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Rebecca Mun-ay, Ed.D. 

Professor of Education 
Meredith College 

Class of 1958 

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First Donors, 9 

Library Record, 12 

First Books and the Curriculum, 12 

Art, 13 

Biology, 13 

Business, 13 

Chemistiy and Physical Sciences, 14 

Education, 14 

English, 14 

Foreign Languages, 15 

Health and Physical Education, IB 

Histoiy and Politics, 15 

Home Economics, 16 

Mathematics, 16 

Music, 16 

Psychology, 16 

Religion and Philosophy, 17 

Sociology, 17 

Speech, 17 

Young Readers, 18 
Value of the First Books, 18 






The College, 1 
The Library, 3 


A; List of First Donors, 1899 to 1902, 21 
B; List of First Books Purchased, 

1899 to 1902, 28 
C; List of Schools (now departments), 35 

Background, 5 
Budget and Fees, 6 
First Librarians, 7 









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Main Building, built by architect A. G. Bauer, the original Meredith College in downtown Raleigh. 


S liis book is dedicated to the late Josiah William 
Bailey (1873-1946), trastee of the Baptist Female University 
from 1896 to 1911, editor of the Biblical Recorder from 1895 to 
1907, and United States Senator from 1931 to 1946. 

Josiah W. Bailey, at the age of twenty-six, became the 
first library committee of the Baptist Female University Vv-hen in 
1899 he was appointed as a "committee of one to raise a library." 

His editorials in the Biblical Recorder were constant 
reminders of the merit in supporting the Baptist Female 
University. His writings ofTered substantive reasons to contrib- 
ute to the college, reasons emphasizing educational and moral 

His words in support of the education of women and for 
the cause of women in general are as fresh and timely today as 
when he wrote them nearly one hundred years ago. Eveiyone 
interested in Meredith College would find a new sense of pride 
by reading 'The Causes Underlying Our Baptist Female 
University," published in an 1899 Biblical Recorder. In that 
editorial, Bailey expressed his aspirations for the ftiture; the 
present generation knows that many of his hopes have been 

Some would say he was a man ahead of his time; some 
would say he was a man of his time; many would say he was a 
man beyond his time. Today his words of encouragement and 
support for a library are reminders that the Carlyle Campbell 
Library would not exist without the foundation he laid. 

We offer our appreciation to Josiah William Bailey. 

Josiah William Bailey 


Wake Forest College Faculty, 1898. Back row, left to right: George W. Paschal, Prof. Carlyle, W. R. Cullom, John Charles McNeill, Walter Sikes, Charles Brewer, and J. H. 
Gorrell. Front row, left to right: Needham Y. Gully, John F. Lanneau, William B. Royall, Charles Taylor, Benjamin Sledd, Luther Rice Mills, and William Louis Potent. 
Lanneau, Royall, Sledd, Poteat, and Cullom were among the first contributors to the BFU library. Brewer became the third president of Meredith College. (Used by courtesy 
Mrs. William Mowbray, Wilmington, N.C.) 



\ s part of a project of the Friends of the Libraiy, 
Janet Freeman, head librarian, and members of the Friends 
Board asked me to organize information about the first 1,000 
books in the Meredith College libraiy. What I learned about a 
part of my own history left me with a sense of wonder at the rare 
combination of talents of the early founders. 

To gather general histoiy and information about the 
beginnings of the Baptist Female University I relied heavily on 
Mary Lynch Johnson's A History of Meredith College. For 
history and infomiation about the library and the first books, I 
sought primal^ sources as well as comments about the books 
fi-om faculty and staff at Meredith College and other profession- 
als from the book world. From their knowledge of books in their 
disciplines, nuggets of insight into the first library steadily 

In reality the 1,000 books originally planned for this 
study turned out to be 1,091. Since any number, whether 100, 
500, or 1,000, is an arbitraiy choice, in this case I chose to use 
the figure in the 1901-1902 catalog. The writers of the catalog 
found the number significant enough to include, and so did I. Of 
the first 1,091 books, 412 remain in a special collection hou.scd in 
the archives of the Carlyle Campbell Library on the Meredith 
College campus. 

The title of this book is from an editorial by Josiah W. 

Bailey in the Biblical Recorder. There the one-man libraiy 
committee for Baptist Female University expressed his appre- 
ciation for a recent contribution and encouraged his readers to 
ftimish books for "this essential part of the institution." 

I wish to express my appreciation to Janet Freeman, Ted 
Waller, and the other members of the libraiy staff, including 
student assistants. Because of their assistance and interest in 
this project the research efforts were earned out with ease and 
with great pleasure. 

To the faculty members at Meredith College when I was a 
student, appreciation is due. They were truly people of integrity 
who focused on the twin goals of scholarship and principles. To 
one such faculty member. Dr. Norma Rose, '34 and faculty 
emerita, I am gi'ateful for her generosity of time and her sharp 
eye in finding inconsistencies in this work. 

To the Class of '58, 1 remember with them the hours spent 
in the libraiy when it was on the second floor of Johnson Hall. 
Some have wondered how students managed to study in such 
unusual suiToundings. But our class always understood the 
difference between substance and appearance. 

And to Memory Mitchell, '44, 1 offer my appreciation for 
her deft pencil and sound suggestions. She guided me through- 
out the entire project and added the invaluable finishing touches 
to this book. 


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Unidentified student in recital on the auditorium stage at BFU. 



1 "Editoriol," Biblical Recorder, 7 June 1 699, 
p. 4. 

2 Mary lynch Johnson, A HislorY ol Meredith 
College, 2nd ed. (Raleigh, North Carolina: 
Meredith College, 1972), p. 1. The committee 
was composed of Thomas Meredith, John 
Armstrong, ond W. H. Merrilt. Bopti'sf 
Untvenity for V/omen, Quarterly Bulletin, 
November, 1907 (Raleigh: Published by the 
University, 1908), p. 3. 

3 Ibid., p. 23. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Ibid., p. 24. 

6 Ibid., p. 28. 

7 Ibid., pp. 24-27. The four men were 
Needhom B. Broughton, founder of Edwards 
and Broughton Company ond o trustee until his 
deoth in 1914; J. W. Corter, minister of tho first 
Baptist Church in Raleigh from 1889 to 1900; 
Williom C. Petty, businessman and trustee until 
1906; and Richord T. Vonn, minister from 
Edenton who later b«ome the second president 
of Boptist Female University. 


I libraiy is indispensable to a college. Indeed 
that is true at Meredith College, where the libraiy is a vital force 
in the education of students. In the beginning, when the college 
was established as the Baptist Female University, no library 
existed. Thoughts and plans for a library were evident, how- 
ever, as details for the college unfolded. With a little time and a 
great dedication, a libraiy became a reality and was operated in 
accordance with the accepted procedures of the day. 

A brief historical sketch of how the college came into 
existence throws light on the development of "this essential pait 
of the institution." ' 

The College 

There is no record to show who first wanted to open a 
college for Baptist women in North Carolina. Apparently, it 
came about the way so many things happen in life. Somebody 
saw a need and did something about it. Some person whose 
name is lost to history presented the resolution that would 
develop into what is now Meredith College. 

It was 1835 and the North Carolina Baptist State 
Convention was meeting at Union Camp Ground in Rowan 
County. During the meeting a "far-seeing person . . . moved the 
appointment of a committee 'to consider the establishment of a 
female seminaiy of high order."^ 

A span of fifty-three years elapsed before the Baptist 
State Convention, under the leadership of Colonel Leonidas 
Lafayette Polk, a native of Anson County, passed the following 

Resolved, That, a commitlee of nine, to wit: W. R. Gwaltney, 
R. R. Overby, T. H. Pntchard, J. D. Hufliam, R. T. Vann, N. B. 
Broughton, R. H. Marsh, A. G. McManaway, H. W. Battle, be and 
is hereby appointed to consider the expediency and feasibility of 
establishing a Baptist Female University in this State, 

Resolved, That said Committee be, and it is hereby autho- 
rized and empowered, to ascertain the best available locality and to 
make estimates as to the approximate cost of inaugurating such 
institution, and report the same to the next annual session of this 

On November 16, 1888, at the Baptist State Convention meeting 
in Greensboro, the resolutions were adopted with the addition of 
Colonel Polk as chaimian of the committee.^ 

After a year of study and review, the committee often 
reported in favor of pursuing the goal of an institution for the 
education of females. At the 1889 convention in Henderson, the 
committee set forth its plan for reaching the goal: 

Your committee "appointed to consider the expediency 
and feasibility of establishing a Baptist Female College of high 
grade," under the auspices of this convention, are convinced that 
the great need for such an institution renders the enterprise 
expedient, and most encouraging assurances of moral and 
financial support convince us that it is now feasible. We, there- 
fore, earnestly recommend that this convention resolutely and 
joyfully assume the study, which we believe, the desires of the 
people and the demands of the times have laid upon us. 

Your committee must further report that, from the nature 
of the case, they have been unable to ascertain the best available 
locality, or make estimates as to the cost of inaugurating such an 
institution; and that they may be enabled to cany out these 
requirements of the original resolution, respectfully ask for 
further time, and full authority to act in the premises.^ 

The convention unanimously adopted the report. 

The committee often, later enlarged to twenty-five, 
became the first trustees of the institution, As a means of 
getting the work done, those men divided themselves into four 
smaller committees, including committees on location, charter, 
constitution and bylaws, and the course of study to be offered." 
Although only four of those men would be trustees when the 
college opened ten years later, the work of the committee 
encompassed the beginnings of an institution that had long been 
desired by many Baptists in North Carolina.' 

On Febniai-y 11, 1890, in the infant classroom of the 
First Baptist Church of Raleigh, eighteen members of the board 
of trustees considei'ed six offers to locate the school. The 
committee met again the next day and after a lengthy discus- 
sion, Raleigh was selected.' 

The State Chronicle, a local newspaper, applauded the 
choice of Raleigh as the site for the new institution. It noted: 
"The college will always have most desirable suiToundings; it 
will enjoy the gi'eatest convenience to all our churches, public 
buildings and halls; it is protected everj' hour of the day and 
night by police and sanitary regulations; it is on the main 
streetcar line, sun-ounded by water and sewer mains."" 

The next step in the creation of the institution was 
securing a charter, obtained from the Nortli Carolina General 
Assembly on Febiiiai-y 27, 1891. At the March 6 meeting of the 
board of tiiistees, the charter was read and the 'finance commit- 
tee was gi-anted authority to "investigate the practicability of 
securing money for building purposes by mortgage or property or 
issuance of bonds."'" 

At a meeting on April 14, 1891, several trustees 
presented a report on the course of study the new institution 
would undertake. The preamble to the document observed: 

If we are to establish a college to be simply, a rival of the 
institutions already in existence, we see no sufficient reasons for 
this movement, and we might better leave the work in the hands 
of those now doing it so well. . . . But by almost unanimous 
consent, we need and desire an institution whose course of study 
shall he more extensive than that of any school in the South. . . . 
It has been urged that there is little material for such a course of 
study, but, as often happens in other directions, the supply will 
help to create the demand}^ 

Without material for an extensive course of study, those 
trustees seemed to realize that a beginning was in order. 

By mid-1891 interest in the Baptist Female University 
ebbed to a low point. Apparently no report about the college was 
made at the 1891 Baptist State Convention. Soon after, how- 
ever, there were changes within the body of trustees. Some had 
resigned, some had moved away, and some had died. With the 
election of William L. Poteat and Wesley N. Jones, the new 
institution gained more stability and recognition than it had 
previously enjoyed. Later, the election of Carey J. Hunter, 
Oliver L. Stringfield, and Albeit M. Simms added another 
dimension of active participation to the movement."' 

On April 14, 1896, the trustees of the Baptist Female 
University voted to establish a book called the Roll of Women 
Builders to honor "ladies giving in amount $10.00 or more and to 
enroll the names of all such contributors in a book to be kept in 
the Library of the building."" As Martin L. Kesler, a tioistee, 
later wrote: 

A great college needs money, it must have money, but to achieve 
great things it must have a great constituency of great and loving 
hearts. . . . 

The great thing is not in having the name of a giver written on 
the roll to be filed away in the archives of the college, but that 
each giver wilt thus have the Baptist Female University and all it 
means enrolled on her heart. 

A cause written on a woman's heart means a cause behind which 
are pressing a woman's prayers of faith and tireless devotion; it 
then becomes a household word, a real thing of life girt about 
with power. One of the strides forward in our day is the enlist- 
ment of women in all the great enterprises that bear a more 
abundant life to our fellowmen. The cause which does not engage 
the sympathy of intelligent Christian women must pass as a 
forlorn beggar and die because it is not worthy to live. . . . 

Mothers, wives, sisters, daughters, clasp your hands around this 
institution which means so much for the women of North ' 
Carolina, and make it so that if this enterprise loiter a single day 
it shall not he for lack of woman's devotion.^* 

In December, 1898, a gi-oup of women, under the 
leadership of Fannie E. S. Heck, president of the North Carolina 
Woman's Missionary Union, responded to the call by foi-ming the 
Women Builders. As the purpose of the organization demanded, 
the Baptist women of North Carolina proceeded to raise money 
in support of the school.'* 

After many years of work to establish "a female 
seminary of high order," the Baptist Female University opened 
on September 27, 1899, under the leadership of James Cartel- 
Blasingame. The Biblical Recorder expressed hope for a 
memorable first year and a renewed dedication to the school. 
The editor wrote: "We hope to see our University filled with 
students. Its success largely depends upon a splendid first year. 
We shall work for this diligently, for our denomination is in no 
inconsiderable degi'ee at stake in this respect." '" 


From the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

8 Ibid., pp, 28-29. The otfier sites considered 
included Oxford, Durham, Greensboro, High 
Point College, and Chowan College in 

9 James Vickers, Raleigh: City of Oaks 
(Woodland Hills, California; Windsor 
Publications, Inc., 1982), p. 83. Raleigh itself 
was developing as a town by ifie 1 B90s. 
Capital improvements hod occurred prior to the 
opening of the Baptist Female University. The 
telephone, electricity, streetcar system, water 
supply, volunteer fire department and 
installation of electrical alarm boxes, a hospital, 
cultural events, vaudeville acts, and the new 
medium, movies, were among the latest 
conveniences and innovations. Ibid., pp. 71-95. 

1 Johnson, A History of Meredith Cailege, 
p. 31, 

11 Ibid., p. 32. 

12 tbid., pp. 37-43. Wesley N. Jones married 
Safiie Bailey, Josiah fioile/s sister. Jones Hall is 
named in tnelr honor. 0. L. Stringfield 
suggested fliat "Girls and women from ten 
years (In the University Academy) to seventy- 
five years old" enter BFU. "The Baptist 
University is the Cheapest School for Women In 
the South," Bihiical Re<Qrder, 30 August 1899, 
p. 4. Stringfield Residence Hall is named in his 

1 3 Minutes of the Board of Trustees of 
Meredith College, April 14, 1896, p. 59. The 
book has been lost. 

14 M. L. Kesler, "The Women Builders," 
Biblical Recorder, 7 June 1 899, p. 4. 

1 5 Johnson, A History of Meredith CoZ/ege, 
pp. 51-52. 

16 "Editorial," Biblical Recorder, 21 June 
1899, p. 4. 

1 7 The first Annual Announcement of the 
Bapliit Female University of North Carolina. 
I8991V0O (Raleigh: Edwords & Broughton, 
Printers ond Binders, 1899), p. 8. Adolphus 
Gustavus Bauer was also one of rfie designers 
of the Governor's Mansion on Blount Street in 
Raleigh. Main Building, called "the masterpiece 
of Bauer's career," was begun in 1895 and 
completed in 1899. Bauer committed suicide in 
Ma/, 1898. William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, 
Norlti Carolina's New South Architect," The 
Norlh Carolina Historical Review, 60 (July 
19831: 309, 325 ond 331. Bauer's blueprints 
for ttie building do not exist. According to 
Chorlotte V. Brown, director, Visuol Arts 
Programs, North Corolino State University, 
architects of that day drew their building plons 
on lorge white linen sheets. After o building 
was completed, their practice was to wash the 
material to use for the next project. 

1 8 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1899-1900, p. 53. 

19 Johnson, A History of Meredith College, 
pp.60, 125. 

20 "At Lost," Biblical Recorder, 27 September 
1899, p. 4. 

21 VVhen Dr. Vonn wos tv/elve years old, he 
lost both arms in a cone mill accident. His 
mother died when he wos five years old and his 
father died soon after the boy's accident. 
Meredith teacher and historian, the late Mary 
Lynch Johnson, described Vonn in this monner; 
"So great v/os his ingenuity that grovm people 
seeing him for the first time stared like cnildren 
as, with only the aid of a leather strap oround 
his left arm, he opened the pulpit Bible to the 
right chapter ond verse; v/rote, sealed, and 
stamped a letter; stirred his coffee, opened o 
door, or sent o croquet boll through a difficult 
wicket." Johnson, A History of Meredith 
College, p. 91 . Vonn, a personal friend and 
hunting companion of Josioh Bailey, was o 
member of the board of trustees and pastor in 
Scotland fjecic v/hen he v/os elected president of 
the college. Vonn Residence Hall is nomed in 
his honor. 

22 Johnson, A History of Meredith Colleae, 
p. 103. The term "university" vras probooly 
used to differentiate the institution from colleges 
and seminaries for women which v/ere finishing 
Khools. Ibid., p. 104. 

23 Ibid., p. 104. 

24 Ibid., p. 106. 

The first sti'ucture, Main Building, located at the 
comer of Blount and Edenton streets, was described in the Fifsl 
Annual Announcement. The winters of the Announcement 
seemed proud of the new campus and their enthusiasm was 

In April, 1895, the site being paid for at a cost of about 
$12,000, a contract was entered into between the Trustees of the 
University and the North Carolina Car Company to erect the 
ntain building at a cost of $37,700. At the time the contract was 
entered into there was but little money in the treasuiy. The 
Trustees, however, determined to go forward with the work, 
believing as they did, that God would put it into the hearts of His 
people to carry the building to completion. In this they have not 
been disappointed. The people nobly responded to the appeals 
made to them, and the building has gone slowly but steadily 
fonvard to completion, and will be ready for occupancy by the 
15th of July, 1899. It is a beautifid structure and a credit to the 
architect, Mr. A. G. Bauer, who is now dead. It is said to be the 
nwst handsome school building in the State. Certainly it is the 
admiration of all those who have seen it." 

By the time the college opened, Main Building was fully 
occupied and construction of other buildings was under way. 
The First Annual Announcement of 1899-1900, as well as the 
Catalogue of 1899-1900, delineated the location of various areas 
that would be of interest to those planning to attend the college. 
'The Main Building contains Class-rooms, Music-rooms, Ait 
Studio, Laboratoiy, Libraiy and Reading-room, Literally Society 
Halls, Living-rooms, etc. It is lighted by electricity, heated by 
steam, and has two handsome bath and toilet rooms, with hot 
and cold water, on each floor."" 

Main Building functioned in a variety of ways. The 
first floor housed the administrative offices, the dining room, 
kitchen, laboratories, classrooms, and the living quarters for the 
president and his family. The second floor housed additional 
classrooms, the chapel, parlors, several small bedrooms for 
teachers, and the library, The third and fourth floors consisted 
of bedrooms for the students. The art studio was at the south 
end of the fourth floor; three rooms for students and an unfin- 
i.shed infirmary completed the area." 

The institution that for years had filled the minds and 
hearts of many could now be seen in bricks and mortar. The 

college at last had opened the doors to accept the first students. 
An apparent sigh of relief and excitement came from the winter 
who expressed what must have been in the thoughts of many: 

After ten years of promise and five years of building, the 
prayers and sacrifices and faith of our people come to fruition 
this week in the opening of our Baptist Female University. 

It is a great day for 100 girls or more. 

It is a great day for many a home and many a heart. 

It is a great day for North Carolina. 

It is a great day for our denomination. 

It is a great day for the Kingdom of God on earth. 
Let us praise God for this wonderful hour. May He take the 
work of His people, may He guide it in all things now and 

The opening of the second year of the college brought 
changes in leadership. After Blasingame resigned, Richard 
Tilman Vann, a tnistee and avid supporter of the institution, 
was elected president.^' Dr. Vann, a Baptist minister, accepted 
the challenges guaranteed by the gi'owing institution and led the 
college through some of its most difficult times. Remarkably, he 
supplied strong leadership without the resources, physical or 
financial, enjoyed by most college presidents today. 

As early as 1894, dissatisfaction with the "Atlantic 
ocean of a name" was evident.^^ Duiing the following years, 
several tinistees offered a vai'iety of suggestions for a new name. 
On May 16, 1904, after vigorous discussion at a meeting of the 
board of trustees. Baptist Female University become Baptist 
University for Women.'' 

Five years later, realizing that the tenn "university" 
failed to reflect fully the focus of the institution, the trustees 
unanimously voted to change the name again. On May 24, 1909, 
Baptist University for Women was renamed Meredith College, 
in honor of Thomas Meredith (1795-1850), founder and first 
editor of the Biblical Recorder and strong supporter of education 
for women.^'' 

The Library 

In the first public announcement of the Baptist Female 
University in 1899, a library was specifically noted. The desire 
was to establish a "complete library," and to have friends of the 


'■'~' ">s«a4. -^ ^V : 


university make contributions in cash or in boolis.-" Obviously 
the libraiy was already in the minds of the early supporters. 

In the tradition of American colleges of the time, the 
development of the library at the Baptist Female University 
reflected the financial situation of the new institution. Whether 
in times of prosperity or poverty, the libraries shared the 
fortunes of the colleges.^' 

Although lack of finances delayed the overall progi'ess 
of a libraiy, evidence clearly shows that the board of tinistees 
expected books to play a major role in the development of the 
Baptist Female University. On May 3, 1899, five months before 
the first student matriculated, the tmstees appointed Josiah W. 
Bailey as a "committee of one" to suggest ways to build a 
libraiy.^' As editor of the Biblical Recorder, Bailey not only 
reported on donations of books, but voiced his hope that readers 

would send books or money to "raise" a libraiy.'* 

The first library at the new institution was housed in 
one room on the second floor of the Main Building.^" As was tme 
of most college libraries at the time, the smallness of the 
collection made a separate building unnecessaiy.™ 

The prevailing spirit toward the college and the libraiy 
was eloquently expressed in an editorial by Josiah W. Bailey: 

Our Baptist Female University is intended to be no 
ordinary institution. Us founders have conceived for it an ideal, 
a scope, a mission that makes it unique. . . . Today is the day of 
small things not to be despised. Tomorrow and tomorrow, who 
will dare say what they shall bring forth, and who shall strive for 
less than the highest? '^ 

Students at Baptist 
Female University. 

