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 THOMAS CARLYLE. 
@) \\P\)'Ø\ 
G.K.CHESTERTON 
1 

 J.E.HODD

D WILLIAMS C' 
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Photographed by T. & R. A nnalJ 0- SOIJS. 
Reproduced by kind pel misswn of the 
Editor of" Britannia." 


..... 


THOMAS CARLYLE 


FROM THE PORTRAIT BY WILLIAM BARR 



THOM.Lf\.S 


CARL Yl.iE 


BY 


G. K. CHESTER1
ON 


AND 


J. E. HODDER WILl
IAMS 


WITH NU1\IEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS 


London 


HOI)OER L\ND STOU(;HTON 
27, Paternoster I
ow 
19 02 



, 


PRINTED BY 
HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD., 
LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 



LIST 


OF 


ILLUSTRA 1"'IONS 


PAGE 


l)OInHAIT OF 'l'HO
L-\S CAHLYLE 
TH<HL-\S CAHLYU:"S :\10THER . 
AucH HorSE, ECCLEFECHAX 
THE HO<BI AT AUCH HoesE I
 WHICH CAIU.YLE WAS Houx 


Front i.'ipit'l'C 


1 


Q 


2 


E(,CLEFE(,HA
, Dl"
IFlUESSHIUE 
::\L-\IXHILL FAlol 
HODD.UI HILL 


3 
4 
4 


THO
L-\S CAlu.n.E (from a Portrait by l\ladise) 5 
A })OUTIL\IT OF CAULYLE EXGHA VED HY F. CUOl.L FIHHI A DA<
eEUUEO'lTJ>I:<
 
BY BEAUD 6 
THmL-\S CAHLYLE (from a Sketch by Count D'Orsay) 7 
CAULYLE"s FIUST EDrXHrU(;H Lom:Ix<; IX SnlOx SQUARE 8 
1, .:\1oUAY STREET (XOW 
I)EY SntEET), LEITH 'VALK, EmXnntf;I1 9 
TH<mAS CAULYLE (from l)}lOtO) 10 
.:\1 us. CAlU.YU:"S BmTHPT..-\cE . 11 


THE H(wSE IX WHICH CARLYLE Lln:D WHILE FIltST rl\:A('HIXG AT KIUKCALDY 
SCHOOl. . 11 
SCOTSBUH; 1 
 
TE
Il)LAXD, XEAR THOltXHILJ., DDIFRlES
HmE. 12 
THmL-\S CARLYLE (from Painting by 'Vhistler) 13 
21, CO
IELY BANK. EmXIn-U<
H 14 
THO)L\S CAULlLF (frotH Sir J. E. Boehm"s :\1edallioll). 15 
TH<HL\S CAULYLE, AHOl"T 1
60 Hi 



l\Y 


LIST ()F ] LLUSTI1.A'rI()"XS 


PAGE 


THO\L\S CAHI.'! U:, IH6.3 
A\ POHTILUT OF ('AHI.YI.E TAKEX IX IH7!) 


FA('SDII LES OF C.\HI.YLl';'S S[(;XA"ITHE 


17 
18 
IK 
H) 
1!) 


('IL\J(;FXI'ITrOCK 


POHTIL\IT GIU)("1' TAKE' XI' KrHK('AI.DY 


TlJo:\L\S C.\HL'I I.E (from Sir .J. E. B()(']lIl1's Bust). 
C.\HI.YU:'s II 0 n"I'; AT ,j (XO\\ 
.J,). CUEYXE How, CUEI.S\-:.\ 
.L-\xl-: \YEI.SII C.\ H I.'! u: . 



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('OHXEH " Ih.\wlx(;-HOO\l AT Xo. 5. Cm,:yxE How 
'I'm.: GAHDE' AT 
o. 5, CHEYXE H(m . 
'l"IO
L-\s CAHI.YLE (from ])ra\\ inp; 1Il "Sartor Hl'sartus ") 
11Hs. L' \HI.YJ.E ABOIT IHG.J, 




 




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24 


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C.-\lu.n.I':'s GHAn: .-\'1' E(,(,I.EFEC'IL\X 



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)IHs. C \HL'I u:'s GHA\'E IX IL-\()()(x(;TOX CHI"IH'H 



6 


TH<nL-\s CAIU.YI.E (frotH 
ir .1. .E. 
lillais' Portrait) 
THE GHOl'XD-FI.OOH HOo:\lS AT 
o. 5, CrrEYXE How (1900) 
Tm.: G AIUlE'I' SlTDY AT CUEY
l': How (lH.37) 
TWHL-\S CAHI.YU:, .E'I'. 73 (frOlH Painting by G. F. "TaUs, ItA \.) 
TIlE S01"X\>-PIWO}<' 
'lTUY AT CHEYXE How IX I!JOO, SHOWIX(; TilE Donn.E 
"'.\LLS 
'1'111-: Kl'rnll-:x AT 
o. 5, ('m';YXE How (1 BOO) 
('.\P.I.YJ.I';'", \"IUTI,(:-lh:SK AX\> ('H.\m 


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T.-\'ITE OF C.-\HI.YU: (hy 
il' .J. E. Bodllll) 



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THO
IAS 


CARLYLE 


T IJEHE are fe,v eulti,"ated 
peoplc who do not pretend 
to ha'"c rcad :\11'. Leeky's " I [istory 
of ltationalislll in Europe." That 
'"ery able \\
ork co"ers the "'hole of 
one '"ery illlportant side of Illodern 
de,'eloplllent. But the pieture of 
the real progress, the real Jllental and 
nloral inlprO'"ClllelÜ of our species 
during the last few eenturies, will 
not be cOlnpletc until 1\11'. J ..eeky 
puhlishes a eOJnpanion "ohllne en- 
titled" The IIistory of lrrationalislll 
in ]
:urope." The two tendeneies, 
aeting together, haye been respon- 
sible for the ,,'hule a<h"aneelllent of 
THOI\L\S CARLYLE'S MOTHER the 'Yestern ,,'orId. Rationalisnl is, 
(Reproduced by kind permission of !\Ir. Alexander Carlyle) f ' 1 I . I 
o course, t tat po"rer W HC I lnakes 
people in rent sewing luachines, undcrstand Euclid, refonn ,"estries, 
pull out teeth, and nUlllher the fixed stars. Irrationalislll is that other 
foree, if pOl.ìl.ìihle 1110re essential. ,dlÏeh nlakes nlcn look at sunsets, 
laugh at jokes, go on crusades, "Tite pOe111S, enter nlonasteries, and 
jilin}) uyer hay-coeks. ltationalisln is the heneficcnt attelnpt to nlake 
our in,;titutiollS and theoriel.ì fit the "rorId "re li,'e in, as elothel.ì fit the 
,vearer. IrrationalisJn i,; the beneficent renlinder that, at the best, 


. 


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they do not fit. Ir- 
rationalism exists to 
point out that that 
eccentric old gentle- 
Inan, "The ,,,r orld," is 
such a curiously shaped 
old gentlelnan that the 
BIOSt perfect coats and 
waistcoats have an ex- 
traordinary way of 
From a þlzoto by j. Patrick, EdÙzbzerglz 
ARCH HOUSE, ECCLEFECHAN lea \Ting parts of him 
The Birthplace of Thomas Carlyle out, 
oJnetimes ,vhole 
legs and arIUs. the existence of 'which the tailor had not suspected. 
And as surely as there arises a consistent theory of life which seems 
to give a 'whole plan of it, there ,viII appear ,vithin a score or two 
of years a great Irrationalist to tell the ,vorld of strange seas and 
forests 'which are no,,,here dO'VIl 011 the lnap. The great lnovenlent 
of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which rose to its height 
in the French Re\Tolution and the Positi'Tist philosophy, ,vas the 
last great Rationalistic synthesis. The ine,'itable Irrationalist who 
follo,ved it "'as Tholnas 
Carlyle. This is the 
first and Inost essential 
\Tie,v of his position. 
In order to ex- 
plain the nmtter JlIOre 
clearly, it is necessary 
to recur to our ilnage 
of the old gentleman 
,\'Iionl no tailor could 
fit. Xot only do the 
From a þlzoto by G. G. Naþier, M.A. 
THE ROOM AT ARCH HOUSE IN WHICH CARLYLE WAS BORN tailors tend to think 


2 


THOl\IAS CARI.JYLE 


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TIIO:\II\S C.A RL'-"LE 


that clothes can be 
Inade to fit the old 
gentleuHln, but they 
tend \'eryoften to think 
that the "Thole ques- 
tion is a question of 
clothes. Thus. for in- 
stance, the Popes aud 
Bolingbrokes of the 
earlier eighteenth 
From a þhoto hy G. G. .Yaþi.:r, J/.rI. . I k 
l\L\INHILL FARl\I century trIee to lua 
e 
The Home of Carlyle's Parents from 181 5 to 182 5 IHan a purer sYlnbol 
of ci\'ilisation. They tried to pluck fi.oUI hiul altogether his lo\"e of 
the sanlge and prinlC\.ll. as they lnight ha"e plucked off a shaggy "Tig 
fi.onl the old gcntlellulll in order to put on a po"Tdered one. Â by- 
stander of the nmne of Byron. ,,'ho "Tas indeed none other than the 
ine\"itable I rrationalist. startled theul by pointing out that the shaggy 
object "'as not a ,,'ig at alL hut the poor old geutlenulll \ 0"11 hair; 
that. ill othcr ,,'ords. thc lo\"c of the sanlge. the pritnend, the lonely 
and unsociable. "'as a part of nUln. and it ,,'as their business to reeog- 
nise it. Then arose 
the new f
lshion in cos- 
nlÌ(' clothes. \d1Ïeh did 
recognise this natural 
eleulent. Itousseau 
and Shelley took the 
old gentlenuln in hand, 
and pro\'ided hinl 
\vith spring-like gar 
Jnents. coloured like 
the clouds of nlorning. 
But one of theil 


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From a þlwto hy J. ratrick, Edinburgh 
HODDAl\I HILL 


Where Carlyle lived in 1825 



THOMAS CARLYLE 
( \ 
 
From a I 
þortrait 1')1 
DaniellJfaclise, R.A. , 
nmv in the 
Victoria 
and 
Albert 
lIlllSt:1I11l . 
 
