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Full text of "Thoughts upon hare and fox hunting : in a series of letters to a friend ... also an account of the most celebrated dog kennels in the kingdom"

JOHNA.SEAVERNS 




o 



THOUGHTS 

UPON 

HARE AND FOX 

HUNTING, 

IN A 

SERIES OF LETTERS TO A FRIEND, 

IN •WHICH ARE GIVEN 

Ample directions for. erecting a kennel, thb 

management of hounds, and the duties 

and (qualifications necessary for. 

the huntsman and whipper-in, 

ALSO 

AN ACCOUNT 

OF 7 HE 

Mofl Celebrated Dog Kennels in the Kingdom. 



Illui^ratcd with twenty beautiful Engravings. 

Bv PETEPv BECKFORD, Esq, 



' Si quid novifti rcflius illi<;, 



Candidus imperti : fi non, his uteie mecum, HoK," 



A NEW EDITION; 



LONDON; 

Printed for. ternor and hood, birchin lane, 
cornhill. 1796. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



npKE Publi filers of the prefent Edition of 
this much-admired Treatife upon Hunt^ 
i?ig feel themfelves impelled to Hate candidly, 
but briefly, the motives which induced them 
to undertake it. 

That moft fportfmen who Were not already 
poireffed of the former editions of this valua- 
ble library of fportitig knowledge^ have been 
defirous of procuring it, but fought for it in 
vain, is a fad: well known to every fre- 
quenter of the chace : the book, therefore, 
meets the public eye in its prefent embellifhed 
ftate, in confequence of repeated folicitations 
from gentlemen in almoft every quarter of 
the kingdom, accompanied with well-grounded 
aflfu ranees from many of them^ that it would 
by no means be difagreeable to Mr. Beckford* 

A % Con- 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

Confcious of not being able to add to the 
literary fame which the writer has acquired 
by this pubhcation, they have confined them- 
felves merely to the decorative, inferting only 
fuch explanatory defcriptions of the plates as 
appeared neceflary. 

On the whole, they truft, that without 
giving any offence to the ingenious author, 
(the idea of which would be painful to them) 
tkey have contributed not a little to the grati- 
fication of every admirer of the cheerful and 
manly amufements of the field. 



PRE- 



PREFACE. 



A S the author of the followinv^ letters hath 
been charged with inhumanity, and yet 
conjedured to be a clergyman, it is now be- 
come neceflary to publifh his name; and 
though it may not be ufual to anfwer an ano- 
nymous writer, yet, as it is not impoilible that 
fome readers may have adopted his fentiments, 
this confideration, and this alone, induces fhe 
author to anfwer the objed:ions which the 
critic hath fo wantonly made. Whatever may 
be the imperfedion of thefe letters, the au- 
thor is defirous that it fhould fall, as it ougnt, 
upon himfelf only. The objedions, which 
he thinks were unnecelTarily made, he has 
endeavoured to remove. All intentional cruelty 

A 3 he 



VI PREFACE. 



he entirely difclaims. His appeal from that 
accufation hes to thofe whom he addrefTes as 
his judges j not (as the critic may think) be- 
caufe they are equally barbarous with himfelf, 
but becaufe fportfmen only are competent to 
decidca 



CON- 



CONTENTS. 



LETTER I. Page i. 

The fubjeB mtroduced — Himt'mg recommended not 
only as an entertaining^ but alfo as a wJiolefome 

exercife Cervantes^ and the SfeBator their 

opinion of hunting — For whom thefe letters ar^ 
intended-— Explanation of the frontifpece* 

LETTER n. Page 15. 

The kennel defcrihed zvith all its parts, 

LETTER in. Page 27. 

Of hounds ill general — Hounds of the middle fi%e 
recommended — AperfeB hound defcrihed — Skirt ers 
difapp-oved of — Obje£iions to a large pack. 

A 4 LET- 



mn CONTENTS. 

LETTER IV. Page ^7- 

Pf feeding hounds, and managing them in the ken-; 
neJ — Of fjie feeder — Cleanllnefs reccnimended—-: 
Time of feeding lllfiuted to feverify. 

LETTER V. Page t^^. 

Of breeding hounds, and naming them — Of th^ 
treatment of whelps^ ivlicn firfi taken into^ the 
kennel— Of rounding the7n, and fpaying hitches — - 
Of the numher n&i:ejfary to keep up the flock-— A 
lijl of names. 

LETTER VL Page 76. 

Of coupling young hounds, and breaking them fi'on^ 
Jlieep — Of entermg them — Befi method to mak^ 
them fieady — Kennel di/cipline ohje6fed to. 

LETTER VII. Page 86. 

The fame fubjeul continued — Hounds made handy by 
being taken out often — Different methods of en- 

lering young fox -hounds defer ibed Entering 

them at the martin 'cat recommended — Entering 
them at hare cenfured. 



LET- 



CONTENTS. iX 

LETTER VIII. Page 107. 

Of dijeafes and their rmedies — A curious frefcrip- 
t'wn for the cure of the mange, either in man or 
heafi — Ohfervations on madnefs. 

LETTER IX. Page 122. 

Pf the huntfman and whipper-in — Ohfervations ou 
fcent. 

LETTER X. Page 133. 

Hare-hunting defcrihed in all its parts — Of hounds 
heft fuited to that d'lverfion — Of the heji method 

of hunting them Sportfmen not intentionally 

cruel — Of the trial in a morniug — Of hare find- 
ers A particular method of hare-hunting re- 
lated — Curious advice about dr effing a hare. 

LETTER XI. Page 145. 

Hare-hunting continued — The many fliifts which a 
hare makes dejcnbed — A hint to fuch fportfmen 
as continue talking when their hounds are at fault 
—Chopping hares cenfured \ dire^fions how to 
frevefit it — Of the harmony of a pack — A hint 
to fuch ffortfnmi as ride over their houtuls, 

LET. 



K CONTENTS. 

. LETTER XIL Page 154. 

Of a hare-warre?! — Tke hares how caught — Beji 
method of turn'm<T them out — Hoiv a hare may ha 
made to run Jirait — T'lme to leave off hare-hunt-^ 
'^^^§ — Ofjiag-hmting at Turin. 

LETTER XIIL Page i6o. 

The defcription of a fcx-chace attempted. 

LETTER XIV. Page 170. 

Remarks on the foregoing Utter — when an early 
hour is neceffary — Some ohjh-vations on the draw- 
ing of hounds — Bad fporffiuen defer ihed — A gen- 
tlemans extraordinary hiovoledge of hunting — 
To make hounds Jieady and draw well, recom- 
mended — Much noife at finding a fox cenfured. 

LETTER XV. Page 181. 

Rcmarh on letter 1 3 continued- — Some direBions to 
the huntfman and whipper-in — Of Jfile in killing a 
fox — Of changing from otie fox to another — Rules 
to he ohferved when this ]uippe?is — Some ohferva- 
tions on the cafiifig of howuls — Riding too clofe 
upon them cenfured. 

LET- 



CONTENTS. Xl 



LETTER XVT. Page 191. 

Remarks on letter 1 3 ^ill continued— Of TialJoos — > 
Some remarkable inftances of tJiem — IVhen a fox 
ought not to be given up — When a pack of fox- 
hounds may be fuffered to try hack — Iflien fportf- 
men ought to he filent — Method of treating a fox 
defcribed — IVh-en it is the heft time to eat him. 

LETTER XVn. Page 199. 

^ digreffion in favour of fox-hunting — Fievj halloos, 
whefi too frequently given, cenfured — Of flopping 
the tail hounds, and throwing' them in at head — 
Of fkirters, when they do hurt — A hint to thofe 
•who follow hounds — IVhen foxes are in too great 

plenty, how to difperfe ihe?n A Frenchnmns 

opinion of a fox-chace, 

LETTER XVlir. Page 209. 

When an excellent whipper-in may be of more ufe 
than an excellent huntfnan — Barbarity defined — 
XJnneceffary feverity cenfured — Duty of a whip^ 
per-in — A perfe6l one defcribed — Of fteadinefs — 
Of hounds that kill Jlieep — NeceJJity of obedience 
'''—After hounds are made Jleady^ fonie caution 
I required 



Xil CONTENTS. 

required to keep them Jo — A curious letter from a 
huntj'manr 

LETTER XIX. Page 227. 

Mow a huntfman Jhould draw his hounds — Placing 
hounds advantagcoujly , a 7ieccjfary part of fox- 
hunting — When hounds do not hunt, how they 

JJiould he fed — Of drafting hounds When a 

huntfman ffioidd he after his time — JVhere foxes 
like hefi to lie — When gentlemen may he of fervice 
to hoiuids — Long drags, the objedion to them 
— The fagacity of the huck-hound. accounted for 
-—Correttion of hounds by the huntj]nan^ objected 

to Hounds that wdl not leave a cover, how 

treated — Of the good management of a pack of 
fox -hounds^ 

LETTER XX. Pago 246. 

Jim.v a himtfman fJionld cafi his hounds When 

hounds had better be exercifed on the turnpike 
road, tJian hunted — When it may be right to flop 

the tad hozcnds, and throw tliem in at head 

Huntfmen that are JIovj cenfured — When they 

^ould be careful riot to run the heel When 

hounds have many fcoits, how they Jhould be 
managed — Of the heading back of foxes — What 
i'jnjiitutes a perfect liun'jinan, 

LET- 



CONTENYSi Xlil 



LETTER XXI. Page 266. 

A hare-hunter an improper hunt/man I0 a pack of 
fox-hoimds — The harrier and fox-hound, in what 
they materially differ — Fitncfs ejfential to heauty 
— Ho\!D fportfmen may he of fervice to tired 
hounds — Of lotig days, the difad-vantage — The 
life — Why a fox hound JJiould he ahove his work — 
Much encouragement to hounds on had fcenting 
daySy ohjeBedto — Of hounds that run falfe. 

LETTER XXIL Page 278. 

Blood nee effary to a pack of foci-hounds — -The like- 
liefi method to procure it — Of accidents that hap- 
pen in fox-hu?iting — Of the proper time to leave 
off fox- hunting — A wanton deJlruBioyi of foxes 

cenfured Inequality of fcent unfavourcdde to 

hounds — An extraordinary character of a hunt/- 
man. 

. LETTER XXIIL Page 295. 

Bag -foxes : fome objection to them — A fox- court re- 
commended — Directions how cidis Jliould he treated 
— Some caution nee effary in huying of foxes — Of 
digging foxes — Badgers ohje^ed to — A method to 
fiink an earth — Hozv hadgers may he caught — Of 
terriers — Of dejiroying foxes — A remarkahle in- 

fiance of the lex talionis^ 

LET- 



%if CONTENTS^ 



LETTER XXIV. Page 309, 

iSichje3 concluded — Some ohfefvaiions concerning the 
management of a hunter — Remarks upon Jhoehig 
• — Summer hunting ohje6fed to — P^irgd, Horace^ 
Pliny : their opinion of a country life — Hunting 
not fo dangerous as it has been thought— 'Some 
quotations from other authors. 

Account of the moft celebrated dog-kennels, page 
326. 



tJlREC- 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER, 



FOR PLACING THE 



u r S. 



F 



Pa^^. 



OX-Chace at, Caftlc Coombe To face Title, 

Richard Fairbrotber - - - 131 

Going out in the Morning - - 139 

Finding the Hare - - - - 140 

Trying for a Hare - - - - 145 

HareinViciw ----- 146 

Hitting her off at a Fault * - 147 

Death of the Hare - - - - 151 

Drawino; Cover - - - - i6a 

Breaking Cover - - - - 163 

In View - - - - - 1 65 

At Fault - - - - - 167 

The Death - - - - - 169 

Earth flopping - - . - , 241 

His Majefiy's Dog Kennel, at Afcot - 326 

Swinley Lodge - - - - 3^9 
Duke of Richmond's Dog Kennel, at 

Goodwood - - - - 331 
Duke of Bedford's Stables, &c. at Woo- 

burn ----- 334 
Sir William Rowley's Dog Kennel, at 

Tendering Hall - - - - 336 

Plaia of ditto - - * ' 33^^ 



THOUGHTS 



UPON 



N T I N G. 



LETTER L 



Briftol Hot-Wells, March 20, 1779. 
'\7'OU could not have chofen, my friend, a 
-*- better feafon than the prefent, to remind 
me of lending you my Tiioughts upon Hunting; 
for the accident that brought me hither is Hkely 
to detain me fome time: belides, I have no 
longer a plea for not obeying your commands. 
Hitherto, indeed, I had excufed myfelf, in 
hopes that fome publication on the fubjedl might 
have rendered thefe letters needlefs; but lince 
nothing of the kind, although fo much wanted, 
has appeared, as I am now fufficiently unoccupied 
to undertake the talk, I fhall not think it a tri- 

B iiing 



2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

fling fubjec'^, if you think it a neccltliry one:} 
and I wifh my own experience of the diverlioii 
may enable me to anfwer the many queftions 
which you are pleafed to propofe concerning it. • 

Knowing your partiality to rhyme, I could 
wifh to fend you my thoughts in verfe; but as 
this would take up more time, without anfwer- 
ing your purpofe better, I mull: beg you to ac- 
cept them in humble profe, which, in my opi- 
nion, is better fuited to the fubjed. Dida6lic cf- 
fays fhould be as little clogged as poflible; they 
fliould proceed regularly and clearly ; fliould be 
ealily written, and as eafily underflood, having 
lefs to do with words than things. The game of 
cramho is out of falhion, to the no fmall preju- 
dice of the rhyming tribe; and before I could 
find a rhyme io porringer, I fhould hope to finifli 
a great part of thefe letters : I fhall therefore, 
without farther delay, proceed upon them: this, 
however, I mutt defire to be firft underflood be- 
tween us; that when, to lave trouble to us both, 
I fay a thing is, without tacking a falvo to the 
tail of it, fuch as, in my opnion — to the hejl of 7ny 
judgment, he. &c. — you ihall not call my humi- 
lity in queftion, as the afTertion is not meant to 
be mathematically certain. When I have any 
better authority than my own, fuch as Somervile, 
for inflance, (who, by the bye, is the only one 
that has written intelligibly on this fubje6t) I 

fhaU 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^ 

^all fake the liberty of giving it you in his own 
words, to fave you the trouble of turning to 
him* 

You may remember, perhaps, that when we 
were huntine: together at x urin, the hounds 
having loft the ftag, and the piqueurs (ftill more 
in fault than they) being ignorant which way to 
try, the king hid theip. alk Milord Anglois. Nor 
is it to be wondered at, if ^n Englifhman fhculd 
be thought to underftand the art of hunting, as 
the hounds which this country produces are uni- 
verfally allowed to be the bcft in the world : from 
whence T think this inference may be drawn, that 
although every man who follows this diverlion 
may not underftand it, yet it is extraordinary of 
the many who do, that one only of any note 
fhould have written on the fubject. It is rather 
unfortunate for me that this ingenious fportfman 
fhould have preferred writing an elegant poem to 
an ufeful leftbn ; lince, if it had pleafed him, he 
might eaftly have faved me the trouble of writing; 
thefe letters. Is it not flrange in a country where 
the prefs is in one continued labour with opi- 
nions of almoft every kind, from the moft ferious 
and inftrudiive to the moft ridiculous and tri- 
fling; a country beftdes, fo famoAis for the beft: 
hounds, and the beft horfes to follow them, 
whofe authors fometimes hunt, and whofe fportf- 
men fometimes write, that only the pradical part 
B a of 



'4 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

of hunting fhould be known? There is, how- 
ever, no doubt that the pradical part of it would 
be improved, were it to be accompanied by 
theory. 

France, Germany, and Italy, are alfo iilenty 
I beheve, on this lubjec^, though each of thefe 
countries has had its fportfmen. Foxes, it is 
Irne, they never hunt, and hares but feldom ; 
yet the flag and wild boar, both in France and in 
Germany, are flill purfued with the utmoft fplen- 
dour and magnificence. In Italy there has been 
no hunting lince the death of the Duke of Par- 
ma : he was very fond of it, and I apprehend all 
hunting in that country ceafed v/ith him. The 
only fportfmen now remaining are gentlemen in 
green coats, V'/ho taking their couieaux de chajfe 
along with them, walk into the fields to catch 
fmal thirds, ssX^xohXh^y c-^X andar ala cacc'ia^ or, 
rn plain Englifh, going a hunting; yet it has not 
been fo Vv'ith horfemanlhip; that has been treated 
fcientifically by all — in Italy by Pignatelli — in 
Germany by Ifenbourg — and in France by La 
Guerinierc : nor are the ufeful leflbns of the 
Duke of Newcaftle confined to this country only; 
they are both read and pra61ifed every where; 
nor is he the only noble lord who has written on 
the fubje6t. While upon hunting, all are filent, 
and were it not for the mufe of Somervile, who 
has fo judicioufly and fo fwectly fung, the dog,. 

tllAt 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 5 

that iifeful, that honeft, that faithful, that difin- 
terelted, that entertaining animal, would be 
fuffered to pafs unnoticed and undiflinguifhed. 

A northern court once, indeed, did honour 
this animal with a particular mark of approba- 
tion and refpe^l; but the fidelity of the dog has 
iince given place to tlie fagacity of the ele- 
phant.* Naturalifts, it is true, have included 
dogs in the fpecific defcriptions they have given 
us of animals. Authors may liave written on 
hunting, and bookfellers may know many that 
to fportfmen are unknown; but I again repeat, 
that I know not any writer, ancient or modern, 
from the time of Nimrod to the prefent day (one 
only excepted) who has given any ufeful infor- 
mation to a fportfman.-^ 

It may be objected, that the hunting of a 
pack of hounds depends upon the huntfman, and 
that the huntfman, generally fpeaking, is an il- 
literate fellow, who feldom can either read or 
write: this cannot well be denied. I muft, 
tlierefore, obferve, that it is impoffible for the 
bull nets of a kennel to go on as it ought, unlefs 



* Vide Mr. Pope's Letter to Mr. Cromwell. 

t Many French authors have given rules for hunting the 
"hare, and flag ; to make this paflage lefs exceptionable, there- 
fore, it may be better perhaps, inftead ol fportjman.^ to read 
fox-hunter. 

B 3 the 



€ 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



the mafter himfelf knows fomething of it. There 
mull be an underftanding fomewhere, and with- 
OLit it no gentleman can enjoy in perfection this 
jioble diversion. 

It was the opinion of a great fporttman, that 
it is not lefs difficult to find 'i perfect huntfman, 
than a good prime minifter. "Without taking 
upon me to determine what requifites may be 
neceffary to form a good prime minifter I- will 
defcribe fome of thofe which arc effentially ne- 
ceffary towards forming a perfc6l huntfman ; 
qualities which, I will venture to fay, would not 
difgrace more brilliant fituations : fuch as a clear 
head, nice obfervation, quick apprehenlionj un- 
daunted courage, flrength of conftitution, a6li- 
vity of body, a good car, and a good voice. 

There is not any one branch of knowledge, 
commonly digniiicd with the title of art, Vy'hich 
has not fuch rudiments or principles, as m.ay lead 
to a competent degree of fkill, if not to perfec- 
tion, in it : whilft hunting, the fole bufinefs of 
fome, and the amufement of moll of the youth 
in this kingdom, feems left entirely to chance. 
Its purfuit puts us, both to greater expence, and 
^Ifo, to greater inconvenience than any other ; 
yet, notwithftanding this, we truft our diverfior^ 
in it to the fole guidance of a huntfman : we 
follow jull as he iliall chufe to conduct vis j and 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIxVG. >? 

we fufFer the fuccefs, or difappointment of the 
chace to depend folely on the judgment of a fel- 
low, who is frequently a greater brute than the 
creature on which he rides. I would not be un- 
derftood to mean by this, that a huntfman fhould 
be a fcholar, or that every gentleman fhould 
hunt his own hounds : it is not neceflary a huntf- 
man fhould be a man of letters ; but give me 
leave to obferve, that had he the bell undcrfj-and- 
ing, he would frequently find opportunities of 
exercising it, and intricacies whicli might put it 
to the teft. You will fay, perhaps, there is fonie- 
thing too laborious in the occupation of a huntf- 
man for a gentleman to take it upon himfelf ; 
you may alfo think it is beneath him ; I agree 
with you in both — yet I hope that he may have 
leave to underftand it. If he follow the diver- 
lion, it is a lign of his liking it ; and if he like 
it, furely it is fome difgrace to him to be ignorant 
of the means mofh conducive to obtain it. 

I find there will be no neceffity to fay much 
in commendation of a diverfion to you, wdiich 
you fo profefledly admire ;* it would be needlefs, 

there- 

* Since the above was written, hunting has undergone a 
fevere cenfure, (vide iV'onthly Review for September, 1781) 
nor will any thing fatisfy the critic lefs than its total abolidon. 
He recommends feats of agility to be praftifed and exhibited 
inftead of it. Whether the amendment propofed by the learned. 

B 4 gentle- 



,S THOUGHTS UpON HUKTINGa 

therefore, to enumerate the heroes of antlqiiity 
who were taught the art of hunting; or the 
many great men (among whom was the famous 
Galen) who have united in recommending it. I 
fhall, however, remind you, that your heloved 
hero, Henry the Fourth of France, made it his 
chief amufement, and his very love letters, ftrange 
as it may appear, are full of little elfe : and that 
one of the greateft minifters which our own coun- 
try ever produced, was fo fond of this diverfion, 
that the firft letter he opened, as I have been 
told> was generally that of his huntfman. — In 
moft countries, from the earliefl times, hunting 
has been a principal occupation of the people, 
either for ufe or amufement ; and many princes 
have made it their chief delight : a circumilance 
which occafioncd the following hon mot. — Louis 
the Fifteenth was fo paffionately fond of this di- 
vertion, that it occupied him entirely ; the King 
of Pruflia, who never hunts, gives up a great 
deal of his time to mufic, and himfelf plays on 
the flute : a German, lall war meeting a French- 
gentleman be defirable or nof, I fliall forbear to determine ; 
taking the liberty, however, to remind him, that as hunting 
hath flood its ground from the earlieft times, been encouraged 
and approved by the beft authorities, and praftifed by the 
greateft men, it cannot now be fuppofed to dread criticifm, or 
to need fupport. Hunting originates in nature itfelf, and it is 
in perfed correfpondence to this law of nature, that the feve- 
ral animals are provided with neceiTary means of attack and 
defence. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^ 

man, aiked him very impertinently, " Si/on ^naitrt 
^' chajfo'it toujour sT'' " Ou'i^ out,'''' replied the other 
— '^ il ne joue jamais de la jiute^'' — The reply was 
excellent, but it would have been as well, per- 
haps, for mankind, if that gi^eat man had never 
been otherwife employed. — .Hunting is the foul 
of a countrv life ; it gives heaUh to the body, 
and contentment to the mind ; and is one of the 
few pleafures we can enjoy in fociety, without 
prejudice either to ourfelves, or our friends. 

The Speculator has drawn with infinite humour 
the chara6ler of a man who pafles his whole life 
in purfuit of trifles ; and it is probable, other 
Will Wimbles might ftill be foiind. I hope, 
however, that he did not think they were con- 
fined to the country only. Triiicrs there are of 
every denomination. Are we not all triflers ? 
and are we not told that all is vanity ? — The 
Spectator, v/ithout doubt, felt great compallion 
for Mr. Wimble ; yet Mr. Wimble miglit not 
have been a proper object of it ; fince it is more 
than probable he was a happy man, if the em- 
ployment of his time in obliging others, and 
plealing himfelf, can be thought to have made 
him fo. — Whether vanity miflead us or not in the 
choice of our purfuits, the pleafures or advan- 
tages which refult from them, will heft determine, 
—I fear the occupation of few gentlemen will 
^dmit of nice fcrutiny ; occupations, therefore, 

that 



10 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 

that amufe, and are at the fame time innocent t 
that promote exercife and conduce to health ; 
tliough they may appear trifles in the eyes of 
otherSj certainly are not fo to thofe wlio enjoy 
them. Cf this nun:ber I think I may reckon 
hunting ; and I am particularly glad the fame 
author furnilhes a quotation in fupport of it; 
" for my own part/' fays this elegant writer, " I 
*' intend to hunt twice a week during my ftay 
" with Sir Roger ; and fhall prcfcrihe the mo- 
*' derate ufe of this exercife to all my country 
^ friends, as the beft phytic for mending a bad 
" conftitution, and preferving a good one." — 
The inimitable Cervantes alfo honourably men- 
tions this diverlion : he makes Sancho fay — 
" Mercy on mc, what pleafure can yon find, any 
" of ye all, in kilhng a poor bead: that never 
'- meant any harm !" th;it the Duke may reply, 
•.- — You are miltaken, Sancho; hunting wild 
*' beafts is the moil proper exercife for knights 
'^ and princes; for in the chace of a ftout noble 
*' beafl, may be reprefcnted the whole art of 
*^ war, ilratagems, policy, and ambul^ades, with 
•' all other devices uliially praclifed to overcome 
" an enemy with fafety. Here we are expofed 
*^ to the extremities of heat and cold ; cafe and 
** lazincfs can have no room in this diverlion ; 
♦* by this we are inured to toil and hardfhip, our 
**■■ limbs are ftrengthened, our joints made fupple, 
*' and our whole body hale and active : in fhort. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, I| 

'* it is an exercife that may be beneficial to many, 
^^ and can be prejudicial to none." — Small, in- 
deed, is the number of thofe, who in the courfe 
of 5000 years have employed themfelves in the 
advancement of iifeful knowledge. Mankind 
have been blell with but one Titus, that we 
know of; and, it is to be feared, he has had but 
few imitators. Days and years fly away, nor is 
any account taken of them, and how many may 
realbnably be fuppofed to pafs without affording 
even amufement to others, or fatisfadion to our- 
feives. Much more, I think, might be faid in 
favour of the Wimbles ; but it muft be confeffed, 
that the man who fpends his whole time in trifles, 
pafies it contemptibly, compared with thofe who 
are employed in refearches after knowledge ufeful 
to mankind, or in profeffions ufeful to the flate. 

I am glad to lind that you approve of the plan 
I propofe to obferve in the courfe of thefe letters, 
wherein it fhall be my endeavour not to omit 
any thing which it may be necefTary for you to 
know ; at leail, as far as my own obfervation 
and experience will give me leave. The expe- 
rience I have had may be of ufe to you at pre- 
fent ; others, perhaps, hereafter may write more 
judicioufly and more fully on the lubje6l : you. 
know it is my interell to wifli they would. The 
few who have written on hunting, refer you to 
Ifheir predeceffors for great part of the informa- 
tion 



12 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

tion you might expe6l from them ; and who their 
predecelTors were I have yet to learn. Even So- 
mervile is lefs copious than I could with, and 
has purpofely omitted what is not to be found 
clfewhere ; I mean receipts for the cure of fuch 
difcafes as hounds are fubje6l to. He holds fuch 
information cheap, and beneath his lofty mufe. 
Profe has no excufe, and you may depend on 
every information that I can give. The familiar 
manner in which my thoughts will be conveyed 
to you in thL'fe letters, may -fuffieiently evince 
the intention of the author. They are written 
with no other delign than to be of ufe to fportf- 
men. Were my aim to amufe, I would not en- 
deavour to inftriidl. A fong might fuit the pur- 
^pofe better than an effay. To improve health 
by promoting exercife ; to excite gentlemen who 
are fond of hunting to obtain the knowledge 
necefiary to enjoy it in perte6lion ; and to Icflcn 
the punilTiments which are too often infli6^ed on 
an animal fo friendly to man, are the chief ends 
•intended by the following letters. 

I fhall not pretend to lay down rules which 
are to be equally good in every country ; I fhall 
think myfelf fuihciently juftified in recommend- 
ing fuch as have been tried with fnccefs in the 
countries where I have generally hunted. As 
almoft every country has a different dialed, you 
will alfo excufe, I hope, any terms that may not 

be 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, IJ 

be current with you : I will take the beft care I 
can that the number fhall be fmall. I need not, 
I think, adviie you not to adopt too ealily the 
opinions of other men. You will hear a tall man 
lay it is folly to ridci any but large horfes ; and 
every little man in company will immediately fell 
his little horlcs, buy fuch as he can hardly 
mount, and ride them in hilly countries, for 
which they are totally unfit. Pride induces 
fome men to dictate ; indolence makes others 
like to be dictated to ; fo both parties find their 
account in it. You will not let this miflead you. 
You will dare to think for yourfelf. — Nor will 
you believe every man who pretends to know 
what you like better than you do yourfelf. There 
is a degree of coxcombry, I believe, in every 
thing : you have heard, I make no doubt, that 
greyhounds are either black, or white, or black 
and white ; and if you have any faith in thofe 
wlio fay they know beft, they will tell you that 
there are no others.* Prejudice, however, is by 
far too blind a guide to be depended on. 

I have read ibmewhere, that there is no book 
fo bad, but a judicious reader may derive fome 
advantage from the reading of it ; I hope thefe 

* There is a fafliion in greyhounds: fonie couiTers even 
pretend that all not being of the fafliionable colour are curs, 
and not greyhounds. Grej-hound feems to be a corruption 
from fome other ward— iriofl probably from gaze-hound. 

J letters 



l4 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

letters will not prove the only exception. Shouli^ 
they fall into the hands of fach as are not fportf- 
men, I need not, I think, make any excufes to 
them for the contents, lince the title fufficiently 
Hiews for whom they were defigned. Nor are 
they meant for fuch fportfmen as need not in- 
ilruc^ion, but for thofe that do; to whom, I 
prefume, in fome parts at leall:, they may be 
found of ufe. Since a great book has been long 
looked upon as a great evil, I fhall take care not 
to lin that way at leaft, and fliall endeavour to 
make thefe letters as Ihort as the extent of my 
fubje(5l will admit. 

I ftiall now take my leave of you for the pre- 
fent ; in my next letter I Ihall proceed according 
to your defire, till I have anfwered all your quef- 
tlons. Remember you are not to expe6t enter- 
tainment ; I wifh that you may find fome in- 
ftru6lion : the drynefs of the fubjedl may excufe 
your want of the one, and I cannot doubt of your 
indulgence, whilfL I am obeying your commands, 
though /fhould fail in the other. 



L E T^ 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. j d 



L E T T E R IL 

C ^N'CE you intend to make liunting your chief 
^^ amufemcnt in the country, you are certainly 
in the right to give it fome confideration before 
you begin, and not like Mafter Stephen in the 
piny, firiz boy a hawk, and then hunt after a 
book io keep it by. I am glad to find that you 
intend to build a new kennel, and I flatter my- 
felf the experience I have had may be of fome 
ufe to you in building it : it is not only the iiril 
thing that you fhould do, but it is alfo the motl 
important. As often as your mind may alter, io 
often may you eafily change from one kind of 
hound to another ; but your kennel v/ill flill re- 
main the fame ; will ftill keep its original ira- 
perfed^ions, unlefs altered at a great expence ; 
and be lefs perfect at laft than it might have been 
made at firfi, had you purfued a proper plan. 
It is true, hounds may be kept in barns and fta- 
bles ; but thofe who keep them in fuch places can 
bed inform you whether their hounds are capable 
of anfvvering the purpofes for which they were 
deiigned. The fenle of fmelling, the odora canian 
rw, as Virgil calls it, is fo exquilite in a hound, 
that I cannot but fuppofe every flench is hurtful 
to it. It is that faculty on which all our hopes 

depend; 



X6 THOfGHTS ITPON HUNTING. 

depend ; it is l/uii which mufl lead us o'er greafy 
fallows, where the feet of the game we piirfue 
being clogged leave little fcent behind, as well 
as o'er ftony roads, through watery meads, and 
where fheep have ilained the ground. 

Cleanlincfs is not only abfolutely necefTary to 
the nofe of the hound, but alfo to the preferva- 
tion of his health. Dogs are naturally cleanly 
animals ; they feldom, when they can help it, 
dung where they lie ; air and frefh ftraw are ne- 
ceflary to keep them healthy. They are fubje61: to 
the mange ; a diforder to which poverty and 
naliincfs will very much contribute. T/iis, though 
eafily flopped at its firfl appearance, if fuffered 
to continue long may leilcn the powers of the 
animal ; and the remedies which are then to be 
ufed, being in themfelves violent, mufl injure 
his conftitution : it had better be prevented : let 
the kennel, therefore, be an objedt of your par- 
ticular care. 

*' Upon fome little eminence ereft, 

And fronting to the ruddy dawn ; its courts 

On either hand wide opening to receive 

The fun's all-checring beams, when mild he fhines, 

And gilds the mountain tops."— — — 

Let fuch as Somervile direcls be the lituation; 
its fize muft be fuited to the number of its inha- 
bitants; the architedlure of it maybe conformable 

to 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. tj 

to your own tafle. Ufelefs expence I fliould not 
recommend; yet, as I fuppole you will often make 
it a vilit, at leaft in the hunting feaibn, I could 
wifh it might have neatnefs without, as well as 
cleanlinefs within, the more to allure you to it ; 
I fhould for the fame reafon wifh it to be as near 
to your houfe as you will give it leave. I know 
there are many objedtions to its being very near; 
I forefee ftill more to its being at a diflance: 
there is a vulgar faying, that it is the mailer's eye 
that makes the horfe fat ; I can affure you it is 
even more necefiary in the kennel, v/here clean- 
linefs is not lefs effential than food. 

There are, I make no doubt, many better 
kennels than mine, feme of which you fhould 
fee before you begin to build ; you can but make 
ufe of my plan in cafe that you like no other 
better. If, in the mean time, I am to give you 
my opinion what a kennel ought to be, I mufl 
fend you a defcription of my own, for I have 
not feen many others. 

I would advife you to make it large enough at 
firft, as any addition afterwards muft fpoil the 
appearance of it. I have been obliged to add to 
mine, which was built from a plan of my own, 
and intended, at firft, for a pack of beagles. My 
feeding-yard being too fmall, I will endeavour to 
remedy that defed in the defcription I fend you, 

C which- 



l8 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

which may be ftill enlarged or leflened, as yen 
think fit, or as your occafions may require. Thd 
feeding troughs fhould be wide at the bottom, 
and mull have wooden covers. 

.1 think two kennels abfolutely neceflary to tlie 
well-being of the hounds; when there is but 
one, it is fcldom fweet ; and when cleaned out, 
the hounds, particularly in winter, fufFer both 
whilii it is cleaning, and as long as it remains 
wet afterwards. To be more clearly underflood 
by you, I fhall call one of thefc the himting- 
kenneJ, by which I mean that kennel into which, 
the hounds, intended to hunt the next day, are 
drafted. Ufed always to the fame kennel, they 
will be drafted with little trouble ; they will an- 
fwer to their names more readily, and you may 
count your hounds into the kennel with as much 
eafe as a Ihepherd counts his flicep out of the 
fold. 

When the feeder firft comes to the kennel in a 
morning, he fhould let out the hounds into the 
outer court ; and in bad weather he fliould open 
the door of the hunting-kennel, lefl: want of reft 
fhould incline them to go into it. The lodging- 
room fhould then be cleaned out, the doors and 
windows of it opened, the litter fhaken up, and 
the kennel made fweet and clean before the 
hounds return to it again. The great court and 

the 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ig 

the other kennels arc not lefs to be attended to, 
nor fliould you pafs over in lilence any omiliion 
that is hurtful to your hounds^ 

The floor of each lod£rinj2;-room fhould be 
l)ricked, and floped on both fides to run to the 
centre, with a gutter left to carry off the water, 
that when they are wafhed they may be Iboti 
dry. If water fhould remain through any fault 
in the floor, it fhould be carefully mopped up ; 
for as warmth is in the greatefl degree neceflary 
to hounds after work, fo damps are equally pre- 
judicial. You will think me, perhaps, too par- 
ticular in thefe diredlions ; yet there can be no 
harm in your knowing what your fervants ought 
to do ; as it is not impolTible it may be fometimes 
neceffary for you to fee that it is done. In your 
military profellion you are perfectly acquainted 
with the duty of a common foldier, and though 
you have no further bulinefs with the minutise of 
it, without doubt you ftill find the knowledge of 
them ufeful to you : believe me, they may be 
ufeful here ; and you will pardon me, I hope, if 
1 wifh to fee you a Martinet in the kennel as 
well as in the field. Orders given without fkill 
are feldom well obeyed, and wiiere the mafier 
is either ignorant, or inattentive, the fervant will 
be idle. 

€ % I alfo 



SiiO THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

I alfo wifli that, contrary to the ufual pra^bice 
in building kennels, you would have three doors; 
two in the front, and one in the back ; the laft to 
have a lattice-window in it, with a wooden fhut- 
ter, which is conftantly to be kept clofed when 
the hounds are in, except in fummcr, when it 
fhould be left open all the day. This door an- 
fwers two very neceffary pur]>ofes : it gives an 
opportunity of carrying out the flraw when the 
lodging-room is cleaned, and as it is oppofite ta 
the window, will be a means to let in a tho- 
rough air, which will greatly contribute to keep 
it fweet and wholefomc. The other doors will 
be of ufe in drying the room, when the hounds 
are out ; and as one is to be kept fhut, and the 
other hooked back, (allowing juft room for a dog 
to pafs) they are not liable to any objection. 
The great window in the centre fliould have a 
folding-flmtter ; half, or the whole of which, 
fnay be fhut at nights, according to the weather j 
and your kennels by that means may be kept 
warm or cool, jufl as you pleafe to have them. 
The two great lodging-rooms are exadly alike, 
and as each has a court belonging to it, are dif- 
tin6l kennels, lituated at the oppolite ends of the 
building ; in the centre of which is the boiling- 
houfe and feeding-yard ; and on each tide a lefler 
kennel, either for hounds that are drafted ofF,- 
hounds that are Hck or lame, or for any other 
purpofe, as occalion may require. At the back 

of 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2 1 

of which, as they are but half the depth of the 
two great kennels, are places for coals, &c. for 
the ufe of the kennel. There is alfo a fmall 
building in the rear for hot bitches. The floors 
of the inner courts, like thofe of the lodging- 
rooms, are bricked and floped towards the cen- 
tre : and a channel of water, brought in by a 
leaden pipe, runs through the middle of thein. 
In the centre of each court is a well, large enough 
to dip a bucket to clean the kennels ; this muft 
be faced with ftone, or it will be often out of re- 
pair. In the feeding -yard it fhould have a woodeu 
cover. 

The benches, which muft be open to let the 
urine through, fhould have hinges and hooks in 
the wall, that they may fold up, for the greater, 
convenience in wafhing out the kennel ; they 
fhould alfo be made as low as poffible, that a 
hound, when he is tired, may have no difficulty in 
jumping up ; and at no time may be able to creep 
under :* let me add, that the boiler fliould be of. 
caft iron. 

* Benches cannot be too low : — If, owing to the fmalhiefs 
of the hound, it fhould be difficult to render them low enough, 
a projeAing ledge will anfwer the fame purpofe, and the 
benches may be boarded at bottom to prevent the hound from 
creeping under. 

C % The 



2Z THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIIS'G. 

The reft of the kennel confifls of a large court 
in front, which is alfo bricked, having a grafs- 
court adjoining, and a little brook running 
through the middle of it. The earth that was 
taken out of it is thrown up into a mount, where 
the hounds in lummer dehght to fit. This court 
is planted round with trees, and has, befides, a 
lime tree, and fome horfe chcfnut trees near the 
niiddle of it, for the fake of fhade. A high pale 
inclofes the whole ; part of which, to the height 
of about four feet, is clofe ; the other open ; the 
intcrftices are about two inches wide. The grafs- 
rourt is pitched near the pale, to prevent the 
hcun is from fcratching out. If you cannot guefs 
the intention of the pofis which you fee in the 
courts, there is fcarcely an inn window on any 
road, where the following line \vill not let you 
into the fecret : 

** So dogs will p— where dogs have p — -d before." 

This is done to fave the trees, to which the 
urinary (idts are prejudicial. If they be at firft 
backward in coming to them, bind tome ftraw 
roiind the bottom, and rul) it with galbanura. 
The brook in the grafs-court may ferve as a 
flew : your fifh will be very i'dfc* 

* It may alfo be ufed as a cold bath for fuch hounds as fland 
in need of it. For lamenefs in the flifle, and for ftrains, it will 
be found cf fervice. 

At 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2^ 

At the back of the kennel is a boufe, thatched 
and furzed up on the fides, bi^ enough to con- 
tahi at leafl a load of ilraw. Here fliould be a 
pit ready to receive the dung, and a gallows for 
the fleih. The gallows fhould have a thatched 
roof, and a circular board at the pofts of it, to 
prevent vermin from climbing up. If you can 
indole a piece of ground adjoining to your ken- 
nel, for fuch dog horfes as may be brought to 
you alive, it will be of great ufe, as it might be 
dan.o-erous to turn them out where other horfes 
go ; for you may not always be able to difcover 
their diforders. Hither you may aUb bring your 
hounds, after they have been fed, to empty 
themfelves ; here you will have more opportunities 
of feeing them than in the kennel, and will be 
enabled, therefore, to make your draft for the 
next day with greater accuracy. 

A flove, I believe, is made ufe of in fome ken- 
nels ; but where the feeder is a good one, a mop, 
properly ufed, will render it unnecefTary. I have 
a little hay-rick in the grafs-yard, which^ I think, 
is of ufe to keep the hounds clean and fine in 
their coats ; you will tind them frequently 
rubbing themfelves againft it : the fliade of it 
alfo is ufefiil to them in fummer. If ticks at 
any time be troublefome in your kennel, let 
the walls of it be well walhed; if that fhould 
C 4 not 



t4- THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

not deftroy them, the walls muft then be whitc- 
wafhed. 

In the fummer when you do not hunt, one 
kennel will be fufficient ; the other then may be 
iet apart for the young hounds, which fliould alfo 
have the grafs-court adjoining to it. It is beft at 
that time of the year to keep them feparate, and 
it prevents many accidents which otherwife might 
happen ; nor fhould they be put together till the 
hunting feafon begins.* If your hounds be very 
quarrel fome, the feeder may fleep in a cot, in the 
kennel adioinincf; and if thev be well ch ail: i fed 
at the firft quarrel, his voice will be fufhcient to 
fettle all their differences afterwards.-}- Clofc to 
the door of the kennel, let there be always a 
quantity of little fwitches, which three narrow 
boards, nailed to one of the poils, will eafily 
contain.:}: 

•* The dogs and the bitches may alfo be kept feparate from 
each other during the funimer months, where there are conve- 
niences for it. 

f In a kennel in Oxfordfliire the feeder pulls a bell, which 
the hounds underftand the meaning of; it filences them im- 
mediately, and faves him the trouble of getting out of his bed. 

I When hounds are perfeftly obedient, whips are no longer 
neceflary ; fwjtches, in my opinion, are preferable. The whips 
I life are coach whips three feet long, the thong half the length 
of the crop. They are more handy than horfe whips, curred 
the hounds as well, and hurt them lefs, 

My 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 1^ 

My kennel is clofe to the road-fide, but it was 
unavoidable. This is the reafon why my front 
pale is clofe, and only the fide ones open ; it is 
a great fault : avoid it if you can, and your 
hounds will be the quieter. 

Upon looking over my letter, I find I begin 
recommending, with Mr. Somervile, a high litu- 
ation for the kennel, and afterwards talk of a 
brook running through the middle of it ; I am 
afraid that you will not be able to unite thefe two 
advantages; in which cafe, without doubt, wa- 
ter fhould be preferred : the mount I have men- 
tioned will anfwer all the purpofes of an emi- 
nence : belides, there Ihould be moveable fiages 
on wheels for the hounds to lie upon ; at any 
rate, however, let your foil be a dry one. 

You will think, perhaps, my lodging-rooms 
higher than is neceflary. I know they are con- 
fiderably higher than is ufual ; the intention of 
which is, to give more air to the hounds ; and 
I have not the leafl: doubt that they are the 
better for it. — I will no longer perfecute you 
with this unentertaining fubje61, but take my 
leave. 

[Mr. Beckford has here pointed out with m.uch 
^xadnefs the aiethod of creding a Kennel. — 

The 



2d THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

The editor of the prefent edition, by way of 
further ill ufl ration, concludes the work with a 
di'frription of thofe of the grcateft celebrity in 
the kingdom, accompanied with four beautiful 
and pi6lurefque views of them.] 



I. E T. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 27 

I 



LETTER III. 

I BEGIN this letter with aflurlng you that I 
have done with the kennel: without douht, 
you will think I had need. If T have made even 
the name frightful to you, comfort yourfelf with 
the thoughts that it will not appear again. 

Your criticifm on my fwitches I tliink unjuH:. 
You tell me felf-defence would of courfe make 
you take that precaution — do you always walk 
with a whip in your hand, or do you think that a 
walking ftick, which may be a good thing to 
knock a dog on the head with, would be equally 
proper to correct him fhould he be too familiar ? 
You forget, however, to put a better fu^^ it it ute in 
the room of them. — 

You defire to know, what kind of hound I 
would recommend : x\s you mention not for any 
particular chace, or country, I underhand you 
generally ; and iTiall anfwer, that I moft approve 
of hounds of the middle iize. I believe all animals 
of that defcription are ftrongeft, and beflr^able to 
endure fatigue. In the height, as well as the 
colour of hounds, moft fportfmen have their pre- 
judices ; but in their fhape at Icafi, I think they 
piuft all agree. I know fportfxnen, who boldly 

affirm' 



1§ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIK^G. 

affirm, that a fmall hound will oftentimes beat a 
large one ; that he will climb hills better, and go 
through cover quicker ;— whilft others are not 
lefs ready to ailert, that a large hound will make 
his way in any country, will get better through 
the dirt than a fmall one ; and that no fence, how- 
ever high, can ftop him. — You have now three 
opinions ; and I advife you to adopt that which 
fuits your country belt : there is, hov>^ever, a cer- 
tain lizc, befi: adapted for bufinefs ; which I take 
to be that between the two extremes ; and I 
will venture to fay, that fuch hounds will not 
fnffer themfelves to be difgraced in any country, 
Somervile, 1 find, is of the fame opinion. 

— — ■ " But here a mean 



Obferve, nor the large hov.nd prefer, of fizs 

Gigantic ; he in the thick-woven covert 

Painfully tugs, or in the thorny brake 

Torn and enibarrafs'd bleeds : but if too final!, 

Tiie pigmy brood in every furrow fwims ; 

Moil'd in clogging clay, panting they lag 

Behind inglorious ; or elfe fliivering creep, 

Benumb'd and faint, beneath the fliell'ring thorn. 

For hounds of middle fize, aftive and fti'ong, 

Will better anfwer all thy various ends, 

And crown thy pleafing labours with luccefs." 

I perfe6lly agree with you, that to look well 
they fhould be all nearly of a fize ; and, I even 
think, they fiiould all look of the fame family. — 

" Fades non omnibus una, 
Kec divcrfa tamen, qualem decet elfe fororum." ' 

If 



TKOUGHTS UFO\" HUNTIKG. 2,^ 

If liandfome withall, they are then perfect. With 
resfard to their beina; lizeable, what Somervilc 
fays, is lb much in your own way, that I fhali 
fend it you. — 

*' As fome brave captain, curious and cvaft, 

By his fix'd ftandard forms in equal ranks 

His gay battalion, as one man they move 

Step after ftep, their fize the fame, their arms 

Far-gleaming, dart the fame united blaze ; 

Reviewing generals his merit own ; 

How regular ! how juft ! and all his cares 

Are well repaid, if mighty George approve. 

So model thou thy pack, if honour touch 

Thv generous foul, and the world's juft applaufe." 

There are neceffary points in the fliape of a 
hound, which ought always to be attended to by 
a fportfman ; for, if he be not of a perfect fym- 
metry, he will neither run fafl, nor bear much 
work : he has much to undergo, and fhould have 
flrength proportioned to it. — Let his legs be 
ftraight as arrows ; his feet round, and not too 
large ; his flioulders back ; his breaft rather wide 
than narrow ; his chefl deep ; his back broad ; 
his head fmall : liis neck thin ; his tail thick and 
brufliy ; if he carry it well, fo much the better: 
This lafl point, however trifling it may appear to 
you, gave rife to a very odd queflion : A gentle- 
man, (not much acquainted with hounds) as we 
were hunting together the other day, faid, " I 
I " obferve, 



^b THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINGi 

** obferve, Sir, that fomc of your dogs tails Hand 
*' lip, and fomc hang down ; pray which do you 
*' reckon the bejl hounds ?"" — Such young hounds 
as are out at the elbows, and fuch as are weak 
from the knee to the footj fliould never be taken 
into the pack. 

I find that I have mentioned a fmall head, as 
one of the nccctlary requiiilcs of a hound; but 
you will underftand it as rehitive to htauty only ; 
for as to goodnffs, I beUeve large-headed hounds 
are in no wife inferior. Somervilc, in his dcfcrip- 
tion of a perfe6l hound, makes no mention of the 
head, leaving the fize of it to Phidias to deter- 
mine; he therefore mu ft have thought it of Hltle 
confcquence. I fend you his words. — 

■: — — — " See there with countenance blythcj. 
And with a courtly grin, the fawning hound 
Salutfs thee cow'ring, his wide-op'niiig nofe 
Upwards he curls, and his large floe-black eyes 
JVlelt in foft blandifhments, and humble joy ; 
Hlsglolfy fkin, or yellow-pied, or blue, 

In lights or fliades by nature's pencil drawn, 

Reflefts the various tints ; his ears and legs 

Fleckt liere and there in gay enaniel'd pride, , 

Rival the fpeckled part; his rufh-grovrn tail 

O'er his broad back bends in an ample arch ; 

On flioulders clean, upright and firm he ftands ; 

His round cat foot, ftraight hams, and wide-fpread thighsj 

And his low dropping cheft, confefs his fpeed, 

His ftrength. his wind, or on the fteepy hill, 

Or 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 3! 

Or far extended plain ; in every part 
So well proportion'd, that the nicer fkill 
Of Phidias himfelf can't blame thy choice. 
Of fuch compofe thy pack. 

The colour, I think of little moment ; and am 
of opinion, with our friend Footc, refpeding his 
negro friend, that a good dog, like a good can- 
didate, cannot be of a bad colour. 

Men are too apt to be prejudiced by the fort of 
hound they themfelves have been moil accuftjraed 
to. Tliofe who have been uled to the fharp- 
nofed fox-hound, will hardly allow a large-headed 
hound to he a fox-hound ; yet they both equally 
are. — Speed and beauty are the chief excellencies 
of the one ; whilft floutncfs and tcndernefs of 
nofc in hunting,* are chara6leriftic of the other. 
I could tell you, that I have feen very good fport 
with very unhandlbme packs, confifling of hounds 
of various lizes, differing from one another as 
much in fhape and look, as in their colour ; nor 
could there be traced the Icaft lign of confan- 
guinity amongfr them : conlidered feparately, the 
hounds were good ; as a pack of hounds they 
were not to be commended ; nor would you be 
fatisfied with any thing that looks fo very incom- 

* II paroit que la finelTe de I'odorat, dans les chiens, depend 
4e la grofleur plus que de la longueur du mufcau. 

BUFFON. 

^ plete. 



^2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

plete. — You will find nothing fo eflcntlal to yout 
{port, as, that your hounds fhould run well to- 
gether ; nor can this end be better attained, than 
by confining yourfclf, as near as you can to thofe 
of the fame fort, fize, and fhape. 

A great excellence in a pack of hounds is the 
head they carry ; and that pack may be faid to go 
the faftefl, that can run ten miles the foonelt ; 
notwithftanding the hounds, feparately, may not 
run fo fail as many others. A pack of hounds, 
confidcrcd in a colle6live body, go faft in propor- 
tion to the excellence of their nofes, and the head 
they carry ; as that traveller generally gets fooneft 
to his journey's end, who flops Icaft upon the 

road. Some hounds that I have hunted with, 

would creep all through the fame hole, though 
they might have leapt the hedge, and would fol- 
low one another in a llring, as true as a team of 
cart-horfes. — I had rather fee them, like the liorfcs 
of the fun, all a-hreaji. 

A friend of mine killed thlrty-feven brace of 
foxps in one fcafon : twenty nine of the foxes 
were killed without any intermiffion. I mull tell 
you at the fame time, that they were killed v/ith 
hounds bred from a pack of harriers ; nor had 
they, I believe, a fingle lldrter belonging to them. 
There is a pack now in my neighbourhood of all 
forts and lizes, wliicli feldom mifs a fox; when 

they 



TfiOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 33f 

they run, there is a long firing of them, and every 
fault is hit off by an old fouthern hound. How- 
ever, out of the lali eighteen foxes they hunted, 
they killed feventeen ; and I have no doubt, that 
as they become more complete, more foxes will 
efcape from them. Packs which are compofed of 
hounds of various kinds, fcldom fun v^^ell toge- 
ther, nor do their tongues harmonize ; yet they 
generally, I think, kill moft foxes; but unlefs I 
like their ftyle of killing them, whatever may be 
their fuccefs, I cannot be completely fatisiied. I 
once afked the famous Will Crane, hov/ his 
hounds behaved — " very well. Sir,'" he reply'd ; 
" they never come to a fault, hut they fpread like a 
*' Jky rochet r — Thus it fhould always be. 

A famous fportfman aflced a gentleman what 
he thought of his hounds.—" Your pack is com- 
" pofed. Sir," faid he, '' of dogs which any other 
" man would //^«^;-— they are all Jhirters."— 
This was taken as a compliment. — However, 
think not that I recommend it to you as fuch ; foe 
though I am a great advocate for flyle in the kil- 
ling of a fox, I never forgive a profefled fkirter ; 
where game is plenty, they are always changing, 
and are the lofs of more foxes than they kill. 

You afk me, how many hounds you ought to 
keep ? It is a queflion not eafy to anfwer — from 

D twenty 



34- THOUGHTS Ul^ON HUNTINC5. 

twenty to thirty couple, are as many, I think, aS 
you lliould ever take hito the field. The pro- 
priety of any number muft depend upon the 
ilrength of your pack, and the country in which 
you are to hunt : the quantity of hounds necef- 
lary to furnifh that number for a whole feafon, 
muft alfo depend on the country where you hunt; 
as fome countries lame hounds more than others. 
The taking out too many hounds, Mr. Somervilc 
very properly calls a7i iifehfs incimib ranee. It is 
not lo material what the number is, as it is that 
all your hounds fhould l>e fteady, and as nearly 
as poflible of equal fpeed. 

When packs are very large, the hounds arc fcl- 
dom fufficiently hunted to be good. Few people 
choofe to hunt every day ; and if t|,icy did, it is 
Z30t likely the weather in winter would give tliem 
leave. You would always be obliged therefore, 
either to take out a very large pack, or a great num- 
ber of hounds muft be left behind : in the firil 
cafe, too many hounds in the field would pro- 
bably fpoil your fport ; in the Ibcond, hounds that 
remain long without work, always get out of wind, 
and oftentimes become rix)tous. About forty 
couple, I think, will befl anfwer your purpofe. 
Forty couple of hunting hounds will enable you 
to hunt three, or even four times in a week ; and 
I will venture to fay, will kill more foxes than ta, 

greater 



TttOtJGHTS UPON HUNTING. 35 

greater number. Hounds, to be good, mufl be 
kept conftantly hunted ; and if I fliould hereafter 
fay, a fox-hound fliould be above his work, it 
will not be a young fox-hound I fball mean ; for 
he fhould feldom be left at home, as long as he is 
able to hunt : the old and lame, and fuch as are 
low in fiefli, you fhould leave ; and fuch as you 
are fure idlenefs cannot fpoil. 