25 The First Annual Announcement of the 
Bapllit female University, 18991900, p. 10. 
This announcement was probably written by Dr. 
James C. Blasingame, first president of Baptist 
Female University. 

26 Plummer Alston Jones, Jr., "The History and 
Development of libraries in American Higher 
Education," College & Research Libraries News, 
50 (July/August 19891: 561. 

27 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, May 3, 
1899, p. 89. 

28 "Editorial," Biblical Recorder, 7 June 1899, 
p. 4. 

29 Johnson, A History ol Meredith College, 
p. 125, Subsequently Main Building became 
the Mansion Park Hotel and was later used for 
state offices. In 1967 the building was torn 
down; and as if by some design, the wrecking 
crew t>egan work on April 14— liie same day 
ground was broken for the CarWe Campbell 
Library at Meredith College. Ibid., p. 176 fn. 
The new library was named in honor of Dr. 
CarlyJe Compbell, fourtb president of Meredilfi 
College, who served from 1939 to 1966. At the 
end of his presidency, Dr. Campbell wrote; 
"Boili past and present are but successive 
chopters in on ever-unfolding text." Ibid., 

p. 292. 

30 Jones, "The History and Development of 
Libraries in American tHigher Education," C&RL, 
p. 562. The first building constructed solely as a 
library was at South Carolina College (now 
University of Soutb Carolina] in 1840. Ibid. 

31 "The Couses Underlying Our Baptist female 
University," Biblical Recorder, 19 April 1899, 

p. 4. 





1 Minufes oF rtie Board of Trustees of 
Meredirti College, May 3, )899, p. 89. 

2 "Editorial," Biblka! Reorder, 7 June 1 899, 
p, 4. Baitey repreiented Nortfi Carolina in the 
United States Senate from 1931 to 1946. He 
died in office. 

3 The Stole Librory of Nortfi Corolino, 
established in 1812, was housed at the Stale 
Library ond Supreme Courl Building (now the 
Labor Building) on W. Edenton Street. Thornton 
W. Mitchell, The Sfate Ubrar/ and Library 
Development in North Carolina (Raleigh, North 
Corolino: Deportment of Cultural Resources, 
Division of Stale librory, 1983), p. 3. 

4 "Editorial," Biblical Recorder, 7 June 1 899, 
p. 4. 

5 Bmilngame, Jomes C, "The Baptist Female 
University, Its Present and Its Future," Biblical 
Retorder, 6 De<ember 1899, p. 5. 

6 Mary Lynch Johnson, A Hiilory of Meredith 
College IRoleigh, North Corolino, 1972), 

pp. 124-125. ^^rs. Kcslcr, -wile of the (irsi 
"curator o( the library," v/as groduoted from 
the University of Missouri v/ith degrees of 
bachelor of orts, bachelor of pedagogy, ond 
moster of arts. She olso held teaching 
credentials from the state of Missouri. 
"Personnel of Our BoplisI Female University," 
Biblical Recorder, 19 July 1899, p. 3. 

7 The first >innuo/ Announcement of t/ie 
BaptisI Female Univenity, 1899- 1900 (Roleigh: 
Edwards & Broughton, Printers and Binders, 

8 Ibid., p. 10. 

9 Catalogue of the Baptist female University, 
IS99- 1900 (Raleigh, N.C.: Edwards & 
Brosjghlon, Printers and Binders, 1900), p. 50. 

10 ibid, p. 9. 

1 1 Interview with fAinnie Farrior, Class of 
1914, Janua7 31, 1989. 



Ihe first library at Meredith College was nurtured 
by a handful of dedicated, energetic people. Unafraid of sacri- 
fices and hard work, those people rallied around a cause they 
knew would become the core of the academic life of the college. 
The libraiy relied on today by students, faculty, and fiiends is 
the result of that early devotion. 


When "Brother Bailey" accepted his appointment as a 
"committee of one to raise a libraiy," in his roles as trustee and 
as editor of the Biblical Recorder, he was in an influential and 
unique position.' As a strong and dedicated advocate for the 
college, he often v/i'ote glowing editorials in support of the 
institution. Several months before the opening he reminded his 
readers that a hbrary was an "essential part of the institution," 
urging them to be wilbng to provide money and books for its 

Bailey's editorial continued by indicating that the State 
Library,' just a block away from the college, would be an asset, 
but that the college needed its own collection of books. He 
remarked that he had been appointed to work on behalf of a 
library and assured his readers that with $100 he would be able 
to purchase "150 of the very best works." As a man of courage, 
he asked his readers for contributions, "whether of books or 
money" to get the job done.* 

The first president of the college, Dr. James C. 
Blasingame, also expressed interest in the creation of a librao'. 
In reviewing the needs of the college during the first year, 
Blasingame pointed to the lack of books and lamented, "We have 
no library to speak of"* Faculty members, such as histoi7 
professor, Mrs. Kate Hayes Kesler, urgently requested books 
fi'om readers of the Biblical Recorder.'' She and other faculty 
members often used their own books to support their teaching. 

The first printed material issued fi'om the college was 
probably a bulletin entitled, The First Annual Announcement of 
the Baptist Female University of North Carolina, 1899-1900. 
The bulletin set forth as much infonnation as possible within 
twenty-five pages. A brief histoid of the college; its aim; the 
anticipated programs of study; and a photograph of the main, 
and at that time the only, building were included in those 

Apparently the bulletin served as a means of encourag- 
ing young women to attend the college. The building uf a library 
was uppermost in the minds of those who wrote the bidletin. 
One section, entitled "Library" presented information about the 
status of the library and the plans to enhance its growth: 

A movement is on foot to establish a coniplete library. 
The University will supply students with all the text hooks used 
at the usual retail price. The income from this source will be 
used in purchasing a general lihraiy. 

Friends of the University have already made contributions 
to the library fund, and others are earnestly invited to contribute 
books or cash, as they are able. 

Students of the University will have access, free, to the 
public library situated only two blocks from the University." 

The Catalogue of 1899-1900, the first year the Baptist 
Female University opened its doors, noted the existence of a 
librai7 and reading room available for students." The officer of 
the faculty designated as "Curator of Library" was Professor of 
Natural Science John L. Kesler.'" 

The library, a large room on the second floor, was on 
"the back side [of the builditig], right at tlie corner, looking nut 
on Edenton Street." " Rules and regulations were established 
for its use, and students knew what to expect before going to the 
college. A no-nonsense approach to the use of the library was 
apparently the acceptable format of the day. As the Catalogue of 
1899-1900 explained, "The Library and Reading-Room are kept 
open morning and afternoon, except on Sundays and holidays. 

The Librarian is required to preserve order. Books and maga- 
zines may be bon-owed under the usual restrictions."'^ 

By 1900, evidently students were involved enough in 
their studies to want the library opened in the evenings also. 
According to minutes of a September 11, 1900, meeting, the 
faculty responded favorably to the request, moving "that the 
Libraiy be opened in the evening for the use of students from 
study bell until 9:30 for the present."'^ 

When books were still in great demand, the wiiters of 
the early catalogs used the opportunity to report the number of 
holdings on hand and to ask for additional donations. The 1899- 
1900 catalog noted the following: 

The Library contains about four hundred volumes. 
These have all been contributed during the past year. Most of 
them are valuable books, but it is evident that we are sorely in 
need of others. It is hoped that the friends of the school will 
contribute books and money to supply this need as rapidly as 

From the beginning the libraiy was emphasized as the 
central arena for the academic studies. "The Libraiy should be a 
working laboratoiy for all departments of insti-uction, supple- 
menting the text-book and classroom work by assigned readings, 
becoming a most valuable aid and a stimulus to investigation, 
and an essential part of a Uberal education." '° So noted the 
Catalogue of 1899-1900, setting forth a pWlosophy that has 
continued until the present time. 

Two other libraries within walking distance of the 
college supplemented the academic work pursued by the 
students. The need to increase the scope of the readings of the 
students was recognized, and plans were made to utilize the 
state and public libraries when necessary. The catalog stated 
that "This need is met, in part, by the State Library, which is 
within two blocks of the College and is open to the students. 
Here they have done most of the parallel and assigned reading 
for the past year. The new Rainey [sic] Library, about three 
blocks away, will also be open to the students next year." '^ 

Development of the libraiy was slow, the few changes 
being noted in the Catalogue of 1900-1901. Professor Kesler 
remained in the part-time position of curator, and the reading 
room regulations continued. The holdings in the libraiy num- 
bered 650 volumes." 

By the time the 1901-1902 catalog was published, the 
library holdings had increased to 1,091 volumes.'* The Olivia 
Raney Public Libraiy and the State Library were still being 

used by the students, and contributions to the college libraiy 

In 1902 Philip and Emma Johnson bequeathed to the 
college "about 200 books," consisting of works ranging fi'om 
Shakespeare to histoiy to religion to foreign languages." The 
Johnson Collection gi'eatly enhanced the libraiy holdings, and 
the board of tmstees passed resolutions praising their unselfish 

On April 9, 1902, minutes of the board of ti-ustees 
reported that "Brethren Bailey and Poteat be requested to act 
with Prof. Kesler as a committee on Ubraiy, to seek in all 
legitimate ways to increase the usefulness of the hbraiy."^" 
What suggestions those three men produced is not known 
because within a short time. Professor Kesler and his wife, Kate, 
a history professor, resigned their positions with the college.^' 

Budget and fe@§ 

Obtaining money for operation of the college was of 
great concern to the president and the faculty members. The 
basic needs for establishing a college had to be purchased, and 
payments became due for a variety of items. 

While Blasingame kept abreast of the monthly expendi- 
tures of managing a college, the library resources were meager. 
In the fall, 1899, during the first months in the histoiy of the 
Baptist Female University, President Blasingame wi'ote checks 
including those for $17.41 to the Raleigh Electric Company for 
electricity in September, $5.25 to Upchuixh and Holder for three 
cords of wood, $1.30 to S. S. Barber for two bushels of potatoes 
and turnips, and $41.40 to C. S. Allen, freight agent, for freight 
on classroom chairs.^^ When Kesler appeared before the 
executive committee of the board of trustees to report on the 
financial situation of the libraiy, he presented the gi'oup with 
"receipts and expenditures of $301.47 and a balance on hand of 

One means of building a fund to purchase books was to 
impose a libraiy fee. No mention was made of such an action in 
the 1899-1900 Announcement, but in succeeding catalogs, the fee 
was $2,00 per student per year.'' In 1901 the board of tiiistees 
voted that the $2.00 fee should "be kept as a special fund for the 
purchase of the library." ^^ 

Any young woman who had matriculated as a student 
and who had paid her libraiy fee was granted use of the libraiy. 
A student was allowed to check out two books for a two-week 
period, after which the book could be renewed for two additional 

From the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

1 2 Catalogue of the BaplisI Female University, 
1899-1900, p. 50. 

13 MerediHi College Faculty Minutes, 
September 11, 1900, p. 10. 

14 Catalogue, (899-1900, p. 50. 

15 Ibid., p. 51. 

16 Ibid. Richard B. Raney donated tbe first 
library In the city of Raleiqn. Olivia Raney 
Library, named for liis wife, was established in 
1899 and closed In April, 1985, when it was 
merged witfi a countywide library system. 

1 7 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1900-J90] (Raleigh, N.C.; Edwards & 
Broughton, Printers ond Binders, 1901), p. 53. 

1 8 Catalogue of the BaplisI Female University, 
1901- 1902 (Raleigh, N.C.: Edwards & 
Broughton, 1902), p. 52. 

19 "The Philip and Emma Johnson Collection: 
Voluoble Gifts to Our University," Biblical 
Recorder, 26 February 1902, p. 2. See Chapter 
III, p. 10, for additional information about the 
Johnson Collection. 

20 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, April 9, 
1902, p. 163. 

21 Jonnson, A History of Meredith College, 
p. 115. 

22 Checkbook, James C. Blasingame, October 
7, 1899-November3, 1899. 

23 Minutes of the Executive Committee, 
B.U.W., May 24, 1901, p. 12. 

24 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1899-1900, p. 57; 1900-I901 p. 60; 1901- 
1902, p. 59. 

25 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, May 22, 
1901, p. 152. 

26 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1902-1903 (Raleigh, N,C.: Edwards & 
Broughton, 1903), p. 20. 

27 Nadyezhda Zllper, "The Hisfory of rfie 
Library al Meredirfi College, Raleigh, North 
Carolina, 1899-1925° (Master's thesis: 
University of Nortfi Corolina-Chopel Hill, 1980) 

p. n. 

28 Minutes of the Boord of Trustees, April 9, 
1902, p. 163. 

29 Jonnson, A History of Meredith College, 
p. 112. 

30 Meredith College Faculty Minutes, Morch 
18, 1902, p. 22. 

31 The accession book is a re<ord of every 
volume added to the collection in the library in 
the order in v/hich it is received. Information in 
the occession book includes the author, title, 
publisher, publicaKon dote, and supplier of each 

32 Cotafogue of the Baptist Female University, 

33 Guy R. Lyie, The Administration of the 
College Ubrory. 3rd ed. (New York: H. W. 
Wilson Company, 1961], p. 1. 

34 Mory Lynch Johnson, "Ex Libris," Meredith 
College, The Alumnae Magazine, 2 (Winter 

35 "Personnel of Our Baptist Female 
University," Biblical Recorder, 19 July 1899, 
p. 3. 

36 Zilp«r, 'Ihe History of the library at 
Mcre<Jitli College," p. 11 . Most deportments 
consisted of one person, 

37 Meredith College Faculty Minutes, October 
23, 1900, p. 20. Kesler v/os also on the 
committee on finol examinations, the committee 
on schedule (or recitations, the committee on 
catalogue, the entertainment committee, the 
committee on the distribution of the mail, the 
committee on chopcl roll coll, and the committee 
on speakers and lecturers. Faculty Minutes, 
pp.6, 10, 14, ond25. 

38 Ibid., October 9, 1 900, p. 18. 

39 Ibid., September 28, 1900, p. 4. 

John Louis Kesler, first "curator of library." 

No record was found to explain how money was 
allocated to the academic departments during" those early years. 
From the evidence available, Kesler and the library committee 
were probably responsible for the budget." A search of the 
faculty minutes from 1900 to 1902 did not show a libraiy 
committee as a faculty responsibility, though Kesler and two 
trustees were assigned that responsibility in 1902.™ 

The libraty was also used by pupils from the academy, 
or the preparatoty department, which in 1900, began at the 
fourth-grade level and offered five years of prcparatoiy studies.'' 
To gain additional revenue, at the March 18, 1902, meeting, the 
faculty voted to charge students in their last two years of the 
academy the same fee the regular college students were pay- 

According to the accession book," the most expensive 
book purchased by the college between 1899 and 1902, History of 
the Warfare of Science, by Wliite, cost $15.74. The least expen- 
sive purchase. Masters in Art: Botticelli, cost thirteen cents. 

Difficulties with money may have posed many problems 
in the early years, but the dedication of the faculty and friends of 
the libraiy continued to be expressed in generous ways. 

firsl librarians 

Faculty member Kesler, in the part-time position of 
"Curator of Library," partially followed the custom of his time.'' 
According to libraty historians, the librarian was usually a 

The title page for the Li brary Record . 

member of the teaching faculty who also served as "guardian of 
[the] books."^'' As a general rule, the responsibility was largely 
custodial and mainly consisted of keeping the room locked 
except during the few hours each day when students were 
allowed to use the books. At Baptist Female University, the 
library remained open about nine hours a day.'' 

Kesler, who held a bachelor of arts degi-ee from Wake 
Forest College and a master of arts degi'ee from Howard Payne 
College in Brownwood, Texas, also attended the University 
Medical College in Kansas City, Missouri, where he spent a year 
studying liistology and bacteriology.^'' 

Tiiough Kesler's responsibility as professor of natural 
science was considered a full-time position, he assumed respon- 
sibility for ordering books and recording the acquisition of books 
in his part-time position as library curator. The department 
heads selected the titles."' 

Apparently Kesler quickly gained the confidence of 
faculty and administration of the new institution. During his 
three years at the Baptist Female University, he served on the 
committee to recommend courses of study "leading to diplomas 
in Music, Art, Elocution, and Busine.5s" and also oi> a wide 
vaiiety of other committees.-" In addition, Professor Kesler was 
asked by Dr. Vann to determine if the work of the students 
"comes witiiin the limits of the catalogue."™ On at least one 
occasion, in the absence of the president and the dean, he 
chaired a faculty meeting.™ 

From the beginning, student assistants kept the hbrai-y 
open morning, afternoons, and evenings." In the 1900-1901 
school year, Kesler was assisted m his library duties by Alma 
Smith, '03, and Nannie Shugait, '03; in 1902, by Nannie Shugaii 
and Laura Cox, '04." As a reward for their hard work and 
faithfulness, when "Misses Alma Smith and Nannie Shugait, 
Librarians, requested that they be allowed the privilege of 
shopping alone," theii' request was gi'anted.''"'' 

How much the student librarians were paid for their 
work is not known. Blasingame's first annual report to the 
tiTJstees noted that "one young lady has been given her tuition 
for assisting in the libraiy."''^ The question of remuneration 
also arose when someone on the faculty "Moved that Dr. Vann 
and Prof Watson be a Comm. to consider the question of pay for 
the two librarians and Supei-visor of Piano practice." " The 
motion was carried. 

Kesler and his wife left the college in 1902 after some of 
the more consei-vative element of the Baptist denomination, led 
by the Rev. Chaj'les L. Greaves, Baptist minister in Reidsville, 
disapproved of the scientist's "loose notions" and "using micro- 
scope and scalpel on God's word."'"^ Apparently Kesler had 
"expressled] himself so carelessly in so important a subject" to 
his students by suggesting an unorthodox explanation of the 
plagues in Egypt.'"^ 

In a letter to the Rev. Greaves, President Vann's 
assessment of the situation was clear and to the point. He 

Yes, Kesler and his wife have left us, and a severe loss 
they have given us. For when all is said, Kesler is one of the most 
devout, spiritual men I know. Both he and Poteai hold some 
views that you and I do not, but in nearly all cases, when you. get 
down to what they really mean they stand where we do. They 
both suffer from two' things; first, they see and state things 
differently from most people, and their opinions are not com- 
monly understood by those who hear them. Secondly, the 
language they use is not generally reported correctly, as I have 
good reason for knowing. Because of this fact I think they both 
make a mistake in expressing an opinion at all on some matters 
before students, since under the circumstances they must inevita- 
bly he misunderstood. As to Kesler's explanation of the plagues 
in Egypt, I personally have no objection to any body's explaining 
any Biblical occurrence by natural causes provided he can do so 
rationally and reverently. I think it likely that some things 
which we have regarded as purely miraculous will turn out to 
have been wholly or partly natural. As long os our brethren cling 

so reverently to Jesus Christ, as I think these men do, I am 
personcdly willing for them to differ with me in some things and 
still claim them as brethren.''' 

Vann had provided, as he would many times during his presi- 
dency, the "margin of safety for academic freedom."'"' 

In a handwritten note to the board of ti-ustees, Kesler's 
resignation simply stated: 

Gentlemen of the Board of Trustees; 

I hereby offer my resignation of the chair of Natural Science 
in the Baptist Female University to take a similar position in 
Georgetown College, Georgetown, Ky. This also includes the 
resignation of Mrs. Kesler from the Chair of History. 

We feel it our duty to go &, therefore, beg you to release us. 
We believe that we had a work to do here & that we have done it. 
We shall always feel a deep interest in this school and shall 
rejoice in its growth, its high standing, & its financial success. 
For these things we have worked, we have hoped, we have helped 
to lay the foundation, & we do not believe that we have labored in 

Your obedient servants, 

Mr. & Mrs. Kesler.'' 

The executive committee of the board of trustees 
expressed appreciation for the work that the Keslers had done 
on behalf of the college. The minutes read: "The resignation of 
Prof Kesler and Mrs. Kesler as members of the Faculty were 
accept Isic] with regi'et, and the Scc'ty was requested to record 
the Committee's appreciation of their work for tlie University."*" 

After Kesler's departure, Walter George Sackett was 
appointed curator of the library.^' Sackett, lilte Kesler, was a 
science teacher; he stayed at the Baptist Female University 
only two years.'^ 

' I 



.'^'P" 1 

System of circulation for the first books in the library, beginning 
September, 1900. 

40 Johnson, "Ex Libris," p. 4. 

41 Alumnae records shov/ that Mrs. Alma 
Smith Griffin, nee Smith, died July 16, 1958; 
Mrs. W. E. Woodruff, nee Shugort, died August 
31, 1961; and Laura Cox died February 3, 

42 Meredith College Faculty Minutes, January 
7, 1902, p. 49. Students were allowed to go 
shopping once a month but not alone. The 
September 13, 1900, Faculty Minutes reporied; 
'7nat the Matrons of the different buildings take 
all Istudents] shopping in charge. ... No girl 
will be allowed to go shopping oftener than 
once a montli/' pp. 10-1 1. 

43 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, April 10, 
1900, p. 95. 

44 Meredith College Faculty Minutes, 
September 11, 1900, p. 10, Larkin D. Watson, 
Jr., was professor of mathematics and bursar of 
the college. 

45 Vann Papers, letter from the Rev. C. L, 
Greaves, Reidsville, North Carolina, June 30, 

46 Ibid. Apporenriy Kesler suggested that 
"filth" might have been resoonsible for the 
deoths of the firsttjorn children. Greaves' letter 
continued: "let our professors of science teach 
science, not theology unless it be Baptist 
tfieology. If they must teach another kind let 
them teach it at another's charge not ours .... 

I am not the only one who thinks os I do, as you 
doubtless know." Also worthy of note is the 
discussion between Greaves and Kesler carried 
out in the Bihikal Recorder [January 8, 29, and 
February 12, 1902, issues) on free college 
tuition for ministers. 

