agatur 

Iste dies : pr/9pera stomachum laxare saginis, 

Et tua servatum consume iu secula rhombum. 

Ipse capi voluit." Quid apeitius? et tamen illi 

Surgebant cristae. Nihil est quod credere de se 70 

Non possit quum laudatur dis aequa potestas. 

Sed deerat pisci patinae mensura. Vocantur 

Ergo in consilium proceres, quos oderat ille, 

In quorum facie miserae magnaeque sedebat 

Pallor amicitiae. Primus clamante Liburno' 75 

" Currite, jam sedit ! "Tapta properabat aboUa 

Pegasus, attonitae positus modo villicus Urbi. 

Anne aliud tunc praefecti ? quorum optimus atque 

Interpres legum sanctissimus ; omnia quanquam 

Temporibus diris tractanda putabat inermi 80 

Justitia. Venit et Crispi jucunda senectus, 

Cujus erant mores qualis facundia, mite 

Ingenium. Maria ac terras populosque regenti 

Quis comes utilior, si clade et peste sub illa 

Saevitiam damnare et honestum afferre liceret 85 

Consilium? Sed quid violentius aure tyranni, 

Cum quo de pluviis aut aestibus aut nimboso 

Vere locuturi fatum pendebat amici ? 

Ille igitur nunquam direxit brachia contra 

Torrentem, nec civis erat 'qui libera posset 90 



SATIRA IV. 21 

Verba animi proferre et vitam impendere vera 

Sic multas hiemes atque octogesima vidit 

Solstitia, his armis illa quoque tutus in aula. 

Proximus ejusdem properabat Aciliiis aevi 

Cum juvene indigno quem mors tam saeva maneret 95 

Et Domini gladiis tam festinata : sed olim 

Prodigio par est cum nobilitate senectus : 

Unde fit, ut malim fraterculus esse Gigantis. 

Profuit ergo nihil misero quod cominus ursos 

Figebat Numidas Albana nudus arena 100 

Venator. Quis enim jam non intelligat artes 

Patricias ? Quis priscum illud miratur acumen, 

Brute, tuum ? Facile est barbato imponere regi. 

Nec melior vultu quamvis ignobilis ibat 

Rubrius, ofiensae veteris reus atque tacendae, 105 

£t tamen improbior satiram soribente cinaedo. 

Montani quoque venter adest, abdomine t^dus, 

Et matntino sudans Crispinus amomo 

Quantum vix redolent duo funera ; saevior illo 

Pompeius tenui jugulos aperire susurro ; 110 

Et qui vulturibus servabat viscera Dacis 

Fuscus, marmorea meditatus proelia villa ; 

Et cum mortifero prudens Veiento CatuUo, 

Qui nunquam visae flagrabat amore puellae, 

Grande et conspicuum nostro quoque tempore monstrum, 

Caecus ad^lator, dirusque a ponte satelles, 116 

Dignus Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes, 

Blandaque devexae jactaret basia rhedae. 

Nemo magis rhombum stupuit : nam phirima dixit 

In laevum conversus, at illi dextra jacebat 120 

Bellua. Sic pugnas Cilicis laudabat et ictus 

Et pegma et pueros inde ad velaria raptos. 



22 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Non cedit Veiento, sed ut fanaticus oestro 

Percussus, Bellona, tuo, divinat et " Ingens 

Omen habes," inquit, " magni clarique triumphi : 125 

Regem aliquein capies, aut de temone Britanno 

Excidet Arviragus : peregrina est bellua ; cei-nis 

Erectas in terga sudes ? " Hoc defuit unum 

Fabricio patriam ut rhombi memoraret et annos. 

" Quidnam igitur censes ? conciditur ? " " Absit ab illo 

Dedecus hoc," Montanus ait : " testa alta paretur, 131 

Quae tenui muro spatiosum colligat orbem. 

Debetur magnus patinae subitusque Prometheus. 

Argillam atque rotam citius properate : sed ex hoc 

Tempore jam, Caesar, figuli tua castra sequantur." 136 

Vicit digna viro sententia : noverat ille 

Luxuriam imperii veterem noctesque Neronis 

Jam medias aliamque famem, quum puhno Falemo 

Arderet. Nulli jnajor fuit usus edendi 

Tempestate mea. Circeis nata forent an 140 

Lucrinum ad saxum Rutupinove edita fundo 

Ostrea callebat primo deprendere morsu, 

Et semel aspecti littus dicebat echini. 

Surgitur, et misso proceres exire jubentur 

Consilio, quos Albanam dux magnus in arcem 146 

Traxerat attonitos et festinare coactos, 

Tanquam de Cattis aliquid torvisque Sigambris 

Dicturus, tanquam diversis partibus orbis 

Anxia praecipiti venisset epistola penna. 

Atque utinam his potius nugis tota illa dedisset 150 

Tempora saevitiae, claras quibus abstulit Urbi 

Illustresque animas impune et vindice nullo. 

Sed periit postquam cerdonibus esse timendus 

Coeperat : hoc nocuit Lamiarum caede madenti. 



SATIKA V. 23 



SATIRA V. 

SI te propositi nondum pudet atque eadem est mens, 
Ut bona summa putes aliena vivere quadra; 
Si potes illa pati, quae nec Sarmentus iniquas 
Caesaris ad mensas, nec vilis Galba tulisset, 
Quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi. 5 

Ventre nihil novi frugalius. Hoc tamen ipsum 
Defecisse puta quod inani sufficit alvo : 
Nulla crepido vacat ? nusquam pons et tegetis pars 
Dimidia brevior ? tantine injuria coenae ? 
Tam jejuna fames, possis cum honestius illic 10 

Et tremere et sordes fariis mordere canini ? 

Primo fige loco, quod tu discumbere jussus 
Mercedem solidam veterum capis officiorum. 
Fructus amicitiae magnae cibus : imputat hunc rex, 
Et quamvis rarum tamen imputat. Ergo duos post 15 
Si libuit menses neglectum adhibere clientem, 
Tertia ne vacuo cessaret culcita lecto, 
" iTna simus," ait. Votorum summa : quid ultra 
Quaeris ? Habet Trebius propter quod rumpere somnum 
Debeat et ligulas dimittere sollicitus ne 20 

Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerit orbem 
Sideribus dubiis, aut illo tempore quo se 
Frigida circumagunt pigri sarraca Bootae. 
Qualis coena tamen ? Vinum quod sucida nolit 
Lana pati : de conviva Corybanta videbis. 25 



24 D. JTJNn JTJVENALIS 

Jurgia proludunt : sed mox et pocula torques 

Saucius et rubra deterges vulnera mappa, 

Inter vos quoties libertorumque cohortem 

Pugna Saguntina fervet commissa lagena. 

Ipse capillato diffusum Consule potat 30 

Calcatamque tenet bellis socialibus uvam, 

Cardiaco nunquam cyathum missurus amico. 

Cras bibet Albanis aliquid de montibus aut de 

Setinis, cujus patriam titulumque senectus 

Delevit multa veteris fuligine testae ; 35 

Quale coronati Thrasea Helvidiusque bibebant 

Brutoihim et Cassi natalibus. Ipse capaces 

Heliadum crustas et inaequales beryllo 

Vin'o tenet phialas : tibi non committitur aurum ; 

Vel, si quando datur, custos affixus ibidem ' 40 

Qui nuraeret gemmas, ungues observet acutos. 

" Da veniam : praeclara illic laudatur iaspis." 

Nam Virro, ut multi, gemmas ad pocula transfert 

A digitis, quas in vaginae fronte solebat 

Ponere zelotypo juvenis praelatus larbae. 45 

Tu Beneventani sutoris nomen habentem 

Siccabis calicem nasorum quatuor, ac jam 

Quassatum et rupto poscentem sulfura vitro. 

Si stomachus domini fervet vinoque ciboque, 

Frigidior Geticis petitur decocta pruinis : ' 60 

Non eadem vobis poni modo vina querebar ? 

Vos aliam potatis aquam. Tibi pocula cursor 

Gaetulus dabit aut nigri manus ossea Mauri, 

Et cui per median^ nolis occurrere noctem 

Clivosae veheris dum per monumenta Latinae. 65 

Flos Asiae ante ipsura, pretio majore paratus 

Quam fuit et TuUi census pugnacis et Anci 



SATIEA V. 25 

Et, ne te teneam, Romanorum omnia regum 

Frivola. Quod qaum ita sit, tu Gaetulum Ganymedem 

Respice quum sities. Nescit tot millibus emptus 60 

Pauperibus miscere puer : sed forma, sed aetas 

Digna supercilio. Quando ad te pervenit ille ? 

Quando vocatus adest calidae gelidaeque minister ? 

Quippe indignatur veteri parcre clienti, 

Quodque aliquid poscas et quod se stante recumbas. 06 

Maxima quaeque domus servis est plena superbis. 

Ecce alius quanto porrexit raurmure panera 

Yix fractum, solidae jam mucida frusta farinae, 

Quae genuinura agitent non admittentia moi*sura : 

Sed tener et niveus moUique siligine factus 70 

Servatur domino. Dextram cohibere memento : 

Salva sit artoptae reverentia. Finge tamen te 

Improbulura, superest illic qui ponere cogat. 

" Vis tu consuetis audax conviva canistris 

Irapleri panisque tui novisse colorera ? " — 76 

" Scilicet hoc fuerat propter quod saepe relicta 

Conjuge per montem adversum gelidasque cucurri 

Esquilias, fremeret saeva quum grandine vemus 

Juppiter et multo stillaret paenula nimbo ! " — 

Aspice quam longo distendat pectore lancem 80 

Quae fertur domino squilla, et quibus undique septa 

Asparagis, qua despiciat convivia cauda 

Quum venit excelsi manibus sublata ministri. 

Sed tibi dimidio constrictns cammarus ovo 

Ponitur, exigua feralis coena patella. 85 

Ipse Venafrano piscem perfundit : at hic qui 

Pallidus affertur misero tibi caulis olebit 

Laternam : illud enim vestris datur alveolis quod 

Canna Micipsarum prora subvexit acuta. 



26 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Propter quod Romae cum Boccbare nemo lavatur, 90 

Quod tutos etiam facit a serpentibus Afros. 

MuUus erit domini, quem misit Corsica vel quem 

Tauromenitanae rupes, quando omne peractum est 

Et jam defecit nostrum mare, dum gula saevit 

Retibus assiduis penitus scrutante macello 96 

Proxima, nec patitur Tyrrhenum crescere piscem, 

Instruit ergo focum provincia ; sumitur illinc 

Quod captator emat Laenas, Aurelia vendat. 

Virroni muraena datur, quae maxima venit 

Gurgite de Siculo ; nam dum se continet Auster, loo 

Dum sedet et siccat madidas in carcere pennas, 

Contemnunt mediam temeraria lina Cbarybdim. 

Vos anguilla manet longae cognata colubrae, 

Aut glacie aspersus maculis Tiberinus et ipse 

Vei-nula riparum, pinguis torrente cloaca, 105 

Et solitus mediae cryptam penetrare Suburrae. 

Ipsi pauca velim, facilem si praebeat aurem. 
Nemo petit modicjdS quae mittebantur amicis 
A Seneca, quae Piso bonus, quae Cotta solebat 
Largiri : namque et titulis et fascibus olim iio 

Major babebatur donandi gloria : solum 
Poscimus ut coenes civiliter, Hoc face et esto, 
Esto, ut nunc multi, dives tibi pauper amicis. 

Anseris ante ipsum magni jecur, anseribus par 
Altilis et flavi dignus ferro Meleagri 115 

Fumat aper : post hunc tradentur tubera, si ver 
Tunc erit et facient optata tonitinia coenas 
Majores. " Tibi habe fnimentum," Allidius inquit, 
" O Libye ; disjunge boves dum tubera mittas." 
Structorem interea, ne qua indignatio desit, 120 

Saltantem spectas et chironomunta volanti 



SATIRA V. 27 

Cultello, donec peragat dictata magistri 

OmDia. Nec minimo sane discrimine refert, 

Quo gestu lepores et quo gallina secetur. 

Duceris planta velut ictus ab Hercule Cacus 125 

Et ponere foris, si quid temptaveris unquam 

Iliscere, tanquam habeas tria nomina. Quando propinat 

Virro tibi sumitque tuis contacta labellis 

Pocula? quis vestrum temerarius usque adeo, quis 

Perditus, ut dicat regi, bibe ? Plurima sunt quae 130 

Non audent homines pertusa dicere laena. 

Quadringenta tibi si quis deus aut similis dis 

Et melior fatis donaret homuncio, quantus 

Ex nihilo lieres, quantus Virronis araicus I 

« Da Trebio ! pone ad Trebium ! Vis, frater, ab istis 135 

Ilibus ? '* O nummi, vobis hunc praestat honorem, 

Vos estis fratres. Dominus tamen et domini rex 

Si vis tu lieri, nullus tibi parvulus aula 

Luserit Aeneas, nec filia dulcior illo : 

Jucundum et canim sterilis facit uxor amicum. 140 

Sed tua nunc Migale pariat licet et pueros tres 

In gremium patris fundat simul, ipse loquaci 

Gaudebit nido ; viridem thoraca jubebit 

Afferri minimasque nuces assemque rogatum, 

Ad mensam quoties parasitus venerit infans. 145 

Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur amicis, 

Boletus domino ; sed quales Claudius edit 

Ante illum uxoris post quem nil amplius edit. 

Virro sibi et reliquis Virronibus illa jubebit 

Poma dari quorum solo pascaris odore : 150 

Qualia perpetuus Phaeacum autnmnus habebat, 

Credere quae possis surrepta sororibus Afris : 

Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit, 



28 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Qui tegitur parma et galea metaensqae flagelli 

Discit ab hirsuta jacalum torquere capella. 155 

Forsitan impensae Virronem parcere credas. 

Hoc agit ut doleas : nam quae comoedia, mimus 

Quis melior plorante gula ? Ergo omnia fiunt, 

Si nescis, ut per lacrimas efiundere bilem 

Cogaris pressoque diu stridere molari. 160 

Tu tibi liber homo et regis conviva videris : 

Captum te nidore suae putat ille culinae, 

Nec male conjectat. Quis enim tam nudus ut illum 

Bis ferat, Etruscum puero si contigit aurum 

Vel nodus tautum et signum de panpere loro? 165 

Spes bene coenandi vos decipit. " Ecce dabit jam 

Semesum leporem atque aliquid de clunibus apri : 

Ad nos jam veniet minor altilis." Inde parato 

Intactoque omnes et stricto pane tacetis. 

IUe sapit qui te sic utitur. Omnia ferre 170 

Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum vertice raso 

Praebebis quandoque caput, nec dura timebis 

Flagra pati his epulis et tali dignus amico. 



SATIBA vn. 29 



SATIRA Vn. 

ET spes et ratio studiorum in Caesare tantum : 
Solus enim tristes hac tempestate Camenas 
Respexit, quum jam celebres notique poetae 
Balneolum GaJbiis, Romae conducere fumos 
Temptarent, nec foedum alii nec turpe putai*ent 5 

Praecones fieri ; quum desertis Aganippes 
Vallibus esuriens migraret in atria Clio. 
Nam si Pieria quadrans tibi nuUus in umbra 
Ostendatur, ames nomen victumque Machaerae, 
Et vendas potius commissa quod auctio vendit 10 

Stantibus, oenophorum, tripodes, armaria, cistas, 
Alcithoen Pacci, Thebas et Terea Fausti, 
Hoc satius quam si dicas sub judice " Vidi," 
Quod non vidisti ; faciant equites Asiani, 
Quanquam et Cappadoces faciant equitesque Bithyni, 15 
Altera quos nudo traducit Gallia talo. 
Nemo tamen studiis indignum ferre laborem 
Cogetur posthac, nectit quicunque canoris 
Eloquium vocale modis laurumque raomordit. 
Hoc agite, o juvenes : circumspicit et stimulat vos 20 

Materiamque sibi Ducis indulgentia quaerit. 
Si qua aliunde putas rerum exspectanda tuarum 
Praesidia, atque ideo croceae membrana tabellae 
Impletur, lignorum aliquid posce ocius, et quae 
Componis dona Veneris, Telesine, marito, 26 



30 D. JUrni JUVBNAUS 

Aut clade et positos tinea pertunde libellos. 

Frange miser calamos vigilataque proelia dele, 

Qui facis in parva sublimia carmina cella 

Ut dignus venias hederis et imagine macra. 

Spes nulla ulterior : didicit jam dives avarus 30 

Tantum admirari, tantum laudare disertos, 

Ut pueri Junonis avem. Sed defluit aetas 

Et pelagi patiens et cassidis atque ligonis. 

Taedia tunc subennt animos, tunc seque suamque 

Terpsichoren odit facunda et nuda senectus. 35 

Accipe nunc artes ne quid tibi conferat iste 
Quem colis et Musarum et Apollinis aede relicta. 
Ipse facit versus atque uni cedit Homero 
Propter mille annos ; et si dulcedine famae 
Succensus recites maculosas commodat aedes. 40 

Haec longe ferrata domus servire jubetur, 
In qua soUicitas imitatur janua portas. 
Scit dare libertos extrema in parte sedentes 
Ordinis et magnas comitum disponere voces. 
Nemo dabit regum quanti subsellia constent, 45 

Et quae conducto peiident anabathra tigillo, 
Quaeque reportandis posita est orchestra cathedris. 
Nos tamen hoc agimus, tenuique in pulvere sulcos 
Ducimus et litus sterili versamus aratro. 
Nam si disoedas, laqueo tenet ambitiosi 50 

Consuetudo mali ; tenet insanabile multos 
Scribendi cacoethes et aegro in corde senescit. 
Sed vatem egregiura cui non sit publica vena, 
Qui nihil expositum soleat deducere, nec qui 
Communi feriat carmen triviale moneta, 55 

Hunc qualem nequeo monstrare et sentio tantum 
Anxietate carens animus facit, omnis acerbi 



SATIRA VII. 31 

Impatiens, cupidus silvarum aptusque bibendis 

Fontibus Aonidum. Neque enim cantare sub antro 

Pierio thyrsumve potest contingere moesta 60 

Paupertas atque aeris inops, quo nocte dieque 

Corpus eget : satur est quum dicit Horatius, Euoe I 

Quis locus ingenio, nisi quum se cai-mine solo 

Vexant et dominis Cirrhae Nysaeque feruntur 

Pectora vestra duas non admittentia curas ? 05 

Magnae mentis opus nec de lodice paranda 

Attonitae currus et equos faciesqUe deorum 

Aspicere et qualis Rutulum confundat Erinnys. 

Nam si Virgilio puer et tolerabile deesset 

Hospitium, caderent omnes a crinibus hydri ; 70 

Surda nihil gemeret grave buccina. Poscimus ut sit 

Kon minor antiquo Rubrenus Lappa cothurno, 

Cujus et alveolos et laenam pignerat Atreus. 

Non habet infelix Numitor quod mittat amico ; 

Quintillae (juod donet habet ; nec defuit illi 76 

Unde emeret multa pascendum carne leonem 

Jam domitum : constat leviori bellua sumptu 

Nimirum, et capiunt plus intestina poetae. 

Contentus fama jaceat Lucanus in hortis 

Mannoreis : at Serrano tenuique Saleio 80 

Gloria quantalibet quid erit, si gloria tantum est? 

Curritur ad vocem jucundam et carmen amicae 

Thebaidos, laetam fecit quum Statius TJrbem 

Promisitque diem. Tanta dulcedine captos 

Afficit ille animos tantaque libidine vulgi 86 

Auditur : sed quum fregit subsellia versu 

Esurit, intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven. 

Ille et militiae multis largitui* honorem, 

Semestri vatum digitos circumligat auro. 



32 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Quod non dant proceres dabit histrio : tu Camerinos 90 
Et Bareas, tu nobilium magna atria curas ? 
Praefectos Pelopea facit, Philomela tribunos. 
Haud tamen invideas vati, quem pulpita pascunt. 
Quis tibi Maecenas ? quis nunc eiit aut Proculeius 
Aut Fabius? quis Cotta iterum? quis Lentulus alter? 95 
Tunc par ingenio pretium ; tunc utile multis 
Pallere et vinum toto nescire Decembri. 

Vester porro labor fecundior, historiarum 
Scriptores ? petit hic plus temporis atque olei plus : 
Namque oblita modi millesima pagina surgit loo 

Omnibus et multa crescit damnosa papyro. 
Sic ingens rerum numerus jubet atque operum lex. 
Quae tamen inde seges ? terrae quis fructus apertae ? 
Quis dabit historico quantum daret acta legenti ? 

" Sed genus ignavum quod lecto gaudet et umbra." 105 
Dic igitur quid causidicis civilia praeetent 
Officia et magno comites in fasce libelli. 
Ipsi magna sonant, sed tunc quum creditor audit 
Praecipue, vel si tetigit latus acrior illo 
Qui venit ad dubium grandi cum codice nomen. iio 

Tunc immensa cavi spirant mendacia foUes 
Conspuiturque sinus. Veram deprendere messem 
Si libet, hinc centum patrimonia causidicorum, 
Parte alia solum russati pone Lacernae. 
Consedere Duces : surgis tu pallidus Ajax iij 

Dicturus dubia pro libertate bubulco 
Judice* Rumpe miser tensum jecur, ut tibi lasso 
Figantur virides scalarum gloria palmaci 
Quod vocis pretium ? siccus petasunculus et vas 
Pelamydum, aut veteres Afrorum epimenia bulbi, 120 

Aut vinuni Tiberi devectum, quinque lagenae, 



SATIRA VII. 33 

Si quater egisti. Si contigit aureus unas, 

Inde cadunt partes ex foedere pragmaticorum. 

Aemilio dabitm- quantum libet, et melius nos 

Egimus : hujus enim stat currus aeneus, alti 125 

Qnadrijuges in vestibulis, atque ipse feroci 

Bellatore sedeus curvatum hastile minatur 

Eminus et statua meditatur proelia lusca. 

Sic Pedo conturbat, Matho deficit ; exitus hic est 

Tongilli, magno cum rhinocerote lavari 130 

Qui solet et vexat lutulenta balnea turba 

Perque forum juvenes longo premit assere Medos, 

Empturus pueros, argentura, murrina, villas ; 

Spondet enim Tyrio stlataria purpura filo. 

Et tamen est illis hoc utile : purpura vendit 135 

Causidicum, vendunt amethystina : convenit illis 

Et strepitu et facie majoris vivere census. 

Sed finem impensae non servat prodiga Roma. 

Fidimus eloquio ? Ciceroni nemo ducentos 

Nunc dederit nummos nisi fulserit annulus ingens. 140 

Respicit haec primum qui litigat, an tibi servi 

Octo, decem comites, an post te sella, togati 

Ante pedes. Ideo conducta PauUus agebat 

Sardonyche, atque ideo pluris quam Cossus agebat, 

Quam Basilus. Rara in tenui fa^jundia panno. 145 

Quando licet Basilo flentem producere matrem ? 

Quis bene dicentem Basilum ferat ? Accipiat te 

Gallia vel potius nutricula causidicorum 

Africa, si placuit mercedem imponere linguae. 

Declamare doces ? O ferrea pectora Vetti, 150 

Quum perimit saevos classis numerosa tyrannos ! 

JSTam quaecunque sedens modo legerat haec eadem stans 

Perferet atque eadem cantabit versibus isdem. 

3 



34 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros. 

Qiiis color et quod sit causae genus atque ubi summa 155 

Quaestio, quae veniant diversa parte sagittae, 

Nosse velint omnes, mercedem solvere nemo. 

" Mercedem appellas ? quid enim scio ? " " Culpa docentis 

Scilicet arguitur quod laeva in parte mamillae 

Nil salit Arcadio juveni, cujus mihi sexta IGO 

Quaque die miserum dirus caput Hannibal implet ; 

Quidquid id est de quo deliberat, an petat XJrbem 

A Cannis, an post nimbos et fulmina cautus 

Circumagat madidas a tempestate cohortes. 

Quantum vis stipulare et protinus accipe quod do 166 

Ut toties illum pater audiat." Haec alii sex 

Vel plures uno conclamant ore Sophistae, 

Et veras agitant lites raptore relicto ; 

Fusa venena silent, malus ingratusque maritus, 

Et quae jam veteres sanant mortaria caecos. 170 

Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem si nostra movebunt^ 

Consilia, et vitae diversum iter ingredietur, 

Ad pugnam qui rhetorica descendit ab umbra, 

Summula ne pereat qua vilis tessera venit 

Frumenti : quippe haec merces lautissima. Tempta 175 

Chrysogonus quanti doceat vel Pollio quanti 

Lautorum pueros, artem -scindens Theodori. 

Bahiea sexcentis et pluris poiticus in qua 

Gestetur dominus quoties pluit. Anne serenum 

Exspectet spargatque luto jumenta recenti? 180 

Hic potius, namque hic mundae nitet ungula mulae. 

Parte alia longis Numidarum fulta columnis 

Surgat et algentem rapiat coenatio solem. 

Quanticunque domus, veniet qui fercula docte 

^^niponat, veniet qui puhnentaria condat. 185 



SATIEA vn. 35 

Hos inter sumptus sestertia Quintiliano 

Ut multum duo sufficient : res nuUa minoris 

Constabit patri quam filius. " Unde igitur tot 

Quintilianus habet saltus?" Exempla novoram 

Fatorum transi. Felix et pulcher et acer, 190 

Felix et sapiens et nobilis et generosus 

Appositam nigrae lunam subtexit alutae ; 

Felix orator quoque maximus et jaculator ; 

Et si pei-frixit, cantat bene. Distat enim quae 

Sidera te excipiant modo primos incipientem 195 

Edere vagitus et adhuc a matre rubentem. 

Si Fortuna volet, fies de rhetore Consul ; 

Si volet haec eadem, fies de Consule rhetor. 

Ventidius quid enim ? quid TuUius ? anne aliud quam 

Sidus et occulti mirdnda potentia fati ? 200 

Servis regna dabunt, captivis fata triumphos. 

Felix ille tamen corvo quoque rarior albo. 

Poenituit multos vanae sterilisque cathedrae, 

Sicut Thrasymachi probat exitus atque Secundi 

Carinatis : et hunc inopem vidistis, Athenae, 206 

Nil praeter gelidas ausae conferre cicutas. ^ 

Di majorum umbris tenuem et sine pondere ierram 

Spirantesque crocos et in urna perpetuum ver, 

Qui praeceptorem sancti voluere parentis 

Esse loco. Metuens virgae jam grandis Achilles 2io 

Cantabat patriis in montibtis ; et cui non tunc 

Eliceret risum citharoedi cauda magistri ? 

Sed Rufum atque alios caedit sua quemque juventus, 

Rufiim qui toties Ciceronem Allobroga dixit. 

Quis gremio Enceladi doctique Palaemonis affert 215 
Quantum grammaticus meruit labor ? et tamen ex hoc 
Qaodcunque est (minus est autem quam rhetoris aera) 



36 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Discipuli custos praemordet Acoenonetus 

Et qui dispensat frangit sibi. Cede, Palaemon, 

Et patere inde aliquid decrescere, non aliter quam 220 

Institor hibemae tegetis niveique cadurci, 

Dummodo non pereat mediae quod noctis ab hora 

Sedisti qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet 

Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro ; 

Dummodo non pereat totidem olfecisse lucernas 225 

Quot stabant pueri, quum totus decolor esset 

Flaccus et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni. 

Rara tamen merces quae cognitione tribuni 

Non egeat. Sed vos saevas imponite leges, 

TJt praeceptori verborum regula constet, 230 

TJt legat historias, auctores noverit omnes, 

Tanquam ungues digitosque suos; utfoite rogatus, 

Dum petit aut thermas aut Phoebi balnea, dicat 

Nutricem Anchisae, nomen patriamque novercae 

Archemori, dicat quot Acestes vixerit annos, 235 

Quot Siculus Phrygibus vini donaverit urnas. 

Exigite ut mores teneros ceu pollice ducat, 

Ut si quis cera vultum facit ; exigite ut sit 

Et pater ipsius coetus, ne turpia ludant, 

Ne faciant vicibus. " Non est leve tot puerorum 240 

Observare manus oculosque in fine trementes." 

" Haec," inquit, " cures et quum se verterit annus 

Accipe victori populus quod postulat aurum." 



SATIBA vin. . 37 



SATIRA Vm. 

STEMMATA quid faciunt ? qnid prodest, Pontice, longo 
Sanguine censeri pictosque ostendere vultus 
Majorum, et stantes in curribus Aemilianos, 
Et Curios jam dimidios, humeroque minorem 
Corvinum, et Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem ? 5 

Quis fructus generis tabula jactare capaci 
Cor\dnum, postbac multa contingere virga 
Fumosos Equitum cum Dictatore magistros, 
Si coram Lepidis male vivitur ? effigies quo 
Tot bellatorum, si luditur alea peniox 10 

Ante Numantinos ; si donnire incipis ortu 
Luciferi, quo signa duces et castra movebant ? 
Cur AUobrogicis et magna gaudeat ara 
Natus in Herculeo Fabius Lare, si cupidus, si 
Vanus et Euganea quantumvis mollior agna ; 15 

Si tenerum attritus Catinensi pumice lumbum 
Squalentes traducit avos, emptorque veneni 
Frangenda miseram funestat imagine gentem ? 
Tota licet veteres exornent undique cerae 
Atria, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. 20 

Paullus vel Cossus vel Drusus moribus esto ; 
Hos ante efiigies majorum pone tuorum ; 
Praecedant ipsas illi te Consule virgas. 
Prima mibi debes animi bona : sanctus haberi 
Justitiaeque tenax factis dictisque mereris, 25 



38 D. JUOTI JUVENALIS 

Agnosco prooerera. Salve, Gaetulice, seu tu 

Silanus, quocunque alio de sanguine, rarus 

Civis et egregius patriae contingis ovanti. 

Exclamare libet populus quod clamat Osiri 

Invento. Quis enim generosum dixerit hunc qui 30 

Indignus genere et praeclaro nomine tantum 

Insignis ? Nanum cujusdam Atlanta vocamus, 

Aethiopem cygnum, pravam extortamque puellam 

Europen ; canibus pigris scabieque vetusta 

Levibus et siccae lambentibus ora lucemae 35 

Komen erit pardus, tigris, leo, si quid adhuc est 

Quod fremat in terris violentius. Ergo cavebis, 

Et metues ne tu sis Creticus aut Camerinus. 

His ego quem monui ? tecum est mihi sermo, Rubelli 
Plaute. Tumes alto Drusorum stemmate,^ tanquam 40 
Feceris ipse aliquid propter quod nobilis esses, 
Ut te conciperet quae sanguine fulget luli, 
Non quae ventoso conducta sub aggere texit. 
" Vos humiles," inquis, " vulgi pars ultima nostri, 
Quorum nemo queat patriam monstrare parentis : 45 

Ast ego Cecropidesl " Vivas et originis hujus 
Gaudia longa feras : tamen ima plebe Quiritem 
Facundum invenies ; solet hic defendere causas 
Nobilis indocti ; veniet de plebe togata 
Qui juris nodos et legum aenigmata solvat. 50 

Hic petit Euphraten juvenis domitique Batavi 
Custodes aquilas, armis industrius : at tu 
Nil nisi Cecropides truncoque simillimus Hermae. 
Nullo quippe alio vincis discrimine quam quod 
Illi marmoreum caput est, tua vivit imago. 66 

Dic mihi, Teucrorum proles, animalia muta 
Quis generosa putet nisi fortia ? nempe volucrem 



SATIRA VIII. 39 

Sic laadamus eqaum facili cui plurima palma 

Fervet et exsultat rauco victoria Circo. 

Nobilis hic, quocunque veiiit de graraine, cujus 60 

Clara fuga ante alios et primus in aequore pulvis : 

Sed venale pecus Corythae posteritas et 

Hirpini si rara jugo Victoiia sedit. 

Nil ibi majorum respectus, gratia nulla 

Umbrarum : dominos pretiis mutare jubentur 65 

Exiguis, trito ducunt epiredia coUo 

Segnipedes dignique molam versare Nepotis. 

Ergo ut miremur te non tua, primum aliquid da 

Quod possim titulis incidere, praeter honores 

Quos illis damus et dedimus quibus omnia debes. 70 

Haec satis ad juvenem quem nobis fama superbum 
Tradit et inflatum plenumque Nerone propinquo : 
Rarus enim ferme sensus communis in illa 
Fortuna. Sed te censeii laude tuorum, 
Pontice, noluerim sic ut nihil ipse futurae 75 

Laudis ^gas. Miserum est aliorum incumbere famae, 
Ne collapsa ruant subductis tecta columnis. 
Stratus humi palmes viduas desiderat ulmos. 
Esto bonus miles, tutor bonus, arbiter idem 
Integer; ambiguae si quando citabere testis 80 

Incertaeque rei, Phalaris licet imperet ut sis 
Falsus et admoto dictet perjuria tauro, 
Summum crede nefas animam praeferre pudori 
Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas. 
Dignus morte peiit, coenet licet ostrea centum 85 

Gaurana et Cosmi toto mergatur aeno, 

Exspectata diu tandem provincia quum te 
Rectorem accipiet, pone irae fraena modumque, 
Pone et avaritiae, miserere inopum sociorum ; 



40 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Ossa vides regum vacuis exsucta medullis. 90 

Respice quid moneant leges, quid euria mandet, 

Praemia quanta bonos maneant, quam fulmine justo 

Et Capito et Numitor ruerint damnante Senatu, 

Piratae Cilicum. Sed quid damnatio confert, 

Quum Pansa eripiat quidquid tibi Natta reliquit ? 95 

Praeconem, Chaerippe, tuis circumspice pannis, 

Jamque tace : furor est post omnia perdere naulum. 

Non idem gemitus olim neque vulnus erat par 

Damnorum sociis florentibus et modo victis. 

Plena domus tunc omnis, et ingens stabat acervus 100 

Nummorum, Spartana chlamys, conchylia Coa, 

Et cum Parrhasii tabulis signisque Myronis 

Phidiacum vivebat ebur; nec non Polycleti 

Multus ubique labor ; rarae sine Mentore mensae. 

Inde Dolabella est atque hinc Antonius, inde 105 

Sacrilegus Verres : referebant navibus altis 

Occulta spolia et plures de pace triumphos. 

Nunc sociis juga pauca boum, grex parvus equamm 

Et pater ai^nenti capto eripietur agello ; 

Ipsi deinde Lares, si quod spectabile signum, iio 

Si quis in aedicula deus unicus. Haec etenim sunt 

Pro summis, nam sunt haec maxima. Despicias tu 

Forsitan imbelles Rhodios unctamque Corinthum : 

Despicias merito. Quid resinata juventus 

Cruraque totius facient tibi levia gentis ? 115 

Horrida vitanda est Ilispania, Gallicus axis 

Illyricumque latus : parce et messoribus illis, 

Qui saturant Urbem Circo scenaeque vacantem. 

Quanta autem inde feres tam dirae praemia culpae, 

Quum tenues nuper Marius djscmxerit Afros ? 120 

Curandum imprimis ne magna injuria flat 



sATiRA vm. 41 

Fortibus et miseris : toUas licet omDe quod usquam est 
Auri atque argenti, scutum gladiumque relinques 
£t jacula et galeam : spoliatis arma supersunt. 

Quod modo proposui non est sententia : verum . 126 
Credite me vobis folium recitare Sibyllae. 
Si tibi sancta cobors comitum, si nemo tribunal 
Yendit Acersecomes, si nullum in conjuge crimen, 
Nec per conventus et cuncta per oppida curvis 
IJnguibus ire parat nummos raptura Celaeno ; 130 

Tunc licet a Pico numeres genus, altaque si te 
Nomina delectant, omnem Titanida pugnam 
Inter majores ipsumque Promethea ponas : 
De quocunque voles proavum tibi sumito libro. 
Quod si praecipitem rapit ambitio atque libido, 135 

Si frangis virgas sociorum in sanguine, si te 
Delectant hebetes lasso lictore secures, 
Incipit ipsorum' contra te stare pai*entum 
Nobilitas claramque facem praeferre pudendis. 
Omne animi vitium tanto conspectius in se 140 

Crimen habet, quanto major qui peccat habetur. 
Quo mihi te solitum falsas signare tabellas 
In templis quae fecit avus statuamque parentis 
Ante triumphalem ? quo si noctunius adulter 
Tempora Santonico velas adoperta cucuUo ? 145 

Praeter majorum cineres atque ossa volucri 
Carpento rapitur pinguis Lateranus, et ipse, 
Ipse rotam adstrin^t multo sufflamine Consul ; 
Nocte quidem, sed luna videt, sed sidera testes 
Intendunt oculbs. Finitum tempus honoris 160 

Quum fuerit, clara Lateranus luce ilagellum 
Sumet et occursum nunquara trepidabit amici 
Jam senis, ac virga prior annuet atque maniplos 



42 D. JtJNII JUVENALIS 

Solvet et infundet jumentis hordea lassis. 

Interea dum lanatas torvumque juvencum 155 

More Numae caedit Jovis ante altaiia, jurat 

Solam Eponam et facies olida ad praesepia pictas. 

Sed quum pervigiles placet instaarare popinas, 

Obvius assiduo Syrophoenix udus amomo 

Currit, Idumaeae Syrophoenix incola portae, 160 

Hospitis affectu dominom regemque salutat, 

Et cum venali Cyane succincta lagena. 

Defensor culpae dicet mihi, " Fecimus et nos 
Haec juvenes." Esto. Desisti nempe, nec ultra 
Fovisti errorem. Breve sit, quod turpiter audes ; 165 

Quaedam cum prima resecentur crimina barba ; 
Indulge veniam pueris. Lateranus ad illos 
Thermarum calices inscriptaque lintea vadit 
Maturus bello, Armeniae Syriaeque tuendis 
Amnibus et Rheno atque Istro. Praestare Neronem 170 
Securum valet haec aetas. Mitte ostia, Caesar, 
Mitte, sed in magna legatum quaere popina ; 
Invenies aliquo cum percussore jacentem, 
Permixtum nautis et furibus ac fugitivis, 
Inter carnifices et fabros sandapilarum 175 

Et resupinati cessantia tympana Galli. 
Aequa ibi libertas, communia pocula, lectus 
Non alius cuiquam, nec mensa remotior ulh. 
Quid facias talem sortitus, Pontice, servum? 
Nempe in Lucanos aut Tusca ergastula mittas. 180 

At vos, Trojugenae, vobis ignoscitis, et quae 
Turpia cerdoni Volesos Brutumque decebunt. 

Quid, si numquam adeo foedis adeoque pudendis 
Utimut exemplis ut non pejora supersint ? 
Consumptis opibus vocem, Damasippe, locasti 185 



SATIEA VIII. 43 

Sipaiio, clamosam ageres ut Phasma CatuUi : 

Laureolum velox etiam bene Lentulus cgit, 

Judice me dignus vera cruce. Kec tamen ipsi 

Ignoscas populo : populi frons durior hujus, 

Qui sedet et spectat triscm*ria patriciorum, 190 

Planipedes audit Fabios, ridere potest qui 

JVIamercorum alapas. Quanti sua funera vendant 

Quid refert ? Vendunt nullo cogente Nerone, 

Nec dubitant celsi Praetoris vendere ludis. 

Finge tamen gladios inde, atque hinc pulpita pone : 195 

Quid satius ? Mortem sic quisquam exhorruit ut sit 

Zelotypus Thymeles, stupidi coUega Corinthi ? 

Kes haud mira tamen citharoedo Principe mimus 

Nobilis. Haec ultra quid erit nisi ludus ? Et illud 

Dedecus TJrbis habes ; nec mirmillonis in annis, 200 

Nec clipeo Gracchum pugnantem aut falce supina^ 

(Damnat enim tales habitus ; et damnat et odit) 

Nec galea faciem abscondit ; movet ecce tridentem ; 

Postquam librata pendentia retia dextra 

Nequidquam effudit, nudum ad spectacula vultum 205 

Erigit et tota fugit agnoscendus arena. 

Credamus tunicae, de faucibus aurea quum se 

Porrigat et longo jactetur spira galero. 

Ergo ignominiam graviorem pertulit omni 

Vulnere cum Graccho jussus pugnare secutor. 210 

Libera si dentur populo suffi^agia, quis tam 
Perditus ut dubitet Senecam praeferre Neroni ? 
Cujus supplicio non debuit una parari 
Simia, nec serpens unus, nec culeus unus. 
Par Agamemnonidae crimen ; sed causa facit rem 216 

Dissimilem ; quippe ille deis auctoribus ultor 
Patris erat caesi media inter pocula, sed nec 



44 D. JUNn JCTENALIS 

Electrae jugulo se poUuit aut Spartani 
Sanguine conjugii ; nuUis aconita propinquis 
Miscuit, in scena nunquam cantavit Orestes ; 220 

Troica non scripsit. Quid enim Verginius armis 
Debuit ulcisci magis, aut cum Vindice Oalba ? 
Quid N"ero tam saeva crudaque tyrannide fecit ? 
Haec opera atque hae sunt generosi Principis artes, 
'Gaudentis foedo peregrina ad pulpita cantu 225 

Prostitui Graiaeque apium meruisse coronae. 
Majorum effigies habeant insignia yocis : 
Ante pedes Domiti longum tu pone Thyestae 
Syrma vel Antigones, tu personam Menalippes, 
Et de marmoreo citharam suspende colosso. 230 

Quid, Catilina, tuis natalibus atque Cethegi 
Inveniet quisquam sublimius ? Arma tamen vos 
Noctuma et flammas domibus templisque parastis, 
Ut Braccatorum pueri Senonumque minores, 
Ausi quod liceat tunica punire molesta. 235 

Sed vigilat Consul vexillaque vestra coercet. 
Hic novus Arpinas, ignobilis et modo Romae 
Municipalis Eques, galeatum ponit ubique 
Praesidium attonitis et in omni gente laborat. 
Tantum igitur muros intra toga contulit illi 240 

Nominis et tituli, quantum non Leucade, quantum 
Thessaliae campis Octavius abstulit udo 
Caedibus assiduis gladio. Sed Roma parentem, 
Roma Patrera Patriae Ciceronem libera dixit. 
Arpinas alius Volscorum in monte solebat 245 

Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro ; 
Nodosam post haec frangebat vertice vitem, 
Si lentus pigra muniret castra dolabra. 
Hic tamen et Cimbros et summa pericula rerum 



SATIRA vin. 45 

Excipit, et solus trepidantem protegit TJrbem ; 250 

Atqu^ ideo, postquam ad Cimbros stragemque volabant 

Qui nunquam attigerant majora cadavera corvi, 

Nobilis omatur lauro collega secunda. 

Plebeiae Deciorum animae, plebeia fuerunt 

Nomina : pro totis legionibus hi tamen et pro 255 

Omnibus auxiliis atque onmi pube Latina 

Sufficiunt dis infemis Terraeque parenti ; 

Pluris enim Decii quam quae servantur ab illis. 

Ancilla natus trabeam et diadema Quirini 

Et fasces meruit, regum ultimus ille bonorura. 260 

Prodita laxabant portaram claustra tyrannis 

Exsulibus juvenes ipsius Consulis et quos 

Magnum aliquid dnbia pro libertate deceret, 

Quod miraretur cum Coclite Mucius et quae 

Imperii fines Tiberinum virgo natavit. 265 

Occulta ad Patres produxit crimina servus . 

Matronis lugendus : at illos verbera justis 

Afficiunt poenis et legum prima securis. 

Malo pater tibi sit Thersites, dummodo tu sis 
Aeacidae similis Yulcaniaque arma capessas, 270 

Quam te Thersitae similem producat Achilles. 
Et tamen, ut longe repetas longeque revolvas 
Komen, ab infami gentcm deducis asylo. 
Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuoram, 
Aut pastor fuit aut illud quod dicere nolo. 275 



46 D. JUNU JUVENALIS 



SATIRA X. 

OMNIBTJS in terris quae sunt a Gadibus usque 
Auroram et Gangen, pauci dignoscere possunt 
Vera bona atque illis multum diversa, remota 
Erroris nebula. Quid enim ratione timemus 
Aut cupimus ? quid tam dextro pede concipis ut te 5 

Conatus non poeniteat votique peracti? 
Evertere domos totas optantibus ipsis 
Di faciles ; nocitura toga, nocitura petuntur 
Militia; torrens dicendi copia multis 
Et sua mortifera est facundia ; viribus ille 10 

Confisus periit admirandusque lacertis. 
Sed. plures nimia congesta pecunia cura 
Strangulat, et cuncta exsuperans patrimonia census 
Quanto delphinis balaena Britannica major. 
Temporibus diris igitur jussuque Neronis 15 

Longinum et magnos Senecae praedivitis hortos 
Clausit et egregias Lateranorum obsidet aedes 
Tota cohors : rarus venit in coenacula miles. 
Pauca licet portes argenti vascula puri, 
Nocte iter ingressus gladium contumque timebis 20 

Et motae ad lunam trepidabis arundinis umbram : 
Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator. 
Prima fere vota et cunctis notissima templis 
Divitiae, crescant ut opes, ut maxima toto 



SATIKA X. 47 

Kostra sit arca foro. Sed nulla aconita bibuntur 25 

Fictilibus : tunc illa time, quum pocula sumes 
Gemmata et lato Setinum ardebit in auro. 

Jamne igitur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter 
Kidebat quoties de limine moverat unum 
Protuleratque pedem, flebat contrarius alter ? 30 

Sed facilis cuivis rigidi censura cachinni ; 
Mirandum est unde ille oculis sufTecerit humor. 
Perpetuo risu pulmonem agitare solebat 
Democritus, quanquam non essent urbibus illis 
Praetexta et trabeae, fasces, lectica, tribunal. ' 35 

Quid si vidisset Praetorem curribus altis 
Exstantem, et medio sublimem in pulvere Circi 
In tunica Jovis, et pictae Sarrana ferentem 
Ex humeris aulaea togae, magnaeque coronae 
Tantum orbem quanto cervix non sufficit ulla ? 40 

«Quippe tenet sudans hanc publicus et, sibi Consul 
Ne placeat, curru servus portatur eodem. 
Da nunc et volucrem sceptro quae surgit ebumo, 
IUinc comicines, hinc praecedentia longi 
Agminis officia, et niveos ad fraena Quirites 45 

Defossa in loculis quos sportula fecit amicos. 
Tum qnoque materiam risus invenit ad omnes 
Occursus hominum, cujus prudentia monstrat 
Summos posse viros et magna exempla daturos 
Vei^vecum in patria crassoque sub aere nasci. 6o 

Ridebat curas nec non et gaudia vulgi, 
Interdum et lacrimas, quum Fortnnae ipse minaci 
Mandaret laqueum mediumque ostenderet unguem. 

Ergo supervacua aut pemiciosa petuntur, 
Propter quae fas est genua incerare deorum. 55 

Quosdam praecipitat subjecta potentia magnae 



48 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Invidiae ; mergit longa atque insignis hononim 

Pagina; descendunt statuae restemque Bequuntur. 

Ipsas deinde rotas bigarum impacta securis 

Caedit, et immeritis franguntur crura caballis. 60 

Jam stridunt ignes, jam foUibus atque caminis 

Ardet adoratum populo caput, et crcpat ingens 

Sejanus : deinde ex facie toto orbe secunda 

Fiunt urceoli, pelves, sartago, patellae. 

Pone domi lauros, duo in Capitolia maguum 05 

Cretatumque bovem : Sejanus ducitur unco 

Spectandus : gaudent omnes. ^' Quae labra ! quis illi 

Yultus erat I nunquam, si quid mihi credis, amavi 

Hunc hominem ; sed quo cecidit sub crimine ? quisnam 

Delator ? quibus indiciis, quo teste probavit ? " 70 

^^ Nil horum : verbosa et grandis epistola venit 

A Capreis." " Bene habet; nil plus interrogo." Sed quid 

Turba Remi ? Sequitur fortunam ut semper, et odit 

Damnatos. Idem populus, si Nurtia Tusco 

Favisset, si oppressa foret secura senectus 75 

Principis, hac ipsa Sejanum diceret hora 

Augustum. Jam pridem, ex quo suffragia nuUi 

Yendimus, effudit curas. Nam qui dabat olim 

Imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se 

Continet atque duas tantum res anxius optat, 80 

Panem et Circenses. " Perituros audio multos." 

^ Nil dubium : m^gna est fomacula : pallidulus mi 

Brutidius meus ad Martis fuit obvius aram. 

Quam timeo victus ne poenas exigat Ajax 

Ut male defeusus. Curramus praecipites et 85 

Dum jacet in ripa calcemus Caesaris hostem. 

Sed videant servi, ne quis neget et pavidum in jus 

Cervice obstricta dominum trahat." Hi sermones 



SATIRA X. 49 

Tunc de Sejano, secreta haec murraura vulgi. 

Visne salutari sicut Sejanus ? habere 90 

Tantundem, atque illi summas donare curules, 

Illum exercitibus praeponere ? tutor haberi 

Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis 

Cum grege Chaldaeo ? Vis certe pila, cohortes, 

Egregios equites et castra domestica. Quidni 95 

Haec cupias ? et qui nolunt occidere quenquam 

Posse volunt. Sed quae praeclara et prospera tantum 

Ut rebus laetis par sit mensura malorum ? 

Hujus qui trahitur praetextam sumere mavis, 

An Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas 100 

Et de mensura jus dicere, vasa minora 

Frangere pannosus vacuis Aedilis Ulubris? 

Ergo quid optandum foret ignorasse fateris 

Sejanum : nam qui nimios optabat honores 

Et nimias poscebat opes, numerosa parabat 105 

Excelsae turris tabulata, unde altior esset 

Casus et impulsae praeceps immane ruinae. 

Quid Crassos, quid Pompeios evertit, et illum 

Ad sua qui domitos deduxit fiagra Quirites? 

Summus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus, 110 

Magnaque numinibus vota exaudita malignis. 

Ad generum Cereris sine caede et vulnere pauci 

Descendunt reges et sicca morte tyranni. 

Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis 
Incipit optare et totis Quinquatribus optat, 115 

Quisquis adhuc uno partam colit asse Minervam, 
Quem sequitur custos angustae vemula capsae. 
Eloquio sed uterque perit orator ; utrumq^ue 
Largus et exundans leto dedit ihgenii fons. 
Ingenio manus est et cervix caesa, nec unquam 120 

4 



60 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli. 
" O fortunatam natam me Consule Romam I " 
Autoni gladios potuit contemnere, si sic 
Onmia dixisset. liidenda poemata malo 
Quam te conspicuae, divina Philippica, famae, 126 

Volveris a prima quae proxima. Saevus et illum 
Exitus eripuit, quem mirabantur Athenae 
Torrentem et pleni moderantem fraena theatri. 
Dis iile adversis genitus fatoque sinistro, 
Quem pater ardentis massae foligine lippus 130 

A carbone et forcipibus gladiosque parante 
Incude et luteo Yulcano ad rhetora misit. 
Bellorum exuviae, truncis affixa tropaeis 
Lorica et fracta de casside buccu-la pendens 
Et curtum temone jugum victaeque triremis 136 

Aplustre et sumnio tristis captivus in arcu 
Humanis majora bonis creduntur : ad hoc se * 
Romanus Graiusque ac barbarus induperator 
Erexit : causas discriminis atque laboris 
Inde habuit. Tanto major famae sitis est quam 140 

Virtutis. Quis enim virtutem amplectitur ipsam, 
Praemia si tollas ? Patriam tamen obruit olim 
Gloria paucorum et laudis titulique cupido 
Haesuri saxis cinerum custodibus, ad quae 
Discutienda valent sterilis mala robora fi cus : 145 

Quandoquidem data sunt ipsis quoque fata sepulcris. 
Expende Hannibalem ; qiiot libras in duce summo 
Invenies? hic est quem non capit Africa Mauro 
Percussa Oceano Niloque admota tepenti, 
Rursus ad Aethiopum populos altosque elephantos. loO 
Additur imperiis Hispania : Pyrenaeum • 
Transilit : opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque ; 



SATIEA X. - 51 

Diducit scopulos et montera rumpit aceto. 

Jam tenet Italiam ; tamen ultra pergere tendit : 

" Actum," inquit, " nihil est, nisi Poeno milite portas 155 

Frangimus et media vexillum pono Suburra." 

O qualis facies et quali digna tabella, 

Quum Gaetula ducem poi-taret bellua luscum! 

Exitus ergo quis est? O gloria! vincitur idem 

Nempe et in exsilium praeceps fugit atque ibi magnus ifiO 

Mirandusque cliens sedet ad praetoria regis, 

Donec Bithyno lil^gat vigilare tyranno. 

Finem animae quae res humanas miscuit olim 

Non gladii, non saxa dabunt, nec tela ; sed ille 

Cannarum vindex et tanti sanguinw ultor 165 

Annulus. I, demens, et saevas curre per AJjpes, 

TJt pueris placeas et' declamatio fias. 

TJnus Pellaeo juveni non sufficit orbis: 

Aestuat inftflfec angusto limite mundi, 

Ut Gyari clausus scopulis parvaque Seripho : 170 

Quum tamen a figulis munitam intraverit urbem, 

Sarcophago contentus erit. Mors sola fatetur 

Quantula eint hominum coi-puscula. Creditur olim 

Velificatus Athos, et quidquid Graecia mendai|^ 

Audet in historia ; constratum classibus isdenll 175 

Sup])ositumque rotis solidum mare ; credimus altos 

Defecisse amnes epotaque flumina Medo 

Prandente, et madidis cantat quae Sostratus alis. 

IUe tamen qualis rediit Salamine relicta, 

In Corum atque Eurum solitus saevire flagellis 180 

Barbarus, Aeolib nunquam hoc in carcere passos, 

Ipsum compedibus qui vinxerat Ennosigaeum ? 

Mitius id saujS quod non et stigmate dignum 

Credidit. Huic quisquam vellet servire deorum ! 



52 D. JUNn JUVENAIilS 

Sed qualis rediit? nempe una nave, cruentis 185 

Fluctibus, ac tarda per densa cadavera prora. 
Has toties optata exegit gloria poenas ! 

« Da spatium vitae, multos da, Juppiter, annos ! " 
Hoc recto vultu, solum hoc et pallidus optas. 
Sed quam continuis et quantis longa senectus 190 

Plena malis ! Deformem et tetrum ante omnia vultum 
Dissimilemque sui, deformem pro cute pellem 
Pendentesque genas et tales aspice rugas, 
Quales, umbriferos ubi pandit Tabraca saltus, 
In vetula scalpit jam mater simia bucca. 195 

Plurima sunt juvenum discrimina : pulcrior ille 
Hoc, atque ille alio ; multum hic robustior illo : 
Una senum facies, cum voce trementia membra 
Et jam leve caput madidique infantia nasi. 
Frangendus misero gingiva panis inermi. 200 

Usque adeo gravis uxori natisque sibique, 
Ut captatori moveat fastidia Cosso. 
Non eadem vini atque cibi torpente palato 
Gaudia : nam coitus jam longa oblivio ; vel si 
Coneris, jacet exiguus cum ramice nervus, 205 

Et quamvis tota palpetur nocte jacebit. 
Anne aliquid sperare potest haec inguinis aegri 
Canities ? quid, quod merito suspecta libido est 
Quae Venerem affectat sine viribus. Aspice partis 
Nunc damnum alterius : nam quae cantante voluptas, 210 
Sit licet eximius citharoedus sitve Seleucus, 
Et quibus aurata mos est fulgere lacema ? 
Quid refert magni sedeat qua parte theatri, 
Qui vix cornicines exaudiet atque tubarum 
Concentus ? clamore opus est ut sentiat auris 216 

Quem dicat venisse puer, quot nunciet horas. 



SATIRA X. 63 

Praeterea minimus gelido jam in corpore sanguis 

Febre calet sola ; circumsiiit agraine facto 

Morborum omne genus, quorum si nomina quaeras, 

Promptius expediam quot amaverit Hippia moechos, 220 

Quot Themison aegros autumno occiderit uno, 

Quot Basilus socios, quot circumscripserit Hirrus 

Pupillos, quot longa viros exsorbeat uno 

Maura die, quot discipulos inclinet Hamillus ; 

Percurram eitius quot villas possideat nunc 226 

Quo tondente gravis juveni mihi bai'ba sonabat. 

Ille humero, hic lumbis, hic coxa debilis; ambos 

Perdidit ille oculos et luscis invidet; hujus 

Pallida labra cibum accipiunt digitis alienis. 

Ipse ad conspectum coenae diducere rictum 230 

Suetus hiat tantum, ceu puUus hirundinis ad quem 

Ore volat pleno mater jejuna. Sed omni 

Membrorum damno major dementia, quae nec 

Nomina servorum nec vultum agnoscit amici, 

Cum quo praeterita coenavit nocte, neo illos 235 

Quos genuit, quos eduxit. Nam codice saevo 

Heredes vetat esse suos ; bona tota feruntur * 

Ad Phialen : tantum artificis valet halitus oris, 

Quod steterat multis in carcere fomicis annis. 

Ut vigeant sensus animi, ducenda tamen simt 240 

Funera natorum, rogus aspiciendus amatae 

Conjugis et fratris plenaeque sororibus urnae. 

Haec data poena diu viventibus, ut renovata 

Semper clade domus multis in luctibus inque 

Perpetuo moerore et nigra veste senesoant. 246 

Rex Pylius, magno si quidquam credis Homero, 

Exemplum vitae fuit a comice secundae. 

Felix nimiruiD, qui tot per secula mortem 



54 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Distulit atque suos jam dextra computat annos 

Quique novum toties mustum bibit. Oro parumper 250 

Attendas, quantum de legibus ipse queratur 

Fatorum et nimio de stamine, quum videt acris 

Antilochi barbam ardentem; quum quaeritab omni, 

Quisquis adest socius, cur haec in terapora duret, 

Quod facinus dignum tam longo admiserit aevo. 255 

Haec eadem Peleus, raptum quum luget Achillem, 

Atque alius, cui fas Ithacum lugere natantem. 

Incolumi Troja Priamus venisset ad umbras 

Assaraci magnis solemnibus, Hectore funus 

Portante ac reliquis fratrum cervicibus inter 2C0 

Iliadum lacrimas, ut primos edere planctus 

Cassandra inciperet scissaque Polyxena palla, 

Si foret exstinctns diverao tempore, quo non 

Coeperat audaces Paris aedificare caiinas. 

Longa dies igitur quid contulit ? omnia vidit 2(55 

Ev^rsa et flammis Asiam feiToque cadentem. 

Tunc miles tremulus posita tulit arma tiara 

Et ruit ante aram summi Jovis, ut vetulus bos, 

Qui domini cultris tenue et miserabile coUum 

Praebet ab ingrato jam fiistiditus ai*atro. 270 

Exitus ille utcunque hominis ; sed torva canino 

Latravit rictu quae post. hunc vixerat uxor. 

Festino ad nostros et regem transeo Ponti 

Et Croesum, quem vox justi facunda Solonis 

Respicere ad longae jussit spatia ultima vitae. 275 

Exsilium et carcer Mintumarumque paludes 

Et mendicatus victa Carthagine panis 

Hinc causas habuere. Quid illo cive tulisset 

Natura in terris, quid Roma beatius unquam, 

Si cii'Cumducto captivorum agmine et omni 280 



SATIRA X. 55 

Bellorum pompa animam exhalasset opimam, 
Quum de Teutonico vellet descendere curru? 
Provida Pompeio dederat Campania febres 
Optandas-: sed multae urbes et publica vota 
Vicerunt. Igitur Fortuna ipsius et Urbis. 285 

Servatum victo caput abstulit. Hoc cruciatu 
Lentulus, hac poena caruit, ceciditque Cethegus 
Integer, et jacuit Catilina cadavere toto. 

Formam optat modico pueris, raajore puellis 
Murmure, quum Veneris fanum videt anxia mater, 290 
TJsque ad delicias votorum. " Cur tamen," inquit, 
" Corripias ? Pulchra gaudet Latona Diana." 
Sed vetat optari faciem Lucretia qualem 
Ipsa habuit : cuperet Rutilae Virginia gibbum 
Accipere atque suam Rutilae dare.' Filius autera 295 

Corporis egregii miseros ti^epidosque parentes 
Semper habet. Rara est adeo concordia formae 
Atque pudicitiae. Sanctos licet horrida mores 
Tradiderit domus ac veteres imitata Sabinos, 
Praeterea castum ingenium vultumque modesto 300 

Sanguine ferventem tribuat natura benigna 
Larga manu : (quid enim puero conferre potest plus 
Custode et cura natura potentior omni ?) 
Non licet esse viros, nam prodiga corruptoris 
Improbitas ipsos audet temptare parentes. 305 

Tanta in muneribus fiducia ! Nullus ephebum 
Deformera saeva castravit in arce tyrannus ; 
Nec praetextatum rapuit Nero loripedem nec 
Strumosum atque utero pariter gibboque tumentem. 
I nunc et juvenis specie laetare tui, quem 310 

Majora exspectant discrimina : fiet adulter 
Publicus, et poenas metuet, quascunque maritis 



66 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Iratis debet ; nec erit felicior astro 

]!Jartis, ut in laqueos nunquam incidat. Exigit autem 

Interdum ille dolor plus quam lex uUa dolori 315 

Concessit. Necat hic ferro, secat ille cruentis . 

Verberibus, quosdam moechos et mugilis intrat. 

Sed tuus Endymion dilectae fiet adulter 

Matronae : mox quum dederit Servilia nummos, 

Fiet et illius quam non amat ; exuet omnem 320 

Corporis ornatum. Quid enim uUa negaverit udis 

Inguinibus, sive est haec Oppia sive Catulla ? 

Deterior totos habet illic femina mores. 

Sed casto quid forma nocet ? — Quid profuit immo 

Hippolyto grave propositum ? quid Bellerophonti ? 325 

Erubuit nempe haec ceu fastidita : repulsa 

Nec Stheneboea minus quam Cressa excanduit, et se 

Concussere ambae. Mulier saevissima tunc est 

Quum stimulos odio pudor admovet. Elige quidnam 

Suadendum essc putes cui nubere Caesaris uxor 330 

Destinat. Optimus hic et formosissimus idem 

Grentis patriciao rapitur miser exstinguendus 

Messalinae oculis : dudum sedet illa parato 

Flameolo, Tyriusque palara genialis in hortis 

Stemitur, et ritu decies centena dabuntur 335 

Antiquo ; veniet cum signatoribus auspex. ' 

Haec tu secreta et paucis commissa putabas. 

Non nisi legitime vult nubere. Quid placeat dic : 

Ni parere velis pereundum erit ante lucernas : 

Si scelus admittas dabitur mora parvula, dum res 340 

Nota Urbi et populo contingat Principis aures. 

Dedecus ille domus sciet ultimus : interea tu 

Obsequere imperio ; sit tanti vita dierum 



SATIRA X. 67 

Paucorum. Quidquid melius leviusque putaris, 
Praebenda est gladio pulcra haec et candida cervix. 346 

Nil ergo optabunt homines ? Si consilium vis, 
Permittes ipsis expendere numinibus quid 
Conveniat nobis rebusque sit utile nostris. 
Nam pro jucundis aptissima quaeque dabunt di. 
Carior est illis homo quam sibi. Nos animorum 350 

Impulsu et caeca magnaque cupidine ducti 
Conjugium petimus partumque uxoris : at illis > 
Notum qui pueri qualisque futura sit uxor. 
Ut tamen et poscas aliquid voveasque sacellis 
Exta et candiduli divina tomacula porci, 366 

Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano : 
Fortem posce animum mortis terrore carentem, 
Qui spatium vitae extremum inter munera ponat 
Naturae, qui ferro queat quoscunque labores, 
Nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil, et potiores 360 

Herculis aerumnas credat saevosque labores 
Et Venere et coenis et pluma Sardanapali. 
Monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare : semita certe 
Tranquillae per virtutem patet unica vitae. 
NuUum numen abest si sit Prudentia : nos te, 366 

Nos facimus, Fortuna, deam caeloque locamus. 



68 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 



SATIRA XI. 

ATTICUS exiraie si coenat lautus habetur, > 

Si Rutilus demens. Quid enim majore cachinno 
Excipitur vulgi qnam pauper Apicius ? Oranis 
Convictus, thermae, stationes, omne theatrum 
De Riitilo. Nam dum valida ac juvenalia membra 5 

Sufficiunt galeae dumque ardens sanguine, lertur 
(Non cogente quidem sed nec prohibente Tiibuno) 
Scripturus leges et regia verba lanistae. 
Multos porro vides quos saepe elusus ad ipsum 
Creditor introitum solet exspectare macelli, 10 

Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato est. 
Egregius coenat meliusquc miserrimus horum, 
Et cito casurus jam perlucente ruina. 
Interea gustus elementa per omnia quaerunt, 
Nunquam animo pretiis obstantibus: interius si 15 

Attendas, magis illa juvant quae pluris emuntur. 
Ergo haud difficile est perituram arcessere summam 
Lancibus oppositis vel matris imagine fracta, 
Et quadringentis nummis cohdire gulosum^ 
Fictile. Sic veniunt ad miscellanea ludi. ' 20 

Refert ergo quis haeo eadem paret ; in Rutilo nam 
Luxuria est, in Ventidio laudabile nomen 
Sumit et a censu famam trahit. Illum ego jure 
Despiciam qui scit quanto sublimior Atlas 



SATIRA XI. 69 

Omnibiis in Libya sit montibus, bie tamen idem 25 

Ignoret quantum ferrata distet ab arca 
Sacculus. E caelo descendit yv^di aeavrovj 
Figendum et memori tractandum pectore, sive 
Conjugium quaeras vel sacri in parte Senatus 
Esse velis, (nec enim loricam poscit Acbillis 30 

Thersites, in qua se traducebat Ulixes 
Ancipitem ;) seu tu magno discrimine causam 
Protegere affectas, te consule, dio tibi quis sis, 
Orator vehemens an Curtius et Matho buccae. 
Noscenda est mensura sui spectandaque rebus 35 

In snmmis minimisque ; etiam quum piscis emetur, 
Ne mullum cupias quum sit tibi gobio tantum 
In loculis. Quis enim te deficiente crumena 
Et crescente gula manet exitus, aere paterno 
Ac rebus mersis in ventrem, fenoris atque 40 

Argenti gravis et pecorum agrorumque capacem ? 
Talibua a dominis post cuncta novissimus exit 
Annulus, et digito mendicat Pollio nudo. 
Non praematuri cineres nec funus acerbum 
Luxuriae, sed morte magis metuenda senectus. 45 

Hi plerumque gradns : conducta pecunia Romae 
Et coram dominis consumitur ; inde ubi paullum 
Nescio quid superest et pallet fenoris auctor, 
Qui vertere solum Baias et ad Ostia currunt : 
Cedere namque foro jam non est deterius quam 50 

Esquilias a feryenti migrare Suburra. 
IUe dolor solus patriam fugientibus, illa 
Moestitia est, caruisse anno Circensibus uno. 
Sanguinis in facie non haeret gutta : morantur 
Pauci ridiculum fugientem ex XJrbe Pudorem. 55 

Experiere hodie numquid pulcherrima dictu, 



60 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Persice, non praestem vita vel moribus et re, 

Sed laudem siliquas occultus ganeo, pultes 

Coram aliis dictem puero sed in aure placentas. 

Nam quum sis conviva mihi promissus babebis 60 

Evandrum, venies Tirynthius aut minor illo 

Hospes et ipse tamen contingens sanguine caelum, 

Alter aquis, alter flammis ad sidera missus. 

Fercula nunc audi nullis omata macellis. 

De Tiburtino veniet pinguissimus agro 65 

Haedulus et toto*grege mollior, inscius berbae, 

Necdum ausus virgas bumilis mordere salicti, 

Qui plus lactis habet quam sanguinis ; et montani 

Asparagi, posito quos legit villica fuso. 

Grandia praeterea tortoque calentia foeno 70 

Ova adsunt ipsis cum matribus et servatae 

Parte anni quales fuerant in vitibus uvae : 

Signinum Syriumque pirum, do corbibus isdem 

Aemula Picenis et odoris mala recentis, 

Nec metuenda tibi, siccatum frigorc postquam 75 

Autumnum et crudi posuerc pericula succi. 

Haec olim nostri jam luxuriosa Senatus 
Coena fuit. Curius parvo quae legerat horto . 
Ipse focis brevibus ponebat oluscula, quae nijnc 
Squalidus in magna fastidit compede fossor, 80 

Qui meminit calidae sapiat quid vulva popinae. 
Sicci terga suis, rara pendentia crate, 
Moris erat quondam festis servare diebus 
Et natalicium cognatis ponere lardum, 
Accedente nova, si quam dabat hostia, came. 85 

Cognatorum aliquis titulo ter Consulis atque 
Castrorum imperiis et Dictatoris honore 
Functus ad has epulas solito maturius ibat, 



SATIRA XI. 61 

Erectum domito referens b. monte ligonem. 

Quum tremorent autem Fabios durumque Catonem 90 

Et Scauros et Fabricios, postremo severos 

Censoris mores etiam collega timeret, 

Nemo inter curas et seria duxit habendum, 

Qualis in Oceani fluctu testudo nataret, 

Clarum Trojugenis factura ac nobile fulcrum ; 95 

Sed nudo latere et parvis frons aerea lectis 

Vile coronati caput ostendebat aselli, 

Ad quod lascivi ludebant ruris alumni. 

Tales ergo cibi qualis domus atque supellex. 

Tunc rudis et Graias mirari nescius artes, 100 

Urbibus eversis, praedarum in parte reperta 
Magnorum artificum frangebat pocula miles, 
XJt phaleris gauderet equus, caelataque cassis 
Romuleae simulacra ferae mansuescere jussae 
Imperii fato, geminos sub rupe Quirinos, 105 

Ac nudam effigiem clipeo venientis et hasta 
Pendentisque dei perituro ostenderet hosti. 
Argenti quod erat solis iulgebat in armis. 
Ponebant igitur Tusco farrata catino ; 
Omnia tunc quibus invideas si lividulus sis. 110 

Templorum quoque majestas praesentior et vox 
Nocte fere media mediamque audita per TJrbem, 
Litore ab Oceano Gallis venientibus et dis 
Officium vatis peragentibus. His monuit nos, 
Hanc rebus Latiis curam praestare solebat 115 

Fictilis et nullo violatus Juppiter auro. 
Illa domi natas nostraque ex arbore mensas 
Tempora viderunt : hos lignum stabat in usus, 
Annosam si forte nucem dejecerat Eurus. 
At nunc divitibus coenandi nulla yoliiptas, 120 



62 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Nil rhombus, nil dama sapit, patere videntur 

Unguenta atque rosae, latos nisi sustinet orbes 

Grande ebur et magno sublimis pardus hiatu 

Dentibus ex illis quos mittit porta Syenes 

Et Mauri celeres et Mauro obscurior Indus, 125 

Et quos deposuit Nabathaeo bellua saltu 

Jam nimios capitique graves. Hinc^surgit orexis, 

Hinc stomacho vires ; nam pes argenteus illis 

Annulus in digito quod ferreus. Ergo superbom 

Convivam caveo, qui me sibi comparat et res 130 

Despicit exiguas. Adeo nuUa uncia nobis 

Est eboris, nec tessellae, nec calculus ex hac 

Materia : quin ipsa mauubiia cultellorum 

Ossea ; non tamen his uUa unquam obsonia fiunt 

Rancidula, aut ideo pejor gallina secatur. 135 

Sed neo structor erit oui cedere debeat omnis 

Pergula, discipulus Trypheri doctoris, apud quem 

Sumine cum magno lepus atque aper et pygargus 

Et Scythicae volucres et phoenicopterus ingens 

Et Gaetulus oryx hebeti lautissima ferro 140 

Caeditur, et tota sonat ulmea coena Suburra. 

Nec frustum capreae subducere nec latus Afrae 

Novit avis noster, tiruiicuhis ac rudis omni 

Tempore et exiguae furtis imbutus ofellae. 

Plebeios calices et paucis assibus emptos 145 

Porriget incultus puer atque a frigore tutus, 

Non Phryx aut Lycius, non a mangone petitus 

Quisquam erit et magno. Quum posces, posce Latine. 

Idem habitus cunctis, tonsi rectique capilli 

Atque hodie tantum propter convi^da pexi. 160 

Pastoris duri est hic filius, ille bubulci : 

Suspirat longo non visam tempore matrem 



SATIRA XI. 63 

Et casulam et notos tristis desiderat Haedos, 

Ingenui vultus puer ingenuique pudoris, 

Quales esse decet quos ardens purpura vestit : 165 

Nec pugillares defert in balnea raucus 

Testiculos, nec vellendas jam praebuit alas, 

Crassa nec opposito pavjdus tegit inguina gutto. 

Hic tibi vina dabit diffusa in montibus illis 

A quibiis ipse venit, quorum sub vertice lusit : ico 

Namque una atque eadem est vini patria atque ministri. 

