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Three Decades of Progress 

Eastern Kentucky 
State Teachers College 


Three Decades of Progress 

Eastern Kentucky 
State Teachers College 

1906- 1936 


Prepared by Members of the Faculty 

Volume XXIX May, 1936 Number 1 

Published bi-monthly by the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers 
College and entered at the post office at Richmond, Kentucky, as 
second-class matter, November 20, 1906. 

Copyrighted 1936 by 
Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 

Dedicated to the Citizens of Kentucky 

and the Students of Eastern who have 

contributed to these Three Decades 

of Progress. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 


Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 

Jonathan T. Dorris, Editor 



Teacher-Training in Kentucky prior to 1906 9-20 

Mabel Pollitt Adams 


The Founding of Eastern 21-48 

Jonathan T. Dorris 


The Administration 49-69 

William C. Jones 

The Curriculum 71-84 

Melvin E. Mattox 


The Training School 85-108 

Richard A. Edtoards 


The Library 109-122 

Mary Floyd 


The Campus 123-129 

Jacob D. Farris 


Extra-Curricular Activities 131-142 

Roy B. Clark 

Student Life 143-163 

Mary Frances McKinney, May C. Hansen, Mrs. Julian Tyng 


The College Farm 165-173 

Ashby B. Carter 


Health, Physical Education and Athletics 175-189 

Jacob D. Farris and Thomas E. McDonough 


The Growth, Training and Tenure of the Faculty 191-211 

William J. Moore 


Some Faculty Character Sketches 213-226 

Maude Gibson 


The Alumni 227-231 

Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 


Central University 233-253 

Jonathan T. Dorris 


A. The Training School Staff 256-260 

Richard A. Edwards 

B. Biographical Sketches of Former Members of the College 

Faculty 261-272 

William J. Moore, Maude Gibson and May C. Hansen 

C. Biographical Sketches of the Present College Teaching 

Faculty 273-287 

William J. Moore, Maude Gibson and May C. Hansen 

D. Publications of the Present Faculty 288-301 

E. Alumni of the Model High School 302-305 

Richard A. Edioards 

F. Alumni Directory-Two Year College Graduates (1907-1924) 306-316 

Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 

G. Alumni Directory — Four Year College Graduates 

(1925-1936) 317-363 

Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 

H. College Songs rrr: .......,. r . :r .... r „„.„„„„„.„.„«..„,„, 364-365 


Thirty years ago when Governor J. C. W. Beckham signed 
the bill establishing Eastern, the typical teacher of the state 
possessed a seventh grade education. There was not at that time 
a county high school in Kentucky ; only a few of the larger cities 
maintained secondary schools. The University of Kentucky had 
not yet been established ; the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege was small and limited in its services to the youth of the 
Commonwealth. The attendance in the private colleges was less 
than it is today and their influence was not nearly as effective as 
it is at present. 

Three decades have passed since Eastern Kentucky State 
Teachers College came into existence. The typical Kentucky 
teacher now has two or more years of college education. There 
are over 700 high schools enrolling approximately 70,000 stu- 
dents. The state maintains four great teachers' colleges for 
the preparation of teachers. These colleges enrolled from five 
to six thousand students every year. The majority of these 
students are teachers in service who spend a part of each year 
making further preparation for their work. The University of 
Kentucky has come into being and has attained national recog- 
nition. The private colleges of the state are greater today 
than at any time during the century or more of their splendid 

With the establishing of Eastern and Western a new spirit 
of education pervaded the state. All schools appeared to have 
prospered as a result. A new value was placed on the im- 
portance of education. Enthusiastic teachers better educated 
for their work returned to their homes to stimulate an interest 
in schools. As the teachers became educated, better schools were 
taught. Children were prepared for high schools. Secondary 
schools were organized and their graduates were interested in 
going to college. The development in education during the past 
three decades has been much greater than during the period 
from 1792 to 1906. It is not our purpose to intimate that this 
great growth is due wholly to the work of the teachers' colleges, 

although these schools are entitled to much credit for this devel- 
opment. The spirit that conceived these colleges has been for 
thirty years working through them and all other colleges and 
schools to the end that a great cultural development in the Com- 
monwealth has been the result. Education begets education. 
The more education a people get, the more they want. 

During the thirty years of our history, Eastern has enrolled 
approximately 35,000 different students. These have returned 
for the most part to their communities to lift the intellectual 
life of their people. They have served their state and nation 
in the promotion of the general welfare. Members of the fac- 
ulty of Eastern have found time in their busy lives to write 
these chapters lest the history of the early years of the college 
be forgotten. Doubtless many things have been overlooked that 
should have been recorded. Much has been omitted due to lack 
of space. 

"We wish to acknowledge our appreciation for the untiring 
efforts of the authors of these chapters. 

H. L. Donovan, President. 



By Mabel Pollitt Adams 

It has been deemed advisable to include in this book a chap- 
ter on the history of teacher-training' in Kentucky prior to 1906. 
The chapter must inevitably be brief, because of the failure on 
the part of a great commonwealth to provide what is today recog- 
nized as an essential and indispensable link in her educational 
system, namely, teacher-training centers. Looking back after 
three decades upon what has been accomplished by such a pro- 
gram, one is unable to comprehend why Kentucky was so apa- 
thetic in this respect for more than sixty years after she had pro- 
vided for a system of common schools. 

Doctor H. L. Donovan points out in his study entitled A 
State's Elementary Teacher-Training Problem (Kentucky) that 
the first Superintendent of Public Instruction in Kentucky, the 
Reverend Joseph J. Bullock (1838-39), in his initial report to 
the General Assembly urged "the founding of one or more 
normal schools for the purpose of training the sons of the soil 
for teaching ..." 

Doctor Donovan continues : 

The voice of the first superintendent went unheeded; his 
plea fell upon deaf ears. The Legislature made no move in the 
direction of establishing training schools for teachers. But the 
first Superintendent of Public Instruction was no more unsuccess- 
ful on this issue than the long line of his distinguished successors 
was destined to be. Sixty-eight years came and passed before a 
legislature heeded the sane advice of these educators. Fifteen 
different Superintendents appeared before more than thirty ses- 
sions of the General Assembly in behalf of teacher training, solicit- 
ing, counseling and persuading the members to provide normal 
schools, before these institutions were permanently established. 
Their recommendations were frequently supplemented by recom- 
mendations from the Governor in behalf of the cause of teacher- 
training. But an indifferent or hostile General Assembly always 
either ignored the recommendations or voted them down. . . . 

The most desperate struggle in the history of school legis- 
lation in Kentucky was the fight to create state-supported insti- 
tutions for the training of teachers. The State was forty-six 
years (1792-1838) in being persuaded that it was its function to 
educate the children, but it took one hundred and fourteen years 

10 Three Decades of Progress 

(1792-1906) to convince the people that it was the function of the 
State to retrain teachers. 1 

The year 1838, in which Kentucky established her common 
school system, is a landmark in the history of the teacher-train- 
ing movement in the United States, for it was in this year that 
the first normal schools in America were assured. Two schools 
were accordingly opened the following year in Massachusetts, 
one in Lexington in July, 1839, the other in Barre in September. 

At present, it seems remarkable that Kentucky did not give 
more consideration to the establishment of such schools, but it is 
quite likely in that day of scant communication and publicity 
that the Kentucky legislators were entirely unaware of the im- 
portant legislation being enacted in the Bay Colony State. 

Training School for Teachers at Transylvania 

Kentucky had for many years enjoyed an enviable reputa- 
tion in the "Old Southwest" by reason of the well-deserved fame 
of Transylvania University, established in 1799 at Lexington. 
Its faculties, particularly those of the Law and Medical Depart- 
ments, and the scholarly achievements of its graduates had made 
the school famous throughout the new section west of the Al- 
leghenies. Students from all this territory flocked to the 
"Athens of the West" to study under masters of law and medi- 
cine and letters. The history of this institution has been ably 
related by Dr. Robert Peter and his daughter, Miss Johanna 
Peter, and constitutes one of the most interesting of the invalu- 
able series of Filson Club publications. 2 Thomas Speed, Secre- 
tary of the Filson Club, in the preface to this volume says : 

No university in this country was ever inaugurated on a 
broader or better plan. It was to be a central university, with a 
seminary in each county of the surrounding state to supply it 
with students. To inaugurate this system, each of the early coun- 
ties in Kentucky was given six thousand acres of land by the state 
to secure the necessary buildings and start its seminary. Had 
this system been adhered to, Transylvania would today be one of 
the leading universities not only of this country but of the whole 
world. It was doomed, however, to be sacrificed upon the incon- 
siderate altar of denominational antagonisms. Different and 

1 H. L. Donovan, A State's Elementary Teacher-Training Problem 
(Kentucky), George T'eaborty College for Teachers Contributions to Educa- 
tion, No. 17, Nashville, 1925. 

a Robert and Johanna Peter, Transylvania University (Filson Club 
Publication, Number 11). 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 11 

opposing' religious sects struggled for its control and in the con- 
flict the University was consumed by the fervor of their con- 

However, this is neither the time nor the place to review the 
harrowing details by which Transylvania was shorn of her glory 
and prestige. Dr. Robert J. Breckinridge, one of the most bril- 
liant men ever to serve the educational system of the State, was 
the superintendent at this time (1850). He was quick to see the 
possibility of attaining the desideratum of every state superin- 
tendent before him. He suggested a plan for the reorganization 
of Transylvania University whereby it should become a state 
school for the training of teachers. Fruition of the plan, how- 
ever, was not destined to come until six years later during the 
administration of his successor, Dr. John Daniel Matthews. 

By 1856 it had become quite evident to the trustees of Tran- 
sylvania that no academic resuscitation was probable, and, ac- 
cordingly, a memorial was presented by them to the Legislature. 
This memorial, signed by six of the most prominent Lexingto- 
nians of their day — Madison C. Johnson, Benj. Gratz, J. J. Hun- 
ter, R. W. Wooley, W. A. Dudley, and Joel Higgins — proposed 
to turn over to the State the entire properties of Transylvania 
for the purpose of establishing a teacher-training institution in 
Kentucky. These properties as enumerated by them were as 
follows : a campus of fifteen acres, on which were located several 
buildings (among them the classic Morrison Hall, which 
remains the present gem of the Transylvania campus), a per- 
petually endowed professorship, stocks and bonds, the total of 
all the properties being estimated as exceeding in value one 
hundred thousand dollars. 

Thus, within the historic halls of the oldest educational 
institution in America west of the Alleghenies, with an endow- 
ment far exceeding any provided for in the eastern and older 
commonwealths, with a state appropriation of twelve thousand 
dollars per annum, Kentucky opened her first state training 
school for teachers. The attendance on the first day, September 
7, 1856, numbered more than eighty, which number increased 
shortly to one hundred nineteen. These numbers are in striking 

12 Three Decades of Progress 

contrast to the scant enrollment of the opening sessions of the 
Massachusetts normal schools eighteen years previous. 3 

A president, Dr. Lewis W. Green, and five professors, ' ' men 
of talents, learning and aptness to teach, ' ' had been provided for. 
Thus equipped, the school began its operations, and the State 
Superintendent reported to the next legislature : ' ' The state 
has every reason to be proud of her school for teachers and to 
cherish it as the apple of her eye. ' ' 

It is difficult to comprehend why the project enthusiastically 
entered into by all parties in 1856 should have encountered, 
almost immediately, destructive opposition. Miss Peter says 
that "party opposition, under the plea of unconstitutionality, 
put an end to this beneficent project after a trial of only two 
years; and thus Kentucky lost a Normal School, and Transyl- 
vania lapsed again into a spiritless mediocrity. ' ' 4 

It has been said that, by the abandonment of this first state 
training school for teachers, a retrograde movement was given 
the State, the results of which were apparent for at least a quar- 
ter of\a century. As a matter of fact, however, it was exactly 
twice that long before Kentucky had again actually in her pos- 
session a system of state-supported schools for the training of 
teachers. What she lost in that interval in trained citizenry, 
human calculation can never estimate. 

Kentucky Military Institute 

More than twenty years elapsed before any other legislation 
was passed with reference to a normal school which had state 
sponsorship. In 1878, State Superintendent H. A. M. Hender- 
son secured the necessary legislation to enable him and his State 
Board of Education to conduct a school for ten weeks during the 
summers of 1878 and 1879 at the Kentucky Military Institute, 
then located at Farmdale, six miles from Frankfort. 

This school does not seem to have received any financial aid 
from the legislature, which merely gave its official sanction to 
permit the granting of certificates upon the completion of a 

"Only three young women (and no men) appeared at Lexington, Mass., 
on July :!, 18.39, the date set for the opening of (lie first normal school 
•.venture. At Barre two months later, twelve women and eight men enrolled 
on the opening day ol" the second normal school established in .Massachusetts. 

* History of Transylvania, op. cit., p. 174. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 13 

curriculum prescribed by Superintendent Henderson and bis 
colleagues. The certificate was designated a state certificate and 
was valid for five years. According to tbe reports, between 
thirty and forty students were in attendance the first summer, 
most of whom were applicants for the certificate ; the following 
year, however, the attendance dropped off and the next legis- 
lature failed to make any provision for the continuation of the 
' ' experiment, ' ' as the superintendent 's report described it. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky 

The final provision made by the State with reference to her 
teachers prior to 1906 was that which was incorporated into the 
charter of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky 
upon its reorganization in 1880. It was in this year that the 
institution which is now the University of Kentucky was detached 
from its ill-starred union of fifteen years with the old Kentucky 
University, and moved to its present location in the southern 
section of Lexington, there to set up an independent existence. 
One provision of its new charter stipulated that "in addition 
to the regular four-year collegiate period of instruction there 
should be established, in connection with the college a normal 
department, or course of instruction for irregular periods, des- 
ignated particularly, but not exclusively, to qualify teachers 
for common and other schools. ' ' 

It is perhaps to be regretted that the first state support for 
the training of teachers since 1858 should have been included in 
the program of an agricultural and mechanical college. Dr. 
H. L. Donovan has well summed up the situation : 

The atmosphere of this institution was not conducive to 
develop trained teachers . . . The professors of this department 
were not held in high academic esteem by their colleagues; and 
likewise the students of the Normal Department were, in the 
common estimate, ranked lower than those of the other colleges. 
Laboring under such handicaps, the school never attained the 
influence that it would have under more auspicious circumstances. 
It failed to reach any considerable number of teachers. Never- 
theless, the faithful teachers in this Normal Department did all 
any group of men could do under the circumstances, and exercised 
a marvelous influence over the few who came to them for instruc- 
tion ... In 1907 this Department was discontinued and a Depart- 
ment of Education of the College of Arts and Science of the Uni- 
versity, with collegiate rank, was established. 5 

B H. L. Donovan, op. cit., p. 17. 


Some of the men connected with this Normal Department 
were A. M. Peterman, Professor J. T. C. Noe, Professor Milford 
White, and Dr. Ruric Nevel Roark, who became the first presi- 
dent of the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, when it 
began operations at Richmond, in 1906. 

State Provisions for Training of Colored Teachers 

Strange as it may seem, Kentucky established a professional 
training school for her colored teachers twenty years before 
she set up independent centers for white teachers, providing in 
1886 an appropriation of $7,000 for buildings and an annual 
$3,000 maintenance appropriation. The school, known as the 
Kentucky Normal and Industrial Institute, was located at Frank- 
fort and from time to time has received considerable increases in 
the appropriations, commensurate with the service it renders. 

Certification and Private Ventures in Teacher-Training 

Although the heading of this section is stated to be private 
ventures in teacher-training, it might be more accurately stated 
to be private schools for preparing prospective teachers for 
"passing" the teachers' examinations. Little attention in the 
early years of these schools was given to teacher-training, but 
most of the effort was directed toward enabling persons to 
"pass" the prescribed examinations. As a matter of fact, in the 
first few years following the establishment of Kentucky's com- 
mon-school system, the matter of certification of teachers is 
extremely vague. In 1838 mention was made of a certificate, 
but it was not until four years later that an examination was 
specified, and this presumably was an oral one. 

During Dr. Breckinridge's term of office, legislation was 
enacted to the effect that the commissioners shall appoint one or 
more examiners of teachers whose duty it shall be "carefully to 
examine all applicants as to their qualifications to teach the 
elements of a plain English education." The certificate, it was 
slated, "may be permanent, or only for a year." Elsewhere in 
the statutes of this administration a "plain English education" 
is described as "including grammar, arithmetic, and geography." 

In 1864 a revision of the certification laws was effected dur- 
ing Superintendent Daniel Stevenson's administration, and we 

Easteen Kentucky State Teachers College 15 

read of two classes of certificates : first class, 6 renewable and 
good for two years, 7 granted to persons well qualified to teach ; 
second class, good for one year and not renewable unless the 
teacher shows improvement. 

In 1878 three classes of certificates and a possible fourth 
were specified, namely, first class and second class with two 
grades in each class. "Those who understand clearly the prin- 
ciples involved, as Avell as the forms, shall be entitled to first 
class, first grade; those who know the forms well and have a 
knowledge of principles, . . . shall be entitled to first class, sec- 
ond grade ; those who know the forms well, but not the principles 
shall be entitled to second class, first grade." The second class 
second grade was issued only as an emergency certificate good for 
only one term in case no other teacher could be obtained for a 
given district. The first class, first grade certificate was valid 
for four years with a possible extension of four years, while the 
other two classes were valid for two years, were not renewable, 
and could not be issued more than twice to the same person. All 
certificates, however, were valid only in the county in which the 
applicant appeared. 

Dr. Henderson, during whose administration the above cer- 
tification laws were passed, did much to improve the standards 
of certification and insisted upon the examiners' refraining from 
extravagant comments, citing as one of the worst instances the 

examiner who wrote : ' ' The bearer, Mr. B , appeared before 

me for examination, and I hereby certify he is the most remark- 
able man for a school teacher I ever saw." 

Still later, certificates were granted on the following bases : 
first class, obtained on an average grade of 85 per cent, good for 
four years with a possible extension of four additional years; 
second class, requiring an average grade of 75 per cent, good for 
two years ; and a third class requiring an average of 65 per cent, 
good for only one year, and not granted twice to an applicant. 

6 Barksdale Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky, p. 78. 

1 Miss Elizabeth Dabney's Master's thesis, University of Kentucky, 
"History of Education in Mason County", says that a former teacher of 
Mason County told her that about this time he was examined. The only 
question asked him was to describe the Danube River. Having given a 
favorable answer, he was granted a two-year certificate. Some examina- 
tion questions of 1874 are valuable as exhibiting the type of scholarship 
expected. In arithmetic, for example, one of the questions is : If U of an 
orange costs iy 2 c, what will % cost? In reading: What are some of the 
principles to be guarded against? 

16 Three Decades of Progress 

There were also two other types of certificates which were 
obtainable through examinations, the "State Certificate' ' and. 
the "State Diploma.'-' Both of these certificates were state wide 
in their validity : the former, good for a period of eight years 
with a possible extension of eight additional years, was secured 
by making an average grade of 90 per cent on a series of exami- 
nations covering the so-called common school examinations re- 
quired in the county certificates, also algebra, English, and 
American literature ; the State Diploma required an average 
grade of 95 per cent in all the subjects required for a state cer- 
tificate together with examinations in geometry, physics, and two 
years of Latin, and it certificated for life. 

To prepare candidates for these examinations, there grad- 
ually grew up in many sections of the State educational institu- 
tions called normal schools. These were of two tj'pes. The 
independent city or graded school, located generally in the 
county seat, permitted prospective teachers to enter for 
the final ten or twelve weeks of the school term, upon the pay- 
ment of a tuition fee. "Normal Review" courses were organ- 
ized, intensive study, drill, and memory work stressed, all of 
which was designed to enable the candidates to "pass" the teach- 
ers' examinations. The other type of normal school was purely 
a private enterprise. "Sixteen private normal schools were 
active in 1880, when the first gesture was made by the State to 
train its teachers. ' ' 8 Some of the better known of these will be 

Perhaps the most successful of all was the Southern Normal 
School, located at Bowling Green, which became in 1906, under 
the same president, Dr. H. H. Cherry, the Western Ken- 
tucky Normal School. This school had enjoyed a splendid 
reputation and had attracted a large number of students for 
many years. It had its inception in Glasgow in 1875 under the 
inspiration of Professor A. W. Mell, who came to Glasgow from 
the National Normal University at Lebanon, Ohio. In 1884 
upon the invilalion of several leading citizens at Bowling Green, 
Professor Mell removed from Glasgow to occupy the site and 
buildings of the defunct Bowling Green Female College. By 

8 H. L. Donovan, op. cit., p. 21. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 17 

1890 the school had made rapid growth and continued to expand 
under the leadership of President H. H. Cherry. 

The school at Glasgow, as has been said, dates back to some 
years earlier. It was the lineal successor of three older schools, 
the Barren County Seminary, Urania College, and the Liberty 
College for Women. The Legislature of 1876 granted a charter 
to the Glasgow Normal School and Business College with power 
to hold annual commencements and public examinations, also to 
"confer .such honorary degrees and diplomas as is usual in col- 
leges and high schools of the commonwealth." A further pro- 
vision was that any graduate holding a diploma "shall be 
deemed qualified to teach in any common school in Kentucky, 
and th.e same shall stand in lieu of a first class, first grade cer- 
tificate, fur both sexes." 

It is interesting to note that board was frequently advanced 
by the citizens of Glasgow to the prospective teachers to be paid 
for when they should receive sufficient salary. 

After Mr. Mell removed to Bowling Green, Ruric N. Roark, 
a native of Muhlenberg Comity, also from the National Normal 
School in Lebanon, Ohio, was in charge of the school at Glasgow 
for a period of five years. (Professor Roark later became the 
first president of the Eastern State Normal School at Richmond 
in 1906.) Following Roark came A. M. Peterman. The school 
declined, however, and was defunct after 1890. 

Dr. McHenry Rhoads, formerly State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction in Kentucky, has stated : 

Another venture in teacher-training about that time was the 
West Kentucky Classical and Normal College at South Carrollton, 
Kentucky. This school was established in 1874 under the name 
of Male and Female Institute. In 1SS6. a teacher-training depart- 
ment was created. Diplomas from the institution were made 
valid as State Certificates. 

In the same year, Hartford College added a teacher-training 
department and the Legislature gave the graduates of that institu- 
tion, holding diplomas therefrom, the right to teach in any public 
school in the State without further examination. 

. . . There were a few other private institutions of lesser 
rank which gave teacher-training. Some of them had the legis- 
lature to make their diplomas equivalent to state certificates. 
With the establishment of the regular state normal schools a new 
certificating law became effective. 

9 Palmore, History of Education in Barren County, Kentucky. (Master's 
thesis in University of Kentucky Library.) 

18 Three Decades of Progress 

In the eastern section of the State one of the best known 
schools was developed at Normal, Kentucky, a suburb of Catletts- 
burg, under the leadership of Miss Neptha Savage, afterwards 
Mrs. Mordecai Williams. Mrs. Williams was a vigorous woman, 
a well trained teacher, a graduate of Dr. Alfred Holbrook's 
famous normal school at Lebanon, Ohio, and conducted for 
many years one of the best private normal schools in the State. 
Still another school was established in 1887 at Morehead, Ken- 
tucky, by Mrs. Phoebe Button and her son, F. C. Button. This 
is the school which later was transferred to the State when, in 
1922, the State increased its number of training schools for 
teachers to four. The school was known as the Morehead Nor- 
mal School and was chiefly under the control of the Kentucky 
Christian Missionary Society. 

In an adjoining county, Carter, in 1905, Professor J. W. 
Lusby began offering courses at high school level, designed to 
prepare teachers for the county schools of Carter and adjacent 
sections. In Lewis county, a flourishing local normal school 
existed for many years, offering only ten-week courses in the 
spring under the direction of Professor T. M. Games. In the 
southern section of the State similar schools existed in Casey 
county, at Whitesburg in Letcher county, at Beattyville in Lee 
county, and at Barbourville in Knox county. It is well-nigh 
impossible to get a complete list of these schools, inasmuch as 
there are few catalogs extant. Indeed, many of the schools 
never issued catalogs, but depended upon newspaper publicity 
and printed handbills. 

Old Central University, founded in Richmond in 1874 by 
the Kentucky Synod of the Southern Presbyterian church, whose 
campus and properties were later transferred to the Common- 
wealth of Kentucky for the purpose of locating the Eastern Ken- 
tucky State Normal School, maintained four collegiate insti- 
tutes, or preparatory schools, in connection with a program of 
state-wide contact. Six .schools were originally contemplated, 
but apparently only four were organized. One was on the 
campus in Richmond, and the others were at Jaekson, Elizabeth- 
town, and Middlcsboro. All of these schools offered normal 
courses. The catalog of the one at Jackson for 1898-99 describes 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 19 

in detail the courses and classes available for "teachers of all 
grades." 10 

Likewise upon the campus of the mother school in Rich- 
mond, as indeed in many other colleges in Kentucky and the 
South, a normal department was set up. The catalog of Central 
University for the year 1892-93 outlines the course of study 
known as the Teachers' Normal Course. 11 It also describes 
summer courses beginning June 19 and closing July 15, 1893, 
which were intended "to meet the wants of two classes of per- 
sons, teachers in the public schools throughout the state who are 
ambitious to fit themselves for higher grade certificates and 
better work in the schoolroom, and young men and women fitting 
for college." 

The County Institute 

The chapter should not be closed without some reference to 
still another effort at professional training in this barren period. 
Meager though it was, the Teachers' County Institute for many 
years was the only substitute for the longer period of pedagogical 
instruction. The institute was provided for by law in 1870. 
Superintendent Henderson, addressing the next legislature, 
urged the necessity of substituting in its stead a state normal 
school. 12 "No system of institutes, however efficiently con- 
ducted," he stated, "can be anything more than partial sub- 
stitutes. The necessary brevity of their sessions, the extempo- 
rized teaching, the variety of methods, and the conflict of opinions 
serve to modify the utility of the institute system. In connec- 
tion with a state normal school they would be more useful than 
now. ' ' 

His plea, however, w r as disregarded and the county institute 
as such was continued in Kentucky until about 1920. The 
institute was generally in session a week, during which 
period all the teachers in a county were gathered together, 
usually at the county seat. A visiting instructor was present, 
often a man of good professional training. During this week 
intensive study of the courses of study was entered into, the new 

10 See Chapter XV for an account of Central University. 

11 Complete sets of catalogs of Central University are in Eastern's 
Library and the library of Centre College. 

12 Barksdale Hamlett, op. cit., p. 124. 

20 Three Decades op Progress 

and inexperienced teachers were given definite instruction along 
practical lines, while better teachers assisted in endeavoring to 
demonstrate good pedagogical devices. Indeed, it is greatly to 
the credit of Kentucky educators that they faithfully carried out 
the best features of these county institutes for more than thirty- 
five years, despising not the day of little things, as they hoped 
and looked for a better day. 13 


This chapter discusses the rather, disheartening period for 
the training of Kentucky teachers prior to 1906. It is impos- 
sible to overestimate the losses suffered by Kentucky in an edu- 
cational way during the first century, and more, of her statehood 
by reason of her failure to recognize that she needed an intelli- 
gent and well trained body of teachers. She was not, however, 
alone in her maze of errors, for the history of many sections 
points to similar deficiencies. It is the hope, however, of all 
connected in any way with her educational system that the 
mistakes of the past may never be duplicated, but rather that a 
clear recognition of the value of excellent teachers to a state 
may spur all to greater efforts. 

13 Syllabi for the daily exercises of these county institutes were pub- 
lished and distributed from the office of the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. A copy of the one for 1S90, in the editor's possession, contains 
forty-three pages of outlines for work in reading, spelling, writing, grammar, 
language, composition, civil government, geography, United States history, 
school laws, theory and practice of teaching, organization of district schools, 
school government, arithmetic, physiology and hygiene and the solution of 
educational problems. This syllabus, the introduction to which was written 
by Joseph Desha Pickett, appears to be arranged for a five-day institute, 
but it contains enough subject matter for at least a semester. 


By Jonathan T. Dorris 


A life-long friend of popular 
education, the late Jere A. Sulli- 
van, Richmond attorney, was in- 
fluential in the founding of Nor- 
mal Schools in Kentucky. 

"Next in importance to 
freedom and justice is popu- 
lar education, without which 
neither freedom nor justice 
can be permanently main- 
tained." When James Abram 
Garfield wrote these words 
(July 12, 1880), accepting 
the nomination to the presi- 
dency, the twelfth Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruc- 
tion in Kentucky, Joseph 
Desha Pickett, was in the first 
year of his long term of office 
(1879-1887). Every one of 
Mr. Pickett's eleven able 
predecessors had recognized 
the truth which Garfield later 
so classically expressed, and 
had in turn urged the Legis- 
lature of the Commonwealth 
to establish schools for the 
training of teachers. And it 
may be said that this educa- 

tional maxim, penned by the first college president to be elected 
President of the United States, was restated by Superintendent 
Pickett when he eloquently declared : 

In the Normal School, the State lays the very foundation of 
self perpetuation. She opens the future to her own prosperity. 
She builds the bulwarks of her own strength, by giving might to 
her coming citizen, when she gives to herself the Normal School, 
perfect in its parts, strict in its purpose ... to equip the teacher 
for the training of her children and for the development of her 
future citizen and her future lawmaker. 


Three Decades of Progress 


Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 23 

Pickett's eloquence, however, was of no avail; 1 and, further- 
more, as in the instances of his predecessors, 2 similar recommen- 
dations by his first three successors likewise received no sub- 
stantial consideration. 3 Nevertheless, like the proverbial drip- 
ping of drops of water that finally wears away the stone, the 
voice of the leaders of public education in the State was finally 
heeded. But not until a comprehensive and thorough educa- 
tional campaign had been planned and executed were the citizens 
of the Commonwealth awakened to the urgent need of state 
schools for the preparation of teachers. When that had been 
done the Legislators, influenced by an enlightened and aggres- 
sive citizenry, unanimously acceded to the teachers' demands. 

The Educational Improvement Commission 

In 1904 the teachers of Kentucky, after sixty-five years of 
agitation, took a definite and effective step toward developing 
sufficient sentiment to cause the General Assembly at its next 
session to establish a permanent and adequate system of public 
normal schools. In fact, other improvements in the school sys- 
tem of the Commonwealth were contemplated when the Ken- 
tucky Educational Association, meeting at Maysville in June, 
created a committee to consider the organization of an Improve- 
ment Commission to promote a better educational program in 
the State. The following April Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, James H. Fuqua, called a conference of educators and 
other citizens at Frankfort to consider similar plans. The out- 
come of this meeting was a committee to confer with the one 
appointed at Maysville. 

These committees recommended to the Kentucky Educa- 
tional Association, at its annual meeting at Mammoth Cave in 

1 During- Pickett's administration the State Teachers Association secured 
the introduction of a bill in the Legislature providing' for a one-room normal 
for whites and a one-room normal for negroes in each Congressional district. 
The joint committee to which the measure was referred would have recom- 
mended its passage if Pickett had not disapproved the movement. Pickett 
recommended state schools for the training of teachers but he did not want 
such inconsequential institutions as this bill provided. His opposition greatly 
displeased the committee of teachers advocating- the bill. See Proceedings 
of the Kentucky State Teachers Association. December, 1SS4, p. 34 et seq. 

2 No recommendation for state normal schools appears in Hon. H. "V'. 
McChesney's report, 1899-1903. The omission was surely an oversight. 

3 Barksdale Hamlett's History of Education in Kentucky contains every 
Superintendent's recommendation from Bullock (1838-39) to Fuciua (1903- 
1907) for state normal schools. Dr. H. L. Donovan's A State's Elementary 
Teacher-Training Problem (Kentucky) , Nashville, 1H25, Chapter II. gives 
a good account of efforts to obtain state normal schools in the Common- 
wealth from 1838 to 1906. 


Three Decades of Progress 

June, the organization of an Educational Improvement Com- 
mission. The primary purpose of this body was "to conduct 
an educational campaign in order to create public sentiment and 
stir public enthusiasm in favor of thoroughly trained and 
equipped teachers, for the Public Schools of the Commonwealth ; 
[in favor of] a system of State Normal Schools, as the necessary 
measure of training and equipping teachers for higher profes- 
sional service ; [in favor of] better school houses and better 


equipment for them; [and in favor of] longer terms aud larger 
salaries for teachers.'' 4 The joint committee also recommended 
the creation of a "State Central Committee of citizens and 
teachers" to be composed of three persons from each of the 
eleven Congressional districts of the State. The purpose of this 
body was "to cooperate with the District Educational Associa- 
tions . . ., with the County Associations and Institutes, with 
County Superintendents, and with other Educational bodies and 
officials, in creating popular interest in Education, in Ken- 

The Mammoth Cave Convention created an Executive Com- 
mittee of five to act for three years as an advisory council to the 

4 See the Southern School Journal for 1905, especially the September 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 25 

officers of the Educational Commission. This committee was 
authorized to define the policies, to outline the administration, 
to control the finances, and to nominate the officers of the Com- 
mission. It was also to prepare a constitution and by-laws for 
the Commission, to be ratified by the Association at its annual 
meeting in June, 1906. 

The Executive Committee was composed of Dr. E. E. Hume, 
of Frankfort, Chairman; Superintendent E. H. Mark, of the 
Louisville Schools; Supt. James H. Fuqua; President H. H. 
Cherry, of the Southern Normal School at Bowling Green ; and 
Superintendent J. A. Sharon, of the Paris High School. These 
gentlemen chose Superintendent M. 0. "Winfrey, of Middles- 
boro, President, and Hon. E. R. Jones, of Frankfort, Treasurer 
of the Commission. "As the Executive Committee was unwill- 
ing to make a nomination at that time for Secretary, the Ken- 
tucky Educational Association . . . authorized" the election of 
President M. 0. Winfrey "to act as Secretary, which he did for 
more than two years. ' ' 5 The State Central Committee of thirty- 
three, with perhaps one exception, was composed of two promi- 
nent laymen and one outstanding schoolman from each Congres- 
sional district. "With this organization the Kentucky Educa- 
tional Association launched perhaps the most important cam- 
paign for the improvement of education that has ever been con- 
ducted in the State. This movement increased in magnitude 
until, under the able direction of Superintendent J. G-. Crabbe 
(1908-1909), it was characterized as a "whirlwind educational 
campaign. ' ' 

The immediate program of the Commission, as outlined by 
the Executive Committee, was the distribution of literature, 
"showing the condition of Kentucky as compared with other 
states of the Union" ; the sending of "speakers to various locali- 
ties to arouse the people"; and the keeping of "a strong Legis- 
lative Committee before the next General Assembly to fight for 
State Normal Schools and other measures looking to the educa- 
tional uplift of the Commonwealth." It also utilized the press 
to great advantage in promoting its program. The Committee 
deemed it necessary at the outset to make it plain as to why the 

6 J. G. Crabbe, Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, 1909, p. 336. 

26 Three Decades of Progress 

Commission was formed. An article in the Glasgow Times was 

given as "very nearly" expressing its sentiments. It stated in 

part : 

We find that Kentucky is one of the two states of the Union 
that does not maintain a system of State Normal Schools . . . ; 8 
that there are only three states in the Union that show a greater 
percentage of ignorance among their white population; that less 
than one-half of our pupil children are attending any school 
whatever; that there is a very small percentage of the total school 
fund of the State raised by local taxation; that our State is not 
keeping pace with the other States of the South in the great 
educational wave that is sweeping the country; . . . and that public 
sentiment on educational matters is at a very low ebb and needs 

The objectives of the Mammoth Cave Convention were high- 
ly commendable. Apparently they included every immediate 
and remote need in the field of popular education. Not only 
were adequate teacher-training institutions, supported by the 
State, determined upon as an immediate goal, but the develop- 
ment of a highly professionalized and well-paid body of teach- 
ers, unhampered by "partisan politics, sectionalism, and per- 
sonalities," was also contemplated. Further, a more efficient 
administrative system, devoid of nepotism and the menacing and 
pernicious evils attending the existing trustee system of rural 
teacher appointment, was an ultimate objective. 

The magnitude of the task which the educational forces of 
the State had undertaken in 1905 required considerable funds. 
Voluntary subscriptions exceeding five hundred dollars were 
raised at the Mammoth Cave Convention. Soon thereafter 
county teachers associations made contributions. A total of 
$1,058.00 came from the nine counties of Warren, Barren, Mon- 
roe, Mercer, Elliott, Rowen, Owen. Pike, and Washington. 7 
During a tri-county institute at Frankfort. $350.00 was raised, 
each of the thirty teachers of Woodford County giving three 
dollars and their .superintendent twenty, from their meager 
salaries. 8 In this heroic manner the teachers of Kentucky mani- 
fested their earnestness in the cause, and a fairly large sum was 
placed at the disposal of the commission. 

The work done by the educational forces of the State from 
June, 1005, until January, 1906, was considerable. The press 

6 Arkansas was the other. 

''Southern School Journal, August, 1905, p. 16. 

8 Ibid, p. 25. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 27 

was utilized and nearly two-hundred newspapers devoted space 
to the program, some setting ' ' apart a column or two for school 
news exclusively". Laymen spoke and wrote and teachers 
worked unceasingly. The Southern School Journal, published 
at Lexington by Rice S. Eubank and Thos. W. Vinson and edited 
by J. C. Willis, continued to utilize every means possible to 
increase sentiment favorable to the Commission's objectives. 9 
The service rendered by this "Official Organ of the Kentucky 
State Board of Education" can hardly be overestimated. For 
months before the Mammoth Cave Convention its pages had 
given pictures and articles about public normal schools in other 
States. This glowing information, from Illinois and Indiana 
especially, aroused much interest in the subject. More than half 
of the Journal's pages in the December (1905) issue were 
devoted to the need of state normal schools in Kentucky. 
Articles by educators in other states were certainly helpful to 
the cause, but it was the efforts of Kentuckians that accelerated 
the movement and crystalized public sentiment to the point 
where victory was certain. Two laymen deserve special men- 
tion — Judge AV. M. Beckner, of Winchester, and Judge M. C. 
Saufley, of Stanford. Their scholarly articles in the Southern 
School Journal surely had great influence upon those whose sup- 
port was uncertain. Judge Beckner, who had helped make the 
State 's last constitution, wrote : 

If it be conceded that properly prepared teachers are neces- 
sary to the proper organization of a school system in Kentucky, 
the question of normal schools is no longer one of policy. The 
legislature has no discretion in the matter. Our new constitution 
declares that the 'General Assembly shall by appropriate legisla- 
tion, provide for an efficient system of Common Schools through- 
out the state.' Can the system be 'efficient' when its chief corner- 
stone has been left out? We are living under the fourth constitu- 
tion, adopted since the state was admitted, and this is the first 
in which such a requirement can be found. It means something. 
and our legislators should feel it oppress their consciences until 
they have obeyed their oaths of office to do what the Constitution 
so clearly demands. 

There were many other good points in Judge Beckner 's 
article, but undoubtedly his interpretation of Section 183 of the 
constitution to mean that the General Assemblv was under obli- 

°The writer is indebted to the late Miss Wattie Dalton for the gift of 
Volumes XVI-XVIII of the Southern School Journal (1905-1908), which 
have been very useful in preparing this account. The volumes are now in 
Pastern's library. 

28 Three Decades op Progress 

gations to establish normal schools to "provide for an efficient 
system of Common Schools throughout the state" was the most 
important. And, coming from such source, this opinion had a 
telling effect on the members of the coming Legislature, for 
Superintendent Fuqua quoted the whole of Beckner's article in 
hjs report to the body. 

Judge Saufley also discussed the constitutional phase of the 
question. He stated that the constitution of 1850 was not man- 
datory in requiring an efficient public school system. It merely 
provided that "the 'Common School Fund' shall be held invio- 
late 'for the purpose of sustaining a system of common 
schools.' " The organic law of 1850, he stated, did "not declare 
what sort of a system of schools shall be provided, whether good, 
better, or best ; whether it shall be efficient or less than efficient." 
The Judge declared that this omission had been supplied in Sec- 
tion 183 of the existing constitution. Then after further dis- 
cussion he stated: "It would seem like a waste of words to 
remind the Legislature that lawyers, doctors, pharmacists, mine 
superintendents, and other classes of professional men must be 
specially educated for their work before practicing for the 
public. Why should not a school teacher?" he asked. Judge 
Saufley 's scholarly article was indeed a logical argument for a 
state system of teacher-training schools. 

Space forbids any further consideration of the many other 
able papers on the subject of normal schools that appeared in 
the Journal in 1905. Suffice it to say that every phase of the 
subject was well considered. Mention, however, should be made 
of a few of these articles and their authors. "Some Educational 
Needs", by Supt. D. S. Clinger, Maysville ; "Normal Schools", 
by President Livingston G. Lord, Eastern Illinois State Normal 
School; "Kentucky and School Legislation", by Supt. J. A. 
Sharon, Paris; "Our Present Demands", by Supt, Win. F. 
Ramey, Carlisle; and "Educational Needs", by Supt. E. H. 
Mark, Louisville, stressed the need of state supported schools 
for the training of teachers. 10 

Late in 1905 the Educational Improvement Commission 
formulated a petition to be presented to the General Assembly 

10 Southern School Journal, December, 1905. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


when it met in January. About eight th.ousand copies of it 
were mailed to as many educators and other citizens, who were 
instructed to secure signatures and return the papers as soon as 
possible. In this manner the Legislature was memorialized to 



enact a law "to provide for the establishment and maintenance 
of an efficient system of State Normal Schools . . ., for the specific 
purpose," the petition ran, "of giving such training to the 
common school teachers of Kentucky as will enable them to make 
those schools efficient; thus giving to the children of the 'Great 
Common People ' educational advantages in keeping with that of 

30 Three Decades of Progress 

the other States of the South and West, and at the same time 
enhancing the peace, dignity, and prosperity of this Common- 
wealth". 11 

The Law Establishing Normal Schools 

The General Assembly which convened at Frankfort in Jan- 
uary, 1906, will always be eulogized by historians of educa- 
tion in Kentucky. Perhaps no other body of legislators in the 
State ever responded more heartily to the electorate's demand 
for improvement in the public school system. The educational 
forces, of course, were represented at the Capital to influence 
action on their program, and Superintendent Fuqua voiced their 
sentiment by including Judge Beckner's able article, already 
mentioned, in his biennial report to the Legislature, "as a clear 
and concise statement of the situation and of the State's needs 
for normal schools." 12 

Governor J. C. W. Beckham, however, approached the sub- 
ject rather cautiously. In his message to the General Assembly, 
he said: "The question of establishing normal schools will be 
seriously pressed upon your attention, but to do so the money 
would have to come out of the school fund, for there are no other 
means now available for such a purpose. If they can be estab- 
lished without seriously trespassing upon the school fund, then 
I believe it would be a good idea to do so." And on the subject 
of education in general he advised: "... this General As- 
sembly should consider, not the appropriation of more money, 
but such improvement in the school system as will bring forth 
more valuable results from the large amount already spent for 
such purposes." 13 

On January 9, Hon. Richard W. Miller, Representative from 
Madison County, introduced a bill which the schoolmen had 
formulated. It provided for three normal schools, each to 
receive $50,000.00 for grounds, buildings, and equipment, and 
$25,000.00 for salaries and other expenses. The measure divided 
the State into three districts, naming the counties in each and 
allowing the board of regents of each to determine the location 

" Ibid. 

12 Supt. James H. Fuqua's Report, Dec. 30, 1905, pp. 33—36. 

13 See House Journal for 19U(i, p. lilt ; also Southern School Journal, Jan. 
J906, p. 39, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 31 

of their school. Other provisions granted six students from each 
county free tuition and specified that model and practice schools 
should consist of at least the first five grades, to each of which 
not more than thirty pupils could be admitted at one time. 14 

As soon as Miller 's measure was referred to the proper com- 
mittee, objections to its passage began to be made. A recent 
decision of the Appellate Court had reduced the State's sources 
of revenue, and furthermore, $250,000.00 additional funds ap- 
peared necessary to complete the new Capitol then under con- 
struction. The normal school bill, therefore, would necessitate 
more funds than the General Assembly ought to provide at that 
time. 15 Moreover, a measure allowing $50,000.00 for the normal 
department of the State College (now the University of Ken- 
tucky) was before the Legislature. So conditions appeared to 
require the preparation of a substitute bill for normal schools. 
Even the Executive Committee of the Educational Improvement 
Commission receded from its demand for three schools and 
decided to ask "for only one state normal school at this time." 10 

Since it appeared that the General Assembly could hardly 
afford to make sufficient appropriations for three (or even two) 
normals, sentiment for only one developed rapidly. Soon a bill 
embodying this opinion began to take form.; and it appeared that 
the school would be located at Bowling Green, for that city 
offered the State the plant of the Southern Normal School 
operated there by Messrs. II. H. and T. C. Cherry. Naturally 
it was apparent that a state school would be so valuable an asset 
to any community that the Legislature should expect cities to 
bid for its location. Thus only a small appropriation would be 
necessary in 1906 to establish a normal school. 

Bowling Green, however, had a worthy rival for the State's 
favor. Richmond had expected, before the Legislature con- 
vened, to get one of the schools contemplated. Soon after the 
Civil War the Southern Presbyterians had established in this 
city an institution called Central University. Much against the 
wishes of the people of Richmond this school had been united 
with Centre College at Danville in 1901. The plant of Central 

14 House Journal, 1906, p. 1164. 

15 Lexington Herald, Feb. 8, 1906, an article: "Why Richmond's Proposi- 
tion for a Normal School Should be Accepted." 

19 Southern School Journal, Feb., 1906. 

32 Three Decades op Progress 

University, therefore, was available for a normal, and it was 
indeed significant that a graduate of this defunct institution 
introduced the bill to establish three such schools in the State 
The fact that Central University was a precursor to the State 
Teachers College in Richmond has caused an account of it to be 
given in the last chapter of this book. 

Mr. Miller soon became anxious over the fate of his measure 
and especially the probability of the establishment of only one 
normal and its location at Bowling Green. His fears were 
shared by others in Madison County, and Hon. Jere A. Sullivan 
and Hon. W. Rodes Shackelford, of Richmond, soon arrived in 
Frankfort to aid him. Henceforth, this triumvirate of old Cen- 
tral University graduates and other prominent citizens of Rich- 
mond, many of whom were also graduates of Central University, 
played a conspicuous role in the movement to establish teacher- 
training schools in the Commonwealth. And it should be borne 
in mind that these men were determined to have the normal, if 
there was to be only one, located in Richmond. 

Mr. Miller invited Mr. Sullivan to revise his bill. Sullivan, 
however, soon pronounced it as not worth amending and began 
to prepare another measure. Feeling the need of a competent 
schoolman's aid, he invited President H. H. Cherry, of BoAvling 
Green, to assist him. While Mr. Sullivan was working on his 
substitute bill, Mr. Shackelford was lobbying among members of 
both Houses to get Richmond chosen as the site of the school. 
At that time only one was contemplated and its location was 
likely to be determined by the General Assembly. 

It appears that the political set-up at Frankfort was more 
favorable toward Bowling Green than toward Richmond. Mr. 
Shackelford soon recognized this and recommended "a compro- 
mise by having two normals, one at Richmond and one at Bowl- 
ing Green." It so happened that the late Dr. R. N. McCormack, 
Secretary of the State Board of Health and a resident of Bowl- 
ing Green, had attracted Mr. Sullivan's attention by his earnest 
advocacy of Bowling Green as a location for the one normal 
school then under consideration. After Mr. Shackelford's sug- 
gestion Mr. Sullivan invited Dr. McCormack to his room in the 
old Capital Hotel and proposed to him that the substitute bill 

Easteen Kentucky State Teachees College 33 

provide for two normals. Dr. McCorniaek agreed to the proposi- 
tion and the two men made "an offensive and defensive alliance 
as to two normals ... to last through that legislature and all fu- 
ture time." The important part of the agreement, of course, was 
that one of the schools would he located at Bowling Green and 
the other at Richmond. Mr. Sullivan's substitute bill, therefore, 
named each of these cities "as the location of one of the two 
normal schools to be established." 17 

At this point Judge Anthony R. Burnam, of Richmond, 
and Judge Louis McQuown, of Bowling Green, were invited to 
Mr. Sullivan's room to pass upon the constitutionality of the 
measure. President Cherry was also present. Upon being as- 
sured that the bill was satisfactory, Mr. Sullivan determined to 
get Governor Beckham's approval before submitting it to the 
Legislature. Owing to certain political rivalries between the 
Governor and Hon. James B. McCreary, of Richmond, Mr. Sul- 
livan deemed it prudent to get a mutual friend to interview 
Governor Beckham. Thereupon he wired Judge John M. Lass- 
ing, of Covington, another graduate of Central University, to 
come to Frankfort. Judge Lassing adjourned his court, came to 
the Capital, and secured the Governor's approval of the bill. 
Beckham told Lassing, however, that he desired an interview 
with Miller and Sullivan in order to recommend a slight altera- 
tion in the measure. In a day or two these gentlemen visited 
the Governor, who assured them that he approved the bill, and 
stated that he "would be glad to see a normal school located on 
the old Central University grounds . . . where he had attended 
college ..." He also approved the location of the other normal 
at Bowling Green, but he believed that the two cities should not 
be named in the measure, for the inclusion would eliminate the 
consideration of other places and thereby arouse such opposition 
th,at the bill would probably be defeated. The Governor advised 
a commission to be appointed by him to locate the two schools. 
This was a new idea to Miller and Sullivan, who retired to con- 
sider the matter. Miller was more fearful than Sullivan that a 
commission would not favor Richmond. When the men resumed 
the interview the Governor assured them that they might ap- 

17 Article by Hon. J. A. Sullivan, Richmond Panlagrapli, July 16, 1926. 
E. S. T. C— 2 

34 Three Decades op Progress 

prove the members of the commission before their appoint- 
ment. 18 

The change in the new bill recommended by Governor Beck- 
ham was made, and on February 9, Henry C. Miller, Chairman 
of the Committee on Education No. 1, reported to the House the 
earlier measure known as "House Bill 112", with the new bill 
as "an amendment thereto by way of a substitute therefor." 



Named in honor of Jere A. Sullivan and A. R. Burnam , who were in- 
fluential in the establishment of the college in Richmond. 

On February 11, the first bill with its substitute was recom- 
mitted "to the Committee on Appropriations, with leave to 
report at any time . . ." On March 2 this committee reported 
and the eighty-three members of the House present voted unani- 
mously for the measure. 1 " The bill was taken immediately to 
the Senate, where on March 8 the proper committee reported it 
without amendment. "By unanimous consenl the rules were 
Suspended and the Senate took up" the measure for considera- 
tion. Two attempts to amend were defeated. The significance of 
a part of one of the proposed amendments deserves mention, 


1S House Journal, l'.lOG, pp. 92, 51G, 585, 1173, 11S3. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 35 

since it would have restricted the schools to only "those subjects 
and courses of study which prepare students for teaching in the 
public schools." The motive for this attempt to amend was 
evidently a desire to restrict the schools to the preparation of 
teachers. The amendment was advocated by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Association of Kentucky Colleges, which on Feb- 
ruary 21 had appointed a committee "to visit Frankfort to 
induce the Legislature to amend the law then pending ... so as 
to limit the power of said schools in the direction of granting 
literary degrees." 20 Finally, however, the bill was ordered to 
be read the third time, and the "third reading being dispensed 
with, the vote was taken". There were present thirty-four 
Senators, all of whom voted for the measure. 21 On March 21, 
it received Governor Beckham's signature and became a law. 

The salient features of the law were : 

(1) The establishment of two institutions to be known as 
"The 'Eastern Kentucky State Normal School', to be located in 
Normal School district No. 1, and the 'Western Kentucky Nor- 
mal School', to be located in Normal School district No. 2, the 
boundaries of which" were fixed by a commission appointed by 
the Governor. 

(2) The object of the schools was stated to be the fulfill- 
ment "of section one-hundred and eighty-three of the Constitu- 
tion of Kentucky, by giving to the teachers of the Common- 
wealth such training ... as may be deemed necessary by the 
Normal Executive Council, hereinafter created ..." 

(3) There were to be a Board of Regents for each of the 
schools, consisting of five members, four of whom were to be ap- 
pointed by the Governor and the fifth the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, who should be chairman of each board. 

(4) "In order to enable the Boards of Regents to carry 
out the provision" of the law $10,000.00 was appointed "to be 
divided equally between the two Normal Schools . . . for the pur- 
pose of equipping suitable buildings, improving grounds, etc., 

20 See a long- article on "The College and the State Normal School", by 
President Arthur Yeager, of Georgetown College, in the Southern Scliool 
Journal, June, 1906. 

21 Senate Journal, 1906, pp. 996, 1121. It is interesting to note that Hon. 
J. W. Cammack, one of Eastern's regents since 1906, was a member of the 
Senate in 1906. 

36 Three Decades of Progress 

and the sum of forty thousand dollars ($40,000.00) annually, to 
be divided equally between the two schools for the purpose of 
defraying the salaries of teachers and other current ex- 
penses ..." 

(5) Each county in a district was entitled to a free scholar- 
ship for "one white pupil for every five hundred and fraction 
thereof over two hundred and fifty, of white children" in the 
county. Pupils refusing to sign an agreement to teach in the 
public schools of the State not fewer than two years upon an 
elementary certificate or three years upon an advanced certifi- 
cate must pay the fees and tuition prescribed by the Board of 
Regents. 22 

The Question of Location 

As has already been stated, certain citizens of Richmond 
determined earl}" to get a normal for their fair city, whether 
three, one or two were established. Even before the General 
Assembly met, the gift of the plant of old Central University 
to the Commonwealth as an inducement to secure the location of 
the school was considered. In August or September (1905) the 
young county superintendent of schools of Madison County, 
Hon. John Noland, a graduate of Central University and at 
present a member of the Board of Regents of Eastern, suggested 
to Superintendent Fuqua, the possibility of securing this prop- 
erty without any cost to the State. 23 The plant belonged to 
Walters College Institute, which operated an academy there. 

Soon after the normal school situation arose the Richmond 
Commercial Club became very active. This organization imme- 
diately undertook the task of influencing the Institute to offer 
its property to the State without cost on condition that a teacher- 
training school be located in Richmond. The Club also directed 
the city's efforts to influence the Legislature, and later the Com- 
mission, to accept this proposition. The very worthy service 
rendered by the Commercial Club justifies the mention of its 
officers. They were B. L. Banks, President; Clarence E. AVoods, 
Secretary; and Roberl R. Burnam (a graduate of Central Uni- 

22 This agreement to teach is no longer required ami free tuition has 
always been allowed. The district feature of the law was respected until 
1922, when two other teachers colleges were established. 

28 Mr. Noland ami the late Judge W. Rodes Shackelford read this chapter 
before its publication. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 37 

versity), Harry B. Hanger, and G. W. Piekels, First, Second and 
Third Vice Presidents respectively. Mr. "Woods was also Mayor 
of Richmond and had been a student at Central University. On 
the evening of the very day (January 9) Miller introduced his 
normal school bill in the House the Secretary of the Commercial 
Club recorded in his minutes : ' ' The Normal School question 
was discussed and it was explained that with our excellent rep- 
resentation in the present Legislature ... we should be able to 
make a fine fight for the location of one of the branch schools. ' ' 24 

Again on January 25 the Club called a mass meeting of the 
citizens of Richmond in the Courthouse "for the express pur- 
pose of arousing public interest ... to secure the location of . . . 
the State Normal School to be established by the present Legis- 
lature." The handbill announcing the meeting stated: "Rich- 
mond has more to offer than any of her rivals, but it is absolute- 
ly necessary that our properly placed before the 
Legislature . . . " 25 The Richmond Kentucky Register, edited 
by Thos. H. Piekels, another graduate of Central University, in 
reporting this meeting the next day announced the appointment 
of a committee to go to Frankfort "to sound the temper of the 
Legislature and to boom the location for this city." At that 
time onky one school was expected to be established, and the 
Register further stated: "... Richmond's chance is to have 
the name of this city inserted in the bill." 

The committee named for this purpose comprised "Judge 
A. R. Burnam, Hon. J. A. Sullivan, R. R. Burnam, "W. R. 
Shackelford, W. B. Smith, C. E. "Woods, J. Tevis Codd, John D. 
Goodloe, John B. Chenault, C. C. Wallace, G. W. Gates, Dr. C. 
H. Vaught, Judge C. H. Breck, Rev. Hugh McClellan, C. L. 
Searcy, Prof. Jno. Noland, John R. Gibson, John C. Chenault, 
N. B. Deatherage, E. Tutt Burnam, Grant E. Lilly, R. E. Tur- 
ley, and T. J. Smith." 20 At least eight of these men had at- 
tended Central University. 

To this committee and to Hon. R. W". Miller and Hon. Curtis 
F. Burnam, who were members of the House and the Senate 

M Ms. in the writer's possession. 

25 Handbill is in the writer's possession. 

28 Clipping-, Richmond Kentucky Register, Jan. 26, 1906. 

38 Three Decades of Progress 

respectively, Richmond will be forever obligated for securing 
the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College. President B. L. 
Banks, of the Commercial Club, Mr. C. L. Searcy, Col. J. W. 
Caperton, and Judge J. M. Benton, a native of Madison County 
but a citizen of Winchester, should also be included in the list. 
And of course, there were others who contributed to the cause. 
The committee appointed by the Commercial Club were 
active until their objectives Avere achieved. The work of some 
of the members has already been noted. The services rendered 
by Rev. Hugh McLellan 27 and Clarence E. "Woods deserve 
special mention. Rev. McLellan was active at the outset in 
enlisting the Commercial Club in the cause. AVith Mr. Sullivan 
he addressed a teachers' meeting at Frankfort in behalf of Rich- 
mond's offer to secure the school. He also appeared with Mr. 
Sullivan before the joint educational committee of the House 
and Senate for the same purpose. This, of course, was before 
the substitute bill was introduced. Suffice it to say further that 
Rev. McLellan was a tower of strength in the cause until the 
goal was attained. 

As Mayor of Richmond, Mr. Woods was naturally a leader 
in the movement to secure a normal for his city. 28 His activity 
as secretary of the Commercial Club was useful to the movement. 

At the most opportune time he appeared in Frankfort with 
scores of pictures of everything of interest in Richmond which 
might influence members of the Legislature to vote to locate the 
normal school in Richmond. All this material was placed on an 
entire side wall of the famous old Capital Hotel under the cap- 
tion: "What Richmond Offers Free of Cost to the State for a 
Normal School." This display contained a pamphlet the cover 
page of which announced : 

What Richmond Offers 

A ready-made Normal School Plant. 

A Main College Building Seating S00; worth $60,000. 

A Dormitory, 35 rooms; worth $30,000. 

A Gymnasium Worth $5,000; fully equipped. 

2T Rev. McLellan was the pastor of the First Christian Church of Rich- 
mond. He is now i>:islor of the First Christian Church of Winchester. 

m Tlio writer is indebted to Mr. Woods tor considerable contemporaneous 

material and other matter pertaining to the founding of Eastern and its 
location in Richmond. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 39 

An Athletic Field, A Grand Stand. 

A City with a College and School Spirit. 

A Railroad Center — The most accessible point to the majority 
of Kentucky Teachers. 

All this we offer Free, constituting the most liberal and 
economical proposition ever made to the taxpayers of Kentucky. 

The pamphlet gave information concerning Madison Coun- 
ty, the city of Richmond, the grounds and buildings of Central 
University, special description being made of the main college 
building, the dormitory, the gymnasium, the athletic field and 
the campus. The last three paragraphs setting forth Rich- 
mond 's offer stated : 

The property above described, is well worth the sum of 
$150,000 and could not, considering building, walks, drives, shade 
trees, etc., be reproduced for that sum after years of labors, and 
the Trustees of Walters Collegiate Institute offer it to the Com- 
monwealth of Kentucky, to be used as a Normal School, if the 
General Assembly of Kentucky will locate such a school at Rich- 

This property is ready for immediate occupancy, and if the 
State desires it, we cheerfully invite it to take possession of it 
and use it as a Normal School forever, without charge or price, 
provided only that a first-class school be maintained thereon. 

In conclusion we will say that if any other community in 
Kentucky will present, all things considered, a better or more 
generous offer for the location and maintenance of a Normal 
School, than the one above set forth, Richmond will congratulate 
her successful competitor as well as the taxpayers of the Com- 
monwealth. 28 

"The completeness of the display, its eloquent appeal, and 
the total absence of any such spectacular display from Bowling 
Green, ' ' the other strong contestant for the one school then con- 
templated, "spoke vastly more powerfully than all . . . the hand- 
bills distributed by" Richmond's rival. 30 Naturally the Madi- 
son County delegation was highly pleased with the interest occa- 
sioned by their effort and returned home more confident than 
ever that victory would ultimately be theirs. 

Richmond Chosen 

It should be noted in passing that Richmond was recognized 
at the outset as a probable site for one of the normal schools. 

29 Pamplet in the writer's possession. 

30 Letter by Clarence Woods to the writer, August 31, 1935. 

It appears that the Bowling- Green representatives hoped to sell their 
schoopl plant to the State and that Richmond's offer somewhat embarrassed 
them and put an end to that movement. 

40 Three Decades of Progress 

The Southern School Journal for January, 1906, mentioned some 
half dozen towns in each of the three districts contemplated that 
were expected to bid for a school and then said : " Of all these 
places . . . Bowling Green, Louisville, and Richmond are best 
situated and best adapted for such institutions ..." Again, 
the March issue of the Journal, which went to press before the 
substitute bill was passed, stated : "If the bill becomes a law, 
it is quite likely that Bowling Green will get one of the schools 
and Richmond the other." Certainly those who were familiar 
with the sundry aspects of the movement to establish the schools 
appreciated the value of Richmond's offer, the potency of that 
city's leadership in the General Assembly and the tremendous 
activity and resourcefulness of others from Madison County who 
were enlisted in the cause. And all along the effectiveness of 
the efforts of the sons of old Central University was clearly 
evident on every hand. These able gentlemen were determined 
to obtain a higher institution of learning to take the place of 
their alma mater whose loss they had not yet ceased to mourn. 
With one of their number the author of the bill to establish the 
schools ; with another advocating the measure as a member of the 
lower House ; with a native citizen of Richmond and friend of 
the University in the Senate ; with graduates and students of the 
school living in Richmond and working to get the normal ; with 
other alumni elsewhere working for them; and finally with the 
Governor an early student of Central University, Richmond was 
certain to be an ultimate choice. 

The seven commissioners whom Governor Beckham ap- 
pointed were Supt. E. George Payne, of Paducah; Hon. G. B. 
Edwards, of Russellville ; Hon. Basil H. Richardson, of Glas- 
gow; Supt, E. A. Mark, of Louisville; Mr. B. M. Arnett, of 
Nicholasville ; Supt. John Morris, of Covington ; and Senator 
Morton "Watson, of Louisa. On April 12 the Commissioners 
organized at Frankfort with Mr. Arnett as chairman and Mr. 
Morris as Secretary, and gave notice "to all localities . . . desir- 
ing . . . either of the two normal schools . . . to send in writing 
proposals of suitable silos . . . to the chairman of the commission 
... on or before May 7 next," 31 At this conference the line 
dividing the two normal school districts was defined but at a 

81 Southern School Journal, May, 1906. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


later meeting, when the sites of the two schools were determined, 
the Commission changed the dividing line to the eastern bound- 
aries of Jefferson, Spencer, Nelson, Washington, Marion, Casey, 
Russell, and Cumberland to the Tennessee line. 

Before determining the sites for the two schools the com- 
mission visited the towns offering inducements for the locations. 
In anticipation of such a visit Richmond made considerable prep- 
aration in order to appear at its best. On April 24 Mayor 
"Woods issued a long proclamation appealing "to all citizens to 


Named for James W. Cammack, Owenton, Ky. , who has served con- 
tinuously as a member of the Board of Regents since the establishment of 
the college. 

do their part in placing our fair city in proper condition to 
receive this distinguished body of men ..." He advised in 
detail a thorough cleaning up and redecoration of the town and 
published nine of the city's ordinances providing for proper 
sanitation and the elimination of nuisances, "an inexcusable 
disregard of which" would "be punished as provided" therein. 32 

Apparently the citizens did as their Mayor advised and put 
the city in readiness to receive the commission. Central Uni- 

32 Richmond Climax, April 26, 1906. 

42 Three Decades of Progress 

versify buildings and grounds were given special attention, the 
campus being put in order by workmen of the Richmond Water 
and Gas Company under the direction of Mr. Ben R. Daugherty, 
who is still superintendent of the city's water and gas system. 

According to the Richmond Kentucky Register, on May 1, 
"the visitors arrived at noon and were met at the trains by a 
committee of prominent citizens consisting of Hon. R. W. Miller, 
J. A. Sullivan, W. R. Shackelford, R. R. and A. R. Burnam. 
J. Tevis Cobb, C. H. Breck, R. E. Turley, C. E. Woods and 
others, and were taken to the Glyndon Hotel for dinner. Only 
four of the seven commissioners were present"- — Morris, Mark, 
Arnett and Watson, who were accompanied by Superintendent 
Fuqua and his assistant, Harry Tanday. After visiting all the 
places of interest in the community the party "wound up at the 
Elks Club, where the business men of the town assembled to 
meet our guests. These spacious rooms were handsomely 
decorated for the occasion, and light refreshments were served. 
In the evening a dinner was given at the hotel in honor of the 
commission ..." 

The Register stated further .- ' ' The visitors were surprised 
at our great inducements, saying that the half had not been told 
them. The hospitality and cordiality of our receptions likewise 
touched them deeply, and there is no doubt . . ., that when they 
meet for final business next Monday Richmond will be rewarded 
as she should." And here the Central University graduate, 
Thos. H. Pickels, wrote triumphantly in his paper: "We'll get 
ours all right and Danville can have Central University, and 
welcome. For we 've got a much bigger thing. ' ' 33 

On May 7 the Normal School Commission met in Louisville 
to consider the selection of sites for the two normal schools. The 
meeting was held in a place called the Old Inn and every mem- 
ber was present. According to the Louisville Courier Jour- 
nal : 34 "In attendance at the meeting were Prof. J. A. Fuqua, 
R. W. Miller, H. II. Cherry, H. B. Hines, W. R. Shackelford. 
J. A. Sullivan, C. U. McElroy, J. W. Potter, R, E. Turley and 
Mayor Clarence E. Woods . . . With the exception of Guthrie, 
which made an indirect offer of a site of eleven acres and a build- 

38 Richmond Kentucky Rcoistcr, May 4, 1906 (clipnirur) 
M May 8, 1906. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 43 

ing valued at $15,000, the commission did not hear from any 
towns other than Richmond and Bowling Green. Glasgow had 
been expected to enter but was not represented." Guthrie "had 
not complied with the terms of competition" and, therefore, was 
not considered. Apparently the commission's task was easy 
and Bowling Green's and Richmond's respective offers of prop- 
erty worth $125,000 and $150,000 were readily accepted, and 
thereby these two cities became the locations of the two teacher- 
training schools. 

The Courier Journal also stated: "The Commissioners 
were greatly impressed with the fact that Richmond and Madi- 
son County jointly support a splendid infirmary commonly 
known as the Pattie A. Clay Hospital, the gift of B. J. Clay. 
Minister to Switzerland. This noble institution is a feature of 
the county of Madison that greatly adds to the advantage of 
Richmond as the home of students, where in illness they may 
receive medical or surgical attention. . . . " 35 

Not all the property of Central University passed at this 
time to the State. The Trustees of the Walters Collegiate Insti- 
tute retained some of the property valued then at about $25,000 
"in view of the fact that some of those who made donations to 
the school" might "bring suit for recovery of their gifts, not 
wishing them to pass into the hands of the State." 30 Subse- 
quently the State purchases this property for $10,000. 

Normal Schools Declared Constitutional 

There had been some apprehension manifested all along 
that state normal schools would compete seriously with certain 
other institutions of higher learning in the State. This opposi- 
tion, however, had not been strong enough to muster a single 
vote in the General Assembly against the enactment of the law. 
Apparently the opposition came from two sources, namely, those 
few who felt that the preparation of teachers at public expense 
should be done by the normal department of the State College 
and those who feared that the normal schools would ultimately 
encroach upon the field enjoyed by the private colleges of the 

35 Other papers also emphasized the service the infirmary would likely 
render the students attending the school in Richmond. 
56 Courier-Journal, May S. 1906. 

44 Three Decades op Progress 

Soon after the appointment (May 9, 1906) of the Regents 
of the two schools those of the Eastern district elected Ruric 
Nevel Roark president. A little later (June 11) President 
Roark and his board met in Mr. Jere A. Sullivan's office in 
Richmond and tentatively determined the organization of the 
school. On June 13 "Superintendent Fuqua, at the direction 
of the Regents, made formal application to Auditor S. W. Hager 
. . . for the $5,000 appropriated . . . for equipment and repairs. ' ' 
This application was met by an injunction filed by the attor- 
neys of one R. A. Marsee, a very small property owner of Bell 
County, whom the opposition had persuaded to file papers in the 
Franklin County Circuit Court enjoining the auditor from pay- 
ment on constitutional grounds. 

Judge R. L. Stout denied the injunction (July 20, 1906), 
and when the constitutionality of the law came before him, he 
decided in favor of the schools (September 27). On December 
18 the case was taken to the Court of Appeals, which affirmed 
the opinion of the Circuit Court (April 24, 1907). 3T 

The position taken by the plaintiff was founded on section 
184 of the State's constitution which in part provides : 

No sum shall be raised or collected for education other than 
in common schools until the question of taxation is submitted to 
the legal voters, and the majority of the votes cast at said election 
shall be in favor of said taxation: Provided, the tax now imposed 
for educational purposes, and for the endowment and maintenance 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical college, shall remain until 
changed by law. 

The appellant, therefore, set forth the contention that the 
normal school was "not within the term 'common schools' ", 
and "that the education of teachers should be limited to the 
A. & M. College [the State College] because that is the only 
institution having normal teaching, which is expressly author- 
ized by the constitution to receive aid from the Legislature/' 

The counsel for the appellee, among whom was Hon. Jere A. 
Sullivan, one of Eastern's Regents, had little difficulty in prov- 
ing their position. They called attention to the fact that Marsee, 
whose mountain land was valued at $300, would pay less than 
one cent additional tax under the operation of the law. They 
also noted that no other citizen had joined the appellant in the 

87 See John Grant Crabbc, Biennial Report of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, 1909, p. 56. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 45 

case. Furthermore, they easily convinced the Court that the 
law was constitutional, to wit : 

Normal schools are among the institutions for which, under 
the proviso of section 184, of the constitution, the legislature is 
authorized to make appropriations without submitting the ques- 
tion to a vote of the people; and therefore, the act under discus- 
sion must be held valid. 3S 

Organization and the Legislation of 1908 

Soon after Judge Stout's denial of the injunction the 
Regents of the two .schools met in joint session at Frankfort 
( Jul} T 25, 1906) and directed their presidents to proceed at once 
to organization. Preliminary steps in this direction had already 
been taken by the Normal Executive Council in a meeting at 
Bowling Green. The Eastern Regents acted on the assumption 
that the law establishing the normals would be declared valid 
and instructed their treasurer, Hon. R. E. Turley, of Richmond, 
to borrow $5,000 to prepare for the opening of school. The time 
was short, but September 11 was set for the beginning of the 
Model School. 

The task ahead of President Roark included the selection 
of a faculty, the repair of the buildings, the purchase of sup- 
plies, the provision of offices, the announcement of courses of 
study and the perfection of other details of organization. Late 
in August he moved into an office on the campus and began the 
direction of numerous activities from that vantage point. But 
in spite of his strenuous activity, repairs "had to proceed while 
the school was being organized and the sounds of the recitation 
and the carpenters' hammers" intermingled throughout the 
school year — a condition, it might be said, that has existed much 
of these three decades of progress at Eastern. 30 On January 
15, the normal school proper was opened. 40 

At last Kentucky had two normals ; but there was much dis- 
satisfaction with a situation that seemed to cause these schools 
to work at cross purposes with the State College. Furthermore, 

'^Kentucky Reports, 190, (Vol. 125), Marsee vs. Hager, State Auditor, 

39 John Grant Crabbe, Biennial Report for the two years ending June 30, 
1909, p. 58. 

40 The Western Normal opened the first Monday in January, 100 7, a few 
days earlier than Elastern. It is interesting to note that President H. L. 
Donovan, of Eastern, was the first student to enroll in Western. 

46 Three Decades of Progress 

conditions at Eastern (and Western too) demanded considerable 
funds for more buildings and equipment and for larger dormi- 
tory accommodations. In recognition of these and other condi- 
tions, Dr. E. E. Hume, Chairman of the Executive Committee 
of the Educational Improvement Commission, called a meeting 
of representatives of the three schools and the Federation of 
Woman's Clubs at Louisville on November 19, 1907. The pur- 
pose of the conference was to determine a common program in 
approaching the General Assembly, which was to meet in Jan- 
uary. In fact, the educational forces of the State had formu- 
lated much legislation for this session of the Legislature. 

As far as the three higher institutions of learning were con- 
cerned, the conference planned to change the status of the State 
College to the condition of a State University, "and as a prereq- 
uisite to its becoming a university in fact sub-freshman work 
was to be eliminated as rapidly as possible." This condition 
would react to the advantage of the normal schools, which were 
seeking students below the college level. The normal depart- 
ment of the University was to be elevated to the position of a 
department of education. Furthermore, the three schools agreed 
to unite in pressing the Legislature for considerable funds to 
carry out their respective programs. A committee was created 
to promote these and other educational measures before the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

Tins session of the Legislature was far more generous than 
the one in 1906. Its response to the demands of the teachers 
was most gratifying. The State University was created and 
given $200,000 for buildings and equipment and each normal 
received $150,000 for the same purpose. 41 

As far as Eastern was concerned the appropriation meant 
an enlarged school plant, the assurance of permanence, and a 
greater capacity of usefulness. Furthermore, from the prece- 
dent set, Kentucky could expect to develop in less than three 
decades a system of teacher-training institutions equal to any 

11 Ibid, p. 339. Much other valuable school legislation was obtained at 
this session of the General Assembly. Jere A. Sullivan and Anthony Rollins 
Burnam, of Richmond, succeeded R. \v. Miller and Curtis P. Burnam, 
respectively, in the House and Senate in 1908. These gentlemen had been 
elected for the expressed purpose of getting the much needed appropriations. 
Mr, Sullivan deserves credil for successes in the House. Mr, Burnam exer- 
cised much influence in the Senate but his most worthy service was rendered 
in influencing Governor Willson to sign the appropriation bill. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 47 

other of similar status in America. Moreover, it might he said 
that in less than twenty years the General Assembly established 
two more such schools (one at Murray and the other at More- 
head) on a college level and allowed the State University a 
college of education. 

It will soon be a century since Superintendent Joseph James 
Bullock recommended (1838-1839) "one or more normal schools 
for the purpose of training the sons of the soil for teaching 
. . . " 42 Although his prayer was not answered for more than 
three score and live years, there exist today in the Common- 
wealth facilities for the training of teachers that excel anything 
that he or his immediate successors ever hoped for. And truly 
it may be said that Eastern is spreading a gospel of education 
for teachers throughout Kentucky that merits the fullest 
measure of appreciation and support. 

42 Barksdale Hamlet, History of Education in Kentucky, p. IS. 


Three Decades of Progress 

J^?o Senior 


OP PuaS^TJfsfSgWN^o^T. 








By William C. Jones 

Just as brick and stone and mortar go into the erection of 
the physical structure, likewise, the ideas of men and women 
are built into the plans, programs, policies, and traditions of an 
institution. Materials are the physical evidences of a college 
plant; lives are the invisible spirit of a college. The physical 
can be seen with the eye ; the spiritual is only felt. Buildings 
and equipment are essential ; the atmosphere of the college is 
fundamental. The physical plant is constructed of inanimate 
material ; the intellectual and spiritual .structure by the sacrifice 
of consecrated lives to the general welfare of the college. The 
success of any institution can to a great extent be measured by 
interests, efforts, faiths, and sacrifices of the multitude of persons 
who have earnestly devoted themselves in her behalf. 

During the three decades of her existence a host of men and 
women have given the best efforts of their lives to Eastern. 
From the humblest position of janitor to the most exalted, as 
regent, devotion and sacrifice have been freely given. The 
length of this service has varied from a few months to many 
years. Out of the toil and sacrifice of those who have labored 
in her interest, Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College stands 
today as a monument to their devotion. 

The administration of a college is the execution of policies, 
plans, and programs which have been projected by regents, 
administrative officials, and faculty members. The human ele- 
ment is a big factor in the administration of any institution. 
AVise and unselfish service is essential to success. 

Board of Regents 

The Commonwealth of Kentucky entrusted the destiny of 
the institution into the hands of a board of five members includ- 
ing the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio 
chairman. The Legislative Act of March 21, 1906, creating the 

50 Three Decades of Progress 

institution, provided for the governor to appoint four regents, 
two of whom were to serve for two years and two for four years 
and until their successors were appointed and qualified, and two 
members were to be appointed in like manner every two years 
thereafter to serve for a term of four years each. Appointments 
to fill vacancies due to death, resignation, or otherwise were to 
be made by the governor to fill unexpired terms. According to 
this law, no two members of the board were to he residents of 
any one county and not more than three members of the board, 
including the superintendent of public instruction, were to 
belong to the same political party. It was further provided that 
the "board shall have perpetual succession, with power to con 
tract and be contracted with, to sue and be sued, to plead and he 
impleaded, to receive by any legal mode of conveyance property 
of any description, and to have and hold and enjoy the same; 
also to make and use a corporate seal, with power to alter the 
same; to adopt by-laws, rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment of their members, official agents and employees : Provided, 
such by-laws shall not conflict with the Constitution of the 
United States or with the Constitution of the State of Ken- 
tucky. ' ' 

On May 9, 1906, Governor J. C. W. Beckham appointed on 
the first Board of Regents Hon. Jere A. Sullivan, Richmond, 
Kentucky ; Hon. P. W. Grinstead, Cold Springs. Kentucky ; Hon. 
Pied A T aughn, Paintsville, Kentucky; and Hon. J. \V. Cammack, 
Owenton, Kentucky. James II. Fucpia, Sr. ; State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, -was ex officio chairman by virtue 
of his office. 

Since the institution was established on March 21, 1906, ten 
outstanding citizens of Kentucky have served as appointed mem- 
bers of the Board of Regents. The length of the terms of service 
of board members has not been uniform. The personnel of the 
board, however, has heen changed infrequently. Of the first 
board, Mr. Grinstead served For eight years and Mr. Vaughn 
served For ten years. They rendered distinguished service to 
the institution. Mr. Sullivan served continuously until 1930 
and probably no one individual has ever shown greater interest 
in the welfare of the institution. Mr. Cammack has served the 
board continuouslv since 1906. Ouring this period of thirtv 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


years, he lias attended practically every meeting of the board. 
The continuity of the policies of the Board of Regents has been, 
to a great extent, the result of his efforts. lie has contributed 
much to the organization, growth, and development of the 


The Hiram Brock Auditorium with seating capacity 
of 1,850 is annexed to this building:. 

