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This Fascinating 
Advertising Business 






First Edition 


. of course 


THIS book is far from being the one-man enterprise that its title page 
would indicate. Dozens of people have helped generously. The 
author wishes in particular to thank Captain Paul Sawyer of the 
Gordon Best Company for his co-operation in preparing the glossary 
and reading the manuscript, as well as his colleagues, Frank Morr, 
Willard Stevens, Edwin Trizil and William C. Mottershead, for their 

The various advertising associations have been uniformly helpful. 
In particular, acknowledgment is due to Frederic Gamble and Rich 
ard Scheidker of the American Association of Advertising Agencies; 
Elon G. Borton, Advertising Federation of America; W. L. Witt, 
National Industrial Advertisers Association; Jane Bell, Direct Mail 
Advertising Association; Jean Flinner and Mrs. "Duffy" Schwartz of 
the Advertising Council; Frank Pellegrin, National Association of 
Broadcasters; A. E. Haase, Association of National Advertisers; A. W. 
Lehman, Advertising Research Foundation; Preston Reed, Financial 
Advertisers Association; the staffs of the Brand Names Foundation, 
Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Magazine Advertising 
Bureau, Audit Bureau of Circulations, Bureau of Advertising of 
American Newspaper Publishers Association, Associated Business 
Papers, Agricultural Publishers Association, Premium Advertising 
Association and the National Retail Dry Goods Association. 

In the publication field, H. W. Marks and Joel Lewis of Printers' 
Ink, Reg Clough of Tide, Robert Murray of Advertising Age, and 
F. C. Kendall of Advertising and Selling rendered invaluable assist 
ance. Individually, thanks are due also to Robert T. Kesner and E. F. 
Schmidt of American Home Foods, Inc.; James W. Young, Anson 
Lowitz and Kenneth Ward of J. Walter Thompson Company; to 
M. O. Lokensgard, Norman Heffron, Lawrence Valenstein, Vincent 
Clauson, Hal Makelim, Mary Koehler, Rosemary York, Howard 
Davidson, H. C. Persons and Will Cuppy. 

Robert J. Landry, author of This Fascinating Radio Business, gave 
liberally of his time. All four major radio networks, as well as innum- 

erable other media, supplied essential data. Professor George Burton 
Hotchkiss offered counsel that was indispensable. 

None of these authorities is cited in an attempt to disclaim respon 
sibility for the views expressed in this book. Every effort has been 
made to verify all statements of fact; their interpretation must be 
considered the author's own unless specific sources are quoted. 


ONE of the most fascinating things about advertising is its vernacu 
lar vivid, picturesque, but often unintelligible to the layman. In 
this book every effort has been made to avoid terms that are not self- 
explanatory. Understanding of a few key words, however, is essential 
to the reader. The following list is for the benefit of those unfamiliar 
with the basic processes of advertising. For a more complete view of 
advertising patois, a Glossary will be found in the back of the book. 

ADVERTISER any firm, institution or organization which seeks to 
stimulate the sale or use of its goods or services through advertising; 
usually known to its agency as "the Client." 

ADVERTISING ACCOUNT the total advertising program of an adver 
tiser, generally used in connection with its agency relationship. 
Thus, "The ABC Company has appointed the XYZ Agency to 
handle its account." 

ADVERTISING AGENCY an organization of specialists engaged in plan 
ning, preparing, placing and checking the accounts of a number of 
advertisers. Most agency compensation is in the form of a 15 per 
cent discount or "commission" allowed by media in which the 
advertising is placed. 

ART any illustrative or decorative material used in advertising; in 
cludes hand-lettered display lines, photographs and borders as well 
as drawings or paintings. 

CAMPAIGN a series of advertisements in various media, all related to 
the promotion of a specific product or service for a definite period 
of time. 

CIRCULATION total number of copies of a publication (per issue); 
in radio, estimated number of radio families listening to a station 
or network at a definite time. Also known as "coverage." 

COPY the headline and text of an advertisement; from the time- 
honored printer's term denoting the manuscript to be "copied" in 
setting type. 

CUT a printing plate. 

INSERTION each separate appearance of an advertisement. 

LAYOUT sketch showing the arrangement of elements in a proposed 

LINE (or "Agate Line") a measurement of advertising size: 1/14 of 
an inch in depth, one column in width. 

MEDIUM (plural, "Media") any advertising vehicle; also the com 
bined units in any particular branch of advertising. Thus maga 
zines collectively may be considered a medium; any individual 
magazine is also spoken of as a medium. 

NETWORK a group of radio stations joined by wire connections to 
broadcast programs simultaneously. Those supplying this service 
on a coast-to-coast basis include: National (NBC); Columbia 
(CBS); Mutual (MBS) and American (ABC). 

SCHEDULE list of media with specific date and time for each element 
in an advertising campaign. 


Book I 



II How IT ALL STARTED . f ^-^ . . . , v. r , -r *-< 25 





Book II 







Book III 



CONTENTS continued 


XV "WE'RE ON THE AIR!" . . . . . . . . ... 212 

XVI SIGNS OF THE TIMES ........... 240 



Book IV 


XX THEY CALL IT "Copy" 295 








Modern Advertising Rolls On . . . . . . . . Frontispiece 


Newspaper Advertisements of 100 Years Ago 30 

Magazine Promotion in Mid- Victorian Days 31 

How Advertising Overcomes Prejudice . . .. 46 

Advertisers Tie in with Brand Prestige . 47 

A Notable Pair of Mood-Creating Advertisements ..... 64 
How National Magazine Advertising Is "Merchandised" to Re 
tailers . . . 65 

Agency Media Directors Know Their Markets ...... 96 

One of a Famous Series 97 

How Department Store Ads Are Born ....; 100 

Up from the "Cracker Barrel" Days . . . . 101 

Association Advertising Sells an Idea ......... 124 

Crusading Copy That Jolted Readers into Action . . . . . 125 

How Advertisers "Merchandise" a Radio Program . . v . . 160 

Examples of Radio Station Promotion . . . . ^ . . . . 161 

"Minute Movies" Are Shown in Thousands of Theaters . . . ' 192 

A Classic Example of Institutional Advertising . . ... . . 193 

The Best Three Posters of 1946 . . , 196 

"3-Sheet" Posters Give Point-of-Purchase Identification . . . 197 
Car Card Copy Can Be Longer Than Outdoor Posters, but 

Must Tell a Simple, Direct Story .......... 220 

Telephone Directory Advertising Before and After . . . . 221 

Following Through on a Sampling Campaign . ... . . 224 

How Swift & Co. Sampled Its New Household Cleanser . .225 

Before and After in Package Redesigning 256 

Solving Various Packaging Problems . ..... . . . . 257 

Four Varied Illustrative Techniques in Modern Advertising . 288 

Three Stages in Ad-Making . . . . . . . ..... 289 

Wartime Advertising I and II . . . , * 320 

A Current Example of Advertising in Public Service .... 321 



ADVERTISING has a triple hold on the public imagination: as 
an occupation, as a continuous and kaleidoscopic show, as an 
integrated part of the American free enterprise system. 

Everybody has opinions about it. Everybody, at one time or an 
other, has used it and been used by it. And nearly everybody has 
given some thought, serious or otherwise, to adopting it as a career. 

Like the people of the theater, the movies or the daily press, the 
folks who work in advertising sometimes seem to the laity to move in 
a world apart. A spate of recent best sellers has helped intensify this 
illusion. The young advertising man or woman is after a million- 
dollar account. He gets a sensational idea. Through ruses and 
strategems he sells it to the grouchy old client. Boom! Success! What 
matter that in the book this triumph is spurned at the moment of 
realization? The author has underscored the popular belief that ad 
vertising is a mysterious wonderland full of March Hares and Mad 
Hatters, where gold galore waits at the note of a singing jingle. 

Actually the people who plan, create and produce advertising are 
no more glamorous than your next door neighbor. To them adver 
tising is a living sometimes exciting, frequently hectic, but in the net 
a breakfast-to-supper job and not a role in a Clark Gable film. 

Why, then, this notion that admen and women are in the same 
class as movie stars or jazz musicians, newspaper reporters or airline 
pilots, as candidates for the title of "dream-job" holders? Why should 
the doing of advertising work seem more thrilling than that of store- 
keeping or punch pressing or insurance selling? 

The explanation is simple. It is the business of advertising to 
fascinate people, in the literal sense of "to allure and hold intent, espe 
cially by qualities that charm: to interest or captivate by an irresistible 
influence." Thus Mr. Webster's New International defines the verb. 
With reservations, this explanation of the way to fascinate can be 
accepted as an accurate statement of what advertising is supposed to 



accomplish. The better the ad, the more it allures and holds the at 
tention, whether by qualities that charm or those that startle. Cer 
tainly every creator or sponsor of an advertising message hopes that 
it will prove irresistible. 

Some ads do this better than others. But whatever an ad's objec 
tives, the worst thing that can happen to it is to be ignored. Since 
it voluntarily seeks the spotlight, the advertising business as conducted 
by its practitioners can have no complaint if it is subject to the normal 
amount of envy, distrust, abuse, misconstruing of motives and other 
typical human reactions to public characters. Nor should the fra 
ternity feel too surprised because everybody (to borrow Jimmy 
Durante's phrase) wants to get into the act. 

Indeed, with the efficiency and thoroughness of today's advertising, 
one must be conscious of it continually. How can any American 
avoid being aware of it? He is engulfed by advertising from the mo 
ment he turns on the radio for the morning time signals and opens 
the breakfast paper until he drops off to sleep reading an ad-crowded 
magazine. Meanwhile he has received circulars via the postman, 
seen posters en route to his bus, subway or commuter's train, looked 
at car cards on his way to work, passed innumerable window displays. 
Should he seek recreation at the theater he is apt to find ads in the 
program; at the cinema, "minute movies" extolling the virtues of 
various products; at the ball park, more ads on his score card. He 
looks up and sees a skywriter reminding him of Pepsi-Cola or Phillips 
66. The signboards he overlooked during the day are illuminated after 
dark to trap his unwary eye. The advertising men are right: America 
is "blanketed" with advertising. 

Yet by and large the country does not resent this unending intru 
sion of selling words, pictures, sounds. It is very generally understood 
that advertising pays the bills for a large part of our national enter 
tainment and increasingly accepted that advertising has had much 
to do with present standards of health, economic security, comfort 
and convenience. 

This does not mean that everybody likes all advertising. Certain 
forms of oral and printed salesmanship have come in for sharp criti 
cism. Copy that is deliberately misleading, illustrations that are of 
fensive to public decency and good taste are approved by no one. 
Advertising men themselves, as will be explained in subsequent chap 
ters, were the first to challenge deceptive and objectionable uses of 


their craft. But one may dislike some kind of food and still be very 
much in favor of eating! 

That in itself is one of the fascinations of advertising: the fact that 
antipathy toward a particular technique or theme does not necessarily 
make it ineffective. On numerous occasions studies have shown that 
large sections of the populace were outwardly opposed to some 
specific advertising appeal yet the products promoted by that appeal 
were leaders in sales. For years a certain female radio announcer led 
every voice on the air in unpopularity polls. For the same period her 
sponsor's business showed consistent gains year after year. And con 
versely, many programs and periodical campaigns which have been 
widely admired and praised have proved to be box-office poison and 
brought in no orders. Advertisements that exhaust every superlative 
in describing an article seldom arouse more than a yawn of disbelief. 
But let some merchant frankly announce that he has a bunch of 
"cats and dogs" that no sane person would possibly want and his store 
will be packed with buyers. 

These are extreme examples, of course. The great bulk of success 
ful advertising is friendly and informative and sells by persuasion, 
not by bullying, and definitely not by antagonizing the reader or 
listener. The procedure can never quite be standardized, however, so 
long as human nature retains its element of unpredictability. 

Advertising has other fascinations for the person who plans to 
make a career in it and for the objective observer as well. The pro 
fessional ad man or woman finds satisfaction in its creative aspects. 
There is tangible evidence of creation an advertisement seen in a 
newspaper, a poster along the boulevard, a voice coming over the 
air things in which he has had a part; and there is also the knowl 
edge of having influenced people constructively when the advertised 
product or service is one that makes a positive contribution to society. 
And today, with the world still disorganized from the effects of war, 
with the welfare of so many millions abroad dependent on America's 
maintaining full employment, he may feel that stimulating the flow 
of business is a far from insignificant contribution. 

The pages to come will explain how the technique of mass in 
fluence, developed in America far more professionally and scientifi 
cally than in any other land, was dedicated to the task of winning the 
war, and how it is now being devoted to many broad problems of in 
dividual and community betterment. Before this happened, adver- 


tising had provided the impetus for virtually all the material progress 
of this country over the 75 years between the end of the Civil War 
and the beginning of World War II. 

It was an age of invention and technological growth. Advertising 
took new things from obscurity to universal acceptance. Drudgery, 
back-bending toil, was largely eliminated from the home, the store, 
the factory and the farm. Again advertising had a significant part. 
Decade by decade the nation's health, life expectancy, literacy, 
housing, means of transportation improved steadily. Work hours were 
shortened, wages increased, educational and cultural opportunities 
opened to millions who might never have known such benefits with 
out the influence of advertising. 

Some may argue that none of these gains can be traced directly 
to advertising, since its sole purpose during the era was as a sales- 
builder, a profit-maker. This is true. There can be no advertising 
without an advertiser. And except in rare cases no advertiser will 
spend his money in promoting a product unless he sees better than an 
even chance of getting that money back with interest. Since the 
earliest times advertising has been used with a frankly selfish purpose: 
Buy my goods or services instead of the other fellow's. This candid 
pursuit of profit led, and still leads, to many abuses. It is the chief 
target of those who would make advertising, trade-marks and brand 
names the whipping boys for any and all shortcomings in our eco 
nomic system. 

Granted, then, that America's social gains were mere by-products 
of advertising, the fact remains that they were made. Further, the 
rate of progress, the breadth and depth of penetration of these better 
things were far greater in this country where advertising had become 
so much a part of business activity than anywhere else. In the Euro 
pean mind the "American Way of Life" became synonymous largely 
with the free enterprise system and free enterprise cannot exist with 
out competitive selling. 

Advertising has substantially underwritten the editorial and print 
ing costs of our national magazines, the world's finest in physical ap 
pearance, in service to readers, in coverage of world events and do 
mestic trends, in interpretation of modern life. It eliminated the need 
of subsidies. It gave the editors freedom to speak up. To the news 
papers of America advertising has brought equal freedom, a chance to 
perfect all manner of mechanical improvements, including color print- 


ing, halftone illustrations, amazing speed, as well as an endless variety 
of features. 

Commercial sponsorship of radio has made it possible for 37,000,000 
American families to hear the latest news virtually as it happens. 
Companies with goods to sell found radio a powerful aid, and the 
means was furnished to bring into 96 out of every 100 homes the 
finest symphony concerts, the great operas, the actual voices of leaders 
in education, religion, government and the arts. It has played host 
at thousands of historic events. Throughout the war it helped to 
finance the world- wide entertainment of our armed forces. 

Mass transportation owes much of its stature to advertising. With 
out it the automobile undoubtedly would have remained a million 
aire's monopoly. Without auto license fees and gasoline taxes we 
should never have had the thousands of miles of paved roads that 
link the states into an ever closer community. Travel by rail, bus, 
steamship and air has been popularized through constant advertis 
ing not only by the carriers but by hotels, resorts, cities and states 
seeking to woo the tourist. From this continual flow of people has 
come a firm feeling of kinship between the regions of our country, 
helping to integrate our nation in times of crisis. 

Never before in history have so many people bought so many books 
as in America during the past 25 years. Book publishers are con 
sistent advertisers. 

Few American publications carry no advertising. Among them is 
Reader's Digest, said to have a circulation of over 8,000,000. But the 
Digest is a consistent advertiser, using direct mail and other media to 
solicit subscriptions. And its international editions all have a sizable 
advertising revenue. Many of the articles featured in the Digest are 
reprinted from periodicals owing their existence largely to advertise 

In the field of health, advertising popularized soap and bathtubs, 
clean teeth and properly fitted glasses. Today's youngsters are taller, 
huskier, will live longer than their parents on an average at least in 
part because of consistent merchandising of milk, orange juice, fresh 
and canned fruits, refrigeration and other aids to better balanced 

When the American fleet was bombed at Pearl Harbor and the na 
tion found itself fighting against enemies who had been preparing for 
years, advertising was ready to help speed the mobilization of the 125,- 


000,000 who stayed at home. Totalitarian countries kept their civilians 
in line by edicts or fear propaganda. Americans demanded and got 
the truth. Then they buckled down and did the job in the demo 
cratic way, voluntarily. The victory was that of a free, informed citi 
zenry, guided in its co-operation by that familiar voice of free enter 
prise, advertising. 

Fascinating? The more one learns about the workings of this vital 
human agency we call advertising, the more fascinating it becomes. 

One point should be clarified. This book is not designed as a 
"defense" of advertising. As well talk about defending electricity. Ad 
vertising is a force, and its results depend on how it is used. It has 
always existed and in one form or another will continue to exist. 
Herman Wouk expressed the views of many advertising men in his 
popular 1947 novel, Aurora Dawn, through the words of his remark 
able character, Father Standfield: 

They is some wild-eyed folks likes to holler, "Abolish advertisinV 
Shucks tryin' to stop advertisin' in this land is like tryin' to stop freckles 
with a rubber eraser. Maybe in these here countries where the gov'ment 
makes everythin' and hands out everythin' and runs everythin' they 
don't have no such problem, but as long as you got different fellers 
makin' and sellin' the same thing and tryin' to beat each other at it yer 
gonna have 'em hangin' out signs. That's all advertisin' is, in radio, 
magazines, it don't matter none where, it's all the same thing hangin' 
out signs.* 

Is There an "Advertising Business"? 

While the title of this book seems fully justified as far as the word 
"fascinating" is concerned, it might be considered a misnomer in con 
veying the impression that advertising is a separate business. Some 
$3,000,000,000 was invested in various forms of advertising in 1946. 
Yet this total is small by comparison with the money spent on per 
sonal selling and dwarfed by the outlay for raw materials, labor and 
machinery. Still, one seldom hears references to "the sales business" 
or "the production business." Why then talk of "the advertising 
business" as if it were a separate trade or industry? In reality adver 
tising is not a business, but an inseparable part of all business. 

If advertising is not a business, what is it? Enthusiasts have called 

* Herman Wouk, Aurora Dawn (Simon & Schuster, 1947). Quoted by permission 
of the author. 


it a science, an art, a profession. Cynics have dubbed it a racket, a 
game, a parasitical growth. Every description has been true and false. 

Many advertising men today are fully as professional in their ap 
proach to the job as the doctor, lawyer or educator. Year by year 
the practice of advertising has become increasingly scientific. And 
from an artistic point of view tremendous progress has been made. 
But advertising, because of its integration with trade and commerce, 
can never be wholly professional; because it deals with so many un 
predictable factors it cannot be reduced to an exact science; and even 
its "artiest" devotees recognize the need of far greater compromise 
with expediency than is necessary in the field of fine arts. 

What about the negative side? 

The phrase, "the advertising game," isn't heard so much as it used 
to be, but it still crops up occasionally in the conversation of lay 
men or of dilettantes looking for an easy road to riches. However, 
anything in which hard-headed business men invest billions each year 
can scarcely be called a "game." Few advertising men get very far un 
less they take their work seriously and study it constantly. Adver 
tising may look easy; in reality it is one of the most complex and de 
manding vocations of the day. 

There are racketeers in advertising, unfortunately, just as in every 
other legitimate occupation. This does not mean that all advertising 
or even any considerable portion of it is a racket. Legitimate adver 
tisers were the first to recognize the need for cleaning house. As far 
back as 1905 the ad men of America had resolved to "expose fraudu 
lent schemes and their perpetrators." The Printers' Ink model statute, 
first promulgated in 1911, has been made into law in virtually every 
state; it is an all-inclusive safeguard against untrue, deceptive or mis 
leading advertising. And it was originated and carried through largely 
by advertising men. 

Almost every city has its Better Business Bureau to protect the con 
sumer against racketeers in retail trade. More often than not, local 
admen will be found serving as officers or directors without pay as 
their part in helping to keep advertising clean. 

No, it is as unfair to call all advertising a racket because of occa 
sional illegal or unethical usage as to call all medicine quackery on 
account of a few charlatans. 

The question of whether advertising is or is not a "parasitical 
growth" will be discussed in Chapter V. It is necessary here only to 
note that not even the most extreme opponents of advertising favor 


its abolition in all forms. So once again the general condemnation is 

Perhaps having gone the full round, the best single word to de 
scribe advertising is the one with which we started. Recognizing its 
inaccuracy and its limitations, "the advertising business" comes closer 
to embracing our subject than any other term we might select. 

The Purpose of This Book 

It has already been stated that this volume, one of a series covering 
broad fields of American industry and commerce*, is not a "defense" 
of advertising. If the author errs on that score, charge it to his zest 
for an occupation which after 25 years still impresses him as the 
most fascinating. 

Neither is this an instruction manual or a streamlined course on 
how to become a success in advertising. 

Rather, it is proposed to take the reader behind the scenes in ad 
vertising to give something of its history, growth and present status, 
to introduce some of its colorful personalities, to discuss its place in 
our economy and to explain briefly how modern advertising is 
planned, produced, distributed and checked. 

In 400-odd pages it is impossible to cover all of the fascinating 
and significant facts of advertising or to mention the innumerable 
people who have contributed to its astonishing development. But 
from this peek backstage it is hoped that even the reader least fa 
miliar with the field will get a clearer understanding of the why, who, 
how, what and where of advertising. 

Instead of calling this a behind-the-scenes view, we might say the 
book provides a look under the hood of a big motor truck, represent 
ing American business, of which advertising is the electrical system. 
Certainly advertising supplies the spark that makes the whole machine 
run. Often it is also the self-starter. Advertising provides the lights 
that enable folks to see the machine, as well as helping those inside to 
steer a straight course. In its ability to retain the good will of present 
customers and to add new ones, advertising is both the storage battery 
and the generator of business. 

And who can deny that it is the horn? 

* This Fascinating Railroad Business, by Robert Selph Henry ; This Fascinating 
Lumber Business, by Stanley F. Horn; This Fascinating Oil Business, by Max W. 
Ball; This Fascinating Radio Business, by Robert J. Landry. 


THOUSANDS of years ago men who had something to trade or sell 
had discovered the power of advertising to attract possible 
customers. Ancient shopkeepers used symbolic signs to indicate 
what kind of goods they were offering, for few people could read. So 
what we know today as point-of-sale advertising was undoubtedly the 
first form of trade promotion. Nor has the employment of such sym 
bols entirely died out. Some of us still recall the colorful statues of 
Indians without which no cigar store was once considered to be in 
business. The classic examples of symbolic signs are, of course, the 
red-and- white barber pole and the pawnbroker's three gilded balls. 

Thanks to the wonders of neon tubing, we are seeing a revival of 
symbolic store identification. The jeweler hangs out a giant illumi 
nated watch or diamond ring. The optician displays a pair of spec 
tacles. The bowling alley proprietor goes even farther and has an 
animated sign in which a neon bowler swings a ball, sends it twinkling 
on its way and scores a perfect strike every time. 

Those ancient tradesmen soon learned, however, that a sign over 
the door was not enough; it merely interested the passers-by who were 
already in need of the particular article it displayed. Moreover, there 
was no assurance that the prospect might not happen to see a com 
petitor's sign first. So the practice of having "barkers" outside the 
shop was a natural development. A goodly number of such gentry 
still ply their ancient art at Coney Island, on the Atlantic City board 
walk, at sideshows and even along Forty-second Street in New York 
City. The radio store or movie theater that has a loudspeaker above 
the entrance merely applies modern electronics to one of the oldest 
business-getting devices known to man. 

Probably the next stage in the evolution of advertising was the 
sending out of "criers." A merchant who had just received a fresh 
caravan of fancy items might hire somebody to wander through the 
city broadcasting the fact to the populace. In Greece the public crier 
was a figure of importance, impressive in appearance and suavely 
persuasive in speech. He often announced a forthcoming auction. 



Not only is the radio announcer of today the direct descendant of 
this ancient spellbinder, but there is even a closer parallel the old 
Greek criers were frequently accompanied by musicians. To make 
the comparison still more pat, in early Egypt the crier sang or chanted 
his sales messages. Who said "singing commercials" are something 

Shop signs, barkers and criers continued to form the chief means of 
sales promotion during Roman and medieval times. Another medium 
gradually came into use, the public notice which was called a "si quis" 
because it customarily began with the Latin phrase "Si quis" meaning 
"If anyone." In the case of a lost article the handbill would start, "If 
anyone knows"; when goods were being offered, the heading would 
read, "If anyone desires." The term si quis was used for centuries 
in England long before the appearance of the word "advertise 
ment" in its present meaning of commercial announcement. Eliza 
bethan dramatists wrote about the si quis, but to them an "advertise 
ment" was either a piece of news or a warning. Perhaps they weren't 
so far wrong, even in the modern sense! 

Enter the Printing Press 

With the invention of printing from movable types, reputedly by 
one Johannes Gutenberg just about 500 years ago, advertising as we 
know it today really had its start. Printing led to widespread literacy, 
helped break down the barriers of ignorance and fear, played an im 
portant role in virtually every phase of modern civilization including, 
of course, the newspaper and magazine. 

The first printed advertisement in English is presumed to have been 
a small handbill from the press of William Caxton, issued in 1480 on 
behalf of a religious book, The Pyes of Salisbury "pyes" being a set 
of rules for conducting Easter services. Newspapers came more slowly. 
Not until 1612 did the first one appear: Le Journal General d' Affiches, 
in Paris. It is believed to have consisted chiefly of classified advertise 
ments, legal and public notices, although no copies are in existence. 
Nevertheless, it continued to be issued and over 300 years later, under 
the title of Les Petites Afjiches ("Little Announcements"), it was still 

In England newspapers began to make their appearance about the 
time the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. These periodicals were 


known often as "mercuries." What is said to be the first newspaper 
advertisement in England appeared on the back page of one of these 
crude journals in 1625 and, like the Caxton handbill, offered a book 
for sale. This volume dealt with the marriage of Prince Charles, soon 
to be King Charles I, and Princess Henrietta Maria of France, and the 
advertisement concluded with the punch line that the book contained 
a "liuely (sic) Picture of the Prince and the Lady cut in Brasse." 

Books continued to be the chief advertised product for some time 
although the vendors of cures and nostrums soon discovered the new 
medium. The first advertisement for coffee is found in a 1652 Mer 
cury. In 1666, the year of the great London fire, the Gazette of that 
city announced that it was so pressed for space regarding announce 
ments of "books, medicines and other things not properly the busi 
ness of a paper of intelligence," that henceforth all advertisements 
would appear in a separate supplement. 

Use of the word "advertisement" to identify paid items in the news 
papers had become common by 1650. For utilitarian reasons, present- 
day advertising men who have to struggle with this cumbersome 
thirteen-letter word heartily regret its choice. It is far too long for 
our streamlined speech, and almost impossible to fit into a headline. 
Besides which, there is confusion as to its pronunciation. Webster 
gives advertisement as the preferred method, but hedges by including 
advertize'ment as an option, adding the comment: "especially in 
U. S." It is one of those ee-ther or eye-ther words! 

For all practical purposes the single syllable "ad" is quite accept 
able, though scowled upon by purists. Whenever possible one dodges 
the issue by talking about "advertising," which is shorter and a lot 
easier to say. But how often ad men wish that those pioneers back 
in 1650 had picked out some nice little, simple term comparable to 

With the restoration of Charles II in 1660, newspapers and ad 
vertising gained new impetus. Merchants recognized the value of paid 
space for certain types of selling. However it was not until the time 
of John Houghton, "the father of publication advertising," that much 
attention was paid to making advertisements anything more than 
mere announcements. 

Houghton was the publisher of a weekly trade sheet and price list, 
started in 1692, A Collection for the Improvement of Husbandry and 
Trade. Not content with merely accepting such ads as came to him 


(as modern space-selling parlance has it) "over the transom," he 
began to insert little items suggesting that various products might be 
effectively promoted through his columns. For example, he wrote: 
"Whether advertisements of schools or houses and lodgings about 
London may be useful, I submit to those concerned." Evidently the 
appeal succeeded, for soon he was printing enough of such messages 
to declare: "I now find advertisements of schools, houses and lodgings 
in and about London are thought useful." 

He had a conversational style of writing that seemed to take the 
reader into his confidence and impart news of special importance 
rather than bluntly trying to sell something. We can see a modern 
counterpart of this technique in the "shoppers' columns" currently 
popular. One of these, "Buy-Lines by Nancy Sasser," now appears in 
some 75 newspapers with over 12,000,000 circulation and has num 
bered among its blue-chip clients such important national adver 
tisers as Frigidaire, General Mills, Hormel, Swift, Heinz, Schlitz, 
Cream of Wheat and Carey's Salt. 

The comparatively recent concept that the periodical publisher 
should stand back of his advertisements with his personal guarantee 
of satisfaction was foreshadowed 250 years ago by Hough ton in ad 
vertising copy like this: 

I have met with a curious (i.e., expert) gardener that will furnish 
anybody that sends to me for fruit trees, and floreal shrubs, and garden 
seeds. I have made him promise with all solemnity that whatever he 
sends shall be purely good, and I verily believe he may be depended on. 

Here in primitive form is the same type of appeal seen today in the 
use of a publisher's endorsement of a product. Good Housekeeping, 
for instance, after tests in its own laboratories, permits approved ad 
vertisers to insert in their copy and on their labels an oval seal bearing 
the words: "Replacement or refund of money guaranteed by Good 
Housekeeping if defective or not as advertised therein." 

Unfortunately, few advertisers or publishers felt this sense of public 
responsibility. In 1710, The Tatler was moved to complain: 

Advertisements are used to inform the World where they may be 
furnished with almost everything that is necessary for Life. If a Man 
has Pains in his head, Cholic in his Bowels, or spots in his Cloathes, he 
may here meet with proper Cures and Remedies. If a Man would re- 


cover a Wife or a Horse that is stolen or strayed; if he wants new Ser 
mons, Electuaries [medicines], Asses' milk or anything else, either for 
his Body or his Mind, this is the place to look for them in. 

The same writer also declared that advertisements were being used 
by men of small achievements in order to have their names printed 
alongside the names of kings and statesmen. Could that be why so 
many ads of the Victorian era, before the days of big corporations, 
featured a picture of the company's full-bearded founder like the 
Smith brothers of coughdrop fame? 

Fifty years after The Tatler, in 1760, Dr. Samuel Johnson spoke his 
mind about advertising of that day with caustic words that still stand 
as a challenge to every copy writer and account executive: 

Whatever is common is despised. Advertisements are now so numer 
ous that they are very negligently perused, and it is therefore become 
necessary to gain attention by magnificence of promises, and by elo 
quence sometimes sublime and sometimes pathetick. Promise, large 
promise, is the soul of an advertisement. 

But, he adds, "there are some [advertisers] that know the prejudice 
of mankind in favour of modest sincerity." And right there the 
learned doctor uttered what the brash 1920's used to call "a mouth 
ful." More than one modern advertiser has refused to be deluded by 
the idea that it is necessary to gain attention "by magnificence of 
promise," and has built an enduring business on public confidence as 
a result. 

Early Advertising in America 

Neither Captain John Smith, in his expedition to Virginia in 1607, 
nor the Mayflower, which reached Plymouth in 1620, carried a print 
ing press, though Mexico and Peru, Spanish colonies, both had presses 
in the sixteenth century. It was not until 1638 that Britain saw fit 
to ship one to Massachusetts as a gift to Harvard University. For the 
next half century the only printing permitted was religious in char 
acter. Then in 1690 the first newspaper appeared. Entitled Publick 
Occurences both Foreign and Domestick, it was promptly suppressed 
after one issue. Not until 1704 did another appear. The Boston News 


Letter, a dull and stodgy sheet by all accounts, consisted mostly of 
articles lifted from London papers of many months back. But its 
issue of May 1-8 contained, according to Frank Presbrey,* the first 
paid advertisements published in America. One offered a reward for 
the capture of a thief and the return of clothing; another for the re 
turn of two anvils which had been "taken up" from a wharf; the third 
advertised the sale of a mill, houses and farm at Oyster Bay, Long 

In 1721 James Franklin, older brother of Benjamin, started the 
New England Courant and soon landed in jail for his outspoken 
views. Ben ran the paper while his brother was incarcerated and got 
enough experience so that, after he moved to Philadelphia, he helped 
start The Universal Instructor in All the Arts and Sciences and Penn 
sylvania Gazette in 1728. Soon Benjamin took over, shortened the 
name to Pennsylvania Gazette and thereby earned the right to have 
his picture printed every week on the editorial masthead of The Sat 
urday Evening Post, which traces its source back to Ben's original 

Franklin believed in the use of white space, display headlines and 
illustrations, in contrast with other American papers of that era, in 
which all matter, both news and advertising, was set solid and with 
out any breathing space. He is credited with the introduction of 
"stock cuts," standard illustrations of certain common situations, 
which Cobb Shinn and other firms of today still find in demand by 
advertisers who do not wish to go to the expense of special art and 

The Pennsylvania Gazette carried, among other things, advertise 
ments of the stove Benjamin Franklin had invented as well as ads for 
runaway slaves, lottery tickets and several patent medicines such as 
"Seneka Rattlesnake Root," none of which would be acceptable now 
adays. Franklin also pioneered in enlarging his paper from the stand 
ard two columns to a three-column sheet. He showed an independ 
ence of tradition and a willingness to experiment with new, untried 
forms that fully justified his fame, in later years, as one of the creative 
thinkers of all time. 

Daily newspapers had already appeared in England when the first 
American daily, the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, made 

* Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (Doubleday- 
Doran, 1929), p. 126. Quoted by permission of Mrs. Frank Presbrey. 


Bailey's Infalible^elliod ol 
Pleasuring the Head. 

Gentlemen in the 1 
country wishing losup I 
ply themselves with a 1 sending 1 he mea 1 
snrjof I heir head, cati || 
^ secure a sure fit of W* fl 
* BAILEY. Wig Makef j 
and Lady'sOrnamental | 
Hair Manufacturer No, || 
73 lark street,opposita || 
the Court House. 

An elegant assortment;!? 
of Orrfamental Hair aUf 
T* ways on hand. 
"*\ ' No. Inchet 

Fig, 1, round the head,- 

Fig 2, from the forehead to the nape of 

ihc neck, 
Fig 3, across >he crown of ihe head, to 

tine front of the ear. 
Fig. 4, ncrosp the to|> of the head frnra 

the tip of one ear to the other, 
jf. B- Gentleman wishing their hair cut or I 
llressed lo look perfect, wHl do well to try. W. I 
JAIZ-EY'S Mathematical System of Culling 1 
Ithe hair. 

AllgUStlS H, lyng 

4 Opposition is the Life of Trad*/ 

GOSS & HO AG would in form their Cus 
tomers, and the Citizens of Chicago genera!-! 
ly, that they have established an Express*' tbf | 
the purpose of forwarding, free of charge, Gro| 
cerics, and Provisions purchased of them, to any| 
part of the City. They will keep on hand, M all! 
times, a full and desirable Stock of Family firo| 
cerips and Provisions, and all articles bought of 
them, are warranted to p!e.a6e. 

Orders and memorandums may be given to th*| 
Driver and will be promptly atlended to.\ 
J)o't forget the number, No. 1 1 Clark SL 

July 27, 1843. 


tCT All the Medicines advertised fcy W. B. B'oi 
are sold by Merchant*, Druggists. Ate.* netrJv evert 
towrf m all the Western States. ^ 

Notice to the Sick. 

Pe rsons wanting any kind of Popular Family M 
dicenes.are advised to go to W. B. Sloan'n Medical 
Uepot ISo. 40 Lake street, and they will find them 
PURE and the very loweit price*. 1 
The fame o tins establishment has extended far and 
wide, and ms to h extending in popularity everr 
i day. Fam *, Merchants, Druggists and dealer* in 
! medicines are thronging it from every part of th4^ 
i country, and obtaining supplies 

O See advertisements lo our eolumn8.,Tfl[ 

liberal Offer. 

.^NY person that furnishes me, bpfbre the Isl? 
day of next August, the facts in reference to th 
j most Extraordinary Cure, effected by the use of myi 
Ointment, shall receive a premium of Ten DoUari. 
I and for tbf. second most extraordinary cure, Fiv 
Dollars; third. Two Dollars; fourth, Ont Dollar, and! 
fifth, a oOc. box of the Ointment. Address, poti-veuL 

Feb. 1, 1849. Chicago, Illinois. I 

CHANCE. 100 enterprising ybunj men 
of good habits wanted to operate in different para 
of the Western- States. The best assurance wUl be! 
given that each one can with a cash capital of from 
$50 to g200, make in one year from #250 to j 1.030 
clear profit. 

We don't want you to lake our word for It, tntt cafl 
and see for yourselves. 

In order to obtain a full description of the business. 
and mode of operation; personal application is aeees* 
sary. W.B.SLOAN, 

oct 18 N. 40, Luke St. Chicago 

Dr. Brarh' Book* and /iedicin es. 

IHcAlite>' All-Healing Ointment nni 

flair Oil. 

COLO Wholesale and Retail at the proprietor'!, 
Lowest Prictt by W. B. SLOAK, Genial Agent, 
No. 40, Lake street, Chicago oct 18 


Dental Surgeon, 

Would respectfully inform lli cit-|8 
izcns of Chicago and vicinity, tliat 
he has located at 9G Lak street, 
\ opposite the 5tage Office, whore- he- will at A LL|| 
IMOURS attend to business in the line of his profes-f || 
bion. Teeth filled with gold, and warranted foraj. 
Ilife, and alt 'other operations in DentM Surgeryl 
^performed in a judicious and satisfactory manner. 
I For recommendations the subscriber would refer 
; to specimens of his skill iu the dental art at his 


sprinted from the Centennial Edition of The Chicago Tribune, June 10, 
947. All advertising was restricted to a single column width and small body 


1000 $75 Sewing Machines. 

One to be given to every person 


Hitchcock's New Monthly Magazine 


Instead of expending a large amount of money in advertising our MAGAZINE, we propose to use the 
mount in purchasing Sewing Machines, to be given gratuitously to those who will personally exhibit a 
copy and secure us 25 subscribers at $3 00 each for one year. We are induced to pursue this course because 
we believe that the MAGAZINE has sufficient merit to commend itself wherever shown, and we prefer to 
obtain a utill larger circulation at once through the exertions of live agents, rather than pursue ix long course 
of advertising (at great expense), and waiting a long time for the MAGAZINE to find its way b'y thnt chan 
nel Into households which would gladly welcome it to-day. Therefore we offer a first-class $75 00 Sewing 
Machine to each person who will send'us $75 00 and the names of 25 subscribers to cur MAGAZINE for 
the year 1870. Those who accept our proposition are requested to notify us at once, by mail, enclosing 
the amount (25 cents each) for the specimen copies they dc-ire-one or more. 

Those unacquainted with us can deposit the money at their Express Office (to be paid upon receipt 
of the Sewing Machine), at the same time sending us the list of subscribers and the receipt of the Ex- 

*" A *" 1 *" "* ""-* BENJ. W. HITCHCOCK, Publisher, 

24 Beekman -Street, New York. 

Courtesy Willard E. Stevens, owner of Harper's Weekly 


This early scheme for building circulation is interesting because of its typo 
graphic style, quaint woodcut illustration and stilted phraseology. With com 
plete inconsistency, the publisher announces that he is offering the premiums 
"instead of expending a large amount of money in advertising." 


its debut in 1784. Of its 16 columns, ten were devoted to advertising 
including the entire front page. The New York Advertiser started a 
year later, with a rate of three shillings per advertisement. This latter 
paper had the distinction, in 1789, of inciting an order for a suit from 
President Washington in response to an advertisement. Also signifi 
cant in this newspaper was an advertisement from one J. Jacob Astor, 
offering for sale an assortment of "Piano Fortes made by the best 
makers in London," as well as stating, "He gives Cash for all kinds of 
Furs." The founder of one of America's greatest fortunes was an ad 
vertiser in the first year of the republic. 

By 1810 there were over 350 newspapers and magazines in the 
United States, but their circulation was small. Advertising was still 
a very haphazard matter. A common practice was to charge the ad 
vertiser a fixed sum, such as $40 per year, which included his subscrip 
tion and an ad in every issue. A newspaper with a circulation of 2,000 
copies was unusual. As against this, however, the advertiser could 
feel sure that those who received the paper would go through it 
column by column, not missing a single item. Readership ratings on 
those sheets of a century ago were undoubtedly very high! 

Inventions played an important part in the growth of American in 
dustry, and its handmaiden, advertising. Whitney's cotton gin in 
1794 led to the development of a native textile industry. Fulton's 
steamboat in 1807 provided a new, swift means of transporting 
manufactured goods and also newspapers. The invention of the 
Fourdrinier paper-making machine in 1803, making possible the large- 
scale production of paper, led directly to the cheap newspaper. From 
an average of six cents per copy, the price suddenly dropped as the 
New York Sun brought out a daily edition in 1833 for one cent. The 
success of this low price was instantaneous. In one year the Sun's 
circulation rose to 10,000 copies daily; in two years it had passed the 
20,000 mark, comfortably ahead of any other paper in the world, in 
cluding the London Times, which had 17,000 circulation. The steam- 
operated printing press provided rapid production, and soon the steam 
locomotive was to supply the means of carrying newspapers far and 

Across the years, advertising media have been quick to adopt new 
methods. When faster, better methods of reproduction are developed, 
the ad men take them up. For instance, when Ben Day, son of the 
founder of the New York Sim, devised a mechanical shading process 


for printing plates, its earliest acceptance was by advertisers. This 
process is still very widely used. Similarly, the linotype and other 
machines for setting up type matter owe much of their present popu 
larity to a ready acceptance by the advertising fraternity. 

The Industrial Age and Barnum 

Thus far the only advertising we have considered has been retail 
in nature, because no other kind was being done. The modern 
strategy of creating consumer preference for a particular brand of 
merchandise and thereby getting dealers to handle it was still un 
known. National media were nonexistent. What few manufacturers 
America had in 1800 disposed of their products direct to users or 
through near-by dealers. The Yankee chapman or peddler, with a 
pack on his back or a wagon loaded with goods, was the forerunner of 
our present-day system of national distribution but he depended on 
his glib tongue rather than on any previously inspired acceptance of 
his wares through the printed word. 

American industry received its first great impetus during the Na 
poleonic Wars. In 1808 Jefferson put an embargo on British and 
French imports, forcing the native manufacture of such things as 
textiles. By the end of the War of 1812 many new industries were 
flourishing, and protective tariffs were enacted in their behalf. The 
value of American-made goods trebled in the 25 years following the 
first embargo decree, and the age of homecrafts was over. 

While the foundation for the industrial era was being laid, a new 
type of advertising was blossoming in a totally different field that 
of showmanship. It was to have a profound effect on the attitude of 
businessmen toward advertising for many years; in fact, its influence 
is far from dead today. This was the gaudy, flamboyantly sensational 
style of promotion whose proud parent became the master showman 
of the age: Phineas T. Barnum. 

Beginning with lurid handbills to help sell lottery tickets, Barnum 
found his true sphere in 1835 when he first exhibited Joice Heth, a 
Negress alleged to be 160 years old and the former slave of George 
Washington's father. Barnum's ballyhoo methods, using posters, 
circulars, newspaper ads and publicity, attracted swarms of the cynical 
a< well as the credulous. Joice Heth cost him $1,000 and at the height 


of his campaign the weekly "take" was well over that figure. When she 
died after a year or so, a post-mortem showed her to be not over 80, 
and Barnum's fortunes declined. At one point he was reduced to 
writing ads for a Bowery theater at $4.00 a week. Even there he tossed 
extravagant adjectives around in a style hitherto reserved for patent- 
medicine advertisers. 

Like a true promoter, Barnum bounced back from his lean years 
and in 1842 got control of the American Museum in New York. He 
gave it a "grand opening" equal to any Hollywood premiere of the 
present day, with lights blazing from the roof, a band playing, bril 
liantly colored paintings covering the facade, banners strung across 
the street, sandwich men, and a virtual barrage of press-agent stunts. 
Inside of a year he had paid off the purchase price. 

"I knew when I started," Barnum wrote afterward, "that every 
dollar spent in advertising would bring back ten." 

It was such statements, coupled with his extraordinary success as 
a showman, that caused even the most conservative and tight-fisted 
businessmen to loosen their purse strings and spend money on all sorts 
of wild promotional ideas. The sponsors of these ideas lacked Bar- 
num's uncanny ability to sense popular tastes and reactions as well 
as his genius for timing. As a result, when these harebrained schemes 
failed, the whole advertising field caught the blame. In reality most 
of what Barnum called "advertising" was something entirely differ 
ent either sublimated press-agentry or some novel form of attracting 
attention that had no possible application in the business world. 

Barnum's greatest triumphs were the presentation of a midget 
whom he named "General Tom Thumb" and the concert tour of the 
Swedish Nightingale, Jenny Lind. He also introduced the Siamese 
Twins, the Dog-faced Man and hundreds of other freaks. He called 
his circus "The Greatest Show on Earth," a slogan which persists to 
this day. Other echoes of the Barnumesque method are heard in such 
modern slogans as that of the Chicago Tribune, which unblushingly 
calls itself "The World's Greatest Newspaper," and Goodyear, pre 
senting its claim for preference on the grounds that it is "The Greatest 
Name in Rubber." 

Undoubtedly, old P. T. did much to sell advertising to industry in 
the half century between 1842 and his death in 1891, when he was 
the shining example of success. But he also gave the modern adver 
tising man a lot to live down! 


A CENTURY ago gold was discovered in California and the great 
rush was on. About the same time, American business began to 
stake out its claim over the rich mother lode of advertising. Ac 
cording to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "The Modern Period [in ad 
vertising] may be dated from about 1850. The reason for putting the 
dividing point between the early and modern periods at 1850 is the 
rapid appearance of newspapers and magazines, which made possible 
the development of modern advertising on a large scale/'* 

Transportation and communication have been indispensable allies 
of modern advertising. Between 1830, when the first experimental 
rail line was laid, and the outbreak of the Civil War, more than 30,000 
miles of railroads were built. By 1869 we had our first transcontinental 
line. Wherever the iron horse went, there went the latest periodicals, 
linking the nation ever more firmly in bonds of paper and printers' 
ink, ties that were to prove stronger than all the edicts of dictators. 

Newspapers carried the news of Sutter's Mill throughout the East, 
caused over 200,000 men to head for the gold fields and thus developed 
the Pacific Coast more rapidly in ten years than the Spanish dons 
had done in three centuries. In 1850 America boasted some 200 
dailies, with a total circulation of 1,000,000 copies per day, 2,300 
weeklies, and 500 magazines, chiefly religious and agricultural. Ad 
vertising soared in volume, though most of it was pretty dull stuff. 
Few illustrations were used, and since most papers restricted their ad 
vertisers to single-column width and agate type (the size found today 
in newspaper "want ad" sections) there was little chance for dra 
matic appeals. 

American ingenuity manifested itself, however, in many novel ways. 
One of the pioneers was Robert Bonner, who in 1851 took over a 
small weekly paper and built it into a family journal, the New York 
Ledger, with a circulation of 400,000 copies. Bonner advertised widely 
in other papers, and when they refused to set his ads any larger than 

* The Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIV Ed., I, 200. Quoted by permission of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 



fourteen lines to the inch, he conceived the plan of repeating the same 
message over and over again. One of his early efforts was a two-line 
announcement of a forthcoming story in the Ledger, repeated 93 
times to fill a complete column in the Herald. Then he went to a 
double column and finally an entire page, all consisting of a single 
sentence endlessly reiterated. He later ran as much as four pages in 
one issue of the local papers. 

Other advertisers strove for attention by breaking up each sentence 
into several phrases, each of which would be repeated three, four or 
more times before going on to the next. Still another device was to 
form the agate type into odd shapes, much after the fashion of the 
modern stuntist who makes silhouettes on a typewriter. Frank 
Presbrey* reproduces one interesting example of this, an advertise 
ment of Brady's Photographic Gallery, located at 359 Broadway. The 
text is set in the shape of the numerals 3, 5 and 9, strung out down the 
column. This appeared in 1856, several years before Brady won fame 
as the Civil War cameraman. 

The decade that marked the dawn of the modem period in adver 
tising was notable for its exuberance. In the 1850's America was on 
the march. Manufacturing had passed the $1,000,000,000 total sales 
per annum. Immigrants were pouring in. Europe was beginning to 
respect us as a great power. 

Advertising reflected this dynamic spirit. The cities were flooded 
with weird and wonderful appeals for attention. Placards, posters 
and painted signs bloomed on every wall and building. The horse- 
cars had sheaves of handbills on spikes waiting for the riders to pull 
them off and read. Wagons and buggies bedecked with signs moved 
up and down the streets, just like the poster-plastered express trucks 
of today. Parades of sandwich men crowded the sidewalks. Urchins 
constantly thrust handbills or "fliers" at the pedestrians. At night, 
blazing gaslights illuminated the advertising signs on the rooftops. 
And every newspaper was laden with ads; the New York Tribune ran 
as high as 22 columns in a 48-column, eight-page issue. 

The Birth of the Advertising Agency 

The middle years of the nineteenth century witnessed another event 
that was to have a permanent influence on advertising. That was the 
birth of the advertising agency. 

* Op. cit., p. 233. 


Prior to that time a few individuals had specialized in advertising, 
chiefly as free-lance writers. But there were no firms concentrating 
in the field. The creating and placing of advertisements, generally 
speaking, were side-line jobs to most advertisers. Sometimes the work 
would be done by the store proprietor, or by the manager of a factory 
selling goods direct to consumers. Space solicitors for the newspapers 
and magazines of the day might, on occasion, help out with sugges 
tions. The modern concept of an independent organization rendering 
impartial, professional counsel on advertising, however, was still in 
the future. 

It is not surprising then that most advertising was dull, uninviting, 
haphazard. Only when somebody like Barnum gave advertising first 
place in his attention did the real possibilities of this strange, little- 
understood force reveal itself. 

The coming of the advertising agency changed all this. The agency 
system produced a group of firms in which men spent all their time 
thinking about advertising, devising ways to make it more productive, 
broadening its services. In such circumstances it was only natural that 
advertising should forge rapidly ahead. Market analysis, scientific 
space buying, copy testing, art in advertising, long-range planning 
these are just a few of the many advertising developments either 
originated or aggressively sponsored by agencies. Even advertisers 
who do not use agencies such as many department stores owe 
much to agency-pioneered techniques and methods. 

The first advertising agents, in the sense of men or firms actively 
engaged in placing advertisements in more than one medium, are 
believed to have been Volney B. Palmer and John L. Hooper. Palmer 
had offices in New York, Boston and Philadelphia, and as early as 
1841 solicited business on the basis that he could place advertising in 
the leading papers of the United States and Canada. Hooper, a 
former solicitor for the New York Tribune, became a free-lance agent 
in the 1840's and his agency maintained a continuous existence until 
absorbed by George P. Rowell, the founder of Printers' Ink, in the 
1870's. A little later, S. M. Pettengill & Co. entered the agency field, 
calling themselves "Advertising Agents, authorized to accept ad 
vertisements for the most widely circulated newspapers in the United 
States and the British Colonies." 

These early agencies made no attempt to plan or prepare adver 
tising campaigns. They were solely space brokers. They accepted 


advertisements for insertion at the publishers' announced rates and 
then bargained with the publishers to get lower prices. In his book, 
Forty Years an Advertising Agent, George Rowell describes how he 
took a billing of $2,000 for his first month and was able to place it 
with the specified newspapers for $600. 

It was not uncommon for an advertiser to submit his proposed 
schedule to several agencies and place his order with the one that 
gave the lowest bid. The bargaining abilities of the agencies played 
an important part in their obtaining the business. 

One of the first national campaigns placed through an agency was 
that of the Federal War Loan in the Civil War, handled by Peaslee & 
Co. War bond advertisements appeared in between 4,000 and 5,000 
papers. Since the ads were placed at the publisher's "card rates" his 
asking price and since all agencies prided themselves on their bar 
gaining powers, it may be assumed that this was a very profitable con 
tract. The Civil War bond campaign is generally considered the 
first real national advertising campaign in America. It established a 
record in total number of newspapers used. Unlike the war-bond 
advertising in World War II, it was paid for by the national govern 

In the early days of advertising agencies, the chief appeal was con 
venience. An advertiser wishing to reach a large number of markets 
could turn his copy over to an agency and be relieved of all the detail 
necessary in getting in touch with each publisher separately. Early 
agencies capitalized on the advertiser's inertia by offering "lists" of 
newspapers at flat rates. Rowell issued a circular listing 100 papers in 
which he would place a one-inch ad for a month for $100. Since he 
already had contracts with many papers to take a whole column for 
$100 a year, from which he deducted his 25 percent commission plus 
a cash discount, it can be seen that the offer was very profitable to the 
agency. At the same time it worked no hardship on the advertiser, 
who would have had to pay $1.00 or more per paper if ordered sep 

This was one of several phases in the evolution of the agency sys 
tem to its present form. Ralph Hower in his history of N. W. Ayer & 
Son describes four stages of metamorphosis: 

Newspaper stage: the agent directly represented the publisher. 
Space-jobbing stage: the agent became a broker, selling space to 


advertisers and then buying it from the publishers to fill his orders. 

Space-wholesaling stage: the agent contracted for large amounts of 
space in advance and sold it on a piecemeal basis; in those days 
many publishers welcomed such arrangements because of high credit 
losses from firms advertising direct. 

Advertising concession stage: the agent secured a monopoly of all 
advertising in a publication by paying a fixed sum; then he set up his 
own rates, selling to advertisers and other agencies.* 

Each of these larval forms was alike in that most of the revenue, if 
not all, came from commissions paid by the publishers. That practice 
has continued in the present agency setup, which might be called the 
Complete advertising service stage. The percentage of commission 
allowed the agency fluctuated for many years but now has been gen 
erally standardized at 1 5 percent plus a 2 percent cash discount. 

Still another kind of organization contributed to the agency struc 
ture of today. This was the "non-placing agency" of the 1890's and 
1900's. As the name suggests, it placed no ads but confined its services 
to preparing plans, writing copy and making designs or layouts. 
Among the leaders were Charles Austin Bates, the George Ethridge 
Co. (later an art studio) and Calkins & Holden, who became a general 
agency. They did work for straight-line agencies as well as advertisers. 

Critics of the commission system argue that it is illogical and un 
sound. They point out, for example, that often as much work is re 
quired to prepare a $100 ad in a business paper as a $25,000 spread 
in a national weekly. The pros and cons of this controversy will be 
aired more fully in a subsequent chapter.** 

Whether the commission method is sound and proper, or an in 
equitable makeshift, it has worked reasonably well for over a century. 

The incentive of quick, substantial profits has attracted men with 
a high degree of initiative and imagination to the agency business. 
The advertiser has been able without cost to himself thanks to the 
commission method of payment to "hire" the thinking of such men 
for his selling problems. 

Kenneth Goode put the case very pointedly when he wrote: 

Advertising is hailed as a benefactor to civilization. It is. And has 

* Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Ralph M. Hower, The History 
of an Advertising Agency: N. W. Ayer & Son at Work, 1869-1939, Cambridge, 
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1939. 

** Chapter VIII. 


been. But . . . the real benefactor so far as advertising is concerned 
is not so much the "force" of publicity as the enterprise and ingenuity 
of the men whose brains have been utilizing that force. Thinking in 
terms of finances and factories, taking for granted the human ele 
ment the only element of any vital importance American business 
leaders might have been utterly lost without the stimulating guidance 
of the type of mind the advertising industry has so notably developed. 
For sixty years, while others have been absorbed in profits and 
processes, the advertising-minded man has hustled with his eye turned 
outward toward humanity. He has been the constructive imagina 
tion of American business. He has made merchandising. His pack 
aging has made the chain store. His competition to render new 
services, his designing for attractiveness and convenience, his eternal 
search on behalf of the public, has in truth made the advertising man 
the real accelerator of civilization.* 

Not all such men as Mr. Goode describes are to be found in adver 
tising agencies by any means. Many are advertising directors of manu 
facturers or retailers; others may be sales managers or presidents. 
Their titles are not nearly so important as their vision. 

Mid-Victorian Handicaps 

Advertisers at the dawn of the "modern era" the 1850's, '60's and 
7CTs had to do without most of the modern conveniences that ad 
men now accept as a matter of course. 

There were, for instance, no published directories of periodicals 
until some years after the Civil War. When George Rowell received 
an order from a Hartford publisher for an advertisement to be placed 
in newspapers in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward 
Island, no information on papers in these areas was available. He 
was fortunate in having a solicitor named Fox who came from Nova 
Scotia. Fox told him that the Boston printers nearly all had one or 
more Canadians working for them. Rowell sent Fox out to call on 
these Bluenoses and ask them to recall all the names of provincial 
papers within their knowledge whether issued daily, weekly or semi- 
weekly, and the approximate population of the town. From the size 
of the town, Rowell estimated the newspaper rate by comparison with 
rates for similar sized New England town journals. He submitted his 

* Kenneth M. Goode, Advertising (Greenberg Publisher, Inc., 1932). Quoted by 
permission of the publisher. 


estimate to the book publisher for something over $200 in space, got it 
approved and then started writing the Canadian papers on his list 
compiled from the memories of Boston printers.* 

In 1869 Rowell brought out the first edition of his American News 
paper Directory, giving not only the name and address of each paper 
on which any data could be obtained but also an estimate of its cir 
culation. This latter feature was revolutionary, since newspapers then 
and for many years afterward were very chary about supplying circu 
lation data. 

Today advertisers have available the four volumes issued monthly 
of Standard Rate & Data Service, not only listing all periodicals but 
also giving their rates, circulations, page and column dimensions, me 
chanical requirements and other essential information. Separate books 
embrace newspapers; magazines, farm papers and transportation ad 
vertising; business papers; and radio. Circulation figures in the vast 
majority of cases are carefully audited. Rates are uniform and not 
subject to bargaining. But the would-be advertiser 80 years ago enjoyed 
none of these benefits. 

He bought, for the most part, on blind faith. More often than not, 
he had no way of telling whether the advertising received the circula 
tion for which he had paid. It was not until advertising media banded 
together to assure honest records and ethical methods of promotion 
that the buyer of space knew for sure what he was getting for his 

Obtaining the facts about circulation was only one of the adver 
tiser's problems. For many years American newspapers refused to 
"break" their columns the dividing lines between columns had to 
remain inviolate. So, although a firm might buy several columns or 
even a full page of space, the regulations did not permit using display 
headlines or illustrations of more than a single-column width. 

Advertisers abroad had been allowed to use bold type as large as 
72-point (one inch in height) across as many columns as they wished 
to pay for. Naturally American concerns seeing these foreign examples 
began to demand the same privileges. In the late 1860's the rules 
against large type and multicolumn displays were relaxed. Lord & 
Taylor and R. H. Macy, New York department stores, were pioneers 
in bringing this about. Apparently the results were satisfactory, for 

* Forty Years An Advertising Agent (Printers' Ink, 1926). By permission of 
Printers' Ink. 


the department stores took larger and larger units of space. The 
first full-page ad appeared in the 70's. Double pages, then three or 
more pages, became not uncommon. In recent years department 
stores have used entire sections of Sunday newspapers, sometimes 
running eight, twelve or sixteen pages in a single issue. 

Illustrations presented another obstacle to the mid- Victorian adver 
tiser. It seems incredible, but as late as 1873 certain of the leading 
metropolitan newspapers refused to permit pictures of any kind in 
their advertising columns. Such restrictions had disappeared by the 
end of the decade and pictures became more and more popular. How 
ever, the illustrations of those days were far removed from what we 
see today. The halftone process was not invented until 1878 and did 
not receive wide usage until the 1890's. The standard type of 
illustration was the "woodcut," painstakingly carved line by line from 
a block of wood. Craftsmen in this field often became amazingly 
proficient in reproducing the likeness of a product or an individual^- 
so much so that in the early days of the halftone the woodcut was 
considered superior. Only in comparatively recent years have the 
mail-order catalogue houses abandoned woodcuts for most of their 
illustrations, and even now an expertly made woodcut is sometimes 
preferred, particularly for a small picture on a poor grade of paper. 

Alexander Drake, as "art manager" of Scribner's Monthly (later 
The Century), believed that there was a better way of utilizing pho 
tographs than the painstaking woodcut or steel engraving method. He 
is recognized as the first to use a new invention whereby a photo 
graphic impression could be transferred to a wood block. This re 
sulted in an immediate improvement of the magazine's illustrations 
and was the acme of pictorial technique until the halftone was per 

To this day, the age of the woodcut is still reflected in advertising 
slang. Printing plates are called "cuts" or in England, "blocks" a 
carry-over from the time when all pictures were actually cut by hand 
from a block of hardwood. 

One of the most serious handicaps that confronted the advertiser in 
the years immediately following the Civil War was the lack of mar 
keting information. 

Market analysis and advertising research are comparatively recent 
developments. The firm investing in a campaign even up to World 
War I had little if any opportunity of knowing whether or not it was 


aiming its copy at the right markets, or of checking the correctness 
of the copy appeal and the effectiveness of the program all matters 
which modern research covers as a matter of course. 

The Department of Commerce through its Census Bureau, Patent 
Office, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce and Bureau of 
Standards now makes available a wealth of information constantly 
utilized by advertisers, media and agencies. The Federal Trade Com 
mission, Interstate Commerce Commission, Federal Communications 
Commission and Department of Agriculture are other governmental 
agencies supplying information about products, raw materials and 
markets. Virtually none of these sources existed 50 years ago, even 
had advertising people wanted to use them or known how to use them. 

Nowadays every city has its research and survey specialists whose 
primary function is to eliminate guesswork and waste in advertising. 
Advertising agencies have their own research staffs. Many firms that 
advertise employ a full-time market analyst with perhaps several as 
sistants. None of this scientific background was obtainable in the 
nineteenth century, nor was it demanded. The Curtis Publishing Com 
pany was a leader in the field of market analysis. Crowell-Collier, 
McCall's, and Macfadden publications have rendered excellent serv 
ice in the magazine industry. Among newspapers, the Milwaukee 
Journal, the Cleveland Press and the New York World-Telegram have 
been leaders. 

Trade associations such as the Advertising Research Foundation 
sponsored by the Advertising Federation of America, the Association 
of National Advertisers and the American Association of Adver 
tising Agencies have done remarkable work. The outdoor media 
through Traffic Audit Bureau, the business press through the As 
sociated Business Papers and, of course, the radio industry have all 
contributed to the fund of marketing and advertising knowledge now 
at the command of the advertiser. 

Getting back to mechanical processes, electricity was used in mak 
ing electrotypes printing plates which reproduced the original ad 
long before Edison discovered the incandescent light. Presbrey says 
"copy of electrotype form" was commonly featured by pioneer adver 
tising agents as a sales point."* By this process the original ad could 
be duplicated any number of times and facsimiles shipped far and 
wide. Newspaper publishers liked "electros" because of their conven 

* Op. tit., p. 269. 


The stereotype and "mat" (matrix) another method of dupli 
cating printing plates or type came into general use in the 1880's. 
Its application was largely in connection with newspaper advertising, 
since the stereotype was not suitable for the more detailed needs of 
magazine work. In its orbit the mat is still in constant use. Many 
advertisers today call any newspaper ad or illustration a "mat/' 

The rotary press, adopted first for magazine use in 1884, marked a 
signal advance. In 1886 Ottmar Mergen thaler invented the Linotype, 
a machine for setting type mechanically instead of by hand. It was 
nearly twenty years before his device was widely used but today it is 
seen in thousands of newspaper composing rooms and job printing 
plants. With its kindred developments the Monotype, Intertype 
and Ludlow the Linotype revolutionized printing. While it is true 
that many ads are still hand-set from "foundry" type a letter at a 
time, Mergenthaler's invention of a practical method of machine com 
position greatly speeded the production of periodicals and thereby had 
a real influence on advertising development. Virtually all catalogues, 
books, magazines and newspapers are set by mechanical means. 

The advertiser in the early days of the modern era had no oppor 
tunity to use color. Some attempts were made to reproduce color 
illustrations by lithography or hand tinting but it was not until 1890 
that the New York World brought out an issue containing two-color 
printing. This was purely a stunt, although it inspired other papers 
to experiment. In 1893 the Kansas City Journal said it was ready to 
accept four-color ads.* Not until several decades later, as we shall 
see, did newspaper color advertising gain any notable degree of ac 

Magazines had been much more progressive in employing color. 
The famous Godey's Lady's Book contained steel engravings in color 
showing the latest Paris fashions. Between 1827 and 1877 it was the 
Vogue or Harper's Bazaar of its day. No commercial producers, how 
ever, seem to have sensed the value of color. 

One of the first examples of color advertising appeared on the back 
cover of Youth's Companion in 1893. It was a full-color lithograph of 
The Awakening of Cupid by the French artist Perrault and ad 
vertised Mellin's Food. The cost of the ad was very high $14,000 
for 650,000 circulation but it created such a sensation that the spon 
sor unquestionably got his money's worth. 

Procter & Gamble, makers of Ivory Soap, in 1896 prepared a color 

* Printers' Ink, 50th Anniversary Edition, July 28, 1938, p. 196. 


insert which they printed and shipped to the magazines to be bound 
into an issue. The same year, Cosmopolitan ran a lithographed cover 
in colors which greatly increased newsstand sales. But it took years 
longer for publishers to accept color as a standard advertising device. 

As an indication of the present popularity of color in consumer 
advertising, the May 1947 Ladies' Home Journal carried 123 full-page 
and half-page ads in four colors, and one two-page spread in four 
colors; 25 two-color ads; and 74 black-and-white ads of a half page or 
larger. Color advertising is permissible only in half-page or full-page 
units. Thus among the sizes of ads where color could be used, 149 
out of 223 advertisers used it a two-to-one ratio. 

The mail-order houses, keeping accurate records of the sales-making 
power of each catalogue page, were pioneers in proving that for certain 
types of merchandise, color would outpull black and white several 
times over. 

Still another handicap confronting the legitimate advertiser of the 
'60's and '70's was the prevalence of freakish, exaggerated or down 
right dishonest advertising. From the former practice of merchants 
merely announcing what goods they had for sale, competition had be 
come so intense that claims had grown out of all reason. In this 
atmosphere reputable business firms were reluctant to make any 
statements about their products. They confined themselves to a mere 
announcement of their trade name, which obviously limited the re 
sults from advertising. This "business card" type of advertising still 
survives in the austere displays of a few swank firms like Tiffany & 

The man who is credited with leading the way to honesty in ad 
vertising was John E. Powers. He stated as his fundamental principle: 
"Say the right things to the right people in an acceptable way." For 
a period of thirty or more years from 1860 on, Powers stuck to his 
guns. He wrote no copy about a product unless he was convinced of 
its merits. Then he stated the advantages in simple, conversational, 
utterly convincing terms. Powers reached the height of fame as ad 
vertising counsel for John Wanamaker between 1880 and 1886. When 
Mr. Wanamaker hired him, the Philadelphia merchant is supposed 
to have said, "Mr. Powers, tell me something new to do in adver 
tising," to which Powers answered, "Be honest it has never been 
tried before."* 

* By permission from Principles of Advertising, by Daniel A. Starch. Copyrighted 
1923, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., p. 458. 


Powers has been called "the father of modern advertising." He 
developed a method of approach that is still the envy of copy writers. 
Here, for example, is one of his most famous ads, written some 50 
years ago for Macbeth, makers of lamp chimneys: 

One of the minor troubles of house-keeping is the breaking of 
lamp-chimneys. Chimneys cost but little apiece, and break but one 
at a time. You class these little surprises among 'mysterious provi 
dences', and bear them, meekly resigned. 

All wrong! the chimneys are wrong: the glass was ready to pop the 
minute it cooled. 

The maker saved two cents on a chimney, and put this loss and 
annoyance on you. 

Pearl top chimneys do not break in use. 

This style of advertising became known as "reason-why," in con 
trast to copy based on sweeping claims, emotional or fear appeals. 
Later exponents like Charles Austin Bates, Nathaniel C. Fowler and 
Claude Hopkins followed much the same pattern; they exerted a 
tremendous influence in wooing business away from the Barnumesque 
or "buncombe" school of copy. 

Other Mid-Victorian Influences 

The period following 1850 was marked by a strong religious revival, 
and this led to a remarkable growth in the number and popularity of 
religious papers. By 1870 some 400 weeklies of this type were being 
published, with an estimated combined circulation of 5,000,000 copies. 
This compared with 10,000,000 circulation for over 4,000 secular 
weeklies indicates that the average religious paper had a circulation 
five times greater than that of the average general publication. 

Advertisers flocked to use the religious press, since it was assumed 
that this medium reached the more stable, home-loving classes. Carl- 
ton & Smith, an advertising agency which later became the J. Walter 
Thompson Company, specialized in soliciting space in such peri 
odicals. F. Wayland Ayer, who founded the Philadelphia agency of 
N. W. Ayer & Son, broke into advertising by selling ads for the Na- 
tional Baptist; in less than a year he had earned $1,200 in commissions 
and with his savings started his business in 1869. In 1871 he paid the 
National Baptist $6,400 for the exclusive use of its advertising columns 


and made a profit of $1,758.98 on the deal.* In 1882 Ayer separated 
his space-jobbing activities from the agency by forming the Religious 
Press Association, and thereafter the agency dealt with such periodi 
cals on the same basis as any other media. 

The Philadelphia Centennial of 1876 was an event of tremendous 
significance to the industrial growth of the nation. It introduced 
many strange and wonderful things to the public. The telephone had 
just been invented; the electric generator had come into practical 
use only a few years before. The hundreds of thousands who flocked 
to the Exposition were inspired with new pride in America's industrial 
achievements. Thereafter they greeted the news of fresh advances in 
science particularly any new electrical discovery with considerably 
less skepticism. Edison met plenty of opposition in popularizing the 
incandescent light, which he invented in 1879, but the stimulus of the 
Centennial had helped prepare the public for it. 

Manufacturers put their best foot forward in exhibiting products at 
Philadelphia. But in many fields their quality compared unfavorably 
with that of European exhibits. As a result, says Presbrey, there was 
"a general and successful effort by American manufacturers to im 
prove quality."** 

Actually, what the Centennial did, in putting manufactured goods 
in the spotlight and thereby stimulating the maker to turn out better 
articles, is no different from the effect of any advertising campaign. 
Advertising lifts the cloak of anonymity. "Once bitten twice shy" is 
a relentless buying maxim. Shoddy products may continue to sell if 
unidentified by a trade-mark or brand name; as soon as they are 
labeled and advertised, the public has an easy guide for avoiding a 
second purchase. 

By awarding medals for excellence, the exposition authorities also 
pushed American industry into devoting more attention to quality. A 
firm which won a gold medal at Philadelphia lost no time in telling 
the world about it. Packages broke out in a rash of medallions; ad 
vertising space was freely used to announce the coveted awards. And 
what manufacturer, having received kudos for product quality, would 
knowingly risk this prestige by debasing his output? 

* Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Ralph M. Hower, The History 
of an Advertising Agency: N. W. Ayer & Son at Work, 1869-1939, Cambridge, 
Mass.- Harvard University Press, 1939. 

** Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (Doubleday- 
Doran, 1929). Quoted by permission of Mrs. Frank Presbrey. 


products made by 
Standard Brands 




Introduced in 1866. Because of 
its marvelous leavening action, 
as well as its purity and whole- 
someness, Royal Baking Powder 
has become a household stand 
ard throughout the world. 


Introduced in 1864. More peo 
ple have been using Chase & 
Sanborn Coffee in the past year 
than ever before. "Shade-grown" 
flavor is bringing the biggest 
success in Chase & Sanborn's 
82 years. 


Introduced in 1870. Fleischmann 
made the first compressed yeast 
and pioneered the methods of 
yeast manufacture which made 
possible the uniformity, potency, 
dependable quality of virtually 
all yeasts ever since. 

On February 5th, 1946, the Brand Names Research Foundation awarded 
its Certificate of Public Service to THREE brand names of products made 
by Standard Brands Incorporated. This important distinction honors Royal 
Baking Powder, Chase & Sanborn Coffee and Fleischmann's Yeast for their 
records in maintaining the highest public confidence for more than 75 years. 

These quality products are backed by advertising year -in, year-out. 
Feature and display these fast-moving brands. 

An advertisement appearing in Progressive Grocer. 


The 1870's also witnessed the beginnings on a national scale of the 
giant mail-order industry. Selling goods by mail, either direct to the 
user or through agents secured by advertising, was nothing new. But 
now it began to assume impressive proportions. In Chicago A. Mont 
gomery Ward and George R. Thome started Montgomery Ward & 
Company and issued their first mail-order catalogue a pocket-size 
price list of 100 pages. The year was 1872. In Boston, Butler Brothers 
were building a thriving business in selling by mail to the thousands of 
small retailers who were seldom visited by traveling salesmen. What 
grew to be the largest mail-order firm of all Sears, Roebuck & Com 
pany had its beginnings in 1884 when Richard W. Sears began sell 
ing watches by mail. Sears built his annual sales from nothing to 
$50,000,000 in 17 years. 

Augusta, Maine, became a center of the mail-order business through 
the energy and genius of E. C. Allen, who as a boy had sold berries 
to the Civil War camps around his home town. Later, answering 
various "Agents Wanted" ads, he had made a fair living as a sales 
agent until he decided it was more profitable to be a principal and let 
others sell for him. He devised a recipe for making a washing com 
pound from inexpensive ingredients that could be bought at any drug 
store, and started advertising for agents. The recipes, printed on slips 
the size of a post card, cost him $1.00 for 1,000; he sold them to agents 
at five for $2.00, 25 for $5.00, 100 for $10 or 1,000 for $25. The 
agent was supposed to get $1.00 for the recipe. Of course whoever 
bought the recipe could print unlimited quantities himself, but Allen 
exacted from each agent a solemn promise not to divulge the formula 
"and to exact the same promise from every one to whom you sell the 
valuable secret." Apparently purchasers took this promise seriously, 
for in 1870 he contracted with George Rowell for $11,000 worth of 
advertising space in all the leading papers of the country. Rowell 
cagily asked for $5,000 down and $500 cash a week on the balance. It 
was paid promptly. Some months later the young man came in and 
asked how much it would cost to run an 18-line ad for three months 
in every paper in America. The price was $30,000, which Allen paid 
on the spot.* 

Shortly thereafter, Allen started his own magazine, which he sent 
out free or for a nominal price to names obtained from mailing lists. 
Ostensibly it was a conventional periodical but its real purpose was to 

* Forty Years An Advertising Agent. 


obtain inquiries for agents. From this start developed a whole class 
of "mail-order journals" such as Grit, published at Williamsport, 
Pennsylvania, Comfort and the Vickery-Hill list at Augusta, and the 
Chicago Blade and Ledger. Allen died a millionaire while still under 

Yet another development of the middle nineteenth century which 
affected advertising was the innovation of "boiler plate" or "patent 
insides" for small newspapers that could not afford to buy special 
stories or features. 

"Boiler plate" got its odd name from the fact that the feature ma 
terial would be made up in full-page electrotypes which resembled 
the metal used in making boilers. The weekly release might contain 
such features as an installment of a serial, a short story, a digest of 
world news, farming counsel, recipes, jokes and ads. The country 
editor would use the plates as pages 2 and 3 of his four-page paper, 
printing local news on the front and back. Or if he had a larger 
volume of local advertising, he might use four pages of "boiler plate" 
and four of his own. 

One of the first such services was launched during the Civil War by 
the Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin for near-by county weeklies whose 
printers had gone into the army. The metropolitan paper excerpted 
enough material from its columns to fill two inside pages and sent 
them to the small towns, leaving it up to the local editors to cover 
the outside with community news and advertisements. Before long 
the publisher of the Wisconsin sensed the value of these "patent 
insides" as an advertising medium and began to sell space. At the 
height of its popularity, around the turn of the century, the "boiler 
plate" system offered circulation in some 10,000 country papers. As of 
March 1947 the Western Newspaper Union had on its list 2,366 such 
papers with a combined circulation of 1,772,771 divided into 30 ter 
ritories; the largest being Minneapolis, with 183 papers, Milwaukee, 
157, St. Louis, 158 and Sioux City, 125. 

The use of jingles and slogans in advertising reached the proportions 
of an epidemic in the last half of the century. Not that it was any 
thing new. One school of advertisers has always advocated the "clever" 
turn of phrase whether in rhyme, catchpenny expression or parody. 
In the early 1800's Warren's Shoe Blacking jingles had achieved such 
universal popularity in England as even to receive a mention in Pick 
wick Papers. Mrs. Warren is said to have remarked, when asked 


about her advertising, "We keeps a poet." Rumor had it that he was 
none other than the great Byron.* 

Such modern advertising pioneers as the makers of Ivory Soap, 
Castoria, Campbell's Soup, Herpicide, De Long Hook & Eye and 
Pear's Soap all went overboard for doggerel. Here is a choice ad that 
appeared some 50 years ago for a clothing manufacturer: 

A pant hunter pantless 
Goes panting for pants, 
And pants for the best pants 
That the pant market grants. 
He panteth unpanted 
Until he implants 
Himself to a pair of 
Plymouth Rock Pants!** 

The craze hit the jackpot in the advertising of Sapolio with its 
"Spotless Town" jingles by J. K. Fraser. This mythical town with its 
quaint characters caught the country's fancy; people began to look 
forward to each new Sapolio ad, much as present-day fans eagerly 
await the next Bob Hope show for Pepsodent. 

The trade character "Phoebe Snow" poetically described how clean 
her gown stayed when she took a trip on the Lackawanna Railroad 
"the Road of Anthracite." Retail stores, public utilities, hotels and 
steamship lines climbed on the band wagon until the advertising 
columns seethed with verse. 

In the field of slogans, many were born but few were spoken. Some 
of the more pointed ones, however, have remained. "The Beer that 
made Milwaukee Famous," "Ivory Soap It Floats" and "99 44/100 
percent pure," "Burpee's Seeds Grow," "All the News that's Fit to 
Print" (N.Y. Times) and "The Prudential has the strength of Gibral 
tar," are all more than 50 years old. In the first days of the Eastman 
Kodak, people hesitated to buy because they had no facilities for fin 
ishing the negatives; the company offered to do all the developing and 
printing if the purchaser would merely send the camera to the factory. 
From this plan came the famous slogan, "You press the button we 
do the rest," which was quickly adopted into everyday lingo. 

* G. B. Hotchkiss, An Outline of Advertising (MacMillan, 1940). Cited by per 
mission of the author. 
** Presbrey, op. cit. 


Thus advertising, despite its lack of adequate information, its tech 
nical limitations, its abusers and detractors, displayed amazing virility 
and ingenuity in those pioneering years of the modern era. Crude, 
blatant, haphazard it might be, but it got results. Many a forward 
step in trade and industry was taken with its adolescent guidance; 
many of the creature comforts and conveniences we accept now as a 
matter of course were sold to the public originally through those same 
crude methods. Advertising men of today may wonder how the old- 
timers did it without the aid of scientific research, audited circula 
tions, copy testing, four-color printing, radio networks and all the 
other accessories. But the fact remains that they did! 



ORE than one after-dinner speaker has eloquently described 
advertising as a "trail blazer," the idea being that advertising 
has marked the route of progress for civilization to follow. The 
comparison is picturesque but misleading. 

Few great inventions have been actually pioneered by advertising. 
Whitney, Fulton, Stephenson, Morse, Marconi, De Forest to name 
some of the men whose devices have revolutionized modern life 
made little if any use of advertising to announce their discoveries. 
Edison, in his later years, became a sporadic advertiser but his expen 
ditures in this field did not compare in size with those of General 
Electric, Westinghouse, Victor or other manufacturers utilizing his 
inventions. Alexander Graham Bell relied on personal demonstra 
tions to popularize the telephone. While the automobile industry 
undoubtedly owes much of its universal acceptance to advertising, 
one of its outstanding figures, Henry Ford, was an in-and-outer during 
the years of greatest expansion; not until the 1920's did Ford become 
a consistent advertiser. 

Inventors as a rule come from the ranks of scientists, mechanics, 
dreamers. They work with metals and chemicals rather than with 
people. Rarely have they had selling experience. They have a tendency 
to cling to the oft disproved statement generally accredited to Emer 
son (himself no salesman!) "If a man will make a better mousetrap 
than his neighbor, even though he live in the depths of a wood, the 
world will beat a path to his door." 

Fortunately for the world, if not always for the inventor, some 
promotional-minded individual becomes interested in every success 
ful invention. The "better mousetrap" theory is ignored; a practical 
method of distribution is devised; advertising starts to function. Edi 
son, for example, patented his phonograph in 1878 but did not put 
his own machine on the market for years. Meanwhile, Columbia and 
Victor had started operations on an aggressive scale. The Victor peo 
ple with their appealing trade-mark of the dog listening to a phono- 



graph and the slogan, "His Master's Voice/' took the leadership in 
the field. 

By itself, advertising cannot do all of the missionary work on a new 
invention. There must be a period of trying out, of feeling the popu 
lar pulse, of determining the market, of establishing distribution. The 
finest advertisement in the world will be wasted if the prospective 
customer can't find a place to buy the product. The technical "bugs" 
must be removed from the product itself as well as from its manu 
facturing process. 

This does not mean that advertising is unimportant in helping to 
introduce a new product. But its role is that of a road builder, not a 
trail blazer. The man with the hatchet, notching a tree now and then 
as he winds his way through virgin forest, may leave a trail that expert 
woodsmen can follow. Ordinary folks, however, won't bother to look 
for it. They prefer to stay on the well-traveled highway of their 
habitual buying habits. 

What advertising must do in the case of a new product, or an im 
provement on an old product, is to build another highway that is even 
more attractive and easier to follow than the familiar one. There 
may be barriers of prejudice, indifference or custom blocking the way; 
advertising may be regarded as a sort of bulldozer capable of uproot 
ing these objections. In an actual road-building job one such machine 
does the work of innumerable hand-wielded shovels. So, too, adver 
tising performs its job on a mass scale, riding over or through handi 
caps that would defeat the best efforts of lone trail blazers. 

The Case of the Razor 

King C. Gillette invented a safety razor. There had been other 
safety razors before he put his product on the market. But Gillette 
made it easy for men to ask for his razor and his blades. This is an 
example of his early copy: 

If you are still depending upon the barber or old-fashioned razor, 
you are in the same category as the man who climbs ten flights of 
stairs when there is an elevator in the building. . . . With the Gillette, 
the most inexperienced man can remove, without cut or scratch, in 
three to five minutes, any beard that ever grew. 


Today the Gillette people no longer have to sell men on using a 
safety razor in preference to a straight razor or a trip to the barber. 
Their competition is coming from the makers of other razors and 
blades. So we find them stressing, on the air and in the magazines, a 
highly competitive theme: "Look sharp, feel sharp, be sharp! Use 
Gillette Blue Blades, with the sharpest edges ever honed." 

About 1930 another type of product stepped into the whisker- 
removing field the machine shaver. Electric shaving as represented 
by Schick, Remington, Sunbeam and others is still in the pioneering 
era to the extent that the basic idea remains to be sold to a large part 
of the market; at the same time it is a hotly contested field in itself. 
The dual selling job of electric shavers is evident in this text from a 
1941 Schick ad: 

Get ready, gentlemen, to change your shaving habits for the better! 

For whether you use a blade razor or an electric shaver, here's the 
whisker-whipping whizzer you're going to come to sooner or later so 
why delay? 

Made by Schick which tells a lot in itself, since Schick started the 
whole electric shaver business. 

Made for you with the sure-fire, quick-and-easy, slick-and-nickless 
workability you've waited for in an electric shaver. 

Above all made to give close shaves 30 percent quicker, easier, 
better because of Schick's new exclusive Hollow-Ground 2-M Head. 

Then follows a description of the new features, an urge to try the 
new shaver, and a money-back offer, "if you're not getting the best 
shaves ever" after a 30-day trial. 

Remington Rand, on the other hand, has employed advertising 
aimed primarily at the man already converted to electric shaving, by 
featuring a "multiple-head" electric shaver. A 1946 Saturday Evening 
Post page declared: "Years ago Remington Rand stopped making 
single-head shavers just as automobile manufacturers gave up the 
single-cylinder car." The only direct reference to razor shaving is a 
small caption at the bottom of the ad: "Shave Dry No Lather No 

More recently, new shavers have come on the market with still 
another principle, a mechanically operated shaving head. The makers 
of this type of shaver are starting a pioneering job all their own. 

What is the result of this continual pioneering of new products, 


their popularization, the rise of competing products and methods, the 
apparently endless war of claims and counterclaims, the emphasis 
on "revolutionary/' "sensational," "history-making" improvements? 
Critics of advertising declare that such competitive cycles are waste 
ful, leading to overexpansion of production facilities, overspending 
on promotional efforts, overbuying by the public. But none can deny 
that such competition has stimulated manufacturers to make fre 
quent improvements in their products or that, broadly speaking, 
articles of the latest design cost the consumer no more. In fact 
previous to World War II the price trend was steadily downward. 

To the inventor, the advantages of his brain child seem so obvious 
that he can't understand why everybody does not immediately rush 
out and buy it. The manufacturer or merchandiser likewise is filled 
with enthusiasm for the new product. He talks, eats, sleeps, dreams 
of nothing else. Mr. and Mrs. Smithers, on the other hand, have 
been doing very nicely all these years without it: why should they sud 
denly change? A factual, unemotional news item about the new 
product may arouse momentary interest but it alone has no power to 
upset deeply grooved buying habits. 

At this writing, such varied items as electric blankets, home air 
conditioners, private airplanes, anhydrous foods and television re 
ceivers are struggling for a wider share of the consumer's income. All 
of them have ceased to be "hot" enough to command newspaper head 
lines. They have their devotees; they are also confronted by millions 
of potential buyers who view them, if not with skepticism, then with 

Virtually every manufactured article in universal use today stood at 
that same point once upon a time. 

For most of them, advertising built the road over which buyers 
now travel so naturally, so habitually, that it is hard to realize they ever 
did anything else. 

The first big job of advertising, then, corresponds to that of the 
bulldozer and it is a job that must be done by the first company in 
the field. So while the inventor or pioneer firm enjoys a certain initial 
momentum, all is not peaches and cream. The educational work costs 
money, particularly in view of the fact that so much of it has to be 
concentrated on selling the general merits of a type of article rather 
than a specific brand. Later arrivals get a "free ride" on the mission 
ary work of the pioneer; they enter a market already partly converted 


to that kind of product and can devote their energies to competitive 
selling. It is up to the pioneer to intrench himself so firmly before 
imitators appear and to keep steadily improving his product and 
maintaining his public leadership to such an extent that the Johnny- 
come-latelies will never be able to catch up. 

Hence the advertising bulldozer cannot be retired after the road 
has been built. There will be competitive landslides across the road; 
"dips" will develop in the demand as the easy-to-sell customers are 
used up; weeds and saplings of public indifference will grow up 
through the cracks of neglected markets. Advertising must be kept 
ever at work if the road to the product is to remain smooth, clear, 
more inviting than that of a competitor's. 

The history of advertising yields many examples of firms that 
won quick success through pioneering methods and then allowed their 
advertising bulldozer to rust while other, more attractive roads were 
being built. And on the positive side, every industrial pioneer who 
retains his position today has done so because of continued progress 
both in his products and in his merchandising methods. 

Breakfast Table Autocrats 

One of America's greatest industries got its start when Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg became superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanitarium in 
1876. As a young intern he had seen a doctor toast rye bread and 
grind it into crumbs for patients on a cereal diet. At Battle Creek 
Dr. Kellogg experimented with precooked cereals. With his brother 
W. K. Kellogg, he brought toasted corn flakes onto the market. Ag 
gressively advertised, they established themselves on millions of break 
fast tables. To this day Kellogg is one of the leading national ad 

A traveling salesman, Charles W. Post, went to Battle Creek to be 
treated in 1895. Impressed with Dr. Kellogg's methods, he remained 
there, developing ready-prepared cereals of his own Grape-Nuts, 
made from wheat and malted barley, and a kind of corn flakes whose 
odd brand name reflected his deeply religious leanings, "Elijah's 
Manna." Later this was changed to Post Toasties. Post also pro 
duced Postum, a cereal drink to replace coffee, of which he disap 
proved. By 1899, Post was spending $400,000 a year for advertising. 


The Post products are now a part of General Foods, but there has 
been no interruption in their advertising for half a century.* 

Shredded Wheat, the invention of Henry D. Perkey, a lawyer, ap 
peared about the same time. Starting with house-to-house peddling 
and demonstrations in stores, it grew to have what was said to be the 
widest distribution of any breakfast food in the world when the com 
pany was acquired by National Biscuit in 1930. 

General Mills, formerly the Washburn-Crosby Company of Min 
neapolis, was a late entrant in the cereal derby but by spectacular ad 
vertising, with radio programs for children as the pacemaker, has put 
its Wheaties, Cheerios and Kix among the leaders. Quaker Puffed 
Wheat and Puffed Rice, and Shredded Ralston are other cold cereals 
that have employed hot radio serials to send their sales curves upward. 

By 1903, when the breakfast-food industry was far from its present 
size, Paul Latzke was able to write in The Saturday Evening Post: 

Practically the entire country has felt the stimulus which had its 
origin here [in breakfast-food advertising]. The farmers throughout 
the grain-growing belt have enormously benefited, and naturally, for 
where one person used a breakfast food a few years ago there are now 
a hundred. Such an era of grain-eating has never been seen in the 
world. . . . The railroads have benefited and the paper-making in 
dustry has fairly jumped. . . . From cereals it [advertising] has spread 
to every other line of foodstuffs. 

And this has been done without increasing the cost to the consumer 
or reducing the profits of the manufacturer. On the contrary, it has 
been the general experience that the retail prices of standard goods 
have been decreased on the whole, [and] that the quality has been 

More recently George Sokolsky, in an article in Liberty Magazine 
reprinted in his book, The American Way of Life, had this to say on 
the subject: 

Those who dislike advertising and cereals say that it is unfair to 
make a cereal popular by making such a character as Sunny Jim or 
Jack Armstrong popular. What these people never understand is that 

* George E. Sokokky, The American Way of Life (Farrar & Rinehart, 1938). 
Cited by permission of the author. 

** Quoted from The Saturday Evening Post by George Sokolsky in The American 
Way of Life. 


we like to be told facts pleasantly. It is more interesting to us to learn 
to use wheat flakes through Sunny Jim than because some unimagina 
tive government bureau says that children will drink more milk if 
they eat more cereals and that the two in combination are splendid for 
them. When I was a child, Sunny Jim caught my eye; my boy swears 
by Dick Tracy and eats his breakfast!* 

The cereal companies are also credited by Printers 9 Ink** with hav 
ing given the chief impetus to the general adoption of packaged mer 
chandise. In the 70's the box, barrel and bin were the common 
grocery-store containers. Then Kellogg, Post and other breakfast- 
food makers began to vie with each other in putting out attractive 
packages. By 1900 packaged brands were seen in such varied lines as 
molasses, flour, cheese, baking soda and dozens of other items for 
merly sold only in bulk. Even staples such as salt and sugar started 
appearing in printed cloth bags. 

The National Biscuit Company with its "In-er-seal" package for 
Uneeda Biscuits helped the cause along. As dispensed from the old- 
time cracker barrel, soda crackers were anything but the crisp, tasty, 
sanitary food of today. Uneeda had an inner wax-paper wrap, a card 
board box and an outer wrap to protect the contents, with a distinctive 
color scheme. Incidentally, one stunt that speeded the wide accept 
ance of the Uneeda package was advertising it as a handy box in 
which the schoolchild's lunch could be carried! 

Modern self-service merchandising, which led to the rise of the 
supermarkets and is now the vogue in a large majority of food stores, 
is the direct result of the trend toward clean, attractive, selling pack 
ages launched by breakfast food. 

"Them Newfangled Things" 

Most articles now in common use had some sort of acceptance be 
fore the modern era of advertising. The automobile has been asso 
ciated with advertising since its very birth. 

The story of the automobile outdazzles anything in pure fiction. 
It was a crackpot's dream in 1895, when in all America there were 
just four cars. Two years later, the number of registrations had risen 

* Op. tit. 

** Printers' Ink, 50th Anniversary Edition, July 28, 1938. Cited by permission of 
Printers' Ink. 


to 900, virtually all on cars of foreign make. The year 1900 saw owner 
ship reach 8,000, with an annual output of 5,000. A decade afterward, 
the industry was turning out 181,000 cars a year; that was doubled in 
1912, and nearly doubled again by 1914. Increase followed increase 
until by 1929 passenger-car production reached 4,794,898. The de 
pression of the '30's slowed production down, but the industry was 
over the 5,000,000 mark just before World War II. 

In terms of capital invested, employment and payrolls, the auto 
mobile industry is a major factor in our national economy. Its effect 
reaches into every other field, for it is a main consumer of steel, glass, 
paint, rubber, machine tools, and electrical parts, not to mention oil. 
Max Ball* is authority for the statement that automotive vehicles in 
1940 used 89 percent of all the gasoline consumed in the United 
States; of this, one-fourth went into trucks and busses, three-fourths 
into passenger cars. At that time there were 377,000 gasoline retailers, 
including 197,000 filling stations. Buckley-Dement's most recent mail 
ing-list catalogue reports 137,013 garages, auto dealers, accessory and 
repair shops. Factories producing tires, batteries and other parts con 
stitute another big element in the business picture. The automobile 
is almost solely responsible for the 2,200,000 miles of surfaced roads 
in this country. It has revolutionized real-estate values, retail mer 
chandising, rural education. It was even, some fashion authorities say, 
the chief cause of the short skirt! 

Advertising was by no means the only reason for the overpowering 
success of the automobile; brilliant, daring engineering advances, 
miraculous feats of production, sales programs that functioned with 
military precision, the unlimited backing of investors which permitted 
this breathless expansion all had a part. But advertising was equally 
important. The first sale of an American-built car is said to have been 
made by Winton in 1898 as the result of a one-inch ad in Scientific 

In that year the bicycle craze had reached its peak. There were 
over 100 bicycle manufacturers, and some 200,000 machines, each 
costing $100 to $150, were sold in 1898. Thirteen magazines were 
devoted entirely to cycling. A special issue of the American Wheelman 
ran to 308 pages, one of the largest magazines ever issued up to that 
time. Advertising was liberal, even lavish. In 1899 the Bicycle trust" 

*Max W. Ball, This Fascinating Oil Business (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
1940). Cited by permission of the publisher. 


was formed, one of its objects being to "consolidate the advertising 
interests of its members." This it did by abandoning advertising 
almost wholly. By 1900 the fad for cycling had faded even more 
swiftly than it had risen and two years thence the American Bicycle 
Company had gone broke. 

Meanwhile, the bicycle makers had proved the value of large ad 
vertising appropriations and the unwisdom of depending only on 
free publicity. At the height of the craze, newspapers had devoted 
many news columns to cycling but when the public lost interest so 
did the press. The automotive industry has never fallen into this trap. 
Despite the huge quantities of free space it has received, the industry 
continues to tell its own story through advertising. 

Bicycle plants by the score were converted to making autos. Win- 
ton, Olds, and Pope led the parade. In 1900 there were 57 automobile 
factories; this number had increased to 136 in 1905. Most of these 
companies made only a few cars and then died, but the names of 
some of the "orphans" still bring back nostalgic memories to old- 
timers names like Locomobile, Aerocar, Winton, Haynes, Franklin. 

Pioneer automobile advertising was designed to inspire confidence, 
and for that reason much emphasis was laid on performance. Famous 
drivers like Barney Oldfield were hired to put cars through severe tests 
to supply ad copy. As cars became more reliable, emphasis was 
switched to utility. About this time, car manufacturers took up the 
plan that had worked so well in the bicycle field ten years before and 
started bringing out "yearly models" with a great fanfare at the Auto 
Shows, heavily supported by advertising. Millions of people paid 
their way into these shows and fought for the privilege of being first 
to own a new model. 

Failures as well as successes have marked the history of automobile 
advertising during the half century. Of the 3,000 and more makes of 
cars that have passed into limbo, many were strongly advertised: Hup- 
mobile, Auburn, Durant, Pierce-Arrow, Chandler are names that 
occur offhand. But the saddest of all to advertising men in general 
and copy writers in particular was Jordan. 

By many people, Edward S. Jordan is ranked among the all-time 
masters of advertising copy. Even today the pieces he wrote for his 
ill-fated car fairly seem to sing. In an article in Advertising Fortnightly 
for September 26, 1923, he gave what he considered the essentials of 
successful copy. First, he wrote, it must promise satisfaction of the 


universal longing for companionship; then it must appeal to the 
reader's interest in the other sex; finally, it must have rhythm or 
swing, with dramatic phrases to linger in the memory. Whether his 
formula is adaptable to all products is highly questionable, but it cer 
tainly worked for Jordan Motor Car ads, making them much read 
and long remembered. His most famous advertisement for the Jordan 
Playboy ripples and sparkles like a mountain brook, from the lilting 
headline, ''Somewhere West of Laramie," to the pay-off sentence, 
'The truth is the Playboy was built for her/' 

If advertising alone could have done it, Jordan would still be 
making autos. 