47 Vann Papers, letter to the Rev, Greaves, 
June 27, 1902. 

48 Tom Parramore, "Red-Tie Bill and the 
Wingless Bird: Tor Heel Baptists ond the 
Evolution Controversy," Meredith Magazine, 

49 Vann Papers, letter from Mr. and Mrs. 
James L. Kesler, undated. 

50 Minutes of the Executive Committee, June, 
10, 1902, p. 25, 

5 1 Mereaith College Faculty Minutes, 
September 4, 1902, p. 56. 

52 Sackett and Jessie Louise Jones, a professor 
of English, made the suggestion that the college 
colors be maroon and wnitc. Johnson, A 
History of Meredith College, p. 72. 



1 Minutes of llie Board of Trustees of Merediffi 
College, May 3, 1899, p. 89. On May 17, 
1973, l+iot set was given fo Sfiaw University in 
Raieigf>, Norlii Corolina. Shaw University no 
longer has the set. The Rev. Justice, "one of the 
most useful and beloved ministers in North 
Carolino," v/os reaarded os "one of the most 
ardent friends of tne Baptist Female University; 
his sacrifices for it have been really sublime; in 
the hours of the institution's greatest need more 
then once his brethren hove turned to him to 
lead them in prober. For he is such a man that 
men know that he has faith in God . . . and it is 
cnfy right thot bis brethren should take the 
liberty to honor him v/hile he is still amongst 
them." BiUkal kKorder, 19 February 1902, 

p. 2. 

2 "Editoriol," BrWico/ Recorder, 7 June 1899, 
p. 4. Nothing more is kno-^/n of Miss Harp, 
tliough Mary lynch Johnson suggests thot Harp 
Street in Raleigh mo'/ have been nomed for her 
fothcr. A Hiitcry ol Meredith College, p. 55 fn. 

3 Ibid. 


"ecause of the need to pay off the debt for the 
buildings, purchasing books remained a low priority in the 
minds of the leadership. At the same time, the ti-ustees of the 
university took it upon themselves to build a libraiy to gi'ow 
with the school. The efforts of the editor of the Biblical Re- 
corder, in his role as the major requester of books, slowly came 
to fruition. 

First Donors 

The first person to donate books to the Baptist Female 
University was the Rev. C. B. Justice, trustee and pastor of the 
Baptist church at Rutherfordton. Immediately following Josinh 
Bailey's assignment as a libraiy-builder, Justice "tendered a set 
of Encyclopedia Britannica bound in leather for the libraiy and 
the same was accepted with many thanks."' 

The following month another donor, a Mary Harp of 
Raleigh responded to the request. As the Biblical Recorder 
noted, "A good sister of Raleigh, Miss Harp, came into our office 

recently, with two excellent books for the Library of our Baptist 
Female University. She is the second donor to the libraiy."^ 
The accession book lists only one book, Golden Gems of Life, by 
Ferguson and Allen, as the gift of Mai7 Harp. 

The same Recorder article encouraged its readers to 
participate in the building of a library and reiterated the editor's 
own commitment to tliis undertaking: 

Our people must largely supply the money and the books for this 
essential partufihe institution. The fact that the State Library is 
near by should not deter anyone from helping this cause. The 
State Library will be very helpful, but we need a library of our 
own. The editor of the Recor'der has been appointed to work for 
this. . . . Look over your library and see what you can give." ' 

Among those who must have looked over their libraries 
were five trastees: Josiah W. Bailey, William L. Poteat, T. Edgar 
Cheek, Bernard W. Spilman, and Oliver L. Stringfield. The 
president of the college, as well as faculty members, also gave 

Josicdi W. Bailey donated The History ofGra.t.iy Ci-eek 
Church, by Devine, and the space he freely gave in the Biblical 
Recorder to publicizing the college and the need for books was 
invaluable. Hardly a month went by that he did not write an 
editorial or print a letter about the merits of the new school. 

William L. Poteat, a professor of biology at Wake Forest 
College and a trustee of Baptist Female University for forty- 
seven years contributed forty-five books on a variety of topics 
which reflected his interest in the sciences as well as religion, 
literature, education, and languages. Among liis contributions 
were College Botany, by Bastin; An Introduction to American 
Literature, by Matthews; How to Use the Microscope, by Phin; 
The Sun, by Young; Wayrnarks for Teachers, by Arnold; Outlines 
of German Liter-ature, by Tucsler; and Commentary on the New 
Testament, by Olshausen. ^'Ul these donations were inscribed, 
"Presented to The Baptist Female UniversitY* By W. L. Poteat. 
Aug., 1899." 

T. Edgar Cheek, a ti-ustee for two years, gave the 
American Statesmen series. A collection of twenty-eight hooks 
plus a general index, the series explored the lives and contribu- 
tions of outstanding Americans, including such men as George 
Washington and Abraham Lincoln. In addition, he gave the ten- 
volume set ofLiter-aturv of All Nations, edited by Hawthorn, 
Young, and Lambei-ton. Another trustee with a two-year tenure, 
Bernard Spilman, field secretary of the State Board of Missions 

and Sunday Sdiools of Ow Baptist State Convention, gave The 
Annals ofNewbeny and a thirty-two volume set ot Columbia 

One of the strongest and most vocal advocates for the 
Baptist Female University was Oliver L. Stringfield who for 
several years traveled the state to create interest in and raise 
money for the school. His donation to the library was The Holy 
Bible, translated from the Vulgate. 

In addition to his position as president, Dr. Blasingame, 
as professor of psychology and pedagogy also contributed 
volumes to the limited holdings. His interests in learning and 
teaching were reflected in his donations of the Report of the 
Commissioner of Education for a three-year period as well a 
Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Dr. Elizabeth Delia Dixon-CaiToll,* professor of 
physiology and college physician for thirty-five years, presented 
the libraiy with a book entitled, Living Problems, written by her 
brother, Thomas Dixon, Jr. John L. Kesler, donated the book, 
Gospel from Two Testament Sermons, by Andrews. 

Ada Vickers, an unidentified donor, apparently had a 
strong interest in the work of one particular author. Her 
donation to the new libraiy consisted of fifteen books written by 
Robert Louis Stevenson. Books such as Treasure Island, 
Kidnapped, and New Arabian Nights, were among the collection. 

Another donor, listed in the accession book only as Miss 
Herring, is credited with donating the book Give Me Thine 
Heart, by Roe, one of the most frequently circulated books 
during the first two years in the histoiy of the library. A 
student, Bertha Hening, is listed as having signed out books; 
perhaps she and the donor are the same person. 

The important collection of Mr. and Mrs. Philip W. 
Johnson of Wake Forest added quality and quantity and a boost 
to the spirits of the leadership of the institution.* The board of 
trustees was so pleased to obtain the collection that a resolution, 
written by Ti-ustee Robert N. Simms, was presented and 
recorded in the minutes: 

Whereas, the late Mr. P. W. Johnson, and his wife, Mrs. 
Emma Purefuy Johnson, of Wake Forest, N.C., have presented to 
the Baptist Female University of North Carolina their veiy 
valuable library, and 

Whereas, the Board of Trustees of the said institution 
desire to make record of their appreciation of the gift; 

Now, therefore, be it resolved, first that we commend the 
wisdom of these benefactors who have chosen to do an act which 

will make their names dear to the students of this institution for 
generations to come and will write for them an enduring epitaph 
in the minds and hearts of those noble young women who shall 
through the helpfulness of this library broaden their minds, 
deepen their intellects and widen the scope of their possible 
usefulness to all humanity. 

Resolved, second that we commend the goodness of heart 
of these noble people who chose rather to place their libraiy 
within these walls than to leave it to be enjoyed as a treasured 
heritage by their own kindred. May they receive rich reward 
from Him who gave freely all-even unto His own life-for the 
benefit of others, and may He cause to be speedily and surely 
realized many of the numberless possibilities of good that are 
inherent in this noble benefaction.'' 

The collection given by the Johnsons, ranging in 
copyiight dates from 1791, Boswell's Life of Johnson, to 1901, 
The Histoiy of the South Fork Baptist Association, by Graham, 
expanded the holdings in the library to well over 1,000 books.' 
The 1901-1902 catalog called the collection "a valuable addition," 
and expressed hope "that many others may remember this, the 
vital centre of the college life."' The publication dates for most 
of the books were the 1880s and 1890s, up-to-date books for a 
gi'owing academic center. 

Several people with the Purefoy surname expressed an 
interest in the new libraiy. Mrs. A. V. Purefoy, an unidentified 
donor, apparently was concerned with the religious gi'owth of 
the students. Her contributions to the library included Com- 
mentaiy: Romans to Revelation, by Clarke; Baptist Doctrines, by 
Jenkens; and Women of the Old and New Testament, by Weld. 

As a Baptist minister and treasurer of Wake Forest 
College, James S, Purefoy probably supported the idea of a 
Baptist seminary for women. Altliough he was not alive to 
participate in the opening of the institution, his estate contrib- 
uted books such as Senate Documents, 33rd Congress and 
Spurgeon, the Modern Whitfield, by Magoon. 

Di-. George W. Purefoy was listed in the 1902 catalog as 
a contributor, but no mention was made of the books he gave. 
Since a review of the accession book listed no book titles from 
Purefoy, perhaps his was a monetaiy donation. 

Among other first donors with some claim to fame was 
Thomas Dixon, Jr., author of the novels. The Clansman and The 
Leopard's Spots.'' Unfortunately, The leopard's Spots, the book 
he donated to the college libraiy, is lost. No card in the card 

the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

4 It is inleresHng to note that Dr. Dixon-Carroll 
used her maiden and married names. The 
1906-1907 catalog first showed the names 
liyphenated. Catalogue of the School of the 
Baptist University for Women. Announcements 
for 1 906- 1907 (Raleigh: Presses of Edwards & 
Broughton, 1906), p. 11. 

5 Mary lynch Johnson, A History of Meredith 
College, 2nd ed. (Raleigh, North Carolina: 
Meredith College, 1972), p. 126. The Philip 
Johnsons and me Livingston Johnsons (Johnson 
Administration Building on the Meredith College 
campus) were not related. 

6 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, April 9, 
1902, p. 163. 

7 Accession books, 1 to 1,000 and 1,001 to 
2,000. Boswell's Life of Johnson, a 609-page 
volume, was discarded in February, 1951, 
because it v/as worn out. The 200-page History 
of the South fork Baptist Association remains a 
part of the Meredith holdings. 

8 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
190 1- (902 (Roleigh, N. C: Edwards & 
Broughton, 1902), p. 52. 

9 "Port-time Raleigh resident Thomas Dixon 
glorified the Klan in two of his first novels. The 
leopard's Spcis (1903) and The Clansman 
(1905) on which the motion picture The Birth of 
a Nation (1915) was based." Elizobelh Reid 
Murray, Wake: Capital County of North 
Carolina (Raleigh, North Carolina: Capital 
County Publishing Company, 1983), p. 597 fn. 


From the 1905 

catalog exists and no member of the libraiy staff has been able 
to find any trace of the book. 

Several professors at Wake Forest College, showing an 
interest in the libraiy of the new institution, added books to 
increase the academic holdings. In addition to William L. 
Poteat, other professors who contributed books were W. R. 
Cullom, Jolin F. Lanneau, J. W. Lynch, W. B. Royall, and 
Benjamin F. Sledd. 

The varied intei'ests of W. R. Cullom, first professor of 
Bible at Wake Forest College, are reflected in donations of books 
on religion, liistoiy, French, literature, and sociology. Among 
those were My Bible Study, by Havergal; An Analytical French 
Reader, by Keetels; Sesame and Lilies, by Ruskin; and Social 
Reform and the Church, by Commons. 

John F. Lanneau, professor of mathematics at Wake 
Forest, had a two-fold interest in the college. Aside from the 
Wake Forest College connection, he was the father of Sopliie S. 
Lanneau, a member of the first gi'aduating class at Baptist 
Female University and a substitute teacher of Latin. His 
contributions, all with a religious emphasis, inclnded Pilgiim's 
Progress, by Bunyan, and Evidences of Christianity, by Jenlcens. 

J. W. Lynch, chaplain and professor of Bible, reflected 
his interests in I'eligion, literature, and art with books such as 
Paris with Pen and Pencil, by Bartbell; Twenty-five Sermons on 
the Holy Land, by Talmage; and the Cyclopedia of Fiction. 
Among the books contributed by W. B. Royall were Memoirs of 
Celebrated Characters, by Lamartine; English Harmony of the 
Gospels, by Clark; and Hamilton's Metaphysics. 

Professor of modern languages, Beryamin F. Sledd, 
presented to the libraiy three books: Selections from 
Wordsworth, From Cliff and Scaur, and Poems, by Tennyson. 
The book. From Cliff and Scaur, was a small book of poetiy 
written by Sledd, inscribed "With compUments of the author. 
Aug. 26, 1899." 

The state of North Carolina responded to the opportu- 
nity to contribute part of its message to the library when James 
R. Young, the insurance commissioner of North Carolina, and 
C. H. Mebane, superintendent of public instruction, gave books 
from their respective state agencies. 

Members of the United States Congress and the North 
.' Carohna General Assembly also contributed books to Baptist 
__^^, Female University. Among those who furnished books were 
^A^ Marion Butler, W. P. Shaw, Edward W. Pou, Furnifold M. 
Simmons, and Jeter C. Pritchard. 

The contribution of Marion Butler, who served North 

Carolina as a senator at both the state and national levels, 
consisted of four volumes o( Messages and Papers of the Presi- 
dents from 1896 to 1899. North Carolina Senator Shaw from 
Hertford County gave the library several volumes of the Colo- 
nial Records of North Carolina, published in the years 1886, 
1887, 1888, and 1890. 

Edward W. Pou, a member of the North CaroHna House 
of Representatives fi'om Johnston County, and U.S. Senator 
F. M. Simmons are identified in the 1901-1902 catalog as 
donating books, but the volumes are not recorded in the acces- 
sion book. Senator Pritchard likewise was listed in the 1900- 
1901 catalog as a contributor of books, but no reference was 
made to Mm in the accession book. 

Baptist leader and editor of the Religious Herald of 
Virginia, Dr. Alfred E. Dickinson, provided the college with 
seventy-two books, the second largest number donated duiing 
the first three years, His broad education is evident in his 
contributions dealing with religion, science, philosophy, foreign 
languages, histoi7, and English. Included were such books as 
Leading Facts in American History, by Montgomeiy; Phoebe 
Skiddy's Theology, by Kinston; French Grammar, Elijah the 
Prophet, by Leurauand; and Irving's Sketch Book. 

Two book companies contributed their wares to the new 
library. Ginn & Company was acknowledged in the 1899-1900 
catalog for its contributions. The titles included Practical Latin 
Composition, Handbook of Rhetorical Analysis, New Cicero with 
Vocabulaiy, The Aeneid, Practical Rhetoric, and New Plane and. 
Spherical Trigonometry, all recently published books dated 
1899. Allyn & Bacon contributed Paragraph Writing. 

One of the smaller contributions to the libraiy came 
from Professor C. W. Hyams, who gave two science books, 
Medicinal Plants and Flora of North Carolina. Both books were 
wiitten by Hyams, a botanist with the North Carolina College of 
Agi'iculture and Mechanic Arts (now North Carolina State 
University), who inscribed the title page of both books vrith 
"Compliments of tlie author." 

Still other donors were R. H. McNeill, who provided a 
book on art galleries in Washington, D. C; Captain W. B, 
Kendrick, who contributed a Civil War memoir; Dr. 
J. B. Powers, who supplied two hooks with a medical orientation; 
and A. W. Atwater and Eai'nest [.sic] Poteat, identified in the 
catalogs of 1900-1901 and 1899-1900, respectively, as contribu- 
tors, though neither Atwater nor Poteat was listed in the 
accession book. {See Appcndk A, pages 21-27, for list of fii'st 

LIhmi'f iemi^ 

During the first year of Baptist Female University, 
1899-1900, the library was more a plan-in-progress than a 
reality. By 1902 the 1,091 books represented more fiction than 
nonfiction.'" Partially to make up for the weakness of the 
collection, professors often placed their own books on the shelves 
in the library so students could boiTow them," 

From an intemew with Maiy Lynch Johnson, 
Nadyezhda Zilper reported that the books were kept on open 
shelves along the walls of the room and were placed according to 
the courses offered by the college. The books for each course 
were an-anged in alphabetical order by author. From the 
beginning, students had open access to the books and materials 
in the libraiy.'^ (See Appendix B, pages 28-34, for a list of the 
first books purchased by the college.) 

By September, 1900, an organized way of circulating 
books became necessaiy. To keep an account of the books the 
Library Record was used." When books were checked out, each 
student signed her name and the date. When the book was 
returned, student assistants probably wrote in that date. 

The Library Record shows that as semester followed 
semester the circulation of the books increased. From Septem- 
ber 11 through December 26, 1900, one-hundred four books were 
checked out, averaging twenty-six books a month. From 
Januai-y 1 through May 24, 1901, the numbers increased to two- 
hundred seventeen books, averaging 43.4 books a month. 

During the next two semesters, September 7 through 
December 30, 1901, and January 2 through May 29, 1902, 
circulation markedly increased. During the fall semester three- 
hundi'ed sixty-six books were checked out, averaging 91.5 books 
each month; and during the spring semester four-hundred 
eighty-three volumes were circulated, averaging 96.6 books per 
month. The Library Record, also kept for September 4 through 
October 29, 1902, shows three-hundred seven books circulated, 
averaging 153.5 books for that period of time. 

Some instructors, it seems, relied on the libraiy to 
provide multiple copies of assigned readings to enliance the 
classroom recitations. Others checked out books to be placed in 
laboratories or used as classroom supplements. On September 
11, 1900, when the Library Record was begun. Professor J. L. 
Kesler was the first to place his name and book title. Outlines of 
Zoology, at the top of the page. His entiy stated that the book 
was for "Lab.» Ref" ."'■' On October 29, 1902, Miss S. E. Yoimg, 
professor of modern languages, checked <mtLaw of Psychic 
Phenomena, the last book recorded in the Library Record}'' 

During the two and a half years that the Library 
Record was kept, 1,477 books were circulated. A tally of all the 
books listed in the Library Record shows that both fiction and 
nonfiction were included in the most fi-equently circulated books. 
The top ten, including ties, were as follows: 

1. Best Things from Best Authors. Purchased by BFU. 

2. Give Me Thine Heart, by E. P. Roe. Given by Miss 

2. What a Young Woman Ought to Know, by Mary 
Allen and S. Stall. Purchased by BFU. 

3. What A Young Girl Ought to Know, by Maiy Allen. 
Purchased by BFU. 

4. Ekkhard, by Joseph Scheffel. Purchased by BFU. 

4. Under Golden Skies, by a Southern Author. Pur- 
chased by BFU. 

5. Rise of the Dutch Republic, by J. L. Motley. Pur- 
chased by BFU. 

6. An Egyptian Princess, by George Ebers. Johnson 
Collection. Given to Elon College, June, 1924. 

7. Early Renaissance, by J. M. Hoppin. Purchased by 

8. History of the United States, by James Schouler. 
Purchased by BFU. 

8. In Ole Virginia, by T. N. Page. Purchased by BFU. 

9. Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte. Johnson Collection. 
9. Te«n,yson's Poems, by Alfred Lord Tennyson. Given 

by W. B. Royall. 

10. Lorna Doone, by R. D. Blackmore. Johnson 

The only books from this list that remain in the 
Meredith College iibraiy are the Rise of the Dutch Republic, by 
Motley, and theffistoy of the United States, by Schouler. 

¥ml E9@ks md Ihe Cumsuhm 

The first announcement of the Baptist Female Univer- 
sity, 1899, provided a list of requirements for obtaining a degi-ee. 
In order to graduate, a student had to take psychology, rhetoric 
and English composition, English literature, physiology, and 
hygiene.'* By the time the school opened in the fall of that year, 
Latin, mathematics, chemistry, biology, physics, French or 
GeiTiian, moral philosophy, and histoiy were added to the list." 

The cunnculum for a B.A. degi'ee was designed to 
parallel the requirements for a degi-ee at Wake Forest College. 
The wiiter of the catalog put it this way: "We ought to do in 
higher education for our young women what we have done in 


10 Nadyezhda Zilper, "The History of the 
Library ot Meredith College, Roleign, Norlh 
Carolina, 1899-1926" (Master's tfiesis: 
University of North Carolina, 1980), p. 12, ond 
a review of accession books, 1 to 1 ,000 and 
1,001 to 2,000. 

11 Ibid., pp. 12-13. 

12 Ibid., p. 13. 

13 Information about the circulation of books 
was obtained through a study of the Baptist 
Female Univenily Uhrary Record, 1900- 1 90Z 
The f>ook, on 8" x 12-3/4" ledger in which the 
circulation information for every book checked 
out of the library was recorded, is in the 
Carlyle Campl>ell Library Archives on the 
Meredith College campus. 

14 library Record, p. 1 7. 

15 Ibid., p. 191. 

1 6 The First Annual Announcement of the 
Baptist Female University of North Carolina, 
1B99-I900 (Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton, 
Printers and Binders, 1899), pp. 12-13,15. 

1 7 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1899- 1900 (Raleigh, N.C.: Edwards & 
Broughton, Printers and Binders, 1900), p. 46. 


18 Ibid., p. 3. 

19 Comment on the first books and the course 
offerings were provided by current faculty 
members of Meredith College. 

20 Plummer Alston Jones, Jr., "The History and 
Development of Libraries in American HigriBr 
Education," College and Research Ubraries 
News 50, iJuly/August 1989] : 562. 

21 Cofo/ogue, ;899-?900, pp. 36-37. 

22 Ibid., p. 37. 

23 Catalogue, 1 900- ? 90/, p. 29. Some of the 
eciuipment shown in a picture of the biology 
laboratory (an Insert betv/een pages 30 and 311 
is slill ovmed by the deportment, 

24 Memorondum, Mrs. Jon Sullivan, 
Department of Biology ond Heolth Sciences, 
September 5, 1989. Ihe Origin of 5pe<ics was 
one of the books that inspired the passage of 
the "anti-evolution" low in Tennessee. This lav/ 
led to the so-colled 'Monkey Trial ' in 1 924 
during v/hicS Clarence Dorrov/ defended 
Thomas Scopes for teaching evolution. 