Rischgitz Collection f ( 
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THO)IAS CARI.JYLE 


,
 
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A PORTRAIT OF CAR- 
LYLE ENGRAVED BY 
F. CROLL FROM A 
DAGUERREOTYPE BY 
BEARD 


\ 


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Rischgitz Collection 


principles ,vas the absolute principle of equality. Finding, therefore, 
that the old gentlenlan "'as .wearing a curiously shaped hat, COln- 
pounded of cro"'n, coronet, and mitre, the great hat of Godhood, 
kinghood, and superiority, they proceeded, in order to Inake him 
more natural, to knock it off: and to theln suddenly appeared the 
inevitable Irrationalist, a Scotch gentlelnan from DUlnfriesshire, who, 
addressing thenl politely, said, "yo- ou believe that that regal object 
you are knocking off is his hat: believe me, gentlemen, it is his head. 
Such mistakes "rill occur after a hasty inspection, but that kingship is 
really a part of the old gentlenuln, and it is your business to recognise 



rrHO)lAS CARLYIJE 


7 


..... 


THOMAS CARLYLE 


From a sketclt by Count 
D'Orsay (1839) 


Rischgitz Collection 


1::.., 


it." As Byron had cOlne,just as the classic edifice of polite deisul had 
been cUlnpleted, to point out that the Üwt reulained that he, Byron, did 
prefer "Talking by the seashore to taking tea in the garden, so Carlyle 
appeared, just as the austere telnple of political equality ,vas erected, 
to point out that the fact reulained that he did think lllany people 
a great deal better than hilnself, and ,'ery u1any people a great deal 
.worse. Thus, then, as the asserter of the natural character of king- 
ship against the natural character of equality, it is that Tholnas Carlyle 
primarily stands twenty-one years after his death. 
Now I do not think, as I shall show later, that Carlyle ever really 


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CARLYLE'S FIRST 
EDINBURGH 
LODGING I
 SIl\ION 
S12UARE 


From a þhotograþ/z by 
lIh'. Thomas Clarl.:, 
EdiJlblirg/z 


." 


. 


understood the true doetrinc of cquality 
 but it is ccrtainly at 
least equally truc that the egalitarians and thc ordinary opponents 
of Carlyle ha\-e nc\'er done the least justicc to Carlyle's doetrine 
of hero-worship. The usual theory is that he belieyed in a race of 
arrogant strong lllen, brutally self-sufficient and brazenly indifferent 
to ethical linlÌts, and that he wanted these IHen to frighten and 
dUluinate the populace as a keeper or a doctor frightens and dOlHinates 
the lunatie ill a eell. It is not too nlueh to 
ay that there is searcely 
a trace in Carlyle's ,yorks of this barbarous and ridieulous idea. If 
there be a traee uf it here and there, it is IHere explosion of personal 
Ill-tenll)er, and has nothing' whate\-er in eOlllnlon with Carlyle's 
deliherate theory of the hero. His theory of the hero "'as that he "'as 
a luan whmH Inen follo,,'ed, not heeause they eould not help fearing, 
hut heeause they could not help lo\-ing hinl. l-lis theory. right or 
"Tong', was that whcn a IHan \nlS YOllr superior YOll were acting' 



TH())lAS C _\ltL \
LE 


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J, MORAY STREET 
(NOW SPEY 
9TREET), LEITH 
WALK, EDIf\;BURGH 


From a þhotograþh by 
."r. Thomas Clark, 
Edillburglz 


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naturally ill looking up to hiIn, and ,vere therefore happy 
 that you 
"'ere acting unnaturally in equalising your
elf ,,'ith hinl. and were 
therefore unhappy. .:\lost people. except those solenlll per'\ons who 
are called ,,'ith senne ]nllllour free-thinkers, would agree, for instance, 
that the worship of (
od ,,'as a lnunan function, and theref()l'e gaye 
pleasure to the perfornlCr of it, like eating or taking exen'ise. X o,v 
Carlyle held, rightly or "Tongly. that the ,,'orship of Ulan, of the great 
nUlll, "'as also a }Hllnan function, and therefore gaye pleasure to the 
perforluer of it. It all depends upon ,,'hether ,,'e do take an egalitarian 
or an ari
tocrati(' ,'ie,v of the spiritual ,,'orld. If the spiritual world is 
ha,;ed upon equality. then. no douht, to keep a Juan in an inferior 
position 1l1ust spiritually depress and degrade hÏ1n; but if beings in 
the "pi ritual world }ul\-e higher and l()\\'er functions. it is oln'ious that 
it is equally depressing and degrading to a lHan to take hinl out of his 
position and nlake hinl either a citizen or an elnperor. 



10 


TIIO::\IAS C ARL ì"'l
E 


THO?IAS CARLH.E 


prom a þhoto by the 
London Stereoscoþic Co. 


.... 


j 


)loreo'Ter, the real practical truth that underlay Carlyle's gospel 
of the hero has in other 'ntys been n1Ïsunderstood. "rhe general 
idea is that Carlyle thought that, if a lllan ,vere only able, every- 
thing "'as to be excused to hÏ1H. If Carlyle, e,-en at any n10111ent, 
thought this. it can only he said that f()r that 1l10ll1ent Carlyle "'a,.,, 
a fool, as luan)" able IHen Iuay happen to be. Hut, as a nlatter of 
fact, ,,-hat Carlyle lueallt ,,-as sOlnething" luuch sounder. To say 
that any luan nuty tyrannise !-'o long as he is able, is as ridiculous 
as saying that any luan lllay knock people dO'VIl so long as he is 
six feet high. But in urging" this ,'ery Ob'Tious faet the opponents of 



Carlyle too often forget 
a sÏInpler truth at the 
back of the Carlyle 
gospel. It is that, ,,-hile 
in one sense the SaIne 
1110ral test is to be ap- 
plied to all Iuen. there 
does renulÏn in ordinary I. 
charitable practice a 
yery great diffcrenee 
bet,,-een the people ,,-bo 
consider it necessary to . From a þhoto by G. G. KaþÙr, M.A. 
see sOllIe definite thin!! l\IRS. CARLYLE'S BIRTHPLACE 
u Dr. Welsh's House at Haddington. 
done before they die. 
and the people ,,-ho eheerfully adn1Ït that t,,-o hundred years ,,-ill 
scarcely bring ,,-hat they require. and that Iuean,,-hile they desire to 
do nothing. A Tolstoian anarchist ,,-ho thinks that Inen should he 
luorally persuaded for the next h,-o or three eenturies to giye up 
eyery kind of physical 
cOlllPulc.;ion Inay, it is 
quite conceiyable, be 
1110re right than the 
English Honle Secre- 
tary ,,,ho finds hÏInself 
responsible for the sup- 
pression of a riot in 
l\Ianchester; hut surely 
it is patently ridiculous 
to say that it is just as 
111uch to the anarchist's 

 
credit that he a,-oids From aþhoto bJ' R. .JIillikm, A"irkcaldy. 
shooting l\Ianchester THE HOUSE l
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,,'orkluen as it \"ould 
be to the I-Iolue Secre- 
buy's credit if he 
a\'oided shooting thenl. 
It \n>uld he equally 
ridiculou" to c.;ay that. 
if the HOIue Secretary 
cOlleei\-ed it necessary 
to shoot thenl. frOIll a 
c SCll
e of responsi hility. 
From a þhoto by G. G. XaþÙ'r, 111. A . 
SCOT
UI<IG that his action, eyen if 
.\ farm in the neighbourhood of Erclefechan to which the Carlyles removed 
fwm lIlainhill in 1826 "Tong, "'as really as 
\H'ong as the conduct of a Tolstoian ,,'ho should shoot thelll ,,'ithout 
any reason at all. 111 this sense. therefore. there is really a different 
test, and a perfcetly fair 011C. fOJ' nlell of aetiol1 and for nlen of 
ahstraet theories and renlote hopes. 
1\:0"', it nlust definitely he set to the credit of nlen like C'ronn\'ell 
and l\liraheau, that they ,,'ere undoubtedly opposed to and eIuhar- 
rassed hy nlen ,,'hu
t projects. eyen ill their o"'n eyes. ,,'ere scarcely 
a part of practical 
polities. These nlen 
exist in e\-ery country 
and in cyery age. They 
are ,,'ilfully and etern- 
ally In opposition. 
They do not agree 
s u ill (' i en t I Y '" i t h the 
acti \'e po"'ers e\Ten to 
argue \"ith then1 .with 
any profit. Their ideal 
is so far 
t\ntY that 
they do not e\'en desire 


12 


TH():\lAS C .i\HL \TI
E 


........ 