On the credit side of the ledger, automotive advertising has many 
accomplishments. The distinctive prestige-building copy of Theo 
dore F. MacManus for Cadillac made it a leader in the fine-car field 
during the second decade of the century, a position it has never re 
linquished; one of his advertisements in particular, "The Penalty of 
Leadership," remains in the copy writers' hall of fame. 

When Walter P. Chrysler stepped in as head of what had formerly 
been the Maxwell-Chalmers companies, his advent was staged with a 
gigantic teaser campaign that had the public agog. Engineering-wise, 
the new Chrysler fully measured up to its advance billing, dynamically 
affecting the whole industry. Then in the early 1930's at the depth 
of the depression he challenged Ford and General Motors in the low- 
priced field. Again advertising supplied the spark. Sterling Getchell, 
an authentic genius among admen, came up with the audacious and 
irresistible theme: "Look at All Three!" 

For sheer restraint, nothing has quite topped the old Dodge 
Brothers campaign on the billboards and in the magazines, created 
by George Harrison Phelps back in 1921. An ad or a poster would 
consist of a single word or phrase, centered in a sea of white space, 
or on a poster, white against a blue background, with the name Dodge 
Brothers in the corner. One time it would be "Dependable," another 
time "A Good Name," another "Low Operating Cost." That series 
is still recalled when others far more pretentious and eloquent have 
been forgotten. 

"Body by Fisher" was another advertising tour de force of the 
twenties. The advertisements were remarkable in that they never 
showed an automobile, merely a painting of a beautiful girl by Mc 
Clelland Barclay, with brief copy and the Fisher Body trade-mark. 


In recent years Fisher has concentrated on contests among high- 
school students, with awards of college scholarships for the best 
replicas of the medieval coach in the trade-mark. 

At the start of this chapter mention was made of Henry Ford's 
spasmodic use of advertising. During the period of his company's 
greatest growth very little national advertising was put behind the 
Ford, although its dealers invested important amounts locally. Ford's 
refusal to modernize in line with the times gave Chevrolet its oppor 
tunity to capture first place after World War I. In 1927 rumors of 
a new Ford gathered headway. Newspapers sent reporters to Detroit, 
but no advance details were given out. At the Ayer agency in Phila 
delphia, where ads were being prepared, and at the Donnelley print 
ing plant in Chicago, where literature was in work, the utmost secrecy 
prevailed. Then in late summer the campaign broke. Within five 
days, $1,500,000 had been spent in newspaper advertising by Henry 
Ford, the man who "didn't believe in advertising." Inside of a few 
months, over 800,000 of the new cars had been bought and Ford was 
back in the thick of the fight. 

Postwar automotive plans are thus far only beginning to be put in 
action. Studebaker got the jump with a wide-vision car whose rear end 
looked enough like its front end to inspire endless radio wisecracks. 
Kaiser and Frazer are making a valiant effort to capture public fancy. 
A new car with some radical features the Tucker has been an 
nounced. To date the other companies have offered only slight 
changes from their prewar models, but one may be sure that exciting 
new developments will appear when the present backlog of demand 
has slackened. For that has been the unvarying policy of the industry 
since its diaper days. 

Which comes first the development of something new and differ 
ent by the research engineers, or the call for something new by the 
sales and advertising end of a business? It doesn't especially matter. 
The result, year after year, has been a steady stream of improvements: 
electric lights, self-starter, cord tires, four-wheel brakes, high-compres 
sion engine, safety glass, sealed-beam headlights, and the automatic 
gear shift. Today's $1,200 car is miles ahead of the $5,000 car of 25 
years ago in every respect. 

Lest the engineers and production men get too cocky, however, 
what Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., chairman of General Motors, said 20 years 
ago may be remembered: "Advertising has reduced the cost of many 


articles, such as automobiles, as no other business force could." And 
it is the reduced cost of these articles that has been the basis of their 
sustained and increasing popularity. 

Advertising has built broad highways of buying habit over which 
the public travels straight to the products better products than 
Grandpa ever dreamed of, for less money than we should have to pay 
if advertising were not on the job. 


A MAN bought a fine, handsome, shiny new hammer at a hardware 
store. He took it home and started to drive a nail into the wall 
to hang up a picture. The hammer slipped off the nailhead and 
smashed his thumb. 

"Yeow! Blink th' blankety-blank censored hammer!" howled the 
man. "Ditto for the guy who sold it to me and the manufacturer who 
made the blank-of-a-blank contraption! Yee-ow!" 

His wife came in, fresh from a club meeting where a very learned 
professor had delivered a lecture on the evils of advertising. 

"Oh, Flotsam, your poor thumb!" She picked up the hammer, saw 
the trade-mark of a well-known manufacturer and snorted. "Hmph! 
Just as I thought! It's all the fault of advertising!" 

No phase of human activity is above criticism. Americans take 
pride in exercising their constitutional right to dislike or disparage 
anything they please. Advertising offers a broad target. By its very 
nature and of necessity, it is the most conspicuous object on the land 
scape. And it is extremely vulnerable to attack, both for its past sins 
which were enormous and for its present errors of omission and 
commission. But to condemn all advertising and demand its com 
plete abolition or rigid federal control because of its abuses, its mis 
uses and its shortcomings is like denouncing the whole system of edu 
cation or the institution of the family because neither has produced 
ideal results. 

Supersensitive advertising men resent any criticism of their craft. 
But the more fair-minded realize that honest criticism, whether justi 
fied or not, is an antidote to smugness, a stimulant to frank self-exami 
nation, a spur to progress. 

Assaults on advertising are nothing new. They were common 200 
years ago and astonishingly similar in tone to those of today. Adver 
tising, said Dr. Samuel Johnson, forces or seduces men into buying 
things they do not need; promises results it does not deliver; need- 



lessly raises the cost of goods; seeks to influence the press in its favor. 
In short, though the old master of invective probably never heard the 
phrase, he clearly believed that advertising is "an economic parasite." 
Turning to the present, Fulton Oursler, former editor of Liberty 
and now a senior editor of Reader's Digest, tells the following story: 

My little daughter had come home from the village school and after 
her first helping of dessert turned to me with great big eyes and she 
said, "Daddy, why do you have advertisements in Liberty? The things 
they say are not true. I don't believe a word of any one of them. They 
say what isn't so and try to make you buy what they want to sell, and 
if we didn't have any advertising things would be better and cheaper/' 

I looked at April as if she were some other family's child, but there 
she was, my own eleven-year-old daughter placidly peeling her orange 
and not seeming to be aware of the sensation she had created. I 
waited a few moments before I ventured to try my voice. I said, "Did 
you come to this all by yourself?" 

"No, daddy, I learned it at school today. The teacher taught us that 
advertising was not truthful."* 

Unfortunately for advertising, many school teachers hold similar 
views and have no hesitation about passing them along to their pupils, 
making little or no effort to learn the facts. Until recently business 
men have paid scant attention to what was being taught in the public 
schools with regard to the American free enterprise system; its detrac 
tors have all too often had a free hand in spreading their adverse 

As a result, we have the paradoxical condition of various groups in 
America attacking one of the foundation stones of the system from 
which they derive their living and from which they hope to obtain 
ever greater advantages. Teachers in one breath demand more pay 
to which, this writer feels, they are fully entitled and in the next 
breath utter sweeping condemnations of the entire business order 
which alone can make such increases possible. Labor unions and 
farmers, among the chief beneficiaries of our mass-production econ 
omy, have, with the school teachers, been among the leaders in back 
ing co-operative buying organizations which aim at undermining the 
structure upon which national prosperity is based. 

* George E. Sokolsky, The American Way of Life (Farrar and Rinehart, 1938). 
Quoted by permission of the author. 










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Are all businessmen crooks, cheats, money-grubbers whose word is 
not to be trusted? That is what is implied by the school teacher who 
says advertising is not truthful. How about it? 

Advertising Fights for the Truth 

Long ago, advertisers started to recognize that their greatest single 
hurdle was dishonest advertising. Whether called misleading, decep 
tive or downright lying, the ad that does not live up to its prom 
ises hurts each individual advertisement and advertising in general. 

The members of the advertising fraternity have said far harsher 
things about the misuse and abuse of their means of livelihood than 
any public reformer. Over the past 100 years there has been a never- 
ending struggle to clean up advertising to make it impossible for 
the phonies, the sharpshooters, the twisters, the get-rich-quick artists, 
to defraud people. 

As far back as 1860 Orange Judd, publisher of the American Agri 
culturist, announced that he would accept advertisements "only from 
parties who have a business character to sustain" and that false or 
misleading copy would be excluded. In 1880 Farm Journal declared 
that it would guarantee the reliability of its advertisers. Cyrus H. K. 
Curtis was one of the first publishers in the women's field to ban 
objectionable advertising from his magazine, the Ladies' Home 

In 1906 Good Housekeeping established an "institute" for investi 
gating the dependability of its advertised products. Dr. Harvey W. 
Wiley, chief chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and 
father of the potent Pure Food and Drugs Act, left federal service 
to head the Good Housekeeping Institute. Forty years later adver 
tisers are still proud to display "The Good Housekeeping Seal of Ap 
proval" on their products and in their advertising. 

Responsibility of the publisher for the truth of advertisements he 
accepts is not today always enforceable by law, but no reputable 
medium now seeks to pass the buck. Any reader, or radio listener, 
who feels that he has been defrauded has only to notify the periodi 
cal or radio station and the fireworks will start immediately. 

This same acceptance of obligation extends to advertising agencies, 
to all national advertisers and to all local advertisers who are members 
of clubs affiliated with the Advertising Federation of America. 

It has not been an easy victory, and the war is by no means over. 


Human nature is so constituted that a certain percentage will always 
seek the easy way to profits. But the fight goes on. Through the 
National Better Business Bureaus and the local chapters in each large 
city through all legitimate associations of advertising people 
through the advertising offices of every honestly conducted medium 
a constant battle is being fought against those who try to use adver 
tising for dishonest or misleading purposes. 

Not so very long ago a firm could advertise "a complete sewing 
machine for 25 cents" and send a needle and thread, or "a steel en^ 
graving of George Washington for $1.00" and send a one-cent stamp. 
Just within the current year, sharpers managed to slip classified adver 
tisements past the eagle eyes of several papers with the wording: 
"Hurry! Last chance to send one dollar to Box ," and got thou 
sands of dollar bills from the gullible folks who never stopped to ask 
-why they should mail a dollar to that address! 

One cannot condemn all advertising for a few such isolated in 
stances. Nonetheless, all advertising suffers. This fact has led to ever 
louder demands for action. At the 1911 convention of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs of the World, now the Advertising Federation of 
America, under the leadership of Samuel C. Dobbs, the admen vol 
untarily adopted "Truth" as their slogan. 

The same year Printers' Ink, the advertising weekly founded 23 
years before by George R. Rowell and then headed by John Irving 
Romer, engaged a New York attorney to investigate the existing laws 
on fraudulent representations and to draw up a model state law pun 
ishing all misleading advertising. This "Printers' Ink Model Statute" 
is now in effect in one form or another in virtually every state, and 
25 states have adopted it verbatim. It is worth repeating here: 

Any person, firm, corporation or association who, with intent to 
sell or in any wise dispose of merchandise, securities, service, or any 
thing offered by such person, firm, corporation or association, directly 
or indirectly, to the public for sale or distribution, or with intent to 
increase the consumption thereof, or to induce the public in any man 
ner to enter into any obligation relating thereto, or to acquire title 
thereto, or an interest therein, makes, publishes, disseminates, circu 
lates or places before the public, or causes, directly or indirectly, to be 
made, published, disseminated, circulated, or placed before the public, 
in this state, in a newspaper or other publication, or in the form of a 
book, notice, handbill, poster, bill, circular, pamphlet, or letter, or in 


any other way, an advertisement of any sort regarding merchandise, 
securities, service, or anything so offered to the public, which adver 
tisement contains any assertion, representation or statement of fact 
which is untrue, deceptive or misleading, shall be guilty of a mis 

In 1911 New York and Massachusetts were the only states with 
laws against fake advertising. These laws were inadequate. This 
"model statute" was bombproof. Note that though radio was not 
even a gleam in Philco's eye at that time, the medium is covered like 
a tent as are sky-writing, television, neon signs and other post-1911 

The whole absorbing story of how this statute was coaxed and 
bullied through state legislatures of the great work of William H. 
Ingersoll of "dollar watch" fame, Herbert S. Houston, Merle Sidener, 
O. C. Harn, Phil Thomson, Harry Robbins, Mac Martin, C. P. Bar- 
num (no kin) and many others is told in H. J. Kenner's absorbing 
book, The Fight for Truth in Advertising, published in 1936, silver 
anniversary of the real Bunker Hill in the war against bunk. 

Due acknowledgment should be given to Samuel Hopkins Adams 
for his forthright articles in magazines exposing frauds, quackeries and 
"dubious traffic," and to Joseph H. Appel, Philadelphia merchant car 
rying on the great traditions of John Wanamaker. Possibly the tribute 
paid to Merle Sidener of Indianapolis, who headed the 'Vigilance 
committee" for several years, is typical of these and numerous other 
admen who fought the chiselers and crooks of their day: 

A straight-speaking, true-thinking, incorruptible fighter ... he is 
bent on destroying the "graft" of the last [sic] of the easy-money men. 
Also he desires to educate honest merchants and manufacturers who 
are too enthusiastic, who are afflicted with over-statement in adver 

The remainder of Mr. Kenner's book, unfortunately now out of 
print but still available at public libraries, is devoted to such revealing 
subjects as "Blocking the Blue-Sky Promoters," "Fighting Fraud by 
Education," "Protecting the Merchandise Consumer" and "Correct- 

* H. J. Kenner, The Fight for Truth in Advertising. Reprinted by permission of 
Elbert Hubbard. Quoted by H. J. Kenner of the Better Business Bureau of New 


ing Unfair Price Advertising/' all of which indicate but sketchily the 
very real and difficult problems that confronted and still confront 
advertising's vigilantes. 

Governmental regulation is not a cure. The Federal Trade Com 
mission, even armed with punitive powers, can act only against adver 
tising that has already appeared, and its docket is so loaded that sev 
eral months may elapse before it can review the evidence and issue a 
cease and desist order. Meanwhile the damage may have been done. 
Self-policing by legitimate business, of the very kind that started in 
1911, is the most effective means of safeguarding the buyer and there 
by preserving advertising's good name. It is a thankless task. Mr. and 
Mrs. John J. Everyman will never appreciate the efforts made in their 
behalf. But it is the only way to protect advertising's good name. 

Here is a quotation taken from a college textbook on economics. It 
presents the viewpoint of a detached observer: 

Business organizations and government agencies make some effort 
to protect the consumer (and honest business enterprises) against 
dishonest trade practices. The Better Business Bureaus, which are 
supported by private firms, and the Federal Trade Commission, do 
the most important work in supervising the selling methods of busi 

Business honest business is the front line of defense against 
fraud, trickery, tongue-in-cheek advertising. Thirty years ago Elbert 
Hubbard wrote about destroying the "graft of the last of the easy- 
money men." We know that was merely wishful thinking. There 
will always be easy-money men to attempt to pervert the sharp-edged 
tool of advertising to their own sly uses. Legitimate advertisers, rep 
resentatives of media, all to whom advertising means honest work 
and honest results, can never go to sleep. The price of public confi 
dence in advertising is constant wakefulness on the part of the adver 
tising man. 

Does Advertising Raise Prices? 

Professor Neil H. Borden of the Graduate School of Business Ad 
ministration at Harvard has made one of the most comprehensive 

* Clifford L. James, Outlines of the Principles of Economics (Barnes & Noble, 
1941). Quoted by permission of the publisher. 


studies of the relation between advertising and prices. His findings 
are published in a very large book, The Economic Effects of Adver 
tising. For the average reader there is a condensed version called 
Advertising in Our Economy. 

After pointing out that prices are affected by many factors, Pro 
fessor Borden declares that "it is difficult to decide when advertising 
costs for differentiated merchandise or the net profits taken by sellers, 
both of which enter into price, shall be considered unduly large."* 

He then presents two basic considerations to be kept in mind in 
judging whether or not prices are too high: 

First, the consumer should have a freedom of choice throughout a 
wide range of merchandise. . . . 

Second, there should be adequate checks in the economic system to 
prevent advertising and aggressive selling costs from becoming un 
duly large. ... It is desirable socially that consumers have among 
their choices adequate opportunity to buy merchandise on a price 
basis, without cost of product differentiation (such as special fea 
tures), services, and other nonprice competitive forms adding sub 
stantially to what they must pay.** 

Various products were studied by Professor Borden. In each case 
he found that while prices of advertised lines were sometimes higher 
than nonadvertised items in the same field, competition has oper 
ated to keep this spread from becoming excessive. And the more 
advertisers there are in a field, the less price advantage will any one 
firm have, as in the case of mechanical refrigerators. 

In drugs and cosmetics he found "some of the most extreme effects 
of advertising in increasing prices."*** The explanation lies in the 
fact that the individual seeking satisfaction is willing to pay consider 
ably more for a product that gives "even slight promise of greater 
efficacy," he decided. 

Among dentifrices, an investigation in 1941 reported by Professor 
Borden revealed prices ranging from 3.6 cents per ounce for Craig- 
Martin tooth paste, to 18.5 cents per ounce for Kolynos, with the 
leading brands commonly selling at 11 cents per ounce or above. 
Private brands were offered by chain drugstores, variety chains and 

*Neil H. Borden, Advertising in Our Economy (Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1945), 
p. 174. Quoted by permission of the publisher. 
**Ibid., p. 175. 
*** Ibid., p. 180. 


department stores at prices from 4 to 10 cents less per tube than lead 
ing manufacturers' brands. In some cases the private-label tooth paste 
was outselling the nationally advertised brand by a wide margin; in 
others, the reverse was true.* 

Across the country it is interesting to note that advertised tooth 
pastes maintain relatively the same leadership. For example, here are 
figures from recent consumer preference analyses issued by three 
newspapers for their respective cities. 

Average Milwaukee Indianapolis Omaha 
of 3 Cities Journal Star World-Herald 

Colgate's . . . 27.8% 29.2% 23.5% 30.7% 

Pepsodent . . . 27.7 25.4 29.3 28.5 

Ipana .... 17.7 13.8 23.5 15.8 

Listerine .... 6.4 7.4 3.8 8.1 

Kolynos .... 3.1 3.7 1.7 4.0 

Squibb's .... 3.0 3.3 2.2 3.5 

Phillips' .... 2.5 4.0 2.0 1.6 

Forhan's ... 2.4 2.5 3.6 1.1 

lodent .... 1.8 1.7 2.2 1.5 

Craig-Martin . . 1.7 3.4 1.2 (Under 1%) 

These figures are based only on families buying some kind of tooth 
paste. In Milwaukee this took in 69.3 percent of the families sur 
veyed; in Omaha, 76.3 percent; in Indianapolis, 76.9 percent. No pri 
vate-label brand appears among these ten leaders, although Avon, a 
brand sold house to house, had a 1.9 percent preference in Omaha 
and 1.6 percent in Indianapolis. However, the nonmention of unad- 
vertised tooth paste may be due to the fact that those answering the 
surveys, which included all income brackets, may not have been able 
to remember the names, or because of a possible desire to avoid ap 
pearance of cheapness. Generally speaking these figures must be con 
sidered an accurate cross section of consumer buying habits. They 
bear out the theory that people are willing to pay more where con 
siderations of health or good looks are involved, though the extra 
benefit of the higher-priced article is not provable. 

Price reductions are sometimes used by manufacturers of nationally 
advertised articles, as was done by the cigarette makers in the depres 
sion when 10-cent brands began cutting seriously into the sale of 

?., pp. 207-9. 


standard 15-cent leaders. Camel, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield and other 
popular brands were reduced until they sold for as little as 9 to 11 
cents, with two packs for 25 cents the general price. The period of 
rising costs for labor and materials at the end of World War II sent 
cigarette prices up to as much as 21 cents per pack or more. Neither 
the decrease nor the increase was the result of advertising. 

"Fair trading" of advertised items is permissible in states having a 
fair-trade law. The manufacturer stipulates the retail prices of his 
goods and the dealer enters into an agreement to abide by these 
prices. The purpose is to prevent using nationally known items as 
'loss leaders" that is, goods sold at a loss in order to attract trade. 
Fair trading is a protection to the small independent store owner in 
his struggle for existence. It may result in some consumers having to 
pay more for a fair-traded brand than they might have, if the line did 
not use this device. But they are spared the necessity of "shopping 
around" because the price is the same wherever the brand is sold. The 
customer who does not wish to pay the established price always has 
the privilege of switching to a lower-priced commodity; when an ap 
preciable number of people do this the manufacturer must perforce 
adjust his prices downward or go out of business. 

Some advertising men feel that their part of the sales function has 
been overemphasized in considering prices. It used to be generally 
accepted that advertising made mass production possible, thereby low 
ering manufacturing costs and hence the price to the consumer. Then 
critics of advertising came along with the theory that the money spent 
in promotional efforts raised, rather than lowered, prices, since it had 
to be added to the cost. 

A sensible middle-of-the-road view may be the answer. Whether 
mass production exists because of advertising or vice versa, the two 
generally work together to bring about lower prices or better prod 
ucts for the same prices. In some instances high-pressure selling and 
advertising enable the manufacturer and dealer to get more for prod 
ucts than the consumer needs to pay to obtain equivalent goods. The 
promotional background may add a prestige or psychological value 
which causes the purchaser to feel he is getting his money's worth. 
On the other hand, the advertiser may be guilty of taking advantage 
of public ignorance, superstition or credulity to put a fictitious value 
on his goods or services. Such a condition renders the overpricing 
producer vulnerable to competition from honestly priced, honestly 


advertised articles; advertising, which may have helped the first busi 
ness to overcharge, is even more effective as an aid in remedying this 

The whole question of the effect of advertising on prices became 
academic with the universal and alarming rise in living costs follow 
ing World War II. Not even the harshest critic of advertising could 
say that it was to blame for these higher prices! 

The Immunity of Industrial Advertising 

Nearly all attacks on advertising, it is interesting to note, have been 
aimed at that branch having to do with the promotion of consumer 
goods; more specifically, the advertising in general magazines, news 
papers and radio programs. 

Seldom is adverse comment directed toward one of the essential 
parts of any national campaign the dealer element. Yet without 
adequate distribution and retail support few consumer campaigns 
could succeed. 

Nor do the critics mention the equally important advertising de 
voted to industrial and technical products, raw and processed mate 
rials used in manufacturing. It may lack some of the glamour of 
cosmetic or hosiery copy, but it represents an annual investment run 
ning into hundreds of millions. No one has seriously questioned its 
efficiency and value. And if advertising is good for the manufacturer 
of machine tools or industrial chemicals, why shouldn't it be good for 
the maker of furniture or radios or baby foods? 

To sum up, sweeping condemnation of all advertising because of 
some instances of its misuse or abuse is as unsound as blanket praise. 
Advertising has a long way to go to reach perfection, but it has come 
a long way. It has earned the right of recognition as a significant force 
for better living. 


A"" 1 THE very core of national consumer advertising is the brand 
name. With the exception of a few campaigns designed to sell 
a whole industry for example, the American Meat Institute or 
the Air Transport Association and those developed by the Adver 
tising Council for social-service projects, nearly all general magazine, 
network radio, outdoor, and manufacturers' newspaper advertising is 
devoted to brands. 

What is a "brand"? Originally it was a mark with a hot iron on a 
barrel to identify the maker. Out West it denotes ownership of an 
animal. In the days of the guilds, each shop was required to place on 
its products an identifying mark so that the maker could be held re 
sponsible in case of faulty workmanship. 

Many brand names widely recognized today originated decades 
ago. Through consistently maintained quality they have become an 
integral part of our daily existence. Sometimes the brand is the name 
of an individual Stetson, Kuppenheimer, Clapp, Campbell, Swift; 
sometimes it is a coined word Pepsodent, Spam, Pyrex, Perma-Lift; 
sometimes it is descriptive Eversharp, Ivory, Arch-Aid, Swansdown; 
sometimes, imaginative Big Ben, Palm Beach, Mum, Sunkist. The 
origin is not nearly so important as the connotation in the public 

Innumerable statements have been written about brand names. 
One of the most widely quoted was first published in the form of an 
advertisement by Gair's, a men's apparel store in Redlands, California, 
in the Redlands Daily Facts of April 24, 1935, and since reprinted 
many times: 

You Have a Right to Ask This Question 

Would you buy a car if the maker was ashamed to put his name on 
it? The answer, if we know the American public, is NO! 



Whether it is an automobile or a suit of clothes, you have the right 
to ask this question before buying: "WHO MADE IT?" Just as an 
artist who has pictured his inspiration on canvas is proud to put his 
name on his work, so too do standard quality manufacturers, having 
pride in their product, always insist that their names are on their 
merchandise. If you are shown merchandise on which the maker has 
very carefuly concealed his identity, you may be sure there is a reason 

With the conviction that no institution can be more permanent 
than the kind of merchandise it sells, it has always been our policy to 
select our stocks from those makers whose principles are our prin 
ciples. Thinking citizens in ever-increasing numbers are now rightly 
insisting for their own protection on knowing "WHO MADE 
IT?" when purchasing merchandise of any kind. 

Civic-minded citizens can do their part to maintain national buy 
ing power by demanding standard merchandise of every kind in any 
standard quality store, made by makers proud enough of their prod 
ucts to insist their names are on it manufacturers who have never 
paid their employees an un-American wage scale to "get the prices 
down" under those of competitors. By having always paid their em 
ployees American citizens, all a just wage scale, the standard qual 
ity manufacturers in the face of anti-social competition have nobly 
maintained their social contribution to America. 

Then followed a list of branded merchandise handled by the store. 
In similar vein Mandel Brothers, Chicago department store, ran a 
series of newspaper advertisements on the theme of "America's Fa 
vorite Labels." The opening page reproduced a large number of brand 
names with this copy: 

We have always believed that whatever best serves our customers 
also serves us best. Listed on this page are names of America's leading 
manufacturers . . . names you know well . . . labels you trust. 
Many of the names have been part and parcel of our business for 
generations, because they have given to you, our customers, the qual 
ity merchandise you want. Some are newer than others . . . but all 
are today Mandel's partners in serving the public. All are famous for 
their unswerving faithfulness in bringing you the best . . . good 
times or bad. When you buy at Mandel's, you buy the best products 
of America's leading manufacturers. 


Both these messages to the public are part of a concerted effort by 
national advertisers, agencies and media to present the favorable as 
pects of branded and trade-marked products. This activity is centered 
in the Brand Names Foundation, an organization sponsored by these 
different phases of advertising, all of which have a stake in preserving 
the popular confidence in brands. 

One method used in obtaining general publicity on brand names 
has been the awarding of certificates for products which have been 
continuously merchandised under a certain name for 50, 75, 100 
years or more. It is truly remarkable to find how many of the articles 
we use today had their origin several generations back. At a presen 
tation dinner in New York on February 5, 1946, 200 companies whose 
brands were established prior to 1897 received such awards. The oldest 
brands thus honored were all varieties of English china: Royal Wor 
cester, 1751; Wedgwood, 1759; and Spode, 1770. One of the better- 
known brands in silver plate, 1847 Rogers Bros., has the year of its 
adoption built right into it. Oddly, the company began featuring that 
date very early in its history in the 1850's to distinguish its prod 
ucts from those of a competitor with the same name. 

The figure of the chocolate girl, "La Belle Chocolatiere," appearing 
on packages and in advertising for Baker's chocolate and cocoa, dates 
back to 1780. It is one of the earliest uses of a trade character. The 
plan of identifying some sort of picture with the product has grown 
immensely in popularity over the past 50 or 60 years, until today there 
is hardly a product made for consumers that doesn't have a pictorial 

Among the most successful from the standpoint of general recog 
nition value are the "Green Giant" of Minnesota Valley Canning 
Co.; "Elsie the Cow" of Borden products; the Dutch girl of Old 
Dutch Cleanser; the Spearmint men of Wrigley's Gum; "Aunt Je 
mima" of pancake fame; "Pepsi" and "Pete," the Pepsi-Cola cops; 
"Leo the Lion" of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer pictures; "Johnny," the 
page boy for Philip Morris cigarettes, and the Jantzen bathing girl. 

Some products have become identified with radio personalities, 
either real or fictitious. For example, Fibber McGee and Molly have 
been sponsored by Johnson's Wax for so many years that the team 
and the product are synonymous. The tobacco auctioneer is a Lucky 
Strike institution. Bob Hope means Pepsodent to millions. 

Another type of trade character which helps to humanize a com- 


pany and its products is exemplified by "Betty Crocker," featured in 
General Mills advertising. To large numbers of people she is an ac 
tual person. Her mail is voluminous; she is said even to have had 
marriage proposals. General Mills' object in selecting a fictitious 
name rather than using the name of the real head of their home eco 
nomics department is to protect their advertising investment; a hu 
man being may die, change jobs or, after a build-up, get an inflated 
idea of personal importance and salary, but the mythical "Betty 
Crocker" can go on forever. 

In addition to the brand name and the trade character or device, 
the advertiser often makes use of a distinctive style of lettering to 
differentiate his product or service from competition. This may be 
accompanied by a shield, silhouette, or some geometrical figure such 
as a circle, square, triangle or pyramid. 

This characteristic method of displaying the brand name is usually 
found at the bottom of the advertisement, and is known in the trade 
as a "logotype." 

Formerly the logotype was considered sacrosanct. Anyone who 
dared to suggest revising it would have been guilty of lese majesty, 
bolshevism and blasphemy. But styles change. The rococo designs of 
the 1880's and 1890's began to seem more and more incongruous when 
applied to modern streamlined products. A few daring advertisers 
brought their logotypes up-to-date, and to everyone's surprise business 
kept right on coming in as usual. Nowadays it is considered quite 
proper to modernize the lettering of a trade-mark for the sake of 
greater readibility and appropriateness. 

The year 1870 was significant in the history of advertised brands. 
The United States Patent Office inaugurated the modern system of 
trade-mark registration. During the first year only 121 trade-marks 
were registered. Year by year the number grew until in 1906 more 
than 10,000 new ones were added. By May 1947 total registrations 
had reached 429,000. 

Just how much value companies attach to their trade-mark pro 
tection is seen in the reports of many lawsuits to halt infringements. 
Over 400 attempts were made to imitate the name "Uneeda," the 
property of National Biscuit Company, during its first fifteen years. 
While most trade-marks are carried on a company's books along 
with goodwill at a cash value of $1.00, the real worth of these sym 
bols often amounts to a sizable proportion of all assets. As far back 
as 1919 it was reported that American Tobacco Company trade-marks 


were valued at $45,000,000 out of total assets of $227,000,000 and 
about the same time Liggett & Myers put a cash appraisal of over 
$40,000,000 on their trade names and good will.* 

The Beautyrest Record 

There is romance galore in the promotion of every popular branded 
product. It would be absorbing to trace the history of any one of a 
thousand universally known brands from its inception; to watch the 
struggles, the setbacks, the crises when the future of the business 
hung on the courage and vision of one man or a small group. Almost 
without exception, such a study would reveal a pattern like the fol 

1. A period of slow growth with little or no advertising, during 
which the company "finds itself," both as to the kind of prod 
uct or service at which it excells and as to the all-important 
personnel needed for large-scale, quality performance. 

2. A period of decision. One item, group of items, or type of serv 
ice, is selected because it appears to fill a definite public need. 
The company resolves to concentrate on that particular line. 
Advertising is one of the weapons chosen for the project. 

3. A period of pioneering. Rarely does a new product, or a re 
shaping of a familiar product, win instant acceptance. Dealers 
are skeptical, indifferent, hostile. Consumers show little inclina 
tion to abandon long-established buying habits. 

4. A period of growth and recognition. The new brand takes hold. 
The company was right it does fill a need. More and more 
people buy. Word-of-mouth advertising reinforces the paid ad 
vertising. Dealers get calls for the brand. Production leaps. 
Profits roll in. 

5. A period of competition. Attracted by the company's success, 
other firms jump into the field, start making "something just as 
good" for less money. Strong pressure is put on the company by 
dealers, salesmen, even some factory executives, to meet these 
price threats. Wiser counsel prevails. Instead of debasing the 
product, it is made better. Price reductions are made only as the 
result of operational savings. Merchandising efforts are in 
creased; dealers and clerks are shown why this brand is worth 
the extra cost. Advertising is intensified to do the same educa 
tional job with the consumer. 

* Printers' Ink, Nov. 11, 1920, p. 109. 


The story goes on, but there are no more periods. No successful 
business ever gets beyond the period of competition. The more suc 
cessful it is, the more intense competition becomes. 

Of greatest concern to the consumer are the two key decisions in 
this story: one, when the manufacturer decided to concentrate on a 
specific product for which he felt a need existed and which he be 
lieved he could make better than his competitors; two, when he re 
fused to be turned from his course by price pressure but plowed back 
profits in the form of product and service improvements. 

This pattern, repeated over and over like the endless addition of 
coral polyps, has built the island of consumer confidence which con 
stitutes the brand-names system in America. 

Let's take a typical case: the Simmons Company, makers of furni 
ture and bedding. In 1946, their seventy-fifth anniversary year, they 
had net sales of $92,924,877, based on net working capital of $25,233,- 
826, with land, buildings and machinery valued at $14,698,916. On 
net earnings of $5.08 per share, stockholders were paid $2.00 in divi 
dends, $3.08 being retained in the business. 

How did Simmons reach this point? Very largely through the de 
velopment of brand names that represent dependable value in the 
minds of prospective buyers, plus profit opportunities to their retail 

In 1916, Zalmon G. Simmons of Kenosha, Wisconsin, took a much 
maligned product the metal bed, regarded as suitable only for board- 
inghouses, hospitals and maids' rooms and made it respectable. 
Stylists were retained to create smart designs. Beautiful color pages 
in magazines gave an atmosphere of refinement and luxury to the 
steel bed. Dealers began to show Simmons Beds in their own adver 
tising. Then other bedroom furniture, all made of steel, was added 
to the line, enabling the furniture store to offer harmonious en 

Late in 1924 Mr. Simmons introduced the famous "Beautyrest" 
mattress. Until that time, mattresses had been purely utility items. 
He gave them a plus value. He established research fellowships on 
sleeping habits and sleep comfort at the Mellon Institute, and used 
their findings as the basis of dramatic advertising campaigns. "We 
discovered," he said, "that we weren't in the spring and mattress 
business. We were in the business of selling sleep sound, restful, 
health-building sleep!" 

Sales of the Beautyrest doubled in 1926, the second full year; 


doubled again in 1927, and again in 1928. The following year sales 
again soared. After a dip during the depression, Beautyrest produc 
tion again started to climb, until in 1941 the peak year of 1929 was 

Engaged largely in war production until 1945, the company de 
voted its advertising chiefly to war projects with an occasional product 
theme such as "How to relax in wartime/' and "Make that shut-eye 
count." With the return of peace, it had to apologize for the short 
ages of its products and tell consumers that the Beautyrest and other 
Simmons products were worth waiting for. 

Then came the Simmons Electronic Blanket, developed in the firm's 
own research laboratories and introduced with a spectacular full-color 
campaign. National advertising, linked with an educational program 
to dealers and floor salesmen, made it a highly salable gift item for 
Christmas in 1946. 

Postwar plans include a continuing campaign on the Electronic 
Blanket, increased advertising on the Beautyrest mattress and an in 
stitutional series which features Simmons products "to help furnish 
your dream home" such as metal furniture, lounges, sofa beds, porch 
and garden furniture. 

What part has advertising played in the success of Simmons? In 
1916, the first campaign cost $98,000. Since then the company has 
appropriated between $20,000,000 and $25,000,000 for national ad 
vertising. Besides this, advertising service is rendered to dealers in the 
form of mats, literature and radio spot announcements. From 
10,000,000 to 15,000,000 lines of newspaper advertising are the annual 
average devoted to Simmons products by local dealers. 

The company's salesmen are trained to give every assistance to re 
tailers and their floormen in learning the features of Simmons prod 
ucts. Store executives are taken to the factories to become more famil 
iar with construction details. At the semiannual furniture markets 
Simmons has set up model displays to help retailers in improving their 
own displays. In March 1946 the company issued a manual, "Ideas 
for Bedding Department Modernization," for which over 1,000 re 
quests were brought in by a single ad in Retailing Home Furnishings. 
Summing up the reasons for their sales progress in the seventy-fifth 
anniversary report, Simmons officials made this statement: 

What is the secret of Simmons' sales success? It is product integ 
rity. It is alertness. It is the manufacturer putting himself in the 


shoes of the dealer and trying to help him solve his selling problems. 
It is the realization that his dealer's success is basic to the company's 
own success. 

It is industry responsibility, the challenge of leadership that Sim 
mons has attained in the bedding industry. 

It is public responsibility, the deep sense of obligation that Sim 
mons has always felt and exercised to contribute its utmost to better 
living throughout the world. 

From sales of $72,088 in 1885, to $1,089,865 in 1899 and $6,683,303 
in 1915, the Simmons Company has forged steadily ahead on this 
platform. It has made epochal contributions to home comfort. But 
far from resting on its laurels, it is projecting new products, improve 
ments on its present products, new ways to expand. In the words of 
its president, Grant Simmons, "A business cannot remain static at 
any point in its career, not even at a grandfatherly seventy-five. It 
must either regress or progress." 

Brands Must Stay Made 

Like the reputation of an individual, the brand of a manufactured 
product or the name of an institution is not something that, once 
established, remains fixed for all time. A brand must not only be 
made it must stay made. It must continue to satisfy the public in 
the face of competition. It must perforce use laboratory and con 
sumer research to hold its leadership. 

Free competition, the American system of private enterprise, is re 
sponsible for the brand-names system. It is far from perfect. But thus 
far, in the opinion of many thoughtful students of business, no better 
way has been devised to assure the average purchaser of a fair return 
for his money under a wide variety of circumstances while at the same 
time stimulating a constant advancement in goods offered for sale. 

Under the existing system, the maker of a branded item has a defi 
nite sense of responsibility to the buyer. His prior investment in that 
brand, his hope for future profit from it, both combine to guarantee 
to the purchaser a return comparable with any offered by competi 
tion. With our present mass-production system, a manufacturer must 
have some assurance of patronage before risking the expenditures 
necessary to make a large quantity of goods; the established preference 
for his brand gives him such assurance. 


The rise of national brands, it has been pointed out by the Brand 
Names Foundation, is an aid to "buymanship." In primitive societies 
the shopper can afford to examine each article and haggle over the 
price; in our busy existence few people have the time or patience to do 
this. Modern bargaining is done by buying, or refusing to buy, certain 
merchandise. That which does not sell must either go up in value or 
come down in price. 

Freedom of choice, implicit in our democracy, is involved in the 
brand-names system, as well as freedom of opportunity for new prod 
ucts. Indirectly, freedom of speech depends to a certain extent upon 
retaining this system, for revenue from the advertising of national 
brands helps to keep newspapers, magazines and radio independent of 
the need for governmental subsidies or support by political factions 
that exists in many other countries. 

Finally, brands contribute to progress. Competing producers are 
stimulated to make things better or to make new things. Consumers 
are stimulated toward a higher living standard, which leads to full 
employment and a dynamic society. It is ironic that many who dis 
parage the modern economic system for overstandardizing American 
culture are the same individuals most anxious to eliminate the brand- 
names system and establish grade labeling, which would remove vir 
tually all incentive for developing distinctive features and qualities in 

Corresponding to the brand name on a product is the name of an 
established retail store or service institution such as a bank, a power 
laundry, a moving van company, an appliance repair shop. Each of 
these types of business must depend upon public good will and con 
fidence. Local advertising designed to keep the firm name before 
present and potential customers is an important factor in their pros 
perity. Some retailers, particularly department stores, by consistently 
truthful, prestige-building advertising backed up by good merchandise 
and courteous service, have given their store labels a standing as great 
as the average nationally advertised brands or greater. But they too 
must be constantly alert to hold their advantage against competi 
tion which means better advertising and better service to the con 
suming public. 




SOAP, drugs, foods, automobiles, home appliances, cigarettes, bev 
erages, cosmetics, fountain pens that's the roll call of products 
offered for sale by the top 25 advertisers of 1946. Every one 
comes under the general heading of consumer goods. 

The manufacturer of articles in virtually universal use outranks all 
other types of business in advertising expenditures. He is far and 
away the biggest client of the advertising agency. Although the term 
"national advertiser/' strictly speaking, covers any firm using national 
media including the business and industrial magazines, for ex 
ample it is generally applied only to producers of consumer goods. 
Some national advertisers sell services rather than tangible merchan 
dise. Represented in this category are such names as American 
Telephone and Telegraph, Pennsylvania Railroad, American Airlines, 
Prudential Insurance, Statler Hotels, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; but they 
are a small minority among national advertisers. 

National advertising leadership can be narrowed still farther. Of 
the producers of consumer goods, those making low-cost items that 
are quickly used up and frequently purchased in other words, pack 
aged merchandise make up the great majority of multimillion-dollar 
advertisers. Here is the list of the top 25 companies with combined 
1946 expenditures of $1,000,000 or more in magazines, network radio 
and national farm magazines (these figures do not include newspaper, 
outdoor or other media) : 

Rank Advertiser Total 3 Media 

1 Procter & Gamble $22,456,427 

2 Sterling Drug 11,606,604 

3 General Foods 10,933,037 

4 Lever Brothers Company 9,530,518 

5 American Home Products 8,582,714 

6 General Mills . 8,579,171 

7 General Motors 8,176,766 

8 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet 7,824,710 



Rank Advertiser Total 3 Media 

9 Bristol-Myers ............ 6,342,203 

10 Miles Laboratories 6,250,638 

11 General Electric Co 6,041,049 

12 Ford Motor Co 5,470,379 

13 Swift & Co 5,309,779 

14 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co 5,298,105 

15 Schenley Distillers 4,952,310 

16 Liggett & Myers 4,708,494 

17 Distillers Corp. Seagram . 4,367,150 

18 Campbell Soup Company 4,186,070 

19 Standard Brands 3,830,011 

20 Borden Company 3,591,242 

21 National Dairy Products Co 3,479,745 

22 Philip Morris & Co 3,352,947 

23 Eversharp, Inc 3,297,715 

24 Kellogg Company 3,156,380 

25 American Tobacco Co '..'.._ 3,141,064 

All but three of these General Motors, Ford and General Elec 
tric are in the packaged-goods field. The remaining 22 sell a good 
part if not all of their output through groceries or drugstores. 

A large proportion of the national advertising in newspapers, as 
well as posters and car cards, also originates from manufacturers of 
consumer goods. And so does nearly all printed or lithographed dis 
play material for store windows, counters and walls. Much of the 
local advertising in newspapers is devoted to "tying in" with national 
consumer campaigns. Advertising aimed at dealers who handle con 
sumer goods is an important factor in the field of business publica 
tions. Of other branches of advertising, too direct mail, commer 
cial films, mail order, television, sky-writing, premiums the con 
sumer-goods manufacturer is one of the heaviest users. 

It is no wonder that to the average person national advertising is 
most closely identified with small packages! 

The development and operation of a program of national con 
sumer advertising is a highly specialized procedure. 

Glancing through a magazine, or listening to a series of radio 
shows, one might be forgiven for thinking otherwise. What's so diffi 
cult in writing a few hundred words about a product, getting an 


artist to draw a pretty picture and then inserting the finished ad in a 
magazine or newspaper? Or, for a network show, merely whipping 
up a few commercials? 

The answer is that these are only the visible or audible parts of a 
campaign. In themselves they demand extreme care, skill and flair 
the very simplicity which makes them look so easy is achieved only 
by endless effort and experience they are like the one-eighth of 
an iceberg showing above water; there is far more below the surface. 

Virtually all national advertising is produced by a team consisting 
of executives representing the manufacturer and people from the 
advertising agency handling the account. The relation between the 
two groups is an intimate one. On it depends much of the produc 
tiveness of the campaign. So the headmen of business are giving 
more and more attention to the selection of their own advertising 
executives and to the selection of their advertising agencies. 

It was not always thus. In the early years few companies boasted 
an advertising department, or even an advertising manager. Then as 
appropriations increased it became necessary to have somebody to 
check the bills, to see that the ads were placed, to write circulars and 
sales letters. Sometimes a bookkeeper who was handy with words 
would be promoted to handle the advertising; this was how Claude 
Hopkins got his first foothold in the field. Or the sales manager, con 
scious of the close tie-up between personal and printed selling, might 
call in one of his bright young salesmen from the road to take over 
the job. Too often the advertising manager occupied a purely clerical 
role, the basic decisions being made by higher-ups. 

Gradually, however, the position has assumed greater importance. 
In some companies today it carries with it the title of vice-president. 
The advertising manager may become a member of the board of di 
rectors and in more than one instance has gone on to become presi 
dent of his company. If the company is one of the larger advertisers, 
as will be explained later in this chapter, he will have under him vari 
ous writers, production assistants, research men, home economists 
and other departmental employees according to the nature of the 
advertising problem. 

But establishing a strong, efficient advertising staff is only half of 
the team-building process. The other half is selecting the right agency 
to service the account. 


Picking the Advertising Agency 

The national advertiser trying to decide between several agencies 
feels like a pretty girl besieged by suitors, each ardently pleading his 
own case and pledging lifelong happiness. How to choose the right 

Sometimes it's love at first sight with about the same chance of 
permanence as in marriage. Sometimes it's a matter of propinquity; 
the agency is near by and able to give the account constant attention. 
Sometimes family relationships or personal friendships tip the scale. 

Nowadays few advertisers make their selection, however, without 
having been exposed to a number of agency solicitations. Word that 
an account is "open" gets around via the grapevine with incredible 
speed. Rumors of an impending change or of a new product about to 
enter the advertising arena often get started on the slightest provoca 
tion. Agency "bird dogs" new-business men descend upon the 
advertiser in troops and let fly with their heaviest artillery. By the 
time a company's executives have listened to half a dozen presenta 
tions they are completely confused. With each agency claiming to be 
the ideal one for the account, the advertiser often feels like flipping 
a coin for his choice. 

Current practice among large advertisers favors the "guided solici 
tation" method. The advertiser picks out a few agencies which seem 
about right in size, background and quality of work. This is not diffi 
cult, because the accounts of all recognized agencies are published 
regularly in Standard Advertising Register and also in McKittrick's 
Directory of Advertisers. Knowing what accounts an agency handles, 
he can look at their ads for various clients and listen to the programs 
they produce on the air. It is generally considered desirable to have 
an agency with experience in the advertiser's field foods, cosmetics, 
automotive products or men's wear, for instance but not an agency 
handling the advertising of a direct competitor. 

The advertiser then calls in his candidate agencies, explains his 
needs and gives each solicitor a questionnaire to be returned by mail. 
One such questionnaire, mentioned in a series of Printers' Ink articles 
on agency solicitations, was described by the advertiser who used it, 
as follows: 


We were interested in the length of time they [the agencies] had 
been in business; their principal personnel; their principal accounts 
and length of service; their accounts recently acquired; their annual 
billing in magazines, radio, newspapers; previous experience with our 
type of product; their previous experience with other packaged goods; 
their previous experience with men's products; their personnel avail 
able and previous experience; their facilities for market research, copy, 
art, radio and media; their competitive business directly and indi 

On this questionnaire were the factors we considered in calling in 
agencies. We then selected the agency on the basis of the answers to 
these questions. We asked for no campaigns no ideas. We went 
about selecting an agency as we would a sales manager. 

All six agencies came back after the questionnaires had been mailed 
in and studied by us. Sitting in on the meetings were the advertising 
manager, the sales manager and myself [vice-president]. From then 
on we asked only a few leading questions. But from the questionnaire 
the agencies had a means of catching on to our thinking, so they 
knew how to talk to us.* 

The questionnaire method is not infallible. Bruce Barton tells 
about a big advertiser who prepared a list of 50 questions for the dozen 
agencies soliciting his business.** He asked for every conceivable de 
tail of their organization, personnel, accounts and methods of plan 
ning campaigns, as well as a complete file of one year's campaign for 
one of their accounts. The answers of all 12 agencies were so thor 
oughly satisfactory that he still couldn't make up his mind. So he 
finally selected an agency by asking the clients of each for their opin 
ions and judging by the enthusiasm of the responses. 

Usually the company's top management will make the final deci 
sion, but the advertising manager will have a voice in the selection 
since he is the one who will have to work most closely with the agency 
from then on. 

Some advertisers retain the same agency for many years. Others 
make frequent changes. Among the 123 companies who spent 
$1,000,000 or more each in magazines, network radio and newspaper 

* Edward J. Dever, Jr., "How Some Advertisers Guide Agency Solicitations," 
Printers' Ink, Nov. 29, 1946, p. 36. Used by permission of Printers' Ink. 

** Bruce Barton and Bernard Lichtenberg, Advertising Campaigns, pp. 77-80. 
Used by permission of the Alexander Hamilton Institute. 


advertising in 1945, there were 72 agency changes in the previous five 
years. Where possible, companies with the most consistently suc 
cessful advertising records avoid changing agencies. Each time a new 
agency comes in, there is a period of studying the product and prob 
lem during which the promotional effort more or less marks time. 
After an agency has served a client for several years it should acquire 
a mass of market data, a familiarity with the advertising and sales 
personnel and a knowledge of competition, all of which help increase 
its efficiency on the account. Against this advantage is the argument 
that a new agency will bring a fresh viewpoint and original ideas into 
play. It sometimes happens also that after an agency handles an ac 
count for a considerable time it acquires a series of inhibitions; 
"they" meaning the client are presumed to dislike certain types 
of headlines, illustrations and text. Clinging to these taboos, the 
advertising becomes sterile. The new agency, ignoring these hypo 
thetical don'ts, prepares ads which win an enthusiastic okay. Where 
upon the staff of the former agency screams, "But they wouldn't let us 
do that!" 

Large advertisers frequently divide their advertising among two or 
more agencies. This is the conventional procedure with a company 
having a great variety of products, some of which compete directly 
with one another. For example, Procter & Gamble make Ivory Flakes, 
Duz and Dreft, all used for the same purposes. Each of them is adver 
tised through a different agency. The 123 advertisers mentioned 
above in the $l,000,000-and-up bracket employed a total of 289 agen 
cies in 1946. 

But whether the consumer-goods advertiser uses one agency or 
several, whether he changes agencies as often as some Hollywood stars 
change mates or stays with the same one year after year, his agency 
affiliations must work as a unit with his own advertising manager 
the quarterback of the advertising team! 

Duties of the Advertising Manager 

Only in exceptional cases can it be said that the president of a com 
pany is "his own advertising manager." The late George Washington 
Hill took a keen interest in Lucky Strike advertising and was credited 
with having originated many of its most outstanding campaigns. Rob- 


ert R. Young of the Chesapeake & Ohio has written a number of ar 
resting ads for his railroad system. 

Normally, however, high officials approve the annual budget, dis 
cuss the over-all plan and then leave it to the advertising manager to 
work out the detailed campaign with the agency. Supervising the 
company's advertising in national media is only one of his duties, 
although naturally the most important one. The agency will always 
look to him as its chief source of information about the company, the 
company's policies, the product or products and the new develop 
ments in the line. Ideas which may be radically different from previ 
ous advertising may be submitted to him for approval and it is up to 
him to say yes or no. In some cases fortunately few the agency 
will strive to "please" him rather than to produce copy that will get 
the most results from the appropriation. He may be the first to de 
cide that the present agency is not performing so well as some other 
agency might. 

Besides serving as the main liaison with the agency and principal 
spark plug in supplying suggestions for campaign themes, he must 
frequently supervise the work of a large department. He is expected 
to speak with authority on public relations, sometimes on employee 
relations, except where the company has a separate public relations 
and/or employee relations director; work with the sales department to 
effect the maximum use of all advertising, and to insure its proper 
prorating among various markets; keep a finger on printing and lith 
ography ordered for various advertising purposes; and perform innu 
merable other duties varying from one business to another. 

The Association of National Advertisers in 1946 retained McKinsey 
& Company, management consultants, to analyze the workings of 
member advertising departments. A summary of their findings was 
published in a book entitled Organization of the Advertising Func 
tion. Twenty-one companies were studied in detail and 202 summar 
ized. Besides supervision of product advertising, no less than 33 
other activities were noted as being performed wholly or in part by 
the department. 

Included in this list were such jobs as: preparing exhibits for con 
ventions; preparing catalogues and house organs; holding consumer 
meetings or schools; preparing posters for building employee morale; 
handling community fund drives in the company; preparing the an 
nual report; advertising for new employees; handling pre-testing of 


products; arranging employee parties; getting up material for use in 
dealing with the government; preparing motion pictures or slides for 
the sales deparment, and writing speeches! 

From all of this, it will be seen that "managing the advertising" for 
a big company is no one-man sinecure. Quite the reverse. The adver 
tising department may have anywhere from two to 200 employees, 
possibly more, and it is the job of the advertising manager to keep 
them all functioning smoothly. 

The General Mills Setup 

General Mills, Inc., of Minneapolis, was one of the companies par 
ticipating in the McKinsey survey. According to Standard Advertis 
ing Register for July 1946, S. C. Gale occupied the position of 
Vice-President and Director of Advertising and Public Relations. The 
expenditures of the company for advertising, according to the same 
source, amounted in 1945 to $8,260,217 for farm papers, national mag 
azines and radio. It should be noted that this figure does not include 
newspapers, dealer displays, consumer literature or supplementary 

Lion's share of the giant appropriation went to radio with $6,407,- 
342, of which $1,765,757 was for Cheerioats (the name of this product 
has since been changed to Cheerios), $468,483 for Cheerioats 
and Kix combined, $1,540,355 for Wheaties, $580,062 for Betty 
Crocker Soups, $504,966 for Bisquick, $408,112 for Softasilk Cake 
Flour. In the magazine field Wheaties, Gold Medal Flour and an 
all-over institutional campaign received the biggest chunks of the 
$1,407,760 budget. The farm-paper appropriation of nearly half a 
million had a $155,141 slice for Larrowe Feeds. 

Now let's see how these budgets were administered. The company 
retained four advertising agencies: Dancer-Fitzgerald-Sample, Inc., on 
Gold Medal, Kix, Softasilk and Cheerioats; Knox Reeves Advertising, 
Inc., on Wheaties, Bisquick and Betty Crocker Soups; Batten, Barton, 
Durstine & Osborne, Inc., on public relations and household ap 
pliances; and Zimmer-Keller, Inc., on the Larrowe Division. 

Mr. Gale reported to the company president, Harry A. Bullis, 
himself a very advertising-minded executive, while the following offi 
cials reported to Mr. Gale: Grocery Products Advertising Manager, 
Radio Program Manager, Flour and Feed Advertising Manager, Adver- 


tising Comptroller, Mechanical Division Advertising Manager, Direc 
tor of the Home Service Department, Assistant Director of the 
Department of Public Services (public relations), and the Director of 
Market Analysis. Each of these is an important executive in his own 

The Director of Home Service, for example, has charge of kitchen 
operations, including the model kitchens which attract visitors from 
all sections of the country; it is here that the Betty Crocker recipes 
are developed and tested. This department also handles mail re 
questing recipes and assistance on homemaking subjects and directs 
the radio and movie contacts. 

The Vice-President in charge of Advertising is also a member of 
the company's Executive Council, serves on the top-management Op 
erating Board, is a member of the Current and Future Planning Com 
mittee, co-chairman of the Market, Merchandising and Advertising 
Committee, member of the Personnel Committee and member of the 
Nutrition Committee. 

Budgets for the coming year are worked out by each division, which 
estimates the number of units it expects to sell, establishes an adver 
tising rate per unit, and multiplies. The annual budget must be ap 
proved by the President and the Executive Committee of the Board 
of Directors. Then it is turned over to the advertising managers and 
"they are the doctors from there on." 

Each advertising program is subject to approval by a policy com 
mittee which is headed by the Vice-President in charge of Advertising 
and includes the head of the Legal Department, the head of Products 
Control, the Chief Economic Adviser, the Chief Nutritionist, the head 
of Research and the Assistant Director of Public Service. This com 
mittee passes on general policies, specifies claims for each product, 
testimonials and the like. 

"In appraising results," Mr. Gale states, "General Mills employs 
various research groups, and in addition the advertising program is 
related to actual sales results by each product for each wholesale trad 
ing area. The results attained by this comprehensive approach to ad 
vertising are best reflected by the company's outstanding growth in 
volume and profits." 

General Mills has a normal staff of 129 in the department, including 
50 in advertising, 35 in home service, 19 in public service (public re 
lations) and 25 in market analysis. 



Other Advertisers 

International Harvester Company operates many related activities 
in its Consumer Relations Department. It maintains extensive adver 
tising schedules for its various divisions which include Farm Tractors 
and Equipment, Motor Trucks, Industrial Power, and Refrigeration. 
The department's magazine section regularly prints, in its own Har 
vester Press, 30 publications directed to the general public, special 
customer fields, its dealers, and to the 80,000 employees in its 26 man 
ufacturing plants. Its chief public relations medium is the Harvester 
World. The department issues numerous catalogues and instruction 
manuals, conducts farm practice research, assists dealers in merchan 
dising, supervises exhibits at state fairs, plans and distributes motion 
picture and slide films, maintains a speakers bureau and heads vari 
ous other activities. The International Harvester Consumer Rela 
tions Department employs 269 people. 

By way of contrast, the Hoover Company, to quote the report, "has 
found that its specific needs are met best with a small advertising 
department consisting of the advertising manager and his assistant. 
These executives together with the Vice-President in charge of Ad 
vertising, Engineering and Patents are responsible for the over-all 
planning and direction of advertising. The agency is 'the rest of the 
advertising department/ "* For many years this account has been 
directed by a Chicago agency, Leo Burnett Company, Inc. Records 
of Publishers' Information Bureau show that Hoover spent $257,273 
in magazine advertising in 1945. 

Standard Oil Company of Indiana is one of the growing number 
of companies with a separate Public Relations Department; the direc 
tor of this department is, however, a member of the Advertising Com 
mittee, which considers advertising policies, expenditures and pro 
grams, and either passes on them directly or recommends them to the 
Board of Directors. This awareness of the importance of sound pub 
lic relations as influenced by advertising is shown in the statement of 
the Company's principal advertising objectives: 

1. To help keep the Company's name favorably before the public. 

2. To aid in selling the Company's products. 

*McKinsey & Company, Study on the Organization of the Advertising Function 
(Association of National Advertisers, Inc.) 1946, p. 55. Quoted by permission of the 



3. To assist in introducing new products. 

4. To expand distribution by helping to secure and hold new dealers. 

5. To help in building the morale of the Company personnel.* 

The Advertising Appropriation 

National advertising requires money. Before embarking on a cam 
paign, the advertiser must decide in a general way how much he 
wishes to spend to reach his objectives. Customarily this is done once 
a year. The annual advertising appropriation or budget serves as the 
basic control in planning the company's program and while subject to 
change to meet unforeseen conditions it largely sets the pattern for 
that length of time. 

Appropriations are determined in many ways. The simplest is to 
take a fixed percentage of the previous year's sales, or a certain 
amount of money per unit sold. This method is often used in indus 
try-wide co-operative campaigns, where each firm supporting the cam 
paign allots so much per case or per pound of goods sold in one year, 
the sum to be used for the next year's advertising. The percentage 
may be that commonly employed in industry, or it may be based on 
what the advertiser has found necessary to do an adequate promo 
tional job. With a new product, or a company invading new markets, 
the tendency is to take a higher percentage than with long-established 
products which have already done their "missionary work." 

Another method is to forecast the coming year's sales and apply the 
percentage. If the advertiser feels optimistic he may decide that busi 
ness will increase and set up a larger budget on the basis of the ex 
pected rise. If the outlook does not appear favorable, he may retrench 
by applying the fixed percentage or he may feel that there is need for 
greater advertising effort to combat a decline and appropriate a 
higher percentage of anticipated sales. 

In larger companies having divisional or district offices, the practice 
is to break down the forecast geographically. Some parts of the coun 
try may be on the upswing, others static or showing a downward 
trend. The percentage method is applied to the over-all estimate and 
also to these geographical estimates, resulting in greater or less 
amounts being allocated to the various regions. 

Besides the appropriation based on a percentage of past or antici- 

* Ibid., pp. 85-87. 

pated sales the advertiser may also use the "task method." He may 
be planning to add to his line a product which will require several 
years of aggressive selling to build into a position of leadership. Nor 
mal advertising percentages do not apply, because of lack of precedent 
and also because competitors may be in possession of the field. So 
after a study of market possibilities for the period when he expects his 
new product to become established, he may set up an appropriation 
based on what would be a reasonable volume at that later date. Or by 
analyzing how much advertising is now being done on similar prod 
ucts he may arrive at a sum necessary to do a dominating job. Even 
though this amount may take all the profits on the new number for 
some time, it may still be a sound investment if the campaign suc 
ceeds. Just as a manufacturer will not charge the entire cost of his 
production machinery, for example, against the first year's sales, so he 
may prorate part of the introductory advertising expense over a longer 

Then, too, the new article may use up some scrap material or take 
up the slack in production. It may have a low sales cost because it 
can be carried by the regular salesmen without impairing their effi 
ciency on the main lines. It may round out the line, enabling the men 
to sell a dealer his entire needs in a particular field and thus help close 
the door to competitors. Any of these situations will justify a firm 
in stepping up the advertising budget at least until the specific task 
is accomplished. 

The task plan is also used where an advertiser wishes to dominate a 
certain market or to improve a spotty sales condition. In either case 
he may deliberately overspend in trade parlance, "hypo" that mar 
ket. On products where shipping cost is important, a larger percentage 
of the appropriation may be assigned to the region around the plant. 
A good many advertisers spend extra money right in their home town, 
as a matter of pride, to win community good will and to foster em 
ployee loyalty and make it easier to get good workmen. 

To some companies, it is a matter of prestige to be the leading 
seller in certain cities New York and Hollywood, for example. Deal 
ers and consumers in other places presumably are impressed by such 
pre-eminence. Perhaps this is one reason for the "greatness" of the 
Great White Way! 

Cities identified in the public mind with specific products may be 
come obiects of special advertising interest to manufacturers of those 

This 'Traffic Flow Map" of Dallas, Texas, is typical of data provided for using 
advertising with precision. Thickness of lines indicates density of traffic for 
location of outdoor posters. A No. 100 Showing gives adequate poster coverage 
of such a market. 

Never Underestimate the Power of a Woman ! 

Nor the Power of the Magazine. Women Believe In 

At the new price of 25c, the June, July, and August Journals have reached 
the largest audiences of women in publishing history. July net paid circulation 

r ove4560000! ~ i$MOM 'JOURNAl 


There's a chuckle and a selling message in each of these Ladies' Home Jour- 
na] ads. "Bj" Kidd, noted woman copywriter, sparked the basic idea and 
created many of the earlier pieces. 


products. To be able to say that one makes the largest-selling beer in 
Milwaukee, or the most popular beans in Boston, or the most sought- 
after bathing suits in Miami Beach, is quite a feather in the favorite's 

Special appropriations may also be made for many kinds of tests. 
A national advertiser enjoying moderate acceptance may wish to find 
out if intensified effort will increase his business enough to pay for 
the extra cost. Instead of stepping up his entire budget, he will be 
wiser to test the new plan in one or more local markets first. Or tests 
may be made on new advertising appeals, sampling, small versus large 
ads, price changes, new packages, method of distribution and so on. 
Because of uncertainty as to the outcome it is not generally considered 
good business to weaken the regular campaign by reducing it to pay 
for the test. 

Firms selling by mail tend to keep their advertising budgets flexible. 
Ads or mailing pieces carry a key number such as "Department 56L" 
or "Studio B-6" to serve as a check on the source of the inquiry or 
order. New pieces of copy are being tried out regularly, and when one 
is found that produces exceptional results the advertiser may decide 
to put extra money behind it. The profits from the first mailing or 
advertisement help to pay for the expanded program. 

With this plan it is possible to run a shoestring into a fortune, if 
the tested copy continues to produce according to form. However, as 
Professor Hotchkiss points out,* the law of diminishing returns is 
very likely to set in. There are only certain particular magazines, 
newspapers and radio stations that are consistent mail-pullers; even 
these may inexplicably fail to produce, and the advertising man is 
left with a red face. Direct mail may work on a small list but peter 
out on a large one. 

Once the advertising appropriation for a period, or for a specific 
task, has been determined, the next problem is how to divide it. A 
fixed amount must be set aside for the advertising department over 
head. The remainder, less a reserve for emergencies, is then split 
among the different media magazines, newspapers, radio, outdoor, 
trade papers, direct mail, display materials and other channels. Each 
of these in turn must be subdivided; if radio is to be used a certain 
amount will go for purchase of time, another part for talent, another, 
m the case of transcriptions, for recording and frequently another for 

* Op. tit., p. 426. 


promoting and publicizing the show. Publication advertising, besides 
the cost of the space, also takes money for art work, typesetting and 
plates; this production expense may vary from 5 or 10 percent of the 
space charges to as much as the cost of the ad itself. 

Companies operating by sales districts also allocate the budget ter 
ritorially. If a group of national magazines is used in the campaign, 
for instance, they may compute what percentage of the total circu 
lation goes into each area and charge that proportion of the cost 
against the districts. A district which gets less than its rightful share 
of the appropriation as shown by the circulation breakdown may be 
given additional advertising in local media to even things up. 

When the choice of media has been made, the real headaches be 
gin. There's never enough money to use all available elements in a 
particular field. The advertiser and his agency must leave somebody 
off the list. Advertising solicitors are notably persistent and ingenious 
in presenting the merits of their particular newspaper, magazine, net 
work or other medium. The decision must be made on the basis of 
which media will bring the advertising to the right type and quality of 
customers in specific areas and will do it best in relation to advertising 
cost. Indirect benefits must be considered; one magazine aimed at the 
consumer may have a strong influence with dealers, while another, 
though small in circulation, may reach the notable type of user who 
sets the styles for the masses. 

The question of what should be charged to advertising also has to 
be decided. Obviously direct media and production costs belong in 
the budget, but what about such pesky items as ads in charity bazaar 
programs, painting the company name on delivery trucks and on the 
factory, distributing samples of the product to plant visitors, entertain 
ing customers or prospects, or sponsoring an athletic team for the sake 
of free publicity? 

Some years ago Printers' Ink published a chart for allocating the 
advertising appropriation. It had three classifications: the "white 
list" all charges that belong in the advertising account; the "black 
list" those that do not, although too frequently put there; and the 
"gray list" border-line charges which might or might not come out 
of the ad budget.* 

The old rule, "When in doubt, charge it to advertising," has di- 

* "How to Determine the Advertising Appropriation," Printers' Ink, 1946, p. 16. 
Quoted by permission of Printers' Ink. 


verted huge amounts of money from legitimate advertising objectives, 
weakened innumerable campaigns to the point of futility. "The cor 
nerstone of any sound appropriation policy/' says the Printers' Ink 
report, "is that the advertising budget, once set up, will not be sub 
jected to unjustified charges that will dissipate its efficiency."* 

The Advertising Plan 

Since every advertising campaign must be tailor-made to fit the 
product or service being advertised, no two are exactly alike. Experi 
ence has taught national advertisers and agencies, however, that to 
succeed, any campaign must encompass the following fundamen 

1. A good product or service, one for which there is an existing or 
latent need. 

2. A market for that product or service which can be reached with 
reasonable thoroughness within the allowable expenditure. 

3. A basic advertising theme, idea or keynote for the campaign which 
will appeal to the self-interest of the proposed buyers and which 
can be simply and dramatically expressed. 

4. Adequate provision for making the product or service available 
through local outlets stores, showrooms, sales offices, canvassers or 
by mail. 

5. Thorough co-ordination of the advertising with the company's own 
salesmen and with these local outlets. 

6. Proper timing of the campaign as to season, popular trends in taste 
and customs, financial status of buyers. 

7. Continuity telling the prospects often enough and over a long 
enough period to win acceptance for the basic theme. 

In each of these "musts," the company's advertising executives and 
the agency should work hand in glove with the sales and production 
departments. If the product is not right as to quality, quantity, ap 
pearance or price the faulty condition has to be corrected before the 
campaign starts or the whole effort will be handicapped. 

Advertising a poor product may hurt a company more than not 
advertising at all, by creating additional dissatisfied customers who 
will be difficult if not impossible to sell in the future. 

* Ibid., p. 18. 


Market analysis may be either a sales or advertising department 
function. In any event, those planning the campaign must know 
where and who the present and potential customers are. This will be 
discussed in a later chapter. 

The basic theme of the campaign is the cause of more conferences 
and arguments and misconceptions than everything else put together. 
Given a certain thing to sell, what dominating or arresting idea will 
best pave the way to its acceptance by the public? Shall it be a slogan, 
a new pictorial twist, a singing jingle? Should some new product or 
service feature be played up, some new angle of design, construction, 
ingredients? Perhaps a new package or container will do the job; or 
focusing on some new use or combination of uses. 

Sometimes an old familiar feature that has not been stressed can be 
given a dramatic treatment, as when Milton Feasley began writing 
those unforgettable ads about halitosis for Listerine. Sometimes it's a 
fresh, imaginative way of describing flavor, as when Schlitz Beer came 
out with the theme, "Just the kiss of the hops none of the bitter 
ness." Sometimes it's inherent in the name of the product, like 
Pennzoil's "Sound your Z." 

Distribution of the product is, naturally, a sales rather than an ad 
vertising job. But the campaign planners must give the most careful 
consideration to every part of this process. The once prevalent con 
cept of using advertising to develop "consumer demand" in other 
words, selling prospects so thoroughly that they would go to the store 
and insist on having a particular item and no other, thereby forcing 
the dealer to order it has given place to the more logical and reason 
able objective of creating "consumer acceptance," putting the pros 
pect in a receptive state toward the product or service. But this favor 
able state is of no value to the advertiser unless the thing advertised 
is available. 

"Advertising," said the late Ray Lillibridge, a New York agency 
head, "starts the consumer toward the product. Selling starts the 
product toward the consumer. They meet at the point of sale." That 
is they meet if all parts of the advertising and sales program mesh 

So the campaign must take into consideration the length of time 
required to inform the dealers or local representatives about the adver 
tising, fill their orders, and have the merchandise in their hands 
when the program starts. "Jumping the gun" with ads that appear 

First step in getting an ad 
prepared at Marshall Field & 
Company is deciding what to 
advertise. Here Matt Hyland, 
buyer of French Room Milli 
nery, points out features of a 
new number to Kay Rickman, 
Divisional Advertising Co-ordi- 
nator of Apparel and Millinery, 
corresponding roughly to "ac 
count executive" in an agency. 

Daily morning meeting 
of Field's advertising 
staff to criticize prospec 
tive ads with Margaret 
Egan, advertising man 
ager, presiding. 

A panoramic shot of 
some of the copy 
writers' cubicles in 
Field's advertising de 
partment. Lawrence B. 
Sizer, head of Sales 
Promotion, at right. 

Hovering over Rose 
Mando's drawing board 
as more finished art is 
done are her colleagues 
Jack Frost, Wilbert 
Myers and Rita Wol- 

Photos courtesy Marshall Field & Company 


Illustrations from Progressive Grocer 


Two views in modern food stores, demonstrating how self-service a direct 
outgrowth of advertising has revolutionized modern merchandising. 


before the product is adequately stocked is a serious source of waste 
in the advertising of many new items or new models. 

It is the responsibility of the advertising department and agency to 
make sure that the company's own salesmen know about the campaign 
and use it as a selling tool. For instance, very meager results may be 
expected from a series of advertisements or radio programs stressing 
a product's beauty, convenience or quality if the salesmen put their 
main emphasis on price. On the other hand, when the salesmen are 
enthusiastic about their company's advertising and can transmit that 
enthusiasm to wholesalers and dealers, even a modest or uninspired 
campaign has a far better chance of succeeding. 

Elaborate methods are sometimes used to present the campaign, 
just for that reason. Before World War II, the annual sales conven 
tions of certain large advertisers rivaled Broadway theatrical produc 
tions in showmanship. Full-scale shows were often prepared, traveling 
from city to city and performing in the leading local theater for the 
benefit of the distributor and dealer organization. To the accom 
paniment of tap dancers, orchestras, floodlights, velvet curtains and 
pretty girls in tights, the new models would be unveiled and the forth 
coming advertising program introduced. If a network radio show was 
to spearhead the campaign, its star might attend the convention. 
"Blowing up" or enlarging the new ads to giant proportions was a 
common practice. Then the whole story would be retold in a lavish 
portfolio or sales manual given to each man as his year's "ammuni 

Wartime restrictions and easy selling have outmoded such satur 
nalia, but we may expect to see them or their equivalent return when 
competition gets rugged. The use of portfolios containing proofs of 
new advertisements, information as to media, circulation, dealer helps 
and other data is, however, a recognized adjunct of any national cam 
paign. These are given to each company salesman in the hope that 
they will be shown to the wholesalers, chain buyers and dealers. Some 
times they are, but the wise advertising manager takes no chances. If 
the salesman neglects to show his advertising portfolio to the trade, 
mailing pieces and business paper ads will at least partially inform the 
trade about the campaign. 

A substantial proportion of all linage in the drug, grocery, hardware, 
department store and beverage publications is devoted to describing 
and explaining the consumer advertising of manufacturers. 


Many campaigns include "tie-in" materials such as window displays, 
counter cards, wire hangers, decalcomanias, leaflets, booklets and spe 
cially prepared ads in the local newspaper with space at the bottom 
for the dealer to insert his name. Having more of such material of 
fered to him from advertisers than he can possibly use, the dealer must 
be sold on the value of "tying in" with that particular campaign. The 
task of persuading him that this one series of ads or radio shows or 
posters represents a rare and unusual profit opportunity making it 
worth while for him to stock, display and push the advertiser's prod 
uct is known as "merchandising the advertising." In expenditure it 
may represent only a fraction of the cost of the consumer campaign, 
perhaps 5 to 10 percent, but it is one of the most vital steps in the 
entire plan. 


PREVIOUS chapters of this book have described the evolution of 
the advertising agency from its origin before the Civil War as a 
strictly space-selling organization on through the many stages by 
which it grew into the present form a highly ethical institution 
rendering creative and mechanical services to advertisers on a pro 
fessional basis. The last chapter discussed the selection of an agency 
by the manufacturer of consumer goods, and the broad aspects of 
client-agency relationship. 

But thus far there have been no direct answers to the questions: 
What, exactly, does an advertising agency do to earn its commissions? 
Why have the various media found it advisable to establish and main 
tain the present agency structure? 

According to present standards the advertising agency is an inde 
pendent firm, free from control either by media or by advertisers, which 
offers a complete advertising service to its clients. Early in advertising 
history it was found that the manufacturer of a product was not the 
best person to tell other people about it. He was too inclined to be 
biased by his own enthusiasm. Far better to have a third party, 
reflecting the consumer attitude, do the selling. This individual 
would approach a product from an objective viewpoint and his com 
ments would be much more likely to interest the ultimate purchaser 
than those of the original sponsor. To this day the successful adver 
tising agency is one that retains its "consumer viewpoint" planning 
ads from the angle of the man in the street or the woman in the 
kitchen rather than the man behind the product. 

In this respect the agency is similar to a legal firm counseling a 
number of corporations, or an accounting firm supplying audits and 
statistical information. 

To provide unbiased counsel with no outside influence, direct or 
indirect the agency must be a separate entity. The minute a pub 
lisher, radio station owner or other individual financially interested in 



promoting some specific medium enters the picture, the agency loses 
its freedom of judgment. 

Assume, for example, that an agency has been named to direct a 
$100,000 account. Its gross revenue is 15 percent of $15,000. It will 
receive that amount regardless of the media it recommends. But un 
less the program developed by the agency produces results satisfac 
tory to the client, some other agency is likely to be named next year. 
Therefore it behooves the present agency to recommend impartially 
those media which, in its best judgment, will do an effective job this 
year. Only in this way can it hope to hold its accounts for subsequent 

Once this basic fact has been grasped, many details become clear. 
The agency takes a long-range attitude: its concern is not merely with 
current billing but with what may happen in the future. The desires 
and wishes of an individual advertiser are important, granted. If, 
however, what that advertiser wants does not agree with the agency's 
own experience as to what constitutes productive advertising, the 
agency people are quite apt to veto his wishes. The advertiser may 
get what he wants, with another agency. But if his program fails, he 
is more likely than not to come back to the agency that gave him its 
frank opinion in the first place. 

Advertising Media and the Agency 

Over a long period of time, media such as national magazines, 
newspapers, outdoor and transit advertising have come to consider 
the agency as their chief source of productive advertising. All they 
have to sell is white space in a publication or "dead air" on the radio. 
They cannot do a complete job of filling this space or air time. Deal 
ing with 100 or more individual advertisers, this would be impossible. 
Sometimes media will assist prospective advertisers to prepare suitable 
copy; radio stations and networks often develop sustaining (nonspon- 
sored) programs with the idea of selling them to a client, while a few 
business publications and other media may have creative departments 
to work with smaller accounts. These are, however, the exception. 
Virtually all national advertising today is agency-created. 

But the agency is not merely interested in filling orders for space or 
time. It must make advertising work. To do this it constantly strives 
for fresh, new, ever more attractive methods of telling the client's 


story in competition with other advertising. It devises methods of co 
ordinating the ad program with the sales and production end of the 
business, thus increasing effectiveness and encouraging the advertiser 
to continue using its services. 

The active agency is always on the lookout for new business firms 
that have never before advertised, or that have not realized their full 
opportunities for advertising, or that have stopped advertising. Media 
solicitors also seek to develop new advertisers, but since their sale must 
be supplemented by a creative service it is the agency men who do 
most of the pioneering. 

From a financial angle, media owners appreciate the agency because 
it simplifies their credit operations and carries the risk of losses. Sixty, 
or seventy years ago publishers regularly expected 25 percent of their 
advertisers to default on payment of bills. Today, thanks to the sound 
ness of the agency structure, media credit losses are infinitesimal. 
This has come about through the system known as "recognition." 

The 15 percent commission granted by media cannot be claimed 
by any organization until certain requirements have been met. To be 
"recognized," an agency must satisfy the individual media owners or 
association on these points: 

1. It must be a bona fide agency, free of financial control by an ad 
vertiser or by a medium owner. 

2. It must keep all commissions (not rebate any to an advertiser). 

3. It must possess personnel of experience and ability adequate to 
serve general advertisers. 

4. It must have the financial responsibility to meet the obligations it 
incurs in ordering space or time. Some types of recognition require 
a certain minimum of liquid capital in the agency's possession. 

In order to simplify the recognition problem, certain groups of 
media have joined to give over-all approval to an agency. These in 
clude the American Newspaper Publishers' Association (ANPA) for 
most newspapers; Periodical Publishers' Association (PPA) for many 
of the general magazines; Associated Business Papers (ABP) for some 
200 or more trade and technical publications and the Agricultural 
Publishers' Association (APA) for farm papers. The ANPA and PPA 
have each at the present time about 600 agencies on their recognized 
list. The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) adopted rec 
ognition standards at its 1935 convention but no blanket method of 


screening the various agencies was set up. Agencies placing network 
business are recognized at the discretion of the network, and the same 
holds true for individual stations. Outdoor advertising is placed by 
many agencies through the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau: 
nonmember agencies may establish their credit responsibiilty with the 
Outdoor Advertising Association of America, an organization of 
poster-plant owners. 

An agency desiring to use only a few magazines or newspapers will 
not necessarily require recognition by a national association. As the 
list of clients grows, however, and new media are added, this becomes 
a matter of importance. Over 200 agencies have recognition from all 
the national organizations. Recognition once granted may be with 
drawn if the agency fails to maintain the required standards. 

The agency regularly passes on to its clients any cash discounts 
allowed by the media, on condition that the client pays the agency's 
bill by the discount date. The client is entitled to the exact amount 
of the cash discount allowed to the agency by the publisher. For ex 
ample, with a magazine whose published rate is $100 the agency com 
mission of 15 percent would be $15, and the total amount due by the 
agency to the medium, $85. If the magazine allows a 2 percent cash 
discount, this would be computed on the net amount; 2 percent of 
$85, or $1.70. The agency would thus pay the publisher $85 less $1.70, 
or $83.30 and passing this cash discount to the client would receive 
$100 less $1.70 or 98.30, retaining $15. 

To establish uniform relations between various media and the 
agencies, the 4 A's developed three standard agency-media contracts, 
one for publications, one for spot broadcasting and one for transpor 
tation advertising, which are now used voluntarily by the great major 
ity of agencies. 

The Agency Setup 

Advertising agencies differ so enormously in size, kinds of business 
and individual operations that it is impossible to describe a typical 
one. Broadly speaking, however, they perform most or all of the 
following functions: 

1. Contact with clients. 

2. Fact-finding (research). 

3. Campaign planning. 


4. Writing advertisements. 

5. Planning and supervising radio programs. 

6. Selecting and ordering media. 

7. Making layouts, ordering and supervising art work. 

8. Mechanical production. 

9. Merchandising (sales promotion). 

10. Checking and billing. 

11. Publicity and public relations. 

12. Soliciting new business. 


These services may, and frequently do, overlap. In highly depart 
mentalized agencies some of them may be subdivided. For example, 
the buying of radio time may be separate from the placing of adver 
tisements in publications or on posters. The writing of radio commer 
cials may be segregated from other forms of copy. Fact-finding may 
include product or market research, polls of the reading and listening 
public, copy-testing, consumer panels. 

In addition the agency may offer specialized services, such as pro 
ducing radio shows or commercial films, preparing house organs or 
catalogues, conducting contests, management engineering, operating a 
model kitchen. More than one agency has even owned and operated 
a retail store or an automobile dealership to provide a practical labora 
tory for its advertising plans. 

I. Contact with clients Liaison between the advertiser and his 
agency may take many forms. In the conferences where basic adver 
tising policies and programs are determined the contact is often made 
by an officer of the agency, particularly in dealing with the client's top 
management. Of course, the wise agency will attempt to make sure 
that the president, board of directors, treasurer, general manager and 
sales manager of each client company are all familiar with the adver 
tising program and enthusiastic about it. 

Chief agency representative in the workaday contacts with the 
client is the account executive. Actually he is far more than a go- 
between. He should have a trigger-quick mind, a reservoir of facts 
about markets and media, intimate grasp of the advertiser's selling 
problems and the ability to transmit and interpret information to his 
creative staff. 

As a rule the account man has a finger on though not necessarily 
in each of the agency functions where his client is involved. His is 
the job of securing the "okay" on plans, copy, art, finished advertise- 


ments and bills. Hence his need for knowing what goes on within 
the agency so he can discuss any phase of the campaign intelligently 
with the advertiser. 

Would you like to be an account executive? Here is what Dr. Don 
ald E. Laird says are characteristic traits of such gentry: 

He generally likes to make speeches, meet and direct people, 
interview sales prospects and look at antique furniture. If he 
could earn as much money, and have other things pretty much 
his own way, he would like to be a cartoonist, novelist, orchestra 
conductor or sales manager. Among occupations he is apt to 
dislike are auto repairman, bank teller, florist, inventor, life in 
surance salesman, and physician.* 

Among his likes, summarizing Dr. Laird's findings, are golf, 
detective stories, Life and poker. Among dislikes hunting, stamp 
collecting, picnics, driving an automobile, observing birds, and rough- 
house initiations. 

A study by Advertising Age entitled "Advertising Agency Functions 
and Compensation" gives as the Number 1 agency function, "coun 
seling on distribution, sales, merchandising and advertising." In a 
survey of 155 agencies the majority stated that besides advising clients 
on basic advertising policies and programs they also counseled with 
them on distribution policies, sales and merchandising policies and 
plans, catalogues, sales aids, house organs; assisted in planning sales 
contests and sales conventions and advised on sales quotas.** Such 
counsel, if and when given, would be largely in the hands of the ac 
count executive. It is obvious that he must be a well-grounded indi 

If the account is small or not too demanding, the account executive 
may handle other business. In fact, most account executives have 
several clients. They divide their time among these firms according 
to the demands of the various campaigns. As a rule advertising ac 
counts have their peaks and valleys. When a series of advertisements 
is being prepared to cover a period of several months or a year, the 
A. E. may be swamped in work on a certain product: after the series 

* By permission from What Makes People Buy, by Donald E. Laird, copyrighted 
1935, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 

** "Advertising Agency Functions and Compensation," Advertising Age, August 
12, 1946, Section two, p. 6. Cited by permission of Advertising Age. 


is okayed and running he may have a breather, permitting him to 
ration more of his time to other accounts. 

On larger accounts the executive may have an assistant account ex 
ecutive and/or several junior contact men training to reach the en 
viable position of account executive themselves. 

These "outside" men are not the only members of the agency seen 
by the client. It is sound practice to have the creative men or women 
assigned to an account visit the factory or general office, sit in on con 
ferences with the advertising manager, browse around the research 
laboratories, talk with the production people and even go out on the 
road with salesmen. This not only results in better copy but also 
helps bind the account more closely to the agency as a whole rather 
than merely to one man. There is always the danger where an ac 
count is serviced largely by one individual that he will walk out with 
the business and transfer it to another agency or start one of his own. 
A great many agencies, in fact, have been launched precisely that way! 

2. Fact finding or research The broad subject of market analysis 
will be considered in some detail later.* It is important to note here, 
however, that fact-finding yields precedence to no phase of advertising 
as an agency "must." Without adequate knowledge of markets and 
distribution, product use and acceptance, competitive activity, pre- 
checking and postchecking of the campaign, the agency would be 
working in the dark. The client may have what he feels is a thorough 
understanding of his field; nevertheless, the agency must satisfy itself 
as to market facts to do a sound job of planning and executing the 

In a booklet issued by the American Association of Advertising 
Agencies to explain the structure of the agency business, effective 
agency service is defined as "interpreting to the public, or to that part 
of it which it is desired to reach, the advantages of a product or serv 
ice." This interpretation, say the 4 A's, should be based upon ( 1 ) a 
study of the client's product or service; (2) an analysis of the present 
and potential market for which it is adapted; ( 3 ) a knowledge of the 
factors of distribution and sales and their methods of operation; and 
(4) a knowledge of all available media and means which can be 
profitably used to carry the interpretation to the consumer, whole 
saler, dealer, contractor or other factor.** 

* Chapter XXIII. 

** The Structure of the Advertising Agency Business (the American Association 
of Advertising Agencies, New York, 1946). Cited by permission of the American 
Association of Advertising Agencies. 


Each of these steps clearly calls for research. 

Opinions and practices vary widely as to the extent, nature and 
methods used in agency fact-finding. The agency may have its own 
research director, operating either alone or with a staff of assistants. 
The account executive may supervise research activities, calling on 
independent research organizations when the occasion demands. The 
creative personnel may engage in individual research to develop ad 
vertising ideas actually "ringing doorbells" or calling on retailers, or 
riding a sales route with a truck distributor. Larger agencies usually 
have a librarian to classify the mountains of data constantly piling up 
on every conceivable phase of advertising and marketing: books, re 
ports, business-paper articles, media studies, and so on. Mail question 
naires or the personal interview method may be used. In recent years 
"panels" or permanent groups of consumers who can be quickly polled 
by mail have been established by some agencies. 

The cost of such research, when essential to proper servicing of the 
account, is usually borne by the agency. Where the information ob 
tained serves the client, a fee is often charged for the work. 

3. Campaign planning Development of the advertising plan with 
in the agency may take one of several channels. A popular arrange 
ment is the "plan board" method. This may be headed by the agency 
president, with executives in charge of copy, art, media, research and 
other departments as members. Or the planning chairmen may con 
centrate all of his efforts on this work. The plan board, with the. 
account executive, formulates all general plans on the account and 
the work then funnels into the appropriate departments. 

Another method is the "group plan."* Each account executive 
will have one or more copy writers, an art director, a man to direct 
mechanical production, and such specialists as are needed for ex 
ample a radio producer if the account uses considerable radio adver 
tising. This group is responsible for the creative work on the account. 
If there is not sufficient work to keep a man busy in this group he 
may also be assigned to another group, but on that particular account 
the members operate as a team. The advantage of this system is that 
it enables certain people to become thoroughly familiar with the spe 
cial problems and policies of a client. If the group shows signs of go 
ing stale, new blood can be added. 

* Otto Kleppner, Advertising Procedure (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1941), 
pp. 545-6. Used by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc. 


With smaller agencies, the entire staff may constitute the "group" 
on every account in the shop, although even with as few as two copy 
writers the tendency is to have each writer specialize. 

For important planning there is usually considerable give and take 
among the various partners, account executives, writers and other 

One large agency which has won many awards for its outdoor post 
ers, has a policy of calling on everybody in the organization to submit 
ideas when a new campaign is being considered. It is said that for 
a particular poster series that attracted national acclaim, over 3,000 
suggestions, out of which eight were selected, were offered by em 
ployees from the chairman of the board down to the errand boy. 

Regardless of the method used for preparing the advertising plan, 
it must represent the best thinking of the agency, for its success or 
failure will reflect upon the entire organization. Clients are very 
conscious of the advertising done by their own agency for other ac 
counts; prospective clients study the published work of the agencies 
seeking their business. So no plan for a campaign goes out of the 
agency without being studied by its top executives, at least in the 
Abroad aspects of basic strategy and underlying theme. 

4. Writing advertisements Once the main theme has been deter 
mined, preparation of copy comes next. Words take charge. In cub 
byholes down the hall, men and women writers grapple with head 
lines, lead paragraphs, persuasive text, action-winning closes. Phrases 
are jotted down, hashed over, rejected or welded into finished copy. 
The writer may use a thick black pencil and yellow paper or a Parker 
51 fountain pen; he may start right in on the typewriter or do his first 
draft in longhand and then type it out or have it typed for him; he 
may use a dictating machine or a stenographer. No matter what the 
medium there is no easy way to create effective copy it is hard work. 

Nonetheless, copy writing is regarded by most nonwriting employees 
of the agency as an easy job. They can't understand why a whole day 
should be spent on a single 120-word commercial, a week on one 
Ladies' Home Journal page for which the copy may fill a single type 
written page. In the course of 25 years as a copy writer the author has 
encountered few laymen who didn't either state openly or imply that 
they could write better ads than any in the magazines. 

Why, then, should advertising agencies be constantly on the look 
out for copy writers and cheerfully pay their stars salaries ranging 


into the top income brackets? Perhaps copy isn't as easy as it looks! 
Perhaps it does take a peculiar combination of talents, of which the 
ability to string words together is only one. 

Seasoned advertisers recognize the crucial significance of good copy. 
In a recent Printers' Ink survey among national advertisers the ques 
tion was asked: "Rank in order of importance the agency's various 
services to your company: copy, merchandising ideas, research, space 
buying, direct mail, art and layout, new products, planning, other 
services/'* Forty- three percent placed copy first, another 29 percent 
second. Hence copy ranked one- two with nearly three-fourths of the 

The late Claude Hopkins, considered by many as the greatest copy 
writer of them all, was almost a fanatic on the importance of copy. 
He cared little for fancy art work, or for fancy writing. But he had 
untold faith in the power of copy, particularly headlines. On more 
than one occasion, he declared, he had seen the results from a piece 
of copy increased eight to tenfold by a change in headline. He sum 
med up his philosophy in such categorical statements as the following: 

We cannot expect people to read our ads again and again. Our 
subject attracts them, and they give us brief attention. It is up to us, 
then, to convince them or forever lose their interest. They will not 
read another ad of ours if we fail to present in an enticing way some 
thing they desire.** 

As previously mentioned, under the "group" system, the copy writer 
assigned to a particular account functions in close harmony with the 
account executive in planning the campaign. With the plan board 
method, the agency's copy department manager sometimes called 
the copy chief sits in on the basic creative work and then assigns 
the writing to one of his staff. Or, with a smaller agency, he may do 
some of the actual copy himself. If the agency is still smaller, the ac 
count executive may take care of the creative work between calls on 
his clients. 

Agency copy writers have a variety of backgrounds. They may get 
their start as newspaper reporters, as department-store clerks, house- 

* E. J. Dever, Jr., "Services Advertisers Expect from Agencies," Printers' Ink, 
January 10, 1947. Used by permission of Printers' Ink. 

** Claude C. Hopkins, My Life in Advertising (Harper and Brothers, New York, 
1927), p. 183. Quoted by permission of Harper and Brothers. 


to-house solicitors, factory hands, bundle wrappers or short-order 
cooks. A very fine copy man in a leading Chicago agency started his 
career as a silk weaver. Another had worked in a museum. Among 
his duties was that of tinting photographic post cards to be sold to 
visitors. When he was discharged for some minor cause, the only work 
he could get was painting slides for a firm that sold them to adver 
tisers in movie houses. He began to suggest phrases and then to create 
entire slides. His work attracted the attention of an agency president 
who offered him a job. 

Though no two are alike in antecedents, experience, education or 
working methods, all agency writers have one thing in common, a 
keen, fresh, alert interest in people. By choice they ride the subway 
or the bus, in order to rub elbows with their public. They brazenly 
eavesdrop in grocery stores or department stores, give their friends the 
third degree about their buying habits, prowl around factories or labo 
ratories asking all manner of silly questions in quest of human re 
actions and thoughts. By nature they may be introverts, but the 
necessities of their job force them to be sociable. 

The popular conception of an advertising writer as an aloof, "arty," 
temperamental, unbusinesslike creature cooped up in his ivory tower 
and dashing off reams of clever prose has led many copy aspirants 
astray. The copy stars of today are salesmen, either by instinct or 
training. They write not to awe the reader or listener with their clever 
ness but to persuade him to buy. If the persuasion calls for gay, fan 
ciful lines they can produce them; if the formula is simplicity and 
directness they will come up with text as clean, as free from detours 
as the Gettysburg Address. They know how to make every word 
count, whether the copy pattern specifies a single brief paragraph or a 
full-dress parade of the product's many advantages. 

While on the job, the copy writer who wants to get ahead must 
forego any tendency toward Bohemianism in dress or habits. One 
never knows when a client may drop in, or a rush call come through 
requiring a visit to the client's offices. The serious-minded young copy 
man or woman will welcome such contacts. If properly handled they 
are steps leading upward in one's value to the agency and in earning 

Courage is a priceless trait for a copy writer: courage to say what he 
thinks in conferences; to defend what he has written when he knows 
it is good; to protest against emasculating changes in his copy and 


against asinine suggestions on what to write. Of course back of such 
courage must be discrimination, the capacity for self-criticism, the 
generosity to admit that the other fellow has a good idea now and 

Above all, the copy writer in an agency must, without losing his flair, 
his imaginative power, learn teamwork. It's a large order. But no 
phase of advertising holds greater satisfaction or offers more oppor 

5. Planning and supervising radio programs With the exception 
of agencies concentrating on industrial or direct-mail advertising, vir 
tually every United States agency has one or more clients using radio. 
Among the larger firms this is an important part of the billing and a 
special radio department is set up to handle this medium. The vice- 
president and radio director of a big agency occupies a key position. 
Among the best known are Arthur Pryor, Jr., son of the famous band 
leader, who has this title with Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn; 
Thomas H. A. Lewis, married to the film star Loretta Young, long in 
charge of radio at Young (no kin) & Rubicam, now with Kenyon & 
Eckhardt; Tom Luckenbill of William Esty & Company, and John 
Bates of J. M. Mathes, Inc. 

Sometimes the agency radio department will create a program from 
the ground up. More often it will take over an already existing show 
which may be a network sustainer, a local production, or a "package" 
program complete with author, cast, music and producer. A notable 
example of the latter is "Information Please," the brain child of Dan 
Golenpaul; in its ten years or so on the air it has been sponsored by 
such advertisers as Canada Dry, Heinz, Lucky Strike and Parker Pen, 
each having a different agency, yet the format has remained the same. 

The large radio department may include program directors or pro 
ducers, casting directors, musical directors, script and commercial 
writers. In the smaller agency, most of these roles are filled by out 
side talent working under the over-all supervision of the agency. One 
job is never farmed out: that of writing the commercials. An agency 
may lack the facilities for writing and staging a program, but it yields 
to no one its prerogative of creating the selling messages for its clients. 

6. Buying space and time Fountainhead of information on media, 
the agency "space" and/or "time" buyer occupies a most strategic 
position. The best planned and best written campaign may fizzle un 
less media are properly chosen. So the individual in charge of this 
department has much to worry about. 


He is the man whom the representatives of different publications 
and radio networks ask to see. If he wished, he could eat on some 
space seller's expense account every noon and many evenings. Yet 
the ironic truth is that he consistently selects the names for a client's 
schedule solely on the basis of which ones will deliver the best results. 

The media director of an agency is primarily concerned with where 
the advertising is to appear after it has been created and approved. 
Generally he has little to say about the theme or context, being kept 
well occupied with "placing." His is the pioneer function of the 
agency, long before the days when such features as market analysis, 
radio production, commercial films and consumer panels were added. 

He can state offhand which paper is the best buy for a particular 
audience in Topeka or Seattle; why one should buy two or more 
papers to "cover" Boston; which Sunday newspapers give the most 
co-operation in installing window displays in grocery stores. 

Some agencies have separate departments for publication and radio 
purchasing. Occasionally there may be another space buyer for out 
door and transit ads. In many agencies the space buyer handles all 
media, with or without a corps of assistants. His gray hairs are the 
result: 1, of clients suddenly deciding to cancel a whole series of non- 
cancellable media contracts; 2, of account executives rolling in just 
before quitting time to request a specific schedule of publications in 
volving a certain amount of money same to be ready at 9:30 A.M. 
the following day. 