25 Ibid. According to Mrs, Sullivan, Wallace 
described vaccinations as a delusion and colled 
compulsory voccinations o crime. He also 
befieved in phrenology — the analysis of 
chorccter ond the development of^mcnlol 
faculties by the study of tno shape of the skull 
ond the "bumps" on the head. 

26 Catatogue. ]900-190l p. A7. The purpose 
of the department was "to train young women 
thoroughly for serious work in the business 

27 Memorandum, Dr. Lois Frazier, Department 
of Business and Economics, January 13, 1989. 

28 Catalogue. 1 899- 1900. p. 25. The catalog 
description read: "Among the subjects specially 
diKUSsed, ond upon which osslgned reading 
will be given and reports required, ore Taxation 
ond Public Finance, Monoy and Banking, Tariff, 
Notionol Monopolies and Pauperism ond 
Charities.' Toooy, noted Dr. Donold Sponton, 
Department of Business ond Economics, the 
deportment offers two courses in taxes, one 
course in public finance, one in money and 
bonking, and one in the history of economic 
thought, but none in pauperism ond charities, 
/(Memorandum, September 21, 1989. 

Wake Forest College for our young men."'^ {See Appendix C, 
page 35, for list of first schools [department^].) 

A review of the first books shows that, for the most 
part, they were recent publications. Most of them offered the 
students the latest available information in various subjects. 
The books included every division of the Dewey decimal system, 
often rcfiecting the interests of the donors. The gi'eatest 
numbers were English language and literature and history. 

Most of the first books were aligned with the college 
cumculum.^^ Instruction, given according to the "fixed charac- 
ter" of the 19th-centui7 colleges, did not demand a lai"ge number 
of books. Outstanding teaching consisted mainly of the use of "a 
single text supplemented by recitations,"^" Books about histoiy 
and English literature were probably discussed in class, and a 
number of the students then checked out the books to study on 
• theii" own or to review for quizzes or examinations, Fiction may 
have been refen*ed to in class, and students were probably 
encouraged to read works that expanded class lectures. 

A brief review of some of the first books provides insight 
into the academic departments and cuniculum then and now. 


The School of Ait sought "lo develop originality and 
encourage the individuality of the student."" The progi'am v/as 
an'anged so that the student would progress from simple to 
complex skills in becoming a portrait painter, illustrator, or 

As students progi-essed in their skills, additional media 
were added to the course of study. The liistoiy of art was part of 
the senior level work; most of the art books in the library were in 
that area, including such volumes as Outlines of the Histoiy of 
Art, by Lubke; Wonders of European Art, by Viardot; and several 
volumes from the Masters in Art series. 

The catalog noted: "Ai-t publications for the benefit of 
the student are to be found in the College reading-room."^' In 
addition to art journals, students probably examined such books 
such as Painting in France, by Hamerton, and Paintings in the 
New Library of Congress, by Small. 


The early holdings contain an astonishing variety of 
books in the field of biology. Subjects such as cell biology, 

botany, zoology, physiology, histology, entomology, bacteriology, 
and evolution were represented in the early collection. Perhaps 
Kesler utilized his position as curator of the libraiy to increase 
the science holdings. 

General biology, required of students seeking a B.A. 
degree, included lectures given three hours a week and four 
hours a week of laboratory work. The courses were designed to 
"study . . . typical plants and animals for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing the fundamental stnicture and functions of livings things, 
the comparative morphology and physiology of living matter in 
its most general aspect."'^ 

The inclusion of The Origin of Species, by Charles 
Dai-win, in the library of a Baptist college of this era is unex- 
pected.^' In tliis book, Darwin first published his theory of 
natural selection, one of the basic tenets of evolution. The 
controversy generated by this book still rages today. 

In The Wonderful Century, 1898, Alft'ed Russel Wallace 
enumerated what he considered the successes and failures of 
science in the 19th centuiy. For example, he regarded photogi'a- 
phy and the public advancement of the theories of natural 
selection and evolution as two of the successes. Among the 
failures, he believed, were the neglected study of phrenology and 
the use of vaccinations.^' 

Together, The Origin of Species and The Wonderful 
Century provide insight into the state of science at the turn of 
the century. 


The business cuniculum consisted mainly of stenogra- 
phy, typewriting, and booklceeping. Students were warned not 
to begin work in stenogi'aphy "without a practical, worldng 
knowledge of English."'" 

The libraiy references used in business included a 
History of Shorthand, by Pitman; Masteiy of Shorthand , by 
Brown; and Shorthand Dictionary, by Pitman, the latter a 
valuable reference book." Not surprisingly, courses in econom- 
ics, business management, and marketing were not a part of the 
business cuniculum, although some books, such as Principles of 
Political Economy, by Gide, were classified under liisloiy and 
taught in that depnilmont.™ 

The Shorthand. Writer, a periodical devoted to the 
interests of stenogi'aphers and their work, was cataloged as a 
book as were Reporting Practice and the Dictator. Neither the 
books nor the journals remains in the library today. 

The curriculum planners of the Baptist Female Univer- 
sity recognized the importance of the natural sciences in a 
liberal education. Chemistiy and physics in the junior year were 
among the requirements for a B.A. degi'ee. In addition to the 
course work, the requirements strongly emphasized laboratoi7 

Only two books in the first libraiy were devoted 
specifically to chemisti'y, one of which bore an 1856 publication 
date, although chemistiy was included in various volumes on 
general science. Textbook on Chemistry', 1856, by Draper, was a 
donated volume, and Histoiy of Chemistiy, by Meyer, published 
in 1897, was purchased by the college. The purphase of the 
biographies, John Dalton and the Rise of Modem Chemistry, by 
Roscoe, 1898, and James Clerk Maxwell & Modern Physics, by 
Glazebrook, 1900, demonstrated a recognition that students 
should Imow the scientists of their day, people whose contribu- 
tions continue even now.^° 

Of the first books on physics. Thunder and Lightning, 
by Fonvielle, published in 1869, was a donation. The other 
books, including Theory of Physics, by Ames; Sound, by Tyndall; 
and Electrical Experiments, by Bonney, all purchased by the 
college, bear publication dates of 1896 or 1898. 

Until 1917 Baptist Female University maintained an 
academy for elementary, secondaiy, and preparatory students. 
Public school teachers also were encouraged to attend classes as 
a means of continuing their education. The First Annual 
Announcement described the course for teachers: 

Teachers who desire to pursue special courses, and who 
present to the President satisfactory testimonials of moral 
character and successful teaching, may be admitted without 
examination. The plan of the University will allow such teachers 
to take up special courses at the beginning of any term during the 

By the time the first catalog, 1899-1900, was pub- 
lished, the wording and focus changed: 

Miss ILillian] Eckloff will have charge of a Training 
Class for Teachers, giving them practice classes under her 
direction. She has had much experience and success in teaching 
teachers how to teach primary classes. She will do this without 
extra charge, calling on these students of practical pedagogy to 
teach selected classes in the primary and academy courses. . . .^' 

One of the most well-known books advocating 
Frederich Froebel's method of teaching. Moral Culture in 
Infancy and Kindergarten Guide, by Elizabeth Peabody and her 
sister, Maiy Maim, probably exerted its infiuence at Baptist 
Female University.'''^ Other books in education included The 
Great Educators, a series about people, such as Aristotle, 
Pestalozzi, and Froebel, who had contiibuted to the field. 
Eight books in this series remain in the libraiy. 

Two of the most frequently circulated books, What a 
Young Woman Ought to Know and What a Young Girl Ought to 
Know, by Allen, fell within the area of education. These books 
are no longer in the library collection. 

C. H. Mebane, superintendent of public instruction, 
gave to the librai-y three copies of the Educational Report, North 
Carolina, 1896-97 and three copies of the 1897-98 report. 
Mebane, ob\'iously a friend of the institution, briefly spoke at the 
opening exercises on September 27, 1899, as did E. P. Moses, 
superintendent of the Raleigh City Schools.*' 


A review of the outlines of courses in the catalogs from 
1899 to 1902 reveals studies in English that corresponded 
directly with the most frequently circulated books. First place in 
the list of these books was Best Things fivm Best Authors. 
Bronte's Jane Eyre and Tennyson's Poems tied for ninth place on 
the list. A department emphasis on Tennyson probably accounts 
for Tennyson's Poems appearing as number nine on the list of 
books in gi'eatest demand. 

Courses in Chaucer, Shakespeare, Browning, and 
Tennyson along with studies in poetiy, drama, and the histoiy of 
literature, including "Old English from Conquest to Chaucer" 
were taught in the School of English Language and Literature.^' 
Advanced elective studies for "those alone who have shown 
capacity and taste" also were available.^'' The courses included 
the study of prose masterpieces, the novel, and Browning. 

The books purchased by the college and those donated 
supported the English requirements and increased the number 
of novels available to students. The collection was Bi'itish- 





Fi om the 1905 Oak Leaves 

29 Memorandum, Dr. Reginald ShiHett, 
Departmenf of Chemistry and Physical Sciences, 
Auqust22, 1989. "There was a reasonabl/ 
well-equipped chemistry laboratory. However, 
a picture of tfie laboratory in tfie catalog [on 
insert in tde 1900-1901 catalog between pages 
28 and 29] shows a lack of safety equipment 
such as an emergency shower or fume nood. 
The students did not wear safely glasses."30 
"John Dalton's atomic tjieory or matter was 
fundamental to itie further Jevelopment of 
chemistry as a science and Maxwell ranks with 
Newton and Einstein as one of the 'greats' in 
physics/' Interview with Dr. ShlHett, September 
8, 1989. 

3 1 The First Annua! Announcement, 1 899- 
mo, p.}]. 

32 Catalogue, 1899-190O,p. 15. 

33 Frederich froebel, the "fa^er of the 
kindergarten [children's garden)," emphasized 
plav as the natural means by which children 
gatner information. So strong was the 
Froebelian movement in Nortn Carolina ihot the 
Board of Trustees of Baptist Female University 
considered a kindergarten for the campus. "The 
question of establishing of Kindergorten 
Department and the selection of Teacher was 
referred to the President and the Executive 
committee with power to act." Minutes of the 
Board of Trustees, Mav 3, 1899, p. 88. 

34 "Praise God," Biblical Recorder, 4 October 
1899, p. 4. 

35 Catalogue, 1899-1900, pp. 2Z-2A, 

36 Ibid., p. 24. 

the Hapisi female 


^■^1K woMtN 






RS .\Ni> Ti; 


>>i «f» 

J 1 O WW/// 

\ <r;Mti 



. VANN'. / 

/■,»v,«^ R^.Kij;h 

N»r(1. CsM.lin^i 

From the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

37 Conversation, Dr. Garry Walton, 
Deportment of English, October 2, 1989. 
Otner information in tilis section was provided 
by Dr. lone Knight, Dr. Sarah English, and Ms. 
Robin Colby. 

38 Co/o/ogue, )899- 1900, p. 24; Cofa/ogue, 
I900-I90/, p. 25. 

39 Colalogue, I90)-I902, p. 22. 

40 Foy Joflnson Farmer, class of '07, was a 
student in ffie hygiene doss. Mrs. Farmer used 
to quote Dr. Dixon-Carroll who often told tbe 
doss, "Dust undisturbed never hurl anyone." 
Interviev/ v/ith Memory F. Mitchell, Mrs. 
Farmer's daughter, March 10, 1989. 

41 Students were required to walk every day. 
"Com, to arrange for v/all<ing hour ond v/ith 
whom the girls shall walk. . . ." Faculty 
Minutes, September 8, 1900, p. 9. Several 
"tnjst-v/orl+iy girls" were soon selected to assist 
the teochers in taking tfie students walking. 
Ibid., September II, 1900, p. 11. 

42 Memoranda, Dr. Frank Grubbs, Dr. 
Carolyn Grubbs, and Dr. Tom Parramore, 
Department of History ond Politics, February 6- 
7, 1989. Information in tbe histoty section, 
except for the catalo9, was provided by these 
faculty members. 

43 Catalogue, 1899-1900, p. 34-35; 
Co/ologue, J 900- 1901, p. 34; Catalogue, 
19011902, p. 35. 

44 Ibid. 

centered but omitted some major wiiters, such as Donne and 
Swift. There was no representation of the American writers 
TSvain, Whitman, and Dickinson. 

Surprising omissions in the Enghsh holdings were 
books by 19th-century women wiiters, such as Alcott and 
Austen. With the exception of the one Bronte novel, "young 
male fiction," especially volumes by Stevenson and Dickens, 
provided a large portion of the holdings.^' Also included in the 
collection were most of the works of Scott, the poetry of Brown- 
ing, Milton's Paradise Lost, Spenser's Faiiie Qiieene, and Last 
Days ofPompei by Bulwer-Lytton of "dark and stoiTny night" 

The hbrary purchased an extensive number of books on 
the life and works of William Shakespeare. Although the 
Johnson Collection provided a copy of Shakespeare's Complete 
Works, and two copies o{ Macbeth, the other works were bought 
with college funds. Included were single-play copies of all of 
Shakespeare's dramas, his non-dramatic poetiy, and six volumes 
about the man and his art. 

Foreign Languages 

In the teaching of Spanish, French, and German, all 
skills, including conversation, were emphasized. The catalog 
explained: "Oral and written exercises are required with every 
lesson. Pupils are taught not only to translate and read, but, so 
far as is possible in the given time, to speak the languages 
studied."™ The Standard Pronouncing Dictionary of French 
and English, by Surerme, an item in the Johnson Collection, is 
evidence of an emphasis on the speaking of the modem lan- 

Students wishing to be admitted to the School of Latin 
Language and Literature were "required to have a thorough 
knowledge of the forms and principles of syntax."™ Libraiy 
books available to Latm students included The Aeneid, by Virgil, 
and Latin Cases & Analysis, by Royall, a Wake Forest professor. 

Health and Physital Education 

During the early years of the college, health education, 
called hygiene and taught by Dr. Dixon-CaiToll, was part of the 
science curriculum. Books such as Dust and Its Dangers,'" by 
Prudden, Diseases of Women, by Gailland, and The Opium Habit 
and Alcoholism, by Hubbard, raise interesting speculations 
about class discussions. Perhaps the book, Living Questions, by 
Hathaway, added to the exchange. 

In addition to the physical activity of walking, a daily 
requirement,'" students were probably reading Handbook of 
Calisthenics and Gymnastics, by Watson, and Health Lessons for 
Beginners, by Brand, both in the Johnson Collection. None of 
the books remain in the libraiy. 

History and Politics 

Books with a historical perspective were among the 
most frequently circulated books, a fact due, in part, to the 
teaching approach of the Iristoiy professor and to the prerequi- 
sites in that area. The teaching style, referred to as the Great 
Man Theoiy, relied on biogi'aphies of well-known figures for the 
historical perspective.'" 

Novels also added a dimension to the historical view. 
An Egyptian Princess, by Ebers, the sixth most circulated book 
from 1899 to 1902, is an example. 

In order to be admitted to college classes in the School 
of Histoiy and Political Science, students had to show profi- 
ciency in United States liistoiy and general histoiy.'''' A course 
called "History of Civilization," required of all students seeking a 
degi'ee, was designed to provide the foundation for a specializa- 
tion in histoi'y. The professor probably encouraged students to 
use the librai'y holdings in histoiy since the catalogs fi'om 1899 
to 1902 noted: "The librai'y method of study has been adopted."''* 

Travels in France, by Young, and Chronicles, by 
Froissart, were among the few holdings in European or ancient 
histoiy. Secondaiy sources of English history, especially of the 
royal families, were evident. Books by leading English histori- 
ans such as Green's History of the English People, Toynbee's 
Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England, Gardiner's 
Cromwell's Place in Histoiy, and Stubbs's Early Plantegenets 
stressed British history. 

Books on the Crosades, the Protestant Refoi'mation, 
and Christian leaders and scholars of the 12th to 16th centuries 
provided material for the study of the Middle Ages. Histoiy of 
the Crusades, by Michaud, The Period of the Reformation, by 
Hausser, and the Histoiy of the Popes, by Ranke, were titles that 
focused on church histoiy, taught as a senior elective. 

Modern European history stressed mainly the study of 
the French Revolution. Titles included Epochs of Modern 
Histoiy: The French Revolution, by Gardiner, French Revolu- 
tion, by Morris, and The French War and the Revolution, by 

North Carolina Mstoiy, an elective course, seemed to be 
supported mainly by regimental histories on the Civil War and a 
few volumes of Colonial Records. Lines of Distinguished North 
Carolinians, by Peele, and Old Virginia and Her Neighbors, by 
Fiske, were other titles available to students. 

On the whole the books for the School of Klistoi-y and 
Politics focused on histoiy — not unusual for that time. An 
elective course, "Political Economy," dealing with subjects now 
taught in the Department of Business and Economics probably 
accounts for the two books specifically directed toward the 
subject: Principles of Political Economy, by Gide, purchased by 
the college, and Political Economy, by Walker, a donation.'" 

Hsme Eiommlts 

Although Home Economics was not a department 
during the first few years of the Baptist Female University, 
several first books, such as Living Questions, by Hathaway, 
Domestic Receipt Book, by Beecher, and Practical Taxidermy 
and Home Decoration, by Batty, reflect the discipline as it was to 
develop at Meredith College. 


The teaching of mathematics has dramatically changed 
over the years.'^ During the first few years at Baptist Female 
University, the mathematics cuiTiculum consisted of college 
algebra, trigonomctiy, plane and solid geometiy, differential and 
integi-al calculus, astronomy, and history of mathematics. The 
Beauties of Nature, by Lubbock, emphasized geometi-y, and A 
Short History of Mathematics, by Ball, provided backgi'ound for 
general mathematics. The textbook. New Plane and Spherical 
Trigonometry, by Wentworth, is still in the libraiy collection. 


From the beginning, the study of music was considered 
one of the outstanding features of the college. The fii'st catalog 

Some acquaintance with music has now become a 
necessary element of education. As a science it opens a field of 
investigation most wonderful and beautiful; while, as a medium 
for expressing the sublimest feelings of the soul, it is worthy [of] 
the thought and study of the most intelligent minds." 

Studies in piano, voice, violin, and organ were available 
and "standard works of the most celebrated composers in etudes, 
solos, and ensemble pieces, and the principles involved in their 
coiTect execution and interpretation" were necessary to fulfill 
the requirements for gi'aduation.'"' 

Among the other tests required for gi'aduation in piano, 
voice, and vioHn was an examination in the histoiy of music. 
Books purchased by the college to support the music progi'am 
included Catechism of Musical History and Dictionary of Music, 
by Riemann; How to Listen to Music, by Ki-ehbiel; and Evolution 
of Church Music, by Humphreys. 


Psychology, an offering in the School of Moral Philoso- 
phy, included a "general survey of the subject with special 
discussion of its principal problems."'" The catalog continued: 
"An appeal is made to the student to interpret the facts other 
own psychic life and to make personal obsei-vations, that she 
may gain some first-hand Imowledge of the mental states." 

For the study of psychology, the libraiy purchased 
books which are now considered "classics" in the field. Included 
were volumes by William James, John Dewey, Jacques Loeb, 
and E. Bradford Titchener. 

James, who developed the first psychology laboratoiy in 
the United States, coined the phrase "stream of consciousness" 
still discussed in psychology classes today. Considered a pioneer 
in the functional psychology movement in the United States, he 
produced a major work. Principles of Psychology, published in 
1899. From the accession numbers, the two-volume work was 
probably purchased by the college the following year. 

Dewey was influential "in the American scene because 
he was consistently and persistently the philosopher of social 
change." °° Because of his pragmatic approach he was the 
organizing force behind the Chicago school of functional psychol- 
ogy. His textbook. Psychology, appeared in several editions 
before being overshadowed by other textbooks. 

Loeb, a Gennan zoologist and physiologist, who spent 
most of his career in the United States, is regarded as the 
developer of the "mechanistic movement of animal psychology, 
an interpretation of beha'vior vrithout consciousness." The title. 
Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychol- 
ogy, is an indication of his interests. 

In the 1890s, Titchener, an Englishman, founded what 
came to be known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists. 


45 "The term 'political econom/ was 
commonly usea oround the turn of the century." 
Interview, Dr. Barbara True-Weber, Department 
of History and Politics, September 1 8, 1 989. 
"What is perhaps most interesting is that the 
curriculum ... is focused on political economy, 
but the library collection did not really support 
that focus. There were only two books on 
political economy and none specifically on 
taxation, tariff, banking or welfare." Memoran- 
dum, Dr. Clyde Frazier, Department of History 
and Politics, September 28, 1989. 

46 Mathematics majors today "take precalculus 
(a one semester course in college algebra and 
trigonometry) only if they ore unprepared to 
start the calculus sequence as first semester 
freshmen. Analytic geometry Is taught as 
needed in the calculus courses. The history of 
mathematics and astronomy courses ore no 
longer in the curriculum. Instead students study 
abstract and linear olgebro, statistics, 
probability, geometry, topology, numerical 
analysis, complex variables, oifferentiol 
equations, advanced calculus, mathematical 
modelling and mathematical reosoning. The 
curriculum has been expanded to include 
computer science and the needed courses for 
that degree." Memorandum, Dr. Dorothy 
Preston, Department of MothemoKcs ana 
Computer Science, January 24, 1989. 

47 Catalogue, / 899- 1 900, p. 37. 

48 Ibid., pp. 38-41. 

49 CataloQue, I900-I90;, p. 33. Until the 
influence of William James and others, 
psychology was considered a port of 
philosophy rother than o discipline unto itself. 
In 1876, James, a professor at Harvard, taught 
the first psychology course in the United Stales. 

50 Memorandum, Dr. Rosemary Hornok, 
Department of Psychology, August 27, 1989. 
Functional psychology refers to a practical 
approach to problems, i.e., experimentation 
and innovotion for social change and is, 
therefore, utilitarian in nature. Information in 
this section, except for the catalog, was 
provided by Dr. Hornok. 


S\ Coto/ogue, 1 899-/ 900, pp. 32-33. 

