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~B/i< (coSo> ibL ^ 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

FROM THE UBRARY OF 

HAROLD MURDOCK 

A.M. (Hon.) 1916 

THE GIFT OF FRIENDS 
1935 




THREE GENERATIONS OF 
FASCINATING WOMEN 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



SWALLOWPIELD AND ITS OWNERS. 

With 15 Photogravure Portxaits and 
36 other Illustrations. 

4to. gilt edges, 42X. net. 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 Paternoster Row, London 

New York and Bombay 



: Maxwi;li,, Duchess of Gobdon. 

Jly r,/a. Homiify. R.A . 



THREE GENERATIONS OF 
FASCINATING WOMEN 

and other Sketches from Family 
History 



BY 



LADY RUSSELL 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



SECOND EDITION 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1905 



All rishts reserved 



/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

FROM THE UBRARY OF 

HAROLD MUROOCK 

JUNE 1935 



/ 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



The kind reception which was accorded to the first edition 

of the * Three Generations of Fascinating Women/ &c., has 

encouraged me to bring out a second, in which I have thought 

it well to make a few trifling alterations and additions, besides 

correcting some inaccuracies. For the sake of compactness I 

have now incorporated in the body of the work much of the 

information formerly contained in notes in the Addenda, and 

have also reproduced a photogravure from Romney's beautiful 

picture of Ann Barbara, sister of Earl Whitworth and wife of 

Sir Henry Russell, Bart. 

The Gunning Pedigree I have revised and brought up to 

date. 

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield : June 1 905 . 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

In ofFcring these fiimily sketches to the limited circle of readers 
who may be interested in them, I should like to deprecate the 
obvious criticism that so much of my information has been 
taken from the letters of Horace Walpole. Owing to his great 
intimacy with many of the subjects of these memoirs, I have 
unavoidably drawn somewhat largely on his writings in search 
of contemporary opinion, but I venture to suggest that the 
quotations of which I have made use may not prove unaccept- 
able to those readers who, while wishing to know what that 
brilliant critic of the Society of his day had to say of one 
particular person, may not have the time or opportunity to 
wade through all his works and extract these plums. 

Many of these very trifling sketches were written several 
years ago, and alas ! in some cases without noting the sources 
from which they were taken. For this I must apologise. In 
daring to publish them, my hope is that they will be found 
beneath criticism, * For who would break a fly upon the wheel ? ' 

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 



CONTENTS 



THREE GENERATIONS OF FASCINATING WOMEN : 

1. THE HON. MARY BELLENDEN I 

2. CAROLINE, COUNTESS OF AILBSBURY . . . .20 

3. THE HON. MRS. DAMER 70 

A GIPSY PREDICTION FULFILLED 87 

MORE ABOUT THE GUNNINGS 96 

THE MAID OF THE OAKS I43 

A CANNY SCOT 154 

A BYGONE BEAUTY 1 83 

'N. OR M.' 204 

STRANGE VICISSITUDES OF A HIGHLAND LADY OF QUALITY IN THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 209 

AN EMPRESS OF FASHION 2l8 

A DUKE 'BORN IN A BARN, AND DIED IN A BARN' .238 

THOMAS SCOT, THE REGICIDE 260 

THE TWO LORDS WHITWORTH 278 

GUNNING PEDIGREE to f<ue 332 

ADDENDA 333 

INDEX 347 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



JANE MAXWELL (AFTERWARDS DUCHESS OF GORDON) 
By George Romney^ R,A. 

THE HON. MARY BELLENDEN- 

From a picture at Inveraray, 

MARY, CX)UNTESS OF DALHOUSIE 

From a picture at Inveraray by Sir Peter Lely. 

THE HON. MARY BELLENDEN . 

From a picture at Inoeraray by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

THE HON. MARY BELLENDEN 

From a drawing at Swallowfield. 

COLONEL JOHN CAMPBELL (AFTERWARDS FOURTH DUKE OF 

ARGYLL) 

From a print after Jonathan Richardson, 

JOHN, FOURTH DUKE OF ARGYLL, K.T 

From a picture eU Inveraray by Gainsborough, 

THE HON. HENRY SEYMOUR CONWAY, AND CAROLINE, COUNTESS 

OF AILESBURY, AND THEIR DAUGHTER ANNE . . 

From a picture by Eckhardi in the possession of Mrs, Campbell 
Johnston. 

PARK PLACE, HENLEY-ON-THAMES 

From an old print. 

MISS MARY BLANDY IN PRISON 

From an old print, 

CAPTAIN THE HON. WILLIAM HENRY CRANSTOUN AND HIS 

FUNERAL PROCESSION 

From an old print, 

MARY, THIRD DUCHESS OF RICHMOND 

By Angelica Kauffmann, 

COI^WAY HOUSE, WARWICK STREET, LONDON .... 
From cm old print, 

FIELD-MARSHAL THE HON. HENRY SEYMOUR CONWAY . . 

From a picture at Inveraray by Gainsborough, 

THE HON. MRS. DAMER, nie ANNE SEYMOUR CONWAY 
From a print after R, Cosway, 



Frontispiece 



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36 

39 
68 

70 



List of Illustrations 



THE HON. MRS. DAMER 

By Angelica Kauffmtmn, 

THE HON. MRS. DAMER, nie ANNE SEYMOUR CONWAY 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds , from the picture in the NaHonal Poriraii 
Gallery, 

THE EXECUTION OF EARL FERRERS AT TYBURN .... 
From an old prints 

EARL FERRERS IN HIS COFFIN 

From an old print, 

LADY FREDERICK CAMPBELL 

From a pastelle at Swallowfield, 

LORD FREDERICK CAMPBELL 

From a picture at Inveraray by Gainsborough, 

PETER GUNNING, BISHOP OF ELY 

From a print after the picture by Loggan, 

JOHN GUNNING, ESQ 

From a pastelle by F, Cotes ^ R,A,^ at Swallowfield, 

THE HON. MRS. JOHN GUNNING, fUe BOURKE . . 

From a pastelle by F. Cotes at Iftveraray, 

CHURCH AT HBMINGFORD GREY, HUNTS 

From a photograph, 

MARIA, COUNTESS OF COVENTRY, n/e GUNNING .... 
Fro»n a picture by Gavin Hamilton, 

MARIA, COUNTESS OF COVENTRY, ft/e GUNNING .... 
From a picture by Gavin Hamilton, 

MARIA, COUNTESS OF COVENTRY 

From a pastelle after Liotard at Swallowfield, 

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND OF ARGYLL, n^€ GUNNING 
From a picture by Gavin Hamilton, 

JOHN, FIFTH DUKE OF ARGYLL 

From a picture at Swallowfield by Gainsborough, 

MARY, DUCHESS OF ANCASTER 

From a pastelle at Swallowfield, 

DOUGLAS, EIGHTH DUKE OF HAMILTON, AGED EIGHTEEN . . 
From a picture at Inveraray by Pomph Battoni^ painted 1775. 

LADY AUGUSTA CAMPBELL 

By Angelica Kattff'tnann, 



To face p. 74 



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100 



102 



10^ 



104 



106 



108 



112 



113 



121 



124 



129 



13' 



List of Illustrations 

LADY AUGUSTA CAMPBELL, * A ST. JAMESES BEAUTY * . 
From a print by F. Bartclozzi after J, H. BewwaJL 

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND BRANDON AND OF 
ARGYLL, AND HER TWO DAUGHTERS, LADY AUGUSTA AND 

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL 

By Angelica Kauffmann, 

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND OF ARGYLL . . . 

From a picture at Swallawfield by F, Cotes, R.A. 

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND OF ARGYLL, tt^e GUNNING 
By Catherine Bead, 

MRS. TRAYERS, fUe KITTY GUNNING 

From apastelU at SwalhfwfieU by F, Cotes, R,A, 

JOHN GUNNING, JUNIOR, AFTERWARDS GENERAL GUNNING 
From apastelU at SwalUnofield by F, Cotes, R,A. 

LADY BETTY HAMILTON, COUNTESS OF DERBY • . 

From a painting by George Romney, R,A* 

SIR DUNCAN CAMPBELL, LORD OF LOCHOW, AND HIS WIFE . 

DANIEL CAMPBELL OF SHAWFIELD 

From a picture by Ramsay in the possession of Captain Walter 
Campbell. 

DANIEL CAMPBELL OF SHAWFIELD 

From a picture in the possession of Captain Montgomerie, R,N. 

VOLTAIRE 

From an etching formerly in the possession of Daniel Campbell, 
jun,, ofShamfieUL 

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL 

From a picture at Swallowfield by Tischbein, 

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL .... ... 

From a picture at Swallowfield by Anna Tonelli. 

COLONEL AND LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL .... 
From a drawing at Swallowfield iy Edridge. 

COLONEL JOHN CAMPBELL, OF SHAWFIELD 

From a miniature at Swallowfield 

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL . 

From a picture at Inveraray by J, Hoppner, R*A. 

GEORGE, SIXTH DUKE OF ARGYLL 

From apastelU at Swallowfield by Hugh Hamilton, 



XI 



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139 

141 

144 

154 
164 



172 



178 



i»S 



186 



187 



188 



202 



204 



xu 



List of Illnstrations 



MISS CATHARINE BLACK CAMPBELL 

From a picture at SwaJlowfield by Horace Vernet. 

JANE, DUCHESS OF GORDON, AND HER SON, THE MARQUIS OF 

HUNTLY 

From a picture by George Romneyy R,A,, now in possession of 
Mr. Charles Wertheimer. 

JANE, DUCHESS OF GORDON 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds ^ R,A. 

GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF BEDFORD 

From a miniature by R, Cosway* 

LADY LOUISA RUSSELL, DUCHESS OF ABERCORN 
By Sir Edwin Landseer, 

CHARLES, FOURTH DUKE OF RICHMOND 

By J. ffoppner, R,A, 

CHARLOTTE, DUCHESS OF RICHMOND 

From a miniature by Cosway, 

THOMAS SCOT, THE REGICIDE 

From> a miniature, 

CHARLES, LORD WHITWORTH 

From a picture at Swallowfield, 

CHARLES, LORD WHITWORTH, AND HIS NEPHEW, AFTERWARDS 

SIR CHARLES WHITWORTH 

Frdm a picture at SwallowJUld by Jack Elys. 

COLONEL RICHARD WHITWORTH, M.P 

From a mezzotint by Thomas Hardy. 

LADY RUSSELL AND SON 

From the original at Swallowfield by George Romney, R.A.y 
. painted in 1786-7. 

COLONEL CHARLES WHITWORTH, AFTERWARDS EARL WHITWORTH 
From a miniature by A. Graff'. 

CHARLES, EARL WHITWORTH 

By Sir Thomas Lawrence^ R.A, 

ARABELLA DIANA, DUCHESS OF DORSET 

From a painting by Isabeyy now in the possession of S. Neumann^ Esq. 

