(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The thirty-six dramatic situations"

1 


i Theater 


lArts 


■ Lib. 


Ipn ' 


■ 218 


■ P6413 


1 1 921 



A 

A 



I 


6 \ 

1 j 
8 i 
4 \ 
2 
3 i 



SIX 



AT IONS 



"Gozzi maintained that there can he hut thirty-six tragic 
situations. Schiller took great pains to find more, but he was 
unable to find even so many as Gozzi." — Goethe. 



The 

Thirty-Six Dramatic 

Situations 



GEORGES POLTI 

Translated by Lucile Ray 



Franklin) ohin 
JAMES KNAIT REEVE 



COPYRIGHT, 1916, 1917 
THE EDITOR COMPANY 

COPYRIGHT, 1921 
JAMES KNAPP REEVE 



52g36& 



Theatre Arts 
library 

PM 

m 

11 aj 



THE THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



INTRODUCTION 

"Gozzi maintained that there can be but thirty-six tragic 
situations. Schiller took great pains to find more, but he 
was unable to rind even so many as Gozzi." 

Thirty-six situations only! There is, to me, some- 
thing tantalizing about the assertion, unaccompanied 
as it is by any explanation either from Gozzi, or from 
Goethe or Schiller, and presenting a problem which it 
does not solve. For I remembered that he who declared 
by this limited number so strongly synthetic a law, 
had himself the most fantastic of imaginations. He was 
the author, this Gozzi, of "Turandot," and of the "Roi 
Cerf," two works almost without .analogue, the one 
upon the situation of the "Enigma, ' the other upon 
phases of metempsychosis; he was the creator of a dra- 
matic system, and the Arabesque spirit, through him 
transfused, has given us the work of Hoffmann, Jean- 
Paul Richter and Poe. 

The Venetian's exuberance would have mack' me 
doubtful of him, since, having once launched at us this 
number 36, he kept silence. Put Schiller, rigid and 
ardent Kantian, prince of modern aest het icians, master 
of true historic drama, had he not in turn, before 
epting this rule, "taken greal pains" to verify it and 
the pains of a Schiller!) thereby giving it the additional 
authority of his powerful criticism and his rich memory? 
And Goethe, his opposite in all things save a strong 
te for the abstract, Goethe, who throughout his 
life Beems to have considered the .subject, adds his testi- 
mony years after the death of Schiller, years after their 



8 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

fruitful conversations, at the very time when he was 
completing "Faust," that supreme combination of con- 
trasting elements. 

In France, Gerard de Nerval alone had grasped and 
presented briefly the ensemble of all dramatic produc- 
tion, in an article upon Soumet's "Jane Grey," in 
"L'Artiste," written, unfortunately, with what dandy- 
ism of style! Having early desired to know the exact 
number of actions possible to the theater, he found, he 
tells us, twenty-four. His basis, however, is far from 
satisfactory. Falling back upon the outworn classifi- 
cation of the seven capital sins, he finds himself obliged 
at the outset to eliminate two of them, gluttony and 
sloth, and very nearly a third, lust (this would be Don 
Juan, perhaps). It is not apparent what manner of 
tragic energy has ever been furnished by avarice, and 
the divergence between pride (presumably the spirit of 
tyranny) and danger, does not promise well for the con- 
texture of drama, the manifestations of the latter being 
too easily confounded with those of envy. Furthermore, 
murder or homicide, which he indicates as a factor for 
obtaining several new situations, by uniting it in turn 
with each of the others, cannot be accepted as such, 
since it is but an accident common to all of them, pos- 
sible in all, and one most frequently produced by all. 
And finally, the sole title mentioned by Nerval, "Rivalry 
of Queen and Subject," corresponds, it will be observed, 
only to a sub-class of one, not of his twenty-four, but of 
Gozzi's Thirty-six Situations. 

Since Nerval, no one has treated, in Gozzi's genuinely 
technical manner, of the secrets of invention, unless it 
be relevant to mention in this connection Sarcey's cele- 
brated theory of the "scene-a-faire," a theory in general 
but ill comprehended by an age which dreads didacti- 
cism, - - that is to say, dreads any serious reflection upon 
art; some intimate notes of Dumas fils which were pub- 
lished against his wishes, if my youthful memories are 
correct, in the "Temps" some years ago, and which set 
forth that double plot of Corneille and Racine, a heroine 
disputed by two heroes, and a hero disputed by two 



INTRODUCTION 9 

heroines; and, lastly, some works here and there by 
Valin, upon composition. And that is all, absolutely all. 

Finally, in brief, I rediscovered the thirty-six situa- 
tions, as Gozzi doubtless possessed them, and as the 
reader will find them in the following pages; for there 
were indeed, as he had indicated, thirty-six categories 
which I had to formulate in order to distribute fitly 
among them the innumerable dramas awaiting classi- 
fication. There is, I hasten to say, nothing mystic or 
cabalistic about this particular number; it might per- 
haps be possible to choose one a trifle higher or lower, 
but this one I consider the most accurate. 

Xow, to this declared fact that there are no more 
than thirty-six dramatic* situations, is attached a singu- 
lar corollary, the discovery that there are in life but 
thirty-six emotions. A maximum of thirty-six emo- 
tions, --and therein we have all the savor of existence; 
there we have the unceasing ebb and flow which fills 
human history like tides of the sea; which is, indeed, the 
very substance of history, since it is the substance of 
humanity itself, in the shades of African forests as Unter 
den Linden or beneath the electric lights of the Boule- 
vards; as it was in the ages of man's hand-to-hand 
Btruggle with the wild beasts of wood and mountain, 
and as it will be, indubitably, in the most infinitely dis- 
tant future, since it is with these thirty-six emotions 
no more that we color, nay, we comprehend, cosmic 
mechanism, and since it is from them that our theogonies 
and our metaphysics are, and ever will be, constructed; 
all our dear and fanciful "beyonds;" -thirty-six situ- 
ations, thirty-six emotions, and no more 

It is, then, comprehensible thai in viewing upon the 
stage the ceaseless mingling of these thirty-six emo- 
tions, a race or nation arrives at the beginning of its 
definite Belf -consciousness; the Greeks, indeed, began 
their towns by laying the foundations of a theater. It 
is equally natural thai only the greatest ami most com- 

•I have replaced tin' word "tragic," used in tin- quotation, with 
"dramatic." Those familiar with Goethe know that for him 

one of the "classic" (icrmans the two terms wrrc synonymous 

m this passage, 



10 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

plete civilizations should have evolved t*heir own partic- 
ular conception of the drama, and that one of these 
new conceptions should be revealed by each new evolu- 
tion of society, whence arises the dim but faithful expec- 
tation of our own age, waiting for the manifestation of 
its own dramatic ideals, before the cenotaphs of an art 
which has long been, apparently for commercial reasons, 
almost non-existent. 

In fine, after having brought together all these dra- 
matic "points of view," we shall see, as in a panorama, 
the great procession of our race, in characteristic motley 
costumes:- Hindu kings in their chariots, Chinese 
gallants playing their mandores, nude heroes of Hellas, 
legendary knights, adventurers of sword and cape, 
golden-tressed princesses, nymphs sparkling with gems, 
shy maids with drooping eyelashes, famed courtesans, 
chaste Athenian virgins, priestly confessors, chattering 
gossips, gurus expounding religious ideas, satyrs leaping 
upon goats' feet, ugly slaves, peris, horned devils in dis- 
guise, lisping Tartaglias, garrulous Graciosos, Shake- 
spearean clowns, Hugoesque buffoons, magistrates, immo- 
bile Buddhist ascetics, white-robed sacrificers, martyrs 
with shining aureoles, too-crafty Ulysses, frightful 
Rakchasas, messengers dispersing calamitous tidings to 
the winds of heaven, pure-hearted youths, blood-stained 
madmen, - yes, here it assembles, our humanity, here 
it moves through its periods of greatest intensity — but 
presenting always one of the facets of the prism pos- 
sessed by Gozzi. 

These thirty-six facets, which I have undertaken to 
recover, should obviously be simple and clean, and of 
no far-fetched character; of this we shall be convinced 
after seeing them repeated, with unfailing distinctness, 
in all epochs and in all genres. The reader will find, in 
my brief exposition, but twelve hundred examples cited, 
of which about a thousand are taken from the stage; 
but in this number I have included works the most 
dissimilar and the most celebrated, nearly all others 
being but mosaics of these. There will here be found 
the principal dramas of China, of India, of Judea, and, 
rued less to say, of the Greek theater. However, instead 



INTRODUCTION 11 

of confining ourselves to the thirty-two classic tragedies 
we shall make use of those works of Hellenism which, 
unfortunately for the indolent public of today, still lie 
buried in Latin; works from whose great lines might be 
reconstructed hundreds of masterpieces, and all offering 
us, from the shades to which we have relegated them, the 
freshness of unfamiliar beauty. Leaving aside, for the 
present, any detailed consideration of the Persian and 
mediaeval Mysteries, which depend almost without 
exception upon two or three situations, and which await 
a special study, we shall glance over, --after the Jeux 
and Miracles of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
- the Spanish authors, the French classics, the Italians, 
the Germans of the Romantic revival, and our modern 
dramatic literature. And it seems to me we shall have 
finally proved this theory of the Thirty-six Situations, 
when we shall thus have brought it into contact with 
the dramatic production of the last thirty years. 

Two hundred of the examples cited have been taken 
from other literary genres akin to the dramatic: romance, 
• ■pic, history, -and from reality. For this investiga- 
tion can and should be pursued in human nature, by which 

I mean in politics, in courts of justice, in daily life. Amid 
these explorations the present study will soon seem lint 
an introduction to a marvelous, an inexhaustible stream, 
the Stream of Existence, where meet momentarily, 
in their primordial unity, history, mystic poetry, moralist 

and amoralisl writings, humor, psychology, law, epic, 
romance, table, myth, proverb and prophecy. 

It may here be allowable to ask, with our theory in 
mind, a number of questions which to us are of primary 

importance. 

Which are the dramatic situations neglected by our 
n epoch, so faithful in repeating the few most familiar? 
Which, on the other hand, are mosl in use today? Which 
are the mo I neglected, and which the most used, in each 
epoch, genre, Bchool, author? Whal are the reasons 
for these preference The same questions may be 
asked before the classes :m<l sub-cl; if the situations. 



12 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Such an examination, which requires only patience, 
will show first the list of combinations (situations and 
their classes and sub-classes) at present ignored, and 
which remain to be exploited in contemporaneous art, 
second, how these may be adapted. On the way it may 
chance that we shall discern, hidden within this or that 
one of our thirty-six categories, a unique case, - - one 
without analogue among the other thirty-five, with no 
immediate relationship to any other, the product of a 
vigorous inspiration. But, in carefully determining the 
exact position of this case among the sub-classes of the 
situation to which it belongs, we shall be able to form, 
in each of the thirty-five others, a sub-class correspond- 
ing to it; thus will be created thirty-five absolutely new 
plots. These will give, when developed according to 
the taste of this or that school or period, a series of 
thirty-five "original imitations," thirty-five new scenarios, 
of a more unforeseen character, certainly, than the 
majority of our dramas, which, whether inspired by 
books or realities, when viewed in the clear light of the 
ancient writings revealed to us only their reflections, so 
long as we had not, for our guidance, the precious thread 
which vanished with Gozzi. 

Since we now hold this thread, let us unwind it. 



FIRST SITUATION 

SUPPLICATION 

(The dynamic elements technically necessary are: — 
a Persecutor, a Suppliant and a Power in authority, 
whose decision is doubtful.) 

Among the examples here offered will be found those 
of three slightly differing classes. In the first, the power 
whose decision is awaited is a distinct personage, who is 
deliberating; shall he yield, from motives of prudence or 
from apprehension for those he loves, to the menaces 
of the persecutor, or rather, from generosity, to the 
appeal of the persecuted? In the second, by means of 
a contraction analogous to that which abbreviates a 
syllogism* to an enthymeme,* this undecided power is 
but an attribute of the persecutor himself,- a weapon 
suspended in his hand; shall anger or pity determine his 
course? In the third tfroup, on the contrary, the sup- 
pliant element is divided between two persons, the 
Persecuted and the Intercessor, thus increasing the 
number of principal characters to four. 

These three groups (A, B, C) may be subdivided as 
follow 

A 1 Fugitives Imploring the Powerful for Help 

Against Their Enemies. Complete examples: "The 

Suppliants" and "The Heraclidae*' of Aeschylus; "The 

rleraclidae" of Euripides; the "Minos" of Sophocles. 

les in which the fugitives are guilty: the "Oicles" 

•Syllogism: A reckoning all together, a reasoning; to bring 
at 'Mice before the mind; to infer; conclude. As "Every virtue 
i- laudable; kindness is a virtue; therefore kindness is laudable." 

Enthymeme An argument consisting of only two propositions; 
an antecedent and its consequent; a syllogism with one premise 
omitted; a "W< are dependent, therefore we should be humble." 

18 



11 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

and "Chryses" of Sophocles; "The Eumenides" of 
Aeschylus. A partial example: Act II of Shakespeare's 
"King John." Familiar instances: scenes from colonial 
protectorates. 

(2) -Assistance Implored for the Performance of 
a Pious Duty Which Has Been Forbidden. -- Com- 
plete examples: 'The Eleusinians" of Aeschylus and 

'The Suppliants" of Euripides. A historical example: 
the burial of Moliere. A familiar instance: a family 
divided in its religious belief, wherein a child, in order 
to worship according to his conscience, appeals to the 
parent who is his co-religionist. 

(3) - - Appeals for a Refuge in Which to Die. - 

Complete example: "(Edipus at Colonus." Partial ex- 
ample: the death of Zineb, in Hugo's "Mangeront-ils?" 

B (1) - - Hospitality Besought by the Shipwrecked. 

-Complete example: "Nausicaa" and "The Pheacians" 
of Sophocles. Partial example: Act I of Berlioz' 
"Trojans." 

(2) -Charity Entreated by Those Cast off by 
Their Own People, Whom They Have Disgraced. - 

Examples: the "Danae" of Aeschylus and the "Danae" 
of Euripides; the "Alope," "Auge" and "The Cretans" 
of Euripides. Familiar instances: a large part of the 
fifteen or twenty thousand adventures which, each 
year, come to an end in the Bureau des Enf ants- Assisted. 
Special instance of a child received into a home: the 
beginning of "Le Reve," by Zola. 

-Expiation: The Seeking of Pardon, Healing 
or Deliverance. -- Examples: Sophocles' "Philoctetes;" 
Aeschylus' "Mysians;" Euripides' "Telephus;" "Les 
Champairol" (Rraisse, 1884). Historical example: the 
penitence of Barbarossa. Familiar instances: petitions 
for pardon, confession of Catholics, etc. 

The Surrender of a Corpse, or of a Relic, 
Solicited : - "The Phrygians" of Aeschylus. Histori- 
cal examples: the Crusaders' embassies to the Moslems. 
Familiar instances: the reclaiming of the remains of 
a great man buried in a foreign land; of the body of 
an executed person, or of a relative dead in a hospital. 



FIRST SITUATION 15 

It should be noted that the "Phrygians," and the Twenty- 
fourth Book of the Iliad, which inspired the play, form 
a transition toward the Twelfth Situation (A Refusal 
Overcome I . 

C (1) — Supplication of the Powerful for Those 
Dear to the Suppliant. -Complete example: Esther. 
Partial example: Margaret in the denouement of "Faust." 
Historical example: Franklin at the court of Louis XVI. 
Example corresponding also to A (3): the "Propompes" 
of Aeschylus. 

(2) -Supplication To a Relative in Behalf of 
Another Relative. -- Example: the "Eurysaces" of 
Sophocles. 

(3) - - Supplication to a Mother's Lover, in Her 
Behalf. -Example: "L'Enfant de l'Amour" (Bataille, 
1911). 

It is apparent that, in the modern theater, very little 
use has been made of this First Situation. If we ex- 
cept subdivisions C (1), which is akin to the poetic 
cult of the Virgin and the Saints, and C (3), there is 
not a single pure example, doubtless for the reason that 
the antique models have disappeared or have become 
unfamiliar, and more particularly because, Shakespeare, 
Lope and Corneille not having transformed this theme 
or elaborated it with those external complexities de- 
manded by our modern taste, their successors have 
found ih<- First Situation too bare and simple a subject 
for this epoch. As if one idea were necessarily more 
simple than another! as if all those which have since 
launched upon our stage their countless ramifications 
had noi in the beginning shown the same vigorous 
simplicity! 

It is, however, our modern predilection for the com- 
plex which, to my mind, explains the favor now accorded 
to group C alone, wherein by easy means a fourth figure 
i in essence, unfortunately, a somewhat parasitic and 

monotonous one , the Intercessor, is added to the trinity 

of Persecutor, Suppliant and Power. 

Of what variety, nevertheless, is this trinity capable! 

The Persecutor, one or many, voluntary or uncon- 
scious, greedy or revengeful, spreading the subtle net- 



16 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

work of diplomacy, or revealing himself beneath the 
formidable pomp of the greatest contemporary powers; 
the Suppliant, artless or eloquent, virtuous or guilty, 
humble or great; and the Power, neutral or partial to 
one side or the other, perhaps inferior in strength to 
the Persecutor and surrounded by his own kindred who 
fear danger, perhaps deceived by a semblance of right 
and justice, perhaps obliged to sacrifice a high ideal; 
sometimes severely logical, sometimes emotionally sus- 
ceptible, or even overcome by a conversion a la Dos- 
toievsky, and, as a final thunderbolt, abandoning the 
errors which he believed to be truth, if not indeed the 
truth which he believed to be error! 

Nowhere, certainly, can the vicissitudes of power, be 
it arbitral, tyrannical, or overthrown, -- the supersti- 
tions which may accompany doubt and indecision, — on 
the one side the sudden turns of popular opinion, on 
the other the anxiety with which they are awaited, - 
despairs and their resulting blasphemies, - - hope sur- 
viving to the last breath, - - the blind brutality of fate, - 
nowhere can they become so condensed and burst forth 
with such power as in this First Situation, in our day 
ignored. 

France's enthusiastic sympathy for Poland, revived 
during the last half-century; the same sympathy which 
on so many historic occasions she has manifested for 
Scotland and for Ireland, might here find tragic expres- 
sion; that cry of humanity with which a single priest, at 
the massacre of Fourmies, rallied to the Church a frac- 
tion of revolutionary France; the worship of the dead, 
that first, last, most primitive and most indestructible 
form of religious sentiment; the agony which awaits us 
all, agony dragging itself toward the darkness like a 
spent beast; the profoundly humble longing of one whom 
a murder has deprived of all that was dearest to him, 
that pitiable entreaty, on bended knees, which melted 
into tears the savage rancor of Achilles and caused him 
to forget his vow; -- all are here in this First Situation, 
all these strong emotions, and yet others; nowhere else, 
indeed, can they be found in such completeness, — and 
our modern world of art has forgotten this situation! 



SECOND SITUATION 

DELIVERANCE 

(Elements: an Unfortunate, a Threatener, a Rescuer) 

This is, in a way, the converse of the First Situation, 
in which the unfortunate appeals to an undecided power, 
whereas here an unexpected protector, of his own accord, 
comes suddenly to the rescue of the distressed and 
despairing. 

A - - Appearance of a Rescuer to the Condemned: 

The 'Andromedas" of Sophocles, of Euripides and of 
Corneille; "Le Jeu de Saint Nicolas" (Jean Bodel). 
Partial examples: the first act of "Lohengrin;" the third 
act of Voltaire's "Tancred;" the role of the generous 
patron in "Boislaurier" (Richard, 1884). The last 
example and the following show particularly the honor 
of the unfortunate at stake: Daniel and Susanna, and 
various exploits of chivalry. A parody: "Don Quixote." 
A familiar instance: judicial assistance. The denouement 
of "Bluebeard" (here the element of kinship enters, in 
the defense by brothers of their sister, and increases the 
pathos by the most simple of means, forgotten, however, 
by our playwrights). 

B (1) - A Parent Replaced Upon a Throne by his 
Children: "Aegeus" and "Peleus," by Sophocles; 
Euripides' "Antiope." Cases in which the children have 
previously been abandoned arc "Athamas I" and also 
the "Tyro" of Sophocles. (The taste of the future 
author of "(Edipufl at Colonus" for stories in which 
the Child plays the role of deliverer and dispenser of 
justice, forma a bitter enough contrast to the fate which 
awaited the poet himself in his old age.) 

(2) Rescue by Friends, or by Strangers Grateful 
for Benefits or Hospitality: Sophocles' "(Eneus," 

17 



18 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

"Iolas" and "Phineus." A partial example: the second 
part of Euripides' "Alceste." Example in comedy: 
Musset's "Fantasio." Example in which protection is 
accorded by the host who has granted asylum: Euripides' 
"Dictys." ' 

We see, by a glance over these subdivisions, what our 
writers might have drawn from the second of the Situ- 
ations. For us, indeed, it should possess some little 
attraction, if only for the reason that two thousand 
years ago humanity once more listened to this story 
of the Deliverer, and since then has so suffered, loved 
and wept for the sake of it. This situation is also the 
basis of Chivalry, that original and individual heroism 
of the Middle Ages; and, in a national sense, of the 
French Revolution. Despite all this, in art, — if we 
except the burlesque of Cervantes, and the transplendent 
light flashing from the silver armor of Lohengrin, — in 
art, as yet, it is hardly dreamed of. 



THIRD SITUATION 
CRIME PURSUED BY VENGEANCE 

(Elements: an Avenger and a Criminal) 

Vengeance is a joy divine, says the Arab; and such 
indeed it seems to have frequently been, to the God of 
Israel. The two Homeric poems both end with an 
intoxicating vengeance, as does the characteristic Orien- 
tal legend of the Pandavas; while to the Latin and 
Spanish races the most satisfying of spectacles is still 
that of an individual capable of executing a legitimate, 
although illegal, justice. So much goes to prove that 
even twenty centuries of Christianity, following five 
centuries of Socratic philosophy, have not sufficed to 
remove Vengeance from its pedestal of honor, and to sub- 
stitute thereon Pardon. And Pardon itself, even though 
sincere, - what is it but the subtile quintessence of 
vengeance upon earth, and at the same time the claim- 
ing of a Borl of wergild from Heaven? 

A 1 The Avenging of a Slain Parent or Ances- 
tor: "The Singer," an anonymous Chinese drama; 
'The Tunic Confronted" (of the courtesan Tchang- 
koue-pin); 'The Arrives" and "The Epigones" of 

Aeschylus; Sophocles' "Aletes and Krigone;" "The 
Two Foscari," by Byron; Werner's "Attila;" "Le Crime 
de Maison-Alfort" (Coedes, L881); "Le Maquignon" 
(Josz and Dumur, l!»o:{i. in the last three cases, as 

well as in the following one, the vengeance is accom- 
plished not by a son, but by a daughter. Example 



20 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

from fiction: Merimee's "Colomba." Familiar instances: 
the majority of vendettas. "Le Pretre" (Buet, 1881) 
presents especially the psychologic struggle between 
pardon and vengeance. Example of the avenging of 
a father driven to suicide: "L'Or" (Peter and Danceny, 
1908). 

(2) The Avenging of a Slain Child or Descen- 
dant: -- Sophocles' "Nauplius;" a part of "Sainte- 
Helene" (Mme. Severine, 1902); the end of Euripides' 
"Hecuba." Epic example: Neptune's pursuit of Ulysses 
because of the blinding of Polyphemus. 

(3) - Vengeance for a Child Dishonored: — "El 

Mejor Alcalde el Rey," by Lope de Vega; "The Alcalde of 
Zalamea," by Calderon. Historic example: the death 
of Lucrece. 

(4) - The Avenging of a Slain Wife or Husband: 
-Carneille's "Pompee;" "L'Idiot" (de Lorde, 1903). 

Contemporary instance: the trials of Mme. Veuve 
Barreme. 

(5) — Vengeance for the Dishonor, or Attempted 
Dishonoring, of a Wife: The "Ixion " of Aeschylus, 
of Sophocles and of Euripides; "The Perrhoebides" of 
Aeschylus; "Les Revolted" (Cain and Adenis, 1908). 
Historic example: the priest of Ephraim. Similar cases, 
in which the wife has only been insulted: "Venisamhara," 
by Bhatta Narayana; "The Sons of Pandou," by Rajasek- 
hara. Familiar instances: a large number of duels. 

(6) - Vengeance for a Mistress Slain:- "Love 
after Death," by Caleron; "Amhra" (Grangeneuve, 
1882); "Simon the Foundling" (Jonathan, 1882). 

(7) - Vengeance for a Slain or Injured Friend: - 

"The Nereids" of Aeschylus. A contemporary instance: 
Ravachol. Case in which the vengeance is perpetrated 
upon the mistress of the avenger: "La Casserole" 
(M&enier, 1889). 

(8) - Vengeance for a Sister Seduced: -- Goethe's 
"Clavijo;" "Les Bouchers" (Icres, 1888); "La Casquette 
au Pere Bugeaud" (Marot, 1886). Examples from 
fiction: "La Kermesse Rouge," in Eekhoud's collec- 
tion, and the end of Bourget's "Disciple." 



THIRD SITUATION 21 

B (1) - - Vengeance for Intentional Injury or Spo- 
liation: — Shakespeare's "Tempest." Contemporary in- 
stance: Bismarck in his retirement at Varzin. 

(2) - - Vengeance for Having Been Despoiled Dur- 
ing Absence: -- "Les Joueurs d'Osselets" and "Pene- 
lope," by Aeschylus; "The Feast of the Achaeans," by 
Sophocles. 

(3) Revenge for an Attempted Slaying: --"The 
Anger of Te-oun-go," by Kouan-han-king. A similar 
case involving at the same time the saving of a loved 
one by a judicial error: "La Cellule No. 7" (Zaccone, 
1881). 

(4) - - Revenge for a False Accusation: The 
"Phrixus" of Sophocles and of Euripides; Dumas' 
"Monte-Cristo;" "La Declassee" (Delahaye, 1883); 
"Roger-la-Honte" (Mary, 1881). 

(5) - Vengeance for Violation: — Sophocles' 
"Tereus;" "The Courtesan of Corinth" (Carre" and 
Bilhaud, 1908); "The Cenci," by Shelley (parricide as 
the punishment of incest). 

(6) Vengeance for Having Been Robbed of Ones 
Own : - "The Merchant of Venice," and partly "William 
Tell." 

i Revenge Upon a Whole Sex for a Deception 

by One:- ".luck the Ripper" (Bertrand and Clairian, 

the fatal heroines of the typical plays of the 

tond Empire, "L'Etrangere," etc. A ease appertain- 
ing also to class A: the motive (an improbable one) of 
the corruptress in "Poss^de*," by Lemonnier. 

We here encounter for the first time that grimacing 
personage who forms the keystone of all drama dark 
and mysterious, the "villain." About the beginning 
of our Third Situation we mighl evoke him at every 
Btep, this villain and his profound schemes which not 
infrequently make us smile. Don Salluste in "liuy- 

I'.la.-," [ago in "Othello," Guanhumara in "Burgraves," 
Homodei in "Angelo," Mahomet in the tragedy of thai 
name. Leontine in "Heraclius," Maxime in "La Tragedie 
de Yalentinien," Emire in "Siroes," Ulysses in "Pala- 

medes." 



22 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

C — Professional Pursuit of Criminals (the coun- 
terpart of which will be found in the Fifth Situation, 
Class A): - - "Sherlock Holmes" (Conan Doyle); "Vidocq" 
(Bergerat, 1910); "Nick Carter" (Busson and Livet, 
1910). 

Frequently used though this situation has been in 
our day, many an ancient case awaits its rejuvenes- 
cence, many a gap is yet to be filled. Indeed, among 
the bonds which may unite avenger and victim, more 
than one degree of relationship has been omitted, as 
well as the majority of social and business ties. The 
list of wrongs which might provoke reprisal is far from 
being exhausted, as we may assure ourselves by enum- 
erating the kinds of offenses possible against persons 
or property, the varying shades of opinion of opposing 
parties, the different ways in which an insult may take 
effect, and how many and what sort of relationships 
may exist between Avenger and Criminal. And these 
questions concern merely the premises of the action. 

To this we may add all the turns and bearings, slow 
or instantaneous, direct or tortuous, frantic or sure, 
which punishment can take, the thousand resources 
which it offers, the points at which it may aim in its 
deadly course, the obstacles which chance or the defen- 
dant may present. Next introduce various secondary 
figures, each pursuing his own aims, as in life, intercross- 
ing each other and crossing the drama -and I have 
sufficient esteem for the reader's capabilities to develop 
the subject no further. 



FOURTH SITUATION 

VENGEANCE TAKEN FOR KINDRED UPON 

KINDRED 

(Elements: Avenging Kinsman; Guilty Kinsman; 
Remembrance of the Victim, a Relative of Both.) 

Augmenting the horror of Situation XXVII ("Dis- 
covery of the Dishonor of Ones Kindred") by the rough 
vigor of Situation III, we create the present action, 
which confines itself to family life, making of it a worse 
hell than the dungeon of Poe's "Pit and the Pendulum." 
The horror of it is such that the terrified spectators 
dare not intervene; they seem to be witnessing at a 
distance some demoniac scene silhouetted in a flaming 
hou 

Neither, it seems, do our dramatists dare intervene 

to modify the Greek tragedy, - sueh as it is after thirty 
appalling centuries. 

For us it is easy to compute, from the height of our 
"platform' to use (lozxi's word the infinite varia- 
tions possible to this theme, by multiplying the com- 
binations which we have just found in the Third Situa- 
tion, by those which the Twenty-seventh will give us. 

Other germs of fertility will be found in turn in the 

circumstances which have determined the avenger's 

action. These may be a spontaneous desire on his 
own part the simplest motive i; the wish of the dying 

victim, or of the spirit of the dead mysteriously appear- 

23 



24 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

ing to the living; an imprudent promise; a professional 
duty (as when the avenger is a magistrate, etc.); the 
necessity of saving other relatives or a beloved one 
(thus did Talien avenge the Dantonists) or even fellow- 
citizens; ignorance of the kinship which exists between 
Avenger and Criminal. There yet remains that case 
in which the Avenger strikes without having recog- 
nized the Criminal (in a dark room, I suppose); the 
case in which the act of intended vengeance is but the 
result of an error, the supposedly guilty kinsman being 
found innocent, and his pseudo-executioner discovering 
that he has but made of himself a detestable criminal. 

A (1) — A Father's Death Avenged Upon a Mother; 

-"The Choephores" of Aeschylus; the "Electras" of 
Sophocles, Euripides, Attilius, Q. Cicero, Pradon, Longe- 
pierre, Cr£billon, Rochefort, Ch£nier, and of Guillard's 
opera; the "Orestes" of Voltaire and of Alfieri; Sophocles' 
"Epigones;" the "Eriphyles" of Sophocles and of Vol- 
taire; and lastly "Hamlet," in which we recognize so 
clearly the method by which the poet rejuvenates his 
subjects, — by an almost antithetic change of char- 
acters and of milieu. 

(2) — A Mother Avenged Upon a Father: — "Zoe 
Chien-Chien" (Matthey, 1881), in which the parricide 
is counterbalanced by an incestuous passion, and is 
committed by the daughter, not by the son. 

B — A Brother's Death Avenged Upon a Son (but 
without premeditation, this accordingly falling almost 
into the situation "Imprudence"): — Aeschylus' "Ata- 
lanta" and Sophocles' "Meleager." 

C -- A Father's Death Avenged Upon a Husband: 

— "Rosmunde" (Rucellai). 

D — A Husband's Death Avenged Upon a Father: 

— "Orbecche" by Giraldi. 

Thus, of twenty-two works, eighteen are in the same 
class, seventeen in the same sub-class, thirteen upon 
the same subject; — four classes and one sub-class 
altogether. Let us, for the moment, amuse ourselves 
by counting some of those which have been forgotten. 



FOURTH SITUATION 25 

A father's death avenged upon the brother of the 
avenger. Upon his sister. Upon his mistress (or, in the 
case of a feminine avenger, upon her lover, for each of 
the cases enumerated has its double, according to the 
sex of the avenger). Upon his wife. Upon his son. 
Upon his daughter. Upon his paternal uncle. Upon 
his maternal uncle. Upon his paternal or maternal 
grandfather; his paternal or maternal grandmother. 
Upon half-brother or half-sister. Upon a person allied 
by marriage (brother-in-law, sister-in-law, etc.) or a 
cousin. These numerous variations may of course be 
successively repeated for each case : - - the avenging of a 
brother, a sister, a husband, a son, a grandfather, and 
so on. 

By way of variety, the vengeance may be carried out, 
not upon the person of the criminal himself, but upon 
some one dear to him (thus Medea and Atreus struck 
Jason and Thyestes through their children), and even 
inanimate objects may take the place of victims. 



FIFTH SITUATION 

PURSUIT 

(Elements: Punishment and Fugitive) 

As the Second Situation was the converse of the First, 
so this situation of Pursuit represents a transition into 
the passive of the Third and Fourth, and, in fact, of all 
those in which danger pursues a character. There 
remains, however, a distinction; in Pursuit the avenging 
elements hold second place, or perhaps not even that; 
it may be, indeed, quite invisible and abstract. Our 
interest is held by the fugitive alone; sometimes inno- 
cent, always excusable, for the fault — if there was 
one --appears to have been inevitable, ordained; we 
do not inquire into it or blame it, which would be idle, 
but sympathetically suffer the consequences with our 
hero, who, whatever he may once have been, is now but 
a fellow-man in danger. We recall that truth which 
Goethe once flung in the face of hypocrisy; that, each 
one of us having within him the potentiality for all the 
crimes, there is not one which it is impossible to imagine 
ourselves committing, under certain circumstances. In 
this Situation we feel ourselves, so to speak, accom- 
plices in even the worst of slayings. Which may be 
explained by the reflection that along our various lines 
of heredity many such crimes might be found, and our 
present virtuousness may mean simply an immunity 
from criminal tendencies which we have gained by the 
experience of our ancestors. If this be the case, heredity 

26 



FIFTH SITUATION 27 

and environment, far from being oppressive fatalities, 
become the germs of wisdom, which, satiety being reached, 
will triumph. This is why genius (not that of neurosis, 
but of the more uncommon mastery of neurosis) appears 
especially in families which have transmitted to it a 
wide experience of folly. 

Through drama, then, we are enabled to gain our 
experience of error and catastrophe in a less costly way; 
by means of it we evoke vividly the innumerable memo- 
ries which are sleeping in our blood, that we may purify 
ourselves of them by force of repetition, and accustom 
our dark souls to their own reflections. Like music, 
it will in the end "refine our manners" and dower us 
with the power of self-control, basis of all virtue. 
Nothing is more moral in effect than immorality in 
literature. 

The sense of isolation which characterizes Situation 
V gives a singular unity to the action, and a clear field 
for psychologic observation, which need not be lessened 
by diversity of scenes and events. 

A Fugitives From Justice Pursued For Brigan- 
dage, Political Offenses, Etc.:- "Louis Perez of 
Galicia" and "Devotion to the Cross," both by Calderon; 
the beginning of the mediaeval Miracle "Robert-le- 
Diable;" "The Brigands" by Schiller; "Raffles" (Hornung, 
L907). Historical examples: the proscription of the 
Conventionnels; the Duchesse de Berry. Examples 
from fiction: "Rocambole" by Gaboriau; "Arsene Lupin" 
Leblanc). Familiar instances: police news. Example 
in comedy: "Compere le Renard" Polti, L905 ■ 

B Pursued For a Fault of love: Unjustly. 
"Indigne!" Barbier, L884); more justly, Moliere's "Don 

Juan" and Comeille's "Festin de Pierre," (nol to speak 
of various works of Tirso de Molina, Telle/., Yilliers, 
Sadwell, Zamora, Goldoni, Grabbe, Zorilla, Dumas 
pei«- ; -. ery justly, "Ajax of Locris," by Sophocles. 
Familiar instances run all the way from the forced 
marriage of seducers to arrests for sidewalk flirtations. 

C \ Hero Struggling V&ainsl .1 Power: ^eschy- 
"Prometheus Bound;" Sophoclt "Laocoon;" the 



28 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

role of Porus in Racine's and also in Metastasio's "Alex- 
andre;" Corneille's "Nicomede;" Goethe's "Goetz von 
Berlichingen" and a part of "Egmont;" Metastasio's 
"Cato;" Manzoni's "Adelghis" and a part of his "Count 
of Carmagnola;" the death of Hector in Shakespeare's 
"Troilus and Cressida;" "Nana-Sahib" (Richepin, 1883); 
"Edith" (Bois, 1885); the tetralogy of the "Nibelungen;" 
"An Enemy of the People" (Ibsen); "Le Roi sans 
Couronne" (de Bouhtfier, 1909). 

D--A Pseudo-Madman Struggling Against an 
Iago-Like Alienist: -- "La Vicomtesse Alice" (Second 
1882). 



SIXTH SITUATION 

DISASTER 

(Elements: a Vanquished Power; a Victorious Enemy 

or a Messenger) 

Fear, catastrophe, the unforeseen; a great reversal of 
roles; the powerful are overthrown, the weak exalted. 
Here is the oft-recurring refrain of the Biblical books, 
here the immortal echoes of .the fall of Troy, at which 
we still pale as though with a presentiment. 

A (1)- Defeat Suffered: -"The Myrmidons" and 
"The Persians" of Aeschylus; "The Shepherds" of 
Sophocles. Example from fiction: "La Debacle," by 
Zola. History is made up of repetitions of this story. 

2 A Fatherland Destroyed: The "Xoane- 
phores" of Sophocles; Byron's "Sardanapalus" (this 
corresponds also to Class B, and toward the denouement 
recalls the Fifth Situation). Examples from history: 
Poland; the greal Invasions. Prom romance: "The 
War of the Worlds" (Wells). 

3 The Fall of Humanity: The Mystery of 
"Adam" twelfth century ■ 

1 \ Natural Catastrophe: 'Terre d'Epou- 

vante" de Lorde and Morel, L907). 

B A Monarch Overthrown (the converse of the 
Eighth): Shakespeare's "Henry VI" and "Richard 

II." Historic instances: Charle8 I, Louis XVI, Napo- 
leon, etc.; and, substituting other authorities than kings, 

Colomb, de Lesseps, and all disgraced ministers. Ex- 
amples from fiction: the end of "Tart;irin." "l/Ar^ent." 

"Cesar Birotteau." 

29 



30 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

C (1) Ingratitude Suffered (of all the blows of 
misfortune, this is perhaps the most poignant):- 
Euripides' "Archelaus" (excepting the denouement, in 
which the action is reversed); Shakespeare's "Timon 
of Athens" and "King Lear," and the beginning of his 
"Coriolanus;" Byron's "Marino Faliero;" a part of 
'The Count of Carmagnola," by Manzoni. Bismarck's 
dismissal by the young Emperor William. The martyrs, 
the many instances of devotion and sacrifice unappre- 
ciated by those who have benefited by it, the most 
glorious of deaths shine against this dark background; 
Socrates and the Passion are but the most celebrated 
examples. "Le Reformateur" (Rod, 1906). 

2 The Suffering of Unjust Punishment or 
Enmity (this corresponds in some degree to the 
"Judicial Errors") :-- Sophocles' "Teucer;" Aeschylus' 
"Salaminiae." 

(3) -An Outrage Suff ered : - - the first act of "The 
Cid;" the first act of "Lucrece Borgia." The "point of 
honor" offers better material than these simple episodes. 
We may imagine some more sensitive Voltaire, reduced 
by his persecutions to helplessness and to the point 
of dying in despair. 

D (1) - - Abandonment by a Lover or a Husband: 
- "Faust;" Corneille's "Ariane;" the beginning of the 
"Medeas;" "Maternite" (Brieux, 1903). 

(2) - - Children Lost by Their Parents: - "Le Petit 
Poucet." 

If classes B, C and D, which are concerned with the 
fate of individuals, have been so much less developed 
than they might easily have been, what shall be said 
of the case of social disasters, such as Class A? Shake- 
speare did not tread far enough upon that majestic way. 
Only among the Greeks has a work of this kind pre- 
sented at one stroke that conception of human events, 
sublime, fatalistic and poetic, of which Herodotus was 
one day to create history. 



SEVENTH SITUATION 
FALLING PREY TO CRUELTY OR MISFORTUNE 



(Elements: an Unfortunate; a Master or a 
Misfortune) 

To infinite sorrow there is no limit. Beneath that 
which seems the final depth of misfortune, there may 
open another yet more frightful. A ferocious and 
deliberate dissection of the heart it seems, this Seventh 
Situation, - that of pessimism par excellence. 

A The Innocent Made the Yictum of Ambitious 
Intrigue: "The Princess Maleine" (Maeterlinck i ; 
"The Natural Daughter," by Goethe; "Les Deux 
Jumeaux," by Huk<>- 

B - The Innocent Despoiled by Those Who Should 
Protect: "The Guests and the beginning of the 
"Joueurs d'Osselets," by Aeschylus (al the firel vibra- 
tion of the great bow in the hands of the unknown Beg- 
gar, what a breath of hope we drawl); "Lea Corbeaux" 
by Becque; "Le Roi de Rome" (Pouvillom; "L'Aijjlon" 

Rostand ; "La Croisade des Enfanteleta Francs" 

ErnauH . 