It is a great fault to keep too many old hounds. 
If you choofe that your hounds fhould run well 
together, you fhould not continue any, longer 
than five or fix feafons ; though there is no faying 
with certainty, what number of feafons a hound 
will laft. Like us, fome of them have better con- 
iVitutions than others, and confcquently will bear 
more work ; and the duration of all bodies de- 
pends as much on the ufage that they may meet 
with as on the materials of which they are made. 

You afk, whether you had not better buy a 
complete pack at once, than be at the trouble of 
breeding one ? Certainly you had, if fuch an op- 
portunity fliould offer. It fometimes happens, 
that hounds are to be bought for lefs money than 
you could breed them. The gentleman to whom 
my houfe formerly belonged, had a moft famous 
pack of fox-hounds. His goods, &c. were ap- 
praifed and fold ; which, when the appraifer had 

D z doao 



36 THOU'GHTS UPON HUNTirsG. 

done, he was put in mind of the hounds. — ^' Well, 
gentlemen," faid hc^ " what fhall I appraile them 
*' at? a Jhillin^ a-pkcc?—'' Oh ! it is too httle !" 
*' is it lo :" laid the appraifer ; " why it is more 
** than 1 ivoiild give for tJieitt, I ajjiire yrnir 

Hounds are not bought to cheap at Tattcrj'alTs. 



LET- 



THOUGHTS UrON HUNTING. 37 " 



LETTER IV. 

I AM glad that you do not difapprove the ad- 
vantage I have made of my friend Somervile. 
I was doubtful whether you would not have cen- 
fured me for it, and have compared me to fome of 
thole would-be tine gentlemen, who, to cut a 
figure, tack an embroidered edging on their coarfe 
cloth. — I lliall be cautious, however, of abufing 
your indulgence, and fhall not quote my poet 
oftencr than is necelfary ; but where we think the 
fame thing, you had better take it in his words 
than mine. — I fliall now proceed to the feeding of 
hounds, and m^inagement of them in the kennel. 

A good feeder is an efTential part of your efla- 
hlifhment. — Let him be young and adlive ; and 
have the reputation at leatt, of not dilliking work : 
he fhould be good-tempered, for the fake of the 
animals entrufled to his care ; and who, however 
they may be treated by him, cannot complain.. 
He fliould be one who will flriclly obey any or- 
ders that you may give ; as well with regard to 
the management, as to the breeding of the 
hounds ; and fliould not be iblely under the a\-. 
rciSlion of your huntfman,. It is true I have iccn 
it otherwife : I have known a pack of hounds be-, 
lang, as it were, entirely to the huntfmau— ^a 
D 3 liable 



38 THOtJGH^rS UPON HUNTING, 

fiable of horfcs belong; to the iiroom — whilll the 
maflcr had httle more power in the direction of 
either, than a perfedl firanger. — This } on will 
not fafFer. I know you choofe to keep the fu- 
premc command in your own hands ; and though 
you permit your fervants to remonftrate, you da 
not fufFer them to difobey. — He who allows a 
huntfman to manage his hounds without controul^ 
literally keeps them for the huntfman's amufe- 

ment. You defire to know what is required of 

a feeder ; — 1 will tell you as well as I can. 

As our fport depends entirely on that exquilite 
{en{c of fmelling, fo peculiar to the hound, care 
mult be taken to preferve it ; and cleanlinefs is 
the furefl; means. The keeping your kennel 
fweet and chaji cannot therefore be too much re- 
commended to the feeder ; nor fhould you on any 
account admit the leaft deviation from it. If he 
feesjTjzf exadl, he will be fo himfelf. — This is a 
very eilential part of his bulinefs. The boil- 
ing for tlic hounds ; mixing of the meat ; and get- 
ting it ready for them at proper hours, your huntf- 
man will ofccurfe take care of ; nor is it ever 
likely to be forgotten. I mufl caution you not 
to let your dogs eat their meat too hot ; for I have 
known it attended with bad confcquences ; you 
thould alfo order it to be mixed up as thick as 
poiTible. — When the feeder has cleaned his ken- 
nel in the morning, and prepared his meat, it is 

ufual 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 39. 

ufual for him on bunting- days, (in an eftablifli- 
mcnt like your's) to exercife the horfes of the 
luintfman and whipper-in ; and in many tables 
it is alfo the feeder who looks after the huntfman's 
horfe when he comes in from hunting, whilfi: the 
huntfman feeds the hounds. When the hounds 
are not out, the huntfman, and whipper-in, of 
courfe, will exercife their own horfes ; and that day 
the feeder has little elfe to mind but the clean- 
ing of his kennel. Every poffible contrivance 
has been attended to in the defcription I fent you, 
to make that part of his workealy ; all the courts, 
except the grafs-court, being bricked, and flopcd 
on purpofe. There is alfo plenty of water, with^ 
out any trouble in fetching it ; and a thorough air 
throughout the kennels, to affift in drying therm 
again.—- -Should you choofe to increafeyonr num- 
ber of fervants in the ftable, in that cafe, the bufi- 
nefs of the feeder may be confined entirely to the 
kennel,— There fhould be always two to feed 
liounds properly ; the feeder and huntfman. 

Somervile ftrongly recommends cleanlinefs In 
the following lines, 

" O'er all let cleanlinefs prefide, no fcraps 
Beftrew the pavement, and no half-pick'd bones, 
To kindle fierce debate, or to difguft 
That nicer fenfe, on which the fportfman's hope, 
And all his futm-e triumphs muft depend. 
Soon as the growling pack with eager joy 

P 4. Have 



^.6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Have lapp'd their fmoaking viand?, morn or eve^ 
From the full ciftern lead the duftile flreams, 
To wafh thy court vvell-pav'd, nor fpare thy pains, 
For much to health will cleanlinefs avail. 
Seek'ft thou for hounds to climb the rocky fteep, 
And brufli th' entangled covert, whofe nice fcent 
O'er greafy fallows, and frequented roads, 
Can pick the dubious way ? Banifli far off 
Each noifome ftench, let no ofFenfive fmell 
Invade thy wide inclofiire, but admit 
The nitrous air, and purifying breeze." 

So peifcctly right is the poet in tiiis, that if you 
can make your kennel a vilit every clay, youir 
hounds will be the better for it. When I have 
been long abfent from nunc, I have always per- 
ceived a dilference in their looks. I fhall now 
take notice of that part cf the management of 
liouuds in the kennel, which concerns the huntf- 
man as well as the feeder.— -Yoar huntftnan mull 
ahvays attend the feeding of the hounds, which- 
Ihould be dratted, according to the condi- 
tion they are in. In all packs, fome hounds 
will feed better than others ; fome there are tha^t 
will do witii lefs mf;at ; arid it requires a nice eve, 
and great attention, to keep them all in equal 
ilefh :---it is what difiinguifhes a good kennel- 
huntfman, and has its merit.---It is feldora that 
huntfmen give this particular all attention it de- 
fervcs : they feed their hounds in too great a 
hurry ; and not often, I believe, take the trouble 
of cafiing their eye over them, before they begin ; 

and 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 41 

and yet, to dlftingiiiHi with any nicety, the order 
a pack of liounds are in, and the diiferent degrees 
of it, is farcly no eafy talk ; and to be done well, 
requires no fniall degree of circumfpe6lion : you 
had better not expect your huntfman to be very 
exadl ; where precilion is required, he will moil 
probably fail. 

When I am prefent myfelf, I maT:e feveral 
draft?. When my huntfman feeds them, he calls 
them all over l^iy their names, letting in each 
hound as he is called ; it has its ufe — it ufes them 
to their names, and teaches them to be obedient. 
Were it not for this, 1 fhould difapprove of it en- 
tirely ; fi nee it certainly requires more coolnefs 
and deliberation to diftinguifh with precifion 
which are bcfl entitled to precedence, than this 
method of feeding will admit of; and unlcfs fiefh 
be in great plenty, thofe that are called in lafi, 
may not have a tafte of it. To prevent this in- 
convenience, luch as are low in flefh, had better 
be all drafted off into a feparate kennel ;* by this 
means, the hounds that require j^"^, will all have 
a fhare of it. If any be much poorer than the 

* By thus feparating from the reft, fucli as are poor, you will 
proceed to the feeding of your hounds with more accuracy, and 
lefs trouble ; and though they be at firft drafted off, m the man- 
ner above defcribed, it is (lill meant that they fhould be let in to 
feed, one by one, as they anfvver to their names ; or elfe, as it 
will frequently happen, they may be better fed than taught. 



41 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

refl:, they fhould be fed again — fuch hounds can- 
not be led too often. If any in the pack be too 
fat, they fliouM be drafted off, and not fafFered 
lo liU themfelves. The others flionld cat what 
lliey will of the meat. The days my hounds have 
greens or fulphur, they generally are let in all 
together ; and fuch as require jlejh, have it given 
to them afterwards. Having a good kennel- 
huntfman, it is not often that I take this trouble; 
yet I fcldom go into my kennel, but I indulge 
ynyfelf in the pleafure of feeing food given to fuch 
liounds, as appear to me to be in want of it. I 
have been told that in one kennel in particular, 
the hounds are under fuch excellent management, 
that they conftantly are fed with the door of the 
feeding-yard open ; and the rough nature of the 
fox-hound is changed into fo much politenefs, 
that he waits at the door, till he is invited in ; and 
what perhaps is not lefs extraordinary, he comes 
put again, wlicthcr he has fatisfied his hunger or 
not, the moment he is deiircd — -The cffedl of difr 
eipline. However, as this is not abfolutely ne- 
ceflliry,' and hounds may be good without it ; anc| 
as I well know your other amufcments will not 
permit you to attend to fo much manoeuvring, I 
would by no means v.ifn you to give fuch power 
to your huntfman. The bufinefs would be injudi- 
cioufiy done, and mo ft probably would not anfwer 
your expectations — The hound would be tor- 
itnented nml-a-pro^os ; — an animal fo little deferv- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



43 



i'ng of it from our hands, that I fhould be forry to 
diftarb his hours of repofe by unnoceflary feverity. 
You will perceive it is a nice affair; and I affure 
you I. know no huntfman who is equal to it. The 
gentleman \vho has carried this matter to its 
mofl perfection, has attended to it regularly him* 
felf; has conftantly a(5led on fixed principles, 
from which he has never deviated ; and I believe 
has fucceeded to the very utmoft of his wifhes. — > 
All hounds, (and more efpecially young ones) 
lliould be called over often in the kennel ;* and 
moft huntfinen pracliie this leffon, as they feed 
their hounds. — They flog them while they feed 
them — and if they have not always a belly-full 
one way, tliey feldom fail to have it the other.-^ 

* There is no better method of teaching a Iiound obedience; 
when you call him, he ftiould approach you ; when you touch 
him with your ftick, he Ihould follow you any where. 

f " Thus we find, eat or not eat, work or play, whipping is 
always in feafon." (vide Monthly Review) The critic treats this 
paflage with great feverity. He would have fpared it, without 
doubt, had he underftood that it was introduced on purpofe to 
correfc the abufe of kennel difcipline. Unacquainted, as the 
Reviewer feems to be with the fubjeft, it is no wonder that he 
(hould miflake a meaning, perhaps rather unfairly dated by the 
author, in favor of that humanity he is fuppofed fo much to 
want. — Hounds are called in to feed, one by one, and fuch only 
are correfted, as come uncalled for : nor is correction unjufl, fo 
long as it iliall fall on the difobedient only. Obedience is an ufe- 
f'dl leffbn, and though it cannot be /)r«i?//i'^ too often, it Ihould 
be taup;/ii them at a more idle time. 

It 



44 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

It is not, however, my intention to oppofe {o gc-r 
neral a pra6licc, in which there may be fomc 
QtiHty; I fhall only obfervc, that it fhould be 
ufcd with difcretioD, lell the whip ihould fall 
heavily in the kcnnpl on fuch as never deferve it 
ixi the field. 

My hounds arc generally fed about eleven 
o'elock;* and when I am prefent myfelf, I take 
the fame opportunity to make my draft for the 
next day's hunting. I feldom, when I can help 
it, leave this to my huntfman, though it is ne- 
cefTary he fliould be prefent when the draft is 
madcj that he may kn,o\v what hounds he haa 
out. 

* Having found it neceflaiy to alter my method of feeding 
hounds, it may not be improper to take notice of it here. 
They are now fed at eight o'clock, inftead of eleven. Their 
firft feed is of barley and oatmeal mixed, an equal quantity of 
each. Flefli is afterwards mixed up with the remainder for 
fuch hounds as are poor, who are then drafted off into another 
kennel, and let in to feed all together. When the fleflx is all 
eaten, the pack are again let in, and are by this means cheated 
into a fecond appetite. At three o'clock thofe that are to hunt 
the next day are drafted into the hunting kennel; they are 
then let into the feeding-yard, where a fmall quantity of oat- 
meal (about three buckets) is prepared for them; not mbced 
up thin, as mentioned in page 45, but mixed up thick. Such 
as are tender, or bad feeders, have a handful of boiled flefli 
given to them afterwards. When they are not to hunt the next 
day, they are fed once Gjnly — at eleven o'clock. 

It 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 45 

It Is a bad cuflom to ule hounds to the l>oili}i(r- 
houle; it is apt to make them nice, and may- 
prevent them from ever eating the kennel-mcat- 
What they have, ihould always be given them ia 
the feeding-yard, and for the fame reafon, though 
it be fiefhj it llioukl have fomc meal mixed with 
it. 

If your hounds be low in flefh, and have far to 
go to cover, they may all have a little thin lap 
again in the evening; but this fhould never be 
done if you hunt early.* Hounds, I think, 
fhould be fharp-fet before hunting; they run the 
better for it.-j^ 

If many of your hounds, after long Ted, 
ihould be too l^it, J by feeding them for a day or 
two on thinner meat than you give the others, it 
will be found, I believe, to anfwer better than 
the ufual method of giving them the fame meat, 
and ftinting them in the quantity of it. 

* Hounds that are tender feeders cannot be fed too late, or 
with meat too good. 

f Vid. Note, page 44. 

X Hounds that reft, fhould not be fuffered to become fat. — ■ 
It would be accounting very badly for the fatnefs of a hound, 
to fay he is fat, becaufe he has not worked lately, fmce he 
ought to have been kept lower on that account. 

If 



46 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

If your hounds be not walked out, they lliould 
be turned into the grals- court to empty thcm- 
felves after they have been fed, it will contribute 
not a little to the cleanhncfs of the kennel. 

I have heard that it is a cuflom in fome ken- 
nels to lliLit up the hounds for a couple of liours 
after they come in from hunting, before they arc 
fed; and that other hounds are fliut up with 
theni, to lick them clean."* ]\Iy ufual way is to 
fend on a whipper-in before them, that the meat 
may be gotten ready againil they come, and they 
are fed imnieduUelj/ : having filled their bellies^ 
they are naturally inclined to reft. If they have 
had a fjvcre day, they arc fed again fome hours 
after. -f- As to the method above-mentioned, it 
may be more convenient perhaps to have the 
hounds all together: but 1 cannot think it nccel*- 
fary, for the reafon that is given ; and I fliould 
apprehend a parcel of idle hounds, fhut up 
amongft fucli as are tired and inclined to refl, 

* If hounds be fhut up, as foon as they come an from 
hunting, theywill not readily leave the benches afterwards; for 
Jf they be much fatigued, tliey will jn-efer reft to food. 

f My hounds are generally fed twice on the days they hunt. 
Some will feed better the fecond time than the firft; befides, 
the turning them out of the lodging-houfe refreflies them; they 
ftretch their limbs; empty their bodies; and, as during this 
jime their kennel is cleaned out, and litter fliaken up, they fet- 
tle tliemfelves better on the benches afterwards. 

would 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTII^G. ^J 

would dlfiurb them more than all their lickhis: 
would make amends for. Wlieu you feed tliem 
twice, keep them feparatc till after the fccond 
feeding ; it would be ftill better were they not 
put together till the next morning. 

Every day, when hounds come in from hunt- 
ing, they ought carefully to be looked over, and 
invalids fhould immediately be taken care of.*" 
Such as have fore feet, fhould have them well 
waflied out with brine, or pot liquor. If you 
permit thofe hounds that are unable to work to 
run about your houfe, it will be of great fervice 
to them. Such as are ill, or lame, ought to be 
turned out into another ICennel; it will be more 
eafy to give them f/iere the attention they may re- 
quire, both as to medicine and food. 

Every Thurfday during the hunting feafon, 
my hounds have one pound of fulphur given 
them in their meat; and every Sunday through- 
out the, year they have plenty of greens boiled up 
with it : I find it better to fix the days, as it is 
then lefs liable to be forgotten. I ufed to give 
them the wafh from the kitchen, but I found it 

* Hounds that come home lame fliould not be taken out 
the next hunting day, fince they may appear found without be- 
ing fo. At the beginning of the feafon the eyes of hounds are 
frequently injured ; fuch hounds fliould not be hunted, and if 
J^eir eyes continue weak they fliould lofe a little blood. 

3 made 



jfi THOtJGHtS UFdN HUNTtNG. 

made them thirty, and it is now omitted in ili& 
hunting fealbn. A horfc frellv killed is an ex- 
cellent meal for hounds after a very hard day; 
but they fhould not hunt till the third day after 
it. The bones broken arc good food for poor 
liounds, as there is great proof in them. Sheep 
trotters are very fweet food, and will be of fer- 
Yice when horfe-ilefh is not to be had. Bullocks' 
bellies may be alfo of fome ufe,, if you can get 
nothing elle. Oatmeal, I believe, makes the 
beft meat for hounds; barley is certainly the 
cheapeft ; and in many kennels they give barley 
on that account; but it is heating, does not mi:c 
up fo well, nor is there fo much proof in it as in 
oatmeal. If mixed, an equal quantity of each, 
k will then do very well, but barley alone will 
not. Ivlacb alfo depends on the goodnefs of the 
meal itfclf, which is not often attended to. If 
you do not ufe your own, you ihoiild buy a large 
quantity of it any time before harvell, and keep 
it by you : there is no other certainty, I believe,^ 
of having it old; which is more material than, 
perhaps, you are aware of. I have heard that a 
famous Chelhire huntfman feeds his hounds v/ith 
wheat ; which he has found to be the befi; food. 
He gives it them with the bran ; it would caufe 
no little diilurbance in many neighbourhoods, if 
other fportfmcn were to do the fame. 

lam 



"STHOtrGHTS UPON HtJNTING. 49 

I am not fond of hheding hounds, unlefs they 
Want it; though it has long been a cuilom in my 
kennel to '})hyfic them twice a year; after they 
leave off hunting, and before they begin. It is 
given in hot weather, and at an idle time. It 
tools their bodies, and without doubt is of fer- 
vice to them. \i a hound be in want of phylicj 
1 prefer giving it in balls.* It is more eafy to 
give in this manner the quantity he may want, 
and you are more certain that he takes it. In 
many kennels, they alfo bleed them twice a 
year, and fome people think that it prevents 
madnefs. The anointing of hounds, or drejjing 
them, as huntfmen call it, makes them fine in 
their coats: it may be done twice a year, or oft- 
ner, if you find it neceflary. As I Ihall hereaf- 
ter have occafion to write on the difcafes of 
hounds, and their cures, I will fend you at the 
fame time a receipt for this purpofe. During the 
fummer months, when my hounds do not hunt, 
they have feldom any fiefh allowed them, and 
are kept low, contrary, I believe, to the ufual 
praftice of mofi kennels, where mangy hounds 
in fummer are but too often feen. Huntfmen 
fometimes content thcmfelves with checking this 
diforder, when, with lefs trouble, perhaps, they 

* One pound of antimony, four ounces of fulphur, and 
fyrup of buckthorn q. f. to give it the conCftency of a ball, 
Each, ball weighs about feven drachms, 

E might 



5* THOUGHTS UPON HUI^TING, 

might prevent it. A regular courfe of wliey and 
vegetables during the hot months mui\, certainl)^ 
be wholcfomc, and is, without doubt, the caufe 
that a mangy hound is an anufnal light in m 
kennel. Every Monday and Friday my bounds 
go for whey till the hunting feafon begins ; arc 
kept out feveral hours, and arc often made ta 
J Vim tln'ough rivers during the hot weather. 
After the laft phylic, and before they begin to 
hunt, they are exerrifed on the turnpike road, to 
harden their feet, which are waihed with ftrong 
brine, as foon as they come in. Little ftraw is 
neceflliry during the fummer; but when they 
hunt they cannot have too much, or have it 
changed too often. In many kennels they do not 
boil for the hounds in fummer, but give them 
meal only; in mine it is alwaj^s boiled; but with 
this diiference, that it is mixed up thin, infiead 
of thick. Many give fpurge-laurel in ftuTimcr, 
boiled up in their meat; as I never ufe it, I can- 
not recommend it. The phytic I give is two 
pounds of fulphur, one pound of antimony, and 
a pint and a half of fyrup of buckthorn, for 
about forty couple of hounds.* In the winter 
fealbn, let your hounds be fliut up warm at 
night. If any hounds, after hunting, be miffing, 
the ftraw-houfc door fhould be left open; and if 

* Vide page 49, where it is recommended that fuch hounds 
as require phytic fliould be phyfacked feparately. 

^ they 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^t 

^ey have had a hard day, it may be as well to 
leave fome meat there for them. 

I have inquired of my feeder, who is a good 
one, (and has had more experience in thefe mat- 
ters than any one you perhaps may get) how he 
snixes up his meat. He teljs me, that in his opi- 
nion, oatmeal and barley mixed, an equal quan- 
tity of each, make the beil meat for hounds. 
The oatmeal he boils for half an hour, and then 
puts out the fire, puts the barley into the copper, 
and mixes both together. I afked him why he 
boiled one and not the other— he told me, boil- 
ing, vv^hich made oatmeal thick, made barley 
thin ; and that Vv'hen you feed with barley only, 
it fhould not be put into the copper, but be 
fcalded with the liquor, and mixed up in a buc- 
ket. I find there is in my kennel a large tub on 
purpofe, which contains about half a hogfhead. 

You little think, perhaps, how difficult it is to 
be a good kennel huntfman, nor can you, as 
yet, know the nicety that is required to feed 
hounds properly. You are not aware that fome 
hounds will hunt befl: when fed late; others, 
when fed early: that fome mould have but little; 
that others cannot have too much. However, if 
5^our huntfman obferve the rules I have here laid 
down, his hounds will not do much amifs; but 
ihould you at any time wifh to rencherir upon the 
E 2 mat- 



^2 THOUGHTS UPON HU^^TING. 

matter, and feed eanh particular hound fo as to 
make the mofl of him, you muft learn it of a 
gentleman in Leiceilcrfhire, to whom the noble 
icience of fox-hunting is more beholden than to 
any other. I fhall myfelf fay nothing furtlicr on 
the fubjecl ; for as your huntfman will not have 
the fenfe of the gentkman I allude to, nor you 
perhaps his patience, an eafier method I know 
will fuit you bcft. I fhall only advifeyou, while 
you endeavour to keep your hounds in good or- 
der, not to let them become too fat ; it will be 
impoflible for them to run, if they be. A fat al- 
derman would cut a mighty ridiculous figure 
were he inclined to run a race. 



LET- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, ^J 



LETTEk V. 



^TPHERE is an active vanity in the mlads of 
-*- men which is favourable to improvement, 
and in every purfuit, while fomething remains to 
be attained, fo long will it afford amufement; 
you, therefore, will find pleafure in the breeding 
of hounds, in which expe6lation is never com- 
pletely fatisfied, and it is on the fagacious ma- 
nagement of this bufinefs that all your fuccefs 
will depend. Is it not extraordinary that no 
other country fhould equal us in this particular, 
and that the very hounds procured from hqnce 
Ibould degenerate in another clin^ate I 

" In thee alone, fair land of liberty!' 
Is bred the perfect hound, in fcent and fpeed 
As yet unrivall'd, while in other climes 
Their virtue fails, a weak degen'rate race." 

SoMERVILE. 

Happy climate for fportfmen ! where nature feems 
as it were to give them an exclufive privilege of 
enjoying this diverfion. To preferve, however, 
this advantage, care fhould be taken in the breed ; 
I fhall, therefore, according to your defire, fend 
you fuch rules as I obferve myfelf. Confider the 
lize, fhape, colour, conftitution, and natural 
difpolition of the dog you breed from, as well as 
E ^ the 



54 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

the fiiienefs of his nofe, his floutnefs, nnd me^ 
thod of hunting. On no account breed from one 
that is not Jiout^ that is not tender-nofed, or that 
is either a habbler^* or a Jktrter, 

*' Obferve with care his fhape, fort, colour, fize; 
Nor willfagacious huntfmen lefs regard 
His inward liabits; the vain babbler fliun, 
Ever loquacious, ever in the wrong. 
His foolifh offspring iliall offend thy ears 
With falfe alarms and loud impertinence. 
Nor lefs the fliifting cur avoid, that breaks 
Illufive from the pack; to the next hedge 
Devious he ftrays, there ev'ry mufe he tries, 
If haply then he crofs the ftreaming fcent, 
Away he flies vain-glorious; and exults 
As of the pack fupreme and in his fpeed 
And flrength unrivall'd. Lo! call: far behind, 
His vex'd aflbciates pant, and lab'ring ftrain 
To climb the fteep afcent. Soon as they reach 
Th' infulting boafler, his falfe courage fails, 
Behind he lags, doom'd to the fatal noofe, 
His mailer's hate, and fcorn of all the field. 
What can from fuch be hop'd, but a bafe brood 
Of coward curs, a frantic, vagrant racer" 

SoMERVILE. 

It is the judicious crofs that makes the pack 
complete. -j~ The fauhs and imperfedtions in one 

breed, 

* Babbling is one of the worfl faults that a hound can be 
guilty of, it is conftantly increafing, and is alfo catching. 
This fault, like many others, will fometimes run in the blood. 

f I have iztw fox-hounds that were bred out of a Newfound-^ 

land 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



5S 



breed, may be recStified from another; and if 
this be properly attended to, I fee no reafon why 
the 'breeding of hounds may not improve, till 
improvement can go no further. If you find a 
crofs hit, purfue it.* Never put an old dog to 
an old bitcii. Be careful that they be healthy 
which you breed from, or you are not likely to 
have a healthy offspring. Should a favourite 
dog Ikirt a little, put liim to a thorough line- 
hunting bitch, and fuch a crols may fucceed. 
My objeclion to the breeding from fuch a hound 
is, that as Hcirting is what moil fox-hounds ac- 
quire from pradticCi it had better not be made 
natural to them. A very famous fportfman has. 
told me, that he frequently breeds from brothers 
and liflers. As I fliould be very unv/illing to 
urge any thing in oppofition to fuch authority, 
you had better try it; and if it fucceed in hounds, 
it is more I believe than it ufually does in other 
animals. A famous cocker afTurcd a friend of 
mine, that the third generation (which he called 

land bitch and a fox-hound dog : they are iTiOnflrouny ugly- 
are faid to give their tongues fparingly, and to tii^e foon. The 
experiment has not fucceeded ; tlie crofs moft likely to be of fer- 
vice to a fox- hound is the beagle. I am well convinced that a 
handfome, bony, tender-nofed, ftout beagle would, occafion- 
ally, be no improper crofs for a high-bred pack of fox-hounds. 

* After the firH feafon, I breed from all my young dog- 
hounds who have beauty and goodnefs to recommend them, 
to fee what whelps they get. 

E 4 a nick) 



^6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

a nick) he had found to fucceed very well, but 
no nearer : as I have neither tried one nor the 
other, I cannot fpeak with any certainty about 
them. 

Give particular orders to your feeder to watch 
over the bitches with a cautious eye, and lepa- 
rate fuch as are going to be proud, before it be 
too late. The advances they make frequently 
portend mifchief as well as love; and, if not 
prevented in time, will not fail to fet the whole 
kennel together by the ears, and may occafion 
the death of your befl dogs: care only can pre- 
vent it.* 

" Mark well the wanton females of thy pack, 

That curl their taper tails, and frifking court 

Their pye-baid mates enamour'd ; their red eyes 

Flafh fires impure; nor reft, nor food they take, 

Goaded by furious love. In fep'rate cells 

Confine them now, left bloody civil wars 

Annoy thy peaceful ftate. " Somervile, 

I have known huntfmcn perfedlly ignorant of 
the breed of their hounds, from inattention in 
this particular ; and I have alfo known many 
good dogs fall a facrijfice to it, 

* When the bitches are off their heat, they ftiould be fuf- 
fered to run about the houfe a day or two before they are takeA 
out to hunt, 

Th& 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 57 

The earlier in the year you breed the better : 
January, February, and March, are the bell 
months. Late puppies fcldom thrive ; if you 
have any fuch, put them to the befl walks.* 
When the bitehes begin to get big, let tliem not 
hunt any more: it proves frequently fatal to the 
puppies; fometimcs to the bitch herfelf ; nor is it 
iafe for them to remain much longer in the ken- 
nel. If one bitch have many puppies, more 
than fhe can well rear, you may put Ibme of 
them to another bitch; or if you deflroy any of 
them, you may keep the befl coloured. They 
fometimes will have an extraordinary number : I 
have known an inftance of one having fifteen ; 
and a friend of mine, whofe veracity 1 cannot 
doubt, has afTured me that a hound in his pack 
brought forth lixteen, all alive. When you 
breed from a very favourite fort, and can have 
another bitch warded at the fame time, it will 
have this advantage, it will enable you to fave all 
the puppies. Give particular orders that the 
bitches be well fed with flefh ; they fhould alfo 
have plenty of milk, nor fliould the puppies be 
taken from them till they are able to take care of 
themfelves: they will foon learn to lap milk, 
which will relieve the mother. The bitches, 
when their puppies are taken away from them, 

* Of the early whelps I ^eeep five or iix, of the late ones 
only two or thrge, 

fhould 



58 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

iliould be phyficked; they fhould have three 
purging balls given them, one every other morn- 
ing, and plenty of whey the intermediate day. — 
If a bitch bring only one or two puppies, and 
you have another bitch that will take them, by 
putting the puppies to her, the former will be 
foon fit to hunt again; fhe ihould, however, be 
phylicked firfl ; and if her dugs be anointed 
with brandy and water, it will alfo be of fervice. 
The ditlemper makes dreadful havoc with whelps 
at their walks; greatly owing, I believe, to the 
little care that is taken of them there, I am in 
doubt whether it might not be better to breed 
them up yourfelf, and have a kennel on purpofe. 
You have a large orchard, paled in, which would 
fuit them exa6\ly ; and what elfe is wanted might 
eafily be obtained. There is, however, an ob- 
je6lion that perhaps may ftrike you — If the dif- 
temper once get amongft them, they mull all 
have it: yet, notwithltanding that, as they will 
be conllantly well fed, and will lie warm, I am 
confident it would be the laving of many lives. 
If you fhould adopt this method, you mufl re- 
member to ufe them early to go in couples; and 
when they become of a proper age, they muft 
be walked out often : for fhould they remain con- 
fined, tbcy would neither have the fhape, health, 
or underfianding, which they ought to have. 
When I kept harriers, I bred up fome of the 
puppies at a difiant kennel ; but having no fer- 

vants 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 5^ 

vants there to exercife them properly, I found 
ihern much inferior to fuch of their brethren as 
ha.d the luck to furvive the many difficulties and 
dangers they had undergone at their walks ; thefe 
were afterwards equal to any thing, and afraid of 
nothing; whilft thofe that had been nurfed with 
{o much care were weakly and timid, and had 
every difadvantage attending private education. 

I have often heard as an excufe for hounds not 
hunting a cold icent, that they were too high hredi 
I confeis, I know not what that means : but this 
I know, that hounds are frequently too ill bred to 
be of any fervice. Jt is judgment in the breeder, 
and patience afterwards in the huntlrnan, that 
make them hunt. 

Young hounds are commonly named when 
firfl; put out, and fometimes indeed ridiculouflj 
enough ; nor is it eafy, when you breed many, 
to find fuitable or harmonious names for all ; 
particularly as it is ufual to name all the whelps 
of one litter with the fame letter, which (to be 
fyftematically done) fliould alfo be the initial 
letter of the dog that got them, or the bitch 
that bred them. A baronet of my acquaintance, 
a literal obferver of the above rule, fent three 
young hounds of one litter to a friend, all their 
names beginning, as he /aid, with the letter G — ^ 
GowUfi Govialy and Galloper, 

It 



6o THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

It is indeed of little confequence what hunti- 
men call their hounds; yet if you diflike an un- 
meaning name, would it not be as well to leave 
the naming of them till they are brought home? 
They foon learn their names, and a ihorter lift 
would do. Damons and Delias would not then 
be neceffary ; nor need the facred names of Ti- 
tus and Trajan be thus degraded. It is true, 
there are many odd names which cuftom autho- 
rifes ; yet I cannot think^, becaufe fome drunken 
fellow or other has chriftened his dog Tipler, or 
Tapfter, that there is the lead reafon to follow 
the example. Pipers and fiddlers, for the fake 
of their mufic, we will not obje6l toj but tiplers 
and tapflers your kennel will be much better 
without. 

However extraordinary you may think it, I 
can affure you I have myfelf feen a %vhite Gipfey, 
a grey Ruby, a dark Snowball, and a Bhieman 
of any colour but hhie. The huntfman of a 
friend of mine being afked the name of a young 
hound, faid, it was Lyman. " Lyman!" faid 
his mailer; " why, James, what does Lyman 
" mean?" — "Lord, Sir!" replied James, *' what 
** does any thing meanf^ — A farmer, who bred up 
two couple of hounds for me, whofe names were 
MeiTyman and Merrylafs, Ferryman and Furi- 
ous, upon my inquiring after them, gave this 
account : '' Merryman and INIerrylafs are both 

** dead. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 6t 

^* dead, but Ferr)^man, Sir, is a fine dog, and 
" fo is Ferry la/s.'' Madam, an ufual name 
among hounds, is often, I believe, very difre- 
fpedlfully treated : I had an in fiance of it the 
other day in my own buntfman, who, after hav- 
ing rated Madam a great deal, to no purpofe, 
(who, to confefs the truth, was much given to 
do othervvife than fhe fhould) flew into a violent 
paffion, and hallooed out, as loud as he could- — 
** Mada7?ij you d — d hitch f 

As you delire a lifl of names, I will fend you 
one. I have endeavoured to clafs them accord- 
ing to their different genders; but you will per- 
ceive fome names may be ufed indifcriminately 
for either. It is not ufual, I believe, to call a 
pointer Ringwood, or a greyhound Harmony; 
and fjch names as are expreflive of fpeed, 
flrength, courage, or other natural qualities in a 
hound, I think moft applicable to them. Da- 
mons and Delias I have left out; the bold Thun- 
der and the brilk Lightning, if you pleafe, may 
fupply their places; unlefs you prefer the method 
of the gentleman I told you of, who intends 
namincr his hounds from the p — ge ; and, I fup- 
pote, he at the fame time will not be unmindful 
of the p — y c rs. 

If you mark the whelps in the fide, (which is 
called branding them) when they are firft put 

out^ 



62 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

out, (or perhaps it may be better done after they 
have been out Ibme time) it may prevent their 
being llolen. 

When young hounds are firft taken in, they 
fhoald be kept feparate from the pack ; and as it 
will happen at a time of the year, when there is 
little or no hunting, you may ealily give them 
tip one of the kennels and grafs-court adjoining. 
Their play ends frequently in a battle ; it there^ 
fore is lefs dangerous where all are equally 
matched. What Somervile fays on this fubjedl 
is exceedingly beautiful : 

" But here with watchful and obfervant eye. 
Attend their frolics, which too often end 
In bloody broils and death. High o'er thy head 
Wave thy refounding whip, and with a voice 
Fierce-menacing o'er-rule the ft-ern debate, 
And quench their kindling rage ; for oft in fport 
Begiin, combat enfues, growling they fnarJ, 
Then on their haunches rear'd, rampant they feize 
Each other's throats, with teeth, and claws, in gore 
Befmear'd, they wound, they tear, till on the groundj 
Panting, half-dead the conquer'd champion lies : 
Then fudden all the bafe ignoble crowd 
Lond-clanrring feize the helplefs worried wretch, , 
And thirfling for his blood, drag diff'rent ways 
His mangled carcafs on th' enfanguln'd plain. 
O breafts of pity void ! t' opprefs the weak, 
To point your vengeance at the friendlefs head. 
And with one mutual cry infult the fall'n ! 
Emblem too juft of man's degenerate race." 

If 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 6^ 

If you find that they take a diflikc to any parti- 
cular hound, the fafefl way will be to remove 
him ; or it is probable they will kill him at laft. 
When a feeder hears the hounds quarrel in the 
kennel, he halloos to them to flop them. He 
then goes in amongft them, and flogs every 
hound he can come near. How much more rea- 
fonable, as well as more efficacious, it would be, 
were he to fee which were tlie combatants before 
he fpeaks to them. Punifhment would then fall 
as it ought, on the guilty only. In all packs 
there are fome hounds more cjuarrelfome than the 
reft ; and it is to them we owe all the mifchief 
that is done. If you find chaftifement cannot 
quiet thein, it may be prudent to break their 
holders ; for lincc they are not neceffary to them 
for the meat they have to eat, they are not likely 
to fcrve theni in any good purpofe. 

Young hounds ought to be fed twice a day, as 
they feldoin take kindly at iirft to the kennel- 
meat, and the dillemper is moft apt to feize them 
at this time. It is better not to round them till 
they are thoroughly fettled ; nor Ihould it be put 
off till the hot weather, for then they would 
bleed too much.* If any of the dogs be thin 

over 

* It may be better, perhaps, to round them at their quarters, 
when about fix months old; ihould it be done fooner, it would 
make their ears tuck up. The tailing of them is ufually done 

before 



64 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

over the back, or any more quarrclfomc than tli« 
reft, it will be of ulc to cut them : I alfo fpay 
fuch bitches as I think I fhall not want to breed 
from ; they are more ufefuT, are ftouter, and are 
always in better order : bclides, it is abfolutely 
neceflary if you hunt late in the fpring ; or your 
pack will be very fhort for want of it. It may 
be right to tell you, that the latter operation 
does not always fuccecd, it will be necefTary, 
therefore, to employ a flcilful perfon, and one on 
whom you can depend; for if it be ill done, 
though they cannot have puppies, they will go to 
heat notwithfianding, of which I have known 
many inllances, and that, I apprehend, v/ould 
not anfwer your purpofe at any rate* They fhould 
be kept low for feveral days before the operation 
is performed, and mull be fed on thin meat for 
fome time after. 

You afk me what number of young hounds 
you fhould breed to keep up your ftock ? it is a 
queftion, I believe, no man can anfwer. It de- 
pends altogether on contingencies. The defici- 
encies of one year muft be fupplicd the next. I 
fhould apprehend from thirty to thirty- five couple 

before they are put out ; it might be better, perhaps, to leave' 
it till thev are taken in. Dogs nuifl not be rounded at the time 
they have the diflemper upon them ; the lofs of blood would 
weaken them too much. 

Pf 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 6^ 

of old hounds, and from eight to twelve couple 
of young ones would, one year with another, 
bell iuit an eftablifhment which you do not in- 
tend fliould much exceed forty couple. This 
rule you fhould at the fame time oblerve — never 
to part with an ufeful old hound, or enter an un- 
handfome young one. 

I would advife you in breeding, to be as little 

prejudiced as pollible in favour of your own fort ; 

but fend your bed bitches to the bell dogs, be 

they where they may. Thofe who breed only 

a few hounds may by chance have a good pack, 

whilH thofe who breed a great many (if at the 

fame time they underfland the bulinefs) reduce 

it to a certainty. You fay, you wifli to fee your 

pack as complete as Mr. Meynell's : believe me, 

my good friend, unlefs you were to breed as many 

hounds, it is totally impoffible. Thofe wlio breed 

the greatefl number of hounds have a light to 

expe6l the bell pack ; at Icaft it mull be their 

own fault if they have it not. 



V NAMES 



66 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING', 



NAMES OF HOUNDS. 



A. Jo^s. 


Adrefs 


^Brazen 






Affable 


^ Brilliant 




A BLE 

J^ Ador 


Agile 


' Brufher 




Airy 


Brutal 




^ Adamant 


Amity 


^ Burfter 




Adjutant 
Agent 


Angry 
Animate 


Buftler 




Aider 


Artilicc 










Aim well 


'Audible 






Amorous 


•. 


B. hitches. 




^ Antic 


-<"«"<-.<v..>.>,>» 






Anxious 




Baneful 




/Arbiter 


B. dogs. 


^Bafhful 




Archer 




Bauble 




Ardent 


t Bachelor 


Beauteous 




Ardor 


Banger 


Beauty 




/ Arroiiant 


Baffler 


f Beldam 




Arfenic 


Barbarous 


Belmaid 




Artful 


' Bellman 


Blamelefs 




Artiit 


Bender 


Blithfome 




Atlas 


Blaller 


Blowzy 




' Atom 


f Bluecap 


Bluebell 




Auditor 


Blucman 


'BluePxiaid 




Au";ur 


Bluller 


Bonny 




Awful 


Boafter 


' Bonny bell 






^ Boifterous 


^ Bonnylats 






Bonny face 


BoundleftJ 






Bouncer 


Bravery 




A. hitches. 


Bowler 


Brfevity 






' Bravo 


Brimttone 




Accurate 


Bragger 


Bufy 




Aaive 


Brawler 


( Buxom 








C. doi^:: 


s> 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 



67 



C. dogs. 


Conqueft 


Circe 




Conftant 


Clarinet 


Caitiff 


Conteft 


Clio 


^ Capital 


Coroner 


^ Comely 


/ Captain 


/ Cottager 


Comfort 


Captor 


/ Counlellor 


Comical 


Carol 


Countryman 


Concord 


Carver 


Courteous 


Courtefy 


Caller 


Coxcomb 


Crafty 


Caftwell 


^ Craftfman 


/ Crazy 


Catcher 


/ Craiher 


Credible 


Catchpole 


Critic 


Credulous 


^ Caviller 


Critical 


^ Croney 


Cerberus 


Crovvncr 


Cruel 


/ Challenger 


/ Cruifer-/)^ 


Curious 


Champion 


Cruily 




Charon 


Cryer 


»*<'«^>"*'>' »« 


Chalcr 


Curfew 




^ Chaunter 


Currier 


D. dogs. 


Chieftain 






Chimer 




/Damper 
/ Danger 


Chirper 




Choleric 


C. hitches. 


Dangerous 


Claimant 




Dapper 


Clamorous 


Capable 


Dapller 


Clangor 


Captious 


Darter 


^Claihcr 


Carelefs 


^ Dafher 


/ Ciimbank 


Careful 


Dailiwood 


Clinker 


Carnage 


^ Daunter 


Combat 


Caution 


^ Dexterous 


Combatant 


Cautious 


Dilputant 


Comftirtcr 


/ Charmer 


Downright 


Comrade 


Chauntrefs 


^ Dragon 


^ Comus 


Ch earful 


^ Dreadnought 


Confli6l 


^ Cherriper 


^ Driver 


f Conqueror 


/ Chorus 


/ Duller 




F a 


D, hlich-ss. 



6af 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINC. 



D. hitches. 

Dainty 

Daphne 
^ Darling 
'' Da ill a way 
^ Dauntlefs 

Delicate 

Defperate 
/ Deiliny 
' Dian 

Diligent 

Docile 

Document 
^Duubtful 

Doubt lefs 

Dreadful 

Drcadlefs 

Dulcet 

"♦••(■■♦•0">">">» 



E. hitches. 



E. dogs. 



Eager 

Earneil 

Eftbrt 

Elegant 

Eminent 

Envious 

Envoy 

Errant 

Excellent 



Eafy 
Echo 
Eellacy 
Endlefs 
^ Energy 
Enmity 
Eiiay 



••♦•<••<■•<»->•>..>» 



F. dogs. 



Facliovts 

Factor 

Fatal 

Fearnought 
^ Ferryman 

Fervent 
' Finder 

Firebrand 

Flagrant 

Flalher 
/ Flcece'cra 

Flinger 
/ Flippant 
^ Flourilhcr 

Flyer 

Foamer 

Foilcr 

Foreman 

Forcmoil 

Forefight 



/ Forellcr 
Forward 
Fulminant 
Furrier 



F. hitches. 



Fairmaid 

Fair pi ay 

Faithful 

'Famous 

Fancyful 
/ Fafhion 
/ Favourite 
* Fearlefs 
'Fcftive 

Fickle 

Fidget 

Fiery 

Fireaway 

Firetail 
^ Flighty 

Flourilh 

Flurry 

Forcible 

Fretful 

Friendly 
^Frilky 
/ PVolic 

3'\"olielbrae 
' Funny lafs 

Fury 



O, do OS. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



69 



/ 



G. ^ogs, 

^ Gainer 
^ Gallant 

Galliard 
/ Galloper 
^ Gamboy 
'' Gameller 

Garrulous 

Gazer 
^ General 

Genius 
' Gimcrack 

Giant 
^ Glanccr 

Glider 
'' Glorious 

Goblin 

Governor 

Grapler 

Grafper 

Griper 

Growler 

Grumbler 

Guardian 

Guidcr 

Guiler 



/ 



/ 



Gamefome 
^ Gameltrefs 
/ Gaylafs 
Ghaflly 
Giddy 
Gladnefs 
Glad lb me 
Governefs 
Graceful 
Gracelefs 
Gracious 
Grateful 
Gravity 
Guilefomc 
Guiltlefs 
Guilty 



G. hitches. 



Gaiety 
Gainful 
Galley 
' Gambol 



H. dvgs. 

/ Hannibal 
/ Harbinger 
■^ Hardiman 

Hardy 
/ Harlequin 
^ Harrairer 
^ Havock 
' Hazard 

Headftrong 
, '' Hearty 
^ Heaor 

Heedful 
^ Hercules 

Hero 

Highflyer 



Hopeful 
^ Hotfpur 
Humbler 
Hurtful 



H. hitches. 

" Hafty 

Handfome 
^ Harlot 
^ Harmony 

Hazardous 

Heedlels 
^ Helen 
^ Heroine 

Hideous 
'^ Honefty 

Hoftile 



I. J. dogs. 

^Jerker 
Jingler 
^ Impetus 
Jockey 
Jolly 
' Jolly-boy 
/ Jollier 
Tovial 
^ Jubal 
Judgment 
''Jumper 



F3 



I. J. Filches 



*j6 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



I. J. hitches. 

'''^Jealoufy 

Induftry 
''Jollity 

Joyful 
^ Joyous 

•.<•.<■■*.<>..>.♦->•. 
L. dogs. 

Labourer 
/ Larum 
' Lafher 

Lafter 

Launcher 
'^ Leader 
^ Leveller 
^ Liberal 

Libertine 

Li6lor 
-^ Lifter 
'' Lightfoot 

Linguifl 

Lillener 

Lounger 
^ Lueifer 
^ Lunatic 

Lunger 

Lurker 



L. hitches, 
I^^CfsratG 



Laudable 

Lavifh. 
^ Lawlefs 

Lenity 

Levity 
' Liberty 
^ Lightning 

Lightfome 

Likely 
^ Liffome 

Litigate 

Lively 

Lofty 
' Lovely 

Luckylafs 
^ Lunacy 

««.*.<..0">'>+" 

M. dogs 

^ Manager 

Manful 
^ Markfman 

Marplot 

Marfchal 

Martial 
^ Marvellous 
/ Match'em 

Maxim 
^ Maximus 

MeaiiweU 
^Medler 
' Menacer 
/ Mendall 

Mender 
' IMentof 



^ Mercury 

Merlin 

* Merryboy 
Merr}man 
Mclfnate 
Mcihodifl 
Mi,^Vity 
TNliliiant 

^ Minikin 

/ Mifr.rcant 
Mittimus 
Monarch 

^ Monitor 
Motley 

^ Mounter 
Mover 
Mungo 

' Mufical 
Mutinous 
Mutterer 

>^ Myrmidon 



M. hitches^ 

f Madcap 

/ Madrigal 
^ Magic 

Mao;goty 
'' MatcJilefs 
f Melody 

Merrvlafs 

]\Jerryment 

M'Judful 
' Minion 

Miriam 

Mifchief 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



71 



^ Mifchlef 
^ Modilh 
^ Monody 

/ Mufic 

N. dogs> 

^ Nervous 

INefior 

Nettler 
/ Newfman 

Nimrod 

■Noble 

Nonfuch 

Novel 

Noxious 



N. hitches. 



Narrative 

Neatnels 

Needful 

Negative 

Nicety 

Nimble 

Noify 

Notable 

Notice 

Notion 

Novelty 

Novice 



/ 



P. doo-s. 

Paean 

Pageant 
' Paragon 
' Paramount 

Partner 

Partyman 
^ Pealer 

Penetrant 

Perfedl 
^ Perilous 

Pertinent 

Petulant 

Phcebus 

Piercer 

Pilgrim 
^ Pillager 

Pilot 

Pincher 

Piper 

Playful 

Plodder 
^ Plunder 
^ Politic 

Potent 

Prater 

Prattler 

Premier 

Prefident 

Prelio 

Prevalent 

Primate 

Principal 



Prodigal 

Prowler 

F4 



Prompter 
'^ Prophet 

Prolper 
f Profperous 

Pryer 



P. hitches^ 



Paflion 
^ Pall j me 

Patience 

Phoenix 
^ Phrenetic 
' Phrenzy 

Placid 

Playful 

Plealant 

Pliant 
^ Pofitive 

Precious 

Prettylafs 

Previous 

Prie fiefs 

Probity 

Prudence 

R. dogs^. 

Racer 
Rafjer 
Rally wood 
Rambler 

Ramper 



17- 

Ramper 

Rampant 

Rancour 

' Random 
Ranger 

f Ranfack 
Rantaway 
Ranter 
Rapper 

^ Rallcr 

"^ Ravager 
Ravenous 
Ravifaer 
Reach er 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Rumor ^ -Sampler 

Kunner ^bampion 

Rural Sanction 

Rufncr Sapient 

^ Riillic ' Saucebox 

Saunter 

' Scalper 

Scamper 

R. hitches. Schemer 

Scourer" 

Scrambler 



^Racket 
' Rally 
Ram pi ill 
Rantipole 
Reafoncr Rapid • 

Rec\or f^'^*-^^ Rapine 



Rec\or 
Regent 
Render 
Refonant 
Reftive 
^ Reveller 
'Rifler 
Rigid 
Rigour 
Rincrvvood 
Rioter 
Rilker 
Rockwood 
^ Romper 
Roufer 
Router 
Rover 
Rudeiliy 
Ruffian 
' Ruffler 



Rapture 
' Rarity 

Rafhnefs 

Rattle 

Ravifh 

Reptile 
' Relblute 

Reftlefs 
^ Rhaplbdy 

Riddance 
^ Riot 
/ Rival 

Roguifh 
' Ruin 

Rummage 

Ruthlefs 

«■<■•<-*•<>->->••»'• 

S. dogs. 
Salient 



Screamer 
/ Screecher 

Scuffler 

Searcher 

Settler 

Sharper 

Shifter 
^ Signal 

Singer 

SingwcU 
' Skirmifli 
' Smoker 
' Social 

Solomon 

Solon 

Songfter 
^ Sonorous 

Soundvvell 
' Spanker 

Special 

Specimen 
Speedwell 
Spinner 
' Splendor 
' Splenetic 
' Spoiler 

Spokefmau 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



73 



^ Spokefman 
Sportfman 
Squabbler 
Squeaker 
Statefman 
Steady 
Stickler 



Stinger 



* Stormer 
Stranger 
Stripling 
Striver 
Strivewell 
' Stroker 
' Stroller 
' Struggler 
Sturdy- 
Subtile 
Succour 
Suppler 
Surly 
/ Swaggerer 
^ Sylvan 



S. hitches. 

Sanguine 

Sappho 

Science 

Scrupulous 

Shrevvdnefs 

Skilful 

Songflrefs 

Specious 

Speedy 



Spiteful 

Spitfire 

Sportful 

Sportive 

Sportly 

Sprightly 

' Stately 
Stoutnefs 
Strenuous 
Strumpet 
Surety 
Sybil 

' Synrnhony 



•<■■<-<-••♦-»♦" 



T. dogs. 



Tackier 
' Talifman 

Tamer 
^ Tangent 

Tarter 
» Tatler 
' Taunter 
Teafer 
Terror 
' Thraihcr 
Threatner 
Thumper 
Thunderer 
Thvv acker 
Thwarter 
Tickler 
Tomboy 
^ Topmoil 
^ Topper 



Torment 
' Torrent 
^ Torturer 

Tolfer 
^ Touchtlone 

Tracer 
' Tragic 

Trampler 
^ Tranfit 

Tranfport 
/ Traveller 

Trimbufh. 

Trimmer 
^ Triumph 
^ i rojan 

Trouncer 
^ Truant 

Trudger 

Trueboy 
• ' Truemari 
/ Trufty 

Tryal 

Tryer 

Trywell 

Tuner 
^ Turbulent 

Twanger 

Twio-'em 

/o 
Tyrant 



T. hilches^ 

Tattle 
/ Telltale 
Tcsupell 

Tentative 



74 



THOITGHTS UPON HUNTING, 



/ 



Tentative 

Termagant 

Terminate 
^ Terrible 

Telly 

Thankful 

Thoughtful 
/ Tidings 

Toilfome 

Tradable 
^ Tragedy 

Trelpals 

Trifle 

Trivial 
' Trollop 

Troublcfome 
' Truelafs 

Truemaid 
'Tunable ■ 

Tuneful 



'■«•< ■<■.<►->•>•♦- 

V. dogs. 

Vagabond 
Va^rrant 
Valiant 
Valid 
Valorous 
V^alour 
Vaultcr 
^ Vauiiter 
Venture 
Venturer 
Venturous 



Vermin 

Vexer 
^ Vidtor 
^Vigilant 

Vigorous 

Vigour 
/ Villager 

Viper 
^ Volant 

Voucher 



V. hitches. 

Vanquifh 

Vehemence 

Vehement 
'Vengeance 

Vengeful 
/ Venomous 

Vcnturefome 

Venus 

Verify 

Verity 

Vicious 
' Victory 

Vi6h-ix 

Vigilance 

Violent 

Viperous 

Virulent 

Vitiate 

Vivid 

Vixen 
/ Vocal 



^^olatile 
Voluble 



"VV. dogs. 

Wanderer 

Warbler 
^Warnincj 
• Warrior 

War whoop 

Wayward 
. Weilbred 
^Whipfter 
^ W})ynot 

Wildair 
/ Wild man 

Wilful 

Wifdom 
^ Woodman 

Worker 

Workman 

Worthy 
/Wrangler 

Wreftler 



W. hitches. 

Waggery 
Waggifh 
Wagtail 
'VV'^anton 
Vv'arfare 

Warlike 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^^ 

Warlike Welldone Wifhful 

Wafpilli ^ Whimfey Wonderful 

Wafteful Whirligig Worry 

Watchful Wildfire Wrathful 

^ Welcome Willing Wreakful 



I, E T- 



^6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINC, 



LETTER VL 



AFTER the young bounds have been round- 
ed, and are well reconciled to the kennel, 
know the huntfman, and begin to know their 
names, they lliould be put into couples, and 
walked out amongll Iheep. 

If any be particularly fnappiili and troublc- 
fome, you fhould leave the couples loofe about 
their necks in the kennel, till you find they are 
more reconciled to them. If any be more ftubborn 
than tlie reft, you fhould couple them to old 
hounds rather than to young ones; and you 
ihould not couple livo dogs together when you 
can avoid it. Young hounds are awkward atfirft; 
I fliould, therefore, advifc you to fend out a few 
only at a time with your people on foot; they 
will foon afterwards become handy enough to 
follow a horfc ; and care fliould be taken that 
the couples be not too loofe, lefl they ihould 
flip their necks out of the collar, and give trouble 
]n catching them again. 