. 


tJJ 
'.
. 
 
.,. 



...."' -".. 


.. 


.. .............""... 
 


...... 
, 

 


From a þhoto by.l. Patrick, Edinburgh 
TEflIPLAND, NEAR THORN HILL, DUflIFRIESSHIRE 
Thomas Carlyle married Jane Raillie \Yel
h on October 17th, 1826, at 
Templand, Mrs. \Yelsh's residence 



, 


From tile painting by .I. i1lcNeill Whistler 
THO!\L\S CARLYLE 
(Reproduced by kind permissson of Messrs. T. & R. Annan & Sons, by courtesy 
of the Glasgow Corporation) 


13 



14 


THOl\IAS CARL '-TLE 


it with any iU1lnediate hunger. They count it a pleasant and natural 
thing to live and die in revolt. They are ready to be critics, they 
are ready to be Inartyrs, they are ell1phatically not ready to be 
rulers. In this 'nlY Croln"Tell, considering ho,v he might nlake 
Olne 
English polity out of a chaos of English parties, had to argue for 
hours together ,vith Fifth l\Ionarehy nlen. to 'VhOlll the yital question 
was ,vhether the children of lnalignants "hould not be slain, and 
whether a luan ,vho ,vas caught s,vearing should not be stoned to 
death. In this "Tay l\Iirabeau, striying to keep the tradition of 
French civilisation intact all1id a hundred essential refofll1s, found 
his "Tay blocked by 111en "Tho insisted on discussing "Thether in the 
ideal cOlnlnon,vealth Inen "Tould belieye in illuuortality, or go through 


I 


,..... 1ft 
IT 



 


- 


.. 


.. 
."t t 


. 
,. 



 
-.1 


ï 


From a þhoto. by .1/1'. Thomas Clark, EdÙIl>urgh 
21, CO:\IELY BANK, EDINBURGH 
Carlyle and his wife lived at Comely Bank for eighteen months after their marriagt; 



THO)LAS CARl.ll T I..I:E 


15 


a rite of Inarriage. X 0"'. ,,,hile fully granting that both types have an 
eternal \'alue, it is certainly not just that precisely the same ethical 
test should be applied to Cronn"ell and the Fifth .:\Ionarchy men, 
to 
Iiraheau and the ,,'orshipper of pure reason. It is not just that ,ve 



--==--- - -:- 


 


F
011l a wood engraving by Pcarson of Sir .I. E. Boe/w/s gold 11lcd.rllion 
THOMAS CARLYLE 
(Reproduced by kind permission of 
lessrs. Chapman and Hall) 


should judge in preci
ely the Saine ,vay the pace of a hutcher's cart 
.which is obliged to get to PÏInlieo, and the pace of a butcher's 
cart ,vhich is designed at 
on1e tÏIlle or other to reach the site of 
the Garden of Eden. It is not just that ,ve should judge in the SaIne 
way the man ,vho is siInply anxious to erect a parish pump, and 



16 


TII()
L\S \ _A RI.I'Tl..E 


thc opponent of the plllllp, 
"Tho looks tor"Tard to a 
day "Then there shall not 
only be no plllnp, but no 
parish. The luan of action. 
then, really has in this 
sane and lin1ited scnse a 
claiu1 to a pee-uliar kind 
of allowance, in that it is 
of "ital neeessity to hiul 
that a certain lin1Ïted 
grie"aIlee should bc re- 
nloyed. I t is easy enough 
to be the nlan ,dH) li,Tes 
in a eontented inlpotenee : 
the UlaU who luxuriates in 
an cndless aud satisfied 
defeat. He does not desire 
to he effeeti ,-e: he only 
desires to be right. I Ie 
docs not desire passionately 
that sOlllething should bc 
donc; he only desires that 
it should he triunlphautly proycd to hc neccssary. 
This is the real contribution of Carlylc to the philosophy of the 
U1an of action. He re,'ealed. cntirely justly, and entirely to the 
profit of us all, the pathos of the pl'a<.tieal Blan. He Inade us 
feel, "That is profoundly true, that the tragedy of the death of l\Iary. 
(
ueen of Seots. is nothing to the tragedy of the death of Elizabeth: 
that tht tragedy of the death of Charles I. is nothing to the 
tragedy of the death of Cronlwell. 1\ luau like Charles I. died 
triunlphantly: he did not indeed die as a lllartyr, but he died 


. 


From a þhoto by the London Sten'oscoþic Co. 
THO
L\S CARLYLI
, ABOUT 1860 


: \ 
, ..1.' .....,4. 
 



TH())tAS Cr\nL,rI
E 


17 


as sonlething ,,'hich is nlllCh Jll0re awful and exceptional-a con- 
sistent BUlB. I-Ie was "'orse than a tyrant. he was a logician. Rut 
a IHan like Crolll"Tell is in a HUH'h harder ease. fÖr he does not 
"'ish to die and he a spectacle, hut to Ii ye and he a f()lTC. He has 
to break altogether \\'ith the splendid logic of luartyrdonl. He 
has to eat his 0''"11 words it))' hreakfüst. dinner. and supper. lIe has 
to outli,'e a hundred incarnations, and always rejcct the last 
 his 
progress is likc that unnclTing initiation in the ,vild tale of TonI 
)loore's, in ,,'hieh the diseiplc had to dinlh up a stone stairway 
into the sky. e,'cry step of ,,'hieh fell away the nlonlellt his f()ot 
had left it. This is the only genuinc truth that Carlyle brought 
frolH his study of strollg Bien. If e,-er he said tlwt ,ve nlust 
blindlv ohey the stron o ' 
.. h 
IHan, he was BlercJy 
angry and personal. 
and untrue to his 
cssentially gencrons 
and llllluane spinto 
"
hen he said that we 
Blust )"e,'erenee the 
strong nmn he SOIne- 
tiIHes expressed hitH- 
self ,,-i th a certai n 
heated C'onfusion, and 
left it douhtful whether 
he In ean t th at "Te 
should reyerenee the 


strung nUln as we re- 
speet Christ, or Jllerely 
as "Te respeet Sando,,'. 
nut .we should all 
agree ,vith hinl in his 


\ 


, 


-- 


-'\ 


... 
4. 


, 


F'.o/ll a þllOtO by Elliott & Fry 
THO;\IAS CARLYLE, 1865 


2 



]8 


THOl\IAS CARI.J\TI.JE 


essential and eternal con- 
tribution - that "re should 
pity the strong nlan nlore 
than an idiot or a cripple. 
It 11lay he said that 
there is a certain incon- 
sistency heh,-een these 
t ,,- 0 jus t i fi eat ion s 0 f 
Carlyle's hero - ,,-orship : 
that ,,-e cannot at the 
\ojmne tÍ1ne respect a nlan 
hecause he is aho\-e us in 
a definite spiritual order, 
and' because he is in .what 
,,; 
is popularly called a hole; 
that ,,-e cannot at once 
reyerenee l\Iirabeau be- 
cause he 'nlS strong and 
because he was ,,-eak. 
A PORTR-\IT OF CARLYLE TAKEN [N 18 79 This kind of inconsistency 
Rischgitz Collection does exist in Carlyle: it 
is, I nlay say ,,-ith all reyerellee_ and .with all certainty, the eternal and 
ine\-itahle inconsistency ,,-hieh characterises those ,,-ho receiye diyine 
re\-elations. The larger ,,'orld, ,,'hich our systenls attenlpt to explain 
and chiefly succeed 
in hiding, nlust. when 
it breaks through 
upon us, take fonns 
which appear to be 
conflicting. The 
spiritual ,vorld is so 
rich that it is varied; 


\. 


'\- 


" 


c 




 V
1r
 
,. G.

 6). 

 

 
-v' 

.
 