C 1 The Powerful Dispossessed and Wretched: 

The beginning of Sophocles' and of Euripides' "Peleus;" 
of "Prometheus Bound;" of "Job." Laertes in his 
garden. Example iron, comedy: "Le Jeu de la Feuillee" 
Adam de la Halle . 

\ Favorite or an Intimate Finds Himself 
Forgotten : "En I >&re e" Fevre, L890 

81 



32 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

D - The Unfortunate Robbed of Their Only 
Hope: "The Blind" by Maeterlinck; "Beethoven" 
(Fauchois, 1909); "Rembrandt" (Dumur and Josz). 

And how many cases yet remain! The Jews in cap- 
tivity, slavery in America, the horrors of the Hundred 
Years' War, invaded ghettos, scenes such as draw the 
crowd to any reproduction of prison life or of Inquisition, 
the attraction of Dante's Inferno, of Pellico's "Prisons," 
the transporting bitterness of Gautama, of Ecclesiastes, 
of Schopenhauer! 



EIGHTH SITUATION 
REVOLT 

(Elements: Tyrant and Conspirator) 

As already observed, this situation is, in a measure, 
the converse of Class B of Situation VI. 

Intrigue, so dear to the public of the past three cen- 
turies, is obviously supplied by the very nature of the 
subject we are now to consider. But, by some strange 
chance, it has, on the contrary, always been treated 
with the most open candor and simplicity. One or two 
vicissitudes, a few surprises all too easily foreseen and 
extending uniformly to all the personages of the play, 
and there we have the conditions which have almost 
invariably been attached to this action, so propitious, 
nevertheless, to doubts, to equivocation, to a twilight 
whose vague incertitude prepares the dawn of revolt 
and of liberty. 

A 1 A Conspiracy Chiefly of One Individual: 

'The Conspiracy "i Fiesco," by Schiller; Corneille's 
"Cinna;" to some extent the "Catilina" of Voltaire 
this tragedy belongs father to the Thirtieth Situa- 
tion. "Ambition" ; "Thermidor;" "The Conspiracy of 
General Malet" Auri de Lassus, L889) ; "Le Grand 
Soir" Kampf); "Le Etoi sans Royaume (Decourcelle, 
L909 : "Lorenzaccio" Mussel . 

_: \ Conspiracy of Several: The Conspiracy 

of the Pazzi" by Alfieri;" Le Roman* d'une Conspiration 1 

by Fournier and Carre*, after the story of Kan. ; 



34 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

"Madame Margot" (Moreau and Clairville, 1909); and, 
in comedy, "Chantecler" (Rostand, 1910) with its 
parody "Rosse, tant et plus" (Mustiere, 1910). 

B (1) - ■ Revolt of One Individual, Who Influences 
and Involves Others: -- Goethe's "Egmont;" "Jacques 
Bonhomme" (Maujan, 1886); "La Mission de Jeanne 
d'Arc" (Dalliere, 1888). Example from fiction: "Sal- 
ammbo." From history: Solon feigning madness. 

(2) - - A Revolt of Many: - - "Fontovejune," by Lope 
de Vega; Schiller's "William Tell;" Zola's "Germinal;" 
"The Weavers of Silesia," by Hauptmann (forbidden in 
1893 with the approval of a Parliament soon afterward 
dissolved); "L'Automne," by Paul Adam and Gabriel 
Mourey (forbidden in 1893 with the approval of another 
Parliament shortly before its dissolution); "L'Arm^e 
dans la Ville" (Jules Romain, 1911): "The Fourteenth 
of July" (Roland, 1902). From fiction: a part of the 
"Fortunes des Rougon" by Zola. From history; the 
taking of the Bastile, and numerous disturbances of the 
same period. 

This species of action, particularly in modern scenes, 
has given fine virile dramas to England, Spain, Italy 
and Germany; of a forceful and authoritative char- 
acter in the two first countries, of a youthful enthusi- 
astic type in the two last. France, most certainly, 
would seem of all countries the most likely to under- 
stand and express such emotions. 

But. . "Thermidor" was prohibited "for fear" 

it might offend the friends (centenarians apparently) 
of Maximilian; "Le Pater" "for fear" it might be dis- 
pleasing to Communists; Zola's "Germinal" and 
"L'Automne" by Adam and Mourey (two works painted 
in widely different colors, as the titles sufficiently indi- 
cate) were stopped "for fear" of the objections of a few 
conservatives; "Other People's Money" by Hennique, 
"for fear" of shocking certain financiers who have since 
been put behind bars; "Lohengrin " (although the sub- 
ject is Celtic) was long forbidden "for fear" of irritating 
a half-dozen illiterate French chauvinists; an infinite 
number of other plays "for fear" of annoying Germany 



EIGHTH SITUATION 35 

(or our parlor diplomats who talk of it) . . . . Yet 
others "for fear" of vexing the Grand Turk! 

Is it possible, notwithstanding all this, to find a single 
instance in which a dramatic production has brought 
about a national calamity such as our censors fear? 
The pretext is no more sincere than are those urged for 
excluding from the theater any frank and truthful repre- 
sentations of love. A rule against admitting children 
should be sufficient to satisfy modesty on this point; 
even that is little needed, since children unaccompanied 
by their elders rarely apply for admission. 

Our sentimental bourgeoisie apparently holds to the 
eighteenth-century opinion that it is more dangerous 
to listen to these things in public than to read of them 
in private. For our dramatic art --which, be it noted, 
has remained, despite its decline, the one great unrivalled 
means of propagating French thought throughout 
Europe has been forbidden, little by little, to touch 
directly upon theology, politics, sociology, upon criminals 
or crimes, excepting (and pray why this exception?) 
adultery, upon which subject our theater, to its great 
misfortune, now lives, at least two days out of three. 

The ancients had a saying that a man enslaved loses 
half his soul. A dramatist is a man. 



NINTH SITUATION 

DARING ENTERPRISE 
(A Bold Leader; an Object; an Adversary) 

The Conflict, which forms the framework of all dra- 
matic situations, is, in the Ninth, clearly drawn, undis- 
guised. A clever plan, a bold attempt, sangfroid, - 
and victory! 

A - Preparations For War:- (In this class, as 
anciently treated, the action stops before the denoue- 
ment, which it leaves to be imagined, in the perspective 
of enthusiastic prediction). Examples: — Aeschylus' 
"Nemea;" "The Council of the Argives" by Sophocles. 
Historic examples: the call to the Crusades; the Vol. 
unteers of '92. 

B (1) - - War: --Shakespeare's "Henry V." 

(2)-- A Combat: - "Glaucus Pontius," "Memnon," 
"Phineus" and "The Phorcides" of Aeschylus. 

C (1) --Carrying Off a Desired Person or Object: 

-the "Prometheus" of Aeschylus; the "Laconian 

Women," by Sophocles. From fiction: the taking of 

the Zaimph in "Salammbo." Epic example: the second 

Homeric hymn (to Hermes). 

(2) - Recapture of a Desired Object: - "The Vic- 
tory of Arjuna," by Cantchana Atcharya; Wagner's "Par- 
sifal;" the re-taking of the Zaimph. 

D (1) - - Adventurous Expeditions: Lope's "Dis- 
covery of the New World;" Aeschylus' "Prometheus 
Unbound;" Euripides' "Theseus;" Sophocles' "Sinon;" 

36 



NINTH SITUATION 37 

the "Rhesus" attributed to Euripides. Examples from 
romance: the usual exploits of the heroes of fairy tales; 
the Labors of Hercules; the majority of Jules Verne's 
stories. 

(2) - Adventure Undertaken for the Purpose of 
Obtaining a Beloved Woman: -- Sophocles' and Euri- 
pides' "(Enomaus." From fiction: "Toilers of the Sea." 
For the purpose of saving the honor of a lover: "La 
Petite Caporale" (Darlay and de Gorsse, 1909). 

The Ninth Situation thus summarizes the poetry of 
war, of robbery, of surprise, of desperate chance, - - the 
poetry of the clear-eyed adventurer, of man beyond the 
restraints of artificial civilizations, of Man in the origi- 
nal acceptation of the term. We find, nevertheless, 
hardly a single French work in this class! 

Lest the reader be wearied, I refrain from enumerat- 
ing, under these classes so lightly touched upon, many 
of the plots and complications which might be evolved 
from them. Methods of tracking the human game - 
bandit or hero, the forces conspiring for his disaster, 
the conditions which make him the victim of his masters, 
the ways in which revoll may arise, the alternatives of 
the struggle in a "daring enterprise," certainly would 
appear to be mure complex today than in earlier ages; 
moreover, upon these themes parts borrowed from other 
situation.- may be engrafted with remarkable ease. Even 
if we desire to preserve to the said themes their archaic 

severity, how much may yet be drawn from them! In 
how many waj . to cite hut one example, might an 
Adventurous Expedition be changed by varying the 
motives or the object of the enterprise, the nature of 
ihe obstacles, the qualities of the hero, and the previous 
bearings Of the three indispensable elements of the 
drama! "Adventurous Tra have hardly been 

touched up<.n. And how man} other classes are there 

which have not been! 



TENTH SITUATION 

ABDUCTION 

(The Abductor; the Abducted; the Guardian) 

Or, the Great Bourgeois Romance! Was it not thus 
that Moliere used to put an end to his comedies, when 
he judged that the moment had arrived for sending 
his audience home satisfied? Sometimes he substi- 
tuted a treasure-box for a girl, as in "Tartuffe," or 
arranged an exchange of the one for the other, as in 
"L'Avare." 

We find in ABDUCTION one of the situations bear- 
ing upon Rivalry, and in which Jealousy appears, 
although not painted with so superb a coloring as in the 
Twenty-fourth. 

In two of the following classes (B and C) we may 
remark the intrusion of the situations 'Adultery" and 
"Recovery of a Lost Loved One." The same usage is 
quite possible in almost all the other situations. I 
would point out to those who may be interested in a 
more detailed analysis, that love is not necessarily the 
motive of Abduction (in Class D will be found friend- 
ship, faith, etc.) nor the reason of the obstacles raised 
by the guardian. 

A — Abduction of an Unwilling Woman: — 
Aeschylus' and Sophocles' "Orithyies;" Aeschylus' 
"Europa" and "The Carians." "With Fire and Sword" 
(after Sienkiewicz, 1904). Comedy: "Le Jeu de Robin 
et de Marion" (Adam de la Halle). Historic and legen- 
dary : the Sabine women ; Cassandra. There appears to 
me to be tragic material in cases of extreme eroticism, of 
premeditated violation preceded by a mania of passion 

38 



TENTH SITUATION 39 

and its resulting state of overexcitation, and followed 
by the murder of the outraged victim, by regrets before 
the beautiful corpse, by the repugnant work of dis- 
memberment or concealment of the body; then by a 
disgust for life and by successive blunders which lead 
to the discovery of the criminal. 

B - Abduction of a Consenting Woman: — "The 
Abduction of Helen" by Sophocles, and the comedy of 
the same mane but not upon the same subject, by Lope. 
Numberless other comedies and romances. 

C (1) - - Recapture of the Woman Without the 
Slaying of the Abductor: Euripides' "Helen;" 
"Malati and Madhava," by Bhavabhuti (the poet "of 
voice divine"). Rescue of a sister: "Iphigenia in Tauris." 

(2) -The Same Case, With the Slaying of the 
Ravisher: - - "Mahaviraeharita," by Bhavabhuti; "Han- 
ouman" a collaborative work); "Anarghara-ghava" 
(anonymous); "The Message of Angada," by Soubhata; 
"Abhirama Mani," by Soundara Misra; "Hermione" by 
Sophocles. 

D (1)- Rescue of a Captive Friend:- "Richard 
Coeur-ae-Lion," by Sedaine and (Iretry. A great num- 
ber of escapes, historic and fictitious. 

2 -Of a Child:- "L'Homme de Proie" (Lefevre 
and Laporte, L908). 

Of a Soul in Captivity to Krror: T.arlaam 
and Josaphat," a fourteenth-century Miracle. The deeds 
of the Apostles, of missionaries, etc. 



ELEVENTH SITUATION 
THE ENIGMA 

(Interrogator, Seeker and Problem) 

This situation possesses theatrical interest par excel- 
lence, since the spectator, his curiosity aroused by the 
problem, easily becomes so absorbed as to fancy it is 
himself who is actually solving it. A combat of the 
intelligence with opposing wills, the Eleventh Situa- 
tion may be fitly symbolized by an interrogation point. 

A - Search for a Person Who Must be Found on 
Pain of Death: - Sophocles' and Euripides' "Polyidus." 
Case without this danger, in which an object, not a 
person, is sought: Poe's "Purloined Letter." 

B (1) - - A Riddle to be Solved on Pain of Death: 

- "The Sphinx" of Aeschylus. Example from fiction 
(without the danger): "The Gold Bug" by Poe. 

(2) The Same Case, in Which the Riddle is Pro- 
posed by the Coveted Woman: - - Partial example: the 
beginning of Shakespeare's "Pericles." Example from 
fiction: "The Travelling Companion," by Andersen. 
Epic example (but without the danger): the Queen of 
Sheba and Solomon. Partial example: Portia's coffers, 
in "The Merchant of Venice." 

The sort of contest, preliminary to the possession of 
a desired one, which is vaguely sketched in this episode, 
is singularly alluring in its suggestive analogues. But 
how many fibres, ready to thrill, will the perplexities 
of the love contest find in us, when they are raised to 

40 



ELEVENTH SITUATION 41 

their third power by the introduction of the terrible, 
as in the one complete and pure example which we 
have, --the "Turandot" of the incomparable Gozzi; a 
work passionately admired, translated, produced and 
rendered famous in Germany by Schiller; a work which 
has for a century been regarded as a classic by all the 
world, although it remains little known in France. 

The effect of B (2) is strengthened and augmented 
in cases in which the hero is subjected to the following: 

C (1 Temptations Offered With the Object of 
Discovering His Name. 

Temptations Offered With the Object of 
Ascertaining the Sex: "The Scyrian Women" of 
Sophocles and of Euripides. 

Tests For the Purpose of Ascertaining the 
Mental Condition: "Ulysses Purens" of Sophocles; 
"The Palamedes" of Aeschylus and of Euripides (accord- 
ing to the themes attributed i<> these lost works). Exam- 
inations of criminals by alienists. 



TWELFTH SITUATION 

OBTAINING 

(A Solicitor and an Adversary Who Is Refusing, or 
an Arbitrator and Opposing Parties) 

Diplomacy and eloquence here come into play. An 
end is to be attained, an object to be gained. What 
interests may not be put at stake, what weighty argu- 
ments or influences removed, what intermediaries or 
disguises may be used to transform anger into benevo- 
lence, rancor into renouncement; to put the Despoiler 
in the place of the Despoiled? What mines may be 
sprung, what counter-mines discovered ! - - what unex- 
pected revolts of submissive instruments! This dialectic 
contest which arises between reason and passion, some- 
times subtile and persuasive, sometimes forceful and 
violent, provides a fine situation, as natural as it is 
original. 

A Efforts to Obtain an Object by Ruse or Force: 

- the "Philoctetes" of Aeschylus, of Sophocles and of 
Euripides; the reclamation of the Thebans in "CEdipus 
at Colonus;" "The Minister's Ring," by Vishakadatta. 

B - Endeavor by Means of Persuasive Eloquence 
Alone: - - "The Desert Isle," by Metastasio; the father's 
attitude in "Le Fils Naturel" (Dumas), to which Ruse 
is soon afterward added; Scene 2 of Act V of Shake- 
speare's "Coriolanus." 

C Eloquence With an Arbitrator: — "The Judg- 
ment of Arms," by Aeschylus; "Helen Reclaimed," by 
Sophocles. 

42 



TWELFTH SITUATION 43 

One of the cases unused in the theater, notwithstand- 
ing its frequency, is Temptation, already introduced 
as a part of the preceding situation. The irritated 
adversary is here the Defiant; the solicitor, now the 
Tempter, has undertaken an unusual negotiation, one 
for the obtaining of an object which nothing can per- 
suade the owner to part with; consequently the aim 
must be, gently, little by little, to bewilder, charm or 
stupefy him. Eternal role of woman toward man! 
— and of how many things toward the project of being 
a man! Does it not call to mind the hieratic attitude 
of the Christian toward Satan, as Flaubert has illuminated 
it, with a thousand sparkling lights, in his "Temptation 
of Saint Anthony?" 



THIRTEENTH SITUATION 

ENMITY OF KINSMEN 

(Elements: a Malevolent Kinsman; a Hated or 
Reciprocally Hating Kinsman) 

Antithesis,* which constituted for Hugo the gener- 
ative principle of art, - dramatic art in particular,- 
and which naturally results from the idea of Conflict 
which is the basis of drama, offers one of the most symme- 
trical of schemes in these contrasting emotions. "Hatred 
of one who should be loved," of which the worthy pen- 
dant is the Twenty-Ninth, "Love of one who should 
be hated." Such confluents necessarily give rise to 
stormy action. 

It is easy to foresee the following laws: 

First: The more closely are drawn the bonds which 
unite kinsmen at enmity, the more savage and danger- 
ous their outbursts of hate are rendered. 

Second: When the hatred is mutual, it will better 
characterize our Situation than when it exists upon 
one side only, in which case one of the relatives becomes 
Tyrant and the other Victim, the ensemble resulting 
in Situations V, VII, VIII, XXX, etc. 

Third: The great difficulty will be to find and to 
represent convincingly an element of discord powerful 
enough to cause the breaking of the strongest human 
ties. 

*Antithesis: An opposition or contrast of words or ideas espe- 
cially one emphasized by the positions of contrasting words, as 
when placed at the beginning or end of a single sentence or clause, 
or, in corresponding positions in two or more sentences or clauses. 
(Measures, not men. The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs 
himself.) Here the reference, of course, is to ideas. 

44 



THIRTEENTH SITUATION 45 

A - - Hatred of Brothers: (1) - - One Brother Hated 
by Several (the hatred not malignant': "The Heliades" 
of Aeschylus (motive, envy); "The Labors of Jacob," by 
Lope de Vega (motive, filial jealousy). Hated by a 
single brother: The "Phoenissae" of Euripides and of 
Seneca; "Polynices" by Alfieri (motive, tyrannical ava- 
rice); Byron's "Cain" (motive, religious jealousy); "Une 
Famille au Temps de Luther" by Delavigne (motive, 
religious dissent : "Le Duel" (Lavedan, 1905). 

(2) - Reciprocal Hatred : The "Seven Against 
Thebes," by Aeschylus, and "Les Freres Ennemis" 
by Racine (motive, greed for power); an admirable 
supplementary character is added in this Theban legend, 
the Mother, torn between the sons; "Thyestes II" of 
Sophocles; "Thyestes" of Seneca; the "Pelopides" by 
Voltaire; "Atreus and Thyestes" by CreT>illon (motive, 
greed for power, the important role being that of the 
perfidious instigator). 

Hatred Between Relatives for Reasons of 
Self-interest: "La Maison d'Argile" Fabre, 1907). 
Example from fiction: "Mon Frere" (Mercereau). 

B Hatred of Father and Son: 1 Of the 

Son for the Father: 'Three Punishments in One," 
by Calderon. Historic example: Louis XI and Charles 
VII. A part of "La Terre" by Zola and of "Le Maitre" 

lean .(allien. 

•1 Mutual Hatred: "Life is a Dream," by 
('alderon. Historic instance: Jerome and Victor Bona- 
parte .'i reduction of hatred to simple disagreement). 
This nuance appears to me to In- our of the finest, 
although one of the least regarded by our writers. 

Hatred of Daughter for lather: "The 
Cenci," by Shelley parricide 8 a means of escape from 

inc.- 

Hatred of Grandfather for Grandson: 

Mc o' "Cym the story of Amulius in the 

of Titus Li', in- motive, tyrannical avarice . 
Hatred of uncle for nephew: "The Death oi I an .<." by 
Crichna ( !a> i. One of the facet of "Hamlet." 

D Hatred of I a t her-in-law for Son-in-law : 

Aifieri's "Agis and Saul" motive, tyrannical avari© 



46 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Historical example: Caesar and Pompey. Hatred of 
two brothers-in-law, ex-rivals: "La Mer" (Jean Jullien, 
1891) -the only modern drama, I may note in passing, 
in which one finds emotion increasing after the death 
of the principal character. In this respect it conforms 
to reality, in which we may experience shock or alarm, 
or cry out in dread, but in which we do not weep, nor 
feel sorrow to the full, until afterward, all hope being 
forever ended. 

E - - Hatred of Mother-in-law for Daughter-in- 
law: -- Corneille's "Rodogune" (motive, tyrannical 
avarice). 

F -Infanticide: -"Conte de Noel" (Linant, 1899). 
A part of the "Powers of Darkness." 

I will not repeat the list of degrees of relationship 
into which this situation might be successively trans- 
ferred. The case of hatred between sisters, one fre- 
quent enough, will offer, --even after "Le Carnaval 
des Enfants" (de Bouhelier) - - an excellent opportunity 
for a study of feminine enmities, so lasting and so cruel; 
hatred of mother and daughter, of brother and sister, 
will be not less interesting; the same may be said for 
the converse of each class which has furnished our ex- 
amples. May there not be an especially fine dramatic 
study in the deep subject, - - heretofore so vulgar be- 
cause treated by vulgar hands, - - the antipathy of the 
mother and the husband of a young woman? Does 
it not represent the natural conflict between the ideal, 
childhood, purity, on the one hand, and on the other 
Life, vigorous and fertile, deceptive but irresistibly 
alluring? 

Next the motive of hatred, changing a little, may 
vary from the everlasting "love of power" alleged in 
nearly all extant examples, and, what is worse, invari- 
ably painted in the strained attitudes of noe-classicism.* 

The character of the common parent, torn by affec- 
tion for both adversaries in these struggles, has been 

*Neo-Classicism: Belonging to or designating the revival of 
classical taste and style in art. 



THIRTEENTH SITUATION 47 

little modified since the day when Aeschylus led forth, 
from the tomb to which tradition had consigned her, 
his majestic Jocaste. The roles of two parents at enmity 
could well be revived also. And I find no one but 
Beaumont and Fletcher who has drawn vigorously the 
instigators of such impious struggles; characters whose 
infamy is sufficient to be well worthy of attention, 
nevertheless. 

With the enmities of kinsmen are naturally connected 
the enmities which spring up between friends. This 
nuance will be found in the following situation. 



FOURTEENTH SITUATION 

RIVALRY OF KINSMEN 

(The Preferred Kinsman; the Rejected Kinsman; the 

Object) 

This situation seems, at first glance, to present ten 
times the attraction of the preceding. Does not Love, 
as well as Jealousy, augment its effect? Here the charms 
of the Beloved shine amid the blood of battles fought 
for her sake. What startled hesitancies, what per- 
plexities are hers; what fears of avowing a preference, 
lest pitiless rage be unchained ! 

Yes, the Beloved one, the "Object" - to use the philo- 
sophic name applied to her in the seventeenth century 
- will here be added to our list of characters. But 
. the Common Parent, even if he does not dis- 
appear, must lose the greater part of his importance; 
the Instigators will pale and vanish in the central radiance 
of the fair Object. Doubtless the "love scenes" will 
please, by their contrast to the violence of the play; but 
the dramatic purist may raise his brows, and find per- 
haps - - these turtle-dove interludes a trifle colorless 
when set in the crimson frame-work of fratricide. 

Furthermore, there persists in the psychologist's 
mind the idea that Rivalry, in such a struggle, is no 
more than a pretext, the mask of a darker, more ancient 
hatred, a physiological antipathy, one might say, derived 
from the parents. Two brothers, two near relatives, 
do not proceed, on account of a woman, to kill each 
other, unless predisposed. Now, if we thus reduce the 
motive to a mere pretext, the Object at once pales and 
diminishes in importance, and we find ourselves return- 
ing to the Thirteenth Situation. 

48 



FOURTEENTH SITUATION 49 

Is the Fourteenth, then, limited to but one class, a 
mere derivative of the preceding? No; it possesses, 
fortunately, some germs of savagery which permit of 
its development in several directions. Through them 
it may trend upon "Murderous Adultery," "Adultery 
Threatened," and especially upon "Crimes of Love" 
(incests, etc.). Its true form and value may be ascer- 
tained by throwing these new tendencies into relief. 

A (1) - Malicious Rivalry of a Brother: - - "Britan- 
nicus;" "Les Maucroix" by Delpit (the Common Parent 
here gives place to a pair of ex-rivals, who become almost 
the Instigators); "Boislaurier" (Richard, 1884). From 
fiction: "Pierre et Jean," by de Maupassant. Case in 
which rivalry is without hatred: "1812" (Nigond, 1910). 

(2) Malicious Rivalry of Two Brothers: 
"Agathocle," "Don Pedre," Adleaide du Guesclin" and 
"Amelie," all by Voltaire, who dreamed of carving a 
kindgom all his own, from this sub-class of a single 
situation. 

Rivalry of Two Brothers, With Adultery on 
the Part of One: "Pellets et Melisande" by Maeter- 
linck. 

1 Rivalry of Sisters: "La Souris" (Pailleron, 

7 : "L'Enchantement" (Bataille, L900); "Le Demon 
du Foyer" <•. Sand). Of aunt and niece: "I^e Risque" 
Coolus, L909 . 

I'. 1 Rivalry of I at her and Son, for an Unmar- 

ried Woman: Metastasis "Antigone;" "Les Fos- 
siles" !•'. de Curel ; "La Massiere" Lemaitre, L905); 
"La Dette" Trarieux. L909); "Papa" de Flera and de 
Caillavet, 191] ; Racine's "Mithridate," in which the 
rivalry is triple, between the father and each of the 
ons, and between the two sons. Partial example: the 
beginning of Dumas' "Pere Prodigue." 

Rivalry <>f Father and Son, for a Married 

Woman: "Le Vieil Homme" Porto-Riche, L911). 

Case Similar to the Two Foregoing, Bill in 

Which the Object is Already the Wife of the Father. 

(This goes beyond adultery, and tea. Is to result in incest. 

but the purity of the passion preserves, Tor dramatic 
effect, a fine distinction between this sub-class and 



50 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Situation XXVI) :-- Euripides' "Phenix;" (a concu- 
bine is here the object of rivalry) ; Schiller's "Don Carlos;" 
Alfieri's "Philip II." 

(4) - - Rivalry of Mother and Daughter: — "L' Autre 
Danger" (Donnay, 1902). 

C Rivalry of Cousins: (which in reality falls into 
the following class) :-- "The Two Noble Kinsmen," 
by Beaumont and Fletcher. 

D — Rivalry of Friends: — Shakespeare's "Two Gen- 
tlemen of Verona;" "Aimer sans Savoir Qui" by Lope 
de Vega; Lessing's "Damon;" "Le Coeur a ses Raisons" 
(de Flers and de Caillavet, 1902); "Une Femme Passa" 
(Coolus, 1910). 



FIFTEENTH SITUATION 
MURDEROUS ADULTERY 

(Elements: Two Adulterers; a Betrayed Husband or 

Wife) 

This, to my mind, is the only strongly appealing 
form in which adultery can be presented; otherwise is 
it not a mere species of house-breaking, the less heroic 
in that the Object of theft is an accomplice, and that 
the household door, already thrown open by treach- 
ery, requires not even a push of the shoulder? Whereas 
this treachery becomes at least logical and endurable 
in so far as it is a genuinely sincere folly, impassioned 
enough to prefer assassination to dissimulation and a 
base sharing of love. 

A 1 The Slaying of a Husband by, or for, a 
Paramour: The "Agamemnons" of Aeschylus, of 
Seneca and of Allien; Webster's "Vittoria ( 'orombona;" 
"Pierre Pascal;" "Les Emigrants" (Hirsch, L909); 
"I/Impasse" Fread Amy, L909); "Partage de Midi" 
Paul Claude] ; "Amour (Leon rlennique, 1890}; the 
mning of the "Powers of Darkness." Historic 

tnple, with pride and shame as motives for the crime: 

the legend <>f Gyges and Candaules. From fiction: the 

first part <>f "Therese Raquin." 

J The Slaying of a Trusting I. over: "Samson 
et Dalila" opera by Saint-Saens, L890 , 

B Slaying of a Wife for a Paramour, and in 

Self-interest: Seneca's "Octavia" and also Alfieri's; 
"La Lutte pour la Vie" by Daudei (in which cupidity 

51 



52 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

dominates adultery); "The Schism of Kngland" by 
Calderon; "Zobeide" by Gozzi. Narrative example: 
Bluebeard. Historic: the murder of Galeswinthe. 

Hints for varying and modifying this situation: 

The betrayed husband or wife may be either more or 
less powerful, more or less sympathetic in character, 
than the slayer. The blindness of the intended victim 
may be more or less complete at various moments of 
the action; if it be dispelled, partly or fully, it may be 
by chance, by some imprudent act of the guilty ones, 
by a warning, etc. 

Between the victim and the intruder, ties of affec- 
tion, of duty, of gratitude, may have previously existed; 
ties very real to one or the other of the two. They 
may be relatives; they may find themselves united 
by some work or responsibility in common. The Victim, 
whether he be pursued openly or secretly, will be, doubt- 
less, the object of an old rancor, either on the part of 
the consort or of the intruder; the origin of this rancor 
may be in any one of the imaginable offenses by which 
a human being is wounded in his family affections, his 
loves, his ideals, etc., or in his pride of birth, of name, 
of achievement; in his interests, (money, property, 
power, freedom); in any one of the external radiations 
of life. 

Of the two adulterers, one may be but an instrument 
impassioned or resigned, unconscious or involuntary 
- of the other, and may later be rejected, the end being 
attained; the blow may be struck by one of the two 
traitors alone, or it may be that neither of them has 
stained his own hands with the crime, which has been 
committed by a new character, perhaps unintentionally, 
or perhaps from love of one of the two Adulterers, who 
has utilized and directed this passion, or has let it move 
of its own accord toward the desired and criminal end. 

A multitude of other characters will be, in varying 
degrees, the means employed, the obstacles, secondary 
victims, and accomplices in the sinister deed; the deed 
itself may be brought about according to the author's 
choice among the numberless circumstances which the 



FIFTEENTH SITUATION 53 

Law has foreseen, with divers details such as court 
trials suggest . 

If a more complicated action is desired, interweave 
as Hennique has done) a rivalry of Kinsmen, an un- 
natural love (see Euripides' Chrysippe), an ambitious 
purpose and a conspiracy. 



SIXTEENTH SITUATION 

MADNESS 
(Elements: Madman and Victim) 

The origin of certain human actions lies hidden in 
fearful mystery; a mystery wherein the ancients believed 
they discerned the cruel smile of a god, and wherein 
our scientists, like the Chinese philosophers believe, 
they recognize the desires, prolonged and hereditary, of 
an ancestor. A startling awakening it is for Reason, 
when she finds on all sides her destiny strewn with 
corpses or with dishonors, which the Other, the unknown, 
has scattered at his pleasure. At this calamity, greater 
than death, how our kindred must weep and tremble; 
what terror and suspense must arise in their minds! 
And the victims, whose cries are lost in the mute heavens; 
the beloved ones pursued in unreasoning rage which they 
cannot comprehend! What variations of the incon- 
scient are here: folly, possession, divine blindness, hypno- 
sis, intoxication, f orgetf ulness ! 

A (1) - Kinsmen Slain in Madness: - - "Athamas" 
and the "Weavers of Nets" by Aeschylus; "Hercules 
Furens" by Euripides and by Seneca; "Ion" by 
Euripides. 

(2) - - A Lover Slain in Madness: - - "La Fille Eliza," 
by Edmond de Goncourt; "La Tentation de Vivre" 
(Louis Ernault). A lover on the point of slaying his 
mistress in madness: Example from fiction: "La Bete 
Humaine." Familiar instances: Jack the Ripper; the 
Spaniard of Montmartre, etc. 

(3) -- Slaying or Injuring of a Person not Hated: 
- "Monsieur Bute" (Biollay, 1890). Destruction of a 

work: "Hedda Gabler." 

54 



SIXTEENTH SITUATION 55 

B — Disgrace Brought Upon Oneself Through 
Madness: --Aeschylus' "Thracians;" Sophocles' "Ajax;" 
to some extent "Saul" (Gide). 

C - Loss of Loved Ones Brought About by Mad- 
ness: — "Sakuntala" by Kalidasa, (form, amnesia). 
The philtre of Hagen, in Wagner. 

D - - Madness Brought on by Fear of Hereditary 
Insanity: - "L'Etau" (Andre" Sardou, 1909). 

The case of A (3), transferred to the past and treated 
according to a quid-pro-quo process, is that of one of the 
merriest comedies of the nineteenth century, "L' Affaire 
de la rue de Lourcine" by Labiche. 

Numberless examples of this Sixteenth Situation 
have filled the disquieting pages of alienists' journals. 
Mental diseases, manias of various types, offer power- 
ful dramatic effects which have not yet been exploited. 
These furnish, doubtless, but points of departure toward 
the Situation whose real investiture takes place at the 
moment of the hero's restoration to reason, -■- which 
is to say, to suffering. But if it ever happens that these 
three phases — the etiology of delirium, its access, and 
the return to a normal condition - are treated with 
equal strength and vigor, what an admirable work will 
result! 

The first of the three stages, which bears upon the 
explanations of insanity, has been variously held to be 
divine (by the Greeks), demoniac (by the Church), and, 
in our own times, hereditary and pathological. Hypno- 
tism has recently created another nuance; the hypnotist 
here forms a substitute, -a sorry one it is true,- for 
divinity or demon. Drunkenness furnishes us a nuance 
unfamiliar to Greece; what is today more commonplace, 
and at the same time more terrible, than the disclosure 
of an important secret or the committing of a criminal 
act, while under the influence of drink? 

Is it necessary to say thai all ties, all interests, all 
human desires, may he represented crossed and illumin- 
ated by the lighl of dementia? 

For the rest, this situation of Madness is far from 
having been neglected in our theater. Shakespeare, 
in his most personal dramas, has made use of insanity 



56 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

in the leading roles. Lady Macbeth is a somnambu- 
list and dies in hysteria, her husband is a victim of hal- 
lucinations; the same may be said of Hamlet, who is 
a lypemaniac besides; of Timon also; Othello is an 
epileptic and King Lear completely deranged. It is on 
this account that the great William is so dangerous a 
model (Goethe would not read him more than once a 
year). He has played, to some extent, the same role 
as Michael-Angelo, - - he has exaggerated the springs of 
action to the farthest limits of reality, beyond which 
his disciples fall immediately into mere ridiculous 
affectation. 

On the other hand, if we except the pretext of study- 
ing insanity in itself, which "Ajax" has furnished from 
Astydamus to Ennius, and from Ennius to Emperor 
Augustus, I find nothing "Shakespearean" in the drama 
of antiquity except "Orestes." All other characters 
are in the enjoyment of their senses, and do not thereby 
become any less pathetic. "CEdipus" alone shows, in 
default of abnormality in the hero's psychologic con- 
stitution, external events of an extraordinary character 
(a resource since so largely used by the Romanticists 
of 1830 and later). But the rest of the antique dramatic 
types are evolved in accordance with normal passions, 
and under objective conditions relatively common. 



SEVENTEENTH SITUATION 
FATAL IMPRUDENCE 

(The Imprudent; the Victim or the Object Lost) 

To which are sometimes added "The Counsellor," a 
person of widsom, who opposes the imprudence, "The 
Instigator," wicked, selfish or thoughtless, and the 
usual string of Witnesses, secondary Victims, Instru- 
ments, etc. 

A (1) - - Imprudence the Cause of Ones Own Mis- 
fortune: -- Sophocles' "Eumele;" Euripides' "Phaeton" 
(here the Counsellor is blended with the Instrumental 
character, in which, bound by a too-hasty oath, he finds 
himself in Situation XXIII, A (2), --obliged to sacrifice 
a kinsman to keep a vow : "The Master Builder," by 
Ibsen. From comedy: "L'Indiseret" See, L903). 

(2) Imprudence the Cause of Ones Own Dis- 
honor: "La Banque de I'Univers" (Grenet-Dancourt, 
L886). From fiction: "L'Argent" by Zola. Historic: 
Ferdinand de Lesseps. 

B (1) Curiosity the Cause of Ones Own Misfor- 
tune: - Aeschylus' "Semele." Historic examples (which 
rise to the Twentieth Situation, "Sacrifices to I he [deal"): 
the deaths of many scholars and scientists. 

(2) Loss of the Possession of a loved One, 

Through Curiosity: "Psyche" (borrowed from the 
account which La Fontaine drew from Apuleius, himself 
the debt of of Lucius of Patras, and dramatized by Cor- 
neille, Moliere and Quinault ; "Esclarmonde" (Mas- 
senet, L889). Legendary example: Orpheus bringing 
hack Eurydice. This nuance tends toward Situations 
XXXII and XXXIII. "Mistaken Jealousy" and "Judi- 
cial Error." 

... 



58 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

C (1) - - Curiosity the Cause of Death or Misfor- 
tune to Others: -- Goethe's "Pandora" and also Vol- 
taire's; "The Wild Duck" by Ibsen. Legendary example: 
Eve. 

(2) - - Imprudence the Cause of a Relative's Death: 
"La Mere Meurtriere de son Enfant" (a fourteenth- 
century Miracle of Notre-Dame); "On ne Badine pas 
avec 1' Amour" (de Musset); "Renee Mauperin," by the 
Goncourts. Familiar instances: blunders in the care of 
sick persons. "Louise Leclerq," by Verlaine. The 
cause of another's misfortune: "Damaged Goods" 
(Brieux, 1905). 

(3) - - Imprudence the Cause of a Lover's Death: 

- "Samson" by Voltaire; "La Belle aux Cheveux d'Or" 
(Arnould, 1882). 

(4) -- Credulity the Cause of Kinsmen's Deaths: 

- "Pelias" by Sophocles and "The Peliades" by Euri- 
pides. From fiction (credulity the cause of misfortune 
to fellow-citizens): "Port-Tarascon." 

Establish in each of the preceding sub-classes equiva- 
lents to those cases which are presented in single instances 
in one class only, and we have the following subjects: 
— By Imprudence (meaning imprudence pure and simple, 
unconnected with curiosity or credulity) to cause mis- 
fortune to others; to lose possession of a loved one (lover, 
wife or husband, friend, benefactor, protege, etc.); to 
cause the death of a relative (any degree of kinship may 
be chosen); to cause the death of a loved one. By 
Curiosity (unmixed with imprudence or credulity) to 
cause the dishonor of a relative (the various kinds of 
dishonor are numerous enough, touching as they do 
upon probity, upon courage, upon modesty, upon loy- 
alty); to cause the dishonor of a loved one; to cause 
ones own dishonor. To cause these dishonors by pure 
Credulity (unmixed with imprudence or curiosity). 
An examination of the Twelfth Situation will give us a 
primary idea of the way in which Ruse may be used to 
gain this credulity. By Credulity also to cause ones 
own misfortune, or lose possession of a loved one, or 
cause misfortune to others, or cause the death of a loved 
one. 



SEVENTEENTH SITUATION 59 

Let us now pass to the causes which may precipitate 

— as readily as curiosity, credulity, or pure impru- 
dence — an overhanging catastrophe. These causes are: 

— the infraction of a prohibition or law previously made 
by a divinity; the deadly effect of the act upon him who 
commits it (an effect due to causes perhaps mechanical, 
perhaps biological, perhaps judicial, perhaps martial, 
etc.); the deadly consequences of the act for the kindred 
or the beloved of him who commits it; a sin previously 
committed, consciously or unconsciously, and which 
is about to be revealed and punished. 

Besides curiosity and credulity, other motives may 
determine the imprudence; in "The Trachiniae," for 
instance, it is jealousy. The same role might be given 
to any one of the passions, the emotions, the desires, 
the needs, the tastes, the human weaknesses; --sleep, 
hunger, muscular activity, gluttony, lust, coquetry, 
childish simplicity. As to the final disaster, it may 
assume many aspects, since it may fall in turn upon 
physical, moral or social well-being, whether by tin- 
destruction of happiness or honor, of property or power. 

In the present situation, the Instigator, --who never- 
theless is not essential, -- may become worthy of figur- 
ing even as the protagonist ; such is the case of Medea 
in "Pelias." This is perhaps the most favorable aspeel 
in which the "villain" can be presented; imagine, for 
instance, an Iago becoming the principal character of 
a play (as Satan is of the world)! The difficulty will 
be to find a sufficient motive for him; ambition, (partly 
the case in Richard 111; is not always a convincing one, 
because of its "a priori" way of proceeding; jealousy 
and vengeance seem a i rifle sentimental tor this dem- 
oniac figure; misanthropy is too philosophic and honor- 
able; self-interest (the case of Pelias) is more appropri- 
ate. But envy, - envy, which in the presence of friendly 

solicitude feels hill the more keenly the sin;irl of its 

wounds, envy studied in its dark and base endeavors, 

in the shame of defeat, in its cowardice, and end 
finally in crime, here, it seems to me, is the ideal 
motive. 