7. Making layouts, ordering and supervising art -work The Art De 
partment of an advertising agency may range in size from less than 
one man to a hundred or more. 

In the minute agency a free-lance artist may occupy office space 
without rent, devoting a few hours per week to the firm's layout and 
art needs by way of payment. The average small agency has a full- 
time art director who designs the ads and supervises purchases of "art 
work," drawings, photographs, hand lettering, retouching, from out 
side sources. As the business grows, he may acquire several assistants. 
In the plan board type of agency the art director usually sits in on 
discussions of basic campaign plans for all accounts; he may bring 
along a pad of layout paper and sketch the rough ideas as they are 
presented by the account executive, agency principals and copy peo 
ple. With the group method an agency may have several art di 
rectors each assigned to one or more accounts. 

The design for the advertisement generally passes through several 


stages: the "rough rough" or preliminary phase when ideas are groping 
for expression; the "rough" or "tissue rough" when the basic idea is 
starting to crystallize; and the "comp," short for "comprehensive lay 
out," which is executed almost as carefully as the finished advertise 
ment, the illustrations often being sketched by the same artists who 
will do the actual drawings. If the ad is to be in color, the comp 
will faithfully reproduce those colors. Sometimes the text matter is 
set in type and stamped in on the comp, or a proof of the type 
pasted in. 

Comprehensives are used chiefly in presenting a campaign to the 
board of directors or other high officials of the company not familiar 
with advertising technique and hence unable to picture in their own 
minds, merely from seeing roughs, how the ads will look. The vet 
eran advertising manager, on the other hand, much prefers to have 
ideas presented in rough form, being perfectly able to visualize the 
final job from such a blueprint. As a matter of fact he is apt to be 
doubly critical of material that is submitted in too elaborate a fashion, 
rightly feeling that if the fundamental idea is good it needs no fancy 
frills to sell itself to him. 

Knowledge of available art sources is an essential part of the art 
director's equipment. He must keep in touch with the commercial 
artists of his city, both free lance and those in studios, as well as the 
photographers and photo-retouchers. If the talent in his community 
is limited he may make trips to New York, Chicago or elsewhere to 
obtain the desired quality of work. 

Some agencies find it practical to have finished artists on their pay 
roll, particularly where there is a steady flow of some special kind of 
art work. In most cases, however, illustrations, lettering and photog 
raphy are purchased outside. 

The almost universal practice in billing art work is to charge the 
client cost plus an agency service charge of 15 percent. A growing 
practice is to add 17.64 percent, which yields a revenue of 15 percent 
on the gross amount. 

Besides his chief duties as designer of ads and supervisor of art pur 
chases, the art director functions* as- consultant on many problems of 
an artistic nature. 

Although most art directors remain in their own orbit, occasionally 
one steps out, either into the ranks of general agency executives or into 
the select group of magazine illustrators. Rene Clark, art director of 


Calkins & Holden, became its president for a time. Lester Loh is not 
only art director, but a vice president and director of J. M. Mathes, 
Inc., as is Arthur Surin at Geyer, Newell & Ganger. James Yates went 
from art direction for William Esty, handling Camel Cigarettes, to 
Curtis Publishing Company where he did a notable re-styling job on 
The Saturday Evening Post; later he reverted to the agency field but 
then became art director of the Curtis monthly, Holiday. A few art 
directors who combine copy-writing ability with design skill have been 
put in charge of all creative work for their agencies, as was Sid Wells 
in the Chicago office of McCann-Erickson, Incorporated. 

The most successful art directors are not necessarily those with great 
ability in producing finished art. They must possess imagination, ver 
satility, a catholic taste, appreciation of all forms of pictorial expres 
sion, grasp of typography, engraving and printing processes and a 
strongly developed merchandising instinct. After all, the ad has a 
selling job to do, and it must sell in format and illustration as well as 
in words. 

8. Mechanical Production "In a medium-sized agency there are in 
process, at times, upward of two thousand separate production jobs," 
according to a standard book on agency practice.* "How can any one 
individual or group of individuals hope properly to keep in touch with 
that number of production jobs without the use of some system?" 

These particular writers advocated the use of a production-control 
board for this purpose. With this method a large sheet is ruled off for 
each account and various colored thumbtacks used to denote the prog 
ress of the different jobs through copy, layout, art, client okay, engrav 
ing, typesetting, electrotyping and printing operations. The board 
shows at a glance which jobs are making satisfactory headway, which 
are being delayed and who is to blame. 

Whether a control board or some other method is employed, re 
sponsibility for getting the work done on time usually devolves upon 
the production staff. Some agencies have a separate "traffic division" 
charged with following orders through from their point of origin to 
completion. The "group" method makes provision for the assignment 
of a "detail man," or girl, who pesters the life out of anybody unfortu 
nate enough to be bottle-necking a particular job. 

All media have "closing dates," the fixed time after which no ad 

* Floyd Y. Keeler and Albert E. Haase, The Advertising Agency (Harper and 
Brothers, New York), p. 94. Quoted by permission of Harper and Brothers. 


can be inserted. With a national magazine this may be two or three 
months in advance of publication; with a daily paper, only a few hours 
before it hits the street. The production and traffic people must know 
the closing date for every publication and control the ad preparation 
accordingly. The customary procedure is to set up a schedule by 
working back, allowing an adequate amount of time for each opera 
tion; this determines how far in advance preparation for the ad should 
be started. 

For example, assume that a four-color advertisement is to appear in 
the February issue of Good Housekeeping. The closing date is "15th 
of third preceding month," November 15. The engraver estimates 
that he will need a minimum of twenty working days to turn out his 
plates; five days are added as a "cushion." Five more days are required 
if duplicate plates are to be sent. Another five days must be allowed 
for obtaining the client's okay. Shipping of plates will take five days 

This gives 40 days so far; with the five-day work week that means 
plates should be started September 20. Natural-color photography is 
to be used for the main illustration; three weeks are set aside for this, 
with another week for client's approval. Before the photo can be 
taken, copy must be written, layout made and both okayed. The copy 
has to be set and fitted into the layout, but that can be done while the 
color photograph is in work. 

The amount of time to be allowed for creative work varies consider 
ably. If a new copy theme is being developed preliminary discussions 
may start several months in advance. Where the "pattern" has al 
ready been set, many agencies make a practice of notifying the copy 
department or writer four to six weeks in advance of the date when 
that particular ad should go into the art department for layout. The 
hypothetical traffic schedule for the February Good Housekeeping 
ad, therefore, might look like this: 

June 28: Notify copy dept. 

July 26: Copy due. 

Aug. 16: Layout completed. 

Aug. 23: Client OK on copy and layout. 

Start art and typesetting. 
Sept. 13: Complete art and typesetting. 
Sept. 20: Client OK on art and type. 

Start color plates. 


Oct. 18: Plates due. 

Nov. 1 : Final OK on entire ad. 

Order reproduction plates. 
Nov. 8: Ship plates to publisher. 
Nov. 15: Closing date. 

This appears like an ideal arrangement with ample time for each 
step. There is only one thing wrong with the picture: it is now not 
June 28, but October 12! 

Instead of three weeks, the color photography has to be done in a 
maximum of one week and it had better be right there's no time to 
re-photograph! Instead of 25 working days for the engraver, he must 
be cajoled or bludgeoned into getting the plates out in 15. Instead of 
four weeks for copy and three for layout, they must be done over 
night; but then, late hours are no novelty to creative folks in adver 
tising agencies. At the last minute, if the closing date has arrived and 
the ad is still uncompleted, publishers may grant an extension; though 
of late years they have become less and less co-operative on that score. 

Somehow, by dint of feverish effort, the production man "catches 
the issue." He relaxes. Never again! From now on, ads must be 
started far enough ahead to 

The phone rings. It's another account executive. "Look, Bill! I 
just got back from Glockenspiel and Krood's. They wanna run a 
series in Time, starting with the first January issue. Yes, I know it 
closes in two weeks, but " 

And that's mechanical production in an agency!* 

9. Merchandising and Sales Promotion Close behind the creation 
of effective copy and attention-compelling layouts, among services that 
agency clients value most, is the development of merchandising plans 
and ideas. 

Nearly thirty years ago the American Association of Advertising 
Agencies, in adopting their standards of practice, set up as the final 
point: "Co-operation with the client's sales work, to secure the great 
est effect from advertising." 

And in its survey 6f agency operations in August 1946, Advertising 
Age found: 

Advertising's greatest advances [since 1918] have been in advertis 
ing research, copy testing, audience and research measurement, mer- 

* For information on the technical aspects of production, see Chapter XXII. 


chandising and sales promotion both to dealers and to consumers at 
the point of sale. Although the quality of creative work . . . still plays 
an all-important role in the sale of advertising [agency] service, em 
phasis has shifted to those services designed to increase the effective 
ness of advertising.* 

Named among the ways in which agencies assist clients in improv 
ing results are the following. The percentage figures indicate the ratio 
of agencies (reached by the Advertising Age survey) performing each 
of these services. 

1. Send principals, account executives or creative personnel on occa 
sional field trips with client's salesman. (85%) 

2. Prepare point-of-sale display material. (96%) 

3. Prepare presentations and sales aids to help advertiser's salesmen 
merchandise campaign to trade. (94% ) 

4. Present advertising program to trade meetings, conventions, shows. 

5. Prepare direct-mail broadsides, folders and letters to merchandise 
campaign to trade. (95%) 

6. Prepare dealer tie-in advertisements or radio announcements. 

7. Write letters or broadsides requesting merchandising activity by 
newspapers or radio stations. (78%)** 

Not infrequently the merchandising work of an agency may include 
direct sales assistance. The survey disclosed that 54 percent of the 
agencies reporting make calls on key distributors, jobbers and chain- 
store buyers, not only to secure data useful in preparing the campaign 
or to check on its reception, but with the avowed purpose of getting 

Merchandising activity may be centered in a special department of 
the agency or spread among the "groups." It is a primary concern of 
every account executive. Collaboration among account representa 
tives will often produce a valuable interchange of merchandising in 
formation and support. The man handling Account X on a field trip 
to Texas for his client, involving calls on grocery jobbers in several 
cities, may find time to visit drug jobbers in those same towns on be- 

* Advertising Age, August, 1946, p. 15. Quoted by permission of Advertising Age. 
**Ibid., pp. 16-17. 


half of the executive handling Account Y. Mention has already been 
made of similar back-scratching activities by agencies having a num 
ber of offices and by agencies affiliated with a national group. 

Indicative of the modernity of this agency function is the fact that 
Keeler and Haase's The Advertising Agency, published only 20 
years ago, lists neither merchandising nor sales promotion in its index. 
Reference is made to a "Marketing or Research Department," but the 
authors state plainly: "Market investigation ... as a primary function 
of the agency, comprehends only such endeavor as is necessary for the 
formulation of sound advertising plans."* Today few if any agencies 
consider that they have fulfilled their obligations to the client until 
they have followed through to see that the campaign actually 'works 
and have done everything possible to make it work. 

Payment for merchandising service is a matter of individual ar 
rangement between agency and client. The time spent by agency 
people in the field, except on special investigations requested by the 
advertiser, is seldom billed, though traveling expenses may be. Prep 
aration of displays, sales aids, dealer mailings may be done gratis if 
the agency handles the printing or lithographing, in which case the 
usual 1 5 percent commission is generally added; where the client does 
the buying, a special "service fee" may be charged. Accounts requiring 
considerable merchandising work in proportion to the amount of 
commissionable media may operate on a monthly or annual fee 
against which commissions are credited. 

Under the present agency-commission system, it is essential that 
compensation for work done be kept as uniform as possible regardless 
of the plan selected, lest the agency be influenced in its recommenda 
tions by those media which offer it the greatest profit. Certainly no 
agency gets rich from fees on merchandising service; at the same time, 
if such activity pays dividends to the client, its cost justifiably should 
be borne by the client. But there is another large "IF" to be consid 
ered. If effective merchandising and sales promotion help the agency 
to hold an account against competition, it can be regarded as a form 
of business insurance for the agency. And where the premium is not 
excessive or out of line with the revenues from that account, the 
agency may absorb it as a necessary part of operating expense. 

10. Checking and Billing The agency's responsibility for the ap 
pearance of an advertisement does not end with shipping the engrav- 

* Op. dt., p. 75. 


ings or art work to the publication, the commercials to the network or 
local station, the posters to the posting company, the car cards to the 
transit office. Each insertion or appearance must be checked. 

This is relatively easy for magazines. A clerk in the agency's check 
ing department merely goes through the periodical and notes that the 
ad has appeared. Usually this routine is supplemented by the account 
executive, who wants to make sure that his ad has been given a good 
"position," i.e., next to reading matter, in a part of the "book" where 
it will be seen by the maximum number of readers and by preference 
on a right-hand page (although research has shown little if any dif 
ference in pulling power between a right-hand and left-hand page.) 
The production manager and art director will look at the ad to see if 
it has been properly reproduced. Where the advertisement contains 
a key number, or other special information to be inserted by the publi 
cation, this must also be verified for accuracy. 

With posters, the space department may send somebody to "ride 
the showing," traveling about the city to make sure that posters have 
good locations from the standpoint of visibility, closeness to dealers, 
density of traffic and quality of neighborhood. 

With the possible exception of spot radio, newspaper advertising 
is the most difficult to check, especially when a long list of papers has 
been ordered. If mats are supplied, these have a tendency to shrink 
the size of the ad, so that a 100-line insertion may occupy only 96 
lines of space. 'Rulers are used by the checkers to make sure that the 
client has received the linage ordered. The checking department 
must also be on guard against poor position, an ad "buried" or sur 
rounded by other advertising, as well as faulty reproduction. Certain 
clients insist that their ads must not be placed on the same page with 
a competing product, and this is another checking department respon 

Billing, both for media and for mechanical expense, is handled in a 
variety of ways. In the small agency, a bookkeeper may make out the 
invoices, based on orders received from the space and production de 
partments. With larger agencies, the procedure is much more com 
plex. Any expenditure for which the agency expects the client to pay 
must be preceded by a signed estimate. If the cost exceeds the esti 
mate, the additional charge must be cleared with the advertiser by the 
account executive. More accounts are lost by agencies because of dis 
putes over art and mechanical charges than any other reason except 
possibly the lure of new ideas. 


Since most agencies operate on a relatively limited cash reserve, 
promptness in billing is vital. Publication insertions are sometimes 
invoiced to the client in advance of the appearance of the ad and 
always as soon thereafter as possible. 

Proper invoicing of production expenditures calls for constant alert 
ness. A single advertisement may represent outlays for art from two 
or three sources, typography from another, engraving from another, 
electrotyping from still another. The accepted method is to collate 
all costs in a "job ticket" containing the estimates and purchase orders 
on that particular piece, and then to round up the bills from suppliers 
in order that invoices may go to clients without delay. An artist who 
has done an illustration for an ad will be hounded just as grimly for 
his bill as he was for delivery of the art work. 

The 4 A's recognize the need for quick billing in this statement: 

The client is obligated to pay promptly the agency's bills for publi 
cation space and radio time. It is a fundamental principle that the 
client must pay the agency in time for the agency to pay the media 
by their due dates. 

It is not a function of agencies to finance the advertising of their 
clients. (Media strongly object to agency financing of clients since the 
large amount of capital required would shut out of the agency busi 
ness men with high talent but modest funds men whose creative 
work might do much to increase the volume of advertising.)* 

11. Publicity and public relations Back in the Barnum days, ad 
vertising space was often openly a bribe to the publisher for free pub 
licity in the editorial columns. Advertising agencies inherited this 
press-agentry function. It became accepted procedure for an agency 
placing space in a newspaper or magazine to request the insertion of 
articles promoting the advertiser. 

As the great metropolitan newspapers and national magazines de 
veloped, their publishers saw the fallacy in such requests. The 
periodical is of value as an advertising medium only if it enjoys the 
confidence of its readers. A newspaper or magazine filled with obvious 
bouquets for its advertisers quickly loses its hold. Hence more and 
more publishers have adopted a policy of printing items about busi 
ness firms only when such items are of genuine reader interest. 

Among its "practices to be avoided in newspaper relations," the 

* Structure of the Advertising Agency Business, the American Association of 
Advertising Agencies. 


American Association of Advertising Agencies includes the following 
on free publicity: 

(a) Obtaining for advertisers that indiscriminate type of free pub 
licity which has no legitimate news, educational or editorial value. 

(b) Inducing or influencing any publisher to print news or editorial 
items by any promise of advertising, or threat to withhold it, expressed 
or implied. (In this connection, it seems undesirable to forward such 
items to the publisher accompanied by orders to insert advertising.) 

Such practices tend to weaken the editorial influence of the press, 
thus impairing its value as an advertising medium. They also tend to 
add to the cost of general advertising and to the rates that all have to 

For its own sake, therefore, the ethical agency makes no unreason 
able publicity requests of any periodical or radio station. This does 
not deter it from taking advantage of all legitimate channels of pub 
licity. Many agencies have a special publicity department headed by 
a former newspaper reporter or magazine editor familiar with the edi 
tors or staff writers of a large number of periodicals and skilled in 
devising "releases" (publicity stories) that will win acceptance in the 
news columns. 

Some of these publicity stories have legitimate news value, as when 
Henry Ford II announced sweeping reductions in the prices for Ford 
automobiles in 1947, to offset the current inflationary trend. Or when 
Henry Kaiser and J. K. Frazer brought out their new models in the 
automotive field right after V-J Day in 1945. 

Certain products lend themselves to pictorial publicity. Industry 
wide groups may crash the rotogravure section of newspapers coast to 
coast with a picture of a girl in a bathing suit who has been named 
"Miss (Name of Industry) for (Year)." The Frozen Foods Institute 
in selecting "Miss Frozen Foods of 1947" took the precaution to have 
her photographed sitting on a cake of ice. Another favorite fancy 
is to have the model wearing a costume, the briefer the better, made 
out of lettuce, tangerines, ice cream cones or whatever the product 
happens to be. 

Makers of food items may wangle free space by means of recipes 
or photos of food preparation which appeal to cookery editors. Fur- 

* Quoted by permission of the AAAA. 

Beauty to the Top of Its 
Gleaming White Dome with CONCRETE 

Ethe hands of skillful architects and trained engineers, concrete, 
jhe versatile structural plastic, provides the beauty of a Baha'i 
Temple, and the strength for towering dams and for highways 
which carry the nation's heaviest traffic. 


Concrete has a hundred uses on farms and in cities. It builds fire- 
safe, weather-resistant farm and industrial buildings, attractive 
homes, apartments, hospitals and schools. 


With all its advantages of beauty, firesafety, rugged strength and 
weather-resistance, concrete gives low annual cost the true meas 
ure of economy in construction. 

We will gladly cooperate with your architects or engineers in 
securing all the advantages of concrete for your future construction. 

Baha'i Temple, Wilmette, III., exemplifies the architectural beauty which 
can be obtained with concrete. Concrete for exposed surfaces was precast 
from white crystalline quartz aggregate and white portland cement. Louis 
J. Bourgeois was the architect. 


Dept. 8e-12, 33 W. Grand Ave., Chicago 1O, Illinois 

A national organization to improve and extend the uses of concrete 
. . . through scientific research and engineering field work 


The advantages of this material rather than a particular 
brand are emphasized in this campaign. 

A Hog Can Cross the Country Without 
Changing Trains-But YOU Cant! 

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway and the Nickel Plate Road 
are again proposing to give human beings a break! 

It's hard to believe, but it's true. 

If you want to ship a hog from coast 
to coast, he can make the entire trip without 
changing cars. You can't. It is impossible 
for you to pass through Chicago, St. Louis, 
or New Orleans without breaking your trip! 

There is an invisible barrier down the mid 
dle of the United Slates which you rannot cros 
without inconvenience, Ipst time, and trouble. 

560,000 Victims in 1945! 

If you want to board a sleeper on one coast 
and ride through to the other, you must 
make double Pullman reservations, pack and 
transfer your baggage, often change stations, 
and wait around for connections. 

It'a the same sad story if you make a 
relatively short trip. You can't cross that 
mysterious line! To go from Fort Wayne to 
Milwaukee or from Cleveland to Des Moines, 
you must also stop and change trains. 

Last year alone, more than 560,000 people 
were forced to nutke annoying, time-wasting 
stopovers at the phantom Chinese wall which 
splits America in half! 

End the Secrecy! 

Why should travel be less convenient Tor peo 
ple than it is for pigs? Why should Americans 
be denied the benefits of through train ser 
vice? No one has yet been able to explain it. 

Canada has this service . . . with a choice 

of two routes. Canada isn't split down the 
middle. Why should we be? No reasonable 
answer has yet been given. Passengers still 
have to stop off at Chicago, St. Louis, and 
New Orleans although they can ride right 
through other important rail centers. 

It's time to pry the lid off this mystery. It's 
lime for action to end this inconvenience to 
the travelling public . . . NOW! 

Many railroads could cooperate to provide 
this needed through service. To date, the 
Chesapeake & Ohio and the Nickel Plate 
ALONE have made a public offer to do so. 

How about it! 

Once more we would like to go on record with 
this specific proposal: 

The Chesapeake & Ohio, whose western 
passenger terminus is Cincinnati, stands reouy 
now to join with any combination 01 othjr 
railroads to set up connecting transcontinental 
and intermediate service through Chicago 
and Si. Louis, on practical schedules aiiJ 

The Nickel Plate Road, which runs to Chi 
cago and St. Louis, also stands reaJy now to 
join with any combination of roads to set up 
the same kind of connecting service through 

Through railroad service can't be blocked 
forever. The public wants it. It's bound to 
come. Again, we invite the support of the 
public, of railroad people and railroad in 
vestorsfor this vitally needed improvement 
in rail transportation! 

Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Nickel Plate Road 

Terminal Tower, Cletetand 1, Ohio 


Robert R. Young of the Chesapeake & Ohio lines proved once again that peopl 
read long copy when it has something to say. 


niture manufacturers and their agencies bear down on the home styl 
ing angle. 

Publicity stories about new products, new packages, new models, 
changes in personnel, new factories and so on are acceptable in the 
trade papers and often in the business or financial section of news 
papers. Sending out articles of this kind is a legitimate agency service, 
sometimes done gratis and sometimes charged for, but printing such 
material should never be made a condition of awarding advertising 
to a publication. 

"Public relations" is to publicity what the oculist is to the optician. 
The latter makes and sells eyeglasses; the oculist, a full-fledged M.D., 
not only prescribes spectacles when needed but tackles the causes of 
eye trouble. So with the public relations expert. He studies the whole 
area of his client's contacts with consumers, with their communities, 
with suppliers and service companies and with competitors. Most 
agencies advise clients on these relations in a general way. Some cor 
porations retain separate public relations counsel for this specialized 
field, some have it handled by the agency. 

Detailed discussion of public relations has been purposely omitted 
from this book. Although many agencies render service in this field 
and many advertising departments are held accountable for the public 
relations of their firms, the author feels that it is a separate subject 
and should be treated as such. 

12. Soliciting new Business "So you want to be an advertising 
man? Okay, let's see you advertise yourself to me!" This is a standard 
challenge of the agency executive to the novice applying for a job. 
And it is too frequently the attitude taken by an advertiser about to 
choose a new agency. The personality of the solicitor may overshadow 
some serious shortcoming in the background, resources or suitability 
of the agency for that particular account. Elaborate presentations, 
even to completely prepared advertisements or radio transcriptions, 
may bowl over the prospective client, who appoints the new firm in a 
white heat of enthusiasm only to meet with disillusionment when his 
business fails to double the first year. 

Today many agencies refuse to engage in "dogfights" for new busi 
ness. Despite Hollywood, million-dollar accounts don't change hands 
because of a sensational idea thought up by some glib-talking stripling 
with only superficial knowledge of a manufacturer's production and 
distribution problems. 


Brilliant copy, art and merchandising talent may win a new client, 
but almost without exception it happens because such talent has been 
demonstrated on another account! 

After the agency has been appointed, after it has had ample time 
to analyze the needs of the new account, it will create a sound, care 
fully developed campaign tailored to the product. The campaign will 
incorporate the best thinking of the agency and the client. And while 
it may not turn the entire industry topsy-turvy or swamp the plant 
with orders it will do a professional job. The agency can look forward 
to holding the business over a period of years and the advertiser is 
spared the wasted time and agony of changing agencies every year 
or so. 

The practice of submitting speculative ideas has cost advertising 
agencies millions of dollars in bygone days. It interferes with service 
to present clients, who are entitled to first call on the best creative 
brains of the staff. It is definitely considered "unsound, uneconomic 
and unprofessional" by the 4 A's. 

Nevertheless, it takes a strong-willed agency president to say "No!" 
when a solicitor dashes in with the tidings that a luscious new account 
will fall into his lap "the minute we show 'em something!" Some 
times the temptation is irresistible; copy men and art directors beat 
their brains out; that terrific idea is produced; then, the day before it 
is to be presented to the palpitating prospect, the advertising papers 
announce that the account has been awarded to another agency. 
That's one time when fascinating is hardly the word for this business! 

New accounts may be solicited either by men who devote all their 
time to it or by the same men who will later service the business. The 
former method is quite generally employed by the larger agencies. 
A new business department operates under the direction of a major 
officer, with solicitors making calls on prospects that have been se 
lected as worthy candidates for the roster of clients. Sometimes these 
calls may continue for months and years, with or without result. The 
solicitors also call on advertisers who have indicated, either directly or 
through the always seething advertising grapevine, that they are dis 
satisfied with their present agency and might make a change. 

In medium-sized agencies the account executives do their own solic 
iting. Instead of the new business being turned over to the house for 
handling, as is done with the previous method, the account man serv 
ices it himself. This has several disadvantages from the agency stand- 


point. The more successful an account executive is the less time he 
has to develop new clients. After the agency reaches a certain stage of 
growth it can only expand farther by adding new account executives. 
The most serious objection is that sometimes the account executive, 
having secured the business originally and having been its chief con 
tact ever since, may come to feel that he has the account "in his hip 
pocket" and attempt to transfer it to another agency for one reason or 
another. Such switching rarely occurs, however, if the creative and 
merchandising departments of the agency are doing a bang-up job for 
the client. 

Compensation for obtaining new business may be by straight salary, 
salary plus bonus or a drawing account against a percentage of the 
gross billing. The percentage varies from as low as 2^ or 3 percent up 
to as high as 10 percent of the gross, with 5 percent being somewhere 
about average for the account executive who sells and handles the 
account himself. Working on an arrangement of this kind, a man 
adept at obtaining and holding clients can often earn more for him 
self and serve his accounts better than if he had his own agency, strug 
gling with overhead, payrolls and administrative routine. More than 
one owner of a small agency has given up the dubious privilege of 
seeing his name on the front door to become an account executive in 
a larger firm, and thereby added years to his life. 

No discussion of new business solicitation can overlook the chief 
source, increasing the advertising of present clients. Every campaign 
represents an opportunity. The advertiser who has stepped up his 
sales 25 percent by spending $50,000 in one year may decide to appro 
priate $100,000 the next year in the hope that this will produce a 50 
percent gain. Frequently it is harder for the account representative to 
hold the client down to a conservative figure than to obtain an essen 
tial increase. But if the agency as a whole creates a sound plan and 
tops this with the other ingredients of modern advertising, the billings 
will grow on a solid basis. 

Present-day agencies are established on a professional level. Stand 
ards of practice have risen year by year. Regardless of best sellers and 
the movies, the rank and file of agency people do a conscientious, 
workmanlike job. They have a very real pride of craftsmanship. The 
number who function with tongue in cheek, while vociferous, is mi 
nute compared with those who believe in simple honesty, and who 
spend the advertiser's money as if it were their own. 


FOR every national advertiser using magazines, network radio and 
other far-reaching media to influence the sale of his goods or 
services, there are at least 25 retailers or local service firms doing 
some sort of advertising in a limited area. 

True, this advertising may be nothing more than an occasional 
handbill, or a $1.00 ad in a county weekly, but it is just as important 
to that little business as a spread in Life is to Eversharp. From such 
humble beginnings have come the Macys and Marshall Fields, the 
Krogers and the Walgreens, the Woolworths and the Penneys retail 
titans that outrank all but a few of the very largest manufacturers, 
public utilities, insurance companies and other great national adver 

Newspapers constitute the chief medium of local advertising, with 
department stores, grocery and drug chains as chief buyers of space. 
Furniture and floor coverings stores, women's apparel shops, men's 
clothiers, shoestores and movie theaters also are apt to be steady 
newspaper advertisers. 

Other local media include radio stations, posters, classified adver 
tising in newspapers and phone directories, direct mail, road signs, 
handbills, premiums or souvenirs, paper matches, booths and displays, 
street banners, sound trucks, streetcar and bus cards, suburban and 
country weeklies and sandwich men. 

Naturally local advertising in New York City or Chicago has little 
in common with that done in Taylor, Wisconsin, or Olive Hill, Ken 
tucky, as to cost or number of people reached; but virtually all local 
advertising seeks immediate as well as long-range results. The depart 
ment store owner who runs an ad in the Friday night paper expects a 
crowd on Saturday morning. The supermarket operator with a fresh 
shipment of vegetables can't wait for customers to find out about it 
by word of mouth; he uses advertising in the form of window stream 
ers, newspaper space, handbills, occasionally radio. There is, however, 
a growing tendency among retail advertisers to devote a portion of 



their advertising to building up the prestige of the store, institutional 
advertising. Professor Hotchkiss quotes the advertising manager of a 
leading store who declared that although only 6 percent of his adver 
tising was institutional, it was the most productive 6 percent in his 
entire appropriation.* Attractive, informative local advertising, even 
though it talks only about specific merchandise, has a cumulative pres 
tige or institutional value. 

- How big is local advertising by comparison with national? Dr. Hans 
Zeisel, manager of research development for McCann-Erickson, Inc., 
estimated in Printers' Ink that total U. S. advertising volume for 1946 
was* $3,116,600,000, of which 65.2 percent was national and 34.8 
percent local. In newspapers he figured that local advertisers spent 
$671,000,000, against $292,000,000 by national firms; in radio, $131,- 
000,000 local, $358,000,000 national; under miscellaneous, including 
advertising department costs, display materials, and other media, 
$223,000,000 local, $430,000,000 national. It adds up to over $1,000,- 
000,000 for local advertising in one year.** 

That's a staggering total, but let us see what it helped to accomplish. 
During this same year of 1946, according to another P.I. study,*** the 
nation's retail sales reached almost $94,000,000,000, an increase of 
28 percent over the previous year. This means that only slightly more 
than 1.1 percent of the total retail sales went into advertising costs, a 
figure that not even the most rabid opponent of advertising could call 

Now, take a look at some types- of retail advertising and see what 
makes them work. 

Department Store Advertising 

For sheer drama and continuous action, few branches of advertising 
can rival that of a modern department store. Every day presents a 
fresh challenge. The doors are open, the employees on duty, the 
merchandising waiting, but will the customers come? Much depends 
on the store's advertising. Or rather, to use department store language, 
its "publicity." (This includes not only advertising but also window 

* George Hotchkiss, op. tit., p. 421. 

**Dr. Hans Zeisel, "1946 Advertising Volume Greatest in U. S. History/' 
Printers' Ink, March 27, 1947. 

*** Walter P. Burn, "94 Billions in Retail Sales in 1946," Printers' Ink, April 4, 


and interior displays, public relations and comparison shopping in 
other stores.) 

This constant pressure for business and the quickness with which 
results can be observed are not the only exciting things about a de 
partment store advertising career. New items keep coming in, new 
styles, patterns, models, colors. Special selling events are always either 
being planned or already under way. Unexpected purchases are for 
ever being announced, each with its need for fresh copy. 

Perhaps most interesting and stimulating of all is the never-ending 
contact with people: merchandise managers, department heads, buy 
ers, salesclerks, and the general public. It's no job for a recluse! But 
for anyone who enjoys personal relationships, who has the knack of 
working with others and at the same time has the creative flair, the 
field is wide open. 

Newcomers who want to break into advertising are often advised to 
try the department stores. There are far more jobs in proportion to 
the dollars spent than in an agency or a manufacturer's advertising 
staff. Because of the valuable training and experience obtained in 
such work, department store advertising people are sought after by 
agencies, leaving openings for ambitious youngsters. Even though 
there may be no immediate vacancy in the advertising section, the 
applicant can usually get a job behind a counter while waiting. This 
period of personal selling won't hurt at all when an ad job is available. 

All successful department stores operate with a carefully worked- 
out plan, corresponding to the campaign program of a national adver 
tiser. As a rule, the plan covers a six-months period. The publicity 
director or advertising manager of the store, in co-operation with the 
merchandise manager and general manager, will decide what special 
selling appeals or "promotions" will be used during that time, estimat 
ing the probable amount of business and applying his publicity per 
centage to determine the approximate amount of the budget. 

Many factors influence the percentage of total sales set aside for 
publicity. Curiously, as stores grow in size they tend to spend higher 
percentages since they must draw from an ever-widening area of cus 
tomers. And there is another reason too, as Edwards and Howard 
point out: 

The relatively higher percentage expenditure of the large store may 
be attributed to greater wisdom rather than necessity. As a rule, the 


larger store is likely to be more keenly aware of the benefits to be de 
rived from advertising. More than likely it grew to be a large store 
because it advertised frequently and regularly. It therefore recognizes 
the wisdom of investing in aggressive, consistent advertising, and it 
commits itself to a policy of continued advertising effort in order to 
maintain its position of leadership in the community.* 

Intensive advertising by competitors may also force a higher pub 
licity percentage. A newly established store will of necessity have to 
spend more per dollar of sales than one with a steady clientele. 

The biggest spread comes between the different types of stores. A 
conservative or "nonpromotional" type of store will always spend less 
than a store featuring special events and relying heavily on price ad 
vertising. Most of the better known department stores come about 
midway between the two types and can be called "semipromotional." 
Typical advertising percentages for these different classes of stores run 
something like this: 

Nonpromotional stores (emphasizing leadership in style, wide choice 
of merchandise, usually above-average prices) 1.5 to 2.5 percent. 

Semipromotional stores (emphasis about equal between quality and 
price; has regularly scheduled sales events, but considerable volume 
of business not attributable to promotions) 3 to 4 percent. 

Promotional stores (quick turnover, lower price, less service to cus 
tomers, little regular trade but continual promotions with large- 
space ads) 5 to 6 percent or higher.** 

Basement store advertising, being almost exclusively promotional 
in nature, will run into higher figures than the store-wide average. 

The display section, which takes care of window trims, interior set 
ups, advertising cards and bulletin boards, will average about 1 per 
cent of sales regardless of the type of store, it appears from several 

Once the advertising budget has been determined, either for six 
months or a year, it is subdivided. From 10 to 15 percent will go for 
salaries and departmental overhead. Another 10 percent may be set 
aside for "institutional" use, ads featuring the store as a whole rather 

* C. M. Edwards and W. H. Howard, Retail Advertising and Sales Promotion 
(Prentice-Hall, 1936, 1943), p. 99. Quoted by permission of Prentice-Hall. 
**Ibid., pp. 158-159. 


than any one line. Still another 10 percent may be allocated for art 
work and plates. The remainder goes into media, with newspapers 
getting somewhere between 80 and 90 percent of the average ''media 

The next problem is to assign funds by sections or departments, 
based on a study of the previous year's sales, publicity expense and 
profits. Certain lines which have a wider profit margin or are im 
portant in influencing the consumer's attitude toward the store will 
receive a higher percentage than the unspectacular staple lines. 

Having divided the budget by departments it is now spread out 
over the period either seasonally or by months. Sometimes it is even 
split on a weekly basis. Or, instead of first dividing the budget by 
departments, the advertising manager may separate it by time periods 
and then make the departmental separations. In any event, the avail 
able money is assigned before the period starts, to prevent excessive 
spending at one time and not enough at others. 

Special events or "promotions" are usually assigned at the beginning 
of the publicity period. These may be either to introduce newly re 
ceived merchandise, the Spring Fashion Festival, Back-to-School, 
Winter Opening, etc., or chiefly to dramatize the store's value-giving 
resources. Almost anything can be used as a "peg" on which x .o hang 
a special sale. Among the traditional events are: 

January After-Christmas Clearance Sales 

January White Goods Sale 

Semiannual Furniture Sales 

Anniversary Sale (to celebrate founding of store) 

Dollar Day 

August Fur Sale 

End-of-Month (E. O. M.) Clearance 

Some events are store-wide, others limited to departments. By 
way of variation, occasionally a single item such as hosiery or hand 
kerchiefs will be given a store-wide push by having aisle tables scat 
tered through the store. Holidays and occasions like Father's Day, 
Baby Week, spring vacation and graduation often serve as promo 
tional springboards. 

Conditions during and immediately after World War II caused 
many advertising managers to confine their six-months plan to gen 
eralities and do their detailed planning month by month. The 


monthly plan may be started from 30 to 60 days in advance. It has 
several advantages. With probable shortages in many lines, obviously 
there is little use in planning promotions until one knows what mer 
chandise will be available. Competition, the business outlook and 
consumer trends are more difficult to predict now than before the 
war. In fact some stores, located close to markets where they can 
make quick selections and obtain prompt deliveries, work on a 
weekly plan, starting only seven days in advance of the actual week to 
develop their promotions. This hand-to-mouth method is not recom 
mended for anyone suffering from cardiac ailments. 

Weekly, monthly, semiannually or yearly, whichever the plan may 
be, it arrives sooner or later at the operational stage. The theme has 
been selected, the merchandise offerings set. In the advertising de 
partment even the ad sizes, newspapers (assuming that there is more 
than one in the city) and insertion dates have been determined. Now 
the advertising staff goes to work. 

Depending on the size of the store, this staff may consist of from 
one to 100 or more people. Some of the larger stores have advertising 
departments which are in reality "agencies in everything but the 15 

Under the advertising manager, who reports to the publicity di 
rector and has general supervision over the budget, the plan, and the 
character of the store's advertising, the larger stores will have an 
assistant manager, copy chief, copy writers, art director, layout and 
finish artists, photographer, production manager and staff, proof- 
, readers, media managers (newspapers, direct mail, radio, signs), book 
keepers, file clerks, merchandise clerk (to check items in and out of 
the department when required by writers or artists) and various sec 
retaries and stenographers. In addition one of the foregoing or an 
other individual, sometimes even several, will occupy a position cor 
responding to that of research director in an agency. Department 
^tore research includes not only intensive study of market trends, con 
sumer tastes and previous sales records in the store, but as much in 
formation as possible about what the competition is doing. Such 
knowledge is obtained by: (1) closely observing rivals' advertising 
and window displays: (2) sending "comparison shoppers" to the other 
stores posing as legitimate consumers to observe and report back all 
possible information regarding styles, prices and whatever else seems 


The actual functioning of a department store advertising staff is 
most clearly shown in a sequence of pictures, "How Marshall Field 
Turns Out Ads," which appeared originally in Advertising Age, July 
29, 1946. 

Copy writers or divisional advertising co-ordinators interview the 
merchandising men or buyers to obtain facts about items to be fea 
tured. Photos or, where advisable, the actual merchandise is brought 
into the department. Headlines and text are written. Layouts are 
made. Artists or photographers supply the illustrations. The ad 
comes together and must then pass the critical eye of the buyer, for 
accuracy, and the advertising department brass hats, for smartness, 
buy-appeal, store "character." From there it goes into production, 
appearing a few hours or a few days later in the newspaper. Long 
before then, the man or woman who started it on its brief career will 
be working on other ads, other promotions. 

To maintain poise and sanity under such conditions is difficult, but 
not impossible. Most department store advertising people do it by 
working furiously when the pressure is on, then relaxing completely. 
Those who escape the rapids and whirlpools to the calmer waters of 
agency or magazine work are prone to look back nostalgically. 

Most essential duty of ad underlings is that of maintaining store 
"character." This elusive something comprises many ingredients: the 
phraseology of the copy, just gay and informal enough, but not too 
flippant; the price angle, played up or down; short or long text; em 
phasis on value or style. It also includes other elements beyond the 
copy writer's control, such as the store's treatment of customers, 
handling of window displays, interior arrangement. 

Macy's in New York, for example, concentrates on thrift. Its copy 
stresses value, long wear, over-all economy. Bergdorf-Goodman and 
Altman's are pre-eminently purveyors of style merchandise. Stores 
like Field's in Chicago, Hudson in Detroit, Chapman in Milwaukee 
and Holmes in New Orleans lean toward the carriage trade but keep 
their feet on the ground with "value-giving" promotions. Neiman- 
Marcus in Dallas and L. S. Ayres in Indianapolis are other stores that 
have successfully combined a style appeal with the economy note. 

Recent years have seen a leveling off in department store policies 
in this respect. Even frankly promotional stores have added smartness 
to their advertising layouts while modernizing their windows and in 
teriors. Although their business was built on a never-ending bargain 


appeal, their former customers, financed by wartime pay increases, 
began to drift to the stores whose packages and labels carried a certain 
snob appeal. Mrs. Factory-hand, having substantial money in her 
reticule, started shopping at the smarter stores. The promotional 
type of department store either had to get "classy" or take the conse 
quences. At the same time, the high-hat stores whose white-collar 
patronage had been caught in the pinch of fixed incomes and rising 
prices veered toward the promotional type of treatment. 

One way of establishing store character is by the number of indi 
vidual items in an advertisement. Bargain-basement or special-event 
copy such as "dollar day" is noticeable for the quantity of merchan 
dise crowded into a single ad. Upstairs or prestige copy, by contrast, 
will feature only a few items, often with lavish white space. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the three typical forms 
into which most department store ads fall: the "one item" ad, used 
generally for ready-to-wear but occasionally for specialties; the "re 
lated items" ad, which may feature a dress or a man's suit, with all 
the necessary accessories to complete a harmonious ensemble; and 
the "omnibus" ad, made up of unrelated articles. Sometimes the 
store may use all three forms on a single page, by pyramiding a num 
ber of small ads around a large one.* The pyramid technique is fre 
quently seen in the advertising of New York department stores, where 
it is regarded with great favor because it permits a number of repeti 
tions of the store signature, has all the impact of "one item" ads, and 
at the same time gives the institutional effect of a full-page advertise 
ment. Besides, it makes the individual buyers happy because they 
have separate ads! 

The store's "signature" in advertisements gives an interesting clue 
to its general "character." Pick up any newspaper and notice how 
the name of the institution is displayed. A few years ago stilted, old- 
fashioned signatures "logotypes," to use the trade term were uni 
versal. Then somebody discovered that the public wouldn't stop buy 
ing if the logotype were brought up-to-date; in fact, a looser, more 
informal signature greatly improved the appearance of the ad. Now 
adays you will see many store logotypes that look as if some artist had 
dabbled them with a thick brush in an idle moment. This casual 

* Edward Kaylin and Alan A. Wells, Simplified Sales Promotion for Retailers 
(National Retail Dry Goods Association, 1940), p. 49. Cited by permission of the 


note, started by Vogue and Harper's Bazaar, accompanied by more 
generous use of white space, sketchy rather than painstakingly accu 
rate drawings, and a general breezy informality in the copy, is part of 
an intentional upgrading of the "character" of many a department 

Besides newspapers, department stores use many other local media. 
Direct mail accounts for five to seven percent of the average publicity 
budget. It takes the form of envelope enclosures with monthly charge- 
account statements, special mailings to the same list and occasional 
mailings to general lists. A department store opening a branch in a 
suburb^ a common occurrence in recent years may circularize all 
the telephone subscribers in that area. Special lists of club members 
may be used for specific promotions. Catalogues and house magazines 
have been issued by many stores. In some instances booklets or folders 
supplied free by manufacturers and imprinted with the store name 
have worked out very well. 

Radio advertising is generally used as a supplementary medium. A 
few stores have had traceable results from its use: Wieboldt's in 
Chicago, for example, sponsored a morning "Musical Clock" pro 
gram during the breakfast hour, interspersing time and weather re 
ports with phonograph records. Other stores have employed spot 
announcements. The customary plan for finding out whether radio 
pays or not is to offer some "special" over the air which is not fea 
tured in newspaper advertising or store displays and tabulate the calls 
for it. Not all department store executives have the patience to stay 
with a radio program until it develops a following.* 

The same broad comment applies to other media 24-sheet 
posters (billboards), spectaculars (illuminated, hand-painted display 
boards), streetcar and bus cards and road signs. They may contribute 
to the general prestige of the store but they lack the flexibility of news 
paper advertising. 

National magazines have been used for advertising department 
stores in large cities. Publications like Mademoiselle , Vogue, Harper's 
Bazaar and Deb carry a substantial amount of "high-style" displays. 
Nearly always the advertisement consists of a full-page illustration 
of some smartly attired model wearing a gown or suit available at the 
store in question. In the Christmas season of 1946, however, tradi- 

* But see the discussion in Chapter XV of Joske's and other retailers who use 
radio extensively. 


tion was shattered by a series of full-color spreads run in Life by 
Marshall Field & Company and prepared by Foote, Cone & Belding. 
At a cost of $25,000 or $30,000 each it is dubious whether the spreads 
paid out directly, but they created a profound impression on the 
advertising fraternity. 

Chain-Store Advertising 

Comparatively new, but formidable in volume, is the use of local 
newspapers for price advertising by the chain stores. 

Back in the dawn of modern advertising a grocer or druggist would 
occasionally invest a few dollars in newspaper space; mostly his ad 
vertising was confined to announcements painted on his windows or 
"fliers" (single-page circulars) distributed from door to door by boys. 

De luxe grocers were able to use small space effectively but for the 
outlying store waste circulation made the cost of newspaper adver 
tising prohibitive. 

Then along came the chain stores and the picture changed. With 
stores in all parts of the city and suburbs, they could appeal to all 
readers of a newspaper and did. Organizations like A & P, Safeway, 
Kroger, Jewel, Gristede and Hill Stores blossomed forth in big news 
paper space. The first ads were pretty crude. They consisted of type 
as black as newspaper headlines, relieved only by an occasional picture 
of a package. 

Lately chain-store food advertising has become less blatant. A cer 
tain amount of space is being devoted to "editorial" that is, illus 
trations and text regarding service, value or special events. Some 
semblance of style appears in the general arrangement and typogra 
phy. The ad-planners evidently have heeded the words of the famous 
old ear-trumpet headline, "Don't shout I can hear you perfectly." 

It is estimated that food chains spend an average of two percent of 
sales in advertising. Assuming that chain stores did one-third of all 
retail food business in 1946, this would indicate an advertising ex 
penditure in the neighborhood of $156,000,000.* The exact amount 
cannot be computed because a portion of chain-store newspaper linage 
is sometimes paid for by manufacturers whose brands are featured. 

* Based on estimated food-store sales of $23.5 billions for 1946, including grocer 
ies, combination grocery and meat stores, food sales in department and general 
stores, meat and sea-food markets, bakeries, fruit and vegetable stores, candy and 
confectionery stores and dairy stores. 


All chain stores carry nationally advertised merchandise. In fact, 
without national brands it is doubtful whether self-service stores could 
have reached their present position. Consumer acceptance of familiar 
products enables the chain to feature low prices on items of known 
quality, items for which the shopper has a standard of comparison. An 
advertisement offering three cans of Campbell's tomato soup for 29 
cents is much more apt to attract the thrifty housewife than one 
pushing an anonymous soup at three cans for 27 cents. 

At the same time, the chains do a large share of their volume on 
"private label" foods for which low price is the only claim. In some 
instances these unknown brands are of excellent quality; then the 
shopper gets a real bargain. However, without the incentive of de 
veloping permanent consumer prestige, the canner or packer will sel 
dom go beyond minimum requirements as to quality, flavor, etc. Why 
should he, when the business has been given to him on a price basis 
and the next order may be awarded to a competitor who can turn it 
out a little cheaper? 

To counteract this popular preference for branded items, some of 
the larger chains have developed their own nationally advertised 
brands. The best examples are those of the A & P Stores: Bokar, Red 
Circle and Eight O'Clock coffee, "Ann Page" bakery and related 
lines. These are regularly featured in women's magazines and have 
become widely accepted. A & P, incidentally, publishes its own serv 
ice magazine, Woman's Day, with an average monthly circulation of 
over 2,800,000 copies; it carries ads not only of A & P brands but of 
many other well-known items. 

Chain drugstores in many cities have been equally aggressive in 
using local advertising. Walgreen's, which had total sales of over 
$92,000,000 in the first eight months of 1946, has gone in for full- 
page newspaper space and even double pages, as well as radio, spon 
sored newscasts, play-by-play accounts of baseball games, and variety 
programs. The Stineway Drug Stores in Chicago have an evening 
"Symphonic Hour" that rates high with lovers of classical music. 
Other drug chains advertise consistently, using local newspapers as 
the leading medium. As with the food chains, some manufacturers 
pay a part of the advertising expense when their brands are featured. 
On some radio programs sponsored by drug chains the manufacturers 
may receive a certain number of commercial announcements for 
which they are charged at the spot rate, while the chain pays the 


quarter or half-hour rate. Similarly in newspapers, manufacturers 
have been known to pay the "national" line rate for space in omnibus 
ads for which the chains paid a much lower "local" rate. 

Variety chains or "syndicate" stores seldom advertise on a scale 
comparable to the food and drug chains. Institutions like Woolworth, 
Kresge, Grant and Penney rely chiefly on locations in busy shopping 
areas, merchandise-packed window displays, and impulse buying. In 
smaller cities the Penney and Grant stores may advertise competi 
tively in newspapers and by handbills. Many of these general mer 
chandise stores operate on a semiautonomous basis, the local store 
manager being allowed to advertise or not at his discretion. 

Chains of auto-supply and sporting-goods stores, such as Western 
Auto, and Davega in New York, as a rule will be found among the 
consistent advertisers. Those which do a volume of mail-order as 
well as retail business employ catalogues and direct mail to solicit out- 
of-town patronage. The apparel chains like Bond Clothing, Richman 
Brothers, Lane Bryant, and Foreman & Clark probably have an ad 
vertising cost comparable to that of the "promotional" type of de 
partment store. 

In the footwear field a number of manufacturers Florsheim, Nunn- 
Bush, W. L. Douglas, Bostonian and others have factory-owned 
stores in some cities, but they also sell through independent dealers. 
Advertising may be run at the local rate by virtue of the retail outlets, 
whereas it actually benefits all dealers in that area. Under such cir 
cumstances the manufacturer may charge part of his local promotion 
to national advertising. Manufacturers who sell exclusively through 
their own stores stress the "factory-to-you" angle with strong econ 
omy appeal, whereas those operating factory-owned stores and selling 
through independents as well are more apt to talk quality and style. 

Remarkable in the past 20 years has been the entry of mail-order 
houses into the retail field. Sears, Roebuck & Company established 
its first retail store in 1925, after selling exclusively by mail for the 
four previous decades. Today it is estimated that of over $1,000,000,- 
000 annual sales, Sears does about 70 percent over the counter, and 
only 30 percent by mail. Newspaper reports published in September 
1946 revealed that Sears spent $14,155,000 for advertising in 1945, of 
which 79 percent was invested in newspapers. The total included over 
$11,000,000 for newspaper advertising, $1,600,000 for circulars, $439,- 
000 for radio and $927,000 for outdoor, direct mail, special promotions 


and other media. Some 938 dailies and weeklies carried Sears adver 
tising.* Montgomery Ward, second largest mail-order house, whose 
labor difficulties drew nation-wide attention, since the settlement of 
its disputes has done a substantial amount of advertising in Chicago 
on the advantages of getting a job in its plant, in addition to ads on 

What About the Independents? 

While the food and drug chains were making great inroads by in 
creased use of advertising, what were the independent, or locally 
owned stores, doing? 

At first little or nothing. Then, as they began to feel the pinch, 
some of them set up a clamor for government protection. Some states 
passed anti-chain-store legislation involving heavy tax penalties. There 
was talk of action by the federal government. 

But here and there, more wide-awake merchants realized that their 
best answer to chain-store competition was competition. Magazines 
like Progressive Grocer, trade groups like the National Association of 
Retail Grocers, manufacturers with a stake in the independent field, 
all took a hand in the job of helping the little fellow fight fire with 
fire. Store modernization, better displays, better-trained clerks, the 
installation of self-service layouts, more featuring of nationally adver 
tised brands and consistent advertising were the weapons advocated. 
They stemmed the tide. In 1941 chain stores did 37 percent of the 
food business; in 1945, only 32 percent. While all food retailing 
showed tremendous gains during the war era, the chains raised their 
volume less than 19 percent while the independents went ahead 56 

At a disadvantage because the chains, with stores scattered all over 
a city, could economically use local newspaper advertising while the 
lone independent could not, the independents in many places over 
came that handicap by banding together in 'Voluntary co-ops." They 
would select a single identifying name, put it on their respective store 
fronts, brighten up the store interiors and chip in a share toward the 
common fund. Then advertising would appear over the signature of 
the group. To Mrs. Consumer it had just as much eye-appeal and 
purse-appeal as that of the chains. But each retailer kept his own in- 

* Advertising Age, Sept. 16, 1946, p. 48. 


dividuality, his own personal contacts in his neighborhood. Some of 
these groups were launched by wholesalers. In other instances the 
retailers took over the wholesale functions. Thus in Iowa we find 
the Briardale Food Stores, comprised of independent member stores 
throughout the state, purchasing through the Grocers' Wholesale 
Cooperative, Inc., in Des Moines. Briardale advertising appears regu 
larly in the newspapers. When special promotions are featured each 
retailer gets the necessary window streamers and inside display mate 
rials to capitalize on it. 

A survey made jointly by the National Association of Retail Grocers 
and The Saturday Evening Post reveals that 43 percent of stores cov 
ered belong to one or more buying co-ops. The highest percentage of 
members is among stores doing from $100,000 to $300,000 per year 
52.5 percent. Below and above this volume group, membership de 
clines. Only 22.2 percent of stores with sales under $30,000 a year 
are members. Geographically, the "co-op" movement has made great 
est headway on the Pacific Coast, where 59.2 percent of the inde 
pendent grocers surveyed are members and another 14.3 percent plan 
to join. It is weakest in the West South Central region, with only 
14.3 percent of the grocers belonging.* 

On the question of advertising, the same survey disclosed that 
two- thirds of the responding stores use one or more media. Most 
popular is the newspaper, favored by 68 percent of advertising grocers; 
next, printed circulars, 32 percent; mimeographed circulars, 9.4 per 
cent; radio, 9 percent; letters, 8.7 percent; post cards, 4.8 percent, and 
billboards, 2.1 percent. It might be thought that big-city grocers 
would be the heaviest advertisers, but according to the survey, those 
in medium and small-sized cities are the leaders no doubt because of 
the lower rates. The largest users of radio are in cities of 5,000 to 
25,000, where a one-minute announcement may be bought for as 
little as $1.00 or $1.50, and a daily newscast may be sponsored for 
perhaps $1 5 or $20 a week. (Naturally these figures do not apply to all 
radio stations within that population bracket!) Radio and county- 
weekly advertising appeal particularly to the retailer drawing trade 
from the surrounding rural area. Friday is considered the best day 
of the week for food advertising, to catch the heavy week-end buying, 

* The Independent Grocer, Report No. 2 (The Curtis Publishing Co. and National 
Association of Retail Grocers, 1946). Quoted by permission of the National Associ 
ation of Retail Grocers. 


with Thursday second and Saturday third. These three days account 
for 80 percent of all newspaper food advertising.* 

Mimeographed circulars don't look very impressive compared with 
the full-color magazine ads of A & P or the full-page newspaper ads 
of the giant chains, but they have proved worth while for many inde 
pendents. Run off on one side of an 8^x11 or 8>2xl4-inch sheet, they 
can be folded, sealed with a precancelled stamp and mailed for a 
total cost of less than two cents per name. "In many cases," says 
one authority, "the informal and personal touch that grocers are able 
to get into circulars produced in this manner gives their stores a char 
acter which does a great deal to build them wide followings. The 
drawings may be crude, but often this type of circular has greater 
readership than more formal advertising."** 

Retailers can get plenty of help in preparing ads. Manufacturers 
supply illustrations and free cuts of their products automatically; in 
addition, many manufacturers and jobbers furnish stock headings 
such as "Hot-Weather Specials," "Thanksgiving Food Sale," "Lenten 
Ideas" and the like in various sizes, around which the merchant may 
build his own message. 

Generally speaking, independent retailers are more conservative 
about spending money for advertising than are the chains. Progressive 
Grocer studied the operating expenses of 125 independent food stores 
ranging from California supermarkets doing an average of $478,313 
in annual sales down to service groceries in the $50,000-a-year class, 
and found the percentage less than half that of chain-store ad budgets. 
The supermarkets spent most, around 1.3 or 1.4 percent for adver 
tising. The grocer selling at the rate of $1,000 a week was averaging 
about five dollars a week for advertising. This doesn't seem like much. 
But when one considers that the same group showed average salary 
paid to owner of only $35.60 per week and net profits of $31.73 out 
of which had to come any funds for modernization or expansion 
one can't be too critical.*** 

The account executive servicing a million-dollar campaign, or the 
radio representative seeking to sign up a sponsor for a network show 
with a time and talent cost of $15,000 per week, may wonder what 

* Ibid., pp. 21-26. 

** Ralph F. Linder, ed., New Idea Book for Food Merchants (Butterick Co., pub 
lishers of The Progressive Grocer, 1941). Quoted by permission of the publisher. 
*** "Facts in Food and Grocery Distribution," Progressive Grocer, January, 1946. 


can be done with a yearly appropriation of $250 for advertising. Yet 
that microscopic sum is significant. Wisely invested, it can help to 
increase the retailer's business, broaden his service to the community, 
make him a more substantial citizen, enhance his value as a purveyor 
of branded merchandise. Frittered away on unsound, hit-or-miss ex 
penditures, it can turn him against all advertising and lead to a static 
condition where forward progress stops and rigor mortis sets in. 

With this $250 budget must go if it is to be effective a forward- 
looking policy of customer service. Advertising men find it hard to 
face the grim fact that to the retail merchant an attractive store front, 
a well-lighted and conveniently arranged interior, adequate stocks of 
quality merchandise, courteous clerks and a friendly store "character" 
are far more important than a big consumer campaign. But here 
again it is a question of getting the product right before the advertis 
ing can deliver maximum results. 

In a broader sense, any improvement in a retail store that increases 
its customer appeal may be considered as "advertising." And on that 
basis the retailers of America not alone the grocers and druggists but 
the hardware, furniture, jewelry, book, shoe and home-appliance deal 
ers as well have all become better "advertisers" in the past 25 years. 


A WIDE gap stretches between advertising of consumer goods or 
services and that of industrial goods or services. Most advertis 
ing appeals to the emotions,, senses, wants or instincts of the 
individual and the family. It is personal in tone. Attention-getting 
devices are widely used. Nearly always there is a definite invitation, an 
urge to buy. 

On the other hand, industrial advertising is designed to help the 
sale of materials, products, equipment or services for the making of 
other products. The purchaser will seldom use the article personally. 
His interest lies in the benefits to be obtained through lowered costs, 
increased output, greater salability, more efficient or better satisfied 
employees. For that reason advertising aimed at industrial markets 
customarily emphasizes facts about construction and performance 
rather than glamour or entertainment. 

At first glance this might seem to imply that industrial ads are dull 
and uninteresting. Perhaps so, as far as the general public is con 
cerned. But to the man for whom they are intended they have great 
interest. Nothing gets more careful, thorough reading. The head of a 
firm of consulting engineers, for example, recently declared that he 
spends about 20 hours each month examining several thousand pages 
of technical advertising and taking notes on it. It is part of his work 
to keep track of new products and standard products entering into 
industrial designing. "In the field of manufacturing," he writes, "the 
most prolific and up-to-the-minute source of information is in the 
advertising pages of the technical and trade magazines."* 

One has only to observe the eagerness with which men in the same 
business or profession will gather and talk shop at any social gather 
ing to appreciate the fundamental appeal in industrial advertising. 
The more closely it approaches the "shop talk" ideal, the more effec 
tive it becomes. 

* Harvey S. Pardee, "An Engineer Analyzes Industrial Advertising," Industrial 
Marketing, June 1946. 



Who Uses Industrial Advertising? 

The National Industrial Advertisers Association classifies manufac 
turers of industrial and technical products under these eight headings: 

MAJOR EQUIPMENT: Heavy machinery and construction equip 

ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT: Small tools, jigs, dies, time clocks, etc. 

OPERATING SUPPLIES: Oils, greases, brooms, paper work forms, 

FABRICATING PARTS: Metal and steel sheets and rods, textiles, 
lumber, etc. 

cans, foil, etc. 

PROCESS MATERIALS: Wood pulp, chemicals, acids, alkalis, etc. 

PRIMARY MATERIALS: Raw cotton, crude petroleum, iron ore, 
hides, wheat, etc. 

BUILDING MATERIALS: Fabricated steel, lumber, bricks, roofing, 

In addition there are numerous associations, consultation services, 
insurance companies, publishers and other types of firms who use 
industrial advertising. The lion's share of promotional effort in the 
industrial field, however, is done by the producers and processors of 
raw materials, equipment and supplies. Some industrial products are 
used in manufacturing, some in transportation or distribution, some 
in plant maintenance. Often a company's products may come under 
several headings. Paint, as an example, is bought in large quantities 
for finishing manufactured products; it is definitely a maintenance 
material; it can be classed also as "operating supplies" since it has 
been discovered that different colors of paint used on various machin 
ery parts and as traffic flow lines in factories will aid operating effi 

Many industrial advertisers rank among the best-known names in 
imerican commerce. In the field of heavy equipment are such great 
corporations as American Locomotive, Caterpillar Tractor, Allis- 
Chalmers, General Electric, Westinghouse. In building materials, 

* "Industrial Advertising Budgets for 1946," (c) National Industrial Advertisers 
Association. Quoted by permission of NIAA. 


U. S. Steel, Weyerhaeuser Lumber, U. S. Gypsum, Johns-Manville. 
Among process materials, Monsanto Chemical, Shell Oil, Aluminum 
Company of America, Bakelite, Du Pont, Revere Copper & Brass. 

Some of the important advertisers make some products for con 
sumer use and another group of products for industry. Armstrong 
Cork Company produces a large volume in linoleum flooring for 
homes but in the industrial field it is best known for its sound and 
shock-absorbing materials such as "Cushiontone," an acoustical ceil 
ing material. It also manufactures asphalt tile for factories and offices. 
Crane Company has a leading place in home plumbing and heating 
equipment; its valves, pipes and fittings have many applications in 
cluding cross-country pipe lines. "Yale" is synonymous with locks in 
the mind of the average consumer. The factory purchasing agent 
knows the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. as a source of industrial 
scales, hand and electric hoists, hand-lift and electric trucks. 

Where their products have utility for a wide variety of industries, 
larger concerns will often run ads in general magazines. Even though 
a high percentage of the circulation is wasted, such campaigns may 
pay off through giving the company's salesmen the "lift" of seeing 
their line advertised in a publication like The Saturday Evening Post, 
Life or Time. The last-named periodical is especially popular with 
industrial advertisers, presumably because its wide circulation among 
directors, stockholders and financiers reaches men who may have a 
voice in industrial purchases, yet may never see a technical publica 

For many years the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has been 
using full pages and spreads in general weeklies featuring the 
"G. T. M." Goodyear Technical Man. Each ad describes some 
dramatic adaptation of rubber hose, belting, molded goods, packing 
or tank lining to a materials-handling problem. Instead of talking in 
generalities the copy gives specific figures on performance, length of 
life and economy. 

In a different vein but on similar products the B. F. Goodrich Com 
pany has employed consumer magazines to describe how its engineers 
solve knotty technical situations. On-the-job photographs combine 
with colorful headlines to make a very readable series. "Seven-ton con 
crete tunnels tied with rubber bands" was the heading of one Good 
rich ad in a prize-winning campaign a few years ago; the text explained 
how rubber was used to seal huge sewer-pipe joints. Another ad, 


headed, "A lot of apple sauce but it's rubber's dish," told about rub 
ber conveyor belts for quick packing of apples. 

The rank and file of industrial advertisers do not use general media. 
Since most of them sell exclusively to other manufacturers and the 
consuming public is not a factor, their advertising is directed into 
channels that will create the maximum impact per dollar on their 
major prospects. 

Industrial Advertising Budgets 


As might be expected, the percentage of gross sales spent for adver 
tising by industrial advertisers is smaller on an average than that spent 
for consumer-goods advertising. Here are figures from the previously 
mentioned NIAA study of industrial budgets: 

1945- 1946 1947 

Actual Estimated Estimated 

Major Equipment . . 1.17% 132% 1.67% 

Accessory Equipment . 2.66 3.16 3.26 

Operating Supplies . .. 1.42 1.75 2.51 

Fabricating Parts ... .76 .63 .82 

Process Materials . . . 5.19 5.19 4.21 

Building Materials . . .78 1.12 1.58 

No Product Classif. . . 1.26 1.62 1.34* 

The average, weighted according to the number of replies under 
each heading, gives 2.1 as the estimated advertising percentage for 
1947 among these industrial firms. By comparison, the same group 
estimated their average total selling expense for 1947 as 10.13 per 
cent or nearly five times the advertising percentage. 

This appropriation went into a variety of items. By far the largest 
amount was assigned to display ads in publications reaching indus 
trial markets, and production costs on these ads. On an average, space 
charges in business magazines accounted for an estimated 35 percent 
of the total budget in 1947, and production art work, photos, type 
setting, plates another 10 percent. Following these the most popu 
lar items on the budget were catalogues, other direct mail, publishers' 
consolidated catalogues, conventions and exhibits, product literature, 

* Op. cit. (Schedules 1, 2, 3). 


house organs, motion pictures and still films, editorial publicity and 
advertising to the general public. (This last named was used by less 
than one-fourth of the companies in the survey.) Market research, 
traveling and educational literature were other items listed. 

Advertising department overhead accounted for roughly 1 5 percent 
of the average industrial budget in 1947, the survey indicates. An 
other four or five percent would be set aside for contingencies, reserves 
or miscellaneous. Of the remaining items, catalogues received an 
average of 14.12 percent of the total budget; other direct mail, 10.46 
percent; conventions and exhibits, 8.45 percent; product literature, 
8.52 percent; publishers' consolidated catalogues, 4.49 percent. 

These percentages did not apply where an industrial advertiser con 
centrated a large proportion of his appropriation in some particular 
medium. For example, one firm in the process-materials field spent 
one- third of its 1947 budget on conventions and exhibits; one manu 
facturer of operating supplies has spent from 10 to 14 percent of his 
total in radio. Companies issuing house organs either "internal" 
magazines designed to improve employee relations, or "external," 
edited for customers and prospects may devote a large part of their 
appropriation to this medium. 

Industrial Advertisers and Agencies 

The industrial field is served by many advertising agencies, some 
specializing in this type of marketing, others handling it along with 
consumer products. Extent of agency service is shown in the annual 
report of advertising placed by agencies in business publications, 
issued by Industrial Marketing. For 1946, according to this tabula 
tion, 458,425 pages of advertising space were produced by agencies, a 
new record.* 

Leading the field was Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc., with 15,128 
pages. This agency got its double-ampersand name through a merger 
of Fuller & Smith, Cleveland, and F. }. Ross Company, New York, in 
1930. All three men represented in the firm name retired long ago. 
The president for more than 20 years has been Allen L. Billingsley. 
He makes his headquarters in Cleveland, where the agency has over 

* "Advertising Placed by Agencies in Business Papers, 1946," Industrial Market- 
ing, April 1947. 


200 employees and is accepted as the largest producer of printed mat 
ter, displays and promotional material in the area. At New York 
F & S & R has 130 employees, and ten or so in Chicago where it re 
cently opened a third office. Among its hundred accounts are such 
large users of business papers as Westinghouse, Hercules Powder, 
Libbey-Owens-Ford, Aluminum Company of America, Yale & Towne, 
Ferro Enamel and Dayton Rubber. The agency has a film depart 
ment equipped to produce motion pictures and slide films. It does a 
good many research studies, often working closely with industrial 

Close behind Fuller & Smith & Ross in business-paper space for 
1946 were J. Walter Thompson Company and Batten, Barton, Dur- 
stine & Osborn, both general agencies. In fourth position was G. M. 
Basford Co., specialists in industrial accounts. Others among the 
leaders were McCann-Erickson, the Buchen Company, Griswold- 
Eshleman, MacManus, John & Adams, Albert Frank-Guenther Law, 
and Evans Associates. These top ten agencies placed 90,711 pages 
of business-paper advertising during the year.** 

Associations and Publications 

Founded in 1922, the National Industrial Advertisers Association 
is devoted to "the advancement of industrial advertising and market 
ing technique and practice," its prospectus declares. Affiliated with 
it are 25 district groups such as the Industrial Advertisers Association 
in New York and the Chicago Industrial Advertisers Association. 
Among the important NIAA activities are: data sheets indexing all 
current published material covering advertising production, media 
and administration; reports from committees assigned to investigate 
specific phases of industrial advertising and marketing; and an annual 
convention at which significant topics are discussed. 

Representing the periodicals in this field are two associations: the 
Associated Business Papers (ABP), with a membership of some 150 
magazines; and the National Business Papers Association (NBP). 
The ABP includes publications with paid subscriptions. It has done 
consistently constructive work in raising the standards of business- 

* Advertising Age, Jan. 27, 1947, 45. 

** "Advertising Placed by Agencies in Business Papers, 1946," Industrial Market 
ing, April 1947. 


magazine copy, art and research. One of its significant contributions 
was the still-discussed "Tell All" campaign before the war which 
stressed the importance of giving business men complete information 
about the product advertised. Another popular ABP release was a 
booklet, "Hit the Road/' urging the business-paper advertiser to break 
away from his desk and get out into the field before planning his cam 

The NBP, a newer organization, includes publishers of controlled- 
distribution business papers. This type of publication is sent free to 
selected individuals and firms in a particular field. Among the NBP 
members are such papers as Industrial Equipment News, World Pe 
troleum, Progressive Grocer and Electrical Equipment. 

Business papers relying on subscriptions or single-copy sales for their 
distribution generally belong to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. 
This long established organization has been a notable force in raising 
distribution standards among all classes of periodicals. A valuable 
feature of A. B. C. reports in the business-paper field is the breakdown 
of circulation according to type of job. For example, Metal Finishing, 
a publication reaching the metal trade, reported a net paid circulation 
on December 31, 1946, of 6,340 copies, distributed as follows: 

Manufacturers engaged in production of metal products (ferrous 
and non-ferrous, which are fabricated, cleaned, polished, plated and 
finished: subscriptions in firm name only, 2,026; presidents, vice- 
presidents, owners, secretaries and treasurers, 386; plant executives, 
works managers, production managers and superintendents, 509; fore 
men in departments mentioned above, 1,021; metalurgists, chemists, 
chemical engineers, 580. Libraries, colleges, government bureaus and 
trade associations, 206; consultants and testing laboratories, 59; equip 
ment and supply houses, 174; advertisers, their salesmen, branch 
offices and distributors, 195; men in armed services formerly classified 
above, 18; miscellaneous, 274; unclassified, 224; foreign, 691. 

A similar service is rendered to advertisers by "free controlled" dis 
tribution business papers through the Controlled Circulation Audit. 
Reports very similar to those of the A. B. C. are sent out regularly, 
giving details of the mailing list used, total circulation and occupa 
tional breakdown. Both A. B. C. and C. C. A. also supply data on 
geographical distribution of their member papers. An advertiser in 
terested in particular territories can thus find out how intensively the 
different publications reach those markets. 


In addition to subscription and free papers there is a third impor 
tant group in the industrial field: the association journals. These mag 
azines go to members automatically, the cost being included in their 
dues. Typical is the S. A. E. Journal, official organ of the Society of 
Automotive Engineers, Inc. Its total net paid circulation (sworn) as 
of December 31, 1946, was 16,675, including 14,147 nondeductible 
association subscriptions. The Northern Automotive Journal, a re 
gional publication, with a guaranteed circulation of 8,000, is the offi 
cial organ of nine associations including the Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa and Montana State Automobile 
Dealer Associations; the Northwest Automotive Wholesalers Associa 
tion; the N. W. Automotive Electrical Association, and the Twin City 
Garage Association. 

Among business-paper publishers McGraw-Hill looms large. This 
famous company dates back to 1874 and issues some of the largest, 
most influential periodicals in many lines. General publications in 
clude Business Week and Science Illustrated. In the manufacturing 
field Factory Management and Maintenance has a circulation of 48,000 
paid subscribers. Other McGraw-Hill papers are American Machinist, 
Power, Engineering News-Record, Textile World, Electrical Merchan 
dising and some 25 others including annual reference catalogues. In 
the export field a McGraw-Hill affiliate, Business Publishers Interna 
tional Corp., puts out nine magazines, several being in Spanish like 
El Automovil Americano. 

Chilton Company, Philadelphia, publishes 12 business papers, 
among them Motor Age, Iron Age, Boot and Shoe Recorder and De 
partment Store Economist. Haire Publishing Company has a string 
of nine business papers, most of them edited for the retail trade. Sim- 
mons-Boardman publishes four papers, specializing in the railway 
field. Penton Publishing Company, Thomas Publishing Company, 
Robbins Publishing Company and Ahrens Publications are other mul 
tiple-magazine producers. There are a number of others, some na 
tional, some regional. Among the latter is W. R. C. Smith of Atlanta 
with five papers covering the South in various industries. 

Industrial Research 

"The industrial advertiser's first task is to find out for which use his 
product is sold/' says John Allen Murphy. "Market studies should 


usually precede advertising. It is better to tackle a few markets at a 
time and do a job in them before other fields are added to the cam 

Back of these few words is a long record of trial and error in the 
industrial marketing profession. Too many manufacturers of machin 
ery and materials have been afflicted with a consumer advertising com 
plex, failing to recognize the need of determining the limitations of 
their selling area. As a result "shotgun" advertising has been scattered 
far beyond the potential markets. Murphy suggests a "piloting" oper 
ation in which the industrial marketer can try out a new product on a 
restricted scale where buyer reactions, competition, distribution chan 
nels and sales methods can be carefully studied. This method has 
been successfully adopted by some of the leading companies selling to 

Nowadays market research is regarded as a "must" by industrial 
advertisers. And this is only one phase of research affecting the adver 
tising of technical or commercial products. Fred Olsen, director of 
research, Western Cartridge Company, suggests four types of ques 
tions which research should answer: 

1. Technology: Is the new process or product technologically sound? 

2. Patents: Will the new product or process be free from infringe 

3. Markets: What is the extent of the market for the product? 

4. Economics: What is the estimated profit from the sale of the new 
product in the market which has been revealed by the market 

It is just as essential, Olsen points out, to determine that a product 
can be made profitably and efficiently as to know where and how it can 
be sold. The advertising man in industry must take a broad view. He 
must concern himself not only with market research but with tech 
nical and accounting research as well. He has become an important 
factor in his company. His prewar job of getting out the company's 
catalogues and circulars and okaying an occasional business-paper ad 
has developed into the postwar responsibility of helping to decide 
production and distribution policies. 

* By permission from Handbook of Advertising, by E. B. Weiss, F. C. Kendall 
and C. B. Larrabee, copyrighted 1938, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 

** Fred Olsen, "Evaluating Research Activities," Industrial Marketing, Feb. 1947. 
Quoted by permission of the publishers. 


ONE phrase crops up regularly in any advertising discussion: 
"Goods or services." The advertising of goods actual merchan 
dise, things to eat and wear and ride in and manufacture other 
articles with or from is far from simple. But it at least starts with 
something that can be seen. The advertising of a service entails the 
picturing or dramatizing of an idea. 

What are these "services" that figure so prominently in talks and 
textbooks? They are the intangibles such as life insurance, transpor 
tation, public utilities, hospitals, education, dry cleaning; in fact, any 
return for an expenditure which does not produce actual merchandise. 

In some instances it is possible to illustrate the end result of a serv 
ice, which will be not merchandise but a condition or state of mind. 
The advertiser of railroad or bus travel may show pictures of passengers 
riding in luxurious comfort, or viewing strange and thrilling scenes at 
the end of the trip; he is not selling the actual seat in his vehicle nor 
the particular strip of beach at Catalina which he features, but the 
opportunity to enjoy these delights. 

Some services are so much a part of everyday life that they require 
no explaining or justifying. Others require clarifying. Lewis F. Gor 
don, a well-known Atlanta banker and former president of the Finan 
cial Advertisers Association, brought out this distinction in a speech 
before F. A. A. members at their annual convention some years ago: 

A man goes to the station where a porter picks up his bags, carries 
them onto the train, and gets a quarter for the service. Another porter 
shines his shoes and receives a quarter. A third porter picks up the 
bags and carries them to a taxi. He also receives a quarter. Finally a 
bellboy carries the bags to a room in the hotel and gets the fourth 
quarter. The man has spent a dollar without batting an eyelash. 

Why? Because he saw the services performed right before his eyes 

Yet the same man will come into a bank and squawk like a stuck pig 
over a dollar service on his checking account. . . . What is the differ 
ence? He knows all about the one he knows little or nothing about 



the other. Is that his fault? Not at all. The fault is ours in failing to 
acquaint him with our service. 

Such an admission from a banker a class of individuals popularly 
considered devoid of human feelings and also concern about the pub 
lic's feelings is indicative of today's trend in business thinking. 

Bank advertising has grown steadily more friendly, more readable, 
more helpful, as executives of financial institutions have come to real 
ize the effect of public opinion on profit. The annual statements re 
quired by law to be inserted in local papers have been simplified and 
supplemented with explanatory text so that even the uninitiated can 
understand many of them. Display advertisements now often talk 
about savings deposits, checking accounts, trust funds and loans in 
laymen's terms. One reason for this "humanized" approach has been 
the desire of banks to enter the field of consumer credit, which in 
cludes so-called "character" loans without co-makers or endorsers, 
automobile loans, appliance loans and home improvement (FHA 
Title I) loans. An F. A. A. survey in 1945 showed that 79 percent of 
banks covered were seeking and handling this type of business and 
that over 1 1 percent of all bank advertising represented in the survey 
was devoted to promoting consumer credit. A similar survey in 1947 
disclosed an even greater swing to consumer credit, 25 percent of cur 
rent bank advertising featured small loans. 

But the banks have done more than advertise "friendly service" 
they have made it a reality. In hundreds of cities they have heeded 
the challenge issued by Robert Lindquist, assistant vice-president, 
American National Bank and Trust Company of Chicago, in his study 
for the Graduate School of Banking conducted by the American 
Bankers Association at Rutgers University. After thoroughly describ 
ing methods of co-ordinating bank advertising with new business 
activities he wrote: 

Still another "follow through" remains for a bank to make if it is 
to get the most out of its advertising program. This is the preparation 
of the bank's staff to back up the advertising with the kind of service 
the customer has a right to expect. Good training and good equip 
ment are important, but not enough. Service must be more than auto 
matic efficiency. It must be human, friendly, alert, enthusiastic, and 
based on a genuine interest in the customer's welfare.* 

* "Planning and Budgeting a Bank's Advertising Program," Report of 30th 
Annual Convention, Financial Advertisers Association, 1945. 


What has been happening in banks has been happening also in 
many other types of service institutions. The American Institute of 
Laundering through its beloved May Laing Grady has consistently 
stressed the importance of sound customer relations to its 2800 power 
laundry members. Twenty years ago laundries were obsessed with the 
fear that rapidly increasing sales of home washers would put them out 
of business. A nation-wide consumer campaign was launched in 1928 
with a fund of over $5,000,000 to promote the advantages of laundry 
service. At first, copy talked in general terms about "enjoying a Mon 
day vacation" "no more blue washdays" and similar appeals stress 
ing labor-saving advantages of laundry service. Then it became appar 
ent that the chief obstacle to laundry sales was the belief of many 
homemakers that laundries were hard on clothes. 

Laundries were being blamed for fabric failures due to shoddy 
materials and poor workmanship as well as those which were their 
own fault. The Institute through its textile research department 
under George H. Johnson, a graduate textile engineer, began to work 
with the mills to improve launderability. Shrinkage, "fugitive" or 
quick-fading colors and other problems were tackled. The American 
Institute of Laundering Seal of Approval was inaugurated as a method 
of certifying products which met required standards. Along with this, 
laundry routemen were trained to interpret complaints in terms of 
proper responsibility, accepting blame where the laundry was amiss 
and explaining matters where it was not guilty. 

With a steady improvement in laundry efficiency, a decline in 
"trouble-making" fabrics and articles and a wider understanding of 
the industry's aims and problems, unquestionably the laundry indus 
try is better fortified to meet competition now than before it started 
to advertise. The actual advertising done was not nearly so important 
as the by-products. 

John J. Joseph, assistant vice-president of Ohio Bell Telephone 
Company, stressed this same point in a talk before the Financial 
Advertising Association. The Bell System, he declared, overlooks no 
opportunity to coach its operators, installers, tellers and others who 
greet the public, as to their proper approach. This involves such 
fundamentals as tone of voice, phrasing of response to complaints and 
acceptance of payments. The advertising that appears in national 
magazines or is heard over the air will have little benefit, he feels, 
unless the performance behind it is right. 


"Because of the ordinary human suspicion of size/' said Mr. Joseph, 
"big business will have to be a better citizen than if it were smaller. 
It will have to win public confidence. It will have to put the same 
thought and effort on public relations that it has on research, pro 
duction and selling." 

Postwar "Idea" Advertising 

Industry-wide advertising was a near-miracle of the 1920's. Fred 
Millis of Indianapolis was one of the first to dramatize the inescapable 
truth that Mr. and Mrs. Consumer had only so much money to spend 
and that they would spend it for the things they wanted most. Ergo, it 
was up to the various industries to sell the idea of putting some of the 
money into their particular industry rather than another. With this 
premise he developed impressive campaigns for the Society of American 
Florists ("Say It With Flowers"), the National Retail Furniture Asso 
ciation ("First Furnish Your Home It Tells What You Are"), the 
Photographers Association of America ("Photographs Tell the 
Story"), the Laundryowners National Association ("Let the Laundry 
Do It"), the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association and nu 
merous others. The soap people meanwhile had launched their 
"Cleanliness Institute" campaign to induce the public to wash of tener 
and the paint people were promoting the slogan, "Save the surface and 
you save all." 

Trade-association advertising suffered a setback with the depres 
sion, but by the late 1930's it was again in full action. Among the 
most prominent was the campaign of the Association of American 
Railroads handled by Arthur Kudner, which had the dual objective 
of getting people to travel by train and also to win good will for the 
railroad companies. The American Meat Institute in 1940 began an 
educational campaign, alarmed by the fact that per capita consump 
tion of meat had declined from a high of 162.6 pounds in 1908 to 
132.9 pounds in 1939. A nation-wide survey directed by Elmo Roper 
revealed that the public was badly informed on facts regarding meat 
and that women desired more information on proper preparation and 
food value of meat. Through Leo Burnett Company, Chicago adver 
tising agency, a campaign was launched by the packers and has been 
consistently carried out ever since. Copy stressed the B vitamins in 
meat, suggested ways to serve meat, pointed out its importance in the 


summer diet. In 1942 this campaign won the Advertising & Selling 
medal as the best trade association campaign of the year. 

Throughout the war, most co-operative advertising was given over 
to patriotic projects. With peace the industries swung into action. At 
the annual meeting of the American Trade Association Executives in 
October 1946 it was revealed that industry-wide promotion activities 
would reach or exceed $20,000,000 that year, a new record. 

In 1909, according to the ATAE report, only one association an 
nounced that it was using advertising. By 1919 the number had 
jumped to ten, and ten years later it had reached 29. It was 60 in 1939, 
and 92 postwar, with an additional 14 associations planning to adver 
tise in the near future. A total of 51 had discontinued advertising 
because of lack of finances, product shortages, the depression or other 
reasons. Well over one-third of these, it was reported, had since re 
newed their campaigns or planned to do so. 

Included in the ATAE report were industries in food, clothing, 
beverage, insurance, appliance and other consumer fields; technical 
groups such as metal, machinery, coal, supply, lumber and equipment; 
and restricted groups such as specialized containers and equipment. 
One hundred three of the 118 associations represented had already 
used advertising. 

The Utilities Program 

Much has been written about the power of advertising. Outstand 
ing among current campaigns is one the purpose of which is the 
advertising of power. 

The Electric Industries Advertising Program started in a modest 
way in the years just before World War II. An early ad told about the 
part being taken by the power industry in arming America, and was 
sponsored by "52 local electric companies all producing power for 
America under American business management." A footnote an 
nounced that names of sponsors would be furnished "on request from 
this magazine," an ingenious way to avoid listing a large number of 
contributors to a group campaign. 

From 52 sponsors in 1941, the number jumped to 74 in 1942, and 
then 94 later in the year; in 1943, the total reached 118 and the cam 
paign included a radio news program, "Report to the Nation," over 
CBS. By 1944, 148 companies were in the campaign and Phil 


Spitalny's All-Girl Orchestra was being featured in 'The Electric 
Hour." The next year 167 companies, "self-supporting, tax-paying 
businesses/' to quote an ad in Life for June 4, 1945, were sponsoring 
the magazine campaign plus Nelson Eddy with Robert Armbruster's 
Orchestra in the 4:30 CBS slot Sunday afternoons. The 1946 ads 
announced 170 sponsoring companies. 

A wide variety of attention-getting copy and art treatments has been 
used, but throughout the past seven years each ad has stressed the 
economy, efficiency, tax contributions and good citizenship of the 
utilities. An advertisement in Time for January 13, 1947, had the sur 
prise heading: "Ever Been to Chaugogagogmanchaugagogchaubuna- 
gungamaug?" The text said that this 40-letter word is the Indian name 
for a lake at Webster, Massachusetts. Translated, it means, "You 
fish on your side, I fish on my side, nobody fish in middle." That is 
sound policy for American business and government, continued the 
copy: let government regulate and business operate the nation's busi 
ness. Combined control of politics and business is the basic feature of 
Nazism, fascism, socialism and Communism, the advertisement de 
clared, adding that when government goes into business it doesn't pay 
taxes. The message wound up, "As a citizen, as a consumer, you have 
an interest in seeing that government and business fish on their own 
sides of the lake. Then you won't get caught in the middle!" 

A Concrete Example 

Over a long stretch, the Portland Cement Association has ranked 
among the most systematic users of advertising to tell its story. 

This trade association occupies its own building (made of Portland- 
cement concrete, naturally! ) in Chicago and has 26 district offices all 
staffed by engineers competent to co-operate with architects and engi 
neers representing governmental agencies, industrial plant owners, 
farmers and others; to give technical help to contractors and all who 
are interested in concrete construction. Three floors of the associa 
tion's headquarters building are occupied by research and testing lab 
oratories. In addition, field laboratories are maintained at Elmhurst 
and Naperville, Illinois, and at several other locations for large-scale 
testing. The association also maintains a staff of fellowship scientists 
at the national Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 

Frank T. Sheets, for 13 years chief engineer of the Illinois Depart- 


ment of Highways, has been the full-time president of the Association 
since 1937. It has some 400 employees on its pay roll. 

Publications in the 1947 campaign include six consumer magazines 
Time, Newsweek, The American Home, Business Week, Parents, 
Better Homes and Gardens and a long list of business and industrial 
papers. A separate campaign is aimed at the agricultural market 
through national farm magazines. The account is handled by Roche, 
Williams and Cleary of Chicago. 

Supplementing the national advertising, each of the association's 
district offices has a separate advertising budget for local advertising in 
newspapers and other media in its territory. The association began to 
use advertising in a limited way in 1906 and launched its first official 
publication the following year. Its volume of advertising has varied 
from year to year, but since the late 1930's has been kept at a con 
sistently high level. In an average year the staff handles more than 
300,000 requests for information on uses of concrete. 

In addition to display advertising, the Portland Cement Association 
uses its own printed matter extensively. According to H. C. Persons, 
assistant advertising manager, its 1947 inventory included several mil 
lion pieces on about 400 different subjects. These ranged in size from 
200-page books down to single-page "Information Sheets." The infor 
mation sheets are usually releases on new developments to be covered 
more fully in longer material as additional data become available. 

Seven periodicals are issued by the association, some bimonthly, 
some quarterly, some semiannually. Edited by specialists, these are 
illustrated with many on-the-job photographs as well as diagrams. 
Stories of actual installations are featured. In the case of important 
jobs, one article may describe the construction stages of the job and 
a sequel the finished product. The names of these "external house 
organs" describe their respective editorial areas: Architectural Con 
crete, Highways, Concrete for Railways, Soil Cement News, Rein 
forced Concrete, The Concrete Builder and Safety Magazine. 

Motion pictures and slide films have been used for specific assign 
ments. Several movies of general interest have been produced, partic 
ularly those dealings with concrete highways. Visual advertising is 
chiefly used for "how-to-do-it" films to be shown to engineers, con 
tractors, architects; or, in the rural field, to farmers through agricul 
tural experiment stations or county agents. 

The association does not use radio for advertising, although it has 


co-operated with networks and individual stations in putting on "pub 
lic events" programs where the use of concrete is involved. 

Chief advertising appeals are "low annual cost" broken down into 
low first cost, low maintenance cost and long life and elimination of 
fire hazard. In advertising concrete for streets and highways, copy 
stressed also freedom from glare, high visibility and skid resistance. 
"You can see jar and stop short on concrete," declared a typical ad in 
Time, on December 16, 1946. Beauty of architectural effects is demon 
strated by photographs of concrete buildings. Advertising to farmers 
emphasizes economy, as in Country Gentleman for February, 1947, 
where the association ad was headlined: "How 20 sacks of Cement can 
work on your farm!" Various ways 140 fence posts, a 10-can milk 
cooling tank, a three-foot sidewalk 85 feet long. 

Railroads have always been heavy users of concrete and the associa 
tion pays particular attention to the many applications in that field 
bridges, grade-crossing eliminations, stations and others. Airports and 
public buildings are other major opportunities for the industry. 

A trade association such as this does not concern itself with the sale 
of materials. The activities of the Portland Cement Association, for 
example, are limited to scientific research, development of new or im 
proved products and methods, technical service to users, promotional 
and educational efforts including safety work. The association hav 
ing done the scientific research and market-building promotion, sales 
are the function of the member companies, of which there are over 60 
in the United States and Canada. 

The Case of the Railroads 

It was in connection with railroading, so tradition declares, that a 
nineteenth-century tycoon uttered his impatient blast: "What do we 
care about the public? The public be damned!" Ever since, railroad 
men have been denying this attitude both by word and deed. Railroad 
advertising particularly since the inauguration of the co-operative 
campaign of the Association of American Railroads was launched 
some fifteen years ago has been steadily more solicitous of public 

Wartime advertising of the carriers was highly conscious of its re 
sponsibility as an interpreter of popular sentiment. One of the most 
famous pieces of copy ever written was "The Kid in Upper 4," an 





Hear Lassie, America's Favorite Dog, In Person 



Guaranteed by 
Good Housekeeping 


Lassie's barking about 

all 3 Red Heart Flavors to give 

YOU 3 profits on 1 sale! 




New Coast-to-Coast Radio Show 

Starts June 8 
Listen Every Sunday to Your ABC Station 

at 3:00 P.M., E.D.S.T. 2:00 P.M., C.D.S.T. 
1:00 P.M., M.S.T. 12 NOON, P.S.T. 

It's exciting! It's thrillingly differ 
entwith a sensational interest 
and product tie-up. For it stars 
Lassie, the most famous dog in 
the world today. The ABC Net 
work will carry the show coast 
to coast each week on 162 stations. 

Listen Sunday, June 8, and every 
Sunday afternoon, as Lassie the 
appealing, talented dog of the 
screen enters the homes of your 
customers, bringing them thrilling 
dog stories AND the Red Heart 
^-Flavor story. 

* A product of 




Courtesy of John Morrell & Co. 


BHHil 11 


Courtesy Tom Means 


Direct mail and business paper advertising used by Station WOL, Washing 
ton, D. C. 


advertisement by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. It 
was the work of a young copy man with the Wendell P. Colton Co. 
of Boston, the agency handling the account. Intended originally for 
regional use only, the simple, heart-warming message created such a 
tremendous impression that it was run in many newspapers and 
national magazines. Requests for reprints fairly swamped the New 
Haven offices. More than any one writing job of the early World War 
II years, it hit home. 

Totally different in tone, theme and technique has been the recent 
series of advertisements by the Chesapeake & Ohio Lines, inspired, if 
not actually written, by their dynamic chief executive, Robert R. 
Young. The most sensational appeared in the spring of 1946 with the 
heading: "A Hog Can Cross America Without Changing Trains 
But YOU Can't!" The copy dealt with the fact that transcontinen 
tal passengers were being forced to get off at Chicago, St. Louis or 
New Orleans and take a different train to their destination. 

"Why should travel be less convenient for people than it is for pigs?" 
the ad challenged. It went on to state that the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
whose western terminus is at Cincinnati, and the Nickel Plate, running 
to Chicago and St. Louis, stood ready to join with any combination 
of railroads for the purpose of setting up connecting schedules. Since 
then some 40 or more such connections have been provided. This 
ad succeeded despite the fact, as more than one exactitudinarian 
pointed out, that a hog crossing the country would be required to 
leave its car every day during the trip for rest and relaxation. 

Other controversial advertisements by C. & O. have enlivened the 
magazines in recent years. Tackling the matter of obsolete Pullmans, 
an advertisement in Time for August 12, 1946, demanded: "Why 
must sleeping car passengers put up with 'rolling tenements'? Nine 
out of every ten sleeping cars now in service belong in museums! 
What can be done about it?" Later in 1946 the line announced that 
it was working out a plan for "pay as you go" train travel, with credit 
cards similar to the plan successfully used by the airlines before the 
war. In May 1947 another radical innovation was instituted "No 
tipping of any C. & O. employee." 

Pullman advertising in the war years attracted much favorable com 
ment, with its dramatic appeals for the elimination of needless travel. 
The New York Central, the Pennsylvania and the Santa Fe were 
lines using national magazines to win public recognition for the over- 


all job done by the railroads in moving war material not merely for 
their own companies. A particularly memorable ad was one by the 
Pennsylvania in 1943 headed: "What it takes to move a division." 
The illustration showed an apparently endless number of freight and 
passenger trains stretching toward the horizon. Text explained that 
75 trains were required to transport one armored division about 
equal to the number of passenger trains running daily over the Penn 
sylvania between New York and Washington. "Multiply this one 
division by the many moving in this country and you can understand 
why you may have difficulty in getting a berth, or be obliged to stand 
in a coach, or arrive late at your destination," the ad stated. 

Even before the war a number of railroads had adopted the policy 
of taking the public into their confidence with informative copy. 
Illinois Central for years has run newspaper advertising in newspapers 
all along the system, frankly discussing its policies and problems. 
"What happens to your dollar when you spend it via Illinois Cen 
tral?" asked a 1947 ad. The answer: ^ly* cents goes to pay the wages 
of some 40,000 I.C. employees, 28% cents are assigned to materials and 
equipment, 10^ cents go to taxes, 4% cents to interest, and 3> 
cents to all other purposes. 

"That's a h-1 of a way to run a railroad!" was a Boston and Maine 
newspaper advertisement that won honorable mention in the 1942 
Annual Advertising Awards. B & M found out the things patrons 
were complaining about and, taking the public behind the scenes, 
explained the reasons for delays. The disarming headline and candid 
text turned gripes into grins. "For the rest of the winter," said the 
award citation, "when trains were late commuters quoted 'That's a 
hell of a way to run a railroad' but they smiled when they said it." 


A is true in most fields of industry and trade, the big names in 
advertising are unknown to outsiders. Men have acquired tow 
ering prestige within the craft for their skill and daring; some 
have amassed fortunes; some have pioneered new techniques; many 
have contributed importantly to the high standards of integrity and 
professional practice that dominate advertising today. Yet except for 
a few thousand colleagues, nobody knows who they are. It is a queer 
quirk of fate that these masters of the art of putting brand names and 
slogans on everyone's lips should themselves remain anonymous. 

Millions of people know that Bob Hope is the star of the Pepsodent 
Tooth Paste program, for example; only a few know that his boss is 
Charles Luckman, former general manager of Pepsodent and now 
head of titanic Lever Brothers Company, of which Pepsodent is a 
part. Mention "Luckman" to the man in the street, and if he sparks 
at all hell undoubtedly identify the name as that of a star football 

Radio fans from coast to coast associate "Fibber McGee and Molly" 
with the advertising of Johnson's Wax; again, only those behind the 
scenes know that the guiding spirit of this immensely popular show is 
Jack Louis of the Chicago agency of Needham, Louis & Brorby, who 
built the old vaudeville team of Marian and Jim Jordan into the stars 
they are today. 

Back of every trade-marked product is, or was, a living personality. 
In fact, the advertising business teems with personalities. Unknown 
though they may be to the general public, they have their own hall of 
fame. They value their recognition by fellow advertising men far 
more than any fleeting celebrity they might attain in the mass mind. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to introduce a few of these men 
chosen almost at random. No attempt has been made to grade them 
in the order of their importance. Undoubtedly many significant fig 
ures are omitted. Those who appear here are not necessarily typical 
of the advertising profession; in fact, the writer seriously doubts 



whether there is such a thing as a "typical" advertising man. One 
thing they have in common that elusive, indefinable flair of the 
master showman. 

The Man Who Made Luckies 

George Washington Hill, who died in September 1946, has been 
called the greatest advertising man ever to occupy the presidency of a 
major American company. He headed the American Tobacco Com 
pany for 21 years and throughout that period he kept up a constant 
personal interest in its advertising. The slogans he created or pro 
moted became a part of the American language: "LS/MFT," "It's 
toasted/' "Quality of product is essential to continuing success," "Na 
ture in the raw is seldom mild," "Reach for a Lucky instead of a 
sweet," "Lucky Strike green has gone to war." 