GEORGE JOHN FREDERICK, FOURTH DUKE OF DORSET . 
From a drawing at Swallowfield by Edridge. 

CHARLES, EARL WHITWORTH 

From a drawing at Swallowfield by Edridge. 

Plan of the ground floor of the Duke of Richmond* s house at 
Brussels^ showing the room in which the Waterloo Ball took 
place ... 



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1 



The Hon. iMab' 



THREE GENERATIONS 



OF 



FASCINATING WOMEN 



MOTHER, DAUGHTER, AND GRANDDAUGHTER 



I 

THE HON. MARY BlELLENDEN 

Now to my heart the glance of Howard flies ; 

Now Harvey, £air of face, I mark full well. 

With thee, youth's youngest daughter, Sweet Lepell, 

I see two lovely sisters hand in hand, 

The fair-haired Martha, and Teresa brown ; 

Madge Bellenden, the tallest of the land ; 

And smiling Mary^ soft and fair as dawn. 

Epistle to- Mr. Pope by Gay, 

The Hon. Peter Wentworth, in writing to his brother, the 
Earl of Strafford, on October 12, 17 14, concerning the arrival in 
England of Caroline of Anspach, Princess of Wales, says : * The 
Princess landed at Marget, the Prince, Duke of Sommerset, 
and Duke of Argile,^ went in coaches to meet her. The town, 
or perhaps themselves, have named four Beautys for Maids 

* The Dukes of Somerset and Argyll were the influential Whig magnates, 
and swayed everything from the time that Queen Anne was seized with her last 
illness. 

B 



2 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

of her Highness, viz. Molly Balliden, Miss Shorter,^ Miss 

Hammond and Bell Roe. If her H has any spice of 

jealousy, some people may be baulk* t.' The first named of 
these beauties, the Hon. Mary Bellenden — * smiling Mary, soft 
and fair as down ' — was duly appointed Maid of Honour to the 
Princess of Wales. 

The Hanoverians were always glad to secure the allegiance of 
any scion of well-known Jacobite families of distinction, amongst 
whom none could claim more distinguished rank than the Drum- 
monds. As some one has said, their fidelity ran in their blood 
and was part of their nature, and they were doomed to lose their 
lives and their fortunes in the Stuart cause. To this family 
Mary Bellenden belonged. She was the only daughter of John, 
second Lord Bellenden of Broughton and Auchnoule, who was 
son of William Drummond, second Earl of Roxburghe, the fourth 
son of John Drummond, second Earl of Perth. Her father 
had taken the name of Bellenden as a child, on succeeding 
to the honours and estates of his cousin. Lord Bellenden of 
Broughton, in 1671.^ Following in the footsteps of his an- 
cestors, he attached himself to the cause of James H. ; and for 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary 
he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle with the Earls of 
Seaforth and Home, and Paterson, the deposed Archbishop of 
Glasgow. In 1692 King William issued an order to the Privy 
Council of Scotland 'to prosecute Lord Bellenden and the 
officers sometime in Sir Thomas Livingstone's regiment of 

' Charlotte Shorter, the second daughter of Sir John Shorter, of Bybrook, Kent 
(son of the Lord Mayor of London of that name), and sister of Lady Walpole. She 
married, in 1718, Francis Seymour Conway, Lord Conway, by whom she was 
mother of the first Marquis of Hertford and of Field-Marshal Seymour Conway, 
who married Mary Bellenden's daughter. 

« See Addenda, page 333. 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 3 

Dragoons,^ who have been too long detained prisoners without 
being brought to trial.* Lord Bellenden*s estates were confis- 
cated, but he was given his liberty, under security of a thousand 
pounds, on condition that he went abroad and never again engaged 
in any movement against the existing government. He chose the 
Low Countries as his place of exile, probably because his father 
had been in the service of the States, where he had the command 
of a regiment and acquired the reputation of a brave soldier. 
Lord Bellenden asked permission to be allowed a month to settle 
his family afiairs, but he was told he must leave as soon as a 
vessel then loading at Leith was ready. He sailed for Rotter- 
dam in company with the Hon. William Livingstone (afterwards 
third Viscount Kilsyth) and his wife, who was the widow of 
Viscount Dundee, * Bonnie Dundee,' the hero of Killiecrankie. 
We may conclude also that Lord Bellenden was accompanied by 
his own wife. Lady Dalhousie, as James, fourth Earl of Perth, 
his cousin, who followed him to exile in Holland, says, writing 
from Antwerp, September 17, 1694 : * We went to The Hague, 
Lord Bellenden and his spouse, my Lady Dundee and Kilsyth ^ 
took an ague.' A worse fate soon befell the latter poor lady. 



^ Now the Scots Greys. They had been generally known as * Old Tom DalyelPs 
Dragoons/ having been raised in 1681 by General Thomas Dalyell of Binns, the 
fiery cavalier, and were continually under the orders of Claverhouse, then under 
Lord Dunmore. He was superseded by Sir Thomas Livingstone, of the Dutch 
fort, a cadet of the family of Kilsyth and long wedded to the Dutch service, but 
many of the officers were staunch to King James. 

' Many elegies were written on the charms and sad fate of this lady. The 
following is part of a long one preserved in the Advocates' Library : 

Who will not grieve for her death, who, when she 
Did live on earth, all others did outvie 
In all the charming attraits of that grace 
Of stately person and most beauteous face ; 
And in proportion to this sacred shryne, 
The Gods did make her spirit all divine. 

B 2 



4 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

she and her infant son William being killed by the fall of a 
ceiling in an inn at Utrecht^ which buried them in its ruins. 
Her husband) who was reading a letter at the window, sprang 
out of it and was saved, though much hurt. It was said that 
the beams of the room were purposely cut so as to kill Kilsyth 
and Lady Dundee and the Jacobites who came to see them (see 
Napier's * Memoir of Dundee ') ; but a letter which has lately 
come to light from a Mr. Stewart, who was on the spot and 
wrote a graphic account of the catastrophe two days after it 
occurred, clearly proves that it was an accident caused by the 
overloading of a loft above with 300 tons of turf fuel. When 
extricated, the bodies of the mother and child were carefully 
embalmed and sent to Scotland, where they were interred in the 
church at Kilsyth. In 1795, close upon a hundred years later, a 
leaden coffin was there opened and their bodies found in an extra- 
ordinary state of preservation, the beautiful auburn hair and fine 
complexion of Lady Dundee occasioning in the crowd of onlookers 
a sigh of silent wonder, so says a contemporary account.^ 
That Lady Dundee's happy second marriage should terminate 
so briefly and so terribly was supposed to be the verification 
of a prognostic at the time of her engagement. When, as 
a young widow, she was met and wooed at Colzium House, 
Stirlingshire, by William Livingstone, he gave her a ring 
having for its posy * Zours onlly and Euer ' (Yours only and 
ever). She lost it in the garden ; and though every search was 
made she never got it back, and this was considered at the time 
an ill omen. Strangely enough, just a hundred years later the 
ring was dug up in a clod of earth, and it is still preserved at 

^ A Mr. Watts made a drawing of Lady Dundee in her coffin, which was 
engraved for Dr. Gametfs ObservcUions an a Tour through the Highlands^ 
published in 1800. 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 5 

Colzium House by the present proprietor of the Kilsyth estates, 
Sir Archibald Edmonstone of Duntreath. 

After four or five years spent in Holland, Lord Bellenden 
obtained his pardon on condition that he took no part against 
the Hanoverian King. He returned to Edinburgh, and was 
present in Parliament in 1 696. He lived in the Ginongate, in a 
house called Golfers* Land.^ He had very little means ; and in 
1 700 the Duke of Queensberry,^ writing to Mr. Carstares,^ says : 
* I must entreat of you to speak to the King in favour of my 
Lord Ballantyne ; he has continued very firm to his Majesty's 
interest, though there has been great pains taken to make him 
otherwise. He has a numerous family and not much to support 
it, and because I knew he was a little straightened, I have given 
him ;^ioo, for which I desire a warrant pa)rable tome.' As one 
of the results of this application, we find that Lord Bellenden 
was in 1704 appointed Governor of Dumbarton Castle. 

Lord Bellenden died at his house in the Ginongate in 
1706, aged forty-five, and was buried at Holyrood Abbey on 
November 3 of that year.* His wife survived him many 
years ; she was Lady Mary Moore, daughter of Henry Moore, 
first Earl of Drogheda, by Lady Alice Spencer, daughter of 
Lord Spencer of Wormleighton, and she had been married 
previously to William Ramsay, third Earl of Dalhousie, and 

' Also known as ' John Paterson's House.' Soon after the Union the ' Golfers 
Land ' became, as it is now, a habitation of the lower orders. 

' The Duke of Queensberry was sent to hold a Parliament in Scotland in 1701. 

' The Rev. Mr. Carstares, a Scotch minister, had an extraordinary share in 
the management of Scotland at this time, and was greatly in King William's con- 
fidence ; his correspondence was printed in 1774, and he is styled there Confidential 
Secretary to King William. 

^ The following invitation to attend the funeral of Lord Bellenden is rather 
curious : *The honour of your presence to accompany the corps of My Lord 
Bellenden, my father, from his lodgings in Patersan's Land, near the Cannongate 
foot, to his burial place in the Abay Church, upon Sunday the 3rd instant, at 8 of 
the dock in the morning, is earnestly desired by John Bellenden.' 



6 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

always kept his name.^ Lady Dalhousie must have had a great 
share of beauty, judging by the portrait of her, painted by 
Sir Peter Lely in brown and red draperies, which hangs in the 
saloon at Inveraray Castle. She came of a good-looking stock ; 
her grandmother. Lady Penelope Wriothesley, was the daughter 
of Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton, the patron of 
Shakespeare, and reckoned the handsomest man at Court. 

By Lord Bellenden she had five sons and one daughter. 
John, the eldest, born in 1685 at Dalhousie Castle, succeeded 
his father as third Baron Bellenden, and in 1 709 sold his manor 
of Whitehill, near Musselburgh, to Sir David Dalrymple, Bart., 
ancestor of the present Sir Charles Dalrymple, who still holds it, 
though the name was changed to Newhailes about 1738. The 
central part of the present house is probably the same as it 
was when Lord Bellenden sold it. In 17 10 a memorial was 
presented to the High Treasurer in favour of Mary, Countess 
of Dalhousie, and her son Lord Bellenden, praying that the 
salary of the latter as 'Usher to the Exchequer in Scotland' 
might be settled. This post, the salary of which was only £1^0 
a year, was hereditary in the Bellenden family. In 1565 Sir 
John Bellenden of Auchinowe obtained the office, and had a 
charter under the Great Seal ' to himself, his heirs and assigns, 
de toto et integro officio custodiae portae sive ostii Domus 
Reginae Scaccarii deverus ad idem pertinens.* All the Lords 
Bellenden held it in turn. It was apparently a sinecure, as 
the third Lord Bellenden ^ lived entirely at Westmill, a small 

^ Her eldest son, George, fourth Earl of Dalhousie, was killed in Holland by a 
Mr. Hamilton in 1696 ; her second son, William, fifth Earl, also died unmarried. 

