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Full text of "Thirty four conferences between the Danish missionaries and the Malabarian Bramans (or heathen priests) in the East Indies, concerning the truth of the Christian religion : together with some letters written by the heathens to the said missionaries"

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I Shelf, i c- .• 

Book, "ir; 






.. '^ , Bet;weea the 

Danijh Missionaries 


Mahharian BRAMANS 

I N ' T H E 


Concerning the Truth of the Chriftian 
Religion : Together with fome LETTERS 
written by the Heathens to the faid 
Miffionaries. . 

Tranflated cmt of High Dutch 


L N D N, 
Printed for H. Clements m St. P^«i's Church- Yard, 

I'K Fleetwood in IVcJiwinJler- HaS neat the Parliament' 
Stairs, and J,Seephem in Butchsr-£{pw. M DCC XIX. 




THE following Confe-^ 
rences being an Efiay 
to recommend to the 
Heathens in the Eafl-hiJies 
that faith, of which Your 


The Epiflle Dedicatory. 

Majefty is the Glorious De^ 
fender ; I have humbly pre- 
liira'd to lay them at Your 
Royal Feet, as a Pledge of 
the indefatigable Labours 
o^ the Proteftaiit MiJJionaries 
fent thither by the King of 

One of thofe Miffionaries 
had the Honovir to be gra- 
cioufly received by Your 
Majefty here in London y on 
his Return to India. 

They have already grate- 
fully acknowledg d the Cha- 
ritable Afliflances they have 
received froniYour Majefty's 
Subjeds both in Europe and 


ThQ Epiftle Dedicatory^ 

in the Eaft - Indies ; and 
would, 1 am well aflur'd, 
were it in their power^ glad- 
ly embrace this Opportuni- 
ty of repeating thefe Ac- 
knowledgments, by dedica- 
ting this Fruit of their 
Labours to the Augufl Mo- 
narch of the Britipj Nation, 
from which they have re- 
ceiv'd fb many Encourage- 

'Tis with the higheft Sa- 
tisfaftion, that 1 aftume this 
Office, as it furniihes me 
with an Occafion of Pub- 
lickly acknowledging the 
many Inftances of Royal 
Bounty I had the Honour 


The Epiftle Dedicatory* 

to receive from Your Maje- 
fty and Your Royal Family 
both in Germany and in 

Mdy the Eternal Fountain 
of all Goodnefs long prejerve 
Tour Precious Life^. invalu^ 
ahle to Tour own &uhjeBsy 
and dear to all who wijlj well 
to the true Intereft of Man-- 

I am 
(May it pleafe Tjur Majefly) 
Tour Majeftfs moft Dutiful, 
and Mofl humbly Devoted 
Subj^6b and Servant^ '- 

J, Thomas Philipps* 



H E Country of Malalar begins 
at Canonor^ a Town in the Nor- 
thern Latitude of 1 1 Degrees and 
20 Minutes ; and ends at Cape 
Comorin in the Northern Latitude of Seven 
Degrees and Two Thirds, over againft^the 
Ifland oi Ceylon. It contains divers King^ 
doms ; aSj Cochin^ Trdvancorj Gundaca^ PimU 
ertta^ Margate; and abounds with Ports, as, 
Calecut^ Cale^Couiamy &c. The natural Pro- 
duce of the Countrey is fo rich and profita- 
ble to the Merchants, that the Englijh^ 
Dutchy Frenchy FortuguezCy DatieSy and Peo- 
ple of other Trading Countries, have made 
large Settlements upon thefe Coafts fince 
the Year 1^2,4. when Fafco de Gama found 
the Paflage to the Eafi Indies by the Cape 
of Good Hope. 



ii The PREFACE. 

Moft of its Princes are Heathens, paying 
Tribute to the Great Mogul. 

The Inhabitants are generally good- 
natur'd, ingenious and very induftrious; 
charitable to the Poor, but extreanvly Su- 
perftitious in the Worfliip of the Pagers. 

Some of their Temples are very rich, a- 
domed with Galleries and Chapels, where- 
in are placed the Statues of leveral Men 
and Women y who, as they fay, have lead 
Holy Lives, v;hich are adorned with Gold 
and Silver Apparel, and attended with 
Lamps and Wax Candles burning Day and 

They have their Annual Solemnities, 
when they carry their Idols in Proceflion, 
with the Sound of Horns and Trumpets, 
accompanied with a great Number of Peo- 
ple ,• much after the fame manner as the 
Image of the Virgin Mary is carried about 
in many Countries of Europe ; only with 
this difference, that the Image of a Mala- 
harian Goddefs is fo hugely bulky, that fct 
veral hundred Men mud labour hard to 
move the Great Waggon upon which fhe is 
placed in great Pomp and State. 

They make great xife of Holy Water in 
fiheir Ceremonious Wailiings and Purificati- 



Their Temple Worililp confifts in Sacrf. 
£ces, Burning of Incence, in Cringings and 
Boi^'ings ot the Priefts, Young Womens 
Singing and Dancing to the Sound of Mu- 
fical Initruments betore the Idols ; th6 In- 
fpedion whereof is committed to the Care 
of the Bramans^ who make a feparatc Tribe 
among the MalahariaMS^ as the Levites fof- 
merly amcng the Jei^s, 

They marry only in their own Tribe, 
and are very burthen fome to the Publick : 
For the whole Tribe is maintain'd by the 
Gifts and Liberalities of the Layity ; who 
are fo ftupid, as to believe thefe Bramahs 
derive their Pedigree from the God Biruma; 
and that they are therefore very holy Men. 
And they are proud and cunning enough to 
cherifh this Ignorance of the People, by 
holding no Communication with the mean- 
er fort of People, for fear, fay they, of be- 
ing defiled : And fome of them feparate 
themfelves from the reft of their Neighbours 
(for there are Monks and Anchorets among 
them, who fpend their time in Wilderneiles 
and Caves of the Earth ; ) and yet there is 
not, perhaps, a more wicked Race of Men 
treading upon God's Earth; For they cer- 
tainly believe, that all things, how abomi- 
nable focver, are very lawful, when pratftis'd 
by themfelves. And the People are fo infa- 
tuated by them, that they believe they fiiall 
( a z ) become 

Iv The PRE F AC E. 

become holy, by partaking in their Crimes, 
or by fuffering any Outrage at their Hands. 
Befides, they are the greateO: Impoftors 
in the World : Their Talent lies in inven- 
ting new Fables every Day, and making 
them pafs for incomprelienfible Myfteries 
aniong the Vulgar. 

One of their Cheats is to perfuade the 
People, that their Idols Eat like Men : And 
to the end they may be plentifully provi- 
ded with good Cheer, they make them of 
a Gigantick Figure j and to be fiire, with a 
prodigious Paunch. If thefe Offerings, with 
which they maintain their Families, come 
to fall, they denounce againft the People the 
Anger of the Hungry Gods. 

They believe, that a Cow has fomething 
in her Sacred and Divine ; and happy is the 
Man, who can be fprinkled with the Alhes 
of a Cow burnt by the Hand of a Braman ; 
he, who dying, lays hold of a Cow's Tail, 
and Expires with it betwixt his Hands, thinks 
himfelf as happy as he that is to be buried 
in the Robes of a Capuchin : For thus af- 
fifted, the Soul departs out of the Body, pu- 
rified, and fometimes returns into the Body 
of a Cow-, which is look'd upon as a great 
Blefiing, and never granted, but to Heroick 
Souls, who contemn Life, and die generouf- 
iy, either by cading themfelves headlong 
from a Precipice, or leaping into a kindled 


IheP RE F AC E. v 

Pile, or throwing thernfelves under the holy 
Chariot, to be cruQied to Death by the Idols, 
while they are carried in Triumph about 
the Town : For the Souls of wicked Men 
in their next Nativity muft animate the Bo- 
dies of Swine, Dogs, or (bme more hideous 

And purfuant to this Doflrine of the 
Tranfoiigration of Souls from one Body into 
another, they religioufly abftain from eating 
the Flelh of any living Creature whatfoever, 
whether Fiih, Fowl, or Four-footed Beads ; 
left by chance they might feed upon a Body, 
animated with the Soul tl;jat lodg'd before in 
a Father or near Relation. 

Thefe Bramayis boad of a Divine Law fent 
them down from Heaven, but couch'd in a 
Language that the Laity underfland not; 
nor are they allow'd the lludying of jt ,* but 
muft obey, and believe implicitly all that the 
Prieft fliall be pleas'd to prefcribs as Articles 
of Faith. 

The Moral Part of this Law is compriz'd 
in * Eight Precepts, viz.. 

I. Thou flialt not kill any living Creature 
whatfoever it be, having Life in the fame : 
For thou art a Creature of mine, and fo is 

r* Viii, Henry Lord's Djfcovtry of (he SeH of. tli^ti' 
eians, offid old Periians who adored the Fhe^ Pag,^t. 

(33) '■'? 


vi Tk P RE F AC E. 

h: Thou art endued with a Soul, and // is 
endued with the fame- Thou fhalt not 
therefore fpiil the Blood of any thing that 
is mine. 

II. Thou {halt make a Covenant with all 
thy Five Senfes. Firfl, with thy Eyes, that 
they behold not, things that be Evil. Se- 
condly, With thy Ears, that they hear not 
things that be Evil. Thirdly, with thy 
Tongue, that it fpeak not things that be E- 
vil. Fourthly, with thy Palate, that it tade 
not things that be Evil ; as Wine or the Flefh 
of Living Creatures. Fifthly, with thy 
Hands, that they touch not things deiiled. 

III. Thou fhalt duly obferve the Times 
of Devotion, thy Walhings, Worlhippings, 
and Prayers to the Lord thy God, with a 
pure and upright Heart. 

IV. Thou ihalt not tell falfe Tales, or ut- 
ter things untrue, by which thou mighteft 
defraud thy Brother in Dealings, Bargains, 
or Contradis ; by this Cofenage to work thy 
own peculiar Advantage. 

V. Thou flialc be charitable to the Poor, 
snd adminifter to his Need, Meat, Drink 
and Money, as his Neceflity requires, and 
ehine owa Ability enableth thee to give. 

: VI. Thou 

The PREFACE. vil 

VI. Thou ilialt not oppref^, Injure or do 
Violence to the Poor, uiing thy Power un- 
juftly to the Ruin and Overthrow of thy 

VIL Thou ilialt celebrate certain Fefti^ 
vals ; yet not pampering thy Body, with 
Excels of any thing ; but llialc obferv^e cer- 
tain Seafons for Faltiog, and break otiTome 
Hours by Watching, tl, at thou mayTt be fitter 
for Devotion and Hohnefs. 

VIIT. Thou Ihalt not (leal from thy Bro^ 
ther any thing, however little it be, of 
things committed to thy Trufl in thy Pro- 
felTion or Calling ; but flialt content thy 
felf with that which he Pnall give thee as 
thine Hire ,• conftdering that thou haft not 
Right to that which another Man calleth 

And as for their Burhls^ this is their 
Cuftom ; when any Man is defperately 
Sick, and paft any Hope of Recovery, they 
enjoy n him to utter Maramie^ which is one 
of the Names of God, importing Mercy to 
Sinners; of which Mercy at that time he 
flandeth mofi; in need of. His Spirits lan- 
guiHiing, at that time tliey ftretch out his 
Hands, pouring fair Water into them, as the 
Qx 4) Oiler.. 

Viii The P R E F A C E. 

Offering of his Life, praying to KiflneruppoM^ 
the God of the Water, to prefent him pure 
to God, with this Offering oi his Hand. His 
Life being departed, they walli his Body, as 
a Teftimony of his Clcannefs and Purity. 

This is the Ceremony obferv'd in the Vi- 
fitation of their Sick. 

After this, for the Burial of their Dead ; 
*t}s after tiiis manner ; Firft^ tliey bear the 
dead Body to a River's Si6q, appropriate to 
fuch purpofe ; where fetiing the Corps 
down on the Ground, the Braman uttereth 
theie Words : Oh Earthy we commey/.'i unto 
thee this our Brother ; wh'tlft he livd thoit 
haclft an Interest in htm j of the Earth he was 
wade j by the Elejfing of the Earth he was fed; 
and HOW therefore he is kead^ we fur render him 
unto thee. 

After this, putting combuflible Matter to 
tjie Body, and lighting it by the Help of 
Sweet Oyl, and Aromatical Odours llrow- 
ed thereon, x.\\t Braman faith, Oh Fire, whilft 
he lived, thou hadfi a Claim in himy ly whofe 
jMatural Heat he fulfified : We return there- 
fore this Body to thee^ that thou (houldfl purge 

The Body then being incinerated, or burnt 
to Allies, they difperfe the Alhes abroad in- 
to the Air ,• and the Braman uttereth thefe 
Words'; Oh Air^ whilfl he livd, hy thee he 
Ireathed; and now having breath' d his laft, we 
-field him to thee. ^ The 


The Afiies falling on the Water, the Bra- 
rnan faith, Oh Water, whiljl be llvd, thy Moi- 
flure did fufiain him ; and his Body is difpersd; 
take thy part in him. 

So they give every Element its own : For 
as they afRrm Man to have his Life continu- 
ed by the Four Elements ; fo, they fay, he 
ought to be dillributed amongd: them at his 

If you would know more of the Manners 
of the People, read a Volume of Letters 
written by thefe Heathens themfelves, giv- 
ing an Account of their Religion, Manners, 
and Learning to their Correfpondents, the 
Danijh MiUionaries at tranquehar^ fold by 
Mr. Mears near Temple- Bar, 

St. Thomas the ApoOle preach'd the Gof- 
pel amongd the Malabar iatis ; and Chriftia- 
nity remain'd there for many Ages in its 
primitive Simplicity ^ till in time, for want 
of good Pallors, they were in danger of lo- 
fing the Remains of the Gofpel, had not 
Mar Toma, a Native of Syria, taken care of 
the decay'd State of Chriftianity in thefe 
Parts ; who being feconded by diverfe other 
Teachers o\xtoS. Syria ^ the Syriack Language 
was introduc'd into their Churches, and the 
former Purity redor'd amongft them,^ till the 
time that the Opinions of Ne/lorius got foot- 


ing in Syria , and thence were tranfplanted 
into h^ja. 

They have always, or at leafl: for 1300 
Years, been under the Patriarch of Bahylon. 
(himfelf being fubje(5l to the Patriarchal 
See of Antioch^ who, as their Meterene^ or 
Bifliop died, took care to fend them another, 
which refided ftill among them, and was 
had in great Reverence both by Chriftians 
and Infidels : And in this ftate they were 
found by the Portugueze j who extending 
their Conquers to the very Neighbourhood 
01 Li/ife Ancient Chriftians, made ufe of all 
Arts and Stratagems imaginable, to pcrfuade 
them to own the Supremacy of the Biihop 
of Rome : But Mar Jofeph, their Bidiop, 
would neither be fiatter'd nor frighted from 
his ^acTdotal Obedience, due to the Patri- 
arch of ^rt/y/o» j telling them plainly, that n 
he had nothing to do with the Bifliop of 
R'j>n€ ,: and that the Bifliop of Ro}y!e had as 
little to do with him : Whereupon the Arch- 
bifliop of 60a thought it high time to adt 
a-la-mo^e de Rome, and to employ thofe Ar- 
guments oflafallibility that feldomor never 
fail in trampling upon opprefs'd Innocence ; 
I mean, Arguments of Steel, in the Hands 
of Horfe- Grenadiers us'd to Rapin and Vio- 
lences, and fluilied with Succefles : For 
fome of thofe Veterane Combatants were 
fent by the Archbilhop of Goa to find out 


The PRE F AC E. xi 

Mar Jofeph, with Orders to lay hands on 
him, and bring him bound to 6oa ; from 
whence he was tranfported to Lisbon in or- 
der to be fent to Rome to (lady the Decrees 
of the Council of Trent, which was but then 
newly hatch'd ; but Mar Jnfeph by his Ad- 
drefs, and extraordinary Appearances of 
Sanditv, did fo far infinuate himfelf into 
the Favour of Doma Catherina^ who was 
Qjeen Regent at that time, that he was fent 
back by the next Ships to 6oa, with the 
Queen Regent's Letter, ordering him to be 
permitted to live quietly in his Biihoprick. 
But at his Return to his Flock, he found it 
fupplied with another Biihop fent from Ba-^ 
hyion. according to their Defire : For they 
never hop'd to fee their Bifliop return 
again : This new Bifliop's Name was Mar 
Alraham'^ who finding himfelf regularly cal- 
led, and efteem'd by the Inhabitants, W'Ould 
not refjgn to Mar Jofeph. Some ravifh'd to - 
fee their old Bidiop fafely returned to them 
after fo many Perfecutions and Dangers fuf. 
' fer'd for his Faith and Conftancy to his Me- 
tropolitan, thought they could not, without 
the bafeft Ingratitude, forfake this Venera- 
ble old Man ; but a flrong Party ftuck clofe 
to defend the new Biihop, till he was like- 
wife taken Prifoner by the Fortugueze Arch- 
ers, and fent to Rome^ where he was degra- 
ded of all his Sacerdotal Dignities. 



The Third BIfhop whom they laid violent 
Hands on, was Mar Simeon ; who was hkc- 
wife fent to Romei where, after having been 
examin'd by the Inquifiticn, he was declar'd 
by Pope Sixtus V. not to be in Holy Or- 
ders, and was confined in a Francifcan Con^ 
vent in Lishon^ where he died. This was 
the laft Bifliop fent from Bahylon to the 
Cbriflians of St. Thomas : For the Portugueze 
gave (^ rid: Orders that no Ecclefiadick fliould 
come from Bahylon to the Indies, guarding 
all the PafTages both by Sea and Land. 

The Churcli being now without a Paftor, 
the Archbishop of Goa, Dom Frey Aleixo de 
Menezes laying hold of this Ecclefiaftical 
Interregnum^ refolved to thruft himfelF into 
this BiOioprick ; threatening the Heathen 
Princes, under whofe ProtecStion thefe Chri- 
ftians lived, with Fire and Sword, if they 
did not force their Chriftian SubjecSts to take 
him for their Archbilhop : And having 
corrupted the Heathen Governours, they 
made their Matters believe, that 'twas not 
their Intereft to provoke the Portugueze^ in 
refufing to gratifie them in a Bufinefs of fo 
fmall Importance ; tho' afterwards they 
found it to their Coft, that they weaken d 
their own Hands, and (Irengthen'd the 
Portugueze, by the AccefTion of many thou- 
fand brave vahant Men. 


7he PREFACED xiii 

Dom Frey Aleixo was empower'd by a 
Bull from Pope Clement VIII. to invade a 
a Diocefs he had no Right to, and to take 
Cognizance of all Errors and Abufes, byt 
formal Vifitation ,• in which Bull the For- 
tugueze Original hath thcfe Emphatical 
Expreflions ; 

Sohre as quaes caufas^ folrecadahunadeltat 
vos conce demos ^ damos plena ^ largo poder^ 
(^ autor'tdade petto tenor deftas prefente^ lettrm 
naon olfiantes quaes quer Conftitachnes, Ordi- 
ft ac tones Apoflolicas^ geraes^ ou efpeciaes on 
feitas em ConfilioSy Vrovhciaes Synodaes ^ 
principalmente do decreto do confilio Tridenti' 
no que proh'they que fe nom pojfam formar 
procejjos ainda injormativos contra Bifpos fy 
naon per vigor de comijffion^ ajjinada de propria 
tnano de Pont'tfice Romano. Jornada de Ara- 
lifpo de Goa, FoL lo. 

In all and every one of thefe CafeSy we 
conjlitutc you our Tlenipotent'taryy to aSt 
according to the tenor of this Letter ^ ntaugrt 
all Conjlitutions, and Apoflolical OrnanceSy 
whether made in General or Provincial Coun- 
cils; and more particularly^ notwithflandtng 
the exprefs Decree of the Council of Trent, 
which orders, that not fo much as an Informa- 
tion /hall he taken againfl a Bijhopy unlefs it 
he hy a Commijfion figned hy the Popes own 
Hand. This 

xiv The PREFACE. 

This thundering Bull for apprehending 
the Malaharian Bifhop, and invading his 
Biflioprick, is not tranflated by Dr. QpJdes 
in his Hiftory of the Church ot Malahar, 
prefixed to the Decrees of the Synod of 
Dlamper ,• which Book, if recommended 
to our EMgUJJj People, would put Mo- 
dern Popery in a clearer Light, than 
all the Books of Controverfics can do : And 
it may be, the tyrannick dragging of anci, 
ent Bifliops thus out of their own Countrey 
and Diocefies, and harralTing them about 
the World, would rouze up a generous In- 
dignation in the Hearts of Roman Catholkks 
themfclves, and recover them from their hi- 
therto invincible Bigotry. 

Dom Frey Aleixo purfuant to, this Or- 
der, began his Vii'itations, going from one 
Parifli Church to another; but finding Tome 
Viilagfe guarded by armed Men, who re- 
folved to defend their ancient Religion, his 
Lordfliip betook himfelf to the Sea, tofave 
himfelf from the Fury of an injur'd People, 
whofe Biiiiops had been treated fo barbsi- 
roufly : Other Villages he found without 
Inhabitants (^for they had fled away at the 
News of rhe Romifh Bifliop's Approach.) 
And thus he had but little Refpcci fliew'd 
him in his new Diocefs • and lefs Hope of 
Succefs,till rhe Heathen Princes comftianded 
their Chriilian Subjects to acknowledge him 


7be PREFACE: xv 

their Head in Ecclefiaflical Affairs. Where- 
upon he call'd a Synod at Diamper, a Town 
in the Mountains of Malahar i where an 
hundred and fifty Churchmen of St. Thomas 
appearing, they were accus'd of thefe things 
following, as Herefics, viz. That they had 
married Wives .; That they own'd the Pa- 
triarch of Bahylon to be their Principal in 
Spirituals j That they own'd but Two Sa- 
craments, viz. Baptifm celebrated without 
Godfathers or Godmothers, without Cream 
and without Spittle -, and the Lord's Supper 
under both kinds (Bread and Wine^ to be 
adminiftred to all the Faithful ; denying the 
Bodily Prefence, commonly call'd Tranfuh- 
ftantiation ; That they had no Inftrumental 
Mufick, nor Images in their Churches, 
except the Sign of the Crofsj That they 
neither invok'd Saints, norbeiiev'd Purgato- 
ry ; That they had no Holy Water, and did 
not acknowledge Guardian Angels; That 
they did not believe the Pope to be the 
Head of the Univerfal Church j That they 
knew nothing of Confirmation, nor of God- 
fathers and Godmothers made ufe of in the 
Celebration of this Ceremony by the Church 
of Rome; That they had no Monks, nor 
Friers, nor any other Names of Dignity, 
but 3iihop and Deacon. 


xvi The PREFACE. 

Thefe were fome of the Opinions whereof 
they were accus'd, and obligd to abjure 
forthwith ; and, to their g-reat Surprize, 
were forced to feparate themfelves from 
their lawful Wives, or be fufpended from all 

'Twas llkewife decreed, that Syria^t and 
Chaldean Books fliould be burnt, or correded 
by the Jefuits^ that by (^o doing, no ancient 
In(/ia» Apoftolicai Monuments might remain 
in thofc Parts, to refledt Reproach upon 
Romtjh Novels. But notwithfiandiog this 
Ecclefiaftical Tyranny, thefe Ancient Chri- 
flians do dill look upon all thofc Proceedings 
as wicked and unwarrantable ; and are far 
from owning the Bifliop of Homes Suprema- 
cy ; as appears from a Syriack Epiftle, dire- 
died to Jgnatim Patriarch of Antioch^ from 
Mahatoma an EcclefiaftickinW/^yreficiingin 
Chadenad 'm Malahar^ and fent to Europe by 
Mr. Vander Duin^ a Dutch Governour re- 
turning for Holland in order to be furthered 
to Afitjoch^ which he did accordingly, and 
kept a Duplicate thereof for himfelf ; and 
got it tranilated into Lath by the Learned 
Charles Schaof, Vrok^^or o\ Heir ew in Ley den, 
for the Satis fadion of the Curious World. 
The Subilance of the faid Letter is, to 
reprefent to the Patriarch of Antioch Cwhom 
he diles Head of the Catholkk Church) the 
great NecelTity the Indians have of a 


7he PREFACE. xvii 

5pirltual Guide, and defires they may be 
fupply'd with fuch Men as ore vers'd in in- 
terpreting the Holy Scriptures. 

This Learn'd Hehrem Profellbr, was not 
contented only with tranOating Maha Tho- 
mas Epiiiie into Latin ; but writ- to him a 
Letter in the Syr lack Langiuige, dirediing it 
for him at Chaclenad In Malabar^ accompani- 
ed with a Pre.fent of fome Syr/ack Teflaments 
lately publiili'd by himiblf at Leyden ; de- 
firing him to compare them with rhcir own 
Syriack Copies, and to inform him more 
particularly of the State and Circumflances 
of their Church ; and whether they have 
any Writings of any other of the Apofiles ; 
and cfpecially, oi St. Thomas .- He defires 
further^ to lend him a Syr/ack Copy of the 
Chief Heads, of the Chriftian Religion, as 
cceiv'd among Proteftanrs. 

Thefe two Syr/ack Epiflles are printed 
with their refpediivc Latin Verfioas , in 
Ley den y 17 \^. 

But 'tis high time now, to give^fome Ac- 
count of the Danijh Mi/Iionaries ; and what 
iSuccefs their Endeavours have met with, a- 
mong the Indians. 

In the Year 1705', the prefent King of 
Denmark rc(oWd to lend lome MilTionarics 
to tranquebar upon tlie Colli of Qoromandel. 
The Univerfitv of Hall being anply'd to tot 

(bj) ^ fur- 

furnidilng able Pcrfons to undertake fo . ha- 
zardous an Enterprize. Tuo Voang Divines, 
Mr. 2.iegenhalg and Mr. Fiutjcko ^.\xh]^&s 
to his Frufian Majefty, were Imgl'-d out tor 
this purpole ; who h?ving ernbarkd about 
the lattfT Fnd o\' Hovewler 1705, arriv'd at 
Tra}9quehar in J/v/y 1706 ; knovviPg neither 
the Fortuq^Me^e, comnnonH' (pokcn in the 
. Marit^m: lo\^ns or the hdks, nor the Ma- 
iaharian Language, without uh^ch there is 
nothing' done in the converting o{ rhofe 
HccithwH Nations to the Knov\!c\ ge o; ihe 
Gofpel; {\ox to attempt it by an Interpreter, 
has been found altogether truitjefs.^ There- 
tore they apply 'd themfe'vcb to the learning 
of thefe Languages ; which, they eiie(5i-ed in 
the Space ot Six Months, fo far as to be able 
to underftand the Inhabitants, and to be un- 
derflood by them again ; and maoe ibme 
Converts that very lirit Year. But \Nhen 
they had made themfelves Mafiers of thefe 
Languages, they convers'd every Day with 
the Heathens, and fet up Ch."«rity. .Schools 
to bring .up the Malaharian Children in the 
Dodrine of Chrift, and made many Profe- 
lytes among thofe that were of riper Years ; 
preaching the Word of God at tlieir own. 
Lodgings, till the Hearers became too nu- 
merous : This put them upon building a 
New Church, which was happily finiilied, 
t)y the liberal Contributions of pious Chri- 

ftians : 

The PRE F A C E. xix 

fllans : But not contented with this, they 
undertook the Tranfiation oH the New Te- 
llament which was happily finiHi'd, printed, 
and d.rpers'd among the Heathens, which 
thev novv read very attentively in their own 
Ma! ah art an Language. 

The King o. Denmark has edablifli'd a 
College, confilling oi MmiOers of State, 
Divines, and other worthy Men, to concert 
the belt Methods, to llrength'"n the Hands 
of the Miirionanes ; the Honouiibl^ Mem- 
bers oi the Society icrtled in Lot^chn tor pro- 
pagating Chriftian Knowledge , do lurnifh 
the Miiiionaries with Money (VoiTi time to 
tim;^, to carry on fo pious an Undertaking, 
anOi have made them a Prelenc or Paper, 
and a Printing Prefs to the end they may 
pu'-.ljfh uJcml Books, lor the CKc o^ the 
Gencile World ; whereo! many 'Catechetical 
Writings, and other Imall J3ooks, for the 
Inltrudion of Youth, have been publidi'd 
by the Millionaries. 

And ior the eafier Propagating of Chrifti- 
an Knowledge, they have erected there a 
Paper- Mill, which may in time prove ad' 
vantageous to the Miflion ; Paper being a 
dear Commodity in the Indies. 

They have in a {qw Years baptiz'd above 
two Hundred and fifty or the Heathens; 
vi'hic'n, it we conl'.derthe Fewneis of the La- 
bojirers, the OitliCLilty ol the Undertaking, 
the Pains, and Care they take ol their new 
C b X ) Dif^ 


Difciples ; add to this, the great Service 
they have done to PoRerity, in compofing a 
Grammar, arid Did-ionary in that Language ; 
i\.n6 finifh'd the Tranflation of the Old Te. 
llament ; one may boldly fay, that thefe 
two Honeft Gentlemen have done more Ser- 
vice to Chrift and his Gofpel, than the Spa- 
rj'tarels and Fortugueze have done for thefe lad 
two Hundred Years, in both the Indies : 
For 'tis manifeft they have been as careful 
to conceal from the Knowledge of the poor 
Indians^ the Rich Mines comprehended in 
tlie Sacred Volumes of the Old and New 
Tefiaraents, as they have been diligent to 
find out their Rich Mines of Gold and pre- 
cious Stones. 

And as for their great Number of Profe- 
ly tes, 'tis done by Force and Violence ; where" 
O! the Heathens arc as much fenfiblCjand fcan- 
dnliz'd at their cruel Proceedings, as Prote- 
ftants can be at the bloody Tribunal of their 
Inquifition; as appears by the Speech of one 
Gemalio2in Indian, when the Fortugueze were 
driven out of the Ifiand Ito : Wherein he told 
them in a lull AiTembly, that if they preach 
to others, that there was a God in Heaven 
whoobferv'd all that was done on Earth, and 
would certainly re^Aard all Good, and punifh 
all Evil Deeds, without believing it them^ 
felvcs, or without praclifing what they be- 
lie v'd ,• they were guilty of lueh Crimes, 


The P RE FA€ E. %xi 

which fuch a God muft certainly deteft 
above all others. 

Tou preach Chrift crucified unto us, faid 
he, aM^ at the fame time Crucifie thofe yon 
have perfuaded to believe in him. Tou mufi 
knoiv^ that we are not Ignorant of jvhat you 
have done to King Xael ; and how you rC' 
warbled his great Kindnefs and Civility t» 
you, with Violence and Outrages, 

The. Portugueze Hiftorian who relates it, 
makes this Reflection : Thus we lofe Places 
hy our Injolencies^ which we gained hy our 
Valour. And their ProfeJytes are ignorant 
of Chriflianity ; knowing httle more than 
Ave Jklaria, Pater-nofter, and how to crofs 
themfelves on all Occafions. But our Pro- 
teftant Miflionaries know of no other Me- 
thod of Converting the Heathens, but that of 
the Apoftles themfelves, 1//2. Perfuafions and 
convincing Reafons, fetting forth the Corrup- 
tions of Human Nature, and the Neceflity 
of a Mediator ; as will appear by the fol- 
lowing Conferences ; and more particu- 
larly, if you read a Book call'd Propaga- 
tion of the Gofpel in the Ea^ ; being an 
Account of the Succefs of their Mifion ; Con- 
taining a Ifarrative of their Voyage to the 
Coaft of Coromandel ; their Settlement at 


xxii The PREFACE, 

Tranquebar, the Divinity and Thilofophy 
of the Malabarians, their Language and 
Manners^ the Impediments ohftrutling the 
CoMverfion of the Heathens. Printed by the 
Diredions of the Society for Piopagadng 
of Chriftian Knowledge. 



Conference I. f'^F the Original of Good and E- 
\.J 'vil. page r 

Conf. JI. Oftbe Prop'igation of Religion. p. 19 
Conf. III. Of feeing the Face of Cod. p-29 

Conf IV. Of the Mijery of the Malaharians p. 37 
Conf. V. OF a Rich M.ins entring into Haaven. 

P- 47 
Conf. VT. ContatTii^g ftf-veml Particulars. P' S^ 
Conf. VII. Of RtgcniratioHy and no Salvation out 
ofChrif^. p. 65 

Conf. VI II. OfthelVayofSdv:nlon^ZlC. p 75" 
Conf. IX Of thi". Malnbarian Gods. p. loi 
Conf X. Of the Education ofTouth, Sic. p. il? 
Conf XI. Of the Falfenefs of the H-.ithtn Gods, 
O'tijeHions ag'iinft the Trinity anfwerd. p. 1 21 
Conf. XII. Chri{iij7i Religion and true Piety con- 
[tfl chiefly in PraBice. P- ^ ? f 

Conf X III. Of PhlUjofby and Idolatry ^ and of 
Internal Spiritual IVorJhip, p. 147 

Conf XIV, Upon 'uaricus SubjtSfs. t)* JfS' 

Conf. XV. About Matters of lit ligi on. P- l6* 
Conf. XVI. of ffveral Particulars reLaing to Ido- 
latry, &c. p. 179 
Conf. XVII. of the MalaT)ariansO/.w///fj p. 189 
Conf. XVI 1 1. fVhat opinion the Heathens entertain 
of the Chrifians. P- I97 



Conf. XIX. Of the Vlurality of Wives among the 
Mahometans. p 205 

Conf XX. Of the Malabarian SacreJLaw- Books, 
Ajirology, and of many other ¥ articular s. p 209 

Conf, XXI. Of thiir Washings and Vitrifications ; 
and of the DoBrine of Fate fo much cultivated 
among them. . p. 217 

Conf. XXII. OftheLa-wjofMo^QS^ and of the 
CofpeL &C. P» 22J 

Conf.XXIII. Of the Goodnefs of Cod. The Hea- 
thens ObjeBions againji the Chrifiian Religion p.2 % ^ 

Conf. XXIV. Of the Hcathen'i{\i Bookt, &C.p,24i 

Conf. XXV. Of the Heathen FeaJl-Days^Szc. p. 247 

Conf. XXVI. About ftverai Particulars relating 
to Religion. P' ^SS 

Conf. XXVII. of the Heathens Excufes, &C. p.261 

Conf. XXVI II. Containing Anf-wtrs to Thirteen 
^iefiions, p. 26S 

Conf. XXIX. Of the Affiiirs cf Europe, and of 
India. Their Averfmn to ail Europeans," be- 
cmufethey eat Flejh. p, 272 

Conf. XXX. Of the Heathens Alms. State of de- 
farted Souls, P-279 

Conf. XXXL Of Chrijl the Saviour of the World. 

P 285- 

Conf, XXXIL T-Phether ivs floould know God, and 
our own Minds fir Ji j or the Things obvious to our 
Senfes. p. 289 

Conf. XXXIII. Of the Water of the River Gan- 
ges ^ of their Beads c^/ZV Ruddiratfchangel, and 
hoiv frepard. p. 297 

Conf. XXXIV. Of the Chriftian and Mahometan 
Religions, P- 3^1 


Conference I. 

Of the Original of Good and 
Evily and the Means of 
Salvation through jefus 

Between a BRAMAN and one of the 
Danijfh Miflionaries. 

UPON the Sixth of March, 1707, 
I Bartholomew 2.i€genbalgen wai» 
vifited by a Grave and Learned 
Braman : And asking him, what 
he propos'd to himfelf by his Friendly Vi- 
fit, he reply *d. That he defir'd to confer 
with me amicably about the great Things 
and Matters of Religion. Whereupon I 
ask'd him, whether he would propofe to 
B mc 

2 The Firfl Conference] 

me, or that I fhould lay before him fome Irti- 
portant Queftions ; he accepted of the latter, 
and promis'd to tell his Mind frankly, 
upon my feveral Interrogatories. Then I 
ask'd him, if he did ferioufly believe the 
the Exiftence of One Supreme Being ? He 
replied, Yes. Then, proceeded I, how can 
that be, while you Maiahdrians believe a 
Plurality of Gods ? We allow, rcpty'd the 
BramaHy but One Primary aind Sovereigrt 
Being, the Source and Fountain df all crea- 
ted Derivations, and the Principle of all o. 
ther inferiour diminutive Beings ; and con-" 
flantly profefs, that the Great Triad of De- 
ities, Ifurettj Wifchtnu and Birumay acknow- 
ledge him for their Sovereign Lord and 
Mailer, as the great Number of other Gods 
ad under the Diredtion of the Three fore- 
men tion'd NuwenSy Jfuren, Wifchtnu and Bi^ 
ruma : And this is the true Reafon why our 
Sacred Books make frequent mention of a 
Plurality of Gods ; tho* really, and in truth, 
all of them are but Vicegerents, and Lieu- 
tenants fuperintending the Works of Crea- 
tion, and the Actions of Men, in their re- 
fpec^ive different Capacities, under the high 
Command of the Prime Csiufe ; whom 
we, in and through them, revere and wor- 
ship: And our Adorations thus perform'd 
according to his own Prefcription, are as 


hf the Means of Salvationl '^ 

(icceptable untb the Supreme Being, as if 
immediately direded to himfelf. 

Then I refum'd ; God has liberally blefs'd 
you Malabarians with Strength of Thought 
and Readinefs of apprehending the various 
Afpeds and mutual Relations of all Sublu- 
nary Things : But I am all Amazement, 
when I fee your Blindnefs in not difcerning 
Spiritual Things ,• as if yoii had fworn E- 
ternal Allegiance to the Didates and Poe- 
tical Fidions of Lying Bards ,♦ who riding 
upon the Ridges of Metaphors and Allego- 
ries, have rhimed yoii into the Belief of 
lying incomprehenfible Perplexities. For 
is not this the Extremity of Madnefs, to 
believe, that the Supreme Being is divided 
and fubdivided into many Subordinations 
of Deities ? This refleds Difparagement 
Upon the GREAT ONE, and tarnifhes the 
Glory of his moft Incommunicable Attri- 
bute. And the Caufe of this grofs Igno- 
rance, ib rife amongfl: you, is your want oi 
being inftruded out of the Revealed Word 
of the Living God : For your Fathers, flop- 
ping their Ears to the kindly Invitations 
of Divine Wifdom, God in Anger gave 
them up to a Spirit of Delufion, and to 
the Belief of Lies : And you treading in 
the Steps of Lying Antiquity, and believ- 
ing your vain Traditions, are, even to this 
B 1. Day, 

4 The Firft Conference^ 

Day, as ignorant of the Nature of God, as 
ever your Fathers were; and utter fuch grofs 
Inconfiftcncies upon this Point, as if you 
acknowlcdg'd no real Objed of Adoration : 
For tho* verbally you own the ExiftenCe 
of One Supreme Being ; yet you have no 
Knowledge of his Nature and Attributes, 
nor of his Will and Pleafure, with relation 
to the Mode or Manner of Worfliip due to 
him, and required by him from all the Ra- 
tional World : For wheri yoil talk of your 
many Gods and Goddedes, you are at a 
lofs to whom you had bed addrefs your 
Vows, or offer Bloody Sacrifices : Moreo- 
ver, you relate fuch Difagreement of your 
numerous Gods, that they fecm to live in 
a continu'd State of War among themfelves. 
For if you incenfe Jfuren^ Wifchtnu is dif- 
fatisfied ; and if this is honbur'd by his 
Votaries, the other refents it grievoufly; 
and yoti may be fure to meet with greater 
Effedls of fubflantial Mifchief from the 
one, than Divine Largeffes and Favours 
from the other ; and this eternal Mifunder- 
Handing and Jealoufie reigns among all the 
feveral Companies of Self-contradidting 
Gods;. Therefore quit your felves like Men, 
and break off the Cords of inveterate En 
rcirs, and fave your own Souls, feeking dili-. 
gently the Knowledge of the One only 
True God« 


of the Means of SalvatiotL "5 

The BramaHy aftonifli'd at my Difcoiirfe, 
anfwer'd me very briskly ,• Our Religion is 
VeneraMe for its Antiquity, and has been 
profefled by many pious Kings and holy 
Prophets, thro' an Uninterrupted Succejfion of 
many incircling Ages; which if falfe and 
erroneous, neither God nor Man had ap- 
prov'd of the fame, for fo many continued 
Durations and Progrefles of Time ; but cer- 
tainly, fome one or other had honeftly dif- 
cover'd the Impoflure, and cautioned his 
Companions againfl: pious Cheats, and fa- 
cred Forgeries. To whom I returned this 
for Anfwer ; Uninterrupted SucceHion, and 
great Throngs of Profelytes are no Chara- 
derifticks of the Truth of any Religion ; 
elfe it would follow, that the Devil is very 
Orthodox : For he is as famous for the 
Multitude of his Difciples, as h6 is for his 
hoary venerable Antiquity. But you mufl 
judge of the Goodnefs or Badnefs of Reli> 
gion, by the Fundamental Articles thereof, 
agreeing or difagreeing with the revealed 
Word of the true God ; but you Malahari- 
ans having no Knowledge of God's Word, 
can take no Cognizance of what is true 
Worfliip, believing with an implicit Faith, 
the Fables and Reveries of Tradition-mon- 
gers, your Poets and Dodlors : Pray, do but 
confult your own Underftanding, and take 
B ^ -an 

6 The Firji Conference^ 

^n impartial Survey of your own Religion, 
in all its Parts and Intentions ; and if you 
are not refolv'd to affront your own Confci- 
ence, you'll eafily perceive, that the whole 
Syflem of your Divinity is nothing elfe but 
a perplexed Jargon of incomprehenfible No. 
tions, inconfiflent and deftrudive one of 
the other, as many wife Men among you 
have honelUy acknowledged ; who have 
courageoufly averted, that there is but one 
God blefled for evermore : And your Con- 
clufion, that your Religion is true, from 
God's permitting it to lubfifl: for fo many 
Ages, and to diffufe it felf over fo many 
fair Provinces, is altogether illogical, and 
an unjuft Way of arguing : But you are 
blame-worthy, in that while you might by 
contemplating the Work of Creation, and 
reflecting upon the Convidions of your 
own Confciences, attain to the Know- 
ledge of God : Inftead thereof you love the 
Creature, and never make any Efforts to 
know God and your felves ; therefore 'tis, 
that he gives you up to a reprobate Mind,in 
as mpch as you and your Fathers have re- 
fufed to be in(tru(3ed in the great things of 
God, who is no ways acceffary to your Per-- 
dition : For even now he calls you to the 
Knowledge pf the Truth ; but it you'll con- 
tinue in your Rebellion againfl: him, he will 
not make ufe of violent Means to bring you 



(>f the Means of Salvation. 7 

to the right Way, nor drag you into his 
Church by mere Force ; but he will 
deal with you as with Free Agents, 
periuading you with all the Evidences of 
Truth ; which if you obflinately rejed a- 
gainft your felyes, you'll certainly perifli ia 
your Sins. 

The Braryian anfwer'd ; God has created 
both Good and Evil ; Vice and Vertue, 
Happinefs and Mifery, owe all the Being 
they have to the Supreme Caufe, without 
whofe Will nothing can exift or have a Be- 
ing in this World : For if fome Men are 
vertuous and holy, and others vicious 
and wicked, all this is but the Effed: of the 
Will of God : And if we Malaharians are 
miflaken in point of Religion, 'tis the WiH 
of God we fhould thus Err : For who arc 
we, to refifl: the Will of God, who 
has decreed every thing that is to happen 
to us in all the Courfe of our Lives ,• and 
with his own Finger has writ every Man's 
Deftiny upon his own Forehead ? [ they 
helieve the Sutures of the Scull to he fo many 
Lines written ly 'the Author of our Beings 
denoting every Mans future Defiiny.] I an- 
fwer'd ; I allow God to have created 
all things very good in their kind ; but he 
created nothing that was evif; but you 
reproach your Maker, by making him to be 
B ^ the 

8 The Firfl Conference f 

the Author of Sin : For if, as you fay, fom^ 
Men in the World are neceflarily vertuou$ 
and holy, and others, influenc'd by an Ab- 
solute Will of God, are as necefTarily wick- 
ed, you Bfamam, and your Employment can 
be of no ufe in the World : For thofe that are 
neceflarily vertuous and holy, do not want 
your Inllrudbions , nor Sacrifices ,• and 
thofe that are necefTarily wicked, will re. 
ceive no Benefit from all your ceremonious 
Burnt-oflerings, and daily Prayers. More- 
over, Kings, and Princes, who puniih Vice, 
and reward Vertuous Adions, wou d be as 
ufelefs, if Men can t chearfully and willing- 
ly walk in the fair Paths of Vertue, and 
refrain their Feet from the Ways of Sin and 
Vice : And one might reafonably fay, that 
God rewards Vice and Vertue equally , 
both being according to the Order of hi$ 
Decree and abfolute Will ; and that he him- 
felf is the greateft of Sinners,with many more 
Abfurdities which flow from your Opinion, 
and deftroy the very Notion of Repen- 
tance : All which Abfurdities you efpoufe 
for Truth ; becaufe you have no true Con- 
ception of the firft Creation of Man. 

The Brarnan anfwer'd, Biruma ([the Su- 
preme Being) creating Men in the Begin- 
ning, many of them became Devils, and the 
reft remained Men and Women ; from 


of the Means of Salvatwnl 9 

whofe Intermarriages defcended all the Na- 
tions of the World. 

I anfwer'd, This your Notion of Creation 
is egregioufly abfurd and falfe ; For 'tis not 
^irutna ^but the One only true God, created 
Men ; and not many, as you fupppfe , but 
one Man only, out of whofe Rib he form'd 
Woman, and brought them together, and 
blefTed them, that they might be the Pa- 
rents of all future Generations ; and thefe 
our firft Parents God created after his own 
Jma^e^ confiding in Knowledge, Righteouf- 
nefs, and true Holinefs, without any Taint 
of, or Inclination to Sin ^ but after fome of 
the invifible Beings (Angels^ rebelled a- 
gainft God, one of thefe revolted Milcreants, 
or Devils, took upon him the Form of a 
Serpent, and with lying Delufions beguil'd 
our firft Mother Eve ; flie influencing her 
Husband, and our Father A^am^ they both, 
by abufing their free Will, broke God's 
Commandment, polluted his Image, and 
made themfelves obnoxious to his Difple^- 
liire, and to all the Shame and Miferies 
(the genuine Confequences of their 
Sin) that now xover the Face of the 
whole Creation : But from the Beginning 
it was not fo : For God made every thing 
in its kind very good ; but the Devil, in 
combination with the free Will of Man, in- 


ip The Firft Confer enci^ 

troduc d Sin into the World - For when we 
fee a Stately Palace, built at the Infinite Ex- 
pences of a potent Prince, for his own Roy- 
al Habitation, burnt down with Fire, no 
Man will fay, that the King was the Incen- 
diary ; but fome of his Enemies, or his 
negligent Domeflicks. The Application of 
the Simile is eafie and to our purpofe ; ef- 
pecially when we find all this made out 
clearly unto us in the holy Word of God : 
And this is the true Hiftorkal Account of 
the Original of Evil, and of its firft Ap- 
pearance upon the Stage of the World ,• and 
if you pleafe to exercife the Vertue of Pa- 
tience a little longer, I'll lliew the true Way 
and Means of being deliver'd from this State 
of Corruption wherein we live ; that we 
may enjoy the true Liberty of the Children 
of God. 