The son of Percival S. Hill, previous president of American To 
bacco, he attended Williams College and at 19 entered the tobacco 
business. At first he sold Pall Malls, then a high-priced ultra-smart 
cigarette. He rose to the vice-presidency of American and in 1925 
succeeded his father. 

Popular-priced cigarettes got their first real impetus during World 
War I. Camel was the leading brand. Young George Hill began to 
promote Lucky Strike, using the theme "It's toasted." All cigarette 
tobacco, then as now, was heat-treated but he pre-empted this claim 
for Luckies by powerful and consistent advertising. By 1929 he was 
spending $20,000,000 a year in advertising, over $12,000,000 for 
Luckies alone. This dropped considerably in the following years. 
American Tobacco's expenditures in radio, magazines and newspapers 
dipped from $8,120,000 in 1934 to $5,290,000 in 1943. In 1945 the 
three-media figure was less than $3,000,000, with probably a similar 
amount for talent and other costs. But while Hill's budgets were less, 
he was getting more sales for his advertising dollar. A study by the 
Curtis Publishing Company revealed that between 1934 and 1943 
Lucky Strike sales increased from 34,000,000,000 to 68,500,000,000 
units, whereas Camel rose from 32,000,000,000 to 58,500,000,000 and 
Chesterfield from 33,000,000,000 to 45,000,000,000. Both Camel and 
Chesterfield appropriations were larger than Lucky Strike throughout 
this period. 

At the time of his death, Lucky Strikes were selling at the amazing 


rate of 85,000,000,000 packages a year, and the company's net sales 
for 1945 had exceeded $557,000,000. But Hill was not satisfied. He 
aimed at no less than 100,000,000,000 units a year more than a pack 
a week for every adult in America. 

His greatest gains were registered in the feminine market. When 
he entered the tobacco business in 1904, few women smoked, and 
none except the most brazen dared to do so in public. The advertising 
themes he created had an important part in popularizing the cigarette 
with women and making its use socially acceptable. Frequently Hill's 
advertising ideas aroused irritation and controversy. In the 1920's he 
used testimonials from opera singers to plug the theme "Luckies are 
kind to the throat," and stirred up a hornet's nest. But this was noth 
ing compared to what happened when he broke his campaign urging 
folks to "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." He told a reporter 
that he got the idea from his mother, who had mentioned to him that 
when she was eating candy she didn't smoke, and vice versa. He 
started a drive to sell America on smoking cigarettes to avoid getting 
fat. The National Confectioners Association immediately protested; 
many of its members boycotted Luckies and tried to get consumers 
and dealers to do likewise. The Federal Trade Commission forced 
American Tobacco Company to eliminate "instead of a sweet" from 
the slogan. But the campaign meanwhile had captured the popular 
fancy. In New York City alone it boosted Lucky Strike sales 25 per 
cent in two months. Later the offending slogan was changed to a 
variant, "Avoid that future shadow," which continued to ring up sales 

Although Hill had used and continued to use a wide variety of 
media car cards, magazines, newspapers, outdoor signs, window dis 
plays he is best remembered for his radio campaigns. He had unlim 
ited faith in the power of repetition and radio gave him full scope. 
Over and over, on Lucky Strike commercials, the announcer would 
repeat, "LS/MFT LS/MFT Lucky Strike means fine tobacco- 
yes, Lucky Strike means fine tobacco!" He introduced the chant of 
the tobacco auctioneer as an overture, and the names of F. E. Boone 
and L. A. ("Speed") Riggs became familiar to millions who had never 
heard of George Washington Hill. The phrase "So round, so firm, so 
fully packed so free and easy on the draw" was another of his dinned- 
in favorites. 

Not all Lucky Strike ideas were devised by Hill, but he alone de- 


cided which ideas were to be used. William L. Day, who worked with 
him on a number of campaigns, said, "No man had to sell George 
Hill an advertising idea. When he saw what he wanted he got, I 
think, the same physical reaction a jive dancer gets to a good tune. 
He was physical and so is the public in its reaction to cigarette copy. 
He was instinctive and never lacking in the courage to back his 
decision with the full financial weight of his powerful appropriation." 
Elsewhere in his reminiscence Day uses the word "gutsy" a favorite 
Hillism to describe the quality that above all others pervaded Lucky 
Strike advertising.* 

What manner of man was George Hill personally? Much was writ 
ten and said about his striking resemblance to the soap tycoon Evan 
Llewellyn Evans, focal point of Frederic Wakeman's best seller, The 
Hucksters. But though Hill may have been eccentric in his manner 
isms and ruthless in his pursuit of profits, he had a keen business mind 
and enormous ability as an organizer. Proof of his ability is seen in 
the fact that although he never had the controlling interest in Ameri 
can Tobacco, he dominated it completely. Over a 14-year stretch his 
annual income from salary and bonuses ranged from $400,000 to well 
over a million. Stockholders might protest, but he had the figures to 
prove that he was worth it. 

Lawrence Hughes caught some of the spirit and impact of the man 
in this paragraph from an article in Advertising Age ten days after 
Hill's death at the age of 61 : 

Few advertising men may want to emulate his methods, but no one 
could question his success or his color. . . . Those little white hats 
which he bought in France a dozen at a time and wore in the office . . . 
The poem he wrote to the head of United Cigars when he cut him off 
as a direct buyer . . . The time after he had blurted to me a fact which 
might have damaged relations with one of his biggest customers, and 
he asked me to hold up my right hand and swear never to divulge 
it ... The cold blue eyes in the too-red face, above the black bow tie, 
the white shirt and the blue suit . . . The dismal black-walled room at 
111 Fifth Ave., which somehow reminded one of an undertaker on 
the make . . . The nervous, ruthless energy with which the man drove 
himself and others . . . "Nature in the raw is seldom mild."** 

* William L. Day, "George Washington Hill as I Knew Him" (Advertising and 
Selling, October 1946). By permission of Advertising and Selling. 

** Lawrence M. Hughes, "How Hill Lifted Lucky Sales" (Advertising Age, Sep 
tember 23, 1496). By permission of Advertising Age. 


"Just an Admaker" 

He would walk into an advertising agency on fire with an idea. He 
had been leafing through magazines and newspapers studying the ads 
until he came to one that made him sneer. Then, working at top 
speed he would develop a new theme headlines, copy, layouts and 
set forth to sell the result. He always found a buyer. 

Oversimplified, that describes the early career of one of the most 
meteoric individuals to flash across the advertising world in the late 
1920's and early 1930's, J. Stirling Getchell. Long before he died at 41 
on December 17, 1940, he had already gained legendary qualities. In 
his younger days he jumped from one advertising agency to another, 
staying from three months to a year. He made the circuit from Chi 
cago to Detroit to New York and back again. In three years he 
worked twice each for Lord & Thomas, J. Walter Thompson, and Bat 
ten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn at a salary range of $6,000 to $22,000 
a year. Though his earnings fluctuated wildly, he found himself at 
the age of 30, and with Lennen & Mitchell he worked his way into the 
$50,000 bracket. But here, as with previous agency jobs, he grew im 
patient of what he considered the backwardness and conventionality 
of those around him. He became known as a Simon Legree. Finally 
to keep peace in the shop the agency paid off his contract with $25,000 
in cash. 

With this stake, "Getch" opened his own agency, J. Stirling 
Getchell, Inc. Economic conditions were far from propitious. But 
that didn't bother him. He set out after big accounts. His first was 
the De Soto Division of Chrysler. Using what was then a radical 
technique consisting of large illustrations with bold, newspaper-style 
headlines, De Soto advertising attracted universal attention. It proved 
so successful that shortly afterward the Getchell agency was awarded 
Chrysler's biggest division, Plymouth. The famous "Look at All 
Three" campaign resulted. For Plymouth, Getchell went even farther 
in the direction of news-style layouts; he took over the Gothic head 
ings, boxes, and liberal pictorial treatment of the tabloids. 

For Socony-Vacuum, Kelly-Springfield Tires and Allis-Chalmers, 
Getchell created hard-hitting magazine and newspaper advertising in 
which big headlines and photos predominated. Seldom did his ads go 
in for long copy; he preferred to tell the story with display lines, pic 
tures and captions. 


Photographs were an obsession with him. Preparing for a campaign 
he would order not merely a dozen, but several hundred photos at a 
time. Groping for the picturization of a half-formed idea he would 
pore over these prints until he found exactly the ones he wanted. He 
drove photographers and art directors crazy by his perfectionism, but 
many agency men feel that he did more than any other one man to 
raise the standards of advertising photography. 

"Getch" drove himself and his staff at a killing pace. His favorite 
time to start work on a new campaign was 5 P.M. By midnight he 
would be going strong. After wrestling with headlines and pictures 
until the milkman hour, his co-workers might be cheered by the feel 
ing that at last he was satisfied with what had been done only to 
have him tear the whole thing up and start over again the next day. 
There are tales of ads which Getchell sent back to typesetters for as 
many as 15 or 20 revisions. 

The scientific aspects of advertising market research, copy testing, 
readership studies, consumer psychology had little interest for 
Getchell. "Somebody else can worry about that stuff," he would say. 
"I'm just an admaker." Admirers of his work agree that he was, in 
deed, just an admaker. But in this area he rates consideration as one 
of the authentic geniuses of the advertising craft.* 

Young Man in a Young Business 

"In many ways, advertising might be called the youngest part of 
business. Vital in its youth, reckless in its statements at times, yet 
generally picturing a better and brighter future. It wakens each morn 
ing to tell you and me and all America what is new in our world; what 
is new in the shops, in the stores and what is coming from the lab 
oratories and great plants of the nation. It has been laughed at by its 

critics and abused by its friends, but it has lived and grown steadily 

It is you. It is I and millions of others. It is our hopes and desires 
spread into pictures and words. It is what we want for ourselves and 

The man who spoke those words was at the time (May 1947) one 
of the top men of U. S. advertising: chairman of the board of the 

* Summarized from articles in Advertising & Selling for December 1940 and Feb 
ruary 1941 by permission of the publisher. 

** Thomas H. Young, "A Real Concept of Advertising," Chicago Federated Adv. 
Club News, May 1947. 


Association of National Advertisers. He had been engaged in sales 
promotion and advertising work for more than 30 years, all of it with 
the same company. But he still had a young viewpoint and felt that 
he was in a young business. His name: Thomas H. Young, director of 
advertising, United States Rubber Company. 

Starting as a stock boy in a Boston shoestore, Tom Young was suc 
cessively a salesman for bakeries and a printer before joining U. S. 
Rubber in 1916 as manager of the trade record department. He be 
came sales promotion manager of the tire division in 1917, then 
enlisted as a private when America entered World War I, eventually 
rising to shavetail in the Army Air Corps overseas. Returning to the 
company in 1918 he worked at sales promotion until made president 
and general manager of the Goodyear India Rubber Company, a sub 
sidiary, in 1921 when he was 28 years old. In 1926 he returned to 
advertising and sales promotion in the parent company. He was put 
in charge of sales development for the footwear and clothing division 
in 1936, and in 1939 became advertising director. 

While directing a $4,000,000 annual advertising budget, Young has 
retained the down-to-earth touch. His responsibilities cover the pro 
motion of a tremendous range of products, including not only tires 
but also golf balls, tennis shoes, rubber tubing for industrial uses, 
rubber bathing suits, synthetic fabrics and many others. This is what 
he thinks about advertising and its relation to people: 

Facts are necessary for advertising, but just because we are told that 
people want to know more facts about our products, this should not 
lead us too far astray. Just facts rarely sell goods it is usually some 
more human impulse. Let's use facts, but let's not use facts to destroy 
the most important thing that has made advertising such a power: its 

Those who know Young say that he has consistently emphasized 
Ihe human values in his company's advertising. 

Frank and Earnest 

The good old days, or the "golden age" of advertising, most ad men 
will admit, ended with the stock market crash of 1929. Since then 
competition for the consumer's dollar has grown intense. Copy has 
become realistic. Research and testing have entered the picture. The 


day when a half-million dollar campaign would stampede the trade 
has passed. 

Yet the influence of some of the greats of times past is still felt, and 
will be as long as advertising continues. Prominent among them 
stands Earnest Elmo Calkins. Born in 1868, he was nearing 60 when 
in 1925 he won the first Harvard Award as "the individual who has 
done the most to raise the standards of advertising." 

Like many another advertising titan, Calkins hailed from the Mid 
dle West. He was a printer and newspaper man in Illinois after grad 
uating from Knox College, the original of Clyde Fitch's "good old 
Siwash." Demonstrating his ad-writing ability as advertising manager 
of Schipper & Black, Peoria, he went East to wind up at the turn of 
the century as chief copy writer for Charles Austin Bates. Soon after, 
he and Ralph Holden organized their firm Calkins & Holden adver 
tising agency. Afflicted with deafness, Calkins left more of the con 
tact work to Holden until his partner's death in 1926. Calkins carried 
on for five years more before retiring. 

Among the many accounts on which he wrote advertisements were 
the H. J. Heinz Company, Ingersoll Watch, Beech-Nut, Dobbs Hats, 
Saturday Evening Post, McCall's, Woman's Home Companion and 
American Magazine. He particularly enjoyed promotional work for 
publications, having never quite got the printers' ink out of his sys 
tem. He was a contributor to Atlantic and many other magazines and 
wrote several books, including Louder, Please!, Business the Civilizer, 
The Business of Advertising and And Hearing Not: the Annals of an 

Calkins' autobiographies abound with anecdotes about advertising. 
During his lean years in New York he once answered an ad for a 
writer who could produce copy in "the Gillam-Wanamaker style" 
alluding to the fresh individuality Manly Gillam was giving to the 
newspaper advertisements of the Wanamaker store in Philadelphia. 
"I submitted my attempts to out-Gillam Gillam," he writes, "and 
evidently succeeded, for while as I learned later Gillam himself had 
entered the contest, I got the job. Probably our respective demands 
in the way of remuneration had something to do with the result. . . . 
There was no regular situation involved, merely the chance to write 
two or three pieces of copy a week at two or three dollars apiece, and 
in a few months this likewise flickered out."* 

"Earnest Elmo Calkins, Louder, Please! (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1924), p. 131. 
Quoted by permission of the author. 


A pioneer in marrying art and advertising, Mr. Calkins helped 
establish one of the first art departments in an agency while with 
Charles Austin Bates, under the direction of George Ethridge, after 
ward head of a noted New York advertising art studio. His first big 
account in his own agency, that of Force Breakfast Food, was secured 
with the aid of eye-catching silhouettes and woodcuts from the pen of 
Walter Fawcett. 

How a deaf man could become so eminently successful in adver 
tising must remain one of the miracles of the profession. Modestly 
Calkins attributes it partly to good luck, partly to his small-town, 
Middle Western upbringing. But he adds this significant comment: 

Advertising work was different when I began from what it has 
become. It was simpler, easier. It could to some extent be evolved 
from the inner consciousness. Today it is complex, highly competi 
tive, and particularly is it the product of an infinite number of con 
tacts with human beings. Above all things must the latter-day adver 
tising man know his fellow man with the kind of knowledge that 
comes only from unlimited intercourse.* 

With his integrity, forthrightness and simplicity of character, Ear 
nest Elmo Calkins filled an important post during the years when 
advertising was emerging as a profession. He brought to it dignity 
and culture. He leaned backward in maintaining the highest ethical 
standards. Advertising is better today because for 40 years he was a 
part of it. 

Red All Over 

The field of magazine advertising solicitors has produced more than 
its share of advertising leaders. From this field came J. Walter Thomp 
son, F. Wayland Ayer and many a top-notch agency man. Old-timers 
will recall such giants as Thomas Balmer, William Boyd and Charles 
Stoddard. Among those of the modern era, few can compare in elo 
quence, enthusiasm and vision with the red-headed dynamo, Arthur 
H. Motley or as he prefers to be known "Red" Motley. 

A Midwesterner like so many successful advertising men, Red has 
been a salesman all his life. In his teens he tried to sell brushes in 
Minneapolis. After his army service in World War I, the only job 

* Ibid., p. 209. 


he could get was working in an iron mine, but he soon left that to sell 
zithers and pay his way into the University of Minnesota. In 1928 he 
went to work for Crowell-Collier as an advertising solicitor. A couple 
of years later he was in charge of their Detroit office. He shot up 
through the organization with breath-taking speed until he landed 
one of the top jobs, publisher of American Magazine. 

In this fine old family magazine, Motley instituted radical changes. 
He had never liked to be interrupted at a crucial point in a story by 
the parenthetical statement: 'To be continued next month." Pres 
ently, American dropped serials and began publishing all stories com 
plete in one issue. He liked detective yarns. So, too, he decided, did a 
lot of other people. Forthwith each issue of American contained a 
full-length mystery novel. He instituted other changes to "hypo" his 
"book" into new leadership in the general monthly field. 

When he resigned to become president of Parade, the weekly Sun 
day supplement in some fifteen newspapers, friends of Red Motley 
shook their heads. He was venturing into a new, untried field, fiercely 
competitive. They needn't have worried. Within little more than a 
year, Parade added six newspapers, increased its circulation from 
slightly over 2,000,000 to more than 4,000,000, increased its line rate 
from $5.60 to $10.60 (including the Philadelphia Inquirer). 

Like many an advertising man, Motley has had to defend his voca 
tion against skeptics within his gates. His dander was raised when he 
heard his wife tell the next-door neighbors as she pointed to a back 
cover of the magazine he was representing, "My husband sells those 
for $10,000 apiece!" Her attitude, and that of the guests, made Mot 
ley a super-bandit who "had the James boys looking like pikers." He 
started checking. Among other things, he learned that with the help 
of advertising, General Electric and Frigidaire had been able to mar 
ket a better refrigerator at $175 apiece than they had formerly put out 
at $500. 

As a result of his research, he said to himself, "You're not selling a 
piece of white paper with a little four-color ink (sic) on it for $10,000. 
You are part of something that has made it possible for millions of 
Americans to take another forward step toward comfortable, efficient 
and healthful living." He told this to his wife, and her reply was, 
"Yeah, but what happened to the iceman?" Again he investigated, to 
discover that the ice industry, spurred by electric-refrigerator compe 
tition, had designed an icebox as beautiful and well insulated as the 


mechanical marvels, and had sold 600,000 more boxes that year than 
in any previous year for the last 30 years. Competition had forced an 
improvement which made the old-line companies bestir themselves 
and do "some original high-class thinking in order to survive." 

Summing up his observations over a 20-year period, Motley has a 
direct challenge to the advertising field: 

You, as want-creators, expert advertising men, have a terribly impor 
tant role to play. That is the justification for the fact that in this pro 
fession of ours there is profit for many, opportunity for all who are 
willing to learn how to do their particular job well; who have enough 
confidence and belief in it to practise it honestly and proudly, giving 
it full sway. Want-creation that's the "why" of advertising.* 

Advertising's "Teen Age" 

Is advertising a young man's (or young woman's) business? Much 
evidence supports this view. Ayer started his agency at 21, Henry 
Ewald his at 26, Benton and Bowles were not ten years out of Yale 
when they launched their famous venture.** The boundless energy, 
self-assurance and imagery of youth are made to order for advertising. 
Never has this been brought home more forcibly than in a recent rem 
iniscence dealing with the Cincinnati office of the }. Walter Thomp 
son Company in 1912. 

Stanley Resor, the agency's president for many years, had just left, 
leaving James Webb Young as copy chief, to become manager a year 
later. Needing another copy writer he wrote to the International Cor 
respondence Schools asking them to recommend somebody. At that 
time, says Norman Lewis, it was about the only way to learn adver 
tising "and a very good way/' Their suggestion was James Davis 
Woolf, formerly a post-office clerk and at that time an examiner of 
papers for ICS. He was hired eventually to become vice-president 
and director at Chicago and the author of several fine books on adver 
tising. Young, who hired him, was with the agency for many years, 

* From a speech before the Chicago Federated Advertising Club's course of adver 
tising, March 3, 1947. 

** William Benton and Chester Bowles launched their own agency, Benton & 
Bowles, in 1929. Benton retired in comfortable circumstances in 1936, to become a 
vice-president of the University of Chicago and later Assistant Secretary of State. 
Mr. Bowles headed the Office of Price Administration during World War II. The 
firm, under Atherton W. Hobler and Clarence Goshorn, continues as one of the lead 
ing advertising agencies of the country. 


taught advertising at the University of Chicago, developed an amazing 
business in hand-woven wool neckties with his son, Webb Young, 
occupied a key role in the War Advertising Council and is now senior 
consultant of Thompson. 

The staff of the Cincinnati office in 1912 handled such well-known 
national accounts as Woodbury's Soap, Gruen Watches, Brenlin 
Window Shades, Red Cross Shoes and Superior Underwear. And 
Young, the "old man" or boss, was 26; Harvey Manss, an account 
executive, was 27; Ed Stapleford, office manager, was 23, as was Jim 
Woolf. The art director was Albert Ross, a mature individual of 17! 

Since then Manss has become vice-president of Sterling Drug, Inc., 
guiding the destinies of the Bayer Aspirin account; Stapleford went 
into the farm-paper field, and Ross won laurels as art director for 
Lord & Thomas, later working with the writer in New York at Geyer, 
Cornell & Newell. Norman Lewis, a 20-year-old copy man in 1912, 
after leaving Thompson was vice-president of the Chappelow agency 
for 15 years and in 1933 became president of the Ridgway Company, 
St. Louis agency. He has written How to Become an Advertising Man 
and Samples, Demonstrations and Packaging.* 

Heir Apparent 

Automotive advertising was the bellwether of the field for many 
years, until wartime restrictions intervened. The period from 
1905 to 1940 witnessed the flowering of new-car promotion. Such 
great names as MacManus, Ewald, Nort Brotherton, and W. A. P. 
John in Detroit, Homer McKee in Indianapolis, Ward Canaday in 
Toledo and J. M. Cleary in Chicago created one dramatic campaign 
after another. But consistently over the years Theodore F. MacManus 
remained at or near the top. On various occasions he had handled 
nearly all the Detroit automotive accounts. 

In the middle 1930's he was ready to take it easy. The old firm of 
MacManus Incorporated underwent a significant change in name; it 
became MacManus, John & Adams. Mr. John, whose initials, 
W. A. P., had produced the inevitable nickname of "Wap," was 
universally known. But not many admen recognized the Adams 
part of the firm. This situation was soon remedied. Over the last 

* Norman Lewis, "The 1912 Quiz Kids," Printers' Ink, March 28, 1947. 


twelve years or so, James R. Adams has been accepted not only as 
the rightful successor to "Mac" but as a great advertising man in his 
own right. 

While the automobile business was just starting to feel growing 
pains, young Adams was riding a spavined field horse to school in 
southern Indiana. He grew up, went to Indiana and Notre Dame, 
taught school for three years and then enlisted in the army in World 
War I. From officers' training camp he went into newspaper work 
on the South Bend Tribune. In the same city was Studebaker, where 
presently he began editing the employee house organ. From this it 
was just a step to a position as advertising and sales-promotion man 
ager of the Straube Piano Company. After three years there he moved 
to Critchfield & Company, Chicago agency, writing Ford and Lincoln 
ads. Two years later he went to Detroit to write Chevrolet for 
Campbell-Ewald, doing such fine work that he was made head of the 
copy department and eventually was placed in charge of the Cadillac 
account. He also supervised both Pontiac and Oldsmobile at different 
times. In 1934 he joined in the founding of McManus, John & Adams, 
of which he is today president and treasurer. MacManus died in 1940, 
and Mr. John became chairman of the board. 

Sketchily, that is the Adams career. It skips many salient details: 
for example, his ability to pack hours of solid thinking into a sentence 
or a headline; his capacity for hard work without losing his geniality; 
his writing skill. He has authored one of the better advertising "how- 
to-do-it" books, More Power to Advertising. Among other accounts 
his agency handles the Cadillac and Pontiac divisions of General 
Motors, Dow Chemical, Champion Spark Plug, Bendix Aviation and 
Bendix Radio; Jacobs Launderall. It occupies two floors in Detroit's 
Fisher Building as well as an office in Baltimore. 

Adams came up through the copy department and has personally 
written more than $100,000,000 worth of advertising. He prides him 
self on the fact that every line of it has been the truth. "An adver 
tising lie is one of the worst lies on earth," he said recently. "When 
a man trifles with the truth in his own personal life, he pays his own 
penalty and that is all there is to it. But when he lies about himself 
(or a product) on an advertising page, he casts discredit on all busi 

* From Advertising Age, July 6, 1946. 


"Just Like a Woman!" 

It may seem strange that while a top-heavy proportion of consumer 
advertising is aimed at women, so little mention should have been 
made thus far of women in advertising. This is not due to any feeling 
of sex superiority on the author's part. Rather, to quote Jimmie Du- 
rante, 'Them is the conditions that prevail." Women, until recent 
years, have exerted incredibly little influence on the creation of adver 
tising considering their importance as its target. 

Here and there exceptions have occurred. The late Mrs. Erma Per- 
ham Proetz of St. Louis was a vice-president of Gardner Advertising 
Company and one of the few multiple winners of Harvard Advertising 
Awards for her campaigns on Pet Milk. In Chicago, Josephine Snapp 
directed public utility advertising and her memory is perpetuated in 
an annual award by the Chicago Women's Advertising Club to the 
outstanding adwoman of the year. Fleur Fenton headed her own 
agency in New York for many years. 

Particularly in two advertising fields department stores and cos 
metics have female advertising managers come into prominence. 
Miss Bernice Fitzgibbon is famous as Gimbel's sales promotion man 
ager; Margaret Egan occupies a post of similar responsibility with 
Marshall Field, under Vice-President Lawrence Sizer. At Lord & 
Taylor, President Dorothy Shaver keeps her interest in the store's 
sparkling displays and newspaper ads, directed by Mrs. Elieda Van 
Wesup, vice-president in charge of advertising, display and publicity. 
Speaking of Dorothys, farther up on Fifth Avenue Dorothy Cocks is 
advertising director of Dorothy Gray, Ltd. It may be unfair to remind 
her that she has been a successful advertiser of cosmetics for over 20 
years, but it was nearly that long ago that the author featured one of 
her charming little direct-mail campaigns in Printed Salesmanship. 

Women writers in agencies are no longer the novelty they once 
were. The wartime man-power shortage forced open many doors that 
had been tightly closed. Even some agencies specializing in industrial 
accounts had women writing copy on oil-well equipment and con 
crete mixers! The feminine slant is, of course, a necessity with agen 
cies handling food and beauty accounts. Such competent craftswomen 
as Barbara Collyer, a copy chief at Grey Advertising Agency, Hazel 
Reed at Gordon Best Company, Leslie Munro at Geyer, Newell & 


Ganger, to name just a trio, consistently turn out advertising that 
sells without losing the feminine touch. 

A large part of copy addressed to women, however, is still being 
written by men. One member of her sex has dared to reverse this 
traditional procedure writing copy to men, about women! She origi 
nated the lively series of ads for Ladies' Home Journal appearing in 
trade publications read by advertising men, built around the theme, 
"Never underestimate the power of a woman!" She is Mrs. "Bj" 
Kidd, formerly an associate copy director of N. W. Ayer & Son, now 
an executive with Lewis & Gilman, another Philadelphia agency, and 
a personality as sprightly and frank as her copy. 

Not satisfied with telling men about the girls in her Journal ads, 
Mrs. Kidd wrote a book, Just Like a Woman! in which she merci 
lessly but amusingly proceeded to inform admen what was wrong with 
their approach to feminine psychology. Her chapter on the trials of 
an advertising man's wife is priceless. For example: 

Being a One Man Laboratory of the Eternal Feminine is certainly 
the thorniest rose the advertising man's wife has no bed of, and sev 
eral of them have confided to me that they wish they'd known what 
was coming sooner. Theirs are the tables upon which the experi 
mental breakfast foods (one-third soy shreds) appear, the pots out of 
which comes only clients' coffee. Theirs the windows at which the 
test curtains made of skim milk flutter, the skins that quiver beneath 
the unknown hormones lurking in new beauty creams, the feet that 
anticipate instant immolation upon the first electrically heated rugs. 

But it is not enough, they tell me privately, that feeling of keeping 
house at the World's Fair! What really gets them is having a man 
use your mind as if it were something he'd invented and kept in a 
glass jar. It is being waked up in the night to say whether you'd like 
a sedan or a convertible car after the war and why, or what makes 
you've noticed advertised recently. It is being cross-questioned at 
breakfast about why you buy that particular kind of scouring powder 
and "what it does for you." It is the uneasy necessity for always 
having a reason for everything, because you can't let the dear man 
down, when the normal feminine response to such inquiries would be 
a frank: "I don't know; I just do!"* 

*Bj. Kidd, Just Like a Woman! (D. Appleton- Century, 1945), pp. ISO, 151. 
Quoted by permission of the author. 


Mrs. Kidd, whose real name is Elizabeth, attended the University 
of Chicago and the Art Institute. Married to Harry Kidd, famous 
modern painter, she lived in England, France and Spain, doing free 
lance journalism at the same time. Before going into agency work 
she was fashion director for a department store and editor of a house 

This chapter on advertising personalities could go on indefinitely. 
Hundreds of individuals have done things for and in the profession 
which should be told. But since a halt has to be called somewhere, it 
is only fitting to let the ladies have the last word. In this case, it's 
"Bj" whatever that means! 



T~~i IGHT MILLION magazines, every day of the year! That's the 
"consumption" of monthly, semimonthly and weekly periodicals 
by the American public as of the current year, 1947. It is a fan 
tastic total more than 20 magazines a year for every man, woman 
and child in this country; over a magazine every four days to each U. S. 

Of this colossal amount, more than half is distributed in the form 
of single-copy sales over the counters of the nation's 90,000 news 
stands; that is, voluntary circulation without benefit of subscription 
discounts, canvassers or premiums. 

The present popularity of magazines assumes even greater signifi 
cance in view of the many factors, competing for public attention. 
Motion pictures, radio, the automobile, outdoor sports, all have shown 
tremendous increases in public favor in recent years. Yet magazine 
sales continue to climb. 

Somewhere between 6,500 and 7,000 "titles" that is, individual 
magazines are being published at the present time. The official 1939 
Census of Manufacturers conductd by the Department of Commerce 
listed 4,985 titles, and since then many have been added. The paper 
shortage which developed in World War II kept down the number 
of new publications and restricted the normal growth of many estab 
lished magazines. But despite this, a number of the leaders reached 
new heights. Over all, magazines increased 113 percent between 1933 
and 1945, a rate far exceeding any other index of national living 
standards such as motion-picture attendance, telephones in service, 
and homes equipped with radio sets. 

In the 1939 government survey the nearly 5,000 periodicals had an 
average per issue circulation of 239,000,000 copies. Seven years later 
a conservative estimate placed the figure at over 350,000,000, based 
on known circulation increases. This included not only general mag 
azines but also the fraternal and religious periodicals, state farm pa- 



pers, labor publications, scientific, medical and legal journals and the 
business papers. 

Narrowing this down, only 239 consumer magazines were listed in 
the May 1946 issue of Standard Rate & Data Service as being mem 
bers of the Audit Bureau of Circulations. These 239 accounted for a 
per-copy distribution of over 154,000,000, an average of 650,000 per 

For many publications, growth has accelerated since the end of the 
war; hence their popularity cannot be ascribed to wartime conditions. 
Here are a few of the figures showing six-months' average circulations 
of a number of leading magazines as of January 1, 1945, and January 
1, 1947: 

6 months ending: 

December December 

31, 1944 31, 1946 

Life . 3,914,853 5,144,181 

The Saturday Evening Post . 3,366,161 3,848,031 

Better Homes and Gardens . 2,384,329 2,770,787 

Good Housekeeping * . . 2,543,384 3,046,643 

Ladies 9 Home Journal . . . 4,238,568 4,682,191 

MacFadden Women's Group . 2,700,530 3,208,653 

Time 1,161,575 1,559,579 

Parents' Magazine .... 692,026 945,164 

Popular Mechanics .... 660,972 952,793 

Between 1914, when the Audit Bureau of Circulations was estab 
lished, and 1945, popular magazines increased their sales eight-fold. 
This was all the more notable in view of the fact that the per 
centage of single-copy or newsstand sales had also steadily risen. In 
1925 two out of every three magazines were bought on a subscription 
basis. By 1946 the ratio was almost exactly reversed; 62.3 percent of 
all circulation was on a single-copy basis. 

To the advertiser this trend has great significance. Magazine sub 
scriptions generally are secured by means of a discount from the single 
copy rate. Thus Life retails at 15 cents per copy, costs but $5.50 per 
year by subscription a saving of $2.30. The price is even lower on a 
two or three-year basis. Some magazines depend almost entirely on 
subscriptions, for example, the farm papers. Others, like the so-called 
"true" and movie magazines and the "pulps," chiefly all-fiction mag- 


azines in the detective, western or romance field, are almost exclusively 
single-copy distribution. The Popular Fiction Group, for instance, 
has only 15,913 subscribers out of 2,709,151 circulation less than 
one half of one percent. The majority of general magazines have 
about a 50-50 distribution between newsstand and subscriptions. 

Which type of circulation is best for the advertiser? In the past, 
many subscriptions were obtained by premiums, "club" rates and 
other devices which tended to depreciate the prestige of the maga 
zine in the eyes of the subscriber. There can be no denying the fact 
that the individual who pays the single-copy price for a magazine at 
a drug or candy store, newsstand or railroad depot actually intends to 
read that particular issue. As against this must be balanced the point 
that the subscription copy is generally delivered to the home where in 
the normal course of events, if the magazine is well edited, it will be 
looked at by not only the subscriber but one or more other members 
of the family. 

Types of Consumer Magazines 

Aside from the "digest" magazines and a few others that do not 
carry advertising, the consumer periodicals of the country fall into a 
number of classifications based on their editorial content. Kleppner 
segregates them into four major groups: general, women's service, 
women's romance and class magazines the last named being those 
aimed at a specific class of readers with a special hobby, viewpoint, 
problem or pursuit.* 

This breakdown is perhaps oversimplified in view of the wide 
variety of consumer magazines now being published. Standard Rate 
& Data Service gives 31 different classifications and, even so, has to 
include one as "miscellaneous." 

The following arrangement, while not orthodox, represents the way 
many advertising-space buyers consider their periodicals. 

1. General weeklies and biweeklies Included among the weeklies 
are such publications as Life, The Saturday Evening Post, Collier's, 
Time, Newsweek, United States News, World Report and The New 
Yorker; and Look, Liberty, Pathfinder are among the fortnightlies. 
With the numerous other publications in this field, this group prob- 

* Kleppner, Advertising Procedure, pp. 291-294. 


ably has a combined circulation of around 18,000,000 to 20,000,000 
copies per issue. 

Because of their frequency of appearance and nation-wide cover 
age, these magazines are very important advertising media. They have 
extensive readership in the retail trade; many buyers in the food, 
home furnishing, drug and cosmetic fields make it a point to read 
each issue of the leading general weeklies to keep informed regarding 
new products and established products being promoted nationally. 
The publishers aggressively "merchandise" their "books" by means of 
promotional programs, reprints of ads on easel cards for display in 
the stores and other devices to make advertising more productive. 
Life and The Saturday Evening Post have been particularly successful 
in getting dealers to co-ordinate local ads and displays with their vari 
ous magazine campaigns. 

A notable example was the promotion by the Kroger Company, 
with 2,600 grocery stores in 18 states, of products "Advertised in Life." 
Giant banners, mammoth displays, window streamers, shelf markers 
and supporting ads in over 1,100 newspapers carried the theme for 
the two weeks between April 21 and May 3, 1947. Reporting on the 
event President Joseph B. Hall of Kroger declared: "Not only did the 
promotion produce the largest two-week sales period in our history, 
but, even more important, the foundation was successfully established 
for continued excellent sales movement of these leading national 

One of the most unusual applications of magazine advertising was 
that of the Lionel Corporation in Liberty for November 23, 1946. Six 
teen full pages in color were used to show the complete line of Lionel 
toy trains, transformers, accessories, track and miniature chemical 
laboratories. Broadsides and telegrams told the trade about the ad. 
A complete program of store displays, posters and newspaper ad mats 
was used to stimulate dealer activity for Christmas sales. Actually the 
16-page ad was a consumer catalogue, distributed to 1,300,000 fam 
ilies at a cost of less than six cents each. There was an added dividend 
in the fact that Lionel was able to obtain over half a million reprints 
for point-of-sale distribution at minimum cost. 

This is by no means the first multiple-page ad in a weekly magazine. 
In 1912 Studebaker used five pages in one issue of The Saturday Eve- 

* From an advertisement in Food Topics, June 2, 1947. 


rang Post. In 1940 Philco ran a "gate-fold"* advertisement for its new 
electric refrigerator in Collier's. Numerous other advertisers have used 
from three to eight pages in national weeklies, but it is believed that 
the Lionel advertisement was the largest of them all. At the time it ap 
peared, Liberty was a weekly; since then it has become a monthly. 

Several of the weeklies specializing in news summaries, such as 
Time, U. S. News and Newsweek, have a strong following among 
business executives and carry a considerable amount of what might 
ordinarily be thought of as. industrial advertising. 

Unique in the weekly field is The New Yorker, which despite its 
name has more readers outside Manhattan than in its home town. 
Of its nearly 300,000 circulation only 72,000 goes into New York 
City. California accounts for 29,913 copies; the smallest state is 
North Dakota with 188. Advertisers may buy either the whole circu 
lation at a cost of $1,800 a page or the New York edition for $700. 
Most of them, even the local shops, take the national edition because 
of the likelihood that readers in the other 48 states will get to New 
York sooner or later! 

2. General monthlies This field, formerly the largest and most 
influential in the whole magazine industry, has narrowed down to 
only a few publications with large circulation. These are The Amer 
ican Magazine, Cosmopolitan and Redbook. In addition there are 
some general monthlies with limited distribution, including such old 
familiar names as Atlantic and Harper's. 

In a class by itself is National Geographic, with almost 1,500,000 
subscribers (all members of the National Geographic Society) one 
of the predominant quality media. Its format has been virtually un 
changed since 'way back when. Another distinctive monthly is 
Esquire, which after a modest start during the depression has pre 
empted the men's fashion field in addition to supplying excellent 
fiction and titillating cartoons at fifty cents per copy; its present circu 
lation is around 606,000. Pic, a magazine for men, is a Street & Smith 
publication which sells half a million copies per month. Coronet, 
pocket-size magazine sponsored by Esquire, for some years accepted no 
advertising, in March 1948, was again to become an advertising medi 
um, with a guaranteed circulation of 2,000,000 copies per month. True, 
a men's magazine published by Fawcett, is nearing the 1,000,000 mark. 

* A gate-fold is an advertisement in which one page, usually the right-hand one, 
is wider than normal and folded into the magazine, opening out like a gate. 


3. Women's service magazines The "services" rendered by this 
group are all concerned with home-making; recipes, menus, table-set 
ting, interior decoration, child care, and beauty subjects including 
fashions and personal grooming. That makes them the logical adver 
tising medium for grocery products, cosmetics and similar lines. 

Leading magazines edited for home managers are Ladies' Home 
Journal, Good Housekeeping, McCall's, Woman's Home Companion, 
and Household. This last-named publication, little known in the big 
cities, has a circulation of over 2,000,000 copies a month. It is edited 
by Nelson Antrim Crawford and issued monthly by Capper Publica 
tions, Topeka, Kansas; a subscription costs 50 cents per year. Average 
distribution of women's magazines in cities of 100,000 and over is 
around 35 percent. The circulation of Household in these areas is 
about 3 percent. 

Among the more familiar women's service magazines, Good House 
keeping has a niche all its own. It is the only one of the leaders that 
clings to the "flat" size 8j^ x llj^ inches. It issues its own "seal of 
approval" to products tested and found satisfactory by the Good 
Houskeeping Institute. 

McCall's, edited by Otis Weise, is possibly the most "dressmaking- 
minded" of the service magazines. Its publishers have a large pattern 
business and publish quarterly and semiannual needlework and sew 
ing books. Woman's Home Companion under Publisher Edward 
Anthony and Editor William Birnie has not only maintained its 
service function but has introduced a crusading note into its articles 
on juvenile delinquency, world co-operation and other subjects that 
women's magazines once wouldn't touch with a 100-foot pole. 

Under its famed husband-and-wife combination, Bruce and Bea 
trice Gould, the old Journal has had an amazing rejuvenation. Its 
circulation today is 45 percent above 1939 and its advertising revenue 
85 percent greater. Today with more than 4,600,000 copies per issue 
the Ladies' Home Journal is a far bigger, more colorful, more widely 
read magazine than in the days of its famed long-time mentor, Ed 
ward W. Bok. 

Today's Woman, specifically edited for younger homemakers, has 
soared to a guaranteed circulation of 700,000 in eight years. Woman's 
Day, Everywoman's, The Woman, Western Family and Family Circle 
are other women's service magazines of large circulation. 

4. Women's groups. A notable thing of the last 25 years has been 


the rise of the "women's groups" a collection of some two dozen 
magazines whose chief appeal is either the "true" or pseudo-auto 
biographical type of fiction (generally told in the first person and illus 
trated by photographs) or the movie-star-tells-all article. These peri 
odicals have become a major advertising medium through their popu 
larity with the "wage-earner" market and through smart promotion. 

The field originated with True Story, a creation of Bernarr Macfad- 
den in the early 1920's. Its instant success attracted imitators, in 
cluding several magazines launched by the founder himself. At first 
these periodicals were inclined toward a preponderance of stories 
about unwed mothers, border-line flirtations and similar subjects, in 
variably with a moralistic ending. As time went on, editorial content 
was sanitized and endorsements secured from members of the clergy. 
Advertising, which had leaned toward such products as mail-order 
jewelry, bust developers, weight reducers, correspondence schools and 
the like, began to veer in the direction of nationally known brands of 
cosmetics, drug products, and even foods. Several of the magazines 
have instituted cooking and homemaking departments in their edi 
torial structure, and all have recently exercised a much more rigid 
censorship over both copy and product in their advertising pages. 

True Story, the pioneer, continues to lead in circulation and adver 
tising patronage as an individual publication, but the other maga 
zines in the field have challenged its leadership by merging into 
"groups," i. e., several periodicals sold as a unit to the advertiser. Thus 
the Macfadden Women's Group embraces Photoplay, Radio Minor, 
True Romances, True Experiences and True Love and Romance, with 
a net sale for the November 1946 issues totalling 3,470,777 and a com 
bined page rate of $4,950. Other prominent groups are: Fawcett 
Women's Group, comprising True Confessions, Movie Story and Mo 
tion Picture, with slightly under 3,000,000 copies; Dell Modern 
Group, including Modern Romances, Modern Screen and Screen 
Romances, having a net sale in September 1946 of 3,140,665; Ideal 
Women's Group, four publications adding up to nearly 2,000,000 per 
issue; Hillman Women's Group, including Screen Guide, a bit under 
1,500,000, and the Hunter Screenland Unit, near that same figure. 

Macfadden Publications have blazed the trail in this wage-earner 
market with radio, magazine and newspaper promotion. A forum of 
typical Macfadden readers has been established under Everett R. 
Smith, director of research, to give a cross-section of views on subjects 


of interest to the advertiser. Typical question: "Do you think adver 
tisements help give you better products for your money?" Answer: 
"Yes" by 74 percent of husbands, 77.4 percent of wives. Another: 
"Would you be satisfied to see all advertising removed from maga 
zines?" The reply: "No" by 90.9 percent of husbands, 91.8 percent of 

To the extent that they reach a market with spendable income, 
often unduplicated by general or service magazines, the "true and 
movie groups" have a definite spot in advertising. This market is not 
wage earners in general but chiefly the younger element. A study of 
Macfadden Women's Group readers in 1945 showed 77.2 percent 
under 36 years of age. This contrasts with most of the general maga 
zines, the majority of whose readers are above that age. The study 
established the median age of Macfadden's regular readers as 22.9 
years. Other characteristics of these readers: 70 percent of the copies 
go into homes where married women read them regularly; half of 
the homes have children under 18; Macfadden Women's Group 
families are 26.5 percent larger than the national average; 50.6 per 
cent have incomes of over $3,000 as against the national figure of 
29.2 percent. 

From an advertising angle it is desirable to reach the younger buy 
ers whose brand preferences are not so firmly established. Particu 
larly in such fields as food, cosmetics, candy, tooth paste, clothing and 
entertainment these younger families spend proportionately more of 
their income on advertised items than do the older, more settled 

One may wonder why a publisher will issue two, three or more mag 
azines, all very similar in character and theoretically competing with 
one another, rather than concentrating on a single title. The reason is 
simple. Newsstand sales depend to a large extent on display. Manu 
facturers of consumer goods know that the more of their merchandise 
they can induce the retailer to put on display in his store the more 
will be sold. Similarly, a "group" publisher with three to five titles 
will tend to get three to five times as much newsstand display as any 
one of his magazines would receive alone. 

5. Newspaper supplements When is a magazine not a magazine? 
When it's a newspaper! Some of the bulkiest circulations listed 
among consumer magazines are those of Sunday (and Saturday) 
newspaper inserts. Distributed along with the week-end paper, these 


publications occupy an anomalous position, half flesh and half fowl. 
But no advertising man can deny their impact or influence. 

First and foremost comes American Weekly, a Hearst production 
with some 9,000,000 copies per week in 20 metropolitan newspapers. 
A "cycle" of full-color pages every fourth week as of May 1947 was 
priced at $221,520, which included a 4 percent discount. The one 
time full-color rate was $17,750 per page. Developed by dynamic 
Mortimer Berkowitz, American Weekly has produced remarkable re 
sults for many advertisers, particularly in the mail-order field. Grocery, 
drug and automotive advertising has also been extensively carried 
over the past 25 years. 

This Week, a slick-paper supplement of the New York Herald 
Tribune, Chicago News and some 22 other big newspapers, reported a 
circulation in 1946 of 8,473,057 per week. The full-color page rate 
was $21,250, with quantity discounts. A similar venture was Parade, 
with 4,200,000 copies a week and an $8,500 full-color page rate. Pic 
torial Review, a serio-comic feature section duplicating much of the 
American Weekly circulation, was available either on a coast-to-coast 
basis or by individual papers. A full-color page for the whole group, 
6,200,000 copies, was priced at $14,500. Puck, the comic section of 
some 15 Hearst newspapers, carried a $12,600 tag for one-half page in 
colors, reaching 7,600,000 copies in March 1947. 

Largest of the newspaper supplement groups as of May, 1947, were 
Metropolitan Group Gravure 14,776,267 circulation including puis 
sant New York News, Chicago Tribune, Philadelphia Inquirer, Los 
Angeles Times with some 26 papers, and the Metro Group Comics, 
offering a maximum of 48 papers in 42 cities with 18,775,722 circu 
lation. Actually these are not magazines irj. any sense of the word, 
even though listed in the magazine section of Standard Rate & Data 
Service. But because they make color available and generally offer a 
better ad reproduction than straight newspaper reproduction they 
are sometimes considered in the magazine field. 

All of these supplements offer merchandising co-operation with the 
advertiser and have been effectively used by many of the "blue-chip" 
firms as well as by smaller companies on a more localized basis. 

6. The shelter group Rapidly growing interest in home ownership 
made it inevitable that there should spring up a number of magazines 
dedicated to this field. The two leaders are both relatively new. Bet 
ter Homes and Gardens, published by Meredith at Des Moines, Iowa, 


was known 25 years ago as Fruit, Garden and Home. In 1947 its cir 
culation passed the 3,000,000-mark and issues of over 200 pages were 
the rule. A full-color page was priced at $11,600 and the $2.50 a year 
subscription price was a far cry from the old three years for $1.00 
rate. But by the same token the new Better Homes was a better buy 
both for consumer and advertiser. 

American Home, second largest in the field, reported a 1947 circu 
lation of 2,500,000 equitably divided between subscriptions and news 
stand sales. Both these magazines, while carrying important linage 
among building and decorating advertisers, also had a substantial vol 
ume of food advertising. In fact, American Home declared that it 
had handled the third largest amount of editorial food linage over a 
nine-year period among all home, women's service, general and weekly 
magazines. This emphasizes the close relation between editorial and 
advertising content in periodicals. The advertiser naturally wishes to 
place his message in a medium that will be receptive and hence 
chooses those that provide an appropriate editorial background. 

Other publications in the home-planning field include House Beau 
tiful, House & Garden and a number of quarterly and semiannual 
publications as well as monthlies in the horticultural field. 

7. Comics and pulps Another spectacular development in the 
magazine field in recent years has been the sensational growth of the 
"comic books." These are the gaily-colored little publications which 
now besprinkle every newsstand. Their popularity, particularly with 
the younger generation, has been almost incredible. Some 25 differ 
ent groups of comic magazines were listed in 1947, with as many 
as two dozen titles being included in a single group. Total circulation 
is difficult to estimate but it is probably in excess of 40,000,000 copies 
per issue. 

Considering the tremendous "pass-on" readership of these comic 
periodicals there is justification for the assertion of the National Com 
ics Group that "in 90 percent of the 14,000,000 homes with children 
from eight to twenty, the comics magazines are standard equipment, 
are also read by 40 percent of the adults in such homes, have more 
all-family readership and more readers per copy than any other peri 

The National Comics Group includes several characters who have 
figured prominently in the current vogue for this type of printing: 

* From an advertisement in Advertising Age, June 9, 1947. 


Superman, Bat Man and Wonder Woman. Nine of the books are 
published monthly and 17 are bimonthly, for a combined circulation 
for the complete group of 8,000,000. Among the titles are Boy Com 
mandos, All American Comics, All Flash Comics, Detective Comics, 
Funny Stuff, Mutt and Jeff, Star Spangled Comics and Comic Cav 

Harvey Comics, launched in 1940 by three brothers the oldest of 
whom was only 32, hit the 4,000,000 mark in 1947. Among their stellar 
attractions: Joe Palooka, Terry and the Pirates, Steve Canyon, the 
Green Hornet, Lil Abner. At this writing they are publishing seven 
books, all bimonthly except Joe Palooka, a monthly. Surveys made by 
the brothers show that their readers are predominantly in the 8 to 16 
year bracket, with a ratio of two boys for each girl. 

From the standpoint of a major advertising medium the comic 
books have yet to entrench themselves. Certain types of advertisers, 
such as novelty manufacturers, have made them pay out. Their chief 
value would seem to be, aside from direct returns to coupon offers, 
in the field of secondary influence, i. e., getting the young readers to 
talk their parents into various purchases. 

The comic technique of a sequence of pictures with the dialogue 
carried in "balloons" has been successfully employed by many adver 
tisers and is the logical format for campaigns in this medium. 

The criticism of comic books as being oversensational has caused 
several of the groups to retain child psychologists and educators to 
supervise their contents. Parents' Magazine publishes a number of 
periodicals for the younger set, including True Comics, established in 
1941 for boys and girls from eight to sixteen, which deals largely with 
exciting episodes in the lives of American patriots. Its other juvenile 
publications like Polly Pigtails and Calling All Kids also contain com 
ics designed to promote good citizenship. 

"Pulps" is a term applied to magazines printed on paper made from 
pulpwood, similar to newsprint. They specialize in fast-moving fic 
tion, generally stylized in the detective, western or romance pattern. 
Popular Publications has a group of some 23 such books with a total 
circulation of 2,725,000, including old-timers like Black Mask and 
Adventure. Thrilling Fiction Group has about the same total among 
some 29 titles. 

Mention should also be made of the various men's groups, chiefly 
patterned along the True Detective lines. While they cannot be classed 


as pulps, they are of interest to advertisers chiefly as an additional 
medium to reach the wage-earner market. 

8. Hobby magazines Apparently there is nowadays no hobby, from 
photography and gardening to stamp collecting and model railroad 
ing, that does not have its magazine. One of the most widely pur 
sued is that of home craftsmanship. In this field are such publications 
as Popular Mechanics, with nearly a million circulation; Popular 
Science, Mechanix Illustrated and Science and Mechanics. All con 
tain instructions and diagrams on how to make various articles in the 
home workshop. Popular Mechanics after surveying its readers an 
nounced that 90 percent live in houses, 73.2 percent own their homes, 
72.3 percent have home workshops, 66.3 percent are family heads and 
56.6 percent have "power-driven tools." Naturally such publications 
offer an enticing market to the makers of home lathes, files and tools. 
But it is not so easy to see why these magazines are the most prolific 
producers of coupons for trade schools and technical books; neverthe 
less that is the case. Popular Mechanics and Popular Science are first 
on the schedules of virtually all leading residence and home-study 
courses in the technical field. 

Another important hobby field is that of fishing and hunting. The 
leading periodicals in circulation are Sports Afield, Outdoor Life and 
Field and Stream, all with circulations between 475,000 and 750,000 
each. Not far behind are Hunting and Fishing, Outdoorsman and Out 
doors. These publications carry advertising not only of fishing tackle 
and shotguns but also of general products. 

Other magazines in the field of hobbies or special interests include 
those devoted to dogs and pets, music, travel, games, military and 
naval affairs, arts and antiques, needlework and babies. The publica 
tion Congratulations, for example, is distributed to mothers of new 
born babies in 485 hospitals and has a quarterly circulation of 500,000. 
Advertising orders are accepted only on an annual basis, at a rate of 
$6,000 per page. 

9. Religious and fraternal magazines Seventy-five years ago, re 
ligious publications were among the most important of all advertising 
media. Today they must be considered as only supplementary. The 
leadership in molding public opinion has passed to other hands. A 
few magazines like Extension, a Catholic monthly, and the Christian 
Herald, a Protestant magazine, have retained some semblance of ad 
vertising importance. In the daily field Christian Science Monitor has 

Courtesy General Screen Advertising, Inc. 


These brief talking-picture advertisements are made with the same care as the 
Hollywood features with which they vie for attention. Notice prominent featnr- 
ng of the package. Top and bottom : Carey's Salt, Kroger Stores' own brands, 
Shredded Ralston. 



N EVERY field of human endeavor, he that is first must perpet 
ually live in the white light of publicity. Whether the leadership 
be vested in a man or in a manufactured product, emulation and envy 
are ever at work. C In art, in literature, in music, in industry, the 
reward and the punishment are always the same. CThe reward is 
widespread recognition; the punishment, fierce denial and detraction. 
C When a man's work becomes a standard for the whole world, it 
also becomes a target for the shafts of the envious few. If his work 
be merely mediocre, he will be left severely alone if he achieve a masterpiece, it will set 
a million tongues a-wagging. C Jealousy does not protrude its forked tongue at the artist 
who produces a commonplace painting. C Whatsoever you write, or paint, or play, or sing, 
or build, no one will strive to surpass or to slander you, unless your work be stamped with 
the seal of genius. C Long, long after a great work or a good work has been done, those 
who are disappointed or envious continue to cry out that it cannot be done. C Spiteful 
little voices in the domain of art were raised against our own Whistler as a mountebank, 
long after the big world had acclaimed him its greatest artistic genius. C Multitudes 
flocked to Bayreuth to worship at the musical shrine of Wagner, while the little group 
of those whom he had dethroned and displaced argued angrily that he was no musi 
cian at all. C The little world continued to protest that Fulton could never build 
a steamboat, while the big world flocked to the river banks to see his boat 
steam by. C The leader is assailed because he is a leader, and the effort to equal 
him is merely added proof of that leadership. C Failing to equal or to excel, the 
follower seeks to depreciate and to destroy but only confirms once more the 
superiority of that which he strives to supplant. C There is nothing new in 
this. It is as old as the world and as old as the human passions envy, fear, greed, 
ambition, and the desire to surpass. C And it all avails nothing. C If the leader 
truly leads, he remains the leader. C Master-poet, master-painter, master' 
workman, each in his turn is assailed, and each holds his laurels through the 
ages. C That which is good or great makes itself known, no matter how 
loud the clamor of denial, (That -which deserves to live lives. 


Written in 1914 by the late Theodore F. MacManus, this impelling messag 
sold Cadillac prestige and quality without once mentioning the name of th 
product. The only identification was in the company's signature in small typ 
at the bottom of the ad. 


also held its own as a medium of interest to the advertising-space 

The lodges and fraternal organizations have been more successful 
in retaining their value as media. American Legion Magazine guar 
anteed 3,000,000 circulation as of July 1947, "with apologies to the 
2,000,000 women readers Daniel Starch says we have." Over a million 
Eagles received their magazine every month while the Elks and Moose 
were not far behind. Among civic-club magazines The Rotarian had 
a distribution of 240,000. It carried weight because its hand-picked 
members were often the leaders in local business and professional 

10. Class magazines Since the days of Godey's Ladies' Book 
American women have had their fashion magazines. At present the 
two high-style periodicals in this field are Vogue and Harper's Bazaar, 
each with somewhere around a quarter of a million circulation and 
many times that many readers. Buyers of women's ready-to-wear are 
believed to be extremely susceptible to fashion comments in these 
magazines. They are also said to have a wide reading among patron 
esses of beauty parlors (the author may be forgiven for a lack of 
knowledge on this point). 

In recent years a new type of magazine has appeared, appealing to 
the style-conscious teen-ager. Most successful in this field has been 
Seventeen, which in mid- 1947 reported a circulation of some 850,000, 
Mademoiselle, a Street & Smith publication with 426,000, and Junior 
Bazaar, over 100,000. 

There are also numerous club and union magazines, including the 
Kellogg Group of Railroad Employee Publications and Koch's List 
of Railroad Magazines. There are service magazines like The Leather 
neck and Our Army and Our Navy. There is Yachting. Old-timers 
look in vain for such ritzy magazines as The Spur and The Sportsman. 
They have disappeared into limbo. 

Success, Nothing Succeeds Like 

Nineteen hundred forty-six found the national magazines riding 
high, wide and very handsome. Space was still at a premium. Lead 
ing publications could virtually pick and choose their patrons. The 
result was a record-smashing total of cash business. 

Topping all periodicals was Life, which reached a total of $56,000,- 


000 in advertising revenue for 1946, figured on the one-time rate. 
With quantity discounts deducted, it is believed that this still com 
pared favorably with the previous record of $53,000,000 for The Satur 
day Evening Post in 1927. 

For 1946, the Post was in second place with $47,000,000 and Col 
lier's third with $22,000,000. Next in in order, according to Leading 
National Advertisers, were Ladies' Home Journal, Time and American 
Weekly. These, with Good Housekeeping and McCalVs, accounted 
for more than half of the total of all 109 leading national magazines 
for the year, with practically $200,000,000 in advertising. 

Other magazines and supplements figured importantly in the totals, 
but these were the leaders. They won their positions through ag 
gressive action and held them with more of the same tactics. 

America's biggest advertising money-maker, Life, was far from a 
gold mine in its early years. Back in 1932 Time, Inc., began to ex 
periment with a picture magazine and issued a dummy called News- 
reel; later this was abandoned and a real newsreel, "The March of 
Time," was started instead. In 1936 another trial dummy, Rehearsal, 
was distributed to advertising men. Today it is a collector's item. 
After considering and discarding various names, including Parade, 
See, Look and Picture, all of which were later adopted by other pub 
lishers, the firm bought the name of Life, a once popular humor maga 
zine, for $92,000. 

The original advertising rates were based on 250,000 circulation 
and the new Life appeared in November 1936. The first week's run of 
400,000 was sold by noon of the first day. Print orders were stepped 
up week by week till 1,000,000 was reached, with advertisers getting 
a free ride of 750,000 copies. As a result, Life went into the red 
$5,000,000 in its first 18 months. Then rates were adjusted and the 
magazine began to make a little money in 1938, by which time circu 
lation had passed the 2,000,000 mark. In 1940 it had reached 2,900,- 
000 to the Post's 3,162,000. Throughout this period Life continued to 
be a sellout at many newsstands. Saturation tests, i. e., supplying 
various cities with all the copies they could absorb, convinced the 
publishers that they had a potential 5,000,000 weekly medium. This 
confidence was justified when with some relief from the paper scarcity 
after the war, the issue of November 4, 1946, hit 5,398,508 sales. 

A single-page ad in Life in 1947 cost $15,225, a four-color page 
$22,000 and a back cover $28,500, based on a guarantee of 5,200,000. 


These rates were up over 50 percent from 1945 when the guarantee 
was 3,600,000. Despite these thumping increases, Life still had to limit 
the number of insertions by advertisers and refused to accept noncon- 
sumer ads. 

Look, the second magazine in the pictorial field, grew out of the 
work done by Gardner and John Cowles on the rotogravure section 
of the Des Moines Register and Tribune, in which they used related 
pictures telling a story rather than the old roto technique of a jumble 
of miscellaneous photos. The first issue appeared in January 1937, 
and it quickly reached 1,500,000. A biweekly, Look has stepped up 
its circulation more slowly than Life, now guarantees (as of spring, 
1947) 2,310,000 per issue for a one-time page-ad rate of $6,330. Its 
1946 advertising revenue was over $6,000,000 less than Vogue but 
more than Esquire. 

The influence of the picture magazines has been felt throughout 
the magazine field. At one time there were a dozen imitators of Life 
and Look on the stands, including Picture, started with high hopes by 
the late J. Stirling Getchell and stopped after a few issues because 
clients said it took too much of his time. Virtually all general and 
women's magazines have borrowed some of the "picture-book" tech 
nique, using photo spreads and full-page photos. And a glance at 
the advertising pages will reveal many an ad whose layout stems 
directly from the editorial pages of Life* 

Magazine Advertising in General 

As compared with other media, magazines have certain advan 
tages and certain disadvantages. On the positive side they offer rela 
tively long life, excellent reproduction, particularly of color effects, 
prestige of an established number of readers, public confidence and 
selectivity of audience. From a negative angle they lack the flexibility 
of some other media because ads must be planned weeks or months 
ahead, and in the case of a manufacturer with spotty distribution 
they may involve a considerable amount of waste circulation. 

To the advertiser one highly significant feature of magazines is that 
they are designed to be read at leisure. Most periodical advertising 
recognizes this fact by the use of entertainment or service appeal 

* "Picture Magazines: 10 Years," Tide, December 20, 1946, pp. 17-19. By per 
mission of Tide. 


rather than the greater emphasis on eye-catching devices found in 
newspapers. There are, of course, plenty of examples of long-copy and 
magazine-style ads in the newspapers, particularly the Sunday supple 
ments, but generally it can be said that magazine advertising is less 
urgent, more subtle in its approach to the prospect. 

In total volume, magazines must be considered the largest national 
advertising medium. The 1946 estimate of Dr. Hans Zeisel gives 
magazines some $430,000,000, as against $358,000,000 for national 
radio and $292,000,000 for national newspaper advertising revenues. 
Both radio and newspapers have a large volume of local advertising. 
Over two-thirds of the total newspaper ad dollars come from retail 
sources, Dr. Zeisel estimates, while with radio about one-fourth of 
the over-all income is said to be from local sponsors.* 

Advertising cannot claim the entire credit for the present stature of 
America's magazines. In recent years almost every publisher has 
found it necessary to raise his subscription and single-copy rates to 
meet increased costs. Five-cent weeklies went to 10 cents; women's 
service magazines from 10 to 15 and then 25 cents in most cases 
with no appreciable loss in patronage. Magazines need this circulation 
revenue. But they also need the financial backing of advertisers, The 
Reader's Digest notwithstanding. 

By underwriting editorial and production costs on an ever larger 
scale over the past 100 years, advertising has indeed made the modern 
magazine a proud institution in American life. 

* Printers' Ink, March 28, 1947. By permission of Printers' Ink. 




Courtesy Criterion Service 


Notice consistent use of the package, to give the store-bound shoppers a final 
reminder of ads previously seen in other media. 



IN TOTAL volume of business, newspapers far outstrip any other 
advertising medium. Estimates vary as to the exact amount of 
newspaper advertising in dollars and cents, but all agree that when 
local and national linage figures are combined, newspapers are well 
ahead of radio, magazines, outdoor or direct mail. Dr. Hans Zeisel, in 
fact, sets newspaper ad revenue for 1946 at a figure ($963,800,000) 
greater than radio ($489,400,000) and magazines ($430,400,000) 

Summaries by the American Newspaper Publishers Association are 
more conservative, fixing the 1946 total at $898,000,000 of which 
$270,000,000 came from the national advertisers. This amount ex 
ceeds by over $50,000,000 the previous high-water mark, reached in 

Newspapers have come a long way since the Civil War days. 
Mechanically, the modern daily or Sunday paper is a production 
miracle. Stories can be set in type, dropped into page forms, made 
into curved stereos to fit the high-speed rotary presses and be ''on the 
street" in the form of completely printed editions within a matter of 
minutes. Many a modern invention is used to rush news and pictures 
from their source: radio, radiophotography, telephotography, not to 
mention the prosaic shipment of negatives by transoceanic clipper. 
Electronic devices are being used to control the giant presses. Post 
war developments now being considered include a photoelectric en 
graving machine which makes halftones of a plastic material, as well 
as numerous devices for improving and speeding up newspaper color 

Circulation has gone up year after year. In 1920, according to Alfred 
Stanford of the A. N. P. A. Bureau of Advertising, daily newspapers in 
the United States and Canada had a combined circulation of 29,500,- 

* Printers' Ink. op. tit. 


000. In 1947, the figure stood at 51,000,000, a gain of nearly 75 per 
cent Nor was this popularity confined to the cities. The American 
Press Association in 1947 reported a total of 8,312 weekly newspapers 
in country and suburban towns, with an over-all circulation of 12,513,- 
483 per issue. 

Advertisers pay close attention to the local popularity of the various 
newspapers in a city. When schedules are being made up, calling for 
a certain number of ads and a certain amount of linage in a particular 
market, the position of each paper will be carefully checked. How 
many readers does it have? Is its circulation primarily home-delivered 
or newsstand? Who are its regular readers? Are they white collar or 
wage earner, Park Avenue or lower East Side? Is it the leading vehicle 
for the department stores of that city? For the food chains and super 
markets? The drug chains? Will its selection carry the maximum 
amount of dealer prestige? These are all questions to be weighed in 
picking one newspaper over another. It is amazing to hear how often 
a space buyer in an agency can recite from memory the "best" paper 
in a town, the "best food paper," the best choice for a high-hat or a 
shirt-sleeves campaign. 

Do Advertisers "Influence" Newspapers? 

The responsibility for producing a newspaper that is an efficient 
advertising medium rests almost solely with the publisher and his 
editorial and circulation staff. Occasionally a campaign will be se 
cured because of special favors granted to the advertiser, such as free 
publicity, but the great majority of newspapers maintain vigorous and 
even insolent independence of any effort to dictate their editorial 

A classic example of this occurred some years ago with the Chicago 
Tribune. Little Orphan Annie, a comic-strip heroine, was taking a 
cross-country bus trip. In several issues she encountered discomforts 
not at all flattering to motor-coach travel. The advertising manager 
of one of the bus companies, or perhaps one of the top executives, 
evidently took umbrage, and needled his advertising agency into writ 
ing a letter of protest. Unwisely the agency man mentioned that his 
concern advertised heavily in the Tribune, the innuendo being that if 
Annie didn't quit knocking bus travel, the ads might be placed else 
where. The Tribune printed the letter in its "Voice of the People" 


department. On the same page appeared an editorial calling atten 
tion to the letter and announcing that the publisher had no intention 
of changing a single blurb in any comic strip to placate an advertiser. 
The Tribune, the editorial pointed out, was edited for its readers, and 
if they liked the paper it would automatically become a good adver 
tising medium. So as far as Mr. Blank was concerned, concluded the 
diatribe, he could take his business elsewhere if he so chose. Mean 
while let him confine himself to handling the advertising for the 
PDQ Bus Company, and "we shall confine ourselves to editing the 
Chicago Tribune" 

Not all requests from advertisers are treated so cavalierly, however. 
Untoward incidents occurring in department stores an elevator ac 
cident, the arrest of a shoplifter, a near-panic caused by a small blaze 
are often reported as happening in "a downtown department store" 
without specific identification. The debut or wedding of the daughter 
of an important local merchant or banker may receive undue promi 
nence. But as far as national advertisers are concerned they seldom 
get consideration in the news columns; when they do, it is because of 
some newsworthy happening or the ingenious creation of some syn 
thetic publicity story that took the editor's fancy. And this can 
happen to a nonadvertiser. A case in point is that of Franklin Reyn 
olds, the ball-point pen manufacturer, who bought an army plane 
and hired a veteran pilot to fly him around the world. Reynolds got 
a million dollars' worth of newspaper publicity on himself and his 
plane, the Reynolds Rocket, and promptly brought out a new pen 
named the Rocket to cash in. He advertised the pen extensively in 
newspapers, after the flight. Obviously his advertising had nothing 
to do with the columns of news items and photographs he obtained. 

Are newspapers "friendly" to advertisers in their editorial policies 
and treatment of news? Only, in the writer's opinion, to the extent 
that they are advocates of the capitalistic system and its American 
manifestations: free enterprise, free speech, a minimum of govern 
ment regulation, the right to make a profit. A majority of American 
newspapers opposed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, not at the dic 
tates of their advertisers but because they felt that their own privileges 
and opportunities were in jeopardy. Most newspapers have taken a 
stand against unrestricted use of force and intimidation by labor 
unions for the same reason. 

The "right to advertise" is a corollary of the right of free speech. 


So while newspapers reserve the right to censor advertising on the 
grounds of fraudulent or misleading copy, few will reject an adver 
tisement because it expresses views contrary to its own policies. Dur 
ing the agitation over the Taft-Hartley Labor Bill advertising by the 
unions appeared frequently in many papers. And often the same is 
sues would carry editorials and columnists' dissertations voicing the 
opposite position. 

Selling Newspaper Advertising 

The advertising columns of a newspaper are a commodity. They 
must be sold, like any merchandise. Moreover, they are a highly per 
ishable commodity. Once an issue has gone to press, it is literally, 
from the viewpoint of selling ads in it, a dead issue. 

During World War II publishers had no difficulty in obtaining all 
the ads they could handle. In fact, the leading papers had to decline 
millions of dollars' worth of proffered space because they didn't have 
the paper on which to carry it. 

Normally conditions are different. Competition for a place on "the 
list," as the national advertiser's schedule is known in the business, 
may lead newspapers to extraordinary efforts. 

All the recognized channels of sales promotion are used by the 
publishers. Business-paper ads, direct mail and personal solicitation 
lead in popularity. However, not a few papers have used national 
magazines, posters, movies, premiums and other methods. One of 
the most interesting magazine campaigns of the 1920's was Phil Len- 
nen's "Little Dramas in the Life of a Great Newspaper System," for 
Scripps-Howard newspapers. The series built up the alertness, re 
sources and courage of the group of papers under the Scripps-Howard 
banner, not so much to enhance their prestige among the rank and 
file of magazine readers as to impress national advertisers with the 
advantage of using those journals. 

Slogans are popular. The Atlanta Journal has one of the best: "The 
Journal covers Dixie like the dew!" In Philadelphia, advertisers are 
told "Nearly everybody reads The Bulletin." In Chicago advertisers 
can take their choice among "Chicago's HOME Newspaper" (The 
Daily News), "Chicago's PICTURE Newspaper" (The Times) or 
"The World's Greatest Newspaper" (The Tribune) . In California the 
three McClatchy Newspapers at Sacramento, Modesto, and Fresno, 


all called The Bee, are jointly advertised with copy extolling the buying 
power of "the Billion Dollar Valley of the Bees." In St. Louis, the 
Globe-Democrat dramatized its coverage in the city and 88 sur 
rounding counties in eastern Missouri and southern Illinois by refer 
ring to this area as "the 49th State/' 

The New York News, winning quick popularity among subway 
riders during the early 1920's, came to be regarded by many advertisers 
as strictly a mass-market medium, not suitable for advertising high- 
quality products. Surveys showed that the aggressive tabloid was 
reaching perhaps as many homes in the upper strata as those news 
papers consciously edited for that market. Leo McGivena wrote a 
brilliant series of ads built around the theme, "the Stuyvesants and 
the Sweeneys," both of whom, he pointed out, were News readers. 

Locally, newspaper space is sold by solicitors working out of the 
main office. Certain men are assigned to call on department stores 
and specialty shops; others may cover banks, real-estate offices, amuse 
ments, home-town factories. To obtain "foreign" advertising, space 
emanating from national advertisers, some of the larger dailies main 
tain their own sales offices in other cities. Most newspapers how 
ever, appoint one or more of the numerous firms of "general repre 
sentatives" to get in touch with agencies and advertisers of the country. 
These "reps" may handle just a single paper, or as many as 1 50. They 
have a staff of salesmen armed with facts and figures about the papers 
they represent, and are supposed to know when important campaigns 
are being placed, in order to get as many of their periodicals as pos 
sible included on the advertiser's schedule. Occasionally one of these 
reps will do some educational selling on the merits of a newspaper 
he handles and thereby influence its selection, but as a rule the choice 
is predetermined by the agency and advertiser with the representa 
tive merely acting in the capacity of middleman. 

The general representative is actually a survival of the original form 
of advertising agency. As has been told, in the last years of the nine 
teenth century agencies veered away from selling space to any and 
all advertisers and began to devote their efforts to serving a limited 
number of advertisers. Gradually copy, art, research and other facili 
ties were added until the present agency structure emerged. Some 
agencies resisted this trend and became "special agents" or "specials." 
A few such firms still retain the word "agency" in their names, for 
example, the Katz Agency, which represents the Honolulu Advertiser, 


the Oklahoma City Oklahoman and Times and 18 other dailies, and 
the Julius Mathews Special Agency, handling some 75 papers, chiefly 
in the East. Most of the firms are identified by names of individuals 
as is the practice among advertising agencies. A few of the well- 
known publishers' representatives are Moloney, Regan & Schmitt; 
O'Mara & Ormsbee; Osborn, Scolaro & Meeker; West-Holliday Com 
pany; George A. McDevitt Company, and John B. Woodward, Inc. 
The standard basis of compensation for special representatives is 10 
percent of the gross amount of the order, which with the agency's 
15 percent commission gives the publisher a net of 75 percent of his 
space rate. This explains why local advertising, carrying neither 
agency nor representatives' commission, is generally lower priced than 
national space. 

Besides direct mail and business paper advertising, newspapers in 
dulge in a variety of activities to attract national advertisers. The 
most popular is known as "merchandising." In 1947 Deutsch & Shea, 
New York agency, after a survey reported that 88 percent of all dailies 
in cities of 50,000 or over render some form of merchandising co 
operation. Among the services offered to advertisers are: letters from 
the newspaper mailed to local wholesalers and retailers telling about 
an approaching campaign; supplying advertisers with "route lists" of 
grocery or drugstores for the use of the manufacturer's salesmen in 
calling on the trade; personal calls by the newspaper's "merchandising 
men" to inform dealers of the new campaign and urge that the adver 
tised product be liberally stocked and displayed; surveys of retailers 
and consumers to show the relative acceptance of the product; ex 
hibits of advertised products in downtown windows; miniature news 
papers distributed regularly to retailers in the city, with news of cur 
rent and future campaigns. Occasionally an alert publisher will even 
assign men to set up displays and banners in retail stores for impor 
tant advertisers. 

"Pantry surveys" are a popular method for newspapers to enhance 
their standing with national advertisers. These are reports based on 
analysis of a segment of the local families, showing brand preference 
in each of the important food products and sometimes including drugs 
and drug sundries. The Milwaukee Journal, Cleveland Press, Omaha 
World-Herald and Chicago Times are among the papers that have 
done notable work in this field. The usual method is to prepare an 
elaborate consumer questionnaire, covering shopping habits, car own 
ership and choice of brands in a wide variety of products, some to be 


answered by the wife and some by the husband. The questionnaires 
may either be filled in by interviewers calling at homes or by appli 
cants coming to the newspaper office. As a reward for her trouble in 
answering the questions, the housewife customarily receives a basket 
of groceries, many of which are samples donated by the different 

These surveys are of great value to agencies and advertisers since 
they show relative sales positions of their products. For example, in 
the Milwaukee Journal 1947 Consumer Analysis, responses were sub 
divided under foods, soaps, toiletries, beverages, homes and equip 
ment and general buying habits. Under "beverages," the survey 
showed that 89.7 percent drank beer; Schlitz was the favorite brand of 
30.2 percent, Pabst of 21.1 percent, Blatz of 16.4 percent and Miller 
of 11.5 percent. Among cola drinks, Coca-Cola led with 38.3 percent, 
Pepsi-Cola was second with 14.1 percent and Graf's (a local bottler) 
was third with 12.6 percent. By comparison with 194'6, Coca-Cola 
and Pepsi-Cola had shown a decline from 50.2 percent and 19.0 per 
cent respectively while Graf's had increased from 8.0 percent to 12.6 
percent, a significant gain. Such comparative figures enable an adver 
tiser to tell whether his product is going up, down or holding its own 
in a particular market. 

One remarkable feature of these "pantry polls" is that they reflect 
the national trend quite accurately even though only a small "sample" 
of the market is taken. In Milwaukee the report was based on 7,000 
calls out of some 854,000 population in the county, representing ap 
proximately 230,000 families. The trick is to select a ratio of families 
in each economic group corresponding to the proportion of that group 
to the total. Over a series of interviews the responses start to level 
out, and beyond that point there seems to be very little change in the 
percentages. The survey must also be distributed equitably on a geo 
graphical basis to give a true cross-section of the city. 

Like the women's group magazines, various newspapers have banded 
together in groups to offer the advertiser a convenient "package." An 
example is Interstate United Newspapers, Inc., which places advertis 
ing in some 1 35 newspapers with a circulation of 1,774,116 and a com 
bined line rate of $11.49, all in the Negro market. In the same field, 
Associated Publishers, Inc., represents some 23 Negro papers includ 
ing the "Afro-American" group along the eastern seaboard, which 
can be bought as a unit. 

Several thousand small-town weeklies, under the banner of the 


American Press Association, are available by state groups or individ 
ually. The United States total is 3,966 and the combined advertising 
rate $1,709.92 per inch per week for a circulation of 5,612,229. This is 
a high unit price when compared with metropolitan papers, such as 
the New York News rate of $4.70 a line ($65.80 per inch) for a Sunday 
circulation of over 4,500,000. Against this must be weighed the 
greater visibility of a small ad in the country newspaper, the wider 
penetration per copy and the greater thoroughness of reading. Men 
tion has already been made of the Western Newspaper Union list, 
offering a similar service for 2,366 country town papers; its rate is 
$283.92 per inch for 1,772,771 circulation, subject to quantity dis 
counts. There are several other groups in this field. 

Advertisers interested in the high school market may purchase space 
in some 429 separate student papers as a unit. Their 714,322 circula 
tion per issue cost $385.45 a column inch as of June 1947, through 
the Richmond Advertising Service of Brooklyn. Another entry in 
the high school field is Scholastic Roto, a pictorial supplement edited 
by the National Scholastic Press Association under the direction of 
Fred Kildow at the University of Minnesota, and distributed gratis 
with high school papers to over 1,000,000 students, eight monthly 
issues a year. The one-time rate of $4.17 per line compares favorably 
with national magazines. 

Newspaper Groups 

College newspaper advertising can be bought as a package in some 
600 papers having over a million circulation. Collegiate Digest, a roto 
supplement in over 300 college papers, is another medium. The Col 
lege Comic Magazine Group also reaches this field through student- 
edited humor magazines. 

Two prominent groups in the metropolitan field are the Scripps- 
Howard newspapers and, of course, the Hearst papers. Scripps-Howard 
papers are leaders in Cleveland, Knoxville and Pittsburgh, have a 
monopoly in Memphis, Evansville and El Paso, and trail from a cir 
culation standpoint in New York, Indianapolis, Columbus, Denver, 
Fort Worth, Houston and Washington, D. C. They are consistently 
well edited and attractive typographically, making them desirable 
advertising media even where they do not sell the most copies. The 


Scripps-Howard lighthouse appearing on the masthead of some 21 
papers is an emblem respected throughout the advertising fraternity. 

The Hearst newspapers, except for their color supplements, Ameri 
can Weekly, Pictorial Review, Puck (the Comic Weekly) and Satur 
day Home Magazine, do not represent a cohesive advertising force. 
Hearst Advertising Service represents only ten of the papers, not in 
cluding the top circulation medium, the New York Mirror. In their 
particular markets, however, they do an aggressive sales job. A recent 
project has been the publication of giant books containing community 
maps and market data on each of the ten cities represented by Hearst 
Advertising Service papers. It is interesting to note that while most 
newspaper reps confine their offices to such major advertising cen 
ters as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Seattle, San Francisco and Los Angeles, the 
Hearst Service also has one in the Maxwell Arcade Building in Fort 
Lauderdale, Florida! 

Strictly for promotional purposes, and not because of any similarity 
in editorial policy, the Sunday editions of the New York News, Phil 
adelphia Inquirer and Chicago Tribune have banded together as the 
"First Three Markets Group/' Other noncompeting newspapers have 
formed sales alliances. 

By far the most ambitious effort along these lines is the American 
Newspaper Advertising Network, organized in 1946, with some 41 
dailies having a combined 12,400,000 circulation and 37 Sunday 
papers with 15,600,000 as the nucleus. Many of the country's leading 
journals were founders, including the New York Times and News, 
Des Moines Register and Tribune, Boston Herald-Traveler and Globe, 
Philadelphia Bulletin and Inquirer, and Los Angeles Times. The 
A.N.A.N. contemplated a coast-to-coast "network" of newspapers par 
alleling those already existing in radio. Like radio, the newspaper 
network proposed to make it handy for national advertisers to place 
a campaign through one channel, fanning out nation-wide by means 
of local media, in this case the member newspapers. Also borrowing 
from radio, the A.N.A.N. sponsors offered discounts based not only 
on amount of space used, but on frequency. Thus an advertiser who 
used 1,200 lines per week for 13 weeks would receive a 4 percent dis 
count, whereas if he continued for 52 weeks he would earn a 16 per 
cent discount. This cumulative reduction in cost has been a strong 
factor in keeping advertisers on the air over a period long enough to 


give the advertising a chance to work, and it is surprising that the 
newspapers haven't adopted it sooner. 

Chief argument in favor of using such a network of newspapers is 
that it gives concentrated coverage of the most productive sales areas. 
A.N.A.N. states that of the 3,072 United States counties, 318 produce 
72 percent of the retail sales and it is in these counties that member 
papers deliver 79 percent of their circulation. To keep the arrange 
ment flexible an advertiser is required to use only 80 percent of the 
basic markets in any one area. "Supplementary" newspapers were to 
be provided for additional coverage of the smaller cities not reached 
by the "basic" papers. The new network also contemplated "pene 
tration" studies to show who reads newspapers, by age, sex and in 
come, how much time is spent in newspaper reading, how many read 
ers per copy; consumer "panels" in selected markets to determine 
"who is buying what, how much, how often and why"; and investiga 
tions to find the extent to which visual or audible advertising influ 
ences the purchasing of goods. 

Thus far, neither Scripps-Howard nor Hearst has joined the news 
paper network, each group figuring, apparently, that it has a "net 
work" of its own. There are other important gaps in the structure. 
But for national advertisers it has much to offer in the streamlining 
of country-wide campaigns. 

Color Advertising in Newspapers 

One advantage enjoyed by magazines over newspapers has been in 
the matter of color. From the first timid experiments in the nine 
teenth century, color has grown into a recognized advertising tool of 
foremost importance. In many magazines, over half of the advertise 
ments today are in two or more colors. Outdoor posters, car cards 
and direct mail all recognize the greater pulling power of color in 
advertising. Aside from Sunday supplements, however, the average 
newspaper has clung to black and white just as it did 50 or 100 
years ago. 

Here and there a few papers have pioneered in what is known as 
"run-of-paper" color advertising: that is, color ads appearing in the 
regular news sections. The Indianapolis Times, a Scripps-Howard 
paper, started using color in 1934 and since then has run several 
thousand ads in two or more colors. In 1946 it carried over 480,000 
lines of color advertising (about 200 pages), which was 4.05 percent 


of its total linage for the year and more than that of any other daily 
paper. As far back as 1929 the Chicago Tribune ran an ad in color. 
The Milwaukee Journal has successfully reproduced Kodachrome ad 
vertisements in full color for a local department store, the Boston 
Store. In New York the Journal- American alone among Manhattan 
dailies was equipped (March 1947) to handle color ads in its regular 

One of the largest newspaper campaigns in color was that of Schen- 
ley Distributors, with four 1,000-line ads appearing in 67 newspapers. 
Despite the wide variations in shades of ink and poor printing, Schen- 
ley said that the impact of the campaign was "terrific" and well worth 
the added cost. The Newspaper Advertising Executives Association 
studied 5,000,000 inquiries from 3,500 advertisements and discovered 
that color insertions brought 53 percent greater direct returns than 
black and white. One advertiser reported to the Indianapolis Times 
a 35 percent greater return from color ads. The additional cost of 
color, in those newspapers that make it available, runs from 20 to 40 

Newspapers want to adopt color as quickly as possible. They know 
that it adds interest to an issue and helps them compete more favor 
ably with other media. With the present improvements in color 
printing equipment it seems only a question of time until all papers 
will be supplying color regularly. 

Local and Classified 

One of the oldest and most profitable sources of newspaper adver 
tising revenue seldom receives attention in textbooks, the want ads. 
But in the aggregate, these neglected cousins of the advertising family 
comprise a significant part of the total space for many newspapers. 
On Sunday, September 8, 1946, the Chicago Tribune published a total 
of 12,163 individual want ads with a total line count of 83,143, about 
30 full pages. Classified advertising in the Tribune runs nine columns 
to the page; the Sunday rate ranges from $1.00 a line for situations 
wanted to $1.50 for help wanted, yielding close to $100,000 for the 
want ads in this one issue. Since very little classified advertising pays 
a commission (only that placed by agencies with no office within 40 
miles of Chicago and then only if the advertiser has no office within 

* "Color Advertising in Newspapers," Tide, March 21, 1947. By permission of 


that area) and since it runs one more column to the page than gen 
eral advertising, it is obviously a very desirable type of business. 

Department store and other retail advertising constitutes the "bread 
and butter" of the majority of metropolitan newspapers. Although 
generally sold on annual contracts at quantity rates well below the 
national rate, the big local advertisers use space in such lavish amounts 
that they easily rank as the top spenders. The bigger stores have news 
paper budgets running as high as a million dollars or more annually. 
Food and drug chains have also become increasingly important users 
of newspaper space. 

Aside from the direct income, local retail advertising is a significant 
yardstick for national advertisers in gauging the standing of a news 
paper in its community. 

A substantial amount of local advertising is placed by dealers in 
nationally advertised products in order to obtain the benefit of the 
lower rate, using ads prepared by the manufacturer or agency. All or 
part of such advertising may be paid for in the form of a co-operative 
allowance; the usual arrangement is on a 50-50 basis. 

In recent years a new type of publication, the "Shopping News," 
has challenged newspapers in various cities. Several of these weekly 
free-distribution sheets were reportedly started by, or with the blessing 
of, retail merchants with the idea of forcing down newspaper rates. 
They have seldom had that effect. However, some of them have suc 
cessfully established themselves as recognized media. The Chicago 
Downtown Shopping News, for example, has a circulation of 625,000, 
all home-delivered. In addition to retail advertisers, some 40 national 
advertisers were using this publication in the spring of 1947. Origi 
nally, like other shopping papers, Downtown Shopping News was de 
voted exclusively to advertising. At present a number of editorial 
features can be found in each issue, including columns on fashions, 
food, homemaking and shoppers' information. The publication also 
sponsors a monthly ''Women's Forum" in the Civic Opera House, 
with speakers on current events, cooking and other subjects, evidenc 
ing its stability. 

The Study of Newspaper Reading 

Since 1939 the Advertising Research Foundation, sponsored by the 
Association of National Advertisers and the American Association of 


Advertising Agencies, has conducted "The Continuing Study of 
Newspaper Readership." 

This unusual research project has produced a wealth of information 
about the way people read a newspaper, what subjects interest them 
most, which ads attract their attention, what types of headlines, pic 
tures and articles lead in eye-appeal. 

In this study, a weekday edition of a selected newspaper is taken by 
trained interviewers to approximately 500 typical adult readers, divided 
equally between men and women and balanced as to occupation or 
economic status. Calls are made the day after the paper is published. 
The interviewer places before the respondent a fresh, unmarked copy 
of the newspaper and asks him to go through it page by page, pointing 
out those items, features and departments which he has seen or read, 
including the advertisements. The totals are then tabulated and min 
iature facsimiles of each page of the selected paper are reproduced for 
analysis. Survey costs have been largely borne by the Bureau of Adver 
tising, American Newspaper Publishers Association, and the local 

To date, well over 100 such studies have been made, starting with 
the Akron Beacon-Journal for July 27, 1939. Cities as large as Los 
Angeles and as small as Lockport, N. Y. (24,379) have been included. 
Nearly all have been single-issue surveys, although the Troy, New York, 
Times-Record was made the subject of a six-day study from March 19 
through March 24, 1945, to determine the rise and fall of readership 
throughout the week, and the Indianapolis News was studied on May 
7 and May 9 to get a comparison between the announcement of V-E 
Day and a later issue to check the impact of great national news on 
readership. The V-E edition was devoid of local and classified ads, 
running only 16 pages, while the issue two days later ran 36 pages 
with a full quota of ads. Several Sunday newspapers have been in 
cluded among the more recent surveys. 

Here are some of the highlights of the summary of the first 100 

Local advertising, and specifically department store advertising, leads 
all newspaper features in women's readership, averaging better 
tnan 94 percent.* Next in order come editorial-page items, society 

* This figure represents the over-all picture. The summary showed that in "Read 
ing by Types of Content" 100% of the women and 97% of the men read advertis 
inga higher percentage than read any other feature. 


news or pictures, comics, national advertising, and radio programs. 

Among men, editorial-page items lead with 82 percent, followed by 
advertising and comics, tied at 79 percent, with sports news and radio 
programs following. National advertising gets a higher readership 
among men than department store ads. 

The popularity of humor panels, comics and human interest pictures 
was clearly demonstrated early in the study. As a result, many adver 
tisers switched to these techniques in their newspaper ads and often 
obtained a high readership. 

Among women, human interest, crime and society pictures lead in 
appeal, with movie and radio celebrities far down the list. Among 
men, photos of war or national defense, human interest and crime 
come first; beauty queens and glamour girls are tenth, behind 
national politics. 

The best-read single advertisement was a full page of Kaufman's 
Department Store in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette for June 4, 1945 
seen by 87 percent of the women. 

An ad sponsored by the Milwaukee Journal, in the Cincinnati Times- 
Star for December 2, 1943, stressing the need for a veteran's rehabil 
itation program, led all national ads seen by 73 percent of the 
men, 68 percent of the women. Other high-readership ads spon 
sored waste fats and red cross. Leader among straight product ads 
was a Chesterfield Cigarette display in the Daily Oklahoman No 
vember 16, 1939, seen by 66 percent of the women. 

Convincing proof of the power of cartoon and comic-style ads in 
newspapers was shown in the summary of the ten leading food ads 
based on reading per line per 100,000 readers. The list included seven 
Wheaties ads, one Armour & Company, one Hostess Cup Cakes and 
one Land o r Lakes, all small eye-catchers of this type. 

Many of the highest-rated ads were modest in size, relying on attrac 
tive illustrations rather than screaming headlines. The surveys have 
clearly proved that the average newspaper reader goes through his 
paper page by page, "shopping" for items that appeal to him, and 
often ignoring big, heavily played features, news stories and ads.* 

Newspapers and Community Service 

Since this is a book on advertising as a business, evaluation of the 
newspaper as a social force is hardly within its scope. Nevertheless, ad 

* "100-Study Summary, The Continuing Study of Newspaper Reading," Adver 
tising Research Foundation, Inc., copyrighted 1946. 


men must consider the attitude of customers and prospects toward 
the media in which they place their appeals. In this respect, news 
papers, viewed en masse, have earned the highest vote of confidence 
from the public. Circulations are greater than ever in history and this 
despite the fact that people must pay from 50 to 100 percent more per 
copy than before the war. Readership, as shown by the study just 
quoted, is both extensive and intensive. Their influence is perhaps 
less than in the days of the great personal journalists, but they have 
lost none of their crusading fervor. 

An appraisal of newspapers, made nearly 60 years ago in the first 
issue of Printers' Ink, still seems adequately to cover the average ad 
man's view: 

Newspapers are private undertakings, founded and supported by 
private means for the purpose of lawful gain to those whose capital 
or labor is invested in them. No pious millionaire endows them in 
behalf of morality, no rich philanthropist in the cause of education. 
So far as they fit the public need, as the public feels its need, they 
succeed; so far as they do not fit that need as it is felt, they fail and all 
their good intentions with them. Journalists think it hardly fair to 
exact from them, as a whole, proofs of a higher intelligence and con 
science than their day and generation possess at large. 


// T~ > \ RIB LETS of advertising, most of it indirect so far, to be sure, 

but still unmistakable, are floating through the ether every 

Ir-^ day. Concerts are seasoned here with a dash of advertising 

paprika. You can't miss it: every little classic number has a slogan all 

its own."* 

This preview of things to come appeared in Radio Broadcast Maga 
zine for November 1922. Two years later Herbert Hoover, then Sec 
retary of Commerce, at a conference of set manufacturers and station 
owners, declared unequivocally: "I believe the quickest way to kill 
broadcasting would be to use it for direct advertising."** 

Today the driblets have grown into a never-ceasing river. Expendi 
tures for radio advertising in 1946, it was estimated by Printers' Ink, 
reached $489,000,000. Some 50,000 sponsors were spending at the 
rate of a million and a quarter a day for broadcast time, talent and 
promotional effort in the medium for which Mr. Hoover had pre 
dicted an early death. 

The five leading users of radio, Procter & Gamble, Sterling Drugs, 
General Foods, General Mills and American Home Products, had 
time charges on the four major networks alone in excess of $48,000,- 
000. The CIO Steelworkers, with an outlay of $100,124, had to be 
content with 180th place among the sponsors of network programs. 
In between were such assorted clients of the NBC, CBS, ABC and 
MBS as the Curtis Publishing Company ($971,833), Equitable Life 
Assurance Society ($699,380), Coca-Cola ($2,011,405), Voice of 
Prophecy, Inc. ($239,762), Florida Citrus Commission ($320,892)^ 
Gum Laboratories ($122,024), Household Finance Company ($328,- 
659), Kellogg Co. ($2,791,967) and America's Future, Inc. ($157,- 

* Robert J. Landry, This Fascinating Radio Business (The Bobbs-Merrill Com 
pany, 1946), p. 44. By permission of the publisher. 

** Ibid., p. 49. 

*** "Leading Radio Advertisers, 1946" (Advertising Age, April 28, 1947), pp. 
50-51. (Based on records of Publishers Information Bureau, Inc.). By permission 
of Advertising Age. 


"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 213 

All this has happened since the "powerful" Westinghouse 100-watt 
station, KDKA, Pittsburgh, broadcast the election returns in Hard- 
ing's victory over Cox the night of November 2, 1920. Some 2,000 
receivers in the homes of wireless amateurs or "hams" represented the 
probable audience. Twenty-six years later the number of radio homes 
had reached 37,000,000 with 48,000,000 radio sets in homes, 9,000,- 
000 automobile radios, and an additional 3,000,000 in public places 
a total of 60,000,000 sets. 

In radio's infancy, many suggestions were offered for financing pro 
grams, the most common being that philanthropists should endow 
radio stations just as they did colleges and universities; a few such gifts 
were made. Other stations called upon their listeners for contribu 
tions. Performers usually worked free. Radio manufacturers, realizing 
the need of plenty of air-borne entertainment to sell their sets, under 
wrote some of the cost. Government licensing in the British fashion 
was never tried in America, possibly because of our traditional individ 

Very soon the need for regular and substantial revenues became 
obvious. Musicians and singers who at first had been content to take 
their pay in publicity began to demand cash. ASCAP, the American 
Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, controlling the copy 
rights on virtually all popular music, informed the stations that pay 
ment must be made for airing ASCAP melodies or infringement suits 
would result; minimum damages, $250 per violation. Meanwhile 
American Telephone and Telegraph, over whose lines network pro 
grams are still transmitted, began selling advertising over its own sta 
tion, WEAF in New York, in 1922 and continued until 1926 when it 
withdrew from direct participation in broadcasting. But in the inter 
vening years AT&T solicitors had done much to popularize radio as an 
advertising medium. 

With the establishment of the National Broadcasting Company in 
1926 and Columbia Broadcasting System in 1927, national campaigns 
were made possible. More and better theatrical and musical talent 
was attracted to radio. As the quality of programs went up, so did the 
number of listeners. It would not be fair to say that network pro 
grams alone have built radio to its present high place as an advertising 
medium, for local shows, home-town news and public events have had 
an important part; nevertheless, the lure of big names and entertain 
ment on a par with what Broadway and Hollywood had to offer has 


been a chief audience-builder. And audiences are essential to adver 

Radio, advertisers soon discovered, could deliver a particularly re 
sponsive type of audience. Had it not been for this fact, commercial 
broadcasting would have remained a minor ad medium, for it was 
utterly unlike accepted forms of advertising. When a firm invests in 
a magazine or newspaper or outdoor campaign, the evidence of the 
purchase is visible and permanent. Salesmen can and do take proofs 
of ads on dealer calls, or such proofs can be mailed. The man who 
pays the bills can pick up a publication or drive past a poster location 
and see his advertising. The actual package can be illustrated, in full 
color if desired, along with scenes showing the product in use. On 
the other hand, once a radio program is over, nothing remains except 
a memory. 