' The third Lord Bellenden married in 1722, at Radwell, Herts, Mary, daughter, 
of John Pamell of Baldock, Herts, and had six daughters : (i) Hon. Jane Bellenden 
married in 1741 Ephraim Miller of Hertingfordbury ; (2) Hon. Caroline Bellenden, 
married in 1760 John Gawler of Ramridge, Hants, and of the Inner Temple, 
and had two sons, John Bellenden Gawler, 2nd Life Guards (who in 1804 assumed 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 7 

village in Hertfordshire, where he is buried with many members 
of his ^mily. 

Of the four remaining sons, one only was well known — Sir 
Harry Bellenden, who was Usher of the Black Rod. He is 
often mentioned by Horace Walpole, who thus alludes to his 
death, which took place in 1761 : 'Poor Sir Harry Bellenden is 
dead ; he made a great dinner at Almacks for the house of 
Drummond, drank very hard, caught a violent fever, and died in 
a few days • . . though but six hours in his senses, he gave a 
proof of his usual good humour, making it as his last request to the 
sisters Tufton, to be reconciled, which they are. His pretty villa 
in my neighbourhood, I fancy he has left to the new Lord Lorn.' ^ 

The only daughter of John, second Lord Bellenden, was 
Mary, the subject of this sketch. At an early age she removed 
from Edinburgh to London ; her mother. Lady Dalhousie, being 
appointed Keeper of Somerset House, where she was given 
apartments in the east side of the Palace, and it was here that 
Mary Bellenden spent a great part of her youth. 

the name of Ker Bellenden), and Henry Gawler of Lincoln's Inn ; (3) Hon. Diana 
Bellenden, married John Bulteel of Flete ; (4) Hon. Mary Bellenden, married John 
Eaton of Cambridge, and died at Egham in 1805, aet. 80 ; (5) Hon. Alice Bellen- 
den, died unmarried at Westmill in 1796; (6) Hon. Henrietta Bellenden, died 
unmarried. 

* Horace Walpole quotes the following 'Anacreontic' written by Lord 
Middlesex upon Sir Harry Bellenden : 

Ye sons of Bacchus, come and join 

In solemn dirge, while tapers shine 

Around the grape-embossed shrine 

Of honest Harry Bellendine. 

Pour the rich juice of Bordeaux's wine, 
Mix'd with your falling tears of brine, 
In full libation o'er the shrine 
Of honest Harry Bellendine. 
Your brows let ivy chaplets twine, 
While you push round the sparkling wine, 
And let your table be the shrine 
Of honest Harry Bellendine. 



8 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

Somerset House was then, as it had long been, a ro}ral 
palace, the dower-house of the Queens of England, and it 
continued to be so till the time of Queen Charlotte. Henrietta 
Maria made very pleasant additions to it when she took up her 
residence therein 1662 ; and it is said that this Queen, inheriting 
the practical taste for architecture which had caused her mother, 
Marie de M6dicis, to design with her own hand the Luxembourg 
Palace, had made original drawings for all the buildings she 
added to Somerset House. Anne of Denmark and Catherine of 
Braganza both successively held their Courts there, and it was 
called Denmark House after the former Queen. We have an 
account of it as it was when Mary Bellenden lived there. Her 
mother's rooms extended across what is now part of King's 
College as far as Strand Passage, and adjoining them was a 
* pleasance ' which opened on to the extensive terraced gardens 
with their straight gravel walks and avenues of trees. From 
these gardens descended a handsome flight of stone steps, at the 
bottom of which was the Thames ; and there was always moored 
there a sort of house-barge called * The Folly,' and a kind of 
wherry like a gondola, for the use of the inhabitants of the Palace. 

Mary Bellenden first entered upon her duties as Maid of 
Honour at Hampton Court Palace, then the principal residence 
of George I., where apartments were provided for the Prince 
and Princess of Wales and their suite. The Court life at this 
time appears to have been extremely dull. Pope, writing to 
Teresa and Martha Blount ^ in 1 7 1 7, says : * I went by water to 

* Teresa and Martha Blount were daughters of Lister Blount, Esq., of 
Mapledurham, by Mary, daughter of Anthony Englefield of Whiteknights. Teresa, 
bom in 1688, died 1759 ; Martha, bom in 1690, died in 1763. Pope gave Martha 
a fan on which he had painted a design of his own from the story of Cephalus and 
Procris with the motto ' Aura veni.' This fan was afterwards in the possession of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. After Pope's death Horace Walpole writes to Lady Ossory : 
< I was standing at my window after dinner in Summer, in Arlington St., and saw 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 9 

Hampton Court ; met the Prince with all his ladies on horse- 
back coming from hunting. Mrs. Bellenden and Mrs. Lepell 
took me into their protection (contrary to the law against 
Papists) and gave me a dinner with something I liked better, an 
opportunity of conversation with Mrs. Howard.^ We all 
agreed that the life of a Maid of Honour was of all things the 
most miserable, and wished that every woman who envied it had 
a specimen of it. To eat Westphalia ham in a morning, ride over 
hedges and ditches on borrowed hacks, come home in the heat 
of the day with a fever, and (what is worse a hundred times) 
with a red mark on the forehead from an uneasy hat . . . then 
they must simper an hour, and catch cold in the Princess's apart- 
ments, from there, as Shakespeare has it, to dinner with what 
appetite they may, and after that till midnight, work, walk, and 
think, which they please. I can easily believe no lone house in 
Wales with a mountain and a rookery is more contemplative 
than this Court, and as a proof of it I need only tell you Mrs. 
L. (Lepell) walked with me three or four hours by moonlight, 
and we met no creature of any quality but the King, who gave 
audience to the Vice-Chamberlain all alone under the garden 
wall.' 2 

Patty Blount with nothing remaining of her immortal charms but her blue eyesy 
trudging on foot with her petticoats pinned up, for it rained, to visit blameless 
Bethel^ who was sick at the end of the street'— H. W. voL ii. p. 254, Letters to 
Lady Ossory. 

^ Henrietta Hobart, daughter of Sir Henry Hobart, and sister of John, 
Earl ofBuckinghamshire, married the Hon. Charles Howard, afterwards ninth 
Earl of Suffolk. She was Bedchamber Woman and Dresser to the Princess of 
Wales. 

' Many months later than the date of this letter we find Pope writing to Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu the same thing with a curious variation ; he says to her, 
* No lone house in Wales, with a rookery, is more contemplative than Hampton 
Court : I walked there the other day by the moon, (no companion mentioned I) and 
met no creature of any quality but the King, who was giving audience all alone to 
the birds under the garden wall.' 



lo Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

Molly Lepell, here mentioned by Pope, the beautiful and 
witty daughter of Brigadier-General Nicholas Lepell, was one of 
the Maids of Honour to the Princess of Wales, and the bosom 
friend of Mary Bellenden, with whom her name is constantly 
associated. In Gay's poem, * Damon and Cupid,* the God of 
Love says : 

So well I'm known at Court, 

None ask where Cupid dwells, 
But readily resort 

To Bellenden's or Lepell's. 

* Sweet Lepell,' as Gay calls her elsewhere, married John Hervey, 
and three of her sons became Earls of Bristol, The writer has 
a medallion with miniature portraits of Mary BeUenden and 
Molly Lepell on either side, * Bella Dine * and * Tom ' were 
the pet names by which they addressed each other, 

"When the quarrels between George I. and his heir cul- 
minated in the expulsion of the latter firom St. James's Palace, 
a new era opened for the Maids of Honour. The Prince and 
Princess and their household took refuge at first in Albemarle 
Street, where Lord Grantham,^ Chamberlain to the Princess, lent 
them his house. 

Then up the street they took their way, 
And knocked up good Lord Grantham, 

Higledy Pigledy they lay, 

And all went Rantum Scantum. 

The Excellent New Ballad. 

Mary Bellenden's sprightly demeanour on this occasion is thus 
specially alluded to in the same ballad : 

^ Henri de Auverquerque, Earl of Grantham, had been Keeper of the Privy 
Purse to King William III. 



Thi; Hus. Mai 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden ii 

But Bellenden we needs must praise, 
Who, as down the stairs she jumps, 

Sings ^ O'er the hills and far away/ 
Despising doleful dumps.^ 

Shortly after, the royal fugitives moved to Old Leicester 
House, at the north-east corner of Leicester Fields, which the 
Prince bought for ;^6,ocxD. Here the Princess had her Court 
for the next ten years ; she held a Drawing Room every morning, 
had a reception at night twice a week, and on other nights went 
with her ladies to masquerades, concerts, operas, and to the 
theatre. 

The gaiety of the Court life at Leicester House naturally had 
its effect on general society, and Lord Chesterfield at this time 
writes to Bubb Dodington : * As for the gay part of the town 
you would find it much more flourishing than when you left it. 
Balls, Assemblies, and Masquerades have taken the place of dull, 
formal visiting days, and women much more agreeable trifles 
than they were designed. Puns are extremely in vogue and the 
licence very great.' 

Even when the Prince and Princess moved to Richmond 
Wells, as it was then called — where the Prince first rented and 
then bought the Jacobite Duke of Ormond's * White House,' 
which he named * Richmond Lodge * — the gay life continued. 
We read of the Maids of Honour accompanying the Prince 
and Princess to Penketham's playhouse on the Green, where 
Mr. William Penketham, the popular actor celebrated by Steele, 
delighted them with his low comedy. Lady Bristol, one of the 
Ladies of the Bedchamber, writes that she had no patience to see 
a play of Mr. Addison's (who had just died) burlesqued, as it was, 

^ * O'er the hills and far away ' is a line of a song called < Distracted Jockey's 
Lamentation/ which was in considerable vogue at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. — Pediof^s Pack of Ballads and Songs, 



1 2 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

for the entertainment of their Royal Highnesses. The pky was 
* Cato ; ' and she adds, * their audience was too good for them, for 
there was a great many people of quality/ 

Then there were innumerable water-parties ; and on warm 
evenings, Lady Bristol says, the Court often walked on the 
terrace, * to hear the fine musick the Prince has taken for the 
summer.' On other nights they had Mrs. Robinson to sing 
to them. This exquisite singer was the celebrated Anastasia 
Robinson, afterwards married to the great Lord Peterborough. 
The Princess of Wales, being a woman of considerable attain- 
ment, and fully appreciating wit and talent in others, welcomed 
most of the celebrities of the day, amongst whom were Pope, 
Swift, Gay, Steele, Addison, Congreve, Rowe, Tickell, Prior, 
Atterbury, Arbuthnot, Marlborough, Lord Peterborough, John 
Duke of Argyll, Harley, Bathurst, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord 
Chesterfield, Bishop Berkeley, and a host of others. 