FACSIl\IILES OF 
CARLYLES SIGNATURE 
(Reproduced by kind 
permission of Messrs. 
Chapman & Hall 



so yaried that it is in- 
consistent. That is 
,,-hy so IllallY saints 
and great doctore.; of 
religion lun"e pinned 
their faith to paradoxes ".i 
..: } 
like the .. Credo (
uia - " t -- 
Ilupossihile." the great 
theological par,adoxes .......... 
,,-hieh are so lllueh 
Inore dazzJ i ng and 
daring than the para- 
doxes of the Illoderll .jlrÎ71Cllr. The snprellle glory of Carlyle ,,-as 
that he heard the ,-critable n>Ìce
 of the Cosnlos. lIe left it to 
others to attune thenl into an orehestra. Sonletinles the truth he 
heard ""as this truth, that SOIne BIen are to he ('OJlll11Hnded and 
sonle obeyed 
 sOIuetÜnes that deeper m}(l 1110re derIlocratic truth 
that all Inen are abo,-e all thing's to be pitied. 
It wilJ be found relenlut to what [ ]un-e to say hereafter to renmrk 
at this point that I do 
not tuyself accept 
Carlyle's conception of 
the spiritual ,,"orId as 
exhausti,"e. I belie,-e 
in the es
ence of the 
old ductrine of eq uality, 
beeauc.;e it appears to 
HIe to result froln all 
conceptions of the 
diyinity of Ulan. f)f 
course there are In- 
equalities, and obyious 


THfL\L.\S C_\ßL Y"l
E 


In 


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....:; 


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F,om lZ þhoto 1'J' J. I'atric.k, Edill/'un;-/z 


CRAIG EX PUTTOCK 


Carlyle'
 resiùence from 1828 to 1834 


, 


r;. 


y 



. 


.- " 


.. . 


.
 

 


. 


í 


....-... 


From a photo by J. Patrick, Edil'lburglt 
PORTRAIT GROUP TAKEN AT KIRKCALDY 


Thomas Carlyle, his niece, his brother, and Provost Swan 



20 


TIIOl\IAS C.AltL'TLR 


ones, but though they are not insignifieant positiyely, they are 
insignificant C'on1parati,-ely. If nlen are all really the ÏJnages of God, 
to talk about their difteren('e
 has its signifieance, but only abuut the 
SaIne sigllifieanec ,,-hi('h n1ay be found in talking about the respeetiye 
height
 of twcnty nlen, all of ,dU))ll have reeei,-ed the YÏctoria Cross, 
or the rcspeetiye length of the llloustaehes of t,,-enty n1en. all of ,,'hon} 
haye died to sayc their fell<H\r-ereatures. In cOlllparisoll "rith the 
point in "rhich they are equal. the point in whieh they are unequal 
is not Blerely deeidedly, but ahnost infinitely. insignifi('ant. But nlY 
reason fÖr indicating IllY o,,-n opinion Oll the Blatter. at this point, 
is a definite one. Carlyle's 
yie"T of equality docs not 
happen to he nlÏne 
 but it has 
an absolute rig'ht to be stated 
justly. and to be stated fi'OJH 
Carlyle's point of yie"r. It ,,-as 
not a brutal fear or a Juean 
"rorship of forec; it ,,-as a 
serious belief that SOBle found 
blessedncss in eonlnuuHl ing. 
and SOBle in oheying. Xow 
this kind of intellcetual justiee 
"ras tl1{' one great quality 
,,-hiel1 "ras laeking in Carlyle 
hiJl1self. He ,,-olIld not consent 
to listcn to Rou
seau 's gospel, 
as I ha,re suggested that "re 
should listen to Carlyle's gospel. 
lie "rould not put ltousseau's 
gospel frOlU ltousseau's point 
of ,-ie"r. .And consequently to 
the end of his days he neyer 



 
-

 


...." 


, 


'. , 
... 


.. 


'- - 


. _. me!!!:" 


From a terra-cotta bust in the J\Tational Portrait Gallery, 
try Sir J. E. Boehm, R.A. 
THO;\L\S L\RLVLE 


(Rt:product:d from " Pa
t and Present," by kind permi
s;LII 
of l\Ie

rs. J. 1\1. Dcnt & Co.) 



TH())IAS C.A RL\T].J
E 



l 


, y. ,. 1111 d erst<)()d allY gospe I exeept 
.,.. Carlyle's gospel. 
... 
, 'Then a literary BUlB IS kno,vIl 
Ii' to ha,-e been ahllost JlIOnster of 

 

 ' . a 
... . industr
r, whell he has produ('cd 
a 
- - 
colos"ial eple like .. Frederiek the 
- (;reat" OIl the dullc",t of all earthly 

 , 
';0. snhjeets -(;ernlall
T ill the eighteenth 
... - 
- - II ßiUUI 
- . century- \\Then he has piled up all 
the eOlllplieated I1laterial of the 
II iiiiif history of the Frelleh Hcn)lutioll. 
!. 
iiiiii. .. IO"it it. alld hy a portent of heroisnl 

I' piled it all up ngaJn; when he has 
. 11 
 
'nn I!P I 



-- 


From a þhoto l>y J. Patrick, Edinbllrglt 


C\RLYLKS HOUSE .\T 5 (lImv 24), CHEYNE 
ROW, CHELSE.\ 


aehie,-ed such BUlsterpieees of 
research as the di
eoYery of 
sense III Crolll\\Tcll's spee('hes. 
and good qualities in I.'rederjck 
of Prussia: when an author 
has done all this, it 11lay seenl a 
singular eOBllHent upon hiln to 
say that his nutÏn characteristic 
,vas a lack of patience. But 
this was ill reality the ('hief 
,,'cakness, ill fhet the only real 
weakness, of Carlyle as a In oral- 
ist. It is Yery BlllCh easier to 
ha,'e \\That 111ay be called 1110ral 


, 
 


... . 


JAXE WELSH C\RL\"LE 
(Reproùuced by kind permis
ion of :\Ie

r
. Chapman and Hall) 



2
 


TH())IAS C_.Al{l
 Y]
E 


CORXER 
IN 
DR_-\. WING- 
ROOl\l 


AT S 
CHEYNE 
ROW, 
\\ ith Carlyle's 
Reading Chair, 
gi\ en him 
by John Forster 


Drawn by R. 
Gray from a 
þ/lOtograþh by 
C. ßaly (1881) 


(Reproduced 
from Reginald 
Blunt's "The 
Carlyle
' Chelsea 
Home," by kind 
permis
ion of 
the author) 


I 
 


patience or lnental patience than to lun-e sOIl1ething \vhich lllay best 
be described as spiritual patienee. Carlyle "-as patient \\Tith facts. dates
 
doclllHents, intolerably ,\TearisoBle nlelnoirs; but he ,,-as Bot patient 
,vith the soul of Bmn. lIe ,va
 nut patient ,vith ideas. theories, 
tendencies, outside his own philosophy. He ne'-er understood. and 
therefore persistently undernllucd. the real llleaning of the idea of 
liberty, ,dlÏch is a faith in the gro\\-th and life of the lUI111Hn nlind; 
yague indeed in its nature, hut transcending in its IHagnitude e\-en 
our f
tith in our o,vn fhiths. Tie \vas sOlllething of a Tory. sOlnething 
of a Sans-culotte, SOlllething of a Puritan, sOlllething of an IIHperialist
 
sOlnething of a Socialist; but he ,vas never, e'
en for a single IHOlllent
 


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THO::\IAS CAll] J'
I.JE 



:3 


a Liberal. He did not belie,'e as the I Jiberal belieyes, first indeed 
in his o\vn truth. ,vhieh in his eyes i"i pure truth. but beyond that 
also in that nlÌghtier truth \dlÌeh is nUlde up of a n1Ìllion lies. 
Ând this spiritual iIupatience of Carlyle has left its peculiar llUlrk 


NO.5. 
CHEY): E 
ROW 


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From a dra'lUing by E. J. Sulli'ilan 
THO:\L\S C.\RLYLE 
(Reproduced from the illustrated "Sartor Resartus," by kind permission of 
Messrs. George Bell & Sons) 


24 



TI[())lAS C I\l{LYI
E 


2tj 


In the ouly defeet ,,'hich can really 
be found in his historieal "'orks. 
()f the astonishing power and JHllllour 
and poignaney of thosc historieal 
"rorks I think it s("aree}y ncecssary 
to speak. 1\ Blan nlust ha,-e a yery 
poor literary sense \\'ho eall read one 
of Carlyle's slighter skctches. sueh as 

. The I )imnolld X e("klaee:' and not 
feel that he has at the sanle tÏIlle 
to deal with olle of the greatest 
satirists, olle of the greatest lllysties. 
and ineOlllparahly one of the finest 
story-tellers in the world. X 0 his- 
torian c"er realised so strongly the 
reeondite and ill-digested f
l(.t that 
history has consisted ofJnunan beings. 
eaeh isolated. caeh ,-aeillating. eae-h 
li,-ing in an eternal present: or, in 
F
oJJ/ a þhoto ill þossessioll of 
other words, that history has not IV. Robertsoll Nicoll, LL.D. 
MRS. C\RL \ LE .\BOUT 1864 
eonsisted of eI"()\nls. or kings. or 1\CtS 
of Parlimnent. or systenls of go,-ernIllent. or artiele
 of belief. And 
Carlyle has. nIOre()\-er, introduced into the philosophy of history one 
eleIllent ,\'!1Ïeh had been absent froBI it since the writing of the .( >ld 
Testml1ent-the elenlent of sOluething ,,-hi('h can only be ('aIled Jllllllour 
in the just g'<)\"ernlllent of the uni,'erse. '
lle that sitteth ill the hea,-ens 
shall laugh thenl to scorn, the I Aord shall ha'"e then) in derision," is a 
note that is struek again in Carlyle for the first tinle after two 
thousand years. It is the note of the sarcaSIlI of Proyidellce. 1\ny 
one "rho will read those adlllirahle ehapters of Carlyle on ChartisIll 
"rill realise that, while all other lllllllanitarians "rere insisting upon 
the eruelty or the incollsisteney or thc barbarisln of neglecting the 



 
? 