Forsitan exspectes ut Gaditana canoro 

Incipiat prurire choro plausuque probatae 

Ad teiTam tremulo descendant clune puellae : 

(Spectant hoc nuptae juxta recubante marito 165 

Quod pudeat narrasse aliquem praesentibus ipsis) 

Irritamentum Veneris languehtis et acres 

Divitis urticae. Major tamen ista voluptas 

Alterius sexus : magis ille extenditur, et mox 

Auribus atque oculis concepta urina movetur. 170 

Non capit has nugas humilis domus : audlat ille 

Testarum crepitus cum verbis nudum olido stans , 

Fornice mancipinm quibus abstinet, ille fruatur 

Yocibus obscoenis omnique libidinis arte 

Qui Lacedaemonium pytismate lubricat orbem. 175 

Namque ibi fortunae veniam damus ; alea turpis, 

Tui-pe et adulterium mediocribus. Haec eadem illi 

Omnia quum faciunt hilares nitidique vocantur. 

Nostra dabunt alios hodie convivia ludos : 

Conditor Iliados cantabitur atque Maronis 180 

Altisoni dubiam facientia carmina palmam. 

Quid refert tales versus qua voce legantur ? 

Sed nunc dilatis averte negotia curis 
Et gratam requiem dona tibi, quando licebit 



64 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Per totum cessare diem : non fenoris uUa 186 

Mentio, nec prima si luce egressa reverti 

Nocte solet tacito bilem tibi contrahat uxor, 

Humida suspectis refei-ens multicia rugis 

Vexatasque comas et vultum auremque calentem. 

'Protinus ante meum quidquid dolet exue limen ; 190 

Pone demum et servos et quidquid frangitur illis 

Aut perit ; ingratos ante omnia pone sodales. 

Interea Megalesiacae spectacula mappae, 

Idaeum sollemne, colunt, similisque triumpho 

Praeda caballorum Praetor sedet ac, mihi pace i»5 

Immensae nimiaeque licet si dicere plebis, 

Totam hodie Romam Circus capit et fragor aurem 

Percutit eventum viridis quo colligo panni : 

Nam si deflceret moestam attonitamque videres 

Hanc urbem, veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis 200 

Consulibus. Spectent juvenes, quos clamor et audax 

Sponsio, quos cultae decet assedisse puellae : 

Nostra bibat vemum contracta cuticula solem 

EfiTugiaAque togam. Jam nunc in balnea salva 

Fronte licet vadas, quanquam solida hora supersit 205 

Ad sextam. Facere hoc non possis quinque diebus 

Continuis, quia sunt talis quoque taedia vitae 

Magna. Yoluptates commendat rarior usus. 



SATIBA XU, 65 



SATIRA XII. 

NATALI, Corvine, die mihi dulcior haec lux, 
Qua festus promissa deis animalia caespes 
Exspectat. Niveam Reginae ducimus agnam ; 
Par vellus dabitur pugnanti Gorgone Maura : 
S^d procul extensum petulans quatit hostia funem 5 

Tarpeio servata Jovi frontemque coruscat ; 
Quippe ferox vitulus, templis maturus et arae 
Spargendusque mero, quem jam pudet ubera matris 
Ducere, qui vexat nascenti robora cornu. 
Si.res ampla domi similisque afTectibus esset, 10 

Pinguior Hispulla traheretur taurus et ipsa 
Mole piger, nec finitima nutritus in herba, 
Laeta sed ostendens Clitumni pascua sanguis 
Iret, et a grandi cei-vix ferienda ministro, 
Ob reditum trepidantis adhuc horrendaque passi 15 

Nuper et incolumem sese mirantis amici. 
Nam praeter pelagi casus et fulguris ictus 
Evasit. Densae caelum abscondere tenebrae 
Nube una subitusque antennas impuEt ignis, 
Quum se quisque illo percussum crederet et mox 20 

Attonitus nullum conferri posse putaret 
Naufragium velis ardentibus. Omnia fi unt 
Talia, tam graviter, si quando poetica surgit 
Tempestas. Genus ecce aliud discriminis ; audi 

6 



66 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Et miserere iterura ; quanquam sint cetera sortis 25 

Ejusdem ; pars dira quidem sed coguita multis, 

Et quam votiva testantur fana tabella 

Plurima. Pictores quis nescit ab Iside pasci ? 

Accidit et nostro similis fortuna Catullo. 

Quum plenus fluctu medius foret alveus et jam 30 

Alternum puppis latus evertentibus undis 

Arboris incertae nullam prudentia cani 

Rectoris conferret opem, decidere jactu 

Coepit cum ventis, imitatus castora, qui se 

Eunuchum ipse facit cupiens evadere damno 35 

Testiculi ; adeo medicatum intelligit inguen. 

" Fundite quae mea sunt," dicebat, " cuncta," Catullns, 

Praecipitare volens etiam pulcheriima, vestem 

Purpuream teneris quoque Maecenatibus aptam, 

Atque alias quarum generosi graminis ipsum 40 

Infecit natura pecus, sed et egregius fons 

Viribus occultis et Baeticus adjuvat aer. 

Ille neo argentum dubitabat mittere, lances 

Parthenio factas, umae cratera capacem 

Et dignum sitiente Pholo vel conjuge Fusci ; 45 

Adde et bascaudas et mille escalia, multura 

Caelati biberat quo callidus emptor Olynthi. 

Sed quis nunc alius qua mundi parte, quis audet 

Argento praeferre caput rebusque salutem ? 

Non propter vitam faciunt patrimonia quidam, 50 

Sed vitio caeci propter. patrimonia vivunt. 

Jactatur rerum utilium pars raaxiraa ; sed nec 

Darana levant. Tunc adversis urgentibus illuc 

Decidit ut raalum ferro suraraitteret ; hac re 

Explicat angustura ; discrirainis ultiraa quando 55 

Praesidia aJQTerimus navem factura minorem. 



SATiEA xn. 67 

I nunc et ventis animam committe dolato 

Confisus ligno, digitis a morte remotus 

Quatuor aut septem, si sit latissima taeda. 

Mox cum reticulis et pane et ventre lagenae 60 

Aspice sumendas in tempestate secures. 

Sed postquam jacuit planum mare, tempora postquam 

Prospera vectoris fatumque valentius Euro 

Et pelago, postquam Parcae meliora benigna 

Pensa manu ducunt hilares et staminis albi 65 

Lanificae, modica nec multum fortior aura 

Ventus adest, inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit 

Vestibus extentis et, quod superaverat unum, 

Velo prora suo. Jam deficientibus Austris 

Spes vitae cum sole redit : tum gratus lulo, 70 

Atque novercali sedes praelata Lavino, 

Conspicitur sublimis apex, cui candida nomen 

Scrofa dedit, laetis Phrygibus mirabile sumen, 

Et nunquam visis triginta clara mamillis. 

Tandem intrat positas inclusa per aequora moles 75 

Tyrrhenamque Pharon porrectaque brachia rursum, 

Quae pelago occurrunt medio longeque relinquunt 

Italiam — non sic igitur mirabere portus 

Quos natura dedit — sed trunca puppe magister 

Interiora petit Baianae pervia cymbae 80 

Tuti stagna sinus, gaudent ubi vertice raso 

Garrula securi narrare pericula nautae. 

Ite igitur, pueri, linguis animisque faventes, 

Sertaque delubris et farra imponite cultris 

Ac molles omate focos glebamque virentem. 85 

Jam sequar et, sacro quod praestat rite peracto, 

Inde domum repetam, graciles ubi parva coronas 

Accipiunt fi^agili simulacra nitentia cera. 



68 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Hic nostrum placabo Jovem Laribusque pateruis 

Tura dabo, atque omnes violae jactabo colores. 90 

Cuncta nitent ; longos erexit janua ramos 

Et matutinis operatur festa lucemis. 

"Nec suspecta tibi sint haec, Corvine ; CatuUus, 
Pro cujus reditu tot pono altaria, parvos 
Tres habet heredes. Libet exspectare quis aegram 95 
Et claudentem oculos gallinam impendat amico 
Tam sterili. Verum haec nimia est impensa ; cotumix 
NuDa unquam pro patre cadet. Sentire calorem 
Si coepit locuples Gallita et Paccius orbi, 
Legitime fixis vestitur tota tabellis loo 

Porticus ; exsistunt qui promittunt hecatomben, 
Quatenus hic non sunt nec veuales elephanti, 
Nec Latio aut usquam sub nostro sidere talis 
Bellua concipitur, sed fiirva gente petita 
Arboribus Rutulis et Turni pascitur agro, 105 

Caesaris armentum, nuUi servire paratum 
Privato ; siquidem Tyrio parere solebant 
•Hannibali et nostris ducibus regique Molosso 
Horum majores ac dorso ferre cohortes, 
Partem aliquam belli et euntem in proelia turrim. iio 

Nulla igitur mora per Novium, mora nuUa per Histrum 
Pacuvium, quin illud ebur ducatur ad aras 
Et cadat ante Lares Gallitae victima, sola 
Tantis digna deis et captatQribus horum. 
Alter enim, si concedas mactare, vovebit 115 

De grege servorum magna et pulcherrima quaeque 
Corpora, vel pueris et frontibus ancillarum 
Imponet vittas, et si qua est nubilis illi 
Iphigenia domi dabit hanc altaribus, etsi 
Non sperat tragicae furtiva piacula cervae. 120 



SATIBA XII. 69 

Laudo meum civem, neo comparo testamento 

Mille rates : nam si Libitinam evaserit aeger, 

Delebit tabulas, inclusus carcere nassae, 

Post meritum sane mirandum, atque omnia soli 

Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit. Hle superbus 125 

Incedet victis rivalibus. Ergo vides quam 

Grande operae pretium faciat jugulata Mycenis. 

Yivat Pacuvius quaeso vel Nestora totum ; 
Possideat quantum rapuit Nero ; montibus aurum 
Exaequet ; nec amet quenquam, nec ametnr ab ullo. 130 



70 - D. JtTNn JWENAIilS 



SATIRA Xin. 

EXEMPLO quodcunque malo comniittitur ipsi 
Displicet auctori. Prima est haec ultio, quod se 
Judice nerao nocens absolvitur, improba quamvis 
Gratia fallaci Praetoris vicerit urna. 
Quid sentire putas omnes, Calvine, recenti 6 

De scelere et fidei violatae crimine ? Sed nec 
Tam tenuis census tibi contigit ut mediocris 
Jacturae te mergat onus, nec rara videmus 
Quae pateris. Casus multis hic cognitus ac jam 
Tritus et e medio fortunae ductus acervo. 10 

Ponamus nimios gemitus ; flagrantior aequo 
Non debet dolor esse viri nec vulnere major. 
Tu quamvis levium minimam exiguamque malorum 
Particulam vix ferre potes, spumantibus ardens 
Yisceribus sacrum tibi quod non reddat amicus 15 

Depositum ? stupet haec qui jam post terga reliquit 
Sexaginta annos, Fonteio Consule natus ? 
An nihil in melius tot rerum. proficis usu ? 
Magna quidem, sacris quae dat praecepta libellis, 
Yictrix fortunae sapientia : ducimus autem 20 

Hos quoque felices qui ferre incommoda vitae 
Nec jactare jugum vita didicere magistra. 
Quae tam festa dies ut cesset prodere furem, 
Perfidiam, fraudes, atque omni ex crimine lucrum 



SATIRA XUI. 71 

Quaesitum, et partos gladio vel pyxide nummos ? 25 

Rari quippe boni : numerus vix est totidem quot 
Thebarum poxtae vel divitis ostia Nili.^ 
Nona aetas agitur pejoraque secula ferri 
Temporibus, quorum sceleri non invenit ipsa 
Nomen et a nullo p^suit natura metallo. 30 

Nos hominum divumque fidem clamore ciemus, 
Quanto Faesidium laudat vocalis agentem 
Sportula. Dic, senior bulla dignissime, nescis 
Quas habeat Veneres aliena pecunia ? nescis 
Quem tua simplicitas risum vulgo moveat, quura 35 

Exigis a quoquam ne pejeret, et putet ullis 
Esse aliquod numen templis araeque rubenti ? 
Quondam hoc indigenae vivebant more, priusquam 
' Sumeret agrestem posito diademate falcem 
Saturnus fugiens, tunc quum virguncula Juno 40 

Et privatus adhuc Idaeis Juppiter antris, 
Nulla super nubes convivia caelicolarum, 
Nec puer Iliacus, formosa nec Herculis nxor 
Ad cyathos, et jam siccato nectare tergens 
Brachia Vulcanus Liparaea nigra tabema. 45 

Prandebat sibi quisque deus, nec turba deorum 
Talis ut est hodie, contentaque sidera paucis 
Numinibus miserum urgebant Atlanta minori 
Pondere. Nondum aliquis sortitus triste profundi 
Iraperium, aut Sicula torvus cum conjuge Phiton ; 60 

Nec rota, nec Fuiiae, nec saxum aut vulturis atii 
Poena ; sed infernis hilares sine regibus umbrae. 
Improbitas illo fuit admirabilis aevo. 
Credebant hoc grande nefas et morte piandum, 
Si juvenis vetulo non assurrexerat et si 65 

Barbato cuicunque puer, licet ipse videret 



72 D. JXJNJI JUVENALIS 

Plura domi fraga et majores glandis acervos. 

Tam venerabile erat praecedere quatuor annis, 

Primaque par adeo sacrae lanugo senectae ! 

Nunc si depositum non infitietur amicus, 60 

Si reddat veterem cum tota aerugine follem, 

Prodigiosa fides et Tuscis digna libellis, 

Quaeque coronata lustrari debeat agna. 

Egregium sanciumque virum si cemo, bimembri 

Hoc monstrum puero aut miranti sub aratro 65 

Piscibus inventis et fetae comparo mulae, 

Sollicitus tanquam lapides efEuderit imber 

Examenque apium longa consederit uva 

Culmine delubri, tanquam in mare fluxerit amnis 

Gurgitibus rairis et lactis veitice torrens. 70 

Intercepta decem quereris sesteitia fraude 
Sacrilega ? Quid si bis centum perdidit alter 
Hoc arcana modo ? majorem tertius illa 
Summam, quam patulae vix ceperat angulus arcae ? 
Tam facile et pronum est superos contemnere testes, 76 
Si mortalis idem nemo sciat ! Aspice quanta 
Voce neget, quae sit ficti constantia vultus. 
Per Solis radios Tarpeiaque Mmina jurat 
Et Martis fi-ameam et Cirrhaei spicula vatis, 
Per calamos venatricis pharetramque puellae, 80 

Perque tuum, pater Aegaei Neptune, tridentem ; 
Addit et Herculeos arcus hastamque Minervae, 
Quidquid habent telorum armamentaria caeli. 
Si vero et pater est, " Comedam," inquit, ** flebile nati 
Sinciput elixi Pharioque madentis aceto." 85 

Sunt in Fortunae qui casibus omnia ponunt 
Et nuUo credunt mundum rectore moveri, 
Natura volvente vices et lucis et anni, 



SATiRA xrn. 73 

Atque ideo intrepidi quaecunque altaria tangant. 

Est alius metuens ne crimen poena sequatur; 90 

Hic putat esse deos et pejerat, atque ita secum : 

" Decemat quodcunque volet de corpore nostro 

Isis et irato feriat mea lumina sistro, 

Dummodo vel caecns teneam quos abnego nummos. 

Et phthisis et vomicae putres et dimidium crus 95 

Sunt tanti, Pauper locupletem optare podagram * 

Nec dubitet Ladas, si non eget Anticyra nec 

Archigene. Quid enim velocis gloria plantae 

Praestat et esuriens Pisaeae ramus olivae ? 

XJt sit ma<nia tamen certe lenta ira deorum est. lOO 

Si curant igitur cunctos punire nocentes 

Quando ad me venient ? sed et exorabile numen 

Fortasse experiar ; solet his ignoscere. Multi 

Committunt eadem diverso crimina fato ; 

IUe crucem sceleris pretium tulit, hic diadema." 105 

Sio animum dirae trepidimi formidine culpae 

Confirmant. Tuno te sacra ad delubra vocantem 

Praecedit, trahere immo ultro ac vexare paratus. 

Nam quum magna liialae superest audacia causae, 

Creditur a multis fiducia. Mimum agit ille, iio 

Urbani qualem fugitivus scurra CatuUi. 

Tu raiser exclamas ut Stentora vincere possis, 

Vel potius quantum Gradivus Homericus : " Audis, 

Juppiter, haec nec labra moves, quum mittere vocem 

Debueras vel marmoreus vel aeneus ? aut cur 115 

In carbone tuo charta pia tura soluta 

Ponimus et sectura vituli jecur albaque porci 

Omenta ? TJt video, nullum discrimen habendum est- 

Effigies inter vestras statuamque Vagelli." 



74 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Accipe quae contra valeat Bolatia ferre 120 

Et qui nec Cynicos nec Stoica dogmata legit 
A Cynicis tunica distantia, non Epicurum 
Suspiclt exigui laetum plantaribus horti. 
Curentur dubii medicis majoribus aegii ; 
Tu venam vel discipulo committe Philippi. 125 

Si nuUum in terris tam detestabile factum 
Ostendis taceo ; nec pugnis caedere pectus 
Te veto, nec plana faciem contundere palma, 
Quandoquidem accepto claudenda est janua damno, 
Et majore domus gemitu, majore tumultu ISO 

Planguntur nummi quam funera. Nemo dolorem 
Fingit in hoc casu, vestem diducere summam 
Contentus, vexare oculos humore coacto. 
Ploratur lacrimis amissa pecunia veris. 
Sed si cuncta vides simili fora plena querela, 135 

Si decies lectis diversa parte tabellis 
Vana supervacui dicunt chirographa ligni, 
Arguit ipsorum quos littera gemmaque princeps 
Sardonychum, loculis quae custoditur eburnis, 
Te nunc, delicias, extra communia censes 140 

Ponendum ? Qui tu gallinae filius albae, 
Nos viles pulli nati infelicibus ovis ? 
Rem pateris modicam et mediocri bile ferendam, 
Si flectas ooulos majora ad crimina. Confer 
Conductum latronem, incendia sulfure coepta i.46 

Atque dolo, primos quum janua colligit ignes : 
Confer et hos veteris qui tolhmt grandia templi 
Pocula adorandae robiginis et populorum 
Dona vel antiquo positas a rege coronas. 
Haec ibi si non sunt, minor exstat sacrilegus qui 150 



sATiEA xm. 75 

Radat inaurati femur Herculis et faciem ipsam 
Neptuni, qui bracteolam de Castore ducat. 
An dubitet solitus totum conflare Tonantem ? 
Confer et artifices mercatoremque veneni 
Et deducendum corio bovis in mare, cum quo 155 

Clauditur adversis innoxia simia fatis. 
Haec quota pars scelerum quae custos Gallicus Urbis 
TJsque a Lucifero donec lux occidat audit ? 
Humani generis mores tibi nosse volenti 
Sufficit una domus. Paucos consume dies, et 160 

Dicere te miserum postquam illinc veneris aude. 
Quis tumidum guttur miratur in Alpibus ? aut quis 
In Meroe crasso majorem infante mamillam? 
Caerula quis stupuit Germani lumina, flavam 
Caesariem et madido torquentem comua cirro ? 165 

Nempe quod haec illis natura est omnibus una. 
Ad subitas Thracum volucres nubemque sonoram 
Pygmaeus parvis currit bellator in armis ; 
Mox impar hosti raptusque per aera curvis 
TJnguibus a saeva fertur grue. Si videas hoc 170 

Gentibus in nostris, risu quatiare : sed illic, 
Quanquam eadem assidue spectentur proelia, ridet 
Nemo, ubi tota cohors pede non est altior uno. 
"NuUane perjuri capitis fraudisque nefandae 
Poena erit ? " Abreptum crede hunc graviore catena 175 
Protinus et nostro (quid plus velit ira ?) necari 
Arbitrio ; manet illa tamen jactura, nec unquam 
Depositum tibi sospes erit, sed corpore trunco 
Invidiosa dabit minimus solatia sanguis. 
" At vindicta bonum vita jucundius ipsa.** 180 

Nempe hoc indocti, quorum praecordia nullis 



76 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

luterdum aut levibus videas flagrantia causis. 

Quantulacunque adeo est occasio, suflicit irae. 

Chrysippus non dicet idem nec mite Thaletis 

Ingenium dulcique senex vicinus Hymetto, 185 

Qui partem acceptae saeva inter vincla cicutae 

Accusatori noUet dare. Plurima felix 

Paullatim vitia atque errores exuit omnes, 

Prima docet rectum Sapientia; quippe minuti 

Semper et infirmi est animi exiguique voluptas 190 

Ultio; continuo sic coUige, quod vindicta 

Nemo magis gaudet quam femina. Cur tamen hos tu 

Evasisse putes quos diri conscia facti 

Mens habet attonitos et surdo verbere caedit, 

Occultum quatiente animo tortore flagellum ? 195 

Poena autera vehemens ac multo saevior illis, 

Quas et Caedicius gravis invenit aut Rhadamanthus, 

Nocte dieque suum gestare in pectore testem. 

Spaitano cuidam respondit Pythia vates, 

Haud impunitum quondam fore, quod dubitaret 200 

Depositum retinere et fraudem jure tueri 

Jurando : quaerebat enim quae numinis esset 

Mens, et an hoc illi facinus suaderet Apollo. 

Reddidit ergo metu non moribus ; et tamen omnem 

Vocem adyti dignam templo veramque probavit 205 

Exstinctus tota pariter cum prole domoque 

Et quamvis longa deductis gente propinquis. 

Has patitur poenas peccandi sola voluntas. 

Nam scelus intra se tacitum qui cogitat uUum 

Facti crimen habet. Cedo si conata peregit ? 210 

Perpetua anxietas nec mensae tempore cessat, 

Faucibus ut morbo siccis, interque molares 



SATIRA XIII. 77 

Difficili crescente cibo : sed vina misellus 

Exspuit ; Albani veteris pretiosa senectus 

Displicet ; ostendas melius, densissima ruga 215 

Cogitur in fi*ontem velut acri ducta Falerno. 

Nocte brevem si forte indulsit cura soporem 

Et toto versata toro jam membra quiescunt, 

Continuo templum et violati numinisaras 

Et, quod praecipuis mentem sudoribus urget, 220 

Te videt in somnis ; tua sacra et major imago 

Humana turbat pavidum cogitque fateri. 

Hi sunt qui trepidant et ad omnia fulgura pallent, 

Quum tonat) exanimes primo quoque murmure caeli ; 

Non quasi fortuitus nec ventorum rabie sed 225 

Iratus cadat in terras et judicet ignis. 

Illa nihil nocuit, cura graviore timetur 

Proxima tempestas, velut hoc dilata sereno. 

Praeterea lateris vigili cum febre dolorem 

Si eoepere pati, missum ad sua corpora morbum 230 

Infesto credunt a numine ; saxa deoriim 

Haec et tela putant. Pecudem spondere sacello 

Balantem et Laribus cristam promittere galli 

Non audent ; quid enim sperare nocentibus aegris 

Concessum ? vel quae non digniqr hostia vita ? 236 

Mobilis et varia est ferme natura malorum : 

Quum scelus admittunt superest constantia ; quid fas 

Atque nefas tandem incipiunt sentire peractis 

Ciiminibus. Tamen ad mores natura recurrit 

Damnatos, fixa et mutari nescia : nam quis 240 

Peccandi finem posuit sibi ? quando recepit 

Ejectum semel attrita de fronte ruborem ? 

Quisnam hominum est quem tu contentum videris uno 



78 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Flagitio ? Dabit in laqueum vestigia noster 

Perfidus, et nigri patietur carceris uncum, 245 

Aut maris Aegaei rupem scopulosque frequentes 

Exsulibus magnis. Poena gaudebis amara 

Nominis invisi, tandemque fatebere laetus 

Nec surdum nec Tiresiam quenquam esse deorum. 



SATIRA XIV. 79 



SATIRA XIV. 

PLURIMA sunt, Fuscine, et fama digna sinistra 
Et nitidis macalam haesuram figentia rebus, 
Quae monstrant ipsi pueris traduntque parentes. 
Si damnosa senem juvat alea, ludit et heres 
Bullatus parvoque eadem movet arma fritillo. 6 

Nec melius de se cuiquam sperare propinquo 
Concedet juvenis, qui radere tubera terrae, 
Boletum condire et eodem jure natantes 
Mergere ficedulas didicit nebulone parente 
Et cana monstrante gula. Quum septimus annus 10 

Transierit puero, nondum orani dente renato, 
Barbatos licet admoveas mille inde magistros, 
Hinc totidem, cupiet lauto coenare paratu 
Semper et a magua non degenerare culina. 
Mitem animum et mores modicis erroribus aequos 15 

Praecipit, atque animas servorum et corpora nostra 
Materia constare putat paribusque eleraentis, 
An saevire docet Rutilus, qui gaudet acerbo 
Plagarum strepitu et nullam Sirena flagellis 
Comparat, Autiphates trepidi Laris ac Polyphemus, 20 
Tum felix quoties aliquis tortore vocato 
Uritur ardenti duo propter lintea ferro ? 
Quid suadet juveni laetus stridore catenae, 
Quem mire alficiunt inscripta ergastula, carcer 



80 D. JUNII JtJVENALIS 

Rusticos? Exspectas ut non sit adultera Largae 25 

Filia, quae nunquani matemos dicere moecbos 

Tam cito nec tanto poterit contexere cursu 

Ut non ter decies respiret ? Conscia matri 

Yirgo fuit ; ceras nunc hac dictante pusillas 

Implet, et ad moechum dat eisdem ferre cinaedis. 30 

Sic natura jubet : velocius et citius nos 

Corrumpunt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 

Quum subeunt animos auctonbus. Unus et alter 

Forsitan haec spemant juvenes, quibus arte benigna 

Et meliore luto finxit praecordia Titan ; o5 

Sed reliquos fugienda patrum vestigia ducunt, 

Et monstrata diu veteris trahit orbita culpae. 

Abstineas igitur damnandis ; hujus enim vel 

Una potens ratio est, ne crimina nostra sequantur 

Ex nobis geniti : quoniam dociles imitandis 40 

Tui-pibus ac pravis omnes sumus, e't Catilinam 

Quocunque in populo videas, quocunque sub axe ; 

Sed nec Brutus erit Bruti nec avunculus usquam. 

Nil dictu foedum visuque haec limina tangat 

Intra quae puer est. Procul hinc, procul inde puellae 45 

Lenonum et cantus pemoctantis parasiti. 

Maxima debetur puero reverentia. Si quid 

Turpe paras, ne tu pueri contempseris annos, 

Sed peccaturo obsistat tibi filius infans. 

Nam si quid dignum Censoris fecerit ira 50 

Quandoque et similem tibi se non corpore tantum 

Nec vultu dederit, morum quoque filius et qui 

Orania deterius tua per vestigia peccet, 

Corripies nimirum et castigabis acerbo 

Clamore ac post haec tabulas mutare parabis. 65 

Unde tibi frontem libertatemque parentis 



SATIRA XIV. 81 

Quum facias pejora senex, vacuumque cerebro 
Jam pridem caput hoc ventosa cucurbita quaerat ? 

Hospite venturo cessabit nemo tuorum. 
'< Verre pavimentum, nitidas-ostende columnas, 60 

Aiida cum tota descendat aranea tela ; 
Hic leve argentura, vasa aspera tergeat alter," 
Vox domini furit instantis virgamque tenentis. 
Ergo miser trepidas ne stercore foeda canino 
Atria displiceant oculis venientis amici, (55 

Nec perfusa luto sit porticus, (et tamen uno 
Semodio scobis haec emendat servulus unus,) 
Illud non agitas ut sanctam filius omni 
Aspiciat sine labe domum vitioque carentem. 
Gratum est quod patriae civem populoque dedisti 70 

Si facis ut patriae sit idoneus, utilis agris, 
Utilis et bellorum et pacis rebus agendis. 
Plurimum enim intererit quibus artibus et quibus honc tu 
Moribus instituas. Serpente ciconia pullos 
Nutrit et inventa per devia rura lacerta ; 75 

Illi eadem sumptis quaerunt animalia pinnis. 
Vultur jumento et canibus crucibusque relictis 
Ad fetus properat partemque oadaveris affert. 
Hic est ergo cibus magni quoque vulturis et se 
Pjiscentis, propria quum jam facit arbore nidos. 80 

Sed leporem aut capream famulae Jovis et generosae 
In saltu venantur aves ; hinc praeda cubili 
Ponitur : inde autem, quum se matura levabit 
Progenies stimulante fame, festinat ad illam 
Quam primum praedam rupto gustaverat ovo. 85 

Aedificator erat Cetronius, et modo curvo 
Litore Caietae, summa nunc Tiburis arce, 
'Nnnc Praenestinis in montibus alta parabat 

6 



82 D. JUNH JUVENALIS ' 

Culmina villarum, Graecis longeque petitis 

Marmoribus vincens Fortunae atque Herculis aedem, 90 

Ut spado vincebat Capitolia nostra Posides. 

Dam sic ergo habitat Cetronius, imrainuit rem, 

Fregit opes, nec parva tamen mensura relictae 

Partis erat ; totam hanc turbavit filius amens, 

D.iga raeliore novas attollit marmore villas. 95 

Quidam soititi metuentem sabbata patrem 
Nil praeter nubes et caeli numen adorant, 
Nec distare putant humana came suillam, 
Qua pater abstinuit ; mox et praeputia ponunt. 
liomanas autem soliti contemnere leges 100 

Jiidaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt jus, > 
Tradidit arcano quodcunque vohiraine Moses ; 
Non monstrare vias eadem nisi sacra colenti, 
Quaesitum ad fontem solos deducere verpos. 
Sed pater in causa, cui septima quaeque iuit lux 105 

Ignava et partem vitae non attigit ullam. 

Sponte tamen juvenes imitantur cetera, solam 
Inviti quoque avaritiam exercere jubentur. 
Fallit enim vitium specie virtutis et umbra, 
Quum sit triste habitu vultuque et veste severum. lio 

Nec dubie tanquam frugi laudatur avarus, 
Tanquam parcus homo et rerum tutela suarum 
Certa magis quam si foi-tunas servet easdem 
Hesperidum serpens aut Ponticus. Adde quod hunc de 
Quo loquor egregium popuhis putat acquirendi 115 

Artificem : quippe his crescunt patrimonia fabris : 
Sed crescunt quocunque modo, majoraque fiunt 
Incude assidua semperque ardente camino. 
Et pater ergo animi felices credit avaros, 
Qui miratur opes, qui nulla exempla beati 120 



SATIRA XIV. 83 

Pauperis esse put«at ; juvenes hoitatur ut illam 

Ire viam pergant et eidem incumbere sectae. 

Sunt quaedam vitiorum elementa ; his protinus illos 

Imbuit et cogit minimas ediscere sordes ; 

Mox acqiiirendi docet insatiabile votum. 125 

Servorum ventres modio castigat iniquo 

Ipse quoque esuriens; neque enim omnia sustinet unquam 

Mucida caerulei panis consumere frusta, 

Hesternum solitus medio servare minutal 

Septembri, nec non differre in tempora coenae 130 

Alterius conchem aestivam cum parte lacerti 

Signatam vel dimidio putrique siluro, 

Filaque sectivi numerata includere porri. 

Invitatus ad haec aliquis de ponte negabit. 

Sed quo divitias haec per tormenta coactas, 135 

Quum furor haud dubius, quum sit manifesta phrenesis, 

Ut locuples moriaris egentis vivere fato ? 

Interea pleno quum turget sacculus ore, 

Crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crevit ; 

Et minus hanc optat qui non habet. Ergo paratur 140 

Altera villa tibi quum rus non sufiicit unum, 

Et proferre libet fines, majorque videtur 

Et melior vicina seges : mercaris et hanc et 

Arbusta et densa montem qui canet oliva. 

Quorum si pretio dominus non vincitur ullo, 145 

Nocte boves macri lassoque famelica collo 

Jumenta ad virides hujus mittuntur aristas; 

Nec prius inde domum quam tota novalia saevos 

In ventres abeant, ut creda« falcibus actum. 

Dicere vix possis quam multi talia plorent, 150 

Et quot venales injuria feceiit agros. 

Sed qui sermones ! quam foedae buccina famae ! 



84 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

"Quid nocet haec?" inquit. "Tuuicam mihi malo lupini 

Quam si me toto laudet vicinia pago 

Exigui ruris paucissima farra secantem." 155 

Scilicet et morbis et debilitate carebis 

£t hictum et curam efiugies, et tempora vitae 

Longa tibi post haec fato meliore dabuntur, 

Si tantum culti solus possederis agri 

Quantum sub Tatio popuhis Roraanus arabat. 160 

Mox etiam fractis aetate ac Punica passis 

Proelia vel PjTrhum immanem gladiosque Molossos 

Tandem pro multis vix jugera bina dabantur 

Vulneribus. Merces haec sanguinis atque laboris 

NuUis visa unquam meritis minor aut ingratae 165 

Cui-ta fides patriae. Saturabat glebula talis 

Patrem ipsum turbamque casae, qua feta jacebat 

Uxor, et infantes ludebant quatuor, unus 

Yernula, tres domini ; sed magnis fratribus hornm 

A scrobe vel sulco redeuntibus altera coena 170 

Ainplior et grandes fumabant pultibus ollae. 

Nunc modus hic agri nostro non sufficit horto. 

Inde fere scelerum causae ; nec plura venena 

Miscuit aut ferro grassatur saepius ullum 

Humanae mentis vitium quam saeva cupido 175 

Immodici census ; nam dives qui fieri vult, 

Et cito vult fieri. Sed quae reverentia legum, 

Quis raetus aut pudor est unquam properantis avari ? 

" Vivite contenti casulis et colUbus istis, 

O pueri," Marsus dicebat et Hemicus olim 180 

Vestinusque senex ; " panem quaeramus aratro 

Qui satis est mensis : laudant hoc numina ruris 

Quorum ope et auxilio gratae post munus aristae 

Contingunt homini veteris fastidia quercus. 



SATIBA XIV. 85 

Nil vetitum fecisse volet quem non pudet alto 185 

Per glaciem perone tegi, qui summovet Em'Os 

Pellibus inversis. Peregrina ignotaque nobis 

Ad scelus atque nefas, quaecunque est, purpura ducit." 

Haec illi veteres praecepta minoribus : at nunc 

Post finem. autumni media de nocte supinum 190 

Clamosus juvenem pater excitat : " Accipe ceras, 

Scribe, puer, vigila, causas age, perlege rubras 

Majorum leges aut vitem posce libello. 

Sed caput intactum buxo naresque pilosas 

Annotet et grandes miretur Laelius alas. ' 195 

Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantum, * 

Ut locupletem aquilam tibi sexagesinms annus 

Afferat : aut longos castrorum feiTC labores 

Si piget et trepidum solvunt tibi cornua ventrem 

Cum lituis audita, pares quod vendere possis 200 

Pluris dimidio, nec te fastidia mercis 

TJllius subeant ablegandae Tiberim ultra, 

Neu credas ponendum aliquid discriminis inter 

Unguenta et coriura. Lucri bonus est odor ex re 

Qualibet. Illa tuo sententia semper in ore 205 

Versetur dis atque ipso Jove digna poetae : 

Unde habeas quaerit nemo, sed oportet habere." 

Hoc monstrant vetulae pueris repentibus assae ; 

Hoc discunt omnes ante alpha et beta puellae. 

Talibus instantem monitis quemcunque parentem 210 

Sic possem affari : Dic, o vanissime, quis te 

Festinare jubet ? raeliorem praesto magistro 

Discipulum. Securus abi, vinceris, ut Ajax 

Praeteriit Telamonem, ut Pelea vicit Achilles. 

Parcendum est teneris ; nondum implevere medullas 2i5 

Maturae mala nequitiae. Quum pectere barbam 



86 D. JUNn JUVENALIS 

Coeperit et longi mucronem admittere cultri, 

Falsus erit testis, yendet peijuria summa 

Exigua, Cereris tangens aramque pedemque. 

Elatam jam crede nurum, si limina vestra 220 

Mortifera cum dote subit. Quibus illa premetur 

Per somnum digitis ! nam quae terraque marique 

Acquirenda putas brevior via conferet illi. 

NuUus enim magni sceleris labor. " Haec ego nunquam 

Mandavi," dices olim, " neo talia suasi." 225 

Mentis causa malae tamen est et origo penes te. 

Nam quisquis magni census praecepit amorem 

Et laevo*monitu pueros producit avaros, 

Et qui per fraudes patrimonia oonduplicare, 

Dat libertatem et totas eflundit habenas 230 

CuiTiculo ; quem si revoces subsistere nescit 

Et te contempto rapitur metisqne relictis. 

Nemo satis oredit tantum delinquere quantum 

Permittas : adeo indulgent sibi latius ipsi. 

Quum dicis juveni stultum qui donet amico, 235 

Qui paupertatem levet attollatque propinqui, 

Et spoliare doces et ciroumscribere et omni 

Crimine divitias acquirere, quarum amor in te 

Quantus erat patriae Deciorum in pectore, quantum 

Dilexit Thebas, si Graecia vera, Menoeceus, 240 

In quorum sulcis legiones dentibus anguis 

Cum clipeis nascuntur et horrida bella capessunt 

Continuo, tanquam et tubicen surrexerit una : — 

Ergo ignem oujus scintillas ipse dedisti 

Flagrantem late et rapientem cuncta videbis. 245 

Nec tibi parcetur misero, trepidumque magistrum 

In cavea magno fremitu leo tollet alumnus. 

Nota mathematicis genesis tua : sed grave tardas 



SATIBA XIV. 87 

Exfipectare colus. Morieris Btamine nondum 

Abrupto. Jam nunc obstas et vota moraris, 260 

Jam torquet juvenem longa et cervina senectus. 

Ocius Archigenen quaere atque eme quod Mithridates 

Composuit, si vis aliam decerpere ficum 

Atque alias tractare rosas. Medicamen habendum est 

Sorbere ante cibum quod debeat et pater et rex. 255 

Monstro voluptatem egregiam cui nuUa theatra, 
Nulla aequare queas Praetoiis pulpita lauti, 
Si spectes quanto capitis discrimine constent 
Incrementa domus, aerata multus in arca 
Piscus et ad vigilem ponendi Castora nummi, 260 i 

Ex quo Mars Ultor galeam quoque perdidit et res 
Non potuit servare suas. Ergo omnia Florae 
Et Cereris licet et Cybeles aulaea relinquas ; 
Tanto majores humana negotia ludi. 
An magis oblectaut animum jactata petaiiro 265 

-Corpora quique solet rectum descendere funem, 
Quam tu Corycia semper qui puppe moraris 
Atque habitas, Coro semper tollendus et Austro, 
Perditus ac vilis sacci mercator olentis ; 
Qui gaudes pingue antiquae de litore Cretae 270 

Passnm et municipes Jovis advexisse lagenas ? 
Hic tamen ancipiti figens vestigia planta 
Victum illa mercede parat brumamque famemque 
IUa reste cavet ; tu propter mille talepta 
Et centum villas temerarius. Aspice portus 275 

Et plenum magnis trabibus mare ; plus hominum est jam 
In pelago ; veniet classis quocunque vocarit 
Spes lucri, nec Carpathium Gaetulaque tantum 
Aequora transiliet, sed longe Calpe relicta 
Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. 280 



88 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Grande operae pretium est ut tenso folle reverti 

Inde domum possis, tumidaque superbus aluta 

Oceani monstra et juvenes vidisse marinos. 

Non unus mentes agitat furor. Ille sororis 

In manibus vultu Eumenidum terretur et igni, 285 

Hic bove percusso mugire Agamemnona credit 

Aut Ithacum. Parcat tunicis licet atque lacernis, 

Curatoris eget qui navem mercibus implet 

Ad summum latus et tabula distinguitur unda, 

Quum sit causa mali tanti et discriminis hujus 290 

Concisum argentum ia titulos faciesque minutas. 

Occurrunt nubes et fulgura ; " Solvite funem," 

Frumenti dorainus clamat piperisve coempti ; 

" Nil color hic caeli, nil fascia nigra minatur ; 

Aestivum tonat." Infelix hac forsitan ipsa 295 

Nocte cadet fractis trabibus, fluctuque premetur 

Obrutus et zonam laeva morsuque tenebit. 

Sed cujus votis modo non suffecerat aurum 

Quod Tagus et rutila volvit Pactolus arena, 

Frigida suflicient velantes inguina panni dOO 

Exiguusque cibus, mersa rate nauiragus assem 

Dum rogat et picta se tempestate tuetur. 

Tantis parta malis cura majore metuque 
Servantur. Misera est magni custodia census. 
Dispositis praedives hamis vigilare cohortem 305 

Servorum noctu Licinus jubet, attonitus pro 
Electro signisque suis Phrygiaque columna 
Atque ebore et lata testudine. Dolia nudi 
Non ardent Cynici : si fregeris, altera fiet 
Cras domus, aut eadem plumbo commissa manebit. 310 
Sensit Alexander, testa quum vidit in illa 
Magnum habitatorem, quanto felicior hic qui 



SATIRA XIV. 89 

Nil cuperet qaam qui totum sibi posceret orbem, 

Passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus. 

Nullum numen abest si sit Prudentia : nos te, 315 

Nos facimus, Fortuna, deam. Mensura tamen quae 

Sufficiat census si quis me consulat edam : 

In quantum sitis atque fames et fiigora poscunt, 

Quantum, Epicure, tibi parvis suffecit in hortis, 

Quantum Socratici ceperunt ante penates. 320 

Nunquam aliud Natura aliud Sapientia dicit. 

Acribufl exemplis videor te claudere : misce 

Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus ; effice summam 

Bis septem ordinibus quam lex dignatur Othonis. 

Haec quoque si rugam trahit extenditque labellum, 325 

Sume duos Equites, fac tertia quadringenta. 

Si npndum implevi gremium, si panditur ultra, 

Nec Croesi fortuna unquam, nec Persica regna 

Sufficient animo, nec divitiae Narcissi, 

Indulsit Caesar cui Claudius omnia, cujus 330 

Paruit imperiis uxorem occidere jussus. 



90 D. JUNU JUVENALIS 



SATIRA XV. 

QXJIS nescit, Volusi Bithynice, qualia demens 
Aegyptus portenta colat ? Crocodilon adorat 
Pai-8 haec, illa pavet saturam serpentibus ibin. 
Efiigies sacri nitet aurea cercopitheci 
Dimidio magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae 6 

Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis. 
Illic aeluros, hic piscem fluminis, illic 
Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. 
Porrum et caepe nefas violare et frangere morsu. 
O sanctas gentes, quibus haec nascuntur in hoitis lo 

Numina ! Lanatis animalibus abstinet omnis 
Mensa, Yiefas illic fetum jugulare capellae ; 
Camibus humanis vesci licet. Attonito quum 
Tale super coenam facinus narraret T31ixes 
Alcinoo, bilem aut risum fortasse quibusdam 10 

Moverat ut mendax aretalogus. " In mare nemo 
Hunc abicit, saeva dignum veraque Charybdi, 
Fingentem immanes Laestrygonas atque Cyclopas ? 
Nam citius Scyllam vel concurrentia saxa 
Cyanea, plenos et tempestatibus utres 20 

Crediderim, aut tenui percussum verbere Circes 
Et cum remigibus grunnisse Elpenora porcis. 
Tam vacui capitis populum Phaeaca putavit ? " 
Sic aliquis merito nondum ebrius et minimum qui 



"-I 



SATIEA XV. 91 

De Corcyraea temetum duxerat urna ; 26 

Solus enim hoo Ithacus nuUo sub teste canebat. 
Nos miranda quidem sed nuper Consule Junio 
Gesta super calidae referemus moenia Copti, 
Nos vulgi scelus et cunctis graviora cothumis. 
Nam.scelus, a Pyrrha quanquam omnia syrmata volvas, 30 
Nullus apud tragicos populus facit. Accipe nostro 
Dira quod exemplum feritas produxerit aevo. 

Inter finitimbs vetus atque antiqua simultas, 
Immortale odium et nunquam sanabile vulnus 
Ardet adhuc, Ombos et Tentyra. Summus utrinque 35 
Inde furor vulgo quod numina vicinorum 
Odit uterque locus, quum solos credat habendos 
Esse deos quos ipse colit. Sed tempore festo 
Alterius populi rapienda occasio cunctis 
Visa inimicorum primoribus ac ducibus, ne 40 

Laetum hilaremque diem, ne magnae gaudia coenae 
Sentirent, positis ad templa et compita mensis 
Pervigilique toro, quem nocte ac luce jacentem 
Septimus interdum sol invenit. Horrida sane 
Aegyptus ; sed luxuria, quantum ipse notavi, 45 

Barbara famoso non cedit turba Canopo. 
Adde quod et facilis victoria de madidis et 
Blaesis atque mero titubantibus. Inde virorum 
Saltatus nigro tibicine, qualiacunque 
TJnguenta et flores multaeque in fronte coronae ; 50 

Hinc jejunum odium. Sed jurgiaprima sonare 
Incipiunt animis ardentibus ; haec tuba rixae. 
Dein clamore pari concurritur, et vice teli 
Saevit nuda manus : paucae sine vulnere malae ; 
Vix cuiquam aut nulli toto certamine nasus 65 

Integer. Aspiceres jam cuncta per agmina vultus 



92 D. JUNH JUVENALIS 

Dimidios, alias facies et hiantia ruptis 

Ossa genis, plenos oculoram sanguine pugnos. 

Ludere se credunt ipsi tamen et pueriles 

Exercere acies, quod nuUa cadavera calcent : 60 

Et sane quo tot rixantis millia turbae 

Si vivunt omnes? Ergo acrior impetus, et jam 

Saxa inclinatis per humum quaesita laceitis 

Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditioni 

Tela ; nec hunc lapidem, quales et Turnus et Ajax, 66 

Vel quo Tydides percussit pondere coxam 

Aeneae, sed quem valeant emittere dextrae 

IUis dissimiles et nostro tempore natae. 

Nam genus hoc vivo jam decrescebat Homero ; 

Terra malos homines nunc educat atque pusillos : 70 

Ergo deus, quicunque aspexit, ridet et odit. 

A diveiticulo repetatur fabula. Postquam 

Subsidiis aucti pars altera promere ferrum 

Audet et infestis pugnam instaurare sagittis ; 

Terga fuga celeri praestantibus omnibus, instant 75 

Qui vicina colunt umbrosae Tentyra palmae. 

Labitur hinc quidam nimia formidine cursum 

Praecipitans capiturque : ast illum in plurima sectum 

Fnista et particulas, ut multis mortuus unus 

Sufficeret, totum corrosis ossibus edit 80 

Victrix turba ; nec ardenti decoxit aeno 

Aut verubus ; longum usque adeo tardumque putavit 

Exspectare focos, contenta cadavere crudo. 

Hic gaudere libet quod non violaverit ignem, 

Quem summa caeli raptum de parte Prometheus 85 

Donavit tenis. Elemento gratulor et te * 

Exsultare reor. Sed qui mordere cadaver 

Sustinuit nil unquam hac came libentius edit. 



SATIRA XV. 93 

Nam scelere in tanto ne qiiaeras et dubites an 

Prima voluptatem gula senserit ; ultimus autem 90 

Qui stetit absumgto jam toto corpore, ductis 

Per terram digitis, aliquid de sanguine gustat. 

Vascones, haec fama est, alimentis talibus olim 

Produxere animas ; sed res diversa, sed illic 

Fortunae invidia est belloruraque ultima, casus 95 

Extremi, longae dira obsidionis egestas. 

Hujus enim quod nunc agitur miserabile debet 

Exemplum esse cibi ; sicut modo dicta mibi gens 

Post omnes herbas, post cuncta animalia, quidquid 

Cogebat vacui ventris furor, hostibus ipsis 100 

Pallorem ac maciem et tenues miserantibus artus, 

Membra aliena fame lacerabant esse parati 

Et sua. Quisnam hominum veniam dare, quisve deorum 

Viribus abnuerit dira atque immania passis, 

Et quibus illorum poterant ignoscere manes 105 

Quorum corporibus vescebantur? Melius nos 

Zenonis praecepta monent ; nec enira orania, quaedam 

Pro vita facienda putat. Sed Cantaber unde 

Stoicus, antiqui praesertim aetate Metelli ? 

Nunc totus Graias nostrasque habet orbis Athenas. lio 

Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Biitannos, 

De conducendo loquitur jam rhetore Thule. 

Nobilis ille tamen populus quem diximus, et par 

Viitute atque fide sed major clade Saguntus 

Tale quid excusat. Maeotide saevior ara 115 

Aegyptus ; quippe illa nefandi Taurica sacri 

Inventrix homines (ut jam quae carmina tradunt 

Digna fide credas) tantum immolat, ulterius nil 

Aut gravius cultro timet hostia. Quis modo casus 

Irapulit hos ? quae tanta faraes infestaque vallo 120 



94 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Arma coegerunt tam detestabile monstrum 

Audere ? Anne aliam terra Memphitide sicca 

Invidiam facerent nolenti surgere Nilo ? 

Qua nec terribiles Cimbri, nec Britones unquam, 

Sauromataeque truces aut immanes Agathyrsi, 125 

Hac saevit rabie imbelle et inutile vulgus, 

Parvula fictilibus solitum dare vela phaselis 

Et brevibus pictae remis incumbere testae. 

Nec poenam sceleri invenies, nec digna parabis 

Supplicia his populis, in quorum mente pares sunt 130 

Et similes ira atque fames. Mollissima corda 

Humano generi dare se natura fatetur 

Quae laciimas dedit: haec nostri pars optima sensus. 

Plorare ergo jubet casum lugentis amici, 

Squaloremque rei, pupillum ad jura vocantem 135 

Circumscriptorem, cujus manantia fletu 

Ora puellares faciunt incerta capilli. 

Naturae imperio gemimus, quum funus adultae 

Virginis occurrit, vel terra clauditur infans 

Et minor igne rogi. Quis enim bonus et face dignus 140 

Arcana, qualem Cereris vult esse sacerdos, 

Ulla aliena sibi credat mala ? Separat hoc nos 

A grege mutorum, atque ideo venerabile soli 

Sortiti ingenium, divinorumque capaces, 

Atque exercendis capiendisque artibus apti, ' 145 

Sensum a caelesti demissum traximus arce, 

Cujus egent prona et terram spectantia. Mundi 

Principio indulsit communis conditor illis 

Tantum animas, nobis animum quoque, mutuus ut nos 

AfTectus petere auxilium et praestare juberet, 150 

Dispersos trahere in populum, migrare vetusto 

De nemore et proavis habitatas linquere silvas, 



SATIBA XV. 95 

Aedificare domos, Laribas conjungere nostris 

Tectum aliud, tutos vicino limine somnos 

Ut coUata daret fiducia, protegere armis 166 

Lapsum aut ingenti nutantem vulnere civem, 

Communi dare signa tuba, defendier isdem 

Turribus atque una portarum claVe teneri. 

Sed jam serpentum major concordia : parcit 

Cognatis maculis similis fera. Quando leoni 160 

Fortior eripuit vitam leol* quo nemore unquam 

Exspiravit aper majoris dentibus apri ? 

Indica tigris agit rabida cum tigride pacem- 

Perpetuam ; saevis inter se convenit ursis. 

Ast homini ferrum letale incude nefanda 166 

Produxisse parum est, quum rastra et sarcula tantum 

Assueti coquere et marris ac vomere lassi 

Nescirint primi gladios extendere fabri. 

Aspicimus populos quorura non sufficit irae 

Occidisse aliquem, sed pectora, brachia, vultum 170 

Crediderint genus esse cibi. Quid diceret ergo, 

Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc haec monstra videret 

Pythagoras, cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui 

Tanquam homine et ventri indulsit non omne legumen ? 



96 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 



SATIRA XVI. 

QXJIS numerare queat felicis praemia, Galle, 
Militiae ? Quod si subeuntur prospera castra, 
Me pavidum excipiat tironem porta secundo 
Sidere. Plus etenim fati valet hora benigni, 
Quam si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti 6 

Et Samia genitrix quae delectatur arena. 

Commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum 
H^ud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus 
Audeat ; immo etsi pulsetur, dissimulet nea 
Audeat excussos Praetori ostendere dentes, lO 

Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus ofTam, 
Atque oculum medico nil promittente relictum. 
Bardaicus judex datur haec punire volenti 
Calceus et grandes magna ad subsellia surae, 
Legibus antiquis castrorum et more Camilli 15 

Servato, miles ne vallum litiget extra 
Et procul a signis. Justissima Centurionum 
Cognitio est igitur de milite ; nec mibi deerit 
XJltio si justae defertur causa querelae. 
Tota cohors tamen est inimica, omnesque manipli 20 

Consensu magno efficiunt curabilis ut sit 
Vindicta gravior quam injuria. Dignum erit ergo . 
Declamatoris mulino corde Vagelli, 



SATIRA XVI. 9T 

Quum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligas, tot 

Millia clavorum, Quis tam procul absit ab Urbe 25 

Praeterea? quis tam Pylades molem aggeris ultra 

XJt veniat ? Lacrimae siccentur^protinus, et se 

Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos, 

" Da testem," judex quum dixerit. Audeat ille 

Nescio quis pugnos qui vidit dicere, " Vidi," 30 

Et credam dignum barba dignumque capillis 

Majorum. Citius falsum producere testem 

Contra paganum possis quam vera loquentem 

Contra fortunam armati contraque pudorem. 

Praemia nunc alia atque alia emolumenta notemus 35 
Sacramentorum, Convallem ruris aviti 
Iraprobus aut campum mihi si vicinus aderait, 
Et sacrum effodit medio de limite saxura ^ 
Quod mea cum patulo coluit puls annua libo ; 
Debitor aut sumptos pergit non reddere nummos, 40 

Vana supervacui dicens chirographa ligni ; 
Exspectandus erit qui lites inchoet annus 
Totius populi. Sed tunc quoque mille ferenda 
Taedia, mille morae ; toties subsellia tantum 
Sternuntur ; tum, facundo ponente lacernas 45 

Caedicio et Fusco jam micturiente, parati 
Digredimur lentaque fori pugnaraus arena. 
Ast illis quos arma tegunt et balteus ambit 
Quod placitum est ipsis praestatur tempus agendi, 
Nec res atteritur longo sufflamine litis. 50 

Solis praeterea testandi militibus jus 
Vivo patre datur : nam quae sunt parta labore 
Militiae placuit non esse in corpore census, 
Omne tenet cujus regimen pater. Ergo Coranum 
Signorum comitem castrorumque aera merentem 55 

7 



98 SATIRA XVI. 

Quamvis jara tremulus captat pater. Hunc labor aequus 

Provehit et pulcro reddit sua dona labori. 

Ipsius certe ducis hoc refeiTC videtur 

TJt qui fortis eiit sit felicissimus idem, 

Ut laeti phaleris omnes et torquibus omnes — 60 



N O T E S. 



REFERENOES TO GRAMMARS. 

A Allen and Greenough'8. 

A. & S. . Andrews and Stoddard's, 

B BiTLLioNS and Morris's. 

H Harkness's. 

M Madvig^s (Thacher's edition). 

Z Zumpt's (Anthon's edition). 

The references to " Merivale's History *' are to the American edition. 



V \ 



N O T E S. 



SATIRE I. 

Thib satire must have been published after a.d. 100 (see note on 
verse 47). Whether it was written first or not, it serves very well as 
an introduction to the volume. The Mibellus' of wliich the author 
speaks (verse 86) may be this poem or the whole collection. 

Argument. — Am I always to listen, and never topay backin kind ? 
I, too, have been to school ; if paper must be wasted, why should not 
I write (1-18) ? How caii I restrain myself when I think of the men 
and the times? I have no choice; I must write satire. How, in 
view of the sins of to-day, can I take up the hackneyed tales of tlie 
old peets? In the very streets one sees his material. Honesty is 
gone; crimes alone help men. I must write as I can (19-80). All 
the passions of men are my motley subject. When was there so 
much gaming as there is to-day, such luxury, such base cringing for a 
paltry gain ? Why, even men of rank seek the dole and press their 
claim in every way (81-126). So, every day, the sportula comes 
first, then the court ; then the hungry clients go away disappointed, 
and the rich man sits down to his feast. But such gluttony brings its 
own speedy punishment (127-146). You tell me I had best be care- 
ful how I speak, or I may meet the Christians' fate ; that it is safer 
to write of those who are dead and gone. Well, then, I must try 
what I can do with those who are in their tombs (147-171). 

1. Semper ego auditor tantum ?] In the time of Augustus it had be- 
come common for all sorts of writers, but particularly poets, to recite 
their productions in public places, baths, colonnades, and so forth ; or 
to get their friends and acquaintances together to hear them in private 
houses or rooms hired for the purpose. The practice was adopted by 
literary men of character as well as the inferior sort; the example 
having been first set, as is said, by Asinius Pollio, the friend and pa- 
tron of Horace and others. ' Tantum ' modifies * auditor.' A. 47, 
3, c ; H. 583, 1 ; B. 997 ; M. 301, c, obs. 2. * Nunquamne reponam ' 
means ' Am I never to pay back ? ' The verb is the present sub- 
junctive. A. 67, 6 ; H. 486, ii. ; B. 1180. 



102 NOTES. 

2. Thesetde] The Btory of Theseus fdmished subjects for epic 
poems and tragedieSi and this may have been either, probably an 
epic, as comedy, elegy, and tragedy come after. 

3. recitaverit ille togatcis, ^'Note the tense : ' Is it to go for nothing 
that I have listened? ' 'Togatae' were comedies with Roman plots 
and characters, as opposed to 'palliatae/ which were Grecian. 

4. ingens Telepkus,] Telephus, king of Mysia, was a son of Hercules, 
and a tertile subject for tragedy. His strength is said to have ap- 
proachcd that of his father, and no doubt was magiiified by the poets 
Juvenal refers to. ' Ingens ' refers to the length of the poem. 

5. suinmi pkna jam margine libri] This is meant to show the lengtli 
of the poem. The back of the papyrus, or parchment (membrana), 
was not usually written upon, but stained. It was usual to have a 
wide margin ; and the larger the book, the wider the margin. It is 
difficult to give a satisfactory meaning to ' summi libri/ tinless it can 
mean a very large ' liber.' 

7. lucus ifai-tisj] There was a grove of Mars on the Appian Way, 
another in which Ilia brought forth Romulus and Remus, and a third 
in Colchis where the golden fleece was kept. Any grove of Mars 
will do, and there were niany. Of tho group of islands north of 
Sicily called Aeoliae, Vulcaniae, or Liparaeae Insulae, the most south- 
erly is that now called Voleano, by the Romans Hiera or Vulcani 
Insula, and by the Greeks 'Upu 'H^jKilaTov. There is little doubt that 
this is the place to which Juvenal refers. This island was in eaiiy 
times a very active volcano. 

9. Quid agant venti,] The winds follow naturally the niention of the 
Aeoliae Insiilae, one of which is said to have been the abode of the 
governor of tlie winds. 

10. unde alius] Jason from Colchis. The form ' pellicula ' has no 
diminutive force, but is used for convenience. 

11. jaculetnr Monychus omos, IMonychus and the other centaurs torc 
up the trees from Othrys and telion, and hurled them upon Caeneus 
at the marriage of his triend Peirithous. 'Monychus * is derived from 
juovo-ovt-^; the in the compound being long on account of the con- 
traction, while the first ov is dropped by syncope. 

12. Frontonis platani] The gardens and corridors of private persons 
were lent, it appears, for this purpose. Fronto is a name which 
occurs often under the empire. In the peristylia of large houses trees 
of considerable size were grown. The plane-tree was much cultivated 
by the Romans. * Marmora ' are statues and marbles, inlaid in the 
walls. * Convulsa' and ' ruptae ' seem to be medical words, as if the 
pillars were in a state of convulsion and bursting blood-vessels. ' Lec- 
tore * seems to be the ablative of means, the main idea being contained 
in its adjective; "by the persistency of the reader." See M. 264, 
obs. 3 ; and compare H. 414, 6, 1 ; A. & S. 248, L, R. 8. 

14. Exspectes eadem] " You may look for the same stuff from all 
sorts of poets, from the greatest to the least : I then (ergo) must 
write, f or I too have been to school and been whipped and declaimed ; 



SATIRE I. 103 

and since paper must be spoilt, mercy would be tlirown away : I may 
88 well spoil it as others." Schoolboys will not want to be told what 
' mauum ferulae subducere ' means ; but it appears the commentators 
are not agreed. 

X6. Consilium dedimus Sullae] The theme on which he professea to 
have declaimed belongs to the order called " suasoriae orationes." It 
appears to have been a favorite subject. The advice is, that Sulla 
should purchase sleep by laying down his power. He did so, b.c. 79, 
and died next year in retiremeut. * Suasoriae ' were distinguished 
from * controversiae/ and belonged rather to boys' schools. On the 
case of ' altum,' see A. 62, 3, a ; H. 371, 1, 3, (2) ; B. 713. 

20. Auruncae Jiexit alumnus,\ Suessa, in Campania, the later capital 
of the Aurunci, whose original town Aurunca (five miles from Suessa) 
was destroyed by the Sidicini, was called Suessa Aurunca. It was 
the birth-place of Lucilius. * Placidi ' is the nominative plural. 

22. Maevia Tuscum Figat aprum] This refers to the * venationes/ or 
fights with wild beasts at the circus and amphitheatres. The beasts 
fought with each other, or with men trained for the purpose and 
calied * bestiarii.' Of these many were free men and volunteers 
llghting for pay, and among them were sometinies found women, 
even those of equestrian and senatorial families, a thing which seems 
to have happened first in the year a.d. 63, in the reign of Nero. 
Domitian forced into the arena not only men of rank, but women also. 
The practice was put down more than a century later by a senatus- 
consultum, a.d. 200, in the reign of Sept. Severus. The boars of 
Etruria were particularly large. Thc women are said to hunt with 
their bVeasts bare like the Aniazons. 

25. Quo tondente] There was a barber, Licinus, mentioned by 
Horace, of whora the Scholiast says that he was made a senator by 
C. Julius Caesar. There^ppears to have been some such story con- 
nected with a low man of this name, for it passed into a proverb. 

26. verna Canopi Crispinus,] Canopus, or Canobus, which gave its 
name to one of the branches of the Nile, was about fifteen miles from 
Alexandria, and a town of dissolute morals, as seaports are wont to 
be. It is for this reason that Juvenal makes his upstart Crispinus a 
native of Canopus. How he commended himself to Domitian, and 
rose to be an eques, does not appear. ' Vema' was a slave born in 
his master^s house ; this man was tlierefore a * libertinus.' . 

27. Ti/rias humero revocante lacemaSf] The 'lacerna* was a loose 
cloak worn over the * toga.' It was usually of costly dye and ma- 
terial, being worn chiefly by the rich. The words describe tlie way 
in which the cloak was wom, hitched up on the left shoulder by a 
brooch or something of that sort, and floating in the wind, so that tiie 
shoulder seems to puU it back. This man appears to have had light 
rings for summer, and heavier for winter. That he wore a gold ring 
does not prove that he was an eques, for by the emperors af ter Tiberius 
the privilege was given to the lowest of the people. 

30. iniquae Tam patiens Urbis,] ' So tolerant of the town'8 in- 
iquities.' 



104 NOTES. 

32. lecHca Mathonis] Thia man was famous as a bankrupt and a 
blustering fellow. He was so fat as to fiii his litter, which was new 
as his fortunes were, and short-lived. He appeared on the streets in 
a style which wa» meant to be a decoy for clients. ' Causidicus ' is a 
title that Cicero uses with more or leBs contempt. The proper words 
for what we call an advocate, or counsel, are ' orator ' and ' patronus ; ' 
a ' causidicus ' was one of these of a lower sort. 

33. tnagni delaior amici,] This may be any low informer who be- 
trayed his patron. The informer^s. trade reaclied its height under 
Tiberius, and throve under his successors. See Merivale's History, 
V. 180, sqq. Massa was a favorite mountebank of Nero^s ; and Carus 
was one of his pet dwarfs. Thymele and Latinus werc an actress 
and an actor, to whom Domitikn was partial ; Martial begs him to look 
on his books as kindly as he looked at these two persons on the stage. 
Latinus, like tlie otliers just mentioned, was an influential informer. 
These informers were all afraid of the great man of thcir craf t, and 
did what they couid to make friends witli him. Latinus lent him 
Thymele, who was either his mistress or his wife. 

37. Quum te sumnioveant] This is the technical term for tlie lictor 
clearing the streets. 

38. summi Nunc via processus,] ' Processus ' means advancenient ; 
and 'summi processus,' advancement to the highest place. It was by 
tliese means that Otho got into favor with Nero. * Nunc ' seems to 
belong. to ' optima.' ' Beatae ' means here, as in many otlier x^laces, 
' rich.' 

40. Unciolam Proculeius habet] Proculeius has a twelfth part of the 
estate left him, and Gillo eleven-twclfths : the first is * heres ex 
uncia ; ' the second, * heres ex deunce.' Thc divisions of the ' as ' 
represented the portions of the estate devised to each ' heres.' The 
men are unknown. ' Unciola ' does not occur elsewhere. *It does not 
mean * less than an uncia ; ' but * a poor uncia,' as we say. 

42. Accipiat sane] There is contempt in this : " Let him take it and 
welcome." 

44. Aut Lugdunensem] At Lugdunum (Lyon), there was ftn altar, 
dedicated to Augustus on the day that Claudius was born in that city, 
Ist of August, B.c. 10. Dion Cassius relates that games were celebrated 
there in the lifetime of Augustus. If so, it was reserved for Caligula 
to establish a rhetorical contest in Greek and Latin, in which those 
who, in the Emperor's judgment, had acquitted themselves worst, 
were obliged to lick out what they had written with their tongiie, or 
to be flogged or plunged in the nearest stream. Juvenal refers to the 
competitors on these occasions who had reason to be afraid lest their 
speeches might meet with disapprobation, and who trembled for the 
consequences. 

46. hic spoliaior] The * tutor ' or * guardian * went out to tlie forum 
or to the walks, attended, *deductus,' by crowds of parasites (* comi- 
tum,' see verse 119), supported by the fortune of his * pupillus,' who 
was lef t to starve or to support liimself by the vilest means. 



SATIEE I. 105 

> 

47. et hic damnatus tnani Judicio] We have the private thief and the 
public brought together. Marius Priscus, proconsul of Africa, was 
convicted (a.d. 100). of * repetundae/ and banished from Italy. Marius 
was compelled to refund a part of his bad gains, and retired with the 
remainder to live comfortably, though not at home. The offence of 
' repetundae,' which was that of a magistrate getting money by illegal 
means from the provincials under his government, was punished with 
different penalties at diiferent times. The latest ' lex ' on tlie subject 
was the * lex Julia,' passed in the dictatorship of C. Julius Caesar, 
which abolished the punishment of exile ; but it appears to have been 
revived under the empire. The refunding of the money proved to 
have been received was always part of the penalty ; and in this in- 
stance it appears that 700 sestertia (about $27,600) were paid by 
Marius into tlie treasury. * Ab octava bibit ' meaus that he sat down 
to dinner earlier than usual ; the ninth hour in summer, and the tenth 
in winter, being those at whicb industrious persons generally dined. 

* Fruitur dis iratis/ lie enjoys the anger of the gods ; that is, he makes 
himself comfortable under liis punishment. For the idiom, see A. 72, 
3, a ; H. 580 ; B. 1367 ; A. & S. 274, R. 5. * Vincere ' is the legal 
word for succeeding in a cause. 

51. Venusina digna lucerna ?] Horace was bom at Venusia, on the 
Appian Way, between Beneventum and Tarentum,,B.c. 65. He 
seems to havc been looked upon by Persius and Juvenal as the repre- 
sentative of Koman satir^. Lucilius was more in Juvcnars way, and 
he mentions him below with resj^ect. ^Lucerna' only means what 
we mean when we speak of the ' midnight oil.' 

52. Sed quid magis Heracleas] * Agitem ' must be repeated, but in a 
different sense. * Fabulas ' is the noun to be supplied, if any is 
needed. He asks why he should rather write on such hackneyed 
subjects as the labors of Hercules, the wanderings of Diomed, the ad- 
ventures of Theseus, Icarus, and Daedalus, than attack the vices of 
the day ? ' Puero' may be the ablative of " dead weight," as Mayor 
ealls it, or the dative. See references on verse 13. * Mugitum ' refers 
of course to the Minotaur. 

55. Quum leno accipiat moechi bona.] This man connives at his wife's 
intrigues at his own table, and gets her paramour to make hini his 

* heres/ which the woman could not be, if the man's census exceeded 
100,000 asses. He fixes his eyes on the ceiling, as if wrapped in 
thought, or pretends to snore over his wine. 

58. Quum fas esse putet] " When that man thinks he has a right to 
look for a tribune's place, who, while yet a boy, wasted his substance 
on his stables, and lost his patrimony with flying on swift coach down 
the Flaminian road; for he was Automedon and held the reins while 
the great man madc himself pleasant to his man-mistress." This per- 
son may have been some favorite of Domitian's, who had been made, 
or hoped to be made, a * tribunus militum.' The Flaminian road led 
north from Rome to Ariminum. * Ipse ' is often used independently 
for ' the great man,' and is here opposed to Automedon, as Achilles to 



106 NOTES. 



his charioteer. * Lacerna ' is a man'8 cloak, and * lacernatae ' means 
that the * amica ' was a man. Two men are recorded as having been 
formally married to Nero, named Sporus and Pythagoras. * Dum ' is 
regularly joined with the present tense. See A.-68, 2, e; H. 467, 4. 

* Jactaret * may be ' showed himself off,' or something of that sort. 

63. Nonne libet ceras implere capaces] " Does not one feel inclined to 
take out one's tablets and fiU pages, even while the scene is passing 
under his eyes in tlie middle of the street?" * Quadrivia' were the 
crossings of two streets, *compita,' where numbers of passengers 
would be found. / 

64. jam sexta cerviceferatur,] This thief was carried^a *cathedra,* 
bome by six slaves, * hexaphoron ; ' thc sides were thrown open, by 
the drawing back of the curtains by which they were usually closed 
in. This represents the impudence of the man, who ought to have 
been ashamed to show his face and his laziness. * Jam ' suggests 
that before long he will have an even more stately equipage. Maecenas 
was a man of effeminate habits, an epicure, and a fop. * Supino ' 
means no more tlian lying lazingly on his back. The 'cathedra ' was 
so constructed that the person half reclined and half sat. In the 

* lectica ' he lay at f ull length ; and in the * sella ' he sat upright, as 
on an arm-chair. * Cathedfae ' were chiefly used by women, and were 
consiiiered effeminate carriages for men. They were all carried by a 
single pole in front, and another behind, restiiig on the bearers' 
slioulders. 

67. Signator Jalso,] This means one who has put forged seals and 
signatures to a false wiil, or has got knaves like himself to witness 
such a will with him. 'Falso* is the instrumental case (supply 
'signo^) depending on the verbal nounr A 'testamentum' required 
five witnesses, who put a seal and their names on the outside of it. 
The common way of writing wills was on waxed tablets (exiguis 
tabulis), whence come the expressions 'cera prima,' 'secunda,' * ima.' 

* Gemma uda ' is a seal nioistened before Xhe impression was made. 

* Lautiis ' is * fine ; ' and * beatus,' * well to do.' 

69. molle Calenum] The wine of Cales in Campania was among the 
best in Horace's time. It seems to have been one of the milder wines, 
from this epithet. * Nigros ' expresses the effect of the poison on the 
dead body. . The woman is called ' Locusta,' after her who poisoned 
Claudius by the direction of Agrippina, and Britannicus by the order 
of Nero. She was put to death by Galba, Nero'8 successor. See 
Merivale, v. 456 ; vi. 74, 285. Poisoning was very prevalent at Rome. 
St. Jerome saw a man who, after he had buried twenty-one wives, 
married a woman who had had twenty-two husbands. 

72. Per famam et populum] This forms one subject: *'in the midst of 
the whispers or talking of the citizens." It seems, therefore, that the 
corpse was carried out with the face exposed. For the hendiadys, see 
H. 704, II., 2; A. & S. 328, 2, (3) ; M. 481, a. 

73. brevibus Gyaris] This was a small barren island (still called 
Giura) in the Aegaean, one of the Cyclades, to which a few of the 
worst sort of criminals were transported in the time of the empire. 



SATIRE I. 107 

, It was ill supplled with water, and it was little better than death to 
be sent there. 'Brevibus' is equivalent to 'parvis.' ' Deportatio in 
insulam ' was at first added to the old punishment of ' aquae et ignis 
interdictio/ and at length superseded it. * Belegatio' was a milder 
punishment. 

74. prqbitds laudatur et cdg€t.\ These words are often quoted and imi- 
tated. For * aliquis/ some of tlie MSS. have * aUquid ; ' but the mas- 
culine is right. Tlie Greeks used rvg in the same way ; and the 
same is common iu most languages. To be " somebody " is the 
great object of ambition with half the world. 

75. praetonaf] Fine liouses fit for an emperor. 