EIGHTEENTH SITUATION 

INVOLUNTARY CRIMES OF LOVE 

(The Lover; the Beloved; the Revealer) 

This and the following situation stand out as the 
most fantastic and improbable of all the silhouettes 
upon our dramatic horizon. Nevertheless they are, in 
themselves, quite admissible, and at least not rarer 
today than they were in heroic times, through adultery 
and prostitution, which never flourished more generally 
than at present. It is merely the disclosure which is 
less frequent. Yet many of us have seen certain mar- 
riages, apparently suitable, planned and arranged, as 
it were, by relatives or friends of the families, yet obsti- 
nately opposed, avoided and broken off by the parents, 
seemingly unreasonable, but in reality only too certain 
of the consanguinity of the lovers. Such revelations, 
then, still take place, although without their antique 
and startling £clat, thanks to modern custom and our 
prudent prudery. 

Its reputation for fabulous monstrosity was in reality 
attached to our Eighteenth Situation by the unequalled 
celebrity of the theme of "CEdipus," which Sophocles 
treated in a style almost romantic, and which his imi- 
tators have ever since overloaded with fanciful arabesques, 
more and more chimerical and extraordinary. 

This situation and the following --as indeed to some 
extent all thirty-six -- may be represented, as the author 
chooses, in one of two lights. In the first, the fatal 
error is revealed, simultaneously to the spectator and 
to the character, only after it is irreparable, as in Class 
A; and here the state of mind strongly recalls the Six- 
teenth. In the second, the spectator, informed of the 

60 



EIGHTEENTH SITUATION 61 

truth, sees the character walk unconsciously toward the 
crime, as though in a sinister sort of blindman's-bufT, 
as in Classes B, C and D. 

A (1) - - Discovery That One Has Married Ones 
Mother:- The "GEdipus" of Aeschylus, of Sophocles, 
of Seneca, of Anguillara, of Corneille, of Voltaire, not 
to speak of those of Achaeus, Philocles, Melitus, 
Xenocles, Nicomachus, Carcinus, Diogenes, Theodecte, 
Julius Caesar; nor of those of Jean Provost, Nicolas de 
Sainte-Marthe, Lamothe, Ducis, J. Chenier, etc. The 
greatest praise of Sophocles consists in the astonish- 
ment we feel that neither the many imitations, nor 
the too well-known legend of the abandonment on 
Cithaeron, nor the old familiar myth of the Sphinx, 
nor the difference in the ages of the wedded pair, that 
none of these things has made his work appear un- 
natural or unconvincing. 

(2) - Discovery That One Has Had a Sister as Mis- 
tress: Tasso's "Torrismond; rhe Bride of Messina" 

by Schiller. This case, obviously a more frequenl one. 
becomes unconvincing in the latter drama, when com- 
bined with the Nineteenth Situation. Example from 
fiction: "L'Enfant Naturel," by Sue 

B (1) Discovery That One Has Married Ones 
Sister: - "Le Mariage d' Andre*' (Lemaire and de 
Rouvre, 1882). This being a comedy, the error is dis- 
covered in time to be remedied, and the play "ends 
happily." "Abufar" by Ducis, which also falls under 
;i preceding classification. 

(2) The Same Case, in Which the Crime Has 
Been Villainously Planned by a Third Person: 

"Heraclius" i his gives, despite its genius, nil her the 

feeling of a nightmare than of ,-i terrible reality , 

:; Being Upon the Point of Taking a Sister, 

I nknowingly, as Mistress: Ibsen's "Ghosts." The 
mother, ;i knowing witness, hesitates to reveal the dan- 
ger, l'»r fear <»f subjecting the son to ;i fatal shock. 

C Being l pon the Point of Violating, Un- 
knowingly, a Daughter: Partial example: "I, a Dame 
:<\r< | )ommo Rose" Bouvier, L882 . 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

D (1) Being Upon the Point of Committing an 
Adultery Unknowingly (the only cases I have found in 
all drama): --"Le Roi Cerf" and "L'Amour des Trois 
Oranges," both by Gozzi. 

(2) - Adultery Committed Unknowingly: — Prob- 
ably the "Alcmene" of Aeschylus; "Le Bon Roi Dago- 
bert" (Rivoire, 1908). From fiction: the end of "The 
Titan," by Jean-Paul Richter. 

The various modifications of incest and other for- 
bidden loves, which will be found in Situation XXVI, 
may be adapted in the same manner as those here 
classified. 

We have seen above instances of adultery committed 
through a mistake on the part of the wife; it might also 
be through a mistake by the husband. This error is 
especially likely to be made by that one of the two 
adulterers who is unmarried; what is more common, 
for example, in the life of "pleasure," than to discover 
- a little tardily - - that ones mistress is a married 
woman? 

Ignorance of the sex of the beloved is the point upon 
which "Mademoiselle de Maupin" turns; there is in the 
first place a mistake (comedy), upon which are built 
the obsidional struggles of a soul (tragi-comedy), from 
which there finally results, when the truth is disclosed 
a brief tragic denouement. 



NINETEENTH SITUATION 
SLAYING OF A KINSMAN UNRECOGNIZED 

(The Slayer; the Unrecognized Victim) 

Whereas the Eighteenth Situation attains its highest 
degree of emotion after the accomplishment of the act, 
(doubtless because all the persons concerned in it survive, 
and the horror of it lies chiefly in the consequences), the 
Nineteenth, on the contrary, in which a victim is to perish 
and in which the interest increases by reason of the blind 
premeditation, becomes more pathetic in the preparations 
for the crime than in the results. This permits a happy 
ending, without the necessity of recourse, as in the Eigh- 
teenth, to a comedy-process of error. A simple recogni- 
tion of one character by another will suffice, --of which 
our Situation XIX is, in effect, but a development. 

A (1) Being Upon the Point of Slaying a Daugh- 
ter Unknowingly, by Command of a Divinity or an 
Oracle: -- Metastasio's "Demophon." The ignorance 
of the kinship springs from a substitution of infants; the 
interpretation of the oracle's words is erroneous; the 
"jeune premiere," at one point in the action, believes 
herself the Bister of her fiance. This linking of three or 
four mistakes 'unknown kinship, in the special lighl of the 
situation we are now studying, a supposed danger of incest , 
as in B 2 of the preceding, and finally a misleading ambig- 
uity of words, as in the majority of comedies) suffices to 
constitute what is called "stirring'' action, characteristic 
of the intrigues brought back into vogue by the Second 
Empire, and over whose intricate entanglements our 
chroniclers waxed so naively enthusiastic. 

68 



64 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

(2) - Through Political Necessity: - "Les Guebrcs 
and "Lcs Lois de Minos" by Voltaire. 

(3) - Through a Rivalry in Love: -"La Petite 
Mionne" (Richebourg, 1890). 

(4) - Through Hatred of the Lover of the Unrec- 
ognized Daughter: - "LeRoi s'amuse" (in which the 
discovery takes place after the slaying). 

B (1) Being Upon the Point of Killing a Son 
Unknowingly: The "Telephus" of Aeschylus and of 
Sophocles (with incest as the alternative of this crime); 
Euripides' "Cresphontes;" the "Meropes" of Maffei, of 
Voltaire and of Alfleri; Sophocles' "Creusa;" Euripides' 
"Ion." In Metastasio's "Olympiad" this subject is 
complicated by a "Rivalry of Friends." A Son Slain 
Without Being Recognized :-- Partial example: the 
third act of "Lucrece Borgia;" "The 24th of February," 
by Werner. 

(2)- The Same Case as B (1), Strengthened by 
Machiavellian Instigations: - Sophocles' "Euryale;" 
Euripides' ".Egeus." 

(3)- The Same Case as B (2), Intermixed With 
Hatred of Kinsmen (that of grandfather for grandson) : 
— Metastasio's "Cyrus." 

C Being Upon the Point of Slaying a Brother 
Unknowingly: (1) Brothers Slaying in Anger: - 

The "Alexanders" of Sophocles and of Euripides. (2) — 
A Sister Slaying Through Professional Duty: - - "The 
Priestesses" of Aeschylus; "Iphigenia in Tauris," by 
Euripides and by Goethe, and that projected by Racine. 
D-~ Slaying of a Mother Unrecognized: - Vol- 
taire's "Semiramis;" a partial example: the denouement 
of "Lucrece Borgia." 

E - A Father Slain Unknowingly, Through Mach- 
iavellian Advice: (see XVII): -- Sophocles' "Pelias" and 
Euripides' "Peliades;" Voltaire's "Mahomet" (in which 
the hero is also upon the point of marrying his sister 
unknowingly). The Simple Slaying of a Father 
Unrecognized: -- Legendary example: Laius. From 
romance: "The Legend of Saint Julian the Hospitaller." 



NINETEENTH SITUATION 65 

The Same Case Reduced From Murder to Simple 
Insult: - - "Le Pain d'Autrui" (after Turgenieff, by Eph- 
raim and Schutz, 1890). Being Upon the Point of Slay- 
ing a Father Unknowingly: - "Israel" (Bernstein, 
1908). 

F (1) - - A Grandfather Slain Unknowingly, in 
Vengeance and Through Instigation:- "Les Bur- 
graves" (Hugoi. 

(2) - - Slain Involuntarily: -- Aeschylus' "Polydec- 
tes." 

(3) - - A Father-in-Law Killed Involuntarily: — 
Sophocles' "Amphitryon." 

G (1) Involuntary Killing of a Loved Woman: 

-Sophocles' "Procris." Epic example: Tancred and 
Clorinda, in "Jerusalem Delivered." legendary example 
(with change of the sex of the person loved): Hyacinthus. 

(2) Being Upon the Point of Killing a Lover 
Unrecognized: "The Blue Monster" by Gozzi. 

(3) Failure to Rescue an Unrecognized Son: 

"Saint Alexis" (a XIV Century Miracle of Notre-Dame;) 
"La Voix du Sang" (Rachilde). 

Remarkable is the liking of Hugo (and consequently 
of his imitators) for this somewhat rare situation. Each 
of the ten dramas of the old Romanticisl contains it; in 
two of them, "Hernani" and "Torquemada," it is in a 
manner accessory to the Seventeenth (Imprudence) fatal 
to the hero also: in four ("Marion Delorme," "Angelo." 
"La Esmeralda," "Ruy Bias") this case of involuntary in- 
jury to a loved one supplies all the action and furnishes 
the best episodes; in four others i "Le Roi s'amuse," "Marie 
Tudor," "LuenVe Borgia," "Les Burgraves") it serves 
furthermore as denouement . It would seem, indeed, that 
drama, for Hugo, consists in this: the causing, directly or 
indirectly, of the death of ;i loved one; and, in the work 
wherein he has accumulated the greatesl number of the- 
atrical effects in "Lucrece Borgia" we see the same 
situation returning no less than five times. Near the first 
part of Act I, Gennaro permits his unrecognized mother 
to be insulted; in the second part, he himself insulta her. 



66 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

not knowing her for his mother; in Act II she demands, 
and is granted, the death of her unrecognized son, then 
finds she has no recourse but to kill him herself, then is 
again insulted by him; finally, in Act III, she poisons him, 
and, still unknown, is insulted, threatened and slain by 
him. 

Be it noted that Shakespeare has not in a single instance 
employed this Nineteenth Situation, an altogether acci- 
dental one, having no bearing upon his powerful studies 
of the will. 



TWENTIETH SITUATION 

SELF-SACRIFICING FOR AN IDEAL 

(The Hero; the Ideal; the "Creditor" or the Person or 

Thing Sacrificed I 

The four themes of Immolation, of which this is the 
first, bring before us three corteges :-- Gods (XX and 
XXIII), Kindred (XXI and XXIII), and Desires (XXII). 
The field of conflict is no longer the visible world, but the 
Soul. 

Of these four subjects, none is nobler than this of our 
Twentieth Situation, - all for an ideal! What the ideal 
may be, whether political or religious, whether it be called 
Honor or Piety, is of little importance. It exacts the 
sacrifice of all tics, of interest, passion, life itself, far 
better, however, under one of the three following forms, 
if it be tarnished with the slightest, even although the 
most sublime, egoism. 

A (1) Sacrifice of Life for the Sake of Ones 
Word: -The "Regulus" of Pradon and also of Metas- 
io; the end of 'Hernani" Carthage and Don Ruy 
(iomez are the "Creditors"). Is it not surprising that 
a greater number of examples do not at once present 
themselves to us'.' This fatality, the work of the victim 
himself, and in which the victory is won over Self, is it 
n< >t worthy to illuminate the stage with its sacrificial 
flames? There is, nevertheless, no necessity for choosing 
a hero of an almot I too-perfed type, such as Regulus. 

(2) Life Sacrificed for t he SlICCeM of Ones People: 

"The Waiting-Women" bj \< chylu ; "Protesilas' 1 by 
Euripides; "Themistocles" by Meta Partial ezam- 



68 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

pies: "Iphigenia in Aulis," by Euripides and by Racine. 
Historic examples: Cordus; Curtius; Latour d'Auvergne. 
For the Happiness of Ones People: - The "Suffering 
Christ" of St. Gregory Nazianzen. 

(3)- Life Sacrificed in Filial Piety: --"The Phoe- 
nician Women" by Aeschylus; the "Antigones" of Soph- 
ocles and Euripides; of Alamanni and Alfieri. 

(4) - Life Sacrificed for the Sake of Ones Faith: - 
"The Miracle of St. Ignace of Antioch" (XIV Century;) 
"Vive le Roi" (Han Rymer, 1911;) "Cesar Birotteau" 
(Fabre, after Balzac, 1911); "The Constant Prince" by 
Calderon; "Luther" by Werner. Familiar instances: 
all martyrs, whether to religion or science. In fiction: 
"L'CEuvre" by Zola. For the Sake of Ones King: 
"L'Enfant du Temple" (de Pohles). 

B (1) - - Both Love and Life Sacrificed for Ones 
Faith: - "Polyeucte." In fiction "L' Evangel iste") sac- 
rifice of family and future for ones faith). 

(2) --Both Love and Life Sacrificed to a Cause: - 
"Les Fils de Jahel" (Mme. Armand, 1886). 

(3) - Love Sacrificed to Interests of State: - This 
is the favorite motif of Corneille, as in "Othon," "Sertor- 
ius," "Sophonisbe," "Pulcherie," "Tite et Berenice." Add 
to these the "Berenice" of Racine and the "Sophonisbe" 
of Trissino, that of Alfieri and that of Mairet; Metastasio's 
"Achilles in Scyro" and his "Dido;" Berlioz' "Troyons" 
(the best tragedy of his century;) "L'Imperatrice" (Men- 
des). The "Creditor" in this sub-class, remaining abstract, 
is easily confounded with the Ideal and the Hero; the 
"Persons Sacrificed," on the contrary, become visible; 
these are Plautine, Viriate, Syphax and Massinisse, Bere- 
nice, D&damie. In comedy: "S. A. R." (Chancel, 1908). 

C - Sacrifice of Weil-Being to Duty: "Resurrec- 
tion" by Tolstoi; "L'Apprentie" (Geffroy, 1908). 

D - The Ideal of "Honor" Sacrificed to the Ideal 
of "Faith;" - Two powerful examples, which for secon- 
dary reasons did not attain success (because the public 
ear was incapable of perceiving a harmony pitched so 
high in the scale of sentiment): "Theodore" by Corneille 
and "The Virgin Martyr" by Massinger. Partial exam- 
ple: the good hermit Abraham in Hroswitha. 



TWENTY-FIRST SITUATION 

SELF-SACRIFICE FOR KINDRED 

(The Hero; the Kinsman; the "Creditor" or 
the Person or Thing Sacrificed 

A (1) - - Life Sacrificed for that of a Relative or a 
Loved One: - The "Alcestes" of Sophocles, of Euripides, 
of Buchanan, of Hardy, of Racine (projected,) of Quinault, 
of I^agrange-Chancel, of Boissy, of Coypel, of Saint-Foix, 
of Dorat, of Cluck, of H. Lucas, of Vauzelles, etc. 

(2) Life Sacrificed for the Happiness of a Relative 
or a Loved One: "L'Ancien" by Richepin. Two sym- 
metrical works are "Smilis" Aicard. L884), in which the 
husband sacrifices himself, and "Le Divorce de Sarah 
Moore" (Rozier, Paton and Dumas fils), in which the wife 
sacrifices herself. Examples from fiction and analogous 
to these two dramas are "Greal Expectations" by Dickens 
and "La Joie de VTvre" by Zola. Common examples: 
workmen in dangerous occupations. 

B (1) - Ambition Sacrificed tor (be Happiness of a 
Parent: "Les FYeres Zemganno" by Edmond de (inn- 
court. This ends with a d£nouemen1 the opposite of 
thai of "L'CEuvre." 

2 \mbition Sacrificed tor (be Life of a Parent : 

"Madame de Maintenon" Copp£e, L881). 

C 1 Love Sacrificed for (lie Sake of a Parent's 

I. iff : "1 >iane" 1> jjier; "Mi 1 1 j re" I tennery, I S 

2 lor (be Happiness of Ones Child: I • 

Reveil" Hervieu, L905 ; "La lie itive" Picard, l'.M l 
for die Happiness of a Loved One: "Cyrano <\>' Ber 
i ■' ' b Rostand; "1 .•■ I h"oil au I lonheur" I '. I <emon- 

nier, l!»<»'i 

69 



TO THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

(3) - The Same Sacrifice as 2, But Caused by 
Unjust Laws: - "La Loi de l'Homme" by Hervieu. 

D (1) -Life and Honor Sacrificed for the Life of 
a Parent or Loved One: "Le Petit Jacques." Case 
in which the loved one is guilty: "La Charbonniere" (Cre- 
mieux, 1884); "Le Frere d'Armes" (Garaud, 1887); "Le 
Chien de Garde" (Richepin, 1889). The Same Sacrifice 
Made for the Honor of a Loved One: "Pierre Vaux" 
(Jonathan, 1882). A similar sacrifice, but of reputation 
only: "La Cornette" (Mile, and M. Ferrier, 1909). 

(2) - - Modesty Sacrificed for the Life of a Relative 
or a Loved One: -Shakespeare's "Measure for Meas- 
ure;" Euripides' "Andromache" and also Racine's; "Per- 
tharite" by Corneille; "La Tosca" (Sardou, 1889). In 
fiction: "Le Huron" by Voltaire. 



TWENTY-SECOND SITUATION 

ALL SACRIFICED FOR A PASSION 

(The Lover; the Object of the Fatal Passion; 
the Person or Thing Sacrificed i 

A (1) - - Religious Vows of Chastity Broken for a 
Passion:- "Jocelyn" by Godard. From fiction: "La 
Faute de TAbbe Mouret." In comedy: "Dhourtta 
Narttaka." 

(2)--A Vow of Purity Broken :-- "Tannhauser." 
Respect for a Priest Destroyed: -One aspect of "La 
Conquete de Plassans." 

(3) -A Future Ruined by a Passion: - "Manon" 
by Massenet; "Sapho" by Daudel : "La Griffe" | Bernstein, 
L906); the works of Louys in general. 

(4) Power Ruined by Passion: Shakespeare's 
"Antony and Cleopatra;" "Cleopatre" by Sardou. 

Ruin of Mind, Health and Life: la Glu" 

(Richepin, 1883); "L'Arlesienne" (Daudel and Bizel ; 
"La Furie" (Bois, L909). From fiction see C): "Le 
Possecl£" by Lemonnier. Passion Gratified at the Price 
of Life: "Lne Xuii de Cleopatre" (Gautierand Masse). 

5 Ruin of fortunes, Lives ami Honors: 

"Nana;" in pari "La Route d'Emeraude" Richepin, after 
Demolder, L909 . 

B Temptations see XII Destroying the Sense 

of Duty, of Pity, etc: "Salome*" Oscar Wild. 
From fiction: "Herodias," and the attempts (repulsed) in 
"The Temptation of Saint Anthony." 

C 1 Destruction of Honor, Fortune and Life, 

by Erotic Vice: "Germinie Lacerteux" l»y de Gon- 

. i 



72 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

court; "Rolande" (Gramont, 1888); "Maman Colibri" 
(Bataille, 1904). From fiction: La Cousine Bette;" 
"I^ Capitaine Burle." 

(2) - The Same Effect Produced by Any Other 
Vice: - - "Trente Ans ou la Vie d'un Joueur;" "L'Assom- 
moir." From fiction "L'Opium" by Bonnetain; "Lelie" 
by Willy. In real life: our race-courses, our wine-shops, 
our cafes, our clubs, etc. In comedy: "Un Ange" 
(Capus, 1909). 

Few situations, obviously, have received better and 
more constant treatment during our own century — to 
whose vices the Twenty-Second offers, in truth, a most 
appropriate mirror, in its amalgam of gloom and eroticism, 
at the same time presenting the most interesting studies 
of nervous pathology. 



TWENTY-THIRD SITUATION 
NECESSITY OF SACRIFICING LOVED ONES 

(The Hero; the Beloved Victim; the Necessity for 

the Sacrifice) 

Although similar to the three situations we have just 
considered, the Twenty-Third recalls, in one of its aspects, 
that destruction of natural affection which marked the 
Thirteenth, "Hatred of Kinsmen." The feelings which 
we here encounter in the protagonist are, it is true, of a 
nature altogether different. But through the intrusion 
of the element of Necessity, the end toward which he must 
proceed is precisely the same. 

A (1) - - Necessity for Sacrificing a Daughter in the 
Public Interest: - "The Iphigenias" of Aeschylus and 
of Sophocles; "Iphigenia in Aulis," by Euripides and by 
Racine; "Erechtheus" by Euripides 

(2) Duty of Sacrificing Her in Fulfillment of a 
Vow to God: The "Idomenees" of Crebillon, Lemierre, 
and Cienfuegos; the "Jephthes" of Buchanan and of 
Boyer. This nuance tends al fust toward Situation 
XVII, "Imprudence," but the psychologic struggles soon 
give it a very different turn. 

:; Duty of Sacrificing Benefactors or Loved 
Ones to Ones Faith: "Torquemada:" "Ninety-Three:" 
"I>es Mouettes" Paul Adam, L906);"La Fille aGuillotin" 
(Fleischmann, L910). Historic instances; Philip [I; Abra- 
ham and Isaac 

B I Duty of Sacrificing Ones Child, Unknown 

to Others, Under the Pressure of Necessity: Euripi- 
des' "Melanippe;" "Lucrece Borgia," II, 5 

7:t 



74 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

(2) - - Duty of Sacrificing, Under the Same Circum- 
stances, Ones Father: The "Hypsipyles" of Aeschy- 
lus, and of Metastasio; "The Lemnian Women" by 
Sophocles. 

(3) Duty of Sacrificing, Under the Same Circum- 
stances, Ones Husband:- The "Danaides" of Phryn- 
ichus, of Aeschylus, of Gombaud, of Salieri, of Spontini; 
the "Lynceus" of Theodectes and of Abeille; the Hyperm- 
nestres" of Metastasio, Riupeiroux, Lemierre, etc. 

1 - Duty of Sacrificing a Son-In-Law for the 
Public Good: - - "Un Patriote" (Dartois, 1881). For 
the Sake of Reputation: - "Guibor" (a XIV Century 
Miracle of Notre-Dame). 

(5) - Duty of Contending with a Brother-In-Law 
for the Public Good: - - Corneille's "Horace," and that 
of Ar&in. The loyalty and affection subsisting between 
the adversaries remove all resemblance to the Thirtieth. 

(6) - Duty of Contending With a Friend: - "Jar- 
nac" (Hennique and Gravier, 1909). 

Nuance B, (B 1 for example), lends itself to a fine inter- 
lacing of motifs. Melanippe finds herself (1st) forced to 
slay her son, an order which she would have resisted at the 
risk of her own life, but she is at the same time (2nd) 
obliged to conceal her interest in the child, for fear of 
revealing his identity and thereby causing his certain 
death. Similar dilemmas may be evolved with equal 
success in all cases in which a character receives an injunc- 
tion which he is unwilling to obey; it will suffice to let him 
fall, by his refusal, into a second situation leading to a 
result equally repugnant or, better yet, identical. This 
dilemma of action is again found in what is called black- 
mail; we have also seen its cruel alternatives outlined in 
Class D of Situation XX ("Theodore," "The Virgin Mar- 
tyr," etc.), and clearly manifested in Class D (especially 
D 2) of Situation XXII ("Measure for Measure," "Le 
Huron," etc.) but it is there presented most crudely, by a 
single character or event, of a nature tyrannical and odious. 
Whereas in "Melanippe" it results so logically and piti- 
lessly from the action that it does not occur to us to rebel 
against it; we accept it without question, so natural does 
it appear, so overwhelming. 



TWENTY-THIRD SITUATION 75 

Before leaving these four symmetrical situations, I 
would suggest a way of disposing their elements with a 
view to seeking states of mind and soul less familiar. We 
have just seen these forces marshalled : - Passion (vice, 
etc.) ; pure affection (for parents, friends, benefactors, and 
particularly devotion to their honor, their happiness, their 
interests) ; reasons of state (the success of a compatriot, of 
a cause, of a work) ; egoism (will to live, cupidity, ambition, 
avarice, vanity); honor (truthfulness, feminine chastity, 
promises to God, filial piety). Oppose these to each other, 
two by two, and study the ensuing conflicts. 

The first cases produced will be those already cited. 
Here follow other and newer ones: - a passion or vice 
destroying interests of state (for in "Antony and Cleo- 
patra" it is only the royal pomp of the two lovers which is 
impressive; one does not reflect upon the peril of their 
peoples); egoism (in the form of ambition, for example) 
struggling with faith in the soul of man, a frequent case 
in religious wars; egoism in this ambitious guise overcom- 
ing natural affection (the plotter denying or sacrificing his 
father, mother or friend offers a fine study); a conflict 
between personal honor and reasons of stale (Judith in the 
arms of Holof ernes; Bismarck falsifying the despatch of 
his master). Then oppose the various nuances to each 
oilier (the hero torn between his faith and the honor of his 
people, and so on). Subjects will spring up in myriads. 
Special notice -the neo-classic tragedy having proved 
itself dead, - to psychological lid ion. its legatee). 



TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION 

RIVALRY OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR 

(The Superior Rival; the Inferior Rival; the Object) 

I would have preferred to make of this and the following 
(Adultery) a single situation. The difference lies in a 
contract or a ceremony, of variable importance according 
to the milieu, and which in any case does not materially 
change the dramatic emotions springing from the love 
contest; even this difference becomes quite imperceptible 
in polygamous societies (Hindu drama). Thus I would 
rather have created but one independent situation, of 
which the other should be a nuance. But I fear I should 
be accused of purposely compressing modern works into 
the smallest possible number of categories, for the two 
which we are now to analyze contain the major part of 
them. 

We have already remarked that between "Hatred of 
Kinsmen" and "Rivalry of Kinsmen" the sole difference 
lies in the fact that in the latter there is embodied in 
human form the Object of dispute, the "casus belli." For 
the same reason we may bring together the situations 
"Rivalry of Superior and Inferior," "Adultery," and even 
"Murderous Adultery," and distinguish them from all the 
situations which portray struggle pure and simple (V, 
VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XXX, XXXI). However, the 
beloved Object will more naturally appear in the present 
cases of sentimental rivalry than she could in the "Rivalry 
of Kinsmen," and nowhere does a more favorable oppor- 
tunity present itself to the dramatic poet for portraying 
his ideals of love. 

These cases are divided first according to sexes, then 
according to the degrees of difference in the rank of the 
rivals. 

76 



TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION 77 

A — Masculine Rivalries (1) — Of a Mortal and an 
Immortal : "Mrigancalckha" by Yiswanatha; "Heaven 
and Earth" by Byron; "Polypheme" (Samain). Of Two 
Divinities of Unequal Power: "Pandore" by Vol- 
taire. 

(2) - Of a Magician and an Ordinary Man:- 
"Tanis et Zelide," by Voltaire. 

(3) - - Of Conqueror and Conquered: - - "Malati and 
Madhava" by Bhavabuti; "Le Tribut de Zamora" 
(Gounod, 1881); "LeSais" (Mme. Ollognier, 1881). Of 
Victor and Vanquished: -Voltaire's "Alzire." Of a 
Master and a Banished Man: - "Appius and Virginia" 
by Webster; "Hernani" and "Mangeront-Ils?" by Hugo; 
"Dante" (Godard, 1890). Of Usurper and Subject: - 
"Le Triumvirat" by Voltaire. 

(4) -Of Suzerain King and Vassal Kings: - Cor- 
neille's "Attila." 

(5) - - Of a King and a Noble: - "The Earthen Toy- 
Cart" by Sudraka; "The Mill" and "Nina de Plata" by 
Lope; "Ag&silas and Surena" bv Corneille; "Demetrius" by 
Metastasio; "Le Fils de Porthos" (Blavet 1886). 

(6) Of a Powerful Person and an Upstart: 
"Don Sanche" by Corneille; "La Marjolaine" (Richepin 
fils. 1907). 

(7)- Of Rich and Poor: "La Question d'Argent" 
by Dumas; "La Nuit de Saint -.lean" i Erckmann-Chatrian 
and Lacome); "En Greve" (Hirseh, 1885); "Surcouf" 
(Planquette, 1887); "L' Attentat." (Capus and Descaves, 
1906) "La Barricade" (Bourget, l910);"La Petite Milliar- 
daire" (Dumay and Forest, L905). In fiction: pari of 
"Toilers of the Sea." Relative inequality: "Mon Ami 
Teddy" (Rivoire and Besnard, L910 . 

(8) of an Honored Man and a Suspected One: 
"I/Obstacle" (Daudet, L890); "Le Drapeau" (Moreau, 
1879); "Devanl I'Ennemi" (Charton, L890); ".lack Tem- 
pgte" (Elzear, L882); "La Bucheronne" (C. Edmond, 
1889). In comedy: "Le Manage de Mile. Boulemans" 
Fonson and Wicheler, L9U . 

9 Rivalry of Two who Are Almost Equal: 
"Dhourtta Samagana," the rivals here being master and 
disciple, as is also the case in "Maitres Chanteurs," but 



7s THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

not in "Glatigny" (Mendes, 1906), nor in "Bohemos" 
Zamacois, 1907). 

(10) - Rivalry of Equals, One of Whom Has in the 
Past Been Guilty of Adultery: -- "Chevalerie Rusti- 
que" (Verga, 1888). 

(11) - Of a Man Who is Loved and One Who Has 
Not the Right to Love: -- "La Esmeralda." 

(12) -Of the Two Successive Husbands of a 
Divorcee - - "Le Dedale" (Hervieu, 1903). By multiply- 
ing the number of husbands good comic effects might be 
secured. 

B - Feminine Rivalries, (1) - - Of a Sorceress and 
an Ordinary Woman: "La Conquete de la Toison 
d'Or" by Corneille: "La Sorciere" (Sardou, 1903). 

(2) --Of Victor and Prisoner: -"Le Comte d' 
Essex" by Thomas Corneille; the "Marie Stuart" of 
Schiller and also of Samson. 

(3) - - Of Queen and Subject: - - "Marie Tudor" and 
"Amy Robsart" by Hugo; "Le Cor Fleuri" (Mikhael 
and Herold); "Varennes" (Lenotre and Lavedan, 1904). 
The title of this sub-class is, it will be remembered, the 
only one cited of the so-called "Twenty-Four Situations" 
of Gerard de Nerval; we might indeed include under this 
denomination the examples of B 1, 2 and 4. But at most 
it can constitute only a half of one of the four classes of 
"Rivalry of Superior and Inferior," which itself has but 
the importance of one situation in a series of thirty-six. 

(4) --Of a Queen and a Slave: - - "Bajazet" by 
Racine; "Zulime;" part of "Une Nuit de Cteopatre" (from 
Gautier, by V. Masse, 1885). 

(5) -Of Lady and Servant: -- "The Gardener's 
Dog" by Lope de Vega (wherein may be found what is 
perhaps the most successful of the many attempted por- 
traits of an amoroiLs "grande dame"). 

(6) - - Of a Lady and a Woman of Humbler Posi- 
tion: -- "Francois-les-bas-bleus" (Messager, 1883); "Le 
Friquet" (Willy and Gyp, 1904); "Petite Hollande" (S. 
Guitry, 1908); "L'Ane de Buridan" (de Fleurs and de 
Caillavet, 1909); "Trains de Luxe" (Hermant, 1909). 
Of a Lady and Two Women of Humbler Class: — 
"Les Passageres" (Coolus, 1906). 



TWENTY-FOURTH SITUATION 79 

(7) Rivalry of Two Who Are Almost Equals, 
Complicated by the Abandoment of One (this tends 
toward A (1) of Situation XXV): -- Corneille's "Ari- 
ane;" "Benvenuto" (Diaz, 1890). In fiction: "La Joie 
de Vivre." 

(8) - Rivalry Between a Memory or an Ideal (That 
of a Superior Woman) and a Vassal of Her Own: - 
"Semiramide Riconosciuta" by Metastasio; "Madame 
laMort"byRachilde (in which the field of struggle is sub- 
jective); "La Morte" by Barlatier; "L'Image" by Beau- 
bourg. Symmetrical case in the masculine: "The Lady 
from the Sea," by Ibsen. 

(9) - Rivalry of Mortal and Immortal: -"La 
Dame a la Faulx" (Saint-Pol Roux). 

C - Double Rivalry (A loves B, who loves C, who 
loves D): - - Metastasio's "Adrien;" Lessing's "Emilia 
Galotti;" "La Fermiere" (d'Artois, 1889); "Ascanio" 
(Saint-Saens, 1890); "Les Deux Homines" (Capus, 1908); 
"Le Circuit" (Feydeau and de Croissel . L909); "L' Article 
301" (Duval, 1909). It is permissible to extend the rivalry 
to three, four, etc., which will make it less commonplace, 
but will not greatly vary the effects, although sometimes 
the chain will end in a complete circle (that is to say, D 
will love A), or a partial one (D returning the love of ( ' . 

D Oriental Rivalries: We are beginning to take 
account of the fact that the divorce law was obtained 
chiefly through the efforts of our dramatic writers, less 
because they were convinced of its righteousness than 
because they fell the need of a renewal and increase of 
their limited combinations. They might, indeed, have 
breathed a fresher and purer air by turning toward Hindu 
polygamy! Goethe, Theophile Gautier who foresaw the 
decadence of woman through the extension and increase 
of vice), Maurice Barres "l/Knnemi des Lois" seem to 
have felt something of the sort. We could wish that the 
misunderstandings of the modem home, in winch archaic 
fidelity and genuine monogamy have almost ceased to 
exist, on one side especially, might be settled with a 
modicum of this spirit of tolerance. 

dj Rivalry of Two Immortals: "The Loves of 
Krishna" by Roupa. 



80 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

(2) - Of Two Mortals: - - "Agnimitra and Malavika," 
by Kalidasa. 

(3) Of Two Lawful Wives: - "The Necklace," by 

Sri Harshadeva; "The Statue" by Rajasekhara. 

To the relative rank of the two rivals there is added, 
as a means of varying the theme, the position, with 
respect to them, of the beloved Object. The aspects of 
the struggle will depend, in fact, upon how near the prize 
may be to one of the adversaries, or how distant; upon 
whether the Object be of a rank inferior to both rivals, 
or midway between the two, or even superior to both. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION 

ADULTERY 
(A Deceived Husband or Wife; Two Adulterers) 

Without deserving to constitute a situation of itself 
alone, Adultery yet presents an interesting aspect of Theft 
(action from without) combined with Treason (action 
within ). Schiller, following the example of Lope, was 
pleased to idealize brigandage; Hugo and the elder Dumas 
undertook for adultery a similar paradox; and, developing 
the process of antithesis by which were created "Triboulet" 
and "Lucrece Borgia," they succeeded, once for all 
and quite legitimately. The folly lies in the belief of the 
unthinking crowd in the excellence of the subject thus 
presented; in the public's admiration for the "Antonys" 
- but the public has ended by preferring the moving 
pictures to them. 

First Case: - The author portrays the Adulterer, the 
stranger in the house, as much more agreeable, hand- 
somer, more loving, bolder or stronger than the deceived 
husband . . . Whatever arabesques may cover the 
simple and fundamental fad of Larceny, whatever com- 
plaisance may be shown by a tired public, there remains 
nevertheless, beneath it all, a basis of granite the old- 
fashioned conscience; to it , I he thing which is here vaunted 
is simply 1 he breach of t he Word of Honor of a cont ract 
that word, that promise which was obeyed by the Homeric 
gods and by the knights of Chivalry no less than by our- 
selves; that base of every social agglomeration; that which 
savages and which convicts resped between themselves; 
thai primary source of order in the world of action and of 
thought. The spectators' attention may of course be 

-I 



82 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

momentarily turned from a point of view so strict, and 
quite naturally; through the heresies of the imagination 
almost anything may evoke a laugh. Do we not laugh 
heartily at the sight of a fat man tumbling ridiculously 
down a flight of steps, at the bottom of which he may 
break his neck? Anything, likewise may evoke our pity; 
we have pity for the perjuries of the gambler and the 
drunkard, but it is mingled with contempt. Now, is it 
this sort of sad contempt which our dramatists wish to 
claim for their attractive young adulterers, as the reward 
of so much care and effort? If not, the effort has been a 
mistaken one. 

Second Case : - - The Adulterer is represented as less 
attractive and sympathetic than the unappreciated hus- 
band. This forms the sort of play known as "whole- 
some," which as a matter of fact is merely tiresome. A 
man whose pocket-book has been stolen does not on that 
account grow greater in our eyes, and when the informa- 
tion which he is in a position to furnish us is once obtained, 
our attention is turned from him and directed toward the 
thief. But if the latter, already far from heroic in his 
exploit, is in turn portrayed as still less interesting than 
his dupe, he merely disgusts us - - and the adulterous wife 
appears but a fool to have preferred him. Then (with that 
childishness which most of us retain beneath our sophisti- 
cation), scenting a foregone conclusion in the lesson which 
the author intends for us, and suspecting falsehood at the 
bottom of it, we grimace with irritation, disappointed to 
perceive, behind the story presented for our entertain- 
ment, the vinegarish smile of the school-teacher. 

Third Case: - The deceived Husband or Wife is 
Avenged. Here, at last, something happens! But this 
vengeance, unfortunately, is merely one of the cases of 
the Third Situation. 

Thus we shall not succeed with our Twenty-fifth Situa- 
tion except by treating it in a broadly human spirit, with- 
out dolefulness and without austerity. It will not be 
necessary to defend the thief nor the traitor, nor to take 
the part of their dupe. To comprehend them all, to have 
compassion upon all, to explain them all — which is to say 



TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION 83 

to comprehend oneself, to have pity upon oneself, and to 
explain oneself - - this is the real work to be accomplished. 
A -A Mistress Betrayed; (1) - - For a Young 
Woman: Sophocles' "Women of Colchis;" the 
"Medeas" of Seneca and of Corneille; "Miss Sara Samp- 
son" by Lessing; "Lucienne" (Gramont, 1890). These 
examples are, because of the final vengeance, symmetrical 
to the masculine of Class B. 

(2) - - For a Young Wife (the marriage preceding the 
opening of the play):--"Un Voyage de Noces" (Tier- 
celin, 1881). 

(3) - - For a Girl: - "La Veine" (Capus, 1901). 
(B)--A Wife Betrayed: (1) - -For a Slave, Who 

Does Not Love in Return: - "Maidens of Trachis" by 
Sophocles; "Hercules on (Eta" by Seneca (the first part; 
as to the rest, see "Imprudence;") the "Andromache" of 
Euripides and that of Racine (in which this is one side of 
the drama; for the other, see "Sacrifices for Kinsmen"). 

(2) - - For Debauchery:- "Numa Roumestan" by 
Daudet; "Francillon" by Dumas; "Serge Panine" by 
Ohnet; the opening part of "Meres Ennemies," which 
afterward turns to "Hatred of Kinsmen." 

(3) For a Married Woman (a double adultery): - 
"La Princesse Georges" and "L'Etrangere" by Dumas; 
"Monsieur de Moral" (Tarbe, L887); "Pes Menages de 
Paris" (Raymond, 1886); "Le Depute Leveau" (Lemai- 
tre . 

(4) With the Intention of Bigamy: The 
"AJmaeons" of Sophocles and of Euripides. 

- For a Young Girl, Who Does Not Love in 
Return: Shakespeare's "Henry VIII," and that of 
Sainl-Saens; Allieri's "liosamonde" ;i combination of the 

presenl and the preceding situations, for it is also a simple 
Rivalry of King and Subjecl i. 

6 \ Wife Envied by a Young Girl Who is in 
Love With Her Husband:* "Stella" by Goethe; "Dern- 
ier Amour" ( Ihnei . 1890 , 

7 By a Courtesan: "Miss Fanfare" (Ganderax, 

PSSl, see p, 'J ; "Proserpine" \ a<(|iK fie ;i in I Saint -Sa< 1 1 . 

1887 : "La Comtesse FYedegonde" (Amigues, L881 
"Myrane" (Bergeat, L890 , 



84 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Rivalry Between a I/awful Wife Who is Anti- 
pathetic and a Mistress Who is Congenial: "C'est 
la Loi" (Cliquet, 1882); "Les Affranchis" (Madame Len- 
e>u, 1911). 

(9) -Between a Generous Wife and an Impas- 
sioned Girl: — "La Vierge Folle" (Bataille, 1910); "La 
Femme de Demain" (Arthur Lefebvre, 1909). 