The appointed members of the Board of Regents, their home 
addresses, and their terms of service are as follows : 



Legal Term of Service 

J. W. Cammack 
P. W. Grinstead 
J. A. Sullivan 
Fred A. Vaughn 

H. M. Brock 

W. A. Price 
Chas. F. Weaver 

H. D. Fitzpatrick 

N. U. Bond 
John No! and 

Cold Springs 






June 2, 1906, to 

June 2, 1906, to May S. 1914 

June 2, 1906. to April 26. 1930 

June 2, 1906, to June 16, 1916 

S May S, 1914, to April 26, 1930 

[ April 27, 1932, to January 10, 1936 

June 16, 1916, to May 15, 1920 

May 15, 1920. to October 21. 1932 

S April 26, 1930, to April 27, 1932 
I January 21, 1933, to 

June 21, 1930. to April 27. 1932 

August 13, 1932, to 

52 Three Decades op Progress 

In addition to the appointed members, the superintendents 
of public instruction who have served as ex officio members of 
the Board of Regents are as follows : 

Name Term of Service 

Jas. H. Fuqua January 2, 1906, to January 6, 190S 

John Grant Crabbe January 6, 190S, to April 9, 1910 

Ellsworth Regenstein April 9, 1910, to January 1, 1912 

Barksdale Hamlett January 1, 1912, to January 3, 1910 

V. O. Gilbert January 3, 1916, to January 5, 1920 

George Colvin January 5, 1920, to January 7, 1924 

McHenry Rhoads January 7, 1924, to January 2, 192S 

W. C. Bell January 2, 1923, to January 4, 1932 

Jas. H. Richmond January 4, 1932, to January 6, 1936 

Harry W. Peters January 6, 1936 to 

The elected officers of the Board of Regents are a vice- 
chairman, secretary, and a treasurer. During the period of 
thirty years of the institution's life, the elected officers of the 
Board of Regents have been as follows: 

Vice-President or Vice-Chairman: 

P. W. Grinstead, June 2, 1906, to May S, 1914 
J. W. Cammack, May 8, 1914, to May 26, 1922 
H. M. Brock, May 26, 1922, to April 26, 1930 
C. F. Weaver, June 28, 1930, to April 27, 1932 
H. M. Brock, April 27, 1932, to January 10, 1936 
H. D. Fitzpatrick, January IS, 1936, to 


Fred A. Vaughn, June 2, 1906, to June 16, 1916 
J. W. Cammack, June 16, 1916, to January 2, 192S 

April 27, 1932, to 

Eleanor Cammack, July 6, 192S, to June 1, 1929 

L. Katherine Morgan, July 1, 1929, to April 27, 1932. 


R. E. Turley, June 2, 1906, to September 13, 1920 

August 14, 1926, to November 27, 1933 
Paul Burnam, September 13, 1920, to August 14, 1926 
Spears Turley, December 2, 1933, to 

On July 25, 1906, the hoard of regents appointed an Execu- 
tive Committee and it was "authorized to transact any current 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 53 

business for the board in the interim between meetings of the 
board, proceeding in all matters within the limitations of the 
law governing said board and reporting in detail all such busi- 
ness transacted. ' ' This committee was composed of three mem- 
bers consisting of the local regent, the president, and the 

On August 25, 1908, the membership of the Executive Com- 
mittee was increased by the addition of two members of the 
Board of Regents. This committee was composed of five mem- 
bers until April 17, 1934, when the Board of Regents passed a 
resolution to the effect that the Executive Committee of the 
Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College be composed of each 
member of the Board of Regents, the president of the college, 
and the treasurer of the college and that any three members 
shall constitute a quorum to transact the business of the com- 

The Executive Committee of the Board of Regents has trans- 
acted a large amount of the business of the college. This com- 
mittee has met frequently and has been responsible for the execu- 
tion of many financial policies of the institution. The member- 
ship of the Executive Committee from July 25, 1906, to the 
present time has been composed of the following regents, presi- 
dents, treasurers, and superintendents of public instruction : 

J. A. Sullivan, Regent, July 25, 1906, to April 26, 1930 
P. W. Grinstead, Regent, March 12, 1909, to Mav 8, 1914 
H. M. Brock, Regent, May 8, 1914, to April 26, 1930 

August 13, 1932, to January 10, 1936 
N. U. Bond, Regent, June 28, 1930, to April 27, 1932 

J. W. Cammack, Regent, June 28, 1930, to 

H. D. Fitzpatrick, Regent, April 17, 1934, to 

John Noland, Regent, August 13, 1932, to 

Ruric Nevel Roark, President, July 25, 1906, to April 14, 1909 
Mrs. Mary C. Roark, Acting President, April 16, 1909, to 

April 9, 1910 
John Grant Crabbe, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

March 12, 1909, to April 9, 1910 

President. April 9, 1910, to September 1, 1916 
Thomas Jackson Coates, President, September 7, 1916, to 

March 17, 1928 
Homer E. Cooper, Acting President, March 19, 1928, to 

June 1, 1928 

Herman Lee Donovan, President, June 1, 1928, to 

R. E. Turley, Treasurer, July 25, 1906, to September 13, 1920 

August 14, 1926, to November 27, 1933 

Paul Burnam, Treasurer, September 13, 1920, to August 

14, 1926 

54 Three Decades op Progress 

Spears, Turley, Treasurer, December 2, 1933, to 

Ellsworth Regenstein, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
April 9, 1910, to January 1, 1912 

Barksdale Hamlett, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
January 1, 1912, to January 3, 1916 

V. O. Gilbert, Superintendent of Public Instruction, January 
3, 1916, to January 5, 1920 

George Colvin, Superintendent of Public Instruction, January 
5, 1920, to January 7, 1924 

McHenry Rhoads, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Janu- 
ary 7, 1924, to January 2, 1928 

W. C. Bell, Superintendent of Public Instruction, January 2, 
192S, to January 4, 1932 

Jas. H. Richmond, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Jan- 
uary 4, 1932, to January 6, 1936 

Harry W. Peters, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Jan- 
uary 6, 1936, to 

During the period of approximately thirty years since the 
institution was established, it has had four presidents and two 
acting presidents ; namely, Ruric Nevel Roark, President, June 
2, 1906. to April 14, 1909; Mrs. Mary C. Roark, Acting Presi- 
dent, April 16, 1909, to April 9, 1910; John Grant Crabbe, 
President, April 9, 1910, to September 1, 1916; Thomas Jack- 
son Coates, President, September 7, 1916, to March 17, 1928; 
Homer E. Cooper, Acting President, March 19, 1928, to June 1, 
1928; and Herman Lee Donovan, who has been president of the 
institution since June 1, 1928. 

From time to time the Board of Regents has created admin- 
istrative offices to assist the president in the administration of 
the college. These offices are: 

1. Dean of Women, 1906 

2. Business Director (now called Business Agent), 1907 

3. Registrar, 190S 

4. Director of the Model School (now called Director of the 
Training School), 1907 

5. Dean of the Faculty, 1915 

6. Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, 191S 

7. Dean of Men, 1921 

8. Director of Extension, 1920 

9. Director of Research, 1931. 

The duties and responsibilities of these offices have not been 
fixed. On 1 lie oilier hand, the president lias defined and changed 
their Functions to meel the administrative needs of the college. 

Dean of Wottn h 

The position of dean of women has been held by Miss Vir- 
ginia E. Spencer, September 1. 1907, to September 1, 1909; Mrs. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 55 

Mary C. Roark, October 1, 1909, to September 1, 1915; Miss 
Marie L. Roberts, September 1, 1915, to September 1, 1932 ; and 
by Mrs. Emma Y. Case, who has been dean of women since Sep- 
tember 1, 1932. 

Business Agent 

E. C. McDougle was the first business director of the college. 
He held this position from July 1, 1907, to April 9, 1910. When 
Dr. Crabbe became president of the institution in 1910, the 
duties of the business director were transferred to J. P. Culbert- 
son, secretary to the president. Mr. Culbertson served in this 
capacity until September 1, 1916, when he resigned. Frank C. 
Gentry was appointed secretary to the president on September 
28, 1916, to succeed J. P. Culbertson. As secretary to the presi- 
dent, he served as business director of the college until January 
13, 1923, except for a brief period during the World War, when 
J. R. Robinson served as business director. The office of busi- 
ness director was reorganized after Mr. Gentry resigned and 
G. M. Brock became business agent on January 13, 1923, and is 
still serving in this capacity. Under the leadership of Mr. 
Brock, a very complete and adequate accounting system has 
been developed. This accounting system has been studied with 
a view to adoption by representatives of several institutions of 
higher learning. 

The business agent is responsible for all purchases of the 
institution and has general supervision of the cafeteria, book 
store, dormitories, and other activities involving financial trans- 
actions. He handles all publicity for the college, except for 
athletics, and is responsible for all correspondence having to do 
with the business activities of the institution. He also has gen- 
eral supervision of the accounting department and makes reports 
to the president and board of regents relative to the financial 


The office of the registrar was created in 1!)0S, and the posi- 
tion of registrar was held by E. C. McDougle until September 1, 
1921. During period, however, the office of registrar was 
not considered to be of great importance in the institution, and 

56 Three Decades of Progress 

only a small part of Dr. McDougle's time was devoted to the 
work of registrar. The office was completely reorganized and 
made an important administrative unit in 1922. J. E. Robinson 
was appointed to the position of registrar in 1922 and served in 
this capacity until September 1, 1925, when he was given a leave 
of absence to pursue graduate work at George Peabody College 
for Teachers. M. E. Mattox has been registrar since September 
1, 1925, except for the period from September 1, 1928, to June 1, 
1929, during which time he was doing graduate work. From 
September 1. 1928, to June 1, 1929, W. J. Moore was acting 
registrar of the college. 

Director of the Training School 

The position of director of the training school (formerly 
director of the model school) has been held by Edgar Hesketh 
Crawford from January, 1907, to September, 1908; by Ira Waite 
Jayne from September 1, 1908, to May 1, 1909; by E. George 
Payne from September 1, 1909, to June 1, 1910; and by R. A. 
Edwards, who has occupied the position since September 1, 191 8, 
except from the period September 1, 1924, to September 1, 1925. 
during which time M. E. Mattox was acting director of the train- 
ing school. During the period from September 1, 1910, to Sep- 
tember 1, 1916, President Crabbe supervised the activities of the 
training school, and from September 7, 1916, to September 1, 
1918, the work was done by President Coates. 

Dean of the Faculty 

The position of dean of the faculty was held by E. C. Mc- 
Dougle from 1915 to 1921 ; by Herman Lee Donovan from 1921 
to 1923; by Homer E. Cooper from 1921 to 1931; and since 
April 17, 1934, by William C. Jones. From September 1, 1923, 
to September 1, 1924, J. R. Robinson acted as dean of the 
faculty. During the period from June 1, 1931. to April 17, 
1934, the work of the dean's office was done by the director 
of research and the registrar. 

Superintendent of Buildings <ni<l Grounds 
The superintendent of buildings and grounds has general 
supervision over the maintenance employees of the college and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 57 

is responsible to the president for the maintenance and repair 
work. R. F. Ramsey was superintendent of buildings and 
grounds from 1918 to 1922, and since March 1, 1922, this position 
has been held by W. A. Ault. 

Dean of Men 

Professor C. A. Keith has held the position of Dean of Men 
since the office was created in 1921 and has been responsible for 
planning and developing the work of this office. 

Extension Department 

The extension department was organized in 1920. During 
the first years of its existence, the work of the department was 
largely that of correspondence. J. R. Robinson was the first 
director of this department and supervised its activities from 
1920 to 1921. The department was reorganized in 1921, and its 
activities were greatly increased. Charles D. Lewis was director 
of the extension department from 1921 to 1922 ; R. Dean Squires, 
from 1921 to 1926 ; Fallen Campbell, from 1926 to 1928 ; Ker- 
ney Adams, from 1928 to 1932; R. E. Jaggers, from 1932 to 
1933 ; and M. E. Mattox has held this position since February 1, 

Director of Research 

The position of director of research has been held by Wil- 
liam C. Jones since the office was created on March 14, 1931. 
Miss Lucile Derrick has held the position of assistant to director 
of research since September 1, 1934. 


Much of the administrative work of the institution has been 
handled by the faculty. There are twenty permanent commit- 
tees of the faculty : nainety, Alumni ; Graduation ; Student 
Schedules; Credits and Credentials; Entrance Examinations; 
Fine Arts and Entertainment ; Library ; Training School : Ath- 
letics; Societies, Clubs, and Forensics; Student Publications; 
Eastern Kentucky Review — Catalog ; Curriculum ; Student Wel- 
fare, Discipline, and Grievances ; Rules and Regulations ; Socials 
and Receptions; Extension; Student Loans, Scholarships and 
Fellowships; Student Labor; and Graduate Instruction, which 

58 Three Decades of Progress 

perform important administrative functions. Members of these 
committees are appointed by the president. 

The Administrative Staff 

The administrative officers of the institution have been ably 
assisted by the administrative staff. The administrative staff 
is an integral part of the organization of the college. Members 
of this staff are professionally trained and enjoy the same privi- 
leges with respect to tenure as the faculty. Among the members 
of the administrative staff who have been in the service of the 
institution for more than ten years are Miss Marie L. Roberts, 
Miss Katherine Morgan. Miss Maye M. Waltz, Mrs. Helen W. 
Perry, Miss Eunice Wingo, Mr. E. P. McConnell, and Mr. Fred 

The members of the administrative staff at the present time 
are as follows : 

Years of 
Name Position Service 

Marie L. Roberts Housekeeper, Sullivan Hall 21 

L. Katherine Morgan Secretary to the President 16 

Maye M. Waltz Secretary to the Dean 15 

Helen W. Perry Recorder, Registrar's Office 15 

E. P. McConnell Bookkeeper 14 

Eunice Wingo Secretary to the Dean of Women 12 

Fred Ballcu Book Store Clerk 11 

Inez McKinley Assistant Bookkeeper aud 

Stenographer 10 

Mayme Cooper Secretary to the Director of Extension S 

Edna White Registered Nurse S 

Lois Colley Secretary to the Business Agent 7 

Bessie H. Griggs Information Clerk 7 

Lilly Elnora Kohl, 

B. S., M. S. Supervisor Of Cafeteria 3 

Lucy Mitchell, B. S. Stenographer, Business Office 3 

Martha J. Culton, A. B. Secretary to the Registrar 2 

Sam Beckley, B. A. Assistant Director of Extension 1 

Gladys Karrick. B. S. Cashier 1 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 59 

It is not possible in the limited space allotted to this discus- 
sion to list all of the policies of the Board of Regents. It is 
appropriate, however, to list three of the policies winch have 
been responsible, in a large measure, for the success of the insti- 
tution. The first of these three policies was adopted on June 2, 
1906, at the first meeting of the Board of Regents and provides 
that the president of the institution shall nominate members of 
the faculty and other employees subject to the approval of the 
Board of Regents. This policy has been followed in making all 
appointments, and the president has been solely responsible to 
the Board of Regents for the selection of employees of the insti- 
tution. The second of these policies pertains to the financial 
operations of the institution and provides that the college shall 
live within its income. The Board of Regents and its adminis- 
trative officers have truly demonstrated over a period of thirty 
years that an institution can live within a limited income and 
make great progress. The extent to which this policy has been 
followed is indicated by the fact that there has never been a 
deficit at the end of any fiscal period. The third of these policies 
has to do with the tenure of members of the faculty and admin- 
istrative staff and provides that employees of the college shall 
hold their positions as long as they continue to give satisfactory 
service. The administration of this policy has made it possible 
for the institution to secure capable and efficient members of the 
faculty and administrative staff even though salaries have been 
rather low throughout the history of the institution. 

The income for maintenance increased gradually from the 
initial appropriation of $20,000.00 per year in 1906 to $353,- 
615.03 in 1930-31. Beginning with the school year 1931-32, 
there was a great decline in the income of the college for main- 
tenance purposes. The amount of income for this purpose con- 
tinued to decrease until 1933-31, when the total amount received 
was $188,283.28. Appropriations for capital outlay have been 
made from time to time. These appropriations, however, have 
been made at irregular intervals. A statement of the income 

60 Three Decades of Progress 

for maintenance and for capital outlay for the period 1906 
to 1936 is given below: 

Fiscal Year Cur: 

rent Expenses and Other Purposes 

Capital Outlay 


$ 20,000.00 

$ 5,000.00 






































































* Estimated. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



President, June 2, 1906, to April 14, 1909 

On June 2, 1906, the Board 
of Regents at its first meet- 
ing elected Dr. Ruric Nevel 
Roark president of the insti- 
tution. He was eminently 
qualified for this position of 
leadership. Dr. Roark was 
born in Muhlenberg County, 
Kentucky, on May 19, 1859. 
He received his early educa- 
tion in the common schools 
and in Greenville Academy. 
He then became a student at 
the National Normal Univer- 
sity at Lebanon, Ohio, where 
he was graduated in 1881 . He 
was invited to become a mem- 
ber of the faculty of his Alma 
Mater and served the Nation- 
al Normal University in 
this capacity for four years. 
Dr. Roark then returned 
to Kentucky and established and became president of Glasgow 
Normal School, where he remained until 1889. In 1889, he was 
appointed dean of the Normal Department of State College at 
Lexington, which position he held for seventeen years. He 
resigned this position in 1905 in order to accept a fellowship at 
Clark University. Dr. Roark contributed numerous articles to 
magazines and educational journals and was also the author of 
Psychology in Education, Economy in Education, Method in 
Education, and General Outline of Pedagogy, professional books 
for teachers. Dr. Roark was widely known as an outstanding 
educator and was in great demand in other states as an educa- 
tional lecturer and as an instructor of teachers' institutes. In 
his work as dean of the Norma] Department of State College, 
he had showed the need of trained, better educated teachers. 


First President 

62 Three Decades op Progress 

and created by his example, by his inspiration, and by his work, 
a sentiment in favor of the establishment of institutions for the 
education of teachers. 

It was the task and responsibility of Dr. Roark to define the 
aims, purposes, and ideals of the institution, to outline the course 
of study, to select a faculty, to determine and recommend poli- 
cies, and to perfect the organization. He accomplished these 
things to a marked degree. During his term of service, the 
course of study was planned, the faculty was selected and organ- 
ized, the offices of dean of women, business director, registrar, 
and director of the model school were created, a program was 
outlined for observation and practice teaching in the training 
school. The maintenance appropriation was increased from 
$20,000.00 per year to $40,000.00 per year, and an appropriation 
of $100,000.00 was secured for the purpose of constructing a 
dormitory for women, a building to house the training school, a 
building for a central heating and power plant, and an addition 
to Memorial Hall. An effort was made to increase the size of the 
campus by securing an option on the property known as "faculty 
row". This property was later purchased. Architects were em- 
ployed for the college and the services of a landscape gardener 
were secured for the purpose of planning a program for the 
growth and expansion of the physical plant. 

Dr. Roark died on April 14, 1909, due largely to overwork 
and a general breakdown. Thus ended the administration that 
had planned and directed the policies of the institution during 
the period of its infancy. 


Actinc4-Prkrioent, April 16, 1909, to April 9, 1910 

On April Hi, 1909, Mrs. Mary C. Roark. wife of President 
Roark, was elected acting-president. On October 1, 1909, Mrs. 
Roark was elected dean of women and served in both the capac- 
ity of dean of women and aeting-presidenl until April 9. 1910. 
Upon retiring as acting-president, Mrs. Roark continued in tin' 
position ns dean of women until the close of tin 1 school year 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



President, April 9, 1910, to September 1, 1916 

Dr. John Grant Crabbe was 
elected president of the East- 
ern Kentucky State Normal 
School on March 1!), 1910, as- 
sumed the responsibilities of 
this office on April 9, 1910, 
and resigned on September 
1, 1916, to accept the presi- 
dency of Colorado State 
Teachers College. Dr. Crabbe 
was born in Mt. Sterling, 
Ohio, on November 29, 1865. 
He received the A. B. degree 
from Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity in 1889 and the A. M 
degree in 1892. In 1897, Ohio 
University conferred upon 
him the degree of Fed. M. He 
later received honorary de- 
grees from Berea College, 
LL. D., 1909; Miami Univer- 
sity, Ped. D., 1909; Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, LL. ])., 1911. Dr. Crabbe was superintendent 
of the public schools of Ashland, Kentucky, 1890-1907. lie was 
elected superintendent of public instruction of Kentucky in 1907 
and served in this capacity until April 9, 1910. The educational 
background and experience of Dr. Crabbe made him the logical 
choice as second president of Eastern. His service on the Board 
of Regents, as Superintendent of Public Instruction, from Jan- 
uary 6, 1908, made it possible for him to appreciate and under- 
stand the problems of the college. 

Dr. Crabbe spent much of the first part of his administra- 
tion in perfecting the organization of the college. The faculty, 
through committees, was encouraged to assume responsibility for 
a large share of the administrative work; likewise, the work of 


Second Bresident 

64 Three Decades of Progress 

the other employees of the college was defined in a more definite 
manner and the office of Dean of the Faculty was created. To 
what extent President Crabbe was able to divide his responsibili- 
ties with subordinates is not known, and it is not possible to de- 
termine from the records which are available, but it is known that 
he continued to devote a large part of his time to the details of 
administration. His systematic scheme of organization included 
the financial plans of the institution and the supervision of 
instruction. A beginning was made in budgeting the funds 
of the college, and an attempt was made to supervise the 

Dr. Crabbe was responsible for increasing the scope of serv- 
ice and influence of the institution. While president, he became 
recognized as one of the outstanding educators of the nation and 
was made a member of the National Council on Education in 
1911, was elected president of the Department of Normal Schools 
of the Southern Education Association in 1912, president of the 
National Education Association in 1913, and was State Director 
of the National Education Association in 1916. The nationwide 
recognition which Dr. Crabbe attained was of great value to the 
institution during this particular period of its development and 

It was clue largely to Dr. Crabbe 's leadership that plans 
were made for developing the library, for the expansion of the 
curriculum and for the addition of departments of instruction. 
It was also during his period of service that the student body 
was greatly increased and the number of faculty members ap- 
proximately doubled. The maintenance appropriation for the 
college was increased from .+10,000.00 for the school year 
1910-1911, the first year of Dr. Crabbe 's administration, to 
$75,000.00 for the school year 1911-1912, the .second year of his 
term. This appropriation continued at the rate of $75,000.00 
per year during the remainder of his administration. The 
material development and growth of the institution went for- 
ward in that the president's home was purchased, an addition to 
Sullivan Hall was constructed, a farm was purchased, and 
laboratory and library equipment were added. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



President, September 7, 1916, to March 17, 1928 

Thomas Jackson Coates was 
elected president of the col- 
lege on September 5, 1916, 
and his term of service ex- 
tended from September 7, 
1916, until his death on 
March 17, 1928. President 
Coates was born at Pikeville, 
Kentucky, March 17, 1867. 
He received his higher educa- 
tion at State College, Lexing- 
ton, and at the Southern 
Normal School, Bowling 
Green, from which institution 
he received the A. B. degree 
in 1901 and the A. M. degree 
in 1906. He was a teacher in 
the rural schools of Kentucky 
from 1883 to 1889, served as 
principal of the Greenville 
public schools and editor of 
the Muhlenberg Echo from 
1889 to 1895, was superintendent of schools at Princeton from 
1895 to 1907, and was superintendent of schools, Richmond, from 
1907 to 1911. He then became state supervisor of rural schools 
and served in this capacity during the period from 1911 to 1916. 
He was widely known as a lecturer for teachers' institutes, 
having done this type of work for many years. His long experi- 
ence in public school work as rural school supervisor gave him a 
sympathetic appreciation of the problems of education in Ken- 
tucky. As measured by character, experience, training, and 
ability, Mr. Coates was thoroughly qualified to become Eastern's 
third president. 

' ' He asked little for himself but desired and obtained much 
for those whom he served." These words are found on a bronze 
tablet near the front entrance to the magnificant structure which 
was named in honor of and dedicated to the memory of President 


Third President 

E. S. T. C— 3 

66 Three Decades of Progress 

Coates soon after his death, the Thomas Jackson Coates Admin- 
istration Building. They symbolize the character, quality of 
leadership, and ideals of Eastern's third president. He has 
been called the architect and builder of the college. During his 
administration, he secured appropriations of $720,000.00 for 
permanent improvements and witnessed the construction of 
Cammack Building, the John Grant Crabbe Library Building, 
Burnam Hall, and the Thomas Jackson Coates Administration 
Building. At the time of President Coates' death, plans were 
being formulated for the construction of an auditorium. In 
addition to these permanent structures, many other valuable 
improvements were made on the campus, most of which were 
paid for out of savings which accumulated from the maintenance 
income. It was also during President Coates 1 administration 
that New Stateland Farm was purchased. 

The organization of the college was greatly improved during 
the administration of President Coates. He re-defined the work 
of the registrar and the business agent, and these offices were 
elevated to important places in the administration of the college. 
The offices of Dean of Men and Director of Extension were 
created for the purpose of handling new administrative problems. 

The educational development of the college was not neg- 
lected. On the other hand, President Coates spent much of his 
energy and ability in directing and improving instruction. He 
insisted upon and secured higher standards of preparation for 
members of the faculty. The curriculum of the college was 
lengthened from two years to four years, and Eastern graduated 
her first degree class in 1925. The lengthened curriculum brought 
about a new conception of teacher education at Eastern. Scores 
of new courses were added to the offerings of the institution 
and additional departments were created. The departments of 
manual training, agriculture, and music were greatly improved. 


Acting-President, March 19, 1028, to June 1. 1928 

Two days after the death of President Coates, Dr. Homer E. 

Cooper, Dean of the Faculty, was elected acting-president. He 

served the college in this capacity from March. 19, 1928, to June 1, 

]!)2<S. Dr. Cooper llien resumed Ins duties as dean of the faculty. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



President, June 1, 1928, 

On March 17, 1928, due 
to the death of President 
Coates, the Board of Regents 
was called upon for the 
fourth time in less than 
twenty-two years to select 
a president. This duty was 
performed on March 26, 
1928, wh,en Dr. Herman Lee 
Donovan, Professor of Edu- 
cation at George Peahody 
College for Teachers, was 
elected president of the 
institution. He assumed the 
duties of his new office on 
June 1, 1928. He was born 
in Mason County, Kentucky, 
on March 17, 1887. Dr. 
Donovan received his early 
education in the common 
schools of Mason County. He 
attended Western Ken- 
tucky State Normal School. 
1906-08; received the B. A. degree from the University of Ken- 
tucky in 1914; the M. A. degree from Columbia University in 
1920; and the Ph. D. degree from George Peabody College for 
Teachers in 1925. He was also a graduate student at the L Diver- 
sity of Chicago. In 1933, the University of Kentucky conferred 
upon him the LL. D. degree. His experience includes that of 
teaching in the county schools of Mason county ; principal, ward 
school, Paducah ; superintendent of schools, Wickliffe ; assistant 
superintendent public schools, Louisville ; superintendent of 
schools, Catlettsburg ; dean of the faculty, Eastern Kentucky 
State Normal School and Teachers College ; and professor of edu- 
cation, George Peabody College for Teachers. At the time of his 
election to the presidency of the Eastern Kentucky State Teach- 


Fourth President 

68 Three Decades op Progress 

ers College, he Avas widely known throughout the nation as a 
lecturer and author. He is the author of numerous magazine 
articles, and among his books are A State's Elementary Teacher- 
Training Problem (Kentucky) , Supervision and Teaching of 
Reading (co-author), and Learning to Spell (co-author). 

President Donovan is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi 
Delta Kappa, Kappa Delta Pi, the National Education Associa- 
tion, National Society for Study of Education, and many other 
professional and educational organizations. 

The performance of the duties of Dean of the Faculty from 
1921 to 1923 gave President Donovan an opportunity to know 
and appreciate the problems of the institution. His experience 
as professor of education at George Peabody College for Teachers 
had given him first-hand experience with problems of teacher 
education. He came to the institution imbued with the idea that 
teacher education should be improved in Kentucky and that 
institutions for the education of teachers should be examples of 
good teaching. To Dr. Donovan, the most important problem 
of the institution was that of improving instruction, because in 
this way the standards of teachers for the public schools of the 
Commonwealth would be raised. Among the outstanding con- 
tributions of his administration to the improvement of instruc- 
tion are : 

1. The elimination of teacher training- at the high school level by 
abolishing the normal school. 

2. The reorganization of the departments of art, music, physical edu- 
cation, health, biology, chemistry, geography and geology, physics 
and commerce. 

3. The admission of the institution to membership in the American 
Association of Teachers Colleges and in the Southern Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

4. The organization of the departments of instruction into divisions 
of instruction for the purpose of coordinating and unifying the 
work of the institution. 

5. Tbe establishment of the division of graduate instruction. 

G. The in-service training and improvement of members of the 

7. Raising the standards for the employment of new members of 
the faculty. 

8. The organization of national honorary educational fraternities. 

9. The organization and re-establishment of the Model High School 
for laboratory purposes. 

10. The organization and development of curricula to meet the needs 
Of teachers in Kentucky. 

11. The improvement and expansion of library facilities. 

12. The establishment of a nursery school. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 69 

Since 1928, the Hiram Brock Auditorium has been con- 
structed, the Weaver Health Building has been erected, the Uni- 
versity Building has been remodeled, the Power Plant has been 
enlarged, a new addition to the Library has been built, a con- 
crete road has been built through the campus, and a stadium and 
an outdoor theater are under construction. The dormitories, 
Cammack Building, Roark Building, and the Administration 
Building have been redecorated, and much time and effort have 
been given to the improvement of the appearance of the campus. 

In many ways, President Donovan has been faced with the 
most trying and difficult problems which have confronted the 
institution during its entire history. Prior to 1928, the institu- 
tion had never suffered a loss in its income for maintenance pur- 
poses. In 1930-31, the institution received $353,615.03, which 
was the highest amount ever received in one year for mainte- 
nance purposes. The income then began to decrease and con- 
tinued to decrease until it reached the low figure of $188,283.28 
in 1933-34. Appropriations for capital outlay which had not 
been less than $125,000.00 per year since 1926-27 were complete- 
ly eliminated in 1932. During this period, President Donovan 
was able to make the adjustments necessary for the institution 
to live within its income. This has probably been the most dif- 
ficult task which has been faced by the institution during its 
entire history. 

In spite of the loss of income which has been suffered since 
1930-31 and the complete elimination of the appropriations for 
capital outlay, the building program has gone forward. Through 
the leadership of President Donovan funds have been secured 
from outside sources, for example, a bond issue, gifts from the 
faculty, administrative force, alumni, former students and other 
friends of the institution, and grants from the Public "Works 
Administration to make permanent improvements on the 
campus. These permanent improvements include an addition 
to the library at a cost of approximately $100,000.00, a concrete 
drive through the campus, a concrete stadium and an outdoor 



By Melvin E. Mattox 

The Act of the General Assembly creating the normal school 
specified that the training should be given in the common school 
branches, in the science and art of teaching, and in such other 
branches as may be deemed necessary by the Normal Executive 
Council. The express purpose of creating the normal schools 
was to make the schools throughout the State efficient by giving 
proper training to the teachers of the Commonwealth. 

The Normal Executive Council took under consideration 
the preparation of those teaching in the Commonwealth and set 
entrance requirements to the normal schools at graduation from 
the eighth grade or the possession of any type of certificate to 
teach. In the Announcement Number of the Eastern Kentucky 
Review is to be found a statement that it would be utterly 
futile to set up high school graduation as a requirement for ad- 
mission until the high schools of the State became more plenti- 
ful and the pay of the teachers raised to a point that would 
attract high school graduates into the teaching field. 

Following the statement of admissions ' ' exit requirements ' ' 
are set up. Here attention is called to the fact that the proper 
place to protect the standards of the institution is at the exit 
rather than at the entrance, and that students will not be 
granted certificates from the institution unless they have shown 
themselves to be proficient in scholarship and in teaching skill. 
The course of study is given in the first catalog and is 
divided into a review course, two certificate courses, and what is 
termed a principal's course. The review course did not lead to 
a certificate, but offered preparation to those who planned to 
take the county examination on the common school branches. 
The first certificate course included the work of one year with 
requirements as shown in Table III. The diploma course in- 
cluded the elementary certificate course and two additional 
years' work. In the outlines for the requirements of those cer- 
tificates courses are classified under three headings: first, major 

72 Three Decades of Progress 

subjects, those in which students were supposed to make two 
hours of preparation for each recitation hour; second, minor 
subjects, those in which students were supposed to make one 
hour of preparation for each recitation hour; third, drill sub- 
jects, those in which students were not supposed to make any 
outside preparation. 

In the first catalog Observation and Practice Teaching were 
placed with the drill subjects requiring no outside preparation. 
In the second catalog Observation, Methods, Educational Econ- 
omy, High School Methods, and History of Education were 
elevated to the place of minor subjects requiring one hour of 
preparation for each recitation hour. Iu this catalog provision 
was made for offering one year of teaching experience in lieu 
of Practice Teaching. The principal's or superintendent's 
course, which was also termed the four year course above the 
eighth grade, included the work offered in the other certificate 
courses and, in addition, other advanced subject matter courses. 
The student roster for the year of 1907-08 shows the following 
distribution of students: Review Course, 177; State Certificate 
Course, 98; State Diploma Course, 85; Four Year Course, 73; 
Special Students, 113 ; Total, 546. It will be observed from this 
that there were approximately as many students enrolled in 
the review course, as in the State Certificate Course and the 
State Diploma Course combined. 

1908 — 1914 

During this period the work became organized largely in 
terms of certificates issued. Entrance requirements remained at 
graduation from the eighth grade. The Elementary Certificate, 
the Intermediate Certificate, and the Advanced Certificate were 
now issued. Tn addition to these certificate courses, the review 
course was continued and a preparatory course was introduced. 
The purpose of the preparatory course was to give the student 
a foundation for the work of the Elementary Certificate. 

Some attention was given during this period to special 
courses. The departmental offerings, with few exceptions, re- 
mained about the same. Course requirements for the certificates 
did not vary to any great extent. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 73 

Period op Transition 1915 — 1923 

This period is marked by a number of changes. In 1915, 
in addition to the work which had previously been offered, an 
outlined curriculum was made for a two year course for those 
who had graduated from high school. The provision for those 
who had finished the eighth grade to complete the Standard Cer- 
tificate course in three years of five terms each remained in force 
until 1918, when the sixth term was added to the three years of 
work. Also, in 1918, a curriculum was outlined for those desir- 
ing to take high school work without any professional courses. 
This course was three years in length, and no certificate was is- 
sued upon the completion of the course. An early attempt was 
made in 1918 to evaluate the work offered in terms of semester 

In the Eastern Kentucky Review, volume 13, number 4, 
page 40 ; there is found an attempt to evaluate the requirements 
in terms of semester hours beginning with the preparatory 
course. The requirements are as follows : 

Preparatory Course — 28% hours. 
Elementary Certificate Course — 65% hours. 
Intermediate Certificate Course — 65% hours. 
Advanced Certificate Course — 81% hours. 

A summary of the requirements for the Advanced Certifi- 
cate was as follows : 

Total Terms and Hours for Advanced Certificate Above the 
Preparatory Course 

Education 18 terms 43% hours 

English 16 terms 39% hours 

Mathematics 9 terms 22% hours 

Science 17 terms 42% hours 

History and Civics 10 terms 25 hours 

Latin or Modern Language 10 terms 20 hours 

Arts 11 terms 20 hours 

Totals 91 terms 213 hours 

In 1920 the Elementary Certificate Course was rated as 
equivalent to eight high school units; the Intermediate Course 
was also rated as eight high school units. This became the re- 
quirement for admission to the Advanced Certificate Course 
which was outlined for two years of four terms each. 

74 Three Decades of Progress 

In 1922 a new course of study was prepared. This omitted 
the review and preparatory courses and included a three year 
program of secondary work leading- to the Elementary and Inter- 
mediate Certificates and to admission to the college courses. 
For the first time a statement of entrance requirements for those 
entering from the high school is to be found. This provided that 
a minimum of fifteen acceptable units be presented, including 
three units of English, one unit of Algebra, and one unit of 
Plane Geometry. A two-year college course for the Advanced 
Certificate was also outlined. Differentiation was made in the 
curricula for those planning to teach in the lower grades, in 
the upper grades, and in the rural school. 

A Senior College 

In 1922 the normal school became a separate insitution from 
the college and was continued as a three-year school until 1924 
when the fourth year was added. The Provisional Elementary 
Certificate was issued on eight or more units of high school work 
until 1924 when a new certification law was adopted. This law 
provided for the issuance of a Provisional Elementary Certificate 
of the second class to be issued on four units and a Provisional 
Elementary Certificate of the first class to be issued on eight 
units. In 1926 the issuance of certificates on secondary train- 
ing was transferred to the State Department, and the require- 
ments were raised to eight units, four units of which must have 
been earned in a normal school. This law continued until 1930 
when the normal schools were discontinued as teacher training 
departments. In 1930 the normal department of Eastern Ken- 
tucky State Teachers College became a standard secondary 

In 1923 the College organized and offered a course of senior 
college level. A curriculum providing that all students major 
in Education was outlined for the bachelor's degree. The mini- 
mum departmental requirements were: Education, twenty-four 
hours; English, eighteen hours; Foreign Language, ten hours; 
Mathematics, seven hours ; Social Science, ten hours : Science, 
twelve hours. This was modified in 1924 by omitting the re- 
quirement in Foreign Language, by reducing the requirement in 
Mathematics to six hours and in English to twelve hours, and by 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 75 

increasing* the requirement in Social Science to twelve hours. 
Under these requirements the first degrees were conferred in 

In 1926 the requirement was changed from that of requiring 
all students to major in Education to that of permitting them to 
major in subject matter fields. It was specified that each can- 
didate for a degree must satisfy a major of twenty-four hours, 
a first minor of eighteen hours, and a second minor of twelve 
hours in addition to the minimum departmental requirements 
of Education, eighteen hours, English, twelve hours, Social 
Science, twelve hours, Science, twelve hours, and Mathematics, 
seven hours. These general requirements were continued until 
September 1, 1935. All graduates following a professional cur- 
riculum were issued a College Certificate which entitled the 
holder to teach either in the grades or in the high school. 

Period op Expansion 

Some of the outstanding changes made during this period 
had to do with the expansion of the offerings in the various 
departments. This is shown in Table II. In addition to the 
minimum requirements set out above and approved by the Coun- 
cil, the institution developed unified curricula for the prepara- 
tion of teachers in the elementary field, secondary field, and 
Vocational Home Economics. The offerings were revised, and 
an uniform method of description was adopted. This included 
a descriptive title that would indicate the nature of the course, 
a statement of purpose, and a list of the topics to be included in 
the course. A distinction was made in courses of various levels 
which prevented students from accumulating enough hours on 
the freshman college level to satisfy the minimum requirements 
for graduation. 

A part of the plan for improving departmental offerings 
was the preparation of syllabi for the courses of each depart- 
ment. In many of the courses copies of the syllabi were placed 
in the hands of students for their guidance in the course. These 
have served to eliminate overlapping of courses as well as im- 
proving the instruction in the courses. 

In 1930 a curriculum was outlined for a non-professional 
degree for those who were not interested in teaching. Educa- 

76 Three Decades op Progress 

tion was omitted from the departmental requirements and For- 
eign Language was added. In 1932 the requirements for the 
non-professional degree were set up as follows : Bachelor of 
Arts Degree, English, eighteen hours; History, Government, 
and Sociology, eighteen hours; Science, twelve hours; Mathe- 
matics, seven hours; Foreign Language, .six to eighteen hours. 
Minimum departmental requirements for the Bachelor of Science 
Degree were : English, eighteen hours ; History, Government, 
and Sociology, twelve hours; Science, sixty hours; Mathematics, 
twelve hours; Foreign Language, six to eighteen hours. Ar- 
rangements have been made for those interested in medicine and 
other professions whereby they may complete three years' work 
at Eastern, continue the first year's work at a professional 
school, and receive the bachelor's degree provided that during 
the three years of work in this institution they have satisfied 
minimum departmental requirements. 

In 1932 the related departments were brought together in 
divisions. These divisions of instruction were : Applied Arts 
and Sciences, Fine Arts, Biological and Physical Sciences, Edu- 
cation, Health and Physical Education, Languages, Mathematics, 
and Social Sciences. 

In 1935 the Council on Higher Education set up the require- 
ments for certificates to be issued on the completion of profes- 
sional curricula. These requirements furnished the basis for 
the organization of professional curricula, They provide for a 
major in Education which leads to a degree with a certificate 
to teach in the elementary schools. Those students preparing 
to teach in the high school are required to present two majors of 
twenty-four hours each or a major of twenty-four hours and 
two minors of eighteen hours each with the following core 
requirements: English, twelve hours; Science, twelve hours; 
Social Science, twelve hours ; Health, two hours ; Mathematics, 
six hours, or Foreign Language, six to twelve hours; Physical 
Education, one hour; Education, eighteen hours, distributed as 
follows: Supervised Student Teaching, six hours; Psychology, 
three hours; Secondary Education, nine hours. 

Those students planning to take the superintendent's cer- 
tificate may meet the requirements by completing either of the 
professional curricula, provided the work includes six hours of 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 77 

Elementary Education, six hours of Secondary Education, six 
hours of Administration and Supervision, and six hours of 
Supervised Student Teaching. Teachers of Smith-Hughes sub- 
jects are required to complete a curriculum meeting the require- 
ments in Smith-Hughes work and including six hours of Super- 
vised Student Teaching, six hours of Psychology, and nine hours 
of Secondary Education. 

Students receiving any degree from the institution must 
attend a minimum of thirty -six weeks. At least eighteen weeks 
of this resident work is required in the senior year. 

Graduate Work 

Beginning with the school year of 1935-36 Eastern began 
offering graduate work with a provision for a major in Educa- 
tion. The following requirements have been set up for the 
Master's degree i 1 

Admission Requirements. Any student who has received a 
bachelor's degree from an accredited institution authorized by 
law to confer such degrees, and who has met the undergraduate 
requirements of the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 
or the equivalent thereof, may be admitted to the Graduate 

Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts. To com- 
plete the work for the degree of Master of Arts, each candidate 
is required to: 

1. Spend at least two semesters in residence. Three sum- 
mer terms are considered equivalent to one semester. 

2. Complete at least twenty-four semester hours in the Grad- 
uate Division, at least twelve semester hours of which must be 
in the major field of professional education and at least twelve 
hours of which must be in academic work. Of the minimum re- 
quirement of twelve semester hours of academic work, a minor 
of at least six semester hours must be completed in one academic 

3. Present to the dean of the college not later than the end 
of the first semester of residence a tentative program and a 
thesis subject, both of which have been approved by the major 
and minor professors. The thesis subject shall be approved by 
the major and minor professors and by the dean of the college 
as a subject worthy of special research and appropriate to the 
field involved. 

4. Complete the program of work approved for the degree 
of Master of Arts with a high order of scholarship as evidenced 
by grades of "A" or "B" on all courses. A grade lower than 
"B" will not be counted for graduate credit. 

1 Since this plan was adopted the four state teachers colleges and the 
University of Kentucky have entered into an agreement whereby the former 
will discontinue graduate work and the latter will not offer courses in 
teacher-training below the junior year. 

78 Three Decades of Progress 

5. File with the registrar not later than eight weeks before 
the candidate expects to graduate a formal application for the 
Master of Arts degree. 

6. Present at least three weeks before the degree is to be 
conferred a typewritten thesis, organizing and recording the re- 
sults of an investigation of some special topic or problem related 
to the work of the major field. The thesis must be approved by 
the major and minor professors and by the dean of the college 
and must conform to regulations approved by the graduate com- 
mittee for writing theses. 

7. File with the college two typewritten copies of the thesis 
at least one week before the degree is conferred; 

S. Complete all requirements for the Master of Arts degree 
within a period of five years from the date of initial registration 
in the Graduate School." 

Institutional Offerings and Certificate Requirements 

In the following tables will be found the institutional offer- 
ings and certificate requirements. During the period from the 
establishment of the institution to 1921 inclusive there was no 
distinct division between courses of secondary level and those of 
college level. In 1921 the division was made, but many of the 
courses were listed as carrying either high school or college 
credit. It is necessary to give the data shown in Tables I, III, 
IV, and V in term-courses.- In 1922 a definite division was 
made between courses of high school and college level. From 
that date to the present time the institutional offerings and 
certificate requirements are stated in terms of semester hours. 
This is shown in Tables II and VI. 

- A term-course is defined as a class meeting- five times per week for 
a term of eight or ten weeks. 

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By Richard A. Edwards 

The Training School, known for the first half of this period 
as the Model School, opened September 11, 1906, a full four 
months before the beginning of the State Normal School proper. 
Jt was the first training school established in Kentucky as part 
of a teacher training institution. A copy of the Eastern Ken- 
tucky Review bearing the date of October, 1906, carries the fol- 
lowing announcement : 

A distinctive and essential part of every modern Normal 
School is a Model School, in which the most approved methods of 
teaching and of school administration are illustrated by the work 
of expert teachers and supervisors. 

The Eastern Kentucky State Normal is peculiarly fortunate 
in finding at Richmond, in the Walters Collegiate Institute, a 
good nucleus of a Model School. The upper four forms of the 
institution have become a high school; the course of study has 
been strengthened and enriched, and those who successfully com- 
plete it will be amply prepared for immediate entrance into the 
regular courses of the best colleges and undergraduate depart- 
ments of universities in any part of the country. The other 
grades have been added below, and thus provision is made for 
children of all ages and degrees of advancement. 

This Model School, complete in all grades, is organized for 
two purposes: first, to provide a school in which the students of 
the Normal can observe the best work as done by expert teachers, 
trained to their profession; and, second, to afford facilities of a 
superior order for the education of boys and girls whose parents 
desire for their children the advantages of a select private 

The concept embodying the principle of a select private 
school for children of parents who were financially able to afford 
it, and who socially preferred it, was strongly prevalent in many 
sections of Kentucky in 1906. In fact, the free public school 
system inaugurated seventy years previous to this time still 
bore, in the minds of many citizens, a somewhat abstruse and 
hazy stigma of charity. This concept was fostered by the prin- 
cipal sectarian orders in the State because they controlled a large 
number of private schools of all ranks. It was also a dominant 
factor in the social order of the time. Those who traveled the 
turnpikes paid toll. Each school district, however small and 

86 Three Decades op Progress 

poor, provided its own building and employed the teacher of 
its choice. Centralization in education was scarcely known even 
in city school organizations. Socialistic and paternalistic tend- 
encies were incompatible with principles of democracy thirty 
years ago. Tax payers generally did not object to public sup- 
port for elementary schools. Even the poor should have an op- 
portunity for a limited education; but beyond that it was the 
duty of each family and each individual to provide for any 
higher education according to their respective abilities. 

The transition that has taken place in Kentucky within the 
past quarter -century is phenomenal. It is of historical sig- 
nificance and marks an epoch in educational development. The 
history of the Training School through this period presents a 
concrete representation of the change in one locality. 

The Model School announced its tuition rates by the year 
as follows: $30.00 for each of the six elementary grades, $40.00 
for the grammar grades, and $50.00 for each of the four upper 

One hundred and fifty-six pupils were enrolled the first 
year, including sixty-five in the high school. Col. E. H. Craw- 
ford, who had been chosen Director of the Model School, did 
not arrive until the year was half out. Three of the early in- 
structors of the Model School later became prominent members 
of the Normal School faculty. These were Mr. J. A. Sharon, 
who acted as principal during the first fall term and taught high 
school classes; Mr. Wren J. Grinstead, who also was elected 
as a regular member of the Normal School staff, but continued 
to teach a few classes in the high school for several years; and 
Dr. Virginia E. Spencer, who taught the grammar grades for 
the fall term and who took up the duties of Dean of Women 
when the Normal opened January 15. Miss Wesa Moore taught 
the intermediate grades, and Miss Lena Gertrude Roling had 
charge of the primary children and bore the title of supervisor. 

Within ;i year the organization crystallized into a more or- 
derly plan with six full-time teachers. It remained about the 
same for fifteen years. A note added to the list of the Model 
School staff as printed in early bulletins states that "members 
of the regular faculty of the Normal School also teach in the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 87 

Model School on the departmental plan. In this way Drawing, 
French, Science, Vocal Music, and Penmanship are taught." 

From the Kevieiv number dated July, 1907, the following 
interesting information is taken : 

Soon after assuming the duties of his office as Director of 
the Model School, Colonel E. H. Crawford organized the High 
School into a cadet corps and introduced, with marked success, 
self government through the military feature. In March the 
Model School boys to the number of forty were formally mustered 
into the service of the State by Col. Marvin Parrent, Assistant 
Adjutant General of the State. The cadets now have a compact 
organization with their own officers. They have the regulation 
uniform, arms and camp equipment, and the County of Madison, 
in conformity with the law, has furnished pressed steel lockers 
with combination locks, for use in the armory. No feature of the 
school is so popular as this voluntary, self-governing military 

Instruction in this department is both practical and theo- 
retical. The State furnishes guns, uniforms, etc., to all members. 
This department is free to all young men who matriculate in the 
school. Cadets will go into camp at Jamestown, July 18. 

At Jamestown, Virginia, in the summer of 1907, the Nation 
was celebrating the three-hundredth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of the first permanent English colony in America. It 
must have been a great day for the cadets when they stood at 
attention and listened to the reading of "Special Order No. 28", 
as follows : 

The Cadet Company located at Richmond, Kentucky, Colonel 
E. H. Crawford commanding, is hereby attached to the Second 
Infantry, Kentucky State Guard, for and during the encampment, 
and will proceed to Jamestown, Virginia, with the above named 
organization at a time that shall be designated hereafter. 

This organization will be allowed the same privileges and 
concessions as other organizations of the Guard. 

By Command of Governor J. C. W. Beckham, 
Henry R. Lawrence, Adjutant General. 

Fortunately the muster roll for the cadet corps has been 
preserved : 

Col. E. H. Crawford, Commanding; N. B. Noland, 1st Lieut.; 
J. P. Chenault, 2nd. Lieut.; R. R. Burnam, 3rd. Lieut. 

Sergeants: E. A. Deiss; T. E. Baldwin, Jr.; R. J. Roark; 
R. E. Turley, Jr.; O. J. Colyer. 

Corporals: Lowell E. Sharon, Ronald C. Oldham. Walter Q. 
Park, Chas. Powell, A. C. Chenault. 

Privates: John Adams, Lindsay Blanton, Jr., Kavenaugh 
Broaddus, Paul Burnam, Barnett Chenault, John Cornelison, Lodell 
DeJarnett, Alex Mason, Robert Mason, Rankin Mason, Ivan 

88 Three Decades of Progress 

McDougle, C. H. Park, K. S. Park, J. G. Phelps, Luther Powell, 
Frank Prather, B. C. Simmons, Jr., R. "W. Walker, Joseph Weber, 
Malcolm Adolphus Parsons. 

The Drum and Bugle Corps comprised Joe Hollenkamp, 
Drum-Major; Philip Blumenthal. Archie Chenault, Earl Curtis, 
Frank Devore, Robert Estill, Garnett Million, Glen Million, 
James Stepp, Brown Lee Yates. 

Not all of the drum and bugle corps were bona fide mem- 
bers of the school, and not all of the rythmic cadence blown from 
bugles or pounded out of drums fell with pleasing sound upon 
the ears of the Colonel of the Second Infantry. At Jamestown 
the drum and bugle corps carried guns. 

The camp was a momentous event in the lives of the cadets. 
It was a .subject of considerable interest in the home community. 
One exciting incident which occurred while the boys were in 
camp was of sufficient interest to be written up in several 
Eastern papers. Elmer Deiss came near drowning while swim- 
ming at Virginia Beach. Through the heroism of N. B. Noland 
he was rescued and brought to terra firma, although young 
Noland, who was by no means an expert swimmer, almost lost 
his own life in the effort. 

The Model High cadets participated in one more historical 
celebration. The Boonesborough chapter of the D. A. R., in 
October, 1907, dedicated the marker it had erected on the site 
of the old stockade fort at Boonesborough. One hundred and 
thirty years previous to this event the direct ancestors of some 
of these boys had fired volleys from this identical spot, not into 
the air, but with deadly aim at the creeping bodies of redskins 
outside the fort; and twenty-four years later the sons of some 
of these cadets participated as Boy Scouts from the Model High 
School in the dedication of the Boonesborough memorial bridge. 

By the end of the second year of the Model School military 
drill had lost its glamor. There were no more Jamestown expe- 
ditions, and Col. Crawford had withdrawn from the institution. 
The enrollment in high school decreased. In three years it was 
less than half as large as it had been in 1907. The Normal was 
supporting the High School and getting very little in return 
from it. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 89 

Walters Collegiate Institute property was not ceded to the 
state institution when Richmond was selected as the site of the 
school. Its trustees held the property until almost the end of 
President Crabbe's administration before negotiations for its 
purchase by the Normal were consummated. The Normal main- 
tained the "private" high school as a continuation of Walters 
Collegiate Institute, and at the same time paid "excessive" 
rental fees for use of the property. 

The minutes of the Board of Regents in session May, 1911, 
record the motion that "Walters Collegiate Institute lease to 
Eastern Kentucky State Normal School its building and prop- 
erty — that in consideration therefor — Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School do conduct during said period a first class high 
school as an adjunct to the Model School." A second motion 
immediately following the preceding one contained a threat that 
unless a satisfactory deal could be made with the Walters Col- 
legiate Institute trustees, the Model High School would be 
abolished and secondary work conducted within the Normal. 
The former plan being more in accord with the wishes of patrons 
of the school, it was the one that prevailed for the time. 

At a meeting of the Regents in July, 1912, "President 
Crabbe recommended that the Model High School be continued, 
and that it should be extended and developed as a high class 
preparatory school : principal to be employed at a salary not to 
exceed the maximum, $1,900, tuition in grades seven and eight 
to be free for the future. ' ' Two years later at a meeting of the 
Board of Regents "the question of the continuation of the 
Model High School was discussed and the matter was left open 
for a decision of President Crabbe, details covering same to be 
arranged by him." 

A great impetus was given public education in Kentucky in 
1908 by the Sullivan Act which made it mandatory upon the 
counties of the State to establish, or maintain by contract, free 
public high schools. A number of the larger cities were already 
supporting secondary schools as part of their free school sys- 
tems. Within two years after the founding of the state teacher 
training institutions the Commonwealth had extended its public 
school system through the secondary field, and made of its state 
college a university. 

90 Three Decades of Progress 

About the same time the standardization of high schools was 
brought about indirectly by the Carnegie Foundation's pension 
plan for superannuated college professors. The Carnegie Foun- 
dation defined the college entrance unit and fixed the entrance 
requirements for colleges that qualified for the pension benefits 
at fifteen units, or approximately four years of standard sec- 
ondary work. This forced the secondary schools to extend their 
curricula to make contact with the standard colleges. Public 
high schools, private and church schools, seminaries, institutes 
and "colleges" had been operating up to this time with cur- 
ricula three years in length for many of them. The new demands 
for four years of standard work, which the Model High School 
had adopted in 1906, worked a hardship upon many private 
schools, but was a favorable move for the rapidly growing public 
high schools. 

There were no graduating classes from the Model High 
School in the years 1907, 1908, and 1911. The school had taken 
a forward stand comparable with the best secondary schools in 
the State when it continued the four years requirement of 
Walters Collegiate Institute for graduation. That was as much 
as the Normal School demanded of its graduates at first. Some 
of the Model High School students transferred to the Normal 
and finished there, A few of the girls returned to Madison 
Female Institute and graduated there. For the first five or six 
years students continued to drop out after three years of work 
and enter college with the credits already earned, or with the 
necessary extra credits made up elsewhere. A number of repu- 
table colleges did not. require graduation from a four-year high 
school for entrance at that time. 

The Review for April, 1909, contains this interesting bit of 
information about the accrediting of the High School and its first 
graduating class : 

The Model School has recently been accredited by the State 
University under its new advanced requirements. The Univer- 
sity of Michigan will hereafter accept recommended graduates 
without examination. Transylvania University has informally 
agreed to give the Model School graduates one year advanced 
standing. Of this year's senior class, one plans to enter Yale, 
one Michigan, and one the University of Missouri. The Model 
School now has a recognized standing in the educational world. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 91 

Three High Schools and the Shifting Sands 

Madison Female Institute was a well known girls' school 
established in 1856 under the auspices of the church of the Dis- 
ciples of Christ, During the War Between the States the build- 
ings were occupied part of the time by Federal troops as a 
hospital. After the war civil government in the South was 
too weak and too impoverished to support public schools ade- 
quately : as a result, private schools and academies were revived 
and flourished. Madison Female Institute drew students from 
other counties in the State and from some of the neighboring 
states. It provided a cultural training for the daughters of 
well-to-do families. The Institute also maintained an elemen- 
tary school of six grades for both boys and girls. 

With the coming of the Model School Richmond had three 
complete educational plants extending from the first grade 
through the twelfth. All three struggled to keep up a bold 
front. The impetus given to public education in Kentucky 
proved deleterious to the progress of private and church schools. 
Walters Collegiate Institute had already taken refuge under 
the wing of a state institution. By 1919 the Madison Female 
Institute, founded in 1856 and located across the valley on the 
opposite hill, had so dwindled in numbers and depreciated in 
property that it ceased to operate, and its trustees tendered the 
property to the city Board of Education, gratis. Many families 
of the community had already changed their patronage lo the 
Model School. One of the teachers at the Institute, Miss Mari- 
anna Deverell, had accepted a position on the Model School staff 
in 1910. After sixty-three years of effective service, the Insti- 
tute, having passed through the throes of war, a period of pros- 
perity, and an age of decline, found itself like an aged lady, 
bereft of its usefulness, but still loved for what it had been. 

When the city Board of Education accepted the property 
of Madison Female Institute in 1919, it transferred the sec- 
ondary grades of the Caldwell Public High School to the 
historic buildings on the newly acquired campus. Two years 
later the public school on North Second street burned. Then 
under the superintendency of Mr. John Howard Payne a new 
and imposing public school building was erected on the site of 
the Institute. This building was completed in 1922. At once 

92 Three Decades op Progress 

a new civic pride began to manifest itself with increased respect 
and loyalty to the public school. Caldwell High School changed 
its name to Madison High School. 

There was still a division of educational support and loyalty 
in the community. Superintendent Payne presented the situa- 
tion to State Superintendent George Colvin, chairman of the 
Board of Regents for Eastern. Mr. Colvin 's ideas on public 
education jibed exactly with the ambitions of the city superin- 
tendent, and, being a fearless man, the suggestions of Superin- 
tendent Payne were soon expressed in action. The year that 
witnessed the completion of the new home for Madison High 
School on the grounds given to the city by the defunct Madison 
Female Institute also witnessed the recommendation of State 
Superintendent Colvin to the effect that the Normal School 
should abolish its Model High School. The graduating class at 
the Model High that year had been the largest in the history of 
the school. For eighteen years it had carried on the traditions 
of Walters Collegiate Institute and had done exceptionally good 
work for a small high school. But it was true that the State 
Normal had not, up to this time, used the Model High School for 
training purposes. No student teaching had ever been done in it, 
and very little directed observation. It was an expensive adjunct 
to the state institution, carried on at public expense because an 
agreement had been entered into to that effect in the early his- 
tory of the school ; and, moreover, the presence of the Model High 
School divided the educational interests and social forces of the 
community in a way that was not conducive to the building up 
of a modern, progressive high school at either site. 

The action of Mr. Colvin, acquiesced in by President Coates, 
plus the initiative of Superintendent Payne, soon changed the 
educational status of the community. The city school gained 
in public favor. Extra-curricular activities were introduced 
into the High School with the result of increased pride in the 
new public school. Within four years Madison High more than 
doubled its enrollment and established itself on a new plane. 

During the same four-year period the Model School, now 
called the Training School, reduced to eight elementary grades, 
barely held its own in numbers. Before 1922 there had been a 
waiting list of pupils whose parents applied for admission when 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 93 

room would permit. In this period the waiting list disappeared, 
the Parent-Teacher Association dissolved, and children complet- 
ing their work in the Training School began to look forward to 
their entrance into Madison High. Within the same period the 
demand upon the Training School for student teaching had 
exactly doubled, and the College began to launch out more 
strongly than ever in the preparation of high school teachers. 

At the time the Model High School was abolished in 1922 
Eastern was doing very little toward the preparation of high 
school teachers. But the school was just then extending its cur- 
riculum to cover four years of college. The student-body was 
rapidly increasing in numbers, and the demands upon the Train- 
ing School were in proportion. The High School had been given 
up just at the time when the need for it was beginning. 

Up to this point four critic teachers had taught the eight 
elementary grades and supervised student teaching. In Jan- 
nary, 1923, a fifth critic was added to the staff; and in three 
years more the school had been forced to employ a teacher for 
each of the nine grades then in the Trailing School. 

For the school year 1924-25 the Director was given a leave 
of absence with a General Education Board scholarship. Dur- 
ing his leave Mr. M. E. Mattox acted as director. The Junior 
High School for grades seven, eight, and nine was organized in 
September, 1925. 

An agreement was entered into with the Richmond Board 
of Education in 1926 for the extension of student teaching into 
the city school ; but the plan was thwarted when a group of 
citizens appeared before the Board with a petition objecting to 
the agreement. Finally, in 1934 President Donovan and Super- 
intendent O'Donnell completed arrangements whereby the city 
school would assist in the conduct of student teaching during 
crowded terms, and 127 student teachers did three hours each 
in the city schools in 1934-35. 

The increased number of college students preparing them- 
selves for high school positions soon burdened the junior high 
school grades of the Training School with student teachers to 
such an extent" that it became desirable to relieve the situation 
by restoring the senior high school grades. This was done by 

94 Three Decades of Progress 

President Donovan in 1930. The Normal High School, which 
had issued teaching certificates, and which from 1927 to 1930 
had granted high school diplomas, was discontinued in the latter 
year. Three of its faculty, Mr. Walker, Mr. Burns, and Mr. 
Bryant, were added to the new high .school staff. 

A contract was entered into with the Madison County Board 
of Education wherehy those county high school pupils living 
nearer to Richmond than to other county high schools might 
receive free tuition in the Model High School, the county paying 
the Teachers College a fee of ten dollars per pupil at first, but 
later doubled. Thus after twenty-four years of .service to the 
community and to the Normal School and Teachers College, 
eight of which had been without a standard high school, the 
Training School was reorganized on the six-six plan with four- 
teen full-time teachers and once more had a standard, accredited 
high school. 


Walters Collegiate Institute continued its spiritual existence 
re-christened as the Model School in 1906. and occupied the 
same quarters, under the new name and new organization, that 
it had been occupying for the five previous years on the first and 
second floors of old Central University building. From Septem- 
ber 11, 1906, to Christma.s, 1909, the school continued to occupy 
these rooms, while the Normal School occupied other rooms in 
the same building. The Director of the Model School had his 
office on the second floor opposite the assembly room, but the 
administrative offices of the Normal were located in Memorial 
Hall, then the girls' dormitory. 

The Training School at Eastern has, from the first, been 
respected in the choice of its location. In January, 1910, the 
school was moved into Roark Hall, a new building, in which 
there were rooms specially planned for the Model School. Each 
room had a telephone leading to the President's office on the 
first floor ( the President was then the director"), and there were 
narrow, raised platforms in the rear of the rooms built for the 
convenience of observation classes. 

The building used in 1930 exclusively for the Training 
School w;is erected in 1917-18, during the World War. when 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 95 

money values were rapidly rising'. It cost about $60,000.00. 
The contractors defaulted, and their bondsmen completed the 
building with some rather cheap workmanship. In October, 
1918, the school moved from Roark Hall into this edifice, later 
named James W. Cammack building. This, the first training- 
school building in Kentucky, has at the end of eighteen years 
become inadequate for the purposes for which it was designed. 
When the Model High School was reorganized in 1980. it was 
given the same rooms in old Central University building where 
it had its inception in 1906 — and with the .same janitor, Iivin 


The course of study for the Model School printed in 1907 
presented such a splendid outline for a training school curricu- 
lum that few changes have been made with respect to funda- 
mentals within the thirty years. The new course set a high 
standard for Kentucky schools. While primary teachers ad 
over the State were using the A. B. C. method of teaching chil- 
dren to read, the Model School employed a method "beginning 
with action sentences consisting of one word", and "the pupils 
are gradually led into longer and more difficult sentences woven 
into stories or conversation.'' 

Miss Lena Gertrude Ro liig, who had done work at Wooster 
University, taught the primary grades for the first two years. 
Her methods were improved upon after Miss May C. Hansen 
became primary critic in 1912. She, too, began the process of 
reading with meaningful content and without the use of primer 
books; but she added the analytic-synthetic method of motivated 
drill which she had learned in the Francis Parker training school 
at the University of Chicago. Hundreds of primary teachers, 
having mastered these methods at Eastern, have put them into 
practice in the public schools of the Commonwealth. Miss Han- 
sen accepted a leave of absence in 1928, and was succeeded by 
Miss Margaret Lingenfelser, who has continued the excellent 
work of her predecessors, and has added the newer feature of 
developing the learning processes from purposeful activities of 
the children's choice. 

The Review for July, 1907, announced that ''each room in 

96 Three Decades of Progress 

the Model School is furnished with a complete small library of 
books suitable for the children in that grade." Among the 
supplementary readers listed for the second grade there appeared 
two sets that are of special interest : The ' ' Tree Dwellers ' ', by 
Dopp, and the "Early Cave Men", by the same author. These 
books are still in use in the second grade and are in good repair ; 
but they were relegated to a back shelf during President Crabbe's 
administration for the very interesting reason that he was con- 
scientiously opposed to any teaching of primitive life, even in 
story form. The Training School in 1935 had about 3,000 
supplementary books in the different classrooms, and a library 
of about 4,000 additional well-chosen books for general reading. 

The importance of "refined English" in the education of 
youth may be gleaned from these sentences found in the intro- 
duction to the Model School number of the Eastern Kentucky 
Review for 1907: "The Director will watch with zealous care 
such essentials as audible reading, writing, spoken and written 
English. Written work of all grades will be daily filed in the 
office, subject to inspection by the public." The teaching of no 
other subject received so much attention. "Language is taught 
in connection with all other subjects" — sounds very modern. 
Then follows a quotation from Dr. Roark: "Drill in fluent, 
correct, and refined English should begin for each pupil the day 
he enters school, and be the last thing done for him when he 
leaves the university." 

The fundamentals were well taught from the first. All 
courses were planned with sequence and continuity that contrib- 
uted to the wholesome and natural development of children 
through the twelve grades of school. Nature study in the ele- 
mentary grades and science in high school were outlined for each 
year; and so Avere the subjects of mathematics, history, and 
literature. Drawing and art were supervised in the grades and 
one class of each offered in high school. Vocal music was like- 
wise taught by a supervisor, as it always has been since the first. 

The course of study during President Roark 's administra- 
tion (1906-10) introduced the French language in the third 
grade, and offered it in each succeeding grade through high 
school. German, first taught in the seventh grade, was also 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 97 

offered in the succeeding years. Four years of Latin and two 
of Greek were given in high school — a rather humanistic cur- 

The Model School bulletin for 1908 announced that "The 
high school course is arranged to combine three essential compul- 
sory subjects and one elective subject each year but the last, 
when two electives are allowed. The compulsory subjects 
include subjects necessary for university entrance. An elective 
course must be chosen for not less than two successive years. A 
music course has also been arranged to run parallel with these 
courses to be taken as an elective." 

By 1910 the offerings in high school had simmered down to 
one year each in science and history ; but four years of English, 
Latin, and mathematics were given. Two years of Greek and 
two of Franch were still in the curriculum. "The course 
covers", the catalog stated, "sixteen units as defined by the 
College Entrance Examination Board, as follows : English, 3 
units ; Latin, 4 units ; Greek, 2 units ; Ancient History, 1 unit ; 
Geometry, 1% units; Algebra, 1% units; German or French, 2 
units ; and Physics, 1 unit. ' ' These requirements seem quite 
rigid compared to the present ones which specify only three 
units of English and two of mathematics as required with the 
other eleven units elective. No foreign language has been taught 
in the grades since the "World War, and no German in the high 
school. Greek had been dropped from the high school before 
that time. 


Model High School had a football team in the beginning 
years of its existence, and again in the last years before its dis- 
continuance in 1922. It had baseball, track, and basketball 
teams also in the years between 1907-1912. In 1919 the school 
joined the Kentucky High School Athletic Association, which the 
writer of this chapter had been instrumental in organizing in 
1916-17. Previous to that time high schools in the State had 
had no state-wide organization governing the ethical conduct of 
inter-scholastic contests. 

Other extra-curricular activities which were important 

E. S. T. C— 4 

98 Three Decades op Progress 

enough in the life of the school to leave some record of achieve- 
ment included a high school orchestra and a dramatic club. 

Club activities developed with the rise of junior high schools 
and the changing philosophy of education. In 1915 the writer 
had introduced the six-six plan of organization in the second 
school in Kentucky to adopt it. When he came to the Training 
School as director in 1918 it was announced in the Review bul- 
letin that the Training School would be reorganized on that 
basis; but there were obstacles in the way. It was not until 
1925 that the Junior High School became a fact, with a half 
dozen clubs of the pupils' choice. This number has now trebled. 

A liberal philosophy has governed the policies of the school 
since the beginning, in spite of its rigid, academic, high school 
curriculum. Col. Crawford announced in the 1907 Model School 
Review bulletin that "Physical culture and military training 
will play a conspicuous part in the discipline of those coming 
under our charge." The attractive bulletin published a year 
later states that "The rules of the school are few and designed 
to secure the greatest good to the greatest number. Each pupil 
is given every opportunity for self-control. A healthful school 
spirit is fostered and every effort made to command the loyalty 
of both pupils and parents of the school." This has really been 
the policy upon which the government of the school has rested 
from that time to this. For several years the Director of 
the Training School has announced to the student body at the 
beginning of every term, that the school has no rules; that the 
pupils are supposed to do as they please so long' as they please 
to do right; that every boy is expected to be a gentleman, and 
every girl a lady; and that the school stands for three ideals 
which it is hoped will be characterized in every pupil : namely, 
scholarship, courteous conduct, and personal honesty. 

For twenty-five years the Training School had a ten months 
school year, with a special six weeks summer term until 1922. 
Beginning 1930-31, the length of the school year has been made 
nine months witli llie special six weeks summer term resumed. 

The whole-hearted support of the school by its patrons was 
shown in the management of the art exhibit held May 20 to 23, 
1909. The twenty patronesses, whose names appeared on the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 99 

program, and the sixteen young ladies whose names appeared 
on the reception committee, sponsored the exhibit in the Miller 
Gymnasium ; Miss Margaret Lynch was chairman. The splendid 
collection of pictures secured by these ladies from the proceeds 
of the exhibit still adorn the walls of the classrooms in the Train- 
ing School. Very few other pieces of art have been added to 
them within the intervening twenty-seven years. 

The organizers of the Parent-Teacher Association the next 
year were those who had helped to make the art exhibit a success. 
This organization contributed to a wholesome morale in the school 
and established a bond of understanding between the community 
and the school which has never entirely been severed. The first 
meeting was held November 25, 1910; and the last one recorded 
in the minute book was February 29, 1924. Following is a 
record copied from the minutes of the first meeting: "Dr. 
Crabbe lead the discussion with talks by Mr. MacBryde, Miss 
Deverell, Madame Prowtrowska, Miss Patridge, Miss Green, Mr. 
Robert Burnam, and Judge Lilly. Mrs. T. S. Burnam was made 
president of the association, and Miss Green, secretary-treas- 
urer." Those paying clues for the first year were Mrs. J. S. 
Hagan, Mrs. T. J. Smith, Mrs. W. H. Park, Mrs. E. W. Powell 
Mrs. Dr. Vaught, Mrs. E. Witt, Mrs. B. L. Banks, Mrs. C. F. 
Chenault, Mrs, S. L. Deatherage, Mrs. T. S. Burnam, Mrs. John 
Arnold, Mrs. Henry Perry, Mrs. II. C. Jasper, Mrs. L. P. Evans, 
Mrs. Joe Chenault, Mrs. J. R. Pates, Mrs. 0. W. Hisle, Mrs. G. 
D. Smith, and Miss Jenny L. Green. 

For the year 1915-16 there were fifty-one paid memberships. 
From the minutes one would conclude that all the speakers were 
"interesting", the entertainment "delightful", and the refresh- 
ments "delicious". In fact, the programs were usually of a 
high order and were appreciated. To turn through the minutes 
one sees such items as these: "Prof. Marsteller lectured to the 
Association on Rousseau's EmAle"; "Dr. Scanlon gave a very 
interesting talk on practical morality, followed by a lively dis- 
cussion, a great many taking part"; and "the Rev. Homer Car- 
penter gave a talk on music and its place in the community life. ' ' 
More than one program included "a solo by Miss Cynthia 
Davison. ' ' 

When the administration of the Normal changed in 1916 

100 Three Decades of Progress 

the P. T. A. sent "a committee to appear before the Board of 
Regents and express to them the parents' appreciation of the 
work done by the Model School teachers, and to ask that they 
be unanimously reappointed." 

Books suitable for the Model School children were purchased 
by the Association and placed in the Normal School library be- 
fore a Training School library was established. Playground 
equipment was also installed by the organization. For a period 
of about two years, 1916-18, the members financed and managed 
a noon-day lunch for the children ; and the last kindly act before 
the association adjourned, sine die, was to contribute a first-aid 
medicine cabinet to the school. It is still in daily use. 

Those who served as presidents of the Parent-Teacher As- 
sociation during its life time were as follows : For 1910-11, Mrs. 
T. S. Burnam; 1911-12, Mrs. Thomas Jafferson Smith; 1912-13, 
Mrs. Joe Chenault ; 1913-14 and from 1915 to 1917, Mrs. B. H. 
Luxon; 1914-15, Mrs. W. H. Park; 1917-19, Mrs. J. P. Pates; 
1919-20, Mrs. Harry Blanton; 1920-21, Mrs. Murrison Dunn; 
1921-22, Mrs. Warfield Bennett; 1922-23, Mrs. Frank Clay; 
1923-24, Mrs. H. H. Brock. 

The P. T. A. was reorganized October 5, 1933, and the fol- 
lowing officers Avere elected to serve for a year and a half: Mrs. 
G. Murray Smith, president ; Miss Ruby Rush, vice-president ; 
Mrs. Turley Noland, secretary ; and Mrs. James W. Deatherage, 
treasurer. Officers for 1935-36 are Mrs. James J. Shannon, 
president; Miss Eliza Hanson, vice-president; Mrs. Rodes B. 
Terrill, secretary ; Mrs. Oscar Swofford, treasurer. 

A "Training School Children's Room" in the Pattie A. 
Clay Infirmary was equipped in 1929 at the expense of $500.00, 
which sum was raised by the pupils. 

Professional Service 

The Normal School was established for the expressed pur- 
pose of training teachers for the public schools of the Common- 
wealth ; but the Training School, the laboratory where the prac- 
tical side (if the 1 raining was to be done, t lie "Model School" 
where the "students of the Normal can observe the best work", 
was offering "the advantages of a select private school," and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 101 

announcing that "military training will play a conspicuous 

The special Model School number of the Review issued in 
the summer of 1908 announced in bold type, "The purpose of 
the Model School is to furnish a high grade preparatory school 
for the people of the community. The faculty has been chosen 
with that end in view. The school is in no sense a practice school 
and no practice teaching is allowed. Typifying, as it does, how- 
ever, the best methods of teaching, Normal students are required 
to observe the work in all grades but without interfering with 
the regular work of the class." 

This policy was soon changed. During the illness of Presi- 
dent Roark at a meeting of the Board of Regents, January 12, 
1909, "Mrs. Roark reported that a practice school had been con- 
ducted by Miss Patridge in accordance with plans for same pre- 
viously adopted, and that the school was a success." One month 
later at another meeting of the Regents the question arose again, 
and "Prof. Jayne in connection with the Acting President was 
authorized to organize a practice school without delay". 

Professor I. W. Jayne had succeeded Col. Crawford as Di- 
rector of the Training School. His year of service in the school 
appears to have been a stormy one. At the June meeting of the 
Board of Regents charges of "insubordination" were brought 
against him by the acting President. The records show that he 
was formally "discharged" after a whole page of "whereas" 
had been spread on the book, one of which noted that he had 
already accepted another position. 

Mr. Jayne was succeeded by Dr. E. George Payne, a man 
who has since become nationally prominent in the field of profes- 
sional education. It was resolved at the October, 1909, meeting 
of the Regents, "1st. that Dr. E. G-. Payne be elected Professor 
of Pedagogy and Director of Training, and that he be authorized 
to organize and classify the observation and practice work of the 
school; 2nd., that the Director of Training shall assign Normal 
students to observation work in the Model School, and also assign 
Normal students to practice work after having completed obser- 
vation work required of them." 

At the December meeting, "Upon motion the Board ap- 

102 Three Decades of Progress 

proved Dr. Payne 's plan of reorganizing the Model and Practice 
Schools and the details worked out by him and Mrs. Roark, but 
retained two grades to each teacher and the only extra expense 
to be the employment of Miss Patridge, and one assistant in the 
high school". 

When Dr. Payne resigned at the end of the school year the 
Board passed a resolution of regret. 

President Crabbe came to the Presidency of the Normal in 
1910, and immediately took into his own hands the reins of the 
Director of the Training School just dropped by Dr. Payne. 
Observation 1 and 2 and Practice Teaching 1 and 2 had been 
added to the curriculum. From that day to this the school has 
functioned to the limit of its capacity in the training of teach- 
ers, and in the education of children. 

The "Year Books" and summer school bulletins for 1911 
and 1912, contain this rather pithy paragraph which speaks for 
itself: ""While even the most ignorant and thoughtless of the 
general public seem to know that Normal Schools were estab- 
lished for the purpose of training teachers, there are many intel- 
ligent people, including some teachers, who fail to recognize the 
one vital point of difference between Normal and other schools. 
Either they do not know or they mil not see that the great dis- 
tinctive feature of a Normal school is the opportunity it affords 
for the observation of the teaching process, as carried on in the 
different grades, and the privilege of individual practice." 

Then follows another paragraph which expresses very poign- 
antly a basic principle upon which the entire institution is 
built: "Academic work is done in every school," says the 
writer, "and all branches of learning including the theory of 
education, may be pursued in other institutions of learning ; but 
only in a Training School for teachers are pupils taught the art 
of teaching as well as the science, and given systematic instruc- 
tion in both theory and practice." 

The October Review for 1912, makes the following clear-cut 

statement of objectives : 

This institution is to train teachers and it stands for four 

1. A high standard of scholarship. 

2. A thorough study of the science of teaching. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 103 

3. Observation of the teaching process in the eight grades 
and high school of the Model School. 

4. Practice teaching under competent supervision. 

As director of the Training School President Crabbe super- 
vised its administration in the minutest detail. It was his cus- 
tom every morning before school opened to visit each classroom, 
shake hands with the teacher, and pass a few words of interest 
and concern relative to the school work. Once a month each 
teacher filed with him a complete synopsis of all subject matter 
covered during' the month, written out on a special form of 
legal-cap paper. Each teacher was supplied with two substan- 
tially bound record books, one for attendance and the other for 
pupil achievement records. These were used for nine years, 
and are still preserved in the archives of the Training School. 

He delegated the supervision of teacher training work to 
Miss Lelia Patridge, a quaint little lady and a delightful soul, 
who had been elected to the Normal School faculty in 1909. She 
was a graduate of the Framingham (Mass.) State Normal School, 
the second established in America, and had acquired a rich 
experience in various types of educational work. She was a 
devout disciple of Colonel Francis Parker and of his philoso- 
phy of education. Her two books, Quincy Methods and Talks 
to Teachers, were written from first-hand knowledge and obser- 
vation in his school at Quincy, Mass., and later in the Chicago 
Normal School, and as a frequent visitor in his home. 