52 Memorandum, Or. John Sounders, 
Department of Religion and Philosophy, March 
3, 1989. 

53 Memorondum, Dr. Robert Vance, 
Department of Religion and Philosophy, March 
3, 1939. 

54 The late L E. M. Freemon, Meredith College 
professor from 1910 to 1949, studied wilfi 
V/illiom James al Horvord University. Dr. 
Freeman used to soy that James v/os "an 
inspiring lecturer but not very well organized." 
Memorandum, Dr. Allen Page, Department of 
Religion ond Philosophy, March 3, 1989. 

55 Memorandum, Or. Leslie Syron, Department 
of Sociology and Social Work, January 27, 

56 Advertisement for Boptist Femole University, 
Biblical Recorder, 26 July 1899, p. 6. The other 
wos music 

57 Metnorandutn, Dr. John Crecgh, Deparf 
ment of Music, Speech, and Theater, August 28, 
1989. "One-third of the original requirements 
were speech courses, most of which concen- 
troted on what is no*/r coiled 'orol interpreta- 
tion.' Courses such as Voice Troining,' 
'Dromatic Training,' and 'Vocal Interpretation of 
the Bible,' emphojlzed the communication of 
literoiy content rather than traditional public 
speoking or oratory. Perhaps this emphasis 
should not be surprising since elocution v.-os 
often taught [in tfie manner of] our current 
Master Closscs in performance. A great 
speaker or performer passed her or his 
knawfedgc on to the student in spoken rather 
than v/ritten form." Information in this section, 
except for the cotalog, v/os provided by Dr. 
Creagh. Of several influential elocutionory 
writers at that time, only Hiram Corson's An 
Introduction to Browning, published in 1901, 
wos purchased by tfie college. From o speech 
point of vie-w, tfiis book wos "more literary 
criticism thon strict elocution." 

58 Catalogue, 1900- 1901, pp. 44-<)6. 

His book, Outline of Psychology, which seiTed to estabhsh finnly 
psychology as an academic discipline in the United States, was 
an early purchase for the libraiy. 

Remaining in the library today are both volmnes of the 
Principles of Psychology and Comparative Physiology of the 
Brain and Comparative Psychology. 

Religion and Pliilosophy 

Beginning in 1899 the School of Moral Philosophy 
included studies in psychology, ethics, logic, and "evidences of 
Christianity." According to the first catalog, the aim of those 
areas was "piimarily to discipline tlie student to con-ect think- 
ing,.to introduce her to the sources of a knowledge of herself and 
of God, and to establish, on rational and experimental gi'ounds, 
the iTjles and principles of right conduct."''' 

From the beginning, the department recognized that 
the study of Christianity was seldom an isolated exercise. Books 
such as 77ie Life of Rev. David Dranierd, by Edwards, and 
Strategic Points in the World's Conquest, by Mott, reflected the 
beginning of a worldwide Christian movement in relationship to 
other religious perspectives.'^ 

New Testament Greek, one course of the early cunicu- 
lum at Baptist Female University, was taught in the School of 
Greek Language and Literature. The emphasis was actually on 
classical Greek and, according to one Meredith professor, 
showed a "decidedly secular bent"; some of the literature was 
quite humanistic— even skeptical in tone. The professor also 

The curriculutn in Greek was probably comparable to 
the advanced study of Greek in any of the best colleges of that 

The collection in philosophy is muck less technical and 
rigorous than the works studied in Greek literature. The works 
listed in philosophy reflect a more meditative, even inspirational 
approach to philosophy, probably reflective of the religious tone of 
the college. Most works are either in ethics or in "self improve- 
ment" with psychology still included under philosophy and then 
studied mainly for its normative values rather than its empirical 
evidence" " 

Other books of interest, including Principles of Psychol- 
ogy, by James," and Data of Ethics, by Spencer, show the focus 
of religion and philosophy at that time. 

Although books by European pioneer sociologists, such 
as Comte, Marx, Durklieim, or Weber were not among the first 
books, the purchase of Spencer's Study of Sociology was signifi- 
cant. One sociology professor commented: 

It is noteworthy that Herbert Spencer's Study of Sociol- 
ogy was in the early Meredith libraiy . . . an acceptance that 
might be a mark of academic freedom. When William Graham 
Sumner used the book as a text in the 1870s at Yale University in 
the first course in sociology taught in the United States, there was 
an effort to denounce Sumner for using a text by an English 
sociologist I philosopher who presented the concept of social 
evolution. The effort failed and Sumner remained at Yale until 
his death.^^ 

The college purchased, as well as the Spencer book, 
Anthropology by E. B, Tylor, "the English father of anthropol- 
ogy," Neither book remains in the library. 


Although in ancient Greece and Rome, the term 
"elocution" refen-ed to the style and content of a speaker's 
language, at the time Baptist Female University was becoming a 
reality, the term specifically meant "vocal delivery." Elocution 
was one of two areas listed in the first advertisement as the 
"finest advantages" of the school.'''' 

The first speech courses at the college probably 
emphasized "deUvery over content, wliich is the opposite of the 
current emphasis."''' In addition to courses, other require- 
ments included a study of selected Shakespearean plays, a 
thesis on some topic from each play studied, and "two essays a 
year on topics from Biblical Interpretation. Either a dramatiza- 
tion or some classic novel or condensation of some classical work 
in the Junior year or a tiiesis of not less than 2,000 words" 
completed the requirements.™ An essential element in the 
courses was the actual performance in class of the texts being 
studied. In addition to the plays of Shakespeare, the poetry of 
Tennyson, Browning, and others were, no doubt, used for 

Although course content was focused on the actual 
perfonnance of literaiy readings, the libraiy holdings in speech 
were primaiily collections of great speeches, such as Representa- 

tive British Orations, edited by Adams and others, and 
and Papers of the Presidents, by Richardson. 

young Readers 

Although the first books were an essential part of the 
college studies, books for young readers were also available. 
Donations of children's books included the following: A Child's 
Garden of Verses, by R. L. Stevenson; Boys and Girls in Biology, 
by S. H. Stevenson; and Captains of Industry: A Book for Young 
Americans, by Parton. The college purchased Little Flower 
Folks, by Pratt, as well as Playtime Naturalist, by Taylor, 
written, according to the preface, for "intelligent English lads." 

The book. The Stoiy of the Plants, offered a "short and 
succinct account of the principal phenomena of plajnt life, in 
language suited to the comprehension of unscientific readers."''' 
The language used, whether for young readers or for unsophisti- 
cated adults, explained how plants eat, drink, and "many and 
are given in mannage."*" 

Serving as they did both for independent reading and 
as textbooks and supplementary reading for academic courses, 
the books donated in those early years and the money contrib- 
uted for the purchase of books set the stage for the continuing 
development of an outstanding library at IVIeredith College. 
Other influences already under way contributed to the emphasis 
given to the books and the cuniculum. As noted by Jones: 

The founding of Johns Hopkins in 1876, using the 
German university as its model, emphasized for the first time the 
research function of higher education. . . . Thus the library 
gained increasing recognition as essential to the new academic 
role of research and worthy of the epithet "the heart of the 
university. " °' 

Of the first 1,091 books, the college maintains 412 
volumes in a special collection housed in the archives section of 
the library. 

Value of Hte first Books 

Today, one hundred years after the first libraiy was 
established at Baptist Female University, a number of the 
holdings are considered "classics" and valuable resources for a 
hbrai7 to possess. According to a Raleigh bookstore owner, 

books in most areas represented at the college hold some 
significance, especially in histoiy, religion, and English.^^ 

When Edgar Cheek presented the college with the 
American Statesman series, he probably understood the value of 
the infonnation for students. What he could not have known is 
that the set now sells for $700. The Hbrary retains eighteen of 
the twenty-eight volumes. In addition, Cheek gave Literature of 
All Nations, still considered a "good set." All ten volumes re- 
main a part of the library collection. 

Among the donated religious books of value are Many 
Infallible Proofs, by Pierson, "a conservative classic," and 
Religious Affections, by Edwards. Apologetics, by Alexander, 
and Saints' Rest, by Baxter, were both purchased by the college. 
Of these four books. Apologetics is the only one still part of the 

A number of volumes valuable to the histoid of the 
Baptists were among the first books. Those volumes include The 
History of the Baptists in Virginia, by Semple; Recollections of a 
Long Life, by Jeter; History of the Sandy Creek Association, by 
Purefoy; Stoiy of Yates the Missionary, by Taylor; Life & Letters 
of John Albert Broadus, by Robertson; and A Short History of the 
Baptists, by Vedder, purchased by the college and still available 
as a textbook. 

Several histories purchased by the college are consid- 
ered classics. They include Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, by Gibbons; History of Greece, by Grote; History of the 
Popes, by Ranke; and History of the English People, by Green. 
These books remain in the college collection. 

As was the custom of the day, the state of North 
Carolina provided the Baptist Female University with the 
Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North 
Carolina in the Great War 1861- 65, edited by Clark, still 
considered a "valuable North Carolina reference." The library 
holds four volumes of the five-volume set. 

For Baptist Female University, Josiah Bailey summed 
up the prevailing attitude when he observed: 

With such generous thoughlfulness of the friends of the 
institution, this supreme need of belter libraty facilities will be 
met in the rapidly growing number of valuable books. And none 
may build more deeply into the institution's life and gratitude 
than those who put their gifts into the educational equipment of 
libraries and laboratories.'" 

Illustration of a Wake Forest College 
student. From the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

59 Allen Grant, The Story of the Plants |New 
York: Appleton & Co.), 1899, p. 5. 

60 Ibid., p. 73. 

61 Jones, "The History and Development of 
Libraries in American Higher Education/' C&Rl, 
p. 562. According to Jones, oilier influences 
were the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 which 
turned education from the clossicol traditions to 
a more practical focus with land grant colleges. 

62 Richard L. Stevens, Stevens Book Shop, 
September 21, 1989. Information in this section 
was provided by Mr. Stevens. 

63 "The Philip and Emma Johnson Collection: 
Valuable Gifts to Our University," Biblical 
Recorder, 26 February 1902, p. 2. 




1 "Causes UndeHying Our BapHst Female 
Unr/ersify," BMcal Recorder. 19 April 1899, 
p. 4. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Mary Lynch Johnson, A History of Meredith 
College, 2nd ed, (Raleigh, North Carolina; 
Meredith College, 1972), p. 1. 

4 Self-Shjdy and Planning Report, Meredith 
College, September, 1989, p. 506. 

5 "Small Comprehensive Colleges; Best of 
Both Worlds," U.S. News and World Report, 
Vol, 105, October 10, 1988, p. C20. Small, 
comprehensive colleges [an enrollment betv/een 
1,500 and 2,500) refers to schools combining 
the best of liberal oris and professional 
programs. Meredith, ranking 15th on the list, 
"gets high marks for retention; fully 94 percent 
of freshmen return as sophomores." p. C21. 


'hen he wrote, "Today is the day of small things 
not to be despised. TomoiTow and tomoiTow, who will dare say 
what they shall bring forth, and who shall strive for less than 
the highest?" Josiah W. Bailey seemed to possess a farsighted 
view of things to come.' The small things he wrote about — the 
Baptist Female University and its librai-y — were not despised by 
those who had faith in what the institution could become. 

Bailey continued the editorial by pointing out that the 
future of the college would biing times of fulfilling growth: 

One nfthe remarkable phenomena of this era is the trend of 
women toward independence. You may make a foolish caricature 
in pants for people to laugh at; but the steady tramp of women to 
the schoolroom, to the civil service, to the countinghouse, to the 
law office, to the professions, goes on; and it moves with a might 

inevitable. ... A woman has as much right to independence as a 
man. . . . 

Do not say that all this is impracticable. Was it impracti- 
cable to say nine years ago that that splendid building would 
adorn the corner by the Big Oak before the close of the century? It 
was not. Is it then impracticable to say that in another day that 
institution will be equipped and endowed; and the girls both rich 
and poor shall throng its halls; that it shall acquire strength with 
the years; that its influence shall go forth throughout Zion, that 
its daughters shall stand in a thousand homes and bless their 
children and our churches because of its work; that others shall 
set forth as teachers, and others as workers variously; and that 
all together shall in time make toward the renovation and 
redemption of our land and people, to the honor of humanity, the 
betterment of the worid and the glory of God? It is no dr'earn: but 
a very possible vision. 

But these things will not come to pass of themselves. Educa- 
tional institutions ar-e not made of brick and mortar and money. 
They are never great until sanctified, with sacrifices. Causes ar'e 
not glorious without martyrs.'^ 

President Richard T. Vann also seemed to understand 
the depth of these concepts. "If you ask about the beginning of 
Mei'edith," he said, "no one can answer you. It is the incarnation 
of an idea. Events may be dated and chronicled, but who can 
trace the genesis of an idea?"' The small things, in and of 
themselves, remain valuable; and today all who are associated 
with the college find themselves obligated to continue the 
pursuit of tliis honorable idea. 

Those two men, Bailey and Vann, along with thousands 
of others who sustained the new college, held themselves 
accountable as stewards and guardians of the vision and the 
opportunity that was theirs. When some gave money, others 
offered prayers; when some donated books, others provided 
encouragement. The unifying chord was a devotion to the 
burgeoning Baptist Female University. 

Today the bricks and mortar, other properties, utility 
systems, and equipment and furniture of Meredith College total 
$22,927,248 in monetaiy terms. The yearly operating budget 
exceeds $11 million and the libraiy building alone is valued at 
$837,532.' From a quantitative standpoint the numbers speak 
well, and Meredith College holds a high rank among colleges of 
its natui'e.* 

Dedicated on Febi-uary 27, 1969, the Cariyle Campbell 
Librai7 at Meredith College remains the center of academic 

pursuits. The yearly budget for the libraiy is ovei' a half-million 
dollars; 135,036 volumes are available to students, faculty, and 
friends of the libraiy. A full-time head librarian along with five 
professional librarians, six paraprofessional staff members, four 
clerical personnel, and foi'ty-five student assistants cany out the 
work of the libraiy." For the 1989-1990 academic year, 58,206 
items were circulated, including books, periodicals, microform, 
recordings, and music scores.' 

But counting is the easy part. Counting provides 
numbers to be displayed and sometimes admired. .Summing up 
substantive and creative energies may be less accurate and less 
glamorous, albeit, more important. 

Today Meredith's mission remains intact as a badge of 
honor to those who, during times of limited resources, kept the 
ti-ust and moved foi'ward with boldness. The ultimate mission of 
any educational institution is to foster in students the develop- 
ment of critical intelligence, to assist them in relating diverse 
ideas, and to provide resiliency as they seek meaning to their 
hves. The first catalog explained the aim of the college in this 

Its first intention is to provide, not simply instruction of 
the noblest and most thorough sort but instruction made perfect 
in the religion of Jesus Christ. . . . It is the supreme purpose of 
those who have the institution in charge that every young lady 
who may enter shall receive of the fullness of Christ, so that all 
her advantages gained may be effective to God's glory, to the 
prosperity of her church, to the comfort and honor and service of 
her race} 

Thus, the first libraiy, the first books, the first donors, 
and all other participants in that new ventui-e forged the 
foundations of Meredith College. From that fei-vent past, 
generations have emerged to welcome another "tomoiTow and 
tomoiTow," and to accept the continuing challenge: "who will 
dare say what they shall bring forth; and who will strive for less 
than the highest?"' 

Certainly Sir Isaac Nevrton understood the essential 
value in reviewing the past. In a letter to Robert Hooke, dated 
Febi-uary 5, 1675/6, Newton observed, "If I have seen further 
[than you or Descartes] it is by standing on ye shoulders of 
Giants." '° The giants associated with the histoiy of Meredith 
College provided broad and stalwart shoulders upon which to 
build a college of "high order." Some of those giants have 
received recognition; some have remained unacknowledged; 

many are unknown. All possessed the unyielding conviction 
that Meredith College, first known as Baptist Female Univer- 
sity, should ever be "the inspiration of all who uphold educa- 

The libraiy, "this essential part of the institution," 
continues to preserve the integi-ity of those who created it. The 
Mission Statement of the Carlyle Campbell Libraiy sets forth 
four significant functions: 

1. It is the purpose of the libraiy to support and 
encourage the development of a well-educated person in accor- 
dance with the stated purpose and mission of Meredith College. 

2. It is the purpose of the libraiy to .stimulate and 
facilitate learning. 

3. It is the purpose of the library to house and make 
available in apnropriate formats information to support curricu- 
lum, research, and special interests of the Meredith community. 

4. It is the purpose of the library to provide for the 
Meredith community appropriate instruction in research strate- 
gies and in the use of information resources.'' 

The Friends of the Libraiy, officially founded in 1941'^ 
and reactivated in 1977, is an organization devoted to promoting 
"the interests of the Carlyle Campbell Library of Meredith 
College." '■' The Friends and Josiah B.ailey, the "committee of 
one to raise a libraiy," forever remain connected through the 
bonds of a shared goal. 

Today, Meredith College, with the Carlyle Campbell 
Library as the center of excellence, stands ready to embark upon 
that extraordinaiy adventure called the second century. The 
giants would be proud. 


FLoaii: .Vof.f*aI ,Vr;( /Jutf 

ni U JlJdlr. Jo .lldJIr. Jo Jii 

Niu^l.o, oooRl'r •>• 

HI Jo JidJIt, Jo dIJJIo. dfr-uLol 

Wbf, oouillj •<! 11 II. U. W. 


Lta, Pmo r.r.IJtat 

y^ii Lu Dnioi Vlco-ptniJcnl 

Koiii llooiA UoHU &xfci>rT 

UtKil B Wuonr Tiruunr 

UuT Uuocou Jomioi lIliloriiB 

Kin JJuKiB Looi Pith 

«u, Ln Emoi Pio.u.' 

Hiai DiAis* B.Li.ii Umiu* 

UiiTjoioxn Liuii W.Lt.ou. 

EuU UolWJf UtHia WuaiiT 

Part of the collection of the first 1,000 books. 

From the 1905 Oak Leaves . 

6 Carlyle Campbell Library, Annual Report, 
1989-1990, p. 7. 

7 Ibid., p. 8. 

8 Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 
1899-1900 (Raleigh, Nortti Carolina: Edwards 
& Broughton), pp. 4-5. 

9 "Causes Underlying," Biblical Recorder, 1 9 
April 1899, p. 4. 

1 r/te Correspondence of Isaac Newton, Vol. 
I: 1661-1675, W. H. Turnbull, ed. |Cam- 
bridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 
1959), p. 416. This letter was an ottempl by 
Newton to show Hooke [who apparently 
wanted to be considered the leading scientist 
of the day and the man who had already 
thought of Newton's ideosl that achievements 
in the present depend on achievements of the 

1 1 Catalogue, 1899-1900, p. 4. 

1 2 Report of the Committee on Library and 
Computer Services, Meredith College Self- 
Study, 1989, p. 2. 

13 Julia H. Harris, "Libraries Old and New," 
Meredilf} College, The Alumnae Magazine, 2 
(Winter 1948) : 20. 

14 friends of the Library Brochure. Carlyle 
Campbell Library, Meredith College, Spring, 


First Donors, 
1899 lo 

Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1896-97, 1898, 

2 copies 
Twelfth Annual Report of Interstate Commerce Commission, 

1899 - Mebane 

Butler, (Hon.) Marion: (1863-1938). North Carolina Senator 
and a United States Senator. 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1896, 3 copies - 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1897, 3 copies - 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1898, 3 copies - 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1899 - Richardson 

[• book housed in archives) 

Allyn and Bacon; Book vendor. 
Paragraph Writing - Scott 

Atwater, A. W.: Unidentified. Listed in 1900-1901 catalog as a 
contributor of books but none recorded in accession book. 

Bailey, Josiah William: (1873-1946) Editor, Biblical Recorder, 
1895-1907; trustee, BFU, 1896-1911. United States Senator 
from North Carolina, 1931-1946. 

History of Grassy Creek Church, 1880 - Devine 

Blasingame, James Carter: First president of Baptist Female 
University and professor of psychology and pedagogy, 1899- 

Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1884-85, 1886 
Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1895-96, 1897, 
2 copies - Mebane 

Cheek, T. Edgar: Trustee, BFU, 1892-1894. 
•Abraliam Lincoln, 1899, 2 copies - Morse (American States- 
man Series) 
"Albert Gallantin, 1899 - Stevens (American Statesman Series) 
•Alexander Hamilton, 1899 - Lodge (American Statesman 

Andrew Jackson, 1899 - Sumner (American Statesman Series) 
•Benjamin Franldin, 1899 - Morse (American Statesman 

•Charles F. Adams, 1899 - Adams (American Statesman 

•Charles Sumner, 1899 - Storey (American Statesman Series) 
•Daniel Webster, 1899 - Lodge (American Statesman Series) 
'General Index to American Statesman Series, 1900 - Smith 
•George Washington, 1899, 2 copies - Lodge (American 

Statesman Series) 
•Gouvemeur Monis, 1899 (American Statesman Series) 
Henry Clay, 1899, 2 copies - Schurz (American Statesman 

•James Madison, 1899 - Gay (American Statesman Series) 
•James Monroe, 1899 - Oilman (American Statesman Series) 
•John Adams, 1899 - Morse (American Statesman Series) 
John C. Calhoun, 1899 - Van Hoist (American Statesman 

•John Jay, 1899 - Pellew (American Statesman Series) 
•John Marshall, 1899 - Magi'uder (American Statesman 

•John Quincy Adams, 1899 - Morse (American Statesman 


•John Randolph, 1899 - Adams (American Statesman Series) 
L. Capp, 1899 - McLaughlin (American Statesman Series) 
•Literature of All Nations, 1900, 10 vols. - ed. by Hawthorne, 

Young, and Lamberton 
•Martin Van Buren, 1899 - Shepard (American Statesman 

Patrick Henry, 1899 - Tyler (American Statesman Series) 
S. Adams, 1899 - Kosmer (American Statesman Series) 
Salmon Portland Chase, 1899 - Hart (American Statesman 

T. H. Benton, 1899 - Roosevelt (American Statesman Series) 
Thaddeus Stevens, 1899 - McCall (American Statesman Series) 
•Thomas Jefferson, 1899 - Morse (American Statesman Series) 
W. H. Seward, 1899 - Lorthrop (American Statesman Series) 

Cullom, W. R.: (1867-1963) First professor of Bible at Wake 
Forest College. 