C (1) - - An Antagonistic Husband Sacrificed for a 
Congenial Lover :-- "Angelo ;" "Le Nouveau Monde" 
by Villiers de l'Isle Adam; "Un Drole" (Yves Guyot, 
1889); "Le Mari" (Nus and Arnould, 1889); "Les Ten- 
ailles" (Hervieu); "Le Torrent" (Donnay); "Decadence" 
(Guinon, 1901); "Page Blanche" (Devore, 1909). 

(2) - - A Husband, Believed to be Lost, Forgotten 
for a Rival: -- "Rhadamiste et Zenobie" by Cr^billon; 
"Jacques Damour" by Zola. The "Zenobie" of Metas- 
tasio, by the faithful love retained for her husband, forms 
a case unique (!) among the innumerable dramas upon 
adulterous passions. Compare "Le Declale" (see XXIV, 
A 12). 

(3) - A Commonplace Husband Sacrificed for a 
Sympathetic Lover: "Diane de Lys" by Dumas; 
"Tristan and Isolde" by Wagner (with the addition of 
"Madness," produced by a love-potion); "Francoise de 
Rimini" (A. Thomas, 1882); "La Serenade" (Jean Jullien, 
1887); "L' Age Critique" (Byl, 1890) ; "Antoinette Sabrier" 
(Coolus, 1903); "La Montansier" (Jeofrin, de Flers and de 
Caillavet, 1904); "Connais-toi" (Hervieu, 1909). The 
same case without adultery: "Sigurd" (Reyer, 1885); 
"La Comtesse Sarah" (1886). 

(4j -A Good Husband Betrayed for an Inferior 
Rival:- "L'Aveu" (Sarah Bernhard, 1888); "RevolteV' 
(Lemaitre, 1889); "La Maison des Deux Barbeaux" 
(Theuriet, 1885; ; "Andre" del Sarte" (Alfred de Musset); 
"La Petite Paroisse" (Daudet, 1911); "Le Mannequin 
d'Osier" (France, 1904); "La Rencontre" (Berton, 
1909). Cases of preference without adultery: "Smilis" 
by Aicard; "Les Jacobines" by Hermant (1907). 

(5) - For a Grotesque Rival : - - "The Fatal Dowry" 
by Massinger. 



TWENTY-FIFTH SITUATION 85 

(6) - - For an Odious Rival: - - "Gerfaut" (from C. de 
Bernard, by Moreau, 1886); "Cceur a Cceur" (Coolus, 
1907). 

(7) - - For a Commonplace Rival, By a Perverse 
Wife: — "La Femme de Claude" by Dumas; "Pot- 
Bouille" by Zola; "Rivoli" (Fauehois. 1911): "Les 
Malefiiatre" (Porto-Riche, 1904); "Soeurette" (Borteau- 
Loti). In fiction: "Madame Bovary." 

(8) For a Rival Less Handsome, but Useful (with 
comic false suspicions; that is, suspicions afterward 
thought to have been false):- "L'Echeance" (Jean 
Jullien, 1889). 

D (1) - - Vengeance of a Deceived Husband (dramas 
built upon a crescendo of suspicion):- "The Physician 
of His Own Honor" and "Secret Vengeance for Secret 
Outrage" by Calderon; "L'Affaire Clemenceau" by 
Dumas; "The Kreutzer Sonata" (after Tolstoi, 1910); 
"La Legende du Coeur" (Aicard, 1903); "Paraitre" 
(Donnay, 1906) ; "Les Miroirs" I Roinarrd ) ; "The Enigma" 
by Hervieu 'which borrows something from Situation XI 
of this name. A vengeance purely moral: "Apres Moi" 
(Bernstein, 1911); financial: "Samson," by the same 
author, (1907 . 

(2) Jealousy Sacrificed for the Sake of a Cause: 
tending toward Sacrifices for an Ideal"): "Les Jacob- 
ites" Coppee, L885); "Patrie" (Paladilhe, L886). Sac- 
rificed out of Pity: "La Famille d'Armelles" (Mamas, 
L88I 

E3 A Husband Persecuted by a Rejected Rival: 
"Raoul de Crequi" Delayrac, L889). This case is sym- 
metrical to B V, and > >< * i J 1 proceed in the direction <>i 
"Murderou i Adulterj 



TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION 

CRIMES OF LOVE 

(The Lover; the Beloved) 

This is the only tragic situation of all those built upon 
Love, that subject being one essentially belonging to 
comedy (see XXVIII and XXIX). 

Eight species of erotic crimes may be pointed out: — 

First: Onanism, that "solitary vice" which does not 
lead to action, can furnish only melancholy silhouettes 
such as the legend of Narcissus and "Chariot s'amuse," 
or certain grotesqueries of Aristophanes, unless it be made 
the basis for a study of the weakening and collapse of the 
Will, in which case it might be grouped with drunkenness, 
gambling, etc., in Situation XXII. 

Second: Violation, like murder, is but an act, generally 
a brief one and not a situation; at most it approaches 
"Abduction." Even the consequences to the perpetrator, 
like those of the 

Third: Prostitution and its succeedant gallantry and 
Juanism (repetition of acts), do not become dramatic 
unless pursued by punishment, in which case they belong 
to the Fifth Situation. Nevertheless, if impunity be 
secured, the taste for violation and for prostitution tends 
toward the Twenty-Second. 

Fourth: Adultery, whose character of theft has given 
rise to special situations already studied. 

Fifth : Incest is divided in two principal directions. It 
may be committed in an ascendant-descendant line, in 
which case it implies either filial impiety or an abuse of 
authority analogous to that which we shall find in the 
Eighth variety of criminal love. It may also occur upon 
what may be called a horizontal line; that is, between 
consanguines or persons related by marriage. 

86 



TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION 87 

A (l)--A Mother in Love With Her Son:- 

"Semiramis" by Manfredi, and by Crebillon; to explain 
and extenuate this case, the latter author has first used 
the Eighteenth (Involuntary Crimes of Love); "Les Cuirs 
de Boeuf" (Polti, 1898). Inverse case: "Le Petit Ami" 
by Leautaud. 

(2) - - A Daughter in Love With Her Father: - 
Alfieri's "Myrrha," whose psychology is drawn from that 
of "Phedre." 

(3) - - Violation of a Daughter by a Father: - - "The 
Cenci" by Shelley; the story of the Peau d'ane (intention 
only). 

B (1) - - A Woman Enamored of Her Stepson: - 
"Iobates" and "Phaedra" by Sophocles; the "Hippolytus" 
of Euripides and of Seneca; "Phedre" by Racine. In 
comedy: "Madame l'Amirale" (Mars and Lyon, 1911). 
In almost none of the foregoing cases, it will be observed, 
is there a reciprocity of desire, whereas the passion, here- 
tofore solitary, is shared, and the crime, unconscious at 
least on one side in "Myrrha," is boldly committed in 

(2) - - A Woman and Her Stepson Enamored of 
Each Other: - Zola's "Renee" (drawn from his story 
"Curee,"j and similar to the quasi-incestuous passion of 
"Dr. Pascal." The love is platonic in Alfieri's "Philip 
II," and Schiller's "Don Carlos." 

(3) -A Woman Being the Mistress, at the Same 
Time, of a Father and Son, Both of Whom Accept 
the Situation: "L'Ecole des Veufs" (Ancey, L889 , 

C (1) - A Man Becomes the I. over of Mis Sister-in- 
Law: "La Sang-Brule" (Bouvier, 1885); "Le Con- 
science de I'Enfant" (Devore, L889 . The Man Alone 
Enamored: "Le Sculpteur de Masques" (Cromelynck, 
L911 . 

2 A Brother and Sister in love With Each 
other: Euripides "TIoIum" "Canace" by Speroni; 
•• "li Pity She's a Whore," Ford's masterpiece; "La 
Citta Morta" 1>.\- d'Annunzio. 

Even after these works, there remains much more than 

a Kl (, aninj_'; an ample ham-si is still before us. We may 
extend Class A to include the complicity of both parties 
(Nero and Agrippina furnish an example, according to 



88 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Suetonius); a similar example, although fragmentary, 
exists for A 2, in the beginning of Shakespeare's "Pericles." 
B 1 may be reversed, the stepson's passion being unre- 
quited by his father's wife, a case which is certainly not 
uncommon. We may also suppress the complicity in B 3, 
in C 1, and in C 2, allowing the infatuation to subsist upon 
one side only. Without going so far as the criminal act, 
a study of mere temptations or desires, well or ill controlled, 
has furnished subtile chapters in the psychologies of 
Seventeenth Century grandes dames, such as Victor 
Cousin took delight in. 

Finally, we may interlace the threads of each of these 
species of incest with one of the seven other classess of 
Crimes of Love ; under the form of ignorance, the fifth and 
sixth classes are mingled in one of the episodes of "Daph- 
nis and Chloe." Add the usual incidental rivalries, adul- 
teries, murders, etc. 

Sixth: Homosexuality in its two senses, the branches 
of pederasty and tribadism: 

D (1) - - A Man Enamored of Another Man, Who 
Yields: -- Example from fiction: "Vautrin." Dramatic 
examples: the "Laius" of Aeschylus; the "Chrysippus" 
of Euripides. The latter tragedy appears to have been 
one of the finest, and perhaps the most moving, of 
all antiquity. Three situations were there superposed 
with rare success. Laius having conceived a passion, 
unnatural and furthermore adulterous, for the young 
Chrysippus, an epithalamium as terrible as that of Ford 
must have resulted, for here appeared and spoke the first 
man who had ever experienced such desires and dared to 
express and gratify them, and in his words lay the explana- 
tion of the wavering and fall of Chrysippus. Then fol- 
lowed the most indignant and pitiless jealousy on the part 
of Jocaste, wife of Laius. Against Chrysippus she roused 
the old envy of the young man's two brothers, an envy 
of the same type as that which armed the sons of Jacob 
against Joseph, but an envy which shows itself strangely 
menacing at the mere announcement of the names of these 
two brothers, -- Atreus and Thyestes! The fratricide is 
accomplished, to the fierce joy of the queen; Laius learns 
the details from the lips of the dying Chrysippus himself. 



TWENTY-SIXTH SITUATION 89 

And, in some prediction -- doubtless that of Tiresias, 
young at the time and not yet deprived of sight - there 
dawns the destiny of the two great families of tragedy par 
excellence, the Labdaeides and the Atrides, beginning in 
these crimes and running through all Greek legend. 

The tribadic or sapphic branch has not been used upon 
the stage; Mourey alone has attempted it, but in vain in 
his "Lawn Tennis." The objection which might be 
urged against it (and which probably explains why the 
drama, in the ages of its liberty, has made no use of it) is 
that this vice has not the horrible grandeur of its con- 
gener. Weak and colorless, the last evil habit of worn- 
out or unattractive women, it does not offer to the tragic 
poet that madness, brutal and preposterous, but springing 
from wild youth and strength, which we find in the crim- 
inal passion of the heroic ages. 

Seventh: Bestiality, or passion for a creature outside 
the human species. Classed in general as a vice, it is of 
no use theatrically. Nevertheless, in 

E - - A Woman Enamored of a Bull: - "The Cre- 
tans" of Euripides seems to have revealed the emotions, 
after all conceivable, of this "Ultima Thule" of sexual per- 
version. Better than anywhere else, evidently, the illogi- 
cal and mysterious character of the life of the senses, the 
perversion of a normal instinct, and the feeling of fatalism 
which its victims communicate, could here be presented 
in sad and awful nudity. 

Eighth: The Abuse of Minor Children borrows some- 
thing from each of the seven preceding varieties. That 

LCh a subject so modern, so English may in skilful 
hands become must pathetic, is readily apparent to those 

of us who rvad, a few years ago, the "Pall Mall Gazette." 



TWENTY-SEVENTH SITUATION 

DISCOVERY OF THE DISHONOR OF A LOVED ONE 

(The Discoverer; the Guilty One) 

From this Situation there results, almost immediately, 
a psychologic struggle similar to that of the Twenty-Third 
"Sacrifice of Loved Ones," but without the attraction of a 
high Ideal; this is replaced, in the present action, by the 
lash of shame. 

A (1) - Discovery of a Mother's Shame: - 
"Madame Caverlet" by Augier; "Odette" and "Georg- 
ette" by Sardou; "Madame X" (Bisson, 1908); "Mrs. 
Warren's Profession" (Bernard Shaw); "Les Quarts 
d'Heure" (second part; Guiches and Lavedan, 1888). 
This sad destruction of a child's deepest respect and rev- 
erence is colored, in these works, by the terrors of the 
mother, by her blushes, by her remorse before the conse- 
quences of the past; through this last point the action ends 
in the Thirty-Fourth (Remorse). It remains unconnected 
in the second part of the "Marquis de Priola" (Lavedan, 
1901). 

(2) - Discovery of a Father's Shame: — "Vieille 
Histoire" (Jean Jullien, 1891); the denouement of "Pierre 
et Therese" (Prevost, 1909). 

(3) - Discovery of a Daughter's Dishonor: - - Part 
of "La Fille du Depute" (Morel, 1881); of "Les Affaires 
sont les Affaires" (Mirbeau, 1902); "L'Oreille Fendue" 

Xepoty, 1908). 

B (1) - - Discovery of a Dishonor in the Family of 
Ones Fiancee: - - "L'Absente" (Villemer, 1889). Refine- 
ments of romance, whose mild tragedy consists in retard- 

90 



TWENTY-SEVENTH SITUATION 91 

ing the signature of a contract, and which corresponds also 
to the pseudo-Situation XXX (Forbidden Loves). Some- 
thing of their dullness has already emanated from A 1 
and A 2. 

(2) — Discovery that Ones Wife Has Been Violated 
Before Marriage: -- "Le Secret de Gilberte" (Massiac, 
1890). Since the Marriage: -- "Flore de Frileuse" by 
Bergerat, with comic denouement thanks to a "quid-pro- 
quo." 

(3) — That She Has Previously Committed a Fault: 

— "Le Prince Zilah" (Claretie, 1885); part of Dumas' 
"Denise." Common instances: Marriages through agen- 
cies. 

(4) - - Discovery that Ones Wife Has Formerly 
Been a Prostitute: - "Lena" (Berton and Mme. van 
Velde, 1886). That ones mistress has been a prostitute: 

— "Marion Delorme." The same situation, from the 
{joint of view of "Remorse" (XXXIV), is encountered in 
Zola's "Madeleine." 

(5) - Discovery of Dishonor on the Part of a Lover 
(this also borders upon XXXIV:- "Chamillae" (Feuil- 
let, 1886); "Le Crocodile" (Sardou, L886 . 

(6) Discovery that Ones Mistress, formerly a 
Prostitute, Has Returned to Her Old Life with exten- 
uating circumstances): "La Dame aux Camellias" 
Dumas); "La Courtisane" (Arnyyelde, L905); pari of 
"Manon Lescaut." Bui for feminine cunning, would 
qoI this be the normal course of all "bonnes fortunes?" 

(7) Discovery that Ones lover is a Scoundrel, or 
that Ones Mistress is a Woman of Bad Character: 
"Monsieur Alphonse" by Dumas; "Mensonges" by Emile 
Michelet. Since as Palice remarks) liaisons would lasl 
forever if they were never broken nil', and since the two 
lovers, who certainly know cadi <>t her well, always give as 
the reason of their rupture the title of the present sub- 
class, 1 he conclusion is as easy to draw as it is initial tering 

to the human specie:-,. The Same Discovery Concern- 
ing a So-Called Kinji: "Sire" Lavclan. L909). 

The Same Discovery Concerning Ones Wile: 
"Le Manage d'Olympe" by Augier. 



92 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

C Discovery that Ones Son is an Assassin: — 

"Werner" by Byron; "La Policiere" (Montepin, 1889). 
The surprise is intensified in cases of parricide. Nuance 
C is capable of infinite development. 

D -- Might constitute a distinct situation; there is not 
only the discovery, but the duty of imposing punishment 
as well. This situation might serve as an intermediary 
between the Twenty-Third, "Duty of Sacrificing Kins- 
men," and the Twenty-Seventh, which we are now study- 
ing, and which would thus end with Class C. 

(1) - - Duty of Punishing a Son Who is a Traitor to 
Country: -- The "Brutus" of Voltaire, and of Alfieri. 
A Brother Who is a Traitor to His Party: "Etu- 
diants Russes" by Gilkin. 

(2) - - Duty of Punishing a Son Condemned Under 
a Law Which the Father has Made:- "L'Inflexible" 
(Parodi, 1884); "Le Tribun" (Bourget, 1910); "L'Apotre" 
(Loyson, 1911). 

(3) - - Duty of Punishing a Son Believed to be 
Guilty: - - "Le Regiment" (Mary, 1890) ; "L'As de Trefle" 
( Decourcelle, 1883). This approaches XXXIII (Judicial 
Error). 

(4) - Duty of Sacrificing, to Fulfill a Vow of Tyran- 
nicide, a Father Until then Unknown. This impru- 
dent vow carries us back, at one point, to the Seventeenth 
(Imprudence), and at another point the striking of an 
unknown parent recalls also the Nineteenth. - - "Severo 
Torelli" (Coppee, 1883). 

(5) - - Duty of Punishing a Brother Who is an 
Assassin : - "Casse-Museau" (Marot, 1881). From this 
situation the kinsman-judge escapes for a moment, only 
to fall into D 3, from which he returns with resignation 
to D 5. 

(6) - - Duty of Punishing Ones Mother to Avenge 
Ones Father: -- (Situation IV arrested prematurely): 

- "Le Coeur de Se-hor" (Michaud d'Humiac). The 
Fourth is less in evidence in "Simone" (Brieux, 1908). 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION 
OBSTACLES TO LOVE 
(Two Lovers; an Obstacle) 

A (1) - Marriage Prevented by Inequality of 

Rank: - "NiteW and "The Chinese Hero" by Metas- 
tasio: "Le Prince Soleil" (Vasseur, 1889); second act of 
"La Vie Publique" (Fabre, 1901); "Ramuntcho" (Pierre 
Loti, 1908); "L'EmigrS" (Bourget, 1908). This is the 
sentimental-philosophical Situation of a great number of 
eighteenth century works ("Nanine," etc. ), in which a lord 
invariably falls in love with a peasant girl. In ( leorge 
Sand, on the contrary, it is always a lady who is in love 
with a man of inferior rank; a sort of literature which at 
least has inspired many gallanl adventures of our own 
time. The addition of one more little obstacle the 
marriage bond furnishes the pretexl for the real intrigue 
of "Ruy Bias." 

2 Inequality of Fortune an Impediment to 
Marriage: "Myrtille" and in part "Friend Fritz" by 
Erckmann-Chatrian; "L'Abbe Constantin" by Halevy; 
"La Petite Amir" Brieux, L902); "La Plus Faible" 
(Prevost, L904 ; "La Veuve Joyeuse" (Meilhac, Leon and 
Stein. L909 : "!-<• Danseur Inconnu'* Bernard, L909): 
"La Petite Chocolatiere" Gavault, L909); "Primeroser 

"Le Kevc" from Zola's story by Bruneau); in fiction; 

"Le Bonheur <\<-> Lames" to mention only the more 
estimable works, leaving ;Lside the endless number of 
trivial plays imitative of Scribe, and the Romances of 

9a 



94 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Poor Young Men, Dames Blanches, etc., which make our 
ears ring with confusing additions and subtractions, until 
the unexpected final multiplication - "deus ex machina" 
- which suddenly equalizes the two terms of the problem, 
the two fortunes of the lovers, with the most admirably 
symmetrical alignment of parallel zeros -- preceded, oh 
joy! oh bliss! on one side as on the other, by two identical 
figures ! 

It must of course be recognized that these social and 
conventional inequalities are mere puerile details, and that 
the lovers, if they have but a little courage and sincerity, 
will overcome them without difficulty; they can do so by 
simply leaving behind them titles and money, and in a 
new country, under other names, bravely beginning life 
again together. If, instead of such bagatelles, we might 
only be sometimes shown the more serious obstacles of 
inequality of ages, of characters, of tastes — which are at 
the same time so much more common ! 

They are, indeed, so frequent that a general theory 
might be established with regard to them. The first love 
(twenty years) seeks in its object equality of rank and 
superiority of age (this is a fact well known to those who 
have studied the cases of girl-mothers); the second love, 
and in general the second period of emotional life (thirty 
years), addresses itself, audacity having been acquired, to 
superiors in rank but equals in age; finally, the third love, 
or in a more general way the third epoch of sentimental 
life, inclines by preference to those who are younger and 
socially inferior. Naturally, subdivision is here possible. 

B - - Marriage Prevented by Enemies and Contin- 
gent Obstacles: --"Sieba" (Manzotti, 1883); "Et Ma- 
Soeur?" (Rabier, 1911); "Le Peche* de Marthe" (Roch- 
ard, 1910); all fairy-plays, since the "Zeam" of Gozzi. In 
fine, a sort of steeple-chase process adapts itself to this 
situation, but the chase is not one in which several rival 
steeds and riders engage; throughout its course but a 
single couple enters upon it, to end at the shining goal with 
the usual somersault. 

C (1) - - Marriage Forbidden on Account of the 
Young Woman's Previous Betrothal to Another: — 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION 95 

"II Re Pastore" by Metastasio; and other pieces without 
number. The lovers will die if separated, so they assure 
us. We see them make no preparations to do so, but the 
spectator is good enough to take their word for it; the 
ardors, the "braises" - to use the exact language of the 
"grand siecle" -and other nervous phenomena in hypo- 
chondriacs of this sort cannot but offer some interest — 
not, however, for long. 

(2) The Same Case, Complicated by an Imagi- 
nary Marriage of the Beloved Object: - - "Les Bleus de 
l'Amour" (Coolus, 1911). 

D (1) -A Free Union Impeded by the Opposition 
of Relatives:--"^ Divorce" (Bourget, 1908); "Les 
Lys" (Wolf and Leroux, 1908). 

(2) - Family Affection Disturbed by the Parents- 
in-Law: - "Le Roman d'Elise" (Richard, 1885); "Le 
Poussin" (Guiraud, 1908). 

E - By the Incompatibility of Temper of the 
Lovers: "Montmartre" (Frondaie, 1911). "Les Angles 
du Divorce" (Biollay) belongs both to E and to D 2. 

F Love- bui enough of this! What are we doing, 
co-spectators in this hall, before this pretended situation? 
Upon the stage are our two young people, locked in close 
embraces or conventionally attitudinizing in purely theat- 
rical poses. Wha1 is there in all this worth remaining for? 
Let us leave it . . . What, Madame, you straighten 
yourself in your chair and crane your neck in excitement 
over the gesticulations of the "jeune premier?" Bui his 
sweetheart there beside him have you forgotten that 
il is she whom he desires, or are the two of them playing 
so badly, is their dialogue so little natural that you forget 
the Story enacted and fondly imagine yourself listening to 

a monologue a declaration addressed to you alone? And 

Monsieur there, With mouth open, eyes starting from his 
head, following with avidity every movement of the 

actress's lithe figure! Quick, nrj good man, another will 
be before you 1 Be consistent, a1 least! Spring upon the 
stage, break the insipid dandy's bones, and take his place! 



96 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Sorry return to promiscuity, in our overheated halts 
like lupanars, which the clergy is not altogether unreason- 
able in condemning! Do people gather here simply to 
study amatory manifestations? In that case, why not 
freely open training schools for courtesans? Is it for the 
benefit of the sidewalk traffic, later in the evening, that 
the public is here being prepared? 

fresh and stormy winds of Dionysian drama! Aeschy- 
lus where art thou who wouldst have blushed to represent 
aught of amorous passion but its crimes and infamies? 
Do we not, even yet, perceive the heights to which rise 
those chaste pinnacles of modern art, "Macbeth" and 
"Athalie?" 

But why disturb ourselves? Turning our eyes from 
these summits to the scene before us, we do not feel 
depression; indeed, we indulge in a hearty laugh. These 
characters here before us? Why, they are but puppets 
of comedy, nothing more. And the effort of their mis- 
guided authors to make them serious and tragic despite 
their nature has resulted in mere caricature. In more 
intelligent hands, have not the best of our dramas wherein 
love is important (but not of the first importance, as in 
this XXVIII) returned logically and naturally to an indul- 
gence of smiles? "he Cid," which is the classic type of 
this sort, is a tragi-comedy, and all the characters sur- 
rounding Romeo and Juliet are frankly comic. 

Nevertheless, our blind dramaturgy, with continued 
obstinacy, still breathes forth its solemnities in this equivo- 
cal rhythm. Whether the piece treats of sociology, of 
politics, of religion, of questions of art, of the title to a 
succession, of the exploitation of mines, of the invention 
of a gun, of the discovery of a chemical product, of it mat- 
ters not what --a love story it must have; there is no 
escape. Savants, revolutionists, poets, priests or generals 
present themselves to us only to fall immediately to love- 
making or match-making. It becomes a mania. And we 
are asked to take these tiresome repetitions seriously! 

This, then, is the actual stage of today. In my opinion, 
de Chirac alone has shown himself its courageously logical 



TWENTY-EIGHTH SITUATION 97 

son - - although a rejected one, - - society, like an aged 
coquette, reserving always some secret sins, and fearing 
nothing so much as nudity, which would destroy the legend 
of her imaginary wicked charms, veiled, she willingly lets 
it be supposed, under her hypocrisy. 

How grotesque an aspect will our ithyphallic obsession 
present, once it is crystallized in history, when we shall 
finally have returned to antique common sense! 



TWENTY-NINTH SITUATION 
AN ENEMY LOVED 

(The Beloved Enemy; the Lover; the Hater) 

A - The Loved One Hated by Kinsmen of the 
Lover. The preceding Situation might very well be 
absorbed into this. 

(1) - The Lover Pursued by the Brothers of His 
Beloved : - "The Duchess of Main" by Webster; "The 
Broken Heart" by Ford. 

(2) -The Lover Hated by the Family of His 
Beloved: -- "The Story of Yayati" by Roudradeva (with 
the characteristic color of these Hindu rivalries, wherein 
jealousy is hardly perceptible); "The Victory of Prady- 
oumna" by Samara Dikchita; Metastasio's "Cato;" "La 
Grande Marniere" (Ohnet, 1888). 

(3) The Lover is the Son of a Man Hated by the 
Kinsmen of His Beloved: - "La Taverne des Trabans" 
and "Les Rantzau" by Erckmann-Chatrian. In comic 
vein: "Dieu ou pas Dieu," a romance by Beaubourg. 

(4) - The Beloved is an Enemy of the Party of the 
Woman Who Loves Him: "Madhouranirouddha" by 
Vira, the contemporary of Corneille; "Les Scythes" by 
Voltaire; "Almanzor" by Heine; "Lakme"' by Delibes; 
"Les Carbonari" (No. 1882); "Madame The>ese" by 
Erckmann-Chatrian; "Lydie" (Miral, 1882); "Les Ama- 
zones" (Mazel); "Les Oberle" (Bazin, 1905); "Les Noces 
Corinthiennes" (France); "l'Exode" (Fauchois, 1904). 

98 



TWENTY-NINTH SITUATION 99 

B ( 1 ) The Lover is the Slayer of the Father of 
His Beloved : - - "Le Cid" (and the opera drawn from it) ; 
"Olympie" by Voltaire. 

(2) - The Beloved is the Slayer of the Father of her 

Lover: --"Mademoiselle de Bressier" (Delpit, 1887). 

(3) - The Beloved is the Slayer of the Brother of 
Her Lover: - "La Reine Fiammette" (Mendes, 1889). 

(4) - The Beloved is the Slayer of the Husband of 
the Woman Who Loves Him, But Who Has Pre- 
viously Sworn to Avenge that Husband:- "Irene" 
by Voltaire. 

(5) - The Same Case, Except that a Lover, Instead 
of a Husband, Has Been Slain: "Fedora" (Sardou, 

1882). 

(6) The Beloved is the Slayer of a Kinsman of the 
Woman Who Loves Him: "Romeo and Juliet," this 
situation being modified by that of "Abduction" (elope- 
ment), then, with triple effect by XXX VI, "Loss of Loved 
Ones;" the firsl time mistakenly, the second time simply 
and actually, the third time doubly and simultaneously 
to both the families of the principal characters; "l'Ancetre" 
I Saint -Saens and Lassus > : "Fortune and Misfortune of a 
Name" and "His Own Gaoler" by Calderon. 

The Beloved is the Daughter of the Slayer of 
Iler Lover's Father: "Le Crime de .lean Morel" 
imson, L890 ; "La Marchande de Sourires" (.Judith 
Gautier, L888 . 

The chief emotional elemenl thus remains the same as 
in the Fifth (Pursuit i, and Love here serves especially to 
presenl the pursued man under various favorable lights 

which have a certain unity. She whom he loves here 

plays, to some Bmall extent, the role of the Greek chorus. 

Suppress the love interest, replace it with any other tie, 

however weak, or even leave nothing in its place, and a 

play of the type of Situation Y, with all its terrors, will 
still remain. Attempt, oil the contrary, to curtail the 

other interest, the enmity to soften the vengeance 



100 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

and to substitute any other element of difference or leave 
their place unfilled, and what will remain of tragic emo- 
tion? Nothing. 

We have, then, reason to conclude that love --an excel- 
lent motif for comedy, better still for farce - - sweet or 
poignant as it may be in stories read in solitude, of which 
we can fancy ourselves hero or heroine, love is not, in real- 
ity, tragic, despite the virtuosity which has sometimes 
succeeded in making it appear so, and despite the preva- 
lent opinion of this age of erotomania, which is now 
approaching its end. 



THIRTIETH SITUATION 
AMBITION 

(An Ambitious Person; a Thing Coveted; an 
Adversary) 

A highly intellectual type of action is here presented, 
for which there is no antique model, and from which 
mediocrity usually keeps a respectful distance. 

A -- Ambition Watched and Guarded Against by a 
Kinsman or a Patriot Friend: (1) - By a Brother: 

Timoleon" by Alfieri. Historic instance (comic, that 
is to say, feigned), Lucien and Napoleon Bonaparte. 

2 By a Relative or Person Under Obligation: 

"Julius Caesar" by Shakespeare, "La Mort de Caesar" 
by Voltaire; "Brutus II" by Allien. In "La Mort de 
( laesar" there is a reappearance of I he Nineteenth (Slaying 
of a Kinsman Unrecognized), so strong was the desire to 
recall the works of antiquity! 

:: By Partisans: "\\ allenslein" by Schiller; 

"Cromwell" by Hugo; "Marius Vaincu" (Mortier, 1!)11). 

B Rebellious Ambition (akin to VIII, A I): 

"Sir Thomas Wyat " by Webster; "I'erkin Warbeck" by 
Ford; "Catilina" by Voltaire; Cade's insurrection in the 

second part of Shakespeare's *' Henry IV." 

(' 1 Ambition and Covetousness Heaping 

Crime l pon Crime: "Macbeth" and "Richard III;" 
"Ezzelino A. Mussato); pari of the "Cinq Doigts de 
Birouk" (Decourcelle, 1883); "La-Bete Feroce" (Jules 
Mary and Emile Rochard, L908); "La Vie Publique" 
(Fabre, L901). In comedy: "Ubu-roi" (Jarry). In ftc- 

101 



102 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

tion: "La Fortune des Rougon" (with criminality atten- 
uated to simple want of dignity) ; "Son Excellence Eugene" 
(sacrifice of morality); the story of Lucien de Rubempr£; 
a case of greed: "La Terre." 

(2) -- Parricidal Ambition: -- "Tullia" by Martelli. 

Ambition, one of the most powerful of passions, if it 
be not indeed the passion par excellence will always affect 
the spectator strongly, for he feels and knows that, once 
awakened in a man, it will cease only with his death. And 
how many are the objects of its desire ! Tyrannical power, 
high rank, honors, fortune (by inheritance, marriage, rob- 
bery, etc.), the conservation of riches (avarice), glory 
(political, scientific, literary, inventive, artistic), celeb- 
rity, distinction. 

We have seen in Class A the ties which may unite the 
ambitious one and his adversary and the Situations which 
may result from them (XIX, XXIII, XXIV). 

Here is one way among many to intensify the fury of 
C: mingle w th it the sincerity of a faith, of a conviction; 
such a combination is found in the case of the Spaniards 
in Peru and in Flanders, and in the case of our own "gentle 
and intellectual" race under- the League and under the 
Terror; in the case of Calvin, and of the Inquisition. 



THIRTY-FIRST SITUATION 
CONFLICT WITH A GOD 

(A Mortal; an Immortal) 



Most anciently treated of all Situations is this struggle. 
Into its Babel of dramatic construction all or nearly all of 
the others may easily enter. For this is the strife supreme; 
it is also the supreme folly and the supreme imprudence. 
It offers the most unprecedented aims of ambitions, auda- 
cious enterprises, titanesque conspiracies, Ixionian abduc- 
tions; the most fascinating of enigmas; the Ideal here 
undergoes a rare assault of passions; prodigious rivalries 
develop. As for the surrounding witnesses, does not their 
sympathy often go to him whom they should hate? 
learning of his crime, it is not sometimes their duty to 
punish him themselves, to sacrifice him to their faith, or 
to sacrifice themselves for him? Between the dearest of 
kindred, hatreds will break forth. Then comes the storm 
of disaster, the vanquished one hound to misfortune, 
crushed before those whom he loves, unless, acme of 
horror he has, in a transport of blind delirium, dis- 
honored or massacred them unknowingly. Suppliants. 

seeking the lost loved one, advance sad theories and 

endeavor t<» disarm rancor, hut the divine vengeance 

lias been unchained! 

108 



104 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

This remarkable grouping has been in our day almost 
entirely ignored. Byronists as we still are, "bon gre" mal 
gre\" we might yet dream of this superb onslaught on the 
heavens. But no! - - we treat even the evangelical sub- 
ject of the Passion, while we pass by, like owls in broad 
daylight, this genuinely dramatic situation, and content 
ourselves with sanctimoniously intoning the idyllo-didac- 
tic phrases which preceded the sacred tragedy, - - itself 
left unseen. 

A (1) -Struggle Against a Deity: --"The ^don- 
ians" and "The Bassarides," "Pentheus" and "The Wool- 
Carders" by Aeschylus; "The Bacchantes" of Euripides; 
the "Christ Suffering" of Saint Gregory Nazianzen. Epic: 
the sixth Homeric hymn (to Dionysos); the dream of 
Jacob. 

(2) - - Strife with the Believers in a God: -- "The 
Exodus of the Hebrews" by Ezekiel; "L'Empereur Julien" 
(Miracle of Notre-Dame, XIV Century); "Athalie." 
Historic instances: various persecutions. Epic: "Les Mar- 
tyrs." 

B (1) - Controversy With a Deity: --"The Book 

of Job." I cannot give, it is true, the date nor the place 
of the "premier" of "Job." But the fact of actual repre- 
sentation by Messieurs A, B and C and Misses X, Y and Z 
is no more an indispensable condition to the existence of 
true drama than it is an all-sufficient one. We may hold 
that the "premier" was given in that great Theatre of 
which Brahmanic legend tells; a Theatre inaugurated long 
before that of man, and thanks to which the gods may 
occupy the leisures of their eternity. 

(2) - Punishment for Contempt of a God: — 

"Tchitra Yadjgna" by Vedyantha Vatchespati; "Le 
Festin de Pierre" (meaning the real action, which from 
the beginning leads toward the denouement). 

(3) -Punishment for Pride Before a God:- 

Aeschylus' "Ajax Locrian" (according to one hypothesis); 
Sophocles' "Thamiras;" Euripides' "Bellerophon." A 
Christian example: Simon the Magician. 



THIRTY-FIRST SITUATION 105 

(4) - - Presumptuous Rivalry with a God: - "The 
Nurses" by Aeschylus; "Niobe" by Sophocles; "La Mere 
du Pape" (Miracle of Notre-Dame, XIV Century). 

(5) - Imprudent Rivalry with a Deity: - Sopho- 
cles' "Eumele;" in part "Phaeton" by Euripides. 

May it not be possible that we shall one day see treated 
from the point of view of this Situation, the pathetic death 
of Guyot-Dessaigne, Minister of Justice? 



THIRTY-SECOND SITUATION 

MISTAKEN JEALOUSY 

(The Jealous One; The Object of Whose Possession He 

Is Jealous; the Supposed Accomplice; the Cause 

or the Author of the Mistake) 

The last element is either not personified (A), or per- 
sonified in a traitor (B), who is sometimes the true rival 
of the Jealous One (C). 

A (1) - The Mistake Originates in the Suspicious 
Mind of the Jealous One: - "The Worst is not Always 
Certain" by Calderon; Shakespeare's "Comedy of Errors;" 
"The Bondman" by Massinger; the "Marianne" of Dolse 
and of Tristan l'Hermite; "Tancrede" and "Marianne" 
by Voltaire; "la Princesse de Bagdad" by Dumas; "Un 
Divorce" (Moreau, 1884); "Monna Vanna" (Maeterlinck, 
1902). How is it that Moliere has not written a comedy 
of jealousy upon this Situation symmetrical to that of 
"LAvare?" 

(2) - - Mistaken Jealousy Aroused by a Fatal 
Chance - - Voltaire's "Zaire" and the opera of that name 
by de la Nux; part of "Lucrece Borgia." In comedy: "La 
Divorcee" (Fall and L6on, 1911). 

(3) - - Mistaken Jealousy of a Love Which is Purely 
Platonic: - "Love's Sacrifice" by Ford (in which the 
wife is unjustly suspected). "L'Esclave du Sevoin" 

Yalnay, 1881, in which it is more particularly the respect- 

10G 



THIRTY-SECOND SITUATION 107 

ful admirer who is wrongly suspected). Of a Flirt: — 
"Suzette" (Brieux, 1908) ; "Four Times Seven are Twenty- 
Eight" (Coolus, 1909). 

(4) — Baseless Jealousy Aroused by Malicious 
Rumors: -- "Le Pere Prodigue" by Dumas; "le Maitre 
de Forges" (Ohnet, 1883). 

B (1) — Jealousy Suggested by a Traitor Who is 
Moved by Hatred: Shakespeare's "Othello" and 
"Much Ado about Nothing;" "Semiramide Riconosciuta" 
by Metastasio presents the fully -developed denouement 
of it. 

(2) - - The Same Case, in Which the Traitor is 
Moved by Self-interest: - - Shakespeare's "Cymbeline;" 
"La Fille du Roi d'Espagne" (Miracle of Notre-Dame, 
XIV Century). 

(3) The Same Case, in Which the Traitor is 
Moved by Jealousy and Self-interest: "Love and 
Intrigue" by Schiller. 

C 1 Reciprocal Jealousy Suggested to Hus- 
band and Wife by a Rival: -"The Portrait" by Mas- 
singer. 

(2) - Jealousy Suggested to the Husband by a Dis- 
missed Suitor: Voltaire's "Artemire;" "Le Chevalier 
.I.-un" (Joncieres, L885 . 

3 Jealousy Suggested to the Husband by a 
Woman Who is in l.ove with llim: "Malheur au\ 

Pauvres" ( Bouvier, L881 1. 

1 Jealousy Suggested to the Wife by a Scorned 
Rival: "The Phtiotides" of Sophocles. 

5 Jealousy Suggested to a Happy lover by the 
Deceived Husband: "Jalousie" (Vacquerie, L888). 

The number of dramatic elements brought into play 
already enables us to foresee many combinations for this 
Situation, whose improbabilities the public is always dis- 
posed to accept, however greal they may be. Withoul 

abusing this indulgence, we may remark, even at fir I 
glance, thai almost all t In • dramas above cited treal of 



108 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

jealousy on the part of a man, whereas experience teaches 
us that woman is quite as ready as man to let herself be 
the envious, by a rival, or by a suitor bent upon securing 
for himself, through the anger aroused, a pleasure other- 
wise out of his reach. Transference to the feminine of the 
cases already considered will thus furnish a series of new 
situations. Besides pride, self-interest, love, spite and 
rivalry, many other motives present themselves for the 
traitor or traitress; the motives mentioned may also be 
painted in colors yet unused. The denouement (usually 
a murder, in some cases a suicide, in others a divorce) may 
be varied, subtilized or strengthened by secondary and 
instrumental characters. The same may be said for the 
various knots of the intrigue, for those false proofs, those 
diabolic suggestions from which the jealousy springs. 

Under the form of "jealous spite" this situation has 
been used by Moliere and other writers of comedy for the 
purpose of filling in - - through the agitations it causes 
the principal lovers - - the vacancies of the picture with 
minor characters. 



THIRTY-THIRD SITUATION 

ERRONEOUS JUDGMENT 

(The Mistaken One; the Victim of the Mistake; the 
Cause or Author of the Mistake; the Guilty Person.) 

(Any sort of mistaken judgment may here be under- 
stood, even though committed only in the thought 
of one person to the detriment of another.) 

A (1) False Suspicion Where Faith is Neces- 
sary: "The Serpent Woman" by Gozzi; "L'Etudiant 
Pauvre" Milloecker, 1889). One of the facets of 
"Henry V" is connected somewhat remotely with this 
situation, the incomprehension of the young prince's 
peal character by the witnesses of his disorders. Dumas 
pen- has represented Henri de Navarre as misunder- 
stood in the same way by his entourage. 

(2 False Suspicion in which the je;d<»usy is not 
without reason) Of a Mistress: Pari of "Diane" by 
Augier; "Marie Stuart" by Allien. 