Then I proceeded. That Man was cre- 
ated without Sin, according to the Image 
of God, as is proved already ; and that 
we are now deprived of the fame , as 
by fad Experience every one feels iri 
himfelf ,• and 'tis as plain, that being great 
Sinners, and Enemies to God, we are not 
capable to atone offended Majefty : For di- 
vine Juftice requires Satisfadion at our 
hands, either Adively, in repairing the 
Breaches akeady made, by fmlefs Obedience 


of the Means of Sahatioy^i, 1 1 

fqr the future ; or Paflively, by undergoing 
for ever in Hell the Punifliments of ouf 
Sins. But neither Man nor Angel being a- 
ble to fatisfie the ftrid Demands of the 
Divine Juftice, God himfelf, out of his in^ 
finite Loving-kindnefs to Mankind, promi- 
fed to fend his Only begotten Son into the 
World, to be their Redeemer, by cloathing 
himfelf with our Nature, fuffering and dy- 
ing for the Sins of the World, to the end 
that the Juftice of God might be fully fa- 
tisfied, and that all Men believing in this 
promifed Redeemer, might be faved from 
the Guilt of Sin, and obtain eternal Hap- 
pinefs ; and that fuch as did not exercife 
Repentance towards God, and Faith to- 
wards the promis'd Redeemer, ihould perifh 
in their Sins. Now, all fuch as embraced 
the promis'd Redeemer, were in Deed and 
in Truth Chriflians (ao regard had to the 
Circumftances of Timeor Place,-) Fortho* 
they were not then call'd fo ; yet, inas- 
much as they believ'd the Redeemer, whq 
is the Chrift, they were really Chriflians. 
And thus you fee, that the Chriftian Re- 
ligion has been profefs'd from the Beginning 
of the World, and is certainly the mo(t 
Ancient of all Religions ; and your Religi- 
on is nothing elfe but the Corruption of 
ours. Yet we, that in all times profefs'd 
the beft of Religions, had but few Follow - 
y ers : 

I ^ 7 he Firfi Conference] 

ers : But your Falfe One, confifling of 
Fpolifli Inventions of Men, has been al- 
ways throng'd with Multitudes; As the Peo- 
ple of Ifrael, acknowledging the True 
Religion, were but a Little Flock, compa- 
red with all the Nations of the Earth that 
profefled the groflefl: Idolatry. This pro- 
mifed Redeemer, or Mejias, was to be born 
an Ifraelite, according to the fure Word 
of Prophecy, fpoken long before of his 
coming into the World , with the 
Time, the Place, and all the other jmoft 
diminutive Circumftances, of his birth 
and Education, Life, Sufferings, Death, Bu- 
rial and RefurrecSlion from the Dead on 
the Third Day : All which Scripture- Pro- 
phecies have been circumftantially fulfilled 
in our Redeemer. He was born a Man, 
and was named Jefus, converfed amongft 
Men the Space of Thirty three Years, did 
many Miracles, taught the Way of Salva- 
tion to his Brethren, liv'd a Life free from 
all Appearance of Sin, fatisfied the Juftice 
of God for our Sins, which otherwife we 
ihould have done in our own Perfons du- 
ring all the Ages of Eternity. And thus 
was all Mankind redeemed from the penal 
Confequences of Sin. And God, willing to 
aflure all Nations, that he was reconciled 
to them thro' the Merits of Chrift's Death 
and Sufferings, raifed him from the Dead ; 


t}f the Means of Salvation* 1 3 

who afcended vifibly into Heaven, promi- 
fing to fend the Holy Spirit, who fhould 
comfort them , and refide among them, 
lead them into all Truth , command- 
ing them at the fame tirtie to teach ail Na- 
tions the Way of Salvatiort ; thro' whofb 
Hands he work'd Miracles, fo that in a 
little time many Thoufands bdlieved in his 
Name, and embraced his Divine arid Hea- 
venly Precepts.for the Rules of Holy Con- 
verfation. *Twas.dbout this time that we Eu- 
ropeans were blcfTed with the joyful Tidings 
of the Gofpcl ; which, in progrcfs of time 
rooted out all the Errors of Paganifm, which 
the feveral Inhabitants unanimoufly profef- 
fed before. And 'tis recorded in Hiftory, 
that the Apoftle St. Thomas^ one of Chrift's 
Difciples, came about the fame time into 
this Country, and preached th6 Gofpel of 
Salvation to your Fathers ; but few of them 
did clofe with the gracious Offers ,* but conti- 
nued to be difobedient, a$ you do at this Timef : 
Yet, for all this, God is not wearied iix 
feeking your Eternal Happinefs. Therefore 
obey the Voice of Heaven, that invites you 
to Repentance, and to believe in his Sori 
Jefus Chrift, that you may receive the Re- 
miffion of your Sins here, and Eternal Hap-' 
pinefs hereafter. 


14 'The Firfi Conferentel 

To this the 5rjw^« anfwer'd, I believe 
all you fay of God s DeaUngs o^ith you 
White EuropeatiSy to be true j but his Ap- 
pearances and Revelations among us Black 
Malaharians^ have been quite otherwife i 
^nd the Revelations he made of himfelf in 
this Land are as firmly believ'd here to be 
true, as you believe thofe made in your 
Country : For as Chrift in Europe was made 
Man ,* (b here our God Wifchtnu was born 
among us Malaharians ; And as you hope 
for Salvation through Chrifl ; fo we hope 
for Salvation through Wifchtnu ; and to fave 
you one way, and us another, is one of 
the Paflimes and Diverfions of Almighty 

1 reply'd ; your God Wifchtnus chang- 
ing Forms and Shapes fo ridiculoufly often, 
of which your Writers make fo great a Stirr, 
is fo unworthy of a Wife, Holy God, that 
'tis certainly the Defign of a deluding Devil, 
to impofe upon yotir credulous Difpofition, 
to believe the grofleft Abfurdities : For yoti 
own, he was once metamorphos'd or chan* 
ged into a Swine ; at another time, into a 
Fifh, into a Tortois, and into half Lion arid 
half Human fhape. Pray, how can you be- 
lieve that fiich a Monfter could be the Re^ 
deemer of Mankind ? For who could converfe 


of the Means of Salvation* i j 

With fuch a Monfter, to the End that they 
might beheve he came to redeem Men ra- 
ther than Swine, Fifli, Tortois, and other 
wild ravenous Creatures ? If he had 
come into the World with an Intention of 
faving Men, he wcyuld have taken upon him 
Human Shape, to the end that Man might 
learn his Heavenly Inftrudions, and emulate 
his Holy Converfation ,• but v/ithal you (eeiri 
to infinuate, that in order to fave Mankind, 
he appeared under the Name of Wamanen^ 
Hamefty and Pifchtnen ; but upon reading the 
whole Hiftory of this your Multifarioufly 
formed God, I find he was the Author of 
cruel Bloody Wars, tending to lender ths 
Children of Men more the Children of Per- 
dition and Slaves to Sin, than they were 
before: Therefore I am all Aflonifliment, 
when I fee you Bramans believing fuch ri- 
diculous Whirtifies, and laying them before 
your Brethren as Holy and Sandified My- 

Hereupon, he only faid, every one may 
be faved by his own Religion, if he does 
what is Good, and Ihuns Evil. 

But I anfwef*d, no Man can come to the 
Knowledge of what is good, and of what 
is evil, without the Word of God -, and 
ftiore efpecially, 'tis impoflible for you to 


1 6 The Firp Confer ence^ 

attain to the Knowledge of your own Na- 
tural Blindnefs and Corruption, or to exert 
any truly vertuous Adions by your own 
Sufficiency : For if you would in earned 
forfake Evil, and do good, you muft apply 
to Chrift, the Fountaif\ and Spring of all 
that is good ^ be baptized in his Name, and 
believe in him as your only Saviour and Re- 
deemer : 'Tis then you'll be enlighten'd and 
renewed in the inward Man, and enabled 
thro' affifting Grace, to (hun Evil, and to 
perform Vertuous A(9:ions, acceptable and 
well pleafing to the ever blefled God. 

Then, he reply'd, as I am no Lover 
of Contention, fd I freely own, that I 
cannot blame any Part of all that you have 
faid ; but (till I am of the fame Opinion, 
that if we lead Lives morally inoffenfive, 
and ftridly vertuous, we have no need of 
the Chrillian Religion, to make our Per* 
fons or Anions more acceptable to God. 
I don't comprehend, how Baptifm and Faith 
can influence my Adions, or procure me 
the Forgivenefs of my Sins. 

To conclude, I faid to him, the Neceflity 
of Faith in Chrift I have laid before you 
already ; but to give you this Faith, is not 
in my power. Go home, dear Friend, and 
proftrate your felf before the refulgent 


cf the Means of Salvation. i j 

Throne of the Almighty Creator of the 
tJniverfe, and beg him heartily to enlighten 
your Mind in the great Truths relating to 
your Eternal Happinefs ; and you'll find how 
neceffary 'tis to believe in Jefus Chrift. He 
thank'd me kindly for my Advice, and bid 
ttie Adieu. 


C Con- 


.■^, ....: :-■ , ... ■..; 

Conference IL 

Of the Propagation of the 
Mahometan and Chrifti- 
an Religion, 

Between a Mahometan Priefl: and one 
of the Dani/h Miffionaries. 

ON the Fifth of July, 1707, a fl^ah^- 
metan Pried (that was Infpedor 
over many fubordinate Eccle/ia- 
fticks) accompany'd by feme of 
his own Religion, honoured me with a 
Friendly Vi/it j and having heard, that we 
came into this Country to propagate fome 
new Rehgion among the Indians, he told 
me, he was very defirous to difcourfe me 

C i uport 

20 The Second Confer enc6^ 

upon feveral weighty Points, inafmuch a§ 
he never yet had had the opportunity to 
confer with an European upon Matters of 
Rehgion : And to uflier in Difcourfe hand- 
fomly, he told me, he wondred Very much 
how we Europeans had in fo fliprt a time at- 
tained to the Knowledge of their Language, 
while our own Language is fo harfh and 
difficult to be underftood ^ I anfwered, You 
may perceive Sir, that God has Defigns of 
Love and Mercy, both towards Mahometans 
and Heathens^ inhabiting thefe Countries, 
while he raifes Men,, who fpare neither 
Pains nor Charges, to vifit thefe Countries , 
and learn your Language, in Order to capa- 
citate them to confer with you all amicably 
about the great things of God. 

Whereupon he with a cheerful Eagefnefs, 
defired me to favdut him with the fight of 
our Bible ; and complying with his honed 
Defires, I produced the Old Teftament in 
Hebrew, and the l^ew in Greek j and he ur- 
ging me to read and explain to him fome 
Portion of the Old Teftament, I read the 
whole third Chapter of Genefis^ and gave him 
the Interpretation thtx^o'i verbatim in Mala- 
har'tck or Damulian, being the Hiftory of the 
Creation, and Fall of Man, and of his being 
i'eftor'd to favour upon his believing that 
firft great Promife of a Redeemer* At 


of the Propagation of Religion, a i 

which he feem'd to be more than ordinarily 
fatisfied, telling me, his Religion agreed with 
mine in feveral Points, and defir'd me to 
proceed in reading a Portion out of the New 
Teftament. Then I read diftindly the 
Third Chapter of St. Johns Gofpel, adding 
thereto in Malaharkk^ the Interpretation, 
Verfe by Verfe, which he heard, with. all 
his Friends, very attentively ; afluring me 
that his Religion and mine was in fubftance 
the lame, with this difference only, that what 
we apply to C//T/y?,they attribute to Mahomet, 

I allow'd the Conformity to be very vifi* 
ble, and that his Obfervation was very rea- 
fonable, and begg'd leave to give him the 
Reafons and Caufes of this Conformity ; 
and told him how Mahomet, in Hammering 
his new Religion, was aHifled by a Jew and 
a Chrijlian ; the one fupplying him with 
the Hiftory of the Old, the other with the 
Hiftory, and fome Precepts, of the New Te- 
ftament ; but both very much maim'd and 
imperfed: : Hence 'tis, that what is good 
and wholfome in your Religion, is borrow'd 
out of the Sacred Volumes of the Old and 
New Teftament; and what is otherwife, 
has Mahomet for its Author. 

C 3 He 

2 1 The Second Conference, 

He ^n{wer6, Pray, how can you judge 
fo difadvantageoufly of Mahomet, while you 
know nothing of his Hiftory ? Sir, faid T, 
we Chriftians have a fuller Account of Ma- 
homet , than you your felves have : For as 
Mahomet was propagating his Religion with 
Fire and Sword, the Chriftians, that efcap'd 
his Fury, gave a full Account of his Proceed- 
ings, of his Perfon, Manners and Religion j' 
which Relations have been faithfully com- 
rnitted to Writing, and handed down to PO' 
fterity : But all the Accounts you have of 
him, are writ by his own Creatures, indu- 
ftrioufly trumpeting his Warlike Achive* 
ments ; but pafFing by all his Vices and Im- 
perfedions in filence ; or by fuch, as fearing 
his Power, have not dar'd to write the Truth:. 
And befides all this, we read all the Hiftories 
relating to Mahomet writ by thofe of his own 
Perfuafion, with the Alcoran it felf printed, 
in Aralkk, which our Learned Men do urr- 
derftand, and have tranOated into all the 
celebrated Languages of j^wri?^^; and there- 
fore we can judge of all Maitters relating tof' 
Mahomet and his Religion ; Whereas, on the 
other hand, you Mahometans have no Noti- 
on of our Religion ,• which is the only rea-' 
fon why you addid your felves to the Do- 
{XxvciQ oiMahomet : For he that never faw 
^ny other Bird but a Crow, will think it the 


of the Propagation of Religion. 2j 

ftnefl: oF Birds ; and his Croaking to be very 
mufical y but when he comes to hear the 
Melodious Notes of the Nightingal, he'll 
certainly change his Opinion. I leave the 
application to your lelves. 

But you Chriftians, quoth he, believe in 
Three Gods, and we believe in Oue God on- 
ly ; pray, which of us then is the more 
miftaken in Matters of Faith ? I anfwer'd. 
Sir, far be it from us, to believe a Trinity 
of Gods , For I'll make it plain to you, by 
a familiar Comparifon, that we believe in 
but One God only. For as we fee but one 
Sun in the Firmament, which has Light and 
Heat, reprefented to our Mmds under Idea'^ 
quite difierent from that of the Solar Body, 
or Globe of the Sun it felf ,• and yet Heat, 
Light, and the Solar Body, are fo united to- 

f ether, that they make but One Sun, and not 
'hree Suns : So by way of accommodation, 
this may be apply'd to the Holy Trinity : 
Fot we fay, that in one Divine Eflence there 
are three Perfons, which are fo ftridly u- 
nited together, that he that denies the Holy 
Ghoft, does indeed deny both the Father 
and the Son : Therefore you Mahometans 
do not really and indeed believe in the one 
True God j becaufe you rejed the Holy 
Spirit, and Jefus Chrifb, God blefTed over 
all: For out of Chrift there is no Sal- 
C 4 vatlon 

24 27;^ Second Conference^ 

vation neither here, nor hereafter ; and yotk 
can't believe in Chrift, till you are enligh- 
ten'd by the Holy Spirit of Grace, to difcern 
things that are Spiritual : For tho' Natural 
Comparifons carry with them fome Shadows 
of a Trinity ; yet I own, they are not fu^- 
cient Convid:ions : Wherefore, the Advice 
I have to give you, is this, Go home and 
refledi upon the miferable State that Man- 
kind is born in, and of the Rigour of God's 
Juftice exading Satisfadion for every the 
lead TranfgrelTion 5 and how infufficient 
v^e are of our felves to appeafe a diilurb'4 
Confcience, or an offended God, with all 
our bed Performances ; and then you'll ac- 
knowledge the Neccflity of a Redeemer : 
Then proceed, and confider thofe Portions 
of holy Writ relating to the Perfon, Life, 
Doctrine, Death, Sufferings and Refurre<5ti- 
on of Jefus Chrift, confronting them with all 
the Particulars of Mahomet's Hiftory ; and 
pray the Almighty that he would DirecS^ 
you to the true Difcerning, which of the 
two Religions is more accommodated to the 
Exigencies of Human Nature, labouring un- 
der fo many Spiritual Infirmities ,• which 
if you do in Sincerity, you'll fee clearly, that 
^is not Mahomet, but Jefus Chrift, came tp 
lave Sinners from their Sins : And when 
you are come thus far, God will affifi; you 
with his Grace, and give you his Holy Spi- 

of the Propagation of Religion, i f 

rit to difcover unto your Souls all the My- 
fterious Truths neceffary for Salvation : For 
until a Man's Heart be chang'd by unfeign- 
ed Repentance, he can t underftand Spiritu- 
al Things, nor apprehend the Truth as 'ti^ 
i^ Jefm. 

Then he re-affum'd and faid, Sir, our 
Law makes frequent mention of Jefus Chrift, 
by the name of Ifanahi (Prophet Jefus) but 
I can't perfuade my felf that God has a 
Son, nor that Chrift is Superior to ouc 
Prophet Mahomet, . 

To whom I made this anfwer ; This 
feems to you abfurd, becaufe you meafure 
things of a Spiritual and Infinite Nature, 
wJLth your Finite carnal Mind ; whereas you 
mould hear God fpeaking of his Son, who 
knows his own Nature, and that of Jefus 
Chrift, better than any Creature can pretend 
to know. Endeavour firft, to know your 
felfj and to be acquainted with the Stat^ 
and Condition of your own Mind ; and 
refled ferioufly upon the moft palpable 
Abfurdities fpoken of your own Prophet i^i3« 
hornet : For you fay, he was next in Power 
and Glory to God, and his moft intimate 
familiar Friend ; and withal you fay, he 
made War with all his Neighbours, carrying 
Devaftations and Rapine wherever he went, 


%6 The Second Conference, 

and, to encourage Licentioufnefs, allow'd 
Folygamy to his fenfual Profelytes. Pray, 
what can be abfurder, than to affirm, fuch 
a vile unclean Bead to be the Minion and 
Darling of Almighty God, who is an Aven- 
ger of all the Tranfgreflers of his holy Laws, 
and every where enjoyns Continency and 
Sobriety, as well as abftaining from Rapine 
and Violence ? 

He anfwerd, we know that he allows 
of Polygamy^ or the ufe of many Wives ,* 
but this is no Crime ; For David , who 
was both King and Prophet, and his wife 
Son Solomon, had very many Wives ; and 
yet they are dill reckoned to be Holy Men, 
and numbred among the infpir'd Pen-Men of 
Holy Volumes. And as for Mahomei^s 
Wars and Violences he was Commiffioned 
by God fo to do, and to root out all the 
Nations that would not receive his Do(3;rine, 
and the Book that came down from Hea- 

We allow, faid I, that Ddv'tJ and Solomon 
had many Wives ; but this was not 
purfuant to the Commands of God, but to 
comply with their own finful unmortified 
Inclinations, and the Licentious Cuftoms 
then prevailing among the Jews : For as 
you allow the Gofpel of Chrill to be a true 


of the 'Propagation of Religion. Z'f 

and holy Dodriiie, pray hear what he fays 
upon this head, Matt. 19. verfe 4. Have you 
not read^ that he that created them, cYedted 
them Male and Female, and that they ate hut 
one Flejh ? And as to what you fay of Ma- 
homet's Spiritual Commiffion to deflroy all 
fuch that did not receive his Docflrine, this- 
is ^eftrudive of the Juftice and Loving- 
kind nefs of God ; For tho' he would that all- 
Ihould come to the Knowledge of the Truth, 
yet he never made ufe ot Violence and 
Cruelty to gain Men to the Ways of Hdi- 
nefs ,• but he ordain'd, that the Preaching 
of his Word ihould be the Means of Salva- 
tion, fetting Life and Death before the Eyes 
of Men, with all the powerful Inducement's' 
to embrace the One, and decline the Othef ; 
and then leaving every Man to his own 
Liberty of Chufing for himfelf : Therefore if 
Mahomet's proceeding with Cruelty and Vio- 
lence be the Reverfe of the mild methods of 
a loving God, it follows, that his Dodlrine 
muft be falfe, and that he was never fent' 
from God, nor- has in his Religion any of the 
Divine Charadlerifticks ftampt upon it. 

Hereupon he only faid, I mud confefs, 
there are many things in our Law, whereof I 
my felf fcruple the Truth very much^ and, 
if you pleafe, more of this at another Oppor- 
tunity ; but thus far for this time. 


2? The Second Conference^ &c. 

Then 1 concluded, and afliired him, if he 
continued in that good Difpofition of Mind, 
and weigh'd the matter ferioufly with himfelf, 
thirfling after the Salvation of his own Soul, 
hisDoubts and Inquiries wou'd redound at lafl: 
to his Eternal Happinefs ; adding, The Lord 
Jefiis Chrift give you Wifdom, and an Un- 
derftanding Heart, to know him, and be-, 
lieve in him, that you may be Partaker of^ 
his Death and Sufferings, and may receive 
Forgivenefs of Sins in this World, and in the 
the next, Everlafting Life. 

Then I took my leave of him defiring* 
him to favour me fometimes with his Let- 



Conference III. 

Of feeing the Face of Gody 

Between forne Mahometan Monks, (or, 
as t-hey call them, Holy Men) and 
a Dani/h Miffionary. 

ON the Eleventh o^ July 1707, feve- 
veral Mahometans^ whereof fome 
were Merchants, and others, who 
pretended themfelves to be Sacred 
Perfons, lineally defcended from the Family 
of Mahomet ; wedring green Turbants, ask'd 
me what they Ihould do in order to fee the 
Face of God ? To whom I gave this Anfwer ; 
Suffer your Telves to be guided by the Will 
of God, and not by your own extravagant 
Fancies : For if you don't compofe your 


^o the Third Conference] 

Minds to a conformity to the Divine Plea- 
fure, you can never enjoy the Heavenly 
Viilon, neither in this World, aor iii that 
which is to come ; 

They atif^ er d with an Air of Serioufnefs, 
faying. We live here among the Infidels, 
who all of them are very earneft in the 
Piwfuit of Happiaefs, jand .anxipuily defirous 
to fee the Face of God • They frequent 
their Fagods (Temples) they offer Sacrifices, 
they pifcipline themfelves with great Rigour, 
they perform tedious Ceremonies, go on Pil- 
jgrimage, do Penances, thpy retire to Defarts, 
-renouncing all the Pleatures of Life ; and ma- 
ny the like Aufterities are commonly excrcis'd 
among them ; and yet we can find none of 
them that can fay, he has feen the Face of 
God ; and we our felves being MahometanSy 
are flrid Obfervers of our Law, go every /v-i- 
day in the Afternoon to the Mofque, we hear 
the ^/co/"tf« read, and repeat very Religiouf- 
jy all the fet Formularies of Prayers, and aflift 
at all the ufual Ceremonies j and when this 
Round of Formalities is End, we think 
o^r work is over, and feldom are follicitous 
about feeing the Face of God ,• without 
;Which, we are very well alfur'd, that all 
religious Performances, are but fruitlefs Pa- 
geantries, neither acceptable to God, nor 
profitable to our felves j and, this duly con- 


of feeing the Face of God. 3 1 

fider'd, we make no difference between the 
fagan and Mahometan Worlhip : For in this 
only we exercife our felves, that if by any 
Means and Enquiries we may be rendered 
worthy to fee the Face of God : This is the 
Capital Point, in comparifon to which, all o- 
ther things are but mere Toys in themfelves, 
and very infignificant. Could we but find any 
Guides to mark out the Way leading to this 
State of Happinefs, we are fully refolv'd to 
ercd; a Church open always to ChrifiianSy 
Heatfjens and Mahometans^ infifting only up- 
on the Ways and Means of enjoying the 
glorious Prefence, and of feeing the Face of 
Qo4. And thus we would put an end to 
Religious WrangUngs, Preaching and Propa- 
gating the Dod:rine of Univerfal Charity. 

Hereupon I reply 'd, If you wou'd fee 
the 'Face of God, and anticipate the Joys of 
the next World, you mufl endeavour to have 
clean Hearts and pure : For the Saviour of the 
World has faid, Blejfed are the pure in Hearty 
fdr^they (hall fee God. Let this be your chief 
ftudy ; all other Efforts and Endeavours^ 
^11 your Aufterities and Mortifications, will 
ftand you in no ftead ; For you know, that 
God is tnofl holy, and no unholy or defil'd 
Aing can approach his Courts : Therefore 
you mud be holy, as he is holy ,• you muft 
be all Glorious within, purified in the in- 

3 i The 7 bird Confer ente] 

ward Man from all Self -love, Self-feekitig^ 
Fride and Hjpocrifte, which frequently in- 
habit the raoft retir'd Recefles of the Soul 5 
while, in the Judgment of the World.the Men 
pafs for holy, harmlefs, and undefil'd Dar- 
lings of Heaven, and God s fandified ones : 
but God will not be mocked ,• For all your 
Alms and Sacrifices, and all your Auftereft 
Performances, will draw upon you the Dif- 
pleafure of Heaven, inftead of the hop'd for 
Ble/fings , and diftinguilhing Favours of 
God, except your Hearts be clean. 

Then they re-afTum'd, and faid, Pray Sir^ 
if the Heart of Man is unfearchable, and 
paft finding out, but by God only, whofe 
Property it is to fearch the Reins and Hearts 
of the Children of Men ,• what makes you 
to trouble your felf with our Hearts which 
is not your Province, nor is within the Cir^ 
cle of your Adivity. 

Gentlemen, faid I, you are altogether 
Strangers to me, (whom I never faw be-, 
fore ; ) I know neither your Vertues nor 
Vices ; yet in Charity I am bound to hope 
the beft of you : But as to the purifying of 
the itjward Man, I am fure, 'tis a Dodtrine 
that you Mahometans are little acquainted 
with J being neither written in your Alcorani, 
nor ever taught by any of your Pricfts : And 

of feeing the Face of God. J i 

as it is the effential Part of Religion, I 
thought it my Duty to bcg'ri with this great 
Point, whereof I take you to be moil: igno- 
rant ,• and now your UnwiUingnefs to have 
your Confciences examln'd, confirms me in 
my firfl Opinion of your Ignorance here- 


Then, faid they, what Mortal cart pre- 
tend to fuch high Degrees of Purification 
and Cleannefs ot Heart ? 

This Queftion of yours, reply'd I, glve^ 
me fome grounds to hope better things of 
you, tho' I thus talk j For I find you have 
a mighty Defire to ioform your felves in 
thefe weighty Matters ; Give dihgent heed 
therefore to what I ihall offer to your ferious 
Confideration upon this Head ; When I 
fpeak of purifying the Heart, you mufl 
take me right, I don't mean any wafliing 
with Water,or any external PurificationSjfuch 
as are daily Pradis'd among Men of your 
Perfuafion, and are eafily perform d i But 
the purifying the Mind, which is the pecuhar 
Work of God himfelf; he only can renew us 
in //;f Spirit of our Minch^ by the fprinkling' 
of the Precious Blood of Chrift j and if you 
wou d have your Confciences piirtjyd from 
dead Works, you muft know Chrift, and the 
ESIGN of his Death and SufTerings ; 

D how 

3 4 ^^^ Third Conference] 

how that he came into the World to die for 
Sinners ; you muft believe in him for Life 
and Salvation, repent of your Sins, renounce 
the Errors of the Impoflor Mahomet, and 
own Jefus Chrift to be the only Saviour 
and Redeemer of Mankind. 

You fpeak, Sir, faid they, of purifying 
the Mmd, and of renewing the Heart, upon 
the Principles of your Religion. Now, 
with your leave, we could (peak in the 
Language of oar Religion upon this fubjedt 
very many fine Things ; but we are not 
come here to reciprocate Queftions and An- 
fwers out of this or that Syllem of borrowed 
Principles ; for we are not addided to any 
feparate Sed of Religion whatfoever ; but 
we are come to hear of you the Words of 
Wifdom, which may guide us in ourfearch 
of feeing the Face of God. 

I anfwer'd, God dwelleth in Light inac- 
cefTible, and no Man can fee him and live; 
as 'twas faid to Mofes when he wearied God 
with this very fame imprudent Requeft as 
you are now propofmg. Know therefore, that 
if God in Mercy had not been pleas'd to 
reveal his Will to his Servants, we had been 
dill walking in Darknefs, for ever ignorant 
of the Way that leads to the Manfions of 
the other World ; where only we can expe(5t 


of feeing the Face of God, 3 j 

to fee the Lord Face to Face. For all that 
we Chrifliaris pretend to know of enjoying 
God's Prefence in this World, or the next, 
is borro\^ed out oi the Saci^ed Volume^ of 
God's Word ; and if you wou'd be affur'd 
whether orno, I am faithful in my Jndi'U- 
(Stions to obtain the Enjoyment of Gods 
Face, go your Way for this Time, and re- 
duce to pradice what I have laid before you ; 
and then you'll find upon your own Experi- 
ence, that all thofe things which I have 
communicated to yoii, are the Intimations 
that God has given us to dired"our Steps in 
quell of his glorious Face : But if yoii arc 
refolv'd to negledt my Tnftrudions, I think 
it ufelefs to talk any more upon this F^ead. 
However, I yet love you heartily for giving 
me an Handle to difcourfe upon this excel- 
lent Subjed: ,• and when yoti'll favour me 
with another Vifit, you'll give rtie leave to 
ask you freely, whether or not you have be- 
gun to tread the Way that leads to the fight 
of the Face of God. 

They thank'd me heartily for rhy Advice ; 
and feeing me much engagd in other Bufi- 
hefs, they bade me Adieu. 

b % Cori. 


Conference IV- 

Of the Mifery the Malabari- 
ans labour under ^ hoth as 
to their Spiritual and 
Temporal Condition. 

Between feveral Malabarians and one 
of the Danijlj Miffionaries. 

ON the Sixth of OHoher \ 707, as I 
walk'd out into the Neighbour- 
hood, where a great Multitude 
of Heathens flock'd about nie, I 
fat me down on the Grafs, as they alfo did 
all round about me. 

D 3 TheQ 

3 ? Th^ Fourth Conference^ 

Then T began to addrefs my Difcourfe to 
them in Words to this Effect : I heartily 
Sympathize with you in the Miferies you 
labour under, relating both to vour Souls 
and Bodies. As to your Outip^rdCor\d\ucn, 
your Miferies dre too vihble ; tor you lead 
the Lives of Slaves, and therefore without 
doubt very uncomfortable ; for I fee, yon 
gre forc'd to undertake tedious Journeys to 
fetch your Rice, and undergo a 1 houfand 
other Hardfhips, which you are oblig'd to 
l^ear with Patience and Submiflion to the 
Will of your hard-hearted Task maders. 

But alas, what is all this Drudgery of 
yours, if compar'd to the nobleft part of 
your felves, your Souls ? You wander about 
like Sheep that have no Shepherd ; lor your 
Bramans don't concern themlelves with your 
EverlaOing Welfare ; and tho' you have 
among you flately Magnificent Pagods^ yet_ 
you never hear a Word ot Comfort or Spi- 
rirual Inftrudion in thofe Maces ; but are 
permitted to walk in the Ways o*^ your own 
Bl nd Hearts and lollow your finiul Incli- 
nations Without Controul, from either Priell: 
or Prophet. And as for your felves, you 
mind only to fupport your B( dies with Food 
and Cloathing as if they were immortal 
Peingsj and }ou difregard your precious 


of the Condition of the Malabarlans, j 9 

Souls, as if they were fubje(5t daily to Cor- 
ruption. Yea, you live in the profoundeft 
Ignorance of him that created you, and of 
liim that redeemed you j and tho' you mud 
confefs, that there is a God in whom you 
move, live, and have your Being, both as 
to Soul and Body ^ yet you do not Woriliip 
him as God ; but give that Adoration, due 
to him alone who created the World, and 
breathed into our Noftrils the Breath of Life, 
to infignificant Images of Wood or Stone, 
the Works of your own Hands ; and lead 
Lives of Contention, Hatred, and Strife, 
pradtifingthe Abominable Artof Witchcraft » 
confulting Wizards and Enchanters, who pre- 
tend to fee within the Veil of future Con- 
tingencies, and to foretel things to come. 
You your felves, convinc'd in Confcience, 
can bear Teftimony to the Truth of all that 
I have faid. 

Whereupon, One from among the Multi- 
tude, anfwer'd me, and (ai«t, Sir, all that 
you fay in relation to us, is very true ; but 
1 think, we are not to be blam'd upon this 
account; but rather God himfelF, who plac'd 
us in thefe miferable Circumdances, whence 
we can't extricate our felves without his 
Permiflion ; and it has not pleas'd his Wif- 
dom hitherto to make us more happy. 

D 4 t 

40 *Ihe Fourth Confer ence^ 

I anfwer'd, God certainly is no way ae- 
ceflary to criminal Proceedings ; For he cre- 
ated the firfl Man Holy, Juft and Good, 
from whom you borrow your Original ; 
But the Devil, in Combination with Man's 
Free Will, uflner'd in Sin and Difobedience 
into the World, which has entail'd Tempo- 
ral and Eternal Miferies upon all his Chil- 
dren : But God being gracious and merciful, 
was not willing that any fliould perifh, but 
that all fliould come to the Knowledge of the 
Truth ; and, to that end, has given us his 
Word, wherein we are taught, how God 
created Man at firft without Sin, according 
to his own Image ; and how that Man fal- 
ling from the btate wherein he was crea- 
ted, by finning againft God; render'd him- 
felt" obnoxious to Eternal Miferies, till his 
infinite Wifdom contriv'd Ways and Means 
to (ave Mankind, by fending his Son Jefus 
Chrifi in the World, cloathed with Humani- 
ty, to the -end lie might be a fit High Pried 
to offer up himfelf a Sacrifice acceptable to 
God for the Sins of all Mankind ; There, 
fore you can't fay, that God has any hand 
in making you miferable : Your Deftrudi- 
on and Mifery come of your (q\vqs ; there- 
fore, without any delay, repent, and turn 
to the Lord your God ; for why fliould you 
be Vaifals and Slaves to Sin and the Devil 


of the Condition of the Malabarians, 4 1 

any longer, and render your felves obnoxi- 
ous to the Difpleafure of ah injured God 
through all the Durations of Eternity ? 

Another anfwer'd me, and faid, all of 
us Malabarians are not fuch as you take us 
for ; we have very holy Men among us, 
who lead very Exemplary Lives, difengag'd 
from'all Earthly Ties and Obligations what- 

To whom I made this anfwcr; I am now 
direcfling my Difcourfe to you that (land 
in great need of Inftrudion, to the end you 
may extricate your felves from the dange- 
rous Circumftances that your Sins have en- 
tangled you in ; 'tis of no ufe to you, that 
other Men are Saints, when you know 
your felves to be great and impenitent 
Sinners : Every one of you mud be holy 
and difengag'd from this World, if you tru- 
ly defire Happinqfs and the Favour of 

A 77;//-^ fpoke ; We thank you. Sir, for 
your wholfome Inftrudions -, and defire you 
to continue your Difcourfe, giving us leave 
fometimes toobjed againft fuch Expreffions, 
as we can't without your farther Explicati- 
on, approve of. 


4 1 Th Fourth Conference, 

Sirs, faid I, you are very welcome to 
make any Objections againft what I fhall 
fay ; for Doubting and Scrupling is a Sign 
of an Inquifitive Lover of Truth, that will 
take nothing upon Hear fays; but will weigh 
the things himfelf in the Balance of his owa 
Reafon ; and this will be very ufeful to 
me in the Progrefe of my Difcoirtrfe : 
For you'll give a Handle to talk of things 
which otherwife I fliould imprudently pafs 

Well then, faid he, what makes you 
walk abroad among us, and upbraid us 
with oar Imperfecftions, while your own 
Difciples at home are not any better them- 
felves > Pray Sir, wou'd not you do bet- 
ter to exert your Charity firft at home, 
and Convert the Chriftians from the 
Wickednefs of their Ways, and then to 
come and Convert us. 

I heartily confefs, reply'd I, that many 
Chriftians are worfe than your felves, and 
want as much to be urg'd to repent, and 
turn to God even with Fading ; and I hum- 
bly conceive, you are Confcious of what we 
do with regard to thofe unhappy Men • 
we Preach to them in Seafon, and out of 
Seafon, to leave their wicked Ways, and 


0f the Condition of the Malabarians, 4} 

while 'tis called to day, to make their Cal- 
ling and Eledion fure , left to morrow 
there may be no place left for Repen- 
tance ,• and if they continue in their Dif- 
obcdience, the fault lies at their own doors: 
For we have no Orders from she Word of 
God to force any Man to be happy a* 
gainfl: his Will : And if we did delay 
Preaching the Gofpel to you Heathens, 
till fuch tirfie as all the Profedbrs of 
Chriftianity are become truly Good and 
Pious, there wou'd be no hopes of Con- 
verting the Gerjtiles to the Obedience of 
Chrift ; Thereore you mud not judge of 
the Dodrme of Chrift by feme ot his 
Norrtinal Difciples ; but accept joyfully 
the fame glad Tidings ot Salvation, and en- 
deavour not only to be better than the worft, 
but, to emulate, and to furpafs the bcft 
of Chriftians : For the Promife is to you 
and to your Children, as well as to o- 
ther Nations ; and 'tis upon your ac^ 
count chiefly that I came to thefe Coun- 
tries in hopes that you 11 embrace the 
glad Tidings of Salvation, which foma 
Pro eftbrs of the Gofpel defpiie, and caft 
the Holy Precepts thereof behind their 
Backs. And tho' 4hey are baptiz'd Chrj^ 
fiians ; yet in truth, they are worfe than 
Heathens, But let not their wicked Lives? 
difcouragc you from giving Obedience to 


44 ^f^^ Fourth Conference] 
the Heavenly Voice, left you aggravate 
your Guilt, as thofe wicked Chr^ia,ns pf 
whom you fpeak, apparently do. 

Then a Wormian anfwer'd ; Pray, why do 
you talk fo much againft our Divine 
Worlhip ; for moft of you Chriftians ap- 
prove of our Religion j and I have feen 
Men and Women of your Perfuarion fre- 
quenting our Pagods^ and beholding with 
great fatisfadJion all our Religious Perfor- 
mances ; which certainly, they had not 
done, if they did not approve of ourjle- 

To whom I anfwer'd, what is tranfaded 
in your Pagods^ is more Comical than Fitr 
ligious ; and therefore our Debauchees and 
loofe Chriftians (of whom we have (aid 
already, that they are worfe than Infi- 
dels _) frequent your Pagods to ^ivtrtxhtm- 
felves with thofe Theatrical Ceremonies 
of your Worihip : But as for fober Chri- 
ftians, they never frequent you Temples, 
nor aftift at any of your extravagant Ce- 
remonies ,• but weep in fecret becaufe of 
the Blindnefs of your Minds, praymg Al- 
mighty God on your behalf, that you 
may be delivered from under the powei; 
of Darknefs and Ignorance , to enjoy the 


of the Condition Sfthe Malabarians; 45 

Glorious Privileges of the Children of 

Thus I concluded my Difcourfe recom- 
mending them to the Protedion of Al- 
mighty God. 



i » ■ 

W • i H,M 


Coherence V. 

About the Difficulty of d 
Rich Man's entrins: into 
the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Between fome of the principal Inha« 
bitants, both Heathens^ and Maho* 
metans^ and one of the Dantfb Mif* 

ON the Seventeenth of Decemlet 
1707, t wasvifited by two very 
Confiderable and Principal Men ; 
the one 2L //eatbeft, and the other 
^Mahometan, accompany'd with many Men 
of both Perfuafions ; I receiv'd them kindly 
with fome Sweet-meats and Bethel-Areck 


4^ ♦ T^he Fifth Confer ence^ 

CSweet Incenfe') and "then addrefs'd my felf 
to them in thefe Words : 

You know, Sirs, that I am a Minifterof 
Jefus Cbrif fent here to Preach his Ever- 
lafting Gofpel, that yduj^ay know the 
Way of Salvation : Theref^ I could wifli 
that you your felves would put me upon 
fome edifying Difcourfe, and hear me pa- 
tiently, while I am handUng any Subjed 
which you think may be proper for the 
Solvation of your Souls. 

They anfwer'd, we come here with no 
other View, but that we may hear fome 
^difying Difcourfe. 

then I faid. Hitherto the Gofpel has 
been preached only to the poorer fort a- 
mong you j for the Rich and Great Men a- 
mong you defpife the Gofpel of Ghrifl:, 
to their own utter Deftruc^tion ; as they 
did in the time when the Chrlft and his 
Apoftles lived orl the Earth ; few of the 
Rich, few of the Mighty, and of the Learn- 
ed Men of the Age believed in him ,♦ but 
to the Poor the Gofpel was Preached with 
Succefs : For they being difengag'd in a 
great meafure, from the Snares and Deceit- 
. fulnefs of Riches, were attentive to the 
gracious Words that proceeded out of 


bfa Rich Man's ent ring into Heaven, 49' 

thrift's Mouth, and became hiis truefl Dif- 
ciples j while himftlf told the Rich. to their 
Faces, that 'tis as difficult for a Camel to 
pafs through the Eye of a Needle, as for a 
rich Man to enter into the Kingdom of Heaven : 
For they coittmonly truft in their uncer- 
tain Riches J and not in the living God, whp 
giveth all things neceflary both to Life and 

; Then one of them reply'd, God created 
the Rich and the Poor, and Wills that alj 
Ranks and Degrees of Men Ihould Wor/liip 
him in Sincerity and Truth ; but pow we 
jive in the Dregs of Time, when all things 
run in a wrong Channel, as our Prophets 
have foretold us that it rtiould be, as in- 
deed we find it is ; For we find different Re- 
ligions, diflerent Laws, different Languages^ 
different Opinions, different Ceremonies, 
different Ways of doing Penance for Sin ; 
and, if I may fo fay, every thing is adled 
by fome oppofite jarring Principle, and is 
the Reverfe of what it Ihould be : And as 
long as God permits all this Confufion, 
what have we to fay to the contrary ? 

I anfwer'd, If you wou'd deliver youf 
felves from this Univerfal Confuflon, re- 
pent of your Sins; for you confefs, that 
Men do not ad as they fhould do ,• is it 

E nOE 

50 the Fifth Conference^ 

net then your Duty to meditate upon Way§ 
and Means to fave your own Souls from 
the impending Ruin, that threatens a per- 
verfe and crooked Generation ? For you are 
certainly convinc'd in your Confcience, 
that you can't live and die happily in this 
confus'd and dangerous State , that the 
generality of Mankind is now in. 

We believe, faid he, that the Wicked 
fliali be punilhed according to his Wick- 
ednefs, and that every one Ihall be re- 
warded according to his Works, whether 
they be Good, or whether they be Evil ; 
tho' we believe alfo that God will not 
punifh us for not being fo holy and vers'd 
in Books as you are ; for we are engag'd 
in the Affairs of this World, to the end 
we may gain daily Bread for our felves 
and Families ; but your chief and only 
Employment is to meditate on the Works 
of the Almighty, and read Books of De- 
votion, and confer together about the Pra- 
- c^ice of Piety : For ii we could live up to 
what is preach'd, there wou'd be no need 
of Preaching, no need of Bramans^ and of 
many other Orders of Priefls and Herm'itSy 
who are maintain'd with no fmall Charges 
to the Publick ; and, pray, why are they 
maintain'd ? But that they may recoi-icile 


of a Rich Man's entriftg into Heaven. J I 

us to God, when we have committed fomd 
heinous Offences ? 

I reply'd, what you offer here agalnd: 
the Neceflity of Repentance, is groundlefs 
and frivolous, and afgues, that you are far 
from the Kingdom of God ; for tho' God 
has ordain'd feveral Employments and Cal- 
lings in the World ; yet this is the great 
Employment enjoyn'd on all, Men and Wo- 
men, Young and Old, Rich and Poor, viz, 
to repent, and turn to God with all their 
Hearts, leading exemplary Lives in all God- 
linefs and Honefty ; confiding, not in read- 
ing Books and going to Church, as a Pried ; 
but in emulating the bed of Prieds in the 
Exercife of a good Confcience both towards 
God and towards Men. The Fundamental 
neceflary Truths to Salvation are few, and 
may be learnt in a little time, from any ex- 
perienc'd Pried, or from any Other Child 
of God that has Experience of God's Deal- 
ings with the Souls of Men ; but if one has 
no Inclination to leave the World, and the 
fmful Luds of the Flelh, then he may fre- 
quent the Temple as often as he pleafes, 
and as frequently confult Priejis and An- 
chorets ^ but he will be dill as great a 
Stranger to God and Godlinefs, as if he 
never had feen a Pa^od, nor converfed with 
S Pried all his Life. I confefs, the Pried- 
E a hood 

5 1 The Fifth Conference] 

hood is a great BlefTing ; for the Priefls Lips 
ihould preferve Knowledge, and we ihould 
enquire for the Law at their Mouths ; for 
with them are intruded the Oracles of God : 
But your Bramans are no Priefls of the 
Living God, but Miniflers of dumb Idols, 
which can't help you in time of need. 

But, above all things, pfay don't harbour 
fuch a mean and defpicable Opinidn of the 
Priefts, as if they were of no other ufe 
but to abfolve you from your former Sins, 
to the end you may the more ehearfully 
proceed in your old Trade of Sinning : If 
this were the great ufe of Priefts, we might 
live as happily without them. 

To this they made no other Anfwer, but 
that I had great reafon to thank God, who 
had given me a found Underftanding ; and 
feeing it had not pleas'd God to endue them 
with the fame high Degrees of Knowledge, 
they thought they were not requir'd to re- 
turn me any Anfwer. 

I faid, Repentance doth not fo much 
i-equire a learned Head, as a fincere, ho- 
neit Heart ; and if you would underftand 
the Things of God, pray earneftly unto the 
Fountain of all faving Wifdom, and he will 
enlighten your Minds with the Knowledgfe 


of a Rich Man^s entring into Heaven, 52 

of hlmfelf, and anoint your Eyes with Eye- 
falve that you may fee the Beauty of Holi- 

They reply'd, Had you read our Mala- 
harian Books, you would have entertain'd 
another- guife Opinion of our Religion, 

Very well, faid I, If uppn this Condition 
you promife Amendment of Life, and Obe- 
dience to the Word of God, favour me with 
the befl; of your Malahari^ti Writings, and 
I aflure you, I will perufe them with all 
due applicatioq. 

They anfwer'd. Yes, that wie promife to 
do with all our Hearts. 

Then I call'd for a Malahariayi Clerk, 
who wrote out a Catalogue of tlie befl Books 
extant in their Language, and laid it before 
them ; but they faid, they had but very ^^w 
of thofe Books in their own pofie/Iion ; tho' 
they did not qaeftion but the Bramans and 
other Prieds would find out thofe Books ; 
but they are fuch Writings, that are not to 
be underdood, unle{s the Authors themfelves 
wou'd rife from the dead, and be plcas'd to 
be their own Interpreters. 

F 3 Thafti 

54 The Fifth Conference^ Szcl 

That's no matter, fald I, do you but pro- 
cure me the Books, and you ihall be paid 
for them, or Til get them written out. 

This they promifed to do, and re^ 



Conference VL 

Containing feveral Parti- 
ciilarsy &c. 

Between a Malaharian Heathen, accom- 
pany'd with feveral others ; and a 
Danifh Miffionary. 

ON the Firil of January 1708, I 
was vifited by a Venerable old 
Malaharian ^ accompanied with 
many others of his Friends to 
wifh me a happy new Year ; addrelTing 
himfelf to me in thefe Words : 

I widi you all manner of Health and Prof- 

perity this Inflant new Year ; I wifli you 

may continue labouring, but lofe no Strength ; 

E 4 and 

^6 The Sixth Conference^ 

and that you may be an old Man, but that 
your Vigour may remain ; and that you may 
be great, and happy, and obtain all what 
you your feif can hope to Enjoy. 

I returned the fame Compliment, and 
faid, I wifli you in like mariner, a happy 
new Year : May the gracious God that made 
you, and fent me to this Country, to offer 
you tHe Terms of Salvation, make this Year 
a Year" of Jnhilee unto you, by giving you 
Repentance unto Life^ accompany'd with a 
lively Faith in his Son Jefus Chrift ! May 
the great God deftroy, and root out Idola- 
try trom your Hearts and Temples ! May 
his Kingdom come into your Hearts with 
Power, and that of the Devil and Dark- 
nefs be weaken'd more and more ; that 
the Meffias may become, not only the King 
bf the Jews and Chrifitans^ but alfo th0 
King of all the Nations of the World. 