76. stantem extra pocula caprum.] ' Stantem ' means standing out 
in bold relief. Such figiures on cups^etc, when they were movable, 
were called 'embleraata' after the Greek. On the ancient Greek 
vessels they were very handsome and curious. 

78. praetextatus adulter?] This seems to mean aboy paramour, who 
has learnt his lesson of vice before he has put on the ' toga virilis.' 

80. Cluoienus.] It is impossible to say who is meaut by this name. 

81. Ex quo Deucaliony] The passions of mankind, such as they have 
been ever since the flood, are the subjects he has chosen for his pen. 
The story of Deucalion and Pyrcha, and how men and women sprung 
up from tbe stones they threw behind them, is told at length by Ovid. 
The mountain on which the vessei landed was generally supposed to 
be Parnassus ; and the divinity whose oracle Deucalion eonsulted was 
Themis. * Sortes/ for the answer of an oracle, is taken from the 
Italian practice, particularly in the temples of Fortuna, whose re- 
sponses were delivered by lots, wooden tablets with different inscrip- 
tions shaken out of a box, and not by word of mouth, as the Greek 
oracles were delivered. ' Sortes poscere ' is an unusual phrase. 

86. discursusA This seems to signify generally the distractions, " the 
giddy whirl," of a busy life. * Farrago,' whicli is derived f rom * far,* 
is properly a mixture of various grains given to cattle. Here it means 
a medley of miscellaneous topics. ' £st ' is in agreement with the 
predicate. H. 462, 2 ; A. & S. 209, R. 9 ; M. 216. 

88. Major avaritiae patuit sinus ?] * Avaritia * is personified. * Sinus * 
means the fold of the toga over the breast within which the piirae 
(crumena) usually hung. A large purse would require a large ' sinus.' 
The old commentators difier. Grangaeus takes it this way. Britan- 
nicus explains it from the bellying of a sail with a fair wind; and 
Owen translates thus, 

" And when did vice with growth so rank prevail ? 
Or avarice wanton in so fair a gale ? " 

Holyday, " When open lay to avarice a larger haven ? " Mr. Mayor 
says, " When did the gulf of avarice yawn wider ? " I have no doubt 
the first explanation is right. 

alea quando Hos animos?] "When had gambling such spirit as it 
has now ? " Juvenal says elsewhere that fathers taught their young 
children to game. The 'alea' was always ' vetita legibus/ but never 



108 NOTES. 

checked from the declining times of the republic. AugustUB, Caligula, 
Claudius, and Domitian, are all put down as gamblers by Suetonius ; 
and Claudius wrote a treatise on tlie subject. The verb to be supplied 
in this sentence is ' habuit.' See A. 49, 2, c ; H. 367, 3 ; B. 639 ; M. 
479, d. 

89. Neque enim loculis comitantibus] Men- do not now go to the gam- 
ing table with their purse and play for the contents of that, but stake 
their chest containing all the ready money they have. *Tabula' is 
the board on which the dice were thrown. * Neque ' occurs seven 
times only in Juvenal ; * nec,' more than one hundred and sixty times. 
•'•Enim' must commonly be translated by the EngUsh conjunction 
' for,' but at times retains what was probably its earlier signification, 

* indeed,' as in * enim vero/ indeed, indeed ; ' neque enim,' nor indeed ; 

* et enim,' and indeed, &c." See M. 435, obs. 4 ; A. & S. 198, 7, R. 

91. dispensatore videbis Armigero!] * Dispensator ' was the cash- 
keeper, called also * procurator ' and * calculator,' who formed one of 
the establishment in all rich houses. He is called * armigero ' because 
he furnished the sinews of this warfare, the money. 

92. Simplexne furor sesteriia centum] The Greeks would say dirTi^ 
imvia, madness and nothing more. A hundred sestertia would be 
nearly f4000. The Romans did not understand high play if this was 
enough to make a satirist angry ; but the more than madness lay in 
the selfishness of the man who, after losing all his money, stakes his 
slave'8 jacket, and losing tiiat also never restores it. ' Beddere,' how- 
ever, need mean no more than 'to fumish.' 

94. fercula] This is an accusative of kindred signification. See 
references on verse 16. For some ages the Boman nobility commonly 
used nothing but ' far ' and ' puls,' and if a marriage or other joyful 
feast fell out, they thoiight it a mighty thing if they added a few small 
fishes and a few pounds of pork. Suetonius gives Augustus credit 
for moderation and good taste combined, because his custom was 
ordinarily to have but three courses, and at his finest dinners only 
six. Elagabalus once gave a dinner of twenty-two courses, the guests 
bathing after each. 

95. Nukc aportula primo Limine parva sedet] The * sportula ' is now a 
shabby affair, and instead of being given in the * atrium ' as a regular 
entertainment (' coena recta ') in the w^ay clients used to be received 
by thelr patrons, it is now set out at the door, to be scrambled for by 
the hungry rabble, dosely watched by the master, lest any should get 
it under false pretences. * Sportula' was originally a wicker basket 
in which the poor carried away their portion of meat from a pub- 
lic entertainment with sacrifice. It was afterward^ the name given 
to a dole which first under the emperors it became customary for rich 
men to give to those dependants who chose to pay t)ieir respects to 
them at their early reception in the moming, and to dance attendance 
upon them at other times. It was given sometimes in the shape of 
meat, at others in a small sum of money, usually 100 quadrantes, or 
one and a half denarii, about 22 cents. For the construction of 
' limine,' see A. 66, 8,/; H. 422, 1, 2. 



SATIRB I. 109 

96. turbae rapienda togatae.] The ' toga ' was worn out of respect to 
the great man, and it was counted bad taste for any person of respec- 
tabiUty to go abroad without it. At one time it became common for 
persons of family to go to the theatre without the * toga/ and Augus- 
tus put a stop to the practice. * Turba togata/ * gens togata/ were 
commonly used for tJie Romans. 

97. trepidat,] Tliis word expresses any hurried action or emotion. 
* Inspicit et trepidat' means he looks in the man^s £ace anxiously, with 
a sharp scrutinizing eye. * IUe ' can hardly be any but the master, 
who is supposed to condescend so far as to look on and regulate the 
distribution. 

99. jubet a praecone vocari Ipsos Trojugenas ;] The * praeco ' nray 
mean the ' nomenclator/ whose particular duty was to attend the 
morning visits and to know all his master^s acquaintance by sigiit and 
name, with their circumstances and all about them. The master bids 
this man call up the respectable people first ; for, says Juvenal, proud 
gentlemen of the old families condesoend to join us humble folk in 
begging. The poorer they got, the more they stuck to their pedigree, 
and nothing would satisfy them short of the blood of Aeneas in t|ieir 
veins. For the construction, see A. 67, S, d; M. 396, obs. 8. 

101. Da Praetori, da deinde Tribuno.] It must be supposed that 
sometimes magistrates (who were now sunk very low) were among 
the crowds who waited on the rich. The master says to the ' dispen- 
sator : ' " Give the Praetor first, after him the Tribunus ; " but a f reed- 
man, wiio had come before either of them, asserts his claim to be 
served before thom ; and a long speech is put into his mouth, in which 
he makes himself out to be richer than the men of office, and there- 
fore entitled to take precedence of them, an odd argument at such a 
time. ' Sed libertinus prior est ' is part of the narrative. 

104. Natu8 ad Euphraten,] He may mean from Cappadocia, fVom 
which part the Romans got a good many of their slaves ; or he may 
refer to the Jews, 97,000 of whom were taken captives in the Jewish 
war. ' Fenestrae ' are the holes made for earrings, and they are called 
'moUes,' which means elleminate. Jewish boys wore them (see 
Exodus xxxii. 2). The man says he has five houses, which he lets 
out for shops, and they bring in 400,000 sesterces of income, wliich 
was an equestrian fortune ; or we may understand ' quinque tabemae ' 
to be banking houses in the forum. In that case the man means 
his transactions at the ' quinque tabernae ' bring him in this income. 
With * quadringenta,' * sestertia ' must be supplied. 

106. parpura major] That is, the 'latus clavus,' or broad purple 
stripe on the tunic wom by senators, as opposed to the ' angustus 
clavus ' worn by * equites.' A * tribunus militum * of the first f our 
legions was entitled to a seat in the senate, and therefore to the ' latus 
clavus ; ' but it was allowed to others who were not senators under 
the empire. 

107. 81 Laurenti cuatodit in agro] Laurentum is near the coast, and 
about eight miles from Ostia. It was a winter resort of the Romans, 
aud abounded with villas. Large flocks of sheep were fed there, and 



IIQ NOTES. 

the marshes in the ncighborhood were famous for wild boars. Cor- 
vinus was a cognomen of the Messalae, who were a branch of the 
Valeria Gens, one of the oldest families in Rome. This gentleman of 
old family is supposed to be reduced to keeping sheep as a * merce- 
narius.' A person is said ' conducere rem faciendam/ in which case he 
receives pay (*merces'), or 'conducere rem utendam/ in which case 
he pays another for the thing used. 

108. ego possideo plu^ That ' possidere ' was used generally in the 
sense of possessing property, and not confined to the * possessores ' 
technically so called, is obvious from this and many passages. The 
* possessores ' of the republican period were occupiers of public lands ; 
and this man could not b^ a * possessor ' in that sense any more than 
Fallas or Licinus. He makes himself out to be vastly rich, and yet 
he is here begg^ng. 

109. Pallante ei Licinis.] The man'8 speech ends here. Pallas was 
a freedman of Claudius, in whose reign he got togethcr a large for- 
tune, for the sake of which he was put to death by Nero, a.d. 63. 
Licinus was a Gaulish slave manumitted by C. Julius Caesar, and 
m^de by Augustus governor of Gallia, which he robbed, and thereby 
grrew very rich. The plural in * Licinis ' is put, by a common usage, 
for the singular. The grammars fail to notice it. 

110. sacro nec cedat honori] The person of the ' tribunus plebis ' was 
inviolable, ' sacrosanctus.' 

111. pedihus qui venerat aJhis ;] Slaves newly imported are said to 
have been chalked on the soles of their feet when exposed for sale ; 
but what could have been the use of chalking their soles is not 
obvious. 

114. templo] The intransitive use of the Terb * habito ' is more com- 
mon than the transitive. The temple of Pax was one of the hand- 
somest buildings in Rome, and was situated on the Via Sacra. It 
was begun by Claudius and flnished by Vespasian, who deposited in 
it the spoils of Jerusalem brought to Rome by Titus. It was burnt 
down in the reign of Commodus, about 120 years after it was built. 
Fides had a temple on Mons Capitolinus, which was said to have 
been founded originally by Numa, and was afterwards restored in 
the consulship of M. Aemilius Scaurus, b.c. 116. No less than three 
temples of Victoria are mentioned, one of which was in the forum, 
another on Mons Palatinus, and a third on Mons Aventinus. In his 
first consulship M. Marcellus built a temple to Virtus near the Porta 
Capena, from which the Via Appia begari. 

116. crepitat Concordia nidoA " Concordia, who twitters when the 
birds salute their nest ; " that is, her temple sounds with the twittering 
of the birds. Mayor translates : " who clatters when she visits her 
nest." The birds and the goddess, he says, are identified. There 
was a beautiful temple to Concordia in the Carinae, originally built 
by Furius Camillus after the expulsion of the Gauls, b.o. 890, and 
restored by Livia, Augustus^s wife. There was another that stood 
between the Capitol and the Forum, in which the senate sometimes 
held its meetings. Some say that the crow, others that the stork, 

-')« the bird sacred to Concordia. 



SATIKE I. 111 

117. summus honor] " The highest magistrates." ' Referre ' is the 
proper word for entering monej in an accomit book, and * rationes ' 
are the accounts themselves. 

119. Quidfadent comites,] That is, those parasites whose profession 
it was to wait upon the rich. See above, verse 46. 

120. Densissima centum Quadrantes] See note on verse 95. 'Den- 
sissima lectica ' is equivalent to * plurima lectica.' Men are not satis- 
fied with going themselves, but they must take their wives with them 
to get a double allowance, though they be sick or in the family way. 
Another takes his wife*s erapty chair, with the curtains drawn round. 
" It's my wife Galla," says he ; " don't keep a lady waiting." " Show 
yourself, Galla," says the * balneator.' " Don't disturb her, she^s 
asleep ; '* and so he takes a second dole. 

127. Ipse dies putcro] Here follows an account of the divisions of 
the day, which he calls a * fair ordering * ironically. The distribution 
of the dole is the first thing in the morning ; then the great man goes 
to the forum and the law courts, and retums home about dinner time, 
still attended by his clients, who, after seeing him to his door, retire 

. wearied and disappointed, because he does not ask them to dinner, as 
rich men used to do before the * sportula ' was invented. We have 
a scene below (iii. 249, sqq.) of slaves carrying away hot viands in 
the afternoon ; it appears, therefore, that people could take the earn- 
ings of their servility either in the morning or in the afternoon. 

128. jurisque peritus ApoUo] In the Forum Augusti there was a 
statue of Apollo inlaid with ivory. This forum had two porticos, in one 
of which were statues of Aeneas and the Koman kings, and in the other 
those of distinguished soldiers. Among all Apollo's attributes law 
was not one, and he is called ' juris peritus * simply because he was 
always listening to lawyers. With * triumphales ' supply * statuae.' 

130. Aegyptius aique Arabarches,] This last title has caused a good 
deal of trouble. It must have been that of some Roman officer of 
consideration in the province of Egypt, whatever his duties may have 
been. Mayor considers it a nickname, and translates it by "nabob," 
" great mogul.'' Juvenal is indignant that a provincial officer should 
have had a public statue, with his services inscribed on the pedestal 
(titulos), set up for him among the great men in tlie forum. 

132. Vestihulis abexmt] The * vestibulum ' was a porch leading from 
the street to the door oi the house. These porches were attached to 
large houses only ; and in tliem the retainers sat. And Juvenal says 
that when they came home with their patron, they got no farther 
than the porch, and, receiving no invitatipn to dinner, they laid aside 
their hopes for the first time, and went away to buy a poor supper and 
firing to dress it, while their lord and master went in to a fine dinnor 
which he enjoyed by himself. * Rex,' as applied to the rich, is not 
uncommon. He says that of all the hopes men feed upon they are 
least willing to part with that of a good dinner. 

136. tantum] See references on verse 1. 

137. et latis orhibus] These were round tables made of yarious costly 
woods. They came into fashion in Cicero^s time; and some may 



112 NOTES. 

have been preserved from that day, and would justly be called ' anti- 
qui/ The use o£ round tables introduced a change in the distribution 
of the company usual in Horace's time, which was on the triclinium, 
or three long couches round a table of three sides to correspond to 
them. The round tables did not suit this arrangement, and semicir- 
cular couches were introduced, with fewer people on them. In large 
houses there would be several of these in a room. Seneca had five 
hundred tables of citrus wood with ivory feet. This was a very costly 
wood, with veins and spots of great beauty. Each table was made of 
one slab, cut across the grain. The largest known was about four 
and a half feet in diameter. Some such tables were sold for more 
than $40,000 each. 

139. Nullusjam parasitus erit ;] * We shall soon have no parasites ; 
but who shall bear to see this selfish gluttony of yours ? ' He addresses 
the man. *Luxuriae sordes' means avarice and luxury combined. 

* Ponere ' is the word used for putting dishes on the table. At large 
banquets a boar served up whole, and sometimes stufied with all 
manner of forced meat and rich things, was usually the chief dish. 

144. intestata] As he made no will his property would go to his * he- 
redes,' not to * amici.' Peacocks first came into fashion in Cicero^s 
time. In the days of Pericles they were so rare in Greece that visitors 
came to Athens from Sparta and Thessaly to see the birds and buy 
eggs ; a pair of birds tlien cost 10,000 drachmae. The common prac- 
tice of bathing immediately after meals, though in hot baths, might 
well lead to sudden deaths and to frequent intestacy, as Juvenal ex- 
presses it. ' Ducere f unus ' is oqe of the many applications of that 
verb. See below on xii. 8. 

146. plaudendum] They do not even pretend to be sorry. 

149. Omne in praecipiti vitium stetit.] " AIl vice is at its height *' 
(Stapylton). " AU vice is at its zenith" (GiflTord). "All vice is at 
its pitch-pole" (whatever that may be) is Holyday's version. The 
notion is, that vice is at a point from which it can climb no higher, 
and that the age is on the brink of a precipice, and likely to be ruined 
through its viCes. The stone was still rolling in Horace^s days ; see 
C. iii. 6, fin. 

Utere velis, Totos pande sinus.] He addresses his Muse as a ship, and 
bids her set all sail. For the hiatus in the next verse, see on iii. 70. 
On Miberet,' consult A. 69, 5, 6 ; H. 486, 5; A. & S. 264, 12. 

150. unde] For the ellipsis, see references on verse88,andM.479,a. 

153. Simplicitas] This seems to be equivalent to the Greek 'irapprfaiaf 
and to mean " bluntness." Mayor and others punctuate so as to 
make * Cujus — nonl ' a specimen of this * eimplicitas,' as practised 
by Lucilius. * Cujus ' is then, of course, the interrogative. 

154. Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius] The man is supposed to ask, 

* What does it signify (refert, rera fert) whether you might attack 
Mucius with impunity, as Lucilius did, or not ? Introduce Tigellinus, 
and you will be served as the Christians were.' ' Pone ' means, per- 
haps, ' put up as your raark,' or it may be * put into your verse,' or 

* describe,' ' portray.' He means, if you attack any of the great man's 



SATIRE I. . 113 

great men jou will sufier for it. .Sophronius Tigellinus (whose name 
is used proverbially) was Nero'8 chief favorite, and his accomplice in 
the burning of Rome. The origin of the fire was traced to his house. 
To avert from himself and his friend the odium of this crime, Nero, as 
is well known, charged it upon the Christians, who were put to death 
in great numbers and in the most cruel fashion. Among other tor- 
ments they were hung up on crosses, tarred, and set on fire by way of 
torches. * Taeda ' here means either a pitched shirt, called below 
'tunica molesta' (viii. 235), or the pine wood with which they were 
burnt. Juvenal represents the poor wretches with a stake thrust 
under their cliin. 

155. Pone — lucehis] This is equivalent to * Si pones, lucebis.' 
A. 60, 1, 6 ; H. 636, 2. 

157. Et latum media sulcum deducis] The variety of readings, and 
stiil greater variety of conjectures, in respect to ' deducis/ involve tlie 

Eassage in almost hopeless difficulty.' It seems to mean : ''Afteryou 
ave been burned in tlie fire, you will be dragged through the midst 
of the arena, making a broad furrow." The present for the future 
represents the action as if now going on. Another explanation is 
that the * sulcus ' is a stream or gutter formed by the melted pitch 
running ofi* the man'8 body on the ground. I do not see how ' sulcus ' 
can have that meaning. Madvig reads ' deducit,' and derives a nom< 
inative (quae taeda) from what goes before, and then supposes the 
furrow to be formed in the earth by a number of victims buried up to 
their waists in a long row and set on fire. Some take the meaning 
to be ploughine the sand and wasting labor. 

158. Qui deait ergo] The satirist' replies to the advice just given." 
His friend speaks again in * Quura — poenitet.' * Pensilibus plumis ' 
means a ' lectica ' with soft feather-bed and cushions, raised aloft on 
men'8 shoulders. 

162. Securus licet Aeneam] ' Tou may safely set Aeneas and Turnus 
fighting; Achilles will not hurt you if you write of his death at the 
hand of Paris ; and Hylas is at the bottom of tlie well with his pitcher, 
80 you may say what you like about him.' Hylas was a favorite of 
Hercules ; drawing water at a well, he was dragged in by the nymphs, 
and Hercules sought liim long, sorrowing and calling upon his name, 
and set the people of the country (Mysia) to .seek him ; a subject 
much handled by the old poets. On the rhetorical figure in ' quae- 
situs umamque secutus,' see H. 704, iv., 2; A. & S. 823, 4, (2). 

167. tacita sudant praecordia culpa.] A cold sweat coming over the 
heart through the power of conscience and the fear of exposure is a 
forcible description. * Praecordia ' are the intestines rather than the 
heart. In these passion and feeling had tbeir seat, according to the 
Romans ; the heart was the seat of intelligence., 

169. ante tubas:] Before thebattle is begun. When a man has pnt 
on his armor, it is too late to draw back. The substance of his friend's 
advice is, that if he must write, he had better attack those who are 
dead and gone ; and the poet says he will follow his advice. 

171. Flaminia] The ' Via Flaminia ' has been mentioned above, 

8 



114 NOTES. 

• 

verse 61. The * Via Latina ' was the oldest road out of Rome, and ran 
through the heart of Latium to Beneventum, where the ' Via Appia ' 
joined it. The chief roads leading out of Kome were lined for several 
miles with the tombs of the wealthier citizens, burial within the walls 
of the city being forbidden by the twelve tables. Buming was prac- 
tised, therefore, as early as the Decemvirate. It grew afterwards 
into general use, and was not discontinued till the end of the second 
century of the Christian era. Heinrich supposes Juvenal, by mention- 
ing the Flaminian and Latin roads, to hint at Domitian and his favor- 
ite, Paris the actor, of whom the former was buried on the Via 
Flaminia, and the other on the Via Latina. 



-•o»- 



SATIRE III. 

This is one of the best known of Juvenal*8 Satires. English 
readers are familiar witli Joimson^s imitation of it. We do not know 
any thing of Umbricius, unless he is the haruspex of whom Tacitus 
says that he warned Galba of his fate. Neither can we determine when 
the satire was written ; but it cannot well be placed before a.d. 110. 

Argument. — At his departure for Cumae (1-20), Umbricius relates 
to Juvenal the causes which have driven him from Rome. Tliere is no 
room for honest men, where they only thrive who will make black white 
and embrace the meanest employment for gain ; he who cannot lie, who 
will not play the game of parricides, adulterers, oppreasors, is a use- 
less cripple. To win the patronage of the great, you must be master 
of their guilty secrets (21-57). Greeks and Syrians oust the native 
of Rome ; for they can play any part. They betray their pupils ; and 
they supplant^the oldest and most faithful clients (58-125). 

And not foreigners alone, but praetors and men of noble blood as 
well, thwart the poor client (126-136). The best of men would not 
be believed on their oaths, unless rich. The poor man^s shabby dress 
makes him a butt ; he is ejected from his place in the tlieatre. He 
can never hope to marry an heiress or to receive a legacy (137-163). 
Rent and provisions are high in Rome, and the style of living here is 
more pretentious than in the country (164-189). In Rome there is 
constant risk of fires or falling houses ; but the rich man does not 
care for these things (190-231). The noise of the crowded streets 
makes sleep impossible for the poor (232-238). The rich man is 
borne through the streets in a litter ; the poor man is hustled by the 
crowds. A client is crushed to death by a load of marble ; and while 
his household is making ready to receive him, he cowers on the shores 



[■ 



t 



SATIRE m. 115 

of Styx (239-267). Add the danger from eherds thrown from the 
windows (268-277) ; dangers from rowdies in search of adventures 
(278-801) ; and dangers from burglars and banditti (802-314). 

Umbricius begs Juvenal, whenever he visits his native Aquinum, 
to send word to Cumae ; and he promises to support his attempts to 
reform the age (315-322). 

2. sedem Jigere Cumis\ The town of Cumae was not so much fre- 
quented by the Romans as Baiae and the towns that lay within the 
Sinus Cumanus (the bay of Naples). The supposed residence of the 
Sibyl at Cumae was a large artificial cave which existed tiil the mid- 
dle of the sixth century, when it was destroyed by Narses, the Roman 
general who expelled the Goths from Italy. There are some remains 
of such a cavern still, and it is supposed to have been the Sibyl^s. On 
the mood of * destinet/ consult M. 357, a ; A. 66, \,d\ H. 520 ; B. 
1255. 

4. Janua Bniarum^ Cumae was about four miles north-west of 
Baiae, and six from the headland of Misenum. It was not situated 
on the pleasant bay ('amoeni secessus') that bore its name, but the 
Via Domitiana, wliich had lately been constructed, led to Cumae, from 
whence there was an older road that led to the principal towns on the 
bay, round whicli it passed to Surrentum, on the opposite promon- 
tory. Hence it is called * janua Baiarum.' Misenum, Bauli, Baiae, 
Puteoli, Neapolis, were all favorite resorts of the wealthy Romans 
lying on this * gratum littus,' which was thickly studded with houses. 
* Secessus ' is the genitive of quality, or, perhaps, the genitive of ap- 
position. A. 50, 1,/; H. 396, v.; Z. 425; M. 286. 

5. Ego vel Prochytam] This is a smalL island (now called Procida) 
of volcanic formation, lying between the island Aenaria and Cape 
Misenum. It appears at that time to have been a lonely place, but it 
is now well cultivated and popuious. Suburra or Subura was the 
name of a low street leading from the Esquiline to the Yiminal. Juve» 
nal speaks of the town as if it wsls all one Suburra. 

6. ut non Deterius credas] " that you would not think it worse to 
shudder at fires," etc. * Ac ' means ' and, to be brief.' 

9. Augusto recitantes mense poetas ?] It was bad enough at any time ; 
but in August, the hottest month of the year, it might be reckoned, 
in a jocular way, among " the thousand dangers of the barbarous 
town." 

10. rheda componititr una] The * rheda ' was a four-wheeled travel- 
ling carriage, such as Horace travelled in part of the way to Brun- 
disium. For the use of the present tense, see note on i. 60. 

11. veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.] The * porta Capena * was 
tliat from which the Via Appia began, in the southern quarter of the 
city. It led to Capua, from which it probably got its name. The 
Aqua Appia, the earliest aqueduct at Rome, constructed by the 
Censor Appius who made the road, was conducted on arches over 
the Porta Capena, which is therefore called * madida.' The arches 
which Juvenal calls * veteres ' were about 400 years old at that time. 
The figure of rhetoric in this clause is hendiadys. See i. 72, note. 






fori! 



116 NOTES. 

12. ^2c, u5{ noctumae] 'Constituo' is used absolutely for making ifiQ^ 

an appointmcnt as we say, witli either a dative o£ the person or an ^lvei 

ablative with * cum.' The nature of the appointment is usually ex- leit. 

pressed. Here it is easily understood. Tlie grove where Numa is sq 

said to have met his mistress and teacber Aegeria was close to the vhio 

Porta Capena. It had a fountain in it. Numa was said to have built i\ 

a shrine there, and to have dedicated the whole to the Camenae, of Ck^ 

whom Aegeria was one. It appears tliat the Jews, on paynient of a lsI $ 

certain rent, were allowed to iuhabit this place when they were for- uw 

bidden the city, as they were during the reign of Domitian. They to^g 

were so poor tiiat he says tlieir wliole f urniture consisted in a basket ^i^ 
and a bed of hay. They were not allowed to trade, and were driveu, 
it appears, to beg. From ^coplunus' (Ko^tvof) are derived 'coffin' 
and 'coffer.' 

15. Omnis enim populo] *Populo* means, of course, the Romans. 

* Merces ' is tlie proper word for rent. Domitian was very severe in Jij^ 
collecting the taxes from the Jews. A poll-tax of two drachmae was bfQ, 
levied from all Jews and Cliristians throughout the enipire. This 
was in addition to the 'merces;' it went to the 'flscus, not to the 
people. 

16. ejectis mendiccU silva Camenis.] The Camenae to whom the wood 
was deaicated, and wlio are here said to have been ejected to make ^^ 
way for beggars, were not the Muses, thougli by tlie Latin poets tlie it^^ 
two names are confounded, from Camenae being connected with Car- gm 
men in the sense of a prophecy. They were four prophetic divinities J^. 
peculiar to Italy. Their names were Antevorta, Postvorta, Carmenta, i^ 
and Aegeria. ^^ 

17. In vallem Aegertae] This is supposed to be the valley now called 
La Caffarella. It is one of the sources of the small river Almo. 
Juvenal speaks of artificial grottos, but does not probably mean more ^g 
than one. He says it was not like a natural cave, and that the divin- ^|^ 
ity of the stream, or the spring where the divinity was supposed to i 
live, would look much better if the fountain had a grass margin there t^ 
than with marble spoilmg the native stone. There was probably a qJ 
statue in that grotto representing the god, as there is stilL in that (^ 
mentioned above. ^ f^ 

20. ingenuum violarent marmora tophum.] * Tophus * is ' rotten-stone.' ^^ 

* Ingenuum ' means * plain, unsophisticated,* and ' violare/ * to spoil.' g^ 

25. ubi Daedalus exuit alas,] The legend of Daedalus flying from ]j, 

Crete and alighting first at Cumae, where he dedicated his wings to j ^^ 
Phoebus, is told by Virgil (Aen. vi. 14, sqq.). ! 

27. Dum superest Lachesi] In the Greek conception of the Molpai, ^ 

who according to Hesiod were three, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, ^ 

it was CIotho's business to spiu the thread of human life. Lachesis 
determined the duration and condition of it. But, as in Horace, the 
three sisters are sometimes represented as spinning, aud here Clotho^s ^ 

functions are usurped by Lachesis. ^ 

29. Cedamus patria :] See MerivaJe, v. 196. 

vivant Artonus istic] These are names, according to the Scholiast, 



Bic: 
wil 



SATIEE ni. 117 

of xnen of low birth, who got their living by cheating, and made them- 
selves rich by such means. But this is only gathered from the con- 
text. 

30. qui nigrum in candida vertuntf] * Who will swear black is white/ 
which was a proYerbial way of speaking with the Romans as with us. 

31. QuisfacUe est aedem conducere,] As to * conducere/ see i. 108, n. 
Govemment contracts have in all times been profitable afTairs. Juve- 
nal speaks of men contracting for the repair of temples and shrines, 
as well as for clearing the beds of rivers, cleansing and keeping the 
sewers, the repairing of harbors, and likewise for funerals, and for the 
sale of slaves by auction. Public works, which under the repubUc 
were looked after by the aediles, had special officers (curatores) to 
superintend them during the empire, and the functions and dignity of 
the aediles were much curtailed. These officers engaged contractors 
(redemptores) to carry out the necessary works. The clearing of the 
Tiber was particularly necessary from the quantity of aUuvial soil 
brought down by the stream and the rapidity witli which weeds 
formed in the bed. The Cloaca Maxima, said to have been constructed 
by Tarquinius Priscus, was large enough for a boat or a waggon of 
hay to pass down it. The underground works of Rome were on 
nearly as large a scale in proportiou as those of London. The cost of 
keeping these drains in repair was very large ; though the solid con- 
struction of the Cloaca Maxima with stone arches, of which remains 
still exist, left little to be done for that. On occasions when a pub- 
lic funeral (* funus indictivum' or ' censorium ') was decreed, such as 
Tacitus often mentions, it was performed through a * redemptor,' 
whose duty it would be to provide moumers (men and women), mu- 
sicians, * lectica' and bearers, funeral pile, and every thing connected 
with tlie procession, burning, and burial of the body, on such a scale 
as the senate might determine. ' Busta ' were places adjoining sep- 
ulchres, where the bodies were burnt. 

A sale by auction on the public account was conducted by a 

* praeco ' in the presence of a public officer, and a spear was set up 
on the spot where the auction took place. It may have been called 

* domina' in this place because the sale transferred to the purchaser 
' dominium,' or ownership, in the thing purchased. The spear is said 
to have been derived from the practice foUowed in old times in the 
selling of prisoners and booty on the field of battle. ' Praebere ' is 
here * to put up to auction.' The word * venalia ' belonged especiaUy 
to slaves. 

34. Quondam hi comicine»] These men started from the lowest be- 
giunings, as trumpeters, who went about with companies of wrestlers 
and fighters to the different towns, where their puffed cheeks, he says, 
were well known. *' Now they give shows of gladiators themselves, 
and put men to death to please the people," who, when a gladiator 
had his adversary down, gave the signal for his despatch or to spare 
him, by turning their thumbs up or down. The number of victims 
at these shows was enormous, and they were never more frequent 
than in the reign of Domitian. The expense lavished on them was 
likewise beyond belief. 



118 NOTES. 

36. Munera nunc edunt,] Public games were called 'munera' from 
the shows that in early times were given at f unerals. The ' editor 
spectaculorum ' sat in a conspicuous place within the * podium/ and 
it is probable the signal would be taken from him, though he may 
have foUowed what appeared to be the general wish of the spectators. 
He might therefore be said very naturally, by the turning of his 
thumb, to have put to death whom he pleased of the rabble, that is, 
the gladiators. * Vulgi ' is the partitive genitive. 

37. inde reversi Conducunt foricas :\ They give them shows, and then 
go back to their trade, which condescends to low gains. They are 
not above farming the public * foricae,* places of convenience in liome 
for passengers, which were erected at the public expense and farmed. 
" Why," says Umbricius, ** should they not thus shift about, since they 
thereby only imitate Fortune ? " 

40. voluit\ The aorist tense. A. 58, 5, c ; H. 471, 3. 

41. Quid Romae faciam ?] " What am I to do at Rome ? " See 
references on i. 1. 

42. laudare et poscere ;] ' Poscere '• is generalljr supposed to mean * to 
ask for a copy/ It may be to call for the book, i.e. to ask to hear it. 

motus Astrorum ignorp ;] * I cannot make gain by astrology , of which 
I know nothing.' A favorite subject for consulting these fortune- 
tellers upon was the probable time when a relation wouid die and 
leave his money behind. 

44. ranarum viscera] He means the * rubeta,* from which poison was 
extracted. (See i. 70.) He could not profess to be an haruspex, to 
ascertain such matters from the entrails of animals. In the foUowing 
clause, ' quae mittit ' are his letters and presents, ' quae mandat ' his 
messages. 

47. nuUi comes exeo,] * For this reason I never go abroad in company, 
I have no companion, because all have some thieving to do, and they 
look upon me as one maimed, with a hand fit for nothing, a mere 
lump of dead flesli.' This is the meaning of 'exstinctae corpus non 
utile dextrae,' where * dextrae ' is the genitive of quality. See A. 60, 
1, g ; H. 396, iv. ; B. 767. ' Comes ' means ' comes exterior,' the great 
man's walking companion. 

49. nisi conscius] ' Conscius ' is an accomplice. ' Cui ' is best read 
here as a dissyllable. The next is a good expressive line, the heart 
boiling with secrets it is afraid to betray, being a party to the crimes 
through taking reward to hide them. * Honesti ' is the emphatic word 
in the 62nd verse. The name of Verres has never ceased to be pro- 
verbial since the exposure of his crimes by Cicero. ' Tanti ' is the 
genitive of value. 

56. ponendaque praemia] 'Rewards you must one day part with, 
lay down.' * Ponere ' is used like * deponere.' 

58. Quae nunc divitibus gens] He goes on to tell how the town is 
overrun with Greeks and Eastem strangers. * Properabo fateri ' im- 
plies that the confession is disgracef ul, and that he forces himself to it 
as a man who makes haste to do a disagreeable duty and get it over. 

61. quamvis quota portio] He corrects himself and says, ' and yet 



SATIRE in. 119 

how small a portion of our dregs are from Greece ? * ' Qaota ' with 
* pars ' (or here.* portio ') generally signifies * liow small a part/ * Quo- 
tus ' is the questiou which is answered by an ordinal numeral (M. 74, 
obs. 2 ; A. & S, 119, ii.), and * quota pars ' means properly, in a series 
of graduated parts what place would the thing occupy ? and the iai- 
plication is that it would come very late in the series. * Whath part ' 
(if we had sucha word) would express 'quota pars/ as * septima pars,' 
. *octava,' etc, would be the seventh, eighth, etc., part. 

62. tn Tiberim defluxit Orontes] Tlio Orontes is here put generally 
for tlie province of Syria, which was added to the Roman dominions 
by Cn. Pompeius, b.c. 66. Its own trade, and that of the East, to 
which it opened a wider door, brought to Rome that infiux of slaves 
of which Juvenal complains. The Orientals liave little or no ear for 
music ; and on lower ground than Umbricius takes, he might have 
run away from tho music of Eastem flageolets, harps, and drums. 
They were probably such as are still in use all over Asia, and no dis- 
cord is comparable to tliat wliich is there listened to with satisfaction. 
The first instrument has usually but two or three holes, and no stops, 
and the last (corresponding to the Indian tomtom) is beaten with no 
perceptible reference to time. The sort of harp here mentioned was 
called ' sambuca,' and it was triangular, which is meant by ' ol)liquas.' 
The Circus Maximus had vaults under it, which were occupied by 
prostitutes. * Jussas ' means that they were hired for the purpose by 
others, who made gain of their prostitution. For the construction, 
see i. 99, note. * Ite ' means * go thither.' 

66. picta lupa barbara mitra!] 'Pictus,* like noiKi^f means *em- 
broidered.' The women in Eastem Asia do not wear any thing on 
their head but a veil to draw over their face. The ' mitra,' a sort of 
light turban, belonged to the women of Syria and Asia Minor. The 
efieminate Romans took to wearing it. It is always associated with 
them or with harlots. Why these persons should be called by a name 
which means a she-wolf is obvious. According to Livy, the story of 
Romulus and Remus being nursed by a wolf is founded on their hav- 
ing sucked the breasts of a ' meretrix.' 

67. Rusticus ille tuus] He apostrophizes Romulus. Of * trechedipna * 
the Scholiast says they were Greek shoes (caligulae) wom by para- 
sites running to dinner. The derivation firom rpexetv and delirvov is 
obvious enough ; and whatever the things were, the context shows 
they were Greek. That they were shoes may be inferred from the 
name. * Rusticus ' does not here mean a rustic literally, but the de- 
scendants of rustics. 

68. Et ceromaticofert niceteria collo.] * Ceroma' {K^pcjfia) was a prep- 
aration of clayj oil, and wax, with which the Greek wrestlers were 
anointed. * Niceteria ' {viKTpjipta) here means the prizes of victory for 
wrestling, a praCtice introdnced at Rome under the empire. The 
early Romans despised the Greek gymnastic exercises, and Nero was 
the first to build a public gymnasium or training school for wrestlers, 
etc. Juvenal mentions this as one of the discreditable Greek innova- 
tions. Ue uses Greek words designedly. 



120 NOTES. 

69. Hic alta Sicyone,] 'Theee Greeks come from all parts/ he 
means. That part of Sicyonia wliich lay on the coas-t (of the Sinus 
Corinthiacus) was level, and the city of Sicyon, its capital, was ori- 
ginally on the plain, about a mile and a half from the shore. But 
this was destroyed by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and a new town was 
built by him, which stood on a fortified eminence. Sicyon was cele- 
brated for its refinements. Araydon is introduced as being at tlie 
other end of Greece, on the banks of the Axius in Macedonia. Others, . 
he says, are islanders, some from Andros, and others from Samos, 
the name of which represented all that was refined and luxurious in 
the earher history of the Asiatic Greeks, but which was itself much 
decayed at this time. Tralles and Alabanda were flourishing towns 
on the main land ; the former in Lydia, on the right bank of the 
Maeander ; the other in Caria, on the river Marsyas. The last vowel 
in *Samo' is preserved from elision. See M. 602, b; A. & S. 305, 

71. Esquilias dictumque] He chooses to represent the city by an im- 
portant part of it, includmg the third and fifth Regions, which com- 
prised the Esquiline and Yiminal hills, and some of the best houses 
in Rome. * Esquiliae ' is thought to be derived from ' excolo.' Mons 
Viminalis was supposed to have been so called from an osier planta- 
tion that grew on the top of it. 

72. Viscera] * Viscera ' and * domini ' are in apposition with the 
Bubjects of ' petunt.' 

74. lsa£o torrentior.] This Isa«us was a rhetorician of great emi- 
nence who lived in JuvenaFs time. 

Ede quid illum] * Come tell us what you think he is (that is, what is 
his particular accomplishment). Why, he is every thing or any thing 
you please.' By 'illum' is plainly meant any one of these Greeks. 
They were ready to open schools for grammar or rhetoric or geometry 
or drawing or wrestling ; to tell the will of heaven or to dance upon 
the tight-rope ; to administer medicines or charms ; it was all the 
same to them. It must be remembered that the Grammatici and 
Rhetorici, or teachers of grammar and rhetoric, were mostly foreign- 
ers and freedmen; These subjects formed the regular teaching of a 
Roman boy, till he put on the ' toga virilis,' and rhetoric he continued 
afterwards. * Aliptes * seems to mean * a trainer,' the name being 
taken from the 'ceroma' with which the wrestlers were greased 
(verse 68). The Latin for ' schoenobates ' was ' funambulus.' These 
persons were very expert. The professional physicians at Rome 
were chiefly Greeks. 

76. geometres,] This word must be scanned as a trisyllable by syni. 
zesis. 

78. Graeculus esuriens] * The starveling Greek, bid him fly up to 
the skies and he '11 do it' (or try). Juvenal adds, *In short (if you 
doubt me), it was no other than a Greek, born in the heart of Athens, 
who put on wings and flew.' Daedalus was generally reputed to have 
been an Athenian. *Jusseris' is 'suppose you bid him.' See M. 
362 ; Z. 629, and note ; A. & S. 260, R. 3 ; cf. A. 67, 6^ Such instances 



_i 



SATIBE m. 121 

as this should not be classed with the subjunctiye of concession ; they 
are the subjunctive of supposition. 

i- 81. fugiam conchylia ?] Their fine clothes dyed with purple, the juice 
of the shell-fish purpura and murex. Persons of most consideration 
would naturally sign wills and so f orth as ^witnesses before their in- 
feriors, and lie upon handsome sofas with fine coverings. 

\. 83. quo pruna et cottona vento ?] Pliny says * cottona ' was the name 
of small figs from Syria. He also speaks in the same place of plums 
from Damascus ("Damsons"), of which both were well known to 
the Italians. To these imported fruits the * bacca Sabina ' is opposed 
— the olive grown on the Sabine hills, where it still grows in abun- 
dance. The Aventine is put for Bome as the Esquiliae and Viminal 
were above. 

88. collum cermcibus aequat] 'CoIIum^ signifies the whole neck be- 
fore and behind, including the throat; 'cervix' the hinder part, 
where the strength of the neck lies. Antaeus, the giant wrestler^f 
Libya, was beaten by Hercules only by lifting him up from his motlier 
earth, firom whom he got all his strength, and so squeezing him to 
death. There were many pictures and sculptures representing the 
scene ; and Juvenal writes as if he had seen one. 

91. quo mordetur gallina marito.] * Marito ' is the ablative of the 
agent, without the preposition. H. 388, 4 ; B. 879 ; A. & S. 248, R. 3. 
The noun is expressed in the relative clausc, and must be supplied 
with Mlle' in the antecedent clause. M. 319, obs. ; A. 48, 3, 6; B. 
687; A. &S. 206, (3), (6). 

92. sed illis Creditur.] * We may flatter just as they do, but they 
are believed (and we are not).' An instance of this is mentioned in 
the life of Nero. He had a great opinion of his musical talents, and 
paid a visit to Qreece in order to display them there. He sang at a 
dinner party, and being highly applauded, he is said to have cried, 
" Solos scire audire Graecos, solosque se et studiis suis dignos." 

93. An melior quum Thaida sustinet,] * Is there a better actor than he 
when he plays a courtezan, or a chaste matron, or an unveiled strum- 
pet 1 You could declare it was a woman bef ore you, not a masked 
man.' The mask is put for the man who wore it. * Palliolum ' was a 
small square cloth wom over the head to protect it from the weather, 
or, in the case of prostitutes, to hide the face. Men wore it only 
when they were sick. 

V 100. Rides,] See A. 60, 1, c; A. & S. 261, R. 1 ; M. 442, a, obs. 2. 

103. Accipit endromidem ;] This was a thick Gaulish blanket, wom 
in cold weather, or when a man had heated himself by rumiing, from 
which the name is derived. Compare Hamlet^s dialogue with Osric : 
"0. I thank your lordship, 'tis very hot. 

H. No, believe me, 'tis very cold ; the wind is northerly. 

O. It is indifierent cold, my lord, indeed. 

H. But yet methinks it is very sultry and hot for my complexion. 

O. Exceedingly, my lord, it is very sultry as it were, I can't tell 
how." 
On ' si poscas, Accipit,' see A. 69, 5, a ; M. 370, and obs. 1 ; A. & S. 
261, R. 2. 



122 NOTES. 

106. Afaciejactare manuSj] Bringing the hand to the lips and kiss^ 
ing it, to throw the kiss towards a person, was a mark of respect. 

* Adorare ' is derived f rom this cnstom, which is of Eastem origin. 
With us it implies more familiarity than it did with the ancients. 

108. Si truUa inverw] * Trulla/ which is connected with the Greek 
Tfn)(3?uov, is used for a drinking-cup and a washing-basin. It seems 
here to.be used for a more homely vessel. 

110. Non matrona LariSy] ^ Laris ' means * a man's house.' ' Sponsus ' 
was one who was betrothed to a woman, as * sponsa ' was a woman 
who was betrothed to a man. A youth could not contract marriage 
till he had ceased to be * impubes,' the time of which was not strictly 
deiined, but was generally taken to be fourteen. But a contract of 
marriage might be made af ter seven, and a child might so be ' spon- 
sus.' By a law passed in the time of Augustus, a girl might not be 
betrothed till she was ten, the age of puberty being twelve from tlie 
earliest times. 

114. transi Gymnasia] It is doubted whether tliis means ' pass by ,* 
that is, * say no more oi the gymnasia, and let us go on to a crime of 
a larger sort ; ' or whether it should be rendered, * let us pass on to 
the scliools, and speak of a crime committed by one of your greater 
philosophers,* as if it were * transi ad gymnasia.' The latter construc- 
tion seems preferable. The philosophers' schools were called * gym- 
nasia' because they commonly held them in buildings erected for 
gymnastic exercises. 'Crimen majoris abollae' the Scholiast says 
was a proverb. The origin of the saying, I think, must remain doubt- 
f ui. It means in some way or other a greater crime. ' Abolla,' which 
is derived from a^/3o^Aa, a form of avadoTai^ is used in the next Satire 
(iv. 76), and then it is worn by a senator. It was probably used indis- 
criminately for the outer garment wom out of.doors, whether 

* laceraa,' * pallium,' or whatever it might be, or the military * sagum.' 

116. Stoicus occidit Baream,] Servilius Barea Soranus was proconsul 
of Asia in the reign of Claudius, and a man of liigh character. He 
fell under the displeasure of Nero, and was charged with treasonable 
practices, and his daughter Servilia with aiding him. They were con- 
denmed to death. The chief witness against them was P. Egnatius 
Celer, who was afterwards, in Vespasian^s reign, charged with this 
offence by Musonius Rufus, and was condemned to death. 

117. ripa nutritus in illa] The Scholiast says this was the city of 
Tarsus, which was situated on the banks of tlie Cydnus in Cilicia, and 
wa« supposed to have been founded by Perseus. Pegasus, wlio is said 
to have sprung from the blood of tlie Gorgon Medusa, when Perseus 
slew her at Tartessus in Spain, is supposed to have dropped a hoof 
hepe {rapaoc), and tlius to have given its name to the city. Tarsus 
was famous f or its schools of learning, which were second to none in 
the world. 

120. Protogenes aliquis] All these are Greek names representing 
parasites, who contrived to monopolize their great friends as only 
Greeks were wont (*gentis vitio'). 

125. jactura clientis.] It must be remembered that the word ' cliens ' 



SATIRE in. 123 

is used to exprees a totally different relation between patron and de- 
pendent from what it expressed in the earlier times of the republic. 
At this tiihe it did not involve a legal and poUtical distinction, and 
meant no more than a humble friend, a dependent who looked to 
another f or support, counsel, and so f orth. * Jacturam f acere ' is to 
throw a thing away so as to save the rest. It is an expression bor- 
rowed froni nautical language. ' To throw a person overboard ' is a 
common conversational phrase with us, meaning to get rid of him. 
On * perierunt,' cousult A. 58, 6, a; H. 471, 1; B. 1095. 

126. Qaod jwrjo officium,] He here enters upon a subject we have 
had before (i. 101). *Porro' means *to proceed,' 'inthe next place.' 
' Ne nobis blandiar ' is another way of saying * to speak the truth.' 
* Si * has the sense of ' even if.' There were at this time eighteen 
praetors in the city. Each praetor had two lictors allowed him. * Ire 
praecipitem jubeat ' is a common expression of haste. * Orbus ' was 
tlie legal word for a married person who had no children. The speaker 
means to say these rich ladies have long been up waiting for their 
visitors, and the praetor is in a fright lest one of his coUeagues should 
get to the house before him. 

131. Divitis hic servi] ' Claudere latus ' means in effect to give the 
wall to a man with whom you are walking. See Horace, S. ii. 5. 17. 
The * servus ' is now a freedman, and the young gentleman is glad to 
wait upon him. * Ingenuus * is one bom of free parents. * Aher ' 
means the freedman, and what follows is only a way of saying he was 
very ricli and could indulge himself as he pleased. 

132. (fuantum in hgione tribuni Accipiunt] It does not appear what 
the pay of a tribune was, but we may conclude from this passage that 
it was not a small sum compared with prices in these times. 

133. Calvinae vel Catienae,] These represent women of birth. 
135. vestiti facies scorti\ She in pursuit of her trade would appear 

in a showy dress, carried about in a chair (i. 65, n.), to invite and 
be inspected by customers. Or else slie sat in a chair in her house, 
and those who came in to admire must pay her well before she would 
get down. To invite her from her sella, whichever it was, would be 
the same as to consent to her price. 

137. Da testem Romae] He goes on to say honest poor men are not 
beiieved at Rome on their oath. By the host of the Idaean divinity, 
Cybele, he means P. ComeUus Scipio Nasica, who for liis great merits 
was chosen by the senate to escort the image of that goddess, which 
was brought from Pessinus to Rome b.c. 204. Numa was the most 
pious of the kings. L. Caecilius Metellus, who triumphed during the 
first Punic war, who was twice consul, once magister equitum, dic- 
tator, and for twenty-two years Pontifex Maximus, shortly after he 
was chosen to be Pontifex rescued the palladium from the temple of 
Vesta when that was on tire. He lost his sight on that occasion. The 
Roraans professed to have in the temple of Vesta the original Trojan 
palladium, brought from Troy by Aeneas. The oldest tradition made 
it an image not of Pallas Athene, but of another damsel of that name 
(Pallas), whom the goddess slew. But this was lost sight of, and 



\ 



124 NOTES. 

possession of the image was counted a sufficient pledge o£ the help of 
Minerva and the safety of Rome. 

141. quot pascit servos f] The slaves in some households at this time, 
if the statements on record are to he beHeved, were counted hy 
thousands. There must have been many masters who had slaves by 
hundreds in their 'familia urbana' and 'rustica' togethfer. Pliny 
complains of the extent of the lands held by single owners, and says 
it is ruining the cultivation of Italy, and that the same mischief was 
extending to the provinces. 'Possidet' means the owner, as iu i. 108. 

142. paropside] This is one of the many names the Komans had for 
tlieir dishes, borrowed from the Greek. 

143. Qnantum quisque sua] So the world says, according to Horace, 
" tanti quantum habeas sis " (S. i. 1. 62). We say that a man is * wortli' 
what he owns. 

144. Jures licet et Samothracum] The most secret mysteries known 
to the ancients were connected with the worship of the Cabiri, deities 
of whose nature little is known. They were worshipped in more than 
one island of the Aegaean, but in none so solemnly as in Samothrace, 
which lies in the north part of that sea. 

147. calceus] This was a walking shoe, and all these remarks bear 
on the appearance of the poor man out of doorff, where he is obliged 
to show his poverty among well-dressed upstarts who sneer at him. 

154. de puluino surgat eqnestri] The speaker is the * designator.' He 
bids the poor man leave the seats of the equites, the fourteen front 
rows of the theatre, which had cushions and were reserved for that 
order by a law proposed by the tribune L. Roscius Otho. Any one 
who had the equestrian census of 400,000 sesterces miglit take liis 
place there. Here might come then the pander or the fat auctioneer, or 
the gladiator and the trainer. The senators sat in the orchestra. This 
law of Otho's fell into disuse, but it was revived by Domitian. * Prae- 
cones ' were criers of various sorts. The ' pinnirapus ' was one of the 
many sorts of gladiators. He may be supposed to have been so called 
because it was his business to snatch a feather from the head of his 
adversary. ' Lanistae ' were the persons who trained the gladiators 
in their ' ludi,* training-schoois, either on their own account to let them 
out, or for private persons. ' Vano ' means ' idle.' 

160. cejisu minor] Less than the equestrian above mentioned, or it 
may be taken generally for a man of small means. * Sarcinulis ' may 
refer to the wrfe's fortune; or it may only mean such things as a* 
woraan required, or thought she required, after her marriage, and 
* impar ' means that the man's property was unequal to provide his 
wife with such things. ' Placuit ' is aorist ; see on verse 40. 

162. Quando in consilio est Aedilibus ?] The Aediles were at this time 
and had been for many years tlie lowest of the magistrates. ' In 
consilio ' is equivalent to ' assessor,' and that means a legal adviser to 
a magistrate, such as our own magistrates have. The assessor to an 
Aedile need be but a humble pcrson, but even to this a poor man was 
not eligible, according to this speaker. 

163. Dfhuerant dim] ' Debuerant olim migrasse ' means 'It is long 



SATIRE III. 125 

since they owed it (to themselves) to emigrate/ See A. 60, 2, c and 
Rem. ; H. 512, 2, 1 ; A. & S. 259, R. 3, and (6) ; M. 348, c, obs. ; B. 
1274. He means to say that the poor ought not to have waited at 
Rome to be brought to this contemptible condition, but long ago to 
have migrated in a body, as he and his family were doing. 

164. Haud facite emergunt] " Slow rises worth hy poverty de- 
press'd," is Jonnson's version, and he wrote from expenence. 

166. magno hospitium miserabile,] ' Hospitium ' is here put for a 
lodging, * coenaculum,' an upper story room, such as those in which 
most poor men lived. Even for sucli a miserable lodging the speaker 
says tliey had to pay a high rent, and tliey could not do without a 
certain number of slaves, whose bellies must be filled, and their frugal 
famiiy meal cost a good deal. The customary number of slaves in 
every household had grown enormously even since the days of 
Horace. 

168. Fictilibus coenare pudet,] Men are ashamed to dine off earthen- 
ware, though they are not so when they leave Rome and suddenly 

. find themselves in the country, with plain fare before them. This 
seems to be the meaning, and 'negavit,' the reading of all the MSS., 
will bear it, if understood in an aoristic sense. The Marsi were of 

' Sabine origin, and all who were so were included under the name 
SabeUi. 

170. veneto duroque cucullo.] * Venetus ' is * sea-green.' * Cucullus ' 
was a hood attached to the * lacerna.' Ruperti approves of ' culullus,' 
a sort of cup, as a substitute for * cucuUus,' because Umbricius is talk- 
ing about dining. 

171. si verum admittimtis,] This is a sort of phrase like * ne nobis 
blandiar ' (verse 126). He says that no one wears the toga in a large 
part of Italy till he is dead, when the body of a free person was al- 
ways clad in a toga such as accorded with his rank. In the country 
towns dress was still very simple ; at Rome it was different. 

174. tandemque redit ad pulpita] ' Tandem ' means af ter a long inter- 
val. It happened rarely ; that is, when the annual feast came round 
the same old well-known play came with it. 'Pulpitum' {hiyelov) 
was the front part of the stage, where the actors spoke. 'Exodia' 
were merry interludes, introduced after each of the *AteUanae,' 
whence the name ; though it is doubtful whether, as acted in these 
rustic theatres, the * exodium ' was strictly of the nature here de- 
scribed. 

175. personae pallentis hiatum] The masks used in these * exodia * 
were of a grotesque kind, sucn as those used by the Greeks in the 
satyric drama. These masks had the mouth wide open, representing 
broad laughter or grinning. 

178. Orchestram et populum :] The form of a Roman theatre was 
much like the Greek. The seats for the spectators formed a semi- 
circle, and rose by steps f rom the floor ; the semicircular portion of 
which between the seats and the stage was called the orchestra. Here 
the chorus performed their part in the Greek theatres ; in the Roman 
theatre that space was occupied with seats for the magistrates and 



126 NOTES. 



foreign ambassadors. ' Clari velamen honoris/ the dress of a noble 
m.igistrate, is meant in a jocular way; for if the aediles at Kome 
were reduced so low, those of the country towns were small enougli. 
But they were great in tlieir own little sphere. Yet all alike wore 
tunics. 

184. Quid das] * What sums do you give the servants that you may 
have the privilege of attending sometimes the " salutatio " of Cossus ? ' 
which was the cognomen of a branch of the Corneiia gens. Compare 
Horace, Sat. i. 9. 56. 

185. Ut te respiciat] Fabricius Veiento was sent into banishment in 
tlie reign of Nero, but returned in Domitian's, and distinguished him- 
self as an inf ormer and a flatterer of the emperor. He also had the 
favor of Nerva. 

186. Jlle metit harham,] When a youth first shaved it was a holi- 
day, and the young down was sometimes offered to some god, with 
tlie long hair, wom in boyhood, but cut off wlien the * toga virilis ' 
was put on. This ceremony was observed by certain masters with 
their favorite slaves. Umbricius supposes such a case, and says the 
house was immediately full of cakes offered to the slave, as if he 
were a son of the famiiy. * Libis venalibus ' means, as Britannicus 
says, cakes which the slave would sell to make money by, wliicli 
money would go to increase his * pecuUum.' 

187. Accipe et istud Ferjnentum] * Takc this home to stir your bile.' 
The words are addressed by Umbricius to his friend ; ' istud ' being 
tlie fact tliat follows, of which wliat goes before is an illustration. Tlie 
* peculium ' of a slave was the property he was able to acquire f or liim- 
self by such means as his master might allow, and which would arise 
in various ways, direct and indirect. It was virtually his own, but 
strictly no slave could hold property. Slaves often accumulated large 
sums, purchased their freedom, and made themselves comfortable for 
life. 

190. gelida Praeneste rui7iam,] Praeneste (Palestrina) was twenty- 
three miles east of Rome, on the edge of the Apennines. Virgil and 
Horace, and all otlier writers, use Praeneste in the neuter gender ; but 
in Aen. viii. 361 Virgil has " Praeneste sub ipsa," where, as here, it is 
femiiiine. Gabii is repeatedly mentioned by Horace as a deserted 
town. It lay on the Via Praenestina, midway between Rorae and 
Praeneste. Juvenal here calls it * simplices,' * unsophisticated ; ' but 
this was compared with Rome. Volsinii, which retains its name 
under the form of Bolsena, was an important city of Etruria, situated 
at the foot of the hills above the lake that was called af ter it. It stood 
on the Via Cassia, seventy-two miles from Rome. Tibur (Tivoli), 
which was sixteen miles from Rome, on tho banks of the Anio, is 
here called ' pronum,' and by Horace * supinum,' because it was situ- 
ated on the slope of a hill. ' Arx ' was coramonly used for a town so 
built, though the citadel was gone or had never existed, or for a hill 
on which no town was built at all. 

193. tenui tibicine fultam] * Tibicen' is a buttress. Festus says it is 
so called because it supports houses as the fluteplayer sustains the 
singer, wliich Forcellini quotes, or it would not be wortii noticing. 



SATIRE III. 127 

194. sic labentibiis obstat Vllliais] * Sic ' is used SeLKTiiiuCt and means 

* in this crazy way/ ' Villicus/ which properly signified the steward 
of a farm, was applied to the superintendent of any other works. 
Here it means the agent of the owner. * Labentibus ' means * the 
falling inmates ' or ' the falling walls.' 

198. jam frivolxi trans/ert] Juvenal calls the man Ucalegon, having 
in mind Aeneas's description of the burning of Troy (Aen. ii. 310). 

* Jara ' is only introduced to make the scene more present. ' Poscit 
aquam/ ' cries Fire ! ' * Tabulatum ' is that which is laid down with 
boards, * tabulae/ and so is used for a story of a house. Three stories 
were found in lodging-houses only ; and the * tertia tabulata ' were the 
*coenacula* referred.to above (verse 166, n.). For * tibi,' see A. 51, 7, 
d ; H. 389 ; B. 838. ' Trepidare,' which means running to and f ro, 
contains the root * trep-' which appears in rpenut. 

203. Lectiis erat Codro] He puts the case as if it was true. Pro- 
cula was probably a well-known dwarf. For the case, see M. 308, 
obs. 1. ' Marmore' refers to the 'abacus.' The use of 'nec non' 
simply f or * et ' is later than Cicero. He uses the phrase only when 

* non ' is clo?ely joined with some other word in the sentence. 

206. Jamque vetus Graecos] He had some old Greek volumes in an 
old chest, which the mice were gnawing. The Opici, as the Greeks 
calied tliem, or Osci, as the Romans, were among the earliest inhabi- 
tants of Italy, from whom appear to have been descended the Latini 
and other nations on the west coast of Italy to the southern extremity 
of Campania, the Sabellian races of central Italy, and the Apulians 
and otliers on the eastern coast. Their name here is taken as s^mony- 
mous with ' barbari,' which would be natural, as the only trace of that 
people to be found in Juvenal's time was in their language, as it 
appeared in the Atellane plays, which were unintelligible to the mui- 
titude. 

208. quis enim] This is used like rig yap; see Hadley's Greek Gram- 
mar, 870, b. 

212. Si magna Asturici] This name appears in a great variety of 
shapes in the MSS. None of them are known names. 

215. Ard^t adhac] *Ardet,' as Heinrich observes, is used imper- 
sonally : * While the flames ire raging, already friends come bustling 
up.' * Accurrit qui donet ' is * one runs up to give.' * Nuda ' implies 
that the statues were of Greek workmanship. There were two sculp- 
tors named Polycletus, of whom the more famous is conjectured to 
have been a native of Sicyon, and afterwards a citizen of Argos^ He 
lived during the Peloponnesian war, and Euphranor at Athens about 
a century later. 

218. Ilaec Asianorum] The MSS. vary here, and the verse seems 
corrupt. Some texts have the word * Phaecasianorum,' which means 

* wearing the shoe called phaecasia.' Whether ' haec ' should be taken 
for the neuter plural or the feminine singular is doubted. 

219. forulos mediamque Minervam,] * Book-cases and a bust of 
Minerva.' A * modius ' was equal very nearly to two gallons. 

220. meUora et plura reponit Persicus] fie replac€S liis losses with 



128 NOTES. 

much better thingB than the fire has destroyed ; people do the same 
thing now by defrauding the insurance companies. * Tamquam ' is 
very frequently used by Tacitus and other writers of this period af ter 
8uch verbs as ' suspicio/ to denote that of which one is suspected, etc, 
without implying any doubt as to the justice of the opinion. The 
name is changed from Asturicus to Persicus; whether the same per- 
son is meant is immaterial. 

223. Si potes aveUi Circensibus,] The Ludi Circenses, or Magni, took 
place annually, and were of the highest antiquity, having been first 
celebrated by Romulus, as the tradition went, on the occasion of the 
rape of the Sabine women, under the name of Consualia. They con- 
sisted of horse, chariot, and foot races, sham fights, both land and 
water, wrestling, boxing, and figliting with beasts, as weli as feats of 
horsemanship such as are witnessed in modern circuses. Tliese were 
perforraed in the Circus Maximus, the vast building erected, according 
to tradition, by Tarquinius Priscus between the Aventine and Palatine 
hills. The passion of the Komans for these exhibitions was very 
strong. Juvenal has many allusions to this. ' Avelli ' is in the mid- 
dle voice. 

optima Sorae Aut Fabrate7'iae] * Paratur ' is opposed to * conducis ; * 
one is ' to buy,' the other * to hire.' The tliree towns here mentioned 
were in Latium ; Sora was on the Liris, and still retains its name ; 
part of the walls also are stili in existence. Fabrateria was a town 
also on the banks of the Liris, but about twelve miles lower down, by 
the junction of that river and the Trerus. Frusino was situated half- 
way between Fabrateria and Ferentinum, also on the Via Latina, and 
on the right bank of the Cosa, a tributary of the Trerus. Cicero had 
a farm there. 

228. culti villicus Aorti,] As to ' villicus,' see above, verse 196. Here 
the man is his own gardener. Pythagoras, as is well known, forbade 
his disciples to eat animal food, on account of his belief in the trans- 
migration of souls. 

231. dominum fecisse lacertae.] This probably means as rauch ground 
as a lizard would run over, which, as they seldom go f ar, would not 
be much. 

232. sed iUum] This is a sort of parenthesis, and meant for another 
stroke at town living, where people eat all manner of food and go to 
bed with it undigested. * Sed ' is commonly so used. Compare M. 
437, a. * Nam ' takes up the sentence from * vigilando,' and explains 
the reason of that general assertion. ' Imperfectus ' is undigested 
and indigestible. * Ardenti stomacho ' is a f everish stomach. Indi- 
gestion brings on the illness, and want of sleep kills the patient. ' PIu- 
rimus ' does not strictly agree with ' aeger,' which is an adjective. It 
is used absolutely ; ' many a man, being sick.' The last syllable in 
' vigilando * is short by exception. M. 19, 4, obs. ; A. & S. 297, R. 2. 
' Peperit ' is aorist. 

234. Nam quae meritoria] * Meritoria ' are lodgings, and here are 
equivalent to the ' coenacula ' mentioned above (verse 166). 
237. stantis convicia mandrae] This means the abuse heaped upon the 



SATIRE III. 129 

horses and ma!es kept standing for want of room at the eomers (* m- 
flexu/ 'turning') of the crowded and narrow streets. 'Mandra' 
{fiovdfya) is properly a stable or other place where animais are herded : 
here it is applied to the beasts themselyes, because they are huddled 
together. W e have in English the word ' archimandrite.' 

238. Druso vitulisque marinis.] By Drusus some of the commen- 
tators suppose is meant the emp«ror Claudius, whose cognomen was 
Drusus, and who is said by Suetonius usually to have gone to sleep 
after dinrier, and to have been naturally lethargic. It is not impossible 
his name may have passed into a proverb ; if not, it is useless to ask 
who this Drusus was. Searcalves are not lively animals in a menagerie, 
where Juvenal had probably seen many ; for every sort of animal was 
brought to Rome. 

239. Si vocat officium,] * Officium ' is here used f or the man's attend- 
ance on the great or rich. * Libumo ' would seem to be the ablative 
of the means. The rich, during the empire, had horsemen (Numidae) 
and runners (*cursores ') to go before their carriages. The scene here 
described may be seen in any part of the East every day. The * fe- 
nestra ' was no more than the opening of the curtains. 

243. Ante tamen veniel :] Yet, though he takes the thing so easily, 
he will get there before poor people who are bent on the same errand. 
The wave before (* breakers ahead') And the crowd behind are only the 
throngs of people in the streets, who are jostled by the rich man and 
jostle the poor in their tura. * Assere ' is not the pole of the Utter, 
but any pole that is being carried along the street. * Metreta,' which 
was the name of an Attic vessel containing about nine gallons, was a 
jar for oil or wine, a Httle larger than an ' amphora.' 

249. auanto cekbretur sportula Jumo ?] ' How the crowded sportula 
smokes. ' Celebrare ' is ' to crowd.' It contains the same root (creb-) 
as ' creber.' From this scene it appears that the viands were carried 
away in the aftemoon. The word * convivae' is used ironically; they 
ought to be the great man's guests, and he puts them off with a mess 
of meat. * Culina ' was a portable kitchen in which the provisions were 
carried to keep them warm. 

251. Corbulo vixferret] This may be any strong man. The Roman 
general Corbulo isdescribed by Tacitus as of large stature, and his 
name may have passed into a proverb in this matter ; but it is impos- 
sible to say. 

254. Longa coruscat Sarraco] ' Sarracum * was a wagon, and is 
applied elsewhere to the constellation of the Great Bear, which we 
call Charles's Wain. 

257. qui saxa Liqustica portat] Stone from the quarries of Liguria ; 
that is, from the Maritime Alps. ' Procubuit ' and * fudit' are used 
uke ths CTT*@(^k iLoinst 

261. More animae] ' Like a breath.' * Domus ' is the * familia do- 
mestica.' 'Foculus' was a small movable brazier, as 'focus' or 
' caminus ' was a fixture of stone or brick. 'Strigil' was a scraper 
used aftei* bathing ; they were oiled to prevent their hurting the skin. 
* Sonat' means clatters or rings, for these things were commonly of 

9 



180 NOTES. 

metal. * Guttus ' was a bottle with a long thin neck, commonly used 
for oU. * Pueros ' are the sarae as ' domus.' 

265. tetrumque nouicius horret] *Novicius/ 'novice/ was usually 
applied to new slaves not accustomed to tlieir work. Here only it 
means a new-comer. The * triens/ of which specimens still exist, was 
a copper coin, one-third of an * as.' The fancy about Charon's fee 
was not known to the early poets of Greece, and is here brought in to 
be ridiculed. 

268. diveraa pericula noctis :] * Other dangers, namely, those of the 
night.' The word * ac ' seems to be used rather pleonastically, like 

* et ' after * multus.' Compare verse 315 ; and consult Z. 756. * Quod 
spatium tectis ' means * what a distance there is from the tops of the 
houses to the street.' Tliese lodgihg-hou^es were built usually three 
stories high, but the law was that they must not exceed seventy feet. 
It was not usual for Roman houses to have windows facing the street 
on any but the upper stories. According to law, if any damage was 
done by throwing any thing out of a window, the tenant of the house 
was obiiged to pay twice the amount of * the damage. * Siiicem ' means 

* the pavement. 

274. Adeo tot fata] ' So surely do as many deaths await you, as 
there are waking windows open on that night while you are passing.' 
' Adeo ' gives strength to the sent^nce. 

279. uat poenasy] He suffers torture if he has not had the luck to 
kill somebody ; he cannot sleep, but tosses on his bed like Achilles 
when he moumed for Patroclus. Compare the Proverbs of Solomon 
(iv. 14) : " Enter not into the path of the wicked, and go not in the 
way of evil men. For they sleep not, except they have done mischief ; 
and their rest is taken away, unless they cause some to faU." 

281. Ergo non aliter] There is no need to talk of Juvenal interrupt- 
ing Umbricius ; the man goes on speaking himself : ' Can't they then 
sleep, you may well say, without aU this ? Nay, some sleep all the 
better for a quarrel.' The final vowel in * ergo ' is generally short in 
Juvenal. See references on verse 232. * Improbus,' which means here 
' hot-headed,' has a great variety of meanings elsewhere, the idea at the 
root of them all beinc that of excess. 

283. quem coccina Taena] The scarlet * laena,' wom by the rich, dyed 
with the * coccum,' cochineal, was one of the varieties of * lacema,' a 
thick woollen cloak thrown over the toga. The youth may be the 
worse f or whie, but he can distinguish between a rich man and a poor, 
who only goes abroad by the light of the moon or of a taUow-candle, 
the wick of which he has to humor and regulate with his fingers to 
keep it f rom fiaring away, as he had no lantem to put it in. 

292. Unde uenis f] This was the common salutation of civility, as 
here of rudeness. See Hor. S. i. 9. 62 : " Unde venis et quo tendis ? " 
S. ii. 4. 1 : " Unde et quo Catius *? " . . , 

cujus aceto, Cujus conche tumes ?] This is his way of asking where the 
poor man hiis been dining. The leek was either ' sectivum ' or ' capi- 
tatum ; ' the first when it was cut as soon as it came above the 
ground, the other when it was aUowed to grow to a head. Nero used 
to eat the first kind in order to clear his voice. 



SATIRE ni. 131 

296. Ede ubi consistas :] He treats hlm as a Jew beggar, and asks 
bim where he posts hinvself to beg, in what * proseueha ' he raust look 
f or him if he wants to find him. A * proseucha ' was an oratory, a 
building erected for the use of those towns where there was no syna- 
gogue, outside the walls hy a stream or the sea-side, for the benefit of 
ablution. It was used Hke the synagogue for reading the law and prayer 
three times a day^ In the Acts of tlie Apostles (xvi. 13) the writer says 
Ty Vfiep^ Tov oa^jidTcjv k^7\JdofJLSv e^u T^g TroAewf ( Philippi) napa Trora^v, 
ov kvofu^o npoaevxij elvai, and there npoaevxh is gener^lly understood 
to be a building of this sort. In the Gospel by St. Luke (vi. 12) our 
Saviour is said to have passed the night tv Ty irpoaevx^ '"ov Qeov, where 
also Whitby and other commentators take irpoaevxv for a house of 
prayer. As to the use of the present in * quaero,' Madvig says in his 
* Opuscula : ' " The Latins almost always use the present indicative 
when they are asking about a thing which they do not doubt that they 
will do, or are asking the opinion of another in such a way that they 
are not so much deUberating as expressing a necessary judgment, or 
are asking others what opinion they wish them to hold." 

298. vadimonia deinde] After frightening the poor man out of his 
senses, they aflfect to be the injured parties, and declare they will have 
the law of him. The state of the streets at night, even during the 
time of Augustus, was very disgraceful. Tacitus describes it in the 
time of Nero, who himself set the example of night-brawling, which 
was followed by many under the shelter of his name. The same tricks 
were practised by Otho and other emperors. 