I 


. 



problenl of labour, 
Carlyle is rather filled 
with a kind of ahnost 
celestial astoni
]llnent 
at the absurdity of 
neglecting' it. 
But a definite 
defect there is. as I 
haye "iug-g-ested. In 
J::. Carlyle, considered as 
From a okoto by G. C. .VaþÙ:r .JI.A. ] .. I . 
CARLYLE'S GRAVE .\.T ECCLEFECH.\
 an llstorlan. ane It 
Thomas Carl} Ie died on February 5 th , 1881 tl 0 ws dircet! y fi'm 11 that 
realnloral defect in his nature, an ilnpatience with other luen's ideas. 
In judging of Inen as nlell, he \yas not only quick and graphic and 
correct, but in the nlain essentially genial and luagnanÏ111ous. ()llly a 
,-ery superfieial critic will think that Carlyle was n1Ïsêlnthropic because 
he \\'as surly. There is yery nutCh nlore real sYlnpathy with IUllnan 
prohlenls and teluptatiolls in a page of this shaggy old Inalcontent 
than in \\'hole libraries of constitutional hi"itory by dapper and polite 
rationalists, \\.ho treat nlen as auh>luata, and put their ,-irtues and 
yices into separate 
pigeonholes. [f I had 
nmde a lllistake or 
conllllitted a sin that 
had any sort of ]uuuan 
eharaeter ahout it. I 
\\rould yery nl uch 
rather fall into the 
hands of Carlyle than 
into the hands of 
)11'. IIallaIll or 1\11'. 
.JaIlleS 1\lill. But ,,'hile 


20 


TH())lAS CAl{l
YT
E 


i 


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.'
 


From a þhoto bJ' J. F. Gordon, HaddiJlglon 
MRS. CARLYLE'S GR.-\VE I
 H.-\DDI
GTO
 CHURCH 
Mrs. Carlyle died on April 21St, 1866 



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Fronz the þortrait jaintcd by Sir J. E. .JIillais, P.R.A., fir âfr. J. A. Froudc Ùt 1877 
THOl\lAS C.-\RL YLE 
In the :National Portrait Gallery. Rischgitz Collection. 
27 


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28 


THO:\IAS CARL ì"T
E 


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THE GROUND-FLOOR ROOMS AT 5. CHE\-NE ROW (1900) 
(Reproduced from Re.ginald Blunt's "Hi
torical Handbook to Chelsea," by kind permission of the author) 


Carlyle did realisc the f
l('t that eyery nUlll earries about with hinl his 
own life and atIllosphere. he did not realisc that other truth. that e,-ery 
lllau carries about ,,'ith hinl his o"'n theory of the \,'odd. Eaeh one 
of us is li,-ing in a separate COSHIOS. The theory of life held by 
one Ulan Ile,-er corresponds exactly to that held hy another. The 
"'hole of a luan's opinions, Hlorals, tastes, luanners, hobbies, ,,'ork 
back e,-entually to sonle pietnre of existellee itself ,,'hich, \,'hether it 
be a paradise or a battle-field. or a school or a chaos, is not precisely 
the sanlC pi(.ture of existenee \,'hieh lies at the haek of any other brain. 
Carlyle had not fully realised that it \\Tas a ease of one UIHn, one 
COSlllOS. Consequently, he de,-oted hilHself to asking \,'hat plaee any 
luan, say Jtohespierre or Shelley, occupied in Carlyle's Cosnlos. It 
neyer occurred to hÜn sufficiently clearly to ask "'hat place Shelley 



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Photo by Frederick Hol/;.er 


THO:\L-\S C\RLYLE, ÆT. 73 
From the painting by G. F. Watts, R.A., now in the National Portrait Gallery 


3 C 



TII())IAS CAHLY.I.JE 


31 


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THE SOU
D-PROOF STUDY AT CHEYNE ROW IN 19<X', SHOWI
G THE DOUBLE WALLS 
(Reproduced from Reginald Blunt's" Historical Handbook to Chelsea," by kind permission 
of the author) 


occupied in Shelley's COSillOS, or Rohespierre in llohespierre"s COSillOS. 
K ot feeling the need of this. he nc,-er studied. he ne,-er realJy listened 
to, Shelley's philosophy or llobespierre's philosophy. Here, after a 
sOlue,,-hat long circuit, v{e haye arriyed at the one serious deficiency 
in Carlyle's histories, a neglect to realise the ÏIllportance of theory 
and of alternatiye theories in lllllllan afEtirs. 
The standing exmllple of this is the .. IIistory of the French Revo- 
lution." Carlyle'
 conception of the French lle,'olution is sÜnply and 
absolutely that of all eleillental outbreak. an explosion of nature in 
history, an earthquake in the nloral world. Ilmllan nature, Carlyle 
seeillS to tell us, had been stifled nlore and nlore in the wrappings 
of artificiality, until, ,,,hen its condition had just passed the tolerable. 



32 


TI-IO)L1S C \llL \TLE 


- 


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-- 


THE KITCHEN .\T 
o. 5, CHEYNE ROW (11)00) 
(Reproduced from Regina!.l Blunt's" Historical Handbook to Chelsea," by kind permission of the author) 


gagged. blinded. deaf, and ignorant of "That it rcally wantcd, hy a 
gigantie 1Huselliar effort it hurst its bonds. 
So f
lr as it goes. that is pcrfcetly true of the Freneh HeH)lu- 
tioll 
 but only so f
ll' as it goes. The Fren('h Heyolution was 
a sudden starting fronl shll11ber of that terrihle spirit of nUH} 
whieh sleeps through the greater llu111ber of the centuries 
 and 
Carlyle appreeiates this, and deserihes it l110re powerfully and 
fearfully than any IHllllan historian, becausc this idea of the spirit 
of lllan breaking through fornHtlæ and building again on flluda- 
1uentals ,,,as a part of hi!-' O\\Tn philo
ophieal theory, and therefore 
he lllhierstood it. But he ne"er. as I haye said, took any real 
trouble to understand other people's philo'iophieal theories. .6 \ ud 
he did not realise the other fact about the Freueh l{eyoilltion- 



TII())I1\S C A]tLYI.J
 


33 


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C \RU LE.S WRITI:\G-LJE
h .\XD CH \11{ 
(Reproduced by kind permi"siun of I\lr. Reginald Blunt) 


the f
let that it 'nlS not luerely an elenlentary outbreak. but 'nl'i 
also a great doetrinal 11lOyeUlent. I t is an astonishing thing that 
Carlyle's" ]."rench ]le,-olution" cOlltri,-es to be as adnlÏrable and as 
accurate a history as it is. ,,'hile fron} one eud to the other there is 
hardly a sugge'ition that he c01nprehended the nloral and politieal 
theories whi('h were the guiding star", of the Frell('h Hen>lutionists. 
I t ,,-as not necessary that he should agree with theIn, but it ,yas 
necessary that he should be iuterested iu thelll; nay, in order that 
he should "Tite a perfeet history of their de,-elopluents. it 'nl'i neces- 
sary that he 'ihould a(hllire thenl. The truly ÏJllpartial historian is 
not he who is enthusiastie fur Ileither side in a historic struggle: 
that ]uethod ,,-as adopted hy the rationali'itie hi ",tori all') of the 
Hallmll type, and re"iulted in the dullest and thinnest and nlost 
:3 



34 


TII O
IAS C AltI.J Y.LE 


essentially f
llse chronicles that were ever cOlnpiled about lllankind. 
The truly iInpartial historian is he "Tho is enthusiastic for both sides. 
lIe holds in his heart a hundred fanaticisIllS. The truly philosophical 
historian does not patronise Cronnyell and pat the !(illg on the head, 
as Hallmn does; the true philosophical historian could ride after 
CroIn,vell like an Ironside and adore the }(ing like a Ca\'alier. 
The only history that is "rorth kno,ving, or .worth stri\-ing to 
knuw, is the history of the }nllllan head and the }nunan heart, and 
of "rhat great lo\-es it has been enaInoured: truth in the sense of 
the absolute justice is a thing for \yhich fools look in history and 
"rise nlen in the Day of J udgnlent. I t is the glory of Carlyle 
that he did realise that the intellectual iInpartiality of the rationalist 
historian 'vas lnerely enlotional ignorance. It "ras his only defect 
that he extended his synlpathy, in cases like that of the French 
Revolution, only to headlong Inen and Ï1npetuous actions. and 
not to great schools of revolutionary doctrine and faith. lIe nlade 
sOlne"That the sanle nlÏstake ,vith regard to the l\Iiddle Ages, 
touching ,vhich hi" contributions are unequalled in picturesqueness 
and potency. I [e conceived the Illediæ\-al period in Europe as a 
barbaric verity, .. a rude, stal"rart age": he did not realise "rhat is 
Inore and Illore unfolding itself to all seriou
 historians, that the 
lnediæval period in Europe was a ci\'ilisation based upon a certain 
schenlc of nloral -,cience of ahnust unexmnpled lnultiplicity and 
stringeney, a scheIlle in \vhieh the colours of a !:t('<juey's eoat eould 
be traced back to a systeln of astronOlny, and the slllallest bye-la\y 
for a village green had sonle relation to great ecclesiastieal and 
nloral Jllysteries. I t is relnarkable that 've ahvays call a ri\'al ('ivili- 
sation Sèl\'age: the Chinese call lIS barbarians, and ,ye call thenl 
barbarians. The l\Iiddle Ages were a ri \'al civilisatioIl, based upon 
In oral ..,cience, to ours based upon phy"ical science. l\Iost lllodern 
historians ha\-e abused this great civilisation for being barbarous: 
Carlyle had Illade one great stride beyond thenl ill so f
lr that he 