Having concluded our mutual good 
Wifties, we fat down ; and I asking theni 
if they had underftood the fubftance of what 
I had fpoken , they anfwer'd, yes ,* and 
that they were very much obliged to oie for 
>py friendly Willies. 

containing fever al Particulars^. Yj 

I reply 'd, 'tis then you'll have juft Rea- 
fons to be thankful, when, repenting of your 
Sins, you return to the Lord your God, and 
Worfliip him only, who has made the 
World and all that therein is. 

Then, asking me. Wherein confifts true 
Repentance ? I anfwer'd, it does not confift 
in changing your Names^ or in changing your 
Pagot/s tor our Churches ; hut it confifts in 
the thorough Change and Renovation of 
your Minds, in ceafing to do Evil, and fol- 
io w^ing that which is Good ; fo that you be- 
come new Creatures, endued with new De- 
fires and Affedions, crucifying the old Man, 
with all the Lufts thereof. And when this 
glorious Change is wrought in your inward 
Man, you'll chearfully and willingly change 
your outward Behaviour ; you»ll leave Ido- 
latry and Heathenifh Delufions, you'll defire 
to be baptiz'd in the Name of the Lord Je- 
fus ; you'll frequent the Congregations of 
the Faithful, and covet to be made Parta- 
kers of all the Privileges of Chrift's true 
Difciples : And we can't till then allow 
you to be truly penitent, and rightly pro- 
felyted to our Religion. 


j8^ Tb^ Sixth Conference] 

All this, faid they, is divinely fpoken j 
but pray, tell us, if all Chriftians are really 
fuch holy Mea as you would have us 

To this I anfwer'd, all Chriftians at their 
Baptifm enter into a very Solemn Covenant 
with the Glorious, Trinune God, to renounce 
the Flefh, and the Devil, and all the Pomps 
and Vanities of this wicked World ; and on 
the contrary, they fwear to take God the 
Father for their Lord and King ; Jeftu Chrift 
his only begotten Son, for their Redeemer, 
and the Holy Spirit of God for t:heirSand:i- 
ficr, to fear, to love, and obey God all the 
Days of their Lives j and by vertue of this 
Baptifmal Covenant, they are acceptable to 
God in his beloved Son : But we muft con- 
fefs, with Grief and Shame, that very few 
of them ftudy to obferve what they have 
Solemnly vow'd to keep in their Baptifm ; 
but fufier themfelves to be drawn away, and 
deluded by their deadly Enemies the Fleih, 
the World and the Devil, to the^ fcandal of 
our holy Religion, and to the Hardening 
of Heathen Nations in their Infidelity. 


containing feveral Particulars,, 

AW what you fay is very right, faid they ; 
but, before we leave an old Objed, in onder 
CO embrace a new one, 'tis but reafonable that 
you Ihew the Old to be very bad, or the 
New one to be much better j this is eafily 
applicable to the Subjed: Matter of our Dif- 
courfe. r 

'I willingly comply, faid I, to your De- 
mands ,• for they are highly reafonable and 
eafie to be demonflrated : For your prefent 
Circumftances are miferable and dangerous, 
having no Knowlege of Spiritual Things, 
plung'd in the Mire of fenfual Employments, 
without Hope, and without God in the 
World. This is the State and dangerous 
Condition that we urge you to leave forth- 
with, and to change it for one more Glo- 
rious and Excellent, accompanied with all 
the Advantages that the Rational Creature 
is capable ot ; I mean, a State of Grace 
and Reconciliation ; God pardoning all your 
Sins, for the Sake of Jeftu Chrifi^ and 
flrengthening you for the future to quench 
the Luds of the Flefli, and all the fiery Darts 
of the Devil ,• and to live in Heaven, and 
converfe with Angels, and with the Spirits 
of Juft Men made perfed:, while you have 
yourCommoration here on Earth. I think, 
there is no need of further Proof, to fl\ew 


y^f^ The Sixth Conference^ 

^that this State and Condition is in it felf 
2iS Eligible as the other is Miferable , and 
to be fhun'd by all that have not put out 
the Eye of Reafon, and are not defperate- 
(y driven on by Pafllons, fuffering the 
Brute to rule, and not the Man. 

STo this they anfwer'd, As to what \s 
Morally Evil, 'tis agreed on all hands that 
*tis to be avoided ; but it does not yet ap- 
pear, why we Ihould leave cur Religion and 
the Temples of our Gods, till you make 
put the Matter more clearly : But enough "> 
of this at prefentj we muft go to Comple- 
ment fome other Friends upon this New-q 

I ask'd them, What will your wifliing a 
good new Year to your Friends fignifie, when 
you your felves continue in your old mife- 
rable Courfe of living > Change your Courfe, 
and lead a new Liie, and then this will be 
a blefled Year to you, and to as many of 
your Friends as will foiiQw you in thefe Ge- 
nerous Refolutions ; But if you flop your 
Ears to my Exhortations, it may be, you 
may die in your Sins, and never fee another 
new Year ; or if you do, you may not meet 
with this kind Invitation of Heaven to ;re* 
pent and believe the GofpeL 


containing fever al Particulars. 6 i 

They anfwer'd, All comes to pafs ac- 
cording to the Will of God. 

Pray, faid I, confider agaiii and again, 
that 'tis the revealed Will of God that you 
ihould repent, and leave your Idolatry, left 
you be given up to Hardnefs of Heart, as a 
Punilhment of your Unbelief. 

They thank'd me for my Friendly Ad-' 
pionitions, and bid me Farewel, 



Conference VIL 

Of Regeneration^ and no Sal- 
vation out of Chrifi. 

Between a Mahometan Prieft and one 
of the Dantfl) Miffionaries. 

TH E Twenty third of Jannary 
1708, a Mahometan Prieft from 
Negapatffum, favour'd me with a 
Vifit, accompany 'd with fome 
others , both Heathens aqd Mahometans, 
whom I receiv'd very kindly, asking the 
Prieft, if among his Congregation in Nega- 
patnum he had many fober and ferious 


$4 The Seventh Conference] 

No, faid he ; For 'tis a great 'Rarity 
* now a- days, to meet with an honed Mart 
among either ChriflianSy Pagans or Maho^ 

True, faid I, 'tis the common Com- 
plaints, that Vertue and Piety are in a very 
declining Condition in all Parts of the 
World ,• and that very feU^ do feek after 
God and Religion as to the Life and Pow- 
er thereof ^ and yet alas, the Number of 
thofe that concern themfelves in redref- 
fing this great Evil, and in reforming the 
World, is much fmaller. You are a. Priefl 
in your, and I am a Prieit in my Religion ; 
fhould not we, each one of us in his re- 
fpedtive DiftricSb, exert and quit our felves 
like Men, making all the Efforts poflible to' 
fupport the Ruins of Piety, and endeavour 
to reflore true Religion to its Primitive 
Beauteous Simplicity > 

'Tis certainly our Duty fo to do, an- 
fweFd he ; but» what can a few do among 
whole Shoals, and a World <jf Unbe- 
lievers > 


of Regeneration^ &c; 6$ 

Yes, faid t, a few Hands and Hearts, 
Cafiifted and influenced by Omnipotency) 
may do Wonders ; but thofe few, before 
they pretend to convert others, flibu'd firll 
adjuft their own Accompts with God, and 
be themfelves, Men truly fearing God, and 
hating Covetoufnefs ; well verfed and pow- 
erful in the Scriptures, that they may be 
fit to reach and exhort the Ignorant, com- 
fort the Faint- hearted ; and, when need re- 
quires, convince the Gainfayers : We muft 
begin, continue, and finifli our Work in the 
Strength of the Almighty ,• not efleeming 
our own Lives dear, if fo be we are call'd 
forth to lay them down on the Account 
of Truth and Religion : If a hw Men thus 
qualified, were refolv'd to ufe their bcft En- 
deavours with Intrepidity and Greatnefs of 
Mind, God would make their Way eafie, 
furniih the neceffary Means, and remove all 
the Teeming Difficulties, which render the 
Enterprize impoflible to thofe that are not 
provided with the whole Armour of God; 
which is abfolutely neceffary in this Spiritual 

He look'd me earneflly in the Face, and 
faid, I could not believe hitherto what I 
heard fpoken to your advantage ; but now, 
blefl with your Pre fence, and hearing you 

F dif- 

66 The Seventh Conference] 

dilcourfe of the Magnificent Things of God, 
I freely confefs, I never heard a Chrijiian 
lalk as you do. 

Sir, faid I, if you (ee or hear any thing 
that is to be approved of, you are to afcribe 
it to the free Grace of God which has di- 
rected me to thefe Parts, to make known 
unto you the Dodrine of the Gofpel, 
which can render you wife unto Salvation ; 
and wifer than your Teachers. 

But Sir, faid he, do you mean, that the 
fame Graces and Gifts are not to be had in 
our Way of Worfhip ? 

Not, faid I; For out of Chrift there is no 
Salvation : There may be found among 
turks and Heathens, Men of excellent Na- 
tural Parts ; but for all that, it may be, 
they are the worft of Mortals, as to their 
Morals; But however, as for the faving 
Gifts and Graces of the Spirit of God, thefe 
are the Peculium or Property of Chrift's Dif^ 
ciples J and are abfolutely beyond the Sphere, 
of Nature's Adivity. 

What, faid he, do you then put no Diffe- 
rence between us Mahometans and the Hea* 
thens ? 

I ac- 

of Regeneration^ &c. 6f 

I acknowledge, Sir, faid I, that the Ma* 
hometans worfliip one God only, and fomc 
tead the Old and New Teftament ,• and up- 
on this account we efteem you very highly,- 
and make a great, difference between the 
Two Seds ; but as to the wain Points re- 
lating to true Holinefs and Jujlification of i. 
Sinner before God, we Judge, that you run 
parallel in erroneous Abfurdities, and yout 
Opinions to be equally dangerous ; becauie 
all of you rely upon your own Merit and 
good Works, exclufive of the Grace of God ,• 
which Grace is the Beginner, Promoter, 
and Finiflier, of our Salvation, and without 
which we can't fo much as think a good 
Thought, or do any Work acceptable to 
God : Don't deceive your felves therefore ; 
and think you are the Darlings of Heaven, 
becaufe you are preferrable to the Hea. 
thens in feveral Points, while you want that 
One Thing neceflary, viz. the Knowledge of 
your Mifery^ and the Knowledge of a Saviour 
to dehver you trom the Wrath to come. 
1 find by fad Experience, that the Ad van- 
tages you have over the Heathens, do 
but render you more untradtable : For their 
Errors are fo grofs, that they are eafily 
made manifeft to themfelves ; but vour F.r- 
fors are fomething more fubtile, and your 
felves Prouder and more Obilinate. 

F ^ I 

68 The Seventh Conference'^ 

I have nothing to fay againfl what you 
alTcrt, faid he; for 'tis really fo : And as for 
my Tel f, I labour under Doubts and Scruples 
about my own Religion ; and my Soul is 
griev'd at the unfanSify'd Lives of the Ma- 
hometans ; But, pray tell me your Opinion 
freely of our Mahomet. 

When I well examine, reply 'd T, what 
your own Writers have left upon Record of 
the Religion and Manners of Mahomet, I 
cannot but conclude that he was a great E- 
nemy to God and Piety ; This I can make 
out to your Convidion, by alledgingfeveral 
PalTages of the Hiftory of Mahomet,* But 
left you fhould fay that we Chrijiians have 
no Authenticik Records relating to your 
Prophet, I'll hear you patiently relate his 
Hiftory, and make my Reflexions upon e- 
very Paragraph as you go on. 

This, faid he, we lliall adjourn to another 
time i For to repeat all the Hiftory of our 
Prophet, wou'd require a great deal of time ; 
fo that there wou'd be no Moments left for 
your Reflections, nor for myAnfwers: And 
be fides, I don't approve of all the Paflages 
therein contain'd. 


of Regeneration, &c. 59 

Sir, faid I, if you don't approve of this 
Scheme, I will propofe another ,• in the Pro- 
fecution of which Til make it evident, tha!t 
Mahomet was a falfe Prophet, and an Impo- 
flor, fent into the World, not to fave Man- 
kind, but to be a Scourge unto them for 
their negledling the Goipel of Chr'ifl, that 
had been Preach'd in all the Countries where 
now Mahomet's Dreams and Revertes arc im- 
pos'd upon the unthinking Croud ; But, go- 
home dear Sir, for this time, and pray ear- 
neftly to the great God to guide you to 
make a Right Choice ; and to the End you 
may do phis with Succefs, pray, make your 
own Eepie(5]:ipn upon the Life of Mqhomet^^ 
arid upon that of Jefm ChriJ} ; and then re- 
frefli your. Memory with what has pafs'd be- 
tween us at this time, and compare it with 
what is ufually taught by your Do6iors. 
Ifyou take this Courfe, you'll quickly come 
to, perceive the Falfenefs of i^ij/7(7wf/''s Do- 
(i^riae ,• and if you pleafe to favour me with^ 
another yifit, or with a Letter, acquainting' 
me with your Gircumftances, I'll ^ive you, 
fuch farther Inftrudtions, or ff nd you fuch, 
Books, that will put our Chriflian Religion 
in the clearefl: Light, and that you qiay fee 
it,,j^vit were. with one View; which will 
put' you in a Capacity of helping and adi- 
fling your Brethren. 

F 3 He 

^p The Seventh Conference., 

He fald, I am overjoy 'd to have made 
Acquaintance with you ; But now, in the 
prefence of fo many, I don't think it proper 
to talk more upon this Head ; But I'll take 
another Opportunity to difcufs thefe Mat- 
?:ers more narrowly. 

' Sir, faid I, be not afliam'd, becaufe thefe 
poor Men are prefent : For I don't queftion, 
but they would be as willing to hear thefe 
things enquir'd into, and examin'd, as vour 



They anfwer'd all together, 'Tis true, we 
have heard ftrange Things to day ; yet for 
all this, we muft confefs, that we heard you 
with fome fatisfad^ion ; and you have the 
Freedom of fpeaking, and we of approving 
Vi^hat w'e pleafe. 

"Ilanfwer'd, The Truth never makes ufe 
cR violent Meians to force its Way into the 
Bofoms of Men ; but carries Strength and 
Efficacy along with it, and fliines upon the. 
Underftanding with fuch powerful Light, 
and furprizes the Confcience with fuch 
flrange Convidions, that Men do neceffari- 
ly, and yet very willingly give their Aflent 
to all its Aflertiorts : And 1 hope, it will be 
fo with you ; For tho' you feem to make 


of Regeneratioriy S^ci ^i 

Jigbt of the great Truths that have been 
propos'd unto you ; yet in time of Afflidi- 
on, they may revive again, and exert thera- 
felves in your Souls. 

Hereupon they all took their leaves of me, 
promifmg to vifit me another time. 

I recommended them to the Grace of 
God, and told 'em, that I entertain'd great 
Hopes of their Converfion to the Faith of 

The Priell anfwer^d me,' and faid, A" 
Chrillian well grounded in lus Religion-, 
wift live and die a Chnjiian ^ ahd fo willi 
a Mahometan continue the fame, 

I told him, that neither Chrijiiam nor 
Mahometans^ C2iW repent of their Sins, and 
return to God, without the fpecial Grace 
of Chrifl y however well vers'd they may 
be in the Principles of their refpedive 
Religions. Therefore , faid I, pray that 
you may be made Partakers of this Grace; 
of God through Jefus Chrift, that you^ 
may inherit Eternal Life. 

He thank'd me heartily, asking me^ 
if I had any Commands for Nagapatnam, 

F 4 Nothing 

7? The Seventh Conference , 

Nothing elfe, faid I, but that you grej^t 
all Malalarians and Moors at Nagapatfjam in 
my Name, telling 'cm, that they want 
all and every one of them, to repent and 
believe the Gofpel of Chrift, that they niay 
be faved ; and withal, 1 defire you to pro- 
cure me an Alcoran in the Malabar ian 
Language ; and in fo doing you'll oblige 
me highly. 

He told me, that the Alcoran was not 
Tranflated into the Malaharian Language; 
but if I would give Encouragement for 
fuch an Undertaking, he would get it 
Tranflated for me ; but it cou'd not be done 
without Money. 

Sir, faid I, if you believe your Alcoran 
to be the Word of the Living God, you 
Ihould rejoice that Chriftians enquire af- 
ter it ; and you Ihould get it tranflated, 
and fend me a Copy ; for which I will 
fend yqu E^fcellent Writings containing the 
Dodrineof Jefus. 

This he promifed to do, and with^ 


of Regeneration, &g« 'j^ 

I receiv'd, fmce, a Letter from him 
touching this Matter ; to which I made 
3 long Anfwer containing a lliort Account 
of the chief Principles of the Chrifiian Faitkp 
with a Confutation of Mahometanifm ; to 
to which hitherto he has made no Rc^ 




Conference VIII. 

Of the Way of Salvation ; 
of Repentance , and of 
many other Farticulars. 

ou n^fi' 

Between fome Malabarian School- 
Boys, and others, and one of the 
DanifJj Miffionaries. 

ON the Thirty Firft oi January 1708, 
I walk'd out with my Malaharian 
Clerk ; and meeting many of the 
Heathens in my Way, I took the 
Opportunity to talk to 'em of the Way of Sal- 
vation ; addrelTing my felf to em in thefe or 
the like Terms ,* See how we walk all together 


1^6 The Eighth Conference, 

in the fame Way, and know not whether 
it ieads ; fliould not this Confideration awa- 
ken your Defires to enquire into what Way 
leads to Eternal Happinefs, and whether you 
are walking In that Way pr not ? 

Yes, faid they, that would be a very 
ufeful Confideration for every one of 

.:Do you know, faid I? if your Souls are 
in the Way that leads to Eternal Life, or 

No, indeed we do not, faid they ; for 
how iliould we know, when we have no 
Teacher to dlred pur Courfe ? To whpm 
ihall we apply our felves for In(lru(5tions ? 
If we go to our Priefts and confult them 
upon this weighty Point, we can have no 
other Anfwer, than this ; Make large Pre- 
lents, and bring your Offerings to the FagoJs 
as often as you can, and live in Peace with 
all Men ; This is all we can learn of 

I fear, faid I, you are not in earnefl in 
quefl of Salvation ; for otherwife you would 
not confult fuch intereded impudent Priefls, 
nor their Idols ; but you would apply your 
(dves to honefl Men that are able and wil- 

of the Way cf Salvation^ Sccl 77 

Jing to teach you the right Way, without 
Money and without Price. 

Sir, faid they, who would not be happy 
upon fuch eafie Terms ? 

I reply'd, Wiihings and Wouldings will 
not make you happy; you muft beftir your 
felvcs, and take pains to learn the Way : 
For who will undertake to go to any place, 
but does firft inform himfelf of the Road 
leading thither, and never will be at reft till 
he can get all the neceflary Dire<flions for 
the Journey ? Otherwife Men will judge, 
that he is not really bound for fuch a Place, 
nor ever defigns the Undertaking fuch « 

If we live, faid they, as our Fathers did 
before us,and all our other Neighbours round 
about us, what Ihould hurt us ? Why, can't 
we be faved ? 

No, faid I, you muft not follow the Mul- 
titude to do Evil ; for that hroadlVay leads 
to Ruin and Deftrudtion. 

Tf we do Good and efchew Evil, can't we 
then be happy, faid they > 


-^8 The Eighth Confer em f^ 

As long, fald I, as you remain in the 
State and Condition you are now in, *tis 
impoflible for you either to do Good, or to 
efchew Evil. 

How can that be, faid they ? 

. .y You muft, faid 1, have a found Know- 
ledge of the finful miferabie Condition that 
you are now in, which makes you obnoxi- 
ous to the Difpleafure of Heaven, and the 
Objeds of Almighty Vengeance ; When 
once you arrive at this Knowledge of thcf 
dangerous Confequences of Sin, you'll try 
all Ways and Means to deliver your Souls 
from the approaching Dangers ^ but you'll 
find no fafety in your {lately Pagoe/s ; and 
your Priefts and Bramans will be but Phy*' 
ficians of no Value, to heal a wounded Con- 
science : Then you'll conceive, that Chriji 
fefus is the only Phyfician of Souls, and that 
there is no other Mediator between offended 
God, and us offending Creatures, but thd 
Man Chrift Jefus : 'Tis he only hath rc- 
deem'd both you and us, paying the Price of 
our Redemption with his own precious Blood 
upon the curfed Tree of the Crofs, accord- 
ing to the Prophecies that foretold, many 
Hundred Years before, his Birth and all 
%\{z minute Circumftances of his Life, Death 


of the Way of Salvation, 8ccl 79 

and Refurredion. After the forefaid Know- 
lege of your Sin and Mifery, you mufl: 
know this Great Redeemer, whofe Mc- 
fits and Sufferings are accounted yours, 
if you believe in his Name and lead Lives 
becoming his holy Gofpel, which contains 
the Dodrine and Sufferings of our Saviour : 
And, if you wou'd be his Difciples, you mufl: 
take up your CrofSy and follow him ; muft 
fuffer Reproaches and Perfecution for his 
fake, and be counted Fools, in Order to 
be truly Wife : And therefore 'tis, that the 
Way to eternal Life is faid to be Streight 
and very narrow, and few there he that find 

What do you fay, Friends, to thefe 

They faid, we never heard fuch things 
in all our Lives ; and what to fay to you, 
we can't tell. 

But you'll know what to anfwer, faid I, 
after you have walk'd in this narrow Way ; and 
then you'll Experience the many Difficulties 
that holy Men mufl meet with in the Pro- 
grefs thro' this Wildernefs- World, towards 
a better and more lading Life. 


86 The Eighth Conference, 

Good Sir, faidthey, we are ignorant Peo- 
ple, and can't difpute with you about fuch 
Speculative Niceties. 

I anfwer*d, This Matter requires no fpe- 
culative Genitis, but Sincerity of Heart, to 
examine the State of your own Minds, to 
the End you may be afTur'd that the great 
Work of Repentance is begun and perfected 
in your Souls ; without which you muft E- 
verlaftingly perilh. 

Sir. faid they, you are very defirous to 
trofelyte us to your Religion ; but we arc 
taught from our Youth, and appriz'd from 
good Hands, that the Chriftian Religion is the 
worft of all Religions ; tho' upon our owrt 
Experience, we know but little, either of the 
Vertues or the Vices of Chriftians. If what 
is reported of their wicked Lives, and of the 
Stri^^nefs and N^afrownefs of the Way to 
Heaven, (of which you have been juft now 
Difcourfing) be true, we have Reafons to 
fear that few Chriftians will ever come to 
Heaven : For they commit fuch Abominati- 
ons, that our polluted Eyes cannot behold 
them without Horror, nor willingly Con- 
verfe with them : And how much more 
will the Holy Eyes of God abhor their Im- 
pieties, and barr them his Everlafting Pre^ 


of the Way of Saltation^ &c; 8 i 

fence ? We ad: freely with you, and tell our 
prefent ."sentiments and Opinion of the Chrim 
fiian Scheme ,• but we hope this our Freedom 
will neither ofTend you, nor difcourage 
you from refuming the Thread of your 
Difcourfe, and perfuing your firft Intenti- 

I reply'd, I am no way offended at what 
you offer againft our Religion ; for you 
judge of the Chriftian Dodrine , by the 
wicked Lives of fome of its Profeflbrs ,• where- 
as you Ihould examine the Nature and prime 
Intention of the Dodrine it felf ; which is 
to prefcribe moH: Holy and Juft Laws to 
Mankind, marking out to them the Way and 
Means of Reconciliation with God, and of 
attaining Everlafting Happinefs : For why 
lliould a Pious King, and excellent Ruler 
and Legidator be blam'd, becaufc of fome 
few Rebels and Felons who trafgrefs his juft 
Laws by Difobedience and Obftinacy ? But 
if you would know the true Genius and Ex- 
cellency of Chrifliamty, come to me, who 
am a Minifter of the Gofpel, and I will 
teach you out of the Word of God, the Sum 
and Subftance of what we Christians are 
taught to believe and pradtife ; and thea 
blame it if you pleafe : But if you do obfti- 
nately refufe to be Inftruded, and rejecSt the 
offers of Grace and Mercy that God makes 

G to 

8i 7 be Eighth Confer enccy 

to you this Day through my Minidry, youMl 
certainly be condemned at the great Airize, 
for your wilful and obitinate Refufal of the 
Tenders of Salvation. An4^s for the pre- 
tended Oilence given you by the Lives of 
fome Chriftians, they, without doubt, are 
the Enemies of the Crofs of Chrifi j and the 
Extremity of Pains and Torments is referv'd 
for them among God's Enemies. 

There are fome among us, faid they, that 
keep themfelves difengag'd from any parti- 
cular Sect whatfoever, and from fymboliz- 
ing with any Set of Religious Ceremonies, 
and Temple- Woriliip, contenting themfelves 
to adore, revere and love, with humble 
Minds and ardent Afted:ions, the Great Cre- 
ator of the Univerfe. 

I know this to be a current Opinion a- 
mong fome of your Dodors, faid I, Efpeci- 
ally, in the VYritings of Dirwalluwer and 
Tfchiwawakkium j both which Authors have 
written incomparably well of the Abibrdities 
of the Pagodworfhip^ of your grofs Idolatry, 
and of the Vanity or all tranfitory Enjoy- 
ments ,' laying down fine Rules for walking 
in the fair Paths of Vertue ; and of making 
further Progrefs in the practical Knowledge 
ot found Wifdom ; But in all their learned 
Writings, they give you not the leall Hint, 


of the Way of Salvation^ &c, 8 } 

or Account of the Original of Sin and Mife^ 
ry ; without which Knowledge, all the Arts 
and Sciences are but in/ignifieant, empty 
vSpeculations, and vain Wifdom of great 
founding Words, that will .never enable us 
to do any onevertuous Ac5i:ion, truly accep. 
table to God : For this is the firii Truth 
necelTary to be learnt by every one ttiat 
would be happy in the Enjoyment of God, 
Diz. that he is an Enemy to Gcdhy Nature, and 
born a Child of Wrath and Hell, as well as 
others ; and muft know CHRISTthGRe- 
deemer of Men ; whereof thefe Authors 
were altogether ignorant, being not Inftru- 
ded in the Inlpir'd Writings ot the Old and 
Kew TeOament, which lay before us the , 
Way to everlafting Life and Immortality, 
hid before ; from the Wife Men of the World, 
who made fruitlefs Attempts to purchafe 
Heaven with their own Money, and the Fa- 
vour of God with their pretended meritori- 
ous Performances of Self-will Woriliip, to the 
feeming Mortification of the Heili ; but no 
Way contributing to the Renewal ol the in- 
ward Part, and changing of the Heart. Your 
Eramans indeed, do boaft, that they have a 
Law writ by God himfelf; in which* his 
Will andPleafure, in Relation to Mens Sal- 
vation, is clearly manifefled ; but in this they 
are great Impoftors, abufing the credulous 
ignorance of the People j for they never 
G 2, cao 

84 The Eighth Confer eHce] 

can produce any fucli LavV, and fubmit If 
to the impartial Perufal of learned Men. 

Upon this, they faid,they would talk of 
thefe rriatters another time ; but that they 
were now bound to take ano:her Route. 

Then I bid them adieu, charging them 
not to forget what had pafs'd between us, 
in relation to the Do^rine of Salvati- 

Thence I came to a Houfe where Tra- 
vellers and Strangers did reft and repofe 
themfelves, and wherem a School was kept 
for thelndruftion-of Youth; where, after 
having refted a while, I applyd my felf to 
fome of the Children, and ask'd them, who 
created them ? Some anfwer'd, they did not 
know ; and others faid 'twas Tfchiwen made 
them, who is the Almighty God, Creator 
of all Things. 

I ask'd them, how come they to know 
that Tjchiwen was God ? 

Our Parents, faid they, and School Ma- 
ilers taught us. 

I ask'd them, if they belie v'd Tfchiwen 
had a Body as Men and Women have ? 


of the Way of Salvation^ &c, 8 J 

They faid, Yes ; and Eats, and Drinks, 
Sleeps, and Walks, and has a Wife as other 
Men have. 

I anfwer'd. My dear Children, You are 
grofsly mifinform'd about the Nature of the 
God that made you : For he has no Bodily 
Shape, no Fiefli and Blood ; but is a pure 
immaterial Being that can't beliken'dto any 
thing that is either in FJeaven or Earth,- and 
his Name is not Tfchhven, but Saruwefuren 
(God ;'^ be never had a Wife ,- yet he had a 
Son before the World u^as made, God, blef- 
fed for ev( r, equal to the Father, begotten 
by a Generation, to all Mortals very incom- 
prehenfible. This vSon of God was fent in- 
to the World to afliime the Fluman Nature, 
to the end he might* fuffer and die for the 
Sins of all the World, and fatisfie the De- 
mands of infinite Juftice, violated by rebel- 
lious Men ^ his Name is "^efm Chrtfl or the 
anointed Saviour; becaufe he faves his Peo- 
ple from their Sins, by deftroying the De- 
vil's Sovereignty over them, and bringing 
them to the Knowledge of the God thai: 
made them, and enabling them by his Spi- 
rit to live holy Lives, worthy of his glorious 
Gofpel in all Godlinefs and Honefiy ; and 
therefore, my dear Children, this is the 
pod that you mult know j and to that end, 
G 3 you 

^6 Ihe Eighth Conference , 

you muft fuffer your felvcs to be guided and 
inftrudted by his holy Laws, comprehend- 
ing all the great Truths necellary to be 
learnt, in order to attain everlafting Happi- 

They reply'd, Our Bufinels is to learn to 
read and write ; and our School- mailer 
never taught us any fuch abflrufe Noti- 

Then directing my Difcourfe to the Ma- 
iler, I wonder. Sir, faid I, that you don't 
inftrud: thefe Children in the Knowledge of 
God and Godlinefs. 

My chief Bufmefs, faid he, is to teach 
them to read, write, cail Accompts, and to 
give them fome fmall Tafle of the Arc of 
Poejje ; but as for thefe things you mention, 
they fliall (ludy them herearter, when they 
come to riper Ycars^ 

This, faid I, is the fitted time to feafon 
the Minds of Children with the faving 
Knowledge of God and Religion : For they 
are not yet prejudiced in favour of Vice ; 
and therefore they are prone, and as it were, 
inclin d to tall in Love with Vertue, if you 
do but expofe her before their Eyes in all 
^he.Perei colons of her excellent Beauties ^ and 


of the Way of Salvation^ Src. 8 f 

the chief reafon why we find Co many Ig- 
norant old Men every where, is, becaule 
they are not intruded in their Youth : And 
whence comes all this unpardonable .Supine- 
nefs and Negligence, but from the grofs ig- 
norance of you School-mafters, who know 
nothing to inflrud: Children in, but the fa- 
bulous Stories of your falfe lying Gods ? 
But, as for the true God, you are as ignorant 
of his Nature, as you are difobedient to all 
the Rules of moral Vertue : For you make 
your Difciples feven times the Children of 
Perdition more than they were before, by 
your loofe Lives and corrupt Manners; for 
which you fliould be afliamed: Repent there- 
fore, and turn to the God that made you, to 
the end you may be capable of Inftrucfting 
thefe Children in the Nurture and Admoni- 
tion of the Lord. 

He held his Peace, and anfwefd not a 
Word ; Whereupon there came in a Dawa- 
tafchi, or a Woman that ferves in their Tem- 
ple, and faid to me. Pray, Sir, why do you 
propofe fuch hard Queftions to this poor ig- 
norant Man ? If you will confult about Ah- 
flrufities and puzzling QueftioiiS, go to our 
Bramans, whofe Employment 'tis to talk a-f 
boMt thefe abHraded Notions. 

G 4 I 

88 The Eighth Confer mce^ 

I arifwer'd, Thofe that are in a found State, 
have no need of a Phyrician ; and thofe that 
are wife, need no teaching ; I come to in- 
(lru(St the Ignorant, and more efpecially (uch 
as confefs their Ignorance of the Ways of 
God and Salvation : For this is the firll flep 
to the Attainment of Knowledge (xj/z.) an 
Ingenuom Confejfion of our Ignorance ; whereas 
your Bramans, whom 3'ou call l^'ife and 
Knowings are the fartheft of all, from the 
Kingdom ot God ; becaufe they think they 
are profoundly Wife in Matters of Religion, 
when they know nothing as they ought to 
know ; but are proud and vain, impatient, 
and incapable of Inftrudion : Wherefore I 
chufe to confer with the Ignorant and Un- 
learned, in order to teach them true Wif- 
dom, which is capable to make them wife un- 
to Salvation. 

You talk a great deal of God, reply'd 
they, pray tell us lerioufly, have you ever 
feen him, or can you order matters fo, that 
^e may fee him once ? 

I reply'd, If my God was an Idol made 
of Wood or Stone, like thofe you worfliip ia 
your Pagocfs, then I could eafily fhew him 
you, and comply with your extravagant 
Pemand ^ but the Creator of Heaven and 


of the Way of Salvation^ &c- 89 

Earth is not to be liken'd to any Creafure 
whatfoever > nor is he to be feen with bodi- 
ly Eyes ; nor is he the Objed oi our Exter- 
nal ^enfes ; but he is the Objed of all piowi 
Mindsy to whom he difcovers himfeif more 
and more by the Revelations he makes of 
himfeif thro' the kindly Suggeftions of his 
Holy Spirit ; but hides his Face from all 
fuch who run after Graven Images, and gives 
them up to a reprobate Mmd, to believe a 
Lye and vain Dreams. 

Then flood up another Woman, and faid. 
Sir, You are very much in the right ; and 
what you fay of our PagodWox^ii^, and of 
its Miniilers, is but too true i For this very 
Woman that talks with you, is devoted to 
the Service of the Pagod, and lives all the 
while a fcandalous Life ^ and 'tis notorious, 
^at fhe has had Three Ballard - Chil- 


I reply'd, The Reafons why all your Re- 
ligious Women who ailiil: at the Performan- 
ces of F^(^<7^Ceremonies,are unexceptionabiy 
great Whores^ is, their reading the Amorous 
Intrigues of your Whoring Gods and Goddell 
fcs ; which rationally induces them to believe, 
that 'tis their Duty to imitate all the Actions 
of their Gods: And, one fliould think, tiiat 
this one Refledtion, fo obvious and true, 


go The Eighth Conference^ 

ihould make you abhor the Thoughts of 
frequenting a Pago^t tor the future, where 
you know thofe lalie Gods have their Ha- 
bitation, that are the Promoters of all Un- 
deannefs and filthy Luds. 

And going thence to another Village, in 
Ijiy Way, I met feveral Bramavs, and 
ask'd them , How long will you go on. 
Sirs, to delude the Ignorant People. 

They reply'd, We have veneralle Anti- 
quity on our fide ,• our Fathers profefled this 
Religion, and fo do we. 

I reply'd, If your Fathers and Great 
Grandfathers were poor and neceflitous, does 
it follow, that you muft reflect Difparage- 
ment on their Memories, if you, with ho^ 
neft Tndudry, endeavour to enrich your 
felves, and provide better for your Children 
than they did for you ? And why fhould 
you think it any Refledion on your Ance- 
ilors, to furpafs them in the Knowledge of 
God, feeing 'tis as evident that all of them 
were grofsly Ignorant of Things relating to 
eternal Happinefs, as fome of them were 
poor and mean as to their outward Cir- 


of the Way of Salvation, 8zc. 9 1 

All this could not engage them to flay 
and difcourfe the Matter with me ; but all 
the Anfwer they made, was, that whea 
they come to die, they defire to go to no 
better Place than where their Fathers 

Thereupon I came back to the Inn, and 
found there many Pilgrims^ who had, as 
they themfelves told me, left Houfe and 
Home, Wives and Children, and all they had 
in their own Country, in Obedience to the 
High Commands of their Angry Gods, who 
had enjoyn'd them a very long Pilgrimage ; 
who teach them, tiiat all they polTefs, is none 
of their own ; that they are oblig'd to leave 
all, to pleafe their angry Gods, and atone 
for pad Offences. 

But, anfwer'd I, How came you to know 
all this; and that 'tis the Will of God that 
you (liould undergo uicli long Journeys, and 
do fuch fevere tedious Penances. 

We read, faid they, how the Gods appear 
to fuch as abandon all they have for the 
love of them ; and ho^v they blefs their 
faithful Votaries with higher Degrees of 
Wifdom , and other dillingaifliingj Marks 


gi The Eighth Conference^ 

of their Favour and gracious Acceptance of 
their toilfome Pilgriniages. 

J ask'd them, How long they had lead that 
Pilgrimage flate of Life ? 

They reply'd, For this lad Fourteen 

And did the God never appear to you in 
all this time, faid I ? 

They anfwer'd, No, not once. 

I ask'd them farther, Are you entertain'd 
wherever you come, with the Neceflaries of 
Life ? And are Men kind to you ? 

Not very kind, faid they ; for the World 
is not now fo Charitable as it was wont to 
be towards poor Pilgrims. 

Then I faid to them, I wonder that you 
are able to undergo fo many, and fo great 
Aufterities: For certainly, you enjoy but 
little of the Comforts of this Life ; and I pi- 
ty your miferable Condition fo much the 
more, inafmuch as I am affur'd, you'll be 
ss miferable in the Life to come, if yoi; 
continue in this rambling Pilgnmage-ilate 
of Sin and Ignorance : For you have no 


of the Way of Salvation, &c. 9 J' 

Knowledge of the true God ; but give that 
Honour and Worfliip, due to him only, to 
dumb Idols, and Images that are no Gods, 
but Inftruments of Delufion employ 'd by 
the Devil, the Enemy of Mankind, to make 
you deviate from the Ways of Truth ; and 
therefore you'll reap no Benefit from all 
thefe Bodily Exercifes and Aufterities of a 
long tedious Penance ,• becaufe they are not 
enjoyn'd upon you by the true God ; but 
are a Free- Will offering which you make to 
the Idols and Images of your own Inventi- 
ons and Making ,• which is an Abominationi 
to the true God, who will alone be wor- 
lliipp'd in Spirit and in Truth ; and requires 
Repentance from dead Works, and from 
your former vain Converfation, by a tho- 
rough Change of the Heart, accompanied 
with an outward Carriage anfwerable to 
fuch a great Change wrought in your Souls 
by the Almighty Power of God. This is 
the Repentance requir'd of you ; but not 
foolifhly to leave your native Country , youi? 
Wives and Children, and all that was dear 
and valuable unto you, without any Rea» 
fon ; and to create your felves a great deal 
of unneceflary Troubles and Fatigues, and 
at the fame time moled Strangers with your 
burthenfome unwelcome Company : And, 
befides that this idle, wandring fort of Life, 
is finful in it felf, and gives occafionto com- 

^4 '^f^^ Eighth Conference^ 

mit all kind of Villanies, I know of no Ad- 
vantage that you can reap from this long 
Pilgrimage, unlefs that it hath afforded, you 
a fit Opportunity to be intruded by me at 
this time in the true Dodrine of Salvation, 
that you may renounce your Idolatrous Er- 
ror:> and Su perditions. 

They ask'd me, Pray, Sir, who, and 
what are you ? 

I am, faid I, a Minifi:er or Servant of the 
Living God, who created Heaven and Earth, 
fent to you to warn you to leave the Idols 
of your own making, and to turn to the 
Worfliip oi: the true God. 

They anfwer'd, our Religion has never 
been called in queftion as to its Divine 
Original, and our Gods are true Gods, 

I feply'd^ 'Tis very true, that your Fa- 
thers have worfiiipped thefe dumb Idols for 
fome thoulaads of Years ; but God, out 
of his Grace and Mercy, offers you theleea- 
fie Terms of Salvation now, in the End 
of the World, whereof your Fathers where 


of the Way of Salvation , &c, 9 5 

'Tis true, anfwer'd one of them, we have 
a Prophecy firmly believ'd among us, that 
two great Prophets are to appear among us 
before the End of this World, in order to 
work a mighty Reformation among the Peo- 
ple ol* Malabar. 

T anfwer'd, Without confulting the writ- 
ten Prophecies of your own Laws, you may 
be eafily convinc'd, that this is the time of 
your Vifitation : God makes gracious Ten- 
ders unto you this Day, of the Pardon and 
Reminion of all your Sins, if you do but ac- 
cept of the fame with a full Refolution to 
repent, and turn to the living God, leading 
new Lives becoming the Gofpel of his Son 
Jefus Chrifl. 

One of them, who was an Ecclcfiaftick^ 
faid. Sir, I freely own the Errors of our 
Religion ; more efpecially, thofe relating to 
a Plurality of Gods ^ (tho' many ftrong Argu- 
ments are urg'd in favour of this Opinion ;) 
for I believe, that there is but OneGo6. and 
that the IdolWorjhip celebrated in the Pa^ 
goJsj is but ulekis Vanity. 


§6 The Eighth Conference^ 

I am glad that you are come fo far, laid 
I, as to believe in one God ; but you muft 
not flop here : For you muft hkewife en- 
deavour to know who this One God is. that 
you may pay him the Tribute of Adoration 
and Praifes due to his moft excellent Maje- 
fty i and according to his own Will revealed 
to us in his holy Laws, in which I am very 
willing to inftrucSb you, if you will but come 
to me, with a longing Defire of being in- 
ftruded in the Things relating to the Salva^ 
tion of your Souls. 

Then a Woman interrupting me, cry'd out, 
Pray, Sir, who is your God > 

I anfwer'd, Your God and mine is but one 
and the fame God ; and befides him there 
is none other , we are the Works of his 
Hands ; he is not vifible (as your wooded 
Gods or Images) to be lliewn with the Fin- 
ger, or to be feen with bodily Eyes, unlefs 
in the Works of the Creation ; wherein we 
may clearly fee the Effedts of his infinite 
Wifdom and Almighty Power, in creating 
this Vifible World, and in .difpofing all the 
Parts thereot with lb great Proportion and 
Regularity,- whence anfes the excellent dn- 
fpeakable Beauty of the whole. 'Tis from 
this Great God we borrow Life and the Con- 

of the Way of Salvation^ &a 9*7 
tinuation of the fame ; ia him we Uve^ 
wwcy and have our Beings ; and do you 
ask me where is your God > 

That is right, faid another Woman, 
for God is every where prefent ; and 
he is adiually prefent in this Tree , 
tho* we have no Eyes to fee him. 

But, faid I, if you'll repient, arid leave 
your Idolatry and Superflition, and luffer 
your felves to be inftruded in his holy 
Laws, the Eyes of your Mind will be 
open'd, that you may fee God in hi$ 
Wifdom, Power and Goodnefs , in all 
and every one of his Creatures ,• but 
more efpecially, in your felves : For holy 
Men and Women are the Temples of the 
living God^ and the Places of his mod 
Gracious Refidence : Seek him there, ac- 
cording to the Diredions I ihall give you 
out of his own Word^ and you ftiall cer- 
tainly find him, and enjoy him for 

Thereupon they left me, arid I returned 
home ; and as I was near the City, a Mer- 
chant call*d after me, asking if he might 
propofe to me fome Qjieftions. 

H 1 

98 The Eighth Conference^ 

I anfwer'd , Yes , Sir , with all itiy 

He ask'd me, What do you fay to the 
Durations of the Pains and Torments of 
Hell i Are they to have an End, or are 
they endlefs and Everlafting. 

I reply 'd, They are certainly endlefs, and 
will endure for ever. 

Is there no Redemption thence, added 

No, faid I ? 

But, Sir, how can this rationally be, faid 
he, feeing that we live in this World but 
for few Years, and our finful Adions are, as 
to their Duration,tranfitory ; why then ftiould 
the Punifliment be Eternal ? The neceflary 
proportion attending diftributive Jliftice> is 
not obferv'd here. . j 

But Friend, faid I, The Sinner oflending 
the infinite Juflice of God, and refufmg to 
accept of Grace and Mercy upon the ea/ie 
Conditions of Faith in the Lord Jefus Chrift^ 
and Repentance towards God, while the 
Days of Grace, and the Time of Salvation 


t)f the Way of Salvation^ &:c, g0 

is riot yet at an End, dies in his Sins, and 
continues to Sin on in Hell for ever; which: 
calls for Punijhments anfwerably ete rnal : 
Therefore, if you would avoid the Eternity 
of Hell. Torments, repent now in time, up- 
on which depends your Fate of being Ever- 
laftingly happy, or unhappy for ever, both 
as to the Soul and Body ; which if Mortals 
did but ferioufly confider they would difen- 
gage themfelves from all Earthly Ties and 
lead Lives worthy of the Divine Nature, to 
which they are fo ftrid:ly related ; and 
would have their Meditations in Heaven, 
whilft they have Commoration and Abode 
in this finful World. 

Upon this we came both into the City^ 
and parted; 

H z Con- 


Conference IX. 

Of the Nature and Propers- 
ties of the Malabarian 
Gods ; and of the tnciim'- 
J?ent Duty every one is nn^ 
der to reclaim his Ere-- 
threnfrom fdojatry^ &c. 

Between many Bramans and one of 
the Dani/Jj Millionaries. 

ON the Fifth of March, 1708, I un- 
dertook a Journey to Diruht/^eur^ 
a very large City belong ng to 
the King of Taf^jour, adorned 
with beautiful Buildings ,* efpecially with 
H 3 ^ three 

I o 2 The ^inth Conference, 

three {lately Temples, or Fagods^ very near 
one to the other, all in a Line, with fine 
Approaches and Entrys to them on both 
Sides. Near thefe Pajods^ the King of Tan- 
jour has built a (lately Palace, for his Recep- 
tion when he comes a-pilgrimaging here. 
After I had feen the Town, I fat down in 
a Garden near the Bramans Inn, whither 
very many Priells and Bramans flock'd about 
me ; whom I entertained with a Difcourfe 
about the Being and Attributes of God ; to 
which they gave very great Attention : 
Then I dillributed Twenty Five Sermons 
among them, which had been preach'd in 
our Jerufalem-CAwxrch, at Tranquehar : Where- 
upon a greater Confluence of Heathens came 
to me, v/hom I heartily exhorted to feek after 
the True God that created all Things, and 
to fludy to know his Will, to the End they 
might be made happy in this, and in the next 
World J telling them, that if they did con- 
tinue to woriliip Graven Images, that neither 
hear, fee, nor underftand, their Punifhments 
would be certainly unavoidable and ever- 
lafling : But if you, faid I, do this Day hear 
and obey his Voice, and own him, and his 
Son Chriji Jefus^ for your Lord and Saviour, 
he will prevent you with his Mercies, and 
pardon all your pall Sins, enabling you to 
do what is acceptable and well'pleafing in 

his Sight. 


of the Malabarian Gods. 103 

Then flood up a Venerable Old Man, 
and faid, What you have faid of God's Be- 
nefits towards us, and of our unthank- 
fulnefs towards him, is all very true ; but 
that we have no True, but falfe Gods in 
our Country, this you are ftill to demon. 
Urate : For tho' the Chriflians call us Hea- 
thenSy we are not fo in Reality ; but we 
are a very Ancient Nation^ whofe Religion 
is as OU as the World it felf ; and many 
of our Gods have done great Miracles 
among us ; and more particularly, our God 
IVinsjagoMy who built us our great Temple, 
and dwelt in this Place among us. 