Early radio advertisers found one requirement hard to swallow: the 
very wise insistence of station managers and later of network officials 
that commercial time be rigidly limited. Nowadays this is accepted 
as a matter of course. But pioneer sponsors often balked at the idea 
of paying for half an hour on the air and being allowed to use only 
three minutes of that time for advertising! 

Agencies and clients alike were skeptical of the new vehicle. They 
bought it with their fingers crossed and demanded proof that people 
were really listening. Radio delivered that proof in abundance. Any 
sort of an offer or a request for mail would literally swamp the adver 
tiser. A program promising a gift in response to a phone call might tie 
up the switchboards of an entire city. Even a simple invitation to 
send in one's favorite musical selection, no reward or prize involved, 
would pull thousands of postcards and letters. 

It is a debatable question whether or not "mail pull" is a fair cri 
terion of any advertising medium. But at least to those newcomers in 
radio it gave tangible returns showing that something was happening. 
Inquiries could be produced at low cost, sometimes incredibly low 
cost, as compared with other media. In 1933 Procter & Gamble 
made identical product offers in three media. The cost per inquiry 
was $1.27 in magazines, $.361 in newspapers, and $.097 in radio. Bab-O 
reported a similar test in 1940. Cost per inquiry: in magazines, $1.44, 
newspapers $.36, radio $.08.* 

Particularly in packaged items soap, cigarettes, canned goods, cos- 

* "Radio Today," a prospectus of Columbia Broadcasting System, August 1946. 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 215 

metics, beverages, and the like universally used articles that are 
bought again and again does radio seem effective. A case in point is 
that of Pet Milk. In 1933 the company spent $26,418 out of a 
$350,000 budget in radio; sales that year were $15,600,000. Use of radio 
was increased rapidly. In 1936 it received nearly 60 percent of a 
$521,000 budget and sales amounted to $25,100,000. The following 
year Pet Milk went exclusively radio, spending $537,094, and sales 
were $29,700,000. Concentration on radio continued with an expand 
ing budget and rapidly climbing sales. For 1945 the company's net 
work radio appropriation was $831,883; its sales were $114,700,000, a 
631.8 percent increase over 1933.* 

Other cases could be cited to show remarkable results from con 
sistent and aggressive use of radio with other products such as watches, 
electrical appliances, gasoline and oil, fountain pens, silverware and 
floor wax. In some instances radio has been the sole consumer me 
dium. In others it has divided honors with magazines, newspapers, 
outdoor advertising. This does not mean that radio is necessarily the 
best medium for all products or services. There are many manu 
facturers and retailers who use radio only as a secondary medium; 
some not at all. Nevertheless, there can be no denying that within a 
very few years radio has taken its place in the national advertising pic 
ture alongside older, well intrenched media, and has in numerous 
cases given a spectacular account of itself. 

Reasons for Radio's Effectiveness 

The power of radio advertising stems from a number of causes. 
Foremost, perhaps, is the fact that this is the one medium (aside from 
commercial films ) that utilizes spoken salesmanship the impact and 
persuasiveness of the human voice. Selling messages seem to be 
addressed directly to the individual listener. In reading, the average 
person may skip an ad, but even though a person may close his mind 
to the commercials on a radio program, a certain amount registers. 

Radio also permits a dramatization of sales features, with action, 
humor, music and sound effects carrying on the mood of the program. 
The star himself may participate in the actual sales "pitch," as Red 
Skelton does occasionally on the Raleigh cigarette program, Bob Hope 
on the Pepsodent show, Jack Benny on the Lucky Strike program. 

* Ibid. 



Testimonials by celebrities or ordinary folks may be delivered by the 
endorser in person. From a structural angle, radio advertising has the 
advantage of being free from competition by the particular medium 
itself; if the listener wishes to hear the remainder of the program he 
must stay tuned in while the entertainment stops and wait until it 
resumes. Moreover, the advertiser can more or less determine the edi 
torial "frame" for his message by his choice of program instead of 
leaving this to the discretion of the editor or make-up man. 

Much has been written about listeners' gratitude leading them to 
purchase a particular brand because they enjoy its radio program. 
Early-day broadcasts often contained a request for the radio audience to 
show its appreciation at the store. This naive approach has largely 
given way to more subtle suggestions such as: "If you like our show, 
you'll like Yum-Yum Candy Bars, too." Fred Allen has a way of 
winding up with, "Don't forget the two products which make this 
program possible Shefford Cheese and Tender Leaf Tea." In gen 
eral, listeners buy not to thank the sponsor but because in hearing 
their favorite program week after week, or day after day in the case of 
a daytime serial, they have been exposed to so much direct, persuasive 
selling that the sponsoring product just naturally comes to mind first. 

Aside from its human appeals there is one very simple additional 
reason for the growth of radio as a national medium, the cycle. While 
it is possible for an advertiser to order a single announcement or a 
1 5-minute program on a one-time basis, virtually all network time is 
sold in cycles of 1 3 weeks, with increasing discounts being earned for 
each succeeding period. By thus stressing consistency of effort the 
radio people have converted many firms from spasmodic, blow-hot- 
blow-cold users of advertising. In 1 3 weeks of constant repetition results 
may begin to appear. If the firm will stay put for another 1 3 weeks a 
great deal more may be accomplished. At the end of a year, given a 
good product, a good show and the proper amount of merchandising 
support, the former "grasshopper" has often settled down for keeps! 
The same thing is true, of course, of anv other form of advertising. 

How Radio Shows are "Merchandised" 

On April 16, 1935, at 8:00 P.M. Eastern Standard Time, S. C. John 
son & Son, Incorporated, presented the first in a new series of comedy 
programs featuring Jim and Marian Jordan, the popular Chicago sing- 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 217 

ing and joke-telling couple. The Jordans had been tried out with a 
local test campaign and made a hit in their new characters of "Fibber 
McGee and Molly." It was decided to launch them nationally over 
the NBC network. 

A week before the show broke, a letter was sent to 40,000 hardware, 
auto accessory and auto dealer outlets announcing the event. It was 
accompanied by a comic strip enclosure one side of which showed 
"Fibber" and his jolly wife exchanging witticisms while he polished 
his car with Johnson's Wax. The other side carried a semicatalogue 
style listing of all the company's products. 

During the first year millions of these comic strip "throw-aways" 
were supplied to dealers to be used on counters, as envelope stuffers 
or package inserts. Special catalogue sheets were sent to jobber's sales 
men for use in telling retailers about the new show, in addition to a 
jumbo presentation going into greater detail. 

Counter and window displays with Fibber McGee and Molly as the 
center of interest were put up all over the country. Two tops, one fea 
turing Fibber and the other Molly, were offered free to children who 
sent in a tracing of the word "Johnson's" from a bottle of the Liquid 

Everybody knows what happened. "Fibber McGee and Molly" 
became one of the leading radio shows of the country, being rated 
No. 1 in 1945. Sales of Johnson's Wax have grown astoundingly. 
Without taking any credit away from the Jordans, from Don Quinn, 
the show's brilliant creator, or its talented production staff, not a 
little of its success must be assigned to the background of merchan 
dising work that preceded and has steadily accompanied the show. 

Merchandising of radio programs takes many forms. A few were 
given above. Others include posters, car cards, house organs, blotters, 
calendars. When Kraft launched Bing Crosby in the "Kraft Music 
Hall," Bing's picture appeared on the top of every jar of Miracle Whip 
and every Swankyswig glass, while Kraft salesmen wore a giant lapel 
button with the same illustration. Each salesman was expected to 
secure the signatures of 50 of his dealers pledged to listen to the show 
on January 23, 1936, which was dedicated to the grocers themselves. 

Radio stations do a great deal of merchandising work in their com 
munities, with a double purpose: to increase listenership, and to make 
the station more productive for advertisers. As a rule, when a national 
program is launched, the network will send to each station a portfolio 
containing such items as: 


Facts about the product and the sponsoring company 
Suggested letter to the local dealers and wholesalers in that field 
Ready-to-run newspaper ads featuring the program 
Suggested announcements to be used gratis in promoting the 


Photographs and publicity releases about the show and its stars 
Window streamers or counter cards which will be sent to the sta 
tion in quantities on request for distribution to the trade 
Ideas for special stunts or events to be staged by the station for 
attracting listeners 

No one station will use all of these materials on any one program, 
but it is customary to give some promotional and merchandising sup 
port to every national program. The bellwether shows receive extra 
attention in the form of pre-announcements ''Be sure to listen to 
night at 8:30 for 'Can You Top This?'" and in "spotlight" news 
paper ads featuring coming attractions. 

A popular method of building up interest in a network program is 
to send the cast around the country, putting on the show in various 
cities. Special invitations are issued to dealers in the region of the 
current broadcast, thus giving them a proprietary interest in the show. 
Window and store displays of the sponsor's products are much easier 
to secure during the week of the broadcast; results in increased sales 
may be noted for some time afterward. 

Measuring Radio Audiences 

One problem that continually confronts users of radio advertising 
is that of coverage or circulation. Magazines and newspapers have an 
accurate check on their circulation in the number of copies sold. 
Radio stations have no such resource. As a substitute several methods 
have been tried. 

The "contour" method was one of the first. Engineers equipped 
with test instruments would cruise around the station to determine 
the outermost limits at which its "signal" could be heard with a 
2 millivolt intensity, and still farther out, at a .5 millivolt strength. 
Tests were made for both daytime and evening, and the results plotted 
on maps showing "primary" and "secondary" listening areas. The 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 219 

objection to this method is that it tells where a station can be heard, 
but not necessarily who listens to it. 

Another method is to plot the density of mail received by the sta 
tion. Records are kept by counties and a map prepared rating the 
counties surrounding the station as excellent, intense, good, or fair. 
The "audience mail count" method has been criticized because it 
covers only that type of person who writes letters to radio stations. If 
a station is serving a territory in which letter writers are commoner 
than in the area served by another station there is no sound standard 
of comparison as to the relative coverage of the two. 

A combination of audience mail and signal strength has also been 
tried, but again the same variables among stations still exist. 

To develop a satisfactory solution to this problem, the ANA and 
the AAAA, in collaboration with the National Association of Broad 
casters, representing 667 stations, organized the Broadcast Measure 
ment Bureau in 1945. The method adopted for determining station 
circulation was to circularize the radio listeners themselves with a mail 
questionnaire or "station ballot." On it the listener was asked to check 
the radio stations heard (1) any time, (2) at night, (3) daytime. 
Under (2) and (3) were spaces to check 3 or more times a week, 1 or 
2 a week, less than 1 a week and never. Space was provided for listing 
a dozen or more stations by call letters. Below, questions were asked 
as to number in family, number of radios in working order, how long 
the family had lived in that neighborhood, ownership of an auto and 

The first BMB study, in 1946, covered half a million radio famiiles 
and took in 25,000 cities and 3,100 farming areas, representing all in 
come and cultural levels. Returns of as high as 75 and 80 percent were 
obtained on the "ballot" and no United States county was tabulated 
until 50 percent of the sample in each type of community was in. All 
ballots were coded on some 10,000,000 Hollerith cards which could be 
run through IBM machines to give complete information on size of 
family, car and telephone ownership and other data in relation to 
station listening. 

At this writing plans were being made for Study No. 2 either in 
1948 or 1949. The majority of agency time buyers feel that when the 
"station ballot" method is fully refined it may provide a service 
somewhat comparable to that rendered by the Audit Bureau of Cir 
culations in the publication field. 


Program Ratings 

Of great interest to the advertiser, but not necessarily the only fac 
tor determining the sales power of a radio program, is the "rating" of 
his show. With several stations competing for attention, which gets 
the highest proportion of listeners? What type of program will attract 
the largest audience? What time of the day or evening is best? How 
does listening vary among the differenfclays of the week, and accord 
ing to the season? If a different program is put on over a competing 
network, how will that affect the popularity of the advertiser's show? 

These and other questions asked by agencies and advertisers led in 
1929 to the establishment of the Cooperative Analysis of Broadcasting 
under the direction of Archibald Crossley. Telephone calls were made 
after the listening period and the listener asked to recall what pro 
grams he had heard, calls being made in early morning for the previous 
evening, at noon for the morning period and at twilight for the after 
noon. During the 1930's a program's "Crossley" was often considered 
an infallible index of its success or failure. 

Then a private research firm, C. E. Hooper, Inc., started mak 
ing "coincidental" checkups on audiences. Interviewers would 
call at different times during the day or evening and ask, "Is your radio 
turned on? If so, to what station or program are you listening? Can 
you identify the sponsor?" Those homes not answering were included 
in the report to figure the percentage of sets not in use. "Hooperat- 
ings" are obtained by taking the percentage naming a particular show 
and projecting it against the total number of homes called. This is 
the figure commonly publicized. A few top shows will have a Hoop 
crating of 25 to 35 percent. An evening rating of 10 to 15 percent for 
a less expensive show is considered satisfactory, while daytime adver 
tisers are happy to settle for a rating often as low as 2, 3 or 4 percent 

Both the co-incidental and the recall method of rating depend on 
relatively small samples from a limited number of localities and do 
not necessarily reflect universal listening habits, for example, in the 
rural areas. Some programs which have made a dismal showing in the 
CAB or Hooper reports continue to produce excellent results year 
after year, while others with a high Hooperating may fold. 

Hence seasoned radio advertisers, while aware of their ratings, take 
them with reservations, though recognizing their value in analyzing 
program appeal. 

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Other methods of studying listener habits include the "audimeter," 
originated by the research firm of A. C. Nielsen Company, in which a 
recording device is attached to radio sets in homes to show which sta 
tions are tuned in and for what periods; the "listener diary" plan, in 
which families are paid to keep a log of their program choices; and a 
number of electrical and electronic devices to show how typical indi 
viduals react to radio programs. These last named are used in pre 
testing proposed radio shows and commercials. 

Ratings have a direct bearing on one widely followed radio practice 
which is unpopular with listeners and stations alike the so-called 
"summer replacement." Hooper's studies have shown a marked drop 
in number of sets in use during the summer months as well as a de 
cline in the rating of big shows. Consequently many leading network 
advertisers give their expensive stars an enforced vacation, substituting 
less costly productions. Whether or not this drop would occur to such 
an extent if the name programs were continued is a debatable point. 
At least the summer hiatus gives many unknown and lesser known 
performers a chance to demonstrate their ability. 

"Adjacencies" and "opposites" have marked effects on program 
ratings. The former refers to the program immediately preceding and 
the one immediately following. A series of shows more or less similar 
will hold an audience, where a sharp change in style may cause a fall 
ing off. This may explain why NBC has a solid four hours of "soap 
operas" after lunch every day and why Mutual has three half-hour 
mysteries in a row on Sunday afternoon. "Opposites," programs si 
multaneously broadcast on other networks, may be strong or weak. 
Hooper indicates a sharp decline in other network listening Sundays 
from 9:00 to 9:15 P.M. EST, when Walter Winchell is on ABC. Yet 
here again it is possible to put too much faith in ratings. The near- 
panic created back in 1938 by Orson Welles' overly realistic "War of 
the Worlds" broadcast occurred during the half hour when "every 
body" was supposedly listening to Charley McCarthy! 

Audience "turnover" is another factor that advertisers weigh against 
a program rating. A five-day-a-week serial, for example, may have a 
5.0 rating, yet be found to have attracted some listeners every day, 
some only one or two days during the week. Consequently the adver 
tiser might actually reach as much as 12.5 percent of the radio fami 
lies. This type of information can be brought out by the Nielsen 
Radio Index (the audimeter technique), the "listener diary" method 
or direct surveys by trained investigators. 


Daytime Radio Serials 

Shortly after the formation of the first national networks a new 
form of radio entertainment started to attract the attenion of adver- 
isers, the daily serial story. Since most of these programs were spon 
sored by Procter & Gamble they acquired the tag of "soap operas" 
which has clung ever since, although General Mills, Sterling Drug, 
General Foods, Whitehall Pharmacal and others outside the soap field 
have long used the format. 

Some serial programs are aired before noon, notably the veteran 
"David Harum" for Bab-O. The majority, however, come between 
the hours of 2:00 and 6:00 P.M., EST, and during that four-hour stretch 
NBC's basic network and most supplementary stations are booked 
solid. From two to three o'clock General Mills, as of January, 1947, 
was presenting Mondays through Fridays successive installments of 
"Today's Children," "Woman in White," "Masquerade" (with a five- 
minute Betty Crocker interlude), and "Light of the World." Then 
Procter & Gamble took over with four quarter-hour serials, followed 
by Sterling Drug with four more. By that time some of the children's 
serials were coming in over other networks but NBC continued with 
its woman appeal; from 5:00 to 5:15, "When a Girl Marries," oppo 
site "Terry and the Pirates," and 5:15 to 5:30, "Portia Faces Life." 
(Portia also faced "Superman" over Mutual and more than held her 
own with a 7.8 Hooper against 3.9 for the all-powerful bird man!) 
Both these "soap operas" were sponsored by General Foods. Two 
more serials with adult appeal, "Just Plain Bill" and "Front Page Far- 
rell," followed for American Home Products, giving a total of sixteen 
quarter-hour programs consecutively. 

Who listens to these shows, and why? Obviously a lot of people 
must like them or big manufacturers wouldn't continue to foot the 
bills. The audiences, of course, are predominantly women in homes, 
women with families for which they buy groceries/ cleaners, tooth 
paste and headache remedies. Hooper reports show that consistently 
during this four-hour period they rate from 28 to over 40 percent of 
the sets in use. 

A survey made in New England by Dr. S. J. Wump, director of the 
National Institute of Human Relations, showed that 51.2 percent of 
the women polled listen to "soap operas." When they were asked 
why, these reasons were given: 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 223 

Women with more trouble than 1 32.7% 

How women wiggle out of trouble 25.5% 

Husbands meaner than mine 17.9% 

They do the crying, so I needn't 6.3% 

Makes conversation with neighbors 6.1% 

Kills time 6.0% 

Drowns out baby's squawking 5.6% 

No opinion 2% 

Those who said that they do not listen gave the following reasons: 

Working girl, not home 62.7% 

High blood pressure, too exciting 18.3% 

Disapprove 8.3% 

Prefer to do my own weeping 4.8% 

No radio \ 2.6% 

No opinion 2.1 % 

Deaf .1.2%* 

Physicians, sociologists and women's club leaders have condemned 
these daytime serials as overdrawn, unreal, tending to develop neu 
rotic tendencies in listeners; yet the top programs seem to go on year 
after year attracting large audiences just the same. Although many 
types of programs have been tried out for the daytime hours, "soap 
operas" continue to lead. Only "Kate Smith Speaks," "Aunt Jenny" 
(a recipe program for Spry shortening), "Breakfast in Hollywood" 
,and "Breakfast Club" were able to crack the first twenty Monday- 
through-Friday daytime shows in the December 1946 ratings, all the 
i others being serials. 

The cost of staging a "soap opera" even on a five-day-a-week basis is 
well below that of most musical and variety programs. Robert Landry 
.estimates that talent will run from $1,400 to $2,000 per week and 
script $150 to $350, although top actors and writers command much 
more.** Network time charges are difficult to estimate because of the 
wide variation in number of stations used as well as discounts. Day 
time rates are usually 50 percent of evening rates and most of the big 
serial advertisers obtain further reductions by buying time on an 
hourly basis rather than in quarter hours. There are other forms of 
discounts, too. For example, NBC has an over-all discount of 

* Printers' Ink, June 13, 1947, p. 76. By permission of Printers' Ink. 
'* Landry, op. cit., p. 284. 


percent on advertisers using $1,500,000 or more in gross space during 
a year. It seems probable that considering everything, the minimum 
outlay for producing a soap opera over a 52-week stretch is around 
$150,000; the leading shows operate on a much higher budget. 

An answer to critics of daytime serials was seen in a move by CBS 
in mid- 1947. A family counselor feature was added to 'The Second 
Mrs. Burton," with guest speakers every Wednesday. Typical con 
sultant was Dr. Valerie Hopkins Parker, discussing ways a young 
couple could live with in-laws during the housing crisis. Other shows 
have interpolated recipes, child-care suggestions and news commen 
taries to combat the charge that all soap operas are pure escapism. 

Children's serials generally follow a standard pattern. Many of 
them stem directly from comic strips: ''Dick Tracy," "Tom Mix," 
"Terry and the Pirates." One of the most successful, "The Lone 
Ranger," became so popular with kids that it attracted an adult audi 
ence as well. Recently it has been broadcast evenings for General 

Virtually all programs beamed at the juvenile market embody some 
sort of offer: either a gift included with the package, or a premium 
requiring a label or box top and enough cash to absorb the advertiser's 
cost. Other attractions, designed to make Young America put the 
heat on mother to buy the product, include membership pins, badges, 
secret codes and other paraphernalia in special clubs; prize contests, 
requiring a part of the package "or a reasonably accurate facsimile of 
the same"; and give-away booklets available only at dealers' stores. An 
example of this latter type of proposal was used on an NBC program 
by Smilin' Ed McConnell. A Buster Brown comic book was offered 
on two successive Saturdays if children would come to a Buster Brown 
shoestore accompanied by a parent, and the entire edition of 1,000 7 - 
000 was promptly exhausted. Comic book two, announced a bit later, 
had a 750,000 run, which was also cleaned out quickly. Radio adver 
tisers who strike a successful child appeal expect returns in the hun 
dreds of thousands and are not too surprised when an offer passes the 
million mark. 

Radio Advertising for Retailers 

Less than 27 percent of the total amount spent on radio advertising 
in 1946 came from retailers, according to the Printers' Ink estimate. Yet 









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"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 225 

this added up to over $130,000,000. This money was spent by many 
types of stores and local service firms on a wide variety of programs. 

Some of the larger department stores participate in network shows, 
buying the local outlet and having an announcer in the local station 
read their commercials while the network broadcast is silent or is play 
ing "fill-in" music. Newscasts are popular with retail sponsors. The 
morning "musical clock" type of program has been used by numerous 

An outstanding example of intensive use of radio by a retailer is 
Joske's, San Antonio department store. Under the vice-president in 
charge of sales promotion, a separate radio advertising department has 
been set up with a director, copy writers and clerical help independ 
ent of those employees handling newspaper, magazine or direct-mail 
advertising. Three types of appeals are used: long term promotions, 
stressing the general advantages of certain store divisions; short term 
promotions, featuring certain departments, brands or kinds of mer 
chandise for a week at a time; and immediate promotions, designed 
for one or two days of concentrated selling on special events or items. 

In a one-year test, Joske's of Texas made itself a guinea pig for the 
retailers and radio stations of the county, using five stations, 54 pro 
grams weekly and 109 spot announcements weekly. The "beamed 
program" technique was employed, the promotion of a specific type 
of merchandise or service directed toward a pre-determined audience, 
by the careful selection of suitable programs, times and stations. 

Before the test was started on January 1, 1945, a series of surveys 
was made of the store, its competition, trading area, customers and 
prospective customers. It was learned, for example, that, while the 
store had a good high-fashion reputation and had particularly fine 
acceptance in better ready-to-wear, cosmetics, jewelry, books and ap 
pliances, it was not particularly strong in some popular-priced fields, 
such as furniture and basement merchandising. In part this was due 
to the lesser acceptance of the store by San Antonio's Mexican-born 
element, comprising 90,000 or 100,000 of the city's 350,000 popula 
tion. To reach this particular market a number of programs went to 
KONO, a local station with a wide following in the lower and middle 
income groups. Other programs were "beamed" at other markets in 
similar fashion. 

In 1945 Joske's devoted a total of 1,359 commercials to Upstairs 
Fashions; 1,020 to Men's and Boys' Departments; 903 to the Base- 


ment Store; 865 to Cosmetics; and 865 to Furniture. A sample sched 
ule included the following features: 

Old Ranch Hanc 

Station Time How Often Mdse. or Depts. 


Good Morning Show._.KTSA 7: 45 AM 

Beauty and a Song. WOAI 8: 30 AM 

News at Nine KONO 9 : 00 AM 

For Members Only KONO 11:00 AM 

Texas Today WOAI 1 1 : 1 5 AM 

For Members Only KONO 1 1 : 45 AM 

Fulton Lewis, Jr KM AC 6: 00PM 

Aloha from the Islands-KONO 6:30 PM 

Newscast WOAI 1 1 : 00 PM 

Teen Top Tunes KONO 10: 00 AM 

Musical Headliners. KONO 2: 00PM 

Newscast WOAI 10 : 00 PM 

Basement, Notions, 

Many depts. 
Many depts. 
Basement depts. 
Quality mdse. 
Budget House (furniture) 
Men's Store, other depts. 
Many depts. 

Men's Store, other depts. 
Teens and Boys' 
Basement; Budget House 

Besides these regularly scheduled programs, Joske's also used 68 spot 
announcements during the week and 24 on Sunday. Some of these 
were on co-operating programs containing brief messages by a number 
of sponsors; some were at station breaks; some followed network pro 
grams which advertised national brands carried by Joske's. (The 
Berkshire Hosiery program was followed by a Joske's hosiery tie-in.) 

A slogan identified each program and spot announcement: "... 
brought to you by Joske's of Texas, by the Alamo in San Antonio, the 
largest store in the largest state." 

Results of this saturation use of radio were not always easy to iso 
late, but there were many instances of dramatic sales increases. For 
example, after the store's five lines of cosmetics were featured on 
"Beauty and a Song," they showed gains of 50, 43, 31, 25 and 22 per 
cent respectively. 

At the end of the study year of 1945 Joske's further co-operated with 
the National Association of Broadcasters by setting up certain "test" 
departments which received radio advertising and "control" depart 
ments which received normal advertising in other media but no radio. 
These conclusions were reached after a study during the last six 
months of 1946: 

1. Radio contributed directly to an average sales increase of 61.96 
percent in the three test departments, over the preceding six-week 
period of normal promotion. 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 227 

2. Radio contributed directly to an average increase of 46.89 percent 
in the test departments during the first six weeks and 76.99 percent 
during the second six weeks, indicating its cumulative effect. 

3. Radio proved its "carry-over" value. Although sales decreased 
when radio advertising was stopped, the average decline in test 
departments was not so great as in control departments. 

Other stores have used radio almost as intensively as Joske's. Heine- 
mann's, at Jonesboro, Arkansas, concentrates 13 quarter hours, one 
half hour, and 30 spot announcements per week on Station KBTM. 
The station manager says his most frequent call from the sponsor is 
to "take off that copy you've sold us out." 

Rich's Department Store of Atlanta developed a unique program, 
"Rich's Radio School," a recorded daily program for youngsters from 
kindergarten to sixth-grade age. Broadcast over six Georgia stations it 
is designed for in-school listening. Teachers receive prebroadcast 
pamphlets including a bibliography and teaching aids on each subject 
covered; occasionally give-aways such as bird prints or maps are sent 
out. The programs contain no commercials, merely the store name in 
the title, but are designed to identify Rich's as a Georgia institution. 
McCurdy and Company of Rochester, New York, have a "Hi News" 
program Mondays through Fridays over WHEC to win good will for 
the store among teen-agers. At last reports it had a 5.4 rating in com 
petition with network serials and was popular with teachers as well as 

The Morris B. Sachs Amateur Hour, sponsored each Sunday by a 
Chicago clothier whose store is ten miles from the loop, is one of the 
oldest retail programs in continuous performance. It started in 1934 
and has never missed a week, now being broadcast from 12:30 to 1:30 
P.M. over two stations, WENR and WIND, simultaneously. In June 
1946, its rating was 7.9 which was considered unusually high for a local 
program at this time on Sunday. The show is produced in the ABC 
studios in Chicago except on special occasions such as anniversaries 
and Christmas, or when it is staged at one of the veterans' hospitals. 
Former amateurs who have appeared as unknowns include movie star 
June Haver, stage stars Pamela Britton and Maureen Cannon and 
singer Skip Farrell. Commercials stress particular types of merchan 
dise, quality assortments, price range and the store's location. The 
appeal of the show has been demonstrated by the fact that Sachs, 

though far from centrally located, draws trade from every part of Chi 
cago and the outlying towns. 

"Telephone quizzes" are favorites with retail radio advertisers. A 
catch question is given over the air, the announcer picks a number at 
random from the local directory and quizzes whoever responds. If 
that person fails to give the correct answer the award goes up, usually 
$5.00 for each failure. The loser, who may have missed out on a prize 
of several hundred dollars, is compensated with a merchandise cer 
tificate. This may be varied by playing a "mystery tune," or by asking 
the selected listener to identify a "mystery voice." 

Another inexpensive and popular type of local show is the "man in 
the street" broadcast, patterned after the network show, "Vox Pop," 
in which bystanders are asked to give their opinions on topics of broad 
human interest. This may be varied by having the interviews in the 
store, as is the case with the "Meet Your Neighbor" program of 
Vogel's Super Market, Pekin, Illinois, heard daily over WSIV. An 
instance of the drawing power of this particular program occurred 
during the postwar meat shortage; the announcer casually mentioned 
that one of the participants had steak in her shopping basket, and 
within 20 minutes there was a line a block long waiting to buy meat 

Electrical Transcriptions 

For advertisers whose appropriations do not permit a costly "live" 
show, recorded programs offer a wide variety of choices. 

National Broadcasting Company was one of the first in the field, 
setting up its "NBC Thesaurus," a musical library sold to the affili 
ated stations on a subscription basis. In 1935, when it was introduced, 
50 stations subscribed; by 1947, some 400 stations had the service. The 
subscriber receives an initial 4,000 varied selections on 16-inch discs, a 
script service, and 60 to 70 new selections a month. Among the name 
artists are Sammy Kaye, Xavier Cugat, Vincent Lopez and the Deep 
River Boys. 

Since 1937 NBC has also offered syndicated 5-minute, quarter-hour 
and half-hour shows including dramatic, quiz, comedy, sports, adven 
ture, mystery, musical and news programs. Some 900 stations use this 

* Data for this section supplied by Frank E. Pellegrin, National Association of 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 229 

service. Costs are based on the size of the station and its market 
potential. The other networks also provide recorded programs of 
many appeals: hillbilly, sophisticated, artistic and all stages between. 

Independent producers figure prominently in the "E. T." business, 
which was expected to gross over ten million dollars in 1947. Among 
them are such firms as World Broadcasting Company, Frederic W. 
Ziv Company, and Louis G. Cowan, Inc. (Cowan was the originator 
of the world-famous "Quiz-Kids" program.) 

Among the shows offered by Ziv are Easy Aces, a comedy serial; 
"Favorite Story," a half-hour dramatic show with Ronald Colman as 
narrator; and such musical attractions as Barry Wood, Wayne King 
and Kenny Baker. The Colman show is budgeted at $9,000 a week. 
Ziv shows are used not only by local and regional advertisers but also 
by such national advertisers as Borden, Vick, Wildroot and Grove 

Interest in transcribed shows received impetus when Bing Crosby, 
after more than ten years as star of the Kraft Music Hall, signed with 
Philco in 1946 with the understanding that he could record his pro 
grams in advance. Despite some loss in rating, Bing's new "platters" 
proved sufficiently popular to presage a trend toward more programs 
of this type by established performers. 

The "disc jockey" type of program was also on the upswing in 1947. 
For years radio stations had been playing phonograph records inter 
spersed with commercials as fill-ins for "live" programs. Bob Hawk, 
later to achieve celebrity with "Take It or Leave It" and "Thanks to 
the Yanks," for Eversharp and Camel respectively, got his start in 
Chicago with a program of jive records known as "Red Hot and Low 
Down." Barry Gray of WOR won a wide following by his disparag 
ing remarks aimed at those who phoned in requests. Most of these 
programs were of the "Midnight Watch" or "Matinee" variety. It 
remained for Martin Block of WNEW, New York, to put the record 
rodeos in the realm of big business. His "Make-Believe Ballroom" 
burgeoned during the 1940's into one of the best-rated local programs, 
with its own theme song and a waiting list of sponsors. 

Currently such radio veterans as Ted Husing, Paul Whiteman and 
Tommy Dorsey have invaded the field, all operating on a percentage 
basis. By making available to the advertiser with $5,000 to $100,000 a 
year to spend in radio the same type of performance as the $1,000,000 
sponsor, electrical transcriptions raise the standards of radio pro- 


grams in general and challenge the networks to produce better and 
better shows if they are to retain their hold on the listening public. 

Spot Broadcasting 

Network programs may be compared with saturation barrages or 
bombardments; spot radio is "pinpoint" bombing of specific objec 

Spot broadcasting, as officially defined by the National Association 
of Broadcasters, is "radio advertising of any type on stations individ 
ually selected. Regardless of the number of stations selected, each 
schedule is separately arranged, giving the advertiser free choice of 
markets and of stations in each market, free choice of programs or 
announcements, either live or transcribed." Spot announcements may 
be either local or national in origin. 

The one-minute recorded announcement is a favorite unit for spot 
radio. It permits the use of orchestras, singers, sound effects. Local 
announcers, with the best intentions, may fluff a commercial. The 
"pitch on a pancake" can be rehearsed and re-rehearsed until it is 

In 1941 the Pepsi-Cola Company decided to use one-minute dra 
matized commercials on a large number of stations. To open and 
close these quickies, a singing jingle was developed. But the little 
tune proved so catchy, so complete in itself, that the advertising 
agency, Newell-Emmett Company, recommended its adoption as a 
station break. Its briefness, slightly under 1 5 seconds, permitted many 
more repetitions than a 60-second spot. Surveys showed that it also 
removed the "annoyance factor" which sometimes came up in longer 
announcements. The original jingle was: 

Pepsi-Cola hits the spot, 
12 full ounces that's a lot! 

Twice as much for a nickel too 

Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you. 
Nickel, nickel, etc. 

The jingles were recorded by such well-known performers as the 
Radio Rogues, the Tune Twisters and other combinations. More than 
fifty variants of the standard jingle were recorded. It began to bob up 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 231 

everywhere, between network programs, in the midst of local "partici 
pating" shows, at many different times of day and night. 

Inspired by numerous mail requests, Pepsi-Cola prepared complete 
orchestrations of the tune, hired a name band and had recordings 
made which eventually resulted in orders for over 100,000 discs for 
juke boxes all over the country. The agency won the 1941 Advertising 
& Selling award for excellence in commercial announcements. 

Another jingle to hit the jack-pot was the lilting "Chiquita Ba 
nana," devised by Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn in 1944 for 
United Fruit Company. Tested in various markets, by November of 
the following year the one-minute commercial was being heard over 
138 stations in 55 United States markets as well as 24 Canadian sta 
tions, including a French version for the bilingual provinces. Its object 
was not to promote the sale of bananas at that time, as the supply was 
limited, but to educate the public about bananas and clear up mis 
information, so that when the supply became ample bananas would 
"resume their rightful place in the diet of the American people." 

Main points stressed were: (1) bananas should not be kept in the 
refrigerator; (2) should not be eaten until "golden and flecked with 
brown." The song caught on. Gene Krupa, Vincent Lopez, Fred 
Allen, Carmen Miranda all gave it free plugs on the air. A survey of 
513 typical housewives, shortly after the spot broadcasts began, had 
100 percent correct answers to the question: "Where should bananas 
never be kept?" 

Among the largest and most consistent users of spots has been Bui- 
ova Watch, with its familiar time signals. Except for an occasional 
magazine ad virtually all of the Bulova budget for many years has been 
devoted to this type of broadcast. A gigantic spot campaign, perhaps 
the largest ever run in so short a time, was the six-week drive on Lucky 
Strike Cigarettes starting in April 1947 over 920 stations. On April 14, 
twenty-four college stations were added for a five-week schedule, 
bringing the total to 944. Number of transcribed spots varied from 1 5 
per week on stations in smaller cities to 100 per week on major sta 
tions, the total estimated cost being in the neighborhood of $3,000,000. 

How Much Commercial? 

The "pet peeve" of millions of radio listeners is the repetitious, 
long-drawn-out, overly frank commercial. John Crosby, radio column- 


ist for the New York Herald Tribune, has devoted a number of his 
columns to the subject. On November 25, 1946, he excerpted a few 
of hundreds of letters, among them the following juicy morsels: 

I'm so sick of B-O boomed at me from every angle that I'd cheer 
fully send every cake of Lifebuoy overseas in the hope that the adver 
tising would be switched in that direction. 

My insides are my own business. Ill thank the pill people to stop 
telling me how to put them in shape. 

Won't you do something about the awful advertising in rhyme of 
the Alka-Seltzer people? Those awful rhymes! That inane dialogue! 

"Containing not one but several ingredients" doesn't mean a thing. 
It's almost impossible to make a medicine containing only one ingre 

The girl who goes for a man in an Adam Hat would go for anything. 
Any man in an Adam Hat would get thrown out of my house that's 
what I think of their singing commercials! 

Crosby also tells of one man who wrote in that he had broken his 
ankle in a mad dash across the room to turn off an announcer chant 
ing "LS/MFT . . . LS/MFT." Several have announced that they 
were starting crusades to boycott certain products because of the 
"horrible, disgusting, revolting commercials." 

Correspondents of Ulmer Turner, Chicago Sun commentator, pro 
test violently against the program interrupted at a dramatic moment 
with "But first, a word from our sponsor!" which usually turns out to 
be 150 words. To keep listeners dangling on the verge of a mystery 
solution while the virtues of a laxative or a beer or a cigarette are ex 
tolled is enough to make many vow never to buy that product, he is 
often told. 

, As against these hand-picked objections to radio commercials could 
be cited a mass of evidence to prove that the average listener does not 
resent the advertising portion of broadcasting. This was established 
in a nation-wide survey by the National Opinion Research Center as 
reported in "The People Look at Radio," edited by Lazarsfeld and 
Field and published in 1946 by the University of North Carolina 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 233 

A few courageous advertisers have deliberately minimized their 
commercial time. Goodyear, in sponsoring a weekly drama based 
upon the teachings of Christ taken from the New Testament, over 
some 200 ABC stations in the first half of 1947, carefully avoided any 
selling. Produced under the guidance of Fulton Oursler, the series 
was intended to illuminate the original meaning of familiar Bible 
stories, with a board of clergymen of various faiths passing on each 
script. Only the required sponsor identification precedes and follows 
the show: "The Greatest Story Ever Told, presented by the Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Co." The Texas Company, in presenting the Metro 
politan Opera, used the intermission periods for discussion about 
opera and its people, answers to questions about opera and talks on 
democracy by prominent Americans. Allis-Chalmers also kept well in 
the background in presenting the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The 
Ford Sunday Evening Hour, heard for many years over a coast-to-coast 
network, had a minimum of sales talk. All of these and similar pro 
grams received much favorable comment. Evidence is lacking as to 
their sales effectiveness, however, and the average advertiser will no 
doubt continue to pack as much "hard-hitting sales wallop" into his 
program as possible. 

There are restrictions, of course, on the amount of commercial time 
permitted on network programs. The NBC Program Policies Manual 
gives the following limits: 


Length of News Programs All Other Programs 

Program (Minutes) (Day and Night) Day Night 

5 1:20 2:00 1:45 

10 1:45 2:30 2:00 

15 2:15 3:15 2:30 

25 .... 4:15 2:45 

30 .... 4:30 3:00 

These limitations do not apply to programs largely devoted to discuss 
ing products, such as those of Galen Drake in New York and Paul 
Gibson in Chicago; to recipe and homemaker programs like Beulah 
Karney's popular feature; nor to local programs on many stations. 

Commercials must be submitted to the network at least 48 hours 
in advance of the broadcast. They are subject to approval by the net- 


work, which reserves the right to reject any material contrary to its pol 
icies and to demand proof of any statements or claims. Require 
ments are particularly strict with regard to medical accounts. The 
words "safe" and "harmless" are banned; certain proprietary reme 
dies must carry the warning: "Use only as directed"; no claims that a 
product will effect a cure are acceptable. 

Among types of accounts considered "unacceptable" by NBC were: 
professions in which it is deemed unethical to advertise (physicians, 
lawyers, dentists, etc.); stocks and bonds; cathartics, deodorants, re 
ducing agents, hair restoratives; fortunetelling, astrology and "other 
forms of occultism"; wines and liquors (beer is acceptable, subject to 
local and federal laws); firearms and fireworks; matrimonial agencies; 
horse-racing organizations and publications; cemeteries, morticians, 
casket manufacturers and other products or services associated with 
burial. No NBC announcer was permitted to give a personal testi 
monial on the air, personally endorse the advertiser's product, or ask 
listeners to purchase it as a favor to himself.* 

The NAB has adopted standards of practice which are adhered to 
by the majority of independent stations as well as the network affili 
ates. This means that local programs, with few exceptions, reflect the 
same rigid standards of control as network shows. 

Things to Come 

Twelve hundred and seven broadcasting stations were listed in the 
June 1947 issue of Standard Rate & Data Service aside from FM and 
television stations. Of these, all but 30 had time for sale. The excep 
tions were some 20 owned by universities and colleges; a few by reli 
gious organizations such as the Pillar of Fire, operating KPOF in 
Denver and WAWZ in Zarephath, New Jersey; Echo Park Evangeli 
cal Association, with KFSG, Los Angeles, and First Presbyterian 
Church of Seattle with KTW; and most notable, WNYC, owned 
and operated by the City of New York. 

Clearly, commercially sponsored broadcasting predominated in 
America, with 97.5 percent of all standard stations selling time. The 
majority of the new FM stations also were on a time-selling basis. 

* NBC Program Policies and Working Manual, Copyrighted 1945 by National 
Broadcasting Co. 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 235 

There seemed little doubt that when television went past its pioneer 
ing stage it too would be developed largely by advertising revenue. 

The end of World War II saw a tremendous increase in the num 
ber of radio stations, and an even greater clamor from people who 
wanted to get into the field. In April 1947 the Federal Communica 
tions Commission reported that it had authorized over 700 FM and 
64 television stations, although Standard Rate & Data Service listed 
only 55. The majority were building or still in the blueprint stage. 
What disturbed the FCC most was the terrific number of applicants 
for new stations: 1,114 still pending, even though more new stations 
had been licensed in 1946 than in the entire 11 preceding years. 

Radio networks were growing, too. Mutual, largest in numbers, 
announced early in 1947 that it had 411 affiliated stations, with some 
30 more under consideration. Many of its stations were not exclusive 
but also received programs from other nets. There was no doubt, 
however, about the fact that the fledgling network of 1934 which chal 
lenged National and Columbia with little more than WOR, Newark, 
and WGN, Chicago, was a full-sized institution. American Broad 
casting Company, the former NBC "Blue" headed by Edward J. 
Noble of "Life-Savers" fame, since its separation in 1944 had also 
assumed new magnitude with 258 basic or affiliated stations. National 
with 165 and Columbia with 163 stations maintained their leadership 
on the basis of prestige, station power and coverage. 

Only a small proportion of all stations, less than 20, are network- 
owned. Columbia owns WCBS (formerly WABC) in New York, 
WBBM in Chicago, KNX in Los Angeles, for example; but like the 
other networks it must depend upon the good will of its local out 
lets. Consequently the position of "Station Relations Manager" is 
an important one. Executives of independent stations have a voice in 
formulating the policies of the networks and are not slow to voice 
their "gripes" when they don't like the way things are being run. 

While the affiliated stations need their network to supply the audi 
ence-winning programs that make their local time more salable and 
also to fill in the unsold time with attractive sustaining material, the 
networks need the stations too. Realization of this fact has done 
much to preserve the "grass-roots" character of chain broadcasting 
whenever it showed a tendency to become too far removed from the 
ideas and customs of the hinterland. 

Besides the four coast-to-coast networks, a number of regional net- 


works or groups have been established, chiefly for economy and unity 
in selling time rather than for developing programs although they 
may offer creative facilities, too. The Don Lee Network on the Pa ! 
cific coast has 18 stations in California, ten in Oregon, nine in Wash 
ington, two in Idaho and one in Nevada, all MBS affiliates. The 
Intermountain Network is a similar group with 15 stations. The Key 
stone Broadcasting System has some 260 smaller-city stations in what 
it calls the "Beyond-Metropolitan" area from Anchorage, Alaska's 
KFQD, to Florida's WDLP at Panama City. Coverage is given by 
electrical transcriptions instead of wire connections. The Yankee 
Network in New England has some 23 stations and has developed a 
number of effective co-operating programs. State networks also vie 
for the advertiser's attention, among them the Tall Corn Network 
with ten stations offered ''as a package or split 'em to fit your need." 
The national networks also have regional groups which can be bought 
without going country-wide. 

As with newspapers and magazines, radio has its "reps," independ 
ent selling organizations that handle the advertising contacts of a 
number of stations. Some, such as the Branham Company, represent 
other media, but the majority specialize on radio alone. These include 
such well-known firms as John Blair and Company, Free and Peters, 
William G. Rambeau, Paul Raymer, Edward Petry and Company 
and Walker. Solicitors for these firms call on manufacturers and 
advertising agencies but do not concern themselves with local adver 
tisers. The make-up of a network list is flexible and certain markets 
are optional with the sponsor; it is the representative's job to get the 
maximum number of stations handled by his firm, on the maximum 
number of schedules. He is also concerned with obtaining spot radio 
orders for stations which he represents. 

"How much does it cost to broadcast a program?" is a question fre 
quently asked. Rates vary tremendously, depending on the station's 
range, the number of listeners covered and other factors. All rates 
have probably increased in recent years due to growing costs of oper 
ating a radio station and the incidental services that have been added 
to augment the effectiveness of radio advertising. For instance, Pro 
fessor Hotchkiss gave time charges for Station WOR, Newark, in 
May 1931, as $750 an hour, $450 for a half hour and $300 for a quar 
ter hour of evening time, with the daytime charges being one-third 
those of evening. The 1947 base rate for that station was $1,200 for 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 237 

one hour, $720 for a half hour and $480 for a quarter hour. These are 
one-time prices, subject to discounts for frequency. It is noteworthy, 
however, that the cost of broadcasts has gone up considerably over this 

These are, of course, among the highest rates in the industry. At 
the other end of the scale, smaller stations sell time for as little as $10 
for a quarter hour. As with other media, there are expensive ones and 
inexpensive ones. The advertiser takes his choice. 

Today most stations divide their hours on the air into several pe 
riods. On WOR Class A time is from 6:30 to 10:30 P.M. Some net 
work stations extend this period, which is known as the "ice cream 
hours," from 6:00 to 1 1 :00 P.M. Class B time on WOR, which has a 25 
percent markdown, is from 6:00 to 6:30 P.M. and 10:30 to 11:00 P.M. 
weekdays, and 12 noon to 6:00 P.M. Sundays (after which it becomes 
Class A). Class C, 50 percent off in rates, extends from 8:00 A.M. to 
6:00 P.M. and 11:00 to 11:30 P.M. daily, 8:00 A.M. to noon Sundays. 
Class D, one-third the top rates, is from 11:30 P.M. to 8:00 A.M., Sta 
tion WOR being operated 24 hours a day. 

There are variations in this rate structure, some stations having 
only three classes, others as many as five or six. But the fundamen 
tal principle is uniform: the highest price is during the evening hours 
between supper and bedtime when both husband and wife are apt 
to be listening, when more sets are in use and when there is greatest 
competition for time on the air. Next come the periods immediately 
before and after these choice spots, then the long daytime stretches 
when women's programs abound, and finally the "dog watch" hours. 

Frequency modulation or FM has been hailed as the radio of to 
morrow because of its ability to eliminate outside noises (static) 
which sometimes spoil perfect reception under the present amplitude 
modulation (AM) technique. Thus far no major station has gone 
FM. The cost of converting all broadcasting facilities to the new 
type of equipment is colossal and undoubtedly will be deferred until 
a majority of home radios are able to receive FM broadcasts. 

Television has been "in the air" for 20 years. Its enthusiasts have 
cried "Wolf!" so often that most people are skeptical about its im 
minence. Technical difficulties have been overcome to a large extent 
through the change from mechanical "scanning" to all-electronic 
equipment. The industry struck a snag immediately after the war 
when there was a movement toward the use of color in television. The 


FCC denied an application of Columbia Broadcasting for television 
in color in March 1947, and this was hailed as a go-ahead signal for 
those who felt that the immediate future of the new medium lay in 
the black-and-white image. 

Du Mont, Radio Corporation of America and other manufactu 
rers of television sets freely predicted a boom. Du Mont planned to 
double its production; RCA announced plans to build 160,000 sets 
in 1947. A number of agencies with television departments sched 
uled full-scale campaigns on the existing facilities. Thus far televi 
sion was limited in range, and plans for network programs waited on 
the construction of "coaxial" cables connecting the cities, since tele 
vision, unlike radio, cannot be transmitted over regular telephone 

The advertising fraternity awaits the advent of television with 
mixed feelings. Undoubtedly new complexities will be added to an 
already complex profession. More than ever, advertisers will find 
themselves in "show business," since the spasmodic experiments 
already reported indicate that television commercials to be effective 
must embody drama and action. 

One short-cut to producing satisfactory commercials for the new 
medium seems to be the use of films rather than live action. Just as 
electrical transcriptions permit the radio advertiser to rehearse an 
nouncer, sound effects and music until all flaws have been elimi 
nated, so will movies avoid the embarrassment of television actors 
"blowing up" on the commercials. On the other hand, it is argued 
that the cost of filming a commercial, estimated by John Allen of 
Marschalk and Pratt, New York agency, at between $750 and $3,000, 
makes their use impractical for the average advertiser. Firms using 
theater film advertising or industrial movies will be able to take ad 
vantage of television in this respect more readily than those that 
must start from scratch. Possibly "stock films" may be developed 
for local advertisers leaving only the individual name, address and 
telephone number to be dubbed in by an announcer. 

Trail blazers in advertising by television have already discovered 
that the medium has a powerful impact on its observers. While one 
may take with some reservations the statement of Leonard Cramer, 
executive vice-president of Du Mont, that "a brief but well integrated 
visual commercial will sell a thousand times as well as the aural 
one,"* it is evident that opportunities are presented which combine 

* Advertising Age, October 28, 1946. By permission of Advertising Age. 

"WE'RE ON THE AIR!" 239 

the strongest advantages of radio and printed advertising. These 
include showing the product in home settings, actual demonstra 
tions of how to use it and the results, action testimonials by celebri 
ties and ordinary folk, and dramatized incidents in the design and 
manufacturing processes. 

Companies with a trade character can bring it to life. For example, 
Atlantic Refining Company has been sponsoring football telecasts 
for more than six years over WPTZ, Philadelphia, through N. W. 
Ayer & Son. Don McClure, Ayer's television director, developed 
commercials featuring "Sparky," the trade character of Atlantic Gas 
oline, which have been very effective. In another instance, Chef 
Boy-Ar-Dee Quality Foods, Inc., staged a television broadcast over 
WRGB, Schenectady, in which Chef Hector Boiardi himself partici 
pated, demonstrating how easy it is to prepare his famous packaged 
spaghetti dinner. LeRoy Kling, vice-president of the Gordon Best 
Company, the Chef Boy-Ar-Dee agency, declared afterward that the 
Chef was a "natural" for television. 

The possibilities of television for department store advertising 
have been vouched for by David Arons of Gimbel's in Philadelphia. 
At first he tried dramatized skits but discarded these in favor of "real 
people in real situations doing real things, with merchandise the first 
consideration." Fashions, furniture and kitchenware, he found, "fall 
flat on television." But hair-dos, garden shrubs, kitchen gadgets 
(showing new and old ways of doing kitchen chores), dress patterns 
and men's shirts were successful. On one program Gimbel's had a 
letter-writing contest and received 52 letters, which he estimated 
was a 7.1 percent return on all television sets in Philadelphia at that 

Television in early 1947 was still a small factor to the advertiser 
thinking in millions. Chicago had an estimated 2,500 receivers, New 
York perhaps 7,000. But the possibilities were unlimited. Just as 
radio had opened up an entirely new vista to the manufacturer and 
retailer of the 1920's, television or video, to use the abbreviated 
term seemed likely to cause another revolution in advertising strat 
egy. As usual, there were doubters. That didn't deter the young- 
minded, the adventurous. They looked ahead to new techniques, 
new strategies in influencing people to buy, and they visualized what 
television might mean. It was a heady dream. But the improbable 
has a way of coming true in advertising. 


'" I 'HAT he who runs may read" has been the basic principle of 
an important part of the advertising field from the earliest 

-- days. Undoubtedly signs and posters were the first form of 
advertising, long before handbills and newspapers and magazines 
were known. Throughout the growth and development of these 
other media, posters maintained their place. And today, despite all 
the competition from radio, periodicals and other methods of selling 
the public, these brief, colorful displays still rank as a major adver 
tising technique. 

Several distinctive forms are included under this general heading. 
First and largest from the standpoint of cash outlay is the 24-sheet 
poster or "billboard" to use a term which is anathema in the indus 
try. Next perhaps comes the painted bulletin or handmade electric 
''spectacular," a particular sign for a particular spot. Also included 
in this category are miniature posters in streetcars, subway trains, 
busses and other common carriers; posters on and around subway, 
bus and ferry depots; posters on the sides of retail stores; highway 
signs, whether in rhyme or in straight copy; and innumerable vari 

The field of outdoor advertising, according to various estimates, 
accounts for somewhere between $50,000,000 and $100,000,000 a 
year. The Printers' Ink figures gave $71,700,000 in 1945, $85,900,000 
in 1946.* Subway, streetcar and bus advertising services do not an 
nounce their annual figures, but these and similar forms probably 
received $25,000,000 or more. Electric signs, highway bulletins and 
other permanent or semipermanent displays undoubtedly ran into 
many millions more. 

1 A common denominator of all these advertising media is their 
extreme brevity of copy. The most successful 24-sheet posters seldom 
contain more than eight or ten words including the name of the 
product, whereas an average magazine or newspaper ad may have 

* Poster Advertising Coverage, Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 1941. 



150 to 300 words. Thus the three prize-winning posters for 1945 had 
only the following text: 

1st Award: "Remember this wrapper! Wrigley's Spearmint Chew 
ing Gum" (7 words) 

2nd Award: "Refreshing Coca-Cola" (3 words) 
3rd Award: "Red Magic! Heinz Ketchup" (4 words) 

Reproductions of the package are frequently used in outdoor ad 
vertising. But almost invariably the label is simplified by eliminating 
all wording except for the product's name. A common device is to 
show the package so large that it alone identifies the advertiser with 
out the necessity of repeating the name elsewhere on the sign or 
poster. Illustrations are likewise kept very simple. Rarely does a 
poster have more than one or two figures; these usually appear as 
close-ups. Anything which might distract the attention or prevent 
instant recognition of the poster's meaning must be blanked out. 
Electric signs, painted wall displays and highway signs rarely attempt 
to do more than give the name of the product and a brief slogan or 
selling message. A notable exception is the Burma-Shave technique: 
a humorous rhyme split up into a series of small, regularly spaced 
signs along the road. 

Most outdoor and sign advertising is used to remind consumers of 
products with which they are already familiar. Even though they 
may not know the particular brand they will understand the type of 
product advertised. Because of the necessity for quick reading, this 
medium does not lend itself easily to a pioneering or educational 
advertising job, unless the theme can be expressed in a few words. 
But for such universally used items as chewing gum, soft drinks, 
bread, gasoline, automobiles, bathing suits, beer and candy bars, out 
door advertising has demonstrated its power both as a basic and as a 
supplementary medium. 

The 24-Sheet Poster 

The most efficient and highly organized factor in the field of out 
door advertising is the group of companies handling the displaying 
of 24-sheet posters. 

Today this service has become standardized. It is possible to order 
a "showing" in more than 17,000 cities and towns in the United 


States with the assurance that the "paper" will be carefully mounted 
on well located "poster panels" on or about the date specified, and 
will remain in view for a minimum of 30 days. Figures are available 
as to the number of pedestrians, motorists and users of mass trans 
portation who will be exposed to these posters. Different intensities 
of coverage are offered to the advertiser according to the limita 
tions of his budget. All this sounds simple but cumulatively it rep 
resents the lifelong efforts of many men. Perhaps no medium of 
advertising presented more obstacles to unification. The outdoor 
advertising field as it functions now is a monument to the work of 
men like Thomas Cusack, O. J. Gude, Kerwin Fulton, Burr Rob- 
bins, Barney Link and other foresighted leaders. 

Englishmen call outdoor posters "hoardings," from the old Anglo- 
Saxon hurd, meaning a fence or barrier. The earliest paper posters 
were hung on those temporary walls erected around buildings under 
construction. The American designation of "24 sheet" had a more 
practical origin. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the largest 
sheet of paper that could be printed by lithography measured 28 by 
42 inches. This was commonly used by theatrical promoters like 
P. T. Barnum. Combinations of several such impressions became 
known as "two-sheets," "three-sheets" and so on. A group four sheets 
high and six sheets wide, 24 in all, became accepted as a standard 
for giant displays featuring circuses and other gala events, and 
frames were built to accommodate them. Nowadays, though far 
larger sheets can be accommodated on the presses, and the average 
poster may consist of as few as eight separate pieces, they are still 
called "24-sheets." The printed surface measures 106 by 236 inches, 
which allows for an overlap where the sheets come together. 

Outdoor advertising in America may be said to have had its real 
origin 75 years ago, when the International Bill Posters' Association 
of North America was organized. In that year, 1872, the firm of 
Kissam & Allen began to erect and lease their own poster panels in 
stead of painting or papering over competitors' signs. In 1891 the 
Associated Bill Posters' Association, the first national effort to sta 
bilize the industry, tackled the problem of working out a uniform 
practice. At that time posters might be anything from one to 48 
sheets and even though the advertiser specified a 24-sheet poster 
there was often a variation of several inches in size. Not until 1912 
was the present uniform size adopted generally. 


Meanwhile the number of posting companies had grown from a 
scattered few to over 3,100 ''official" billposters (recognized by the 
Association) in 1910. The real development of the medium came, 
however, with formation of the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau 
in 1915. This organization of advertising agencies became interested 
in correlating posters with publication advertising so that their 
clients could receive a nation-wide service in the outdoor field com 
parable with that in newspapers and magazines. The Bureau still 
functions as the nonprofit buying and field service representative for 
member agencies and their clients. 

The Associated Bill Posters gave way to the Poster Advertising 
Association; finally, in 1925, to the Outdoor Advertising Association 
of America, which has since been the official voice of the poster in 
dustry, under such leaders as Harry O'Mealia, Clarence Philley, 
George Kleiser, and Rex Bell (of Terre Haute, not Hollywood) . This 
very alert and aggressive association of poster-plant owners is not to 
be confused with Outdoor Advertising, Inc., an organization which 
confines its activities to selling poster space for outdoor plants wher 
ever located, filling much the same role as do the special reps for 
magazines, newspapers and radio stations. 

Prior to 1910 advertising agencies were not granted a commission 
on poster advertising. The various outdoor companies sold their 
space direct to advertisers. Gradually this situation changed until by 
the early 1920's most plant operators were giving the accepted 15 
percent commission to recognized agencies. A 1947 estimate by 
Printers' Ink indicated that 70 percent of all poster revenue was de 
rived from national advertisers. 

The familiar green lattice panel, now standard for the industry, 
also contributed much to outdoor advertising progress. In April, 
1946, the OAAA also approved as an alternative standard a mod 
ernistic gray, gold and white moulding 19 inches wide, constructed 
of steel and finished in porcelain or baked enamel. Designed by 
Raymond Loewy Associates, this new "frontice" is appearing in 
increasing numbers throughout the country. 

Outdoor Advertising Technique 

Two attributes give outdoor advertising its strong appeal to adver 
tisers: size and repetition. 


With the standard 24-sheet, any manufacturer or retailer has at his 
disposal an area some 223 times the size of a magazine page and 71 
times as large as a full newspaper ad. The board under proper condi 
tions can be seen from several hundred feet away and although the 
observer may be traveling rapidly in an automobile or common car 
rier there is a period of several seconds when the massive display will 
be exposed to his conscious or unconscious observation. 

From sheer size and impact alone, the poster has had its opportu 
nity to record a significant impression on the mind of the observer. 
The average observation time of a poster is said to be only five sec 
onds, but during that brief span much can be accomplished. The 
appearance of a package, the name and slogan of a product, the 
advantage of a service can all be recorded for future reference when 
purchases are being made. 

Posters are democratic. The smallest concern occupies the same 
space as the behemoth. An advertiser with a limited appropriation 
can appear just as impressive on his particular poster as the big cor 
poration. Moreover, he can tell his story without worrying about 
competition; accepted poster practice does not permit the placing of 
boards for similar products in adjacent panels. 

Repetition is the keystone of advertising. Posters, strategically 
placed to catch the eye of the maximum number of passers-by, 
whether on foot, in autos or riding the elevated, streetcar or bus, are 
on view for a minimum of 30 days. Even a small showing in any 
except the tiniest hamlet will include several posters, while in New 
York, as of 1941, a showing for Brooklyn, Flushing, Bronx and Man 
hattan might run to 170 regular and 132 illuminated posters at a 
cost of $8,670 per month. Obviously there is no exact method of 
determining how many people will be exposed to an advertiser's 
boards during that period, but the chances of multiple impression in 
the course of a month are plentiful. 

Poster-plant owners increase these opportunities for observation 
by placing their frames along well-traveled arteries, carefully spotted 
so as to secure the utmost attention from car, bus and trolley riders. 
At busy intersections, posters are "angled" to be visible from two or 
more thoroughfares. Where ground-level locations are not obtain 
able, the displays may be erected on roofs of buildings, but never at 
a height greater than the normal range of vision. Preferred poster 
spots are at places where traffic tends to slow down or halt, thus 
affording greater opportunity for observation. 


Poster "Circulation" 

Realizing the need for some standard of measurement as to the 
number of people who might see a given poster or series of posters, 
in 1931 the ANA asked the Outdoor Advertising Association of 
America, in connection with the 4 A's, to sponsor a study that might 
lead to developing such a yardstick. This survey, conducted by Har 
vard University, took 18 months and covered 150 cities. As a result, 
the Traffic Audit Bureau was established, consisting of directors from 
each of the sponsoring associations, with Dr. Miller McClintock, 
who directed the basic researches, in charge. 

The TAB evolved a method of determining the average amount 
of traffic that would pass given locations during the course of a day, 
a week, a month. While this method is too complex to explain in a 
few words, it can be said that it depends on obtaining the gross traf 
fic figures for the poster location and then discounting them on the 
ratio of 50 percent of pedestrian traffic, 50 percent of automobile 
passenger traffic and 25 percent of mass transportation (trolleys, 
busses, etc.). The total of these reduced figures is then considered 
"effective circulation." 

By thus leaning backward in the amount of net coverage of a given 
area, the TAB has earned the respect of national advertisers and 
agencies. It is recognized that the figures are ultraconservative. 
Even so, these statistics rapidly assume amazing totals. According 
to OAAA estimates, a "Number 100" showing in cities covered by 
their poster plants would result in a minimum of 100,000,000 im 
pressions per day, the equivalent of one poster impression for every 
United States resident over 15 years of age. 

Modern outdoor advertising representatives do not deal, however, 
in national figures. They are concerned with specific markets, certain 
cities and the surrounding areas, which they represent. It is their 
contention that the medium covers not once but a number of times 
during the course of a 30-day display, every possible consumer in 
their territory. 

Two time-periods are used: 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. for unillumi- 
nated structures and 6:00 A.M to 12:00 P.M. for illuminated posters. 
In virtually every outdoor campaign except in the smaller towns, 
some illuminated posters are included with a showing, the proportion 
increasing with the population. Larger cities, having more night traf- 


fie, customarily have an average of one-third to one-half of their boards 
illuminated. The ratio gives an interesting clue to the customs of a 
city. For example, Davenport, Iowa, lights up 28 percent of the 
boards in a showing; Los Angeles, 52 percent.* 

Three basic factors govern the value of a poster, aside from the 
amount of traffic that passes it. There are: 

1. The unobstructed distance through which approaching traffic 
may see a panel. The ideals are: over 350 feet for fast travel, 250 
feet for slow travel. This is known as a "long approach" and 
rates 100 percent of the effective circulation. The "medium ap 
proach" is 200-350 feet for fast travel, 150-250 for slow, rating 
80 percent. The "short approach", 100-200 feet and 75-100 feet 
respectively, rates 60 percent, and the "flash approach," below 
these distances, may rate from to 40 percent. 

2. The speed of approaching traffic. 

3. The angle of the panel to the traffic, and- the relative position of 
the panel in relation to other panels. A single panel, or the one in 
a group nearest the line of travel, receives the highest rating. All 
others in a group are discounted 10 percent. A poster parallel 
with the line of traffic, being less visible from a distance, is dis 
counted another 10 percent. 

The most valuable poster is one located at an angle at an intersec 
tion where it can be seen by two or more converging lines of traffic. 
If it is a junction or two or more streetcar or bus lines, with many 
people getting on and off, so much the better. Generally such corners 
are built up, however, and the only available poster sites are on top 
of buildings. Should the panel be only one story above the street, it 
will receive a good rating, but higher signs are discounted. 

Poster-plant owners furnish a statement of each poster panel to the 
Traffic Audit Bureau annually. These statements are analyzed by 
the TAB, and later sample checks are taken by field auditors. The 
panels are studied not only for effective circulation, but also to make 
certain that they cover all essential parts of a market, with displays 
distributed along all principal routes of travel.** 

* Poster Advertising Coverage, Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 1941. 
** By permission from Outdoor Advertising, by Hugh E. Agnew. Copyrighted 
1938, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 


Different Types of "S/iowmgs" 

Advertisers wishing to use posters in a certain market may purchase 
varying quantities, depending on the size of the budget and the 
intensity of coverage desired. These different quantities, known as 
"showings," are distributed throughout the area, some being on the 
busier routes, others in outlying spots, so that no one advertiser will 
enjoy all the choice locations. 

The names by which various sizes of showings are identified have 
undergone many changes. At one time the industry generally offered 
three types: the so-called "full," "half and "quarter" showings. 
Later these became the "intensive," "representative" and "mini 
mum." None t)f these was satisfactory because in many cities more 
than three assortments were available. In 1940 the OAAA adopted a 
numeral system. The No. 100 showing of today corresponds roughly 
to the former representative or half showing; however, due to 
relocation of panels and general increase in traffic, its effectiveness is 
considerably greater. The No. 50 showing, replacing the former 
minimum, likewise represents a circulation increase. The No. 150 
and No. 200 showings provide more intensive coverage of a market. 

Poster-plant owners offer showings of many kinds. In Sacramento, 
California, for instance, a Number 100 showing comprised eight reg 
ular and eight illuminated panels. It was possible to buy, in 1941, 
anything from a No. 10 showing (one regular, one illuminated) to a 
No. 150 (12 of each) with the quantity of posters increasing by one 
of each type and the rate $52.50 per month per number. In New 
Orleans, only No. 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 showings were offered. 
In smaller cities, a lesser number of showing was available.* 

Rates are based on amount of circulation, type of market, and 
other factors. The medium is flexible, in that it is possible to order 
showings by the month to take advantage of seasonal variations in 
the demand for a product. In recent years the popularity of poster 
advertising has made it necessary for advertisers to place reservations 
well in advance and many orders have been refused for lack of space. 

The method of determining the quantity of posters in a No. 100 
showing is a combination of statistics and common sense. The num- 
ber of principal streets and routes of traffic, the density of population, 

* Poster Advertising Coverage, Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 1941. 


purchasing power of the community and other factors are taken into 
account. In Chicago, for example, there are some 480 miles of prin 
cipal streets those on which the daily volume of traffic makes it 
economically sound for posting and a No. 100 showing includes 
100 regular and 60 illuminated boards, or approximately one poster 
for each three miles of main arteries. According to Professor Agnew, 
the market area should be zoned to give an average of three or four 
miles of principal routes per zone; a desirable condition would be two 
poster panels in each zone for a representative showing.* 

Painted Displays 

By contrast with 24-sheet posters, which are standard in size, 
painted displays can vary widely. The chief kinds offered by poster 
companies are: 

1. Streamliners These are large, impressive structures measuring 
50 feet or more in length, sometimes with neon lettering, built-up 
portions, possibly embodying a clock or thermometer. They are 
located on boulevards or main thoroughfares with a great deal of 
traffic, and are used for prestige purposes by such institutions as 
banks, hotels, insurance companies and the like. 

2. City and suburban bulletins Placed along important streets, 
these displays are standardized at 12^2 feet high by 47 feet long, and 
are attractively designed. Painted bulletins have a white frame and 
latticework, whereas the poster panels are usually finished in green. 

3. Store bulletins Located on the sides of stores and other build 
ings. The height is a standard 9 feet 10^4 inches, but the length 
varies according to angle of visibility and length of wall available. 
This type may be used where the product is sold through exclusive 
dealers, to give "point-of-sale" impression. 

4. Highway and railroad bulletins 12^2 x 42 feet, standard white 
structure, on principal highways and along main railroad lines. 

5. Metropolitan bulletins 18 feet high by 72 feet long, facing city- 
bound traffic on heavily traveled highways and main-line or suburban 

6. Painted walls These may be any size or shape, depending on 
the space available. 



Painted displays are usually changed three or four times a year. 
Most users of this medium prefer to employ simple designs, since the 
reproduction must be done by painters who are craftsmen rather than 
artists. Colors for painted bulletins have been standardized to 26 
hues, and paint manufacturers and advertisers supplied with samples 
to assure uniformity.* 

Electric Spectaculars 

As their name implies, these big signs are designed to create a 
dramatic impression on the spectators. They do their heavy selling 
after dark. New York City's "Great White Way" derived its nick 
name from the battery of electric signs around Times Square, al 
though nowadays there are more lights in color than in white. Chi 
cago's Michigan Avenue, Cleveland's Euclid, Los Angeles' "Sunset 
Strip" are all begemmed with mammoth, colorful, flashing spectac 

The more modest versions of this type of outdoor advertising have 
a conventional painted bulletin, with additional neon and incandes 
cent lighting, thus giving them a day and night value. The more 
lavish contain animated sections such as moving ribbons of changing 
letters to give commercial messages, news and time signals, dramatic 
sequences, and kaleidoscopic fantasies. Douglas Leigh has won a 
national reputation by his Broadway spectaculars. 

Most famous prewar display was that of Wrigley's Spearmint 
Gum, located on the east side of 7th Avenue between 44th and 45th 
Streets. Seventy-five feet high and 200 feet long, it was composed of 
29,508 electric bulbs and 1,084 feet of neon tubing. Against green 
waves giant multicolored fish seemed to glide about. Dominating 
the scene was the Wrigley "spearman" and a monster replica of the 
package. At various times the spearman would point to selling slo 
gans which would flash on and off "Aids Digestion" "The Flavor 
Lasts" "After Every Meal." 

Spectaculars are contracted for on a long-term basis, often three or 
more years. The cost of construction is absorbed by the advertiser 
through monthly charges which may amount to several thousand 
dollars. Naturally, the more desirable locations command high 
rentals from property owners, while heavy additional expense is in- 

* Agnew, op. dt. 


curred by the necessity of having maintenance electricians on hand 
to assure proper functioning of the signs and to replace burned-out 
bulbs and tubes. 

Three-Sheet Posters 

A highly specialized type of outdoor display is the "three-sheet" 
poster affixed to the wall of a grocery or drug store at a busy neigh 
borhood shopping center, advertising a specific product. Chief advo 
cate of this medium is Criterion Service, which under its long-time 
president, Frank Birch, has developed a coast-to-coast coverage of 
community markets with over 70,000 panels. 

Birch, a native of Mark Twain's birthplace, Hannibal, Missouri, 
got his start in advertising by designing the original Bull Durham 
tobacco sign which was once a feature in baseball parks. Having es 
tablished an outdoor plant in Boston, in 1917 he became interested in 
a three-sheet poster service that was leasing the sides of buildings hous 
ing tobacco shops, then selling displays to cigarette companies. He 
saw its possibilities for food and drug manufacturers. The business 
has grown steadily since he took it over and now grosses over $3,000,- 
000 a year. General Foods, Heinz, Ward Baking, Lever Bros, and 
Ralston have been among its largest customers. 

Criterion in 1947 had a flat charge of $3.60 per month for i 
frames on a three-year contract. The advertiser, providing pane 
were available, could buy as many as he wished on this basis. Becaus 
people of like races tend to cluster together in cities, Criterion posters 
could be spotted to appeal to racial audiences (Jewish, Italian, Negro, 
Polish, etc.) if desired. A recent OAAA development is the six-she 
or "junior poster panel." This panel has the same ratio to height a 
has the 24-sheet. Like the three-sheet size, it is designed chiefly for 
wall use in retail shopping centers. 

General Outdoor Advertising Company has also sold three-sheets 
and in addition has developed a nine-sheet poster service in the New 
York area. United Advertising Corporation has a "neighborhood 
panel" slightly smaller than the 24-sheet. Other companies also offer 
space for small posters. To date, however, Criterion is the only com- 
pany providing this service on a national basis.* 

* Tide, February 28, 1947, pp. 15-17. By permission of Tide. 


Transportation Advertising 

Car cards, like posters, depend upon brief copy. Pictures are used 
liberally. However, since transit riders have a longer opportunity to 
read the message than the auto passenger, car cards sometimes con 
tain much greater wordage than posters. It is estimated that some 
39 million people see these "transitads" every day. 

The standard card in streetcars is 11 x 21 inches. A smaller size, 
11 x 14, is now offered, as well as a double size, 11 x 28, and a triple 
size, 11 x 42. For many years, Wrigley's Gum had a card in every 
streetcar in the country. Manufacturers of foods, drugs and cosmet 
ics are among the most constant users of this medium. 

The car card was a primitive advertising vehicle as far back as 1860, 
when B. T. Babbitt used the Third Avenue horsecar line in New 
York to promote soap sales. In the 90's Artemas Ward contracted 
with transportation companies in ten cities to post cards in their 
trolleys. His successor was Barren G. Collier, who by 1905, at the 
age of 33, controlled the advertising in over 11,000 streetcars in 
nearly 350 cities. For many years, car cards were sold direct to adver 
tisers, paying no commission to advertising agencies. Like the out 
door industry, transportation advertising eventually recognized the 
agency as an integral factor in sales promotion and granted the cus 
tomary 15 percent commission to legitimate agencies. 

As the medium accepted the agency, so have agencies accepted the 
medium. In recent years an increasing proportion of transit advertis 
ing has been agency-created. Starting in 1944, the 4 A's and the 
ANA directed its joint venture, the Advertising Research Founda 
tion, to conduct a continuing study of transportation advertising, 
under Otis Kenyon of Kenyon and Eckhardt, Inc. Between October 
1944 and May 1946, ARF completed seven surveys: Newark, New 
Haven, Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, St. Louis and Chicago. 
Objects were to delineate the general nature of the audience, to 
measure the actual number of people who receive impressions from 
specific transportation ads and to get general information about the 
habits of riders of mass transportation vehicles. 

Alfred Politz, noted research consultant, devised the formula for 
testing car card effectiveness, the "controlled-recognition method." 
In this method, those interviewed are shown a portfolio of cards that 


have appeared for at least 30 days in the cars and busses. Included 
are cards which have not appeared. A certain proportion of respond 
ents will say that they have seen the unpublished cards. Their an 
swers are weighted in computing the accuracy of the total number 
of interviews. Homes are selected at random, but by a procedure 
beyond the control of the interviewer, to avoid prejudice. In the 
Chicago survey, two samples totaling 2,139 calls on car or bus riders 
over 15 years of age constituted the basis. 

Of the 12 cards measured, the one which received the most recog 
nitions was one for PM Whisky, which 64 percent of the riders re 
ported seeing in post-examination. However, in a pre-examination 
53 percent said they had seen the card; by the Politz formula this 
yielded a net of 24 percent of actual audience. On the other hand, a 
card for Marchand's Hair Rinse was recognized by only 52 percent of 
the riders, but just 25 percent said in the pre-examination that they 
had seen it; hence this card came up with a net of 36 percent. On 
the basis of the "corrected real audience," the Marchand display 
corralled 840,000 actual witnesses while PM had but 570,000. 

Among details of transportation habits brought out by the Chicago 
survey were the following: 

11% of all men, 82% of all women, used mass transportation (street 
cars, elevated, busses, suburban rail lines). 

85% of the population 15-29 are riders; 82% of those 30-44, and 
73% of those 45 and over. 

The number was slightly smaller for top rental bracket, but insignifi 
cant as to variation among lower three-quarters. 

The average length of ride was 32 minutes. 

39% made five or more round trips a week, 23% two to four, 17% 
one or less, 21% were classed as nonriders. 

53% changed cars one or more times. 

46% sat most of the time, 29% stood most of the time, 25% stood 
and sat equally.* 

The rates charged for car cards range from 50 cents to several dollars 
per car per month. Kleppner estimated the average cost at 90 cents per 
card,** while Hotchkiss reported in 1931 that a "full run" in all the 

* Continuing Study of Transportation Advertising, Study No. 7, Advertising Re 
search Foundation, Inc., Copyright 1946. 
** Kleppner, Advertising Procedure, p. 385. 


cars in the United States would cost $40,000 per month for some 
70,000 cards.* Higher prices are charged for the larger cards, par 
ticularly those located at the ends of the cars in positions of greater 

Other Transportation Media 

Single-sheet as well as two and three-sheet posters have been used 
in railroad, ferry and bus terminals and on subway and elevated plat 
forms. The New York Subways Advertising Company, for instance, 
offers poster space in over 500 subway stations, stating that "9 out of 
10 New York City adults are subway riders." 

Most terminal and station platform posters are adaptations of out 
door boards or conventional displays. A series for Savarin Coffee pre 
pared by Roy S. Durstine agency, however, demonstrated real inge 
nuity. As everyone who has ridden the New York subways knows, 
the walls of the underground stations are covered with square white 
tiles. These posters reproduced the same tiles actual size, with the 
Savarin Coffee can and a selling message apparently emerging from 
the wall. The effect was startlingly realistic so much so that with 
one particular poster, which gave the Savarin can a particularly strong 
third-dimension effect, many subwayites unconsciously stepped away 
from the wall to avoid bumping into the supposed projection! 

Posters on the sides of. Railway Express trucks are no novelty. This 
space has been sold to advertisers for years. More recently, U. S. 
Traveling Ads announced a similar service on interstate trailer trucks. 
Post-office trucks have carried side panels with such messages as 
"Mail early for Christmas" and "Be sure to include Zone Number on 
Address" since before World War II. 

In some cities the exteriors of streetcars and busses carry advertis 
ing posters, though not to the extent of the English trams, which are 
virtually moving billboards. Bus advertising is as a rule confined to 
the interior, utilizing the same units as streetcars; the same general 
statement may be applied to suburban trains and ferryboats. Taxi- 
cab advertising, both inside and outside the latter in place of the 
former spare-tire cover in the rear has had a limited acceptance, as 
has sky-writing by airplanes and sky-banners trailed by planes or 

* Hotchkiss, Outline of Advertising, p. 393. 


dirigibles. These media have a certain virtue of novelty but by that 
very fact the observer's attention is focused on the method rather 
than the message. 

Mechanics and Cost of Outdoor Advertising 

With almost all forms of outdoor or poster advertising, including 
car cards, the advertiser is expected to furnish complete cards of 
"paper" ready to use. The production of the material thus becomes 
a factor to be figured in the total cost of the medium, just as the 
magazine or newspaper advertiser must consider his art and plate 

Able poster artists come high. Such acknowledged masters as How 
ard Scott, Otis Shepard, Haddon Sundblom and Andrew Loomis 
were accustomed to receive from $1,000 to $2,500 per poster. Adver 
tisers using several media sought to hold down this expense by some 
times using art work prepared for publications, but this was not 
always successful. The different treatment required for magazines 
and posters called for separate art work. 

Lithographing costs in the postwar era ran high. One poster with 
which the author had first-hand acquaintance cost over $3,000 for 
the paper required to cover less than 300 panels, an average of 
nearly $12 apiece, while the actual space cost amounted to less than 
$30 per board. Local advertisers sometimes attempt to cut down 
this heavy expense by using "syndicated" posters, that is, stock de 
signs which require only a small strip across the bottom or in one 
corner to individualize, the main poster being a universally applicable 
situation. The silk-screen process is another method of reducing costs 
on short runs. 

In World War II the outdoor industry co-operated wholeheart 
edly with the Advertising Council to promote home-front victory 
projects. Millions of dollars in free space were given to war bonds 
and other Council campaigns. Many users of poster advertising 
donated their space to win-the-war themes. The Outdoor Advertis 
ing Association of America and its member plants have been keenly 
aware of the antagonism to "billboards" by garden clubs and other 
civic organizations, and have sought to overcome this opposition by 
locating posters where they would give the least offense and by join 
ing in movements for safe driving and community betterment. 


ONLY a comparative few of the hundreds of thousands of busi 
nesses run ads in the national magazines or in newspapers out 
side their own locality, or sponsor a network radio show. Nearly 
every firm uses direct-mail advertising. 

The name describes this most universally used medium. Any mes 
sage sent directly through the mails from the advertiser to the indi 
vidual or company with whom he wishes to do business, or whose 
good will he is anxious to maintain, may be classified as "direct 
mail." This includes any piece from a penny post card to the bulkiest 
catalogue; circulars, folders enclosed with monthly bills, house organs, 
blotters, form letters. 

By general consent, individually written letters are not considered 
direct mail unless produced on a mass basis. And the giant mer 
chandising books of such concerns as Sears Roebuck, Montgomery 
Ward and Alden's (Chicago Mail Order Company) are classified 
as "mail-order advertising" a highly specialized field. Printed mat 
ter similar in form to that sent through the mails but distrib 
uted by other means is usually called "direct advertising"; this term 
covers folders and booklets handed out by salesmen, demonstrators, 
house-to-house delivery services and attendants at expositions. 

The direct-mail advertiser is free from many of the restrictions in 
volved in using other media. He can make his piece any size, shape, 
or number of colors; select any kind of paper to print it on, within 
the limits of availability; he can send his mailing to as many or as 
few names as he chooses, timing its arrival for a certain day of the 
week. And he can follow this mailing with others according to the 
number and frequency he thinks best. 

Campaigns have been conducted in this medium with an outlay 
of only a few dollars. The majority of direct-mail efforts involve 
mere "pin money" compared with the cost of a single page in a 
national magazine. Yet because these small outlays may comprise an 
important part of the user's annual advertising budget, the returns 
from individual mailings as a rule are more carefully checked than is 



the case with general media. It is, of course, much easier to trace the 
amount of new business obtained by sending a letter and circular to 
a list of 1,000 car owners if you happen to be running an auto-sup 
ply store or a filling station than to isolate the exact degree of 
dealer and consumer reaction from a full-color page in Life, when 
the latter is one of a series of similar ads in a long list of national 

Advocates of direct mail sometimes compare it to a rifle, shooting 
a single bullet straight at the target, in contrast to the "shotgun" or 
"scatter-shot" blast of general media. This simile would be correct if 
every mailing list were 100 percent accurate and every mailing piece 
perfectly planned, produced and timed for its purpose. These ideal 
conditions seldom exist. Every home, store, office, factory and service 
institution will receive in the course of a month many examples of 
poorly aimed direct mail, the result of out-of-date or improperly 
selected mailing lists. Even when the bullet reaches the right target, 
it may still prove a dud if it lacks the right copy appeal, is so cheaply 
prepared as to evoke distrust rather than confidence or if it arrives 
at the wrong time. 

To guard against such waste, direct-mail experts keep a continuous 
check on mailing lists, insist that each piece be sufficiently attractive 
and impressive to do its job when delivered and, wherever possible, try 
out a mailing on a small part of the list before shooting the works. 

The Care and Feeding of Mailing Lists 

Perhaps the most satisfactory list is that of a firm's present cus 
tomers. For example, an electric utility wishing to sell home 
appliances has a complete record of every possible purchaser in a 
community, except for residents in apartments or hotels where electric 
service is provided as part of the rent. The retail store has an excellent 
list in its file of active charge-account customers, although this may 
exclude some of its best prospects, the people who come into the 
store and pay cash for their purchases. 

Most firms using direct mail on other than a local basis buy mailing 
lists from one of the several reliable houses specializing in this work. 
These concerns offer lists of individuals and businesses under every 
conceivable heading, at a cost usually below that required for com 
piling a special list. They are able to do this because their compila 
tion costs are spread out over a large number of users. 

(Above) Burgess Battery Company had established the vertical black and white 
stripes as package identification but there was no uniformity in width of stripes. 

(Below) Same batteries, redesigned. Note how brand name is spotlighted from 
any position, line given greater character while retaining family identity. 

Photos courtesy Robert Sidney Dickens & Associates 


Photos courtesy Robert Sidney Dickens & Associates 


Schlitz Beer carton gets a face lifting. Observe how new layout makes case 
look larger, more inviting. 

Helene Curtis Shampoo label, before and after. New jar has definite quality- 


List houses go to far greater lengths in keeping their records up to 
date than does the occasional direct-mail user. In fact, despite the 
many changes in addresses constantly occurring everywhere, these 
purchased lists carry a "postage guarantee" by which the advertiser 
is reimbursed for postage on all undelivered mail beyond a fixed min 
imum. Buckley-Dement of Chicago, for example, give a 98 percent 
postage guarantee on most of their lists. On a few business lists 
where changes are above average, they guarantee only 95 percent. For 
the gigantic list of automobile owners the latest United States count, 
compiled by Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation, was 25,301, 345 the 
guarantee drops to 90 percent, while for clergymen (apparently the 
most migratory of all groups!) the figure is down to 85 percent. 

Dun and Bradstreet is authority for the statement that nearly 
6,000 changes occur every business day: firms going out of business, 
firms starting up, changes of ownership and of address. This amounts 
to more than 50 percent in changes on commercial mailing lists 
every year and underscores the vital necessity of continuous vigilance 
to avoid waste. A mailing piece sent to a wrong address not only 
means loss in postage, cost of printed matter and mailing-room labor 
but also a missed opportunity to make a sale at the right address. 

Mailing-list catalogues afford a fascinating glimpse of the number 
and variety of trades and industries in America. Browsing through 
the new Buckley-Dement booklet one finds such unusual lists as 

76 manufacturers of canes and walking sticks 

77 manufacturers of high chairs 
166 dealers in Indian curios 

34 manufacturers of teeth (artificial) 
8 manufacturers of toboggans 
141,770 doctors 
2,200 landscape gardeners and architects (available by states, but 

none listed for Nevada or Wyoming! ) 
5 dice manufacturers 
60 silk hat manufacturers 
90 skin and hide brokers 
151 society editors of large daily newspapers 
100,000 high-salaried school officials 

8 licorice manufacturers 
6,930 millionaires 


Besides supplying names, some mailing-list firms render a complete 
direct-mail service including planning, writing, laying out, illustrat 
ing, printing, addressing and putting the finished pieces in the mail. 

Some 2,500 letter shops throughout the country render economi 
cal service to advertisers who do not have their own form-letter 

Postal regulations must receive thorough attention. Many mail 
ings require more postage than would be necessary if the contents 
had been trimmed slightly to avoid taking a higher rate; this is par 
ticularly important when first-class mail is used since even a tiny 
fraction over the ounce weight sends the postage up an additional 
three cents, or $30 per thousand. 

Sources of mailing lists include official records for automobile and 
other licenses, such as marriage, hunting, fishing and dog; building 
permits; birth certificates; credit reports; city and telephone direc 
tories; rosters of clubs and fraternal orders; and answers to advertise 
ments. This last named source is often one of the most productive. 
Experience has shown that people who buy a certain kind of article 
once will frequently repeat in that field. A book publisher may obtain 
names of buyers of technical books, for instance, by advertising his 
own volumes in magazines like Science & Mechanics. After he has 
made several mailings to this list, offering other books along related 
lines, he may sell the use of his list to other publishers, to trade 
schools, manufacturers of home workshops and so on. Or he may 
arrange to trade an even number of names with another advertiser, 
thus securing a fresh list of prospects. In bygone days one method 
of building lists was to run a small ad in rural papers with the head 
ing, "Get lots of mail!" Needless to say, this produced a very poor 
quality of direct-mail prospects. 

Uncle Sam co-operates in keeping mailing lists accurate. No doubt 
you have received mailings with this wording in small print on the 
envelope: "POSTMASTER If this mail is undeliverable for any 
reason notify sender on Form 3547. Postage for notice guaranteed." 
If this notice does not appear on third-class matter, the advertiser 
may continue sending mail to places where the addressee has died, 
moved away or changed jobs; even where the building may have been 
torn down! 

First-class mail is forwarded if a new address is known to the post 
man, but this does not correct the mailing list for future mailings. It 


does, however, eliminate the deadwood when letters are returned to 
the sender stamped "Moved left no address." 

Forms of Direct Advertising 

To have his campaign chosen as one of the "Fifty Direct Mail 
Leaders of 19 " is the life ambition of many an advertising man 
ager. And seeing this absorbing exhibit which annually makes the 
rounds of leading cities is a liberal education in planning and creat 
ing direct mail. Nothing else demonstrates quite so dramatically the 
endless versatility of this medium. 

One may know that the main forms of direct advertising are letters, 
folders, broadsides, booklets, mailing cards, catalogues, enclosures, blot 
ters and brochures. But each of these divisions has innumerable 

Take for instance, Letters. A letter may be individually typed on 
an automatic typewriter with personalized salutation, fill-ins at vari 
ous points mentioning the recipient by name, and a pen signature; 
produced on 100 percent rag bond, engraved stationery; sent first- 
class or air mail. Or, it may be multigraphed, mimeographed, printed 
through a ribbon to imitate typewriting or from a line cut to imitate 
handwriting. It may be one page or several pages in length. The 
letterhead may be printed in one or more colors, on white or a tinted 
stock. It may be what the trade calls an "illustrated letter" with the 
personalized message on page 1 of a four-page folder, the two inside 
pages containing pictures and/or descriptive matter. It may be a 
miniature letter two or three inches wide; or a "jumbo letter" with 
enlarged printing on a sheet as big as a newspaper. It may be die-cut 
in some shape having to do with the product, or contain a "window" 
allowing the reader to look through at some special wording or illus 
tration. Its reverse side may serve as a small poster for a dealer to 
mount on his window or door. It may have a built-in folder or return 
card. Then there are "novelty" letters with tucked in units that pop 
up when the fold is opened. And letters that can be refolded to 
serve as return envelopes. 

Broadsides are the big, "flashy" mailing pieces favored by adver 
tisers to attract attention for some particularly important sales effort. 
Here again there are virtually no restrictions as to size, shape, color 


or treatment, although a broadside that is overly large may defeat its 
own purpose by being too hard to read and handle, and if not pro 
tected by an envelope may get "beat up" in the mails. 

Brochures are the elite citizens of direct advertising. Literally 
speaking, any printed booklet or pamphlet may be called a brochure, 
but in the trade the term is applied only to de luxe presentations, 
often with a cloth, leatherette or plastic binding. The brochure may 
tell a prestige-building story of the institution and its products or 
services but generally does not bid for immediate sales. Its purpose 
might be to commemorate an anniversary, to introduce a new model 
with a great deal of flourish or to mark the "grand opening" of a new 
store, factory, hotel or streamlined train. Some annual reports of 
corporations are so elaborate as to rate in the brochure class. 

Mailing Cards have a vast assortment of uses. They can herald the 
impending arrival of a catalogue or brochure, or of a salesman. They 
may direct the recipient's attention to the company's sensational 
announcement on page 89 of the March 15 issue of Collier's. They 
may bridge the time intervals between more pretentious selling 
pieces. One popular use of such cards before the war was for remind 
ing motorists that their cars needed a greasing or oil change. The 
major oil companies would supply attractively printed government 
post cards to their service-station operators leaving a space to be 
filled in with the mileage of the last oil or grease job. The operator 
was supposed to keep a record of such jobs, and if the customer did 
not repeat in 30 days one of the cards was to be mailed to him. 

House Magazines take many forms. They may be purely intra- 
company, like the excellent ones issued by the different companies of 
the Bell System, containing personal items and photos. They may be 
masterpieces of conservative salesmanship, such as the famous 
What's New, published by Abbott Laboratories for the medical pro 
fession and a consistent award winner. Still another kind consists of 
a number of pages devoted to subjects of general interest, the adver 
tiser using only the covers and perhaps a center spread for his mes 
sage. William Feather of Cleveland has been supplying his own rare 
brand of philosophic comment for such house organs for the past 25 
years; sold to one advertiser in a city (usually a printer) it has a cir 
culation of 200,000 copies per month distributed among the clients. 

Unique among house organs is Direct Advertising, a beautifully 
produced bimonthly published by the Paper Makers' Advertising 


Club. Each mill represented in the group supplies a two or four- 
page insert demonstrating one of its own paper stocks; each issue 
contains a complete set of return post cards which the reader may 
use to obtain further information and other samples of the papers in 
which he is interested. 

Folders and booklets are the work horses of direct mail. Their 
flexibility of size enables the advertiser to give all the necessary infor 
mation about what he has to sell. Due to its light weight, a small 
folder can be inserted with a letter, invoice or other type of mailing 
without increasing the postage. Often it is advisable, in answering an 
inquiry, to make the letter brief and enclose a folder to cover the 
details. A company offering a number of items or services may dis 
tribute a folder describing the entire line with each sale, the idea 
being that if a customer likes his first purchase he may be induced to 
make additional purchases from the same company. 

Educational institutions for example, private schools, military 
academies, business colleges, trade schools and correspondence 
schools rely heavily upon attractively prepared booklets to obtain 
enrollments. By a curious twist of terminology, booklets about gen 
eral schools, colleges or professional institutes are called "catalogues" 
or "bulletins," while those on home-study or residential trade courses 
are almost invariably called "books." 

Where booklets are meant to be kept for reference use, as by a 
purchasing agent, the tendency is to standardize on 8^2 x 11-inch 
size, which fits conveniently into any filing cabinet. Booklets smaller 
than this are apt to slip down in a file and be overlooked; larger 
booklets are apt to be discarded because there is no convenient place 
to keep them. On the other hand, consumer booklets, such as owner 
instruction manuals, are more acceptable when they slip into a coat 

Is Direct Mail Profitable? 

It's easy to drive a dyed-in-the-wool user of direct mail berserk. All 
you do is to imply that "nobody ever reads those circulars they just 
go straight to the wastebasket." He knows nothing could be farther 
from the truth. Yet this is a commonly held belief. 

With some media an advertiser may continue for years, not know 
ing the precise effect of his campaign. With direct' mail, when a 


series of pieces is planned to produce inquiries, or orders, or contri 
butions, the results can be definitely determined. The return post 
cards or envelopes are merely given a "key," usually a department 
number which is changed for each mailing, each change of list or any 
other variation the sender may wish to check. He can tell from past 
experience what percentage of his total response should be in at the 
end of the first week, the second week and so on. Before a month 
has passed he can predict approximately how much that particular 
mailing will cost, per inquiry or per sale. 

In deciding whether a mailing is profitable, all costs must be taken 
into consideration paper, printing, art work and plates, labor of 
addressing, enclosing and sealing, postage, a share of the overhead 
for record keeping and administration. If a purchased list is used, 
its cost is prorated for each mailing. When the responses are re 
ceived, their total is divided into the over-all cost to get the cost per 
individual inquiry or order. 

Let's assume that we have a $10 item on which we can make a 
profit if our selling cost is 25 percent or less. We have a large list of 
prospects but before plunging we make a test on 5,000 names. Our 
total cost might be $40 per thousand, or $200. Operating on a $2.50 
margin, we need 80 orders to break even, a 1.6 percent return. Any 
thing over this is velvet. If our test yields 100 orders, we have a safe 
cushion and undoubtedly will send the mailing to the entire list, 
confident that it will pay out. 

A generous margin of extra orders above the minimum invariably 
suggests to the direct-mail veteran that the list can be worked again 
with the same offer probably, although not necessarily, with a differ 
ent letter and folder. This process can be continued until returns 
fall below the minimum, at which point the list is said to be "worn 
out" on that particular proposition. 

Where inquiries must first be obtained by mail and then converted 
into sales, also by mail, cost figuring is a bit more complex. The ex 
pense of the inquiry-producing mailing is divided by the return, to 
obtain cost per inquiry. Then the further expense of servicing all 
inquiries must be added to their total cost, and divided by the num 
ber of orders for the actual cost per order. 

Generally this double process of first qualifying or "screening" the 
list by obtaining bona fide inquiries before going after the order is 
used where costly literature is needed to close the sale. A correspond- 


ence course selling for $100 requires an attractive "book" of many 
pages to secure enrollments because of the keen competition in this 
field. The school cannot afford to send out this book with a mailing 
cost of 15 to 30 cents per name to cold prospects. Hence an inexpen 
sive mailing is used to get a certain percentage of the list to request 
the book, and from this smaller list come the enrollments. The same 
strategy applies whether the product is an intangible, like technical 
training, or merchandise. 

Once having secured the inquiry, either through advertising in 
other media or by direct mail and having sent the expensive booklet, 
that name should be cultivated by systematically timed "follow-ups" 
until the sale is made or a mailing fails to bring enough response to 
pay its way. With certain products, the first mailing including the 
booklet may close say 5 percent of the inquiries; before the follow- 
up is finished six months or a year later, an additional five or more 
may have been sold. So failing to follow inquiries thoroughly would 
have resulted in missing half of the potential business. 