Shortly after her arrival in England she received in her 
own apartment Sir Isaac Newton, then an octogenarian, who 
expounded to the Princess and her ladies his system of 
philosophy ; ^ but we can fancy that Mary Bellenden and Molly 
Lepell were more interested in *The Beggar's Opera,* which 
Gay read to them, or with * Gulliver's Travels,* with which we 
are told Swift delighted them.^ 

* The apartments of the Bed-Chamber Women,' says Horace 
Walpole, * became the fashionable evening rendez-vous of the 
most distinguished wits and beauties, and above all for universal 
admiration Miss Bellenden, one of the Maids of Honour. Her 
face and person were charming, lively she was, almost to 

^ It was at her suggestion he wrote his Abstract of a Treatise on Ancient 
Chronology, 

' It is said by Swift that the Princess sent nine times for him before he came 
to Leicester Fields ; but Croker says he was several times at Richmond Lodge. 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 13 

etourderie^ and so agreeable she was, that I never heard her 
mentioned afterwards by one of her contemporaries who did not 
prefer her as the most perfect creature they ever knew.' 

Lord Hervey says : * Mrs. Bellenden was incontestably the 
most agreeable, the most insinuating, and the most likeable 
woman of her time ; made up of every ingredient likely to 
engage or attach a lover.' 

The Prince of Wales frequented the waiting-room, and was 
much enamoured of her ; but she rejected his attentions with 
scorn, and indeed treated him at all times with the utmost 
nonchalance. His avarice disgusted her ; and Horace Walpole 
tells us that one evening, when the Prince was counting and re- 
counting his money. Miss Bellenden, losing all patience, cried 
out, * Sir, I cannot bear it 1 If you count your money any more 
I will go out of the room.' On another similar occasion she 
seems actually to have carried this threat into execution, and as 
the Prince was counting his money, shook his arm, and, whilst 
the coins were sent flying all over the floor, left the room in 
peals of laughter. She herself tells us, in one of her letters, that 
she was in the habit of standing before him with her arms 
folded, and that when he asked her why she did so, she replied, 
* Because I am cold.* In the Memoirs of Viscountess Sundon 
we read : * This fair and irreproachable young lady divided the 
Court with Mrs. Howard ... as she delighted the danglers in 
the waiting-room with her sallies, yet kept the most audacious 
of them at a distance by the real innocence of her heart ; . . . 
her heart was shielded, not only by principle and modesty, but 
by a true aflFection.* The aflFection thus alluded to was for 
Colonel John Campbell — ^ handsome Jack Campbell ' * as he was 

^ Jonathan Richardson painted Colonel John Campbell the year after his 
marriage. This picture belongs to Mrs. Campbell Johnston, and has been 
engraved by James. Basire. He is represented sitting drawing. 



1 4 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

called— one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber to the Prince, and 
in 1 720 she was privately married to him ; her friend and co-Maid 
of Honour, Molly Lepell, also privately marrying the same 
year. No doubt the secrecy of Mary BeUenden's marriage was 
in some degree due to its extreme improvidence ; for, though 
Colonel Campbell ultimately succeeded to the Dukedom of 
Argyll, at this time there appeared no chance of such a con- 
tingency arising, and he was one of the thirteen children of a poor 
younger son. His father, the Hon. John Campbell of Mamore,^ 
was a son of Archibald, Earl of Argyll, who was executed in 1685, 
and had himself been capitally convicted of having joined the 
Earl in his attempt to invade Scotland. Sentence of death was 
commuted to banishment, and this was rescinded in 1689. He 
was ultimately given a small post as Surveyor of the King's 
Works, and died in 1729. He left his large family destitute, 
and Queen Anne looked after them.^ 

The announcement of Mary Bellenden's marriage was dated 
October 22, that of Molly Lepell's October 25, and we know 
that both were post-dated ; probably, as Croker suggests, the 
ft-iends agreed to &:e the storms together, and announced their 
marriages and consequent resignations just previous to the 
courtly epoch of the Birthday, October 30, when we find two 
other young ladies were appointed in their room. The Prince 
was extremely angry with Mary BeUenden for not having taken 
him into her confidence, and vented his annoyance by whispering 
rude speeches in her ear whenever they met. However, this 
did not deter him, on his accession to the throne in 1727, from 



^ There is a portrait of the Hon. John Campbell of Mamore at Rosneath, which 
is a copy of one in the possession of Sir Archibald Edmonstone, Bt, and there is 
another which belongs to Mrs. Campbell- Johnston. 

^ See letter of Earl of Islay to Mrs. Howard. 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 15 

reappointing Colonel Campbell to be one of the Grooms of the 
Bedchamber. 

Soon after their marriage Colonel and Mrs. Campbell went 
to Bath, which was then rising into fashion ; and the following 
passage, which occurs in one of Mrs. Campbell's letters written 
thence at this time to Mrs. Howard, points to money diffi- 
culties : ^ * O Gad I I am so sick of bills, for my part, I shall 
never be able to hear them mentioned without casting up my 
accounts 1 * The beautiful Mary's letters, though lively and 
witty, are unfortunately sometimes disfigured by the prevailing 
coarseness of the age. But it is fair to say her letters were not 
intended for publication. This very one closes with the follow- 
ing sentence : * Don't shew this, I charge you at your peril.' 

During their stay at Bath, Colonel Campbell went to London 
* on South Sea business.' He appears to have been bitten with 
the stock-jobbing infatuation which at this time had taken pos- 
session of so many persons. His cousin Archibald, Earl of Islay, 
writes : * Cousin Jack has got near ;^ 10,000 in the Mississipi 
Scheme, and has lost the half of that sum.' And Mr. John 
Hervey in his Diary writes : * I betted Colonel Campbell 100 
guineas that ye Mississipi Stock at Paris would not be above 
1,000 on that day twelve month, which I won, and he paid me.' 
After leaving Bath, the beautiful Mary and her handsome 
husband paid a round of visits. They stayed with Lady Betty 
Germaine ^ at Drayton, which Mrs. Campbell describes as ^ a fine 

^ As Groom of the Bedchamber Colonel Campbell received £a^o a year, and 
he also received £^qo a year pension ; but probably this was the extent of their 
income. 

' Lady Betty Germaine, the friend and correspondent of Swift, was a daughter 
of the second Earl of Berkeley, and married Sir John Germaine, who was originally 
a Dutch merchant, and so ignorant that it was said of him that he left a legacy 
to Sir Matthew Decker, as the author of St. Matthew's Gospel ; but Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe, in a letter to Sir Walter Scott, says he was * more beautifbl than an angel,' 



1 6 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

place where we live very easily and agreeably ; ' at Knole with 
the Duke and Duchess of Dorset ; and at Mereworth with 
Colonel Fane, afterwards seventh Earl of Westmorland. From 
Knole she writes to Mrs. Howard that she is ' in dread of the 
plague ; * and says, * Pray let me know what your opinion is about 
it, and if you are afraid. I reckon you know what is proper to 
be done on that occasion, and I expect you will communicate 
your knowledge for the good of the public* * 

Mrs. Howard appears to have recommended smoking, an 
idea then being prevalent that this was a deterrent. Hearne 
wrote in January 1720-21 : *I have been told in the last great 
plague at London, none that kept tobacconists' shops had it, and 
I remember that I heard Tom Rogers say that where he was that 
year when it raged, a schoolboy at Eaton, all the boys of that 
school were obliged to smoke in the school every morning, and 
that he was never whipped so much in his life as he was one 
morning for not smoking.' 

While staying at Knole Mrs. Campbell obtained, through 
the interest of the Duchess of Dorset, who had been Mistress of 

so his comparatively low birth and ignorance did not prevent him from doing well 
in the matrimonial line. He married firstly Lady Mary Mordaunt, Duchess of 
Norfolk, who left him the estate of Drayton, which he in turn left to his second 
wife, Lady Betty, who devised it to Lord George Sackville. The latter was son of 
Lionel, Duke of Dorset, nominally by the Duchess, his wife ; but according to many 
statements Lady Betty was his mother, though the Duchess pretended he was 
her child. In the letter alluded to above, Kirkpatrick Sharpe says that the Mar- 
gravine d'Anspach, who was Lady Betty's near relation, declared this to be the 
case ; and Sarsih, Duchess of Marlborough, writes of Lionel, Duke of Dorset : *• Such 
a wretch as he is I hardly know, and his wife — whose passion is only for money — 
assists him in his odious affair with Lady Betty Jermyn, who has a great deal to 
dispose of.' 

^ In 1720 the plague devastated Marseilles ; and in 1721 an Act was passed by 
the English Parliament for the building of pest-houses, to which not only the 
infected but the healthy members of an infected family were to be removed, and 
round every town visited by the plague, lines were to be drawn which no one was 
to pass. This pestilence did not, however, come to Great Britain. 



The Hon. Mary Bellenden 17 

the Robes, the post of Maid of Honour for her niece, Elizabeth 
Hawley, daughter of Lord Hawley ; * and shortly after she writes : 
* I had a letter from Margaret^ last night, which informs me of 
Madam Hawley having been at Richmond (at the Court) and her 
great fright thereat. I beg you will let me know how she looked 
and behaved, and if she is likely to take with their Royal 
Highnesses. I hope you will put her a little in the way of 
behaving before the Princess, such as not turning her back, and 
then some sort of warning as to Claton ^ (I cannot spell her 
name) and gaming.* 

In April 1722 Mrs. Campbell was settled at Combe Bank, 
near Sundridge, Kent,* which her husband had bought. She 
writes at this time : * Nothing can make me unhappy while John 
lives and is good to me, which, hitherto, I have no reason to fear 
will ever be otherwise.* She appears to have been interested 
in their little farm. The following year she writes to Mrs. 
Howard : * I have nothing better to entertain you with, but to 
tell you the news of my farm. I therefore give you the follow- 
ing list of the stock of eatables that I am fatting for my private 
tooth. It is well known to the whole county of Kent that I have 
four fat calves, two fat hogs for killing, twelve promising black 

* Mary Bellenden's half-sister, Lady Elizabeth Ramsay, married Lord Hawley. 
She died in 17 13. 

' The Hon. Margaret Bellenden, her niece and a Maid of Honour ; she is 
frequently alluded to by Mrs. Delany, and appears, like her aunt, to have been 
celebrated for her wit She probably lived with Lady Dalhousie after Mary Bellen- 
den's marriage. Mrs. Pendarves, writing in 1728 from Somerset House, says 
Mrs. Bellenden (Miss Peg) is a very agreeable neighbour. She was living at 
Beaconsfield in 1734, and eleven years later Mrs. Delany visited her there with 
the Duchess of Portland, and writes that she uttered many a droll thing. 

' Mrs. Clayton, nde Dives, afterwards created Viscountess Sundon, was Mistress 
of the Robes, and ruled the Princess at this time. 