THO
IAS CAHLY.LR 


B5 


adn1Ïred it for being barbarous. But his fatal strain of intel- 
lectual ilnpatience pre,.ented hinl froln getting on to the right 
side of Catholic doglllas. just as it pre,-ented hiln fi'onl getting on 
to the right side of .Jacobin doglnas. lIe neyer really discoyered 
"dlat other people Ineant by 
 \postolic Succession. or Tjberty. or 
Equality, or Fraternity. 
Probably his fe.w n1Ïs- 
takes arose fi'onl his un- 
fortunate tendency to find 
,. shmlls." SOlne ha'
e 
up- 
posed this to be the essence 
and ,-alue of his Inessage; it 
'nlS in truth its "rorst pitfall 
and disaster. A nlall is 
ahllost ahnlYs wrong ,,,hen 
he sets about to pro'
e the 
unreality and uselessness of 
anything: he is ahnost in- 
'
ariably right "rhen he ")et
 
about to pro,-e the reality 
and yalue of anything. I 
ha,-e a quite different and 
nlllCh nlore genuine right to 
say that bull's-eyes are nice 
than r h:nre to 'iay liquorice 
i
 nasty: [ h:n-e found out 
the Illeaning of the first 
and not of the seeond. 
And if a nlan goes Oil a 
tearing hunt after shmns, as 
Carlyle did, it i
 probable STATUE OF CARLYLE 
. . . B} Sir J. E. Boehm, R.A. In the Gardens on the Chelsea Embankment 
that he ,nIl find httle Risc h r: it7 Collection. 



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BI()(
ltA PII IC A L X()TE. 


He IS tearing off the brandIes to fiud the 


or nothing real. 
tree. 
I ha\re said an that is to be ,;aid against Carlyle"s work ahnost 
designedly: for he IS one of tho
e who are so great that we rather 
need to blmlle theul f()r the sake of Ollr own indcpelldcnec than 
praise the111 f()r the sake of their faille. lIe ('aIllC and 
poke a ,n)rd, 
and the ('hatter of rationalislll stopped, and the SUBl'i ,vould no 
longer ,n)rk out and he ended. lIe \\'as a hreath of Xature turning 
III her sleep under the load of ('i,'ilisation, a stir in the very stillness 
of God to tell us He ,vas still there. 


Arch House, 
Ecclefechan 
see page 2 
Carlyle's mother 
see page I 


Ecclefechan, 
Dumfriesshire 
see page 3 


The room in 
which Carlyle 
was born 
su:? pll
e 2 


Carlyle's first 
Edinburgh 
lOdging in Simon 
Square 
see page 8 


1, Moray Street 
(now Spey Street), 
Leith Walk, 
Edinburgh 
see pa,i{e 9 


B [( )(;]{.L\ 1)[1 IC AI J X()T}:. 


In a hou:,e whit'h hi:, fatht'r, a ma
on, had huilt with hi
 own hawl
, 
Thoma
 ('at'lyle wa!' horn CIIl I>t't'emht'r 4th, Ii!).'). IIi
 mother, 
Iargaret 
_\itken, "a "oman of the t:lÍn':,t clp:,et'nt. that of tllt' piou!'. the ju
t awl 
wi
t'." wa
 the secmHI wife of .Jamt'
 Carlyle, awl Thomas wa
 the eldt'
t of 
their nint' ehiltlrt'n. 
I n the EnÌl'pfuhl of Sarlo}. /(('Na rill.,>; Carlylt' has pieturefl his llati\"e 
dllage. It c"onsistt'fl of a sillgle ,..tJ'eet. flown tht' 
idt' of ,dlit'h ran an ol't'n 
hrook. ""'ith amazenlt'nt." ht' writt's, "I ht'g-all to cli!'I'o\"f'r that Enh'l'fuhl 
stood in the micltlle of a t'olllltry. of a worM. It was then that, 
illflqwlIflentlyof SchiIlt'r's Wilhdw Tdl, I umdt, thi!' 1I0t cIuite iw.ig-nitieant 
rt'flt'l.ticllI (:'0 true al,.:o in spiritual thing-s): · 
\ny roacl. this simple 
Entt'pfuhl road. will It'ad you to tht' l'lIfl of the world!'" The room 
at \n'h IIou
e in whieh he wa
 horn now contains 
omt' intt'n'stillg" 
mt'nU'ntot'
. On thc mantt'lpit't't, art' tWII turlH'cl WWlfle'1I t'mlfllt'stic'k
. a 
g-ift of .John 
ter1illg. sent from ROIlle; the tahlt' prm'iflc:, a restillg--plan' 
for hi!' 
tucly-Iamp awl hi
 tea-c
lI1f1y. 
lo
t of the fllrlliture t'amt' from 
('heVlle Row. 
('arlylt' C'aHlt' Ill' from E('c.l('ti'chan to attclII) Eflillll1ll'g-h ("lIin'r...ity when 
he wa... 
C'art'dv timrh't'n vt'ars of ag-e', allll with a eompallioll, Tom Smail, 
jOUl'JIt,yt'cl the. elltirt' dist:
JIt.l' 011 tilllt" 'fIIPY st'C'urefl a dt'an-Iookillg- allfl 
eht'al' loclg-illl! in SiHlOII 
lJuan'. a poor neig-hhollrhoocl 011 till' south ,.ielt' of 
EelillhUl'I!1r, off :\"idwl...on Stt'pt't. .\ftt'r n.
iclilll! in ,.arious part
 of tht' old 
towlI, {'arlylt' n'Hlm.t'cl in 1 B
 1 to hettt'r cl'mrtt'rs. allli tht' mo:,t intt'rpstillg- of 
his '.arioll
 aInnles in I':elillhnrgh wa
 at 1, 
loray 
trt'd (110\\. Spt'Y Strt't't), 
Leith \Lllk. Berc ht' t'omHlt'nct'd his litt'rary work ill earm'st. awl h('g,UI 
to rpg-,ml life' from a hrig-ht<'r :,tallflpoillt. Lt'ith \ r alk is dt's('1"ihecl in Sa d()l" 
/(('.wt}'lll.,>; as tht' /(1((' saiul-l'lwlI/fl.,>; tI(, {' f;}
fi'l". " .\11 at OIlI't'." lIP wrih's, .. tht'n' 
ro,.t' a tll1Hll!ht in HIP, allll I askt'clH1Y
t'lf, . \\lmt a rl tholl afraid of? . . .' 
It is from this hOllr that I illeliJlt' to dah' HlY spiritllalnc,\' hirth or haphometic 
tin'-hapti
m; pcrhap,.. I din'et1y tht'n'lIpoll ht'g-an to ht' a Hlan." 



The house in 
which Carlyle 
lived whilst 
teaching at 
Kirkcaldy school 
see page Il 


Mainhill Farm 
see page 4 


Hoddam H:ll 
see page-l- 


Scotsbrig 
see page 12 


Jane Welsh 
Carlyle 
see page 21 


Mrs. Carlyle's 
Birthplace, 
Haddington 
see page 1 1 


Templand, near 
Thornhill, 
Dumfriesshire 
see page 12 


21, Comely Bank 
Edinburgh 
see page q 


Craigenputtock 
see page 19 


ßIOC;ltAPII IC.AL X()TE. 