What percentage of response can be expected from direct mail? 
For some purposes a return of one or two percent might be profitable. 
In other instances, 25 percent might be disappointing. Here are a 
few case histories from The Reporter of Direct Mail Advertising to 
indicate what sometimes happens: 

The Shelby Cycle Company, Shelby, Ohio, mailed one letter to 
1,200 retail merchants selling bicycles. Two hundred and sixty-four 
dealers (22%) replied, purchased 1,005 bicycles for a total of 

A New York department store mailed 5,000 letters to inactive 
accounts. Two hundred and seventy-five (5.05%) reopened and 
produced $28,097 sales. 

Saw Bill Lodge, Tofte, Minn., sent a series of sixteen printed gov 
ernment post cards to 1,200 old guests and selected names. Received 
844 (70.3%) directly traceable inquiries. 

Central Manufacturers' Mutual Insurance Co., Van Wert, Ohio, 
mailed a series of four letters to 55,074 fire insurance prospects and 
received a total of 11,750 (21.3%) inquiries which were turned over 
to local agents. One letter in the series produced 9.87%. 

Levitt-Ferguson Co. sent 8,000 post-card folders to druggists, adver 
tising a $22 pharmaceutical dispensing scale. Results: 320 (4%) 
orders totaling 7,040. 


An Air Express questionnaire (8 pages) with a personalized sales 
letter to 3,742 executives in heavy industries brought 1,494 (40%) 

These returns prove that direct mail can and does pay under proper 
conditions. It has its share of waste. So does every other form of 
human activity, from running a government to raising a family. But 
its standards have been steadily raised over the years, through the 
leadership of such men as Homer Buckley, first president of the 
DMAA, Charles R. Wiers, Leonard Raymond, Ed Mayer, Frank 
Egner, the late John Howie Wright, Henry Hoke, Jules Paglin and 
J. C. Aspley. It has helped many types of business in many ways. Let 
those who would legislate against direct mail realize that it is one of 
the chief hopes of the small businessman in his competition with "big 

Advertising men who cut their eyeteeth in the field of direct 
advertising are apt to be very realistic about all media. They recog 
nize the limitations in applying mail-selling tactics to other forms of 
advertising; but they know that the insistence of direct-mail users on 
verifying results wherever possible, on pretesting, on keeping the 
human approach, on knowing who their customers are and maintain 
ing contact with them has had a wholesome influence throughout 
the whole advertising business. 


NEWSPAPERS, consumer magazines, radio, outdoor and direct 
mail are sometimes considered the "major" media of advertis 
ing. But they are by no means the only ones. Over the years, 
innumerable other vehicles have been tried out, and those that dem 
onstrated their efficiency, their ability to accomplish specific selling 
or educational tasks, have thrived. In this chapter some of the many 
advertising media not previously discussed will be examined briefly. 

Farm Papers 

Agricultural magazines were among the earliest forms of periodi 
cals. Through the years they have retained their hold on farm read 
ers. The June 1947 Standard Rate & Data Service listed 65 national, 
59 sectional and 92 state farm papers. 

Largest in point of circulation were Farm Journal, with 2,626,228, 
Country Gentleman with 2,176,418, Capper's Farmer with 1,353,411, 
Successful Farming with 1,205,912, the Midwest Farm Paper Unit 
with 1,204,723, Nation's Agriculture (published by the American 
Farm Bureau Federation) with 1,075,417, and Progressive Farmer 
with 1,002,366 copies per issue. 

Among the national magazines, Farm Journal (and Farmer's Wife) 
led in circulation and in line rate ($14 per line or $196 per column 
inch). It surpassed all others in number of pages of advertising car 
ried in a single issue in June, 1947, with 84.6 pages, for which it 
grossed over $510,000. The upsurge of the farm field is shown by the 
fact that this was nearly twice the total advertising revenue for the 
magazine for the year 1935. 

Founded in 1877, Farm Journal had an initial circulation of 25,000. 
While not the oldest, it has outlasted many other national publica 
tions to reach its present eminence. It has an "all-family" editorial 
policy and does not confine itself to purely farm material, as is shown 
by this study of its features: 



National Affairs 19. 

General Interest , 10.5 

Fiction 8.3 

Farm Management 7.0 

Food 7.0 

Livestock and ^Poultry 6.3 

Crops, Gardening, General Farming 6.0 

Children 5.4 

Wearing Apparel 4.1 

Home Furnishings 3.8 

Business and Industry 3.7 

Cultural Interests 2.9 

Farm Equipment 2.6 

Building 1.7 

Travel and Transportation 1 .6 

Amusements and Sports 1.3 

Beauty 1.3 

Health 1.3 

Miscellaneous . 5.4 

The timeliness of editorial features was stressed by its announced 
"four day writer-to-reader service." Over 88 percent of its circulation 
was to R.F.D. addresses or post offices in towns under 2,500. Respon 
siveness of readers was shown by the receipt of over 500,000 letters 
per year from subscribers exoressing opinions or asking for informa 

Country Gentleman, published by Curtis Publishing Company, is 
a weekly magazine of Saturday Evening Post page size and general 
format. It has the highest page rate of any farm magazine, $6,500, 
and carries the advertising of many makers of general consumer 
products as well as farm equipment and supplies. Like other farm 
papers, "Country Gent" includes several pages of classified ads on 
livestock, poultry, rabbits, dogs and other subjects. This type of 
advertising is offered at $6.50 per line with a minimum of five lines 
(payable in advance) whereas the general rate is $10.25 per line. 

Ads in farm papers by national advertisers are often * 'slanted" to 
appeal to that market. Thus General Electric in a 1947 display to 
farm readers headlined its copy, "Look at the places GE Lamps can 
help make farming more profitable," with illustrations showing a 
GE reflector lamp installed in a haymow, a projector lamp in a barn- 


yard, a fluorescent lamp in a kitchen, a germicidal lamp in a hen 
house and a 100-watt bulb in a feed room. Each caption not only 
described the particular lamp but also gave its list price. Ads for 
Ford, Dodge, Willys, Chevrolet and other trucks showed the ma 
chines in actual farm use. A typical Kelvinator ad featured the 
9-cubic-foot refrigerator, "Built for Farm Living." Studebaker showed 
a passenger car against a background of the Pride Brothers' farm in 
Winnebago County, Wisconsin, with a secondary picture of the two 
men, both Studebaker owners since 1925. 

Some farm papers, while national in that they have circulation in 
every part of the country, tend to concentrate in certain areas. Thus 
Capper's Farmer, with 1,300,000, has 570,000 in the west North Cen 
tral Region and 492,000 in the east North Central the area from 
Ohio and Michigan to Kansas and the Dakotas. Successful Farm 
ing, a Meredith publication out of Des Moines, Iowa, likewise spots 
nearly 80 percent of its 1,200,000 in this region. The Progressive 
Farmer of Birmingham, Alabama, is frankly regional, with all but 
8,000 of its 1,000,000 circulation spread through the South from Vir 
ginia to Texas. This last-named magazine is published in five editions 
with separate editorial offices to maintain intimate contact in each 

Farmers represent a market of increasing interest to national adver 
tisers. It is generally assumed that because they raise so much pro 
duce farmers buy little food in stores. A survey by Midwest Farm 
Paper Unit (Nebraska Farmer, Prairie Farmer, The Farmer, Wal 
lace's Farmer & Iowa Homestead and Wisconsin Agriculturist & 
Farmer) selecting typical farm and city families showed that while in 
1945 the average city family spent more all told for food, in packaged 
goods the farm family ran nearly 50 percent ahead of the city sample. 
And expenditures for electrical equipment, plumbing, heating and 
other durable goods are increasing more rapidly than in urban areas. 
In a 1946 survey of over 3,000 ranch homes, Western Livestock Jour 
nal reported that 97 percent owned sinks, 91 percent refrigerators, 
100 percent radios, 87 percent bathtubs, 64 percent pianos and 12 
percent movie projectors. Of the ranch wives, 43 percent said they 
had their hair done in a beauty parlor and 64 percent used nail polish; 
all but 3 percent shopped in retail stores. 

The preference of the farmer for buying "in town" is stressed by 
Country Gentleman, whose market analysts state that 87 percent of 


all U. S. farms are within a 25-mile radius of one or more towns of 
2,500 and over. Because farmers spend less for housing, taxes and 
perishable goods than their city cousins while earning a nearly com 
parable income, it is safe to assume that they have more available 
funds for advertised merchandise. The farm papers, edited to appeal 
to this vast rural market of over 7,000,000 agricultural families, offer 
the logical medium for advertisers. In a study by the Association of 
National Advertisers as to which source gave farmers the most prac 
tical help, farm papers and farm magazines ran first, radio second, 
state and government bulletins third, newspapers fourth and man 
ufacturers' literature fifth. 

The 1946 Printers' Ink estimate of farm-paper advertising expen 
ditures was $35,800,000, up 11 percent over the previous year. 

Export Advertising 

The advertiser wishing to sell in other countries has several types 
of media at his command. 

First comes the "export magazine," produced in the United States 
and edited for businessmen in other countries wishing to deal in 
American goods. Some 26 firms in this country publish 54 such mag 
azines with a combined circulation of 458,000, according to Business 
Publishers International Corporation. Annually they carry about 
25,000 pages of advertising. A checkup by BPIC showed that in 1947 
one or more of these magazines went to 267 cities in Mexico, 395 
cities in Argentina, 257 in South Africa, 425 in Brazil and over 200 
in Sweden. There were even copies penetrating "behind the iron 

Some of these industrial magazines are published in foreign lan 
guages, such as El Automovil Americano, printed entirely in Spanish. 
Established in 1917, this automobile trade publication has some 
15,000 circulation in Latin America. An annual Overseas Buyers' 
Guide for Automotive Distributors is also issued in Spanish. Adver 
tisers may supply copy in English to be translated into Spanish for 
use in the magazine. McGraw-Hill, the publishers, also have a transla 
tion service charging 45 cents per 100 words for rendering foreign com 
mercial correspondence into English, and 50 cents per 100 words to 
translate English correspondence into Spanish, Portuguese or French. 

In addition to business papers, American-made consumer maga- 


zines are active in invading foreign countries. True Story launched 
its international editions in 1946; one year later it had 10 editions 
going, with 1,000,000 copies per issue, a revival of its prewar activity 
in this field which reached a peak of 75,000,000 magazines per year. 
The International True Story Group, including True Romance and 
Photoplay, is written in the language of the country, edited to refer 
to the people of that country and backed by a prominent local pub 

Cine-Mundial, a movie-fan magazine printed in Spanish, one of 
the oldest export consumer magazines, was established in 1916. Sell 
ing for $2.00 per year, it features photos and stories about movie stars 
much after the fashion of American periodicals of this same type. 

Aimed at what it calls "the agro-industrial market in every Spanish 
and Portuguese-speaking country of the world," La Hacienda Com 
pany of New York publishes twin monthlies La Hacienda (Span 
ish) and A Fazenda (Portuguese) with a total circulation of 25,000. 
The Spanish edition was established in 1905 and has maintained un 
interrupted publication ever since. It reaches dealers in machinery, 
electrical equipment, automobiles, trucks, aircraft and luxury con 
sumer goods. The publishers announce that they perform "valuable 
liaison work" between readers and American manufacturers. 

Veteran among business publications reaching the foreign market 
is American Exporter, issued since 1877. Some 31,000 free circula 
tion is about equally divided between the English and Spanish edi 
tions. An appraisal of postwar export markets by this publication 
indicated an average annual business in foreign trade of from $7,000,- 
000,000 to $8,000,000,000 a field well worth cultivating. 

Circulation leader of U. S. magazines going to foreign markets is 
Reader's Digest, which distributed some 2,000,000 copies of the 
pocket-sized periodical each month. Selecciones del Reader's Digest, 
the Spanish edition, launched in 1940, in 1947 had approximately 
half of the total. A black-and-white page cost $2,100 in 1947, a four- 
color page, $3,150. Early advertisers included such familiar names 
as Eastman Kodak, United Fruit, Pan American-Grace, Gillette, 
Ipana, Philco. Other editions of the magazine, all carrying advertis 
ing, were issued in Arabic, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Portuguese, 
French (separate editions for Canada and for Belgium, France, Swit 
zerland and the French colonies), Swedish and Japanese. A separate 
edition is also published in Australia. 


Time in 1941 invaded the overseas market with an edition printed 
on lightweight paper and delivered by air express, to all 20 nations 
south of the Rio Grande. A Canadian edition was started in 1943, 
followed by the Atlantic Overseas and Pacific Overseas editions after 
the war, all in English. Life International was another postwar ven 
ture of this publisher. 

This country's largest export market, Canada, is well covered by all 
media. Many U. S. magazines circulate widely north of the border. 
The Saturday Evening Post, for example, showed a Canadian circu 
lation of 156,085 in its December 1946 ABC statement; Life reported 
187,669. Among women's service magazines, Ladies' Home Journal 
had over 233,000 including 73 in Yukon and 32 in the Northwest 

Canada has over thirty general magazines of its own. Leaders are 
National Home Monthly with 308,460, published at Winnipeg; Mac 
lean's, a semimonthly, which had 316,139 net paid for its December 
15, 1946, issue; Chatelaine, a woman's magazine, with 286,874; and 
Canadian Home Journal, 281,656. There are approximately 100 
Canadian daily newspapers, including a number printed in French 
of which La Presse of Montreal is perhaps the best known. Canada 
has over 150 business papers; the French-speaking population is rep 
resented here also with such publications as La Revue Municipale 
and UEpicier. In addition, there are more than 115 Canadian radio 
stations and some 17 Canadian farm papers. All of these media 
carry advertising from U. S. manufacturers. 

Before World War II several leading British newspapers had adver 
tising solicitors in this country, as did the Times of India, the Tokyo 
Advertiser, and other foreign media. Most space in overseas publica 
tions, however, was placed either through American advertising 
agencies with branches abroad, or through agencies specializing in 
foreign markets. Among the latter were Irwin Vladimir & Company of 
New York, handling overseas campaigns for such firms as McKesson 
& Robbins, Pabst, Mennen, Waterman, Seagram and Simoniz; Rob 
ert Otto & Associates Campbell, General Motors, DuPont, Old 
Gold, Alka-Seltzer, U. S. Rubber Export Co. and others; Export 
Advertising Agency of Chicago headed by R. C. Lebret with many a 
"blue-chip" account, and J. Roland Kay, Inc., of the same city. 

Advertising alone will not, of course, build American export trade 
on a stable basis. Factors of politics, international agreements, tariff 


walls, racial antagonism, all play a part. Nevertheless innumerable 
evidences exist that the peoples of other countries are influenced by 
ads of American-made products. They may not always be able to 
buy, but the desire has been created. That is a long stride in the di 
rection of international co-operation. 

Foreign Language Markets 

Mention has already been made of French newspapers and maga 
zines in Canada, where bilingualism is officially recognized in sev 
eral provinces. The extent of the foreign-speaking market in the 
United States, little recognized by the average citizen, is a matter of 
interest to the admen. 

In New York City alone there are newspapers published in Yid 
dish, German, Polish, Norwegian, Spanish and Italian. Chicago has 
its German, Swedish, Polish and Jewish papers. Scranton has a Slo 
vak semiweekly; Los Angeles and San Antonio, Spanish dailies. 
Largest in circulation, the Jewish Daily Forward, with 113,194 Sun 
day ABC (1946), has local editions in Philadelphia, Newark, Boston 
and Chicago, besides the New York edition. Rotogravure as well as 
run-of-paper advertising is available. La Prensa is the name of the 
Spanish-language dailies in New York, Los Angeles and San Antonio, 
all ranging between 10,000 and 20,000 copies per issue. 

The New York Jewish newspapers are represented by Joseph 
Jacobs Organization. Mr. Jacobs found that the Jewish population 
of 2,500,000 in Greater New York accounted for one-third of all retail 
purchases, operated 78 percent of the groceries and 70 percent of the 
drug outlets. By advertising directed at this group, a national adver 
tiser could "crack" the desirable Manhattan territory if his product 
and appeal were right. Jacobs' counsel and advertising in his papers 
have aided a number of manufacturers to obtain a foothold in Hebrew 

"PlaybUT 9 Advertising 

People who go to the theater represent a choice market for luxury 
products. What better way to reach them than with the programs 
they read while waiting for the curtain to go up? That is the basis 
upon which modern theater-program advertising has been promoted. 


A Daniel Starch survey revealed that over half of the theater audi 
ence was seated and engrossed in program reading 15 minutes before 
curtain time, and 87 percent of those interviewed confessed to read 
ing the advertisements. Moreover, 55 percent read the program 
during first intermission, 37 percent during second intermission, and 
66 percent took their programs home to read later. In view of this 
longevity, the New York theater page rate of $30 per house per week, 
based on an average attendance of 7,000, with discounts ranging up 
to 15 percent for 1,200 "theater weeks," did not seem excessive. 

Commercial Films 

Advertising by means of films is as old as the movies, and this 
medium received a tremendous impetus during the war. The armed 
services used films extensively, not only for training, but in propa 
ganda and "documentary" pictures aimed at inspiring war workers to 
greater productivity. Business saw what such films could do and 
many companies decided to try similar ventures. Moreover, produc 
tion of film and projectors was greatly expanded by war needs. 
Although film was still scarce in mid-1947, producers were already 
pushing commercial applications. Tide estimated that 5,000 firms 
would use commercial films in 1947 in some form, where only 600 
did so in 1941.* 

"Minute Movies" have become a national medium under the 
guidance of General Screen Advertising Company and other selling 
and producing organizations. About 12,000 out of the nation's 
18,000 movie houses will accept these vignettes, which run from 45 
to 90 seconds and cost the national advertiser from $3 to $5 per 1,000 
circulation per week. Screenings are often arranged on a basis of 
every third week, the advertiser supplying four separate films which 
are rotated among the theaters in the selected territory for a three- 
month campaign, corresponding roughly to a 13-week radio "cycle." 

Production quality of "Minute Movies" is necessarily good, since 
the little films must compete with the Hollywood offerings on the 
same bill. Many are in Cinecolor. Recall tests show that most people 
remember many details of the shorts for a considerable length of 
time. Products which can be demonstrated in use such as foods, 

* "Commercial Films 1947 Status," Tide, January 3, 1947, p. 17. By permission 
of Tide. 


cleansers, paints can use them effectively. Cereals, soft drinks, ap 
pliances and automobiles are other types of merchandise using the 
medium. Some of the big first-run houses and chains do not accept 
Minute Movies, but schedules can be arranged to deliver a high pro 
portion of any market. The films are popular with dealers and sales 

One-reel sponsored shorts are accepted by some 8,000-9,000 U. S. 
theaters. Such films must have a high percentage of noncommercial 
entertainment and cannot do the direct selling job of the Minute 

Movies are being used for selling nontheatrical audiences too. A 
group of selected prospects will be brought together to see a film, with 
a sales solicitation following. Examples: farmers (equipment and 
farm material); executives and managers (industrial equipment); 
home owners (insulation, appliances). Training films for instance, 
showing retailers common errors in their methods, leading to a solici 
tation for store equipment are coming into greater use.* 

The educational or institutional film, circulated to clubs, schools, 
colleges, farm groups, YMCA's and the like, has already been men 
tioned. Among recent films of this type were: 

"Men of Gloucester," completed in December 1946 for Ford by 
Transfilm, Inc., first in a series of color films promoting travel in the 
United States. The series was to contain no direct selling for Ford cars. 

"Prospecting for Petroleum," animated cartoon for Shell produced 
by George Pal of Hollywood (Puppetoons), also first of a series, this 
one to tell the whole story of oil. 

"More Power to America," a series by General Electric, designed 
to help the company's dealers promote their products. 

A widely viewed institutional film is "Unfinished Rainbows," a 
four-reel Technicolor production by Wilding, sponsored by Aluminum 
Company of America and starring Alan Ladd of the movies. It is esti 
mated that some 17,000,000 people have seen either the full-length 
version or a one-reel short for theatrical distribution. It is shown to 

* New Horizons for Business Films (Association of National Advertisers, 1946), 
pp. 3-4. By permission of the Association of National Advertisers. 


new employees as an indoctrination film. Although made several years 
ago, "Unfinished Rainbows" is still in demand for school and club 

Premiums and Novelties 

"Something for nothing" has a universal appeal. Starting with 
that premise, the purveyors of advertising premiums and novelties 
have built a business estimated at well over $100,000,000 annually. 

The theory of the advertising novelty is simple: give an article 
which has some utility or amusement value, making it the vehicle 
for carrying an advertising message. Commonest and most popular 
give-away is, of course, the match book, used by many thousands of 
advertisers both local and national. 

Two of the largest producers of match-cover ads, Match Corporation 
of America and the Diamond Match Company, have developed this 
item into an important medium. This has been done by stepping up 
the quality of design and printing and by carefully controlling distri 
bution. Nowadays an advertiser can buy match-cover circulation in 
the precise markets he selects and even, to a limited extent, the qual 
ity of that circulation. If he wishes to reach "free-and-easy spenders" 
his matches might be dispensed among night club and tavern patrons; 
should his market be the wage earner, the allotments could be placed 
through stores and restaurants favored by this class. 

A 1946 presentation by Diamond Match gives its rates to adver 
tisers. The base price at that time was $1.10 per thousand covers on 
a minimum of two million. From there the cost came down to a low 
of 40 cents per thousand for 100 million. The advertiser or his agency 
merely supplied the match-cover art work and Diamond main 
tained its own art staff in case the client wanted assistance on a de 
sign. All plate-making, printing and distribution was taken care of 
by the match company. 

Most match books are printed only on the outside. Some adver 
tisers, however, have used the inside surface in various ways, such 
as a coupon offering a free sample, a helpful booklet, or a premium. 
Finance companies sometimes print a table of loans and monthly 
repayments there. Book publishers, especially in the trade or tech 
nical field, have sought direct orders on a "pay postman, money back 

* "Commercial Films 1947 Status" (Tide, January 3, 1947). 


if not satisfied" offer. A variant of the conventional match block of 
20 slender matches is the block of 10 double-width matches contain 
ing a design or message; sometimes these super-matches are bottle 
shaped to simulate a product that comes in such a container. 

"Billboard" match books, twice the usual width, give an area per 
mitting a bold advertising display. They are favorites with owners 
of radio stations and other media, being sent by the box to agency 
space buyers and advertisers in no inconsiderable numbers. 

Another popular form of reminder advertising is the calendar. 
Costing from a few pennies to several dollars each, the calendar 
appeals to many advertisers because it may remain on display for a 
full year, serving as a constant vehicle for the company's name and 
sales message. Some calendars are elaborate affairs with a full-color 
reproduction or a painting by some well-known artist for every month 
of the year. Others may have only one illustration or merely a bold 
type display. 

Most national advertisers use exclusive calendar art. The local coal 
dealer or laundry owner, who can't afford such an expense, may buy 
a few hundred or thousand syndicated calendars from one of the big 
houses like Gerlach-Barklow or Brown & Bigelow, making his selec 
tion from the array offered in the salesman's portfolio: pictures of 
babies, dogs, undraped beauties, landscapes, sports, humorous situ 
ations, and other "sure-fire" appeals. Calendar salesmen start the 
day after Christmas to take orders for the line a full year in advance. 

Brown & Bigelow of St. Paul features calendars by Norman Rock 
well, Maxfield Parrish, Rolf Armstrong, Gil Elvgren and other fa 
mous artists, as well as cartoon and photographic calendars. This 
company, founded in 1896, did $12,000 in business the first year; in 
1946, its volume reached $30,000,000. Besides calendars it offers 
many other types of what it calls "Remembrance Advertising" (a 
trade-marked name): desk sets, memorandum pads, playing cards, 
key cases, blotters, pens, pencils, many more. It sells 30,000,000 cal 
endars alone, has a sales force of 800 men. It is one of the world's 
largest playing-card manufacturers, although selling no cards at retail. 

The Advertising Specialty National Association with 206 members 
reported some $72,000,000 in novelties for 1946. Many of the items 
appeal to children. These include balloons, games, tricks, puzzles, 
noisemakers, poster stamps, "beanie" hats, and innumerable sizes of 


The distinction between advertising novelties and premiums is not 
clearly drawn; usually the former term refers to an item given away 
for advertising purposes and carrying the advertiser's name or slogan, 
while the latter denotes an article either given by the advertiser as a 
bonus with a purchase or in return for some effort, or sold at a re 
duced price to users of a product. The premium does not, as a rule, 
carry any advertising. 

One of the largest users of premiums is General Foods. W. Parlin 
Lillard, staff division manager, in an address before the Premium 
Advertising Association of America in May 1947, described the Gen 
eral Foods strategy as "Push-Pull Merchandising pushing merchan 
dise into trade channels and onto the shelves, and pulling consumers 
into the stores." He mentioned these ways his company employs 
premiums: ; 

1. As incentives for jobbers' salesmen. At certain times, points are 
given for orders on specified products. When the salesman has ac 
quired a sufficient number of points, he can have his choice of 
many premiums shown in a prize book. 

2. Coupons given to buyers for restaurants, drugstores, hospitals, col 
leges, even jails, with selection of premiums as shown in an "Insti 
tution Premium Book." 

3. Coupons to consumers who buy products of the Jersey Cereal 
Company, a G-F subsidiary. These are redeemable by mail or 
through premium stores maintained by Colgate-Palmolive-Peet, 
who have a similar coupon plan on Octagon and Kirkman Soaps. 

4. Paper cutouts with G-F packages, such as circus animals, supplied 
one with each box of Post's cereals. Additional toys would be sent 
to youngsters mailing in box tops, eventually giving them a full 
"circus." This particular offer was featured in national magazines 
and on the radio. 

5. Consumer contests with merchandise prizes, arranged by salesmen 
to be run by grocers in their territory. 

6. "Self-liquidating" premium promotions. One deal offered a silver- 
plated knife and fork for a Grape-Nuts Wheat Meal box top and 
75 cents. The consumer can get a complete set by purchasing ad 
ditional boxes and sending in 75 cents for each pair. This offer 
might run several months or more, being featured in ads, radio 
shows, dealer cards, and on packages. In this case it would be 
known as a "continuing" promotion, to differentiate it from a 
"one-shot" or limited time offer. 


7. Point-of-purchase premiums. The gift could be in the product 
package, banded to it with tape, or displayed alongside. One such 
G-F offer in 1947 was on Maxwell House Tea an iced tea glass 
free with each one-fourth pound of tea. The glasses were shipped 
to the dealer in the same carton with the packages of tea, the car 
ton opening up to form a display stand for the deal.* 

Premiums which require a consumer to buy a product and mail in 
proof of purchase (box top, label, sales slip or coupon) in order to 
obtain the article are sometimes called "mail-aways." Some of the 
popular items in this category as shown by public response to innum 
erable offers of this kind, are: novelty jewelry, births tone rings, com 
pacts, garden seeds, kitchen shears, paring knives, recipe books, greet 
ing cards, cereal bowls, snapshot enlargements. Premiums appealing 
strongly to youngsters are: trick rings of various kinds, club member 
ships, books of magic and magic tricks, lead pencils imprinted with 
youngster's name, model airplanes or cutouts (particularly during the 
war). Articles which have the recipient's name or initials in gold 
are also likely to be productive. 

According to F. Harvey Morse of Reuben H. Donnelley Corpora 
tion, which handles mailing of many premiums for advertisers, "A 
popular premium is one which satisfies a want which cannot otherwise 
be satisfied or which does so at a genuine bargain price. When either 
of these conditions exists, women will send for the premium by the 
hundreds of thousands."** Mr. Morse also declares that for a pro 
motion to be successful, the advertiser must sell the premium just as 
hard as the product. That is why in many ads and radio shows where 
the manufacturer is offering a premium, he will devote the lion's 
share of his message to describing the desirability and big value of 
the premium and tell about his own product only secondarily. 

Sampling and Couponing 

Closely associated with premium offers as a "hard-hitting" market 
ing device is the use of samples and coupon distribution. This tech 
nique was virtually abandoned during World War II because mer 
chandise shortages enabled any manufacturer to sell all he could 
make. As goods became plentiful and competitive selling returned, 
so did various sampling methods. 

* Premium Practice, June 1947, pp. 20-21. By permission of Premium Practice. 
** Ibid., p. 22. 


It may surprise the layman to learn that more sampling is done by 
products with which the public is already familiar than with brand- 
new products. Among products using sampling campaigns in 1946 
were Bab-O, Baker's Cocoa, Calox Tooth Powder, Cheerio, as well as 
various items made by Colgate-Palmolive, Seeman Brothers and 
Standard Brands. Prewar, Procter & Gamble, Lever Bros, and Kellogg 
were perhaps the largest of all samplers. They employed the device 
not only to introduce new products for instance, Lever's Swan 
Soap, P & G's Duz, Teel, Dreft but also to revive interest in a uni 
versally known item whose sales might have declined in a given mar 
ket because of aggressive competition. 

Sampling is done in several ways, the commonest being by means 
of a coupon which, when presented at a store, will be good for 5 
cents, 10 cents or more toward the purchase of a product, or will en 
title the holder to a second package free upon buying the first pack 
age. Sometimes full-sized units are distributed, at other times mini 
ature packages. Wrigley, a steady user of samples before the war, had 
one card containing single sticks of three different Wrigley Gums. 

The nomenclature of sampling is picturesque. The surest method 
is the "ring, wait and hand-in" The carrier goes from door to door 
with a supply of samples or coupons, rings each bell, waits for 
a reply, and presents the material, with or without a sales phrase as 
desired. This service is most effective when performed by companies 
specializing in the field, like Advertising Distributors of America and 
Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation. It is proof against pilferage 
which sometimes occurs with other methods, particularly if a gang 
of youngsters discovers what is going on and starts following the 
carrier. The other methods are "straight leave," in which the ma 
terial is wedged into the door-jamb or, if possible, slid under the door; 
"leave and ring," and "hand-to-hand," the last generally performed by 
girls on downtown streets or around factories. Western Union before 
the war was an important factor in "bulk distribution," handling cir 
culars, coupons and actual samples, and was expected to return to 
the field in 1947. There are also many local concerns in the field. 
The matter of reliability is important to the advertiser. Reputable 
distribution firms train the carriers and work them under experienced 
supervisors. Many of the carriers are uniformed, and in some cities 
are unionized.* 

* Advertising Age, October 26, 1946, pp. 18-20. 


Trade and Dealer Publications 

In the chapter on "The Industrial Advertiser," business papers 
were discussed at length, particularly those of a technical nature. 
There is another class of business paper very important to national 
advertisers the periodical edited for retail dealers in the grocery, 
drug, hardware, dry goods, home furnishings and syndicate store field. 
These are the real "trade papers" because the bulk of their circulation 
comes from the retail trade. 

In the primitive days of advertising, national advertisers operated 
on the basis of developing "consumer demand" which would compel 
dealers to handle certain popular lines or lose business. Then it be 
came apparent that the retailer exercised more power than he'd been 
given credit for, and could, if he wished, switch the purchaser who 
asked for an advertised brand over to "something just as good." From 
this came the present doctrine of "consumer acceptance" meaning 
that a buyer would accept a nationally advertised brand without sales 
talk if the local retailer chose to offer it. Net result was an immedi 
ate and persistent wooing of the local grocer, druggist or hardware 
store proprietor as the man who held the fate of advertised brands in 
his hands. 

Advertising men began to study the dealer publications to learn 
which he read, and why. Special campaigns were planned for deal 
ers. In recent years it has become accepted practice to announce any 
consumer program first to the retail trade, and to follow through 
with advertising to retailers that would tell them how to "cash in" on 
the consumer campaign. Manufacturers of equipment and supplies 
use retail publications to advertise their products, but they are out 
numbered by the consumer goods firms. 

Largest group of trade papers is in the grocery field, which in 1947 
had some 25 national and 45 regional or local publications. Many of 
the latter were official organs of state, sectional or city associations of 
retail grocers. The National Association of Retail Grocers 
(NARGUS) publishes National Grocers Bulletin, with over 50,000 
membership subscriptions. Chain Store Age, which issues a number 
of editions for various fields, has some 30,000 circulation with its 
Grocery Executives and Grocery Managers combination. This is net 
paid. In the controlled (free) distribution group, Progressive Grocer 


averaged 78,1 12 copies monthly in the last six months of 1946, and Food 
Topics, a new tabloid-newspaper-style biweekly, reported a 92,500 

Supermarkets are the object of much attention by trade publica 
tions. Although numerically less than 3 percent of the total food out 
lets, according to Super Market Merchandising, these giant stores did 
over 40 percent of the nation's retail food business. To get into this 
classification, a grocery must gross a minimum of $250,000 yearly. 
But the volume need not necessarily be confined to the food field; 
supermarkets sell something like 7 percent of the country's drugs and 
15 percent of the wines. Pioneer in the field, Super Market Merchan 
dising, was started in 1936, now has over 10,000 net paid. Self-Service 
Grocer had about the same circulation in 1947. 

Newspaper-type periodicals are popular for regional coverage. 
Grocer-Graphic in New York, Food Mart News in Chicago and Food 
Trade News in Philadelphia reach over 12,000 grocers apiece every 
other week. 

To illustrate the importance of trade papers to national advertisers, 
an analysis of the June 1947 National Grocers Bulletin showed 68 
food manufacturers and processors advertising in the issue as com 
pared to 23 makers of grocery equipment or supplies. Of the 68 food 
companies, 40 featured or mentioned their consumer advertising. In 
addition, seven associations like Florida Citrus Commission, Ameri 
can Meat Institute, Ice Cream Manufacturers, and Ice Industries, as 
well as two consumer magazines, Life and Saturday Evening Post, 
were in the ad columns. Swift & Company used a four-page full-color 
insert built around the theme, "The Swift Name Helps YOU Sell." 
One of the most interesting ads was a spread for Lever Brothers fea 
turing a 9 x 12 booklet, "Grocery Stores around the World," and a 
check list of subjects on which the retailer could obtain information 
and help from the company's Special Service Plan Department. This 
check list was printed on blanks carried by each Lever Brothers 
salesman and included: store plans and layouts, selling displays, signs 
and price tickets, clerk training, stock control, produce merchandis 
ing and other phases of store operation. 

In fields related to groceries, trade papers also abound. The new 
and fast-growing frozen foods industry had no less than 11, mostly 
postwar; first in the field, Quick Frozen Foods, was established in 


Trade-paper advertising rates are low in comparison with consumer 
magazines. In 1947, National Grocers Bulletin charged $400 per 
page, $350 on a 12-time basis. Chain Store Age asked $485 for a sin 
gle page, $420 each for 12 pages a year. Food Topics with a 10 x 14 
page size, had the highest rate, $980 for one page, scaling down to 
$747.25 each for 52 pages. Progressive Grocer was priced at $430 per 
page on a one-time basis, down to $345 apiece for 48 pages; its pocket 
size (4}4 x 7^4 inches) made it the most costly per square inch of all 
national food papers. To obtain greater impact, many advertisers in 
Progressive Grocer took two or more pages. The June 1947 issue con 
tained no less than 27 double spreads. 

Telephone Directory Advertising 

"An inch or two of space in the telephone classified directory will 
cost little and will serve to keep your business name before the pub 
lic. Many persons pay little attention to the names of stores and 
shops and must refer to the classified directory for phone numbers 
and addresses." This comment is not, as one might suspect, taken 
from a Bell System advertisement, but from a U. S. Department of 
Commerce bulletin, "Establishing and Operating a Beauty Shop." 

Directory advertising, virtually ignored by most writers of books 
and magazine articles, has swelled to tremendous proportions in re 
cent years. The 1947 total for Bell System directories alone was over 
$80,000,000. The June 1947 Chicago Red Book grossed more than 
$7,000,000, according to J. W. Fisher, Jr., directory superintendent 
of the Illinois Bell Telephone Company. It was a volume of 1,752 
pages with 250,000 reference items under 3,000 separate headings 
and had a total circulation of 1,350,000 copies which cost an esti 
mated $2.75 apiece. 

Only New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit and Los Angeles 
have separate classified directories, but in every other city or town 
where there are more than a handful of retailers the local phone book 
contains "yellow pages" serving the same purpose. These pages are 
used in several ways: 

1. "Name and number service." A phone subscriber wants to look 
up a firm whose name he has forgotten but will recognize if he sees 
it. He consults the appropriate section of the classified, runs down 
the listings until he runs across the firm he is after. 


2. 'Trade-mark service." A subscriber wants to buy or get repairs on 
some nationally advertised article. He turns to the directory, 
locates the manufacturer's name, and under it finds the names of 
dealers, wholesalers and repair shops. 

3. A subscriber has no particular firm in mind but wishes to obtain 
some product or service. He looks under the desired heading and 
makes his selection. 

The "directory habit" has been encouraged by national advertising 
in Life, Ladies' Home Journal, The Saturday Evening Post and other 
consumer media. In the Chicago area, the local Red Book was pro 
moted in 1947 in newspapers, book matches, car cards, business pub 
lications, and blotters enclosed with telephone bills: a total of 845,- 
000,000 impressions of the message, "Look in the Red Book." 

Advertisers in classified directories include not only national firms 
but also and predominantly local retailers, wholesalers and service 
institutions. Small manufacturers found this medium particularly 
effective during the war when many business firms were cut off from 
their regular sources of supply or went into new fields and had to 
establish new buying connections. 

Rates are on a monthly basis, even though the directory may be 
issued only every six or nine months. The largest space sold in the 
Chicago Red Book is a quarter-page, which costs $128 per month. 
Each business or professional telephone subscriber is allowed one free 
listing. Additional listings are $1.50 per month, extra copy under 
a listing 75 cents per line, and names in boldface $3.00 per month. 

Success stories in plenty attest to the pulling power of directory 
advertising. A small plant in Chicago, Delta Company, had been 
cutting foil for use in electronic tubes during the war. The owner 
wished to expand his market and inserted a half-inch ad in the Red 
Book. Within two months he reported over 100 sales from Red Book 
calls and had a backlog of orders which enabled the company to 
move into its own building. Another type of business, ABC Diaper 
Service, averaged 20 calls a day from a quarter-page. Results were 
traceable because a special phone number not listed in the "alpha 
betical" directory was given in the ad. 

Bell System's national "trade-mark service" was inaugurated in 
1927. At present over 3,000 companies use it, some of them in every 
classified directory in the country. The manufacturer pays for a small 


reproduction of his trade-mark and a few lines of copy. He gets a 
heading in bold-faced type. Under his space are listed the local sales 
and service firms. With an "open listing" any dealer or repair shop 
can buy space under this heading; with a "closed listing" only those 
named by the manufacturer are eligible. 

Growth of directory advertising is shown by the fact that between 
1937 and 1947 the number of advertisers in the Chicago Red Book 
increased from 25,449 to 55,791. The annual expenditure to promote 
Red Book usage was stepped up from less than $25,000 to $100,000. 

The appearance of directory pages has been steadily improved of 
late. Maximum space has been reduced to a quarter-page and un 
sightly black "reverse" headings eliminated. Layout and art service 
is supplied to advertisers without charge and this has been an impor 
tant factor in upgrading the quality of classified displays. 

The Circus Goes to Town 

Innumerable other media could be considered in this chapter. 
Negro magazines like Ebony reach a market of many millions. 
Decalcomanias (paint transfers applied to glass) and other methods 
of dealer identification constitute an important vehicle for national 
advertisers. Cooking schools, homemaker forums, store demonstra 
tions, traveling displays are dramatic forms of product promotion. 
But perhaps as good a place as any to stop is at the circus. 

Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Circus has been carrying ads in 
its program since the 1880's. The present Circus Magazine is a color 
ful affair of 72 pages with an annual circulation of over a million. 
The current rate card gave $2,000 as the page rate, $3,500 for the 
back cover. Besides circulation, advertisers also enjoyed the privilege 
of having their products sold to the audience and used in the circus 
dining room, as well as free testimonials, photographs and personal 
appearances of circus artists, and photographs of all the animals 
including Gargantua! 




TT has been said repeatedly that no product which could not suc 
ceed without advertising can succeed -with advertising. One of the 
J- first steps taken by any experienced advertising man or agency in 
planning a campaign is to analyze the sales appeal of the article or 
service to be promoted. 

This may involve innumerable factors. First of all, how about 
quality, style, value, in comparison with competitive offerings? No 
use attempting to develop a demand for something that is hopelessly 
outclassed from the start! If a food or ingredient of foods, the matter 
of flavor must be considered; a slight variation in taste may make a 
big difference. Local and regional eating habits vary and often 
are too deep-rooted for one advertiser particularly a newcomer to 
try to change. If an article of apparel, to what age group will it 
appeal? Can a slight modification of design broaden the base from 
say the 15-20-year-olds to the 15-35-year market? If a multiunit item, 
such as pills, bobby pins or meat balls, is the present number of units 
the best, or might a larger or smaller quantity sell better? How about 
the package? Is glass the most effective container, or tin? Paper, foil 
or cellophane? A utility package or one that has a second use after 
the product has been exhausted? 

Asking and answering questions like these may seem far re 
moved from advertising. Yet they have a direct bearing on the out 
come of many advertising programs. Sometimes a very simple 
change in the size, shape or exterior appearance of a product or its 
package will have far greater effect in stimulating sales than all the 
fancy copy imaginable. It is taking nothing away from advertising 
to admit that it works best when every condition is most favorable. 
Fortunate is the advertising man who starts with a new product. 
He can study competitors' packages, see what mistakes to avoid, in 
corporate in his new box or label only those words that will contrib 
ute directly to getting the product sold and used correctly. But where 
an item has been on the market for some time and has done well in 
its present dress, any alteration is apt to encounter resistance from 



the top management. They argue that a restyling of the package 
will cause sales to fall off because old customers will not accept or 
recognize the new design. This despite numerous case histories of 
companies that have made radical changes in package design without 
antagonizing established trade, but with marked stimulation of new 

C. B. Larrabee tells about a cosmetic house that set about chang 
ing a package made amiliar by years of advertising and use. The 
package had become seriously outmoded. But in bringing the pack 
age up-to-date the company wished to avoid any loss of good will; 
the modernizing was done in seven easy stages, so that consumers 
would not be conscious of it. Later the advertising manager said, 
"If we had the job to do over again we would make the change in one 
jump. Not only did we lose the news value of the change, but also 
we were submitted to a lot of extra trouble and expense."* 

Contrast this with the manufacturer who boldly announces, "We 
couldn't improve the product so we improved the package," or "Now 
even finer than ever look for the new label!" Company salesmen, 
jobbers and dealers get a shot in the arm as the new design is intro 
duced with a fanfare. The "new" product rates extra displays in 
stores. And customers who for one reason or another had a prejudice 
against the old product may try the repackaged job and decide they 
like it. 

Modern Packaging Materials 

As with many other industrial activities, packaging was affected by 
developments of World War II. Foods and other perishables or 
semiperishable products that were shipped to the tropics and to the 
far north had to withstand conditions of extreme heat, cold, humid 
ity or dryness. Many of the new materials and methods that were 
perfected for military use have since been adapted to civilian require 
ments. The annual Packaging Exposition of the American Manage 
ment Association for the postwar years has featured a variety of such 

Cellophane, pliofilm, lumarith, sylphwrap and other transparent 
wraps were becoming increasingly prevalent in the food field with 

* C. B. Larrabee, How to Package for Profit (Harper & Bros., 1935), p. 19. Quoted 
by permission of the publishers. 



DeBeers Diamonds use a recherche painting by Paul Darrow; Havoline, a 
"postery" tempera painting; Container Corporation, a Stuart Davis original. 

Courtesy Don May: "101 Roug 


Here the layout man has blocked in the main elements of the advertisement. An 
experienced adman can visualize the appearance of the finished job from this pre 
liminary sketch. 


Headlines have been lettered in, illustration indicated in some detail. Note that 
picture has been "flopped" (turned over) to improve readability of ad. A third 
stage, the "full comp" would show the actual photo to be used, perhaps with 
the text matter set in type. 


Capable men and women, with and with 
out experience or specific training can 
be contacted speedily and economically 
through The Daily News Want-Ad Section. 
The responsive HOME Coverage Circula 
tion of this newspaper is assurance that 
your advertisement, inserted in the "Help 

Wanted Men" or "Help Wanted Wo. 
men" listings, will put you in immediate 
touch with competent help. \ 

The next time you need help, remember 
The Daily News Want Ads. Jf you place 
your advertisement before 10:45 a. m.. it 
Will appear in the same day's paper! 

you eon advertite in The Daily News Want Ad Section for at little at $130. Simply telephone 
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If all has gone well, the advertisement will have as much snap and sparkle 
as the layout. That's the true test of a good layout man! 


the continuing swing toward self-service. The prepackaging of fresh 
fruits, vegetables and meats which is necessary if food stores are to 
become completely self-service requires coverings that repel exterior 
moisture and keep the contents from drying out. These materials, 
synthetic in origin, had also to be adapted to receive printing in one 
or more colors, to permit producers to brand their wares. More and 
more produce was being snipped by air, posing new packaging prob 
lems. Many items can be shipped in dry ice, for example, but the 
carbon dioxide will kill lobsters; hence for air-expressage of live lob 
sters a special carton has been devised. It is a paperboard box fitted 
with waterproofed envelopes containing regular ice at either end. 
The lobsters are placed in the main part of the box in seaweed. 

Aluminum foil was developed as a food wrapper and proved suc 
cessful in tests by Beatrice Creamery Company on Blue Valley Butter. 
The foil, laminated to parchment, was said to show far less weight loss 
in a household refrigerator, and at the same time had a distinctly 
greater eye appeal. This was a Reynolds Metals Company project. 

Another new type of packaging material consisted of a layer of 
kraft paper, a wall of duplex asphalt and a vegetable parchment inner 
liner. This was being used for such products as ready-peeled potatoes 
delivered to lunchrooms. Cellophane was also being laminated to 
paper to give a glossy outer surface or a smooth, nonsticking inner 

The majority of packages seen in stores, however, continued to be 
made of cardboard, either coated to receive the printed matter or cov 
ered with a separate paper label which was "tight-wrapped" to appear 
like part of the box. All cans and the majority of bottles were iden 
tified by paper labels glued to their surface, although a few soft-drink 
bottlers were using a paint-process label applied directly to the bottle. 

Package designers, were giving more and more thought to the 
"stacking" quality of a container. In erecting mass displays of an 
item it is essential to have a flat surface above and below. A pro 
truding pour-spout or other irregularity makes pyramid displays diffi 
cult if not impossible. The trend toward multiple use of packages 
has also led to another exciting consideration the possibility of de 
signing the different sides of a package so that they will form a 
larger picture or pattern when placed with different faces adjoining. 
Several manufacturers of cake flour, for example, have sponsored 
packages on which a portion of a cake is visible from the front; when 


the side and back of other packages are placed alongside, a complete 
cake appears. 

Package Copy 

How much text should appear on a package and what should it 
say? For certain kinds of merchandise there are indispensables, such 
as brand name, company name, net weight or number of units. In 
addition, if the product is a food, the package or label logically should 
include directions for use and perhaps typical recipes. If it happens 
to be, for instance, a wallpaper cleaner, directions are certainly de 
sirable. On the other hand, a can of beans or tomatoes, or a bar of 
soap, has little need for instructions on the label. 

Manufacturers often utilize the package for copy suggesting new 
product applications. Thus a steel-wool scouring pad (such as Brillo, 
Glo or SOS) is accepted as being an efficient means of cleaning and 
polishing aluminum kitchenware. But how many women know that 
it is also useful for restoring linoleum, removing fingerprints from 
woodwork, shining up tools, golf clubs and even auto fixtures? Obvi 
ously if the makers of these pads could induce more people to use 
them in these ways, the consumption would greatly increase. The 
sides and back of the package are logical places to push these addi 
tional uses. 

Premiums of various kinds sometimes are featured on packages. 
Any offer must naturally be arranged on a long-time setup, since 
several months may elapse between the printing of the package and 
its arrival in the home. Ralston and General Mills are two concerns 
that have used package copy to push premiums. 

The package itself may be a prize. Post Toasties, Wheaties and 
others have run cut-outs with child appeal on their boxes. The back is 
generally used for this purpose. Or in the case of a cheese jar, the 
package may be suitable for use as a jelly glass or drinking glass. In 
the South, flour sacks are frequently laundered and adapted as shirts, 
sunsuits or aprons. The manufacturer takes pains to use washable 
inks on his label to enhance their utility, figuring that the good will 
should more than offset the dubious advertising value of having his 
trade-mark appear on a garment. Carey Salt designs its pickle-salt 
bags with an attractive border of vegetables, to make a decorative 
dish towel. Some cosmetics packages become jewel cases or ash trays 


after the contents are gone; in such instances the necessary product 
information may be printed on a detachable outer wrapper, with the 
permanent cover carrying only the brand name or crest. 

Soap wrappers which serve as merchandise coupons; cards, holding 
small-unit articles, which are made larger than necessary in order to 
serve also as counter displays for the product; side or back panels of 
packages which promote the sale of other items in the manufactu 
rer's line all these are examples of package copy that performs a 
double duty. 

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., in repackaging their hardware 
line recently, made good use of the sides and tops of boxes to encour 
age related sales. Thus on the box containing a cylinder front-door 
set, one large panel displayed the copy: "How Many Keys Do You 
Carry? Ask the Yale Dealer about Masterkey System for Home, 
School, Office, Factory." Other boxes holding more than one of an 
item, where the main package would remain in the store, were sup 
plied with product information to help the clerk make the sale. The 
repackaging program was also planned to reduce the amount of re 
turned goods by inspiring confidence in the quality of the product, by 
helping the customer make the correct choice of merchandise and 
by supplying simplified direction folders in which lengthy explana 
tions were replaced by illustrations and short copy. The buyer was 
resold on his purchase with such phrases as: "You bought a fine lock. 
Please use it this way:" followed by simple instructions. 

Commenting on this program, Meade Johnson, marketing man 
ager of the Yale hardware line, said: "In its journey from factory to 
user, a box is handled or seen by many customers. Packages, there 
fore, are a powerful advertising medium."* 

Growth of Packaging Industry 

Packaging of foods received its first real impetus in the 1880's and 
1890's with the rise of prepared cereals. Originally the designs were 
crude and purely utilitarian, but before long illustrations began to 
appear. It was found that the use of color would make a package 
stand out on a shelf and thereby increase its sale. By the turn of the 
century the grocer's and druggist's shelves were blazing with gaudy 

* Carroll J. Swan, "What a Good Package Should Do," Printers' Ink, June 21, 
1946. By permission of Printers' Ink. 


boxes and labels. Since then the trend has been gradually in the 
other direction. Today's packages are colorful, eye-catching but on 
the whole in far better taste than those of 20 or 30 years ago. 

Much of the credit for this must go tc the comparatively new pro 
fession of package designing. 

The competent package designer must be not only an artist, with 
a flair for color, form, lettering, but also something of an engineer, 
familiar with materials, machinery and processes, and moreover, a 
student of human nature and buying psychology. His designs must 
be practical, so that they look as attractive in the store as they did 
on the drawing board. Certain box materials, for example, do not 
take kindly to different colors printed one on top of another; some 
require a sizing or underprinting to serve as a base. Various types of 
packaging machines must be taken into account. The needs of the 
consumer will of course get thorough consideration; the container 
must be easy to open and use; if the entire contents are not emptied 
at once it should be equally easy to close. The package or bottle 
should stand firmly, not tip or spill. Directions on the package should 
be legible even in poor light. The container should fit into its sur 
roundings kitchen, boudoir, workshop, business office. These are 
just a few of the details to be watched when a new label or package 
is in preparation. 

One factor of great importance is the way the package will look in 
the company's advertisements. Usually the reproduction of the pack 
age is quite small. A complex design or one in which the product 
name has been played down will definitely lack visibility and sales 
wallop under such circumstances. On the other hand, an overly bold 
or "studhorse" package will seem out of place if the advertising is 
high style. 

Despite all the "Do's and Don'ts" the professional package de 
signer almost invariably comes through with a solution that meets 
every requirement and is at the same time a marked improvement 
over the former container especially if he is working against designs 
15 or 20 years old. So much progress has been made in this field 
during the past decade that any one of a hundred recognized pack 
age men is certain to add sales power to any redesigning job he under 

Rates for package designing depend upon the amount of research, 
trial sketches, testing and finished art work that the assignment will 


entail, as well as upon the standing of the designer. Under certain 
circumstances a fee of $250 might cover a simple problem; for a com 
plicated project, embracing the restyling of an entire "family" of 
products, the bill might run all the way from $10,000 to $50,000. 
But when the future of a multimillion-dollar business is at stake, the 
question of initial cost is not nearly as vital as the results. Frequently 
the designer can make suggestions as to processing which will give a 
finer label or package at less cost than the supposedly economical 
one. Here is an instance: 

Before it was changed, a well-known proprietary remedy had a 
package that was a typical overstuffed mid- Victorian eyesore. Every 
thing about it was cheap and unhandy. The cheap newsprint carton 
was omitted, the number of labels reduced to one, and the closure 
was changed. Finer glass was used in the new bottle, better quality 
labels and a plastic closure. The net result was that the new package, 
costing more than the old, reduced packaging costs. It reduced the 
number of and simplified packaging operations.* 

Modern packaging takes cognizance of all expenses incurred in 
sending a product from the manufacturer to the consumer. In the 
old days virtually all merchandise was packed by hand, but that was 
when $1.00 a day was considered good pay. Our present economic 
structure makes it unlikely that such a situation will return. Hence 
automatic machinery is indispensable if the manufacturer wishes to 
stay in business. The more short cuts that can be devised in prepar 
ing a product for market, the greater will be his chances of retaining 
his present volume and adding to it. 

Precisely at this point, the package designer or perhaps more cor 
rectly he should be called the packaging engineer enters the picture. 
He analyzes every aspect of the company's procedure. The present 
box may be printed in three colors; would two be equally effective? 
A bottle may have an outer wrap of glassine paper; is this necessary? 
The company uses several dozen different sizes and shapes of corru 
gated boxes to ship its products; could the number be reduced to per 
mit ordering in larger quantities at a lower price? It is amazing to 
discover how many supposedly efficient firms have profit-leaks in 
packaging and shipping. 

* Larrabee, op. dt. 


Primarily, of course, the package designer is concerned with appear 
ance. His suggestions as to mechanics and methods are by-products. 
He is basically an artist. And in that area he can accomplish miracles. 
Advertising history teems with case histories of products that have 
had a rebirth of public favor after new packages have been adopted. 

It is difficult to signal out any specific designers for mention here. 
But among those who have achieved recognition might be listed such 
names as Georges Wilmet, Raymond Loewy, Egmont Arens, Ben 
Nash, DeForest Sackett, E. Willis Jones, Robert Sidney Dickens, 
Harry Farrell, Ed Sullivan (of Chen-Yu fame) and Otis Shepard, the 
versatile art director for Wi.gley. Raymond Loewy, one of the better 
known designers, has in recent years concentrated on products rather 
than packaging. Most of the newer designing jobs have been directed 
by advertising agencies, working with the designers. 

Package design can take odd twists. As part of his duties in con 
nection with Wrigley's Gum, for instance, Otis Shepard has had to 
function as design consultant on a variety of matters connected with 
the Chicago Cubs, in which Mr. Wrigley has an interest. Not only 
has Shepard helped to restyle the Cubs' advertising; he has been 
called in to offer suggestions as to the general arrangement of the 
field, the stands and the concessions. But this is not unusual. Other 
designers have had their advice solicited in such matters as the color 
of elevator operators' uniforms, the pattern to be painted on the 
factory smokestack, the dresses to be worn by demonstrators. Indi 
vidually such details are trivial. But they add up to the cumulative 
effect of an institution on its public. And in a very pragmatic sense, 
they are "packaging" problems. 


HEADLINE and text in a printed advertisement, words and 
phrases in a radio commercial, art work to be used for making 
engravings all come under the general heading of "copy." 

Actually the word is grossly misleading. Advertising copy is any 
thing but a copy. Originality is the sine qua non of selling diction. 
This does not mean that the appeal must be new. But in its presen 
tation there should be a fresh treatment, a different approach to the 
product. The successful copy writer does not consciously strive for 
unused terms; he studies his proposition, figures out why and how it 
is different and better than the others and aims his ads accordingly. 
For some articles the proper approach may seem to be simple expos 
itory treatment for others, the light touch, possibly with cartoons 
or amusing sketches for still others, the romantic or glamorous 
angle. In any event, he is more engrossed with presenting and de 
veloping his message than he is with an exact choice of words. As he 
delves into his subject, explores it, evolves its one best copy slant, 
headlines and text flow naturally. 

It is not the purpose of this book to teach advertising, and most 
certainly not the most esoteric branch of the subject, copy writing. 
Those who wish instruction are referred to the following mediums, 
the reading of which will well repay any aspirant to a word-wielding 
job in the advertising business: 

How Advertising is Written and Why, by Aesop Glim (McGraw- 

Advertising Copy, by George Burton Hotchkiss (Harper) . 

How to Write Advertising That Sells, by Clyde Bedell (McGraw- 

Psyching the Ads, by Carroll Rheinstrom (Covici-Friede) . 

How to Write Advertising, by K. M. Goode (Longmans-Green) 

Advertising to the Mass Market, by James D. Woolf (Ronald) . 

This is by no means a complete bibliography on advertising copy. 
But it is a fair start, and may explain why tie author, after 25 years 



as an advertising writer, will not attempt, in a single chapter, to com 
pete with the already bulky literature dealing with the subject. So the 
matter of copy will be dealt with lightly. Not because .copy is unim 
portant; no phase of advertising is more significant, has a more pro 
found effect on the productivity of an individual ad, radio program, 
poster, mailing piece or complete campaign. Copy is the lifeblood of 
advertising. Strong, convincing, idea-full copy can succeed with the 
poorest treatment, but the most elaborate campaign can miss the mark 
if the copy isn't right. 

Yet oddly enough, nobody has been able to pin down copy to a 
pattern. Many years ago John Powers wrote copy for Wanamaker 
that swamped the store with customers but Powers' stuff would fall 
flat on many types of products. Claude Hopkins was considered a 
master of copy; he had countless successes to prove it. But today 
the Hopkins approach sounds stilted, lumbering, in the light of our 
fast-moving times. Among modern writers, Walter Weir, Amedee 
Cole, John Rosebrook, Joe Katz, Lou Thomas, Jim Martindale, Ken 
Ward, George Drake, Margaret Fishback and a few dozen others 
have caught the tempo of the age as did the "old masters" of 25 or 50 
years ago. Your true copy star can't be pigeonholed. He has no rigid 
pattern for any and all products. Each new problem calls for a virginal 
approach. And it is this very fluidity, this refusal to be typed, that 
keeps advertising copy so fresh and stimulating. 

The Headline 

The best read part of any advertisement is the headline. Starch read 
ership tests have shown the power of the headline outweighs that of 
the text by ratios of as high as 25 to 1; even a well-rated ad may run 
four or five to one in favor of the heading as against the text. Hence 
the copy writer concentrates his heaviest artillery on the headline. 

Clyde Bedell, foremost teacher and writer on creative advertising, 
has this to say: 

It should be remembered that your headline is probably the most 
important part of your ad. It should never be left until after the copy 
is prepared and then dashed off in slapstick fashion. It is good prac 
tice to work and work hard on your headline first. Get a good one, 
if you can, before you proceed with the copy.* 

* By permission from How to Write Advertising That Sells, by Clyde Bedell. 
Copyrighted 1940, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 


After the body copy has been written, Mr. Bedell states, it may 
seem advisable to go back and refine or strengthen the headline. But 
the writing of the text will be easier and more coherent if based on a 
strong, brief, convincing heading. 

Choice of headlines will depend to a certain extent on the product 
being advertised and what has been developed regarding it. A brand- 
new article or a new feature created for a familiar product is, in the 
author's opinion, the most desirable basis for a headline. It has the 
advantage of being news, of telling the reader something he didn't 
know before. This same principle holds true in radio commercials. 
When the element of news can be injected, audiences prick up their 

Next in attention value seems to be the "how" appeal. This may 
take many forms. In the women's magazines, recipes generally have 
the highest reader interest they tell "how" to prepare certain foods. 
In general publications, in newspapers, on the air, folks are interested 
in how to do things that will bring them greater enjoyment, satisfac 
tion, comfort. A headline that promises information aimed at the 
reader's own needs and problems will command attention. 

Curiosity is probably third in line. The "teaser" type of caption 
will stop a large number of readers. However, the copy must quickly 
follow through, justifying the headline and pulling the reader on into 
the sales talk. Tricky headings that do not lead logically and directly 
to the copy may boomerang in ill will. 

Last in order is the bossy type of headline, commanding the reader 
to take a certain action. This style is more apt to be encountered in 
newspapers or spot radio announcements than in general magazines 
or network programs. One seldom sees it in posters. Generally the 
news-style or how-to-do-it headline may be adapted to almost any 
product or service and is far more effective than a direct command. 

Next time you listen to your radio or leaf through a magazine, 
notice how many advertisers use either the news or how approach, 
how few resort to direct commands. 

One further type of headline should be mentioned, that which pre 
dominantly talks about the product. Broad claims are made as to 
quality, efficiency, economy all from the angle of the manufacturer 
rather than the consumer. Unless this sort of heading can be given 
a news or a how-to-do-it appeal, it is more apt than not to prove 
a dud. 

Endless arguments have been waged over the matter of long vs. 


short headlines. A headline containing only a few words unquestion 
ably presents fewer problems to the layout man, and may result in a 
more attractive ad. As against this is the virtually unanswerable argu 
ment: if from three to twenty times as many people read the head 
line as go on through the complete ad, isn't it common sense to pack 
as much sell into the headline as possible? 

Compromises have sometimes been reached by using a short head 
line, followed by a fairly lengthy, explanatory 5uLhead which "wraps 
up" the selling message and gives even the hit-and-run reader a digest 
of the sales story. 

The "logotype" or product name as displayed at the base of the 
ad can also be considered a part of the heading. Here are a few 


Greater Protection Plus Greater Beauty (subhead) 




(main heading) 
Self-Polishing SIMONIZ for Floors (signature) 

Meet the Best Pot Roast Ever! (main heading) 

Pot Roast a la New Orleans (subhead, followed by recipe) 

WESSON OIL for Salads & Cooking (signature). 

Skin that makes men lovers is 
'SKIN THAT STIRS THE SENSES' (main headline) 

This luxurious PHILLIPS' 'BEAUTY FACIAL' is 
designed to give you such lovely skin! (subhead) 


In each of these advertisements, taken from June 1947 Better 
Homes and Gardens, we can see an appeal to the reader's self-interest, 
a "how" angle, and a close tie-in with the product by way of conclu 
sion. The direct progress from headline to signoff would be much 
more obvious if the whole advertisement, including pictures and 
body text, could be reproduced in each case. 

Mail-order copy has a headline technique of its own. Long head- 


lines are the rule. One inexplicable feature is the pulling power of cer 
tain words. "Amazing" heads the list. Nobody has been able to ex 
plain why an "amazing offer" or an "amazing discovery" should attract 
more inquiries than a surprising, startling or exciting one, but there 
it is. Other sure-fire words are "free", "new" and "now." A variant of 
the "now" approach is the phrase "at last." Mail-order writers have 
learned that comparatives like "greater", "better", "lovelier", far out- 
pull the superlative forms such as "greatest", "best", "loveliest". 

"Text Goes Here" 

Ad writers are often irked by the offhand way in which artists 
regard the body copy of an advertisement. On rough layouts the 
space to be occupied by text is merely indicated by a series of parallel 
lines the fewer lines the better, in the artist's opinion! And many 
times the artist is proved right, when readership reports show a 40 or 
50 percent observation of his illustration as against a 1 or 2 percent 
"read most" for the copy. On the other hand, this is not always the 
fault of the writer. Layouts may be so "artistic" as actually to dis 
courage readers from going into the text. 

Book publishers who sell by mail always pack their ads with copy 
and copy arranged in such a manner as to invite reading. The large 
amount of text will not appeal to the person merely scanning through 
a magazine or newspaper, but when one pauses at all, one usually gives 
the ad thorough attention. For example, a page in Life for Septem 
ber 30, 1946, by Wilfred Funk, Inc., offering a $2.00 book, "30 Days to 
a More Powerful Vocabulary," contained nearly 2,000 words of text. 
A readership study showed this ad was noted by 15 percent of the 
men and 1 5 percent of the women interviewed not a strong show 
ing, considering that some ads in the same issue rated 50 percent or 
higher. Yet of the main text, 7 percent of both men and women said 
they had read most. A display panel listing 30 things the book would 
do was read by 11 percent of the men, 9 percent of the women 
although it was set in extremely small type and ran to nearly 500 
words. In this case, more than half of those who saw the ad stayed 
with it long enough to receive an intensive sales talk about the prod 
uct. And since the advertiser had to depend on this message for his 
results, the longer he could hold the reader the more likelihood there 
would be of his getting an order. 

One device that has been used more and more frequently of late is 


the picture-caption treatment for text matter. Adapted from the 
comic strip and the photo-story type of magazine, this method sug 
gests an interesting sequence of events. The reader looks at each 
picture in turn, then reads the accompanying copy to learn what is 
happening. The selling features of the product are woven into the 
dialogue or running commentary. Such ads often have as high or 
nearly as high a readership for the concluding paragraph as for the 
opening. And that is the optimum for copy. 

A variant of this is the semicatalogue treatment, with small pic 
tures of different models or product features, each with explanatory 
text. Again the eye travels from the illustration to the caption to 
assure reading. 

In contrast to these ruses for obtaining attention, a straightfor 
ward, logically ordered, persuasively written piece of copy can some 
times do a better job. This is true where the product is new or has 
distinctive features that must be understood to be appreciated. Brief, 
"clever" copy will not achieve the objective. Aesop Glim gives this 
dictum to ad writers: 

Unless you know, beyond all doubt, that you can sell your wares in 
fourteen words or less, stick to the formulas of writing educational 
copy. Construct each advertisement with the determination to get it 
read from start to finish.* 

Short Words Short Sentences 

Advertisers who aim at the mass market have always known that 
simple words and short sentences will reach more people than poly 
syllables and ponderosity. In recent years this generalization has been 
given a scientific basis the Flesch Readability Scale. 

Dr. Rudolf Flesch, a former Viennese lawyer and now a psycholo 
gist, who came to America shortly before the war, created the system. 
He worked out a formula which was first used in federal government 
offices, where involved, wordy, almost unintelligible writing was ram 
pant. Typical example, from the Office of Price Administration: 

Ultimate consumer means a person or group of persons, generally 
constituting a domestic household, who purchase eggs generally at 

* By permission from How Advertising is Written and Why, by Aesop Glim. 
Copyrighted 1945, by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 


the individual stores of retailers or purchase and receive deliveries of 
eggs at the place of abode of the individual or domestic household 
from producers or retail route sellers and who use such eggs for their 
consumption as food. 

As revised by Dr. Flesch: "Ultimate consumers are people who buy 
eggs to eat them." 

For the government, he prepared a booklet, "How Does Your 
Writing Read?" which had an immediate effect. Previously for his 
Ph.D. at Columbia University he had written Marks of Readable 
Style, working under Lyman Bryson, then head of the Readability 
Laboratory at Teachers College. In 1946 he presented his views to 
the public in The Art of Plain Talk. 

Meanwhile he had been asked by Macfadden Women's Group to 
analyze their magazines from the readability angle, in comparison 
with other periodicals. Using his "Flesch Scale," he rated the general 
weeklies, general monthlies, women's service magazines, and mass- 
type (screen-and-romance) magazines such as Macfadden's. With 
this scale, the easier a piece is to read as interpreted by Dr. Flesch 
the lower its score. Three factors are considered: 

1. Average sentence length. Sentences of about 11 words each are 
considered an "easy" reading level for 75 percent of adult Ameri 

2. Number of affixes (prefixes and suffixes). About 26 per 100 words 
are regarded as "easy" for this group. 

3. Personal references (personal pronouns, names of people, words 
that refer to human beings or human relationships). About 14 
of these per 100 words are the norm. 

Each of these elements is reduced and combined into a single fig 
ure ranging from to 6 or more. His ratings for the different types of 
publications were: weeklies, 2.90; women's service magazines, 2.77; 
general monthlies, 2.75; mass-type advertising, 1.98. The same for 
mula was then applied to various advertisements, and three of the 
best read, according to their Starch ratings, had Flesch scores of 0.68, 
1.22 and 1.46. The lowest in score hence easiest to read under the 
Flesch system was a half-page for Cream of Wheat consisting of a 
"Li'l Abner" comic strip by Al Capp. It averaged six words per sen 
tence, 22 affixes and 12 personal references per 100 words. This, 
according to Dr. Flesch, was lower than necessary to fall within 


range of the 75,000,000 adult Americans who form the great bulk of 
domestic buying power. A 2.0 rating or below will reach this entire 
group, he says, while a 3.0 rating will appeal to only 40,000,000 adults 
and a 4.0 average to only 24,000,000. The contention is that an 
advertiser whose copy has a score of 4 or higher is appealing only to 
24 percent of the total market. By using shorter seances, words 
with fewer affixes and more personal references to reduce his score to 
3, he will add 16 percent to the total, and by dropping the level down 
to 2, another 35 percent.* 

William Feather, Cleveland commentator and house-organ editor, 
wrote this remarkable plea for simplicity some years ago: 

If you wish what you write to be read, you should use plain words. 
Use of such words makes you think hard. If you use short words, 
you dare not be vague, since the worst old fool would then know 
your brain was soft. 

If your thought is clear, you can give it form and strength by wit 
and skill in the choice of short words. When you start your theme 
with long words, stop at once and make sure that you know what is in 
your mind and that you have thought it cleai through. If you are 
in doubt, put your pen down and think some more. 

When you use short words you don't have to write much. All that 
you have to say will be heard. Words can shout, cry, wink, laugh, and 
coax. As a change from some stale game, write in not more than a 
page of words what vou think should be done for the peace of the 

The amazing thing about this tours de force is that it is written en 
tirely in words of one syllable. And if my mathematics is correct, it 
has a Flesch score of 0.072, probably the lowest rating ever recorded 
for a passage of this length! 

Copy Testing Before and After 

Every time an ad is inserted in a periodical or a radio commercial 
prepared, the questions arise, Will it be read? or Will it be listened 
to? and the all-important clincher, Will it make 'em buy? Copy 
testing has been a comparatively new development in advertising, 
yet already it has made great strides. 

* Data supplied by Mad adden Women's Group. 


The first comprehensive study of copy testing was conducted in 
1935 and 1936 by the Psychological Corporation for the Association 
of National Advertisers. In 1939 the Advertising Research Founda 
tion, jointly maintained by the ANA and 4 A's, issued Copy Testing, 
a book published by the Ronald Press. Since then developments 
have come thick and fast. One of the most popular new methods is 
the "consumer panel" which is employed to obtain many kinds of 
information, including reactions to copy. The authoritative book, 
How to Conduct Consumer and Opinion Research, edited by Dr. 
Albert B. Blankenship and published by Harpers, devotes two chap 
ters to copy: "Consumer Research in the Development of Advertis 
ing Copy/' by Alfred C. Welch, marketing director of Knox Reeves 
Advertising, Inc., which describes methods used to predetermine the 
effectiveness of basic appeals and copy treatments; and "Copy Test 
ing," by Albert D. Frieberg of the Psychological Corporation. 

Methods currently favored for checking the effectiveness of news 
paper and magazine advertising can be classified as follows: 

1. Recognition and identification tests. Results are reported as the 
number of people who noticed an advertisement, the headline or 
illustration, and the number who read some or all of an advertise 

2. Recall tests. Here the scores are the number of people who re 
member having seen the advertising of a particular product, who 
remember a slogan, etc. 

3. Controlled opinion tests. Here the score is in terms of the adver 
tisement "most interesting," "liked best," etc. 

4. Inquiry and coupon tests. The criterion is the number of inqui 
ries, the cost per inquiry, or both. 

5. Sales tests. The criterion is usually the cost per sale, the rate of 
sales, etc.* 

The "recognition method" has been used by the Daniel Starch 
organization since 1932 and is sold on a subscription basis. Trained 
interviewers in cities and communities of different sizes in some 65 
sections of the United States conduct issue-by-issue tests on more 
than 20 national magazines and the major Sunday supplements. In 
each of these, all advertisements of one-half page or more are checked 

* Dr. Albert B. Blankenship, ed., Sow to Conduct Consumer and Opinion Re 
search (Harper & Bros., 1946), p. 119. Quoted by permission of the publisher. 


to determine the percentage of readers who noted each ad, all who 
associated it with the name of the product or advertiser, those who 
read a little of the text and those who read most. Questions are 
asked about each part of an ad headline, illustrating main text, 
secondary text, logotype, etc. Costs per 100 readers are determined 
under each heading (Noted, Seen- Associated, Read Most) by divid 
ing the cost of the ad among readers for that heading, and the ads 
are ranked according to this cost ratio. 

With the "identification method" the brand name and other iden 
tifying features of an ad are blanked out and readers asked to name 
the advertiser. Percentages are obtained on those who correctly iden 
tified the product or firm, and those who named the wrong product 
or firm. Errors in recognition, represented by those who "recognize" 
ads they have never seen before, can be corrected to a certain extent 
by discounting replies according to the formula described in the sec 
tion on transportation advertising.* 

"Recall tests" are of two kinds, aided and unaided. In the unaided 
method, the person is shown a magazine which he has read, and 
asked which ads he remembers seeing. There is no assurance that the 
ad was not seen in another publication, or that the interviewee did 
not confuse it with some similar ad. The "aided recall" test is not 
used for specific ads, but to determine the impact of advertising in 
general. Questions are asked such as: "What brand of tooth paste 
have you seen or heard advertised recently?" After the brand name is 
given, the next question might be: "What did it say?" The replies 
determine to what extent the advertising theme has registered. The 
"triple associates" is a special form of recall test developed by Dr. 
H. C. Link, and is illustrated by this question: "What company ad 
vertises 'Better Things for Better Living through Chemistry?' ' ' Frie- 
berg describes one such test in which the advertiser had been using as 
a theme in local advertising, "The Deeper Suds Test." It was found 
that after an eight-week campaign, 16 percent of the women identi 
fied the theme with Super Suds, which was incorrect, to only 2 percent 
for the advertiser. Obviously, the campaign was doing an excellent 
advertising job for its competitor. This would not have been appar 
ent without research of this kind.** 

"Controlled opinion" or "consumer jury" tests are conducted by 
showing two or more ads to a person and asking: "Which advertise- 

* Chapter XVI, p. 252. 
** Blankenship, op. cit. 


ment interests you most? Which headline appeals most to you? 
Which illustration do you like best? What story does the ad tell?" 
and so on. This type of test can be conducted with rough layouts 
before an ad appears, saving considerable money if a theme or copy 
slant lacks popular appeal. Consumer jury tests must be discounted 
somewhat because respondents may make unnatural answers to the 
questions rather than give their spontaneous feelings. On certain 
themes, such as "halitosis," few people will admit that they are con 
cerned about the subject, even though they might be keenly interested 
when reading the ad in private. 

Coupon and inquiry tests have been employed for decades. The 
ad has a coupon or "buried offer" (a sample, booklet or premium not 
prominently displayed) and returns are checked according to a key 
number a "department," "box" or special address to decide which 
of several ads is most effective. Care must be taken that the inquiries 
are from bona fide prospects, not habitual coupon clippers or chil 
dren, which explains why the "hidden offer" may be more depend 
able than the coupon method even though it does not produce as 
many responses. 

Many factors must be considered in judging ads from inquiries: the 
position of the ad, the medium used, seasonal influences, competi 
tion. Most of these variables can be offset by using a "split run" 
that is, dividing the periodical's circulation so that half of the readers 
see one ad and half another. A number of magazines and newspapers 
offer this service at a slight extra cost. Among them are the New 
York Mirror and Woman's Day. 

Concerns selling by mail often leam surprising facts by checking 
their coupon returns. In his book of case histories, Psyching the Ads, 
Carroll Rheinstrom tells of a book on hair culture which had been 
advertised to women for several years. The book sold fairly well. 
Then it was suggested that an appeal to men be tried. Sales, which 
had been averaging 66 per ad in a certain publication, immediately 
soared to 312 for the first ad addressed to men in the same magazine. 
In another instance, sales cost on a $5.00 memory course dropped 
from $2.25 to $1.00 by the addition of a small picture to the ad. In 
still another, inquiry cost was reduced from $1.34 each to 18 cents 
by a new copy slant.* 

Sales tests are generally handled by selecting two or more "test 

* Carroll Rheinstrom, Psyching the Ads (Covici-Friede, 1929), pp. 215, 231, 241. 
Quoted by permission of the author. 


markets" and conducting separate campaigns in each, with results 
carefully checked. Sometimes an additional city, where no advertising 
or else the regular campaign is run, will be used as a "control" to com 
pare sales figures in the test period. Cities of comparable size, average 
income, newspaper or radio coverage, and other factors affecting sales 
are used for such tests. After the campaign, sales to jobbers, dealers 
and consumers, rate of reorder, and other effects of the advertising 
are analyzed to decide which of the two or more test programs should 
be adopted on a broader scale. 

Various electrical and mechanical devices have also been developed 
to test advertising. One of these is the Purdue Eye-Camera, which 
photographs the reader's eyes as he looks through a magazine or 
newspaper and shows the order in which he looks at each part of an 
ad and how much time he spends there. A postwar machine designed 
to measure ad reactions in a unique way is the "Psycho-Graph" a 
supersensitive galvanometer which charts the sweat gland activity in 
the palm of the observer's hand in terms of increased or decreased 
electric current. When the subject is "aroused" perspiration is stim 
ulated and the line goes up. With no reaction, it remains static. If 
the subject is very bored, the line may go down. Tests are made by 
showing the subject various ads, or by having him listen to a radio 
program. The sponsors of the Psycho-Graph, Gilliland-Ranseen- 
Wesley & Ragan, Inc., claim a statistically reliable "sample" with as 
few as 15 or 20 typical subjects. 

Copy Check-Lists 

Innumerable sets of check-lists have been devised to aid the copy 
writer in producing effective advertising. Points are given on a chart. 
The writer is supposed to go over his ad to make sure that all, or as 
many as practicable, are covered. 

Clyde Bedell, former advertising manager of Marshall Field & 
Company and a widely popular copy instructor, lists "31 proved sell 
ing stratagems" as a guide to effective ad writing. These are divided 
into four main headings: 

Get Attention Make Your Headline Work Be Brief 
Arouse Interest and Create Desire 
Create Conviction 
Try for Action 

These are to be consulted before and during the actual writing. He 


also suggests 16 "touchstones" to be used after the ad has been pre 
pared. A few of the touchstones: "Does it start interestingly with a 
bang if possible?" "Does it use visual words and lively verbs?" "Is it 
broken up for easy reading?" "Does it sell for competitors or for you 
alone?" "Does it end interestingly?" "Does it present a bold sum 

Another and considerably simpler pre-evaluation program is that 
offered by Richard Manville, consultant on advertising and research. 
He calls it "34 Magic Words" and suggests its use in estimating the 
potential pulling power of two different ads: 

Which of these (two) advertisements offers 

( 1 ) to the correct customer-market ( not too limited) 

( 2 ) satisfaction most clearly ( wants vs. don't wants ) 

( 3 ) with the least possible distraction (relevancy) 

(4) in the most specific terms (specificness) 

(5) with the greatest assurance to the readers (believable-ness) 

(6) and at the least expenditure of effort (easy to act) 

(7) or money? 

This yardstick, Mr. Manville explains, is not intended to replace 
and accurate pretesting by split runs or other methods, but merely to 
narrow down the number of ads to get the two or four strongest ones. 
If pretesting is not used, Mr. Manville believes that careful applica 
tion of his 34-word key will nevertheless enable the advertiser to turn 
out better ads than before.** 

No amount of research, pre-testing or post-testing of ads will take 
the place of copy skill and imagination. It can supply information 
and data on which to base advertising, can determine which of two 
or more given ads is likely to pull best. But this is no assurance that 
some totally different idea some brand-new, untried, radically dif 
ferent piece of copy may not outproduce anything that has been 
previously tried. In this fact is found the greatest challenge to people 
in advertising and those who want to get into the creative end of the 
profession. There is potential dynamite in every radio program, 
every publication ad. The statistician, the analyst can place the 
charge, but it is up to the copy writer to light the fuse. 

* By permission from How to Write Advertising That Sells, by Clyde Bedell. 
Copyrighted 1940. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 

** Richard Manville, "How to Pre-value an Ad Before It Appears in Print," 
Printers' Ink, November 29, 1946, p. 41. Quoted by permission of Printers' Ink. 


AL visual advertising requires some form of "art." Even an all- 
type ad, booklet or display card can benefit from good design. 
The great majority of ads and printed selling pieces use either 
drawings including everything from an oil painting to a cartoon or 
thumbnail sketch or photographs to reinforce the copy. In fact, 
the art work often is the ad. 

As previous chapters have revealed, art in advertising had its timid 
beginnings during the late Victorian period. But not until the days 
of Teddy Roosevelt did many ad men begin to think boldly on the 
subject. In 1908 Earnest Elmo Calkins and Fred Lamb assembled 
the first exhibition of advertising art in New York City, and similar 
shows were staged the following two years. Some of the names rep 
resented are still remembered: Maxfield Parrish, N. C. Wyeth, the 
Leyendeckers, James Montgomery Flagg, C. B. Falls, F. G. Cooper, 
Will Bradley, Adolph Treidler. Writings in Arts and Decoration 
about the 1910 show, Franklin Warren declared: "Ten years ago, the 
art world would have scoffed at the idea of an exhibition of adver 
tising art. The fact that it was taken seriously by art loving people, 
that it was held at an art club (The National Arts), is noteworthy. 
Art has undoubtedly taken a strong hold in the field of advertising." 

Ten years more were to pass before the organization of the Art 
Directors Club in 1920 when, to quote its first president, Heyworth 
Campbell, "a pilgrim band of wistful adventurers made official, pro 
fessional, and endurable the title of Art Director."* 

The first Art Directors Annual appeared in 1921. Each year since 
then this exciting book has pictured the progress of advertising art. 
Those in the profession long ago stopped apologizing for "going 
commercial." There is no gainsaying the fact that today much of the 
finest talent in art and photography goes into the illustrating of adver 
tisements. The 25th Anniversary Issue of the Art Directors Annual 
displays some magnificent work by painters like Doris Lee, Ben Stahl, 

* 25th Annual Art Directors Annual (Art Directors Club of New York, 1946). By 
permission of the Art Directors Club. 



Stevan Dohanos, Haddon Sundblom, Rockwell Kent, Carolyn Ed- 
mundson, Robert Riggs, Douglas Crockwell; photography by such 
masters as Valentino Sana, Anton Bruehl, Ruzzie Green, Victor 
Keppler, Yousef Karsh, Gjon Mili. Nor is fine quality art and pho 
tography confined to New York City. Throughout the country the 
standards have been steadily raised. 

Pictures, whether made with a pen, brush or lens, are, in fact, 
chiefly responsible for the aura that surrounds modern advertising. 
Hard-boiled sales copy may be just the thing for some products but it 
is the illustration that catches the eye, stops the page-skimmer, rivets 
his attention to the ad so that the text will have a chance to register. 
Competition for reader interest is keener than ever, with magazines 
of 100, 200 or more pages laden with colorful ads and equally colorful 
editorial features; with newspapers carrying heavy linage and also 
vying for the reader's eye with comics, roto and color-gravure, wire- 
photos, Manhattan and Washington and Hollywood columnists and 
countless other attractions to make the advertiser's job tougher. Out 
door advertising and direct mail have likewise reflected the trend to 
ward finer art work. Many of the most notable pieces in the Art 
Directors' exhibit each year originate in these media. 

Good art costs good money and it isn't getting any cheaper. One 
thousand dollars is no longer an exceptional price for a painting, and 
the topnotchers have long waiting lists of prospective purchasers at 
rates two and three times that figure. In color photography $500 is 
the minimum for many studios with the leaders starting above that 
mark. Even black-and-white photos, staged by the "name" camera 
man, may run to several hundred dollars for a single shot, particularly 
where models and properties are required. 

Are such charges exorbitant? Not when results are considered. The 
advertiser pays the same rate for a medium newspaper, magazine, 
poster, etc. regardless of how he uses it. If his space outlay is, for 
example, $15,000 to reach a potential market of 5,000,000 customers, 
and interest in his advertisement can be increased 10 percent by a 
better piece of art, he is clearly justified in spending an additional 
$1,500. And there is ample evidence to show that readership may be 
enhanced as much as 50 to 100 percent or more under circumstances. 
The same arithmetic applies where an advertiser is investing only $100 
and is weighing the advisability of spending an additional $5.00 or 
$10.00 on art except that his illustration cost will generally be much 


higher in proportion than the user of a national consumer medium. 
This does not mean that the mere buying of high-priced art can 
take the place of creative planning and originality of ideas. Nor 
should it be taken to imply that effective art work cannot be produced 
by artists without a national reputation. The exact opposite is true; 
some of the most attractive and successful advertising art is the work 
of unknowns while some dismal failures have been recorded by cam 
paigns in which only the most successful art talent was employed. 
Rarely, however, does the brilliant newcomer remain long in obscur 
ity. If he "has the stuff" he will soon adjust his prices in line with 
the market. The advertiser who buys only bargain-counter art, like 
most bargain hunters, generally gets no more than he pays for. 

The Layout or "Visual" 

As was explained in discussing the duties of the agency art director, 
the design of any advertisement usually goes through a number of 
stages before art work or photography is ordered.* After the copy 
has been written, or perhaps prior to completion of the text when 
only the headline and basic theme of the ad are "set," a layout is 
made. The layout is to a finished ad what a blueprint is to a com 
pleted building. It shows the various units that will be included, their 
relative size and importance, the approximate nature of the illustra 
tion. First worked out in rough form, it can be carried nearer and 
nearer to the polish of the final ad according to the ability of the 
client to visualize the successive stages. A veteran advertising man 
ager can tell from the crudest of sketches whether or not he will like 
the end result. The less imaginative president or general manager, on 
the other hand, may require a more comprehensive treatment. 

Creating an effective layout demands a variety of skills. The layout 
man must have a sound knowledge of design, of balance, of art 
techniques; very often he has had a well-rounded art-school train 
ing with several years in an art studio or art department doing 
finished work. An understanding of type faces and hand-lettering 
styles is essential. But these are mechanical assets that can be ac 
quired through study. The two semi-intuitive qualifications are far 
more vital and more difficult to obtain. They are: (1) a flair for the 
new, the untried, the daring, in advertising design the sort of light- 

* See Chapter VIII. 


ning-stroke hunch that is always presented with an apologetic, "This 
may seem like a crazy idea, but let's try it!" and (2) an appreciation 
of the merchandising aspects of an ad a realization of the fact that, 
after all, the advertisement is supposed to sell goods as well as look 
pretty. Most of the individuals who combine these rare qualities are 
art directors of agencies, department stores or advertising service 
organizations; a few are free lances, and a few more are found in art 
studios. Some have gone on to head advertising agencies or, like Fred 
Ludekens, have switched to illustrating or other forms of finished art. 

A really great layout man was Bob Evans of Chicago and New 
York, who died in 1941 at the age of 38. Following a brief art school 
training he went to work for the advertising service department of a 
Chicago newspaper, where his job was to whip up ads for local mer 
chants who wished to use his paper but had neither an agency nor an 
art staff to handle the creative work. In this "boiler factory" he ac 
quired both speed and a realistic viewpoint toward advertising art. 
Following this apprenticeship he went to the Stevens Sundblom & 
Stults studios, at first merely to do layouts, then as art director. He 
had continued his art-school studies under Frank Young, Harry Tim- 
mins and other instructors at the American Academy of Art, but it 
was with the idea of being able to do better layouts rather than to 
paint masterpieces. In 1933 with Larry Stults he started one of the 
first studios to specialize in layouts (it has since become Bracken & 
Tyler, Chuck Bracken having been Evans' protege and chief assist 
ant). The firm was amazingly successful. At its height both of the 
principals were kept constantly busy making layouts for agencies, 
advertisers, mail-order firms and publications. Out-of-town trips were 
charged on the basis of $150 a day plus expenses. In 1937 Evans 
moved to New York to open an office there, later becoming art di 
rector of C. L. Miller & Co., the agency handling Corn Products' 

It was a joy to watch Bob Evans at work. The author would "feed" 
him headlines, general copy themes, possible illustrative treatments. 
He would wrinkle his forehead, pull out a big pad of tissue, a box of 
pastels, a dozen smudgy pencils, a T-square, and start in. One by 
one the layouts would be roughed in, torn from the pad, laid aside 
for later consideration. In the course of an hour or two he would 
have a stack of tissues. Some would be dynamic, packed with conflict 
and excitement, others dignified and sedate. But all would have a 


spark; would have the quality of attracting attention without imped 
ing readability; would be sound from the merchandising angle. The 
really expert layout men never let a desire to be an artistic show-off 
outweigh their sales sense. 

How does a layout get made? Not by rule, says Don May, former 
Chicago designer, who was the first art editor of Holiday, in his book 
J01 Roughs. Rather it is a combination of "a large amount of labor, 
some muddling, a bit of imagination, a pinch of intuition, and a lot 
of luck." He continues: 

A good advertisement actually lays itself out on paper. The ma 
terial of the advertising problem is active; the designer is passive. He 
acts as a coil thru which the enthusiasm of the idea is conducted and 
registered on paper.* 

Many factors influence a layout. Size and shape are usually fixed 
in advance. But even here the layout man can take liberties. By 
judicious use of white space he can often appropriate a share of the 
publication's margin as part of his ad. The headlines and copy must 
go into the fixed area, with illustrations, captions, a display of the 
advertiser's name or brand (the logotype) and other miscellany. 
The designer will work to "organize these elements" that is, group 
them so that several scattered items emerge as a unit. He must con 
sider the amount of emphasis to be given each portion of the mes 
sage; the possible competition from other ads on the same or facing 
page; the nature of the product, which will dictate whether the layout 
is to be masculine or feminine in treatment, aristocratic or blue-shirt. 
If color is available, this simplifies the problem of attracting attention 
but adds other considerations. How much color should be used, and 
where? The amateur always wants to employ color lavishly, to get his 
money's worth from the additional cost; the old hand knows the 
value of restraint and may hold the color to a single vivid spot. Where 
the occasion demands, however, the veteran designer will splash his 
colors with all the abandon of a circus parade. 

The "pattern" of a layout offers endless possibilities for variety. It 
may take the shape of a letter an S, a T, a Z. It may have formal 
balance, with all elements in perfect symmetry. More often it has in 
formal balance, with some parts deliberately off-center, large illustra- 

* Don May, 101 Roughs (Frederick J. Drake & Co., 1942), p. 11. By permission 
of the publisher. 


tion areas opposed by white space, a small spot of color by a bigger 
mass of gray. 

There are fads and trends in layouts. The pendulum may swing 
from a very loose, airy technique to one that is compact, presumably 
"hard-hitting." During prosperous years the tendency in general 
seems to be toward a more carefree style of advertising but as condi 
tions get less rosy the advertiser often demands ads with more "sell" 
and "wallop." The layout man must be able to supply this addi 
tional punch without sacrificing too much of the spontaneity and 
charm and good taste which he has had such an influential part in 
bringing to the ad pages of America's periodicals. 

Finished Art 

The ad designer seldom makes the final drawings or paintings 
which he indicates in his layout. The general practice is to turn this 
work over to artists who specialize in a particular type of art. Some 
times where an agency or advertiser has a large volume of such work 
it will have full-time artists on the pay roll, but as a rule the jobs are 
handled in studios or by free lances. 

In the larger cities, art studios may employ dozens of artists one 
or more to do illustrations, others who are adept at drawing still lifes 
(furniture or foods or replicas of the package, for example), others 
for hand-lettering, photo-retouching, and other semimechanical forms 
of art, and a few beginners or apprentices to handle odd jobs such as 
pasting up, trimming and shipping. Salaries vary according to ability 
and demand. At this writing (1947) good journeymen artists are 
making from $50 to $150 a week. Above that figure many studios 
work on a percentage basis, sometimes dividing 50-50 with the artist 
after guaranteeing him a fixed minimum. Free-lance artists often 
reduce their overhead expenses by sharing studio space co-operatively; 
they may go farther and retain a representative to get in touch with 
agencies, advertisers and other users of art, paying him a commission 
which may run from 10 to 25 percent of the gross price. 

The principal kinds of advertising art are pen-and-ink, dry brush, 
wash, pencil, crayon, pastel, tempera, water-color and oil or a com 
bination of two or more of these media. Pen-and-ink, dry-brush (done 
with India ink and a brush which is kept almost but not quite dry, to 
give loosely shaded effects) and wash drawings (done with a brush 


using gray tones similar in effect to photography) are the most fre 
quently seen newspaper art forms. Pen-and-ink drawings are often 
given body by the use of Ben Day, a mechanical shading process. 
Crayon or grease pencil work on scratchboard, producing mottled 
surfaces where desired, will also reproduce satisfactorily on news 

Tempera (show-card colors) and water color are most often seen 
in magazine and direct advertising color work, as well as for posters 
and window displays, although oil paintings are not uncommon. 

Advertising Photography 

Photography has enjoyed an increasing vogue among advertisers 
over the past 20 years. Formerly photographs were used chiefly for 
realistic subjects, such as catalogue illustrations, portraits of testimo 
nial givers, landscapes, on-the-job shots for industrial publications. 
Then led by Edward Steichen, Lejaren Hiller, John Paul Pennebaker 
and a few more, photographers began to make advertising pictures 
that told dramatic stories. The "candid" or unposed type of picture 
became more popular. Color photography was vastly improved and 
it is now possible to get good color pictures of people doing things 
instead of merely sitting like ventriloquist's dummies. Cooked foods 
could be photographed quickly in color before they had a chance to 
congeal into unappetizing messes. Interesting new angles were tried 
out bird's-eye and worm's-eye views. Motion-picture techniques 
were applied to still photography. The quality and intelligence of 
photographic models showed a marked upward trend, chiefly through 
the influence of model agents like Powers, Thurston and Conover 
in New York and the Seamans in Chicago. 

Equally important with any of the above developments in popu 
larizing photos for advertising was the fact that art directors and lay 
out men learned new ways to use them. Traditionally, for example, 
it was considered almost criminal to cut off the top of a person's head 
in reproducing a photograph. But an advertiser of tooth paste had 
no particular interest in giving prominence to a coiffure; why, then, 
give valuable space to a full-face picture in which the teeth would be 
only one small detail? The answer was logical: crop (cut off) the 
unessentials, thereby spotlighting the one part of the photo that mat- 


tered. Knowing where and what to crop from a photo is an art. 

It might be asked why, if photography has reached such a peak of 
perfection, drawings or paintings should ever be used. There are 
many reasons. For newspaper use, line drawings have been found to 
give the most "foolproof" results. Many newspapers print halftones 
of photographs with great clarity, but for clean-cut impressions pen- 
and-ink, scratchboard, woodcut style or contrasty wash drawings are 
safer. Then too, the artist can take liberties, emphasize certain fea 
tures, glamorize a product sometimes more effectively than the pho 
tographer. Witness the typical fashion drawing, often nine or ten 
heads in height! 

Many advertising men feel that it is a great deal easier for an ad 
reader to "identify" himself with a drawing of an individual than 
with a photograph. The drawing might be you; the photograph can't 
be, since it is obviously someone else. This may be a significant fac 
tor in the continuing popularity of drawings for certain types of 
products. And of course the fact that so many photos are used makes 
hand-done art appeal to the advertiser who wants to be different. 

Setting up a scene for an advertising photograph may involve al 
most as much work as preparing for a movie. For a table setting, as 
an example, linens, dishes, silverware, flowers and other properties 
must be obtained. A home economist is often engaged to cook the 
food and arrange it tastefully. Color schemes must be painstakingly 
studied so that the tone of the product is not overpowered by the 
dishes and napery. Similar care must be taken with other subjects. 

More and more commercial photos are being taken "on location." 
Alden's Chicago Mail Order House sent a group of models to Arizona 
to make color shots of fashions for its catalogue. "Miss Rheingold" 
goes to Florida and California for photos to be used in advertising 
Rheingold Beer. New models of cars are sent to exotic locations to 
be photographed. 

Retouching is seldom used with color photography or candid-cam 
era shots. Its main uses are to cover defects, to accent important fea 
tures of a product and to improve reproduction qualities. The re 
toucher usually works with an "airbrush" which projects a mist of the 
desired tint onto the photo. Parts not being treated are covered with 
a "frisket" paper cut out in the proper shape. Expert retouchers can 
match virtually any photographic tone. 


Hand Lettering and Typography 

The words of an advertisement can be reproduced in one of two 
ways: type, or specially drawn letters. Except in rare cases, the body 
copy is always set in type. But the headline and other display por 
tions of an ad are frequently hand-drawn in order to obtain exactly 
the gradation of emphasis, the quality and tone sought by the adver 

Type comes in a variety of designs or "faces" as will be apparent 
on studying the letter formations on any newspaper or magazine page. 
Art directors and layout men must be familiar with the different 
faces in order to select those suited to each message. Some types are 
dainty, gracious, feminine; others brisk and vigorous; others rugged; 
others, normal and matter-of-fact. The same words set in different 
type styles will not only look different but actually have a different 
impact on the reader. 

Families of type are variations in the same basic letter style accord 
ing to thickness of strokes and other minor changes. Thus Caslon, a 
type family similar to the style in which this book is set, has such 
members as Caslon Old Style, Caslon Bold, American Caslon (a 
medium weight), Caslon Condensed and Caslon Shaded (an outline 
letter). Caslon Old Style has a variety of offshoots usually identified 
by numbers, the most popular being 471 (long "descenders," i.e., 
parts extending below the line like the tail on a "y" or "p" ) and 540, 
with shorter descenders. Each style has a "roman" or upright version, 
and an "italic" or slanting form. It comes in many sizes, distinguished 
according to the "points" in depth which each occupies. A point is 
1/72 of an inch; hence six lines of 12-point would fill an inch if the 
type were set solidly, one line below another. Normally in advertis 
ing, type is 'leaded" or spaced between the lines for easier reading. 