I anfwer'd, about 1700 Years ago, the 
the Europeans were all Heathens, profe/Iing 
Idolatry, as you Malaharians do at this time ; 
but God was pleafed to call them to the 
Profeflion of the Gofpel of his Son Jefus 
Qhrifi ; whereupon their Eyes were enlight- 
ned to fee the Falfnefs of their own Religion, 
the Pious Cheats of their Cunning Pnefts, 
and the Vanity of all Idol-worihip ; and 
they did forthwith renounce the Superltitions 
received from credulous Antiquity, and re- 
turned to the Living God, from whom their 
Fathers had departed, in the Purfuit of 
Fidions and Fables, the mere Inventions oF 
wicked and defigning Men : Therefore I 
H 4 don'i 

tq4 The Ninth Conference^ 

upbraid you with your Ignorance, nor re- 
fled Difparagement upon your Country, 
becaufe of the Natural Errors prevaiUng 
among yoq this Day : For my Countrymen 
have been for fome Thoufands of Years in 
the fame miferable Condition : Nor do I at 
all wonder, that you are fo tenacious of the 
erroneous Traditions of your Fathers : But 
if you will with Patience hear me declare 
unto you the Dodrine of the Holy Bible, 
you il caft from you thefe Vain Idols, and 
worfliip the True God in fincerity of Mind ; 
Nay, if you do but confult your own Rea- 
ibns, you'll fee they are but mere Vanity and 
Lies : For how can an underflanding^ rea- 
foning Man, take a Piece of Wood or any 
Other grofs Matter, hewn into the Shape of 
a Swine, Fifli, Tortoife, Horfe, or into any 
other Four-FIeaded, Eight handed, Thee-ey'd 
monftrous Form, for his God ? Or be per- 
fuaded into a Belief, that the God whom he 
honours for the Objed of his Adoration, is 
married, has many Children, committeth 
Adultery, Murder, Theft, and all the moft 
execrable Villanies ; and has wag'd War for 
many hundred years with a neighbouring 
God , about mere Pun^ilios of Honour 
and Precedence, commanding Men to exer- 
cife fuch Abominations as are not to be nam'd 
without Sin j and at laft fome ravenous 
B.eall ? As for exa^nple, your God Wifcktntt 


of the Malabarian GodSn lOJ 

has been feveral times Metamorphosed in vc. 
ry many different monftrous Shapes ; Biru- 
wa had three Heads and eight Hands ; and 
Ifruen had an Elephant's Snout. 

Moreover, iVifchtnu had many Concubines, 
and metamorphors'd himfeit into a young 
Woman, to quahfie himfelf to commit Un- 
cleannefs with IJunn ; and many more fuch 
Atchievments are recorded of him, whereby 
he deluded many hundred of Wpmen, who 
fell paflionately in Love with his Beautiful 
Deporture and fine Mein. 

Ruddirea, another of your Gods, is no 
lefs infamous for fuch wicked and violent 
Practices j for once he forc'd a young She- 
Slave, that refus'd to comply with his luflful 
De fires ; and IVifchtnu deceiv'd Mauei, to 
the end he might dirpofTefs him of the Go- 
vernment of the Univerfe : Ruddireu^ Wifcht- 
nu, and Biruwa^ quarrelled together about 
Precedence ; whereupon Ruddireu Stabb'd 
Wifzhtm^ and (Iruck of Birumas Head. 

The God Rafchanidizen ran raving Mad 
far a confiderable time. Ramen and Lethf- 
chemen wag'd fuch bloody Wars with Rawa- 
fi€H as ended in the utter Deftrudion of all the 
Three Fighting Deities. Your God Ifcbok. 
kaitadeu adted Sixty four Comedies in this 


106 The Ninth Conference^ 

Countrey ; Wijchtnu is fleeping upon Ser- 
pents in a Sea ot Milk ,• and Pulleiar is con- 
tinually eating and drinking on a Milky 
Sea fweetned with the fineft Sugar ,• Jfurea 
is everlatlingly Dancing . 

Thefe are the Atchivments of your Gods 
thro* whom you exped Eternal Happinefs. 

I wonder that you are not afliam'd of 
thefe vile Pradices of your Gods, which 
would render any Man ( if guilty of the 
lame ViHanies) the Objed: of all honefl: 
Mens Scorn aqd juft Hatred, who would 
cut him offwith the Sword of Juftice as un- 
worthy to enjoy the Benefit of Human So- 
ciety, or of walking upon God's Ground. 
Therefore repent without delay, left you pe-^ 
rifh in your Sins. 

Then the Manikaren^ or the Gover- 
nor of the Place, askd, whence have you 
this Account of our Gods ? And how came 
you to know their feveral Names and Dig- 

Sir, anfwer'd I, by reading and perufing 
your Books ; and therefore I offer nothing; 
upon Hear- fay. 


of the Malabarian Gods. 107 

Another (lood up, and faid, Sir, You 
would have us believe you to be a very 
fandified and holy Man ,• but give me leave 
to tell you, that it does not become an holy 
Man to hhfpheme our Gods ; for true Piety 
defpifes no Man upon Account of Religion ; 
and 'tis therefore we Malaharians do neither 
condemn nor defpife the Chriftians upon the 
Account of their Religion. 

I anfwer'd, I neither cenfure nor defpife 
any of you as to your Perfons, or anything 
that is commendable in your Religion ; but 
I reafonably condemn your grofs Ignorance, 
and your falfe Woriliip pay'd by you to Noun, 
entities and Vanities honoured with the Title 
of Gods ; and therefore both out of Duty to 
the true God, and out of loving-kindnefs to- 
wards you, I can't but fpeak the things that 
belong to your eternal Happinefs, tho' you 
condemn me of Raflinefs and ill Manners 
for fo doing : For this is the Will of God, 
that you may be found a holy People pre- 
pared for every good Work : And therefore 
I exhort you in his Name ; and authoriz'd 
by his high Command , I charge you no% 
to negled the great Salvation that is 
tendred to you this Day by ray Minir 


ic8 The Ninth Conference, 

Then flood up a Braman, and raid, I 
never have feen hitherto any of all you Chri- 
flians taking any care for the faying his 
own Soul, by doing Penance for his 5ins: 
Whereas we Malaharians undergo many tei 
dious and long Penances, 4sKying our felves 
all the Pleafures pf^isLife ; fonie fpending 
their whole Life in Pilgrimage from one 
Country to another, and there are as many 
that (land mod part of the time upon their 
Heads, living purely upon the Charity of 
others ; fome pray the Gods with Hands 
lifted up fo long, that they can't take them 
down again, nor move them from that ere- 
<aed Pofture ; and more fuch Aufterities arc 
exercis'd among us Malahariam for the Hq. 
nour of our Gods and Religion ; But I fee 
no fuch thing Pradis'd among you Chri- 

Sir, faid I, your Severities exercis'd yp- 
on your own Bodies, are indeed amazing, 
and to me a ftrong Argument of your being 
fully convinc'd ot the certain Exiftence of 
future Rewards and Punijhments after Death; 
but can be no Proof of a fmcere Repentance : 
For all this may proceed from a fooHjh De- 
fire and Ambition of being thought holier, 
than other Men, and more difengag d from 
all Worldly Enjoyments, in Order to be 


of the Malabarian God%l $ 6$ 

more efteem'd and honour'd than other Men ; 
'tis certain that Man will fooner Change his 
way of Living, and undergo all the Aufte- 
teft Penances, than change his Hearty and re* 
ilounce his o)ion Righteoufnefs ^ accounting 
himfelf after he has done all he can do, a ve- 
ry unprofitable Servant that has done no- 
thing but his Duty. 

You muft come to this, elfc all your Wiff- 
Worfhip is of no ufe or advantage to you; I 
mean, you muft take Jefus Chrift to be your 
Lord and Saviour, made to you Right eouf- 
nefsy San^ification and Redemption. 

Then faid one of them, this is (Irange Do- 
iStrine indeed ; fliall not Man do Penance for 
his Sins, left forfooth, he may be takert 
notice of by the Croud of the ungodly 
World \ 

If true Repentance, faid I, is wrought in 
your Soul, it will neceflarily be accompanied 
by a holy Converfation and vertuous Adli- 

Then another Braman flood up, and drove 
away all the Populace, left they might be 
polluted in their Company ; neither would 
they approach me too near, for fear of be- 
ing rtiade unclean by my touching of them. 


[l lo The Ninth Confer ence^ 

Then I faid, Pray, Friends, what make^ 
you to be fo unreafonably Proud and Arro4 
gdnt, and afraid of being touch'd by other 
Men ? Whereas you Ihould be Examples of 
Humility to all your Hearers and Difciples 
that are round about you ? 

This is iib Effedt of Arrogance, faid 
they J but our Family is feparated from other 
Families of the Earth, and are forbidden by 
our Laws to keep any familiar Intercourfe 
with any other fort of People, upon Pain 
of being efteemed polluted by our own Bre- 

Then, faid 1, Pray, Sirs, of what Family 
do you derive your Pedigree ? 

We are defcended lineally, Jinfwer'd they^ 
from the God Biruma. 

Why, faid I, does not €vety Creatui-ci 
beget his like > And how comes it that you 
are born Mortal Priefls 5 and not Immortal 
Gods, if defcended from this Family of the 
Great God Biruma > He had four Heads ^ and 
you have but one only ; and are in nothing 
unlike the reft of the Malaharidns^ unlefsthat 
you furpafs all the Inhabitants iri all Super- 

of the Malabarian Qods: *i 1 1 

fluity of Noughtinefs, and fingular, uncom- 
thon Impieties. 

Theri another Bramau addrefs'd me in 
thefe Words; Sir, All what you have faid 
in relation to the Family of the Bramans^ is 
very true: For as to our bodily Appearance, 
what are we better than the vileft of the 
Populace > And when we die, our Bodies 
are reduced to Dufl: and Aflies, as the Car- 
kafles of the Bareyers, ^ i. e, common Sca- 
vengers J 

At which Difcourfe, the others feem'd to 
be much offended ; but he went on, and faid, 
what Madnefs and Folly does poflefs your 
Minds ? I will Eat and Drink with this Man, 
and am fure to receive no Damage by fo do- 
ing ; and thereupon came near me, and took 
me by the Hand, intimating that he aflented 
to all that I faid on that Head. An old Man 
that had been formerly the Governor of the 
Place, did me the fame Complement, and 
endeavour'd to confirm all that I faid , to the 
reft of the Bramans, and others there prefent* 

Thereupon more Bramans came to me, 
and ask'd me, if 1 had more Sermons to 
diftribute ? 


J I z Th^ Ninth ConfereHcey 8zcl 

1 anAver'd, I had no more Sermons with 
me at that time • but in cafe that they did 
diligently perufe thofe few I had diftributed 
among them, I would take care to furnifh 
them with many more with all convenient 
fpeed i and for that time I took my leave of 
them, recommending them all to the Graci- 
ous Protedlion of the Almighty. 



Conference X. 

Of the Education of Touthl 
and of the Duty of Pa^ 
rents and SehooUMafters. 

Between fome Malab avian School- Boys, 
and others, and one of the Danijb 

ON the Eleventh of April 1708, I 
went into a Malaharian School, 
and ask'd the Children what they 
learnt. I found they had learnt 
feveral Books by heart ; but when 1 ask'd 
them the Meaning of the fame Expreffions 
they had committed to Memory, and re- 
peated fo readily, 

I They 

I J4 T^he Tenth -Conference, 

They excus'd themfelves, faying, that 
their Mafters did not explain to them any of 
the occurring Difficuhies that are obvious 
enough to all that read thofe Books. 

Mean while, many Mahometans and Mala- 
hanans aflembled together i and addrefling 
my fell to the Children, I fpake to this Ef- 
fed ; My dear Children, the Great God 
has made you perfedtly beautiful, and en- 
dued you, not only with ftrong Limbs and 
healthy Bodies ^ but has blefled you with 
Immortal 'ouls : It you afpire after true 
Learning and Knowledge, you mud princi- 
pally, and in the firft place, ftudy to know 
God, your Maker ; and from your tender 
Years, labour to avoid all that has any Ap- 
pearance of Evil ; and exercife your felves 
in fill that is honeft and praife worthy ; 
For otherwife the Devil will draw you afide 
to the Prad-ice of Vice and Wickednefs : 
from sh hofe Snares you can't afterwards ea- 
fily extricate your felves, when you arrive 
to Riper Years. 

I truly lament your unhappy Circum- 
{lances, to have neither Barents at home, 
nor Mafters in thefe Publick Schools who 
are capable and willing to fe?fon your 
Minds betimes with the favmg Knowledge 


of the Education of Toiith, &c. ! 1 5 

of God ; for both your Parents and Maflers 
are as ignorant as your felves ; and walk 
themfelves in the Ways that lead to Hell 
and Deftrudtion : And as for the Booksyou 
read, 'tis to your Advantage that you areig* 
norant of the Contents thereof : For they 
are of no other ufe, but to corrupt your Un- 
derftanding, and make you more indifpos'd 
to learn the Truth in the lieu thereof, and 
to de/ire the Knowledge of the one only 
true God, who is Gracious and Merciful, 
willing that Babes and Sucklings, and all 
young Children fhou*d be fed with the fin- 
cere Milk of his Word, and be brought up 
in the Nurture and Admonition of the 

Then I ask'd them, Do you underdandl,' 
my fweet Children, all that I have faid unto 
you ? 

They anfwerd, Sir, we have underftood 
you very well. 

And are you refolv'd, added I, to pra* 
€t'i^Q what I have commanded you. 

They all anfwer'd. Yes, if we know how 
to begin and fet about it. 

1% Then 

1 1 6 The Tenth Conference] 

Then faid I, when you go from School, 
and come to any retir'd Place, fall down on 
your Knees, and fay, thou that has crea- 
ted the Heavens an A Earth, inflru^ us in the 
Knovoled^e of thy Gracious Nature^ and holy 
Will : deliver us from the Power an A Dominion 
of Idolatry and Superfiition ; And grant ^ 
Lord we may acknowledge and worfhip no o- 
the*" God lejides thee^ the only true God* Con- 
vert us, Lord, and enlighten our Under- 
fiandings more and more, that we may know our 
Duty towards thee, our God, and towards all 
others^ our Fellow-Ci^eatures, 

If you thus exercife your felves daily with 
fincere and pure Hearts, the Lord will have 
Mercy upon you, and will incline your 
Hearts to keep his Law, and do all his Will, 
and will furnifli you with all the fufficient 
Means neceflary for attaining the Know- 
ledge neceffary to make you truly happy. 

Then one of the Heathens flood up, and 
faid, how then comes it to pafs, that fome 
Children are naturally inclin'd to what is 
Good, and others as naturally bent and in- 
clin'd from their moO tender Years, to com- 
mit all forts ofmifchievous Ad:ions, maugre 
all the good Inftrudions of Parents or 
School- mailers ? Who is the Caufe oi this 


of the Education of Tenths &:c. 1 1 7 

Pronenefs to Evil, and Inclination to Ver- 
tue ; the Parents, God, or the Children 
themfelves ? 

I anfwer'd, God is noway the Caufe, nor 
the Occafionot the wicked Inclinations, dif- 
covering themfelves very early in Children: 
For God made Man righteous without .Spot 
or Bleniifli, or any fuch thing ; and Maa 
might have continued in this righteous, fin- 
lefs State, and propagated Children as righ- 
teous and innocent as himfelf ,• but our Firfi: 
Parents being deluded by a wicked fubtle 
Devil, rebelled againft God by Difobedience, 
and thereby loft his Image, connfling iq 
Righteoufnefs and Hol'tnefs^ and became di- 
fturb'd m all the Faculties of the Soul ; his 
Underftanding was darkned, and all the Af- 
fe<5tions dilbrder'd with refped: to their 
proper Objeds, efchewing Good, and pur- 
luing after Evil \ and the Children, partak- 
ing ot all the diforder'd Paffions ot their 
Parents, are commonly inclin'd to do Evil, 
before they know what it is to do well ; 
And this Original Sin is the Source of all 
adual Tranfgreffions, divided into infinite 
Rivulets and leifer Streams of Deviations 
and Errors, in the whole Cpurfe and Stages 
of Human Life. 

I 3 Ths 

1 1 8 The Tenth Conference, 

Then one of the Company anfwer'd, and 
faid, What you fay, Sir, carries with it all 
the Semblance and Colour of Truth ; and 
I really am of your Opinion, that Children 
are born with fome wicked Inclination and 
Pronenefs to Vice ; but as God is the Au- 
thor of Nature, why does not he prevent, 
or heal this Original Difeafe of Human Na- 
ture ; fince no Child is born into the World 
without the Concurrence of his Divine 
Will > 

Sir, faid I, that none is born without the 
Concurrence of the Divine Will, is unque- 
llionably true ; and 'tis as true, that all 
Children are born and conceived in Sin : 
'Tis likewife a great Truth that God is no 
way accelTary to this Original Evil ; For, as 
we hinted before, he created our Firft: Pa- 
rents holy, harmlels, and undefil'd, after his 
own Image ; but thty found out many Inventi- 
ons^ and became difobedient to their Creator ; 
and ever fince, their Pofterity are fmfully 
inclin'd from their Youth, and therefore need 
all the pofTible Care, both of Parents and 
Mailers, to bring them up in the Fear of 
the Almighty, by making them early, fen- 
fible of their Incapacity of performing what 
is requir'd of them, and of avoiding Evil, 
without the Aflidance of Divine Grace, and 


of the Education of Touth, S^c. i r 9 

9 continual Watch upon their own Hearts ; 
and that Parents and Teachers may be help- 
ful and ufeful in bringing up Youth for the 
Service of God, they mufl themfelves be 
pious and fobcr, experiencing the Work of 
true Converfion wrought in their own Souls: 
and when they are thus difpos'd, God will 
blefs their honed Endeavours, in teaching 
little Children his Ways. 

Then one of them flood up, and faid. 
Sir, a Thorn will remain a Thorn ; the 
Skill and Care of the Husbandman can't 
convert it into, a Fig Tree. 

I anfwerd, We are all by Nature finfully 
inclin'd, and of a Thorny Conftitution i and 
by the Care of Parents, Mafters, and the 
Concurrence of the good Husbandman, 
(God himfelf,) we are to be really chang'd 
and renew'd in the Spirit of our Minds, and 
become new Creatures, bearing much Fruit 
to the Honour of the Great Husbandman. 
And as for your Comparifon taken from 
Thorns, it does not hold at all in this Mat- 
ter : For Man has Ears and Underftanding ; 
and therefore capable of hearing and receiv- 
ing Inftrudion for the better Condud of 
his Life, which can't be apply'd to vegeta- 
tive and irrational Beings j becaufe they are 
not free Agents endu'd with Will and Under- 

I 4 (landing 

12 6 The Tenth Confer ence^ &c, 

(landing, as we fee, Man is, who upon folid 
Reafons and Perfuafions, can leave his 
wicked Courfes, and lead a fober and regu- 
lar Life j and therefore we never defpair of 
the Converfion of any Man living, however 
irregular and diforder'd he may be in Life and 
Converfation : And we experience the Truth 
of this every Day ; For the belt of Saints 
have been the word and greateft of Siq- 



Conference XL 

Of the Falfenefs of the Hea- 
then Gods. OhJeBions a- 
gainfi the Trinity an- 

Between a Learned Malabarian Phy^ 
Ccian, and one of the D<^«(/7;Miffia» 

ON the Fird of May 1708, there 
came to me a Learned Malabari- 
an Phyficiaii from Nagapatttam^ 
who laid, Sir, I am told, that 
you have learnt our Language, with a 
befign to teach us a new Religion. 

12 2 *The Eleventh Confer enci^ 

I anfvver'd, 'Tis the greatefl: Pleafurc of 
Life to me, to difcourfe with the Maiabari- 
ans in their own Language, upon any edi- 
fying Subjed ', and this is the Reafon, that 
I did alway importune my God m my Pray- 
ers, that I might attam to a fpeedy and per- 
fedt Knowledge of the Malahartart Tongue. 

He anfwer'd, We have had Chrijlians 
amongfl: us for many Years who always 
fcolded at us, calling us Heathens, Heathens ; 
tho* they never made it out that we were 
fo indeed ; nor that our Religion isFaife and 
Heathenifli. I would willingly know your 
Opinion on this Head. 

Sir, faidi, when I confideryourCondud 
and Addrefsin the AfTairs of this World, I 
look upon you as a Wife, Ingenious People, 
of very eafie and agreeable Converfation : 
But when I refled upon your grofs Igno- 
rance in the things relating to the Salvation 
of your own Souls, and upon the Abomi- 
nations of your Idol-worlliip, I am oblig'd 
to call you Heathens^ and your Religio^ 
is Falfe and Impious. 


of the Heathen Gihif. 125 

He reply 'd, Pray, Sir, don't you fee that 
we own and worfliip a Divine Supreme Be- 
ing ; believe another World wherein Vertue 
is rewarded, and Vice feverely puniOied ; 
and purfuant to this Belief, we do great Pe- 
nances, and mortifie our Bodies, to the End 
we may attone the Difpleafure of God, and 
receive the Pardon of our Sins ; We encou- 
rage likewife all forts of Vertuous Adions, 
as earneftly as your felves ,• how can we 
then be efteemed Heathens ? 

I anfwer'd, Pray tell me, Sir, is it better 
to have no God at all, or to worfliip many 
Gods who are really Devils. 

'Tis better, faid he, to have no God at 
all, than to worfliip a Devil > 

The Cafe is your own faid I j for you 
have indeed many Idols ,♦ but 'tis the Devil 
who is worfliipp'd in, and by thefe Images : 
Therefore according to your own ConteflTi- 
on, you are much worfe than thofe that wor- 
fliip no God at all ; for you adually reproach 
your Maker, by giving the Devil that Ho- 
nour due to him that made you, and continues 
your Lives in Being. 


124 ^^^ Eleventh Conference] 

But how can you dcmonflrate, reply 'd he, 
that we adore falfe Gods > This you are to 
prove clearly, elfe you fay nothing at all 
that affed:s our Religion. 

I proved, that there was but One God 
that made Heaven and Earth, by many evi- 
dent Demonftrations, borrow'd from the 
Works of the Creation, to his great Satisfa- 
ction ', then I concluded, if there is but One 
only true God, all your Idols are no Gods, 
but Lying Vanities ; as may be lliewn, and 
pfov'd out of your own Authors ,• For fome 
gf them have writ very well againd Idolatry 
and Superftitton^ aflerting boldly, that therp 
is but One Supreme Being. 

He faid, lama Phyfician, and know no^ 
well what to fay ; but our Priefts will give 
you fatisfad^ory Anfwers to all your Obje- 
ctions made againft our Religion, out of a Book 
intituled Dukkafaflirum, being writ exprelly 
as an Apology or Defence ot oiir Country- 
Gpds and Pagod-worfhip. 

Sir, faid I, if you can help me to this 
Book, III (ludy to do you Tome other fer- 
vice; and if you pleafe, I'll requite you, with 
a Book that demonftrates the Truth of the 
Chriltian Faith. 


of the Heathen Gods. T 2 5 

Me anfwer'd., that he was credibly inform'd, 
there was fuch a Book extant ; but that 
himfelF had neither feen, nor read it ,• and 
that the Bramans feldom fuffer Laymen to 
read fuch Books as thofe ; and much lefs 
would they be willing that Chriftians fliould 
perufe fuch Myflerious Writings. 

I reply'd, If it is a Book that contains 
fuch convincing Truths, in favour of your 
falfe Gods, why don't the Bramatts vouch- 
fafe lis the fight thereof ? Which would 
redound to their Honour and Edification : 
For if your Religion be of a heavenly Ori- 
ginal, we would willingly embrace it, and 
pay all due Veneration and Worlhip to the 
Malaharian Gods : And therefore I am in- 
clin'd to believe, that there is no fuch Book 
extant, or that it is in the fame Stile with 
your other Writings • I mean, weak, infipid 
and contradiilory. 

I (hall adjourn the farther DifcufTion, faid 
he of this Debate, till fach time that I can 
bring a Riflil Prophet) along with me, well 
vers'd in Books of Controverfies and able to 
anfwer all your Objed^ions relating to Reli- 
gious Matters. 


12 6 The Eleventh Conference^ 

Do (b, faid I, and bring with you in wri- 
ting the Demonftrations of the Truth and 
Reality of your Gods, and HI take care to 
commit to Writing a Chain of Arguments 
demonflrating the Falfenefs and NulHty of 
your Religion ; and both our Writings Ihall 
be read publickly before an Aflembiy of 

He anfwer'd, Tho* I ant now an Old 
Man, yet I dare affirm, that I neveraddrefs'd 
my Prayers to thefe Idols, nor ever honour'd 
them with Sacrifices in the Pagods ^ And on 
the other hand, I never blafphem'd them, or 
did any thing that might refled: Reproach 
upon their Divinity. ^ 

Then, faid I, you liv'd without God in 
the World. 

I invok'd, faid he, the Caiife of Cau fes ; 
and in all Humility of Mind ador'd and 
honour'd the Supreme Being. 

T find many of your Mind, faid I, who 
never rrequent the Vagpds^ nor offer Burnt- 
facrifices to Idols ; but are (till altogether 
ignorant of the true God, m relation to his 
Nature, Attributes, and the Didates of his 
Divine Will ; and of this you'll be alway 


of the Heathen Gods, iz'j 

ignorant till you are inftrud-ed out of his 
Revealed Will. 'Tis to this holy Word of 
God you muft give diligent heed : For 'tis 
thro' the Means of this infpir'd Book you 
are to exped: Everlafting Life. 

I confefs, reply 'd he, that we talk a great 
deal about the Supreme Being; but, pray, 
tell me, do you know the Man that ever 
faw God, to the end he may fpeak upoa 
his own Experience, in more lively Chara- 
d:ers, and Delineations than have been hi- 
therto made ufe of in the Definition of 

God does not appear in bodily fliape, 
faid I : For he is a Spirit ; but he has ap- 
peared, and revealed himfelf by his Son Je^ 
Jm Chrifl, who clothed himfelf with the 
Garments of Mortality, to the end he might 
fuf!er tor our Sins, reconcile iis to God, and 
bring us to him, and to do his Will ; which 
is our Salvation. If you beheve in Chrifl: 
the Redeemer of Mankind, your Mind 
will be more and more enhghtned in the 
Knowledge of the Supreme Being, 

Who is his Son, faid he ? And is hs alfo 


12? The Eleventh Confer en<:e] 

I anfwer'd, He is Godlleifed jor ever. 

But, pray Sir, recoiled: your felf, faid he, 
have not you been juft now inveighing a- 
gainfi: PluraUty oF Gods ? And now I find, 
you have your felves more than One ; the Fa- 
ther is God, and the Son is God ^ then you 
have tix>o Gods. 

I anfwer'd. We do not believe Two Gods, 
but One only God ; tho' at the fame time, 
We firmly believe, that there are Three 
Perfons in One Divine Effence; and yet 
thefe Three Perfons are not Three, but One 
God : And this we believe as a great Myfte- 
ry, tranfcending our weak finite Faculties: 
We are fatisfied, that *tis a revealed Truth 
in Scripture ; and God, who knows himfelf, 
has enjoyn'd us to believe a Trinity of Perfons 
in one Divine Effence ; which we call Father^ 
Son J and Holy Ghofi. 

If God has a Son, faid he, then your God 
as well as fome of ours, muft have a 
Wife, and is by Confequence, a material' 



of the Heathen Gods* 129 

God is a Spirit, fald 7, and tlicrefore has 
no bodily Siiapc and confcqucntly could nor 
have a vSon in the ordinary Way of Genera- 
tion ; but without any Knowlerfge of a 
Confort, he begat his Son from Eternity, 
by Generation not to be parallcJI'd in Tinne ; 
and from Father and Son proceeds the Holy 
Spirit, the Thirri Perfon in the Ble(Ted Tri- 
nity ; vvhibh tho' to us Mortals incompre- 
henfible j yet the Po/Iibilit}^ thereof may be 
fliadow'd forth by an eafie Familiar Compa- 
rifon : Out of the Immaterial Soul of Maa 
proceeds, and is born the Undcr(landhT^ ; 
and from the EfTence of the Soul, and the 
Underflanding, emanes or proceeds the 
Will '^ and yec the Soul, fas to its EfTence) 
the tJnderflanding, and the Will, are really 
but One and the fame thing. The Applica- 
tion thereof is eafie to the Dod:rine of the 
Trinity as far as Divine Things may be com- 
pared to Things created, that are within pur 

I find, faid he, that you with fubtil Ways 
of arguing, can make a Trinity confiftenc 
with t/«//y ; and if your Explication is Ab- 
folutely necefTary to malie others underftand 
what you mean, pray, allow us the fame 
advantage of explaining the Dodtrine of our 
Religion, and putting it in the favourabled 

K Light 

1 3 o The Eleventh Confer encey 

Light we can, for the excluding of the Ah- 
furdities imputed to us ? And this once 
granted us, 'twill follow, that Our Plurality 
does not deQroy the Unity o\ God, no more 
than yotdr trinity does. We worihip the 
Gods upon no other Account, than becaufe 
they are the Vicegerents of the Almighty, 
whole Adminiflration h^ employs in govern- 
ing the World, as he did employ them at 
the Beginning in Creating and Forming the 
fame And our God appearing among Men 
at fundry times under different Shapes, had 
at every Apparition a different Name given 
Him, which contributed very much to the 
Multiplying the Number of our Images ; 
whereas in truth, they are but different Re- 
prefentations of the fame God, under diffe- 
rent Afpeds and Appearances. 

. Sir, faid T, what you fay, is very plaufible, 
and might weigh with thofe that are not 
well vers'd in the Articles of your Religion; 
but all thefe fine explicatory Comments are 
lighter than Vanity, and have no Weight 
with me; becaufe I have both read your 
Books, and {^tn with my own Eyes your 
Idolatrous jperiormances. For let us fuppofe 
with you', that the Supreme Being, or God, 
in the Beginning created thefe Gods, and 
employ d them to create the World; yet 
*tis clearj that the holy God would make ufe 


of the Heathen Gods, j j i 

of Lieutenants like himfelf, in Piety and Ju- 
flice ; and would not employ Publick Rob- 
bers and Adulterers, plung'd in all the Dregs 
of Senfuality, and ftudied Mifchiefs, fuch 
as all your Gods are notorioufly known to 
be, living in an Eternal State of War and Con- 
tention among tlicmfelves ,• and more like. 
ly to bury the World in its own Ruins, or 
reduce it to its Primitive Chaos 2LX\d Confufion, 
than to dire(3: this great Machine with any 
tolerable R^egularity ; efpecially, the moral 
Adions of free, rational Agents, the chief 
Care of God's governing Power and Wifdom. 
As to the Apparitions of your God under 
various Shapes, 'tis nothing but a mere 
Fidion of your Poets, Allegorka/Iy fetting 
forth various Adventures, confident with 
the Genius of wild undifciplin d Tyrants ; 
but no ways agreeable to the Nature of the 
meaneft Servant of the holy God. 

Well, faid he, I am refolv'd to confuk 
our Bramans upon thefe Matters, and urge 
them to be plain in telling their Meaning 
freely upon this Head. 

K i your 

I J 2 The Eleventh Conference, 

Your Bramans are much blinder thari 
your felf in thefe Matters , reply *d 1 ; 
For tho' they are convinc'd of the Falfe- 
nefs of their Gods ,• yet they'll hardly 
own it to you ; for that would turn the 
.Stream from their Mill ; and their pious 
Frauds would be expofed to the View 
of all Mankind. Go home rather, and 
confult the only true God, praying him 
earneftly to lead you into all Truth, both 
of Faith and Pradice ; and then youll 
clearly fee, that all your Malabar ian Gods 
are but lying Vanities* 

Thefe. Queflions, faid he, have taken 
all the time that I defign'd for Queftions 
of another nature. 

I ask'd, what Queftions he meant ? 

He anfwerd, Queflions relating to the 
Art of curing Difeafes in Human Bodies; 
for I would know how they prepare 
Medicaments among the Europeans ; and 
whether they have skilful Men in the Art 
ot Medicine. 

of the Heathen Gods^ 1 3 j 

I anfwer'd, this fhall be the Subjed- Mat- 
ter of the next Conference. And if you 
v/ill procure me fon>e good Manufcripts in 
Medicine, you'll highly oblige me; for I 
defire to fee you lliortly at Negapatnam and 
to fave you the Trouble pt coming hi* 




Conference XII. 

Chnftian Religion and true 
Piety con fifls chiefiy in Pra- 
Bice. The Laws and 
Poejie of the Malabarians, 

Between Two Malabarian Poets, and 
a Bramany and one of the Danifl) 

ON the Twelfth of May 1708, Two 
Malabarian Poets favour'd me 
with a Vific, accompanied with 
a Braman. I ask'd them, with 
what View they did me this Honour ^ 

K 4 They 

1 3 6 The Tn'>eljtb Conference^ 

They faid, 'twas their Curiofity led 
them to talk with an European, having 
heard that I underfiood the Language of 
the Countrey, and converfed freely with 
all forts of People ; which they never heard 
before of any of my Countreymen. 

I anfvver'd, 'Tis true, that 1 converfe dai- 
ly with fome of the Inhabitants about the 
Things relating to their Salvation ,• but I 
mult confefs, that but few of them do 
endeavour to put in Fradice my Inflru- 
dions ; tho' they allow them to be all 
very true , and neceflary to be obferved. 

Sir, faid they, It does not import what 
ufe they make of your Infl:rud:ions ; your 
Bufmefs is to make wife Anfwers to 
Queflions that are propos'd unto you. 

Hence I may conclude, anfwered I, that 
your Defiga in this Vifit is not right : For 
I am afraid you come to fatisfie your vain 
Curiofity, more than to be inftrudted in the 
great Things of God, and the other World, 
which grieves me very much; not that you 
Endamage me ; but that you run the Rifque 
of deflroying your own Souls ; adding to 
the Weight of your Sins and Guilt, by Jeit- 
ing with holy Things. 


Lawf,Szc, o^r/j^ Malabarians. 137 

Hereupon the Poet anfwer'd, Sir, 'tis a 
great deal eafter to Hear, than to Ad" ,• and 
tis highly probable, that many among Chri. 
flians can hear a good Difcourfe very wil- 
lingly, who feldom are follicitous about the 
putting it inPradice. 

I faid, 'tis very true, that by Nature \vc 
are all averfe from doing that which is good ; 
and, till converted by the Power of God's 
Spirit, it can't be expeded that Men carnally* 
minded, fhould be Spiritually and Pioully 
inclin'd. Whether they be Uliite or Black 
Men, Heathens or ChriJIiaMS, they mud be- 
lieve in Chrilt, and repent heartily of all 
their Sins, elfe they can't put in Pradice 
the Precepts of the Gofpel ; tho' it mud be 
confefs'd, that unregenerate Chriflianshaye 
better Opportunities for the inducing them 
to the Pradice of Piety, than you Malalari- 
ans have ; for they Enjoy all the Means of 

The Braman ask'd , \\ hat are thofe 

Means tliat can induce Men to live good 
Lives ? 


1 J 8 The Twelfth Conferencey 

The Words of the Gofpel, anfAcred I, are 
the only i'aving Means, ordered by God to 
induce finful Men and Women to repent of 
their Sins, and to live holy, fober Lives, 
worthy of God, and of the high Dignity of 
the Human Nature ,• all clearly defcribed 
in this Glorious Gofpel of JefHS, Qhrijl : 
Therefore 'tis otherwife called, The good 
Tidings of Salvation proclaiming Peace on 
Earth, and good Will towards Men. 

The Braman anfwer'd, We have all thcfe 
among our lelves ; for our Law is the Word 
of God, and I am one of the Priefts of God, 
teaching the People the Way that leads tQ 
Eternal Happineis. 

You are always fpeaking of your Law, 
which you call God's Word ; but I am in- 
clined to believe, faid I, you have no fuch 
Law among you : For if you have any fuch 
Law, why don't you produce it ; I never 
found hitherto any Braman, that could upon 
his own Experience affirm, that he ever faw 
this Law; but fays, that fuch another Great 
Braman has it in his Poffeffion \ and if you 
addrefs this great Braman^ he refers you to 
fome other Braman greater than himCtlf ; and 
fo none of you can ever produce this Imagi- 
nary Law. 


LatPSf Src. of the Malabarlans. j j 9 

That there is fuch a Law, you mufl: not 
in the lead doubt : For my fell have leen it, 
faid he, and read it. 

Why don*t you then read your Law to 
the People, and explain it in your Pagods^ 
reply'd I ? 

He anfwer'd, 'Tis Writ in the Bramijh 
Tongue, which can't be well tranflated into 
the Malaharian. Befides that, it contains fuch 
deep Myfteries, that furpafs the Capacities 
of the Popylace ; for did you attempt to ex- 
plain to them the myflerious Contents of the 
Divine Law, they would certainly lofe their 
Senfes, and become diflracSted. 

I proceeded to ask him, who gave you 
this Law ? God or Man ? , 

The Braman anfwer'd, the God Biruma 
gave us this Law ; but the Poet contradided 
him and affirmed, that 'twas the God Tfchi- 
wen ; and the other Poet was fully alfur'd 
that the God Ruddireu was the Author of it : 
Thus they difagreed in their Sentiments. 


1 40 Ihe Twelfih Confer erne, 

I further ask'd them, with what View 
was this Law given to the Malaharians ? 

That by the Means thereof they may at- 
tain everlafting Happinefs, both Bramans, 
and other Orders and Ranks of Men, an- 
fwer'd he. 

But if fo, faid I, all Men are obliged to 
liear and (ludy it, as wxll as you Bramans. 
And why don't you explain this Law to the 
People, that they may regulate their Con- 
verlations accordingly ? 

He reply'd, tho' they don't read the Law, 
yet they read feveral good Books that are 
taken out of the Law, containing all the 
necefTary Rules for the leading of a fober, 
honeft Life. 

I defired him to name me fome of thofc 

He anfwer'd, Dirumteafchagum, Dirumwei' 
adel^ Dirumwa/Iuery Paraduniy and other the 
like Books. 

Lan^Sf &c. of the M-alabarians. 1 4 1 

i ask'd him, if all contain'd in thefe, 
agree with all that is written in your Sacred 
Law-Book ? 

He anfwered, Yes. 

Then, faid I, all thefe Books I have 
perufcd j and if your (acred Law contains 
no better Things, it mud have the Devil 
for its Author ,• and mud lead all its blind 
Followers into the Pit of Hell ; and I won- 
der, you can name fuch Books, as con- 
taining the neceflary Rules to a holy 
Life, whilfl: the Books Dirumweiadel and 
ParaJum^ are fo full-fraught with infipid 
Stories and Nonfence, that a wife Man 
would be very forry to have given him- 
felf the trouble to perufe fuch uncooth 
Extravagancies ; fo far are thefe Books 
from marking out the Way that leads to 
Eternal Hadpine^s, that they are deilru. 
d:ive of good Morals, and the Practice of 
common Honelly. 

They wondred to find me fo well vers'd 
in the myderious Books of their Religion ; 
and asked me, what other i^^j/^^^r/^w Books 
I had read ? Whereupon I {hew*d them my 
Colle(5tion of Malaharian Books, giving my 
Opinion upon everv Book leparateiy* 


14 2 *Ihe Twelfth Confer encey 

The two Poets asked me, if I would em- 
ploy them in my Service ? 

To whom I anfwered, Repent and leave 
your Idols ,• then III take care to fee you 

But they urged me to employ them therii 
by giving fome Subjed:-matter for Verfe. 
Whereupon I gave them the following Ar- 

There is one GoJy ift whom we lelieve ^ 
akd thoje that know him not ; hut adore th'e 
Malabarian/j//^ G£?/^j, are Heathens^ and are 
in danger to he damned for ever. 

This Matter in a very little time, they 
fpun out into a fine Poem of a confiderable 
Length, againfl the Plurality of Gods ,• and 
having read this almoft extempore Poem, I 
told them, what pity is it, that Men of 
fuch bright Geniuses and ready rich Invention, 
fnould at3: againft your Confciertces, by 
worOiipping Graven images, inflead 6\' the 
True God, whom you have fo excellently 
well dreicrib'd in this Speciynenoi )om great 
Abilities in the Art of Poefie ! 


tarvs, &c. of the Malabarians. 1 4 j 

They anfwer'd, We are born in this Coun- 
trey, and can't get our Living any where 
elfe ; and did we begin to talk againft th6 
Religion by Law eflahli[hed^ we are quite 
ruined ; tor no body would receive us 
into their Houfes. 

At this rate, faid I, you would rather 
go to Hell in Malahrian Company, than 
to Heaven in the Company of Strangers , 
and fuiler fome Inconveniencies in this 
World upon the Account of Truth, and 
the Honour of the God that made 

.They reply'd, When we fee our Kings 
and Princes coming over to your Religi- 
gion, we iliall follow their good Exam- 

But if in your way you found a great 
Treafure, faid I, I don't believe , you 
would let it lie there till your King would 
be pleas'd to take it up firft. You have 
now a Jewel- of great Price ofler'd to you, 
even the Dodrine of Salvation j^'tis your 
Intereft to accept of it, cho' Kings and 
Princes may negled (o great a Salvation. 


144 27;^ Twsifch Conference^ 

He anfwerd, I wifli you would be 
pleas'd to come once into our Country, where 
Learned Bramans and Prophets would be 
glad to fee you, and confer with you very 

How willingly, would I travel all your 
Countrey over, and converfe amicably with 
all forts of Men about the Ways and Means 
of Salvation ,- but I know, no European cati 
Travel in your Country, much lefs is it per- 
mitted for me, a Chriftian Minifter, to Preach 
among you the glad Tidings of the Gofpel : 
And what is dill more an Argument of your 
Untowardnefs towards Men that would teach 
you the Way to everlafting Happinefs, that 
all Communication by Letters are flridfly 
forbidden between this and the City where 
your king rfcfides : An Example of Severity 
and Stubbornnefs not to beparallell'd in any 
Parts of the World. 

Many of the common People, faid he, 
would be glad to fee you ; but the King's 
CiEcers, and efpecially Excifem.en, would be 
apt to flop you, to the end they may fqueeze 
-Money '^ut of you, and then deliver you 
bound to the King of t^njour^ who is a mor- 
tal Enemy to the Chriflians, and has caufed 
many of the Romijh Religion to be cruelly 
Murtiiered* I 

Larvs^ Scc, of the Malabarians, 14 5 

I anfwer'd, had I a full Call to come to 
your Parts to Preach the Gofpel, I would 
gladly come ; but my hands are now full, 
and I have many neighbouring Heathens to 
be inftruded in the Dodtrine of Salvation. 
When the Harveft here is at an End, and no 
more Work for us in thefe Parts, I hope, God 
Almighty will open a Way for the glad Ti- 
dings of the Gofpel to be preached^ irt your 
Country alfo. 




Conference XIIL 

OfPhilofophy and Idolatry ; 
and of Internal Spiritual 

Between a Malabarian Philofopher, and 
one of die Dani/lj Miffionaries. . 

N the Twenty fecond of Iklay, 
1708, I received a Vifit from a 
Malabarian Philofopher , who 
asked me, if the Study of Philo- 
fophy was in any eileem in Europe^ and what 
Sed was mod in vogue at this time > 

L z Sir, 

148 The Thirteenth Confer ence^ 

Sir, faid I, you know that my Bufinersis 
to Preach Repentance towards God, and 
Faith in the Lord Jefus Chrifl ; Therefore 
you ihould ask me Queftions relating to your 
Eternal Welfare, father than Niceties ofPhi- 

V > 

Pray Sir, faid he, what can be more ne- 
celTary for the attaining Eternal Happihefs, 
than the uieful Knowledge of Philofophy ? 

Indeed, faid I, your Philofophy is nole(s 
corrupted, and full - fraught with Impious 
AbfurditieSjthan your La wand Hiftories are ; 
but among us Europeans, Philofophy is little 
efteemed if compared with the excellent 
Heavenly Inilitutions of Jefus Chrift. 

What, faid he, have you no Philofophers 
then in Europe ? 

Yes, we have, anfwer'd I, and more pro- 
foundly* and exficty learned in all Parts of 
Philofophy, than you can boaft: of in thefe 
Countries,- but we cultivate the Sciences^ 
^s fuhfervient Handmaids to Theology ; but 
not as immediate Means of Salvation. 


of Philofophyy Idolatry, &c. 149 

How is It pofTibie, reply'd he, that Ifliould 
know God, and Spiriutal Things, if I don't 
firft know my felf, and the Works of Creation, 
the immediate Objeds of my Senfes ? 

All this, reply'd I, is very True ; but 
this is what I would fay ; that all the na- 
tural Knowledge ac<^uir'd by Reflection up- 
on the Operations of oar Mind, and upon 
the vifible World, in all its beauteous Va^ 
rieties, and Proportion, is not fufficient to 
make us wife unto Salvation : For my own 
Underflanding, without the Help o\ reveal- 
ed Light, can t difcover the Original Caufe 
o^ Man's Mifery, nor ever attain to the Know- 
ledge of a Reefeewer; nor (liew how we are 
to (erve God, in a manner acceptable and 
well-pleafing unto him. Ther&tore Phi- 
lofophers deceive themfelves by a vain 
Perfuafion that they know all, when indeed, 
they know but very little, or nothing at all 
as they ought to know. 

He reply'd, I and others of my Profedion, 
do not believe a Plurality of Gods, worfliip- 
ped in out PagoJs ; neither do we frequent 
thefe Places to offer Sacrifices, or to periorm 
tedious Ceremonies enjoyn'd upon the vul- 
gar People ; but we reverently adore t\\i^ Su- 
preme Being. v;ho created all Things. 

)jO The\Tbineenth Conference, 

If you are convinced, faid I, of the Fal- 
fity of your Idolatrous Worlliip,why don't you 
endeavour to inftrud; the Ignorant in thefe 
great Truths, and encourage them to forfake 
Idolatry, and Worfliip the Qne only true 

He anf^er'd, VVp live in a World where 
very few Men can ferve God without the 
Intervention of Figures and Images ; For we 
can hardly think of any thing, but as 'tis 
reprefented under fome Corporeal Idea. And 
befides, if it was not for Polythetfm, and I- 
mages, how could the Bramans, Pantaren and 
other Ecclefiafticks, find fo comfortable a 
Living as now they Enjoy ? 

But do you believe, reply'd I, that Idolatry 
is acceptable to the Supreme Being, whom, 
you fay, you devoutly Worfhip and Adore ? 

He anfwer'd, if Men would lead Ibbtr 
and good moral Lives, God would pardon 
them all other Failings ; for he knows, 'ti? 
an Error of their Underftandings, and thai: 
they know no better ; and tho' their Ado- 
ration more immediately is direded to the 
Idol, yet ultimately it terminates upon him- 
feif i and therefore their Performances arp 
not unacceptable to him. 


of Fhilofophy^ Idolatry ^ &c.' Iji 

I told him, all Idol-Worfliip is an Abomi- 
nation to the Lord ; for he is a Spirit, and is 
to be worfliipped in Spirit and in Truth ; 
and their Worfhip is acceptable to the Devil 
only, the firfl: Author and Inventer of Ido • 
latrous Worfliip. 

I wiih, faid the Philofcf her, with all my 
Heart, that all the World would adore the 
One only Supreme God, and deflroy all 
Graven Images, and worfhip him,as you have 
Well exprefs'd it, in Spirit and in Truth. 

But what Means and Afliftance does your 
Philofophy afford to perform this Inward and 
Spiritual Worlliip, faid I ? 

We have, faid he, Three great Means to 
affift us in our inward Worlhip of God (viz?) 
Fafling^ Solitarinefs, and Watching : For by 
the continual exercifing our felves in thefe 
three Duties, our Minds afcend above the vi- 
fible World, and are made fit to Worfhip 
God inwardly, or, as you lay, in Spirit and 
in Truth. 

Thefe three Ruksy faid I, well obferv'd, 

are very good ; but without Repentance from 

dead Works, and a lively Faith in Jefus 

Chrifty all Rules and Precepts will be of 

L 4 little 

i^z The Ihirteenth Conference] 

^ittle ufe to you for the due Performances of 
his Internal and Spiritual Worfliip, fo ac- 
ceptable and well-plcaung to God : And 
therefore, m Or^^er to worfliip him as you 
ought, you mull be i?iitru(f>ed in the Do- 
^_^y .-,:■ -"^ the Gofpel, 'vhich is the only Book 
thai, •tcc.cii^^s i Lilly arid c;".*iiy the M:-'ans of 
Salvation and Reconciliation with Govi. If 
you would be happy, liudy this excellent 
Volume, and throw away all your other 
Books of learned Vanities. 