As teacher of methods in Eastern Kentucky State Normal 
School for a period of eleven years, and as supervisor of practice 
and observation in the Training School for the first part of that 
period, she, perhaps more than any other person ever connected 
with the institution, succeeded in teaching a philosophy of edu- 
cational method which time and experience have indorsed as 

At a time when teachers almost everywhere were having pu- 
pils drawl out monotonous hours in "audible reading" — one of 
the training school objectives laid down by Col. Crawford in 1906 
■ — Miss Patridge appeared like a torch in the night, exposing fal- 
lacies in the old method and showing the advantages of a silent 
reading method in all grades. She lectured and she demon- 

104 Three Decades op Progress 

strated; she convinced and she sent teachers into the schools of 
the state who really improved the instruction of thousands of 
children. The methods of teaching reading in the Training 
School at the time this chapter is written are substantially the 
same as those introduced by Miss Patridge. 

On a dark, rainy night while crossing a street in Richmond 
she met a sudden and tragic death. She had willed her per- 
sonal belongings to her friends, and her estate of about $8,000.00 
she bequeathed to the founding of a home for those like herself, 
who, when they had grown old in the teaching profession, might 
have a comfortable place in which to spend their last days. 

The professional work in the Training School during most 
of the sixteen years from the beginning of the Normal until it 
became a standard college included two ten-weeks courses in 
observation and two ten-weeks courses in practice teaching. The 
procedure varied somewhat from time to time, but that was the 
general plan. 

Observation 1, an "orientation course", was required of all 
students in the Elementary certificate curriculum. Students 
spent two weeks in each grade, kept notebooks in which they 
wrote up the activities observed, and discussed methods with the 
supervisor or teacher in charge of the class. After the Model 
Rural School was established on the campus, most of the observa- 
tion for this group was done in it. 

Observation 2 was required in the Intermediate certificate 
course. It was conducted very much like Observation 1. For 
most of the first ten years of the school these students were 
assigned to the four elementary critic teachers, divided into four 
groups, and went the "ring around the rosie", the critic teachers 
grading their notebooks. After the administration of President 
Coates had continued for two years, a Director was employed 
for the Training School to take this burden off the President, 
and classes in observation were placed under the direction of 
this man. 

Practice Teaching 1 and 2 were offered in the Advanced 
certificate curriculum. Student teachers were given their as- 
signment in the Training School by the Director. A course in 
Observation 3 was sometimes offered for students of college rank. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 105 

From 1921 up to the present time one college course in Observa- 
tion has been given. Before 1926 it was Observation and Partic- 
ipation, and the students followed the old plan of spending 
two weeks in each of the elementary rooms. After 1926 it was a 
course in Observation and Method, and was differentiated into 
three cla.sses, for primary, upper grade, and rural teachers 
respectively, with a syllabus outlining the work. In the new 
revision of the curriculum which went into effect in 1931 this 
course has been changed to "Fundamentals in Education" and 
its credit value doubled. 

Records for the number of demonstration lessons taught in 
the Training School for college classes have been kept for the 
last ten years and are as follows: 310 for 1926-27; 219 for 
1927-28 ; 258 for 1928-29 ; 278 for 1929-30 ; 266 for 1930-31 ; 384 
for 1931-32 ; and over 400 for each year since then. 

Practice Teaching 1, for a period of about twelve years, 
was clone in all eight grades, two or three weeks in each room, 
one hour of teaching each day plus another hour for conference 
with the critic teacher or supervisor. The second ten weeks 
term of Practice Teaching 2, while not always required, was 
offered in the grade or subjects which prepared the candidate for 
the kind of position he intended to hold. For the past fourteen 
years 1 and 2 have both been required in a combined course 
carrying five semester hours credit, and the work has all been in 
the grades or subjects in which the student teacher is majoring, 
except for the past two years when standard certificate people 
were permitted to take three hours in one-half semester. Since 
the expansion of the training facilities and increase in the num- 
ber of supervising teachers not more than three student teachers 
are assigned to any room for the same period, and not more than 
nine for the semester. 

Training Rural Teachers 

The crying need in Kentucky for better rural teachers has 
been recognized by this institution from the first. An arrange- 
ment was made with the Madison County school authorities in 
1909 for the use and control of the Watts rural school located on 
the Lancaster pike about three miles from the campus. 

106 Three Decades of Progress 

An interesting description of the school is given in the April 
Review for that year: "The County Training School, recently 
organized, has a full attendance. . . . Several mild innovations 
in country schools have been mildly introduced, such as written 
spelling and supplementary reading. One member of the train- 
ing class accompanies Miss Patridge each day and teaches under 
h,er supervision. During the ride back and forth the time is 
used in discussing plans and methods." 

The relationship with the Watts school was terminated after 
a few years. On September 8, 1912, the Regents authorized 
President Crabbe ' ' To begin the work of building a model rural 
school building by asking for preliminary sketches and bids for 
same at the earliest possible date." For some unknown cause 
the building was not constructed until 1929 when the Regents 
repeated the authorization to President Donovan, who had the 
new brick, one-teacher, model school building erected on the 
college farm near the campus. The Madison County Board of 
Education turned over to the Teachers College the Watts school 
district. A new school bus was purchased and free transporta- 
tion was provided for the children of this district. 

In January, 1918, President Coates organized a one-teacher 
rural school on the campus at Eastern. A room for the school 
was first taken in the basement of Roark Hall, the same building 
that housed the Training School at that time. But when the 
Library moved into the new Training School building in October, 
1918, the Model Rural School occupied all of the old Central 
University Academy building vacated by the Library. Miss 
Mariam Noland taught this school with rural children, all eight 
grades, until it was discontinued in 1922. 

President Coates made a contract with the Madison County 
Board of Education for joint operation of Kavanaugh rural 
school on the Irvine pike in 1921. The Green's Chapel school 
on Barnes Mill pike was added to the contract in 1923. Both 
of these schools remained part of the Training School organiza- 
tion until 1929. A bus was operated on a regular schedule 
between them and the campus. Classes went out to observe and 
student teachers to practice. During a. brief period of about 
one year each, from 1921 to 1923, Mr. C. D. Lewis and Mr. W. L. 
Jayne supeiwised rural training work and headed what was 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 107 

called a department of rural education. The Director of the 
Training School supervised these schools, bath in their adminis- 
trative and professional aspects at all other times. 

Beginning' in 1931 rural education at Eastern offered for 
the first time a curriculum leading to a degree and preparing 
teachers, supervisors, county superintendents and consolidated 
principals for the specific duties of this most neglected field of 
public education. 

The transition through which the Training School has 
passed during the first quarter century of its history marks a 
change in educational ideals and practices from that of the 
private school, as represented in Walters Collegiate Institute, to 
that of a more democratic education as typified in the State's 
public school system. The organization of the school has been 
changed from the conventional eight-four plan, which had its 
origin in the German Volkschule and the English academy, to 
the six-six plan of American origin, which has the advantage of 
a better integrated program. In September, 1934, a nursery- 
kindergarten room was added under the stimulation of the Fed- 
eral Emergency Relief Administration. The methods of instruc- 
tion have progressed with the changing philosophy of education. 
The school has taken advantage of the results of scientific 
resarch in education made available during this rapidly evolving 
period. The results of standardized tests, first introduced in 
1920 and used consistently since that time, show the scholastic 
standing of pupils in the Training School to be, on the average, 
up to or above that for the country as a whole. "While the num- 
ber of pupils in the school has been limited, for most of the 
time, to thirty to the grade, the expansion made necessary by 
the demands of the college has almost trebled the numbers and 
has increased the full time teaching staff to seventeen. These 
first thirty years record a struggle, a metamorphosis and a sud- 
den burst of approval for public education and for better trained 
teachers in Kentucky. The Training School has played a con- 
spicuous part in this advancement. 


Three Decades op Progress 





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Mary Floyd 

A library is an orderly group of books kept in lively 
and intelligent service. It might well be defined as the cen- 
tral laboratory of culture, an intelligent community center for 
student and faculty. Silas Evans: The Effective College. 

The above quotation embodies the philosophy concerning 
Eastern's Library as often expressed in the various school bul- 
letins. The history of the library follows so closely the story of 
the growth of the entire college, the change in curriculum, and 
the demands placed upon it by modern teaching methods that it 
is difficult to consider it separately. For the sake of clarity, 
however, in recording historical facts, this chapter will be divided 
into four parts : building and equipment, book stock, library 
staff, and relationship of library to college. 

Building and Equipment 

In 1907 the library was located on the campus in a small, 
brick building known as Walter's Collegiate Institute. Early 
in the history of the school the Board of Regents attempted, in 
cooperation with the city of Richmond, to secure a Carnegie 
Library. This movement was not successful; so the Walter's 
Collegiate Institute housed the library until the fall of 1918, 
when it was removed to the front half of the Training School, 
or Cammack Building. It remained there until the John Grant 
Crabbe Library, a fire-proof, two-story brick and stone structure, 
erected at a cost of $55,332.55, was completed and ready for use 
in September, 1924. 

In the Library Bulletin issued in 1928 this new building Is 
described as follows : 

On the main floor of the building are the lobby, the delivery 
desk, the stack room, two large reading rooms, reference room, 
the Librarian's office and the catalog room. In the lobby into 
which the delivery desk extends are the card catalog cabinets 
. . . Immediately at the rear of the charging desk is the stack 

110 Three Decades of Progress 

room, equipped with steel stacks. Here the main collection of 
books in the Library is kept. The mezzanine floor at either end 
of the stack room leads to six seminar and laboratory rooms. 

In the basement directly beneath the catalog room is a 
storage room with dumb waiter leading down from the catalog 
room, where books may be unpacked, cleaned, repaired, and 
rebound. Other rooms in the basement are a large assembly 
room; a room located to the left for classes in library methods, 
and a children's library occupying the room to the right of the 
assembly room. 

This building-, though ample at first, was inadequate to meet 
the needs of faculty and students by 1930. The increased enroll- 
ment, extended curriculum, and the laboratory methods of teach- 
ing had put new demands on the library. More reading room 
space was needed, a reserve room with open shelves was a neces- 
sity, and more shelf space in the stacks had to be provided in 
order to give efficient service. 

President Donovan and the library staff considered the pos- 
sibility of the erection of a new building, with the idea of using 
the present one for the Department of Fine Arts. However, 
limitations on state revenues during the depression made it neces- 
sary to consider an addition to the library rather than the erec- 
tion of a new building. No building appropriations were being 
made by the State Legislature. 

During 1933-34 the Federal Government provided huge 
sums for building programs in an attempt to give work to the 
unemployed in every locality. Upon investigation of the amount 
of employment needed for the various crafts in Richmond it 
was found that the need of the college for an addition to the 
library could be combined with Federal aid for the unemployed 
in the community. A formal application for funds was first sub- 
mitted to the State Advisory Board of the Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration of Public Works on October 17, 1933. 
Additional data were furnished from time to time as requested 
by the Government. 

On July 18, 1931, the Board of Regents formally accepted 
a loan and grant agreement to the amount of $S9,000.00 ; and 
this agreement was approved by the Federal authorities on 
August 4, 1934. This was a combination of 30',' grant and 
70% long- time loan to be paid from student library fees over a 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 131 






The above photograph shows the library after the new addition, 
doubling its former capacity, was completed in 1935. 

112 Three Decades of Progress 

period of twenty years. The total cost of the library addition 
was approximately $100,000.00. 

In connection with the architect's problems of size, propor- 
tion, and materials to conform to the old building, the questions 
of light, heat, and ventilation were discussed before any plans 
were made. Other things necessary from the library point of 
view were: one large room with open shelves for reserve books; 
an equally large reference room ; additional space for the Ken- 
tucky collection and the Training School Library ; a faculty 
study ; conference and seminar rooms ; reading carrels in the 
main stacks; and physical arrangements that would allow for 
open stacks for all books, with privacy for library work and 
protection from loss of books. 

The architects, S. K. and C. C. Weber, of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
were generous in submitting plans to meet these needs and in 
making adjustments from time to time for improvements. The 
contract for the library addition was let on September 12, 1934. 
On November 4, 1934, Mr. E. C. Harding, of Fort Thomas, Ken- 
tucky, arrived as Government engineer for P. W. A. Project 
Number 2339, and excavation began on November 13, 1931, 
under the direction of Mr. Leo J. Brailmeyer, general contractor. 

Various parts of the building were finished and books were 
moved at intervals from September, 1935. until the final opening 
of the entire building for service on January 17, 1936. This 
made it possible to keep all departments open for use during the 
period of building and remodeling. On January 27, 1936, the 
library staff gave a party to the faculty and entire school staff 
to acquaint them with arrangement and policies. The formal 
dedication is to be included in the program celebrating thirty 
years of progress in teacher-training at Eastern. 

According to the editor of the Eastern Progress, "The new 
library is more than a receptacle for books. It is a magnificent 
edifice fashioned with so much intelligence and foresight that it 
serves as a sort of temple of learning. '•' 

The general plan was to extend the old building from the 
rear, duplicating the floor space and adding eight feet through 
th,e middle to allow for side entrances and to give balance to the 
structure. This more than doubles the stack space in the center 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 113 

of the building, allowing for five tiers to care for future expan- 
sion. The main charging desk and the two reading rooms on 
either side remain according to the old plan. The office, staff 
room, catalog room, mending room, and a class room, are located 
on the east side of the building near the service door. This suite 
of rooms serves as a private workshop, with, dumb waiter open- 
ings on the first floor into the stacks and into the vestibule near 
the service door, and with second-floor openings for the stacks 
and the catalog room. The librarian's office has an entrance 
from the front reading room. It also has doors leading into the 
stacks and into the vestibule connecting with the stairs and all 
th,e other rooms on this side of the building. 

The west entrance to the building is more imposing. Stair- 
ways lead from a vestible to the upper and lower corridors that 
connect all parts of the building open to the public. On this 
side are located : on the first floor, the Training School room, 
work room, and a large reserve room; on the second floor, the 
faculty room, conference and the reference room ; and on the 
third floor, the Kentucky room. The chief ambition in planning 
the entire building program has been realized in the two large 
rooms (34 feet by 94 feet) on the first and second floors, extend- 
ing the whole width of the building on the south side. 

The Reference Room on the second floor is a spacious and 
beautiful room, finished in blending sepia tones from the 
weathered brown of the furniture to the old ivory and soft tans 
combined in the ceiling. Venetian blinds regulate the light from 
seven large windows on the south side and three at either end 
of the room. Five large decorative ceiling light fixtures of the 
suspended bowl type in openwork pattern backed up with cathe- 
dral amber panels were designed to provide artificial illumina- 

The ceiling is divided into panels by two highly embellished 
beams supported by massive ornamental brackets. A cornice 
in decorative plastering has alternating, rubbed vermillion 
squares and oblong medallions with acanthus motif at the top 
and conventionalized leaf design, roll molding at the bottom. 
Seven larger medallions adorn the space above the south 
windows, alternating the scroll and urn-patterns. Occasional 

114 Three Decades of Progress 

wall panels are outlined with the acanthus motif in decorative 
plastering, with the hope that at some future time appropriate 
murals will decorate the walls. 

Special furniture of plain sawed red oak was designed for 
the reference room. Adjustable wall shelves will accommodate 
6,000 volumes. Comfortable chairs reflecting the early English 
library, and eighteen ten-foot pedestal-type tables, equipped with 
eight-foot table lamps for local illumination, will accommodate 
144 readers at one time. 

The cork tile Moor, in conventional blocks of tan and brown, 
aids in making this room a quiet and satisfying place to study. 
Heat and ventilation are regulated by thermostat control. 

Entrance into the main stacks from the reference room is 
provided for by double doors that balance the entrance from the 
corridor into the room. This plan allows stack privi'eges for 
everyone who really wants to bronse and locate his own books, 
and it also gives protection from loss of books by requiring all 
readers to return from the stacks through this room where their 
books are examined as they leave by way of the corridor exit. 

The reserve room on the first floor is a duplication of the 
reference room on the second floor in size and equipment, except 
that it has a lower, unornamented ceiling. In addition to the 
reserve books this room provides open shelves for bound maga- 

High hopes have gone into the planning of this building to 
the end that all books may be "kept in lively and inte ligent 

Book Stock 

According to the report of the Kentucky Library Commis- 
sion in 1933 for forty-two Kentucky colleges and university 
libraries, Eastern Teacheis College Library ranks first among 
the Teachers Colleges, and fifth among all the colleges and uni- 
versities in the state, in total book stock, those ranking above 
Eastern being the University of Kentucky, Berea College, the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, the University of Lou- 
isville, and Transylvania College. 

The [-.cession records .show that 1,050 books were added to 
the library between June 15, 1907, and January 1, 1908. At 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 115 

the end of ten years the library contained about 6,000 volumes ; 
at the end of twenty years about 19,500 volumes ; and at the end 
of thirty years more than 45,000 volumes. This is an average of 
about 1,000 books added annually for the first twenty years, and 
an average of about 2,500 volumes added annually for the past 
ten years. According to existing records the purchase of books 
and equipment during the early history followed no definitely 
established policy. 

On March 15, 1907, the Board of Regents authorized their 
Executive Committee to buy such library and laboratory sup- 
plies as they deemed necessary. In September of that same 
year the Board directed that a sum amounting to .$500.00 be 
expended on the purchase of books. Again in March, 1909, 
there is mention of instruction having been given to the librarian 
to submit a list of books to the business director, their cost not 
to exceed $200.00. A fund of $60.00 for the purchase of the 
Library of Southern Literature is mentioned in the June, 1909, 
minutes of the Board of Regents ; and in a similar manner all 
purchases for the Library were taken care of until 1918. At 
that time a regular annual appropriation was begun. 

Since 1924 there has been an annual appropriation of 
$6,000 made by the Board of Regents for Library books and 
equipment, with additional appropriations at irregular times, as 
money was available and demands seemed to justify this con- 

In addition to the main collection for circulation, the library 
has a reference collection of about 3,000 volumes and 3,811 
bound magazines. It also has a textbook collection of some 
2,000 volumes; a collection of Kentuckiana containing 2,769 
volumes; and a Training School Library with more than 5,000 
books suitable for the grades and junior high school. All books 
are classified according to the Dewey Decimal System. 

In 1908 the library subscribed for 39 periodicals ; in 1936 
the periodical lists included 220 carefully selected and well 
balanced titles according to department needs, supplemented by 
ten newspapers on the racks for daily use. 

The year 1918 was a turning point in the history of the 
Library of Eastern, for it is in the yearbook for 1918 that a 

116 Three Decades op Progress 

Library Committee is first mentioned. This committee was com- 
posed of Miss Reid, the librarian, Mr. McDougle, Dr. Bruner, 
Mr. Grinstead, Mr. Edwards, Mr. Keith, and President Coates 
as ex-officio member. The present Library Committee includes 
the following members : President II. L. Donovan ; Mary 
Floyd, Librarian and Chair-man of the Committee ; R. A. Ed- 
wards, Secretary to the Committee ; and Dean W. C. Jones, Edith 
Ford, Smith Park, Roy B. Clark, Meredith. Cox, C. A. Keith, 
L. G. Kennamer, T. E. McDonougk, and Dean Rumbold. Meet- 
ings, as scheduled in the college catalog, are to be held the first 
Tuesday in each calendar month. 

Each teacher has full privilege in selecting books particular- 
ly suited for his work and in presenting such requests to mem- 
bers of the committee. All departmental requests are given 
consideration in proportion to the budget for that particular 
department and to the number of books of similar nature avail- 
able in the library. Assistant librarians in the different depart- 
ments are expected to recommend books needed to meet the de- 
mands in their respective departments. These books constitute a 
most usable collection with a minimum of "dead material," and 
rate well above the average when checked with the standards set 
up in Rosenlof's Library Facilities of Teacher-Training Insti- 
tutions and in Shaw's A List of Books for College Libraries. 

The library is open daily from 7 :30 A. M. until 5 :30 P. M. 
(except Sundays) and at night from 6:00 until 9:00 P. M. 
(except Saturday and Simday nights). The circulation in- 
crease has been proportionate to the increase in book stock and 
enrollment, as may be seen from these figures : 3,700 for the 
school year of 1907-08; 7,120 for 1908-1909; 13,560 for 1918- 
1919; 174,000 for 1928-1929; and 191,917 for 1934-1935, not 
counting the readers in the reference and periodical department 
where the daily average would run well above 400 readers. 

Special mention should be made concerning the Training 
School Library and the Kentucky Collection. The Training 
School Library is more than a juvenile library because it serves 
as a laboratory for college students in the children's literature 
classes and for those college students doing practice teaching. 
These books have been selected with great care. The Winnetka, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 117 

Terman-Lima, Standard Catalog and other lists have been 
checked from year to year in an effort to keep in touch with the 
best books available for purchase. 

The Kentucky Collection, including the John "Wilson Town- 
send collection, contains 2,769 books, innumerable pamphlets, 
pictures, and letters about Kentucky or by Kentuckians. In 
1913 Mr. Townsend published Kentucky in American Letters. 
It was necessary for him to collect books about Kentucky to 
examine before he knew what he wanted to include in these 
two volumes. Many authors sent copies of their books gratis. 
His own interest in Kentucky literature was greatly increased 
by his association with Colonel R. T. Durrett, of Louisville, 
whose valuable collectiou of Kentuckiana is now in the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 

After the publication of Kentucky in American Letters, Mr. 
Townsend 's collecting did not cease, but continued as a hobby 
that occupied the best part of thirty years of his life. His chief 
objectives were to secure first editions of Kentucky items in mint 
condition, to have them autographed by the authors, and to in- 
sert some sort of annotation and a letter from the author in each 

This unique library of more than 1700 books was purchased 
in 1930 by Eastern to be kept as a special research collection. It 
is constantly being added to by the purchase of "first editions" 
as they come from the press and old or ' ' rare ' ' books available at 
reasonable prices, A special book plate for this collection was 
designed in compliment to Mr. Townsend by a personal friend 
of his. Mr. Sudduth Goff, a native of Lexington, Kentucky, now 
connected with the Art Institute of Chicago, took the design, by 
request, from a medal given to Mr. Townsend by his alma mater, 
Transylvania University. 


The present-day librarian is not proud and complacent in 
the mere possession of books and an adequate physical plant. 
The real value of a college library is largely determined by the 
library staff in cooperation with the administration and the 
teaching staff. The librarians must be more than keepers of 

118 Three Decades of Progress 

books, and every true teacher must be something of a librarian 
in that he has that knowledge and love of books that he desires 
to impart to others. 

On June 4, 1907, Miss Ada Barter, a graduate of the School 
of Library Service of the University of Illinois, began her work 
as Librarian. Thus, "in the beginning'' definite provisions 
were made for efficient library service, with one of the eleven 
faculty members devoting full time to the library. The state- 
ment that all libraries have, like Topsy, "just growed up" does 
not apply to Eastern. Miss Barter served as librarian until 
December, 1911, when she resigned and was married. 

Miss Mary Estelle Reid, a graduate of Liberty College, Glas- 
gow, Kentucky, with additional work in German, French, and 
Library Administration at the University of Nashville, Tenn- 
essee, was employed as librarian at that time and filled that office 
efficiently until her death in August, 1929. 

The present library staff is composed of four full-time libra- 
rians, and from ten to twenty part-time student assistants. Each 
librarian holds a professional degree from an accredited library 
school in addition to her college degree. The staff are : 

Mary Floyd, A. B., M. A., B. S., in Library Service, Li- 
brarian, 1929 to date, Associated Prof essor of History ; on leave 
of absence for fall semester, 1931, and spring semester, 1933 ; 

Isabel Bennett, A. B., B. S. in Library Science, Circulation 
Librarian, 1921 to date ; on leave 1927-1929 and the spring 
semester, 1930 ; 

Frances Mason, A. B., A. B. in Library Science, Training 
School Librarian, June, 1931, to date; 

Mrs. Guy Whitehead, B. S., B. S. in Library Science, Refer- 
ence Librarian, Summer 1931 to date. 

According to the school bulletins the following people have 
served on the regular staff: 

Hallie Day Bach, 1929-1930, Cataloger. 

Virginia Bickley, January to June, 1931, Reference. 

Edith Burns, nine weeks, Spring term, 1931, Training 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 119 

Clara Davies, 1930-1932, full time instructor in Library 

Elinor Foster, 1928-1929, Training School Librarian, and 
Instructor in Library Science. 

Marian Leatherman, Spring Session, 1930, Reference. 

Bess Moore, 1927-1930, Circulation. 

Prances Elizabeth Newman, 1927-1929, Training School. 

Alliegordon Park, Summer Sessions, 1933. 

Nancy Richardson, 1930-1934, Cataloger. 

Camille Semonin, Summer Sessions, 1930, Reference. 

Elizabeth Simpkins, Spring and Summer Sessions, 1930, 
Training School. 

Carrie M. Waters, 1921-1926, Cataloger. 

Winona Williams, 1926-1928, Cataloger. 

Relation of the Library to the College 

This subject has been a topic for many heated discussions 
during the past few years. Modern teaching methods have 
placed new demands upon the library. Standards for librarians 
have been raised and library organizations are working for 
greater professional recognition in all fields of library work 
Louis R, Wilson, Dean of the Graduate Library School, Uni- 
versity of Chicago, in an article in School and Society, August, 
1935, entitled "The role of the library in higher education in the 
South, ' ' puts at the head of this list of suggestions for improve 

College and university administrators in the South have been 
slow in recognizing the value of making the headship of their 
libraries the very responsible position that it is, in granting their 
librarians rights and privileges concerning rank, vacation, leaves 
of absence, and retiring benefits accorded the teaching staff, in 
setting up budgets which they unfalteringly maintain and in 
demanding reports from their librarians which present not only 
an adequate record of the library's performance, but plans for the 
upbuilding of its collections in accord with a well-conceived 
policy in which the best judgment of the faculty is incorporated. 

While the exact status of the college library at Eastern in 
relation to the college through the years has not been recorded 
specifically, one may draw certain conclusions from existing 

120 Three Decades of Progress 

policies and developments. First, th,e library has always been 
considered an integral part of the institution and developed con- 
stantly with the idea of meeting' curriculum requirements, and 
gradually increasing the materials for research as well as provid- 
ing for recreational reading. Second, the librarians have 
enjoyed the same privileges and professional rating as the teach- 
ing staff. Third, the librarian is responsible directly to the 
president of the college and regular reports are submitted to 

The selection of books to be purchased for the library has 
been on a faculty-library cooperative basis since the appoint- 
ment of the library committee in 1918. This committee meets 
each month, thereby keeping the librarian advised as to faculty 
needs and making possible the dissemination of library policies 
by their reports to faculty department meetings. 

Instruction for students in the use of books and the library 
began early in the history of the institution. In 1907 a course 
in Library Administration was begun under the direction of 
Miss Ada Barter and has been continued as a part of the regular 
curriculum of the Normal School and later of the Teachers Col- 
lege. The fact that Eastern offered the first classes in the State 
in library instruction has been mentioned as a matter of pride 
in the various school bulletins. For many years there was mere- 
ly an orientation course for freshmen to instruct them in the 
mechanics necessary for the intelligent use of the library for 
their own work and pleasure. 

In 1928 two additional courses were offered under the 
English department, which included general information that 
would aid the graduate of the English department to assume the 
duties of part-time librarian in a small high school. 

In 1930 Eastern was designated as one of the Kentucky 
colleges for training high school librarians to meet the standards 
of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 
for part-time librarians, or teacher-librarian with .six to twelve 
hours of library science. Beginning with the summer ses- 
sion of 1930, eight two hour courses were offered in library 
science, with Miss Clara Davies, whose training had been in 
school library work, employed as full-time instructor in library 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 121 

At the end of the summer session in 1933 all courses in li- 
brary science except one were discontinued. Library science 166 
was included in the catalog as a required course for freshmen, 
and plans for teaching it were completely reorganized. Certain 
lessons were planned and taught by each member of the regular 
library staff. In this way it was possible to motivate the work 
in terms of the daily demands in the library, and to make assign- 
ments in cooperation with other faculty members, thereby giving 
freshmen the practical help needed and also giving librarians an 
opportunity to become better acquainted with teaching methods 
and with students. In 1935 the library staff published these les- 
sons under the title of "A Guidance Outline for Library 
Science ' ', to be used as a text for this course. 

In addition to the usual library routine of reference and 
circulation service of book selection and order work, of catalog- 
ing and taking inventories, of mending and general housekeep- 
ing duties, the members of the library staff are engaged in biblio- 
graphic service to the faculty, as far as time permits. A classi- 
fied list of "books purchased" is mimeographed semi-annually 
for faculty distribution. More than thirty book lists on various 
subjects of immediate college interest have been prepared and 
are kept on file in quantities to supplement the regular College 
and Training School work. A verticle file is kept for current 
material and a picture file is constantly being built up according 
to the topics needed for class use. 

One might elaborate in detail concerning the things that 
have been done to make the library "an intelligent community 
center for students and faculty", but recognition should be 
given and tribute paid to four persons whose vision and tireless 
efforts have built up this position for Eastern's library. If 
Carlyle 's statement that ' ' History is the essence of innumerable 
biographies" be accepted, there would be a long honor roll. A 
comprehensive history of Eastern's library, however, would be 
told in these four biographies. 

Mrs. Ada Barter Dunn, the first librarian, organized the 
library according to professional standards and established 
pleasant relations for faculty-library cooperation. Under Miss 
Estelle Reid's direction the library showed substantial growth 

122 Three Decades op Progress 

and the maintenance of high professional standards. It was her 
interest in the John Wilson Townsend Kentucky library that led 
to the purchase of these books. But the real growth of any col- 
lege library is proportionate to the love of books and the value 
placed on their use by the college administration. Therefore, 
the biographies of President T. J. Coates and President H. L. 
Donovan would tell the story of increased appropriations for 
books, building and equipment, the recognition given to the 
library, and the encouragement for the faculty-library coopera- 
tion in keeping abreast with the best educational practices. 


By Jacob D. Farms 

The outstanding beauty of Eastern's campus lies in the 
gently rolling blue grass slopes, with the stately forest trees of 
maple and oak and an occasional pine. 

The records of the college indicate the keen vision and sound 
judgment of those in whose care the administration of the 
school has been entrusted. The development of the physical 
plant from a most humble beginning to its present proportions 
has been attended with almost meticulous care in protecting the 
original property of the school, and by adding to it from time 
to time when such additions would be advantageous for one 
reason or another. 

The site for the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School 
"was not offered by the City of Richmond, strictly speaking, but 
by a corporation known as the Walters Collegiate Institute," 
which had possession of the property formerly owned and oper- 
ated by Central University. At that time this site contained 
about thirty-five acres with the University Building, Memorial 
Hall and a little gymnasium, which later burned. The other 
buildings here then were the one known now as the Industrial 
Arts Building, and four brick cottages called "faculty row." 
These were leased at first and finally purchased, the cottages in 
1901, and Walters Collegiate Institute in 1914. This building has 
tilled various needs from time to time, serving for music, for ag- 
riculture, for rural school, for library, and since for industrial 
arts. For a time the four cottages fulfilled their original purpose 
as homes for members of the faculty, but later they served as 
dormitories for students. One was used a while for home eco- 
nomics ; the first cafeteria was operated in another ; and the first 
hospital rooms on the campus were equipped in one. Finally 
numbers 1 and 2 were razed in the spring of 1927, and num- 
bers 3 and 4 have served respectively as homes for the college 
physician and the superintendent of buildings and grounds since 
that date. 

124 Three Decades of Progress 

From the appropriation of $150,000 made by the State in 
1908 were erected Roark Building 1 , Sullivan Hall, without the 
annex, and the Power Plant, which also housed the Manual 
Training Department. 

Memorial Hall was first used as a girl's dormitory, but 
since Sullivan Hall was built it has been used as a boy's dormi- 
tory. Sullivan Hall annex was built in 1912, and from a second 
appropriation by the State the north wing of Burnam Hall and 
the annex to Memorial Hall were built. Sullivan Hall accom- 
modates 150 and Memorial Hall 130 students. Early there was 
felt the need for a training school building, and Roark Build- 
ing, or a part of it, was first used in that capacity. But as the 
school grew, the model school needed a building designed espe- 
cially for its needs and uses, and Cammack Building was erected 
in 1918, the corner stone being laid with ceremonies June 15, 
1917. Half of the second floor of this building was used for the 
library till 1923, when the first part of the present library was 
erected from funds derived from Eastern's part of the inherit- 
ance tax from the Bingham estate. The corner stone was laid 
September 1, 1923. 

During these years the Board of Regents added to the prop- 
erty of the school. When the need for a school farm was felt, 
land, known as the Whitaker place, a short distance on the 
Barnes Mill pike, was purchased in 1912. The name was 
changed to Stateland Farm. Ten years later the land known 
as the Gibson place, adjoining the campus proper was purchased, 
and its name changed to New Stateland Farm. In order to give 
outlet to Lancaster pike, properties known as the Bond place 
and the Pursifall place were later purchased ; and for protec- 
tion from possible undesirable buildings being erected near the 
campus the Miller property on South Second street was pur- 
chased in 1927. The Thompson Burnam property at the north- 
west corner of the campus was purchased in March. 1912. as a 
home for the president. This building was erected in the 1880 's 
as a home for the chancellor of Central University and was later 
sold to private individuals. The land known as the Patton Lots, 
immediately to the rear of said building, had been purchased 
several years earlier. No other properties than these mentioned 
have been purchased. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 125 

The little gymnasium acquired at the beginning and located 
where the library now stands burned Friday, August 28, 1920. 
Another gymnasium was erected in 1922 south of the site of the 
old one. In the meantime temporary provisions were made for 
the classes in physical education in the basement of Memorial 
Hall and the Training School Building. This gymnasium served 
till 1931 when the Weaver Health Building was opened for 
use, the corner stone of which was laid in November, 1930. 

Great need was felt for an administration building and 
auditorium, many years before they were built. Should they 
be combined in one building "1 It was finally decided to erect 
the administration building first and the auditorium later, the 
former being erected in 1927 and the latter completed in 1929. 
The auditorium is a rear extension of the administration build- 
ing. Eastern has one of the best college auditoriums in the 
country. It has a seating capacity of 1,800. In the meantime 
additional dormitory space was required and Burnam Hall was 
completed in 1928. It will accommodate 285 students. 

A need for a model rural school was felt years before it 
was finally built. As early as 1921 recommendations were made 
for it, but was not built till 1929. It really is a model construc- 
tion, and its proximity to the campus makes it all the more 

Buildings must be named, and it is a rather appropriate 
way to honor the lives and works of people. The names of the 
buildings already erected when the site was secured remained 
the same — University Building and Memorial Hall. Roark 
Building was named for the school's first president, Ruric Nevel 
Roark, after his death in 1909. Sullivan Hall was named for 
the first local regent, Mr. Jere A. Sullivan, who was instrumental 
in the establishment of normal schools in Kentucky. When the 
training school building, which also housed the library for a 
time, was erected, it was named in honor of Mr. J. W. Cammack, 
one of the first regents, who is still serving in that capacity. Also 
when New Stateland Farm was purchased the spacious dwelling 
thereon was used as a dormitory for boys and was named Cam- 
mack Hall in honor of Mr. Cammack. The name was later 
dropped. The library is called the John Grant Crabbe Library 

126 Three Decades of Progress 

in honor of Eastern's second president, but it was not so named 
until 1929, though it was erected in 1923. Burnam Hall was 
named in honor of Judge A. R. Burnam, who served in the 
Senate of the General Assembly and helped Eastern secure its 
first appropriation of any consequence. The administration 
building was named the Thomas Jackson Coates building in 
honor of the third president, while the auditorium was named 
the Hiram Brock Auditorium in honor of Senator Hiram Brock, 
who had given such splendid service as a member of the Board 
of Regents. When the Health Building was erected another 
regent was honored for his loyalty, interest and devotion to the 
school, and it was named the Charles W. Weaver Health Build- 
ing. Some criticism has been made because of naming some of 
the buildings for men still living. In all fairness and justice 
to them it should be said that no man for whom a building was 
named was present at a meeting when the matter was discussed 
and voted upon and that no one of them in any way has ex- 
pressed a desire for such honor. In practically all of these 
buildings hang portraits of the men in whose honor they are 

For the most part there is harmony in materials and archi- 
tecture in all of the buildings. The porticoes of slightly varying 
type and dimensions, with their lovely classic stone Grecian 
columns of Doric, Corinthian, or Ionic type, and the red brick 
walls with stone trimmings, all serve to produce a pleasing 

Those who have lived and served at Eastern for a long time 
find it interesting to think back over the years and note the 
physical changes on the campus which have come about. Unless 
they have an indelible mental picture or a photograph of scenes 
of yesterday, they are likely to think of things always as they 
appear today. This is perhaps a worthy trait, especially when 
the scenes have been improved and made lovely. The older peo- 
ple recall and tell with much glee how il was sometimes difficult 
to keep up with the business office as it was moved so often; how 
the library was moved from building to building; how the gym- 
nasium facilities, music, home economics, and even the dining 
halls and the cafeteria were frequently moved; and how the 
changing of classrooms often caused confusion. All of these 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 127 

numerous changes and removals, of course, were made to bring 
about a more nearly perfect and better functioning plant for 
efficient .service. 

In t lie more lasting things growth comes about slowly and 
does not spring full-limbed as did Venus. Often much needed 
and desirable helps and appurtenances must remain only in 
the mind until an opportunity or an occasion presents itself for 
their possession. 

For years little could be done toward beautifying the cam- 
pus with shrubs, flowers, trees, walks and drives. These were 
not forgotten, however, and in time they began to appear. In 
1910 the Board of Regents voted "to drain the campus pond", 
"to spread rocks on the campus roads", and to .spend "the sum 
of '$1,430" on campus improvements. Tarvia was placed on 
the campus roads first in 1920. The first concrete walks were 
laid in 1921. An interesting event was the erection and dedi- 
cation of the flag pole in front of University Building on May 
6. 1920. Governor Edwin P. Morrow was the speaker for the 

Very early Olmstead Brothers, Landscape architects of 
Brookline, Massachusetts, were employed to study the entire 
campus, to make plans and drawings and to submit these with 
suggestions regarding walks and drives, locations for future 
buildings, and the plantings of shrubs and flowers. The same 
firm was called upon once or twice in succeeding years. 

In the spring of 1921 President Coates recommended to 
the Board of Regents that "some shrubbery should be planted 
on the campus" and asked that " Hillenmeyer Brothers, land- 
scape gardeners of Lexington, Kentucky, come to the campus, 
study the grounds and advise what should be planted." Accord- 
ingly, shrubbery was planted about Memorial Hall, the Library, 
Burnam and Sullivan Halls, the Power Plant, the President's 
Home, cottages 3 and 4, and a little about the Roark and Cam- 
mack bulidings and the present Industrial Arts Building. Again 
in the fall of 1927 the same firm was invited to visit the campus 
and "make suggestions and recommendations." No plantings, 
however, were made at that time. 

In the winter of 1928-29, with whatever help there was at 

128 Three Decades of Progress 

hand, some attempts at planting and beantification were started, 
which have been continued until the present. New plantings 
were made by removing old shrubs, dividing them and respacing 
them to obtain pleasing effects. With the exception of two 
major purchases which shall be mentioned later, this plan has 
continued with very little money being spent for plants and 
shrubs. And in such manner, with some propagating which 
has been done, more than three thousand plants, shrubs and 
trees have been added to the campus. Friends of the college 
have given plants and flowers from time to time from their own 
gardens. A list of these donors will not be given for fear some 
names might unintentionally be omitted. 

Only a few years ago the plot of ground lying immediately 
behind Roark Building and continuing toward the Auditorium 
was cleaned of its rocks, bricks, tin cans, iron pipes, old wire, 
etc. The old bus shed thereon was also removed. On this spot 
a lily pool was built, flower beds were prepared, and a rock 
garden was constructed. Probably in no one place has more 
signal improvement been made. 

When the Weaver Health Building was planned, Mr. W. G. 
Dickinson, landscape architect of Peabody College, Nashville, 
Tennessee, was engaged to come to the campus to make recom- 
mendations for its location. His recommendations were ac- 
cepted. He also planned the landscaping of the building, but 
after his tragic and untimely death in 1932, Hillenmeyer Broth- 
ers, of Lexington, Kentucky, were employed to do the work. 
While some slight changes were made in Mr. Dickinson's plans, 
a most satisfactory piece of work was done by this firm. 

In December, 1932, the faculty, the administrative staff, the 
students, the janitors, in fact everybody connected with the 
college, made a voluntary contribution amounting to $129.10 for 
the purchase of trees for the campus. Many of the old trees 
planted fifty or more years ago were decaying and several had 
to be removed. So nearly one hundred splendid nursery trees 
of various kinds were purchased from Hillenmeyer Brothers and 
on the afternoon of December 7 classes were dismissed and every- 
body in the college helped plant them, the work being done in 
the main by county delegations and other organizations. Un- 
fortunately permanent markers were not placed for these trees. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 129 

With Federal aid three new tennis courts were constructed 
in 1935 south of Burnam Hall, bringing, with the two asphalt 
courts south of Memorial Hall and the two clay courts north of 
Sullivan Hall Annex, the total number to seven. Also, during 
1934-36, with other Federal aid there have been, or are being 
built the following : A splendid concrete drive through the 
campus; a spacious and beautiful addition to the library, which 
more than doubles its capacity and which contains a reading 
room that for sheer lovliness is not to be surpassed bj^ anything 
else on the campus; a Greek amphitheatre across the drive and 
nearly opposite the library; and a concrete stadium and field 
gymnasium, which will seat about four thousand people. 

So lies Eastern's campus. Whether in the tender green of 
unfolding buds of spring ; or in the lush fullness of summer ; or 
in the golden hues of radiant autumn ; or in the silvery shimmer 
of ice and snow of winter, it is always inviting, always lovely, — 
a magnificent monument to the people of the Commonwealth. 
Not cold and dead it lies, but glowing and vibrant with life, a 
Pierian spring from which Kentucky 's older sons and daughters 
may drink the satisfying and soul-filling waters to quench the 
thirst of Kentucky's younger sons and daughters. 

E. S. T. C— 5 


By Roy B. Clark 

The activities of the students of Eastern outside of their 
regular classes developed along with the institution. Originat- 
ing from a felt need of the students and faculty, they gradually 
changed until at the close of the three decades which this volume 
commemorates they are completely transformed. In the type 
of student clubs distinct progress has been made in harmony 
with the growth in size and prestige of the college. 

When the Normal School was established, no immediate 
plans were made for literary societies, then the most common 
type of student organization. The students were for the most 
part mature men and women and experienced teachers, who were 
concerned with renewing their certificates or securing more 
advanced ones. They would not feel the need of extra-curric- 
ular activities as much as younger and less mature students 
would. It seems that music was the first form of student 
activity engaged in outside of the regularly scheduled classes. 
Soon after taking up his duties as director of the Model School, 
Col. E. H. Crawford organized a drum corps of fifteen members 
with Joe Hollenkamp as drum major. Col. Crawford may also 
be said to have initiated the literary societies, for on March 21, 
1907, two of the "forsensic sections" of his classes gave the first 
public debate. The subject debated was woman suffrage, the 
opponents of the franchise for women winning the decision of 
the judges. But although woman's right to vote was not main- 
tained, women played an important part in the early student 
activities. At the laying of the cornerstone of the Roark Build- 
ing the Normal Female Quartet sang. And the Y. W. C. A., 
which was active from the beginning of the life of the Normal 
School, has left its impress on the lives of the girls who have 
come and gone from Eastern. It was organized in 1907 by Mrs. 
Lena Gertrude Roliug, and is the first existing student society to 
become affiliated with a national organization. The Y. M. C. A., 
which was also organized very early, has not had quite the 

132 Three Decades of Progress 

steady, unbroken record that the Y. "W. C. A. has, but during 
the last decade it has been active and influential. 

In the year 1910 a definite step was taken toward organized 
extra-curricular activities. The high school presented its an- 
nual play at the opera house. A Science Club was organized, 
which was made up of the members of the science classes, and 
which gave programs consisting of lectures, papers, debates, 
round-table discussions, and demonstrations. It was in 1910 
also that the Glee Club came into being, a club which in the 
summer term of that year had fifty members. The Eastern Ken- 
tucky Review (Vol. IV, No. 4) for 1910 also lists three clubs 
sponsored by the English Department. One was a Shakespeare 
Club, which studied one of the great dramatist's plays each term. 
Another was a Current Literature Club, which discussed living 
writers, current magazines, and strong editorials. The third 
society announced was the Euric Nevel Roark Debating Club. 
Two student publications and three musical organizations sprang 
into existence also during this same year. A monthly maga- 
zine called The Student was to appear every month except 
August and was to cost fifty cents a year for single subscrip- 
tions. This publication continued for several years. The 
senior class annual, The Bluemont, was the other publication. 
It seems to have come out only one } T ear. The three musical 
organizations launched were the Choral Club, the Rubenstein 
Club, and the Euterpean Club. The first one was a mixed 
chorus open to anyone who could cany a tune. The Rubenstein 
Club was composed of fourteen women. The Euterpean Club 
was mentioned only once, and probably ceased to exist the year 
after it was organized. 

The three literary clubs also seem to have died out imme- 
diately, for a system of compulsory membership of five newly 
organized literary societies was also undertaken. These five so- 
cieties, organized under the direction of the head of the English 
Department and with the advice of the president, were to 
accommodate all students in the Normal School. They were 
named llie Carpediem. the Cynthian, the Excelsior, the Peri- 
clesian, and the 1'topian, and were sponsored by members of 
the faculty. The sponsors, however, were too numerous and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 133 

the records of the societies are too imperfect to attempt to give 
an accurate list of the teachers who assumed such responsibility. 

These societies were so conducted as to arouse a spirit of 
friendly rivalry. "To be progressive as well as popular at 
Eastern," says the Eastern Kentucky Review, "one must be a 
Carpedien, a Periclesian, an Excelsior, a Utopian, or a Cyn- 
thian. " The societies met every week and were under the 
management of a Literary Council made up of five presidents 
and the five critics of the societies. Occasionally inter-society 
entertainments were given, but the chief feature was the annual 
contest, consisting of declamations, orations, and a debate. 
A sixth society, the Union, was organized, but it seems to have 
been short-lived. So was the Mirrow-Holclers, a dramatic club 
organized the same year. This club started with twelve charter 
members selected by competition from about forty contestants. 
But no other mention of it is made after its organization. 

Many of these organizations were mere ephemerae, born of 
the enthusiasm of the moment or of the individual instructor. 
The Shakespeare Society, the Current Literature Club, the 
Ruric Nevel Roark Debating Society, the Rubenstein Club, the 
Euterpean Club, and the Union Literary, all seemed to have 
been only temporary, for they left no impress upon the student 
activities or upon the publications of the time. The five literary 
societies in which membership was required continued for about 
ten years. In 1919 a sixth society was organized which was 
called the "Washingtonian. This club seems to have been pro- 
vided because the membership in the other clubs was becoming 
somewhat large and unwieldly. Still another literary society 
was provided for those students in town who found it difficult 
to attend the night meeting. It was called the Philomathean 
(or Daylight) Society and was made up of members of the 
other societies. The regular meetings were held in the after- 
noon. Students attending this society did not lose membership 
in their original societies. 

It seems, however, that when the fall term opened in 1919, 
the policy concerning membership in the literary societies 
changed, for with the opening of the year 1920 only three lit- 
erary societies are mentioned in The Review — the "Washing- 
tonian, the Periclesian, and the Carpediem. And to stimulate 

134 Three Decades of Progress 

voluntary membership in these societies, the school offered 
medals in oratory, reading, declamation, and debate for the 
winners in the annual inter-society contest. Other changes also 
had taken place since the first general organization of student 
clubs in 1910. The Science Club, which was listed in the 
Eastern Kentucky Review annually, had by 1918 become de- 
funct, and was no longer mentioned. The senior class annual. 
The Bluemont, was issued only once, for in 1911 one number 
of The Student was issued as the Senior Annual. In 1915 this 
monthly publication also came to an end, and for a time the 
students and faculty jointly published The Review. This ar- 
rangement continued through four volumes, XII to XV. Num- 
ber 1 of Volume XIII was dedicated to the boys in France, 
and Number 3 of Volume XV was issued as the Senior Class 
Annual. By the begining of the next volume, however, the 
publication of the Review was entirely taken over by the faculty. 

The restlessness following the "World "War and the general 
readjustment of social and mental attitudes made themselves 
felt in the changes that took place in the student activities. The 
literary societies that had been in existence for ten years were 
now no more. But the traditional type of society was continued 
by two newly organized literary societies, the Kuric Nevel Roark 
Society for the Normal School students of high school rank and 
the Horace Mann Society for those of college rank. A few years 
later, the Neon Krypton Literary Society, another club of college 
students, wa.s organized, but it had hardly become established 
before the traditional type of literary society began to experience 
difficulty in continuing its existence. "With the general change 
in student attitudes and the passing of one phase of student 
social life, the students of Eastern found this type of club no 
longer adequate for their needs, and its end was hastened by the 
discontinuance of required membership. 

A new type of society was coming in — one of national scope 
and organization and in keeping with the newer spirit. In 
March, 1921, the Little Theater Club was organized by Miss 
Rucie Miller of the Speech Department with the assistance of 
Prof. W. II. Mkesell of the University of Kentucky. This club 
had live charter members: Misses Kathryn Baker, Pauline 
Teats, and Sarah Strong, and Messrs. Sam Denny and Henry 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 135 

Holbrook. Since then it lias become, under the leadership of 
Miss Pearl Buchanan, one of the most active and prominent 
clubs on the campus. The next year two other student activities, 
still active and growing in reputation, came into existence. 
These were the senior class annual, The Milestone, and the college 
paper, the Eastern Progress. The Milestone is purely a senior 
class project, and each year an editor-in-chief and a business 
manager are elected by the senior class. The college paper is an 
all-college project, and on its staff are students from all the 
classes on the college. It has as yet no fixed and regular way of 
continuing its existence from year to year. Thus far the editor- 
in-chief and advertising manager have been chosen in at least 
three ways. Sometimes they have been elected by the entire 
student body, sometimes appointed by the president of the col- 
lege, and sometimes chosen by the retiring editorial staff. But 
it has grown in excellence and prestige. In 1928, it became a 
member of the Kentucky Intercollegiate Press Association and 
in 1930 and 1931 its representatives attended the national con- 
vention of the College Press Association. In 1930-31 it was the 
recipient of a coveted honor when a loving cup given by the Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, Leader was awarded to it for being the best 
college newspaper in Kentucky. 

Up to 1920, there seems to have been no inter-collegiate 
organization to serve as an additional motive for student activi- 
ties, though, of course, there had been intercollegiate contests. 
In the spring of 1920, however, efforts were made to organize 
the Eastern Kentucky Oratorical Association, with Asbury 
College, Berea Normal School, Cumberland College, Eastern, 
Sue Bennett College, and Union College as charter members. 
But it was not until the spring of 1921 that a contest was held, 
three colleges then participating — Cumberland, Eastern, and 
Sue Bennett. The association was not long lived, for by 1926 
Eastern did not belong to any active intercollegiate oratorical 
association. In the spring of 1929, however, she joined with 
Berea College and Asbury College in a Tri-College Oratorical 
Association. At the annual spring contest in 1930 Eastern's 
representative, AVilliam McGibney, won first place. This as- 
sociation in the spring of 1931 took the name of the Eastern 
Kentucky Oratorical Association, so that it may in one sense be 

136 Three Decades op Progress 

considered a revival of the earlier association. The annual con- 
test provides for orations only, and issues two medals, one for 
men and one for women. In 1930 the selection of contestants 
from Eastern for the annual contest was taken over by the East- 
ern Discussion Club, one of the recently established clubs with 
selective membership. 

For several years some of the student organizations had a 
somewhat irregular existence. In 1924 the ladies' glee club 
was named the Madrigal Club, and although it continued its 
existence, not until 1929, did it become an active and prominent 
student organization. Membership is limited and determined 
by tryouts conducted by the director, Miss Mary Murphy. The 
Men's Glee Club was also only partially active until 1929, when 
it was reorganized. Since that time it has risen in prominence 
as a student organization. As in the Madrigal Club, member- 
ship is limited and determined by tryouts conducted by its con- 
ductor, Mr. James E. Van Peursen. These clubs have in past 
years assisted in the May Festival, broadcast programs, and 
given concerts at the convention of the Kentucky Educational 
Association at Louisville. They have jointly given two of Gil- 
bert and Sullivan's operas — H. M. S. Pinafore and Trial by 
Jury, Flotow's Martha:, and Easter Programs. In the same 
way the College Orchestra, under the direction of Mr. Van Peur- 
sen, had developed into a musical unit that is recognized as an 
important organization in the life of the college. 

The College Band and the Canterbury Club should also be 
mentioned here. Although there had been a baud recruited 
among the students which occasionally played at athletic games, 
it was not until the Boys' Band, sponsored by the Exchange club 
of Richmond, was merged with this band and the combined 
organization placed under the direction of Mr. Sidney A. Grif- 
fith, who had been the conductor of the Boys' Band, that a per- 
manent organization was effected. Because of the fact that it 
assists in many of the activities of the college and has broadcast 
concerts in Louisville and played at the convention of the Ken- 
tucky Educational Association, and that it now gives half-hour 
programs over the radio from Eastern's studio, it has become an 
attraction to the students who are interested in that type of 
music. It is growing in prestige and skill as a band. The Can- 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 137 

terbury Club, which is an English Club, has also not been con- 
tinuous in its active existence since its organization in 1924-1925 
by Prof. R. A. Foster, who was then head of the English Depart- 
ment. A year or two after its organization it became inactive 
until its reorganization in 1927. At that time it was made an 
honorary society with membership limited to those students who 
are majors and first minors in English and whose grades in 
English average B or higher. In 1934, however, membership 
was open to all seniors whose major field was English. It main- 
tains an active organization during the winter and spring semes- 
ters, and is becoming more firmly established in the life of the 
college. In the year 1934-1935 the club undertook to sponsor 
an annual anthology of student creative writing, and in the 
spring of 1935 the first number of Belles Letters appeared. The 
Rural Life Club is another of the societies which subsequent to 
their organization have not been continuously active, but since 
its reorganization in 1931 it seems to be more firmly established. 
Membership is open to all students who are interested in rural 
life and its problems. 

Several departmental clubs have been organized since 1926. 
They are in harmony with the present tendency among student 
organizations in that they are more restricted in their appeal 
and in their scope than the literary society was. Their value is 
more readily seen for this reason, and they thus have a distinct 
professional tendency. They are for the most part open to all 
students who are interested in the type of work or the particular 
field they represent. Within the space of less than five years 
seven of such clubs were launched and a few more are now being 
organized. The Home Economic Club is open to students who 
are taking a major or minor in home economics. Membership 
in this club is by election. The Physical Education Club is 
open to students who are taking a major or a minor in physical 
education. Membership in this club is also by election. An 
Eastern Club, sponsored by and subsidiary to the Physical Edu- 
cation Club is open to those students who have earned an "E" 
in inter-collegiate athletics. The Sigma Lambda Society was 
organized for students taking a major or a minor in foreign 
language. Sigma Tau Pi is open to students who are enrolled 
in one or more courses in the Department of Commerce. New 

138 Three Decades of Progress 

members are placed on probation for nine weeks. This club and 
the Foreign Language Club both have membership by invitation. 
Alpha Zeta Kappa, the successor to the Public Discussion Club, 
is for those students who are interested in the intelligent discus- 
sion of public questions. Membership is by election. The Caduceus 
Club is open to those students who are doing pre-professional 
work in medicine, dentistry and nursing. Membership is also 
by election. The Pencil and Brush Club was organized with a 
charter membership of all those students enrolled in art classes, 
if they wished to be so considered. The Elementary Council is 
open to students who are taking a major or a minor in elemen- 
tary education, and the Social Science Club is the organization 
for all students taking a major or a minor in social science. The 
last of the departmental clubs to be organized is the World Af- 
fairs Club. It admits to its membership majors and minors in 
geography and geology, but it is also affiliated witli a national 
organization and is thus enabled to secure speakers of note at a 
nominal cost. Membership is by invitation. 

Two other organizations deserve mention here, not because 
they are similar, but because they were both organized during 
recent years and because they furnish opportunity for students 
to follow their varied interests. They are the Pep Club and the 
Messiah Chorus. The former, as its name indicates, has as its 
chief aim the fostering of college spirit during athletic contests. 
The latter has its appeal to lovers of music. In the Autumn of 
1932 a chorus was organized for the rehearsing of the great 
oratorio by Handel and the joint presentation during the Christ- 
mas season by this chorus and the Messiah chorus of Berea Col- 
lege. The singers of Richmond also participate in this chorus, 
and the annual event is one of the musical treats of the year. 

There is another type of student organization different from 
the conventional literary society and from the departmental 
club, but, in the past at least, conducted in a way somewhat like 
that of the literary society. This is the organization maintained 
by each of the different classes. There were regularly scheduled 
meetings sometimes as often as once a week, at which meetings 
miscellaneous programs were o-i VO n somewhat like those of the 
literary societies. In this way they have continued the tradition 
of the older type of club ; but since 1928 there has been a gradual 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 139 

departure from this type of class meeting. The classes now have 
monthly meetings, but there are still some miscellaneous literary 
programs given, particularly by the junior college classes. 

An important .step in Eastern's extra-curricular activities 
was taken when early in 1935 the first national honorary Greek 
letter fraternity was established. Such a step was for several 
years advocated by some students and faculty members. It was 
believed that the presence on Eastern's campus of chapters 
of such societies would encourage wider student participation in 
extra-curricular affairs and lend dignity and honor to scholastic 
achievement. These organizations are not merely social fraterni- 
ties, but professional or departmental clubs, which require cer- 
tain achievements for membership in them. It was this type of 
club that the Committee on Clubs, Societies and Forensics in the 
second semester of the year 1930-1931 recommended for Eastern, 
to be organized as the need for them was felt and as members 
might become eligible. The committee felt that such organiza- 
tions would create an interest in the extra-curricular activities 
by challenging students to qualify for them. The larger depart- 
mental clubs would serve as feeders for the more restricted 
societies. It was not then, however, deemed advisable by the 
administrative officers to introduce such Greek letter honor 
societies because of the fact that Greek letter social fraternities 
and sororities are prohibited at Eastern by the Board of Regents 
and the president. But in 1934 the Board of Regents authorized 
the organization of national honorary Greek letter fraternities 
or societies, and in February, 1935, Pi Omega Pi. the national 
honorary society for teachers of commerce, organized Alpha Beta 
Chapter at Eastern with a charter membership of eighteen. 
Three months later Delta Alpha chapter of Kappa Delta Pi was 
established with a charter membership of sixteen. This organi- 
zation is a national honorary fraternity for students in educa- 

The present outlook for the clubs is promising hut not 
wholly satisfactory. Most of the clubs are active and give a 
kind of training and experience not obtained from the curricula. 
The varied nature of these organizations makes an appeal wide 
enough for the whole student body. But there still seems to be 
a lack of something, for the students do not identify themselves 

140 Three Decades of Progress 

with one or more of these societies in as large numbers as may 
reasonably be expected. There are a few reasons for this condi- 
tion, but they do not remove an unsatisfactory situation. In 
two recent investigations of the status of extra-curricular student 
participation at Eastern it was found that during the first 
semester less than fifty per cent of the students belong to even 
one club, including the inter-collegiate athletic teams and the 
Y. W. C. A. and the Y. M. C. A. During the second semester 
the percent is considerably smaller. There is a tendency, more- 
over, for a few students to be active in too many outside organ- 
izations. Attempts have been made by the faculty to remedy 
both of these conditions, but neither has been satisfactorily 
handled thus far. The first and most important cause of this 
situation is the great change in the student body from year to 
year and even from semester to semester. The building up of 
student sentiment or of traditions in clubs is thus made very 
difficult. Besides, the tendency of students, who are almost 
invariably those who stay from year to year, to take part in too 
many extra-curricular activities is encouraged by this constant 
change in the student body. The second cause, almost equally 
important, is the large number of freshmen in proportion to 
upper-classmen and the greatly increased enrollment during the 
second semester. Freshmen, because they have not aligned 
themselves with any particular field, do not feel special interest 
in a departmental organization. During the second semester, 
when the clubs are well under way, it is probable that many of 
the new students are overlooked, and perhaps less interested 
than those who attended the first semester also, because they are 
in college for only one semester. 

The conditions described may be partially remedied by a 
more thorough campaign in the fall semester for new members 
by those clubs that are non-departmental, such as the religious 
organizations and the literary society, and by more systematic 
solicitation of new members at the beginning of the second semes- 
ter. But there are other ways by which the situation may be 
partly remedied and perhaps the extra-curricular activities be 
placed on a higher plane than Ihey are at present. One sug- 
gested remedy is an all-student organization whicli would so 
operate as to make all students feel that they were connected 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 141 

with it, even on first enrollment in the college. Eastern, with 
its goodly array of special group clubs, lacks a student organiza- 
tion. The nearest approach to an all-student association Eastern 
has had was the Open Forum Committee. This committee was 
the chief instrument in initiating any action of general student 
interest, but any student at the Open Forum meetings could 
initiate an action. It was usually elected, one member from 
each class, but occasionally it was appointed by the president of 
the college. The Open Forum, under the sponsorship of Dr. 
Anna Achnieb, who was instrumental in securing its organiza- 
tion, served an important purpose during its existence. It was 
instrumental in the establishing of a scholarship award for each 
semester, for beginning a student loan fund, and for various 
other projects of benefit to the students. Some students, how- 
ever, felt that it was not really an all-student organization, and 
in 1929 a rival student association sprang up but did not remain 
in existence long. President Donovan then appointed a com- 
mittee of students and faculty members to study the subject of 
an all-student organization, and make recommendations to the 
students and to the faculty. Dr. W. J. Frazier, president of the 
Colorado State Teachers College at Greeley, an authority on the 
subject of student organizations, was invited to address the 
students and faculty and to confer with the committee. After 
working in the spring and fall of 1929, the committee was ready 
with a constitution and by-laws for a proposed Student Union, 
which was voted on by the students. The affirmative margin 
was so small, however, that President Donovan felt it inadvis- 
able to undertake introducing it at the time. At present there 
is no student organization. The national honorary fraternities 
have not been established long enough to make their influence 
felt, but it is hoped that they will stimulate wisely student par- 
ticipation in extra-curricular activities. 

Eastern now has a varied group of extra-curricular, activi- 
ties. Almost all the departments of the college are represented 
in these clubs, and new clubs are organized as there appears to 
be a demand for them. These clubs are different from the tradi- 
tional literary society in purpose and type of activity they fur- 
nish, but it is believed that they meet the needs of the students 
of a teachers' college better than the older type of club would 

142 Three Decades of Progress 

now. It is believed that they better serve the professional 
interests of the students than the literary societies did, for they 
furnish a specific type of training" and at the same time give 
practice in speaking, committee procedure, arranging programs, 
conducting meetings, and general social intercourse — a kind of 
training that was claimed for the literary society. What fur- 
ther changes will be made in the extra-curricular activities at 
Eastern cannot be predicted, but it may at least be said that they 
ought in some way to secure a larger percentage of student par- 
ticipation in them and to place a check on the number of such 
activities any one student may participate in. If extra-curric- 
ular activities can be justified at all, it is on the basis of their 
furnishing a type of training and a form of social activity not 
secured by the curricula ; and if so, the more nearly complete 
student participation is the more nearly will they perform their 



By Mary Frances McKinney, May C. Hansen, 

Mrs. Gladys Tyng 

Student life at Eastern during the first three decades of the 
school 's existence involves so many different phases, so many 
different activities, and so many changes, that writing a well- 
balanced and accurate history of it becomes a very complex task. 

Student Housing 
When Eastern first opened its doors to the Normal School 
students in January, 1907, Memorial Hall, a building of the old 
Central University plant, was used as the women's dormitory. 
Men students had rooms in town, and both men and women, as 
well as many of the faculty members, ate in the dining hall estab- 
lished in the basement of Memorial Hall. After the main build- 
ing of Sullivan Hall was completed in 1909, the women moved 
into the new building, the dean of women established her office 
there, and the men were allowed to move into the then deserted 
Memorial Hall. The dining hall remained in the men's dormi- 
tory until the completion of the annex to Sullivan Hall, when 
more desirable quarters were available in the basement of that 

As the school grew in size, and the available dormitory 
space was used, students were forced to find rooms in the homes 
of Richmond, until a new housing unit was built. Then, for a 
brief time, practically the entire resident student body would 
move to the campus, only to overflow the halls and move into 
town again within a few years, until another dormitory unit 
was completed. 

The north wing of Burnam Hall, now known as "Old Bur- 
nam, " was completed in 1921 and furnished rooms for 125 more 
women, presided over by an assistant dean of women, who lived 
in the hall. The basement of this building was then used as the 
quarters for Eastern's first cafeteria. The construction of the 
annex to Memorial Hall about the same time and the erection, in 

144 Three Decades of Progress 

1926, of the central and south wings to Burnam Hall (New 
Burnam), together with the present cafeteria kitchens, bakery, 
and storerooms, complete the story of Eastern's dormitories to 

At the present, one of the outstanding needs of the school 
is a new men 's dormitory. Memorial Hall, including the annex, 
houses but 130 men, and is old and in a poor state of repair. 
More men now room in town than on the campus. The women's 
dormitories accommodate the women students quite comfortably. 

No history of student residence would be complete without 
the stories of several groups who have not lived in the regular 
dormitories. Many a woman student of Eastern in the early 
days thinks of her college home as one of the "cottages." These 
cottages were really two-story brick residences, four in number, 
which were also inherited from the Central University plant. 
Two of them still stand and are occupied by the superintendent 
of buildings and grounds and the college physician respectively. 
These houses have been used as faculty residences and as dormi- 
tories for women students, and one was used for several years for 
the home economics laboratories and demonstration house. "When 
these cottages were occupied by women students, one mature and 
trustworthy woman was put in charge. Her duties were those 
of a house mother and dean of women combined. For many 
years these houses were heated by open grates. The rooms were 
larger than most dormitory rooms and were usually occupied 
by three or four women. Two of these buildings were razed 
when Burnam Hall was built, because they stood directly in 
front of it. 

Another group whose memories of college residence is not 
of the dormitories, is the group of men who work on the college 
farm and occupy rooms in one of the two or three small cottages 
just back of the lovely old residence which was the home of the 
former owner of this farm. These cottages are spoken of col- 
lectively, by the students who occupy them, as "Poverty Hall." 
They are very convenient for the men who must work early or 
late on the farm. 

A third group who have not lived in the dormitories is made 
up of the students who room in town. As has been pointed out. 
this group has changed in number and character with the size 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 145 

of the school and the available dormitory space. But there is 
one group that has always roomed in town. That is the married 
group. Some few of these students have wanted bedrooms, but 
the majority have wanted "light-housekeeping rooms," or in 
latter years they dignify them by the title of "apartments." 
Most frequently these accommodations consist of a bedroom and 
a small kitchenette, though frequently a student's funds will 
permit only a four-in-one type, which is a single room that serves 
as living room, bedroom, dining room, and kitchen. Married 
students often bring their families with them, and when these 
families have more than two or three members they usually have 
larger quarters, sometimes renting an entire house. This is 
most often done by students who expect to be in residence more 
than one year. 

Still a fourth group is made up of those students who live 
in Richmond or Madison County, or who commute daily from 
their homes in adjoining counties. This division has always 
been relatively large, and today the roads through the campus 
and the adjoining streets are lined with their cars. Several 
groups come and go by special bus, the schedules of which are 
made to fit the students' schedules. 

Life within the dormitories and in the residence houses in 
town has changed with the administration of the several deans 
of women and deans of men and with the changing of social 

Social Activities 

Student life at Eastern in the early days was quite in keep- 
ing with the spirit of the times. The student social activities 
were such as one might expect in an age when there were no 
automobiles, no movies, no radios, and when the dance had not 
by any means reached its present status. The chaperon was 
ever present with instructions to guard carefully the students 
under his or her care from any contaminating influence. Miss 
Maude Gibson was called upon at one time to chaperon a married 
student with his wife and child to a fish supper in a downtown 

In the days when life was not so complex as it is now, there 
were various simple activities which contributed to the social 

146 Three Decades of Progress 

side of life at Eastern. Each evening after supper the students 
were permitted to promenade from six to seven, keeping strictly 
to the walk, with the assurance that the dean of women would be 
met at frequent intervals. Practically the entire student body 
and many of the faculty engaged rather regularly in this recrea- 

President Crabbe followed the practice of standing on the 
steps of the south entrance of Roark Hall during the periods 
between classes and hastening the students as they moved be- 
tween Roark and University Halls, by repeating rhythmically, 
"All right, students, file and to the right, single file and to the 
right," etc., in the meantime keeping time by clapping his hands 
and bestowing upon the group his famous smile. 

Then there were such innocent pleasures as candy pulls. 
Almost any evening during the week, if one chanced to look 
through the chemistry laboratory windows in the Roark build- 
ing, he might see Professor G. D. Smith leaning over a huge cal- 
dron of boiling molasses candy, with twenty or thirty boys and 
girls in the offing waiting to pull the delectable amber fluid and 
then end the evening very happily with such games as clap in — 
clap out, skip to M'Lou and post office. 

Again, a popular type of party in the early years was the 
corn huskings in the fall, held on the college-owned Stateland 
Farm. The chief entertainment at these affairs were the con- 
tests in which both men and women participated. Refreshments 
of apples and cider and the walk to and from the farm on moon- 
lit October nights were sufficient reward for the labor expended. 
At one of these parties Madame Piotrowska wandered away from 
the group, lost her way in the dark, and Dr. Crabbe bad to go in 
search of his Professor of German. 

After the organization of the five Literary societies which 
enjoyed such long and popular lives, much of the social life was 
centered about these organizations. One of their weekly meet- 
ings in each month was given over to a "social." Plays, games, 
and farces were the most popular forms of entertainment. Fre- 
quently, one society entertained another society, sometimes as 
the price of losing a debate or an oratorical contest. 

Dancing and card playing were sternly forbidden in the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 147 

early days. (As late as 1924 women on the faculty were not al- 
lowed to wear bobbed hair.) There is a record of one student 
from the city of Richmond who was expelled for having in his 
possession a deck of playing cards. An occasional game of 
flinch or rook might be indulged in with impunity, but it was 
a long time before card playing as .such was tolerated among the 
faculty and student body. The scent of liquor on the breath 
and smoking anywhere on the campus were sufficient grounds 
for expulsion from school. One faculty member who served the 
school in the early period recalls how the hosts or hostesses of 
guests who smoked carefully drew their shades before their 
visitors could "indulge in a timid cigarette/' 

It is rather interesting to note the evolution of the dance at 
Eastern. The social gatherings which were the forerunners of 
the dance were known as plays and games, and consisted of the 
old-fashioned singing games interspersed with blind man's buff, 
Rachel and Jacob, and others of similar nature. As the school 
became more sophisticated an occasional grand march was per- 
mitted as something which added zest to the parties, and eventu- 
ally, the Virginia reel and square dances were introduced with 
appropriate music. Occasionally ten or fifteen minutes were 
spent in social dancing. The gatherings then became dignified 
by the title "Rhythmic (lames" and took place each Saturday 
evening from seven to nine. This went most satisfactorily for a 
period of several years with a gradual increase in the length of 
time given the dance until the games were crowded out entirely 
and this type of social reached its present status, dignified by 
the name of formal dance, with imported orchestras and formal 
attire — a far cry indeed from the days of blind man's buff. 

Dances at present, both formal and informal, are sponsored 
by the various extra-curricular organizations. In the last few 
years the social committee representing the college has given 
several informal and strictly student dances following basket- 
ball games. Occasionally some organization gives a Dutch dance 
or other type of informal dance. 

All formal dances are sponsored by different organizations 
for a dual purpose : first, to provide a source of entertainment: 
and second, to make money for other activities of the organiza- 

148 Three Decades op Progress 

tion. These dances are held in the small gymnasium under the 
general supervision of the social committee, although the club 
giving the dance is directly responsible. Many really beautiful 
events have taken place under this plan; some of the junior 
proms have been unusually striking in beauty and in the elabo- 
rateness with which they were planned. 

The form of social entertainment that has been most con- 
sistently continued at Eastern is the reception, given either by 
the president and his wife, or by the school itself, and sponsored 
by the social committee. 

The first receptions at Eastern were held in the old Central 
University gymnasium which stood on the site now occupied by 
the library. These functions were formal and semi-religious in 
character. Professor Booth pronounced the invocation, Dr. and 
Mrs. Roark received the guests, and the Y. W. C. A. and 
Y. M. C. A. assisted in entertaining. Simple refreshments, 
usually a lemon punch, were served. There were two of these 
receptions annually, in the fall and in the spring. Indeed, social 
functions were then more or less frowned upon. Training teach- 
ers in subject matter and method was an altogether serious busi- 
ness and practically no attention was given to the development 
of the social graces. 

It was President Crabbe's custom to entertain the faculty, 
students, and citizens of Richmond at an annual reception on the 
lawn in front of Roark Hall. These receptions were character- 
ized by dignity and beauty. Japanese lanterns were hung 
among the maple trees and a large and graceful basket, which 
had been made by Mrs. Stanton Hume and filled with pink ramb- 
ler roses, adorned an enormous round table. Individually 
molded ices and cakes were served by white-jacketed servants, 
while an orchestra played exquisite music. 

President and Mrs. Coates held a reception for faculty and 
students each semester. For a while these receptions were held 
in the president's home. Mr. Coates usually stood in the small 
reception room at the left while Mrs. Coates and some of their 
sons and daughters received the guests in the larger room across 
the hall. As the student body grew in numbers, these receptions 
were held in various places, — in Roark Hall, where different 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 149 

members of the faculty received in the various classrooms, on 
the lawn in front of Roark Hall, in Sullivan Hall, and much 
later in Burnam Hall. Every member of the faculty was ex- 
pected to stand in the receiving line and shake the hand of each 

President Coates initiated the custom of giving a reception 
to the senior class during commencement week. At several of these 
receptions, the members of the senior class lined up and marched 
into the president's home, going down the. receiving line in regu- 
lar order. Several times the seniors wore their caps and gowns. 
Later, this practice was dropped and the receptions became more 
colorful with the senior girls dressed in dainty summer gowns. 

Since the student body has become so large, all social func- 
tions in the nature of receptions are held out of doors during the 
summer. If for any reason the reception is held indoors, the 
students are sectioned into groups and invited for different 
hours of the evening. It is now the custom to have one grand 
reception for all at the beginning of the summer school. Dr. 
and Mrs. Donovan, assisted by some of the faculty, receive the 
students on the lawn in front of Burnam Hall. Refreshments 
may be served from tables on the lawn or in the recreation 
room of Burnam Hall. 

Trips and out-of-door parties of all kinds have always found 
favor with Eastern students and faculty. The Richmond ceme- 
tery was once a favorite destination for strolling groups and 
couples on Sunday afternoons, and was used by the students 
much as a city park would have been used. Many an Eastern 
swain has bent his knee before a tombstone rather than a chair 
to ask for the heart and hand of the lady of his choice. Reported 
misconduct and changes in the social world were finally respon- 
sible for the decline in popularity of the cemetery as a social 

Lake Reba (the city reservoir) and a grove a mile or two 
from Richmond on the Barnes Mill road were always popular 
places for picnics and wiener roasts. The former place con- 
tinues to be the most favored picnic ground at present. Some- 
times the trips to these places were under the direction of Profes- 

150 Three Decades of Progress 

sor G. D. Smith, for the purpose of collecting specimens for his 
botany and biology classes; at other times they may have been 
sponsored by the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., by one of the 
literary societies, or by some other organization. 

In the first years of the school, those who liked the out-of- 
doors took frequent and delightful trips to the "mountains." 
A trip of that sort was quite an undertaking. Having no auto- 
mobiles, the students left on the midnight train for Berea, and 
hiked from the station to East or West Pinnacle to see the sun 
rise over the mountains. They then cooked bacon and coffee 
over an open fire and roamed the hills until time to catch the 
return noon train at Berea. Hiking costumes were not per- 
mitted on the train, so the girls wore their gymnasium suits, 
which consisted of full black bloomers and middy blouses dis- 
creetly hidden from view by long full skirts. They were per- 
mitted to leave their skirts at a farm house at the foot of the 
mountain, donning them again when they started for the train. 
Many of these trips were organized and managed by professor 
G. D. Smith. He always took numerous pictures of the groups, 
and, when he had developed the films, sold the prints to the 
students. He also organ'zed and directed several trips to the 
Kentucky Natural Bridge. 

Another type of amusement consisted of barge trips on the 
Kentucky Elver, which took place on moonlit summer nights for 
the enjoyment of faculty and students. Mr. Allen Zaring of the 
Zaring Milling Company, like Cinderella's fairy godmother, 
furnished the means of transportation, except that instead of 
using a pumpkin coach, he used his orange-colored mill wagons 
to transport the students to and from the barge landing at 
Boonesborough. However, while these trips were innocent 
enough in themselves, it was rumored that dancing was indulged 
in occasionally and secretly, and the barge trips were abolished 
for a while. 

After Hie establishment of the separate Geography and 
Geology Dcparlnienl in 1928, and the enlargement and enrich- 
ment of ils curriculum. Dr. L. G. Eennamer and ^\ I i ss Mary 
Frances IVTcKinney of thai department organized a regular series 

of trips which were taken each summer. These trips were made 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 151 

by bus for one, two or three days, and included any students 
who cared to take them. They were both social and instructional 
in character. They were regularly advertized in the catalogue, 
and used as an added attraction to bring students to the summer 
school at Eastern. They included one or more trips each summer 
to Cumberland Falls, Cumberland Gap and the Creech Coal 
Mine at Wallins Creek, Natural Bridge, the Blue Grass Area, 
Mammoth Cave, and an all-day barge trip down the Kentucky 
Kiver to Valley View and return. These trips were very popular 
and worth while until the depression depleted student resources 
so greatly that they could no longer be afforded. 

Other pleasure excursions include trips taken by bus loads of 
students, who frequently follow their athletic teams to neighbor- 
ing colleges, and week-end trips taken by certain groups to Cum- 
berland Falls and Herrington Lake. Many other trips that are 
primarily instructional in nature, but are necessarily social in 
character have also been taken within the last decade. These 
include visits made by the chemistry classes to see the chemical 
and industrial plants at Cincinnati, by the government classes 
to legislative sessions and state institutions at Frankfort, by 
geography and home economics classes to study the T. V. A. 
project at Norris, Tennessee, by geology and biology classes for 
the collection and study of specimens, by the musical organiza- 
tions to give programs over the radio, or before the K. E. A., 
and by athletic teams for games that are played away from 
home. Students also attend the K. E. A. in large numbers, some- 
times in groups, but most frequently as individuals. 

No story of the excursions taken by Eastern students ami 
faculty would be complete without making a record of the trip 
taken in 1934 to Frankfort to urge the Legislature to pass a tax 
measure that would give support to Eastern and to all the other 
educational, penal, and charitable institutions of the State. The 
entire student body and faculty, totaling some 1,400 individuals 
made this trip by two special trains, leaving in the early morn- 
ing and returning in the early evening. After arriving in 
Frankfort, Eastern students and faculty, led by the college 
band, joined the other organizations in a parade through the 
streets of Frankfort, up to and into the capitol building. 

152 Three Decades of Progress 

Outdoor Campus Programs 

One of the very prominent campus activities during the 
administration of Dr. Crabbe was the annual May-day festival. 
The date for these festivals seems not to have always been the 
first day of May, but the first Friday in the month. They were 
gala occasions in which every one participated from the oldest 
and most decrepit school marm or master enrolled to the youngest 
first grader, and from the president of the college to the janitors. 
The children of the training school with their critics and practice 
teachers rehearsed for weeks upon the songs, pageants, and 
dances in which they participated. These programs were given 
on the campus in the ravine between Roark and Sullivan Halls. 
A temporary platform was usually provided for the leading 
officers and others. These programs were veritable three-ring 
circuses with several dances in progress at the same time. Nor- 
mal school students participated in the elaborate pageants and 
musical programs. Costumes for the children and the students 
were very elaborate, colorful, and costly, both in time and money. 
Despite the fact that it almost invariably rained, ruining May- 
pole streamers and crepe paper, cheese cloth and more costly 
costumes, and driving the audience and cast into University 
Building, the same amount of hard work and enthusiasm was 
expended on the preparation of the next year's program. 