When they have been walked often in this 
jnanner amongfl thcfhcep, you may then uncouple 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. *^^ 

a few at a time, and begin to chaftife fuch as 
offer to run after them ; but you will foon find 
that the cry of ivare Jheep will flop them fufhci- 
ently without the whip ; and the lefs this is ufed 
the better. With proper care and attention you 
will foon make them alliamed of it, but if once 
fuffered to tafte the blood, you may find it diiR- 
cult to reclaim them. Various are the methods 
ufed to break fuch dogs from fheep ; fome will 
couple them to a ram, but that is breaking them 
with a vengeance ; you had better hang thcni. — A 
late lord of rny acquaintance, who had heard of this 
method, and whofe whole pack had been often 
guilty of killing fhecp, determined to puniili them, 
and to that intent put the largefl ram he could 
find into his kennel. The men with their whips 
and voices, and the ram with his horns, loon put 
the whole kennel into confufion and difmay, 
and the hounds and the ram were then left to- 
gether. Meeting a friend foon after, " come," 
fays he, " com.e with me to the kennel, and fcs 
" what rare fport the ram makes among the 
*' hounds; the old fellow lays about him floutly, 
" I afiure you — egad he trims them — there is 
*' not a dog dares look him in the face." — His 
friend, who is a compaffionate man, pitied the 
hounds exceedingly, and alked, if he was not 
afraid that fome of tliem might be fpoiled : — 
*' No, d— n them," faid he, " they delervc it, 
"■ and let them fulFer." — On they went — all vvas 

q uiet 



J-g THOUGHTS UPOW HUNTING* 

quiet — they opened the kennel door, bul faw nei- 
ther ram nor hound. The ram by this time was 
entirely eaten up, and the hounds having filled 
their bellies, were retired to reft. 

It without doubt is beft when you air your 
hounds to take them out feparately ; the old ones 
one day, another day the young ;* but as I find 
your hounds are to have their whey at a diftant 
dairy, on thofe days, both old and young may 
be taken out together, obferving only to take 
the young hounds in couples when the old ones 
are along with them. Young hounds arc always 
ready for any kind of mifchief, and idlenels might 
make even old ones too apt to join them in it. 
Befides, fhould they break off from the huntf- 
man, the whipper-in is generally too ill mounted 
at this feafon of the year eafily to head and bring 
them back. Run no fuch rilk. My hounds 
were near being fpoiled by the mere accident of 
a horfe's falling. The whipper-in was thrown 
from his horfc; the horfe ran away, and the whole 
pack followed : a flock of fheep, which were 
at a little diftance, took fright, began to run, 
and the hounds purfued them. The molt vi- 
cious fet on tlie rcll, and feveral ibeep were foon 

* It would be ftill better to take out your hounds every day, 
the old and young feparately, when it can be done without in- 
convenience; when it cannot, a large grafs-court will partly 
znfwer the fame purpofe. 

pulled 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 75 

pulled down and killed. I mention this to fhew 
you what caution is neceflary whillt hounds are 
idle ; for though the fall of the horfe was not to 
be attributed to any fault of the man, yet had 
the old hounds been taken out by themfelves, or 
had all the young ones been in couples, it is pro - 
bable fo common an accident would not have 
produced fo extraordinary an eiTedl. 

It is now time to floop them to a fcent. — You 
had better enter them at their own game — it will 
fave you much trouble afterwards. Many dogs, 
I believe, like that fcent bell which they were 
firil blooded to ; but be that as it may, it is cer- 
tainly moft reafonable to ufe them to that which 
it is intended they Ihould hunt. It may not be 
amifs, when they iirfi; begin to hunt, to put light 
collars on them. Young hounds may ealily get 
out of their knowledge ; and thy ones, after they 
have been much beaten, may not chufe to return 
home. Collars, in that cafe, may prevent their 
being loft. 

You fliy, you fhould not like to fee your young 
hounds run a trail-fcent. I have no doubt that 
you would be glad to fee them run over an open 
down, where you could fo eafily obferve their 
action and their fpeed. I cannot think the doing 
of it once or twice could hurt your hounds ; and 
and yet as a fportfman, I dare not recommend it 

to 



So TProUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 

to you. All that I Ihall lay of it is, that it would 
be Ids bad than entering them at hare. A eat is 
as good a trail as any ; but on no account Ihould 
any trail be uied after your hounds are Hooped 
to a fcent. 

I know an old fportfrnan who enters his young 
hounds firft at a cat, which he drags along the 
ground for a mile or two, at the end of which he 
turns out a badger, firft taking care to break his 
teeth ; he takes out about two couple of old 
hounds alon.o- Aiih the young ones to hold them 
on. He never enters his young hounds but at 
vermin ; for he fays, '' train up a child in the way 
'^ he jJioidd go, and ivhen he is old he will not de- 
*' -part from it.'* 

Summer hunting, though ufeful to young 
hounds, is prejudicial to old ones; I think, there- 
fore, you will do well to referve fome of the befl 
of your' draft-hounds to enter your young hounds 
with, feledling fuch as are moft likely to fet them 
a good example. I need not tell you they fhould 
not be flvirters ; but, on the contrary, fhould be 
fair hunting hounds, fuch as love a fcent, and 
that hunt clofeft on the line of it ; it will be ne- 
cellary that fome of them fliould be good finders, 
and all mufl be fteady : thus you procure for 
your young hounds the belt inftru6lors, and at 
the fame time prevent two evils, which would 

neceffarily 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. Si 

iiecefTarily enfue, were tliey taught by the whole 
pack ; one, that of corrupting, and getting into 
fcrapes, fuch as are not much wifer than them- 
felves ; and the other, that of occalioning much 
flogging and rateing, which always fliies and in- 
terrupts the hunting of an old hound. An old 
iiound is a faffacious animal, and is not fond of 
trufting himfelf in the way of an enraged whipper- 
in, who, as experience has taught him, can flogfe- 
verely, and can flog unjultly. — By attending to this 
advice, you will improve one part of your pack 
without prejudice to the other; whillt fuch as 
never feparate their young hounds from the old, 
are not likely to have any of them fleady. 

You atk, at what time you fliould begin to en- 
ter your young hounds ? — that queftion is eafily 
anfwered ; for you certainly fliould begin with 
them as foon as you can. The time mufl vary in 
different countries : in corn countries it may not 
be poflible to hunt till after the corn is cut ; in 
grafs countries you may begin fooner ; and in 
woodlands you may hunt as foon as you pleafe. 
If you have plenty of foxes, and can afford to 
make a facrifice of fome of them for the fake of 
making your young hounds lleady, take them 
iirfl where you have leali riot, putting fome of 
the l^eadiefl of your old hounds amongft them. 
If in fuch a place you arc fortunate enough to find 
a litter of foxes you, may affure yourfelf you will 

G have 



^2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

have but little trouble with your young houn(^9 
afterwards. 

Such young hounds an are moll- riotous at tiiTt, 
generally fpeaking, I think, are bell in the end. 
A gentleman in my rieighbourhood was {o tho- 
rouglily convinced of this, that he complained 
bitterly of a young pointer to the pertbn who gave 
it him, becaufe he had done no iinfchle.f. How- 
ever, meeting the fame perfon tome time after, he 
told him the dog he believed would prove a good 
one at lafl. — " How fo ?" replied his friend, ** it 
'^ was but the other day that you faid he was good 
'' for nothing." — " True; hut he has killed me time- 
*' teen iurlcles fmce that" 

If, owing to a fcarcity of foxes, you fhould iloop 
your hounds at hare, let them by no means have 
the blood of her ; nor, for the fake of confiil- 
ency, give them much encouragement. Hare- 
hunting has one advantage — hounds are chiefly 
in open ground, where you can eatily command 
them ; but, notwithflanding that, if foxes be in 
tolerable plenty, keep them to their own game, 
and forget not the advice of the old fportlman. 

Frequent hallooing is of ufe with young hounds j 
it keeps them forward, prevents their being lofl, 
and hinders them from hunting after the reft. The 
oftener therefore a fox is feen and hallooed, the 

better; 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. gj 

better ; it ferves to let them in, makes them ea^er, 
makes them exert themfelves, and teaches them to 
be handy. I muft tell you, at the fame time I fay 
this, that I by no means approve of much halloo- 
ing to old hounds ; and though I frequently arri 
guilty ofit myfelf, it is owing to my fph-its, which 
lead me into an error which my judgment con- 
demns. It is true, there is a time when halloo- 
ing is of ufe ; a time when it does hurt; and a 
time when it is perfe^lly inditferent : but it is long 
practice, and great attention to hunting, that mud 
teach you the application. 

Hounds, at their firfl entering, cannot be en- 
couraged too much. When they become handy, 
love a fcent, and begin to know what is right, it 
will be foon enough to chaftife them for doii:g 
ivrong ; in which cafe, one fevere beating will 
fave a deal of trouble. You fhould recommend 
to your v/hipper-in, when he flogs a hound, to 
make ufe of his voice as well as his v^-hip ; and kt 
him remember, that the fmack of the whip is 
often of as much ufe as the lafh, to one that has 
felt it. If any be very unlieady, it will not be 
amiis to fend them out by themfelves, when the 
men go out to exerclfe their horles. If you have 
hares in plenty, let fome be found fitting, and 
turned out before them ; and you will foon find 
the mod riotous w^ill not run after them. If yoa 
jntend them to be made tleady from deer, they 

G 2 fhould 



84 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Ihould often fee deer, and they will not regard 
them ; and it', after a probation of this kind, yoa 
turn out a cub before them, with fome old hounds 
o lead them on, you may affure yourfelf they 
will not be unfteady long; for as Somervile 
rightly obferves, 

" Eafy the lefTon of the youthful train, 

When inrtinft prompts, and when example guides." 

Flogging hounds in the kennel, the frequent 
pradice of moft huntfmen, I hold in abhorrence : 
it is unreafonable, unjufi, and cruel ; and carried 
to the excefs we fometimes lee it, is a difgrace to 
humanity. Hounds that are old offenders, that 
are very riotous, and at the fame time very cun- 
ning, it may be difficult to catch : fnch hounds 

may be excepted they deferve punifliment 

wherever taken, and you fhould not fail to give 
it them ivhenyou can. — This you will allow is a 
particular cafe, and neceility may excufe it — but 
let not the peace and quiet of your kennel be 
often thus diilurbed. When your hounds offend, 
punilh them: — when caught in the fa6t, then let 
them fuffer — and if you be levere, at leafi: be juft. 

When your young hounds floop to a feent, are 
become handy, know a rate and ftop eaiily, you 
may then begin to put them into the pack, a few 
only at a time ; nor do I think it advifeablc to begin 

this. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 85 

this, iill the pack have been out a (cw times by 
themfelves, and are gotten well in blood. I 
ihould alio advife you to take them the firit day 
where they are moft fure to find ; as long refl 
makes all hounds riotous, and they may do that 
en gaiete de cmir^ which they would not think of at 
another time. Let ^^our hounds be low in flefh, 
when you begin to hunt ; the ground is generally 
hard at that lealbn, and they are liable to be 
ihaken. 

If your covers be large, you will find the flrait 
horn of ufe, and I am forry to hear that you do 
not approve of it. — You afk me why I like it ? — 
not as a muftcian^ I can afTure you. — It lignifies 
little in our way what the noife is, as long as it 
^s underftood. 



G % LET- 



S6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



LETTER Vir. 

T TNLESS I had kept a regular journal of all that 
^^ has been done in the kennel from the time 
when my young hounds were tirll taken in, to the 
end of the laft feafon, it would be impolfible, J 
think, to anfwer all the queftions which in your lafi 
letter you aik concerning them. I wifh that a me- 
mory', which is far from a good one, would en- 
able me to give the information you defire. If I 
am to be more circumftantial than in my former 
letter, I muil recollecV, as well as I can, the re- 
gular fyftem of my own kennel ; and if I am tq 
write from memory, you will, without doubt, ex- 
cufe the want of the lucidus ordo : — it fhall be my 
endeavour, that the information thefe letters con- 
tain, fhall not miflead you. 

You wifh me to explain what I mean by 
hounds being handy — it retpe(51s their readinefs to 
do whatever is required of them ; and particularly, 
when call:, to turn eafdy whicli way the huntf- 
man pleaies.* 

* My hounds are frequently walked about the courts of the 
kennel, the whipper-in following them, and rating them after 
the huntfman ; this, and the fending them out, (after they have 
been fed,) with the people on foot, contribute greatly to make 
them handy. 

I was 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 87 

I was told the other day by a fportfrnan, that 
he confiders the management of hounds as a re- 
gular fyllem of education, from the time when 
they are firft taken into the kennel : I perfe611y 
agree wlih this gentleman; and am well con- 
vinced, that if you expect fagacity in your hound 
when he is old, you muft be mindful what in- 
ftru6tion he receives from you in his youth ; for 
as he is of all animals the moft docile, he is alfo 
mofr liable to bad habits. A diverfity of 
chara6ler, conftitution, and difpoiition, arc to be 
obferved amongil them ; which, to be made the 
mofl of, muft be carefully attended to, and dif- 
ferently treated. I do not pretend to have fuc- 
ceeded in it myfelf ; yet you will perceive, per- 
haps, that I have paid fome attention to it. 

I begin to hunt with my youngbounds in Augufl. 
The employment of my huntfman the preceding 
months is to keep his old hounds healthy and 
quiet, by giving them proper exercifei and to get 
his young hounds forward.* They are called 
over often in the kennel ; it ufes them to their 
names, to the huntfman, and to the whipper-in. 

* Nothing will anfwer this purpofe fo well as taking them 
put often. Let your huntfman lounge about with them— nothing 
will make them fo handy. Let him get off his horfe frequently, 
and encourage them to come to him,— nothing will familiarize 
them fo much.— Too great reftraint will oftentimes incline 
hounds to be riotous. 

G 4 They 



88 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

They are walked out often among fheep, hares, 
and deer : it iifes them to a rate. Sometimes he 
turns down a cat before them, which they hunt 
up to, and kill : and, when the time of hunting 
approaches, he turns out badgers or young foxes, 
taking out fome of the fieadleft of his old hounds 
to lead them on — this teaches them to hunt. He 
draws fmall covers and furze brakes with them, 
to ufe them to a halloo, and to teach them obedi- 
ence. If they find improper game, and hunt it, 
they are flopped and brought back ; and as long 
as they will flop at a rate, they are not chaflifed. 
Obedience is all that is required of them, till they 
have been fufhciently taught the game they are 
to purfue. An obftinate deviation from it after- 
wards is never 'pardoned. It is an oblervation of 
the Marchefe Beccaria, that ' ' La certezza di un 
*' caftigo, benche moderato, fara fempre una 
*' maggiore impreflione, che non il timore di un 
*' altro piu terribilc, unito colla fperanza, della 
" 'impunita." 

When my young hounds are taken out to air, 
my huntfman takes them into that country in 
which they are to hunt. It is attended with this 
advantage ; they acquire a knowledge of the 
country, and when left behind at any time, can- 
iiot fail to find their way home more eafily. 



When 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIKG. 89 

When they beghi to hunt, they are firfl: taken 
into a large cover of my own, which has many 
ridings cut in it ; and where young foxes are 
turned out every year on purpofe for them. Here 
they arc taught the fcent they are to follow, are 
encouraged to purfue it, and arc ftopped from 
every other. Here they are blooded to fox. I 
muft alfo tell you that as foxes are plentiful in 
this cover, the principal earth is not ftopped, and 
the foxes are checked back, or fome of them let 
in, as may bed fuit the purpofe of blooding. After 
they have been hunted a few days in this manner, 
they are then fent to more diftant covers, and 
more old hounds are added to them ; there they 
continue to hunt till they are taken into the pack, 
which is feldom later than the beginning of Sep- 
tember ; for by that time they will have learned 
what is required of them, and they feldom give 
much trouble afterwards.* In September I begin 
to hunt in earnefl, and after the old hounds have 
killed a (q\v foxes, the young hounds are put into 
the pack, two or three couple at a time, till all 
have hunted. They are then divided ; and as I 
feldom have occafion to take in more than nine or 
ten couple, one half are taken out one day, the 
other half the next, till all are fteady. 

* Sport in fox-hunting cannot be faid to begin before 1^0- 
ber, but in the two preceding months, a pack is either made or 
marred. 

Two 



90 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Two other methods of entering young hounds 
I have praftifed occaiionally, as the number of 
hounds have required ; for inltance, if that num- 
l>er be conliderable, (fifteen or lixteen couple,) I 
make a large draft of my fleadieft hounds, which 
are kept with the young hounds in a feparate 
kennel, and are hunted with them all the firli part 
of the fcafon. This, when the old hounds begin 
to hunt, makes two difiin6l" packs, and is always 
attended with great trouble and inconvenience. 
Nothing hurts a pack fo much as to enter many 
young hounds, lince it mufl be coniiderably 
weakened by being robbed of thofe which are the 
moft iteady ; and yet j'oung hounds can do 
nothing whhout their affiftance. Such, therefore, 
as conflantly enter their young hounds in this 
manner, will, fomelimes at leafi, have two indif- 
ferent packs, inllead of one good one. 

In the other method the young hounds are well 
awed from iheep, but never ftooped to a fcent, 
till they are taken out with the pack ; they are 
then taken out a few only at a time ; and if your 
pack be perfedtly fieady, and well manned, mav 
not give you much trouble. The metiiod I hrit 
mentioned, is that 1 moft commonly pracrife, be- 
ing moft fuitable to the number of young hounds 
I ufually enter — nine or ten couple: if you have 
fewer, the laft will be moft. convenient. The one 
which requires two diftin<5l packs, is on too ex- 
4 tenlive 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^I 

teniive a plan to fait your edablifhment, requiring 
more horfes and hounds than you intend to keep.* 

Though I have mentioned, in a former letter, 
from eight to twelve couple of young hounds, as 
a fufficient number to keep up your pack to its 
prefent eflablifhment ; yet it is always bell to have 
a referve of a few couple more; than you want, in 
cafe of accidents : iince from the time you make 
your draft, to the time of hunting, is a long 
period ; and their cxiftence at that age and feafon 
very precarious : beiides, when they are fafe from 
the diforder, they are not always fafe from each 
pther ; and a fummer ieldom palfes without fome 

* To render fox-hunting perfecR', no young hounds fhould 
be taken into the pack the firfi: feafon — a requifite too expenfive 
for mo ft fportfinen. The pack fhould conflft of about forty 
fouple of hounds, that have hunted, one, two, three, four, or 
five feafons. The young pack fliould confifl of about twenty 
couple of young hounds, and about an equal number of old ones. 
They fliould have a feparate eftablifhment, nor fhould the two 
kennels be ns^ar enough to interfere vs^ith each other. Tlie fea- 
fon over, the befl of the young hounds fliould be taken into the 
pack, and the draft of old ones exchanged for them. To enabla 
j'ou every feafon to take in tvyenty couple of young hounds, 
many m;ift be bred ; and of courfe the greater your choice, the 
handfomer your pack will become. It will ah.viiy:> be eafy to 
keep up the number of old hounds, for when your own 
draft is not fufhcient, drafts from other packs may eafiiy be ob» 
tained, and at a fmallexpence. When young hounds are hunted 
together the firil feafon, and have not a fufficient number of old 
hounds along with them, it does them more harm than good. 

lolfes 



92 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

loffes of that kind. At the fame tirrwf T mUft tell 
you, that I Ihould decline entering more than are 
necelTary to keep up the pack, fiiice a greater 
number would only create ufelefs trouble and 
vexation. 

You with to know what number of old hounds 
you fliould hunt with the young ones : — that 
muft depend on the flrength of your pack, and 
the number which you choofe to fpare ; if good 
and fleady, ten or twelve couple will be fuf- 
ticicnt. 

My young hounds, and luch old ones as are 
intended to hunt along with them,* are kept in a 
kennel by themfelves, till the young hounds are 
hunted with the pack. I need not, I am fure, 
enumerate the many reafons that make this regu- 
lation neceflary. 

I never truil my young hounds in the foreft till 
they have been well blooded to fox, and feldoni 
put more than a couple into the pack at a time.-f- 

* Some alfo take out their unfteady hounds, when they en- 
ter the young ones ; T doubt the propriety of it. 

f T fometimes fend all my young hounds together into the 
foreft, with four or five couple of old hounds only ; fuch as I 
know they cannot fpoil. As often as any of them break off" to 
deer, they are taken up, and {log<^ed. When they lofe onefox^ 
they try for another ; and are kept out, till they are all made 
tolerably fleady. 

The 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 93 

The others are walked out amongll: the deer, 
when the men exercile their horfes, and are fevcrely 
chaftifed if they take any notice of them. They 
alfo draw covers with them ; chooting out fuch, 
where they can bell fee their hounds, and moft 
eatily command them ; and where there is the 
leait cliance to find a fox. On thefe occafions I 
had rather they fhould have to rate their hounds 
than encourage tliem. It requires lefs judgment ; 
' and, if improperly done, is lefs dangerous in its 
confequences. One halloo of encouragement to 
a wrong fcent, more than undoes all that you 
have been doing. 

When young hounds begin to love a fcent, it 
may be of ufe to turn out a badger before them ; 
you will then be able to difcover what improve- 
ment they have made ; 1 mention a badger, on a 
fuppofition that young foxes cannot lb well be 
fpared ; belidcs, the badger, being a flower 
animal, he may calily be followed, and driven 
the way you choole he fliould run. 

The day you intend to turn out a fox, or 
badger, you will do well to fend them amongft 
hares, or deer. A little rating and flogging, be- 
fore they are encouraged to vermin, is of the 
greateft ufe, as it teaches them as well what they 
iliould not, as what they fhould do. I have 
known a badger run fcveral miles^ if judicioufly 
5 managed ; 



94 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

managed; for which purpofe he fhould be turned 
out in a very open country, and followed by a 
perfon who has more fcnfe than to ride on the 
line of him. If he do not meet with a cover or 
hedge in his way, he will keep on for feveral 
miles ; if he do, you will not be able to get him 
any farther. You fliould give him a great deal 
of law, and you will do well to break his teeth.-- 

If you run any cubs to ground in an indifferent 
country, and do not want blood, bring them 
home, and they will be of ufe to your young 
hounds. Turn out bag foxes to your young 
hounds, but never to your old ones. I obje6l: to 
them on many accounts ; but of bag foxes I fhall 
have occalion to fpeak hereafter. 

The day after your hounds have had blood, is 
alfo a proper time to fend them where there is riot, 
and to chaftife them if they defer ve ; it is always 
befl to corre6l them when they cannot help 
knowing what they are corredted for. When you 
fend out your hounds for this purpoie, the later 
they go out the better, as the worfe the fcent is 
the lefs inclinable will they be to run it, and of 

* The critic fays, " there is neither jiiftice nor equity in 
breaking his teeth." (Vide Monthly Review.) I confefs there 
is not, and I never know that it is done, but 1 feel all the force 
of the obfervation. Let neeejfity^ if it be able, plead in its 
excufe. 

courfe 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIMG. 95 

courfe will give lefs trouble in Hopping them. It 
is a common practice with huntfmen to flog their 
hounds moil unmercifully in the kennel : I have 
already mentioned my difapprobation of it : 
but if many of your hounds be obilinately rio- 
tous,* you may with lefs impropriety put a live 
hare into the kennel to them, flogging them as 
often as they appproach her ; they will then have 
fome notion, at leafl, for what they are beaten : 
but let me entreat you, before this charivari-^ 
begins, to draft off your hounds ; an animal to 
whom we owe fo much good diverfion fhould not 
be ill ufed unneceffarily. When a hare is put 
into the kennel, the huntfman and both the 
whippers-in fhould be prefent ; and the whippers- 
in fhould flog every hound, calling him by his 
name, and rateing him as often as he is near the 
hare ; and, upon this occafion, they cannot cut 
them too hard, or rate them too much. When- 

* This paflage has alfo been thought deferving of cenfure, 
though its motive is humane. By thefe means, the difobedient 
are taught obedience, and a more general punifhment prevented; 
which the efFefl of bad example might otherwife make ne- 
celTary. 

f A confiifion arifing from a variety of noifes. It is a cuf- 
tom in France, and in Switzerland, if a woman marry fooner 
than is ufual after the death of her huftaild ; or a woman get 
the better ui her hufband when attempting to chaftife her, and 
return the beating with iritereft — the neighbours give them a 
tharivari — a kind of concert compofed of tongs, fire-lhovJs, 
kettles, brafs pans, &c. &c, 

they 



96 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINGT. 

they think they have chaftifed them enough, the 
hare fhould then be taken away, the huntfman 
fhould halloo off his hounds, and the whippers- 
in fliould rate thcni to him. If any one love 
hare more than the rell, von may tie a dead one 
round his neck, flogging him and rating him at 
the lame time. This poliibly may make him 
afhamed of it. I never bought a lot of hounds, 
fome of which were not obliged to undergo this 
difcipline. Either hares are lefs plentiful in other 
countries, or other Iportimcn are Icfs nice in 
making their hounds iteady irom them. 

I would advile you to hunt your large covers 
with your young hounds : it will tire them out;* 
a neceflary ftep towards making them (teady ; 
will open the cover againft the time you begin in 
earned, and by dilturbing the large covers early 
in the year, foxes v.ill be Ihy of them in the 
feafon, and ihcw you better chaccs ; betides, as 
they are not likely to break from thence, you can 

* Provided that you have old hounds enough out, to carry 
on the fcent; if you have not a body of old hounds to keep 
up a try on the right fcent, the young ones, as foon as the 
ground becomes foiled, v.'ill be fcattered about the cover, hunt- 
ing old fcents, and will not get on faft enough to tire them- 
felves. Young hounds fliould never be taken into large covers, 
where there is much riot, unlefs whippers-in can eafily get at 
tliem. 

do 



' tHOtrGHTS UPON HU^^TING. ^^ 

do no hurt to the corn, and may begin before It 
is cut. 

If your hounds be very riotous, and you arc 
obhged to ftop them often from hare, it will be 
advifeable to try on (however late it may be) till 
5^ou find a fox ; as the giving them encouragement 
fhould, at fuch a time, prevail over every other 
conlideration. 

Though all young hounds are given to riot, 
yet the better they are bred, the lefs trouble they 
will be likely to give. Pointers well-bred Itand 
naturally, and high-bred fox-hounds love their 
own game beft. Such, however, "as are very 
riotous, fliould have little reft ; you fliould hunt 
them one day in large covers where foxes arc in 
plenty ; the next day they fliould be walked out 
amongft hares and deer, and flopped from riot ; 
the day following be hunted again as before. Old 
hounds, which I have had from other packs, (par- 
ticularly fuch as have been entered at hare) I 
have fometimes found incorrigible ; but I never 
yet knew a young hound fo riotous, but, by this 
management, he foon became fteady. 

When hounds are rated, and do not anfwer 
the rate, they fhould be coupled up immediately, 
and be made to know the whipper-in ; in all 
probability this method will fave any farther 

H trouble. 



^8 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

trouble. Thel'e fellows fometimes flog houndi 
unmercifully, and fome of them feem to take 
pleafure in their cruelty ; I am fure, however, I 
need not defire you to prevent any excefs in cor- 
re61:ion. 

I have heard that no fox-hounds will break of£ 
to deer after once a fox is found. — 1 cannot fay 
the experience T have had of this diveriion will 
m any wife juflify the remark ; let me advife you, 
therefore, to feek a furer dependence. Before you 
hunt your good hounds where hares are in plenty, 
let them be awed and flopped from hare : before 
you hunt amongft deer, let them not only fee 
deer, but let them draw covers where deer are ; 
for you muft not be furprifed, if, after they are 
fo far fleady as not to run them in view, they 
Ihould challenge on the fecnt of them. Unlefs 
you take this meihod with your young hounds 
before you put them into the pack, you will run 
a rifr of corrupt! ig the old ones, and may fufler 
continual vexation by hunting with unfleady 
hounds. I have already told you, that after my 
young hou:-ds are taken into the pack, I ilill 
take out but very fev/ at a time when I hunt 
among deer. I alfo change them when I take 
out others, for the fleadinefs they may have ac- 
quired could be but little depended on, were they 
to meet with any encouragement to be riotous. 

I con- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 99 

i confefs I think firll Impreffions of more con- 
sequence than they are in general thought to be ; 
I not only enter my young hounds to vermin on 
that account, but I even ule them, as early as I 
can, to the ftrongeft covers and thickeil brakes ; 
and I feldom find that they are fhy of them after- 
wards. A friend of mine has alTured me, that 
he once entered a fpaniel to fnipes, and the dog 
ever after was partial to them, preferring them to 
every other bird. 

If you have martin cats within your reach, as 
all hounds are fond of their fcent, you will do 
well to enter your young hounds in the covers 
they frequent. The martin cat being a fmall 
animal, by running the thickeft brakes it can 
£nd, teaches hounds to run cover, and is there- 
fore of the greateft ufe. I do not much approve 
of hunting them with the old hounds; they fhew 
but little fport; are continually climbing trees; 
and as the cover they run feldom fails to fcratch 
and tear hounds conliderably, I think you might 
be forry to fee your whole pack disfigured by it. 
The agility of this little animal is really wonder- 
ful ; and though it falls frequently from a tree, 
in the midit of a whole pack of hounds, all in- 
tent on catching it, there are but few inftances, 
I believe, of a martin's being caught by them in 
that lituation. 

H 2 l^ 



loo THOUGHtS UPON HUNTINCi. 

In fummer hounds might hunt in an evening: 
— I know u pack, that after having killed one 
fox in the morning with the young hounds, killed 
another in the evening with the old ones. Scent 
generally lies well at the elofe of the day, yet 
there is a great obje6lion to hunting at that time; 
— animals are then more cafily difturbed, and 
you have a greater variety of icents than at an 
earlier hour. 

Having given you all the information that I 
can poffibly recolledl:, with regard to my own 
management of young hounds, I fliall now take 
notice of that part of your lafl letter, where, I 
am forry to find, our opinions differ. — Obedience, 
you fay, is every thing neceffary in a hound, and 
that it is of little confequenee by what means it 
is obtained. I cannot concur altogether in that 
opinion ; for I think it very necelfary, that the 
hound lliould at the fame time underlland you. 
Obedience, under proper management, will be a 
necefTary confequenee of it. Obedience, furely, 
is not all that is required of them ; they fliould 
be taught to diflinguifh of themfelves right from 
wrong, or I know not how they are to be ma- 
naged ; when, as it frequently happens, we can- 
not fee what they are at, and mufl take their 
words for it. A hound that hears a voice which 
has often rated him, and that hears the whip he 
has often felt, I know, will flop. I alfo know, 

he 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. lOt 

he will commit the fame fault again, if he has 
been accuftomcd to be guilty of it. 

Obedience, you very rightly obferve, is a ne- 
ceffary quality in a hound, for he is ufelefs with- 
out it. It is, therefore, an excellent principle 
for a huntfman to {et out upon ; yet, good as it is, 
I think it may be carried too far. I would not 
have him infill on too much, or torment his 
hounds inal-ci-propos, by forcibly exacting from 
them what is not abfolutely neceffary to your dl - 
verfion. You fay, he intends to enter your hounds 
at hare : — is it to teach them obedience ? Does 
he mean to encourage vice in them for the fake 
of corre6ling it afterwards ? — I have heard, in- 
deed, that the way to make hounds fteady from 
hare, is to enter them at hare:* that is, to en- 
courage them to hunt her. The belief of fo 
flrange a paradox requires more faith than I can 
pretend to. 

It concerns rac to be under the neceflity of dif^ 
fering from you in opinion ; but iince it cannot 
now be helped, wc will purfue the fubjecV, and 
examine it throughout. Permit me then to afk 

* In proper hands either method may do. The method 
here propofed feems beft fuited to fox-hounds in general, a? 
well as to thofe who have the direction of them. The talents 
of fome men are fuperior to all rules ; nor i? their fuccefs any 
pofitive proof of the g0(^dnefs cf their method. 

TI 3 you 



102 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

you, what It is you propofe from entering your 
hounds at hare ? Two advantages, I fhall pre- 
fume, you expect from it — the teaching of your 
hounds to hunt, and teaching them to be obe- 
dient. However neceffary you may think thefe 
requifites in a hound, I cannot but flatter myfelf 
that they are to be acquired by lefs exceptionable 
means. The method I have already mentioned 
to make hounds obedient, as it is pra6lifed in my 
own kennel — that of calling them over often in 
the kennel, to ufe them to their names,* and 
walking them out often amongfl fheep, hares, and 
deer, from which they are flopped to ufc them 
to a rate, in my opinion, would anfwer your 
purpofe better. The teaching your hounds to 
hunt, is by no means fo neceirary as you feem 
to imagine. Nature will teach it them, nor need 
you give yourfelf fo much concern about it. Art 
only will be necefTary to prevent them from hunt- 
ing what they ought not to hunt ; and do you 
think your method a proper one to accom- 
plifh it ? 

The firil and moll: cffential thing towards 
making hounds obedient, I fuppofe, is to make 
them underftand you ; nor do I apprehend that 
you will find any difficulty on their parts, but fuch 

* Vide note page 43. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 103 

as iTiay be occasioned on your's.* The language 
we ule to them to convey our meaning fhould 
never vary ; flill lefs fhould wc alter the very 
meaning of the terms we ufe. "Would it not be 
abfurd to encourage when we mean to rate ? and 
if we did, could we expecl to be obeyed ? You 
will not deny this, and yet you are guilty of no 
lefs an inconliftency, when you encourage your 
hounds to run a fcent to-day, which you know, 
at the fame time, you muft be obliged to break 
them from to-morrow — is it not running counter 
to juflice and to rcalbn ? 

I confefs there is fome ufe in hunting young 
hounds, where you can eafily command them; 
but even this you may pay too dearly for. Enter 
your hounds in fmall covers, or in fuch large 
ones as have ridings cut in them ; whippers-ia 
can then get at them, can always fee what they 
are at, and I have no doubt that you may have a 
pack of fox-hounds ready to fox by this means, 
without adopting lb prepofterous a method as 
that of firft making have-hunters of them. You 
will find, that hounds thus taught what game 
they are to hunt, and what they arc not, will 

* Were huntfmen to fcream continually to their hounds, 
ufing the fame halloo whether they were drawing, carting, or 
running, the hounds could not underftand them, and probably 
U'ould fhew, on every occafion, as little attention to them as 
they would deferve. 

H 4 flop 



I04 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTIKG, 

ftop at a word, becaufethey will underftand you: 
and, after they have been treated in this manner^ 
a fmav-k only of t4ie whip will fpare you the in- 
humanity of cutting your hounds in pieces (not 
very jultly) for faults which you yourfelf have 
enccaraged them to commit. 

In your lafi letter you fcem very anxious to 
get y(>ur young hounds well blooded to fox, at 
the fame time that you talk of entering them at 
hare. How am I to reconcile fach contradidlions ? 
If the blood of fox be of fo much ufe, furely 
you cannot think the blood of hare a matter of 
indilFercnce ; unlefs you ihould be of opinion, 
that a fox is better eating. You may think, per- 
haps, it was not intended they Hiould hunt fheep; 
yet we very well know, when once they have 
l^:iUed fheep, that they have no difllke to mutton 
afterwards. 

You have conceived an idea, perhaps, that a 
fox-hound is defigned by nature to hunt a fox^ 
Yet, furely, if that were your opinion, you would 
not think of entering him at any other game. I 
cannot, however, fuppofe nature defigned the 
dog, which we call a fox-hound, to hunt fox 
only, fmce, we very well know, he Vvill alfo hunt 
other Tinimals. That a well bred fox-hound may 
give a preference to ^xrmin, c^vteris far'ihus^ \ 
will not dilpute : it is very pofiible he may ; but 

of 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I05 

of this I am certain — that every fox-hound will 
leave a bad fcent of fox for a good one of either 
hare or deer^ unlefs he has been made Heady from 
them ; and in this I fhall not fear to be contra- 
dicted. But as I do not vvifh to enter mto ab- 
ftrufe reafoning with you, or think it in anywiie 
material to our prefent purpofe, whether the dogs 
we call fox-hounds were originally deiigned by 
nature to hunt fox or not ; we will drop the 
fubjedl:. I mufl at the fame time beg leave to 
obferve, that dogs are not the only animals in 
which an extraordinary diverfity of fJDecies has 
happened fince the days of Adam : yet a great 
naturaliil tells us, that man is nearer, by eight 
degrees, to Adam, than is the dog to the iirll 
dog of his race ; Hnce the age of man is bur- 
fcore years, and that of a dog but ten. It thcie- 
fore follows, that if both fhould equally degene- 
rate, the alteration would be eight times more 
remarkable in the dog than in man. 

The two mofl necefiary queflions which refult 
from the foregoing premifes, are — whether hounds 
entered at hare are perfeClly fteady, afterwards, 
to fox— -and', whether fleadinefs be not attainable 
by more reafonable means ? Having never hunted 
with gentlemen who foUqw this pradHce^ I muft 
leave the firft queflion for other^^! to deternine; 
but having always had my hounds ftead\ , I can 
myfclf anfwer the fcconcL 

The 



X06 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

The obje6lions I have now made to the treat- 
ment of young hounds by fome huntfmen, though 
addreffed, my friend, to you, are general ol:)jec- 
tions, and Ihould not perfonally offend you, I 
know no man more juft, or more humane, than 
yourfelf. The difapprobation you fo firongly 
marked in your laft letter of the feverity ufed in 
fome kennels, the noble animal we both of us 
admire is much beholden to you for. Your in- 
tention of being preknt yourfelf the firfl: time a 
hound is flogged, to fee how your new whipper-in 
behaves himfelf, is a pro jf of benevolence, which 
the Italian author of the moll humane book,"* 
could not fail to commend you for. Huntfmen 
and whippersin ^e feldom fo unlucky as to have 
your feelings ; yet cufrom, which authorifes them 
to flog hounds unmercifully, does not do away 
the barbarity of it. — A gentleman feeing a girl 
fkinning eels alive, allced her, " if it was not 
*' very cruel !" — " O not at all, Sir," replied the 
girl, " they he vfed to it."' 

< 
* Dei delitti e delle pene. 



LET- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ICJ 



LETTER VIII. 



YOU dciire to know if there be any remedy 
for the diftemper among dogs. I Ihall, 
therefore, mention all the dilbrders which my 
hounds have experienced, and point out the re- 
medies which have been of fervice to them. The 
diftemper you inquire about is, I beheve, the 
moft fatal (the plague only excepted) that any 
animal is fubjedl to. Though not long known in 
this country, it is almoft inconceivable what 
numbers have been deitroyed by it in lb fhort a 
period; feveral hundreds I can rayfclf place to 
this mortifying account. It feems happily to be 
now on the decline ; at leaft, is lefs frequent and 
more mild ; and probably in time may be en- 
tirely removed. The effecls of it are too gene- 
rally known to need any defcription of them 
here; I wifh the remedies were known as well ! 

A brother fportfman communicated to me a 
remedy, which, he faid, his hounds had found 
great benefit from, viz. an ounce of Peruvian 
hark, in a glajs of Tort wine, taken twice a day. — 
It is not infallible; but in fome Hages of this 

dif- 



108 THOUGHTS UPON" HUNTING. 

diforcler is certainly of ufe. The hound moil m- 
feded, that ever I knew to recover, was a large 
ilag-hound; he \ny five days without being able 
to get off the bench ; receiving little nourifhment 
durhig the whole time of the diforder, except 
the medicine, with which he drank three bot- 
tles of Port wine. You may think, perhaps, 
the feeder drank his fhare — it is probable he 
irJght, had it not been fent ready mixed up with 
the bark. I once tried the foudre unique, think- 
ing it a proper medicine for a diforder which is 
faid to be putrid ; but I cannot fay any thing in 
its favour, with regard to dogs, at leaft. Nor- 
ris's drops I have alio given, and v/ith fuccefs. I 
gave a large table- fpoonful of them in an equal 
quantity of Port wine, three times a day; as the 
dog grew better, I leficned the quantity. When 
dogs run much at the nofe, nothing will contri- 
bute more to the cure of them than keeping that 
part clean ; when that cannot conveniently be 
done, emetics will be necelTary: the beft I know 
is a large fpoonful of common fait, difTolved in 
three fpoonfuls of warm water.* The iirft fymp- 
tom of this diforder generally is a cough. As 
foon as it is perceived amongft my young hounds, 
great attention is paid to them : they have plenty 

* The quantity of fait muft be proportioned to the fize of 
t]ie dog, and to the difficulty there may be to make iiim va-, 
niit. 

3 of 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 109 

of clean ftraw, and are fed oftener and better 
than at other times ; as long as they continue to 
eat the kennel meat, they are kept together; as 
loon as any of them refufe to feed, they are re- 
moved into another kennel, the door of the 
lodging-room is left open in the day, and they 
are only Ihut up at night : being out in the air is 
of great fervice to them. To fuch as are very 
bad, I give Norris's drops ; to others, emetics; 
whilft fome only require to be better fed than or- 
dinary, and need no other remedy.* They 
ihould be fed from the kitchen, when they re- 
fufe the kennel meat. Sometimes they will lofe 
the ufe of their hinder parts ; bleeding tliera, by 
cutting of the lail joint of the tail, may, per- 
haps, be of fervice to them. I cannot fpeak of 
it with any certainty, yet I have reafon to think 
that I once faved a favourite dog by this opera- 
tion. In fhort, by one method or another, I 
think they may always be recovered. 

The likelleft prefervative for thofe that are 
well is keeping them warm at night, and feeding 
them high. This diforder being probably infec- 
tious, it is better to provide an hofpital for fuch 
as are feiz,ed with it, which fhould be in the 

* Hounds that have the dulemper upon them have but lit- 
tle appetite. By feeding two or three together, they eat more 
greedily. 

back 



no THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

back part of the kennel. There is no doubt 
that Ibme kennels are healthier than others, and 
confequently lefs liable to it. I apprehend mine 
to be one of thofe; for in a dozen years I do not 
believe that I have lofi: half that number of old 
hounds, although I lofc lb great a number of 
whelps at their walks. Neighbouring kennels 
have not been equally fortunate : I have ob- 
ferved, in fome of them, a diforder unknown in 
mine; I mean a fwelHng in the fide, whieh fome- 
times breaks, butfoon rfter forms again, and ge- 
nerally proves fatal at lall. I once heard a friend 
of mine fay, whofc kennel isfubje61 to this com- 
plaint, that he never knew but one inftance of a 
dog who recovered from it. I have, however, 
lince known another, in a dog I had from him, 
which I cured by frequently rubbing with a di- 
geftive ointment : the tumour broke, and formed 
again fevcral times, till at lafl it entirely difap- 
pearcd. The diforder we have now been treat- 
ing of has this, I think, in common with the 
putrid fore throat, that it ufually attacks the 
weakefl. Women are more apt to catch the fore 
throat than men ; children, than women; and 
young hounds more readily catch this diforder 
than old. When it feizes whelps at their walks, 
or young hounds, when lirft taken from them, 
it is then moft dangerous. I alfo think that mad- 
nefs, their inflammatory fever, is lefs frequent 
than it was before this diforder was known. 

I There 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. HI 

There are few diforders which dogs are fo fub- 
je6t to as the mange. Air and exercife, whol- 
fome food, and cleanlinefs, are the beft prefer- 
vatives againfl it. Your feeder fliould be parti- 
cularly attentive to it, and when he perceives any 
fpot upon them, let him rub it with the follow- 
ing mirtture : 

A pint of train oil, 

Half a pint of oil of turpentine, 

A quarter of a pound of ginger, in powder, 

Half an ounce of gunpowder, finely powdered, 

Mixed up cold. 

If the diforder fliould be bad enough to reiifl: 
that, three mild purging balls, one every other 
day, fhould be given, and the dog laid up for a 
little while afterwards. For the red mange, yoil 
may ufe the following: 

Four ounces of quickfilver, 

Tvto ounces of Venice turpentine, 

One pound of hog's lard. 

The quicktilver and turpentine are to be rubbed 
together, till the globules all difappear. When 
you apply it, you mufl rub an ounce, once a 
day, upon the part affedled, for three days fuc- 
ceffively. This is tO be ufed when the hair 
comes olF, or any rednefs appears. 

How wonderful is the fatigue which a fox- 
hound undergoes! Could you count the miles 

he 



tl2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

he runs, the number would appear almofl incre- 
dible. This he undergoes cheerfully; and, per- 
haps, three times a week, through a long fea- 
fon: his health, therefore, well delervcs your 
care; nor fhould you fufFer the leaft taint to in- 
jure it. Huntfmen are frequently too negligent 
in this point. I know one in particular, a fa- 
mous one too, whofe kennel was never free 
from the mange, and the fmell of brimflone was 
oftentimes ftronger, I believe, in the nofes of 
his hounds than the fcent of the fox. — If you 
chufe to try a curious prefcription for the cure of 
the mange, in the Phil. Tranf. No. 25, p. 45 1^, 
you will find the following : 

'^ Mr. Cox procured an old mungrel cur, all 
" over mangy, of a middle lize, and having, 
'' fome hours before, fed him plentifully with 
" cheefe-parings and milk, he prepared his ju- 
*' gular vein ; then he made a ftrong ligature on 
" his neck, that the venal blood might be cmit- 
^' ted with the greater impetus; after this, he 
'^ took a young land fpaniel, about the fame 
'' bignefs, and prepared his jugular vein like- 
" wife, that the defcendent part might receive 
" the mangy dog's blood, and the afccndent dif- 
" charge his own into a difli; he transfufed 
" about fourteen or lixtcen ounces of the blood 
" of the mfeded into the veins of the found dog; 
*' bv this experiment there appeared no alteration 

" in 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



Jlj 



'^ in the found one^ but the mangy dog was^ in 
" about ten days, or a fortnight's time, perfe6lly 
*' cured ; and poffibly this is the quickefl and 
" fureft remedy for that difeafe^ either in man 
«' or beaft." 

Hounds fometimes are bitten by vipers: fweet 
oil has been long deemed a certain antidote; 
fome fhouid be apphed to the part, and fome 
taken inwardly. Though a friend of mine in- 
forms me, that the common cheefe rennet, ex- 
ternally applied, is a more efficacious remedy 
than oil, for the bite of a viper. They are liable 
to Wounds and cuts: Friar's balfam is very good, 
if applied immediately; yet, as it is apt to fhut 
up a bad wound too loon, the following tin(51:ure 
in fuch cafes may, perhaps, be preferable; at 
leaft, after the firfl dreffing or two — 

Of Barbadoes aloes, two ounces, 
Of myrrh, pounded, three ounces^ 
Mixed up with a quart of brandy. 

The bottle fhouid be well corked, and put into" 
a bark bed, or dunghill, for about ten days or a 
fortnight. The tongue of the dog, in moft 
cafes, is his bed furgeon; where he can apply 
that, he will feldom need any other remedy. A 
green, or feton, in the neck, is of greal, rehef in 
moft diforders of the eyes ; and I have frequently 
known dogs ahnoft blind, recovered by it. It is 



114 THOUGHTS UPON HUTJTING. 

alfo of fervice when dogs arc fhaken in the 
Hioulders, and has made many fonnd.* -In the 
latter cafe, there fhould be two, one applied on 
each fide, and as near to the flioulder as it is 
poffible. The following ointment may be uicd 
to difperfe fwellings : 

Of frefh mutton fdet, trlsd^ two pounds, 

Of gum elemi, one pound, 

Of common turpentine, ten ounces. 

The gum is to be melted with the fuet, and, 
when taken from the fire, the turpentine is to be 
mixed with it, ftraining the mixture vvhilft it \^ 
hot. Dogs frequently are flubbed in the foot r 
the tincture before-mentioned, and this, or any 
digcflive ointment, will loon recover them.-j^ For 
flralns, I ufe two- thirds of fpirits of wine, and 
one of turpentine, mixed up together; the Bri- 
tifh oil is alfo good : hounds, from blows, or 
other accidents, are often lame in the flifle : ei- 
ther of thefe, frequently applied, and long reil-, 
are the likeliefl means that I know of to recover 

* Turning a hound out of the kennel will fometimcs cure a 
lamenefs in the fliouldero. An attentive huntfman will per- 
ceive, from the manner of a hound's galloping, when this 
lamenefs takes place; and the hound fl:ould be tunied out im- 
mediately. Care fliould be taken that a hound, turned out, 
do not become fat. 

f An obfHnate Icrrenefs fometimes is increafed by humours, 
Ph) fic, in Uiat cale, may be ntctflary to remove it. 

them. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINGi 



115 



iliem. The following excellent remedy for a 
flrain, with which I have cured myfelf, and many 
Others, I have alfo found of benefit to dogs^ 
vvhcn flrained in the leg or foot. 

DifTolve two ounces of camphire in half a pint 
of fpirits of wine, and put to it a bullock's gall. 
The part affeded mull be rubbed before the fire 
three or four times a day. 

Sore feet are foon cured with brlnPj pot-lIqUor, 
or fiilt and vinegar, a handful of fait to a pint of 
vinegar ; if iieither of thefe will do, mercurial 
ointment may then be neceffary. A plafler of 
black pitch is the befl cure for a thorn in either 
man, horfe, or dog ; and I have known it fuc- 
ceed afler every thing elfe had failed. If the 
ipart be much inflamed, a common poultice bound 
over the plafler will afTifl in the cure. Hounds 
frequently are lame in the knee, fometimes from 
bruifes, fometimes fi'om the flab of a thorn ; 
digeftive ointment, rubbed in upon the part, 
■will generally be of fervice.* 

If hounds be much troubled with worms, the 
following is the bell cure that 1 am acquainted 
with : 

* If the knee continue foul, bliflers and long refl afterwards 
are the moll likely means to recover it. 

la Of 



Il6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTllffd. 

Of pewter, pulverized, i drachm lo grs. 
Of i^thiops mineral, i6 grs. 

This is to be taken three times; every other day, 
once: the dog fhould be kept warm, and from 
cold water. Whey, or pot-liquor, may be given 
him two or three hours after, and fhould be 
continued, infiead of meat, during the time he 
is taking the medicine. The beft way of giving 
it is to mix it up with butter, and then to make 
it into balls with a little flour. 



When a dog is rough in his coat, and fcratchcs 
much, tv/o or three purging balls, and a little 
reft afterwards, feldom fail to get him into order 
again. To make dogs fine in their coats, you 
fhould ufe the following dreffing: 

One pound of native fulphur, 
One quart of train oil, 
One pint of oil of turpentine,. 
Two pounds of foap. 

My hounds are dreiTed with it two or three times 
only, in a year: in fomc kennels, I am told 
they drefs them once in two months. The more 
frequently it is done, the cleaner, I fuppofe, 
your hounds will look. Should you choofe to 
drefs your puppies before they are put out to 
their walks, the following receipt, which I re- 
ceived from a friend of mine in StafFordfhire, 

(the 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. II7 

(the perfon already mentioned in this letter, an 
•excellent tportfman, to whom I have many ob- 
ligations) will anlwer the purpole beft, and on 
their change of diet, from milk to meat, may be 
fometimes neceflary : 

Three quarters of cin ounce of quickfilver, 
Half a pint of fpirits of tux-pentiae, 
Four ounces of hog's lard, 
One pound of folt foap, 

Three ounces of common turpentine, in which the 
quickfilver mud be killed. 

Inflin6l direcSls dogs, when the llomach is out 
of order, to be their own phylieian ; and it is 
from their example that we owe cur knowledge 
how to relieve it. It may appear foreign to our 
prefent purpofe; yet as it is much (if true) to 
the honour of animals in general, I mull beg 
leave to add, what a French author tells us:— 
that alfo by the hippopotamus, we are inftru6led 
how to bleed, and by the crane, how to give a 
clyfler. I have already declared my difapproba- 
tion of bleeding hounds, unlefs they abfolutely 
want it : when they refufe their food, from hav- 
ing been over worked ; or when they have taken 
a chill, to which they are very fubje^l, then the 
lofs of a little blood may be of ule to recover 
them. Sick hounds will recover Iboner, if fuf- 
fered to run about the houfe, than if they be con- 
fined in the kennel. 

I 3 Mad- 



Il8 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

Madnefs, thou dreadful malady ; what Ihall i 
fay to thee ! or what prefervative ihall I find 
againfl thy envenomed fang ! Somervile, who 
declines writing of lefTer ills, is not lilent on the 
fubjecl of this : 

" Of lefTer ills the mufe declines to fing, 

Nor ftoops fo low ; of thefe each groom can tell 

The proper remedy." 

I wifh til is worthy gentleman, to whom we have 
already been fo much obliged, had been lefs fpar- 
ing of his inf!ru61ions ; fince it is poffible grooms 
may have all the knowledge he fappofes them to 
have, and their maflers may ftand in need of it. 
No man, I believe, will complain of being too 
well informed: nor is any knowledge unnecef- 
fary which is likely to be put in practice. The 
executive part is fully fufficient to truft in the 
groom*s hands. Somervile's advice on the fub- 
jedl of madnefs, is worthy your notice : 

*' When Sirius reigns, and the fun's parching beams 

Bake the dry gaping fuiface, vifit thou 

Each ev'n and morn, with quick obfervant eye, 

The panting pack. If in dark fullen mood, 

The gloating hound refufe his wonted meal, 

Retiring to fome clofe obfcure retreat, 

Gloonry, difconfolate; with fpeed remove 

The poor infectious wretch, and in ftrong chains 

Bind iiim lufpeded. Thus ttiat dire difeafe 

"Which art can't cure, wife caution may prevent." 

Plenty 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 1 19 

Plenty of water, whey, greens, phyiic, air, and 
cxercife, fuch as I have before mentioned, have 
hitherto preferved my kennel from its baneful in- 
fluence ; and, without doubt, you will alfo find 
their good effects. If, notwithftanding, you 
iliould at any time have rcatbn to fufpecSl the 
approach of this evil, let your hounds be well ob- 
ferved at the time when they feed ; there will be 
no danger whilft they can cat. Should a whole 
pack be in the fame predicament, they muft be 
chained up feparately ; and I Ihould be very cau- 
tious what experiment I tried to cure them ; for I 
have been told by thofe who have had madnefs in 
their kennels, and who have drenched their hounds 
to cure it, that it was the occafion of its breaking 
out a long time afterwards, and that it continued 
to do fo, as long as they give them any thing to 
put it off. — If a few dogs only have been bitten, 
you had better hang them. — If you futpedl any, 
you had better feparate them from the reft ; and 
a fhort time, if you ufe no remedy, will deter- 
mine whether they really were bitten or not.-— 
Should you, however, be defirous of trying a 
remedy, the following prefcription, I am told, is 
a very good one : 

Of Turbith's mineral eight gmrjSj 
Ditto fixteen grains, 
Pitto thirty-two grains. 

I 4 This 



140 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

This is to be given for three mornings fuceer- 
lively ; beginning the firft day with eight grains, 
and increafing it according to the above direc^ 
tion. The dog fhould be empty when he takes 
it, and Ihould have been bled the day before. 
The dofe Ihould be given early in the morning, 
and the dog may have fome thin broth, or pot' 
liquor, about two or three o'clock^ but nothing 
elfe during the time h ; takes the medicine ; he 
fhould alfo be kept from water. The befh way 
to give it is in butter, and mad° up into balls with 
a little flour. Care muft be taken that he does 
not throw it up again. After the laft day of the 
medicine, he may be fed as ufual. Various are 
the drenches and medicines which are given for 
this diforder, and all faid to be infallible: this 
Jafl, howqver, I prefer. The whole pack belong- 
ing to a gentleman in my neighbourhood were 
bitten ; and he aflures me, he never knew an in^. 
ilance of a dog who went mad, that had taken 
this medicine. — The caution, which I have re- 
commended to you, I flatter myfelf will pre- 
serve you from this dreadful malady ; a malady, 
for which I krlow not how to recommend a re- 
medy. Several years ago I had a game-keeper 
mud}, bitten in the flefhy part of his thigh ; a 
horfe, that was Ipitten at the fame time, died 
raving mad ; the man was cured by Sir George 
Cob's medicine.— I have heard that the Ormfkirk 
icnedicine is alfo very good. I have given it to 

fcveral 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 121 

feveral people in my neighbourhood^ and, I be- 
lieve, with fuccefs ; at leaft, I have not, as yet, 
heard any thing to the contrary — Though I men- 
tion thefe as the two moft favourite remedies, I 
yecommend neither. Somervile's advice, which I 
have already given, is what I recommend to you- — 
if properly attended to, it will prevent the want 
of any remedy. 