305. subitu^grassator agitrem,] *Grassator' means ' a highway-rob- 
ber ; ' and it appears f rom this place that the Pomptine Marshes and 
the forest of Gallinaria were infested by banditti. Augustus took 
great pains to put them down, and so did Tiberius ; and it would geem 
from Juvenars words that their plan of having military posts in the 
different places the robbers frequented was still pursued. Driven out 
from the above haunts, they took up their abode in the city, where they 
carried on their trade (which is the meaning of * agit rem '), breaking 
into houses and murdering the inhabitants. ' Subitus ' seeras to mean 
that you start up from sleep, and find one of these men by your bed 
ready to cut your throat. 

307. Et Pomptina palus et Gallinaria pinus :] The Pomptinus Ager 
was a plain in Latium, about twenty-two miles in length, extending 
from Appii Forum to Terracina, and from eight to ten miles in depth 
on the west, separated from the sea by a low range of liills ending in 
the promontory of Circeii, and by a lower ridge from that place to Ter- 
racina. In the early period of Roman history it was fertile and popu- 
lous ; and when Appius made his road across it, about b.c. 310, the 
soil must have been firm. The character of the country must have 
changed at no great distance of time. The neglect of the middle 
ages made the marshes worse than they ever were in the Roman 
period. Various popes did something towards correcting the evil, the 
last of whom was Pius VI., whose works, begun in 1778 and continued 
over a space of sixteen years, are those to which the present drainage 



182 NOTES. 

is due. The plain is almost entirely uninhabited, but has good pastu- 
rage, and supports a large number of horned.cattle. The Gallinaria 
Silva lay on the coast of Campania between the mouth of the Yultur- 
nus and Litemum. 

308. Sic inde huc\ * Sic ' means * as we see.' ' Vivaria' ('KopadeLaoi) 
are warrens or preserves of game. The robbers went to Rome as a 
gentleman goes to his preserves to shoot. 

311. marrae et sarctUa] ' Mattocks and hoes.' 'Marra' seems to 
have been an instrument like the ' sarculum/ but larger, and used 
f or heavier work. 

312. Felices proavorum atavoSy] * Proavus ' was an ancestor in tiie 
third degree, a great-grandfather, and ' atavus ' in the Mih, so that 
* proavorum atavi ' would be eight generations back. 

314. uno contentam carcere] This was the Carcer Mamertinus, which 
was said to have been built by Ancus Martius, and enlarged by Ser- 
vius Tullius, under the Capitoline Hill. Appius Claudius the decemvir 
built another just outside the city walls at the entrance of the ninth 
region. As Appius Claudius was put to death in his own prison b.c. 
449, Juvenal's golden age lay a long way back. But he is speaking 
loosely. * Sub regibus atque tribunis ' means ' under the kings and 
the repubUc' ' Tribuni plebis ' existed under the. empire, but their 
power, Uke that of all other magistrates of the republican period, was 
of no importance. 

315. ilis aiias poteram] There is some difierence between ' poteram ' 
and 'possem subnectere.' The latter woiild mean * I could add if I had 
time ; ' ' poteram ' means * I had many other reasons to add (or, 1 had 
it in my power to add many other reasons), but I have not time.' 
Compare A. 60, 1, and 2, c and R. ; H. 612, 2, 1 ; M. 348, c and obs. ; 
A. & S. 259, R. 3 and (6) ; B. 1274. 

318. Innuit] For the tense,. consult M. 834, obs. ; A. 68, 2, a ; H. 
467, 2 ; B. 1083. 

319. Roma tuo rejki] 'Reddet refici' is not a prose construction, 
which would be ' reddet reficiendum ' or • ut reficiaris.' Aquinum, 
which from this verse is generally called JuvenaJ's birthplace, still 
keeps its name (Aquino). It was situated on the Via Latina in La- 
tium, not far from the borders of Campania. Part of the walls still 
r^mains, and ruins of various buildings ; among them are three temples, 
which may or may not be those of Ceres and Diana here mentioned. 
From coins of Aquinum stiU existing, which bear the head of Minerva, 
it would seem that the town was under her protection. Why Ceres is 
called here Helvina or Elvina, which name she bears nowhere else, is 
quite uncertain. 

321. ni pudet illas,] * If they are not ashamed of me ; ' that is, if your 
satires will condescend to accept my help, I will put on my boots and 
come to you. The 'caligae' were thick hob-nailed shoes wom by 
soldiers. Here it appears the name was given to very thick shoes, 
such as a man would wear in the country. 



SATIBB IV. 133 



SATIRE IV. 



The point on which this Satire turns is the degradation of the sena- 
tors, some of whom the poet mentions hy name. The sketches of 
character are very good, and are evidently drawn from iife. The poem 
must have been published after the death of Domitian which took 
place in the year 96, and after the publication of the first Satire which 
was as late as a.d. 100. 

Aroument. — Crispinus again — a rich man, but unhappy ! He 
can lavish the price of an estate on a single fish ; and if a parasite 
does this, what would you expect of the emperor (1-36) ?, In Domi- 
tian's reign, a huge turbot is taken off Ancona. Afraid of the inf orm- 
ers, the fisherman hastens to present it to Caesar (37-64). He makes 
a flattering speech which pleases the emperor (65-71). But where 
find a platter large enough for the fish 1 A council of state must be 
Bummoned. The senators, men of all characters, and all sorts of for- 
tune, come in haste (72-129). Montanus advises to make a new dish 
for the purpose. His yiews prevail, and the counciT is dismissed 
(180-149). This seems foolish enough ; but it had been well for 
Bome, if, engrossed by such follies, Domitian had wanted time for 
the murder of her nobles, whom yet he might have destroyed with 
impunity, had he not alarmed the men of lower rank (150-154). 

1. Ecce iterum Crispintis,] See i. 26, n. He says he must often call 
in this monster to play his part (ad partes sustinendas) ; the metaphor 
is taken from the stage. * Bedemptum ' is * redeemed from infamy,' 
as it were from slavery. The more usual expression is ' redimer© 
vitia virtutibus.' * Aeger ' means that he was feeble, ' f ortis,' resolute. 
* Vidua ' applies to women without husbands, whether they ever had 
one or not. For the use of * tantum,' see note on i. 1. 

5. quantis jtmenta faiiget Poriicibus,] The immediate neighborhood 
of the Forum was covered with houses and public buildings, but 
between Mons Capitolinus and the Campus Martius there was space 
for large gardens such as Agrippa had there. They must have 
been very costly in such a neighborhood, which is what Juvenal 
means. There were private as well as public covered walks and drives 
(porticus) about the dty. * Fatiget is a poetical word in this con- 
nection. 

9. Incestus,] 'Incestum' was what we understand it, intercourse 
whether with or without the pretence of marriage (which was no 
marriage) between those who were too near of kin to have 'connu- 
bium ; ' but it went beyond this, and being an act against religion, it 
embraced likewise intercourse with a veataL virgin. In such cases the 



134 NOTES. 

woman was buried and left to starve in a cell in the Campus Sceleratus 
in the Sixth Region of the city. The man was put to death by scourg- 
ing. The future participle expresses merely the risk which the woman 
ran ; it does not necessarily imply tliat she was punished. Domitian 
revived the law about vestals, but Juvenal says his favorite, Cris- 
pinus, could break it with impunity, and had lately done so, though 
the woman might undergo the usual punishment. * Nuper,' however, 
does not limit the act to a very short time before, though it was 
probably not long. One of the first acts after a vestal was convicted 
was to strip her of her vitta, which all the virgins wore when on 
duty. * Cum quo ' is for the more common * quocum ' or * quicum.' 
M. 172, II., obs. ; Z. 324 ; A. & S. 241, R. 1. 

12. caderet sub judice morum.\ This the Scholiast explains rightly, 

* damnaretur a censore.' The * judex morum ' was the censor, and 
here means Domitian, who took that office for his life. The proceed- 
ing that Juvenal is going to relate should have brought the man under 
the censor, as the corrector of extravagance, a part of his duty being 
to enforce such sumptuary laws as were in existence from time to 
time. After Augustus they fell into disuse. * Feci ' was the technical 
expression answering to our * Guilty.' * Videtur fecisse ' was the for- 
mula of condemnation. On the form of the conditional sentence, con- 
sult A. 59, 3, 6 ; H. 610 ; and compare Hadley'8 Greek Grammar, 746. 

13. Titio Seioque] These names were commonly used in legal pro- 
ceedings, and mean no persons in particular here. In English we say 

* John Doe and Richard Roe.' 

15. persond\ In the law writers ' personae ' signifies persons, that is, 
human beings as invested with a certain character by which they 
become objects of law, as opposed to things which are not persons, 
but either material things, as objects of property, or legal facts, as 
contracts and the like. 

MuUum sex millibus emit,] A mullet or barbel of six pounds was 
unusually large. The price paid for this was equivalent to about 
$234. Juvenal admits this was probably a fabulous price ; but Pliny 
tells of one that cost 8000 sesterces. ' Sane,' * to be sure,' introduces 
an ironical excuse. 

19. Praecipuam in tabulis ceram] This is equivalent to being declared 
the old man's heres. A will was usually contained in three tablets 
(prima, secunda, and ima cera or tabula), in the two first of which 
were entered the names of the heredes, and in the third those of the 
' substituti,' who took in the event of any heres being disqualified, etc. 
As to ' orbi,' see above, iii. 129, n. 

20. Est raiio Hlterior] There is another way of accounting for it, or 
another excuse, supposing he sent it to some great lady who was fond 
of him, and who went about in her * sella ' with closed doors, but 
large windows that she could look out of and be seen through. 

23. Quae miser et frugi nonfecit Apidus.] M. Fabius Apicius, whose 
name has been proverbial for good living from the time of Tiberius, 
when he lived, is here called * miser et frugi * by way of comparison 
with Crispinus. After spending an enormous fortune — towards 



SATIBE IV. 135 

$4,000,000 — on eating, drinking, and hiB luBts, he hanged himBelf, 
chagrined at having only $400,000 left. 

24. papuro.] This corresponds with what he called him before, 
"pars Niiiacae plebis — verna Canopi" (i, 26). Of tlie coarser kind of 
papyrus (called * emporetica'), which was not used for writing, yarious 
articles were made. 

Poiait fortasse minoris\ The price of slaves varied of course very 
much. An inferior sort of slave, for such purposes as this, might 
commonly be bought for less than the fish. He adds, that in the 
provinces men can get a large estate for such a sum, and a larger in 
Apulia, which seems to imply that land in Apulia was cheaper than 
in the provinces ; but then it must have been bad land, for some of 
tlie corn-land there would be valuable. The quantity of the first sjl- 
lable in ' Apulia ' is common. 

28. pvtamus\ See iii. 296, n. ' Glutisse ' is an onomatopoetic word ; 
'glutton' is derived from it. 

29. Induperatoremy] The preposition *in' in Mmpero' (the first 
meaning of which is * to put upon,' * to impose/ the thing impoged 
being expressed or understood) is represented in the earlier poets by 
the forms * endo ' and ' indu,' corresponding to the Greek h6ov. Other 
words that are found in Lucretius and others with the same form of 
the preposition are * endopedire,' * endogredi,' ' endoplorare,' * endo- 
tueri.' * Imperator ' cannot be used in hexameter. 

30. de margine coenae,] The principal dish, ' caput coenae,' which at 
large dinners was commonly a boar, was put in the middle of the 
table ; ' de margine ' corresponds to a ' side-dish.' 

31. scurra Palati,] The palace which the successive emperors oo- 
cupied was on the Palatine Hill. The ruins still remain. It was 
built by Augustus, and much enlarged by his successors. Domitian 
spent a great deal of money in decorating and enlarging it, but most 
of the omaments with which he adomed it were removed by Trajan 
to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 

32. Jam princeps Equitumi] This is a way of speaking ; there was no 
officer who bore that title. 

33. fracta de merce siluros.] Pliny mentions the ' silurus ' as a fish of 
the Nile. * Municipes ' means that they were countrymen of Cris- 
pinus. * Fracta de merce ' may mean that the fish were part of a 
damaged lot. Heinricli says the tme reading is * farta,' and that he is 
referring to fish packed in casks. It may be so. The Scholiast says 
it means that the cask was broken that contained the fish. It might 
mean that the cask was broken open to sell the fish. 

34. Incipe, Calliope,] He invokes the Epic Muse ; but he says this is not 
matter for a song, that is, for fiction and omament, but a grave matter 
of fact on which they should sit and deliberate. Juvenal claims credit 
for calling them * puellae,' which word was only used for chaste young 
women, single or married. 

37. Quum jam semianimum] The full name of Domitian was T. 
Flavius Domitianus Caesar Augustus. He was the third Fhivius, the 
son of Vespasian, and the brot^er of TitUB. The third word in this 



136 NOTES. 

yerse must be read in four syllables by synizesis. M. 6, obs. 1 ; H. 
669, II., 8; A. & S. 306, 1, (3). 

38. calvo serviret Roma NeroniA Juvenal calls Bomitian a bald Nero, 
roeaning that he was as bad as that tyrant. Suetonius relates that he 
was bald, round-bellied, and thin in the legs, though in his youth he 
was a good-looking man, ezcept that he had clubbed feet ; he was tall, 
with a modest countenance, high color, and large but rather dull 
eyes. He also says that he was sensitive about his baldness ; but 
nevertheless he wrote a treatise on the preservation of the hair, 
addressed to a friend who was bald like himself . 

39. spaJtium admirabile rhombiA Ttiis is like the way of speaking 
below, ' Crispi jucunda senectus (verse 81). The figure of syntax is 
hypallage. The ' rhombus ' is usually supposed to have been a turbot ; 
but it is uncertain. It was a flat fish. The finest were caught near 
Bavenna, on the Adriatic. With ' incidit ' we must supply * in sinus.' 

40. quam Dorica suatinet Ancorif] Ancona was a flourishing town of 
Picenum on the coast of the Adriatic, and near the Cumerian promon- 
tory, the northem extremity of the curve which the coast makes here. 
It was founded by ' some refugees from Syracuse in the time of the 
elder Dionysius, about b.o. 880, for which reason Juvenal calls it Do- 
rian. ' Sustinet,' ' holds up,' may mean that the tempie was on a hill. 

41. Implevitque sinus :] * Sinus ' are the folds of the net. ' Minor ' 
agrees in gender with ' rhombi ' instead of ' spatium.' A. 45, 7 ; H. 438, 
6 ; B. 678. Juvenal goes on to say that the fish that was thus caught 
was not smaller than those which, after being frozen up in the Falus 
Maeotis (Sea of Azov) all the winter, were sent down when the ice 
began to thaw, fat and lazy, through the Cimmerian Bosporus into the 
Euxine. 

46. Pontijici summo.] The Pontifex Maximus was president of the 
college of pontiffs, and chief director and expounder of every thing 
connected with religion. The offlce was always bome by the em- 
perors, from Augustus downwards, for about four centuries. 

48. Ddatore] There were inf ormers all along the coast, who poked 
into the very weeds for something to tell about, and they would soon 
call the starved fisherman to account ('agerent cum remige nudo'), 
and would be ready to swear they knew the fish by sight, and that it 
had got away from the emperor's preserves (vivaria), and must be 
sent back to its old master. The ' delatores ' were severely punished 
by TituB ; but Domitian after a while encouraged them. * Depastum ' 
is the middle voice. The two men named in verse 63 were informers. 

55. BesJiKiest] 'Is the property of the fiscus.' 'Fiscus' signifies 
a basket, and came to mean such a basket as they carried money in, 
and then the emperor'8 treasury, as opposed to ' aerarium,' the treas- 
ury of the populus. 

56. Ne pereat.] That is, for fear it should be seized and confis- 
cated. Other explanations have been given. 

57. Autumno,] Horace calls it " Auctumnusque gravis Libitinae 
quaestus acerbae " (S. ii. 6, 19). ' Sperantibus ' means wishing for the 
quartan, as ihat stage in a fever when it begina to ameud. 



SATIBB IV. 137 

60. Utque ktcus suberant,] The Lacus Albanus, which Btill retains its 
name (Lago di Albano) under Mons Albanus in Latium, is about 
fourteen miles south-east of Bome. The site of Alba Longa was on 
the eastem shore of the lake, which was named after it. The town 
was destroyed by TuUus Hostilius, according to Livy, 400 years after 
its foundation by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, who, according to 
tradition, transferred to Alba the goyemment established by his 
father at Xtavinium, and with it the fire of Vesta, imported from 
Troy. The use of * quanquam ' without a verb belongs to the silver 
age. 

61. Veslam colit Alba minoremi] We are told that when Tullus IIos- 
tilius destroyed Alba, the Bomans would have removed the sacred 
things from the temples to Bome, but were deterred by a great hail- 
Btorm, and accordingly they continued to observe the worship of the 
gods at Alba. Juvenal speaks of ' Vestam minorem ' by comparison 
with her worship at Bome, which was instituted by Bomuius or 
Numa. 

64. Patres.\ Domitian used to convene the senate at his Alban 
house. The emperor he calis Atrides, Agamemnon, and the fisherman 
•a Picenian, the fish having been caught at Ancon in Picenum. Por 
the use of * majora/ see iii. 203, n. 

66. genialis agatur Iste dies:] 'Let this day be devoted to your 
genius.' 

67. laxare saginis,] I agree with Heinrich, who reads * saginis ' with 
nearly all the MSS., and explains ' laxare ' to mean that he was to dis- 
tend his belly with good things. ' Sagina ' is used for any good dish. 

69. Ipse capi voluit.] The man declares the fish wanted to be 
caught, to have the honor of being eaten by the emperor. What 
could be more glaring ? But the great man believes it, and his 
feathers rise at the f attery. 

71. dis aequa potestas.] Suetonius says that Domitian caused all 
letters to his procuratores to begin with " Dominus et Deus noster sic 
fieri jubet ; " and that af ter he had established this practice he was 
always addressed so. 

^ 75. Liburno] The praeco who summoned the senate was a Libur- 
nian slave. He cries out that the emperor has taken his seat, and 
Pegasus snatches up his ' abolla ' and runs to attend the meeting. 
Pegasus was a jurist of eminence in this and the preceding reigns. 

77. attonitae positus modo villicus Urhi.] The office of * praefectus 
Urbi ' under the emperors was ditferent from that in the earlier days 
of the republic. It was instituted by Augustus for the purpose of 
maintaining order in the city, and grew tg be the first magistracy in 
power and importance. It might be held f or many years. * Positus ' 
is used for 'appointed/ as ' praepositus ' usualiy is. 'Attonitae' 
means 'stupefied/ which ezpresses the Btate of the whole Roman 
world. 

80. inermi Justitia.^ He says though Pegasua was the best of his 
class, and a good junst, he was lax in the punishment of ofienders, 
which in such bad times was a great fault. The ' praefectus urbi ' had 



138 NOTES. 

'jurisdictio/ and there was.no appeal from him except to the emperor. 
' Justitia' bears a sword in all representations of her, and sometimes 
a spear or a pair of scales. * Quanquam ' is again used here without 
a verb. 

81. Crispi jucunda senedtts,] * Cheerfiil old Crispus.' Vibius Crispua 
was an orator often mentioned by Quintilian, who speaks of him in 
terms like Juvenal, as " vir ingenii jucundi et elegantis." He was 
worth nearly $8,000,000. On ' liceret,' see A. 69, 8, c ; M. 347, obs. 2 ; 
A. & S. 261, R. 6. * Vero ' is the ablative of price or of cause. 
* Qupque ' here and in verse 116 seems to mean *even/ 

94. Acilius] This is the father of M*. Acilius Glabrio, who was consul 
with Trajan a.d. 91, and who was put to death by Domitian, Dion 
says, from jealousy of his prowess in killing a hon in his ampliitheatre 
on the Mons Albanus. The consul is the ' juvenis ' mentioned in the 
next verse. As to * Domini,' see above, verse 71, n. 

96. sed olim] * Olim ' means here * for some time past.* It is a late 
use of the word. Cicero would have said ' jamdudum.' 

98. fraterculus esse Gigantis.] The Gigantes were sons of Earth, 
yriyeveig. When a man's parents were unknown he was referred to the 
common mother ; and, as Casaubon says, those who rose from obscu- 
rity to high place were called * lumbrici/ * worms,' and by the Greeks 
hnepa yftg, * entrails of the earth.' 

101. artes Patricias ?] The various arts to which the Patricians had 
recourse to save themselves. Glabrio's was that of degrading himself 
into a * venator,' which Juvenal compares with the craftiness of L. 
Junius Brutus, who, Livy says, allowed himself to be supposed a fool, 
that he might the better watch for his opportunity of delivering his 
country. This trick might pass with Tarquinius Superbus, a king of 
the old days when they wore beards, but was not likely to impose upon 
modem tyrants. *Barbato regi' is like Horace*s 'intonsi Catonis* 
(C. ii. 16. 11). * Enim ' refers back to ' Profuit nihil,' 

105. Bubrius,] Some take this person for Rubrius Gallus, who was 
sent by Nero against Galba and deserted him, and supposed that this 
was his * ancient offence,' and that Nero is the satire-writer mentioned 
in the next line, because he wrote a poem on one Clodius PolUo, and 
another on Afranius Quintianus. *Improbior/*Heinrich says, means 
' more abusive.' It implies also that he had no shame. 

107. Montani quoque venter] This is like * Crispi senectus ' above, verse 
81. Curtius Montanus, a senator, is repeatedly mentioned by Tacitus. 
H^ was exiled by Nero on a charge of libelling him. He may be the 
man spoken of. As to Crispinus, see verse 1 of this Satire. He per- 
fumed himself in the morning, a vulgar thing to do, and smelt as 
strong as two funerals. A corpse was commonly smeared with oint- 
ment ; burning censers were carried in the procession, and perfumes 
of all sorts and flowers were thrown upon the funeral pile. The 
amomum, from which 'mummy' is sometimes erroneously said to be 
derived, was an Eastem shmb, and therefore by the Latin poets 
usually called * Assyrium.' 

UO. Pompeius] This person is not known: He was a ' delator.' 



SATIBB IV. 139 

112. Fuscus,] Cornelius Fuscus was employed by Yespasian in high 
commands, and by Domitian as 'praefectus' of the praetorian troops. 
He was sent by liim on an expedition against the Daci, and was killed, 
together with the gre^ter part of his army, by that people. Tacitus 
describes him (in a.d. 69) as ' vigens aetate, claris natalibus/ and as 
one who loved danger for its own sake. Juvenal says he thought of 
battles in his marble villa; retirement and the degrading life of a 
Koman senator of this day did not suit him, and he was glad, no doubt, 
to be employed on .the rough service in which he lost his life. 

113. Veiento Catullo,] Fabricius Veiento, whom he calls * crafty,' is 
mentioned above, iii. 185. Hliny describes Catullus as blind and of a 
savage disposition. He had neither reverence, modesty, nor pity, and 
so Domitian used him, as a man uses arrows, to shoot at all the best 
of men. 

116. dlrusque a ponte satelles,] The man was one who should have 
been found begging on the Appia Via of the passengers in their car- 
riages going down to Aricia, which was about sixteen miles from 
Bome and full of country houses. As the Appia Via approached 
Aricia, it went down into the Vallis Aricina, and the descent was 
called Clivus Aricinus. It appears that beggars were in the habit of 
posting themselves at the top of this hill. On the construction with 
'Dignus/ see A. 65, 2,/; H. 601, iii. ; B. 1226. 

119. rkombum stupuit:] See A. 52, 1, a; H. 371, 8, 1 ; B. 716. 

121. Sic pugnas Cilicis laudabai] It appears that Cilician gladiators 
were common. * Pegma,' which has its name from the Greek Tnyy- 
vvvai, was used for different things made of wood, but in connection 
with the theatre. * Pegmata * were great wooden structures which 
formed stages ; and had two or more stories, which let up and down 
by machinery. Upon these gladiators fought, and other exhibitions 
took place. The ' velaria ' were an awuing drawn over the seats of 
the amphitheatre to keep out the sun and rain. By some ingenious 
contrivance, it appears, a boy was suddenly carried up to the awning 
from the ' pegma ' for the amusement of the spectators ; and this 
blind flatterer pretended to admire a thing he could not see, just as 
now he admires the fish, looking to the left where it was not. 

127. Excidet Arviragus :] There is no British prince of tliis name on 
record contemporary with Domitian. The man is talking nonsense, 
and knows it. * Aut ' means ' or at least.' 

129. Fahricio] This was Veiento's name. The Fabricia gens was 
plebeian, but an old family. 

130. Quidnam igitur censes ?] The question is put in the usual for- 
mula to the senate. On *conciditur,' see once more iii. 296, n. "I 
suppose it must be cut up.'' 

133. Prometheus.] He means a potter. * Castra,' like * praetorium,' 
may mean the palace. 

136. Vicit] This is the usual word. His proposal was carried. 

137. noctesque Neronis] Suetonius says of Nero (c. 27), " Epulas a 
medio die ad mediam noctem protrahebat ; refotus saepius calidis 
piscinis, ac tempore aestivo nivatis." Like others, he was wont, it 



140 NOTES. 

seems, to reliere his stomach by emetics after a large meal, and then 
begiu again, which is the meaning of * alias fames/ a second and a 
third appetite. The roses alone for one of Nero'8 banquets cost 
$160,000. 

141. Rutupinove edita Jundo] Rutupiae is now Richborough near 
Sandwich, on the Kentish coast. At Richborough there is a strong 
Roman wall, which encloses three sides of a space of several acres. 
The foundation walls of an ampliitheatre have also been discovered 
here. 

147. Tanquam de Cattis aliquid] In ▲.D. 84 Domitian led an army 
against the Catti and other German nations without much success. 
But when he came back to Rome he celebrated a triumph and had 
himself called Germanicus. The territories of the Catti or Chatti lay 
north of the Main, west of the modern kingdom of Saxony, including 
the principalities of Saxe Coburg, Meiningen, and Gotha. The Sigam- 
bri, who were a people on the east side of tlie R.liine, nortli of tlie 
Ubii, were threatened by Caesar, and lef t their country for a tinie with 
all their goods. They afterwards, with oth^r Germans, defeated, in 
B.c. 16, M. LoUius in Gallia; but they were subsequently completely 
subdued by Tiberius, the step-son of Augustus. 

149. venisset epistola penna.] The Scholiast has tlie foUowing note : 
" Antea si quid nuntiabant consules in Urbem per epistolas nuntia- 
bant. Si victoriae nuntiabantur, laurus in epistola figebatur ; si autem 
aliquid adversi, pinna figebatur." But it is doubtful if 'praecipiti 
penna ' means more than ' with utmost despatch.' 

153. cerdonibus esse timendus] What Juvenal means is, that he had 
murdered the noblest citizens with impunity ; but when he began to 
practise upon the vulgar, they got rid of him. He was murdered a.d. 
96 by certain conspirators whom he had resolved to put to death. He 
took away and married the wife of one Aelius Lamia, and then 
murdered the man himself. The Lamiae were an old plebeian family 
of the Aelia gens. 



■«o«- 



SATIRE V. 

This satire professes to be addressed to one Trebius, the representa- 
tive of a class of men, who, being poor and exquisitely servile, were 
willing to part with their independence and put up with all sorts of 
contemptuous treatment for the sake of a dinner at the tables of the 
rich. A specimen of such a dinner is given, at which Virro, the host, 
reserves for himself and his rich friends the best of every thing, meat 
and fruit and wine, and the parasites are sulkily served with-the worst, 
by slaves too fine to make up to the guests for the master^s neglect. 



SATIRE V. 141 

Juvenars conclusion is, that they who will put up with such treatment 
desecve it ; and the rich man is not much to blame if he despises those 
who are only drawn to his table by the nose, that is, by the savor of 
his kitchen. 

The satire has its moral for modem society, in which, if the relation 
of host and guest is prevented by good breeding f rom taking the form 
here represented, eating and servility are scarcely less prominent 
features than they were at Rome in its worst days. If the rich look 
down upon the poor, it is usually because of the homage rank and 
riches meet with ; and that this homage comes of selfishness none 
know*better than those who receive it. The coveting of what is called 
good society is the vice of a rotten system ; and the man who eeeks 
company which does not want him has no reason to complain if his 
pride is galled and his expectations are disappointed. If there were 
no Trebiuses in the world there would be no Virros ; so Juvenal 
thought ; and he does well to lay the chief weight of his satire upon 
the parasite. 

The parasite, or diner-out, of later times, had no resemblance to the 
client of the republic. He was no more than one of many in the train 
of a rich man, or of as many rich men as he could get attached to in 
that mean capacity. The old relation of * patronus ' and * cliens,' so 
far as we can understand it, was simple and natural. The other was 
the mere refuge of poverty, preferring the bread of idleness and a 
false tongue to a life of honest labor and the rewards of an indepen- 
dent mind. The student will only be misled if, foUowing some of the 
commentators, he looks' upon the latter condition as but another 
phase of the former. The old institution died out with the republic 
to whicli it belonged ; the m.odem practice was the fruit of humaii 
corruption, and has its analogies in all ages of society, such as is 
called civilized. 

Argument. — Men of honor, Trebius, would choose beggary rather 
than such dependence as yours (1-11). For, first, when Virro invites 
you to his board, he thinks that he hasrepaid you for all your services 
(12-23). Then, at dinner, you are served with poor wine which incites 
you to quarrelling; he has the very best (24-37). Virro's cups are 
jewelled ; you are hardly trusted with any thing but glass ; and.you do 
not even drink the same water (37-63). You are waited on by a Moorish 
runner ; he, by a fair youth of lonia (53-66). You must gnaw mouldy 
bread, and not presume to touch Virro^s loaf. This is all your reward 
(67-79). Virro'8 fish are the choicest, yours the- poorest (80-106). 
Virro^s unsocial arrogance, too, is worthy of a passing rebuke (107- 
113). While dainties are carved for the host, you must look quietly 
on (114-131). You would be differently treated if you were wealthy 
and childless (132-145). The mushrooms and fruits offered to you 
differ from those which he has (146-155). He does all this on purpose 
to mortify you ; and you deserve to be treated like a slave, for such 
you have made yourself (156-173). 

1. propositi] He speaks as if this was the one purpose of his life. 

2. cdiena mvere quadra ;] The Romans had loaves of bread marked 



142 NOTES. 

off into quarters like our hot cross-buns, each part of which was called 

* quadra/ Scaliger takes * quadra ' here for bread ; others render it * a 
table/ The expression seems to be proverbial. 

3. quae nec Sarmenttts iniquas] * Iniquas mensas/ * unequal tables/ 
are those to which little men are invited by their betters, taking their 
chance of the fare they will get. The parasite Sarmentus mentioned 
by Horace in the account of his joumey to Brundisium (S. i. 6) has 
been confounded with this man, who was a young favorite of Augus- 
tus at the time of the battle of Actium. Galba is called Aulus by 
Quintilian, who mentions several of his good sayings. 

5. Quamvis jurato] Tliis is a proverbial way of speaking common 
and obvious. ' Quamvis ' means * however.' For the use of the par- 
ticiple, see M. 110, obs. 3 ; B. 1345; A. & S. 162, 16. 

6. Ventre nihil novi/rugalius.] He says the belly is very frugal, it can 
do with very Httle ; but even if enough be not forthcoming to fill an 
empty belly, he had better beg than get his meals in that dirty way. 

* Crepido ' is a wall, or a raised footpath by the road side, or the steps 
of a liouse or public building, where poor people lay and often passed 
the night, as they do now in Rome and Naples. As to * pons,' see iv. 
116. * Teges' is a mat or rug. * Dimidia brevior,' ' too short by*half.' 

9. tantine injuria coenae ?] * Is the insolence of a dinner worth so 
much ? ' * Is it worth while to accept a dinner only to be insulted ? ' The 
genitive is epexegetical. M. 286; A. 60, 1,/; H. 396, v. In thenext 
verse ' cum is not eUded. See M. 502, 6, end ; A. & S. 299, 3. 

10. illic] On the * crepido ' or * pons.' * Tremere ' is to shiver with 
cold, or to pretend to do so. * Farris canini ' is bread such as is 
thrown to the dogs ; among the Greeks that which the guests had 
used to wipe their hands. 

12. Primojige loco,] * Fige ' is stronger than 'pone.' * Set this down 
and don't forget it.* ' Discumbere ' is a common word for reclining at 
meals. 'Solidus' is that which has no hollow or vacant space; 
' merces solida ' is a pay ment in f uU. 

15. Et quamvis rarum tamen] The Latin writers used * tamen * much 
as the Greeks used o/zwf. See Hadley*s Greek Grammar, 874, b. 
I Imputat ' means * charges to your account/ This sense of the word 
is post-classical. 

16. adhibere clientem,] * Adhibere,' * to have in,' as we say, is tho 
common word for invitations. 

18. Una simus,] " Apud me sis volo ** is a like phrase for an invita- 
tion to dinner in Terence. The great man pays off his obligations to 
the little man by inviting him to dinner when he has a spare place, to 
fill up the gap ; and he gives him the lowest place 6n his own couch, 
'iinus lectus,' on which the master of the house usually lay, with 
members of his family, or, in their absence, with his parasites. * Cul- 
cita ' was the cushion on which the guest rested his elbow. 

19. Trebius] That is, the parasite. *Ligula* the Scholiast de- 
rives from * ligo,' which would fix the meaning of the word. But 
Martial uses tiie form * lingula ; * and the word is probably a form of 
' lingua/ and means a buckle or omament wom on the calceus. The 



SATIRE V. 143 

man in his hurry leaves his buckles behind. Heinrich saya * dimittere * 
is to let the ' ligulae ' bang loose, taking them for straps or thongs. 
' Ne peregerit orbem ' means ' lest they should have gone their 
round/ 

22. Sideribus dubiis, aut ilh tempore] The first expresses the early 
dawn, when the stars grow faint ; the other is earher, when the Bear 
is seen slowly wheeling his wagon, which is here only called * sar- 
raca,' * plaustra ' being the word generally used. * Sarracum ' seenis 
to have been a kind of cart copied from the Gauls. ' Frigida ' is ex- 
plained by the position "of the constellation ; and * pigri ' Heinrich 
explains by Honier's o^e di^cjp. That and * tarda ' are coramon epithets 
for Ursa, and more probably are taken from its apparent motion round 
the pole. Bootes, the * herdsman,' or * team-driver,' otherwise called 
Arctophylax, *the guard of the bear,' is the constellation near Ursa 
Major, the Great Bear, often called Charles'8 Wain, or the Wagon. 

24. Vinum quodsucida nolit] * Sucida lana * is wool lately cut, but not 
yet cleaned. Wool in this state was used, drenched with oil or wine 
or vinegar, as the case might be, for healing applications. Juvenal 
says the very wool would reject such wine. He says also the wine is 
8o bad that it soon gets into the people's heads, and sets them quar- 
relling. 

26. Jurgia proludunt:] *Prolusio,' or 'praelusio,' was the word for 
the sham ifight with which the gladiators began. * Jurgia ' is the accu- 
sative of kindred meaning. A. 62, 1, 6; H. 371, 1, 3; B. 713. The 
parasite and the freedman, invited like himself to their patron's tablej 
are supposed to fall out and throw the cups at one another. Earthen- 
ware was imported from Saguntum in Spain. 

30. Ipse capillalo difftisum] The great man himself drinks wine made 
centuries before, when men wore beards. As the Romans are said to 
have left off beards 300 years before Christ, there is exaggeration 
here. * DifFusum ' is the word for transferring from the * dolium,' the 
large vessel in which the wine fermented, to the * amphora ' in which 
it was kept. The practice of marking on the amphora the name of 
tho consuls in whose year it was filled is well known. The Social 
War was waged by the Italian allies against Rome b.c. 91-89. 

32. Cardiaco nunquam cyathum] The 'cardiacus morbus' was an 
afiection of the storaach attended with prof use perspiration, for which 
wine was considered essential ; some administering it in the early 
stage of the disease, and others wlien the patient was recovering. 
This man would not send his friend a 'cyathus' (which was the 
twelf th part of a * sextarius,* and a * sextarius ' was equal to a pint) of 
his old wine to save his life. ' Fuligine ' may refer to the practice of 
Btoring wine where the smoke of the house could reach the jars. 

36. Thrasea Helvidiusque] P. Thrasea Paetus was father-in law to 
Helvidius Priscus, and both were celebrated for their independence 
in the senate during the reign of Nero, by whom Thrasea was put to 
death. Helvidius was killed by order of Vespasian five years after 
his father-in-law. T^hey appear from this passage to have been in the 
habit of keeping the birthdays of the two Bruti (M. and D.) and 
Cassius, to show their hatred of tyrants ; and the anecdotes told of 



144 NOTES. 

them by Tacitus and other writers are all to the eame effect. They 
are here represented as drinking to their heroes' memory in the 
choicest wine, with crowns of flowers on their heads, which was from 
the earliest times the common practice at dinner, especially on impor- 
tant occasions. 

38. Heliadum crustas] Ovid relates hbw the three daughters of the 
Sun, Phaethusa, Lampetie, and Phoebe, wept for their brother Phae- 
ton on the banks of the Eridanus, and were turned into poplars from 
wliich tears came forth and were hardened by the sun into amber, 
' succinum ' or * electrum.' * Crustae ' were probably plates of thin 
metal, as the name implies, as distinguished from 'emblemata,' or 
figures laid on the vessel. 

inaequales heryllo] The beryl is a species of emerald. * Inaequales ' 
means ' embossed. * Phiala ' was the Greek name corresponding to 
the Latin * patera,' a broad, flat cup for drinking or libation. Our word 
* vial ' is derived from it. Virro is the great man. 

42. iaspis.] Jasper is a species of quartz varying through all colors, 
and opaque. * Da veniam,' "you may excuse the master for watching 
his cups, for they have rare gems on them." The words * da veniam 
— iaspis,' may be those of the servant to the guest, " Excuse me, but 
that cup has a fine stone on it," giving him a hint, as a saucy fellow 
might. 

45. juvenis pradatus larhae,] That is, Aeneas, whom Dido preferred 
to the African prince larbas, and lier other neighbors. * Zelotypus ' is 
the Greek word for 'jealous.' It appears only in the later Latin writers. 

46. Beneventaiii sutoris] A shoemaker of Beneventuni, by name 
Vatinius, rose by low means to high favor with Nero ; and it appears 
that his name for some reason was given to a particular kind qf cup 
(nasitema), perhaps firom its having one or more nozzies equal in 
length to his nose, which Martial says was a long one. 'Nasorum 
quatuor * is a genitive of quality. 

50. deffocta] Boiled water cooled down with snow. 

52. cursor Gaetulus] He complains tliat the guest is served by a 
black outrunner, brought in to wait at table, while the master has 
a handsome slave to attend upon him. 

57. TuUi-census pugnacis et Anci] Horace speaks of " dives Tullus et 
Ancus.*' Nearly the whole reign of TuUus Hostilius was passed in 
wars with the Albans, Sabines, and other neighbors. 

61. miscere] To mix the wine and water. 

62. Digna supercilio.] They justify his pride, called * supercilium ' 
from the motion of the eyebrow by which it is expressed. 

64. Quippe indignatur] * Quippe ' is formed/rom ' quia/ as * nempe ' 
from ' nam,' and both mean * certainly,' ' of course,' * you know,' but 
with a causal sense included. On the mode of * poscas,' see references 
on iii. 3, ' destinet,' and add M. 397. 

66. Maocima quaeque domus] In Horace*8 time two hundred slaves 
was an extravagant number for one house. Soon afterwards much 
larger numbers were kept. 

68. solidae jam] * Quite hard fVom staleness.' ' Jam ' means that 
it has been lelt till it has got hard. 



SATIRE V. 145 

69. Quae genuinum afjitent] * To plague his grinders/ The subjunc- 
tive means that the bread was given for that purpose, as * qui ponere 
cogat' below (73), *to compel you to put it down/ A. 64, 1; H. 
489, II.; B. 1212. * Genuini dentes ' are * the wisdom-teeth ' 
(auxppovuTTT^peg) or *the grinders.' 

70. moUique siligine factus] Pliny distinguishes ' siligo ' from wheat 
(triticum) and barley (hordeum). It was a fine grain ; and the bread 
made f rom it would be very diflferent from the * f arina * which tlie 
black slave sulkily ofFers the guest. 

72. Salva sit artoptae reverentia.] 'The respect for the bread-pan 
must be maintained.' ' Artopta ' is the Greek apTdrrrrig. 

73. Improbulumj] This diminutive is found here only. The poor 
man is no better than a thief if he puts his hand into the wrong bread- 
basket. ' Superest illic,* * there is one standing over you there ' (as if 
the man were pointed out). On the form of the sentence see A. 60, 
1,6; H. 535, 2 ; and compare i. 155. 

74. Vis tu consuetis] The words are supposed to be those of the 
slave standing by telling the rash guest to be satisfied with his own 
sort of bread. The formula is one of bidding or exhortation, and 
equivalent to ' nonne vis.' * Will you not fill your belly from your 
usual basket ? ' So the town mouse says to his friend, " Vis tu hom- 
ines urbemque feris praeponere silvis ? " (Horace, S. ii. 6. 92.) 

77. per montem adversum] * Up the hill/ that is, the Esquiline. It 
was an exposed part of the town, and therefore Juvenal calls it 

* gelidus.' 

81. squilla,] This is here a lobster. It is generally used for a prawii 
or shrimp. * Asparagus ' is commonly used in the plural. 

84. constrictus cammarus] *Cammarus' {KUfipapog) was a crayfish 
or a crab of some sort. * Constrictus,' I think, describes the pinched 
miserabie appearance of the crab ; half a hard egg was served with it. 

* Feralis coena,' * a funeral supper,* refers to the ' silicernium,' a din- 
ner usually given after a funeral, and attended by the friends of the 
dead person. The fare was not very tempting. 

86. Ipse Venajrano] * Ipse ' is the master throughout. Venafrum 
was particularly ceiebrated for its olives in Horace's days. The town 
was in Campania near the borders of Samnium. 

88. Latemam :] So Horace^s Natta robbed the lamps to oil him- 
self when he bathed or took exercise. (S. i. 6. 123.) *Laterna' is 
derived from the same root as hipnT^p ; it is in some MSS. written 

* lanterna/ 

89. Canna Micipsarum] * Canna ' is a canoe of cane. The plural of 
Micipsa is used, as is very common where only one person is meant ; 
compare i. 109. Tlie only Micipsa on record is the son of Masinissa 
and father by adoption of Jugurtha. Numidian or African oil, Juve- 
nal says, was so fetid that thenatives had nothing to fear from snakes, 
who got out of their way to avoid the smell, and no Roman would 
bathe with them smeared with their own oil. There were two kings 
of Mauritania, father and son, called Bocchus, the Latin form of the 
native Bocchor or Bocchar. The elder was father-in-law and betrayer 

10 



146 NOTES. 

of Jugurtha ; the younger was the frieod of C. JuHus Caesar and 
Octavianus, and was the last king of Mauritania hefore that eountry 
became a Roman province. The name is here taken for auy African. 

93. Tauromenitanae rupesA From this we may infer that the east- 
em coast of Sicily, on which Tauromenium was situated, abounded in 
fine barbels as well as the neighborhood of Corsica and other parts of 
the Mare Etruscum. As to the costliness of these fish, see iv. 
15, n. 

94. nostrum mare^ This term, which originally liad probably a lim- 
ited sense, ultimately signified all the Mediterranean. In this passage 
the context shows that it has a very limited sense. Notice the con- 
struction of ' dum ' with the present tense, as in i. 60 and iii. 10, wliere 
see references. 

95. macello] The * macellum ' was the general market-place, situated 
on the north side of the Via Sacra. 

97. provincia ;] The western part of Sicily was occupied by the 
Romans at the close of the flrst Punic war, and formed their first prov- 
ince. The whole island fell into the hands of the Romans in the second 
war, after the capture of Syracuse. Sardinia was taken from the Car- 
thaginians, and became a province soon after the first Punic war, and 
Corsica was afterwards added to it. 

98. Quod captator emat] " Fish for the fortune-hunter to buy, and 
his old lady to sell." These * captatores,' or will-hunters, are the sub- 
ject of Horace'8 fifth Satire, Lib. ii. Juvenal calls his * captator * 
Laenas, which was a cognomen of the plebeian ' gens ' Popilia. The 
rich lady he ealls Aurelia, and represents her as selling as much of 
her presents as she did not want. 

102. temeraiia Una] That is, * linorum magistri,' as he calls the fish- 
erman above, iv. 46. The poor guest was put off with a frost-bitten, 
mangy fish, the home-born slave (vernula) of the river banks, fat witli 
the filth of the sewers. * Crypta' was used for any vault or closed 
passage. By * crypta Suburrae ' Juvenal means a large branch of the 
Cloaca Maxima ; it was reopened in 1743. To penetrate so far, the 
fish must swim nearly a mile through all the filth of the town. 

107. Ipsi pauca velim,] These verses to 113 are parenthetical, for he 
retums to the dinner in 114. He goes on to say to the master that no 
one expeets from him the liberality of a Seneca, a Piso, or a Cotta, 
for in former times it was counted more noble to be generous than 
great ; all that was wanted of him was to dine as a cifizen, not as a 
king; and then he may give or not give, and do what he likes with 
his money. Both the Seneeas, father and son, were rich ; the younger, 
Nero's teacher, was unusually so. C. Piso is he who formed a con- 
spiraey against Nero, for which he and Seneca lost their lives. Taci- 
tus mentions one Aurelius Cotta who had been rich and had squandered 
his money, and got a pension from Nero. The commentators take 
this for Juvenars man. 

112. face] For this form, see M. 114, c, obs. ; H. 237, 1. 

115. Jlavi dignus — Meleagri] How Meleager, the son of Oeneus, 
king of Calydon, in Aetolia, slew the great boar which Artemis sent 



SATIRE V. 147 

to lay waste his native place, is told by Homer (II. ix.). Virro*8 boar 
was a worthy companion for this monster. A boar served up whole 
was commonly the chief dish (* caput coenae '). The fattening of 
fowls (altiles) and the livers of geese was carried to perfection by 
tliese Komans. The geese were fattened on figs. Jn our day Stras- 
bourg has been famous for its pai€s de foies gras, some of the livers 
weighing as much as three pounds. * Altiles ' were fattened on grain, 
which was sometimes steeped in wine. 

116. tradentur tiibero,] ' Tubera' were great delicacies with the Ro- 
mans. Whether they were what we know as the * tuber cibarium * or 
common truffle, has been doubted. They cannot have been very dif- 
ferent. They Were said to be produced by autumn rains and frequent 
thunder ; so the author calls the latter * optata.' From this notion the 
* tuber' was called * ceraunium.' The epicure AUidius is wiliing that 
Libya, the greatest granary of Eome, should give up sending corn 
and furnish only truffles. He is introduced in a parenthesis. On the 
Bubjunctive *mittas/ consult A. 61, 8; H. 503, i.; M. 861, b, obs. 2. 

120. Sti-uctorem] This is the title of the man whose business it 
was to arrange (struere) the table. It is also used for the person who 
carved the meat, otlierwise called * scissor ' or ' carptor.' The latter is 
here meant. It appears that great men in tbis department carved 
with various fantastic movements of the arms and legs, flourishing 
their knife about, as liere described. These persons were trained 
under regular professorS. * Chironomunta ' is the Greek participle of 
Xeipovofjieo), to throw the arms in time. * Dictata ' are the lessons, and 
*dictare' is to teach; because it was usual for the master to read 
aloud to his scholars that which they liad to learn and repeat. 

122. peragat] For tlie subjunctive, see A. 62, 2, d; H. 622, ii. ; A. 
& S. 263, 4, (1). 

125. ictus ab Hercule Cacus,] Cacus was a monstrous son of Vulcan, 
who stole Hercules's cows, and was beaten to death by him with 
stones and trunks of trees, and dragged out of liis cave by the heels 
when dead. 

127. HiscerCy tanquam habeas] * If jou ever attempt to open your 
mouth, as if you were a man of family and liad three names.' Ro- 
man citizens had generally three names : ' praenomen,' wliich was 
given on the ninth day after their birth ; * gentilicium nomen,' which 
indicated the Gens to which they belonged; and 'cognomen/ which 
was the family name belonging to their branch of the Gens. To these 
was sometimes added an honorary name, called *agnomen,* derived 
from some great action, or other cause, as 'Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Africanus.* A slave had only one name, and a freedman took usually 
the * praenomen ' and * nomen gentilicium ' of his late master, but not 
his * cognomen,* instead of which he sometimes retained his own name 
which he had as a slave. On * habeas,' see A. 61,and R. ; M. 349 and 
obs. ; Z. 672. 

Quando propinat] The practice of drinking healths was as com- 
mon with the Romans as with modern nations. * Bene te,* or ' bene 
tibi/ was the formula, as in Plautus : " Bene vos ! bene nos ! bene te ! 



148 NOTES. 

bene me ! bene nostrum etiam Stephanium ! " " Bene mihi ! bene 
Tobis ! bene meae amicae ! bene omnibus nobis ! '* It was a compli- 
mentary way of doing this to drink and pass the cup on to the persoa 
80 saluted, with the word *bibe!' From this practice 'propinare' 
and irpomveiv areiierived. 

131. pertusa dicere laena.] As to*' laena/ see iii. 283, n. ' Pertusa ' 
is one with holes in it. 

132. Quadringenta] * Millia sestertium ' is understood. 400,000 ses- 
terces was the fortune necessary for an ' eques/ by Otho^s law ; see iii. 
155. From here to 145 is a digression. The dinner is resumed in 146. 

133. donaret homiincio,] * Homuncio ' is meant by way of amusing 
contrast to * deus/ in the iine before. Some good little man, like to 
the gods (deoe^/ceAoc), and kinder than the fates. 

135. Da Trebio !] The master bids the good things be given to his 
rich guest, and calls him brother, and asks him if he would not like a 
nice slice oif the loin of the boar. The name Trebius is repeated from 
verse 19. 

139. Luserit Aeneas,] These are Dido's words (Aen. iv. 328) : '* Si 
quis mihi parvulus aula Luderet Aeneas qui te tamen ore referret." 

140. sterilis facit uxor] A barren wife makes a man's friend pleas- 
ant and affectionate ; but even if after being childless, he has now, all 
at once, three children, still the friend will not give him up, but will 
fondle his babies, and see what he can do that way. The man being 
rich is still worth looking after. ' Migale ' is a*contemptuous word, bufc 
it is his wife. 

143. mridem tkoraca] A green doublet, a pretty little shirt to please 
the child and keep it warm. 

145. parasitus venerit infans.] A parasite is a guest out of his place, 
and a child at tlie dinner table may well be so called. 

146. Vilibus ancipites] ' Vilibus amicis,' poor friends, friends who 
are worth nothing. We say men are worth what they have. These 
Komans seem to have had the same standard of worth. 

147. Boletus. domino ;] The ' boletus ' with which the Emperor 
Claudius was poisoned by his wife Agrippina (a.d. 54) became a prov- 
erb. Her object was to secure the succession to her own son Nero, 
instead of Britannicus, the son of Claudius. 

150. Poma] The fruit was the last thing served at dinner. 

151. Phaeacum autumnus habebat,] The Phaeacians, whose king, AI- 
cinous, received Ulysses hospitably (Hom. Od. vii.), were identified 
by the later Greeks and by the Homans with the people of Corcyra. 
Homer gives a rich description of Alcinous's garden. 

152. sororibus Afris :] These are the Hesperides, the sisters who had 
charge of the golden apples, which were the marriage gift of Earth to 
Zeus and Hera, and whicli Hercules was sent to steal. Their garden 
was placed by the ancient poets in various parts of Africa. 

153. quod in aggere rodity] There are different interpretations of this 
passage. One supposes Juvenal to mean an ape dressed up and 
taught by some idle soldiers to throw darts from the back of a goat 
The others apply to recruits leaming their drill from a drill-master 



• SATIRE VII. 149 

(campidoctor), called ' capella/ by way of ridicule. Tlie first of these 
two is the sense of the passage, I believe, and so most of the commen- 
tators take it. 'Aggere' is the rampart of Servius TuUius in the 
Esquiliae, the eastern quarter of the city. Tlie Praetorian troops 
were quartered by this ' agger.' On ' flageili/ see M. 289 ; A. 60, 3, 
6, 3 ; H. 399, 2. 1 ; B. 768. 

157. Hoc agit ut doleas :] * He is bent upon giving you pain.' * Hoc 
agit' has this meaning commonly. Tiie rich man treats his poor 
guest in this scurvy fashion, not to spare expense, l)ut to enjoy the 
fun of seeing him grinding his teeth and weeping with vexation. And 
he has some right on his side, for he knows the man only comes to 
his table for what he can get. For the neglect of elision in verse 158, 
see on iii. 70. 

164. Etruscum puero si contigit aurum] This is the*bulla,' a small 
circular plate of gold which children bom free (ingenui) and rich wore 
suspended from their necks. This practice appears to have been of 
Etruscan origin. A leather strap with a knot at the end of it an- 
swered the same purpose with the poor. It was * signum libertatis,' 
as the Scholiast says. The figure of rhetoric- in verse 166 is hendiadys. 

166. Ecce dabitjam] " See he is going to give us presently^ — ." 
The guests are supposed to speak, expecting something, though not 
of the best, to come to them. And therefore (inde) they sit in silent 
suspense, with their bread prepared, uneaten and grasped in their 
hand, ready to eat it with tho first windfall that comes. * Minor 
altilis ' is one too small for the master. * Stringere ' is to grasp. Mayor 
tliinks that it means to draw like a sword. 

171. Pdsandum vertice raso] Parasites, and others equally low, were 
sometimes introduced in mimes with their heads shaven, and were 
slapped and knocked about. This fellow, Juvenal says, will some day 
or other (quandoque) come to this. The last few verses of this Satire 
are a good specimen of contemptuous writing weU deserved. 



-•o*- 



SATIRE VII. 

The subject of this satire is the neglect of literary men by the rich. 
The ' Caesar ' who is described as the only patron of scholars is prob- 
ably Hadrian, who was well known as a poet and a friend of poets. 
The date of the publication of the poera may be placed, therefore, 
about A.D. 120; part of it may have been written earUer. 

Argument. — Caesar is now the only patron of men of letters ; all 
others have neglected them, and driven them to the humblest pursuits 
(1-16). For though they may applaud geniifs, they leave it to starve, 
80 that it wouid do well to renounce tlic muse (17-36). The richman^ 



150 NOTES. 

who calls himself a brother poet, will but lend you a dusty room and 
frecdmen to applaud (86-47). This neglect does not cure the poetic 
f renzy ; yet, to do weli, the poet shouid be reiieved from vuigar anxie- 
ties (48-78). In fact, liowever, he is not cared for as well as a harle- 
quin or a wild beast (73-97). The historian'8 recompense is even 
less than the poefs (9B-104). This is not because poets and historians 
are of no use to the world ; for pleaders, too, are poorly paid, unless 
they make a ruinous display of wealth (105-149). The rhetorician 
has a stili harder^ate. He is tired to deatii by his scholars' recitations, 
and then he has to go to the courts to get his scanty dues (150-177). 
Men lavish money on their houses and their cool^s ; but have nothing 
to spare for Quintilian. He, to be sure, is rich ; but that is his iuck ; 
most of his class are in quite different circumstances (178-214). Most 
of ali is the grammarian to be pitied. III paid, or not paid at all, he 
is required to possess universal knowledge and a spotless cliaracter, 
and is held responsible for every act and every look of eacli of liis 
pupils (215-248). 

1. Et spes et ratio] * Batio' means * motive.* For * tantum,' see on 
i. 1. As to ' Camenas,' see iii. 16. The Scholiast says they were 
sad, * tacentibus poetis,' because the poets were silent. Autumnus says, 
' quia contemnuntur.' It comes to the same thing. ' Quum jam ' 
means wiiile they were and long had beeii trying the lowest means of 
getting a livelihood, hiring a shabby bath at smaii country towns, or 
a bakery at Rome, or acting as criers at auctions. 

4. Bcdneotum Gabiis,] Gabii has been mentionedin iii. 192. 'Furni' 
were baking-houses wliere poor people got their bread baked. * Quum ' 
corresponds to our * while.' M. 858, obs. 8 ; A. 62, 2, e and note. 

6. Pmecones jfieri ;] The business of the auctioneer's *praeco'wa8 
among other things to get persons to attend. But tiiere were various 
sorts. The profession was in general much despised. 

desertis Aganippes Vallibus] On the eastern ascent of Mount Helicon 
in Boeotia was the fountain Aganippe. The valleys on that side of the 
range were iruitful and woody. The waters of this fountain, like that 
of Hippocrene considerably higher up, were supposed to inspire those 
who drank them. The grove of the Muses (Pieria umbra) lay be- 
tween these two fountains. 

7. migraret in atria Clio.] The atria here meant are not the ante- 
chambers of the rich, but the courts in which auetions were held. 

8. Nam si Pieria] He has just been speaking of the Muses in con- 
nection with Helicon and Boeotia. Here he calls the grove Pieria, 
using the conventional name of the Muses^ though the Pieria of liis- 
torical times iay north of Olympus. 

9. ames nomen victumque Machaerae,] * Amare ' is used like the Greek 
oTepyeiv, ayairav, * to be content with. * Machaera ' is the name of an 
auctioneer or orier. 

10. commissa quod auctio] 'Commissa auctio' is a sale 'bonorum 
commissorum,' of forfeited goods. ' Stantibus ' are the bidders. ' Oeno- 
phorum ' is a wine-jar. ' Tripodes * are old-fashioned tables. The 
finest tables of the Eomans (orbes, see i. 187) rested on a single pilhir. 



SATIBE vn. 151 

* Armaria ' were cupboards or cases, usually for books, standing against 
the walls, as opposed to * capsae ' and ' scrinia,' which werc boxes also 
used for books. * Cista ' was any box, large or small. It was sometimes 
big enoiigh to hold a man, tiiough lie had to squeeze to get into it. 

12. Alcithoen Pacci,] Aicithoe was the Boeotian woman, daughter of 
Minyas of Orchomenus, who refused to celebrate the rites of Diony- 
sus, and was changed by him into a bat, together with her sister 
Lenconoe. The writer refers, no doubt, to tragedies by living writers, 
whether Paccius and Faustus were their real names or not. Tliebes 
under a hundred forms gave subjects for the stage; and there are 
fragments of a play by Sophocles founded upon the story of Tereus 
aud the two sisters Procne and Philomela. 

14. faciant equites Asiani,] Knights from (proconsular) Asia, Cappa- 
docia, Bithynia, and Galatia (altera Gallia), are slaves who have made 
equestrian tortunes. Galatia, or Gallograeda, got its name from tiie 
Galli, who in the year b.c. 278 came over from Byzantium to lielp 
Nicomedes I. to get the kingdom of Bithynia. He gave them tiie 
neigliboring country, which was called after them. * Nudo talo ' may 
be compared with * pedibus albis' (i. 111), though I am not sure that 
the usual interpretation there is right. 'Traducit' means 'puts for- 
ward to view.' Thc first syllable of 'Bithyni ' is elsewliere long. 

17. Nemo tamen studiis] He says no poet henceforth need follow any 
unbecoming business. He describes the poet as one who joins tlie 
eloquenee of words with tlie harmonies of music, and has eaten the 
bay, tliat is, thc ' lauroa ApoUinaris.' 

20. Hoc agitey] This is a formula which occurs in Horace (Epp. i. 
6. 30) : " Set about it ; lose no time." Juvenal calls Domitian * Dux 
magnus' above, iv. 145; and he uses the word as equivalent to 
'imperator,' tliough in the fieid it was difierent, as a ' dux' had not 
the * imperium ' or ' auspicium.' 

25. dona Venerls, Telesine, marito,] He bids a man, if he depends on 
any patron but Caesar, put his poems in the fire, or, as he says, give 
them to Vulcan, who was the husbaud of Venus. 

29. Ut dignus venias] That you may come forth worthy of the ivy 
crown and a poor lean bust, such as a half-starved i^oefs would be. 
Busts of distinguished literary men were put up in the library of 
ApoUo on the Palatine, and in other public as well as private libraries. 

31. Tantum . . . iaudare disertos,] * Disertos ' here means poets, who 
are also called * docti.' 'Disertus properly iipplies to oratory. Pea- 
cocks were held sacred to Juno. 

32. Sed defluit aefas] When old age comes on with weariness and 
poverty, it hates itself and its own muse ; and it is too late to betake 
yourself to trade, to war, or to farming. 

36. Accipe nnnc artes] He goes on to show how the patron compro- 
mises with the poet by giving help that costs nothing. .There was a 
temple called Herculis Musarum, built by Fulvius Nobilior, and re- 
stored by Marcius Philippus, step-father of Augustus, after whom it 
was called Porticus Philippi. The temple of Apollo to which Juvenal 
refers is that on the Palatine, built by Augustus, 26th October, b.c. 
^, to commemorate his victory at Actium. The poets recited their 



152 NOTBS. 

compositions ia the porticos attached to the temples. Juvenal says 
these misguided poets ieft the usual places of recitation to acceptfrom 
a shabby patron a dirty room and a packed audieuce. 

38. Ipsefacit versus] This scurvy patron himself afiects to be a poet 
inferior to Uomer only for the reverence due to liis antiquity ; and, to 
show that he has a poet'8 sympathies, he iends his poor brother a dirty 
room, which had long been locked up as fast as the gates of a town 
when the enemy is coming. He also gives him a few of his depend- 
ents to sit at the end of tlie room and in difierent parts to applaud 
liim ; but he leaves him to go to the expense of hiring his own benches 
and of the porterage. * Recites ' is used intransitiveiy. For the form, 
see A. 59, 6, a; M. 870; A. & S. 261, K. 2. The samc construction 
occurs in verse 50. 

41. Haec longeferraia] The interpreters properly explain * longe ' as 
* diu.' 

46. pendent anabaihra tigillo,] The room is supposed to be arranged 
like a theatre, with ' subsellia/ which are benches placed about the 
room on the floor ; ' anabatlira/ or henches rising one above the other 
at the sides of the room ; and an orchestra, reserved seats near the 
speaker. The orchestra in a Greek theatre was the circular space in 
front of thc stage occupied by the chorus. In Homan theatres, which 
nearly resembled the Greek, the orchestra was given up to the accom- 
modation of senators and magistrates and other persons of distinction. 
Here the reciter put chairs for his more important auditors. * Con- 
ducto anabatlira tigillo' is equivalent to 'conducta anabathra tigil- 
laria/ liired seats of plank. ' Posita est/ the orchestra is set out with 
chairs. 

48. Nos tamen hoc agimuSf] See above, Terse 20. What follows are 
proverbs for labor thrown away. 

52. Scribendi cacodhes] * Cacoethes/ which properly means no more 
than a bad habit, was applied medically to inveterate ulcers and 
cancers. 

53. publJca venay] * Publica ' is, like Kowri, that which belongs to all, 
commonplace ; ' expositum ' means such as you would meet with in 
the highway, and so is ' triviale.' In *■ vena * the metaphor is taken 
from mines. ' Deducere ' is commonly applied to verse-making, and 
is probably taken from spinning. The works of the brain are com- 
monly in most languages described as the coinage of a mint; and 
Juvenal speaks of the man whose ideas are not coined at the common 
mint, in which all manner of base metal is struck, and then passes cur- 
rent among the ignorant. The temple of Juno Moneta (from moneo, 
corresponding to ^vriuoavvri) was the Homan mint. Both 'money' 
and 'mint' are derived from the word. 

56. sentio tantain] He says he cannot point out such a person ; he 
can only iniagine, or, as lie says hetter, feel him. ' Impatiens acerbi' 
expresses uytvaToq niKpov, not impatient, but free from the suffering of 
bittemess, which is that of poverty, disappbintment, mortification, and 
self-contempt. The Muses had tlieir name Aonides froin Boeotia, 
anciently called Aonia. Bacchus and the Muses are always close 
companions, and so he says * thyrsum contingere.' 



SATiRE vn. 153 

62. saturesi quum dtcit Horatius, Euoe!] The reference is to Hor. C. 
ii. 19. 7. There is no doubt that Horace wrote all his odes after he 
had got a competence ; and if his poverty made liim write in the first 
instance, what he wrote then was of a different character. 

64. dominis Cirrhae Nysaeque] Cirrha was situated at the head of the 
bay called Sinus Crissaeus, in the Corinthian Gulf. On the high 
ground above it was the more ancient city of Crissa, of which it was 
the port. Crissa was the originai seat of the worship of Apollo, after- 
wards transferred to Delphi in its neighborhood ; and in this way Cirrha 
came to be associated with ApoUo, who is the * dominus Cirrhae ' here 
referred to. Nysa is a name given to several places where Bacchus 
was worshipped, having originally belonged to that (wherever It was) 
which reared liira as a chiid. The locality of the original Nysa is 
generally placed by the poets in the Punjaub. * Feruntur,' ' are carried 
away, borne headlong;' the word is used for madness or (as here) in- 
spiration or other strong excitement. * Dominis ' seems best taken as 
an ablative of means or instrumental case, as in i. 18. 

66. lodice paranda Attonitae] * Lodix ' is a blanket or other bed- 
covering. 'Attonitae' is used for *perplexed.' It is equivalent to 
kfiPpovTTfToc, and represents one inspired. * Aspicere ' is in apposition 
with * opus.' 

68. ttutulum confundat Erinnys.] This is Alecto, whom Juno moved 
to inflame Tumus with jealousy when Latinus gave his daughter 
Lavinia to Aeneas. See Virg. Aen. vii. 420, sqq. -In vii. 450 he says, 
" geminos erexit crinibus angues Verberaque insonuit rabidoque haec 
addidit ore ; " and elsewhere f rom the top of a rock she sounds a 
blast upon her hom at which the forests and rivers are startled, 
mothers press their babes to their bosom, and all the country people 
are roused to arms. AU this roaring and snake-Iifting the poet would 
not have been able to invent if he had not been in easy circumstances, 
if he had not had a slave or two and a pretty good house. Virgil 
had a good deal more than this. 

69. tderahile deesset] The verb must be pronounced in two syllables, 
by synizesis. For the tense, see M. 847, 6, obs. 2; A. 69, 8, c; A. & 
S. 261, R. 6. 

71. Surda nihil qemei^t grave buccina.] * Surdus ' is used for one dumb 
as well as deaf. The ' biiccina ' or ' bucina ' was the oldest wind in- 
strument, and was a ruder sort of * cornu.' 

72. Rubrenus Lappa cothumo,] This is some small play-writer of the 
day. He says we expect such a man as this, who is obUged to pawn 
his dishes and his cloak while he is eraployed upon his.play, to rise to 
the dignity of the old tragedy. 

79. jaceat Lucanus in hm-tis] The poet M. Annaeus Lucanus inherited 
a large fortune from his father, the brother of Seneca, who was a 
native of Corduba in Hispania, and collector of the imperial revenues. 
He is said to have died at the age of 26, a.d. 65, in consequence of 
having taken part in Piso's conspiracy against Nero. To avoid the 
executioner he opened his own veins. He was therefore dead when 
this satire was written. We know nothing of Serranus. Saleius is 
mentioned by Tacitus as an unsuccessful writer. 



154 NOTES. 

83. laetam fecit quum Stattus Url)em] The poet P. Papinius Statius 
was the son o£ a school-master at Neapolis. He was patronized by 
Domitian, whom he flattered in the usual way. Uis poem called 
Thebais, relating entirely to the expedition against Thebes, which 
Aeschyius lias made the subject of a tragedy, occupied him twelve 
years, a year for each book. It was finished some time between a.d. 
87 and 90, and therefore was begun before Domitian became emperor, 
A.D. 81. During the tirae it was composing he recited parts of it, and 
at that time he seems to have been poor. Whether he af terwards 
profited by the patronage of the emperor or not is unknown. By 
Juvenal's description his poem seems to have been highly thought of, 
and his manner of reciting it was attractive. 

86. fregit subsellia] Probably by his energy in reciting his poem. 
Some say, by the loud applause of his hearers ; others, by overcrowd- 
ing the seats. 

87. intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven.] * Unless he sells his virgin 
Agave to Paris.' 'Intactam' has the same sense as 4ntegram.' 
Whether this means that other poets had not handied tlie subject, or 
that the play had not yet been in the actors' hands, and was unpub- 
lished, may be doubtful. Agave is the furious mother who tore her 
son Pentheus to pieces at the revels of Dionysus, as represented in 
£uripide8's play, the Bacchae. Paris may have bought the play out 
of charity to the writer. He was an Egyptian pantomime, and very 
popular under Domitian. For * vendat,' consult M. 850, 6, obs. 2 ; H. 
611, II.; A. 69,4,6. 

88. Il/e et miiitiae] He goes bn to say, that Paris used his influence 
with Dbmilian to get advancement for tlic poets. It appears to me 
to be kindly said and kindly meant towards Paris, whose conduct is 
contrasted with that of the * proceres.' The military offices Juvenal 
says he got conferred upon poets were those of * praefecti ' and * tri- 
buni miiitares.' There was a distinction of tribunes, some being 
called Latidavii and others Angusticlavii ; those being of the sena- 
torial order, these of the equestrian. Both clnsses were much sought, 
and in order to gratify more applicants the ofiice was made half- 
yearly (semestri). The golden ring was a badge of the * equites.' 
This passage is associated with the principal event recorded of Juve- 
nal's life, and the reader is referred ta tlie memoir at the beginning 
of the volume. 

90. tu Camerinos Et Bareas,^ Camerinus was the name of a branch 
of the patrician gens Sulpicia. It was much distinguished in the 
time of the repubUc. One of the Bareae has been mentioned before 
(iii. 116). 

92. Praefectos Pelopea facii^ He says plays make praefects and tri- 
bunes, as explained above. * Pelopea ' may be any subject connected 
with the house of Pelops. * Pulpitum ' corresponded to that part of 
the stage which the Greeks called 'koyelov^ where the actors spoke. 

94. aut Proculeius Aut Fabius f] The first of these was the person 
whose liberality to his brethren or relations is mentioned by Horaoe 
(C. ii. 2. 6). He was connected by marriage and contemporary with 



SATIKE VII. 155 

Maecenas, whom he imitated in his patronage of men of letters. The 
Fabius here more particularly alluded to, the commentators generally 
suppose to be Fabius Maximus. Cotta was a cognomen of the Au- 
relia gens, into which was adopted Messailinus, a son of the cele- 
brated orator Messalla Corvinus, frequently mentioned by Horace. 
By Lentulus Juvenal is generally supposed to mean P. Cornelius Len- 
tulus Spinther, who was consul b.c. 57, and the author of Cicero's 
recall from banishment in tliat year. 

97. vinum toto nescire Decembn'.] He says in those days it was of 
8ome use to study, and give up the enjoyments of the Saturnalia, 
which took place in December. The whole month of Deceniber was 
sacred to Saturnus, and it was a month of feasting, the Satumalia 
and its attendant festivals occupying seven days. 

98. Vesier porro labor] * Porro ' means * in the next place/ * to pro- 
ceed.' It is derived from * pro.* * Pagina/ from which our word 
' page * is derived, was a sheet of the papyrus as prepared for writing 
on ; several laj erd of the rind of the plant (liber) were pressed upon 
one another, aud from this the name is derived ; it contains the root 
' pag-' of ' pango/ to fasten. One sheet was tacked on to the end of an- 
other, and so the roU was made as long as they pleased. ' Damnosa ' 
means * costly.' The cost of the paper alone is such that they ought 
to be well paid. * Operum lex ' is the conditions to which they are 
bound by the nature of their works. 

103. terrae quis fructus apertae 9] When the soil is thus ploughed 
and sown, what fruit does it bear ? what does the man get for his 
pains ? The ' acta ' were daily chronicles of matters of public inter- 
est, judicial decisions, births, marriages, etc. People would rather 
hear the events of the day than read the events of former days. 

105. Sed genus ignavum] But, say the world, they are an idle set, 
who care only to lie in bea and live in the shade, that is, in retire- 
ment. ' At/ not ' sed/ is the particle generally used to introduce an 
objection. 

106. Dic igitur quid causidicis] ' Igitur ' means if they say this of 
the historians they cannot say it of the lawyers. How then are they 
paid for their services (officia) ? See A. 43, 3, e. * Libelli ' are docu- 
ments in the case, which the lawyer takes with him in a great bundle 
into court. 

108. Jpsi magna sonanty] They talk very big of their own accord 
(ipsi), but still more if the creditor is listening for whom they are 
acting ; or louder still if the client is eager and nudges his ' causidicus/ 
being afraid of losing his money. ' Dubium nomen ' is a doubtful 
debt. 'Codex' (or 'caudex') is properly something of wood, and 
was first applied to wooden tablets, but afterwards was used for any 
written document or book, and particularly for bankers' books. 

111. spirant mendacia foiles] The bellows are his cheeks. ' Conspu- 
itur ' means that he splutters his froth all over the f olds of his * toga.' 