H7 


It wa
 at Kirkealtly that Carlyll' fir
t met Edward hTillg-, the ma...ter of a 
ri,"al 
ehool in tlu> town. They 11l'('anw illtimatl' friewl
. "But for hTing," 
he !':ay:-:. "I hafl lIe'.er knowll what the commullioll of man with man m('all
." 
It wa
 here, too, that lit' nHlfle th(' ;\('f[lIaintallee of :\Ii
>- :\Iarg-aret (
Ol'(IOIl, 
the "Blmnille" of Sador H,.....adll.>;. ('arlyh. fl(....(Tihe
 the town ill the 
H"lItiui....,.,.IIt.,..>:: " Kirkf'altly it
..lf . . . wa
:t 
oliflly flilig-ent, yet hy 110 m('allS 
a palltillg-. I'U ffi IIg-. or ill any way g-amhlillg- 'Lallg- TOUll.' I, ill partif'ular, 
alway:-: rather liked the peol'l(' thollg-h from the di:-:talll'e, ehidly; (.hag-rim.d 
amI fIi
('ollr;Ig-l'd hy thl' 
;ul lmd,' fJll(' had! " 
III un.') the Carlyl('
 mo\"(,d to :\Iaillhill Farm, awllu'}'e hI' .. tir
t l('amed 
(
erman, !':Ìlulied PIlII,>;1 ill a (Iry flitch, alld ('fJllIph>ted hi:-; tran
latioll of 
Hï/ht'llll JIt,i....lpr!" Ten years later ('arlyle took PO

(':-::-:ion of II(I(ldam 
Hill Farm, hi!': mother g-oillg- with him as hou
ekeeper, alld his hrothl'r Aliek 
a!': practical farmer. Here they remained until Ut!fi. "\\ïth all it:-: mallitilltl 
petty trouhle
," !':ays Carlyle, ill the Rt.lltiui.,.,'cllt.t','1, "thi:-: year at H(I(ltlam 
lIilllm:-: a ru
tic heauty awl dig-llity to me; amI li('
 now like allot ig-lIohIc 
ru:-::-:et-eoated idyll in my memory." 
The abrupt termination of Carlyle':-: tenancy of H(I(ldam lIill oecUlTetl 
!':imultaneou:-:ly with the expiratioll of hi:-: fatlll'r';;: I..a...(> of :\fainhill, alld ill 
18:!G the family remon'd to 
cot!':hrig-, that excellent.. . 
hell of a hou:,;e' for 
farming- purpo
es," where Carlyle'!': parellt:-: :-:pellt the remaimler of their li,"e:-:. 
In thi!': unpretentiou!': home ('arlyle pa:-::-:ed many re:-:tful holiday:-: anHIlIg- his 
own people. 
" In the ancient county-town of lIa.ldillg-ton," he write
, " on .Tuly 14th, 
1801, there wa:-: horn to a lately wedded pair a little daug-hter, whom they 
nampel .Tanp Baillie "
el!':h. ami who
e !':uh
equent amI filial name (her OWlI 
comnwn 
ig-nature tin' many year
) was .Janp "" eI:-:h Carlyle. . . . Oh, she 
wa!': lIoble, '"ery lIohle, in that early a
 in all other period:,;, ami mafle the 
ug-liest awl dulle
t into :-:omethillg- heantifnl! I 1001. hack 011 it as if throug-h 
raillhow
 -the bit of 
ullshille hers, the tears my OWll." 
:\Ir:-:. Carlyle, ill her Ear!.'1 Lt'tlt'r.>:, mentiolls her father'
 hon1l' at II;lfldillg"Ìoll 
where !':he wa!': horll. "It i!': my lIatiye place :-:till ! alld after all, there i:-: mtwh 
ill it that I Im'e. I Imoe the hleachill/! g-reell. where I use.1 to caper, amI roll, 
ami tumble, amI make g-OW:tll ll(>('klaces alld chaill:-: of dawlelioll stalk:-:, ill the 
days of my , u.t't' t'.l'i..<tt'IIt.t'.' " 
Carlyle'!'; marria/!e with .Talle Baillie "" el
h took place (Ill Octoher 17th, 
18:!G, at Templaml, where :\fr;;:. \\" el
h thell resided. The ceremollY was of 
the (Iuiete!':t de"f'riptioll, hi:-: hrother .Johll Carlyle heillg- the ollly per
oll pre"ellt 
he:-:ide:-: :\Ii
" \r eh..h',. family. 
For eig-hteell mOllth
 after their mal'riag-e the Carlyles lived at :!], ('onwly 
Balik, the "trim littl.. cottap:e. far from all the uproar amI pntre:-:n'lIcP 
(material ami ,.piritual) of the reeky tOWlI, the sonml of which we hear 1I0t, 
amI ulIly 
ee m"er the kuowe the reflectioll of it
 g-aslight-; a/!aill
t the (lusky 
:-:ky." It was duriu/! this time that Carlyle cOlltributed e,.says to the EdiulJ/l r!Jh 
llml F()r,'igu ('//II1'ln!.'1 R,'/'it'lt",\'. Ill] R:!8 a rt'll1onll wa:-; maùe to :\fr. \\ 0 el
h':-: 
mallor at Craig-l'lIpnttock, where ill the 
olitnde "almo,.t druidical" Sartor 
/(".'l/lrfll.>; wa:-: writtell. .. Poor Pllttock !" he e\:daims iu olle of his lett('r
. 
" Castle of lllallY chag-rim;; peatbog- castl(>, where the tle,"illlen'r 
hullher
 1I0r 



38 


Carlyle's house 
at 5 (now 24), 
Cheyne Row, 
Chelsea 
see page 21 


Corner in 
Drawing-room at 
5, Cheyne Row 
see page 22 


The Garden at 
5, Cheyne Row 
see page 23 


The Sound-proof 
study at Cheyne 
Row 
see þm{e 31 


The garret study 
in 1857 
s
e page 29 


RIOGRAI)HICAL KOTE. 



leeps! very touching art thou to me when I look ou thy image here." In this 
louely 
pot, cut off from all social iutercourse, the Carlyles remained uutil 
]8:34, when, after "
ix years' impri
oll1neut ou the Dumfriesshire moor," they 
mm-ed to Chelsea aud took up their resideuce at 1\0. .'), Cheyue Row, in the 
house which was to be their home uutil death. 
After a week's wearisome house-huutiug in Loudou uuder the guidance of 
Leigh Huut, Carlyle seut a long descriptiou of the proposed new residence to 
his wife, of which the foUowiug is an extract :-" ". e are called' Cheyue Row' 
proper (pronouuced Chaiuie Row) aud are a ' geuteelueighbourhood,' two old 
ladies 011 the oue side, ullkuowu character on the other, hnt with 'pianos ' a
 
II unt said. The street is flag-pathed, sunk-storied, irou-railed, all old- 
fashioned aud tightly done up. . . . The house itself is eminent, antique, 
wainscoted to the ,-ery ceiling, and ha
 been all new painted amI repaired. . . . 
On the whole a most massi"e, roomy, 
ufficient old hou
e, with places, for 
example, to hang, say, three dozen hats or cloaks on, and as mauy crevices 
and queer old presses and sheh-ed closets as would gratify the most covetou
 
Goody-rent .f:3.')! I confess I am strongly tempted." 
The brightest aud happiest part of Carlyle's day was the early evening. 
., Home between fi,-e amI six, with mud mackintoshes off, amI the nightmares 
locked up for a while. I tried for au hour'.. sleep hefore my (
olitary, dietetic, 
altogether 
imple) bit of dillller; but first always came up for half an hour to 
the drawiug-room amI her; where a hright, kindly fire was 
ure to he hurning 
(caudles har/lly lit. an in trustful chiaroscuro). . . . 'I1Iis was the oue hright 
portiou of my black day. Oh, those eveniug half-hours, how heautiful amI 
hle

ed they were ! " 
The gardeu at ('heyne Row was much appreeiaterl hy the ('arlyle,.;. who 
turnerl to the hest arh'antage this" poor sooty patch." 
l rs. Carlyle writes: 
" Behind we have a garden (so called iu the lallg"uage of flattery) in the worst 
of order, hut hoasting of two vines which produced two hune1le
 of grapes in 
the sea
on, which' might be eaten,' and a walnut tree, from which I gathered 
almost sixpence-worth of walnuts." Here stood the ()\Iaiut chiua ha1'1"els sh(' 
often referred to a
 " nohlemen's seats," hut Carlyle g"enerally uspd one of the 
kitchen chair
 hy preference. He found the garden " of admirahle comfort 
in the smoking- way," and 
ometimes in summer would ha,-e hi
 writiug--tahle 
placed Ululer au awning 
tretched for that purpose. awl with a tray full of hook
 
at hi
 sirle wouM work there wheu the heat drm-e him from hi
 garret study. 
The ('on
truetiou of this 
ouwl-proof study wa
 propo
ed a" far haek as 
184-:3, hut not uutil ten years later wa" the enterprisp put into practical exeeu- 
tion. Ou Augu
t ] lth, 18.'):}, Carlyle wrote to his "ister: ,. At length, after 
deep rleliberatiou, I have fairly decided to ha,'e a top story put upon the hou
l'. 
one big apartment. tweuty feet square, with thiu dOllhle walls, lig-ht from the 
top, etc., and artfully ventilated, iuto which uo sOlllul (,{l/I come: awl all the 
cocks in uature may crow rOln1/1 it without my hearing a whisper of them! " 
The "cheme looked prmnisiug on paper, hut the re
ult was" irrenwdiahly 
somewhat of a failure." AltIwugh the noise" in the immediate neighhour- 
homl were exr'luderI, sounds in the rlistauce, ,. e\-il
 that he knew uot of" in 
tIu' lower rooms, hecame paiufully audihle; ne,-erthele.;;s he occupied the 
room as his "tudy until 186.5, and here, "whirled aloft hy augry elemeub-," 



Carlyle's writing- 
table and chair 
.ree page 33 


The ground fioor 
rooms at 5, 
Cheyne Row 
see page 28 


The kitchen at 
5, Cheyne Row 
see page 32 


Mrs. Carlyle's 
grave 
see page 26 


Carlyle's grave 
see page 26 


BIOGIlA PII ICAI.I KOTE. 