^ Combe Bank was part of the estate of the Isleys, by whom, at the end of 
Elizabeth's reign, it was sold to the Ash family. The last of them, William Ash, 
sold it to Colonel John Campbell. 



1 8 Three Generations of Fascinating JVotnen 

pigs, four white sows big with child, for whom I have great com- 
passion,^ two young chickens, three fine geese sitting with thirteen 
eggs under each (several being duck's eggs, else the others do not 
come to maturity). All this with rabbits and pigeons and carp 
in plenty, beef and mutton at reasonable rates/ 

In 1730 Mrs. Campbell was appointed Keeper of Somerset 
House Palace in succession to Lady Stanley, who had succeeded 
Mrs. Campbell's mother.^ 

This same year we read of her being at Tunbridge Wells 
for her health ; and in 1736 she died, aged forty-one, to use 
Dr. Doran's words, ' as good and true a wife as she had been 
a fascinating maiden.' She was buried at St. Anne's Church, 
Soho, where her mother. Lady Dalhousie, had been buried eleven 
years before. No sign of any monumental slab or inscription 
to their memory is now to be seen at St. Anne's, but the name 
of * Mrs. Mary Camble ' appears in the registry of deaths. 

In Sundridge Church, which she regularly attended when at 
Combe Bank, there is a bust of her, executed by her grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Damer. 

Mrs. Campbell left four sons and one daughter : (i) John, 
who succeeded his father as fifth Duke of Argyll, and married 
the beautiful Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton and Brandon, nie 
Gunning. (2) Henry, A.D.C. to Sir John Ligonier ; was killed at 
the battle of Laufeldt in 1747.^ (3) William, R.N., who married 

^ ' A fellow-feeling makes one wondrous kind ' ! 

* In the King's Warrant Book XXX., page 20, is a Royal Sign Manual, directed to 
the Attorney or Solicitor General, for the preparation of a Bill to pass the Great Seal 
for the grant to Mary Campbell of the Office of Keeper of Denmark House, cUias 
Somerset House, alias Stroud House, in like manner as the same was granted to 
Dame Anne Stanley, deceased, given at the Court at Windsor, June 24, 1730. 

' Laufeldt, or Lauffeld, near Maestricht, in Holland, where the allied English, 
Austrian, and Dutch armies were defeated by the French under Marshal Saxe. 
The English were commanded by the Duke of Cumberland. 



■ AiiovLi,. K.T. 



The Hon. Mary Bellend^n 19 

Miss Sarah Izzard of Charleston, South Carolina, of which he 
was the last Governor. (4) Frederick, who married Mary, widow 
of the mad Lord Ferrers, who was hanged at Tyburn for 
murdering his steward. And Caroline, afterwards Countess of 
Ailesbury. 

Colonel Campbell survived his beautiful and fascinating 
wife thirty-four years, and died on November 9, 1770, in the 
seventy-seventh year of his age, having succeeded to the Duke- 
dom of Argyll on the death of his cousin Archibald, third 
Duke, in 1761.^ Mary Bellenden*s great-great-grandson, the 
present Duke of Argyll, has four portraits of her (one by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller), and a lock of her hair, inscribed by her husband 
• My Angers Hair/ 

^ He was painted, when about 70 years of age, by Gainsborough. 



c 2 



II 

CAROLINE, COUNTESS OF AILESBURY 

Mild as a summer sun, serene, 
In dimpled beauty next be seen, 
Aylesbury, like hoary Neptune s Queen. 

' The Beauties^ an epistle to Mr. Eckhardt^ the painter. 
Written by Horace Walpole. 

Caroline Campbell, the only daughter of Colonel John Camp- 
bell of Mamore and his wife, nee Mary Bellenden, was born in 
1 72 1, and received her name from her godmother, Caroline, 
Princess of Wales. She was scarcely fifteen years of age when 
her mother died; and Colonel Campbell being continually abroad 
on active service, it became important to find her a husband 
early, and thus provide her with a home, the more so as her 
father's circumstances were the reverse of affluent. It was not 
therefore surprising that when, three years later. Lord Bruce 
proposed for her hand, her friends, notably Lady Suffolk and 
Lady Westmorland, prevailed upon her to accept him, although 
he was a widower and older than her father. Mrs. Delany thus 
alludes to the engagement : ' Miss Campbell is to be married to 
my Lord Bruce, her father can give her no fortune, she is very 
pretty, well-behaved, and just eighteen, has ;^2,ooo a year 
jointure, and ;^400 pin money. They say he is cross, covetous, 
and three-score year old,^ and this unsuitable marriage is the 
admiration of the old, and the envy of the young.* 

^ As a matter of fact, Lord Bruce was fifty-seven when he married Miss 
Campbell. 



Hon. Hi5m»v Skvmohh Comvav, and C.vKor.rvK, Countkss op Ailbsbuky, 

(in Faiir.il lhrs:i), xsn thbib Child, An\h Skym(iuk Conway. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 2 1 

The marriage took place on June 13, 1739; and Mrs. 
Delanjr mentions seeing Lady Bruce shortly after, at a party 
given at Norfolk House by Frederick, Prince of Wales, * in 
lemon-colour, richly embroidered with silver and colour.' Two 
years later Lord Bruce succeeded his father as third Earl of 
Ailesbury and fourth Earl of Elgin, and became the possessor 
of great wealth and vast estates, including Tottenham Park and 
Savernake Forest, Wilts. He did not, however, live long to 
enjoy his fortune, for he died on February 10, 1747, leaving 
his widow with one daughter. Lady Mary Bruce. To his wife 
Lord Ailesbury left a jointure of ;^3,ooo a year, his fine house ^ 
in London, and half his jewels, which were considerable. The 
other half he left his daughter, as well as ;^30,ooo. Thus 
Lady Ailesbury found herself a rich widow, free to indulge her 
own taste, at the early age of twenty-six. She was not long in 
bestowing her affections, and on December 19, 1747, she was 
married at the private chapel at Somerset House to the Hon. 
Henry Seymour Conway, second son of Lord Conway and 
brother of the first Earl of Hertford. This event seems to have 
been foreseen by Horace Walpole, who in the previous July 
writes of Mr. Conway, then in Flanders with the Duke of 
Cumberland's forces : * Harry Conway, whom nature always 
designed for a hero of romance, and who is diplaci in ordinary 
life, did wonders . • . but was afterwards taken prisoner, is 
since released on parole, and may come home to console his fair 
widow.' Lady Ailesbury's second marriage, according to all con- 
temporary accounts, seems to have been one of almost unalloyed 
happiness : nor is this surprising, as husband and wife were alike 
conspicuous for fascination combined with the highest principle. 

^ Savile House, Leicester Square ; afterwards occupied by Frederick^ eldest son 
of George II., and pulled down in 1791. 



22 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

Mme. du Deffand ^ writes : • Miladi AUesbury est certaine- 
ment la meilleure des femmes, la plus douce, et la plus tendre. 
Je suis tromp^e si elle n'aime passionniment son man, et si elle 
n'est pas parfaitement heureuse; son humeur me paraittris 6gale, 
sa politesse noble et aisie ; elle a le meilleur ton du monde, 
exempte de toutes pretentions ; elle plaira \ tous les gens de 
godt, et ne diplaira jamais \ personne. C'est, de toutes les 
Anglaises que j'ai vues, celle que je trouve la plus aimable, sans 
nuUe exception.' The devotion to her husband, of which 
Mme. du Deffand here speaks, was certainly bestowed upon 
a man worthy of possessing it ; for, apart from his handsome 
exterior and his distinction as a soldier, he was endowed with 
qualities of heart and mind which endeared him to all with whom 
he was brought into contact. Horace Walpole says : • Mr. 
Conway is deservedly reckoned one of the first and most rising 
young men in England. He has distinguished himself in the 
greatest style both in the army and in Parliament, and has the 
finest person and the handsomest face I ever saw.' In later 
life, when field-marshal, he was generally called ^the divine 
Marshal.' 

Mr. G)nway and Lady Ailesbury commenced their long and 
happy married life at Latimers, in Bucks, which they rented for 
three years from Lord George Cavendish. Their first visitor 
was Horace Walpole, whose friendship with his cousin, Henry 
Conway, lasted from their boyish days at Eton till Marshal 
Conway's death, and was extended to Lady Ailesbury and her 
children. In describing his first visit to Lady Ailesbury, he 
writes : * Latimers is large and old, but of a bad age, finely 
situated on a hill with a river at the bottom and a range of hills 

^ The celebrated correspondent of Voltaire and Walpole, Marie de Vichy- 
Chamrond, bom 1697, died 1780, leaving all her manuscripts to Horace Walpole. 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 23 

and woods on the opposite side belonging to the Duke of 
Bedford.' ^ The house he lamented over as having * undergone 
Batty-Langley discipline.' ^ When the tenancy of Latimers came 
to an end in 1751, Mr. Conway was ordered to join his regiment, 
the 29th Dragoons, of which he had the command, at Minorca. 
He left Lady Ailesbury with her father at Combe Bank, near 
Sundridge, the home of her childhood, but she seems never to 
have been out of his mind. He corresponded with her as often 
as it was possible, and sent her home presents by every oppor- 
tunity, one being a 'jeriboo,' which must have been a jerboa, 
probably the common jerboa of Northern Africa {Dipus agypHus\ 
a beautiful little animal. 

Soon after his return from Minorca, Colonel Conway became 
the purchaser of Park Place, Henley-on-Thames, a place justly 
celebrated for its lovely situation.^ It had been the residence 
of Frederick, Prince of Wales, for nearly twenty years, his Royal 
Highness having bought it from Lord Archibald Hamilton.^ 
Colonel Conway had hardly completed his purchase when he was 
ordered to join his regiment, the 13th Dragoons, then quartered 
in Sligo. Thither Lady Ailesbury accompanied him, leaving 
their little girl, Anne Seymour Conway (afterwards Mrs. Damer), 
now about eight years of age, at Strawberry Hill, under the care 
of Horace Walpole. Colonel Conway and Lady Ailesbury 
remained in Ireland four months, and at the end of this time 

' Latimer, as it is now called, is at present the seat of Lord Chesham. 

' Batty-Langley was a popular architect who endeavoured to reconcile Greek 
with Gothic architecture, and introduced dw^ new orders into his art. His mixed 
style went by the name of * the Batty-Langley manner.* 

■ There is a picture representing Park Place in 1748 at Buckingham Palace. 

* Lord Archibald Hamilton bought Park Place from Mrs. Elizabeth Baber ; it 
was then called * Park's Place,' having previously belonged to one * Park.' Before 
that it went by the name of * Strode's,' from the former possessors. Richard de la 
Strode owned the whole of Remenham, of which this formed a part. 