112. Veram deprendere messem] If you want to know the real araount 
of his harvest, put on one side the f ortunes of a hundred lawyers, and 
on the o^her that of Lacema, who was a driver in the Circus, and 



156 NOTES. 

they may be equal. The drivers were divided into four parties, called 

* factiones/ aud distinguished by the eolor of their dress ; there was 
the white (alba), red (russata), dark green (prasina), and light green 
(veneta). 

115. Consedere Ducea:] What follows is a parody of the contest 
between Ajax and Uiysses for Achilles's armor in Ovid. 

116. bubulco Judice.] He means that ignorant rude people were 
likely to be among the ' judices.' They were chosen from among the 
senators and * equites/ both of which orders included during the empire 
persons of low birth. The ' causidicus ' is supposed to be defending 
one whose freedom is at stake, who is claimed as a slave. 

118. scaiarum gloria pdma£.] Lawyers used to hang palm-branches 
over their doors when they gained an important cause. Juvenal means 
by * scalarum' that the man lived upstairs in a * coenacuium/ a poor 
man's lodging. 

119. Quod vocis pretium ?] He asks what the man is to get f or the use 
of his lungs. The allowance of grain or other f ood to slaves was served 
to them sometimes daily and sometimes monthly ; in the f ormer case 
it was called ' diaria/ and in the latter * menstrua/ or, after the Greek, 

* epimenia.' The wine of the north, which he means by * vinum Tiberi 
devectum,* was not good. The ' lagena ' was the same as the * testa,' 

* cadus,' * amphora.' 

122. Si contigit aureus unus,] An ' aureus ' of this time was of the 
value of 25 denarii, about four dollars. In b.c. 204 a ' plebiscitum ' 
was passed, prohibiting any person from taking a fee for pleading a 
cause. This was called Cincia lex, after M. Cincius-Alimentus, who 
was * tribunus plebis * that year. This was confirmed by a * senatus* 
consultum ' in the time of Augustus ; but was relaxed in that of Clau- 
dius, after which time a man might take 10 sestertia for a fee, which 
would be nearly $400. *Pragmatici' were persons who helped the 
advocates with legal information in court and who came in for a share 
of their fees. The name was taken from the Greeks, who employed 
that sort of practitioner. 

124. AemUio dabitur quantum libeiy] He calls the man Aemilius 
because the Aemilia was one of the oldest of the patrician families. 

* Et melius ' is ' and yet we conduct our cases better than he does.' 
He puts himself in the place of one of these * causidici.' The use of 
' et Ms like that of kqI f or KaiTot, 

125. stat currus aeneuSy] This man had a triumphal chariot in his 
house, which had been handed down from one of his great ancestors, 
and an equestrian statue of himself aa a stout soldier with a lance in 
his hand. * Lusca ' seems to mean here no more than blind. It is usn- 
ally ' one-eyed,' and some explain it as if one of the statue*8 eyes were 
shut in the act of taking aim. ' Hastile minatur ' is ' he poises his 
lance threateningly.' ' Minari ' is not used elsewhere exactly in this 
way. The lance bends as a long weapon with a light shaft would. 

129. Sic Pedo cmturbat,] In this way, Pedo and these other * causi- 
dici,' men of low birth and no means, thought to get fees by pretend- 
ing to be somebody, and the consequence was they became bankrupt. 



SATIRB vn. 157 

' Contnrbare ' is an elliptical expression, ' rationes ' being understood. 
It implies a fraudulent bankruptey, a conf using of accounts. * Defi- 
cere ' is to ' f ail/ as we say. * Rhinocerote * means a liorn vessel of oil. 
This man, to show his consequence, goes to bathe with a crowd of 
clients, and goes through the f orum in his * lectica ' witli a long pole, 
making fine purchases. The bearers are Eastems, all of whom the 
Romans called Parthians or Medes. * Murrina * seems to have been a 
kind of agate or fiuor-spar (though some say porcelain), very beauti- 
f ul and very expensive. Nero paid $89,000 f or a 'small cup made of it. 

134. Spondet enim Tipio] The man^s purple cloak gets him credit. 
The meaning of ' stlataria ' is very doubtf ul. ' Stlata ' is said to be a 
small piratical craf t, and f rom that ForceUini explains ' stlataria ' as 
foreign, brought over the sea in ships. 

136. amethf/stina :] These are other cloaks of violet color. * Vendit ' 
means ' gets him his price/ 'finds a market for him.' 

138. iSedJinem impensae] * At Rome there is no limit to expense.' 
For ' dederit,' ' fulserit,' see A. 69, 4, c and R. ; H. 509 and 486, 7. 

141. an tihi servi Octo,] These ' servi ' are connected ^ith ' sella,' as 
* comites ' belong to ' togati/ So I believe doctors who keep their car- 
riage are counted cleverer than those who do not, and they who drive 
two horses better thah those who drive one. * An/ * an ' introduce two 
separate questions. See below on verse 162. 

143. Padlus agebat Sardonychef] He hired a valuable ring to plead 
in, to get himself the reputation of being rich. Mothers, wives, sis- 
ters, and children used to be brought forward as a means of sof tening 
the hearts of the ' judices.' But Basilus never had a case of such im- 
portance as' to warrant this. The custom was common among the 
Greeks, and persons so introduced into court were called TopaKhfiToi, 

148. GaUia vel potius] The commentators say that the provinces 
Gallia and Africa (Libya) were prone to litigation. If so, it was prob- 
ably through the introduction of these lawyers that they became so, as 
tlie natives of India have become more litigious since the supreme 
jcourts were established. ^ 

^ 150. Dedamare doces ?] He speaks of those who taught rhetoric, one~"/ 
of the usual elements of a Roman^s education, and admires the patience 
and iron nerves of these teachers in listening to the declamations of 
their classes. Vettius Valens was celebrated as a physician, as one 
of the paramours of the Empress Messalina, and as the founder of a 
hew school of rhetoricians. 

152. Nam quaecunque aedens] The class read their declamations sit- 
ting, and standing up repeat them again from beginning to end. ' Can- 
tare ' is to drawl in a sing-song way. ' Versus ' applies to the lines in 
prose as well as poetry. 

154. crajnbe repetita] Kpafi^ri is cabbage ; and to be helped twice to 
cabbage, according to a proverb given by the Scholiast, was f atal : dlg 
Kpap^ri OavaTOC. 

155. Quis cdor et quod sit] ' Color * means the arguments or oratori- 
cal tricks used to give a coloring to a bad case. ' Causae genus ' means 
the class. to which the case belongs. Aristotle distinguishes speeches- 



168 NOTBS. 

by three forms {d^v) : ovfiPovXevnKov (deliberatiye), dmavuoov (forensic), 
and hzLdeiKriKbv (for display). Cicero adopted this distinction. The 
third class came to be c^led by the Romans ' encomiastic ' or * iauda- 
tory.' ' Summa quaestio ' is the principal question at issue, tbe ' gist.' 
* Sagittae ' are the adversary^s arguments. 

158. Mercedem appellas f quid enim scio f] The pupil says this. " Do 
you ask for your pay ? why, what have I learned ? " * Appellare * is a 
technical word ibr demanding payment, 'dunning.' The common 
construction is ' appellare aliquem de pecunia.' ' Quid enim ' is like 
n ydp,- 

159. laeva tn parte mamilfae] That is, in his heart, which the Ro- 
mans held to be the seat of the understanding. The Arcadians were 
like tho Boeotians, proverbially duU. 

161. diru8 caput Uannibal impiet ;] Uorace uses this epithet for Han- 
nibal three times, and the^boys were always repeating it. The master 
uses it in a double sense. Hannibars name was a bugbear with which 
nurses frightened children, and the Romans to the latest times held it 
in respect. His exploits were constant themes for declamation. Livy 
says that, after the battle of Cannae, Maherbal, tiie oommander of 
Hannibars cavalry, advised him to push on> and in ibur days he might 
sup in the Capitol ; that Hannibal applauded hfs general'8 spirit, but 
took time to consider, and that the day so lost was the salvation of 
Rome. When Hannibal marched an army f rom Capua to Rome^ he 
offered battle to the consuls, but on each of two consecutive days the 
armies were prevented from engaging by a violent storm, which sub- 
sided as soon as they had retumed to tlieir camps. ' An/ * an * intro- 
duce separate questions, this being an example of asyndeton, not of a 
double question, See M. 458; A. 71, 2 and d; H. 346, ii., 2; Z. 358 
and 554, ^n. 

165. Quantum vis stipulare] In the form of contract which was called 
'obligatio verbis/ the parties contracted by question and answer. 
" Dari spondes 1 Spondeo. Dabis ? Dabo," etc. The person who 
asked the questions was said ' stipulari,' and was called * stipulator ; ' 
the other was called 'promissor,' and was said 'spondere.' The 
teacher offers to make a bargain with any one that pleases, to give 
him any amount if he will get the dunce'8 father to listen to him as 
often as he himself has done. He makes the other man ' stipulator ' 
and himself ' promissor.' 

166. Haec alii sex Vel plvres] This means plenty more. ' Sophista ' 
was a name commonly given to the rhetoricians and grammarians of 
this time, as it had been originally to all who were masters of their 
art. YiO^ujT^^ came to be used in a bad sense through the abuse of 
science by the later professors, who were despised for taking money 
from their Bcholars. It then was used to mean not only a professor, 
but a trader in wisdom, and from that a mere pretender. 

168. Et veras agitant lites] He means they give up teaching and go 

and sue tbr their wages. He expresses this by saying they leave 

behind them ravishers and poisonings and bad husbands and drugs to 

* cure blind oid men. The history of Medea fumisiied topics for discus- 



SATIRB vn. 169 

gion and declamation ; here the bad hneband m&y be Jason, and the 
blind old man Peiias. ' Veteres ' is in apposition with ' caecos : ' ' blind 
men wiio are quite old.' 

171. Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem] * Rudis ' was a wooden sword or 
cudgel with which a gladiator was presented when he got his discharge. 
He says the rhetoricians leave their schools and betake themselves to 
the courts that they may make a trifle, which is tlie most tliey wiU 
get. But he advises them to change their line altogether, and foUow 
some other. * Pugnam * is the same as ' vera*8 lites ' above. ' Umbra ' 
is here a school. 

174 vilis iessera] * Tesserae frumentariae * were tickets given to the 
poor on the public account, in exchange for which they got a Bmall 
quantity of corn. Tiiis gratuitous distribution was called * frumen- 
tatio.' The quantity was not much, and the value of the * tessera,' if 
a man sold it, as he might, was small. * Venit ' is from * veneo.' 

176. Chrysogonus guanti] Chrysogonus and Poliio were music- 
masters. Theodorus was a rhetorician. * Scindens ' is here, but no- 
where else, used in the sense of cutting up, as we sometimes say . Mr. 
Mayor explains thus : *' Make but a trial of the gains of music 
masters, and you will tear up your Elements of Rhetoric." 

182. Parte aUa Umgis] His baths here, his drives there, his dining- 
room elsewhere with tall pillars of yellow marble from Numidia. It 
is so constructed as to catcn the winter's sun. But whatever the house 
costs, the establishment will be in proportion. The person referred 
to in verse 184 is the 'stnictor' mentioned v. 120, where see note. 
' Pulmentaria ' are savory dishes, or sauces. 

186. QuintiKano] Two sestertia would be nearly $80, a small sum 
for the whole course, and that to the first rbetorician of the age ; but 
he says it is a large sum compared with what is usual. The Quintilian 
mentioned is the celebrated author of the ' Institutio Oratoria.' Pliny 
the younger was his pupil, and so were many of the leading men in 
poiitics and literature. He also taught the two grand-nephews of 
Domitian, who invested him with the title of consul, thoueh he never 
bore theoffice. This is what Juvenal means below, verse 1§7. Though 
he respected Quintilian, he rather sneers at him here as a lucky man, 
* Fortunae filius,' an example * novorum fatorum,' of strange destinies, 
and when a man is lucky be is every thing that is fair and great. 
' Transi ' in verse 190 means * pass by, ' do not take into the account.- 

192. Ivnam subtexit alutae ;] * Aluta ' is a shoe, and ' luna ' was somc 
sort of omament of crescent shape sewn on to it to distinguish the 
wearer as a senator. 

194. Et si perfrixit, cantat bene.] And, though he has a cold, he recites 
well. Though he is hoarse, people will say his voice is very flne. 
' Jaculator ' seems to mean a hurler of words. 

199. Veniidius quid enim f quid Tullius ?] P. Ventidius Bassus was a 
native of Picenum ; and in the Social War, according to one story, 
being at tbc time a child in arms, he was carried captive with his 
mother to Rome, and appeared in the triumphal procession of Cn. 
Pompeius Strabo, b.c. 89. When he grew up he gained his livelihood 



160 KOTBS, 

by letting out miiles and carriages. He became aoqnainted with C. 
Julius Caesar, who took him into Graul, and employed him for the re- 
mainder of his career in important offices. He rose to be tribunus 
plebis, then praetor, then pontifex, and lastly consul, b.c. 43. Venti- 
dius greatly distinguished himself as the * legatus ' of M. Antonius 
against the Parthians, and defeated and slew their most redoubtable 
leaders Labienns and Pacorus, b.c. 89, 88. Ventidius had a triumph 
B.c. 38, fifty-one years after he had himself followed in Pompeius^s 
procession as a prisonei*! By Tuliius he means the king Serrius 
TuUius, whode mother Ocrisia, according to the story, was a prisoner 
of war and a siave. The name Serrius shows the condition from 
which he rose. The following words ' Servis regna dabunt * refer to 
him, and ' captivis fata triumphos ' to Ventidius. 

203. Poenituit muUos] Many have got tired of the vain and proiitless 
chair, that is, the professor*8 chair. He instances Thrasymachus and 
Secundus Carinas. The first was one of the sophists who came to 
Athens about the middle of the fifth century b.o. He taught rhetoric 
in particular, and had a high reputation. His end, whicli Juvenal 
alludes to, is not known on any other authority than that of the 
Scholiast on this place, who says he hanged himself. The cause is not 
stated. Secundus Carinas (or Carrinas) was a rhetorician whom 
Cahgula sent into exile, because he declaimed in his school against 
tyrants. ' Hunc ' means Socrates, the person obviously alluded to in 
the foUowing Une. His poverty was proverbial. The demonstrative 
pronoun, where the context makes the meaning plain, has more force 
than the name, and Socrates's name was not convenient. We might 
have expected ' illum ' instead of ' hunc/ or after ' hunc ' a clause with 
the relative ; but there is no doubt whom Juvenal means. With ' Di ' 
(207) supply * dent.' <Loco ' (210) is the locative case. M. 273, obs. 1 ; 
A. 54, 10 ; H. 422, 1, 1. 

210. Metuens virgae] For the constmction, see note on v. 154. 
He contrasts the respeet Achilles showed to his tutor, Chiron the 
Centaur, with the treatment of modem teachers of rhetoric by their 
pupUs ; and yet hc says there might have been some excuse even in 
tliose days for laughing at the old music-master with his horse^s tail 
hanging behind him. On * EUceret,' see references on verse 69. * Cui ' 
is best taken as a dissyllable. The native mountains of AchiUes were 
in Thessaly. 

213. JSea Rufitm] Ruftis the Scholiast says was a Gaul, and very 
eloquent. Juvenal says he called Cicero an Allobrox, in other words, 
a barbarian. He meant probably in comparison with himself ; but his 
pupils beat him notwithstanding. The Allobroges were a GaUic tribe 
on the left bank of the Rhone. The construction of * quemque ' is 
easily explained, as a sort of synesis or partitive apposition. 

215. Quis gremio Encdadi] He leaves speaking of the rhetoric mas- 
ters and turns to the teachers of grammar. Palaemon Hved in the 
time of Tiberius, and was rich and profligate. Enceladus is unknown. 
He asks, Who ever brings and pours into the teacher^s lap as much as 
his iabor deserves ? And even of the smaU fee the boy'8 ' paedagogus ' 



SATIBE vn. 161 

gets a bit before it reaches the master. AcoenoQetus Beems to be a 
proper name invented for this gentieman, who ti;kes as much and gives 
as littie as he can. Tiie Greek uKowuvriTog is exactly copied. 

221. Institor hibemae tegetis] He advises Palaemon to iet the man take 
a slice ofE his fee, and beat him down trom his price, rather than iose 
tiie whole of what he has sat up night after night to earn. * Cadurcum ' 
is a quilt of iinen, the name being derived, as is probable, from the 
Cadurci, a peopie of Gailia, who wove liiien cloth. 

224. obliquo lanam deducere] * Obliquo ferro ' is the carding instru- 
ment, consisting of crooked bits of iron fastened in a board. ' Dedu- 
cere ' and ' trahere ' are usual words for this process. 

225. olfecisse lucemas] Boys going to school at night carried lanterns 
with them ; the master had to bear the smell of as many lamps as 
there were boys, and their books were black witli the smoke. Ttie 
works of Horace came to be a class-book, as he foretold they would ; 
yirgil's were tlius used before his death. 

228. quae coynitione tribuni] Wliat authority for the administration 
of justicethe tribunus plebis had tinder the empire I do not know. 
Under the republic lie had none, directly at least. 

229. Sed vos saevas} He addresses the fathers in an ironical vein. 

230. verborum regma consiet,] This means that his constructions 
should be correct 'Omnes' belongs to 'bistorias' as well as to 
* auctores.' 

233. Pkoebi balnea,] 'Balnea' were bathing-rooms or houses; 
' thermae/ large buildings intended for gymnastic exercises, and also 
supplied with hot water and vapor baths. Thc historical questions 
these poor teachers are to answer are not unparalleled in some modem 
examinations. The Scholiast thought he knew the name of Anchises'8 
nurse, and says it was Tisiphone ; perhaps he jested. There was an 
Archemorus also named Opheltes. His mother's name was Eurydice, 
and his father'8 Lycurgus. He was king of Nemea, and in honor of 
his son the Nemean Games were instituted. But Virgil speaks of 
another. He was son of an Italian prince Rhoetus, who married a 
second wife named Casperia, and her step-son is said to have com- 
mitted incest with her. Acestes is the Sicilian king who twice re- 
ceived Aeneas hospitably. Yirgil speaks of him as an old man, " aevi 
maturus Acestes." The * cadus ' was the same as the ' amphora/ and 
the ' amphora * was equal to two ' umae,' or nearly six gallons. 

237. Exigite ut mores] The poet has put as ironical advice to fathers 
what they do without his advice ; and the requirements contained in 
verses 229-240 are what the man means when he says ' haec cures,' as 
if he had been recounting them to him. ' Inquit,' ' says he,' means 
any father who has a boy in the school. If the master attends to all 
these things, then at the end of the year he will get paid his fee, which 
amounts to as much as a prize-fighter or such like gets in the circus or 
amphitheatre. This the father tells him with much impudence, as if 
that ought to satisfy him. Whether it was usual to pay the teacher^s 
fee annually or not I do not know. Horaoe speaks of its- being paid 
monthly on the Ides. But the practioe must have varied in different 

11 



162 NOTES. 

places. JuTenal sp^aks above (vene 186) of two sestertia as Quin- 
tiliao's fee ; that would be perhaps for a whole year, or a course. The 
sum of five ' aurei ' was allowed to be given to a successful gladiator. 
As to ' ftHfeQs/ see above, verse 122, n. 



SATIRE Vm. 

Thb vice of aristocratic pretension is here represented with mode- 
ration and good sense. There is no idle declamation against heredi- 
tary honors; butthe blindness of men beionging to an exclusive class, 
whose claims to dietinction were* founded upon the merits of the 
great and good of f ormer generations and unsupported by any personal 
merits of their own, is shown in language to which no one can object 
and reasoning which admits of no answer. The Satire is in the form 
of a letter addressed to one Pontius. He is one of the class against 
whose degenerate members the Satire is directed ; and we may sup- 
pose he was a young man with what we should call good prospects. 
The pride of birth and the degeneracy of inherited nobility were not 
new features of society in Juvenal^s time, and they have not grown 
80 old in ours but that generations to come will complain as he did, 
and pour contempt, as he did not, on the inheritance of noble names, 
however virtuous their possessors may be. There are some severe 
lines on the Emperor Nero (211 — 280), and the Satire was written 
after his time, as the context shows ; but how long it is impossible to 
say. Certain references to military movements and victories would 
seem to place it a little later than a.d. 100. 

Argument. — Of what use are pedigrees and ancestral blood, if in 
the face of our great ancestors we live amiss ? Virtue alone is true 
nobility ( 1-20) . Names cannot change nature or make a man illustrious 
(21-38). You take credit to yourself for your descent, and place your- 
self above the common herd. But in that rabble you will find eloquence 
and bravery, while you are useless (39-66). The horse is called noble 
which wins in the race ; if he cannot do this, he sells for little (66-70). 
I would not have you valued on the merits of your family ; it is a poor 
thing to rest on another^s fame. Do your duty, and value not your 
life before your character (71-86). When you get the charge of a 
province, respect the rights of men and obey the laws. Those sub- 
jects suffered less when they were first subdued ; peaceful governors 
have spoiled them. But even they are careful not to touch those 
whom they fear (87-124). If you and your favorites and your wife 
are jyst, you may trace your birth to any source you please. But, 
otherwise, your ancestors only make your shame the greater (126-146). 



SATiRE vm, 163 

Why, a consul driyes horses and takes care of them and frequents 
low. tavems (146-162). Such faults shouldbe left with boyhood. 
The legate is to be f ound in the worst company ; you would send to 
the fields a slaye who should act thus (163-182). It is worse yet 
when our great men go upon the stage and fight ih the arena, choosing 
disgrace (183-210). Many were Nero's crimes; but it was worst of 
all when he sang in theatres, and strove for the parsley crown 
(211-280). Catilina and Cethegus were free-bom; Cicero was 
ignoble, yet he won a greater victory than Octavius. Marius, too, 
and the Decii, and the last good king, were of lowly birth ; a slave 
saved the city, when the consuI*s sons would have betrayed it 
(281-268). You had better be the son of Thersites and like Achilles, 
than be ,the son of Achilles and like Thersites. Go back as far as 
you will,'your progenitor was at best a sh^pherd (269-275). 

1. Stemmata quidfaciunt ?] The Romans had in their * atria' waxen 
busts of their ancestors, which were carried in all f uneral processions 
of the family. They had also tables of their pedigree, in which there 
were portraits with wreaths twined about them ; and on these were 
inscribed the names and ofiSices of the persons represented. The 
tables came to be caUed 'stemmata' from these wreaths. 'Fictos 

.Yultus ' are the portraits on these genealogical trees. 

2. Sanguine censeri] This construction of * censere ' with the abla- 
tive is not found in the writers before the empire. It is the ablative 
of value, and ' longo sanguine censeri ' is to be valued at the worth 
of a long line of ancestors. 

3. stantes in citrribus] See vii. 125, n. ; x. 59. The only historical 
Aemilianus when this was written was the younger Scipio, who was 
born of the Aemilia gens, an old patrician family. His father was 
L. AemiUus Paulus Macedonicus, but he was adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, the son of the elder Scipio Africanus. The fuU name of the 
younger after his adoption was P. Comelius Scipio Aemilianus, to 
which Africanus was afterwards added as an agnomen. The Curii 
were a plebeian famUy, of whom M. Curius Dentatus was the first 
distinguished member. Corvinus was a cognomen of the Valeria 
gens, a very old family. The Galbae belonged to the Sulpicia gens, 
wliich was patrician and of great antiquity . ' Jam dimidios * means 
that they are broken in haU^. Other waxen busts are supposed to 
have lost an arm or to have a piece out of the shoulder. 

6. generis tabi^a] A great roll of his ancestors that the man is sup- 
posed to keep. The commentators now are generaUy agreed in 
rejecting the next verse. Heinrich, who does so, supposes by * virga ' 
the interpolator meant a broom to keep the busts clean ; the SchoUast 
takes it lor the ' fasces.' 

8. Fumosos Equitum] In the middle of the ' atrium ' was a ' f ocus ' 
round which were the images of the Lares. The family chart would 
soon get smoked. A Dictator was in «arly times called ' magister 
popuU,* as being elected by the *populus* or *curiae.* With the 
Dietator was «always appointed another officer subordinate to him, 
who was caUed * magister equitum,' for what reason is not certain. 



164 NOTES. 

9. Si coram Lepidis] The Lepidi were a branch of the Aemilia gens 
(verse 3), a great number of whom held the first offices of the state. 
' Effigies ' is the accusatiye ; some such verb as ' parasti ' is to be 
supplied. M. 239 ; A. & S. 209, R. 4 ; Z. 770 ; B. 720, b. Numantinus 
was an agnomen given to Scipio Africanus the Younger after the 
capture of Numantia, b.c. 133. The plural in verses 11 and 13 is 
like ' Licinis * in i. 109. Compare M. 50, obs. 4. 

13. Cur AUobrogicis] Q. Fabius Maximus was sumamcd AUobro- 
gicus from liis rictory over the Gallic tribe Allobroges in the year of 
his consulship, b.c. 121. The Fabia gens were said to be descendants 
of Ilercules. The Ara Maxima, an altar near the Forum Boarium, 
was said to W that which Hercules built after he had killed Cacus. 
' Gaudeat ' is the dubitatiye subjunctive, taking the place of the indica- 
tive wliich the apodosis 'vv^ould regularly require. A. 67, 6 ; H. 
611, 1 ; B. 1263. 

15. Euffonea guantumvia mollior agna ;] The Euganei were originally 
the occupiers of all the country which the Veneti afterwards pos- 
sessed. We do not hear elsewhere of their flocks, but aU that region 
was famous for its pastures. ' Quantumvis ' is ' ever so much,' as 
we say. 

16. attritus Oatinensi pnmice] The town of Catina was situated at 
the foot of Aetna, and the rough stones thrown up by that volcano 
were abund&nt in the neighborhood. They were used by the effemi- 
nate for rubbing the skin. ^Lumbum ' is the so-caUed Greek accusa- 
tive. A. 52, 3, c ; H. 380 ; B. 728 ; M. 237, c. 

17. Squaientes traducit oix^s,] * Squalentes ' means * rough,* * rugged,' 
and is opposed to the flne soit skin this degenerate Fabius cultivates. 

* Traducit ' seems to be * exposes to contempt.' The next line is, * If 
he buy poison and disgrace his house by having his bust broken, as 
if he were convicted of murder it would be, either by the pubUc 
executioner or by the populace.' * Funestare ' is properly to deflle by 
blood. 

21. PauUus vel Cossus rd Drusus] These were cognomens of the 
AemiUa, ComeUa, and Claudia gentes. There were more than one 
whom Juvenal may have had in mind. 'Hos' and 'lUi' refer to 

* moribus.' * Virgas ' means the * fasces.' 

26. Agnosco procerem.] * I recognize the nobleman.' He is speaking 
throughout of this class; and though virtue in any class is true 
nobiUty, he is here speaking of virtue in the privileged class, as it is 
caUed. On the form of the sentence, see on iii. 1(X) ; II. 603, 1 ; B. 
1279. ' Gaetulicus ' was a title given to Cossus CorneUus Lentulus ; 
the Silani were connected by marriage with the famUy of the 
Caesars. 

29. popufus quod damat] Osiris was worshipped in part of Kgypt 
under the form of the buU Apis. When the buU had reached a certain 
age, he was drowned, and the people went into mouming untU they 
could find another animal properly marked to take his place. The 
exclamation raised when the buU was found was (in Goeek) eifpr^Kafiev, 
ovyxaipijfiev. 



SATIRE vin. 165 

30. generosvm dixerit] ' Generosus ' as its deriyation shows, belongs 
properiy to descent. But, like eiyevyc, it came to have a wider sense. 
A man might be * nobiiis ' without being * generosus/ the former 
being nobility of personal distinction, the latter of patrician blood. 
The verb 'est' of the relative clause Ib to be supplied. See M. 
479, obs. 

32. Nanum cujttsdam] In the later times of the republic and after- 
wards it was tlie fashion for rich persons to have idiots, dwarfs, and 
other deformities in their houses to amuse them. The former were 
called *moriones' or 'fatui,' the latter *nani,' * pumiliones,' or 

* pumili.* They were of either sex. The practice has been continued 
to very late times, and is not unknown now, especially in the £ast. 
'Pravam' is *crooked,' and *extortam' is ^twisted out of shape,' 
80 there is not much difference. 

38. ne tu sis Creticus aui Camerinus.] Creticus was an agnomen of 
the Caecilii Metelli first given to Q. Caecilius Metellus, who conducted 
and brought to a successful conclusion the war with Crete, for which 
he triumphed, b.c. 62. The Caeciha gens was plebeian, but much 
distinguished. Camerinus was the name of a good old family of the 
patrician gens Sulpicia. Juvenal, after saying that things are called 
by their opposites, advises his friend not to be called a Creticus 
or Camerinus, for the inference would be that he was something 
very low. 

39. Ruhelli Plaute.] C. Rubellius Plautus was descended through 
his mother Julia from Tiberius, whose son Drusus was Julia^s father. 
He incurred the jealousy of Nero, who caused him to be put to deatK, 
A.D. 62. Juvenal makes use of his name probably without thinking 
much about accuracy, and though the man had been dead some years 
he speaks of him as still ahve. On * feceris ' in verse 41, see A. 61, 1, 
R. ; M. 849 and obs. ; Z. 572. ' Esses ' takes its tense from ' feceris.' 

42. Ut te conciperet] The man is as proud as if he had done some- 
thing to deserve nobility, and to be bom of a noble mother rather 
than of a poor woman w.orking for daily pay at the loom by tl'.e 

* agger ' of TuIIius, respecting which see note on v. 153. ' Propter 
quod ' and * ut * are parallel, each introducing a purpose. 

46. Ast ego Cecropides /1 E^yiveia KtKpoiroQ was a proverb. The man 
means he is of royal blood, that is all. 

49. Nobilis indocti ;] 'Nobilis' is not used as a substantive, and 
' indocti * does not agree with it as an ad jective with a noun. It is 
*the nobleman who is unleamed,' as 'jam veteres caecos * in vii. 
170 is * blind men who are quite old.' * Quiritem * is emphatic ; he is 
not only a man, but a Roman citizen, and worthy of being so. As to 
*plebe togata,' see i. 96. The poorer sort of people may have 
been so called by the rich from their frequent appearance before 
thera in the * toga,' without which it was not respectf ul to go into the 
presence of their patrons. 

51. petit Euphraten juvenis] ' Juvenis ' is a man of fighting age, and 
here it is used emphatically for a brave soldier. The state of the 
East required the presence of a standing army to'keep down rebellion 



166 NOTES. 

in Armenia, which was reduced to a Homan province by Trajan, and 
to check the Parthians. The Batavi were a brave people, and wero 
never strictly tributary to the Romans. In the years a.d. 69, 70, they 
carried on a sharp struggle for independence under a native chief 
Civilis. They were at last put down. The satire, therefore, wa« 
written af ter this war. * Aquilas ' is put for the army left af ter the 
outbreak to prevent a recurrence of it. 

53. truncoque simillimus Ilermae.] This seems to have been prover- 
bial. * Hermae * were busts ; properly, but not necessarily, of Hermes 
or Mercurius, which, Uke the Greeks, the Komans used to omament 
gardens, to mark boundaries, and for other purposes. ' Trunco ' only 
means that it had no legs. It ended in a square column. 

56. Teucronun profes,] See note on i. 100, * Ipsos Trojugenas.' 
* Sic ' is ' on these conditions,' and ' cui ' is equivalent to * si ilii.' 

63. Hirpini] Lipsius gives an inscription which he says he saw and 
copied at Rome, by which it appears that Uirpinus was the son of 
Aquilo, a celebrated racer. The stone Lipsius describes was a curious 
one. It had the figure of a man of the Red faction standing in the 
middle, with a stick in his right liand and some hay in the left, and 
two horses jumping upon him, one on each side ; these are the sire 
Aquilo and the son Hirpinus. The inscription on one side is Aquilo 
N. Aquilonis vicit cxxx. Secund. tulit lxxxviii. Ter. tuht 
XXXVII. On the other is Hirpinus N. Aquilonis vicit cxiiii. 
Secundas tulit lvi. Tert. tul. XXXVI. The other horse ' Corytha' 
ifl unknown ; in f act the proper spelling of the name is doubtf ul. 

66. trito ducunt epireaia coilo] They are put to draw with galled 
neck ' epiredia,' which were carts or hamess, it seems uncertain which. 
*Nepos* is the name of a baker. There were hand-mills and mills 
tumed by horses, or more commonly asses, which is the origin of the 
term fiuXo^: dviKog, which occurs twice in the New Testament (Matt. 
xviii. 6 ; Luke xvii. 2). On the use of * versare' for *qui versentur/ 
see A. 65, 2,/, M. 363, obs. 1 ; B. 921. 

68. primum aliquid da] * Da * means ' tell me.' * Damus et dedimus,' 
' we give and have always given,' expresses the heartiness with whi(i 
sucli honor is given where it is due. 

71. quem nobis fama superbum Tradit] * Whose nobility gives him to 
us proud, pufifed up, and f ull of his relationship to Nero.' 

73. sensas commnnis] This means a sense held in common with 
others. (See Horace, S. i. 3. 66, " communi sensu plane caret.") That 
sense which is common property would naturally escape the exclu- 
sives. It implies a sympathy with mankind which the pride of birth 
in the nature of the case prevents, and also a knowledge of character 
and of th^ value of things only to be got through the experience of 
common life and intercourse with practical minds. In Horace*s in- 
stancc this common sense is what the French call * tact.' The man 
there might be a worthy man, but he had a way of doing things out 
of time arid place, and annoying people by want of consideration. 
Here the want of common sense is shown in a silly ignorance of self, 
<Lnd of the worth of that which all the rest of the world knows is 



SATIRE VIII.' 167 

worth notliing to him. The phrase * communis sensus ' has a variety 
of applications which are easily made. See Bowen's Hamilton^s Meta- 
physics, chap. xxvii. 

78. Stratus humi palmes] Horace repeatedly refers to this practice of 
training the vine to trees. 

79. tutor bonus,] * Tutor ' was the guardian of a minor^s property, 
and tlie minor was his * pupillus.' 

81. Phalaris licet imperet] The story of Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigen- 
tum, and his bull is sufficiently well known. 

85. Dignus morte perit,] ''That man deserves death, and is dead 
already." The subject is impiied in what goes before, the man who 
prefers his life to his lionor, and for iife's sake throws away that for 
whicii lie lives (the maintaining of his honor). * Pudor ' in tiiis sense 
is not f ound eariier than Juvenai. * Perit ' is the perfect tense. 

86. Gaurana et Cosmi] Mons Gaurus was close to tlie Lacus Lucri- 
nus, wliicli was famous for its oyster-beds. Cosmus is the name of a 
perfumer of ten referred to by MartiaL * Aeno ' is the vessel in which 
he prepared his perfumes. *Toto mergatur aeno' is the sarae as 

* totus mergatur,' ' though he be plunged head over ears in Cosmus^s 
copper.' 

89. miserere inopum sociorum ;] The term *socii' was applied to all 
the subjects and tributaries of Rome, natives of countries beyond the 
limits of Italy. All other foreign nations were * exterae nationes.' By 

* regum ' lie means native princes, who were allowed .to retain the title 
with no power, and whom tlie Roman govemors drained, leaving them 
witliout authority or money, like bones witli the marrow extracted. 
' Vacuis exsucta medulUs ' is, by hypallage, f or * vacua exsuctis 
medullis.' 

91. quid curia mandet,] The govemors of the senatorial provinces, 
like those of the imperial, received their instructions from the emperor 
by 'rescripta.' But their appointment was nominally in the senate, 
whose authority they were supposed to represent. Cossutianus Gapito 
was appointed goveraor of Cilicia in the year a.d. 66. Next year he 
was charged by the provincials with extortion and degraded. But he 
recovered his senatorial rank through the influence of Tigellinus, his 
father-in-law. Numitor is unknown. He calls them pirates of tlie 
Cilicians, perhaps because those people had been themselves notorious 
pirates. The names Pansa and Natta as govemors of provinces are 
unknown. * Tibi ' means any provincial ; Chaerippus, for" instance, 
whom he advises to look out for a * praeco ' to sell his tattered clothes 
(all he has left), and then hold his tongue, and not think of wasting 
his money by coming to Rome to complain, which iie expresses by 
saying it is mere madness, after all he has lost, to throw away the 
cost of a voyage. *Naulum,' which is borrowed from the Greek 
(vqvTmv), is found in the law writers. It is the fare. 

98. Non idem gemitus] He says the provincials suffered less from 
conquest than they sunered afterwards from their governors. The 
conquerors left them their money ai^d other property. The * chlamys * 
was a light shawl wom by tiie Greeks, and occasionally by Romans 



168 NOTES. 

under the empire. The Laconian was a purple dye. The Coan 
dresses were of fine silk, very ihin. ' Conchylia ' were shell-fish from 
which a purple was exlracted. It was not exactly the same as the 

* purpura/ though not usuaUj distinguished from iL The painter 
Parrhasius of Ephesus flourished at Athens during the latter part of 
the Peloponnesian War; about the beginning ot which flourished 
Myron, the great sculptor, who is the reputed artist of the AowioAof, 
of which casts and copies may be seen. * Phidiacum ebur ' refers 
to tlie chryselephantine statues of Piiidias, .the most celebrated of 
which were the statue of Athene in the Parthenon, and of Zeus at 
Olympia, Phidias, the oldest of the artists here mentioned, was of 
nearly the same age with Polycletus of Argos, who executed a cele- 
brated statue in ivory and- gold of Hera for her temple neAr Argos. 

* Vivebat * expresses the life-like character of the statues. Mentor was 
a celebrated artist in silver about tlie middle of the fourth century 
B.c. His cups and other works, or works whicli passed for his, were 
highly esteemed by the Romans. 

105. Inde LhlabeUa] Cn. Dolabelia was praetor of Cilicia, b.c. 80, 
79, and on his retum to Rome was prosecuted for * repetundae/ * ex- 
tortion,' and was convicted cliiefly on the evidence of C. Verres, his 
proquaestor, who himseif afterwards becamc so notorious as tlie 
plunderer of Sicily. Dolabella was sent into exile ; and Verres went 
into voluntary banishment rather than abide tlie result of Cicero'8 
famous prosecution. C. Antonius, uncle of tlie triumvir M. Antonius, 
was proconsul of Macedonia, and on liis retum to Konie was, like the 
others, prosecuted for plundering the province, and though Cicero, 
whose colleague he had been in the consulship, defendedhun, he was 
convicted and went into exile, b.c. 69. 

107. plures de pace triumphos.] They got more triumphs out of peace 
than conquerors got from war, that is, more spoils such as were 
carried in triumphal processions. But now the ' socii ' liave but httle 
left, and that little they are robbed of . The final syllable in * occulta ' 
is made long by position. See H. 611, 1, 1; B. 1427,2; A. & S. 283, 
IV., R. * Lares ' is not to be taken strictly, for he is not speaking of 
Romans; but other nations had their lieroes and tutelary gods, of 
whom they kept images in their houses. * Aedicula ' is a small recess 
set apart for the reception of these images. * Signum ' is the word for 
any figure carved or cast ; * statua ' is confined to f ull-length figures. 

113. Forsitan imbelles Rhodtos] The luxurious and vicious character 
of the Corinthians is well known. Juvenal gives the Rhodians the 
epithet which Horace applies to the Tarentines. 

114. Quid resinata juventus] Resin was used for smoothing the skin, 
like the rough stone mentioned aboye (verse 16). * Axis* is not un- 
commonly put for a region of the sky, and then for a country. * Latus ' 
is used for the sea-coast. 

118. Qui saturant Urbem] He is speaking of the Africans, who sup- 

?lied the greater part of the com imported into Rome. ' Qui saturant 
Irbem ' means that they fiU the bellies of the citizens, whom he 
describes as wasting their time in the circus and the theatre. ' Autem ' 



SATiRE vm. 169 

m&y here be rendered ' besides/ See M. 437, b. As to Marius, see 
i. 47, n. * Discinxerit ' is used as we use the word * strip.' 

122. Fortibus et miseris^:] It is not well to do any great wrong to 
those who are at once brave and poor (miseris), for if you take £eir 
money they wiil use their arms. 

125. non est sententia :] He means it is not what we call a saw, a 
commonplace. The * Sibyllini libri ' were writings of a prophetic or 
oracular character, originally of great antiquity. The old books were 
kept in the Capitol, and destroyed with the temple by fire, b.o. 83, 
during Sulla's invasion of Italy. A collection was afterwards made 
from various parts of the Roman dominions of writings professing to 
be taken from the SibyUine books, and this new Qellection was de- 
posited in the same temple when it was rebuilt. These sacred books 
were placed by Augustus in the Palatine temple of Apollo. In con- 
sulting the books a leaf appears to have been taken at random, which 
explaifis the text. 

127. Si tibi sancta cohors comitum,] * Cohors * and * comites ' were 
used for the personal staff of a goTemor. ' Tribunal vendit ' means 

* sells your judgments.' It is like * suffiragia vendimus ' (x. 77). 
' Acersecomes,' aKepaeKOfirfc (with hair unshorn), is Homer^s epithetfor 
Apollo, and here means a favorite boy kept for bad purposes. 

128. si nuUum in conjuge crimen,] In the time of the republic gover- 
nors were not allowed to take their wives abroad with them. Augustus 
was very strict about this. But he himself took Livia with him on 
more than one tour. Afterwards the practice became conimon. We 
know from' the Evangelist St. Matthew that Pilate's wife was with 
him at Jerusalem. 

129. Nec per conventus] Every province was divided into districts, 
in each of which tliere was a town where llie governor going round 
his province stopped and received all Roman citizens of that district 
who came for justice or other business. These meetings were called 

* conventus,' and so also were the districts. Celaeno was one of the 
harpies, and ' curvis unguibus ' represents the Greek yaurjjuwi. Here 
the wife is meant. 

131. Tunc licet a Pico] Picus was a son of Satumus, and an early 
mythical king of Italy. ' Omnem Titanida pugnam ' is the same as 

* omnes Titanas pugnatores ; * the figure is metonomy. They were 
sons of Earth, and Prometheus was one of them. The force of 

* ipsum,* Prometheus himself, is that he was reputed to have been the 
creator of man. * Avus,' ' proavus,' * abavus,' ' atavus,* * tritavus,' is 
the ascending scale, but each of these words is used generically for 
ancestors. 

136. Si frangis virgas] Scourging was practised only on those who 
were not Roman citizens. There was a Lex Porcia which forbade any 
citizen to be scourged. '^Facinus est vincire civcm Romanum ; scelus 
verberare ; prope parricidium necare ; quid dicam in crucem tollere ? 
verbo satis digno tam nefaria res appellari nullo modo potest " ( Cic. in 
Verr. ii. 6. 66). Of this enormity Verres was guilty. The usual way 
of putting to death was by beheading. The cross was confined to 



170 NOTES. 

Blaves and the lowest malefactors. There is a paratlel to 140, 141, in 
Wisdom yi. 5, .6 : " A sharp judgment shall be to them that are in high 
places; for mercy will soon pardon the meanest, but mighty men 
shall be mightily tormented. With 14^ 145, compare Job xxiv. 
16-17. 

142. Quo mihi te] After ' quo/ * to what purpose/ an ellipsis is com- 
monly found (see above on verse 9). Here we may understand * jactas ' 
or * ostentas.' Wills were sometimes executed and kept in the temples. 

145. Santonico] The Santones were a Gallic people north of the 
Garonne. Their name remains in the town of Saintes. They made 
woollen manufactures. 

146. Praeter Majorum cineres] This is explained on i. 171. * Carpen- 
tum ' was a covered carriage on two wheels. Juvenal is speaking of 
tbe way in which men of family degrade themselves as coachraen 
(see i. 69, n.), and says that actually a consul may be seen putting a 
big drag on liis wheel with his own liands. 

147. pinguis Lateranus,] Lateranus was a cognomen of the Claudia 
gens, of the Sextia, and of the Plautia. * Testes/ in verse 149, is best 
taken as nominative. 

153. Jam senis,] ' Jam ' is only emphatic, like v^. The coachman 
is not ashamed to meet his friend, tnough quite an old man, whom 
he ought to have blushed to meet. He recognizes him first and 
salutes him with his whip, as we see drivers do now, turning up the 
but-end as they pass an acquaintance. * Maniplos ' are the bands of 
hay. He goes through all the dirty work of a groom. 

157. Solam Eponam] Plutarch says that Epona was the offspring 
of a man and a mare, and that she looked after horses ; she was the 
mule-drivers' goddess. 'Juro,' like dfiwfit, is construed with the 
accusative. See Hadley*8 Greek Grammar, 544, a. 

158. Sed quum pervigiles] * But when he chooses to visit the eating- 
houses,' which are called * pervigiles * because they were kept open all 
night for the benefit of such people. * Instaurare * is * to repeat.' 
Here it means to visit again and again. 

159. Syrophoenix udus amomo] The host aJways runs out to meet 
him with a box of ointment such as the luxurious commonly put on 
their hair when they sat down to meals. The people of Coelesyria 
and Thoenice were called Syrophoenicians. They contained among 
them remnants of the earliest inhabitants. The woman who is called 
a Syrophoenician by the Evangelist St. Mark Cvii. 26), is called by 
St. Matthew a Canaanite (xv. 22). This Syrophoenician is said to 
be an inhabitant of a town of Idumaea, which is perhaps here meant 
for Judaea. * Porta ' is used for a place through which trafflc passes. 
See xi. 124; cf. iii. 4. Idumaea properly is the equivalent for Edom, 
and therefore included only the country inhabited by the Edomites, 
which was from the southem border of Canaan to Mount Horeb in 
Arabia. In later times Idumaea extended to Hebron on the north. 
The chief town was Petra, a place of great traffic with Rome and 
other countries. 

161. Hospitis affectn] With all the air of a host he salutes his 



SATIKE vin. 171 

customer as My Lord and King, and the hostess bustles in with wine. 

* Lagena ' and * amphora ' are tlie same vessel. * Venali ' only means 
that he must pay for it. 

164. Desisti nempe,] *But of course you have left them off.' 

* Nempe * is formed from * nam * and * pe ' (which is the same as * que ' 
probably), as *quippe' from *quia/ and they mean 'surely/ ' of 
eourse.' -M. 435, obs. 4; Z. 278. 

168. Tkennarum calices] * Thermae ' here is the same as ' thermo- 
polium.' Hot wine and water was a favorite drink with the Romans, 
and it was sold at these * popinae,' where the food and drink were 
consumed on the premises, not supphed to be taken home, as 
from 'cauponae/ *Liscripta lintea' has been vailously explained. 
It is most iikely a curtain before the shop to keep the sun off. The 
shops were open then, as they commonly are now. The *Iinteum' 
had a sign or a name on it. ' Inscripta ' is the same as * picta/ * em- 
broidered ; ' it is not so used elsewhere. 

169. Armeniae Syriaeque] The Germans on the Rhine and the 
Scythian tribes on the Danube were perpetual sources of trouble to 
the Romans. He says at the age when this man is wasting his life 
he might be serving in the army and protecting the empire. He uses 
Nero's name generically for the emperor of the day, whoever he was. 
The ablative absolute is concessive ; " though tlie rivers need garri- 
sons." The rivers of Syria and Armenia are the Euphrates and the 
Tigris. 

171. Mitte ostiay CaesaVy] *Ostia* is here taken for the mouth of 
the Tiber, where he would have to embark for foreign service. The 
word is in the accusative, as the name of a place. * Jacentem ' means 

* lying at table.' * Sandapilae * were common biers, on which poor 
people were carried out to burial. The Galli and their drums are 
well known. This priest is lying drunk on his back with his drum 
by his side. The vulgar group and their familiarity are well repre- 
sented here, and the scene is one Hogarth might have drawn. 

180. Nempe in Lucanos] After * Lucanos,' * agros ' must be supplied. 

* Ergastula ' were places in which slaves were kept in chains at various 
employments, such as grinding com, cutting and breaking stones, and 
other country work, and taken as they were wanted to work in the 
fields. There were one or more * ergastula ' attached to most estates, 
and slaves were sent to them for misbehavior or through the caprice 
of their masters. As to * Trojugenae,' see i. 100, n., and in tliis satire, 
verses 42, 66. Volesus was the father of Valerius Poplicola, who was 
associated with Brutus in the first consulship after the expulsion of 
the Tarquins. 

185. Conmmptis opihus] Under the name of Damasippus, he means 
any person of good family who was reduced to acting on the stage in 
a low farce of CatuIIus. ' Siparium * is properly a stage curtain ; 
here it stands for the theatre. The name of the * mimus ' is The 
Ghost, and it was probably fuU of coarse, noisy fun. * Infamia ' was 
a consequence of appearing on a public stage as an actor. Laureolus 
was the titie of another ' mimus by the same author, and Lentulus 



172 NOTES. 

is another patrician. The name belonged to the Cornelia gens. 
This play was celebrated. Laureolus, the principal character, was 
crucified for some delinquency. Josephus says he was a robber. 
Juyenal says that the man who acted him, vigorously and even well, 
onght to hare been hanged in reality. 

190. triscurrta patriciurumf] This word * triscurria ' is not found 
elsewhere. The more likely derivation is from ^scurra/ and *tri- 
scurria' are buffooneries of the lowest kind, 'tri' having, as in 
several other words, an intensive meaning. If the word were com- 
pounded of ' curro/ it would be ' tricurria/ for ' tris ' is Greek. 

191. Planipedes audit Fabios,] * Flanipedes ' were actors in ' mimi/ 
so called because they wore nothing on their feet. The Mamerci 
were a family of the Aemilia gens, patricians. 

192. Quanti sua funera vendant] He goes on to show how patricians 
hired themselves out as gladiators. In tlie thne of the republic most 
of the * ludi publici ' were under the management of the aediles. 
Under the empire the aediles had inferior f unctions, and the office fell 
into disrepute. Thc pubiic games and theatrical representations 
were thenceforward managed by the praetors. The praetor sat on 
his curule chair, raised above the other seats, and he is therefore 
called ' celsi.' ' Ludis ' is used to denote the time when the sale is 
made. M. 276, obs. 2 ; H. 426, 1. 

195. Finge tamen gladios] Suppose this choice were given you of 
the sword or the stage, who would hesitate between death and 
degradation? 'Quid* is for 'utrum;* as in English *which' has 
taken the placeof ' whether' (of two things). Thymele the 'mima' 
has been mentioned before, with her partner Latinus (i. 36). 
Zelotypus is the jealous husband in the play, as 'stupidus' is the 
blockhead who got knocked about Corinthus seems to have been 
famous in this part. Nothing more is known of him. Nero's pride 
in his musical attainments is well known ; see below on verse 225. 
*Mimu8' and 'planipes* (191) are the same. Unlike the Greeks, 
from whom the word is borrowed, the Romans gave the name to the 
actor as well as to the play. 

199. Haec ultra quid erit nisi ludus ?] * Aflter this (if we go on in 
this way ) what shall we have at Rome but shows 1 ' * Ludus ' or 
' res ludicrae ' included theatrical and gladiatorial and all other shows. 

* Illud ' refers to what follows, which is an instance. See A. 20, 2, b ; 
H. 450, 3 ; M. 485, 6. ' Et ' is used to introduce an illustration. The 
especial disgrace of the person referred to as Gracchus is, that he 
preferred fighting as a ' retiarius * whose arms and dress gave him no 
disguise, since he wore no helmet or shield, and nothing but a cap and 
short tunic, so that everybody could see and recognize his face. The 

* mirmillones ' were also called Galli, being armed like the Gauls with 
a helmet, a short sword, and an oblong shield covering the greater 
part of their body. * Falce ' means * a ^hort sword ; ' and ' supina,' 
'upturned.' The 'retiarius' threw his net, and, if he failed to 
entangle his adversary, caught it up and ran round the Circus, 
pursued by the other, tiil he could get another opportunity of throwing 



SATiRE vm. 173 

it. * Spectacula ' means the * spectatores.* When a gladiator was 
beaten he commonly held up his hand to the spectatora to plead for 
his lifej which depended upon their caprice. 

207. Credamus tunic^e,] We may know it is Gracchus by his tunic, 
and the strings (spira) of his cap, which, as well as the tunic, were 
embroidered with gold. It appears froni this that Gracchus was one 
of the priests of Mars, who wore tunics and caps of tliis kind. 
* Secutor ' was another kind of gladiator, who was usually matched 
with the * retiarius.' * Ergo ' means, since then he is well known to 
be but a priest, the 'secutor' will only be disgraced by sucli au 
adversary. 

212. Senecam praeferre Neroni ?] Tacitus says that in the conspiracy 
against Nero headed by Piso (a.d. 65), some of the principal conspira^ 
tors agreed that, after the tyrant was killed, Piso should also be put 
out of the way, and the enipire Qflfered to Seneca, who had been tutor 
to Nero, but had fallen under his suspicion. The conspiracy was 
discovered, and Seneca was charged with being a party to it, and put 
to death with several others. Tiberius, two years aiter he became 
emperor, put an end to the little influence for elections that Augustus 
left the comitia of the centuries. See Tac. Ann. i. 16. 

213. Cujtts supplicio] The punishment for * parricidium * from very 
early times was that the criminal be scourged, and sewn up in a sack 
with a dog, a cock, a snake, and a monkey, and thrown into the sea. 
Juvenal says that Nero deserved this many times over. He put to 
death his mother Agrippina at the instigation of his mistress Poppaea 
Sabina, a.d. 59. Three years afterwards he divorced, banished, and 
murdered his wife Octavia, and having married Poppaea killed her in 
a fit of rage. He also caused to be put to death, because she would 
not marry him, Antonia, his sister by adoption, being the daughter of 
Claudius, who adopted Nero and made hmi his heir, to the exclusion 
of his own son Britannicus, whose death Nero effected by the hands 
of Locusta, having before been a party to the murder of his father 
Claudius, contrived by his mother Agrippina. Besides Britannicus, 
Nero poisoned his father^s sister Domitia for her money. AU this 
he says was worse than any thing Orestes did. He put his mother 
Clytemnestra to death, but he did it by the order of ApoUo, to revenge 
his father'8 niurder. He did not murder his sister Electra, nor his 
wife Hermione (daughter of Menelaus and Helen), nor poison his 
relations. 

219. Sanguine conjugii ;] This is used for 'conjugis,* by a common 
trope. Nero went upon the stage first at Naples, where he appeared 
several times. He is said to have written a poem on the burning of 
Troy. Dion Cassius mentions the poem, which Suetonius says Nero 
recited while Rome was burning, looking out from a tower and 
admiring the beauty of the flames. See Tac. Ann. xv. 39. 

221. Quid enim Verginius armis] He asks which of all Nero'8 crimes 
80 called for punishment as his having written this duU poem. L. Ver- 
ginius Kufus, Julins Vindex, and Galba were govemors of Upper 
Germany, Gallia, and Hispania Tarraconensis under Nero. Vindex 



174 NOTES. 

rebelled, and offered to'get the empire for Galba, but lost his life in a 
battle with Verginius, who was sent against him, but who afterwards 
was mainly instruniental in establishing Galba, though he never took 
up arms directly against Nero. Juvenal speaks of them all as if they 
were leagued against Nero, and it is true that Verginius and Vindex 
were in commuuication just before the battle in which the latter lost 
his life. 

223. tam saem crudaque iyrannide] Tlie reign of Nero was from A d. 
54 to 68. It began in murder, and was brought to an abrupt end through 
the hatred created by his savage conduct. The praetorian troops were 
induced by tiieir commander Nymphidius Sabinus to revolt in favor of 
Galba, and Nero being entirely deserted by soldiers and friends 
destroyed himself 

224. generosi Principis] * Geuerosi ' is used sarcastically. 

225. peret/rina ad pulpitaj Nero went (a.d. 67) through Achaia and 
various parts of Greece, reciting in the theatres and contending for the 
prizes at the Olympic games. He was highly delighted with thc flat- 
tery of the Achaeans, who sent him all the crowns of the musicians 
as if he were Apollo and the guardian of the Muses. The number 
of his crowns is said to have exceeded 1800. Consult Merivale, 
vi. 108, 269, 278-6. * Cantu,' * cantare ' (verse 220), mean only reci- 
tation. 

226. apium meruisse coronae] Parsley was used for the crown of tlie 
victors in the Isthmian and Nemean games. The Olympic crown was 
of olive, and the Pytliian of laurel. 

228. Ante pedea Uomiti] Nero's name before his adoptlon by his step- 
father Claudius was L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, and in that branch of 
the Domitia gens there were many distinguished persons whose busts 
were in his palace. The poet tells him to hang up by their images 
his stagc dresses and harp, as soldiers hung their armor and spoils. 

* Syrma ' was a train attached to the ' palla,' worn by tragic actors, so 
named frora avpeiv, to sweep. Melanippe was a daughter of Aeolus. 
By * marmoreo colosso * he means a colossal statue of one of liis an- 
cestors. 

231. Quid, Catilinajuis] Catilina was of the Sergia gens, one of the 
oldest patrician families ; and Cethegus, his chief companion in his 
conspiracy, was of the Comelia gens. Their conspiracy is weU kuown. 
See Merivale, i. 114, sqq. 

234. Ift Braccatonm jmeri] Before the formation of the separate 
province Gallia Narbonensis, it appears tliat the Romans gave the 
inhabitants the name * Braccati ' (as they called themselves Mogati') 
from their wearing, like nearly all other nations not Greek or Roman, 
' braccae,' * breeches.' The Senones were an ancient Gallic tribe on 
the Seine. Thev were among the Gauls who invaded Italy in the 
tirae of the Tarquins, and they remained in Umbria till the Romans 
destroyed them all, b.c. 283. 

235. tunica punire molesta.] This has been alluded to above (i. 156) ; 

* tunica molesta' seeras to have been a familiar name. 

237. Eic novus Arpinas,] Arpinura was a town of Latium and a 



SATIEE VIII. 175 

municipium, and there Cicero was born, b.c. 106. He was the first of 
bjs gens (Tullia) that had curule honors, and was therefore 'novus 
homo ' and ' ignobiUs.' After him his family became * nobihs.' He 
was consul b.c. 63, and in that year the conspiracy of Catihna was 
formed. Cicero often alludes to his own connection with the eques- 
trian order. * Galeatum' means with their helmets on ready for 
action, as in i. 169. * Attonitis * refers to tlie people, who knew noth- 
ing of the reasons for such measures. * In omni gente laborat ' means 

* lie cares for all people.* 

240. toga contulit iUi] * Toga ' is equivalent to peace, as is common. 

* Nominis et tituli ' is a common way of speaking, where a general 
term is put first and a particular form of it follows. The title was 

* pater patriae.' Cicero was honored by Catulus and Cato addressing 
him as * parens patriae.* ' And at that time,' Juvenal adds, ' they 
were free.* He means that afterwards, wlien they gave itto Augustus 
and to other emperors after him, they were not free.^ By Leucas he 
means the battle of Aetium, which place was about thirty miles north 
of the island of Leucas or Leucadia. The other battle referred to is 
rhliippi, which was in Thrace, but was included in the province of 
Macedonia. * Thessaiiae campis * therefore is an inaccuracy, proba- 
bly arising from a confusion of Philippi with Pharsalia which Juvenal 
shares with other authors. See Merivale, iii. 170, note 2. The original 
name of Augustus was C. Octavius; hut he dropped this at liis great 
uncle'8 death, and then he became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, to 
which the title of Augustus was added, b.c 27. 

242. Octavius ahstulit] The ' non ' which belongs to this clause must 
be suppUed from the preceding. 

245. Arpinus alius] This was C. Marius, who was also bom at 
Arpinum of poor parents. He served in the cavalry at the siege of 
Numantia under Scipio Africanus Minbr. His military abihties raised 
him to high estate, and he married a great lady, Julia, the aunt of 
^hini who was afterwards the Dictator, C. Caesar. The vine switch was 
commonly used for military floggings ; and he says Marius had the 
switch broken over his head if he did his work lazily, which he was 
not likely to do. 

248. muniret castra ddahra.] Although a body of 'fabri,' *engi- 
neers/ was attached to every Koman army, each ordinary foot soldier 
carried a hatchet, an axe, a saw, a basket, a mattock, a knife, a leather 
strap, and a chain, besides a stake for intrenchments and three days' 
provision. * Securis,' the hatchet, waa a distinct thing from * dolabra,' 
which was a hatchet on one side, but had a pick on the other. On 
the subjunctive, see A. 69, 6, b ; M. 359; H. 486, 5. 

249. Hic tamen et Cimbros] For about six years the Romans were 
kept in a state of great alarm by barbarian tribes from the north, 
among whom the Cimbri were the most important. Marius was 
recalled frora Africa to oppose tliem. In b.c. 102, in his fourth con- 
sulship, he defeated and utterly destroyed the army of the Teutones 
at Aquae Sextiae (Aix, near Marseille) ; and in the following 3'ear, 
being again consul, he and Q. Lutatius Catulus defeated the Cimbri 



176 NOTES. 

on a plain called Campi Raudii, near Vercellae in OalHa Cisalpina. 
Plutarch records that there was more credit given to Marius than to 
Catulus, though the soldiers of Catulus had done more to get the yic* 
tory. He adds that the soldiers were prepared to prevent his triumph, 
if Catulus were not allowed to share it. Marius had the title of third 
fouuder of Rome given him on this occasion. 

251. postquam ad Cimbros] This is only a way of saying after the 
battle. The greater part of the army was cut to pieces on the field. 
It is said t^iat about 120,000 fell and 60,000 were made prisoners ; but 
probably there is great exaggeration in the numbers'. 

254. Plebeiae Deciorum animae,] The Decii were, as Juvenal says, 
a plebeian family, but a very old one, for at the secession of the plebs, 
B.c. 494, M. Decius was one of the deputies sent by them to treat. 
with the senate. P. Decius Mus was the first consul of the family, 
B.c. 380; in that year he commanded the Roman forces, in conjunc- 
tion with his colleague, T. JVf anlius Torquatus, in the Latin VVar. He 
devoted himself to death in battle, and thereby secured the victory to 
the Romans. His son, who had the same name, acted as his iather 
had done, b.c. 295, at the battle of Sentinum against the Gauls. His 
son also was consul b.c. 279, and commanded in the war against Pyr- 
rhus. At the battle of Asculum it was given out that he meant to 
devote himself as the others had done ; and to prevent a panic in his 
own army Pyrrhus gave orders that he should be taken alive. 

259. Ancil/a natus] This is Servius Tullius; see vii. 199. The 
* trabea ' was a white toga with waving stripes of purple embroidered 
on it. It differed from the * praetexta,' which had only a single bor- 
der of purple round the edges. It was supposed to have been wom 
by the kiffgs. * Diadema * was a band, originally no doubt of plain 
materials, which was wom by the kings of Rome, and is found on 
busts of Bacchus. It was afterwards liighly oraamented with gold 
and preciQus stones. Tullius was succeeded by Tarquinius Superbus, 
and 80 is not called the last king, but the last good king. TuUius is 
said to have eamed the throne, that is by his bravery and the virtues 
he showed while exercising the power given him by his father-in-Iaw 
Tarquinius Priscus during his lifetime. 

261. Prodita laxabant] He refers to Titus and Tiberius Junius Bru- 
tus, sons of Bmtus the first consul, who were in the conspiracy for 
restoring Tarquinius Superbus, and who were scourged and put to 
death by the sentence and under the eyes of their own father. The 
conspirators met at supper and their conversation was betrayed by 
one of the slaves to the consuls. Juvenal says they ought to have 
been distinguishing themselves in the strengthening of liberty only 
partially established, and exciting the admiration of such men as Ho- 
ratius Cocles (who defended the bridge), Mucius Scaevola (who put 
his hand in the fire before King Porsena, having vowed with 800 
others to kill him), and Cloelia who, being a prisoner with other 
women in Porsena^s camp, swam across the Tiber, and escaped. The 
imperfect Maxabant' denotes attempted action. See A. 68, 3, c; H. 
469, II., 1 ; B. 1089. 



SATIBE X. 177 

267. Matronis lugendua :] The slave deserved to be mouraed after 
his death by matrons, while the young men were justly punished with 
^ripes and the axe. Juvenal says the blows and the* axe were the 
first ordered by the ' leges/ which name theref ore he refuses to the 
king^s laws. Under the republic ' leges ' properly were only such laws 
as were passed at the *comitia centuriata' or 'tributa.' 

270. Vulcaniaqm arrna capessa^f'^ * And handle the armor of Vulcan 
as he did.' ' Similiter ' may be supplied firom * similis.' Aeacus was 
the grandfather of Achilles. 

272. Et tamenj ut longe repetas] * And yet, be what you may, trace 
back your name as far as you can, still you can but get back to Rom- 
ulus^s asylum/ which Livy says was the first foundation of the Roman 
power. The verbs in verse 272 are in the concessive subjunctive. 
See A. 57, 6, and 61, 2; H. 616, ii. ; B. 1282-3. ' Revolvas ' has ref- 
erence to a scroU on which a man's pedigree might be written, a 
/stemma' (verse 1). 



SATIRE X. 

The subject of this Satire is the yanity of human wishes. It takes 
general ground ; but its meaning is brought home by examples and 
the mode of treatment so as to touch the generation for which it was 
written. In caustic power, in brilliancy of language, in variety as 
well as originality, it is unequalled by any imitation. The serious 
Unes at the end are in Juvenal^s best style, which is that of a man 
thoroughly in earaest. The Satire is one of the most entertaining and 
instructive of all. 

Argumbnt. — In all the world few can tell good from its opposite. 
We pray for what must hurt us ; our ruin comes at our own desire 
(1-11). Many love money ; but it caused the death of Longinus and 
Seneca. The poor man is not afraid of robbers or of poisoned cups 
(12-27). The old sages did well, both he who always laughed and he 
who always wept. What would Democritus have done if he had lived 
in our day and seen the praetor going to the games (28-58) ? Some 
are undone by their power and their roUs of honor. See how the 
statues of Sejanus are pulled down, and how all men hate him as soon 
as the wordy letter has come from Tiberius 1 Would you take his 
place ? You had better be a country aedile. Ambition ruins those 
who seek for power (64-113). Boys pray for the eloquence of Demos- 
thenes or Cicero ; but it was this that killed them both. Had Cicero 
always written bad poetry, he might bave mocked the swords of 
Antonius ; had Demosthenes been kept at the f orge, he would have 
escaped a oruel death (114-132). Some desire the spoils of war and 

12 



178 NOTES. 

its honors. These honors will be carved on a tomb, and the tomb 
itself will perish. Uow much is lef t of Hannibal now ? No triumph 
was great enough for him ; but he became a beggar, and was laid lo^ 
by a poisoned ring. One world wes not enough for Alexander ; but 
when he came to Babylon a coifin satisiied him. Xerxes bridged the 
sea and drank up rivers, flogged the winds and chained Neptune ; yet 
he went back from Salamis with one ship over a sea covered with the 
corpses of his men (13^-187). Some pray for long life. But age is 
f ull of ills ; old men are a burden to themselves and to their friends. 
They have no enjoyments ; they sufEer from every kind of disease ; 
they do not know their friends, or if they have their senses they pass 
their days in mourning for the dead. See how it was with Nestor 
mouming for Achilles, and Priam beholding his country^s ashes, and 
Marius exiled and begging where he was late a victor (188-288). 
Mothers pray for beauty for their children. Lucretia and Virginia 
show the foolishness of such a wish. Chastity and beauty rarely go 
together. Be not proud of your boy'8 looks ; such a danger awaits 
him as befell Hippolytus or Bellerophon. See how Silius paid dear 
for beauty wlien Messalina resolved to marry him in open day. 
Either way, he was sure of losing his head (289-346). Leave it to 
the gods, then, to decide what is best for you. Ask only for a healthy 
bofly and a healthy mind ; a tranquil lif e lies in the path of virtue 
(346-366). 

3. i/lia mtdtum dicersaA ** True blessings from those things which are 
far different from true blessings ; *' a euphemism. * The mist of error * 
is an expression conimon to aU languages. 

4. Quid enim ratione timemus] ' Ratione ' is ' under the guidance of 
reason' (see A. 64, 7, 6; H. 414, 8) ; ' dexter pes' is explained to be 
' felix accessus, adventus boni ominis.' 

7. optantibus ipsis\ That is, by granting men their desires, which are 
short-sighted and sure to bring mischief (nocitura). The bpposition of 

* toga ' and * militia ' is conimon. The particular amhition expressed 
in ' toga' is shown in what follows ; it is public honors, to which men 
rise by their eloquence only to perish. ' Ille * refers to the soldier. 

* Evertere * and * periit ' have the sense of the aorist. The other dies 
because he trusts his own strength. and because men admire his arms. 
The final syllable of 'periit' is lengthened by its position in the 
arsis. 

13. Strangtdat,] There is a story of Midas's food tuming to gold and 
choking him, which Juvenal may have had in mind. Whales probably 
came as far south as Britain more commonly then than they do now. 

* Tanto * is omitted before * quanto.* 

16. Longinnrii et magnos Senecae] Cassius Longinus was a jurist of 
eminence and a man of wealth, which he had got by inheritance and 
probably increased durine his government of Syria. Nero coveted his 
money and was jealous of his reputation, and got a senatus consultum 
passed by which he was banished to Sardinia a.d. 66. He was re- 
called by Vespasian. The death of Seneca is referred to above (viii. 
212, n.). Through the favor of Nero, who was his pupil, he acquired 



SATIRE X. 179 

enormous wealth, which he offered to the emperor as a gift at a time 
when he knew that his enemies were successfully conspiring against 
him. Within four years of Nero'8 accession he was said to have 
amassed 300,000 sestertia, which is nearly $12,000,000. He was re- 
tuming from Campania, and had stopped at his villa four miles from 
Rome, when a tribune was sent by Nero to obtain his answer to the 
charge on which his life depeuded. The tribune entered while Seneca 
was at dinner with his wife and two friends, having first placed a 
guard round the house, which Juvenal here refers to. Plautius Late- 
ranus, like Seneca, was put to death as a party to Piso^s conspiracy 
against Nero. He was consul designatus. The change of tense in 
' obsidet ' seems to be for metrical reasons alone. Juvenal applies to 
all three what is strictly true of Seneca alone. 

19. argenti vascula puri^] * Argentum piurum' is silver without any 
figures or chasing. 

23. Primafere vota] " The first and most familiar prayers." * Opes * 
here is siraply wealth. * Ut maxima toto nostra sit arca foro ' means 
that each wishes to have the largest balance in his banker^s hands. 
The ' argentarii ' carried on their business in the forum. Those who 
had considerable deposits with them, it appears, had each his own 
cash-box. * Ut * introduces an object clause. See A. 70, 3, a ; H. 492, 8. 

27. Setinum] * Ardebit ' applies to the brightness of the wine, not 
its spirit. 

28. Jamne tgitur IxmdaSy] *' Do you not after this think it well that of 
the sages one," etc. The laugher was Democritus of Abdera ; the 
weeper, Heracleitus. The former flourished at the beginning pf the 
fifth century b.c. ; the latter a httle earUer, at Ephesus. The enclitic 
' ne ' seems to be used in tlie sense of ' nonne,' though the grammars 
(H. 346, II., 1, 1; M. 461, a; Z. 852) allow it only the meaning of 
* num ' when added to any other word than the verb. .See verse 90, 
where it is joined to the verb, and certainly seems to have tbe force 
of *num.' 

31. Sed faciUa ativis rigidi] He says any one can laugh ; the only 
wonder is where the weeper got all his tears. * Rigidi cachinni ' is a 
hard sardonic laugh ; the genitive is appositional. See iii. 4, n. 

. 35. Praetexta et trabeaey] As to these, which were the togas wom by 
senators and magistrates, eee viii. 259, n. He says in those cities in 
which Democritus spent his time and his wit, there were none of the 
great abuses of the present time, the iniquities and self-indulgence of 
Uie great and rich, and the corruption of justice. 

36. Praetorem curribus aftis] See viii. 194, n. He is giving a mock 
description of the Ludi Circenses, which the praetor presided over. 
These were preceded by a grand procession, in which the praetor rode 
in a triumphal chariot with all the insignia of a triumph. What 
ibllows is a description of a triumph. ' Tunica Jovis ' was a tunic wom 
only on triumphal occasions ; it was kept in the Capitol, and had its 
name from this. It was also called ' tunica palmata, either because it 
was embroidered with palm branches, or because it had a stripe 
(clavus) apalm in breadth. 'Sarrana' is Tyrian, that is^purple.' 