He asked me, if I could fliew him that 
excellent Book, which I called the Gof- 
pel > 

Yes, faid I, and lliewed him the Bible 
printed in feveral differentLaguages^ and gave 
him a fummary Account of the Oeconomy of 
Salvation^ with which he feemed very much 
affe(2ed, and asked me, if I had no Wri- 
ting relating to the Chridian Religion, tran- 
flated into the Malaharian Tongue > 

Thereupon I lliew'd him Luther's Cafe- 
ch/fm, U^ith Twenty Six Sermons preached 
by me upon the Articles of the Chriftian 
Faith in our Jerufalem-Church at Trattquehar; 
and finding him mightily delighted in the 
reading cf them, I bid him take them 


of Philofophy^ Idolatry^ Szcl 155 

with him, and read them diligently, not 
forgetting to inftrudl his poor Neighbours 
in the Dodrine of Salvation. 

This he promifed to do , and with- 





Conference XIV. 

Upon various Siihjecls, 

Between feveral Perfons, and one o^ 
the Danifl^ Miffionaries. 

N the Twenty third o^July, 170S, 
I fet out very early from l^ranque- 
bar by Land, to go to Negapatyiam^ 
a Town belonging to the Ho/Ia/id^ 
ers : When I came to the Teirritories of the 
King of tanjour^ I was presently (loppd 
by the Officers, commanding me to pay 
Tribute-money. I alighted ofT my Hcrfe, 
and ask'd them, if their Priefts had not free 
Pafiage through all Countries ? 


155 The Fourteenth Confer encey 

Tfiey have fo, faidthey, in all our King^s 
Dominions ; but we know that you are not 
one of our Priefts j you are the Chrijiian- 
maker of Trang^uehar. 

But, Sir, faid Ij Remember, that T left 
roy own Countrys and wiih great Pams-ta- 
king, learnt your Language merely out of 
Love to your Souls. Pray, fliew me a Priefl: 
that has laboured fo much to promote your 
Happinefs, as I have ; and dare you. com- 
mand me to pay PaiTage -money ? 

Then a Braman that fat among the Cu- 
flom houfe Officers told me, thatif tht King 
Oi lanjour knew that I pafs'd through his 
Territories, I fliould be forc'd to pay ten 
tim^s more than what is commonly demand- 
ed from other White People ; becaufe ever 
fmce you came to thefe Countries, you are, 
faid he, always fcolding at our Pagpds^ blaf- 
pheming our Gods, and curfing our Reli- 
gious Ceremonies as Superflitious Errors and 

All this, faid T, is very true ; I have cry'd 
aloud againft your falfe Gods ; and will go 
on to do fo, not out of a Spirit of Contra- 
didtion j but out of an Earnefl: Defire to 
convince you of your grofs Errors and Ig- 

upon various SubjeBs: 1 57 

norance in Spiritual and Religious Mat- 

The Manikaren, or chief of the Cuftom- 
houfe OHicers told me, that I was cer- 
tainly in the right : For we do not live wor- 
thy of the Dignity of Rational Beings ; 
and we are now in the Dregs of Time ; 
the World is plung'd in the Mud and 
Mire of Senfuality and Worldly- minded- 

'Tis not enough for you to confefs, faid 
i, the Evil of your Ways, unlefs you do 
likewife efchew Evil, and follow after that 
which is good ,• 'tis Imprudence in you 
to find fault with the Tirties : For to 
day is the Time of Salvation to you, and your 
Countrey-men, if you'll accept the kind 
Offers of Heaven, that are made to yoa 
at this time by my means : For lam come 
among you, willing to declare unto you 
the whole Counfel of God. 

The Braman flood up, and faid to me,' 
we know, faid he, you have a long way to 
go ,• we'll fpare you from paying any Tri- 
bute for this time : Then giving a few Groats 
among the Officers to buy Betel- Areck, I 
rode forward, and was met by a numerous 
Company of Heathens of all Ranks and 


1 5 8 The Fourteenth Conference , 

Degrees, travelling towards DiruppudM^ a 
Pagod, Fifteen days Journey diflant, and Ve- 
ry famous for a Multitude of Pilgrims and 
Votaries, \yho refort thither, to the end they 
ifiay receive Forgivenefs of Sins. I ihew'd 
them the Vanity of their Undertaking, inaf- 
liiuch as none can forgive Sins, but the 
true God alone, through the Merits of his 
Son Jefus Chrift, updn the Condition of 
Faith and Repehtance, 

Here I repeated compendioufly the Hi- 
flory of Chrift's Life, Death and Refurre- 
i^ion, with the faving Confequences of 
the fame j and then proceeded on my 
Journey, till I camie to a Town called 
/farcika, where there is a Stately Fagod^ 
or Heathen Temple ; before which I palled 
by, on Horfeback : Then fuddenly both 
Priefts and People pealed me with Male- 
didions and Abufive Words ; whereupon 
1 alighted df! my Horfe , and ask'd them 
what was the Matter, and wherein I had 
offended them ? 

The Governor of the Place told me. 
Sir, you fliould know that this FagoJ b 
a mofl holy Place, and the ufual Habita- 
tion of our God : Therefore 'tis for- 
bidden all Men with Horfcs and UmhreU 
Iff to pafs before it ^ even the Kmg of 

upon various Subjed^s. i jy 

tanjour himfelfj approaching this holy Place, 
he gets out of his Palanquin (Chair) or 
aiights off his Horfe, and walks with great 
Devotion i Therefore your riding by, and 
hot alighting ofT your Horfe, offended us 
very grievoufly. 

Sirs, faid I, if you can demonftratc, the 
Gods worlhipped in this Temple, and the 
Dodrine taught therein to be true Gods, 
and true Dodrine, then, I confefs, I incurr'd 
very juflly your higheft Difpleafure ^ and 
will Chearfully fubmit to condign Punifh- 
ment : But if your Evidences are not 
cogent, or your Reafons demonftrative, 
how can you expedl that a Servant 6i 
the great God, who made you, and a 
Prieft, that teaches the Ways of Salvati- 
on, Ihould alight off before the Temple of 
a Dumb Idol, which can neither hear, fpcak, 
nor go > 

Hereupon a Multitude of Mahometans 
applauded what I faid ; and defir'd the 
Bramafts to produce their Evidences for the 
Truth of their Gods and Religion ,• which 
if they were not able to perform, they pro- 
tefted, I had all the Reafons in the World 
not to alight off my Horfe in riding before 
the Pago{i» 


1 6*0 The Fourteenth Conference] 

Whereupon the Bramans retired, orte 
after another, giving me no Anfvver, nor 
Reafons in Defence of their lying Gods, and 
their falfe Religion. 

Then addrefTing my felf to the Peo- 
ple, I fpoke of two Ways of attaining to 
the Knowledge of God, either by contem- 
plating the Works of Creation^ or by di- 
ligent Reading the Revealed Will of God 
contained in the Old and New Tefta- 
tnent ; and recommending them to the 
Grace of God, I was ferry'd over a great 
River, and came into a Publick Houfe, 
and there refrefhed my felf with my 
Companions : And finding the Houfe 
full of Heathens, I difcourfed them freely a- 
bout the Way and Dodrine of Salvation j and 
they heard me with Attention, and unaf- 
feded Willingnefs ; asking me, where was 
the Place of Happinefs ? Which was the 
true Way that led thither ? And whether 
every Man might not be faved in his own 
Religion ? 

upon various Sulpje^s* i6i! 

I anfwer'd what I thought proper, to 
their Three feveral Queftions, giving them 
by the way, fome of the Charatlerijtkks or 
Marks ot the True Religion, and of the Do- 
dJrine of Salvation, in Contradiflindion to 
the Dodfine of Hell and Perdition, taught 
by their vain, ignorant, lying Priefls. 

M Con- 


Conference XV. 

Ahout Matters of Religion. 

Between fome Learned Bramam, Rifchi 
(Prophets,) and PhyficianSj und one 
of the Dani/Jj Miffionaries. 

N the Twenty Seventh of July, 
1708, the moft Learned ^rdfiw^«j, 
Rifchi, (Prophets) and Phyficians, 
affcmbled at the Houfe of one of 
the Dutch Magi Urates, who had fenc his 
Secretaries all about the Country, to invite 
them to a Friendly Conference about Matters 
of Rehgion : And they appearing, about 
Eight of the Clock in the Morning, were 
kindly received into the Chairs and Seats 
made ready for them, the Common Peo- 
M 2 pie 

i 64 The Fifteenth Conference] 

pie fitting upon a matted Floor, the Doors 
crouded with a great Multitude of Peo- 

I fignified my joyful Readlnefs of con- 
ferring with them abbut Matters of Religi- 
on, it being the diftinguifliing Charader of 
a Rational Being, to be capable of Difcour- 
fing about the Things relating to the Su- 
preme Being. 

Hereupon a Rifchiy or one of their Pro- 
phets, anfwer'd me, in the Name of his 
Countrymen , that they were as joyful to 
have an Opportunity to talk now, for the 
firft time, with an European about Contro- 
verted Points in Religion, in their own Ma- 
laharian Language : But, faid he, we find 
iafuperable Difficulties that of nece(fity will 
retard our Union in Matters of Opinion, (o^^ 
ing we have no common Law own'd fed 
received by Europeans artd Malaharians, to 
which we may appeal as to a Common Vrin- 
c'lple : For if you talk of the Excellency of 
your Law, you can't exped- it lliould have 
any Impre/Iion upon a Malalarian Audience, 
who know nothing of your European Laws ; 
neither is it reafonably to be hoped,that you 
Chriftians will- embrace our Laws and Rdi- 
gioa upon our Commendation only. 


about Matters of Religion; \ 6 5 

I anfvV'er'd, I am very fenfible, that 
what you fay, is very rational and weighty ; 
and therefore juftly claims our firft Confide- 
racion, by inquiring into the Nature of, and 
Charaders v\(\h\Q in the Chr/fiian und Mala- 
larian Laws : But feeing your Law can't be 
produced ; and that you can't read the Laws 
of the Chriftians, this Debate mufi: be adjour- 
ned to another Opportunity ; and let us ar- 
gue the Matter for this time, from the un- 
doubted, -univerfally-received Principles of 
Reafon, and appeal to the Decifions of un^ 
prejudiced Confcience- 

This Method they unanimoufly accepted, 
inviting me to propofe fome Subject matter 
for a ferious, fober Conference. 

Then I began, with asking them, if they 
believed the Exiflence of One Supreme Be- 

They anfwer'd, Yes ; We believe that 
there is One only God, the Maker and Caufe 
of all other Beings whatfoever : For if we 
did not believe the Exillence of a Supreme 
Being, what (hould put us upon writing fo 
many Books about the Exiftence and Attri- 
butes of God ; and fo many voluminous 

M 3 Wri- 

1 66 The Fifteenth Confer enKe, 

Writings about Kdigioudy worfliipping this 
Supreme Being? 

I reply'd, this is all very true, that all 
Nations, however Barbarous and grofly Ig- 
norant, do believe the Exiftence of a Supreme 
Being ; but they know nothing of his Attri- 
butes neceffarily to be believed by all that 
ux3uld worfliipthis Supreme Being in a way 
acceptable in his fight. Pray, tell me, 
what do you believe therefore of this Great 
God, who is the Creating and EiUcienc Caufe 
of all other Beings i 

The Rifchi anfwered, We call him in our 
Tongue DewaddaJuwam ; and fometimes 
more cxprefTively, Baraharaivajluvjagira Sa- 
ruwefuren; that is, the Supreme Independent 
Beings Lord of all. 

Your Definition of a Supreme Being, re- 
ply'd I, is very excellent, and expreiiive e- 
nough of his Spiritual Perfedions ,* but I 
would fain know, if, befides him, you ac- 
knowledge no other God as the Objec5t of 
your Religious Worlhip? 

The Rifchi (Prophet, or Dodor) faid, 
we acknowledge no other God befides him ; 
tho* many Perlons, as his Vicegerents, veftcd 
with Authority by him to Govern the vi- 


ahui Matters of Religion} \ 6^ 
Tiblc World, are commonly called Gods. 

How many fuch f^icegerent Gods are there 
in all ? 

The principal and mod: confidered among 
them, faid he, are Three, Biruma^ Wifchtnu 
and Ruddireu or Ifuren ; and they appearing 
among the Inhabitants of this Land at fun- 
dry Times,and Places, underdifferent Shapes, 
our Forefathers gave them many diflerent. 
Names, expreffive of fome Circumftance 
or other, relating to the* Divine Appari-. 

I urged them to tell, if thefe Gods were 
Created or Uncreated Beings ? 

He anfwer'd, They have but borrowed 
Beings , and precarious Employments, to 
continue only till the Reftitutionofall Things 
to their firft Primitive State and Condition ; 
and then the Supreme Being (liall be all in 

Do you then, faid I, efteem thefe Gods 
to be Miniflers only employed by the Prinie 
Caufe ; or to be Real and True Gods ? 

M 4 We 

1 68 7l}e Fifteenth Confer ence^ 

We efteem them to be fuch as Execute 
the high Commands of their Principal in 
the Punctilios of a fubmiffive and mofl pro- 
found Obedience. 

Then, proceeded I, you make themOoi- 
nipo|:ent, Omniprefent, Omniicient, mod 
Holy, Juft, and Good. 

Yes, fa id he, we believe them really 
fuch • and 'tis upon this fuppofition that we 
direct our Prayers and SuppUcations to 
them, and honour their Altar with Burnc- 
ofJerings ; and all this we do, purfuant to 
|:he flrid: Orders of thje Suprerne Be- 

Then,proceeded I, if you are able to prove 
that the aforefaid Attributes do properly, 
and in truth belong to your Gods, I am rea- 
dy to be One of their trueft Votaries ; 
but in cafe you fliall not be able Co make 
good your Premiifes, I exped: you fliould 
iorthwith forfake your falfe Imaginary Gods, 
and crown the Convidiions of Confcience, 
by yielding unlimitted Obedience to the 5- 
vidences of Truth. 


■ ahut Matters of Religion, 1 6^ 

An old Brawafi ([ood up, and faid,! have 
perus'd all the Hiflories of our Gods, -aHd 
never doubted of *the Truth of their Di- 
vinity ; and it would look very odd in a 
Man of my Age, now to call in queftion a 
Propofition fo uninterruptedly, and univer- 
fally re:eived. 

The Rifchi hereupon reproved him, asin- 
confirtent u'ith himfeif, and all that were 
there prefent ; who all agreed, that all Points 
fliould be try'd by the Dint of Reafon and 
Evidence ; and more efpecially, feeing, faid 
he, he has prom.ifed to embrace our Religi- 
on, if we can produce Evidences, for the 
real Exigence of our Maiaharian Gods. 

I anfwered, I'll hear you patiently, read, 
ing or relating the Hidory of the Appa- 
ritions, Wonders, Lives and Achievements of 
your Gods ; but you muH: not expe-fJ: that 
relating a Hillory amounts to Demonflrati- 
on ; but you mufl prove, that your Gods 
are really and truly endued with, and 
poflefl'ed of the forementioned Attributes. 

Upon this, after fome Confultatlon a- 
mongfl: themfelves what Anfwer to give, 
they faid, this Matter requires a great deal 
of time I and therefore, 'tis our OphioA, 


fjo The Fifteenth Conference, 

that the Coaference fliould be adjourned to 
anpther Opportunity ; when we (hall be bet- 
ter provided with Books, neceflary for a 
Matter of this Importance ; and then, we 
iliall be able to give you Entire and Rational 
Satisfaction. ' 

Then, faid T, if you dare not hazard a fair 
Hearing of their Caufe, and an Examination 
of their Title to Divinity arid Adoration, I 
am refolv'd to proceed in my intended Evi- 
dences, and to demonftrate the Vanity and 
Non-entity of all your Titular Gods, infi- 
lling chiefly upon your own Conceffions, 
and the universal Truths own'd by all the 
Malalarian Nation. 

You dedroy with one Hand what yoij 
build and eftablilh with the other, by afler- 
ling a Plurality of Gods, always at Defiance, 
and in open Hoftility among themfelves, 
iupplanting, deflroying, and murthering onq 
the other ; as in the Cafe of Wifchtnu and 
Maueli ; and in that of B'truma Beheaded by 
Jfaren^ and Deivaindoren depofed by fome 
petty fubordinaie Deities. Thefe and fuch 
other the likelnconfiftencies, are deftrudive 
of all true Religious Worlkip : For 'tis ac- 
cording to your Syftem, altogether impradJi- 
cable 3 becaufe you know not well where to 
addrefs your felves in time of Danger : For 


ahut Matters of Religion. i ^ i 

if you direct your Prayers to the one, ano- 
Deity is offended at your Devotion ; and the 
Multiplicity of thefe intriguing Gods have 
quite defeated and depriv'd the Supren^c 
God of the WorOiip due to his Name. So 
that although you own his Exiflence and 
Sovereignty, yet, which is as true as afto- 
nifhing, you neither have a Form of Prayer 
invoking this Supreme Being, nor (6 much 
as an Hymn compoled in his Praife, in all 
your Books of Devotions : Hence it comes 
to pafs, that mod of your Ignorant People 
have learnt by Heart Prayers and Hymns 
in Honour of Ifureny Wifchtm and Bzruma^ 
when yet, the vvifeft among you know little 
or nothing of the Nature and Properties 
of the Supreme Being. 

But, to come to the fundry Apparitions 
of your God Jfurcn^ who appeared Sixty 
four times in Madurei under the Name of 
Tfcihokkenaden ,• in all which Appearances 
hereon Earth, he did nothing but what runs 
Counter to all that is holy and juft, and is 
deftrudlive of all the Attributes of God. 

One of his Apparitions was to a Widow, 
in whofe Service he engng'd himfelf, upon 
condition he might have Meat enough; and 
thereupon fell a eating fo ravenouiiy, that 
neither Menaces nor Peifuafions could induce 


I "y 2 The Fifteenth Confer ence^ 

hiai to any fort of Work : And at laft, the 
Widow complained to the King againft this 
infatiable Eater; and the King gave him 
fuch a thumping Blow, that 'twas felt over 
all the i^niverfal World i but in that moment 
Ifuren difappeared : And very many more 
fuch Pranks are to be found in the Hiftory 
of Ifuren. 

Wifchtnu^ fay you, appeared ten times un- 
der the Form of a Swine, a Tortoife, and un- 
der many more ridiculous Transfigurations ; 
which, if now appearing before you in tliis 
Aflembly, you would all run away frighted, 
and take him for a ghaftly Devil, and not 
for your fo much beloved God Wtfchtnu : 
And if you were not depriv'd of the com- 
mon ufe of your Underftanding, in relation 
to Religious Matters, you would efteem 
him, if polfible, worfe than any Devil : For 
all his whole Courfe of ading, is but a con- 
tinued Praaice of Theft, Murtherand Adul- 
tery, and all the other Species of the grof- 
feft Wickedneifes. 

The time is too precious to be fpent in 
repeating the infinite extravagant Adlionsof 
your other Gods; for what I have already 
faid, is enough to make you fenfible of the 
Unreafonablenefs of your Proceedings in the 
Important Matters of Salvation. 


ahom Matters of Religion. 173 

Therefore, I befeech you, refled ferioufly 
upon the Errors of your Ways ; break down 
the wooden Images, and burn them in 
the Fire. 

All that I had faid, was granted by 
them to be very true ; but they excused 
themfelves, faying that this MultipHcity of 
Gods is one of the Great Supreme Being's 
Garyjes or Paftimes, delighting himfelf with 

Then, faid I, you'll make at this Rate 
the greateft Villanies and Abominations to 
be the Pleafure and Delight of the'' Almigh- 
ty ; which deftroys the Difference between 
Vice and Verrue, and between all that is 
called Good and Evil : And 'tis from thefe 
wicked Pofitions, that many of you, not 
only emulate, but outvie your own Gods 
in the Pradice of uncommon Wicked- 

Then the Rifchii flood up, and faid, 'Tis 
not enough to blafpheme our Gods, and 
vilifie our Religion ; but you muft prove 
that your Religion is better and more Eligi- 
ble, by giving us a briet Account of the 
chief Articles that all the Chriftians do 


174 ^^^ Fifteenth Conference^ 

Thefe Conditions I gladly accepted ; and 
fliewed them, that there was but one God, 
One in Eilence and Three in Ferfons ; I men- 
tioned his chief Attributes ; That this glo- 
rious Three-One God had created all things 
Vifible and Invifible, and had made Man 
after his own Image ; how Man had loft that 
Image by falling into Sin.and into the greateft 
of Miferies, as the Confequences thereof. 

I gave an Account of the Original of 
Heathenifm and Error ; and how God 
afterward revealed his Will to Mankind for 
enabling them to come to the Knowledge of 
the Truth. 

I fpoke of the Means of Salvation, and 
of the Reafons of Chrift's coming into the 
World I and how, and in what manner, he 
lias redeemed his People from their Sins ,• 
and how Men are made Partakers of Chrift's 
Merits and Sufferings ,• and of the Propaga- 
tion of the Gofpei among all Nations , and 
laftly, I fpoke of the Neceflity of their Con- 
verilon, and of forfaking their falfe Gods, 
by true and fmcere Repentance ; the Nature 
whereof I made plain unto them.. 


about Matters of Religion, i-r j 

They gave great Attention to me in ex- 
plaining all thefe Points, only the Rifchi made 
me fcveral Objedtions againfl: the Trinity^ 
the Birth, Sufferings and Death of Chrifl: 
for the Redemption of Mankind. 

I told him, that in order to underftand 
thefe things, he muft have his Underftand- 
ing enlightned by the Spirit of God, which 
is obtained by all that pray unto him. 

Why then, faid he, 'tis but your praying 
to our Gods, and you'll come to underftand 
and Jove all the Myfteries and Teeming Ex- 
travagancies of our Religion and Worfliip. 

I reply'd, what jou attribute to your 
Gods, is contrary to Reafon and common 
Sence ; but nothing in our Religion implies 
a manifeft Contradiction ; tho' we allow, 
that we have many Truths in our Syftena, 
that are above Human Underftanding ; an d 
therefore 'tis with mofl profound Humility 
of Mind we believe them, upon the Tell: i- 
inony of God himfelf : For tho' we don't ff 'e 
the Reafons of many things ; yet we wife] ly 
fuppofethat there may be Reafons which \^.e 
can't fee j and that *tis highly reafonab le 
to believe what God has revealed to us ifl^ 
his Word. 

Til en- 

'17^ The Fifteenth Conference^ 

Then another Ecclefiaftick Hood up, 
and faid, you are yet young, Sir, 
and your Memory is yet faithful, re- 
taining U'hat you learnt and read ; but 
we are Old, and our Memories are treache, 
rous, and our Parts not fo adive and 
bright as yours are ; therefore the heft 
Religion may fuffer in the Hands of bad 
Managers ; and the worO: may triumph in 
the Hands of a skilful Sophider. 

1 anfwer'd, Your Religion has the Advan- 
tage at this time, with regard to the Quali- 
fications of its Advocates : For old Age car- 
ries a great deal of Wifdom and Experience 
with it, which is very confiderable in mana- 
ging Conferences upon Subjeds of this kind ; 
which don't confill in a great Readinefs of 
talking, but in comparing received unexa- 
mined Notions, with the Standard of un- 
bj afied Reafon. 

Then a Phyfician ask'd me fome indifie- 
rent Qiif^ions about the Manners of the 
Europenris ; as, whether they had any Unt^ 
^er/ities, where Me^/che and other Sciences 
W(?re taught publickly ? How Priefls Viere 
Ordained among us ? If we h^ld different and 
dillind: Families feparated from other Men, 
by Cuftoms and Ways of living peculiar 
' ^ t(3 

ahut Matters of Religion, fj'j 

to each Tribe, and never to be married into 
another Clan ? Moreover he wouJd knows 
how Kingdoms were governed, Marriage, 
celebrated* To all which Particulars I an- 
fwered very (liortly. 

He was fucceeded by a Braman^ who Que- 
flioned me about the Duration of this, and 
the Beginning of another World ; and whi- 
ther the Soul went after Death ? By this 
time fiv^e whole Hours had been fpent in 
clofe Debate ; and I thought bed to con- 
clude for that time ; highly approving 
of all that was wifely fpoken on their part ; 
the Rijchi (Prophet) likewite afliiring me, 
that all that I had offer'd, had been taken 
kindly by the Audience ; and that they would 
more deliberately weigh and confider what 
I had objeded againft their feveral Deities 
and Religion. 

Then they were rqgal'd with B^telAreck 
and Sweet-meats. 

I took their feveral Names in Writing, to 
the end I might fettle a Correfpondence 
with feme of the moll fenilble of them. 

N Con4 


Conference XVI. 

OffeioWal Particulars rela^ 
ting to Idolatry^ NeceJJity 
of Repentance^ &c. 

- •:;;:./"":''.' ;'""^:\ -^ 

Between fome Bramans^ and others, 
and one of the Daniffj Miffiona- 

ON theTwenty eighth of jF«/y 1708, 
I rode out of Negapai»am, in order 
to haflen for TraMquelar ; but I 
took another Road f and coming 
into a Town where was a great Pagod, and 
accofting the Bramarts, I ask'd them, what 
Exercifes of Religion were perform'd in that 

N X They 

1 8o The Sixteenth Conference] ^ 

They anfwer'd, Sacrifices are therein of- 
fer'd to the Gods , and Hymns are Tung 
to their Praifes, and wc dance and play be- 
fore them to the Sound of Inftrumental Mu- 

I anfwer'd, how can dumb Images be 
Gods, that can neither fee, nor move, nor 
are fenfible of any of your Theatri cal Per- 
formances ? 

Hereupon fome from among the Crowd 
reply'd, yoU are certainly in the right, Sir; 
they want our Afliftance more than we {land 
in need of theirj : For no lefs than a thou- 
fand Perfons areemploy'd to fet them upon 
the great Waggon, and draw them about in 
Stat6, with a great deal of Sweat and Labour ; 
for we are made to believe, that if the I- 
mage is not well ferved, or fuffers the leaft 
Hurt, we infallibly bring Ruin and Deflru- 
(Stion upoa our own Heads. 

Friends, faid I, do you promife me Pro- 
tedion from the violent Hands of angry 
Men, and I will undertake to break in Pieces 
all the Gods worlhipp'd in this Temple, with- 
out receiving any Hurt at all. 


of Repentance, &c. i8i 

Then the Bramans ^nfwefd me pafllonjire-* 
ly angry, and faid, Sir, we fee, you would 
fain expofe us to the Laughter of all 
the People ; but we would have you 
know , that thefe Gods whom you fo 
vilifie, have been worfhipp'd by our /Incejiors 
for thefe ten thoufand Tears ', and as long as the 
Inhabitants are contented with their Gods 
and Religion, what have you to do to in# 
termed die in our Affairs ? 

*Tis true, faid I, tho* you fhould continue 
in your Ignorance, your Blindnefs can't af. 
fed: my Happinefs ; neither can I exped: 
any additional Happinefs in your Converfion ; 
but your felves are to be great Gainers or 
Lofers, according as you Thall walk in the 
Way to Hell and Mifery, or in that leading 
into Eternal Life. But, however, as I am 
a Minifter of the Gofpel, I muft difcharge 
with Fidelity, the Office and Duty of my 
Miniftry, which is to admonifli and exhort 
you to turn from Idols, to ferve the living 
and true God ; which if I don't do, I am no 
faithful Servant in my Mailer's Servijc-e ,• but 
if you will not repent, and forfake ypur 
Idols, I have done my Duty : neither my 
Confcience here, nor God himfelf in theDay 
of Judgment, will reproach nie with Negli- 
N 3 gcncc 

'182 7he Sixteenth Conference, 

gence and Cowardice in that which relates 
xo your Salvation. 

An old Man flood up, and laid, we live 
in the Kaliujur (laft Duration of the World) 
when all things are very confus'd and full of 
Irregularities ,• and there are fo many diffe- 
rent Opinions about the Names and Na- 
ture of God, that a Man does not know 
what Religion he had beftchufe and profefs ; 
but when this Duration is at an end, all 
things will be put to rights again, and all 
the Nations of the World fliall be in the 
fame Opinion in thefe Matters- 

1 anfwer'd, that the Times are evil I don't 
deny ; but if you delay leaving your falfc 
Religion till the Duration of the prefent 
World is at an End, you are highly to be 
blamed : For if you die in your Sins, you'll 
be Eternally miferable ; and twill be then 
too late to repent and return to God ,• but 
you'll bear the Punilhment of your Idola- 

Then the Town-Sacretary ask'd me, 
Pray Sir, what would you fay, what would 
you be at ? 

of Repentance, Szcl 185 

I feek neither Gold nor Silver, nor any. 
other Advantage from either of you, faid I; 
this is what I ieek, even ygur Salvation, and 
that you may come to the Knowledge of 
the Truth. 

Then the Governour of the Place faid, 
come, let us go from this great Heat, and 
led me into a cool Room, and treated me 
with Milk, Figs, and Coko-nuts ; where 
being furrounded by a great Crowd of Peo- 
ple, I fliew'd to them the Scope -and Defign 
of Chrift's Dodrine, and the Excellency 
thereof, and fo recommended them to the 
Grace of God : And going on my Way, 
till I came to a Publick Refting-Place, I 
found many People llieltring themfelves 
from the foultry Heat of the Seafon ; an^ 
heard their mutual Complaints of the Diifi- 
culties of the Times, and of the great Taxes 
and Imports they groaned under, without 
any Hope of redreffing their Grievances 
from their cruel Governours. 

'Tis to be v/ifli'd, faid I, that youx King 
were better intruded in the Knowledge of 
the True God, and his Law, which direds 
Kings and Princes to govern the People with 
Clemency and Equity ; knowing that they 
mud give an Account to God ot their Stew- 
N 4 ardiliip^. 

184 The Sixteenth Confer ence^ 

ardlhip ; but the Idolatr}' allow'd, both by 
Prince and People brings a Curfe upon the 
whole Land, whereof this is a Part, even 
your milerable Circumllances and Poverty. 

They anfwer'd, this is none of our Faults; 
the Bramans and the Great Men of the Earth 
are only capable to begin and carry on a 
Reformation in our Land : If 'twas in our 
Powet.we would certainly undertake it j but 
this is above our Capacity. 

'Tis true, you can't change, faid I, your 
outward Circumftanccs for the better ; but 
you may change your inward Inclinations 
from running alter lying Vanities ; and let 
them flow for the future in the purer Chan- 
nel of the Fear of the True God ,• and your 
godly Example may in time Influence your 
Friends and Relations to fcrfake the Abomi- 
nation o^ IdoUvoorJhip, 

Hereupon one askd me, can't we be fa- 
ved in our own Religion, Sir ? What, are 
all the Malaharians in a State of Damnation ? 

I anfwer'd, fo long as you worOiip Idols, 
in lieu of the true God, you are obnoxious 
to Wrath and Eternal Puniihment. 


of Repentance, &c. 185 

One of the Company flood up, and faid, 
that is a very hard Speech indeed, to fay 
none of this Nation can be faved, while we 
have fo many forts of Learned Books a-^ 
mong us, and thoufands of Holy Men that 
lead exemplary Lives. 

I fliew'd them, that their Boolis are full 
of lying Stories and Fables related of fome 
of their Saints ; which if true, they were 
far from being Men of Common Honefty. 

Hereupon a Woman lifted up her Voice, 
and faid, Sir, you were a pious Man, with- 
out doubt, before your laft Nativity, feeing 
you are now fo Excellently well qualified 
with thofe bright Parts and Clearnefs of Un- 

lanfwer'd, Good Woman, I was born but 
once into this World ; and your repeated Na- 
tivities is a grofs Error, and an Handle to 
delay your Repentance, you foolillily ex- 
pecting to be born again in Order to do Pe- 
nance tor Sins formerly committed ; but in 
this you are grievoufly miftaken : For you 
mufl repent while 'tis called to day ; and you 
piuft be born again by a thorough Change 
wrought in your Mmdsby the Power of the 
Spirit of God. And befides this, there is no 


i 8 6 Ihe Sixteenth Conference^ 

pther fecond Birth or Regeneration, where- 
of if you will be Partakers, you'll be as rea- 
dy a? my felf in talking of the things rela- 
ting to the Dodrine ot Salvation. 

• Another Woman, told me, that llie be- 
liev'd I fliould never die, but that I Ihall 
live for ever. 

J faid to her , Woman, your Words 
happen to be true ^ tho* as I am in- 
clined to believe, your Thoughts and Con- 
ceptions of things are very erroneous : 
For they that are reconciled to God 
through Jefus Chri^^ and made true Mem- 
bers of his myflical Body, through a live* 
ly Faith, iliall never die y But that they 
ftall not die a Temporal Death, is an 
intolerable Falihood ; but if you would 
live for ever , in a Spiritual Sence, you 
may, as well as I, upon condition you 
leave your Idolatry and wicked Living, 
repenting ferioully of your pad Sins : 
Do you apprehend my Meaning is all 
this ? 

,,,jShe anfwer'd, Yes. 

of Repent ancCy &c, 187 

I charg'd them all to refled: ferioufly 
in my Abfence, upon what T had faid ; 
and fo commending them to the Care 
of the Almighty , purlued my Journey 
towards Tranquehar. 


1 89 

Conference XVIL 


Of the Caufe of the Pullick 
Calamities^ &:c. of the Ma- 

BetvO'een feveral Bramans, and others^ 
and one of the Dani/h Miffiona- 

ON the Fifteenfh of January 17 14, 
finding before one of the Pagods 
a great Multitude of People, as 
their Cuftom is, to divert them- 
felves, talk of their refpedive Tnterefls, com- 
plaining o( the Scarcity of Money, and of 
other Neceffiuries of Life j I ask'd them, if 


t$o The Seventeenth Conference^ 

they knew the Caufe of all their prefent Mi- 
feries and DidrefTes ? 

They anfwer'd, You know all, and we 
know nothing. 

llieh 1 proceeded, and t5id them, that 
their great Sins were the Source of all the 
prefent Iqconyeniencies they laboured un» 

But, faid they, the Europeam ^rt Sinners, 
well as we; What enonfioOs Crimes are 
we then guilty of, that our Afflictions Ihould 
be fo univerfal ? 

^ 'Tis true, 'faid '• 1, that -the' "Europeans Urd 
great Sinners, as well as you ;, but they are 
not Ignorant of the Supreme Being ; neither 
do they adore Graven Images, nor have 
they rejed-ed the DoiStrine of the Gofpel, 
when tendred unto them, as you do this 
pay ; and therefore 'tis . a Wonder of 
Divine Patience that you are flill a Peo- 
ple ; and that you are (afferd' to walk ort 
God's Ground. 

Then a Bramm flood up, and faid, Ouf 
prefent Mifcries fl*ow from the Arbitrary 
and Uncontroul'd Will of God, who oftert 
involves both the Good and Evil in the 


of the Malabar ians Calamities! 1 9 1 

fame common Calamities ; or Sins, com. 
mitted before this our laft Nativity, may 
be the Caufe of our prefent Sufferings ; and 
we may more immediately afcribe it to the 
Corruption of Publick Miniflers, and the 
Weaknefs of our Prince fuffering himfelf 
to be mif-guided by Parafites and Flatterers, 
who feek their own Intereft more than the 
Publick Good. 

Your firft Two Reafons are ridiculous^ 
and wickedly falfe, fa id I, as I have made 
it appear at another Conference : And as for 
your calling the Blame upon your King and 
Sovereign, this Excufe is as bold, as 'tis un- 
reafonable : For they may with more fem- 
blance of Truth, refled: all their Miferies 
and Misfortunes upon you Bramans, for not 
imparting to them more whoifome Inftrudti- 
ons, advantageous both to Prince and Peo- 
ple : So that in truth, you Bramans (Eccle- 
iia{lick«) are the Caufe of the Publick Ca- 
lamities, wherewith this Land is forely afRi- 
<^ed : For you give your felves out for 
the Darlings of Heaven, and EmbafTadors of 
the Gods, interpreting their Wills to the 
common People ; while you your felves are 
Promoters of ridiculous lying Abfurdities in 
your Pagodsy and fubftantial Originals of 
Worldly-mindednefs, and Lovers of filthy 
LuCre ; therefore all the Publick Calamities 


192 The Seventeenth Conference^ 

are properly, and niore immediately due to 
you crafty, fenfual and covetous Priefts, 
who have mdfl: effacJed from the Minds 6f 
Men the Difference of Good and Evil, by 
your erroneous DocStrines, and worldly, vici- 
ous Converfation. 

The People beholding the Bramans very 
earneftly, told them ; what this Man fays, 
is very true ; we would fain know What 
i^nfwer you'll return him : For we are not 
cern'd in the Accufation, 

Then one of the Bramans fpoke to this 
Effed:; we teach the People to worfliipOne 
only, and not Many Gods ; and the Notion 
of a Plurality of Gods comes hence, ijiz, 
becaufe God is varioufly reprefented under 
different Attributes and Forms -, yet he is 
Hill but One God, as Gold is but one, as to 
its kind, tho' wrought into a Thoufapd dif^ 
ferent Figures, by the Art and Indullry of 
the Goldfmlth. 

I anfwer'd, the Comparifon is very odious, 
and reflecfts Reproach upon the Great Cre- 
ator, whom you compare to lifeleis Metal; 
and therefore I take this as no Anfwer to my 
charging you with teachiog and promoting 
Errors among the People. And then dire- 
ding my Difcourfe to the Audience, I ask'd 


of the Malabarians Calamities. 19 j 

them, if they had any Notion of the True 
God that made Heaven and Earth ? To 
which they gave no Anfwer ; 

Then asking them if they knew the Pagod. 
Gods they had in their Temples ? 

They anfwer'd, Yes, and repeated their 
feveral Names, with the Way of worfliip- 
ping every God refpecStively. 

Then turning to the Priefls, Sirs, faid I, 
chefe are living Teftirtionies of the Falfe. 
nefs of what you juft now affirmed , 
i. e. that you taught the People to be- 
lieve in One only God, and not in the 
Multiplicity of your Images ; For of the 
Nature and Being of the Firft, they are ftu- 
pidly ignorant * and as for the Lad, 
they know them all by their Names. 

Hereupon, One of the Priefls anfwer'd, 
we have no time to teach the People, as you, 
and others, who have nothing elfe to do ; 
we are oblig'd to aflTift at long tedious Cere^ 
monies, which, tho' we begin two Hours 
before Sun-rifing, yet are feldom ended be- 
fore Ten a- clock ; all the time we are, ac- 
cording to the Laws of our Order, ftridlly 
forbidden to talk with any Man whatfoever. 
Then we have many Formulas of Prayers,and 
O Cere- 

1 94 ^^^ Seventeenth Confer ence. 

Ceremonious Wafliings in Holy and Confe- 
crated Ponds, which take up mod of our 
time till Noon ; and after all thefe Perfor- 
mances are ended, we muft prepare Sacrifi- 
ces, and offer Incenfe in the Pagods ; not to 
mention the many F(?4/?/;/g and Faflittg^days 
we are obliged to obferve ; fo that you may 
plainly fee, we have no time to'inftrucSt 
the People, as you do. And befides all this, 
our Order flridly forbids us to converfe 
with feveral forts of Families, and Tribes of 
People, left we be defiled by them : For 
we are a Holy Order of Men, and the Vulgar 
are moft of them Common or Unclean. 

I anfwer'd. Your time might be bet- 
ter employ'd in teaching the People their 
Duty towards God, and towards their Fel- 
low-Creatures, according to his own Will 
and Command ; and not according to your 
own vain imaginary Will-worihip. 

To this they reply'd, perfuade our King 
to be a Chriftian, and we promife you to 
follow his Example. 

How, faid I, would you fet him to be the 
Rule of Faith and Practice, whom you made 
but juft now to be the Author of all yout 
Mifenes; but Sirs, is it not probable, that 
upon you Bramans Receiving the Tenders of 


of the Malabarians Calamitiesl 1 9 5 

the Grace of God, and adorning your Pro- 
fefTion with the Fruits of Righteoufnefs and 
holy Converfation, many of the great Men 
of the Earth would follow your Example, 
and at length the King himfelf be induced 
to embrace the Chriftian Religion > 

And intreating them to confider well 
what I had fpoken, I bid them all adieu. 

O 2 Con^ 


Conference XVIII 

What Opinion the Heathens 
entertain of the Chrifti- 
ans ; and of many other 

Between a Mahometan Prieft and a 
School-mafter^ and one of the Da- 
nijh Miffionaries. 

ON the Sixteenth of January^ a I\!ta- 
howetan Prieft, and a Malahariatt 
School-mafter came to fee our 
Frinting'Houfey and difcourfe up- 
on Matters of Religion ; and fitting down 
between them both, I faid, Now aMinifter 
O ; of 

ip8 The Eighteenth Confer ence^ 

of the Gofpel has a Mahometan on the Right, 
and a Heathen on the Left- Hand. 

Whereupon the lafl; reply'd , the Word 
Heathen imports no more than a Sinner ; 
and if fo, I am fure, that both Chriflian$ 
and Mahometans are as great Sinners as our 

The Mahomet a^{ziA^ fince my coming in- 
to this Country, I have remark'd fome things 
that are very wonderful to me, who knew 
nothing of thefe things before my Arrival : 
For there is a Prophefie recorded in our 
Books, that there will happen a great Alte- 
ration, and a mighty Change in Matters of 
Religion, by fuch and fuch Men that woul4 
come amongft us. 

The Heathen added, and we have Prophe- 
fies much to the fame purpofe, which we 
commonly apply to you Mahometans , 
who have made great Alteration in thefe 
Countries of late Years, in Matters of 

I anfwer'd, 'Tis God alone can change the 
Hearts of Men, and Confequently their Reli- 
gion ,• not by Fire, and Sword, and Warlike 
Engines ; but by mere Perfuajives and Ar- 
guments, borrowed from the Intereft that 


Heathens Opinion of the Chriftians. 1 99 

Mankind has in conforming rhemfelves to 
the Holy Dodrine of Jefus Chrid ,• whether 
it be preach'd to you by Natives or Stran- 
gers ) therefore don't negled this great Sal- 
vation offer'd to you this Day through my 

The Heathen faid, 'tis our Sins that hin- 
der us from accepting of, and clofing with 
what you propofe to us,- and 'tis impo/fible 
for us to become Chrifliafis (tho'you Preach 
the Chriflian Doctrine among usj till God 
does give the Power to leave our wicked 
Ways, and turn to him with all our Hearts ; 
Therefore we mud expedt with Patience, 
till fuch time as it will pleafe God to work 
this Change of Mind and Will in us : For till 
then, all the belt Means are but thrown a- 
v/ay upon us. 

'Tis very true, reply'd I, that your Sins 
feparate you from God, and detain you in 
the Chains of Ignorance and Unbelief ; but 
fhculd not you by fo much the more make 
a diligent fearch after the Redeemer of the 
World, who came to fave you from the Do- 
minion of Sin, and the Devil, the mortal 
Enemies of your Soul ? It you do but pati- 
ently and obediently hear Inlfrudions, God 
■will give you all the neceffary Ai^s and 
Afliftances of his Divine Grace, to enable 
O 4 you 

2 CO The Eighteenth Conference f 

you to fhake ofF the heavy Yoke of Sin, an*^ 
the Devil's Tyranny, to the end you may 
enjoy the glorious Liberty of the Children 
of God in Light : But you mull not 
expert that God will force and compel you 
to be holy here, and happy hereafter ; For 
you muft likewife do what is required at 
your hands ; that is, make ufe of the Means 
that are now offer'd unto you : But if you 
negled fo great Salvation, your Dedrudion 
comes from your felves. 

The Mahometan ask'd me» how comes it 
that God fuffers fo many Heathen Nations 
to thrive and flouri(h,.when both you and us 
agree, that the World is govern'd by a wife 
Providence, which one (liould think, ought 
to prevent the Entrance of Evil into the 
World ? 

I anfwer'd, that God rules the World, not 
by his Ablolute Power, but by his great and 
infinite Wifdom, which knows how to bring 
Good out of Evil ; and fpares whole Nations 
for the fake of a few Holy ones, who will 
in time Embrace the Dodrine of Salvation, 
and propagate the fame to lateft Polleri- 

Then the Mahometan ask'd me, why the 
Chrifiians make ufe of fo many Similitudes 


Heathens Opinion of the Chriftians. 20 i 

and Metaphorical Expreifions in their Dif- 
courfes and Writings ? 

I anfwer'd, becaufe all Languages confift 
in Words denoting only things obvious to 
our SenfeS; but in Ipeaking of Spiritual 
Things, we are oblig'd to exprefs them by 
Siniihtudes and Parables. 

Then he repeated a Paflage of HI- 
ftory relating to Mahomet^ who at his 
firft fetting up for a Prophet, was defir'd by 
the Deputies of a certain Neighbouring 
Town to folve them a Thoufand Difficulties 
propos'd unto him, in order ^^N^lTure them- 
felves that his Miffion was Heavenly, and 
that he was divinely infpir'd ; and upon his 
Non performance, they fufpeded his Do- 
drine to be no more than fandified Hypo- 
crifte, mix'd with a great deal of crafty fub- 
til Dealings : But immediately the Angel 
Gahriel, appearing at his Right hand, folv'd 
all thefe puzzling Queftions, publifh'd fmce 
in a feparate Volume called Air am 'Mufilam^ 
and tranflated out of Arahkk into HalaharU 
an ; whereupon they receiv'd his Religion ; 
and I muftconfefs, you anfwer fo juftlyand 
fully to all Queflions propos'd unto you, that 
one iliould fufped that you have the Affi- 
ftance of fome familiar Demon or other, 


202 The Eighteenth Conference, &c, 

wonderfully skill'd, and ready in Extempo^ 
rary anfwering hard Queftions. 

Upon this, we gave over talking, and 
walk'd in the Princing-houfe , they being 
aftonilh'd at this rare Invention, never known 
before in thefe Countries. 



Conference XIX- 

Of the Plurality of Wives a-- 
tnovg the Mahometans ; 
and of the different man-' 
7ier of propagating their 
Religion and ours. 

Bptween fome Mahometans, and one 
of the Danijh Miffionaries. 

ON the Nineteenth of Jcinuary^ fome 
Mahometans from remote Parts 
vifiting us, defircd us to beflow 
upon them fome Httle printed 
Book or other ; and ask'd us, w hy we could 
not teach the People without the Help of 


^04 T^he Nineteenth Conference] 

printed Books ? And if every Man was not 
capable by his own Light of Reafon, to at- 
tain to fo much Knowledge as was necefla- 
ry for the Condu(5t of his Life, in or- 
der to pleafe God, and fave his Soul from 
the Punifliments of .the next World ? 

Had our firfl: Parents, anfwer'd I, remain'd 
in their primitive State of Intregrity 
I would anfwer you in the Affirmative- 
but upon their Difobedience, they loft 
the Image of God, confifting in Know- 
ledge and true Holinefs; and are forced 
to make ufe of Books, Mafters and many 
more Helps, to attain the neccflary Know- 
ledge of Salvation, that they may think 
always of their Duty, and keep their God, 
and Chrift their Redeemer, always in their 
Minds, and before their Eyes. 

And then T ask a them, how their Wives 
came to have any Knowledge in Religious 
Matters, feeing they were neither fent to 
School, nor permitted to frequent the Mo/ques 
to hear Sacerdotal Inftrudions. 

They anfwer'd, 'tis not the Cuftom among 
us, that Women learn to Read and Write ; 
nor are our Women admitted to frequent 
any publick Company where Men are pre- 
ient, as among you Chriitians -, tho' now 


6f Plurality of Wives ^ &c. 2 o J 

and then, our Priefts are admitted to teach 
the Women in their own Hdufes. 

By all this Refervednefs, faid I, ybu 
would make the World believe, that you 
are very Chafte in all yourConverfations; 
How comes it then that your Law ad- 
mits of having fo many Wives and Concu- 
bines ? 