Besides the letter shape, type faces vary according to their "serifs" 
the small projections at the tops and bottoms of letters. Caslon ser 
ifs, for example, are thickest near the main stroke and taper outward. 
This is a characteristic feature of "old style" type. Other type fami 
lies in this same feeling are Baskerville, Garamond, Goudy and 
Cooper. The so-called "modern" faces have a straight serif with no 
taper. Bodoni and Century are the best examples. A type face which 
has no serifs the kind usually seen in newspaper headlines, for ex- 


ample, is known as a "block letter/' "Gothic" or "sans serif." The 
original Gothics were crude and too cheap-looking to satisfy any 
except bargain-basement advertisers. In recent years a number of 
beautiful sans-serif faces have been designed, including Futura and 
Spartan (in which all strokes are uniform width) and Lydian (thick 
vertical, thin horizontal strokes). A fourth general style is the "square 
serif" letter, in which the serifs are the same thickness throughout 
as the main body strokes. Examples of this style are Stymie and 

With the growing use of hand lettering, especially "script" which 
simulates handwriting, a number of type faces have been introduced 
to approximate these hand-letter effects. Most favored by advertisers 
are Kaufman Script, Trafton Script and Brush. The letters are so 
designed that when set into words they seem to flow together as 
though drawn in a unit. 

Besides these the ad designer has at his command an enormous 
range of novelty faces. There is Stencil, a bold type with breaks in 
the letters just like those seen in stenciled wording on shipping con 
tainers; Balloon, a face resembling the typical comic-strip lettering; 
Typewriter, whose name is self-explanatory; Beton Open and other 
faces with shading along one side for a "third dimension" effect; 
Legend, resembling the calligraphy on an old manuscript; and a 
number of faces revived in recent years from the gaudy theatrical 
poster types of the 1870's one of which is appropriately called 
Barnum, another Playbill. 

When to use hand lettering and when to stay with type headings 
is largely left to the discrimination of the ad designer, though budget 
limitations may sometimes make type headings imperative. Hand 
lettering is prevalent in national advertising. Its greater flexibility 
permits words to be "packed" without appearing crowded when space 
is at a premium. It gives the informality of personal penmanship far 
more effectively than even the best of the script types. It imparts 
greater individuality to an ad. Most important, it makes possible an 
evenness of "color" throughout the heading whereas type tends to 
appear spotty when set in display. 

Good typography has come to be considered an indispensable part 
of good advertising. While most publications will set an ad in type 
on request, virtually all national advertisers and a great many local 
ones now use the services of an advertising compositor or a printer 


BODONI BOOK ... a light faced text type 
BODONI BOOK ITALIC... for emphasis 
BODONI (REGULAR) . . a favorite for ads 
BODONI ITALIC . . . brisk and legible 
BODONI BOLD. . one weight heavier 
BODONI BOLD ITALIC . . to match 
ULTRA BODONI.. blacker 
CORVINUS MEDIUM . . akin to Bodoni 

CORVINUS SKYLINE . . . similar but condensed 
ONYX . . . Tall and slim, another Bodoni cousin 


CASLON Oldstyle No. 471 ... and Italic 

CASLON No. 540 ... and 540 Italic 
GARAMOND . . Italic. . BOLD . . Bold Italic 
BASKERVILLE . . Bookman . . Century 

FUTURA Light.. Medium. .Demibold.. Bold 
STYMIE Light . . Medium . . Bold &c 

pt . . Bold . . 


d Qurswe. . . 

Franklin Gothic Condensed Extra Cond. 

NOTE: All type specimens on these pages are IB-point size (approximately */4* height). 
Variation in apparent height is due to length of descenders. Some faces/ such as Stencil/ 
come in capitals only/ hence have no descenders. 

Typography courtesy of J. M. Bundscho, Inc./ Chicago 


specializing in this field. The larger cities have ad shops which do 
nothing except set ads. These shops offer not only the widest selec 
tion of type faces in maximum assortments of sizes and weights, but 
also skilled typographers to arrange the text matter to best advan 
tage. Many of these firms are members of the Advertising Typogra 
phers of America, of which Arthur S. Overbay of Typographic Serv 
ice, Indianapolis, is president. Edwin H. Stuart of Pittsburgh 
E. M. Diamant of New York, Bertsch & Cooper and J. M. Bundscho, 
Inc., of Chicago, have made notable contributions to the ad-setting 
art. So big has the field become that some shops specialize in parts 
of it. Harry Baird Corporation of Chicago, for instance, has made a 
reputation in the composition of mail-order and coupon ads. 

Many printing plants pride themselves on producing fine typog 
raphy. Norman T. A. Munder of Baltimore and William Edwin 
Rudge of New York were pioneers in creating beautifully designed 
brochures for advertisers. Lakeside Press and Runkle-Thompson- 
Kovats of Chicago, Wetzel Brothers in Milwaukee, Harold Cornay in 
New Orleans and James Green, New York, are modern exponents of 
the creed that direct advertising can be just as well done typograph 
ically as any ad in the big magazines. In type design the industry 
owes much to the steady flow of beautiful and utilitarian new faces 
from American Type Founders, Linotype, Ludlow and other sup 

Art, photography and typography, the interpretative vehicles of 
advertising, have all shared in the renaissance which followed the 
"dark ages" of the post-Civil War era. All are continuing to develop, 
adding fresh ideas and techniques to help keep advertising fasci 




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THE advertisement has been written, approved, set in type; illus 
trations have been drawn, photographs taken. Now comes the 
process of conveying these words and pictures to the public 
the complex series of operations known as advertising production. 
What happens next depends upon the method by which the ad 
will be reproduced in its final form in newspapers, magazines, direct 
mail or posters. If the medium to be used is printed by letterpress, 
then engravings (commonly called "cuts" or "plates") and duplicate 
plates of various kinds will be required. If lithography or intaglio 
printing is used, the different elements of the ad will be assembled 
and either pasted into their exact position for reproduction or the 
printer furnished with detailed instructions so that the elements can 
be "stripped" into place when the reproduction negatives are made. 
Since letterpress is the method used in printing nearly all news 
papers (except the rotogravure sections) as well as most magazines 
and books, the logical order of procedure is to explain how letterpress 
plates are made. 


Printing by letterpress requires plates with raised surfaces that will 
receive the ink. In between the raised surfaces will be depressions 
the parts that do not print. To obtain the necessary variations a pho 
tographic negative is made of the "copy" (which might be anything 
from a proof of type matter to an oil painting), this being the exact 
size desired for the finished plate. This negative is placed against a 
sensitized sheet of metal and exposed to a strong light. The parts not 
shielded by the dark parts of the negative will harden. These areas 
are built up with a protective coating and the plate is "etched" in a 
series of acid baths to eat away the unwanted portions. This is a slow 
and complicated operation, for it is here that the printing quality of 
the plate is determined. After the plate has been etched it is 



trimmed, the excess or "dead" metal routed out by high-speed ma 
chines, and the finished job either mounted on a block of wood or 
delivered unmounted. The final step is the pulling of proofs, which 
the engraver studies to correct any defects hitherto unnoticed. 

There are two basic types of photoengravings, line etchings and 
halftones. Line etchings (sometimes called "zincs" because that is 
the metal generally used) have only a single tone. With a zinc 
everything is either black or white. True, the black areas may be 
made to look gray, as with a scratchboard or pen-and-ink drawing 
containing many fine lines, but the actual printing surface will be 

Halftones, on the other hand, can show any gradation between 
solid black and pure white. This effect is achieved by photographing 
the "copy" through a ground glass crossed with innumerable fine 
lines, breaking up the image into dots of varying sizes. It is the dif 
ferences in these dots that determine the tone. The ruled glass used 
in halftone negative-making is called a "screen" and a number of 
lines per inch identifies the cut. Fifty-five to 65-screen halftones are 
commonly used for newspapers; they are termed "coarse-screen half 
tones," and the patterns made by the dots are easily visible. On 
medium grades of book paper 85, 100, 110 or 120-screen halftones 
may be specified. One hundred thirty-three and 150-screen halftones 
are suitable only for fine enamel stock. Copper is universally used 
for halftones although some coarse-screen newspaper cuts may be 
etched on zinc. 

Hand-finishers scan each halftone after etching, to tool out excess 
dots. Where part of a halftone is too dark by comparison with the 
original "copy" it can be etched down; if too light, it may be "bur 
nished" in that section, making the dots larger and thus giving a 
stronger tone. 

Type or hand-lettering photographed through a halftone screen 
will be broken up into dots and appear gray, not black. If unscreened 
type is desired on the same plate with a halftone, this is done by 
superimposing a line negative of the type over the screened negative, 
resulting in what is known as a "combination" plate. There are other 
types of halftones, such as "high-light" or "drop-out" in which some 
areas may appear white rather than with a light screen. This treat 
ment is occasionally used in reproducing pencil sketches. A "vi 
gnette" halftone is one in which the edge of the picture seems to 


fade away. An "outline" or "silhouette" halftone has portions of the 
background cut away, giving greater prominence to the subject. 

Line etchings or zincs may be given simulated halftone effects by 
means of the Ben Day process. Certain areas of a pen-and-ink draw 
ing are marked with a light-blue wash and the style of Ben Day indi 
cated. There are some 200 available designs, some black dots on 
white, some white dots on black, others stripes, checks, herringbones, 
etc., to resemble fabrics. Ben Day may be applied either to the neg 
ative or to the zinc before it is etched. Patterned effects may also be 
obtained by applying "shading sheets" to drawings. 

Color Plates 

Color plates may be all zincs, a combination of zinc and halftone 
plates, or all halftones the latter being known to the trade as 
"process" plates (pronounced with a long "o" as in "proceed"). A 
separate plate is required for each color. 

The simplest form of color work is done with line etchings. A pen- 
and-ink drawing is made in black and white, and the breakup of col 
ors indicated on a tissue flap. The engraver makes two, three or four 
line plates of the subject according to the number of colors desired, 
and paints out from each plate, before etching, those parts that are 
not to show in that color. Ben Day tones or solids may be used to 
give variety. This is the type of engraving work seen in the Sunday 
comics. It is not applicable to photographs or wash drawings. 

Inexpensive halftone color results can be obtained by combining 
a black-and-white halftone with a zinc "tint plate" in a second color. 

Color process plates are the most expensive and most attractive. 
They may be made from a natural-color kodachrome or color print, 
a hand-colored photograph, a color drawing in water color or tempera 
or an oil painting. Four-color process is the most common, although 
surprisingly realistic effects may be obtained in two colors by using 
an orange-red and a blue-green ink. For many years The Saturday 
Evening Post and Collier's covers were printed in "duotones" of this 

In preparing process plates the "copy" is photographed not only 
through a halftone screen, but through a color filter as well. For the 
plate to be printed in yellow ink, a purple filter is used, nullifying the 
red and blue tones; for the red plate, a green filter; for the blue plate, 


an orange filter. A fourth plate is made in black, to enhance the col 
ors and "key" the whole illustration. Process plates are etched with 
extreme care, chiefly by hand, the color etcher working with the orig 
inal art before him to bring out the precise tone values. Frequent 
proofs are pulled, both of the individual plates and the series printed 
one over the other, and further etching done as necessary. Then final 
proofs are made of each plate separately, of the yellow and red plates 
together, of the yellow, red and blue plates, and all four combined. 
This group of proofs is known as "a set of progs" (progressives) and 
is the printer's guide for reproduction of the job. It is thoroughly dis 
sected by the art director and production manager of the agency, 
and by the advertiser, before receiving the final okay. A set of four- 
color process plates may cost from $500 to $1,000 or more. 

A very essential feature of color plates is that they must "register/ 1 
that is, fit exactly, one color upon the other. When plates are out of 
register images will appear blurred and lines of solid color may appear 
along the edges. Present-day magazines are miracles of precision in 
color printing. Since changes in humidity will cause paper to shrink 
or expand, pressrooms are air-conditioned. Sensitive electronic con 
trols keep the sheets feeding exactly true, and make certain that no 
plate gets out of line. Fidelity of color reproduction is further assured 
by the use of standard colors. Publications furnish supplies of their 
magazine paper to engravers so that plates can be proved on the same 
stock as in the book. This is important, because process plates to be 
printed on a very white paper will be etched differently from those 
on a grayer or yellower stock. 

Duplicate Plates 

An advertisement to appear in several newspapers or magazines 
calls for a separate plate for each. Copies of the original plate, known 
as "electrotypes," are suitable for newspapers and all except the largest 
magazines. An electro is made by taking a wax or lead mold of 
the original plate and immersing it in a solution of copper sulphate, 
sulphuric acid and water. (The wax mold must be graphite-coated 
to make it an electrical conductor.) The mold is attached to a nega 
tive wire of an electric circuit and a bar of copper or nickel attached 
to the positive wire and also immersed. The current produces a re 
action in the tank, causing metal particles to be deposited on the 


mold until a thick shell has been built up. This is then backed with 
alloy metal to form the plate. 

Where a large number of electros is needed, an extra-strength "pat 
tern plate" is made and the other electros made from this to avoid 
damaging the original engraving. The most durable type of electro 
is the lead-mold nickeltype, which is always specified for color- 
process work. 

Less expensive than the electro is the matrix or mat, a papier-mache 
mold from an engraving or electro. Mats are not only cheap but can 
be mailed much more easily than electros. From a mat the news 
paper publisher makes a stereotype, a cut which gives less satisfactory 
results than the electro. Plastic mats, made with a plastic material, 
then coated and baked under pressure, are becoming more popular 
because they produce sharper, clearer stereos than the paper mat, yet 
cost less than electros. Mats and stereos are suitable only for news 
paper or handbill advertising. 

Publishers of leading magazines insist on original plates, since they 
must make many electros of each ad for their huge press runs, and 
electros made from electros do not print as well as electros from orig 
inals. For an advertiser using the same ad in several publications this 
means almost as heavy a plate cost for the duplicate sets as for the 
first plates. Recently, however, a new method has been developed for 
reproducing plates with all the fidelity of the originals but at consid 
erable saving. These plates are known as Reillytypes, Royaltypes, 
Atlantictypes, etc., according to their source. They are accepted by 
publications just as original engravings are. 

Lithography and Offset 

Unlike letterpress, in which impressions come from raised surfaces 
or relief, lithographic printing is done with a smooth surface. Orig 
inally it was done on porous stone, hence the name (from the Greek 
word lithos, a stone). Now zinc sheets may be used, treated so that 
the ink adheres only to that part of the surface on which a drawing or 
photograph has been printed. With direct lithography the paper 
comes directly against this surface. With offset, a rubber roller picks 
up the impression from the inked cylinder and this prints on the 

Lithography is used for outdoor posters where the design may re- 


quire as many as six, eight or ten colors to reproduce the original art. 
Many window and store displays, booklets and other direct advertis 
ing pieces, boxes, labels and signs are printed in offset. On long runs 
or jobs requiring unusually large plates offset is an economical and 
popular printing method. 

Planographing, an inexpensive form of offset printing adapted to 
smaller-sized jobs and short runs, is a comparatively new development 
but is proving satisfactory for such work as company bulletins, sales 
portfolios and reproductions of typewriting. This saves money by 
eliminating the cost of typesetting. 

For offset printing, no plates are required. The type matter and 
illustrations are sometimes mounted in place, as has been mentioned, 
or a detailed layout given to the printer. From this "copy" the neces 
sary negatives or "transfers" are made, all combining of text and 
pictures being done on the negatives. A feature of offset printing is 
that large areas of color can be obtained merely by indicating on the 
drawing or layout where these are desired; the operator will then 
"paint them in" on his negatives. 

An advantage of offset is that smooth-surface paper need not be 
used for the reproduction of halftones, as is the case with letterpress. 
"Antique" (rough-surface) paper, stocks with fancy finishes and even 
cover paper will give acceptable halftone impressions. 

Intaglio Printing 

Still a third class of printing is that done by the intaglio method 
(pronounced "intal'-yo" in the dictionary but just like it's spelled by 
everybody else) in which the subject to be reproduced is etched into 
the metal instead of standing out above the surface as in letterpress. 
This results in a series of tiny pockets which catch the ink as the ink- 
trough meets the cylinder. The surface ink is then wiped off by steel 
knives known as ductor (or "doctor") blades after which the paper 
passes over the cylinder and by suction draws the ink out of the 
etched pockets. 

The intaglio process is the basis of all rotogravure and color-gra- 
vure printing. Perhaps no branch of the graphic arts has made such 
startling progress during the past few years. Today Sunday news 
papers all over the country are delivering full-color reproductions of 
famous paintings, actual color photographs of local scenes and celeb- 


rities, and beautifully illustrated feature stories in their gravure sup 
plements where not so long ago the first color-roto efforts were blotchy, 
out of register and anything but pleasing to advertisers. 

Several national magazines, including the Crowell publications, 
Collier's, American Magazine and Woman's Home Companion, are 
printed wholly or in part in gravure. 

The rotogravure press is an incredible machine. It takes a roll of 
paper, prints one side in monotone (one-color) gravure, then in rapid 
succession prints yellow, red, blue and black impressions on the other 
side, passing the web of paper over a heated drum between each two 
contacts to dry the ink and prevent smearing, then shoots the paper to 
the assembler and cutter, from which it emerges in the form of com 
pletely gathered, folded and trimmed color-gravure sections at the 
rate of 10,000 or more copies per hour. 

Rotogravure is printed from etched copper cylinders each with as 
many as 12 full-sized newspaper pages. The etching is done after the 
cylinder has been covered with a carbon tissue containing the images, 
which deposits an acid-resisting gelatin coating on the copper. Half 
tone and line work are etched separately. Afterward, the cylinder is 
cleaned and dried. The etched impressions can scarcely be felt, but 
they are deep enough to hold the "soupy" rotogravure ink during the 
half-cylinder revolution from the ink trough up past the ductor blade 
to the paper. 

The screen in gravure is the reverse of photoengraving. Instead of 
black lines the gravure screen has transparent lines with black dots be 
tween, since the dots must be etched into the printing surface. Gra 
vure screens are usually finer than in letterpress, a 150-line screen 
being customary. 

One thing about both offset and gravure which makes advertising 
men very unhappy is that once the art and copy have been arranged, 
there are no proofs to correct the ad must run "as is." And to the 
account executive or client who is a fast man with a blue pencil, that's 
very bad news indeed. 


WHEN a new product is about to be launched, when sales 
wane in a hitherto productive territory, when results from a 
campaign are unusually good or unusually bad, the experi 
enced advertising man has two comments. 

1. "Let's get the facts about that market!" 

2. "Let's ask some questions find out what people are thinking." 
Getting facts and asking questions both come into that phase of 

advertising known as research (not to be confused with technical or 
industrial research, which deals with materials and machines.) There 
is a wide gap between market research and analysis on the one hand, 
and consumer or dealer opinion investigations, but they are alike in 
one respect. All fact-finding efforts represent a desire to eliminate 
guesswork from the advertising program. 

M. C. Otto tells about a very lively dispute that occurred in a mon 
astery in the year 1432 A.D., having to do with the number of teeth 
in the mouth of a horse. Books and documents going back to the 
earliest times were brought forth to support this or that position. The 
monks argued brilliantly for 13 days but the problem remained in 
soluble. Finally a youthful friar asked permission to speak. "To the 
wonderment of the disputants," the monastery's chronicle reports, 
"he beseeched them to unbend in a manner unheard of, and to look 
into the open mouth of a horse for an answer to their questionings. 
At this, their dignity being grievously hurt, they waxed exceedingly 
wroth; and joining in a mighty uproar, they flew upon him and smote 
him hip and thigh, and cast him out forthwith. Surely, "the chron 
icler concluded, "Satan hath tempted this bold neophyte to declare 
unholy and unheard-of ways of finding truth contrary to the teach 
ings of the fathers."* 

Present-day advertisers do not hesitate to "look into the open 
mouth of a horse" for the information they seek. The agency without 
a research director is as rare as one without an art director. Many 

From Otto, M. C., The Human Enterprise, published by F. S- Crofts & Co., 1941. 



manufacturers have their own full-time market analysts and some 
have large departments. Department stores and chains make exten 
sive use of research, as do virtually all advertising media and trade 
associations. In previous chapters of this book various types of re 
search have been discussed. 

Unquestionably advertising research has done much to provide 
constructive data and help the campaign planners to avoid serious 
mistakes. At the same time, such research is far from being an exact 
science. The results of a hastily prepared survey may lead a business 
astray if taken too literally. Sam Gill, research director of Sherman 
& Marquette, Inc., New York agency, proved this in reporting the 
results of two "opinion polls." In one case a group of people was 
asked: "Which of the following statements most closely coincide 
with your opinion of the Metallic Metals Act?" 

It would be a good move on the part of the U. S. (21.4 percent). 
It would be a good thing but should be left to individual states 

(58.6 percent). 
It is all right for foreign countries but should not be required 

here (15.7 percent). 
It is of no value at all (4.3 percent) . 

The percentages represent the answers of 70 percent of the total; 
30 percent had no opinion. The National Metallic Metals Act existed 
only in the mind of the individual who planned the poll. In another 
test consumers were asked several questions, including: "Are you in 
favor of or opposed to compulsory education? Are you in favor of or 
opposed to workmen's compensation laws? Are you in favor of or 
opposed to incest? Are you in favor of or opposed to lowering corpo 
ration taxes?" The answers to three of the questions are unimpor 
tant; on the other, after eliminating 40 percent who had no opinion, 
results showed 33.5 percent in favor of incest.* 

Discounting the proved fact that many people will answer ques 
tions on subjects of which they are sublimely ignorant, modern con 
sumer research has been built on the equally well established basis 
that the average person in America, if asked about his personal 
dislikes and likes, will give a frank response. Much depends upon the 

"How Do You Stand on Sin?" Tide, March 14, 1947, p. 72. Quoted by permission 
of Tide. 


wording of the questionnaire, the care with which the * 'sample" or 
cross-section to be interviewed is selected, and the skill of the investi 
gator. These are all areas in which marked progress has been made 
in recent years. 

Market Analysis 

The old wheeze about trying to sell iceboxes to Eskimos and fur 
coats at the equator is no more far-fetched than was the thinking 
behind too many ad campaigns before market analysis became preva 
lent. Innumerable advertisements have been run on the same strat 
egy as that expressed by Longfellow: "I shot an arrow into the air; it 
fell to earth, I know not where." Often such is the dynamic power 
of advertising the arrow found its mark. But with narrowing profit 
margins, rapidly rising costs for labor and materials and increasing 
competition for sales, old hit-or-miss methods had to go. Today the 
business that does not study its markets scientifically and continu 
ously is operating on a gambling basis. It is not only jeopardizing 
the investment of its stockholders and bondholders but also the fu 
ture of its wage-earning employees and, indirectly at least, the whole 
economic system upon which our present standard of living is based. 

The first recorded instance of market analysis in the advertising 
field happened in 1879. Henry McKinney of N. W- Ayer & Son had 
been soliciting the account of Nichols-Shepard of Battle Creek, 
Michigan, manufacturers of threshing machines. He asked for a list 
of papers in which ads were to be run. "Make up your own list," was 
the reply. "We want to advertise wherever we can sell our product." 
"Where do you sell them?" "That's for you to find out," was the 
challenging reply. And find out McKinney did. At that time the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture had not been created; so he sent 
telegrams to every state and to agricultural publishers likely to have 
information. The Ayer staff worked day and night to compile data 
on production of wheat, oats, rye and other threshable grains by states 
and counties, weighing these facts against all available figures on farm- 
paper circulation and rates. The manager of the company was 
amazed when he saw the Ayer report, said he'd been trying to get 
such information for years, and asked the price. "It is not for sale," 
Mr. McKinney replied. "We are not in the book business, we are in 
the advertising business. If you are our customer, it is yours for the 


asking." There was no resisting this appeal, and the firm's order, 
amounting to $18,000, was telegraphed to Philadelphia.* 

Spasmodic attempts at market analysis were made by manufac 
turers, agencies and media as advertising grew in importance. But the 
real birth of the science if such it can be called happened in 1911 
when Charles C. Parlin launched his first market surveys for the 
Curtis Publishing Company, which had recently acquired Country 
Gentleman. He set out to find where farm implements were sold, by 
whom and to whom. The object, of course, was to sell more space in 
the magazine to more advertisers. It worked very well. Since then 
many magazines, newspapers, radio and other media have made 
market investigations, some of which have already been touched on. 
Advertising agencies have studied statistics supplied by the Depart 
ments of Commerce, Labor, Agriculture, Treasury, other federal and 
state bureaus, local chambers of commerce and whatever other source 
material was obtainable. National and regional magazines have 
analyzed their subscription lists, occasionally felt the pulse of their 
readers with questionnaires. Newspapers have made "pantry sur 
veys." Business papers have applied the microscope. The net result 
has been a much more accurate knowledge of who buys what where, 
when and why. 

So many different products and services use advertising that each 
company becomes a separate problem. To illustrate: the modem 
automobile is a specific and easily defined article of commerce. Yet 
how does one set about determining the market for, say, a Chevro 
let, as against that for a Lincoln? A study of Lincoln registrations 
(based on license applications) might show a high percentage in 
low-income areas; it would take further analysis to reveal that these 
are used Lincolns bought either because the purchaser wished to im 
press his neighbors or because he intended to use the machine as a 
taxicab. Similarly, many people with upper-strata incomes buy Fords 
or Chevrolets or Plymouths either because no other car is obtainable 
at the moment or to serve as understudies or replacements for their 
higher-priced machines. 

In recent years dozens of firms have sprung up to meet the adver 
tiser's demand for facts about his investments for marketing pur- 

* Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Ralph M. Hower, The History 
of an Advertising Agency: N. W. Ayer & Son at Work, 1869-1939, Cambridge, 
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1939. 


poses. The majority of these are research organizations employing 
investigators in various cities and offering opinion surveys similar to 
the Gallup poll on political matters with regard to buying habits. 
The advertiser prepares a questionnaire covering the main points in 
his sales and advertising plan, and this is made the basis of a market 
analysis, regarding the salability of a certain product. The number of 
persons interviewed is relatively small compared to the total popu 
lation of a particular area or of the entire country. However, it has 
been scientifically demonstrated that if a representative cross-section 
of any given market is chosen for a survey, at a certain point the re 
sponses will "level out" and thereafter only a slight variation will be 
observed. Research men gauge the size of their sample from experi 
ence. After having studied a few hundred or a few thousand re 
sponses they are able to project the average for the entire section. 

A survey of national buying habits might cover say 2,000 homes 
out of 39,000,000 in this country. But with the proper selection of 
"average" families the survey figures might stand up even though 
every home in the United States were covered. This is the basic 
principle of consumer research. 

Market analysts, however, seldom resort to consumer investiga 
tions. They focus on such statistics as number of dealers in a town, 
total and average retail sales, fixed buying habits, known brand pref 
erences, economic status and other factors. They obtain an accurate 
"picture" of the market by combining figures with opinion studies. 
In the past two decades, thanks to governmental activity, media re 
search, and a myriad other sources, advertisers are able to base their 
expenditures on a relatively sound scientific background. 

Consumer and Dealer Studies 

Market analysis is primarily concerned with deciding which sec 
tions of the country or which types of individuals are the most log 
ical prospects for a sales and advertising push. Consumer and dealer 
research devolves around the matter of ideas: ways and means of sell 
ing a product or service. The matter of -where to sell is not germane; 
the problem is solely a question of how and what. A local retailer, for 
example, does not need to be briefed as to the scope of his market. 
It includes all those within easy riding distance. Nor does this fret 
the manufacturer with national distribution. His market is the whole 


nation. But in each instance, the advertiser needs to learn the type 
of appeal, the price range and other factors that will make sales easy 
or difficult. Consumer research can give a clue to the mystery. 

To be reliable, consumer or dealer surveys must be impartial, free 
from any influence either by the wording of the questionnaire or the 
bias of the interviewer. When the respondent is asked to express a 
choice, it must be between things of comparable value or benefit. 
The information desired must be sought with a minimum of annoy 
ance and delay, lest the persons interviewed become bored and answer 
thoughtlessly or end the interview before all facts have been ascer 
tained. And obviously, the subjects interviewed must be bona fide 
users or prospects otherwise their opinions have no value. 

Surveys are conducted in three ways: by mail, personal call, or tele 
phone. The mail method, while generally evoking a smaller per 
centage of replies, can be done more quickly than either of the 
others. The respondent, moreover, is not influenced by the person 
ality of the interviewer or his own activities. If he is busy, he will 
either put the questionnaire aside for a leisure moment or not answer 
at all. Many business and industrial surveys are handled by mail for 
this reason. The Dartnell Corporation, publisher of sales and exec 
utive material, relies almost solely on mail investigations, and has 
since it was founded in 1916 by J. C. Aspley. Many of the widely 
quoted surveys by Fortune are based on mail queries. Companies 
with large numbers of salesmen or distributors may find out what the 
organization thinks about a proposed campaign or product in the 
same way. 

Consumer polls may be used to determine the extent to which an 
advertising idea has registered. In 1945 Stuart Peabody, in charge of 
Borden advertising, wanted to learn whether people knew the origin 
of his company's trade character, Elsie the Cow. A survey showed 
that 58 percent of the people did as against 48 percent who knew 
the correct identity for Einstein and 43 percent for Van Johnson. In 
1947 another survey showed a 63.5 percent recognition for Elsie, 
compared with 40.2 percent for Chief Justice Fred Vinson and 20.1 
percent for Alfred P. Sloan. 

The case for continuing consumer research was stated by A. C. 
Nielsen, head of his own survey company since 1923. In a recent 
speech he stated that his organization kept a "box score of executive 
judgments" which showed the average businessman to be right only 


58 percent of the time. To increase accuracy, he said, there is no 
substitute for research at the consumer level and for charting the flow 
of goods from retailer to consumer. 

Marketing specialists are concerned over the fact that the average 
business invests a relatively trifling amount in research. A study 
among members of the National Association of Manufacturers in 
early 1947, supervised by the American Marketing Association, re 
vealed that few companies had consistent research programs in the 
marketing field, and that these spent an average of less than 0.3 per 
cent of net sales for this essential activity. There was evidence, how 
ever, that "top management" presidents and chairmen of boards of 
directors was realizing the value of this work and that more com 
panies were planning to expand it. 

Many advertising people have found research a practical means of 
getting into the field. There is always a need for interviewers. House 
wives earn extra spending money by making calls occasionally to fill 
in questionnaires door-to-door. Elderly people and high-school 
youngsters take naturally to this work, generally on special assign 
ments from companies specializing in market research. 

Informal investigations are frequently staged by agency employees. 
In work on a campaign, questions may arise as to dealer or consumer 
attitudes, whereupon various staff members may leave their desks 
and head for the stores or the residential areas to "ask some 
questions." While such impromptu studies lack the validity of care 
fully chosen "samples" they undeniably help to keep ad planners and 
writers in touch with the masses. Interrogating salesmen just in from 
direct contacts with jobbers, dealers and consumers is also recom 
mended as a means of retaining the common touch. Reports from 
various advertising media and articles in business papers also help 
the advertising man to keep posted on market developments. 

Point of Purchase 

The "last three feet" which separate the prospect from the product 
may be the most vital of all. Advertising has not done its job if the 
intended purchaser does not go through with his purchase. 

With many products, this crucial moment occurs in a retail store. 
National advertising has aroused interest. Newspaper or radio locally 
may have intensified this predilection. But unless and until the pur- 


chase is made, all this preparatory work may be futile. No wonder 
makers of advertised products are so keenly alive to the need for 
"point of sale" displays! 

Window streamers, colorful window displays, eye-catching signs 
and banners and posters inside the retail establishment, all come 
under this heading. Large sums of money are invested annually by 
advertisers to make sure that the customer will remember a specific 
brand when the buying is done. This job is normally entrusted to 
two channels window and interior pieces. 

Posters or banners pasted on the windows are as a rule simple in 
design. Price is often featured prominently. Material prepared for 
drug and cigar store windows may be quite elaborate. Large easel- 
back cards of pretty girls may be used by the cigarette companies. 
Most grocery windows, if used at all, contain mountains of fresh pro 
duce, canned and bottled goods. The food-store advertiser generally 
confines his efforts to the interior. Many stores have overhead wires 
from front to rear, over which are draped gaily colored paper signs 
known as "wire hangers," supplied gratis by food manufacturers. 
Above the shelves may be wall posters. Along the narrow shelf ledges 
may be strips of cardboard, colorfully advertising special products. If 
the manufacturer is so fortunate as to obtain a "mass display" (a large 
stack of cans or packages in the aisle) this may be adorned by a card 
or poster. Close to the cash register to catch the "impulse" buyer 
will be counter cards and a small display of the favored merchandise. 
In the drug or hardware store this is apt to take the form of a show 
ing in a specially built rack or case. It can be guaranteed that these 
choice spots are the result of special pleading by the manufacturer's 
or jobber's salesman. 

All of these devices are aimed to create sales. The Point of Pur 
chase Advertising Institute has made a special study of this field and 
has information on window displays, counter, shelf and "back bar" 
pieces. Most of this material has brief copy a slogan, the brand 
name and possibly a picture of the package. Its purpose is to 
remind the purchaser of a name already familiar through advertising 
and thereby bridge the inevitable gap between producer and con 


"7TDVERTISING seems to be one of the professions with the 
L\ greatest appeal to returning service men/' wrote Robert T. 
* ^-Kesner, American Home Foods' director of Advertising, in 
May 1946. "While I was in the Navy perhaps the question most 
frequently asked me was, 'How do I get into advertising when I get 
the hell out of here?' " 

From the author's own observation, extending over 25 years, there 
is only one thing wrong with Mr. Kesner's comment: it shouldn't be 
limited to ex-GI's. Nonveterans, stenographers, schoolteachers, sales 
men, farmers, retail clerks, printers, housewives, elevator operators 
these are only a few of the types who have besought his help to 
crash the gates of the advertising arena. Some it has been possible 
to aid. Others, seeking some mystic password or skeleton key, have 
shaken their heads and gone away muttering about "the brush-off." 

Charles F. Kettering told a story at an advertising convention 
many years ago that illustrates the advice of many veteran ad men on 
being asked how to get into their field. It seems he was driving 
through the Kentucky mountains and lost his way; finally he stopped 
to ask an old native how to get back to Cincinnati. The hillbilly 
scratched his head, mentioned various routes and rejected each one. 
"Well, stranger," he said at last, "if I was a-goin' t' Cincinnati I 
wouldn't start from here!" By the same token, the road to success 
taken by probably the majority of leading advertising men and 
women did not start with advertising. 

Creating merchandising plans that produce sales, layouts and copy 
that win attention and action, calls for more than superficial skill. 
Ability to put words together is desirable but by no means essential. 
A knack for making attractive designs or coining catch phrases will 
help, but again this is not indispensable. The fundamental require 
ment of a good advertising man, in the opinion of many of its top 
drawer practitioners, is a deep-rooted knowledge of why and how 
people buy. 

"Advertising is the business of selling with words and ideas," Mr. 



Kesner told the ex-GI'S. "Its sole purpose is to move goods to people, 
making people buy. It is vitally concerned with profits, with breaking 
consumer habits, with bettering standards of living ... at a price, of 
course. If you want a job in advertising, the best background in the 
world is that of selling the products or the services you hope to rep 
resent. If you want to write copy for foods, or manage advertising for 
foods, or do research or merchandising or publicity for foods, you had 
best know what foods are all about and why people buy them and 
what the prices are and where these foods are sold. Go out and sell 
the foods. You may make only thirty or forty fast bucks a week, 
Colonel, but a year from now you'll have the edge on everyone else 
who wants to get into food advertising but doesn't know the first 
thing of what is behind successful manufacture, distribution and 
movement of foods from producer to the little woman who winds up 
buying them. Education and personality and character all help, but 
knowing the fundamentals is the great shining treasure you can pos 
sess that all your cousins will lack/'* 

Note that Mr. Kesner does not say the only way to break into 
advertising is via the sample case and the order book. He merely 
gives it as his opinion that the best background is selling the products 
or services for which the aspirant wishes to do the advertising. There 
are sound reasons for this advice, in addition to that of acquiring 
firsthand knowledge as to what that particular type of product or 
service "is all about." Selling, whether store-to-store, door-to-door, or 
over the counter, gives the observant individual endless opportuni 
ties to study human nature. Theories about psychological reactions 
are all very well, but the successful salesman and ad man must be 
an applied psychologist. 

Raymond Rubicam, one of the greatest of contemporary advertis 
ing men, put it this way in writing to a young man just out of college 
who had held a selling job briefly but wanted to leave it for adver 
tising work: 

... I repeat that I think you would never be quite so good an 
advertising man if you left selling now and went into advertising as 
you would be if you gave yourself a couple of years of selling experi 

Your advertising judgment would be entirely too personal and 

* From The Palm of Alpha Tau Omega, June 1946, pp. 9-10. 


"artistic" and theoretical, and not nearly practical or hard-headed or 
commercial enough. 

There are two types of people in this business who are only half- 
good. One is the hard-headed individual with "practical" merchan 
dising experience and knowledge, but with no imagination or intel 
lectual talents. The other half-good man is overweighted on the 
opposite side. To him advertising is (whether he admits it or not) 
principally a means of personal expression of an intellectual or artistic 
sort. He approaches it subjectively, not objectively; his standard is 
likely to be to please and satisfy himself not to reach and satisfy 
the masses of people. 

Many of the most talented youngsters who want to go into adver 
tising are at the outset in this latter class. Nearly all the dull ones are 
in the former. The great ones are the ones who, starting with talent, 
are hard-headed enough, patient enough, tough enough and objective 
enough in their outlook to learn about people by mixing with them 
and to find out about selling by engaging in it.* 

In addition to these vital benefits of a sales background to the 
would-be advertising man, there are others. For one, advertising in 
recent years has become so closely integrated with sales that a knowl 
edge of sales-department functioning is virtually a must. And from 
a personal angle, any worker in the advertising field who expects to 
go beyond mediocrity should be able, when the occasion demands, to 
sell himself and/or his ideas. The glib extrovert does this intuitively. 
The introvert a type far more often met in the creative end of 
advertising had best learn to do it early in life, or forever after suffer 
frustration and obscurity. 

Next to selling, newspaper reporting seems the most favored path 
way to advertising. The reporter encounters humanity in all aspects 
and under all conditions. He acquires another valuable asset of a 
good adman, the capacity to ferret out facts and to sense the most 
appealing features of a story. He gets training in working under 
pressure, in meeting deadlines, in subordinating his personal views 
for the sake of the assignment. A big part of a reporter's job consists 
in asking questions and so it is in advertising! 

Closely akin to personal salesmanship is selling by mail. A large 
group of advertising top-notchers first tried their wings on form letters, 
circulars, and catalogue copy for mail-order firms like Montgomery 

* Walter A. Lowen and Lillian Eichler Watson, How to Get a Job and Win Suc 
cess in Advertising (Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1941), p. 362. By permission of the publisher. 


Ward, Sears Roebuck, Spiegel's. Others were correspondents for 
book publishers, home-study schools, firms selling through agents. 
No apprenticeship is quite so exacting as that of writing copy whose 
returns are directly traceable. Mail-order executives are severe critics, 
and the writer who can survive under their pay-as-you-go standards 
has learned a valuable lesson in making words count. 

Notwithstanding the above, plenty of important advertising people 
started right out with an agency or an advertising department. But 
they are the exceptions; and they have had to acquire their back 
ground of selling knowledge as they went along. Just as there are 
occasional Bobby Fellers and Christy Mathewsons who jump to the 
major leagues with no minor league experience, so some folks have 
started their advertising careers in posts which the majority reach 
only after years of seasoning. This sort of thing, however, is steadily 
becoming less frequent as the profession grows more complex, more 
professional. The beginner today would be well advised to acquire a 
basic understanding of human nature, of selling strategy, of business 
procedure, in one of the ways suggested above before attempting to 
storm the inner fortress. 

Getting Started Some Examples 

In Chapter XII allusions were made to the methods by which 
some advertising people gained a toehold in the profession. It might 
be of interest to check up on a few more. 

Homer McKee, who for many years headed his own advertising 
agency in Indianapolis and Chicago and is at this writing a vice- 
president of Roche, Williams and Cleary, began life like John Bar- 
rymore and Gary Cooper as a newspaper cartoonist, filling that role 
for seven years with the Indianapolis Star before becoming advertis 
ing manager of the Cole, and later of the Marmon Motor Car Com 
pany. His start was in marked contrast to that of Otis A. Kenyon, 
chairman of Kenyon & Eckhardt agency in New York, who was chief 
engineer of the Arc Welding Machine Co. before entering the adver 
tising field via the technical press. Another who took the technical 
route is Edgar Kobak, president of the Mutual Broadcasting System 
and former vice-president and general sales manager of McGraw-Hill 
Publishing Company. He had previously been an engineer in the 
department of tests and repairs for Georgia Power Company. 


Ted Patrick, a copy supervisor for Young & Rubicam before the 
war, later with OWI, then head of creative work for Compton 
Advertising, now editor of Holiday, began as a newspaper man. Fol 
lowing this he took a fling at professional baseball before entering the 
agency field. Henry T. Ewald, who in 1947 held among other dis 
tinctions that of heading the oldest agency in the United States 
founded and still directed by the same individual, in 1904 went to 
work as a ticket taker for the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Com 
pany, later becoming its advertising manager. He launched Camp- 
bell-Ewald Company in 1911 with D & C as one of his first accounts 
(others now include Chevrolet, U. S. Rubber, Burroughs Adding 
Machines, Delco, Norge, Foulds Macaroni). 

Jackson McQuiston, for more than 30 years advertising manager 
of Westinghouse Electric, started as a clerk with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. E. H. Calhoun, advertising manager for American-Marietta 
Company, was a clerk for Tennessee-Eastman Corporation before de 
ciding that merchandising was what he most wanted to do. Lyman 
Weld, treasurer and account executive of Mitchell-Faust Advertising 
Company, reported news for the Rock Island Argus in his early days. 
Joseph Epstein, vice-president of Fitzgerald Advertising Agency, was 
a feature writer for the New Orleans Item. Helen Wing, who occu 
pied an office adjoining the author's at Needham, Louis & Brorby 
some eight or nine years ago, was a writer of children's stories before 
going into the agency field. 

For women, department stores and secretarial work seem to offer 
the best entrees. There are numerous instances of talented young 
ladies who, determined to land in advertising by hook or crook, got 
their start by pothooks. Taking dictation from agency or advertis 
ing executives, they kept their eyes open and, when emergencies 
arose, they were ready with copy ideas that clicked. Others gained a 
knowledge of merchandising behind the counter and used it to open 
the door to an advertising career. Sara Pennoyer, advertising man 
ager of Bonwit Teller, said her three months "on the floor" at Mc- 
Creery's were worth more to her than a semester at college. During 
that time she not only absorbed merchandising knowledge, but used 
her lunch hours and after-hours time to browse in the store's adver 
tising scrap book, get acquainted with the people in that department, 
and finally get an opportunity to take a hand when regular writers 
were rushed. 

Cooking skill has helped other women find their way in. A lot of 


food manufacturers have home economics staffs, to test their prod 
ucts, to devise new recipes, to build publicity releases, to give demon 
strations. A few advertising agencies have a similar operation. Mag 
azines, newspapers, radio stations have their food consultants. Any 
of these jobs is good background for a woman who wants to write 
food advertising. 

Making the Presentation 

Walter Lowen of New York, who has specialized in advertising 
placement for 25 years and has seen thousands of applicants land 
jobs in this field, recommends that the prospective ad man prepare a 
portfolio about himself to be shown to employers. Into it, he suggests, 
can go selected samples of writing whether ads, radio scripts, articles 
or other wordage, published or unpublished; layouts, reports on sur 
veys; letters of recommendation by people whose opinion will carry 
weight; a brief resume covering age, education, high-school or college 
activities related to the kind of job being sought and a photograph. 
The candidate will be judged by the appearance of the portfolio and 
by what he selects as the "best" examples of his work. So it is impor 
tant to be neat and to be discriminating. 

Originality of the application counts heavily, he says. He tells of 
one young man who had hundreds of book matches printed up with 
his name, phone number and job record; another who made a record 
ing of his experience and sent it to an agency executive with a port 
able phonograph. Still another prepared 81 identical letters describ 
ing his background and stating that he was stranded in a small city 
for lack of opportunity. Each letter was enclosed in a bottle and 
"cast adrift on the swiftly flowing tide of U. S. Mail," just as cast 
aways used to send out messages for help. His 81 bottle mailings 
brought half a dozen offers. A young lady had her qualifications 
printed on a blotter. One ingenious job-seeker attached his letter of 
application to a cage containing a homing pigeon. The employer was 
asked to fasten his reply to the pigeon's leg and release the bird. A 
good job resulted.* 

A prominent New York copy star had trouble getting agency heads 
to "see" his talents as a beginner. So he had a brief message printed 

* Walter A. Lowen and Lillian Eichler Watson, How to Get a Job and Win Suc 
cess in Advertising (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1941), pp. 212-215. By permission of the 


in type so small it had to be read through a magnifying glass and 
then sent along a magnifying glass for the employer to use! This 
stunt worked. 

But, Mr. Lowen points out, the device can be too clever. He men 
tions one ambitious girl seeking a copy job, who sent the copy chief 
of the agency she had chosen as her objective a long-stemmed Amer 
ican Beauty rose every day for 12 days. The copy chief received so 
much kidding from his fellow workers that when the girl finally came 
to see him about a job he refused to interview her, not caring to risk 
further joshing. 

The young hopeful with no experience sometimes tries to make up 
this lack by selecting products from magazines and producing sample 
ads to show what he can do. All too often these test flights merely 
reveal their creator's complete ignorance of basic layout and copy 
principles, besides having no sound underlying idea. It is better to 
show a well-written school theme or news story than an attempt to 
be clever in an unfamiliar field. 

Letters of application whether in answer to want ads or sent 
"cold turkey" seldom have the spark that should be exhibited by 
anyone who wants to write persuasive copy. To quote Don Rivers' 
delightful new book, Your Career in Advertising, "a large percentage 
are obviously dashed off in the same casual vein as you might write 
to dear old Aunt Sophie about that week-end trip to the country": 

You want to become an advertising man or woman; very well be 
one when you start drafting a letter of self-introduction. You are 
advertising a product. . . . That product is you. Prepare your letter of 
application with as much thought and care and imagination as you 
would if you were writing an ad for automobiles or sterling silver. 

Remember that a good advertisement always appeals to the self- 
interest of the reader. It tells what the product will do for him. Like 
wise, your letter must be built around the idea: what do you have to 
offer that the executive reading your letter may want in an em 

Tackling any new product, a skilled copy writer first asks how it is 
different from other products in the same field, for selling copy de 
pends on making the reader want that particular brand because it 
gives something special. One is reminded of the ancient wheeze 

* Don Rivers, Your Career in Advertising (E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York, 
1947), pp. 188-189. By permission of the publisher. 


about the Englishman who delivered a long address to prove 
man and woman are fundamentally identical, concluding with the 
remark that in reality there was only a slight difference between the 
two sexes whereupon a Frenchman in the audience cried, "Vive la 
difference!" Advertising has been shouting "Vive la difference!" 
since the Stone Age. And it is up to the job applicant to point out 
the difference between himself and the hundreds of others seeking to 
break in. 

Any sort of hobby or special interest may be turned to account in 
this process of self-differentiation. A few years ago, who'd have 
dreamed that John Kieran's fondness for studying birds and reading 
Shakespeare in his spare time would make him the star of "Informa 
tion Please"? Down in North Carolina, a young girl reporter started 
writing chatty items about things she saw in the local stores (what 
woman doesn't love to shop?) and Nancy Sasser's "Buy-Lines" be 
came a nationwide institution. In Chicago a young chap got irritated 
because most of the advertising aimed at teen-agers seemed to miss 
the mark. "Why don't advertisers find out what high-school students 
really like?" asked Gene Gilbert, and today he has a coast-to-coast 
research service doing exactly that for manufacturers, retailers and 
publications, with a staff none of whom (in 1947) has yet been 
eligible to vote! 

So far, about the only avocations that have not been capitalized to 
any great extent in advertising are stamp collecting and chess. Each 
is said to have millions of devotees. Perhaps some wide-awake adver 
tising hopeful has a suggestion? Who knows? It may lead him to a 
real job! 

Despite the many ways in which advertising people get started, one 
fact predominates: somewhere along the line, each of them demon 
strated ingenuity and resourcefulness by devising a means to attract 
the attention of the higher-ups, and thus breached the wall. What 
particular stunt might prove successful in the reader's case is im 
possible to foretell. It can only be said that if he has the instincts 
and makings of a real adman, the inspiration will come! 

Jobs in Advertising 

Those who have read thus far will have ample ideas as to the types 
of work open to qualified people in advertising. For review purposes, 
it might be well to summarize them: 


1. Department and other retail stores. 

2. Mail-order houses. 

3. Manufacturers. 

4. Trade associations. 

5. Publications. 

6. Advertising service companies. 

7. Advertising agencies. 

The different kinds of jobs include writing of advertising copy, 
direct-mail and catalogue text, radio commercials, sales presentations, 
publicity; art, such as layouts, lettering, finished drawings, package 
designs; research, mechanical production, space buying, merchandis 
ing and administrative work. This does not encompass the innumer 
able routine jobs which develop in advertising as in any other busi 
ness enterprise, like stenography, shipping, messenger service and 
clerical work. Positions of this nature may be taken by people quali 
fied for far more responsible duties, with the idea of securing any sort 
of a job in the advertising business. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that merely working for an 
agency or an advertising department does not give the ambitious 
novice any great advantage. The important posts will still go to those 
qualified by experience and ability. So, from a long-range viewpoint, 
the candidate is better off to remain outside the portals until he 
has something tangible to offer in the way of a background. There 
are many thousands of men and women on the pay rolls of agencies 
and advertising departments who are not, strictly speaking, in the 
advertising business, nor do they share to any marked extent in the 
personal or financial satisfactions that come to those who have 

This does not mean that a job in the creative or administrative end 
of advertising is the peak of all human desires. Many have reached 
that goal only to start planning for something else. Some, like Mar 
guerite Lyon of And So to Bedlam, have gone on to the rural life. 
Others, like Samuel Raphaelson, Sherwood Anderson, Carl Sand 
burg, Guy Gilpatric and Frederic Wakeman, have become playwrights 
or poets or novelists. Some, like Albert Sloan and Tex Roden and 
George Washington Hill, have become corporation presidents. Some, 
like William Benton, Raymond Rubicam and Chester Bowles, have 
gone into public service. Many have utilized their schooling in antici- 


pating and guiding popular tastes, to go into business for themselves, 
running specialty shops, resort hotels, printing plants, research 

However they may wind up, it is certain that all will look back on 
their years in advertising with nostalgia. Hectic and nerve-racking 
though it may be, the field has its allure. Things are always happen 
ing in advertising. Perhaps that, as much as its overpublicized Bohe- 
mianism and high salaries, is the real reason why so large a propor 
tion of young people want to get into it. 


ADVERTISING men are great joiners. Organizations by the hun- 
/-\ dreds represent specialized branches of the craft; innumerable 
J- *- local advertising clubs hold luncheon meetings, hear speakers, 
conduct training courses. Some of the national associations have 
sponsored and are continuing to sponsor aggressive programs of re 
search, promotion and other activities designed to benefit either the 
advertising field or society as a whole. 

References have been made in different chapters of this book to 
the work of various associations. While it is impossible to list all of 
the organizations, a brief review of several major groups will demon 
strate the tremendous amount of co-operation that exists within the 
advertising business. 

Advertising "Federation of America 

The AFA is composed of many elements: local advertising clubs, 
national associations in the advertising field, and sustaining mem 
berships held by manufacturers, publications, agencies, graphic arts 
and other firms. Affiliated clubs as of 1947 had an aggregate mem 
bership of 13,000 and nearly 1,000 companies were listed as sustain 
ing members. Founded in 1905 as the American Federation of 
Advertising Clubs, it launched the "Truth in Advertising" movement 
in 1911 with Vigilance Committees to foster honest copy and to 
police violators of the model statute. In 1914 the name was changed 
to Associated Advertising Clubs of the World and clubs in other 
countries were admitted. Between then and 1929 the international 
angle was stressed, occasional annual conventions being held abroad. 
In that year foreign affiliations were transferred to the International 
Advertising Council and the present name adopted. 

Headquarters are at New York, where the research and educational 
work centers under President Elon G. Borton with Earle Pearson, 
long-time general manager, as director of special services and Alfred 
T. Falk heading the Bureau of Research and Education. AFA con- 



stantly labors for a better public understanding of advertising, pro 
viding material for schools, colleges, clubs, periodicals, radio and 
vocational groups. It co-operates with the Advertising Research 
Foundation and Better Business Bureaus. Leading figures in agency, 
manufacturing and media organizations serve on its board of direc 

The following Statement of Principles promulgated by the AFA 
in January 1946 sums up its goals: 

1. Good advertising aims to inform the consumer and help him to 
buy more intelligently. 

2. Good advertising tells the truth, avoiding misstatements of facts 
as well as possible deception through implication of omission. It 
makes no claims which cannot be met in full and without further 
qualification. It uses only testimonials of competent witnesses. 

3. Good advertising conforms to the generally accepted standards 
of good taste. It seeks public acceptance on the basis of the merits 
of the product or service advertised rather than by the disparage 
ment of competing goods. It tries to avoid practices that are 
offensive or annoying. 

4. Good advertising recognizes both its economic responsibility to 
help reduce distribution costs and its social responsibility in serv 
ing the public interest. 

Association of National Advertisers 

Established in 1901 as the Association of National Advertising 
Managers, the ANA in October 1946 had 437 members with an 
annual advertising appropriation averaging $900,000 each. Among 
its members are 80 women advertising executives. Paul B. West be 
came its president in 1932 and ten years later was awarded the 
Advertising & Selling gold medal as the individual who had contrib 
uted most to advertising that year. Albert E. Haase, former associate 
editor of Printers' Ink, is managing director. 

Of the many ANA services, members like the news bulletins and 
semiannual meetings best; they get valuable help from ANA studies 
on all phases of advertising. ANA participates in many joint enter 
prises such as the Advertising Research Foundation, Traffic Audit 
Bureau, Broadcast Measurement Bureau, the Advertising Council 
and others. It was one of the influential factors in setting up the 
Audit Bureau of Circulations in 1914. 


While a majority of ANA members are concerned with consumer 
advertising, many direct their campaigns at industrial or technical 
markets. It is currently sponsoring a study on business-paper reader 
ship (with the AAAA, the NIAA and the Associated Business Papers) 
and another on farm publications with the Agricultural Publishers 
Association, both through the Advertising Research Foundation. 

ANA members were among the earliest and most stalwart support 
ers of the War Advertising Council. Paul B. West served as a vice- 
chairman and Stuart Peabody, Harold B. Thomas, Lee Bristol and 
other ANA leaders were among the top officials. At this writing 
Charles G. Mortimer, Jr., of General Foods Corporation is the Coun 
cil chairman. 

American Association of Advertising Agencies 

The "4 A ? s" is the national organization of the advertising agency 
business. It was organized in 1917 in response to the request of 
media for a responsible spokesman for the country's advertising 
agencies. Membership is open to any advertising agency, regardless 
of its size, so long as it meets the standards of sound and ethical busi 
ness practices established by the association. 

Today its 200 member agencies handle over two-thirds of the 
national advertising volume. Their 373 offices and branch offices are 
located in every major city in the United States and in 16 foreign 
countries. The association has five regional councils and eight chap 
ters and maintains its executive headquarters at 420 Lexington Ave 
nue, New York. 

From the start it has consistently labored for higher standards of 
agency practice; opposed false and misleading advertising, rebating 
of commissions, unfair competitive tactics and the use of speculative 
materials in soliciting accounts. While many of its members have 
large billings some as high as $50,000,000 a year or more the size 
of an agency is not a factor in qualifying for membership, nor is 
geographical location. But applicants must be adequately equipped 
financially, in experience and in ability, to conform to 4 A standards. 

The joint enterprises sponsored by the ANA are also actively sup 
ported by the 4 A's. Frederic R. Gamble was secretary-treasurer of 
the Council throughout the war and James W. Young, William Rey- 
del, Thomas D'Arcy Brophy, Don Belding, Louis N. Brockway and 
other agency executives had important posts. The Advertising Re- 


search Foundation is an important 4 A-ANA undertaking, of which 
more later. In certain fields the AAAA also conducts individual re 
search including analyses of agency costs, newspaper reader surveys 
in major markets and data collected by its Export Information Bureau 
on foreign media and markets. 

As part of an effort "to reduce still further the small amount of 
bad taste that tends to lessen the usefulness of all advertising/' the 
4 A's conducts a Monthly Interchange of Opinions on advertising 
which, in the opinion of any of the members, is in bad taste. Adver 
tisements regarded as offensive are called to the attention of the 
originating agency. The association also maintains an expanding 
public relations program in behalf of the association and the agency 
business, and works with other groups to promote better understand 
ing of advertising, distribution and our national economy. Prominent 
among these activities has been the Joint ANA-AAAA Committee 
on Improvement of Public Understanding of Our Economic System. 

In 1946 the association launched an examination plan to be car 
ried out by local councils and chapters to measure the special aptitude 
of applicants for agency positions with the object of attracting young 
men and women of superior talent to the agency field. Questions 
covered the agency structure, and the applicant's choice of tests in 
such branches as copy, research, media, merchandising, production, 
radio, layout and art. Five hundred forty-one candidates took the 
first examination. Each received a comprehensive report showing 
his particular aptitudes as well as his score on the knowledge tests, as 
a guide to his chance of success in agency work and for use with 
prospective employers. 

Advertising Research Foundation 

The oldest and most comprehensive project of the ARF has already 
been described the Continuing Study of Newspaper Readership, 
started in 1937. Mention has also been made of similar studies in 
transportation advertising, business-paper and farm-paper reader 
ship.* Another project has to do with weekly newspapers in smaller 

In the nine years between 1937 and 1946, ARF spent about $650,- 
000 on its varied activities. The ANA and 4 A's each contributed 
financially but the largest share of this outlay was provided by the 

* See Chapters XV, XVI, XVIII. 


different media being studied. However, both the parent organiza 
tions gave something even more important than money unlimited 
amounts of time and effort, counsel and direction. The ARF officers 
and board are composed of agency men and national advertisers of 
long experience, giving freely of their knowledge for the benefit of all 
advertising. Heading the full-time staff are A. W. Lehman, manag 
ing director, and D. B. Lucas, technical director. The Foundation's 
headquarters are in New York City. 

Audit Bureau of Circulations 

From pioneer days, buyers of advertising sought some means of 
knowing how much circulation their dollars would purchase. Honest 
publishers were penalized because their true statements were over 
shadowed by the unscrupulous. All sorts of premiums and cut rates 
were used to bolster subscription lists; sometimes readers would con 
tinue to receive copies long after their subscriptions had expired. But 
with the rapid growth of advertising and the application to it of 
scientific principles, such a situation could not continue. 

The founding of the Audit Bureau of Circulations in 1914 marked 
the real beginning of modern fact-based advertising. Advertisers, 
advertising agencies and publishers collaborated to set up an inde 
pendent, wholly unbiased organization to establish standards and to 
verify the circulation claims of member publications according to 
those standards. Starting with 499 charter members, A. B. C. now has 
over 3,000, of which some 2,500 are media owners, and the remain 
der agencies or advertisers. A staff of field auditors is kept busy 
checking the regular semiannual statements of publishers under the 
supervision of headquarters in Chicago. Audit reports are issued 
once a year. These reports enable a space buyer to determine accu 
rately if a medium reaches the desired field, in what parts of the 
country it circulates, whether city or rural or small-town coverage 
and the exact quantity of net paid circulation. (No attempt is made 
to study the quality.) A. B. C. reports also give an index of reader 
interest through such items as renewal rate of subscriptions; induce 
ments such as premiums or discounts to subscribers; rise or fall in 
number of copies per issue. 

A leading figure in launching the A. B. C. was Stanley Clague, who 
had his own advertising agency. He was managing director from 


1917 to 1927, and was followed by Orlando C. Harn, former adver 
tising manager of the National Lead Company. On Harn's retire 
ment in 1939 he was succeeded by James N. Shryock, former assistant 
general manager of the Indianapolis News. President since 1927 has 
been Philip L. Thomson, for many years in charge of advertising for 
Western Electric Company. Thus all three phases of the business 
media, agency, client have been represented in A. B. C. manage 
ment, and also on the board of directors. In matters affecting the 
continuing welfare of the Bureau, however, these men are rigidly im 
partial. They realize the importance of maintaining the integrity of 
this unique institution, which has been called 

. . . the one great example of the ability of business to regulate itself. It 
[the A. B. C.] has proved that competitors, no matter how divergent 
their interests, can, if they will it earnestly enough, make fair rules 
and stick to them. It stands the envy of those who long for the cor 
rection of evils in other phases of business.* 

National Association of Broadcasters 

The NAB was founded in 1922 and is the trade association of the 
radio stations. Headquarters are in Washington, D. C., where a large 
staff operates under Judge Justin Miller, president; A. B. Willard, 
Jr., executive vice-president; and C. E. Arney, secretary-treasurer. The 
director of broadcast advertising, Frank E. Pellegrin, initiates and 
supervises activities to encourage the increased use of broadcast adver 
tising, working with the ANA, 4 A's, individual agencies and adver 
tisers. Case histories such as the one of Joske's Department Store 
described in Chapter XV are issued from time to time, as well as 
material for station sales managers and special studies for small mar 
ket stations. The NAB aided in starting the Broadcast Measurement 
Bureau, works with the ANA Radio Council and has been actively 
affiliated with the Advertising Council since its inception. 

Special Organizations 

Among the advertising groups devoting their attention to limited 
fields might be mentioned the Financial Advertisers Association, 

* Scientific Space Selection, Audit Bureau of Circulations, 1937. 


Export Advertising Association, Life Insurance Advertisers Associa 
tion, Public Utilities Advertising Association, American Community 
Advertising Association, Point of Purchase Advertising Institute and 
the Premium Advertising Association of America. 

Closely identified with the industry are the American Newspaper 
Publishers Association and its Bureau of Advertising directed by 
Alfred Stanford, former agency copy director; the Brand Names 
Foundation, Inc., headed by Henry E. Abt; the Associated Business 
Papers and the National Business Papers Association; National Asso 
ciation of Transportation Advertising; Agricultural Publishers Asso 
ciation; United Typothetae of America (printers); Lithographers 
National Association; Advertising Typographers Association; Periodi 
cal Publishers Association and the Magazine Advertising Bureau; 
Negro Newspaper Publishers Association; National Council on Busi 
ness Mail; National Roadside Council; American Highway Sign 
Association and National Council of Industrial Editors (company 

Mention has already been made of the National Industrial Adver 
tisers Association, the Direct Mail Advertising Association and the 
organizations in the poster field. 

If this list seems unduly long, it should be remembered that the 
advertising field is enormously complex. Each association was started 
to meet a definite need; those that did not fill any sound purpose 
soon withered. Those that have endured do so because they serve 
constructively. In total they represent an amazing phenomenon 
the spectacle of competing businessmen, all bent on getting more 
business at the expense if necessary of their rivals, sitting down to 
gether to exchange ideas on ways to operate more efficiently. It has 
been truly said that the trade association is democracy in action. 
Nowhere is this more forcefully proved than in advertising. 

Advertising Publications 

Printers' Ink, the oldest existing magazine in the field, was founded 
in 1888 by George P. Rowell. It has been the bible and the inspi 
ration of thousands of advertising neophytes, a crusading force for 
honest advertising as witness the "Printers' Ink Model Statute" 
and a stimulus to more exact, pretested, carefully planned campaigns. 
For many years it was a pocket-size weekly. During the 1920's a 


large-size monthly was also issued. These were combined ten years 
ago into the present 7x10 page-size weekly. A. B. C. circulation as of 
December 31, 1946, was over 20,000 per issue. 

Advertising & Selling, established in 1923 by Frederick C. Kendall 
as Advertising Fortnightly, is a monthly publication, printed on "slick 
paper" and featuring articles by established authorities in the adver 
tising field. Since 1935 it has sponsored the Annual Advertising 
Awards which were instituted in 1924 by Edward W. Bok, late editor 
of the Ladies' Home Journal, and carried on under a fund provided 
by him until 1930, when they lapsed with Bok's death. During those 
years they were known as the Harvard Advertising Awards. Perhaps 
the most significant award was the annual Gold Medal for distin 
guished service to advertising won in various years by a number of 
individuals mentioned in this book: Earnest Elmo Calkins, Orlando 
C. Harn, James H. McGraw (president of McGraw-Hill), Rene 
Clark of Calkins & Holden, Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Raymond Rubicam, 
Philip L. Thomson (ABC), Henry T. Ewald, John Benson (presi 
dent of 4 A's), Paul West (ANA), Chester LaRoche and James W. 
Young (War Advertising Council). In 1930 this medal was won 
by Mr. Kendall. 

Advertising Age, a tabloid-size weekly, was started in 1930 by 
George Grain of Chicago, publisher of Industrial Marketing. It fea 
tures the news of advertising, with other editorial features including 
a personality sketch of some prominent advertising figure, case studies 
of advertisers and statistical reports. Its 1947 ABC circulation was 
over 17,000. 

Tide, launched in 1927 as a house organ for Time Magazine the 
"time and tide" combination was too pat to be ignored! became an 
independent publication soon after. It has over 11,000 A. B. C. circu 
lation among advertisers and agencies. Reginald Clough is the editor. 
It has spot-news items and a range of articles on advertising subjects 
departmentalized much after the fashion of its parent, although not 
attempting Timese phraseology. 

Other publications in the field include The Advertiser, edited by 
pencil-sketcher Manuel Rosenberg; Editor & Publisher (newspapers); 
The Reporter (direct mail); Sales Management; Tell (free distribu 
tion); Premium Practice; Modern Packaging and a number of re 
gional and local ad magazines of which Western Advertising and the 
Adcrafter (Detroit Advertising Club) are among the oldest. 


Advertising Service Books 

Indispensable to the agency space buyer, account executive and 
client is Standard Rate & Data Service, published monthly in five 
massive sections: (1) newspapers; (2) magazines, farm papers and 
transportation advertising; (3) business papers; (4) radio; and (5) 
newspaper map section. The cost of the complete service is $50 per 
year; of a single section, $25. It contains not only the complete rate 
schedule for each medium, but also sizes of ads, mechanical require 
ments, names of officers, circulation and representatives. It is prob 
ably the busiest book in any agency media department. 

Two publishers give a parallel service in listing national advertisers 
and agencies: Standard Advertising Register and McKittrick's Direc 
tory. In each case, separate volumes are issued for the advertisers and 
the agencies. Under the former appear the names of all national 
advertising accounts, officials, present agency, types of advertising 
being done, and in some cases the amount of the appropriation. In 
the agency book are given all recognized agencies, their offices, key 
personnel and list of accounts. 

Leading National Advertisers was started in 1945 to give a record 
of advertising used in apparel, food and beverage, drug and toiletry, 
transportation and agriculture, home and general fields. 

Several publications issue annual summaries of value to adver 
tisers such as the Market Data Book of Industrial Marketing and 
the Survey of Buying Power by Sales Management. The U. S. De 
partment of Commerce published and still does unless a Congres 
sional economy drive has intervened a number of periodic reports. 

This list is by no means complete. It does suggest, however, that 
the advertising man who wants to keep up-to-date in his profession 
has plenty of reading matter to cover and consult! 


WARS have a way of speeding up technical processes. World 
War I saw the rapid development of radio, aviation and 
many other new fields. Out of World War II have come 
such varied wonders as radar, jet-propelled planes, vest-pocket hear 
ing aids and applications of atomic energy. 

Advertising, too, had its war-stimulated innovation: the tremen 
dous increase in what has been called "advertising with a social con 

Whether this aspect of the art of mass persuasion will continue to 
grow in significance or lapse into disuse remains to be seen. Cer 
tainly it gained great momentum while America was fighting, and 
many of the industry's leaders have resolved that this momentum 
shall not be lost. 

Twenty years ago Stuart Chase and F. J. Schlink wrote a book 
called Your Money's Worth. In it, advertising was taken sharply to 
task for many selfish and deceptive practices, some widespread, some 
limited. Ad men everywhere denounced the book, overlooking the 
fact that it was not an attack on their profession, but on its abuses. 
The authors had a vision of a use to which advertising might be put 
a vision which they frankly felt was impossible of fulfillment. Yet 
this very conception, Utopian as it seemed then, has become an actu 
ality. This is what Chase and Schlink wrote in 1927: 

The technique of advertising is a magnificent technique. Sanely 
applied it could remake the world. Think of what might be done 
with applied psychology in a great publicity drive for public health, 
for better housing, for cleaning up the slums, for honest and timely 
information about goods, for genuine education in a hundred fields! 
Many advertisers see this: a few of them try to practice it, but their 
hands are tied. Between the interest of the whole community in 
more abundant life, and of the individual in his profit and loss 
account, there yawns a chasm which no optimism, no sophistries 
about "service/' no pretty little talks . . . may cross.* 

* Stuart Chase and F. J. Schlink, Your Money's Worth (The MacmiHan Co., 
1927). Quoted by permission of the publisher. 



It took the greatest war in history to cross that chasm, but the 
bridge has been built. Today powerful forces in advertising are defi 
nitely committed to widening and strengthening that bridge. Their 
job has been made immeasurably easier by what advertising did in 
the war. It has been given urgency by the belated discovery of busi 
ness in general that the American free enterprise system is by no 
means the indestructible, perpetual way of life it once seemed to be. 
German industrialists of the 1930's, threatened by the destructive 
forces of communism, backed Hitler. Farsighted American indus 
trialists of the 1940's are coming more and more to realize that their 
lone chance of survival lies in backing a healthy, prosperous, enlight 
ened democracy. 

Advertising Goes to War 

To understand this newest, most significant trend in advertising it 
is necessary to know what happened between Pearl Harbor and Hiro 

As the colorful, dynamic spokesman of American business, adver 
tising had led the nation to ever higher standards of material com 
fort. Off to a slow start in the nineteenth century, it had gathered 
strength steadily before World War I and reached its zenith in 1929 
when nearly $3,000,000,000 were invested in various advertising 

Advertising had helped to put telephones and bathtubs and electric 
refrigerators into millions of homes; sold a new automobile every six 
seconds and a new radio every three seconds; made the small-town 
girl as style and glamour-conscious as her big-city cousin; created count 
less new wants, new yearnings, new habits. 

None of this had anything to do with war or did it? Some adver 
tising men, looking ahead in the fall of 1941, thought they saw an 
immediate and vital relationship. They were right. 

For just as the manufacturer of bobby pins was able to convert his 
technological skill to the making of shell fuses, so the advertising 
profession adapted its experience in mass marketing to an unprece 
dented achievement in telling the American people what needed to 
be done to win the war. 

Here, briefly, is what happened, as stated in a bulletin issued 
shortly after V-J Day by the War Advertising Council: 


Advertising helped America fight its greatest war, yet remain a 

In a war for survival, all bets are off. Action swift, decisive ac 
tion is all that counts. A warring nation must remedy its shortages. 
It must get the scrap, the fats, the paper, the money, the factory 
manpower it needs or its army and navy have little to fight with. 

It must man its merchant ships, change the people's habits, increase 
its food supply or lose the 'war. 

Government cannot do these things. Only the people can. And 
the people must either be compelled or persuaded there is no other 

During the entire war, for the most part, they [the American peo 
ple] were persuaded. There were no compulsory savings. No national 
service act, no labor draft. There was not even a draft of sorely 
needed wartime skills, such as miners, tool-makers, farm help, rail 
road workers or nurses. 

The Country, the people, did the job the democratic way, and just 
one thing made it possible: this nation used every known channel to 
carry to the people the news of what needed to be done to explain, 
persuade and inspire. The people did the rest. 

Thus our great wartime information mechanism enabled this 
nation to fight through our first global war with a minimum of 
compulsion. In a period when the [world] trend toward centralized 
controls might well have become an irresistible force, this was a 
service of lasting significance to every business and every citizen. 

The job of "explaining, persuading and inspiring" America's home 
front was not done by advertising alone. Every newspaper gave un- 
stintingly of its news, editorial and feature columns; its cartoonists 
and even its comic strip artists were enrolled for the program. Na 
tional magazines and trade papers donated space for government bul 
letins and ads, in addition to assigning their finest writers to prepare 
articles on essential war projects. Radio stations were notably liberal 
with free time for announcements, talks and special broadcasts 
often canceling commercial broadcasts at a considerable loss in rev 
enue. Retail stores, banks, public utilities, life insurance companies 
and innumerable other enterprises co-operated by having employees 
solicit war bond orders, USO donations, Red Cross memberships 
on company time. 

All of this vast publicity and sales activity was important. 

But, just as in a private business venture, free publicity and per- 


sonal salesmanship cannot market a product nationally without ad 
vertising, so in our victory drive advertising supplied the spark to start 
the machine and the horsepower to keep it going. 

Newspapers and magazines, the radio and the movies must offer 
their customers a varied bill of fare. To repeat the same message over 
and over again would be fatal. 

Only advertising, one of whose cardinal principles is repetition, 
repetition and more repetition, can accomplish the universal mass- 
penetration results that are necessary for nationwide co-operation. 

Moreover, advertising does not merely din away at a theme or a 
slogan it asks for the order. And keeps on asking! 

It costs money to change people's habits and ideas. Billions of 
dollars had been spent, before the war, to make this a nation of auto 
mobile owners, of orange- juice drinkers, of washing-machine and 
vacuum-cleaner users. Human nature resists change. One magazine 
ad or one poster won't turn the trick. 

To carry through its part of the wartime information program, 
American business staged what was far and away the greatest adver 
tising campaign of all time. It was so enormous, so all-inclusive, that 
the total cost can never be accurately computed. 

An estimated $1,000,000,000 was spent by private business for 
advertising space and time alone. As much or more went for pro 
duction costs, contributions of printing, plates, illustrations, and sal 
aries of advertising people working full or part time on war projects. 

In the fall of 1941 at a joint meeting of the Association of National 
Advertisers and the American Association of Advertising Agencies, 
the first steps were taken to mobilize advertising resources in the 
event of war. Immediately after its outbreak, Donald M. Nelson, 
wartime production chief, declared: 

We are up against the toughest situation in our history. Time is 
running against us, and every minute counts. We must use every 
constructive organization, and gear these organizations to all-out war 
production. In my opinion, the organized machinery of advertising 
will be absolutely essential in getting the job done. In heaven's name, 
get yourself organized quickly. 

With this challenge, heads of leading advertising associations 
promptly pooled their resources to form the War Advertising Coun- 


cil. The Office of War Information became the liaison between the 
government departments and bureaus that wanted special campaigns, 
and the Council, which co-ordinated the media, advertisers and ad 
vertising agencies. 

The Council directed more than 100 separate campaigns, each rep 
resenting a crisis in the war effort. The needs were determined by 
those in command of the fighting forces, consulting with top federal 
officials. The methods were worked out by advertising "task forces" 
assigned by the Council, all serving voluntarily and a large part of the 
work being done after hours. The bills were paid by private industry 
and business. 

A Typical Campaign 

In 1944, for example, campaigns were conducted for three war 
bond drives, the National War Fund, the Red Cross, victory gardens, 
V-mail, tin-can conservation, reduction of absenteeism, WAVE, WAC 
and Merchant Marine recruitment and many more. Twenty-seven 
government agencies were "clients" of the Council. It would require 
volumes to tell the whole story. But the method can be grasped by 
studying one campaign. For this purpose, the Cadet Nurse Recruit 
ment program has been chosen. 

Always in past wars, lives that might have been saved were lost 
through lack of proper nursing. In the spring of 1943, the men who 
were planning the coming offensives knew that thousands upon 
thousands of additional trained hospital attendants must be ready if 
this tragedy were not to be repeated. 

Training a nurse takes time; hence the raw material had to be 
obtained at the earliest possible date. The easy way would have been 
to drain these nurses from civilian hospitals, and to a certain extent 
that had already been done. In 1940, the Army had but 955 nurses; 
the Navy, 200. Under the national defense program, this figure rose 
rapidly. In December 1941, there were 7,500 Army nurses; a year 
later, 20,000. But these volunteers represented the younger, more 
adventurous nurses fired by patriotism and eager to serve dangerously. 
Their going left critical gaps at home which had to be filled, besides 
the many more who would be desperately needed for the armed serv 
ices a year or two hence. 

Throughout the land, a number of independent nursing organiza- 


tions had been struggling with the situation. They came together to 
form the National Nursing Council for War Service. Congresswoman 
Frances Payne Bolton of Ohio had become a crusader for more 
nurses. She introduced a measure into Congress to create a student 
nurse reserve. Transformed into law, the Bolton Act authorized the 
training at government expense of 60,000 student nurses for the year 
1943-44, and thereafter as the needs dictated. 

So far, so good. But how and where were those 60,000 to be ob 
tained? The largest number of new student nurses in any one year 
had been 39,000 in 1938, and the average per year somewhere be 
tween 28,000 and 30,000. Now the aggressive campaigns of the 
WAVE, WAG and SPAR recruitment officials were attracting a 
considerable portion of the eligibles, and war plants were offering 
alluring wages to able-bodied young women who wanted to do their 

It was a situation made to order for advertising. 

Given an excellent product, a known market and the means with 
which to operate, any ad man worthy of his hire can get results. What 
if there was competition? Advertising men thrive on it! 

By this time the War Advertising Council had been functioning 
for over a year, and it moved smoothly to meet the emergency. A 
"task force" was created with William S. Brown, advertising manager 
of Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Inc., as campaign manager; Miss Jean 
Flinner of the Council as staff manager; and the J. Walter Thomp 
son Company as the agency to handle the "account," with Vice- 
President Anson C. Lowitz as account executive. 

Veterans of the U. S. Public Health Service and the nursing pro 
fession had key assignments. Among them, Miss Jean Henderson, 
chief of USPHS wartime Information Division, working directly un 
der the Surgeon General, Dr. Thomas Parran, had complete charge 
of all informational activities and field work. Co-operating whole 
heartedly in the campaign was Miss Lucille Petry, who held the top 
post in the Nursing Corps, comparable with that of Mrs. Oveta 
Hobby in the WAG; and Mrs. Elmira Wickenden, head of the Na 
tional Nursing Council. 

The field staff of the U. S. Public Health Service and the state and 
regional nursing groups were invaluable in arranging local tie-ins and 
publicity for the program. In a measure they corresponded to the 
salesmen or local dealers of a manufacturer in helping to complete 


the chain from original idea to actual enrollment of the individual 
Cadet Nurses. 

The "Product" and the "Package" 

Starting from scratch, this advertising team decided first of all that 
their "product" student nursing would have to be glamorized in 
order to compete with the other alluring wartime careers then bid 
ding for their "market." Obviously there was nothing to stir the 
imagination of a young girl in the phrase "student nurse"; it sug 
gested nothing but study and hard work. So they came up with the 
new name, "U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps." That word "cadet," bor 
rowed from West Point, implied training and discipline but it had 
romance and showmanship too! 

That wasn't enough. For any product to win against competition, 
the package must be right. Student nurses had always worn gar 
ments that were crisp, efficient, and unglamorous! The recruitment 
task force decided that "Cadet Nurses" should have costumes as 
dashing as those worn by the WAVES. They announced a contest 
among leading designers to create a Cadet Nurses's wardrobe that 
would attract young women. The designers caught the fever. 

On August 18, 1943, there gathered at the Waldorf perhaps the 
most distinguished group of judges ever to pick a style-show winner. 
It embraced the woman's page editors of dozens of leading news 
papers, the style authorities of all the big magazines, the fashion 
arbiters from Hollywood studios. After lunch, models wearing the 
different suggested Cadet Nurse costumes paraded before this critical 
audience. Ballots were passed, and the judges made their selection. 

What happened can now be told for the first time. The 55 judges 
at the showing agreed unanimously! Perhaps never before in history 
have so many experts concurred on a question of fashion. The fact 
remains that one and all picked the same design. Needless to say, 
this became the official uniform of the U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps. 

As a result of this re-styling of the "package," the Cadet Nurse's 
uniform became important fashion news. It was featured in all daily 
papers. It appeared on the front cover of such influential magazines 
as Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and Ladies' Home Journal. 

Meanwhile, the agency task force had not been idle. Classes were 
to start in September. The uniform had not been yet selected when 


a flood of radio appeals hit the country all arranged by the War 
Advertising Council. A campaign guide was prepared for release to 
national advertisers, agencies and heavy retail advertisers, containing 
suggested copy themes and radio commercials. 

Very shortly, national magazine advertising began to appear. A 
number of important concerns gave virtually their entire space to the 
Cadet Nurse appeal, running only a single line in small type at the 
bottom of the advertisement to identify the advertiser. 

One of the most notable campaigns on behalf of student-nurse re 
cruitment was that of Eastman Kodak. Although known to the pub 
lic primarily as manufacturers of cameras, this firm has long been 
identified with public health through its position as a leading supplier 
of X-ray film. For four months in 1943, the Eastman people devoted 
almost their entire advertising budget to the Cadet Nurse Corps. This 
particular series, carrying a direct appeal, accounted for over 40 per 
cent of all inquiries, and nine months after the last ad appeared, 
coupons were still being received. 

Other national advertisers who used space at their own expense to 
back the Cadet Nurse drive were the Maytag Company, Wheatena 
Corporation, General Foods (Sanka Coffee), Prudential Insurance 
Company and many more. This barrage of magazine messages had 
its local counterpart in the numerous full-page newspaper ads spon 
sored by the businessmen of a community. 

Radio, magazines, newspapers the heavy artillery of the program 
created an immediate rush of inquiries. Direct mail was used to 
"complete the sale." Attractive booklets and folders were ready to be 
sent. Printed material was prepared also by the task force for the 
training school recruiting officials. And finally, since this was to be a 
continuing campaign, portfolios of advertising plans were distributed 
to local and national sponsors, giving suggested radio commercials 
and ad copy, publicity ideas and community activities to tie in with 
the advertising. 

Overcoming Objections 

The successful adman or woman knows how to analyze a product 
and turn apparent disadvantages into talking points. Thus, the un- 
glamorous "student nurse" uniform was restyled and dramatized 
through smart showmanship. A further allure was imparted through 


announcing that wearing of the uniform outside the training school 
was optional, not compulsory. One bit of ad copy phrased it this 
way speaking in the girls' own words: 

The Cadet uniform is so smart! It's for outdoor wear, and I don't 
think there's a better looking one in the women's services; but I'm 
glad it's optional. It is nice to be able to get into an honest-to-good- 
ness dress now and then to remind yourself, and the boys, that you're 
a girl after all. 

The extremely low pay offered to these nursing-school students was 
another objection, and a very serious one. But it had to be met fairly 
and squarely. There was no use in drawing inquiries from girls who 
expected war-plant wages while in training. So the copy stressed the 
free features tuition, fees, room, board, uniforms and took the 
sting out of the microscopic pay check by calling it a "monthly al 
lowance." One piece showed a group of Cadet Nurses sipping sodas 
and looking very chipper, with a girl saying: 

Our allowance keeps me in spending money very nicely. It starts at 
$15, jumps to $20 after nine months, at least $30 after 21 months. 

The girl who held back from inquiring about the corps because of 
the long period of training involved found her objection minimized 
by copy like this: 

A big advantage we Cadet Nurses have is that the course in most 
schools has been stepped up. It now takes only 24 to 30 months, 
where it used to take three years. If you're still in training when the 
war ends and if you have at that time been enrolled for 90 days 
you get your full course just the same. 

For the young girl who had a boy friend, or was socially minded, 
one ad picture showed a dance with several happy maidens in party 
dresses; their escorts were young soldiers, sailors and civilians. The 
explanatory text said: 

Of course, I want to get married; but being a nurse doesn't mean 
that I can't. There are lots of chances to meet nice men, and there's 
free time for dates. In many schools, a girl can marry while she's still 
a student. 

Whether by accident or intent, the shoulder patch of the Cadet 


Nurses had the same contours as the emblem of a widely publicized 
college fraternity. Capital was made of this fact by creating a "Cadet 
Nurse Pledge Pin" to be worn by high-school senior girls who had 
qualified for the Corps. Thus not only the immediate but also the 
future needs of the project were given the glamour treatment. 

These innovations were not adopted without some serious qualms 
on the part of the supervisory organizations involved. But the pro 
fessional nurses and the medical authorities, with whom the "task 
force" consulted in creating the plans and writing the ads, knew that 
a desperate situation justified drastic methods. The American Journal 
of Nursing covered this contretemps in most charming phraseology 
in an article on the Nurse Recruitment Campaigns. After praising 
the magnificent work of the War Advertising Council, the Office of 
War Information, and the vast advertising contributions of business 
and industry, this highly ethical publication said: 

The spirit of volunteer service has been unquestioned. If an occa 
sional departure from nursing tradition or preference has occurred, 
it has been on that margin of judgment where any volunteer effort 
may escape professional guidance or control.* 

There was a tense period during that first year. The quota had been 
raised to 65,000 but the standards of admission also had been raised. 
The girls had to be in the top one-third of their class in high school, 
in addition to passing a rigid physical test. Moreover, all nursing 
schools had to be checked by the Surgeon General's staff before being 
allowed grants for tuition, board and allowances. This meant "better 
nurses in fewer schools/' 

At one point near the close of the year, enrollments stood at 54,000 
11,000 short of the objective. The Cadet Nurse task force re 
doubled its efforts. But instead of bewailing the fact that enlistments 
were 11,000 short of the target, they told the nation that there were 
only 11,000 opportunities left. 

By July 1, 1944, the deadline of the first year's drive, the Council 
was able to report that 65,921 student nurses had been accepted. 

For 1944-45, the goal was set at 60,000 more Cadet Nurses. With 
the previous year's experience as a guide, the team hit that mark well 

* The American Journal of Nursing, July 1945, p. 543. Quoted by permission of 
The American Journal of Nursing. 


ahead of schedule. In fact, some enrollments had to be declined for 
lack of allotments. 

Again for 1945-46, the figure was 60,000. Japan surrendered before 
the campaign had scarcely started, yet by October an additional 
33,000 girls had enrolled, making a total in little over two years of 
some 160,000 Cadet Nurses. At this point the program ended, but 
the results in available nurses and in future applications for nurse 
training by girls whose interest in the profession was first aroused by 
the campaign will be felt for many years. 

The U. S. Public Health Service wrote finis to this typical wartime 
project, financed, developed and carried to success by advertising men 
and women, with a terse yet all-embracing comment: "Quota Filled." 

Other Wartime Advertising 

Similar teamwork produced results all along the line. More than 
800,000,000 war bonds were sold. Eighty-five million Americans 
bought small-denomination bonds, and at the end of the war $45,- 
000,000,000 were outstanding. Advertisers and media contributed 
an estimated $350,000,000 in space and time to war bond promotion. 

Some $100,000,000 in advertising "sold" the country on Victory 
Gardens. Fifty million plots of ground were planted and in 1945 
accounted for 40 percent of all fresh vegetables consumed by civilians. 
Home canning received a tremendous impetus, with 25,000,000 
households putting up 3,500,000,000 quarts of fruits and vegetables 
that year. Four million workers were recruited for farms and food 

In conservation and salvage, $65,000,000 worth of advertising 
stimulated Americans to reclaim 538,000,000 pounds of waste fats, 
800,000,000 pounds of tin and 23,000,000 tons of waste paper. Mer 
chant Marine recruiting was stepped up, WAG hospital technicians 
enlisted, blood donors enrolled, all with the help of advertising paid 
for by business. 

Contributions of space and radio time were not left to chance. As 
in all well-planned advertising campaigns, the creative staffs of Coun 
cil projects worked closely with the "sales force" a network of spon 
sorship committees throughout the country whose object it was to 
bring to the attention of advertisers the urgent campaigns on the 
docket, and sign them up for specific commitments. 


Users of radio advertising were organized under several allocation 
plans, administered by the Domestic Radio Bureau of the Office of 
War Information. Commercial time was regularly devoted to what 
ever project the government might designate: war bonds, absentee 
ism, scrap and paper collections, special recruiting, V-mail and secur 
ity of war information, to mention only a few. On many a network 
show the star himself delivered the message. Three topics were allo 
cated each week for discussion on regular commercial broadcasts, and 
were kept on the schedules as long as conditions demanded. 

The Graphic Arts Victory Committee contributed plates, typeset 
ting and presswork for many war projects. 

Trade associations not directly connected with advertising took an 
active part. For instance the National Retail Dry Goods Association, 
in co-operation with the American Red Cross, sponsored campaigns 
to bring graduate nurses who had retired to civilian life, back into 
service, and also to recruit more hospital technicians, nurse's aides, 
Cadet Nurses and Red Cross home-nursing workers. On one NRDGA 
drive 893 booths were set up and 3,200 department and drygoods 
stores actively participated, with a total of over 12,000 separate ads. 

Outdoor advertising companies provided 24-sheet posters on war 
themes for local sponsors, and further aided by "sniping" the blank 
white borders around posters with special wartime messages. 

These were but a few of the many ways in which businessmen 
used the power of advertising co-operatively, often working side by 
side with their most serious competitors. 

From War to Peace 

Even before war's end, leaders of the Council were considering 
what action should be taken when peace came. As early as Novem 
ber 1944 it issued a booklet, The Council Looks Ahead, voicing the 
opinion of the Board that some sort of public service program should 
be continued. 

In September 1945, shortly after Japan's surrender, the Council 
declared that from a purely selfish point of view alone, business should 
continue to support advertising in the public interest. Said the 

Almost unnoticed, a revolution in business public relations think 
ing has taken place. Business, which formerly told the public, "What 


helps business, helps you/' is now, in effect, demonstrating to the 
people that what is good for the public welfare is good for business. 
Perhaps this should have been obvious all along. But it remained for 
a war to demonstrate it.* 

There were protests from some advertisers who had gone along 
with the Council during the war but now wanted to get back at their 
main job of selling goods. There was sound logic in the argument 
that advertising could render its greatest service by helping to main 
tain full employment after the pent-up wartime demand had been 
met. As Raymond Rubicam, retired head of Young & Rubicam 
agency, put it in his chapter on advertising in the symposium, While 
You Were Gone: 

In the war, the men and women of advertising had their first major 
chance to devote the content of advertising to themes of noncom 
mercial public service. One result was a strong sentiment in the 
Advertising Council for the continuance of such work not only 
through the reconversion period, but into peace. ... But in the final 
test the great contribution of advertising has been and must be the 
selling of goods and services new and old into use and consump 
tion. It carries its real Sunday punch in its everyday job. And now 
it must be getting down to business.** 

On the other hand, James W. Young, then chairman of the Adver 
tising Council, declared in a speech on December 11, 1945: 

We [the Council directors] have no delusions about the principal 
job of the advertiser and his agency being the sale of goods. . . . But 
we do believe that where you have a good will, an institutional, a 
character building job to do, we have a technique to offer you 
that is more effective than the old techniques. It is embodied in our 
slogan, "the best public relations advertising is public service adver 

We believe that many advertisers and agencies already see this, and 
that more will do so. 

Evidencing the support of business for this new venture in public 

* From War to Peace the New Challenge to Business and Advertising, War 
Advertising Council. Used by permission of the War Advertising Council. 

** From Raymond Rubicam's chapter on Advertising in While You Were Gone, 
edited by Jack Goodman. Copyright, 1946, by Simon and Schuster, Inc. 


relations, the Council announced that 117 national radio adver 
tisers, representing 85 percent of the network circulation, had agreed 
to carry allocations on one out of every six evening shows or one out 
of every 15 daytime shows. This was a cutback from wartime contri 
butions, but still substantial. Magazines and newspapers continued 
to make free space available for ads prepared by the Council. The 
car-card industry set aside 75,000 car spaces per month, and the out 
door industry, 3,200 poster panels, while the window-display industry 
provided facilities for 70,000 one-sheet posters in selected store loca 
tions each month. Transportation advertising interests also made 
available a pool of 4,000 three-sheet poster spaces. 

Replacing the Office of War Information, which represented the 
government in deciding which campaigns should be featured, a spe 
cial advisory committee of prominent figures was named to pass on 
all proposed projects. Evans Clark, executive director, Twentieth 
Century Fund, was made chairman and others on the committee 
were Mrs. Olive Clapper, Kermit Eby of the CIO, Dr. Reinhold 
Niebuhr of Union Theological Seminary, Boris Shishkin of the AFL, 
Dr. George Gallup and various doctors, businessmen and educators. 
With this distinguished committee choosing the projects to be 
backed, it seemed improbable that the Council would ever become 
an instrument for political or ideological propaganda. 

Postwar campaigns created by the Council include veterans' hous 
ing, prevention of forest fires, salvage of waste fats, reduction of acci 
dents on highways and in homes, hospital personnel recruitment, 
U. S. savings bonds, Girl Scouts, National Brotherhood Week, fam 
ine emergency, used clothing for war victims and many more. 

Theodore S. Repplier, executive director since 1943, became presi 
dent of the Council in 1946. This former advertising agency copy 
star had a staff of veteran advertising, radio and public relations em 
ployees to assure campaigns as efficiently conducted as any in the 
commercial field. Offices were established in New York, Washing 
ton, Chicago and Hollywood to assist co-operating advertisers. 

GI Insurance a Case History 

After World War I, the government had almost $49,000,000,000 
in life insurance on 4,500,000 service men; today this figure has 
dwindled to $2,400,000,000. 


To prevent such a debacle with the $142,000,000,000 in World 
War II service life insurance, the Advertising Council began in 1946 
to work with the many private companies and associations interested 
in keeping these policies in force. 

The task was and still is a tough one. Many veterans promptly 
dropped their government insurance when discharged. By midyear 
of 1946 only $23,500,000,000 was in force. According to the adver 
tising magazine Tide, chief reasons for so many lapses were: "high- 
pressure methods in selling the coverage" by the Army and Navy, 
which "soured many a man on the idea of hanging on to it"; objec 
tion to the stringent limitations on whom they could pick as benefi 
ciaries, to the fact that death benefits were not payable in lump sums, 
and to the limited forms to which the term policies could be con 
verted; and the fact that most veterans were young and not much 
worried about providing for dependents.* 

Changes in G.I. insurance policies were made in August 1946, per 
mitting men to name any beneficiary they wish and to convert to 
endowment insurance in addition to straight life or 20 or 30-payment 
life. Sickness and accident benefits were added. Death settlements 
could be paid in lump sums if desired. 

With these new features, an aggressive drive was started by the 
Veterans Administration, private life insurance companies and the 
Advertising Council to convince veterans of the wisdom of convert 
ing their term insurance to permanent policies. In four months the 
amount in force had increased 50 percent to $38,000,000,000, and 
there was hope that the figures might reach $50,000,000,000 or more. 

The Advertising Council's part in the 1946 campaign was two-fold. 
Eight hundred and fifty radio stations carrying veterans* programs 
each week plugged service life insurance. Various advertising cam 
paigns were prepared, including a series of car cards, among them 
one showing George Baker's famous cartoon character, "Sad Sack," 
with the copy: 

Don't Be the Sad Sack Who Dropped His Service Life Insurance! 
Even if you've missed payments 

. . . you can reinstate easily. 
See Your Nearest Veterans Administration Office Today 

* "GI Insurance," Tide, Nov. 29, 1946, pp. 45-6. Quoted by permission of Tide. 


Campaign manager for the task force was Holgar J. Johnson of the 
Institute of Life Insurance, and co-ordinator for all veterans' prob 
lems campaigns Philip J. Kelly of Carstairs Distillers, both serving, 
of course, without pay. 

This particular program is cited as an example of a public service 
program in which private business carried the bulk of the load, with 
the Advertising Council helping where needed. 

The Freedom Train 

In the spring of 1947, advertising was preparing to undertake what 
might well prove its most ambitious and far-reaching project mass 
education in the ideals and practices of American democracy. One 
hundred and fifty leaders in business, the professions, labor, the 
amusement world, and in racial, fraternal and patriotic organizations 
met at the White House on May 22, 1947, to establish the American 
Heritage Foundation. The campaign started with a $300,000 fund 
raised by subscriptions from industries and other interested groups. 

Outstanding feature of the campaign was to be a "Freedom Train" 
to tour the country for a year, exhibiting the original Declaration of 
Independence, the Constitution of the United States, the Bill of 
Rights, the Emancipation Proclamation, and 100 other documents 
forming the foundation of American democracy. The train, furnished 
by the Association of American Railroads, was to leave Philadelphia 
September 17, 1947, the 160th anniversary of the adoption of the 
Constitution. In each city along the route it was planned to stage a 
"community rededication week" with public exercises dramatizing 
"America's traditions of the past and promise of the future/' 

Named as chairman of the foundation was Winthrop W. Aldrich, 
president of the Chase National Bank, and as president, Thomas 
D'Arcy Brophy of Kenyon & Eckhardt, nationally known advertising 
executive. Mr. Brophy, in outlining the aims of the campaign, said, 
"We must work at democracy to make democracy work." 