3 False Suspicions Aroused by a Misunder- 

stood \ 1 1 i t licit- Of B Loved One: "The Kaven" by 

Gozzi; "Hypsipile" by Metastasio; "Theodora" (Sardou, 
i ; pari of "La Reine Fiammetta;" "Le Voleur" 
Bernstein, L906 : "Les Grands" (Weber and Basset, 
L909 : "Coeur Maternel" (Franck, L91 1 , 

1 Bj indifTerence: "Crainquebille" Prance, 
L909 : "le Vierge" Valletta , 

109 



110 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

B 1 -False Suspicions Drawn Upon Oneself to 
Save a Friend: "Aimer Sans Savoir Qui" by Lope; 
"Mme. Ambros" (Widor, 1885). 

(2) - They Fall Upon the Innocent: - - "Siroes" by 
Metastasio; "La Grande Iza" (Bouvier, 1882); "Le 
Fiacre No. 13" and "Gavroche" (Dornay, 1887 and 
1888); "L'Affaire des Poisons" (Sardou, 1907); "Les 
Pierrots" (Grillet, 1908). Upon the Innocent Hus- 
band of the Guilty One: - - "La Criminelle" (Delacour, 
1882). 

(3) - The Same Case as 2, but in Which the Inno- 
cent had a Guilty Intention: -- "Jean C£venol" 
(Fraisse, 1883). In Which the Innocent Believes 
Himself Guilty: - "Le Roi de l'Argent" (Milliet, 1885); 
"Poupees Electriques" (Marinetti). 

(4) - - A Witness to the Crime, in the Interest of 
a Loved One, Lets Accusation Fall Upon the Inno- 
cent: -"Le Secret de la Terreuse" (Busnach, 1889). 

C (1) - - The Accusation is Allowed to Fall Upon 
an Enemy: "La Pieuvre" (Morel, 1885). 

(2) - The Error is Provoked by an Enemy: - - "The 
Palamedes" of Sophocles and of Euripides; "Le Ventre 
de Paris" (Zola, 1887); "Le Roi Soleil" (Bernese, 1911); 
"L'Homme a Deux Tetes" (Forest, 1910). This nuance 
alone, it will be observed, attracted the Greek trage- 
dians, who were, so to speak, tormented by a vague 
conception of the Iago of a later age and who tried, 
in a succession of distorted types, to produce it; we 
seem, in these works, to be assisting at the birth of the 
future Devil; of the evangelic Judas -~ and at that of 
the type of Jesus in Prometheus and Dionysos. This 
nuance C 2 seems to me a singularly fine one; it is, for 
instance, that of the "anonymous letter," and it will be 
admitted that a more admirably repugnant gargoyle 
cannot be imagined than the creature who crouches 
with pen in claw and malignant smile, to begin such a 
piece of work! 

The Mistake is Directed Against the Victim 
by Her Brother: (here is included also the Twelfth, 



THIRTY-THIRD SITUATION 111 

"Hatred of Kinsmen") :-- "The Brigands" by Schiller; 
"Don Garzia" by Alfieri. 

D (1) - - False Suspicion Thrown by the Real 
Culprit Upon One of His Enemies: -- Corneille's 
"Clitandre," and "Sapho" (Gounod, 1884); "Catharine 
la Batarde" (Bell, 1881). 

(2) -Thrown by the Real Culprit Upon the 
Second Victim Against Whom He Has Plotted from 
the Beginning: - "Le Crime d'un Autre" (Arnold and 
Renauld, 1908). This is pure Machiavellianism, obtain- 
ing the death of the second victim through an unjust 
punishment for the murder of the first. Add to this the 
closest relationship between the two victims and the 
deceived judge, and we have all these emotions assem- 
bled: discovery of the death of a relative; supposed 
discovery of an impious hatred between two relatives; 
belief even in a second case of crime, aggravated this 
time by a scheme of revolt; finally the duty of con- 
demning a loved one believed in be guilty. This plot 
then, is a masterly one, since it groups, under the im- 
pulsion of an ambition or a vengeance, four other Sit- 
uations. As for the "Machiavellianism" which has 
set it all in motion, it consists, for him who employs it, 
precisely in the method which is habitual to writers, a 
method here transferred to a single character; lie ab- 
stracts himself, SO to speak, from the drama, and, like 
the author, inspires in other characters the necessan 
feelings, unrolls before their steps the indispensable 
circumstances, in order thai they may mechanically 
move toward the denouement be desires. Thus is de- 
veloped the "Artaxerce" of Metastasio. 

Suppress the pari of the villain, and suppose for s 
moment thai the author has planned the denouemenl 
desired by this traitor; the bringing about of the most 
cruel results from a "supposed fratricide" and the "duty 
of condemning a son." The author cannol otherwise 
combine his means to produce it. The type of the 
Villain who has successively appeared in many guises) 
is nothing else than the author himself, masked in black, 



112 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

and knotting together two or three ' dramatic situations. 
He belongs, this type, to the family of the poetic Pro- 
logue, of the "Deus ex machina" (although more admis- 
sible) of the Orator of the parabases, of the Molieresque 
Valet, and of the Theorist (the good doctor, clergyman, 
journalist, "family friend"). He is in short the old 
Narrator of the monodramas. Nothing could be more 
naif, consequently, than this creature, whose uncon- 
vincing artificiality has spoiled many a scene. 

(3) - - False Suspicion Thrown Upon a Rival- 

"Diana" (Paladilhe, 1885); "L'Ogre" (Marthold, 1890); 
"La Boscotte" (Mme. Maldagne, 1908). 

(4) - Thrown Upon One Innocent, Because He 
Has Refused to be an Accomplice:- "Valentinian" 
by Beaumont and Fletcher; "Aetius" by Metastasio. 

(5) - Thrown by a Deserted Mistress Upon a 
Lover Who Left Her Because He Would Not Deceive 
Her Husband: -- "Roger-la-Honte" (Mary, 1888). 

(6) - - Struggle to Rehabilitate Oneself and to 
Avenge a Judicial Error Purposely Caused:- "La 

Degringolade" (Desnard, 1881); the end of "Fiacre 
No. 13." 



THIRTY-FOURTH SITUATION 

REMORSE 

(The Culprit; the Victim or the Sin; the Interrogator) 

A 1 Remorse for an Unknown Crime: 
"Manfred" and other creations of Byron; the last of 
the great English dramatists, he was likewise the last 
adversary of Cant, which, having killed art in Spain 
under the name of the Inquisition, in England the first 
time under the name of Puritanism and in Germany 
under the name of Pietism, today presents itself in 
France, in the guise of ... Monsieur Berenger. 

Remorse for a Parricide: "The Eumenides" 
of Aeschylus; the "Orestes*' of Euripides, of Voltaire 
and of Alfieri; "Le Goitre" (Verhaeren). 

3 Remorse for an Assassination: "(rime ami 
Punishment" Dostoievsky, L888); "Le CoeUT Ivevela- 

teur" after Poe, by Aumann, 1889). For a .Judicial 
Murder: "L'Eclaboussure" Geraldy, L910). 

(A) Remorse for the Murder of Husband or 
Wife: 'Therese Raquin" by Zola; "Pierrot, Assassin 

de sa l-'emme" pan] Marguentte, 18B8 . 

B l Remorse for a Fault of Love: "Made- 
leine" Zola, L889 , 

2 Remorse for an Adultery: "Count Witold" 
Rzewuski, L889 ; "Le Scandale" Bataille, L909). 

With P> l there are connected, in one respect, the 
plays classed in A l of Situation XXVII. 

LIS 



114 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Need I call attention to the small number, but the 
terrible beauty, of the above works? Is it necessary 
to indicate the infinite varieties of Remorse, according 
to; 1st, the fault committed (for this, enumerate all 
crimes and misdemeanors included in the legal code, 
plus those which do not fall under any law; the fault, 
moreover, may at the writer's pleasure be real or imag- 
inary, committed without intention, or intended but 
not committed - - which permits a "happy ending" - 
or both intended and committed; premeditated or not, 
with or without complicity, outside influences, sub- 
tlety, or what not); 2nd, the nature, more or less im- 
pressionable and nervous, of the culprit; 3rd, the sur- 
roundings, the circumstances, the morals which pre- 
pare the way for the appearance of Remorse - - that fig- 
ure plastic, firm and religious among the Greeks, the 
beneficially enervating phantasmagoria of our Middle 
Ages; the pious dread of a future life in recent centuries; 
the disturbance of the equilibrium of the social instincts 
and consequently of the mind according to the inferences 
of Zola, etc. 

With Remorse is connected the Fixed Idea; through 
its perpetual action it recalls Madness or Criminal Pas- 
sion. Often it is but "remorse for a desire," remorse 
the more keen in that the incessantly reviving desire 
nourishes it, mingles with it, and, growing like a sort 
of moral cancer, saps the soul's vitality to the point of 
suicide, which is itself but the most desperate of duels. 
"Rene," Werther," the maniac of the "Coeur Re>61a- 
teur" and of Berenice" (I refer to that of Edgar Poe) 
and especially Ibsen's "Rosmersholm," offer significant 
portraits of it. 



THIRTY-FIFTH SITUATION 

RECOVERY OF A LOST ONE 

(The Seeker; the One Found) 

This is the Situation of "The Hero and the Nymph" 
by Kalidasa; the second part of his "Sakuntala," and 
the "Later Life of Rama" by Bhavabuti; the second 
part also of "A Winter's Tale" and "Pericles" by Shakes- 
peare; likewise of "Berthequine" and of "Bertha au 
Grand Pied" Miracles of Notre- Dame, XIV Century); 
of almost all of "La Reine Aux Trois Fils," another 
Miracle; it is the Situation of "Thyestes in Sicyon" 
by Sophocles and of "Alcmeon in Corinth" by Suri- 
pides. It is the denouement of "Pere Chasselas" (Athis, 
1886); "Foulards Rouges" (Dornay, 1882); "La Gar- 
dienne" (Henri de Regnier); it is the old familiar plot 
of the "stolen child" and of stories of foundlings; of 
arbitrary imprisonments, from the Man in the Iron 
Mask upon whom Hugo began a drama) and "Richard 
Coeur-dc-Lion" down to recent tales of sane persons 
confined as lunatics. It is the point from which bursts 
forth so frequently thai double explosion of the prin- 
cipal Bcene; My daughter I My mother!" 

Classes A and C Of Situation XI move toward the 
same end. 

In other cases il is the part of the child to discover 

his father, his kinsman, and to make himself known; 
thus i' is in the "Enfances Roland;" in "Lea Bnfants 
du Capitaine Grant" by Jules Verne and "lea Aventures 
de Gavroche" Darlay and Marot, L909 . 

115 



116 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

To the invariably happy and epithalamic ending to 
our plays built upon this Situation, and to the fortuit- 
ous coincidences with which it has been too generously 
interlarded, I attribute the public's final weariness of 
it. For does not this Situation retain more naturalness 
than the Nineteenth, and how fecund has been that 
Nineteenth, whose charm and tempting variety is all 
possessed by our Thirty-Fifth! 



THIRTY-SIXTH SITUATION 

LOSS OF LOVED ONES 

(A Kinsman Slain; a Kinsman Spectator; an 
Executioner ) 

Here all is mourning. In long funeral processions we 
see them pass, the heroes of this Situation; they move 
from the dark home to the dark church, and from there 
to the cemetery, returning only to weep by the hearth 
until they leave it on the departure of another from 
among them. 

A (1) - Witnessing the Slaying of Kinsmen, 
While Powerless to Prevent It: The "Niobe" and 
"Troilus" of .Ks.-hylus; "Polyxena" and "The Captives" 
of Sophocles; a part of his "Laocoon;" "The Troades" of 
Euripides and of Seneca. 

(2) Helping to Bring Misfortune Upon Ones 
People Through Professional Secrecy: "Les B9.il- 
lonnes" Mine. Terni, lw.i . 

I'. Divining the Death of a Loved One: The 

Intruder" and 'The Seven Princesses" by Maeterlinck. 
the one modern master of the Thirty-Sixth, and how 
powerful a one! 

(' Learning of the Death of a Kinsman or Ally: 
Pari of the 'Tlhesus" attributed i<> Euripides; "Pen- 
thesilea," "Pyschostase" and "The Death of Achilles" 
by Eschylus; "The Ethiopians" of Sophocles. Here 
added the difficull role of the messenger of misfor- 
tune li" who bends beneath the imprecations of 
Cleopatra, in Shakespeare. From comedy: "Cen1 
1 .1 : . Emue " by Torquel . 

117 



118 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

D - Relapse into Primitive Baseness, through 
Despair on Learning of the Death of a Loved One: 

- "La Fille Sauvage" (Curel, 1902). 

But embody, in a human figure, the wrong, the mur- 
der, which is abstract in most of these examples. Still 
bound by his helplessness, how the unfortunate who is 
made a spectator of the agony will struggle, appeal, 
and vainly implore the heavens - the Victim, meantime, 
humbly beseeching him who thus looks on in despair, 
as though he had power to save. The haughty sar- 
donic silhouette of the Executioner dominates the scene, 
intensifying the keenness of the grief by his cynical 
pleasure in it . Dante has conceived of no 

sharper sorrow in the circles of his Inferno. 



CONCLUSION 



To obtain the nuances of the Thirty-Six Situations, 
I have had recourse almost constantly to the same 
method of procedure; for example, I would enumerate 
the ties of friendship or kinship possible between the 
characters; I would determine also their degree of con- 
sciousness, of free-will and knowledge of the real end 
toward which they were moving. And we have seen 
that when it is desired to alter the normal degree of 
discernment in one of the two adversaries, the intro- 
duction of a second character is necessary, the first 
becoming the blind instrument of the second, who is at 
the same time invested with a Machiavellian 'subtlety, 
to such an extent does his part in the action become 
purely intellectual. Thus, clear perception being in the 
one case excessively diminished, it is, in the other, pro- 
portionately increased. Another elemenl for modifying 
all the situations is the energy of the acts which must 
result from them. Murder, for instance, may be 
reduced to a wound, a blow, an attempt, an outrage, an 

intimidation, a threat, a too-hasty word, an intention 
not carried out, a temptation, a thought, a wish, an in- 
justice, a destruction of a cherished object , a refusal, 

a want of pity, an abandonment, a falsehood. If the 

author so desires, this blow (murder or its diminutives) 
may be aimed, not at the object of hatred in person, 
bui at one dear to him. Finally, the murder may be 
multiple and aggravated by circumstances which th< 

law has foreseen. A third method of varying the sit- 
uations: for this or that one of the two adversaries whose 

itruggle constitutes our drama, there may he tubsti- 

119 



120 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

tuted a group of characters animated by a single desire, 
each member of the group reflecting that desire under 
a different light. There is, moreover (as I have already 
shown), no Situation which may not be combined with 
any one of its neighbors, nay, with two, three, four, 
five, six of them and more! Now, these combinations 
may be of many sorts; in" the first case, the situations 
develop successively and logically one from another; 
in the second case they dispose themselves in a dilemma, 
in the midst of which hesitates the distracted hero; in 
the third case, each one of them will appertain to a 
particular group or a particular role; in the fourth, fifth, 
sixth cases, etc., they are represented according to two, 
or according to all three of the cases already brought 
together in one situation, and together they escape from 
it, but the majority of them fall therefrom into a posi- 
tion not less critical, which may even offer but a choice 
between two courses equally painful; after finding a 
way between this Scylla and Charybdis, the very leap 
by which they escape precipitates them into a final 
Situation resulting from the preceding ones, and which 
sweeps them all away together. . . This, be it 

understood, is but one combination among a thousand, 
for I cannot here elaborate the system by which this 
study of the Thirty-Six Situations may be continued, 
and by means of which they may be endlessly multi- 
plied; that is a subject for a separate work upon the 
"Laws of Literary Invention." 

The composition or arrangement of the chosen Sit- 
uations --and at the same time of the episodes and 
characters introduced - - may be deduced in a manner 
somewhat novel and interesting, from the same theory 
of the "Thirty-Six." Considering, in effect, that "every dra- 
matic situation springs from a conflict between two prin- 
cipal directions of effort" (whence at the same time comes 
our dread of the victor and our pity for the vanquished), 
we shall have to choose, at the rising of the curtain, 
between two beginnings; we must decide which of the 
two adversaries pre-exists. This leads us infallibly to 
make of the second the cause (innocent or responsible) 



CONCLUSION 121 

of the drama, since it is his appearance which will be the 
signal for the struggle. The first, who especially enlists 
our attention, is the Protagonist, already present in the 
earliest Thespian tragedy, altogether lyric, descriptive 
and analytic ; the second - - the obstacle arising or super- 
vening - - is the Antagonist, that principle of the action 
which we owe to the objective and Homeric genius of 
iEschylus. One of two strongly opposing colors will 
thus dominate the entire work, acording as we shall 
choose, near the beginning, which of the two parties 
shall possess the greater power, the greater chance of 
victory. 

Aristotle has taught us to distinguish between 
"simple" tragedy (in which the superiority remains 
upon the same side until the end, and in which, conse- 
quently, there is no sudden change of fortune, no sur- 
prise) and "complex" tragedy (the tragedy of surprise, 
of vicissitude), wherein this superiority passes from 
one camp to the other. Our dramatists have since 
refined upon the latter; in those of their pieces which are 
least complicated, they double the change of fortune, 
thus leading ingeniously to the return of the opposed 
powers, at the moment of the specta or's departure, to 
the exact positions which they occupied when he entered 
the hall; in their plays of complicated plot, they triple. 
quadruple, quintuple the surprise, so long as their imag- 
inations and the patience of the public will permit. We 
thus see, in these vicissitudes of struggle, the first means 
of varying a subject. It will not go very far, however, 
since we cannot, however great our simplicity, receive 

from the drama, or from life, more than one thousand 
three hundred and thirty-two surprises. One thousand 
three hundred and thirty-two? Obviously; what is 
any keen surprise if not the passing from a state of 
calm into a Dramatic Situation, or from one Situation 

into another, or again into a state of calm? Perform 
the multiplication; result, one thousand, three hundred 
and thirty-two. 

Shall we now inquire whence arise these vicissitudes, 
these unexpected displacement ol equilibrium? Clearly 



122 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

in some influence, proceeding from a material object, 
a circumstance, or a third personage. Upon this Third 
Actor - whose introduction into the drama was the 
triumph of Sophocles -- must rest what is called the 
Plot. He is the unforeseen element, the ideal striven 
for by the two parties and the surrounding characters; 
he is fantastically divided and multiplied, by two, by 
three, by ten, by even more, to the point of encumbering 
the scene; but he is always himself, always easily recog- 
nizable. Some of his fragments become "Instruments," 
some, "Disputed Objects," some, "Impelling Forces;" 
they range themselves sometimes beside the Protagonist, 
sometimes near the Antagonist, or, moving here and there, 
they provoke that downfall the incessant avoidance of 
which is called - - for events as for mankind - - Progress. 
In this way they clearly show their origin - that "Role- 
Lien" (Jocaste in "Seven Against Thebes," Sabine in 
"Horace") under which the Third Actor was germinating 
in iEschylean tragedy, without yet taking a positive 
part in the action. 

It will be seen that the appearance of these figures 
of the second plan, these Choruses, Confidants, Crowds, 
Clowns, even Figurants re-enforced by those of the 
original groundwork, precursors whose importance 
ranges from Tiresias to the Messenger of "Oedipus the 
King," from prophet to porter, modifies most power- 
fully the effect of the ensemble, especially if we reflect 
that each one of these, considered separately, has his 
own especial motives for action, motives soon appar- 
ent in regard to the characters who surround him, in 
some dramatic situation subordinate to the dominant 
one, but none the less real; the turns and changes of 
the general action will affect him in some particular 
way, and the consequences, to him, of each vicissitude, 
of each effort, of each act and denouement, contribute 
to the spectator's final impression. If the Third Actor, 
for instance, be a Disputed Object, it becomes neces- 
sary to take into account his first and his last posses- 
sor, the diverse relations which he has successively had 
with them, and his own preferences. If he appear as 
Inspirer or Instigator, we must consider (aside from 



CONCLUSION 123 

his degree of consciousness or unconsciousness, of frank- 
ness or dissimulation, and of Will proper) the persever- 
ance which he brings to his undertaking; if he be uncon- 
scious, the discovery which he may make of his own 
unconsciousness; if he be a deceiver, the discoveries 
which others may make of his dissimulation ("others" 
here meaning perhaps a single character, perhaps the 
spectator). These remarks also apply to the "Instru- 
mental" role; and not alone these remarks, but those 
also which concern the "Object," are applicable to the 
Role-Lien. 

I have already observed that this last role, and the 
triple hypostasis of the Third Actor, may be repro- 
duced in numerous exemplars within one play. On the 
other hand, two, three, or all four of them may be fused 
in a single figure, (Lien- Instrumental, Object-Instigator, 
Instrument-Lien-Object, etc.), combinations which pre- 
sent themselves, like the combinations of the Situations, 
already considered, in varied array. Sometimes the 
hero who unites in himself these divers roles plays them 
simultaneously -- perhaps all of them toward an indi- 
vidual or group, perhaps one or several of them toward 
an individual or group, and another role wherein these 
roles mingle, toward some other individual or group; 
sometimes these various roles will be successively played 
toward the same individual or group, or toward several; 
sometimes, finally, the hero plays these roles now simul- 
taneously, and again successively. 

Bui it is not possible to detail in these pages, even 
if I so desired, the second pari of the An of Combina- 
tion; thai which we in Prance call by the Bomewhal 
feeble term as Goethe remarked) "composition." All 
that I have here undertaken to show is, first, thai :i 
single study must create, al the same time, the epi- 
sodes or actions of the characters, and the charactei 
themselves: for upon the stage, what the latter are 
may be known only by what tney do; next, how inven- 
tion and composition, those two modes of the Ait ot 
Combination not Imagination, empty word! will, 



124 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

in our works to come, spring easily and naturally from 
the theory of the Thirty-Six Situations. 

Thus, from the first edition of this little book, I might 
offer (speaking not ironically but seriously) to dramatic 
authors and theatrical managers, ten thousand scen- 
arios, totally different from those used repeatedly upon 
our stage in the last fifty years ****** 
"The scenarios will be, needless to say, of a realistic 
and effective character. I will contract to deliver a 
thousand in eight days. For the production of a single 
gross, but twenty-four hours are required. Prices 
quoted on single dozens. Write or call, No. 19, Passage 
de l'Elysee des Beaux-Arts. The Situations will be 
detailed act by act, and, if desired, scene by scene" 

But I hear myself accused, with much violence, of an 
intent to "kill imagination." "Enemy of fancy!" "De- 
stroyer of wonders!" "Assassin of prodigy!" * * * 
These and similar titles cause me not a blush. 

A singular history, in truth, is that of the "Imagi- 
nation." Certainly no one in classic times thought of 
priding himself upon it. Far from it! Every novelty 
on its first appearance, hastened to support itself by 
appeal to some antique authority. From 1830 dates 
the accession to the literary throne of this charlatan- 
esque "faculty," analysis of which is, it would seem, 
eternally interdicted. The results of this new regime 
were not slow in appearing, and they may be seen, in 
their final decay, among the last successors of ultra- 
romantic Romanticism. Mysterious crime, judicial error, 
followed by the inevitable love affair between the chil- 
dren of slayer and victim; a pure and delicate work- 
ing-girl in her tiny room, a handsome young engineer 
who passes by; a kind-hearted criminal, two police 
spies, the episode of the stolen child; and in conclu- 
sion, for the satisfaction of sentimental souls, a double 
love-match at the very least, and a suicide imposed 
upon the villain - this, one year with another, is the 
product of the Imagination. For the rest, in the whole 



CONCLUSION 125 

field of dramatic romanticism (which corresponds so 
well to the Carrache school of painting) Hugo alone has 
created, thanks to what? - - to a technical process 
patiently applied to the smallest details, - - the antithesis 
of Being and of Seeming. 

One vigorous blow was, for the moment, given to 
this legend of the Imagination by Positivism, which 
asserted that this so-called creative faculty was merely 
the kaleidoscope of our memories, stirred by chance. 
But it did not sufficiently insist upon the inevitably 
banal and monotonous results of these chance stirrings, 
some of our memories - - precisely those least interest- 
ing and least personal -- repeat ing themselves a thou- 
sand times in our minds, returning mercilessly in all 
manner of methodless combinations. These souvenirs 
of innumerable readings of the products of imitation 
in our neo-classic and Romantic past, envelope and 
overwhelm us unless we turn to that observation of 
nature which was pointed out by the Naturalists' initia- 
tive as an element of renovation. Even the Naturalists 
themselves have too often viewed reality athwart their 
bookish recollections; they have estimated too highly 
the power of the artistic temperament, however vig- 
orous it may be, in assuming that it could interpose 
itself, alone and stripped of all convention, by a simple 
effort of will, between Nature and the literary product 
to be engendered. Thus "La Bfite Humaine" has 
repeated the "judicial error" in thai special form which 
is as common in books as il is rare in life; thus the starting- 
point of "L'CEuvre" is merely the converse of the "thesis" 

of the GonCOUllS and l);uie|et; thus reminiscences of 

"Madame Bovary" appear in many a study of similar 
which should, nevertheless, remain quite distinct; 
and thus has appeared, in the Becond generation 
of "nat uralisti ." ;i new school of imitators and tradi- 
tional! 

And all the old marionettes have reappeared, inflated 

with philosophic and poetic amplifications, but too 

often empty of symbolism, as of naturalism and 
humanism. 



L26 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

As to the methods of the Art of Combining, the truth 
may be grasped by one bold look, one triumphant glance 
at all these phantoms of trite thought, as they stand 
in their respective places in the foregoing categories. 
Any writer may have here a starting-point for observa- 
tion and creation, outside the world of paper and print, 
a starting-point personal to himself, original in short, — 
which does not in the least mean improbable or uncon- 
vincing, since many stituations which have today an 
appearance of improbablity have merely been disfigured 
by persons who, not knowing how to create new ones, 
have complicated the old, entangling themselves in 
their own threads. 

Especially will the invention of an unusual story, 
the discovery of a "virgin field," (to use the naturalists' 
term) be made so easy as to be almost valueless. We 
are not unaware of the importance, in the perfecting of 
Greek art, of the fact that it was circumscribed and 
restricted to a small number of legends (CEdipus, 
Agamemnon, Phaedra, etc.,), which each poet had in 
his turn to treat, thus being unable to escape compari- 
son, step by step, with each of his predecessors, so that 
even the least critical of spectators could see what part 
his personality and taste had in the new work. The 
worst which may be said of this tradition is that it ren- 
dered originality more difficult. By a study of the 
Thirty-Six Situations and their results, the same advan- 
tage may be obtained without its accompanying incon- 
venience. Thenceforth Proportion alone will assume 
significance. 

By proportion I mean, not a collection of measured 
formulae which evoke familiar memories, but the 
bringing into battle, under command of the writer, of 
the infinite army of possible combinations, ranged accord- 
ing to their probabilities. Thus, to make manifest 
the truth or the impression which, until now, has been 
perceptible to him alone, the author will have to over- 
look in a rapid review the field before him, and to choose 
such of the situations and such of the details as are 
most appropriate to his purpose. This method — or, 



CONCLUSION 127 

if you will, this freedom and this power - - he will use, 
not only in the choice, the limitation and fertilization 
of his subject, but in his observation and meditation. 
And he will no more run the risk of falsifying, through 
pre-conceived ideas, the vision of reality than does the 
painter, for example, in his application of laws equally 
general, and likewise controlled by constant experi- 
mentation, — the divine laws of perspective! 

Proportion, finally realizable in the calm bestowed by 
complete possession of the art of combining, and recov- 
ering the supreme power long ago usurped by "good 
taste" and by "imagination," will bring about the recog- 
nition of that quality more or less forgotten in modern 
art, - "beauty." By this I mean, not the skilful 
selection of material from nature, but the skilful and 
exact representation -with no groping, no uncertainly, 
no retention of superfluities -of the particular bit of 
nature under observation. 

But it is more than this, for these two definitions, 
the eclectic and the naturalist, concern but a limited 
number of the arts, and but one side of them; thai 
small number to which imitation is open (painting, 
literature of character, and, in a limited way, sculp- 
ture), and that side of them which is purely imitative. 
What sijmificanee have these two definitions (both of 
which real upon the reproduction of reality, the one 
exalting and the other belittling it) if they be eon- 
fronted with Music, with the didactic poetry of a Hesiod, 
with the Vedic incantations, with true statuary, simpli- 
fied and significant , from the mighty chisel-strokes of 
Phidias or of the XIII Century, With purely ornamental 

or decorative art, 'he "beauty" of ;i demonstration 

in geometry, or finally with Architecture, now reviv- 
ing in silence and obscurity, that arl which comes periodi- 
cally i" reunite and, like an ark, to rescue the others, 

that art which shall once more return to lead us away 

from the prematurely senile follies of our delettanti 
and sectarians. 

Upon ;i like heighl stands a principle greater than 

Naturalism with its experimental method, or Ideal- 
ism which gives battle to it, Logic. 



128 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

It is by methods of logic that Viollet-le-Duc has 
enabled us to estimate truly the marvels of our "grand 
siecle," the XIII Century, substituting (to cite only 
this) for the simple admiration of 1830 before each 
stone saint so "picturesquely" perched upon the point 
of an ogive, the builders' explanation: that a stone of 
the exact weight and dimensions of the saint was there 
absolutely necessary, to prevent the breaking of the 
ogive under a double lateral pressure, - - whence the 
instinctive satisfaction it gives our eyes. It is a great 
misfortune that the understanding of that magnificent 
age in which a Saint Louis presided over the multiple 
communal life, an age whose only equal in the world's 
history is that in which Pericles directed, from the 
Athenian metropolis, an identical movement, - - that 
this understanding, which would be so useful to us, 
should have been horribly compromised in the Roman- 
tic carnival. Hugo's "Notre-Dame de Paris," wherein 
the public believed it beheld a portrait of our 
"Moyen-age" (a most absurd appellation, by the way), 
represents it, by a singular choice, as already long dead, 

after the Hundred Years' War which bled us to the 
point where we fell, passive and defenseless, under the 
domination of the Florentine national art called 
"renaissant," and then of various other influences, 
ancient and foreign, during four centuries. And, down 
to the very moment at which I write, the literary pro- 
ductions upon the subject of this most incomparable 
period of our past have been but pitiable affairs. But 
yesterday, a Renan was writing of ogival art as an 
effort which had been impotent ("Souvenirs d'Enfance 
et de Jeunesse") or which at most had fathered works 
of no enduring character ("Priere sur l'Acrople"); the 
very Catholic Huysmans, in his "En Route," was mak- 
ing the most astounding salad of Roman vaulting, 
Primitive painting, Gregorian plain-chant, - - a salad 
whose recipe is "the Faith" and which is called, natur- 
ally, the "Moyen-age," that age which embraces ten 
centuries of humanity, plus one-third of humanity's 
authentic history, three epochs strongly antagonistic 
to each other, peoples widely diverse and opposed; a 



CONCLUSION 129 

something equivalent to a marriage between Alcibiades 
and Saint Genevieve. 

The "Moyen-age," or, to speak more accurately, the 
XII, XIII, and XIV Centuries, were not in the least 
fantastic and freakish; this is the character merely of 
an occasional generation, such as that of Louis- 
Philippe. Neither were they mystic, in the present 
sense of that word. The architecture of those cen- 
turies grew, stone by stone, plan by plan, out of the 
most practical of reasons. In their sculpture there 
was nothing "naive" -the naivete is ours, when we so 
estimate that sculpture, which is far more realistic than 
our own; and if, persisting in the contrary opinion, we 
cling to the weird forms of the gargoyles, it may be 
said that, born of a symbolism akin to those of Egypt 
and Greece, they represent analogies equally ingen- 
ious and profound. In this period arose Thomism, 
lately called back into a position of honor to combat 
Positivism, and which realized so happy a harmony 
between Aristotelianism and Christian faith, between 
science and theology. In this period, too, were born 
the natural sciences, and, in the minds of its poets, 
evolved the laws by which our poetry lives today, tho.se 
rhythms which through Ronsard we still hear, that 
Rhyme which we gave to all Europe, and, ;it the 
same lime, thy groined vaultings, () Utile town of Saint - 
Denis, suzerain oriflamme, pilot-barque of France! All 
these were born, and grew, beneath the grave gaze of 

the same wisdom which, on the Ionian shores, was called 
Athene. 

Toward a new aspect of the same logic OUT own age 
already turns, since, having drunk of that antiquity by 

whose forces We ruleol KiU'ope a second time in the 
XVII Century; having drunk of the laiest of great 

foreign influence-, the Germanic, we .ire returning to 
reality and to 'he future. Thus, when each Greek 

city had absorbed the neighboring local cults its "foreign 

influences") and the Oriental cults the antiquity" 
of that day , the most beautiful of mythologies were 
formed. It i . al least, toward an art purely logical, 



L30 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

purely technical, and of infinitely varied creations, 
that all our literary tendencies seem to me to be con- 
verging. In that direction proceed Flaubert and Zola, 
those rugged pinoeers, Ibsen, Strindberg, and all writers 
deliberately unmindful of their libraries, as the Hellenes 
were of barbarian literature; there moves Maeterlinck, 
having reduced action to the development of a single 
idea; Verlaine, delivering from conventional rules true 
rhythm, which makes for itself its own rules; Mallarm£, 
prince of ellipse, clarifying syntax and expelling clouds 
of our little parasite words and tattered formulae; in 
that direction Moreas calls us, but without freeing 
himself, unfortunately, from the Italianism of our so- 
called Renaissance; all these, and others not less glorious, 
a whole new generation springing up, futurists, "loups," 
cubists, seem to me to be seeking the same goal, the 
final abolition of all absolute authority, even that of 
Nature and of our sciences her interpreters; and the 
erection upon its debris of simple logic, of an art solely 
technical, and thus capable of revealing an unknown 
system of harmony; in brief, an artists' art. 

In literature, in dramatic literature which is the 
special subject of our consideration, the investigation 
of Proportion of which I have above spoken will show 
us the various "general methods" of presenting any 
situation whatever. Each one of these "general 
methods," containing a sort of canon applicable to all 
situations, will constitute for us an "order" analogous 
to the orders of architecture, and which, like them, 
will take its place with other orders, in a dramatic 
"system." But the systems, in their turn, will come 
together under certain rubrics yet more general, com- 
parisons of which will furnish us many a subject for 
reflection. In that which we might call Enchantment, 
there meet, oddly enough, systems as far apart in origin 
as Indian drama; certain comedies of Shakespeare ("A 
Midsummer Night's Dream;" "The Tempest"), the 
"fiabesque" genre of Gozzi, and "Faust;" the Mystery 
brings together the works of Persia, Thespis and the 
pre-Aeschyleans, "Prometheus," the book of "Job," 



CONCLUSION 131 

the stage of the tragic Ezekiel, of Saint Gregory Nazian- 
zen, of Hroswitha, the Jeux and Miracles of our XIII 
Century, the Autos; here, Greek tragedy and the psy- 
chologists' imitations of it; there, English, German and 
French drama of 1830; still nearer, the type of piece 
which from the background of China, through Lope and 
Calderon, Diderot and Geothe, has come to cover our 
stage today. 

It will be remembered that, when we were catalogu- 
ing dramatic production in its thirty-six classes, an 
assiduous effort to establish, for every exceptional case 
found in one of them, symmetrical cases in the other 
thirty-five caused unforseen subjects to spring up under 
our very feet. Likewise, when we shall have analyzed 
these orders, systems and groups of systems, when 
we shall have measured with precision their resem- 
blances and their differences, and classified them, or, 
one by one, according to the questions considered, shall 
have brought them together or separated them, - we 
shall necessarily remark that numerous combinations 
have been forgotten. Among these the New Art will 
choose. 

Would that I might be able to place the first, the 
obscurest foundation-stone of its gigantic citadel! 
There, drawing about her the souls of the poets, the 
Muse shall rise before this audience re-assembled from 
ancient temples, before these peoples who gathered of 
yore around Herodotus and Pindar; she will speak the 
new language 'he Dramatic ;i language too lofty 
for the comprehension of the single soul, however great 
it be, a language not of words but of thrills, such as 
that spoken to armies, a language in truth addressed 

to thee, BaCChU . dispenser of glory, soul of crowds, 

delirium of races, ab tract, but One and Eternal! Not 
in one of our parlor-like pasteboard reductions of the 
Roman demi-circua will this come to pass, but upon b 
sort of mountain, Hooded with light and air, raised, 
thanks to our conquest of iron added t<> the construe- 
tive experience of tne Middle Ages; offered to the nation 
by those who have -till held to the vanity of riches, 



132 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

- a greater thing than the theatre of Dionysos where 
gathered thirty thousand people, greater than that of 
Ephesus wherein sat, joyous, a hundred and fifty thou- 
sand spectators, an immense orifice-like crater in which 
the earth seems to encompass the very heavens. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 

Of the Plays, Novels, Etc., Classified in the Situations 

of this Work 



Abbe Constantin (The), by L. Halevy WYIII 
Abduction of Helen (The), by Lope de Vega X 

Abduction of Helen (The), by Sophocles X 

Abhirama mani, by Soundara Misra X 

Abraham, by the Abbess Hroswitha XX 

Absente (L'), by Yillemer XXVII 

Abufar, by Ducis XVIII 

Achilles in Scyros, by Metastasio XX 

Adelaide Duguesclin, by Voltaire XIV 

Adelghis, by Manzoni \ 

Adrien, by Metastasio XXIV 

Aedonians The by Aeschylus \XX1 

Aegeus, by Guripidi X 1 \ 

Aetius, by Metai tasio XXXIII 

Affaire Clernenceau 1/ , by Duma- lils XXV 
Allaire de La rue de Lourcine L 1 . by LabicheXVl 

Affaire dei Poit oi l.' , by Sardou XX XI II 

Affaires sonl le Affaires Les . by Mirbeau XXVII 

Agamemnon, by Aeschj \ V 

Agathocle, by Voltaire \I\' 

A nave, by Si XXXI 

Age Critique L . bj I XXV 

ili . by ' lorneille X X IV 

by \ilieri Mil 

Agnimitra and Malavika, by Kale! \\l\ 

Aiglon I.' . by Rostand \ 1 1 

Aiu • oir qui, by Lope de \ • XIV 

and XXXIII 

Ajaa iphocle X \ I 

Ajax Locrian, bj XXXI 

1 : ; 



A 


2 


B 




B 




C 


2 


D 




B 


1 


B 


1 


i; 


3 


A 


2 


C 




C 




A 


1 


B 


•J 


1) 


4 


I) 


1 


A 


a 


H 


•< 


A 


a 


A 


i 


A 


•> 


A 


I 


C 


a 


\ 


5 



134 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Ajax Locrian, by Sophocles 

Alcalde of Zalamea (The), by Calderon 

Alceste, by Sophocles 

by Euripides 
" by Buchanan 

by Hardy 
" by Quinault 

by Racine (projected) 

by Lagrange-Chancel 

by Boissy 

by Sainte-Foix 

by Coypel 

by Dorat 

by Cluck 

by H. Lucas 

by de Vauzelles 
Alcmene, by Aeschylus 
Alcmeon, by Sophocles 
Alcmeon, by Euripides 
Aletes and Erigone, by Sophocles 
Alexander, by Sophocles 
Alexander, by Euripides 
Alexander, by Metastasio 
Alexander, by Racine 
Almanzor, by Heine 
Alope, by Euripides 
Alzire, by Voltaire 
Amazones (Les), by Mazel 
Amelie, by Voltaire 
Amhra, by Grangeneuve 
Ami Fritz (L'j by Erckmann-Chatrian 
Amour, by Hennique 
Amphitryon, by Sophocles 
Anarghara-ghava (Hindu, anonymous) 
Ancetre (I/), by Saint-Saens 
Andre del Sarte, by Musset 
Ancien (L 1 ) by Richepin 
Andromache, by Euripides 
Andromaque, by Racine 
Andromeda, by Euripides 
Andromeda, by Sophocles 
Andromede, by P. Corneille 
Ane de Buridan (L'j, by de Flers and 

de Caillavet 
Angelo, by Hugo 

Angles du Divorce (Lesj, by Biollay 
Antigone, by Metastasio 
by Sophocles 
by Euripides 
by Alamanni 
by Alfieri 



V 


B 


III 


A 2 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


\X1 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XXI 


A 1 


XVIII 


D 2 


XXV 


B 4 


XXV 


B 4 


III 


A 1 


XIX 


C 1 


XIX 


1 


V 


C 


XXIX 


A 4 


I 


B 2 


XXIV 


A 3 


III 


A 6 


XXIX 


A 4 


XIV 


A 2 


III 


A 6 


XXVIII 


A 2 


XV 


A 1 


XIX 


F 3 


X 


C 2 


XXIX 


B 6 


XXV 


C 4 


XXI 


A 2 


XXI 


D 2 


XXV 


B 1 


II 


A 


II 


A 


II 


A 


XXIV 


B 6 


XXV 


C 1 


XXVIII 


E 


XIV 


B 1 


XX 


A 3 


XX 


A 3 


XX 


A 3 


XX 


A 3 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



135 



Antiope, by Euripides 

Antoinette Sabrier, by Coolus 

Antony and Cleopatra, by Shakespeare 

Aphrodite, by Louys 

Apotre (L'i by Loyson 

Appius and Virginia, by Webster 

Apprentie (L') by Geffroy 

Apres moi, by Bernstein 

Archelaus, by Euripides 

Argent (L'), by Zola 

Argives (Thei, by Aeschylus 

Ariane, by T. Corneille 

Arlesienne iL'i, by Daudet and Bizet 

Armee dans la Ville (L*), by Jules Romains 

Arsene Lupin, by Leblanc 

Artaxerxes, by Metastasio 

Artemire, by Voltaire 

Article 301, by Duval 

Ascanio, by Saint-Saens 

As de trefle (L'), by Decourcelle 

Assommoir (L'), by Zola 

Atalanta, by Aeschylus 

Athalie, by Racine 

Athamas, by Aeschylus 

Atree et Thyeste, by Crebillon 

Attentat (L') t by Capua and Descavea 

Attila, by P. Corneille 

Attila, by Werner 

Augeus, by Euripii 

•\utomne iL' . by Adam and Mourey 

Autre Danger L' , by Donnay 

Aventuree de Gavroche La . by Darlay 

and Marol 
Avi-u 1/ , by Sarah l'.crnhardt 



II 
XXV 

XXII 

XXI 

XXVII 

XXIV 

XX 

XXV 

VI 

VI 

III 

VI 

XXII 
VIII 
V 
XXXIII 

XXXII 

XXIV 

XXIV 

XXVII 

XXII 

IV 

XXXI 

XVI 

XI II 

XX l\ 

XX1\ 

111 

1 

VIII 

\l\ 

XXXV 
XXV 



B 


1 


C 


3 


A 


4 


A 


3 


D 


2 


A 


3 


C 




D 


1 


C 


1 


B 




A 


1 


D 


1 


A 


5 


B 


5 


A 




D 


2 


C 


2 


C 




C 




D 


3 


C 


2 


B 




A 


2 


A 


1 


A 


2 


A 


7 


A 


4 


A 


1 


B 


■1 


B 


2 



B i 



C i 



B 



Bacchante The . by Euripidi 
Baillonne" Le , by Mme. Term 

tzet, by Racine 
Banque de I'Univera La . by Grenet- 

I >ancourl 
Barlaam el Jo aphat, Miracle oi Notre-Dame 
Barricade La . by Bourgel 
Ba aride The bj \.( cl j 
Beethoven, bj Paw hois 
Belle aux cheveua d'or La . by Arnould 
Bellerophon, by Euripii 
Benvi nuto, by Diaz 

ail Le . bj Bel ■ 
Berenice, by Racine 



XXXI 
XXXVI 

\\ II 

\ 

XXIV 
XXXI 

\ II 

XVII 

\\X1 

l\ 
\\\ 
\\ 



\ 


1 


\ 


2 


B 


1 


\ 


• > 


1) 


8 


A 


7 


\ 


1 


1) 




C 


8 


B 


3 


B 


r- 

i 


c 


1 


1! 