180 NOTES. 

'Pictae* is ' embroidered.' 'Aulaea' (properly used for ciirtains or 
haDging tapestry) is a satirical way of describing tlie large folds of 
the triumpkai toga. Besides a crown of laurel which he wore on his 
head, a crown of gold set with jewels was carried in the chariot by a 
public slave. * Servi publici ' were slaves belonging to the statc and 
employed for pubhc purposes, of which attendance upon magistrates 
on official occasions was one. Juvenal says the slave rode in tlie same 
cbariot with the consul, of course (quippe) to lower his pride. Whether 
founded on these ironical words or some vulgar error, 'rertullian states 
that the slave's business was to wliisper certain words in the ear of the 
great man reminding him that he was a mortal. ' Consul ' is substituted 
f or * praetor ' ( verse 41), as more suited to a triumph. The person who 
triumphed carried an ivory sceptre in his left liand with an eagle at the 
top of it, and a branch of laurel in his right. ' Da nunc et ' means 

* add to tliis.' A band of trumpeters (cornicines) formed part of the 
procession, and the man's sons and principal friends accompanied him, 
together with senators and otlier magistrates and military officers. By 

* niveos ' he means that their togas were white. On all festivals those 
who wished to make a respectable appearance sent their togas to the 

* f ullo ' to have an extra whitening. ' Longi agminis officia ' is equiva- 
lent to * longum agmen officiosorum ; ' * servitium,' * conjugium,' * remi- 
gium,' and other words, are used in the same way. 'Officiofungi ' was 
a common expression for attendance upon great people. The men who 
waited on the praetor were his friends in virtue of the dole they car- 
ried off every day (i. 96, n.). He says they buried it in their bag. 

50. Vervecum in pairia] The people of Abdera were proverbial for 
dulness, like the Boeotians. * Vervex,' a wether, was as commonly bm 
a hog taken f or the type of stupidity. ' Nec non et ' is not classical. 
See iii. 204, n. 

52. Fortunae ipse minaci] " He could laugh at the troubles of others, 
for even if Fortune threatened himself he could bid her go and be 
hanged, and point the finger of scom at her." The middle finger was 
so used, and was commonly called * famosus ' in consequence, as the 
first was called * index ' and the third * medicus.' 

54. Ergo supervacua aut\ This is the reading of the MSS. with one 
exceptioii, which has * vel.' The editors have mended the verse in 
difierent ways ; but it must be taken as an instance of caesural hiatus, 
of which there are many in Juvenal, the a being made long in the 
arsis. * Ergo ' is, * as I was saying, then,' or * to proceed, then,' and he 
lays it down as a matter of experience that what men ask of the gods 
is generally useless or mischievous. He has given some instances, and 
he goes on to dwell on the vanity of power, as shown by the fate of 
those who have had it. 

55. Propfer quaefas est] ' Fas ' seems to mean ' religious.' ' Inoerare ' 
is taken irom the practice of writing prayers and vows on waxed 
tablets, and hanging them on the statue of the god to whom tbey were 
addressed. 

58. Pagina ;] The Scholiast explains this as a bronsse tablet whieh 
iB placed before these busts, and seta forth ii^ their honors. 'lifergit' 



SATIEB X. 181 

iB ' drowns him,' as ' praecipitat ' is ' throws him down head foremost/ 
As to ' descendunt «tatuae/ eee yiii. 18. We have had referenoe hefore 
to triumphal chariots (vu. 125, viii. 8). 

61. Jam ftridunt \gnesi\ He goes on to illustrate his case hy the 
example of Sejanus. That man was son of Seius Strabo, commander 
of the praetorian troops, which hrought him into early intimacy with 
Tiberius. From the time that Tiberius became emperor a.d. 14 till 
A.D. 81, Sejanus was his chief fayorite and the adviser of some of his 
worst crimes. He was ambitious of the imperial power, and his designs 
became known to or suspected by Tiberius, who in a.d. 81 wrote from 
Capreae sucli a letter to the Senate concerning Sejanus as to lead to 
his ezecution. His statues were forthwith pulled down, his body was 
thrown down the Gemoniae (a precipice on the Aventine), and tom to 
pieces by the populace, and the remains were dragged about the 
streets, and then thrown into the Tiber. See Merivale, v. 94-238. 

63. exfacie toto orbe secunda] Dion Cassius says that bronze statues 
were erected to Sejanus on an equality with Tiberius in every direc- 
tion ; they were represented in pictures together ; gilded chariots were 
brought into the theatres in honor of both alike; they were voted 
joint consuls for five years ; it was decreed that they should be met 
with equal hoiiors whenever they entered Borae, and sacrifices were 
offered before the images of Sejanus as before those of Tiberius. Out 
of the bronze statues of the man so honored, Juvenal says, were made 
iittle jugs, basins, kettles, and pans or platters. 

65. Pone domi lauroSf] This decorating the doors with wreaths was 
common on joyf ul occasions. A white ox was the most acceptable 
sacrifice, and it appears that the dark parts of tlie animal, his homs, 
hoofs, and any spots about lum, were whitened with chaik. It wais 
common for the public executioner to drag the bodies of criminals 
through the streets. ^ 

67. Quae labra I quis illi] People all rcgoioe at his death, and make 
remarks on his diabolical features. Yet, while they hate the man, they 
tremble at the tyranny by which he perished, without trial or proof df 
guilt. ' Index ' is an accomplice turaed informer, and ' indicium ' is 
the testimony of such an one. 'DeUtor' is a common informer. 
' Cecidit ' is used as in iv. 12. ' Delator ' must be supplied as the sub- 
jectof 'probavit.' 

71. verboea ' et grandi» epistola] See Merivale, v. 226. Tiberius 
left Rome a.d. 26, and never retumed to the city. In the following 
year he took up his residence in the isUnd of Capreae (see below, 93, 
n.), where he lived six years in almost total retirement, admitting none 
but inf ormers and chosen f avorites to his presence, but holding con- 
stant communication by letter With the Senate. 

72. Bene habet; nilplus] This stops the man's mouth, and he says it 
is all right ; he asks no more qnestions, like Agamemnon's soldier in 
HoraceJS.ii. 8, 187). 

73. Turba Remif] The poets nsed Remna'8 name' instead of his 
brother^s when it suited their metre. 

74. si Nurtia Tusoo Favisset] Scjanus was an Etrurian by descent. 



182 NOTES. 

and born at VulBinii. Nurtia was an Etruscan goddess especially wor- 
shipped in that city. 

75. 81 oppressa Jbret secura] " If the old emperor had been caught 
asleep." The way of Bpeaking,*8enectu8 Wncipis' for^senex Prin- 
ceps/ is not unusual. But th& old emperor was wide awake to the 
end of his hfe. Augustus {'Ze^aarbq) was a title of all the emperors. 
Notic& that the condition denotes past time, and the conclasion present 
time : " would now be hailing him Augustus." 

77. ex quo suffragia nuUi] " From the time we left off selling votes ; " 
that is, since the elections were transferred from the Comitia to the 
Senate. See on viii. 212. The subject of * effudit curas ' is ' Turba 
Remi ' (verse 73). It means they havc cast away all care about pub- 
Uc affairs ; all they now care for is their belly and the Circus. * Panem ' 
is commonly referred to the pubUc distribution of corn ; but I think 
that the reniark applied to all, whetiier they were of the sort who 
wanted the public dole or not. 

81. Perituroa andio multos.] One says he hears many are to share 
Sejanus's fate, and another answers there is no doubt of it ; there is a 
great furnace ready (referring to verse 61). A great many friends of 
Sejanus, including his son and his daughter, a young girl, were put to 
death soon after him. 

83. ad Martisfuit cbvius aram.] This altar of Mars was in the Cam- 
pus Martius. There is a Brutidius Niger, whom Tacitus mentions as 
aedile in a.d. 22, and as one of the accusers of Silanus. He may be 
the person the speaker refers to as looking a little pale. Under the 
character of Ajax, enraged with the leaders and the army for not tak- 
ing his part against Ulysses, the man means Tiberius, who in his letter 
to the Senate expressed great alarm, and begged them to send one of 
the consuls with a guard to conduct him, a poor solitary old man, to their 
presence. These apprehensions, whether real or pretended, the Senate 
might well fear would be visited on them, and they hastened to remove 
the cause of tliem, and everybody connected with him, with an alac- 
rity which was to make amends for their implied remissness. This 
was what Niger had to fear, and is clearly Juvenars meaning. 

87. Sed videant servi,] He says our slaves must see us do it, that 
none of them may be able to say we did not, and give information 
under which we shall be dragged with a rope abont our necks to the 
praetor. In the reign of Tiberius and afterwards the information of 
slaves against their masters, which was illegal, was freely received 
and obtained by torture. Nerva put a stop to the practice, and 
checked informers generally. It was the common way of taking a 
resisting culprit before the magistrate to put a rope round his neck. 

88. Hi sei-numes] That is to say, wHat precedes. What foUows is 
addressed to the reader, who is asked if he would like to have all the 
power and honor that Sejanus had. The curule officers, or those 
entitled to the use of the ' sella curulis/ were the consuls, censors, 
praetors, and curule aediles. ' Summas ' does not mean the consulship 
m particular ; it applies to all. As to the use of * ne ' in ' visne/ see 
on verse 28. On * illi ' — ' illum/ see Z. 701, note. 



SATIEB X. 183 

93. angxmta Caprearum] Capreae is an island forming a continuation 
of tho promontory of Surrentum and three miles distant from it. It 
is about eleyen miles in circumference, and precipitous on almost all 
sides. One point of it rises 1600 feet above tlie sea. Augustus re- 
tired to this place sometimes, and Tiberius made it his retreat that 
he might carry on his debaucheries uninterrupted, and be free from 
danger. The cUmate Tacitus describes as very pleasant in summer 
and winter, and the prospect over the bay of Naples as beautifuU 

94. Cumgrege ChMaeof] Tiberius towards the end of his life was 
inuch given to the astrologers, a pestilent race of impostors whom he 
had before punished and forbidden the citj. Superstition and vice 
grew upon him together ; a common case. 

Vis certe pila, cohortes,] He says, no doubt you.like promotion, 
and why should you not ? He takes different grades of miUtary rank 
to illustrate his meaniug. The steps are 'primipilus centurio,' 'prae- 
fectus cohorti,' * eques egregius,* and 'praefectus praetorio.' As late 
as the time of Polybius the infantry oi a Roman legion were formed. 
into three bodies, * hastati,' * principes,' and * triarii,' or * pilani,* as 
they were sometimes called, because they carried a pilum or short 
javelin. Each ot' these divisions was subdivided into ' manipuli,' and 
the centurion of the first 'manipulus' of the 'triarii,' who were 
veteran troops, was called * primipilus.' *Pila' here stands for * primi- 
pili.' In and after the time of Caesar the legion was divided into ten 
cohorts, each of which consisted of three ' manipuli.' The commander 
of a cohort was * praef ectus.' *Equites egregii,' under the Empire, 
were those who had the fortune of a senator, or were entitled by their 
position to hope for the Senate, and these were allowed to wear the 
' latus clayus,' or broad stripe on the tunic, which was the mark of 
senatorial rank. By * domestica castra ' he means the command of the 
'praetoria cohors * (see 61, note). These troops were quartered in 
various parts of the city till Sejanus had command of them, when 
they were all placed in permanent quarters near the Agger of Servius 
Tullius. 

97. Sed quae praedara] " But what are great distinctions and high 
prosperity if wo hold them only on the understanding that the measure 
of our suSerings is proportioned to our success 1 '' Some editors read 
* tanti ' for * tantum ; ' it is then the genitive of value, and the con- 
Btruction of the sentence is much simplified. ' Ut ' in either case 
introduces a result. 

100. An Fidenarum Gabiorumque] See note on iii. 192 : " Simplici- 
bus Gabiis." Fidenae was about nve miles north of Rome on the 
Tiber. Ulubrae was in Latium, nearly thirty miles south-east of 
Rome. * Potestas * is the modern * podestk,' ' authority .' * Vacuis ' is 
' empty,' ' unfrequented,' as in iii. 2. As to the municipal aediles, see 
iii. 179. They were police magistrates, and looked after the market. 
On great occasions, he says, a white tunic was a dress good enough f or 
them ; here he speaks of them as in rags. 

103. Ergo quid oplandum foret] * Ergo ' carries us back to verse 54, 
where the general assertion is made of which Sejanus was a notablc 



184' NOTBS. 

iliastratioii. On the form of the rerh, see M. 877, obs. 2 ; B. 279, 
obs. 8 ; Z. 166, end. ' Ignorasse fateris ' implies that the answer is 
that which good sense suggests. 

107. impuiscLe praeceps immane ruinae.] * Praeoeps ' is often used abso- 
lutely for a precipitous height ; there is no instanoe of an adjective 
agreeing with it earlier than Juyenal. ' Buinae ' is the genitive case. 
The English is " he went on building story af ter story of an exceeding 
high tower, on\y that his fall might be from a greater kieight, and the 
tumbling of the ruin, beaten by the storm (or, struck by the bolt or 
lightning), should be great." ' Impulsae ' is added to * ruinae/ as if it 
were 'turris/ and it means the wreck of a tower beaten hy the 
storm. The imperfect tense in the verbs of tliis sentence is that of 
contemporarv action ; see M. 837. 

108. QuiJ Crcusos, quid Pompeios] He here joins together the three 
persons who are often improperly called a triumvirate, M. Licinius 
Crassus, Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and C. Julius Caesar. The first was 
killed in war with the Parthians, b.g. 58. In b.c. 55 he had beeu 
consul with Pompeius, who was kiiled while going to land on the 
coast of Eg^rpt after the battle of Pharsalia (b.c. 48). Caesar is de- 
scribed as the man who tamed the Romans and brought them under his 
lash. The plural in ' Crassos ' and ' Pompeios ' does not imply more than 
one of each, as in i. 109 and elsewhere. The grammars do not notice 
this use of the plural. 

110. Summus nempe hcus] This is the subject of 'evertit.' "Of 
course it was the elevation tney had sought hy every art to win, and 
their ambitious prayers heard too well by the unkind gods." * Generum 
Cereris ' is Piuto, the husband of Proserpina. ' Keges ' and ' tyranni ' 
ezplain one another. ' Sioca morte ' is an unbloody death. 

115. totis Quinquatribus optat,] He goes on to illustrate what he said 
in verse 9 about eloquence. The Quinquatria was a festival of 
Minerva, held for six days in March. Boys had holidays during this 
festiyal, and oifered their devotions to the goddess of leaming. The 
boy is said to worship Minerva with an as, because it was customary 
to present that sum to the teacher at the Quinquatria. This payment 
was called ' Minerval.' 

117. custoe angustae vermda capsae.] A little slave, carrying his little 
box of books and paper and pens, went with the boy to school. He 
was called ' capsarius.' The ' capea ' was a round box suited for hold- 
ing rolled books. 

118. uterque perit orator ;] * Perit ' with long nltima is for ' periit' 
120. Ingenio manus est et cervix caeaa,] This refers to the death of 

Cicero, b.c. 48. He was proscribed by the triumvirs, and, as he was 
trying to escape, was overtaken by soldiers, who cut off his head and 
hands and carried them to M. Antonius, who ordered them to be nailed 
to the rostra. • On * causidicus,' see i. 82, n. ' Ingenio ' is put for the 
man, as 'officia' above {rene 45). Cicero reached the highest point 
of his popularity, and delivered his last ten speeches agiunst M. An- 
tonius in the year in which he died. 

122. O Jortunatam] This Yerse of Cioero'8 has been well imitated 
' ^ Grifibrd : 



SATIBE X. 185 



" How fortunate a natal day was thine, 
In that iate consolatei O Bome, of mine I 



» 



JnYenal says if he had never said a better thing than that he might 
have snapped his fingers at Antonius, quoting his own words (Phil. ii. 
46) : " Contempsi Catilinae gladios, non pertimescam tuos.'' On the 
use of 'potuit/ oonsult A. 69, 8, e; H. 612, 2, 1 ; B. 1274. The pre- 
ceding verse might be taken as tlie subject of tliis verb, by a not 
uncommon figure, a man's way of speaking being put for the man 
himself. He adds, he would rather have been tiie author of his ridic^ 
ulofis poetry than of that Philippic which he calis divine, famous, and 
80 forth. Tliis speech was written in September, b.c. 44, as a rejoin- 
der to Antonius'8 reply to the first Philippic. Cicero did not attend 
the meeting of the Senate at which Antonius spoke, and though this 
speech professes to be an extemporaneous reply, it was never deiiv- 
ered, but written in the country, nor did Cicero venture to publish it 
immediately . * Volveris ' means * you are read ; ' * a prima proxima ' 
is a way of expressing the second. 

126. iUum Exitus eripuit,\ After the death of Aiexander, Demos* 
thenes used all his eloquence to produce a general rising of tlie Greek 
states against Antipater, the successor to the Macedonian division of 
Alexander^s kingdom, and succeeded. But the resistance of the 
Greeks was not eifectual, and, rather than fall into the hands of An"* 
tipater, Demosthenes poisoned himself, b.c. 822. 

128. moderantem frcuina theatnA Tiie popular assemblies (kKKkriaiai) 
were heid in the Pnyx, a space of ground near the Areiopagus, tili the 
building of the theatre of Dionysus in the Lenaea, about b.c. 840, after 
which the assembiies were commonly lield in the theatre. It was 
finished in Demosthenes^s time, and he must oflen have spoken tliere. 

129. Dis iUe adversis] This is a common way of speaking. Demos* 
thenes'8 father was a man of property, and died when his son was 
seven years old. What Juvenai says here therefore is a mere flour- 
ish. He was the owner of a sword or knife manufactory, which 
Juvenal has made the most of. 

133. truncis affixa tropaeis] His next case is the vanity of miiitary 
glory. The practice of erecting trophies after victories was very 
ancient in Greece, and adopted by the Bomans late in the republican 
times. They were composed of arras taken from the enemy and piled 
up usuaiiy on the trunk of a tree or some low wooden frame. * Buc- 
culae ' are the cheeks of a heimet which were buttoned under the chin. 

* Buckie * is derived from this word. * Cassis * is properiy a heimet of 
metal, 'gaiea' of leather. Some 'galeae' had vizors which covered 
the face. 

135. Et curtum temone jugum] A war chariot shom of its pole. 

* Curtum * is not used elsewhere with a noun after it, but it is properiy 
a participie. * Aplustre ' is the curved omament which most ancient 
ships carried on their stem, commonly of a fan shape, and not uniike 
tlie feathers of a Bed Indian chief. Sometimes it was wreathed with 
flowers, sometimes it carried a flag or a iantera. ' HomaniB mi^ora' 



186 NOTBS. 

corresponds to the Greek fui^o ^ Kar* avOpuirov. As to the form ' indu- 
perator/ see note on iv. 29 ; ' imperator ' cannot be brought into hex- 
Buieter verse. ' £rexit ' and ' habuit * are aorists. 

141. virtiUem amplectitur ipsam,] * Virtus ' is military virtue, ' Forti' 
tudo/ in which character she was frequently represented on medals. 
* Olim ' is indefinite ; it may be rendered here ' many a time.' ' Tollas ' 
is put in the subjunctive because the subject is indefinite. A. 59, 5, a ; 
M. 370. 

145. sterilis mala rcborajicm .*] Tfae wiid fig, ' caprificus/ was com- 
mon among the tombs. 

147. Expende Hannibalem ;] If you put Hannibal in the scales, kow 
much wiil this great general weigh? Ue says below (verse 172) that 
nothing but death declares how very smali are the bodies of men. 
' Non capit ' means * is not iarge enough to iiold.' ' Rursus ' is ' in the 
rear/ 're-versus.' The two constructions of *admovere' are put 
together here. 

151. Additur imperiis Hispania .*] The conquest of Hispania by the 
Cartliaginians was begun by Hamilcar, Hannibars father, and Hanni- 
bal nearly completed it by tiie taking of Saguntum, b.c. 219. In that 
year he deciared war against Rome, and in b.c. 218 he crossed the 
ryrenees, having first subdued the tribes between the Iberus and 
those mountains. He commenced his march in tlie spring, but did 
not reach the Alps till late in the autumn, after the snow had begun 
to fall. The story of the vinegar is in Livy, xxi. 87. 

155. Actum, inquit, nihil est,] This expresses well the object of his 
whole hfe ; all his successes would go for nothing if he faiied to enter 
Rome in triumph. As to * Suburra,' see iii. 6, n. 

157. qualis facies] " Oh, what a beautiful picture he would have 
made, a one-eyed general riding onhis elephant ! " Hannibal lost one 
of his eyes by ophthalmia, b.c. 217, in the marshes south of the Po. 

159. vincitur idem Nempe] " He is beaten in his tum, of course ; " 
that is by Scipio at Zama, b.c. 202. After the treaty of peace con- 
cluded the next year, Hannibal remained several years at Carthage, 
and it was not till the year b.c. 198 that, finding himself in danger 
from enemies at home, he fled secretly and went to Antiochus, King of 
Syria, with whom he remained three years and helped him against 
the Romans. When Antiochus was defeated, in b.c. 190, Hannibal 
fled 10 Prusias, king of Bithynia. For seven or eight years he con- 
tinued to be his guest, helping him in his wars, till the Romans finally 
sent a demand for his surrender, whlch Prusias was not able to resist. 
Hannibal, to avoid falling into the hands of the Romans, took poison, 
which he is said to have carried about with him for that purpose in a 
ring ; therefore Juvenal says a ring was the avenger of Cannae (where 
Bo many rings were taken from the bodies of the Roman knights), and 
of all the blood that Hannibal shed. 

167. et declamatio Jias,] See note on vii. 161. 

168. Unus Pellaeo juveni] Alexander, it is said, on being told that 
there were worlds innumerable, lamented that he had not yet con- 
quered even one. He was born at Pella in Macedonia. 



SATIRB X. 187 

170. Ut Gycai clausus gcoptdis] See i. 78, n. Gjarus and Seriphus 
were islands in the Cyclades group, to which criminais were trans- 
ported. Seriphus was the larger of the two, and about twelve rniles 
in circuniference. 

171. afigulis munitam] The city of Babylon is said to have been 
built of brick cemented with asphalt by Semiramis. Here Alexander 
died, B.c. 323, in his thirty-third year. A * sarcophagus * was prop- 
erly a coffin coraposed of a particular stone from Assos in Troas, 
which was said to consume the body (aapKa ^yelv). 

173. Quanttda sint hominum corpuscula.j This idea is a favorite one 
with the poets. The best-known allusion to it is in Shakespeare'8 
Henry IV\ P. i. Act v. Sc. 4 ; 

" Fare thee well, great heart ! 
lU-weaved ambition, how much art thou shrunk ! 
When that this body did contain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
But now two paces of the vilest earth 
Is room enough." 

174. Velificatus Athosi\ To avoid the catastrophe that happened to 
Mardonius, whose fleet was wrecked there in the first expedition of 
Darius against Greece (b.c. 492), Xerxes ordered the low isthmus of 
the peninsula (Acte),to be cut through, and a canal was made capable 
of floating two trirenies abreast. This was in b.c. 490. Juvenal treats 
the matter as an invention ; but the canal lias been- recently traced. 
The idiom has been^noticed before. See A. & S. 274, 2, R. 6; H. 
680 ; B. 1357 ; A. 72, 3, a. 

175. constratum classibus isdem] This refers to the bridge of boats 
across the Hellespont, built of the same ships which sailed through 
Athos. Herodotus speaks of several rivers (the Scamander in Asia, 
and others in Thrace, Thessaly, and Achaia) being dried up by the 
enormous host of Xerxes drinking of them. This is easily explained. 
These rivers are not perennial streams f ull of water. The array could 
find water-holes only in many of them, and thesc they may have 
exhausted. Sostratus seems to havo been a poet who wrote of the 
exploits of Xerxes. ' Madidis alis ' is supposed to mean that he got 
heated with the exertion of reciting his poetry. This is not a satisfac- 
tory explanatioh, and the words may mean that his flight was not a 
very vigorous one, ' with drooping wings.' 

180. /n Corum atque Eurun\\ Corus (or Caums) is the northwest 
wind, as Eurus is the southeast. He flogged whatever wind opposed 
him. This may be a playful invention of Juvenal*8, making Xerxes a 
harder master to the winds than Aeolus himself, who was stern enough 
according to Virgil. Xerxes's castigation and chaining of the Hel- 
lespont for breaking down his bridge are told by Aeschylus and 
Herodotus. Juvenal produces Homer'8 epithet for Poseidon, the 
earth-shaker. 

183. Mitius id sane] " Surely he acted mercifully not to brand the 



188 NOTES. 

god as well as flog him. Anj god wonld be glad to be slaye to sach a 
master." Runaway or thieTish slayes had a mark put upon their 
foreheada. If ' quisquam ' is to have its usual meaning of excluding 
all, the clause in which it stands must be read as a question expect- 
ing a negatiye answer. See A. 21, 2, A ; H. 457 ; B. 1061. But com- 
pare on the other hand A. & S. 207, B. 31, 6 ; Z. 709, b ; Krueger, 
428, 2, Anm. 2. 

189. Hoc nxto vuliu,] Some take this to mean unabashed and 
pale with anxiety. Others take * recto Tultu ' as * weU,' opposed to 
* pallida,' ' iU,' and I think that is the meaning. 

192. deformem pro cvie peUem\ ' Cutis ' is distinguished from ' pel- 
lis ' as the UTing from the dead skin. When ' peUis ' is appUed to Uy- 
ing men and women, it is coarse skin, or withered. 

194. ubi pandit Tabraca sa/iiM,] Tabraca was a town in Numidia. 
It was Burrounded with jungle, and as usual the woods abounded in 
monkejs. 

202. Ut capiaion\ Cossus may be anybody. He was not easily 
thrown out in his profession, bnt this old gentieman is described as so 
wearisome that even Cossus finds it hard work to come near him. He 
is a burden to himself as well as to every one else. 

204. nam\ He means that he says nothing of other pleasures long 
since forgotten. ' Ramex ' is liemia or piles. 

209. Aspice vartis Nunc damnum] He goes on to speak of the deaf- 
ness of age. After ' cantante ' (which word is used for instrumental 
as weU as vocal music) ' citharoedo ' must be suppUed. Compare the 
arrangement of words in verses 263-4. For the construction, consult 
M. 429 and obs. ; H. 431, 5 ; A. & S. 257, R. 9> Seleucus must have 
been some f amous singer or musician or actor, but he is not known now. 

214. vix comicines exaudiet] Homs and trumpets - were sounded at 
the beginning and the end of games and plays. ' Exaudire ' is to hear 
when there is some obstrection, or from a distance, etcr 
• 216. guot nunciet fioras.] The hour he would leam from the pubUc 
sun-dial (soiariura) on one of the temples or basiUcae, or from a pubUc 
water-clock (clepsydra). 

220. Promptius erpediam] Of the persons that foUow, Hippia was 
the wife of Veiento, who is mentioned in Ui. 185, iv. 113. Themison 
is a great medical name, which is here taken for some doctor of the 
day, whose reputation perhaps was in proportion to his victims. The 
real Themison apx>ears to have been a man of leaming and skiU. He 
lived in the first century b.c, and founded a medical sect caUed 
MethodicL Basilus was somebody who cheated his partners, and 
Hirras a tutor who cheated his wards, either of them a very heinous 
offence. Maura is caUed ' longa,' a taU masculine woman. HamiUus 
is unknown. The lucky barber is mentioned in i. 25. 

232. Ore volat pleno mater jejnna.j The description of helplessness 
and fatuity througliout this passage is very good. This Uttle descrip- 
tion of the mottier-bird bringing food for her young whUe she is 
fasting herself is prettily introduced, and reUeves the picture whUe it 
strengthens it It is taken from the Iliad. 



SATIRE X. 189 

237. Heredes vacU esse «mo«;] This expression must not be con- 
founded with the legal tenn ' sui heredes et necessarii/ the connection 
of * 8U08 ' with the nqun being here accidental. A man who had a son 
in his power (a * suus heres ') must either institute him heres or 
exheredate (disinherit) him by name. This old man appears to have 
exheredated his children, and his property to have passed by the testa- 
ment to Phiale. * Carcere fomicis ' is at the entrance of the brothel, 
where women exposed themselves. 

240. Ut vigeant sensus animi,] But suppose he keeps his faculties, still 
he must see all he loves dying beforo him. These Hnes too are very 
f orcible. The clause with * ut ' is concessive. See ref erences on viii. 272. 

247. a cornice secundae.] Nestor is next to the crow. The number 
of ages is three. By * dextra computat annos ' he means that he was 
above a hundred years of age. It was usual to count up to a hundred 
on the fingers of the left hand, and then to begin with the right 
The Venerable Bede is said to have written a treatise on this method 
of computation. * Mustum ' is new unfermented wine, which would 
be drunk in autumn. He only means he was happy of course (nimirum ) 
to have seen so many years corae round. 

252. nimio de stam/we,] Of the long thread of his life ; see note on 
iii. 27. He wept sore for his son Antilochus, who was killed by 
Memnon. * Barbam ' implies that he was of mature age. * Ardentem * 
means his body buming on the pile. 

256.^ Haec eadem Peleus,] * Alius ' is Laertes, father of Ulysses. 
After the return of Ulysses, Laertes renewed his youth with tlie help 
of Athena. * Natantem ' means * afloat.' 

258. ad umbras Assaraci] Assaracus was great-uncle of Priam. 
Juvenal means if Priam had gone to his fathers before the siege of 
Troy, he would have had a fine funeral, and his sons would have 
carried him to burial ; the women would have wept for him, and his 
daughters would have led the wailing. Paris^s bold ships are the fleet 
in which he first sailed to Sparta, and then carried off Helen. The 
death of Priam killed by Pyrrhus at the altar of Jove is related by 
Virgil. On the gender of *dies' in verse 266, see A. 13, 2, n.; B. 
146, n. ; M. 49. 

271. Exitus ille utcunque hominis ;] His death however was the death 
of a man (*utcunque erat, hominis exitus erat'); whereas his wife 
Hecuba was changed into a dog. By surviving her husband she 
lived to be a slave, to witness the death of two more children, 
Polyxena and Polydoms, and to die a dog. 

273. regem transeo Ponti] * Transeo ' is not here "used as in iii. 114. 
It means * I pass over, say nothing about.' The flgure of rhetoric is 
paraleipsis. He is referring to Mithridates VI. Eupator, the great 
adversary of the Romans, who after a stormy life came to a bad end 
about the age of seventy. The story of Solon's answer to Croesus is 
f amiliar. He bade him call no man happy imtil he had died. Croesu^ 
found that Solon was right ; for he fell into the hands of Cyrus and 
was to be put to death. Then he remembered the sage's words, and 
cried out " Solon ! Solon 1 " Cyrus asked the meaning of his cries. 



190 NOTES. 

and on being told of .Solon'8 words, he spared his pr!soner'B life, con- 
sidering that a like calamity might befall himself . 

275. spcUia uUima] This metaphor is taken from the course in the 
Circus. * Uitima spatia ' was the last circuit : the plurai is used 
because the chariots commonly went more than once round the 
course (spatium). 

276. Exsilium et canxr] He goes on to speak of C. Marius, whom 
we have had before (viii. 246, sqq.) as conqueror of the Cimbri and 
Teutones, and triumphing on that account, b.g. 102. He was then 
fifty-five. In b.c. 88, when Marius was in his sixty-ninth year, he 
was obliged to fiy from Rome to escape from Sulia, and in his flight 
tried to hide himself in a marsh near Minturnae on the Liris. He was 
caught and kept in custody for some time, but he was allowed 
to escape by sea, and he went to Carthage, where he is said to have 
begged his bread among the ruins. The following year, his party 
having gained temporary success, he was able to return to Rorae, 
where he made a fearf ul exaraple of his enemies, but died in January, 
B.c. 86, in his seventh consulship, wom out by a life of extraordinary 
activity. Sulla, when he retumed to Rome, had the ashes of Marius 
thrown into the Anio. 

281. Bellorum pompa] Tiie final vowel in ' pompa ' is preserved from 
elision. * Animam opimam ' may be rendered * his full soul,' but an 
exact rendering is not to be found. It seems to involve a reference 
to the ' spolia opima,' and is particularly suited to a conqueror. 
' Vellet ' is used like ^^eAAev. 

283. Provida Pompeio dederat] In the year B.c. 60, Ponipeius, 
then at the height of his fortunes, was attacked by a severe illness at 
Neapolis. Prayers and sacrifices were offered for his recovery ; he 
did recover, and the cities offered thanksgivings and had a holiday 
on the occasion. Next year Caesar crossed the Rubicon, Pompeius 
had to fly for his life, and in the following year (b.c. 48) lost it. 
* Vincere ' is the usual word for prevailing in prayer. 

286. Hoc cruciatu Lentulus,] P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura and 
C. Comelius Cethegus were left behind by Catilina when he left 
Rome, to carry out the conspiracy, fire the city, and kill the senators. 
They were betrayed and taken, and pursuant to a vote of the Senate 
they were strangled in prison by the common executioner on the 
night of the 6th of December, b.c. 63.- Catilina was pursued, and, 
being unable to escape, he engaged the regular troops with his small 
undisciplined army, and was killed, b.c. 62. 

290. Murmurey quum Veneris fanum] The mother prays that her 
children may be beautiful ; the prayer is suppressed with a murmur, 
but when she comes to pray for the girls her eagerness almost breaks 
out into audible words. There were temples or chapels of Venus in 
various parts of the city. * Usque ad delicias votorum ' seems to 
mean * even to fastidiousness in her prayers.' She will not be content 
with any thing short of perfection. 

294. Rutilne Virginia gihbum] Rutila is any one with a hump on 
her back. The examples of Lucretia and Virginia are both liapplly 



SATIRE X. 191 

^jj. chosen. Pnrer examples of womanhood are not npon record. Their 
only fault was beautj. After 'suam/ 'faciem' or ^formam' is 
I ^j^ easiiy suppUed. 

^^ 299. vet^res imitata Sahinos,\ A similar allusion to the Sabines is 

jljg found in Horace. The strictness of their life was proverbial. * Hor- 

rida ' is equivalent to * rigida/ * severa.' 
,^jQ 300. modesio Sanguim ferventem] '' Hot with modest blood " is a 

^ good way of expressing a blush. Instead of * non licet esse viros ' 

hea 
he 

zhX 
ras 



ive 

•ty 

;ie, 



m 
ui 
:e 

ir. 

s 



we generally flnd ' non licet eos esse viros ' or the more classical * non 
licet eis esse vuis.' See A. 67, e, 1 ; H. 647, ii. ; B. 676 ; A. & S. 269, 
B. 6 ; M. 893, c and obs. 1, and 389, obs. 6. 
306. NuUus ephebum] ' Ephebus/ borrowed from the Greek, is a 
Z youth just af ter he has taken the * toga virilis ' (adolescens) ; * praetexta- 

tus ' is a boy who has not yet taken it. ' Arce ' is the emperor's palace. 
310. / nunc] This is a favorite way of speaking with Juvenal. 
He says, " Go now and be proud of your son^s beauty, seeing that it 
only involves him in the greater danger." 
'•' 313. nec erit felicior astro Martis,J This is an uncommon construc- 

l^ tion, but the meaning is his star wiu not prove luckier tiian that of 

Mars, who was caught in adultery with Venus by Vulcan, and en- 
tangled in a finc chain net, and so exposed to the laughter of the gods. 
' Ut ' introduces a concessive clause, as in verse 240. 

318. Sed tuus Endymion] The boy's dechne is thus traced : he is 

chaste and modest at nrst ; his parents sell him to the lust of men ; 

when he is old enough he falls into an intrigue with a married woman 

for love ; he is drawn away from her by a richer woman, and so ends 

'[ in selling his beauty for money, and from a pure boy becomes not 

only a profligate, but a greedy one. Oppia and Catulla seem to be 

opposed as rich and poor, or high and low. 

^ 323. Deterior totos] This verse seems to mean that the character of 

. the unchaste woman is all centred in this, that is in the gratiflcation 

of her lust. 
, 324. Sed casto quid forma nocet ?] He has just shown that beauty is 

.j the flrst step to unchastity. But he now adds, " suppose he retains 

his chastity, what harm will his beauty do then 1 " And he answers 
the question himself — "nay, rather, what good did Hippolytus^s stem 
resolve do him ? " He resisted the advances of his stepmother Phaedra, 
who was the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and so is called Cressa. 
Bellerophon was tempted by Stheneboea, or as some say Antea, and 
when he resisted her she charged him to her husband Proetus, as Poti- 
phar's wife charged Joseph. ' Haec,' as is easily seen, though it is not 
expressed, refers to Phaedra, who is called Cressa from her birthplace. 
She blushed when she was refused who had no shame in asking. 

328. Concussere ambae.] This means that they were exdted to mad- 
ness. ' Pudor,' in this sense, is outraged modesty. 

329. Elige quidnam] *' Choose what advice you think should be 
given to hiin whom Caesar's wife resolves to marry." Messalina. the 
young wife of Claudius, was enamoured of one C. Silius, a plebeian 
(Juvenal is wrong in verse 332), and she took occasion of the Era- 



9 
1 

I 



192 NOTES. 

peror*8 absence in Ostia to marrv him publicly, a.d. 48. Tacitus says 
Silius (whom Messalina Induced to put away his wife) was not igno- 
rant of the greatness of the sin or of the danger, but being certain of 
death if he rejected Iier, and having some hope of escaping discovery, 
at the sanie time attraxjted by the great prizes within his reach, he 
consoled himself with waiting for the future and enjoying the present 
moment. The intrigue was carried on wlthout any concealment on 
the part of MessaUna; but according to Tacitus it was Silius who 
proposed to her that they should marry, and she with some reluctance, 
fearing lest she should lose her hold upon him, consented. It suits 
Juvenars purpose to give a different version of the story, or he may 
have heard and believed what he says, tliat the man had no choice 
but compliance or death. The whole matter is well discussed by Meri- 
vale, V. 426-436, who should by all means be consulted here. 

332. rapitur miser exstwguendus] He is hurried to his death by Mes- 
salina^s eyes ; * oculis ' depends on both. With ' decies centena ' we 
must suppiy ' sestertia ' or ' millia sestertium.' * Ritu antiquo ' refers 
to the * dos,' not to the amount of it. The * signatores ' were witnesses 
to the marriage contract. The ' auspices ' were probably in attend- 
ance at marriages of importance, or at the signing of tlie contract, 
and went through some formula. They declared whether the day was 
fortunate. 

339. ante lucemas :] Before dark. If he consented he would get a 
short delay till a scandal known to all the town should reach the ears 
of the emperor, who was at Ostia when this monstrous transaction 
occurred. On the form of the conditional sentence, see A. 69, 4, 6 
and R. ; H. 611, ii., 1 ; B. 1271. The courtiers were in much perplex- 
ity as to how they should act for their own safety ; and finally the 
marriage was reported to Claudius through two of his concubines. 
After a good deal of hesitation Claudius ordered the death of Silius, 
who died without fear. Messalina would have escaped if Narcissue 
had not pretended the emperor's orders and caused her to be put to 
death. When the emperor was informed that she was dead he asked 
no questions, but called for his wine and went to dinner. 

345. candida cervix.] Decapitation and strangling were the common 
way of executing criminals, except tlie lowest and slaves, who were 
crucified. ' Putaris ' in the preceding verse is the subjunctive of con- 
cession. It does not depend upon * quidquid.' 

354. Ut tamen et poscas] " You had better not ask any thing ; but 
suppose you must ask something, let it be a healthy mind and a 
healthy body, a stout heart, patient and content." * Et ' is used for 
emphasis, as the Greeks used koi. * Sacellis ' means the chapel every 
man had in his house, 1n whichwere images of the Lares, to whom 
the oflfering of a pig was common. * Tomacula ' is minced meat, de- 
rived from refivu. * Fortem * implies resolution in keeping the right 
course, moral courage and consistency ; a heart which while it counts 
death a boon is able to bear patiently the hard task of living. ' Pluma ' 
means feather beds or pillows. 

358. spatium . . extremum] See on verse 276. 



SATIRE XI. 198 

363. Monstro quod ipse tihi possis dare :] " What I direct you to, you 
can get for yourself, for it is certain that the only path of life in which 
peace is known lies through virtue." Virtue is therefore represented 
as a happy land through which they who pass in the joumey of life 
are at peace. 

365. NuUum numen abest] He says it is only we, we men, who have 
made a goddess of Fortune. Prud/ence (providentia) makes us inde- 
pendent of her, and the gods are all on the side of the provident. 
Some MSS. have ' habes ' for ' abest.' 



■•o^ 



SATIRE XL 

JuTENAL inyites his friend, whom he calls Persicus, to dinner, and 
prepares him for plain fare by observations on the conduct of those 
wlio with small means affect the indulgences of the rich, and who 
squander the little they have upon their belly. The time is that of the 
Megalesian festival in honor of Cybele, that is in April, and Juvenal 
was not young when he wrote. The composition is in Horace'8 style, 
without any appearance of imitation. The subject is not large, and 
there is no great variety of treatment. But as a picture of domestic 
manners, and of k household of the better sort, the Satire is pleasing. 
The principal commonplace is sensibly put, the simplicity of the 
olden time is described in a graphic way, there is heartiness ifi the 
4nvitation, and the occasion is marked with dramatic distinctness in 
the concluding lines. 

Abgument. — If a rich man lives well, he is called generous ; if a 
poor man does so, he is deemed mad, and all laugh at him. Yet it is 
the poorest who live the best, search every element for dainties, and 
sell every thing in order to season their dishes well ( 1-20). It makes a 
difference who does all this ; we need to leam the lesson which came 
down from heaven, " BInow thtself." Take your own measure, and 
go by it in all things. See to what you may come — beggary, and 
retreat from the city, shamelessly running away from your creditors 
(21-65). To-day you shall see whether I practise what I preach. I 
shall be Evander to your Hercules or Aeneas. You shall dine on the 
products of my farm (56-76). So lived our senators long ago. The 
food of Curius would be scomed by the workman now. In those times 
a man of high rank would walk to a feast with his spade over his 
shoulder. No one then asked for fanciful ornaments ; every thing was 
simple (77-99). They cared not then for art; all their silver was on 
their arms. Then the gods were nearer men. They were not unwill- 
ing to eat from plain wooden tables ; men of our day will scarce touch 
those of silver (100-129). My guest must not despise poverty. I have 

13 



.194 NOTES. 

no ivory, no trained carrer, no Bleek waiting-boys, no wanton dancing- 
girls. Our sport is reading Homcr and Virgil (129-182). Come, put 
away cares, and have a rest ; forget debts, jealousies, and troubles. 
All Rome has flocked to the Circus, and the games are going on 
Buccessfully. To-day we may go early to the bath ; but we must not 
do 80 every day of the feast; pleasures are sweeter for intrequent 
use (183-208). 

1. Auiciis eximie ai coeruU] Atticus was- the cognomen of many per- 
Bons of high family and distinction under the empire. The nanie 
might be proverbial for wealth from the enormous fortune of T. Pom- 
ponius Atticus, the friend of Cicero. Rutilus is a cognomen found in 
several famiiies, both patrician and plebeian. The owner of it here 
had run through his fortune. * Lautus ' is liere ^ munificent person 
who lives well, but has means in proportion. ' Excipitur ' means ' is 
taken up,' as we say. As to Apicius, see iv. 23, n. 

4. ConvictuSt thernuiey stationes,] In all companies there is talk of 
Rutilus. ' Loquuntur ' is understood. ' Convictus ' is equivalent to 

* convivia ' here, and in other writers of the empire. * Tliermae ' are 
the batlis, wh^re a great deal of gossip went on. Places of public 
resort, where people gathered for conversation, to meet friends and so 
forth, as we do where bands play, were called ' stationes.' 

6. Sufficittnt galeoe] He means that while he might be doing his 
country service in the field, he prefers letting Iiimself to the ' lanista.' 

* Est * must be supplied after * ardens.' 

7. Non cogente quidem] * Tribuno ' seems to be put for the emperor. 
Angustus prohibited senators from becoming gladiators, while Nero 
forced them to act as such. Here it is implied that thougli the em- 
peror did not compel the man as Nero, he might have prevented him 
like Xugustus. 

8. Scripturus leges] The ' lanista ' was the trainer, who also hired 
gladiators on his own account under a bond, the penalties of which 
were very severe. They are therefore called ' regia verba,' the words 
of a tyrant ; * leges * are his rules. * Fertur scriptiuiis ' is, it is re- 
ported he means to write them out, the rules to leam and the bond to 
sign. Some take * regia verba ' for the words of command : " attoUe, 
caede, declina, urge, percute." 

12. Egregius coenat meliusque] * Caeteris ' may be understood. Egre- 
gius ' is an unusual comparative form, from * egregie.' See M. 67, a, 
obs. ; Z. 114, a, note. He says that those dine best who are poorest, 
who are like an old house just ready to fall and letting in the light 
through the cracks of the walls. 

X4. gustus elementa per omnia] ' Gustus ' were the things eaten at the 
' promulsis ' to provoke the appetite. These persons got provocatives 
from water, air, and earth, fish, fowl, and vegetables ; and the more 
they cost, the more in their hearts they relislied their dainties. 

17. Erga haud difficile est] " Well then (since nothing stops them) it 
is not difficult to fetch the money which they are bent upon throwing 
away ; they may pawn their dishes and dispose of their mother's bust, 
and season a ghitton's platter with four hundred sesterces." 



SATIKE XI. 195 



20. miscellanea ludL] ' Miscellanea * is a mess of all sorts of things, 
as the Scholiast explains it. Havmg spent all he had to spend, the 
man comes to put up with gladiators' fare. ' Ludus ' is the lanista^s 
school. 

21. Refert ergo quia haec eadem paret ;] * Ergo ' is * as I said/ going 
back to verse 1 (see x. 64, n. : "Ergo supervacua," etc). 'Refert' 
(rem fert), it makes a difference. * Haec eadem ' is these said dainties. 
Ventidius is put, as Atticus was, for any wealthy person. * Laudabile 
nomen ' is represented in * lautus,' verse 1. 

25. hic tamen idem Ignoret] " While he, the very same man, knows 
not the great difEerence between a little bag and an iron-bound chest." 
He has learnt at school that Atlas is tlie highest mountain range in 
Af rica, but does not know the great distance between his means and 
those of Ventidius and the like. The cliange in the mode to the 
Bubjunctive in 'ignoret* is to express a causal idea; "while yet he 
does not know." Tlie first relative clause is simply adjectival. The 
saying yvC>di aeaurdv is attributed to each of the seven wise men, to 
Py thagoras, to Socrates, and to the Delphic oracle, to which or some 
other divine source Juvenal ascribes it. 

30. nec enim loricam poscit] Thersites knew himself better-than to 
try for the armor of Achilles, in which Ulysses cut a doubtful figure. 
* Traducere * is used in this sense of exposure in viii. 17. * Ancipitem ' 
agrees with ' se.' It means that he did not look like himself, people 
did not know him in the armor of Achilles. 

32. seu tu magno] * Seu ' is opposed to * sive ' in verse 28 (sive 
quaeras vel velis — seu aflfectas), and a new verb is introduced, a 
common change of construction ; thereis a sort of anacoluthon, the 
indefinite person addressed seeming to be defined»in * tu.' * Buccae' 
is used for a ranting noisy fellow, who blows out his cheeks like a 
bladder, and emits nothing but the wind that fills them. 

36. quum piscis emetur] * Gobio ' or ' cobio/ as it appears to be 
sometimes spelt, is a gudgeon. * Sacculus' (27), 'loculus,' 'crumena,' 
are all the same, a leatlier purse wom in the folds of the toga or 
the girdle. * Loculus ' is always used in the plural, because, it would 
seem, there were several compartments for holding different kinds of 
coin. * Argentuni grave ' is silver in bars or plates (laminae). 

39. Et crescente gula] That is ' et tamen,' as we have it repeatedly. 

41. exit Annulus] The ring was properly the mark of equestrian 
or senatorian rank. PolUo would seem to belong to one of those 
orders. 

44. Non praematuri cineres] He says it is not premature death that 
is sorrow to the riotous liver, but he has more reason to fear age 
than death, an old age of bankruptcy and exile from the scene of his 
pleasures. * Luxuria ' has always a bad sense. * Luxury ' does not 
express it. It is wanton excess. * Paullum nescio quid * is a way of 
expressing a very little. * Fenoris auctor ' for * fenerator ' is an un- 
common expression. * Solum vertere ' is a sort of euphemism for 
going into voluntary exile or running away. 

49. Baiasetad Ostia currunt:] They must leave Bome, but they go 



196 NOTES. 

to tbe pleasantest plaoes they can. As to Baiae, see iii. 4, n. Although 
Ostia had ceased to be the port of Rome when this satire was written, 
it continued to be a flourishing town throughout the period of the 
empire. 

50. Cedere namque foro] To leave the forum is another way of 
expressing the running away from one'8 creditors. AU the principal 
bankers and money-lenders had their place in the Forum Romanum. 
'Deterius' is equivalent to 'turpius.' As to Suburra, see iii. 5. It 
was a close hot part of the town. On the agreement of * ille/ * illa,' 
with their predicates, see A. 47, 2, e ; H. 445, 4 ; M, 313. 

56. Experiere kodie] He comes now to the ostensible purpose of his 
epistle, and invites his friend Persicus to dinner. ' Numquid ' is the 
same as the Greek ei tu * Vel' is exegetical, *in my life or (that is) 
in my character and in action.' > 

61. Emndrum, venies Tirynihius] Hercules was called Tirynthius 
from Tiryns, a town of Argolis, where lie was said to have settled by 
command of tbe Pythian oracle. Evander received Aeneas as hia 
guest in his homely palace on the Palatine (as it was afterwards 
named). Aeneas was the 'minor hospes,' but in virtue of his mother 
Venus he is sald ' contingere sanguine caelum.' Aeneas was killed 
in battle with the Rutulians near tlie river Numicius ; but the legend 
said he was drowned in that river. Hercules, unable to bear the 
torture caused by the robe Deianira gave him, went to the top of 
Mount Oeta, in Thessaly, and there burnt himself to death, or while 
the pile on which he lay was buming he was carried up to Olympus 
in a cloud. 

64. Fercida nunc audi] As to 'fercula,' courses, see i. 94. The 
different markets, *macella,' the fish, vegetable, meat, and others, 
were all united long before Juvenars time into one. 

65. De Tibnrtino veniet] It appears from this that Juvenal had an 
estate near Tibur. The description which follows is af ter the manner 
of Virgil's Eclogues. Under the name 'asparagi' are included 
several herbs besides the one we know by that name. This is wliy 
the word is usually in the plural. * Villica ' is the wife of his * villicus/ 
or head-gardener. The eggs were wrapped up warm in the hay in 
which they were laid. Grapes were preservea in various ways with 
more or less freshness. * Parte ' denotes duration of time. M. 235, 
obs. 3 ; A. 65, 1, 6 ; H. 378, 1 ; B. 960. 

73. Signinum Suriumque pirum,] The Signian pears, from Signia 
in Latium, S. E. oi Rome, were of a reddish color, and so were sorae- 
tiraes called Uestacea.' The Syrian pear was black and very juicy. 
Tlie apples of Picenum were celebrated. Juvenal says his apples 
smell as fresh as when they were gathered, but the juice of autumn, 
which was considered unwholesorae, had been dried out of thera by 
the frost. It was now April. The construction is *nec metuenda 
tibi sunt mala postquam posuere autumnum siccatum frigore et 
pericula crudi succi.' ' Put away their auturan ' is an odd expression, 
but it is explained by what f ollows. * Postquam ' is * now that they 
have.' 



SATIRE XI. 197 

77. jam luocuriosa\ Now it has grown to be luxurious. It was plain 
enougn, but a still simpler diet had gone before in the good old days 
of M. Curius Dentatus, whom the Samnites found preparing his own 
supper of vegetables. The matrix of a pregnant sow, or one that 
had lately cast its Utter, was counted a great delicacy. 

82. Sicci terga smzs,] He says the chine of bacon dried on a hurdle 
in the ceihng was formeriy kept to be produced on hoUdays or birth- 
days. * Rara crate ' is a frame with wide interstices. All but the 
legs and entrails of a sacrificed victim were eaten. The birthday lard 
was f or moistening the vegetables perhaps. * Moris ' is the possessive 
genitive : " it belonged to the custom of former times." 

86. Cognatonm aliquis] On his birthday comes one of his relations, 
who has been thrice consul, not only with the title which in Juvenars 
time was sometimes borne without the office, but with the command 
of armies in the field, and moreover he has been dictator. The great 
man comes early to dinner, shouldering the spade with which he has 
been digging. Verse 89 is a picture. * Solito maturius ' means that 
he leaves liis work earlier than usual to honor his relation's birthday 
or hoUday. 

90. Qmm tremerent autem] In the good days when men were afraid 
of the censors. * Autem ' serves to continue the discourse. M. 437, 
b. Of the Fabii there were many censors. M. Porcius Cato is the 
elder of that name, who was censor b.c. 184. M. AeraihUs Scaurus 
was censor b.c. 109, and C. Fabricius Luscinus b.c. 275. Claudius 
Nero and Livius Salinator were coUeagues in the censorship b.c. 204 ; 
the reference in verse 92 is to them. They were both * equites,' and 
each had a pubUc horse. Livius had been condemned by the people 
in his first consulship fifteen years before. During his censorship, 
when the names of his century were caUed over, the crier hesitated 
whether he should call that of SaUnator, but Claudius obliged him to 
do so, and ordered his coUeague to sell his horse as one who had been 
condemned by the people. 

95. Clarum Trojugenis] See i. 100 : " Ipsos Trojugenas." The legs 
of the beds and dinner-couches, as weU as the sides, were sometimes 
highly omamented. In the old times, he says, men were content 
with a small couch with plain sides and a bronze ornament in front 
representing a rude ass's head crowned- with vine-leaves. The ass 
was sacred to Bacchus. The home-bred slaves (vemae), whom he 
means by * ruris alumni,' made game of the rude figure. The con- 
struction in verse 96 is ' sed (in) lectis nudo latere et parvis frons 
aerea ostendebat,' * on couches with bare sides and small, a front of 
bronze displayed the mde head of an ass with a wreath.' 

100. Tunc rudis et Graias] The allusion here is chiefly to the de- 
struction of Corinth by Mummius (b.c. 146). The historians describe 
the waste and destmction of valuable works of art as most deplorable. 

103. Ut phaleris gauderet eqnns,] The bridles and harness of horses 
were commonly much ornamented with metal. * Phalerae ' indude aU 
the harness and trappings. A fitting device for a helmet would be the 
she-wolf that suckled liomulus and his brother, being tamed by the 



198 XOTES. 

dcstinj of Rome. The two brothers are called QiiiTmi, as Castor and 
PoUax are called Ca^tores. ' Fato ' is dative. 

106. Ac nudam ejfigiem] Tliere is supposed to be on the helmet 
a naked ^gvae of Mars coming down from heaven with shield and 
spcar, and still in the air. * Clipeo venientis et hasta ' is the same con- 
struction as ' pugnanti Gorgone' in the next satire, rerse 4 : " coming 
armed with shield and spear." See M. 258, obs. 8, and compare Z. 
473. 

109. Tusco/htrata calino ;] Etruscan pottery was very common, &s 
we know from thc abundant six>cimens tliat remain. 'Farrata' is 
equivalent to ' pultes ' above, verse 58. * Ponere ' is used ordinarily 
for putting on thc table. 

110. Omnia tunc quibus invidecu] ** Every thing in those days was 
such as you miglit envy if you are inclined to a httle jealousy." 

111. Tempiorum quoque majestas] He says tiiat in tlie old times the 
gods were nearer to men, they helped them more directly, and he 
refers to the story told by Livy of one having heard a voice louder 
than that of man in the dead of night, ordering him to report to the 
magistrates that the Gauls were coming. * Dii fictiles ' are f requently 
referred to. * Violatus ' is * wronged,' as if it was an insult to gild him. 
See iii. 20. 

118. kos lignum stabat] 'Stabat' is like 'exstabat.' There was 
wood for these purposes f rom any old tree that was blown down ; but 
now they cannot eat their dinner unless they have liandsome round 
tables with ivory stems. The ' orbis ' had a single stem which was 
carved in a variety of ways. It was commonly omamented with ivory, 
and more commonly with silver. Juvenal had one in his eye which 
was supported by a leopard rampant, not a very natural position. 
Scented oils of various kinds, of which the nardum was most costly, 
were used by the Romans plentifully. At their evening parties after 
dinner, when they met to drink and play, * unguenta ' were comraonly 
served out to the guests, and chaplets of flowers supplied by the host 
were put upon their heads. Roses were scattered on Ihe floor at the 
regular dinner. * Dama ' is an antelope, which when young was and 
is a great delicacy. 

124. qvos mittit porta Syenes] Syene, being a frontier town in Upper 
Egypt, through which the traffic from Aetliiopia passed, is called 
'porta.' The Nabathaei and Idumael were not very clearly distin- 
guished at the time when Juvenal wrote, parts of Arabia Petraea 
being dccupied by each. Arabia never produced elepliants, and tiiey 
are not now found and perhaps never were in the north of Africa. 
Elephants drop their teeth but once, like other animals, and then 
they take larger ones. Juvenal adopts a popular fable. 

127. Hinc surgil orexla^] This gives them an appetite. The old- 
fashioned people, and those wl^o were not entitled to wear gold rings, 
wore them of iron, the imiversal practice of the olden time ; a silver 
foot to a table had conie to be as common a thing as an iron ring. 

131. Adeo nulla uncia nohis] ** Such is my contemptible condition 
that I have actually not an ounce of ivory," which was a conventional 



SATIRE XI. 199 

quantity. ' Nec ' is ' not even.* ' Tessellae ' are little dice. ' Calculus ' 
is a counter f or playing a game common among the Romans, and like 
our draughts. 

136. Sed nec structor erit\ As to 'structor/ see v. 120, n. *Per- 
gula ' is properly some projecting part of a house, a veranda. It is 
derived f rom ' per-rego, ' pergo.' The word came to be used in a 
variety of ways, particularly ns a school, wliich is its use here. Try- 
pherus is the name he invents for some master of the art of carving. 
It may be derived from Tpvipij. * Apud quem Ms * in whose house.' 
The teats of a sow were a great delicacy. The boar was commonly 
thechief dish (caput coenae) of a large dinner, and served whole. 

* Pygargus ' was sorne sort of deer named from its white rurap. 
*Scythicae volucres' were pheasants (Phasianae aves), a delicacy en- 
joyed by the rich only. Of the 'phoenicopterus,' the flaraingo, the 
brains and the tongue were considered particular delicacies, as the 
tongue is still. It is found in the south of Europe, but the Roraans 
probably got them most abundantly frora t!ie coast of Africa. The 

* oryx ' was an African wiid goat with one hom, which Juvenal says 
was a great delicacy. It is not mentioned as sucli elsewhere. ' Ulmea 
coena ' is a collection of wooden models used for practising upon. 
They niade such a clatter that the whole Suburra echoed with it. The 
school therefore was in that part of the town. 

142. Necfrastam caprene] He says his young beginner is not only a 
novice in carving, but in stealing too. * Afra avis ' is doubtful. It is 
supposed to be the guinea fowL * Ofella ' is a chop, the diminutive of 
*offa.' He says his boy is a novice in every thing, and has onfy got so 
far in thieving as to purloin a small chop. *Et* is * and only,' which 
is implied in * exiguae.* 

146. afrigore tutus,] The time is spring, and he says his servant is 
an uncouth boy, and clad in warm clothes, which the fine houses do 
not allow. 

155. Qtales esse decet] There is a play upon * ingenuus.' His was 
an honest face and a frank modesty, sucb as boys who are born of 
free parents (ingenui) should have. Only they wore the * toga prae- 
texta' (wliich he calls the bright purple) in childhood. 

159. Hic tibi vina dabit] The wine from the hills above Tibur was 
Horace's * vile Sabinum,' which therefore had not increased in value. 

162. ut Gaditana canoro] The practice of having young dancers 
and singers and musicians of both sexes at dinner is sufficiently well 
known to those who are familiar with Horace. The women of Gades 
are repeatedly mentioned by the writers of the empire as employed in 
this way. 

169. Alterius sexus :] This means the women. *Extenditur* means 
they are more on the stretch of excitement. 

172. Tesiarum crepitus] These were castanets. Why these instru- 
ments, which were made of bone or wood, were called ' testae ' or 
darpaKot is uncertain. He says the words of the song to which tlie 

* testae ' were an accompaniment were such as no- slave girl standing 
naked at the door of the stews would utter. * Fomix ' is properly an 



200 NOTES. 

arched Tault, of wliich there were many under the Circus and in 
various parts of the city, wliich were let out for brothels. 

175. Qui Lacedaemonium pi/tismcUe] At Taenarus in Laconia was 
found marble of a green color and very valuable. * Orbem * is the pave- 
menty which was formed of small pieces, round or oval, of marble. 
He says the man who spits out his wine over his marble tioor may like 
that sort of language, but plain men, Uving in their quiet way, do not. 

176. alea turpisy] What is immoral for the poor man may be per- 
mitted to the rich ; it is only clieerf uiness and good breeding in them. 
' Nitidus ' has reference to manners and may be rendered * well-bred/ 
The dice used by the Romans were of two sorts : * tah/ which had 
four flat sides, and ' tesserae, tesseliae/ which liad six. The former 
were made of the knuckle-bones of animals, chiefly sheep, and an- 
swered to the darpayaXot of the Greeks. The latter were maUe of 
ivory or wood, and correspouded to the Greek /ci)/3oi. * Alea ' was used 
generally for all games of chance. 

181. dubiamfacienfia carminapalmam.] This is aRoman^sjudgment. 
The next iine is a modest way of saying he does not profess to read 
well. 

183. Sed nunc] " But at any rate, however all this may be." This 
is a way of coming to the chief ostensible purpose. When a man can 
write to his frieiid, as in verses 186 to 189, whether in joke or in 
earnest, society must be in a bad way. 

193. Interea Megalesiacae] The Megalesia was a festival kept in 
honor of Cybele early in April of each year, Her worship as that of 
the great goddess {fjLeyahj) was introduced from Mount Ida in Phrygia. 
The Megalesian games were not celebrated in the Circus before the 
time of the empire. They consisted in the earlier times of theatrical 
representations, and were presided over by the curule aedile. Under 
the empire this duty was performed by one of the praetors, who, it 
appears frora this place, went in procession and presided in state as at 
the Ludi Circenses (see x. 86, n.). He calls the games those of the 
Megalesian napkin, because a napkin was dropped by the praetor who 
presided as a signal for the beginning of each race^r game. Before 
^colunt' 'cives must be understood. The praetor is called 'praeda 
caballorum,' probably because he had to spend so much money in 
providing horses for the games. The praetor is at once in the position 
of triumpher and prisoner. 

195. mihi pace Immensae] *Pace plebis' is 'by the leave of the 
people.* It is most common in the combinations ' pace mea/ ' pace 
tua.' He asks their leave to abuse tbera, for he says in the same 
breath they are a huge useless mob, and care for nothing but the 
Circus, as he has said often before. 

197. fragor aurem Perc^itit] He writes as if he heard the shout pro- 
claiming that the green faction had won. The division of drivers in 
the Circus into four parties, who were distinguished by the color of 
their dress, has been mentioned above on vii. 114. The favorite color, 
which was particularly patronized by some of the emperors, was the 
dark green (prasinus), and Juvenal says he gathers by the shout that 



SATIRE XU. 201 



green coat has won ; for if that color failed the whole town woiild go 
into moaming as they did after Cannae. This was the calamitj the 
Bomans felt most and longest. The consuls defeated at Cannae were 
L. Aemilius Faulus and C. Terentius Varro, b.c. 216. Livy, describ- 
ing the battle, says that a wind arose blowing the dust in the face of 
the Romans and blindlng them. 

201. clamor et audax oponsioA * Sponsio ' here is a wager. He says 
shouting and wagering and sittmg next tp pretty girls is more fit for 
the young than himself, so he must have been advanced in life when 
this was written. *Cultae* is equivalent to^amatae.' 'Contracta 
cuticula ' is a dried-up skin. In their houses the Romans did not wear 
the toga, but it was not decent to appear in public places without it. 

204. Jam nunc in balnea aalva Fronte] He says, " Aithough it wants 
a whole hour of noon, you may go to the bath without shame." 
*Frons' is usually put for the seat of modesty. The usual dinner 
hour was the ninth, and the Romans commonly bathed an hour before 
dinner. But this was on business days. The invitation is for a holi- 
day, and men might do as they pleased without being afraid of seem- 
ing idle. He says it would not do, however, to begin bathing so early 
every day of the feast, which lasted six days, for even such a luxuri- 
ous iife as that would become very wearisome. The last verse reminds 
118 of the Greek proverb^ fi7f6ev uyav. 



.«o«- 



SATIRE Xn. 

This is a letter to Corvinns, ezplaining to him the reason of the poef s 
rejoicing on the safe arrival of his friend Catullus, after a stormy 
voyage in which he had encountered the usual dangers and displayed 
the UBual amount of fear. There is some playfulness, though perhaps 
a little ponderous, in the description of his f rlend's conduct and suffer- 
ings; but the whole composition cannot have cost tlie writer much 
labor, and does not offer much entertainment. The last thirty or forty 
lines are occupied with a stroke at legacy-hunters. The Satire seems 
to belong to the later years of Juvenars life. It could not have been 
written before the time of Trajan (see on verse 76). 

Aroument. — To-day, Corvinus, is more pleasant to me than the 
day of my birth. I have vowed to the gods according to my means, 
and gladly would I offer more. For my friend has come, still trem- 
bling at his dangers. It was like a storm in poetry; and, besides, 
CatuUus threw overboard all his costliest goods. There was no safety 
till at last the mast was cut away (1-56). So you trust yourself to a 
log, only a few inches from destruction. But at last the ship, with 
but one sail, comes to Ostia ; and the sailor lands, and has wonderful 
tales to tell. Now I will offer my sacrifices and then rejoice before 
my Laxea (57-92). Do not suspect my motives ; Catullus has three 



202 NOTES. 

children ; no one would waste a dying hen or a quail on 80 useless a 
friend. If a rich person falls sick, all offer yows ; some promise a 
hecatomb ; elephants are not plenty here, yet some would offer them, 
or even their own children. Then, if the patient should get well, he 
would arrange to leave his money to Pacuvius, who prayed for his 
recovery (93-127). Long live Pacuvius, witli plenty oi gold, and not 
a friend to love (128-130). 

1. NataJif Corvine, die] The welcoming of the day that reminds us 
of our birth, and assigning to it a giadness which it rarely inspires 
after childhood, is a conventionality as old as history. The Ronians 
from the eariiest times observed their birtlidays and those of their 
rulers and great men and their friends, as religious hoiidays, with 
prayers and sacrifices, as we liave seen in the last satire, verse 84. 
As to * caespes,' turf altars were commonly used by persons of moder- 
ate means. 

3. Niveam Reginae ducimus agnam ;] White victims were oflfered to 
the gods above, and black to those below, x^ovuiL. The worship of 
Juno Regina was brought frora Veii by Camillus, according to IAyj, 
and a temple was built to her under that name on the Aventine. Sho 
who fought witli the Gorgon (that is on her *aegis') was Minerva, 
to whom he has promised a like offering for the preservation of his 
friend. The goiis to whom they offered on such occasions were per- 
haps chosen rather arbitrarily, or circumstances might direct the 
choice in some instances. But Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were com- 
moniy worshipped together. The temple on the Capitoline hill con- 
sisted of three parts, of which the middle was dedicated to Jupiter 
Opt. Max., that on the right tp Juno, and the other to Minerva. Thc 
Gorgon Medusa, whose head Perseus cut off and Pallas placed upon 
her * aegis,' was by some traditions an inhabitant of Airica, and so 
Juvenal calls her ' Maura/ * Pugnanti Gorgone ' is in construction 
like * clipeo venientis et hasta ' (xi. 106, where see note) ; it means 
**fiffhting armel with the Gorgon" as the other is '^ooming armed 
with shield and spear." 

5. Sed prorid extemnm] A young steer is tied and chafes at tho 
length of the rope, and shakes his head, waiting to be offered to Jupiter 
Opt. Max. It was considered a good omen, if the animal went wiU- 
ingly to the altar. The Capitoline hill was also called Tarpeian from 
the treacherous Tarpeia who betrayed the citadel on that liill to the 
Sabines. The precipitous part of the hill from which criminals were 
tlirown was more especially known by that hame. * Sed ' means only 
that another victim was reserved for Jove more fitting than the lamb. 

* Coruscare ' is the same as * vibrare.' Wine was commonly poured 
on the head of the victim before it was killed, and on the parts that 
were sacrificed while they were burning on the altar. They wero 
also sprinkled with meal or rather broken bread (mola -salsa) and 

* thus.^ 

8. uhera matris Dac€rei\ The meanings of the word * ducere ' are very 
various. It here raeans, as it commonly does with * pocula,'^ to drain. 
Above (verse 8) it is used for ofiering a victim, and so it is below 



SATIKE XII. 203 

(verse 112) and in z. 65: ''duc in Capitolia magnum Cretatumqne 
bovem." It is the ordinary* word for marrying a wife (i. 22), for 
mouiding a statue (vii. 237), for burying the dead (i. 146 ; x. 240), 
for drawing lots (vi. 683), for dragging by the heels (v. 125; x. 66), 
for spinning (xii. 65), for contracting (as we say of a stain, etc.) (xiii. 
216); Juvenal also uses it for stealing (xiii. 152). In many of its 
significations *trahere' is used synonymously with it (verse 11). 
* Quippe ferox vitulus,' * sure 'tis a wild steer.* 

11, Pinguior Hispulla] He says if his means were equal to his affec- 
tion he would ofier a bull fatter than Hispulla, a woman of whom noth- 
ing definite is known. The beast sliould be hardly able to carry its 
own weight (a prize ox), not reared in the pastures about Rome, but 
a wbite beast whose breeding (sanguis) should show that he came 
from the Clitumnus. This was a small stream in Umbria, which flowed 
through Hl valley rich in pasture-land, and celebrated f or a breed of 
peculiarly whitc sheep and cattle. The stream was held in religious 
veneration, and there were many smali temples near the source. For 
this reason and from their color, the animals bred on the banks were 
commonly used for sacrifice. 

14. a yrandi cervix ferienda mtniVro,] * Sanguis ' and * cervix ' stand 
by a synecdoche for * taurus,' or they may be taken as in a partitive 
apposition with it. Among the Greeks the victim was killed by the 
olficiating priest. With the Romans this duty was performed by a 
person who bore the title of * popa.' It was the practico first to strike 
the victim on the head with a hammer to stun it, and then to cut the 
throat, or chop the neck with an axe. The victim was * mactata * 
af ter the blow of the hammer, which was administered by the ' popa ; ' 
the * cultrarius ' probably was a lower ofiicer who finished the busi- 
ness. Juvenal speaks of him as a burly fellow, ' grandi.' The gerun- 
dive is rarely construed, as in verse 14, with * a ' and the ablative. 
See II. 888, 1.8; B. 1310 ; Z. 651. 

15. trepidantis adhuc\ Though the danger was past he was still 
tr^mbling at the remembrance of what he had lately gone through. 

19. impulit ignisA This probably refers to the meteoric flashes 
known in the Mediterranean as the fire of St. Elmo. ' Quum cre- 
deret ' is a relative dause denoting result : ' it was such a time that each 
believed himself struck.* * Attonitus ' is a stronger word for * terri- 
tus/ as in xiv. 306. 

23. « quando poetica surgit] When a storm is gotten up in poetry all 
the incidents are the same and as terrible as in this storm. 

24. Genus ecce aliud discriminis ;] * But here is another kind of dan- 
ger,' which he relates at verse 30, introducing it with a little mock 
seriousness and a parenthesis about pictures of wrecks. The practice 
of shipwrecked sailors hanging up pictures in the temples (of Isis in 
particular) is often alluded to. They also carried such pictures about 
to get pity and alms. The painters, then, might well be said to ^et 
their living by Isis. The misfortune is described to be the throwmg 
over of his goods, which no doubt wouid be introduced in many 
pictures of this sort, f or the first expedient in danger was to lighten 



204 NOTBS. 

the ship, as m St Paul'8 Toyage. ' Caetera ' and ' pars ' both refer to 
* genus aliud/ 

30. Q!uum plenus Jluctu] " When the hold was fuU of water, and 
when the waves were tossing up first tiiis side and then that of the 
ship, a crazy tree, and the skill of the old pilot could not help her, be 
began to settle with the winds by tossing over the cargo." The words 
' arboris incertae ' have given a great deal of trouble, and various con- 
jectural alterations have been suggested. I think the common reading 
may stand, * arboris ' being used in apposition with ' puppis.' He is 
abusing the ship, which lie calls * dolatum lignum ' below, as we might 
call it a log. ' Jactus ' is explained on iii. 125 : " nusquam m'inor est 
jactura clientis." * Decidero ' is the iegal term for coming to terms 
witli an opponent. The fable that follows about the beaver is as old 
as Aesop, and was believed by the ancients. It is of ten alluded to. 
' Adeo intelligit ' is * he so fully understands/ The substance called 
castor, obtained from the groins of the beaver, has been used in med- 
icine as an antispasmodic ; it is now chiefly employed by perfumers. 