An Analytical French Reader, 1886 - Keetels 

•Alt for Ai-t's Sake, 1894 - Van Dyke 

Essays - Emerson 

My Bible Study - Havergal 

Norfolk, and the Sound and River Cities of North Carolina, 

1888 - Nowitzky 
•Person and Ministry of the Holy Spirit, 1890 - Dixon 
Primer of French Literature, 1894 - Saintsbury 
Royal Commandments, 1887 - Havergal 
Sesame and Lilies, 1891 - Ruskin 
•Short History of the Baptists - Vedder 
Social Reform and the Church - Commons 
Stariight Through the Shadows, 1889 - Havergal 

Dickinson, (Dr.) Alh-ed Elijah: (1830-1906) Baptist leader in 
Virginia; senior editor of the Religious Herald. 

•A Plea for the Queen's English, 1866 - Alford 

•A Theodicy - Bledsoe 

American Men of Letters; James Fenimore Cooper, 1883 - 

Ancient Cities, 1866 - Wright 
•Assyiiology: Its Use and Abuse, 1885 - Brown 
•Bible Difficulties of the Old Testament, 1899 - MacAi-thur 
Biogi'aphical Sketches, 1869 - Martineau 
Book of the Colonies, 1846 - Frost 

Boston Monday Lectures. Orient, 1896 - Cook 

Boys and Girls in Biology, 1875 - Stevenson 

Complete Rhetoric, 1885 - Welsh 

•Creation or Evolution?, 1887 - Curtis 

•Curious Facts in the Histoiy of Insects, 1865 - Cowan 

Dialogues (trans. Cary), 1886 - Plato 

Elements of Geology, 1845 - St. John 

Elements of the English Language, 1869 - Clark 

Elijah the Prophet - Leurau 

English Literature, 1873 - Johnston 

•English Synonyms, 1866, 2 vols. - Graham 

Essays: Popular Ignorance, 1859 - Foster 

Eveiyday Biology, 1899 - Calver 

First Lessons in Botany, 1851 - Thuiker 

French Grammar, 1824 - Wawostrocht 

•Friendship the Master Passion, 1892 - Tiumbull 

Golden Gems of Life, 1884 - Ferguson and Allen 

•Great English Writers from Chaucer to George Eliot - Backus 

and Brown 
Handbook of Moral Philosophy, 1884 - Calderword 
Heavenly Recognition, 1853 - Harbaugh 
History of English, 1860 - Geldart 
Histoiy of the Baptists in Virginia, 1894 - Semple 
Histoid of the French Revolution, 1846 - Thiers 
History of the United States, 1885 - Child ^ 

•Hyperion and A Princess of Thule, 1857 - Longfellow and Black^ 
Is My Bible True? - Leach 
Key to Bible Study, or The Bible Taught as a Science, 

1881 - Corwell 
Leading Facts of American Histoiy - Montgomery 
Lectures on Moral Science, 1865 - Hopkins 
Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory, 1856 - Channing 
Lectures on the New Testament - Weston, Brevans, Lloyd 

and others 
Living Questions, 1889 - Hathaway 
•Manual of American Literature, 1873 - Hart 
Many Infallible Proofs - Pierson 
Mental Philosophy, 1848 - Upham 
•Meteors and Atmospheric Phenomena, 1870 - Lackland 
Napoleon and Blucher, 1867 - Muhlbach 
New Era - Strong 

On the Study of Words, 1852 - Ti-ench 
Opium Habit and AlcohoHsm - Hubbard 
•Pausanias, the Spartan, 1876 - Lytton 
Phoebe Skidd/s Theology, 1883 - Kinston 

Illustration from the 1911 Oak 


•Prepai-atoiy Latin Course in English, 1884 - Willdnson 

Readings and Recitations, 1885 - Stoddard 

•Recollections of a Long Life, 1891 - Jeter 

Recueil Choisi de Traits Historiques et de Contes Moraux, 1813 

Religious Feeling, 1877 - Smyth 

•Romance of Natural Histoiy, 1861 - Gosse 

Science in Short Chapters - Williams 

Sketch Book - Irving 

•Songs and Ballads, 1857 - Dyer 

•Southern States of the American Union, 1895 - Cun^ 

•Story of the Confederate States, 1895 - Deiry 

•Testimony of the Rocks, 1857 - Miller 

Textbook on Chemistry, 1856 - Draper 

Textbook of Geology, 1872 - Nicholson 

•Textbook on Natural Philosophy, 1853 - Draper 

The Final Science, 1885. 

Thunder and Lightning, 1869 - Fonvielle 

Willis' Histoi7 Reader, 1877 - Collier 

Wolfert's Roost, 1855 - Irving 

Wonders of European Art, 1871 - Viardot 

World and the Book, 1892 - Buchanan 

Dixon-Carroll, (Dr.) Elizabeth Delia: (1872-1934) College 
physician; professor of physiology, 1899-1934. Manned Dr. 
Norwood G. Can-oil, a dentist. 

Living Problems, 1889 - Dixon 

Dixon, Thomas, Jr.: (1864-1946) Brother of Dr. Elizabeth 
Delia Dixon-Can-oll. 

Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden, 
1902 - Dixon 


Ginn and Co.: Book company specifically noted in the 1899- 
1900 catalog for contributions of books. 

Handbook of Rhetorical Analysis, 1899 - Genning 

New Cicero with Vocabulary, 1898 - Cicero 

•New Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, 1899 - Wentworth 

Practical Latin Composition, 1899 - Collar 

Practical Rhetoric, 1899 - Genning 

The Aeneid, 1899 - Virgil 

Harp, (Miss) Mai-y E.: Identified as second donor to BFU; fi-om 

Golden Gems of Life, 1883 - Ferguson and Allen 

Hen-ing, (Miss): Unidentified. 

Give Me Thine Heai't, 1883 - Roe 

Hyams, C. W.: Assistant botanist, Agiicultural Experimental 
Station, North Carolina College of Agiiculture and Mechanic 
Ai'ts (now North Carolina State University). 

•Medicinal Plants - Hyams 

•The Floi'a of North Carolina: from Ranunculaceae to 
Salviniaceae - Hyams 

Johnson, Philip W. : In 1902, with his wife Emma Purefoy 
Johnson, bequeathed personal library to BFU; from Wake 

Graeca Majora, 1849 - Dalzel (an earlier donation) 

The Johnson Library Colleclion: 

American Cyclopedia, 1879, 16 vols. - Ripley and Dana 

/\n Egyptian Princess - Ebers 

Anglo-Saxon Prose Reader for Beginnei's in Oldest English, 

1898 - Baskerville 
Barnaby Rudge and Edwin Drood - Dickens 
•Black Dwaif, Old Mortality, and Quentin Durward - Scott 
Bleak House - Dickens 

Bride of Lammennoor and A Legend of Montrose - Scott 
Brief Histoid of the United Slates - Lee 
Bringing in Sheaves, 1873 - Earle 
Cause and Cure of Infidelity, 1841 - Nelson 
Child's Histoiy of England and Misc. - Dickens 
Christmas Stories - Dickens 
Complete Poetical Works - WordsworUi 
•Complete Works, 1871 - John Bunyan 
Complete Works - Shakespeare 

Condensed United States Histoid, 1879 - Swinton 

David Copperfield - Dickens 

Digest of the Laws and Enactments of the National 

Grange, etc.- 1878 
Divine Comedy - Dante 
Dombey and Son - Diclcens 
•Dramatic Works, 1891 - Sheridan 
•Elements of Geology, 1854 - Loomis 
•Eminent Americans - Lossing 
Enghsh Language, etc., 1897 - Kellogg 
•Essays on Addison, 1898 - Macaulay 
Essays on Samuel Johnson, 1895 - Macaulay and Carlyle 
Excelsior Dialogues, 1874 - Garrett 
Fair Maid of Perth, and the Antiquaiy - Scott 
Faust, Eine Ti-agodie, 1891 - Goethe 

•First Lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology, 1865 - Gray 
Fortunes of Nigel and Count Robert of Paris - Scott 
•Geological Stoi-y Briefly Told, 1871 - Dana 
Goethes Meistei-werke, 1891 - trans. Bernhardt 
Good English, or Popular Errors in Language, 1880 - Gould 
Graded Gennan Lessons, 1887 - Collar 
Great Expectations and the Uncommercial Ti'aveller - Dickens 
Guy Mannering and Anne of Geierstein - Scott 
Handbook of Calisthenics and Gymnastics, 1880 - Watson 
Health Lessons for Beginners, 1886 - Brands 
Henry Esmond - Thackeray 

History of the South Fork Baptist Association, 1901 - Graham 
Hobart's Analysis of Bishop Butler's Analogy of Rehgion, 

1848 - West 

Holy Bible, 1856 - pub. Geppincott 

•Hypathia - ffingsley 

Inquiries Concerning the Intellectual Powers and Investigation, 

1849 - Abercrombie 

Introduction to the French Language, 1871 - de Fivas 

Ivanhoe - Scott 

Jane Eyre - Bronte 

John Halifax, Gentleman - Miss Mulock 

Kenilworth and St. Ronan's Well - Scott 

Kindergarten, 1872 - Douai 

Last Days of Pompei - Bulwer-Lytton 

Les Miserables (5 copies, 5 different translations) - Hugo 

•Letters on the Divine Family addressed to Heniy Ward 

Beecher, 1874 - Ban-ett 
Life of Johnson, 1791 - Boswell 
Little Donit - Dickens 

Lives of Mrs. Ann H. Judson and Mrs. Sarah B. Judson, 1851 - 

Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets - Johnson 
Lorna Doone - Blackmore 
•Macbeth, 1899 - Shakespeare 
•Macbeth, 1882 - Shakespeare 
Martin Chuzzlewit - Dickens 
Model Dialogues, 1874 - Clark 
Monastei7 and The Abbot - Scott 
Moral Culture in Infancy and Kindergarten Guide, 1877 - Mann 

and Peabody 
New Testament of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, 1875 - 

American Bible Union 
Nicholas Nickleby - Dickens 
Notes and Suggestions for Bible Readings, 1879 - Briggs and 

Old Curiosity Shop and Hard Times - Dickens 
Oliver Twist - Dickens 
Om' Mutual Friend - Dickens 
OutUnes of Histoiy - Wilson [This book bears the accession no. 

Outlines of the World's Histoiy, 1877 - Swinton 
Paradise Lost, 1849 - Milton 
Peveril of the Peak and The Betrothed - Scott 
Poems - Byi'on 

Poetical Works, 1879 - Lowell 
Poetical Works - Bums 
•Poetical Works - Cowper 
Poetical Works - E. B. Browning 
•Poetical Works - Elshemus 
Poetical Works - Scott 
Poetical Works - Milton 
Poetical Works - Pope 
Poetical Works - Shelley 
•Poetical Works, 1867, 2 vols. - Tupper 
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club - Dickens 
•Pi'actical Taxidermy and Home Decoration, 1885 - Batty 
Protagoras of Plato, 1881 - Schler 
Records of the Life, Character and Achievement of Adoniram J. 

Judson, 1854 - Fletcher 
•Red Gauntlet and The Pirate - Scott 
Rob Roy and Heart of Midlothian - Scott 
•Selections fi'om the Works of Robert Browning, 1890 - 

•Shaw's New History of Enghsh Literature, 1878 - Backus 


Views of the library at BFU. Emma 
Moore Jones, first full-time librarian 
at Meredith College, 1910-1913. 
From the 1911 Oak Leaves . 

•Smaller Histoi-y of Greece, 1896 - Smith 

Social Life, Embracing Medical Common Sense, 1870 - Foole 

Souvestre's Un Philosophe Sous les Toils, 1891 - Fraser 

Standard Pronouncing Dictionai-y of the French and English 

Language - Surerme 

Summary of Biblical Antiquities, 1849 - Nevin 

•Tables for the Detennination of Common Minerals, 1891 - 

Tale of Two Cities and Sketches By Boz - Dickens 
Vassar College and Its Founder, 1867 - Lossing 
•Waverley and Woodstock - Scott 
Way of Salvation, 1851 - Howell 

•Wonderful Adventures of Phi-a the Phoenician, 1892 - Arnold 
Works of Tennyson, 1895 - Tennyson 

Justice, (Rev.) C. B.: Pastor, Baptist church in Rutherfordton; 
trustee, BFU, 1899-1910; was first library donor. 

Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th edition, 25 volumes, 1878. 


Kendrick, (Capt.) W. B.: Unidentified. 
Memou-s of the War, 1870 - Lee 

Memoirs of Rev. E. Payson - Cummings 

Pilgi'im's Progi'ess - Bunyan 

Practical Thoughts and Popety - Kevins 

Practical View and Touchstone - Wilberforce 

Religious Ajl'ections - Edwards 

Rise and Progi'ess of Religion in the Soul - Doddridge 

Saint's Rest - Baxter 

Lynch, (Rev.) J. W.; (1865-1940) Chaplain and professor of 

Bible, Wake Forest College. 

•Cyclopedia of Fiction, 1883 - Longfellow and Black 

Paris with Pen and Pencil - Bartbell 

Tennyson's Poems - Tennyson 

Twenty-five Sermons on the Holy Land, 1891 - Talmage 

McNeill, Robert Hayes: (1877-?) Washington, D. C. attorney, 

National Galleries of History and Art, etc., 1900 - Government 


Mebane, (Hon.) C. H.: (1862-1926) Superintendent of Public 


Kesler, John L.: (7-1956) Professor of natural science and 
curator of the library, 1899-1902. Meredith's first librarian — a 
part-time position. Also brother of M. L. (Maitin Luther) Kesler, 
trustee of BFU/Meredith, 1896-1927. 

Gospel from Two Testament Sermons, 1892 - Andi-ews 

Lanneau, John Francis; (1836-1921) Professor of Mathemat- 
ics, Wake Forest College. Also the father of Sophie S. Lanneau, 
member of the first gi'aduating class at BFU and later a pioneer 
missionary to China. 

Call to the Unconvei-ted - Baxter 

Evidences of Christianity - Jenyens 

Guide for Young Disciples - Pike 

Histoid of Redemption - Edwards 

Life of Rev. David Branierd - Edwards 

Memoir of a Martyi' - Sarguit 

Memoirs of .James Branierd Taylor - Rice and Rice 

Educational Report. North Carolina, 1896-1897, 3 copies 
Educational Report. North Carolina, 1897-1898, 3 copies 


North Carolina, State of; Source for reports and bulletins. 

Biannual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of 

North Cai'olina, 1900 
Educational Report of North Carolina, 1898-1900 
•Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North 

Carolina in the Great War 1861-'65, 4 vols, nf a 5 vol. 

set - ed. Clark 

Poteat, Earnest [.sic] L.; Unidentified. Listed in 1899-1900 
catalog as contributor of books but none recorded in accession 
book. The title page of the book listed below was inscribed, 
"Presented by Ei'iiest L. Poteat." 

•Political Economy, 1888 - Walker 

Poteat, William Louis: (1856-1938) Professor of biology, Wake 
Forest; later president; trustee, BFU/Meredith, 1891-1938. 

•Allegemeine Physiologie, 1895 - Venvorn 

An Introduction to American. Literature - Matthews 

Applied Physiology - Overton 

Beginnings of New England, 1898 - Fiske 

Botany, 1881 - McNab 

•Captains of Industry, 1896, 2 vols. - Parton 

Catalogue of ALA Library, 1893 

Cell in Development and Inheritance, 1896 - Wilson 

•College Botany, 1889 - Bastin 

Commentary on the New Testament, 1856 - Olshausen 

•Cyropaedia, 1859 - Xenophon 

Diseases of Swine, 1879 - U.S. Department of Agiiculture 

Domestic Receipt Book, 1852 - Beecher 

Earnest Ministi-y, 1851 - James 

•Elements of Meteorology, 1848 - Brocklesby 

General Biology, 1886 - Sedgwick 

Genesis of Life and Thought, 1892 - Musick 

Histology and the Microscope, 1877 - Schafer 

•Histoiy of the Sandy Creek Association, 1859 - Purefoy 

How to Use the Microscope, 1882 - Phin 

Infidel's Daughter, 1860 - Dayton 

•Introduction to Stmctural and Systematic Botany - Gray 

•Laboratoi7 and Pulpit: The Relation of Biology to the Preacher 

and His Message, 1901- Poteat 
Latin Cases and Analysis, 1860 - Royall 
Latin Grammar, 1858 - Kuhuer 
•Latin Synonyms, 1859 - Doderlein 
Manual of Geology, 1883 - Nicholson 
•Natural History of Selborae, 1887 - White 
•Outlines of German Literature, 1896 - Teusler 
Outlines of Zoology, 1892 - Thompson 
Paintings in the New Library of Congi'ess - Small 
Pedobaptist Immersions, 1854 - Purify 
Practical Lessons in Psycholog)', 1896 - Krohn 
•Prose Writings - Heine 
•Sartor Resartus - Carlyle 

Smooth Stones Taken from Ancient Books, 1860 • Spurgeon 
•Textbook of Animal Physiology, 1889 - Mills 
•Textbook of Science: Descriptive Mineralogy, 1884 - Bauerman 
•Textbook of Science: Systematic Mineralogy, 1881 - Bauerman 
The Sun, 1881 - Young 

Theory and Practice of Teacliing - Page 

Third Report of a United States Entomological Comm., 1883 - 

U. S. Department of Agiiculture 

Waymarks for Teachers, 1899 - Ai'nold 

Woman's Mission and Woman's Influence - Overton 

Pou, (Hon.) Edward W. : (1863-1934) Member, House of 
Representatives from Johnston County and United States House 
of Representatives. Listed in 1901-1902 catalog as contributor of 
books but none recorded in accession book. 

Powers, (Dr.) J. B.: Probably either John Brewer or John 
Benjamin, both gi'aduates of Wake Forest College. 
Animal Physiology 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 1882 - Bartholow 

Pritchard, (Sen.) Jeter Connelly: (1857-1921) United States 
Congi-essman. Listed in 1900-1901 catalog as contributor of 
books but none recorded in accession book. 

Purefoy, (Mrs.) A. V.: Unidentified. 

Baptist Doctrines, 1880 - Jenkens 

Christian Mirror, 1856 - Jeter 

Commentary. Romans to Revelation, 1833 - Clarke 

Theodosia, or the Heroine of Faith, 1857 

Women of the Old and New Testament - Weld 

Purefoy, (Dr.) George Washington: (1809-1880) Baptist 
minister. Listed in 1901-1902 catalog as contributor of books 
but none recorded in accession book. 

Purefoy, (Rev.) James Simpson (estate): (1813-1889) Baptist 
pastor and treasurer of Wake Forest College, 1865-1872. 

Dead Sea and the Jordan, 1852 - Lynch 

Exploration for Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the 

Pacific, 1855 
Senate Documents, 2nd Session. 33rd Congress, 1858 
•Spui-geon, The Modern Whitfield, 1859 - Magoon 
Universal Gazetteer, 1833 - Brookes 


From the 1904 Oak Leaves. 


Royall (Prof.) William B.: Professor at Wake Forest College; 
president for one year. 

English HaiTOony of the Gospels, 1873 - Clark 

•Memoirs of Celebrated Charactei's, 1854, 3 vols. - Lamartine 

Metaphysics, 1884 - Hamilton 

Physiology of the Soul and Instinct, 1872 - Panir 

Tennyson's Poems - Tennyson 

Shaw, (Sen.) W. P.: (1842-1913) North Carolina senator from 
Hertford County. 

Colonial Records of Noith Carolina, 1886, 4 copies - Saunders 
Colonial Records of North Carolina, 1887 - Saunders 
Colonial Records of North Carolina, 1888 - Saunders 
Colonial Records of North Carolina, 1890, 4 copies - Saunders 

Simmons, (Sen.) Furnifold McLendon: (1854-1940) United 
States Senator from North Carolina. Listed in 1901-1902 
catalog as contributor of books but none recorded in accession 

Sledd, Benjamin Franklin: (1864-1940) Professor of modern 
languages. Wake Forest College. 

•From Cliff and Scaur, 1897 - Sledd 

Poems - Tennyson 

Selections from Wordsworth, 1890 - George 

Spilman, (Rev.) Bernard W.: Tmstee, BFU, 1900-1902; 
Sunday School field secretai?, The State Board of Missions and 
Sunday Schools. 

Annals of Newben-y, 1892 - O'Neall and Chapman 

Columbia Cyclopedia vols. 1-32, 1890 - GaiTetson, Cox and Co. 

Stringfield, Oliver L.: (1851-1930) Trustee, BFU, 1892-1910. 
A residence hall on the Meredith campus is named in his honor. 

Holy Bible, tr. from Vulgate 

United States Government: Source for pamphlets, booklets 
and repoiis. 

6th Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, 

1873 - Hayden 
Geologic Atlas of the United States, Austin Foho, Texas 
Geologic Atlas of the United States, La Plata Foho, Colorado 
Report of the Commission of Education 1898-1899, 2 copies 
Report of the Commission, 1899-1900 
Smithsonian Report of 1854 
Yearbook, United States Department of Agiiculture, 1898 


Vickers, (Miss) Ada: Unidentified. 

•Black AiTow - Stevenson 

•Dynamiter - Stevenson 

Edinburgh, Picturesque Notes, The Silverado - Stevenson 

•Familiar Studies of Men and Books - Stevenson 

•Inland Voyage, Ti-avels with a Donkey in the 

Cevennes - Stevenson 
•ffidnapped - Stevenson 
Master of Ballantrae - Stevenson 
•Memoirs of Fleeming Jenldns, 1887 - Stevenson 
•Memories and Portraits - Stevenson 
•New Ai'abian Nights - Stevenson 
•New Ai-abian Nights, The Meny Men and Other Tales and 

Fables - Stevenson 
•Prince Otto - Stevenson 
Treasure Island - Stevenson 

•Underwoods/A Child's Garden of Verses - Stevenson 
Virginibus Puerisque/Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde - Stevenson 

Young, James R.: Commissioner of Insurance. 

Annual Report of the Insurance Commissioner, 1901 - Young 

Illustration of oak leaves and acorns, symbols of Meredith 
College. From the 1906 Oak Leaves . 






Books , 
1899 fo 

Artist's sketch used in the first 
newspaper advertisement for BFU. 