The typical May-day festivities in the afternoon were not 
by any means the whole of these programs. The classrooms 
and halls of both the Model School and Normal School buildings 
were covered with exhibits of the students' work. The Rich- 
mond city schools always dismissed for this program, but the 
critic teachers taught until noon for the hordes of parents and 
other visitors who flocked to the campus that day. These visitors 
entertained themselves until noon by examining the exhibits, 
observing classes, and attending the chapel program. At noon 
visitors, students, and faculty all had lunch on the campus, 
spread on the fresh young grass in the shade cast by the tender 
new leaves of the many campus trees. 

After the regular May-day program in the afternoon, a 
baseball game was scheduled, though this game was frequently 
canceled because of darkness or rain. The evening found a 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 153 

tired faculty and student body, together with their visitors, as- 
sembled in the auditorium of the University Building to receive 
enthusiastically the efforts of a group of amateur actors in a 
play, sponsored by one of the literary societies or some other 

No institution, outside the school itself, has exercised more 
influence upon Eastern Students of the past than the Kedpath 
Chautauqua. This institution first came to Eastern and to Rich- 
mond in the summer of 1912 and continued through the summer 
of 1932. 

About the first of July each year, a general superintendent 
with a service crew of some three or four young men arrived in 
Richmond. They proceeded to decorate the streets with strings 
of triangular-shaped flags strung across the street from tele- 
phone pole to telephone pole, and to tack up long lines of red 
arrows pointing to the campus and to the Redpath tent. Then 
every student who could spare the time, went out to the baseball 
field to see them erect their giant tent, the stage, the canvas 
fence, ticket booth, and lemonade stand, and to help them set up 
the folding benches and chairs. These young men of the crew 
were college boys who were working during the summer months, 
and they soon made friends with Eastern boys and girls. 

One has to have lived in a world that knew nothing of 
radios, talkies, and automobiles that make possible frequent 
trips to Louisville, Lexington, or Cincinnati for an evening's 
entertainment, to appreciate fully what the chautauqua meant 
to the people of that period and to understand why it later 
passed out of existence. Tickets were sold to students at half 
the price they were sold to the citizens of Richmond and Madi- 
son County, and every one who could possibly get the necessary 
$1.50 bought a ticket and went. Students were encouraged to 
attend and usually did so. For seven whole days, both after- 
noon and evening, they were allowed to have dates for attending 
Chautauqua and they took full advantage of their opportunities. 
The people of Richmond and Madison County attended in large 
numbers. It was the cultural opportunity of the year. Many 
of them came for the morning programs, which were usually for 
children, and spent the entire day. Others came for the after- 

154 Three Decades of Progress 

noon program and stayed for the evening performance, bringing 
picnic suppers with them. They supplemented these with ice 
cream cones, and quantities of lemonade bought on the grounds. 
The early programs were excellent, declining in quality as 
the decreasing attendance made fewer funds available. But 
there were given from those platforms some of the best programs 
ever given in Richmond : speakers upon many varied and inter- 
esting topics, music (instrumental and vocal), bands, opera, 
plays, light opera, and always a magician. Many of the out- 
standing men (including William Jennings Bryan) and women 
of this and other countries have played their parts on the Red- 
path Chautauqua stage before an Eastern audience and left 
their imprint upon her student body. 

Social Activities of Various Student axd 
Faculty Organizations 

Much of the very essence of student life at Eastern has been 
centered around the activities of the various student organiza- 
tions. The Utopian Literary Society, under the direction of 
Dr. Wren Jones Grinstead, gave at least two Greek plays. Later 
the Sigma Lambda (Foreign Language Club), under the direc- 
tion of Mrs. Janet Murbach and Miss Mabel Pollitt gave Trojan 
Women two different years. The first presentation of this 
tragedy was given on the steps and terrace in front of the 
library, and the second, given after the erection of the Admin- 
istration Building, used the entrance steps and portico of that 
building as the setting. 

Before the organization of the Little Theatre Club, most of 
the efforts at dramatic productions were done by the various 
literary societies or by the senior classes. Since the birth of that 
club, however, it has sponsored many of the plays and pageants 
given on Eastern's campus. Rehearsals for these, with all the 
attendant work, associations and training, have left their impress 
upon the lives of the members of this club, sometimes in the form 
of courtships and marriages for the various members of a cast. 
This el ul) has all em pi ed some very ambitious tasks. One of the 
finesl pieces of work it lias done was in the spring of 1935, when 
it presented Twelfth Xiijhl. 

Easteen Kentucky State Teachees College 155 

Since the reorganization of the music department under 
President Donovan's administration, the various musical organ- 
izations have done outstanding work. The band and orchestra 
have played for various school programs, athletic games, radio 
broadcasts, and at various community and civic events. The 
glee clubs have likewise made an appreciable contribution to stu- 
dent life. Their programs for the baccalaureate and commence- 
ment have been outstanding, and their Palm Sunday vesper 
service, established in 1930, is becoming one of the beautiful 
traditions of Eastern. At least two band concerts and festivals 
by the combined bands of Berea, Transylvania, and Eastern have 
been given at each of the three schools. 

Pajama parties and other informal social events for the 
girls in the dormitories are very popular. For the last six years, 
the Y. W. C. A. has entertained all the girls at such a party on 
the last evening they are on the campus before the Christmas 
holidays begin. An open wood fire in the recreation room is 
the center around which this party is held. 

The Open Forum, during the years that it led such an 
active existence, played an important part in the student life on 
the campus. That organization brought to the college eight dif- 
ferent art exhibits of original paintings, etchings, and block 
prints. Five of these exhibits were from the Metropolitan Art 
Museum, and were displayed for several days in the halls of 
Roark Building. This organization was also responsible for 
increased interest in scholarship. Two plaques, upon whose 
surfaces are engraved the names of the outstanding students 
in scholarship during those years, now hang in the library. The 
Open Forum worked upon the question of student government 
at Eastern, but this effort proved abortive. 

The Open Forum was responsible for the establishment of 
the Student Loan Fund. A nucleus of less than one hundred 
dollars, the accumulated profit from several plays, had been 
left in the hands of the business agent of the college to be used 
for students "in emergencies." From this nucleus the fund 
has grown to more than three thousand dollars. Most of this 
amount has come from contributions from the Regents of the 
college, from the faculty, from alumni and students, and from 

156 Three Decades op Progress 

interested friends of the college. One hundred twenty-five mem- 
bers of one freshman class, under the sponsorship of Dr. Anna 
A. Schnieb, the founder of the Open Forum, each contributed 
one dollar, which the student had either earned or saved. A 
number of different organizations have given various types of 
benefits for this fund, or have contributed the surplus in their 
treasuries at the end of the year. 

This fund is now incorporated with all the rights pertaining 
to such an organization. Students make application for loans 
in writing. These applications are then presented and the 
student appears before the committee. Satisfactory security 
must be offered, the scholarship and character of the applicant 
must be good, and there must be reasonable assurance that the 
student will have a position upon the completion of his work in 
the college. Many students have found it possible to complete 
some unit or the whole of their college work because of this fund. 
Proof of the wise administration of the fund is found in the fact 
that while many students have been helped during the thirteen 
years of the existence of the fund, less than two hundred dollars 
has not yet been repaid. 

Other student organizations like the Elementary Council 
Sigma Tau Pi (Commerce Club), the World Affairs Club (a 
member of the International Relations Clubs, sponsored by the 
Carnegie Foundation for International Peace), and the Rural 
Life Club have entertained from year to year with various social 
affairs, teas, banquets, and dances. Some of these clubs have 
brought speakers of national and international prominence to 
the campus. More has been done in this line of endeavor dur- 
ing the past six or eight years than previously. 

For many years the president of the college has appointed 
a faculty committee, whose responsibility it is to invest an appro- 
priation, taken from the student fees, in cultural programs. 
This committee has been known by various titles, as the Lyceum 
Committee, or the Fine Arts and Entertainment Committee, but 
its duties have varied less than its name. This committee lias 
brought to the campus many good programs, speakers on a wide 
range of subjects, music of all types, dancers, and plays. Some 
of the outstanding talent brought to the students by this means 
includes the Ben Greet Players; The Ted Shawn Dancers; the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 157 

Coffer-Miller Players; the Stuart Walker Players; Louise Stall- 
ing^; The Theatre Guild Production of Elizabeth the Queen; 
Ralph Warren Soule, tenor; The Cincinnati Little Symphony 
Orchestra ; the Russian Chorus ; the opera, Barber of Seville; 
the opera, Hansel and Gretal; the Pavleyonkrainsky Balett ; and 
the Herbert Petrie Quartet, known as the White Huzzars. 

Another faculty committee whose efforts have had a great 
influence upon the student body is the Social Committee. For 
many years the duties of this committee concerned the super- 
vision of such socials as were given by the college. The policy 
of the committee was changed in 1930. At that time, Miss Eliza 
Hughes was made chairman, and in addition to faculty members 
serving, each student organization appointed a representative 
to the committee. In addition to the duties it had previously 
had, the new student-faculty committee was given the responsi- 
bility of formulating a social policy and calendar for the school 
year. Out of the work of this group grew the present code for 
the scheduling and conduct of dances, and the present program 
of social entertainment sponsored by the college. 

Because the committee was so large that it became unwieldy, 
the number of faculty members was reduced in 1933 and the 
student representatives were limited to two — a man and a woman 
— from each of the four college classes. This committee, out of 
its appropriation from year to year, has purchased sufficient 
linens, silvers, glass and china to take care of the serving of 
refreshments at various college functions. 

After President Donovan came to Eastern, he conceived the 
plan of having an annual barbecue during the second summer 
term of each year. This has since become an annual project of 
the social committee. The enrollment is relatively small at that 
time and the barbecue is really a large family party. Invita- 
tions are limited strictly to the faculty and employees of the 
college and their families, and to the students and their families. 
One of the finest things about this social event is the opportunity 
that it gives the families of the summer school students to join 
with the student body and faculty in an evening's pleasure. 

A faculty and student committee slaughter and roast a beef, 
the cafeteria force prepare the remainder of the food, and the 

158 Three Decades of Progress 

faculty serve this repast to their gue.sts from long tables on the 
picnic grounds on the college farm. Barrels of ice water and 
lemonade and huge freezers of ice cream are also served by 
faculty members to an appreciative group of visitors. 

A week or ten days before the barbecue, the students are 
divided into groups, usually on a county or district basis. These 
groups each prepare some sort of ' ' stunt ' ', most frequently some 
burlesque or farce, and after the supper has been served and 
consumed, the evening is given to the presentation of the stunts. 
The winning group is rewarded with a goodly number of ice- 
cold watermelons, so that that group has another evening of fun 
together at the time it collects and consumes the reward of its 
labors. Many of these programs have been highly entertaining, 
and all have afforded hilarious good times to both the partici- 
pants and the audience. Fortune has smiled upon this partic- 
ular bit of good times at Eastern; only one time has rain run 
the merrymakers inside for their suppers and program. 

Religious Life of the Students 
Although the school is a state institution and not a "church 
school" in the sense that it is denominational, there has always 
been a very definite place for religion and religious organizations 
on Eastern's campus. Students here come principally from 
eastern, northern, and central Kentucky. This territory is one 
in which the Protestant churches predominate. As a result, 
most of the students at Eastern are members of, or have a pref- 
erence for, one of these denominations. There have always 
been, however, some students who are affiliated with the Catholic. 
Episcopalian, and Jewish groups. 

A rather large percentage of students, while in school here, 
take an active part in the work of the church of their choice. 
Some few transfer their memberships for the period of their 
residence here, but this number is not Large. In the first years 
of the life (if the school, when the student body as a whole was 
older than the present one. and when there were fewer other 
forms of social life, the percentage taking an active part in the 
work of the churches was probably larger than it is at present. 
This participation probably reached its height during the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 159 

administration of President Crabbe. Both he and Mrs. Crabbe 
were very ardent church members and took an outstanding part 
in the religious life of the town. President Crabbe expected and 
required his faculty and .students to do likewise. During this 
period most of the chapel programs were religions in character, 
and no program of any type was held on the campus without an 
invocation and a benediction. Religious speakers and workers 
were entertained by the school frequently and for several days 
at a time. At least one revival, strictly for students and con- 
tinuing for two weeks, was held in the auditorium in University 
Hall. The leader was one Reverend Lamar from Atlanta, 
Georgia, a very emotional man, who conducted his services as 
the typical revivals were conducted at that time. The faculty 
were required to attend and sit on the stage with the evangelist, 
and, incidentally, to pay the expenses of the meeting. 

The Baptist Church has probably received the greatest par- 
ticipation from the student body in the last six or eight years. 
There are usually more students of Baptist preference enrolled 
in the college than from any other denomination, and this church 
has been very active in its work with these young people. For 
three years the Southern Baptist Board maintained a student 
secretary on the campus. This secretary was always a young 
woman, who was enrolled as a student carrying a partial college 
schedule and devoting the remainder of her time to the work of 
her church on the campus. The organization in this church for 
college students is known as the Baptist Student Union, and has 
a large and active membership. All the churches have Sunday 
School classes organized especially for student groups. These 
young people participate also as teachers in the Sunday Schools 
Knd as members and officers of the various young people's socie- 
ties. Most of the faculty are now, and have always been inter- 
ested and valuable workers and leaders in church organizations. 

In addition to their affiliation with the local church organ- 
izations, the students have always maintained one or two non- 
denominational religious organizations. These are the Young 
AVomen's Christian Association and the Young Men's Christian 
Association. The Y. W. C. A. was established under the spon- 
sorship of Miss Lena Gertrude Rolling, a member of the Model 

160 Three Decades op Progress 

School faculty, in 1907, and has been in continuous existence 
since that time. The Y. M. C. A. was organized some time 
within the next year or two, although the exact date is not now 
known. Professor G. D. Smith and Professor I. H. Boothe were 
the organizers and sponsors. This organization ceased to exist 
during the years of the World War, clue to two facts : first, the 
lack of men on the campus, and, second, the disfavor into which 
that organization came during the War. For a few years it was 
replaced by an organization known as the Men's Club. Then in 
1928, the Y. M. C. A. was reorganized under the leadership of 
Dr. J. T. Dorris. Previous to 1930 the two associations were 
wholly separate in organization and works. Since 1930, while 
still maintaining different organizations, and membership in 
national and state affiliations, the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. 
have joint services and share jointly the responsibility of the 
projects undertaken. 

These organizations have long been active in benevolent 
work. During the past decade they have paid the hospital and 
medical expenses of several deserving students who had to have 
medical or surgical treatment but were not able to pay for it. 

In 1910 the Y. W. C. A. had a Christmas tree and party for 
ten or twelve of the unfortunate children of the city of Rich- 
mond who had come under their observation. This tree and 
party have been held annually since that time and have grown, 
both in the number of children invited and in the gifts given, 
until the Christmas of 1935, when one hundred children were 
present. Most of the faculty and many non-member students 
contribute to the support of these organizations and to the work 
they do. 

One of the beautiful services at Eastern that has already 
become a traditional part of the life of the college, since its 
inauguration in 1930, is the Y. W. C. A.-Y. M. C. A. Christmas 
Vesper Service — The Hanging of the Greens. This service is 
held in the lobby of Burnam Hall and is participated in by a 
hundred students. A candle procession and the ceremony of 
decorating the hall wilh ropes and wreathes of Christmas greens 
are integral parts of the services. 

In 1930 these two organizations held their first "Retreat" 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 161 

at the state Y. M. C. A. camp near Valley View on the Kentucky 
River, This, week-end spent tog-ether each spring by the outgo- 
ing- and incoming cabinets is used for inspirational services and 
for the planning of the coming year's program. These programs 
in addition to the two projects already described, include plans 
for the conduct of weekly vesper services on the campus, the con- 
duct of daily ten-minute devotional services, the bringing of out- 
standing religious leaders to the campus, the encouragement of 
character development through the annual giving of the Student 
Service Award, the social service work among Eastern students, 
and a Freshman Week guidance and social program. 

For years these organizations have sent from one to six or 
eight delegates to the Southern Y. M. C. A. Conference at Blue 
Ridge, North Carolina, and several times they have been repre- 
sented at national conferences held in some of the larger cities 
of the United States. 

Student Labor 

Eastern has always employed students to do much of the 
work on the campus. The number of students so employed has 
grown with the growth of the student body and the increasing 
need for services of various kinds. In like manner the rate paid 
per hour for services has changed. 

A faculty committee on student labor determines the poli- 
cies that shall operate in the employment of students. Briefly, 
these are : first, a scholarship standing of one point ; second, good 
conduct ; third, loyalty to the college and its activities ; fourth, 
efficiency in the work done. Consideration is also given to the 
actual need of the student for some means of earning part of his 

The number of students now working for the college average 
about one hundred twenty-five. These students are employed 
on the office staff, in the dormitories, in the library, in the cafe- 
teria, in the laboratories, on the campus, and on the college farm. 
Most of these students earn twenty, twenty-five, r thirty cents 
per hour, depending upon the type of work done, and work from 
six or eight to twenty-five hours per week. Many young men 
or women have been enabled to attend college here because of 
this opportunity to earn a part of their expenses. Service in the 

E. s. T. c— 6 

162 Three Decades of Progress 

college cafeteria and bakery shop is performed wholly by student 
labor. For years two young men have acted in turn as night- 
watchman on the campus, making the change at midnight. 

During the years 1934, 1935, and 1936, the United States 
Government, through the F. E. R. A. and the N. Y. A. organiza- 
tions, has provided funds to employ from one hundred to one 
hundred ten other students. These students are employed 
under the regulations sent out by the directors of these organiza- 
tions. Most of these students are employed in clerical or secre- 
tarial work or are are used to supplement the staff employed by 
the college in places where student labor is used. These funds 
have made it possible for many deserving students to attend 
college during the years when the financial conditions of their 
families would otherwise have made this impossible. 

In addition to employment on the campus and farm, many 
students find work independent of the college. They serve in 
restaurants and hotel dining rooms, clerk in stores, tend fur- 
naces, mow lawns, or find other work to do in the homes of Rich- 
mond. The people of the city cooperate nicely with the school 
in the employment of students and probably use almost as much 
student help as the college itself does. Many of these students 
receive their pay in the form of room and board. 

Student and Faculty Relationships 
One of the most permanent and satisfying aspects of campus 
life at Eastern is found in the student-faculty relationships. In 
the first years of the school a number of faculty homes were 
always open to students and they seem to have been centers in 
which students gathered for parties and other social eA'ents. One 
only has to travel through central and eastern Kentucky and 
talk with men and women who were students at Eastern in those 
days to realize how much these contacts meant to them. 

In recent years, although the faculty and student body have 
grown greatly in size, these relationships have continued. A 
number of faculty members regularly entertain certain groups 
of students in their homes, to dinners and to teas and parties of 
various kinds. Others of the faculty who do not live in their 
own homes in Richmond often entertain groups of students and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 163 

friends elsewhere — at hotels for dinner and at teas and parties 
in the recreation room of Bnrnam Hall. Sometimes members 
of the faculty take students to Lexington, Louisville, Cincinnati, 
and other places for special programs of various sorts. 

Many students have been helped through unhappy situa- 
tions by members of the faculty. Sometimes counsel in the 
solution of a difficult problem has been all that was needed. At 
other times a lift over a financial difficulty has been necessary. 
"Whatever the need, members of the faculty have always been 
willing to assist worthy students. 

The college under President Donovan has adopted the slo- 
gan, "Eastern is a friendly college." It is the policy of East- 
ern, therefore, to foster a social atmosphere that is conducive to a 
happy college life. Students are taught that wholesome friend- 
ships made in college often become valuable business and profes- 
sional assets in actual life. With these objectives in mind stu- 
dents and faculty are encouraged to maintain such relations as 
are not only productive of the highest scholastic attainment, but 
are also conducive to the development of those social graces that 
are desirable in a varied and changing world of human rela- 


By Ashby B. Carter 

Since relatively few state teachers colleges own and operate 
farms, the question is often asked, why should Eastern attempt 
to operate a farm ? The answer to this question may be found 
in the minutes of the Board of Regents, under date of October 
6, 1911. The reading of the transcript which follows will indi- 
cate the foresight and the interest in the welfare of rural people 
displayed by those who administered the affairs of the institution 
in the early days of its existence. These minutes read as fol- 

The Board of Directors of the Kentucky Federation of 
Women's Clubs, presented resolutions to the Board, and Section 
Two, which refers to the Normal Schools, was approved, and Dr. 
Crabbe asked to thank the Federation of Women's Clubs for their 

The Resolution is as follows: "We urge the Board of Regents 
of our State Normal Schools to make such provisions as may be 
necessary to thoroughly prepare students attending these insti- 
tutions, to successfully teach Elementary Domestic Science and 
Agriculture in the Public Schools of Kentucky." 

From the minutes of the Board of Regents under date of 
July 19, 1912, the following paragraphs are taken : 

The following committee was appointed to take options on 
a prospective farm for school use, adjacent or accessible to our 
present campus, price suggested, $25,000.00 for 100 acres. 

Committee — President Crabbe, Treasurer Turley, and Superin- 
tendent Hamlett. 

This committee is to make a report at the earliest possible 
moment to the Board of Regents which is to be convened at the 
call of the Chairman. 

Pursuant to the work of this committee President Crabbe 
recommended to the Board of Regents, for the two-year period 
ending July 1, 1914, the expenditure of $25,000.00 for a farm 
and $8,000.00 for a barn and its equipment. Subsequently 
(September 5, 1912) "President Crabbe recommended the pur- 
chase of the Whittaker Farm of 116.45 acres, located on the 
Barnes Mill Pike, cost $18,280.00." This recommendation was 
approved, and the purchase made. 

166 Three Decades op Progress 

As further evidence of Eastern's appreciation of the advan- 
tages of operating a farm in connection with other phases of the 
school activities, the following abstract is taken from the Year 
Book of Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, of July, 1913 : 

The compelling movement abroad in the land for vocational 
teaching, experiencial knowledge, and teaching based on prac- 
tice, was fully appreciated by some of Kentucky's foremost think- 
ers and educators, and in 1912 through the influence and votes of 
right-thinking legislators, a law was passed appropriating money 
for the establishing, maintaining and promoting of departments 
of Agriculture, Manual Training, and Domestic Science in the 
teachers' schools, the Normals. In accord with the intent of the 
law, Eastern purchased a typical Madison County Farm of 112 
acres, lying near the school. The official name of the Farm is 
Stateland. Stateland is not an experiment station, nor yet a 
financial venture. The actuating cause for its existence is to put 
Agriculture, Manual Training, and Household Economy on the 
same basis as the other sciences and academic subjects, to afford 
contact method of teaching teachers to teach; it is a working 
model of a small farm, a real demonstration farm for both stu- 
dents and the public. It will be a simple business to market all 
products to the best advantage, to dormitories, and to the buying 
public. There are many reasons why a farm like this should not 
return a profit in dollars and cents. These must be patent to 
thinking, foreminded people. While no one will be disappointed 
if Stateland shows no credit balance, yet the farm is to be run on 
a self-supporting basis. Stateland is an integral part of Eastern 
Kentucky, it is ever open and aboveboard, and at all times, invites 
the general public. 

The purposes and objectives, as outlined in the foregoing, 
answer in a very explicit and definite manner the question pro- 
pounded in the opening paragraph of this chapter. How well 
the enterprise has succeeded in fulfilling these objectives is 
largely a matter of conjecture. Especially is this true in trying 
to appraise the intangible values of the farm, such as laboratory 
demonstrations and participation exercises provided by those in 
charge of agricultural teaching. However, with such teachers 
as Professors Gr. D. Smith, J. S. Pullen and Rex Cox, the student 
body was surely favorably impressed with the type of work done 
at Stateland. 

A study of the financial statements of the farm for the ten- 
year period that it remained in the possession of Eastern show 
an average annual deficit of approximately $500.00. This would 
indicate to the layman that the enterprise was an abject failure, 
but the sale price of the Farm not only wiped out all deficits, but 
left a net profit of $2,407.27 ; and, in addition to this, there was 
a Livestock and Equipment Inventory of $2,956.75. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 167 

In a report from the Farm Manager to President Coates, 

under date of December 1, 1920, is the following: 

Stateland has been used: (1) To provide a laboratory for 
agricultural classes; (2) To supply milk and vegetables to the 
school Dining Hall; (3) To demonstrate proper farm operations; 
(4) To provide work for those students who desired that type of 

A letter of recommendations from the Farm Manager to 
President Coates under date of April 6, 1922, contains the fol- 
lowing paragraph : 

I am of the opinion that the present Dairy Herd is inade- 
quate to the needs of the Sullivan Hall Dining Room. The Farm 
can easily support twelve or fifteen cows, and I believe it would 
prove a profitable investment to increase the herd to at least 
twelve cows. The present number is eight, — seven of which are 
giving milk. Some of these have proven unprofitable and it 
would be a good policy to weed out the "boarders" and replace 
them with cows of higher merit. I should like to see all replace- 
ments and additions of purebred stock. For our needs I believe 
the Holstein is the cow for the School to own. Our milk records 
clearly show that the Holsteins that we now own are the most 
profitable cows in the Herd. 

This recommendation is of significant interest, in the light 
of the livestock inventory taken July 1, 1920, which shows two 
purebred Holstein cows, two grade Holstein cows, four grade 
Jersey cows, two calves, one and two weeks old, and one grade 
Holstein bull. 

New Stateland Farm 

In the late fall of 1922, Stateland was sold, and shortly 
thereafter the Gibson farm, adjoining the campus, was pur- 
chased. The increased acreage and accessibility to the class 
rooms suggested an expansion of operation plans for the newly 
acquired farm. It was but a simple matter to transfer the live- 
stock and other farm equipment to the new farm. This change 
was made in mid-winter, and only those who happened to be on 
the ground at the time can fully realize the handicaps and priva- 
tions endured the remainder of the winter of 1922. 

The Gibson farm, at the time of its purchase, was a typical 
example of what usually happens to a highly fertile and easily 
tillable farm in the hands of tenant operators. It may not be 
amiss to say that it was heavily mortgaged and that the owners 
were forced, as the debt burden increased, to resort to "mining" 
practices. With the exception of a small plot of about twelve 

168 Three Decades of Progress 

acres of blue grass sod, the entire farm was under the plow. 
One field of twenty-five acres had been cropped to corn for seven 
constructive years, and nothing in the way of a cover crop dur- 
ing the winter was used. 

The fences were in .such bad condition that it was almost 
impossible to restrain the livestock in any single field. The 
buildings were even in a more deplorable condition. In nearly 
every instance leaky roofs were found. Doors were either un- 
hinged or completely wrecked. Hedges had been allowed to 
grow untrimmed for years. Weeds, apparently, had been utter- 
ly disregarded, for the farm was found to be badly infested with 
some of the most obnoxious weeds, such as cocklebur, sourdock, 
burdock, jimson weed and even wild onion. 

The problem of renovating and rejuvenating the newly ac- 
quired farm was one that required a vast amount of supervision, 
as well as painstaking effort. This was all the more trying, 
since a hard and fast rule was laid down that the farm as a unit 
must be self-sustaining. All expense in the way of labor, inci- 
dental repairs, and general maintenance has been paid out of 
proceeds from the farm each year. Over and above this, it has 
shown a modest annual profit. 

Two later additions of seventeen and one-half acres each, 
the Bond and Persifall tracts, extended the farm frontage on the 
Lancaster pike, and expanded the farm unit to approximately 
175 acres. New Stateland is virtually a part of the campus; 
in fact, the Weaver Health Building, the Rural School, and the 
new Stadium, all occupy sites that were once a part of the Gib- 
son farm. In the future it is highly probable that other mag- 
nificent structures will be located on the farm. The newly estab- 
lished R. 0. T. C. Unit will doubtless utilize portions of the place 
for drill purposes. 

A minor activity developed on the premises of New State- 
land is the slaughter of meat animals for the dining halls. Hogs 
raised for this purpose are slaughtered, and young beef animals 
are bought and finished at the farm. Much of the work in con- 
nection will] this enterprise is done by student labor. 

A young orchard has been planted, both as a source of fruit, 
for the dining halls and as a laboratory for students interested 
in the culture of orchard fruits. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 169 

The college gardens are located on the farm. These embrace 
an area of ten to fifteen acres. A great variety of vegetables are 
grown, assuring the dining halls of an abundance of fresh vege- 
tables throughout the growing season. Surpluses are usually 
canned for winter use. 

The farm carries a flock of 400 white Leghorn chickens. 
Modern poultry houses have been built and equipped with 
standard equipment, thus giving opportunity for adequate 
demonstration and practice work with poultry. 

New Stateland Farm has been developed primarily as a 
dairy farm, and from the modest herd transferred from State- 
land on January 1, 1923, there has been developed one of the 
most outstanding herds of registered Holsteins to be found in 
the South. In 1928 a modern dairy barn was constructed, mak- 
ing it possible to house comfortably thirty-three cows, in addi- 
tion to providing calf and bull pens. 

Since the development of the dairy herd has been the one 
enterprise on the farm, that may be described with justifiable 
pride, an account of it should be given somewhat in detail. The 
records show that the first acquisition of registered Holsteins 
was made in February, 1920, when Johanna Woodcrest Undeeda 
2nd., from George Button and Sons, of Franklin, Kentucky, and 
Jewel Pontiac Butter Boy, from the C. M. Bottema Herd of 
Indianapolis, Indiana where purchased. These two cows are 
mentioned because they represent the foundation units, and some 
of their blood is still to be found in the herd. 

Reference has been made to the livestock inventary of 
July 1, 1920, as including ownership of a grade Holstein bull. 
Realizing the necessity of purchasing a registered Holstein bull, 
steps were taken early in the year 1921, to secure the service of 
a sire with the backing of high production, such as would justify 
mating with the two registered cows already owned. As a 
choice, Knapp Pontiac Butter Boy De Kol was purchased from 
George Peabody College, of Nashville, Tennessee. This sire 
was continued in servecie until June, 1924, when Sarcastic Allen 
De Kol was purchased from Berea College, of Berea, Kentucky. 
The next sire in service in the College herd, Richland Hartog, 
was donated to the College, June 1, 1936, as a baby calf, by 

170 Three Decades of Progress 

R. M. Barker, of Carrollton, Kentucky. This young bull, a 
grandson of Tritonia Pietertje Ormsby, made a distinct contri- 
bution in both type and production. Unfortunately, this sire 
reacted to the tuberculin test in January, 1929, and it was not 
until his daughters came into production and were carried to 
test, that the full worth of this young sire was appreciated. 

At this point it becomes important to mention the acquisi- 
tion of an aged cow, Arclale Hengerveld Colantha, which had an 
advanced registry record and was sired by the famous bull, Flint 
Hengerveld Lad. This cow subsequently gave birth to a male 
calf whose sire was Richlawn Hartog. Production records show 
that this happened to be one of those fortunate "nicks" that 
breeders so often seek. Ardale's son, Eastern Hengerveld 
Pontiac Lad, followed Richlawn Hartog in service, leaving, all 
told, seven daughters that were ultimately to come into produc- 
tion. The service of this bull was lost, as was that of his prede- 
cessor, very early in life, as a reactor to the tuberculin test — in 
fact, before he reached the age of eighteen months. 

In January 1930 the herd was entered in the Herd Improve- 
ment Registry Test, of the Holstein-Fresian Association and has 
been enrolled continuously in this test ever since. As a result, 
improvement in production has been achieved that is highly 
gratifying. A more complete report of these results will appear 
in a later paragraph. 

As the registered granddaughters of old Arclale finished a 
lactation, it became increasingly apparent that her son, Eastern 
Hengerveld Pontiac Lad, was highly prepotent. His tragic 
end, therefore, was more deplorable, since it cut short the career 
of a sire of such astounding promise. A comparison of the dams' 
production with that of this sire's daughters, shows an average 
increase of 130 pounds of butterfat over that of the dams. The 
advanced registry of the Holstein-Fresian Association has given 
this bull an index of 706, which places him well up among the 
best ten percent of proven sires in the II. I. R. Testing. 

During the fall of 1930 Dr. Bruce R. Pajme, of George Pea- 
body College, visited the college farm and expressed his approval 
of (lie Large frame type cows resulting from the farm's breed- 
ing program. This expression from an authority like Dr. Payne, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 171 

who has years of experience in breeding Holsteins and a keen 
discernment in blending brood lines, was much appreciated. 
Acting upon his recommendation that further improvement in 
both production and type could be achieved by bringing in the 
blood of Iowana Sir Ollie, Knapp De Kol Ormsby Abbekerk was 
secured from the Knapp Farm, at Nashville, Tennessee. This 
bull, carrying three crosses of Iowana Sir Ollie, had already at- 
tained distinction in the show ring; and as events subsequently 
developed, he was indeed a fortunate selection. 

All of Knapp 's daughters show improvement in type ; and, 
up to the present time, these daughters, eleven of which have 
finished a lactation, average 77 pounds of fat better than their 

It should be noted that as production reaches a higher level, 
it becomes increasingly difficult to find a sire of prepotent charac- 
ter, that is good enough to cary production to a level above the 
four-hundred-pound mark, which is the present average at State- 
land. The goal is an average of 500 pounds of fat-per-cow- 
per-year, and while it may take five more years to reach this 
goal, it is not believed to be utterly impossible. If the 500-pound 
mark be reached, it will mean the acquisition of sires that have 
the backing of high production on both sides of their pedigree. 

In selecting a sire to follow Knapp, Mount Riga Sir Rue 
Homestead, a son of Sir Inka Rue, was purchased from Clark 
Griffith, of Big Cabin, Oklahoma. This sire has nine daughters 
in the herd, three of which are in milk. If all of these are as 
good as the first one to finish a lactation, it will be felt again that 
a wise selection was made. 

Lyons Mutual Duke, owned by the Kentucky Experiment 
Station, is now in service at New Stateland, and breeders are 
quite favorably impressed with the beautiful daughters now ap- 
pearing in the herd, sired by Duke. Professor Fordyce Ely, 
of the University of Kentucky advised the selection of this bull, 
and as Duke's daughters finish a lactation, a production level in 
excess of their dams is expected. Seven of Duke's sons have al- 
ready been chosen by breeders in the State as future herd sires. 

The six years of Herd Improvement Registry Testing is an 
achievement that should prove an inspiration to other breeders. 


Three Decades op Progress 

The annual reports from the Advanced Registry in tabulated 
form below .show notable accomplishment in a very concise 



in Milk 


of Milk 

of fat 

of fat 




































The official report for the year 1935 has not been received, 
but the barn records indicate that the production record will be 
slightly above that of 1934. This is all the more gratifying 
when it is noted that eight of the cows enrolled during 1935 are 
milking in either their first or second lactation. As indicated by 
the classification, no cow included in the above tabulation was 
milked more than twice a day. 

in bringing this chapter to a close, it becomes desirable to 
express a word of appreciation for splendid services rendered 
by the student workers in the dairy, for practically all of this 
work has been clone by them. A survey of student labor records 
will show a host of young men who have done part-time work in 
the dairy. Space does not permit mentioning all of them by 
name, but those who have remained long enough to actually 
finish their scholastic work leading to a degree should be given. 
In the early morning hours there have been heard along with the 
rattling milk cans ami pails the lively song and the merry whistle 
of 1 lie following young men: Delaine Roberts, Albert Wilson, 
Claude Farley, Alton Smith, Allington Craee. James l'atton. 
Leland Wilson, Colonel Hammonds, Charles Hart, Clyde Farley, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 173 

Raymond Layne, Jesse LaMonda, Rupert Reese, Z. T. Rice, 
Vaughn LeMaster, Gilbert Carter, Dan Conly, Z. A. Horton, 
Clarence Starnes, John Tarter, Virgil Tarter, Oscar Graham, 
Henry Triplett, Bill Ramsey, Ira Smith, Carl Hancock, S. L. 
Switzer, Boyd Long, and Floyd Cammack. 


By Jacob D. Farris and Thomas E. McDonough 


Apparently whatever idea of a health program at Eastern 
may have been in the minds of those in charge of affairs re- 
mained unexpressed for many years. Evidently the health of 
the student body must have been good, and probably little need 
arose for very much attention being paid to health. Even dur- 
ing the epidemic of influenza during the World War there 
appear to have been no distressing conditions here. However, 
in June, 1919, Dr. Wilson and Dr. Wittenberg were sent to East- 
ern by the Kentucky State Board of Health to vaccinate for 
pneumonia all students who were willing to be immunized 
against this disease, and the Board of Regents also authorized 
the securing of the "services of a nurse for one month or longer 
if necessary. ' ' This marked the beginning of the health service 
for students at Eastern. In August, 1919, Miss Bertha Conway, 
of Ashland, Kentucky, was employed as a nurse and ' ' general 
assistant to the Dean of Women." The following year a nurse 
was employed regularly to look after the health of the students. 
From this time on a nurse has been on duty. In 1923 Miss Mar- 
garet McCrystal succeeded Miss Conway. Then Miss Joy Frazer 
came in 1925 and remained until Miss Edna White, the nurse at 
present, was employed in 1927. 

The Board of Regents in June, 1922, appointed a committee 
from their number to investigate the manner in which other sim- 
ilar institutions handle the health problems and to report a plan 
at the next meeting. Subsequently the committee reported its 
study on the subject but apparently nothing was done about the 
matter at that time. 

As early as April, 1926, the Board recommended that a 
physician be employed to look after the health of the students, 
and in 1927, Dr. J. W. Scudder was employed as college physi- 
cian. Some equipment for a physician's office and a "hospital 
office" (as it was called) was purchased in 1927. The hospital 

176 Three Decades of Progress 

was first housed in Cottage 2 of Faculty Kow and the college 
physician lived in Cottage 3. When Cottage 2 was razed in 
1927 two corner rooms on the second floor of Sullivan Hall and 
one in Memorial Hall were equipped to be used as hospital rooms. 
In Sullivan Hall the rooms directly under these were used as 
office and private rooms for the nurse. This arrangement exists 
today and the college physician still lives in Cottage 3. 

The Eastern Kentucky Review, Vol. XI, No. 4, August, 1917, 
mentions for the first time courses in health, described as follows : 

Health Hygiene and Sanitation 

Hygiene (Educational) Health preservation and promotion, 
communicable diseases in schools; discovery and treatment of 
chronic health defects. First aid to the Injured— a lecture and 
demonstration course of instruction in handling emergencies. 

In 1919-20 Miss Anna Lee Davis, teacher of Home Econom- 
ics, was designated to teach a class in Health Education. In 
the spring of 1925, it was recommended that a teacher of health 
be employed. Miss Joy Frazer, the school nurse in 1925, taught 
a class in Home Nursing. Also at this time Mr. A. B. Carter 
offered a course in health (Sanitary Science). This seems to 
have been the first definite step toward the teaching of health. 

A rather interesting policy was adopted in January, 1923. 
The Board of Regents voted to "take out accident insurance on 
basketball and baseball players to the amount of $200.00 to 
$300.00, same to be paid out of athletic fund." Then such a 
policy was an innovation, but now it is commonly practiced in 
many colleges, though not at Eastern. 

When Dr. Donovan came to the presidency of Eastern in 
1928 an expanded program of health and physical education was 
emphasized. Thomas E. McDonough was employed as Director 
of Physical Education and Dr. J. D. Farris as College Physician 
and Director of Health. The work was made a distinct division 
of the college curriculum and was divided into three definite 
phases, namely, Physical Education, Health Education, and 
Health Service. Situ-e then a student may major or minor in 
this field of study as in any other department of the college. 
There arc now more than twenty-live courses in Health ami 
Physical Education open to students. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


The entire program was greatly enlarged and accelerated 
upon the completion of the "Weaver Health Building in 1931. 
The need for such a building had been felt for many years and 
had been recommended to the Board of Regents several years 
prior to 1929, when it was definitely decided upon. Its careful 
planning and construction ; its swimming pool and large and 
small gymnasium; its lockers and shower rooms for women and 
men ; its laundry, boxing and wrestling rooms, and handball 
courts; its classrooms and laboratory for teaching, are hardly 


equaled elsewhere in the entire country. The Health Building 
fulfills a great need in the lives of all the students who come to 
Eastern. One of the highest compliments paid to the work that 
it attempted was expressed by a county health officer when he 
said that he could tell when he visited his schools whether the 
teacher had been a student at Eastern. 

Miss Marie Roberts, who was for a long time clean of women 
and who has been intimately associated with the health problems 
of Eastern longer than anyone else here at present, states that 
there have been epidemics of measles and influenza of serious 
proportions among the students ; that there have been times 
when the entire space of cottages and the entire second fioor of 
Sullivan Hall were used as hospital rooms; that one year, in 

178 Three Decades op Progress 

particular, about one-third of the student body had measles, and 
that an epidemic of one kind or another came to be expected each 

While there are from nine to twelve thousand calls to the 
Health Service annually, there has never been a student's death 
on the campus. And though there have been cases of measles, 
mumps, chicken pox, influenza, scarlet fever, diphtheria, 
etc., there has been no epidemic of any contagious disease during 
the past eight years. For this record the splendid cooperation 
of the students with the health program has undoubtedly been 

Physical Education 

Physical Education, known as physical culture in the early 
times and later called in turn Physical Welfare and Recreation, 
had its early beginnings at Eastern in 1910. The Eastern Ken- 
tucky Review for 1910 (Vol. IV, No. 4) included under the 
Department of Education a course in "School Games and 
Plays.''' "This course is introduced to meet one of the latest 
and most popular demands. Those who elect to take this course 
will find it one of the most effective means of disciplining the 
school as well as practical and valuable means of studying and 
building character." Physical Culture was offered in the Train- 
ing School as evidenced in the following supplement of the 
Eastern Kentucky Review for July, 1910: 

"The course of Physical Culture will be found in R. Anna 
Morris Physical Education. The work by grades is outlined on 
pages 14, 15, 16. This outline will be followed as nearly as 

General Directions : 

Do not under any circumstances permit the children to keep 
their wraps, overshoes, or rubbers, in the school room. 

Open windows before exercise but avoid draft. Close them 
after exercises are over. 

Do not talk more than is absolutely necessary; pupils soon 
learn what is required without continual talking. 

Be alive and energetic yourself and you will inspire your 

Insist that your pupils take all positions correctly. 

Insist that the position at all times be taken quickly and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 179 

Do not take a new exercise every lesson; practice old ones 

When children rise for readings or recitations, have them 
stand in correct position." 

These instructions guided the physical education in all eight 

The college Preparatory Courses as early as 1910 required 
Physical Education including gymnasium practice under the 
personal supervision of Director Clyde Wilson. 

The philosophy of Plays and Games, in all probability 
synonymous with physical education, was depicted in a course 
explanation. "No one questions the value of play in education. 
Too much stress cannot be placed upon it. Much of the school 
work in the primary grades can be accomplished through play. 
It furnishes the motive for real interest. Little children become 
easily fatigued, and frequent periods for relaxation and full 
play should be provided in the program of the classroom." 

In 1911 the Department of Physical Education offered 
a course in Swedish Gymnastics based upon the Ling 
System. The text followed was Progressive Gymnastic Days 
Orders by Dr. Evebuske. Exercises on apparatus, dumbell exer- 
cises, athletic games and track work were the activities stressed 
in the classes. Two hours a week (beginning with cold or in- 
clement weather) were required for all normal students. 

In 1912 Miss Jean B. Hurst, teacher of expression and phys- 
ical culture, took over the w r ork for women. At that time both 
the Elementary and Intermediate State Certificate courses in- 
cluded a requirement of one hour of physical culture. Three 
days of Emerson's Swedish Gymnastics, two days of basketball 
and gymnastic rhythm work were activities offered to women. 
The courses for men included gymnastics and seasonal activities, 
such as football, track, basketball, baseball, and tennis. 

In 1917, under Physical Culture for AVomen, two terms of 
work were required in Physical Culture. The regulation gym- 
nasium costume for women was a plain white middy blouse, full 
bloomers made of black serge, black hose and black gymnasium 
shoes. The chief purposes of the courses for women at that time 
were "to correct physical defects, to develop poise, strength, 
ease and grace in bodily movements, to afford pleasant recreation 

180 Three Decades of Progress 

and to give the student a supply of suitable material for work 
in the public schools." Much time was given over to play- 
ground work, captain ball, basketball and other competitive 
games. Folk dancing, singing games, and special rhythmic 
work were also offered. 

Mr. Charles F. Miller was in charge of physical education 
for men in 1917. The war conditioned the physical education 
for men, as evidenced by the following statements from the 
Eastern Kentucky Review for 1917 (Vol. XI, No. 1) : 

The greatest thing desired in this department is prime phys- 
ical condition called fitness — fitness for anything a person may 
be called upon to do." 

The aim of physical training is to develop man to his highest 
efficiency and to what nature intended him to be. Careful and 
systematic exercise of the body is a necessity to the fully trained 
teacher if he would build up a reserve of bodily energy from 
which he may draw in time of need. A feeble body weakens the 
mind. If you desire that your pupils should improve in mental 
abilities, let them improve the corporeal strength which is subject 
to their direction. Let their bodies have continued exercise. 

In 1918 Miss Anetta Hardin was teacher of Expression and 
Physical Culture for Women. Miss Anna Lee Davis, teacher of 
Health Education, and Miss Mary Ann McMillan, teacher of 
Expression and Physical Education for Women came to Eastern 
in 1919. 

The Kentucky Legislature enacted in 1920 a physical educa- 
tion law which gave added impetus to physical education par- 
ticularly in the Normal Schools and University. The law pro- 
vided for physical education as a part of a school course in all 
schools of the State. "This law provides that the State Univer- 
sity and all other State Normal Schools shall provide courses in 
physical education, and after July, 1921, all graduates from 
teacher courses in these institutions shall have completed one or 
more courses in physical education." 

Miss Katherine Hammond was instructor of Physical Edu- 
cation for women in 1920. Mr. George Hembree took over the 
athletic and physical education instruction the same year. Phys- 
ical Education was required for the advanced certificate course 
for four terms three times a week. 

Miss Lorna Bre.ssie was added to the Physical Education 
staff in 1922. The old gymnasium, which burned to the ground 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College i8l 

in 1920, was replaced by a "new frame building of appropriate 
size, with hardwood floor." The building had only fair accom- 
modations and when used as an auditorium it seated 1,100 
people. It contained modern equipment and the largest basket- 
ball floor in the State at that time. 

By 1922 the beginnings of a modern curriculum of physical 
education was well under way. Three physical education 
courses were offered in the normal department and thirteen 
courses in the Teachers College. The catalogs from year to year 
gave many minor changes, such as the addition or subtraction of 
courses and many changes in the staff. Miss Eliza Hughes was 
an instructor in 1923-24 and after a leave of four years returned 
to her present position. Miss Ruth Perry, Miss Hortense Lewis, 
and Miss Helen Russell taught physical education in successive 
years during Miss Hughes absence. The physical education 
faculty was further augmented in 1928 by adding Mr. Thomas 
E. McDonough and Miss Gertrude Hood to the staff. 

New Stateland Field was completed in 1930 and the Weaver 
Health Building was occupied in the spring of 1931. This 
modern plant, housing two gymnasiums, a swimming pool, a box- 
ing room, handball courts, locker rooms, classrooms, and a phy- 
sician's suite, has offered ample opportunity for a broad phys- 
ical education program. Eastern's required program, there- 
fore, which was first recreational in nature, has slowly taken 
form. The first four-year major curriculum of Health and Phys- 
ical Education was completed in 1930 and has been under con- 
stant revision. 

The Department of Health and Physical Education was 
granted a divisional status in 1933. Eastern, in projecting her 
broad program of Health and Physical Education, has been 
guided by the following policies and standards and has actually 
practiced them : 

1. The administration of health, and physical education, in- 
cluding athletics, is the responsibility of the institution and is 
under its complete control. 

2. All health and physical education, including athletics is 
organized under one administrative division. 

3. The chairman of the division of health and physical edu- 
cation is directly responsible to the president and Board of 
Regents of the institution. 

4. The chairman of the division and his staff are all educa- 

182 Three Decades of Progress 

tors with advanced training and are expert in at least one phase 
of the health and physical education program. 

5. Health education at Eastern has been organized to include 
three phases: A, Health Supervision; B, Health Service; C, 
Health Instruction. 

6. A full time physician is chairman of the Division of Health 
and Physical Education. The present chairman, Dr. J. D. Farris, 
is a well trained and experienced educator. 

7. Physical education is organized to include: A, Required 
or service courses; B, Intramurals; C, Intercollegiate activities; 
and D, Professional Courses in health and physical education. 

8. Intramural sports are organized and administered as a 
phase of physical education. 

9. Intercollegiate athlete, is rcogniied as possessing great 
educational possibilities and is a part of the broad program of 
physical education. 

10. A committee, appointed by the President, acts in ad- 
visory capacity and shapes policies of the department. 

All members of the faculty or collegiate staff of health and 
physical education teach in the training school. 

Thus it is seen that Eastern's required program of physical 
education has evolved from a program whose chief aim was rec- 
reational in nature to a program devised to meet teacher-train- 
ing needs. Every student graduating from the institution must 
have four credit hours of physical education. These courses are 
offered to freshmen and sophomores. The chief aims of the 
required program are : 

1. To equip the prospective teachers with material which 
in turn will be taught to the children of the state; 

2. To develop in the student an appreciation and proper 
attitude toward physical education activities; 

3. To equip the prospective teachers with activities which 
will be suitable to take up their leisure time; 

4. To develop a posture consciousness and organic vigor; 

5. To develop social attitudes, through promoting fair play, 
developing leadership, teaching of safety consciousness and those 
traits which make for good citizenship. 

The professional courses of health and physical education 
have for their chief aims the development of specialists in the 
field, wlio will be equipped to organize, supervise, and adminis- 
ter programs in the rural and urban schools and communities of 
the State. 

In conclusion il mighl be said that Eastern's philosophy of 
health and physical education is portrayed on Hie bronze placque 
which graces one of the walls at the east entrance of tbe Weaver 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 183 

Health Building'. The words on this tablet expressing the pur- 
pose to which the building was dedicated are : 

To the development of the body; 

To the ideal that the physical body should be kept sacred; 

To the ideal that the strong body may be kept strong; that 
the weak body may be made strong; 

To the promotion of the idea of play and recreation as as- 
pects of the finest living and that man may learn to use properly 
and profitably leisure time; 

To the end that youth may renew the games of childliood 
and learn new games to carry over into mature age; 

To the end that the care-free joy, the utter abandon, and the 
spontaneity of youth may serve to help defer old age; 

To the highest ideals of good sportsmanship including a 
high born love and justice and fair play; a frank and uncompro- 
mising opposition to falsity and injustice and cheating; 

To the ideal that the enjoyment of and the participation in 
all games and plays and sports shall come to everyone and not 
merely to a few who play on teams; 

To the promotion of better health and the prolongation of 
life to the end that citizenship may have greater happiness and 
increased capacity for service and productiveness; 

To the program of health and physical education based upon 
the nature of man and the evident needs in American life and 
devoted to the health, happiness and character of the American 

To health instruction based upon scientific materials, pro- 
gressively arranged throughout the Elementary School, the High 
School, and the College and directed toward personal accom- 
plishment and social ideals; 

To the training of teachers in health and physical education 
that they may teach the children of the Commonwealth more ef- 
fective health habits and ideals; 

To the use of Eastern and the people she serves, to the ideals 
for which she stands and the scholarship which she promotes. 


From the earliest times the subject of athletics was some- 
what of a controversial matter at Eastern. According to the 
minutes of the Board of Regents, it was some times debated as to 
whether athletics should be permitted or sponsored by the insti- 
tution. Athletic activities at Eastern grew, however, as the 
students and administration felt the need for them. As a result 
the institution has enjoyed, from the beginning, a varied pro- 
gram of athletic sports. The Eastern Kentucky Review for 
1910 (Vol. IV, No. 4) states: 

The athletic interests of the school are guarded and safe- 
guarded by a Committee of the Faculty and a Committee of Stu- 
dents. The Normal encourages health, sports, and all clean ath- 
letics. The interests is growing more and more intelligent. There 

184 Three Decades op Progress 

is a splendid athletic field near the gymnasium. The affairs of the 
athletic association are in a flourishing condition. Baseball de- 
veloped much interest and enthusiasm this year. Basketball has 
made a good beginning. A fine tennis club does excellent work 
with bright prospects for a great tournament. You'll like the 

The earliest athletic contests were carried on by women, and 
basketball games were played with other institutions of the State 
as early as 1907. The facilities for contests and sports were 
splendid for that day and time. An early Review states : "The 
gymnasium — a large, well ventilated building (which was one 
of the original buildings on the campus) — is equipped with ap- 
paratus, running track, shower baths, and lockers. The gym- 
nasium is in process of overhauling and additional equipment 
has been purchased for the coining year." Mr. Clyde H. Wilson 
was Instructor in Manual Arts and Physical Education and 
Director of Gymnasium and Athletics. 

In 1910, according to the Review, football was introduced 
and interclass contests were promoted. "It was the policy of 
the school to encourage clean and healthful rivalry in athletics, 
both in interclass and intercollegiate contests. All students phys- 
ically qualified are afforded an opportunity to try out for the 
different teams, provided their studies are not neglected as a 
consequence." Managers elected from the student body and 
under the supervision of the Director of Athletics arranged 
schedules for the different sports. In 1911 the girls basketball 
teams won the local championship ; the boys basketball team, 
with a schedule of ten games, made a good showing ; the baseball 
team was very successful; and a track and field team competed 
for the first time in the interscholastic meet at Lexington. 

During 1912-13 Eastern's sports were under the able direc- 
tion of Mr. Charles A. Keith, who created added interest hi all 
sports. Eastern's fine baseball tradition had its beginning at 
that time. Even though baseball has been dropped from time 
to time by sister institutions, Eastern has always persisted in 
sponsoring baseball. Her all-time record will compare well with 
any other college in the State. 

Mr. Ben II. Barnard was in charge of athletics from 1913 to 
1917. Eastern teams held their own and were highly respected 
by their opponents in the State during this period. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 185 

Aside from these fine records, Eastern, being a school for 
the training of teachers, lias never given as much emphasis to 
intercollegiate athletics as some of the liberal arts colleges have. 
The faculty has always controlled the sports program under the 
direction of an athletic committee, whose duties were defined in 
the Eastern Kentucky Review for 1917 (Yo]. XI, No. 4) : 

1. The Committee shall have general supervision over all 
athletic games, exhibitions and contests, and shall have control 
over arrangements for such games, exhibitions, and contests with- 
in the school or with other schools and associations. 

2. It shall decide what candidates are eligible for mem- 
bership on teams or for admission to athletic games, exhibitions, 
and contests, and it shall exclude from competition those whom 
it finds below the standard in their studies — as fixed by the 
faculty rule — or ineligible for any other cause. 

In 1917, due to rather unusual emergencies caused by the 
"World War, the athletic policy was changed to meet the new 
conditions. The Review for 11)17 (Vol. XI, No. 4), states: 

Because of the unusual present conditions, the policy hereto- 
fore pursued regarding athletics for men may prove to be inap- 
propriate or inadvisible. As it is the aim of the school to adhere 
strictly to catalog announcements, we shall go no further than to 
say that on the opening of the fall term of 1917-18 such athletic 
activities will be organized as will provide adequately for the 
recreational needs of the men of the school and will contribute 
most directly to their professional training. The wishes of the 
men students themselves will be considered as far as it is at all 
practicable to do so in the determination of the form of athletics 
to be pursued. 

During the period 1917-20 .Air. Charles F. Miller and Mr. 
Clyde F. McCoy directed the destinies of Eastern's athletic 
teams. Mr. George Hembree took over the coaching of all 
athletics for men and women in the fall of 1920. 

Eastern was prevented from joining the collegiate athletic 
associations because the standing of normal schools among col- 
leges at that time (1920) was not recognized. In 1921, however, 
efforts were made to organize an Eastern Kentucky Athletic As- 
sociation. A constitution and by-laws were drawn up to govern 
this association and, in 1922, Eastern took steps to qualify for 
membership in it by establishing, as a basis for participation 

186 Three Decades of Progress 

in intercollegiate or intramural athletics, a system of rules based 
on those of the Eastern Kentucky Athletic Association. As 
chairman of the Committee on Athletics, Professor A. B. Carter 
helped to write the constitution for the inter-collegiate associa- 
tion and the rules governing Eastern's participation in athletics. 
The organization of the Eastern Kentucky Athletic Association 
was an important step in the raising of standards of inter-col- 
legiate athletics, and Eastern operated under it until her entry 
into larger and older associations. 

Eastern has had in all sports some athletic teams that were 
successful in wining a large percentage of their games. In the 
season 1924-25 the girls basketball team won ten out of thirteen 
games played and the baseball team won seven out of ten games. 
In 1927, the football team had its best season. 

Eastern qualified for membership in the Southern Intercol- 
legiate Athletic Association in 1928. The move, while an im- 
portant step in the development of athletics, worked a real hard- 
ship on the school's athletic teams. Before this time freshmen 
and even students in the normal school (secondary in rank) 
were permitted to play on the varsity teams. Much of the best 
material was often drawn from the former group. But in the 
S. I. A. A. all of this was changed and the material for the build- 
ing of good athletic teams was restricted. 

While Eastern's football teams have not had brilliant 
records in the past, there has been a steady improvement in the 
caliber of ball played under the able coaching of Mr. George 
Hembree, assisted by Mr. Gumbert, until 1929-30, and of Mr. 
Chas. T. Hughes, assisted in turn by Mr. Frank Phipps, Mr. 
Alfred Portwood, and Mr. Tom Samuels, from 1929 to 1935. 
Eastern basketball teams, for the most part, have won a large 
percentage of their games. On two occasions in recent years 
these teams have held the best records in the Kentucky Inter- 
collegiate Athletic Conference. In 1929-30. 1930-31, 1931-32, 
11)32-33 the varsity loam made a sufficiently good record to be 
invited 1<» participate in the annual S. I. A. A. tournament at 
Jackson, Mississippi, hi 1931-32 the Eastern basketball team 
was a runner-up in the Kentucky intercollegiate tournament at 
Winchester, Ky., and in 1936 Eastern played in the final game 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 187 

for the state championship, being defeated by the Western. Ken- 
tucky State Teachers College. 

Eastern's freshman teams, organized for the first time in 
1928, have fared well, and in football have won more than three- 
fourths of the games played. In 1931, under Coach Alfred 
Portwood, the freshman football team won every game and 
claimed the state championship. 

Freshman basketball teams were even more successful. Dur- 
ing the season of 1928-29, under Coach Thos. E. McDonough, the 
freshman team won seventeen out of nineteen games played. 
Since that time under Mr. George Gumbert and Mr. Alfred Port- 
wood the freshman basketball teams have continued to be com- 
parable to the best in the State. This period also saw the enrich- 
ment of the program by including tennis, track, golf, and swim- 
ming in the varsity sports program. Eastern's golf team did 
not lose a match in 1935 and consequently claimed the state 
championship. Swimming has flourished more as a recreational 
and intramural sport due to the lack of swimming facilities in 
our conference schools. 

Eastern has benefited much from membership in the 
S. I. A. A. and the program has been toward a more wholesome 
type of athletics. The greater emphasis, even from 1921 to 1935, 
was not on varsity athletics but on a wider student participation. 
In 1922, with, the completion of the new gymnasium, later dubbed 
the "barn", because of the architecture of the wooden structure, 
better opportunity was afforded for a broader program. In 
1930 and 1931 the Stateland Athletic Field, a natural bowl con- 
taining a gridiron and cinder track, was completed. The com- 
pletion of the "Weaver Health Building was the next achieve- 

Ground was broken in the fall of 1935 for the building of a 
combination stadium and field house. This plant, modern in all 
respects, will seat 4,000 spectators and contains locker rooms, 
first aid room, offices, ecpiipment room, laboratories, study room, 
and dormitory. The building will be ready for occupancy in 
the fall of 1936. With these splendid facilities Eastern is ap- 
proaching the ideal of universal, voluntary participation in 
athletics. The ultimate aim of the athletic program of Eastern, 
therefore, is not only to afford recreational and healthful activi- 

188 Three Decades of Progress 

ties to the students but also to send out teachers and coaches well 
equipped to develop a play spirit, which is the rightful heritage 
of the boys and girls of the Commonwealth. 

In 1935 to further augment the program of Physical Edu- 
cation greater emphasis than ever before was placed on the 
varsity athletic program. Mr. Rome Rankin, assisted by Mr. 
Tom Samuels, was placed in charge of football, basketball, and 
track, and with the support of the faculty and administration, 
has undertaken to place Eastern's athletic teams on a par with 
her natural competitors. 

Eastern's scholastic standing is above reproach. She is 
working toward the highest standard of achievement in athletics 
and in endeavoring, through ethical methods, to place teams in 
the field which will be a credit to the institution. The college, 
in her desire to win a fair proportion of her games, has not and 
will not forget that athletics are not ends in themselves. On 
the other hand, it will ever keep in mind that good sportsman- 
ship, health and wholesome recreation are the desired objectives 
in a well administered program of athletic activities. 

Eastern had contributed many outstanding figures not only 
to the coaching profession but to professional baseball as well. 
The following men and many other graduates have been success- 
ful coaches : Earle Jones, Talton Stone, Marshall Hurst, E. C. 
Word, Beckham Combs, Jesse Moberly, Fred Dial, Allington 
Crace, Robert Guy, Bill Melton, Ben Adams, Zelda Hale, Her- 
man Hale, Lawrence Hale, Little Hale, T. C. McDaniels, Jr.. 
Ben Hord, Clifton Dowell, "Wilfred Gaines, Robert Davis, Virgil 
Fryman, Henry Hacker, Charles Hart, Alton Smith, Herbert 
Tuclor, Clark Chestnut, Talmadge DeWitt, C. B. Ellison, Alfred 
Cox, James Allen, Charles Allphin, Ernest Young, and Clarence 

Eastern's baseball teams have contributed some outstanding 
men to professional baseball. Earle Combs, of the New York 
Yankees; Clyde Hatter, of the Louisville Colonels, Detroit 
Tigers, and Milwaukee Brewers; Node Ballou, of the Chatta- 
nooga Lookouts, Washington Senators, Brooklyn Dodgers and 
San Francisco Se;ils, have made notable records in their chosen 
fields. Jack Rader played in the Western League and Henry 
Phillips has been the property of the Cincinnati Reds and Brook- 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 189 

lyn Dodgers. Eastern at present lias two or three other pros- 
pects now in college who are looking forward to a professional 
baseball career. Charles Bryant, a pitcher, is the most promis- 
ing prospect. 

Honors have been bestowed upon Eastern's basketball and 
football men. Zelda Hale was named a guard on the all 
S. T. A. A. team at Jackson, Mississippi, in 1932. Richard Green- 
well, captain of the 1935 football team, has deserved honorable 
mention on all state teams in 1933 and 1934 and was selected 
on the Louisville Courier- Journal's all state team in 1935. John 
Killen, a sophomore, was selected on the all state United Press 
team for 1935 and, with Bud Limb, warranted honorable men- 
tion on the Little All American Team selected by the Associated 
Press in 1935. Roy Pille, a senior health and physical educa- 
tion major and a stellar football player and track man, has 
been selected by the Olympic Tour Committee to be the guest 
of the German Olympic Committee during the 1936 games in 
Berlin. Mr. Pille was selected as one of twenty-seven men from 
colleges and universities in the United States to attend the 
"international Sports Congress", which will be sponsored by 
the German Government. He will attend. 

Eastern is proud of the achievements of her athletes and 
hopes to build an athletic reputation which will be respected by 
all colleges in the State. 



By William J. Moore 

In this chapter are presented certain facts regarding' the 
men and women who have served Eastern as teachers during the 
three decades of her existence. An attempt has been made to 
include all. Owing to somewhat incomplete and inadequate 
records, it is doubtful if this ha.s been fully accomplished. 

The first Board of Regents of Eastern was named on May 9, 
R>06. Quite naturally, one of the first problems confronting the 
new board was the selection of a faculty for the new school. In 
the minutes of its first meeting held on June 2, 1906, are found 
the following: 

J. W. Cammack was appointed a Committee to ascertain 
whether Prof. E. C. McDougle of Henderson, Tennessee, was 
subject to employment as a member of the faculty of the Rich- 
mond State Normal School. 

The Presidency of the Eastern State Normal School was 
tendered to Doctor R. N. Roark. 

P. W. Grinstead was appointed a Committee to ascertain 
whether Miss Lelia Patridge of Laurel Springs, N. ,)., was sub- 
ject to employment as a member of the faculty of the Richmond 
State Normal School. 

The minutes of the meeting of November 8, 1906, state that 
J. A. Sharon, Dr. Virginia E. Spencer, Professor W. J. Grin- 
stead, Miss Henrietta Ralston, Miss Lena G. Roling, Miss Wesa 
Moore, and Professor E. H. Crawford were elected members of 
the facnltv of the Eastern State Normal School. 

The Model School opened September 7, 1906, and the Nor- 
mal School opened January 15, 1907. From records available it 
seems reasonably certain that the teachers given in TABLE 1 
were employed at Eastern during the school year of 1906-1907. 


Three Decades of Progress 


Name of Faculty 

Degrees Held 

Position Held 

Barter, Ada 

A. B. 


Boothe, I. H. 


Cassidy, Elizabeth 

B. S., A. B. 

American History 

Crawford, E. H. 

A. M. 

Director of Training 

Greenwood, Daisy 

English and Foresnsics 
Model School 

Grinstead, W. J. 

A. B. 

Latin and French 

Johnson, J. R. 

B. M. E. 


Lander, Alice 

Model School 

McClelland, Margaret 


McDougle, E. C. 

B. S., A. B., 

Business Director 

A. M„ C. E. 

Natural Sciences 

Moore, Wesa 

Model School 

Ralston, Henrietta 

Drawing and Art 

Roark, R. N. 

A. B., A. M. 

Psychology and 

Roling, Lena G. 

Primary Methods 
Model School 

Sharon, J. A. 

B. Ped. 

Review Course 

Spencer, Virginia E. 

A. B., M. A., 

Dean of Women 

Ph. D. 

German and History 

Taylor, L. N. 

B. S. 

Review Branches 

Taylor, N. V. 

B. S. 

Nature Study 

Traynor, Mary 


President Roark had received his Bachelor of Arts degree 
from the National Normal University of Lebanon, Ohio. Avail- 
able records fail to show where he received his Masters degree. 
At the time of his election to the presidency of Eastern he was a 
fellow 'm Chirk University, Worcester, Massachusetts, where he 
was working for the Doctor of Philosophy degree. Records fail 
to show that lie over finished the requirements for it. In speak- 
ing of \h-. Roark in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 193 

of Public Instruction, Dr. Crabbe pays the following tribute to 
one of the greatest educators Kentucky has ever known : 

On April 14, 1909, the great teacher, big-hearted, big-brained, 
sympathetic, the organizer and promoter, the loved President of 
Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, died — called away from 
his monumental labors at Richmond to higher duties. For the 
press I wrote this: 


Dr. Roark is dead. The news will be heard in every home 
in Kentucky with profound sorrow. A great and good man is 
gone. He was beloved by all who knew him. By all odds he has 
been the greatest educational figure in the state for years and 
has been well-known throughout the United States as institute 
instructor, lecturer, and author. Among school men in Kentucky 
he was in a class by himself. 

He was a clean man, a gentleman, and his was a royal heart. 
But he was supreme as a teacher, and hundreds of men and 
women throughout the breadth and length of the Commonwealth 
have journeyed to Lexington and Richmond, merely to sit at his 
feet to drink in words of wisdom. Many a home in his native 
state mourns tonight because the beloved teacher and helpful 
friend is no more. He was my friend, and I weep with the wife 
and children and countless friends who loved him. The death of 
Dr. Roark is a great misfortune to the schools; we could ill have 
spared his inspiration, his counsel, his indomitable courage, and 
his clear vision. 

Mr. Sharon, Mr. Grinstead, Miss Cassidy, Mr. L. N. Taylor, 
and Mr. Johnson had received degrees from the University of 
Kentucky. Miss Spencer had received her Bachelors and Mas- 
ters degrees from the University of Kansas and her Doctors 
degree from the University of Zurich. Mr. Crawford had been 
educated at Baptist College, Bardstown, Kentucky. Miss Cas- 
sidy had also been educated at Cornell, and apparently had 
taken a Bachelor of Arts degree from that institution, in addi- 
tion to the Bachelor of Science degree taken from the University 
of Kentucky. Mr. N. V. Taylor had received his degree from 
Cornell University. Professor McDougle had been educated at 
the National Normal University and the Southern Normal Uni- 
versity. Both he and Professor Grinstead remained with the 
institution for several years and did much in shaping the des- 
tinies and policies of the institution. Each continued his educa- 
tion and received the Doctor of Philosophy degree. Dr. Mc- 
Dougle was Dean of the school for a number of years. Miss 
Barter received her degree from the University of Illinois. 
Eight members of the first faculty held no degrees. 

E. S. T. C— 7 


Three Decades of Progress 

The Size of the Teaching Staff 
In TABLE 2 are presented data showing the size of the 
teaching staff of the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 1 
from the school year 1906-1907 to the school year 1935-1936.. 
inclusive. The President and the Dean have been considered as 
being a part of the teaching staff. GRAPH 1 presents the same 






























































































































1 Hereafter the institution will be referred to in this chapter as the 
Eastern Kentucky stale Teachers College. In i*s early days the official 
name was The Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. Later, it was the 
Eastern Kentucky stale Teachers College ami Normal School, and still 
later, tin- name first mentioned above. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


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196 Three Decades of Progress 

Academic Training 
TABLE 3 shows that academic training of Eastern teach- 
ers, as expressed in degrees held, from the organization of the 
school to the present time. An examination of the table will 
reveal that there has been a steady improvement in the qualifica- 
tions of teachers, judged by this standard. The number holding 
no degrees, or degrees of lower rank, has tended to decrease, 
while the number holding' degrees, or degrees of higher rank, 
has tended to increase. Another conclusion is warranted. Men 
teachers have, as a rule, tended to be better prepared, if higher 
degrees can be taken as a criterion, than women teachers. This 
tendency is quite perceptible in the early years, but seems to be 
less so in later years. This can be explained, to a degree, per- 
haps, on the ground that most of the training school teachers 
have been women, and, not until recently, has there been any 
great effort to secure teachers with degrees or degrees of higher 
rank in the training school. These tendencies are more readily 
observed by reference to TABLE 4, which gives the training, as 
expressed in terms of percentages. In the early years, a large 
per cent of all teachers held no degree and only a small per cent 
of all teachers held the Masters and Doctors degree. An exami- 
nation of the table will reveal that during the first year of the 
school's existence, 47.3 per cent of all teachers held no degree 
and 31.5 per cent of all teachers held the Bachelors degree, while 
only 15.7 per cent of all teachers held the Masters degree and 5.2 
per cent held the Doctors degree. In sharp contrast with this 
situation, is that for the year 1935-36. In that year only 2.5 per 
cent of all teachers held no degree and only 12.5 per cent held 
the Bachelors degree. More than two-thirds of all teachers, 67.5 
per cent, held the Masters degree and 17.5 per cent held the 
Doctorate. As late as a decade ago, those holding no degrees 
plus those holding only the Bachelors degree constituted more 
than fifty per cent of the entire faculty. In recent years, those 
holding the Masters degree pins those holding the Doctors degree 
have constituted considerable more than fifty per cent of the 
entire faculty. 

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Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Average Years of Academic Training 
As another method of showing the improvement in academic 
training, the average annual academic preparation, above second- 
ary leve 1 , is used. It is to be understood, of course, that it has 
been impossible to get exact and complete information regarding 
training in every case. However, it is likely that the data are 
sufficiently complete and reliable to justify use for this purpose. 
Such training is shown in TABLE 5 and GRAPH II. 


Average Years of Academic Training Above 


Secondary Level 































































































































Three Decades of Progress 

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Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 20] 

Where Faculty Members of Eastern, Past and Present, 
Received Their Degrees 

Bachelors Degrees 

TABLE 6 gives a list of the institutions where Eastern 
faculty members received their Bachelors degrees. It should be 
borne in mind that complete data were not obtainable for this 
table and those which follow. An examination of TABLE 6 
will reveal that three institutions, the University of Kentucky, 
George Peabody College for Teachers, and the Eastern Kentucky 
State Teachers College are the Alma Maters of a large number 
of Eastern faculty members. Six Eastern teachers have received 
Bachelors degrees from Ohio Wesleyan University and four from 
Columbia University. With these exceptions, there seems to be 
no pronounced tendency with respect to institutions where East- 
ern teachers received their Bachelors degrees. 


Number of Staff Members 
of Eastern Receiving 
Institutions Bachelors Degree 

University of Kentucky 43 

Peabody College - 26 

Eastern State Teachers College 10 

Ohio Wesleyan - 6 

Columbia University 4 

University of Illinois 3 

Georgetown College 3 

University of Michigan 3 

Indiana University 3 

National Normal University 3 

Randolph Macon College 2 

Bradley Polytechnical Institute 2 

Ohio Northern 2 

University of Chicago - 2 

Oberlin College - 2 

University of Wisconsin 2 

Cornell University 2 

East Indiana State Normal 1 

University of Nebraska 1 

Southern Normal School 1 

Bethany College 1 

West Virginia University 1 

Baptist College 1 

Kansas State Teachers College 1 

Episcopal Seminary 1 

Duke University 1 

George Washington University 1 

Western State Teachers College 1 

202 Three Decades op Progress 




Number of Staff Members 
of Eastern Receiving 
Institutions Bachelors Degrees 

Wesleyan College - - - 1 

Denison University - 1 

Knox College — -- 1 

Illinois College - - - - 1 

East Texas State Teachers College 1 

Oxford University, England - 1 

Simmons University 1 

Hiram College - - 1 

Tri State College - - 1 

Carleton College - — 1 

State Teachers College, Farmville, Virginia 1 

Pratt Institute - 1 

Highland Park College - 1 

Dartmouth College - - - 1 

Valparaiso, Alabama 1 

Transylvania University - 1 

Franklin College - 1 

Southwestern, Virginia - - -— 1 

University of Louisville - 1 

Northwestern University - 1 

Washington and Lee 1 

Baldwin College - 1 

Jamestown College — 1 

Berea 1 

Hope College - 1 

Vanderbilt University 1 

Battleground Academy 1 

Waynesburg College 1 

Iowa State College 1 

University of Buffalo 1 

Colorado University 1 

University of Kansas 1 

Central University 1 

Cedarville College 1 

James Millikan College 1 

Centre College 1 

Morning Side College 1 

Merry ville College 1 

Union College 1 

Miami University 1 

Olivet College 1 

Masters Degrees 

TABLE 7 shows where staff members of Eastern, past and 

present, received their Masters decrees. As can be seen from 
the table, Columbia University, George Peabody College for 
Teachers, and the University of Kentucky have provided the 
majority of Masters degrees for Eastern faculty members. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 203 


Number Receiving 
Institutions Masters Degrees 

Columbia University - - = 27 

Peabody College 27 

University of Kentucky IS 

University of Illinois 3 

Ohio State - - 3 

University of Wisconsin - 3 

Cornell University 2 

Princeton 2 

University of Michigan 2 

Bethany College 1 

Southern Normal School 1 

Ohio Wesleyan 1 

Kansas State Teachers College 1 

Duke University 1 

Colorado State Teachers College 1 

Oxford University, England 1 

University of Chicago 1 

Northwestern University 1 

National Normal University 1 

Ohio Normal 1 

Doctors of Philosophy Degrees 
TABLE 8 shows where staff members of Eastern, past and 
present, have re. eived their Doctors of Philosophy degrees. 


Number Receiving Doctor 
Institutions of Philosophy Degrees 

Peabody College 6 

University of Illinois 3 

Columbia University 2 

University of Chicago 2 

University of Wisconsin 2 

University of Kentucky 2 

Johns Hopkins 1 

University of Vienna 1 

Cornell University 1 

Clark University 1 

Duke University 1 

University of Zurich 1 

University of Bonn 1 

Special Degrees 
TABLE 9 shows where teachers of Eastern, past and 
present, have received special degrees. The Bowling Green Bus- 
iness University leads with five special degrees, and is followed 

204 Three Decades of Progress 

by the University of Kentucky, from which institution three 
Eastern faculty members have received special degrees. With 
these exceptions, there seems to be no pronounced tendency 
with respect to institutions where Eastern teachers have received 
special degrees. 


Number Receiving 
Instructions Special Degrees 

Bowling Green Business University -. , 5 

University of Kentucky - , o 

Columbia University 2 

Valparaiso University 2 

University of Michigan 2 

Ohio Northern 2 

Northwestern University 2 

Oberlin 2 

University of Louisville 1 

Georgetown College 1 

Taylor University 1 

Central University 1 

Berea 1 

Ohio Normal 1 

Vanderbilt 1 

University of Geneva 1 

Emory University 1 

Hope College 1 

Boston University 1 

National Normal 1 

Cedarville College 1 

Peabocly College 1 

University of Minnesota 1 

Where Present Faculty Members of Eastern Received 


Bachelors Degrees 
TABLE 10 shows where present faculty members of Eastern 
have received Bachelors degrees. From this table it can be seen 
that the University of Kentucky. George Peabody College for 
Teachers, and the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College are 
the Alma Maters of a majority of the present teaching staff at 
Eastern. Twenty, who now teach at Eastern, have received 
their Bachelors degrees from the University of Kentucky, fifteen, 
from Peabody, and nine, from Eastern. Three graduates from 
Ohio Weslcyjin University are members of the teaching staff at 
Eastern, and two, each, from Bradley Polytechnic [nstitute and 
Columbia University. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 205 

table 10. where present staff members of eastern 
have received bachelors degrees 

Number Receiving 
Institutions Bachelors Degrees 

University of Kentucky - 20 

George Peabody College for Teachers 15 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 9 

Ohio Wesleyan University 3 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute 2 

Columbia University 2 

East Texas State Teachers College 1 

Southwestern University 1 

State Teachers College, Farmville, Virginia 1 

Marietta College 1 

National Normal University 1 

Eastern Indiana State Normal School 1 

University of Nebraska 1 

Illinois College - 1 

University of Indiana 1 

Oberlin College - 1 

Jamestown College 1 

Waynesburg College 1 

University of Buffalo 1 

University of Michigan 1 

Colorado University 1 

Ohio Northern University 1 

Morningside College 1 

Maryville College - 1 

Duke University 1 

George Washington University - 1 

Western Kentucky State Teachers College 1 

Denison University 1 

Knox College 1 

Oxford University, England 1 

Simmons University 1 

Tri State College 1 

Hiram College 1 

Blasters Degrees 

TABLE 11 shows where present staff members received their 
Masters degrees. It can be seen from the table that three 
schools, George Peabody College for Teachers, Colnmbia Uni- 
versity and the University of Kentucky have furnished the 
majority of Masters degrees received by Eastern faculty 



Number Receiving 
Institutions Masters Degrees 

George Peabody College for Teachers 21 

Columbia University 19 

206 Three Decades of Progress 

Number Receiving 
Institutions Bachelors Degrees 

University of Kentucky 12 

Ohio State University 3 

University of Michigan 2 

Colorado State Teachers College 1 

Cornell University 1 

Kansas State Teachers College 1 

University of Wisconsin 1 

Duke University 1 

University of Illinois 1 

Oxford University (England) 1 

University of Chicago 1 

Ohio Northern University 1 

Doctors of Philosophy Degrees 
TABLE 12 shows where present staff members received their 
Ph. I), degrees. George Peabody College leads the list, six of 
those who hold the doctorate having taken their degrees there. 
The University of Illinois and the University of Kentucky have 
each furnished two Ph. D. graduates of Eastern's faculty. 