8 



136 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Berenice, by Poe XXXIV 
Berthe an grand pied, Miracle of Notre- 

Dame XXXV 

Berthequine, Miracle of Notre-Dame XXXV 
Bete feroce (La), by Jules Mary and RochardXXX 

Bete humaine (La), by Zola XVI 

Bleus de l'amour (Les), by Coolus XXVIII 

Blind (The), by Maeterlinck VII 

Bluebeard, by Perrault II 

Blue Bird (The), by Maeterlinck IX 

Blue Monster (The), by Gozzi XIX 

Bohemos, by Zamacois XXXIV 

Boislaurier, by Richard XIV 

and II 

Bondman (The), by Massinger XXXII 

Bon roi Dagobert (Le), by Rivoire XVIII 

Boscotte (La), by Mme. Maldagne XXXIII 

Bouchers (Les), by Icres III 

Bride of Messina (The), by Schiller XVIII 

Brigands (The), by Schiller XXXIII 

Britannicus, by Racine XIV 

Broken Heart (The), by Ford XXIX 

Brutus, by Voltaire XXVII 

Brutus II, by Alfieri XXX 

Bucheronne (La), by C. Edmond XXIV 

Burgraves (Les), by Hugo XIX 

By Fire and Sword, by Sienkiewicz XXVI 



P. 



Cain, by Byron 

Canace, by Speroni 

Capitaine Burle (Le), by Zola 

Captives (The), by Sophocles 

Carbonari (Les), by No 

Carians (The), by Aeschylus 

Casquette au pere Bugeaud (La), by Marot 

Casse-museau, by Marot 

Casserole (La), by Metenier 

Catherine la Batarde, by Bell 

Catilina, by Voltaire 



XIII 

XXVI 

XXII 

XXXVI 

XXIX 

X 

III 

XXVII 

III 

XXXIII 

cm 

and XXX 
V 
III 
III 



Cato, by Metastasio 

Cellule No. 7 (La), by Zaccone 

Cenci (The), by Shelley 

XIII B 3 and XXVI 
Cent lignes emues, by Torquet XXXVI 

Cesar Birotteau, by Balzac 



C'est la loi, by Cliquet 



XX 

and VI 
XXV 



c 


1 


A 


2 


C 


2 


D 




A 




I) 


3 


G 


2 


A 


9 


A 


1 


A 




A 


1 


D 


2 


A 


8 


A 


2 


C 


3 


A 


1 


A 


1 


D 


1 


A 


2 


A 


8 


F 


1 


C 


2 


A 


1 


C 


2 


c 


1 


A 


1 


A 


4 


A 




A 


8 


D 


5 


A 


7 


D 


1 


A 


1 


B 




C 




B 


3 


B 


5 


A 


3 


C 




A 


4 


B 




B 


8 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



13' 



Chamillac, by Feuillet 

Champairol (Les), by Fraisse 

Chantecler, by Rostand 

Charbonniere (La), by Cremieux 

Chevalerie Rustique, by Yerga 

Chevalier Jean (Le), by de Joncieres 

Chien de garde (Le>, by Richepin 

Chinese Hero (The), by Metastasio 

Choephores (The . by Aeschylus 

Christ Suffering, by St. Gregory Nazianzen 

Chryses, by Sohpocles 

Chrysippus, by Euripides 

Cid (Lei, by P. Corneille 

Cinna, by P. Corneille 

Cinq doigts de Birouk (Les), by 

De Courcelle 
Circuit (Le), by Feydeau and de Croissel 
Citta morta (La), by d'Annunzio 
Clavijo, by Goethe 
Cleopatre, by Sardou 
Clitandre, by P. Corneille 
Cloltre (Le), by Verhaeren 
Coeur a coeur, by Coolus 
Coeur a ses raisons (Le), l>y de Flers 

and de Cailluvet 
Coeur de Se-hor, by Michaud d'Humiac 
Coeur material, by Franck 
Coeur revelateur (Le), by Laumann, after 

Poe 
Colomba, by Merimee 
Comedy of Errors, by Shakespeare 
Compagnon de voyage Le . by Andei 

Compere le Kenanl, Ity I'olti 

Comte d' Essex, by T. Corneille 
Comtesse Sarah, by Ohnel 
Connais-toi, by Hervieu 
Conqudte de la Toison d'or La), by P. Cor- 
neille 
Conqudte de Plassans La . by Zola 
Conspiration du general Malel La . by de 

I ... sus 

Constant Prince The , by Calderon 

:e de Noel, by Linant 
Corbeau Le , by Gozzi 
( !orbeaiu Le . bj Becque 
Cor fleuri !<<• , by Mikhael and Herold 
Coriolanus, by Shakespeare 
Cornette La), by M. and Mile. Ferrier 
( ounl of Carmagnola The . by Manconl 

and 
I ounl Witold, by iski 



XXYI 


B 


5 


I 


B 


3 


VIII 


A 


2 


XXI 


D 


1 


xxrv 


A 


10 


XXXII 


C 


2 


XXI 


D 


1 


XXVIII 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


XX 


A 


2 


I 


A 


1 


XXVI 


D 


1 


XXIX 


B 


1 


VIII 


A 


1 


XXX 


C 


1 


x x i v 


C 




XXVI 


c 


2 


III 


A 


8 


XXII 


A 


4 


XXXIII 


D 


1 


x x x i v 


A 


■2 


xxv 


C 


ti 


XIV 


D 




xxvu 


D 


6 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


X X X 1 V 


A 


■A 


111 


A 


1 


XXXII 


\ 


1 


XI 


B 


^> 


\ 


\ 




XXIV 


B 


•> 


xxv 


C 


8 


xxu 


A 


2 


XXI\ 


B 


1 


XXII 


\ 


• > 


VIII 


A 


1 


\\ 


\ 


•I 


Mil 


F 




XXXIII 


\ 


3 


VII 


B 




WIN 


1! 


3 


\ 1 


C 


1 


\ \l 


1) 


1 


V 


C 




VI 


1 


1 


\\ \l\ 


1! 





13s 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Countess Fredegonde (The), by Amigues 
Course du flambeau (La), by Hervieu 
Courtisane (La), by Arnyvelde 
Courtisane de Corinth (La), by Carre and 

Bilhaud 
Cousine Bette (La), by Balzac 
Crainquebille, by France 
Cresphontes, by Euripides 
Cretans (The), by Euripides 
Creusa, by Sophocles 
Crime de Jean Morel (Le), by Samson 
Crime de Maisons-Alfort (Le), by Coedes 
Crime d'un autre (Le), by Arnold and Ren- 

auld 
Crime and Punishment, by Dostoievsky 
Criminelle (La), by Delacour 
Crocodile (Le), by Sardou 
Croisade des Enfantelets francs (La), by 

Ernault 
Cromwell, by Hugo 
Cuirs de Boeuf (Les), by Polti 
Cymbeline, by Shakespeare 
Cyrano de Bergerac, by Rostand 
Cyrus, by Metastasio 

and 



D 

Damaged Goods, by Brieux 

Dame a la faulx (La), by Saint-Pol Roux 

Dame aux Camelias (La), by Dumas fils 

Dame au domino rose (La), by Bouvier 

Damon, by Lessing 

Danae, by Euripides 

Danae, by Aeschylus 

Danaides (The), by Aeschylus 

by Combaud 

by Phrynichus 

by Salieri 

by Spontini 
Danseur inconnu (Le), by Bernard 
Dante, by Godard 

Death of Achilles (The), by Aeschylus 
Death of Cansa (The;, by Crichna Cavi 
Debacle (La), by Zola 
Decadence, by Guinon 
Declassee (Laj, by Delahaye 
Dedale (Le), by Hervieu 
Deformed Transformed (The), by Byron 
Degringolade (Laj, by Desnard 
1 lemetrius, by Metastasio 



XXV 


B 


7 


XXI 


E 




XXVII 


B 


6 


III 


C 




XXII 


C 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


XIX 


B 


1 


XXVI 


E 




XIX 


B 


1 


XXIX 


B 


7 


III 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


D 


2 


XXXIV 


A 


3 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


XXVII 


B 


5 


VII 


B 




XXX 


A 


3 


XXVI 


A 


1 


XXXII 


B 


2 


XXI 


C 


2 


XIII 


C 




XIX 


B 


3 


XVII 


C 


2 


XXIV 


B 


9 


XXVII 


B 


G 


XVIII 


C 




XIV 


D 




I 


B 


2 




B 


2 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


XXIV 


A 


3 


XXXVI 


C 




XIII 


C 




VI 


A 


1 


XXV 


C 


1 


111 


B 


4 


XXIV 


A 


1 


IX 


D 


3 


XXXIII 


D 


6 


XXIV 


A 


5 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



139 



Demon du foyer (Le), by George Sand 

Demophon, by Metastasio 

Denise, by Dumas fils 

Depute Leveau (Le), by Lemaitre 

Dernier Amour, by Ohnet 

Desert Isle (The), by Metastasio 

Dette (La), by Trarieux 

Duex Jumeaux (Lest, by Hugo 

Devant l'ennemi, by Charton 

Devotion to the Cross, by Calderon 

Dhourtta narttaka 

Dhourtta samagama 

Diana, by Paladilhe 

Diane, by Augier 

Diane de Lys, by Dumas fils 

Dictys, by Euripides 

Dido, by Metastasio 

Dieu ou pas Dieu, by Beaubourg 

Disciple (Le), by Bourget 

Discovery of the New World, by Lope de 

Vega 
Divorce (Le), by Bourget 
Divorce de Sarah Moon- Le), by Rozier 

and Paton 
Divorcee (La), by Fall and Leon 
Docteur Pascal, by Zola 
Don Carlos, by Schiller 
Don Garzia, by Alfieri 
Don Juan, by Dumas pere 
by Goldoni 

" by Gral.l.e 

" by Moliere 

" by Sadwell 

" by Tellez 

by Tirso de Molina 
" " by Zamora 

" by Zorilla 

Don l'i-'ire, i>y Voltaire 
Don Quixote, by ' lerva 

1 )on Sanclie, by ' onieille 

Drapeau L Moreau 

I >roi1 an bonheur Le . !•:■' Lemonnier 
I >u< Malii The . by Websti 

l >uel !-<• . by Lavedan 



!■: 



Earthen Toy-carl The . by Sudraka 
Echeance I. . by Jullii 

Eclabou ore I . . bj I U I -lily 
Ecole 'I' . eul I . b) \ i 



XIV 


A 


4 


XIX 


A 


1 


XXVII 


B 


3 


X X v 


B 


3 


XX Y 


B 


6 


XII 


B 




XIV 


B 


1 


VII 


A 




XXIV 


A 


8 


V 


A 




XXII 


A 


1 


X X 1 V 


A 


9 


XXXIII 


1) 


3 


XXI 


C 


1 


\\\ 


(' 


3 


II 


B 


2 


XX 


B 


3 


XXIX 


A 


3 


III 


A 




IX 


D 


1 


XXVIII 


D 


1 


XXI 


A 


• > 


\\\ll 


\ 


2 


X X Y 1 


B 


2 


XXVI 


B 


•> 


XXXIII 


c 


M 


Y 


B 




\ 


B 




\ 


B 




Y 


B 




Y 


B 




Y 


B 




\ 


r. 




Y 


1! 




Y 


B 




XI Y 


\ 


•j 


11 


\ 




WIY 


\ 


<; 


X X 1 \ 


\ 


S 


XXI 


c 


•j 


\\l\ 


\ 


! 


XIII 


\ 


i 


XXIV 


\ 


:■ 


\\\ 


l 


.s 


\\\l\ 


\ 


:i 


\\\ 1 


i 


A 



140 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Edith, by Bois 
Egmont, by Goethe 
L812, by Nigond 
Klectra, by Sophocles 

by Euripides 

by Attilius 

by Q. Cicero 

by Pradon 

l)y Longepierre 

by Crebillon 

by Rochefort 
" by Chenier 

by Guillard 
Eleusinians, by Aeschylus 
Emigrants (Les), by Hirsch 
Emigre (L'), by Bourget 
Emilia Galotti, by Lessing 
Empereur Julien (L') Miracle of Notre- 

Dame 
Enchantement (L'), by Bataille 
En detresse, by Fevre 
Enemy of the People (An), by Ibsen 
Enigma (The), by Hervieu 
Enfant du Temple (L'), by de Polhes 
Enfants du Capitaine Grant (Les), by Verne 
Enfants naturels (Les), by Sue 
En greve, by Hirsch 
Eole, by Euripides 
Epigones (The), by Aeschylus 
Epigones (The), by Sophocles 
Erechtheus, by Euripides 
p]riphyle, by Sophocles 
Kriphyle, by Voltaire 
Esclarmonde, by Massenet 
Esclave du devoir (L'), by Valnay 
Esmeralda (La), by Hugo 
Esther, by Racine 
Etau (L'j, by A. Sardou 
Ethiopians (The), by Sophocles 
Et ma soeur? by Rabier 
Etrangere (L'), by Dumas fils 
Etudiant pauvre (L'), by Milloecker 
Etudiants russes, by Gilkin 
Eumele, by Sophocles 

and 
Eumenides (The), by Aeschylus 

and 
Europa, by Aeschylus 
Euryale, by Sophocles 
Eurysaces, by Sophocles 
Evangeliste (L'), by Daudet 



V 


c 




V 


c 




XIV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


2 


XV 


A 


1 


XXVIII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


C 




XXXI 


A 


2 


XIV 


A 


4 


VII 


C 


2 


V 


C 




XXV 


D 


1 


XX 


A 


4 


XXXV 






XVIII 


A 


2 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XXVI 


C 


2 


III 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


XXIII 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


IV 


A 


1 


XVII 


B 


2 


XXXII 


A 


3 


XXIV 


A 


11 


I 


C 


1 


XVI 


D 




XXXVI 


C 




XX VII I 


B 




III 


B 


7 


XXXIII 


A 


1 


XXVII 


D 


1 


XVII 


A 


1 


XXXI 


B 


5 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


I 


A 


1 


X 


A 




XIX 


B 


2 


I 


C 


2 


XX 


B 


1 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 141 



Exode (L'), by Fauchois 

Exodus of the Hebrews (The), by Ezekiel 

Ezzelino, by A. Mussato 



Famille d'Armelles (La), by Marras 

Faust, by Goethe 

Fantasio, by Musset 

Fatal Dowry (The), by Massinger 

Faute de l'abbe Mouret (La . by Zola 

Feast of the Achaians, by Sophocles 

Fedora, by Sardou 

Femme de Claude (Las, by Dumas tils 

Femme de demain (La), by Lefebvre 

Femme X <La), by Bisson 

Fermiere (La), by d'Artois 

Festin de Pierre (Le), by T. Corneille 

Fiacre No. 13, by Dornay 

Fille a Guillotin La . by Fleischmann 

Fille du depute (La), by Morel 

Fille du roi d'Espagne (La , Miracle of 

Notre-Dame 
Fille Elisa (Lai, by E. de Goncourt 
Faille sauvage (La), by de Cure! 
Fils de Jahel (Les), by Mme. Armand 
Fils de Porthos (Le), by Blavet 
Fils naturel (Le), by Dumas tils 
Flore de Frileuse, by Bergerat 
Fontovejune, by Lope de Vega 
Fortune des Rougon (La), by Zola 
Fortune and Misfortune of a Maine, by 

Calderon 
Fossilcs | Lea), by de (urel 
Foulards rouges Lee . by Dornay 
Francillon, by Dumas fija 
Francois lea bus bleus, by Measager 
Francoisc de Rimini, l>y A. Thomi 
Prere d'arme Le . by Garaud 
Freres ennemia Lea . by Racine 
Frerea Zemganno Le . by B. <l«' Goncourl 
Friquel (Le , by Willy and Gyp 
Fugil ive La . by Picard 
Furie (La , by B< 

G 

Gardener's Dog The . by I. ope de Vega 
Gardienne La . by 'l<- Regnier 
Gavroche, by 1 >on 
Georgette, by Sardou 



XXIX 


A 


4 


XXXI 


A 


2 


XXX 


c 


1 


XXV 


D 


o 


VI 


D 


1 


II 


B 


2 


XXV 


c 


5 


XXII 


A 


1 


111 


B 


2 


XXIX 


B 


5 


X X V 


C 


7 


XXV 


B 


9 


XXVII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


C 




XXXI 


B 


■2 


XXXIII 


D 


6 


XXIII 


A 


:? 


XXVII 


A 


;; 


XX XII 


B 


•J 


XVI 


A 


2 


XXXVI 


D 




XX 


B 


2 


XXIV 


A 


5 


XII 


B 




XXVII 


B 


2 


\ Ml 


B 


2 


XXX 


C 


1 


XXIX 


B 


6 


XIV 


B 


1 


X X X V 






xx\ 


B 


•> 


XXI\ 


B 


(i 


\\\ 


c 


:i 


XXI 


D 


l 


XIII 


A 


• > 


\\1 


B 


1 


X\l\ 


B 


6 


\\l 


1 


■2 


XXII 


\ 


:. 


XXIV 


B 




XV 






\ \ Mil 


B 


• 


x xvii 


\ 


I 



142 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Gerfaut, by C. de Bernard 

Germinal, by Zola 

Germinie Lacerteux, by the Goncourts 

Ghosts, by Ibsen 

Glatigny, by Mendes 

Glaucus Pontius, by Aeschylus 

Glu (La), by Richepin 

Gold Bug (The), by Poe 

Goetz de Berlichingen, by Goethe 

Grande Iza (La), by Bouvier 

Grande Marniere (La), by Ohnet 

Grand soir (Le), by Kampf 

Grands (Les), by Veber and Basset 

Great Expectations, by Dickens 

Griffe (La), by Bernstein 

Guebres (Les), by Voltaire 

Guests (The), by Aeschylus 

Giubor, Miracle of Notre-Dame 



H 



Hamlet, by Shakespeare 

Hanouman, Hindu drama 
Heaven and Earth, by Byron 
Hecuba, by Euripides 
Hedda Gabler, by Ibsen 
Helen, by Euripides 
Helen Reclaimed, by Sophocles 
Heliades (The), by Aeschylus 
Henry IV, by Shakespeare 
Henry V, by Shakespeare 



and 



and 



Henry VI, by Shakespeare 
Henry VIII, by Shakespeare 
Henri VIII, by Saint-Saens 
Heraclides (The), by Aeschylus 
by Euripides 
Heraclius, by Corneille 
Heracles Mainomenos, by Euripides 
Hercules Furens, by Seneca 
Hercules on (Eta, by Seneca 
Hermione, Sophocles 
Hernani, Hugo 

XIX and 
Herodias, by Flaubert 
Hero and the Nymph (The), by Kalidasa 
Hippolyte, by Euripides 

by Seneca 
His Own Gaoler, by Calderon 
Homme a deux tetes (L'j, by Forest 



XXV 


c 


6 


VIII 


B 


2 


XXII 


c 


1 


XVIII 


B 


3 


XXIV 


A 


9 


IX 


B 


2 


XXII 


A 


5 


XI 


B 


1 


V 


c 




XXXIII 


B 


2 


XXIX 


A 


2 


VIII 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


XXI 


A 


2 


XXII 






XIX 


A 


2 


VII 


B 




XXIII 


B 


4 


IV 


A 


1 


XIII 


C 




X 


C 


2 


XXIV 


A 


1 


III 


A 


2 


XVI 


A 


3 


X 


C 


1 


XII 


C 




XIII 


A 


1 


XXX 


B 




IX 


B 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


1 


VI 


B 




XXV 


B 


5 


XXV 


B 


5 


I 


A 


1 


I 


A 


1 


XVIII 


B 


2 


XVI 


A 


1 


XVI 


A 


1 


XXV 


B 


1 


X 


C 


2 


XXIV 


A 


3 


XX 


A 


1 


XXII 


B 




XXXV 






XXVI 


B 


1 


XXVI 


B 


1 


XXIX 


B 


2 


XXXIII 


C 


6 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



143 



Homme de proie (L'j, by Lefevre and 

Laporte 
Horace, by l'Aretin 

by Corneille 
Huron (Le), by Voltaire 
Hypermnestre, by Metastasio 
by Riupeiroux 
by Lemierre, etc. 
Hypsipyle, by Aeschylus 
by Euripides 
by Metastasio 



Idiot iL'i, by de Lorde 
Idomenee, by Crebillon 

by Lemiere 

by Cienfuegos 
Illusions perdues (Les), by Balzac 
Image (L), by Beauborg 
Impasse (L'), by Fread Amy 
Indigne, by Barbier 
Indiscret (L'), by See 
Inflexible L . by Parodi 
Ino, by Euripides 
[nsociale (L'), by Mme. Aurel 
Intruder (The), by Maeterlinck 
Iobates, by Sophocles 
Iolas, by Sophocles 
Ion, by Kuripides 
[phlgenia, by Aeschylus 

by Sophocles 
Iphigenia in Aulis, by Kuripides 

Iphigenie ;'i Aulis, by Racine 

Iphigenia in Tauris, by Buripidt 

by Ooel he 

Iphigenie en Tuaride, projected, by Racine 
Irene, by Voltaire 
■ l, by Bernstein 

Ixion, by Aeschylu 

" by Sophoc 
by Buripide 

3 

.lack the Ripper, by Bertran and Clairian 
Jack Tempfitl . by Elzear 
Jacobine Le , by ] iermanl 
Jacobite Le . by ' loppee 
Jacques Bonhomme, by Maujan 
Jacques I 'amour, by Zola 



X 


D 


2 


XXIII 


B 


5 


XXIII 


B 


5 


XXI 


D 


2 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


2 


XXIII 


B 


2 


XXIII 


B 


2 


III 


A 


4 


XX III 


A 


2 


XXIII 


A 


2 


XXIII 


A 


2 


XXX 


C 


1 


X X 1 V 


B 


8 


XV 


A 


1 


V 


B 




XVII 


A 


1 


XXVII 


D 


■2 


XVI 


A 


1 


XXXVI 


B 




XX XVI 


B 




XXVI 


B 


1 


II 


B 


2 


XIX 


B 


1 


X XIII 


\ 


1 


win 


A 


1 


X X 1 1 1 


\ 


1 


XXIII 


A 


1 


XIX 


c 


2 


XIX 


c 


2 


XIX 


1 


2 


XXIX 


B 


I 


XIX 


i 




111 


\ 


:> 


Ml 


\ 


5 


III 


\ 


5 


III 


B 


7 


XXIV 


\ 


8 


xx\ 


c 


i 


XXV 


D 


j 


\ III 


I'. 


1 


xx\ 


c 


•> 



144 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Jalousie, by Yacquerie 

Jarnac, by Hennique and Gravier 

Joan Cevenol, by Fraisse 
Jephthe, by Buchanan 

" by Boyer 
Jerusalem Delivered, by Tasso 
Jeu de la Feuillee (Le), by Adam de la Halle 
Jeu de Robin et de Marion (Le), by Adam 

de la Halle 
Jeu de Saint-Nicholas (Le), by Jean Bodel 
Job, by Moses (?) 
Jocelyn, by Lamartine 

" by Godard 
Joie de vivre (La), by Zola 

Joueurs d'osselets (Les), by Aeschylus 

Judgment of Arms (The), by Aeschylus 
Julius Caesar, by Shakespeare 
Jumeaux (Les), by Hugo 



K 



Kermesse rouge, by Eekhoud 
King John, by Shakespeare 



Kreutzer Sonata (The), by Tolstoi 



XXXII 


c 


5 


XXIII 


B 


6 


XXXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


A 


2 


XXIII 


A 


2 


XIX 


G 


1 


alle VII 


C 


1 


n 

X 


A 




jl II 


A 




XXXI 


B 


1 


XXII 


A 


1 


XXII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


B 


7 


and XXI 


A 


2 


III 


B 


2 


and VII 


B 




XII 


C 




XXX 


A 


2 


XXXV 






III 


A 


8 


I 


A 


1 


and VI 


C 


1 


XXV 


D 


1 



Labors of Jacob, by Lope de Vega 
Laconian Women (The), by Sophocles 
Lady from the Sea (The), by Ibsen 
Lakme, by Delibes 
Laocoon, by Sophocles 

Later Life of Rama (The), by Bhavabuti 

Lawn-tennis, by Mourey 

Legende du Coeur (La), by Aicard 

Lelie, by Willy 

Lemnian Women (The), by Sophocles 

Lena, by Berton and Mme. van Velde 

Life is a Dream, by Calderon 

Lohengrin, by Wagner 

Loi de l'homme (La), by Hervieu 

Lois de Minos, by Voltaire 

Lorenzaccio, by Musset 

Louis Perez of Galicia, by Calderon 

Louis Leclercq, by Verlainc 



and 



XIII 


A 


1 


IX 


c 


1 


XXIV 


B 


8 


XXIX 


A 


4 


V 


c 




XXXVI 


A 


1 


XXXV 






XXVI 


D 


2 


XXV 


D 


1 


XXII 


C 


2 


XXIII 


B 


2 


XXVII 


B 


4 


XIII 


B 


2 


II 


A 




XXI 


C 


3 


XIX 


A 


2 


VIII 


A 


1 


V 


A 




XVII 


C 


2 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



145 



Love and Intrigue, by Schiller 

Love's Sacrifice, by Ford 

Loves of Krishna The), by Roupa 

Loves of the Three Oranges (The), by Gozzi 

Lucienne, by Gramont 

Lucrece Borgia, by Hugo 

XXIII B 1, XXXII A 2, XIX B 1 and 
Luther, by Werner 
Lutte pour la vie (La), by Daudet 
Lydie, by Miral 
Lyncee, by Theodecte 

by Abeille 
Lys (Les>, by Wolf and Leroux 



XXXII 


B 


3 


XX XI I 


A 


3 


XXIV 


D 


1 


XVIII 


D 


1 


XXV 


A 


1 


VI 


C 


3 


XIX 


D 




XX 


A 


4 


XV 


B 




XXIX 


A 


4 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXIII 


B 


3 


xxvm 


D 


1 



M 



Macbeth, by Shakespeare 

Madame Bovary, by Flaubert 

Madame Caverlet, by Augier 

Madame de Maintenon, by Coppee 

Madame 1 Amirale, by Mars and Lyon 

Madame la Mort, by Mme. Rachilde 

Madame Margot, by Moreau and Clairville 

Madame Thexese, by Erckmann-Chatrian 

Madeleine, by Zola 

Mile, de Bressier, by Delpit 

Mile, de Maupin, Gautier 

Madhouranirouddha, by Vira 

Mahaviracharita, by Bhavabuti 

Mahomet, by Voltaire 

Maidens of Trachis, by Sophocles 

Maison d'argile La . by Fabre 

Maison dee deux Barbeaux I. a , by 

Theuriet 
Maitrc Le , by J. Jullien 
Maltre Aml)ros. by Widor 
Malatia and Madhava, by Bhavabuti 



Malefilatre Le . bj Porto Riche 

Malheur aux paut ■■ \. Bouvier 

Mauian Colibri, by Bataille 
Manfred, by Byron 
niangeront-ils, by Hugo 

Manr,ei|inn ■] I .■ . bj I r uki- 

Manon l.i- r;uit, by PreVOSl 

Maquignon l.< . by i" z and Dumur 
M archande de • ourii r I ■■•■ . by Judil h 

Gautier 
Marl Le), by Nu and Arnould 



and 



and 



XXX 


c 


1 


x\\ 


c 


7 


XXVII 


A 


1 


XXI 


B 


12 


XXVI 


B 




XXIV 


B 


s 


VII] 


A 


li 


X X 1 X 


A 


1 


XXXI V 


B 


1 


XXIX 


B 


2 


\\ III 






XXIX 


A 


4 


\ 


c 


■2 


XIX 


E 




xx\ 


B 


1 


XII 


\ 


3 


\\\ 


c 


4 


XIII 


B 


1 


XXXIII 


B 


1 


X 


c 


1 


X X 1 \ 


(' 


1 


\ \\ 


1 




XXXI] 


C 


:t 


XXII 


c 


1 


XXXI V 


\ 


1 


\XI\ 


\ 


:{ 


1 


\ 


3 


XXV 


(" 


I 


X\\ II 


B 


i. 


III 


\ 


l 


XXIX 


H 


7 


\x\ 


1 


1 



146 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Manage d'Andre (Le), by Lemaire and de 

Rouvre 
Manage de Mile. Beulemans (Le), by 

Fonson and Wicheler 
Manage d'Olympe (Le), by Augier 
Marianne, by Dolce. 
Marianne, by Tristan l'Hermite 
Marianne, by Voltaire 
Marie Stuart, by Alfieri 
Marie Stuart, by Schiller 
Marie Stuart, by Samson 
Marie Tudor, by Hugo 

and 

Marino Faliero, by Byron 
Marion Delorme, by Hugo 

and 

Marius vaincu, by Mortier 

Marjolaine (La), by Richepin fils 

Marquis de Priola (Le), by Lavedan 

Martyre, by Dennery 

Martyrs (Les), by Chateaubriand 

Massiere (La), by Lemaitre 

Master Builder (The), by Ibsen 

Maternite, by Brieux 

Maucroix (Les), by Delpit 

Measure for Measure, by Shakespeare 

Medea, by Euripides 

" by Corneille 

" by Seneca 
Mejor Alcalde el Rey (El), by Lope de Vega 
Meistersinger (Die), by Wagner 
Melanippe, by Euripides 
Meleager, by Sophocles 
Memnon, by Aeschylus 
Menages de Paris (Les), by Raymond 
Mensonges, by Bourget 
Mer (La), by J. Jullien 
Merchant of Venice (The), by Shakespeare 
Mere du Pape (La), Miracle of Notre-Dame 
Mere meurtrier de son enfant (La), Miracle 

of Notre-Dame 
Meres ennemies (Les), by Mendes 
Merope, by Maffei 
by Voltaire 

" by Alfieri 
Message of Angada (The), by Soubatha 
Mill (The), by Lope de Vega 
Minister's Ring (The), by Vishakadatta 
Minos, by Sophocles 
Miroirs (Les,), by Roinard 



XVIII 



B 1 



XXIV 


A 


3 


XXVII 


B 


8 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


2 


XXIV 


B 


2 


XXIV 


B 


2 


XXIV 


B 


3 


XIX 






VI 


c 


1 


XXVII 


B 


4 


XIX 






XXX 


A 


3 


XXIV 


A 


6 


XXVII 


A 


1 


XXI 


C 


1 


XXXI 


A 


2 


XIV 


B 


1 


XVII 


A 


1 


VI 


D 


1 


XIV 


A 


1 


XXI 


D 


2 


XXV 


A 


1 


XXV 


A 


1 


XXV 


A 


1 


III 


A 


3 


XXIV 


A 


9 


XXIII 


B 


1 


IV 


B 




IX 


B 


2 


XXV 


B 


3 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XIII 


D 




III 


B 


6 


XXXI 


B 


4 


XVII 


C 


2 


XXV 


B 


2 


XIX 


B 


1 


XIX 


B 


1 


XIX 


B 


1 


X 


C 


2 


XXIV 


A 


5 


XII 


A 




I 


A 


1 


XXV 


D 


1 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



147 



Miss Fanfare, by Ganderax XXV 

Miss Sara Sampson, by Lessing XXV 
Mission de Jeanne d'Arc (La), by Dalliere VIII 

Mithridate, by Racine XIX 
Mon ami Teddy, by Rivoire and Bernard XXIV 

Mon frere, by Mercereau XIII 

Monna Vanna, by Maeterlinck XXXII 

Monsieur Alphonse, by Dumas fils X XVII 

Monsieur Bute, by Biollay ■ XVI 

Monsieur de Morat, by Tarbe XXV 
Montansier (La;, by Jeoffrin, de Flers and 

de Caillavet XXV 

Monte Cristo, by Dumas pere ill 

Montmartre, by Frondaie \ XVIII 

Morte de Cesar (La), by Voltaire XXX 

Morte (La), by Barlatier XXIV 

Mouettes (Lesj, by P. Adam X XIII 

Mrigancalckha, by Viswanatha \ XIV 

Mrs. Warren's Profession, by Shaw XXVII 
Much Ado About Nothing, by Shakespeare X X X 1 1 

Myrane, by Bergerat XXV 

Myrmidons (The), by Aeschylus VI 

Myrrha, by Alfieri XXV] 

Myrtille, by Hrckmann-Chatrian XXVIII 

Mysians (The), by Aeschylus 1 

Mystery of Adam (The), XII Century VI 



B 


7 


A 


1 


B 


1 


B 


1 


A 


7 


A 


o 


A 


1 


B 


7 


A 


3 


B 


3 


C 


3 


B 


4 


E 




A 


o 

id 


B 


8 


A 


3 


A 


1 


A 


1 


B 


1 


B 


7 


A 


1 


A 


2 


A 


•■> 


B 


~{ 



A :\ 



N 

Nana, by Zola 

Nana-Sahih, by Richepin 

Naninc, by Voltaire 

Natural Daughter The), by < loethe 

Nauplius, by Sophocles 

Nausicaa, by Sophocle 

Necklace The , by Sn Harshadeva 

N'emea, by \& chylufl 
Nereides (The , by Aeschylus 

Nick Tarter, by Livel ami I'.i son 

Nicomede, by < lorneille 

Niebelung Tin- , bj \\ agner 

Nina de Plata (La . by Lope de \ ega 

Ninety-Three, bj 1 1 

Nioiie, by Aeschj It 

Niohe, by Sophocle 

Nitet is, by MetaSta ,,, 

Noces Corinl hienne I * . by Fra 

Nurse- The , by Aeschylus 

Nouveau Monde I i 

Adam 



XXII 


\ 


6 


V 


(• 




X X \ III 


A 


1 


\ II 


\ 




III 


\ 


•> 


1 


B 


1 


XXIV 


1) 


:i 


IX 


\ 




III 


\ 


7 


III 


C 




\ 


c 




\ 


c 




\.\l\ 


\ 


6 


Will 


\ 


a 


\\\ 1 


\ 


i 


\.\\l 


1', 


i 


XXVIII 


A 


i 


XXIX 


\ 


i 


■•. 1 


B 


i 



\ x \ 



(' 1 



US 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Nuit de Saint-Jean (La), by Erekmann- 

Chatrian XXIV 

Numa Roumestan, by Daudet XXV 



A 7 
B 2 



O 



Obstacle (L'), by Daudet 
Octavia, by Seneca 
Odette, by Sardou 
OZdipus, by Aeschylus 

by Sophocles 

by Corneille 

by Seneca 

by Voltaire, etc. 
CEdipus at Colonus, by Sophocles 

CBnee, by Sophocles 
GEnomaus, by Sophocles 
by Euripides 
OZuvre (L'), by Zola 
Ogre (L'), by Marthold 
Oicles, by Sophocles 
Olympiade, by Metastasio 
Olympie, by Voltaire 

On ne badine pas avec l'amour, by Musset 
Opium, by Bonnetain 
Or (L'), by Peter and Danceny 
Orbeeehe, by Giraldi 
Oreille fendue (L ), by Nepoty 
Orestes, by Euripides 
Oreste, by Alfieri 

by Voltaire 
Orithyie, by Aeschylus 

" by Sophocles 
Othello, by Shakespeare 
Othon, by Corneille 



XXIV 


A 


8 


XV 


B 




XXVII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


I 


A 


3 


and XII 


A 




II 


B 


2 


IX 


D 


2 


IX 


D 


2 


XX 


A 


4 


XXXIII 


D 


3 


I 


A 


1 


XIX 


B 


1 


XXIX 


B 


1 


>t XVII 


C 


2 


XXII 


C 


2 


III 


A 


1 


IV 


D 




XXVII 


A 


3 


XXIV 


A 


2 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


X 


A 




X 


A 




XXXII 


B 


1 


XX 


B 


1 



Page blanche, by Devore 

Pain d'autrui (Le), by Ephraim and 

Schutz, after Turgeniev 
Palamede, by Aechylus 
Palamede, by Euripides 

Palamede, by Sophocles 
Pandore, by Voltaire 

Pandore, by Goethe 

Papa, by de Flers and de Caillavet 



XXV 



C 1 



XIX 


E 




XI 


C 


3 


XI 


C 


3 


and XXXIII 


C 


2 


XXXIII 


C 


2 


XXIV 


A 


1 


and XVII 


C 


1 


XVII 


C 


1 


XIV 


B 


1 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 149 



Paraitre, by Donnay 
Parsifal, by Wagner 
Partage de midi, by Claudel 
Passageres (Les), by Coolus 
Patrie, by Paladilhe and Sardou 
Peau d'ane, by Perrault 
Peche de Marthe (Le), by Rochard 
Peleus, by Sophocles 

Peleus, by Euripides 

Pelerin d'amour (Le), by Emile-Michelet 

Peliades (The), by Euripides 

Pelias, by Sophocles 

Pelleas and Melisande, by Maeterlinck 
Pelopides (The), by Voltaire 
Penelope, by Aeschylus 
Pentheus, by Aeschylus 
Penthesilea, by Aeschylus 
Pere Chasselas (Le), by Athis 
Pere prodigue (Le), by Dumas fils 
Pericles, by Shakespeare 

Perkin Warbeck, by Ford 
Perrhoebides (The), by Aeschylus 
Persians (The), by Aeschylus 
Pertharite, by Corneille 
Petit ami (Le), by Leautaud 
Petite amie (La), by Brieux 
Petite Caporale (La), by Darlay and 

Gorssc 
Petite chocolatiere (La), by Gavaull 
Petite Hollande, by (iuitry 
Petite milliardaire (La), by Dumay and 

Fori 

Pet ite Mionne La , liy RicheboUTg 

Pel ite paroisse (La , by I >aude1 
Petit Jacques i Le i, by I tannery 
Pel ii Poucel Le . by Perraull 

Phaedra, liy Sophocles 

Phaeton, by Euripide 

Pheaciana (The , by Sophocle 
Phedre, by Racine 

Philippe 1 1, hy Allien 

PhilOCteteS, hy Aeschylus 
by Sophocles 

by Euripide 
Philoctete in Troy, by Sophocle 
Phineu . by Ae chylua 



XXV 


D 


1 


IX 


C 


2 


XV 


A 


1 


XXIV 


B 


6 


XXV 


D 


2 


XXVI 


A 


3 


XXVIII 


B 




II 


B 


1 


and VII 


C 


1 


VII 


C 


1 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XIX 


E 




XVII 


C 


4 


and XIX 


E 




XIV 


A 


3 


XIII 


A 


2 


III 


B 


2 


XXXI 


A 


1 


XXXVI 


C 




X X X Y 






XIV 


B 


1 


XI 


B 


2 


and XXXV 






X X X 


B 




111 


A 


5 


VI 


A 


1 


XXI 


D 


2 


XXVI 


A 


1 


XXVIU 


A 


v) 


IX 


1) 


• ) 


xxvin 


A 


• > 


X X 1 Y 


B 


(i 


X X 1 Y 


A 


7 


XIX 


A 


:t 


XXV 


c 


•1 


XXI 


1) 


l 


VI 


1) 


o 


XXVI 


B 


1 


XVII 


\ 


1 


and XXXI 


l'. 