He anfwer'd. Fornication is feverely pu- 
niflied among us, and is accounted a very 
great Sin ,• whereof if either Man or Woman 
is convided, he is fent for by the Pried, who 
is obligd to give the offending Party a hun- 
dred Bajitnado's : Therefore this Sin is rarely 
to be found among us Mahometans. As for 
Mahornefs permittmg a Plurality of fViveSy 
in proportion to every Man's Faculty and 
Circumflances in the World ; 'tis a good 
Law, deftrudive of the Sin of Fornication, 
and preventing all its difmal Confequences 
in any well- regulated Society. 

I Urg'd, that this was againft the firft In- 
flitution of Marriages : For God gave but one 
Wife to Ji/am, though at the fame time they 
had an exprefs Precept for Increafing and 
Multiplying : Therefore 'tis your unconfin'd 
Brutilli Lulls have laid the Foundation for 
this unreafonable Incootinency. 


2 66 The Nineteenth Confer enci^ 

The Mahometan reply'd, By no meaiis, 
Sir; For this was the Pra dice of many holy 
Prophets, own'd by the Chriftians as fuch, 
before our Prophet Mahomet ^^s born. 

I anfwer'd, Saints and Prophets had all df 
thern their Imperfedlions j but we are not 
to be Imitators of their Vices, but of their 
Vertues and Excellencies : But iliew me where 
any of the Prophets taught for Dod:rine, the 
Lawfulnefs of having many Wives? It fol- 
lows then, that the Impoftor did it, as one 
of the beft Stratagems, accompanied with 
bloody Wars, likely to propagate his wicked 
Opinions among an ignorant Lafcivious Na- 
tion at his firll fetting up for Prophet and 
Legiflator : Whence you may eafily fee the 
great difTerence between our Religion and 
yours, in the manner of their being propa- 
gated among many Nations. 

Pray, how was the Chriflian Religion pro- 
pagated among the Gentiles, laid the Ma- 
hometan i 

Through Perfecution, and Sufferings, arid 
cruel Deaths of many Thoufand of its Pro^ 
fefibrs : Moreover, by Ways and Means o( 
Love and Gofpel perfuafives, encouraging 
all to read the holy Scripture, containing 


of Plurality of Wives ^ Sccl 207 

the Prophefies relating to the promlfed Mef. 
fias ; whereas you forbid the reading of the 
Alcoran^ and difcourage Men from fuch 
Studies as nfiay be helpful to them in dif- 
covering the grofs Errors of their Carnal 

What you fay, is very true, reply 'd he ; 
yet for all that, a Man may be fav'd in our 
Religion : For we hold the Exigence of 
One only God, and believe the Neceflity of 
Good Works to be pradtis'd in an uninter- 
rupted Courfe of a vertuous and a fobef 
Converfation. We know, that many of us 
are rebellious and difobedient, and therefore 
rauft be puniflied in Hell hereafter ,* whence 
however, after fome Duration oF Time, the 
Prophet will gracioufly deliver them all, 
when the Time of the Rejlitution of all things 
fliall come, when this World fhall bedeflroy- 
ed, and a new one ereded in its Room. 

To this I anfwer'd, What you fay of Ma- 
hornet's relieving damned Souls from Hell, 
is very falfc and ridiculous : For after this 
Life, there is no Place for Repentance ; and 
'tis therefore we are commanded by God to 
repent of all our Sins, and believe in Chrifl-j 
while we are yet alive, and can give fuffi- 
cient Teftimony to the World of the Sin- 
cerity of our Intention, by our manifeftly 


2o8 Thff t^ineteenth Conference^ &c. 

declaring War againft Siti, and leading 
pious and honed Lives worthy of our holy 
Profeflion. And as hr" Mahomet's redeem- 
ing you from Hell, do but read the Hifto- 
ry of his wicked Life, and then believe, if 
you can, that fuch an Impoftor is ever a- 
ble to deliver thence his own Soul. 



Conference XX. 

Of the Malabarian Sacred 
Law-Books , Aftrolog^y , 
and of many other Par-- 

Between fome Malabarian Priefts, 
and one of the Danifl) Miffiona- 

ON the Eighteenth of January^ as I 
was walking in the Streets, I faw 
a Pried reading to a great Con- 
courfe of Merchants, who heard 
him very attentively ; and putting my felf 
among the Auditors, I ask'd what Book 'twas 
he read ? 

P He 

2 1 The Ivpentieth Conference] 

He anfwer'd, 'tis Kan^apuranu ; or an Hi* 
{lory- Book. 

Do you believe for -Truth all the Con- 
tents of that Book, faid I unto him ? 

Yes, reply'd he ; for 'tis a Treatife expli- 
catory of our Sacred Law. 

Then I took him to task, and (hew*d, that 
'twas but a continued Poetical Ficflion from 
the Beginning to the End, and thwarting all 
the Attributes of the Supreme Being , and 
defl:rud:ive of good Morals in all the Youth 
who aflift at the reading thereof. 

But, Sir, faid he, this Book fpeaks of 
Come Achievements and Heroick Ac^^ions of 
the Gods, not only in this, but in the other 
World, where our Poets have never been ; 
and therefore they muft have had it reveal- 
ed unto them by the Gods themfelves ; as 
many other Sciences had been never difco- 
vered or found out without immediate Re- 
velation : As for Example, the Knowledge 
of the Heavenly Motions, of the Eclipfes 
of the Sun snd Moon, the Art oi Soothiay- 
iisg and foretelling future Contingenc es : 
All thf.le things we learn irom the Gods and 
Invifibie Beings i and all thefe Sciences be- 

of the Sacred LarV" Books, &c, zij 

lag writ in the Kerundum Language, known 
only to the Bramans^ 'tis firmly believ'd that 
this was the Language of the Gods. 

This Bramijh PrieRcraft, reply'd I, Is too 
palpable to merit a Confutation : For with 
one half of a Thought you'll perceive, that 
*tis only to derive divine Venf^ration and 
Refpeci to all the lying Extravagancies 
writ in that Language, by impudently af- 
firming it to be the common Dialed: of 
the Gods ,• which, a« 'tis in it felf a ialle Ai^- 
fertion ; fo 'tis afolid Proof, that your Gods 
are Imaginary Vanities : For God does not 
talk and difcourfe in any Language whatfo- 
ever, as we Mortals do ,- which argues our 
Nature very imperfed:, having no other Way 
to know one another's Thoughts ,- which 
without Blaipheming, can't be faid of the 
All-wife God, who knowcth our Thoughts 
affar ofT And as to what you fay, that A- 
Jironomy and other Sciences have been in- 
vented by your Gods and Spiritual Beings ; 
this is likevvife falfe and ridiculous : For all 
the Knowledge of the Motion of Celeftial 
Bodies, of the Eclipfes of the Sun and Moon, 
is attained by Study and Obfervation ; as 
all other Arts and Sciences are acquir'd a- 
mong Men : But as to what you fay of 
Magick and Soothlaying, and toretclling 
of future Contingencies, they are no Arts 
P z nor 

2 1 1 The Twentieth Conference^ 

nor Sciences, being not grounded upon any 
Certain Truths j but mere wild lying Conje- 
cftures, contributing very much to render 
our Lives uncomfortable when difappointed 
by the Hope of good things never to be at- 
tain'd ; and frighted with the Fear of Evil 
that will never come to pafs. 

The Priefl made no Reply to all this ; 
but faid, all Religions come from God, and 
are approv'd of by him : For we find among 
our felves (^Malaharians^ Three Hundred 
and fixty Sorts or Seds of Religions ,• and 
that 'tis much the fame among you Chrifli- 
ans^ we are very much inclin'd to believe ; 
becaufe the Portugueze have Images in their 
Temples, and Ceremonies quite different from 
what we find among you j and w^e obferve 
that there is a different Language fpoke at 
every Fifty Miles :All which Varieties mud 
eome from God, and are acceptable unto 
him: For a Thoufand different Roads may 
lead to the fame Capital City, as Lines 
drawn from the difierent Points of the Cir- 
cumference, all terminate in the fame Centre : 
There may be dired: and round-about Ways ; 
and w hat then ? if they do but lead to the 
King'5 Houfe, my Toil and Labour is not 
to come into any confideration, when I fliall 
arrive at the long wiflvd for Port of Reft 
and Happinefs. 


of their Sacred Larr: 'Books ^ S^c, 2 i j 

To this I anfw'er'd, ^11 thefe Diveriltics 
of Opinions are from our fwerving Irom 
the Way of Happinefs mark'd out unto Man- 
kind by the Finger ol' God himfcU j and run- 
ning ailray in Ways and Roads of our ovvn 
finding out, leading at laft to Eternal Mi- 

Then they ask'd me, if we look'd upon 
their Religion as falfe only in fome Points 
or falfe in every Particular ? 

You believe, faid I, the Exigence of a 
Supreme Beings the Immortality of the Soul, 
the Certainty of eternal Rewards and Pu- 
nifhments in the next World, the Difference 
tliat is betvvxen Vice and Vertue, the abfo- 
lute l^eceffity there is of loving the one, and 
avoiding the other : All thefe Points arei^ 
Eternal Truths, common to you and us, 
deeply engraven in every Man's Confcience, 
and can't be thence effaced by all the indu- 
flrious Endeavours of vicious Minds ; and 
therefore we never challenge you upon any 
of thefe Important Truths: But we find 
fault with your allertinga Plurality of Gods, 
your making Good and Evil to be equally 
deriv'd from God ; and that all the Wick- 
ednefles committed in the World, are but 
the Paftimesand Diverfions of the Almighty 
P 3 Sove- 

24' The Twentieth Confer ence^ 

Sovereign ; your believing that you'll ob- 
tain the RemiiTion of Sins by the Irkfom 
Performances of ridiculous Ceremonies ; and 
your fitting contentedly Ignorant of the 
Knowledge of the Divine Will clearly re- 
vealed in his Holy Word, which I am wil- 
ling to impart and make known unto every 
one of you. 'Tis againft thefe abominable 
Errors that we contend with you, to the end 
you may come to the faving Knowledge of 
God and your felves, by heUeuiTig in his 

The Pried; anfwer'd, Belief is as much 
iirg'd in our Religion, as in yours : For 
it would by no Means feem, or appear 
ridiculous to you in any of its Articles, if 
you did but believe it. 

But, Sir, faid I, you have a falfe Notion 
o^ faving Faith : For 'tis not believing all 
extravagant lying Traditions of defigning 
Men ; but what the God of Truth propofes 
to us in his Holy Word, which is the uner- 
ring Touch-done in all Religious Matters, 
that I recommend. 

Some of them fald, 'tis firmly believed a- 
mong us, that not only all Mankind, but 
all Birds, and Beads of the Fields, fliall be 
Eternally Happy after many repeated Nati. 


of their Sacred Laxp-Books, &€. 2 1 5 

vities or Regenerations, qualifying them for 
the Enjoyment of God. 

To this I anfwer'd, that as they are not 
capable of knowing and worihipping God 
here, fo are they lefs capable of enjoying 
him hereafter ; and therefore this muft be a 
very wild and groundlefs Conjecture. 




Conference XXL 

Of their Wajhtngs and Pur i^ 
ficatioiis ; and of the Do- 
drmeofFatcfo much cul- 
tivated among them. 

Between a Braman, and one of the Da* 
ni/h Miffionaries. 

ON the Twenty ninrh of January^ 
I walk'd out into one of the neigh- 
bouring Villages, where very ma- 
ny Bramans allembied to hear my 
Difcourfe ; among whom there was one 
very famous for his Skill in the Art of Con- 
juring andSoothfaying j and befides, was an 
excellent Orator ; and having then finilh'd 


i 1 8 The Tn^enty firfl Conference^ 

their Ordinary Wafliings, and but juft come 
out of the Water, I ask'd them,how daily Dip- 
ping and Plunging did avail them ? Do you, 
befides the cleanfing your Bodies, propofe by 
fo doing, the purifying of your Souis ? 

He anfwer'd, we believe the Water to be 
a God, and the mofi: gracious and beneficent 
of all the Deities, to us Mortals, purifying 
our Souls, as well as our Bodies, when ac- 
companied with the ordinary Ceremonies, 
and with the eflabliflied Formulas of devout 

I grant, faid I, that Water is one of the 
conflituent Parts of all animate and inani- 
mate things, and very ferviceable to all 
vifible Beings ,• but for all this , 'tis no 
God, but a very excellent Creature, point- 
ing out to you that the Maker thereof mufl: 
be infinitely more Excellent and Glorious ,• 
and for not arguing thus like Creatures en- 
dued with Underftanding, you conclude, that 
all excellent Things mufl be Gods ; and this 
falfe Logick is the Source of all your innu- 
merable falfe Gods. Mean while, I intima- 
ted, that the \J(t of Baptifm or fprinkling of 
Water among Chrifliansy for the wafhing a- 
way Original Sin, was only jymholkal, re« 
prefenting unto our Faith the precious Blood 
oF the Lord Jefus Chrift, which purifieth 


of the DoElrine of Fate, &c. 2 ! 9 

the Confcience from Dead Works ; and as 
we are dipp'd in Water, fo we are purg'd 
with Chrift in Baptifm, that we may rife 
with him to a Newnefs of Life; and not that 
Water, properly and materially fpeaking, can 
walh away our Sins» and purifie our immate- 
rial Spirits. 

He added, as there are different Medica- 
ments here trom thofe of Europe^ in order to 
cure Bodily Difeafes ^ fo God makes ufe of 
different Ceremonies and Religious Inflitu- 
tionsjto cure the fpiritual Difeafes of the Soul. 

I anfwerd, that Comparifon has no Place 
in this Matter ; For the Difference of Climates 
and that of Human Bodies, do rationally call 
for different Methods of Cure -, but God, 
the Objed: of Adoration, is every where, 
and at all times the fame ; and Mens Minds 
are equally (with due Culture and Atten- 
tion) dilpofed to Fear and Love him as their 
God and Sovereign Good. 

One of them anfwer'd, all comes from the 
Abfolute Decrees of Heaven ; we can't do 
otherwife than we do : For while we are yet 
in the Mother's Womb, we are form'd and 
fliap'd for Vice or Vertue, for this or that 
Religion : For Example ; fix Children born 
of the fame Motlier, bleifed with the fame 


2 2 o The Trvem^ firfl Conference^ 

careful Education, brought up under the 
fame Difcipline, yet but one of them very 
likely, which proves to be an honed Man ; 
and all the reft will become wicked and vi- 
cious. This can't be otherwife acounted for, 
than by refolving all to the unchangeable, 
uncontroul'd Orders of tire Almighty, who 
will have it fo, and no otherwife. 

I anfwer'd, that God created in the Be- 
ginning every thing very good in. its kind ,• 
but Man fas I have flievvn on another Oc- 
carion)aburing his Free Will, rebelled againfl 
God, and thereupon loft the Power of doing 
what is acceptable and pleafing to God, 
without the immediate Aids of Divine Grace, 
offer'd to all of us through Jefus Chrift : But 
Mankind being bent upon Evil, and blinded 
in the Spirit o\ their Minds, negled the Of- 
fer of Grace and Pardon, made unto them 
through a Redeemer ,• and hence it is, that 
there are more wicked and bad Men in the 
World, than there are honeft and vertuoufly 

The People cried out, Sir, 'tis all true 
what you (ay ; and we have learnt more of 
you, than we have of the Bramans all the 
time of our Lives ; for they never come 
near us, unlefs to eat and drink at Weddings 
and Buryings, to receive their Dole ol boil'd 


of the VoBrine of Fate^ &c. zzt 

Rice and Clothes, that at fuch times are di- 
ftributed among them ; and the poorer fort 
of Famihes dare not fo much as appear in 
their Neighbourhood, becaufe they call 
themfelves Holy Men ; and other poor Fa- 
milies they call Common and Unclean, 

Then fome of the Bramans reprov'd the 
People, and (aid, they had neither Honour 
nor Modefty, in daring to talk fo of their 
Hol^y Or^er, and in neglecting to beftow 
upon them a Competent Maintenance, that 
they might difcharge the feveral Duties of 
their high and heavenly Office, without the 
Di(lra<5tion of worldly Cares : And as for 
their not converfing with fome fort of Men, 
'twas becaufe they fear'd to be defiled by 
them ; feeing they were Bareyers, that eat 
CoivS'FleJh, and other forbidden Meats ; and 
therefore Men, who can't be faved in the 

other World. 


I anfwer'd, if you are poor, 'tis to your 
Gods you mud attribute the Caufe of your 
Poverty, and not to the People, who make 
you very confiderable Allowances ; but you 
offer it in Sacrifices to your Idols, which 
you fhould rather ofier to hungry Stomachs : 
And as to the People you call Bareyers, or 
ttnclean^ I dare fay, that they are much more 
ufefulto the Government than you Bramans; 


212 The Twenty firji Conferences 

for they are very laborious, not aiham'd to 
do the meaneft Drudgeries j which, though 
mean and flaviili, yet muit be done by fome 
or other ^ and why for their Pains they muft 
be called Unclean by the Standers-by, I 
can't conceive : And I yet more wonder at 
the Men whom you bid ftand off, becaufe you 
are holier than they, and excommunicate 
from the Favour of God in the World that is 
to come, as well as from your Company in 
thisi it would be Urange, I fay, ifthofe 
Men would have any Refped for you Bra- 
mans > 

You guefs very well, faid a Braman t 
There is an eternal Hatred between us and 
the Bareyers : For we are defcended from 
the God Biruma, and defigned for the Joys 
of Heaven ; but they are the OfF-fpring of 
fome Earthly-minded Men, and are ordamed 
for the Torments of Hell and eternal Mife- 
ry; and 'tis therefore in purfuance to this 
OMum, they affront us openly, and very often 
have the Impudence to throw Stones at us, 
when we are palling by their Habitations. 

I told him, that 'twas his Pride that puff'd 
him up i and that this Idle Lazy Life gave 
them a fiaadle to infuk poor induftrious 
Men, who get their living by the Sweat of 
their Brows. 


of the VoEirine of Fate ^ &c. 223 

Then he faid, that he, by the help of his 
Skill in Magick^QO\A^ compel the Devil to do, 
or fay what he pleafed ; which was an Ar- 
gument that their Law and Formula's oiPny" 
ers were more efficacious than ours, feeing 
we could not controul the Devil as he could. 

I anfwer'd, that according to our holy 
Law, Witches and Wizards are condemned 
as the moft profligate Men in the World, in- 
afmuch as that they had made a fecret Con- 
trad with the Devil, the Enemy of God, and 
of the Souls of Men. Then I proceeded to 
enlarge on this Head, and fpake very fully 
of the Marks, and infallible Charaders di- 
flinguilhing the true Law of God from the 
Lying Laws calculated to the Intereft of 
worldly-minded Men, whofe Bufinefs 'twas 
toimpofe upon the reft of their Fellow-crea- 


22 5 

Conference XXII. 

Of the Laws of Moks ; and 
of the Gofpel^ &c. 

Between Two Maboraetan Priefts, 
and one of the Danijh Mifliona- 

N tfie Thirty firfl: of January, I 
was vifited by two Mahometati 
Prlefts, the one of them a neigh- 
bouring Pried i but the other 
canae from Agar^ the Refidence of the great 
Mogul, They began to tell me, how God 
had at feveral times raifed up Prophets to 
inftrudt the People, and to guide them in 
the Ways of Truth and Holinefs ,• and more 
efpecially, faid they, we own four Great 
a Pro- 

2 2 5 The Twenty [econd Conference^ 

Prophets, immediately fent from God, 
to reform this wicked World from the 
Evil of their Ways j the firft whereof 
was Mofes, the fecond David^ the third Jt- 
fm^ and the fourth Mahomet : Pray tell us, 
faid they, which of the Four do you look up- 
on to be the Greateft^and take for your Guide 
in Matters of Religion ? 

*Tis confefs'd by all ChrifltattSy anfwer'd 
i, that Mofes, David, and Jefus^ were great 
Prophets; whereof the laft was not only a 
Prophet, but the Son of the living God, and 
the Redeemer of Mankind : And as to what 
you fay, that the Three forementioned Pro- 
phets gave three different Laws to Mankind, 
and Mahomet came to give the World a fourth 
Law, different from thole of Mojes, David^ 
and Jefus Chrift ; in all this you grofsly mi- 
Hake : For the Writings of the Royal Pro^ 
phet Davids and the Gofpel of Jejm Chrift, 
are but Explications of the Law of Mofes • 
and all put together, with the infpired Wri- 
tings of all the other Prophets, make but one 
juft entire Body, or Doctrine of all the things 
neceOary to be believed and pradis'd for the 
attaining eternal Happinefs : And though 
vt e don't obferve the Ceremonial Part of the 
Mofa ical L^w ; yet we read it attentively, 
inafmuch as tho't; Ceremonies were Types 
snd Shadows ot the promifed Mejfias ; and 


of the Larps of Mo[qs, &c. 227 

therefore the 0/«/ and Mew Teftament make 
up One Compleat Chrijtian hfitution : But 
as for the Alcoran compo<>'d by Mahomet, 'us 
partly taken out of the Writings of our holy 
Bible, and partly out of the Books o\ Pagans^ 
mix'd with many of his own Extravagan- 
cies, as may be clearly feen by anydilarn- 
ing Reader : Therefore Mahomet gave the 
World no new Law ; but difmembred man- 
gled, and corrupted the Laws ot\^<^j, and 
the Gofpel of Jefus Qhrifl. 

But, *tis certain, quoth the Mahometan^ 
that there is a great Conformity between 
your Religion and ours, with this only 
Difference ; we believe One^ and you a //•/- 
nit) of Gods. 

Then I explain'd unto him at large, the 
Dodrine of the trinity^ and the Tvi o Na- 
tures of Chrift. 

Well, quoth he, if once you receive fuch 
Opinions for Articles of Faith, I doubt not, 
but you'll find Arguments and plaufible Te- 
(limonies to defend your Point,- though this 
Dodrine or the trinity has neither M.o[es^ 
Davidj nor Ifnahi (Jefus) for its Author. 

Q. i Here 

2 28 The Twenty jecond Conference] 

Here T flopp'd them, by producing many 
plain Texts of Scripture, both out of the 
13ooks of Mofes, and out of the New Te- 
flament ; proving the Truth of the Chrilli- 
an Dodrine of the Tfinity. 

Here the Mahometan reply 'd, I have not 
read your Books ; therefore 'tis to little pur- 
pofe to anfw^r rhe with Paffages dut of Books 
I never faw ; but put the cale, that this Do- 
drine was exprefsly writ in your Bible 
Cwhich yet fome Chriflians themlelves de- 
ny ;) but feeing that it thwarts the Light of 
Reafori, 'tis to be rejedled : For it gives an 
Handle to Chrillians to go back to Idolatry, 
and worfhip Graven Images and a Plurality 
of Gods ; as 'tis but too vifible in your Por^ 
tugueze Chriftians,- who live in thefe Coun- 
tries : For they woriliip Graven Images m 
their Temples, as the Heathens do. 

I Ihew'd him, that this Dodrirre was nei- 
ther againfl the Unity of God, nor againft 
Reafon ; but that 'twas a great Myftery 
tranfcending finite Reafon, we freely grant ; 
becaufe the Nature of an infinite Being 
can't be Comprehended by our finite Reafbn, 
and created Underftandings : And as for your 
mentioning the Danger we are in of falling 
into Idolatry, be affur'd, that we are as 


of the Laivs of Mofes, &"c. 229 

Great Enemies toldol VVorfliip, as the Maho- 
metans themfelves : For we have no other 
Bufmefsin thefe Countries, but to bring the 
Heathens from the Worfhippisg many Ima- 
ginary Idol- Deities, to the Knowledge of tiie 
One only true God, and his Son Jefifs Chrrfi^ 
whom he hath Tent into World to fave Man- 
kind from the Guilt and Punilhment due to 
their Sins. But becaufe fome C/;a-//?/^»j de- 
ny Chrilt to be the everlafdng Son of God ; 
and others worHiip Graven images j muft 
that induce you to rejedt his Dodrineof the 
Trinity^ while you your felv'es believe a 
thoufand incomprehenfible Abfurdities of 
your Prophet Mahomet^ that affront com- 
mon Sence, and trample Reafon under foot ? 
For don't you give divme Worfliip to Ma- 
homet, though you acknowledge him to be a 
mere Man ? 

We give him no Divine Worfliip, re- 
ply'd he ,• but revere him as our Law- 
giver ; and direcSt our Intentions to Ma- 
homefs God, who w^as pieas'd to make 
ufe of him to call us from Heathcnifra. 

I anfwer'd, it appears by the whole Te- 
nor of your Carriage and Demeanour, that 
you adore Mahomet as much, if not more 
than God himfeif, becaufe he is always in 
your Mouths, and always mention'd in youj- 
Q. 3 Pray 

230 The 7vpmty fecond Conference , 

Prayers ;1 which you never do with regard 
to Mo/eSf DavU. and Chrifl, whom you 
allow to be Prophets fent from God to re- 
form thefiniul World. Moreover, ^oufay, 
that he was Exifting before the Creation 
of the World ; and that all things were 
created for his fake : All this I lliew'd 
them out of their own Writings tranflated 
into the Maiahariaa Tongue. 

They defired me to rehearfe all the Points 
which Chriftians efteem erroneous in their 

I gave them a long Catalogue immedi- 
ately ^ among which, I mention'd Polyga- 
my^ as deftrudive both of Mofes's and Je- 
fus Chrift's Dodrine j both w hom they al- 
low to have been fent from God to Teach 
his Ways in Truth and Sincerity to the 
Children of Men. 

Polygnmy^ faid they, is neither againfl: 
found Dod:rine, nor againfl the Light of 
Natural Reafon ; but we look upon it as a 
laudable Cuftom, acceptable to God, and 
ufeful to Human Society : For a Man 
peoples both this World, and that which 
is to come, with more New Inhabitants, 
than if he had married but One Wife 
only I And 'tis therefore that God has 


of the Laws of Mofes, i5^c. 23 1 

Created more Women than Men ,• and by 
Polygamy the World is peopled with New 
Colonies, and all the Women taken care 

This their Opinion, both by Reafon and 
Scripture, I confuted i and iTiew'd them, 
that 'twas \o plain a Truth, that the Hea- 
thens kept flill to the firft Inftitution of 
Marriage, and condemn Polygamy as the 
Eiled; of Untam'd Luft and Unbridled 
Jncontinency : And that there are more 
Women than Men in the World, is ground- 
lefs, and againfl: daily Experience : For 
'tis very reafonable to believe, that both 
Sexes, as to their Number, come up very 
near to an Equality, if we confider the 
great Number of Men dying by the 
Sword, or drowned in the mighty Waters, 
or fent abroad upon other Expeditions, 
ufeful to the Society. 

They made no Reply to all this ; but 
ask'd, what 1 thought of the Way and 
Manner of remitting Sins ? 

Q. 4 Here- 

232 l^be Twenty Jecond Conference ^ 

Hereupon I made a long Difcourfe, (hew- 
ing how Sifi came firft into the World ; 
and how Man by Sin being obnoxious to 
the Wrath of God, did Hand in need of a 
Redeemer : Which gave me occafion to 
explain to them the Dodrine of Juftifica^ 
tton and Forgivenefs of Sins, by the Free 
Grace of God, and not by any Works that 
we our (elves can do, without the Divine 
Concurrence of adiding Grace ,• which en- 
ables us to repent, and turn to God, con. 
quering our Stubbornnefs, and making us 
willing to run in the Ways of God's Com- 
mandments. And then I defired to know 
how Pardon of Sins was attained, according 
to the Principles of Mahometans ? 

Some Sins, faid they, are blotted out, 
and pardoned, by the Offenders receiving 
an Hundred Baftinadds i fome by Forty, 
and fome Sins are by Death only aton'd for ; 
fome Sins are pardon'd, in confideration of 
pecuniary Mulds and Fines, and by doing 
long Penances, and iliewing Mercy to- 
wards the Poor with more than common 

Upon this I refam'd, and (liew'd them, 
that this great Error was common both to 
them and to the Heathens, to thkik that 
the Guilt of Sin is pardoned by chaftifing 


of the Laws of Mofes, iifc^ z j 3 

and mortifying the Outward Man ; when 
all the Auderities of Corporal Penances 
can only weaken the Flefli, but in no wife 
crucifie Sin, and renew the Inward Man. 

To all this they made no Reply ; but 
thank'd me for my Friendly Difcourfe. 

I made them a Prefent of fome Book? 
out of our Printing-Houfe, in the Malaha-* 
rian Tongue, and difmifs'd them. 



Conference XXIII. 

OftheGoodmfsofGodf and 
of Maris Wickednefs ; and 
of the Heathens OhjeBions 
againft the Chrijlian Re^ 
Virion. Their making God 
the Author ofiSin. 

Between many Heathens^ and one of 
the DaniJJj Miffionaries. 

f ' ' ■ ■ * ■ 

ON the Nineteenth of Jcinuary I went 
to one of the Neighbouring Villages, 
where very many Heathens flock'd toge- 
ther to hear the Preaching of the Gofpel. 
I fpake to them of the manifold Mercies, 
and Goodnefs of God towards the Malaba- 


:?j5 Jhe Twenty third Conference, 

rian Nation ; and of their National Ingratir 
tude, which, after the long Patience of Hea- 
ven, wearied with their wicked Courfes; is 
now rewarded with condign Punifliment, 
publick Calamities, and Affli(5tions with 
which their Land is vifited. 

Hereupon one of them anfvver'd, that God 
is very Good, and ail Men very Evil, we 
all know ; but pray, tell us, how comes this 
Evil into the World ; and whence has it its 
Original ? And how can we be freed from 
all the Train of Miteries that attend it ? That 
Pride, Lying, Hatred and Difobedience are 
great Evils, is known by woful Experience ; 
but finding our lelves unable to refift the 
adJive Power thereof, we conclude, that God 
is the Author of Sin, as well as the Author of 

Your Ignorance of the Original of Evil, 
is the Caufe of this your prophane Opinion, 
that deftroys the very Notion of Vertue 
and Goodnefs ; and confequently you go on 
quietly in the fame finful Courfe of Life, as 
pleafing and acceptable to God. Here I ex- 
plain'd unto them very fully the holy Na- 
ture of God, and the Scriptural Account of 
the Original of Evil, and of its tremendous 
Confequences ,• from which Chrift redeem- 
ed us with his precious Blood ; If we repent 


of the Qoodnefs of God, Stc, 237 

of former Sins, and believe in his Name, and 
lead holy Lives worthy of the holy Precepts 
contained in his Gofpel ; 'tis then we lliall 
be enabled to refill Sin ; and quench all the 
fiery Darts of Satan ? 

But here I was interrupted by one telling 
me, that all what 1 faid about the Scriptural 
Account of the Original of Sin^ was nothing 
at all to the purpofe : For thefe being Hifto- 
rical Tranfaditions, which happened before 
either you or we were born, they can carry 
no Convidion with them : For we have ve- 
ry many fuch Hiftories of Things tranfadied 
by the Gods in the World preceding this ; 
to which we neither lend much Attention, 
nor Belief. 

You do well, faid I, to dif-believe ridicu- 
lous Fables, and feU-contradiding BJiftories, 
containing fuch monftrous Abfurdities, that 
no Man in his Senfes can hear them read 
with Patience : But as for the Hiflory, and 
Account we have of the Original of Evily 
and of the promifed Remedy thereof, 'tis made 
out fo clear, by the fulfilling of the feveral 
Prophefies relating to the mmuteft Circum- 
(lanccs, in the whole Procefs of the Work of 
our Redemption, that a Man may as juftly 
and reafonably doubt of the Exiftence of the 
ordinary Objeds of Sight and Hearing, as 


238 the Twenty fecond Conference] 

doubt of the Truth of what is related in th^ 
facred Pages of the Old and New Tefta- 

Here, refuming his Diicourfe, Sir, quoth 
he, 'tis a Wonder, that To wife a Man as you 
are, ihould thus go from Place to Place, to 
entertain People with learned Difcourfes, 
who don't much care to give you the bear- 
ing : I thought you had arriv'd at that high 
Degree of Wifdom, that teaches you to for- 
fake all the vain Converfation of the igno- 
rant Mohile, and lead a retired Life, as our 
Hermits and Anchorets do, whom we worihip 
and revere as the wifell of Mortals, and con- 
fult them upon occafional Difficulties ia 
their WildernefTes and Subterranean Refiden- 
ces, or Caves of the Earth : For they never 
come after us ,• becaufe fuch as third 
after the Knowledge of the Truth, will run 
after them to be intruded by them in the 
Precepts of Wifdom. 

I return* d him the following Anfwer ; The'" 
great God, the Fountain of all Wifdom and 
Knowledge, wanting none of our Services 
and Performances, yet is in all Places, and 
at all times urging his Creatures to mind 
the Salvation of their Souls, and turn to 
him with all, their Hearts, that he may blot 
out their Iniquities, and pardon all their Sins : 


of the Goodnefs of God^ &c^ i 3 9 

And if God in his Mercy did not condefcend 
to come in quell of his Rebellious Children^ 
'tis more than probable, that few or none 
would importune him with Reprefentations 
of their dangerous Circumftances, or with 
earneft humble Petitions for Grace and Par- 
don : For lb great is the innate Pride of Man's 
Heart, that he would rather hazard his Soul, 
and all, than owe his DeHverance to the 
free Grace of God : Therefore true Wifdom 
confifls in feeking and faving thofe that go 
aftray ; and the more laborious and adive 
we are herein, the more wife we are, in imi- 
tating the VVifdom of the Almightyi And 
if your Hermits were endued with the Wif- 
dom which comes from above, they would 
do as I do, teach the* Ignorant, and reclaim 
thofe to the Knowledge of God, who are 
carried away by the Delufionsof the Devil 
and crafty Men, who lye in wait to deceive 
filly Souls. 

Upon this, another fpake; Whenever you 
come to us. Sir, we are heartily glad to fee 
you : For though we oppofe you now and 
then, and interrupt your Difcourfe. afTure 
your felf, that 'tis out of a Defire to have 
things yet more clearly dated, and fome 
little Scruples folv'd ,• and not out of any 
vSpirit of Contradidion : And to deal inge- 
nuouHy with you, I'll tell you what hinders 


240 The Trventy third Conference^ &c, 

Progrefs of your Docflrine, and what ren- 
ders it unacceptable to us MaUharians ; 'tis 
becaufe you are none of us, but a White 
European, If you were a Native, we would 
hear you chearfully. 

God, faid I, having Thoughts of Grace 
and Mercy towards this unthankful Land, 
fo corrupted wit]i Idolatry, and cover'd with 
fuch grofs Darknefs, that there is no Wife 
Man left among you to teach his Brethren 
the Knowledge of God and his Ways j has 
fent Men from the reniOteff Corners of the 
Earth, to explain to you his manifold Wif- 
dom, hid from Ages and Generations, but 
now manifeft in his Beloved Son, and our, 
as well as your Saviour, and common Lord, 
Jefus Qhrifl. Thefe Wonderful Dealings 
of God with you, lliould awaken your At- 
tention the more, to confider, that he has 
not dealt thus with other Nations j neither 
were your Fathers inflrudled in the great 
Things of God, as you are this Day^ nei- 
ther did any Foreigners ever before, learn 
both tofpeak and write your Language with 
no other View than to promote the Welfare 
of your Souls, and render you acceptable in 
the Sight of God, your Creator. Then I 
concluded with Admonitions and Motives .to 
kcpentance, and to a Godly Life j and bid 
them all Adieu. 



Conference XXIV, 

Of the HeatheniJJj Books ^ &c. 

Between fome Heathens^ and one of 
the Danljl) Miffionaries. 

ON the Fifth of March, fome Heathens 
from the City ot Meiron, came to 
my Houfe, defiring me to give them fome 
Printed Books, fuch as they had ^t^^ in the 
Hands of fome of their Neighbours. 

T ask*d them, of what ufe fuch Books 
would be to them ? 

To read them, and to raife Difcourfes 
thereupon, anfwer'd they, and wonder among 
our felves, how^^ the White Europeans could 
have learnt our Language, and printed it 
thus, without Ink and Writing. 

*Tis not, faid I, to raife your Admirati- 
on, that we are come here from our own 

R Coun^ 

242 T^he Twenty fourth Confer ence^^ 

Countrey, and print thefe Books with fo 
much Coil and Pains- taking ; but to the 
end we may fpread among you the Know- 
ledge of the True God, and that your 
felves may read the Words of Eternal Life, 
which are fufficient to make you wife unto 
Salvation *. But we are very much difap- 
pointed in our Expedation ; for we find, 
you little mind the Things that belong to 
your Peace, tho' brought home to your 
Doors, and ofler'd to you without Money 
and without Price ; while you are never 
wearied in reading the VVildeft Extravagan- 
cies, written by lying Poets, and falfe Hi- 
ftorians, who have made it their Bufinefs to 
impofe upon too credulous Pofterity. 

Then, anfwer'd fome of them, are all our 
Books falfe ? 

As to the Hiftorles of your Gods fundry 
Apparitions, the Foundation and Grounds 
of your /'tfgt^^-Worfhip, faid I, they are 
all abfurd Falfities ; and all the Rules and 
Direcflions there contain'd, for the attaining 
of Eternal Happinefs, are of no ufe : The 
befl: Books you have, are fuch as treat of 
Vertue and Vice, and other Matters in Mo- 
rality^ which are pretty well written, but 
mix'd and daih'd with interfperfed Falfities ; 
yet none of all your Books make any 


of the Heatheni/Ij Books^ &c, 24 j 

mention of the Original of Man's Mifery, 
and of the promiflbry Means of Salvation. 
And as for your Books, Aftrological, Magi- 
cal, &c. written to promote the Deviliih 
Trade of Witchcraft^ they are good for 
nothing, but to be committed to the Flames, 
inafmuch as they diftrad your Minds from 
God, and feafon them with the Dodrine 
of Devils. 

Then one flood up, and faid, you may 
rail and inveigh, as much as you pleafe, 
againfl: our Books ; yet, for what I can find, 
your Books have no Letters, but ours ; and 
no Words, but what are borrow'd from our 
Books, and from our Language. 

'Tis very true, reply'd I, that I make ufe 
of your Words and Charaders, in order to 
make my felf intelligible to you, when I 
make known to you the Myfteries of Salva- 
tion, which I have not borrow'd from your 
Writings, but from the written Word of 
God : For tho' your Words are very good, 
yet what you mean by them, is Fallhood 
and Vanity. For Exaniple; you fay, God 
is to be feared ,• but then you make a Graven 
Image the Objedt of Religious Fear. The 
fame may be faid of the Words Repentance^ 
Holinefs, Wifdom^ &c. Which Vertues you 
make to coiifift in outward Grimaces, and 
R z Bodily 

244 ^^^ Twenty fourth Conference^ 
Bodily Auflerities, and Self- macerations. 

You are very much in the right, Sir, re- 
plied one of them : For we have only good 
Words left amongft us; becaufe all real 
Goodnefs is dead and buried with our Fa- 
thers; and I am apt to believe, that 'tis 
much the fame among the Chriftians : For 
your Phrafe and Didion are fmooth, polite 
and elegant ; but your Adions are as bad as 
our own. 

I acknowledg'd, that the Corruption of 
Manners was indeed at this Day overfpread- 
ing the whole Face of the whole Univerfe j 
yet ftill with this Difference, that the Do- 
citrines of Salvation are kept pure amongft 
us J and therefore they have Means ready at 
hand to reclaim the Diibbedient from their 
Wickednefles : But if they continue in their 
Obftinacy and Rebellion againft God, they 
are inexcufable, and God is glorified in 
punilliing their Difobedience. 

But pray let us fee, cry'd out one of 
them, how do you demonftrate, that our 
Books are falfe ? 

Hereupon I nam'd their chief and prin- 
cipal Books relating to Religion ; and repea- 
ted the Contents of every one of them, 


of the Heatheni/h Books, S^c- 245 

with many impious and monftrous Paflages, 
verbatim, as therein contained j which, ac- 
companied with a clear and nervous Con- 
futation of their Errors, had this good Ef- 
{e£t upon them, that they freely confefs'd, 
that I was faithful in my Allegations; and 
that they were convinced, 'twas their Duty 
to lead better Lives than they do. But God 
has made us as we are, faid they, furround- 
ed with the enticing Allurements of this 
World, and hurried with the Cares and Bu- 
/inefles of this Life, fo that we really forget 
the Affairs of the other World, which are 
purely Spiritual. 

Hereupon I fuited my Exhortation to 
their Spiritual Lethargy and Lukewarmnefs 
pf Temper, and difmils'd them. 

R 5 



Conference XXV- 

Of the Heathen Feajl-Days. 
What Thoughts they con^ 
cehe of the Chriftian Faith. 
Of Marriage, &c. 

Between fome Bramans^ and one of 
the Dani/h Miffionaries. 

ON the Ninth of March, being a 
Feftival among the Heathens, I 
went into one of their Pagods, 
towards the Evening, which I 
found much crouded ; and ask'd the Bra* 
manSy upon what Account they celebrated 
this Day in thofe pompous Solemnities of 
carrying their Idol-Gods about the Streets ? 

The Brar/ians anfvver'd, 'tis an Ancient 

Cuflom received from our Ancellors, which 

wc are obliged to obferve very religioufly, 

R 4 with- 

248 The Twenty fifth Confer enccf 

without the leafl: Alteration ; tho' if we were 
left to our Choice, we would abolifli many 
fuch unneceflary Ceremonies, as no ways 
contributing to the attaining of Divine Wif- 
dom. Another Braman added, If our way 
of Worfliip is confidered only outwardly, it 
may indeed, to an indiflerent Beholder, feem 
very ridiculous ; but if it be confidered in 
its more Spiritual and inward Intention, e- 
very wife Man rauft judge very advantage^ 
oufly of our publick Way of Worihip. 

This gave me a fit Handle to fpeak very 
Copioufly of the firft Inftitution of Feliivab, 
and how they abufed the Defign and End of 
this firfl laudable Inflitution, by fpending 
the Day in Luxury and Prophanencfs j in 
which, I alTur'd them, they greatly err'd. 

A Braman told me, I was very much in 
the right ; but he was prefently reproved 
by another of the Order, threatning to exr 
communicate him out of the Society, if he 
talked at that rate. 

The former reply 'd, 'tis dangerous to fpe^k 
as one thinks. 

Then I fpake publickly, and faid, 'tis pad: 
all Difpute, that many wife Men amongfl: 
you do not approve of this way of Pompous 


of the Heathen Feafl-DaySy &c. 249 

and Ceremonious Worfliip , as contribu- 
ting to the attaining of Happinefs or folid 
Wifdom ', and are really afhamed of it as moft 
ridiculoufly foppiih ; tho' in the mean time 
they are ftill more afliamed to be hooted at 
by the Mob, lor owning the Truth inoppo- 
fition to the many Great and Mighty, who 
love to follow the Multitude to do Evil : 
Whereas cur Lord and Mailer Jefiu Chriji 
teaches us, that whoever loves Father andMo^ 
ther wore than him^ cant be one of his Difci- 

Whereupon a School-maflcr asked me, if 
according to our Laws, we were obliged to 
hate our Parents ? 

I anfwer'd, Yes, when they hinder us to 
love God ; for the Refpedt we owe to them, 
comes in competition to that we owe to our 
dear Redeemer; and in this Cafe we muft 
obey God rather than Man ; But otherwife 
we are commanded to give Parents and Su- 
periors all due Reverence, according to the 
refpeiflive Relations we bear to them. 

Then flood up another Braman^ asking 
me, if all iliould be faved, that were bap- 
tiz'd in the Name of Chrift ? 


2 JO The Twenty fifth Confer ence. 

To whom I return'd this Anfwer ; We 
have in our Hands all the necefTary Means 
of Salvation, by which all Men may be fa- 
ved ; but if they abufe the Grace of God, 
and are flothful in working out their own 
Salvation with Fear and Trembling, Sin lies 
at their own Door, and their Deflrudtion 
comes from themfelves. 

Then faid the Bramavy what advantage is 
there in embracing your Religion, fince I 
find, I may be damned in yours, as well as 
in my own ? 

Then I ask'd them, but how can you de- 
monftrate, that you have the Dodlrine of 
Salvation > 

One argued the Point from Antiquity ; 
another from the Multitude that profefs'd 
their Religion ,• a third alledged the mighty 
Wonders done by their Gods ; the fourth 
urg'd the Incapacity of the Bramans then 
and there prefent, to argue pertinently upon* 
Matters o( fo great Importance ; but defir'd 
me to travel through the Country, vifit 
Places of Devotion, and converfe with their 
Great and moft Learned Bramans ; and that 
then, he queftioned not, but I would be 


of the Heathen Feafl-Days^ &c; 2 ji 

thoroughly convinc'd of the Truth of their 

Hereupon I fliew'd them, that all Argu- 
ments fetch'd from Antiquity, Numbers of 
Profeflbrs, and Univerfality and Extenfivenefs 
of any Religion, were trivial and inconclu- 
five ; and then proceeded to fliew, that their 
Religion was falfc, and to be forthwith a- 

Many aflented to all I faid 5 and were 
alhamed to have been of the Number of its 
Profeflbrs ; others did urge the Bramans to 
defend their Thefis^ and anfwer my Argu- 

The Bramans contented themfelves with 
faying, that there are many things in the 
Chriitian, as well as in their Religion, that 
are not capable of a Demonftration ; but 
are to be received by Faith : Fordoes not ic 
feem the Height of Unreafonablenefstofup- 
pofe him to be the Saviour of the World, 
who was of a mean Parentage, had but as 
mean an Education, perfecuted by hisCoun- 
try-men, and at laft was hang'd by publick 
Authority upon an infamous Crofs > 


a 5 i '^he Twenty fifth Conference ^ 

Then a School- mafter urged againft me 
the different Se^s of Chriftians. 

I reply'd, that all the Chriftians agree in 
owning the Exiftence of One only Supreme 
Being, and his Word to be the Rule of th^r 
Lives and Pradice ; tho' 'twas true, that 
Ibme have brought in many pf their own 

Why then, faid one of the Afljftants , you 
fliould firft bring things to rights among 
your felves, before you undertake the Re- 
formation of Foreign Nations, 

A Braman added, verily the Difference 
between you and us is very inconfiderable ; 
For you muft die, and fo muft we ; you urge 
the Necelfity of good Works, fo do we ; and 
as we are great Sinners before the Lord, fo 
are you : And, in fliort, none of your Grand- 
fathers, any more than ours, are come back 
from the Habitations of the Dead, to give 
us a true Account of thofe that are damned, 
or of fuch as are eternally happy in the Q- 
ther World. 

I reply'd, you argue upon falfe Suppofition, 
that there is a Space of Time left for Repen- 
tance after this Life is ended 3 and therefore 


of the Heathen Feaji-Days^ &c. 255 

you neither fear Death, nor Hell ; and leave 
alllfliies of Happinels and Mifery,to Guefles 
and Peradventurcs. 

Hereupon an old Man fpake, Sir, you 
are yet a fingle Man, and unacquainted with 
the carking Cares accompanying a Marriage- 
Life, which di{lrac3: us from attending the 
Duties of Religion. 

The Marriage- State being God's own In- 
ftitution, can be no Hindrance to a holy Life, 
faid L 

Then another ask'd me, why they [were 
Black and we White > 

I anfwer'd, that the firft Parents of us all 
were created White : For 'tis Evident, that 
White will be made Black ; but Black can 
take no other Hue ; but the natural Reafon 
of their Blacknefs is the fcorching Heat of 
the Climate, which has that Effedl upon Hu- 
man Bodies. 



Conference XXVI. 

jihotit fever al Particulars 
relating to Religion. 