24 Three Generations of Fascinating tVomen 

established themselves at Park Pkce. In August 1752 Horace 
Walpole writes : * I have been at Park Place, where I saw the 
individual, Mr. Cooper,^ a banker and lord of the manor of 
Henley, who had those two extraordinary forfeitures from the 
executions of the Misses Blandy and JefFeries.* The allusion 
made here is to two somewhat similar murders that had been 
recently committed ; the one perpetrated by Miss Blandy 
having taken place in the immediate neighbourhood of Park 
Place only a few months before, and at the very time of General 
Conway and Lady Ailesbury*s taking possession of that place. 
This murder caused immense excitement, owing to the social 
position of the persons incriminated and the peculiar atrocity of 
the crime ; and we are induced to allude to it at some length, 
as Park Place indirectly played its part in the tragedy and the 
instigator of the crime was related to Lady Ailesbury. 

Mary Blandy was the only daughter of Mr. Francis Blandy, 
a solicitor and the Town Clerk of Henley, a man of old family, 
possessing some means, and much respected ; and her mother was 
a daughter of Mr. Serjeant Stephens, of Culham Court, Henley. 
She was a rather good-looking girl with dark eyes, of a lively and 
agreeable disposition, highly educated, of considerable capacity, and 
reputed to be a large heiress, her father being apt to boast unduly 
of her fortune. In 1746, when she was about twenty-seven, she, 
with her fether and mother, dined at the house of General Mark 
Kerr, a cousin of Lord Lothian, who was then renting a house 
at Henley. There she met Captain the Hon. William Henry 
Cranstoun, a cousin of General Kerr, who was recruiting in 
Oxfordshire. This gentleman was one of the twelve children 
of the fifth Lord Cranstoun. His father was unable to leave 

* Gislingham Cooper, Esq., who lived at Phyllis Court, Henley, which he 
bought from his brother-in-law, Bulstrode Whitelock. 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 25 

him more than £^00^ and at this time Captain Cranstoun was 
reduced to great straits. Though by no means good-looking, 
being described as diminutive in stature, disfigured by smallpox, 
blear-eyed, and of mean appearance, he was possessed of talent 
and said to take generally with the fair sex. Certain it is that 
he managed to fascinate both Miss Blandy and her mother ; and 
he also succeeded in insinuating himself into the good graces 
of the father by pandering to his weakness for great people. 
Captain Cranstoun never failed to make a parade of his noble 
birth and of all his ancestors and connections. His mother was 
a daughter of the Marquis of Lothian, his grandmother was a 
daughter of the Earl of Argyll, and he was nearly connected 
with half the aristocracy of Scotland. 

He stayed frequently with the Blandys during the next year, 
and seeing the impression he made on the whole family, especially 
on the young lady, declared himself as a suitor for her hand. This 
miscreant had, however, at the time a lawful wife and child in 
Scotland, having married, two years earlier, Anne, sister of Sir 
David Murray, Bart., of Stanhope. 

General Mark Kerr, suspecting the state of aflairs, com- 
municated with Lord Mark Kerr, Captain Cranstoun*s uncle, 
who informed Mr. Blandy that his nephew was already married. 
On Mr. Blandy asking Captain Cranstoun for an explanation, the 
Captain pretended that he was not legally married, and that the 
contract, such as it was, would be put aside by a decree of the 
Supreme Court of Sessions. This explanation seems to have 
satisfied the Blandys more or less, and Miss Blandy declared 
she would wait for him. Captain Cranstoun then wrote an 
artful letter to his wife, enclosing another for her to copy, dis- 
owning her marriage, as he said he could not procure advance- 
ment in the army if it was known he had a wife and child. At 



26 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

first she refused to do this ; but at his repeated request she 
reluctantly complied, copied his letter by which she disowned 
herself as his wife, and subscribed it with her maiden name. 
The villain then sent copies of her letter both to her relations 
and his own, which alienated them from her and reduced her to 
the utmost poverty and distress. At the same time he com- 
menced an action to prove the illegality of his marriage, producing 
her letter as evidence. This at first went against her, until she 
came forward herself with the original letter in her husband's writ- 
ing, when the judges gave a verdict against Captain Cranstoun and 
confirmed their marriage. Captain Cranstoun still did not give 
up Miss Blandy. He went to Henley and tried by specious 
eloquence to put things on the same footing as before ; but 
though the young lady stuck to him, Mr. Blandy would no 
longer receive him. Before he left Henley for the last time. 
Captain Cranstoun made an assignation with Miss Blandy to 
meet him in the grounds of Park Place, which had long been 
their trysting-place ; and here it was that, in a walk which still 
goes by the name of * Blandy's Walk,* he first broached his 
diabolical plan. He told her that he would send her some 
powders which, if she gave them to her father, would act as a 
love philtre, and that by their help he should get back the love 
of Mr. Blandy.^ He added that to prevent suspicion they 
should be labelled * Powder, to clean the Scotch pebbles,* he 
having presented her with an ornament of this nature.^ Accord- 
ingly Miss Blandy did on several occasions administer these 
powders to her father in his food, with the result that he 

* In former years in Scotland many persons believed in the efficacy of love 
philtres. Bothwell, in the remarkable paper which he left, in which he maintained 
Queen Mar/s innocence and also his own as to Damle/s murder, stated that he 
owed his influence over her to the use of philtres. 

* Ornaments of Scotch pebbles were the extreme of fashion in the year 175a 



Miss Marv Br.^MiY in Phi 



Caroline, Countess of Aileshury tti 

succumbed, after much suffering, on August 14, 1751, the 
powders containing arsenic. Up to the end, though he knew 
what his daughter had done, the doting &ther treated her with 
the utmost love and tenderness, exclaiming when he was first 
told the cause of his illness, * Poor love-sick girl I What will 
not a woman do for the man she loves 1 ' And he went on 
to say, ^ I always thought there was mischief in those cursed 
Scotch pebbles.' 

When suspicion was aroused. Miss Blandy threw Captain 
Cranstoun's letters, together with the packet containing the 
remainder of the powders, into the fire ; but a maid who saw her 
do it, instantly put some large lumps of coal upon the fire, and, 
when Miss Blandy left the room, removed the coal and found 
the packet with the powder, only partially consumed. It was 
sent to Reading to Dr. Addington (fether of Lord Sidmouth), 
who declared it to be white arsenic. Miss Blandy endeavoured 
to escape, but was arrested and placed on her trial at Oxford 
before Baron Legge, when she was found guilty, and hanged 
a month later, in April 1752. An account of her proceedings 
from the time of her commitment to Oxford Castle till her 
execution says : ^ Her imprisonment was indeed rather like a 
retirement fix^m the world than the confinement of a criminal. 
She had a companion and servant, or rather two servants, to 
attend her, the best apartments in the keeper's house at her 
command, and during a long confinement was indulged to an 
unparalleled degree ; for no person, without her previous consent, 
was permitted to see her, tho' very extraordinary sums were daily 
offered for that purpose. . . . For some time Miss was without 
fetters, but when it was discovered that an escape was intended, 
orders were given to have her fettered. . . . On her trial, 
which lasted near thirteen hours, she never once changed her 



28 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

countenance • • • and when the verdict was given in, she seemed 
to smile. When she went from the bar to return to prison, she 
stepped into the coach with as little concern as if she had been 
going to a ball, and when she came into the castle, finding the 
family in some disorder, the children being all in tears, said very 
cheerfully, " Don't mind it ; what does it signify ? I am very 
hungry ; pray let me have something for supper, as speedily as 
possible." Accordingly mutton chops were dressed, of which, 
and of an apple pye, she eat very heartily. On the Friday she 
diverted herself for some hours in reading fables, and then went 
up several times into the rooms facing the Green to see the great 
concourse of people collected to be spectators of her execution, 
a report having been spread that it was to take place that day.' 
She asseverated to the last her ignorance of the nature of the 
powders ; but all the evidence adduced at the trial points irre- 
sistibly to the conclusion that, even if at the outset this may 
have been the case, she must have become cognisant of their 
true character when she witnessed their effect, not only upon 
her &ther, but upon two servants who accidentally partook of 
food containing a portion of them, notwithstanding which she 
still went on giving the powders to her father. 

Many, however, believed in Miss Blandy's innocence, and 
Lady Ailesbury, it is said, used all her influence to obtain a 
pardon. General Conway had had considerable communication 
with Mr. Blandy in relation to the purchase of Park Place, of 
which he was a trustee, which increased her interest in the case* 
Miss Blandy was buried at one a.m. in the chancel of Henley 
Church, in the same grave as her parents, her funeral being 
attended by an immense number of spectators. Meanwhile, 
a writ had been issued against Captain Cranstoun, who was living 
at Berwick. But he managed to hide himself for six months in 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 29 

Scotland, and at the end of that time escaped to Boulogne, where 
he found out a Mrs. Ross, a distant relation, who, out of regard 
for his family, promised to serve him to the utmost of her power. 
She made him change his name to Dunbar, which had been her 
maiden name, and for a time he thought himself safe ; but some 
of his wife's relations, happening to be living in Boulogne, 
threatened revenge whenever they should light on him, so that 
he had to secrete himself there, and soon moved, first to Ostend 
and afterwards to Furnes, a town in Flanders, then in the 
jurisdiction of the Queen of Hungary. Here he lived in a 
miserable condition, without being known by any one, dependent 
wholly on the goodness of his brother, who was not obliged to 
allow him more than £^^ per year ; for the Lords of Session in 
Scotland had ordered £s^ ^^ ^^ P^^^ annually to his wife, who, 
with her child, went to live with some relations at Hexham in 
Northumberland. 

In December of the same year Mr. Cranstoun fell ill, and 
after nine days* illness he expired in the most agonising torments, 
showing all the symptoms of poison, and some said raving mad. 
Shortly before his death he became a Roman Catholic, and he 
was buried in great solemnity in the cathedral church at Furnes, 
the whole corporation of the town attending the ftmeral, and a 
grand mass was said over his body. About a month before he 
died he made his will and left his fortune of ;^ 1,500 to his 
daughter ; this will, and other papers found in his custody at 
the time of his death, were sealed up and sent to his brother in 
Scotland. It was said that in one of them he stated that he had 
privately married Miss Blandy. 

This horrid story was, of course, long the talk of the neigh- 
bourhood. In November of the same year Horace Walpole 
wrote to Mr. Conway : * Have the Coopers seen Miss Blandy's 



30 Three Generations of Fascinating Wmnen 

ghost, or have they made Mr. Cranstoun poison a dozen or two 
more private gentlewomen ? * This was no doubt an allusion 
to the rumour that Mr. Cranstoun was also answerable for the 
death of Mrs. Blandy, who had died very suddenly, a year and 
a half before her husband, in great agonies ; and also for that of 
a Mrs. Pocock. Even a year later we find Horace Walpole 
writing : * The town of Henley has been extremely disturbed 
with an engagement between the ghosts of Miss Blandy and 
her &ther, which continued so violent that some bold persons, 
to prevent further bloodshed, broke in and found it was two 
jackasses which had got into the kitchen.' 