Number Receiving Doctor 
Institutions of Philosophy Degrees 

George Peabody College for Teachers 6 

University of Illinois 2 

University of Kentucky 2 

Columbia University 1 

University of Chicago 1 

Duke University 1 

University of Vienna (Austria) 1 

Diplomas from State Teachers Colleges 
TABLE 13 shows where present teachers at Eastern have 
received diplomas from state teachers colleges. Two institutions, 
the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College and the Western 
Kentucky State Teachers College, have given diplomas to more 
than one-half of all Eastern faculty members receiving such 


Number Receiving 
Institutions Diplomas 

Eastern Kentucky State Normal School 6 

Western Kentucky State Normal School 5 

Nebraska State Normal School 1 

Louisiana State Normal College 1 

Oskosh State Teachers College 1 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 207 




Number Receiving 
Institutions Diplomas 

Middle Tennessee State Normal School 1 

Ohio State Teachers College 1 

La Crossee Teachers College 1 

Mississippi State Normal School 1 

Indiana State Teachers College 1 

Virginia State Normal School 1 

Special Degrees 

TABLE 14 shows the institutions where Eastern teachers 
have received special degrees. 


Number Who Have Received 
Institutions Special Degrees 

Bowling Green Business University 3 

Columbia University 2 

Ohio Northern University 2 

University of Michigan 2 

Oberlin College 2 

Northwestern University 1 

College of Business Administration (Boston University).... 1 

Emory University 1 

George Peabody College for Teachers 1 

University of Kentucky 1 

University of Louisville 1 

Taylor University 1 

Valparaiso University 1 

Vanderbilt University 1 

The Length of Service op Former Members 

TABLE 15 shows the number of staff members terminating 
service during each year and the average length of service those 
retiring have given to the institution, from 1908 to 1935. The 
word "terminating" is here given a broad meaning. It refers 
to the separation of a staff member from the institution for any 
reason whatever. Perhaps the only conclusions which can be 
drawn from this table are (1) that in recent years the annual 
turnover has tended to become smaller and (2) those retiring 
in recent years have, on the average, been with the institution 
for longer periods of time. 


Three Decades of Progress 


School Year 
Ending in 

Number Terminating 

Service with Institution 

During Year 

Average Length of Service 
Those Retiring Have 
Given to the Insti- 






















































































Present Faculty 
TABLE 16 gives the names of the present faculty members 
of the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College, the date when 
each was employed, and the length of time each will have been 
at Eastern at the end of the school year 1935-36. 

TABLE 17 gives a distribution of the years of service of the 
present members of the teaching staff of the Eastern Kentucky 
State Teachers College. No conclusions are drawn from these 
two tables. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



Name of Staff Member 

Date When Staff 

Member Was First 


Length of Time 

Member Will Have 

Been at Eastern 

Donovan, H. L.* 



Adams, Kernev M. 

Adams, Mary L 


Alvis, Annie 


Barnhill, Mrs. M. E 

Bennett, Isabel t 


Bryant, G. 


Buchanan, Pearl L 

Burns, Virgil 


Burrier, Mary King .... 
Caldwell, C. E 



Campbell, Jane 


Carpenter, Katie 

Carter, Ashby B 


Case, Mrs. Emma Y 

Clark, Roy B 


Coates, J. Dorland 

Cox, Meredith J 


Cuff, Noel B 


Deniston, N. G 


Derrick, Lucille 


Dix, Ruth 


Dorris, J. T 


Edwards, R. A 


Engle, F. A 

sy 2 

Farris, J. D 


Ferrell, D. T 


Flovd, Mary 


Ford, Edith G 


Fowler, Allie 

4y 2 


Gibson, Maude 

Gill, Anna D 


Grise, P. M. 


Gumbert, G. M 


Hansen, May C 

Hanson, Eliza M 

Hembree, George N 

Herndon, Thomas C 

Hood, Gertrude N. 

Hounchell, Saul 

Hughes, Charles T. 
Hughes, Eliza J 







Hummell, Armin D. 

Jones, W T . C 

Keene, W. L 



Three Decades of Progress 


Name of Staff Member 

Date When Staff 

Member Was First 


Length of Time 

Member Will Have 

Been at Eastern 

Keith, C. A 




Kennamer, L. G — 


Kohl, Lilly E 


Krick, Harriette V. 
Lee, Cora 


Lingenfelser, Margaret 
Lutes, Mrs. Helen Hull 
McDonough, Thomas E. 

Mary Frances 



Mason Frances 


Mattox, M. E 


Mebane, Eleanor 


Moore, W. J - 


Murback, Mrs. Janet .... 

Murphy, Mary C 

O'Donnell, W. F 


Park Smith 


Pugh, Ellen 


Rankin Rome 


Richards, R. R 


Rumbold D. W 


Rush, Ruby 


Samuels, Tom C 


Schnieb, Anna A 

Smith G. D. 



Stone, Thomas 


Story, Virginia F 

Telford, Brown E. 
Tyng, Mrs. Julian 


Van Peursem, James E. 
'Walker, Samuel 


Whitehead, Mrs. Guy.... 

Williams, Anna C 

Wilson, Elizabeth 

Wingo, Germania 


iy 2 



* During the school years li>21-2.'!, lie was Dean of the institution. 
t Was not at Eastern 1927-29. 
% Was not at Eastern 1923-27. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 



Years of Service at Eastern 




Number of Staff Members 














By Maude Gibson 

The Writer of the following notes has known, personally and 
very pleasantly, the following members of the faculty of the old 
regime. All of them were men and women of noble aspirations, 
who worked zealously for the betterment of all classes of people 
through popular education. "Well did they lay the foundations 
for the great educational program of today. As the present 
faculty build for tomorrow, so they, with very meager .support, 
blazed the trail for this great center of learning, the Eastern 
Kentucky State Teachers College. 

Dr. Virginia Spencer 

Eastern's first dean of women was Dr. Virginia Spencer. 
Before coming to Richmond she had graduated from Kansas 
State University at Lawrence, and later had traveled and studied 
abroad. Her Doctors degree was received from Zurich, Switzer- 
land. While doing work at Clark University, she met Dr. 
Roark, and later became a member of his faculty. 

Dr. Spencer was a fine German scholar, and the students 
of the Normal School had the benefit of her instruction in word- 
method German classes. She also organized the ladies of the 
town into a German club, which is yet pleasantly remembered 
Every summer she conducted a camp for young ladies some- 
where on the Massachusetts coast, and Richmond mothers soon 
appreciated the great opportunity for cultural growth for their 
daughters, under the guidance of this very charming woman. 

Miss Margaret T. Lynch 

Among prominent women in the Catholic world of today, is 
Miss Margaret T. Lynch, who is noAV secretary of Women's Work 
in the Catholic Church of America. Besides this she is a lawyer 
of recognized ability in New York City. 

In 1908 Miss Lynch assumed the position of critic teacher in 

214 Three Decades of Progress 

the Model Training School, where she taught two years. She 
and the late Miss Mary Sullivan became warm friends during 
her stay in Richmond. This friendship continued throughout 
the years until the recent death of the latter. 

Dean Mary Roark 
Once having known her, one can never forget the queenly 
dignity of the wife of Eastern's first president, who filled the 
office of dean of women for seven years after the death of Dr. 
Roark. The swirling mass of gray-white puffs and ringlets, 
piled a-top her shapely head after the style of a quarter of a 
century ago, the silver and purple of her gowns, her smiles, her 
clever manipulation of Sullivan Hall folk, and her Browning 
Club, all stand out in retrospect. Mrs. Roark had a keen mind, 
and her diplomacy has never been surpassed in campus circles. 
She w r as a Presbyterian of the old school and a devotee of ethical 
culture. In her zeal for the good, the pure, and the true, she 
did not hesitate in her beautiful prayers in chapel to invoke 
Divine aid in getting her fellow faculty members to recognize 
the higher planes of human conduct and to walk therein. Fre- 
quently in the summer evenings one would see Dean Roark 
starting forth in her low-swung buggy, behind her pet horse, 
which was of feather-bed proportions, for an airing among the 
byways around Richmond. She was always accompanied by 
some member of her Browning Club, that the}" might "Enjoy 
the Fruits of Solitude" together. 

Miss Lelia Patridge 

' ' Good morning, Miss Patridge ! ' ' and the class bowed 

"Good morning', young ladies and gentlemen,'' and Miss 
Patridge 's recitation was ready to begin. After the salutation, 
all backs were straightened, all feet uncrossed and placed firmly 
on the floor. And woe unto the forgetful and negligent in this 

Miss Lelia Patridge was the author of Qitiiiaj Methods, and 
publisher of Talks on Teaching by Colonel Francis Parker, lec- 
turer and dramatic interpreter of wide reputation in the eastern 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 215 

She was a member of the first class to graduate from the first 
school opened for special training of teachers in the United 
States, which was Framingham State Normal, Lexington, Mas- 
sachusetts. Following graduation she took post graduate courses 
in the University of Chicago, Clark University, Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts, and Philadelphia Kindergarten school. She special- 
ized in psychology and was a follower of William James, with 
whom she studied at one time. Miss Patridge believed in the 
occult; she dreamed her dreams and saw her visions. Her psy- 
chic power to put facts actually into a student's head, as if the 
tousled top were opened up and great truths laid gently on the 
throbbing brain, was a little bit hard to grasp. But thirty years 
ago psychology was different. Behind a large, spasmodically 
fluttering fan, which was ostensibly for the protection of her eyes 
from the glare of Sullivan Hall lights, this very cultured, elderly 
woman softly slumbered while the Browning Club labored under 
the guidance of Dean Roark, with the subtle meanings of Brown- 
ingesque sentence structure. 

"Into the eve and the blue far above us, — so blue and so 

Madame Helena Piotrowska 

Banished from her native Poland because of her political 
activities, Madame Piotrowska sought refuge in America. In 
1910 she came to Eastern, where she was given the position of 
head of the Modern Language Department. 

Intelligent, witty, of wide and varied experiences, she was 
a lady of most colorful personality. It was a great pleasure to 
know her as long as she was not striving with national and inter- 
national perplexities. Plots and counter-plots ; journeys to Buf- 
falo, New York, and other centers, where Polish patriots might 
bo found, and letters in code to be deciphered, made those who 
were closely associated with her feel as if a revolution was just 
around the corner. 

Like most foreign agitators, Madame Piotrowska spoke many 
languages fluently, but her attempt at English idioms kept the 
student body amused. For example, when she said to her class 
with a profound sigh "I have worked so hard, I am as tired as 
kinbee" or "Oh, I see Mistair Johnson chasing a geese out on the 
campus," her hearers were certain to smile. 

216 Three Decades of Progress 

Her greatest pleasure, by way of exercise and change, was 
to take long trips over mountain trails on her bay horse. "When 
she had mounted, the rather small animal was covered from ears 
to tail by her voluminous upper and nether Polish garments. 
But that was Polish chic, and the horse did not care. This 
patriotic lady was intensely interested in moonlight schools, and 
Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart came frequently to confer with her 
because of her energy and convincing eloquence in speech mak- 
ing. A whirlwind campaign was waged in Madison County, 
and night schools were opened even in Richmond, under her 

When Poland became involved in the World War, Madame 
Piotrowska immediately left America, in company with ignace 
Paderewski, the great pianist, and his wife, to fight for the 
liberty of her homeland. Her death later was caused by priva- 
tion and over-work. 

She was a Polish patriot and a scholar. 

Dr. E. C. McDougle 

Dr. E. C. McDougle, the first Dean of Eastern Kentucky 
State Normal School, was a powerful force as an organizer and 
a classroom instructor. Specialization was unknown in those 
early days; therefore, a good teacher could take the leadership 
in any department, from the presidency to the janitor's place. 

Mathematics, psychology, history, and English were taught 
with equal energy and enthusiasm by this man who was pro- 
claimed to be the ablest of his peers. One outstanding charac- 
teristic of Dr. McDougle 's Avas that he never forgot the name 
of persons whom he had taught. This fact endeared him to all 
the students of yesteryear. 

"0! come, come, come, to the church in the wild wood," 
boomed down over the maple trees, across the campus and out 
into endless space, when his big bass voice sang it in chapel— 
a voice which always seemed to be calling to the unheeding who 
might be going to school instead of going astray, the voice of 
a man who used concise English and who in a few sentences 
could say many, many interesting things, that was Dr. B. C. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 217 

President John Grant Crabbe 

"Now, young ladies and gentlemen, this sort of conduct 
is not pretty, it is not becoming', and if you persist in so doing, 
you can 't play in my back yard any more. ' ' 

The meticulously groomed Dr. J. G. Crabbe has taken the 
stage ; and who can describe his flashing personality, his vitality 
which never seemed to lag for a moment? His enthusiasm was 
infectious. There was always a play being staged. The work 
in both Normal and Model training school during his regime 
was characterized by pageants. 

May Day, with all its attendent processions, flower girls, 
May-poles, plays and dances, was the bete noire of the faculty, 
and the delight of all Richmond and Madison County at the 
same time. Another magnificent pageant commemorating the 
signing of the Declaration of Independence was staged upon the 
campus. The costumes for the actors were brought from Phila- 
delphia. The splendor of the black velvet coats, red satin 
breeches, gold knee buckles and lace ruffles was most dazzling. 
The fluttering pre-Revolutionarv ladies and gentlemen were pho- 
tographed for a moving picture which was shown at the Rich- 
mond opera house to the great happiness of the school. 

Dr. Crabbe was an organizer. Nothing pleased him more 
than a vacation jaunt of his own planning, on which he would 
be accompanied by twenty or twenty-five ladies of his faculty. 
One to San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego, California, 
was exceptionally delightful and worth while ; but there were 
endless shorter excursions which were a great pleasure to the 

He helped the farmers organize, and they held institutes in 
tents at Newby, White Hall, Kingston, and other neighboring 
towns. Members of the faculty stayed at night in the tents and 
discussed farm problems with the country folk. 

His faculty meetings prostrated his fellow workers, because 
he insisted upon the thorough study of Thorndyke's Methods 
of Teaching and Monroe's History of Education. Papers had 
to he written and read ; there were discussions, and even grades 
for the best efforts were handed out, all of which caused any- 
thing but angelic feelings and comments becoming pedagogues. 

218 Three Decades of Progress 

"Now ladies and gentlemen you are dismissed; always turn 
to the right, and keep off the grass, and goodbye." 

Professor G. D. Smith 

Twenty-five years ago Professor Smith's classroom was the 
Mecca for all worn-out teachers who came to school for physical 
as well as intellectual repairs. His numerous social events fur- 
nished much extra-curricular activity for the entire school. He 
was for many years the -sponsor of the Y. M. C. A. He con- 
ducted a literary society, he took sight-seeing parties to all his- 
toric spots in this section of the State, and he gave two or three 
social affairs each term in his own home for his students. His 
field trips were interesting to see, as Professor Smith, with fifty 
or more people of all sizes and shapes, headed for East Pinnacle, 
Boonesborough, or Berea, the fat, elderly ladies and gentlemen 
barely keeping within hailing distance of their very tall, more- 
or-less angular, energetic leader. 

For those who were the victims of nostaglia, there was 
always a taffy pulling in the offing down in Professor Smith's 
department. As one bright youth remarked, "I have pulled 
enough taffy to encircle the globe twice, since I have been in 
Bug Smith's department." 

The friendliness of Eastern is not a myth. It started in 
those days when Richmond was a very small town. There were 
no movies, but few entertainments at the old opera house, few 
automobiles, and no way to jaunt about the county except on 
horse-back. All student entertainments had to be furnished 
upon the campus, under the direction of a faculty member. 

Professor Smith worked day and night in his efforts to build 
up a large student body, and hosts of former Easternites will 
hold him in happy remembrance as the years go by. 

Professor and Mrs. J. G. Koch 

There was a charming romance in faculty circles in those 
early days, when the foundations of Eastern were being laid. 

Miss Marianna Deverel, of Irish birth, who had received her 
training a1 Oshkosh State Normal School, Wisconsin, was now 
the critic teacher of the first and second grades in the Model 
School. She married Professor John G. Koch, the music teacher, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 219 

who was a graduate of the College of Music in Cincinnati. The 
wedding was beautiful and everybody approved heartily be- 
cause both, the contracting parties were popular and much loved. 
The students, however, staged a charivari which was something 
of a sensation. No dish pan, cooking pot, wash boiler, or old tin 
can was too lowly to be used in the melee. The noise and din 
of rejoicing was carried far across the country to Clay's Ferry, 
Newby, and Kingston. 

At a given signal, the entire student body filed down Second 
Street and up Summit Avenue to the hill top. Every man was 
in his place, and with the combined serenaders and onlookers 
there were about five hundred present. The frightened bride 
and groom took refuge in the tallest house on the Summit, on 
the topmost floor, in the farthest corner, while youthful enthusi- 
asm surged and swirled in great glee below. 

The noise finally broke upon the ears of Dr. Crabbe, who 
came like a whirlwind in his wrath, and put the army to flight, 
after declaring that "Never in the history of the school, should 
such a disgraceful thing happen again." But later in the eve- 
ning the boys and girls got cake and cider. 

Professor J. R. Johnson 

The department of mathematics was headed by Professor 
J. R. Johnson, a graduate of Kentucky State University, when 
the personnel of Eastern's first faculty was completed. Beside 
his teaching, he was the school surveyor of roads, land, etc. 
Also, he managed Memorial Hall affairs, where, as dean of men. 
he looked after the temporal comforts of the youth. 

The hospitality of Professor and Mrs. Johnson was so boun- 
tiful and so gracious that no truthful chronicler can fail to 
make note of their contribution to the welfare and happiness 
of their associates. 

Mrs. Johnson, who was also a teacher in the department of 
music and a leader in musical affairs in Richmond as well, did 
much by way of bringing town and gown together through vari- 
ous concerts and social functions. 

Feminine pulchritude and masculine strength in those 
vague regions up the Big Sandy River, which were the stamping 
ground of his youth, were subjects upon which Professor John- 

220 Three Decades of Progress 

son liked to converse in his reminiscent moods. In other words, 
he was ever the loyal friend of the mountain people, and they 
knew it. What he said was law and gospel to the boys and girls 
who hailed from the Kentucky highlands. 

Professor I. H. Booth 

"Let me live in a house by the side of the road and be a 
friend to man. ' ' 

The man who wanted, above all else, to be a friend to the 
other fellow, was Professor I. H. Booth., who was one of the first 
graduates to go forth from the halls of Eastern Normal School. 
Later he returned as teacher of arithmetic and penmanship. In 
his life Mr. Booth had the fulfillment of his wish. Because of 
his innate friendliness, he was a valuable field agent among the 
mountain people. He visited the sick among the students and 
rounded up the well ones and sent them off to Sunday School — 
preferably the Methodist, but any denomination was encour- 
aged. He wrote letters home to the fathers and mothers for 
worried, homesick students, and, on the other hand, saw that 
the timid mountaineer parents were properly cared for when 
they came to visit their children. 

In these days of consolidated schools, good high schools, 
good roads and automobiles, young people think and act 
more maturely. The need of so much personal attention has 
passed forever, for which there is reason to be thankful. In the 
early times, however, there was a real need for just the work 
Professor Booth did so quietly, so quietly that few people knew 
about it, and he never asked for any remuneration whatsoever 
for his extra activities. 

Mrs. Pattie Miller Hume 

The first Domestic Science teacher (it is now Home Eco- 
nomics) was not very tall, though she stood up straight on her 
high-heeled shoes, before a class of both men and women, and 
gave her instructions. 

Away back there, strong men and mighty ones, went through 
the drill of washing dishes, hanging out tea towels, and all the 
other chores which a good housewife is supposed to turn off with 
great dexterity. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 221 

Right here, let it be affirmed, the teacher of whom this is 
written was, and is yet, a delicatessen artist. In plain English 
she could cook food which was fit to serve any king — even 
Edward VIII. 

This lady, Mrs. Hume, was the official decorator, as well as 
the domestic science teacher. She, with her committee, made 
literally miles of festoons of roses, wisteria, vines, leaves and 
other decorative pieces to be used in the lovely pageants, which 
were staged in Dr. Crabbe's administration. Her canopies, 
booths, chariots, banqueting tables, all put out under the trees 
on the campus, were the town talk from one June until the fol- 
lowing month of roses. 

Mrs. Hume yet resides in Richmond, where she has the dis- 
tinction of being the only lady faculty member emeritus. She 
is frequently seen at chapel, and she also attends all formal 
social functions. Though she has stopped teaching, Mrs. Hume 
is very busy with her work in the society of Colonial Dames and 
many other social and patriotic activities. 

President T. J. Coates 
Thomas Jackson Coates was president of Eastern from 1916 
to his death on March 17, 1928. On July 29, 1928, a memorial 
program was held in honor of President Coates. On that occa- 
sion Professor R. A. Edwards, of the Training School, paid a 
beautiful tribute to Eastern's deceased president, With Mr. 
Edward's permission a part of his paper is given here: 

Twelve years ago he came to the presidency of this institu- 
tion. At that time the school was small, but his vision was large. 
Apparently in the prime of life, he was optimistic and alert, 
cheerful and full of courage, farsighted and tactful. His hand 
was steady, his step was quick, his eye was clear, his cheek was 
ruddy, and his hair was black as a raven's wing. A little time, 
much toil, and what a change! 

That which was his has been reincarnated in the institution 
he loved, and more — whatever one's theory may be concerning 
life hereafter or the transmigration of the soul, this much we 
know to be true: That every life in proportion to its influence 
makes some contribution to the lives of those about him. One's 
associates, one's colleagues in a common endeavor, and especially 
the pupils who sit before a teacher in school, become a part of 
that individual, assimilating and modifying mental factors that 
play a part in building more complex attitudes and ideals, those 
intangible concomitants which are passed on from generation to 
generation, and which with man's accumulation of learning form 
pur social heritage, 

222 Three Decades of Progress 

When a life such as this one we eulogize today has been 
filled with good works for his fellow man, then the extent of 
its contribution to the social heritage is immeasurable, and the 
limit of time it will carry on into the future is endless. Truly 
a great life is immortal in more ways than one. 

Always he put the school before self. A compliment to the 
school thrilled him with joy; a criticism cut him to the quick. 
Nor did he consider himself the school. His heart was bound up 
in the student body, the faculty, those with whom he worked 
and for whom he worked. Their achievements were his glory, 
but their failures he excused without censure, and he strengthened 
them with the hand of a father. 

That teacher who showed signs of weakness and who needed 
support was the one he complimented most graciously. When he 
discovered that an instructor was in any degree unpopular with 
the student body, he made it a point to praise that instructor 
to the students in highest terms. Many burdens, not rightfully 
his, did he bear upon his own shoulders. No teaching staff ever 
received more sympathetic support. No school executive was 
ever more loyal to his faculty. 

It may be said that one mark of an educated man is that 
he reserves final decision on a proposition until all available in- 
formation concerning the subject has been reviewed. This was 
characteristic of President Coates. He could make a decision 
quickly, but he always had an open mind, and his opinions were 
subject to change when sufficient evidence warranted it. Using 
a quaint aphorism, he would often say, 'Let all the evidence be 
fotched in.' It may be seen how this characteristic in an execu- 
tive who was called upon each day for many decisions and opin- 
ions might inspire confidence in his colleagues. Always there 
was assurance that right would prevail. When all facts were 
marshaled before the President, his action was based upon the 
weight of evidence, and was not determined by any preconceived 
notion or mental set. 

He has been known to say that when his feeling dictated 
one course, and reason pointed out another, he always tried to 
submerge his feeling and to follow reason. 

Another quality worthy of mention at this time is toler- 
ance, which is not a characteristic of the average person. Thai 
individual who does not steel himself against new ideas and new 
truths, who recognizes in the researches of higher education a 
contribution to civilization, and who at the same time is tolerant 
and patient with the weaknesses of man and the prejudices of 
the indoctrinated masses, is either a much enlightened man, or 
a very good Christian, or both. 

It may be said to the credit of this school as a real college, 
that considerable academic freedom has been enjoyed by the 
teaching staff. No member has been cast out or burned at the 
stake for exercising freedom of thought or freedom of speech ; and 
no instructor, to my knowledge, has infringed upon this liberty 
beyond the bounds of prudence and good authority. 

Only one precaution was emphasized by the President: that 
nothing should be "said or done that might stir up criticism and 
injure the institution. He had a liberal mind, but was always 
tactful and careful. One guiding principle of his conduct was 
that one should never argue with a friend. Always he strove to 
protect the name of the school, and to keep it respected by the 
people it served and whose instrument it is. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 223 

Another trait which was outstanding in his make-up, and 
which inspired many of his faculty to supreme effort, was that 
of incessant work, consecration to the task before him, and con- 
stant application to the many and varied problems of administra- 
tion. In this respect he set an example for everybody on the 
campus. He was an indefatigable worker. Each day of his life 
was the same, and there was no end to the day. Often he con- 
tinued his labors far into the night, and while his disciples slept, 
he toiled on. Rest and recreation were practically unknown to 
him. He did not know how to play. Such intense application to 
labor was no doubt responsible for much of his success in life. 
It is reflected in the thoroughness of the tasks he performed. But 
also it may be said that his own life was shortened thereby. He 
burned the candle at both ends — rapidly and suddenly it burned 
out. During the last year or two of his life it was evident that 
the flame was flickering. He was not entirely the same that he 
had been. His wonderful store of native vitality, strong as the 
rock-ribbed hills that gave him birth, supported his master in- 
tellect for three score years and more, but finally it was ex- 
hausted. He had given his life to the school and for the school. 

Shortly after President ('nates' death Professor W. L. 
Keene, of the English Department, composed a beautiful poem, 
"White Silence", in honor of Eastern's beloved president.* 
With Mr. Keene 's permission this poem is included in this 


The night he died white silence shrouded deep 

The little world he loved. The campus ground 
Lay dim with brooding trees, close guarded round 

With somber shadowed buildings still as sleep. 
Snowflakes falling soft as whispered breath 

Enfolded all the earth. No other sound 
Disturbed the quietness. In grief profound 

His little world its vigil kept with death. 

Alone with death — and memories of how 

He walked these silent ways late hours of night, 

One arm behind his back, the restless care 
Of endless toil a fever on his brow: 

Heroic, tragic, lonely in the light. 

The pale cold moonlight on his silver hair. 

Roscoe Gilmore Stott 

Just another humorist, lecturer, writer, and songster from 
Indiana is what he might be called. Indiana is noted for pro- 
ducing interesting people who do many interesting things, 
and Mr. Stott was not the least of these. During his stay 

* Considerable snow had fallen only a short time before President 
Coates passed away in the Pattie A. Clay Infirmary. His death was on 
Saint Patrick's Day, 1928, which was his birthday. 

224 Three Decades of Progress 

on the campus he kept the place in a gale of laughter. His fund 
of humor never seemed to be exhausted. Like the widows meal 
barrel, it was ever replenished by unseen hands. He is yet on 
the lecture platform and upon his very rare visits to Richmond, 
the school takes a holiday, while the old timers shake hands and 
swap yarns with a valued friend. 

R. A. Foster 

Dr. Foster belongs to the land of make-believe — the land 
of poetry, art and music, and beautiful dreams. He is now 
teaching at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, but everyone knows 
there is a lovely poem in the offing while he labors in the interest 
of education. While at Eastern, his classroom was the charmed 
spot for all the young people who had ambitions in a literary 
way. Here, surrounded by his students, the children of his 
brain were presented in a manner which impressed themselves 
as some great sermon affects the mind. He had a way of 
appealing to all sorts and types of people — no matter what their 
interest might be. Athletes, pre-medical students, all of them, 
came away from his classes feeling, somehow, as if they had 
heard something of real value while there. It was a real loss 
to Eastern and the State as well, when Dr. Foster decided to 
cast his lot with the Buckeyes. 

Dr. Wren Jones G-rinstead 
During the early days of Eastern, Dr. Wren Jones Grin- 
stead was an outstanding personage on the campus. Both Dr. 
and Mrs. Grinstead were people of charming manners and much 
physical beauty, and naturally they were social leaders among 
the faculty folk. Perhaps a few years in Australia, immediately 
following graduation from Transylvania University, added to 
the cosmopolitan air which seemed to surround these young 
people. Be that as it may, when they left Richmond to take 
np their residence in Philadelphia, where Dr. Grinstead became 
a member of the education staff in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Eastern suffered a great loss. There was a sense of lone- 
someness among their friends. Eastern does not forget the in- 
teresting events which the students in the Latin classes staged 
in the chapel, under the direction of Dr. Grinstead, nor shall 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 225 

his kindly, genial attitude toward his fellow workers ever be 
forgotten. In retrospect, one might say that Dr. Grinstead was 
in his happiest moments when engaged in a friendly battle of 
words over some weighty matter like class absences or methods 
of grading while in faculty meetings. Elegant diction and deli- 
cate shades of meaning in English sentences abounded, even 
floated in the air when these verbal contests waged about the 
ears of the less eloquent ladies who were trying to sleep off their 

Mrs. Mary B. Deane 

In all parts of the United States, wherever her former 
students abide, Mrs. Mary B. Deane is fondly remembered. For 
many years she was a member of the science facility at Eastern, 
where physical geography was her special department. She had 
traveled widely throughout North America in the interest of her 
work, and her collection of unusual and valuable material was 
a delight to her students as well as a great asset to the institu- 

Aside from her teaching, Mrs. Deane was interested in 
forensies and stage craft. Many a student of yesterday was 
proud to march under the banner of the Carpediem literary 
society, which produced speakers and actors of pronounced 
ability. This lady had lived through the War between the 
States, which she did not forget, She ever held aloft her ban- 
ners in memory of her suffering people. She was a fine, proud, 
Southern woman, who was always ready to stage a good fight in 
defense of her religious or political convictions. 

As she grew in years, Mrs. Dean's greatest desire was to die 
while at her work on the campus which had been her home so 
long. This wish was granted her one morning when, with a 
smile and a wave of her hand, she left her classroom for a breath 
of air. In a few moments someone told her students that their 
good friend had passed out into that boundless eternity from 
which no one ever returns. 

At the eventide of a glorious spring day, when the air was 
redolent with the breath of flowers and shrubs, Mrs. Dean crossed 
the threshold of Bnrnam Hall. Overhead a tiny thread of 
silver moon and the evening star trembled in the purple after- 

E. S. T. c— 8 

226 Three Decades of Progress 

glow of the setting sun. A soft wind was whispering among the 
maples, and far down on the campus could be heard the last call 
of the robins and blue birds as they settled down to rest. Al- 
together it was a fitting farewell to this wonderful woman, whose 
devotion to the Old South, the beautiful, tragic Old South of 
those other days, never faltered nor failed. 

By Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 
In the spring' of 1907, less than a year after its formal open- 
ing, the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School awarded its 
first certificates to the five students who had completed the pre- 
scribed work at the new institution. By the end of the next 
year, 1908, the graduating class counted a one hundred per 
cent gain, and ten certificates were awarded. It was in the 
following year, 1909, that 

the first commencement exercises of the Normal were held in 
the Chapel Hall oh the evening of July 13. The room was well 
decorated for the occasion and a large crowd was present. 

The students of the graduating class and the members of 
the Faculty assembled in one of the classrooms and at eight 
o'clock marched into the chapel to the beautiful strains of music 

The faculty took seats on cue side of the platform and the 
Class on the other side . . . 

And it was the eleven students of this class who extended 

to the class of next year the hearty wishes of a good cheer for 
hard work and tough examinations, and bequeaths to them the 
privilege of attending an annual banquet and the satisfaction of 
receiving a "sheep-skin" on the night of the Commencement. 1 

These felicitations and privileges were passed on in 1910 
by 50 graduates, in 1911 by 26, in 1912 by 22, in 191-3 by 50, in 
1914 by 59, in 1915 by 34, in 1916 by 59, and in 1917 by 79. In 
1918, due to the call to service in the World War, the number 
of graduates dropped to 32 and in 1919 to 18. By 1920, the in- 
crease began again and in that year 32 were given certificates; 
in 1921, 35; in 1922, 53; in 1923, 78; and in 1924, 127. 

The following year, 1925, Eastern proudly conferred her 
first degrees upon thirteen applicants. This year marked the 
smallest degree class in the history of the institution. By June 
of the following year, 1926, twenty-seven, over twice the number 
of the previous year, were ready to receive degrees. In 1M27, 23 
degrees were conferred; in 1928, 35; in 1929, 63; in 1930, 55; in 

1 Student, Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, Richmond, Kentucky, 
Vol. 2, No. 11, July, 19 09. 

228 Three Decades of Progress 

1931, 70; in 1932, 106; and in 1933, 118. In 1934, ten years from 
the year that Eastern granted 127 two-year certificates represent- 
ing the highest mark of attainment at that time, she conferred 
125 degrees representing completion of four years of train- 
ing. In 1935, 139 students received degrees. 

In the eighteen commencements preceding the first granting 
of degrees a total of 780 graduates with two years of training 
were sent forth. In the eleven years of granting degrees repre- 
senting fonr years of training, 774 students have been graduated. 
Of course, a number of the two-year graduates have returned 
and completed fonr years of training. Excluding these, the 
total number of individuals still remains well over a thousand. 

Also it is interesting to note how the ratio of men graduates 
to the number of women lias changed. In 1926 the graduating 
class consisted of 41 per cent men and 59 per cent women. 
Even as late as 1931, the number of women was 20 per cent 
higher than that of men. By 1935, however, the men claimed 
49.2 per cent of the class enrollment, and the women 50.7 per 
cent. This year, 1936, ma}' see the number of men even sur- 
passing that of the women. 

Many of these graduates have done graduate work in the 
leading graduate schools of the country, and are now holding 
positions of leadership and responsibility. While the larger 
numbers are found in the school classrooms, many are filling 
superintendents', principals', supervisory, and various adminis- 
trative positions. Not a few have given their talents and 
energies toward helping to bring to others richer and fuller lives 
through other professions than teaching. Eastern is proud of 
her sons and daughters wherever they are, whether they are 
giving to the youth of the land whatever they have to impart of 
cull urc and knowledge, or helping to relieve the physical suffer- 
ing of mankind, or carrying to less fortunate races their own 
ideals of spiritual and cultural standards, or assisting in the 
development of some worthy engineering or mechanical feat. 
1( is not possible in mention here, individually, the many praise- 
worthy and noble achievements, although they deserve all the 
glory and honor that Eastern can bestow. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 229 

The graduates have maintained their own organization 
known as the Alumni Association since it was first initiated by 
the class of 1909. It was 

On July 14th the members of the Class of '09 met at the call 
of Class President Starns in the parlors of Memorial Hall and 
organized the Alumni Association of the Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School. This is the first organization of its kind within 
the Normal School, and the members of the present graduating 
class [Leslie Anderson, S. P. Chandler, H. L. Davis. O. B. Fallis, 
C. H. Gifford, Cam S. Holbrook, J. C. Jones, Elizabeth W. Morgan, 
Ila Pettus, Cathryn V. Scott, D. H. Starns] became its charter 
members. . . 

In the election of officers, D. H. Starns was made President, 
S. B. Chandler, Vice President, and Miss Elizabeth Morgan, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, and the Association started on its forward 
career among the many other similar associations of the country. 

The purpose of this Association is to establish a closer 
and more intimate connection between the graduates of the 
Normal School. 2 

The Association constitution was revised in 1928 and in 1934-35 
by appointed committees, and these revisions were adopted by 
the Association membership. The organization each year elects 
its president, first and second vice presidents, and they in turn 
appoint the secretary-treasurer, who serves without salary, but 
who must lie on the college campus. 

According to the only information available, it seems that 
the alumni banquet held on the campus each spring has been an 
annual affair of commencement week. Previous to 1932 the 
yearly meeting of the Association members has been held in the 
afternoon preceding the banquet. In that year the custom nf 
having the business meeting follow the banquet was inaugurated. 
It is at these meetings that the officers of the organization are 
elected for the ensuing year. It has long been the custom to 
have the banquet program composed largely of alumni speakers. 

Also many Eastern graduates, along with ex-students and 
faculty members, have met each year in some form of social 
gathering at the meeting of the K. E. A. in Louisville. These 
meetings have been formal and informal dinners, recep- 
tions, luncheons, and breakfasts. Regional organizations also 
have served to hold the graduates together in closer personal 
and professional relationships. 

2 Student, Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, Richmond, Kentucky, 
Vol. 2, No. 11, July, 1909. 

230 Three Decades of Progress 

Recently it was found that some classmates had not seen 
each other for twenty-five years. In that space of time many 
tilings can happen. Twenty-five years can alter gay, young, 
visionary graduates into men and women seasoned by ex- 
perience and balanced by judgment. Such the ten gradu- 
ates of the class of 1908 found when they returned from 
various parts of the United States to the campus in 1933 
for their reunion after a quarter century of separation. 
In 1934 the class of 1909 was invited to return as honor guests, 
and five of them found it possible to do so. In 1935. nine mem- 
bers of the class of 1910 met together at Eastern. At the same 
time the degree class of 1925 called its members back for a re- 
union after a decade of absence. These quarter-century and 
decade reunions are now established as a permanent policy of 
the institution. In addition to being honor guests of commence- 
ment week at the College, the alumni have charge of the chapel 
program preceding commencement, when each honor guest ap- 
pears on the program. At least one of the group is also chosen 
to speak at the Alumni banquet on the following evening. 

Several of the other classes from time to time have held their 
own reunions at times and places convenient to them. One class 
has held at least one reunion yearly since graduation. It is 
hoped that these classmates may continue to keep this close con- 
tact with each other. A member of the class of 1913 reports 
that their last reunion was in 1916. How happy Eastern will 
be to welcome them back home and see them all together again 
in 1938! 

It would be exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to meas- 
ure and record what Eastern's graduates have done and are 
doing for their Alma Mater. Among concrete evidences stand 
the brick pillars at the entrances to the buildings on Lancaster 
Avenue, gifts of the classes of 1913, 1914, 1916, l!>23. and 1924. 
Over the library mantels stand the beautiful bronze friezes given 
by the class of 1!)22. In the niches along the stairways of the 
Administration Building stand busts of Henry (lay (a gift 
of the class of 1932), of Lincoln (a gift of the class of 1933), of 
Wilson (a gift of the class of 1934), and of Lindbergh (a gift 
of the class of 1935). The class of 1931 left its contribution to 
the Studenl Loan Fund. The beautiful plaque in the entrance 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 231 

to the Administration Building is a gift of the class of 
1935. Another plaque, a gift of the class of 1922, hangs in the 
library. Two pictures have been reported to be gifts of classes, 
but to date the definite classes making the donations have not 
been ascertained. Inside the Administration Building hangs 
the portrait of the late President Coate.s — a gift of the entire 
Alumni Association. The liberal support of Eastern's graduates 
lias also helped to make possible the new stadium. But far more 
difficult to measure and yet far more valuable has been the 
whole-hearted .support, the constant loyalty and the enthusiastic 
cooperation which they have ever manifested for their Alma 

And now, as Eastern is completing her thirtieth year of 
teacher-training, she is looking forward to graduating the largest 
class in her history. She will soon place her banner at their 
head and lead them in academic procession to their places in the 
front of the auditorium, beautifully decorated in their honor. 
Amid the cheers of over a thousand friends she will confer upon 
them their cherished degrees. Then to the strains of "Alma 
Mater" she will send them forth, and her lamp will continue 
to light the way for them as they take their places among her 
other sons and daughters. 

Appendix F contains the two-year alumni previous to 1925, 
and Appendix G contains a directory of the four-year graduates 
to date. Due to lack of information and present addresses for 
a large number of the two-year graduates, it was found impos- 
sible to give individual and detailed training and experience data 
as are given for the degree graduates. It is hoped, however, 
that such information can be collected and made available in the 
very near future and that a complete and descriptive directory 
of the two-year graduates can be published. 


Three Decades of Progress 


Founder! in Richmond in 1874 by the Kentucky Synod 
of the Southern Presbyterian church. The campus and 
properties of Central University were later transferred 
to the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the establish- 
ment of the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, 
now the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College. 
This building- is now occupied by the Model High School 
of the college. 


By Jonathan T. Dorris 

As was particularly indicated in Chapter II, another higher 
institution of learning-, called Central University, existed in 
Richmond prior to the founding' of the Eastern Kentucky State 
Teachers College. It is proper, therefore, that this book contain 
an account of the earlier school, since its existence largely deter- 
mined the location of the later institution and especially since 
its campus and buildings became the possessions of the Teachers 

The University was a denominational school established in 
the early 1870 's by those Presbyterians of the State who had 
objected to certain political policies of their General Assembly 
during and immediately after the Civil War, and who finally 
became a separate organization without schools and without 
places of worship. It is fitting, therefore, that a brief statement 
be given concerning the circumstances which produced a division 
in the Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky. 

The Schism in the Presbyterian Church 1 
When the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
convened in Philadelphia in May, 1861, the Confederate States 
of America had already been formed and the Civil War begun. 
The Assembly was strongly pro-Union, and, in recognition of the 
seriousness of the situation, it passed a resolution, by a vote of 
156 to 66, fixing the next fourth of July as a day of prayer for 
the United States and declaring the Church's obligation to sup- 
port the Federal Government during the struggle of the Con- 
federacy for independence. This action of the majority of the 
Assembly was regarded by the minority as contrary to the con- 
stitution and tradition of the Presbyterian Church, which they 
said, had always stood for the separation of church and state 

1 The writer has published a much longer account of Central University 
in the April, 19:J4, number of the Kentucky Historical Society Register, which 
also contains a complete list of the faculty and graduates of the University 
and the bibliography used in preparing the account. One hundred reprints 
were published. 

234 Three Decades of Progress 

and for aloofness from political controversies. Fifty-eight dis- 
senters, thereupon, entered a formal protest against the action 
of the assembly. It should be noted, however, that the Southern 
Presbyterians admitted their differences with the Northern 
Presbyterians on the subject of slavery as well as on the subject 
of political affiliations. 

During the Civil "War the Presbyterian Church of the Con- 
federacy comprised only those synods in the eleven seceded 
States. The synods in the slave States which did not secede 
remained loyal to the Presbyterian Church North. The Ken- 
tucky synod, for example, in 1861, deplored the separation and 
declared its adherence "with unbroken purpose to the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States of America." It did not 
take this stand, however, until it had disapproved the action of 
the General Assembly at Philadelphia in committing the Church 
to the support of the Union. The General Assembly did not 
allow this disapproval to pass unnoticed. At its next meeting 
(1862) it condemned the synod's criticism and thereby further 
irritated a large majority of the Kentucky membership, whose 
disaffection increased to the end of the conflict. 

Now that the Civil War was over and the Union preserved, 
the actual division in the Kentucky synod might not have oc- 
curred if the General Assembly had not continued its policy of 
sanctioning actions of the Federal Government and trying to 
make all units of the Church conform to the Assembly's man- 

Finally the Kentucky Synod (October, 1S66\ disregarded 
the will of the Assembly by seating certain condemned repre- 
sentatives of the Louisville Presbytery. This caused Dr. Pobert 
J. Breckinridge and thirty-odd other commissioners who were in 
sympathy with the Assembly to withdraw from the synod. The 
remaining delegates (about 108) .still declared their loyalty to 
the Presbyterian Church North, but they continued to protest 
against the policies of its General Assembly. The separation in 
the synod, however, was soon entirely effected, for in 1867 the 
northern Assembly declared the seceders, that is. ])r. Brecken- 
ridge and his followers, to be the true synod of Kentucky. 
There were now two Presbyterian synods in Kentucky. The 
one sympathizing with the late Confederacy hastened to recog- 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 235 

nize the separation declared by the northern General Assembly 
and in November, 1867, applied to the southern Presbyterian 
Church for union with it. being admitted in 1868. Now a ques- 
tion arose concerning- the ownership and use of the property 
belonging to the Church before the separation. 

A New University Founded 

Prior to the division of the Presbyterians in Kentucky, 
Centre College and the Presbyterian Seminary in Danville, Ken- 
tuck}', were the higher institutions of learning under the control 
of the synod of the State. Centre College had been founded in 
1819 by certain conservative religious elements in the State, 
who were not in sympathy with, the very liberal ecclesiastical 
views of President Horace Holley and his administration of 
Transylvania University at Lexington. The young college was 
so badly in need of funds that, in 1824, it gave the synod the 
right to elect its board of trustees for the synod's contribution of 
<$20,0U0. The charter of the college was properly amended by 
the State Legislature to include this arrangement. Henceforth 
Centre College was virtually under the control of the Presbyte- 
rian synod of Kentucky. 

As one might expect, when the Presbyterians of the State 
divided, each synod claimed the right to elect the trustees of 
Centre College, and proceeded to do so. The Northern General 
Assembly, of course, recognized the trustees of its synod. The 
Southerners, having a considerable majority in the State, under- 
took to have the Legislature modify the charter of the college 
.so as to give their synod the right to elect the trustees; but 
their measure failed in the Senate. Then they resorted to the 
courts, refusing at the same time to join the other synod in some 
form of joint control of the college, or in a division of its assets. 
But in every effort the courts "gave the college to the original 
synod ... as having steadfastly adhered to the original 
General Assembly, " whose synodical contract with the college 
in 1824 was declared valid. 

The southern Presbyterians of Kentucky now determined to 
found a college of their own. Accordingly, in May, 1872, a num- 
ber of ministers and laymen, many of whom had been students 
at Centre College, organized the Alumni Association of Central 

236 Three Decades of Progress 

University. Soon thereafter a charter was obtained providing 
for Central University, whose government was placed in the 
hands of those who had endowed it, who would later become its 
graduates, and whom the Alumni Association might thereafter 
elect. The only control given the synod was the election of a 
teacher of ethics and morals and the privilege of establishing 
a school of theology as a part of the University. It might also 
control one of the six preparatory schools authorized by the 
charter. This made the institution only nominally ecclesiastical 
and denominational. 

The charter of the University provided that the Alumni 
Association should elect from its members a Board of Curators, 
who would be responsible for the educational policies, and a 
Board of Trustees, who would be responsible for the business 
interests, of the institution. The curators were to elect a Chan- 
cellor, who was to be the chief executive of the University and 
chairman of both Boards. The charter also called for an en- 
dowment of at least $150,000. In due time subscriptions total- 
ing $220,000 were obtained, $101,000 of which was subscribed 
by citizens of Richmond and Madison County, whose early sub- 
scription of $50,000, in the words of the first chancellor. " an- 
swered the discouragements of those who urged the impossibility 
of the enterprise, and gave life and success to the work." 

Notwithstanding the activity of the citizens of Richmond, 
who, of course, hoped that their fair city would be chosen as the 
site of the University, the Alumni Association and contributors 
to the endowment fund voted, May 13, 1873, to locate the insti- 
tution at Anchorage. Shortly after this a temporary organiza- 
tion for the school was made in Louisville; but a little later An- 
chorage was abandoned and other bids for the University were 
considered. Bardstown and Paris Avere contestants, and even 
Danville was mentioned. Richmond, however, Avas the strongest 
bidder, and when a permanent organization Avas made at thai 
place laic in 1873, it Avas chosen as the location for the Univer- 
sity. Then and there it might be said, the subsequent location 
of the Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College Avas largely 

At the lime the Association selected Richmond as the loca- 
tion for the University, it elected the Boards of Curators and 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 237 

Trustees, and instructed them to open the institution for instruc- 
tion in September, 1874. The task which these boards had to 
perform on such short notice was a difficult one indeed, since 
a severe financial panic had broken over the Nation in 1873. 
But the seemingly impossible task was performed, and Septem- 
ber 22, 1874, found the University ready to begin, with a hand- 
some four story building, a student body and a faculty and 
other necessities for college and secondary education. The first 
exercise was the dedication of the new building and the in- 
augural addresses of the chancellor and the president. The 
program was held in the chapel provided for such occasions. 
""Wind and weather were favorable," according to the Rich- 
mond Kentucky Register, "the day was bright and beautiful, 
and a more auspicious beginning could not have been asked." 

The opening address was delivered by Chancellor Robert L. 
Breck, who sketched higher educational movements in Kentucky 
from Daniel Boone until his own time, when the occasion seemed 
to warrant the establishment of another higher institution of 
learning. His closing words rang out as follows: "AVe stand 
today in triangular position towards the two institutions [Centre 
College and Transylvania University] we have reared in the 
past, in which we have left our labors and our means . . . AVe 
have no quarrel with those institutions; we enter the great and 
open field in generous emulation. AVe fling to the breeze our 
banner bearing the words we have put on the tablet in front of 
this edifice, Lex, Rex — Crux, Lux. AVe have no sectarian or 
partisan ends to accomplish here. These are our only distinctive 
principles : The Law is our King, ike Cross is our Light — prin- 
ciples brought with us out of the experience of the past, and 
especially out of the struggle from which we have just emerged; 
principles which are the foundation of all civil and religious 
liberty. AVe ask a fair judgment of what we have done and 
patience in the perfection of our work." 

The Curators had elected Rev. J. AV. Pratt, D. D., president 
of the faculty of the college in Richmond, who followed Chan- 
cellor Breek with his inaugural address. Dr. Pratt was not only 
a scholar, but he was also a teacher of many years' experience, 
and had held before coming to Richmond a professorship of 
English in the University of Alabama. His address was a most 

238 Three Decades of Progress 

scholarly oration, which would have done credit to a savant of 
any university in America. After reviewing the whole field and 
the processes of higher education, he suggested a vision and pro- 
gram for Central University worthy of the most enthusiastic sup- 
port. His stirring appeal for funds was supported with lucid 
illustrations from history, and his long inspiring peroration un- 
doubtedly carried his audience to heights of confidence in the 
future of the University. 

According to the Keniuclnj Bcgister of Richmond for Sep- 
tember 25, 1874, "At the close of President Pratt's address the 
audience was dismissed, to be reassembled in the evening at 7 
o'clock." At that time Hon. AV. C. P. Breckinridge, President 
of the Alumni Association, addressed the people, and "At 9 
o'clock the assembly was dismissed, and Central University wan 
launched upon the great tide, freighted with the hopes of many 
anxious hearts." 

The University 

Xo catalog of Central University was published in 1S74. 
the year of its opening. Instead, long narrow sheets, or bills, 
announced a College of Philosophy, Letters, and Science, a Col- 
lege of Law and a Preparatory Department, in Richmond : a 
College of Medicine, in Louisville ; and a few other points of 
interest about the University. Not until 1875 was a catalog 
published giving more information about the institution. 

The faculty of the liberal arts college and its preparatory 
department consisted of eleven men, including the chancellor, 
who also taught. Two of the number were in charge of the 
preparatory work, but they were surely assisted by regular mem- 
bers of the college staff, since there were eighty-one students in 
the academy and only thirty-six in the college. Only four 
students registered in the College of Law and K>:> in the College 
of Medicine, making a total of 224 in attendance the firsi year. 

The members of the faculty were well prepared, for that 
time ;il least. The chancellor and president had received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity; six others had the Mas- 
ter's degree; and the remaining three held the Bachelor's degree. 
In later years the academic training of the faculty was much 
higher. In the middle nineties, for example, there were live 

teachers who had received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 239 

According to Chancellor Breck, Thomas William Tobin, of 
the chair of physics, "shed greater luster upon the University" 
than any other instructor. He was an Englishman and "a 
Queen's Medalist in the British Government's School of Mines 
and Art." This gifted young man came to Richmond in 1877 
and remained three years, during which he exhibited extraordi- 
nary ability as a teacher, as a speaker, and even as an inventor 
in the field of physics. The catalog for 1877-78 gives a descrip- 
tion of a "sine pendulum" which Tobin had invented. The 
four pages devoted to this scientific apparatus were taken from 
the Journal of the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia. 

On the resignation of Dr. Pratt in 1879, Rev. J. V. Logan, 
1). D., the synod's Professor of Ethics and Biblical Literature 
of the University, was chosen president of the College of Philos- 
ophy, Science and Letters. Dr. Logan remained in that posi- 
tion until the end of the institution in Richmond. He and Rev. 
L. G. Barbour, M. A., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 
served the University throughout its existence. Other teachers 
who served the University for long periods were J. T. Akers, 
Ph. D., who was Professor of Languages from 1884 to 1901; 
and W. M. Wilson, M. A., Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature, who came in 1874 and remained until 1892. The 
student body was always small, and, since the teachers usually 
remained a long time, there existed a wholesome relationship 
between student and teacher that was productive of the best 

Only the salaries of the teachers in Richmond will be con- 
sidered. To be sure, they were never large. The meager income 
of the school kept them small. Even at their highest, which 
was in the nineties, they ranged from about $700 to $1,200 a 
year, paid quarterly. The most the chancellor ever received was 
$1,600. During the last two or three years of the school's exist- 
ence, when funds were becoming less adequate, the teachers' 
salaries, with perhaps one exception, were reduced. AVhen the 
amounts which were irregularly paid the chancellor for the last 
three years are averaged, it appears that he received about $1,400 
a year during that time. The free use of the four two story brick 
residences, built on the campus in 1874, must not be forgotten: 
but not every teacher enjoyed that privilege. The residence 

240 Three Decades of Progress 

built for the chancellor in the early eighties is new a rather 
spacious home for the president of the Teachers College. 

The equipment of the University was only fair. It could 
not have been entirely satisfactory with the limited funds avail- 
able. Yet it compared favorably with that of many of its con- 
temporaries. The main building, now called University Hall, 
was a four story structure containing the chapel, library, labora- 
tories, and classrooms. It was built in 1871 at a cost of about 
$30,000, and is even now one of the most handsome buildings on 
Eastern's campus. At present it houses the Junior and Senior 
High Schools of the Teachers College. The dormitory, prepara- 
tory school, and gymnasium, built in 1883, 1890, and 1899, re- 
spectively, will be mentioned later. 

There were only about 1,000 books in the library, in the 
beginning, and they had been donated. This number increased 
rather slowly through other donations, the largest of which was 
the library of Rev. R. W. Landis, of Danville, Kentucky. This 
gift, in 1881, of nearly 3,000 volumes, though mostly on theology, 
was greatly appreciated, as was indicated in the catalogs for 
many years thereafter. The librarian was a regular member of 
the faculty. 

The first catalogs were non-committal on the subject of 
admission to the College of Philosophy, Letters and Science. 
By the eighties, however, rather specific conditions were an- 
nounced, winch included a certificate of good moral character 
and of honorable dismissal where the student came from another 
institution. In addition to this the applicant was obliged to 
stand an examination in courses previously pursued. In 1890 
the catalog announced admission without examination where the 
student was a graduate of a recognized high school. This cata- 
log listed seven public high schools and seven private academies 
in the State wdiose graduates were admitted without exami- 
nation. Apparently this list of accredited preparatory schools 
increased very slowly. 

In this connection it might be noted that college students 
were required to take two general written examinations every 
year, one a.1 the close of each semester. The final grade was 
"determined from the record of recitations and the marks of 
examinal ion papers. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


The curriculum of the college was rather limited. Latin, 
Greek, mathematics, logic, physics, English, rhetoric, French, 
ethics, phychology, chemistry, German, evidences of Christian- 
ity, mineralogy, and astronomy are listed in the first catalog. 
Not until 1886 were electives offered and then only in the last 
two years. The catalogs thereafter mention courses in history, 
political science, commercial science, and, beginning in 1892, 
military science. The degrees of Bachelor of Arts and of Science 
were conferred at the outset, and in 1921 an arrangement was 


made to confer the degree of Bachelor of Letters when English 
and history were substituted for Greek and part of the mathe- 
matics and science. On the satisfactory completion of an addi- 
tional year's work and an acceptable thesis in any one of those 
three departments, the candidate received the Master's degree, 
providing he had at least an average of eighty-five in his studies 
for the Bachelor's degree. The customary honorary degrees 
were also conferred. 

Honors and prizes were awarded for merit in scholarship. 
The policy of awarding medals was applied in every division of 
the University throughout its history. The honor students were 

242 Three Decades of Progress 

classed in two divisions: those who received grades of 95-100 
and those who received grades of 90-95 in their studies. A 
student was mentioned in the ''Honor Boll" even though he 
received a high grade in only one subject. Those students who 
averaged ninety or more and those who averaged ninety-five or 
more, respectively, had magna cum laude and swnma cum laude 
inscribed on their diplomas. 

The College of Law had a president, as did the other col- 
leges, and at least one other instructor. The enrollment was so 
small that it was discontinued in 1880, there being only one 
student enrolled the previous year. It was opened again in 
October, 1897, and continued until the end of the University in 
Richmond ; but its enrollment never exceeded eight students at 
any time. The teachers were practicing attorneys of Richmond. 
The plan to establish a theological seminary in Richmond did 
not materialize ; instead the officers and friends of the University 
assisted in the establishment of the Louisville Theological Semi- 
nary in 1893. 

Since a teachers' college superseded the University in 
Richmond, some mention should be made of the efforts of 
Central University to prepare teachers for the public schools. 
The first effort of this sort appears to have been made in 1890 
when a course for teachers was announced as "beginning each 
year [on] March 1st, and continuing ten weeks.'' Three years 
later a special four weeks' summer course was offered. In 1896 
the University again expressed its desire to draw closer to the 
great body of public school teachers in order, as it announced, 
to "make common cause with them in developing and perfecting 
our Public School System." "To give evidence of its desire to 
extend its usefulness among" teachers it offered courses running 
"from March 1st to May 1st," and intended "primarily for the 
teachers of the country schools ..." Other arrangements were 
also announced as being made to prepare teachers for high school 
positions. Thus it is seen thai the first work in training public 
school teachers in Richmond was done by Central University. 

Il is important to note that the University became C0-educa- 
tional in the nineties. Al first the movement was experimental 
and only young women 1'ioni Madison County were admitted. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 243 

The plan was regarded so favorably that the institution was 
made entirely co-educational in March, 1898. 

The first graduating class was in 1876 when four students 
were awarded degrees by the College of Philosophy, Letters and 
Science. 2 Two of these graduated from the University's College 
of Law the next year. The graduating classes were never very 
large. The average was slightly more than twelve, since the 
total for the College of Liberal Arts was 302, according to the 
available records. This number does not include those receiving 
the Master's degree, of whom there were from one to two (at 
one time three) nearly every year beginning in 1884. Some- 
time in the eighties diplomas began to be awarded those students 
who had completed the work in any of the departments of the 
college but did not have enough credits for a degree. 

Space permits only a brief statement of the medical schools 
in Louisville. The College of Medicine was established in 1874 
and the College of Dentistry in 1886. It appears that these col- 
leges always maintained a high standard of instruction and 
equipment, which might be expected since their staffs comprised 
as good physicians, surgeons and dentists as Louisville afforded. 
Students attended from all over the United States and even 
abroad. It appears also that there was not the difficulty in 
financing the Louisville schools that was experienced in main- 
taining those in Richmond. This was due to the fact that the 
receipts from tuition were greater in Louisville and also to the 
additional fact that the instructors in Louisville were practicing 
their respective professions, as is so often true with teachers in 
medical schools. 

Over ail these units of Central L niversity — colleges of art, 
law, medicine, and dentistry, and the four preparatory schools — 
there was one coordinating administrative body, viz., the Boards 
of Curators and Trustees (after 1884 Curators only), whose 
chancellor was the chief executive of the whole system. Each 
college had its own president and each preparatory school its 
own principal, whose duties, of course, were those common to the 
office of president or principal in such an educational system. 
There were also in the background the Alumni Association of 

2 It appears that French Tipton, who later edited a newspaper in Rich- 
mond until his death in 1901, received a diploma from the College of Law 
in 1875. 

244 Three Decades of Progress 

Central University and (after 1884) the synod of the Presby- 
terian Clrurch South, which were the primary sources of admin- 
istration in the University. The duties of the chancellor took 
him occasionally to each of these institutions, whose condition he 
reported to his superiors. 

Student Life axd Activities 

The students of Central University enjoyed privileges com- 
mon to college life at that time. The administration always 
manifested concern for their spiritual and moral welfare. They 
were "required to attend daily morning prayers in the chapel, 
and public divine service in some of the churches, at least once 
on each Sabbath." When parents did not indicate what church 
they desired their sons to attend the faculty determined the 
choice. An early catalog states that the chancellor was expected 
to "give special attention to the religious wants of the students, 
preaching to them, and otherwise laboring for their good ..." 

A Young Men's Christian Association was organized during 
the year 1880-81. It had "regular weekly devotional meetings," 
and soon maintained a "reading room supplied with a good 
selection of periodic literature." Its Student's Hand Boole 
appears among the list of college publications. 

Two literary societies were organized the first year; they 
were known as the EpipJujllidian and the Walters. The latter 
soon took the classical name of Philalethean. A wholesome 
rivalry existed between them, which was keenest when inter- 
society contests occurred. Medals were awarded and the win- 
ners represented the University in State contests. The organ- 
izations enjoyed the use of well furnished halls. 

In 1892 the societies formed an Inter-Society, with a con- 
stitution to govern their relations, especially in Literary contests 
and in the management of student publications. The training 
received in these activities was very practical. The constitutions 
and by-laws of the three organizations were well prepared and 
comprehensive in their scope. The hues for non-performance 
of duty were rather severe. A member, for example, who failed 
to subscribe in due time for one of the student publications was 
obliged to pay double the subscription price: and a business 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 245 

manager of this publication who failed to publish the name of an 
expelled member of a society was fined three dollars for every 
omission . 

In 1883 the students began the publication of a monthly 
magazine called the Atlantis. It was to cooperate in the man- 
agement of this student enterprise that the literary societies 
formed the Inter-Society. The Atlantis contained such student 
and faculty contributions as merited publication. On the whole, 
it was a very creditable magazine. 

On February 13, 1897, appeared the first issue of the Central 
News, a college weekly newspaper, usually of four, sometimes 
more, pages. It resembled very closely the Eastern Progress 
now published on the same campus. Apparently when the 
Central News began, the Atlantis became more nearly what it 
was originally intended to be — "a magazine of college litera- 
ture 1 '. The students printed the Central News on their own 
press, which they operated on the campus. 

By 1895 the senior class of the University was publishing a 
year-book, or annual, called the Cream and Crimson. It im- 
proved from year to year in form and content, the last volumes 
being especially creditable. 

There was the usual interest in athletics. It was not until 
the school year 1889-90, however, that anything like a gym- 
nasium was provided. This was a small two story brick build- 
ing the upper story of which was fitted up as a gymnasium. The 
lower floor was used by the Preparatory Department. As might 
be supposed, this equipment for physical training was inade- 
cpiate. In 1899 another building, purposely planned "for the 
pleasure and health of the students," was constructed. It was 
called the Miller Gymnasium in honor of its chief donor, Mrs. 
Sarah A. Miller, of Richmond. The other building was used 
thereafter by the Preparatory Department and the Young Men's 
Christian Association. This gymnasium burned in 1920. 

The University employed a director of physical training, 
and apparently won her share of the games with other .schools. 
Her greatest rival, as might be guessed, was Centre College ati 
Danville. When a "C. U." team played Centre College the 
interest was intense; and when "C. U." won her team was 

246 Three Decades of Progress 

"toasted and feasted" in great fashion. Such was the case in 
1893 when Central University defeated Centre College for the 
state championship in football by a score of 20 to 18. This game 
was on a neutral field in Lexington, and was described by the 
Louisville Courier Journal as "the greatest football game which 
ever took place in Kentucky in point of interest if not in sport 
. . ." The "Cream and Crimson" of Richmond had given the 
"Orange and White" of Danville their first defeat in three 

The interest in physical training was augmented by mili- 
tary training, which was introduced in 1892. The work was 
directed by a regular army officer detailed by the United States 
War Department. In time there were two companies of infantry 
and one of artillery on the campus at Richmond. They were 
officered by juniors and seniors wh,o had qualified while they 
were underclassmen. The uniforms, arms, and cannon added 
much color to campus life. The visiting committee of the synod 
reported in October, 1895, that "It was gratifying to note a 
decided drift of sentiment away from inter-collegiate ball con- 
tests toward military drill ..." The Central University bat- 
talion made an "excellent showing ... in the reproduction of 
the battle of Perryville, which took place in Louisville," in the 
autumn of 1900. 

During the early eighties social fraternities appeared. 
Chapters of Zeta Sigma Nu, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Phi Delta 
Theta, and Delta Kappa Epsilon were organized. Some other 
student organizations were the Mandolin Club, the Athletic As- 
sociation, the Bicycle Club, the Ananias Club, the Cotillion 
Club, the Epicurean Club, the Lawn Tennis Association, and 
the Students' Club. 

Until 1883 students were obliged to depend entirely upon 
the good will of the citizens of Richmond for lodging and meals. 
Members of the faculty, of course, often shared their homes with 
students. In L882 the synod, realizing the need of more satis- 
factory accommodations, authorized the chancellor "to raise 
$15,000 to erect a dormitory on the grounds of the University 
. . ." By (he opening of school the next year a modern student 
home l'oi- that time at least — costing, with furnishings, about 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 247 

$20,000, was ready for use. The dormitory was named Memorial 
Hall in commemoration of the hundred years of service of the 
Presbyterian Church in the State. 

Space forbids any lengthy account of "college life'' at Cen- 
tral. Suffice it to say there were the usual variations in interest 
and excitement so often concomitant with, regular student activ- 
ities. With literary society and class rivalries, with spirit 
engendered by athletic contests, with friction occasioned by con- 
flicts between "town and gown," and with the natural exuber- 
ance of youth, the atmosphere of Richmond was often saturated 
with such evidences of "college life" as were common to the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century. AVhen it is related that the 
colors of the sophomores were torn from the flagstaff on Uni- 
versity Hall one morning in March, 1900, by the three other 
classes, in spite of stubborn resistance, and that the colors of the 
seniors were torn from the same high point on the following 
morning by freshmen and juniors, after they had overcome the 
valiant sophomores and seniors, one wonders in what condition 
the building must have been left, and whether the University 
did not need a hospital corps with its military unit. And again 
Avhen it is related that, after such a victory as that in football 
over Centre College in 1893, the students simply "took the city 
of Richmond" — the citizens apparently very willing — and gave 
such a demonstration that college halls and town shops and 
stores reverberated for days with triumphant shouts over the 
"Battle of Lexington," one appreciates something of the spirit 
at Central University which was so often vociferously expressed 
in the full virility of young manhood. 

The University High Schools 

The charter of the University provided for six preparatory- 
schools. Only four, however, were ever established. The first 
began its existence on the campus at Richmond in 1871. Its 
students shared in the privileges of the University. Four years 
of study were offered, including courses in English, Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics. In time the curriculum was enlarged to in- 
clude history and bookkeeping. 

In 1890 another high school, known as Jackson Collegiate 

248 Three Decades of Progress 

Institute, was established at Jackson in Breathitt County. This 
school served a much felt need in that part of the State and soon 
became an institution of considerable consequence. Besides the 
regular preparatory subjects it offered both primary and inter- 
mediate grade work. One of the most valuable features was the 
"Normal Course" for the training of teachers. Nine students 
are reported in 1892 as having finished the normal course, and 
twenty in 1898. In 1897 the Jackson sch.ool Avas given the name 
of "The S. P. Lees Collegiate Institute,'' in honor of Mrs. S. P. 
Lees of New York City, a native of Kentucky, who had been 
donating generously to the support of the institution. 

A third high school, known a,s Hardin Collegiate Institute, 
was established at Elizabethtown in 1892. It resembled the one 
at Jackson but it never became so prominent. A "Teacher's 
Normal Course," was offered and the Institute was not long in 
obtaining a suitable building for its work. In 1896 the Board 
of Curators established a fourth preparatory school at Middles- 
boro. This institution, known as the Middlesboro University 
High School, occupied a handsome building of some forty 
rooms, which the citizens of the town gave the University. 

The striking feature of all these preparatory schools was the 
training in military science, as the work was often called. It 
appears that the Federal Government furnished the guns, belts, 
etc., and the citizens sometimes furnished the uniforms. Cen- 
tral University evidently believed in military training. 

Union with Centre College 
There were speculations at the outset that Central Uni- 
versity would not exist very long. Chancellor Breck wrote a 
short wh,ile after his resignation that "much angry dissension 
was stirred up by competitive struggles for the location, which 
afterwards made difficult the work of those to whom the organi- 
zation was committed, and embarrassed the University through- 
out the earlier years." The panic of 187o and the financial 
depression of the ensuing years were also obstacles in the way 
of a new enterprise supported voluntarily. As might he ex- 
pected, the courts were resorted to in the collection of some sub- 
scriptions. Undoubtedly the lean years following the panic of 
1873 reduced payments. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 249 

Chancellor Breck, being in poor health and believing that 
some one else could direct the administration better, resigned in 
1880. By that time the institution was in a very precarious 
condition. Attendance had declined every year since the open- 
ing, and there was on hand "not a dollar of invested funds" 
and only a small amount of unpaid notes and subscriptions. In 
Richmond were one large college building and four residences 
for teachers, all of which the University had acquired at the 
beginning. In Louisville was a fair equipment for a medical 

The Rev. L. H. Blanton, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Paris, Kentucky, succeeded Dr. Breck. It requires little 
effort to appreciate the great task which confronted Dr. Blanton 
when he came to Richmond in 1880. For twenty-three years he 
had been a minister, the most of that time in Paris, where he 
owned his home and received a salary in excess of what he 
received part of the time as chancellor of the University. It 
must be said that whatever growth and achievement the Uni- 
versity enjoyed during tire remainder of its existence were due 
in large measure to his energy and ability. 3 

Chancellor Blanton began at once to devise means of creat- 
ing a substantial endowment. With the support of the synod, 
he had subscriptions totaling $50,000 by 1882, when he sus- 
pended further efforts, as he said, on account of "the severe 
drought and consequent failure of crops" of that year. It was 
not long, however, until he began solicitations again but with 
only fair results. 

The new administration experienced an increase in attend- 
ance. In two years the enrollment doubled, with 163 of these 
students at Richmond. The faculty was also enlarged, and 
apparently the University was growing in public favor. But 
the necessary endowment remained unachieved. Mr. S. P. 
Walters had offered $25,000 to endow a chair in mathematics on 
condition that $50,000 additional be subscribed. This worthy 
citizen of Richmond had been a generous supporter of the Uni- 
versity from the start and remained so until his death in 1885. 
Notwithstanding the encouragement occasioned by the Walters' 

3 Dr. Blanton served as chaplain in the Confederate army under Gen. 
John C. Breckinridge and Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner. 

250 Three Decades of Progress 

offer, the campaign moved slowly and only some $30,000 was 
subscribed, and this sum, apparently, was in the form of one- 
thousand-dollar scholarships. 

While this campaign to increase the endowment was going 
on, a closer contact between the synod and the University was 
consummated. It will be remembered that the institution was 
the creature of the Alumni Association of Central University 
and the synod of the Southern Presbyterian Church of Ken- 
tucky, and also that the charter allowed the synod only the 
privilege of choosing a teacher of morals and ethics and of estab- 
lishing a school of theology in the University. Chancellor Blan- 
ton very early manifested a desire to bring about a closer rela- 
tionship between the University and the synod, which, he be- 
lieved, would contribute more to the prosperity of the institution 
than existing conditions. At his suggestion, therefore, the 
synod adopted the policy in 1882 of appointing a committee to 
visit the University annually and report its condition to the 
synod. The catalog for each year thereafter published the 
report for that year. 

This synodical contact undoubtedly proved beneficial to the 
University, but it was merely the first step in the direction of a 
still closer relationship between the University and the synod. 
It will also be recalled that to the Alumni Association was re- 
served the privilege of choosing the Boards of Curators and 
Trustees of the institution, thereby making the University only 
nominally denominational. This was to avoid the church con- 
trol, which existed in the administrative structure of Centre 
College, and which the southern Presbyterians believed was 
responsible for their loss of that institution. But so great was 
the need of money in the early eighties a desire arose to 
allow the synod the privilege of electing a hoard to administer 
the affairs of the University. It was argued that, with the 
synod in control of the electorate, more funds could be obtained 
for I lie insl il u( ion. 

It is significant to note that between 1880 and 1884 a gesture 
w;is made to bring about a union between the University and 
Centre College. Apparently, a few people had come to believe 
that "a consolidation with Centre was approaching and that it 
would he an advantage il' both schools were on a similar basis.*' 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 251 

The synodical visitations provided in 1882 might be regarded, 
though perhaps not intended to be such, as an initial step in that 
direction. At any rate, an agreement was made in 1881 between 
the University and the synod whereby the charter was amended 
to provide for the synod's election of a board of fifteen curators 
to take the place of the other two boards. The synod, however, 
was obliged to choose two-thirds of the curators from the mem- 
bership of the Alumni Association. But no longer was the Uni- 
versity "nominally denominational"; thereafter the influence 
of the synod in the affairs of the University was considerable. 

There now existed a relationship between Central Univer- 
sity and the Southern Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky similar 
to that established in 1821 between Centre College and the 
Presbyterian Synod of the State. The Southern Presbyterians 
had regarded such relations as contributing to their predicament 
during their controversies with the Northern Presbyterians of 
the State, and had refused to allow synodical control of the Uni- 
versity at the time of its organization. But now that policy was 
practically abandoned, and henceforth the southern synod was 
a potent factor in determining the destiny of Central University, 
as the older synod had influenced Centre College. 

Following the reorganization of the forces supporting the 
University, there was a period of prosperty, which, promised, for 
a time at least, to insure the institution an indefinite existence. 
But the panic of 1893 cut short this prosperity. Subscribers to 
the endowment defaulted in their payments, and losses to the 
school aggregated $50,000 

The University felt this blow keenly ; but there were other 
conditions even more discouraging. By the late nineties com- 
petition from the other Blue Grass colleges began to tell on the 
Richmond school, which was the youngest institution of all. 
Furthermore, with the dawn of the twentieth century, the vision 
of the magnitude of the task of higher institutions of learning 
impressed the leaders in the college field with the necessity of an 
ever increasing demand for funds. As one might expect, there- 
fore, Presbyterians in Kentucky came to appreciate the urgent 
need of uniting their resources in the support of one higher insti- 
tution of learning. But which should it be, Central University 
or Centre College! Notwithstanding Central's worthy achieve- 

252 Three Decades of Progress 

ments, Centre's longer history and numerous and illustrious 
alumni caused her to be regarded by many as the school which 
should survive. This meant, of course, that Danville would gain 
and Richmond lose in the union. The citizens of Richmond 
could not know then that this loss would make possible their 
gain of a state teachers' college in 1906, which would surpass 
anything that Central University was ever likely to become. 

The one great factor, however, in bringing many friends of 
Central University to the point where they approved con- 
solidation was the difficulty of financing the central school in 
Richmond. The others apparently could get along with local 
support, and where deficits occurred, as in the case of the school 
at Jackson, there were friends who always came to the relief. 
The tuition of the Louisville colleges helped them to be self-sus- 
taining; but it was not so at Richmond, where the enrollment 
fell off every year after 1893. 

The total amount for all purposes — buildings, grounds, etc. 
— subscribed to the University during its existence was well 
under $500,000, but much of it apparently was never paid. The 
accounts show charges of subscriptions with no credits of pay- 
ments on the principals. The rate of interest paid on sub- 
scription notes was sometimes as low as th.ree per cent. From 
June, 1895, to July, 1901, there was only $104,076 cash received 
from every source, and the closed account for this period shows 
a. deficit of $85.46. During these last six years the Richmond 
school had been run on about $17,000 a year, and yet it was the 
main unit of a University! 

AVhen the whole situation is understood, one is not surprised 
to find sentiment in favor of the consolidation of Central Uni- 
versity and Centre College crystallizing into action. Confer- 
ences back in the nineties had been held looking toward the 
union of the two institutions. At one time representatives of 
Centre College refused to accept a proposition to raise $70,000 
in .Madison County to meet the expense and the loss to Danville 
of moving Centre to Richmond. Centre College adherents, most 
naturally, never entertained a union of that sort. They were 
determined that, if consolidation was to be effected, Danville 
would be the recipient. During the school year of 1900-01 the 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 253 

movement toward union developed rapidly. Finally the boards 
and some' friends of the two institutions held a joint meeting" 
and apparently unanimously agreed upon th,e terms of union. 

The main provisions of the agreement were that the mov- 
able assets of Central University should become the property of 
Centre College, which would assume the name of The Central 
University of Kentucky. (The name Centre College was restored 
by the Legislature in 1918.) In brief, Central University at 
Danville assumed all the responsibilities which had formerly 
rested on both institutions. The act of consolidation further 
provided that the Board of Trustees of the new university 
should consist of an even number of persons, one-half of whom 
should be elected by the Northern and the other by the Southern 

Thus forty years after the action of the General Assembly 
at Philadelphia, which was the entering wedge that ultimately 
divided the Presbyterians of Kentucky and which was also the 
beginning of a movement that finally produced Central Uni- 
versity, the spirit of unification had gained sufficient strength 
to rally the cohorts of Kentucky Presbyterianism to reunite their 
resources in the support of one first class higher institution of 
learning. The citizens of Richmond felt, of course, that they 
suffered an irreparable injury in the union, but to them were 
left buildings and grounds which in five short years attracted a 
school whose resources, advantages and economic worth soon 
became more than a satisfactory compensation for the loss of 
Central University. 



By Richard A. Edwards 

Col. Edgar Hesketh Crawford. January, 1907 to 190S. Director. 

A. M. Baptist College, Bardstown, Ky. 
Ira Waite Jayne. 190S-09. B. A. Director. 
E. George Payne. 1909-10. Director. 

Ph. D., University of Bonn. 
President J. G. Crabbe. 1910-1916. Director. 

A. B., A. M., Ohio Wesleyan University. 
President T. J. Coates. 1916-1918. Director. 

A. B., A. M., Southern Normal School, Bowling Green, Ky. 
Richard A. Edwards. 191S-1936. Director. 

A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Columbia University. On 
leave 1924-25. 

M. E. Mattox. 1924-25. Acting Director. 

B. S., M. A., George Peabody College for Teachers. 

David Caldwell MacBryde. 1907-1911. Principal of High School. 

A. B., Washington and Lee University. 
Howard Dwight Billman. 1911-12. Principal of High School. 

A. B., Dartmouth College. 
J. H. Hoskinson. 1912-1914. Principal of High School. 

A. B., A. M., Indiana University. 
Paul A. Greenamyer. 1914-1915. Principal of High School. 

A. B., Oberlin College. 
Homer W. Dutter. 1915-1917. Principal of High School. 

A. B., Indiana University. 
C. H. Moore. 1917-1S. Principal of High School. 

A. M., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
G. L. McClain. 1920-1922. Principal of High School. 

A. B., University of Kentucky. 
Samuel AValker. 1930-1935. Principal of High School. 

A. B., Maryville College; A. M., University of Kentucky. 
J. Borland Coates. 1931-1935. Manual Arts and Science. 

Principal of High School 1935-1936. 

B. S., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; M. S., George 
Peabody College. 

Mrs. Mary Logan Sanderson. 1907-1909. High School Assistant and 
I'ri'crplress. A. 15. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 257 

C. R. Bush. 1909-10. A. B. High School Assistant. 
Robert W. McCullough. 1910-11. High School Assistant. 

Ph. B., Baldwin University. 
Sussie M. Ames. 1913-1915. High School Assistant. 

A. B., Randolph Macon Women's College. 
Ella M. Hanawalt. 1915-1920. High School Assistant. 

A. B., University of Michigan. 

Van Greenleaf. 1918-1920. High School Assistant. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Jesse Newell. 1920-21. High School Assistant. 