Between a Malabarian Merchant^ and 
one of the Danilh Mijjionaries, 

ON the Fourteenth o^ March, I came 
into a Place, where they were 
celebrating their Ceremonies ; 
and finding there a Concourfe of 
People, I fpake to them of the manifold 
Riches of the Grace of God, which were 
now offered to them at their Doors : But I 
liad no fooner ended my Difcourfe, when 
a Merchant flood up, and faid, We perfuade 
our felves that we are a very happy People ; 
our Gods love us, and we love and adore 
our Gods ; we have a Form of Publick 
Worfliip, eftabliihed among us by Publick 
Authority J we are a Wife, Underftanding 
People, enjoying all forts of Temporal and 
Spiritual Gifts at the liberal Hands of God • 


2 $6 The Twenty Jixth Conference, 

we live in a well-regulated Society, under 
a very wife Magiftracy; and, in ihort, we 
want for nothing that can 'be thought con- 
ducive to the Happinels of Soul or Body : 
And therefore we wonder very much at 
the Europeans y who make it their Bufinefs 
to inveigh againfl: our Religion, and rail 
at our Gods with bitter Satyrs. What, do 
you look upon us to be Monfters or Devils ? 
Have not we Wifdom and Underftanding, 
as well as any of you, vifible enough in 
ail forts of Manufadures prepared by the 
Induftry of the Inhabitants ; and for its 
Goodnefs and Beauty, coveted by the Eu- 
ropeans, and had in high Efteem amongft 
them ? What then can you pretend, and what 
iliould move you to change our Laws and 
Religion ? 

I grant, faid I, that in relation to trade, 
and the Things of this Life, you are a very 
underftanding People, and no Ways inferi- 
our to any the wifeft Nation: Arid I would 
have you know, that we never blame your 
Underftandings upon this account ; biit 
when we confider your grofs Errors and 1- 
dolatry, we can't but fay, and affirm, that 
you are the moft ignorant and blind among 
Men, in the Things relating to God and the 
other World. 


ahut fever al ? articular s^ &c, 257 

If fo, faid he, how does God permit and 
fufFer our Religion to take Root, and flourifh 
in this Land, for fo many thoufand Years ? 

God, reply 'd T, is good and gracious to- 
wards all irrational Creatures, tho* they ne- 
ver petition for Food, nor pray for their dai- 
ly Suftenancei yet he opens his liberal 
Hands, and feedeth every living Creature 
with Food convenient for him ; and befides, 
this is neither the Place, nor Time to reward 
and punifli every one according to bis Deeds : 
God referves to himfelf all the infinite incir- 
cling 4ges of Eternity, for diflributing of 
Rewards and Punifliments ; therefore his 
long-fuflering with your Folly and Weaknef- 
ics, is no Proof of the Truth of your efta- 
bhfhed Religion? 

Be it fo, quoth he ; but all things come 
from the Hands of God, both Good and E- 

'Tis true, faid I, that God permits Evil, 
but is not the Caufe thereof : For I don't 
believe, that if a Thief breaks in this Night 
into your Warehoufe, andfteals thence your 
beft Effecfts, you would fay, that God 
brake in and ftole your Goods ; but you 
would feek after the Thief, and fee him pu- 
S nilhed 

258 The Twenty fixth Conference j 

niflied as the only Author of the Robbery, 
wilUngly, and defignedly, without any ex- 
ternal Impulfe to break into your Ware- 
houfe J Whereas if the Thief had been necef- 
fitated thereto, he is no more guilty, thah 
confuming Flames or Inundations, that ru^ 
ine very often Cities and whole Provinces : 
Therefore God is the Caufe of all that is 
truly good ; but we our feJves, and the 
Devil, are the Caufe of all that is morally 

Then, faid he, why don*t you drive this 
Deuil out of the Countrey, that caufes fo 

much Mifchief amongft us ? 

If you defire earneftly to be free from the 
I^evil's Tyranny, reply 'd I, refolve to ac- 
commodate your felves to all the Connmand- 
ments of God's written Law ; and then, by 
Divine Adiftance, we fhall be able enough to 
dellroy all ithe Works of the Devil, and drive 
him, not only from the Land, but likewife 
from your Hearts, where now he rules with 
defpotick Authority. 

All you fay, anfwer'd another, is very true ; 
and we can eafily guefs what you would be 
at J* you would, Sir, root out of the Land 
our eftabliihed Religion, and introduce your 
own in its room, by flrength of Reafon, and 


about fever al Particulars ^ &a 259 

Eloquence : But pray Sir, know, that we, 
and you are born in very different Climates, 
educated under different Governments and 
Inftitutions ; we differ in our Clothes, in our 
Way of Eating, Drinking, and in cultivating 
Sciences ; and as long as thefe Differences 
are remaining between you and us, 'tis more 
than probable, that your and our Pveligioa 
will continue to be (till very different Reli- 
gions, and very good both of them, for dif- 
terent Countries. 

I reply'd, we come to you in the Spirit 
of Meeknefs and Love ; we compel none of 
you to embrace our Opinions ; we only lay 
the great Things of God that belong to the 
makmg you happy here and hereaiter, in 
the ffrongeft Liglit poffible, and then appeal 
to your own Underilandings, anfwering ac 
the fame time your many weak and little Ob- 
jedions ofTer'd againft theChriff ian Dodrine ; 
whereof the prelent Obje(3;ion is very incon- 
fiderable, viz. your arguing Irom the Diffe- 
rence o{ Manners and outward Habitudes^ to a 
neceffary Difference in Religion : For if you 
did turn Chriflians, it would be no way ne- 
ceffary for you to change your Way of eat- 
ing and drinking, and your daily Manner of 
dealing with your Neighbours : We urge you 
to turn only from the Worlliip of Idols, to 
Worfliip the true God inspirit and In Truth : 
S 2 And 

260 the Twenty fixth Conference ^ 8zcl 

And as for other Differences in outward 
Behaviour, between you and us, they are 
confident Vvith that Unity of Belief in Chrift, 
and with the Union of Charity and Love, 
which is all that is required of us in relation 
to Matters of Religion ; We neither come to 
change yout Government, nor your Lan- 

Then the Merchant flood up, and faid, I 
heartily beg Pardon for my contradiding 
you fo violently : For I did it to no other 
end, but to fee if I could once put you into 
a Fit of Anger ; for many told me, that you 
were never feen to be in a PalTion in any Pub- 
lick Difpute. 

I anfwer'd, Phyficians and good Surgeons 
never quarrel with tineir Patients ; but bear 
patiently with all their Impotency of Mind 
and Peevifhnefs of Temper : For their Bu/i- 
nefs is to cure the Difiempers of the Body 
with Gentlenefs and ilwectnefs of Behaviour ; 
and 'tis mine to cure the Difeafes of the Soul 
with all Long.fultering and Patience : And 
wi«-h ih fe and the like Expreliions, I difmif- 
fed them. 



Conference XXVII. 

Of the fever al Excufes offered 
l?y the Heathens, for not 
receiving the Chriftian Re- 

Between fome Heathen Fifliermen, 
and one of the Danifb MiflSona- 

N the Seventeenth of May, I pafs'd 
through three different . Villages 
belonging to Fifliermen, preach- 
ing to them the Words of e« 
ternal Life. 

In the firfl: Village I preached about the 
Corruption of Human Nature, aad of the 
Hecejftty of a Redeemer ; and when I ha^ end- 
ed my Oifcourfe, one of them Itood up, and 
faid ^ Sir, what you fay, is very true and 
S 3 rea- 

262 IheTrpenty Jeventh Confer ence^ 

reafonable ; and could we but lead fuch 
Lives as ycu have now defcribed, we would 
be of the Number of your Difciples ; but 
feeing we are a very poor and indigent People, 
we are not concern'd in what you fay ; our 
Time, tho' fpent altogether in Fiihing, and 
other Hard Labour, does fcarcelv afford us 
daily Bread ; and how can we fpend time 
about the Things of the other Life, whereof 
we are altogether ignorant ? And did we 
embrace your Religion, it would cofl us a 
great deal of time in the learning of it, and 
we mufl be all our Lives oblig'd to frequent 
your Church once a Week; which would alfo 
take up a great part of our time. We are 
contented to tread in our Fathers ileps, in 
this, and keep them Company in the next 
World ; we are not ambitious of being hap- 
pier in the other World than our Fathers are. 

Your Poverty, faid I, is no Reafon why 
you Ihould negled: your eternal Intereft ; 
but you lliould endeavour to be rich towards 
God, that you may have that Reft and Hap- 
pinefs in the next, which you can't expert 
to enjoy in this World; which if you do, 
you'll find, that your Lives even here on 
Earth will be made eafier to you : For God- 
Ihefs has the Promife of this Life^ and of 
that which is to come. And as for your Fore- 
fathers being Heathens, ignorant of God and 


of the Heathens Exeujes. i5j 

Chrift, 'tis no Encouragement for you to 
be the like, and to rejed: the Offers of the 
Grace and Mercy oQer'd you this day : For 
you mull confider, that it is probable, if 
your Fathers had had the fame Offer and 
Tender of Grace, and Pardon of Sin, as 
you have this Day, they had repented in 
Sackcloth and Allies, and turned to the 
Lord their God, and burn'd their Images 
and Idols in the Fire. 

Hereupon they were call'd into the Town 
to carry about the Streets their Gods, in 
great Carts made for that purpofe ; from 
which I difuaded them very earneftly ; but 
they anfwered, that if they did refufe, they 
Ihould be cruelly handled by their Superiors, 
and it may be, banifli'd the Town. 

Thencelcame to another Village, where I 
found them employ'd in mending their Nets, 
and a Uttle Boy entertaining them with read- 
ing the Hiftory ot one of their Gods def- 
perately fallen in love with a Woman, with 
whom he had hii familiar Intrigues ; and im- 
mediately I took thence Qccafion to convince 
them of the Falfity and Wickednefs of their 
Religion ,• becaufe it admitted, and allowed 
of fuch Gods, who by their Example and 
Authority, contribute to render Men worfe 
S 4 than 

264 Ihe Twenty [evemh Conference^ 

than Devils, both in all forts of bodily Un- 
cleannefs, and fpiritual Wickednefles. 

They faid, we know no better ; for we 
have no Prieft among ns to give us any 
Tindure of Religion and Piety j and the 
Boy that reads that Book to us, can read no 
other : For this is the only Book he has 
learnt at School. Pray, Sir, what would 
you have us do ? 

You mud repent, anfwer'd I, and forfake 
your Dumb Idols, to worlhip the True and 
Holy God, who made Heaven and Earth. 

Your Dodrine, reply'd they again, is ve- 
ry good and reafonable ; but alas ! we are 
fo plung'd in the Dregs of Earthly-mind- 
ednefs, that we can't difengage our felves 
^ from a thoufand Obligations which tie us 
fall to our old Religion ,• for we are, as it 
were, Vaffals and Slaves to the Governours 
of the Place, to draw about the Great Wag- 
gon, prefs'd with the heavy Weight of our 
Idols ; and did we come over to the Tents of 
Chriftians, they would not fuffer us any 
more to follow our ordinary Employ- 


of the Heathm% Excnfes^ 26$ 

But all thefe Objedions would be eafily 
anfwer'd by your felves, faid I, if you were 
earneftly in love with Truth ; and you ftiould 
not think and edeem your Lives dear un- 
to you upon the account of Chrift, who dii- 
ed for you. Then exhorting them to the 
Confideration of their Ways, I bid them a- 
dieu ; and going to a third Village, I ask»d 
fome of the Inhabitants, wherein confided 
their Divine Worfhip ? 

We have none, reply'd they ; and know 
little or nothing of God, or of the Way of 
Worfliip ; neither do we trouble our felves 
with thefe Matters : For we are a poor, per^ 
verfe fort of People, who fpend good part 
of our Lives in Eating and Drinking, Mar* 
rying of Wives, and Quarrelling with one a- 
nothcr, and the reft of the time in Filhing 
for the Maintenance of our Families ; and 
when one of us dies, we think no more of 
him J but let him ihift for himfelf : For we 
give little time to think upon what is com^ 
monly reported of Heaven and Hell, or of 
any other Part of God's Worfliip ; tfao' in- 
deed, we have a little Pago^I among us ,• and 
when we take a very great Fifli, we com- 
monly oiler to our Gods the Bones thereof. 


1x66 The twenty fevemh Conference^ 

That you confefs your Ignorance, reply'd 
I, is good, provided that at the fame time 
you are adiam'd, and forry for it, defiring 
to be inftrudted in the Knowledge of the 
true God. 

One of them faid, tho' you come often 
to fee us, we are now as bad as ever ; and 
indeed, we are not worthy you fliould fpend 
fo much time and labour upon us : For we 
are neither capable of learning your Religi- 
on, nor of pradtifmg the fame when learnt ; 
and therefore, if we were already made 
Chriftians, I am affar'd we fliould be no Or- 
nament to your Religion : And is it not 
better both for you and us, to remain where 
we are ; and throw our felves upon the in- 
finite Mercies of a gracious God ; and let 
him do with us what he pleafes ? 

I fiiew'd them the Abfurdity of this Opi- 
nion, and told them, that 'twas God alone can 
turn the Hearts of the Children of Men, and 
not they themfelves ; and exhorted them 
not to defpife the Offers of Grace that God 
was pleas'd to make them at this time ; 
and that the Word of God which they 
heard, was efficacious and powerful to con- 
vert the Soul, and to wean them from all 
Earthly Engagements to finful Pleafures, or 


of the Heathens Excujes} 2,6 j 

Temporal Confiderations ; and to giveKnow. 
ledge and Underftanding to the Simple, ma- 
king them a willing People in the Day of 
his Power. 

Upon this I recommended them to God, 
and bid them adieu. 



Conference XXVIII. 

Containing Afijwers to Thir- 
teen ^lejiions proposed hy 

Between fome Heathens and Mahome^ 
tans, and one of the Dani/h Mif- 

N the Nineteenth of May^ we were 
vifited by fome Malabar tans and 
Mahometans, who ask'd me the 
following Queftions : i. If there 
was but one Religion in the World that 
was every way true, and free from errone- 
ous Opinions ? 2. If 'tis right to defpife and 
condemn all P^eligions that we don't profefs 
our felves ? 3. If 'tis God's Will and Pleafure 
to give the fame Revelations to all the dif- 
ferent Nations of the Earth ? 4 If God is 
a Refpedter of Perfons ? $. Whence comes 


Answers to fome Queries ^ Stc, 269 

it that the Wicked profper, when at the 
fame time the Godly are forely afflided i 
6. If 'tis pofTible for a Man to live without 
Sin, all the time he is in this World ? 7. If 
Men can do any thing againft the Will of 
God; or if all their Adions are performed 
by his Efficacious Working ? 8. If Fate or 
Deffiny has more Influence upon Human 
Anions, than the moral Precepts of Laws 
commanding Good and forbidding Evil ? 
9. Whence comes it that a Man follows evil 
Pradices, tho" he knows 'tis his Duty to adt 
other wife ? 10. If a Man can dired his Pray- 
er to God, without the Intervention of Gra- 
ven Images ? 11. Is not the Chriftian Do^ 
drine of the trinity inconfiflent with the 
Unity of the Supreme Being? 11. When did 
the Chriftian Religion iirft commence ? 13* 
What Religion did the Europeans obferve 
before Chriilianity came to be fettled among 
them ? 

I returned proper Anfwers to all thefe 
Queftions very fully ; and then in my turn, 
I ask'd them, how, and by what means they 
hop'd to be fav'd > 


27© ^^^ twenty eighth Conference] 

The Heathens anfwer'd, by believing that 
among all the Gods known and ador'd a- 
mong us, there is but One Supreme Being, 
worthy of Fear, Love and Adoration ; and 
by putting all our Truft in him, direding 
our Prayers to him, giving Alms, and by 
obferving all the Ceremonies enjoyned by 
our Laws. 

The Mahometan faid, We exped: Salvati- 
on, by believing, that there is but One. 
God, and that Mahomet is his Prophet; 
That the Alcoran is the Word of God, con- 
taining the Doditrine of attaining Happinefsj 
That by praying five times every Day; 
By doing Good, and efchewing Evil ,• By' 
confeding Sins to the Prieft, and undergo- 
ing what Penance he pleafe* to lay upon 
us ; By each going once in his Life to Mec- 
ca, if flrong, and has wherewithal to de- 
fray the Charges of the Journey ; By oU 
ferving the ordinary Feftivals ,• By going e- 
every Friday to the Mofque, and attending 
diligently to the reading of the Alcoran, 
He who does thefe things, will obtain eter- 
nal Happinefs. 

I anfwer'd, Malaharians and Mahometans, 
you deceive your felves, if you think that 
thefe imaginary Performances can fave your 

Souls : 

Anftpers to fome ^eries, &c. 271" 

Souls : For fome of thefe things are forbid- 
den as fuperftitious ; and the other Means, 
'VIZ. mere bodily Exercifes, profit little to 
the Salvation of the Soul. But, to the end 
you may be faved, the Knowledge of a 
Redeemer is abfolutely necelTary to recon- 
cile Sinners to God, by his own pajftve and 
a^ive Obedience ; and fuch a Redeemer is 
Jefiis Chrifl^ who is made to us Juji'tficatioHy 
Rigbteoufnefs and Redemption. 

Here the Malal>aria» anCwerd^ We abound 
more in good Works than the Chriflians do. 

I reply 'd. For the fpace of Eight whole 
Years that I have lived among you, I fee 
none of your good Works ; but what you 
falfly fo call, are Works of Iniquity : For 
when you fpend liberally upon the building 
of Pagods, what is this but Abomination 
before the Lord ? And what you give to the 
Bramans^ and other Idol M'tniflers^ can be no 
better than Mif management, and ill beftow- 
ed Liberalities, upon the Promoters of grofs 
Ignorance and impious Frauds, as is owned 
by the Author of a Book, nam'd Tjchiwaw- 
oikkium ; and his Difciples, to this Day, 
own, that all the pompous outward Cere- 
monies obfervcd among you, are of no ufe 
in attaining Everialting Happlnefs. 


2 7^ The Twenty eighth Confer ence, &c,' 

Hereupon fome of them anfwer'd, Since 
your converfing among us, you make us, 
Malaharians and Mahometans^ mere Scepticks 
in our Opinions : Whereas before your 
coming hither, every one was well afTu* 
red ot his own Rehgion to be free from 
Errors and Imperfedions. 



Conference XXIX. 

Of the jiff airs of Europe, 
and of India, Their A- 
verfion to all Europeans, 
iecaufe they eat FleJJj. 

Between a Malabarian Prince, and fome 
Bramans, and one of the Dani/b 


ON the Twenty third of May, I 
I rode out to vifit a Naikken C pet- 
ty Prince,) whom 1 found in his 
Garden, accompanied with fome 
Bramafts, and many other Perfons. I was 
Very civilly receiv'd, and entertained with 
delicate Fruits, and made to fit down in a 
Chair after the manner of Europe. And af- 
ter I had afliired him of my Refpedts, in the 
mod expreflive Terms I was capable o[\ 
he ask'd me feveral Queftions in relation 

T to 

274 ^'-'^ Twenty ninth Conference^ 
to Europe j and if his Danifh Majefty fmy 
Gracious Sovereign^ was yet living ? How 
numerous was the Royal Family ? Of the 
Extent of the Danijh Dominions > Of the 
Strong Holds, and Fortified Places ? Of the 
Maritime and Land-Forces ? How many 
Kings there were in Europe ? And whether 
other Nations, befides Danes^ French^ Eng- 
I'tfh, Dutch and Portugueze^ could come to 
India > And which of all thefe was the moll 
powerful ? And if the Air was Temperate, 
that Indians might live therein, as^ Europe' 
ans do in India ? And if all the Europeans 
were Chriftians ? To all thefe, and more 
fuch like Queftions, I returned proper An- 

Then the Bramans began to talk of our 
printed Books, which had been perufcd by 
their Order, but not approved of: For one 
of thefe Books, they faid, was full of Inve- 
dives againft the BramanSy and the Pagoda 

Thence I took occafion to vindicate thofe 
Books, and confute Idolatry. 

. Whereupon the Braman told me, that it 
was a Piece of great Infolence to blafpheme 
their Gods and Religion ^ and that fuch 
high Crimes were intolerable. 


of the Affairs of Europe, (J^J^c. 275 

I anfwer'd, We only tell you what Is 
Truth, and what is Falihood j and let it reft: 
wholly in your Choice to accept the one or 
the other: For we ufe no Violence to bring 
you over to our Periuafion ; And we can in 
Juftice exped: that Toleration and Recepti- 
on in this Land which you give the Maho- 
metans^ who are no lefs Revilers of your 
Idol Worjhtp than our felves, and incompa* 
rably more numerous than we are. 

The Prince then interposed, and faid, Your 
Defign is laudable : For 'tis but reafonable 
that Wife Men fliould communicate their 
Wifdom to the Ignorant j and in fo doing, 
they render great Service to their Genera- 
tion ,' and he wilh'd, there were more fuch 
Learned and Pious Men in that Countrey, 
to teach the People the true Way leading to 

One of the Bramans reply'd, if one now-^ 
a-days makes mention of Happinefs, he will 
but expofe himfelf to the World, and make 
himfelf the Scorn of Fools : For when I 
thought lately to admonifli a Fiflierman of 
his Duty of leeking after the Way leading 
to Blifs and Happinefs, and not to fpend ail 
his time in Fifliing and mending of Nets , 
which can do him no fervice in the next 
T z World; 

2 "16 The Twenty ninth Conference] 

World ; Happinefs in our Dialed, anfwer'd 
the Finierman, is going to Sea, and catching 
Fifli, and bringing themafliore when caught; 
and if you will but hold your peace, and 
not be angry, I hope in a little time t6 fup- 
ply you with Fifli in abundance. 

I ask'd the Braman, if he thought it un- 
lawful to eat Fifli or Flefli > 

Fie reply 'd, that Nature has plentifully 
provided us with other Food, fo that we 
have no need of eating our Fellow-Crea- 
tures ; and 'tis written in our Law, that thefe 
very Creatures, if devoured by Men in this, 
will be their Tormenters in the next World, 
biting and tearing them with their Teeth, 
or trampling them under foot : And becaufe 
you Europeans drink (Irong Liquors, and kill 
^and eat your Fellov\ -creatures, endued with 
Five Senfes as well as your felves, I confels, 
we have an inbred Averfion for you, and 
all that belongs to you. 

I anfwer'd, 'tis true, that at firft, Man did 
live upon the Produce of the Earth; but to 
eat Fle.Qi, is both agreeable to Reafon and 
Revelation : For the living Creatures are 
made to ferve Man, as you your felves ac- 
knowledge by your daily Pradice : And 
Ttiany of tiiem being incapable of doing us 


of the Affairs of Europe, ^c. 277 

any fervice (as Filh and Fowl) but by fur- 
nifliing our Tables with wholfome Foqd ,• 
'tis but reafonabie we fliould exert the Povy- 
er that God has given us over the Fidi of 
the Sea, the Fowls of the Air, and over the 
Beads of the Field. And as for our drink 
ing flrong Liquors, the Coldnefs of our 
Northern Region requires it : For the con- 
tinual Drinking of Water, as you do in thefe 
v/arm Climates, would kill us in the colder 
Climates of Europe. And we are taught in 
our Holy Law, that Happinefs does not 
confift in Meats and Drinks. 

Then, faid the Prince, do you expecft 
Heaven and Happinefs by virtue of your 
Dodrine,or by yourvertuousConverfation? 

Whoever will be happy, mult believe our 
Holy Dodrine, and lead Holy Lives : For 
Faitb without good Works is dead^ and there- 
fore of no ufe at all, reply *d L 

Then, refum'd he, 'tis not your Religious 
Opinions, and different Articles of Faith can 
make you happy ; but a good Converfa- 
tion; all which we allow to be abfolutely 
true : What then does it profit or avail, to 
difpute about empty Speculations? You re- 
commend the Pradice of all vertuous Acfti- 
on, and fo do we, and are inferiour to none 
in punilliing Vice. T 3 .1 

2'ji The Tr^entieth ninth Conference y 

I anfwer'd, that 'twas not pofTible to per- 
form Adlions truly good and vertuous, with- 
out the Knowledge of the Will of God con- 
tained in the Chriflian Dodtrine, which we 
preach among you : And as for fuch Chri- 
fiians, who are difobedient to the Precepts 
of the Gofpei, 'tis their own fault : and the 
Glorious Dodrine profefTed by them, is not 
to be charged with their Sins, without being 
guilty of the greatefl Piece of Iniquity. 

Hereupon the Braman asked me to give 
him an Account of the Chriftian Religion, 
as to its Original, and Progrefs among fo 
many Nations ; and what were the chief 
Articles thereof ? 

To all which Heads I made very particu- 
lar Anfwers ,* and to which they gave great 
Attention, and feemed to be very well plea- 
fed with what I faid upon the chief Articles 
of the Chriftian Religion ; and defired me 
to (lay with them for that Night, it being 
then very late. But my Bufmefs would not 
permit me ^ and therefore I took my leave, 
and recommended them to the Care of the 



Conference XXX. 

Of the Heathens Alms. State 
of departed Souls. 

Between fome Heathen Pilgrims^ and 
one of the Daniflj Miffionaries. 

N the Twenty fixth of May^ I met 
a great Multitude of Pilgrims, tra- 
velling to vifit a famous Pagod, 
named Tfchirenkum. I ask'd them 
thereafon of this long Journey ? 

They faid, our Parents at their Death o- 
bliged us with a folemn Oath, to vifit the 
aforefaid Temple, to didribute Alms among 
the Bramans there. 

I ask'd further, what their Parents Aim 
was in all this ? 

T 4 For 

2 8o The Thirtieth Conference, 

For the Repofe of their* Souls in the other 
World, faid they ; For, fearing their good 
Works were not fufficiently Meritorious , 
they engaged us to make up fuch Deficiencies, 
by diftnbuting .Alms liberally among the 
Priefls re Tiding at Tfchirenkum ; and we 
hope our Children will do us the like good 
Oilices when we are dead and gone ; and 
therefore we chearfully undergo this long 
tedious Journey : For we are taught, that 
the Souls departed, meet with many Hin- 
drances and Difficulties in their Way to the 
other World, and feme mud undergo Hell- 
Torments, till fuch time as they are deliver- 
ed thence by the Bramifli Prieils, who read 
the Law, and pray upon their Account, that 
God may give them fpeedy Deliverance. 

I reply'd, You are grofsly abus'd by the 
Priefts in this, as well as in many other 
Points, for the fake of Filthy Lucre : For 
the Soul, as it leaves the Body, goes either 
to Heaven, or to Hell, whence there is no 
Redemption by Prayers of Priefts, nor by 
Alms of Relations: For now, while we live, 
is the accepted time for Repentance -, and 
now is the Day of Salvation ; now is the 
time to deal your Bread among the Lame, 
the Blind, and very necelTitous People, and 
not among the Priefts, the Minifters and Pro- 

of the Heathens Alms, &c« 281 

meters of Idolatry, and the great Enemies 
of all that is truly Good and Religious. 

Hereupon they told me, if giving of Alms 
to Bramans, and vifiting of the Refident Pla- 
ces of the Gods were not good Works, they 
defired me to inform them, wherein did a 
good Work confift ? 

To this Queftion T anfuer'd very fully j 
giving all the Charaderiftick Marks of 
GoodlVorks^ and how dangerous *tis to be 
miftaken in this Point. 

Whereupon one cry'd out, all what you 
fay, is very excellent ; and epecially that 
Aflertion of yours, We are not faved hy our 
own good Works J lut ly the Grace of God. 

Your Obfervation, faid I, is very jufl ; and 
and I praife your quick Apprehenfion of 
Things : But this is not enough ; you mud 
likewife acknowledge,thar all Grace and Mer- 
cy comes from 'jejus Chrzfi, who is the only 
Mediator between God and Man j and be- 
lieve, and bebaptiz'd in his Name. 

Then a Woman flood up, ftnd ask'd, why 
Godfaves I'ome, and damns others? 

z^z The Thirtieth Conference^ 

J told them, that God would* have all 
Men be faved, and come to the Knowledge 
of the Truth ; giving them at the fame 
time all the Aids of his Grace, and the Ex- 
ternal Means of Salvation ; exhorting and 
perluading them to turn to God ; but that 
if they negled; the Day of Grace, and har- 
den their Hearts, and defpife the Meffages 
and Meflengers of good Tidings fent unto 
them, their Damnation is ol themfelves, 
and v^'ill be the jufl: Puniihment of their 
wilful Obftinacy and Difobedience. 

Hereupon I was interrupted by an old 
Man lifting up his Voice ,• who bid me not 
to make fo many Words about Blifs and 
Mifery, Damnation and Happinefs j for that 
there is no other Hell, than this Earth ,• up- 
on which we live a Life of Mifery, feparated 
from God, becaufe of former Tranfgreflion ; 
and for the punifliing us for the fame, we 
are baniflied for a time from the Prefence of 
God, and imprifoned in thefe frail crazy 
Frames of Flefli and Blood ; but when that 
time appointed for the Expiation of our Sins 
ihall come, we (liall be delivered from our 
Bodies, and return into Heaven whence we 


of the Heathens AlmSy &ۥ 283 

Hereupon I reply'd, This Earth, fo glo- 
rious in all its Varieties, and wonderful in 
its Productions of all forts, can't be the 
Place of Damnation : The fpiritual Wick- 
ednedes, and groffer Impieties thereupon 
committed every Day, is owing to the firfl 
Man's Difobedience i who, by finning a- 
gainft God, drew a Curfe upon himfelF and 
upon the whole Creation. That our Souls 
are nobly, and heavenly defcended, I allow ; 
but that they are united to Moulds of Clay, 
upon Difobedience committed in a State and 
Capacity purely Spiritual and Pre-exiftent 
to his perfonal Union, is abfolutely deny'd, 
as a grofs Midake flowing neceffarily from 
your Ignorance of the Hiftory of the Crea- 
tion, which teaches us how God created 
Man after his own Image, by breathing into 
his Noflrils the Breath of Life ; and how af- 
terwards Man found out many Inventions, 
and finned again{tGod,and is now miferable 
in Soul and Body : But upon his turning 
unto his former Obedience, by believing in 
Jefus Qhrifl, tho' (at the Diflblution of thefe 
Earthly Tabernacles, the Bodies are crum- 
bled into Duft, and the Souls return to 
God that gave them ; yet at the great Day 
of Accompts the Souls fliall re-afiume their 
former Bodies, to the end they may be 


284 The Thirtieth Conference, &c. 

unitedly rewarded according to the Works 
done in the Flelh, whether Good or Evil. 
The Dodtrine of the Refurre^ion of the 
Flejh offended feme oF them ; which gave 
me a Handle to explain very fully this 
great Article of the Chrijiian Faith .- With 
which I concluded my Difcourfe. 



Conference XXXI. 

Of Chriji, the Saviour of 
the World ; whether every 
one may he faved in his 
own Religion^ &c, 

Beween jome Heathens, and one of the 
Daniffi Mijjlonaries. 

ON the Twenty eighth of May, feve- 
ral Heathens came to {ce our Prints 
ing-Houfe ; and finding fome Sheets 
of St. Matthew's Gofpel, newly printed in 
their own Language, they were very curi- 
ous to know what it contain d, and to know 
whofe Hidory it was. 

I told them, that 'twas the Hiftory of Je- 

Jus Chnfl the Saviour of all Mankind ; and 

thence I took occafion to explain at large 

the whole Procefs of Man s Salvation, which 


2 85 The Thirty fir jl Conference^ 

they did not at all difapprove of ,• but af- 
firmed, that every one might be faved in 
his own Religion ,- and that the Gracious 
God would condemn none of his Crea- 
tures that ferioufly lov'd and fear'd him 
as the Supreme Being, merely for fome 
fpeculative Errors, or Tome lefs confidera- 
ble Failings in Moral Pradice. 


I granted them, that God was Gracious 
and Merciful j but was hkewife a Juft and 
Holy God, punifiiing wilful Impiety, and 
an uninterrupted Courle of Wickednefs ; 
which is altogether inconfiftent with an 
earned and true Defire after Happinefs, 
and the Enjoyment of God. And indeed, 
this is your Cafe ; for tho' God has been 
pleas'd to offer you the Means of Grace 
and Salvation, you defpife his Offers, and 
call his Words behind your Backs. 

What, would you have us, Sir, turn Apo- 
(lates from the Religion of our Fathers, and 
leave the Temples of our Gods, to the end 
ue may embrace the Religion of Foreigners, 
and thereby be expofed to the Contempt 
and Hatred of all our Country- men, by whofe 
Means and Correlpondence our felv^es and 
FafTiilies are provided for ? And befides all 
thisj both Men and Women fit promifcuoufly 
in jour Churches. 
VJa3 To 

of the Saviour of the World, &c. 287 

To thefe and other fuch Objedlons, I 
anfwer'd what I thought to the purpofe ; 
fhewing them, that Was neceffary to fufTer 
fome Inconveniencies in this Life, when we 
were well alTur'd to be infinitely rewarded 
with an exceeding Weight of Glory in that 
which is to come. And as to the promif- 
cuous Aflemblies of all Ranks and Sexes in 
our Churches, 'tis but what common Rea- 
fon does didate to us ; For we are all crea- 
ted and maintained by the fame God ; and 
we have nothing but what we receive of 
his Hands j and if fo, why fhould we 
vainly and fooliflily fay to our Brother, 
Hand thou there, for I am holier than thou ? 
We Chriflians are all Brethren and Sifters 
in Chrifl Jefus^ enjoying the fame Glori- 
ous Advantages of being efteemed the Chil- 
dren of God, and the Communion of Saints, 
which is an Article of our Holy Religion. 
Both Men and Women have Souls equally 
precious ; and therefore muft appear at the 
proper Place appointed for Publick Inftru- 
dtion, that they may be more and more con- 
firm'd in the Dodrine of Salvation, and 
encouraged to walk in the Ways of Vertuc 
to the Glory of him that has called them 
to the ProfefTion of the Gofpel. 


288 The Thirty fir fl Conferenccy &cJ 

You keep your Women in Ignorance of 
all Religious Matters ; all their Knowledge 
amounting only to this, that they can fay 
the common Salutation Shalam^ before an 
Image ; and repeat a very ihort Form of 
Prayer, confilling only of Five Sylables, and 
affiil at Feftival Ceremonies. 



Conference XXXII. 

Whether we/Jjould know God ^ 
and our own Minds firfl ; 
or the Things ohviom to 
our Senfes. Of Children 
dying in their Infancy , 

Between fome Bramans^ and one of 
the DaniJJ) Miflionaries. 

N the Thirtieth of May, I met ia 
a Neighbouring Village very ma- 
ny Bramans ; and falling into 
Dilcourfe , we were prelently 
furrounded by a great Multitude of Hear- 

V The 

25)0 The Thirty fecond Conference^' 

The Bramans told me, that they would 
fain know my Opinon upon feveral Parti- 
culars, if I was diipofed to entertain them 
with an amicable Conference. 

I anfwer'd, Yes, provided the Subjedl- 
matter of Difcourfe be edifying to them that 
hear it. , 

Hereupon they, ask'd me, whether we 
iliould firit endeavour after the Knowledge 
of our felves, and then ftudy the natural Sci- 
ences ; or, vice verfa^Rrd ftudy the Arts and 
Sciences, and then Study the Nature 
of God and our lelves ? 

I anfwer'd, you fliould, without doubt, 
know God an J your felves in the firft Place, as 
the moft neceffary and ufeful Knowledge ; 
and then attach your felves to inferior Sci- 

Then they ask'd me, what I thought 
would become of the Souls of thofe Chil- 
dren that either died in the Mothers Womb, 
or in the State of Infancy, beiore the Years 

of knowing God firfl, &c. 29 1 

I anfwer'd, that fo foon as the Child is 
form'd in the Womb with an immortal Soul, 
he is already a perfedt Man, and is endued 
with all the Faculties of a Rational Being, 
tho' he can't adually exert his Reafon, in a- 
d:ing or difcourfing as thofe of riper Years ; 
becaufe of the Tendernefs of the bodily Or- 
gans in young Children ; But as to their 
6ouls, they are entire and perfe(5i: ; and after 
their Separation from the Body, are capable 
of enjoying the Beatifical Vifion of God in 
Heaven, as well as the Souls of thofe that 
live to Years of Maturity. 

They ask'd me further about the Length, 
Breadth, and Profundity of Hell > 

I told them, that Things fpiritual were 
not to be meafured by Yards and Inches ; 
but that 'twas a State adapted for the Pu- 
nilhment of unrepcnting Souls. 

I was likewifc ask'd, how many Langua- 
ges were now fpokea in Paradife ; and whe- 
ther the departed Souls of different Nations 
and Languages do underftand one another in 
Heaven ? 

V i 

292 T^he Thirty fecond Conference ^ 

I reply'd, that Spirits have no Organs of 
Speech ,• and therefore do not fpeak at 
all • but whether they communicate their 
Thoughts one to another, and after what 
manner that is perform'd, that is what no 
Man can pretend to explain. And withal 
I bcgg'd leave to propofe in my turn fome 
DiiTiculties to their ferious Confideration ; 
And firlt, I ask'd them, how they could 
worlliip thofe Imaginary Beings and Fi- 
d-itious Gods, who, according to their own 
Authors, were more wickedly profligate, 
than the word Mifcreant among Rational 
Beings ? 

They anfwer'd, that tho' 'twas true, that 
fuch and fuch Adions are related of the 
Gods which would be criminal and finful 
in any Man to do the like , ( for he is 
UnStly forbidden to do fo and fo ; ) Yet 
the Gods are lubjedi to no Law and Pre- 
cepts, whether Negative or Affirmative, 
and therefore could not be properly faid 
to be guilty of any finFuI Adion : And we 
are no more allow'd to withdraw from 
them the ufeful Religious Woribip 
paid to them for fo many Ages by our 
Forefatliers, than wc are to deny our Allegi- 
ance to our Lawful King, upon pretence of 
fome Irregularities la his Life, and Male- 


of knovping God firfl^ &c. 295 

adminiftration of the publick Affairs of the 

I ask'd them in the next place, if they 
could demonflrate that their Idols were true 
Gods ? 

They anfwer'd, that the Matter being 
felf-evident, wanted no Proofs or Demon (Ira- 
tions : For they had been ador'd as Ciods 
for many thoufands of Years, by all the 
Sages and wife Men in all the pall Ages of 
the World. 

Then I queflioned them about the Ori- 
ginal of their Law, and how it was intro- 
duc'd firft into the World ^ and wherein did 
it chiefly confift } 

They reply'd,TheGods themfelves reveal'd 
unto their Prophets the feveral Precepts and 
Ceremonious Ordinances contain'd in their 
Law, and as for the feveral Hillorical Books 
relating to the Achievements and Heroick A- 
d:ions of th'? Gods, they had been faithfully 
writ down by Learned Men that were Eye- 
witnefTes of the faid Tranfadions, and care- 
fully prefer v*d, and communicated to fuc- 
ceeding Ages, without the leall Change or 

V3 I 

294 ^^^ Thirty fecond Confer eme, 

I ask'd them farther, how they could 
fhQWy that the Doilrine contained in their 
Law was a faving Dodrine ? 

They reply *d, as for moral Precepts, we 
can give you demonftrative Proofs thereof; 
but for the Precepts that relate to the Means 
of Salvation, as, the Performance of this 
or that Ceremony, we can give no reafona- 
ble Account of fuch and fuch Precepts ; 
but believe them to be acceptable to God, 
when carefully put in Practice ,• not that 
they are more decent, or ufeful than other 
Ceremonies ; but becauie they are the 
Rites that God commanded us carefully to 
obferve ; and hence 'tis, that we conftantly 
believe the Way of Salvation to be One 
only ; but the Religious Duties and Or- 
dinances are very various in different Coun- 
tries , and among different Orders of 

I proceeded in asking them wherein did 
the pretended Purity and Holinefs of the 
Br am am confifl: > 


of knowing God fir fl, Szc. 295 

They were pleas'd to give me the foL 
lowing Account of themfelves ; ^We get 
up daily two Hours before Sun-rifing, eafe 
Nature , waih our Mouths , rinle our. 
Teeth with clean Water ; then we wafli our 
Bodies in confecrated Ponds, and repeat 
our ordinary torms of Prayers, perform 
the ufuai Ceremonic!>, beftrew our Mvcs 
with confecrated Allies made ofCows Dung, 
and walk about with fome holy Relick in 
our Hands, for the Edification of the People ; 
then we ofl^r Sacrifices in the Pagers, and 
do all the Pago^. Offices ; and when we walk 
out among the Populace, we give diligent 
heed that they don't touch us, for fear of be- 
ing polluted by them ; We eat no Flefli, and 
drink no ftrong inebriating Liquors ,• but 
feed upon clean wholfome Food ; and having 
fpent one half of the Day in the Service of 
the Gods, the other half we fpend in provi- 
ding our felves with the Neceflaries of 

I ask'd them in the lad Place, . where- 
in their Prayers chiefly conrifted > 

V 4 Our 

2^6 The Thirty fecond Confer ence, &c. 

Our Prayers, faid they, are Forms, dire- 
died in general to the Supreme Being, or to 
this or that God in particular : Very often 
our Prayers are extemporary Effufions and E- 
jaculations of the Soul to God, praying 
for this or that Mercy, or for the Remo- 
val of fome heavy Judgment. 



Conference XXXIII. 

Of the Water of the River 
, Ganges ; of their Beads, 

calTd Ruddiratfchangel, 

and how prepard. 

Between fome Antigoels (an Order 
of Ecclefiafticks) and one of the Da^ 
niflj Miflionaries. 

ON the Fourth oijune, I met near 
a Pagocl, very many of the Anti- 
goel Order, employ 'd in prepa- 
ring Bearis, called Rudciiratfchan^ 
gel, elleemed by the Heathens as holy, and 
precious Antidotes againltali forts of Occur- 
rences : They are made of dry'd Berries 
oj a certain Tree ; and therefore I was defi- 
rous to know^ what gave them their Value, 
and this more than Ordinary Efteem among 
the ► eopie, (e^irg Jieir iniriiifick Worth was 
bus; very incOi^i/:dtiable? They 

2^% fhe Thirty third Conference] 

They anfwer'd, that thefe forts of Beads 
had been for fome thoufand Years unconte- 
fledly an efficacious Medicine for Souls, and 
a Sovereign Amulet againfl: the Power of 
Sin and Satan ; and are Jikewife great Pre- 
fervatives againft all Difeafes and Mifchances 
attending all living Creatures ; and they are 
nor to be prepared by the prophane Vul- 
gar ; but by us of the holy and fan(^ified 
Order of Antigoels. 

I told them that this could be nothing elfe 
but Witchcraft : For 'tis evident, that the 
Berries of Trees can't change the Conftitu- 
tion of a vicious Mind, and make it lober 
and temperate. 

There vi'as alfo prefent a Mao, who had 
the Water of the River Ganges to diftribute 
among the People at a very dear Rate. 
Him I likewife took to task, and ask'd, how 
the Water of that River, Vv'hich is full of 
Carrion and dead Carkafles daily caft into 
it , fliould have a diftinguifliing Vertue 
from Waters of all other Rivers whatfoe- 
ver ? 


of the River Ganges^ Sec. 299 

But they told me, that this River fprung 
from Paradife ; and that therefore the 
Water of it was holy and eilicacious to 
purge the Soul from all fpiritual Diftem- 

The Water- merchant added, if the Water 
of Ganges was not truly confecratcd, why 
Ihould fo many Nations have Recourfe to 
its holy Streams, rather than to other 
Rivers > 

I anfwer'd, that all their tediousPilgrimages 
to Ganges^ as well as to other Places of Devo. 
tion, was Superftition, Madnels, and grofs 
Ignorance of the Means of Salvation, or- 
dained by Gqd himfelf to change the Heart, 
and purifie the Confcience from dead Works. 
But you Heathens infifting upon the fabulous 
Traditions of credulous Antiquity, are re- 
folved to march on in the dark, as your Fa- 
thers did before you, not unlike thofe blind 
Mafters of Families, who heard much talk- 
ing of an Elephant ; but becaufe of their 
Bhndnefs could form no true Idea of him ,• 
but refolv'd that the Senfe of Feeling ihould 
fupply the Want of the vifive Faculty. One 
of them took the Elephant by the Tail ; and 
going home, reported to his Wife and Chil- 
dren, that an Elephant was like a great I^ole ; 


3 00 The Thirty third Conference^ Szc, 

another taking the Elephant by the Ear, re- 
ported to his Domefticks, that it was fome- 
thing like a Beefom ,• and a Third hand- 
ling him by the Trunk, told his Chil- 
dren, that an Elephant was very like a Pe- 
ftie, wherewith Rice is pounded in a Mortar ; 
and their refpecfiive Families ever fmce en- 
tertain thefe different Notions of an Elephant. 
And thus 'tis with refped: to the Notion you 
entertain of God, or the Supreme Being, 
holding tenacioufly the foolifli Traditions of 
your Fathers, blindfold and unexamined. 



Conference XXXIV, 

Of the Chriflian Religion ; 
and of the Mahometan. 

Between a Mahometan Pricft, and fome 
Moors, and one of the Dani/Jj MiC- 

N the Ninth of Juyte I was vifited 
by a Mahometan Prieft, accompa- 
ny 'd with a very numerous Re- 
tinue of Moors-, who told me, he 
underftood that I endeavour'd to introduce 
a new Rehgion among them, never known 
to Mofes, Davidj Chriji, nor Mahomet. 

I reply'd, that he was ftrangely mifmfor- 
med : For we taught nothing but what Mo- 
[es,^ David znd Jejus Chrifi warranted us to 
(peak and teacli : And this I made out very 
fully, by ihewing him, chat we proiefled 


J 02 The Thirty fourth Conference^ 

the Chriftian Religion in its Primitive Puri- 
ty, containing all that Mofes and David left 
behind them in their infpired Writings. 
But as for your Mahomet^ he did but corrupt 
the Dodljfine of the Prophets, and that of 
the Gofpel of Chrift : Out of which Cor- 
ruption was generated that impure Mixture, 
or Compoll, called the Alcoran^ 

The Mahometan reply'd, we acknowledge 
for Genuine, the Writings of Four Great 
Prophets, viz. Mofes^ who was fent from 
Heaven , to blefs the World with Good 
Laws; but God failing of his Aim, fent 
David unto the World, to mitigate the Laws 
of Mofes : But his Law was likewife difre- 
garded, and violated by the greateft Part 
of Mankind : Whereupon Ifrali (Jefus 
Chrift) was fent into the World, who was 
born of Mary^ and did many Wonders, and 
jiv'd mofl: of his time in the Wildernefs ; 
never frequenting Cities, nor any Place 
inhabited by Mankind ; wherefore the 
greateO; part of the World defpifed his Law 
as not (uitcd to civil Societies ; but rather 
calculated for a few Hermits and Monks, 
afleding Wildernelles rather than populous 
Cities. Hereupon God Almighty refolving 
to accommodate all Degrees, Ranks and 
Conditions of Men, he fent Mahomet into 
the World to write the Alcoran, as didated 


of the Chriflian Religion, &c. 303 

by the Angel Gahriel, fuited to the Capacities 
and Humours of all forts of People ; allow- 
ing at the fame time the Laws of Mofes, 
David, and of Chrifl^ to be Divine and 
Heavenly ; only we give Mahomet the Pre- 
ference, as being the laft of all the Four 
mentioned Legiflators ; who unanimoufly 
afferted the Unity of One God.. For tho' 
Jefus Chrid was adored as God by fome of 
his own Difciples and heedlefs Followers ; 
yet he himfelf preach'd againfl: the Plurality 
of Gods : And when he came to hear, that 
fome of his Difciples adored him, calling him 
the Son of God, he abandon'd them to them- 
felves, and retir'd into the Wildernefs,where 
he made this excellent Prayer to the One 
God, faying, Thou knowefl rights Great and 
Supreme Governour of the UniverfSy that I 
acknowledge no God hefides thee j and yet 
againfl my Will and Orders^ fome of my 
Difciples adore me as a Gody calling me thy 
Sony ivho did ft neither heget, nor art begotten. 