P. S. A Treatifc on canine madnefs, written 
by Dr. James, is worth your reading. You will 
find, that he prefcribes the fame remedy for the 
cure of madnefs in dogs, as I have mentioned 
here, but in different quantities. I have, how- 
ever taken the liberty of recommending the quan- 
tities above-mentioned, as they have been known 
to fucceed in my neighbourhood, and as the ef- 
^cacy of them has been very frequently proved. 



LET- 



tZZ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINCf* 



LETTER IX. 

THE variety of queftions which you are 
pleafed to afk concerning the huntfman, will, 
perhaps, be better anfwered, when we are on the 
fubje6t of hunting. In the mean time, I will en- 
deavour to defcribe what a good huntfman fhould 
be. He fhould be young, flrong, adive, bold 
and enterprifing ; fond of the diverlion, and in- 
defatigable in the purfuit of it ; he fliould be fen- 
iible and good-tempered ; he ought alfo to be fo- 
ber ; he ihould be exa^l, civil, and cleanly ; he 
fhould be a good horfcman, and a good groom ; 
his voice fhould be flrong and clear, and he 
fhould have an eye fo quick, as to perceive which 
of his hounds carries the fcent, when all are run- 
ning ; and fhould have fo excellent an ear, as 
always to diflingullh the foremoft hounds, when 
he does not fee them. He fhould be quiet, pa- 
tient, and without conceit. Such are the excel- 
lencies which conflitute a good huntfman : he 
fhould not, however, be too fond of difplaying 
them, till neccfiity calls them forth. — He fhould 
let his hounds alone, whilll they can hunt, and he 
fhould have genius to ^K\^ them, when they 
cannot. 



With 



XHGUGHTS rpOM HUNTING, I23 

With regard to the whipper-in, as you keep two 
©f them, (and no pack of fox-hounds is complete 
without) the firft may be confidered ^s a fecond 
huntfman, and Ihould have nearly the liime good 
qualities. It is neceffary betides, that he fhould 
be attentive and obedient to the huntfman ; and 
as his horfe will probably have moft to do, the 
lighter he is, the better; though if he be a good 
horfeman, the objedlion of his weight v/ill be fuf- 
^ciently overbalanced. — He mufl not be con- 
ceited. 1 had one formerly, who, inflead of 

flopping hounds as he ought, would try to kill a 
fox by himfelf. — ^This fault is unpardonable ; — 
he lliould always maintain to the huntfman's 
halloo, and flop fuch hounds as divide from it. 
When Hopped, he fhould get forward with thera 
^ftcr the huntfman. 

He mufl always be contented to a6l an tinder 
part, except when circumftances may require that 
he Ihould a6t otherwife;* and the moment they 
ceafe, he muft not fail to refume his former fla- 
tion. — You have heard me fay, that where there 
^s much riot, I prefer an excellent whipper-in to 
an excellent huntfman. — The opinion, I believe, 
is new ; I muft therefore endeavour to explain it. 

* When the huntfrnaa cannot be up with the hounds, the 
whipper-in fliould ; in which cafe it is the bulinefs of the huntf- 
pian to bring on the tail hounds along witl^him. 

4 My 



124 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

My meaning is this : that I think I fhould have 
better ("port, and kill more foxes with a moderate 
huntfman, and an excellent whipper-in, ihan 
with the beft of huntfmen without fuch an allift- 
ant. You will fay, perhaps, that a good huntf- 
man will make a good whipper-in; — uot fuch, 
however, as I mean ; — his talent mnft be born 
with him. My reafons are, that good hounds, 
(and bad I would not keep) ofttner need the one 
than the other j and genius, which in a whipper- 
in, if attended by obedience, his firft requifite, can 
do no hurt; in a huntfman, is a dangeror.s, 
though a defirable quality ; and if not accom- 
panied with a large fhare of prudence, and I may 
lay humility, will oftentimes fpoil your fport, and 
hurt your hounds. A gentleman told me that he 
heard the famous Will Dean, when his hounds 
were running hard in a line with Daventry, from 
whence they were at that time many miles diflant, 
fwear exceedingly at the whipj^er-in, faying, 
^' What hujimfs have you hcreT'' the man was 
amazed at the quefiion, " vchy dan^t you knoiv* 
laid he, " aiid he d—d to you^ that the great earth 
" at Daventry is open F' — -The man got forward, 
and reached the earth jull time enough to fee the 
fox go in. — If therefore whippers-in be left at 
liberty to a6l as they fhall think right, they are 
much lefs confined than the himtfman himfelf, 
who muft follow his hounds j and, confequently 

they 



TftOUGHTS UPON fiUNTlNG. I25 

they have greater fcope to exert their genius, if 
they have any. 

I had a difpute with an old fportfman, who 
contended, that the whipper-in fhould always at- 
tend the huntfman, to obey his orders ; (a ilable- 
boy, then, would make as good a whipper-in as 
the beil) but this is fo far from being tlie cafe, 
that he fhould be always on the oppotite tide of 
the cover from him, or I am much miflaken in 
my opinion : if within hearing of his halloo, he 
is near enough ; for that is the hunting fignai he 
is to obey. — The ftation of the fecond whipper-in 
may be near the huntlinan, for which reafon any 
boy that can halloo, and make a whip fmack, 
may anfwer the purpofe. 

Your firft whipper-in being able to hunt the 
hounds occafionally, will anfwer another gocd 
purpofe ; — it w^ill keep your huntfman in order. 
They are very apt to be impertinent when they 
think you cannot do without them. 

When you go from the kennel, the place of 
the firil whipper-in is before the hounds ; that of 
the fecond whipper-in fhould be fome diftance 
behind them ; if not, I doubt if they will be fuf- 
fered even to empty themfelves, let their necef* 
lities be ever fo great ; for as foon as a boy is 
made a whipper-in, he fancies he is to whip the 

hounds 



l26 THOUGHTS UPON HITNTING. 

bounds whenever he can get at them, whether 
they deferve it or not. 

I have always thought a huntfman a happy 
man ; his office is plealing, and at the fame time 
flattering; we pay him tor that which diverts 
him, and he is enriched by his greatell pleaiure ;* 
nor is a General after a victory, more proud, than 
is a huntfman who returns with his fox's head. 

I have heard that a certain Duke who allowed 
no vails to his fervants, afked his huntfman what 
he generally made of his field-money, and gave 
him what he aflced, inflead of it : this went on 
Yery well for fome time, till at laft the huntfman 
delired an audience. — *' Your Grace," faid he, 
*' is very generous, and gives me more than ever 
** I got from field-money in my life, yet I come 
*' to beg a favour of your Grace — that you 
** would let me take field money again; for I 
** have not half the pleafure now in killing a fox, 
*' that I had before/' 

As you afk me my opinion of fcent, I think 1 
had better give it you before we begin on the fub- 
jecSl of hunting. I mufl, at the fame time, take 
the liberty of telling you, that you have puzzled 
me exceedingly ; for fcent is, I believe, what we 

* The Jield-mone^ which is colleded at the death of a fox, 

jljportfmera 



THOUGHTS UPON HlTNTHsTG. IzJ 

Iportfrnen know leaft about ; and, to ufe the 
words of a great clallic writer; 

Hocjum contentus, quod eflam ft quo quidqiie fiat 
Ignorem, quid fiat intelhgo.'—C'ic. de d-iv. 

Soniervile, who, as I have before obferved, is 
the only one I know of, who has thrown any 
light on the fubjeA of hunting, fays, I think, 
but Httle about fcent ; I fend you his words ; I 
ihall afterwards add a few of my own. 

*' Should fome more curious fportfmen here inquire,^ 

"Whence this fagacity, this wond'rous power 

Of tracing ftep by ftep, or man, or brute? 

What guide invincible points out their way. 

O'er the dark marlh, bleak hill, and tkndy plain ? 

The courteous mufe fhall the dark caufe reveal. 

The blood that from the heart inceflant rolls 

In many a crinifon tide, then here, and there 

In fmaller rills difparted, as it flows 

Propell'd, the ferous particles evade. 

Thro' th* open pores, and with the ambient air 

Entangling mix, as fuming vapours rife, 

And hang upon the gently purling brook, 

There by the incumbent atmofphere comprefs'd 

The panting chace grows warmer as he flies, 

And thro' the net-work of the fkin perfpires ; 

Leaves a long — fteaming— trail behind ; which by 

The cooler air condens'd remains, unlefs 

By fome rude florm difpers'd, or rarefy'd 

By the meridian fun's intenfer heat, 

To every (hrub the warm effluvia cling, 

Hang on the grafs, impregnate earth and fkies. 

Witii 



J 25 THOUGHTS UF0If HtJNTIN^^ 

"With noftrils opening wide, o'er hill, o'er dale^ 
The vig'rous hounds purfue, with ev'ry breath 
Inhale the grateful ll:eam, quick pleafures fting 
Their tingling nerves, while their thanks repays 
And in triumphant melody confefs 
The titillating joy. Thus on the air 
Depends the hunters hopes." 



I cannot agree with Mr. Somervlle;, in think-' 
ing that fcent depends on the air only ; it de- 
pends alfo on the foil. Without doubt, the beft 
fcent is that, which is occalioned by the effluvia, 
as he calls it, or particles of fcent, which are con- 
ilantly perfpiring from the game as it runs, and 
are ftrongeft and moll favourable to the hound, 
when kept by the gravity of the air, to the height 
of his breaft ; for then, it neither is above his 
reach, nor is it neceffary that he fhould floop for 
it. At fuch times, fcent is faid to lie hreaji high. 
Experience tells us, that difference of foil occa- 
lions difference of fcent ; and on the richnefs and 
moderate moiflure of the foil does it alfo depend 
I think, as well on the air. At the time leaves 
begin to fall, and before they are rotted, we know 
that the fcent lies ill in cover. This alone would 
be a fufficient proof, that fcent does not depend 
on the air only. A ditfcrence of fcent is alio oc- 
cafioned by difference of motion ; the fafler the 
game goes, the lefs fcent it leaves. When game 
has been ridden after, and hurried on by impru- 
dent fportfmen, the fcent is kfs favourable to 
I hounds 'f 



TlidUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I5,0 

hounds ; one reafon of which may be, that the 
particles of fcent are then more diflipated. But 
if the game fhould have been run by a dog not 
belonging to the pack, fcldom will any fcent re- 
main, 

I believe it is very difficult to alccrtain what 
fcent exadlly is ; I have known it alter very often 
in the fame day. I believe, however, that it de- 
pends chiefly on two things, '^ the condition the 
'' ground is in, and- the temperature of the air; 
both of which, I apprehend, Oiould be moiil", 
vv'ithout being wet : when both are in this con- 
dition, the fcent is then perfe6l ; and vice verfa, 
when 'he groitnd is hard, and the air dry, there 
feldom will be an^? (cent. — It fcarce ever lies v^^ith 
a north, or an eail wind ; a foutherly wind wnth- 
out rain, and a wefierly wind that is not rough, 
are the mofi: favourable. — Storms in the air are 
great enemies to fcent, and fcKlom fail to take it 
entirely away. — ^A fine fun fhiny day is not often 
a g'""© 1 hunting day ; but vHiat the French call^ 
jiur des dames^ warm without fun, is generally a 
perfect one : there are not many fuch in a vv^hole 
feafon. — ^In fome fogs, I have known the fcent lie 
high ; in others, not at all ; depending, I believe, 
on the qi;arter the wind is then in. — 1 havekinown 
rt lie very high m a mrft, when not too wet ; 
but if the wet fhould hang on the boughs and 
bufhes, it will fail upon the fcent, and deaden it.- 
K When' 



130 THOtTGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

When the dogs roll, the fcent, I have frequently 
obferved, feldom lies ; for what reafon, I know 
not; but, with permiffion, if they fmell ftrong, 
when they firfl come out of the kennel, the pro-* 
verb is in their favour ; and tliat fmell is a prog- 
noflic of good luck. — When cobwebs hang on 
the bufhes, there is feldom much fcent. — During 
a white frofl the fcent lies high ; as it alfo does 
when the froft is quite gone : at the time of its 
going off, fcent never lies : it is a critical minute 
for hounds, in which their game is frequently loft. 
In a great dew the fcent is the fame. In heathy 
countries, where the game bruflies as it goes 
along, fcent feldom fails. Where the ground 
carries, the fcent is bad for a very evident reafon^ 
which hare-hunters, who purfue their game over 
greafy fallows, and through dirty roads, have 
great caufe to complain of. A wet night fre- 
quently produces good chaces, as then, the game 
neither like to run the cover, nor the roads. — It 
has been often remarked, that fcent lies beft in 
the richeft foils ; and countries which are favour- 
ble to horfes, are feldom fo to hounds. I have 
alfo obferved that, in fome particular places, let 
the temperature of the air be as it may, fcent never 
lies. 

Take not out your hounds on a very windy, or 
bad day. 

(' Thefe 



i 



THOUGHTS UPON HtJNTING. l^t 

*' Thefe aiifpicious days, on other cares 
Employ thy precious hours ; th' improving friend 
With open arms embrace, and from his Hps 
Glean fcience, feafon'd with good-natur'd wit; 
But if th' inclement fkics, and angry Jove, 
Forbid the pleafing intercourfe, thy books 
Invite thy ready hand, each facred page 
Rich with the wife remarks of heroes old." 



The fcntiments of Mr. Somervile always do 
him honour, but on no occafion, more than on 
this. 

In reading over my letter, I find I have ufed the 
word fmell, in a fenfe that perhaps you will criti- 
cize.— Al gentleman, who, I fuppofe, was not 

the fweetefl in the world, fitting in the front 
boxes at the play-houfe, on a crowded night, his 

neighbour very familiarly told him, that he f}neU 

Jirong : — " No, Sir," replied he, wiih infinite 

good humour, — " it is you that J}:uil, 1 jimk»* 

[The qualifications necefiary to make a good 
huntfmaii, Mr.Beckford has dwelt upon with much 
ingenuity in the former part of this letter, it is there- 
fore hoped, that our preienting the readers of his 
admired produ6lion, in this place, with a portrait 
of one who is reputed to be the befl: in the kingdom^ 
will be deemed appropriate ; his name is Rich- 
ard Fairbrother^ and hunts the pack belong- 
K % ing 



I3'3 THOUGHTS UPON IIUNTINGV 

ing to Mr. Newman, of Navcftock, in EfTes: :— ' 
the horfc on which he is fcated, called Jolly 
RoGER, is an old favourite, having carried 
him through fome of the fevereft chaces ever 
known.]. 



lET. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 133 



LETTER X. 

THOUGHT that I had been writing all this 
time to a fox-hunter ; and hitherto my letters 
liave had no other objecft. I now receive a let- 
ter from you, full of queftions about hare-hunt- 
ing ; to all of which you expe6l an anfwer. I 
mufl tell you, at the fume time, that though I 
kept harriers many years, it was not my inten- 
tion, if you had not afkcd it, to have written on 
the fubje6t. By inclination, I was never a hare- 
hunter ; I followed this diveriion more for air and 
exercife, than amufement ; and if I could have 
perfuaded myfelf to ride on the turnpike road to 
Vne three-mile flone, and back again, I fliould 
have thought that I had had no need of a pack 
of han'iers. — Excufe me, brother hare-hunters ! 
I mean not to offend ; I fpeak but relatively to 
my own particular lituation in the country, where 
hare-hunting is fo bad, that it is more extraor- 
dinary I fliould have perfevered in it fo long, than 
that I flioyld forfake it now. I refpecft hunting 
in whatever fhape it appears ; it is a manly, and 
a wholelbme exercife, and feems, by nature, de- 
ligned to be the amufernent of a Briton. 

You afk, how many hounds a pack of har- 
riers fhould confift of ? and what kind of hound 

K 3 is 



234 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

is beft fuitcd to that diverfion ? You fliould 

never exceed twenty couple in the field ; it might 
be difficult to get a greater number to run well 
together, and a pack, of harriers cannot, be com- 
plete if they do not:* befides, the fewer hounds 
you have, the lefs you foil the ground, which you 
otherwife would find a great hindrance to your 

hunting. Your other queltion is not eafily 

anfwered ; the hounds, I think, moft likely to 
fhew you fport, are between the large flow hunt- 
ing harrier; and the little fox beagle : the former 
are too dull, too heavy, and too flow ; the latter, 
too lively, too light, and too fleet. The firfl 
Ipecies, it is true, have mofi excellent nofes, and 
I make no doubt, will kill their game at laft, if 
the day be long enough ; but, you know, the 
days are fhort in winter, and it is bad hunting in 
the dark. The other, on the contrary, fling and 
dafh, and are all alive ; but every cold blaft af~ 
fe6ls them, and if your country be deep and wet, 
it is not impoflible that fome of them may be 
drowned. My hounds were a crofs of both thefe 
kinds, in which it was my endeavour to get as 
much bone and flrength, in as fma'.l a compafs 
as pofiible.—— — It was a difficult undcitakiijg. — ■ 

* A hound that runs too hH for the reft, ought not tp be 
kept. Some huntfmen load them with lieavy collars ; fome tie 
a long ftrap round their necks ; a better way would be to part 
with them. Whether they go tpoflow, or too faft, they ought 
equally to be drafted* 

1 bred 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 13^ 

J bred many years, and an infinity of hounds, 
before I could get what I wanted : I, at lafl, had 
the pleafure to fee them very handfome ; fmall, 
yet very bony ; they ran remarkably well toge- 
ther ; ran fall enough ; had all the alacrity that 
you could delire, and would hunt the coldeft 
fcent. — When they were thus perfedl, I did, as 
many others do — 1 parted with them. 

It may be neceflary to unfay, now that I am 
turned hare-hunter again, many things I have 
been fayhig, as a fox-hunter; as I hardly know 
any two things of the fame genus, (if I may be 
allowed the exprelfion) that differ fo entirely. 
What I faid in a former letter, about the huntf- 
man and whipper-in, is in the number : as to the 
huntfman, he fhould not be young : I fnould mofi: 
certainly prefer one, as the French call it, d^un 
certain age, as he is to be quiet and patient ; for 
patience, he fhould be a very Grizzle ; and the 
more quiet he is, the better. He fhould have 
infinite perfeverance ; for a hare fhould never be 
given up, whilfl it is poffible to hunt hc^ : Ihe is 
fure to ftop, and therefore may always be re- 
covered. Were it ufual ^to attend to the breed 
of our huntfmen, as well as to that of our hounds^ 
I know no family that would furnifh a better 
crofs than that of the ftJeyit geyiihrnaiiy mentioned 
by the Spectator : a female of his line, crofTecJ 

K 4 with 



1^6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

with a knowing buntfrnanj would probably pro* 
duce a perfect ha re -hunter. 

The whipper-in aifo has little to do with him, 
whom I before defcribed : yet lie may be like the 
fecond whipper-in to a pack oF Ibx-hounds ; the 
ilableboy who is to follow the hunlfman : but I 
•would have him flill more confined^ for lie Ihoald 
not dare even to flop a hound, or fmack a whip, 
without the hniitfman's order. Much noife and 
rattle is direclly contrary to tiie firft principles of 
hare -hunting, which is, to be perfeiily quiet, and 
to let your hounds alone. I have feen few 
hounds fo good as town packs, that have no pro- 
felTed huntlrnan to follow them. If they have 
BO one to affift them, they have at the fame time, 
no one to interrupt them ; which, I believe, for 
ibis kind of hunting, is ft ill more material. I 
flionld, however, meniion a fault I have obfervcd, 
and Vv'hich luch liounds muil of neceffity fome- 
times be guilty of; that is, running hack, the heel, 
'Hounds are naturally fond of fccnt ; if they can- 
not carry it forward, they v/ill turn, and hunt it 
back again : hounds, that are left to themfelves, 
make a fault of this ; and it is, I think, the only 
cne they commonly have. — Though it be cer- 
tainly befl to \c\. your hounds alone, and thereby 
to give as much fcopc to their natural inftind, as 
you cap ; yet, in this particular inftance, you 
ihculd check it mildly ; for, as it is almofl an 

invariable 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I3J7 

SHvarlable rule in all hunting, lo make the head 
good, you fhould encourage them to try forward 
firft ; which may be done without taking them. 
off their nofes, or without the ieaft prejudice to 
their hunting. If trying forward fliould not fuc- 
ceed, they may then be fujEfcn^d to try back 
again, which you will find them all ready enough 
to do ; for they are fenfii)le how far they brought 
the fccnt, and where they ]cft it. The love of 
Icent is natural to them, and they have infinitely 
jnore fagacity in it than we ought to pretend to — 
I have no doubt, that they often think us very 
pbltinate, and very fooliih. 

Harriers, to be good, like all other hounds, 
SMuft be kept to their own game : if you run fox 
with them, you fpoil them : hounds cannot be 
perfe6l unl^fs ufed to one fcent and one ftile of 
hunting. Harriers run fox in fo different a flile 
from hare, that it is of great differvice to thera 
when they return to hare again ; it makes them 
wild, and teaches them to iWrt. The high fcent 
which a fox leaves, the ftraightneis of his run- 
ning, the eagernels of the purluit, and the noife 
that generally accompanies it, all contribute to 
fpoil a harrier. 

I hope you agree with me, that it is a fault in 
a pack of harriers to go too fad ; for a hare is a 
little timorous animal, which we cannot help 

feelins: 



138 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

feeling fome compaffioii for, at the very time 
when we are purfuing her deftruclion: we fhould 
give fcope to all her little tricks, nor kill her 
foully and over-matched.* Inftincl inflructs her 
to make a good defence when not unfiiirly 
treated ; and I will venture to fay, tliat, as far 
as her own fafety is concerned, fhe has more 
cunning than the fox, and makes many fliifts to 
fave her life, far beyond all his artifice. With- 
out doubt, you have ..often heard of hares, who, 
from the miraculous efcapes they have made, 
have been thought witches ; but, I believe, you 
never heard of a fox that had cunning enough to 
be thought a zvizard. 

They who like to rife early have amufement 
in feeing the hare trailed to her form ; it is of 
great fervicc to hounds ; it alfo fhews their good- 
nefs to the huntfman more-than any other hunting, 
as it difeoversto him thofe who have the mofb ten- 
der nofes. But, I eonfefs, I feldom judged it worth 
while to leave my bed a moment Iboner on that 

* The critic terms this *' a mode of deflru>5lion fomewhat 
beyond brutal." (Vide Monthly Review.) I fhall not pretend 
to juftify that conventional cruelty, which feems fo univerfally 
to prevail — neither will I aili the gentleman, who is fo fevere 
on me, why he feeds the Iamb, and afterwards cuts his throat; 
I mean only to confidcr cruelty under the narrow limits which 
concern hunting — if it may be defined to be, a pleafure which 
refulLs from giving pain, then certainly a fportfman is much 
lefs cruel than he is thought. 

I account 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I39 

jaccount. I always thought hare-hunting fhould 
be taken as a ride after brcakfail, to get us an 
appetite to our dinner. If you make a ferious 
bulinefs of it, you fpoil it. Hare-finders, in this 
cafe, are necefiary : it is agreeable to know where 
to go immediately for your diverfion, and not 
beat about, for hours perhaps, before you find. 
It is more material with regard to the fecond hare 
than the firfl ; for if you are warmed with your 
gallop, the waiting long in the cold afterwards 
is, I believe, as unwholefome as it is difagreeable. 
Whoever does not mind this, had better let his 
hounds find their own game ; they will certainly 
hunt it with more fpirit afterwards, and he will 
have ^ pleafure himfelf in expe6lation which no 
certainty can ever give. Hare-finders make hounds 
idle ; they alfo make them wild. Mine knew 
the men as well as I did myfelf, could fee them 
as far, and would run, full cry, to meet them. 
Hare-finders are of one great nfe ; they hinder 
your hounds from chopping hares, which they, 
otherwife, could not fail to do. I had in my 
pack one hound in particular that was famous for 
it ; he would challenge on a trail very late at 
noon, and had a good knack at chopping a hare 
afterwards; he was one that liked to go the 
ihorteft v/ay to Vv^ork, nor did he choofe to take 
more trouble than was necefiary. — Is it not won- 
derful, that the trail of a hare fhould lie after fo 

many 



14-3 THCUGMTS UPON HUNTIXG. 

niaoy hours, when the fceiit of her dies away {k 
ihon ? 

Hares are faid (I know not with what truth) to 
forefce a change of -weather, and to feat them- 
felves accordingly. This is liowever certain, that 
they are feldom found in places mvich expoled to 
the wind. In inclofures they more frequently 
sre found near to a hedge than in the middle of a 
iield. They who make a profeflion of nare-find- 
mg (and a very advantageous one it is in fome 
countries) are directed by the v.'ind where to look 
for their game. With good eyes and nice obfer- 
vation they are enabled to find them in any wea- 
ther. You may make forms, and hares will lit 
in them. I have heard it is a common pradlice 
with fhepherds on the Wiltfliire downs ; and, by 
making them on the fide of hills, they can tell 
i2t a diltance ofiV whether there arc hares in them 
or not. Without doubt people frequently do not 
Snd hares, from not knowing thcra in their forms. 
A gentleman, courling with his friends, was 
ihevvn a hare that was found fitting — *^* Is that 
"^ haref he cried, '^ then^ hy Jove, ! found twa 
*' this rnormng as isjc rode ahng.'^ 

.Though the talent of hare-finding is certainly 
©l-U'fe; and the money colleded for it, when 
g"*ven to fne-pherds, is money well befiowed by 
fportfinaOj as it tends to the prefervation of his 

game 




-^. ^r 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 24 r 

game, yet I think, when it is indifcrimlnately 
given, that hare-fmders are often too well paid, 
I have known them frequently get more than a 
guinea for a lingle hare. I myfelf have paid five 
jQiillings in a morning for hares found fitting". 
To makre our companions pay dearly for their 
diverfion, and oftentimes fo much more than it 
is worth ; to take from the pockets of men who 
oftentimes can ill affbrd it, as much as would pay 
for a good dinner afterwards, is, in my opinion, 
an ungenerous cufiom ; and this confideratioii 
induced me to collect but once, with my hounds,- 
for the hare-finders. The money was afterwards 
divided amongft them, and if they had lefs than 
liaif a crown each, I myfelf fupplied the defici- 
ency.' — An old mifcr, who had paid his fhilling,. 
complained bitterly of it afterwards, and faid^ 
*• he had been made to pay a Jliilllng far tivo penny - 
^^ ivorth of /port. ''^ 

"When the o-ame is found you cannot be too 
quiet : the hare is an animal fo very timorous, 
that ihe is frequently headed back, and your dogs 
are liable to over-run the fcent at every infiant ; 
it is beft, therefore, to keep a confiderable way 
behind them, that they may have room to turn 
as foon as they perceive they have loft the fcent ; 
and, if treated in this manner, they will feldom 
over-run it much. Your hounds, throtigh the 
whole chace, fhould be left almofi entirely to 

them* 



142. THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

themfelves, nor fhould they be hallooed much ? 
tvhen the hare doubles, they fhould hunt through 
thofe doubles ; nor is a hare hunted fairly when 
hunted otherwife. They fhould follow her every 
flep fhc takes, as well over greafy fallows as 
through flocks of fheep ; nor fhould they ever be 
caft, but when nothing can be done without it. 
I know a gentleman, a pleafant fportfman, but 
a very irregular hare-hunter, who does not ex- 
a61:ly follow the method here laid down. As his 
method is very extraordinary I will relate it to 
you : — His hound? are large and Heet ; they have 
at times hunted every thing ; red deer, fallow 
deer, fox, and hare ; and muft in their nature 
have been mofl excellent, iince, notwithftanding 
the variety of their game, they are ftill good. 
When a hare is found fitting, he leldom fails to 
give his hounds a view; and as the men all halloo, 
and make what noifc they can, flie is half fright- 
ened to death immediately. This done, he then 
fends his whipper-in to ride after her, with par- 
ticular dirc6lions not to let her get out of his 
fight ; and he has found out, that this is the only 
proper ufe of a whipper-in. If they come to a 
piece of fallow, or a flock of fheep, the hounds 
are not fufiered to hunt any longer, but are cap- 
ped and hallooed as near to the hare as poffiblc; 
by this time the poor devil is near her end, which' 
the next view generally finifhes ; the fi:rongeft 
hare, in this manner, feldom fianding twenty 

minutes ; 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I43 

minutes; but, my friend fays, a hare Is good 
eating, and he therefore thinks, that he cannot 
kill too many of them. By what Martial fays, 
I fuppofe he was of the fame opinion, 

" Inter quadrupedes gloria prima lepus." 

A propos to eating them. — I muft tell you, that 
in the Encyclopedic, a book of univerfal know- 
ledge, where, of courfe, I expelled to iind fome- 
thing on hunting, which might be of fervice to 
you, as a fportfman, to know, I found the fol^ 
lowing advice about the dreffing of a hare, v/hich. 
may be of ufe to your cook ; and the regard 
I have for your health will not fuffer me to con- 
ceal it from vou. — "• 0?i vianze le levraut roti dans 
*' qicJques provinces du rojaume, en Gajcogne et en 
*' Languedoc, par exemph^ avec unefance compofee 
" de v'maigre et defucre, qui eft mauvaife, malfaine 
*'^ en foi eJfentieJlement y mais qui ejtfurtoizt abomina-^ 
*' hie pour tons ceux qui riy font pas accoufumes.^* 
You, without doubt, therefore, will think your- 
felf obliged to the authors of the Encyclopedic 
for their kind and friciidly information. 

Having heard of a fmall pack of beagles to be 
difpofed of in Derbyfliire, I fent rny coachman^ 
the perfon whom I could at that time beft Ipare, 
to fetch them. It was a long journey, and not 
having been ufed to hounds, he had fome trouble 
in getting them along ; alfo, as ill-luck would 

have 



144 T:!0UGHT3 upon HirNTINC?^ 

have it, they had not been out of the kennel for 
many weeks before, and were fo riotous, that 
Ihey ran after every thing they faw ; fnecp, cur- 
dogs, and birds of all forts, as well as hares and 
deer, I found, had been his amufement, all the 
way along: however, he loft but one hound; 
and when I aiked him what he thought of them, 
he faid — " they could not fail of being good 
" hounds, for they would hunt arty thingJ" 

In your nnfver to my lafi: letter, you aflc, cf 
Tt'hat Service it can be to a huntfmain to be a good 
groom? and, vHiether I think he will hunt hounds' 
the belter for it ?— ^1 v/onder you did not afl^, 
why he fliould be cleanly f—\ fhould be more at 
a lols how to anfwer yon. My huntfman has 
ghvays the cure of his own horfes; I never yet 
tncw oiw. who did not think himfelf canable of 
it; it is for that rcafon I vviih him to be a good 
groonu 

You fay, that you cannot fee how z. huntfman 
of genius can fpoil your fport, or hurt your hounds ? 
. — 1 will tell you how : — by too much foul play 
he frequently will catch a fos before he is half 
tired ; > and by lifting his hounds too much, he' 
will teach them to ihuffle. — An improper ufe of 
the one may ijooil your fport ; too frequent ufe 
of the otncr. muft hurt your hounds. 

L E T- 



THOUGHTS Ut'ON HUNTING. i4j 



LETTER Xi. 



T HAVE already obferved, that a trail in the 
morning is of great fervice to hounds; andj 
that to be perfe6l, they fhould always find their 
own game : for the method of hare-finding, 
though more convenient, will occafion fome 
vices in them which it will be impofiible to cor- 
reft. 

Mr. Somervile's authority ftrengthens my ob« 
fervation; that, when a hare is found, all Ihould 
be quiet : nor fliould you ride near your hounds., 
till they are well fettled to the fcent. 



-let all be hufh'd, 



No clamour loud, no frantic joy be heard; 
Left the wild hound run gadding o'er the plain 
Untra(5lable, nor hear thy chiding voice." 

The natural eagernefs of the hounds will, at 
fuch a time, frequently carry even the beil of 
them wide of the fcent; which too much en- 
couragement, or preffing too clofe upon them, 
may continue beyond all poffibility of recovery: 
this fhould be always guarded againft. After a 
little while, you have lefs to fear. You may 
ihen approach them nearer, and encourage them 

L roore; 



14" THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

more: leaving, however, at all times, fufficient 
room for them to turn, fhould they over-run the 
ibent. On high roads and dry paths bc^ always 
doubtful of the fcent, nor give them much en- 
couragement ; but when a hit is made on either 
iide, you may halloo as much as you pleafe; nor 
can you then encourage your hounds too much. 
A hare generally defcribes a circle as fhe runs; 
larger or lefs, according to her ilrength, and the 
opennefs of the country. In inclofures, and 
where there is much cover, the circle is for the 
moil part fo fmall that it is a conftant puzzle to 
the hounds. They have a Gordian knot, in 
that cafe, ever to unloofe; and though it may 
aiford matter of fpeculation to the philofopher, 
it is always contrary to the wifhes of the fportf- 
man. Such was the country I hunted in for 
many years. 

" Huntfman ! her gait obferve : if in wide rings 
She wheels her mazy way, in t!ie fame round 
Perfifting flill, llie'll foil the beaten track. 
Em if file fiy, and with the fav'ring wind 
Urge her bold courfe, lefs intricate thy tafk : 
Fufh on^hy pack." 

SoMERVIte. 

Belides running the foil, they frequently make 
doubles, which is going forward, to tread the 
(lime Heps back again, on purpofe to confufc 
their purfuers: and the fame manner in which 
they make the firil double, they generally conti- 
nue. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I47 

iiue, whether long or fhort. This information, 
therefore, if properly attended to by the huntf- 
man, may be of me to him in his cafts. 

When they make their double on a high road^, 
or dry path, and then leave it with a fpring, it is 
often the occafion of a long fault; the fpring 
which a hare makes on thefe occafions is hardly 
to be credited, any more than is her ingenuity 
in making it; both are wonderful! 

*' '■ let cavillers deny 

That bi*utes have reafon ; fure 'tis fomething more: 
*Tis Heaven direfts and ftratagems iiifpire, 
Beyond the fhort extent of human thought." 

SOMERVILE. 

She frequently, after running a path a coniider- 
able way, will make a double, and then flop till 
the hounds have paft her; fhe will then fteal 
away as fecretly as Ihe can, and return the fame 
way fhe came. This is the greateft of all trials 
for hounds. It is fo hot a foil, that in the beft 
packs there are not many hounds that can hunt 
it ; you muH follow thofe hounds that can, and 
try to hit her off where Ihe breaks her foil, which 
in all probability flie will foon do, as fhe now 
flatters herfelf fhe is fecure. When the fcent 
lies bad in covef, fhe will fometimes feem to 
hunt the hounds. 

La ** — Th« 



148 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 



The covert's utmoft bound 



Slily fhe ftirts; behind them cautious creeps, 

And in that very track, fo lately ftain'd 

By all the fleaming crowd, feenis to purfue 

The foe file flies." — Somervile, 

When the hounds are at a check, make your 
huntfman ftand i\i\\, nor lliffer him to move his 
horfe one way or the other: hounds lean natu- 
rally toward the Icent, and if you fay not a word 
to them, will foon recover it. If you Ipeak io 
a hound at fuch a thne, calling him by his name, 
which is too much the pra6lice, he feldom fails 
to look up in your face, as much as to fay, whaf 
the deuce do yoii ivatit? — when he (loops to the 
fcent again, is it not probable that he means to 
fay. You fool, you, let me alone. 

When your hounds are at faulty let not a 
word be faid : let fuch as follow them ignorantly 
and unworthily ftand all aloof — Proculy pro ml 
ejie prof am! for whilft fuch are chattering, not a 
hound will hunt. A ■propos, Sir, a politician 
will fay — What news from America .' A pro- 
mos — Do you think both the admirals will be 
tried ? Or, propos — Did you hear what has 
happened to my grandmother? Such qucflions 
are, at fuch a time, extremely troublcfomc, and 
very mal-a-proj)os. Amongft the ancients, it was 
reckoned an III omen to fpeak in hunting — I with 
jt were thought io now. Hoc age fliould be one 

of 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 149 

o£ the firfl: maxims in hunting, as in life; and I 
can afTure you, when I ain in the field, I never 
wifh to hear any other tongue than that of a 
hound. A neiglibour of mine was fo truly a 
hare-hunter in this particular, that he would 
not fufFer any body to fpeak a word when his 
hounds were at fault : a gentleman happened to 
cough; he rode up to him immediately, and faid, 
*^ / ivij/i, Sir, zi'i/h all 7ny heart, that your cough 
*' was better^'' 

In a good day, good hounds feldom give up 
the fcent at head ; if they do, there is generally 
an obvious reafon for it : this obfervation a huntf- 
man fhould always make ; it will dire6l his call. 
If he be a good one, he will attend, as he goes, 
not only to his hounds, nicely obferving which 
have the lead, and the degree of feent they carry; 
but alio to the various cireumHances that are con- 
tinually happening from change of weather, and 
diiference of ground. He will likewife be mind- 
ful of the diftance which the hare keeps before 
ihe hounds, and of her former doubles; he will 
alio remark what point fhe makes to. All thefe 
obfervations will be of ufe, if a long fault make 
his affiftance necelTary ; and if the hare fhould 
have headed back, he will carefully obferve whe- 
ther fhe met with any thing in her courfe to turn 
her, or turned of her own accord. When he 
cafts his hounds, let him begin by making a fmall 
L 3 circle; 



150 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

circle; if that will not do, then let him try S 
larger; he afterwards may be at liberty to perfe- 
vere in any caft he Ihall judge moft likely. x\s 
a hare generally revilits her old haunts, and re- 
turns to the place where fhe was firft found, if 
the fcent be quite gone, and the hounds can no 
longer hunt ; that is as likely a cafl as any to re- 
cover her. Let him remember, in all his cafts, 
that the hounds are not to follow his horfe's heels, 
nor are they to carry their heads high, and nofes 
in the air. At thefe times they muft try for the 
fcent, or they will never find it; and he is either 
to make his call: quick or flow, as he perceives 
his hounds try, and as the fcent is either good or . 
bad. 

Give particular direc^lions to your huntfman to 
prevent his hounds, as much as he can, from 
chopping hares. Huntfmen like to get blood at 
any rate; and when hounds are ufed to it, it 
would furprize you to fee how attentive they are 
to find opportunities. A hare muft be very wild, 
or very nimble, to efcape them. I remember, in 
a furzy country, that my hounds chopped three 
hares in one morning; for it is the nature of 
thofe animals either to leap up before the hounds 
come near them, and ^eal away, as it is called, 
or elfe to lie clofe, till they put their very nofes 
upon them. Hedges, alfo, are very dangerous ; 
if the huntfman beat the hedge himfelf, which 

is 




^^ 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 15?^ 

is the ufual pra6licej the hounds are always upon 
the watch, and a hare mull have good luck to 
cfcape them all. The bcft way to prevent it, is 
to have the hedge well beaten at fome diftancc 
before the hounds. 

Hares feldom run fo well as when they do not 
know where they are. They run well in a fog, 
and. generally take a good country. If they fet 
off down the wind, they feldom return: you 
then cannot pufh on your hounds too much. 
When the game is linking, you ' will perceive 
your old hoands get forward ; they then will run 
at head. 

*' Happy the man, v^'ho with unrivall'd fpeed 
Can pafs his fellows, and with pleafure view 
The flruggling pack; how in the rapid courfe 
Alternate they prefidc, and joftling pufh 
To guide the dubious fcent; how giddy youth 
Oft babbling errs, by wifer age reprov'd; 
How, niggard of his ftrength, the wife old hound 
Hangs in the rear, till fome important point 
Roufe all his diligence, or till the chace 
Sinking he finds ; then to the head he fprings, 
With thirft of glory fir'd, and wins the prize." 

SoMERVILi;. 

ICeep no babblers; for though the pack foon 
find them out, and mind them not, yet it is un- 
pleafant to hear their noife ; nor are fuch fit com- 
panions for the reft, 

L 4 Though 



152 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

Though the Spe6lator makes us laugh at the 
oddity of his friend, Sir Roger, for returning, a 
hound, which he faid was an excellent hafs^ be- 
caufe he wanted a counter-tenor ; yet 1 am of opi- 
nion, that if we attended more to the variety of 
notes frequently to be met with in the tongues of 
hounds, it might greatly add to the harmony of 
the pack. I do not know that a complete con* 
cert could be attained, but it would be eafy to 
prevent difcordant founds. 

Keep no hound that runsfalfe: the lofs of one 
hare is more than fuch a dog is worth. 

It is but reafonable to give your hounds a hare 
fometimes: I always gave mine the lall they 
Jcilled, if I thought they deferved her. 

It is too much the cuflom, firfl: to ride over a, 
dog, and then cry, ware horfe. Take care not 
to ride over your hounds ; I have known many a 
jgood dog fpoiled by it : in open ground caution 
them firllj you priay afterwards ride oyer them, 
if you pleafe; but in roads and paths they fre- 
quently cannot get out of your way ; it furely, 
then, is your butinefs either to flop your horfe 
or break a way for them, and the not doing it, 
give me leave to fay, is not lefs abfurd than cruel; 
nor can that man be called a good fportfman who 
thus wantonly deflroys his^ own fport. Indeed;, 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, Tj^^ 

good rportfmen feldom ride on the line of the tail 
hounds. 



An acquaintance of mine, when h« hears any 
of his fcrvants fay, ivare horfe ! halloos out — 
ware horfe [-^-ware dog! and be hanged to you. 

You afk how my warren hares arc caught ?— - 
it Ihall he the fubje<5L of my next letter. 



LET- 



l^^v THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 



LETTER XIL 



XT'OU wifh to know how my warren hares are 
-*- caught ? they are caught in traps, not un- 
like to the common rat-traps. I leave mine al- 
ways at the meufes, but they are fet only when 
hares arc wanted: the hares, by thus conftantly 
going through them, have no miftruft, and are 
caiily caught. Thefe traps Ihould be made of 
old wood, and even then it will be fometime be- 
fore thcv will venture throufrh them. Other 
meufes muft be alfo left open, left a diftafte 
fhould make them forfake the place. To my 
warren I have about twenty of thefe traps ; 
though, as the ftock of hares is great, I feldom 
have occafion to fet more than five or lix, and 
fcarcely ever fail of catching as many hares. The 
warren is pakd in, but 1 found it neceflary to 
make the meufes of brick ; that is, where the 
traps are placed. Should you at any time with 
to make a hare-warren, it will be neceflary for 
you to fee one firft, and examine the traps, 
boxes, and ftoppers, to all which there are par- 
ticularities not eafy to be defcribed. Should you 
perceive the hares, towards the end of the fea- 
fon, to become fhy of the traps, from having 

been 



tHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, t^^ 

heen often caught, it will be iiecefTary to drive 
them in with fpaniels. Should this be the cafe^, 
you will find them very thick round the warren; 
for the warren-hares will be unwilling to leave 
it, and when diflurbed by dogs will immediately 
go in. 

If you turn them out before greyhounds, you 
cannot give them too much law ; if before 
hounds, you cannot give them too little; for rea- 
fons which 1 will prefently add. Though hares, 
as I told you before, never run fo well before 
hounds as when they do not know where they 
are, yet, before greyhounds, it is the reverfe; 
and 3^oijr trap- hares, to run well, fhould always 
be turned out within their knowledge : they are 
naturally timid, and are eafily diflieartenedj wheii 
they have no point to make to for fafety. 

If you turn out any before your houndsj 
(which, if it be not your wifh, I fhall by no 
means recommend) give them not much time, 
but lay on your hounds as foon as they are out 
of view ; if you do not, they will be likely to 
flop, which is oftentimes fatal. Views are at all 
times to be avoided, but particularly with trap- 
hares; for, as thefe know not where they are, 
the hounds have too great an advantage over 
them. It is beft to turn them down the wind; 
.Ihey hear the hounds better, and feldom turn 
J again. 



156 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

again. Hounds, for this buHncfs, lliould not be 
too fleet. Thefe hares run flruight, and make 
no doubles ; tbey leave a llrong fccnt, and have 
other objections in common with animals turned 
out before hounds: they may give you a gallop, 
they will, hovv^evcr, Ihew but little hunting. — 
The hounds are to be hunted like a pack of fox- 
hounds, as a trap -hare runs very much in the 
fame manner, and \vi]\ even top the hedges. 
What I fnould prefer to catching the hares in 
traps, would be, a warren in the midit of an 
o|)en country, which micrht be flopped clofe on 
hunting-days. This would fupply the wliolc 
country with hares, which, after one turn round 
the warren, would mofl probably run ftraight at 
end. The number of hares which a warren will 
fupply is hardly to be conceived ; I fcldom turned 
out lefs in one year than thirty brace of trap- 
hares, befides many otliers killed in the envi- 
rons, of vv'hich no account was taken. My war-- 
ren is a wood of near thirty acres ; one of half 
the lizc would anfwer the purpofc perhaps as 
well. Mine is cut out into many walks; a 
fmaller warren fhould have only one, and tJmf 
round the outfide of it. No dog fliould ever be 
fuffered to go into it, and traps fliould be con- 
llantly fet for floats and polecats. It is faid par- 
fiey makes hares ftrong ; they certainly are very 
fond of eating it : it therefore cannot be amifs to 

fow 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 15*? 

fow fome about the warren, as it may be the 
means of keeping your hares more at home. 

I had once fome converfation with a gentleman 
about the running of my trap- hares, who faid he 
had been told that catching a hare, and tying a 
pece of r'lhhon to her ear, was a fure way to make 
her run Jira'it.—\ make no doubt of it— -and fo 
would a canijler tyed to her tail. 

I am forry you fhould think T began my firit 
letter on the fubjecl of hare-hunting in a manner 
that might offend any of my brother fportfmen. 
It was not hare-hunting I meant to depreciate, but 
the country I had hunted hare in. — It is good di- 
verfion in a good country : — you are always cer- 
tain of fport ; and if you really love to fee your 
hounds hunt ; the hare, when properly hunted, 
will fhew you more of it, than any other animal. 

You afk me, what is the right time to leave off 
hare-hunting r — You fhould be guided in that 
by the feafon : you fnould never hunt after 
March ; and, if the feafon be forward, you fhould 
leave off fooner. 

Having now fo confiderably exceeded tlie plan 
I firft propofed, you may wonder, if I omit to fay 
anything oi Jlag-huntwg, Believe me, if I do, 
it will not be for want of refpecl ; but becaufe I 

have 



t$^ THbrCHTS UPdN* HUNTING. 

have feen very little of it. It is true, I hunted 
two winters at Turin ; but their hunting, you 
knowj is no more like our's, than is the liot meal 
we there Hood up to, eat, to the Englifli breakfaft 
we lit down to here. — 'Were I to defcribe their 
manner of hunting, their infinity of dogs, their 
number of huntfmen, their relays of horfes, 
their great faddlcs, great bitts, and jack boots, it 
would be no more to our prefent purpofe, than the 
defcription of a wild boar chafe in Germany, or 
the hunting of jackalls in Bengal. Ce/l tine 
chajfe magnifiquc^ et volla tout. — However, to give 
you an idea of their huntfmen, I muft tell you 
that one day the flag, which is very unufual, 
broke cover and left the forefi: ; a circumflance, 
which gave as much pleafure to me, as difplcafure 
to all the reft — it put every thing into confuiion. 
I followed one of the huntfmen, thinking he knew 
the country befl, but it was not long before we 
were feparated ; the firfl ditch we came to flopped 
him : I, eager to go on, hallooed out to him, 
allofzs, Piqueur, fautez donc.—^^ Non pardi,^' re- 
plied he, very coolly, " cejl un double fojje—je ne 

''^faiite pas des doubles fojps. There was alfoan 

odd accident the fame day, which, has it hap- 
pened to a great man, even to the Kin^ himfelf, 
you may think interefting ; befides, it was the oc- 
cahon of a bon mot worth your hearing. — The 
King, eager in the purfuit, rode into a bog, and 
was difmounted — he was not hurt — he was foon 

on 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I59 

on his legs, and we were all flanding round him. 
One of his old generals, who was at fome diflance, 
behind, no Iboner faw the king off his horfe, but 
he rode up full gallop to know the caufe, *' Qiieji 
" ce que ceji ? queji cs que ceji f cries the good 
old general, and in he tumbles into the fame bog. 
Count Kevenhuller, with great humour replied, 
pointing to the place, '' iwlla ce que ceji ! vcila ce 
" que c^ejiy 

With regard to the fl:a;2;-huntin2; in this coun- 
try, as I have already told you, that I know but 
little of it ; but you will, without doubt, think it 
a fufficient rcafon for my being lilent concern- 
ing it. 



LET- 



l60 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 



LETTER XIII. 

IT'N feme of the preceding letters we have, J 
-^ think, fettled the bufinefs of the kennel in all 
its parts ; and determined what fhould be the 
number, and what the qualifications of the at- 
tendants on the hounds ; we alfo agree in opinion, 
that a pack fhould confifl: of about twenty-five 
couple; I fliall now proceed to give fome ac- 
count of the ufe of them. You defire that I 
would be as particular, as if you were to hunt 
the hounds yourfelf : to obey you, therefore, I 
think I had better fend you a defcription of an 
imaginary chace, in which I fliall be at liberty to 
defcribe fuch events as probably may happen, 
and to which your prefcnt inquiries feem moil to 
lead; a further and more circumflantial expla- 
nation of them will necefJarily become the fub- 
je6l of my future letters. I am, at the fame time, 
well aware of the difficulties attending fuch an 
undertaking. A fox-cliace is not eafy to be de- 
fcribed — yet as even a faint defcription of it may 
ferve, to a certain degree, as an anfwcr to the 
various queftions which you are pleafed to make 
concerning that diverfion, I fhall profecute my 
attempt in fach a manner, as I think may fuit 
your purpofe befl. — As I fear it may read ill, it 

ihall 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING.' l6r 

{hall not be long. A gentleman, to whofe un- 
derftanding nature had mofl evidently been fpar- 
ing of her gifts, as often as he took up a book, and 
met with a pafTage which he could not compre- 
hend, was ufed to write in the margin op- 
poiite viatiere embrouiUee, and gave himfelf no 
further concern about it. As different caufes 
liave been known to produce the fame efFedls, 
IhouldjvoM treat me in like manner, I Ihall think 
it the fevereft cenfure that can be palTed upon me. 
Our friend Somervile, I apprehend, was no great 
fox-hunter ; yet all he fays on the fubjedl of hunt- 
ing is fo fonlible and juit, that I fhall turn to his 
account of fox-hunting, and quote it where I can. 
The hour moll favourable to the diverlion, is 
certainly an early one ; nor do I think I can fix 
it better than to fay, the hounds fhould be at the 
cover at fun-rifing. Let us fuppofe that we are 
arrived at the cover fide. 



Delightful fcene ' 



Where all around is gay, men, horfes, dogs ; 
And in eacii fmihng countenance appears 
Frelli blooming health, and univerfal joy." 

Somervile. 

Now let your huntfman throw in his hounds 
as quietly as he can, and let the two whippers-in 
keep wide of him on either fide, fo that a lingle 
hound may not efcape them ; let them be atten- 
tive to his halloo, and be ready to encourage, or 

M rate, 



l6z THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

rate, as that directs ; he will, of courfe, draw up 
the wind, for rcafons which I iliall give in another 
place. — Now, if you can keep your brother 
Iportfmen in order, and put any difcretion into 
them, you are in luck ; they more frequently do 
harm than good : if it be poffible, perfuade thofe 
who wilh to halloo the fox off, to ftand quiet un- 
der the cover fide, and on no account to halloo 
him too foon ; if they do, he moll certainly will 
turn back again : could you entice them all into 
the cover, your fport, in all probability, would 
not be the v^^orfc for it. 

How well the hounds fpread the cover ! the 
huntfman, you fee, is quite deferted, and his 
horfe, who fo lately had a crowd at his heels, has 
not now one attendant left. How ileadily they 
draw ! you hear not a fingle hound ; yet none are 
idle. Is not this better than to be fubjeft to con- 
tinual difappointment, from the eternal babbling 
of unlleady hounds ? 



— — See ! how th.ey range 



Difpers'd, how bufily this way and that, 
They crofs, examining with curious nofe 
Each likely haunt. Hark ! on the drag I hear 
Their doubtful notes, preluding to a cry 
More nobly full, and fwell'd with every mouth." 

SoMERVlLK* 



How 



tHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, j6j 

tto\Y muiical their tongues ! — And as they get 
nearer to him, how the chorus fills ! — Hark ! he 
is found. — Now, where are all your forrows^ and 
your cares, ye gloomy fouls ! Or where your pains, 
and aches, ye complaining ones ! one halloo has 
difpelled them all. — What a crafh they make ! 
and echo feemingly takes pleafure to repeat 
the found. The aftonifiied traveller forfakes his 
road, lured by its melody ; the liltening plowman 
how flops his plow ; and every diflant Ihepherd 
iiegledls his flock, and runs to fee him break.-«- 
)»\^hat joy ! what eagernefs in every face 1 

** How happy art thou, man, when thou'rt no more 
Thyfelf ! when all the pangs that grind thy foul, 
In rapture and in fweet oblivion loil, 
Yield a fhort interval, and eafe from pain !" 

SoMERVILEi 

Mark how he runs the cover's utmoft: limits^ 
yet dares not venture forth ; the hounds are ftill 
too near ! — That check is lucky ! — now, if our 
friends head him not, he will foon be ofi— hark I 
they halloo : by G — d he's gone ! 



■ Hark 1 what loud fhotlts 



Re-echo thro' the groves ! he breaks away : 
Shrill horns proclaim his flight. Each ftraggling houftcj 
Strains o'er the lawn to reach tlie diftant pack, 
'Tis triumph all, and joy,'* 

SoMEHVlL&i 



M % Na^ 



164 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

Now huntfinan get on with the head hounds ; the 
whipper-in will bring on the others after you : 
keep an attentive e^'e on the leading hounds, that 
fhould the fcent fail them, you may know at leaft 
how far they brought it. 

Mnid Galloper, Iiow he leads them ! — It is dif- 
ficult to difiinguifh which is firftv they run in. 
fuch a ftile ; yet he is the foremoft hound. — The 
goodnefs of his nofe is not lefs excellent than his 
ipeed : — how he carries the fcent ! and when ho 
lofes it, fee how eagerly he flings to recover it 
again ! — There — now lie's at head again ! — fee 

how they top the hedge I Now, how they 

mount the hill! Obfcive what a head they 

carry, and fliew me, if thou canfl, one fhuffler or 
fkirter amongft them all : arc they not like a par- 
cel of brave fellows, who, when they engage in an 
undertaking, determine to ihare its fatigue and its 
dangers, equally aniongfl: them } 



Far o'er the rockv hills we ranee. 



And dangero\is our courfe ; but in the brave 
True courage never fails. In vain the ftream 
In foaming eddies whirls, in vain the ditch 
Wide gaping threatens death. The crriggy fteep. 
Where the poor dizzy ihepherd crawls with care, 
And clings to every twig, gives us no pain; 
But down we fweep, as floops the falcon bold 
To pounce his prey. Then up the opponent hill, 
By the fwift motion flung, we mount aloft : 
So fhips in winter feas now Aiding fink 

AdowjF 



THOUGHTS UtON HUNTING. \C^ 

Adown the fteepy wave, then tofs'd on high 

Ride on the billows, and defy the florm." Son. 