B. S., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Eugenia Lemon. 1921-22. High School Assistant. 

A. B., University of Louisville. 
Cora K. Lee. 1925-1936. English. 

Graduate of Western Kentucky State Normal School; B. S., George 

Peabody College for Teachers; A. M., Columbia University. 
Ruby Rush. 1926-1936. Latin. 

A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Columbia University. 
Rachel Acree. 1927-1929. Household Arts. 

A. B., University of Kentucky. 
Elizabeth Maddux. 1929-30. Household Arts. 

B. S., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Mary L. Adams. 1930-1936. Household Arts. 

B. S.. University of Kentucky; M. A., Columbia University. 

Virgil Burns. 1930-31. Social Studies. 

Graduate of Western Kentucky State Normal School; A. B., L T ni- 
versity of Kentucky; A. M., Columbia University. 

Wilson K. Boetticher. 1930-31. Science. 
Ph. B., University of Chicago. 

P. M. Grise. January, 1930-1936. English. 

A. B., Western Kentucky State Teachers College; A. M., George 
Peabody College for Teachers. 

G. O. Bryant. 1930-1936. Mathematics. Graduate AVestern Kentucky 
State Normal School; A. B., A. M., University of Kentucky. 

Eliza Hanson. 1930-31, Grade VI; 1931-1936, Social Studies. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School; A. B., Uni- 
versity of Kentucky; M. A., George Peabody College. 

Daisy Greenwood. January, 1907-. Grades VII-VIII. 
Margaret T. Lynch. 1907-1910. Grades VII-VIII. 
Jenny Lind Green. 1910-1913. Grades VII-VIII. 

Graduate Illinois State Normal University. 
Minnie Ullrich. 1911-12. Grades V-VI; 1913-14, Grades VII-VIII. 

Graduate Milwaukee State Normal School. 

E. S. T. C— 9 

258 Three Decades of Progress 

Emma Hemlepp. 1914-1916. Grades VII-VIII. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Nancy F. Boudinot. 1916-17. Grades VII-VIII. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Marguerite Hinckley. 1917-1921. Grades VII-VIII. 

A. B., University of Wisconsin. 
Edith LeVake. 1922-23. Grades VII-VIII. 

Graduate Platteville State Normal School, Wisconsin. 
Mary Frances McKinney. 1923-1926. Grades VII-VIII, and IX. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School; B. S., George 

Peabody College for Teachers. 

Wesa Moore. 1906-07, Grades IV-V-VI; 1907-1910, Grades V-VI. 
Margaret Black. 1910-11. Grades V-VI. 

Graduate Western Illinois State Normal. 
Carolyn B. Jacobi. 1911-12. Grades V-VI. 

Graduate Oshkosh State Normal School, AVisconsin. 
Estelle Heald. 1913-191S. Grades V-VI. 

Graduate State Normal College of Ohio University. 
Vernon Horn. 1918-1920, Grades V-VI; 1920-21, Grades VII-VIII. 

A. B., Wesleyan College, Georgia. 
Florence Lewis. 1920-1922. Grades V-VI. 

Graduate Sue Bennett Memorial School. 

Mrs. Gladys P. Tyng. 1922-1925, Grades V-VI; 1-326-1929, Grade VI; 
1920-21, Grades III; 1921-22, Grades VII-VIII. On leave 1925-26. 
Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School; B. S., George 
Peabody College for Teachers; A. M., Columbia University. 

May Powell. 1924-25, Grades VII-VIII; 1925-26, Grades Va-VI; 1926- 
1929, Grade V. 1927-28, on leave first semester; Grade IV, second 
semester. Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School; B. S., 
George Peabody College for Teachers; A. M., Columbia University. 

Rebecca Thompson. Second semester, 1926-27, IV; 1927-2S, Grade V. 

B. S., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Annie Kate Lockard. 1929-30. Grade V. 

B. S., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Katberine Conroy. 1929-30. Grade VI. 

A. B., University of Kentucky. 
Anna A. Cox. 1930-31. Grade V. 

Graduate South-West, Missouri, State Normal School; B. S., M. A., 

Columbia University. 
Annie C. Alvis. 1931-1936. Grade VI. 

A. I',.. State Teacbers College, Farmville. Va.; A. M., Columbia 


Alice Lander. January, 1907, Grades VI-VII; 1907-1909, Grades III-IV. 
Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 259 

Bert Shortt. 1909-10. Grades III-IV. 

Hulda A. Dilling. 1910-1916. Grades III-IV. 

Graduate Oshkosh State Normal School, Wisconsin. 
Pearl Jordan. 1916-1920. Grades III-IV. 

Graduate Western Kentucky State Normal School. 
Germania Wingo. 1920-1925, Grades III-IV; 1925-26, IV-Vb; 

1928-1936, IV. On leave, first semester, 1924-25; second semester, 

1925-26; 1927-28; 1930-31. Graduate Farmvilie, Va., State Normal 

School; B. S., M. A., Columbia University. 
Frances Potter. 1924-1926, Grades II-IIIb; first semester, 1926-27, 


A. B., North-East Missouri State Teachers College. 

Lena McClister. Second semester, 1925-26, Grades IVa-V; first semes- 
ter, 1926-27, Ila-IIIb. 

B. S., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Maude Taylor. 1927-28. Grade III. 

A. B., Kentucky Wesleyan College. 
Elizabeth Wilson. 1928-1936. Grade III. 

B. S.. M. A., George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Ellen Pugh. 1930-1936. Grade IV. 

A. B., Ohio Wesleyan University; A. M., Ohio State University. 

Lena Gertrude Roling. 1906-07, Grades I-II-III; 1907-1909, III. 

May Barrett. 1909-10. Grades III. 

Marianna Deverell. 1910-1912. Grades III. 
Graduate Illinois State Normal University. 

May C. Hansen. 1912-1924, Grades III; 1924-1928, I; second semester, 
1929-30, II. 

On leave, 1920-21; 192S-29; 1st semester, 1929-30; 1930-31. 
Graduate Oshkosh State Normal School; B. S., George Peabody 
College for Teachers; A. M., Columbia University. 

May K. Duncan. 2nd semester, 1922-23, Grade II; 1st semester, 1923- 
1924, III-IV: 2nd semester, 1923-24, II. Graduate Eastern Kentucky 
State Normal School. 

Virginia Story. 2nd semester, 1926-27, Grade III; 1927-1936, II. On 
leave 2nd semester, 1929-30. Graduate Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School. B. S., M. A., George Peabody College for Teachers. 

Margaret Lingenfelser. 2nd semester, 1926-27, Grade II; 1st semester, 
1927-28, IV; 1928-1936. I; Kavanaugh Rural School, 1923 to Jan- 
uary, 1927. A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; 
A. M., Columbia University. 

Mariam Noland. Rural School on the Campus, January, 191S, to June, 
1922; Kavanaugh, 1922-23. Graduate Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School. 

260 Three Decades of Progress 

Mayme Ewing. Kavanaugh, 1921-22. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Hettie Leathers. Kavanaugh, 1922-192(3. 

A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College. 
Bernice Champ. Kavanaugh, January, 1927, to January, 1929; Junior 

High School, 2nd semester, 1928-29. 

A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; A. M., Columbia 

Katie Carpenter. Kavanaugh, 1926-1929; Rural Demonstration 

School, 1929-1936. A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers Col- 
lege; A. M., University of Kentucky. 
Jamie Bronston. Green's Chapel, 1923-1925. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School; A. B., University 

of Kentucky. 
Mrs. Tom Baxter. Green's Chapel, 1923-24. 
Minnie Pigg. Green's Chapel, 1924-1928. 

Graduate Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Emily Jones. Kavanaugh, 1927-28; Green's Chapel, 192S-29. 

Graduate of Eastern Kentucky State Normal School. 
Mrs. Emma Y. Case. Green's Chapel, 1925-1929. 

A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; A. M., George 

Peabody College for Teachers. 

Anna C. Williams. 1934-1936. Nursery-Kindergarten. 

A. B., University of Kentucky. 
Anne Shropshire. 1934-1935. Nursery-Kindergarten. 

A. B., University of Kentucky. 



By William J. Moore, Maude Gibson, May C. Hansen 

Below are given short biographical sketches of former staff mem- 
bers of Eastern. Because of incomplete records, some, no doubt, have 
not been included. The data here given do not go beyond the time the 
instructor left Eastern. Since members of the training school are 
included elsewhere in this volume, they are omitted here. 

ALBERS, VERNON M. A. B., Carleton College, Northfield, Minn- 
esota; A. M., University of Illinois; Ph. D., University of Illinois; 
part-time assistant, department of physics, University of Illinois, four 
years; full-time assistant, University of Illinois, one year and two 
summer sessions. Dr. Albers was teacher of physics at Eastern dur- 
ing the school year 1928-29 

BACH, HALLIE DAY. A. B., University of Kentucky; B. S. 
Pratt Institution, Brooklyn, New York; student assistant, University 
of Kentucky library; assistant, Girls High School, Brooklyn, New 
York; assistant, Morris High School, New York City; assistant libra- 
rian at Eastern, 1930-31. 

BARNARD, BEN H. A. B., B. S.; manual arts and director of 
athletics, 1913-1917. 

BARNES, PAUL A. Certificate and diploma, Cincinnati College 
of Music, one year at Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio; certificate 
as pianist from Arnold School of Music, Tiffiin, Ohio; certificate and 
diploma from Cincinnati College of Music as teacher of public school 
music; pupil of A. J. Gantvoort in composition and orchestration; 
pupil of Albino Garno in piano; supervisor of music in Cincinnati; 
director of music at Eastern 1921-22 and 1924-25. 

BARTER, ADA. Librarian, from 1907 to 1911. 

BEALL, MARY. Diploma, Mt. Sterling High School; A. B., Uni- 
versity of Kentucky; A. M., University of Kentucky; instructor in 
mathematics in high school for four years; critic teacher of mathe- 
matics at University of Kentucky for three years; instructor, in edu- 
cation, University of Kentucky, one summer term; is author of A 
Comparison of the Curriculum of the High, Schools of Kentucky. 
She was mathematics teacher at Eastern 1928-29. 

BELL, JANE. Home economics, 1924-25. 
BILTON, JEAN FARLAND. Drawing, 1907-09. 
BOLDRICK, CLARA. Graduate, St. Catherine's Academy; stu- 
dent, Art Institute of Chicago; student at Teachers College, Colum- 

262 Three Decades of Progress 

bia University; studio work, two years; instructor of art, Somerset 
High School, two years; art teacher at Eastern, 1923-27. 

BOOTHE, I. H. Graduate, Zanerian Art College; student, National 
Normal University; student, Southern Normal School; diploma, East- 
ern Kentucky Normal School, 1910; graduate of Valparaiso University 
with Bachelor of Pedagogy degree; teacher, public schools in Ohio 
for ten years; public schools of Kentucky for fourteen years; pen- 
manship and lettering at Eastern, 1906-07; field agent and penman- 
ship, 1909-10; field agent and director of review courses, 1911-12; com- 
mon school branches and penmanship, 1913-16; mathematics and pen- 
manship, 1916-18; commercial department, 191S-24; mathematics, 

BOTTS, ETHEL. Mathematics, 1926-27. 

BRESSIE, LORNA. Geography and physical education, 1922-23; 
geography, 1923-24. 

BROCK, H. H. A. B., Transylvania University; correspondence 
department of Eastern, 1927-32. 

BRONSON, MAURINE MAYE. Carleton College, one year; B. 
Music, Northwestern University Conservatory of Music; voice under 
Alta Miller; piano under Mark Wessel; composition and theory with 
Carl Beecher; operative coaching under Oscar Saeger, New York; 
pupil of Madame Yvonne Course, Paris, France, and Herbert Wither- 
spoon, Chicago; instructor of voice and director of music, Carr-Bur- 
dette College, two and one-half years; instructor of voice, Greenbriar 
College, one year; teacher of music at Eastern, 1930-32. 

BRUNER, JAMES D. A. B., Franklin College; Ph. D., Johns 
Hopkins University; Litt. D., Georgetown College; assistant profes- 
sor and professor, Romance Languages, University of Chicago, 1S94-99; 
associate professor and professor of Romance Languages, University 
of North Carolina, 1901-10; five years, president of Chawon College; 
two years, President of Daughters' College; author, Chateaubriand's 
Les Aventurer du Dernier Abencerage, Feuillet's Le Roman du 
Homme Pauvre, Victor Hugo's Hernani. Corneille's Le Cid. and Vic- 
tor Hugo's Dramatic Characters and Phonology of the Pictorcsc Dia- 
lect; teacher of English and French at Eastern, 1917-21. 

BURNAM, ELIZABETH. Graduate, Madison Institution; four 
years at New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, Massachusetts; 
instructor under C. A. White, Signora De Fabrites; one year, teacher of 
voice and French, Rainhardt College, Waleska. Georgia; teacher of 
voice and French at Eastern, 1921-23. 

CAMPBELL, FALLEN. Student at Eastern Normal School; 
rural school teacher; county superintendent, Breathitt County, Ken- 
tucky; director of Extension at Eastern. 

CARPENTER, FLORA. Miss Carpenter taught drawing at East- 
ern 1909-11. She was author of "Stories Pictures Tell." 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 263 

CASSIDY, ELIZABETH. American history and sociology, 1906-09. 

COATES, T. J. A. B. and A. M. degrees, Southern Normal 
School, Bowling Green, Kentucky; certificate from Cook County Nor- 
mal School and Emmons Blaine School, Chicago; sometime student 
Normal Department of State College, Lexington, Kentucky; graduate 
Lexington Business College; country school teacher, five years, Pike 
County; six years, principal graded school, Greenville, Kentucky; 
twelve years, superintendent, city schools, Richmond, Kentucky; six 
years, state supervisor of rural education; instructor in more than 
one hundred county institutes in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio; 
author of Elementary State Course of Study, The History of Educa- 
tion in Kentucky, and Codification of the Kentucky School Laws. 
From 1916 to 1928 Mr. Coates was President of Eastern. 

COMPTON, J. 0. B. C. S., Bowling Green Business University; 
student, Western Kentucky State Normal School; teacher, three years 
public and high schools of Kentucky; head of commercial department, 
Oklahoma, 1916-1917; taught storthand and typewriting at Eastern 
from 1919 to 1920. 

COMSTOCK, WALLACE H. Manual arts, 1917-1918. 

COOPER, HOMER E. A. B., West Virginia University; A. M., 
Columbia University; Ph. D., Columbia University; rural teacher, 
four years; village supervising principal, three years; superintendent 
of Point Pleasant, West Virginia, four years; superintendent, Blue- 
field, West Virginia, four years; head, extramural instruction depart- 
ment and instructor of educational administration, University of 
Pittsburg, three years; head of extramural instruction department 
and assistant professor, educational administration, one year; super- 
intendent, Maryland Casualty Company Training School, Baltimore, 
two years; made following school surveys: Village and city schools 
of Nasean County, New York, 1916; St. Paul, Minnesota 1917; Phila- 
delphia, 1920; Kittanning, Pennsylvania, 1920; Maysville, Kentucky, 
1927; author, Cost of Training Teachers; Dean of faculty and educa- 
tion teacher at Eastern from 1924 to 1928; Dean of faculty 1928 to 
1921; acting President of Eastern for a while. 

COX, REX W. B. S., College of Agriculture, University of Illi- 
nois; M. S., Cornell University; teacher, accredited high schools, 
three years; instructor, State Agriculturel School, Madison, Georgia, 
two years; instructor, State Normal School, Fort Hays, Kansas; agri- 
culture and rural economics teacher at Eastern from 191S to 1924. 

CRABBE, J. G. A. B., Ohio Wesleyan University; A. M., Ohio 
Wesleyan University; Ped. M., Ohio University; Berea College, 
LL. D.; Ped. D., Miami University; LL. D., State University of Ken- 
tucky; eighteen years, superintendent of city schools Ashland, Ken- 
tucky; State Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Common- 
wealth of Kentucky; President of Eastern from 1910 to 1916. 

264 Three Decades of Progress 

DAVIES, CLARA A. B. S., Kansas State Teachers College; 
graduate student in library science in Columbia University and Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Miss Davies was instructor of library science at 
Eastern during the school year 1931-32. 

DAVIS, ANNA LEE. Graduate, Bowling Green High School; 
graduate, Western Kentucky State Normal School; B. S., George Pea- 
body College; teacher, home economics, Waller County High School, 
Jasper, Alabama, 1915-16; teacher of home economics and health at 
Eastern from 1917 to 1920. 

DEANE, MARY B. A. B., Episcopal Seminary; student, Ken- 
tucky University, Valparaiso, University of Chicago, University of 
Michigan, and Cornell University; seven years, instructor, Jessamine 
College; three years, instructor, Lincoln Memorial University. Mrs. 
Deane was instructor at Eastern from 1911 to her death in 192S. 
During the time she taught grammar, English, geography, and 

DETTWILLER, DAISY D. Graduate, Kentucky Classical and 
Business College; graduate, Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; 
six years teacher in graded schools; four years teacher, Paris City 
schools; assistant Dean of Women, 1922-23. 

FOGLESONG, MARGARET. Assistant in English 1909-1910. 

FORSTER, KATHERINE. English teacher at Eastern 1908-11. 

FOSTER, ELINOR. Graduate, junior college course, Ward 
Belmont College, Nashville; B. S. and M. A., Peabody College for 
Teachers; student assistant, Peabody College library and demonstra- 
tion school library, Peabody College; assistant, Teachers College Li- 
brary, Columbia University, summer 192S. Miss Foster was teacher of 
library science and assistant librarian at Eastern from 192S to 1930. 

FOSTER, R. A. A. B., University of Kentucky; graduate scholar- 
ship, Princeton University; A. M., Princeton; teacher, rural school, 
1911; principal, Central grammar school, Somerset, Kentucky, 1914-15; 
assistant principal and teacher of English, high school, Peekskill. 
New York, 1917; instructor, U. S. Army Schools, 191S; teacher of 
English and mathematics, high school, Owensboro, Kentucky, 1919; 
principal, Morton Elliott Junior College, Elkton, Kentucky, and 
teacher of Latin and English, 1919-21. Mr. Foster was teacher of 
English at Eastern from 1921 to 1927. 

GILBERT, MARY. Latin, 1915-16. 

GILKEY, J. E. Commercial branches, 1909-1910. 

GREEN, LOUISE A. M. A., University of Wisconsin, 1922. Ph. B., 
University of Chicago, 191S; primary supervisors' course. University 
of Chicago, 1917; social education, Columbia University, 1921; gradu- 
ate, Wilson Normal Scbool of Washington, D. C, 1915, teacher in 
Broaddus College, West Virginia, 1920. Miss Green was teacher of 
education at Eastern, 1922-23. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 265 

GREER, NANCY. Student, Ward Belmont College; B. S., George 
Peabody College for Teachers; M. A., George Peabody; two years, 
head of English department, Coffee High School, Florence, Alabama; 
English teacher at Eastern 1930-31. 

GRINSTEAD, WREN JONES. A. B. and A. M„ University of 
Kentucky; graduate English course, College of the Bible, Lexington, 
Kentucky; Greek certificate, University of Tennessee; four quarters' 
graduate study, University of Chicago; Ph. D., University of Wiscon- 
sin; one year's graduate work, Columbia University; special lecturer 
in Biblical Criticism, College of the Bible, Melbourne, Australia; 
three years, rural teacher in schools of Nebraska and Kentucky; in- 
structor in Esperanto, University of Tennesese; fellow in Education, 
University of Wisconsin; teacher in Latin, Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University. Doctor Grinstead taught Latin, French and other 
subjects at Eastern from 1906-1927. 

HAMMOND, KATHERINE. Graduate. Sargeant School of Phys- 
ical Education, Boston, Massachusetts; two years, teacher in girl's 
school, "House in the Pines" at Norton, Massachusetts; two years, 
physical director of education in city schools of Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia; four summers, instructor at Sargeant Summer Camp; instruc- 
tor at Sargeant Normal School Camp; director of physical education 
for women from 1920 to 1924 at Eastern. 

HARDIN, RUTH ANETTE. Graduate, Skidmore School of Arts, 
Saratoga Springs, New York; special course in physical education at 
New York State College for Teachers; private teacher of expression 
and director of juvenile dramatic class at Albany; teacher of expres- 
sion and physical culture for women at Eastern 1918 to 1919. 

HARMON, ELLA MAUDE. Graduate, Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School, 1914; A. B. in History, University of Kentucky, 1918; 
summer school student, University of Kentucky, 1921; Columbia Uni- 
versity, 1922; teacher, Perryville High School, 1916 to 1917 and 1920 
to 1922; teacher of Latin and history at Eastern from 1922 to 1924. 

HIGGINS, HERBERT T. Diploma, Eastern Kentucky State Nor- 
mal School and Teachers College; A. B., University of Kentucky; 
rural teacher, one year; graded school, Pulaski, Kentucky, two years; 
principal, county high school, Parksville, Kentucky, one year; manual 
training instructor, Ashland City Schools, Ashland, Kentucky, one 
year; manual training instructor, Anchorage, Kentucky, three years; 
director of vocational education, Pensacola, Florida, two years. Mr. 
Higgins was teacher of industrial arts at Eastern 192S to 1929. 

HILLEGAS, M. B. Psychology, 190S to 1909. 

HOUNCHINS, JENNIE. English, 1912 to 1914. 
HUME, MRS. STANTON B. Graduate, Bellwood Seminary and 
Kentucky Presbyterian Normal School; student, Cincinnati School of 
Domestic Science, under Miss Gamon; student of Miss Anna Barrows, 

266 Three Decades of Progress 

Columbia University; student of Miss Tamphere and Mr. Lane, New 
Hampshire; student, summer school, Peabody College; handwork and 
domestic science teacher at Eastern, 1910 to 1914; 1914 to 1932 hand- 
work and industrial arts. 

HUMPHREY, ELIZABETH. Vocal Music at Eastern, 1910 to 

HURST, JEANIE B. Expression and physical culture for women, 
1913 to 1918. 

JAGGERS, R. E. Diploma, Western Kentucky State Teachers 
College; A. B. and A. M., University of Kentucky; Ph. D., Cornell; 
rural teacher; principal, graded school; superintendent of city schools; 
assistant director of Extension, University of Kentucky; teacher of 
education and principal of Normal School at Eastern, 1926 to 1928; 
teacher of education and director of extension, 1932 to 1934. 

JAYNE, W. L. A. B., Georgetown College; teacher in rural 
schools, four years; principal, Pollard Graded Schools, five years; 
principal, Sandy City Graded Schools, four years; president of Ken- 
tucky State Association of County Superintendents, two years; prin- 
cipal, Quicksand Graded High School, two years; institute instructor; 
1920 to 1922, rural education teacher at Eastern; 1922 to 1924, direc- 
tor of the rural training school. Mr. Jayne was the Republican nom- 
inee for State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky in 

JOHNSON, J. R. B. M. E., State University of Kentucky; in- 
structor in mechanical engineering and mathematics, Kentucky State 
College, 1893-1901; assistant professor of mathematics, Kentucky State 
College, 1901-1905; professor of mathematics and mechanics, Nevada 
State University, 1905-1907; sometime dean of men at Eastern; in- 
structor of mathematics at Eastern 1906-1916. 

JOHNSON, MRS. J. R. Pupil of R. de Roode, 1887-1895; five 
years teacher, Smith's Classical School, Cynthiana, Kentucky; some- 
time teacher, Paris Classical Institute; five years, teacher, Lexing- 
ton; teacher, two years, Nevada State University; teacher of piano 
and history of music at Eastern, 1913-1914. 

KOCH, JOHN G. Graduate in public school music of Metropoli- 
tan College of Music, Cincinnati; New School of Methods, Chicago; 
one year, Teachers College, University of Cincinnati; graduate, music 
department, Cornell University; seven years, supervisor of music at 
Loveland, Milford and Franklin, Ohio; teacher of music at Eastern, 

LAWRENCE, A. J. B. C. S., Bowling Green Business University; 
A. B., University of Kentucky; two summers at University of Chicago; 
instructor, one year, Mattins Ferry, Ohio, high school; head of com- 
merce department, Owensboro, Kentucky, high school; commercial ed- 
ucation teacher at Eastern from 1926 to 1930. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 267 

LEWIS, CHARLES D. Elementary and secondary training, pri- 
vate schools; B. Ped., Kentucky State University; student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky; teacher, rural schools, 1895-97; Theodore Harris 
Institution, Pineville, Kentucky, 1901-1902; professor of rural edu- 
cation and director of extension training-, Eastern Kentucky Normal 
School, 1921-22; member, summer faculty, Peabody College for Teach- 
ers, 1917; author, The Waterboys and Their Cousins, Forms and 
Methods in Arthimetic, School Reorganization and Finance in Ken- 
tucky, A Study of Pupils from Rural and Town Schools Working 
Together in the High School. 

LEWIS, HORTENSE. Graduate, Kentucky College for Women; 
graduate, Sargent School of Physical Education; teacher of physical 
education for women at Eastern, 1925-26. 

LOGAN, JAMES V. A. B.; English at Eastern, 1925-27. 

LOWRY, LOUISE L. B. S. and M. A., Northwestern University, 
reader and assistant in mathematics, Northwestern University, one 
year; teacher of mathematics and science, Roycemore School, Evans- 
ton, Illinois, one year; Chicago Public High Schools, one semester; 
mathematics teacher at Eastern, 1930-31. 

McClelland, margaret. Latin, 1906-07. 

McDOUGAL, ERNEST CLIFTON. B. S., National Normal Uni- 
versity; A. B., Southern Normal University; Ph. D., Clark University; 
three years teacher of science, Southern Normal University; five 
years professor of Belles Lettres and Pedagogy, National Normal 
University; some time president of Southern Normal University; five 
years President of Georgia Robertson Christian College; instructor of 
institutes in Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and West Virginia; business 
director and natural science at Eastern, 1906-1909; grammar and 
pedagogy, 1909-10; pedagogy, 1911-15; Dean, pedagogy, psychology, 
and education, 1915-21. 

McKEE, LELIA. Piano, voice, violin, 1907-08. 

MESNER, E. D. Psychology, 1927-28. 

McMILLAN, MARY. Expression and physical education for 
women at Eastern, 1919-20. 

MARSTELLER, WILLIAM FISH. Graduate, Walters Collegiate 
Institute; graduate of University of Geneva with degree Licencie es- 
sciences sociales; lecturer in social sciences at Eastern, 1910-1912. 

McCOY, CLYDE. Director of athletics, at Eastern, 1919-20. 

MURPHY, EDNA LORD. Graduate, Ferry Hall, Lake Forrest; 
teacher, Ferry Hall; teacher, Miss Davis School, Morristowh; assist- 
ant to superintendent, Southern Industrial Classes, Norfolk, Virginia; 
assistant to principal of Harcourt Place School, Gambler, Ohio; grad- 
uate, Stout Institute; teacher of home economics, Iowa State College; 
teacher of home economics at Eastern, 1912-1913. 

268 Three Decades op Progress 

NEELEY, WINNIE DAVIS. Diploma, Alabama College; B. S., 
George Peabody; one year graduate work, George Peabody College 
for Teachers; student instructor in mathematics, Alabama College, 
one year; teacher in rural schools, several summers; teacher of sixth 
grade, Dotham City School, Dotham, Alabama, one year; instructor 
in English, county high school of Molton and Birmingham, Alabama, 
six years; critic teacher, Alabama College Training School, two 
years; instructor in English, county high school of Molton and Bir- 
mingham, Alabama, six years; critic teacher, Alabama College Train- 
ing School, two years; instructor of English, Alabama College, two 
summer terms; English teacher at Eastern from 1924-1930. 

NETTINGA, CORNELIA. A. B. and B. Mus., Hope College; music 
teacher at Eastern, 1932-1934. 

NEWMAN, FRANCES E. Graduate, Morganfield High School; 
A. B., Randolph-Macon College; B. S., School of Library Science, Col- 
umbia University; student assistant, Randolph-Macon College, two 
years; student assistant, School of Engineering, Columbia University, 
one year; assistant librarian at Eastern, 1928-1929. 

MILLER, CHARLES P. Graduate, Louisville High School; man- 
ual training at Eastern, 1918-1920. 

MILLER, MAUD M. Commercial department at Eastern, 1918- 

MILLION, ISSIE D. Student of Joseph Meiler and Signor 
Griseppe Randeggor, Hamilton College; pupil of Sol Marcosson, Cleve- 
land Conservatory of Music; instructor of music at Eastern, 1918- 

MILLER, RUCIE. Graduate, Suevina College; graduate, Louis- 
ville Conservatory of Music, department of dramatics, art and ex- 
pression; student, Pludelah Rice, Elizabeth Rice, Rachel Noal France, 
of Boston; Blanche Townsend, of New York; Leland Powers, Boston; 
two years, director of dramatic art and expression in city school of 
Franklin, Kentucky; teacher of expression and dramatic arts at East- 
ern, 1920-1923. 

MIMMS, LORA B. Drawing and Music, at Eastern, 1907-190S. 

MOORE, BESS. Student, Eastern Kentucky State Teachers Col- 
lege, four years; assistant librarian at Eastern, 1927-30. 

MURRAY, MARY LAVINIA. English teacher at Eastern from 

MYERS, NANCY. Student, Stetson University; A. B., Berea Col- 
lege; A. M., Columbia University; special student, University of Besan- 
con, France, 1921; taught English and French for four years, and 
for two years was head of French department, Blue Mountain Col- 
lege, Blue Mountain, Mississippi; teacher of French and English at 
Eastern, 1923-25. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 269 

MYERS, SHILO SHAFFER. Elders Ridge College; New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music; supervisor of music in public schools of 
Knoxville, Tennessee; director of music, Miami University, and Ohio 
State Normal College; instructor in public school music and methods 
of teaching and supervising, Ohio Northern University; director of 
music at Eastern, 1916-1921. 

PATRIDGE, LELIA E. Graduate, Framingham, Massachusetts 
State Normal School, Boston Institution of Physical Education, and 
Philadelphia Kindergarten Training Class; course in child study un- 
der Dr. G. Stanley Hall at Clark University; student at Univer- 
sity of Chicago; author of Quincy Methods and editor of Talks on 
Teaching; teacher, six years, in Philadelphia Normal School; teacher 
four years, in Chicago Normal School, under Colonel Parker; in- 
structor in psychology and literature in Stetson University, Deland, 
Florida; teacher in Model School at Eastern, 1908-1909; supervisor of 
practice teaching, 1910-1911; methods teacher and director of rural 
school, 1911-1921. 

PEARSON, EUGENE. A. B., Vanderbilt University; graduate 
work, University of Kentucky; one summer at Peabody College; one 
summer session at Columbia University; principal, county high school, 
Cedar Hill, Tennessee, two years; principal, city high school, George- 
town, Kentucky, two years. Mr. Pearson was teacher of English, at 
Eastern from 1926-1930. 

PEARSON, NORMA. B. A., M. A., and Ph. D., University of Wis- 
consin; teacher of science, Sparta High School, two years; assistant 
in botany, University of Wisconsin, two years; instructor in botany 
and chemistry, Catlay College, one year; instructor in biology, Beloit 
College, three years; research assistant, plant pot-biology, University 
of Wisconsin, two years; Dr. Pearson taught in the department of 
biology at Eastern from 1929-1931. 

PERRY, RUTH. Physical education for women, 1924-1926. 

PHIPPS, FRANK. Assistant coach at Eastern from 1929-1934. 

PIOTROWSKA, HELENA. Graduate, Buffalo High School; grad- 
uate, Buffalo Teachers' Training School; life certificate, State of New 
York; six years, teacher in Buffalo public schools; A. B., Cornell 
University; German teacher at Eastern, 1909-1911; French and Ger- 
man, 1911-1913; French, German, and Psychology, 1913-1917. 

POLLITT, MABEL H. A. B. and A. M., University of Kentucky; 
additional graduate work in American Academies of Rome and 
Athens; principal, Lewis County High School, Vanceburg. Kentucky, 
two years; instructor and assistant in department of ancient lan- 
guages, University of Kentucky, six years; professor and acting head 
of department of ancient languages, Georgetown College, one year; 
Phi Beta Kappa and Eta Sigma Phi fraternities; author, Life of James 
Kennedy Patterson, President University of Kentucky. 1S69-191S. 

270 Three Decades op Progress 

Miss Pollitt was teacher of Latin and other languages at Eastern 
from 1927-1934. 

PORTWOOD, ALFRED E. Diploma, Midway High School; A. B., 
University of Kentucky; freshman backfield coach, fall 1929, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky; physical education and assistant coach, at Eastern, 
from 1930-1936. 

PULLEN, J. S. Graduate of Murray Institute, Murray, Ken- 
tucky; B. S., Battle Ground Academy; sometime, student of Louisi- 
ana State University and Tulane University; three years, teacher in 
Kentucky, three years, teacher, Training School, Centerville, Louisi- 
ana; from 1912-1918, teacher of agriculture and rural economics at 

RALSTON, HENRIETTA. Drawing and art, 1906-1908. 

RAMEY, MURRAY. Manual training, from 1908-1912. 

REID, MARY E. Edmonton High School; graduate, Liberty Col- 
lege, Glasgow; special course in library administration, University of 
Nashville, one year; Carnegie Library, Nashville, one year; librarian 
at Eastern from 1911-1929. 

RICE, JANE V. Graduate, Richmond High School; B. S., Iowa 
State College, Ames, Iowa; demonstration agent, Bradley County, 
Tennessee, 1917-191S; teacher, home economics, Central High School, 
Cleveland, Tennessee, 1918-1919; sometime, graduate student, Pea- 
body College; home economics teacher at Eastern from 1920-1922. 

RICHARDSON, NANCY. A. B., North Carolina College for 
Women; assistant librarian, Richard J. Reynolds High School, "Win- 
ston-Salem, North Carolina; assistant cataloger, Peabody College; 
graduate, department of library science, Peabody College; cataloger, 
summer session, Arkansas State Teachers College, Conway, Arkansas; 
assistant librarian and library science teacher at Eastern from 1930- 

ROARK, R. N. President of Eastern 1906-1909; psychology and 
pedagogy. Dr. Roark was the first president of Eastern. (More de- 
tailed information is given about him elsewhere in this volume.) 

ROARK, MRS. R. N. Student, four years, Nebraska University 
and Oberlin College; B. S., National Normal University; student. Col- 
orado College; B. A., National Normal University; teacher, four years, 
National Normal University; three years, Vice-President, Glasgow 
Normal School; sometime, teacher, Kentucky State College; acting- 
President, Eastern Kentucky State Normal School, 1910. From 1910- 
1916, sbe was Dean of Women at Eastern. 

ROBERTS, KATHERINE. A. B., University of Kentucky; French 
and English at Eastern, L925-28; French 1928-1929. 

ROBINSON. J. R. A. B. and A. M., University of Kentucky: 
teacher, Walton lli.nh School. 19UH-19HI; Caldwell High School, Rich- 
mond, 1910-1912; principal, Madison County High School, Waco, 1912- 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 271 

1918; graduate student, Chicago University, summer 1922; history 
and mathematics, at Eastern, 1919-1920; Extension department, 1920- 
1922; registrar and history teacher, 1922- 1927. 

RUSSELL, HELEN H. Physical education for women, 1926-1928. 

SCHRIVNER, PEARL. Life certificate, Eastern Kentucky State 
Normal School, class 1919; assistant librarian at Eastern 1920 to 1921. 

SCUDDER, J. W. M. D., physiology and hygiene, 1927 to 192S. 

SHARON, J. A. B. Ped., University of Kentucky; mathematics 
and review courses, 1906-1907; director of state certificate course, 1907 
to 1909; American history and civics, 1909 to 1912. 

SHARP, J. W. Vocal music, 1907 to 1909. 

SLATER. EVELYN. Graduate of Holmes High School, Coving- 
ton, Kentucky; four years business experience with Cincinnati bank- 
ing concerns; B. S., University of Kentucky; one year, graduate work, 
University of Kentucky; one semester, substitute work, Cincinnati 
public schools; foods instructor, East Nigert High School, Cincinnati; 
home economics teacher at Eastern from 1927 to 1932. 

SPENCER, VIRGINIA E. A. B. and A. M., University of Kansas; 
Ph. D. University of Zurich, Switzerland; Dean of Women, and teacher 
of German and history from 1905 to 1909. 

SQUIRES, R. DEAN. A. B., Central University, Richmond, Ken- 
tucky; three terms, Teachers College, Columbia; University of New 
York, 1912, 1913, 1914; three years, teacher public schools, Montgom- 
ery County, Kentucky; one year, superintendent of a township con- 
solidated school, Indiana; nine years, superintendent, city schools, 
Carlisle, Kentucky. 

STEWART, J. O., Jr. A. B. and honorary, A. M., Cedarville Col- 
lege; Cincinnati College of Music, one year; collegiate diploma, Cin- 
cinnati Conservatory of Music; teacher of voice, New Philadelphia, 
Ohio, one year; State Normal School, Indiana, Pennsylvania, three 
years; Norfolk, Virginia, one year; supervisor of public school music, 
Miami and Montgomery Counties, Ohio, two years; author of several 
articles on public school music. Mr. Stewart was director of music 
at Eastern from 1922 to 1931. 

STOTT, ROSCOE G. A. B., Franklin College; two years teacher 
in Franklin College; two years teacher in Drury College; a year's 
graduate work in the University of Chicago; assistant in English in 
Michigan State Agricultural College; magazine writer of verse, stor- 
ies, and humor; English teacher Eastern from 1910 to 1917. 

STRADER, EDNA LOUISE. B. S., James Millikan University; 
graduate work, University of Illinois; graduate work, Columbia Uni- 
versity; five years, high school instructor in Illinois; home econo- 
mics teacher at Eastern from 1915 to 1917. 

SULLIVAN, KATHLEEN B. Student six years, Campbell-Hager- 
man College, Lexington, Kentucky; graduate, Union College, 1912; 

272 Three Decades of Progress 

B. S. in home economics, University of Kentucky, 1916; engaged in 
extension work during summer of 1915; home economics teacher at 
Eastern from 1917 to 1921. 

SULLIVAN, M. R. A. B., Georgetown College; graduate student, 
University of Kentucky; teacher of economics and history at Eastern 
1925 to 192S. 

TAPP, HAMBLETON. A. B., Centre College; assistant in Eng- 
lish, Centre College; principal of consolidated graded and high school, 
Stone, Kentucky; graduate work, George Peahody College for Teach- 
ers; teacher of English at Eastern, 1925 to 1928. 

TAYLOR, L. N. B. S., University of Kentucky; review branches 
1906 to 190T. 

TAYLOR, N. V. B. S., Cornell; nature study and science, 1906 to 

TRAYNOR, MARY. Music at Eastern, 1906-07. 

WADE, C. M. Agriculture at Eastern, 1924-26. 

WATERS, CARRIE M. Courses in library economy, Nashville 
Carnegie Library; one year, head of reference department, and nine 
years, head of cataloguing department in Carnegie Library, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee; assistant librarian at Eastern from 1921-26. 

WATSON, C. F. A. B., teacher of physiography, 1909-1910. 

WESLEY, L. G. A. B., Union College; correspondence depart- 
ment at Eastern, 1927-32. 

WILLIAMS, WINNONA. Cataloger at Eastern from 1926-2S. 

WILSON, C. H. Manual training teacher and physical educa- 
tion at Eastern, 1911-12. 

WOLCOTT, HELEN B. M. A., teacher of sociology, 1914-1S. 

WOODS, RUTH. B. S., State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mis- 
souri; graduate work in Columbia University; instructor in voca- 
tional home economics, Trenton, Missouri; assistant in home econo- 
mics, summer term, State Teachers College, Kirksville, Missouri; 
home economics teacher at Eastern 1922-23. 

ZELLHOEFER, EDNA. Graduate, Illinois State Normal Univer- 
sity; A. B., University of Illinois; A. M., Columbia University; in- 
structor in English, Sparland High School, LeRoy High School, and 
Rockford High School, Illinois; instructor in English in high school, 
La Crosse, Wisconsin; teacher of English at Eastern, 1922-32. 

WRIGHT, MARY EVA. Music teacher at Eastern from 1915-1917. 




By William J. Moore, Maude Gibson, May C. Hansen 

Below are given short biographical sketches of faculty members 
who are serving Eastern at the present time. Members of the train- 
ing school staff are included elsewhere, and, for that reason, are omit- 
ted in the list below. 

DONOVAN, H. L. Diploma, Western Kentucky Normal School; 
A. B., University of Kentucky; M. A., Teachers College, Columbia 
University; graduate student, University of Chicago; Ph. D., Peabody 
College; LL. D., University of Kentucky; rural teacher, one year; 
elementary school principal, Paducah, Kentucky, three years; super- 
intendent of schools, Wickliffe, Kentucky, two years; assistant super- 
intendent of schools, Louisville, Kentucky, five years; army psycholo- 
gist, one year; superintendent of schools, Cattletsburg, Kentucky, 
one year; Dean of Eastern, two years; professor of elementary educa- 
tion, Peabody College, three years. Dr. Donovan is a member of the 
N. E. A. and the K. E. A. Honorary fraternities of which he is a mem- 
ber are: Phi Delta Kappa, Kappa Delta Pi, and Phi Beta Kappa. He 
served as president of the American Association of Teachers Colleges 
in 1934. Dr. Donovan is author of several articles on educational sub- 
jects. He has been president of Eastern since 1928. 

ADAMS, KERNEY M. Diploma, Eastern Kentucky Normal School 
and Teachers College; A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Cornell 
University; two years of additional graduate work at Harvard L T ni- 
versity; teacher, rural schools of Kentucky; teacher of history, Altoona 
High School, Altoona, Pennsylvania, two years. From 192S to 1932, 
Mr. Adams was director of Extension at Eastern and did part-time 
teaching in the department of social science. Since 1932 he has been 
a full-time staff member in the department of social science, and is at 
present associate professor of history. Mr. Adams is a member of 
the American Historical Association, the Kentucky Academy of Sci- 
ences, the K. E. A., the N. E. A., the Kentucky Academy of Social 
Sciences, and the Southern Historical Association. 

BARNHILL, MRS. MARY E. Diploma, Western Kentucky State 
Normal School; A. B., University of Kentucky; M. A., Ohio State 
University; LL. B., University of Louisville; graduate student, Ohio 
State University; teacher in the English department at Eastern since 
1931. At present she is associate professor of English. Mrs. Barnhill 
is a member of the K. E. A., the N. E. A., Modern Language Associa- 
tion, National Association of Teachers of English, Filson Club, Kappa 

274 Three Decades of Progress 

Delta Pi, Pi Lambda Theta, American Association of University 

BENNETT, ISABELLE. A. B., University of Kentucky; B. S. in 
Library Science, Columbia University; assistant librarian at Eastern, 
1924 to 1927; instructor, Universtiy of Kentucky, summer term, 1929; 
assistant instructor in School of Library Science, Columbia University, 
1928-29. She is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., K. L. A. She has 
been at Eastern since 1929. 

BUCHANAN, PEARL. A. B., Southwestern University; one sem- 
ester graduate work, University of Oklahoma; one semester graduate 
work, Northwestern University; M. A., George Peabody College for 
Teachers; two years, head of English department, State Preparatory 
School, Claremore, Oklahoma; one year, teacher of English and dra- 
matics, Henryetta High School, Henryetta, Oklahoma; one semester, 
teaching fellowship, George Peabody College; four years, teacher of 
speech and dramatics, Senior High School, Muskogee, Oklahoma; 
one semester assistant instructor in reading. State Normal School, 
Ada, Oklahoma ; present position since 1923. Miss Buchanan has con- 
tributed articles dealing with speech instruction to educational peri- 
odicals. She is a member of N. E. A., K. E. A., N. A. T. S., 
S. A. T. S., Kentucky Speech Association, Pi Gamma Mu, Alpha Psi 
Omega, and is assistant editor of the Bulletin of the Southern Asso- 
ciation of Teachers of Speech. At present she is associate professor 
of English. 

BURNS, VIRGIL. Diploma, Western Kentucky State Normal 
School and Teachers College; ten months' training in Bowling Green 
Business University; A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Colum- 
bia University; rural teacher, three years; principal, Golden Pond 
Graded School, Trigg County, one year; superintendent, Kuttawa 
City Schools, four years; present position since 1924; history teacher 
at Eastern, 1924 to 1925; education and history, 1925 to 1927; civics, 
1927 to 1928; social science teacher and critic, 192S to 1931; since 
1934, assistant professor of history and government. ■ Mr. Burns is a 
member of the N. E. A., K. E. A., Kappa Delta Pi, American Political 
Science Association, Southern Historical Association, Madison County 
Historical Association, and Kentucky Academy of Social Sciences. 
Mr. Burns has done additional graduate work at Columbia University 
and has finished the main requirement for the doctorate. 

BURRIER, MARY KING. Diploma, Hamilton College: B. S.. 
M. S., University of Kentucky; Columbia University, two summer 
terms (if graduate work; home demonstration agent, Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, six months; supervisor of home economics, Fayette County. 
Kentucky, one and a half years; home economies and science teacher, 
Pikeville College, Pikeville, Kentucky: home economics and science 
teacher, .Midway High School, four years; since 1925, teacher of home 
economics, at Eastern; at present, assistant professor of home eeono- 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 275 

mics. Miss Burrier is a member of K. E. A., N. E. A., A. H. E. A., 
Phi Upsilon Omicron. 

CALDWELL, C. E. B. S., National Normal University; B. A., 
Marietta College; A. M., Ohio State University; one year additional 
graduate work, Ohio State University; superintendent, accredited 
schools in Ohio, eleven years; instructor in mathematics, Marietta 
College, summer sessions; present position since 1912; member of the 
K. E. A., N. E. A., and Kentucky Academy of Science. At present 
Mr. Caldwell is associate professor of mathematics. 

CAMPBELL, JANE. Bachelor of Music, Taylor University; A. B., 
Eastern Indiana State Normal School; graduate work, Eastern Indi- 
ana State Normal School; A. M., Columbia University; teacher of 
public school music, Taylor University, one year; teacher of music, 
Central High School, Indiana, four years; music critic, Eastern Indi- 
ana State Normal School, two years; present position cince 1926; 
Ecole Normal De Musique, Paris; student of Nadai Bonlanger. Miss 
Campbell is a member of the N. E. A. and the K. E. A. At present 
she is assistant professor of music. 

CARTER, ASHBY B. Diploma. George Peabody College for 
Teachers; student, University of Richmond, University of Virginia, 
Virginia Mechanical Institute; graduate student, George Peabody 
College for Teachers, Teachers College, Columbia University, LTniver- 
sity of Kentucky; B. S. and M. S., George Peabody; rural teacher, 
Virginia schools, two years: high school principal, Virginia schools, 
two years; teacher of agriculture and manual training. Tennessee 
high school, four years; contributor to agriculture journals. Mr. Car- 
ter is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., Kentucky Academy of 
Science, American Country Life Association, Phi Delta Kappa. He 
taught science at Eastern from 1920 to 1924; biology teacher and di- 
rector of farm, 1924 to 192S; agriculture and sanitary science 192S to 
1930. Since 192S he has been associate professor of agriculture. 

CASE, EMMA Y. Student, University of Kentucky; A. B., East- 
ern Kentucky State Normal School and Teachers College; M. A., 
Peabody College for Teachers; rural school teacher, two years; 
graded school teacher, two years; teacher, Tucumari City School, 
Tucumari, New Mexico, one year; principal, high schools in Kentucky, 
four years; from 1925 to 1929 critic teacher at Eastern: 1929 to 1932 
rural education teacher; since 1932 Dean of AVomen; member of 
K. E. A., N. E. A., Kentucky Association for Deans of Women, Na- 
tional Association Deans of Women, and American Association of 
LTniversity Women. 

CLARK, ROY B. Diploma, State Normal School. Kearney, Ne- 
braska; A. B., University of Nebraska; A. M., Columbia University; 
Ph. D., Columbia University; rural teacher, one year; principal of 
ten-grade village school, Homer, Nebraska, four years; superintendent 
of standard twelve-grade school, Sutherland, Iowa, one-half year; as- 

276 Three Decades op Progress 

sistant professor of English, State Normal School, Chadron, Nebraska, 
seven and one-half years; professor of English, State Normal School, 
Natchitoches, Louisiana, two years; lecturer in English, Columbia 
University, one semester; instructor in English, New Jamestown, 
North Dakota, two years; head of English department and professor 
of English at Eastern since 1926. Member of Phi Beta Kappa, Mod- 
ern Language Association, Sigma Tau Delta, professional English 
fraternity, Graduate English Union of Columbia University, National 
Educational Association, and Kentucky Education Association. 

COX, MEREDITH J. Diploma, Warren Academy; B. S. and 
M. A., Peabody College for Teachers; two semester's graduate work, 
Columbia University and University of Wisconsin; principal, Hodgen- 
ville High School: instructor in science and coach, Hattiesburg High 
School, two years; professor of chemistry, Berea College, one year; 
present position since 1924; author of several articles on chemistry 
and related subjects; additional graduate work, Duke University and 
George Peabody; member of K. E. A., N. E. A., and Phi Delta Kappa. 
At present Mr. Cox is professor of chemistry. 

CUFF, NOEL B. B. S., A. M., Ph. D., George Peabody College 
for Teachers; teacher of Spanish, David Lipscomb College, two years; 
teacher of English, Freed-Hardeman College, one year; principal, 
county high school, Davidson County, Tennessee, two years; teacher 
of psychology, Appalachain State Normal School, Boone, North Car- 
olina, two summer sessions; teacher of psychology, David Lipscomb 
College, two years. He is a member of N. E. A., K. E. A., American 
Psychology Association, A. A. A. S., Southern Society of Philosophy 
and Psychology, Midwestern Psychology Association, Kentucky Acad- 
emy of Science, Pi Gamma Mu and Phi Delta Kappa; author of sev- 
eral articles on general educational, experimental, and child psy- 
chology. Doctor Cuff has been at Eastern since 192S. He is professor 
of educational psychology. 

DENISTON, N. G. B. M. T., Valparaiso University; student. 
Stout Institute; student, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; B. S., 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute; graduate work, University of Chicago; 
life certificate in Montana and North Carolina; supervisor of Manual 
Training, Livingston, Montana, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Mobile, 
Alabama; head of department of industrial arts, Stanley McCormick 
School, Burnsville, North Carolina; head of manual arts department, 
Mississippi Normal College, Hattiesburg, Mississippi; present posi- 
tion since 1919; leave of absence, 192S to 1929 with La Verne Noyes 
scholarship; M. S., Kansas State College for Teachers of Pittsburg. 
He has been at Eastern since 1919. At present he is associate profes- 
sor of industrial arts. He is a member of the K. E. A., American 
Vocational Association, Western Arts Association, and Phi Sigma Pi. 

DERRICK, LUCILLE. B. S., Eastern Kentucky State Teacers 
College; M. A., George Peabody College for Teachers; secretary to 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 277 

director of research, Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College, 1931 
to 1932; since 1934, assistant professor of mathematics and assistant 
to director of research. She is a member of the N. E. A., K. E. A., 
Kappa Delta Pi, and Pi Omega Pi. 

DIX, RUTH. Teacher's diploma, Bradley Polytechnic Institute; 
one year and one summer term, University of Illinois; B. S., Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute; A. M., Teachers College, Columbia University; 
teacher of home economics, high school, Colfax, Illinois, two years; 
city supervisor, township high school, Pana, Illinois, three years; 
home demonstration agent, Hendricks County, Indiana, two years; 
present position since 1923. At present, associate professor of home 
economics. She is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., and the Home 
Economics Association. 

DORRIS, J. T. Diploma, Zanarian Art College; A. B., Illinois 
College; A. M., University of Wisconsin; Ph. D., University of Illinois; 
rural teacher, two years; Business College, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, one 
year; tutor in Whipple Academy, Ave years; high school principal 
and superintendent in Illinois, twelve years; teaching fellowship in 
history, University of Illinois, two and one half years; instructor, 
State Normal School, Minot, N. D., ten weeks; instructor, State Nor- 
mal University, Normal, Illinois, twelve weeks. He is a member of 
the American Historical Association, Mississippi Valley Historical As- 
sociation, Southern Historical Association, Illinois Historical Society, 
Kentucky Historical Society, Filson Club, Madison County Historical 
Society, Kentucky Academy of Social Science, N. E. A., K. E. A., and 
Pi Gamma Mu; author of several articles in history and government; 
sponsoring committee, Education and Race Relations; member of 
Daniel Boone Bicentennial Commission and Pioneer National Park As- 
sociation. Dr. Dorris has been with Eastern since 1926. At present 
he is professor of history and government. 

EDWARDS, R. A. A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Colum- 
bia University; taught four sessions in rural schools of Graves and 
Calloway counties; principal of Trimble County High School and 
Bedford Graded School, 1910 to 1918; present position since 191S; 
student in summer schools of University of Minnesota, University of 
Tennessee, and Peabody College. At present, Mr. Edwards is profes- 
sor of education and director of training school. He is a member of 
the N. E. A., National Society for Supervisors of Student Teaching, 
and the K. E. A. 

ENGLE, FRED A. A. A., Cumberland College; A. B.. University 
of Kentucky; A. M., University of Kentucky; two years of additional 
graduate work, University of Kentucky; rural teacher, three years; 
principal of graded school of Knox County, Kentucky, three years; 
principal of Corbin High School, six years; teacher of biology, Win- 
chester High School, one and one half years; teacher, Cumberland 
College, one semester; teacher, Sue Bennett College, London, Ken- 

278 Three Decades of Progress 

tucky, one semester; member K. E. A., N. E. A., Phi Delta Kappa, 
and Kappa Delta Pi. Mr. Engle has been at Eastern since 1928. At 
present he is assistant professor of mathematics. 

FARRIS, JACOB D. Diploma, Western Kentucky State Normal 
School and Teachers College; student, University of Chicago, one year; 
A. M., Peabody College for Teachers; M. D., Vanderbilt University; 
assistant principal, Columbia High School, two years; principal, New 
Market High School, Alabama, four years; teacher, industrial arts, 
Nashville Public Schools, four years. Dr. Farris is a member of Phi 
Beta Pi, medical fraternity, Alpha Omega Alpha, honorary medical 
fraternity; the N. E. A. and the K. E. A. Since 192S he has been 
college physician at Eastern. 

FERRILL, D. THOMAS. A. B., Duke University; A. M., Duke 
University; Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, four months; A. M., 
Teachers College, Columbia University; two years additional graduate 
work, George Peabody College for Teachers; instructor in American 
army post school four months; principal, Alexis Graded School, Gas- 
ton County, N. C, two years; instructor in history, Trinity Park 
School, two years; principal, Bethesda High School, Durham County, 
North Carolina, three years; assistant in education, Duke University, 
two years; professor of physchology and education. East Carolina 
Teachers College, summer term, 192G. Mr. Ferrill is a member of 
the K. E. A., N. E. A., and Phi Delta Kappa. He has been at Eastern 
since 1927. At present he is associate professor of education. 

FLOYD, MARY. Diploma and A. B., Eastern Kentucky State 
Teachers College; A. M., Teachers College, Columbia University; 
three terms of graduate work, University of Chicago; teacher, graded 
school, Louisville, four years; principal, graded school, Florida, one 
year; instructor in history, Somerset High School and coach of 
debate team that won second place in state contest, 1924; B. S. in 
Library Service, Columbia University; from 1925 to 1929, teacher of 
history and English at Eastern: since 1929 associate professor of his- 
tory and librarian. Miss Floyd is author of several articles on his- 
tory and library science. She is a member of the A. L. A., Kentucky 
Library Association (director 1933-35), N. E. A., K. E. A., and the 
A. A. U. W. 

FORD, EDITH G. Diploma, Louisiana State Normal School, 
Natchitoches, Louisiana; B. C. S., Bowling Green Business University, 
Bowling Green, Kentucky; A. B., George Washington University, 
Washington, D. C; M. A., University of Kentucky; city schools, Alex- 
andria, Louisiana, two years; high school, Beckley, West Virginia, 
two years; high school, Winston Salem, North Carolina, one year; 
one summer school, Columbia University. Miss Ford has been at 
Eastern since 1927. At present, she is assistant professor of com- 
merce. She is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., Pi Omega Pi, and 
the Kentucky Business Education Association. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 279 

FOWLER, ALLIE. B. S. and M. A., George Peabody College for 
Teachers; teacher, Somerset High School; teacher, Western Kentucky 
State Teachers College, summer term; at Eastern, since 1932; at pres- 
ent, assistant professor of art. She is a member of Kappa Delta Pi, 
N. E. A., K. E. A., and the Western Arts Association. 

GIBSON, MAUDE. Graduate, Lebanon Normal; two years' 
course in public school art at Teachers College, Miami University; 
one semester at School of Applied Design, New York; one and one- 
half semesters in art classes of Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity; three years, decorator, Weller Art Pottery, Zanesville, Ohio; 
one year, teacher at Clarksville, Tennessee, Female College; two 
years, teacher, Birmingham, Alabama, High School; Summer 1926, 
studied great works of art in galleries of Europe; present position 
since 1910. At present Miss Gibson is assistant professor of art. She 
is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., and the Western Arts Associa- 

GILL, ANNA D. B. C. S.. Bowling Green Business University; 
A. B., University of Kentucky; student, summer school, Gregg School, 
Chicago, six weeks; University of Wisconsin, twelve weeks; Western 
Kentucky State Normal School and Teachers College, nine weeks; 
teacher, high school, Mapleton, Maine, one year; head of commercial 
department, Elkins High School, Elkins, West Virginia, seven years; 
present position since 1928; M. A., University of Kentucky; one se- 
mester additional graduate work, Columbia University. Miss Gill is 
a member of the N. E. A., K. E. A., Department of Business Education, 
Southern Business Education Association, Kentucky Business Educa- 
tion Association, A. A. U. W., Kappa Delta Pi, Pi Omega Pi. She is 
the author of articles on business education. Since 1930, she has 
been assistant professor of commerce at Eastern. 

GUMBERT, GEORGE. B. S. and M. S., University of Kentucky; 
one summer term additional graduate work, University of Kentucky; 
four months' officer in Material School; commissioned ensign U. S. N. 
during World War; seven years, experience in Smith-Hughes agricul- 
ture in Crittenden, Calloway, and Fayette counties, Kentucky; in- 
structor in agriculture, Eastern Kentucky Normal School, 1922. Mr. 
Gumbert is a member of the N. E. A., K. E. A., Alpha Zeta. He has 
been with Eastern since 1925, and is at present assistant professor 
of Agriculture. 

HANSEN, MAY C. Graduate, Oshkosk State Teachers College; 
student, University of Chicago; student, Columbia University: B. S., 
George Peabody College; M. A., Columbia University; teacher, rural 
schools of Wisconsin, two years; teacher, public schools, Washburn, 
Wisconsin, three years; teacher, public school. Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
three years. Miss Hansen has been at Eastern since 1912. At pres- 
ent she is associate professor of education. She is a member of the 
K. E. A., N. E. A., A. C. E., and A. A. U. W. 

280 Three Decades op Progress 

HEMBREE, GEORGE N. Student, Eastern Kentucky State 
Teachers College, one year; B. C. S., Bowling Green Business Univer- 
sity; rural teacher, two years, undergraduate work, University of 
Illinois, two summers; undergraduate work, Peahody College for 
Teachers, one summer session; M. A., University of Kentucky. He 
is a member of the N. E. A., K. E. A., National Physical Education 
Association, and the Kentucky Physical Education Association. 
1920-22, he was director of athletics and teacher of commerce at East- 
ern; 1922-192S, physical education; 192S-30, director of athletics. 
Since 1930 he has been assistant professor of health and physical 

HERNDON, T. C. B. S., University of Kentucky; A. M.. Pea- 
body College for Teachers; one year, graduate student, University of 
Chicago; two years, graduate student, Peabody College for Teachers; 
some time teacher at Bethel College, Russellville, Kentucky; instruc- 
tor, Peabody College for Teachers; M. A. and Ph. D., George Peabody 
College for Teachers. He is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., Amer- 
ican Chemical Society, Alpha Chi Sigma (Chemical fraternity). Phi 
Delta Kappa, and the Kentucky Academy of Science. During 192S-29 
Mr. Herndon was a substitute teacher at Eastern. Since 1930 he has 
been professor of chemistry. 

HOOD, GERTRUDE M. A. B., Ohio Wesleyan University; A. M., 
Columbia University; physical education and English, State Normal 
and Industrial School, Ellendale, North Dakota, 1927-2S. Miss Hood 
is a member of the K. E. A., N. E. A., N. A. A. F., Women's Division, 
A. A. U. W., A. P. E. A. Since 1927 she has been assistant professor 
of health and physical education at Eastern. 

HOUNCHELL, SAUL. A. B., Dension University; M. A. and Ph. 
D., George Peabody College for Teachers. From 1916 to 1932 Mr. 
Hounchell was teacher and principal at Oneida Institute, in the Ken- 
tucky mountains. He was instructor in the English department at 
Eastern in the spring of 1934; and instructor in English at East 
Texas State Teachers College in the summer of 1934. Since 1934 he 
has been assistant professor of English at Eastern. He is a member 
of the K. E. A., N. E. A., the National Council of Teachers of English, 
Phi Delta Kappa, and Kappa Delta Pi. 

HUGHES, ELIZA. Diploma, New Haven Normal School of Gym- 
nastics; three summer terms, University of Kentucky; A. B.. Eastern; 
A. M., Columbia University; supervision and physical education. Paris 
City Schools, Paris, Kentucky, three years; physical education teacher 
at Eastern 1923-24; studied at Doris Humphrey-Charles Weidman 
School of Modern Dance, summer 1935; member of the K. E. A. and 
the K. E. A. Since 1927 Miss Hughes has been with the health and 
physical education department at Eastern. At present she is assist- 
ant professor of health and physical education. 

HUGHES. CHARLES T. Diploma, Morton-Elliott Junior College; 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 281 

A. B., University of Kentucky; coach, Harlan High School, two 
years; principal and head coach, Harlan High School, one year; M. A., 
University of Michigan; 1929-34, coach at Eastern; 1934-35, coach and 
physical education teacher. He is a member of Phi Delta Kappa, 
N. E. A., K. E. A., and the National Health and P. E. Association. 
At present Mr. Hughes is assistant professor of physical education. 

HUMMELL, ARNIM DEAN. B. S., Knox College; M. S., and 
Ph. D., University of Illinois; part-time instructor in physics, University 
of Illinois, one year. He held the Knox College, Illinois, scholarship 
for graduate work at the University of Illinois, and was fellow at the 
University of Illinois. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Epsilon 
Chi Sigma, Gamma Alpha, American Physics Society, American Asso- 
ciation of Physics Teachers, IT. U. A. S., Kentucky Academy of 
Sciences, N. E. A., and K. E. A. He has been at Eastern since 1929 
and is professor of physics. 

JONES, W. C. B. S., East Texas State Teachers College; A. M., 
Colorado State Teachers College; Ph. D., George Peabody College for 
Teachers; principal, Wiley High School, Wiley, Colorado, two years. 
He was teacher of mathematics at Eastern, 1926; chemistry, 1926-27; 
mathematics, 1927-28; principal, Normal School and head of depart- 
ment of mathematics, 192S-31; director of research and professor of 
education, 1931-34. Since 1934 Dr. Jones has been Dean of the fac- 
ulty, director of research, and professor of education. He is a mem- 
ber of the N. E. A., K. E. A., Phi Delta Kappa and Kappa Delta Pi. 

KEENE, W. L. Diploma, Middle Tennessee State Normal School; 

B. S. and M. A., George Peabody College for Teachers; rural teacher, 
three years; principal, consolidated elementary and county high 
school, Liberty, Tennessee, two years; summer school instructor. Mid- 
dle Tennessee State Teachers College, 1925-26; two years of additional 
graduate work, George Peabody College for Teachers. Mr. Keene is a 
member of the K. E. A. and the N. E. A. He has been at Eastern 
since 1926. At present he is associate professor of English. 

KEITH, CHARLES A. Student. University of Arkansas and the 
University of Texas; B. A., Oxford University, England. 1911; M. A., 
Oxford University, 1920; honorary Doctor of Pedagogy, Ohio Northern 
University, 1926; one year and two summer terms' additional graduate 
work, Indiana University, 1926-27; two years, rural teacher, Clark and 
Howard counties, Arkansas; one year, head of history department, 
Little Rock High School. Arkansas; one summer term, acting head of 
history department, Western Kentucky State Teachers College, Bowling 
Green; one summer term, lecturer historical subjects, Ohio Northern 
University. Mr. Keith has been at Eastern since 1912. At present he is 
professor of history and government, head of the social science depart- 
ment, and dean of men. He is a member of the N. E. A. and the 
K. E. A., and is past president of the K. E. A. For a number of sea- 
sons he was a lecturer on the Redpath Chautauqua. 

282 Three Decades of Progress 

KENNAMER, L. G. A. B., Simmons University, Texas; B. S, 
M. A., and Ph. D., George Peabody College for Teachers; student, 
University of Wisconsin, one year; professor, Abilene Christian Col- 
lege, six years; professor of science, David Lispcomb College, one 
year; teacher of geography, Sam Houston State Teachers College, 
Huntsville, Texas, summer session; bursar and registrar, Abilene 
College, three years; assistant in geography department, George Pea- 
body College, two years. Dr. Kennamer is a member of Pi Gamma 
Mu, Phi Beta Phi, Kappa Delta Pi, Phi Delta Kappa, the National 
Council of Geography Teachers, the Kentucky Council of Geography, 
the Southern Council of Geography, the N. E. A., the K. E. A., the 
Texas Educational Association, the Southern Historical Association, 
and sponsor of the World Affairs Club. He has been at Eastern since 
1928. At present he is professor of geography. 

KOHL, LILY E. B. S., Tri-State University; M. S., University of 
Chicago. Miss Kohl is a member of the American Home Economics 
Association, American Dietetics Association, State Home Economics 
Association, State Dietetics Association, Regional Dietetics Associa- 
tion, K. E. A. and the N. E. A. Since 1934 she has been assistant pro- 
fessor of home economics and manager of the cafetaria at Eastern. 

KRICK, HARRIETTE V. A. B., Hiram College; Ph. D., Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Dr. Krick is a member of the American Association 
for Advancement of Science; Kentucky Academy of Science, Kentucky 
Educational Association, National Education Association, and So- 
ciety of Sigma Xi. Dr. Krick attended the summer session, 1935, of 
the University College, Southampton, England; summer session, 1935, 
of The International People's College, Elsinore, Denmark. She has 
unpublished personal research work at the Museum of Natural His- 
tory, London, England and Paris, France. Since 1930 she has been 
Associate Professor of biology at Eastern. 

LUTES, MRS. HELEN H. Diploma in music, Ohio State Teach- 
ers College; B. Mus., University of Michigan. Mrs. Lutes is a mem- 
ber of Sigma Alpha Iota (Professional Music Fraternity for Women); 
Phi Sigma Nu (Honorary Musical Fraternity); and the National Mu- 
sic Association. Since 1931, Mrs. Lutes has been assistant professor 
of music at Eastern. 

McDONOUGH, T. E. Diploma, La Crosse Teachers College; 
student, Columbia University, one year; B. S. and A. M., George Pea- 
body College for Teachers; director of physical education and coach, 
Bluff ton City Schools, Indiana, one year; supervisor of physical edu- 
cation, city schools, Milwaukee, three years; student instructor, Col- 
umbia I'niversity, one year; student instructor, Peabody College and 
Peabody Demonstration School, three years; director of Life Boys 
Camp, New York, two years; dean of Scoutmasters School, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, two years; first aid instructor, American National 
Red Cross, eight years. He is a member of Alpha Sigma Phi, Phi 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 283 

Delta Kappa, N. E. A., K. E. A., National Physical Education Asso- 
ciation (Secretary Southern Section National Physical Education As- 
sociation, 1929), and Kentucky Health and Physical Education Asso- 
ciation. He has been a football and basketball official for 15 years. 
Mr. McDonough has been at Eastern since 1928. At present he is 
associate professor of health and physical education. 

McKINNEY, MARY F. Diploma, Eastern Kentucky State Nor- 
mal School and Teachers College; B. S. and M. A., George Peabody 
College for Teachers; principal, independent graded school and high 
school, Clark County, Kentucky, four years; critic teacher in geog- 
raphy and mathematics, Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College, 
three years. Miss McKinney is a member of the Kentucky Council 
of Geography Teachers, National Council of Geography Teachers, 
National Geographic Society, K. E. A., and N. E. A. She is the spon- 
sor of the Young Women's Christian Association at Eastern. She has 
been at Eastern since 1923. At present she is associate professor of 

MASON, FRANCES. A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers 
College; A. B. in Library Science, Emory University. Miss Mason is 
a member of N. E. A., and K. E. A., and the Kentucky Library Asso- 
ciation. She has been at Eastern since 1931. At present she is as- 
sistant librarian, in charge of the children's library. 

MATTOX, MELVIN E. Diploma, Mississippi State Normal School; 
B. S. and A. M., Peabody College; three quarters of additional graduate 
work, Peabody College; rural teacher, one year; principal of village 
and consolidated schools, five years; instructor, Mississippi State 
Normal, two summers; professor in education, University of South 
Carolina, one summer; superintendent of training school, Eastern 
Kentucky State Teachers College, one year. Mr. Mattox is a member 
of the N. E. A., K. E. A., A. A. C. R., N. I. T. P. A., A. K. R, Phi 
Delta Kappa, and Kappa Delta Pi. He has been at Eastern since 1924. 
At present he is professor of education, registrar, and director of ex- 

MEBANE, ELEANOR. A. B., University of Indiana; M. A., 
George Peabody College for Teachers; student, Art Institution of 
Chicago, one year; student, Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, two years; 
student, Art Student's League, New York, one year; student, New 
York School of Fine and Applied Arts, four months; student, Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts, two years; summer school of Modern 
Art, Chatham, Massachusetts, one month; pupil of Henry Snell, sum- 
mer sketch class, 1934. Miss Mebane is a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa, the K. E. A. and the N. E. A. She has been at Eastern since 
1931. At present she is assistant professor of art. 

MOORE, W. J. Diploma, Eastern Kentucky State Normal and 
Teachers College; A. B., A. M., and Ph. D., University of Kentucky; 
two years, College of Law, University of Kentucky; rural teacher five 

284 Three Decades of Progress 

years; principal, Corinth Independent Graded School, two years; 
principal, Clay County High School, Manchester, Kentucky, four and 
a half years; superintendent, Midway Public Schools, Midway, Ken- 
tucky, two and one-half years; member of the lower house of Ken- 
tucky General Assembly, 1924. Dr. Moore is a member of Perry's 
Victory Memorial Commission, Phi Delta Phi, Phi Delta Kappa, Kappa 
Delta Pi, Pi Omega Pi, Square and Compass, N. E. A., K. E. K., the 
American Economic Association, the American Political Science Associ- 
ation, the Southern Economic Association, the Southern Business Edu- 
cation Association, the Kentucky Business Education Association, the 
Royal Economic Society, the Kentucky Academy of Social Science, and 
the Madison County Historical Association. In 1935 he was the Repub- 
lican nominee for State Superintendent of Public Instruction for Ken- 
tucky. He has been at Eastern since 1928, and is at present profes- 
sor of economics. 

MURBACH, MRS. JANET. A. B., Oberlin College; A. M., Uni- 
versity of Kentucky; graduate student, University of Paris, France; 
student, summer session, University of California; teacher of French, 
Archbold High School, Ohio, two years; teacher of French, University 
of Kentucky, one year; one year, graduate study at University of 
Toulouse, France. Mrs. Murbach is a member of Beta Phi Sorority, 
Modern Language Association, and the American Association of 
Teachers of French. She has been at Eastern since 1929. At present 
she is associate professor of French. 

MURPHY, MARY C. A. B., Jamestown College; M. M. (music), 
Northwestern University; state winner of At water-Kent radio contest 
in North Dakota in 1930 and again in 1932; leading role in several 
grand operas at Jamestown College; Faust, II Trovatore, and La Tra- 
viata; judge and critic at several state music meets in 1931-32; solo- 
ist in Northwestern University, A Cappella Choir, 1933-34; member 
of Chicago A Cappella Choir under Noble Cain; broadcaster for 
N. B. C; soloist on several radio programs; teacher of music at 
Eastern since 1934. 

O'DONNELL, W. F. A. B., Transylvania College; M. A.. Colum- 
bia University; fourteen years, superintendent at Carrollton, Ken- 
tucky; superintendent of Richmond City Schools since 1926; member 
of the K. E. A, and N. E. A.; superinendent of student teaching 1935 
to 1936. He has been president of the Kentucky Athletic Association 
since 192S, and president of the Central Kentucky Educational As- 
sociation, 1935-36. 

PARK, SMITH. B. S., in mechanical and electrical engineering, 
University of Kentucky; M. S. and Ph. D., University of Kentucky; 
traffic engineer, New York Telephone Company, one year. Dr. Park is 
a member of the American Mathematical Society, the American Mathe- 
matical Association (chairman of Kentucky section, 1932-36), Phi 
Beta Kappa, and Phi Mu Epsilon. He was a member of the 1926 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 285 

session of the Kentucky General Assembly. He is co-inventor of an 
instrument for the determination of the center ocular rotation of the 
human eye. From 1923 to 1928 he was physics teacher at Eastern. 
Since 192S he has been professor of mathematics. 

RANKIN, ROME. Diploma, University of Michigan, School of 
Physical Education; diploma, University of Notre Dame Coaching 
School; A. B., Waynesburg College; M. A., University of Michigan; 
student, Muskingum College; additional graduate work, University of 
Michigan; member of Phi Delta Kappa and Sigma Delta Psi; coach 
and athletic director at Eastern, 1935 to 1936. 

RICHARDS, R. R. Graduate, Normal School Department, Berea 
College; undergraduate student, University of Kentucky, one semes- 
ter; A. B., Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College; principal of 
school and athletic director, Kentucky Houses of Reform, two years; 
education director, Kentucky Houses of Reform, two years; graduate 
student, University of Kentucky; M. B. A., College of Business Ad- 
ministration, Boston University; student, College of Law, Boston Uni- 
versity; director, radio broadcast; member of Pi Omega Pi, N. E. A., 
K. E. A., C. K. D. A., Southern Commercial Teachers Association, and 
the National Association of Marketing Teachers. Mr. Richards has 
been with Eastern since 1929. At present he is assistant professor 
of commerce. 

RUMBOLD, DEAN W. B. S., University of Buffalo; student, 
University of Wisconsin, one year; Ph. D., Duke University; under- 
graduate assistant, University of Buffalo, two years; graduate assist- 
ant in general zoology, University of Wisconsin, one year; teaching 
fellow, Duke University, two years; instructor, biology courses, Sea- 
shore summer school, Duke University, 1927; instructor, Culver Mil- 
itary Academy, summer session. Dr. Rumbold is a member of Phi 
Sigma, Chi Beta Phi, A. A. A. S., American Society of Parasitologists, 
American Ecological Society, Kentucky Academy of Science, Ken- 
tucky Academy of Visual Education, K. E. A. and the N. E. A. He 
has been at Eastern since 192S. At present he is professor of biology. 

RUSH, RUBY. Graduate, Virginia Intermont College, Bristol, Vir- 
ginia; A. B., University of Kentucky; A. M., Columbia University; 
rural teacher, one year; teacher, high schools of Kentucky, four years; 
teacher, Latin and English, high school, Madison, Florida, two years; 
critic teacher in training school from 1926-34; since 1934 assistant 
professor of Latin and supervising teacher in model high school. 

SAMUELS, T. C. Ph. C. and B. S., University of Michigan; phys- 
ical education teacher and athletic coach at Eastern 1934-35; assist- 
ant coach, 1935-36. 

SCHNIEB, ANNA A. Diploma. Indiana State Normal School and 
Teachers College; student, Indiana University, one year; A. B. and 
M. A., Columbia University; diploma, education and psychology, 
Teachers College, Columbia University; additional graduate work, 

286 Three Decades of Progress 

Columbia University and University of Chicago; Ph. D., University 
of Vienna; six months' travel in Europe; city teacher; assistant 
principal, city normal; head of department of education and psychol- 
ogy, Williams Woods College, Fulton, Missouri; education and psy- 
chology, State Teachers College, Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Dr. Schnieb 
is a member of the N. E. A., the K. E. A., A. A. A. S., National Asso- 
ciation of College Teachers of Education, A. A. U. W., American Fed- 
eration of Arts, and the Kentucky Academy of Science. She is author 
of several articles on education, and psychology. She organized the 
Kentucky Junior Academy of Science, and is editor of its Bulletin. 
Dr. Schnieb has been at Eastern since 1923, and it at present asso- 
ciate professor of education. 

SMITH, G. D. Student, Muskingum College, one year; A. B., and 
Honorary M. A., Ohio Northern College; B. S., Ohio Wesleyan College; 
student, summer sessions at Ann Arbor, Michigan; Ohio State Biolog- 
ical Laboratory, Cedar Point, Ohio; Carnegie Biological Laboratory, 
Wood's Hole, Massachusetts; superintendent of village schools in Ohio 
six years; head of science department, Central High School, Akron, 
Ohio; D. Sc, Ohio Northern College. Mr. Smith came to Eastern in 
1908. At present he is associate professor of biology. 

STONE, THOMAS. Mus. B., Oberlin; one year, additional work. 
La Follette School of Music, New York; private voilin teaching in 
Somerset Hills, N. J.; member of Plainfleld, N. J., Symphony Society; 
music director, St. Johns Mine Mount, Bernardville, N. J., member of 
N. E. A., and the K. E. A. Mr. Stone came to Eastern in 1935. He is 
teacher of violin. 

TELFORD, BROWN E. Diploma, Greenbriar College for Women; 
two terms, Cincinnati Conservatory of Music; three terms, New York 
School of Music and Arts; one semester, New England Conservatory 
of Music, Boston; instructor in piano, Madison Institute, one year. 
She is a member of N. E. A., K. E. A., and the K. M. T. A. Miss Tel- 
ford has been at Eastern since 1917. At present she is assistant pro- 
fessor of music and teacher of piano. 

TYNG, MRS. GLADYS. Diploma, Eastern Kentucky State Nor- 
mal School and Teachers College; B. S., George Peabody College for 
Teachers; one semester additional graduate work, George Peabody 
College for Teachers; M. A., Teachers College, Columbia University; 
teacher in elementary grades, three years, Guthrie and Richmond, 
Kentucky. She is a member of the K. E. A., and the N. E. A. Mrs. 
Tyng has been at Eastern since 1920, and for a while was critic teacher 
in the training school. At present she is associate professor of 

VAX PEURSEM, JAMES E. A. B., Morningside College; Music P.. 
Oberlin College; teacher of high school music and English, Wa- 
konda, S. D., one year; principal and orchestra director. Wakomla 
High School, four years; graduate student, New York University; 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 287 

member of K. B. 0. A., N. E. A., K. E. A., K. M. T. A., and M. E. N. C. 
Mr. Van Peursem is chairman of the Kentucky Federation of Music 
Clubs. He has been at Eastern since 1929. At present he is associate 
professor of music. 

WHITEHEAD, MRS. GUY. B. S., and B. S. in Library Science, 
George Peabody College for Teachers; member of American Library 
Association, Kentucky Library Association, N. E. A., and K. E. A. 
Mrs. Whitehead has been at Eastern since 1931. At present she is as- 
sistant librarian in charge of reference. 



Barn hill, Mary E. 

"Kit Carson, Child of Kentucky" 

Kentucky Progress Magazine, February, 1933. 

"Daniel Boone in Literature" 

Kentucky School Journal, September, 1934. 