Hence it came to pafs, that the Difciples 
were of different Sentiments about their 
own Mafter ^ fome holding the Dodrine of 
Unity, as Chrift taught them -, and others 
adored him as a God. Therefore Mahomet 
was fent into the World to deftroy the Wor- 
iliip of many Gods, both among the Heathens 
and Chrfflians. 


J 64 The Thirty fourth Conference^ 

T rcply'd, that what he had reported of 
Chrifi^ was partly true, and partly very Fa* 
bulousand Falfe. And as for the Dodrine 
of the trinity, I prov d it to him out of the 
Writings of Chrill: himfelF, whom he allow'd 
to be a True Prophet ; and confonant to the 
Dodtrine taught in the Pfalms, and in the 
Law o{ MofeSy tho' not fo clearly there ex- 
prefs'd, as in the New Teltament. 

Well, fa id he, I have heard you preaching 
to day ; and I don't altogether difapprove 
of your Religion ,• and was mightily pleas'd 
to fee no idols or Images in your Church, 
as among the Portugueze ; who fymbolize 
aimoil: in every thing with the Heathens, in 
the Number oi Idols and Graven Images. 
I was like^vife in the Dani(h Church, where 
all the Bearers are White Men ; and there 
alfo I law fosne Images : Pray, are your Re- 
ligions diilereok 

ir > 

I anfwer'd, that 'twas but One Religioa ; 
and thofe Images were not woribipp'd as by 
the Fortugueze ; but only ferv'd as Orna- 
ments CO the Church, and as commemora. 
tive Signs of fome PalTages of Chrifi's Life 
and huiiering^. Upon this, I Ihew'd the 
Order we obierv'd to bring up our Children 
in the Knowledge and Fe^r of God ,• and 


of the Chriflian Religion^ &c. 305 

prefented him with fome Books out of our 
Printing Houfe, relating to the Principles of 
the Chriftian Religion i with which he feem- 
ed very much fatisfied ; alluring me, that he 
was charm'd with the Civility and kind Be. 
haviour of the Europeans. 

Then he bid me i^dieu; promifmgto give 
me another Vifit very foon. 










Of the Malabarian Regeneration^ or 

YOU the Venerable Prlefts of Tra^- 
quelar , have been pleafed to 
favour me with the Continuance 
of your Love ; And according to 
the bed of my Capacity, I have endeavour'd 
hitherto to be pundua!, in making the bed 

X -L Returns 

3 o8 Letters from the Heathens 

Returns to your feveral Interrogatories : 
I do affiire you, that I am readily difpoled, 
and very de/irous to do you further Service. 

You are plcafed to ask me, what we mean 
by Regeneration, or our Second Birth ? Sirs, 
our Meaning is, that every Man born into 
this Worldj that leads a vertuous Life, ex- 
ercifing Repentance for paft Tranfgrelfions, 
and abftaining for the future from the Pra- 
(flice of Vice, performing withal the Offer- 
ings and Ceremonies enjoyned byoiif Laws, 
fliall at his Death, enter upon the real En- 
joyment of Eternal Happinefs ; and is not 
liable to the perplexing Nece/Tity of being 
born of a Woman the fecond time. But 
fuch as live wickedly, and die without Re. 
pentance, mud not only undergo punifliing 
Severities in the other World ; but withal, 
their Souls will be re-commirted into Bodies 
two-footed, four-footed, or volatile, to atone 
and do Penance for Sins committed in the 
former Body ; and in cafe of Non repentance, 
their Nativity is to be ftill reiterated ; elfe 
they will never enter into Eternal Reft. 

This is the received Opinion among our 
Learned Men, concerning this Matter , and 
is all that i have to write upon this Head. 


to the Mijjlonaries^ 309 


Of the State of Departed Souls ^ 

\7'0UR Letter I have receiv'd, contain- 
ing fome hard Qiieftions, and your 
friendly VViilies for the Continuation of my 
Health, which, thro' God's Goodnefs and 
the Mediation of your Prayers, I hitherto 
enjoy : And as to your Demand about the 
State of Separated Souls ^ the common Opi- 
nion is, that Emadudakel, or the Mellenger 
of Death, receives the Soul, as 'tis breathed 
out of the Body, into a kmd of a Sack, and 
runs away with it thro' Briars, and Thorns, 
and burning Whirlwinds, which torment the 
Soul very fenfibly, till he arrives at the Bank 
of a Fiery Current, thro' which he is to pafs 
to the other fide, in order to deliver the Soul 
to Emeny or the God of the Dead • who 
refers the Examination thereof to his Secre- 
tary, named Tfchiddirahuddiren, who is to 
make his Report to Biruma (or one of the 
three Perfons in the Malaharian Godhead i) 
who rewards Jufl and Holy Souls v/ith the 
everlafting Fruition of God's Glorious Pre- 
fence;. but the Souls of the Wicked are tor- 
mented with Pains intolerably grievous, ^c. 

3 1 Letters from the Heathens 


Of the Day of Judgment. 

JN Anfwer to your Queftion, 'viz. If all 
Men are to he nndevouz d in a General 
ASemhly^ to receive feverally every one his 
Final Doom > I reply, That when the Lad 
of thefe Eighteen Great Durations of the 
World are at an End Teach of which Dura- 
tions, or Cycles, confifting of many thou- 
(Imd Years^ then the Supream Being will 
fummon the Dead to appear, in order to 
judge every one according to his Deeds, 
whether they be Good or Evil : The Godly 
are either receiv'd into an Eternal State of 
Happinefs, or are to undergo another Birth, 
in order to be further purify 'd, and to arrive 
to higher Degrees of Perfection : But they 
who lead vicious Lives, are Tent to animate 
the Bodies of Flies, Birds, Dogs, Foxes, or 
other Beads, in a new World : For there 
iliall be then a new Creation of Sun, Moon 
and Stars, ^c. 


to the Mijjionm ies* j i i 

L E.T T E R IV. 

Among the Four different Religions of the 
World, rphich is the mofl proper to 
render us happy in the next World ? 

M.M. the unvvorthiert: of your Slaves, 
greet you heartily with a profound Scki" 
lam (^Salutation) As to your Queftion, a- 
bout the Choice of the bell Religion, you 
are no doubt, better versd in this fort of 
Queftions than I am i and at leaftwife, are 
a/Rired that Men can be faved in one ReU- 
gion or another. 

Our Sentiments about Religious Matters 
are very different in this Land ; tho' we all 
agree in this, to mind more the Things of 
this World, than any Spiritual Concerns ,• 
and thofe few that have (Jilengaged them- 
felves from the Pleafures and Advantages of 
Life, and fpend their time in the Purluit oi 
Heavenly Things, arc look'd upon as Men 
arriv'd at the higheft Degree of Perfection ; 
tho' 'tis a receiv'd Opinion amongft us, that 
all fuch as lead a good and vertuous Life, 
may be faved in any Religion : And we ihail 
X 4 begin 

5 1 2 Letters from the Heathens 

begin with the Mahomeiatty which allows 
one married Wife, but Fourty eight Con- 
cubines i and commands to pray five times 
a Day. Therefore I humbly conceive, that 
a Man may be faved in this Religion, if he 
Lmfeignedly believes the Frincipies thereof 
to be Divine and True ; feeing 'tis confefs'd 
on all Hands, that Faith is the great 
Inftrument of our Salvation ; but this we 
blame in the Mahometan^ that he is for con- 
demning ail but himfelf. 

The Law of the Chriftian is true and ho^ 
ly, comprehending the Life of Chrift, who 
came into the World to teach Mankind the 
Way of Salvation, died and rofe again, or^ 
dering the Ufe of Baptifm and of the Lord's 
Supper, and all other things neceifary for 
the attaining of Salvation : But this we 
mightily diOike in your Religion, as abomi. 
nable, that you fpit [They uje to go out of the 
Honfe to fpit] in your own and other Mens 
Prefence ; that you converfe with your Wives 
in the time of their Uncleannefs ; and that 
you make no diflindion between Fa- 


to the Mijfwnariesl 3 i ^ 

As touching the Jewijh Religion, 'tis 
known that that is comprehended in the Old 
Teflament ; but feeing they expecSt a Mejftas 
to come to deliver them, and defpilb Chrift 
and his Gofpel, I really believe, they vain- 
ly hope for, another Deliverer, ^c. 


J 1 4 Letters from the Heathens 


of the Four Principalities into which the 
Kingdom ^/ Tan jour is divided. 

Mod Reverend Priefls, Your favouring 
me with your entertaining Enqui- 
ries, obliges me to give you the belt Informa- 
tions I can in this Matter : The lafl: King 
that reigned over the tanjouiian Kingdom, 
was named Egofchirajcha ; and died but Two 
Years ago ; the prefent King's Name is Sa- 
ruivofchirafcha, and Rules abfolutely in this 
Kingdom, by paying 3333 Dollers to the 
great Moguls and as much to one of his 
Vicegerents in a Province bordering upon 
Tanjour, The King's younger Brother is 
called Dukkofchirafcha. There are four 
Lieutenants or Lords, that govern the four 
Provinces into which the Kingdom is divid- 
ed ; and their Names are Suweatter Tjcok 
Kapamudaliar , Suweitar Wawofch'tpandiden^ 
Suweitar Schivaminadapullei ^ and Suwertar 
Annatfchipand'tder. The Refidence of the 
iirft Lord is Southwards, and called Dirut- 
t^arapundi'y the Refidence of the Second is 
Kumhakonum ; of the Third, Karuppuranei- 
kurei \ and the City where the Fourth re- 
fides, is called Kevoirimairom. One of thele 


to the M'lffionaries, 3 f ^ 

Lorddiips fell to the Ibare of the King's 
younger Brother at the Deceafe of Egofchi- 
rafcha their eldeft Brother. The Inhabitants 
do not polTefs a Foot of Ground here ; but 
all is the King's Land ; yet Husbandry is 
promoted with all the Chearfulnefs imagi- 
nable : For the Lord Lieutenant gives them 
Seed to Tow their Fields, gives Oxen to thofe 
that are Poor, and fometimes advances them 
Money to buy themfelves Bread, till the 
Harvefl comes ; and then they are to re- 
ceive two Fifths for their Labour, and the 
Remainder is the King's ,• but in other Pro*- 
vinces the fame Proportion is not obferved : 
For the Sovereign has more than three 
Fifths; and the Inhabitants fomewhat iefs 
than two. 

•In the Province where Bomwhahttapitilei 
governs, there was lately (bund an immenfe 
Treafure, with vvhich he bmk a very Mag- 
nificent Palace, but negle(5ting to pay that 
Refpediand Veneration to one of the King's' 
Minillers, as was expecfred, 'twas infinuated 
to the King, that the Lieutenant's Wife and 
Daughter were ibch finiflied Beauties thaC 
the whole World could not parallel ,* and 
withal that he had built a very fiately Houfe, 
adorned with Columns fo artificially 
Wrought , emulating the mod Mallerly 
Workmanlliip in the King's Houfe ,- and 


3 1 6 Letters from the Heathens 

that fome of thefe (lately Pillars were bol- 
Jovv within, tilled with molten Gold, the 
better to hide his immenfe Treafures from 
the Knowledge of his Sovereign. Where^ 
upon a Band of armed Men were fent to 
bring him to Court ; and feveral great La- 
dies were fent thither to condud: to Court 
his Wife and Daughter ; but the Lieutenant 
defending his jBoufe with Twenty armed 
Men, bid defiance to the King's Soldiers: 
which fo enrag'd his Sovereign, that he 
ordered his Houfe to be levell'd with the 
Ground, and all his Preciou? Furniture tq 
be carried to Court. 

The Inhabitants live very eafie and hap- . 
pily in all thefe Four Provinces, except 
in Mairom ; where they are cruelly op- 
prefs'd by a Rich Braman, whom the Lieute- 
nant has veiled with almofl: abfolute Autho- 
rity, fo as to raife the Price of Corn at plea- 
fure, refufing to give them their Proportion 
of the yearly Produce of their Ground. He 
raifes Monopolies of all forts of Provender 
for either Man or Bead, and fells it at an 
exceffive Rate : And tho' repeated Complaints 
have been made againft him, he always 
comes off with a good Grace, by the Means 
of large Prefents to the King's Minifters, ^c 


to the MiJJtonaries, 3 1 7 


Of the Original of the City of Tranque- 
bar ; and of the Danifh Colony fettled 

r OST Venerable PrieQs, who worflilp 
_ J^ the Three Glorious One God, Lord 
of Lords, and King of Kings j who propa- 
gate the Knowledge of the True Religion, 
exercifmg Juftice and Righteoufnefs, and 
walking in the laudable Paths of Vertue ^ T, 
who am the meaneft of your Servants, kifs 
your Feet with a profound Schalam, 

The Family of the Seelingers (Mariners^ 
inhabited the Towns Dirumaleiwaf.hel^ Di- 
rnkaremr^ and Dirukilatfcher^ for 300 Years; 
afterwards a wife Man came to underlland, 
that in this Place the City of Tranquehar 
had been, but fincedeftroy'd by Inundations, 
and converted into a Mountain of Sand : 
Whereupon a Brawan, accompany 'd with 
one of his Difciples, coming to view the 
Place, they difcovered fome Remains of a 
Temple overgrown with Wood: For which 
reafon Orders were immediately given to 


3 1 8 Letters from the Heathens 

clear the Ground , and make the Place 

In the time of King ArfchuJappanaiker 
arrived here 9 Danijh Admiral, who was 
kindly received by ourGovernours ,• and, to 
his great Satisfadion, procured Freedom to 
build a Fortrefs in the Year i6io: The 
Governour's Name was Gale de Gedde : Since 
which time the Place has been more and 
more fortified ; and the Danes don't only 
oblige all Merchant Ships arriving here, to 
pay Cuftom -, but raife Contributions from 
many of our Neighbouring Villages. 


to the Mifjionaries. 2 1 9 


Oj the Contents of a Famous Book, calPd 

MOST Reverend Priefts, in compliance 
with my own Duty, and your juft 
Defires, I fend you the following Account 
of our celebrated Poem, call'd Diruwalluwer : 
It contains ^30 Verfes ; the Chapter caird 
Arupal, has 38 Leaves, containing ^80 Ver- 
fes y the Chapter Poralpaly 70 Leaves, con- 
taining 700 Verfes ,• the Chapter Rumapal, 
xs Leaves, and 250 Verfes. The firft of 
thefe Chapters teaches the Difference be- 
tween Vice and Vertue, and the Manner of 
performing ail good Works, whether Reli- 
gious or Civil ; the fecond Chapter teaches 
how to dired our Thoughts in the Con- 
templation of Death, and how we are to 
carry our felves in Buying and Selling : and 
the third and laft Chapter treats of all the 
Duties relating to a Marriage-State. 

Lp-r- TT^ 

3 ZO Letters from the Heathens 


Of the Malabariatis Notion of Happinefs 
and Mifery ; or^ their Heaven and 

GOD inhabits A'oliafchum, or Paradife ; 
in which there are feveral Manfions 
for Ir'rophets of different Degrees, to bring 
tfieir Offerings and Sacrifice before the Su- 
preme Being. This delicious Place is blefs'd 
and adorn'd with Flowers, Gardens plenti- 
fully affording all forts of Fruits, with fa- 
cred Springs and Fountains of Living Water ; 
where alio Heavenly Birds, fuch as Fine 
Parrots, render the Place more agreeably 
blefs'd, and perfectly delicious. The Faith, 
ful and Godly Souls departed this Life,iliali 
fee God Face to Face, thro' all the never- 
ceafing Ages of Eternity. 

On the contrary, Hell is the Refidence of 
Emeu (^Death,^ and is called Emalogu^ and 
is a large fiery Cellar, where there are fiery 
Leeches, which torment Sinners proportio- 
nably to the Degrees of their Crimes. 


to the Mijfwnarie%l 3 2j' 

L E T T E R IX* 

Of the End of the World. 

BEfore the End of the World, we eon- 
(lantly believe, that the North, South, 
Eaft, and Weft Seas, iliall be all blended 
together, and make but one Great Sea ; and 
that thenall living Creatures, (the Inferior 
Gods themfelves not excepted) ihall ceafe 
to be diftindt feparate Beings, by being 
fwallowed up into the Nature of the One 
only God, the primary Caufeof all things : 
And there will be a new Creation immedi- 
ately follow : The Supreme Being will cre- 
ate a Sett of new Gods ,• and thefe new 
Gods will form all forts of Mineral, Vege- 
tative, and 'Animated Beings, much the 
fame as they were before. 


3 22 Letters from the Heathens 


Deliverance from Sin, The chief End of 
Man, Duty towards his Creator^ and 
Knowledge towards God^ 

T 7f 7 E believe>the Way to expiate the Guilt 
y V of Sill, is, with Drink and Meat-Of- 
ferings, vifiting the Vagods, building new, or 
by repairing Publick Houfes to entertain 
Strangers in, by Cloathing and Feeding the 
Priefts, and Building Houles for the BramanSy 
fpending part of our time in Pilgrimaging 
from one Place of Devotion to another j and 
by doing more fuch Offices towards our Fel- 
low Creatures. 

The chief End of Man's Creation, is to 
know God, and dired daily Prayers, and 
ofter Sacrifices unto him ,• and that Man 
fliould ftudy, read, and meditate on the Di- 
vine Laws. 

And as to the Duties that God requires of 
Man. they are fuch as thefe ; Every good 
Man IS obliged to get up at Three a-clock 
in the Mornmg, rinie and cleanfe his Teeth, 

b efprinkle 

to the Miffionaries.- 523' 

befprinkle himfelf with confecrated Allies 
bathe himfelF in Holy Streams, and then 
prepare a Drin-k-Offering of Honey, Milk, 
Sugar, Lemmons, Kokus-wat^r, and Kun^ 
^«/w/-Flowers, and oF other fuch Aromatick 
Spices ; repeat feveral Forms of Prayers, and 
attend diligently the Prf^<7^-Worlhip. 

In the laft place, and in Anfwer to your 
Qiieftion, viz. wherein the Knowledge of 
ones fcif confffts ? I anfwer, that in order to 
know our felves thoroughly, we mud be well 
skill'd in the Nature ot the five Elements ; 
as alfo their different EffecSts and Properties, 
We mud be very well acquainted with the 
Dodrine of Refpiration and Infpiration,and 
be able to know how many times he fetches 
his Breath in one Day ,• which according to 
Computation, is twenty one thoufand, and 
two hundred times. Moreover he mud 
know where the Sence of Feeling is, whea 
a Man fleeps ? Wherein does Life properly 
confift, and where is the Seat thereof? Laft- 
ly, he muft be well read in the Dodrine of 
the Caufes and Symptoms of all Difeafes; 
well acquainted with his own Complexion; 
and in fine, be able to account both for 
Memory and Forgetfulnefs. Such a Man as 
this, may be properly fiiid to know him«' 


324 Letters from the tieathens 


Of the Malabarians Opimon of the Chri" 
flian Religion, 

THE Law of the Chriftiansis holy, jufl, 
and good ; the Dod^rine of the Tri- 
nity, the Life of Chrift, and of his Twelve 
Apoflles are all very edifying; and fo are 
your Commandments and Articles of Faith ; 
Moreover, you affirm, that in the Beginning 
God did only create the Man and the Wo« 
man ; All which I believe to be very true : 
And indeed, your Law feems to be a clear 
Mifrour, without Flaw or Blemifh ; and 
did you but abflain from your eating of 
Cows Flelh, fpitting in your Houfes, and 
fome other daily Nadinefles committed by 
you ; and on the contrary, accuftom your 
lelves to wafhing your Bodies more often, 
and ad nothing againft Purification and 
Cleanlinefs ; wc aflure you, the whole Na- 
tion would have nothing to fay againfl: your 
Difcipline, except your giving out, that 
you eat the Body of Chrift, and drink his 
Blood in the Sacrament; which T humbly 
conceive, norie of us will ever be able to com* 
prehend. LET'* 

to the Mijfwnarles. 325 


The Religion of ?Z?^ Heathens and Turks 
compared together^ 

REverend Sir, you derire to know if 
any one living according to the Prin- 
ciples of the Mahometan Religion, may ob- 
tain everlafting Life and Happinefs ; and 
which I judge to be the bell, this, or my 
own Malabar tan Religion > In order to fatis- 
fie your Queftion, give me leave to tell 
you, that our Religion is as old as the World, 
which is indeed, a tenfold Law or Religion, 
marking out unto Mankind Ten different 
unerring Ways of attaining Salvation j or as 
we are wont to exprefs it, Ten fever al Offer- 
i»^s : For this, or that Way of worfliipping 
God, aflifting at fuch or fuch Ceremonies, 
leading this or that fort of Life, we call 
Oflerings made of our Time and Labour to 
the Service of God; whereof the firlt is this, 
which requires, That a Man do believe in 
the great Sovereign Being, revere afid adore 
him, offer unto him, and love him with all 
Kis Heart, and with his Lips fmg forth the 
Praifes due to his Name. 

Y 3 The 

3 25 Letters from the Heathens 

The fecond Way of attaining Happinels, 
is, to woriliip God without the Intervention 
of Images and Tagods^ by directing our 
Minds and Hearts immediately to the Su- 
preme Being, regarding all the different Re- 
ligions this day eftablilhed in the different 
Countries of the World, to be equally good 
or bad : For fuch a Votary ties himfelf to 
no Sett of publick Ceremonies ; but 
worihips God in Spirit and in Truth, and 
believes him to be all- feeing, All in all, 
and every where equally prefent. 

The third Way of attaining Salvation, is 
by offering to the Tiratti Lingum., which is 
an Image of a Man made of Dung, which 
we beftrew with fweet-fcented Flowers, 
and dired Formulas of Prayers to it, with 
great Devotion ; and believe in fo doing, to 
attain Salvation and Eternal Happinefs ; 
becaufe we are commanded fo to do by the 
Law of God. 

The fourth Way of attaining Happinefs, 
is by leading a Monaftical Life, abandoning 
Houfe and Home, and all the Pleafures 
that attend a focial Life, by living in Wil- 
dernefles and Woods, f:parated trom the 
reft of Mankind. 


to the MiJJionaries. j 2 7 

The fifth Way to Happinefs, is Celibacy, 
holding no Commerce or Familiarity with 
Women ; or, if one is married, by giving 
his Wife a Bill of Divorce, living chaitly and 
foberly the remainder of his Life. We be- 
lieve that fuch Men as thefewill be certain- 
ly happy in the other World, for generouily 
(for the fakeof God)derpiring the Pleafures 
of this. 

The fixth Way leading to eternal Happi- 
nefs, is, the obferving diligently the ftrid 
"Performances of the Ceremonious Rites 
and Offeriijfgs^^i^r'd us by the Priefis in 
filie p0^s^ and ftudying to be ufeful and 
ben^Jcial to all Mankind. 

The feventh Way to Happinefs, is blind- 
ly to follow in all things the Did-ates 
and Commands of our Priefts, and believe 
what they bid us, whether it be good or 
bad : For we are not to fearch into the 
Nature of Vice and Vertue; but fquare 
our Lives by the Exemplary Lives of ho- 
ly Priefts and Men of God. 

The eighth Way leading to Eternal Hap- 
pinefs, is the Exercife of all forts oF good 
Works i by diilributing Rice among the 
Poor, clothing feme, Furniiliing others with 

Y 4 Money, 

328 Leters from the Heathens 

Money, building Houfes for the Bramam^ 
and publick Inns for poor Pilgrims and 

The ninthWay to Happinefs, is the lead- 
ing a ftrid Life according to the Command- 
ments of our Law ,• and conftantly offering 
to fVifchtfiu, is the Tenth Way to attain E- 
ternal Happinefs. 

As for the Mahometan Religion, the Pro- 
feffors thereof cry it up for the bed Religion 
in the World, which we constantly deny ; 
tho' we acknowledge at the fame time the 
Mahometans to be a wife People j neither do 
we pretend to blafpheme their Religion ; 
but confefs ingenuoufly, if they do live up 
to what they profefs, God in Mercy will 
fave their Souls. 


to the Mijjionaries. 329 


Of the feveral Kings and Princes who 
have ruVd in the Malabarian and 
neighbouring Kingdoms, 

TO comply with your Commands, I 
fend you the following Account of 
the feveral Kings and Princes that have go- 
verned for the lad 85 Years m our Neigh.- 
bouring Kingdoms. 

• In the lad Antu (the Space of 60 Years) 
King Regunadanaiker rul'd in the Kingdom 
of Tfchoromandel^ K^"g MarudeiwirA-paKaiker 
rul'd in Diritfchancipal : Thefe, and many 
more petty Kings, have neither Crowns, nor 
Scepters ; but King Tfchingamagarafcha de- 
fcended lineally from the Sun, hath wore 
a Crown, and ruTd in Kand't^ or in the fa- 
mous Ifland of Qeylon : He built many Pa- 
gods^ Houfes for Bramansy and for Pilgrims 
in every City, endow'd with Yearly Reve- 
nues, and all poffible Accommodations, and 
with all Eatables, and even with Milk for 
Babes, who might with their Nurfes pafs 
that way : Befides, he gave general Orders 


3 50 Letters from the Heathens 

to conduct: the Pilgrims into their Lodgings 
in dark Nights with Flambeaux and Torches. 
He never perverted Juftice; but the Poor 
and the Rich were treated according to the 
flrideO; Impartiality of diftributive Juftice ; 
His Treafure was inexhauftible ; and after 
he had reigned fourcy Years, he died, to the 
great Lofs of all his Subjeds, 

In this prefent Antu, reigns in the King- 
dom oi tjchoromandel the Son of Regunaela 
naiker. The prefent King of Ceylon is called 
after his Father's Name, Tfchingamarafcha, 

When there was a great Dearth in the 
Kingdom of Coromandel, the King ordered 
his Officers to call together a hundred thou- 
fand Men to be fupplied with Meat and 
Drink in thofe hard times. And the King 
calling for a Balance, put himfelf in one 
Scale thereof, and Gold enough to counter- 
balance in the other Scale ; which Gold he 
immediately caufed to be diftributed among 
the People ; He continued for fome time to 
be an Univerfal BlefTing to his Countrey ; 
following the good Example of Pious Kings 
his Predeceffors ,• but afterwards prov'd to 
be a cruel Tyrant, plundering his Subjed:s 
of their bed Effeds ; and if any had a hand- 
fome Woman to his Wife, the King carried her 
away by force, giving in lieu thereof a Piece 


to the MiJJionaries, 3 3 i 

of Money to the injured Husband. He had 
One hundred and fifteen married Wives, and 
one Thoufand Concubines : Three hundred 
and threefcore Women did dance daily in 
his Prefence ; his Palanquin was always born 
by Women ; Women carried Flambeaux and 
Torches before him, attended him with Um- 
hello s^ play'd on Indruments i and all the 
other Court- Employments within Doors were 
all done by Women ; whereof no lefs than 
Five thoufand were employ 'd in his Family : 
All which Women, with all his Jewels and 
vafl: Treafures, he caufed to be {hut up in 
"a Houfe, and to be blown into the Air 
with Gunpowder, at the Approach of the 
Army of the Great Mogul to bellege Tanjour^ 
one of his chief Cities. His two Sons feeing 
their Father's Cowardice, in not daring to 
fight the Great Moguls oder'd their Service 
to the King, and undertook to defeat all the 
Mogulijh Armj, if their Father would but 
entruftthem with the Command of Four and 
twenty tiioufand Mea. Is it fo, reply'd the 
Father, then when you have defeated the^ 
Great Mogul, you'll employ your Prowefs 
againft my felf; whereupon the two Bro- 
thers were Iliut up in a dark Chamber, 
and flarv'd to Death. Some time after, 
this bloody Man, at the Sacking o\ TaMJour. 
was taken and heun to p.cccs by his Ene- 


2 2 2 Letters from the Heathens 


Of the Sacerdotal and Regal Dignity, 

YOU were pleas'd to ask our Opinion in 
relation to the Sacerdotal and Regal 
Dignity ; anjd which in our Judgment is the 
more Excellent ? 

We conceive the Matter thus j the Priefts 
teach and inftrud: the King himfelf in the 
Precepts of Wildom and Religion, and ihews 
him the Ways of Salvation j and Kings and 
Princes rule Kingdoms and Principalities ; 
and their Authority relates only to the 
Things of this Life : So that the King and 
the Pried are highly to be efteem'd and re- 
vered ; but with Refpedts of a very different 
kind ; the Authority of the one regarding 
only our fpiritual, and that of the other, our 
Temporal and Worldly Welfare. 


to the Miffionarief, 335 


Of buying Slaves ; of making Wary n^he* 
ther LarpfuL 

IN anfwer to your feveral Queftions, 
we fend you our Meaning in few 
Lines : And in the firft Place, touching 
fuch Perfons as make it their Bufinefs to 
cajole half witted innocent Men with large 
Promifes, and other Allurements, in order 
to mafter them afterwards, by reducing 
them into the Condition of Slaves, we 
look upon fuch Men, incapable of receiv- 
ing Forgivenefs of Sins, and of enjoying 
future Happinefs : And 'tis a Proverb com- 
mon among us, That a City driving fuch 
infamous Commerce, can never increale, nor 

We believe it lawful to make- War up- 
on our Enemies that wrong and injure us,- 
and if the King in fuch Cafes does not 
defend his Subjects by repelling Force with 
Force, he forfeits his Crown and Scepter : 
And 'tis written in one of our Books call'd 
Rafchianidifaftrumy that tho' a fandlified 


334 Letters from the Heathens 

Cow fiiould attempt to gore a Man violent. 
]j; 'tis then lawful to kill her, which other- 
wife is here a very Capital Crime. 

Moreover, we believe, that all that die 
in a lawful War in the Defence of their Coun- 
trey, are receiv'd into Paradife,- and he that 
kills an Enemy, is recompenfed in the other 
World with higher Degrees of Glory and 
Happinefs, ^c 


to the Mtjfwnaries* 335 


Of the Indian and European Civil Go- 
vernment ; and which ought to be ^- 
fleemed the beft^ 

OUR Civil Law in Malabar is very ex- 
cellent, grounded on Juftice and E- 
quity, and the Proceeding is according to 
Evidences, and teftimonial Depofitions of 
faithful and honeft Men ; but very often 
there are great Miftakes committed in the 
Executive Part of our Laws, through the 
Negligence of our Kings, and Corruption of 
wicked Miniflers. 

We readily acknowledge the Europeans 
to be a very polite and well difciplin'd Peo- 
ple ; efpecially at Sea, and at Fire-Arms ; 
but in weilding a Sword, or in managing 
Bows and Arrows, fighting upon Elephants 
and Camels, or in warlike Stratagems, the 
Europeans are not to be compared with our 
Malaharian Soldiers j and this I'll exemplifie 
in one of our Kings who rul'd about Twen- 
ty Years ago in Diritfcinapoli over feventy 
Governors of Provinces, whereof every one 


J J ^ Letters from the Heathens 

could bring upvon his own Charges fome 
Thoufands of Men to the Field; and be- 
caufe confcious of their great Strength, they 
difregarded the young King's Orders, the 
King immediately drew together twenty 
thoufand Foot and three thou land Horfe, 
ordering them to march out of their Gar- 
rifons, to take the Benefit of Countrey-Air 
for his Majefty's Diverficn ; and in the fpace 
of fix Days, he came before a Town belong- 
ing to one of his feventy Deputy-Governours, 
rode in alone with his drawn Sword , 
and finding the Governour in the Streets, he 
cut him to Pieces ; after which bold Action, 
(all the People knowing 'twas their King;) 
the Governour's Son threw himfelf immedi- 
ately at his Majefty's Feet, begging that his 
Life might be fpar'd, offering twenty thou- 
fand Ferdous for his Pardon. 

The King anfwer'd, don't fear, thy Life is 
fpar'd ; thy Father negle(3:ed to pay me due 
Homage ,• therefore I killed him > but take 
care to rule my People with Equity and 

Thence he march'd with his Elephants 
and armed Men before another City, which 
he found unguarded, open, and Expofed to 
the leafl: Infult of a Neighbouring Enemy. 
He calld the Governour of the Place; who 


• to the Mijjion^ies, jjy 

ran with Prefents, and threw himfelf at the 
King's Feet, begging that his Life might be 
fpared , and that his prefent Negligence 
might be pardoned; promifing to be mors 
carcibny circumfped for the future ,♦ beg- 
ging his Majefty to accept of a Golden Pa- 
lanquin Ca Chair carried on two Mens Shoul- 
ders) valued at 121000 Verdous^ and leveral 
Budiels of Pearls, Corals and other precious 
Stones. The King accepted the Prefents, 
a#il charg'd him upon Penalty of his high 
Difpleafure to be more watchful in the Dif- 
charge of his Empoyment for the time to 
come ; and march'd thence to vifit unexpe- 
d:edly the other flrong Places of his King- 
dom, hewing into Pieces the Governours 
that negleded their Duty, or did not pay 
him due Homage ; which {truck a Terror 
into all the adjacent Princes, that they were 
in great fear of him ; and the Great Mo^ul 
of the Indies could not force him to pay him 
Tribute as his PredecefTors did. 

This King in all warlike Achievements 
was another Wtratjchuren (i. e.) another 
Alexander : For when a Tyger raging Mad, 
came out of the Forefl, and the Army was 
in Its March, all the Soldiers did quake and 
tremble ; but the King rode on boldly, and 
with one Stroke of his broad Sword, cut the 
Tygfr's Body in two ; And we have many 
fuch brave Men among us in thefe Countries. 

3 3 8 Letters from the Heathens 


About the different Kinds or Species of 
Living Creatures. 

HE diflerent Species of vegetative and 
living Creatures are Eighty four Hun- 
dred Thouland in Number ,• whereof there 
are Twenty Hundred Thoufand Species of 
Trees, Nine Hundred Thoufand different 
kinds of FiOi, One Hundred Thoufand lorts 
of Worms and creeping; Things, Ten Hun- 
dred Thoufand Kinds o[ Birds; and from 
the Elephant to the Ant, there are Thirty 
Hundred Thoufand ditlerent forts of walking 
Creatures In tht; laft place, we compute Four 
Hundred Thoufand diiterent forts of Men. 

We have a learned Br'aman among us, who 
hath with a great dea4 of Indullry, methodi- 
cally, and at length, Ipecified in Writing, 
ailthefedi^erent forts of Beings j defcribing 
their Figure, Properties, and the refpedive 
Countries >vhere they are to be found ; 
' whereof he hathprctrpifed :o fend you a Co- 


tc the Miffionarie%l 539 


If it is the Will of God^ that all Men 
fjjmld be faved ; and of the Form of 

YOU are pleas'd to ask me, if God 
would have all Men be faved from 
Hell- Torments, and be happy for ever > 

I aofwer, Yes ; becaufe God is gracious 
Und merciful towards all his Creatures ; 
and in pardoning great Sins, his Grace 
and Goodnefs are more confpicuouHy glo- 
rified : But if Sinners go on in their Ob- 
Itinacy and Difobedience, God juftly pu- 
niOies fuch with the moft exquifite Pains 
of Hell • according as 'tis written in our 

And as touching the Form of the Su- 
preme Being, he is reprefented to us, fit- 
ting upon the Top of a Silver Mountain 
in Paradife, holding a Deer by the Horns 
in one Hand, and his Bow and Arrows 
in another. He has five Faces, three Eye^, 
covered all over with Holy Aihes, and has 
Z i his 

7^0 Letters froM the Heathens 

his Neck twilled about with a hideous 

Others defcribe him quite otherwife ; fay- 
ing, he is neither One, nor Two, neither 
Light nor Darknefs ; that he is neither ex- 
cluded from, nor circunfifcribed in any- 
place ; is not to be refembled to any Crea- 
ture whati'oever. 


to the Mijjionaries, 341 


Reafons why the Malabarians reje3 the 
Chrijlian Religion. 

"1 70U defired me in yonr lad, to give 
j[ ygu my Reafons why our People 
don't embrace the Chriftian Religion aiter 
you have taken lb much pains to prove the 
Truth thereof with fo many Evident De- 
monfirations,- and have as fully (liew'd the 
Falfenefs of our Malahanan Woriliip ? 

, And I find you are much afloniflied at 
opr Infidelity. But, Sirs, give us leave to 
tell you, that we can't fee that you have fufr 
ficiently proved our Law to be falle and al- 
together erroneous ; nor fo clearly and evi- 
dently prov'd the Truth of your own, that 
we llicnld inconfiderately change the Religi- 
on of our Fathers for that of Foreigners and 
Sojourners in our Land : For I would have 
you know, thiat as Chrijlians and Mahometans 
depvp their Laws from God ; fo do we : 
For certainly, you can't imagine, that we 
hammer'd and lorged a Religion to our 
felves, more than you. 

Z 3 The 

342 Leters from the Heathens 

The Mahometan will have his Religion to 
be abfolutely the bell: ; the Chrijiians con- 
demn all but themfelves ; and we Malaha- 
rians think our Religion to be the bed for 
us ; and Queftion not but that the Chriftl- 
ans may be faved if they lead Lives conform- 
able to the Precepts of their Religion. 

Which is the bed Religion, is a difficult 
Task to know ; for even among our felves 
we have many different Opinions ,• fome 
affirming that Ifuren is the Supreme God, 
others ftand up for Wifchtnu ; and there are 
as many learned Men, who plead for the 
God tjchivoens ; and I think 'tis Prudence 
not to trouble my felf with the Truth or 
Faliliood of your Religion, till I know firfl, 
which is the trued of the many Opinions 
relating to Religion, that we entertain here 
^mong our felves. 





F R O M T H E 



Friend in Europe. 

Mofl worthy Sir^ 

E Praife God with all our 
Hearts, for making you fo 
ulelul an Inflrument in Efig" 
land to further the Progrefs 
of the Gofpel among the Gentiles j botii by 
your gopd Counfels and Sums of Money 
that you were pleas'd to fend us at feveral 
times : And we thank you more efpecially, 
for the great Pains you took lately t.o traa- 
flate our German Relations of the Progrefs of 
the Gofpel among the Indians^ into the En- 
gltjh Language i which will, as we have 
grounds to hope, awaken the Zeal and Cha- 

Z 4 rity 

J 44 -^ Letter from the Mijjionaries 

rity of that generous Nation, to afTid our 
Endeavours iri preaching the Word of God 
among the UnbeUevers ; and upon this Ac- 
count, we look upon you to be our Fellow- 
Lahourer in the Work of the Lord, in preach- 
ing the glad Tidings of vSalvation among 
the Unbelieving Ind'tam : And we beg ear- 
neflly, that God Almighty will be pleas'd 
to preferve your precious Life in Peace and 
Profperity, that you may go on and do us 
more good. 

We receiv'd your Letters of Exchange 
by a Ship caW'd Jafif^e ; one for 25 Pounds, 
and the other for 10 Pounds ; both which 
Sums have bcea paid us at Madras, (i. e.) 
Fort St. George. 

We receiv'd two other Letters from you 
by another Ship lately arriv'd upon our 
Coaus ; which were very acceptable to us, 
both with regard to the Author, and to the 
excellent Inllrudions for carrying on the 
Work of Converfion fuccefsfuliy. 

Two Letters from the Society fettled at 
London for propagating of the Gofpel, came 
fafe to our Hands, and rejoiced our Hearts 
exceedingly. The Lord ilrengthen the 
Hands of thofe pious and truly Iionourable 
good Chriflians, to do more and more good 


to their Friend in Europe. 345 
both in the Chriftian and Gentile World.' 

All Helps fent us by that Generous and 
Noble Company, are happily arriv'd, and are 
to us very acceptable ; and raore efpecially 
the Printing- Prefs^ with all its Appendices ; 
which we are getting in order with all ' pof- 
fible Ipeed ; and we hope to fend by the 
next Ship a Prcof, or Specimen, of our Ma- 
laharian Printing, to our great Patrons and 
generous Benefad:ors in England -^ whence 
we expe(5t farther Afliflances, that being of all 
the Nations of Europe^ the moO; capable of 
extending the Limits of Chrift's Kingdom, 
by their frequent Navigations, and many 
Settlements in both the Indies. 

Oh ! When will the time be, tliat all the 
Proteflant Nations will joyn- Hands and 
Hearts, to deflroy the Worlhip of Devils ; 
and break to Pieces the Idols of the Hea- 
thens, that the Name of ^ejtis may be made 
knov\'n to all the Nations oi the Earth. The 
Undertaking is great and feafible, back'dwith 
many precious Promifes both rrcm the Old 
and New Ttftamament, vit,. that all the 
Kingdoms of the World will become the 
Kingdoms of God and his Chriit. 


J 4^ ^ Letter from the Miljlonaries 

We fee before our Eyes, the Harvefr to 
be very great, and ripe for the Sickle ; Luc 
we want Hands ,* we want Temporal Sub- 
fidies ; and therefore the Labourers are too 
few to tin fo large a Vineyard. 

Surely, fuch Chriflians who are averfe to 
this pious Work, can have no real Love to 
the Chriilian Religion ! ' 

We would humbly propofe to the Prote- 
flant Churches, to fupply us with learned 
Students in Divinity, and fend them here 
to be indrufled in the h^ian Languages, to 
capacitate them for future Service, under 
our Diredion, who have by our long pra« 
(fifing thefe People, div'd into their Inclina- 
tions ; and know upon our own Experience, 
what fort of Arguments are mod likely to 
gain their Approbation, and perfuade them 
to hear patiently the Admonitions of the 
Lord ; but thefe Students mufl be Men tru- 
ly fearing God, and hating Covetoufnefs ,• 
difengaged from all Earthly Ties of SelF- 
feeking, and from the inveterate Ecclefiafti- 
cal Itch of ruling over God's Inheritance : 
For if the Minifters of the Gofpel are other- 
u'ife minded, all their Learning will have 
no other Effedt than to perfuade Chrillians 
to turn Heathens, and confirm Heathens in 
their Infidelity. If 

to their Friend in Europe. j 47 

If we were blefs'd with faitbful FcIJow- 
Labourers in this great Work, we have all 
the fair Profpeds of fpreading the Know- 
ledge of Chrift an:*ong many populous Na- 
tions of the Indies. 

The EitgUJh have feveral Settlements on 
the Coaft of Bengal^ and the Dutch in many- 
Places of the Indies'^ which afford us an open 
Door to preach among tlie Neighbouring 

I have writ to Batavia and to Ceylon^ to 
be informed of what Methods have been 
taken by the Nation laft mentioned, for the 
Propagation of the Gofpel ,• but hitherto I 
have no other Account, than, that all the 
PortHgueze Churches coiled'ed formerly in 
thefe Countries by the Portugal Miflionarie^ 
were brought over to the Dutch Difcipline, 
in all the Plantations taken from the Portu- 
gueze by the Dutch Company. But in thefe 
Countries tliey have undertook nothing in 
favour of the Chriftian Religion, tho' they 
have many Converted Indians whereof fome 
are Slaves ^ among whom there is a Ledurer 
who reads Service in Portugueze^ and Admi- 
nifters the Sacrament to them Weekly. 


348 A Letter from the Miffionaries 

There was a Minider in Na-^apatnam ; but 
he is gone away. And in the populous 
Town of/Zyg/y, on theCoaftof Bengal, there 
is a great Number of Dutch Merchants ; 
yet they have no Preacher among them. 

'Tis certain that God has wonderfully 
blefs'd the Dutch Nation in all their laudable 
Undertakings in thefe Countries ; and there- 
fore we firmly perfuade our felves, that at 
this Jun(5ture fthat feems to be favourable 
for dilating the Knowledge of Chrift among 
thefe Nations) the Hollnnden will cheerful- 
ly come to our Afliftance. 

The Tortugueze Miilionaries in the Space 
of about Two Hundred Years, brought q- 
ver to the Romifh Perfuafion almoft all the 
Maritime Towns \ but now this feems to be 
in a declining (late ; For it'o^ of the Millio- 
tiaries learn the Indian Languages, fo as to 
be able to teach the Heathens ; but content 
themfelves with reading the Mafs in the 
Latin Tongue, and trult the Natives with 
the important OfHce of Preaching ; who 
are no Way qualified for fo high an Em- 
ployment ; For they know nothing elfe but 
to repeat the Ten Commandments , the 
Lord's Prayer, and Ave Maria^ and to ilgn 
themfelves with the Sign of theCrofs- 


to their Friend in Europe, 349 

Upon fome Feftivals the Fortugueze Fa- 
thers do preach in their own Language j 
and that but very feldom. 

There is no difciplinary Inditution obfer* 
ved among thefe Chriftians ; fo that they 
are more fcandaloufly corrupted in their 
Manners, than the Heathens themfelves ; 
and they fymbolize with them in moftof 
their Cerenaonies ,• and there is little or no 
Difference between a Portugueze Church and 
a Heathen Pagody with regard to all outward 
Rites and Ceremonies, and the Idolatrous 
Worfliip of Images. 

'Tis reafonable to believe, that the firft: 
MiiTionaries were heartily zealous in per- 
fuading their new Converts to the NeceHity 
of living holy and pious Lives, worthy of 
the Gofpel of Jefns Chrifl : But fince the 
Portugueze Empire in thefe Countries has 
been deftroyed by the Hollanders, the Ro- 
man Cathoiick Chriftians have but a mere 
Form of Godlinefs without the Power there* 

All the Account that I can give you of 
the Chriftians of St. Thomas^ is, as foUow- 
eth ? 


3 50 A Letter from the Mijjlonaries 

Within a Mile of MaJras, or Fort Su 
George^ there is a Town called Mailapour, 
(I G.J a To^'n of Peacocks ; becaufe thofe 
Birds are very numerous in the neighbour- 
ing Mountains. 

This Town by the Portugueze is called St\ 
Thomds ; becaufe that the Apollle of that 
Name preach'd the Gofpel there, confirm, 
ing his Dodrine with many Miracles. 

Thofe Ancient Chriftians are dill to be 
found in Cochin, in the Southern Coafts of 
MaUhar : And, if we believe the Fortu- 
g/4eze, they are now reconcil'd to the Ro- 
man Church. 

As touching the Writings of the Portugal 
Miflionaries, we can give you but a very 
imperfed: Account j only we underftand, 
that here and there, fome Manufcripts are 
yet extant in the Malaharian Tongue; but 
the moO: Valuable were loft, when the 
Hollanders made themfelve$ Maflers of this 
Countrey. Thefe Writings confid chiefly 
of the Life of Chrift, his Apoftles, and of 
feversl Romijb Saints, larded with Fabks 
and lying .Wonders. 


to their Friend in Europe* 351 

Some of their Miilionaries lead an Ere- 
mitical Life at fome diftance from Towns 
and Villages ; and call themfelves Northern 
Bramans j a Sed: of Hermits highly efteem- 
ed among the Heathens. 

Among the Mahometans^ we find very 
many Hermits, who profeiTing Poverty, go 
about from Place to Place , making a 
Trade of begging ; and are highly edee- 
med by the People, for Men difinterefs'dly 
hol^ ; many whereof proteH againft all the 
Pompous Train of External Ceremonies 
and /'^gc^-Worfhip j exhorting the People 
to worlhip God in Sincerity and in Truth, 
with a Mind full of Humility and Godly 

There are yet remaining fome Cloyfter^s 
of Portugueze Monks in thefe Countries, as 
in Europe ^ and likewife Schools and Colle- 
ges, in the French and Portugueze Settle- 

We humbly defire you, Sir, to adiire our 
Patrons and Benefadors in Europe, that we 
are very thanktul for Favours receiv'd; and 
are refolved to preach the Gofpel in Seafon 
and out of Seafon ; and our own Lives 
iliall not be counted dear unto us, fo we 


3 5.2 ^ Letter from tb^ Mijfjionaries, &c* 

may any way. promote the Converfion of 
the Gentiles to the Obedience of Ghrift. 

Pray, affift ns with your Daily Prayers; 
and, as often as you can, with your Ccxin- 
(els and other Chriftian Oilices, 

Yours, &c. 

B Ziegenhalg 
jf. E^ Grundler. 

^-^^ I N I S.