39 


he completed what Or. t
arnett named well "His '111irteen Y ears' "
ar 
with Frederick." Hi
 writing-table and arm-chair stood near the centre, amI 
within em;;y reach waf; the little mahogany table tin' the books he happened 
to be using- or such of them as were not on the tloor. 
Carlyle be(lueathed his writing-table to Sir James 
tephen. .. I know," 
he wrote in his will, "he will accept it as a distingui
hed mark of my e!'oòteem. 
He knows that it belonged to my father-in-law and his daughter, and that I 
haye written all my books upon it, except only :::Jchiller, and that for tifty 
years awl upward:" t1mt are 1l0W pa

ed I ha,'e con
idered it amollg the mo
t 
precious of my po..;spssions." 
It wa" into the groumI-tloor room
at that time spoken of a..; the 
" parlour "-that Edward Irying wa... ushered when he paid hi
 one yi!'oòit 
to Cheyne Row, ill autumn 18
4. "I recollect," writes Carlyle in the 
RI'lIiilli.w'I'IH'f'N, "how he complimented hpr (as well he might) on the pretty 
little room she had made for her hushami amI self; amI, rUJllling" his eye oyer 
her dainty bits of arrangemellt, ornamentation
 (all 
o frugal, 
imple, full 
of grace, propriety, and ingcn uity as they ever were), sai(I, smiling: 'Y ou 
are like an E,'e, aud make a little Paradi
e where,.er you are.'" 
Ko de
cription of Carlyle's Chelsea home would be complete without 
mention of the kitchen where :\1 r
. Carlyle mafIc marmala(le " pure a
 lill uill 
amher, in taste amI look almost poetically delicate" ; and where, too, she 
stirred Leigh lIunt'
 endlessly admirable nUH'sel of 
cotch porridg-e." 
Readers of the Lf'ftf'/W alld lIJenWrla/.., will ohtain many glimp
es of thi
 
apartment amI its occupantð. The fitting
 were ,'ery old-fa:"hioned, e
pl'- 
dally the open kite hen-range with its "kettle-crane" and "monthll' 
niggard
." Thc dn'

er which 
toO(I there in 18:34 remain", againf;t the 
I'outh wall; the table 
till stands in the centre, amI there is a sink in 
the corner he
ide the rli
c01lllecterl pump. 
"Then ('arlyle was resting at Dumfries, after the exhaustion of his 
triumphant Inaugural Addre
s upr)]l hi
 in
tallation a
 Lord Rector of 
Edinburgh l'nÍ\.ersity, he received the announcement of his wife's sudden 
death whil
t dri,'ing in her carriag-e in Hyde Park 011 April 21
t, HWli. 
The effect of the calamity upon him was terrible. "There is no spirit 
in me to write," he 
aid, "though I try it 
ometimel'." 
:\11'8. Carlyle was buried in Haddington Church. "I laid hl'r in the g-ran' 
of her father," writes ('arlyle in the U"lIIilli.w.f'IWf'...., .. accorllillþ!" to covellant 
of forty year
 hack, awl all was ended. In the mn'e of oM .\hhey Kirk, 
long a ruin, now heing 
a"ed from fmther decay, with the skies looking- 
down on her, there 
leeps my little Jeaunie, and the light of her f:U'e will 
never 
hine on n1C more." 
The inscription on Carlyle's tombstone is "ery 
imple: the family cre...t 
(two wyvern
), the family motto ([[/fllii/itatf'), and then the!'(' few words :- 
"lIere rests Thomas ('arlyle, who wa
 born at Ecdefechan, 
4th Decemher, 17!).-';, awl died at 
4, Cheyne Row, ('hel!'oòpa, 
London, on 
aturday, .5th Fehruary, H38l. 
"Xo monument," writes Froude, "i,.. needed for one who has made an 
eterual memorial for himself in the hearts of all to whom truth is the 
(learest of pos
es,..iOll:"." 



THOMAS 
CARLYLE 


From a portrait 
bV Daniel 
Maclise, R.A. 
.'t't: page 5 


From a sketch by 
Count D'Orsay 
(1839) 
see page 7 
From Sir J. E. 
Boehm's gold 
medallion 
see page IS 


From a drawing 
by E. J, Sullivan 
see pa,!{e 2-1- 


From the 
painting by 
J. McNeill 
Whistler 
Jet: pag
 13 


From the 
painting by 
G. F. Watts, R.A., 
ad. 73 
see pa.!{e 3 0 


From the 
portrait painted 
by Sir J. E, 
Millais, P.R.A. 
see page 27 


From a statue by 
Sir J. E. Boehm, 
KA. 
rel' page 35 


X ()TE 
PORTRAITS OF 


OX SOl\IE 
TIIO
lAS C AltL \
L

. 


This portrait i
 now in the \ïctoria and Alhert Museum. ,. Carlyle," 
writes I>a\'Ìd Hannay in the Jl"!Ja:dlll' qf' Art, "alreafly the author of 
Sartor H/,...artll.", stand
 leaning against the traditional pillar with the ('on- 
H'ntional air of ('olourless good hreediug". Tllf're is Iwither line in his 
faee lwr lig-ht in his eye." 
,. Ill' (D'()rsay) ha
 eontrin'd," 
ay
 the 
ame writer, "to make Carlyle 
look like the hero of a lady's llOyel-au exeellent ymmg man with a eurl 
in his upper lip amI a well-combed he:ul of hair." 
The medallion has heen l'l'prOflu('efl from a wood l'ng-raying hy Pear
ml. 
It wa:-: presented to ('arlyle in IB7.'), on his eightieth hirthday, hy friewls amI 
admirers ill Edillhurgh. 
., Profe
sor Diogeues Teufel:-:dröe kh, of "T eis:-:nichtwn, is nothing if lw 
is not ('arlyh' in disguise, the projef.tion of the Scotehman'
 iwli\'Ìlluality 
upun a haif-iulluoron:,:, half-philo:-:ophieal (;erman hackgroUlHI." -1<:rue8t 
Rhys: Introductory Xote to 8w.tol" H/wartll.... 
":\11'. "Thistler, in the (;la:-:gow Corporation 
\rt (;alleries, has distillctly 

uceeedell iu makillg the face of Carlyle interesting. Ill' has ayoided any- 
thing like exaggeration. I Ie has not tried to make ('apital nut of the rugged 
ma:-:
 of the hair, or to give a wild-man-of-the-woods look to tilt' face hy layillg 

tress on it
 deep line:" awl 
tprn eontonrs. Thp head is nohle, (1 uiet, alld 
:-:ad. The :uti:-:t ha:-: tried to l,aiut a 
erious portrait rather than to gi,-e a 
, ,'il'''',' and he IJ:ls !':lIl'(,l'eded." - Dayid Hannay ill the Jlaga::'Íw' (!f' Art. 
Thi
 portrait, e:xeeuted f(n' .John Forster, who wa
 "ery plea
ed with it, 
i" 1I0W in the l\atiollal Portrait (;allery. Carlyle hill1

lf flpðcribes it ;I
 
.. a fleliricnl!':-lookiug mouutehallk
 full of ,'ioleuce, awkwardne
s, atrocity, 
amI stupidity, without reco/!,uisahle likl'lIe
s to auythillg I ha\"e e"er kllown 
in auy feature of me. Fllit ill fati.... \\'hat can' I, after all? Forster is 
]]1 ue Ii ('olltellt." 
TIlt' }lidur.. hy :\1 iIlais, also ill the Xatiollal Portrait (;allery, was paillte<<1 
ill 1B77 for :\lr. .J. A. Frmult'. lIi:-: opillioll of it was a:-: follows :-" Awl p't 
IIl11lt'r :\lil1ai!oi's halllis tIll' oM ('arly
e :-:tood agaill UpOIl tlw ('an\"as as I had 
1I0t 
('CII him fin' thirty years. The illlH'r !':el'l"ct of the fl'atllre!oi h:ul hel'lI 
e\"ideutly caught. 1'her<' wa:-: a likelle:-:s which I)() !'culptor, 110 photog-rapher, 
h:ul yet e(IlIallcfl or appmache,l. Aftl'rwar<<1.., I kuew 1I0t how, it seemed to 
f;uh' away. :\Iillais grew Llis:-:ati:-:ficd with hi
 work, .allll, I belie\"e, ne,-er 
compl(,ted it." 
III the g:mlt'lls (m thl' (,ht'lsea Emhallkmeut !'talllls a statue of Thomas 
('arlyll' ill hroll7.(' hy the latl' Sir Edg-ar Boehm, whi('h was plaee<<1 there hy 
slIhseriptioll ill 1 UU:!. :\1 r. FroudI' ('ollsidel'ed it ., as sati:-:tiU'tory a likt'IIl':-:s 
in filec allli figllre :l:-: ('011111 he J'l'1II1eJ'l,LI ill s(,1I1ptllre; awl thl' warm regal"ll 
whil'h had grown up hl'tweell the artist allli Carlyle had cllahled Boehm to 
cat('h with llHll'l' thall ('ommmi S\1t'('l':-:.. tIll' shiftillg ehallges of his e:x Iu'('ssioIl." 
4 0 



THOMAS 


CARL YLE'S 


WORKS. 


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