Buchanan, Pearl L. 

Editorials and Book Reviews 

Southwestern University Monthly Journal, 1914-1915. 

"A Program of Speech Instruction for the Secondary School", 
City School Board, Muskogee, Oklahoma, 1920. 

"Dramatics in the High School" 
Oklahoma State Education Journal, 1919. 

"Lighting the School Play" 

Oklahoma State Education Journal, 1921. 

Editor of News Letter 

Bulletin of Southern Association of Teachers of Speech, 1932-33, 


Assistant editor of Speech Bulletin 

Publication of Southern Association of Teachers of Speech, 


Burrier, Mary King 

"Home Economics Education" 
Eastern Kentucky Review. 

Carter, Ashby B. 

Contributed Chapter X to this volume. 

Case, Emma Y. 

"The Value of Circulars in Supervising the Teaching of Reading" 
Peabody Journal of Education, January, 1931. 

Clark, Roy B. 

"On Teaching Composition" 
The II triangle, 1925. 

"On Not Thinking" 
The Rectangle, 1927. 

William Gifford (A biographical and critical study) (Ph. D. 
Thesis), Columbia University Tress, 1930. 

Contributed Chapter IX to this volume. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 289 

Beckley, Sam, contributor to this volume. 

Cox, Meredith J. 

"The Chemistry of Phytolacca Decandra" 

Chemical Abstract American Chemical Society, 1923. 

"Quantitative Study of Plant Alkaloids" 

Chemical Abstract American Chemical Society, 1924. 

"A Problem in the Professionalization of Subject Matter" 
Eastern Kentucky Review, 1927. 

"The Professionalization of Subject Matter by Means of Halogens" 
Peabody Journal of Education. November, 1931. 


"Professional Training of Science Teachers — a Comparative Study" 

Kentucky School Journal, January, 1932. 

"A Study of Mixed Ketols" 

Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, August, 1932. 

Cuff, Noel B. 

"The Relation of Overlearning to Retention" (Ph. D. thesis), 
George Peabody College for Teachers Contribution to Education, 

"The Interpretation of Handedness" 
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1928. 

"The Law of Use" 

Journal of Educational Psychology, 1929. 

"The Problem of Elimination from College" 
School and Society, 1929. 

"Vocabulary Tests" 

Journal of Educational Psychology, 1930. 

"Is the I. Q. Constant?" 

Peabody Journal of Education, 1930. 

"Prognosis and Diagnosis of Success in College" 
Journal of Applied Psychology, 1930. 

"Relation of Eyedness and Handedness to Psychopathic 


Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1930. 

"A Study of Eyedness and Handedness" 
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1931. 

"A Manoptometer" 

American Journal of Psychology, 1930. 

"What Freshmen Read in College" 
A. A. T. C. Quarterly, 1931. 

E. S. T. C— 10 

290 Three Decades of Progress 

"Scoring Objective Tests" 

Journal of Educational Psychology, 1932. 

"Intelligence Testing in Teachers College - ' 
School and Society, 1932. 

"The Need of Character Education" 
Kentucky School Journal, 1932. 

"Measurement in Education" 
Kentucky School Journal, 1932. 

"Relationship of Socio-Economic Status to Intelligence and 


Kentucky Personnel Bulletin, 1933. 

"True-False Tests" 

Kentucky School Journal, 1933. 

"Review of Nightmare, Witches, and Devils" (by Ernest Jones) 
American Journal Psychology, 1933. 

Child Psychology Workbook 
Edwards Brothers, 1934. 

"A New Way to Score Tests" 
Educational Method, 1934. 

"Relationship of Social Status to Vocabulary" 
Journal Genetic Psychology, 1934. 

"The Vectors of Socio-Economic Status" 
Peaoody Journal of Education, 1934. 

"A New Device for Scoring Tests" 

Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual Meeting, Association of Ken- 
tucky Colleges and Universities, 1935. 

"A New Device that Scores Tests" 
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1935. 

"A New Device for Scoring Tests" 
Kentucky Personnel Bulletin, 1935. 

"A New Device for Scoring Tests" 
Peaoody Reflector, 1935. 

"A New Device that Scores Tests" 

Educational Review (Shanghai, China), July, 1935, Vol. 25, No. 7. 

"A New Way to Score Tests" 

Educational Review (Shanghai, China), 1935. 

"Desirable Study Habits in Grades Four to Twelve" 
Kentucky School Journal, 1936. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 291 

"Desirable Study Habits" 

Kentucky School Journal, February, 1936. 

"What Should be Included in Educational Psychology?" 
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1935. 

"Scoring Intelligence Tests by Weight" 
Journal of Applied Psychology, 1936. 

"Desirable Study Habits in Grades Pour to Twelve" 
Kentucky School Journal, 1936. 

Numerous Abstracts in Psychological Abstracts. 

Derrick, Lucile, contributor to this volume. 

Dix, Ruth 

"Home Economics Education at Eastern Kentucky State Teachers 


Eastern Kentucky Review, November, 1926. 

Donovan, H. L. 

A State's Elementary Teacher-Training Problem, 
Peabody College Contribution No. 11, 1925. 

Supervision and Teaching of Reading (co-author), 
Johnson Publishing Company, 1927. 

Learning to Spell 
Grades 2-8 (co-author), 
Hall and McCreary, 1931. 

"School Publicity" 

Kentucky High School Quarterly, April, 1924. 

"How to Select Textbooks" 

Peabody Journal of Education, July, 1924. 

"The Content of Ordinary Reading" 

The Elementary School Journal, January, 1925. 

"Minimum Essentials in Elementary Education" 

"Silent Reading" 

Journal of Educational Method, January, 1925. 

"A Four-Year Curriculum for the Preparation of Elementary 


Educational Administration and Supervision, September, 1925. 

"A Critical Analysis of Kentucky's Educational System" 
The Kentucky High School Quarterly, Vol. XII, January, 1926. 

"An Elementary Survey of the Reading Process" 

The Kentucky High School Quarterly, Vol. XII, September, 1926. 

"The Demonstration Lesson" 

The Journal of the N. E. A., November, 1926. 

292 Three Decades op Progress 


Peabody Journal of Education, 1926. 

"What do People Read?" 

The Journal of Florida Education Association, January, 1927. 

"A Review of Twenty-Three Sets of Elementary Readers" 


Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 4, No. 6, May, 1927. 

"Clinical Studies in Reading" 

Peabody Journal of Education, March, 1928. 

"Use of Research in the Teaching of Reading" 

The Elementary English Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, April, 1928. 

"The Elementary School Curriculum" 

K. E. A. Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, December, 1928. 

"The Duality of the Teachers College" 

Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 6, No. 4, January, 1929. 

"Origin and Development of the Elementary School" 
Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 7, No. 2, September, 1929. 

"A Faculty Effort in the Improvement of College Teaching" 
Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 7, No. 5, March, 1930. 

"Changing Conceptions of College Teaching" 

Educational Administration and Supervision, Vol. 16, No. 6, 

September, 1930. 


Kentucky Progress Magazine, October, 1930. 

"Guy Whitehead (A Study in Sincerity)" 
K. E. A. Journal, November, 1930. 

"Problems of College Teaching" 

Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, Vol. 3, December, 1930. 

"The Twofold Purpose of the Teachers College" 

The Journal of the N. E. A., Vol. 19, No. 9, December, 1930. 

"Who Cares?" 

Lexington Herald and Louisville Courier-Journal (Kentucky Acad- 
emy of Social Science) Newspaper Article, March, 1931. 

"A Teachers College Program for 1931" 

Peabody Journal of Education. Vol. S, No. 5. March, 1931. 

"The Teachers Colleges in the Service of the Commonwealth" 
Kentucky Progress Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 8, April, 1931. 

"Is it Public Indifference or Lack of Information" 
Lexington Herald and Louisville Courier-Journal (Kentucky Acad- 
emy of Social Science), Newspaper Article, August, 1931. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 293 

"What Freshmen Read in a Teachers College" 

American Association Teachers College Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, 

September, 1931. 

"Graft Blamed on School Law" 

Lexington Herald and Louisville Courier-Journal (Kentucky Acad- 
emy of Social Science) Newspaper Article, September, 1931. 

"Educating the Teacher for the Progressive Public School" 
Peabody Journal of Education. Vol. 9, No. 5, March, 1932. 

"Are There Too Many Teachers in Kentucky?" 

Peabocly Reflector and Alumni News, Vol. 5, No. 4, April, 1932. 

"Higher Education in Kentucky" 

Kentucky Progress Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 12, August, 1932. 

"Are Teachers Colleges a Menace? A Reply" 

Educational Administration and. Supervision, Vol. 18, No. 8, 

November, 1932. 

"Intelligence Testing in Teachers Colleges (co-author) 
School and Society, Vol. 36, No. 939, December 24, 1932. 

"Study Habits of College Students" (co-author) 

Proceedings of the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

of the Southern States, 1932. 

"Education for a Changing Civilization" 

Peabocly Reflector and Alumni Neivs, Vol. 6, No. 5, June, 1933. 

"The Ability of College Students to Predict their Grades" 


Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 11, No. 1, July, 1933. 

"Teacher Training for the New Age" 

Educational Administration and Supervision, Vol. 19, No. 8, 

November, 1933. 

"Aims and Functions of the Public Schools" 

Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, University of Kentucky, 

Vol. 6, No. 2, December, 1933. 

"Teacher Education for the New Age" 

Indiana State Teachers College Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 4, May, 1934. 

Journal of Louisiana Teachers Association, May. 1934. 

"What are We Going to do with All These Educated People 


Peabody Reflector and Alumni News, Vol. 7, No. 6, May, 1934. 

"The Teachers College in the Service of the State and Nation" 
Peabody Reflector and Alumni News, Vol. 7, No. 10, November, 1934. 
"Secondary Education in the New Deal" 
Peabody Reflector and Alumni News, Vol. 7, No. 11. 

294 Three Decades of Progress 

"The Teachers College in the Service of the State and Nation" 
Proceedings of the American Association of Teachers Colleges, 

"Selection of Prospective Teachers" 

Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 13, No. 3, November, 1935. 

"Remodeling the Old Structure" 

Peabody Reflector, Vol. S, No. 10, November, 1935. 

Dorkis, J. T. 

"The Oregon Trail" (Master's Thesis) 

Illinois Historical Society Journal. January, 1918. 

"Thomas Merritt" (Necrology) 

Illinois Historical Society Journal, January, 1919. 

"Pardoning the Leaders of the Confederacy" 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, June, 192S. 

"President Lincoln's Clemency" 

Illinois Historical Society Journal, January, 1929. 

"Federal Aid to the Oregon Trail" 
Oregon Historical Quarterly, 1929. 

"A Museum in Every School" 

Kentucky School Journal, June, 1931. 

Syllabus of American Government, Edwards Brothers, 1931. 

"Profit Sharing in Government" 
Kentucky School Journal, March, 1931. 

"Washington, the Champion of Republican Government" 
Kentucky School, Journal, February, 1932. 

"Education and Race Relations" 
Kentucky School Journal, November, 1932. 

"Early History of Madison County, Kentucky", by William Chon- 

ault (Edited) 

Kentucky Historical Society Register, April, 1932. 

"Nathaniel Hart's Letter to William Tannehill on the Priority ot 

Settlement in Kentucky" (Edited) 

Kentucky Historical Society Register. January, 1933. 

"Cassius M. Clay" 

Kentw ky Progress Magazine. January, 1933. 

"Petition to Legislature of Kentucky in 1792 to Locate the Capital 

of the State at Boonesboro" (Edited) 

Kentucky Historical society Register. April, 1933. 

"Pardon and Amnesty during the Civil War and Reconstruction" 

(Abstract of Ph. D. Thesis) 

University of Illinois Publication, 1926. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 295 

"Central University" (History) 

Kentucky Historical Society Register, April, 1934. 

A Glimpse at Historic Madison County and Richmond, Kentucky, 
( Brochure ) , Richmond Daily Register Co., 
July, 1934. 

"The Transylvania Colony" 

Kentucky Progress Magazine, August, 1934. 

"The Transylvania Colony" 

Kentucky Progress Magazine, September, 1934. 

Edited Daniel Boone Bicentennial Number of Kentucky School 
Journal, September, 1934. 

"The Daniel Boone Bicentennial" 

Kentucky Progress Magazine, August, 1934. 

"The Daniel Boone Bicentennial" 
Kentucky School Journal, September, 1934. 

"Pardon Seekers and Brokers: A Sequel of Appomattox" 
Journal of Southern History, August, 1935. 

Edited this volume and contributed Chapters II and XV thereto. 

Edwards, R. A. 

"A Handbook for Student Teachers" 
Eastern Kentucky Review, 1923. 

"The Training School" 

Eastern Kentucky Review, 1926. 

A Manual for Observation and Method, 
Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1928. 

A Manual for Observation and Method (Rev. edition) 
Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1929. 

Helps for One-Teacher Rural Schools, 
Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1930. 

Contributed Chapter VI to this "volume. 

Engle, Fred A. 

"History of Education of Clark County, Kentucky", 1928. 

"The Modern Tendency in Arithmetic" 
Kentucky School Journal, April, 1932. 

"Modern Trends in Teaching Arithmetic" 
Kentucky School Journal, October, 1934. 

Farris, J. D. 

"Health Education" 

Kentucky School Journal, December, 1931. 

296 Three Decades of Progress 

"A Program of Health and Physical Education" 
Peabody Reflector, August, 1932. 

"Child Health and Protection" 

Bulletin of Bureau of School Service, Kentucky White House Con- 
ference, December, 1932. 

Contributed Chapter VII and other matter to this volume. 

Fekrell, D. T. 

"Professional Preparation of Teachers for Small High Schools" 
Kentucky School Journal, January, 1928. 

"Checking List of the Functions of the County Superintendent of 


(Published privately), January, 1931. 

Floyd, Mary A. 

"Culture as an Educational Objective" 
Kentucky School Journal, October, 1928. 

"Kentucky History in the Elementary Grades" 
Kentucky School Journal, May, 1930. 


(An article in Weedon's modern encyclopedia) 1931-32. 

"Kentucky. Bibliography on Economic and Industrial History" 
(Privately published), 1933. 

"Guidance Outline for Library Science 166; Orientation Course 
for College Freshmen" 
Swift, 1935. 

Contributed Chapter VI to this volume. 

Gill, Anna D. 

"Typewriting in Kentucky High Schools" 

Modern Biisiness Education, Vol. 1, November, 1935. 

Gibson, Maude, contributed Chapter XIII to this volume. 

Hansen, May C. 

"The Pre-School Child" 

Bulletin of Bureau of School Service, Kentucky White House 


December, 1932. 

Contributor to this volume. 

Herndon, Thomas C. 

"A Rath Thermostat" 

Journal of Chemical Education. May, 1931. 

"A Study of the Benzaldehyde Electrode" 

Peabody College Contributions to Education, October, 1931. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 297 

"Professional Training of Science Teachers — A Comparative 

Study" (co-author) 

Kentucky School Journal. January, 1932. 

"Administration of Chemistry in State Teachers Colleges" 
Journal of Chemistry Education, August, 1932. 

"Deficiencies in the Perception and Appreciation of Color" 
Peabody Reflector, March, 1933. 

"Retention of Chemical Facts" 
Kentucky School Journal, January, 1934. 

"A Benzaldehyde Electrode" 

Journal of the American Chemical Society, November, 1934. 

"Shall Science Take a Holiday?" 
Peabody Reflector. January, 1935. 

"Professional Progress of Teachers College Teachers" 
Peabody Journal of Education, November, 1930. 

Hounchelx, Saul 

"An Abstract of the Principal Literary Magazines of the Ohio 

Valley to 1890" (Ph. D. Thesis), 

George Peabody College for Teachers, 1934. 

Hughes. Charles T. 

"Review of the book, 'Coaching High School Athletics' " 
The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Education As- 
sociation, October, 1933. 

Hummell. A. D. 

"Ionization Efficiency of Electrons in Potassium Vapor" 
Bulletin of the American Physical Society, November, 1929. 

"A Simple Form of Boyle's Law Apparatus" 
Kentucky Academy of Science Transactions, Vol. V. 

"A Demonstration of Photoelectric Control" 
Transactions of Kentucky Academy of Science. Vol. V. 

"Kings were Denied Things", Kentucky School Journal, 
February, 1936. 

Jones, W. C. 

"Tenure of Presidents of State Teachers Colleges" (co-author) 
Peabody Journal of Education. July, 1931. 

"A Comparative Study of Certain Phases of the Status of Grad- 
uates of State Teachers Colleges and Liberal Arts Colleges in the 
Teaching Profession (Missouri and Texas)" (Ph. D. Thesis) 
George Peabody College Contributions to Education, 1932. 

"298 Three Decades of Progress 

"Grouping as an Aid to Problem Solving" 
Kentucky School Journal, January, 1932. 

"The Time Element in Grade Determination" 
Peabody Journal of Education, November, 1932. 

Pioneer Arithmetic Books, First Book, Second Book, Third Book 


Pioneer Publishing Company, 1928. 

"Study Habits of College Students" (co-author) 
Personnel Bulletin, No. 6, January, 1933. 

Proceedings of Kentucky Colleges and Universities. Vol. 3, 1933. 

'The Ability of College Students to Predict their Grades" 


Peabody Journal of Education, July, 1933. 

"Curriculum for Higher Institutions of Learning" 
Report of Kentucky Educational Commission, 1933. 

'Are Too Many People Going to College in Kentucky?" 
Association of Kentucky Colleges and Universities Bulletin, 1934. 

"The Relation of Kentucky Institutions of Higher Education to 

the Educational Problems of the State" 

Association of Kentucky Colleges and Universities Bulletin, 1934. 

"Selection of Prospective Teachers" 
Peaoody Journal of Education, 1935. 

Contributed Chapter III to this volume. 

Keene, William L. 

"Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College" 
Peabocly Reflector. July, 1931. 

Keith, Charles A. 

"Notes and Outlines in American History" 
Published locally, 1917. 

"Notes and Outlines in American Government" 
Published locally, 1916. 

"Outlines of Kentucky History" 
D. C. Heath, 1918. 

"Outlines of Kentucky Government" 
Bobbs-Merrill, 1922. 

"The Racial Make-Up of Europe" 
Eastern Kentucky Rcrieic. 1916. 

"A Tribute to Britain" 
Kentucky School Journal, 1916. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 299 

Kennamek, L G. 

"A Cattle Ranch in New Mexico" 
Journal of Geography, April, 1923. 

"The Kentucky Family" 

McQuiddy Publishing Company, 1924. 

The Callahan Divide (Ph. D. Thesis), 
Williams Printing Company, 1930. 

"Good Geography Teaching" 

Kentucky School Journal, January, 1931. 

"Place of Geography in the Elementary School" 
Kentw.fcy School Journal, December, 1932. 

"Teaching of Geography" 

Kentucky School Journal, January, 1933. 

Kentucky Supplement (Geography) 
Silver Burdett, 1934. 

Kentucky Supplement (Geography) 
American Book Company, 1934. 

Krick, Harriette 

"Structure of Seedlike Fructifications Found in Coal Balls from 
Harrisburg, Illinois" (Ph. D. thesis) 
Botanical Gazette, April, 1932. 

"Flowers of Spring" 

The Young American, May, 1933. 

Mattox, M. E. Contributed Chapter IV to this volume. 

McDonough, Thomas E. 

"Physical Education in the Rural School" 
Kentucky School Journal, December, 1931. 

"A Program of Health and Physical Education in a Teachers 

College" (co-author) 

Peaoocly Reflector, August, 1932. 

"A Program of Physical Education and Health" 
Kentucky School Journal, December, 1930. 
Contributor to this volume. 
McKinney, Mary Frances 

"The Graph as a Tool in Teaching Geography" 
Kentucky School Journal, December, 1932. 
Contributor to this volume. 

MoOee, W. J. 

"School Reports and Records" 

The Kentucky High School Quarterly, April, 1927. 

IJOO Three Decades op Progress 

"Accounting: A Prerequisite to Successful Local Financial 


The Kentucky Academy of Sorial Sciences Articles in the Louisville 

Courier-Journal, December 24, 1933. 

"Budgeting in Kentucky" 

The Kentucky Academy of Social Sciences Articles in the Louis- 
ville Courier-Joui nal, December 17, 1933. 

"Budgetary Practices in Kentucky State Government" 
The Kentucky Academy of Social Sciences Articles in the Louis- 
ville Courier- Journal. December 17, 1933. 

"A Proposed Plan for the Financial Administration of Public 

Education in Kentucky" 

Abstract of Ph. D. Thesis. University of Kentucky, 1931. 

"The Budget and Financial Administration Act of 1934" 
The Kentucky Academy of Social Sciences Articles in the Louis- 
ville Courier-Journal, April 8 and 15, 1934. 

"The Kentucky Gross Sales Tax" 
The New York Times, July, 1934. 
Contributed Chapter XII and other matter to this volume. 

Mukbach, Janet 

"Some French Attitudes" 

Kentucky School Journal, April, 1934. 

Park, Smith 

"On Certain Identities in Theta Functions" 
American Journal of Mathematics, October, 1931. 

"The Center of Ocular Rotation in the Horizontal Plane" 

The American Journal of Physiology. June, 1933 

Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Monthly, October, 1933 

Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy. August, 1934. 

Rumboi.d. Dean W. 

"A New Trematode from the Snapping Turtle" 

Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. July, 1928. 

Schnieb, Anna A. 

"Student Government in the College" 
William Woods College, 1919. 

"Articles in Teaching Hygiene, Geography, English" 
Missouri, School Journal. 1920. 

"Suggested Content. Sources, and Activities for Arithmetic. 
English, Geography Grades I to VIII" 
Eastern Kentucky Review, 1924. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 301 

"Teaching Geography in the Elementary Schools" 
The Kentucky Geographic Journal, April, 1924, 

"Interpretation and Appreciation of Subjects in Art" 
Privately published, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927. 

"Is Geography an Important Study Activity in the Elementary 


Kentucky School of Science, 1931. 

"The Philosophical Basis of Education in Germany" 
Proceedings of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 1932, 

"Origin and Function of the State Teachers College" 
University of Vienna, 1932. 

"Family and Parental Education" 

Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, Kentucky White House 

Conference, December, 1932. 

"Research in the Undergraduate College" 

Proceedings Kentucky Academy of Science, August, 1934. 

"Development of the Kentucky Junior Academy of Science" 
Proceedings Kentucky Academy of Science, August. 1934. 
Bulletin Illinois Academy of Science, September. 1934. 

"Science Clubs in the High School" 
Kentucky Junior Science Bulletin, 1935. 

"The Contributions to Child Psychology by the University of 

Proceedings of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 1933. 

Tyng, Mrs. Gladys 

Contributor to this volume. 

Wingo, Gekmania J. 

"Some Developments from a Simple Group Activity" 
Bureau of Publications of Teachers College for the National Con- 
ference on Education Method, October, 1928. 

Van Peuksem, J. E. 

"A Study Outline of Public School Music", 1936. 


Lutes, H. H. 

"Yea, Eastern", an Eastern College song. 

"Marching Song", an Eastern College song. 

Campbell, Jane 

Music to "Alma Mater", an Eastern College Song, composed by 
Nannie Evans. 


By Richard A. Edwards 

T. J. Bayer 
Elmer A. Deiss 

CLASS OF 1909 

Shelby Jett, Jr. 

May K. Phelps 

CLASS OF 1910 

i J. P. Simmons 

(No graduates in 1911) 

Miree McDougle 
Cecil Simmons 

CLASS OF 1912 

Spears Turley 

Edwin M. Cobb 
Madrue Farris 

CLASS OF 1913 

Jeptha Jett 

Kie Doty 

Verna B. Million 

CLASS OF 1914 

Wilko Scanlon 
J. E. Vermillion 

Mary Boggs 
Jamie Bronston 
Anna V. Deatherage 
Mary Allen Deatherage 
Nannie Dunn 

CLASS OF 1915 

Katherine Enright 
Turley Noland 
Smith Park 
Robert Simmons 

Annie Mae Hord 
Mark A. Phelps 
Russell Million 

CLASS OF 1916 

W. Kenneth Ramey 
Lillian A. Smith 
William A. Wagers 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Joel E. Arbuckle 
Sue Elizabeth Chenault 
Frederick M. Davison 
James Gentry- 
Virginia Hobson 

Isabel Bennett 
Chester Clark 
Mabel Ruth Coates 
Myrtle Cornelison 
Mary Louise Covington 
Laura Hord 
Ollie Hord 
Elizabeth Hume 
Mary J. Jones 
John B. Lackey 

Patrick Allen 
Rowena Coates 
Willie Barnes 
Frances English 
"Virginia Harrison 
Mary Katherine Jasper 
Fannie Kellems 

Zerelda Baxter 
Laura Isabel Bennett 
Hume A. Chenault 
Josephine Covington 
Lana Martine Coates 
W. D. Dunaway 
Lenora Earl Elmore 
Nancy C. Evans 

Henry Arnold 
William Blanton 
Goldie Brown 
Grace Brady 
Margaret Chenault 
Mary Emily Chenault 
J. Coleman Covington 
Clarence Deatherage 
Margaret Doty 

CLASS OF 1917 

Thomas J. House 
Dorothy Myers 
Alice Lorraine Petty 
Thomas Phelps 
Virginia Shanklin 

CLASS OF 1918 

Elbridge Noland 
Sarah Elizabeth Sallee 
Samuel Henderson 
Gladys R. Smith 
Bessie Telford 
Robert L. Telford 
Mary Louise Terrell 
Amy D. Turley 
Sudie Warren 

CLASS OF 1919 

Lucille Minter 
Sarah V. Myers 
Edith Nunn 
Lelia Price 
Harvey Smith 
Galen White 

CLASS OF 1920 

Richard Green 
Virginia Hisle 
Lloyd Moore 
Edmund Noland 
Coleman Oldham 
Eloise Samuels 
Margaret Turley 

CLASS OF 1921 

Geneva Hord 
John Jayne 
Diana Lackey 
Flora Lane 
Margaret Lane 
Allie Dean Ray 
Ollie Tye Williams 
Lucy Treadway 


Three Decades of Progress 

CLASS OF 1922 

Thomas Adams 
Sarah Arbuckle 
Shelby Carr 
Agnes Clancy 
Stella Cross 
Leslie Evans 
Flora Evans 
Lillian Harrod 
Robert Harrod 
Taylor Hoskins 
Viola Hord 

Green Hogg 
Margaret Lewis 
Mary Elizabeth Luxon 
Travis Million 
Carolyn Rice 
Georgia Smith 
Rachel Telford 
Bernice Tudor 
James White 
Louis G. Dudderar 
Dolly Pickels 

CLASS OF 1931 

Annie Bales Black 

Paul Herrin 

Davis Gentry 

Ruby Christine Kearns 

Harold A. Pelfrey 

Lowell Pelfrey 

Minnie Belle Potter 

Neville Rowlette 
Edna Sparks 
John L. White 
Roger Wilson 
Louise Hurst 
Vivien Stephenson 

CLASS OF 1932 

Henry Baugh 
Sarah Mason Black 
Wilma Bond 
Beulah Bowles 
Mary Alice Burrus 
Lucille Case 
Jamie Dudley 
Thomas Farris 
Nettie Lusk 
Clarence Mullis 

Margaret Park 
Louise Parrish 
Ella Mae Rankin 
Mary Elizabeth Rowlett 
E. T. Wiggins, Jr. 
Roy Young 
Faye Fuller 
Joe Clark Herrin 
Frances Maude Honchell 

CLASS OF 1933 

Datha Vida Bond 
Elizabeth Bennett Collins 
William Joe Collins 
Edward Congleton 
Robert Morris Creech 
Edna Attilla Dalton 
Annette Velinda De Jarnette 
Hattie De Jarnette 
Mary Willis De Jarnette 

Norma Garrett 
Elizabeth Green 
Susan Russell Greene 
Alene Mae Kearns 
Margaret Dudley Neale 
Neva Katherine Park 
Tabitha Phelps Park 
Amy Louise Parrish 
Reba Virginia Parsons 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Morris Milton Barnes 
Dorothy Dean Carnes 
Mary Lois Clark 
Stephen Cook Edwards 
George Waller Evans 
Jane Olive Hendren 
Pearl Deaver Hendren 
Bessie T. Leer 
James J. Neale, Jr. 

CLASS OF 1934 

Jane H. Robinson 
Mary Lynn Stebbins 
Edward Taylor 
Emilie Verne Wiggins 
Mildred Abrams 
Mary Ann Collins 
Woodrow Cotton 
Iris Cotton 
Margaret Steele Zaring 

CLASS OF 1935 

J. Marshall Arbuckle John Earl Kayse 

T. J. Black, Jr. J. Ross Kirwan 

Margaret Louise Culton William G. Moore 

Margaret Mae Deatherage Charles Edward Robinette 

Dann Wood Denny Pearl Mae Stephenson 

Ruth Allene Hammonds Joe F. Taylor 

Mary Doty Hunter Stanley Wilson 

ALUMNI DIRECTORY (1907-1924; 1 


By Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 

Bailye, Eva* 
Jeffers, Jennie 
Mason, Mabel 

Abner, James R. 
Dale, C. S. 
Daniel, William E. 
Davis, Ruth W. 
Gaines, Alberta 

CLASS 1907 

Rice, Alma R. 
Sullivan, Hattie M. 

CLASS 1908 

Gray, Caroline M. 
Morris, Emma 
Sullivan, Flora J. 
Ward, W. B. 
Womack, Alma 

(Mrs. Alberta Gaines Stevens) 

Anderson, Leslie 
Chandler, S. P. 
Davis, H. L. 
Fallis, 0. B. 
Gifford, C. H. 
Holbrook, Cam S. 

Baker, Clyda 
Baker, Eunice 
Bergmyer, Margaret G. 
Boothe, I. H. 
Bradford, H. T. 
Brooks, David 
Campbell, J. B. 
Caudill, W. M. 
Colyer, Mary Lee 
Cox, Lula 
Culton, Thos. B. 
Cundiff, E. F. 
Davis, Allen 
Davis, James S. 
Evans, Mattie 

CLASS 1909 

Jones, J. C. 

Morgan, Elizabeth W. 

Pettus, Ila 

Scott, Cathryn V. 

Starns, D. H. 

CLASS 1910 

Farley, Lela 
Ferguson, Burdeaux 
Ferguson, Roscoe C. 
Gragg, Everett 
Greenleaf, Van 
Hamilton, George D. 
Houchins, Jennie* 
Hughes, Bessie 
Hylton, Cora 

(Mrs. Dr. L. Whitaker) 
Irvine, J. S. 
Jones, O. V.* 
Lander, Alice 
Long, Agnes 

(Mrs. H. T. Ransdell) 

1 See the last paragraph of Chapter XIV. 
* Deceased. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


McDougle, Ivan E. 
McHargue, Sue B. 
Maynard, James G. 
Moneyhan, Edith 
Moneyhan, Edna 

(Mrs. Edna Richards) 
Morgan, Libbie 
Mullikin, Otis L. 
Neace, John G. 
Prose, Bertha 
Quails, Webster 
Richardson, Edgar 

Roling, Lena Gertrude 
Sasser, Mrs. Alice 
Scott, Elizabeth 
Scoville, Elizabeth 
Sharon, Lowell 
Sheriff, Robert 
Tarter, Gertrude 
Taylor, Eva 
Tye, J. J. 
Webb, Arnold 
White, Catherine 

CLASS 1911 

Alcorn, Nora 

(Mrs. H. B. Owens) 
Amburgey, M. D. 
Arnold, Sue V. 
Brammer, John C. 
Buchanan, Lelia Gore 
Carter, Frank M. 
Dodson, Flora 
Dyche, Emily Byers 

(Mrs. J. L. Buchanan) 
Elmore, Mary 
Everage, Mary 
Faulkner, Garnet 
Huffaker, Leona 
Jackson, Sadie Rea 
Luttrell, Paul 

Meece, V. F. 
Moore, George Mansfield 
Parard, Marie Joseph 
Pettus, Mary Rebecca 
Pollitt, Clara Edna 

(Mrs. Ernest F. Overstreet) 
Reed, Everett H. 
Reid, Homer Lloyd 
Roberts, Byron M. 
Schwartz, Kathryn A. 

(Mrs. Melville Byrd) 
Tinder, Delia 
Walker, Fay Rowlett 

(Mrs. Curtis W. Reece) 
Ward, Sara Ellen 

(Mrs. Lewis Clifton) 

CLASS 1912 

Chambers, Jay Lea 
Daniels, Flora B. 
Evans, Marvin N. 
Ewen, Mabel Russell 
Glass, Fannie 
Gullett, W. P. 
Hamilton, Annie Laurie 

(Mrs. A. C. Sharp) 
Johnson, Shelia M. 
Jordan, Victor A. 
Keile'y, Nora Starke 
Kelley, Sara Maude 
Lester, Lena Elizabeth 

McNutt, M. H. 
Mathis, Anna 

(Mrs. Theodore Oppenheim) 
Moore, Arvon T. 
Morriss, Marian Anna 

(Mrs. Joseph F. Beattie) 
Rayburn, Maude Mae 

(Mrs. Maude R. Wooten) 
Rich, Ada 

Schirmer, Margaret E. 
Thurman, Ninnie B. 
Trent, Ada 
Vaught, Allie A. 


Three Decades of Progress 

Amburgy, L. M. 
Ballard, May D. 
Bertram, Elizabeth L. 
Bogie, Annie Miller 
Boothe, John E. 
Broaddus, K. E. 
Brock, Maria 

(Mrs. Paul Gordon) 
Bryant, Ben 
Caywood, James 
Covington, Mary Q. 
Cox, Ella K. 

(Mrs. Ella Cox Kelly) 
Crowder, Mabel 

(Mrs. B. L. Murphy) 
Day, Angella 
Day, James T. 
DeLong, Emma 
DeLong, H. G. 
Dempsey, Corrine 
Floyd, Mary I. 
George, Edythe C. 
Gould, Willie Anne 
Hale, Mahala 

(Mrs. Mahala Bingham) 
Haley, C. F. 
Harris, O. H. 
Hendren Allie E. 

(Mrs. Frank Wheeler) 

CLASS 1913 

Henry, Elizabeth B. 
Johnson, Fannie 
Johnson, Nell 
Kennard, Albert 
Lake, Alma 
Laubisch, O. A. 
Lewis, W. H. 
Lutes, S. B. 
McCarthy, Anna M. 
McDougal, Miree* 
Messman, Margaret 
Mills, H. H. 
Oldham, Emma 
Osenton, Mabel 
Quillen, Marie 
Remy, Paris D. 
Scoville, Magnolia 
Smith, May 
Sporing, T. B. 
Stidham, C. B. 
Stigall, Dumont 
Taylor, Eddie 
Taylor, Emma W. 
Thomson, Henrietta 

(Mrs. Henrietta Collis) 
Ware, Daisy Lynn 
Williams, E. W. 

Akin, Paris B. 
Ammerman, Mary Jane 
Ballard, Leonard H. 
Bertram, Anna L. 
Bowman, Daphne H. 
Brown, Fannie May 
Caldwell, L. C. 
Calico, Zula E. 
Chrisman, J. Warren 
Clark, Emsy 
Clark, L. A. 
Coons, Nellie 
Cornelison, Lula McKee 
Davidson, Perry 

CLASS 1914 

Deatherage, Willie Mae 
Dempsey, Evelyn 
Dodsworth, Vivian M. 

(Mrs. John R. Roman) 
Donahue, Annie M. 
Doty, Mary* 
Early, Beulah Newman 

(Mrs. Beulah Davis) 
Early, Lela 

(Mrs. Lela Elliott) 
Gilmore, Chas. M. 
Gordon, Anna E. 
Gray, Mary Frances 
Hacker, Isaac 


Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Hale, Lula M. 
Harmon, Ella Maude 
Hayden, Maude Frances 
Hemlepp, Emma Theresa 
Horine, Elizabeth 
Hounchins, Ollie Mae 

(Mrs. Thos. Gabbert) 
Johnson, Rowena 
Kirk, Herschel R. 
Lipps, Mattie Louise 
McWhorter, Stella 
Martin, Marguerite 
Myers, Nancy B. 
Plummer, Nancy K. 
Price, Florence Ethel 
Price, Hobart V. 
Price, Odessa Blains 
Rankin, Edna Mae 

(Mrs. Edna Rankin Hurtuk) 

Redwine, Marcus C. 
Rice, Linnie M. 
Ross, Mary E. 
Sams, Eva Edith 
Scoville, Hallie Mae 1 
Scrivner, Ruth 
Seitz, Florris 
Skinner, T. W. 
Smallwood, Enoch 
Thompson, Stella E. 

(Mrs. Stella Lutes) 
Tipton, Pressit H. 
Turner, Ervine 
Vories, Emma DeWitt 

(Mrs. Leland Meyers) 
Walsh, Lula 
Whaley, Nancy Myers 
Williams, B. M. 
Williams, John L. 

Barnette, Rebecca Jayne 

(Mrs. Rebecca Jayne Ford) 
Bowman, Betsy 

(Mrs. Fred Hupp) 
Cook, Leland 
Crawford, Albert B. 
Duffy, Cornelia Read 
Evans, Mollie T. 

(Mrs. Chas. H. Stratton) 
Farley, Minnie E.* 
Garley, Ida Mae 
Gilbert, Evelyn C. 
Goodman, K. C. 
Hampton, Daisy 
Harris, Lelia Jane 
Hearne, Hannah Jane 

(Mrs. C. E. Smith) 
Hickok, Katherine C. 
Holliday, Surrilda 

(Mrs. Green Fugate) 
Huguely, Henry Wood 

Lamb, Naomi N. 
Land, Ettabelle 
Liles, Ella 
Liles, Eva 
Lutes, Maude Alma 
McComis, Madge M. 
Maupin, Amanda B. 
Moyers, Fannie 
Phillips, Rebekah A. 
Richie, William 
Smith, C. E. 
Vogel, Clara Louise 
Wade, Saline 

(Mrs. Saline Wade Jones) 
Walker, Belle McM. 
Ward, Forest 
Watkins, Alice E. 
White, Bess 
Yates, Margaret M. 

Adams, Louise Rhorer 
Akers, Ezra 

CLASS 1916 

Asher, James J. 
Baker, Emma B. 



Three Decades of Progress 

Bates, Joseph B. 
Bedford, Emma C. 

(Mrs. J. L. Ransdell) 
Benette, Verna 
Blackburn, Lena 
Brady, Maude Evelyn 
Cain, O. W. 
Cubbage, Anna Mary 

(Mrs. Anna C. Sandusky) 
Dietrich, Lois 

(Mrs. Lois D. Freeman) 
Dobrowsky, Rose 
Downard, Mary Elizabeth 

(Mrs. Mary D. Merrill) 
Early, Nellie Katherine 
Gibson, Ellen C. 
Goldenburg, Carrie 
Hays, Willie 
Hoskins, Ruth Gibson 
Jones, Brilla 
Kelly, Robert Lee 
Knox, Lilly Ulah 
Lancaster, Jennie Mae 

(Mrs. Turley Noland) 
Lawson, Nan Wood 
Little, Robert E. 
Lutes, Lloyd H. 
McClure, Bernice 
McWhorter, Howard 
Mason, Matilda 
M err it, Ethel 

(Mrs. John Lisle) 
Mills, L. H. 

Mills, S. A. 
Monahon, Harry F. 
Morgan, Ida 
Nichol, L. DeGarmo 
Noe, Fannie 

(Mrs. W. O. Hendren) 
Noland, Mariam 

(Mrs. James Wilson) 
O'Brien, Betty 
Ramsey, Alice 
Roland, Laura Beatrice 

(Mrs. Paris B. Akin) 
Ruby, Golden 
Rucker, J. G. 
Rucker, Lucile 
Shearer, James R. 
Shearer, Lee 
Shearer, Mollie 
Smith, Joshua 
Smith, Prudence Allen 
Spurlock, Eugene 
Stone, Lucille 
Stone, Stella Hubble 
Sturgill, Norah Marie 

(Mrs. J. W. Wines) 
Taylor, Hiram H. 
Thomas, Albrow B. 
Turpin, Mary Kathryn 
Waters, Virginia Henshaw 
Williams, Mrs. John L. 
Wills, Omar Robbins 
Wilson, Lela Frances 


Adams, Mattie 

(Mrs. R. B. Smart) 
Allman, Carrie A. 
Baughman, Sadie S. 
Boothe, Gertrude 
Bourne, Mayme 
Bridges, Olla Ray 

(Mrs. Z. T. Shirley) 
Bronson, Jamie 

(Mrs. Lawton Long) 
Brophy, Mary Irene 

(Mrs. Charles Francis Trent) 

Burton, Marietta E. 
Carpenter, Katie 
Carter, Virginia Watts 
Champion, Ebon 
Chandler, Eda S. 
Clere, Easter L. 
Cochran, Avonia H. 
Coffey, Rena 
Cooper, Anna E. 
Crowe, Ida M. 
Crowe, Lina B. 
Dalton, Lora I. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Demmin, Lillian W. 
Dilgard, Louise 

(Mrs. O. F. Straight) 
Dotson, J. E. 
Ernest, Viola M. 
Ewen, Mayme 

(Mrs. G. W. Marshall) 
Falin, Winnie 

(Mrs. H. F. Honk) 
Faris, Macie M. 
Galbraith, McCellan 
Gilkerson, Florence 

(Mrs. Clyde Ramsey) 
Gillispie, C. C. 
Goldenbrug, Mary G. 
Harris, Mattie B. 
Haughaboo, Susan 

(Mrs. L. C. Caldwell) 
Hedden, Daphne M. 
Heflin, Frances I. 
Heflin, Serena 
Henry, Evelyn Price 

(Mrs. Elvin Langford) 
Hill, Emery D. 
Hord, Anna M. 
Hubbard, Dillard 
Jones, Carrie B. 

(Mrs. Carrie Jones Pigman) 
Kenny, Katherine 
Keyser, Sara E. (Mrs. Sara 

Keyser Schepperly) 
Lambert, Linwood K. 
Lyon, Rachel C. 
McKee, Marta Y. 

(Mrs. E. C. Dawson) 

McKee, Miriam 
Marrs, Grace A. 
Martin, Frances 
Martin, Lloyd L. 
Moore, William 
Morgan, Luther F. 
Murphy, Alfred L. 
Nolan, Stella 
Parard, Katherine 
Parker, Ruth R. 
Patrick, Hester 
Perry, Bernard 
Prather, A. P. 
Pratt, Sara Mildred 
Roach, Dora E. 
Robertson, Imogen 
Rowland, Clayton 
Saunders, Jean 
Schoenfeld, Effie 
Searcy, Mary S. 
Slack, Ida Mae 
Sloan, Myrtle 
Smith, H. Woodson 
Smith, Katie B. 
Sword, Adeline H. 
Tibbals, Sarah 
Trimble, Kathleen 
Vikery, J. E. 
Vories, Marion H. 
Walker, Ellen 

(Mrs. Edwin D. Smathers) 
Webb, Dermont G 
Winn, Grace 
Feager, Carroll N. 

Boudinot, Nancy 
Boyer, Martha K. 
Boyer, Mary L. 
Brown, M. C. 
Burdett, Sallie S. 
Chalkey, Mary Lillian 
Chapman, Mollie V. 
Cloyd, Pearl M. 
Cobb, Pluma 
Cotton, Beulah M. 

CLASS 1918 

Caroline Lee 
Duncan, Priscilla P. 

(Mrs. Arthur S. Chapin) 
Evans. Nora Lee 
Everett, Grace A. 
Garrett, Mabel Cree 

(Mrs. Stanley Pullen) 
Gentry, Minnie W. 
Gregory, Anna Lee 

(Mrs. Anna Lee Quails) 


Three Decades of Progress 

Horn, Anna M. 
Miller, Maude M. 
Miracle, Jas. T. 
Montgomery, Mrs. L. H. 
Morton, Mabel Hutchinson 
Ogg, Nina Rachel* 
Sanford, Carol Hudson 
Scott, Amelia Jane 

Shearer, Nancy William 
Steele, Flora C. 
Taphorn, Mary Martha 
Trammel, Ella May 
Webb, Bennie M. 
Wilson, Huldah 
York, Lottie Alice 

Ballinger, Lucy 
Burchett, Minnie 
Champion, Lois 
Greathouse, Stella 
Gudgel, Mary F. 
Hacker, Mrs. Mary 
Harlow, Lora May 
McDonald, Linnie 
Miller, Nina 
Mills, Otto 

CLASS 1919 

Pettey, Alice L. 
Powell, Rachel Mae 
Rankin, Mary Lou 
Scrivner, Pearl 

(Mrs. John Wilson) 
Shelton, Mrs. Nancy 
Sothard, Mary 
Thomason, Christine 
Whaley, Lettie L. 

Binder, Josephine 
Callebs, Mrs. Dora 
Calico, Mamie 
Campbell, Elizabeth R. 
Capos, Mary D. 
Clubb, Mary Isabelle 
Coates, Mabel Ruth 
Collette, Gertrude M. 
Driggs, Mabel Loud 
Duncan, Archie Cosby 
Gibson, H. H. 
Hopkins, Maggie 
Hughes, Sibyl 
Jefferson, Elizabeth 

(Mrs. O. B. Dabney) 
Jett, Laura V. 

(Mrs. W. A. Moore) 
Jones, Lillian B. 

CLASS 1920 

Meeks, Eugenia 
Montgomery, Sudie F. 

(Mrs. Richard Boardman) 
Moore, Bess M. 
Moss, Georgia 
Neal, Martha Maye 
Reed, Curtis 
Risk, Louisa 
Stroker, Lelia E. 
Teater, Maude 
Templeton, Lona M. 
Thomason, Louvenia 
Tilton, Jessie Lee 
Tyng, Mrs. Gladys Perry 
Warren, Sudie T. 
Williams, Lorena 
Williams, Martha E. 

CLASS 1921 

Adams, Mrs. Elizabeth Cain Browning, Grace 

Baker, Myrtle Lee Clifton, Louis 

Bisceglia, Barbara Coates, Rowena 


Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Covington, Hester Louise 

(Mrs. Robert Caldwell) 
Dettwiller, Daisy D. 
Dickerson, Lily B. 
Fincel, Clara Jane 

(Mrs. Z. C. Long) 
Floyd, Marie 
Fouch, T. E. 
Gilvan, Bessie H. 

(Mrs. Bess Bromagen) 
Griffin, Myrtle G. 

(Mrs. George B. Griffin) 
Hawkins, Nannie Belle 
Huddleston, Pattie G. 
Jewell, J. W. 
Johnson, Ruth* 
Lackey, Mary Elizabeth 
Long, Mildred M. 

Adams, Eunie Mae 
Adams, Kearney M. 
Bell, Martha White 
Broaddus, Ruth Marie 
Bryant, Beulah 
Calico, Mattie 
Clark, Julia 
Clark, Myrtle Marie 
Coates, Lana Martine 

(Mrs. Stuart Brabant) 
Colyer, Adeline 
Combs, Bradley 
Congleton, Mrs. Conley 
Crook, Margaret 
Detwiller, Josephine 
Farmer, Edna S. 
Foster, Ray P. 
Fox, Amelia Elizabeth 
Gentry, Sallie 

(Mrs. Browning Terrill) 
Gillispie, Mildred 

(Mrs. Sam Denny) 
Griggs, Mary Earle 

(Mrs. Andrew Turpin) 
Hall, Maye Edith 
Harlow, Pauline 

(Mrs. Eugene Thompson) 

McCollum, Mrs. E. E. 
McKinney, Mary Frances 
Monson, Sadie B. 
Mullich, Anita 
Reynolds, Maggie 
Rigney, Ella 
Roberts, Delaine 
Schormann, Huldah 
Stipp, Maye 

(Mrs. Lindsey Cockrell) 
Story, Virginia 
Turley, Amy D. 
Walker, Lula Kern 
Watts, Elsie 

(Mrs. Frank Terhune) 
Watts, Ovie 
Yates, Emma Irene 

CLASS 1922 

Hart, Ethel E. 
Hays, Alma 
Higgins, Herbert 
Hisle, Virginia W. 

(Mrs. James J. Shannon) 
Jones, Mary Joseph 
Latimer, Genia Ruth 
Little, Daniel Boone 
McDaniel, Mamie Clay 
Moser, Walter B. 
Owen, Naomi Woodson 
Owens, Mary Alma 
Pendleton, Mattie E. 
Perkins, Alice M. 
Rice, Zelia 

(Mrs. A. T. Coates) 
Rush, Paul 
Samuels, Eloise 
Sandlin, Christine 
Scott, Virgil B. 
Smith, Anna May 
Snyder, Bertha J. 
Soper, Ora Allen 

(Mrs. F. O. Schneider) 
Strother, Lucille 

(Mrs. Green Hogg) 
Taylor, W. C. 



Three Decades of Progress 

Tucker, Gladys L. 

(Mrs. Gladys L. Miller) 
Turley, Margaret 
Tyree, Ralph 
Vosloh, Helen 

Warner, Hattie C. 
Waterfield, Mary Louise 
(Mrs. Elbridge Noland) 
White, Joseph J. 
Willoughby, Hortense 

CLASS 1923 

Acra, C. S. 

Akens, C. N. 

Allan, Alberta 

Allan, Cordie 

Allan, Ruth 

Arnett, Edgar 

Arthur, Alva 

Boggs, Edith 

Botts, Josephine Chenault 

Campbell, G. W. 

Carter, Margaret Ann 

Clark, Delia May 

(Mrs. F. E. Bales) 
Cochran, Mrs. Lutie D. 
Covington, Coleman 
Cox, Ellen 

Cralle, Myrtle Margaret 
Davis, Edna 

(Mrs. Edna Davis Born) 
Deatherage, Valinda 
Denny, Sam J. 
Desha, Sara Snell 
Duckworth, Lucy M. 
Dunaway, William Dailey 
Dunbar, Verna 
Duncan, Mrs. Maye 
Elam, E. E. 
Elliott, Cecile 
Goggin, Ruth Esther 
Hanson, Eliza 
Hill, N. M. 
Hord, Laura Frances 
Hord, Ollie 
Hutchinson, Sara 
James, Tevis 
Jasper, Elizabeth 
Jayne, John 
Kalusy, Alice Mae 
Karrick, Loutica 

Kirk, Elsa Frances 

(Mrs. J. C. Towery) 
Lane, Margaret 
Leathers, Hettie 

(Mrs. Ishmael Triplett) 
Liles, Lowell 
Lutes, Esther Florence 
Martin, Susan Mary 
Martin, Tabitha 

(Mrs. Virgil McMullins) 
Moss, Anna Britain 
Owens, Bess Alice 

(Mrs. R. E. Denton) 
Owens, Thelma 

(Mrs. S. A. Watts) 
Parks, Anna Lee 
Pollitt, Ethel Lula 
Prewitt, John W. 
Price, Lela 
Proctor, Roy E. 
Ramsey, Jennie Elizabeth 
Riley, Ruth 
Risk, Margaret 
Ross, Andrew J. 
Rouse, C. Raymond 
Sammons, Eugene 
Shearer, I. B. 
Shearer, Morton 
Simpson, Capitola 
Smiser, Louise 
Smith, Gladys 

(Mrs. R. W. Jones) 
Steele, Ida McKinley 
Stocker, Rey 
Stone, Fern 

Taylor, Mrs. Ethel Tudor 
Telford, Josephine 
Templeton, Hobart 
Vice, Mabel Ruth 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 


Vories, Marjorie 

(Mrs. Robert Beatty) 
Waits, Lucille Ailine 
Watson, Mrs. Bertie T. 
Watts, Audie 

(Mrs. W. C. Brown) 

Wells, Lillian J. 

Whaley, Margaret Katherine 

Wilson, Maude 

Wood, J. Herman 

Arbuckle, Sara 
Aldridge, Irene 
Baker, Eula 
Barberick, Julia Anna 
Bodkins, Callia Elliott 
Bogie, Bernie 

(Mrs. Bernie Bogie Mixon) 
Bowman, Neal S. 
Boyer, Willie 
Burke, "Vesta 
Burns, Valeria Catherine 
Bradshaw, Mary Stokes 
Bryan, Robert Earl 
Campbell, Clara 
Campbell, Ethel 
Caudill, Mrs. Edith Rice 
Clancy, Agnes 
Cochran, Kathleen 
Cornelison, Myrtle 
Coughlin, Josephine 
Crouch, Elizabeth 
Day, Mary Vance 
Dearborn, Mae 
Denny, Edwin R. 
Driggs, Eloise Polk 
Ellis, Cecile Arthur 
Ellis, Henry L. 
Estes, Bertha Mae 
Evans, Ethel Lee 
Fanning, Iva Mae 
Fields, Davis 
Fox, Barnett C. 
Garrett, Martha 
Goodpaster, Ella 
Gray, Elvah Pearl 
Green, Flossie Mae 
Hall, Helen Katherine 
Hance, Willie Brown 

CLASS 1924 

Harberson, Jane 
Harmon, Judson 
Harmon, Lawrence* 
Harrod, J. G. 
Harrod, Mrs. J. G. 
Hayden, Lunata 
Hiteman, Elsie 
Hood, Claude M. 
Hord, Geneva H. 
Hoskins, Alma 
Hoskins, Alta 
Hubbard, Elizabeth 
Huff, Golda M. 
Huguely, Anna Catherine 
Hyden, Blanche 
James, Robbie 
Jayne, Blanche 
Johnson, Brayan 
Jones, Mrs. John Spencer 
Jones, Katherine 
Kaluesy, Virginia 
Karrick, Ethel Mae 
Kelch, Augusta E. 
Kennedy, Blanche 
Kindred, Frances Dean 
(Mrs. Chas. Eubank) 
Kunkle, Mabel 
Lacefield, Ascha Saunders 
Lane, Florris 
Lane, J. E. 
Lane, Ruth 
Little, Fay Ward 
Lowe, Lelia Mae 
Lutes, Verna 
Mackey, A. B. 
Mainous, Clayton G. 
McCable, Valeria 
McDaniel, Minerva 

* Deceased. 


Three Decades of Progress 

McKinney, Georgia 
Million, Harriet 
Mobley, Jessie Y. 
Moffett, Mary Catherine 
Moreland, Lee Rogers 
Newby, Emma 
Norton, Egbert F. 
O'Neal, Anna Katherine 

(Mrs. Walter Rice) 
Osborn, Lou Elise 

(Mrs. Albert Peutrebaugh) 
Patrick, Grace 
Pennington, Lacie Cecila 
Perkins, Edna 
Perkins, Ivy 
Pinnell, Clara Mae 
Pigg, Minnie 
Reeves, Anna Louise 
Rice, Carolyn 
Ricketts, Dorothy M. 
Robey, Bess 
Robinson, Grace 
Rominger, Virginia 
Routt, Virginia 
Rowland, Clarice 
Ruble, Sunbeam 
Rye, Elizabeth 
Shelton, Mrs. Allie 
Shepherd, Gladys Lucille 

Sine, Pauline 

(Mrs. Wayne Smith) 
Smith, Eddie 

(Mrs. C. E. Word) 
Smith, Georgiana 
Smith, Gertrude 
Smith, Margaret 
Smith, Ray E. 
Stapleton, Eula Leah 
Stocker, Bonnie Mae 
Stokes, Sue 
Sudduth, Mary R. 

(Mrs. D. L. Stoddard) 
Swartz, Pauline 
Taulbee, Lillian Mae 
Taylor, Julian 
Taylor, Riffie B. 
Terrill, Dorothy 
Ulery, Ethel 

Urmston, Katherine Grace 
Walker, Blanche 
Webb, Lela 
Whaley, Elizabeth 
Williamson, June 
Williams, Olive Rose 
Wilson, Ella Bond 
Wilson, Gertrude 
Witham, Evelyn 
Word, C. E. 


ALUMNI DIRECTORY (1925-1936) 1 

By Lucile Derrick and Sam Beckley 


Aaron, William George,* A. B., Eastern, 1926; M. A., University of 
Kentucky, 1933. 

Ackerman, Mrs. Robert (nee Helena Park), A. B., Eastern, 1933. High 
School Teacher, Corinth, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Acra, C. S., A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1929. 

Adams, Ben, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Carr Creek, Kentucky, 
1932-33; Gander, Kentucky, 1934-35; Carr Creek, Kentucky, 

Adams, Mrs. Kearney S., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Graduate Teacher, 
Garrard County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Adams, Kearney S., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Merchant, Lancaster, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-35. 

Adams, Mrs. Lundy (nee Mary Ann Patton), A. B., Eastern, 1935. 
High School Teacher, Taylorsville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Adams, Mrs. Marion F. (nee Mary Katherine McCord), A. B., Eastern, 
1929. Teacher, Shelby and Madison Counties, Kentucky, 1926-31. 

Adams, Ollie, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Williams- 
port, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Addis, Frances (See Turner, Mrs. AV. R.). 

Adkins, Claude D., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Superintendent, Robertson 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Adkins, Robert Thompson, Jr., A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Stu- 
dent, University of Kentucky, 1930. 

Alexander, Barbara, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Middlesboro, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35; Benham, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Alexander, Chester R., B. S., Eastern, 1929; M. A., University of 
Tennessee, 1930. Teacher. Southwest Baptist College, Missouri, 

Allen, Carl E., A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Ellisburg, Kentucky, 

Allen, Harriet Floretta, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Allen, Jack, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 

1 See the last paragraph of Chapter XIV. 
* Deceased. 

318 Three Decades of Progress 

Allen, James R., A. B., Eatsern, 1935. Teacher, New Haven High 
School, Boone County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Allen, Mary Evelyn, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Ferguson, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Allie, Mrs. D. C. (nee Thelma Wagoner), A. B., Eastern, 1929; Gradu- 
ate Student, University of Kentucky, 1931. H. S. Teacher, Boyd 
County, Kentucky, 1929-35. 

Alsip, Joe M., A. B., Eastern, 1934. Ky. R. R. C. employee, 1934-35. 
Grade School Superintendent, Packard, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Amis, Otis Cecil, A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1934; Graduate Student, Peabody College, 1930. High School 
Principal, Knox County, Kentucky, 1929-30; Grade School Prin- 
cipal, Grays, Kentucky, 1930-31; City School Superintendent, Mt. 
Vernon, Kentucky, 1931-35. 

Ammerman, Mary Jane, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1929; University of Cincinnati, 1934-35. 
Grade Teacher, Irvine, Kentucky, 1926-27, Covington, Kentucky, 
1927-28; Junior High School Teacher, Covington, Kentucky, 

Anderson, Nelle Evelyn, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Jones- 
ville, Virginia, 1934-36. 

Anderson, Ross C, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Island City, Kentucky, 
1933-34; Maxewan, West Virginia, 1934-36. 

Angel, Gertrude Hayes, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, 
LaFollette, Tennessee, 1934-35; High School Librarian, Williams- 
burg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Angel, Green Berry, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Arbuckle, Sara E., A. B., Eastern, 1926. 

Arnold, Ansel B., A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Assistant High School Principal, Oddville, 
Kentucky, 1931-32; High School Principal, Goforth, Kentucky, 
1932-33; Assistant High School Principal, Butler, Kentucky, 
1933-35; High School Principal, Butler, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Arnold, Sue V., A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1931. Grade Teacher, Crittenden, Kentucky, 1930-33. 

Arvin, W. J., B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. A., College of Bible, Transyl- 
vania University, 1935. Pastor, Big Hill Avenue Christian Church, 
Richmond, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Ashby, Mrs. William (nee Mary Kathryn Burns), A. B., Eastern, 1933. 
F. E. R. A. Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Ashcraft, Lucy (See Leaver, Mrs. Sidney). 

Ashmore, Robert Ben, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacber, Woodleigh 
School, Mason County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 319 

Atkinson, Mrs. Stella Congleton, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Stu- 
dent, University of Kentucky, 1930. High School Teacher, Irvine, 
Kentucky, 1929-35; Assistant High School Principal, Irivne, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35. 

Bailey, Robert J., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade School Principal, Smiley, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; Frazier, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Ball, Mrs. Dewey (nee Bertha Broaddus), A. B., Eastern, 1928. High 
School Teacher, Whitley City, Kentucky, 1928-30; Grade Teacher, 
Revilo, Kentucky, 1930-34; Employee, K. E. R. A. Office, Stearns, 
Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Ball, Willie B., A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Forks of 
Elkhorn, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ballard, May Douglas, A. B., Eastern, 1929. 

Ballinger, Mrs. Bessie K., A. B., Eastern, 1933. Consolidated School 
Principal, Bethel, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Ballou, Orvilee, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Pleasant 
View, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ballon, Mrs. Raymond Dempsey (nee Anna Marie Bogie), B. S., 
Eastern, 1933. 

Ballou, Raymond Dempsey, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Williamsburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Banks, Edgar, B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Whites- 
burg, Kentucky, 1932-35. 

Barbe, Emma Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Barrett, Mrs. R. T., A. B., Eastern, 1929. Junior High School Teacher, 
Ashland, Kentucky, 1930-35. 

Baugh, Henry M., B. S., Eastern, 1935; Medical Student, University 
of Louisville, 1935-36. 

Bayer, Jack, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Law Student, University of Vir- 
ginia, 1933-36. 

Beckley, Sam Combs, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Assistant Director of Ex- 
tension, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1935-36. 

Becknell, Wilma, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Bell, Ira, A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, University of Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35. High School Principal, Garrett, Kentucky, 1928-29; 
Superintendent, Wayne County, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Bell, Mrs. Julia Goodpaster, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Grade School Prin- 
cipal, Wayne County, Kentucky, 1930-35. 

Bell, William Gobel, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, Miami 
University, 1934-35. High School Teacher, Winchester, Ohio, 

Belwood, Mary Frances (See Fry, Mrs. Paul). 
Belue, Ida Helen (See Garriot, Mrs. W. E.). 

320 Three Decades of Progress 

Bender, Joseph H., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Employee, H. Zussman & 
Son, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1933-35; Employee, Accounting Depart- 
ment, W. P. Clancy & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1935-36. 

Bentley, C. Frank, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Assistant High School Prin- 
cipal, Brock, Kentucky, 1933-34; High School Principal, Brock, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Bertram, Anna Louise, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, Ohio 
State University, 1929, Columbia University, 1930. Superintendent, 
Lewis County Schools, Vanceburg, Kentucky, 1923-35. 

Bertram, Mrs. Jessie Shearer, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School 

Teacher, Mill Springs, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Bevins, Mrs. Ben L., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Huddy, 

Kentucky, 1932-33. 

Bevins, Billie Zetta, A. B., Eastern, 1929. 

Black, Anna Bales, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Assistant Director of 

Cafeteria, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1935-36. 
Black, Edward L., B. S., Eastern, 1935. 
Blackwell, Frances (See Mclntyre, Mrs. Frances). 
Blair, Mrs. Virgil (nee Sue Mae Chrisman), A. B., Eastern, 1931. 
Blanton, Harvey Chenault, B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. D., University 

of Louisville, 1936. 
Bodie, Maynard L., B. S., Eastern, 1934. 
Bogie, Anna Marie (See Ballou, Mrs. Dempsey). 
Bogie, Edith, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Stenographer, State Bank & Trust 

Company, Richmond, Kentucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher, 

Lynch, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Boleyn, Betty Jo (See Potter, Mrs. Lawrence Wayne). 

Boiling, Mrs. Julia Peters, B. S., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher, 
Crofton, Kentucky, 1931-33, Linton, Kentucky, 1933-34; K. E. R. A. 
Employee, Manchester, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Boneta, Mrs. Ruth Bingham, A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Bowen, Maude, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Grade Teacher, Bowen, Kentucky, 
1930-31; Assistant Principal, Powell County High School, Stanton, 
Kentucky, 1931-32; Superintendent, Powell County, Kentucky, 

Bowman, Neal S., A. B., Eastern, 1926. Superintendent, Madison 
County, Kentucky, 1929-33; Teacher, Million, Kingston, Salyers- 
ville, Hawesville, Newby, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Boxley, Mary, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Covington, Ken- 
tucky, 1929-35. 

Boxley, Ruth (See Helmick, Mrs. Ruth B.). 

Boyer, Mildred, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Empolyee, County Health Office, 
New Castle, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 321 

Boyers, Cecil, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Boyd, Kentucky, 1932-33; 
K. E. R. A. Teacher, 1933-35; High School Teacher, Okemah, Okla- 
homa, 1935-36. 

Brabant, Mrs. Stuart (nee Lana Martine Coates), A. B., Eastern, 1926. 
High School Teacher, Lancaster, Kentucky, 1926-27. 

Brackett, Mrs. Ben (nee Frances L. White), A. B., Eastern, 1931. 
Teacher, Junction City, Kentucky, 1931-33. 

Branham, Mary Lou, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Louisa, 
Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Broaddus, Bertha (See Ball, Mrs. Dewey). 

Broaddus, Hazel, B. S., Eastern, 1930. High School Teacher, Finch- 
ville, Kentucky, 1930-31; Instructor, Spencerian Commercial 
School, Louisville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Broaddus, Louise Ballard, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Union 
City, Kentucky, 1933-34; Cashier, State Theater, Richmond, Ken- 
tucky, 1934, Madison Theater, Richmond, Kentucky, 1935. 

Brock, Lawrence Otto, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Brock, Margaret, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1934. Grade Teacher, Crescent Springs, Kentucky, 
1932-33, Nursery School, Richmond, Kentucky, 1933-35; Grade 
Teacher, Woodleigh School, Mason County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Brock, Rey Stocker, A. B., Eastern. 1933. 

Brooks, Mollie M., A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher, Knott 
County, Kentucky, 1929-33; Grade Teacher, Gravel Switch, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Brooks, Sallie F., A. B., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, Western 
Kentucky Teachers College, Summer, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Brodhead, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Broughton, Daisy, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, straight Creek, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Brown, Ada L., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Gee, Kentucky, 

Brown, Mrs. Hubert (nee Ada Mae Hood), A. B., Eastern, 1931. 

Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky. 
Brown, Robert L., B. S., Eastern, 1934; Medical Student, University 

of Louisville, 1934-35. 

Bryant, Myrtle, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Mt. Vernon, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; Superintendent, Rockcastle County, Kentucky, 

Buchanan, Pattie Ree, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Myers, 
E. S. T. C— 11 

322 Three Decades of Progress 

Kentucky, 1934-35; K. E. R. A. Employee, Frenchburg, Kentucky, 
Buckles, Mrs. James C. (nee Geneva Jane Hord), A. B., Eastern, 
1930. Teacher, Whitley City, Kentucky, Parksville, Kentucky, 
Harlan, Kentucky, Hardburly, Kentucky; Teacher, Florida. 

Burch, Lucian, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Tyner, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Burnam, Curtis Field, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Employee, Hemphill 
Noyes & Co., New York City, 1935-36. 

Burnette, James C, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Clarks Sta- 
tion, Kentucky, 1934-35, Burks Branch, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Burns, Mary Kathryn (See Ashby, Mrs. William). 

Bush, Georgia Mildred, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Bush, Sallie T. (See Harney, Mrs. James W.). 

Cable, Eula Mae (See Taylor, Mrs. A. H). 

Cable, Euphemia (See Hieronymus, Mrs. Mark). 

Calico, Hazel Virginia (See Little, Mrs. Thomas). 

Callebs, Mrs. Dora, A. B., Eastern, 1932. 

Campbell, Green Washington, A. B., Eastern, 1925; M. A., University 
of Kentucky, 1930. High School Principal, Corbin, Kentucky, 
1925-28; City School Superintendent, Corbin, Kentucky, 1928-36. 

Campbell, Odell, A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Principal, Parm- 
leysville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Campbell, Walter, B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1934. High School Teacher, Fourmile, Kentucky, 1934-35; High 
School Principal, Rockhold, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Canfield, Kenneth B., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Salesman, Canfield Motor 
Company, Richmond, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Carpenter, J. B., A. B., Eastern, 1935. Merchant, Waddy Kentucky, 

Carpenter, Katie D., A. B., Eastern, 1928; M. A., University of Ken- 
tucky, 1931. Critic Teacher, Rural Demonstration School, Eastern 
Kentucky Teachers College, 192S-36. 

Carpenter, Robert M., B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Carpenter, Valley, B. S., Eastern, 1929. Grade Teacher, Quicksand, 
Kentucky, 1929-30, Laurel Hill, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Carroll, Mrs. Ralph (nee Mary Earle Moberly), A. B., Eastern, 1928. 
High School Teacher, Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1928-30. 

Carson, Edna Virginia, A. B„ Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher. 
Saxton. Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Carter, Gilbert William, B. S.. Eastern, 1932. 

Carter, Mrs. Melba W., A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student. Uni- 
versity of Kentucky and Peabody College. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 323 

Carty, D. J., B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University o£ 
Cincinnati, 1934. Superintendent, Magoffin County, Kentucky, 
Case, Mrs. Emma Y., A. B., Eastern, 1926; M. A., Peabody College, 
1930. Critic Teacher, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1926-29; 
Associate Professor of Education, Eastern, 1930-32; Dean of 
Women, Eastern, 1932-36. 

Castle, Fannie Mae (See Hand, Mrs. William G.). 

Cawood, James A., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Junior High School Principal, 
Harlan, Kentucky, 1933-34; Superintendent, Harlan County, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35. 

Chadwell, J. A., A. B., Eastern, 1933. Employee, J. C. Penney Co., Cor- 
bin, Ky., 1933; Assistant Manager, J. C. Penney Store, Henderson- 
ville, North Carolina, 1934, Johnson City, Tennessee, 1934-35. 

Chadwell, William 0., A. B., Eastern 1926. High School Teacher, 
Everetta. Kentucky, 1926-27. Teacher, Kidville School, Clark 
County, Kentucky, 1927-28; Springley Graded School, Kenton 
County, Kentucky, 192S-29; Forest Hill Graded School, Kenton 
County, Kentucky, 1930-32; Bethlehem School, Owsley County, 
Kentucky, 1932-34. 

Chambers, Daisy M., A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Camp- 
ton, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Chambers, Eleanor (See Hamilton, Mrs. Ray). 

Chambers, Henry Clay, A. B., Eastern, 192S; M. A., University of 
Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Evarts, Kentucky, 1928-29; 
Burnside, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Champ, Mrs. Bernice (See Roberts, Mrs. Richard Whitefield ) . 

Champion, Bernice Elmond, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher 
and Coach, Cornishville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Champion, James Bruce, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Asst. Prin., Fairview 
High School, Mercer County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Chandler, Robert Edwinn, B. S., Eastern, 1929. High School Prin- 
cipal, Nina, Kentucky, 1929-30. Principal, Woodbine School. Whit- 
ley County, Kentucky, 1931; Meadow Creek School, Whitley 
County, Kentucky, 1932; Barton High School, Whitley County, 
Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Chasteen, Grace Elnora, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Finch- 
ville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Cheatham, Sueanna (See Simms, Mrs. Frank W.). 

Cheek, William A., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Lawrence County, 
Kentucky. 1927-29; Webb, West Virginia, 1929-33. 

Chenault, Katherine, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Chesnut, Clark E., B. S., Eastern, 1931. Principal, Hazel Green High 
School, Laurel County, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

324 Three Decades of Progress 

Chinn, Hariette Lorraine, B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1933. Grade School Principal, Wurtland, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; Siloan, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Chrisman, Sue Mae (See Blair, Mrs. Virgil). 

Clark, Mabel (See Jordan, Mrs. John). 

Clark, Minor Edward, B. S.. Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1935. 

Clay, Thelma, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1932. Teacher, Model High School, Eastern Kentucky 
Teachers College, 1932-33; Nurse, Schirrman Hospital, Ports- 
mouth, Ohio. 

Clayton, S. T., B. S., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1932. High School Teacher, Morehouse, Missouri, 
1930-31; High School Principal, Morehouse, Missouri, 1931-32; City 
School Superintendent, Morehouse, Missouri, 1932-35. 

Clift, Lillian M., A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, Boulder Uni- 
versity, Colorado, 1929. Junior High School Teacher, Ludlow, 
Kentucky, 1927-34. 

Clifton, Wilburn Parker, B. S., Eastern, 1929; M. D., University of 
Louisville, 1933. Physician, 1934-3G. 

Coates, Dellah Marie (See Weisenberg, Mrs. L. B.).* 

Coates, James Dorland, B. S., Eastern, 1927; M. A., Peabody College, 
1931; Graduate Student, Colorado College of Education, 1935. 
Principal, Buckeye High School, Garrard County, Kentucky, 
1927-29; High School Teacher, Shelbyville, Kentucky, 1929-30; 
Critic, Model High School, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 
1931-35; Principal, Model High School, Eastern, 1935-36. 

Coates, Lana Martine (See Brabant, Mrs. Stuart). 

Coates, Thomas Henry, A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. A., University of Ken- 
tucky, 1932. Instructor, New River State College, Montgomery, 
West Virginia, 1935-36. 

Cobb, Harry D., A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Fairbanks, 
Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Cohorn, Howard, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Franklin 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Collins, Benjamin I., B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student University 
of Cincinnati, 1934. High School Principal, Gander, Kentucky, 
1933-34; Instructor, Chillicothe Business College. Cbillicothe, Mis- 
souri, 1935-36. 

Collins, Estelle, B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Colvin, James YV., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Robertson 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

* Deceased. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 325 

Combs, Beckham, A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Whitesburg, Kentucky, 1929-32; Superintendent Knott 
County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Congleton, Frank, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Farmer, Madison Coounty, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Congleton, Mrs. Mary A., A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1934-35. Junior High School Teacher, Rich- 
mond, Kentucky, 1930-32; Senior High School Teacher, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Conley, Dan, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Franklin 
County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Connelly, Mrs. Ronald (nee Ruth Shaeffer), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 
Grade Teacher, Elliston, Kentucky, 1933-34; High School Teacher, 
Dry Ridge, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Conrad, Louise Bracht, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. Grade Teacher, Walton, Kentucky, 1931-34. 

Cook, D. B., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade School Principal, Louellen, 
Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Cook, Edward K., A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Living- 
ston, Kentucky, 1932-34; City School Superintendent, Livingston, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cook, Effie. A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Methodist Home, 
Versailles, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Cooper, Vanburen, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Woodford 
College; Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1930; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1933. High School Principal, Caroleen, 
North Carolina, 1929-33; Superintendent, Henrietta-Avondale- 
Caroleen School, North Carolina, 1934-36. 

Coppage, Christine, A. B., Eastern. 1932. Grade Teacher, Bradfords- 
ville. Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Cord, Emma Harrison, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Win- 
netka, Illinois, 1930. Grade Teacher, Irvine, Kentucky, 1928-36. 

Cornett, Mrs. Beulah H., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Burning 
Springs, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cornett, James H., A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1933. Teacher and Coach, Buckeye High School, 
Garrard County, Kentucky, 1930-33; High School Principal, 
Bourne, Kentucky, 1933-34; Principal, AVrens View School. Paint 
Lick, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cornett, Larkin Custer, B. S.. Eastern, 1932. 

Cornett, Oliver L., B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Principal, Foger- 
town, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cornett, Willie, B. S., Eastern, 1930. Teacher, Dripping Springs, Ken- 

326 Three Decades of Progress 

tucky, 1927-28, Burning Springs, Kentucky, 1930, Fogertown, Ken- 
tucky, 1931-34. 

Corum, Ruth, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Corbin, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cosby, Sara, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Erlanger, Ky., 

Coslow, Mrs. Brunette Money, A. B., Eastern, 1929. Grade Teacher, 
Louisville, Kentucky, 1929-31. 

Cox, Albert Bond, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Kings Mountain, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Cox, Ernestine, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Spring Lake, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cox, Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Anderson County, 
Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Cox, Lillian Pearl (See May, Mrs. Chas.). 

Cox, Mrs. Meredith J. (nee Elizabeth Highland), A. B., Eastern, 1932. 

Cralle, Myrtle Marguerite, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Crace, Allington, B. S., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Booneville, Kyentucky, 1931-33; Employee, F. E. R. A. Of- 
fice, Booneville, Kentucky, 1934; County Agent, Boone Count}', 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Cross, Alfred, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Junction 
City, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Cross, Chester A., B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Crudden, Mrs. Charles H., Jr. (nee Mae Mahaffey), A. B., Eastern, 
1930; M. A., University of Michigan, 1931; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1932-33. 

Crumbaugh, Albert W., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Assistant Editor, Hick- 
man Courier, Hickman, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Culton, Martha Jane, A. B., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1933-34. Secretary to Registrar, Eastern 
Kentucky Teachers College, 1934-36. 

Cummins, Eliza Anderson (See Rankin, Mrs. Pat). 

Cummins, Mrs. Josephine M., A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, 
University of Kentucky, 1934. Grade Teacher, Danville, Kentucky. 

Cuppy, Florence Montelle, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, 
University of Cincinnati. Grade Teacher, Dayton, Kentucky, 
1927-30. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1930-36. 

Dalzelle, Edith, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Cane Ridge, 
Kentucky, 1932-33, Little Rock, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 827 

Damron, George D., A. B., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Cumberland High 

School, Praise, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Daniel, Mary (See Gabbard, Mrs. Thomas, Jr.). 
Davis, Mrs. Allen, A. B., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher, Berry, 

Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Davis, Robert Edward, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1932. High School Teacher, Science Hill, 
Kentucky, 1932-34; Educational Advisor, C. C. C. Camp, Garrard, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Deaton, Thomas, A. B„ Eastern, 1935. 

DeJarnette, Nannie Belle, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Instructor, Black- 
stone College, Blackstone, Virginia, 1935-36. 

Denham, Mitchel, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Consolidated School Principal, 
Garrison, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Dennis, Joe, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Sales Manager, Auburn Motor Com- 
pany, Lexington, Kentucky, 1934-35; Teacher, Fairview High 
School, Mercer County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Derrick, Lucile, B. S., Eastern, 1931; M. A., Peabody College, 1934. 
Secretary to Director of Research, Eastern Kentucky Teachers Col- 
lege, 1931-34; Assistant to Director of Research, Eastern, 1934-36. 

DeWitt, Raymond Talmadge, B. S., Eastern, 1934; M. A. Peabody Col- 
lege, 1935. Camp Director of Physical Education, Tennessee Ridge, 
Tennessee, 1935; Director of Physical Education, Georgia South- 
western College, Americus, Georgia, 1935-36. 

Dial, Fred, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Duke University, 
1934. High School Teacher, West Hamlin, West Virginia, 1930-34; 
Assistant City School Superintendent. Hamlin, West Virginia, 

Dixon, Roxie Mclntyre, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Dixon, Thelma (See Morton, Mrs. Casey). 

Doane, W. F., B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. High School Principal, Corbin, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Dorris, Donald Hugh, A. B., Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student and Stu- 
dent Assistant, University of Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Douds, Harold Lowen, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh, 1930. Teacher, Robertson County, Kentucky, 
1929-30; Teacher, Pennsylvania, 1931-32. 

Dowell, E. Clifton, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Flying Cadet, Army Air Corps, 
San Antonio, Texas, 1934; Grade Teacher, Catlettsburg, Kentucky, 

Dryden, Ray N., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Superintendent, Robertson 
County, Kentucky, 1933-35; N. Y. A. Employee, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

328 Three Decades of Progress 

Dudley, Florence Louise, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Stenographer, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, London, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Dudley, Mabel, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Special Study, Arthur Jordan 
Conservatory, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1935. Grade Teacher, Hazard, 
Kentucky, 1930-31, Richmond, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Dunbar, Mary Lou, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, White Hall, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; Teacher, Crab Orchard, Kentucky, 1933-35; 
Grade Teacher, Million, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Dunbar, Ora, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Russell Springs, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Dunbar, Verna, A. B., Eastern, 1934. H. S. Teacher, Kirksville, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Dunbar, Mrs. Virginia Todd, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Red House 
High School, Madison County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Durham, Margaret, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Secretary to District Super- 
visor of K. E. R. E., Richmond, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Durr, Haldon, B. S., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher, Hartford, 
Kentucky, 1931-33. 