39. teneris quoque Maecenatibus] See i. 66, n. This name, it appears, 
was long a proverb. He threw overboard his purple clothes and others 
made of flne Spanish wool, from sheep which he says were colored 
by the quality of the rich grass, the fine water of the Baetis, with its 
hidden virtues, and tlie air of the country where they were bred, which 
was the modern Andalusia, called Baetica from the river Baetis (the 
Guadalquivir), by which and its tributaries it was watered. This val- 
ley has from tiie earliest times been the richest in Spain, and was f amous 
for its breed of sheep. The wooi, it appears, was of a yellow color, 
and the color was popularly attributed to the water of the river. 

44; Parthenio factasX * Parthenius ' may be tiie name of a * caela- 
tor,' a worker in metal. But there is reason for thinking that ' Par- 
thenio ' is equiyalent to ' Samio ; ' ' Partlienia ' was the old name for 
Samos, which place was celebrated for its earthenware vessels. 
Juvenal seems to be speaking throughout of silver. But the Samians 
were connected with the earliest history of metal-casting ; and two 
Samian artists named Theodorus are mentioned. * Crater ' was the 
bowl in which the ancients mixed their wine and water. ' Lances ' and 
*cratera' are in partitive apposition with ' argentum.' 'Pholus' 
was a centaur ; he is generally connected with drinking, as the cen- 
taurs commonly were. Fuscus and his wife are unknown. 

4<g. Adde et bascaudas et mifle escafia,] ' Bascauda ' is a Celtic word, 
and originally belonged to certain vessels introduced from Britain. 
The word is the original of 'basket.' The name must have after- 
wards been given to silver vessels madc elsewhere. 'Escalia' 
(vasa) are dishes of whatever shape to hold meat, ' esca.' ' Lances ' 
were flat. ' Multum caelati ' is ' a great quantity of chased silver 
cups.' Philip of Macedon and his gold are famous. Olynthus in 
Chalcidice was besieged by Philip b.c. 848, and taken through the 
treachery of two of tlie inhabitants, whose services he bought. The 
city was destroyed and the inhabitants sold. AII the citles in Chald- 
dice he gained at the same time and in the same way. He acted unl- 



SATiBE xn. 205 

venally on the principle laid down for him by the oracle, apyvpeaic 
^yX^o^ f^Xov Kcu navTa KpaTtjaeic. Philip had the reputation of being 
a hard drloker. 

48. Sed quis nunc alius qua\ There is a mock scriousness about all 
this description of Catulius^s sacrifice of his goods to save his life. 
The man must have been in a terrible f right, and went on throwing his 
things away recklessly, it would seem, in the hope of making the ship 
lighter or propitiating the elements. There is some humor therefore 
in the apparent earnestness with which he asks, " Who else in these 
days and where, who, I say, has the boldness to prefer his life to his 
money ? " * Quis qua parte ' is like tlc nov; See M. 492, a ; II. 454, 3 ; 
Hadley^s Greek Grammar, 827. 

52. Jactalur rerum utilium] ' Res utiles ' are all kinds of things used 
by man, including food. They are opposed to omamental things. 
But all the losses do not lighten the ship enough. ' Nec ' is ' not 
even.' 

54. Decidit ut mcdum] 'Dedicit' is probably employed in the sense 
in which the Grieeks commonly use KaTapalveiv, * he comes (or matters 
come) to this, that he must apply the axe to the mast.' At the end of 
the verse * hac re ' seems the best reading. The sense then is " by this 
act he got out of the difficulty ; but the extreme of danger must it be 
when we apply means of relief which must take away part of the 
ship." 

57. / nunc et ventis animam cammitte] As to ' I nunc,' see x. 810, n. 
* Dolato ligno * is a plank rough-hewn with a dolabra. A * digitus ' 
was one-sixteenth of an English foot ; four or seven is a conventional 
way of speaking. ' Taeda ' is the generic name for the trees yielding 
tar, including several varieties of the * pinus,' of whicli many were 
used in ship-building ; for which reason ' pinus ' is frequently used for 
a-sliip, though 'taeda' is found in that sense only here. 

60. Mox cum reticulis] * After you have thought of that, then look 
at what you have to take with you for the voyage, a bag of bread, ^ 
big lagena, and hatchets,' which makes a ludicrous climax. ' Reti- 
culis et pane ' is ahendiadys. ' Reticulum * is a netted bag, commonly 
used it seems for the purpose of carrying bread, as in Hor. S. i. 1. 47. 
Tiie 'lagena ' was the same as the ' amphora,' and ' ventre lagenae ' 
is like * Montani venter,' * the big-bellied Montanus,' iv. 107. 

62. tempora postquam Prospera vecioris] * But when the passenger^s 
lucky time arrived, and fate more mighty than the wind and sea ; ' 
that is, when the day came back and his fate began to prevail over 
the elements. Some such verb as 'redierunt' must be supplied. 
As to the Parcae and their spinning, see iii. 27, n. Their spinning 
wliite threads was a p^ood sign. 

67. inopi miserabilis caie] * The wretched ship with beggarly shif ts 
goes on, with clothes spread out and foresail, the only saJl that^s left.' 
' Inopi arte ' means such poor means as the storm had reduced her 
ta They spread clothes for sails, the only one that was left being 
that wliich ran out from the bows. The foresail was called ' dolo ; ' 
it was a fore-and-af t sail of small size. The rig of the Roman sailiDg 



206 NOTBS. 

ships however seemfl not to be very well underetoocL ' Prora ' is used 
generaUy for the ship and particularly for the f ore part * with its own 
sail/ 

70. tum gratus /u/o,] When the 8un rose they made out the 
heights of Alba. Where the Trojans landed in Latium Aeneas built 
a town and calied it Layinium af ter his wife Lavinia. Thirty years 
afterwards, when the population of this town increased, his son lulus 
or Ascanius ieft it to his step-mother, and f ounded Alba Longa. To 
the spot he was directed by a white sow with a litter of thirty pigs, 
such a sight as the Trojans had uever seen. The highest point of the 
group of the Alban hiiis is 3000 feet above the level of the sea, and 
a conspicuous object to ships approaching the coast. 

75. Tavdcm intrat positasj The port of Home was f or some centuries 
Ostia, which was originaUy built at the mouth of the Tiber, but 
gradually became less accessible from tiie sea through the deposit of 
soil brought down by the river. In consequence of this the Emperor 
Claudius in the year a.d. 42 caused a basin to be dug two mUes to 
the north, wliich was connected with the river by means of a canaL 
Here ships 'of large size were able to ride, the basin being protected 
by two moles which ran out into the sea, and between tliem there was 
a brealjiwater with a Ughthouse upon it. This basin was caUed Portus 
Augusti. Trajan increased and improved tliis artificial liarbor (which 
Juvenai says you would admire more than any natural one) by the 
addition of an inner basin. This basin the pilot of CatuUus's ship 
made for. It was such that a smaU boat might enter and lie there 
in safety, such a boat as pUed upon the I^us Lucrinus, by Baiae. 
The above account explains the text. ' Porrectaque brachia rursum ' 
means that the moles were curved outwards beyond the break- 
water and took a bend inwards behind it. * Non sic igitur ' is ' not 
60 much then/ such being the character of the work. ' Sed ' means 
that though the outer basin was safe, the pUot thought it better with 
his disabled ship to go into the othier. Gibbon (c. xxxi.) gives an 
account of this port, which he caUs " one of the boldest and most 
stupendous works of Koman magnificence " Juvenal calls the break- 
water Tyrrhenam Pharon after the Alexandrian Pharos, on which 
Ptolemy PliiladelphuB buUt his Ughthouse. From this lighthouses in 
general got the name Pharos. This allusion to Trajan's basin shows 
that thc satire was not written before his time. 

81. gniidcnt uhi vertice raso] Sailors saved from a wreck commonly 
cut off their hair as a thank-offering to some god. ' Sinus ' is the 
appositional genitive. * Garrula ' agrees with * pericula * by hypallage. 

83. linguis animisque faventes,] To the ordinary formula, * favete 
Unguis,' 'animis' was sometimes added. It means to keep both 
tonguc and thoughts in a reverential f rame. The knife as well as the 
burning flesh of the victim was sprinkled with * mola salsa.' The 
'moUes foci' are the turf altars (versc 2), of which there were three. 

86. ety sacro quod praestat] He says, af ter performing the chief sacri- 
fice, that which has precedence, he will go home and crown his Lares, 
which it seems to havo been usual to rub with wax and polish. 
' FragiH ' seems to be only what is caUed an * epitheton omans.' 



SATIBE XII. 207 

89. Hic nostram placabo Jovem] Tlie Penates of a house included one 
or more of the Dii Magni as well as the Lares, the spirits of their good 
ancestors. Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Vesta, one or all, were most 
commonly included. * Operari ' is commonly used f or offering sacrifice, 
or the performance of a religious duty. Here he means lus door is 
doing its duty with its early morning lamps. 

95. Libet exspectare] " I shall he glad to see who will expend a sick 
hen, just closing its eyes, on a friend so fruitless as this." Cocks or 
hens were offered to Aesculapius in particular, hut also* to the Lares 
and other gods. Quails and sparrows were types of debauched 
passion, and were never very well thought of . * Cadere ' is a common 
word in connection with sacrifices. 

98. Sentire caiorem] He says if a rich person without children takes 
» f ever, men hang their walls with tablets inscribed with prayers f or 
his or her recovery, and vows of sacrifices, or whatever it might be, 
if the prayer should be granted. These tablets were common on all 
occasions of this sort or of other important prayers, and they were 
hung up in the house of the person praying, or in the temples, or on 
the statues of the gods ; see x. 66. Tablets so inscribed were also 
carried before the victims to the altar. All such vows were naade in 
pubUc, a principle observed generally in respect to prayer, which was 
held suspicious if it were secret. It should be noticed as a peculiar 
construction that the verb in verse 99 is singular though the adjec- 
tive * orbi ' is plural. 

lOl. exsistunt qui promittunt hecatomben,] 'Exsistunt qui' cannot 
properly be said to stand f or * sunt qui.' *' Persons start up who 
promise a hecatomb (that is a hundred bulls), since elephants are not 
for sale in these parts, and are not bred in Latium or anywhere under 
our skies." He means if there were elephants they would have been 
vowed mstead. ' Nec venales ' is opposed to * nec concipitur,' and 
* aut ' joins * Latio ' and ' usquam.' The change to the finite construc- 
tion 'bellua coneipitur,' where *concepti' (elephanti) would be ex- 




Indians. He says theemperors kept herds of elephants in the country 
of the Rutuli in the neighborhood of Lavinium in Latium, where 
Tumus was king. Theywere kept for public shows. These beasts are 
not prepared to serve any private person, since their ancestors obeyed 
the orders of Hannibal (whom he calls Tyrius, as Carthage was a 
Phoenician settlement), and Koman generals, and Pyrrhus, the king 
of Epirus, to which country tbe Molossi belonged. It was he who 
first brought elephants over into Italy, and the battle of Heraclea 
(b.c. 280), when it was almost decided against him, he tumed with 
his reserve of elephants, which the Roman cavalry would not face. 
Livy describes how Hannibal got his elephants over the Rhone. They 
were thirty-seven in number. The appearance of these animals heiped 
him in crossing the Alps by the terror they struck into the moun- 
taineers. They suffered terribly on that march. Livy says that the 



208 NOTBS. 

Bomanfl flret used elephants in the war against Philip of Macedon, 
B.c. 200. This was tlie year after the conclusion of the second Punic 
war, in which lAvy says these elephants were taken. PUny says 
that elephants were first exhibited in the Circus in the year b.c. 99. 
The last syllable in *belli' (verse 110) is preserved from elision. 

111 Nutla igitur tnora per Nociumy] This means that Novius and 
Pacuvius (who may be anybody) are quite ready, and the diflBculty is 
not on their part if it is not done, to offer elephants on the altar of Gal- 
lita's Lares. On the use of ' quin/ see A. 65, 1,6; M. 376, c ; Z. 548. 
115. Alter enim, si concedas] * Enim ' means they would not hesitate 
about an elephant, for one of them would be quite ready to offer 
human sacrifices for the life of the rich woman, or even his own child, 
as Agamemnon did, though he could not expect her to be delivered 
and a hind substituted in her place, as the story is about Iphigenia. 
* Tragicae ' means that this is tlie story in the Tragedians. The offence 
requiring * piaculum * was that Agamemnon had not fulfiUed a vow he 
had made to Artemis to offer to her the most beautif ul thing that 
should be bom in the year his daughter was t)om ; he or the Argives 
had also shot a hind loved by Diana. For the subjunctive in * conce- 
das/ see references on x. 142. * Pueris et frontibus aucUlarum ' is for 
'frontibus puerorum et anciUarum.' 

121. Laudo meum ctvem,] So the master commended the unjust 
steward because he was wise in his generation. He says ironicaUy 
that the safety of a thousand ships (referring, perhaps, to Agamem- 
non's fleet, for the safety of which he sacriflced his daughter) is noth- 
ing compared with a wiU, for if the sick man recovers he wiU unmake 
his wiU, caught in the snare of the flsherman. ' Nassa ' is a snare 
made of osier, and so contrived that the flsh that got in could not get 
out again. ' Libitina ' was the goddess of f unerals and all things per- 
taining to the dead. She is identifled by some authors with Proserpina, 
and bv others with Venus. 

UZi. Post meritum sane mirandum,] After a service truly astonishing, 
that is the effectual vows of Pacuvius, to which he is ready to attrib- 
ute his recovery. For this service, he wiU perhaps, make him his 
sole * heres ' (heres ex asse). * Breviter,' * in few words.' * RivaUbus ' 
is here used in an uncommon way. ^lts derived sense elsewhere has 
reference only to rivalry in love. 

126. Ergo vides quam Grande] " So you see what a retum for his 
sufferings the death of one Mycenaean damsel won." He supposes 
him to have had a ' nubilis Iphigenia,' and to have sacrificed her, and 
to have had^ his trouble soothed by the fruits of his devotion in the 
old man'8 will. Iphigenia is represented in the story as having been 
sent for to AuUs by her father under the pretence that she was to be 
married to Achilles. ' Mycenis ' is an adjective. 

128. vel Nestora totum;] See x. 246. "Let him Uve a whole 
Nestor." The accusative is that of kindred signiflcation. Nero's 
motto was : " Hoc agamus ne quis quidquam habeat," " let it be our 
endeavor that no one shaU have any thing." He robbed provinces, and 
he robbed rich citizens. No one couid caU his money his own. 



SATiEE xni. 209 

130. nec amet qttenguamy] We may understand 'tamen/ "and yet 
neitlier love nor be beloved by any." He asks the heaviest curse tliat 
could be inflicted on the man for his meanness : a long, dreary life 
with heaps of stolen gold to look at, and not ^ friend in the wholo 
world with whom to exchange sympathy. 



SATIRE XIII. 

A FRiEVD of Juvenars, whom he calls Calvinus, is in a state of great 
excitement about a fraud practised upon him hy one to whom he had 

fiven in trust a sum of money, and who had denied the trust on oath. 
uvenal writes to him ridicuiing his wrath as mean and unphilosophi- 
cal. The satire takes the f orm of expostulation and ironical consolation 
throughout. It is most iamiliarly known as dealing with the subject of 
an accusing conscience, which it does in a very powerf ul way. But this 
is only one part of the whole. The character of the times and the con- 
trast of tlie past and the present occupy much of the poem, and there is 
a very fine passage describing the way in which men tamper with guilt 
and argue themselves into the commission of it, and put on a bold f ace as 
of innocence. There is no need of the supposition that Juvenal derived 
the ideas of this satire from the doctrines of Cliristianity. There never 
was a time when conscience did uot exist in the mind of man, however 
completely the habit of guilt may have seared it in some and havo 
given a color of innocence to wickedness in the judgment of whole 
cbmmunities. What Juvenal says on the subject of conscience derives 
its only weight from its truth ; and though he exaggerates when he 
leads to the inference that the stings of a guilty conscience must nec- 
essarily follow guilt, the picture he draws is taken from experience, 
not from revelation, the experience of those who were no Chris- 
tians and had no knowledge to frighten them but that which was 
suggested from within. The soliloquy in which a man argues away 
the misgiving» with which he enters upon crime or the denial 
of it, represents no doubt the conduct and feelings of many who 
have more light than that of conscience; but there too the man 
is not a bad Christian, but a bad pagan ; and if we are surprised 
to read in Juvenal language or sentiments which if deUvered from a 
Christian pulpit would be appropriate and searching, it is because wo 
are apt to forget that human nature, with its desires, its corruptions, 
and its self-deceptions, has always been the same in the main, and that 
God has never been without his witness against guilt in the heart of man. 
The reader had better take up this satire as representing tlie common 
moral sense of mankind, and look to the law of Christianity as confirm- 
ing the unwritten law of which conscience has always been the guar- 
dian and the exponent, and of which such writings as Juvenars, espe- 
cially this poem, are the clearest evidence. From v. 17 it is commoiily 
inferred that the poem was written in Hadrian'B reign, about a.d. 119. 

14 



210 NOTES. 

Argument. — Conscience convicts evil doers, though the praetor 
acquits thera. You have the sympathy of your friends; you can 
a^ord to bear the loss ; you are no worse off tiian many otliers. At 
sixty years of age, lias experience, as wise a teaclier as pliilosophy, 
taught you no better than to complain because a friend wfll not give 
back a deposit (1-22) t Good men are scarce now ;■ we live in a bad 
age; yet we call loudly on the faith of gods and men (23-32). You 
must be in your second childhood, to look for honesty now-a-days. 
Before gods were so plenty, in the good old times, dishonesty was a 
prodigy, disrespect was a crime. Now honesty is a mighty woiider 
(33-70). I can tell you of those who have lost more than you, and 
they who have stolen the money despise the gods and forswear them- 
selves lustily (71-85). Some believe in chance; others beUeve in the 
gods, but will take punishment if tliey may keep their gains, or else 
will run their chances of escaping it ; meanwhile you shout at tlie gods 
and charge them with being useless images (86-119). Now let an 
unleamed man offer you consolation. If there never was so bad a 
crime, then mourn as much as .you Uke ; but things are every wliere 
the same ; you have no right to ask to be excepted. Go to the prae- 
£ect'8 court ; spend a ^ew days with him ; and then complain of your 
loss, if you dare. No one wonders at the goitre in the Alps, or at bhie 
eyes in Germany, or at battles with the cranes in the land of the pyg- 
mies (120-173). You say that perjury must be punished. Suppose 
him put to death; how much wiU you gain by that (174-179) ? But, 
you say, revenge is pleasanter than Ufe. Chrysippus and Thales and 
Socrates would not say so. Philosophy corrects our faults ; only 
small minds care for revenge, as is evident from the fact that women 
love it (180-192). But do they escape whom conscience lashes ? They 
suffer, as the Spartan suffered for only a wrong desire. The guilty 
man finds no rest or comfort at meals or in sleep ; he is af raid of 
storms and of calms, and dreads disease and dares not offer sac- 
rifice ; the life of any victim is worth more than his (192-235). The 
wicked are changeable ; but nature goes back to its own ways. Wlio 
is ever contented with a single crime "? He wiU be caught sonie day 
and suffer for it. You wUl confess at last that none of the gods is 
either deaf or blind (236-249). 

1. Exemplo quodcunque mnlo] One sense of ' exemplum * is a pattern 
for imitation, and that which is done * malo exemplo ' is a bad action not 
fit to be imitated. ' Exemplo ' is the ablative of quaUty, as it is called, 

2. se Judice nemo nocens absolvitur,] These words appear to have 
become proverbial. 

4. Praetoris vicerit uma.] In criminal trials a praetor usually pre- 
sided. Juvenal says that the guilty man is his own judex, and is not 
acquitted though corrupt influence may win, through the praetor*s 
lying um ; he has a judex within whom no influence can corrupt. 
' Absolvo ' was the legal word for acquittal, represented by a tablet 
with A. upon it. Each judex had two others, one marked C. (con- 
demno) and the other marked N. L. (non liquet) which was an open 
verdict. * Vincere ' is the technical word for winning a cause. See iv. 
■* "'^, where it appUes to a deUberation. 



SATiEE xm. 211 

I 

5. Qaid sentire putas] He asks what he supposes his f riends all think 
of the fraud that has been practised upon him ; meaning it should be 
a comfort to him to think they sympathized with him and condemned 
the thief ; but besides (he adds), your fortune is not so small that you 
should f eel the loss much, and moreover many others sufEer as you are 
suffering. 

8. Jactume te mergat onus,\ This is rather a conf usion of metaphors. 

* Jactura' is that which is thrown over to lighten a ship (iii. 125, n.). 
Here as in other places it means a loss, and he says his friend's for- 
tune is not so small that the burden of a nioderate loss should sink 
hira. 

10. Tritus ei e medio] He means his misfortune is a common one, 
and taken at random out of the heap of ordinary accidents. * Aequo ' 
is, by a common construction, for * quam aequum est.' See A. 54, 5, 
b; H. 417, 6; B. 902. 

13. Tu quamvis levium] ' Be they as light as you will.' This is the 
primary meaning of * quamvis.' For the subjunctive in * reddat,' see 
A. 66, 1, d and note ; H. 520 ; B. 1265. 

17. Fonteio Consule natus ?] L. Fonteius Capito was consul with C. 
Vipsanius a.d. 59, and there is every reason to suppose this is the year 
to which Juvenal alludes. If so, and it was sixty years art least before, 
this satire could not have been written before a.d. 119, which was the 
second year of Hadrian's reign. 

18. tot rerum projicis usu ?] The man had lived long enough to get 
experience of men and things, and yet he had profited by it so little as 
to be surprised at being cheated. 

20. Victrix fortunae sapientia :] * Sapientia ' is philosophy. * Jactare 
jugum' is the opposite of 'ferre jugum.' 

23. Quae tam festa dies] The dishonest did not stop their trade 
because it was a holiday : " the better the day the better the deed." 

* Pyxide ' is a box, here for poisons. The number of gates of Boeo- 
tian Thebes was the same as of the Nile's «aouths, which the ancients 
reckoned to be seven, taking the principal outlets of the river. They 
are now but two. Thebes in Egypt cannot be meant, for that was 
said to have a hundred gates. ' Totidem ' is the genitive of quantity ; 
their number consists of so many. 

28. Nona aetas affitur] He puts the age very low. The third, or 
according to Hesiod the nfth, or as Ovid says the fourth, was iron, and 
what must the ninth be ? The Etruscans and Romans are said to have 
held to a division of the Magnus Annus into ten ages, of which the 
last was to see the restoration of the universe to its original condition 
as it was in the first or golden age. But all that Juvenal says is that 
tlie age stood very low in the downward scale of depravity, and that 
the iron age, which was bad enough, was not so bad as that. The 
ages went down according to the value of certain metals, but no metal 
was cheap enough to designate the age in which he wrote. 

31. Nos hominum divumque Jidem] * Pro deum hominumque fidem ' 
and others of the same sort were common exclamitions among the 
Romans. ' Fides ' is honesty, truth, that which may be relied upon. 



212 NOTES. 

32. Quanto Faesidium laudat] Faesidius is a ' causidicus/ but a man 
of substance, who has clients that come into court and applaud him 
loudiy. *}Sportula' means the clients who get tlie 'sportula' (i. 95, 
n.). The omission of *tanto' before 'quanto* is common (see x. 
13). PUny describes with a good deal of disgust how young men with 
no quaUfications thrust themselves into the inferior courts, and adds 
what is to tlie point here : that tiiese pleaders are foUovved by auditors 
of a like kind, slaves whom they have hired for the purpose ; they 
coUect in tlie middle of the basiUca, wliere the ' sportuhi ' is served out 
to them as openiy as in the dining-room : these f eUows go about f rom 
court to court for the same pay (tlie 'sportula'), from which they 
have got the name ompoKXelc (because they cried oo<l>C>c, as we say 
• bravo ') or in Latin ' laudicani.' 

33. senior bulla dignissimey] He means he must be in liis second chUd- 
hood. Tlie Greeks said, 6lg naideg ol yepovreg. * Bulia ' is explained 
on V. 164. In verse 36, * ut ' is easUy supplied before ' putet.' For 
tlie use of ' quoquam,' see on x. 184. The aitar is red with the blood 
of the victim. 

40. Saturnus /ugiens,] That is, before Satumus was driven from 
Olympus by Jupiter and took to the reaping-liook in Latium, where 
he taught tlie natives agriculture and became king of tlie country . He 
is usuaily represented with a reaping-liook in his liand. The Greek 
legends varied as to the place wliere Zeus was brouglit up when his 
mother Rhea hid him from his father Cronus. The common story 
was that she took liim to Crete, wliere lie was educated. Ida was a 
mountain mass of considerable height in Crete. See xiv. 271, n. 

*42. Nulla super nubes] These feasts of the gods belong, he means, 
to a later age than that of Satumus, to the age of heroes, which He- 
siod places the fourth in his list. * Puer lUacus ' is Ganymedes. He 
is represented as the son of Tros, or of Ilus the son of Tros. Either 
way Troas was his native country, and he was carried off, according 
to the common account, from the Trojan Ida. He is said to have suc- 
ceeded Hebe as cup-bearer of the gods. She was a daughter of Jupi- 
ter and Juno, and became the wife of Hercules. ' Ad cyatlios ' is the 
ordinary way of expressing this oflSce. 

44. et jam siccato nectare] * Et ' somfetimes f oUows ' nec * to carry on 
the negation. See Krueger, Lat. Graminatik, 538, Anm. 4, a, 3. Juve- 
nal groups Hebe and Vulcan together, and they make a picturesque 
contrast. He comes in reeking from his work. Slie is at her task on 
Olympus, and hands him a cup to refresh him, which he flrst drains 
and then wipes off the sweat from Iiis black arms. AU this Juvenal 
says was af ter the simple days of Satumus. 

46. Prandehat sihi qnisque deus,] ' Each god dined by himself.* He 
says 'prandebat' because the 'prandium' (which we caU luncheon) 
was a plain meal. The dative seems to be that " of advantage." See 
A. 61, 7, and note. Juvenal is ridiculing the polytheisni of the poets 
and the gigantic system of vice sanctioned by divine example. 

47 . Talis ut est hodie,] * Talis ' is equivalent to ' tanta.' This use of the 
word is less common where oniy quantity and not quality is expressed. 



SATiBE xm. 213 

Quality may be inferred here, but is not expressed or meant by ' talis.' 
* Talis ut est ' shows the conpection between * ut ' and the relative ' qui/ 
from which * qualis/ the natural companion of * talis/ is derived. The 
older form of * ut ' is * cut ' or * quut.' 

48. miserum urgehant Atlanta] The Atlas of the ancients was confined 
to that part of the great mountain range of North Africa which 
bounded Mauritania^on the south. According to some accounts, Atlas 
did not receive his burden until the days of Jupiter. 

49. triste profundi Imperium] Before * aliquis ' must be supplied ' ex- 
stiterat ' or * erat.' * Profundi ' is the sea, if we would avoid tautology. 
Pluto carried off his wife Proserpina from Sicily. The wheel is Ixi- 
o*i's, the stone that of Sisyphus, the vulture the bird that ate the liver 
of Tityos. There is no reference to Prometheus. 

54. Credebant hoc grande nefas] Tiie law of "Moses contained this 
precept : " Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head and honor the face 
of an old man" (Levit. xix. 32). The story of the old man in the 
theatre at Athens to whom the Lacedaemonian strangers rose up and 
offered him the seat he could not get from his own countrymen is 
familiar to most readers. Cicero (de Senect. c. 18),uses it to illustrate 
the subject of which Juvenal is speaking. 

56. Barbato cuicungue pueij] * Pueritia ' ceased with the taking of 
the toga virilis about fourteen or fifteen. Respect for seniority was 
carried so far, he says, that a boy showed quite as much (par adeo) 
reverence for a youth not more than four years older than himself who 
had but just begun to show his early down, as for old age itself. It 
was usual to shave off the beard at about twenty-one. The next line 
means, though he lived in a riclier house than the other. Wild straw- 
berries (fraga) and mast were food for primitive times, and the con- 
sequence of the house is measured by the quaritity of food stored f or its 
consumption. As to * cuicunque ' without a verb, see below, verse 89, n. 

§0. Nunc si depositum] He has just said that in former days the 
utmost reverence was paid to age, but now honesty is a portentou^ 
thing ; he means, then. that such reverence was proof of an lionest and 
single mmd, and that dishonesty sprang from the same selfish lack of 
consideration which led to the neglect of courtesy. * FolHs ' is here 
used for a money-bag. It seems to have been commonly used in this 
way in later times, and as equivalent to money itself, as in Eastern coun- 
tries a purse is a certain sum. ' Aerugo ' is for * aes,' contemptuously, 
the rust for the copper ; and thus the long period of the trust is implied, 
as well as the fact that it has not been violated in any way. 

62. Tuscis dignn HbelJis,] He says such honesty is a prodigy worthy 
to be recorded in the Etrurian books, that is the books of the proph- 
ets. These books were full of mysterious prophecies, religious rites, 
and records of portentous events ; and they were found, Niebuhr says, 
in every town of Etruria. See Mommsen^s History, i. 244. 

63. lustrari debeat agna.] A prodigy which was supposed to forebode 
ill was met by sacrifices, and this act was expressed technically by the 
word ' procurare.' The illustrations that foUow are among the prodi- 
gies recorded by the Roman writers. Elision is neglected in ' puero,* 



214 NOTES. 

Terae 65. For the tense of ' effaderit/ see references on yiii. 41. As 
to the form * apium/ see A. 11, i., Sfd; M. 44, 1, a; Z. 66, 6; H. 89, 
II., 3, 1, 2; B. 115. The Grammars do not seem to agree as to the 
frequency of the form. The word * uva ' was used by 5ie Homans f or 
a cluster of bees, as the Greeks used ^oTpv^, 

71. Intarcepta decem quereris] Uere then we have the Bum his friend 
had lost, about $400. But suppose I tell you (he adds) that another man 
has lost twenty times as much in the same way, and a third still more, 
80 much that a big chest could not hold it "i He says the comer of 
a chest could hardly hold it ; that is, every corner of the chest 
was f ull. ' Arcana ' is ' arcanum depositum,' a trust given in private. 
By ' tam facile ' we are to understand that he is putting not a hypo- 
thetical, but a real case. On the form of the conditional sentence 
(verse 75), see A. 59, f,d; H. 511, n.; B. 1271. 

76. Aspice auanta Voce neget,] * Aspice * serves to make the object 
present, and it is conventionally no contradiction to say, See how 
loudly he denies it. The man is put before us, and we see liim swear- 
ing to his lie without changing color or flinching. * Ficti ' has some- 
tliing of a concessive meaning : ** feigned though it is." 

78. Tarpeiaque fnlmina] The bolts of Jupiter Capitolinus (xii. 6, n.). 
' Framea ' was a German name for a spear. The * venatrix puella ' 
is Diana. As to Cirrha, see vii. 64, n. Poseidon, according to the 
Greeks, was especially the god of the Aegaean Sea, in which he had his 
residence under the waters, off the coast of Euboea. 

84. Comedam] The man says he will boil his son and eat his poor 
head if he is not speaking the truth, first dipping it in Egyptian vine- 
gar, which was of the strong kind. 

86. Sunt in Fortunae qui] Juvenal uses the indicative in * ponunt/ 
because he means a particular class of thinkers, perhaps the Epicure- 
ans. See Z. 563 ; M. 365, obs. 1 ; H. 501, 2 ; B. 1228. He goes on to 
show how men make up tlieir minds to this wickedness, some believ- 
ing that there are no gods, others that there are gods, but their anger 
is not to be conipared with the pleasures of possession, or it will not 
come, or at least not yet, and so on. Conipare 2 Pet. iii. 4 : " All 
things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation." 

89. altaria tangunt.] See above, iii. ifi, and xiv. 219. * Quaecun- 
que ' is not commonly used without a verb, like * quaevis.' It is so 
above, verse 56, and in the foUowing places : iii. 156, twice in iii. 230, 
X. 359, xiv. 210. Here it migiit be taken with * tangunt,' whatever 
altars they touch, but Juvenal'8 practice makes it probable he meant 
the otlier construction. 

91. esse deos et pejerat,] *Et' is equivalent to 'et tamen * {Koiroi), as 
in "probitas laudatur et alget" (i. 74). He believes there are gods, 
and yet he forswears himself. The deity he challenges is Isis. * Sis- 
trum ' (from aeiu) was a rattle much used at festivals of this goddess. 
He says Isis may strike her angry * sistrum * on his eyes and blind 
him, still the temptation is too strong; he had rather lose his sight 
and keep the stolen money than keep his eyes and lose the money. 
Tiie tatin name of the * sistrum ' is * crepitaculum.' 



SATIEE XTTT. 215 

95. Et phthisis et vomicae pittres] * Consumption and putrid abscesses 
and a broken leg ' (xv. 57, n.). 

96. Sunt tanti.] ' Tanti ' may be translated " are worth bearing," 
where we understand readily tliat they are worth bearing for the sake 
of money . It may not be easy to extract this meaning from tlie seu- 
tence grammaticaliy, but Madvig (in his 'Opusculia') has shown by 
abundant examples that ' tanti,' which at flrst meant tiie wortli of tiie 
tliing for which a price is given, came conventionally to be joined with 
the price itself as here. An instance of the primary use of * tanti * is 
found in iii. 64: "Tanti tibi non sit opaci Omnis arena Tagi — ut 
somno careas." Madvig refers to x. 97 : " Sed quae praeclara et pros- 
pera tanti Ut rebus laetis par sit mensura malorum 1 " but I have fol- 
lowed the common reading * tantum ' there. 

97. Nec dabitet Ladas,] Not even Ladas would hesitate to pray for 
the rich man^s gout, imless he is mad. There were two celebrated 
Greek runners of this name, wliich was proverbial in this line. Gout, 
it appears, has always been the rich man^s disorder. Arciiigenes was 
a physician. The final * e ' is long, corresponding to the Greek form 
y. Anticyra was a town of Phocis, the neighborhood of which 
abounded in hellebore, the supposed remedy for insajiity. Horace 
alludes to it more than once. 

99. Pisa£ae ramus olivae?] The plain of Olympia, in which the 
Olympic games were held, was very little west of the town of Pisa in 
Elis, and the names are sometimes confounded. It was at these games 
that both the Ladae on record won their prizes. His success cost one 
of them his life. Tiie branch of the olive which, as before mentioned, 
was used for the crowns at Olympia (viii. 226, n.), Juvenal calls 
* hungry ' because it bore no f ruit. 

100. Ut sit magna tamen] " But grant the wrath of heaven is great, 
it certainly is slow." The speaker reverses the Greek proverb : " 'OV'^ 
Oeuv a)\£(wai fivh)i, u?\£Ovai 6e ^Trra." 

"Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding 
small ; 
Though with patience grinds He ever, still exactly grinds He all.*' 

As to ' diadema,' see viii. 269, n. It is not hard to find cases in point. 
The Scholiast is safe and goes back as far as Romulus. 

103. solet his iptioscere.] " He is wont to pardon such faults as 
these." Tiiis is the common salve for conscience. Men make most 
allowance for their own besetting sins, and think the Almighty does 
so too. They think also they can get pardon whenever they please 
f or asking, and so they put off the asking ; and few think otherwise 
than that their own day of account is some way off. To make a lot- 
tery of wickedness, and trust to prizes tuming up and risk the fatal 
blank, is common enough. Solomon, who understood these matters, 
says : " Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, 
therefore the heart of the sons of men is fuUy set in them to do evil " 
(Eccies. viii. 11). When the heart is "trepidum formidine culpae," 
trembling with fear of its own great guilt, it would seem the shortest 
and easiest course to abandon it ; but it is more convenient to p 



216 NOTES. 

away such fear than to put away the cause of it JuTenal knew wbat 
he waa writing about. 

107. saaa ud de/ubra vocantem] " If you mistrust him, and bid him 
come to the temple and swear by the altar, he wiU go there before 
you, nay, will be the first to challenge you to go there, and will abuse, 
and perhaps strike, you for doubting his honesty." Tlie offended liar, 
taking the character of injured innocence, is amusingly illustrated in 
Fal8t|t^. As to ' superest,' Gellius inf orms us that a misuse of the 
word came into fashion, as in the expression ' hic iiU superest,' ' this is 
that man*s advocate.' On some occasion the praetor, in reply to an 
advocate who said * ego illi supersUm,' wittily retorted, * tu plane 
superes, non ades,' a joke diflScult to translate ; but he meant to say 
that the advocate was quite useless, for he was not doing an advocate'8 
duty (adesse). *Fiducia' is confidence (in a good sense), confidence 
in his own honesty. 

UO. Mimum agit ille,j * AU the while he is only acting like the run- 
away slave in some nnmus of Catullus,' who is referred to on viii. 
186, with his plays Pliasma and Laureolus. Tlie name of the slave in 
the play (here caUed * scurra '), the Scholiast says, was Voranus. He 
was a great thief, and stole some money from a banker, on which 
there is a joke of which the point does not appear. * Urbani ' is ' witty.' 

112. ut Stentora vincere possis,] Stentor was the Greek herald with 
the mjghty voice in Homer ; his voice was as loud as the shout of 
fifty men. But Ares, when Diomed wounded him, according to the 
poet, shouted as loud as nine thousand or ten thousand men in battle. 

113. Audis, Juppiter, hacc] * Labr^, movere ' is opposed to * mittere 
vocem ; ' the one is a suppressed cry hardly audible, the other loud. 
* Nec ' is * not even.' 

115. Debueras] * It had been thy duty to speak out hadst thou been 
marble or bronze.* The use of this form for * debuisses ' has been 
noticed above on iii. 163. As to Vagellius, the name occurs below, 
XV i. 23. The person is unknown. The writer must have had some 
statue in his mind. The SchoUast says VageUius was a great fool, 
but Uke the gods he got a statue. * Omentum ' is properly the niem- 
brane tliat covers the bowels, and the word is so used stUI. Here it 
means the entrails. 

120. Accipe quoje contra] He begs him to accept such consolation as 
even he, who professes to be no philosopher, never to have read the 
dognias of Cynics or Stoics, and to be" no admirer of Epicurus, may 
be able to oflier him. The name of the Cynics was given them in the 
time of their founder, Antisthenes, immediately after the death of 
Socrates, his teacher. But the popular idea of their character is de- 
rived more frora Diogenes of Sinope, the crabbed disciple of Antis- 
thenes. The Stoic school was founded fuU three-quarters of a century 
after the Cynic by Zeno, who had in his earUer studies attached him- 
self to the Cynics, but modified his opinions, and gave to tlie views of 
that school a more general and expansive character. But the Stoics, 
too, became more contracted under the successors of their founder, 
and in the popular notions of Juvenars time, as in our own, thera was 
much difEerence between the two systems. Juvenal professes to 



SATiRE xni. 217 

know them inerely by name, and says they only difEered by a tunic. 
The Cynic8 were caUed dLir'/.oelfiaToi from wearing the cloak or rug 
which tbrmed their only covering double, tiiat it might serve as a bed 
and blanket at night. They wore t4iis rug (abolhi) so that the right 
shoulder was bare. They were q-lso called familiarly axiTtoveg, wliich 
explains Juvenal's meaniiig. Any of these schooU wuuld Iiave 
blamed Calvinus for his repining, one from contemptuous disregard 
for money and disbelief of ail honesty, the second from professedly 
higher phiiosophical motives, and the third because sucli vexation and 
all sorts of excitement only interfered needlessly witli the enjoyment 
of life. Epicurus opened his school at Athens, b.c. 306, and taught 
there about thirty-six years tiil his death. * Et ' means * even.' * Non ' 
(verse 122) stands for ' nec' 

123. Saspicit exigui] * Suspicit * is ' looks up to,' and it would seem 
that the first meaning of * sub ' was * up.' This is plainly shown in 
many compounds. Epicurus, though he advocated animal pleasure, 
was an abstemious liver upon principle, and fond of gardening ; and 
it was in a garden he bought in the middle of Athens that he taught 
all the time he lived there. His successors taught there too, for he 
lef t it to his school. 

124. Curentur dabii] * Dubii * means in a critical state. As to the 
combination, see on viii. 49. Juvenal says patients in a dangerous state 
may apply to great doctors ; but his friend's disorder is slight, and he 
may trust to the phlebotomy of a pupil of Piiilippus, wlio represents 
some small or bungling practitioner of the day. 

126. Si nuUum in terris] Juvenal may or may not have had in mind 
Stertinius'8 words to Damasippus about madness : " hoc si erit in te 
Solo, nil verbi pereas quin fortiter addam " (Hor. S. ii. 3. 41). 

129. chiudenda est janua damnOy] Roman houses were shut when one 
of the family died, as with us. * Hoc' (verse 132) does not refer to 
the latter clause, but to that which is most prominent in the writer's 
mind ; see x. 326. The mourner is not content to tear only the top of 
his tunic instead of rending it from top to bottom, and to torment his 
eyes with forced tears (crocodile's tears). 

135. Sed si cuncta vides] ' Sed ' go^s back to verse 129, after a 
Juvenal-like digression. * Sed ' is commonly used after digressions. 

136. Si decies Uctis] This is a difficuit sentence. * Decies ' seems to 
be put for any large number of times, and ' diversa parte ' to inean in 
dilferent parts of the town. Tho meaning then would be : '* If it often 
happens, not here or there, but in various places (in all the fora), that 
debtors, when their acknowledgments are read over to them, say their 
bonds are void, and the tables they are written upon are worthless, 
though their own writing and their own choicest seal convict thera, 
do yOu think you, my fine gentleman, are to be placed beyond the 
common pale of sufEering ? " ' Chirographa ' and * syngraphae ' were 
used in later times as equivalent words for bonds, notes of hand, or 
agreements. |Ligni' is the wooden waxed tablets (tabellae) on which 
they wrote. The very writing convicted the man, his acknowledg- 
ment of the deposit. 



218 NOTES. 



141. Qui tu aallinaeJUius o/ftoe,] The eggs of a white hen, it appears, 
were held in higher estimation than others. The bird must have been 
more or less rare, or the distinction would not have arisen. * Qui ' is 
'how.' The apodosis for 'si flectas' seems better supplied from 
* ferendam ' than froiu * pateris.' 

145. sulfure coepta Atque dolOf] ' Sulfure atque dolo' is one subject, 
' sulf ure doloso ' or ' cum dolo posito/ suiphur stealthily laid, matclies 
perhaps like our own. 

146. quumjanua colligit ignes:] Tliese incendiary acts seem to have 
been not uncommon. Accidental or malicious flres were so frequent 
that they are counted among the vexations of the city irom which the 
man in Sat. iii. chose to retire (verse 7). Nero plundered the temple 
at Delphi, and it is possible Juvenal had him in mind in the next 
clause. 

150. minor exstat sacrilegus qui Radai\ * There starts up a petty thief 
to scrape the thigh of a gilt Hercules.' This is the subjunctive of the 
purpose. See A. 64, 1 ; H. 500; B. 1212. 

153. An dubitet sditus] I can make no sense out of this line as it 
stands. He says, compare with your man those who carry off great 
venerable cups from temples. If these are not to be found, then 
comes a thief in a lower way, to scrape the gilding from the statues, 
Wouid he hesitate, seeing it is his wont to melt down an entire Jove ? 
' Solitus ' must be wrong, I think. 

154. mercatoremqne veneni] *Mercatorem' is equivalent to *empto- 
rem ' here. The crime alluded to in the next line is * parricidium ' 
(viii. 213, n.). Though * parricidium ' included the murder of relations 
to some distance in point of consanguinity, this punishment only 
applied to the murderers of father or mother, grandfatiier or grand- 
motlier. * Fatis ' is the ablative of quality. 

157. custos 'Gallicus Urbis] Rutilius Gallicus was Praefectus Urbi in 
the reign of Domitian. Respecting that oflBce, see iv. 77, n. * Ibi ' is 
readily supplied with * consume ' from * illinc ' in the next verse. As 
to 'quota pars,' see iii. 61, n. The name of Domitian'8 Gallicus is 
used for the Praefectus Urbi of the day, whoever he was, if the date 
apparently pointed out by verse 17 is the true one. 

162. Quis tumidum guttur] This is the disease known as goitre, or 
by medical men as bronchocele. The suflierers were called * guttu- 
rosi.' As to the swelled breast in Meroe nothing is known. Some 
commentators suppose Juvenal speaks from observation during his 
residence in Egypt. Tacitus says of the Germans that they all had 
fierce blue eyes, red (or golden) hair, and large bodies. * Germanum ' 
must be supplied for * torquentem.* 

166. Nempe quod haec iuis] * Nempe quod * assumes that the answer 
to the foregoing questions is * Nemo,' and his meaning is that as some 
one feature runs through each of these different peoples, and therefore 
nobody is astonished when he sees it among them, so it is at Rome 
where villanous characters abound, and nobody is surprised to find 
them, any more than among the pygraies anybody laughs at the rid- 
iculous fights between those little people and the cranes. The point 



SATntE xin. 219 

of the iIlu8tration is in the last line, the size of the people. They are 
all one height, and so they are not remarkable. It is a curious thought. 
Soniething that does not appear may have suggested it. 

167. Ad subitas Thracum volwres] These are the cranes, of which 
Threiciae, Strymoniae, are perpetual epithets. The home of the 
pygmies is unknown. Tlie cranes' crooked talons have scandalized 
Bome commentators. I dare say Juvenal believed they had talons. It 
answered liis purpose at any rate to represent them so, and he thought 
nothing more about it. In the East the sudden appearance of clouds 
of birds, no one can tell where from, when any prey is to be had, is 
yery surprising. This is expressed in * subitas.' The cry of.the crane 
is such that the flock may be heard very tiigh up in the air after it 
has passed out of sight. 

172. Qmnquam eadem assidue] For the subjunctive with 'quan- 
quam,* gee A. 61, 4, d; H. 616, i., 3 ; B. 1286, 

175. Abreptum crede hunc\ This is the answer. '* Suppose he is 
carried off to prison and put to death, what do you gain by that ? '' 
By using ' nostro ' he roakes his f riend's case his own. 

178. sed corpore trmic6\ "But all you'll get wiU be the odious con- 
solation of a very little blood shed from a headless corpse." * At ' in 
the next line is the common introduction to an objection or reply. 

181. Nempe hoc indocti,\ After *hoc,' * arbitrantur ' or*dicunt' is 
readily supplied. By * indocti ' the Roman writers commonly meant 
tliose who had not become acquainted with the doctrines of the philo- 
sophers. Equability of temper was a fundamental doctrine in the 
teaching of nearly all the schools, and nothing could be more opposed 
to that tcaching than the exciteroent of a passionate vindictiveness. 
Juvenal writes as a philosopher and quotes philosophers to support 
him. 

184. Chrysippus non dicet fV/eml Chrysippus succeeded Cleanthes, 
the successor of Zeno, as the heaa of the Stoic school. Reference is 
made to him in Hor. S. ii. 3. Juvenal says above that he had never 
read the Stoics' works, and he probably takes Chrysippus^s name at 
random. The legends of Thales were all more or less fabulous, and, 
his person being uncertain, his character is still more so. He belonged 
to tiie lonic school, and is said to have held that water was tlie sub- 
stratum of all things. He is represented as having been very active 
in political life, and to have directed his people, the Milesians, in their 
wars. As to the form of words, compare iv. 89. Socrates has been 
mentioned in this way in vii. 206. There is no warrant for supposing 
that his accuser wanted to destroy himself, and that Socrates ref used 
him a sharc of his poison. Juvenal says he would not have given him 
a share if he had wanted iU * NoUet ' is used by a common construc- 
tion for 'noluisset.' See A. 69, 3, c; H. 486, 4. Horace calls him 
* Anyti reum.' Three persons got up the case against him ; the other 
two were Meletus and Lycon. Hymettus, greater and lesser, is the 
range that bounds the plain of Athens on the south-east. The honey 
for which it was famous got it the epithet * dulcis.' 

185. dulcique senex vicinus Hi/metto,] * Que ' is used like ' et ' in verse 
44. 



220 NOTES. 

187. Piunma fdix\ He rays, " PhUosopliy is the means of happi- 
nes», and by degreed divests us of the greater part of natural defects 
and all our fauiu of judgment ; 'twas she first taught us right from 
wrong, for certainly it'tf only dwarfed, infirm, and bttie minds that love 
revenge ; which you may gatlier straight from this, that no one Ukes it 
better than a woman." ' Minutus ' is a participle, and had better here 
be rendered as such. ' Yitia ' are faults of nature, some of which 
cannot be endicated. ' Errores ' correspond to * cuipas,' and are taults 
of practice. As to ' Sapieniia/ see on verse 20. 

192. Cur tamen] Tliese lines are very vigorous. He begins to 
illustrate what he said in the first four Hnes. * Attonitos ' is used aa 
in xii. 21. On ' surdo/ see note on vii. 71. Who Caedicins was it is 
impossible to say. The Scholiast telis us he was a courtier and most 
cruel sateliite of Nero. Uhadamanthus was one of the judges in the 
lower world. 

199. Spartano cuidam respondit] This story U put by Herodotus 
into the mouth of Leotychides, the Spartan, in an address to the 
Athenians. He warns tliem against breaking their faith by relating 
the fate of one Glaucus who bore the highest reputation f or honesty 
in ail Sparta. A man of Miletus came to liim and said that, in con- 
sequence of his reputation for just dealing, be wished to deposit half 
his fortune with him. Glaucus accepted tlie deposit, and promised to 
restore the money to any one who should produce certain tokens and 
claim it. This tlie man's sons afterwards did ; but Glaucus profiessed 

^o have forgotten all about the matter, and required four months to 
refresh his memory. Ttiis time he employed in consulting the oracle 
at Delphi as to whetlier he might not keep the money and swear lie 
had uever received it. The answer of the oracle was conveyed in 
seven hexameters denouncing dreadful punishment on the breaker of 
oaths ; and Glaucus, begging pardon of the god, paid tiie money. Tlie 
priestess did not let liim go without a wholesome waming, saying, rd 
neiprjdf/vai rov Oeov koI rd irot^aai laov &in>aadcu, lie who tempts God is as 
bad as he who does the wickedness wliicli it is in his mind to do. 
Leotychides winds up liis story by saying that Giaucus liad not one 
descendant lefl, but liis whole house was extinct ; and his moral is 
tliat a good man lias no other thought about a deposit than to retum 
it when it is called for. 

200. quod duhitaret Depositum retinere] We should say *dubitavit 
reddere/ he hesitated about restoring. But he also hesitated about 
keeping tlie money, and that was his ofience. 

209. Nam scelus intra se tacitum] It has been thought that Juvenal 
could not have got this sentiment witiiout tlie light of Christianiiy, in 
the moral teacliing of which no doubt it is a fundamental rule. But the 
etliics of Christianity are no new invention. Tliey do but enforce 
the teaching of conscience, whicli has only to be free and it wili tell a 
man, without further revelation, that evil desires are sin, especially in 
the case that Juvenal supposes, where cowardice, not principle (mori- 
bus, verse 204), prevents the accomplishment of them. The Roman 
law adopted the principle of punishing for the intention to comniit a 

ime, just the same as if the crinie were committed. But as a man'8 



SATIEE XIII. 221 

intention (Toluntas) caniiot be discovered unless he shows it by some 
act, the law properly looked to what the man did as the evidence of 
what he intended to do; and accordingly if he failed to do what his 
act showed that he intended to do, he was punished just as if he had 
accomplished his purpose. 

210. Cedo 81 conata peregit ?] " Come tell me what if he has accom- 
plished his purpose ? " He roeans Calvinus^s raan. The man^s condi- 
tion under the effects of a bad conscience is powerfully imagined. 

213. DifficUl crescente cibo:] This expresses a common feeling which 
I have never seen expressed in modern books : the jaws, weary with 
weakness and want of appetite, trying vaiiily to grind the meat that 
mocks them. Sick persons and those in grief know what this means. 

sed vina misellus] * Sed ' means * not only so, but even his wine the 
poor wretch cannot swallow ; ' or it may be taken as meaning ' sed 
tamen : ' '* though his jaws are dry, he cannot swallow his wine." The 
Alban wine is mentioned in v. 88. Falcmian wine was strong and 
required keeping. ' Si Ms omitted from the protasis of the conditional 
sentence in verses 215-6. 

218. jam membra quiescunt^] ' Jam * is * at length.' 

•220. mentem sudoribus ur^et,] This is a strong and expressive word 
for * terroribus,* but not so used elsewhere, I believe ; compare i. 167. 
' Sacra ' is explained by ' major liumana.' The old poets would render 
it " thy religious ghost." ' Imago ' is the unsubstantial body (eMwAw) 
of the dead. Here it is used for a supernatural vision of the living. 
' Hi ' means ' such as he.' 

225. Non quasifortuitus] * Fortuitus ' is to be pronounced as a word 
of three syllables by synizesis. Horace makes the ' i ' long in " Nec 
fortuitum spemere caespitem " ( C. ii. 16. 17). Forcellini however 
thinks it is common. The authorities, except these two places, are 
inferior writers. The ancients believed that thunderbolts, lightning, 
and meteors either came from the* stars with messages to mankind, or 
arose from accidental physical causes. These latter they called * bruta 
f ulmina ' or ' fortuita,' the others ' fatidica.' * Judicet ' means * it 
comes to judge and punish men.' 

227. Illa niliil nocuiiy] ' Suppose tliat has done him no harm, he is 
all tlie more anxious, waiting for thenext storm, as if it was only kept 
ofE by this short lull.' Those who have witnessed a tropical storm 
know, without tlie help of a guilty conscience, the ominous character of 
the first luU. 

233. Laribus cristam promiftere gaUi] «See note on xii. 96, and as to 
* sacello,' see x. 354, n. With * nocentibus aegris,' compare verse 124. 
It means * the sick if they be guilty.' 

235. vel quae non dignior hosiia vita ?] This is most severe of all. The 
life of any animal that could be offered in sacrifice was worth more 
than his. The theory of sacrifice rests upon the innocence of the 
yictim, and mischievous animala would not be accepted. 

236. Mobilis et varia est] He says, by way of consoling his friend, 
that the man who has cheated him is sure to come to punishment ; for 
such is generally (ferme) the nature of the wicked that they fluctuate 
between sin and remorse ; while their crime is doing, they are firm 



222 NOTES. 

enough ; and when it is done, they find ont when it is too late (tandem) 
tiie difterence between right and wrung ; but then again they go baek 
to tlie practices wliicli conscience had condemned. The Jewish proT- 
erbs, '* As a dog retumeth to his vomit, so a fool returneth to liis 
folly/' and*'The8ow tliat was washed has retumed to its waliowing in 
the mire," will occur to every one. 

240. mtttari nescia :] The verb is in the middle voice. It depends 
on ' nescia' as if that were a participle. See Z. 598; H. 652, 8; B. 
1157 ; A. 57, 8, c. 

242. attrita de/ronte] This is like 'frons durior' in viii. 189. ' Dabit 
in laqueum vestigia ' is he will put his foot in liis own snare, he will be 
cauglit in iiis guiit some day aud suffer for it, Iie will be strangled in 
prison and dragged out with a hook as criminals were (see x. 66, 
** Sejanus ducitur unco "), or banished to Seriphos or some of those 
places (see i. 73, and x. 170). ' Exsulibus magnis ' does not mean that 
they were great in any ttiing but wickedness. ' Nominis * means the 
man, a common use of oifofw, but not of 'nomen.' Tiresias the 
prophet of Thebes was blind. He is introduoed in Hor. S. ii. 5. 



SATIRE XIV. 

This satire contains some golden rules, and is throughont written in 
JuvenaFs best style. It exposes one of the radical causes of the pre- 
yaihng immorality, which was the contagious example and bad teach- 
ing of parents, acting from their earUest years upon their children. 
In a vicious home nothing but vice can be learnt, partly from the force 
of infection, and partly because tdaching cannot as a general rule rise 
above practice, and he who parades his faults before his child cannot 
even reprove that child if he adopts them. There is not a more preg- 
nant sentence in any author than " Maxima debetur pueris reverentia." 
It is a truth which the better instincts of mankind at once acknowl- 
edge, and it could not have been better expressed or supported in 
more dignified language than Juvenal has here used. It would have 
been pleasant if his experience or the scope of his satire had admitted 
of his drawing a picture of a home in which virtue grows by the same 
means as vice grows by in others, and showing us how domestic 
example and the influence of a happy home act on the characters of 
men and the well-being of society. 

Tlie inherited vices of which Juvenal speaks are gaming, luxurious 
living, violence of temper, contempt for inferiors, sensuality, extrava- 
gance, superstition, and avarice. The greater part of the satire is 
taken up with the last. Once only he touches shortly on the influence 
of motliers' example on their daughters. There is, as might be ex- 



SATIRE XIV. 223 

pecte(\, a reference to the simplicity of the olden time, ancb there are 
one or two pictures, as of tiie anxious host (59, sqq.) and the 6oldier's 
family (166, sqq.), such as Juvenal sketches with peculiar power. The 
satire belongs to about the same date as the preceding one. 

Argdment. — There is many a disgraceful habit which parents 
teach their cliildren. Wiiat can you hope of tlie boy whose fatlier is 
a glutton or cruel to his houseiiold? what of the girl wlio cannot 
count her motlier's paramours (1-80) ? Home examples corrupt most 
speediiy of ali. Keep then f rom wrong for tliis reason, if for no other ; 
for all are easily taught vice (31-43). Great reverence is due to boys. 
Wliatever wrong you do, your son wiU grow up hke you; and tlien 
you will want to punish him for the very thing tliat you have done 
(44-5S). You cleanse your house when you expect guests; do you 
not care that your son may see a spotless home 7 The fledged bird is 
sure to .seek tlie kind of food which its mother brought to the nest. 
You waste money in building, he will do the same ; you follow Jew- 
ish cuitoms, he will go to greater iengtlis in them (69-106). Tiie 
young are forced against tiieir \vill to imitate avarice. They are de- 
ceived by its garb of gravity and by the praise it gets. See how the 
&ther trains his son in every sort of stinginess ! What madness ! As 
money grows, the love of it grows too. So nien resort to any means 
to get more liouses and wider fields. Who cares what the world says ? 
We cannot be satisfied with the way in which rustics hved years ago 
(107-188). Now you set your son to studying or to seeking the 
honors of war — in fact, to getting money in any way. But you need 
not be so anxious. The pupil wiU outstrip the teacher. His rich wife 
wiU not live long. Nay, you yourself, who have taught him to lie and 
cheat, wiU not escape ; you had best buy antidotes soon (189-255). It 
is as good as a play to see liow men work for money. They sail over 
the sea, runniiig greater risks tlian the rope-dancer runs ; tliey do not 
care for storms ; they have to swim for life, and then perhaps to beg 
(256-302). Diogenes was not afraid of a fire; Alexander leamed 
f rom him the foolishness of avarice and discontent. Get along with 
as little as you can ; Nature and Fhilosophy both bid you do this. 
But you will not be satisfied, unless you have as much as Croesus or 
the Persian kings or our Emperor^s favorite freedman (303-331). 

1. Plurima sunt] There are many habits which deserve to be evil 
spoken of, and which fasten upon fair thingcr a stain that will never 
leave thera. The fair things are the unspoilt minds of children. 
These habits corrupt their minds, and get them bad repute. * Figere ' 
and 'haerere' both express the lasting mischief these practices do. 
* Monstrant traduntque * is they not only show tliese practices in their 
own conduct, but teach them to their children. * Tradere ' is a common 
word for teaching. As to * alea,' see xi. 176, n., and i. 88, n. The 
kind of gaming here alluded to is explained in the next verse, where 
' arma ' means the * taU * or * tesserae,' and ' f ritillus ' was the box 
from which they were thrown. Other names for the box were 
*pyrgus' {nvpyog) or *turricula' and 'phimus' {(jnfiog). *Heres' is 
equivalent to ' filius/ here and in xu. 95, since a man's children were 



224 NOTES. 

all his 'heredes * if they were in his power at his death. As to 'bul- 
latu!)/ see v. 164, n. 

7. qui radere tubera terraef] See v. 116, n., "tradentur tubera," and 
V. 147, n., ** Beletus domino." ' Juvenis ' is opposed to * lieres bulla- 
tus ; ' the coniparison is expressed in ' nec meUus.' ' Eodem jure ' is 
the mushroom sauce. The ' ticedula * is the ' beccafico ' of modern 
Italy, which is also a regular visitor of England, and.one of the 
sweetest songsters in spring and simimer. Petiycliaps is tlie English 
' naturali8t's name for it. By the older Engiish writers it was called 
Cyprus-bird, and they speak of it as a great delicacy. 

10. Quum septhnun annuii\ Ciiildren for the first seven years were 
Mnfantes.' *Pueritia' was not a legal term, and was loosely em- 
ployed, though it was conimonly used lor those ' impuberes ' wlio were 
not 'infantes,' that is froni seven to fourleen, or when the 'toga 
virilis ' was taken.. * Barbaios ' is equivalent to * wise and learned.' 

13. lauto coenare paratu] The connuon word is 'apparatus,' as in 
Horace, C. i. 38, " Persicos odi puer apparatus.'' 

15. Mitem animum] He asks whether Rutilus (any passionate savage 
master) teaches his son the value of a gentle temper and a calm habit 
that seldom goes wrong, and that slaves are, body and soul, made of 
the same material as ourselves (' nostra materia '), or to act the ruffian 
like himself, when he sets him the example of Hogging them and 
delights in the sound of the lash. 

20. Antipkates trepidi Laris] He says he is the Antiphates and Poly- 
phemus of his trembling housebold. The first was king of the giant 
Laestrygones in Sicily, who sunk the ships of Ulysses and ate up on© 
of his men (Odyss. x. 80-182). This poor wretch of Kutilus^s is sup- 
posed to he put to the torture of fire for the loss of a couple of towels. 
There were no legal limits to the torturing of slaves, at least till tbe 
time of the Antonines. 

23. laetus stridore catenae,] See xi. 80 ^nd viii. 180, n. on * ergas- 
tula.* ' Inscripta * means the brand upon the forehead of the slaves, as 
F for *fugitivus,' and so forth. The branded 'ergastnla' are the 
branded slaves who worked there. Juvenal adds * carcer Rusticus '«to 
'ergastula' by way of comparing those dens of sufiTering with the 
' carcer ' at Rome. 

27. tanto poierit contexere cursu] She cannot string them together at 
such a pace (as we 8ay)*but that she must take breath thirty times in 
the telling. When she was quite a girl, she was her mother*8 accom- 
plice; now she writes at her mother's dictation her own little love 
letters, and sends them by the same wretehes her mother had em- 
ployed before her. In this satire on parents this is the only reference 
to mothers. * Cinaedis ' is here only a term of disgust, " wretches." 
* Ferre ' would be * ferendas ' in classical prose. A. 67, 8,/, 3, and see 
64.2; H. 563, V.; B. 1160. 

33. Quum suheunt animos] Juvenal says "more rapidly and snddenly 
are we corrupted by the examples of vices when they are fnund in our 
own home, that is when tbey enter our minds with the weight of great 
authority;" the second clause is supplemental to the first. As to 



SATIEE XIV. ' 225 

* auctoribus/ see viii. 216, " deis auctoribus/' ' on the authority of the 
gods.' 

35. Jinxit praeeordia Titan;] Thiat is, Prometheus. See viii. 183, n. 
He says some few young men may reject these examples, who are 
madc of better stuff than others, but the rest foUow In their fathers' 
steps which they ought to avoid, and the track of vice which has been 
long before their eyes. * Orbita ' is properiy the track of a wheel. 

38. hujus enim vel] *HujuB' depends upon 'potens:' there is one 
reason (even if there were but one, 'vel una') tliat commands this. 

41. Turpibus ac pravis] Both these words are applied to the human 
shape, and they may be here translated as they come together * ugly 
and deformed.' .* Pravus ' is * awry/ 

42. quocunque suh axe;] See viii. 116, n. on " Gallicus axis," and xiii. 
89, as to * quocunque.' He says a Catiline you may find in any clime, 
a Brutus or a Cato nowhere. M. Porcius Cato of Utica was the half- 
brother of Servilia, mother of M. Junius Brutus, the murderer of 
Caesar. These two men bear no comparison in point of character. It 
was enough for Juvenal and those who thought and felt with him that 
they were both opponents of Caesar and reputed friends of liberty. 
Cato was a man of rigid virtue and a suitable example for this place. 
Brutus had less that was noble in his private character. Juvenal does 
not always select his examples very fitly. Catilina was as depraved 
in private as in public life, and his dissolute morals and extravagance 
led him into those desperate acts that cost him and his friends their 
lives. Gato'8 parents both died when he was a child, and in this 
matter the examples are not well chosen. The father of Brutus was a 
respectable man, though of his mother much scandal was spread in 
connection with C. Julius Caesar. 

44. Nil dictufoedum] Tliis means * foul language.' * Auditu ' would 
be more in accordance with * visu ' and the sense. * Hinc — inde ' is 
equivalent to ' ubique.* * Puellae lenonum ' are * meretrices.' ' Per- 
noctantis parasiti ' is the contemptible guest who for a dinner sits up 
all night drinking or gaming or both, and singing low songs, with the 
master of the house, to his shame before the children. ' Pemoctare ' 
is to pass the night away from home. 

48. ne tu pueri contempseris annos,] " Do not despise the child'8 age 
or think he is too yoimg to take notice : " an excellent remark, as 
every parent knows. * Tu ' is commonly used to give point to a 
general piece of advice. Compare M. 370, obs. 2. On the use of the 
tense in ' contempseris,' see M. 886 ; A. 57, 3 and b ; H. 488, ii., 2 ; 
B. 1114. 

51. Quandoaue] ^ Quandoque ' after ' si ' is like * olim,' ' aliquando,' 
' some day .* See M. 493, a ; Z. 708. He says " if your boy some day 
does something worthy of the censor^s displeasure, and not only 
ehows himself like you in form and face, but as the son and inheritor 
of your character and 6ne to follow in your steps and exaggerate all 
your faults, then of course you will take him up and reproach him 
loudly and bitterly and threaten to aJter your will.'' He speake sar- 
castically. 



226 KOTES. 

56. Unde tibi firmtem] The Terb to be rapplied ie ' paras ' or ' parabis.' 
The ellipsis is Uke that with * quo ' in yerae 135. 8ee references on 
TiiL 9. * Frontem ' is here the commanding brow of one in aathoiity. 
In xi. 204, ** salTa fronte " means * without shame.' 

57. vacuumqae cerdbro] Tliis means that the man is mad and wants 
cnpping. *Cucurbita' is a cupping-glasB, so calied irom its having 
the shi^ie of a gourd, which is the first meaning of the wo^d. The 
'cucurbita' is called 'Tentosa' from ignoranoe of the principle on 
which it acts, as the word ' Tentosa ' was used alone for a cupping- 
gUss in mediaeval LAtin. A partial vacuum is created in the cup, 
which being so appUed to any part of the body removes the pressurc 
of the air from that spot and causes a rush of blood to it. The ancienta 
used both dry cupping and bleeding as we do for affections of the 
head in particular. The cup was usually of bronze or of horn. ' Capu^ 
hoc ' is dramatic, as if he put his finger on the man'8 forehead. 

59. Hospite ventaro] He goes on to say that a great fuss is made 
when company is coming, to get the house in order and to make a 
show with the plate, fumiture, and marbie. The master rushes about 
likea madman with a stick in his hand, calling to the slaves to do their 
work. But is it not of more consequence» he asks, that your son 
should see your home free from Tice and spotless, than that your 
friend should see yoor furniture in that condition ? The picture is 
weil drawn and the moral well applied. ' Vasa aspera ' are opposed 
to ' Tasa pura.' See x. 19, n. These latter are here called ' leve 
argentum. ' Arida ' may apply to the spider in the sense of lean and 
withered, or to the web, for wliich it is a fit epithet, as * dry .' 

66. Nec perfasa liUo] He would not have the ' atrium,' which was 
the first room the guests would enter, show that dogs had been there, 
nor have him see the ' porticus ' even splashed with rain. This was 
outside the house. Perhaps, however, he meaiis the ' peristylium ' or 
else the galleries on each side of the ' impluvium.' In any case it 
was open to the weather. The plural ' atria ' is commonly used by the 
poets for the convenience of their verse ; but as the room had two 
wings (alae) opening upon it, and the whole formed one apartment, 
the plural is not without meaning. This being tlie most public room 
in the house and open to the sky, dogs may have had greater license 
there than in other rooms. 

uno Semodio scxjbis] With half a modius of saw-dust, which the 
Romans commonly used for cleaning the floors, especialiy after dinner 
when the scraps were cleared away ; usually it was. scented. The 
' semodius ' was very nearly a gallon of our measure. ' Unus ' twice 
repeated, ' semodio,' and ' servulus ' are all emphatic, to mark the 
trifling character of the job and the foUy of the master's excitement. 
* Omnis ' is rarely used for * ullus.' See M. 494, note 1 (p. 460). 

70. patriae civem populoque dedisti] " You have given your country 
(and a welcome gift it is) a good citizen, if you have made lum (your 
son) fit for her service." 'Idoneus' is explained by what foUows. 
' Civis * is a word always used with respect. 

73. Plurimum enim intererit] ' £nim ' means that it depends upon the 



8ATIRE XIV. 227 

father whether the son proTes a good citizen, for it will make a great 
difEerence in what way he trains him. There is this force in * tu/ 

74. Serpente dconia puUos] Plmy says that in Thessaiy storks were 
held in such esteem for destroying snakes that it was a capital offence 
to kill them. 

77. crucibusque relictis] See Horace (Epp. i. 16. 48) : " Non hominem 
occidi. Non pasces in cruce corvo8;"and Prudentius (Hymn.xi.): 
" Crux iilum toliat in auras Viventesque oculos offerat alitibus ; " and 
from thcActs of the Martyrs this sentence on three Christians: 
** Claudius, Asterius, Neon, cruci affigantur et corpora eorum avibus 
laceranda relinquantur." Apuleius speaks of ''patibuli cruciatum 
cum canes'et vultures intima protrahunt viscera." Poor wretches 
dying by inches were probably watched for days by these ravenous 
birds, who never attack a body while tlie life is in it. 

79. Hic est ergo cibus]- * Ergo ' is ' for this reason/ because the vul* 
ture is so fed when young, when it grows to full size it seeks the same 
food ; but the eagles seek prey in the woods, and their joung ones 
learn to do the same. * Ponitur ' is used in some sort as it is commonly 
used for serving up food or putting it before the guests (see xi. 109, 
n.). Grangaeus reminds us that vultures do not build their nests in 
trees, but in rocks. Gifford too observes that *' the eagle is scarcely 
more delicate in the choice of his food than the vultm^e/' and that it 
is a vulgar prejudice to suppose he will not touch carrion. 'Et' 
couples * generosae aves ' with ' famulae Jovis.' Only the eagle is 
meant. 

83. gmtm se maiura levabit] The use of the future seems peculiar. 
If ' fbstinat ' were f uture in form as it is in sense, we should expect 
* levaverit ' in the future perfect. 

86. Aedijicator erat Cetronius^ ' Aediflcator' is used for one who is 
too much given to bnilding. The Romans suffered from this passion. 
See above, i. 94 and x. 225. Horace often alludes to it. In short there 
were as many who ruined or hampered their estates by this tempting 
foUj in Rome as in this country. 

87. Litore Caietne^] Caieta (Gaeta) was on the promontory that 
bounds the gulf of the same name at the southem extremity of 
Latium. It wab four miles from Formiae which now bears the name. 
At Formiae Cicero had a villa, and between those two places the 
shore was covered with houses. As to ' Tiburis arce ' and ' Praeneste,' 
see iii. 190, 192. 

89. Graspcis longeque petitis] The Greek marbles used by the Romans 
were from Hymettus and Pentelicus in Attica, from Taenarus in 
Laconia, from Carjstus in Euboea, and from the island of Paros. The 
other foreign marbles were chiefly African, from Syene and from 
Numidia ; there was stone aJso from Svnnada in Phrygia. 

90. Fortunae atque Herculis aedem^ There was a very ancient 
temple of Fortnna at Praeneste. The temple was much beautified 
by Sulla who laid there the first mosaic pavement known in Italy. A 
payement (the Barberini at Rome) has been found there of very 
finished workmanship, which is supposed by some to be SuIIa'8, but 



228 NOTES. 

by others to belong to the reign of Hadrian, that is not far from the 
time Mrhen this satire was written. The catiiedral of Tiyoli is built on 
the foundations of tiie temple of Hercuies, who was worshipped above 
other godfl at Tibur. The enormous buildings erected by Hadrian at 
tlie foot of tlie liills of Tibur could hardly have been built when Juve- 
nal wrote these verses, or they would probably liave been referred to, 
for in magnificence they surpassed any thing in Italy. Their ruins are 
the admiration of travellers. 

91. Ut spado vincebat] Posides was a freedman of Claudius the 
emperor, favored and afterwards suspected by him. Where lie built 
his magnificent house does not appear. It may have been near his 
baths at Baiae. * Capitolia nostra ' is here opposed to the temples at 
Praeneste and Tibur; but large temples of Jupiter in other towns, 
besides the great temple in Rome, were sometimes called Capitolium. 
The plural is used (as in z. 65) because of the tripartite character of 
the building (Xii. 3, n.). 