It was then tlie fox I fawj as we came down the 
hill ; — thofe crows direcited me which way to 
look, and the flicep ran from him as he paft 
along. The hounds are now on the very fpot, 
yet the fheep flop them not, for they dafh beyond 
them. Now fee with what eagernefs they crols 
the plain ! — Galloper no longer keeps his place, 
Brujlier takes it — fee how he flings for the fcent, 
and how impetuoufly he runs I — How eagerly he 
took the lead, and how he ftrivcs to keep it — yet 
Vi6lor comes up apace. — He reaches him ! — See 

what an excellent race it is between them ! It 

is doubtful which will reach the cover firil. — 
How equally they run ! — how eagerly they flrain ! 

now Vi61:or — Vidor ! Ah ! Bruflier, you are 

beaten ; Victor iirft tops the hedge. — See there ! 
fee how they all take it in their ftrokes ! the . 
hedge cracks with their weight, lb many jump at 
once. 

Now haftes the whipper-in to the other iide of 
the cover ; he is right unlefs he head the fox. 

" Heav'ns ! what melodious ftrains ! how beat our hearts 

Big with tumultuous joy ! the loaded gales 

Breathe harmony ; and as the tempeft drives 

From wood to wood, thro' ev'ry dark recefs 

The foreft thunders, and the mountains fliake," Som. 

M 3 Liflen ! 



'l6$ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

Liflen !— the hounds have turned. They arc now 
in two parts : the fox has been headed back, and 
we have changed at lall. 

Now, my lad, mind the huntfman's halloo, and 
flop to thofe hounds which he encourages. He 
is right ! — that, doubtlefs, is the hunted fox ; — * 
Kow they are off again. 

*' What lengths we pafs ! where will the wand'ring chace 
Lead us bewilder'd ! fmooth as fwallows (kim 
The new-fliorn mead, and far more fwift we fly. 
See my brave pack ; how to the head they prefs, 
Jullling in clofe array, then more difFufe 
Obliquely wheel, while from their op'ning mouths 
The voUied thunder breaks. 

•- Look back and view 

The flrange confurion of the vale below. 
Where fore vexation reigns ; 



-Old age laments 



His vigour fpent; the tall, plump, brawny youth *^ 

Curfes his cumbrous bulk? and envies now 

The fliort pygmean race, he whilom kenn'd 

With proud infulting leer. A chofen few 

Alone the fport enjoy, nor dz'oop beneath 

Their pleafing toils." Som. 

Ha ! a check. — Now for a moment's pa« 
ticnce ! — We prefs too clofe upon the hounds .'— « 
Huntfman, ftand flill ! as they want you not. — 
How admirably they fpread ! how wide they cafl ! 
Is there a fmgle hound that does not try? if there 
bCj ne'er ftall he hunt again. Thercj Trueman 

is 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 167 

is on the fcent — he feathers, yet ftill is doubtful 
— 'tis right! how readily they join him! Seethofe 
wide-cafting hounds, how they fly forward to re- 
cover the ground they have lofl ! — Mind Light" 
?iing, how the dafhes ; and Mimgo, how he works 1 
Old Franlic, too, now puflies forward; Ihe knows, 
&s well as we, the fox is linking. 

*' r— Ha ! yet he flies, nor yields 



To black defpair. But one loofe more, and all 
His wiles are vain. Hark ! thro' yon village now 
The rattling clamour rings. The barns, the cots, 
And leaflefs elms return the joyous founds. 
Thro' ev'ry homeftall, and thro' ev'ry yard. 
His midnight walks, panting, forlorn, he flies. 

SoM. 

Huntfman ! at fault at laft ? How far did you 
bring the fcent ?— Have the hounds made their 
own call } — Now make your's. You fee that 
fheep-dog has courfed the fox; — get forward with 
your hounds, and make a wide caft. 

Hark ! that halloo is indeed a lucky one. — If 
we can hold him on, we may yet recover him ; 
for a fox, fo much difirefled, mail flop at laft. 
We fhall now fee if they will hunt as well as 
run ; for there is but little fcent, and the impend- 
ing cloud ftill makes that little, lefs. How they 
enjoy the fcent ! — ^fee how bufy they aU are, and 
haw each in his turn prevails \ 

M 4. Huntf- 



1^8 THOUQHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Huntfman ! be quiet ! Whilil the fccnt was 
good, you prefs'd on your hounds ; it was weU 
done: when they came to a check, you flood ftill, 
and interrupted them not : they were afterwards 
at fault ; you made your call with judgment, and 
lo/l: no time. You now mufl let them hunt ; — 
with fuch a cold fcent as this you can do no goc^d; 
they muft do it all themfelves ; — lift them now, 
and not a hound will ftoop again. — Ha ! a high 
road, at fuch a time as this, when the tenderefl- 
nofed hound can hardly own the fcent ! — Another 
fault ! That man at work, then, has headed back 
the fox. Huntfman ! cafl not your hounds now, 
you fee they have over-run the fccnt ; have a 
little patience, and let them, for once, try back. 

We now mufl give them time : — fee where 
they bend towards yonder furze brake — I wifh he 
may have flopped there ! — Mind that old hound, 
how he dafhes o'er the furze ; I think he winds 
him. — Now for a frefh entapis ! Hark ! they 
halloo ! — Aye, there he goes, 

Jt is nearly over with him ; had the hounds 
caught view, he mufl have died. — He will ijardly 
reach the cover; fee how they gain upon him at 
every flroke !— It is an admirable race ! yet the 
coyer faves him. 

Now 




s 1 






Thoughts upon huntihg. 169 

Now be quiet, and he cannot cfcape us ; we 
have the wind of the hounds, and cannot be 
better placed : — how Ihort he runs ! — he is now 
in the very Itrongeft part of the cover. — What a 
crafli ! every hound is in, and every hound is 
running for him. That was a quick turn ! — 
Again another ! — he's put to his laft iliifts. — 
Now Mi/chief is at his heels, and death is not far 
off. — Ha ! they all ftop at once ; — all lilent, and 
yet no earth is open. Liflen ! — now they are at 
him again! — Did you hear that hound catch 
him ? they over-ran the fcent, and the fox had 
laid down behind them. Now, Reynard, look to 
yourfelf ! — How quick they all give their tongues ! 
— Little Dreadnought, how he works hira ! the 
terriers too, they are now fqueaking at him. — 
How clofe Vengeance purfues ! how terribly fhc 
prefies ! — it is jufi: up with him ! — Gods ! wha:t a 
crafh they make ; the whole wood refounds ! — 
That turn was very fhort ! — There ! — now !— 
aye, now they have him ! Who-hoop ! 



LET. 



170 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING^ 



LETTER XIV 



FOX-HUNTING, however lively and anU 
mating it may be in the field, is but a dull, 
dry fubjecl to write upon ; and I can now affure 
you, from experience, that it is much lefs diffi- 
cult to follow a fox-chace than to defcribe one. 
You will ealily imagine, that to give enough of 
variety to a lingle a61ion, to make it intereiling, 
and to defcribe in a few minutes, the events of, 
perhaps, as many hours ; though it pretend to no 
merit, has at leaft fome difficulty and trouble ; and 
you will as ealily conclude tliat I am glad they 
are over. 



You dcfire me to explain that part of my lafl 
letter, which fays, if ive can hold him on, ive may 
nozv recover hhn. — It means, if we have fcent to 
follow on the line of him, it is probable he will 
ilop, and Vvc may hunt up to him again. You 
alfo obje(?t to my faying catch a fox ; you call it 
a bad expreffion, and fay, that it is not fporlly ; I 
believe I have not often ufed it; and when I have, 
it has been to dillinguifh betwixt the hunting a 
fox down, as you do a hare, and the killing of 
him with Iiard running. — You tell me, I fhould 

always. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, Ijl 

always kill a fox. I might anfwer — I mufl. catc/i 
him firft. 

You fay, that I have not enlivened my chace 
with many halloos : it is true, 1 have not; and 
what is worfe, I fear I am never likely to meet 
your approbation in that particular; for fhould 
we hunt together, then, I make no doubt, you 
will think that I halloo too much ; a fault which 
every one is guihy of who reaFy loves this ani- 
mating fport, and is eager in the purfuit of it. 
BeHeve me, I never could halloo in my life, un- 
lefs after hounds ; and the writmg a halloo ap- 
pears to me almoft as difficult as to pen a wJi'if^er. 

Your friend A , you fay, is very fevere on 

us fox-hunters ; — no one is more welcome. How- 
ever, even he might have known, that the pro- 
feflion of fox-hunting is much altered ilnce the 
time of Sir John Vanburgh ; and the intempe- 
rance, clowniihnefs, and ignorance of the old 
fox-hunter, are quite worn out: a much truer 
definition of one might now be made than that 
which he has left. Fox-hunting is now become 
the amufement of gentlemeii ; nor need any gen- 
tleman be afhamed of it. 

I fhall now begin to anfwer your various quef- 
tions as they prelent themfelves. Though I was 
glad of this expedient, to methodife, in fome de- 
gree. 



,17a THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

gree, the variety we have to treat of, yet I was 
well aware of the impoffibility of fufficiently ex- 
plaining myfelf in the midfl of a fox-chace, 
whofe rapidity, you know very well, brooks no 
delay ; now is the time, therefore, to make good 
that deficiency : what afterwards remains on the 
fubje6t of hunting will ferve as a fupplement to 
the reft ; in which I fhall iiill have it in my 
power to introduce whatever may be now forgot- 
ten, or, give a further explanation of fuch parts 
as may feem io you to require it : for lince my 
principal view in writing theie letters is to make 
the intlru6lion they contain of fome ufe to you, 
if you fhould want it ; if not, to others ; the 
being as clear and explicit as I can, will be 
far beyond all other conli derations. Repeti- 
tions, we know, are fhocking things ; yet, in 
writing fo many letters on the fame fubJecTt, I fear 
it will be difficult to avoid them. 

Firft, then, as to the early hour recommended 
in ray former letter : — I agree with you, it re- 
quires explanation ; but you will pleafe to con- 
lider, that you dcfired me to fix the hour moft 
favourable to the fport, and without doubt it is 
an early one.* You fay, that I do not go out fo 
early myfelf : — it is true, I do not ; do phylicians 

* An early hour is only neceflary, where you are not Hkely 
to find without a drag. 

alwavs 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 1 73 

always follow their own prefcrlptions ? Is it not 
fuffieient that their prefcriptions be good ? How- 
ever, if my hounds fhould be out of blood, I go 
out early, for then it becomes neceffary to give 
them every advantage. At an early hour, you 
are fcldom long before you find. The morning 
is the part of the day which generally affords the 
beft fccnt ; and the animal himfelf, which, in 
fuch a cafe, you are more than CYer delirous of 
killing, is then leaft able to run away from you. 
The want of reft, and perhaps a full belly, give 
hounds a great advantage over him. I expert, 
my friend, that you will reply to this, " that a 
"fox-hunter, then, is not th fair fportfrnan^ — 
He certainly is not ; and what is more, would be 
very forry to be miftaken for one. He is otherwife 
from principle. In his opinion, a fair fportfman, 
and a foolifh fportfman, are fynonimous; he, 
therefore, takes every advantage of the fox he 
can. You will think, perhaps, that he may 
fometimes fpoil his own fport by this ? It is true, 
he fometimes does, but then he makes his hounds; 
the whole art of fox-hunting being to keep the 
hounds well in blood. Sport is but a fecondary 
coniidcration with a fox-hunter ; the firft is, tlie 
Vill'mg ijf the fox: hence arifes the eagernefs of 
purfuit, chief pleafure of the chace : — I confefs, 
I efleem blood fo necefiary to a pack of fox- 
hounds, that with regard to myfelf, I always re- 
turn liome better pleafed with but an indifferent 
J chace. 



174 tiJOUGKTS XTPOH HtTNTUfC?^ 

chace, with death at the end of it, than with the; 
bell chace poffible, if it end with the lofs of the 
fox. Good chaces, generally fpeaking, are long 
chaces ; and, if not attended with furcefs, never 
fail to do more harm to hounds than good. Our 
pleafurcs, I believe, for the mofi part, are greater 
during the expectation than the enjoyment : in 
this cafe, reality itfelf warrants the idea» and your 
prefcnt fuccefs is almoU a fure fore-runner of fu- 
ture fport. 

I remember to have heard an odd anecdote of 

the late Duke of R , who was very popular 

in his neighbourhood. — A butcher, at Lyndhurfl, 
a lover of the fport, as often as he heard the 
hounds return from hunting came out to meet 
them, and never failed to aflc the Duke what 
fport he had ? " Very good, I thank you, honefl 
friend." — " Has your grace killed a fox ?" — "JVb.- 
<« —We have had a good run, but we have not 
*' killed." — '''-FJIiawT cried the butcher, looking 
archly, and pointing at him with his finger. — > 
This vv'as fo conftantly repeated, that the Duke,- 
when he had not killed a fox, was ufed to fay, h& 
was afraid to meet the hutclier. 

You aflc, why the huntfman is to draw io 

quietly ; and, why up the wind ? With regard io 

his drawing quietly, that may depend on the 

kind of cover before him ; and alfo on the feafon 

3 of 



t-HOUGHTS UPON HlTNt-ING. tj.^' 

of tlie year. If your covers be fmal!^ or fucli 
from which a fox cannot break unfeen, then 
noife can do no hurt ; if you draw at a late hour, 
and when there is no drag, then the more the 
cover is diilurbed the better; the more likely you 
are to find. Late in the feafon foxes are wild, 
particularly in covers that are often hunted. If 
you do not draw quietly, he will ibmetimes get 
too much the itart of you t when you have any 
fufpicion of this, fend on a whipper-in to the 
oppofite fide of the cover before you throw in 
your hounds. With regard to the drawing up 
the wind, that is much more material. You never 
fail to give the wind to a pointer and fetter ; why 
not to a hound ? — Befides, the fox, if you dravf 
up the wind, does not hear you coming ; and 
your hounds, by this means, are never out o( 
your hearing; befides, fhould he turn down the 
wind, as mofl probably he will, it lets them all in, 
Suppofe yourfelf a6ling dire6fly contrary to this^ 
and then fee what is likely to be the confequence. 

You think I am too fevere on ray brother 
fportfmen : if more fo than they deferve, I am 
forry for it. I know many gentlemen who are 
excellent fportfmen, yet, I am forry to fay, the- 
greater number of thofe who ride after hounds 
are not ; and it is thofe only whom I allude to.. 
Few gentlemen will take any pains, (ew of them, 
will ftop a hound, though he fhould run riot-. 

clofc 



17^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 

clofe bciidc them, or will itand quiet a momen^^ 
though it be to halloo a fox : it is true, they will 
not fail to halloo if he fliould come in their way, 
and they will do the fame to as many foxes as 
they fee. Some will encourage hounds which 
they do not know ; it is a great fault : were every 
gentleman who follows hounds to fancy himfelf a 
huntlman, what noife, what confufion would cn- 
fue! I conlider many of them as gentlemen riding 
out, and I am never fo well pleated as when I 
lee them ride home again. You may perhaps 
have thought, that I v/iflied (hem all to be huntf- 
men — mofl certainly not ; but the more alfifiants 
a huntfman has, the better, in all probability, 
his hounds will be. Good fenfc, and a little ob- 
fervation, will foon prevent fucli people from 
doing amifs; and I hold it as an almoll invariable 
rule in hunting, that thofe who do not know hov/ 
to do good are always liable to do harm :* there is 
fcarce an iniiant, during a whole chace, when a 
jportfman ought not to be in one particular place: 

* This is a better reafon, perhaps, why gentlemen ought to 
underfland this diveriion, than ror the good they may do in it ; 
fince a pack of- hounds that are well manned will feldom need 
any other alliftance. A gentleman, perceiving his hounds to 
be much confuled by the frequent halloos of a ftranger, rodr 
up to him, and thanked him with great civility for the trouble 
he was taking: but at the fame time acquainted him, that the 
two men he faw in green coats were paid fo much by the year, 
on purpofe to halloo, it woilld be neediefs for him, therefore, to 
give himfelf zi\y further trouble. 

and. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I77 

and, I will venture to fay, that if he be not there^ 
he might as well be in his bed. 

I mull give you an extraordhiary inftance of a 
gentleman's knowledge of hunting.— He had hired 
a houfe in a fiiie hunting country, with a good 
kennel belonging to it, in the neighbourhood of 
two packs of hounds, of which mine was one ; 
and that he might not offend the owner of either, 
intendedj as he faid, to hunt with both. He of- 
fered me the ufe of his kennel, which, for fome 
reafons, I chofe to decline ; it was afterwards of- 
fered to the other gentleman, who accepted it. 
The firil day that the hounds hunted this country 
he did not appear. The fecond day, the hounds 
were no fooner at the cover fide than my friend 
faw an odd figure, Itrangely accoutred, riding 
up, v/ith a fpaniel following him. " Sir," faid 
he, " it gave me great concern not to be able to 
" attend you when you was here before ; I hope 
*' you was not offended at it ; for, to fhew you 
" how v/ell I am inclined to afiift your hunt^ 
" you fee, / have brought my little dog.^* 

I will now give you an infi:ance of another 
gentleman's love of hunting. We were returning 
from hunting over a very fine country, and upon 
its being remarked that we had a pleafant ride, he 
replied, " the beft part of Xhafport, in my opi- 
*- nion, is the riding home to dinner afterwards." 

N He 



♦ H 



7b THOtGHTS trPON HUNTING. 

He Is, without doubt, of tlie fame opinion with 
a fat old gentleman I one day overtook upon the 
road, who, after having alked n:ie, " how many 
" tbx«s we ufually killed in one day — why I did 
" not hunt hare rather than fox, as the was bet- 
" ter to eat ?" — he concluded, faying, " there is 
" but one part of hunting I likcs-*-iV 7nakes one 
" very hungry T 

There are two things, which I particularly re- 
commend to you; the one is, to make your hounds 
ileady, the other, to make them all draw. Many 
huntfmen are fond of having them at their horfes 
heels ; but, believe rne, they never can get fo 
well, or fo foon together, as when they fpread 
the cover : betides, 1 have often known, when 
there have been only a few finders, that they 
have found their fox, gone down the wind, and 
been heard of no more that day. 

Never take out an unfleady old hound ; young 
ones properly awed from riot, and that will hop 
at a rate, may be put into the pack, a few at a 
time ; but an old hound that is vicious fliould 
not efcape hanging ; let him be ever fo good in 
other refpe6ls I will not excuie him ; for a pack 
mufl be wretched indeed that can Hand in need 
of fuch affiftance. 

There 



tHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I79 

There is infinite pleafure in hearing a fox well 
found. When you get up to his kennel, with a 
good drag, the chorus increafing as you go, it 
intpires a joy more eafy to be felt than defcribed. 
With regard to my own fenfations, I would ra- 
ther hear one fox found in this lively manner, than 
ride the befl hare-chace that ever was run. 

Much depends on the firfl finding of your fox, 
Dhnidium facfi, qui hene ccepit, hahet, which we 
learned at Weflminfter, is verified here; for I 
look upon a fox well found to be half killed. I 
think people generally are in too great a hurry on 
this occafion. There is an enthufiafm attending 
this diverfion, which, in this infiance in particu- 
lar, ought always to be rellrained.* The hounds 
are always mad enough when they find tlieirfox; 
if the men be alfo mad, they make mad work of 
it indeed. A gentleman of my acquaintance, who 
hunts his own hounds, and is not lefs eager than 
the reft of us, yet very well knows the bad con- 
fequences of being fo, to prevent this fault in 
himfelf, always begins by taking a pinch of fnuff, 
he then fings part of an old fong, " Some fay that 
" care killed the cat^^ &c. By this time his hounds 
get together, and fettle to the fcent. He then hal- 
loos, and rides as if the d — 1 drove. 

* There are but few inftances where fportfmen are not too 
noify, and too fond of encouraging their hounds, which fel- 
<iom do their bufmefs fo well as when little is faid to them. 

N 2 If 



l80 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINC. 

If the fox break cover, vou will fometlmes 
fee a young fportfman ride after him. He never 
fails to afk fuch a one, " Do you think you can 
" catch him, Sirr—'' Nor—'' Why then be fo 
" good as to let my hounds try — if they can^ 

[The fubje6l which has been chofen as a frontif- 
piece to the prefent edition of this work, being in 
fome degree analogous to mofl parts of Letter xiv. 
it may not be improper in this place to notice the 
circumflance which occafioncd it. 

A pack of hounds belonging to his Grace of 
Beaufort, after a purfuit of many miles, fcented 
Reynard to a cottage at Castle Coombe, where he 
had taken refuge in a cradle ; little time, how- 
ever, was given him in this retreat, as they almoft 
inflantly entered the hovel, feized upon their de- 
voted vi61im, and dragged him from his lurking 
place.] 



LET- 



Thoughts upon hunting, iZl 



LETTER XV 



T LEFT off juft as I had found the fox : I 
-*- now, therefore^ with your leave, will fup- 
pofe, that the hounds are running him. You 
deiire I would he more particular with regard to 
the men ; it was always my intention. To be- 
gin, then^ the huntfman ought certainly to let oft' 
with his foremoft hounds, and I Ihould with him 
to keep as clofe to them afterwards as he conve- 
niently can ; nor can any harm arife from it, un- 
lefs he fhould not have common fenfc. No 
hounds then can flip down the wind, and get out 
of his hearing; he will alfo fee how far they 
carry the fcent ; a neceffary rcquifite; for with- 
out it, he never can make a cafl with any cer^ 
tainty. 

You will find it not Icfs neceffary for your 
huntfman to be a6live in prefFmg his hounds for- 
ward,* while the fcent is good, than to be pru- 

* Prefling hounds on, is, perhaps, a dangerous expreffion; 
as more harm may be done by prelTing them beyond the fcent, 
when it is good, than when it is bad : however, it means no 
more than to get forward the tail-hounds, and to encourage the 
Others to pufli on as fafl as they can, while the fcent ferv.es 
them. 

N 3 dent 



l84 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING 

dent In not hurrying them beyond It, when It 
is bad. Your's, you fay, is a good horfeman ; 
it is of the utmoft confequence to your fport; 
nor is it poffible for a huntfman to be of much 
ufe, who is not ; for the firft thing, and the very 
fine qua nan of a fox-hunter is to ride up to his 
headmoft hounds. It is his bufinefs to be ready, 
at all times, to lend them that afliftance they fo 
frequently need, and which, when they are firft 
at a fault, is then moft critical. A fox-hound, 
at that time, will exert himfelf moft; he after- 
wards cools, and becomes more indifferent about 
his game. Tliofc huntfmen who do not get for- 
ward enough to take advantage of this eager- 
nefs and impetuofity, and dire6l it properly, fel- 
dom know enough of hunting to be of much ufe 
to them afterwards. 

You will, perhaps, find It more difficult to 
keep your whipper-in back, than to gd your 
huntfman forward ; at Icaft, I always have found 
it fo.* It is, however, ncceffary; nor will a 
good whipper-in leave a cover whilft a tingle 
hound remains in it : for tliis reafon, there ihould 

* Thoiigh a huntfman cannot be too fond of hunting, a 
whipper-in eafily may. His bufinefs will feldom allow him to 
be forward enough with the hounds to fee much of the fport s 
his only thought, therefore, fliould be to keep the hounds to-' 
gether, and to contribute, as much as he can, to the killing of 
the fox, 

be 



THOUGHTS UPOM HUNTING. 1 83 

"be two; one of whom fliould always be forward 
with the huntfman. You cannot conceive the 
many ills that may happen to hounds that are 
left behind. I do not know that I can enume- 
rate one half of them ; but of this you may be 
certain, that the keeping them together is the 
fareft means to keep them ftcady. When left to 
themfelves, they fcldom refufe any blood they can 
get; they acquire many bad habits; they become 
conceited, a terrible fault in any animal ; and 
they learn to lye upon the fcent, an unpardona- 
ble fault in a fox-hound : betides this, they fre- 
quently get a trick of hunting by themfelves, and 
they feldom are worth much afterwards. The 
lying out in the cold, perhaps the whole night, 
can do no good to their contlitutions, nor v/ill 
the being worried by fhecp-dogs or maftiifs be of 
fervice to their bodies : all this, however, and 
much more, they are liable to. T believe I 
mentioned, in my fourth letter, that the ilraw- 
houfe door liiould be left open when any hounds 
are miffing. 

Every country is foon known, and nine foxes 
out of ten, with the wind in the fam-e quarter, 
wdll follow the fume track. It is eafy, therefore, 
for the whipper-in to cut fhort, and catch the 
hounds again; at lea ft it is fo in the country 
where I hunt. With a high fcent you cannot 
pufh on hounds too much. Screams keep the 
N 4 fox 



184 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

fox forward, at the fame time that they keep the 
hounds together, or let in the tail-hounds ;* they 
alfo enUven the fport, and if difcreetly ufed, are 
always of fervice; but, in cover, they fliould he 
given with tlie greateft caution. 

Moll: fox-hunters wilh to fee their hounds run 
in a good fiyle ; I confefs, 1 am myfelf one of 
thofe. I hate to fee a firing of them, nor can 
I bear to fee them creep, where they can leap. 
It is the dafli of the fox-hound which diftin- 
guiflies hm as truly, as the motto of William of 
Wickham diilinguifhes zis. A pack of harriers, 
if they have time, may kill a fox ; but I defy 
them to kill him in the llyle in which a fox 
ought to be killed; they mufl hunt him down. 
If you intend to tire him out, you mufl expert 
to be tired alfo yourfelf : I never wifh a chace to 
be lefs than one hour, or to. exceed two: it is fuf- 
ficiently long, if properly followed; it will fel- 
dom be longer, unlefs there be a fault fome- 
where — either in tlie day, in the huntfman, or 
in the hounds. What Lord Chatham once faid 

* Halloos feldom do any hurt, when yon are running up 
the wind; for then, none but the tail-hounds can hear you; 
when you are running down the wind, you fliouId halloo no 
more than may be necefTary to bring the tail-hounds forward, 
for a hound that knows his bufinefs feldom wants encourage- 
ment when he is upon a fcent. 

9< 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 1 85 

•of a battle, is particularly applicable to a fox- 
phace: it fhould hQ JJiort, fnarp, and dec'ijive. 

There is, I believe, but little difference in tlis 
ipeed of hounds of the fame lizc ; the great dif- 
ference is in the head they carry ; and in order 
that they may run well together, you fhould not 
keep too many old hounds : after five or iix fea- 
ions, they generally do more harm than good. 
If they tie upon the fcent, and come hunting 
after, hang them up immediately, let their age 
be what it may; there is no getting fuch conceited 
devils on ; they will never come to a halloo, 
which every hound that is off the fcent, or be- 
liind the refl, fhould not fail to do ; and they 
are always more likely to draw you back than 
help you forward.* 

You think me too fevere on fl^irters. I mufl 
confefs, that I have but one objection to them, 

* From thi5 paffage, the critic endeavours to prove the 
fportfman's ingratitude; and yet common {.tnie^ I believe, in- 
duces moft men to rid themfelves of that which if kept would 
be prejudicial to them. The critic feems to allude to a well- 
known fable of ^fop, but is not very happy in the applica- 
tion. He has alfo mif-quoted the paffage — the author does not 
^y tirsf but {yf upon the fcent. Good hounds, when they be- 
come aged, are liable to the firft ; bad ones only are gu'lty of 
the laft. In either cafe, death is not meant as a puniuimentj 
nor is it confidered as a misfortune.— Vide Monthly Review. 

and 



l86 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

and it is this: I have conflantly feen them do 
more harm than good. 

Changing from the hi^nted fox to a frefh one, 
is as had an accident as can happen to a pack 
of fox- hounds, and requires all the obfervation 
and all the ingenuity that man is capable of to 
guard againfl it. Could a fox-hound diltinguilh 
a hunted fox, as the deer-hound does the deer 
that is blown, fox-hunting would then be perfe(5l. 
There are certain rules that ought to be obferved 
by huntfmcn. A huntfman fliould always liftcn 
to his hounds, whilft they are running in cover; 
he fhould be particularly attentive to the head- 
mofl hounds, and he fhould be conftantly on his 
guard againfl: a Ikirter, for if there be two fcents, 
he mult be wrong. Generally fpeaking, the befl 
fcent is leaft likely to be that of the Imnted fox ; 
and as a fox feldom fuffers hounds to run up to 
him as long as he is able to prevent it, fo, nine 
times out of ten, when foxes arc hallooed early 
in the day, they are all frefli foxes. The hounds 
moft likely to be right are the hard-running line- 
hunting hounds, or fuch as the huntfman knows 
had the lead, before there arofe any doubt of 
changing. Witfi regard to the fox, if he break 
over an open country, it is no i\gvi that he is 
hard run ; for they feldom at any time will do 
that, unlefs they be a great way before the 
hounds. Alio, if he run up the wind — they fel- 

4 dom 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 187 

dom ever do that when they have been long 
hunted, and grow weak ; and when they run. 
their foil, that alfo may dire6l him. All this, as 
you will perceive, requires a good ear and nice 
obfervation ; and indeed, in that confills the 
chief excellence of a huntfman. 

When the hounds divide, and are in two 
parts, the whipper-in, in flopping, mull attend 
to the huntfman, and wait for his halloo, before 
he attempts to flop either : for want of proper 
management in this particular, I have known 
the hounds Hopped at both places, and both 
foxes loll by it. If they have many fcents, and 
it is quite uncertain which is the hunted fox, let 
him flop thofe that are farthcft down the wind, 
as they can hear the others, and will' reach them 
fooneft : in fuch a cafe, there will be little ufe iu 
Hopping thofe that are up the wind. 

When hounds are at a check, let every one be 
lilent, and ftand flill: but as I have already faid 
fo much on that head in my eleventh letter on 
hare-hunting, I beg leave to refer you to it. 
Whippers-in are frequently at this time coming 
on with the tail-hounds. They fhould never 
halloo to them, when the hounds are at fault; 
the leall thing does hurt at fuch a time, but a 
halloo more than any other. The huntfinan, at 
g, check, had better let his hounds alone, or con- 
tent 



fSS THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, , 

tent himfelf with holding them forward, with-* 
out taking them off their nofes. Hounds that 
are not ufed to be call, a tout lout de chamj) will 
of themfelves acquire a better caft than it is in 
the power of any huntfman to give them; will 
ipread more, and try belter for the fcent; and, 
if in health and IpiritS;, will v/ant no encourage- 
inent. 

Should they be at fault, after having made 
their own caft, (which the huntfman fhould al- 
ways firft encourage them to do) it is then his 
bulinefs to affift them further; but, except ir\ 
fomc particular inftances, I never approve of 
their being caft as long as they are inclined to 
hunt. The ftrft caft I bid my huntfman make Is 
generally a regular one; not choofing to rely en- 
tirely on his judgment: if that fnould not fuc^ 
ceed, he is then at liberty to follow his own opi- 
nion, and proceed as obfervation and genius may 
dirccl. When fuch a caft is made, I like to fee 
fomc mark of good fcnfc and meaning in it ; 
whether down the wind, or towards fome likely 
cover, or ftrong earth : however, as it is at heft 
•uncertain, and as the huntfman and the fox may 
be of different opinions, I always wifh to fee a 
regular caft, before i lee a knowing one; which, 
as a laft refource, fhould not be called forth, till 
it be wanted: the letting hounds alone is bat a, 
negative goodnefs in a huntfman ; whereas, it is 

true. 



THOl^GHTS UPON HUNTING. l8^ 

true, this laft fnows real genius ; and to be per- 
fect:, it mult be born with him. There is a 
fault, however, which a knowing huntfman is 
too apt to commit : he will find a frefh fox, and 
then claim the merit of having recovered the 
hunted one. It always is dangerous to throw 
hounds into a cover to retrieve a loft fcent ; and, 
unlefs they hit him in, is not to be depended on. 
Driven to the laft extremity, fhould a knowing 
cafl not fucceed, your huntfman is in no wife 
blameable: mine, I remember, lofl me a good 
chace, by perfevering too long in a favourite calt; 
but he gave me fo many good reafons why the 
fox ought to have gone that way, that I returned 
perfectly well fatisfied, telling him, at the fame 
time, that, if the fox ivas a fool, he could not 
help It, 

Gentlemen, when hounds are at fault, are too 
apt thenifelves to prolong it. They fhould aK 
^ays ilop their horfes fome diftance behind the 
hounds, and, if it be poflible to remain fJent, 
this is the time to be fo: they fliould be careful 
not to ride before the hounds, or over the fcent ; 
nor fhould they ever meet a hound in the face, 
unlefs with a deilgn to flop him. Should you at 
any time be before the hounds, turn your horfe's 
head the way they are going, get out of their 
track, and let them pafs ])y you. 



In 



i^O THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

In dry weather, foxes, particularly In heatliy 
countries, will run the roads. If gentlemen, at 
fuch times, will ride clofe upon the hounds, they 
may drive them miles, without any fcent. * 
High-mettled fox-hounds are feldom inclined to 
Hop whillt horfes are clofe at their heels. 

An acquaintance of mine, a good fportfman^ 
but a very warm one, when he fees the company 
preffing too clofe upon his hounds, begins with 
crying out, as loud as he can, /lohi hard. If 
any one fhould perfifl after that, he begins mo- 
derately at firft, and fays, jf heg. Sir, you will 
Jlop your hor/e : — Pray, Sir, Jlop : — God hlefs you^ 
Sir, Jlop ; — God d — n your blood, Sir, Jlop your 
hofje. 

I am now, as you may perceive, in a very vio- 
lent paffion; fo I will e'en Hop the continuation 
of this fubje(St till I be cool again. 

* No one fhould ever ride in a direftion which, if perfifted 
in, would carry him amongfl. the hounds, unlefs he be at a 
great diftance behind thenu 



LET- 



THOUGHTS UPOK HUNTING, igt 



LETTER XVI. 



T ENDED my lafl letter, I think, in a riolent 
■*■ paffion. The hounds, I behcve, were at 
fault alio. I fhall now continue the further ex- 
planation of my thirteenth letter from that time. 

The iirll moment that hounds are at fault is a 
critical one for the fport : people then fhould be 
very attentive. Thofe who look forward perhaps 
may fee the fox, or the running of fheep, or the 
purfuit of crows, may give them fome tidings of 
him. Thofe who liflen may fomctimes take a 
hint which way he is gone, from the chattering of 
a magpie; or, perhaps, be at a certainty, from a 
diilant halloo : nothing that can give any intelli- 
gence, at fuch a time, is to be negletled. Gen - ^ 
tlemen are too apt to ride all together: were they 
to ij^read more, they might fometimes be of fer- 
vice; particularly thofe who, from a knowledge 
of the fport, keep down the wind: it would then 
be difficult for either hounds, or fox, to efcape 
their obfervation. 

You fliould, however, be cautious how you 
go to a halloo. The halloo itfelf mufl, in a 
great meafure, dire6l you ; and though it aiTord 

no 



i^2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 

Do certain rule, yet yoa may frequently gaefs hf 
it whether it may be depended on or not. At 
the fowing time, when boys are bird-keeping, if 
you be not very much on your guard, their hal- 
loo will fometiraes deceive you. It is beft, when 
you are in doubt, to fend on a whipper-in to 
know ; the worfl then that can befiiU you is the 
lofs of a little time; whereas, if you gallop 
away with the hounds to the halloo, and are 
obliged to return, it is a chance if they try for 
the fcent afterwards: on the other hand, if, cer- 
tain of the halloo, you intend going to it ; then 
the fooner you get to it the better. 1 have been 
inore angry with my huntfman, for being flow at 
a time like tliis, than for any other fault whatfo- 
ever. Huntfmen who are flow at getting to a 
halloo, are void of common fenfe. 

They frequently commit another fault by being 
in too great a hurry when they get there. It is 
hardly credible how much our eagernefs is apt, at 
fuch a time, to miflead our judgment: for in- 
ilance, when we get to the halloo, the firft quef- 
tlons are natural enough. Did you fee the fox? 
Which way did he go ? The man points with 
his finger, perhaps, and then away you all ride 
as fail: as you can ; and in fuch a hurry, that not 
one will ftay to hear the anfwer to the queftion* 
which all were fo ready to afk : the general con- 
fequence of which is_, you miflake the place^ and 

arof 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. "I93J 

are obliged to return to the man for better infor- 
mation. Depend upon it, the lefs you hurry on 
this occalion the more time you fave ; and vvhere- 
ever the fox was feen for a certainty, whether 
near or diilant, that will not only be the fureft, 
but alfo the befl place to take the fcent ; and, 
betides the certainty of going right, you proba- 
bly will get on fafter than you would by any 
other means. 

That balloos are not always to be depended on 
will be fufficiently evinced by the following in- 
Hances : 

My hounds being at a long fault, a fellow hal- 
looed to them from the top of a rick, at fome 
diftance off. The huntfman, as you may be- 
lieve, ftuck fpurs to his horfe, hallooed till he 
was almofl hoarfe, and got to the man as quickly 
as he could: the man ft ill kept hallooing, and 
as the hounds got near him, " Here,'' faid he — 
" here — here, the fox is gone." — *' Is he far before 
" us ?" cried the huntfman. " How long ago 
" was it that you faw him?" — " No, mafter, I 
" have not feen him, but I frnelt him here this 
" morning, when I came to ferve my flieep." 

Another inftance was this : we were trying 
with fome deer-hounds for an out-lying ftag, 
when we faw a fellow running towards us in his 

O ihirt: 



194" THO'JGHTS UPON HUKTING. 

jQiirt: we immediately concluded that we flioul(3 
hear feme ne\vs of the ftag, and fet out joyfully 
io meet him. Our iirft queftion was, if he had 
iken the Hag ? *' No, Sir, I have not feen him, 
*' hif viy ivife dreamt as hoiv Jhe faw him t'other 
«' night:" 

Once a man hallooed us back a mile, only to 
tell us that zve roerc right before, and we loft the 
fox by it. 

A gentleman; feeing his hounds at fault, rode 
lip to a man at plough, and with great eagernefs 
afked him, if he had feen the fox ? " The fox, 
" Sir!" — '^ Yes, d— n you, the fox ! Did you 
*• never fee a fox V — " Pray, Sir, if I may be 
°'* lb bould, what fort of a looking creature may 
** he be ? has he Jlwrt ears and a Jong taiW — 
*' }Vj-." — •'• Why then, I can afiure you, Sir, I 
'* have feen no fuch thing J' 

"Wc arc agreed, that hounds ought not to be- 
caft as long as they are able to hunt ; and though 
the idea, thai a hunted fox never flops, is a very 
necefTary one to a fox-hunter, that he may be 
a6live, and may lofe no time; yet tired foxes 
will fiop, if you can hold them on; and I have 
known them ftop, even in wheel-ruts, on the 
open down, and leap up in the midfl of the 
hounds. A tired fox ought not to be g^ive» up, 

for 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ig^ 

fyr he is killed fometimes very unexpe6ledly. If 
hounds have ever prefTed him, he is worth your 
trouble; perfeverance may recover him, and, if 
recovered^ he moft probably will be killed ; nor 
Ihould you defpair, whilil any fcent remains. 
The bufinefs of a huntfman is only difficult when 
the fcent dies quite away ; and it is then he may 
fhew /lis judgment, when the hounds are no 
longer able to fhew theirs. The recovering a 
loft fcent, and getting nearer to the fox by a long 
caft, requires genius, and is, therefore, what few 
huntfmen are equal to. When hounds are no 
longer capable of feeling the fcent, it all rells 
with the huntfman ; either the game is entirely 
given up, or is only to be recovered by him, and 
is the efFedl of real genius, fpirit, and obferva- 
tion. 

When hounds are at cold hunting, with a bad 
fcent, it may then be a proper time to fend a 
whipper-in forward ; if he can fee the fox, a lit- 
tle mobbing, at fuch a time as this, may reafon- 
ably be allowed. 

When hounds are put to a check on a high 
road, by the fox being headed back, if in that 
particular inftance you fuifer them to try back, 
it gives them the belt chance of hitting off the 
fcent again, as they may try on both lides at 
once. 

0% Wh«ii 



I96 THOUGHTS UrOH HUNTING"* 

When houn4s are running in cover, you can- 
not be too quiet. If the fox be running fhort, 
and the hounds arc catching him, not a word 
Ihould then be faid : it is a difficult time for 
hounds to hunt him, as he is continually turn- 
ing, and will fometimes lie down, and let them 
pals him. 

I have remarked, that the greateft danger of 
loling a fox is at the firfl finding of him, and 
when he is linking; at both of which times he 
frequently will run flioit, and the eagernefs of 
the hounds is too apt to carry them beyond the 
fcent. When a fox is lirft found, I wifh every 
one would keep behind the liounds, till they are 
well fettled to the fcent; and when the hounds 
are catching him, I willi thcni to be as filent as 
they can. 

When he is caught, I hke (o fee hounds eat 
him eagerly. Tn fome countries, I am told, they 
have a method o^ treeing him;* it is of ufc to 
make the hounds eager ; it lets them all in ; they 
recover their wind, and cat him more readily. I 
fhould advifc you, at the fame time, not to keep 
him too long, as I do not imagine the hounds 

* The intention of it is to make the hounds more eager, 
and to let in the tail- hounds. The fox is thrown acrofs the 
branch of a tree, and the hounds are fufFered to bay at him for 
fome minutes, before he is thrown amongflthem. 

have 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. I97 

have any appetite to eat him, longer than whilft 
they are angry with him. 

When two packs of fox-hounds run together, 
and they kill the fox, the pack that found hun is 
entitled to the head. Should both have found, 
how is it to be determined then ? The huntf- 
man who gets in firfl feems, in my opinion, to 
have the bell right to it ; yet to prevent a difpute, 
(which, of courfe, might be thought a wTong- 
headed one) would he not do well to cut oiF 
the head, and prefent it to the other huntfman ? 

The fame author, whom I quoted in my tenth 
letter, and who tells us, how we fliould not eat a 
hare, is alfo kind enough to tell us when we 
Jliould eat a fox; I wifh he had cilfo ad' -'d tne 
beft manner of dj-effing him: \vc are obliged to 
him, however, for the following information : — 
*' La chair du Renard efi moins mawvaife que celle 
'' du hup ; les chiens et meme les Hommes enmangent 
" en auto?nne, furtout Jorfqiiil s'eji nourri et en- 
" S^^^Jj^ ^^ raifms."" — You would have been bet- 
ter pleafed, I make no doubt, if the learned 
gentleman had inflruc^ed you hozv to hunt himy 
Tather'than vjheyi to eat him, 

I fhall end this letter with an anecdote of a late 
huntfman of mine, who was a great flip-flop, 
and always called fucceflively, fuccefsfulJy, One 

O 3 day. 



i^S ^THOITGilTS U?ON HUNTING. 

day, when he had been out with the young 
hounds, I fent for him in, and aikcd him what 
fport he had had, and how the hounds behaved? 
** Very great fport. Sir, and no hounds could 
<' behave any better." — " Did yon run him 
*' long?" — " They ran him, and pleafe your 
*' honour, upwards of three hours, fuccefsf idly .'* 
— " So, then, you did kill him ?" — '* Oh^ no, 
*' iSir, we loji him at JaJiJ'' 



LET- 



ITHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 1 99 



LETTER XVir. 

FOX-HUNTING, an acquaintance of mine 
fays, is only to be followed bccaufc you can 
ride bard, and do lefs barm in tbat tban in any 
otber kind of buntinc". Tbere may be fome truth 
in tbe oblervation ; but, to fucb as loye tbe ri- 
ding part only of bunting, would not a trail Icent 
be more fuitable ? Gentlemen wbo bunt for tbe 
fake of a ride, wbo are indifferent about tbe 
liounds, and know little of tbe bulinefs, if tbey 
do no barm, fulfil as mucb as we have reafon to 
expe6l from them ; whilfl thofe of a contrary 
defeription, do good, and have much greater 
pleafure. Such as are acquainted with tbe 
hounds, and can at times affift them, find the fport 
more interefling; and frecjuently have tbe fatis- 
faclion to think, that they themfelves contribute 
to tbe fuccefs of tbe day. This is a pleafure you 
often enjoy ; a pleafure, without any regret at- 
tending it. I know not what effe6t it may have 
on you ; but I know tbat m.y fpirits arc always 
good after good fport in bunting ; nor is tbe reft 
of the day ever difagreeable to me. What arc 
other fports compared to this, which is full of en- 
tbuliafm ! fifhing is, in my opinion, a dnili divcr- 
fion;— -fliooting, though it admit of a companion^ 
will not allow of many:— both therefore may be 

O 4 conlidored 



ftOO THOITGHTS UPON HUNTINCJ. 

conildered as Icllifh and folitary amufemenls, 
compared with hunting ; to which, as many as 
plcafe are welcome. The one might teach pa- 
tience to a philofopher ; and the other, though 
it occufion great fatigue to the body, feldom af- 
fords much occupation to the mind. Whereas fox- 
hunting is a kind of warfare ;— its uncertainties, 
its fatigue?, its difficuUics, and its dangers, render- 
ing it interefling above all other diverlions. 

That you may more readily pardon this digref- 
lion, I return to anfwcr your letter now before me. 

I am glad to hear that your men have good 
voices; mine, unluckily, have not. There is a 
friend of mine, who hunts his own hounds ; his 
voice is the ftrangeft, and his halloos the oddef}- I 
ever heard. He has, however, this advantage :— 
no dog can pofiibly miftake his halloo for an- 
other's. Singularity conftitutcs an eflential part 
of a huntf man's halloo :---it is for that reafon 
alone, I prefer the horn, to which, I obferve, 
hounds fly more readily tlian to the huntfman's 
voice. Good voices certainly are pleaiing ; yet it 
might be as well, perhaps, if thofe who have 
them, were lefs fond of exerting them. When a 
fox is hallooed, thofe who underftand this buli- 
nefs, and get forward, may halloo him again;* 

yet 

* Should a fox be hallooed in cover, while the hounds are at 
fault J if they be long in coming, by getting forward yon may 

balloo 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. lOt 

yet let them be told if the hounds go the con- 
trary way, or do not feem to come on upon the 
line of him, to halloo no more. With regard 
to its being the hunted fox ; the fox which every 
man halloos, is the hunted fox in his own opinion, 
though he feldom has a better reatbn for it, than 
becaufe he faw him. — Such halloos as ferve to 
keep the hounds together, and to get on the tail 
hounds, are always of ufe : halloos of encourage- 
ment to leading hounds, if injudicioufly given, 
may fpoil your fport. I am forry to fay view 
halloos frequently do more harm than good. — 
They are pleating to fporttinen, but prejudicial to 
hounds. If a ftrong cover be full of foxes, and 
they be often hallooed, hounds feldom take much 
pains in hunting them ; hence arifes that indif- 
ference, which fometimes is to be perceived in fox- 
hounds while purfuing their game. 

You afk me, if I would take off my hounds to 
a halloo ? — If they be running with a good Icent, 
J moft certainly would not; ifotherwife, and I 

halloo the fox again; perhaps, before the hounds are laid on ; by 
which means you will get nearer to him. In cafes like this, a 
good fportfman may be of great ufe to hounds. There are days 
when hounds will do their bufinefs beft if let quite alone; and 
there are days, when they can do nothing, without affiftaace. — 
Let them be aflifted at no other tim . V f a bad fcenting day, 
or when hounds may be over-matche , yo j cannot aflift them 
too much. 

^ could 



202 THOITGHTS UPON IfUNTIKG. 

could depend upon the halloo, in fome cafes I 
would : for inftance, when the ^ox is a great way 
before them, or perfifts in running his foil ; for 
fuch foxes are difficult to kill, unlefs you endea^ 
vour to get nearer to them by fome means or 
other. When you hunt after them, it will fre- 
quently happen that the longer you run, the fur- 
ther you will be behind, 

If hounds be out of blood, and a fox run his 
foil, you need not fcrupie to flop the tail hounds, 
and throw tlicm In at head ; or, if the cover have 
any ridings cut in it, and the fox be often feen, 
your huntfman, by keeping fome hounds at 
his horfe's heels, at the firfl halloo that he hears, 
may throw them in clofe at him.* — This will put 
him out of his pace, and perhaps, put him off his 
foil. It will be necelfary, when you do this, that 
the whipper-in fliould flop the p?.ck from hunting 
after, and get forvvard with thcni to the huntfman, 
I have already given it as my opinion, that 
hounds may be hallooed too much. If they 

* Nothing is meant more than this — " that the himtfmari 
{hould get the tail hounds off the line of the fcent, (where they 
do more harm than good,) and encourage them forward ; if he 
lliould hear a halloo, whilft thefe hounds are off the fcent, he 
ihould lajthcm on to it ; it he ftiould not, the tail hounds, by this 
means, may ftill ftand a. chance of getting to the head hounds by 
itieear^ which they never could do, if they continued to run by 
the ito^/e. 

a fhould 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 203 

Hiould have been often ufed to a halloo, they 
will expedl it ; and may trufl, perhaps, to their 
ears, and eyes, more than to their noies. If they be 
often taken from the fcent, it will teach them to 
fliuffle, and probably will make them llack in 
cover : it ihould be done, therefore, with great 
caution ; not too often ; and always fhould be 
well-timed. Famous huntfmen, I think, by mak- 
ing too frequent a ufe of this, fometimes hurt their 
hounds. I have heard of a iportfman, who never 
fufFers his hounds to be lifted ; he lets them pick 
along the coldell fcent, through flocks of Iheep : 
this is a particular ftyle of fox-hunting, which, 
perhaps, may fuit the country in v/hich that gen- 
tleman hunts. I confefs to you, I do not think 
it would faccced in a bad fcenting country, or 
indeed, in any country where foxes are wild ; — 
whilfl hounds can get on with the fcent, it can- 
not be right to take them off from it ; but when 
they are flopped for want of it, it cannot then 
be wrong to give them every advantage in your 
power. 

It is wrong to fuffer hounds to hunt after 
others that are gone on with the fcent, particu- 
larly in cover ; for how are they to get up to them 
with a worfe fcent ; befides, it makes them tye on 
the fcent, teaches them to run dog, and deftroys 
that laudable ambition of irettin": forward, whi^h 
is the chief excellence of a fox-hound. A good 

huntfinan 



204 THOUGHTS UTON HUNTING. 

buntfman will feldom fufi'er his head hounds to 
run away from him ; if it fhould fo happen, and 
they be ftill within his hearing, he will link the 
wind with the reft of the pack, and get to 
them as fafl as he can. — Though I fufFer not 
a pack of fox-hounds to hunt after fuch as 
may be a long way before the reft, for reafons 
which I have juit given ; yet, when a fingle 
hound is gone on with the fcent, I fend a whip- 
per-in to flop him. "Were the hounds to be taken 
off the fcent to get to him, and he fhould no lon-r 
ger have any fcent when they find him, the fox 
miglit be loft by it. This is a reafon, why in large 
covers, and particularly fuch as have many roads 
in them, fkirting hounds fliould be left at home 
on windy days. 

Skirters, I think, you may find hurtful, both 
in men and dogs. Such as fkirt to lave their 
horfes, often head the fox. Good tportlmen 
never quit hounds, but to be of fervice to them : 
with men of this defcription, fkirting becomes 
a neceffary part of fox-hunting, and is of the 
greateft ufe. Skirters ! beware of a furze-brake. 
If you head back the fox, the hounds mofl: pro- 
bably will kill him in the brake. Such as ride 
after the hounds, at the fame time that they do 
no good, are Icaft likely to do harm ; let fuch 
only as underftand the bufinefs, and mean to be 
of fervice to the hounds, ride wide of them; I 

cannot 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING^ 20 J 

cannot however allow, that the riding clofe up 
to hounds is always a lign of a good fportfman ; 
if it were, a monkey, upon a good horfe, would be 
the beft fportfrnan in the field. — ^Here mufb I cen- 
fure, (but with refpecl) that eager fpirit which 
frequently interrupts, and fometimes is fatal to 
fport in fox-hunting ; for, though I cannot fub- 
Icribe to the doiflrine of my friend ****, " that 
'^ a pack of fox-hounds would be better w^ithout 
'' a huntfman, than with one; and that if left to 
'' themfelves, they would never lofe a fox ;" — 
yet, allowing them their ufaal attendants, had he 
obje(9:ed only to the fportfmen who follow them, 
I muft have joined ifllie with him. Whoever 
has followed hounds, mufi: have fccn them fre- 
quently hurried beyond the Icent ; and whoever 
is converfant in hunting, cannot but know, that 
the fleam of many horfes, carried by the wind, 
and mixed with a cold fcent, is prejudicial to it. 

It fometimes will happen, that a good horfe- 
man is not fo w^ell in with hounds, as an indif- 
ferent one ; becaufe he feldom will condefcend 
to get off his horfe. I believe, the befi way to 
follow hounds acrofs a country, is to keep on the 
line of them, and to difmount at once, when you 
come to a leap which you do not choofe to take ; 
for in looking about for eaiier places, much time 
is loft. In following hounds, it may be ufeful 
to you to know, that when in cover they run up 

the 



i,o6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTtNG* 

the wind, vou cannot in rcafon be loo far behind 
ihem^ as long as you have a perfedV hearing of 
them, and can comniand them ; and on the con- 
trary, when they are running down the windj, 
you cannot keep too clofe to them. 

You complain that foxes are in too great 
plenty ; beheve me, it is a good fault. I fliould 
as foon have expelled to have heard your old ac- 
quaintance, Jack R , complain of having too 
much money ; however, it is not without a re- 
medy ; hunt the fame covers conflantly, and you 
will foon difperfe them. If your pack be Itrong 
enough, divide it ; hunt every day, and you will 
catch many tired foxes. I remember to have 
killed a brace in one morning, in the ftrongcft 
leafon ; the tirlT. in ten minutes, the fccond in 
half aa hour. — If your own pack be not flrong 
enough to hunt more than every other day, get a, 
pack of harriers to hunt hare in the cover the 
intermediate day. Foxes thus diflurbed, wall 
faift their quarters ; they know their enemies, and 
fmell in the night, wdiere they have been in the 
day, and v.ill not ftay where they are likely to 
be diflurbed by them. Follow them for one 
week in this manner, and I do not tiiink you will 
have any reafon, afterwards, to complain that 
they are in too great plenty.. 



Whent 



THOUCKTS tJPON HUNTING. 207 

When covers are mucli diflurbed^ foxes will 
fometimes break as foon as they hear a hound. 
Where the country round is very opcrij the fom 
leaft likely to break is that which you are hunting ; 
^e will be very unv/illing to quit the cover, if it be 
a large one, unless he can get a great diftance be- 
fore the hounds. Should you be delirous to get 
a run over fuch a country, the iikeliefl means will 
be, to poft a quiet and Ikilful perfon to halloo 
one off, and lay on to him. The further he is 
before you, the lefs likely he will be to return. 
The befl method, however, to hunt a cover like 
this, is to ftick conftantly to it, not fuffering the 
hounds to break, fo long as one fox fhall remain ; 
do this two or three hunting days following ; foxes 
will then fly, and you will have good chaccs. 

Nothing is more hurtful to hounds than the 
frequent changing of their country ; fhould they 
change from a good fcenting country to a bad one, 
unlefs they have luck on their fides, they may be 
fome time without killing a fox ; whereas hounds 
have always a great advantage in a country which 
they are ufed to. They not only know better 
where to find their game, but they will alfo pur- 
fue it with more alacrity afterwards. 