6 


1 


K 


l 


\\\ 1 


1'. 


l 


\1\ 


B 


3 


and XXV] 


H 


• > 


XII 


A 




\ll 


\ 




Ml 


\ 




1 


K 


:i 


l\ 


B 


•> 



150 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Phineus, by Sophocles 
Phoenissae (The), by Aeschylus 
" by Euripides 
" " by Seneca 

Phoenix, by Euripides 
Phorcides (The), by Aeschylus 
Phrixus, by Sophocles 
Phrixus, by Euripides 
Phrygians (The), by Aeschylus 
Phtiotides (The), by Sophocles 
Physician of his Honor (The), by Calderon 
Pierre et Jean, by Maupassant 
Pierre et Therese, by Prevost 
Pierre Pascal, by Mme. de Chabrihan 
Pierre Vaux, by Jonathan 
Pierrot assassin de sa femme, by 
Margueritte 

Pierrots (Les), by Grillet 

Pieuvre (La), by Morel 

Plus faible (La), by Prevost 

Policiere (La), by Montepin 

Polydectes, by Aeschylus 

Polyeucte, by Corneille 

Polyidus, by Sophocles 
" by Euripides 

Polynice, by Alfieri 

Polyheme, by Samain 

Polyxena, by Sophocles 

Pompee, by Corneille 

Port-Tarascon, by Daudet 

Portrait (The), by Massinger 

Possede (Le), by Lemonnier 

Pot-Bouille, by Zola 

Poupees electriques, by Marinetti 

Poussin (Le), by Guiraud 

Powers of Darkness (The), by Tolstoi 

and 

Pretre (Le), by Buet 
Priestesses (The), by Aeschylus 
Princesse de Bagdad (La), by Dumas fila 
Princesse Georges (La), by Dumas fila 
Princess Maleine (The), by Maeterlinck 
Prince Zilah (The), by Claretie 
Procris, by Sophocles 
Prometheus, by Aeschylus 
Prometheus Bound, by Aeschylus 



II 

XX 

XIII 

XIII 

XIV 

IX 

III 
III 
I 

XXXII 

XXV 

XIV 

XXVII 

XV 

XXI 



and 



Prometheus Unbound, by Aeschylus 
Propompes (The), by Aeschylus 
Proserpine, by Vacquerie and Saint-Saens 
Protesilas, by Euripides 



XXXIV 

XXXIII 

XXXIII 

XXVIII 

XXVII 

XIX 

XX 

XI 

XI 

XIII 

XXIV 

XXXVI 

III 

XVII 

XXXII 

XXII 

XXV 

XXXIII 

XXVIII 

XIII 

XV 

III 

XIX 

XXXII 

XXV 

VII 

XXVII 

XIX 

IX 

VII 

V 

IX 

I 

XXV 
XX 



B 


2 


A 


3 


A 


1 


A 


1 


B 


3 


B 


2 


B 


4 


B 


4 


B 


4 


C 


4 


D 


1 


A 


1 


A 


2 


A 


1 


D 


1 


A 


4 


B 


2 


C 


1 


A 


2 


C 




F 


2 


B 


1 


A 




A 




A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


4 


C 


4 


C 


1 


A 


5 


C 


7 


B 


3 


D 


2 


E 




A 


1 


A 


1 


C 


2 


A 


1 


B 


3 


A 




B 


3 


G 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 




D 


1 


C 


1 


B 


7 


A 


2 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



151 



Psyche, by Corneille 
Psychostase, by Aeschylus 
Pulcherie, by Corneille 
Purloined Letter (The), by Poe 



XVII 


B 


2 


XXXVI 


c 




XX 


B 


3 


XI 


A 





Q 

Quarts d'heure (Les), by Quiches and 
Lavedan 

14 juillet (Le), by Rolland 
4x7 equals 28, by Coolus 
Question d'argent (La), by Uumas tits 



R 



XXVII 
and XXV 
\ III 

x xxu 

XXIV 



Raffles, by Hornung 

Rama, by Bhavabuti 

Ramuntcho, by Loti 

Rantzau (Les), by Erckman-Chatrian 

Raoul de Crequi, by Dalayrac 

Reformateur (Le), by Rod 

Regiment (Le), by J. Mary 

Regulus, by Pradon 

Regulus, by Metastasio 

Reine aux trois fils (Laj, Miracle of Notre- 

Dame 
Reine Fiammette (La), by Mendt^ 



Rembrandt, by Dumur and Josz 

Rencontre (La), by Berton 

Rene, by Chateaubriand 

Renee, by Zola 

Renee Mauperin, by the Goncourta 

Resentment of Te-oun-Ko (The), by 

Kouan-han-khiK 
Resurrection, by Tolstoi 
Rfive (Le), by Zola 

Reveil (Lej, by Hervieu 
Revoltee, t>;,' Lemaltre 
Revoltee (Lea . by fain and Adenia 
Rhadarniste ft Zenobie, by Creoillon 
Rhesus, by Euripides 

Richard Coeur-de-lion, by Sedaine 

Richard 1 1, by Shakespeare 
Richard III, by shai.< peare 
Risque (Le . by Coo 
Rivoli, by raucl 



and 



and 



and 



V 

X 

XXVIII 

XXIX 

XXV 

VI 

XXVI] 

XX 

XX 

X X X V 
XXXIII 
X X 1 X 
VII 
XXV 
XXXI v 
XXVI 
XVII 

III 

XX 

I 

XX] 

III 

XXV 

l\ 

WW 1 

\ 

XXXV 

\l 

\\\ 
\I\ 
\\\ 



A 


l 


(' 


4 


B 


2 


A 


3 


A 


7 


A 




C 


2 


A 


1 


A 


3 


H 




C 


1 


D 


3 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


3 


B 


3 


D 




C 


4 


B 




B 


o 


c 


o 


B 




c 




B 


L' 


C 


2 


C 


4 


\ 


6 


I 


•1 


n 


1 


c 




l> 


1 


B 




l 


1 


\ 


4 


l 


7 



152 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Robert-le-Diable, Miracle of Notre-Dame 
Rodogune, by Corneille 
Roger-la-honte, by J. Mary 



and 



Roi Cerf (Le), by Gozzi 

Roi de l'argent (Le), by Milliet 

Roi de Rome (Lei, by Pouvillon 

Roi s'amuse (Le), by Hugo 

Roi sans couronne (Le), by St. Georges 

de Bouhelier 
Roi sans royaume (Le), by Decourcelle 
Roi Soleil (Le), by Bernede 
Rolande, by de Gramont 
Roman d'Elise (Le), by Richard 
Roman d'une Conspiration (Le), by 

Fournier and Carre 
Romeo and Juliet, by Shakespeare 
Rosemonde, by Rucellai 
Rosse, tant at plus, by Mustiere 
Route d'Emeraude (La), by Demolder and 

Richepin 
Ruy-Blas, by Hugo 



Saint-Alexis, Miracle of Notre-Dame 
Suinte-Helene, by Mme. Severine 
Saint-Ignace d'Antioch, Miracle of Notre- 
Dame 
Saint Julien l'hospitalier, by Flaubert 

Sais (Le), by Mme. Ollognier 
Sakuntala, by Kalidasa 

and 
Salammbo, by Flaubert 
Salaminians (The), by Aeschylus 
Salome, by Oscar Wilde 
Samson, by Voltaire 
Samson, by Bernstein 
Samson et Dalila, by Saint-Saens 
Sang-brule (La), by Bouvier 
Sapho, by Gounod 
Sapho, by Daudet 
S. A. R., by Chancel 
Sardanapalus, by Byron 
Saul, by Alfieri 
Saul, by Gide 
Srundale (Le), by Bataille 
Schism of England (The), by Calderon 
Sculpteur de Masques (Le), by Cromelynck 
Scythes (Lea), by Voltaire 
Second Faust (The), by Goethe 
Secret de Gilberte (Le), by Massiac 



V 


A 




XIII 


E 




XXXIII 


D 


5 


III 


B 


4 


XVIII 


D 


1 


XXXIII 


B 


3 


VII 


B 




XIX 


A 


4 


VIII 


A 


1 


VIII 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


C 


2 


XXII 


c 


1 


XXVIII 


D 


2 


VIII 


A 


2 


XXIX 


B 


6 


IV 


C 




VIII 


A 


2 


XXII 


A 


6 


XIX 






XIX 


G 


3 


III 


A 


2 


XX 


A 


4 


XIX 


E 




XXIV 


A 


3 


XVI 


C 




XXXV 






VIII 


B 


1 


VI 


C 


2 


XXII 


B 




XVII 


C 


3 


XXV 


D 


1 


XV 


A 


2 


XXVI 


C 


1 


XXXIII 


D 


1 


XXII 


A 


3 


XX 


B 


3 


VI 


A 


2 


XIII 


D 




XVI 


B 




XXXIV 


B 


2 


XV 


B 




XXVI 


C 


1 


XXIX 


A 


4 


IX 


D 


3 


XXVII 


B 


2 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



153 



Secret de la Terreuse (Lej, by Busnaeh 
Secret Vengeance for Secret Outrage, by 

Calderon 
Semele, by Aeschylus 
Semiramis, by Manfredi 
Semiramis, by Crebillon 
Semiramis, by Voltaire 
Semiramide riconosciuta, by Metastasio 

Serenade tLa), by J. Jullien 

Serge Panine, by Ohnet 

Serpent Woman (The), by Gozzi 

Sertorius, by Corneille 

Seven Against Thebes, by Aeschylus 

Seven Princesses (The), by Maeterlinck 

St'vero Torelli, by Coppee 

Shepherd King (The), by Metastasio 

Sherlock Holmes, by Conan Doyle 

Shepherds (The), by Sophocles 

Sieba, by Manzotti 

Sigurd, by Reyer 

Simone, by Brieux 

Simon, l'enfant trouve, by Jonathan 

Singer (The), anonymous Chinese drama 

Sinon, by SophoHi a 

Sire, by Lavedan 

Siroes, by Metastasio 

Sir Thomas Wyat, by Webster 

Smilis, by Aicard 

Soeurette, by Borteau-Lm i 
Son Excellence Eugene, by Zola 
Sons of Pandou The , by Radjasekhara 
Sophonisbe, by Trissino 

by Mairel 

by Alfieri 
Sorciere (Lai, by Sardou 
Souris I. a , by Pailleron 
Sphinx The , by A.( 

Statue (The), by Radjasekhara 

Stella, by Goethe 

Story of Yayati (The , by Roudradeva 

Suppliants The . by 4< 

Suppliants (The , by Euripide 

Suzette, by Brieux 

Surcoui, by Planquette 

Surena, by Corneille 



and 



and 



Tancrede, by Voltaire 



:il,i| 



XXXIII 


B 


4 


XXV 


D 


1 


XIII 


B 


1 


XXVI 


A 


1 


XXVI 


A 


1 


XIX 


D 




XXIV 


B 


8 


XXXII 


B 


1 


XXV 


c 


3 


XXV 


B 


2 


XXXIII 


A 


1 


XX 


B 


3 


XIII 


A 


2 


XXXVI 


B 




XXVII 


D 


4 


XXVIII 


(' 


1 


III 


c 




VI 


A 


1 


XXVIII 


B 




xx\ 


C 


3 


XXVI I 


D 


6 


III 


A 


(i 


III 


A 


1 


IX 


1) 


1 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XXXIII 


B 


•> 


XXX 


B 




XXI 


A 


•> 


\\\ 


C 


4 


XXV 


C 


7 


X X X 


C 


1 


III 


\ 


6 


XX 


B 


a 


XX 


B 


a 


XX 


B 


a 


XXIV 


1! 


i 


XIV 


\ 


i 


\l 


li 


i 


XXIV 


D 


a 


\\\ 


B 


6 


XXIX 


\ 


•> 


1 


\ 


I 


1 


\ 


•> 


XX1\ 


\ 


i 


XX IN 


\ 


6 


\\XII 


\ 


a 


X X X 1 1 


A 


i 


II 


A 





154 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Tanis et Zelide, by Voltaire 

Tannhaeuser, by Wagner 

Tartarin, by Daudet 

Taverne des Trabans (La), by Erckmann 

Chatrian 
Tchitra Yadjgna, by Vedanyatha 

Yatehespati 
Telephus, by Euripides 
Telephus, by Aeschylus 
Telephus, by Sophocles 
Tempest (The), by Shakespeare 
Tenailles (Les), by Hervieu 
Temptation of Saint Anthony (The), by 

Flaubert 
Tereus, by Sophocles 
Terre (La), by Zola 



and 



Terre d'epouvante, by Morel and de Lorde 

Teucer, by Sophocles 

Thamiras, by Sophocles 

Themistocles, by Metastasio 

Theodora, by Sardou 

Theodore, by Corneille 

Therese Raquin, by Zola 

and 

Thermidor, by Sardou 

Theseus, by Euripides 

Thracians (The), by Aeschylus 

Three Punishments in One, by Calderon 

Thyestes, by Seneca 

Thyestes in Sicyon, by Sophocles 

Thyestes II, by Sophocles 

Timoleon, by Alfieri 

Timon of Athens, by Shakespeare 

'Tis Pity She's a Whore, by Ford 

Titan, by Jean-Paul Richer 

Tite et Berenice, by Corneille 

Toilers of the Sea, by Hugo 



Torquemada, by Hugo 

Torrent (Le), by Donnay 

Torrismond, by Tasso 

Tosca (La), by Sardou 

Trains de luxe (Les), by Hermant 

Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur, by 

Ducange 
Tribun (he), by Bourget 
Tribut de Zamora (Le), by Gounod 
Trisan and Isolde, by Wagner 
Triumvirat (Le), by Voltaire 
Troilus, by Aeschylus 



and 
XXIII and 



XXIV 

XXII 

VI 

XXIX 

XXXI 

I 

XIX 
XIX 

III 

XXV 
XXII 

III 

XXX 

XIII 

VI 

VI 

XXXI 

XX 

XXXIII 

XX 

XXXIV 

XV 

VIII 

IX 

XVI 

XIII 

XIII 

XXXV 

XIII 

XXX 

VI 

XXVI 

XVIII 

XX 

XXIV 

IX 

XIX 

XXV 

XVIII 

XXI 

XXIV 

XXII 

XXVII 

XXIV 

XXV 

XXIV 

XXXVI 



A 2 

A 2 
B 

A 3 

B 1 

B 3 



B 


1 


B 


1 


B 


1 


C 


1 


B 




B 


5 


C 


1 


B 


1 


A 


4 


C 


2 


B 


3 


A 


2 


A 


3 


D 




A 


4 


A 


1 


A 


1 


D 


1 


B 




B 


1 


A 


2 


A 


2 


A 


1 


C 


1 


C 


2 


D 


2 


B 


3 


A 


7 


D 


2 


A 


3 


C 


1 


A 


2 


D 


2 


B 


6 


C 


2 


D 


2 


A 


3 


C 


3 


A 


3 


A 


1 



INDEX OF PLAYS, NOVELS, ETC. 



155 



Troilus and Cressida, by Shakespeare 
Troades (The), by Euripides 

" . " by Seneca 
Troyens (Les), by Berlioz 



and 



Tullia, by Martelli 

Tunic Confronted (The), by Tchang-koue- 

pin 
Turandot, by Gozzi 
Twenty-fourth of February (The), by 

Werner 
Two foscari (The), by Byron 
Two Gentlemen of Verona, by Shakespeare 
Two Noble Kinsmen (The), by Beaumont 

and Fletcher 



V 


c 




XXXVI 


A 


1 


XXXVI 


A 


1 


I 


B 


1 


XX 


B 


3 


XXX 


C 


2 


III 


A 


1 


XI 


C 


1 


XIX 


B 


1 


III 


A 


1 


XIV 


D 





XIV 



u 

Ubu-Roi, by Jarry 

Ulysses Furens, by Sophocles 

Un ange, by Capus 

Un divorce, by Moreau 

Un drole, by Yves Guyot 

Une famille au temps de Luther, by 

Delavigne 
Une femme passa, by Coolus 
Une nuit de Cleopatre, by Gautier and 

V. Masse 

Un patriote, by Dartois 

Un voyage de noces, by Tiercelin 



XXX 

XI 

XXII 
XXXII 
X X V 

XIII 
XIV 

XXII 
and XXIV 
XXIII 

XXV 



Valentinian, by Beaumont and Fletcher 

Varennea, by Lenotre and Lavedan 

Vautrin, by Balzac 

Veine (La;, by Capus 

Venisamhara, by Bhatta \arayana 

Ventre de Paria (Le), by Zola 

Veuve joyeu e I.:. . by Meilhac, Leon and 

St*;in 
Vicomtee e Alice I. a , by Second 
Vidocq, by Bergeral 
Victory of Arjuna (The , by Cantchana 

Atcharya 
Victory of Pradyoumna (The), by Samara 

Dikchita 
Vieil homme (Le . by Porte Riche 
Vielle hiatoire, by .1. Jullien 
Vie publique I. a , by Fabre 



XXX111 
XXIV 

XXVI 

xxv 
III 

X X X 1 1 1 

\\\ 111 
III 

IX 

XXIX 
Xl\ 
\X\ II 
XXX 



c 




c 


:{ 


C 


•2 


A 


1 


C 


1 


A 


1 


1) 




A 


5 


B 


•1 


B 


1 


A 


o 


1) 


1 


B 


:i 


1) 


l 


\ 


■A 


\ 


• 


c 


• ) 


\ 


•) 


D 




C 




C 


L' 


\ 


• > 


I'. 


■ ' 


\ 


• > 


c 


I 



156 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Vierge (La), by Vallette 

Vierge folle (La), by Bataille 

Virgin Martyr (The), by Massinger 

Vittoria Corombona, by Webster 

Vive le roi! by Ryner 

Voix de sang (La), by Mme. Rachilde 

Voleur (Le), by Bernstein 



W 



Waiting-Women (The), by Aeschylus 

\\ allenstein, by Schiller 

War of the Worlds (The), by Wells 

Weavers of Nets (The), by Aeschylus 

Weavers of Silesia (The), by Hauptmann 

Werner, by Byron 

Werther, by Goethe 

Wild Duck (The), by Ibsen 

William Tell, by Schiller 

Winter's Tale (A), by Shakespeare 
Women of Colchis, by Sophocles 
Women of Scyros, by Sophocles 
Wool-Carders (The), by Aeschylus 
Worst is not Always Certain (The), by 
Calderon 



and 



XXXII 


A 


4 


XXV 


B 


9 


XX 


D 




XV 


A 


1 


XX 


A 


4 


XIX 


G 


3 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


XX 


A 


2 


XXX 


A 


3 


VI 


A 


2 


XVI 


A 


1 


VIII 


B 


2 


XXVII 


C 




XXXIV 


B 




XVII 


C 


1 


VIII 


B 


2 


III 


B 


6 


XXV 






XXV 


A 


1 


XI 


C 


2 


XXXI 


A 


1 



XXXII 



A 1 



X 



Xoanephores (The), by Sophocles 



VI 



A 2 



Zaire, by Voltaire 
Zeim, by Gozzi 
Zenobia, by Metastasio 
Zoe Chien-chien, by Mathey 
Zulime, by Voltaire 



XXXII 


A 


2 


XXVIII 


B 




XXV 


C 


2 


IV 


A 


2 


XXIV 


B 


4 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Abeille: Lyncee XXIII 

Arhaeus: (Edipus XVIII 

Adam (Paul): L'Automne VIII 

Les Mouctli XXIII 

Adam de la Halle: Le Jeu <!<• la Feuillee \'I1 
Le Jeu de Robin et de 

Marion X 

Adonis: Les Revolt es III 

Aeschylus: The Suppliants 1 

The Heraclidae I 

The Eumenides I 

The Eleusinians I 

Danae I 

The Mysians I 

The Phrygians I 

The Propom I 

The Epigones 1 1 1 

The Argives III 

The Perrhoebide 1 1 1 

Ixion III 

The Nereids III 

Penelope ill 

Les Joueura d'osselel III 

and VII 

The ( !hoephoree I \ 

Atalanta l\ 

Prometheui Bound \ 

and VII 

The Persian \ I 

The Myrmidoi VI 

The Salaminiai \ I 

TheGui VII 

Nemea \ I 



1 1 
t i 



B 


3 


A 


1 


B 


•i 


A 


S 


C 


1 


A 




A 


5 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


1 


\ 


•> 


B 


•> 


B 


3 


B 


I 


(' 


1 


A 


1 


\ 


1 


A 


5 


\ 


6 


\ 


7 


B 


• > 


1? 


• > 


B 




A 


1 


B 




C 




c 


1 


\ 


1 


\ 


1 


1 


2 


B 




\ 





1 58 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



\.eschyl 


us: The Phorcides 


IX 


B 


2 


ii 


Phineus 


IX 


B 


2 


ii 


Memnon 


IX 


B 


2 


■ I 


Glaucus Pontius 


IX 


B 


2 


ii 


Prometheus 


IX 


C 


1 


ii 


Prometheus Unbound 


IX 


D 


1 


■ i 


Orithyie 


X 


A 




ii 


Europa 


X 


A 




ii 


The Carians 


X 


A 




ii 


The Sphinx 


XI 


B 


1 


ii 


Palamede 


XI 


C 


3 


ii 


Philoctetes 


XII 


A 




■ I 


The Judgment of Arms 


XII 


C 




ii 


The Heliades 


XIII 


A 


1 


ii 


Seven Against Thebes 


XIII 


A 


2 


ii 


Agamemnon 


XV 


A 


1 


• I 


The Weavers of Nets 


XVI 


A 


1 


ii 


Athamas 


XVI 


A 


1 


ii 


The Thracians 


XVI 


B 




ii 


Semele 


XVII 


B 


1 


ii 


CEdipus 


XVIII 


A 


1 


ii 


Alcmene 


XVIII 


D 


2 


ii 


Telephus 


XIX 


B 


1 


ii 


The Priestesses 


XIX 


C 


2 


ii 


Polydectes 


XIX 


F 


2 


ii 


The Waiting-Women 


XX 


A 


2 


■ I 


The Phoenissae 


XX 


A 


3 


ii 


Iphigenia 


XXIII 


A 


1 


ii 


Hypsipyle 


XXIII 


B 


2 


ii 


The Danaides 


XXIII 


B 


3 


ii 


Laius 


XXVI 


D 


1 


ii 


The Aedonians 


XXXI 


A 


1 


ii 


Pentheus 


XXXI 


A 


1 


ii 


The Bassarides 


XXXI 


A 


1 


ii 


The Wool-Carders 


XXXI 


A 


1 


ii 


Ajax Locrian 


XXXI 


B 


3 


n 


The Nurses 


XXXI 


B 


4 


ii 


The Eumenides 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


ii 


Niobe 


XXXVI 


A 


1 


■ I 


Troilus 


XXXVI 


A 


1 


ii 


Penthesilea 


XXXVI 


C 




1 1 


The Death of Achilles 


XXXVI 


C 




ii 


Psychostase 


XXXVI 


C 




Aicard 


Smilis 


XXI 


A 


2 






and XXV 


C 


4 


Aicard 


: La Legende du Coeur 


XXV 


D 


1 


Alamanni: Antigone 


XX 


A 


3 


Alfieri: 


The Conspiracy of the Pazzi 


VIII 


A 


2 


1 1 


Polynice 


XIII 


A 


1 


1 1 


Saul 


XIII 


D 




• i 


Agis 


XIII 


D 





INDEX OF AUTHORS 



159 



Alfieri: Philippe II 

Octavia 
Merope 
" Antigone 
" Sophonisbe 
" Rosemonde 
Myrrha 
Timoleon 
Brutus II 
Marie Stuart 
" Don Garzia 
Orestes 
Amigues: La Comtesse Fredegonde 
Ancey: L'Ecole des veufs 
Andersen: Le Compagnon de voyage 
Anguillara: OZdipus 
Annunzio (d'): La Citta morta 
Aretin d'j : Horace 
Armand iMme): Les Fils de Jahel 
Arnold: Le rime d'un autre 
Arnould: Le Mari 

La Belle aux cheveux d'or 
Arnyvelde: La Courtisane 
Artois (d'j: La Fermiore 
Athis: Le pere Chasselas 
Attilius: Klectra 

Auge de Lassus: La Conspiration de gen- 
eral Malet 
Augier: Diane 

Madame Caverlet 
Le Manage d'Olympe 

Aurcl: L'lnsociale 



and 



and 



XIV 


B 


3 


XXVI 


B 


2 


XV 


B 




XIX 


B 


1 


XX 


A 


3 


XX 


B 


3 


XXV 


B 


5 


XXVI 


A 


2 


XXX 


A 


1 


XXX 


A 


2 


XXXIII 


A 


2 


XXXIII 


C 


3 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


XXV 


B 


7 


XXVI 


B 


3 


XI 


B 


2 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XXVI 


C 


2 


XXIII 


B 


5 


XX 


B 


2 


XXXIII 


D 


9 

it 


XXV 


C 


1 


XVII 


C 


3 


XXVII 


B 


6 


X X 1 V 


C 




XXXV 






IV 


A 


1 


VIII 


A 


1 


XXI 


C 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


2 


XXVI] 


\ 


1 


XXVII 


B 


8 


XXXVI 


B 





H 



Balzac: < Jeaar Birotteau 
La cousine Bette 

\ autrin 
Balzac Lee [llu lona perdu 
Barliif-r: [ndigne 

Marlatier: La Mortf 
Hassci : Lea ( Irand 
Hatailli-: 1/ I!iu'hantemen1 

Martian f lolibri 

La Vierge folle 
Lr> Scandale 
Beauliourg: L'Image 

I > i • ■ 1 1 mi pa I lieu 



\l 


B 




XXII 


c 


l 


XX\ 1 


D 


1 


XXX 


c 


l 


V 


B 




XXI\ 


B 


8 


XXXIII 


\ 


8 


XIV 


\ 


■1 


XXII 


c 


1 


x\\ 


B 


9 


X X \l\ 


It 


2 


XXI\ 


B 


8 


XXIX 


\ 


8 



160 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Beaumont : The Two Noble Kinsmen 

Valentinian 
Becque: Les Corbeaux 
Bell: Catharine la Batarde 
Bergerat: Vidocq 
" Myrane 

Flore de Frileuse 
Berlioz: Les Troyens 

Bernard: Mon ami Teddy 

Bernard (Tristan): Le Danseur ineonnu 

Bernard (C. de): Gerfaut 

Bernede: Le Roi Soleil 

Bernhardt (Sarah): L'Aveu 

Bernstein: Israel 

La Griffe 
" Le Bercail 

" Apres moi 

Le Voleur 
Berton: La Rencontre 

Lena 
Bertrand: Jack the Ripper 
Bhatta Narayana: Venisamhara 
Bhavabuti: Malati and Madhava 

Mahaviracharita 
Later Life of Rama 
Bilhaud: La Courtisane de Corinth 
Biollay: M. Bute 

Les Angles du divorce 
Bisson: Nick Carter 

La Femme X 
Bizet: L'Arlesienne 
Blavet: Les Fils de Porthos 
Bodel (Jean): Le Jeu de Saint-Nicholas 
Bois (G.): Edith 
Bois (J.j: La Furie 
Boissy: Alceste 
Bannetain: L'Opium 
Borteau-Lotti: Soeurette 
Bourget: Le Disciple 
La Barricade 
" Mensonges 

Le Tribun 
L'Emigre 
" Le Divorce 

Bouvier: La Dame au Domino rose 
La Sang-brule 
Malheur aux pauvres 
La grande Iza 
Boyer: Jephtha 



XIV 


c 




XXXIII 


D 


4 


VII 


B 




XXXIII 


D 


1 


III 


c 




XXV 


B 


7 


XXVII 


B 


2 


I 


B 


1 


and XX 


B 


3 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


XXV 


c 


6 


XXXIII 


c 


2 


XXV 


c 


4 


XIX 


E 




XXII 


A 


3 


XXV 


c 


4 


XXV 


D 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


XXV 


C 


4 


XXVII 


B 


4 


III 


B 


7 


III 


A 


5 


X 


C 


1 


and XXIV 


A 


3 


X 


C 


2 


XXXV 






III 


B 


5 


XVI 


A 


3 


XXVIII 


E 




III 


C 




XXVII 


A 


1 


XXII 


A 


5 


XXIV 


A 


5 


II 


A 




V 


C 




XXII 


A 


5 


XXI 


A 


1 


XXII 


C 


2 


XXV 


C 


7 


III 


A 


8 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XXVII 


D 


2 


XXVIII 


A 


1 


XXVIII 


D 


1 


XVIII 


C 




XXVI 


C 


1 


XXXII 


C 


3 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


XXIII 


A 


2 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



161 



Brieux: Maternite 

Les A varies 

Simone 

La Petite Amie 
Suzette 
Buchanan: Alceste 
Jephtha 
Buet : Le Pretre 

Busnach: Le Secret de la Terreuse 
Byl: L'Age Critique 
Byron: The Two Foscari 

Sardanapalus 

Marino Faliero 

The Deformed Transformed 

Cain 

Heaven and Earth 
" Werner 

Manfred 



VI 


D 


1 


XVII 


c 


2 


XXVII 


D 


6 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


XXXII 


A 


3 


XXI 


A 


1 


XXIII 


A 


2 


III 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


B 


4 


XXV 


C 


3 


III 


A 


1 


VI 


A 


2 


VI 


C 


1 


IX 


D 


3 


XIII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


A 


1 


XXVII 


C 




XXXIV 


A 


1 



Caillavet (de): Papa 

Le Coeur a ses raisons 
L'Ane de Buridan 
La Montansier 
Cain: Les Revokes 
Calderon: The Alcalde of Zalamea 
Love After Death 
Devotion to the Cross 
Louis Perez of Galieia 
Calderon: Three Punishments in One 
The Schism of England 
The Constant Prince 
Secret Vengeance for Secret 

Outrage 
The Physician of His Honor 
His Own Gaoler 
Fortune and Misfortune of a 

Name 
The \\<>r-t is Nut Always Cer- 
tain 

Life is a Dream 
Cantchana Atcharya: The Victory of 

Arjuna 
CaptU : Un Ang»- 

I, Attentat 

La Veine 
Carcinus: (Edi] 
Carre: La < ourt isane de Corinth 

La Roman d'ui i piral [on 



XIV 


B 


1 


XIV 


D 




XXIV 


B 


fi 


x\\ 


c 


3 


III 


A 


5 


III 


A 


3 


III 


A 


6 


V 


A 




V 


A 




XIII 


B 


1 


XV 


B 




XX 


A 


4 


X X V 


I) 


1 


x x v 


D 


1 


XXIX 


B 


6 


XXIX 


B 


r> 


XXXII 


\ 


l 


XIII 


B 


■2 


IX 


C 


-' 


Wil 


C 


2 


XXIV 


A 


7 


xx\ 


A 


••{ 


X\ III 


\ 


1 


III 


B 


:. 


VIII 


A 


■> 



162 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Cervantes: Don Quixote 


II 


A 




Caesar: (Edipus 


XVIII 


A 


1 


Chabrihan iComtesse de): Pierre Pascal 


XV 


A 


1 


Chancel: S. A. R. 


XX 


B 


3 


Charton: Devant l'ennenii 


XXIV 


A 


8 


Chatrian: La Nuit de Saint-Jean 


XXIV 


A 


7 


Myrtille 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


L'Ami Fritz 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


Les Rantzau 


XXIX 


A 


3 


La Taverne des Trabans 


XXIX 


A 


3 


Madame Therese 


XXIX 


A 


4 


Chateaubriand: Les Martyrs 


XXXI 


A 


2 


Rene 


XXXIV 


B 




Chenier (M. J.): Electre 


IV 


A 


1 


(Edipus 


XVIII 


A 


1 


Cicero (Q.): Electra 


IV 


A 


1 


Cienfuegos: Idomenee 


XXIII 


A 


2 


Clairian: Jack the Ripper 


III 


B 


7 


Clairville: Madame Margot 


VIII 


A 


2 


Claretie: Le Prince Zilah 


XXVII 


B 


3 


Claudel: Partage de midi 


XV 


A 


\ 


Cliquet: C'est la loi 


XXV 


B 


8 


Coedes: Le Crime de Maisons-Alfort 


III 


A 


1 


Coolus: Le Risque 


XIV 


A 


4 


Une femme passa 


XIV 


D 




Coolus: Les Passageres 


XXIV 


B 


6 


Antoinette Sabrier 


XXIV 


C 


3 


Coeur a Coeur 


XXV 


C 


6 


Les Bleus de 1 'amour 


XXVIII 


C 


2 


" 4x7 — 28 


XXXII 


A 


3 


Coppee: Madame de Maintenon 


XXI 


B 


2 


Les Jacobites 


XXV 


D 


2 


Severo Torelli 


XXVII 


D 


1 


Corneille (P.): Andromede 


II 


A 




Pompee 


III 


A 


4 


Nicomede 


V 


C 




Cinna 


VIII 


A 


1 


Rodogune 


XIII 


E 




Psyche 


XVII 


B 


1 


(Edipe 


XVIII 


A 


1 


Heraclius 


XVIII 


B 


2 


Polyeucte 


XX 


B 


1 


Othon 


XX 


B 


3 


Pulcherie 


XX 


B 


3 


Tite et Berenice 


XX 


B 


3 


Sertorius 


XX 


B 


3 


Theodore 


XX 


D 




Pertharite 


XXI 


D 


2 


Horace 


XXIII 


B 


5 


Attila 


XXIV 


A 


4 


Agesilas 


XXIV 


A 


5 



A 


5 


A 


6 


B 


1 


A 


1 


B 


1 


D 


1 


D 


1 


B 


7 


B 


2 


B 


2 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


2 


A 


2 


C 


2 


A 


T 


D 


1 


C 




C 




c 


1 


B 


1 


D 





INDEX OF AUTHORS 163 

Corneille iP.i: Surena XXIV 

Don Sanche XXIV 
La Conquete de la Toison 

dor XXIV 

Medee XXV 

LeCid XXIX 

Corneille: Clitandre XXXIII 

Corneille (T.): Ariane VI 

and XXI Y 

Le Comte d' Essex X XIV 

Le Festin de Pierre XXXI 

Coypel: Alceste XXI 

Crebillon: Electre IV 

Atree et Thyeste XIII 

Idomenee XXIII 

Rhadamiste et Zenobie XXV 

Semiramis XXVI 

Cremieux: La Charbonniere XXI 

Crichna Cavi: The Death of Cansa XIII 

Croisset : Le Circuit XXIV 

Cromelynck: Le Sculpteur de Masques XXVI 

Curel (de): Les Fossiles XIV 

La Fille sauvage XXXVI 

D 

Dalayrac: Raoul de Crequi 
Dallif-re: La Mission de Jeanne d'Arc 
Danceny: L'Or 
Darlay: La Petite Caporale 

Les Aventures de Gavroche 
Dartois: Un Patriote 
Daudet: Tartarin 

La Lutte pour la vie 

Port-Tarascon 

L'Evangeli 

Sapho 

L'Arlesienne 
L'Obstacle 
Numa Rounifstaii 
La Pel it'' Paro 

Dorourcfllf: Le Roi sans rri\aurn<- 

L'Aa de trefle 

Lee < , in<i doigti de Birouk 
Delahayt- I. a I lecll 
Delacour: La ( Iriminelle 
Delavigne: Une famille au temp de Lutber 
Delibes: Lai 
Delpit : Lea Maucroix 

Mile. '!<• Bre lier 

I )<ninl(lcr: La Route d'emeraude 



\\\ 


E 




VIII 


B 


1 


III 


A 


1 


l\ 


D 


4 


\ \ X \ 






XXIII 


B 


4 


\ I 


B 




XV 


B 




XVII 


C 


4 


XX 


B 


1 


XXII 


A 


:t 


XXII 


A 


6 


XXIV 


\ 


B 


\x\ 


B 


• i 


\\\ 


c 


"i 


\ 111 


A 


l 


XXVII 


I> 


:t 


\\\ 


C 


1 


III 


B 


i 


XXXIII 


B 


• t 


XIII 


A 


I 


\XI\ 


\ 


i 


\l\ 


\ 


1 


XXIX 


B 


• > 


\ X 1 1 


\ 


i. 



1(54 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Dennery: Martyre 

Le petit Jacques 
Descaves: L'Attentat 
Desnard: La Degringolade 
Devore: Page blanche 

La Conscience de l'enfant 
Diaz: Benvenuto 
Dickens: Great Expectations 
Diogenes: OEdipus 
Dolce: Marianne 
Donnay: L'Autre Danger 
Le Torrent 
Paraitre 
Dor at: Alceste 
Dornay: Gavroche 

Fiacre No. 13 
Les Foulards-rouges 
Dostoievsky: Crime and Punishment 
Doyle: Sherlock Holmes 
Ducange: Trente ans ou la vie d'un joueur 
Ducis: Gildipe 
Abufar 
Dumas pere: Monte-Cristo 

" Don Juan 

Dumas fils: L'Etrangere 

and 
Le Fils naturel 
Le Pere prodigue 
Le Divorce de Sarah Moore 
La Question d'argent 
Francillon 

La Princesse Georges 
Diane de Lys 
La Femme de Claude 
L'Affaire Clemenceau 
" Denise 

La Dame aux camelias 
" M. Alphonse 

La Princesse de Bagdad 
Dumay: La petite Milliardaire 
Dumur: Le Maquignon 

Rembrandt 
Duval: L'Article 301 



XXI 


c 


1 


XXI 


D 


1 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XXXIII 


D 


6 


XXV 


c 


1 


XXVI 


c 


1 


XXIV 


B 


7 


XXI 


A 


2 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XIV 


B 


4 


XXV 


c 


1 


XXV 


D 


1 


XXI 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


XXXV 






XXXIV 


A 


3 


III 


C 




XXII 


C 


2 


XVIII 


A 


1 


XVIII 


B 


1 


III 


B 


4 


V 


B 




III 


B 


7 


XXV 


B 


3 


XII 


B 




XIV 


B 


1 


XXI 


A 


2 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XXV 


B 


2 


XXV 


B 


3 


XXV 


C 


:] 


XXV 


C 


7 


XXV 


D 


1 


XXVII 


B 


3 


XXVII 


B 


« 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


A 


7 


III 


A 


1 


VII 


D 




XXIV 


C 





E 



Edmond (Cf. La Bucheronne 
Eekhoud: Kermesse rouge 
Elzear: Jack Tempete 
Emile-Michelet: Le Pererin d'amour 



XXIV 


A 


8 


III 


A 


8 


XXIV 


A 


8 


XXVII 


B 


7 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



165 



Erckmann: La Nuit de Saint-Jean 


XXIV 


A 


7 




L'Ami Fritz 


XXVIII 


A 


2 




Myrtille 


XXVIII 


A 


o 

— 




Les Rantzau 


XXIX 


A 


3 




La Taverne des Trabans 


XXIX 


A 


3 




Madame Therese 


XXIX 


A 


4 


Ernault: 


La Croisade des enfanteles 










francs 


VII 


B 




" 


La tentation de vivre 


XVI 


A 


2 


Euripides 


: The Heraclida? 


I 


A 


1 


Euripides 


: The Suppliants 


1 


A 


2 


** 


Danae 


I 


B 


2 


ii 


The Cretans 


I 


B 


2 


ii 


Augeus 


I 


B 


2 


ii 


Alope 


1 


B 


2 


• t 


Telephus 


1 


B 


3 


ii 


Andromeda 


II 


A 




ii 


Antiope 


II 


B 


1 


14 


Dictya 


II 


B 


2 


11 


Hecuba 


III 


A 


2 


11 


Ixion 


III 


A 


5 


11 


Phrixus 


III 


B 


4 


11 


Elect ra 


l\ 


A 


1 


1 1 


Archelaus 


VI 


C 


1 


11 


Peleus 


VII 


C 


1 


• 1 


Theseus 


IX 


D 


1 


11 


(Enomaua 


IX 


D 


2 


11 


Rhesus 


1\ 

and XX XVI 


D 
C 


1 


11 


Helen 


X 


C 


1 


11 


Polyidus 


\1 


A 




11 


Women of Scyroa 


XI 


c 


2 


11 


Palamede 


XI 


(• 


S 






and XXXIII 


(• 


• > 


•1 • 


Philoctetee 


Ml 


A 




11 


The Phoeni 


XIII 


\ 


l 


• t 


Phoenix 


\1V 


B 


8 


11 


Heracles Mainomenoe 


X\ 1 


\ 


1 


■ 1 


I no 


\\ 1 


\ 


1 


11 


Phaeton 


XVII 


\ 


1 


11 


The Peliadee 


XVII 

and XIX 


C 
E 


•1 


11 


Ion 


XIX 


l< 


1 


11 


( Iresphonfc 


XIX 


B 


1 


l 1 


Aeg< 


XIX 


B 


• i 


11 


Alexander 


XIX 


c 


1 


It 


[phigenia In Ta 


XIX 


C 


2 


t • 


Protesilaa 


XX 


\ 


9 


1 t 


Antigone 


XX 


\ 


8 


1 • 


Air. 