(* book housed in archives) 

A Great Trio: Peter, Fuller, Yates, 1896, 3 copies - Smith 

Abelard, 1901 - Campayi-e 

Abridged Decimal Classification - Dewey 

Accessions - Dewey 

Aeneid (trans. Dryden), 1896 - Virgil 

Aesthetics of Pianoforte Playing, 1895 - Kulbak 

•Age of Anne, 1898 - Morris (Epochs of History) 

Age of Elizabeth, 1898 - Creighton (Epochs of ffistoiy) 

•Alcuin, 1899 - West 

•All's Well That Ends Well, 1900 - Shakespeare 

•American Revolution, 1898, 1900, 2 vols.- Fiske 

American Textbook of Physiology, 1901, 2 copies - Bowditch 

Among My Books, 1876, 1898 - Lowell 

An Egyptian Princess - Ebers 

An Outline of Psychology, 1900 - Titchener 

Animal Experimentation, 1891 

Anthony and Cleopatra, 1900 - Shakespeai'e 

Anthi-opology, 1899 - Tylor 

•Apologetics, 1899 - Bruce 

•Ai-istotle, 1901 - Davidson 

•As You Like It, 1900 - Shakespeai-e 

Ascent of Man, 1901 - Drummond 

•Alhaliah - Racine 

Augustine Obiter Dicta, 1900, 1901 - BiiTell 


•Beaumont and Fletcher, 2 vols. - Strachey 
Beauties of Nature, 1900 - Lubbock 
•Begimiing of the Middle Ages, 1886 - Church 
Beginning of the Middle Ages, 1900 - Church (Epochs of 

Best Things from Best Authors, 1893, 2 copies - Shoemaker 
Best Things from Best Authors, 1895, 2 copies - Shoemaker 
Best Things from Best Authors, 1896, 2 copies - Shoemaker 
Best Things from Best Authors, 1897, 2 copies - Shoemaker 
Biogi'aphical Dictionary of Musicians, 1900 - Bakers 
Biogi'aphy of Isaac Pitman - Reed 
Blowpipe Analysis (trans. Taylor), 1901 - Landauer 
Botanical Microtechnique, 1893 - Zimmermann 
•Botany, 1899 - Bessey 
British Orations, 1900 - Pitt 

Bulletin of Bureau of the American Republic, 1893, 4 copies 
Bulletin of Bureau of the American Republic, 1896, 3 copies 
Bulletin of Bureau of the American Repubhc, Ft. 1 and 2, 1893 

Caesar: A Sketch, 1900 - Froude 

Catechism of Musical Histoiy, 2 copies - Riemann 

Characteristics of Women, 1900 - Jameson 

•Charles Auchester - Berger 

•Charles Lyell and Modem Geology, 1895 - Bonney 

Chinese Literature, 1901 - Giles 

•Christmas Eve, Men and Women, Dramatis Personae, etc., 

1899 - Browning 
Chronicle of the Cid, 1894 - Southey 
•Chronicles (trans. Macaulay), 1899 - Froissart 
•Classical Atlas, 1901 
Classical Myths, 1902 - Gayley 
•Classical Writers: Euripides, 1879 - Mahaffy 

Classical Writers: Milton, 1899 - Brooke 

Classical Writers: Sophocles, 1880 - Campbell 

Comedy of Eirors, 1899 - Shakespeare 

Comenius, 1900 - Monroe 

Commentary on Catullus, 1889 - Ellis 

Commercial Law, 1900 - Richardson 

Common Sense of the Exact Sciences, 1899 - Clifford 

•Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative 

Psychology, 1901 - Loeb 
Complete Poetical Works - Browning 
Complete Poetical Works, 1900 - Bums 
•Complete Poetical Works, 1900 - Keats 
Complete Works - Shakespeare 
•Condensed Histoiy of Modern Times - Duruy 
•Constitutional and Political History of the United, 1881-1892, 

8 vols. - Von Hoist 
•Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States, 

1868 - Stephen 
•Coriolanus, 1901 - Shakespeare 
Count of Monte Cristo - Dumas 
Country Doctor, 1900 - Balzac 
Critical Period of American Histoiy, 1901 - Fiske 
Cromwell's Place in History, 1899 - Gardiner 
Cmsades, 1900 - Cox (Epochs of Histoiy) 
Cryptogamic Botany, 1889 - Bennett and Mun'ay 
Curious Homes and Their Tenants, 1898 - Beard 
•Cymbehne, 1900 - Shakespeare 

•Data of Ethics, 1879 - Spencer 

•Dawn of Reason, 1899 - Weir 

•Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 5 vols. - Gibbons 

Degeneracy, 1901 - Talbot 

•Destiny of Man, 1884 - Fiske 

•Development of the English Novel, 1900 - Cross 

Dictator, Vol. 4, 1898 - Monthly Magazine 

Dictionaiy of Music - Riemann 

Dictionaiy of Phase and Fable, 1900 - Brewer 

•Diseases of Crops and Their Remedies, 1890 - GrifTiths 

•Division and Reunion, 1900 - Wilson (Epochs of History) 

•Documents Illustrative of American History, 1900 - Preston 

•Dramatic Lyrics, Romances, etc., 1898 - Browning 

•Dramatic Works (trans. C.H. Wall), 1898 - Molifere 

Dramatic Works (trans. Slous), 1900 - Hugo 

Dust and Its Dangers, 1899 - Prudden 

•Early Hanoverians, 1898 • Morris (Epochs of History) 

•Early Plantagenets, 1900 - Stubbs (Epochs of History) 

Early Renaissance, 1895 - Hoppin 

•Early Tudors, 1900-Moberly (Epochs of Histoiy) 

•Earthly Paradise, 1900, 3 vols. - Monis 

Education and the Philosophical Ideal, 1900 - Dresser 

•Edward III, 1899 - Warburton (Epochs of Histoiy) 

Egoist, 1901 - Meredith 

Ekkhard, 2 copies - Scheffel 

El Cid - Coi-neille 

•Electrical Experiments, 1897 - Bonney 

•Elemental^ Textbook of Botany, 1898 - Vines 

•English Cathedrals, 1898 - Rensselaer 

•English Constitutional Histoiy, 1896 - Toswell-Langmead 

•English Lands, Letters and ffings, 1898, 2 vols, - Mitchell 

English Novel, 1900 - Lanier 

English Pre-Raphaelite Painters, 1901 - Bate 

•English Restoration and Louis XIV, 1900 - Aiiy 

(Epochs of History) 
English Romanticism, 1899 - Beers 
English Synonyms, 1901 - Crabb 

•Epoch of Refonnation, 1899 - McCarthy (Epochs of Histoiy) 
Era of the Protestant Revolution, 1897 - Seebahm 
Essays in Criticism, 2nd Series, 1900 - Ai-nold 
Essays in Criticism, 1st Series, 1900 - Arnold 
•Essays in English Literature, 1780-1860, Series 1 & 2, 1895, 

1896 - Saintsbuiy 
•Essays on Some of the Modern Guides of English Thoughts 

in Matters of Faith, 1900 - Hutton 
Essays, 1 and 2, 1899 - Emerson 
Essays, Vols. 1 and 2 - Carlyle 
Essays, Vols. 3 and 4 - Carlyle 
Ethical Principles, 1900 - Seth 
•Evolution of Church Music, 1896 - Humphreys 
•Evolution of Sex, 1897 - Geddes and Thompson 
Evolutions and Its Relation to Religion, 1901 - LeConte 
•Excursions, 1900 - Thoreau 

Faerie Queene, 1898 - Spenser 

•Faiiyland of Flowers - Pratt 

•Fall of the Stuarts, 1899 - Hale (Epochs of Histoiy) 

Famous Pianists of Today and Yesterday, 1898, 1901 - Labee 

Faust - Goethe 

•Faust, 2 vols. - Goethe 

•First Two Stuarts and the Puritan Revolution, 1898 - Gardiner 

(Epochs of Histoiy) 
Flowers, Fi-uits, and Leaves, 1900 - Avebuiy 
•Following the Equator, 1898 - Twain 
•Frederick the Great, 1895 - Longman (Epochs of History) 
•French Revolution - Carlyle 

French Revolution, 1897 - Gardiner (Epochs of Histoiy) 
French Revolution, 1900 - Mon-is (Epochs of History) 
•French War and the Revolution, 1901 - Sloane 
•Froebel, 1901 - Bowen (Great Educators Series) 


Gallus, Roman Scenes of the Time of Augustus, 1898 - Becker 

•General Physiology, 1899 - Venvorn 

•Glossaiy of Scientific Terms, 1896 - Dunnian 

•Gods and Heroes, 1896 - Francillon 

Great Epochs in Ai't History, 1901 - Hoppin 

Great Trio. Jeter, Fuller, Yeats - Smith 

Great Worid's Fam, 1900 - Gaye 

•Greek Classical Literature; Dramatic Poets, 1895 - Mahaffy 

•Greek Classical Literature: Epic and Lyiic Poets, 1895 - 

•Greek Classical Literature: Prose Writers, pts. 1 and 2, 1895 - 



•Half Centuiy of Conflict, 1900, 2 vols, - Parkman 

•Hamlet, 1901 - Shakespeare 

•Handbook of Greek Sculpture, Part 1, 1901 - Gardner 

Handbook of Nature Study, 1901 - Lange 

Handbook to Robert Browning, 1899 - Orr 

HaiTnony of the Gospels, 1900 - Stevens and Burton 

Hawthorne and His Wife, 1899, 2 copies - Hawthorne 

•Henrik Ibsen, 1901 - Jaeger 

Herbart, 1896 - Ganno 

Hennann and Dorothea - Goethe 

Heroes and Hero Worship - Carlyle 

Heroes of the Mission Field - Walsh 

•History of Ancient Art, 1880, 2 vols. - Winckelmann 

•History of Botany, 1890 - Sachs 

Histoiy of Chemistry, 1898 - Meyer 

•Histoiy of Christianity, 1881, 3 vols. - Milman 

•History of Early English Literature, 1892 - Brooke 

Dr. Richard T. Vanti, an original 
trustee of Baptist Female University 
and the second president (1900- 


•Histoiy of English Poetiy, 1895, 2 vols, - Courthope 

Histoiy of English Poetiy, 1897 - Courthope 

Histoid of Ethics, 1896 - Sedgwick 

H)sloi7 of European Morals, 1900, 2 copies - Lecky 

•Histoi-y of French Literature, 1895 - van Laun 

•History of Gentian Literature, 1899, 2 vols. - Scherer 

•Histoi-y of Gei-niany, 1892, 1898, 1899, 3 vols. - Menzel 

•History of Greece, 4 vols. - Grote 

Histoiy of Greek Philosophy, 1901 - Burt 

•History of Latin Literature, 1883, 2 vols. - Simcox 

Histoiy of Madame Roland, 1899 - Abbott 

History of Mathematics, 1900 - Finlt 

•Histoiy of Napoleon the First, 1897 - Seeley 

•Histoiy of New Testament Times in Palestine, 1902 - Mathews 

History of Our Countiy, 8 copies 

•Histoid of Our Own Lives, 1900, 3 vols. - McCarthy 

HIstoi-y of Physics, 1899 - Cajori 

Histoiy of Physiology, 1901 - Foster 

•Histoiy of Roman Literature, 1899 - Cmttwell 

•History of Rome, 1898, 3 vols, of the 5 vols, purchased - 

Histoiy of Russian Literature, 1900 - Waliszewski 
•History of Sanskrit Literature, 1900 - Macdonell 
Historj' of Shorthand, 1899 - Pitman 
•Histoiy of the 19th Century Literature, 1899 - Saintsbury 
•Histoiy of the Cnjsades, 1900, 3 vols. - Michaud 
•Histoi-y of the English People, 4 vols. - Green 
•History of the Popes, 1896, 3 vols. - Ranke 
•Hi.stoi-y of the United States, 1894, 6 vols. - Schouler 
•HistoiT of the United States, 1900, 1901, 4 vols. - Rhodes 
•History of the Warfare of Science with Theology, 1901, 

2 copies - White 
Holy Roman Empire - Bi^ce 
•Homo Sum - Ebers 

•Horace Mann, 1900 - Hinsdale (Great Educators Scries) 
House of Lancaster and York, 1899 - Gardner 

(Epochs of History) 
How Long and A Symposium, 1896 - Eminent Reporters 
How to Kjiow the Ferns, 1899 - Parsons 
•How to Know the Wild Flowers, 1900 - Dana 
•How to Listen to Music, 1900 - Ki'ehbiel 
How to Study Gcogi-aphy, 1899 - Parker 
•Humphiy Davy, Poet and Philosopher, 1896 - Thorpe 

The library at BFU. 


•Idea of God, 1900- Fiske 
In Ole Virginia, 1900 - Page 
In Tune with the Infinite - Tiine 
•Interpretation of Nature, 1899 - Shaler 
Introduction to Browning, 1901 - Corson 
Introduction to the Study of Fungi, 1898 - Cooke 

'Jacobean Poets, 1894 - Gosse 

•James Clerk Maxwell and Modern Physics, 1900 - Glazebrook 

James Spmnt Histoiy Monographs, No. 2, 1900 - Wilson 

'Jesuits in North America, 1900 - Parkman 

Jews, 1899 - Hosmer 

'John Dalton and the Rise of Modem Chemistiy, 1895 - Roscoo 

•Joseph Hardy Neesima, 1894 - Davis 

•Julius Caesar, 1901 - Shakespeare 

'Justus von Liebig, Life and Work, 1901 - Shenstone 


ffing Hen3-y IV, 1899 - Shakespeare 

•King Henry IV, pt. 1, 1901 - Sliakespeare 

ICng Henry V, 1901 - Shakespeare 

ffing Henry VI - Shakespeare 

•ffing Henry VI, pt. 2, 1899 - Shakespeare 

•King Henry VI, pt. 3, 1900, - Shakespeare 

•Kng Henry VIII, 1901 - Shakespeare 

IQng John, 1899 - Shakespeare 

King Lear, 1899 - Shakespeare 

King Lear, 1901 - Shakespeare 

♦King Richard II, 1896 - Shaltespeare 

Kng Richard III, 1901 - Shakespeare 

I&iowledge, Belief, and Certitude, 1900 - Turner 

Latin Grammar, 1899 - Lane 

Latin Manuscripts, 1897 - Johnston 

Law of Psychic Phenomena, 1901 - Hudson 

•Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature, 1900 - Schlegel 

Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England, 1895 - 

•Legend of Montrose, 1896 - Scott 
•Legends of the Middle Ages - Guerber 
•Letters, 1899, 2 vols. - Junius 
•Life and Letters of John Albert Droadus, 1901 - Robertson 

•Life and Letters of Thomas Heniy Huxley, 1901, 

2 vols. - Huxley 
•Life Everlasting, 1901 - Fiske 
Life of Balzac, 1890 - Wedmore 
Life of Carlyle, 1887 - Garnett 
•Life of Cicero, 1901 - Forsyth 
Life of Emerson, 1888 - Garnett 
Life of George Eliot, 1890 - Browning 
•Life of Goethe, 1888- Sime 
Life of Robert Browning, 1897 - Sharp 
•Life of Savonarola, 1900 - Clarke 
Life of Schiller, 1889 - Nevinson 
•Life of the Bee, 1902 - Maeterlinck 
•Life of the Greeks and Romans, 1898 - Guhl and Koner 
Life of Victor Hugo, 1888 - Marzials 
•Light Visible and Invisible, 1897 - Thompson 
•Literary Studies, 1898, 3 vols, - Bagehot 
•Little Flower Folks, 2 vols. - Pratt 
•Love's Labour's Lost, 1900 - Shakespeare 
•Loves of the Poets, 1898 - Jameson 
•Loyola, 1901 - Hughes (Great Educators Series) 


Macbeth, 1900 - Shakespeare 

Makers of Florence - Oliphant 

•Makers of Literature, 1901 - Woodberry 

Makers of Modern Italy, 1895 - Man-iott 

•Making of Character, 1900 - Maccoun 

•Malaria, 1900 - Celli 

•Manual of Ethics, 1899 - MacKenzie 

Manual of Historical Literature - Adams 

Manual of the Histoiy of French Literature - Branetifere 

Mai7 Stuart, trans. - Schiller 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 1900 - Abbott 

Masters in Art, 1900, 2 copies 

Mastei's in Art: Botticelli, 1900 

Mastery of Shorthand, 1894 - Brown 

•Measure for Measure, 1899 - Shakespeare 

Medieval Europe, 1896 - Emberton 

•Memoirs of Luther Rice, 1840 - Taylor 

Merchant of Venice, 1901 - Shakespeare 

•Meny Wives of Windsor, 1900 - Shakespeare 

Methods in Plant Histology, 1901 - Chamberlain 

Mezzotinta of Modern Music, 1899 - Huneker 

Michael Faraday, Life and Work, 1898 - Thompson 

•Michelangelo, 1900 - Hurll 
Midsummci- Night's Dream, 1900 - Shakespeare 
•Montcalm and Wolfe, 1900 - Parkman 
•Mosquitoes, 1901 - Howard 
Mosses From an Old Manse - Hawthorne 
Much Ado About Nothing, 1900 - Shakespeare 
•My Study Windows, 1899 - Lowell 
Mj'ths of Greece and Rome - Guerber 
•Nathan the Wise and Minna von Bamhelm (ed. 
1888 - Lessing 

r I 


•Natural History of Aquatic Insects, 1895 - Miall 

•Nature for Its Own Sake, 1898 - Van Dyke 

New Histoiy of the United States, 1887 - Holmes 

New Humanism, 1900 - Griggs 

19th Centuiy: A History - Mackenzie 

•Noimans in Europe, 1899 - Johnson (Epochs of Histoiy) 

Norse Stories, 1900 - Mabie 

'Notes on the Spanish-American War, 1900 - Tejeiro 

•Old Vii-ginia and Her Neighbors, 1897, 1899, 2 vols. - Fiske 

•Orations of Cicero, 1896 - Greenough 

Oregon Trail, 1900 - Parkman 

•Origin of Species, 1859 - Dai-vrin 

Othello, 1900 - Shakespeare 

•Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants, 

1887 - Goebel 
Outlines of Electricity and Magnetism, 1896 - Perkins 
Outlines of the Histoiy of Art, 1877, 2 copies - Lubke 

•Painting in France, 1901 - Hamcrton 

•Paolo and Francesca, 1900 - Phillips 

•Parsifal, 1893 - Parsons 

•Pasteur, 1900- Frankland 

•Pauline, Paracelsus, Sordello, Staflbrd, etc., 1889 - Browning 

•Pericles, 1896 - Shakespeare 

•Period of the Reformation - Hausser 

•Pestalozzi, 1901 - Pinlache (Great Educators Series) 

•Physiological Botany - Goodale 

Plants, 1901 - Coulter 

•Plato and Platonism, 1901 - Pater 

•Playtime Naturalist, 1889 - Taylor 

The auditorium at BFU. 

Laboratory at BFU. Photographs on 
these two pages are from the 1916 
Oak Leaves . 

•Poems of Heine (trans. Bowing), 1898 - Heine 

Poems, 1882 - E. B. Browning 

•Poems, 1901 - Milton 

•Poetical Works (cd. Dowden), 1900 - Shelley 

Poetical Works - Swinburne 

Poetical Works - Wordsworth 

Poetiy of Tennyson, 1898 - Van Dyke 

Popular Lectures on Scientific Studies, 1900 - Helmholtz 

Power of Silence, 1900 - Dresser 

•Praeterita - Ruskin 

Pre-Historic Times, 1900 - Avebury 

•Piinciples of Biology, 1900, 2 vols. - Spencer 

Principles of Literal^ Criticism, 1900 - Winchester 

Principles of Political Economy, 1892 - Gide 

•Principles of Psychology, 1899, 2 vols. - James 

Private Life of the Romans - Preston and Dodge 

•Prometheus Bound - Aeschylus 

Protozoa, 1901 - Calkins 

Psychology, 1899 - Dewey 


Queen Elizabeth, 1900 - Abbott 

•Rape of Lucrece, 1899 - Shakespeare 

Recreations in Botany, 1893 - Creevy 

•Reformation, 1900 - Fisher 

•Regeneration, 1901 - Morgan 

Relation of Psychology to Music, 1899 - Bartholomew 

•Renaissance in Italy: Age of the Despots, 1888 - Symonds 

•Renaissance in Italy: Italian Literature, 1888 - Symonds 

•Renaissance in Italy: Revival of Leaining, 1888 - Symonds 

•Renaissance in Italy: The Catholic Reaction, 1887, 

2 vols. - Symonds 
•Report of the Big Trees of California, 1900 - Department of 

Reporting Practice - Pitman 
Representative British Orations, 1900 - Chatham 
Representative British Orations, 1900 - Macaulay 
Representative British Orations, 1900 - Palmerston 
Representative New Nature, 1900 - Emerson 
Riches of Chaucer, 1896 - Chaucer 
•Rise of the Dutch Republic, 2 vols. - Motley 
•Rise of the Huguenots of France, 1900, 2 vols. - Baird 
•Rock-FoiTning Minerals, 1893 - Locwinson-Lessing 

•Roman and the Teuton, 1891 - Kingsley 

Roman Life in the Days of Cicero - Church 

•Roman Poets of the Augustan Age: Virgil, 1897 - Sellar 

•Roman Poets of the Republic, 1889 - Sellar 

•Romance of the Insect World, 1898 - Badenoch 

•Romeo and Juliet, 1900 - Shakespeare 

•Rousseau, 1900 - Davidson (Great Educators Series) 

Ruling Ideas of the Present Age, 1898 - Gladden 

Saints' Rest - Baxter 
•Sartor Resartus - Carlyle 
School Latin Grammar, 1899 - Lane and Morgan 
Science and Education, 1900 - Huxley 
Selections from the Spectator, 1896 - Mesirole 
Seraphita: The Aldahest, 1899 - Balzac 
•Seven Lamps of Aixhitecture - Ruskin 
•Shakespeare and His Predecessors, 1899 - Boas 
Shakespeare's Commentaiies, 1892 - Gervinus 
•Shakespeare's Di'amatic Ai-t, 1900, 2 vols. - Ulrici 
•Shakespeare's Sonnets (ed., Dowden), 1896 - Shakespeare 
•Shakespeare: A Critical Study of His Mind and Art, 1900 - 

•Shakespeare: Life, Ai-t and Characters, 1898, 1 vol. of 2 vols. 