93. Frei/it o])€s,] This is the common verb in this case. We use the 
Bame when we speak of breaking. 

94. turhavit Jilius amens,] See vii. 129, " Sic Pedo conturbat." The 
use of • dum ' with the present foUowed by a verb in the perfect tense, 
which here occurs twice over, is common. See A. 68, 2, «; H. 467, 4; 
and compare i. 59, and elsewhere. 

96. metuentem snlbaia patrenn] He goes on to say that some men 
whose fathers were Fuperstitious and paid respect to the Jewish re- 
ligion go further and turn Jews. * Metus,' 'metuo,* are ordinarily used 
for religious fear (verse 101). From the courts of tlie temple being 
uncovered the Jews were supposed by the vulgar to worsliip the skies. 

98. Nec distare putant] That is, they abstain from hog'6 flesh as they 
would from roan's. The quadrupeds forbidden to the Israelites for 
food were all wliich did not chew the cud and were not cloven-footed 
(Levit. xi.). 

102. Tradidit orcnno] This is merely random talk. There was 
nothing analogous in the books of Moses to the 'arcana' of the 
Roman worship, though they were looked upon as unintelligible and 
were therefore supposed to have a mysterious meaning revealed to the 
initiated only. 

103. Non monstrare vias] He says the law of Moses teaches Jewa 
not to show any one the way except he be a Jew, nor to tell the tired 
traveller where he may quench his thirst. The Romans might be for- 
given for this interpretation of the law of Moses when the Jews' own 
traditions and teachers told them they must love their neighbor and 
hate their enemy (see St. Matt. v. 43) ; and Jew and Samaritan 
thought it strange that our Saviour asked for water from a Samaritan 
woman and talked with her. The old law was not of this tenor. ** If 
thine enemy be hungry give him bread to eat, and if he be thirsty 
give him water to drink," is Solomon^s interpretation of the law 
(Prov. XXV. 21) ; and the parable of the good Samaritan succoring a 
Jew was used to illustrate the fundamental rule, '' Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor as thyself." See besides Ex. xxiii. 4, 5. * Monstrare ' ana 
' deducere ' are in a kind of apposition with ' jus.' 



SATIEE XIV. 229 

107. Sponte tamen Juvenes] But though young men are oniy too 
prone to imitate, yet there is one vice of which this cannot be said ; 
to avarice they are not only not prone, but even averse (' inviti quo- 
que'). This is true generally, but not universally. *Quoque' is 
equivalent to *etiam' or *vel;' the usage has been noticed above. 
* Fallit enim ' is elliptical ; they are bid and they do as they are bid, 
f or they are deceived by the appearance of virtue, though it is but the 
shadow, which this vice wears. ' Habitu ' is the general appearance, 
and applies equally to ' vultu ' and * veste.' * Frugi ' is always used in 
a good sense for * prudent ' or * thrif ty.' * Tutela ' is used for * tutor ' 
by a common flgure of speech — " metonomy." 

114. Hesperidnm serpens aut Ponticus.] The Hesperides watched the 
appies and the serpent Ladon watched the Hesperides Hercules killed 
him. The goMen fleece of Colchis in Pontus was also guarded by a 
serpent, but Medea put him to sleep and Jason took tlie fleece. The 
miser watching his treasures is said to watch better than this. As to 
the Hesperides, see above, v. 152, n. 

hunc ae Quo loquor] Juvenal supposes a respectable-looking person 
of this sort, such as the father might point out to his son as an instance 
of the benefits of thriftiness. 

115. putat acqnirendi] Public opinion treats the man as a workman 
diligent in his calling, which is to make money, and this he gets any 
way he can, plying the anvil and working the forge from moming tiU 
night. 

119. Et pater ergo] " The father too, as I said ; " another instance 
of ' ergo ' in this sense (see x. 54, n.). The young are taken in by the 
reputation the miser gets, and they are also influenced by their fathers' 
example and precept. 

120. Qiu miratur opes,] He is not speaking of all fathers, for some 
are extravagant, but of the money-Ioving father. And so he says the 
father thinks the covetous happy, that is, he who admires wealth and 
thinks there never was an instance of a man who was at once poor 
and favored by heaven ; such a man advises his sons to go that road and 
adhere to that sect (as if they were the only philosophers). * Felices ' 
are happy men ; * beati ' are tliose who prosper or are favored by the 
gods. * Pauper ' is not used for an indigent person, but for one of small 
means, and such may prosper ; but this father thinks not, because the 
more a man has the more he gets. 

123. Sunt quaedam vitiorum elementa ;] He says all vices have their 
elements as every science has, and in teaching their children this vice 
of covetousness lathers begin with petty acts of meanness, and af ter- 
wards teach it them on the largest scale. 

126. Seroorum ventres] He Iiere gives a description of avarice, such 
as these fathers would fumish examples of, and the form of the satire 
ebanges. He is speaking of the domestic arrangements of the miser, 
1q which he punishes himself not less tban his wretched slaves. He 
serves out their allowance of com in a false measure, while he starves 
bimself. 

127. neque enim omnia mutind] * Neque ' is ' not even.' ' Sustinere ' 



230 NOTES. 

is often used in this way, as the Greeks used t^vcu, and as we say 
' a man cannot bear to do a thing.' ' Minutal ' is minced meat mixed 
with chopped vegetables and other things. To keep tiiis Irom one day 
to anotlier in the cloBest month of the year was a dirty trick. As to 
' conchem ' and ' s^tivi porri/ see iii. 293. ' Lacertus ' was the name 
of some coarse sea-fish which they used to salt and dry. The ' silurus ' 
has been mentioned before, iv. 83. This man seals up the fragments 
of his miserable supper, at a time of tlie year when they cannot fail 
to stink next day, and counts every fibre of his leeks, and shuts them 
up in the cupboard too. ' Aestivam ' belongs in meaning to the wiiole 
predicate. 

134. aliquis de ponte] See iv. 116, n. The use of the future tense is 
easily explained. In prose, however, we should probably find * negaret ' 
or * neget.' 

135. Sed quo divitias] As to ' quo/ see verse 66. We may supply 
'paras'or some equivalent word. 'Phrenesi»' seems to have been 
borrowed from the Greek afler Cicero*s time. It was a general term 
for insanity, while ' f uror ' commonly and in legal language meant 
madncss with violence. 

138. quum turget saccidua] He begins with a small bag, and when 
that is full he wants more. Instead of spending his fortune the man 
invests it in farms. The ' villa ' here meant is & * villa rustica/ a farm 
house, as opposed to ' villa urbana/ a suburban house. It is equivalent 
to ' f undus, a farm and the buildings on it. 

145. Quorum si p'etio] It seems scarcely credible, but Juvenal 
writes as if he had had experience of what he was describing. After 
'talia' we must understand 'damna/ or sometliing like it. The 
'injuria' is a wrong like that justmentioned. 

152. Sed qui sermones !] " But what talk there will be ! what a foul 
blast will rumor blow ! " " What harm can she do me 1 " says the 
other ; " I do not value at a bean-shell the praise of the whole neigh- 
borhood, if I am to be owner of no more than a miserable little farm." 
(That is, if they will only praise me on those terms.) For the con- 
struction with ' quam si/ see A. 61, 1 ; H. 606. It is an instance of 
suppressed conclusion. " Of course then (is the rejoinder) you will 
gain exemption from the sufierings of humanity, and have your life 
prolonged and happier than you have ever known it, while you have 
got as much land under cultivation as the Romans had in the time of 
Tatius the Sabine king ; " that is, at the time when, according to the 
received story, Tatius and the Sabines were inhabiting the Capitoline 
and Quirinal hills, and Romulus the Palatine, and the two peoples 
joined and became one under their respective kings. The extent of 
land possessed by the Romans at that time, which represents the 
earliest period of their history, must have been very small. The 
' ager Romanus ' at a period much later did not extend above five miles 
from the Pomoerium (the enclosure of the city) towards the sea, and 
the Romans had then no territory on the other side of the Tiber. 

163. vix jugera bina] To soldiers who had served their time and 
were discharged (emeriti) a bounty waa given either in money or in 



SATIKE XIV. 231 

land. When it was in land the quantity commonly given was two 

* jugera ' to each man, that is, about an acre and a quarter. This was 
believed to have been the original allotment of land to citizens by 
Romulus^, and it was retained in the formation o£ colonies to a late 
period. As to 'Molossos/ see note on xii. 108. Pyrrhus he calls 

* imraanis ' by way of amplifying. His name never was to tlie Romans 
what Hannibal's became. * Tandem — multis — vix ' are all thrown 
in to strengthen the case. 

166. Curta Jides patriae.] This means a scant, shabby discharge of 
the promise. It makes no material difference if we render * curta ' as 
a participle, which in fact it is i *' nor did their country appear un- 
gratetul or their promise curtailed," that is, of its full accomplishment. 

* Gleba ' is used for a farm commonly in the law writers. * Saturabat ' 
is a strong word. They were rewarded to their hearts' content. 

168. unus Vemuia, tres domini ,-] The slave played with the man's 
sons, who are called * domini,' as appears to have been common. Their 
grown-up brothers corae home from ditching or ploughmg, and get 
a late supper after the othcrs have done (altera coena) of porridge 
smoking hot in great earthen pots. Juvenal shows great power in 
these pictures of rude life. Pictures they are, and very complete. 

* Pultibus ' is to be taken with * grandes.' * Horto ' is emphatic. What 
was enough for their entire subsistence we do not consider enough for 
a pleasure-garden. 

174. ferro grassatur] * Grassor ' is onlyanother fomi of * gradior,' 
and properly means no more than * to go.' But it is commonly used 
where violence is meant. Tb go with the sword is to use it. See iii. 
806, ' grassator.' 

175. saeva cupido] Horace always uses * cupido ' in the masculine 
gender when he is speaking of the love of money. 

178. properantis avari?] Solomon says in his Proverbs, "He that 
hasteth to be rich hath an evil eye" (xxviii. 22). As to *metus,' see 
above, verse 96, n. 

180. Marsus dicehat et Hemicus] These were all of that stock, the 
Sabellian, which was proverbial for the severify and simplicity of their 
way of living. The Vestini reached from the Sabini to the coast of 
the Hadriatic, including all the country between the rivers Vomanus 
and Atemus. 

183. gratae post munus aristae] ' After the welcome gift of com, man 
de.spised the old oak that once fed him with acorns.' * Ope * means 
the instruments they gave to men, and ' auxilio ' is their help, teach- 
ing, favor. 

186. perone tegi ;] 'Pero' was a thick boot wom by countrymen. 
It came a little above the ankle. * Summovere ' is a word used for 
summary ejectment by the lictors, and there is meaning in the use of 
it here. See i. 87. He puts on a skin with the hair inwards and then 
bids the cold wind begone. He says that outlandish purple we hear 
of, whatever it may be, leads only to crime and impiety. Phoenician, 
Laconian, and African purples were most esteemed. 

191. Accipe ceras,] The father of the present day makes his son get 
up in the middle of the night in winter, and bids him write, plead» 



232 NOTBS. 

Btudy hard at tbe law, or petition for a oenturion^s comraand, any thmg 
to get money. The titles and flrst/few words of the laws were com- 
monly written with red, called • rubrica/ from which are derived our 
word ' rubric ' and the use of rubrics. * Libeiius ' is a petition.' ' Vitem ' 
is tlie vine-switch used for military floggings (viii. 247, n.), and which 
lie wishes the right to use. The * tribunus ' was tlie only ofiicer who 
had the authority to order a miiitary flogging, but ihe intierior ofiicers 
sometiraes inflicted the cane summarily. 

194. Sedcaput intactum hux6\ * Buxo ' is here put for a comb of box- 
wood. Tlie man tells hisson he must let his hair grow wild and iet 
the officer see that he is a rough, shaggy fellow. LaeUus is put for 
the commander of the troops to whom his petition, if he presented 
one, would be referred. 

196. Dirm Maurorum atte^as,] ' Attegia ' Forcellini supposes to be 
an African wofd. It is a hut. The Brigantes were a British people 
occupying the north of England from Mancunium (Manchester) on 
the «outh-west to Segedunum (Shields) on the north-east. Their chief 
town was Eboracum (York). Tacitus speaks of the Brigantes as 
being tlie largest tribe in Britain. They also occupied the hil!-country 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland, in which they had probably many 
of the ' castella ' Juvenal mentions. They gave a good deal of trouble 
to Agricola, and it appears they were not quiet when this satire was 
written. The date cannot, however, be fixed. 

197. Ut locu^Aetem aquilam] Tlie ' primipilus centurio' (x. 94, n.) 
had charge of the eagle of the legion, and was abore other centiirions 
in rank and pay . The promotion of the centurions was slow ; they rose 
from the lowest grade to the highest by rotation, except in cases of 
extraordinary merit. Tlie ten cohorts of the legio consisted of thirty 
' manipuli,' and in each * manipulus ' there were two centurions. The 
' decima cohors ' was the lowest, and the centurions in that were at the 
bottom of the list. The title * primipilus ' continued after the division 
of the legion which gave rise to it was discontinucd. 

199. solvunt tibi cornua ventrem] The *comu ' and * lituus ' are com- 
monly opposed. They were both curved, and the ' lituus ' was used 
by tlie cavalry. * Pluris dimidio ' is a common way of speaking, like 
the little frog'8 answer to her mother, " major dimidio " ( Hor. S. ii. 3. 
818). 

201. nec tefastidia mercis] This is explained by what foUows. The 
man says to his son " don^t tum up your nose at any kind of wares 
though they have to be sent beyond the Tiber, or think it necessary 
to make any difference between perfumes and hides." Tanning and 
other work of an ofEensive kind was carried on beyond the river. 

204. Lucri bonus est odor] The ancients tried metal by the smell. 

206. dis atgue ipso Jooe aigna poetae:] This way of speaking, where a 
general term is followed by a particular which is involved in it, is very 
common in Greek and Latin. It is uncertain what poet Juvenal gets 
his verse from or whether he gives the words of the poet or adapts 
them. It has been attributed to Ennius, who is said to have taken 
the sentiment from Euripides. 



SATIEE XIV. 233 

212. meliorem praesto magigtro] ' Praesto ' is * I warrant/ and ' fore ' 
may be supplied after ' uieiiorem.' He says to tlie fatiier he ueed not 
be in a hui ry ; lie may go away and make himseif easy ; his son is 
certain tu turn out a goud schoiar and surpass iiis teaciier as far as 
Ajax surpassed iiis tather Telamon, and Achiiies ieieus. Ue adds 
sarcasticaiiy, *' you must not piess the young mind ; iiis marrow is not 
yet tliorougtdy saturated witti tiie atrocities of matured vice ; wlien lie 
comes to man's estate iie wiii be ripe for ali tliat is wiclLed.'' The ex- 
pre»siun ' nondum impievere meduilas ' is sometliing hke tliat in tiie 
boolc of Job (XX. 11) : " His bones are fuii of tiie sin of his youth.'' 

220. ElaLamjam credenurum,] "Youmay consider your daugliter- 
in-iaw as good as dead and buried if she brings your son a large por- 
tion." Except under speciai agreement before marriage the wife's 

* dos ' went baclc to her relations at her deatii. Uere tbe man must 
secure an interest in tiie property at liis wife's deatii, or it wouid be 
agamst his interest to murder her. Notice the plural in * vestra.* 

* Quibus digitis ! ' is expressive : ' with what fingers 1 ' We caa 
almost see tlie man ciutcliing iiis wife's throat. • 

225. Mandaui,] * Man-dare ' is used here \ike ' tra-dere ' for teacliing 
(see above, verse 3, n.). 

228. pueros producil auaroSf] * Producere ' is here to educate. The 
change of tense from * praecepit ' sliould be observed, as denoting a 
course of training on a principle once laid down. The next iine is 
omitted in some MSS., but not in the best. It has no grammatical 
connection with the sentence ; either therefore another line lias been 
lost or this is the woric of an interpolator who forgot to finish the mis- 
chief lie liad begun. The ianguage in 230, sqq., is taicen, as is ma^ifest, 
from the chariot races. 

231. quem si revoces] The antecedent to * quem * is easily supplied 
by substituting * juveni' for 'curriculo.' The chariot represents the 
soit, who is the real subject of the sentence. So immediately below 
(verse 241) for an antecedent to * quorum/ * Thebanos' must be sub- 
stituted for * Thebas/ wliich is the same thin^, as 'civitas' is equiva- 
lent sometimes to * cives/ noXic to Tro^XToi, and so forth. The change 
of person in * revoces ' only makes the sentence more pointed. * Nes- 
cit' is used as Horace and others use 'nescius.* *Revoces' is in the 
subjunctivo of a general condition; A. 59, 6, a. 'Permittas' is the 
subjunctive by attraction ; A. 66, 2. Neither construction is unusual. 

234. adeo indulgent sibi latius ipsi.] * Adeo ' belongs to * indulgent ; ' 
" so determined are they to take a wider indulgence without asking 
your leave" (ipsi). With 'stultum ' in the next verse we must supply 
*es8e eum.' . 

237. et circumscribere] See x. 222. Before ' quantus,* * tantus * must 
be supphed. See note on x. 13. As to the Decii, see viii. 254, n. 
Menoeceus the son of Creon was said to have sacrificed himself when 
Thebes was besieged by the seven chiefs. Teiresias the seer pro- 
phesied that if he did so the Thebans would gain the victory. Juvenal 
likes a stroke at Greek history fsee x. 174) ; he therefore goes out of 
his way, and having spoken of Thebes he adds the legend of Cadmus 



234 NOTES. 

8owiDg the dnigon'8 teeth from wluch the Thebans sprung, and sayg 
tiie soldiere wiiom this sowing produced lell to fighting straightway as 
if a trumpeter liad been born with them. 

244. Ergo iynem] A sentence is begmi at * Qnum dicis iuyeni ' (236), 
and ihe end of it is lost siglit of. But the subject is taken up again 
here, and * ergo' carries th« mind back over the digression (x. 64). 

246. irepidamque tnayistrum] " The Uon you have reared will loudly 
roar and kili his trembling keeper in his cage." Wliat Ibllows expiains 
tiiis. * Que ' is sometimes used after negative sentences where an ad- 
versative particle might be expected. * Kec tibi ' is * not even you.' 

248. xYoia tMultetuaticis geaesis tuaA « The astrologere have calcu- 
Uted your nativity, you may say, and you are destined to live long. 
But your son will not wait till your thread is run out ; ifs tiresome to 
wait upon tiie tardy distaff ; you'U die before tlie thread is broken off." 
See iii. 27, n. • Jam nunc ' is even at this momeut-you are in his way. 
This makes the matter very pressing, and is a humorous way of bring- 
ing it home to the man. He must almost feel the pbison in his 
stomach. To keep up the efieot, he teUs him to make all haste and go 
to ihe doctor and get an antidote. Mithridates VI., king of Tontus, 
"was in the habit of taking antidotes, and had so fortified liis consiitu- 
tion by their means that when he wished to poison himself he could 
Dot, and was obliged to get a soldier to kiU him. As to Archigenes the 
physician, see xiu. 98. 

251. ionga et cervina senectus.] As to the age of stags PUny reiers 
(but does not give credit) to a statement of. Hesiod in which he at- 
tributeB to the raven nine lives of man, to the stag four times tbe 
raven^b, and to the crow three times the stag^s. To man he gives 96 
yeare ; so the stag. as Sir Thomas Browne observes, has a life of 
8456 yeare, "a conceit hard to be made out," Iie adds. Aristotle 
denies the longevity of the animal, and Browne allows it 36 or 40 
yeare, and " thereby it wiU exceed all comigerous animals" (Vulgar 
Errors, in. 9). 

254. Atque alias tractare rosas.] This represents the spring, as the 
figs indicate the autumn. ' Atque ' is * and even.* 

255. et pater et rex.] While Mithridates was layiug plans for tlie 
recovery of Pontus which Cn. Pompeius had taken from him, a con- 
spiracy was formed against him by his son and heir Phamaces. The 
•arrny abandoned the king and supported his sou, which led Mithri- 
dates to destroy himself . Whether Juvenal had this in raind or not 
I am not sure. What he says amounts to this, that fathers equally 
with kings should take drugs before their meals lest they be poisoned. 

256. Sfonstro voluptatem egregiam] This is addressed to the reader. 
He says it is better than a play to watch these people getting money. 
On ' pulpita,' see iii. 174, n., and on * lauti,' see xi. 1. ' Constent ' 
means * they cost.' As to ' arca,' see note on x. 26. * Aerata ' is 
*bound with bronze.' The temple of Castor was in the Forum 
Komanum, and near it the bankers had their places of business. 
They kept the cash-chests of their customers in this teniple, wheie 
there were sentries. As to * fiscus,' see iv. 66, n. It is here put for 

^^vate money, which is not its technical sense. The temple of Mare 



SATIBB XIV. 235 

Ultor was in the Forum Augusti. He says the people took to keeping 
their money in Castor*8 teniple ever siuce Mars the Avenger was 
robbed of liis hehnet, and showed he couldn't take care of his own 
property. It is not known what act of sacrilege Juvenal is alluding 
to. No doubt it was well understood. 

262. Ergo omnia Florae] As to the Megalesia or festival of Cybele, 
see xi. 193; they were celebrated in the early part of April. The 
Floralia were oelebrated at the end of the same month, and were at- 
tended witli very wanmn exhibitions. The Cerealia also were held in 
April, and la^ted one day . There were plays acted at all these festivals, 
and that is the meaning of ' aulaea.' 

265. jactata petauro Coiyora] * Fetaurmn * is a Greek t\rord ire6avpov, 
equivalent to fiereiopov, ' up in the air.' It appears to mean a stage 
^om which persons took flying leaps. There was a spring perhaps 
which helped the jumper, and explains ' jactata corpora ' in this place. 
In some cases a wheel was jised, on the opposite sides of which two- 
persons hung, it would seera, and as the wheel went round one went 
up and the other down. The * rectus funis ' is the tight rope. ' Funam- 
buli' or axoLvo^uTMy as the Greeks called them (iii. 77), carried thelr 
art to great perfection at Rome. 

267. Corycia semper qui puppe] Corycia is put for Cilician, Corycus 
being a promontory of Cihcia. Among the products of that country 
largely exported to Rome was safiron. This explains * sacci olentis/ 
the sweet-smelling bag. Corus and Auster are storm winds. 

271. Passnm et municipes Jovis] 'Passum' was *raisin wine,' for 
which Crete was famous. The name is derived from *pando,' be- 
cause the grapes were spread out to dry. The Cretans had a Zeus of 
their own. Rhea, to save the child she was ready to give birth to 
from his father Cronos, hid herself in a cave of Mount Dicte or Ida 
in Crete, with which island the early years of Zeus are commonly 
connected (see xiii. 41). The wine-jars therefore are said to be coun- 
trymen of Jove'8, as the * siluri ' are called * municipes ' of Crispinus 
(iv. 33). 

272. Hic tamen] That is, the * funambnlus.' The merchant foUows 
his rash trade to get a great deal of money and a great many houses, 
while the other follows his to keep out cold and hunger. ' £8 ' must 
be understood after ' teraerarius.' 

276. plenum niagnis trabibus mare ;] * Trabs ' is sometimes used for a 
ship. Juvenal says there are more men at sea than on shore. The 
use of the coraparative where one branch of the comparison is not 
expressed is common. The Carpathian sea was named from the island 
Carpathos directly between Rhodes and Crete. Gaetulia bordered on 
the Atlantic and not on the Mediterranean ; but ' Gaetuli ' is commonly 
used for the Africans, and here * Gaetula aequora ' is put loosely for 
the African waters of the Mediterrancan. Mons Calpe is the present 
Rock of Gibraltar. Juvenal says this multitude of ships will pass the 
pillars of Hercules (of which Calpe was one and Abyla on the Africau 
coast was the other) and hear the sim hissing as he sets in the westem 
waters. The final vowel in * Calpe ' is short, though it represents the 
Greek KaXTn?. 



236 NOTES. 

281. Grtmde operae pretium] This is a common expression. See 
adi. 127. As to 'follis, gee xiii. 61, n. * Aluta ' is prepared leather^ 
In yii. 192 it is used for a shoe. Here it means a leatliern purse, and 
' tumida ' and ' tenso ' mean that it is well filied. The name is from 
'alumen' (alum), in which it was steeped to soflten it. 'Juvenes 
marinos ' are t)ie Tritons and Nereids. * Vidisse ' depends on * super- 
bu8 ' by a poetical construction. Compare M. 891 ; Z. 598. 

284. Non unus mentfs a</itat fwor.] He goes back to what he said in 
yerse 186, that avarice is madness. Some are mad one way and some 
another. Orestes waa driven mad by the Erinnyes of his 'mother, and 
Ajax was mad when he flogged the beasts and thought he was listen- 
ing to the crie& of Agamenmon and Ulysses. * Eumenidum * belongs 
to both * vultu ' and * igiii.' 

287. ParccU tunicis licet atque lacemisy] Though he does not tear his 
clothes, the man who tempts the sea for gain is mad and wants a 
guardian. * Curator ' is the technical name for the guardian of an in- 
sane person. As to ' tabula distinguitur unda,' see xii. 58. He describes 
money as silver engraved with inscriptions and miniatures. 

290. hujus^ ' such as this.' See xiii. 108, n. 

293. pipertsve cocmpti;] The ancients got their pepper from India 
probably through Syria. 

294. nil fascia nigra winatur ;] ^Fascia' is a bandage, and the 
Sclioliast explains it here as " nubes ducta per caelum." It is no- 
where else used in any siich sense, but it is easily understood. The 
man is so eager to be off on his voyage that he does not mind the 
threatening sky, and says it is only summer thunder. Perhaps the 
same night his ship goes to pieces, and he has to swim for his life, with 
his money bags in his left hand and in his mouth. A purse was called 
* zona ' from being carried in the girdle. 

298. Sed cujus votis modo non] * Sed ' seems to mean * but more than 
this.' One day saw the man with grand expectations, the next day 
saw him a beggar. 

299. Qnod Trtgus] See iii. 54-5. The Pactolus was in Lydia. The 
pictures of their wreck which were hung up by those who could afford 
it in the temples (xii. 27, n.) were carried about by others to excite 
pity and get alms. With * sufficient ' we must supply * ei ' as an ante- 
cedent for ' cujus ' (298). 

306. Servofitm noctu Licinus jM^ef,] As to this man, see i. 109, n. : 
" Pallante et Licinis." This man posted a whole regiment -of slaves 
about his house with buckets (hftmis) for fear of fire. * Attonitus * is 
only a stronger word for 'territus,' he was wild with fear for his fine 
things. It is used in the same way above, xii. 21. As to *electrum,* 
see V. 38 ; ' signis,' viii. 110 ; * Phrygiaque columna,' above, 89 ; * ebur,' 
xi. 123, sqq. ; * testudine,' xi. 95. 

308. Dolia nudi Non ardent Cynici :] He says the Cynic^s tub does 
not take fire. This is Diogenes. He calls him ' nudus ' because he 
wore no tunic. See note on xiii. 122. The * dolium ' was made of 
clay. If any one broke it, he could make another next day, or patch 
the old one with lead. 



SATIRE XV. 287 

» 

311. Sensit AUxandet^ The story of Alezander^s interview with 
Diogenes, aud how the Cjnic asked him iiot to stand bet\^een liim 
and the sun, is Jsnown to every schoolboy. The verbs in verse 314 
are in the subjunctive by attraction. The verb of which * liic' is the 
Bubject must be supplied in the subjunctive of an indirect question. 

315. Nullum numen abest] These words are repeated from x. 865. 
* In quantum ' means no more than ' quantum : ' it is * to whatever 
lengths.' As to Epicurus, see xiii. 128, n. He died about 180 years 
after Socrates. The modesty of Socrates's wants is Well known from 
tiie Memorabiiia of Xenophon and from the Clouds of Aristophanes, 
who made it a matter of ridicule. 

321. Sapientia] Nature, which the Stoics professed to follow as their 
guide, never difFers from Sapientia or philosopliy. See xiii. 20. 

322. videor te claudere :] He says " perhaps I seem to confine you 
by too rigid examples ; well, then, mix a little of niodem life with 
theirs ; go as far sls the amount Otho fixed for the census of an eques ; 
or if this is not enough, if this makes you frown and pout your lip, 
take the worth of two eqnites or even three ; make up a third 
400,000 ;" * millia' is to be supplied. All this is explained on iii. 164. 

327. Si nondum implevi gremium,] * Gremium ' is so used in vii. 216 ; 
it is the fold of the toga in which the purse was commonly carried. 
Narcissus was the chief favorite of Claudius Caesar. He made a 
fortune of more than 100,000,000 sesterces (about |4,000,000). It was 
he and not Claudius who ordered the death of Messalina (see x. 339, 
n.). Claudius was little more than a cipher in his own court. 



SATIRE XV. 

This satire mnst have been written after Juvenars residence in Egypt. 
Under what circumstances he went to that country there is not suffl- 
cient authority for saying with any certainty. In verse 27 there is an 
allusion which gives fair ground for supposing that the poem was 
written in the reign of Hadrian about a.d. 120 (see note). It tums 
upon a case said to have happened not long before. This story gives 
occasion for a good deal of strong contemptuous writing against the 
Egyptians, with a vivid description of a very savage scene, set off by 
some fine lines on the more tender instincts of human nature, and the 
ties of sympathy that unite mankind. It seems as if the story, whether 
true or not, had been repeated to Juvenal and had called up all the 
prejudices which a residence among these people had created in his 
mind. His power in sketching scenes from real life has been often seen 
in the course of these satires. The person to whom the satire is ad- 
dressed is unknown. 



238 NOTES. 

• 

Aroumbnt. — All know, my friend, what kind of gods Egypt wor- 
ships ; crocodiles, the ibis, apes, even cats, river-fish, and dogs. They 
may not eat onions or sheep, but human flesh they may. When 
Ulysses told such a story, it seemed more incredible than all his other 
tales ; but that of which I tell was done pubUcly not long ago ( 1-32). 
The people of Ombi worship the crocodile; the people of Tentyra 
wage war on them for this. They surprise them as they are keeping 
holiday, and attack them first with abuse, then with fists ; ali this is 
chiid's play ; then they throw stones such as men can lift in these 
degenerate days ; what must the gods think of us (33-71) ! Part of 
the Ombites fly ; the Tentyrites pursue. One of the Ombites falls ; 
the enemy cut him up and eat iiim raw, without stopping to profane 
fire. They never had a pleasanter meal ; even the blood they scrape 
up and lick from their fingers (72-92). In the extremity of famine, 
the Vascones once did a deed like this. We pardon thera. They could 
not have been Stoics then ; now Gaul and Britain are leamed nations. 
But Egypt was more savage than those who offer human sacriflce. 
What could have led this people to their crime ? No barbarous nation 
ever acted so cruelly as this useless cowardly herd (93-131). Nature 
has given men sof t hearts and bidden them to weep. We differ from 
beasts in having syrapathy which leads us to dwell together, to stand 
by each other, and to help the failen. But now snakes and wild beasts 
are inore harmonious than we ; men are not content to kill, they niust 
eat each other. What would Pythagoras say if he should see us 
(131-174)-? 

2. Crpcodilon adorat] Herodotus mentions particularly the people of 
Thebes and those who lived near the lake Moeris as worsliippers of 
the crocodile, while the people of the island Elephantine (near Syene) 
did not think it sacred, and even ate the flesh. The town, which after 
the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus bore the name Arsinoe, in ancient 
times was called the city of crocodiles. Herodotus describes the ibis, 
and he says the Egyptians honored it because it destroyed the flying 
snakes that carae over frora Arabia, and it cume to be generally be- 
lieved that this bird fed upon snakes. But the ibis is not capable of 
eating snakes, and this is as fabulous as the winged snakes theraselves. 
It is supposed the Egyptians reverenced this bird because it came to 
the country about the tirae of the rising of the Nile. It was not a 
native of Egypt. There are muramies of the ibis, and it is very 
coraraon on Egyptian raonuments. Its worship was universal in 
Egypt. * Adorat ' seems to be used comically of that which is repul- 
sive, and ' pavet ' of that which is harmless. 

4. cercopitheci] The cynocephalus or dog-headed ape was sacred to 
Thoth, tlie god of letters, whom the Greeks identified with Hermes. 
He was worshipped in particulair at Hermopolis in Middle Egypt. The 
«ercopithecus was a long-tailed ape {KepKog, nidriKoc), and such have 
been found erabalraed. 

5. Dimidio magicae resonant] The most reraarkable remains of 
Thebes on the wektem side of the Nile are two seated colossal flgures. 
One is covered with ancient inscriptions cut by visitors, which show it 



SATIRE XV. 239 

to. be the famous statue of Memnon, from which it was beliered that 
sounds proceeded at the rising of the sun produced by the impression 
of his rays. Strabo mentions them, but says that part of one had 
fallen owing to an earthquake, and that from the part that remained 
in its place a sound such as might proceed from a blow was heard once 
a day. He himself heard it, and where it came from he professes to 
be ignorant, but he is not incHned to believe it issued from the stone. 
Pausanias, who visited the statue, found it broken as Strabo described 
it, and says it was supposed to have been broken by Cambj^ses. He 
compares the sound to the snapping of a harp-string. Strabo wrote 
during the life of our Saviour, Pausanias at least a hundred and fifty 
years after Strabo. Juvenal may have seen the statue about half a 
century before Pausanias. In his time, however, the statue which has 
since been restored was mutilated, which is the meaning of * dimidio,' 
as below, verse 66, "vultus Dimidios,*' and viii. 4, " Curios jam 
dimidios." ' Magicae chordae ' implies that Pausanias described the 
sound according to popular notions. It is generally supposed to have 
been a trick of the priests executed by some simple mechanical con- 
trivance. The statue supposed to be that of Memnon shows evident 
marks of having been restored, the body from the waist upwards being 
of several pieces and of a different stone from the legs and pedestal, 
which are a monolith. When this restoration took place is unknown. 
It is attributed by Heeren to Septimius Severus, who restored some 
of the Egyptian monuments. His reign was from a.d. 193 to211. The 
he''ght is about fifty feet, and tliat of the pedestal six feet. Memnon, 
the son of Eos and Tithonus, was a Greek adaptation from the name 
of several Egyptian kings, Phamenoth or Amenophth. The priests' 
jugglery may have arisen out of the fabulous birth the Greeks at- 
tributed to Memnon as son of tlie morning. 

6. Atque vetus Tkebe] The notion that ancient Thebes had a hundred 
gates was derived from Homer, and was received like other poetieal 
fables by the Greeks and Homans without much inquiry. Thebes was 
perhaps the most ancient town of Egypt, and was originally t^e me- 
tropolis and residence of the kings whose tombs are among the aston- 
ishing ruins that remain to this day. The Persians under Cambyses 
about B.c. 620 pillaged and partly destroyed the temples and bumt tlie 
private dwellings. Its downfall was completed about b.c. 85, when, 
the inhabitants having revoUed from Ptolemy Lathyrus, it was taken 
after a three years' siege and pillaged. Strabo describes it as in his 
day a city of ruins covering a space of eighty stadia (ten miles) in 
circuit, while the inhabitants occupied, as they do still, a few villages 
on each side of the river. The effect of the ruins is usually described 
as overpowering. One sentence of Belzoni^s expresses this effect : 
" It appeared to me Hke entering a city of giants, who after a long 
conflict were all destroyed, leaving the ruins of their various temples 
as the only proof of their former existence." 

7. Illtc aduros,] 'Aehirus' is the Greek word for a cat {alhwpoc). 
This animal was chiefly worshipped in the city of Bnbastis on the 
Peiusiac branch of the Nile. It was sacred to the goddess Pasht, cor- 



240 NOTBS. 

rupted by the Greeks into Bubastis, and identified hy them with Arte- 
mis. Diodonis telis an anecdote of a Roraan soldier accidentally killing 
a cat and being put to death by the populace in a state o*f great ex- 
citement, so that neither the remonstrances of their magistrates nor 
fear of the Romans could prevent them f rom this abominable murder. 
Wilkinson says it is considered . by many of the modern Egyptians 
wrong to kill cats or to ili-treat tliem. Dogs they now count unciean. 
Herodotus mentions tlie eel and a scaly fish of the Nile which he calls 
^TToJwrdf as lield sacred by the Egyptians. A still more general object 
of reverence was the oxyrhynchus (mentioned below on verse 35), 
which gave its name to a town between Memphis and Thebes. Ac- 
cording to Plutarch, the priests abstained from fish of every kind. 
Small mummy fish have been found in tombs, according to the 
Arabian travelier (of tlie 12th century) Abdaliatif, who also found 
skeletons of dogs, wliicli Herodotus says were buried in sacred tombs 
in the various cities of Egypt. Dog mummies liave been found, and 
there is a head of one in the British Museum. A dog'8 head was 
generally said to be the symbol of Anubis, who was particularly 
worshipped at Cynopolis. Tlie Artemis represented by Bubastis may 
not have been that goddess who was most conimonly worshipped in 
Greece, and who w^s tlie goddess among other things of the chase. It 
is probable Juvenal did not think about Bubastis and Artemis. He 
only thought of liis point, that the Egyptians worshipped tlie beast 
and not the huntress-goddess to whom it belonged. 

9. Pomim et caepe nefas] See below, verse 174. The doctrines of 
Pythagoras are supposed to have been in part derived from the 
Egyptians, whose objection to eating leeks and onions is mentioned 
by several ancient auihors. 

10. quibus haec nascuntur] ' Haec ' is ironical, ' such gods as these.' 
Above (xiii. 103) we have ' solet liis ignoscere,' ' he is wont to pardon 
such offences as these.' In verse 66 below we liave ' hunc lapidem,' 
' sucli a stone as this.' 

11. Lanatis ammalibus] According to Herodotus the inhabitants of 
the Theban nome abstained from eating sheep, though they ate goats, 
while the opposite practice prevailed at Mendes (in the Delta), where 
they ate sheep and abstained from goats. The cannibalism imputed 
to the Egyptians is fabulous, though Diodorus says tliat on the occa- 
sion of a great faniine human flesh was eaten (see verse 93, sqq.). 

15. Alcinoo,] When Ulysses left the island of Calj^pso (Ogygia) by 
himself on a raft which she taught him to build, he was carried to tlie 
island Scheria, inhabited by the Pliaeacians, whose king was Alcinous. 
He was hospitably entertained by the king, and at a banquet told Iiis 
adventures. Juvenal says that when Ulysses told wonderful stories 
(such as he is going to tell) to Alcinous and his party, though some 
took them in with astonishment, a few who had not drunk very deep 
no doubt treated him as an impostor, and would have handled him 
roughly for thinking so meanly of their understandings. The Greeks 
used lacjc as Juvenal uses * fortasse ' for a thing that is pretty certain. 
' Moverat ' seems to mean that while Alcinous was listening open- 



SATIRE XV. 241 

mouthed, others had long made up their minds that the man was 
imposing on them. ' Aretalogi ' were jesters employed hy the rich to 
amuse them at their meals with mock philosophical discussions. 

17. Hunc abicit,] The use of the tense is like that in iii. 296, where 
see note. 

19. Nam citius Scyllam] The speflker says he might perhaps more 
readily swallow his stories about the rocks and the winds and his 
crew tumed to pigs, tiiough these are mere lies (as he implies in verse 
17). But did he think the Phaeacians such fools as to believe about 
the giants that ate men ? 

20. C^anea,] If the reading is right, the caesura and twp consonants 
following will account for tbe ' a ' being long. See A. & S. 283, ir., 
£xc. 2, R. 8 ; B. 1427. The rocks Juvenal means are the Symplegades 
at the entrance of the Thracian Bosporus from the Euxine Sea. 
But he has confounded these with other rocks in the Sicilian Sea, 
which Circe advised Ulysses to avoid. Homer calls them UXayKTai, 
'the Wanderers/ for the same reason that the others are called 
^vfiirXijyaSeCf * concurrentia saxa.' When Uiysses was leaving the 
island of A^eolus, the king gave him a leathem bag containing all the 
winds. His companions let them out of the bag, and the coneequences 
were disastrous. £ipenor was one of the companions of Uiysses. 
Homer does not tell us that he was one of those whom Circe turned 
with a stroke of her Hght rod into swine; he says (Od. x. 552, sqq.) 
that he fell from the loft in Circe'8 house and broke his neck. 

25L Da Corcyraea temetum] The Phaeacia of Homer, wliich is a 
fabulous place, was identifled in after times with Corcyra. * Temetum ' 
is an old word for wine. * Minimum ' is used adverbially. 

26. Solus enim koc Ithacus] His companions had all perished, and lie 
came alone to the land of the Phaeacians. He says Ulysses might 
justiy be suspected of lying, for he could not prove his story by any 
testimony but his own ; whereas what he is going to tell was a public 
thing that happened only the other day. 

27. nuper Consule Junio] The consul referred to is either Appius 
Jnnius Sabinus in the reign of Domitian, a.d. 84, or, more probably, 
Q. Junius Rusticus in the reign of Hadrian, a.d. 119. 'Nuper' does 
not fix the time within a few years. The sounding of ' Junio ' as two 
syllables by synizesis is a common license. 

28. moenia Copti,] Coptos was a town about ten miles north of 
Thebes. ' Super ' means higher up the river. 

29. Nos vulgi scelus] He says he is going to tell of an outrage com- 
mitted by a whole people, and therefore notorious — an outrage worse 
than any to be found in all the tragedies since the deluge. He first 
represents tragedy by tlie ' cothumus,' the tliick-soled boot wora by 
tragic actors, and the 'syrma/ their train (viii. 229, n.). The deluge 
of Deucalion and Pyrrha is commonly taken for the beginning of 
time (i. 81, n.). 

33. vetus atque antigua simxdtas,] ' Yetns ' mieans that the quarrel is 
of long standing, and ' antiqua ' goes back to the origin of it, which 
was long ago. 

35. Ombos et Tentyra,] Ombi was about a hundred miles higher up 

16 



242 NOTES. 

the river tlian Tentyra, which waa nearly opposite to Coptos on the 
west side. Thebes lay between t!iem. In Ombi the crocodile was wor- 
shipped ; in Tentyra they killed and ate it, and so the people fell out. 
Plutarch tells us that in his day the Oxyrhynchites, whb held sacred 
a fish with a sharp snout, and got their name f rom it, went to war with 
the Cynopolites, the dog-worshipf^ers, because these ate the fish, and 
the others by way of retaliation ate dogs. The MSS. vary in respect 
to Ombos. The distance between the two places is the stumbling- 
block, because Juvenal calls them * finitimi.' This will not decide the 
question, and the reading of the text is probably right. 

37. Odit uterque locus^] A true specimen of the odium theologicum. 

* Quum credat ' is ' because they suppose.' 

38. Sed tempore festo] ' Sed ' is * but to proceed,' ' but not to dwell 
on the cause' (see xiii. 135, n., and below, verse 61). He goes on to 
tell how at a featival of the Ombites, when they were enjoying them- 
selves and drunk, the Tentyrites fell upon them. They came up the 
river no doubt in swarms, and took them by surprise. The chiefs 
thought it a good occasion to epoil the enemy'8 sport. ' Ne sentirent,' 
etc, siiows what their intention was : to prevent their enjoying their 
holiday, which sometimes lasted seven days and nights, with tables 
spread in the temples and the streets. It was a reUgious festivaL 
Juvenal speaks as a Roman when he says * toro.' A mat would be all 
that would be used in Egypt between the man and the bare ground. 
' Pervigili ' means that they went on all night. 

44. Horrida sane Aegyptus ;] What is said is that Egypt is rude 
enough ; and yet in luxurious living the barbarians do not yield to the 
inf amous Canopus. The rudeness seems to be indicated by ' nigro ' 
and * qualiacunque ; ' the luxury, by * tibicine ' and * unguenta.' Cano- 
pus (i. 26, n.) was a seaport at the niouth of the Canopic branch of the 
Nile. It is no contradiction to speak of the barbarians, as he calls 
them, of Upper Egypt not yielding to Canopus in profligacy. Canopus 
was at this time fuU of Romans and other foreigners, and the habits of 
that place would not represent those of the Egyptians in general. 

47. Adde quod et facihs victoria\ The occasion was a good one for 
annoying the enemy. ' Madidus,' * madere,' ' madens,* with or without 

* vino,' are common expressions for drunkenness. 

48. Inde virorum Saltatus\ On the one side, there were men dancing 
to the music of a black nute-player, perfumes (of a certain sort), 
flowers, and gariands ; on the other side (the invading party ), nothing 
but hatred and an empty belly. The perfumes of the Orientals, like 
their music (see iii. 63, n.), are offensive to the senses of Europeans. 
The Egyptians had the single and double flutes like those of the 
Greeks and Romans, but much longer. They were played by women 
more commonly than men. Dancing was usual on rehgious occasions, 
and men as well as women joined. 

51. Sed jurgia prima] * Sed ' is used as above, verse 58. After a 
description or digression it is common. ' Tuba rixae ' is like ' prooemia 
rixae ' in iii. 288. They shout words of abuse, and this is the trurapet 
that calls to battle. ' Animis ardentibus ' is mock heroic, ' with hot 
'^ourage.' 



SATIRE XV. 243 

57. Dimidios, alias facies] As to * dimidios/ see above, verse 6. It 
does not only mean ' broken off.' There is ' dimldiiun crus ' (xiii. 96) 
for a broken leg. * Alias facies ' is * altered faces.' On ' aspiceres/ 
see A. 60, 2, a; M. 350, 370; H. 486, iii., 4 ; B. 1278. 'Calcent' 
shows that this. is the reason which they would have given. 

61. Et sane quo tot rixantis] " The people think this is only child'8 
play, and they are right; f or what is the use of such thousands of 
fighters if none of them are killed ? " There is humor in this. * Quo ' 
is used as several times bef ore. See references on viii. 9. * Millia * is 
accusative ; we may supply * habent ' or * parant.' ' Saxa inclinatis 
per humum quaesita lacertis ' expresses the way in which they stoop 
4o pick up the stones while they keep an eye upon the enemy all the 
time. Stones he says are the usual weapons for squabbles where 
townspeople fall out among themselves. * Domestica ' means such as 
they were famiiiar with. Virgil tells us how Turnus threw a huge rock 
at Aeneas. Homer says that Ajax threw a great stone at Hector, and 
Diomed, as Juvenal says, hit Aeneas on the liip with a stone that a 
couple of men of unheroic days could not lift. Homer lived probably 
not many generations af ter thp Trojan war. The race of giants was 
growing less even in his day (' vivo jam Homero '). But the strong 
men before Troy were nothing to those Nestor knew in his youth, and 
80 it goes on. The past is seen through a mist, and all things gone 
must needs be greater and better than the present. But men and things 
are much what they have been and always will be. He says men of 
this day are both wicked and fceble ; so the gods, or whichever of the 
gods takes the trouble to look at men, both laugh at them and hate 
them. 'Quicunque aspexit' is conterf^ptuous and Epicurean. The 
difFerence in tense in * percussit ' and*valeant' explains itself; the 
former is indicative because it declares a fact, the latter is subjunctive 
because it belongs to a description. See A. 66, 2 ; M. 364, obs. 1. 

72. A diverticulo repetatur fabula.] " After this digression we may go 
back to our story." He might have expressed this more shortly by 
' sed ' (verse 88, 61) or * ergo ' (x. 64). ' Pars altera' is the Tentyrites, 
who with a reinforcement put the Ombites to flight. It appears 
from this place that by Tentyra there was a grove of palms, no un- 
eommon thing ; but this grove was perhaps an uncommon one. * Hinc * 
is ' on tliis side ; ' that is, among the fugitives, as the context shows. 

82. Aut verubus;] We must supply * torruit,' which is implied by 
zeugma in ' decoxit. ' Usque adeo ' belongs to both adjectives, ' so 
very tedious and slow.' 

84. Hic gaudcre libet] " Here we may rejoice that they did not dese- 
crate that ifire which Prometheus stole from heaven and gave to earth. 
I congratulate the element on its escape, and I dare say you rejoice 
too." He is addressing his friend. This element has from the earliest 
times been respected as a beneficial agent and as the symbol of the 
divine attributes and of the life of raan. The Persians jvorshipped it, 
and their descendants the Parsees do so still. But Juvenal is only 
writing sarcastically. 

87. Sed qui mordere cadaver] * Sed ' is, as before, a way of carrying 
on a subject after a digression. As to ' sustinuit,' see xiv. 127, n. 



244 NOTES. 

' Whoever lutd the heart to taste the carcass neyer ate any meat with 
^ater relish.' * Qui ' implies that every one who tasted was pleased, 
as * nam ' shows ; " for you are not in a crime so great to hentate and 
ask whether it was onlf the first palate that was sensihle of pleasure. 
Nay, the very last man, who stopped behind after tbe whoie body was 
eaten up, scraped the bloody earth with his fingers and licked tbem." 
It is a horrid story. 

93. VoMxneSy haecfama es^,] The territorj of the Yascones lay where 
now is the province of Navarre. After the murder of Sertorius, b.c. 
72, many of the towns in Hispania which had taken part with him 
against Cn. Pompeius and Q.MeteliusPius held out, and were besieged 
by those commanders or their legati. Among the rest was Calagurris* 
Nassica, a town on the right bank of the Iberus. After having been 
unsuccessfuUy besieged during the life of Sertorius, it was attacked 
again after liis death -by L. Afranius, the legatus of Pompelus. Tbe 
inhabitants of this city resisted the siege to such extremities that tiiey 
were reduced to eating each other. This obstinate resistancc seems 
to have made a great impression on the Romans. 

94. Kd rea diversaf sed illic] Juvenal says in the case of the Vascones 
the circumstances were difierent ; it was the maiice of Fortune and the 
extremities of war that drove them to this horrid act. 'Bellorum 
ultima' is like" discriminis ultima" ( xii. 55). The Greeks commonly 
used eoxara in the sauie way. 

97. Hujus enim auod nunc agitur] " The case is dlfferent, for tbis sort 
of food of which 1 am now speaking (that to wliich men are reduced 
by a siege) ought to excite pity ; as for uistance tlie people I liave just 
mentioned/' etc. * Hujus exemplum cibi ' stands where we sliould 
expect * hoc exemplum.' * Exempium ' is the antecedent of ' quod.' 
He had heard less of the siege of Jerusalem or he might liave found 
plenty of like liorrors there. In the place where he wrote the same 
scenes were enacted three centuries later. See Gibbon'8 account of 
the first siege of Rome by the Goths (c. 81). 

107. Zc loiiis praecepta monent ;] Juvenal says (xiii. 121) that he has 
never read tlie doctrines of the Stoics and others. But he rightly 
represents them here. The sacrifice of life to duty was a rule they 
nlways taught, and they professed no such lo^c of life or fear of 
death as would lead to the neglect of the first principles of natural 
affection. But it does not foUow that they might not have advised thc 
holding of a town at any cost against an enemy with the chivalrous 
motive attributed to the people of Calagurris. * Nec enim ' is equiva- 
lent to ' etsi enim non.' He calls them Cantabri without strict accu-' 
racy. The Cantabri lay between the Pyrenees and thc sea, farther 
west than the Vascones, who were south of the mountains. As to 
Metellus, see note on verse 93. He calls him ' antiquus,' because 
every thing was antiquated that was before thetime of the empire. 

110. Nunc tptus Graias] He says it is different now, for ail the world 
has the literature and philosophy of Greece and Rome. He calls 
Rome 'our Athens.' Their spirit and their institutions were their 
own ; their taste And phUosophy the Romans got from Greece, and 



SATIKE XV. 245 

by their conquests these were propagated where Greece would other- 
wise never have been known. The Thule of geographers was the largest 
of the Shetland Islands. He says they werc talking of hiring a master 
of rhetoric there. Mercatores had no doubt found tlieir way to Thule ; 
but the Romans never took possession of that island. There is an- 
other Thule, which is only known from fabulous reports. But it was 
probably part of the mainland of Europe, much to the north of 
Britain. 

113. Nobilis iUe tamen poptJua] " However, though that noble people 
we have spoken of (the vascones) were no Stoics and had none of our 
leaming, they and tlie Saguntines, their equals in courage and fidelity 
and worse in their sufTeringd, had excuse for any such conduct." Sa- 
guntus is a form of ZuKwdog, from which island (Zante) the colony 
originally came. The form Saguntus is not so common as Saguntum. 
It was a town on the east coast of Hispania, a milc from tlie sea. It 
was in close alliance with the Romans at the time when Hannibal was 
appointed to command the armies of Carthage in Hispania, and he 
made it one of his first objects to pick a quarrel with the Saguntines 
and lay siege to the town, which he took after a siege of eight months, 
B.c. 219. VVhen the inhabitants were reduced to the last extremity 
and hard terms of peace were brought them, some of the leading men, 
without any waming to the others, left the senate-house, brought 
together all the silver and gold they could collect, and made a fire in 
the market-place into which they threw thc treasures and themselves. 
When Hannibai entered the town, he ordered ali the males of full age 
to be put to death. AIl the writers attribute their gallant conduct to 
their fidelity to Rome. ' Saguntina fames ' came to bo a proverb 
among the Romans as ^ifji^ Mifhog among the Greeks from the siege 
of Melos by the Athenians. 

115: Maeotide saevior ara] The legend respecting thc Tauri who 
Bacrificed to their goddess all strangers that came to their country is 
most popularly known through Euripides's play, Iphigenia in Tauris, 
which turas upon the recognition of Iphigenia and her brother Orestes, 
she being the priestess of the goddess and he a stranger brought to be 
sacrificed. The Tauri inliabited the Chersonesus which bore their 
name (the Crimea). AU the barbarous tribes on thc borders of the 
Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov) were called Maeotae. 'IUa Taurica' is 
that Tauric goddess ; the Greeks called herArtemis. 'Ut jam'' is 
* supposing only ; ' * jam ' gives emphasis to * ut.' It is the particle 
most nearly resemblmg the Greek <5^ in its commonest uses. Com- 
pare Z. 286. 

^ 119. Qww modo ccuus Imjndit hos ?] * Modo * gives emphasis to ' quis,* 
like Tig nore ; it is " what chance at all drove these Egyptians to their 
crime ? What so great famine, what arms attacking their walls, com- 
pelled them to dare so detestable, so monstrous a deed ? " 

122. Anne aliam terra Memphitide aicca] " Could they, if the land of 
Memphis were all dry, offer greater insult to the Nile because he 
would not rise ? " Till the Persian conquest (b.c. 625 ) Memphis and 
Thebes were riyals in impoctance. Both were of fiibulous antiquity. 



246 KOTES. 

Memphu was alwajs the chief seat of commerce, while Thebes seema 
to have been the residence of the kinga. Both cities were greatly 
injured by the conquerors. 

124. Qua nec terribUes CimhriA The tlireatened inyasion of the 
Cimbri and their destruction by Marius is mentioned in yiii. 249, sqq. 
The Cimbrica ChersoneBus is part of the modem kingdom of Den- 
mark, but whether these barbarians Qame frum thence is a difficult 
question. The Britones are the same herc as the Britanni. There 
can be no doubt that our ancestors are nieant, whose human sacrifices 
gave them a bad name. The Agathyrsi Herodotus describes as per- 
sons of delicate habits, who wore gold ornaments and had their wives 
in common. Herodotus places them at thc source of the river Maris, 
which flows into the Tibiscus, the largest tribntary of the Ister. But 
other writers place tliem further to the north-east, nearer to thc Sauro- 
matae, with whom they are often mentioned. Tliey tattooed their 
skins and dyed their hair biue. The use of * nec/ 'que/ and ' aut ' as 
correlatiYe is likc the case noticed in xiii. 43, 44, where see note. 

126. rabie imbclle] A common hiatus. 

dctre veia phaReiis] The ordinary river boats were built of the 
wood of the acanthus, and werc propelled by oars and sails which were 
made of byblus. These boats were painted red, yellow, or green, and 
sometimes ail those colors, and the sails were composed of squares of 
diflerent hues. The name given by Herodotus to them was * baris.' 
Wilkinson says that tlie custom of painting their boats " in brilliant 
and liveiy colors continued to the latest times, long af ter the conquest 
of the country by the Romans ; and when the Arabs invaded Egypt 
in 638 under Amer, the general of the CaUph Omer, one of tlie ob- 
jects that struck them with surprise was the gay appearance of the 
painted boats of the Nile." 

131. Et simites ira atguefames.] '* In whose minds rage and famine 
are equal and alike ; " their rage is as strong as famine in others, ancl 
like in its e£fects. 

Mollissima corda] Nothing can be more touching and manly than 
the verses that follow. Tlieur style is that of nature, and there is no 
satire so strong as that which brings the pure emotions of nature into 
contrast witli the bad passions and vices of mankind. We come with 
pleasant surprise iipon a sentiment so true and simply expressed after 
the revolting picture that has gone before. It is a satisfaction to know 
that this severe satirist could be tender when occasion required, and 
knew the worth of manly tears. 

134. Plorare ergo jvibet] 'Ergo* means ' she then who has given na 
tears bids us use them in the expression of sympathy with our suffer- 
ing fellows.' 'Squalorem' refers to the appearance of mournmg, 
beard unshom, unwashed toga, and so forth, put on by persons m sor- 
row or on trial. . . 

135. pnpillum ad jwra vocantem] The proper expression for bnngmg 
a man before the court is * in jus vocare.' * Circumscribere ' is used 
twice aboye (x. 222, xiv. 237). When a ' pupillus ' came of age, he 
could bring an action against his 'tutor' for mismanagement of liis 



SATIBB XV. 247 

property. If the ' tutor ' was condemned, the penalty was ' inf amia/ 
fioys wore long hair like girls ('incerta') till tlieytook the 'toga 
Yirilis/ This is therefore the case of a ' pupillus ' complaining of his 
' tutor ' during his pupilage. The * tutor ' in such cases was some- 
times removed. 

140. Et minor igne rogi.] That is, * too little to be bumt.* See refer- 
ence on iii.' 203. It was not usual to burn children who died before 
they had cut their teeth. 

face dignus Arcanay] There were no mysteries at Rome analogous 
to those of Greece, at which none but the initiated could be present, 
who were bound by oath to keep secret the mysteries (whatever they 
were) then made known to them. As eyery Greek might be initiated 
if he pleased, the secrecy did not amount to much. Nevertheless it 
passed into a proverb, and the Romaftis took it from the Greeks. 
Oeres represented the Greek Demeter, and the allusion here is to 
the Eleusinian mysteries, an Attic festival which lasted seven days. 
On the fifth the initiated carried torches to the temple of the goddess, 
led by a priest called from his office 6g^x<K' This explains * face 
arcana/ and Juvenal says no man would be worthy to join the torch- 
bearers at the festival of E^eusis who thought himseif unconcerned in 
any of the misfortunes of his neighbors. 

143. venerabile soli Sortiti ingenium,] * Venera^bile ' here, I think, has 
an active meaning. There is nothing that so distinguishes man from 
the beasts as his reverence for the divine Beiug. * Venerabile in- 
genium ' I take to be a reverential mind. The active meaning of 
adjectives in * bilis ' is common. 

146. demissum traximus arce,] * Trahere ' is often used in the yarious 
senses of ' ducere.' See note on xii. 8. 

149. Tantum animas, nobis animum] 'Anima' and 'animus' are 
essentially the same word, and are used as synonymous by tbe best 
writers. But 'anima' more commonly represents the principle of 
llfe, and 'animus' the rational mind. That distinction is obvious 
here. This sense of 'indulgere/ ' to give/ is not, I Lelieve, fo aid m 
the writers before the empire. 

155. Ut coUata daret Jiduciay] *' That united confidence might bring 
us sleep, secured by a neighbor's threshold." Juvenal says the effect 
of that gift of mind was to lead men, through the affectipns they 
have in common, to help one another, to form communities, to quit 
the woods and live in towns, to fight side by side, and to defend them- 
selves behind the same walls. 

159. Sed jam serpentum major concordia :] ' But now things are 
changed and the snakes live more harmoniously than man.' 

166. Produxiase pantm est,] ' Produxisse ' here is like ' extendere ' 
below (168) ; both express the hammering out of iron. Juvenal 
says it is not enough now for men to forge the sword; though 
('quum') the first smiths only knew how to make harrows and hoes 
and mattocks and shares. The ' sarculum ' was a lighter instrument 
t^an the ' marra,' but both were f or tuming the soil. The distinction 



248 NOTES. 

in tense and mood between ' sufficit ' and ' crediderint ' is like that in 
yenes 66, 67 ; see the note there. As to Pythagoras, see iii. 229 ; 
aboYe, verse 9, n. On ' indulait/ see yerse 149, n. 



SATIRE XVL 

It seems imposflible to ayoid the condusion that this is an unfinished 
poem, and it may well have been a posthumous publication. It has 
been doubted whether Juyenal eyer wrote it ; but no imitator who 
eyidently oould do weil, would haye been willing to leaye tlie poem in 
the condition in which we find it. There does not seem to be suffl- 
cient reason for supposing the fragment to be spurious or for thinking 
that the partiai rejection of it in early times proceeded from^any other 
cause than its imperfect character. It is in the form of an epistle, and 
professes to set forth tlie adyantages of military seryice, looking at it 
as a young man might when tired of the restraints of a ciyiliaii's 
life. 

Argumbnt. — Gallus, who can tell the adyantages of lucky ser- 
yice ? First, no ciyilian dares assault you ; and, if you beat him, he 
dares not bring you before the praetor. He must refer his case to the 
centurion ; and his reyenge will be harder for him than the wrong ; wit- 
nesses will not dare to testify on his side (1-34). If a ciyilian has a 
trouble with his neighbor, he has to wait for all the delays of the law ; 
the soldier gets justice done him at once (35-^). Again, all that the 
soldier eams is his own ; his f ather has no control oyer it. The father 
will court the successf ul son. For it is for the genenil's interest that 
the braye should be lucky and rewarded (61-60). 

1. Quis numerare queat] The writer asks, " Who can number the ad- 
yantages of military seryice if it be successful ? As for that, if* I can 
join a f ortunate legion, let me enlist and I shall count myself lucky." 
be speaks as a young man migbt speak of joining what is called by 
our soldiers a crack regiment, and like some of our own tyros he can 
think of nothing more delightful. He is speaking sarcasticaliy. Some 
^of the more distinguished legions bore names of honor, such as Victrix, 
'Felix, Ad jutrix, and so forth. This is what he means by * prospera 
castra.' A soldier was a ' tiro * till he had seen seryice and was ac- 
quainted with his duties. ' Payidum ' is here only a redundant 
epithet. 

4. fati vaJet hora benigni,] This is JuyenaFs ironical style ; haying 
mentioned a lucky star, he adds, " for of course the moment of a smil- 
ing fate is of more ayail than a letter of recommendation to Mars from 
his wife (or mistress) Venus or his mother Juno." Juno's worship at 
Samos is well known. Her temple, the Heraeum, was on the coast, 
' it is to the Samian shore that ' arena ' refers. 



SATIBE XVI. 249 

m 

7. communiaf] That which all soldiers held in common. ' Togatus ' 
is the common word fbr a civilian. 'Inuno' here is afflrmatiye of 
what precedes, and introduces something more. It is sometimes used 
negatively according to the nature of the sentence ; but its conimon 
use is to add some statement, reason, etc, in continuation and support 
of what goes before. *Ne' (from which * ut* must be supplied before 

* dissimulet/ M. 462, b) seeiiiB used to introduce an appositional clause. 
If 80, it must be used for * ut non.' Compare M. 374 ; A. 70, 4,/; Z. 
628. It may be explained in another way, as depending on an idea of 
hindering to be supplied. 

11. tumidis livonbus offamf] * Offa,' which is used for a chop or other 
piece of meat, here means a swelling from a blow. ' Liyoribus ' are 
black contusions. 'Medico nil promittente' means that the doctor 
cannot warrant that the man will not lose his eye. 

13. Bardaicus judex datur] * Judex ' is predicate. It is not certain 
that * bardaicus ' agrees, as many take it, with ' calceus ' in this place. 
I think it may be taken independentiy. ' Calceus ' will in that case be 
qualified hke ' surae ' by * grandes.' ' Calceus ' was tbe general name 
for a walking shoe or boot as opposed to others wom in the house, or 
sandals which only covered the sole or were strapped on to the upper 
part of the foot. Of the latter sort were * caligae ' (verse 24) which 
were heavy sandals with nails wom by the common soldiers as the 

* calceus ' was wom by the officers, though sometimes the offlcers wore 

* caligae.' See iii. 821, n. The name ' bardaicus ' is said to be derived 
from the Bardaei, an Dlyrian people from whom this sort of military 
shoe was taken. Juvenal says (according to the above) if a man 
wishes to punish the soldier who has maitreated him, the juilex as- 
signed to him is a * bardaicus,' a great boot, and a pair of thick calves 
under a big bench ; that is, he must carry his case into the cainp, and 
if he is allowed a trial it will be a court-martial with a centurion for 
judex. ' Judicem dare ' was properly said of the praetor, who could 
appoint if he pleased a judex privatus to hear a private case at the in- 
stance of the plaintiff. It is usual to describe the centurions as stout 
men. Juvenal speaks here of great benches to match the great legs. 
All is in the rough way. . 

15. more Camillt] The days of the old discipline when M. Furius 
Camillus was dictator and besieged Veii (b.o. 898). 

17. Justissima Centurionum] Juvenal says that the centurions give 
just judgment against a soldier, and if a man goes before them with 
a good complaint he will get satisfaction. But he will find the whole 
camp set against him, and his satisfaction will be worse for him than 
his wrong. *Igitur' serves to keep the sentences togetlier: 'Well 
then the centurion will give just judgment.' When he says * nec mihi 
deerit/ he puts himself in the position of an iniured civilian, as below, 
verse 28, " non sollicitemus amicos." *Deerit^ must be read in two 
syllables. * Querelae * is the genitive of quality, * a cause in which the 
complaint is just.' ' Deferre,' with or without ' nomen,' means to in- 
form against. * Deferre causam ' is not a legal phrase. ' Tota cohors ' 
18 put generally for * tota castra ' (verse 2). * Consensu magno ' is " 
ordinary phrase for perfect unanimity. 



'250 KOTES. 

21. effidmU curabilis atf sit] * Curabilis ' is not f onnd ebewhere. It 
means that which wants curing. The way of speaking, ' gravior curar 
bilis/ is Greek ; the usnal Latin would be ' gravius/ The lengthening 
of the short YoweL before the two consonants (22) is not uncommon. 

22. Diffnum erit ergo\ " It is a proceeding then worthj of the rant- 
ing VagelUus with his stupid hardihood, as long as you have two 
sound legs, to proyoke so many shoes, such thousands of hobnails.' 
This is explained above on verse 14. Who VageUius was is not 
known. 

25. Quis tam proad absit] " Besides this (he asks) who would come 
so far from town, who is so &st a fnend (such a Pylades) that he will 
oome out to the camp to give eyidence for you ? We had better dry 
np our tears forthwith, and not pUgue our friends who are sure to 
make excuses, when the judge teUs us we must briug witnesses." 
' Moiem aggeris ' is referred to in x. 95, " castra domestica/' and 
mentioned in v. 153, " in aggere rodit/' and note. The praetorian camp 
is here referred to. * Tam procul ' therefore is ironical, f or the camp 
was not aboYe a quarter of a mUe from either of the two gates CoUina 
and Esquilina, ncrth-east of the city. A man must be a Pyiades to 
take such a walk for a friend, though the Agger which overlooked the 
camp was a oommon promenade. The judex here is the military 
officer who heard the compiaint 

33. Coatra paganum possia] ' Paganus ' af ter the time of Augustus 
came to be appUed to aU civilians as opposed to miUtary men. It may 
have been first given them by soldiers in the way of contempt, for it 
belongs properly to tlie country people. * Pudorem ' is his honor, 
which the soldier is supposed to prize more than the man of peaoe. 
The word is so used in viu. 83. 

36. Sacrametitorum,] * Sacramentum ' was the soldier'8 oath which 
he swore by the 'signa' (standards), promising fideUty to liis count^ 
and liis commander. The oath was administered on enUstment. It 
is used here for miUtary service, and is put in the plural number Uke 
' stipendia/ wliich means * campaigns/ that is properly tlie number of 
times a soldier has earned pay. So ' sacramenta ' wouid be the num- 
ber of times he has taken the oath, which as long as he reniained with 
the army would ordinariiy be only once, though there were cases in 
which it was repeated. 

Convaliem ruris aviti] He says if any man robs him of his land, 
removes his landmark. or denies his debts,,he will have to go through 
all the Iaw's delays before he can get jnstice, whicli is promptly ad- 
ministered in camps. * ConvalUs ' is said to be properly a valley sur- 
rounded on aU sides with hills, and * vaUis ' one between two ranges. 
The stone or other boundary by which private property was marked 
off was sacred. The lands were in the first instance divided by the 
Agrimensores with religious ceremonies, and ofierings were annually 
made close by them to the god Terminus, whose image was often no 
more than a shapeless stone. The neighbors met and ofiered sacrifice 
jointly at the Terminalia. Cakes of fiour and honey (liba) with 
ground * far ' (puls, xi. 58,) were conimonly ofiered, and by those 
who coiild afibrd it a lamb or young pig was ailded. 



SATIRE XVI. 251 

40. pergit non reddere nummos,] ** Persists in not restoring money de- 
posited with him." This is the offence that gave occasion for S. xiii. 
The next line is repeated from the 137th of ^at satire. 

42. qui lites inchoet annus] " I must wait f or some indefinite time that 
shall even make a beginning of the causes of an entire people." So 
Heinrich takes it, and I see no better way. * Annus totius populi ' I 
can make no meaning of. * Annus * is probably a definite word f or an 
indefinite period. ' Inchoare ' is commonly used f or such a beginning 
as is not brought to an end ; and * tunc quoque/ etc", means that no 
more than a beginning is made or likely to be made. 

44. toties subsellia tantum] This means that the court was ready, 
cusliions on the seats, and everybody there, but the advocates loitered. 
The case must therefore wait. 

46. parati Digredimur] This is the language of the amphitheatre. 
" Prepared to fight, we are obliged to separate, and the forum is but a 
slow arena for our combat." * Balteus ' was a belt which went over 
the shoulder and held the sword. * Sufiflamine ' is used in viii. 148 
for a drag, and it is here used in that sense figuratively. 

51. testandi militibus jus] Under the Roman law all that a son ac- 
quired who was not free from his father'8 power by emancipation or 
death was acquired for his father, and he had no power of making a 
will. About the time of Augustus an exception was made in favor of 
money acquired through mihtary service, which was called * castrense 
peculium.' Whatever a son had while he was * in patria potestate ' 
was * peculium,' and with certain modifications was held on the same 
terms as a slave'8 (iii. 189, n.). In the time of Constantine the 
same privilege that attached to the ' castrense peculium,' or nioney 
eamed in military service, was extended to money earned in civil 
offices, which was therefore called * quasi castrense peculium.* This, 
as Heinrich says, is an argument in favor of the satire having been 
written before the time of Constantine, a.d. 806. ' Non esse in corpore 
census ' means that it was not part of the property which was under 
his f ather's control. * Placuit ' means only that it is settled law. The 
iegal word for *regimen' is 'potestas.' 

54. Ergo Coranum Signorum comitem] Horace (S. ii. 5) refers to the 
story of one Nasica, a fortune-himter, who was laughed at by one 
Coranus. The name Coranus seems to have become proverbial in 
this connection. This man, because he has got money of his own 
which he has the power to dispose of, is courted by his own father, 
trembling with years, in hopes he may survive his rich son yet, and 
get something by his will. * Captare ' is the common word in this 
sense. 

56. Hunc labor aequus] There is no sense in this. Soine think 
* labor ' should be * favor.' This is the only conjecture that has thrown 
light on the passage. ' Pulcro labori ' is the same as * labore militiae ' 
above (verse 62). * Hunc' refers to the former of the two persons, a 
not uncommon usage. 

58. ducis hoc re/erre videtur] This use of the genitive with * referre * 
is easily understood by resolving ' referre ' into its parts, ' rem fen-« • ' 



252 NOTES. 

where ' rem ' is ' the interest * of a person or something which con- 
cerns him. Here it is said to be for the interest of the commander 
himself that he who is brave should also be most fortunate, that all 
(who deserve them) should be made happy with decorations, which 
were as much prized by Roman soldiers as by our own. They were 
conferre(\ in a way to enliance their value. Li the presence of all the 
troops Buch men as had distingulshed themselves by particular acts of 
gallimtry were called up before tiie Commander-in-chief and by him 
presented with decorations varying according to their exploits. 

60. Ut laeti phaleris omnes] * Phalerae ' and * torques ' were nearly 
alike, 'phalerae'being collars that hung down on the chest, and ' tor- 
ques ' those which fitted close to the neck. The repetition of * omnes ' 
shows either a corrupt text or an unfinished and uncorrected fragment. 
No imitator would intentionally write such a verse, much less one 
who could imitate as well as this writer. I prefer treating it as a frag- 
ment abruptly stopping in the middle of a sentence. 



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