\l 


\ 


l 


• 1 


Andromache 


XXI 


I) 


l 



166 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Euripides: 


Iphigenia in Aulis 


XXIII 


A 


1 


« • 


Erechtheus 


XXIII 


A 


1 


• i 


Melanippe 


XXIII 


B 


1 


" 


Hypsipyle 


XXIII 


B 


2 


Euripedes 


: Medea 


XXV 


A 


1 


ii 


Andromache 


XXV 


B 


1 


ii 


Alcmeon 


XXV 


B 


4 


ii 


Hippolyte 


XXVI 


B 


2 


ii 


Eole 


XXVI 


C 


1 


ii 


Chrysippus 


XXVI 


D 


1 


ii 


The Cretans 


XXVI 


E 




ii 


The Bacchantes 


XXXI 


A 


1 


• i 


Bellerophon 


XXXI 


B 


3 


ii 


Phaeton 


XXXI 


B 


5 


ii 


Orestes 


XXXIV 


A 


2 


ii 


Troades (The) 


XXXVI 


A 


1 


Ezekiel: The Exodus of the Hebrews 


XXXI 


A 


2 



Fabre: La Maison d'argile 
Cesar Birotteau 
La Vie publique 



and 



Fall: La Divorcee 
Fauchois: Beethoven 
Rivoli 
L'Exode 
Ferrier: La Cornette 
Feuillet: Chamillac 
Fevre: En Detresse 
Feydeau: Le Circuit 
Flaubert: Salammbo 

Saint Julien l'hospitallier 
" Herodias 

The Temptation of St. Anthony 
Madame Bovary 
Fleischmann: La Fille a Guillotin 
Flers (dej: Papa 

La Coeur a ses raisons 
L'Ane de Buridan 
La Montansier 
Fletcher: The Two Noble Kinsmen 

Valentinian 
Fonson: Le Mariage de Mile. Beulemans 
Ford: Tis Pity She's a Whore 
" The Broken Heart 
" Perkin Warbeck 
" Love's Sacrifice 
Forest: La petite milliardaire 



XIII 


A 


3 


XX 


A 


4 


XXVIII 


A 


1 


XXX 


c 


1 


XXXII 


A 


2 


VII 


D 




XXV 


c 


7 


XXIX 


A 


4 


XXI 


D 


1 


XXVII 


B 


5 


VII 


c 


2 


XXIV 


c 




VIII 


B 


1 


XIX 


. E 




XXII 


B 




XXII 


B 




XXV 


C 


7 


XXIII 


A 


3 


XIV 


B 


1 


XIV 


D 




XXIV 


B 


6 


XXV 


C 


3 


XIV 


C 




XXXIII 


D 


4 


XXIV 


A 


8 


XXVI 


C 


2 


XXIX 


A 


1 


XXX 


B 




XXXII 


A 


3 


XXXIV 


A 


7 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



167 



Forest: L'Homme a deux tetes 
Fournier: Le Roman d'une conspiration 
Fraisse: Les Champairol 

Jean Cevenol 
France: Le Mannequin d'osier 

Les Noces corinthiennes 

Crainquebille 
Franck: Cceur maternel 
Fread Amy: L'Impa 
Frondaie: Montmartre 



XXXIII 


c 


2 


VIII 


A 


2 


I 


B 


3 


XXXIII 


B 


3 


XXV 


c 


4 


XXIX 


A 


4 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


XXXIII 


A 


:s 


XV 


A 


1 


XXVIII 


E 





G 



Ganderax: Miss Fanfare 
Garaud: Le Frere d'armes 
Gautier: Mademoiselle de Maupin 
Une nuit de Cleopatre 

(iautier ■ .1 udith i : I. a Marchande re 

sourires 
Gavault: La petite Chocolatiere 
Geffroy: L'Apprentie 
(ieraldy: L'Eclabaussure 
Gide: Saul 

Gilkin : Etudiants russe 
Giraldi: Orbecche 

ck: Alceste 
Godard: Jocelyn 

haul.' 
Goethe: Faust 

Clavijo 

( ioetz de Berlichingen 

Egmonl 

The Natural 1 laughter 

The Second Faui I 

Pandora 

[phigenia in Ta 

Stella 

\\ fit her 
Goldoni I )on Juan 
Gombaud Le Dai 

( ioi court E. and J. de Renee Maupt 

< ierminie l m 

teu\ 

i ourt I Les Frere Zemgann 

( oi i ourl E. de La Fille Eliia 
doreei i La Petite I aporale 

' oui •■■! I e Trlbul d( 7 mora 
pho 



XXV 


B 


7 


XXI 


D 


1 


XVIII 






XXII 


A 


5 


and XXIV 


B 


4 


XXIX 


B 


7 


XXVIII 


A 


•> 


XX 


C 




X X X 1 Y 


A 


3 


XVI 


B 




\\\ 11 


D 


1 


IV 


D 




XXI 


A 


1 


XXII 


\ 


1 


X X 1 V 


A 


:{ 


1 


c 


1 


and VI 


D 


l 


III 


A 


8 


Y 


C 




Y 


(' 




and VIII 


B 


1 


VII 


A 




IX 


l» 


:\ 


X\ II 


C 


l 


Xl\ 


(' 


■ 1 


\\\ 


1'. 


ti 


XXXIY 


B 




\ 


B 




XXIII 


B 


:: 


•ru, XVII 


c 


^ 


■ 






XXII 


i 


1 


(. \l 


l'. 


1 


\\ 1 


\ 


• • 


IX 


D 


•i 


\\l\ 


\ 


8 


.Mil 


h 


1 



l(i> 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Gozzi: Turandot 


XI 


c 


1 


Zobeide 


XV 


B 




Loves of the Three Oranges 


XVIII 


D 


1 


The Blue Monster 


XIX 


G 


2 


Zeim 


XXVIII 


B 




The Serpent Woman 


XXXIII 


A 


1 


Le Corbeau 


XXXIII 


A 


3 


Le Roi Cerf 


XVIII 


D 


1 


Grabbe: Don Juan 


V 


B 




Gramont (de): Rolande 


XXII 


C 


1 


Lucienne 


XXV 


A 


1 


Grangeneuve: Amhra 


III 


A 


6 


Gravier: Jarnac 


XXIII 


B 


6 


Gregory Nazianzen (Saint): Christ 


XX 


A 


2 


Suffering 


and XXXI 


A 


1 


Grenet-Dancourt: La Banque de l'Univers XVI 


A 


2 


Gretry: Richard Cceur-de-Lion 


X 
and XXXV 


D 


1 


Grillet: Les Pierrots 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


Guiches: Les Quarts d'heure 


XXV 


C 


4 




and XXVII 


A 


1 


Guillard: Electra 


IV 


A 


1 


Guinon: Decadense 


XXV 


C 


1 


Guiraud: Le Poussin 


XXVIII 


D 


2 


Guitry (S.): Petite Hollande 


XXIV 


B 


6 


Guyot (Yves): Un drole 


XXV 


C 


1 


Gyp: Le Friquet 

H 
Halevy: L'Abbe Constantin 


XXIV 


B 


6 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


Harshadeva (Sri): The Necklace 


XXIV 


D 


3 


Hardy: Alceste 


XXI 


A 


1 


Hauptmann: The Weavers of Silesia 


VIII 


B 


2 


Heine: Almanzor 


XXIX 


A 


4 


Hennique: Amour 


XV 


A 


1 


" Jarnac 


XXIII 


B 


6 


Hermant: Trains de luxe 


XXIV 


B 


6 


Les Jacobines 


XXV 


C 


4 


Herold : Le Cor fleuri 


XXIV 


B 


3 


Hervieu: Le Reveil 


XXI 


C 


2 


La Loi de l'homme 


XXI 


C 


3 


Hervieu: Le Course du flambeau 


XXI 


E 




Le Dedale 


XXIV 


A 


12 




and XXV 


C 


2 


Les Tenailles 


XXV 


C 


1 


Connais-toi 


XXV 


C 


3 


L'Enigme 


XXV 


D 


1 


Hirsch: En greve 


XXIV 


A 


7 


Hornung: Raffles 


V 


A 




Hroswitha: Abraham 


XX 


D 





INDEX OF AUTHORS 169 



Hugo: Mangeront-ils? 

Lucrece Borgia 

XIX B 1, XIX D, XXIII B 1 
Les Jumeaux 

Toilers of the Sea 

Ruy-Blas 

Hernani 

XX A 1 
Torquemada 



La Esmeralda 

Marie Tudor 

Marion Delorme 

Le Roi s'amuse 
Les Burgraves 
Ninety-Three 
Angelo 
Cromwell 



Ibsen: 



I 


A 


3 


and XXIV 


A 


3 


VI 


C 


3 


and XXXII 


A 


2 


VII 


A 




and XXXV 






IX 


D 


2 


XXIV 


A 


7 


XIX 






and XXIV 


A 


3 


XIX 






and XXIII 


A 


3 


and XXIII 


A 


3 


XIX 






and XXIV 


A 


11 


XIX 






and XXIV 


B 


3 


XIX 






and XX VI I 


B 


4 


XIX 


A 


4 


XIX 


F 


1 


XXIII 


A 


3 


X X V 


C 


1 


XXX 


A 


3 



lores : 



An Enemy of the People 


V 


c 




Hedda Gabler 




XVI 


A 


:} 


The Master Builder 




XVII 


A 


l 


The Wild Dud: 




XV11 


C 


1 


Ghosts 




win 


B 


3 


Roemersholm 




X X \ 1 V 


B 




'1'Im' Lady Krom the 


Sea 


X \ 1 V 


B 


8 


I .. Bouchers 




III 


\ 


8 



.larry: Uhu-roi 


XXX 


c 




Jeoffrin : La Montan 


\x\ 


c 


8 


Jonathan: Simon I'enfanl trouve 


III 


\ 


t. 


Pierre Vaux 


\\1 


1) 


1 


Joncierea (de) !/•■ ( Ihevalier Jean 


XXXII 


(' 


I 


Josz: Le klaquignon 


III 


\ 


1 


Rembrandt 


\ II 


1) 




Jullien: L<- Maitre 


XIII 


1! 


1 


La Mer 


XIII 


1) 




La Serenade 


XXV 


(• 


a 


L'Echeance 


\ w 


(' 


B 


Vielle In itoira 


XXVI] 


\ 


•' 



170 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Kalidasa: Sakuntala 



K 



Agnimitra and Malavika 
The Hero and the Nymph 

Kampf: Le Grand Soir 

Kouan-han-king: The Resentment of 
Teoun-go 



Labiche: L'Affaire de la rue de Lourcine 
Lagrange-Chancel: Alceste 
Lamothe: GEdipus 
Laporte: L'Homme de proie 
Laumann: Le Coeur revelateur 
Lavedan: Le Duel 

Varennes 

Les Quarts d'heure 

Le Marquis de Priola 
Sire 
Leautaud: Le Petit Ami 
Leblanc: Arsene Lupin 
Lefebvre: La Femme de demain 
Lefevre: L'Homme de proie 
Lemaire: Le Mariage d'Andre 
Lemaitre: La Massiere 

Le Depute Leveau 
" Revoltee 

Lemierre: Idomencee 

Hypermnestre 
Lemonnier: Le Droit au bonheur 

Le Possede 
Leneru (Mme.): Les Affranchis 
Leon : La Veuve joyeu: e 

" La Divorcee 
Lenotre: Varennes 
I.eroux: Les Lys 
Lessing: Damon 

Emilia Galotti 
Miss Sara Sampson 
Linant: Conte de Noel 
Livet: Nick Carter 
Longepierre: Electre 
Lope de Vega: The Labors of Jacob 

El mejor alcalde el Rc-y 
Fontovejune 
Discovery of the New 

World 
The Abduction of Helen 



XVI 


c 




and XXXV 






XXIV 


D 


2 


XXXV 






VIII 


A 


1 


III 


B 


3 


XVI 


A 


3 


XXI 


A 


1 


XVIII 


A 


1 


X 


D 


2 


XXXIV 


A 


3 


XIII 


A 


1 


XXIV 


B 


3 


XXV 


C 


4 


and XXVII 


A 


1 


XXVII 


A 


1 


XXVII 


B 


7 


XXVI 


A 


1 


V 


A 




XXV 


B 


9 


X 


D 


2 


XVIII 


B 


1 


XIV 


B 


1 


XXV 


B 


3 


XXV 


C 


4 


XXIII 


A 


2 


XXIII 


B 


3 


XXI 


C 


2 


XXII 


A 


5 


XXV 


B 


8 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


XXXII 


A 


2 


XX IV 


B 


3 


XXVIII 


D 


1 


XIV 


D 




XXIV 


C 




XXV 


B 


7 


XIII 


F 




III 


C 




IV 


A 


1 


XIII 


A 


1 


II 


A 


3 


VIII 


B 


2 


IX 


D 


1 


X 


B 





INDEX OF AUTHORS 



171 



Lope de Vega: Aimer Sans savoir qui 

Nina de Plata 

The Mill 

The Gardener's Dog 
Lorde (de): L'Idiot 

Terre d'epouvante 
Loti: Ramuntcho 
Louys: Aphrodite 
Loyson: L'Apotre 
Lucas: Alcesie 
Lyon: Madame l'Amirale 



and 



XIX 


D 




XXXIII 


B 


1 


XXIV 


A 


5 


XXIV 


A 


5 


XXIV 


B 


5 


III 


A 


4 


VI 


A 


4 


XXVIII 


A 


1 


XXII 


A 


3 


XXVII 


D 


2 


XXI 


A 


I 


XXVI 


B 


1 



M 



Maeterlinck: The Princess Maleine 
The Blind 
The Blue Bird 
Pelleas and Melisande 
Monna Vanna 
The Seven Princesses 
The Intruder 

Maffei: Merope 

Mairet: Sophonisbe 

Maldagne Mine : La Boscotte 

Manfredi: Semiramis 

Manzoni: Adelghis 

Manzoni: The Count of Carmagnola 



and 



Manzotti: Sieba 

Margueritte: Pierrot assassin de Ba femme 

Marim-ui: Poupeee electriques 

Marot: La Casquette au pere Bugeaud 

( 'assc-museau 

Lee Aventuree de ( lavroche 
Marras: La Famille d'Armelles 
Mars: Mme. l'Amirale 

MarthoM: L'Ogre 
Martclli: 'I'ullia 

Mary ). Roger-la-honte 



I.'' Regimenl 
La !'.-•"■ feroce 
Massf: I'm- nuit de Cleop&tre 

e 1 1 E clarmonde 

.\Lr 

\l a ic l a • crel de < .ill- 
M.i lingei Tli'' Virgin Martyr 
Tin- Fatal i'" 



ami 



and 



VII 


A 




VII 


D 




IX 


D 


3 


XIV 


A 


3 


XXXII 


A 


1 


XXXVI 


B 




X X X V 1 


B 




XIX 


B 


1 


XX 


B 


:i 


XXX11I 


D 


■■i 


XXVI 


A 


1 


Y 


(' 




\ 


C 




VI 


c 


1 


XXVIII 


B 




X X X 1 \ 


A 


I 


XXXII] 


B 


:; 


111 


A 


8 


XXVI] 


1) 


.') 


X X X V 






XXV 


I) 


• > 


XXV] 


B 


1 


X X X 1 1 1 


1) 


8 


X X X 


c 


•> 


III 


l'. 


i 


XXXIII 


D 


.". 


XXVII 


I) 


:i 


XXX 


c 


l 


xxu 


\ 


5 


WIV 


B 


A 


XVII 


B 




XXII 


\ 


8 


\X\ II 


1! 


•> 


XX 


D 




X x\ 


< 


:. 



172 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMAT C SITUATIONS 



Massinger: The Bondman 
The Portrait 

Mat hey: Zoe Chien-Chien 

Maujan: Jacques Bonhomme 

Maupassant: Pierre et Jean 

Mazel: Les Amazones 

Meilhac: La Veuve joyeuse 

Melitus: CEdipus 

Mendes: Glatigny 

Les Meres ennemies 
La Reine Fiammette 

Mercereau: Mon frere 
Merimee: Colomba 
Messager: Francois les bas-bleus 
Metastasio: Cato 

Alexander 
The Desert Isle 
Cyrus 

Antigone 

Demophon 

Olympiade 

Regulus 

Themistocles 

Dido 

Achilles in Scyros 

Hypsip le 

Hylermnestre 

Demetrius 

Semiramide riconosciuta 

Adrien 

Zenobia 

Nitetis 

The Chinese Hero 

The Shepherd King 
" Siroes 

Artaxerxes 

^tius 
Metenier: La Casserole 
Michaud d'Humiac: Le Cceur de Se-hor 
Mikhael: Le Cor fleuri 
Milliet: Le Roi de l'argent 
Milloecker: L'Etudiant pauvre 
Miral: Lydie 

Mirbeau: Les Affaires sont les. affaires 
Moses (?): Job 
Moliere: Don Juan 
Montepin: La Policiere 



XXXII 

XXXII 

IV 

VIII 

XIV 

XXIX 

XXVIII 

XVIII 

XXIV 

XXV 

XXIX 

and XXXIII 
XIII 
III 

XXIV 
V 

and XXIX 
V 

XII 
XIII 

and XIX 
XIV 
XIX 
XIX 
XX 
XX 
XX 
XX 
XXIII 
XXIII 
XXIV 
XXIV 

and XXXII 
XXIV 
XXV 
XXVIII 
XXVIII 
XXVIII 
XXXIII 
XXXIII 
XXXIII 

III 

XXVII 

XXIV 

XXXIII 

XXXIII 

XXIX 

XXVII 

XXX 

V 

XXVII 



A 


1 


C 


1 


A 


2 


B 


1 


A 


1 


A 


4 


A 


2 


A 


1 


A 


9 


B 


2 


B 


3 


A 


3 


A 


2 


A 


1 


B 


6 


C 




A 


2 


C 




B 




C 




B 


3 


B 


1 


A 


1 


B 


1 


A 


1 


A 


2 


B 


3 


B 


3 


B 


2 


B 


3 


A 


5 


B 


8 


B 


1 


C 




C 


2 


A 


1 


A 


1 


C 


1 


B 


2 


D 


2 


D 


4 


A 


7 


D 


6 


B 


3 


B 


3 


A 


1 


A 


4 


A 


3 


B 


1 


B 




C 





INDEX OF AUTHORS 



173 



Moreau: Madame Margot 
Le Drapeau 
Gerfaut 
" Un divorce 
Morel: Terre d'epouvante 
La Fille du depute 
La Pieuvre 
Mortier: Marius vaincu 
Mourey: L'Automne 
Lawn-tennis 
Mussato: Ezzelino 
Musset: Fantasio 

Lorenzaccio 

On ne badine pas avec l'amour 
Andre del Sarte 
Mustiere: Rosse, tant et plus 



VIII 


A 


2 


XXIV 


A 


8 


XXV 


c 


6 


XXXII 


A 


1 


VI 


A 


4 


XXVII 


A 


3 


XXXIII 


C 


1 


XXX 


A 


3 


VIII 


B 


2 


XXVI 


D 


2 


XXX 


C 


1 


II 


B 


2 


VIII 


A 


1 


XVII 


C 


2 


XXV 


c 


4 


VIII 


A 


2 



N 



Nepoty: L'Oreille fendue 
Nicomaque: (Edipus 
Nigond: 1812 
No: Les Carbonari 
Nus: Le Mari 



XXVII 

XVIII 

XIV 

XXIX 

XXV 



A 


3 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 


4 


C 


1 



o 



Ohnet: Serge Panine 
Dernier amour 
La Comtease Sarah 
La Grande Marniere 

Ollognier 'Mmo. ; Le Saifi 



XXV 


B 


2 


XXV 


B 


6 


XXV 


C 


3 


XXIX 


A 


2 


X X I V 


A 


8 



Pailleron : La Souris 


XIV 


A 


4 


Paladilhe: Patrie 


XXV 


I) 


• > 


Diana 


X X XIII 


I) 


8 


Parodi: L'Inflexible 


XXVII 


I) 


• > 


Paton Le Divorce de Sarah Moore 


XXI 


A 


■ > 


Perrault: Bluebeard 


II 


A 




Lf Pel 11 Pouct : 


\ 1 


l> 


• > 


" Peau d'&ne 


XXVI 


A 


"{ 


Peter: L'Or 


III 


\ 


1 


Phrynichus: The I tanaide 


Will 


B 


:t 


Picard La Fugitive 


\XI 


c 


■ > 


Planquette: Surcouf 


XXIV 


A 


7 


Poe The Purloined Letter 


XI 


\ 




•' The Gold Bug 


\l 


B 


1 


Berenice 


\ X \ 1 \ 


1! 





174 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Follies ido>: L'Enfant du Temple 


XX 


A 


4 


Polti: Compere le Renard 


V 


A 




Les Cuirs de boeuf 


XXVI 


A 


1 


Porto-Riehe: Le Vieil Homme 


XIV 


B 


2 


Les Malefilatre 


XXV 


C 


7 


Pouvillon: Le Roi de Rome 


VII 


B 




Pradon: Electre 


IV 


A 


1 


Regulus 


XX 


A 


1 


Prevost: Manon Leseaut 


XXVII 


B 


6 


Prevost (Jean): CEdipus 


XVIII 


A 


1 


Prevost (M): Pierre et There e 


XXVII 


A 


2 


La plus faibL 


XXVIII 


A 


2 



Q 



Quinault: Alceste 



XXI 



A 1 



R 



Rahier: Et ma soeur? 


XXViII 


B 




Racine: Esther 


I 


C 


1 


Alexandre 


V 


C 




Les Frere ennemis 


X II 


A 


2 


Britannicus 


XIV 


A 


1 


Mithridate 


XIV 


B 


1 


Ii higenie en Tauride (projected) 


XIX 


C 


2 


Berenice 


XX 


B 


3 


Alceste (projected) 


XXI 


A 


1 


Andromaque 


XXI 


D 


2 




; nd XXV 


B 


1 


Iphigenie a Aulis 


XXIII 


A 


1 


" Bajazet 


XXIV 


B 


4 


Phedre 


XXVI 


B 


1 


" m Athalie 


XXXI 


A 


2 


Rachilde: La Voix du sang 


XIX 


G 


3 


Madame la Mort 


XXIV 


B 


8 


Rajasekhara: The Sons of Pandou 


III 


A 


5 


The Statue 


XXIV 


D 


3 


Raymond: Les Menages de Paris 


XXV 


B 


3 


Regnier (de): La Gardienn-? 


XXXV 






Renauld: Le Crime d'un autre 


XXXIII 


D 


2 


Reyer: Sigurd 


XXV 


C 


3 


Richard: Boislaurier 


11 


A 






and XIV 


A 


1 


Le Roman d'Elise 


XXVIII 


D 


2 


Richebourg: La petite Mionne 


XIX 


A 


3 


Richepin: Nana-Sahib 


V 


C 




L'Ancien 


XXI 


A 


2 


Le Chien de garde 


XXI 


D 


1 


La Glu 


XXII 


A 


5 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



175 



Richepin: La Route d'emeraude 
Richepin fils: La Marjolaine 
Richter (J. P.): Titan 
Riupeiroux: Hypermnestre 
Rivoire: Le b n roi Dagobcrt 

Mon ami Teddy 
Rochard: Le peche de Marthe 

La Bete feroce 
Rochefort: Electre 
Rod: Le Reformateur 
Roinard Les Miroirs 
Rolland: Le 14 juillet 
Romains: L'Armee dans la \'ille 
Rostand: L'Aiglon 

Chantecler 
" Cyrano 
Roudradeva: The Story of Yayati 
Roupa: The Loves of Krishna 
Rouvre: ide) Le Mariage d Andre 
Rozier: Le Divorce de Sarah Moore 
Rucellai: Rosemonde 
Ryner: Vive le roi! 
Rzewuski: Count Witold 



XXII 

XX1\ 

XVIII 

XXIII 

XVII I 

XXIV 

XXVIII 

XXX 

IV 

VI 

XXV 
VIII 

\ 111 

VII 
VIII 

XXI 

XXIX 

XXIV 

win 

XXI 
IV 
XX 
XXXIV 



A 


6 


A 


6 


D 


2 


B 


3 


D 


2 


A 


7 


B 




C 


1 


A 


1 


C 


1 


D 


1 


B 


2 


B 


2 


B 




A 


2 


C 


2 


A 


2 


D 


1 


B 


1 


A 


2 


C 




A 


4 


B 


2 



Sadwfll: Don Juan V 

Sainte-Fobt ; Alceste \ \ I 

Sainte-Marthe: (EdipUB XXIII 

SaimVGeorges de Boubilier: Le Roi sans 

couronne Y 

Saint-P. 1 Roux: La Dame a la faulx XX 1\ 

Saint-Saens: Samson ft Dalila X\ 

inio \\1\ 

Henri VIII \\\ 

ProBerpine \\\ 

L'Ancitre XXIX 

Salieri: The Danaii Will 

Samain : Polypht \ X I \ 

Samara Dikchila: The \ ictory of I'rad- 

youmna XXIX 

on Marie Stuart \ \ I \ 

Le Crime de -ban Morel XXIX 

Sai d: I-'- Dimon du f( yet \ \l\ 

Sardou: Thermidor \ ill 

I, a To. a \\| 

Cleopatra wii 

La Soreii re \\i\ 

Odette XXVII 

Georgette . \ ,11 

Le Crocodile N XV11 



B 




A 


l 


A 


1 


C 




B 


9 


A 


•> 


C 




B 


5 


B 


7 


B 


(i 


B 


8 


A 


1 


\ 


•) 


B 


•> 


B 


7 


\ 


I 


\ 


1 


l) 


'J 


\ 


1 


B 


1 


\ 


1 


\ 


1 


B 





176 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Sardou : Fedora 


XXIX 


B 


5 


Theodora 


XXXIII 


A 


2 


L'Affaire des Poissons 


XXXIII 


B 


2 


Sardou (Andre): L'Etau 


XVI 


D 




Schiller: William Tell 


III 


B 


6 




and VI I 


B 


2 


Schiller: The Brigands 


V 


A 






and XXXIII 


C 


3 


" Fiesco 


VIII 


A 


1 


Don Carlos 


XIV 


B 


3 




and XXVI 


B 


2 


The Bride of Messina 


XVIII 


A 


2 


Marie Stuart 


XXIV 


B 


2 


Wallenstein 


XXX 


A 


3 


Love and Intrigue 


XXXII 


B 


3 


Second: La Vicomtesse Alice 


V 


D 




Sedaine: Richard Cceur-de-Lion 


X 
and XXXV 


D 


1 


See: L'Indiscret 


XVII 


A 


1 


Seneca: The Phcenissse 


XIII 


A 


1 


" Thyestes 


XIII 


A 


2 


" Octavia 


XV 


B 




Hercules Furens 


XVI 


A 


1 


(Edipus 


XVIII 


A 


1 


" Medea 


XXV 


A 


1 


Hercules on (Eta 


XXV 


B 


1 


" Hippolyte 


XXVI 


B 


1 


i he Trojan Women 


XXXVI 


A 


1 


Severine: Sainte-Hel ne 


III 


A 


2 


Shakespeare: King John 


I 


A 


1 


The Tempest 


III 


B 


1 


The Merchant of Venice 


III 


B 


6 




and XI 


B 


2 


Hamlet 


IV 


A 


1 




and XIII 


C 




Troilus and Cressida 


V 


C 




Richard H 


VI 


B 




" Timon of Athens 


VI 


C 


1 


Coriolanus 


VI 


c 


1 




and XII 


B 




King Lear 


VI 


C 


1 


Henry VI 


VI 


B 




Henry V 


IX 


B 


1 




and XXXIII 


A 


1 


Pericles 


XXXV 








and XI 


B 


2 


Two Gentlemen of Verona 


XIV 


D 




Measure for Measure 


XXI 


D 


2 


Antony and Cleopatra 


XXII 


A 


4 


Henry VIII 


XXV 


B 


5 


Romeo and Juliet 


XXIX 


B 


6 



INDEX O:-' AUTHORS 



177 



Shakespeare: Julius Caesar 


XXX 


A 


2 


Henry IV 


XXX 


B 




Macbeth 


XXX 


C 


1 


Richard III 


XXX 


C 


1 


" Comedy of Errors 


XXXII 


A 


1 


Much Ado About Nothing 


XXXII 


B 


1 


Othello 


XXXII 


B 


1 


" Cymbeline 


XXXII 


B 


2 


A Winter's Tale 


XXXV 






Shaw: Mrs. Warren's Profession 


XXVII 


A 


1 


Shelley: The Cenci 


III 


B 


5 


XIII B 3 and XXVI 


A 


3 


Sienkiewicz: By Fire and Sword 


X 


A 




Sophocles: Chyses 


I 


A 


1 


" Minos 


I 


A 


1 


" Oicles 


I 


A 


1 


" OZdipus at Colonus 


I 

and XII 


A 


3 


" Nausicaa 


I 


B 


1 


The Pheacians 


I 


B 


1 


Acrisius 


I 


B 


2 


Philoctetes at Troy 


I 


B 


3 


" Eurysaces 


I 


C 





" Andromeda 


II 


A 




iEgeus 


11 


B 


1 


Peleus 


I! 


B 


1 




and VII 


C 


1 


" Iolas 


II 


B 


2 


" 'Enee 


II 


B 


2 


Phineus 


11 


B 


2 


Aletes and Krigone 


III 


A 


1 


Nauplhu 


III 


A 


o 


Ixion 


III 


\ 


5 


The Feast of the Achaean 


III 


B 


• > 


Phrixuf 


III 


B 


1 


Tfr> 


III 


B 


5 


The Epigoni\s 


IV 


A 


1 


Elect r;i 


IV 


A 


1 


Eriphyle 


IV 


\ 


1 


Meleager 


IV 


H 




Ajax Locrian 


V 


B 




Laocoon 


\ 


c 




The Shepherd 


VI 


\ 


1 


The Xoanephorei 


\ 1 


\ 


•j 


Teucer 


VI 


c 


2 


Sophoclei The Council of the Argive 


IX 


A 




Laconian Women 


l.\ 


c 


l 


Sinon 


IX 


1) 


l 


CEnom 


l\ 


D 


o 


( (rithyie 


\ 


\ 




Th< ' it tion of Helen 




B 





ITS 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Soph 


3cles: Hermion^ 


X 


c 


2 




Polyidus 


XI 


A 






Women of Scyros 


XI 


c 


2 




' Ulysses 


XI 


c 


3 




Philoctetes 


XII 


A 






Helen Reclaimed 


XII 


c 






Thyestes II 


XIII 


A 


2 




' Ajax 


XVI 


B 






' Eumele 


XVII 


A 


1 




' Pelias 


XVII 
and XIX 


c 

E 


4 




(Edipus the King 


XVIII 


A 


1 




' Creusa 


XIX 


B 


1 




Telephus 


XIX 


B 


1 




Euryale 


XIX 


B 


2 




Alexander 


XIX 


c 


1 




Procris 


XIX 


G 


1 




Amphitryon 


XIX 


F 


3 




Alceste 


XXI 


A 


1 




Iphigenia 


XXIII 


A 


1 




' Iobate 


XXVI 


B 


1 




Lemnian Women 


XXIII 


B 


2 




Women of Colchis 


XXV 


A 


1 




Antigone 


XX 


A 


3 




The Maidens of Trachis 


XXV 


B 


1 




Alcmeon 


XXV 


B 


4 




' Phaedra 


XXVI 


B 


1 




Thamiras 


XXXI 


B 


3 




Niobe 


XXXI 


B 


4 




Eumele 


XXXI 


B 


5 




The Phtiotides 


XXXII 


C 


4 




Palamede 


XXXIII 


C 


2 




Thyestes at Sicyon 


XXXV 








The Captives 


XXXVI 


A 


1 




Laocoon 


XXXVI 


A 


1 




Polyxena 


XXXVI 


A 


1 




The Ethiopians 


XXXVI 


C 




Soubhata: The Message of Angada 


X 


C 


2 


Soudraka: The Earthen Toy-cart 


XXIV 


A 


5 


Soundara Misra: Abhirama mani 


X 


C 


2 


Speroni: Canace 


XXVI 


C 


2 


Spontini: The Danaides 


XXIII 


B 


3 


Stace: Agave 


XXXI 


A 


1 


Stein: La Veuve joyeuse 


XXVIII 


A 


2 


Sue: Les Enfants naturels 


XVIII 


A 


2 


T 
Tarb6: Monsieur de Morat 


XXV 


B 


3 


Tasso: Torrismond 


XVIII 


A 


2 


( i 


Jerusalem Delivered 


XIX 


G 


1 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



179 



Tchang-Koue-pin: The Tunic Confronted 
Tellez: Don Juan 
Terni iMme.i: Les Baillinnes 
Theodecte: CEdipus 
" Lyncee 

Theuriet: La Maison des deux Barzeaux 
Thomas: Francoise de Rimini 
Tiercel in: Un voyage de noces 
Tirso de Molina: Don Juan 
Tolstoi: The Powers of Darkness 



Resurrection 

The Kreutzer Sonata 
Torquet: Cent lignes emues 
Trarieux: La Dette 
Trissino: Sophonisbe 
Tristan 1' Hermite: Marianne 



and 



III 

V 

XXXVI 

XVIII 

XXIII 

XXV 

XXV 

XXV 

V 

XIII 

XV 

XX 

XXV 

XXXVI 

XIV 

XX 

XXXII 



A 


1 


B 




A 


2 


A 


1 


B 


3 


C 


4 


C 


3 


A 


2 


B 




F 




A 


1 


C 




D 


1 


C 




B 


1 


B 


3 


A 


1 



Vacquerie: Proserpine 

Jalousie 
Vallette: Le Viergp 
Valnay: L'Esclave du Sevoin 
Van Velde (Mme.): Lena 
Vauzelles de): Alceste 
Veber: Lee Grands 

Vedanyatha Vatchespati: Tchitra Yadjgna 
\'erga: Chevalerie rustique 
Verhaeren: Le Cloltre 
Verlaine: Louise Leclen-q 
Verne: Le Tour du monde en 80 jours 

Les Enfants du capitaine (irant 
Villemer: L'Abaente 
Villiere: Don Juan 
Villien de ['Iale Adam: Le Nouveau-Monde 

Vira: Madhouranirouddha 
Viahakadatta: The Minister's Ring 
Viswanatha: Mrigancalckha 
Voltaire: Briphyle 

Adelaide I >ugue iclin 

Aga1 bode 

Anu'lic 

Don Pedre 

Samson 

Pandora 

and 

Le ivi,,;. 
<]., • 

La Gudbref 

Le I. "i de Minos 



XXV 


B 


7 


XXXII 


c 


5 


XXXIII 


B 


3 


XX XI I 


A 


3 


XXVIl 


B 


4 


XXI 


A 


1 


XXXIII 


A 


:{ 


XXXI 


B 


2 


XXII 


A 


10 


X X X 1 V 


A 


• > 


XVII 


(' 


■> 


IX 


I) 


1 


XXXV 






XXVII 


B 


1 


\ 


B 




X X V 


C 


1 


XIX 


A 


4 


XII 


\ 




XXIV 


A 


1 


l\ 


\ 


1 


XIV 


\ 




XIV 


\ 


•> 


XIV 


\ 


•» 


XIV 


\ 


•J 


XVII 


c 


:{ 


XVII 


(• 


l 


X \ 1 \ 


A 


l 


XIII 


\ 


•> 


Will 


\ 


1 


\l\ 


A 


■> 


XIX 


\ 


•> 

M 



180 



THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 



Voltaire: 


Merope 


it 


Semiramis 


ii 


Mahomet 


• i 


Le Huron 


ii 


Tanis et Zelide 


ii 


Alzire 


ii 


Le Triumvirat 


ii 


Zulime 


ii 


Brutus 


ii 


Nanine 


ii 


Les Scythes 


ii 


Olympie 


1 1 


Irene 


ii 


Catilina 


i< 


La Mort de Caesar 


ii 


Marianne 


ii 


Tancrede 


it 


Zaire 


ii 


Art6mire 


ii 


Oreste 



XIX 

XIX 

XIX 

XXI 

XXIV 

XXIV 

XXIV 

XXIV 

XXVII 

XXVIII 

XXIX 

XXIX 

XXIX 

XXX 

and VIII 
XXX 
XXXII 
XXXII 

and II 

XXXII 
XXXII 
XXXIV 



B 


1 


D 




E 




D 


2 


A 


2 


A 


3 


A 


3 


B 


4 


D 


1 


A 


1 


A 


4 


B 


1 


B 


4 


B 




A 


1 


A 


2 


A 


1 


A 


1 


A 




A 


2 


C 


2 


A 


■1 



w 



Wagner: Lohengrin 

The Ring of the Nibelungs 

Parsifal 

Die Meistersinger 
" Tannhauser 
Wagner: Tristan and Isolde 
Webster: Vittoria Corombona 

Appius and Virginia 

The Duchess of Main 

Sir Thomas Wyat 
Wells: The War of the Worlds 
Werner: Attila 

The Twenty-fourth of February 
Luther 
Wicheler: Le Mariage de Mile. Beuleman.s 
Widor: Maitre Ambros 
Wilde: Salome 
Willy: Le Frequet 

Lelie 
Wolf: Les Lys 



II 


A 




V 


c 




IX 


c 


2 


XXIV 


A 


9 


XXII 


A 


2 


XXV 


c 


3 


XV 


A 


1 


XXIV 


A 


3 


XXIX 


A 


1 


XXX 


B 




VI 


A 


2 


III 


A 


1 


XIX 


B 


1 


XX 


A 


4 


XXIV 


A 


8 


XXXIII 


B 


1 


XXII 


B 




XXIV 


B 


6 


XXII 


C 


2 


XXVIII 


D 


1 



Xenocles: CEdipus 



XVIII 



A 1 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 181 



Zaccone: La Cellule No. 7 
Zamacois: Bohemos 
Zamora: Don Juan 
Zola: Le Reve 
" La Debacle 
" L'Argent 

and 
Germinal 
" La Terre 

and 
Therese Raquin 

and 
La Bete humaine 
" L'CEuvre 

La Joie de vivre 

and 
" La Faute de l'ubbe Mouret 

La Conquete de Hassans 
" Nana 

L'Assommoir 
Le Capitaine Burle 
" Jacques Damour 
" Pot-bouille 
Renee 
Zola: La ' uree 
" Dr. Pascal 

Son Excellence Kugene 
La Fortune des Rougon 
Le Ven1 re de Paris 
Madeleine 
Zorilla: Don Juan 



ANONYMOUS 



III 


B 


3 


XXIV 


A 


9 


V 


B 




I 


B 


2 


VI 


A 


1 


VI 


B 




XVII 


A 


2 


VIII 


B 


2 


XIII 


B 


1 


XXX 


c 


1 


XV 


A 


1 


XXXIV 


A 


4 


XVI 


A 


2 


XX 


A 


4 


XXI 


A 


2 


XXIV 


B 


7 


XXII 


A 


1 


XXII 


A 


2 


XXII 


A 


6 


XXII 


C 


2 


XX11 


C 


1 


X X V 


C 


2 


XXV 


(' 


7 


XXVI 


B 


2 


XXVI 


B 


■ > 


XXVI 


B 


•) 


XXX 


(' 


1 


\\\ 


C 


1 


\ win 


c 


2 


X X X 1 V 


B 


1 


V 


B 





( !hineae: The Sin^t r 


ill 


\ 


1 


Hindu 


\ narghara-ffhava 


\ 


(' 


•> 


i * 


l >hour1 1 a Narl taka 


XXII 


\ 


I 


t • 


DhoUTl la Sainav;aina 


\\l\ 


\ 


l .i 


• • 


I [anouman 


\ 


(' 


■> 


My '■ 


i ■. Le M.. tere d'Adam 


VI 


A 


a 


Mirac 


l«- Eloberl le-Diable 


\ 


\ 




• « 


Barlaarn el Jo laphal 


\ 


1) 


8 


" 


La Mere meutriere de 










enfanl 


XVII 


C 


•J 


» i 


Saint Al<-xis 


Xl\ 





8 


" 


Saint [gnace d'Anl ioche 


\\ 


\ 


4 


•• 


Guibor 


Will 


1! 


I 


• * 


L'Empereur Julien 


XXXI 


\ 


• • 



182 THIRTY-SIX DRAMATIC SITUATIONS 

Miracles: 



La Mere du Pape 


XXXI 


B 


4 


La Fille du roi d'Espagne 


XXXII 


B 


2 


Berthe-au-grand-pied 


XXXV 






La Reine aux trois fils 


XXXV 






Berthequine 


XXXV 







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the lapidate stamped below. 



RE 

OL OCT 
UL jui 

art I IBRARV 




L 006 288 375 6 




AA 000 618 423 8 



1 



hi 

I 



#* 




] 



/ ■ 



Li