In the autumn and winter of 1755 Lady Ailesbury was 
living at Dublin Castle, General Conway having been appointed 
Secretary to Ireland to assist the Lord Lieutenant in restoring 
tranquillity to that ever-troubled kingdom. 

General Conway and Lady Ailesbury seem from the com- 
mencement of their occupation of Park Place to have taken a 
great delight in it, and were continually carrying out alterations 
and improvements, both in the house and grounds. One of 
the attractions of Park Place was the Druid Temple which was 
presented to General Conway by the inhabitants of Jersey on 
his resigning the governorship of that island. It had been 
discovered buried under a tumulus on the top of a hill near 
St. Helier, and consisted of forty-five granite stones averaging 
seven feet in height, arranged in a circle sixty-five feet in 
circumference ; and this * little Master Stonehenge,' as Horace 
Walpole called it, was re-erected at Park Place by General 
Conway, stone for stone as it had been found.* 

^ The following is the inscription which the Council of Jersey sent over to 
General Conway with the Druidic temple : 

Pour des si^cles cach^ aux regards des mortels 
Cet ancien monument, ces pierres, ces autels, 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 31 

Lady Ailesbury and General Conway gave great attention to 
tree-planting at Park Place, and planted cedars, firs, and pines ; 
and the first poplar-pine (or, as it has since been called, Lombardy 
poplar) planted in England was at Park Place, on the bank of 
the river. It was a cutting brought from Turin by Lord 
Rochford, and was planted by General Conway's own hand. 
Lady Ailesbury took a special interest in the lavender form 
which they established on a large scale, the fame of which seems 
to have given an impetus to the culture of lavender elsewhere. 

Lady Ailesbury entertained many distinguished as well as 
fashionable visitors at Park Place. Lady Mary Coke, her 
cousin, who was one of its habituis^ writes : * The company there is 
the most agreeable I know ; ' and she tells us, in that wonderful 
Journal of hers, about the expeditions by river and road, the 
fishing, the games of bowls, at which she herself excelled, and the 
long walks, though of those she complains that ^ the hills are 
steep,* and says * one must be a good walker to keep company 
with Mr. Conway and Lady Ailesbury.* And amongst the 
indoor recreations she mentions the games of * Pope Joan * and 
* Whisk.* Horace Walpole was constantly there, and we have 
a graphic description of an expedition to Caversham Park, near 
Reading, when he read out loud in the coach, as they drove 
there, his new play, * The Mysterious Mother.* This was in 
July 1768. Caversham Park then belonged to the second 

0\x le sang humain ofifert en sacrifice 
Ruissela pour des dieux, qu'enfanta le caprice ; 
Ce monument sans prix par son antiquity 
T^moignera pour nous \ la postdritd 
Que dans tous les dangers C^sar^ eut un p^re 
Attentif et vaillant, g^n^reux et prosp^re, 
£t redira, Conway, aux sidles ^ venir, 
Qu*en vertu du respect dfl k ce souvenir, 
Elle te fit ce don, acquis k ta vaillance, 
Comme un juste tribut de sa reconnoissance. 



32 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

Lord Cadogan, the uncle of the third Duke of Richmond, who 
married Lord Ailesbury*s daughter ; and the romantic story of 
the alliance between the Cadogan and the Richmond ^milies is 
too interesting to omit. 

William, first Earl of Cadogan, to cancel a gambling debt 
which he owed to Charles, first Duke of Richmond, engaged 
to give his daughter and co-heiress, Lady Sarah Cadogan, in 
marriage to Lord March, the Duke*s eldest son. At the time 
of the wedding the bride was only thirteen years of age, and the 
bridegroom a few years older. She was amazed and silent ; but 
the juvenile husband exclaimed, ^ Surely you are not going to 
marry me to that dowdy ! * After the ceremony, his tutor took 
him ofiT to the Continent, and Lady Sarah went back to her 
mother. Three years after, Lord March returned from his 
travels ; but, having such a disagreeable recollection of his wife, 
was in no hurry to join her, and went to the theatre the first 
evening after his arrival in London. There he saw all eyes 
turned upon a lady in a box, whom he thought so beautiful 
that he asked who she was. 'The reigning toast — the Lady 
March,* was the answer he got. He hastened to claim her, and 
they remained throughout their lives the most devoted of lovers. 
Indeed, it was said she died of grief within a year of his death. 
They had a very large family, of whom twelve survived ; one of 
them was the celebrated Lady Sarah Bunbury, and one was the 
mother of Charles James Fox. 

Another expedition from Park Place to which Horace 
Walpole alludes, was to Whiteknights, then the property of Sir 
Henry Englefield. This afterwards became the property of the 
Duke of Marlborough, at whose death it was sold, when many 
of its art treasures were bought by Sir Henry Russell and are 
now at Swallowfield. It has since been cut up into villa residences. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 33 

Lady Ailesbury also took Horace Walpole to see Harley- 
ford, Mn Clayton's place, which Lady Mary Coke, who was 
one of the party, describes as * one of the prettiest places she 
ever saw.' It is now the property of Sir William Clayton. 
Though some of Lady Ailesbury *s friends enjoyed those expedi- 
tions, she and her daughters appear to have been too energetic 
for Gray, the poet, who writes in 1760, on returning to Cam- 
bridge from Park Place : * For me, I am come to my resting 
place, and find it very necessary after living for a month in a 
house with three women that laughed from morning to night, 
and would allow nothing to the sulkiness of my disposition. 
Company and cards at home ; parties by land and water abroad, 
and (what they call) ^^ doing something,*' that is racketting about 
from morning to night, are occupations I find that wear out my 
spirits, especially in a situation where one might sit still and be 
alone with pleasure, for the place is a hill like Clifden, open- 
ing to a very extensive and diversified landscape with the 
Thames, which is navigable, running at its foot.* Horace 
Walpole, alluding to this visit of Gray's, says : * Lady Ailesbury 
protests he never opened his lips but once, and then only said, 
" Yes, my lady, I believe so." ' * And still Lady Ailesbury 
appears to have tried to suit her habits to her company. When 
Princess Amelia, that inveterate gambler, stayed with her, which 
she often did, * Pope Joan * and * Whisk * were the order of the 
day, combined with even less intellectual pleasures. For instance, 
we find that the Princess was much diverted by * a set of Morris 
dancers with a fool at their head, who appeared upon the green 
before the windows and performed exceedingly well.* When 

^ Horace Walpole himself said 'Gray is the worst company in the world,' 
although he was very angry with Dr. Johnson for saying, *Sir, he was dull in 
company and dull everywhere.' 

D 



34 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

Lord Camden, the Lord Chancellor, and Lord Lyttelton, the 
historian, were her guests, Lady Mary Coke tells us, * Conversa- 
tion is kept up extremely well and we have no cards since this 
company has arrived/ 

In one of Lady Mary's accounts of the proceedings at Park 
Place she gives a curious description of a panic in the neigh- 
bourhood caused by an outbreak, real or imaginary, of rabies. 
She says : * During the Winter [1771] above forty people were 
bit by mad dogs and cats at Henley, They all took some mede- 
cine and were likewise sent to the sea,^ but one of the women, 
who was bit by a cat, was taken ill at the last change, mew*d 
like a cat, and endeavoured to scratch and bite everybody that 
came near her. Upon this Mr. Conway ordered Sir George 
Cobbe's ^ medecine ^ to be given, (the Musk, &c.) which had a 

^ The belief in the efficacy of salt water as a cure for rabies, which was general 
at that time, was of old standing. Xn A Mechanical Account of Poisons^ by the 
celebrated Dr. Richard Mead, printed in 1702, we read : * The greatest and surest 
cure [of rabies] is frequent submerging, or ducking the patient in water. The first 
mention of this is in Cornelius Celsus, and not improbably he got this from 
Asdepiades, who discarded all inward medecines for the hydrophobia. This 
practice was revived by the ingenious Baron Van Helmont,who, having in his own 
country seen how great service it did, has at laige set down both the manner of the 
operation and shewn the reason of its good effects. Since him Tulpius, an obser\'er 
of very good credit, takes notice that tho' he saw many, yet that never one mis- 
carry'd where it was in time made use of. We need go no farther to fetch the 
reason of the great advantage of this method than to the pressure of the water 
upon the body of the patient : when the fermenting blood stretches its vessels the 
exceeding weight of the ambient fluid resists and represses this distension. For 
this reason the salt water of the Sea is especially chosen for this business because 
of its greater gravity. This we may do without having recourse to the fright and 
terror with which this method (when practis'd by keeping the party under water 
for a considerable time till he is almost quite drowned) is usually accompanied.' 

* Sir George Cobbe, Bart, of Adderbury, Oxon. He married Ann, daughter 
and co-heiress of Joseph Langton of Newton Park, widow of Robert Langton. He 
died in 1762, aged ninety, from drowning, having fallen into the moat at Bulmersh, 
near Reading, the seat of John Blagrave, his son-in-law. 

' The *Tonquin Recipe,* i,e. * Twenty-four grains of factitious Cinnabar, 
16 grains of Musk very well pounded and mixed together in Rum or Brandy. If 
very bad repeat in one hour, at all events to repeat for 14 days.' 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 35 

most surprising effect, and there is great reason to believe she 
will perfectly recover. This is so strong an instance in fevour 
of that medecine that I think it may be of use to be known/ 
Unfortunately, Lady Mary writes a few days later, * Mr. Conway 
has had a bad account : the poor woman had mew'd again, and 
attempted to scratch every body that came near her.' Amongst 
Lady Ailesbury's guests at this time was her dear friend Lady 
George Lennox, with her young son of seven years old. When 
hearing of the panic * caused by the dread of this dire disease, 
how little did Lady George think that she should live to mourn 
over the agonising death of that son from the same terrible 
malady forty-two years later ! 

The royalties were very fond, in Lady Ailesbury *s time/ 
of paying impromptu visits, which often created consternation 
in domestic households. There are accounts of some of these 
royal raids amongst the manuscript papers of Hardwick House, 
which Mrs. Climenson of Shiplake has lately edited. She gives 
us a graphic description of one which took place at Park Place, 
where, without any warning, a party arrived one day when 
General Conway and Lady Ailesbury were at their dinner — 
and arrived not only to dine, but to sleep ; the party consisting 
of the Princess of Hesse,^ Count and Countess Zekany, and 

^ This panic was not confined to Henley, and commenced in London ten years 
before. The Common Council of London, in August 1760, issued an order for 
killing all dogs found in the streets or highways, and 2^. (xL was given for every 
dog's head that was brought to the Mansion House ; but after paying 438 half- 
crowns the Mayor repented of his zeal 1 Horace Walpole writes this same year : 
* In London there is a more cruel campaign than that waged by the Russians, 
the streets are a very picture of the murder of the Innocents, one drives over 
nothing but poor dead dogs. The dear, good-natured, honest, sensible creatures.' 
No doubt, then as now, many a long-suffering animal paid the penalty of the 
ignorance and rapacity of official underlings. 