The Advertising Council prepared a vast program of advertising to 
appear in all types of media. As with every Council project, space 
and time costs were to be borne by industry and business, with the 
probability that this investment would run many times larger than 
the original $300,000 operating fund. 

The "American Heritage" program is only one phase of a concerted 


over-all effort to strengthen public understanding and appreciation 
of the free enterprise system. By mid-1947 a campaign developed 
jointly by the Association of National Advertisers and the American 
Association of Advertising Agencies was well under way. As outlined 
by Evans Clark, chairman of the Public Advisory Committee of the 
Advertising Council, it had these objectives: 

1. To show the reasons why, in spite of its shortcomings, the Ameri 
can system has given us the highest standard of living and the 
greatest freedom in the world. 

2. To rally all groups in the nation for a common effort to improve 
our system through constantly increasing productivity and a wider 
distribution of its benefits. 

In this statement of aims can be seen the twofold strategy always 
advocated by experienced advertising men for commercial campaigns. 
Step one is to promote the product in this case the American eco 
nomic system on the basis of its present advantages over competing 
products (i.e., Communist or Fascist ideologies). Step two, which 
must go hand-in-hand with the first, is to make the product steadily 
better and thus keep ahead of competition. 

It is apparent that business leaders realize the necessity of "improv 
ing the product" while selling the free economy system to the public. 
This fact received frank consideration at the 1946 meeting of the 
Association of National Advertisers, at which President Paul B. West 
declared, "A. N. A. members are looking to advertising as an impor 
tant tool to be used in the broad task of presenting the facts about 
industry to the American people so that they will understand, pre 
serve and support the competitive enterprise system." A principal 
speaker was Paul Hoffman, chairman of the Committee for Eco 
nomic Development and president of Studebaker Corporation. Busi 
ness must do everything possible to reduce the intensity of fluctua 
tions in the economic cycle if the campaign for the American system 
is to succeed, he said, adding: 

With all due respect to advertising in which I have great confi 
dence it is idle to think that we can advertise a system into perma 
nence if the system doesn't work to the satisfaction of the rank and 

* Advertising Age, April 28, 1947, p. 26. 


file of our people, and the rank and file of our people don't like a 
system that produces major depressions.* 

Unquestionably advertising cannot gloss over the defects in the 
free enterprise system. On the other hand, advertising men are accus 
tomed to studying commercial products and through research and 
creative imagination devising means of improving those products. It 
is not too much to assume that the same skills can contribute think 
ing which will make this system more "salable" to the public. 

One contribution advertising can and will make is to aid in the 
promotion of continuing and expanding peak national prosperity. If 
it is successful in this, the task of "merchandising" American business 
will be vastly simplified. 

During World War II, advertising men declared that their tech 
niques could win nationwide co-operation for essential civilian activi 
ties and proved it. Can they, through this new type of public serv 
ice advertising, fill a similar role in preserving America's democratic 

Industry has often been criticized for concentrating all its atten 
tion on selling its output and none on "selling" the economic system 
which makes the output possible. Now that the campaign is actually 
under way, it will be watched with the most intense interest by every 
group and individual with a stake in the American way of life. It is 
at once the gravest responsibility and the most magnificent oppor 
tunity in the colorful history of this fascinating advertising business. 

* The Challenge and Opportunity for Advertising Management, Association 
of National Advertisers, 1946, 


THE author acknowledges his indebtedness to previously published adver 
tising dictionaries, including Radio Alphabet, by Columbia Broadcasting 
System, and that in Advertising Procedure, by Otto Kleppner. 

A.A.A.A. (THE 4 A's) American Association of Advertising Agencies. 

ABC American Broadcasting Company. 

A.B.C. Audit Bureau of Circulations. An organization which sets up circu 
lation standards and gathers accurate circulation statements. Sponsored 
jointly by publications, advertisers and agencies. 

ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE the liaison man between an advertising agency and its 
clients. He is employed by the agency and has the responsibility of directing 
the advertising of one or more clients. Also known as CONTACT MAN. 

ACROSS THE BOARD radio program appearing at the same time five or more 
consecutive days per week. 

ADVERTISING AGENCY an organization with media recognition, serving three 
or more clients in the planning, preparation and placing of advertising cam 

A.F.A. Advertising Federation of America. Its membership includes such 
organizations as the 4 A's, the A.N.A., and local ad clubs. 

AFRA American Federation of Radio Artists. 

AGATE LINE Standard unit of measurement in computing depth of a printed 
page. One agate line is one column wide and 1/14 of an inch deep. 

AIR White space within a layout. In radio, verb meaning "to broadcast." 

A.N.A. Association of National Advertisers. (Sometimes written ANA. The 
periods are optional in many of these abbreviations.) 

ANNOUNCEMENT (1) the "brief word from our sponsor," from 20 words to 
150 words in length. (2) An ad or folder introducing a new product or cam 

A.N.P.A. American Newspaper Publishers' Association. 

A.S.C.A.P. American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. An 
organization to which member composers, authors and publishers assign 
their copyrights, collecting royalties in return. 

AUDIENCE TURNOVER the total number of different listeners to a given pro 
gram over a specific number of consecutive broadcasts; or, the rate at 
which a program increases its audience of different listeners over a given 
span of performances. 

AUDITION a try-out of artists or musicians or programs under broadcasting 

BALLOONS the method of indicating speech commonly used in comic strips. 
Now frequently seen in advertising. Also called BLURB. 

BEARD an error in performance ; more often words misread by an actor. 



BEN DAY from the name of its inventor, Benjamin Day. A mechanical proc 
ess by which an engraver can give shades and tones to a line plate. 

BLACK AND WHITE an advertisement without color. Also, used by radio 
people to describe all printed advertising, whether one color or not. 

BLANKING white sheets around border of a 24-sheet poster. 

BLEED any page on which the printed matter or illustration runs out to the 
edge of the sheet. Produced by printing an oversize plate and then trimming 
down to page size. 

BLOW-UP an enlargement. Usually refers to an oversize reproduction of an 
advertisement used for display purposes. 

BLURB a statement handed out for publicity. 

BMB Broadcast Measurement Bureau. 

BOILER PLATE the syndicated stereotype pages used by country weeklies. 

BOOK a magazine. "Front of book" or "back of book" refer to ad locations 
in the magazine. Also a mail-order catalogue or trade-school brochure. 

BREAK a scheduled or unscheduled interruption of a radio program, or a 
recess in rehearsal schedule. 

BRIDGE a musical or sound-effect cue linking two scenes in radio. 

BUCKEYE a blatant display or commonplace ad treatment. Not to be con 
fused with Buckeye Cover, a popular heavy-duty stock for catalogue and 
booklet covers. 

BUG a trade-mark, approval seal or other small unit inserted inconspicuously 
in an ad. Also the union label (a must on political ads or posters). "Bugs" 
defects in product or plan ; should be eliminated before general use. 

BUILD-UP technique used to increase the popularity of a program, a person 
ality or a product. 

BULLDOG the predate edition of a morning newspaper. Printed in the early 
evening of the day prior to date of issue. 

CALL LETTERS initials assigned by the Federal Communications Commission 
to identify a broadcasting station. 

CAPTION a heading. Also, descriptive lines under an illustration. 

CAST the performers in a radio program ; to select the performers for a radio 

CBS Columbia Broadcasting System. 

CHAIN BREAK brief commercial inserted during 30-second pause for station 
identification between network programs. 

CHANNEL a band of frequencies in the spectrum assigned to a given radio 
station or stations. 

CHARACTER (1) A casting term referring to an individual dramatic role. Also 
currently, an eccentric person. (2) In computing type, any single unit such 
as a letter, punctuation mark or word space. (3) The "personality" of a 

CHEESECAKE photo or artwork featuring attractive feminine legs. 

CIRCULATION In periodicals, the number of copies of a single issue distrib 
uted. In radio, the number of radio families who listen to a station or net 
work during some definite span of time (usually one or more times a week), 
shapeless program filled with uncertainties ; rehearsals marked 


by errors, changes and failures, likely to result in a bad performance. Some 
times called CLAMAROO. 

CLOSING DATE the final date on which a publisher will accept copy or plates 
of an advertisement scheduled to appear in a given issue. 

CLEAR A NUMBER to obtain legal permission from responsible sources to use 
a certain musical selection in radio. 

CLIFF HANGER a serial dramatic program played at a high pitch of excite 
ment on a strong note of suspense. 

COARSE SCREEN A halftone illustration prepared to run on low-grade paper. 

COAXIAL CABLE a special cable for high-fidelity transmission of electrical 
impulses. Essential for the overland transmission of television images. 

COINCIDENTAL a method of measurement of the size of a program's audi 
ence by telephone calls during the progress of an actual broadcast to deter 
mine the proportion of listeners and nonlisteners, i.e., coincidentally. 

COMBINATION RATE a special rate granted to advertisers who contract to use 
two or more papers which offer special rate concessions. Usually used in 
connection with a morning and evening newspaper in the same town and 
owned by the same publisher. A forced combination is the rate for two or 
more papers which cannot be bought separately. 

COMP (short for "comprehensive") a carefully executed layout. Also a 
typesetter (compositor). 

CONSUMER ADVERTISING advertising directed to the ultimate user of a 

CONTACT (verb) to see or communicate with client, customer or prospect; 
(noun) any such meeting or communication. In agency-client relations, 
the continuous liaison involved in handling an account. 

CONTINUITY the written form of a radio program : a radio script. 

CO-OPERATIVE PROGRAM a network program sponsored in each station area 
by a local advertiser who usually pays for the time at local rates and shares 
the cost of talent pro rata. 

COPY matter prepared for publication. Hence, the manuscript for an adver 
tisement; the text for a printer; the finished art or photographs for an en 

COPY WRITER a man or woman who prepares the headline and text of an 

COVERAGE the area in which a station or network of stations can be heard 
according to engineering standards. Also, the market reached by any 

COW-CATCHER an isolated commercial announcement at the beginning of a 
program, which advertises a "secondary" product of the sponsor not men 
tioned in the program itself. 

CROPPING trimming off portions of an illustration in preparation for publi 

CUFFO an adverb or adjective applied to speculative or donated work with 
out pay, or on the cuff. 

CUT (1) shortening of the word woodcut. Now generally applied to all 
photoengravings. (2) In radio, to stop transmission of a program. (3) To 


delete copy in order that it may be short enough to fit prescribed limita 

CUT A RECORD, Disc OR PLATTER to make a recording. 

DAWN PATROL the engineers, announcers and others who open the studio 
and put on the early morning programs. 

DEAD METAL also called bearers. Excess metal which is left on an engraved 
plate to give extra strength and protection during the electrotyping process. 

DELAYED BROADCAST postponed airing of a program by means of an instan 
taneous recording made from the network lines during the original broad 

Disc JOCKEY the master of ceremonies of a program of transcribed music 
(records). He turns them over. 

DOUBLE-PAGE SPREAD (DOUBLE TRUCK) a single advertisement printed on 
two facing pages of a publication. 

DRESS the final complete radio program rehearsal. 

DUMMY (1) A "mock-up" of a proposed printing job using blank sheets of 
paper of the size, shape and weight desired in the final folder or booklet, as 
guide to printer. (2) An empty carton or box used for display purposes. 

ECHO CHAMBER a reverberant space through which sound and voices are 
channeled to give them an echolike, faraway quality. 

ELECTRICAL TRANSCRIPTION a form of high-fidelity recording made espe 
cially for broadcasting and allied purposes. 

ELECTROTYPE a metal plate made by the electrotype process. When several 
identical plates are needed, one original is made. Then a wax or lead mold 
is taken from the original and, by the electrotype process, as many fac 
simile copies of the original as are needed are made from the mold. 

EXTENSION allowance, made by publisher, of extra time beyond announced 
due date for ad copy or plates. 

FACE in type, the printing surface. Hence, also the printing surface of a 

FACILITIES a general term describing the technical equipment of a radio sta 
tion or network. Also, the stations of a network. 

FACSIMILE BROADCASTING a process of transmitting and receiving, by radio, 
graphic material such as pictures and printed matter. 

FCC Federal Communications Commission. 

FILL-IN (1) Blurring of a halftone in printing. (2) Hand-typed name and 
address of sender on a form letter. (3) Details of a proposed campaign, to 
be worked out after broad policies have been decided. 

FIRM ORDER a positive contract for space or time. 

FISH BOWL the clients' observation booth overlooking the broadcasting studio. 

FLACK a publicity writer or his output. 

FLAT RATE a single uniform charge for space in a medium. As differentiated 
from "time discounts" or "quantity discounts" when special rates are given 
based on the amount of space used or the frequency of insertion. 

FLOP-OVER (or FLIP-FLOP) a series of large sheets containing text on charts 
mounted in an easel binder and turned one by one as a talk is made. 


FLUSH method of trimming plate so that type matter can be set close, with 
out need of allowing space for "shoulder". 

FOREIGN ADVERTISING (also, ''National Advertising") advertising sponsored 
by a national manufacturer, as differentiated from "Local advertising" paid 
for by local retailers. 

FREE GOODS extra merchandise given retailer as bonus for stocking an item. 

FREE LANCE an independent artist or copy writer, employed by various ac 
counts to do specific jobs. 

FREQUENCY (1) In radio, the wave length of a radio station measured in 
kilocycles. (2) In printed advertising, the number of insertions over a given 
period of time. 

FREQUENCY MODULATION a method of broadcasting to provide reception 
comparatively free of interference or static. Usually called FM. 

FROM HUNGER epithet applied to a poorly written or badly acted program 
or scene, equivalent to : "It is a trite, makeshift device," or "It doesn't look 

FTC Federal Trade Commission. 

GIMMICK also "hook," "gadget" or "peg." Device such as premium offer, 
prize contest, or recipe booklet, intended to make advertising more pro 
ductive. (Hard g.) 

GOOD HOUSE Good Housekeeping Magazine. 

Go 'ROUND series of calls on trade prior to or during a campaign. 

GUTTER division between left and right facing pages. 

HALFTONE a photoengraving plate, or a picture made from such a plate, 
which reproduces the tones in a photograph by means of a system of dots. 
In printing, these dots are usually invisible. Made by photographing the 
subject through a glass screen varying from 45 to 300 lines to the inch. 

HAND LETTERING lettering, as in a headline, which has been drawn by hand 
for a specific ad as differentiated from standard type which may be used in 
many ads. 

HEARTBREAKER a commercial audition made on speculation. 

HITCHHIKER separate commercial at the end of a program on another of 
the sponsor's products. A "cow-catcher" is a similar device at the begin 
ning of a program. 

HOG CALLING CONTEST a strenuous commercial audition for announcers pos 
sessed of pear-shaped tones of voice. 

HOOK a device used to attract tangible response from the radio or magazine 
audience, e.g., an offer, a contest, etc. * 

HOOPERATING a program's audience-rating as determined by the C. E. 
Hooper, Inc., research service. 

HOUR any radio program. 

HOUSE ORGAN a periodical published by a firm for regular distribution to 
its own employees, stockholders, jobbers or customers. 

HYPO (short for "hypodermic") intensified effort applied to specific product 
or territory to stimulate sales. Verb or noun. Also described as "needling." 

INTAGLIO printing from a depressed plate as distinguished from "Letter- 


press" and "Lithographic" printing. Examples: engraved calling cards; 

ISLAND (1) In newspapers or magazines, the location of an advertisement so 
that it is entirely surrounded by editorial matter. (2) In stores, a display 
of merchandise in the center of an aisle. 

KEYING AN ADVERTISEMENT a method of tracing the source of an inquiry 
from a given advertisement. Example : coupons appearing in several publi 
cations bearing separate "department numbers," one for each periodical. 

LAYOUT a sketch of an advertisement designed to show how it will look in 

LETTERPRESS printing from a raised surface as distinguished from "Intaglio" 
and "Lithographic" printing. Newspapers and books are usually printed by 
letterpress, as are many magazines. 

LINAGE in periodicals, the total number of lines occupied by advertisements 
in a publication. 


LINE DRAWING a drawing made with solid lines and no variation of tone. 

LITHOGRAPH printing from a flat surface as distinguished from "Intaglio" 
and "Letterpress" printing. Example : large quantity of color work such as 

LIVE a program actually being performed by people at the time of broad 
casting in contrast to a recording of a previous live performance. 

LOCAL a program originating in a local station as contrasted with a network 

LOCAL ADVERTISING in newspapers, advertising placed by a local retailer, 
generally without agency commission. 

LOGO (short for "logotype") specially designed arrangement of firm or prod 
uct name, usually appearing at base of advertisement. 

LOWER CASE also "I.e." The small letters of the alphabet as contrasted to 

MARKETING the business activities, such as advertising and salesmanship 
which are designed to get the finished goods from the factory into the hands 
of the consumer. 

MATRIX also "mat." The paper or plastic mold made by pressing with 
an engraving plate or type form. The stereotype is made from this matrix 
by pouring molten lead into it, thus giving a duplicate of the original plate. 
In linotype printing, the brass molds from which the linotype slugs are cast. 

MBS Mutual Broadcasting System. 

MEDIUM plural, "Media." Any newspaper, radio station, magazine, poster 
or other vehicle which carries an advertisement. Also, in art, the method 
used by the artist as wash, crayon, pen and ink, etc. (see definitions at be 
ginning of book.) 

MILLINE RATE a standardized unit for measuring advertising costs in peri 
odicals. Shows the cost in a given periodical of printing one agate line for 
a million readers. 

MOBILE UNIT a truck or trailer equipped with transmitting apparatus used 
to relay programs from remote points to the studio. 


MOOD Music background music to establish or intensify the mood of a dra 
matic scene. 

NAB National Association of Broadcasters. 

NAMEPLATE POLISHING advertising which seeks to glorify the advertiser 
rather than make sales. 

NBC National Broadcasting Company. 

NETWORK multiple radio stations linked by land (wire) lines. (1) COAST- 
xo-CoAST NETWORK a group of stations covering the whole or greater part 
of the United States. (2) REGIONAL NETWORK One covering a definite 
segment of the country. (3) SPLIT NETWORK Selected stations of a net 
work used to meet specific distribution problems. 

NIELSEN RADIO INDEX a reporting service for broadcasters and advertisers 
based on the use of the Audimeter. Operated by the A. C. Nielsen Co., this 
service regularly reports program ratings, trends, and the amount and dis 
tribution of radio listening by periods of the day. 

N.O.A.B. National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, the central outdoor service 
department for member advertising agencies. 

O.A.A.A. Outdoor Advertising Association of America, made up of poster 
plant owners. 

O.A.I. Outdoor Advertising, Incorporated, the national sales representative 
of the plant owners. 

OFFSET (1) A lithographic printing process by which the impression is 
transferred to a rubber blanket before being imprinted on the paper. (2) 
The smudging of a freshly printed page on an accompanying page. 

OLD STYLE in printing, as differentiated from modern type. Modern has 
sharp contrasts in its strokes, horizontal or vertical serifs. Old style has 
shaded differences in its strokes and generally has oblique serifs. Also, a 
common name for the lighter member of a family of types. 

ONE SHOT a single ad or program which is not one of a series. 

ON THE BOARD artwork which already has been started. 

ON THE NOSE a program that ends exactly on the planned second. 

OPEN COLD to open a radio program without theme, or musical introduction 
or background, or even without rehearsal. 

ORIGINATE to broadcast from a specific location. 

OUTLET (1) A dealer. (2) A radio station which puts the program on the air. 

P.A. "Public address," an intramural loudspeaker wire system, used in stu 
dios, halls, battleships, parks, airports, and industrial plants. 

PACKAGE a special program or series of programs bought by an advertiser 
(usually for a lump sum), which includes all components, all ready-to-broad 

PAINTED BULLETIN an outdoor structure on which an advertisement is re 
produced in paint. The standard size is 42 feet long by 14}^ feet high. 

PATTERN typical advertisement serving as model for future ads in a cam 
paign. Also a printing plate from which duplicates can be made. 

PENCIL artist's outline for a drawing, sometimes submitted to an advertiser 
to permit changes before finishing. 

PICA printing measurement : approximately 6 picas equal one inch. 


PLANT the structures for carrying outdoor advertising in a given market. 

PLAYBACK the playing of a recording for audition or reference purposes after 
it is made. 

POINT; pt. in printing, the standard unit of type measurement. A point is 
1/72 of an inch in depth. In paper, a unit for measurement of paper thick 
ness. Here a point is 1/1000 of an inch. 

POSTER SHOWING the unit of sale established by the local poster plant, vary 
ing in number of panels from city to city. An advertiser may contract for 
a "full showing," a "half showing," etc. 

P.P.A. Periodical Publishers' Association. 

PRESENTATION (pronounced pree-sent&tion) a portfolio, mailing-piece, film 
or speech intended to sell an advertising proposal. Also known as "the 

PRIVATE LABEL a product labeled and sold under the trade-mark of a whole 
saler or retailer as differentiated from a nationally advertised brand carry 
ing the trade-mark of the manufacturer. 

PROCESS PLATES (pronounced proh-cess) in photoengraving, plates used in 
color printing, each of which is used to print a separate color. The impres 
sions from 2, 3, or 4 plates are superimposed on each other to produce the 
final effect desired. 

PROCESS PRINTING letterpress color printing in which one color is printed 
over the other by means of a set of process plates. 

PRODUCER the individual, or impresario, or sponsor, or broadcaster, origi 
nating and presenting a program. 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT (1) The department of an advertising agency re 
sponsible for the mechanical production of an advertisement, dealing with 
printers and engravers. In some agencies it includes the copy and art de 
partments. (2) The department responsible for the proper broadcasting of 
a radio program. 

RECALL a test of advertising effectiveness in which subject is asked to re 
member an advertiser from an ad headline, campaign theme, or radio pro 
gram title. 

RECOGNIZED AGENCY an advertising agency which has been accepted by vari 
ous media or their associations as eligible to receive standard commission 
on the space it buys for advertisers. 

RED CARPET overly dignified radio show or magazine campaign without 
much mass appeal. 

RELEASE a publicity item; so called because it generally bears the date on 
which it may be "released" (published). Also a legal form signed by a 
model authorizing the advertiser to use signer's picture in ads. 

REP short for representative; a space or time solicitor. "General rep" 
solicitor handling several noncompeting newspapers or stations. 

REPEAT the second presentation of a regular studio program for those sta 
tions not served by the original broadcast, usually due to time differences. 

RETOUCHING the correction and improvement of photographs, usually by 


REVERSE PLATE in engraving, a line plate by which the background is printed, 
leaving lettering or design in the original color of the paper. Usually appear 
ing as white type or letters on a dark background. 

RIDE THE SHOWING in outdoor advertising, to visit various poster locations 
to check visibility, proper mounting and other factors. 

ROTOGRAVURE, or ROTO the method of intaglio printing in which the part to 
be printed is chemically etched out of a copper roller. 

ROUGH ROUGH preliminary sketches in planning an advertising layout. (See 

R.P.M. revolutions per minute, the speed at which a recorded program is 
played: for transcriptions, 33 ]/$ R.P.M. ; for phonograph records, 78 R.P.M. 

SALES PROMOTION any activity (except personal selling) designed to in 
crease a firm's volume of business. In some firms the sales promotion 
department is separated from media advertising and handles only market 
studies, inquiry follow-ups and sales department literature. 

SAMPLE ( 1 ) a segment of the market, the opinion, habits and tastes of which 
are taken as representative of all; (2) to distribute free packages of a man 
ufacturer's product. 

SCHEDULE an advertiser's list showing details of media to be used in a cam 


SEGUE pronounced seg-way. The transition from one musical theme to an 
other without a break or announcements. 

SELF-MAILER a direct-mail piece that requires no envelope but includes 
space for address and stamp on the piece itself. 

SHARE-OF-AUDIENCE the percent of listeners tuned to a given station (or 
program) based on the total of sets-in-use. 

SHELF-WARMER slow-moving item ; also known as a "sleeper." A number of 
such items may be called "cats and dogs." 

SHOWING the group of posters used to provide coverage in a market. 

SIGNAL when you hear a given station, you're hearing its signal. When you 
can see a station's television picture, you're seeing its signal. 

SIGNATURE the name of the advertiser, usually printed at the bottom of an 
advertisement. In radio, the identifying sound of music which introduces 
a particular program. 

SING to flow smoothly, inspiringly; applied to headlines and text as a super- 

SLUG a single line of type; also a standard element in an ad, such as the 
trade-mark or copyright line. 

SNEAK-IN to bring music in softly, behind the dialogue. 

SOAP OPERA a patronizing term loosely applied to popular daytime dramatic 
serial programs because the early sponsors of these programs were soap 

SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE also, foreign representative. An organization 
which represents a number of noncompetitive media in selling space out 
side their cities of publication or broadcasting. 


SPECTACULAR a large illuminated outdoor display often with some move 
ment, as a clock, flashing light, etc. 
SPLIT NETWORK in radio, two or more sections of a single national network 

each of which carries a different program. 
SPLIT RUN division of a newspaper or magazine printing into two or more 

press runs, enabling advertiser to test different copy appeals in same issue. 
SPONSOR one of the 50,000 or more advertisers in America who use radio to 

sell their products and services. 
SPOT BROADCASTING programs or announcements broadcast independently 

by individual radio stations. SPOTS the time locations selected for spot 

STAND BY a substitute program ready "in the wings" to go on the air in any 

emergency. Or, a command to performers to get ready to take the air. 
STAT (short for "photostat") inexpensive method of reproducing art or type 

matter, often used in layouts. 
STATION ANNOUNCEMENT the signature announcement which identifies the 

call letters, city and slogan of the station which is being listened to. 
STATION DIRECTOR the executive in charge of a broadcasting station. 
STEREO (stereotype) in printing, a duplicate metal plate made from a matrix. 

Newspapers are printed from stereotypes. 
STET in proofreading, "Let it stand." Generally used when a change has 

been indicated in a proof and it is decided to disregard the change. 
STOCK CUTS plates of illustrations used by several advertisers on a non 
exclusive basis to picture standard situations. 
STOPPER a striking headline or illustration, considered by its proud parent 

to be irresistible even to the casual reader. 
STRETCH to slow up the playing of musical numbers or the reading of script 

so that a show will finish exactly on time. 
STRIP group of illustrations in sequence, as in newspaper comics. Also, in 

reproduction, process of combining two or more units into finished ad. 
STUDIO in radio, a room for presenting broadcasts. Also, an organization 

producing commercial art and/ or photography. 
SURVEY investigation made to learn facts in advance of, or popular reaction 

after, a campaign. Also called "study." 
T.A.B. (Traffic Audit Bureau.) Organization representing A.N.A., A.A.A.A., 

and O.A.A.A. furnishing market data on outdoor advertising coverage. 
TAG in radio, a few bars of music at end of commercial, to supply transition 

to next part of program. Also the sign-off announcement. 
TEAR SHEET page torn from publication and sent to client as proof that ad 

has appeared. 

THROW IT AWAY to fade out or underplay radio dialogue. 
TIE-IN local ad or display appearing simultaneously with national campaign. 

Also, special sale offering two products at price below their combined price. 
TIGHT closely set text ; also a closely timed radio show. 
TILL-FORBID ; RUN T.F. an ad run by a publisher until he receives orders to 



TIME BUYER agency employee responsible for making the proper selection 
of radio coverage to meet the requirements of the advertiser. 

TOPPER advertising offer or product feature superior to competition. 

TRADE ADVERTISING product advertising to jobbers or retailers as differen 
tiated from advertisements directed to consumers. 

TRAFFIC (1) Number of people who pass a given poster location. (2) The 
expediting department in an agency. (3) The number of customers who 
enter a store. 

TRANSOM unsolicited business is said to come in "over the transom." 

TR. a proofreader's abbreviation : to transpose. 

TWENTY-FOUR SHEET the standard outdoor poster panel, of which the 
printed area is 19 ft. 8 in. long and 8 ft. 10 in. high. THREE SHEET a small 
poster panel, usually on the side of a store, printed area, 3 ft. 5 in. wide 
by 6 ft. 10 in. high. 

VIDEO electric currents or equipment associated with transmitting television 
pictures. Loosely used to refer to television. 

VISUAL quick layout made to indicate essential ad elements. Also a radio 
show presented before an audience. 

WARM UP the 3 or 5 minute period immediately preceding a broadcasting in 
which the announcer or star puts the studio audience in a receptive mood 
by amiably introducing the cast of the program, or discussing its problems. 

WASH a drawing made with diluted ink or tempera with varying shades of 

WIDOW short line at end of paragraph. A "widow" at the top of a column 
(sometimes called an "orphan") is considered particularly bad makeup. 

WRAP-UP completion of details of a campaign. 

YESTERDAY the date when most advertising copy, art work and plates are 
due. "Day before yesterday" indicating even greater rush. (See "exten 

ZILCH the standard name used to describe anyone who walks into a radio 
studio and whose name is not known. 

ZINC in photoengraving, a line plate made on zinc. 



AAAA, see American Association of Ad 
vertising Agencies 

A & P Stores, 138 

ABC Diaper Service, 282 

Abt, Henry E., 352 

Adams, James R., 174, 175 

Adams, Samuel Hopkins, 67 

Adcrafter, 353 

Adman's Language, 373-383 

Advertiser, The, 353 

Advertising, defined, 17; creative aspects, 
19 ; in radio, 21 ; negative side, 23 ; war 
bonds in World War II, 37; "trail 
blazer," 51; truthful, 65; consumer, 
73; appropriation, 95; agency, 103; 
department store, 129; promotion, 
132, 142; chain-store, 137; industrial, 
72, 144; intangibles, 153; postwar, 
156; women in, 176-178; newspaper, 
197; color, 206; direct-mail, 255; 
media, 265-283 ; products of, 287-294 ; 
how written, 295-307 ; art in, 308-314 ; 
photography, 314-315; hand lettering, 
316-320; duplicate plates, 324; jobs in, 
343-345; organizations of, 346-352; 
during World War II, 355-365; re 
conversion, 366-372 

Advertising, Goode, 39n 

Advertising Age, 108, 119, 120, 134, 140n, 
149n, 166, 175, 190n, 212n, 238n, 278, 

Advertising Agency, The, Keeler and 
Haase, 117n, 121 

"Advertising Agency Functions and 
Compensation," Advertising Age, 108 

Advertising & Selling, 166n, 168w, 231, 
347, 353 

Advertising Campaigns, Barton and 
Lichtenberg, 89n 

Advertising Copy, 295 

Advertising Council, 346, 347, 351, 371 

Advertising Distributors of America, 278 

Advertising Federation of America, 42, 
65, 66, 346-347, 373 

Advertising Fortnightly, 59, 353 

Advertising in Our Economy, 69n 

"Advertising Placed by Agencies in Busi 
ness Papers," 148, 149n 


Advertising Procedure, Kleppner, 11 On, 

183n, 253w, 373 
Advertising Research Foundation, 42, 

208, 251, 303, 347, 348, 349, 350 
Advertising Research Foundation, Inc., 

210n, 252n 
Advertising Specialty National Assn., 

The, 275 

Advertising to the Mass Market, 295 
Advertising Typographers of America, 

320, 352 
Aerocar, 59 
"Afro-American" group (newspapers) , 


Agnew, Prof. Hugh E., 246n, 248, 249n 
Agricultural Publishers Assn., 105, 348, 


Ahrens Publications, 151 
Air Express Co., 264 
Akron Beacon- Journal, 209 
Albert Frank- Guenther Law, 149 
Alden's (Chicago Mail Order Company), 

255, 315 

Aldrich, Winthrop W., 370 
Alexander Hamilton Institute, 89n 
Alka-Seltzer, 270 
All American Comics, 191 
Allen, E. C., 47, 48 
Allen, Fred, 216, 231 
Allen, John, 238 
All Flash Comics, 191 
AUis-Chalmers, 145, 167, 233 
"Aloha from the Islands," 226 
Altman's, 134 
Aluminum Company of America, 146, 

149, 273 
AM, 237 

American Academy of Art, 311 
American Agriculturist, 65 
American Airlines, 85 
American Association of Advertising, 109, 

American Association of Advertising 

Agencies, 42, 119, 123, 124, 126, 219, 

245, 303, 348, 349, 351, 352, 353, 358, 

371, 373 

American Bankers Assn., 154 
American Bicycle Co., 58 

.American Broadcasting Co. (ABC), 373 

American Exporter, 269 

American Farm Bureau Federation, 265 

American Federation of Advertising 
Clubs, 346 

American Federation of Radio Artists 

"American Heritage," 370 

American Heritage Foundation, 370 

American Highway Sign Assn., 352 

American Home, The, 159, 190 

American Home Foods, 336 

American Home Products, 85, 212, 222 

American Institute of Laundering, The, 

American Institute of Laundering Seal 
of Approval, The, 155 

American Journal of Nursing, The, 36* 

American Legion Magazine, 193 

American Locomotive, 145 

American Machinist, 151 

American Magazine, 170, 172, 185, 327 

American Management Assn., 288 

American-Marietta Co., 340 

American Marketing Assn., 334 

American Meat Institute, 156, 280 

American Museum, New York City, 33 

American National Bank and Trust Com 
pany of Chicago, 154 

American Newspaper Advertising Net 
work, 205, 206 

American Newspaper Directory, 40 

American Newspaper Publishers' Assn., 
105, 197, 352, 373 

American Newspaper Publishers' Asso 
ciation Bureau of Advertising, 197, 
209, 352 

American Press Assn., 198, 204 

American Red Cross, 366 

American Society of Composers, Authors 
and Publishers, 213, 373 

American Telephone and Telegraph Co., 
85, 213 

American Tobacco Co., 76, 86, 164, 165, 

American Trade Association Executives, 

American Type Founders, 320 

American Way of Life, The, Sokolsky, 
56, 64n 

American Weekly, 189, 194, 205 

American Wheelman, 58 

America's Future, Inc., 212 

Amplitude modulation, see AM 

ANA, see Association of National Adver 

Anderson, Sherwood, 344 

And Hearing Not: the Annals of an Ad 
man, Calkins, 170 

And So to Bedlam, Lyon, 344 

"Ann Page," 138 

Annual Advertising Awards, 162, 353 

Anthony, Edward, 186 

Appel, Joseph H., 67 

Arc Welding Machine Co., 339 

Architectural Concrete, 159 

Arens, Egmont, 294 

ARF, see Advertising Research Founda 

Armbruster's Orchestra, Robert, 158 

Armour & Co., 210 

Armstrong, Rolf, 275 

Armstrong Cork Co., 146 

Arney, C. E., 351 

Arons, David, 239 

Art Directors Annual, 308 

Art Directors Club, 308 

Art Institute, 178 

Art & Decoration, Warren, 308 

Art of Plain Talk, The, Flesch, 301 

Aspley, J. C., 264, 333 

Associated Advertising Clubs of the 
World, see Advertising Federation of 
America, 66, 346 

Associated Bill Posters, 243 

Associated Business Papers, 42, 105, 149, 
ISO, 348, 352 

Associated Publishers, Inc., 203 

Association of American Railroads, 156, 
160, 370 

Association of National Advertisers, 42, 
91, 169, 208, 217, 245, 251, 268, 273w, 
303, 348, 349, 351, 353, 358, 371, 372n, 
373, 382 

Association of National Advertisers, Inc., 

Association of National Advertisers Ra 
dio Council, 351 

Astor, J. Jacob, 31 

Atlanta, Ga., 205 

Atlanta Journal, 200 

Atlantic, 170, 185 

Atlantic Gasoline, 239 

Atlantic Monthly Press, 170w 

Atlantic Overseas (Time), 270 

Atlantic Refining Co., 239 

Auburn automobile, 59 

Audimeter, 221 

Audit Bureau of Circulations, 150, 182, 
219, 270, 271, 347, 350, 351, 353, 373 

Augusta, Me., 47, 48 

"Aunt Jenny," 223 

Aurora Dawn, Wouk, 22 

Automovil Americano, El, 151 

"Auto Shows," 59 



Awakening of Cupid, The, Perrault, 43 

Ayer, F. Wayland, 45, 46, 171, 173 

Ayer & Son, N. W., 37, 45, 61, 177, 239, 

Ayres & Co., L. S., 134 

Babbitt, B. T., 251 

Bab-O, 214, 278 

Baird Corp., Harry, 320 

Bakelite, 146 

Baker, George, 369 

Baker, Kenny, 229 

Baker's Cocoa, 278 

Ball, Max W., 24, 58 

Balmer, Thomas, 171 

Barclay, McClelland, 60 

Barkers, 25 

Barnes & Noble, 68n 

Barnum, C. P., 67 

Barnum, Phineas T., 32, 33, 36, 45, 123, 

242, 319 

Barton, Bruce, 89 
Basford Co., G. M., 149 
Bates, Charles Austin, 38, 45, 170, 171 
Bates, John, 114 
"Bat Man," 191 
Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne, 

Inc., 92, 114, 149, 167, 231 
Battle Creek, Mich., 55 
Battle Creek Sanitarium, 55 
Bayer Aspirin, 1 74 
Beatrice Creamery Co., 289 
"Beauty and a Song," 226 
Beautyrest Mattress, 78, 79 
Beech-Nut chewing gum, 170 
Bedell, Clyde, 295, 296, 297, 306, 307n 
Belding, Don, 348 
Bell, Alexander Graham, 51 
Bell, Rex, 243 

Bell System, The, 155, 260, 281, 282 
Bendix Aviation, 175 
Bendix Radio, 175 
Benny, Jack, 215 
Benson, John, 353 
Benton, William, 173, 344 
Bergdorf-Goodman, 134 
Berkowitz, Mortimer, 189 
Bertsch & Cooper, 320 
Better Business Bureau, 23, 67n, 347 
Better Homes and Gardens, 159, 182, 

189, 190, 298 
Betty Crocker Soups, 92 
Billingsley, Allen L., 148 
Bill of Rights, 370 
Birch, Frank, 250 
Birnie, William, 186 
Bisquick, 92 
Black Mask, 191 

Blair and Co., John, 236 

Blankenship, Dr. Albert B., 303, 304n 

Blatz Beer, 203 

Block, Martin, 229 

Blue Valley Butter, 289 

Bob Hope show, 49 

Boiardi, Chef Hector, 239 

"Boiler plate," 48 

Bok, Edward W., 186, 353 

Bolton, Frances Payne, 360 

Bolton Act, 360 

Bond Clothing, 139 

Bonner, Robert, 34 

Bonwit Teller, 340 

Boone, F. E., 165 

Boot and Shoe Recorder, 151 

Borden, Prof. Neil, 68, 69 

Borden Co., 86, 229, 333 

Borton, Elon G., 346 

Boston, Mass., 205, 250 

Boston and Maine Railroad, 162 

Boston Globe, 205 

Boston Herald-Traveler, 205 

Bostonian shoes, 139 

Boston News Letter, The, 29 

Boston Store (Milwaukee), 207 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, 233 

Bowles, Chester, 173, 344 

Boy Commandos, 191 

Boyd, William, 171 

BPIC, 268 

Bracken, Chuck, 311 

Bracken & Tyler, 311 

Bradley, Will, 308 

Brady's Photographic Gallery, 35 

Brand names, 73, 75, 78, 80, 138, 224, 232 

Brand Names Foundation, Inc., 75, 81, 


Branham Co., 236 
"Breakfast Club," 223 
"Breakfast in Hollywood," 223 
Brenlin Window Shades, 174 
Briardale Food Stores, 141 
Brillo, 290 
Bristol, Lee, 348 
Bristol-Myers, 86 
Britton, Pamela, 227 
Broadcast Measurement Bureau, 219, 

Broadsides, 259 
Brochures, defined, 260 
Brockway, Louis N., 348 
Bronx, N. Y., The, 244 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 244 
Brophy, Thomas D'Arcy, 348 
Brotherton, Nort, 174 
Brown, William S., 360 
Bruehl, Anton, 309 


Bryson, Lyman, 301 

Buchan Co., 149 

Buckley, Homer, 264 

Buckley-Dement, 58, 257 

Bull Durham Tobacco, 250 

Bullis, Harry A., 92 

Bulova Watch, 231 

Bundscho, Inc., J. M., 320 

Bureau of Research & Education, 346 

Bureau of Standards, 158 

Burn, Walter P., 129 

Burnett Co., Inc., Leo, 94, 156 

Burroughs Adding Machines, 340 

Business of Advertising, The, 170 

Business Publishers International Corp., 


Business the Civilizer, 170 
Business Week, 151, 159 
Butler Brothers, 47 
Butterick Co., 142n 
"Buy-Lines by Nancy Sasser," 28 
Byron, Lord George, 4 

Cadillac automobile, 60, 175 

Calhoun, E. H., 340 

Calkins, Earnest Elmo, 170, 171, 308, 

Calkins & Holden, 38, 116, 170, 353 

Calling All Kids, 191 

Camel Cigarettes, 71, 117, 164, 229 

Campbell-Ewald Co., 170, 270, 340 

Campbell Soup Co., 49, 86 

Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Inc., 114, 360 

Canaday, Ward, 174 

Canadian Home Journal, 270 

Cannon, Maureen, 227 

"Can You Top This?" 218 

Capp, Al, 301 

Capper Publications, 186 

Capper's Farmer, 265, 267 

Carey's Salt, 28, 290 

Carlton & Smith, 45 

Carstairs Distillers, 370 

Castoria, 49 

Caterpillar Tractor, 145 

Caxton, William, 26, 27 

Census of Manufacturers (1939), 181 

Central Manufacturers' Mutual ID' 
ance Co., 263 

Century, The, 41 

Chain Store Age, 279, 281 

Challenge and Opportunity for Adver 
tising Management, The, 372 

Champion Spark Plug, 175 

Chandler automobile, 59 

Chapman Store (Milwaukee), 134 

Chappelow agency, 174 

Charles, Prince, 27 

Charles II, 27 

Chase, Stuart, 355 

Chase National Bank, 370 

Chatelaine, 270 

Cheerioats, see Cheerios 

Cheerios, 56, 92, 278 

Chef Boy-Ar-Dee Quality Foods, Inc., 


Chen-Yu, 294 

Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, 91, 161 
Chesterfield Cigarettes, 71, 164 
Chevrolet automobile, 61, 175, 267, 331, 

Chicago, 111., 205, 228, 239, 248, 249, 251, 


Chicago Blade and Ledger, 48 
Chicago Cubs, 294 
Chicago Daily News, 189, 200 
Chicago Federated Adv. Club News, 


Chicago Sun, 232 
Chicago Times, 200, 202 
Chicago Tribune, 33, 189, 198, 199, 200, 

205, 207 

Chicago Women's Advertising Club, 176 
Chilton Co., 151 
"Chiquita Banana," 231 
Christian Herald, 192 
Christian Science Monitor, 192 
Chrysler, Walter P., 60 
Chrysler automobile, 60 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 205 
Cincinnati Times-Star, 210 
Cine-Mundial, 269 
CIO Steelworkers, 212, 368 
Circus Magazine, 283 
Civic Opera House, 208 
Clague, Stanley, 350 
Clapper, Olive, 368 
Clark, Evans, 368, 371 
Clark, Rene, 116,353 
Cleary,J.M., 174 
Cleveland Press, 42, 202 
Clough, Reginald, 353 
Coca-Cola, 203, 212, 241 
Cocks, Dorothy, 176 
Cole, Amedee; 296 
Cole Motor Car Co., 339 
Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co., 70, 85, 276, 


Collection for the Improvement of Hus 
bandry and Trade, A, 27 
College Comic Magazine Group, 204 
Collegiate Digest, 204 
Collier, Barren G., 251 
Collier's, 183, 185, 194, 260, 323, 327 
Collyer, Barbara, 176 
Colman, Ronald, 229 



"Color Advertising in Newspapers," 207n 

Color plates, in advertising, 323-324 

Colton Co., Wendell P., 161 

Columbia Broadcasting Co., 51, 213, 
214n, 235, 238, 373, 374 

Columbus, Ohio, 204 

Comfort, 48 

Comic books, 191, 224 

Comic Cavalcade, 191 

"Commercial Films 1947 Status," 272n, 

Committee for Economic Development, 

Committee on Improvement of Public 
Understanding of Our Economic Sys 
tem, 349 

Compton Advertising, 340 

Concrete Builder, The, 159 

Concrete for Railways, 159 

Coney Island, N. Y., 25 

Congratulations, 192 

Conover (model agency) , 314 

Constitution of U. S., 370 

Continuing Study of Transportation Ad 
vertising, Study No. 7, 252n 

Controlled Circulation Audit, 150 

Cooper, F. G., 308 

Cooperative Analysis of Broadcasting, 

Copy Testing, 303 

Corn Products' advertising, 311 

Cornay, Harold, 320 

Coronet, 185 

Cosmopolitan Magazine, 44, 185 

Council Looks Ahead, The, 366 

Country Gentleman, 160, 265, 266, 267, 

Covici-Friede, 295, 305n. 

Cowan, Inc., Louis G., 229 

Cowles, John, 195 

Cox, James M., 213 

Craig-Martin tooth paste, 69, 70 

Grain, George, 353 

Cramer, Leonard, 238 

Crane Co., 146 

Crawford, Nelson Antrim, 186 

Cream of Wheat, 28, 301 

Critchfield & Co., 175 

Criterion Service, 250 

Crockwell, Douglas, 309 

Crofts & Co., F. S., 328w 

Crosby, Bing, 217, 229 

Crosby, John, 231, 232 

Crossley, Archibald, 220 

Cro well-Collier publications, 42, 172, 

Cugat, Xavier, 228 

Curtis, Cyrus H. K., 65, 353 

Curtis Publishing Co., 42, 117, 141n, 164, 

212, 266, 331 
Cusack, Thomas, 242 

Daily Oklahoman, 210 

Dancer-Fitzgerald-Sample, Inc., 92 

Dartnell Corp., The, 333 

Davega, 139 

Davenport, Iowa, 246 

"David Harum," 222 

Day, Ben, 31,314,323,373 

Day, William L., 166 

Dayton Rubber Co., 149 

Deb ,136 

Declaration of Independence, 370 

Deep River Boys, 228 

DeForest, Lee, 51 

Delco, 340 

Dell Modern Group, 187 

DeLong Hook & Eye, 49 

Delta Co. (of Chicago), 282 

Denver, Col., 204 

Department Store Economist, 151 

Des Moines Register, 195, 205 

Des Moines Tribune, 195, 205 

DeSoto Division of Chrysler, 67 

Detective Comics, 191 

Detroit, Mich., 205, 251 

Detroit Advertising Club, 353 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Co., 340 

Deutsch & Shea, 202 

Dever, Edward J., Jr., 89w 

Diamant, E. M., 320 

Diamond Match Co., 274 

Dickens, Robert Sidney, 294 

"Dick Tracy," 57, 224 

Direct Advertising, 260 

Direct Mail Advertising Assn., 264, 352 

Distillers' Corp. (Seagram), 86 

DMAA, see Direct Mail Advertising 


Dobbs, Samuel C., 66 
Dobbs Hats, 170 


Dodge Brothers, 60 
Dodge Truck, 267 
Dohanos, Stevan, 309 
Domestic Radio Bureau, 366 
Don Lee Network, 236 
Donnelley Corp., Reuben H., 257, 277, 
Dorothy Gray, Ltd., 176 
Dorsey, Tommy, 229 
Douglas, W. L., 139 
Dow Chemical Co., 175 
Downtown Shopping News, Chicago, 208 
Drake, Alexander, 41 
Drake, Galen, 233 


Drake, George, 296 

Drake & Co., Frederic J., 312 

Dreft, 90, 278 

DuMont, 238 

Dun and Bradstreet, 257 

DuPont, 146, 270 

Durant automobile, 59 

Durante, Jimmy, 18, 176 

Durstine Agency, Roy S., 253 

Dutton & Go., E. P., 342 

Duz, 90, 278 

Eagles, 193 

Eastman Kodak, 49, 269, 362 

Easy Aces, 229 

Ebony, 283 

Eby, Kermit, 368 

Echo Park Evangelical Assn., 234 

Economic Effects of Advertising, The, 

Eddy, Nelson, 158 

Edison, Thomas A., 42, 46, 51 

Editor & Publisher, 353 

Edmundson, Carolyn, 309 

Edwards, C.M., 13 In 

Egan, Margaret, 176 

Egner, Frank, 264 

Electrical Equipment, ISO 

Electrical Industries Advertising Pro 
gram, 157 

Electrical Merchandising, 151 

"Electric Hour, The," 158 

"Elijah's Manna," 55. See also Post 

Elks Lodge, 193 

El Paso, Tex., 204 

Elvgren, Gil, 275 

Emancipation Proclamation, 370 

Encyclopedia Britannica, 34n 

"Engineer Analyzes Industrial Advertis 
ing, An," 144w 

Engineering News-Record, 151 

Epstein, Joseph, 340 

Equitable Life Assurance Society, 212 

Esquire, 185, 195 

Esty & Co., William, 114, 117 

Ethridge, George, 171 

"Evaluating Research Activities," Olsen, 

Evans, Bob, 311 

Evans, Evan Llewellyn, 166 

Evans Associates, 149 

Evansville, Ind., 204 

Eversharp, Inc., 86, 128, 229 

Every woman's, 186 

Ewald, Henry, 173, 174, 340, 353 

Export Advertising Agency, 270 

Export Advertising Assn., 352 
Export Information Bureau, 349 
Extension, 192 

Factory Management and Maintenance, 

"Facts in Food and Grocery Distribu 
tion," 142w 

Falk, Alfred T., 346 

Falls, C. B., 308 

Family Circle, 186 

Farmer, The, 267 

Farmer's Wife, 265 

Farm Journal, 65, 265 

Farrar & Rinehart, 56, 64n 

Farrell, Harry, 294 

Farrell, Skip, 227 

"Father Standfield," 22 

"Favorite Story," 229 

Fawcett, Walter, 171, 185 

Fawcett Women's Group, 187 

Fazenda, A, 269 

Feasley, Milton, 100 

Feather, William, 260, 302 

Federal Communications Commission, 

Federal Trade Commission, 42, 68, 165, 

Federal War Loan advertising (Civil 
War), 37 

Fellers, Bobby, 339 

Fenton, Fleur, 176 

Ferro Enamel, 149 

FHA Title 1, 154 

Fibber McGee and Molly, 75, 163, 217 

Field and Stream, 192 

"Fifty Direct Mail Leaders of 19 ," 


Fight for Truth in Advertising, The, Ken- 
ner, 67 n 

Financial Advertisers Assn., 153, 154, 155, 

First Presbyterian Church of Seattle, 234 

"First Three Markets Group," 205 

Fishback, Margaret, 296 

Fisher, J. W., Jr., 281 

Fisher Body, 60, 61 

Fisher Building (Detroit), 175 

Fitch, Clyde, 170 

Fitzgerald Advertising Agency, 340 

Fitzgibbon, Bernice, 176 

Flagg, James Montgomery, 308 

Flesch, Dr. Rudolph, 300, 301 ; readabil 
ity scale, 300, 301 ; score, 302 

Flinner, Jean, 360 

Florida Citrus Commission, 212, 280 

Florsheim shoes, 139 

Flushing, N. Y., 244 



FM, 235, 237 

Food Mart News, 280 

Food Topics, 184n, 280, 281 

Food Trade News, 280 

Foote, Cone & Belding, 137 

Force Breakfast Food, 171 

Ford, Henry, 51, 61 

Ford, Henry, II, 124 

Ford Motor Co., 60, 61, 86, 124, 175, 267, 
273, 331 

Ford Sunday Evening Hour, 233 

Foreman & Clark, 139 

Forhan's Tooth Paste, 70 

"For Members Only," 226 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla., 205 

Fortune Magazine, 333 

Fort Worth, Texas, 204 

45th Street (New York, N. Y.), 249 

44th Street (New York, N. Y.), 249 

42nd Street (New York, N. Y.), 25 

Forty Years an Advertising Agent, Row- 
ell, 37, 40n, 47w 

Foulds Macaroni, 340 

Fourdrinier paper-making machine, 31 

Fowler, Nathaniel C., 45 

Fox, , 39 

Franklin, Benjamin, 30 

Franklin, James, 30 

Franklin automobile, 59 

Frazer,J.K.,49, 124 

Frazer's "Spotless Town" jingles, 49 

Free and Peters, 236 

"Freedom Train," 370 

Frequency modulation, 237. See also 

Fresno Bee, 200 

Frieberg, Albert D., 303, 304 

Frigidaire, 28, 172 

From War to Peace the New Challenge 
to Business & Advertising, 367 

"Front Page Farrell," 222 

Frozen Foods Institute, 124 

Fruit, Garden and Home, 190 

Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc., 148, 149 

Fulton, Kenvin, 242 

Fulton, Robert, 31, 51 

Funny Stuff ', 191 

Gair's, Redlands, Cal., 73 

Gale, S. C., 92, 93 

Gallup, Dr. George, 368 

Gamble, Frederick R., 348 

Gardner Advertising Co., 176, 195 

General Electric Co., 51, 86, 145, 172, 

General Foods, 56, 85, 212, 222, 250, 276, 

348, 362 

General Milk, Inc., 28, 56, 76, 85, 92, 93, 

212, 222, 224, 290 

General Motors, 60, 61, 85, 175, 270 
General Outdoor Advertising Co., 250 
General Screen Advertising Co., 272 
George Ethridge Co., The, 38 
"George Washington Hill as I Knew 

Him," 166n 

Georgia Power Co., 339 
Gerlach-Barklow, 275 
Getchell, J. Sterling, 60, 167, 168, 195 
Geyer, Cornell & Newell, 174 
Geyer, Newell & Ganger, 117, 176 
Gibson, Paul, 233 
"GI Insurance," 369w 
Gilbert, Gene, 343 
Gill, Sam, 329 
Gillam, Manly, 170 
"Gillam-Wanamaker style, the," 170 
Gillette, King C., 52 
Gillette Blue Blades, 53 
Gillette razor, 52, 269 
Gilliland-Ranseen- Wesley & Ragan, Inc., 


Gilpatric, Guy, 344 
Gimbel's Dept. Store, 176, 239 
Girl Scouts, 368 
Glim, Aesop, 295, 300 
Glo, 290 

Godey's Lady's Book, 43, 193 
Gold medal award, 353 
Gold Medal Flour, 92 
Golenpaul, Dan, 114 
Goode, Kenneth M., 38, 39n, 295 
Good Housekeeping Institute, 186 
Good Housekeeping Magazine, 28, 65, 

118, 182, 186, 194, 377 
"Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval," 

65, 186 

Goodman, Jack, 367w 
"Good Morning Show," 226 
Goodrich, B. F., Co., 146 
Goodyear India Rubber Co., 169 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 33, 146, 


Gordon, Lewis F., 153 
Gordon Best Co., 176, 239 
Goshorn, Clarence, 173w 
Gould, Beatrice, 186 
Gould, Bruce, 186 
Graduate School of Banking, 154 
Graduate School of Business Adminis 
tration (Harvard), 68 
Grady, May Laing, 155 
Graf's (Milwaukee), 203 
Grant Co., W. T., 139 
Grape-Nuts, 55 
Grape-Nuts Wheat Meal, 276 


Graphic Arts Victory Committee, 366 

Gray, Barry, 229 

"Greatest Name in Rubber," 33 

"Greatest Show on Earth, The," 33 

Greatest Story Ever Told, The, 233 

"Great White Way," 94, 249 

Green, James, 320 

Green, Ruzzie, 309 

Green Hornet, 191 

Grey Advertising Agency, 176 

Griswold-Eshleman, 149 

Grit, 48 

Grocer-Graphic, 280 

Grocers' Wholesale Cooperative, Inc., 

Grocery Executives and Grocery Man 
agers Combination, 279 

Grove Laboratories, 229 

Gruen Watches, 174 

Gude, O. J., 242 

Gum Laboratories, 212 

Gutenberg, Johannes, 26 

Haase, Albert E., 117w, 347 

Haire Publishing Co., 151 

Hall, Pres. Joseph B., 184 

Handbook of Advertising, Weiss, Ken 
dall and Larrabee, lS2n 

Hannibal, Mo., 250 

Harding, Pres. Warren G., 213 

Harn, Orlando C., 67, 351, 353 

Harper & Brothers, 112n, 117n, 288, 295, 

Harper's Bazaar, 43, 136, 185, 193, 303, 

Harvard Award, 170, 176, 353 

Harvard University, 29 

Harvard University Press, 38n, 46n, 33 In 

Harvey Comics, 191 

Haver, June, 227 

Hawk, Bob, 229 

Haynes automobile, 59 

Hearst Advertising Service, 205 

Hearst newspapers, 189, 204, 205, 206 

Heinemann's, Jonesboro, Ark., 227 

Heinz Co., H. J., 28, 114, 170, 241, 250 

Henderson, Jean, 360 

Henrietta Maria, Princess, 27 

Henry, Robert Selph, 24n 

Hercules Powder, 149 

Herpicide, 49 

Heth, Joice, 32 

Highways, 159 

Hill, George Washington, 90, 164, 165, 
166, 344 

Hill, Percival S., 164 

Hiller, Lejaren, 314 

Hillman Women's Group, 187 

History and Development of Advertis 
ing, Presbrey, 30n, 46n 

History of an Advertising Agency: N. 
W. Ayer & Son at Work, 1869-1939, 
The, Hower, 38, 46n, 331w 

"Hit the Road," 150 

Hobby, Oveta, 360 

Hobler, Atherton W., 173w 

Hoffman, Paul, 371 

Hoke, Henry, 264 

Holden, Ralph, 170 

Holiday, 117,312,340 

Hollywood, Cal., 368 

Holmes (store) , New Orleans, La., 134 

Honolulu Advertiser, 201 

Hooper, C. E., Inc., 220, 221, 222, 377 

Hooper, John L., 36 

"Hooperating," 220, 374 

Hoover, Herbert, 212 

Hoover Co., 94 

Hope, Bob, 75, 163, 215 

Hopkins, Claude, 45, 87, 112, 296 

Hormel, 28 

Horn, Stanley F., 24w 

Hostess Cup Cakes, 210 

Hotchkiss, Prof. G. B., 49n, 97, 129w, 236, 
252, 295, 353n 

Houghton, John, 27 

House & Garden, 190 

House Beautiful, 190 

Household, 186 

Household Finance Co., 212 

Houston, Herbert S., 67 

Houston, Texas, 204 

How Advertising is Written and Why, 
295, 300w 

Howard, W. H., 131w 

"How Do You Stand on Sin?" 329w 

Hower, Ralph M., 37, 38n, 46n, 33 In 

"How Hill Lifted Lucky Sales," Hughes, 

"How Some Advertisers Guide Agency 
Solicitations," Dever, 89 

How to Become an Advertising Man, 
Lewis, 174 

How to Conduct Consumer and Opinion 
Research, 303 

How to Determine the Advertising Ap 
propriation, 98n 

How to Get a Job and Win Success in 
Advertising, Lowen and Watson, 338n, 

How to Package for Profit, Larrabee, 

"How to Pre- value an Ad Before It Ap 
pears in Print," 307 

How to Write Advertising That Sells, 
Bedell, 295, 296n, 307n 



Hubbard, Elbert, 68n 
Hucksters, The, Wakeman, 166 
Hudson, Store, J. L., 134 
Hughes, Lawrence, 166 
Human Enterprise, The, Otto, 328n 
Hunter Screenland Unit, 187 
Hunting and Fishing, 192 
Hupmobile, 59 
Husing, Ted, 229 

Ice Cream Manufacturers, 280 

Ice Industries, 280 

Idaho, 236 

Ideal Women's Group, 187 

Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 281 

Illinois Central Railroad, 162 

Illinois Department of Highways, ISt 

Independent Grocer, Report No. 2, The, 

Indianapolis, Ind., 204 

Indianapolis News, 209, 351 

Indianapolis Star, 70, 339 

Indianapolis Times, 206, 207 

Indiana University, 175 

"Industrial Advertising Budgets for 

1946," 145n 

Industrial Equipment News, 150 
Industrial Marketing, 144n, 148n, 149n, 

152w, 353 

"Information Please," 114 
Ingersoll, William H., 67 
Ingersoll Watch, 170 
Institute of Life Insurance, 370 
Institution Premium Book, 276 
Intaglio Printing, 326 
Intermountain Network, 236 
International Advertising Council, 346 
International Bill Posters' Association of 

North America, 242 
International Correspondence Schools, 


International Harvester Co., 94 
International True Story Group, 269 
Interstate Commerce Commission, 42 
Interstate United Newspapers, Inc., 203 
Intertype, 43 
lodent, 70 

Iowa State Automobile Dealer Assn., 151 
Ipana, 70, 269 
Iron Age, 151 
Ivory Flakes, 90 
Ivory Soap, 43, 49 

"Jack Armstrong," 56 
Jacobs Launderall, 175 
James, Clifford L., 68n 
Jefferson, Pres. Thomas, 32 
Jersey Cereal Co., 276 

Jewish Daily Forward, 271 

Joe Palooka, 191 

John, W. A. P., "Wap," 174, 175 

John & Adams, 149 

Johns-Manville, 146 

Johnson, George H., 155 

Johnson, Holgar J., 370 

Johnson, Meade, 291 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 29, 63 

Johnson & Son., Inc., S. C., 216 

Johnson's Wax, 163, 217 

Jones, E. Willis, 294 

Jonesboro, Ark., 227 

Jordan, Edward S., 59 

Jordan, Marian and Jim, 163, 216, 217 

Jordan Motor Car, 59, 60 

Jordan Playboy, 60 

Joseph, John J., 155, 156 

Joseph Jacobs Organization, 271 

Joske's Department Store, 225, 226, 227, 


Journal General d' Affiches, Le, 26 
Judd, Orange, 65 
Junior Bazaar, 193 
Just Like a Woman! Kidd, 177 
"Just Plain Bill," 222 

Kaiser and Frazer, 61, 124 

Kansas City Journal, 43 

Karney, Beulah, 233 

Karsh, Yousef , 309 

"Kate Smith Speaks," 223 

Katz, Joe, 296 

Katz Agency, 201 

Kaufman's Department Store, 210 

Kay, Inc., J. Roland, 270 

Kaye, Sammy, 228 

Kaylin, Edward, 135n 

KDKA, Pittsburgh, 213 

Keeler, Floyd Y., 11 7 

Kellogg, Dr. J.H., 55, 57 

Kellogg, W. K., 55 

Kellogg Co., 86, 212,278 

Kellogg Group of Railroad Employee 

Publications, 193 
Kelly, Philip, 370 
Kelly-Springfield Tires, 167 
Kelvinator, 267 

Kendall, Frederick C., I52n, 353 
Kenner, H. J., 67 
Kent, Rockwell, 309 
Kenyon, Otis, 251, 339 
Kenyon & Eckhardt, Inc., 114, 251, 339, 


Keppler, Victor, 309 
Kesner, Robert T., 336, 337 
Kettering, Charles F., 336 
Keystone Broadcasting System, 236 

KFQD, Anchorage, Alaska, 236 

KFSG, Los Angeles, 234 

Kidd, Mrs. Elizabeth, "Bj," 177, 178 

Kidd, Harry, 178 

Kildow, Fred, 204 

King, Wayne, 229 

Kissam & Allen, 242 

Kix, 56, 92 

Kleiser, George, 243 

Kleppner, Otto, llOn, 183n, 252, 373 

Kling, LeRoy, 239 

Knox College, 170 

Knox Reeves Advertising, Inc., 92, 303 

Knoxville, Tenn., 204 

Kobak, Edgar, 339 

Koch's List of Railroad Magazines, 193 

Kolynos Tooth Paste, 69, 70 

KONO, San Antonio, 225 

KPOF, Denver, 234 

Kraft, 217 

"Kraft Music Hall," 217, 229 

Kresge Co., S. S., 139 

Kroger Co., 128, 184 

Krupa, Gene, 231 

KTW, Seattle, 234 

Kudner, Arthur, 156 

Lackawanna Railroad, 49 

Ladies' Home Journal, 44, 65, 111, 177, 

182, 186, 194, 270, 282, 353, 361 
La Hacienda, 269 
La Hacienda Co., 269 
Laird, Dr. Donald E., 108 
Lakeside Press, 320 
Lamb, Fred, 308 
Land o' Lakes, 210 
Landry, Robert J., 24, 212, 223 
Lane Bryant, 139 
La Prensa, 271 
La Presse, 270 
La Revue Municipale, 270 
LaRoche, Chester, 353 
Larrabee, C. B., I52n, 288, 293 
Larrowe Feeds, 92 
Latzke, Paul, 56 

Laundry owners National Assn., 156 
Lazarsfeld and Field, 232 
Leading National Advertisers, 194, 354 
"Leading Radio Advertisers, 1946," 212 
Leatherneck, The, 193 
Lebret, R. C., 270 
Lee, Doris, 308 
Leigh, Douglas, 249 
Lennen & Mitchell, 167 
Lennen, Phil, 200 
L'&ptdcr, 270 

Lever Brothers Co., 85, 163, 250, 270, 278 
Levitt-Ferguson Co., 263 

Lewis & Gilman, 177 

Lewis, Fulton, Jr., 226 

Lewis, Norman, 173, 174 

Lewis, Thomas H. A., 114 

Leyindechers, the, 308 

Libbey-Owens-Ford, 149 

Liberty Magazine, 56, 64, 183, 184, 185 

Lichtenberg, Bernard, 89n 

Life, 128, 137, 146, 158, 182, 183, 184, 

193, 194, 195, 256, 270, 280, 282, 299 
Life Insurance Advertisers Assn., 352 
Life International, 270 
Liggett & Myers, 77, 86 
"Light of the World," 222 
Li'lAbner, 191,301 
Lillard, W. Parlin, 276 
Lillibridge, Ray, 100 
Lincoln automobile, 175, 331 
Lind, Jenny, 33 
Linder, Ralph F., 142n 
Lindquist, Robert, 154 
Link, Barney, 242 
Link, Dr. H. C., 304 
Linotype machine, 43 
Lionel Corp., 184 
Listerine, 70, 100 
Lithographers National Assn., 352 
Lithography, 325-326 
"Little Announcements," see Petit es Af- 

fiches, Les 
"Little Dramas in the Life of a Great 

Newspaper System," 200 
"Little Orphan Annie," 198 
Locomobile, 59 
Loewy, Raymond, 294 
Logotype, 76, 135 
Loh, Lester, 117 
London Gazette, 27 
London Times, 31 
"Lone Ranger, The," 224 
Look Magazine, 183, 195 
Loomis, Andrew, 254 
Lopez, Vincent, 228, 231 
Lord & Taylor, 40, 176 
Lord & Thomas, 167, 174 
Los Angeles, Cal., 205, 246, 249 
Los Angeles Times, 189, 205 
Louder Please! 170 
Louis, Jack, 163 
Lowen, Walter, 338w, 341, 342 
Lowitz, Anson C., 360 
Loyal Order of Moose, 193 
Lucas, D. B., 350 
Luckenbill, Tom, 114 
Luckman, Charles, 163 
Lucky Strike Cigarettes, 71, 90, 114, 164, 

165, 231 
Lucky Strike Show, 215 



Ludekins, Fred, 311 
Ludlow machine, 43 
Lyon, Margaret, 344 

Macbeth lamp chimneys, 45 

McCall Corp., 42 

McC all's, 170, 186, 194 

McCann-Erickson, Inc., 117, 129, 149 

McCarthy, Charley, 221 

McClatchy Newspapers, 200 

McClintock, Dr. Miller, 245 

McClure, Don, 239 

McConnell, Smilin' Ed, 224 

McCreery's, 340 

McCurdy & Co., 227 

McDevitt Co., George A., 202 

Macfadden, Bernarr, 187 

Macfadden Women's Group, 42, 182, 

188, 301, 302n 
McGivena, Leo, 201 
McGraw, James H., 353 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 151, 268, 


McKee, Homer, 174,339 
McKesson & Robbins, 270 
McKinney, Henry, 330 
McKinsey & Co., 91, 94 
McKittrick's Directory of Advertisers, 

88, 354 

Maclean's Magazine, 270 
MacManus, John & Adams, 174, 175 
MacManus, Theodore F., 60, 149, 174, 


McQuiston, Jackson, 340 
Macy Department Store, R. H., 40, 128, 


Mademoiselle, 136, 193 
Magazine Advertising Bureau, 352 
Mailing cards, 260 
"Make Believe Ballroom," 229 
Mandel Brothers, 74 
Manhattan, N. Y., 244 
Mann, Harvey, 174 
Manville, Richard, 307 
Marchand's Hair Rinse, 252 
"March of Time," 194 
Marconi, Guglielmo, 51 
Market Data Book of Industrial Mar 
keting, 354 

Mark of Readable Style, 301 
Marmon Motor Car Co., 339 
Marschalk and Pratt, 238 
Marshall Field & Co., 128, 134, 137, 176, 


Martin, Mac, 67 
Martindale, Jim, 296 
"Masquerade," 222 
Massachusetts, 67 

Mathes, Inc., J. M., 114, 117 

Mathewson, Christy, 339 

Mathews Special Agency, Julius, 202 

Maxwell Arcade Bldg., 205 

Max well- Chalmers companies, 60 

May, Don, 312 

Mayer, Ed, 264 

Mayflower, the, 29 

Maytag Co., 362 

Mechanix Illustrated, 192 

"Meet Your Neighbor," 228 

Mellon Institute, 78 

Memphis, Tenn., 204 

Mennen, 270 

"Men of Gloucester," 273 

Merchant Marine, 359, 365 

Mercury Magazine, 27 

Mergenthaler, Ottmer, 43 

Metal Finishing, 150 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 85 

Metro Group Comics, 189 

Metropolitan Group Gravure, 189 

Metropolitan Opera, 233 

Mexico, 29 

Michigan Ave. (Chicago), 249 

Midwest Farm Paper Unit, 265, 267 

Miles Laboratories, 86 

Mili, Gjon, 309 

Miller, Judge Justin, 351 

Miller Beer, 203 

Miller & Co., C.L.,311 

Millis, Fred, 156 

Milwaukee, Wis., 48, 203, 251 

Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin, 48 

Milwaukee Journal, 42, 70, 202, 203, 207, 


Minneapolis, Minn., 48 
Minnesota State Automobile Dealer 

Assn., 151 

"Minute Movies," 272 
Miracle Whip, 217 
Miranda, Carmen, 231 
Mitchell-Faust Advertising Co., 340 
Modern Packaging, 353 
Modern Romances, 187 
Modern Screen, 187 
Modesto Bee, 200 
Moloney, Regan & Schmitt, 202 
Monotype machine, 43 
Montana State Automobile Dealer Assn., 


Monsanto Chemical, 146 
Montgomery Ward & Co., 47, 140, 338 
More Power to Advertising, Adams, 175 
"More Power to America," 273 
Morse, F. Harvey, 277 
Morse, Samuel, 51 
Mortimer, Charles G., Jr., 348 


Motion Picture, 187 

Motley, Arthur H., "Red," 171, 172, 173 

Movie Story, 187 

Motor Age, 151 

"Mrs. Warren," 48 

Munder, Norman T. A., 320 

Munro, Leslie, 176 

Murphy, John Allen, 151, 152 

"Musical Clock" program, 136 

"Musical Headliners," 226 

Mutt and Jeff ,191 

Mutual Broadcasting System, 221, 222, 

235, 236, 339, 378 
My Life in Advertising, Hopkins, 112n 

NAB, see National Association of Broad 

Nash, Ben, 294 

National Advertising Managers, 347. See 
also Association of National Adver 

National Association of Broadcasters, 
105, 219, 226, 228w, 230, 234, 351, 379 

National Association of Manufacturers, 

National Association of Retail Grocers, 
140, 141, 279 

National Association of Transportation 
Advertising, 352 

National Baptist, 45 

National Better Business Bureaus, 66, 68 

National Biscuit Co., 56, 57, 76 

National Broadcasting Co., 213, 221, 222, 
223, 228, 234n, 235, 379 

National Brotherhood Week, 368 

National Business Papers Assn., 149, 150, 

National Comics Group, 190 

National Confectioners Assn., 165 

National Council of Industrial Editors, 

National Council on Business Mail, 352 

National Dairy Products Co., 86 

National Geographic, 185 

National Geographic Society, 185 

National Grocers Bulletin, 279, 280, 281 

National Home Monthly, 270 

National Industrial Advertisers Assn., 
145n, 147, 149, 348, 352 

National Institute of Human Relations, 

National Lead Co., 351 

National Macaroni Manufacturers Assn., 

National Metallic Metals Act, The, 329 

National Nursing Council for War Serv 
ice, 360 

National Opinion Research Center, 232 

National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, 
106, 243, 379 

National Retail Dry Goods Assn., 135n, 
141w, 366 

National Retail Furniture Assn., 156 

National Roadside Council, 352 

National Scholastic Press Assn., 204 

National War Fund, 359 

Nation's Agriculture, 265 

NBC Program Policies and Working 
Manual, 233, 234w 

"NBC Thesaurus," 228 

Nebraska Farmer, 267 

Needham, Louis & Brorby, 163, 340 

Negro Newspaper Publishers Assn., 352 

Neiman-Marcus, 134 

Nelson, Donald M., 358 

Nevada, 236, 257 

Newark, N. J., 251 

Newell-Emmett Co., 230 

New England, 222 

New England Courant, 30 

New Haven, 161, 251 

New Horizons for Business Films, 273n 

New Idea Book for Food Merchants, 
Linder, ed., 142w 

New Orleans, La., 247 

New Orleans Item, 340 

"News at Nine," 226 

"Newscast," 226 

Newspaper Advertising Executives Assn., 

Newsreel, 194 

Newsweek, 159, 183, 185 

New York, 67, 244 

New York Advertiser, 31 

New York Central, 161 

New York City, 239 

New Yorker, The, 183, 185 

New York Herald Tribune, 35, 189, 232 

New York Journal- American, 207 

New York Ledger, 34, 35 

New York Mirror, 205, 305 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail 
road, 161 

New York News, 189, 201, 204, 205 

New York Subways Advertising Co., 352 

New York Sun, 31 

New York Times, 205 

New York Tribune, 35, 36, 

New York World, 43 

New York World-Telegram>%2 

Nichols-Shepard, 330 

Nickel Plate R. R., 161 

Niebuhr, Dr. Reinhold, 368 

Nielsen Co., A. C., 221, 333, 379 

Nielsen Radio Index, 221, 379 



"1946 Advertising Volume Greatest in 
U. S. History," Zeisel, 129n 

"1912 Quiz Kids, The," Lewis, 174n 

"94 Billions in Retail Sales in 1946," 
Burn, 129n 

Noble, Edward J., 235 

Norge, 340 

North Dakota State Automobile Dealer 
Assn., 151 

Northern Automotive Journal, 151 

Northwest Automotive Wholesalers As 
sociation, 151 

Notre Dame University, 175 

NRDGA, see National Retail Dry Goods 

Nunn-Bush shoes, 139 

N. W. Automotive Electrical Assn., 151 

Octagon and Kirkman Soap, 276 
Office of Price Administration, 300 
Office of War Information, 359, 364, 366, 


Ohio Bell Telephone Co., 155 
Oklahoma City Oklahoman and Times, 


Oldfield, Barney, 59 
Old Gold cigarettes, 270 
"Old Ranch Hand," 226 
Olds automobile, 59 
Oldsmobile, 175 
Olsen, Fred, 152 
Omaha World-Herald, 70, 202 
O'Mara & Ormsbee, 202 
O'Mealia, Harry, 243 
101 Roughs, 312 
"100-Study Summary, The Continuing 

Study of Newspaper Reading," 210n 
Oregon, 236 
Organization of the Advertising Function, 


Osborn, Scolaro & Meeker, 202 
Otto, M. C., 328 
Otto & Associates, Robert, 270 
Our Army, 193 
Our Navy, 193 
Oursler, Fulton, 64, 233 
Outdoor Advertising, Agnew, 246n, 247 
Outdoor Advertising Association of 

America, 106, 240w, 243, 245, 246n, 

247n, 250, 254,379,382 
Outdoor Life, 192 
Outdoors, 192 
Outdoorsmen, 192 
Outline of Advertising, An, Hotchkiss, 

49n, 253n 
Outlines of the Principles of Economics, 

Overbay, Arthur S., 320 

Overseas Buyers' Guide for Automotive 

Distributors, 268 
OWI, 340 
Oyster Bay, L. I., 30 

Pabst Beer, 203, 270 

Pacific Overseas (Time), 270 

Packaging Exposition, 288 

Paglin, Jules, 264 

Pal, George, 273 

Pall Mall Cigarettes, 164 

Palmer, Volney B., 36 

Palm of Alpha Tau Omega* The, 337 

Pan American-Grace, 269 

Paper Makers' Advertising Club, 260 

Parade, 172, 189 

Pardee, Harvey S., 144 

Parents' Magazine, 159, 182, 191 

Parker, Dr. Valerie Hopkins, 224 

Parker Pen, 114 

Parlin, Charles C., 331 

Parran, Dr. Thomas, 360 

Parrish, Maxfield, 275, 308 

Pathfinder, 183 

Patrick, Ted, 340 

Peabody, Stuart, 333, 348 

Pearl Harbor, H. I., 21 

Pearson, Earle, 346 

Pear's Soap, 49 

Peaslee & Co., 37 

Pekin, 111., 228 

Pellegrin, Frank E., 228n, 351 

Pennebaker, John Paul, 314 

Penney Co., J. C., 128, 139 

Pennoyer, Sara, 340 

Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Adver 
tiser, 30 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 85, 161, 340 

Permzoil, 100 

Penton Publishing Co., 151 

"People Look at Radio, The, 232 

Pepsi-Cola Co., 18, 203, 230, 231 

Pepsodent Tooth Paste, 49, 70 

Pepsodent Tooth Paste, program, 163, 

Periodical Publishers' Assn., 105, 352, 

Perkey, Henry D., 56 

Persons, H. C., 159 

Peru, S. A., 29 

Petites Affiches, Les, 26 

Pet Milk, 176, 215 

Petry, Lucille, 360 

Petry and Co., Edward, 236 

Pettingill & Co., S. M., 36 

Philadelphia, Pa., 205, 239 

Philadelphia Bulletin, 200, 205 

Philadelphia Centennial (1876), 46 


Philadelphia Inquirer, The, 172, 189, 205 

Philco, 184, 229, 269 

Philley, Clarence, 243 

Phillip Morris & Co., 86 

Phillips' Cleansing Cream, 298 

Phillips 66, 18, 70 

"Phoebe Snow," 49 

Photoengraving, 321-323 

Photographers Association of America, 

Photoplay, 187, 269 

Pickwick Papers, Dickens, 48 

Pictorial Review, 189, 205 

Picture, 195 

"Picture Magazines: 10 Years," 195n 

Pierce-Arrow automobile, 59 

Pillar of Fire, 234 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 204 

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 210 

"Planning and Budgeting a Bank's Ad 
vertising Program," 154 

Plymouth, Mass., 29 

Plymouth automobile, 331 

Plymouth Division of Chrysler, 167 

PM Whisky, 252 

Point of Purchase Advertising Institute, 
335 352 

Politz, Alfred, 251, 252 

Polly Pigtails, 191 

Pontiac automobile, 175 

Pope automobile, 59 

Popular Mechanics, 182, 192 

Popular Science, 192 

"Portia Faces Life," 222 

Portland Cement ASSIL, 158, 159, 160 

Post, Charles W., 55, 57 

Poster Advertising Assn., 243 

Poster Advertising Coverage, 240n, 246n, 

Post Toasties, 55, 290 

Postum, 55 

Power, 151 

Powers, John E., 44-45, 299, 314 

Prairie Farmer, 267 

Premium Advertising Association of 
America, 276, 352 

Premium Practice, 277, 353 

Prentice-Hall, Inc., HOw, 131, 338w, 

Presbrey, Frank, 30, 35, 42, 46, 49*f 

Presbrey, Mrs. Frank, 30, 46 

Pride Brothers, 267 

Principles of Advertising, Starch, 44 

Printed Salesmanship, 176 

Printers' Ink, 23, 36, 40n, 43, 57, 66, 
77n, 88, 89, 98, 99, 112, 129, 174, 
196n, 197, 211, 212, 223, 224, 240, 
243, 268, 291w, 307, 347, 352 

Printers' Ink Model Statute, 352 

Procter & Gamble, 43, 85, 90, 212, 214, 
222, 278 

Proetz, Mrs. Erma Perham, 176 

Progressive Farmer, 265, 267 

Progressive Grocer, 140, 142, 150, 279, 

"Prospecting for Petroleum," 273 

Prudential Insurance Co., 85, 362 

Pryor, Arthur, Jr., 114 

Psyching the Ads, 295, 305 

Psycho- Graph, 306 

Psychological Corporation of the Asso 
ciation of National Advertisers, 303 

Public Advisory Committee, 371 

Public crier, 25, 26 

Publick Occurrences both Foreign and 
Domestick, 29 

Public Utilities Advertising Assn., 352 

Publishers' Information Bureau, 94, 212 

Puck, 189, 205 

Puppetoons, 273 

Purdue Eye-Camera, 306 

Pure Food and Drugs Act, 65 

Pyes of Salisbury, The, 26 

Quaker Puffed Rice, 56 
Quaker Puffed Wheat, 56 
Quick Frozen Foods, 280 
Quinn, Don, 217 

Radio advertising, serials, 222, 224; men 
tioned, 226, 229. For radio programs, 
see individual listings 

Radio Alphabet, 373 

Radio Broadcast Magazine, 212 

Radio Corporation of America, 238 

Radio Mirror, 187 

Radio Rogues, 230 

"Radio Today," 214w, 215 

Railway Express, 253 

Raleigh Cigarette program, 215 

Ralston, 250, 290 

Rambeau, William G., 236 

Raphaelson, Samuel, 344 

Raymer, Paul, 236 

Raymond, Leonard, 264 

Reader's Digest, 21, 64, 196, 269 

"Reading by Types of Content," 209w 

"Real Concept of Advertising, A," Young, 

Redbook, 185, 281, 282, 283 

Red Cross, 357, 359 

Red Cross shoes, 174 

"Red Hot and Low Down," 229 

Redlands Daily Facts, 73 

Reed, Hazel, 176 

Rehearsal, 194 



Reinforced Concrete, 159 

Religious Press Assn., 46 

Remington Rand, S3 

Reporter, The, 353 

Reporter of Direct Mail Advertising, 
The, 263 

Report of 30th Annual Convention, 154 

Repplier, Theodore S., 368 

Resor, Stanley, 1 73 

Retail Advertising and Sales Promotion, 
Edwards and Howard, 130, 131n 

Retailing Home Furnishings, 79 

Revere Copper & Brass, 146 

Reydel, William, 348 

Reynolds, Franklin, 199 

Reynolds Metals Co., 289 

Reynolds Rocket, 199 

Reynolds Tobacco Co., R. J., 86 

Rheingold Beer, 315 

Rheinstrom, Carroll, 295, 305 

Richman Brothers, 139 

Richmond Advertising Service of Brook 
lyn, 204 

Rich's Department Store, Atlanta, 227 

"Rich's Radio School," 227 

Ridgway Co., 174 

Riggs,L.A. (Speed), 165 

Riggs, Robert, 309 

Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Circus, 

Rivers, Don, 342 

"Road of Anthracite, the," 49 

Robbins, Burr, 242 

Robbins, Harry, 67 

Robbins Publishing Company, 151 

Roche, Williams and Cleary, 159, 339 

Rocket pen, 199 

Rock Island Argus, 340 

Rockwell, Norman, 275 

Roden, Tex., 344 

Romer, John Irving, 66 

Ronald Press, 295, 303 

Roosevelt, Pres. Franklin D., 199 

Rosebrook, John, 296 

Rosenberg, Manuel, 353 

Ross, Albert, 174 

Rotarian, The, 193 

Rowell, George P., 36, 37, 39, 40, 47, 66, 

Ruberoid, 298 

Rubicam, Raymond, 337, 344, 353, 367 

Rudge, Edwin William, 320 

Rutgers University, 154 

Sachs Amateur Hour, Morris B., 227 
Sackett, DeForest, 294 
Sacramento, California, 247 
Sacrameto Bee, 200 

"Sad Sack," 369 

S. A. E. Journal, 151 

Safety Magazine, 159 

St. Louis, Mo., 48, 251 

St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 201 

Sales Management, 353 

Samples, Demonstrations and Packaging, 
Lewis, 174 

Sandburg, Carl, 344 

San Francisco, Calif., 205 

Santa Fe Railroad, 161 

Sapolio, 49 

Sarra, Valentino, 309 

Sasser, Nancy, 343 

Saturday Evening Post, The, 30, 53, 56n, 
117, 141, 146, 170, 182, 183, 184, 193, 
266, 270, 280, 282, 323 

Saturday Home Magazine, 205 

Savarin Coffee, 253 

Saw Bill Lodge, Tofte, Minn., 263 

Schenley Distillers, 86, 207 

Schipper& Black, 170 

Schlink, F. J., 53, 355 

Schlitz Beer, 28, 100, 203 

Scholastic Roto, 204 

Science and Mechanics, 192, 257 

Science Illustrated, 151 

Scientific American, 58 

Scientific Space Selection, 3Sln 

Scott, Howard, 254 

Screen Guide, 187 

Screen Romances, 187 

Scribner's Monthly, 41 

Scripps-Howard Newspapers, 200, 204, 
205, 206 

Seagram Distillers, 270 

Seamans (model agency), 314 

Sears, Richard W., 47 

Sears, Roebuck & Co., 47, 139, 140, 255, 

Seattle, Wash., 205 

"Second Mrs. Burton, The," 224 

Seeman Brothers, 278 

Selecciones del Reader's Digest, 269 

Self -Service Grocer, 280 

"Seneka Rattlesnake Root," 30 

Service Life Insurance, 369 

"Services Advertisers Expect from Agen 
cies," Dever, 112* 

Seventeen, 193 

7th Avenue, New York, N. Y., 249 

Shaver, Dorothy, 176 

Sheets, Frank T., 158 

Shefford Cheese, 216 

Shelby Cycle Co., 263 

Shell Oil Co., Inc., 146, 273 

Shepard, Otis, 254, 294 

Sherman & Marquette, Inc., 329 


Shinn, Cobb, 30 

Shishkin, Boris, 368 

"Shopping News," 208 

Shredded Ralston, 56 

Shredded Wheat, 56 

Shryock, James N., 351 

Siamese Twins, 33 

Sidener, Merle, 67 

Simmons, Grant, 80 

Simmons, Zalmon G., 78, 79 

Simmons Bed, 78 

Simmons-Boardman, 151 

Simmons Co., 78, 80 

Simmons Electronic Blanket, 79 

Simoniz, 270, 298 

Simplified Sales Promotion for Retailers, 

Kaylin and Wells, 135 
Sioux City, la., 48 
si quis, 26 

Sizer, Lawrence, 176 
Skelton, Red, 215 
Sloan, Albert, 344 
Sloan, Alfred P., 61, 333 
Smith, Everett R-, 187 
Smith, Capt. John, 29 
Smith, W. R. C., 151 
Smith Brothers, The, 29 
Snapp, Josephine, 176 
Society of American Florists, 156 
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 


Socony- Vacuum, 167 
Softasilk Cake Flour, 92 
Soil Cement News, 159 
Sokolsky, George, 56n, 64 
SOS, 290 

South Bend Tribune, 175 
South Dakota State Automobile Dealer 

Assn., 151 
SPAR, 360 
"Sparky," 239 
Spiegel's, 339 

Spitalny's All-Girl Orchestra, Phil, 158 
Sports Afield, 192 
Sportsman, The, 193 

"Spotless Town" jingles, see Frazer, J. K. 
Spur, The, 193 
Squibb's Dental Cream, 70 
Stahl, Ben, 308 
Standard Advertising Register, 88, 92, 


Standard Brands, 86, 278 
Standard Oil Company of Indiana, 94 
Standard Rate & Data Service, 40, 182, 

183, 189, 234, 235, 265, 354 
Stanford, Alfred, 197, 352 
Stapleford, Ed, 174 

Star Spangled Comics, 191 

Starch, Daniel A., 44w, 193, 272, 296 

Statler Hotels, 85 

Steichen, Edward, 314 

Stephenson, George, 51 

Sterling Drug Co., 85, 174, 212, 222 

Steve Canyon, 191 

Stevens Sundblom & Stults Studios, 311 

Stineway Drug Stores, 138 

Stoddard, Charles, 171 

Straube Piano Co., 175 

Street & Smith, 185, 193 

Structure of the Advertising Agency Bus 
iness, The, 109, 123w 

Stuart, Edwin H., 320 

Studebaker automobile, 61, 175, 184, 267, 

Study on the Organization of the Ad 
vertising Function, McKinsey & Co., 

Stults, Larry, 311 

Successful Farming, 265, 267 

Sullivan, Ed, 294 

Sunbeam Electric Shaver, 53 

Sundblom, Haddon, 254, 309 

"Sunny Jim," 56, 57 

"Sunset Strip" (Los Angeles), 249 

Superior Underwear, 174 

"Superman," 191, 222 

Super Market Merchandising, 280 

Super Suds, 304 

Sunn, Arthur, 117 

Survey of Buying Power by Sales Man 
agement, 354 

Sutter's Mill, 34 

Swan, Carroll J., 291w 

Swan Soap, 278 

Swift & Co., 28, 86, 280 

"Symphonic Hour," 138 

Taft-Hartley Labor Bill, 200 

"Take It or Leave It," 229 

Tall Corn Network, 236 

Tatler, The, 28, 29 

Teacher's College, Columbia University, 


Teel, 278 

"Teen Top Tunes," 226 
Tell, 353 

Tender Leaf Tea, 216 
Tennessee-Eastman Corp., 340 
Terry and the Pirates, 191 
"Terry and the Pirates," 222, 224 
Texas Company, The, 233 
"Texas Today," 226 
Textile World, 151 



"Thanks to the Yanks," 229 

Third Avenue (New York, N. Y.) , 251 

This Fascinating Lumber Business, Horn, 

This Fascinating Oil Business, Ball, 24n, 

This Fascinating Radio Business, Lan- 

dry, 24, 212n 
This Fascinating Railroad Business, 

Henry, 24 
This Week, 189 
Thomas, Harold B., 348 
Thomas, Lou, 296 
Thomas Publishing Co., 151 
Thompson, J. Walter, Co., 45, 149, 167, 


Thomson, Philip L., 67, 351, 353 
Thorne, George R., 47 
Thrilling Fiction Group, 191 
Thurston (model agency), 314 
Tide, 195n, 207n, 250n, 272n, 274n, 329, 

353, 369n 
Tiffany & Co., 44 
Time, Inc., 194 
Time Magazine, 119, 146, 158, 159, 160, 

161, 182, 183, 185, 194, 270, 353 
Times of India, 270 

Times Square (New York, N. Y.), 249 
Timmins, Harry, 311 
"Today's Children," 222 
Today's Woman, 186 
Tokyo Advertiser, 270 
"Tom Mix," 224 
"Tom Thumb, Gen.," 32 
Traffic Audit Bureau, 42, 245, 246, 347, 


Transfilm, Inc., 273 
Treidler, Adolph, 308 
Troy Times Record (N. Y.), 209 
True, 185 
True Comics, 191 
True Confessions, 187 
True Detective, 191 
True Experiences, 187 
True Love and Romance, 187. 
True Romance, 187, 269 
True Story, 187, 269 
Tucker automobile, 61 
Tune Twisters, 230 
Turner, Ulmer, 232 
Twentieth Century Fund, 368 
Twin City Garage Assn., 151 
Type specimens, 316-320 
Typographic Service, 320 

Uneeda Biscuits, 57, 76 
"Unfinished Rainbows," 273, 274 

Union Theological Seminary, 368 
United Advertising Corp., 250 
United Cigars, 166 
United Fruit Co., 231, 269 
United States News, 183, 185 
United Typothetae of America, 352 
Universal Instructor in AH the Arts and 

Sciences and Pennsylvania Gazette, 

The, 30 

University of Chicago, 174, 178 
University of Minnesota, 172, 204 
University of North Carolina Press, 232 
U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 

Commerce, 42 

U. S. Bureau of Standards, 42 
U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps, 360, 361, 362, 

363, 364, 365, 366 
U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps. Recruitment 

program, 359, 364 
U. S. Census Bureau, 42 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 42, 65, 

330, 331 
U. S. Department of Commerce, 42, 181, 


U. S. Department of Labor, 331 
U. S. Department of Treasury, 331 
U. S. Gypsum, 146 
U. S. Navy, 369 
U.S.O., 357 

U. S. Patent Office, 42, 76 
USPHS Wartime Information Division, 


U. S. Public Health Service, 360, 36S 
U. S. Rubber Co., 169, 340 
U. S. Rubber Export Co., 270 
U. S. Steel Corp., 146 
U. S. Traveling Ads, 253 

Veterans' Administration, 369 

Vickery-Hill list, 48 

Vicks Chemical Co., 229 

Victor, div. of RCA, 51 

Vigilance Committees, 346 

Vinson, Chief Justice Fred, 333 

Vladimir & Co. ,270 

Vogel's Super Market, 228 

Vogue Magazine, 43, 136, 193, 195, 361 

Voice of Prophecy, 212 

"Vox Pop," 228 

WAC, 359, 360, 365 
Wakeman, Frederic, 166, 344 
Walgreen Drug Stores, 128, 138 
Walker (advertising agency), 236 
Wallace's Farmer & Iowa Homestead, 


Wanamaker, John, 44, 67, 170, 296 

War Advertising Council, 174, 254, 348, 

353, 356, 358, 359, 360, 362, 364, 365, 

366, 367, 368, 369, 370 
Ward, A. Montgomery, 47, 255 
Ward, Artemas, 251 
Ward, Ken, 296 
Ward Baking Co., 250 
"War of the Worlds," 221 
Warren, Franklin, 308 
Warren's Shoe Blacking jingles, 48 
Washburn- Crosby Co., Minneapolis, 56. 

See also General Mills 
Washington, Pres. George, 31, 66 
Watch Corporation of America, 274 
Waterman Pen Co., 270 
Watson, Lillian Eichler, 338n, 341n 
WAVE, 359, 360 
WAWZ, Karephath, N. J., 234 
WDLP, Panama City, 236 
WEAF, New York, N. Y., 213 
Webster, Mass., 158 
Weir, Walter, 296 
Weise, Otis, 186 
Weiss, E. B., 152 
Welch, Alf red C., 303 
Weld, Lyman, 340 
Welles, Orson, 221 
Wells, Alan A., 135* 
Wells, Sid, 117 
WENR, Chicago, 227 
Wesson Oil, 298 

West, Paul B., 347, 348, 353, 371 
Western Advertising, 353 
Western Auto Stores, 139 
Western Cartridge Co., 152 
Western Electric Co., 351 
Western Family, 186 
Western Livestock Journal, 267 
Western Newspaper Union, 48, 204 
Western Union, 278 
West-Holliday Company, 202 
Westinghouse Electric, 51, 145, 149, 340 
Wesup, Mrs. Elieda Van, 176 
Wetzel Brothers, 320 
Weyerhaeuser Lumber, 146 
"What a Good Package Should Do," 

Swan, 291w 
What Makes People Buy, Donald E. 

Laird, 108n 
What's New, 260 
Wheatena Corp., 362 
Wheaties, 56, 92, 290 
"When a Girl Marries," 222 
While You Were Gone, 367 
Whitehall Pharmacal, 222 
White House, 370 

Whiteman, Paul, 229 
Whitney, Eli, 31, 51 
Wickenden, Elmira, 360 
Wieboldt's (Chicago), 136 
Wiers, Charles R., 264 

Wilding, ,273 

Wildroot, 229 
Wiley, Dr. Harvey W., 65 
Wilfred Funk, Inc., 299 
Willard, A. B., Jr., 351 
Williams College, 164 
Williamsport, Pa., 48 
Willys automobile, 267 
Wilmet, Georges, 294 
Winchell, Walter, 221 
WIND, Chicago, 227 
Wing, Helen, 340 

Winton, -, 58, 59 

Wisconsin Agriculturist & Farmer, 267 
Wisconsin State Automobile Dealer 

Assn., 151 

WNEW, New York, 229 
WNYC, New York City, N. Y., 234 
Woman, The, 186 
"Woman in White," 222 
Woman's Day, 138, 186, 305 
Woman's Home Companion, 170, 186, 


"Women's Forum," 208 
"Wonder Woman," 191 
Wood, Barry, 229 
Woodbury's Soap, 174 
Woodward, Inc., John B., 202 
Woolf, James Davis, 173, 174, 295 
Woolworth Co., F. W., 128, 139 
WOR, Newark, 236, 237 
World Broadcasting Co., 229 
World Petroleum, ISO 
World Report, 183 

"World's Greatest Newspaper, The," 33 
Wouk, Herman, 22 
WPTZ, Philadelphia, 239 
Wright, John Howie, 264 _ .. 
Wrigley's Chewing Gum, 241, 249, 251, 

278, 294 

WSN, Pekin, 111., 228 
Wump, Dr. S. J., 222 
Wyeth, N. C., 308 
Wyoming, 257 

Yachting, 193 

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., 146, 

149, 291 

Yankee Network, 236 
Yates, James, 117 
YMCA, 273 

INDEX 405 

Young, Frank, 311 Your Money's Worth, Chase and Schlink, 

Young, James Webb, 1 73, 348, 367 355 

Young, Robert R., 91, 161 Youth's Companion, 43 

Young, Thomas H., 168n, 169 

Young, Webb, 174 Zeisel, Dr. Hans, 129, 196, 197 

Young & Rubicam, 114, 340, 367 Zimmer-Keller, Inc., 92 

Your Career in Advertising, Rivers, 342 Ziv Co., Frederic W., 229