This letter began by a digrefllon in favour of 
hunting ; it will end with the opinion of a 
Frenchman, not fo favourable to it. This Gen- 
tleman 



CS THOUGHTS UP0I7 HUNTING* 

tleman was in my neighbourhood on a vilit to 
the iatc Lord Caftlehaven, who, being a great 
Iportunan, thought he could not oblige his friend 
more, than by letting him partake of an amufe- 
ment, which he himfelf was fo fond of; he there- 
fore mounted him on one of his bell horfcs, and 
fhewed him a fox-chace. The Frenchman, after 
having been well fhaken, dirted, tired, run away 
with, and thrown down, was aflced, on his re- 
turn, " comment il avoit trouve la cliajfe ?" — ^' Mor- 
" hku! Milord,''^ faid he, fhrugging up his 
Ihoulders, " votre chajfe eft une cliajje diahoJ'ique,^* 



LET 



taocTGHTs UPON ituNtirre. 209 



LETTER XVIIL 



T3EFORE I proceed on my fubje6V, give mc 
'■^-^ leave to fet you right in one particular, where 
I perceive you have mifunclerflood me. You lay, 
you little expeded to fee the abilities of a huntf- 
man degraded beneath thofe of a vvhipper-in» 
This is a ierious charge againfl me as a fportiman ; 
and though I cannot allow that I have put the 
cart before the horfe, in the manner you are 
pleafed to mentio/i ; yet you have made it necef- 
fary for me to explain myfeif further. 

I mufl therefore remind you, that I fpeat of 
jny own country only, a country full of riot ; 
where the covers are large, and where there is a 
chace full of deer, and full of game. In fuch a 
country as this, you that know fo well how necel^ 
fary it is for a pack of fox-hounds to be fleady, 
and to be kept together, ought not to wonder 
that I fhould prefer an excellent whipper-in to 
an excellent huntfman. No one knows better 
than yourfelf, how eflential a good adjutant is to 
a regiment : believe me, a good whipper-in is 
not lefs neceflary to a pack of fox-hounds. Bui 
I muft beg y^u to obferve, I mean only, thaP I 

P fould 



ilO THOUGHTS UPON IIL'NTIKG, 

could do better ivlth mediocrity hi the one than in the 
other. If I have written any thing in a former 
letter that imphes more, I beg leave to retra6l it 
in this. Yet I muft confefs to you, that a famous 
huntfman I am not very ambitious to have ; un- 
lefs, it neceflarily followed, that Iiq muft have 
.famous hounds : a conclufion I cannot admit, a3 
long as thefe, fo famous gentlemen, will be con- 
tinually attempting themfelves to do what would 
be much better done if left to their hounds ; be- 
iides, they feldom are good fervants, are always 
conceited, and fometimes impertinent. I am very 
Avell fatisfied if my huntfman be acquainted with 
his country and his hounds ; if he ride well up 
to them, and if he have fome knowledge of the 
nature of the animal which he is in purfuit of; 
but fo far am I from wifhing him to he famous, 
that I hope he will ilill continue to think his 
hounds know beft how to hunt a fox. 

You fay you agree with me, that a huntfman 

jfliould ftick - clofe to his hounds. If then his 

place be nxed^ and that of the iiril whipper-in 

(where you h^ive'two) be not, I cannot but think 

, genius may be at leaft as ufeful in one as in the 

other: for inftance, while the huntfman is riding 

to his headmoll hounds, the. whipper-in, if he 

-have genius, may fliew it in various ways; he 

y may clap forward to any: great earth that may, by 

chance. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 211 

chance, be open; he may fink the wind to halloo, 
or mob a fox, when the fcent fails ; he may keep 
him off his foil ; he may flop the tail hounds, 
and get them forward ; and has it frequently in 
his power to aflill: the hounds without doing them 
any hurt, provided he fhould have fenfe to dif- 
tinguifh where he may be chiefly wanted. Be- 
lides, the moil elTential part of fox-hunting, the 
making and keeping the pack fteady, depends 
entirely upon him ; as a huntfman fliould feldom 
rate, and never liog a hound. In fliort, I con- 
iider the firfl whipper-in as a fecond huntfman ; 
and, to be perfect, he fhould be not lefs caj^able 
of hunting the hounds than the huntfman hiinfelf. 

You cannot too much recommend to your 
whipper-in to get to the head of his hounds, be- 
fore he attempts to flop them. The rating behind 
is to little purpofe, and if they fliould be in 
cover, may prevent him from knowing who the 
culprits are. When your hounds are running a 
fox, he then fliould content himfelf with flopping 
fuch as are riotous, and fhould get them forward. 
They may be condemned upon the fpgt, but the 
punifhment fhould be deferred till the next day, 
when they may be taken out on purpofe to com- 
mit the fault, and fufFer the punifliment. I agree 
with you, that young hounds cannot be awed 
too much ; yet fufFer not your punifhment of 

P 2 them 



(212 tHOUGHTS tJfON fiUNTlN6. 

them to exceed their offence. I could vvifli to 
draw a Hne betwixt juflice and barbarity.* 

A whipper-in, while breaking in young hounds, 
fometimes will rate them before they commit the 
fault : this may, perhaps, prevent them for that 
time, but they will be jull as ready to begin the 
next opportunity. Had he not better let them 
quite alone till he fee what they would be at ? 
The dilciplinc then may be proportioned to the 
degree of the offence. Whether a riotous young 
hound run little or much is of fmall confequence 
if he be not encouraged ; it is the blood only 
that fignifies, which in every kind of riot fhould 
carefully be prcvented.-f* 



* I am forry that It {hoiild be neccfTary to explain what I 
mean by barbarity. I mean that punifliment, which is either 
unneceflarily inflicled; which is infli6led with feverity; or 
from which no poffible good can arife. Punifliment, when 
properly applied, is not cruelty, is not revenge, it is juftice; 
it is even mercy. The intention of punifliment is to prevent 
crimes, and, confequently, to prevent the neceffity of punifliing. 

f It is not meant that hounds fliould be fuffered to continue 
on a wrong fcent longer than may be necelTary to know that 
the fcent is a wrong one. This paflage refers to page 88, 
where the author's meaning is more fully explained. It is in- 
troduced here more ftrongly to mark the danger of encouraging 
hounds on a wrong fcent, and indulging them afterwards in the 
blood of it. 



My 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 213 

My general orders to my whipper-in arc, if 
when he rate a hound, tbiC hound does not mind 
him, to take him up immediately, and give hitn 
a fevere flogging. Whippers-in are too apt to 
cpntinue rating, even when they find that rating 
will not avail. There is but one way to ilop fuch 
hounds, which is to get to the heads of them. — 
I will alfo tell him, never on any account to 
ilrike a hound, unlefs the hound be at the fame 
time fenfible what it is for. — What think you of 
the whipper-in who ftruck a hound as he was 
going to cover, becaufe he was likely to be noify 
afterwards, faying, '* jou ivHl be no'ify enough by 
" afid by, J warrant you." Whippers-in, when 
Ifift to themfelves, are rare judges of propriety! 
I wifh they would never flrike ^ hound that does 
r^ot deferve it, and would ilril^e thofe hard that 
do. They feldom diftingpifh fufhciently the de- 
grees of offence which a dog may have commit- 
ted, to proportion their punifhment accordingly ; 
and fuch is their ftupidity, that when they turn 
a hound after the huntfman, they will rate him 
as feverely as if he had been guilty of the greatef^ 
liiult. 

It is feldom neceffary to flog hounds to make 
them obedient, lince obedience is the firft leifon 
they are taught. Yet, if any fhould be more 
riotous than the reft, they may receive a few cuts 
in the morning before they leave the kennel. 

? 3 When 



2.14 THOUGHTS rpON HUNTING. 

When hounds prove unfteady, every pofTible 
means fhould be taken to make them otherwife. 
A hare, or a deer, put into the kennel amongft 
them, may then be necelTary. Huntfmen are too 
fond of kennel difcipline. You already know 
my opinion of it. I never allow it but in cafes 
of great neceffity. I then am always prefcnt my- 
felf to prevent excefs. To prevent an improper 
and barbarous ufe of fuch difcipline, I have al- 
ready told you, is one of the chief obje6ls of 
thefe letters. If what Montaigne fays be true, that 
" there is a certain general claim of kindnefs and 
*' benevolence which every creature has a right 
" to from us," furely we ought not to fufFer un- 
neceflary feverity towards an animal to whom we 
are obliged for fo much diverlion ; and what opi- 
nion muft we have of the huntfman who inflids 
it on one to whom he owes his daily bread.* 

* " Perhaps it is not the leafi; extraordinary circumftance in 
thefe flogging lectures, that they fhould be given with Mon- 
taigne, or any other moral author whatever, in recollection at 
the fame inftant !" (Vide Monthly Review.) Perhaps it is not 
the leaft extraordinary circumftance in thefe criticifms, that 
this pafTage fliould have been quoted as a proof of the author's 
.inhumanity. — The critic ends his ftridures with the following 
exclamation : " Of a truth, a fportfman is the moft uniform, 
confiflent charafter, from his own reprefentation, that we ever 
contemplated!" and yet, perhaps, there are fportfmen to be 
found, poffefled of as tender feelings of humanity as any critic 
whatfoever. The motto prefixed to thefe letters, if it had beea 
attended to, might have entitled the author to more candour 
than the critic has thoucht fit to beftow upon him. 

If 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. !2I^ 

If any of my hounds be very riotous, they are 
taken out by thcmfelves on the days when they 
do not hunt, and j^roperly punifhed ; and this is 
continued whiltl my patience lafts, which, of 
courfe, depends on the value of the dog. It is 
a trial betwixt the whippcr in and tiie dog, which 
will tire firfl ; and the whipper-in, I think, gene- 
rally prevails. If this method will not make 
them fleady, no other can ; they then are looked 
upon as incorrigible, and are put away. 

Such hounds as are notorious offenders Ihould 
alio feel the lafh and hear a rate as they go to the 
cover ; it may be an ufcful hint to them, and 
may prevent a feverer flogging afterwards. A 
fenlible whipper-in will wait his opportunity to 
fingle out his hound; he will then hit him hard, 
and rate him well, whilft a foolifh one will often 
hit a dog he did not intend to hit ; will ride full 
gallop into the midft of the hounds ; will, per- 
haps, ride over fome of the heft of them, and 
put the whole pack into confulion — this is a ma- 
noeuvre I cannot bear to fee. 

Have a care ! are words which feldom do any 
harm ; lince hounds, when they are on a right 
fcent, will not mind them. Let your whipper-in 
be careful how he encourage the hounds; that, 
improperly done, may fpoil your pack. 

P 4 A whip- 



^l6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

A whipper-in will rale a hound^ and then en- 
deavour to fiog him. A dog, after having been 
rated, will naturally avoid the whip. Tell your 
whipper-in, whenever a hound fhall deferve the 
lafli, to whip him firil, and rate him afterwards. 

When there are two whippers-in, one ought 
always to be forward. When there is only one, 
he, to be perfedl, Ihould be a very Mimgo, here^ 
there, and every whereip 

You will find it difHcult to Iceep your people 
in their proper places; I. have been obliged to 
flop back myfelf to bring on hounds which my 
fcrvanis had left behind. 1 cannot give you a 
greater proijf how neceflary it is that a whipper- 
in Ihould bring home all his hounds, than by 
telling you, that I had loft a,n old hound for ten 
days, and fent all the country oyer to inquire 
after hini ; and at laft, when I thought no more 
about him, in drawing a large cover in the coun- 
try where he had been loft:, he joined the pack ; 
he was exceedingly emaciated, and it was a long 
time before he recovered : how he fubfifted all 
that time I cannot imagine. When any of your 
hounds may be miffing, you ihould fend the 
whipper-in back immediately to look for them ; 
it will teach him to keep them more togcthera 

Th@ 



'SH0I7GH.TS UPON HUNTING. ^IJ 

The getting forward the tall hounds is a necef- 
^ry part of fox-hunting, in which you will find 
^ good whipper-in of the greatell ufe. He mufl 
alfo get forward himfclf at times, when the huntt"- 
man is not with the hounds ; but the fecond 
whipper-in (who frequently is a young lad, ig- 
norant of his bufinefs) on no account ought to 
encourage or rate a hound, but wlien he is quite 
certain it is right to do it ; nor is he ever to get 
forward, fq long as a lingle hound remairui 
behind. 

Halloo forzvard is certainly a neceffary and a 
good halloo, but is it notufcdtoo indifcriininately? 
it is for ever in the mouth of a whipper in. If 
your hounds be never ufed to that halloo till after 
§ fox be found, you will fee them fly to it. At 
other times other halloos will anfwer the purpofe 
of getting them on as well. Halloo forward being 
ufed as foon as the game is on foot, it feeras as if 
another halloo were neceiTary to denote the break- 
ing cover, jiway ! away! might anfwer that 
purpofe. Gentlemen who are kind enough to 
ilop back to aflifl hounds, fhould have notice giveni 
them v;hen the hounds leave the cover. 

Mofc huntfmen, I believe, are jealous of the 
\vhipper-in; they frequently look on him as a 
fucceiTor, and therefore do not very readily admit 
laim into the kennel ; yet, in my opinion, it '^ 

neceffary 



2l8 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

nectlTiiry that he fliould go thither, for he ought 
to be well acquainted with the hounds, who 
ifliould know and follow him as well as the 
huntfman. 

To recapitulate what I have already £iid : if 
your whipper-in be bold and a6livc ; be a good 
and careful horfeman ; have a good ear and a 
clear voice ; if, as 1 faid, he be a very Miuiga^ 
having, at the fame time, judgment to diflinguifh 
where he can be of motl ufe ; if, joined to thefe, 
he be above the foolifh conceit of killing a fox 
without the huntfman ; but, on the contrary, 
be difpofcd to aflift him all he can, he then is a 
pcrfe6l wliipper-in. 

I am forry to hear that your hounds aife lb un- 
ileady; it is fcarcely poffible to have fport 
with unilcady hounds ; they are half tired before 
the fox is found, and are not to be depended 
upon afterwards. It is a great pleafure when a 
hound challenges to be certain he is right : it is a 
cruel difappointment to hear a rate immediately 
fucceed it, and the fmacking of whips, inftead 
of halloos of encouragement. A few riotous and 
determined hounds do a deal of mifchief in a 
pack. Never, when you can avoid it, put them 
amongfl the reft ; let them be taken out by them- 
felves and well chaftifed, and if you find them 
incorrigible hang them. The common faying^, 

evil 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 21^ 

evil communications corrupt good 7}ia?iners, holds 
good with regard to hounds ; they are eafily cor- 
rupted. The leparatlng of the riotous ones froia 
thofe s^'hich are fleady anfwers many good pur- 
pofes : it not only prevents the latter from getting 
the blood which they fhould not, but it alfo pre- 
vents them from being over-aw-ed by the fmacking 
of whips, which is too* apt to obflruft drawing 
and going deep into cover. A couple of hounds, 
which I received from a neighbour laft year, were 
hurtful to my pack. They had run with a pack 
of harriers, and, as I foon found, were never af- 
terwards to be broken from hare. It was the be- 
ginning of the feafon, covers were thick, hares ia 
plenty, and we feldom killed lefs than five or lix 
in a morning. The pack at lafi: got i^o much 
blood, that they would hunt them as if they were 
deiigned to hunt nothing elfe. I parted with 
that couple of hounds, and the others, by proper 
management, are become as fteady as they were 
before. You will remind me, perhaps, that they 
were draft-hounds. It is true, they v/ere fo ; but 
they were three or four years hunters, an age 
when they might be fuppofed to have known 
better. I advife you, unlefs a knov/n good pack, 
of hounds are to be difpofed of, not to accept old 
hounds. I mention this to encourage the breed- 
ing of hounds, and as the likcliefl means of get- 
ting a handfome, good, ?iX\d Jieady pack : though 
1 give you this advice, it is true, I have accepted 
9, drafi^ 



220 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

draft-hounds myfelf, and they have been very 
good ; but they were the gift of the friend men- 
tioned by me in a former letter, to whom I have 
already acknowledged many obligations; and, 
unlets you meet with fuch a one, old hounds 
w ill not prove w^orthy your acceptance :* befides, 
they may bring vices enough along with thcrr^ 
to tpoll your whole pack. If old hounds fhould 
be nnfteady, it may not be in your power tQ 
make them ptherwife ; and I c^n aflurc; you from 
experience, th^t an unfleady old hound will give 
you more trouble than all your young ones; the 
fatter will at Icaft Hop, but an oblHnate old hound 
-^'ill frequently run mute, if he find that he can 
run no other way ; befidcs, old hqunds that are 
unacquainted with your people will not readily 
hunt for them as they ought ; and fuch as were 
fteady in their own pack may become unfleady in 
your's. I once faw an extraordinary iniiance of 
this when I kept harriers : hunting one day on the 
downs, a well-known fox-hound of a neighbour- 
ing gentleman came and joined us, and as he 
both Yi\n fafler than wc did, and fkirted more, he 
broke every fault, and killed many hares. I faw 
this hound often \n his ovyn pack afterwards, 
where he was perfedly ftcady ; and, though he 
gonflantly hunted in covers where hares were iHj 

* The Hon. Mr. Booth Grey, brother to the Earl of Stam- 
ford. The hounds here alluded to were from Lord Stamford's 
kennel. 

great 



TltOUGHTS UPON HUNTINd. 22£ 

great plenty, I never remember to have feen him 
run one Hep after them. 

A change of country alfo will fometimes oc- 
cation a difference in the fteadinefs of hounds. 
My hounds hunt frequently in Cranborn Chace, 
and are Heady from deer, yet I once knew them 
run an outlying deer, which they unexpecledly 
found in a diftant country. 

I am forry to hear fo bad an accident has hap- 
pened to your pack as that of killing fheep ; but, 
I apprehend, from your account of it, that ft 
proceeded from idlenefs rather than vice. The 
manner in which the llieep were kiUed may give 
you fome inlight into it ; old practitioners gene- 
rally feizing by the neck, and leldom, if ever, 
behind. This, like other vices, fometimes runs 
in the blood ; in an old hound it is, I believe, 
incorrigible ; the bcft way, therefore, will be to 
hang all thofe which, after two or three whip- 
pings, cannot be cured of it. In fome countries 
hounds are more inclined to kill llieep than they 
are in others. Hounds may be fteady in coun- 
tries where the covers are fenced, and fh^ep are 
only to be feen in flocks. eiiht*r in larg- fields, or 
on open downs ; and the fame hound? may be 
unfteady in forefts and heathy countries where 
the Iheep are not lefs wild than the deer. How- 
ever hounds, lliould they fiir but a ftcp after 
3 iheuD 



222 THOLTGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

them, fiiould undergo the feverell difciplmc ; if 
young hounds do it from idlenefs, t/iat, and plenty 
of workj may reclaim them ; for old bounds, 
guilty of this vice, I know, as I faid before, of 
but one fure remedy — ;t/ie halter. 

Though I fo f^rongly recommend to you \xy 
make your hounds Iteady, from having feen un- 
f^cady packs, yet I mu/l alfo add, that I have 
frequently fecn the men even more unfteady than 
the hounds. It is fhocking to hear hounds hal- 
looed one minute and rated the next : nothing 
offends a good fportfman fo much, or is in itfelf 
fo hurtful. I M'ill give you an inflance of the 
danger of it; — my beagles were remarkably 
ftcady ; they hunted hare in Cranborn Chace, 
where deer are in great plenty, and would draw 
for hours without taking the leafl notice of them. 
When tired of hare-hunting, I was inclined to 
try if I could find any diverfion in hunting of 
fallow deer. I had been told, that it would be 
impolTible to do it with thofe hounds that had 
been made fteady from them ; and, io put it to 
the trial, I took them into a cover of my own, 
which has many ridings cut in it, and wdiere are 
many deer. The firfl deer we faw we hallooed, 
and by great encouragement, and confiant hal- 
looing, there were but few of thefe fieady hounds 
but would run the fcent. They hunted deer con- 
fiantly from that day^ and never lofl one after- 

v/ards. 



THOinSHTS UPON HUNTING. 22'^ 

wards. Dogs are fenlible animals ; they fooa 
find out what is required of them, wlieu we do 
not confufe them by our own heedlelsnefs : when 
we encourage them to hunt a fcent which they 
have been rated tVom, and, perhaps, feverely 
chaftifed for hunting, they muft needs think us 
cruel, capriciojjs, and inconlillent.* 

If you know any pack that is very unfteady, 
depend upon it, either no care has been taken in 
entering the young hounds to make them fteady; 
or elfe the men, afterwards, by hallooing them 
on improperly, and to a wrong fcent, have forced 
them to become fo. 

The iirft day of the feafon I advife you to take 
out your pack where you have leaft riot, and 
where you are mofl fure to find ; for, notwith- 
ftanding their lleadinefs at the end of the lafl 
feafon, long reft may have made them otherwife. 

* Though all hounds ought to be made obedient, none re- 
quire it fo much as fox-hounds, for without it they will be 
totally uncontroulable ; yet, not all the chaftifement that cruelty 
can inflitft will render them obedient, unlefs they be made to 
underftand what is required of them; when tl'at is efFe(5led, 
many hounds will not need chaftifement, if you do not fufFer 
them to be corrupted by bad example. Few packs are more 
obedient than my own, yet none, I believe, are chaftifed lefs ; 
for, as thofe hounds that are guilty of an offence, aje ?iever 
fardoned^ fo thofe that are innocent, being by ttiis means lefs 
Kable to be corrupted, are never ^unified. 

If 



214 T»OUGHtS UPON Hiri^riMG, 

li' you have any hounds more vicious than the 
refl, they fliould be left at home a day or two, 
till the others arc well in blood : your people, 
without doubt, will be particularly cautious at 
the beginning of the feaibn what hounds they 
halloo to : fhould they be encouraged on a wrong 
Icent it will be a great hurt to thera. 

The firft day that you hunt in the forell; be 
equally cautious what hounds you take out. All 
Ihould be fteady from deer ; you afterwards may 
put others to them, a few at a time. I have feeri 
a pack draw fteadily enough ; and yet, when 
running hard, fall on a weak deer, and reil as 
contented as if they had killed their fox. Thefe 
hounds were not chaftifed, though caught in the 
fadl, but were fuffered to draw on for a freHi 
fox ; I had rather they had undergone feverc dif- 
cipline. The finding of another fox with them, 
afterwards might then have been of fervice; 
otherwife, in my opinion, it could only ferve tc^ 
encourage them in the vice, and make them worfc 
and worfe. 

I muH: mention an initance of extraordinary 
iagacity in a fox-beagle, which once belonged to 
the Duke of Cumberland. I entered him at hare, 
to which he was immediately fo fleady, that he 
would run nothing elfe. When a fox was found 
by the beagles, which fometimes happened, he 

would 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^2j; 

would inftantly come to the heels of the huntf- 
man's horfe : fome years afterwards I hunted fox 
only, and though I parted with moll of the otherS;, 
I kept Um: he went out conftantly with the pack, 
and as hares were fcarce in the country I then 
hunted, he did no hurt ; the moment a fox was 
found, he came to the horfe's heels. This continued 
fome time, till catching view of a fox that was 
Unking, he ran in with the refl, and was well 
blooded. He, from that time to the day of his 
death, was not only as Iteady a hound to fox as 
ever I knew, but became alfo our very bell finder. 
I bred fome buck-hounds from him, and they 
are remarkable for never changing from a hunted 
deer. 

Your huntfman's weekly return is a very cu- 
rious one; he is particularly happy in the fpelling. 
The following letter, which is in the fame ftyle, 
may make you laugh, and is, perhaps, no un^ 
fuitable return for your's. 



a SIR 



ri'iC THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

SIR 

HONOURED* -r * — 



I have been out with tlie hounds this day to ayer 
the frofl is very bad the hounds are all pure well 
at prefent and horfes Ihephard has had a misfortin 
with his marc fhe hung harfelf with the holtar 
and throd har felf and hroak har neck and frac 
tard fkul fo we was forsd to nock har In the head 

from your ever dutiful Humbel Sarvant. 

**** ****** 

Wedncfday evening. 

* The lines emitted were not upon the fubjeifl of hunting. 



LET- 



♦thoughts upon hunting. 227 



LETTER XIX. 



FINDING, by your lail: ktter, that an early 
hour does not fuit you, I will mention fome 
particulars which may be of ufe to you when you 
hunt late : an early hour is only necefTary whiere 
covers are large, and foxes fcarce ; where they 
are in plenty, you may hunt at any hour you 
pleafe. When foxes are weak, by hunting late 
you have better chaces ; when they are ftrong, 
give me leave to tell you, you muft hunt early, or 
you will not always kill them. I think, however, 
when you go out late, you fhould go immediately 
to the place where you are moll likely to find ; 
which, generally fpeaking, is the cover that 
hounds have been leaft in. If the cover be large, 
)Tou fhould draw only fuch parts of it as a fox is 
likely to kennel in ; it is ufelefs to draw any other 
at a late hour. Befides, though it be always 
right to find as foon as you can, yet it can never 
be fo necelTary as when the day is far advanced : 
if you do not find foon, a long and tirefome day 
is generally the confcquence. Where the cover 
■ is thick, you fhould draw it as exadly as if you 
were trying for a hare : particularly if it be furzy : 
for, when there is no drag, a fox. at a late hour, 
Q a v.-ill 



228 THOtJGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

will lie till the hounds come clofe upon him. — 
Having drawn one cover, let your huntitnan ilay 
for his hounds, and take them along with him to 
another : I have known hounds find a fox after 
the huntfman had left the cover. The whippers- 
in are not to be fparing of their whips, or voices 
on this occafion, and are to come through the 
middle of the cover, to be certain that they leave 
no hounds behind. 

A huntfman will complain of hounds for flay- 
ing behind in cover. — It is a great fault, and 
makes the hound addicted to it of but little value ; 
yet this fault frequently is occafioned by the 
liuntfman*s own mifmanagement. Having drawn 
one cover, he hurries away to another, and leaves 
the whipper-in to bring on the hounds after him ; 
but the whipper-in is feldom lefs dclirous of get- 
ting forward than the huntfman ; and, unlcfs they 
come ofFeafily, it is not often that he will give 
himfelf much concern about them. Hounds alfo 
that are left too long at their walks, will acquire 
this trick from hunting" by themfelves, and are 
not eafily broken of it. — Having faid all tliat I can 
at prefent recolle^i of the duty of a whipper-in, 
1 fhall now proceed to give you a further account 
of that of a huntfman. What has already been 
faid on the fubje6t of drcrjj'ing and cqfi'mg, related 
to the fox-chace defcribed in a former letter.— 
Much, without doubt, is ftill left to fay ; and I 
3 will 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 12g 

will endeavour, as well as I am able, to fupply 
the deficiency, by conlidering, firft, in what man- 
jier he fhould draw ; and afterwards, how he 
fhould cafl his hounds. 

The fixing a day or two beforehand upon the 
cover in which you intend to hunt, is a great 
hindrance to fport in fox-hunting. You that 
have the whole country to yourfelf, and can hunt 
on either fide of your houfe, as you pleafe, fhould 
never, (when you can help it) determine on your 
place of hunting, till you fee what the weather is 
likely to be.* The moil probable means to have 
good chaces, is to choofe your country according 
to the wind. 

It will alfo require fome confideration to place 
hounds to the greatefl advantage where foxes 
jeither are in great plenty, or very fcarce. 

Hounds that lie idle, are always out of wind, 
and are ealily fatigued. The firfl day you go 
put after a long frofl, you cannot expert much 
fport ; take therefore, conliderably more than the 
ufual number of hounds, and throw them into 
the largcfl cover that you have ; if any foxes be 

* When the fcent lies badly, fmall covers, or thofe in which 
a fox cannot move unfeen, are moft favourable to hounds. In 
fuch covers, good fportfmen will kill foxes in almofl a,ny wea? 

Q3 '^n 



230 THOUGHTS UPOK HUNTING. 

in the country, it is there you will find them* 
After once or twice going out in this manner, 
you Ihould reduce your number.* 

Before a huntfman goes into the kennel to draft 
his hounds, let him determine within himfelf the 
number of hounds it will be right to take out ; as 
likewife the number of young hounds that he can 
T-enture in the country where he is going to hunt. 
Different countries may require different hounds : 
fome may require more hounds than others : it 
is not an eafy matter to draft hounds properly ; 
nor can any expedition be made in it, without 
fome method.-f- 

Ifel- 

* During a frofl, hounds may be exercifed on downs, or the 
turnpike roads ; nor will it do any matei-ial injury to their feet. 
Prevented from hunting, they Ihould be fed fparingly ; and fuch 
as can do v^ithout flefli, fhould have none given them. A 
courfe of vegetables, fulphur, and thin meat is the likeliell means 
to keep them healthy. 

f No hound ought to De left at home, unlefs there be a rea- 
fon for it; it is therefore that I fay great nicety is required to 
draft hounds poperly. Many huntfmen, I believe, think it of 
no great confequence which they take out, and which they 
leave, provided they have the number requifite. A perfeft 
knowledge in feeding and drafting hounds, are the two moft ef- 
fential parts of fox-hunting : good hounds will require but lit- 
tle affiftance afterwards. By feedings I mean the bringing the 
hound into the field, in his higheft vigour. By drafting, I par- 
ticularly mean the taking out no unfleady hound, nor any that 

are 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, fejl 

I reldom fufFer many unflcady hounds to be 
taken out together ; and when I do, I take care 
that none fliall go out with them, but fuch as they 
cannot fpoil. 

When the place of meeting, and time are fixed, 
every huntfman ought to be as exadl to them as 
it is poffible. On no account is he to be lefore 
the time ; 3'et, on fome occalions, it might be 
better, perhaps, for the diverlion, were he per- 
mitted to be after it* The courfe your huntf- 
man intends to take in drawing, ought alfo to be 
well underflood before he leaves the kennel. 

If your huntfman, without inconveniency, can 
begin drawing at the fartheft cover down the 
wind, and fo draw from cover to cover up the 

are not likely to be of fervice to the pack : — when you intend 
to hunt two days following, it is then that the greateft nicety will 
be requifite to make the moft of a fniall pack. Placing hounds 
to the greateft advantage, as mentioned in page 428, may alfa 
be confidered as a neceflary part of fox-hunting 

Hounds that are intended to hunt the next day, and are drafted 
off into the hunting kennel as foon as they are fed, Ihould be let 
out again into the outer court in the evening; my hounds have- 
generally fome thin meat given them at this time, while the feeder 
cleans out thair kennel, (vide note page 44.) I have already 
faid that cleaulinefs is not lefs effential than food. 

* When there is a white froft for inftance, at the going off 
Qf which, the fcent never lies, 

Q 4 wind 



^32; THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

wind till you find^ let him do it : it will have 
many advantages attending it : he will draw the 
fame covers in half the time ; your people can- 
not fail of being in their proper places ; you will 
have lefs difticulty in getting your hounds off; 
and as the fox will moft probably run the covers, 
that liave been already drawn, you are leafl likely 
to change. 

If you have a firing of fmall covers, and plenty 
of foxes in them, fome caution may be neceflary 
to prevent your hounds from difturbing them all 
in one day. Never hunt your fmall covers till 
you have well rattled the large ones firft ; for 
until the foxes be thinned and difperfed, where 
they were in plenty, it muft be bad policy to 
drive others there to incrcafe the number. — If 
you would thin your foxes, you muft throw off 
at the fame cover as long as you can find a fox. 
If you come off with the fox that breaks, you do 
not difturb the cover, and may expc61 to find 
there again the next day; but where they are 
fcarce, you fliould never draw the fame cover 
two days following. 

Judicious huntfmen will obferve where foxes like 
befl to lie. In chaces and forefls, where you have 
a great tradl of cover to draw, fuch obfervation 
is neceflary, or you will lofe much time in finding*. 
Generally ipeaking, I think they are fondefl 

of 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2^^ 

of fuch as lie high, and are dry and thick at bot- 
tom ; fuch alfo as lie out of the wind ; and fuch 
as are on the funny tide of hills.* The fame 
cover where you iind one fox, when it has re- 
mained quiet any time, will probably produce 
another. 

It is to little pnrpofe to draw hazle coppices at 
the time when nuts are gathered ; furze covers, 
or two or three years coppices, are then the only 
quiet places that a fox can kennel in : t/iey alfo 
are dillurbed when pheafant-fhooting begins, and 
older covers are more likely. The fealbn when 
foxes are moft wild and ftrong is about Chrift- 
mas; a huntfman, then, muft lofe no time in 
drawing ; he muft draw up the wind ; imlefs the 
cover be very large, in vv^hich cafe it may be bet- 
ter perhaps to crofs it ; giving the hounds a fide 
wind, left he fhould be obliged to turn down the 
wind at laft : — in either cafe let him draw as 
quietly as he can. 

Young coppices, at this time of the year, are 
quite bare ; the moft likely places are four or five 
years coppices, and fuch as are furzy at bottom. 



* This muft of courfe vary in different countries, a huntf- 
man who has been ufed to a country knows beft where to find 
his game. 



W 



234 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

It is ealy to perceivCj by the account you give 
of your hounds, that they do not draw well ; 
your huntfrnan, therefore, mull be particularly 
attentive to them after a wet night. The befl 
drawing hounds are fhy of fearching a cover 
when it is wet ; your's, if care be not taken, will 
not so into it at all : vour huntfraan fhould ride 
into the likelicfl part of the cover, and as it iis 
probable there will be no drag, the clofcr he 
draws the better : he mufl not draw too much an 
end, but fhould crofs the cover backwards and 
forwards, taking care at the fame time to give 
ills hounds as much the wind as poffible.* 

It is not often that you will fee a pack perfe6lly 
itcady, where there is much riot, and yet draw 
well : fome hounds will not exert themfelves, till 
others challenge, and are cncouraged.-j~ 

I fear the many harriers that you have in your 
neighbourhood will be hurtful to your Iport . by 
conflantly diflurbing the covers, they will make 

* Hounds that are hunted conftantly at an early hour, 
feldiom I think draw well ; they depend too much upon a drag, 
and it is not in the ftrongeft part of the cover that they are ac- 
Cttftomed to try for it. 

■f This relates to making hounds fteady only, which always 
caufes confalion, and interrupts drawing. When once a pack- 
are become fteady, they will be more likely to draw well, than if 
liw^ were not, 

2, the 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 235 

the foxes Ihy, and when the covers become thin, 
there will be but little chance of finding foxes in 
them : furze covers are then tlie moft likely 
places. Though I like not to fee a huntfman to a 
pack of fox-hounds ever off his horfe, yet, at a 
late hour, he Ihould draw a furze cover as ilosvly 
as he were himfelf on foot. I am well convinced 
that huntfmen, by drawing in too great a hurry, 
leave foxes fometimes behind them. I once faw 
a remarkable inftance of it with my own hounds: 
we had drawn (as we thought) a cover^ which in 
the whole, confifled of about ten acres ; yet, 
whilft the huntfman was blowing his horn, to get 
his hounds off, one young fox was hallooed, and 
another was feen immediately after: it was a 
cover on the fide of a hill, and the foxes had ken- 
nelled clofe together at an extremity of it, where 
no hound had been. Some huntfmen draw too 
c[uick, fome too flow ; — the time of day, the be- 
haviour of his hounds, and the covers they are 
<lrawing, will uiredl an obferving huntfman in the 
pace which he ought to go. When you try a 
furze brake, let me give you one caution ; — never 
halloo a fox till you fee that he is quite clear of it. 
When a fox is found in fuch places, hounds are 
fure to go off well with him ; and it mufl be 
ov/ing cither to bad fcent, bad hounds, bad 
management, or bad luck, if they fail to kill him 
afterwards. 



It 



236 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

It is ufual in moft packs to rate, as foon as a young 
hound challenges. Though young hounds are often 
wrong, yet fince it is not impoffible that they may 
be fometimes right, is it not as well to have a 
little patience, in order to fee whether any of the 
old ones will join, before any thing is faid to 
them ? Have a care ! is fully fufficient, till you 
are nfiore certain that the hound is on a wrong 
fcent. I mention this as a hint only — I am my- 
felf no enemy to a 7-ate — I cannot think that a fox 
was ever loll, or pack fpoilcd by it : it is improper 
encourazement that I am afraid of moil. 

o ■ ■ ■ 

When a fox flinks from his kennel, gets a 
great way before the hounds, and you are oblige^ 
to hunt after him with a bad fcent ; if it be a 
country where foxes are in plenty, and you know 
where to find another, you had better do it.* 

While hounds arc drawing for a fox, let your 
people place themfelves in fuch a manner that he 
cannot go off unfeen. I have known them lie in 
fheep's fcrapes on the hde of hills, and in fmall 
bufhes, where huntfmen never think of looking 
for them ; yet, vihcn they hear a hound, they 
generally fliift their quarters, and make for clofer 

* Yet if this were pracftifed often, it might make the hounds 
indifferent when xipon a cold fcent. Hounds fliould be made to 
believe they arc to kill that game which they are firfl encourage4 
to puriue. 

covers. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 237 

covers. — Gentlemen jfhould lake this neceflary 
part of fox-hunting on themfelves, for the whip- 
per-in has other buHnefs to attend on.* 

I approve not of long drags In large covers ; 
they give too great an advantage to the fox, they 
give him a hint to make the befl of his way, and 
he frequently will fet off a long while before you. 
This may be prevented by throwing your hounds 
into that part of the cover, in which he is mofl 
likely to kennel : for want of this precaution, a 
fox fometimes gets fo far the flart of hounds, that 
they are not able to do any thing with him after- 
wards. Alfo, when hounds iirll touch on a drag, 
fome huntfmen are fo carelefs, that whilfl they 
are going on with it the wrong way themfelves, a 
Ungle hound the fox, and is not caught any more 
by the pack, till he has loft him again. 



Foxes are faid to go down the wind to their 
kennel ; but, I believe, they do not always obferve 
that rule. 



Huntfmen, whilft their hounds, are drawing, or 
are at a fault, frequently make fo nmch noife them- 
felves, that they can hear nothing elfc : they 

* Upon thefe occafions, when you fee two gentlemen to- 
gether^ you may reafonably conclude that one of lUem, at leaft, 
knows nothing of the matter. 

ihould 



23S THOITGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

fliould always have an ear to a halloo. I once 
faw an extraordinary inflance of the want of it 
in my own huntlman, who was making fo much 
noife with his hounds which were then at fault, 
that a man hallooed a long while before he heard 
him ; and when he did hear him, fo little did he 
know whence the halloo came, that he rode two 
miles the wrong way, and loft the fox. 

When hounds approach a cover which it i^ 
intended they fhould draw, and dafh away to- 
wards it, whippers-in ride after them to flop them. 
It is too late, and they had better let them alone ; 
it checks them in their drawing, and is of no kind 
of uie ; it will be foon enough to begin to rate 
when they have found, and hunt improper game : 
when a huntfman has his hounds under good 
command, and is attentive to them, they will not 
break off till he choofe that they fhould. When he 
goes by the fide of a cover which he does not in- 
tend to draw, his ^^ hippers-in muft be in their 
proper places ; for if he fhould ride up to a cover 
with them unawcd, uncontrouled ; a coVer where 
they have been ufed to find, they raufc be flack 
indeed, if they do not dafh into it. It is for that 
reafon better, not to come into a cover always the 
fame way ; hounds, by not knowing what is go- 
ing forward will be lefs likely to break off, and 
will draw more quietly. I have feen hounds fo 
fiafiiy, that they v/ould break away from the 

huntfman 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 239 

huntfman as foon as they favv a cover ; and I have 
leen the fame hounds Hop when the}^ got to the 
cover lidcj and not go into it. It is want of proper 
difcipline which occations faults Uke thefe. Hounds 
that are under fuch command as never to leave 
their huntfman till he encourage them to do it, 
will be then fo confident, that they will not re- 
turn to him again. 

Were fox-hounds to flop, like flop-hounds, at 
the fmack of a whip, they would not do their 
bulinefs the worfe for it, and it would give you 
many advantages very eflential to your fport ; — 
fuch, as when they have to wait under a cover 
lidc ; when they run riot ; when they change 
fcents ; when a Angle hound is on before ; and 
w^hen a fox is headed back into a cover. Hounds 
that are not under good command fubje6l you to 
many inconveniencies ; and you may, at times, 
be obliged to go out of your way, or be made ta 
draw a cover againfl your will. A famous pack 
of hounds in my neighbourhood, I mean the late 

Lord C n*s, had no fault but what had its rife 

from bad management ; nor is it poffible to do 
any thing with a pack of fox-hounds unlefs they 
be obedient : they fhould both love and fear the 
huntfman ; they fhould fear him much, yet they 
fhould love him more. Without doubt hounds 
would do more for the huntfman if they loved 
him better. Dogs that are conflantly with their 

m afters 



^4"^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

mailers acquire a wonderful deal of penetratlort, 
and much may be done through the medium of 
their affections. I attribute the extraordinary fa- 
gacity of the buck-hound to the manner in which 
he is treated ; he is the conftant companion of his 
inflrudlor and benefadlor; the man whom he was 
iirfl taught to fear, and has lince learned to 
love : ought we to wonder that he Ihould be obe- 
dient to him ? Yet, who can view without fur- 
prile the hounds and the deer amufing themfelves 
familiarly together upon the fame lawn ; living, 
as it were, in the moft friendly intercourie ; and 
know that a word from the keeper will difTolve 
the amity. The obedient dog, gentle when un- 
provoked, flics to the well-known fummons; how 
changed from what he was ! roufed from his 
peaceful Hate, and cheered by his maflcr's voice, 
he is now cheered on with a relentlefs fury that 
only death can fatisfy — the death of the 'Very deer 
he is encouraged to purfue ; and which the va- 
rious fcents that crofs him in his way cannot 
tempt him to forfake. The bulinefs of the day 
over, fee him follow, carelefs and contented, 
his maker's fteps to repofe upon the fame lawn, 
where the frightened deer again return, and are 
again indebted to h'ls courtefy for their wonted 
paflure. Wonderful proofs of obedience, fagacity, 
and penetration ! The many learned dogs and 
learned horfes that fo frequently appear, and 
afloniih the vulgar, fufficiently evince what edu- 
cation 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 24I 

cation is capable of; and it is to education I mufl: 
chiefly attribute the fliperior excellence of the 
buck-hound, lince I have feen high-bred fox- 
hounds do the fame under the fame good maf- 
ters. But to return to my fubje6l. 

Young foxes, that have been much difturbed, 
will lie at ground. I once found feven or eight 
in a cover, where the next day I could not find 
one; nor were they to be found elfewherc : the 
earths, at fuch time, fbould be flopped three or 
four hours before day, or you vv^ill find no foxes. 

The firft day you hunt a cover that is full of 
foxes, and you want blood, let them not be 
checked back into the cover, which is the ufual 
pradlice at fuch times, but let fome of them get 
off: if you do not, what with continual changing, 
and fometimes running the heel, it is probable 
that you will not kill any. Another precaution, 
I think, may be alfo neceffary ; that is, to flop 
fuch earths only as you cannot dig. If fome foxes 
fhould go to ground it will be as well ; and if 
you fhould be in want of blood at lafl, you will 
then know where to £fet it. 



to" 



It is ufual, when people are not certain of the 
fteadinefs of their hounds from deer, to find a 
fox in an adjacent cover, that they may be on 
their right fcent when they come where deer arc. 

R I have 



242 THOUGHTS UTON IIUNTlJJG. 

I have my doubts of the propriety of this pro- 
ceeding : if hounds have not been well awed 
from deer, it is not fit that they at any rate fhould 
come among them ; but if hounds be tolerably 
lleady, I had rather find a fox with them amongft 
deer, than bring them afterwards into covers 
where deer are. By drawing amongil them, they 
in fome degree will be awed from the fcent, and 
poffibly may fliek to the fox when he is found ; 
but fhould unlleady hounds, when high on their 
mettle, run into a cover where deer are in plenty, 
there is no doubt, that the firil: check they come 
to they v\^ill all tall off. I always have found 
hounds moft inclined to riot when moft upon 
their mettle ; fuch as are given to fiieep will then 
kill fheep ; and fuch as are not quite licady from 
deer v/ill then be moll; likely to break off after 
them. When hounds are encouraged on a iccnt, 
if they lofe tliat fcent, it is then an unfteady 
hound is ready for any kind of mifchief. 

I have already fald, that a huntfrnan ought 
never to flog a hound. Wiien a riotous hound, 
confcious of his offence, may efeape from tlie 
whipper-in, and fly to the huntfrnan, you v/ill 
fee him put his whole pack into confufion by en- 
deavourintr to chaflife him himfelf. This is the 
height of abfurdity ! Inflead of flogging the hound 
he ought to encourage him, who fhould always 
have fome place to fly to for protc(flion. If the 

offciic 



rHOirGHTS UPON HUNTING* S43 

offence be a bad one, let him get off his horfc 
and couple up the dog, leaving him to be chaf- 
tifed by the whipper-in, after he himfelf is gone 
on with the pack : the punilliment over, let 
him again encourage the hound to come to him. 
Hounds that arc riotous in cover, and W'ill not 
come off readily to the huntfman's halloo, fhould 
be flogged in the cover rather than out of it ; — • 
treated in this manner, you will not find any dif- 
ficulty in getting your hounds off; otherwife, they 
will foon find that the cover will lave them; from 
whence they will have more fenfc, w^hen they 
have committed an offence, than to come to re- 
ceive punifhment. A favourite hound, that has 
acquired a habit of ftaying back in large covers, 
had better not be taken into them. 

I have been more particular than I otherwife 
fhould have been, upon a fuppohtion that your 
hounds draw ill ; hovv^ever, you need not obferve 
all the cautions I have given, unlefs your hounds 
require them. 

Some art may be neceffary to make the moil of 
the country that you hunt. I would advife you not 
to draw the covers near your houfe, while you can 
find elfewhere; it wnll make them certain places to 
find in when you go out late, or may otherwife be 
in want of them. For the fame reafon, 1 would 
advife you not to hunt thofe covers late in the fea-- 
R 2 fon ; 



2,44 THOUGHTS UI'ON HUNTINO, 

ion ; they fliould not be mucli difturbed aftef 
Chrlllmas : foxes will then refort to them, will 
breed there, and you can preierve them with little 
trouble. This relates to the good management 
of a pack of hounds, which is a bulinefs dillin6t 
from hunting them. 

Thou2:h a huntfman cudit to be as filent as 
poffiblc at going into a cover, he cannot be too 
noify at coming out of it again ; and if at any 
time he Ihould turn back fuddenly, let him give 
as much notice of it as he can to his hounds, or 
he will leave many beliind him ; and ihould he 
turn down the wind, he may ice no more of 
ihem. 

I fhotild be forry that the filence of my huntf- 
man fliould proceed from either of the following 
caufes. — A huntfman that I once knew, (who, by 
the bye, I believe, is at this time a drummer in a 
marching regiment) went out one morning lb very 
drunk, that he got off his horfc in the midii of a 
thick cover, laid himfelf down, and went to fleep: 
— he was loft, nobody knew what was l)ecome of 
]iim, and he was at laft found in the iitnation I 
have juft defcribed. He had, however, great good 
lutk on his lide, for at the very inftant he was 
found a fox v,as hallooed; upon which he mounted 
Iiis horfc, rode defpcrately, killed his fox hand- 
fomely^ and was forgiven, 

I re- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 245 

I remember another huntfman lilcnt from a 
different caufe; this was a falky one. Things 
did not go on to pleafe him; he therefore alighted 
from his horfe in the middle of a wood, and, as 
quietly as he could, collc61ed his hounds about 
liim ; he then took an opportunity, when tlie 
coaft was clear, to fet of^' filcntly, and by him- 
Iclf, for another cover : however his mafler, who 
knew his tricks, lent others after him to bring 
him back ; they found him running a fox mcfl 
merrily, and, to his great aftonifhment, they 
ftopped the hounds, and made him go back along 
with them. This fellow had often been ieveroly 
beaten, but \yas ftubborn and fulky to the iaft. 

To give you an idea before I quit tiiis fubjecl, 
how little (bme people know of fox-hunting, I 
mutl: tell you, tliat not long ago a gentleman 
afked me if I did not fend people out ihe day he^ 
fore to find where the foxes lay. 

What relates to the calling of hpunds fliall be 
tlie fubjedt of my next letter. 



K 3 LET- 



124^ YHOWGHTS UPON HUNTING^ 



LETTER XX. 

TN my fevenieenth letter I gave the opinion of 
my friend**** — " that a pack of fox-hounds, 
^' if left entirely to themfelves, -would never lofe a 
" fox^ I am always forry when I differ from that 
gentleman in any thing ; yet I am fo far from 
thinking they never would lofc a fox, that I doubt 
much if they would ever kill one. There are times 
when hounds fhould be helped, and at all times 
they mull be kept forward ; hounds v/ill naturally 
tie on a cold fcent when flopped by fheep or other 
impediments ; and when they are no longer able 
to get forward, will oftentimes hunt the old fcent 
back again, if tliey find that they can hunt no 
other. It is the judicious encouraging of hounds 
to hunt Vvhen they cannot run, and the prevent- 
ing them from lofmg time by hunting too much 
when they might run, that diftinguifhes a good 
fportfman from a bad one.* Hounds that have 
been well tauHit will call forward to a hedjce of 
their own accord ; but you may afliire yourfelf, 
this excellence is never acquired by fuch as are 

* In hunting a pack of hounds a proper medium fhould be 
obfcrved; for though too much help vvill make them flack, too 
li:tk will make them tie on the fcent and hunt back the heel. 

Mi 



TPIOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 247 

left entirely to themfelves. To fufler a pack of 
fox-hounds to hunt through a flock of llicep, 
when it is eafy to make a regular caft round 
them, is, in my judgment, very unneceflary — it 
is wilfully loling time to no purpofc. 1 have in- 
deed been told, that hounds at no time fhould be 
taken oft' their nofes : I fhall only fay, in anfwer 
to this, that a fox-hound who will not bear lift- 
ing is not worth the keeping ; and I will venture 
to fay, it fhould be made part of his education. 

Though I like to fee fox-hounds call wide and 
forward, and diflike to fee them pick a cold fcent 
through flocks of flieep to no purpofe, yet I mull 
beg leave to obferve, that I diflike flill more to 
fee that unaccountable hurry which huntfmen 
will fometimes put themfelves into the moment 
their hounds are at fault : time ought always to 
be allowed them to make their own caft ; and if 
a huntfman be judicious, he will take that op- 
portunity to conflder what part he himfelf has 
next to a(?t ; but, inflead of this, I have feen 
hounds hurried away the very inflant they came 
to a fault, a wide caft made, and the hounds at 
la ft brou,^-ht back again to the very place from 
whence they were fo abruptly taken ; and wherc, 
if the huntfman could have had a minute s pa- 
tience, they would have hit off the fcent them- 
felves. It is always great impertinence in a huntf- 
man to pretend to make/;/^ caft before the hounds 

R 4 ^ii^vQ 



24^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

have made their s. Prudence fhould dlre6l him 
to encourage, and I may fay, humour his hounds 
in the caft they fcem inchned to make; and either 
to ftand ftill, or trot round with them, as cir- 
cumitances may require. 

I have feen huntfmen make their cafl on bad 
ground when they might as ealily have made it 
on good : I have i^tw tliem fufFer their hounds 
to try in the midft of a flock of fheep, when 
there was a hedge near, where they might have 
been fure to take the fcent ; and I have feen a cafl 
made with every hound at their horfc's heels. 
When a hound tries for the fcent his nofe is to 
the ground ; when a huntfman makes a caft his 
eye fhould l^e on his hounds ; and when he fees 
them fpread wide, and try as they ought, his caft 
may then be quick. 

When hounds are at fault, and the huntfman hal- 
loos them off the line of the fcent, the whippers-iu 
fmacking their whips and rating them after him, 
if he fhould trot away with them, may they not 
think that the bulinefs of the day is over ?— • 
Hounds never, in my opinion, (unlefs in parti- 
cular cafes, or when you go to a halloo) fhould 
be taken entirely off their nofes ; but when lifted, 
fhould be conftantly made to try as they go. Some 
huntfmen have a dull, ftupid way of fpeaking to 
their hounds ; at thefe times little fliould be faid, 

and 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 249 

gnd that lliould have both meaning and expreflioa 
in it. 

When your huntfman makes a caft, I hope he 
makes it perfe6l one way before he tries another, 
g,s mueh time is loft in going backwards and for- 
wards. You will lee huntfrnen, when a forward 
cail does not fuececd, come flowly back again — 
they fhould return as fail as they can. 

When hounds are in fault, and it is probable 
that the fox has headed back, your caft forward 
fhould be fhort and quick, for the fcent is then 
likely to be behind you; too obfiinate a perle- 
verance forward has been the lofs of many foxes. 
In heathy countries_, if there be many roads, foxes 
will always run them in dry weather; when 
hounds, therefore, over-run the fcent, if your 
huntiman return to the firft crofs road, he, pro- 
bably, will hit oiF the fcent again. 

In large covers where there are fcveral roads ; 
in bad fcenting days when thefe roads are dry ; 
or, after a thaw, when they carry ; it is neceiTary 
that your huntfman fhould be near to his hounds, 
to help them and hold them forward. Foxes will 
run the roads at thefe times, and hounds cannot 
always own the fcent. When they are at fault on 
a dry road, let not your hmitfrnan turn back too 
foon, let him not ftop till lie can be certain that 

the 



^^O THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

the fox 15 not gone on ; the hounds fhould try 
on both Udes the road at once : if he perceive 
that they try on one fide only, let him try the 
other;, on his return. 

When hounds are running in cover, If a liuntf- 
man fhonld fee a fox come into a road, and caiv. 
not fee which way he turns afterward?, let him 
i^and Hill, and fay nothing. If he ride on, he 
mufl ride over the fcent ; and if he encourage 
the hounds, they, moil probably, would run be- 
yond it. 

Wide ridings, cut through large woods, render 

them lefs exceptionable to fportfmen than they 
otherwife might be ; yet I do not think that they 
are of fcrvice to hounds : — they are taught to 
fhuffle ; and, the fox being frequently headed 
back, they are put to many faults : — the roads are 
foiled by the horfes, and the hounds often inter- 
rupted by the horfemen : — fuch ridings only are 
advantageous, as enable the fervants belonging 
to the hounds to jret to them. 



fcj" 



If a fox fhould run up the wind, when firil 
found, and afterwards turn, he wnll feldom, if 
ever turn again. This obfervation may not only 
be of ufe to your huntfman in his cafl, but may 
be of ufe to yourfelf, if you Ihould lofe the 
hounds. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. H^t 

When you arc purfliing a fox over a country, 
the fcent being bad, and the [ox a long way be- 
fore, without ever having been preifed, if his 
point Ibould be for ftrong earths that are open, 
or for large covers, where game is in plenty, it 
may be acting wil'ely to take off the hounds at the 
iirft fault; for the fox will go many miles to 
your one, and probably will run you out of all 
fcent ; and if he fhould not, you will be likely to 
change at the firft cover you come into ; — when 
a fox has been hard preffed, you have already my 
opinion, that he never fhould be given up. 