purchased - Hudson 
Short Histoiy of Mathematics, 1901 - Ball 
•Short Histoi-y of the Baptists - Vedder 

•Short Histoiy of the English Colonies in America, 1902 - Lodge 
Short History of the Refoimation, 1885 - Hurse 
Shorthand Dictionary - Pitman 
Shorthand Writer, 1892 - Reed 
•Simon de Montfort, 1895 - Creighton 
Song of Life, 1899- Mosley 
Sonnets, 1900 - Shakespeare 
Sound, 1897 - Tyndall 

Standard Dictionaiy of the English Language, 1896 
•Stones of Venice, 2 of 3 vols. - Ruskin 
Stories from Virginia, 1878 - Church 
•Story of the Plants, 1899 - Allen 
•Stoiy of Yates the Missionary, 1898 - Taylor 
Strategic Points in the Worid's Conquest, 1897 - Mott 
•Student's Companion to Latin Authors, 1896 - Middleton 

and Mills 
Studies of American Fungi, 1901 - Atkinson 
•Study of Ethics, A Syllabus, 1897 - Dewey 
Study of Sociology, 1900 - Spencer 

Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars, 1901 - Thompson 

Sunday Problem, 1894 

Systematic Science Teaching, 1899 - Howe 


'Taming of the Shrew, 1901 - Shakespeare 

Teaching of Elementaiy Mathematics, 1901 - Smith 

•Tempest, 1901, 4 copies - Shakespeare 

•Ten Great Religions - Clarke 

•Tennyson, His Art and Relation to Modem Lif?, 1900 - Brooke 

•Tennyson, Rusldn, Mill, 1900 - Hai-rison 

Textbook of Lectures on Sculpture - Flaxman 

Textbook of Physiology, 1900 - Foster 

Textbook of Plant Diseases, 1899 - Masser 

•Textbook of the History of Architecture, 1898 -'Hamlin 

•Textbook of the History of Sculpture, 18d9 - Marquard 

Textbook of Zoology, 1897, 2 copies - Parker and Haswell 

•Theory of Physics, 1899 - Ames 

•The Wonderful Centui^, 1899 - Wallace 

•Thirty Years' War, 1900 - Gardiner (Epochs of History) 

•Thomas and Matthew Arnold, 1898 - Fitch 

(Great Educators Series) 
•Through Nature to God, 1901 - Fiske 
•Timon of Athens, 1900 - Shakespeare 
•Titus Andronicus, 1900 - Shakespeare 
Tom Brown's School Days - Hughes 
Tragedies - Sophocles 
Travels in France, 1900 - Young 
•Treasure of the Humble, 1900 - Maeterlinck 
•Treaty of Peace Between the Unites States and Spain, 1899 
•Ti'oilus and Cressida, 1898 - Shakespeare 
Twelfth Night, 1901 - Shalcespeare 
Twice-Told Tales - Hawthorne 
•Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1901 - Shakespeare 
•Types of Ethical Theory, 1898, 2 copies - Martineau 

•Uarda - Ebers 

Under Golden Skies or In the New Eldorado, 
A Southern Author 

Venus and Adonis, 1896 - Shakespeare 

Via Christi, 1901 - Hodgkins 

Victor Hugo and His Time 1882 - Barbou 


Victorian Prose Masters, 1901 - Brownell 
•Victorian Anthology, 1900 - Stedman 


What a Young Girl Ought to Know - Allen 
What a Young Woman Ought to Know - Allen 
•Wild Animals I Have Known, 1901 - Thompson 
William Shalcospeare: Poet, Dramatist and Man, 1901 
William Tell, trans. Theodore Martin - Schiller 
Winning of the West, 1900, 6 copies - Roosevelt 
Winter's Tale, 1901 - Shakespeare 
•Wisdom and Destiny, 1901 - Maeterlinck 
With the Wild Flowers - Harding 









I . 

1 1 1 

, III! 



1 Pudifon'um 11 ■ " 

/ m a ^ 

1 Bfi/Tisr rrnntc U/iivc/isiry. 

Scale of feet 

Sanborn map, 1903. The Sanborn maps, used for insurance purposes, were a series of accurate, detailed 
drawings of every building situated on every quadrant in the city of Raleigh. (Used by courtesy of the 
Sanborn Mapping and Geographic Information Service, Pelhani, New York.) 



From the 1904 Oak Leaves . 

(Schools in the eorly catalogs now called 

Scliool of Latin Language and Literature 
School of Greelc Language and Literature 
School of English Language and Literature 
School of Modern Languages 

1. French Language and Literature 

2. Gennan Language and Literature 

3. Spanish Language and Literature 
School of Mathematics 

1. Algebra and Geometry 

2. Trigonometry and Analytical Geometiy 

3. Differential and Integral Calculus 

4. Astronomy 
School of Natural Science 

L General Chemistiy 

2. Qualitative Analysis 

3. Physiological Chemistry 

4. General Biology 

5. Human Physiology and Hygiene 

6. Botany 

7. Zoology 

8. Geology and Mineralogy 

School of Moral Pliilosophy 

L Psychology 

2. Ethics 

3. Logic 

4. Evidences of Christianity 

School of History and Political Science 

1. Histoiy and Constitutional Government 

2. Political Economy 

School of Ai't 

School of Music 

1. Piano 

2. Voice 

3. Violin; Other Stringed Instruments 

4. Pipe Organ 

5. Theoiy, Histoay and Hannony 

School of Expression 

School of Business 

'Physics was not part of the list in the first catalog, but it was clearly 
designated on pp. 31-32 as a requirement for the B. A. degi'ce. 
Source: Catalogue afthn Baptist Female University, WUO-WOl. Raleigh, N.C.: 
Edwards & Droughton, Printers and Binders, 1901, pp. 19-20. 



From the 1904 
Oak Leave s. 

Allen, Grant. The Stoiy of Plants. 

New York: Appleton & Co., 

Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol, I, A-C. William S. 
Powell, ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1979. 

Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol. II, D-G. William 
S. Powell, ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1979. 

Johnson, Maiy Lynch. A History of Meredith College. 2nd ed. 
Raleigh, North Carohna: Edwards & Broughton, 1972. 

Lefler, Hugh T. and Albert Ray Newsome. North Carolina: 
History, Geography, Government. New York: World 
Book Company, 1959. 

Lyle, Guy R. The Administration of the College Library. 3rd ed. 
New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1961. 

Mitchell, Thornton W. The State Library and Library Develop- 
ment in North Carolina. Raleigh, North Cai'nlina: 
Department of Cultural Resources, Division of State 
Library, 1983. 

MuiTay, Elizabeth Reid. Wake: Capital County of North 

Carolina. Vol. 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: Capital 
County Publishing Company, 1983. 

The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Turnbull, H. W., ed. 7 
volumes. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University 
Press, 1959. 

Vickers, James. Raleigh: City of Oaks. Woodland Hills, Califor- 
nia: Windsor Publications, Inc., 1982. 

Bushong, William B. "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South 
Ai'chitect." The North Carolina Historical Review, 60 
(July, 1983): 304-32. 

Hams, Julia H. "Libraries Old and Now," Meredith College, The 
Alumnae Magazine, 2 (Winter 1948): 3, 20-21. 

Johnson, Mary Lynch. "Ex Libris," Meredith College, The 
Alumnae Magazine, 2 (Winter 1948): 4-5, 21-22. 

Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr. "The Histoiy and Development of 
Libraries in American Higher Education," College and 
Research Libraries News, 50 (July/August 1989): 

Parramore, Tom. "Red-Tie Bill and the Wingless Bird: Tar Heel 
Baptists and the Evolution Controversy," Meredith 
Magazine, 1 (Fall 1976): 15-21, 65. 

"Small Comprehensive Colleges: Best of Both Worlds." U. S. 

News and World Report, Vol. 105, October 10, 1988, pp. 


Accession Books, 1 to 1,000 and 1,001 to 2,000. The Baptist 
Female University Libraiy. 

Baptist Female University Libraiy Record, 1900-1902. 

Carlyle Campbell Library. Annual Report, 1989-1990. 

Checkbook of J. C. Blasingame, No. 1, checks 1-94, October 7, 
1899 - November 3, 1899. 


View toward downtown Raleigh 
from the Edenton Street side of 
Main Building. 

Meredith College Alumnae Association Records. 

Meredith College Faculty Minutes. September 3, 1900 - May 22, 

Minutes of the Board ofTrustees of Meredith College, 1889- 

Minutes of the Executive Committee, B.U.W., January 1, 1900- 
Januaiy 1, 1915. 

Report of the Committee on Library and Computer Services. 
Meredith College Self-Study, 1989. 

Self-Study and Planning Report, Meredith College, September, 

Varm, Richard Tilman. Uncataloged papers, Meredith College 
Libraiy Aixhives. 

Whitley, Lynn. "The History of the Library at Meredith College, 
Raleigh, North Carolina, 1926-1969." Master's thesis, 
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1980. 

Zilper, Nadyezhda. "The Histoiy of the Libraiy at Meredith 

College, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1899-1926." Master's 
thesis. University of North Carohna-Chapel Hill, 1980. 


Advertisement for Baptist Female University, Biblical Recorder, 
26 July 1899. 

"At Last," Biblical Recorder, 27 September 1899. 

Biblical Recorder, 9 Februaiy 1902. An untitled tribute to the 
Rev. C. B, Justice. 

Blasingame, James. "The Baptist Female University, Its Present 
and Its Future," Biblical Recorder, 6 December 1899. 

Blasingame, James C. 'The Baptist Female University," 
Biblical Recorder, 25 October 1899. 

"Editorial," Biblical Recorder, 7 June 1899. 

"Editovial," Biblical Recorder, 21 June 1899. 

Kesler, M. L. "The Women Builders," Biblical Recorder, 7 June 

"Our Baptist Female University," Biblical Recorder, 
13 September 1899. 

"Personnel of Our Baptist Female University," Biblical 
Recorder, 19 July 1899. 

"Praise God," Biblical Recorder, 4 October 1899. 

Stinngfield, 0. L. "The Baptist University Is the Cheapest School 
for Women in the South," Biblical Recorder, 30 August 

"The Causes Underlying Our Baptist Female University," 
Biblical Recorder, 19 April 1899. 

"The Philip and Emma Johnson Collection: Valuable Gifts to 
Our University," Biblical Recorder, 26 Febi-uary 1902. 

Thomas, C. A. G. "Why Help the Female University?" Biblical 
Recorder, 17 Januaiy 1900. 

C&f&logs md Ballei'ms 

Baptist University for Women, Quarterly Bulletin. November, 
1907. Raleigh, North Carolina: Published by the 
University, 1908, 

Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 1899-1900. Raleigh, 
N.C.: Edwards &Broughton, Printers and Binders, 

Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 1900-1901. Raleigh, 
N.C.: Edwards & Broughton, Printers and Binders, 

Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 1901-1902. Raleigh, 
N.C.: Edwards Broughton, 1902. 

Catalogue of the Baptist Female University, 1902-1903. Raleigh: 
N.C.: Edwards and Broughton, 1903. 

Catalogue of the Schools of the Baptist University for Women. 
Announcements for 1906-1907. Raleigh: N.C.: Presses 
of Edwards & Broughton, 1906. 

The First Annual Announcement of The Baptist Female Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1899-1900. Raleigh: Edwards 
and Broughton, Printers and Binders, 1899. 


Brown, Charlotte V. Director, Visual Ai-ts Programs, North 
Carolina State University. December 10, 1988. 

Deese, Jane G. Class of 1929 and Librarian, emerita, Meredith 
College. August 18, 1989. 

Fanior, Minnie. Meredith graduate. Class of 1914. January 31, 

Freeman, Janet. Head Librarian, 1984-present, Meredith 
College. November 10, 1988; Januaiy 17, 1989. 

Holmes, Hamet Vann. Granddaughter of Richard T. Vann. 
March 9, 1989. 

Mitchell, Memoi-y. Meredith gi-aduate. Class of 1944. March 10, 

Stevens, Richard. Stevens Book Shop, Raleigh, North Carolina. 
April 14, 1989; September 21, 1989. 

leffers and Brethures 

Woodard, John R. Director, Baptist Historical Collection, 

Z. Smith Reynolds Libraiy, Wake Forest University, 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, to Janet Freeman, 
December 1, 1988. 

Friends of the Libraiy Brochure. Carlyle Campbell Library, 
Meredith College, Spring, 1990. 

fatuity Participants 

Meredith College, 1989-1990 

Department of Biology and Health 

Dr. Lany Grimes 

Dr. Robert Reid 

Mrs. Jan Sullivan 

Department of Business and Economics 
Dr. Lois Frazier 
Dr. Donald Spanton 

Department of Chemistiy and Physical 
Dr. Reginald Shiflett 

Department of Education 
Dr. Gwen Clay 
Dr. Maiy Johnson 
Dr. Jerod Kr'atzer 
Dr. Beth Weir 

Department of English 
Ms. Robin Colby 
Dr. Sarah English 
Dr. lone Knight 
Dr. Gany Walton 

Department of Foreign Languages 
Dr. Jacques Comeaux 
Dr. Anne Kurtz 
Dr. William Ledford 
Dr. Brent Pitts 
Ms. Nona Short 
Dr. Mary Thomas 
Dr. Burgunde Winz 

Department of Health, Physical Education, 
and Dance 

Mrs. Helena Allen 

Dr. Cindy Bross 

Mrs. Carol Brown 

Dr. Marie Chamblee 


Ms. Alyson Colwell 
Mrs. Jay Massey 

Department of Histoiy and Politics 
Dr. Clyde Frazier 
Dr. Barbara Ti-ue-Weber 
Dr. Carolyn Ginibbs 
Dr. Frank Grubbs 
Dr. Tom Pan'amore 

Department of Home Economics 
Mrs. Deborah Tippett 

Department of Mathematical and 
Computer Sciences 

Dr. Martha Bouknight 

Dr. Charles Davis 

Dr. Virginia Knight 

Dr. Vivian Ki-aines 

Dr. Dorothy Preston 

Mrs. Olive Taylor 

Department of Music, Speech, and Theater 
Dr. John Creagh 

Department of Psychology 
Dr. Rosemaiy Hornak 
Dr. Jack Huber 

Department of Religion and Philosophy 
Dr. Allen Page 
Dr. John Saunders 
Dr. Robert Vance 

Department of Sociology and Social Work 
Dr. Leslie Syi-on 


Academic freedom: 8, 17 

Academy: 2 fn, 7, 14 

Accession books: 7, 7 fn, 9, 10, 11, 16, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27 

Allen, C, S. : 6 

Allen, Maiy: 12, 14 

A]lyn& Bacon: 11,21 

Alt: 3, 7, 11, 13, 35 

Atwater, A. W.: 11,21 

Bailey, Josiah W. : 4, 5, 6, 9, 18, 19, 20, 21 

Baptist Female University: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 20 
Baptist Female University Libraiy: 1, 2, 3-4, 5-8, 9, 20 
Baptist State Convention: 1, 2, 10 
Baptist University for Women: 3 
Barber, S. S. : 6 
Battle, H, W. : 1 
Bauer, Adolphus G. : 3, 3 fn 
Biblical Recorder. 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 21 
Biology; 12, 13, 35 
Birth of a Nation: 10 fn 
Blasingame, James C. : 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 21 
Books, top ten: 12, 14, 15 
Broughton, Needhara B.: 1, 1 fn 
Building: Main, 3, 4, 5, 19 
Business: 7, 13, 13 fn, 16, 35 
Butler, Marion: 11,21 

Campbell, Carlyle: 4 fn 

Carlyle Campbell Library; 1, 4 fn, 19-20 

Carter, J. W. : 1 fn 

Charter, 1891: 2 

Cheek, T. Edgar: 9, 18, 21-22 

Chemistiy: 12,14,35 

Circulation; 12 

Clansman: 10, 10 fn 

Committee of 10: 1 

Cox, Laura; 8, 8 fn 

Cullom,W. R. : 11,22 

Cuniculum: 12-18 

Degi-ec, B.A.: 12-13, 14, 35 

Dickinson, Alft-ed E. ; 11, 22-23 

Dixon-CaiToll, Dr. Elizabeth Delia: 10, 10 fn, 15, 15 fn, 23 

Dixon, Thomas, Jr. : 10-11, lOfn, 23 

Donors, first books; 9-11, 20, 21-27 

Dust: 15 fn 

Eckloff, Lillian: 14 

Education; 14 

Education of women: 1, 2, 3, 12-13, 19, 20 

Elocution: 7, 17-18, 35 

English: 12, 13, 14-15, 35 

Expression; 17-18, 35 

Fanner, Foy Johnson; 15 fn 

Farrior, Minnie: 5 fn 

Fees: 6 

Foreign Languages: 12, 15, 35 

Friends of the Libraiy; 7, 20 

Friends of the University; 3-4, 5, 6, 18 

Ginn&Co. : 11,23 
Great Man Theoiy; 15 
Greaves, Charles L.: 8, 8 fn 
Greek; 17,35 
Gwaltney, W, R. : 1 

Haip, Mary: 9,23 

Herring, Miss: 10, 12, 23 

HeiTJng, Bertha; 10 

Health Education; 12, 15. 35 

Heck, Fannie E. S. ; 2 

History and Politics; 12, 13, 15-16, 35 

Home Economics: 16 

Hooke, Robert; 20, 20 fn 

Hufham,J.D. ; 1 

Hunter, Carey J. ; 2 

Hyams, C. W.; 11,23 

Hygiene; 12,15,35 

Johnson Collection; 6, 10, 12, 15, 23-25 

Johnson, Pliilip W. and Emma J. ; 6, 10, 23 

Johnson, Mary Lynch; 3 fn, 12 

Jones, Jessie Louise; 8 fn 

Jones, Sallie B.; 2 fn 

Jones, Wesley N. ; 2, 2 fn 

Justice, C. B. : 9, 9 fn, 25 

Kendrick, W. B. ; 11,25 

Kesler, John L. : 5, 6, 7-8, 10, 12, 13, 25 

Kesler, Kate H. : 5, 5 fn, 

Kesler, Martin L. : 2 

liindergarten: 14, 14 fn 

Lanneau, John F. : 11, 25 

Lanneau, Sophie: 11, 25 

Latin; 12, 15, 35 

Leopard's Spots: 10, 10 fn, 23 

Library: see Baptist Female University Library; see also Carlyle 

Campbell Libraiy; Olivia Raney Libraiy; State Libraiy 

of North Carolina 
Libraiy Record: 12, 12 fn 
Lynch, J. W.: 11,25 

Main Building: 3, 4, 5, 19 
Mann, Maiy: 14 
Marsh, R. H. : 1 
Mathematics: 12, 16, 16 fn, 35 
McManaway, A. G.: 1 
McNeill, R. H. : 11, 25 
Mebane, C. H, : 11, 14, 25 
Meredith, Thomas: 3 
Meredith College: 1, 3, 5, 19, 20 
Mitchell, Memory: 15 fn 
Mitchell, Thornton: 5 fn 
Moses, E. P. : 14 
Music: 16, 17 fn, 20, 35 

Newton, Sir Isaac: 20, 20 fii 

North CaroUna Baptists: 1-2 

Noilh Carolma Car Company: 3 

North Carolina General Assembly: 2 

North Carolina Woman's Missionaiy Union: 2 

Olivia Raney: 6, 6 fn 
Overby, R. R. : 1 

Peabody, Elizabeth: 14 
Petty, William C. Ifn 
Philosophy: 12,17,35 
Physical Education: 15, 15 fn 
Physics: 12, 14, 35 
Polk, Leonidas L. ; 1 
Poteat, Earnest [sic]: 11,25 
Poteat, WilUam L. : 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 26 
Pou, Edward W. : 11, 26 
Powers,J.B,: 11,26 
Pritchard, J. C. : 11, 26 

Pritchard, T. H. : 1 
Psychology: 12,16-17,35 
Purefoy, Mrs. A.V. : 10, 26 
Purefoy, George W. : 10, 26 
Purefoy, James 8. : 10, 26 

Raleigh Electric Company: 6 
Raleigh, North Carolina: 2, 2 fn 
Raney Libraiy: 6, 6 fn 
Religion: 17,35 
Royall, W. B. : 11, 12, 15, 27 

Sackett, Walter G.: 8, 8 fn 
Shaw, W. P.: 11,27 
Shopping: 8, 8 fn 
Shugart, Nannie: 8, 8 fn 
Simmons, Furnifold M.: 11, 27 
Simms, Albert M. : 2 
Simms, Robert N.: 10 
Sledd, Benjamin F. : 11, 27 
Smith, Alma: 8, 8 fn 
Sociology: 17 
Speech: 17-18,35 
Spencer, Herbert: 17 
Spilman, Bernard W. : 9-10, 27 
State Chronicle: 2 
State Library of North Carolina: 
Stringfield, Oliver L. : 2, 2 fn, 9, 

Trustees: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10 
TybT,E, B. : 17 

United States Government: 27 
Upchurch and Holder: 6 

Vami, Richard T, : 1,1 fn, 3, 3 fn, 7, 8, 19 
Vickers, Ada: 10,27 

Wake Forest College: 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 
Watson, Larkin D.: 8, 8 fn 
Women Builders: 2 

Young Readers: 18 
Young, James R. : 11, 27 
Young, Miss S. E. : 12 

Zilper, Nadyezhda: 12 


5, 5 fn, 6, 9 

The first faculty of the Baptist 
Female University, 1899. 

The final illustration in the 1905 Oak Leaves . 

Photo Credits 

Photographs courtesy of North Carolina Division of Archives and 
History appear on Title Page and pages iv, 4. 

Photogi-aphs courtesy of Meredith College Archives appear on 
Table of Contents and pages 7, 8, 20, 30, 40. 

Photographs courtesy of Biblical Recorder appear on pages i, 28. 

Copy photography by David P. Murray 

Uhrory StaH, 1990-1991 

Cindy Bowling 
Robert Fracker 
Janet Freeman 
Donna Garner 
Frances Hannah 
John Kincheloe 
Christy Lee 
Rick McBane 
Diana McClung 
Alice McNeil 
Geny Sargent 
Judy Schuster 
Margaret Sexton 
Carol Smith 
Susan Squires 
Ted Waller 

Copyright © 1991 by the Meredith College Press 
ISBN 1-879635-01-1 


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