Duvall, Rachel, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Covington, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-36. 

Dyer, Bennie, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Dyer, Hazel Tackett, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Dykes, Norma Katherine, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, 
Columbia University, 1931. Grade Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 

East, Lucy Sloan, A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Mill Springs, Kentucky, 

Eastin, Irvin, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Special Study, Actual Business Col- 
lege and Goodyear Industrial University, 1934-35. 

Ecton, Mrs. Nancy Gray, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Edwards, Ida Frances, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Stenographer, Frankfort, 
Kentucky, 1933; C. W. A. Office, Richmond, Kentucky, 1934; Sears, 
Roebuck, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1935; Office of District Supervisor, 
K. E. R. E., Ashland, Kentucky, 1935. 

Edwards, Mary Turpin, B. S.. Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Danville, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Egner, Iva Faye (See Howe, Mrs. Charles D.). 

Elliott, Esther Helen, A. B.. Eastern. 1931; Graduate Student. Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1934, Miami University, 1935. Grade Teacher, 
Covington, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Elliott, Irene J., A. B., Eastern, 1930. High School Teacher, Jackson, 
Kentucky, 1931-32, Logan, West Virginia, 1932-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 329 

Elliott, Mabel K, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1934. Teacher, Holmes Junior High School, Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Ellis, Henry Lawrence, A. B., Eastern, 1926; M. A., Columbia Univer- 
sity, 1931. High School Teacher, Louisa, Kentucky, 1927-29; City 
School Superintendent, Louisa, Kentucky, 1930-36; Instructor, 
Morehead, Kentucky Teachers College, Summer, 1932. 

Ellison, Clarence, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Principal, Highland High 
School, Lincoln County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Ellison, Evelyn, B. S., Eastern, 1929. Teacher, Stone, Kentucky, 
1929-31; Grade Teacher, Waynesburg, Kentucky, 1931-33. 

Elmore, Elizabeth Earle, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Elston, Mary, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Bedford, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade Teacher, Carlisle, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Epperson, Mrs. Helen Johnson, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, 
Pikeville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Estes, Eubie Kate (See Tiller, Mrs. B. L.). 

Estridge, Burnam, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Stearns, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-35; K. E. R. A. Employee, Liberty, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Estridge, Lucille, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Paint Lick, 
Kentucky, 1932-34; High School Teacher, Cantersville, Kentucky, 

Evans, Ethel Lee, A. B., Eastern, 1927. Teacher, Cobar, Bell County, 
Kentucky, 192S-29, Hignite, Bell County, Kentucky, 1929-30, Hard- 
burly, Perry County, Kentucky, 1931, Caxton, Harlan County, 
Kentucky, 1931-33. 

Evans, George L., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Superintendent Mason County, 
Kentucky, 1933-34; District Supervisor, Kentucky Emergency Edu- 
cation, Maysville, Kentucky, 1934-35; Assistant Director, Ken- 
tucky N. Y. A., 1935-36. 

Evans, Hazel, B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Speedwell, 
Kentucky, 1932-34, Beattyville, Kentucky, 1934-36 

Evans, Mrs. Leslie (nee Georgetta AValker), A. B., Eastern, 1934. 
Grade Teacher, Garrard County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Evans, Mabel, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Madison County, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-34, McKee, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Evans, Tom M., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Verne, Kentucky, 
1933-34; High School Principal, Carpenter, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Evans, Mrs. W. K., Jr. (nee Dorothy Terrill), A. B., Eastern, 1931. 
Teacher, Bell and Shelby Counties, Kentucky, 1924-31. 

Eversole, Mrs. Anna Lane, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Boone- 
ville, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Eversole, Arthur C, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Junior High School Prin- 

330 Three Decades of Progress 

cipal, Viper, Kentucky, 1933-35; Senior High School Principal, 
Viper, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Eversole, Thomas W., B. S., Eastern, 1933. High School Principal, 
Valley View, Kentucky, 1933-34; Stenographer, K. E. R. A. Office, 
Booneville, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Fairchild, Nell, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Cooper, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Fairchild, Mrs. T. E., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Boyd 
County, Kentucky, 1932-33. 

Farley, Claude H., B. S., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1929-30. High School Principal, Auxier, Kentucky, 
1928-30, Garrett, Kentucky, 1930-34; Superintendent, Pike County, 
Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Farley, Curtis, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Benham, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Farley, Lewis Clyde, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1932. High School Teacher, Chandler, Okla- 
homa, 1931-32, McVeigh, Kentucky, 1933; High School Principal, 
Meta, Kentucky, 1934, Hellar, Kentucky, 1935. 

Farris, Mrs. J. D. (nee Zola White), A. B., Eastern, 1929. 

Faulkner, Glenn, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Saxton, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Faust, Mrs. John (nee Eula Fike), B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School 
Teacher, Waco, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Feinstein, Paul S., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Director of Fine Arts, Union 
College, Barbourville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ferrell, Geneva, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. Kindergarten Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 
1933-34; Grade Teacher, Carlisle, Kentucky, 1934-35, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Fields, Cyril O., B. S.. Eastern, 1933. Grade School Principal, Cum- 
berland, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Fields, Davis S., A. B., Eastern, 1928; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1929; Graduate Student, Peabody College, 1930. Grade School 
Principal, Grayson, Kentucky, 1929; City School Superintendent, 
West Point, Kentucky, 1930; Teacher, Shawnee High School, 
Louisville, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Fike, Eula (See Faust, Mrs. John). 

Fish. Margaret Louise, B. S.. Eastern, 1935. 

Fitzgerald, Walter Louis, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Teacher and Coach, 
Bald Knob Higb School, Franklin County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Floyd, Mary, A. B„ Eastern, 1925; B. S. in Library Science. Columbia 
University, 1933; M. A., Columbia University, 1929; Graduate 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 331 

Student, University of Chicago. Instructor, Eastern Kentucky 
Teachers College, 1925-29; Librarian, Eastern, 1929-35. 

Floyd, Samantha, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade School Principal, Lin- 
coln County, Kentucky, 1933, Bandy, Kentucky, 1934; High School 
Teacher and Librarian, Nancy, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Folmer, C. Fred, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Peabody Col- 
lege, 1935. Teacher and Librarian, Lloyd Memorial High School, 
Erlanger, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Ford, Alice L., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Troy School, 

Woodford County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Forman, Mary D. T., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Bethel, Bath 

County, Kentucky, 1932-33. 
Foster, Mrs. Sadie D., A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Ohio 

LTniversity, 1933. 
Fonts, John D., B. S., Eastern, 1932; M. D., University of Louisville, 

Fowler, Sudie B. (See McGladdery, Mrs. W. H.). 
Franks, Evabel, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Florence, Kentucky, 

Frey, Lucy, A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Fry, Mrs. Paul (nee Mary Frances Belwood), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 
Fryman, Vergil T., B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 

of Chicago, 1934. Teacher and Coach, Washington High School, 

Maysville, Kentucky, 1931-36. 
Gabbard, Mrs. Thomas, Jr. (nee Mary Daniel), B. S., Eastern, 1930. 

High School Teacher, Stanton, Kentucky, 1930-31; Grade Teacher, 

Island City, Kentucky, 1933-34, Escel. Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Gaffney, W. C, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 
Gaines, Charles Floyd, A. B., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher, 

Owenton, Kentucky, 1931-35; Ford Dealer, Williamstown, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 
Gaines, Wilfred H, B. S., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher and 

Coach, Perryville, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Galbraith, Shirley, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1930. High School Teacher, Brooksville, 

Kentucky, 1929-30. 
Gannaway, Virginia, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Mc- 

Henry, Kentucky, 1934-35. 
Gantley, Annabel. B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Washington, 

Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Gantley, Christine L., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Dover, 

Kentucky, 1932-36. 
Garret, Carl, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Assistant Education Advisor, C. C. C. 

332 Three Decades of Progress 

Camp, Cadiz, Kentucky, 1933-35; Teacher, Gleneyrie High School, 
Shelby County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Garriot, Mrs. W. E. (nee Ida Helen Belue), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 
Grade Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 1933-34. 

Gatrell, Mrs. Samuel (nee Mollie Hays), B. S., Eastern, 1932. High 
School Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Gay, Leslie, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Combs, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Gilliam, Ada Gray, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Corbin, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Gilmore, Charles M., B. S., Eastern, 1927. Special Study, Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois; High School Teacher, Haz- 
ard, Kentucky, 1925-31; High School Principal, Hardburly, Ken- 
tucky, 1931-36. 

Goatley, Pauline, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Sandy 
Hook, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Goodloe, Paul Miller, B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, 1932-33. 

Goodman, Keener C, A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, Peabody 
College. Grade Teacher and Principal, Coxton, Kentucky, 1928-35. 
Gover, Mrs. Roy (nee Virginia Moody), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Gragg, Elizabeth Geraldine, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Kindergarten 
Teacher, Pineville, Kentucky, 1934; K. E. R. A. Employee, 1935-36. 

Graham, 0. J., B. S., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of 

Chicago. Teacher, Maysville, Kentucky; Teacher, Illinois. 
Gray, Mrs. Mary Robinson, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Fairview 

High School, Mercer County, Kentucky, 1932-35. 
Greene, Cyrus E., A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 

of Kentucky, 1935. Teacher, Lusby Mill High School, Owen 

County, Kentucky, 1931-34; High School Teacher, Owenton, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 
Gregory, Edith Joyce, A. B„ Eastern, 1935. 
Griffith, Fleming B., A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, White 

Hall, Madison County, Kentucky, 1932-33; Grade School Principal, 

Ravenna, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Griggs, Mrs. John (nee Harriet Million), A. B., Eastern, 1929. High 

School Teacher, Newby, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Grinsteail, Beverly M., B. S.. Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Madison 

County, Kentucky, 1933-36. 
Grow, Mrs. Edna Scott, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 
C s.h wind, Esther, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Erlanger, 

Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 333 

Gullett, William Preston, A. B., Eastern, 1926. Merchant, Stacy Fork, 

Kentucky, 1926-36. 
Guy, Robert L., A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher and Coach. 

Finchville, Kentucky, 1932-34; Teacher, Mapleton High School, 

Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, 1934-35; Principal, Mapleton High School, 

Hacker, Henry, A. B., Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher and Coach, 

McRoberts, Kentucky, 1931-32; Merchant, Heidelberg, Kentucky, 

1932-34; Teacher, Spencer Ridge, Kentucky, 1934-35; Farmer, 

Heidelberg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Hale, E. B., A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher, AVhitesburg, 

Kentucky, 1929-36. 
Hale, Herman, B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Mt. Olivet, 

Kentucky, 1932-36. 
Hale, Lawrence, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Farmer, Cody, Kentucky, 1932-33; 

Teacher, Mayslick, Kentucky, 1933-36. 
Hale, Little G, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher and Coach, 

McKinney, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Hale, Zelda, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Betsy Lane High School, 

Floyd County, Kentucky, 1932-33. 
Hall, Willie B., A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, McKinney, 

Kentucky, 1933-36. 
Haller, Mrs. (nee Jessie Bell Pletcher), A. B., Eastern, 1930. 
Hamblin, Sara Jane, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Typo, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35; Junior High School Teacher, Shoal, Kentucky, 

Hamilton, G. D., A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University of 

Kentucky, 1935; Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1935-36. 
Hamilton, Hargis, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Flat Gap, Johnson 

County, Kentucky, 1933-34. 

Hamilton, Nancy, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Madison County, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-33. 

Hamilton, Orville, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Robertson County, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Hamilton, Mrs. Ray (nee Eleanor Chambers), A. B., Eastern, 1931. 

Hamlin, R. A., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade School Principal, Coopera- 
tive, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Hammonds, Mrs. Colonel, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, 
University of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Bowen, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-33, Buena Vista, Kentucky, 1933-34, Bryantsville, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Hammonds, Colonel, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1931, 1935. High School Principal, Bourne, Ken- 

334 Three Decades of Progress 

tucky, 1930-33, Buena Vista, Kentucky, 1933-34; Superintendent, 
Garrard County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Hancock, Carl T., B. S., Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. 

Hand, Mrs. William G. (nee Fannie Mae Castle), B. S., Eastern, 1931. 

Hardin, Marvin R., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, "Washington 
County, Kentucky, 1934-35; Principal, Kirkland High School, 
Washington County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Harmon, Clarence D., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Principal, Morgansburg 
School, Maysville, Ky., 1933-34; High School Principal, Pine Knott, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Harmon, Judson S., A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1930, 1934. City School Principal, Whitley City, Ken- 
tucky, 1926-29; Bookkeeper, Stearns, Kentucky, 1929-30; Junior 
High School Principal, Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 1930-31; High 
School Teacher, Shoopman, Kentucky, 1931-33; Member of Ken- 
tucky General Assembly, 1934-35; Representative of Ginn & Com- 
pany, Columbus, Ohio, 1935-36. 

Harmon, Mrs. Willa F., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Fidelity High 
School, Shoopman, Kentucky, 1933-35; High School Teacher, Pine 
Knott, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Harney, Mrs. Clarence (nee Elizabeth Hume), A. B., Eastern, 1925. 
Teacher, Millersburg, Kentucky, 1924-2S. 

Harney, Mrs. James W. (nee Sallie T. Bush), A. B., Eastern, 1930; 
Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, 
Clark County, Kentucky, 1925-36. 

Harper, William R., A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Lockport, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Harris, Annie Alice, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Garrard Con- 
solidated Schools, Floyd County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Harris, Lelia Jane, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student. Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1931, 1934, 1935. Superintendent, Madison 
County, Kentucky. 1929-30; High School Teacher, Mt. Vernon. 
Kentucky, 1930-34; K. E. R. A. Teacher, Frankfort, Kentucky, 
1934-35; Representative, Frontier Publishing Company, 1935-36. 

Harrison, Rosell W., A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher. Beechwood School. 
Shelby County, Kentucky, 1932; High School Teacher, Junction 
City. Kentucky. 1934-36. 

Harrod, Justice Goebel, A. B., Eastern, 1929. Teacher, Henderson 
County, Kentucky, 1929-30, Irvington Graded School. Breckinridge 
County, Kentucky, 1931-32. 
Hart, Benjamin Franklin, A. B., Eastern. 1925: Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, University of Chicago. Teacher, Ashland, 
Kentucky; Teacher, Illinois. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 335 

Hart, Charles W., B. S., Eastern, 1930. High School Teacher, Flem- 
ing, Kentucky, 1930-34; Superintendent, Nelson County, Kentucky, 

Hatfield, Edna Grace, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Cannonsburg, Kentucky, 1935-38. 

Hayes, Mollie E. (See Gatrell, Mrs. Samuel). 

Hays, Foster M., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Lincoln County, 
Kentucky, 1932-34, Bullitt County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Helm, Susan R., B. S., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Western 
Kentucky Teachers College, 1933. High School Teacher, Simp- 
sonville, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Helmick, Mrs. Russell (nee Ruth Boxley), B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade 
Teacher, Covington, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Helton, Vina Siler, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Gray, Kentucky, 
Wilton, Kentucky, Calvary, Kentucky, Woodbine, Kentucky. 

Hemlepp, Kathryn Frances, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, 
Wylie School, Ashland, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Henderson, Earl T., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Bethlehem, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hendrix, Dewey, A. B., Eastern, 1927; M. A., Feabody College, 1935. 
Assistant High School Principal, Hyden, Kentucky, 1927-28; In- 
structor, Witherspoon College, Buckhorn, Kentucky, 1928-36. 

Hendrix, Robert B., B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Hazard, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Hensley, Carlo, B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1933. Teacher, Sibert, Kentucky, 1932-33; Employee, 
S. S. Kresge Company, Lexington, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Herbst, Miriam, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Junior High School, 
Ashland, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Herron, Shirley Olive, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Music Supervisor, Frank- 
lin County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hicks, Clarissa, B. S., Eastern, 1931: Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. Teacher, St. Helens High School, Lee County, 
Kentucky, 1931-34; High School Teacher, Booneville, Kentucky, 

Hieronymus, James Harold, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Salesman, Rich- 
mond, Kentucky, 1933-34; Accountant and Salesman, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hieronymus, Margaret, A. B., Eastern, 1931: Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1935. Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 

Hieronymus, Mrs. Mark (nee Euphemia Cable), B. S., Eastern, 1931. 
High School Teacher, St. Helens, Kentucky, 1931-34, Crossville, 
Tennessee, 1934-36. 

336 Three Decades of Progress 

Hill, Don W., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Field Representative, Central Phar- 
macal Company, 1935-36. 

Hill, Edward George, B. S., Eastern, 1935; Law Student, University of 
Cincinnati, 1935-36. 

Hill, Gladys, A. B., Eastern, 192S. High School Teacher, Campton, 
Kentucky, 1928-29, Pine Mountain Settlement School, 1929-36. 

Hill, Thelma Brown, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Clark 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hinkle, Brooks Allen, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Bourbon County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hinkle, Mrs. Chester (nee Garnett Talley), B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade 
Teacher, Shelbyville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Hobing, Mrs. Jack Hunter (nee Mildred Ann Mayes), A. B., Eastern, 
1932; Special Study, Spencerian Commercial College, Louisville, 
1935. Grade Teacher, Pleasureville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Hogan, Herbert, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Employee, A. A. A., Madison 
County, Kentucky, 1935; High School Teacher, Frankfort, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Hohnhorst, Anthony, A., B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1933. Teacher, St. James High School, Lud- 
low, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Holbrook, Andrew L., A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, 
Neon, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Holbrook, French, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Stevenson, Kentucky, 1931-32, 
Bays, Kentucky, 1932; High School Teacher, Quicksand, Kentucky, 
1933; Grade School Principal, Hardshell, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Holbrook, Martha, A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher, Owen- 
ton, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Hollar, Gladys, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Saltwell. Ken- 
tucky, 1933-34, Ellisville, Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade School Princi- 
pal, Ellisville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Holtzclaw, Mrs. J. B. (nee Maude Wilson), A. B., Eastern, 1926. 
Teacher, Madison, Garrard, Mercer Counties, Kentucky. 

Honchcll, Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Fairview High 
School, Mercer County. Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Hood, Ada Mae (See Brown, Mrs. Hubert). 

Hood, Claude H., A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student. University of 
Kentucky, 1932. Bookkeeper, Andrew Steel Mill, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
1926-27; High School Principal, Grays, Kentucky. 1927-28, Soldier. 
Kentucky, L928-31; Grade School Teacher, Brinegar, Kentucky, 
193 1-32; High School Principal. Newton. Kentucky, 1932-33; 
Farmer, Georgetown, Kentucky, 1933-35; Grade Teacher, George- 
tuwii. Kentucky, L935-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 337 

Hord, Ben, Jr., B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. A., Peabody College, 1935. 
Employee, Reform School, 1933; Teacher, Boyd County High 
School, Cannonsburg, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Hord, Geneva Jane (See Buckles, Mrs. James C). 

Horn, Charles Allen, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Horn, Currey, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Merchant, 1932-34; High School 

Teacher, Cornishville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Horton, Herman, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 

of Kentucky, 1933. Principal, Grahn Graded School, Grayson, 

Kentucky, 1931-34; Superintendent, Grayson County, Kentucky, 

Horton, Z. A., B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Winchester, 

Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Hoskins, Denver, A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University 

of Kentucky, 1935. Teacher, Loyall, Kentucky, 1933-36. 
Hovisns, Mrs. Betty Martin, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, 

University of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, McKinney, 

Kentucky, 1931-36. 
Howard, Delmon, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Junior High School Principal, 

Beaver, Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade School Principal, Harold, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 
Howard, Raymond Stanley, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Farmer, Owen 

County, Kentucky, 1934-35; Teacher, Owen County, Kentucky, 

Howe, Mrs. Charles D. (nee Iva Paye Egner), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

High School Teacher, Rockhold, Kentucky, 1933-34. 
Howe, Charles Dana, B. S., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, 

Peaks Mill, Kentucky, 1933-35; Principal, Bald Knob High School, 

Franklin County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Hubbard, Elizabeth, A. B., Eastern, 1928. Grade Teacher, Fayette 

County, Kentucky, 1928-29; Dietician, I. 0. 0. F. Home, Lexington, 

Kentucky, 1930-36. 
Hubble, Marie, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Madison County, 

Kentucky, 1933-36. 
Hudson, Clara, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 
Hughes, Eliza, B. S., Eastern, 1929; M. A., Columbia University, 1930. 

Instructor, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1930-36. 
Hume, Ben Jeff, B. S., Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student, University 

of Kentucky, 1935. 
Hume, Elizabeth (See Harney, Mrs. Clarence). 
Humfleet, Vera Inez, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Junior High School 

Teacher, Barbourville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Humphrey, Clyde Yv\, A. B., Eastern, 1930; M. A., Peabody College, 

338 Three Decades of Progress 

1934. Principal, Johnson County High School, Oil Springs, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-33; High School Teacher, Lexington, N. C, 1933-34; 
Instructor, State Teachers College, Cullowhee, North Carolina, 

Humphrey, Mrs. Gertrude Willis, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, 
Lexington, N. C, 1934-35; Instructor, State Teachers College, Cul- 
lowhee, North Carolina, Summer, 1935. 

Hurst, Paul Marshall, B. S., Eastern, 192S; M. S., Kansas State Teach- 
ers College, Pittsburg, Kansas, 1928; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati, 1929. Teacher, Pensacola, Florida, 1927-28, 
Holmes Junior High School, Covington, Kentucky, 192S-29; High 
School Teacher and Coach, Lancaster, Kentucky, 1929-31; In- 
structor, Morehead, Kentucky, Teachers College, 1931-33; High 
School Teacher, Ludlow, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Ireland, Stella T., B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Isaacs, Pina Mae, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Clark County, Kentucky, 

Jackson, Anna Mae, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Zoe, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Jacobs, Richard, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Teacher, Harrison County, 


James, Mrs. Edith, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1934, 1935, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 
1935-36. Grade Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 1931-34. 

Jasper, Marvin, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University of 
Cincinnati, 1932, 1933, 1934. Teacher, Crescent Springs High 
School, Kenton County, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Johnson, Margaret, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Junior High School Teacher, 
Russell, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Johnson, W. V., A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Jones, Dixie, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Jones, Mrs. Fairy Ballard. A. B., Eastern. 1928; M. A.. University of 
Kentucky, 1930. Post Office Employee, Richmond. Kentucky, 
192S-33; Teacher, Wayland, Kentucky, 1934-35; Part-time Instruc- 
tor, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1928-33. 

Jones, Iris Cornelia, A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Million. Kentucky. 1934-35, 
Erlanger, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Jones. .Mrs. John Spencer, A. B.. Eastern. 1927; Graduate Student, 
University of Kentucky, 1929-30. Teacher, White Hall High School. 
Madison County, Kentucky. 1927-31; High School Teacher, Wood- 
bine, Kentucky, L932 3 1. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 339 

Jones, John Spencer, A. B., Eastern, 1927; M. A., University of Ken- 
tucky, 1934. Principal, White Hall High School, Madison County, 
Kentucky, 1927-31; High School Principal, Woodbine, Kentucky, 

Jones, Luther C, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade School Principal, Kinver, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Jordan, Mrs. John (nee Mabel Clark), A. B., Eastern, 1928. Grade 
Teacher, Covington, Kentucky, 1928-29. 

Justice, R. A., B. S., Eastern, 1933. High School Principal, Feds 
Creek, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Karrick, Gladys Irene, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Cashier, Eastern Ken- 
tucky Teachers College, 1935-36. 

Keith, Stephen, Jr., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Attendance Officer, Clay 
County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Kelly, Edna Arabella, B. S., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1931. Teacher, Federal Industrial Institute, 
Alderson, West Virginia, 1929-30; Teacher, Sherman Institute, 
United States Indian Service, Riverside, California, 1930-36. 

Kelly, Jennie Elizabeth, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Employee, Office of 
County Court Clerk, Marion County, Kentucky, 1931-33; High 
School Teacher, Lebanon, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Kenny, Mae Kirk, B. S., Eastern, 192S; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1931. High School Teacher, Hyden, Kentucky, 
1928-29; High School Principal, Thousandsticks, Kentucky, 
1929-30; High School Teacher, Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Kincaid, Josephine G., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Erlanger, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

King, Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Renaker, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

King, Sam, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, University of Ten- 
nessee, 1931. High School Teacher, Burnside, Kentucky, 1926-27; 
High School Principal, Bonnyman, Kentucky, 1927-32, Combs, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-34, Sandy Hook, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Kirkland, Mabel, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Teacher, Forkland Graded 
School, Gravel Switch, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Knarr, Ruth, A. B., Eastern, 192S; Graduate Student, University of 
Cincinnati. Grade Teacher, Newport, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Knoppe, Mrs. Georgina, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Knoppe, Willard M., B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Knox, B. D., A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student. University of 
Kentucky, 1934, 1935. Teacher, Nicholas County, Kentucky, 

Lair, Ruby, A. B., Eastern, 1929. 

340 Three Decades op Progress 

LaMonda, Mrs. Jesse W., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Can- 
Creek, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

LaMonda, Jesse W., B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Mays- 
ville, Kentucky, 1932-33; Principal, Flax Patch School, Carr Creek, 
Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Lane, Joseph Ernest, A. B., Eastern, 1925; M. A., Peahody College, 
1927; Graduate Student, Peahody College, 192S-29. Instructor, 
Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, 1926-36. 

Lane, Mary Virginia (See Maddux, Mrs. Jared). 

Lawhorn, Mrs. Charles F., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Okla- 
lona, Kentucky, 1932, Willow Springs, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Lawhorn, Charles F., A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Dunn- 
ville, Kentucky, 1932; Grade Teacher, Rich Hill, Kentucky, 1933, 
Willow Springs, Kentucky, 1934, Hatter Creek, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Lawson, Charles M., A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Laycock, J. C, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher and Assistant 
Coach, Lynch, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Layne, Raymond Lee, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Eastern 
Kentucky Teachers College, 1935-36. Grade Teacher, Edenton, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; A. A. A. Employee, Madison County, Kentucky, 

Lea, Mary Lillian, B. S., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Bracken 
County, Kentucky, 1931-34; High School Teacher, Germantown, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Lea, Orland. B. S., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Brooksville, Ken- 
tucky, 1931-35; High School Principal, Millford, Kentucky. 1935-36. 

Leathers, Hettie (See Triplett, Mrs. Ishmael). 

Leaver, Mrs. Sidney (nee Lucy Ashcraft), A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Lee, Viola Higgins, A. B.. Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher. Burn- 
side, Kentucky, 1929-30; Grade Teacher, Pulaski County, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-33; High School Teacher, Kings Mountain, Kentucky, 
1933-35, Eubank, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Leedy, Clara, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Benham. Kentucky. 

Leedy, W. 0., A. B., 1935. 

Lemaster, Vaughan, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Oil 
Springs, Kentucky, 1934-35; Teacher, Meade Memorial High 
School, Johnson County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Lewis, Beulah. B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Maysville, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Lewis, William Bryan, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, Pea- 
body College, 1935. High School Teacher, 1934-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 341 

Lewis, Mrs. Zylphia Peters, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Mary- 
dell, Kentucky, 1933-34; High School Teacher, Oneida, Kentucky, 

Lingenfelser, Margaret, A. B., Eastern, 1927; M. A., Columbia Uni- 
versity, 192S. Critics Teacher, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 

Linville, James Clyde, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Rock- 
castle County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Little, Mrs. Daniel B. (nee Fay Ward), A. B., Eastern, 1933. Super- 
intendent, Garrard County, Kentucky, 1933-34; High School Prin- 
cipal, Buena Vista, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Little, Daniel B.,* A. B., Eastern, 1928. 

Little, Eula Baker (See Payne, Mrs. Eula Baker). 

Little, Robert E., A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky. Teacher, Garrard, Jackson, Leslie, Lincoln, Camp- 
bell, Nelson, Madison Counties, Kentucky, 1916-33. 

Little, Mrs. Thomas (nee Hazel Virginia Calico), B. S., Eastern, 1929. 
Grade Teacher, Greenup, Kentucky, 1929-30, Garrard County, 
Kentucky, 1930-31; High School Teacher, Paint Lick, Kentucky, 

Lloyd, Arthur J., A. B., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Windy High School, 
Wayne County, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Locke, Mrs. Mae "Wyan, A. B, Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Pea- 
body College, 1932; Special Study, Bowling Green Business Uni- 
versity, 1935-36. High School Teacher and Librarian, Paintsville, 
Kentucky, 1929-34; High School Teacher, Johnson County, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35. 

Long, Capitola, A. B., Eastern, 1932. 

Long, Mrs. Francis (nee Mary Cox), A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade 
Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 1931-32. 

Long, Mrs. Perry, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

McAllister, Mary Elizabeth, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, 

McRoberts, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
McCarthy, Geneva, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Richmond, 

Kentucky, 1934-36. 
McClure, Clarinda Helen, A. B., Eatsern, 1935. High School Teacher, 

Crockett, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
McCollum Martha Emilie, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Madison 

County, Kentucky, 1932-33. 
McCord, Mary Katherine (See Adams, Mrs. Marion F.). 
McDaniel, T. C, Jr., A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher and 

Coach, Finchville, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

* Deceased. 

342 Three Decades of Progress 

McDowell, Landon, B. S., Eastern, 1934. F. E. R. A. Teacher, Irvine, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; Junior High School Teacher, Irvine, Kentucky, 

McGibney, William Franklin, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky, 
1933-35. Grade Teacher, Owenton, Kentucky, 1932-33; Minister, 
Owen County, 1932-36. 

McGladdery, Mrs. W. H. (nee Sudle B. Fowler), A. B., Eastern, 1929; 
Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1930-32. Principal, 
Oddville High School, Cynthiana, Kentucky, 1929-34; High School 
Principal, Sunrise, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

McGlosson, Georgiana, A. B., Eastern, 1930; M. A., Peabody College, 
1933. Grade Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 1930-33; Instructor, 
Western Kentucky Teachers College, 1933-34; Teacher, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

McGuire, Asa Franklin, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1929. Teacher, Morgan, Letcher and Oldham 
Counties, Kentucky, 1917-27; Instructor, Morehead Kentucky 
Teachers College, 1928-30. 

McHargue, Lester, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1933-35; Grade Teacher, Pine Hill, Kentucky, 
1932-33; High School Teacher, Mt. Vernon, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Mclntyre, Mrs. Frances Blackwell, B. S., Eastern, 1932; M. A., Uni- 
versity of Southern California, 1933. 

McKinley, Herschel, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Member of Kentucky Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1934-35. 

McKinney, Mrs. David (nee Anna Meredith Thompson), A. B., Eastern, 
1932. Grade Teacher, Independence, Kentucky, 1932-34. 

McKinney, David, B. S., Eastern, 1929; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1933; Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1934-36. High 
school Teacher, Jenkins, Kentucky, 1929-30; Assistant in Bureau 
of Business Research, University of Kentucky, 1932; Instructor, 
Western Kentucky Teachers College, Spring, 1935; Assistant to 
National Resources Commission, Washington, D. C, Summer, 
1935; Assistant in Bureau of Business Research, University of 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

McLaughlin, Maude Richie, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

McMullin, Mrs. Vergil (nee Tabitha Martin », A. B., Eastern. 1926. 

High School Teacher, Speedwell, Kentucky, 1926-29. 
McNamara, .Mrs. Nell Guy, A. B., Eastern, 1933; B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Superintendent, Montgomery County, 1936. 

McWhoiter, Mrs. Tburzia Quinlan, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, 
Hazel Ci-eeii Mi-h School, Laurel County, Kentucky, L935-3.6, 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 343 

Mackey, Alexander B., A. B., Eastern, 1925; M. A., Peabody College, 
1926; Graduate Student, Vanderbilt University, University of 
Chicago, Harvard. High School Principal, Harrison County, Ken- 
tucky, 1925; Teacher, Trevecca High School, Nashville, Tennes- 
see, 1926-28; Instructor, Trevecca Junior College, Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, 1929-36; Peabody College, Summer, 1929, 1931, 1932. 

Maddox, Noemi Wheeler, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Campbellsburg, 
Kentucky, 1931-35. 

Maddux, Mrs. Jared (nee Mary Virginia Lane), B. S., Eastern, 1934. 
Grade Teacher, Spring Lake, Kentucky, 1934-35; Junior High 
School Teacher, Elizabethtown, Tennessee, 1935-36. 

Maggard, Clarence, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Dudley High School. 
Bulan, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Mahaffey, Mae (See Crudden, Mrs. Charles H., Jr.). 

Mainous, Clayton George, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, 
Louisiana State University, 1930, 1933, 1934. Junior High School 
Teacher, Baton Rouge, Louisana, 1926-36. 

Marshall, Clarence W., A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Principal, 
Ages, Kentucky, 1929-33; Superintendent, Adair County, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Marshall, Kenneth T., B. S., Eastern, 1931. High School Principal, 
Finchville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Marshall, Mrs. William Glass (nee Mayme Ewen), B. S., Eastern, 

Martin, Betty (See Hovisus, Mrs. Betty M.). 

Martin, Lloyd L., A. B., Eastern, 1930. High School Principal, Union 
City, Kentucky, 1930-33, Crab Orchard, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Martin, Lydia Catherine, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Bag- 
dad, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Martin, Robert Richard, A. B., Eastern, 1934. A. A. A. Employee, Rich- 
mond, Kentucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher, Sardis, Kentucky, 

Martin, William W., A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, Shep- 
herdsville, Kentucky, 1933-34; Bookkeeper, Kraft-Phenix Cheese 
Corporation, Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Mason, Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1930; A. B., in Library Science, Emery 
University, 1931. Training School Librarian, Eastern Kentucky 
Teachers College, 1931-35. 

Massey, Ruby, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Robertson County, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Masters, Flora Gibson, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Masters, John, B. S., Eastern, 1930. High School Principal, Hager- 

344 Three Decades of Progress 

man, Idaho, 1930-31, Grangemont, Idaho, 1931-33; High School 
Teacher, Taylorsville, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Masters, William H., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade School Principal, 
West Irvine, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Mattox, Mrs. M. E., B. S., Eastern, 1925; Graduate Student, Peabody 
College, 1928. High School Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 1925-28. 

May, Mrs. Charles (nee Lillian Pearl Cox), B. S., Eastern, 1933. High 
School Teacher, Middlesboro, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

May, Mrs. Louise W., A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, 
Paintsville, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

May, Sweet, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Williamson, West 
Virginia, 1933-34, Turkey Creek, Kentucky, 1934-35; Junior High 
School Teacher, Hellier, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Mayes, Mildred Ann (See Hobing, Mrs. Jack Hunter). 
Maynard, James Garfield, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, 
Catlettsburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Melton, William V., B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Principal, 
Hyden, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Merenbloom, Derbert, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Medical Student, Uni- 
versity of Louisville, 1934-36. 

Michael, Gertrude (See Moore, Mrs. Joseph P.). 

Miller, Mrs. Gladys Tucker, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Grade Teacher, 
Boyle County, Kentucky, 1930-31, Mitchellsburg, Kentucky, 1931-32, 
Clarksville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Miller, Mrs. Lillian Estes, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, 
University of Kentucky, 1934-35. Kindergarten Teacher, Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Million, Elise (See Weisenburg, Mrs. Elise Million). 

Million, Harriet (See Griggs, Mrs. John). 

Mills, Jennings Franklin, A. B., Eastern, 1926. 

Miniard, Mrs. Margaret Riddle, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, 
Delphia, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Minter, Edna Kellems (See Rogers, Mrs. Richard). 

Mitchell, Harold, A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Mitchell, Lucy, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Stenographer, Eastern Kentucky 
Teachers College, 1934-36. 

Moberly, Jesse C, A. B., Eastern, 192S; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky. High School Teacher, Madison High School, Rich- 
mond, Kentucky. 1929-36. 

Moberly, Margaret, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, .Moberly. 

Kentucky, 1932-34, Waco, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Moberly, Mary Earle (See Carrell, Mrs. Ralph). 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 345 

Montjoy, Lucy Simms, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Mount 

Sterling, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Moody, Salem W., A. B., Eastern, 1933; LL. B., Jefferson School of 

Law, 1935. Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Moody, Virginia L. (See Gover, Mrs. Roy). 

Moore, Mrs. George (nee Nellie Schellinger), A. B., Eastern, 1932. 
Grade Teacher, Wayland, Kentucky, 1932-33; High School 
Teacher, Wayland, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Moore, Herman, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Owsley County, Kentucky, 
1933-34; High School Teacher, Greensboro, North Carolina, 1934-35; 
Pineville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Moore, James Bose, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Moore, John William, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Moore, Mrs. Joseph P. (nee Gertrude Michael), A. B., Eastern, 1932; 
Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1932. 

Moores, Allie Ruth (See Spurlin, Mrs. Thomas). 

Moores, Walter W., A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1935. Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 

Moores, Willie Griggs, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1934. Grade Teacher, Holmes Junior High 
School, Covington, Kentucky, 1930-35. 

Morgan, Charles Howard, B. S.. Eastern, 1934. Foreman, New State- 
land Farm, Richmond, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Morris, Mrs. Flora Miller, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Jefferson, 
Owen, Montgomery, Morgan Counties, Kentucky, 1913-32. 

Morris, Roger B., B. S., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Double Springs, Alabama, 1929-30; Teacher and Director 
of Athletics, Pleasant Hill Academy, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, 

Morris, Roscoe,* A. B., Eastern, 1931. 

Morton, Mrs. Casey (nee Thelma Dixon), B. S., Eastern, 1934. High 
School Teacher, Lilly, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Morton, Casey, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Jeremiah, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Mullen, Alberta Delk, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Ingle, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher, Nancy, Kentucky, 

Mullen, Harold Davis, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Salesman, 1935-36. 

Mullinix, Edna M. (See Shearer, Mrs. N. M.). 

Mullins, Elmer C, A. B., Eastern, 1925; M. A., Peabody College, 1930; 
* Deceased. 

346 Three Decades of Progress 

Graduate Student, Peabody College, 1931. High School Principal, 
Moreland, Kentucky, 1925-28, Carr Creek, Kentucky, 1928-30; 
Kings Mountain, Kentucky, 1930-33; High School Teacher, Alva, 
Kentucky, 1933-36, 

Muncy, Clara P., B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky. Grade Teacher, Corbin, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Muncy, Malta, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Majestic, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Munda, Davis, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Farmer, Richmond, Kentucky, 

Murphy, James W., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Casey, Lincoln 
Counties, Kentucky, 1925-31. 

Myers, Anna Mae, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Nash, Dorothy, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Trinity, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Neikirk, George A., A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1927-28. High School Principal, Sparta, 
Kentucky, 1926-27, Salt Lick, Kentucky, 1928-29; Superintendent, 
Silver Grove, Kentucky, 1929-30. Berlin, Kentucky, 1930-31; In- 
surance Business, Springfield, Kentucky, 1931-32; Employee, 
State C. W. A., 1934; Attendance Officer, Washington County, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Nelson, Clara Mae, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Stamping Ground, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Norris, Gladys, A. B., Eastern, 1934. F. E. R. A. Teacher, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade Teacher, Million, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

North, Elizabeth, A. B., Eastern, 1926; M. A., Peabody College, 1932. 
High School Principal, Cropper, Kentucky, 1926-30; Instructor, 
Western Kentucky Teachers College, Summer, 1926, Morehead, 
Kentucky, Teachers College, Summer, 1932; Teacher, Danville, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; Principal, Pikeville College, Kentucky. 1933-36. 

Oakes, Newton, B. S., Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Oldtown, Kentucky, 

Ogg. William E., A. B., Eastern, 1930. 

Oldham, Louise D., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Powell, Mont- 
gomery Counties, Kentucky, 1925-34. 

Onstott, Gladys Lucy, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Special Study. Western 
Kentucky Teachers College, 1935. Grade Teacher and Librarian, 
Moreland, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Osborn, Emma, A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher. Dry Ridge 
Kentucky, L932-36. 

Osborn, Scott Compton. A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teache 
Wayland, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 347 

Osborne, John S., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Pulaski County, 
Kentucky, 1932-33, Floyd County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Otto, Herman E., B. S., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Harlan County, Ken- 
tucky, 1929-30. 

Owens, Carolyn Elizabeth, A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Owens, Ethel, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Peabody Col- 
lege, 1931. Grade Teacher, Junction City, Kentucky, 1930-33, 
Boyle County, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Owens, Mildred, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1932-33, 1934, 1935. Junior High School Teacher, 
Maysville, Kentucky, 1931-33; High School Teacher, Sardis, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher and Librarian, Minerva, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Park, Alliegordon, A. B., Eastern, 1931; B. S. in Library Science, Pea- 
body College, 1932. Assistant Librarian, Eastern Kentucky 
Teachers College, Summer 1933; High School Librarian, Ben- 
ham, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Parks, Bessie C, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Nicholasville, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Parman, Oscar, A. B., Eastern, 1930. 

Parrish, Virginia Norval, A. B.. Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Sardis, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Parsley, Jarvis D., A. B., Eastern, 1935. Consolidated School Prin- 
cipal, Laurel County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Parsley, Zada Moore, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Patton, James L., A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher and Principal, Salyers- 
ville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Patton, Mary Ann (See Adams, Mrs. Lundy). 

Paxton, Airs. Elmer J.. A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Louisville, Columbia University. Teacher, Shelby, Madi- 
son Counties, Kentucky, 1929-34. 

Payne, Mrs. Eula Baker, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Special Study in Com- 
merce, Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1926-27. Stenographer 
for C. C. Wallace, Attorney, Richmond, Kentucky, 1927-30, Ameri- 
can Legion, Richmond, Kentucky, 1930-31; Kindergarten Teacher, 
Berea, Kentucky, 1934. 

Paynes, James Andrew, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1930-33. Superintendent, Harrison County, 
Kentucky, 1927-36. 

Paynter, Charles, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1931. High School Principal, Milford, Kentucky, 
1928-30, Brooksville, Kentucky, 1930-34; Superintendent, Bracken 
County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

348 Three Decades op Progress 

Pearson, Ethel Bogie, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Estill, Madison, 
Knott Counties, Kentucky, 1924-31. 

Pearson, Mrs. Sadie Tinsley, B. S., Eastern, 1932. 

Pearson, William E., A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1930. Teacher, Knott, Nicholas, Madison, Estill 
Counties, Kentucky, 1923-31. 

Peele, Emily Frances, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1932. Grade Teacher, Woodford County, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-36. 

Pelley, Thomas Lee, A. B., Eastern, 1927. Teacher, Holmes Junior 
High School, Covington, Kentucky, 1927-36. 

Pelphrey, Nell, B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, Summer, 1933, 1934, 1935. High School Teacher, Lan- 
caster, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Pennington, John Edgar, A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Prin- 
cipal, Wehbville, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Perkins, Mrs. Park Valentine (nee Alice Isabel Roach), A. B., Eastern, 

1931. Grade Teacher, Harvard School, Toledo, Ohio, 1931-32, Stick- 
ney School, Toledo, 1932-34, Sherman School, Toledo, 1934-36. 

Peters, Grova L., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Harlan County, 
Kentucky, 1934-35, Patterson School, Dayton, Ohio, 1935-36. 

Peters, Julia Anne (See Bowling, Mrs. Julia Anne). 

Peters, Zylphia (See Lewis, Mrs. Zylphia P.). 

Pettit, Charles A., A. B., Eastern, 1931; Law Student, University of 
Cincinnati, 1932-33. County Judge, Grant County, Kentucky, 

Phillips, Clyde Sidney, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Pletcher, Jessie Bell (See Haller, Mrs. Jessie Bell). 

Plummer, Charles M., A. B., Eastern, 1930; Student, Palmer School of 
Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, 1932, Smith's School of Chiro- 
practic, Davenport, 1933; Graduate Student, University of Ken- 
tucky. Chiropractor, Covington, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Pope, Mason, B. S., Eastern. 1932; Medical Student, University of 
Tennessee, 1932-33. 

Potter, Mrs. Lawrence Wayne (nee Betty Jo Boleyn), A. B., Eastern, 

1932. Grade Teacher, Bolyn, Kentucky, 1932-33. 

Powell, Mrs. Ida May, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher. Jessa- 
mine County, Kentucky, 1891-1936. 

Powell, Opal, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Teacher. Louisville, Kentucky, 

Powers. .Mary Elizabeth, B. S.. Eastern, 1934. K. E. R. A. Library 
Project. Madison County, Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade Teacher, 
Whites, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 349 

Powers, Ralph D., A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Windy, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Prather, John Gibson, Jr., A. B., Eastern, 1935. Associate Editor, 
Richmond Daily Register, Richmond, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Prewitt, Daniel W., A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, Summer, 1932, 1933, 1934. Grade School Super- 
intendent, Packard, Kentucky, 1932-35; Junior High School Prin- 
cipal, Hazard, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Prewitt, Neal Henri, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Har- 
lan, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Price, Ernestine, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Price, Lelia M., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Madison County, Ken- 
tucky, 1922-32. 

Price, Orville, A. B., Eastern, 1927. Teacher. Leslie, Letcher, Carter 
Counties, Kentucky, 1927-33. 

Prim, Harold Edward, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Cold 
Springs, Kentucky, 1934-35, Bellevue, Kentucky, 1936. 

Quails, Daniel Webster, A. B., Eastern, 1925; M. A., University of 
Kentucky, 1931. High School Principal, Peaks Mill, Kentucky, 
1925-26, Berry, Kentucky, 1927-2S; Superintendent, Olive Hill, 
Kentucky, 192S-31, Houstonville, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Rader, C. R.. A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Radford, Betty B., A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Asheville, 
North Carolina, Teachers College, 1934; Grade Teacher, Middles- 
boro, Kentucky, 1929-30, Granite Falls, North Carolina, 1930-32, 
Black Mountain, North Carolina, 1933-35, Henderson, North Caro- 
lina, 1935-36. 

Raleigh, Vera V., A. B., Eastern, 1933; M. A., Peabody College, 1934. 
Instructor, East Tennessee Teachers College, Winter Quarter, 1934, 
Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, Spring, 1934. 

Ramey, Bernice, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Ramsey, Anna, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Bell Point, Ken- 
tucky, 1932, Flossie, Kentucky, 1933, Griffin, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Ramsey, Beulah. B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Ekron, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Ramsey, Charles P., A. B., Eastern, 1929. Superintendent, Clay County 
High School, Manchester, Kentucky, 1929-30, Livingston, Ken- 
tucky, 1931-32; Supervisor and Agent, Great Southern Life Insur- 
ance Company, 1932-36. 

Ramsey, Jennie Elizabeth, B. S.. Eastern, 192S; M. A., Columbia Uni- 
versity, 1935. High School Teacher, Benham, Kentucky. 192S-36. 

Ramsey, William E., B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Teacher, Lin- 
coin County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

350 Three Decades of Progress 

Rankin, Mrs. Pat (nee Eliza Anderson Cummins), A. B., Eastern, 
1928; Graduate Student. Peabody College, 1931, University of Ken- 
tucky, 1933. High School Teacher, McKinney, Kentucky, 1928-30; 
Grade Teacher, Lancaster, Kentucky, 1930-31; High School 
Teacher, Lancaster, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Rankin, Robert Harry, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Eastern Junior 
High School, Louisville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ransdall, Edith, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Campbellsburg, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ray, Charles P., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Clay, Pulaski, Madison 
Counties, Kentucky, 1924-34. 

Redmond, Mattie, A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1930. Teacher, Anderson, Henry, Woodford 
Counties, Kentucky, 1924-33. 

Rees, Riley A., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Farmer, Bracken County, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Rees, Rupert S., B. S., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1932, 1934. Junior High School Principal, Prestons- 
burg, Kentucky, 1931-32; Grade Teacher, Bracken County, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Regenstein, Alma, B. S., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1934,- 1935. High School Teacher, Corbin, Kentucky, 
1930-33, Shelbyville, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Rettig, Catherine Louise, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Lewis- 
burg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Reynolds, Mrs. Charles (nee Lena Begley), A. B., Eastern, 1930; 
Graduate Student, Peabody College. High School Teacher, London, 
Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Reynolds, Coleman, A. B., Eastern. 1929; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1931. High School Principal, Finchville, Kentucky, 
1928-32; Superintendent, Jackson County, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Rice, David W., A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher, Pulaski, Madison Coun- 
ties, Kentucky. 

Rice, Lawrence K, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student. Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati, 1928, University of Kentucky, 1929. 1933. 
Teacher, Breathitt, Leslie Counties, Kentucky, 1927-33. Member, 
Kentucky General Assembly, 1936. 

Rice, Myra Dee, B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Rice. Z. T., Jr., B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Richards, Mrs. Edna Moneyhon. A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher, 
Bracken, Bell, Kenton Counties, Kentucky, 1910-33. 

Richards, R. R., A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. B. A.. Boston University, 
1933. Instruct,, r Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 1929-32; 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 351 

Teaching Fellow, Boston University, 1932-33; Instructor, Eastern, 
1933-36. . 
Richardson, James R., Eastern, 1930; LL. B., University of Kentucky, 
1934. Attorney, Richmond, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Riddell, Elizabeth (See Van Horn, Mrs. Robert M.). 

Riddell, Laura, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Ravenna, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Rigsby, Mrs. Mildred White, A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. A., Peabody Col- 
lege, 1933. Teacher, Roles Junior High School, Ashland, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-33, Ashland Senior High School, 1933-36. 

Rigsby, Ralph Harold, B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Riley, Oni Audrey, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Independence, 
Kentucky, 1932-33; High School Teacher, Independence, 1933-36. 

Riley, Ruth, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, Columbia Uni- 
versity, Summer, 1931, 1934. Grade Teacher, Covington, Ken- 
tucky, 1926-27; Teacher, Holmes Junior High School, Covington, 

Roach, Alice Isabel (See Perkins, Mrs. Park Valentine). 

Roberts, Delane 0., A. B.. Eastern. 1928; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1929, 1930. Grade School Principal, Kings 
Mountain, Kentucky, 192S-30, Evarts, Kentucky, 1930-33; Super- 
intendent, Kings Mountain, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Roberts, Marion Stamper, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Cubage, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Roberts, Mrs. Richard AVhitefield, Jr. (nee Bernice Champ), A. B., 
Eastern, 1927; M. A., Columbia University, 192S. Critic Teacher, 
Eastern Kentucky Teachers College, 192S-29, North Carolina Col- 
lege for Women, Greenesboro, North Carolina, 1929-30; Instructor, 
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Florida, 1930-31. 

Robertson, Imogene, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Teacher, Central High 
School, Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1934-36. 

Robinette, Gertrude Maggard, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Le- 
burn, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Robinson, Kate, A. B., Eastern, 1932.* 

Robinson, Mary E. (See Gray, Mrs. Mary E.). 

Roe, Mrs. Eugene (nee Virginia Routt), A. B., Eastern, 1926; Gradu- 
ate Student, University of Kentucky, M. A., University of Minne- 
sota. Teacher, Mercer, Madison Counties, Kentucky, 1926-29; 
Instructor, Morehead Kentucky Teachers College, 1930. 

Roe, Mrs. James Alvin (nee Nora Virginia Sloas), B. S., Eastern, 1930. 
Grade Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky, 1930-31. 

* Deceased. 

352 Three Decades op Progress 

Roe, James Alvin, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1930, 1931. High School Principal, Sunrise, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-34, Renaker, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Rogers, Opal Garnett, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher, Adair, Grant, 
Garrard, Kenton Counties, Kentucky, 191S-27. 

Rogers, Mrs. Richard (nee Edna Kellems Minter), A. B., Eastern, 1929. 
Grade Teacher, Richmond, Kentucky, 1929-30. 

Rose, Chester A., A. B., Eastern, 1932. High School Principal, Pleas- 
ant View, Kentucky, 1932-33; Superintendent, Whitley County, 
Kentucky, 1933-34; High School Teacher, Gatliff, Kentucky, 
1934-35; High Schcol Principal, Williamsburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Ross, Mrs. Emma Baker, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, 
Columbia University, 1927, 192S, University of Chicago, 1930. 
Teacher, Jefferson, Perry, Harlan Counties, Kentucky, 1912-33. 

Ross, Evelyn F., B. S., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, Summer, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Corbin, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Routt, Virginia (See Roe, Mrs. Eugene). 

Rowlett, Jane Katherine (See Threkeld, Mrs. O. F.). 

Roysdon, Mrs. Gertrude Bell, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Rutledge, Harold Hunt, B. S., Eastern, 1932; Medical Student, Uni- 
versity of Louisville, 1932-36. 

Rutledge, Louise, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Salyer, Amanda Patrick, A. B., Eastern, 1931; M. A., University of 
Kentucky, 1934. Grade Teacher, Lexington, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Salyers, Robert K., A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1932, 1933. Advertising Manager, Moore Corpora- 
tion, Joliet, Illinois, 1929-33; Executive Secretary, K. E. A. Inter- 
pretation Commission, 1933-34; Research Assistant. President's 
Office, University of Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Sams, Alma, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Irvine, Kentucky, 

Schaeffer, Ruth (See Connelly, Mrs. Ronald). 

Schatzman, Mrs. C. E. (nee Huldab F. Wilson), A. B., Eastern, 1930. 
High School Teacher, Norwood, Ohio, 1930-31. 

Schellinger, Nellie (See Moore, Mrs. George). 

Schneider, Grace, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Southern Junior 
High School, Louisville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Scott, Mildred Mae. A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Portsmouth. 
Ohio, L931-36. 

Scrivner, Sue, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Richmond. Ken- 
tucky, 1931-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 353 

Sharp, Foyster, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1933, 1935. High School Principal, Kirksville, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-34; Superintendent, Campton, Kentucky, 1934-35; 
High School Principal, Pleasant View, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Sharp, Gleneva, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Shearer, Jessie (See Bertram, Mrs. Jessie). 

Shearer, Mrs. N. M. (nee Edna M. Mullinix), A. B., Eastern, 1926. 

Shearer, Robert C, A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Shearer, William Morton, A. B., Eastern, 1925; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1926, 1935. Teacher, Holmes Senior High 
School, Covington, Kentucky, 1925-36. 

Shelton, Mary Frances, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Clark 

County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Shepherd, Clarence Cecil, B. S., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, 

Alva, Kentucky, 1933-34; Principal, Morgansburg Consolidated 

Schools, Maysville, Kentucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher, 

Shoopman, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Short, Frances Elvira, A. B., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, Ohio 
State University. 

Shute, Olive, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky, 

Sirnms, Mrs. Frank W. (nee Sueanna Cheatham), A. B., Eastern, 1932. 
Grade Teacher, Texas, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Simpson, Gladys, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Sims, John Orlie, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, James- 
town, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Singleton, Mayme, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Stanford, 
Kentucky, 1933-34; Superintendent, Lincoln County, Kentucky, 

Sizemore, Elmer E., A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, Les- 
lie County, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Skidmore, Fannie Farley, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, 
Livingston, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Skinner, Lucretia, A. B., Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher, Paint 
Lick, Kentucky, 1929-31, Buckeye High School, 1931-33, Mount He- 
bron, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Skinner, Thomas W., A. B., Eastern, 1925; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky. Teacher, Henry, Fulton, Boone, Owsley, Letcher, 
Mercer, Pike, Madison Counties, Kentucky, 1909-33. 

Sloan, Myrtle Mae, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, Peabody 
College, 1935. 

Sloas, Nora Virginia (See Roe, Mrs. James Alvin). 

E. S. T. C.— 12 

354 Three Decades op Progress 

Slusher, Thelma, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, Summer, 1932, 1933. Grade Teacher, Midway, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-34. 

Smith, Mrs. Alton, A. B., Eastern, 1930. Teacher, Casey, Madison 
Counties, Kentucky, 1927-31. 

Smith, Anna May, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1935. Grade Teacher, Pineville, Kentucky, 1930-35. 

Smith, Edna Julia, A. B., Eastern, 1932. Teacher, Madison, Boyd, 
Estill Counties, Kentucky. 

Smith, Eva, B. S., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of Ken- 
tucky, 1931, 1935. High School Teacher, Cropper, Kentucky, 
1930-31; Grade Teacher, Danville, Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Smith, Frona Virginia (See Yates, Mrs. C. B.). 

Smith, Ira E., B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1932, 1933. High School Teacher, Inez, Kentucky, 
1933-34; Principal, Ruddles Mill High School, Paris, Kentucky, 

Smith, Karl Norfleet, B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Smith, Mrs. Mae Blackaby, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher, Henry, 
Harlan Counties, Kentucky. 

Smith, Mary E., B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Smith, Oval, A. B., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Burning 
Springs, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Smith, Robert Luther, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky. Teacher, Whitley, Johnson, Letcher, Perry 
Counties, Kentucky, and Ohio, 1920-32. 

Smith, Ruby Mae (See Gentry, Mrs. Ralph) 

Smith, William Alton, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1934, 1935. High School Principal, Waco, 
Kentucky, 1929-33, Union City, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Soper, Mrs. Oma Smith, A. B., Eastern, 1927; M. A., University of 
Kentucky, 1931. High School Teacher, Russell, Kentucky, 1926-29; 
Grade School Principal, Lexington, Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Sparrow, John Carl, A. B., Eastern, 1935; Graduate Student. University 
of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher, Eminence, Kentucky, 

Sparrow, Mrs. Marguerite Culton, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade School 
Principal, Irvine, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Spears, Chester, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Attendance Officer, Jenkins, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Spurlin, Ann, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Spring Lake, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-34, Ludlow, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Spurlin, Mrs. Thomas (nee Allie Ruth Moores), A. B., Eastern, 1927; 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 355 

Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1928, 1929. Teacher, 
Bracken, Campbell Counties, Kentucky, 1925-31. 

Spurlock, H. L„ B. S., Eastern, 1932. High School Principal, Oneida, 
Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Stacy, General, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky. Teacher, Perry County, Kentucky, 1918-32. 

Stamper, Maynard, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Eliza- 

bethtown, Kentucky, 1934-35. 
Starns, Clarence William, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 

Campton, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Starns, W. Gayle, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Peabody 
College, Summer, 1933, University of Kentucky, 1934, 1935. High 
School Teacher, Owenton, Kentucky, 1932-33, M'aysville Senior 
High School, 1933-34; Junior High School Principal, Maysville, 
Kentucky, 1934-35; Assistant, Department of Kentucky University 
Extension, Lexington, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Staton, Lee Roy, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Boston Uni- 
versity, 1932-33. Teacher, Gulfport, Mississippi, 1929-32; Auto- 
mobile Dealer, Gulfport. 1934-36. 

Stennett, Mabel O., A. B.. Eastern, 1929. High School Teacher, Rus- 
sell, Kentucky, 1929-32. 

Stephens, Mrs. Claybourne (nee Irene Patton), B. S., Eastern, 1935. 
High School Teacher, Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Stephens, Claybourne, B. S.. Eastern, 1935. High School Principal, 
Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Stephens, Maude, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Special Study, Fugazzi Business 
School. Grade Teacher, Walnut Grove, Kentucky, 1932-34; High 
School Teacher, Shopville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Stephenson, Lillian G. (See Waters, Mrs. Lawrence). 

Stephenson, Vivian, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Madison 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Stevens, W. C, B. S., Eastern, 1934: Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky. Principal, Fairview High School, Mercer County, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Stewart, Mary Elizabeth, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1934. Kindergarten Teacher, Richmond, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-34; High School Teacher, Burkesville, Kentucky, 

Stidham, C. B., A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Principal, Proctor, 
Kentucky, 1933-34. 

Stigers, Mrs. William (nee Irene Thomas), B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Stocker, Jean Alice, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Ohio Uni- 
versity, 1932. 

356 Three Decades of Progress 

Stocker, Mossie, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Columbia 
University, 1931. High School Teacher, Jenkins, Kentucky, 
1930-31, Richmond, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Stone, Talton K., A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1934. High School Teacher and Coach, Harlan County, Kentucky, 
1926-28; High School Principal and Coach, Carrollton, Kentucky, 

Stratton, Garland, B. S., Eastern, 1930; M. A., University of Ten- 
nessee, 1931. High School Teacher, Pikeville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Sutter, Clarence Homer, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher 
and Coach, Pandora, Ohio, 1935-36. 

Switzer, Samuel Lloyd, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Talbott, Ruth Waugh, B. S.. Eastern. 1935; Graduate Student, Ohio 
University, 1935-36. 

Taliaferro, Ella, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Talley, Garnett (See Hinkle, Mrs. Chester). 

Taphorn, Mary Martha, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1933, Miami University, 1935. Grade 
Teacher, Covington, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Tarter, John, A. B., Eastern, 1935. Grade Teacher, Casey County, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Tarter, V. K., B. S., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student. University of 
Kentucky, 1934. Principal, Fidelity High School. Shoopman, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-35, Sardis, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Tate, Flora (See Troisi, Mrs. Paul). 

Taulbee, Calloway, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student. Ohio 
State University, 1935. High School Teacher, McArthur. Ohio, 

Taylor, Mrs. A. H. (nee Eula Mae Cable), A. B.. Eastern. 1934. High 
School Teacher, Beattyville, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Taylor, Mrs. Clara, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Laurel 
County, Kentucky, 1934-35; High School Teacher. East Bern- 
stadt, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Taylor, Mrs. Ethel Tudor, A. B., Eastern, 192S. Teacher, Madison, 
Pulaski Counties, Kentucky, 1918-32. 

Taylor, Inez, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher. St. Helens, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Taylor, Logan, A. B., Eastern, 1934. K. E. R. A. Employee, London, 

Kentucky, 1934-35. 
Taylor. Roy R., A. P., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher. Laurel 

County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 
Taylor. Sam R, A. B.. Eastern, 1933. Superintendent, Lee County, 

Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 357 

Taylor, Willie Mae, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky. 

Telford, Josephine L., A. B., Eastern, 1932. Grade Teacher, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1932-36. 

Telford, Margaret, A. B., Eastern. 1930; Graduate Student, Columbia 
University, 1930, 1931, 1933. High School Teacher and Librarian, 
Erlanger, Kentucky. 1930-32; Grade Teacher, Richmond, Ken- 
tucky, 1932-36. 

Terrill, Dorothy (See Evans, Mis. W. K., Jr.). 

Terrill, Olive, B. S., Eastern, 1931. Junior High School Teacher, Jen- 
kins, Kentucky, 1931-34. 

Tevis, Edward, A. B.. Eastern, 1931. High School Principal, Madison 
County, Kentucky, 1931-32; F. E. R. A. Employee, Madison County, 
Kentucky, 1934. 

Thacker, Waller B., A. B., Eastern, 1933. F. E. R. A. Teacher, Law- 
renceburg, Kentucky, 1934-35. 

Thomas, Blanche Lee, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Thomas, Mary Irene (See Stigers, Mrs. William). 

Thompson, Anna Meredith (See McKinney, Mrs. David). 

Thompson, Mrs. Forest S. (nee Elizabeth Sellers), A. B., Eastern, 
1929; Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1930, 1931, 1932. 
Assistant High School Principal, Madison County, Kentucky, 
1929-30, Pendleton County, Kentucky, 1930-34. 

Thompson, Forest S., A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, Summer, 1930, 1931, 1932. High School Prin- 
cipal, Madison County, Kentucky, 1929-30, Pendleton County, 
Kentucky, 1930-34; Proprietor Mutual Realty Company, Williams- 
town, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Thomas, Pearl Nettie, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Teacher, Hazel Green 
High School, East Bernstadt, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Threkeld, Mrs. O. F. (nee Jane Rowlett), A. B., Eastern. 1932. Grade 
Teacher, Madison County, Kentucky, 1932-33. 

Tiller, Mrs. B. L. (nee Eubie Kate Estes), A. B., Eastern. 1927. High 
School Teacher, Wheatley, Kentucky, 1927, Maysville, Kentucky, 
1928, Vanceburg, Kentucky, 1929-31; Grade Teacher, Owenton, 
Kentucky, 1931-32; High School Teacher, Gratz, Kentucky, 1932-33; 
Grade Teacher, Owenton, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Tipton, Arthur T., A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher. Beatty- 
ville, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Tolbert, Mattie, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Bethel, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-34; High School Teacher, Owenton, Kentucky. 1934-36. 

Tolbert, Willena, B. S., Eastern, 1934. High School Teacher, Bedford, 
Kentucky, Milton, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

358 Three Decades of Progress 

Triplett, Henry, B. S., Eastern, 1930; M. D., University of Tennessee, 
1933. Physician, Corbin, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Triplett, Mrs. Ishmael (nee Hettie Lethers), A. B., Eastern, 1925; 
Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 192S. Grade Teacher, 
Richmond, Kentucky, 1925-26; Junior High School Teacher, Rich- 
mond, 1926-27; Teacher, Lackey, Kentucky, 1927-28. 

Triplett, Ishmael, A. B., Eastern, 1927; Graduate Student, University 

of Kentucky, 1927. High School Principal, Lackey, Kentucky, 

1927-28; City School Superintendent, Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 

Troisi, Mrs. Paul (nee Flora Tate), B. S., Eastern, 1930. Grade 
Teacher, Carr Creek, Kentucky, 1930-31, Woodford County, Ken- 
tucky, 1931-32. 

True, Roy, B. S., Eastern. 1933. Principal, Bald Knob High School, 
Franklin County, Kentucky, 1933-34; Superintendent, Franklin 
County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Tudor, Mrs. Herbert, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Teacher, Buena Vista High 
School, Garrard County, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Tudor, Herbert, A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, Camp 
Dick Robinson, Garrard County, Kentucky, 1933-34, Buena Vista, 
Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Tudor, Tabitha, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Teacher, Jessamine, Madison 
Counties, Kentucky, 1924-33. 

Turley, J. D., Jr., B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, Eastern 
Kentucky Teachers College, 1935. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Carr Creek, Kentucky, 1934-35; Teacher, Male High School, 
Louisville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Turner, Mrs. W. R. (nee Frances Addis), A. B., Eastern, 1934. High 
School Teacher, Wheelwright, Kentucky, 1934-35; Grade School 
Principal, Ligon, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Tussey, Bonnie Olga, B. S., Eastern. 1933. High School Principal, 
Letter Box, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Tye, Elbert, A. B., Eastern, 1932. 

Tyng, Dorothy Perry, B. S., Eastern, 1935; Student, Laboratory Techni- 
cal School, Public Health Department, Louisville, Kentucky, 1935. 
Commercial Chemist, Louisville, Kentucky, 1936. 

Ueltschi, Ida Elsie, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1933, 1934. Critic, Caney Junior College, Pippapass, 
Kentucky, 1933-34, Pikeville Junior College. 1935. 

Underwood, Glenn G.. B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, 
Olive Hill, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Vaughn. Mary Hnnna. li. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Middles- 
l)oni, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 359 

VanArsdall, C. S., B. S., Eastern, 1935. Employee, Kentucky State 
Reformatory, 1935-36. 

Van Home, Mrs. Robert M. (nee Elizabeth Riddell), A. B., Eastern, 
1932. High School Teacher, Irvine, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Vickers, Eula, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Pineville, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Wagers, Mrs. Lawrence (nee Lillian G. Stephenson), A. B., Eastern, 
1928. Teacher, Lee, Madison Counties, Kentucky, 1926-33. 

Wagers, Lawrence, B. S., Eastern, 1928; M. D., University of Ten- 
nessee, 1933. Physician, Manchester, Kentucky, 1933-35. 

Wagoner, Dorothy, B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Wagoner, Thelma (See Allie, Mrs. D. C.). 

Waldrop, Claude C, B. S.. Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, 1935. High School Teacher and Coach, Paint 
Lick, Kentucky, 1931-32; Attendance Officer, Owenton, Kentucky, 

Walker, Georgetta Owsley (See Evans, Mrs. Leslie). 

Ward, Stella, A. B., Eastern, 1929; M. A., Peabody College, 1934. High 
School Teacher, Finchville, Kentucky, 1930-32; Supervisor of 
Rural Schools, Johnson County, Kentucky, 1932-33; High School 
Teacher, Paintsville, Kentucky, 1933-34; Instructor, Union Col- 
lege, 1935-36. 

Warren, Challis H., A. B., Eastern, 1932; M. A., University of Ken- 
tucky, 1935. High School Principal, Valley View, Kentucky, 
1932-33, Newby, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Warren, Mrs. Mayo Honchell, A. B., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, 
Newby, Kentucky, 1933-34. 

Washburn, Cecil, A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1932. High School Teacher, Blue Diamond, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-35, Principal, 1933-35; High School Teacher, Matewan, 
West Virginia, 1935-36. 

Washington, Mary, B. S., Eastern, 1930. Teacher, Russell County, 
Kentucky, 1925-32. 

Watkins, Willie Moss, A. B., Eastern, 1929. Superintendent, Casey 
County, Kentucky, 1926-36. 

Watson, Ruby, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student. University of 
Kentucky, 1935. Kindergarten Teacher, Lexington, Kentucky, 

Watson, Susie, B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Masonic Home 
School, 1934-36. 

Watts. John Brown, A. B., Eastern, 1926. Teacher, Breathitt, Jack- 
son Counties, Kentucky, 1932. 

360 Three Decades op Progress 

Weaver, Mildred Ethel, B. S„ Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Washington. Teacher, Colorado, 1929-36. 

Webb, Lee C, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Coach Operator, South Eastern 
Greyhound Lines, 1933-35. 

Webb, Lela, A. B., Eastern, 1928; M. A., Peabody College, 1929. 
Teacher, St. Mary's College, Dallas, Texas, 1929-30; Junior High 
School Principal, Scoville, Kentucky, 1931-33; High School 
Teacher, Burning Springs, Kentucky, 1933-34, Manchester, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Webster, Franklin, A. B., Eastern, 1933. 

Weisenberg, Mrs. L. B., Jr.* (nee Dellah Marie Coates), A. B., Eastern, 

Weisenburg, Mrs. Elise Million (nee Elise Million), A. B., Eastern, 
1931; Special Study in Commerce, Eastern, Kentucky Teachers 
College, 1932-33. Stenographer, Richmond, Kentucky, 1933-36. 

Welch, Lawrence V., A. B.. Eastern, 1931. High School Teacher, Ox- 
ford, Kentucky, 1931-32, Sadieville, Kentucky, 1932-33. 

Wells, Lillian Jackson, A. B., Eastern, 1926; B. S., W r est Tennessee 
Teachers College, 1934. Grade School Principal, Jessamine 
County, Kentucky, 1926-27; High School Principal, Vicco, Ken- 
tucky, 1927-28; High School Teacher, Largo, Florida, 192S-30; 
Clerical Work, Boston, Massachusetts, 1930-31; Salesman, Fron- 
tier Printing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1931-32; Grade 
School Principal, Dell, Arkansas, 1932-33; High School Teacher, 
Memphis, Tennessee, 1933-34; Teacher, Vocational School, Tulla- 
homa, Tennessee, 1935. 

Wells, Mrs. Marion Terrill, A. B., Eastern, 1928. High School Teacher, 
Richmond, Kentucky, 1930-31; Deputy Circuit Clerk, Madison 
County, Kentucky, 1932-34; Stenographer, Madison County Circuit 
Court, 1934-36. 

Wells, Thelma K., B. S., Eastern, 1933. Stenographer, Richmond, 

Kentucky, 1933-34; F. E. R. A. Teacher, Richmond. Kentucky, 

1934-35; High School Teacher, Kirksville. Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Wheatley, Ruth Wayne, B. S., Eastern 1935. High School Teacher. 

Shepherdsville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Wheeldon, Cecil G., A. B., Eastern, 1931. High School Principal, Mc- 

Kinney, Kentucky, 1931-36. 
Wheeler, Allie Hendren, A. B., Eastern. 1926. Teacher, Garrard, 

Perry, Madison Counties, Kentucky, 190S-24. 
White, Bessie Mae, A. B., Eastern, 1926. High School Principal, Odd- 

ville, Kentucky. 1926-27: Grade Teacher, Pineville, Kentucky, 

1927-2S. Covington. Kentucky, 1928-36. 

* Deceased. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 361 

White, Fay, A. B., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher, Boyd County, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

White, Frances L. (See Brackett, Mrs. Ben). 

White, Gleala, B. S., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1934. Grade School Principal, Cuzick, Kentucky, 
1932-34, Valley View, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

White, J. J., A. B., Eastern, 1930; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1931, 1934. High School Teacher, California, Ken- 
tucky, 1930-36. 

White, J. Taylor, Jr., A. B., Eastern, 1933; B. S., Eastern, 1934; Gradu- 
ate Student, Peabody College, 1935. 

White, Mary Mildred (See Rigsby, Mrs. Mildred White). 

White, P. J., A. B., Eastern. 1928, Teacher, Mercer County, Kentucky, 

White, Sara Margaret, B. S., Eastern, 1934; A. B., Eastern, 1935. 

Whitehouse, Elmer Clay, B. S., Eastern, 1931. Farmer, 1932-33; Em- 
ployee, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-36. 

Whitenack, Rachel Minor, B. S., PJlastern, 1935. Teacher, Kenton 
County, Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Whittaker, Rawdy, A. B., Eastern, 1931; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1934, 1935. High School Principal, Cumberland, 
Kentucky, 1931-32, Cornishville, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Wiggins, Ernest Theodore, B. S., Eastern, 1935. Shipping Clerk, Wig- 
gins Chemical Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1935-36. 

Wilder, Andrew Howard, B. S., Eastern, 1934. 

Wiley, Ellis, B. S., Eastern, 1933. Grade Teacher, Boyd County, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-36. 

Williams, Granville Baker, B. S., Eastern, 1933; Graduate Student, 
University of Tennessee, 1934. High School Principal, Waynes- 
burg, Kentucky, 1934-36. 

Williams, Mabel, A. B., Eastern, 1933. High School Teacher, Ashland, 
Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Willoughby, Beulah, A. B., Eastern, 1927. Teacher, Breathitt, Knott 
Counties, Kentucky. 

Willoughby, Hortense, A. B., Eastern. 1930. High School Teacher, 
Richmond, Kentucky, 1930-36. 

Willoughby, Thelma, A. B., Eastern, 1934. 

Wilson, Albert, A. B., Eastern, 1928; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1932. Salesman, Johnson Motor Company, Richmond, 
Kentucky, 1931; High School Teacher, Newby, Kentucky, 1931-32, 
Campton, Kentucky, 1932-33; Farmer, Madison County, Kentucky, 

362 Three Decades op Progress 

Wilson, Ben F., B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. B. A., Boston University, 1934. 

Accountant, Hartshorn & Walter, Boston, Massachusetts, Summer, 

1934; Instructor, Military Academy, Gulf port, Mississippi, 1934-35; 

Accountant, Humphrey Robinson & Company, Louisville, Kentucky, 


Wilson, Huldah F. (See Schatzman, Mrs. C. E.). 

Wilson, Leland, B. S., Eastern, 1934; Graduate Student, University of 
Kentucky, 1934-35. High School Teacher, Harlan, Kentucky, 

Wilson, Maude (See Holtzclaw, Mrs. J. B.). 

Wilson, Mrs. V. C., B. S., Eastern, 1933. 

Wilson, Vernon C, B. S., Eastern, 1932. Grade School Principal, Pres- 
tonsburg, Kentucky, 1932-35; High School Teacher, Wheelwright, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Wimble, Blanche, A. B., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Danville, Ken- 
tucky, 1934-35; Assistant to Dr. M. E. Huffman, Dentist, Danville, 
Kentucky, 1935-36. 

Winburn, Hobert, A. B., Eastern, 1929; Graduate Student, University 
of Kentucky, 1931, 1932. High School Teacher and Coach, Virgie, 
Kentucky, 1929-36. 

Womack, Dorothy, A. B., Eastern, 1932; Graduate Student, Ohio State 
University, 1935. Grade Teacher, Ashland, Kentucky, 1932-36. 

Womack, Lillian Agnes, A. B., Eastern, 1931. Grade Teacher, Ashland, 
Kentucky, 1931-36. 

Wood, Jesse H., B. S., Eastern, 1928; M. A., University of Tennessee, 
1929; Graduate Student, University of Chicago, 1930, University 
of North Carolina, 1935. Instructor, University of Tennessee, 

Word, Carroll Emerson, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, 1931, 1932. High School Teacher and 
Coach, Augusta, Kentucky, 1926-36. 

Work, Charles, B. S., Eastern, 1931; M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1935. 

Wright, Ray, B. S., Eastern, 1931; M. A., University of Kentucky, 
1933. Junior Scientific Aid, Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley 
Field, Hampton, Virginia, 1935-36. 

Yager, Katherine Elizabeth, A. B., Eastern, 1926; Graduate Student, 
Columbia University. Teacher, Oldham County, Kentucky. 

Yager, Thomas Clarence, A. B., Eastern, 192S; Graduate Student, 
University of South Carolina. Teacher, Columbia, South Caro- 
lina, 1928-33; Manager, National Reemployment Service, 1933-34; 
Sales Representative, National Cement Company, Birmingham, 
Alabama, 1934-35. 

Yates, Mrs. C. B. (nee Frona Virginia Smith), A. B., Eastern, 1932. 

Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College 363 

Young, Alice McClellan, A. B., Eastern, 1931. 

Young, Frances Arline, B. S., Eastern, 1933; M. A., Ohio University, 
1935; Graduate Student, University of Kentucky, 1934. Super- 
visor of Teacher Training, Caney Junior College, Pippapass, Ken- 
tucky, 1933-34; Supervisor of Primary Schools, Covington, Ken- 
tucky, 1935-36. 

Young, Ernest Irvine, B. S., Eastern, 1935. High School Teacher and 

Coach, Beattyville, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Zachary, Mrs. John L. (nee Kathleen Allen), B. S., Eastern, 1935. 

Grade Teacher, Liberty, Kentucky, 1935-36. 
Zachary, John L., B. S., Eastern, 1934. Grade Teacher, Casey County, 

Kentucky, 1934-36. 



Hail to thee, our Alma Mater, 
Faithful guide of youth, 
Holding high amid the darkness 
Duty, light, and truth; 
Still above, the skies attend thee, 
Still thy stately columns stand, 
Still thy sons and daughters love thee, 
Sing thy praises o'er the land. 

All the earth's resplendent beauty 

Nature gathered here, 

Rolling lawns and trees and grasses 

On thy hillsides fair; 

Happy days within thy shadow, 

Friends and comrades we have won, 

Fill our hearts with exaltation 

For thy work so nobly done. 

When, beloved Alma Mater, 

Memory recalls 

Other days of youth and laughter 

In thy gracious halls; 

When thy sons and daughters scattered 

Turn again to thee, 

Still thy lamp is brightly lighting 

Us afar, that we may see. 

— Words by Nancy Evans 
— Music by Jane Campbell 


March on, oh Eastern sons 
And her co-eds so fair, 

For the glory of Eastern, this song rings true; 
We shall go marching on the way for you. 
Defeat or victory, to old Eastern this song we sing; 
March! March on, while singing our song, 
On and on together. 

Maroon and white is waving, 
And our joyful voices praise thee. 
On and on, our marching song 

Is "Fight, fight, maroon and white", for we shall sing: 
Oh, Eastern will shine tonight, Eastern will shine. 
On and on, for this is our marching song. 
Maroon and white we love you. 
Don't give up until we conquer, 
March on together, march on forever, 
For Eastern — March on, march on. 

— Helen Hull Lutes 

Yea! Eastern, let's win this fight! 
Rally, maroon and white! 
We've got the spirit, you've got the speed; 
These two with grit are all that we need. 

So! Carry and pass that ball! 

Show them our boys beat all! 

Show them we're right with main and might; 

The way to win is fight! fight! fight! 

— Words by Mary K. Burns 
—Music by Helen Hull Lutes