When you w ould recover a hunted fox, and 
have no longer fcent to hunt him by, a long caft 
to the firfi: cover which he feems to point for, is 
the only refource that you have left : get thither 
as faft as you can, and then let your hounds try 
as flowly and as quietly as poliible : if hunting 
after him be hopelefs, and a long caft do not fuc- 
ceed, you had better give him up — I need not 
remind you, wdien the fcent lies badly, and you 
iind it impoffible tor hounds to run, that you had 
better return home ; finee the next day may be 
more favourable. It iuvcly is a great fault In 
a huntfman to perfevere m bad v/eather, when 
hounds cannot run ; and when there is not a pro- 
bability of killing a fox.* Some there are, who, 

* Though I would not go cur on a very wincjy day, yet a bad 
fcenting {Jay is fometimes of lervice to a pack of fox-ho\]nds — 
ihey acquire patience from it, and method of hur.ting. 

after 



^52 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

after they have loft one fox for want of fcent to 
hunt him by, will find another; this makes their 
hounds flack, and fometimes vicious: it alfo 
dilturbs the covers to no purpofe. Some fportf- 
men are more lucky in their dnys than others. 
If you hunt every other day, it is poffible they 
may be all bad, and the intermediate days all 
good ; an indifferent pack, therefore, by hunting 
on good days, may kill foxqs without any merit ; 
and a good pack, notwithfiianding all their ex- 
ertions, may lofe foxes which they deferve to kill. 
Had I a tiifficiency of hounds I would hunt on 
every good day, and never on a bad one.* 

A perfecb knowledge of his country certainly 
is of great help to a huntfman : if your's, as yet, 
fliould have it not, great allowance ought to be 
made. The trotting away with hounds to make 
a long and knowing cafi:, is a privilege which a 
new huntfman cannot pretend to : an experienced 
one may fafely fay, a fox has made for fucli 
a cover, when he has known, perhaps, that nine 

* On windy days, or fuch as are not likely to afford any fccnt 
for hounds, it is better, I think, to fend them to be exercifed on 
the turnpike road ; it will do them lefs harm than hunting with 
them might do, and more good than if they were to remain 
confined in their kenr>el; for though nothing makes hounds fa 
handy, as taking them out often ; nothing inclines them fo 
much to riot, as taking them out to hunt when there is little or 
no fcent; and particularly on windy days, when they cannot 
hear one another, 

out 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 25J 

out of ten, with tlie wind in the fame quarter, 
have conflantly gone thither. 

In a country where there are large earths, a 
fox that knows the country, and tries any of them, 
feldom fails to try the reft. A huntlman may 
take advantage of tliis ; they arc certain cafts, and 
may help him to get nearer to his fox. 

Great caution is neceffary when a fox runs into 
a village : if he be hallooed there, get forward as 
fait as 3'ou can. Foxes, when tired, will lie 
down any where, and are often loft: by it. — A 
wide caft is not the beft to recover a tired fox 
with tired hounds ; — they fhould hunt him out^ 
inch by inchj though they are ever fo long about 
it ; for the reafon I have juft given ; — fJiaJ he will 
lie down any ivhere. 

In chaees and forefts, where high fences are 
made to preferve the coppices, I like to fee a 
Imntfman put only a few hounds over, enough to 
carry on the fcent, and get forward with the reft, 
it is a proof that he knows his buftnefs. 

A huntfman muft take care, where foxes are in 
plent^% left he fhould run the heel ; for it fre- 
quently happens, that hounds can run the wrong 
way of the fcent better than they can the right, 
>vhcn one is up the wind^ and the other down. 

Fox- 



254 THOUGHTS UPON JIUNTING. 

Fox-hunters, I tliiuk, arc never guilty of the 
fault of tr3ang up the wind, before they have tried 
down ; I have known tlicni lofe foxes rather than 
condefcend to try up the wind at all. 

When a huntfman hears a halloo, and has five 
or fiX couple of hounds along with him, the pack 
not runningj let him get forward with thole which 
he has ; when they are on the Icent, the others 
vvill foon join them. 

Let him lift his tail hounds, and get them for- 
ward afler the refi ; it can do no hurt ; but let him 
be cautious in hfting any hounds to get them for- 
ward before the reji ; it always is dangerous, and 
foxes are fometiraes loft by it. 

When a fox runs his foil in cover, if you fuf- 
fer all your hounds to hunt on the line of him, 
they will foil the ground, and tire themfelvcs to 
little purpofe. I have before told you, that your 
huntfman, at fuch a time, may ftop the (ail 
hounds, and throw them in at head. I am almofl 
inclined to fay, it is the only time it fhould be 
done. — ^Whilil hounds run Itrait, it cannot be of 
any ufe, for they will get on fafler with the fcent, 
than they would without it. 

When hounds are hunting a cold ic.twi, and 
point towards a cover, let a whipper-in get for- 

war4 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2^5 

ward to the oppofite lide cf it : fhould the fox 
break before the hounds reach the cover, Hop 
them, and get them nearer to him. 

When a fox perlilis In running in a ftrong 
cover, lies down often behind the hounds, and 
they are flack in hunting him, let the huntf- 
man get into the cover to them : it may make the 
fox break, it may keep him olF his foil, or may 
prevent the hounds from giving him up. 

It is not often that flow huntfmen kill many 
foxes ; they are a check upon their hounds, which 
feldom kill a fox but with a higli fcent, when it 
is out of their power to prevent it. What avails 
it to be told which way the fox is gone, when he 
is fo far before, that you cannot hunt him ? A 
Newmarket boy, with a good underfianding and 
a good voice, might be preferable, perhaps, to an 
indifferent and llack buntfman ; he would prefs 
on his hounds, while the fcent was good, and the 

foxes he killed he would kill handfomely. ■ 

A perfect knowledge of the intricacies of hunting 
is chiefly of ufe to flow huntfmen and bad 
hounds ; fmce they more often ftand in need of 
it. A6livity is the firft requifite in a huntfman to 
a pack of fox-hounds ; a want of it no judgment 
can make amends for ; while the moft difficult 
of all his tmdertakings is the diftinguifliing be- 
twixt different fcenl^, and knowing, with any* 

certaintv, 



1^6 THOITGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

certainty, the fcent of his hunted fox. Much 
ipeculation is here required ; — the length of time 
hounds remain at fault ; — -difference of ground ;' — 
change of weather ; — all thefe contribute to in- 
creaie the difficult}'' ; and require a nicety of 
judgment, and a precilion, much above the com- 
prehenfioii of moit huntfmen. 

When hounds are at fault, and cannot make 
it out of themfelves, let theiirfl caft be quick ; th(2 
fcent is then good, nor are the hounds likely to 
go over it ; as the fcent gets worfe, the caft 
fliould be flower, and be more cautioufly made. 
This is an ellential part of hunting, and which, 
I am forry to fay, few huntfmen attend to. I 
wifh they would remember the following rules, 
viz. that with a good fcent, their caft fliould be 
^iiick ; with a bad fcent, /lozu ; — and that, when 
their hounds are picking along a cold fcent, — ■ 
i/iej are not to cajl them at alh 

When hounds are at fault, and ftaring about, 
truiting entirely to their eyes, and to their cars 5 
the making a cait with them, I apprehend, would 
be to little purpofe. The iikeliefl place for them 
to find the fcent, is where they left it ; and when 
the fault is evidently in the dog, a forward caft is 
lealt likely to recover the fcent.* 

* Hounds know where they left the fcent, and if let alone 
v,'ill try to recover it. Impatience in tiie huntfman, at fuch 
times, feldom fails, in the end, to fpoil thf hounds. 

2. When 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 257 

When hounds are making a regular caft, try- 
ing for the fcent as they go, fufFer not your huntf- 
man to fay a v/ord to them ; it cannot do any 
good, and probably may make them go over 
the fcent : nor fhould you faffer either ihe voice 
or the whip of your whipper-in, to be now heard ; 
his ufual roughnefs and feverity would ill fuit 
the llillnefs and gentlenefs which are required at 
a time like this. 

When hounds come to a check, a huntfraan 
fhould obferve the tail bounds; they are leail 
likely to over-run the fcent, and he may fee by 
them how far they brought it : in moft packs 
there are fome hounds that will fliew the point 
of the fox, and if attended to, will direcSb his caft: 
when fuch hounds follow flowly and unwillingly, 
he may be certain the reft of the pack are run- 
ning; without a fcent. 

When he cafts his hounds, let him not cafl 
wide without reafon ; for of courfe it will take 
more time. Huntfmen, in general, keep too for- 
ward in their cafts ; or, as a failor would fay, 
keep too long o?i one tack. They fhould en- 
deavour to hit off the fcent by crofting the lihe 
of it, — Tivo j^aralld lines, you hiozv, can never 
meet.^ 

* By attending to this a huntfman cannot fail to make a good 
caft, for if he obferve the peine of the fox, he may always crofs 
upon the fcent of him. 

S When 



^5^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

When he goes to a halloo, let him be carsfiu 
left his hounds run the heel, as much time is loft 
by it. I once faw this miftake made by a fa^ 
moub huntfman : — after we had left a cover, 
which we had been drawing, a difturbed fox was 
feen to go into it ; he was hallooed, and we re- 
turned. The huntfman, who never inquired 
where the fox was feen, or on ivlnchfide the cover 
he entered, threw his hounds in at random ; and^, 
as it happened, on the oppofite ftde : they im- 
mediately took the heel of him, broke cover, and 
hunted the fcent back to his very kennek 

Different countries require different cafts: fuch 
huntfmen as have been ufed to a woodland, and 
iiiclofed country, I have feen lofe time in an open 
country, where wide caft'S arc always neccff'ary. 

When you want to caft round a flock of fheep, 
the whipper-in ought to drive them the other 
way, left they fhould keep running on before 
you. 



A fox feldom goes over or under a gate when 
he can avoid it. 



Huntfmen are frequently very conceited, and 
very obftinate. Oftentimes have I feen them, 
when their hounds came to a check, turn dire6ily 
back on feeing hounds at head which they had 

no 



Thoughts upon HUNTiNdi z^) 

ho opinion of. They fuppofed the fox was gone 
another way ; in which cafe Mr. Bayes's remark 
in the Rehearfal always occurs to me, " that, if 
^^ he Jhouldnot, what then becomes of their fuppofef* 
Better, furely, would it be, to make a fhort caft 
forward iirft; they then might be certain the hounds 
were wrong, and of courfe could make their own 
caft with greater confidence: — the advantage, 
next to that of knowing whither the fox is gone, 
is that of knowing, with certainty, whither he is 
not, 

Mofl huntfraen like to have all their hounds 
turned after them, when they make a cafl: : I 
wonder not at them for it, but I am always forry 
when I fee it done ; for, till I find a huntfman 
that is infallible, I Ihall continue to thiak the 
more my hounds fpread, the better; as long as 
they are within fight or hcu ving. it is fufficient. — 
Many a time have I feen an obftinate hound hit 
off the fcent, when an oblHnate huntiinan, by 
calling the wrong way, has done all in his power 
to prevent it. Two foxes I remember to have 
feen killed, in one day, by fkirting hounds, whiiil 
the huntfman was making his caft the contrary 
way. 

When hounds, running In cover, come into a 
road, and horfes are on before, let the huntfman 
hold them quickly on beyond where the horfes 

S a have 



l6o THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

liave been, trying the loppoUte fide as he goes 
along : fhould the horlemen have been long 
enough there to have headed back the fox, let 
them then try back. Condemn mc not for fuffering 
hounds to try hack when the fox has been headed 
hack ; I recommend it at no other time. 

When your hounds divide into many parts, 
you had better go off with the fiY& fox that 
breaks. The ground will foon get tainted, nor 
will hounds like a cover where they are often 
chaiiging. 

If a cover be very large, and you have many 
fcents, be not in a hurry to get your hounds to- 
gether; — if your pack be numerous, let them run 
feparate, only taking care that none get away en- 
tirely from the rell ; by this means many foxes 
will be equalf-y diftrcfi, the hounds will get to- 
gether at laft, and one fox, at the leall, you may 
cxpeft to kill. 

The heading a fox back at firt^, if the cover be 
not a large one, is oftentimes of fervice to hounds, 
as' he will not fiop, and cannot go off unfeen. — - 
When a fox has been hard run, I have known 
it turn out otherwife ; and hounds, that would 
ealily have killed him out of the cover, have left 
him in it. 



If 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 26l 

If it be not your intciillon that a fox iiiould 
break, you fhould prevent him, I think, as much 
as you can from comin-j at all oat of the cover: 
for though you fhould head him back afterwards, 
it moft probably would put the hounds to a fault : 
when a pack of i'ox- hounds once leave a cover 
after their game, they do not readily return to it 
again. 

When a ioi^ has been often headed back on 
.one tide of a cover, and a huntiVnan knows there 
is not any body on the other fide to halloo him, 
'the firll fault his hounds come to, let him cafl 
that way, left the fox fliould be gone oiF; and 
if he be ftill in the cover, he may flill recover 
him. 

Suffer not your hunffman to take out a lame 
hound. If any bt; tender-footed, he will tell you, 
perhaps, that they will not mind it when th^)' are 
out ; — probably they may not ; but how will they 
Jdc on the next day ? A hound, not in condition 
to run, cannot be of much fervice to the pack ; 
and the taking him out at that time may occa- 
iion him a long confinement afterwards: — put 
it not to the trial. Should any fall lame while 
they are out, leave them at the iirll houfc thati 
you come to. 



S3 I hav^ 



^ 



2^6:2 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

r have feen huntfmen hunt their young hounds 
in couples. "Let me beg of you not to fuffer it. I 
know you would be forry to fee your hounds 
hanging acrofs a hedge, grinning at each other, 
perhaps in the very agonies of death : yet it is an 
accident that often has happened ; and it is an 
accident fo likely to happen, that I am furprifed 
any man of common fenfe will run the rilk of it. 
If ncceffary, I had much rather they fhould be 
held in couples at the cover hde^ till the fox be 
found. 

The two principal things which a huntfman 
has to attend to, are the keeping of his hounds 
healthy and Jleady. The firft is attained by clcan- 
linefs and proper food ; the latter, by putnng, 
as feldom as polTible, any unfteady ones amongil 
them. 

At the beginning of the feafon let him be at- 
tentive to get his hounds well in blood. As the 
icafon advances, and foxes become flout, atten- 
tion then fliould be had to keep them as vigorous 
as poihble. — It is a great fault when hounds are 
fuffered to become too high in flelh at the begin- 
ning of the feafon, or too low afterwards. 

When a fox is lofi, the huntfman on his return 
)iome fhould examine into his ow« condii3, and en- 
deavour to find in what he migrht have done bet- 

ten 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 263 

ter ; he may by this means make the very lofs of 
a fox of ufe to him. 



Old tyeing hounds, and a hare-hunter turned 
fox-hunter, are both as oontrary to the true fpirit 
of fox-hunting, as any thing can poffibly be. — 
One is continually bringing the pack back again ; 
the other as conflantly does his befl to prevent 
tiiem from getting forward. The natural preju- 
dices of malikind are ilich, that a man feldora 
alters his Ityle of hunting, let him purfue what 
game he may ; betides, it may be conilitutional, 
as he is himfelf flow or a6tive, dull or lively, pa^ 
tient or impatient ; it is for that reafon I objedt 
to a hare-hunter for a pack of fox-hounds ; for 
the lame ideas of hunting will moil probably flick 
by him as long as he lives. 

Your huntfman is an old man ; fhould he 
have been working hard all his life on wrong 
principles, he may be now incorrigible. 

Sometimes you will meet with a good kennel 
huntfman, fometiraes an a6live and judicious one 
in the field ; Ibme are clever at finding a fox, 
others are better after he is found; whilft per- 
fedlion in a huntfman, like perfection in anything 
elfe, is fcarccly ever to be met with : there are 
not only good, bad, and indifferent huntfmen, 
but there are perhaps a few others, who being as 

S 4 it 



264 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

It were of a different fpecies, fhould be clafled 
apart; — I mean, iuch as have real genius. It is 
this peculiar excellence, which I told you in a 
former letter, I would rather wifh my firft whip- 
per-in to be poflelTed of than my huntfman ; and 
one reafon among others, is, tliat he, I think, 
would have more opportunities of exercifmg it. 

The keepin<r hounds clean and healthy, and 
bringing them into the field in their fuUeft vigour, 
is the excellence of a good kennel huntfman :* if, 
belides this, he makes his hounds both love and 
fear him ; if lie be adVive, and prefs them on, 
vvhilft the feent is good, always aiming to keep 
as n^ar to (hi fox as he can ; if, when his hounds 
are at fault, he make his caft with judgment, not 
cafting the wrong way firil:, and only blunder- 
ing upon the right at lafi as many do ; if, added 

* To make the mod of a pack of hounds, and bring 
them into the field in their fuUeft vigour, is an excellence that 
huntimenare very deficient in. — To obtain a knowledge of the 
different conftitutions of fo many animals, requires more difcern- 
ment than moft huntfmen are endowed with. — To apply that 
knowledge, by making feparate drafts when they feed them, 
would alfo take up more time than they choofe to beftow ; hence 
it is, that they generally are fed all together : — they may be well 
fed, but I much doubt if they are ever made the mofi: of — fuch 
as require to b" fed a little at a time, and often mufl, I believe, 
be contented with a little only. — Few huntfmen feem fond of their 
hounds; — one reafon of it, perhaps, may be, that they are paid 
for looking after them. 

^ to 



THOUGHTS UrON HUNTING.. 20^ 

to tijis, he l)G patient and perfevcring, never 
giving up a fox, whilll there remains a chance of 
killing liiin, he then is a perfect huntfman. 

Did I not know your love of this diverlion, 
I fhould thinks by this time, that I muft have 
tired you completely. You are not particular, 
however, in your partiality to it ; for to flievv you 
the efFetit which fox-hunting has on thofe who 
are really fond of it, I mufl tell you what hap- 
pened to me not long ago. -My hounds, ia 

running a fox, croffed the great weltern road, 
where I met a gentleman travelling on horfeback, 
his fervant, with a portmanteau, following him. 
He no iboner favv the hounds than he rode up to 
me, witii the greateft eagernefs, '' Sir,'' faid he, 
"- are you after a fox f*' — When I told him, we 
were, he immediately ftuck fpurs to his liorfe, 
took a monflrous leap, and never quitted us any 
more, till the fox was killed. — I fuppofe, had I 
faid, we were after a hare, my gentleman would 
have purfued his journey. 



LET- 



^66 THOUGHTS F?ON HUNTrNG, 



LETTER XXL 

"X T'OUR bnntfman, you fay, has hunted a pack 
Jk- of harriers. It might have been better, per- 
haps, liad he never feen one, lincc fox-hunting 
and hare-hunting differ alraoll in every particu- 
Lir ; io much, that I think it might not be an 
improper nefrative definition of fox-hunting to 
fay it is of ^// hunting, that which refembles hare- 
honting the leaft. A good huntfman to a pack 
of harriers feldom fucceeds in fox-hunting ; like 
old hounds they dvv'ell upon the Iccnt, and can- 
not get forward ; nor do they ever make a bold 
caft, lb much are they afraid of leaving the fcent 
behind them. Hence it is that thev poke about and 
try the fame place ten times over rather than they 
will leave it ; and when they do, are totally at a 
lois which way to go, for want of knowing the 
nature of the animal they are in purfuit of As 
hare-hounds fhould fcarccly ever be cafe, hallooed, 
or taken off their nofes, hare-hunters arc too apt 
t') hunt their fox-hounds in the fame manner ; 
but it will not do, nor could it plcafc you if it v/ould. 
Take away, the fpirit of fox-hunting, and it is no 
longer fox-hunting; it is ftale fmall beer compared 
lobriil^ichamDain. Yo-u would alfo find in it more 

fatigue 



THOITGHTS UPON HUNTING. li6^ 

fatigue than pleafure. It is faid, there is a fha^ 
Jiere in being mad which only madmen know ; and it 
is the enthufiafm, I believe^ of fox-hunting which 
is its befl fupporl ; ilrip it of that, and you had 
better leave it quite alone. 

The hounds themfelves alfo differ in their man- 
ner of hunting : the'^beagle, who has always his 
nofe to the ground, will puzzle an hour on one 
fpot fooner than he will leave the fcent ; while 
the fox-hound, full of life and fpirit, is always 
dafhing and trying forward. A high-bred fox- 
hound, therefore, fhews himfelf to inoft advan- 
tage when foxes are at their Urongefl and run an 
end. A pack of harriers will kill a cub better, 
perhaps, than a pack of fox-hounds; but when 
foxes are ftrong, they have not the method of get- 
ting on with the fcent which fox-hounds have, 
and generally tire themfelves before the fox. To 
kill foxes when they are lirong, hounds muft run 
as well as hunt ; befides, catching a fox by hard 
running is always preferred in the opinion of a 
fox'hunter. Much depends, in my opinion, on 
•the fl:34e in which it is done ; and I think, with- 
out being fophiftical, a diftin61:ion might be made 
betwixt huntino; a fox and fox-huntinof. Two 
hackneys become not racers by running round a 
courfe, nor does the mere hunting of a fox change 
the nature of the harrier. I have alfo feen a hare 
hunted by high-bred fox-iiounds ; yet, I confefs 

to 



.268 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

to you, it gave me not the Icart idea of what 
Jiare-bunting ought to be. Certain ideas are ne-^ 
ceffarily annexed to certain words ; this is the ufe 
pf language; and when a tbx-hound is mentioned, 
I Ihould expect not only a particular kind of 
bound;, as to njake, lize, and llrength, by which 
the fox-hound is cafy to be diftinguiilied : but I 
ihould alfo expecl by fox-hunting, a lively, ani- 
mated, and eager purfuit, as the very eflence of 
it.* Eagernefs and impetuoiity are fuch eflential 
parts of this divcrlion, that I am never more lur- 
prifed than when 1 fee a ibx-hunt. r witl-iout them. 
One hold hard^ or reproof imnecejfanly given, 
would chill me more than a north-eafl wind ; it 
v/ould damp my fpirits and fend me home. The 
cnthuiiafm of a fox-hunter fhoukl not be checked 
in its career, for it is the very life and foul of 
foxhunting. If it be the eagernefs with which 
vou purfue your game that makes the chief plea- 
sure of the chace, fox-hunting furely fhould af- 
ford the greateft degree of it, fince you purfue 
no animal with tiie lanie eagernefs that you pur- 
fue a fox. 

* The fix foUowiiig lines may have a dangerous tendency. 
Only, a good fportfman can know when a reproof is given im- 
necejfarily^ and only a bad one ^^'ill be defcn'ing of reproof. 
This pafTage, therefore, fliould be compared with pages 149, 
187, 189, 204, where the meaning of the author is very clearly 
expreili>d. 

Knov/ipg 



THOtTGHTS UPON KuNTING. 26g 

Knowing your ]:artlaUty to hounds that run in 
a good ftyle, 1 advife you to obferve flriclly your 
own when a fox is linking in a lirong cover ; that 
is the time to fee the true fpirit of a fox-hound. 
If they fpread not the cover, but run tamely on 
the line of one another^ I fhall fear it is a fort 
that will not pleale you long. A fox-hound that 
has not fpirit and ambition to gel forward at a 
time like this, is at no other likely to do much 
good. 

You talked in your lail letter of pretty hounds ; 
certainly I fhould not pretend to criticife others, 
who am fo incorred: myfelf; yet, with 3'our leave, 
I think I can fet you right in that particular.— 
Pretty is an epithet improperly applied to a fox- 
hound : we call a fox-hound handfome when he 
is Ih'ong, bony, of a proper lize, and of exact 
fymmetry ; and iilnefs is made eiiential to beauty. 
A beagle may be pretty, but, according to my 
idea of the word, a fox-hound cannot : but as it 
is not to be fuppofed that you will keep a pack 
of fox-hounds for the pleafure of looking at them, 
without doubt you will think goodnefs more ne- 
ceflary than beauty. Should you be ambitious to 
have a handfome pack of hounds^ on no account 
ought you to enter an ugly dog, left you be 
tempted to keep him afterwards. 

I once 



270 THOUGHTS •u¥dN HUNTING- 

I once heard an old Iportfman fay, that he 
thought a fox, to Ihevv fport, fhould run four 
hours at leafl ; and, I fuppofe, he did not care 
how flow his hounds went after him. This idea, 
however, is not conceived in the true fpirit of fox- 
hunting, which is not to walk down a fox, or 
ilarve him to death, but to keep clofe at him, and 
kill him as loon as you can. I am convinced a 
fox-hound may hunt too much ; if tender-nofed, 
and not over-hurried, he will alway-s^hunt enough; 
whihl the higheft-bred hounds may be made to 
tye upon the fcent by improper management.* 

It is youth and good fpirits which beft fuit with 
fox-hunting ; flacknefs in the men occafions 
ilacknefs in the hounds ; and one may fee by the 
manner in which hounds hunt what kind of men 
they have been accuftomed to. The fpeedicll 
hounds ma}'', by degrees, be rendered flow ; and 
it is impoflible for the befl. to do their buflnefs as 
they ought unlcfs followed with life and ijDirit. 
Men who are flack themfelves will be always 
afraid of hurrying their hounds too much ; 
and by carrying this humour too far, will commit 
a fault which has nothing to excufe it. The befl: 
method to hunt a fox, they fay, is never upon 

* It more frequently is owing, either to want of patience, 
or want of mettle, than to waui of nofe, that a hound does not 
hunt well. 

an/ 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 269 

any account to caft the hounds ; but, on the con- 
trary, to let them tye upon the Icent as long as 
they will, and that they will hit it off at laft. I 
agree with them partly; — it certainly mufl be the 
beft method to hunt a fox, for by this means you 
may hunt him from morning till night ; and, if you 
have the luck to find him, may hunt him again 
the next day — the likeliell method, however, to 
kill him, is to take every advantage of him tliat 
you can. 

All hounds go fatl enough with a good fcent ; 
but it is the particular excellence of a fox-hound, 
when rightly managed, to get on fafter with an 
indifferent fcent than any other hound :* it is the 
bufinefs of a huntfman to encourage this ; ami 
here, moji prohahly, the hare-hunter will fall. He 
has been ufed to take his time ; he has enjoyed a 
cold fcent like a Ibuthern hound ; and has fitteu 
patiently upon his horfe to fee his hounds hunt. 
It is, to be fare, very pretty to fee ; and v/hen 
you confider that the hare is all the time, per- 
haps, within a few yards of you, and may leap 
up the next minute, you are perfe(9:ly contented 
with what you are about ; but it is not fo in fox- 
hunting : every minute that you lofe is precious, 
and increafes your difficulties ; and while you 

* It is a quick method of hunting that I moflly value in 
any hound ; I'uch as are polTefled of it are feldom long oif the 
fcent ; it is the reverfe of flacknels, 

I arc 



2'-2 ItiOUGUTS UPON HUNTING. 

are ftanding ftill the fox is rtinning miles. It is 3 
fatisfaclioii to a hare-hunter to be told where his 
game was feen, though a long wliile before ; but 
it is melancholy news to a fox-hunter, whole 
game is not hkely to Hop. I believe I mentioned 
to you, in a former letter on hare hunting, a 
great fault which I had obfervcd in fomc harriers 
from beins let too much alone — that of riinuin^ 
l^ack the heel. — I have feen a pack of high-bred 
fox-hounds do the fame, for the fame rcafons. 

When hounds flag from frequent changes, and 
a long day, it is neceflliry for a huntfman to ani- 
mate them as much as he can ; he mufl keep 
them forward and prefs them on, for it is not 
likely, in this cafe, that they fliould over-run the 
fccnt ; at thefe times the whole work is generally 
done by a few hounds, and he fhould keep clofe 
to them : here I alfo fear thai the hare-hunter will 
fail :* if they come to a long fault it is over, and 
you had better then go home. 

The 

* It is at a time like this that good fportfmen may be of great 
fervice to hounds; it is the onty time that they want encourage- 
ment, and it is (I am forry to fay) ahnoft the only time that they 
do not receive it. Thofe who ride too forward in the morn- 
ing will in the evening, perhaps, be too far behind, and thereby 
lofe an opportunity that is offered them of making fome amends 
for the mifchiefs they have already done. When hounds flag 
from frequent changes, and the huntfman's horfe finks under 
the fatigue of a tirefome day, then it is that fportfinen may 

ainii 



t-KOtJGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2^^ 

The many chances that are againfl you in fox- 
liunthig ; the changing frequently ; the heading 
of the foxes ; their being courfed by fheep-dogs ; 
long faults; cold hunting i and the dying away 
of the fcent ; make it neceffary to keep always as 
near to the fox as you can ; which fhould be the 
lirft and invariable principle of fox-hunting. 
Long days do great hurt to a pack of fox-hounds. 
I fat out one day lall winter from the kennel at 
half pafl leven, .and returned home a quarter be- 
fore eight at night, the hounds running hard the 
greateil part of the time. The huntfman killed 
one horfe, and tired another, and the hounds did 
not recover for more than a week : we took 
them off at laft when they were running with a 
better fcent than they had had the whole day.* — I 
alfo remember, after it was dark, to have heard 
a better view halloo from an owl, than I ever 
heard from a fportfman in my life, though I hope 
that I fhall never hear fuch another. A long 

afiift them ; fuch as know the hounds fhould then ride up to 
them ; they fliould endeavour, by great encouragement, to keep 
them ru7inhig^ and get thofe forward that may be behind ; for 
•when hounds that are tired once come to hmtlng, they tie upon 
the fcent, and by lofing time lofe every chance they had of 
killing the fox-^great encouragement, and proper and timely 
affiflance only can prevent it. 

* Hounds, after every hard day, lliould have two clear days 
to reft ; it does them lefs hurt to hunt two days following when 
their wort is eafy, than to hunt before they may be perfeftly 
recovered after having been hard run. 

T day. 



2^74 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 



day, nevertheleis, once or tvAce in a fcaibn, is of 
ufe to a huntfman ; it flu 
Houtnefs of his hounds. 



ufe to a huntfman ; it fliews the real jjoodnefs ancJ 



When long days happen to hounds that are 
low in fiefh, nothing will get them up again fa 
efFe6lually as reft; it is for this reafon hounds that 
are kept conftantly hunted ought always to be, as 
fportfmen call it, ahoi-e their ivoj-k. If your 
hounds, either from accident or inattention, Ihould 
ever be in the low condition here alluded to, be 
not impatient to get them out of it ; fhould you 
feed them high w'lihflejli, the' mange, moft pro- 
bably, would be the immediate eonfequencc of 
it : it is reft and wholelbme meat that will re- 
cover them beft. It will lurprife you to fee how 
fpon a dog becomes cither fat or lean ; a little pa- 
tience, therefore, and fome attention, will always 
enable you to get your hounds into proper con- 
dition ; and I am certi^in, that you can receive 
no pleafure in hunting with them, if they be 
not. 

I forgot. In my letter upon the feeding of 
hounds, to obferve that fuch hounds as have the 
mange actually upon them, or only a tendency 
towards it, fhould be fed feparately from the reft. 
They Ihould have no fiefli ; their meat fliould be 
mixed up rather thin than tliick; and they fhould 

hava 



tttOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 275 

have vegetables in great plenty.* I muft alfo add, 
that if my hounds return from hunting earlier 
than they were expeded, I now order them to 
be Ihut up in the lodging room till their meat be 
made ready for them. Hounds never refl contented 
till they have been fed ; nor will they remahi 
upon their benches unlefs they be confined ; yet, 
without doubt, lying upon the pavement, or even 
ilanding out in the cold, after violent exercife, 
mull be prejudicial to them. 

I am glad to hear that your huntfman knows 
the country which he is to hunt ; nothing in 
fox-hunting is more effential than that ; and it 
may make amends for many faults. Foxes are not 
capricious, they know very well what they are 
about ; are quick, I believe, at determining, and 
refolute in perfevering : they generally have a. 
point to go to, and, though headed and turned di- 
re6tly from it, feldom fail to make it good at lafl ; 
this, therefore, is a great help to an obferving 
huntfman. 

Suffer not your huntfinan io encourage his 
hounds too much on a bad fcenting day, particu- 
larly in covers where there is much riot. Hark,Hark, 
Hark, which injudicious huntfmcn are fo fond of 

* Sulphur made into a ball with butter, or hog's lard, and 
given two or three mornings following, may alfo be neceflary. 

T a upon 



276 TllOiJClirS UPON HUKTIHG, 

upon every occaiion, muft often do mifchiof, an<3 
cannot do good; whilit hounds are near togetheiv 
Ihey will get fooner to the hound that challenges 
without that noife than with it : if it be a right 
fcent, they will be ready enough to join; and it it 
be a wrong one^ provided they be let alone, they 
will foon leave it. Injudicious encouragement, 
on a bad day, might make them run fomcthing 
©r other, right or ^^■rcng. 

I know of no fault fo bad in a hound as that 
of running falfe ; it fhould never be forgiven : 
fuch as are not flout, or are ftifF nofcd, or have 
other faults, may at times do good, and at their 
word may do no harm ; but fuch as run falfe 
mofl: probably will fpoil your fport. A hound 
capable of fpoiling one day's fport is fcarcely 
worth your keeping. Indifferent ones, fuch as 
I have above defcribed, may be kept till you have 
better to fupply their places. 

A huntfman fhould know how to marfhal every 
hound in his pack, giving to each his proper rank 
and precedence ; for, without this knowledge, it 
is not poffible he fhould make a large draft as he 
ought. There are, in moil packs, fome hounds 
that aflifl but little in killing the fox, and it is 
the judicious drafting off of fuch hounds that is 
a certain fign of a good huntfman. 



My 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 277 

My huntfraan is very exadl ; he carries always 
a lift of his hounds in his pocket, and when in a 
diftant country', he looks it over to fee if any of 
them be miffing. He has alfo a book, in which 
he keeps a regular account where every fox is 
found, and where he is killed. 

Your huntftnan, you fay, knows perfe6rly the 
country he has to hunt ; let him then acquire as 
perfect a knowledge of his hounds : good fenfe 
and obfervation will do the reft, at leaft will do 
as much as you feem to require of him ; for I am 
glad to find that you had rather depend upon the 
goodnefs of your hounds for fport than the genius 
of your huntfman. It is, I believe, a much furer 
dependance. 



Ta LET 



2,78 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING^ 



LETTER XXir. 



ARE not 5^our expectations fomewhat too fan- 
guine, when you think that you fliall have 
no occalion for bag-foxes to keep your hounds in 
blood the firil feafon ? It may be as well, per- 
haps, not to turn them all out till you can be 
more certain that your young pack will keep good 
and fieady without them. When blood is much 
wanted, and they arc tired with a hard day, one 
of thefe foxes will put them into fpirits, and 
give them, as it were, new llrength and vigour. 

You dcfire to know what I call hei?ig out of 
hloodP In anfwer to which, I mufl tell you, 
that, in my judgment, no fox-hound can fail of 
killing more than three or four times following, 
without being vilibly the worfe for it. When 
hounds arc out of blood, there is a kind of evil 
genius attending all they do; and though they 
may fcem to hunt as well as ever, they do not 
get forward; whilil a pack of fox-hounds, well 
in blood, like troops flufhed with conquefl, are 
not eafily withftood. What we call ill luck, day 
after day, when hounds kill no foxes, may fre- 
quently, I think, be traced to another caufe, 

2 namely. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 279 

namely, ihe'ir heivg out of hlood-y nor can there 
be any other realbn affigncd why hounds, which 
we know to be good, lliould remain fo long as 
they fometimes do without killing a fox.* Large 
packs are leall lubje^t to this inconvenience : 
hounds that are quite frefli, and in high fpirits, 
leaft feel the want of blood. The fmallefl packs 
therefore fliould be able to leave at Icaft ten or 
twelve couple of hounds behind them, to be 
frefh againft the next hunting day. If your 
hounds be much out of blood, give them reft: 
take this opportunity to hunt with other hounds, 
to fee how they are managed, to obferve what 
flallion hounds they have, and to judge yourfelf, 
whether they be fach as it is fit for you to breed 
from. If what I have now recommended fhould 
not fucceed, if a little reft and a fine morning do 
not put your hounds into blood again, I know of 
nothing; elfe that will ; and you muft attribute 
your ill fuccefs, I fear, to another caufe. 

You fay, you generally hunt at a late hour : 
after a tolerably good run, try not to find another 
fox. Should you be long in finding, and fliould 
you not have fuccefs afterwards, it will hurt 
your hounds: fhould you try a long time, and 

* A pack of hounds that had been a month without killing a 
fox, at lafl ran one to ground, which they dug, and killed upon 
the earth: the next feveu days they hunted they killed a io^ each 
day. 

T 4 not 



a80 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

not find, that alfo will make them flack. Never 
try to find a fox after one o'clock ; you had bet- 
ter return home, and hunt again on the next 
day. Not that I, in general, approve of hunt^ 
ing two days following with the fame hounds: 
the trying fo many hours in vain, and the being 
kept fo long off their food, both contribute to 
make them flack, and nothing furely is more con-» 
trary to the true fpirit of fox-hiuiling; for foX' 
hounds, I have already faid, ought always to be 
above their work. This is another particular, \x\ 
■which hare-hunting and fox-hunting totally dif- 
fer; for harriers cannot be hunted too mucl), as 
long as they are able to hunt at all. The flower 
they go, the lefs likely they will be to over-run 
the fcent, and the fooner, in all probability, will 
they kill their game. I have a friend, who 
hunted his five days following, and afTured me, 
that he had better fport with them the laft day 
than the firfl. 

I remember to have heard that a certain pack 
of fox-hounds, fince become famous, were many 
weeks, from a mixture of indifferent hounds, bad 
management, and worfe luck, without killing a 
fox. However, they killed one at lafl, and 
tried to find another. They found him — and 
they lofl him— and we^ then, as you may well 
fuppofe, a month without killing another fox. 

This 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2%l 

This was ill judged; they lliould have returned 
liome immediately. 

When hounds are much out of blood, feme 
men proceed in a method that muft neceffarily 
keep them To : they hunt them every day ; as if 
tiring them out were a means to give them 
ilrength and fpirit : this, however, proceeds more 
from ill- nature and refentment than found judg- 
ment.* As I know your temper to be the re- 
verfe, virithout doubt you will adopt a different 
method ; and, fhould your hounds ever be in the 
ftate here dcfcribed, you will keep them frefli 
for the iirft fine day; when, fappofing them to 
be all perfedly fleady, I do not queflion that they 
will kill their fox. 

When hounds are in want of blood, give them 
every advantage: go out early; choofe a good 
quiet morning; and throw off your hounds where 
they are likely to find, and are leaft likely to 
change: if it be a fmall cover, or furze-brake, 
and you can keep the fox in, it is right to do it ; 
for the fooner that you kill him, when you are m 
want of blood, the better for the hounds. 

* It is not the want of blood only that is prejudicial to hounds, 
the trying long in vain to recover a lofl fcent no lefs contributes 
tp make them flack. 

When 



dQZ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING,' 

When hounds arc in want of blood, and yoif 
get a fox into a fmall cover, it mull be your own 
fault, if you do not kill him there : place your 
people properly, and he cannot get off again. 
You will hear, perhaps, that it is impoffible to 
head back a fox. No animal is fo fhy, confc- 
quently, no animal is fo eafily headed back by 
ihofe who underftand it. When it is your inten- 
tion to check a fox, your people mud keep at a 
little dirtance from the cover lide, nor fhould 
they be fparing of their voices ; for, lince you 
cannot keep him in, if he be determined to come 
out, prevent him, if you can, from being fo in- 
clined. All kind of mobbing is allowable, when 
hounds arc out of blood ;* and you may keep 
the fox in cover, or let him out, as you think 
the hounds will manage him heft, 

Thoufih I am fo great an advocate for blood as 
to judge it ncceffary to a pack of fox-hounds, 
yet I by no means approve of it, fo far as it is 
Ibmetimes carried. I have known three young 
foxes chopped in a furze-brake in one day, with- 
out any fport ; a wanton deftru6iion of foxes 
fcarcely anfvvering the purpofe of blood, iince 
that blood does hounds mofl good which is moft 
dearly earned. Such fportfmen richly deferve 

♦ Yet how many foxes owe their lives to the too great eager* 
nefs of tlieir purfuers. 

blank 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 283 

blank, days; and, without doubt, they often meet 
with them. Mobbing a fox, indeed, is only al- 
lowable when hounds are not hkely to be a 
match for him without it. One would almoil 
be indined to think blood as neceiFary to the men 
as to the hounds, iince the bell chacc is flat, un- 
lefs you kill the fox. When you alk a fox-hunteu 
what fport he has had, and he replies, it was 
good^ I think the next quefiion generally is, Did 
your hounds kill? If he fhould lay they did 7iot, 
the converfation ends ; but if, on the contrary, 
he tell you that they did, you then aik a hundred 
queftions, and feldom are fatisfied, till he has re- 
lated every particular of the chace. 

When there is fnow on the ground, foxes will 
lie at earth.* Should your hounds be in want of 
blood, it will at that time be eafy to dig one to 
turn out before them, when the weather breaks; 
but I feera to have forgotten a new do6\rlne 
which I lately heard, that blood is not neceflary 
to a pack of fox-hounds. If yoii alfo Ihould 
have taken up that opinion, I have only to wifli, 
that the goodnefs of your hounds may prevent 



* Earths Ihould be watched when there is fiiow upon the 
ground, for foxes then will lie at earth. Thofe who are in- 
clined to deftroy them can track them in, and may dig thera 
out. 

you 



284 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

you from changing it, or from knowing how faj? 
it may be erroneous.* 

Before you have been long a fox-hunter, I ex- 
pe6l to hear you talk of the ill luck which fo fre- 
quently attends this diverfion. I can afilire you 
it has provoked me often, and has made e'^jen a 
far-Jon /wear. It was but the other day we expe- 
rienced an extraordinary inftance of it. We 
found, at the fame inflant, a brace of foxes in 
the fame cover, and they both broke at the oppo- 
lite ends of it ; the hounds foon got together, and 
went off very well with one of them ; yet, not- 
with landing this, fuch was our ill luck, that, 
though the hunted fox took a circle of feveral 
miles, he, at latt, croffed the line of the other 
fox, the heel of which we hunted back to the 
cover from whence we came : it is true, we per- 
ceived that our fccnt worfted, and were going to 
flop the hounds ; but the going off of a white 
froft deceived us alfo in that. 

Many a fox have I known loft, by running 
into houfes and ftables. It is not long lince my 
hounds loll one, when hunting in the New Fo- 

* Thofe who can fuppofe the killing of a fox to be of no 
fervice to a pack of fox -hounds, may fuppofe, perhaps, that it 

iloes them hurt. It is going but one flep further. 

reft: 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2S5 

Itefl : after having tried the country round, they 
had given him up, and were gotten home ; when 
in rode a farmer, full gallop, with news of the 
fox : he had found him, he faid, in his flable, 
and had iTiut him in. The hounds returned; 
the fox, however, ilood but a little while, as he 
was quite run np before. 

Some years ago, my hounds running a fox 
acrofs an open country, in a thick fog, the fox 
Icarcely out of view, three of the leading hounds 
difappcared all of a fudden, and the whipper-in, 
luckily, was near enough to fee it happen. They 
fell into a dry well, near an hundred icdi deep : 
they and the fox remained there together till the 
next day ; when, wi'h the greateft difficulty, we 
got them all four out. 

Another time, having run a fox a burft of an 
hour and quarter, the fevereft I ever remember, 
the hounds, at lafr, got up to him by the fide of 
a river, where he had llaid for them. One 
hound feizcd him as he v/as fwimming acrofs, 
dnd they both went down together. The hound 
came up again, but the fox appeared no more. 
By means of a boat and a long pole we got the 
fox out. Had he not been i^^w to link, he 
would hardly have been tried for under water, 
and, without doubt, we fliould have wondered 
what had become of him. 

Now 



2S(j THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING^ 

Now we are in the chapter of accidents, 1 
mnft mention another, that lately happened to 
me on croffing a river, to draw a cover on the 
other fide of it. The river Stovver frequently 
overflows its banks, and is alfo very rapid and 
very dangerous. Tlie flood that morning, tho* 
fudden, was extenfive. The neighbouring mea- 
dows were all laid under water, and only the tops 
of the hedges appeared. There were polls to di- 
re(5l us to the bridge, but we had a great length 
of water to pals before we could get at it ; it was, 
befides, fo deep tliat our horfes almoft fwam, 
and the lliorteil: legged horfes and longeft legged 
riders were worft oft". The hounds dafhed in as 
iifual, and were immediately carried by the rapi- 
dity of the current, a long way down the flream. 
The huntfman was liir behind them; and as he 
could advance but flowly, he was conftrained to 
fee his hovmds wear themfelves out in an ufelefs 
contention with the current, from their efforts to 
get to him. It was a fhocking fcene ! many of 
the hounds, when they reached the fhore, had 
entirely lofl the ufe of their limbs, for it froze 
and the cold was intolerable. Some lay as if 
they were dead, and others reeled, as if they had 
been drinking wine. Our ill luck was not yet 
complete ; the weakefc hounds, or fuch as were 
moft afFedled by the cold, we now faw entangled 
in the tops of the hedges, and heard their lamen- 
tations. Well-known tongues! and fuch as I 

had 



TfiOtGHTS UPON HUNTING. 287 

Bad never before heard without pleafure. It was 
painful to fee their diftrefs, and not know how ia 
relieve it. A number of people, by tlils time, 
were afTembled near the river lide, but there was 
not one amongft them that would venture in. 
However, a guinea, at lafi:, tempted one man to 
fetch out a hound that was entangled in a bufl), 
and would otherwife have perifhed. Two hounds 
remained upon a hedge all night, and though at 
a conliderable ditlance from each other when 
we left them, yet they got together afterwards, 
and the next morning, w^hen the flood abated, 
they were found clofcly clafping each other r 
without doubt; it was the friendly warmth they 
afforded each other that kept both alive. We 
loll but one hound by this unlucky expedition, 
but could not favc any of our terriers. They 
were feen to fink, their flrength not being fuffi- 
cient to refifl the two enemies they had to en- 
counter, powerful, when combined — the feverity 
of the cold, and the rapidity of the ftream. 

You afk, at what time you fhould leave ofF 
hunting ? It is a queftion which I know no! 
how to anfvver, as it depends as much on the 
quantity of game that you have, as on the coun- 
try that you hunt. However, in my opinion, no 
good counti-y fhould be hunted after February ; 
nor fhould there be any hunting at all after 
March, Spring hunting is lad dedruction of 

foxes : 



USS THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 

foxes : in one week you may deltroy as many a{> 
would liave fhewn you fport for a whole feafon. 
We killed a bitch-fox one morning, with feven 
Touno; ones, which were all alive : I can afiure 
you we miffed them very much the next year, and 
had many blank days, which we needed not to 
have had, but through our own fault. I fhould 
tell you, this notable feat was performed, lite- 
rally, on the Jifji of j4pnL If you will hunt 
late in the feafon, you fhould, at leaft, leave 
your terriers behind you. I hate to kill any ani- 
mal out of feafon. A hen-pheafant, with egg, I 
have heard, is famous eating; yet I can affure 
you I never mean to tafte it ; and the hunting a 
bitch-fox, big with young, appears to me cruel 
and unnatural. A gentleman of my acquaint- 
ance, who killed moH of his foxes at this feafon, 
was humoroufly called, midwife io the foxes. 

Arc not the foxes heads, which are fo pom- 
poufly expofcd to view, often prejudicial to fport 
in fox-hunting ? How many foxes are wantonly 
deitroyed, without the leafl fervice to the hounds 
or fport to the mafter, that the huntfman may fay 
he has killed" fo many brace ! How many are 
digged out and killed, when blood is not wanted, 
for no better reafon ! — foxes that another day, 
perhaps, the earths well ftoppcd, might have run 
hours, and died gallantly at Lift. I remember 
myfelf to have fecn a pack of hounds kill three 

in 



THOUGHTS TjrON HUNTING. 289 

in one day ; and though the laft ran to ground, 
and the hounds had killed two before, therefore 
''could not be fuppofed to be in want of blood, 
the fox was digged out and killed upon the earth. 
However, it anfwercd one purpole you vvd-'KI 
little expert — it put a clerg}'man pvefent ia iL.rd 
that he had a corpfe to hmy, which otherwife had 
been forgotten. 

I fhould have lefs objedllon to the number of 
foxes heads that are to be {ccn againil every ken- 
nel door, did it afcertain v/ith more preciiion the 
goodnefs of the hounds ; which may more juiily 
be known from the few foxes they lofe than from 
the number that they LiU. When you inquire 
after a pack of fox-hounds, whether they be good 
or not, and are toid they feldoui xniis ;' fox. your 
mind is perfectly fatisfied about them, anc' \o\i 
inquire no farther : it is not always fo, when you 
are told the number of foxes they have killed. 
If you alk a Frenchman what age he is of, he 
will tell you that he is in good health. — In like 
manner, when I am alked how many brace of 
foxes my hounds have killed, I feel myfelf in- 
clined to fay the hounds are good; an anfwer 
which, in my opinion, goes more immediately to 
the fpirit of the queflion than any other that I 
could give ; lince the number of foxes heads is, 
at befl-, but a prefumptive proof of the goodnefs 
of the hounds. In a country neighbouring to 

U n?inc 



290 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINO. 

mine foxes are difficult to be killed, and not eafy 
to be found ; and the gentlemen who hunt that 
country are very well contented when they kill 
a dozen brace of foxes in a feafon. My hounds 
kill double that number ; ought it to be inferred 
from thence that they are twice as good ? 

All countries are not equally fivourable to 
hounds : I hunt in three, all as different as it is 
poffible to be ; and the fame hounds that behave 
well in one, fomctimes appear to behave indif- 
ferently in another. Were the molt famous pack, 
therefore, to change their good country for the 
bad one I here allude to, though, without doubt, 
they would behave well, they certainly would 
meet with lefs fucccfs than they are at pre fen t ufed 
to : our cold flinty hills would foon convince 
them, that the difference of ftrength betweien 
one fox and another — the difference of goodnefs 
betwixt one hound and another — are yet but 
trifie?^, when compared with the more material 
difference of a good fccntlng country and a bad 
one.* 

I can 

* Great Inequality of {cent is very unfavourable to h-ounds. 
In heathy coiniirifs the fcent always lies, yet I have remarked 
that the many roads that crofs them, and the many inclofures 
of poor land that rurround them, render hunting in fuch coun-' 
tries at times very difficult to houndc ; the fudden change from 
a good fccnt to a bad one pu/.zlei tlicir uofes and cianfufes their 

^nder« 



THOUGHTS irPdN HUNTING. 2^1 

I can hardly think you ferious when you alk 
me, if the fame hounds can hunt both hare atid 
fox ; however, thus far you may aflure yourfelf, 
that it cannot be done with any degree of con- 
liftency. As to your other queftion of hunting 
the hounds yourfelf, that is an undertaking which, 
if you will follow my advice, you v/ill let alone. 
It is your opinion, I find, that a gentleman might 
make the belt huntfman ; I have no doubt that 
he would, if he chofe the trouble of it. I do 
not think there is any profeffion, trade, or occu- 
pation, to which a good education would not be 
of fervice ; and hunting, notvvithflanding it is at 
prefent exercifed by fuch as have not had an edu- 
cation, might, without doubt, be carried on 
much better by thofe that have. I will venture 
to fay, fewer faults would then be committed ; 
nor would the lame faults be committed over 
and over again as they now are. Huntfmen never 
reaibn l)y analogy, nor are they much benefited 
by experience. , 

Having told you, in a former letter, v/hat a 
huntfman ought to be, the following, which I 
can affure you is a true copy, will fnew you, in 
fome iniiances at leall, what he ought not to be. 

underflandings ; and many of them, without doubt, follow the 
fcent unwillingly, owing to the little credit that they give to 
it. In my opinion, therefore, a fcent which is lefi good, but 
more equal, is more favourable to hound-;. 

U % SIR, 



29^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 

S I R, 
YOUR's T received the 24tli of this prefent 
Injftant June and at your requelt I will give you 

an impartial account of my man John G 's 

Cha adler. He is a Shoemaker or Cordwainer 
which you pltafe to call it by trade and now in 
our Town he is following the Carding Bulinefs 
for every one that wants him he ferved his Time 
at a Town called Brigftock in Northamptonfhire 
and from thence in great Addington Journeyman 
to this Occupation as before mentioned and ufed 
to come to my houfe and found by riding my horfes 
to water that he rode a horfe pretty well which 
was not at all miftaken for he rides a horfe well 
and he looks after a kennel of hounds very well 
and find^ a hare very well he hath no judgment 
in hunting a pack of hounds now tho he rides 
well he dont with dilcrction for he dont know 
how to make the moil of a horfe but a very harey 
fi:arey fellow will ride over a church if in his way 
tho may prevent the leap by having a gap within 
ten yards of him and if you are not in the field 
with him yourfelf when you are a hunting to tu-r 
tor him about riding he will kill ail the horfe3> 
you have in the ftable in one month for he hath, 
killed downright and lamed fo that will never 
be fit for ufe no- mor^ than five horfes fmcc he 
hath hunted my hounds v/hich is two years and 
upwards he can talk no dog language to a hound 
lio hath no voice he fpeaks to a hound jufl as if 

his 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 293 

his head were in a drum nor neither does lie know 
bow to draw a hound when they are at a lofs no 
more than a child of two years old as to his ho- 
nefty I always found him honelt till about a week 
ago and have found him dlfhoneft now for about 
a week ago I fent my fervant that I have now to 
fetch fome flieep's feet from Mr. Stanjan of 

Higham Ferrers where G ufed to go for feet 

and I always fend my money by my man ihat 
brings the feet and Stanjan told my man that I 
have nov/ that I owed him money for feet and 
when the boy came home he told me and I went 
to Stanjan and when I found the truth of the mat- 
ter G- had kept my money in his hands and 

had never paid Stanjan he had been along with 
me once for a letter in order for his chara6ter to 
give him one but I told him I could not give 

him a good one fo I would not write at all G 

is a very great drunkard cant keep a penny in his 
pocket a fad notorious lyar if you fend him upon 
an errand a mile or two from Uppingham he will 
get drunk ihiy all day and never come home while 
the middle of the night or fuch time as he knowsi 
his mafter is in bed he can nor will not keep any 
fecret neither hath he fo much v/it as other people 
for the fellow is half a fool for if you would have 
buiincfs done wilh expedition if he once gets out 
of the town or fight of you fhall fee him no more 
>vhile the next morning he fervcs mc fo and fo 
you mufl exped the fame if you hn*e him I ufe 

U 3 you 



294- THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

you juft as I would be ufed myfelf if I defired a 
chara6ter of you of a lervant that I had defigned 
to hire of yours as to let you know the truth of 
every thing about him. 

' I am Sir 
Your mo ft humble fervant to command 

P.S. 

He takes good care of his horfes with good 
looking after him as to the dreffing 'em but if you 
dont take care he will fill the manger full of corn 
fp that he will cloy the horfes and ruin the whole 
liable of horfes. 

Great Addington 
June the 28th 1734. 



LET- 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 2,95 



LETTER XXIII. 



T TOLD you, I believe, at the beginning of our 
■^ correfpondence, that I dilliked bag-foxes ; I 
fhall now tell you what my objections to them 
are : — the fcent of them is different from that of 
other foxes ; it is too good, and makes hounds 
idle ; befides, in the manner in which they gene- 
rally are turned out, it makes hounds very v/ild. 
They feldom fail to know what you are going 
about before you begin ; and, if often ufcd to 
hunt bag- foxes, will become riotous enough to 
run any thing. A fox that has been confined 
long in a fmall place, and carried out afterwards 
in a fack, many miles perhaps, his own ordure 
hanging about him,mufi: needs iVmk extravagantly. 
You are alfo to add to this account, that he moll 
probably is weakened for want of his natural 
food and ufual exercife ; his fpirit broken by de- 
fpair, and his limbs ftiifened by confinement ; 
he then is turned out on open ground without 
any point to go to : he runs down the wind, it is 
true, but he is fo much at a lofs all thewliile, 
that he lofes a deal of time in not knowing v>'hat 
to do; while the hounds, who ha^^e no occaiion 
to hunt, purfue as clofely as if they were tied to 

U 4 him. 



296 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

him. I remember once to have hunted a bag-fox 
with a gentleman, who not thinkhig thefe advan- 
tages enough, poured a whole bottle of anifoed 
on the fox's back : I cannot fay that ] could 
have hunted the fox, but I affbre you I could 
very cafiiy have hunted the anijeed. Is it to be 
ex].e'^~^fcd, that the fame hounds will have patience 
to iiarit a cold fcent the next day o'er greafy fal- 
lov'. s, t'lrough flocks of fheep, or on fi^ony roads?. 
However capable they maybe of doing it, I fliould 
mu 1. aoubt their giving themfelves the trouble. 
If, notwilhiianding tliefe objc6lions, you ftill 
chute ro turn one out, turn him into a fmaU co- 
ver, give him what time you judge necefTary, and 
lay on your hounds as quietly as you can ; and, 
if it be poflible, let tlicin think tliey find him. — 
If you turn out a fox for blood, I fliould, in that 
cafe, prefer the turning him into a large cover, 
firit drawing it well to prevent a change. The 
hounds fhould then find him themfelves, and the 
iboncT he is killed the better. Fifteen or twenty 
minutes is as long as I fhould ever wifli a ba<r~ 
iKs^ti to run that is defigned for blood — the hounds 
fhoilld then go home. 

Bag-foxes always run dov^^n the wind ; fuch 
fportfmen, therefore, as chufe to turn them out, 
may at the fame time chufe what country they 
ihall run. Foxes that are found do not follow 
this rule invariably. Strong earths and large 

covers 



THOl'GHTS UPON HUNTING. tZp^ 

covers are great inducements, and it is no incoii- 
liderable wind that will keep foxes from them. 
A gentleman, who never hunts, being on a vilit 
to a friend of his in the country, who hunts a 
great deal, heard him talk frequently of hag-foxes% 
as he was unwilling to betray his ignorance, his 
difcretion and curiolity kept him for fome time 
\\\ fufpenfe; till, at laft, he could not refrain from 
afking " what kind of animal a hag-fox was ? — 
and if it was not " a Jpecies of fox j^ecuTiar to tlm$ 
country ? 

A pack of hounds having run a fox to ground 
Immediately after they had found him, he was 
digged and turned out again ; and that the ope- 
ration of turning him out might be better per- 
formed, the mafter of the hounds undertook it 
himfelf. You will hardly believe me when 1 tell 
you, that he forgot the place where he turned 
him out, and they never once hit upon the fcent. 

If you breed up cubs, you will find a fox- 
court neceflary : they fhould be kept there till 
they are large enough to take care of themfelves. 
It ought to be open at the top and walled in : I 
need not tell you that it mull be every way well 
fecured, and particularly the floor of it, which 
muft be either bricked or paved. A few boards 
fitted to the corners will alfo be of ufe to flielter 
and to hide them. Foxes ought to be kept veiy 

clean^ 



2l9^ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

clean, and have plenty of frefli water ; birds and 
rabbits are their bell food ; horfe-flcfh might 
give them the mange, for they are fubjedt to this 
difordcr. — I remember a remarkable initance of it. 
Going out to coiirfe, I met the whipper-in re- 
turning from exerciiing his horles, and alked him 
if he had found any hares ? — No, Sir, he replied, 
but I have caught a fox. — I faw him funning 
himfelf under a hedge, and finding he could not 
run, I drove him up into a corner, got off my 
horfe, and took him up, but he is fince dead. — I 
found him at the place he directed me to, and he 
wag indeed a curiofity ; he had not a fingle hair 
on his briifh, and very few on his body. 

I have kept foxes too long ; I alfo have turned 
them out too young: the fafefl; way, I believe, 
will be to avoid either extreme. When cubs are 
bred in an earth near you, if you add two or 
three to the number, it is not improbable that the 
old fox v/ill take care of them : of this you may 
l)e certain — that if they live they v;ill be good 
foxes, for the others will fhew them the country. 
Thofe which you turn into an earth fhoqld be 
regqlarly fed ; if they fhould be once neglected, 
\t is probable they will forfake the place, wander 
away, iind die for want of food. When the cub# 
leave the earth, (which they may foon do) your 
gamekeeper fhould throw food for them in parts 
of the cover where it may be moil eafy for them 

to 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 299. 

to find it ; and when he knows their haunt, he 
fhould continue to feed them there : nothhig dc- 
llroys fo much the breed of foxes as buying them 
to turn out, unlefs care be taken of them after '■ 
wards. 

Your country being extenfive, probably it may 
not be all equally good ; it may be worth your 
while, therefore, to remove fome of the cubs 
from one part of it into the other; it is what I 
frequently do myfelf, and find it anfwer.* A 
fox-court is of great ufe ; it ihould be any, or I 
cannot advife you to keep them long in it. I 
turned out one year ten brace of cubs, moft of 
which, by being kept till they were tainted before 
they were turned out, were found dead in the 
covers, with fcarcely any hair upon them ; whilft 
a brace, which had made their efcape by making 
a hole in the fack in which they were brought, 
lived and fhewed excellent foort. Should the 

* Though turned out foxes may fometimes anfwer the pur- 
pofe of entering young hounds, yet they feldom fiiew any di- 
verfion I few of thofe I have turned into my v/oods have I 
ever feen again : belides, the turning out of foxes, and alarming 
the neighbourhood, may hajien their deflru6lion. Foxes v.'iij. 
be plentiful enough where traps are not fet to deftroy them ; 
^ Ihould they do any injury to the farmer, make fatisfa6tion fof 
it ; encourage the neighbouring gamekeepers to preferve them 
by paying them handfomely for every litter of cubs that they 
take care of for you : if you a£l in this manner you may not 
have occafion to turn any out. 

cubs 



300 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

cubs be large, you msy turn ilieni out immedi-! 
ately : a large earth will be beft for that purpofe, 
where they ought to be regularly fed ^Ni'\\ rab- 
bits, birds, or fheeps henges, which ever you can, 
mofl: conveniently get. I believe, when a fox is 
once tainted, he never recovers. The weather 
being remarkably hot, thofe which I kept in my 
fox-court (and it, at that time, was a very clofe 
one) all died, one after the other, of the fame 
diibrdcr. 

Where rabbits are plentiful, nature will foon 
teach your cubs how to catch the young ones ; 
and till that period of abundance arrives it may 
be neceffary to provide food for them.* Where 
game is fcarce wet weather will be mofl: favoura- 
ble to them ; they can then live on beetles, chaf- 
fers^ worms, &c. which they will find great plenty 
of. I think the morning is the beft lime to turn 
them out; if turned out in the evening they will 
be likely to ramble, but if turned ovi early, and 
fed on the earth, there is little dou')t of their re- 
maining there.'}- I alfo recommend to you, to. 

* If a {lieep die, let it be carried to tl:e cr.rth, and it will af- 
ford the cubs food for fome time. 

f A raare certain method, perhaps, might be to pale in 
part of a copfe which has an earth in it. It might be 
well ftocked v.ith rabbits, the young ones of which the 
cubs would foon learn to catch. You might have meufcs in 
the pale, and let them out when capable <4 getting their own 
food. 

tura 



tnOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 30! 

turn them into large covei-s and firong earths ; 
out of fmall earths they are more hable to bd 
llolen, and from fmall covers are more hkely to 
llray. Your game-keeper, at this feafon of the 
year, having httle to do, may feed and take care 
of them. When you flop any of thefe earths^ 
remember to have Ihem opened again ; as^ I have 
realbn to think, I loft fome young foxes one year 
by not doing it. For your own fatisfadion, put 
a private mark on every fox which you turn out, 
that you may know him agiiin. Yoiir cubs, 
though they may get off from the covers where 
they were bred, when hunted, will feldom fail 
to return to them. 

Gentlemen who buy foxes. do great injury to fox- 
hunting : they encourage the robbing of neigh- 
bouring hunts ; in which cafe, without doubt, the 
receiver is as bad as the thief. — It is the interefl of 
every fox-hunter to be cautious how he behaves 
in this particular : indeed, I believe mofl gentle- 
men are ; and it may be eafy to retaliate on fuch 

as are not. —I am told, that in fome hunts it is 

the conftant employment of one perfon to watch 
the earths at the breeding time, to prevent the 
cubs from being llolen. Furze- covers cannot 
be too much encouraged for tluit reafoii, for there 
they are fafe. They have alfo other advantages 
attending them ; — they are certain places to find 
in ; — Foxes cannot break from them unfeen ; — 
3 nor 



302 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTINGj 

nor arc you lb liable to change as in othef' 
covers.* 

Acquainted as I am with your fentiments, it 
would be needlcfs to defire you to be cautiou?. 
how you buy foxes. The price fome men pay for 
them might well encourage tlie robbing of every 
hunt in the kingdom, their own not accepted. — 
But you defpife the ^i d'lj'cmt gentleman who re- 
ceives thicm, more than the poor thief who takes 
them. — Some gentlemen alk no queftions, and 
flatter themfclves they have found out that coa ^ 
venient //lezzo tenuino for the eafy accommoda- 
tion of their conlcienccs. 

With rclpcct to the digging of foxes you run 
to ground ; what I mylelf have obferved in that 
bniincfs, I will encle.ivour to rccoUedl:. My peo- 
ple ufually, 1 think, follow the hole, cxct])t when 
the earth is large, and the terriers have fixed the 
fox in an angle of it ; for they then And it a 
more ex^^editious method to fink a pit as near to 

* A fwv, when prefTcd by hounds, will feldom go inio a 
fur'ze-brake. Rabbits, which are the fox's favourite food, may 
alfo be encouraged tfiere, and yet do little damage. Were they 
fufFered to eflablidi themfclves in your woods, it would be dif- 
ficult to deftroy t'lem nfterwards. Thus far 1 object to them a'j 
a farmej ; I obje^: to them, alfo, as a fo.x-huuter ; fince nothing. 
Is more prejuuicirJ to the breeding of foxes, than dilUirbing your 
u'oods, late iu the feafoji, to dcftroy the rabbits. 

him 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 303 

him as they can. You Ihoald always keep a terrier 
in at the fox, for if you do not, he not only may 
move, but alfo, in loofe ground, may dig himfelf 
further in. In digging, you fliould keep room 
enough ; and care fliould be taken not to throw 
the earth where you may liave it to move again. 
In following the hole, the fureit way not to lofe 

it, is to keep below it. When your hounds 

are in want of blood, ftop all the holes, left the 
fox fhould bolt out unfeen. It caufes no fmaU 
confulion, when this happens. The hounds are 
difperfed about, and afleep in different places ; 
the horfes are often at a conliderable diftance ; 
and many a fox, by taking advantage of the mo- 
ment, has faved his life. 

If hounds want blood, and have had a long run, 
it is the beft way, without doubt, to kill the fox 
upon the earth; but if they have not run long; if it 
be eafy to dig out the fox ; and the cover be fuch a 
one as they are not likely to change in ; it is better 
for the hounds to turn him out upon the earth, and 
let them work for him. It is the blood that will do 
them moll good, and may be ferviceable to the 
hounds, to the horfes, and to yourfelf : — digging 
a fox is cold work, and may require a gallop af- 
terwards to warm you all again. Before you do 
this, if there be any other earths in the cover, they 
fhould be ftopped, left the fox fliOuld go to 
ground again. 

2 Ut 



^04 tHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^ 

Let your huntfman try all aroimd, and let bhii 
"be perfectly fatisiied that the fox is not gone on, 
before you try an earth ; for want of this precau- 
tion, I dug three hours to a tsrrijr that lay all the 
time at a rabbit : there was another circumftaiice 
which I am not likely to forget, — " that I had 
'' twenty miles to rule home afterwards^ A tox 
fometimes runs over an earth, and does not go 
into it ; he fometimes goes in and does not flay ; 
he may find it too liot, and may not like the com- 
pany that he meets with there: I make no doubt 
that he has good reafons for every thing he docs, 
though we arc not always acquainted with 
them. 

Iluntfmcn, when tliey get near the fox, will 
■fometimes put a hound in to draw him. This is 
however a cruel operation, and feldom anfwera 
any other purpofc; "than to occalion tlic dog a bad 
bite, the foxes head generally being towards him ; 
betides, a few minutes digging will render it un- 
neceffary. If you let the fox firfl feizc your 
whip, the hound will draw him more readily.* 

You fhould not encourage badgers in your 
woods; they make flrong earths, which will be ex- 

* You may draw a fox by fixing a piece of whipcord madd 
into a noofe to the end of a ftick j which, wlien the fox fcizes, 
you may draw him out by. 

penlive 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING* 5O5 

|)enfive and troublefome to you if you do flop ; or 
fatal to your Iport if you do not. You^ without 
doubt, remember an old Oxford toaft^ 

Hounds ftout, and horfes healthy, 
Earths well flopp'd, and foxes plenty. 

All certainly very defirable to a fox-hunter i yet 
I apprehend the earths Jiopped tc be the moft ne- 
cciTary, for the others, v/ithout that, would be 
ufelefs. Belides, I am not certain that earths are 
the fafeft places for foxes to breed in ; for fre- 
quently, when poachers cannot dig them, they 
will catch the young foxes in trenche?, dug at the 
mouth of the hole, which I believe they caij. tuniimg 
them. A fev,- large earths near to your houfe are 
certainly defirable, as they will draw the foxes 
thither, and, after a long day, will fometim^s 
bring you home. 

If foxes Ihould have been bred in an earth 
which you think unfafe, you had better fiink 
them out : that^ or indeed any diflurbance at the 
mouth of the hole, will make the old one carry 
them off to another place. 

In open countries, foxes, when they are much 
diflurbed, will lie at earth. If you have difnculty 
in finding, flinking the earths will fometimes pro- 
duce them again. The method which I ufe to 

X flink 



^C^ THOUGHTS trPON HUNT1N(^- 

ilink an earth is as follows: — three pounds of 
fulphur, and one pound of aflafcctida are boiled up 
together ; matches are then made of brown pa- 
per, and lighted in the holes, which arc after- 
wards flopped very clofe. — Earths, that are not 
Tifed by badgers, may be flopped early, which will 
anlwer the famepurpofe; but where badgers fre- 
iquent, it would be ulelefs, for they would open 
them again. 

Badgers may be caught alive in facks, placed 
at the mouth of the hole ; fetting traps for them 
would be. dangerous, as vou might catch your 
foxes alfo. They may be caught by iHnking theni 
out of a great earth, and afterwards following thern 
to a fmaller one, and digging them. 

Your country requires a good terrier ; I Ihould 
prefer the black or v.hite terrier ; fome there are 
fo like a fox, that awkward people frequently 
miftake one for the other. If you like terriers to 
run with your pack, large ones, at times, are ufe- 
ful ; but in an carlh, they do but little good, as 
they cannot always get up to a fox. You had 
better not enter a young terrier at a badger : — 
young terriers have not the art ('■( ihifting like old 
ones ; and, fhould they be good for any thing, 
mofl probably will go up boldly to him at once, 
and get themfelves molt terribly bitten ; for this 
reafon you fho'uTd enter them at young foxes, 

2 when 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 307 

*when you can. Before I quit this fubject, I mufl 
mention an extraordinary inflance of fagacity in 
a bitch- fox, that was digged out of an earth with 
four young ones, and brought in a fack upwards 
of twenty miles to a gentleman in my neighbour-* 
hood, to be turned out the next day before bis 
hounds. This fox, weak as fhe mull have been, 
ran in a Urait line back again to her own country^ 
crofTed two rivers, and was at laft killed near to 
the earth fhe was digged out of the day before.—- 
Foxes that are bred in chfTs near the fca, feldom 
are known to ramble any great diftance i'rom 
them ; and fportfmen, who know the country 
where this fox was turned out, will tell you, that 
there is not the lead rcafon to think that Hie 
could have any knowledge of it. 

Beiides the digging of foxes, by which method 
tnany young ones arc taken, and old ones de- 
ftroyed ; traps, &c. too often are fatal to them. 
Farmers for their lambs, (which, by the bye, 
few foxes ever kill) gentlemen for their game, and 
old women for their poultry, are their inveterate 
enemies. I mull, however, give an inflance of 
civility I once met with from a farmer. — The 
hounds had found, and were running hard ; the 
farmer came up in highfpirits, and faid, " I hope, 
*^ Sir, you will kill him; he has done me much 
'' damage lately ; he carried away all my ducks 
*' laft week : — I would not W« him thouch — too 

X 2 *' goad, 



308 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

*' good a fportfrnan for that." — So much for the 
hone ft farmer. 



In the country where I live moft of the gentle^ 
men are fportfmcn ; and even thofe who are not, 
Ihew every kind of attention to thofe who arc ; I 
am forry it is otherwife with you : and that your 
old gouty neighbour fhould deftroy your foxes, I 
muit own, concerns me. I know fonie gentle- 
men, wlio, when a neighbour had deftroycd all 
their foxes, and thereby prevented them from pur- 
fuing a favourite amufcment, loaded a cart with 
ipaniels, and went all together and deftroycd hi& 
pheafants. I think they might have called this, 
very properly, lex ialionis, and it had the defired 
efFe6t ; for as the gentleman did not think it pru- 
dent to fight them ail, he took the wiler method^, 
he made peace with them. He gave an order 
that no more foxes fhould be deftroycd, and they 
jKiever afterwards killed any of his pheal'ants. 



LET. 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, ^OJi 



LETTER XXIV, 



I AM now, my friend, about to take leave of 
you ; and at the fame time that I give repofe 
to you, let me intreat you to fhew the fame favour 
to your hounds and horfes. It is now the breed- 
ing feafon, a proper time, in my opinion, to leave 
off hunting ; lince it is more likely to be your fer- 
vants amutement, than your's ; and is always to 
the prejudice of two noble animals, which we 
fportfmen are bound in gratitude to take care of. 

After a long and tirefome winter, furely the 
horfe deferves fome repofe. Let him then enjoy 
his fhort-lived liberty; and as his feet are the 
parts which fufFer moft, turn him out into a foft 
pafture. Some there are, who difapprove of 
grafs, faying, that when a horfe is in good order, the 
turning him out undoes it all again. — It certainly 
does. — ^Yet at the fame time, I believe, that nq 
horfe can be frefh in his limbs, or will lafl you 
long without it. — Can ftanding in a hot flable do 
him any good ? — and can hard exercife, particuT 
larly in the fummer, be of any advantage to him ? 
Is it not foft ground and long reft thiit will bef^ 
X 3 refrefh. 



3X6 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

refreili his limbs, while the night air, and morn- 
ing dews will invigorate his body ? — Some never 
phyfic their hunters ; only obferving, when they 
firfl take them up from grafs, to work them 
gently : ibme turn out thcir's all the year. It is 
not unufual for fuch as follow the latter method, 
to ph}fic their horfes at grafs ; they then are taken 
tip, well icd, and properly exerciied to get them 
into order ; this done, they are turned out for a 
few hours every day when they arc not ridden. 
The pafture fhould be dry, and fhould have but 
little grafs ; there they will flreteh their limbs, 
and cool their bodies, and will take as much ex- 
crcife as is neceflary for them. I have remarked, 
that thus treated they catch fev/er colds, have the 
ufc of their limbs more freely, and are Icfs liable 
to lamenefs than other horfes. Another ad- 
vantage attends this method, which, in the horfes 
you ride yourfelf, you will allow to be very mate- 
rial : — your horfe, when once he is in order, will 
require lefs ftrong exercife than grooms generally 
give their horfes ; and Ins mouth, in all proba- 
bilily, will not be the worle for it. 

The Earl of Pembroke, in his Military Equi- 
tation, is, I lind, of the fame opinion ; he tells 
lis, — '* It is of the greatefl confequence for horfes 
*' to be kept clean, regularly fed, and as regularly 
" exerciied : but whoever choofes to ride in the 
*' w a\- of cafe and pleafure, without any fatigue 

*' on 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. ^It 

*^ on horfeback, or, in lliort, does not like to carry 
** his horle, inftead of his horfc's carrying him, 
" niufi: not lufFer his horfc to be exercifed by a 
'' groom ; ftanding up on his flirrups, holding 
*' himfelt'on by means of the reins, and thereby 
*' hanging his whole dead weight on the horfe's 
" mouth, to the entire deilrudlion of all that is 

" good, fafe, or pleafant about the animal." 

And in another place he fays, — " Horles Ibould 
*' be turned loofe fomewhere, or w^alked about 
*' every day, when they do not work, particularly 
** after hard exercife : fwelled legs, phyfie, he. 
" will be faved by thefe means, and many diflem- 
*' pcrs avoided." He alfo obferves that, " it is 
" a matter of the greatefl confequence, though 
" few attend to it, to feed horfes according to 
*' their work. When the work is hard, food 
" fliould be in plenty ; when it is otherwifcj the 
" food fliouldbe diminillied immediately, the hay 
** particularly," 

I have no doubt that the noble author is per- 
fc6lly right in thefe obfervations : I am alfo of 
opinion that a handful or two of clean wheaten 
flraw, chopped fmall, and mixed with their corn, 
would be of great fervice to your horfes, provided 
that you have intereft enough witii your groom 
to prevail on him to give it them. 



X 4 Such 



^IZ THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

Such of my horfes as are pbylicked at grafs, 
have two dofes given them when they arc turned 
out, and three more before +hcy are taken up. — 
Grafs ph^'^lic is of k) mild a kind, that you will 
not find tins quantity too much ; nor have I ever 
k iown an acciden- happen from it, ahhough it has 
been given in very indifferent weather. I fhould 
tell ycu, that my horfes are always taken in, the 
firit liight after their phytic, though the printed 
dire<SlionSj I believe, do not requiie it. Such 
horfes as are fail of humours fhould be phyficked 
at houfe, lince they may require ftronger dofcs 
than gnifs phylic will admit of, which, I think 
more proper to prevent humours, than to remove 
them. The only ufc 1 know in phyficking a 
horfe that does not appear to want it, is to pre- 
vent, if poihble, his requiring it at a time whcr^ 
you cannot fo well fpare him — I mean the hunt- 
ing feafon : fhould an accident of this kind hap- 
pen. Stibium's balls, of which I fend you the re- 
ceipt, will be found of ufe : 

Crocus Metallorum, levigated 2 ozs. 
Stibium's ditto - - 2 

Flour of brimftone - i 

Caliile foap - - i 

Liquorice powder - i 

Honey, q. f. to make It into a paile. 



AbaU 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 313 

A ball of one ounce weight is to be given for 
three mornhigs fucceflively. — Tl:e horfe mull be 
kept falling for two hours after he has taken it : 
he then may have a feed of corn, and foon after 
that moderate exercife. The fame Ihoiild be re- 
peated four days afterwards. — Thefe balls purify 
the blood, and operate on the body by infeniiblc 
perlpiration. 

I frequently give nitre to fuch of my hunters aS 
are not turned out to grafs ; — it cools their bodies, 
and is of fervice to thcni. It may be given either 
in their water, or in their corn ; I fometimes give 
an ounce in each. 

To fuch of my horfes as are thick winded, and 
fuch as carry but little flelh, I give carrots. In 
many Itables they are given at the time of feeding, 
in the ccrn ; I prefer giving them at any other 
time — for it is a food which horfes are fo fond of, 
that if by any accident you fliould omit the car- 
tots^ I doubt if they would eat the corn, readily, 
without them. 

I think you are perfcdlly in the right to mount 
your people well ; there is no good oeconomy in 
giving them bad horfe^^; ; they take no care of 
them, but wear them out as foon as they can^ 
that they may have others. 

The 



314. THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

The queftlon you afk me about fhoeing, I am 
unable to anfwer. Yet I am of opinion, that 
horfes fhould be fhod with more or lets iron, ac- 
cording as the country where they hunt requires; 
but in this, a good farrier will beft dired you. 
Nothing certainly is more necetlary to a horfe 
than to be well fliod. The flioe fliould be a pro- 
per one, and it fliould fit his foot. Farriers are 
but too apt to make the foot fit the flioe.* My 
groom carries a falfe fhoe, which jull ferves to 
fave a horfe's hoof, when he lofes a flioe, till 
it can be put on again. In fome countries you 
fee them loaded with laws, hatchets, Slc. 1 am 

* I venture to give the following rules on flioeing — in a fliort 
and dccifive manner, as founded on the ftii£teft anatomical and 
mechanical principles, laid down by the beft maflers. The 
iboe fliould be flat, and not turned up at the heel, or reach be- 
yond //w/, or the toe: but the middle part fliould extend rather 
beyond the outv/ard edge of the hoof, that the hoof may not be 
contrafted ; the outward part of which may be pared to bring it 
down to an even furface, to fit it for the fixing on of the flioe.— 
If the foot be ton long, the foe may be pared, or rafped down ; 
which, in many cafes, may even be necefiary to preferve the 
proper flia{)e of the hoof, and bring the foot to a ftroke, and 
bearing, the moft natural and advantageous. Neither the 
horny-fole, or frog, (nieant by nature for the guard of the foot, 
and fafety of the horfe) are, upon any account, to be pared or 
cut away. The fmall, loofe, r-agged parts, that at times appear, 
ihould be cut ofr with a pcn-kiiife ; but that deflrufiive inftru- 
mcnt called the buttcris^ which, in the hands of ftubborn igno- 
rance, has done more injury to the feet of horfes than all th^ 
I baces of tl-ie world, faould be baniUied for ever. 

glad 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING, 315 

glad that the country in which I hunt does not 
require them. In the book. I have jull quoted, 
you will find the ihoeing of horfes treated of very 
much at large. I beg leave, therefore, if you 
want further information on that head, to refer 
you to it. 

Having declared my difapprobation of fum- 
mer hunting, on account of the horfes, I mull 
add, that I am not lefs an enemy to it on account 
of the hounds alio ; they, I think, fliould have 
Ibme time allowed them to recover the ftrains and 
bruifes of many a painful chace ; and their diet, 
in which the adding: to their flren'Z'th has been, 
perhaps, too much conlidcred, fhould now be al- 
tered. No more flefh. fhould they now eat ; but 
in its flead, lliould have their bodies cooled, with 
whey, greens, and thin meat : without this pre- 
caution, the mange, moft probably, would be the 
immediate confequence of hot weather, perhaps 
madnefs : — direful malady ! 

As a country life has been recommended in all 
ages, not lefs for the contentment of the mind, 
than the health of the body, it is no wonder that 
hunting fhould be conlidered by fo many as a 
necelTary part of it, fince nothing conduces more 
to both : a great genius has told us, that it is 

Better to hunt in fields for health unbought, 
Than fee tlie dodlor for a naufeous draught. 

With 



3l6 THOUGHTS irPON HUNTING,, 

With regard to its peaceful ftate, according to a 
modern poet ; 



No fierce unruly fenate threatens here, 
No axe, or fcafFold to the view appear, 
No envy, difappointnient, and defpair. 



} 



And for the contentment which is fuppofed to 
accompany a country Ufe, we have not only the 
befl authority of our own time to fupport it, but 
even that of the befl poets of the Augullan age. 
Virgil furely felt what he wrote, when he faid, 
*' fortuna 7um'mm Jiuit'i fi bona norint, agricolce {"^ 
and Horace's famous ode, "^ Beatus ille qui procui 
*' nego/iis,'" feems not lets to come from the heart 
of a man, who is generally allowed to have had 
a perfc6l knowledge of mankind ; and this, even 
at the time when he was the favourite of the 
grcateft emperor, and in the midfl: of all the 
magnificence of the greatetl city in the world. 

The elegant Pliny alfo, in his epiftle to Minu- 
tius Fundanus, which is admirably tranflated by 
the Earl of OiTery, v>'hilft he arraigns the life he 
leads at Rome, fpeaks with a kind of rapture of 
a country life: "Welcome," fays he, ^' thou 
*' life of integrity and virtue ! welcome fweet 
*' and innocent amufement ! Thou ih^t art al- 
" moft preferable to bufincfs and employment of 
*' every kind." Aud it was hre, we are told, 

that 



tHOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 3 I jf 

tliat the great Bacon experienced his truefl; feli- 
city. With regard to the Otmn cum dlgnitate, fo 
much recommended, no one, I beheve, under- 
flands the true meaning of it better, or pra6lifcs 
it more fuccefsfully than you do. 

A rural life, I think, is better fuited to this 
kingdom than to any other ; becaufe the country 
in England affords pleafures and amufements un- 
known in other countries ; and becaufe its rival, 
our Englifh town (or ton) life, perhaps is a lefg 
pleafant one than may be found elfewhere. If 
this, upon a nice invcftigation of the matter, 
ihould appear to be ftridly true, the conclufion that 
would neceffarily refult from it might prove more 
than I mean it fliould ; therefore we will drop the 
fubje(9:. Should you, however, differ from me 
in opinion of your town life, and difapprove what 
I have faid concerning it, you may excufe me, if 
you pleafe, as you would a lawyer, who does the 
befi: he can for the party for whom he is retained, 
I think you will alfo excufe any expreflions I may 
have ufed, which may not be current here ; if you 
find, as I verily believe you may, that I have not 
made ufe of a French word, but when I could not 
have expreffed my meaning fo well by an Englifh. 
one : — it is only an unnecefTary and afFe(51ed ap-r 
plication of a foreign language, that in my opi- 
nion, is deferving of cenfure. 






3l8 THOUGHT? UPON HUNTING, 

To thofe who may think the danger which at- 
tends upon hunting a great objedlion \o the pur- 
fuit of it, I mull; beg leave to obferve, that the 
accidents which are occalioned by it are very 
iew. I will venture to fay, that more bad acci- 
dents happen to fhooters in one year than to 
thole who follow hounds in feven. You will re- 
mind me, perhaps, of the death of T k, and 

the fall of D 1 ; but do accidents never hap- 
pen on the road? the moll famous huntfman and 
boldeft rider of his time, after having hunted a 
pack of hounds for feveral years unhurt, loll his 
life at laft by a fall from his horfe as he was re- 
turning home. A furgcon of my acquaintance 
lias affurcd me, that in thirty years practice, in a 
Iporting country, he had not once an opportu- 
nity of fetting a bone for a fportfman, though 
ten packs of hounds were kept in the neighbour- 
hood. This gentleman furely mull have been 
much out of luck, or huntins; cannot be lb dan- 
gcrous as it is thought. Bclides, tl^ey are all 
timid animals that we purfue, nor is there any 
danger in attacking them : they are not like llic 
furious beaft of the Ge'vaudaUy which, as a French 
author informs us, an army of 20,000 French 
chaffeuis went out in vain to kill. 

If my time in writing to you fliould not have 
been io well employed as it might have hQcu^yoii 
at Icall will not find that fault with it; nor fliall 

I repent 



THOUGHTS UPON HtTNTfNG. 319 

I rcpont of having employed it in this manner, 
unlefs it were more certain than it is, that it wouM 
have been employed better. It is true, theic let- 
ters are longer than T firfl intended they fhould 
be ; they would have been fiortef could I have 
beftowed more time upon them. Some technical 
words have crept in imperceptibly, and virith them 
fome exprefiions better fiiited to the field than to 
the clofet : nor is it ncceflary, perhaps, that a 
fportfman, when he is writing to a Iportiman, 
fhould make exciiles for them. In fome of my 
letters you have found great variety of matter; 
the variety of queuions contained iwyours made 
it ibmetimes unavoidable. I know there muft be 
fome tautology ; it fcarcely is pofiible to remem- 
ber all that has been laid in former letters ; let 
that diiiiculty, if you pleafe, excule the fault. I 
fear there may be fome contradicfions for the fame 
reafon, and there may be many exceptions. I trull 
them all to your candour, nor can they be in bet- 
ter hands. I hope you will not find that I have 
at different times given different opinions ; but 
fhould that be the cale, without doubt you will 
follow the opinion which coincides moil with your 
own. If on any points I have differed from great 
authorities, I am forry for it; I have never hunted 
with thole who are looked up to as the great mat- 
ters of this fcience ; and when I difier from them 
it Is without defign. Other methods, doubtlefs, 
there are, to make the keeping of hounds much 

more 



§20 THOUGHTS UPON HUNTII^G, 

more expenfive, which, as I do not pradlife my- 
felf, 1 fhall not recommend to you ; — treated after 
the manner here defcribed they will kill foxes, and 
Hiew } ou Iport. I have anfwcred all your quef- 
tions as concitely as I was able, and it has been 
my conftant endeavour to fay no raor'- titan I 
thought \h'^ lubjeft required. Tiie time iDay 
come, when more experienced fportfmcn p.nd 
abler pens may do it grealer jufdce; till then, 
accept the obfcrvations that I have made: take' 
them, read them, try them. There v.as a timd 
when I fhould readily have received the informa- 
tion they give, iraperfe6t as it may be ; for expe- 
rience is ever a flow teacher, and 1 have had no 
other. Willi regard to books^ Somervile is the 
only author whom I have found of any ufe on 
this fubjeft ; you will admire the poet and efleem 
the man; yet I am not certain that you will be 
always fatisfied with the lefTons of the huntfman* 
Proud of the authority, I have quoted from him 
as often as it would fuit your purpofe ; and, for* 
your fake, have I braved the evident difad vantage 
that attended it. I wifh this elegant poet had 
anfwered all }our quefiions; you then would 
have received but one letter from me — to refer 
you to him. That no other writer fliould have 
followed his fleps may thus, I think, be accounted 
for : tiiofe gentlemen who make a profeffion of 
writing live chiefly in town, confequently cannot 
be fappofcd to know much of hunting : and 

thoib 



tllOUGHTS ITPON HITNTING. 32*! 

tliofe who do know any thing of it are either 
fervants that cannot write, or country gentlemen 
who will not give themfelves the trouble. How- 
ever, I have met with foine curious remarks which 
I cannot help communicating to you. One author 
tells us, that " courting is more agreeable than 
" hunting, hecaufe it is foonsr over:'^ — " that a 
*• terrier is a inurgrel greyhound z'' — and '^ that' 
*' dogs have often coughs from eating fifli honest* 

Another (a French author) advifes us to give a 
liorfe, after hunting, " a foup made of bread and 
*• wine, and an onion."- — I tear an Englilli groqna 
would eat the onion, and drink the wine. 

The fame author has alfo a very particular 

method of catching rabbits, which you will pleax^b 

k> take in his own words, he calls it — Chajfe du 

Japin a Vccrevijfe. '* Cette chafje convient aux per- 

*^ fonnes qui ne veulent employer ni furets ni armes a 

'^^ feic : on tend des poches d'une extremite d^in ter- 

** rier, et a l' autre on gliJJ'e une ecreviffe\ cet animal 

" arrive peu-a-feu au fond de la retraite du lapin^ 

" le pique, sy attache avec tant de force, qus h 

*^ quadrupede efl oblige de fuir, emportant avec lui 

" fo7i ennend, et vient fe fair e prendre dans le filet 

*' qu'on lui a tendu a Vouverture du terrier. Cette 

V^ chaffe demnnde heaucoup de patience: les opera^ 

^' tions de T ecreviffe font lentes, mais aufji ellesfont 

^^ quelqjie fois plus fures que celles dufuret*^ 

Y This 



32Z TIIOtGHTS UPON HUNTING. 

This gentleman's iing«lar method of hunting 
rabbits iinih a hhjier, reminds me of a method 
harlequin * has of killing hares, not lefs inge- 
nious, with 8panijh Jmiff, Brighella tells him, 
that the hares eat up all his mafter's green wheat, 
and that he knows not how to kill them ; " no- 
^^ thing more eafy," replies harlequin — " I will 
" engage to kill them all with two pennyworth 
^^ of fnuff. They come in the night, you fay, 
" to feed on the green wheat ; fi:rew a little fnuff" 
** over tlie field before they come, it will fet 
*' them all a fneezing ; nobody will be by to lay 
*' God Mcfsyoiiy and, of conrfe^ they will all die/' 

I believe, during our prelent correfpondence^ 
that I have twice quoted the Encyclopedic with 
fome degree of ridicule; I muft, notwithftanding, 
beg leave to fay, in juftice to myfelf, that I have 
great efteem for that valuable work. 

On opening a very large book called the Gen' 
ilemaris Recreation, I met with the following re- 
markable paffage : — " Many have written of this 
" fubje61-, as well the antients as moderns, yet 
" but few of our countrymen to any purpofe ; 
*^ and had one all the authors on this fabjccSty 
*^^ (as indeed on any other) there would be more 

* The harlequin of the Italian theatre, v/hofe to}igm is a£ 
liberty as well as his hceh. 

<* trouble 



THOUGltTS UPON HUNTING* 32J 

^f trouble to pafs by than to retain ; moft books 
" being fuller of words than matter, and of that 
-*f which is for th« moil: part very erroneous." — ■ 
All who have written on the fubje6l of hunting 
feem to agree in this at leaflj to fpeak indifferently 
of one another. 

You have obfervcd in one of your letters, that 
i do not always follow my own rules ; and, as a 
proof of it, you have remarked that many of my 
hounds are oddly named: — I cannot deny the 
charge. I leave a great deal to my huntfman; 
but if you aim at perfedion, leave as little as you. 
can help to your's. It is eaiier, I believe, in 
every inftance, to know what is right than it is to 
follow it ; but if the rules I have given be good, 
what does It tignify to you whether I follow them 
QY not ? A country fellow ufed to call every di- 
recting poft he faw a doctor. He was afked, why 
he called them fo ? " Why, mafler," faid he, " I 
^* never fee them but they put me in mind of the 
" parfon of our parifli, who conftantly points^ 
^' out a road to us he does not follow himfelf.'* 

If I can add to the amufement of fuch as fol- 
low this diveriion, I fliall not think my time has 
been ill employed ; and if the rules which are 
here given may any ways tend to preferve that 
friendly animal the hound from one unneceflary 
lafhj I fhall not think they have been written in 
Y 2, vain. 



324 thoi;ghts upon hunting. 

vain.* It never was my expe6lation to be able 
to fend you a complete trcatife ; — Thoughts upon 
Hiatt'ing^ in a feries of familiar Letters, were all I 
propofed to myfelf the pleafurc of fending : — the 
trouble I have taken in writing them entitles me 
to fome indulgence ; nor did I, therefore, whillt 
I endeavour to render them of ufe, iland in 
any fear of criticifm. Yet if any man, as idle 
as I have already declared myfelf to be, fliould 
take the trouble to criticife thefe letters, tell him 
this: — An acquaintance of mine, who had bc- 
ftowed much time in improving his place when- 
ever he heard it found fault with, " allied where 
*^ the critic lived ? whether he had any place of 
" his own ? whether he had attempted any im- 
<^ provements ? and concluded with promiiing a 
" feep at it.'' — The gentleman here alluded to 
had lefs humility than your humble fervant. 

* Strangely unfortiuiate fliould I thiMk myfelf, if while I 
profefs to be a friend to dogs, I flioukl prove their bittcrcfi: 
enemy, and if thofe mles which were intended to lefien, fhovild 
increafe their uifFerlngs ; convinced as I am by experience, 
that a regular fyileni of education is the fureft means to render 
correfliou unnecefiary. Hnrd is that heart (if any fuch there 
be) which can ill ufe a creature fo afFe6tionate and fo good ; 
who has renounced his native liberty to aflbciate with man, to 
whofe fervice his whole life is dedicated : who, fenfible of every 
kinduefsi, is grateful for the fmalleft favour; while the worft 
ufage cannot eftrange his affection, in which he is (beyond all 
exainplej conflant, faithful, and difinterefled ; who guards hiin 
by night, and amufes him by day, and is, perhaps, the only 
companion who will not forfake him in adverilty. 

Take, 



THOUGHTS UPON HUNTING. 325 

Talce, therefore, my fentimcnts in the following 
ines : 

— ' «S'/ quid noviji'i rccllus \fth, 



Candidti^ im^^rti ; Ji fion, his utere niecum. 

Hon, 

Farewell.* 

* The fong which was at the end of the firft edition of thefe 
letters having been already printed by its author, and thought 
too local to be neceflary here, is now omitiet^. 



Note, Page 115, line 21, si^tQT Jervke, add, I 
HOW ufe, inftead of digeflive ointment, a poultice 
made of Goulard, as recommended by Arnandj, ia 
Jiio edition of that treatife, page 203. 



y 3^ A2J 



AN 

A C C O U N T 

OP THE MOST CELEBRATED 

DOG KENNELS 

XN THE 

KINGDOM, 



Agreeable to the Intimation given at the conclu^ 

Jion of the fecond Letter of this fVork, the 

Editor prefents the Readers of it with an 

account of the moft celebrated Dog Ken-» 

N E L s , begirining with-^ 

HIS MAJESTY'S, at ASCOT: 

WITH AN EXA.CT REPRESENTATION OF THE SAME, 
BEAUTIFULLY ENGRAVED. 

npHIS building is fituated in the center of Af- 
-*- cot Heath, juft below the hill, about three 
quarters of a mile north-wcfl of the ftarting poft, 
and includes in its advantages one of the befl 
lituations for the purpofe of any in the kingdom. 

To 



AN ACCOUNT OP DOG KENNELS. 327 

To the excellence and unlverfally admitted fupe- 
riority of the eftablifhmentj every inferior conli- 
deration becomes fubfervient, and the conllant 
fuperintendance of his Majefty contributes to the 
promifed attainment of every perfc6lion. The 
dwelling houfe of Johnfon, his Majefly's huntf- 
man, conftitutes a part of the fabric, and of the 
interior parts of this, his Majefty condefcends to 
make a furvey, with the fame congenial eafe and 
happy affability, as to fuch parts of tlie ftrudure 
as become more immediately appropriate to pub- 
Jic purpofe. We are v/ell aware the world in ge- 
neral conlider his Majefly's appearance in the 
field as matter of can-venknce or necejfity^ anci 
adopted only as a prefervative of health or a pre- 
ventative to ill; it becomes the peculiar province 
however, of this article, to wipe away fo ridicq- 
lous an idea, and to hold forth the moft unequi- 
vocal aflurance that there is no fportfman in the 
kingdom who enters more into the minutiae of 
the kennel, or the energy of the chace. His 
Majefty is not only famihar to the names of the 
leading hounds in the pack, but frequently feledts 
them in the kennel, as peculiar oi>je6ls of atten- 
tion. The fize of the hounds, the increafe of 
the packs, the diminution of ftock, the entering 
of puppies, or drafting old hounds, are equally 
and rationally matters to which his Majeity at-, 
tends, though by no means di6latorially; but 
once ijoell informed, in reply to his inquiries, after- 
X 4 making 



32,8 AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELS. 

making his own obfervations, he moft happily 
and engagingly fubmits the final arrangements 
to thofe whofe official province it is to fuperin- 
tend the execution. 

Ti.e hounds confift, in fa6l, of two packs, 
which pafs under the denomination of the " old'* 
ard the " young hounds," and are alternately 
brought into ufe in the following way: the great 
body of old and flaunch liounds are always fe- 
lecTted for fuch deer as are known to be good 
runners, and conflantly produced in the field 
when his Majefty meets: to thefe are frequently 
added three or four couple of young hounds, till 
the whole have been entered in rotation, and the 
tv70 packs are, by fuch gradational introduction, 
enabled to conftitutc a kind of confblidation in 
rcfpecl to abilities, for whatever exigences may 
enfue or circumflances require. 



7U 



AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELSt ^2^ 



The RefiJence of the Mojler of his Majeftfs Stag 
Hounds being contiguous to the above Buildings an 
JEDgrciving, equally defcrlptive of its Situation, 
is aijj annexed, and the following Jhort Account y 
it is hoped J %vill not be deemed uninterejling. 



SWINLEY LODGE, 

S Htuated upon Afoot Heath, about a mile 
fouth-weft of the Harting poll, furrounded 
by hills, and fheltered by lofty trees from fuch 
feverity of the elements as is frequently experi- 
enced in lituations fo abflracled from rural alTo- 
ciation. Notvvithflanding its fequeflered afpeift 
and remote ere6lion in the middle of a dreary 
beath, it has every internal convenience to render 
it happily appropriate to the purpofe for which it 
was originally intended. Exclulive of an ex- 
cellent ruftic manfion, pofTeffing the room and 
requitites for which our buildings of former cen- 
turies are fo eaiily diftinguifiiable, it has annexed 
ranges of excellent tabling, commodious yards, 
domeftic gardens (lefs in the ftile of orname?it 
than utility)', paddocks applied folely to pa (lure 
for the reception of red deer, as well as various 

parcels 



330 AN ACCOUNT OP DOG KENNELS. 

parcels of land, diflln6lly divided into the re- 
quired proportions of meadow and arable, for the 
cultivation of fuch hay and corn of every kind as 
may be required upon the premifes. To thefe 
accumulated conveniences may be added the va- 
rious £fh ponds, which, with the live flock of 
every kind produced upon the premifes, may be 
faid to conftitute an aggregate of the moil luxu- 
rious cjatification within a fenced circle of ferti- 
lity, tv/o miles in circumference, though fur- 
rounded by one of the moit harreyi fpots in the 
univcrfe, producing only fuel for the inhabitants 
of that and diflant pariflies, and heaih for hrooviSj 
by manufa6luring v/hich moll of the neighbour- 
ing indigents obtain a livelihood. To this dif- 
in&^ and its furrounding hills, his Majcfly's 
lierd of red deer appertain ; here they breed, and 
being conflantly fed (like the cattle more do- 
mefticate) in the feverity of the winter feafon, 
they conlider it tlieir home, and become (to thofo 
they are accuflonied to fee) much lefs ferocious^ 
and more aflbciate, than can well bp fuppofed of 
an animal fo naturally wild, and fo little fubje6^ 
to a perfonal furvey from human viiitants. 

The prefent relident has given a life and fpirit 
to the fcene that it never polTeiTed during the offi- 
cial career of either of the two laft of his prede» 
ccflbrs, and will fccure to Lord Sandwich the re- 
fpect of every fportfman in the kingdom. 

DUKE 



An account af dog kennels, 33$ 



BUKE OF RICHMOND'S, at GOODWOOD. 

'TPHE next that claims attention is the ken- 
-*• nel erecled by his Grace of Richmond, at 
Goodwood, in SufTex, and which the engraving 
annexed is a perfe6l delineation. To a pcrfon 
unacquainted with his Grace, the expenditure of 
lipwards of 1 0,000/. on a dog kennel might ap- 
pear a matter of furprize, but to the writer of 
this, who is no ftranger to his munificence, it 
appears no more than a common occurrence. 

The duke was his own architect and builder: 
he dug his own flints, burnt his own lime, made 
his own bricks, and formed the wood-work in his 
own fhops. 

THE DOG KENNEL 

Is a place by itfelf in the park, and is a grand 
obje6l to the beft rooms in the houfe. The iront 
is handfome. The ground is well raifcd about 
it, and turfed. The efFe6l is good. 

The dimenfions. — ^The length is 14^ (eef^ the 
depth 30; the height, from the crown 0/ the 

arches 



332 AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELS, 

arches that fupport it, 1 8 feet on the lides ; in 
the center 28 fceL 

The maferiaTs are flints, finiflied at ail the an- 
gles by a light grey brick, like the Lymiiigtoft 
white iiock. 

The diflribution of the building is into £vc 
kennels ; two of them j6 by 1 5 — three more 30 
by 15 ; two feeding rooms;^ 28 by 15. In each 
there are openings at the top for cold air, and 
ftoves to warm the air when too cold. There 
are fhpplies of water, and drains, into a flank, as 
it is called, a depth below, fall of rain water. 
From the furface of this rain water to the rife of 
the arch, is 1 1 feet ; fo that inconvenience from 
fmcll there is none; and the whole at any time 
can be cleared off, by drains, to more dependent 
depths, dung-pits, &c. So that, as an aid to 
farming, it is not altogether ufelefs. 

Round the whole building is a pavement five 
feet wide, airing yards, places for breeding, Sec. 
&c. making part of each wing. 

For the huntfman, and for the whipper-in, 
there is a parlour, a kitchen, and a fleeping 
room for each. 



It 



AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENKSLS. 333 

' It will contain two packs ; but at prefcnt the 
duke has only fox-hounds. The dogs are re- 
duced from 60 to 40 couple. 

Before this building was finifhed, tlie dogs 
ufed to be kept at Plannaker and Charlton, and 
twelve hunters were farmed by an old huntfman, 
who is now dead. This part of the efiabHlhment 
is farmed no tnore. 



DUKE 



^54 ^"^^ ACCOUNT OP DOG KENNELS* 



DUKE o^ BEDFORD'S, at WOBURN 
ABBEY. 



>Y way of* Introducing what is the more iin« 
mediate objedt of our attention, it may be 
necefiary to fligbtly notice the other improve- 
ments of his Grace — particularly as the engrav- 
ing which accompanies it, includes the whole of 
the buildings erecSlcd for his iporting. eftablifli- 
33ient. 

The tennis court and riding lioufc (with apart- 
tnents between to drefs in) forms a building 266 
feet 8 inches long, and 49 feet 6 inches v/ide, the 
whole front of which is ilone: the roof is a flat 
one, and covered with a compolition of tar^ 
clialk, &c. inftead of lead. There are flues run 
along the walls, and under the pavement of the 
tennis court, to keep off the damps : the walls of 
the intide of the riding houfe are painted in pan- 
nels, with high pllaflers, and the ceiling is painted 
to reprefcnt a clear fky. 

There are two wings of ftables, one of which 
only is yet fitted up by Mr. Holland, and con- 
tains ftalls for 36 hunters, with 11 hofpital 
apartments for fick and lame horfes: there is a 

2 fad- 



AN ACCOUNT OP DOG KENNELS. 23$ 

faddle room with glafs-fronted prefles, and flues 
running along the walls, to keep the faddles dry; 
two cillerns with hot and cold water, one of 
which is heated by the fame fire that warms the 
flues, a pair of jockey fcales, &c. 

The dog kennel (efteemed the completell: In 
JEngland) is 405 feet long, in the center of which 
Hands the boillng-houfe, with feeding- houfes ad- 
joining, and a granary behind: on the left are 
divifions for litter, Uraw, eleven apartments for 
bitches and puppies, with yards to each ; eleven 
ditto for bitches in pup, with yards alfo, and a 
large divifion for bitches at heat. On the right 
of the center are apartments for two kennel keep- 
ers, two long lodging rooms for the hunting 
hounds, with flues running along the walls, fpa- 
cious yards to each, furnifhed with a fountain in 
the center for the hounds to drink at, and, water 
cocks ifluing near the pavement, to cleanfe it : 
adjoining to thefe, are {even hofpitals for lick 
hounds, with yards to each. 

In the front is a large pond, which fupplies the 
fountains and different cocks in the feveral yards 
within. 

Behind is a large airing ground, flefh-houfe, 

ace. 

The 



2^6 AN ACCOUN-" 0? DOG KENNEL5. 

The h'lritfman's lioufe is a liandfomc bulldinj*: 
adjo; 

^ ■ ._,, ... V-... _\ ^juple of woikiDg, 

h\j^.s^^ aid kept in tLekeriiiel^ 



SIR WILLIAM ROWLEY'S, at TENDER- 
ING HALL, SUFFOLK. 

FFith a heaut'iful Reprefentat'ion of the Buildings 
and a Ground Plan of the fame. 

T^TEATNESS and convenlenoe arc mofl hap- 
-*-^ pily blended together in this compa6l ken- 
nel, and the whole gives no bad fpcclmen of the 
tafte and judgment of the munilicent proprietor, 
who planned it hirafelf, without any reference to 
more fumptuous editiee?. 

The lituatlon is to the caflward of 'he noble 
manfion ere6led by the late Admirr.I S-'r Jofhua 
Rowley, father to Sir William, at the dwlanee of 
about half a mile. From near the kitchen gar- 
den it has a nK>ft pi6lurefquc and bcabtiful ap- 
pearance: from this fpot the view is taken. 

Tiie 







'yz 



_/? 






AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELS. 337 

The kennel is placed in a deep valley in the 
park, a fituation admirably adapted for the pur- 
pole, being equally defended from the cutting 
eafterly winds, and the heat of the fun in its me- 
ridian, by a thick Ikirting of park and foreft 
trees. Not having the advantage of a rivulet td 
water the courts, that want is amply fupplied by 
a pump, which, by means of different cocks^ 
turns the water to every part of the premifes. 

The entrance to the building is at a. 

a. Is a pafiage, having on the right a coal- 
houfe, h, and on the left, c, the feeder's reli- 
dence, which is in the convenient cottage ilyle, 
with a neat bed-chamber over it. 

d, Is the boiling houfe, with two coppers at e, 

/, Is the furnace of a flue, which palTes under 
the adjoining room, viz. 

g. The hunting kennel, or principal lodging 
room: this room is 20 feet by 18 in the clear, and 
18 feet high, paved with flag-Hones. The beds, 
or benches, which cover almofl: the whole area, 
are of an excellent and original contrivance, be- 
ing lathed, like fome bedfteads, and all made to 
fold up with joints, for the convenience of wafli- 
ing the floor beneath them. By means of the flue 
Z at 



338 AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELS. 

at /, this room is heated to any temperature, and 
the hounds, after fevere chaces, and in wet wea- 
ther, arc rendered dry and comfortable in a much 
Icfs time than they would be by any other means. 

h. The kennel, or lodging room for the young 
hounds. This is of the fame dimenlions as the 
preceding, and enjoying all the fame conveni- 
ences, except the flue, which would here be ufe- 
lefs. 

z, Several fmall kennels for bitches, previous 
to geftation, 

h. Several fmall kennels for bitches with young 
puppies. 

/, Paved court to the hunting kennel. 

niy Feeding houfe, one half of which is open, 
the reft under cover. 

n^ Paved court to the young hounds' kennel. 

0, Pump: />, q, ftone water cifterns. 

r. Great grafs yard, for airing the hounds be- 
longing to the hunting kennel, containing about 
an acre and three quarters. 

fJJ> 



^a 




^ 



x- 



X)^ 



( w^^ 



\. 




a I 




^v 



<NO 



AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENa\ELS. 339 

/,/,/, Avenue of lime, chelhut, and other trees 
in the great grafs yard, forming a mofl excellent 
Ihade for the hounds. 

/, Grafs yard for the young hounds, contain- 
ing about one acre and a quarter, with lime, 
French afh, and other trees, for fhade. — N. B. The 
lize of the plate would not admit Ihewing the 
boundaries of this yard, without diminiftiing the 
fcale, 

Ut The park. 

^ To the puppy kennels, 1 2 in number, and 
admirably well adapted for the purpofe. 

Tendering Hall is beautifully lituated in the 
parifh of Stoke-by-Nayland, in Suffolk, which 
is feparated from the county of F-fTex by the na- 
vigable river Stour, which runs from hence to 
Stratford, Dedham, Maningtree, and Miilley, 
where it receives vefTels of conliderable burthen, 
and proceeding on about ten miles farther, dif- 
charges itfelf into the ocean at Harwich. 

The hunt has been eftablifhed about feven 
years, and we run no rilk of being contradidted 
when we fay, that, with regard to the excellence 
pf the hounds, the regulations, and the manage- 
ment of the pack, which coniifts of 36 couple, 
4 it 



340 AN ACCOUNT OF DOG KENNELS, 

it is inferior to none, of limilar magnitude, in 
the kingdom. 

Situated on the borders of two counties abound- 
ing with excellent covers, and every way well cal- 
culated for fox-hunting, the worthy baronet, 
greatly efleemed by the neighbouring gentry, and 
beloved by a numerous and refpe6lable tenantry, 
proves himfelf a true defcendant of Nimrod; 
while his lady, in the prime and bloom of life, 
adorned with every female virtue and accomplifh- 
ment, and not lefs efteemed and beloved by all 
ranks of people than her hufband, frequently en- 
joys with him the fports of the field, and con- 
vinces the world that the moft delicate habits of 
thinking and ailing are not incompatible with 
being charmed with the mufic of the hounds, 
the delights of the chace, and the health-giving 
exercife of equeftrian diverfions. 



FINIS,