' Princess Mary, fourth daughter of George II. ; married, in 1740, Frederick II., 
Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. This Prince separated from her soon after their 

D 2 



36 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

Count Khevenhallen^ * Luckily/ says the narrator, *Lady 
Ailesbury's two daughters were with her, and as all spoke 
French and Italian, the visit passed most agreeably/ The two 
daughters here mentioned were Mary, her only child by her first 
husband. Lord Ailesbury, who had married in 1757, before she 
was seventeen years of age, Charles, third Duke of Richmond ; 
and Anne, the only child of her second marriage, who had 
married in 1767 the Hon. John Damer. Horace Walpole, 
writing at the time about the former of these marriages, says : 
* The Duke of Richmond has made two balls for his approach- 
ing wedding with Lady Mary Bruce. It is the prettiest match 
in the world ; youth, beauty, riches, alliances and all the blood 
of all the Kings from Robert Bruce to Charles II. They are the 
prettiest couple in England, excepting the &ther-in-law and 
mother.* The following year the Duke of Richmond, at the 
early age of twenty-three, commanded the 72nd Regiment and 
accompanied the Duke of Marlborough's expedition to the coast 
of France. During his absence the Duchess resided with her 
mother, chiefly at Park Place, but paid constant visits to Horace 
Walpole. He writes about this time : * Strawberry Hill is 
grown a perfect Paphos, it is the land of beauties. On 
Wednesday Lady Ailesbury and the Duchesses of Hamilton 
and Richmond dined there, the two latter stayed all night. 
There never was so pretty a sight as to see them all three sitting 
in the shell.^ A thousand years hence, when I begin to grow 



marriage, and when remonstrated with, said that he had understood from George 1 1., 
when he married the Princess, that he need only be her husband for a few weeks. 
He died 1771. The late Duke of Cambridge was her great-grandson. 

^ Count Khevenhiiller, made a prince in 1763, died 1776 ; married Caroline, 
daughter of Count von Metsch. He was Grand Mattre to the Emperor. 

' The Shell was a large seat carved in oak in the form of a shell, fhmi a design 
by Mr. Bentley, placed at the end of a winding walk at Strawberry Hill, 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 37 

old, if that can ever be, I shall talk of that event, and tell young 
people how much handsomer the women of my time were than 
they will be then. I shall say women alter now. I remember 
Lady Ailesbury looking handsomer than her daughter, the pretty 
Duchess of Richmond, as they were sitting in the shell on my 
terrace with the Duchess of Hamilton, one of the famous 
Gunnings/ ^ 

Later in the same year Horace Walpole writes : * I passed all 
the last week at Park Place, where one of the bravest men in 
the world who is not permitted to contribute to our conquests, 
was indulged in being the happiest, by being with one of the 
most deserving women, for Campbell goodness no more wears 
out than Campbell beauty. All their good qualities are hucka- 
back.' Lady Ailesbury and her cousin, Lady Strafford (daughter 
of John, Duke of Argyll), preserved their beauty so long that 
Horace Walpole called them ^ Huckaback beauties that never 
wear out.* * 

Any account of Park Place and Lady Ailesbury's intimate 
f]-iends would be incomplete without an allusion to General 
O'Hara, who was at one time an habitu6 of that house, and 
whose name is associated with one of the saddest love aflairs — 
^ For of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these : It 

^ Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton, had been married only a few months to 
Colonel John Campbell, Lady Ailesbury's brother, who became fifth Duke of 
Argyll in 177a 

* Just a hundred years later, when a great-great-granddaughter of Mary 
Bellenden, on her first appearance in London society, was presented to Mrs. 
Norton, the latter said to her : * My dear, I cannot do better than repeat to you 
what my grandfather [meaning Sheridan] said to your mother when she was pre- 
sented to him. ^ The beauty of the Campbells is like huckaback and never wears 
out" ' It is clear that the expression is used by Horace Walpole and Sheridan in a 
different sense. Horace Walpole intended to say that the ladies of the Campbell 
family preserved their beauty very long ; whilst Sheridan of course meant the strain 
of beauty lasted long in the Campbell family. 



38 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

might have been * — a love aflkir which took its rise there under 
the direct auspices of Lady Ailesbury. Lady Theresa Lewis 
tells us that General O'Hara * was a cherished friend of Marshal 
Conway and Lady Ailesbury, and was on terms of almost 
brotherly affection with their daughter, Mrs. Damer,* and she 
quotes the following character of him which is introduced in the 
novel of * Cyril Thornton,* which may account for that enthu- 
siastic love which he inspired in vain and never really lost — ^ his 
appearance, indeed, was of that striking cast, which, once seen, is 
not easily forgotten. General O'Hara was the most perfect 
specimen I ever saw of the soldier and courtier of the last age, 
and in his youth had fought with Granby and Ligonier, &c. • . / 
At Park Place he constantly met Mary Berry, the eldest of the 
two celebrated sisters, whom Horace Walpole described as * angel 
both inside and out,* and towards the end of I795> whilst staying 
there, they became engaged. His wish was to marry her at once, 
as he had to leave for his military duties at Gibraltar and hoped 
to take her with him ; but though most deeply in love, for some 
unaccountable reason and from a mistaken sense of duty, she 
declined marrying him till his return. In making this arrange- 
ment she wrote, * I think I am doing right, I am sure I am con- 
sulting the peace and happiness of those about me and not my 
own.* They never met again. In April 1796 the engagement 
was finally broken off and General O'Hara remained on at his 
post at Gibraltar till 1 802, when he died there. Forty-eight years 
after the correspondence between General O'Hara and Miss 
Berry terminated, the latter reopened the packet of letters that 
passed at this time, and ere she closed it again attached to it the 
following touching little record : * This parcel of letters relates to 
the six happiest months of my long and insignificant existence, 
although these six months were accompanied by fatiguing and 



, Wakwick Street, London. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbtiry 39 

unavoidable uncertainty, and by the absence of everything that 
could constitute present enjoyment. But I looked forward to a 
future existence, which I felt for the first time, would have called 
out all the powers of my mind and all the warmest feelings of 
my heart ... a concatenation of unfortunate circumstances — the 
political state of Europe making absence a necessity, and even 
frequent communication impossible, letters lost and delayed, 
questions unanswered, doubts unsatisfied. All these circumstances 
combined in the most unlucky manner, crushed the fair fabric of 
my happiness, not at one fell shock, but by the slow mining 
misery of loss of confidence, of unmerited complaints, of finding 
by degrees misunderstandings, and the firm rock of mutual 
confidence crumbling under my feet, while my bosom for long 
could not banish a hope that all might yet be set right. And so 
it would had we ever met for twenty-four hours. But he 
remained at his government at Gibraltar till his death in 1 802, 
and I, forty-two year afterwards on opening these papers, which 
had been sealed up ever since, receive the conviction that some 
feelings in some minds are indelible. — M. B., Oct. 1844.*^ 

In the middle of the eighteenth century the neighbourhood 
of Spring Gardens was a charming locality, and the Conways (as 
Lady Ailesbury and her husband were generally called), when in 
London, lived there for many years, in old Warwick House, situ- 
ated at the end of Warwick Street. They spent a great deal of 
money on it, and relaid the court which contained some trees, and 
they re-christened it * Conway House.' ^ No sooner had they 



^ Mary Berry died in November 1852, surviving her lover to whom she ever I 

remained faithful fifty years. She is buried in Petersham Churchyard, in the same 
grave as her sister Agnes, who died a few months earlier. 

■ After Field-Marshal Conway's death it became the properly of the Earl of I 

Jersey, when it was called Jersey House, which name it retained till it came into I 

the hands of the Prince Regent It was then for some time occupied by his 



40 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

completed their improvements than the house was set on fire, 
and considerable damage done to it, besides their lives being en- 
dangered. The incendiary was General Gjnway's secretary, who 
carried oiF ;^900 and then tried to hide his theft. The crime 
was brought home to him ; he confessed, and was sentenced to be 
hanged. When the King heard the story he said, * Now I am 
sure that when this man is condemned Conway will be teasing 
me to pardon him, but I am determined to hang him.' General 
Conway did try to save the man, but in vain ; and hanged 
he was. 

It was in Conway House, Warwick Street, that Lady 
Ailesbury gave her constant card«^parties. Card-playing was, at 
this time, one of the vices of the age, and Lady Ailesbury was 
certainly not exempt from it ; she played high stakes almost 
nightly. Princess Amelia,^ that inveterate gambler, frequently 
forming one of the party. 

* Gaming,' writes Seymour, the author of *The Court 
Gamester,' ^ had become so much the &shion that he who in 
company should be ignorant of the games in vogue would be 
reckoned low-bred and hardly fit for conversation.' Loo was 
the favourite game at this time, and Lady Ailesbury was reputed 
to be very lucky. Not so her cousin and great friend. Lady 
Mary Coke, who usually played at her table. The latter in her 
Journal tells us how she got carp bones (the palate) to bring 

secretary, Thomas Tyrwhitt, Esq. ; but when a separate establishment was assigned 
for his daughter, Princess Charlotte, this house was given for her residence, and 
was then and afterwards again known as Warwick House. 

^ Princess Amelia Sophia, second daughter of George II., was born in 171 1. 
The Dukes of Newcastle and Grafton were said to have been rivals for her &vour, 
and the latter to have had the greater success. The * Little Miss Ashe ' so often 
alluded to by Horace Walpole was her reputed daughter ; her father said to be 
Lord Rodney. Miss Ashe married Captain Falkner, R.N. In later life Princess 
Amelia held a sort of court of her own in her house in Cavendish Square, the 
corner of Harley Street. She died in 1786, aged seventy-five. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 4 1 

her luck at cards. * I lost,' she writes, * fifteen guineas, though 
the carp bone lay upon the table, but I fear the Princess has 
taken away the virtue, for she unfolded the paper, took it out 
and called it an old tooth, which diverted the company more 
than it did me, for from that time I lost. At cards I am 
superstitious, and as it is only at play, 'tis pardonable.' Another 
day she says * The carp bones are intolerable ; in the evening 
I lost eight and thirty guineas and I have thrown one in the 
fire.' Lady Mary always spells the game * Lu,' giving as her 
authority Pope, who so wrote it in * The Rape of the Lock : ' 

£*en mighty Pam,^ that Kings and Queens o'erthrew 
And mow'd down armies in the fights of Lu.* 

Gambling by no means engrossed all of Lady Ailesbury's 
time. She read much and enjoyed discussions on the books she 
read, and had the courage of her opinions, notably with Hume, 
who acted as secretary, first of all to her brother-in-law, and 
afterwards to her husband when he was Secretary of State. 
Hume, she tells us, was not a great admirer of Shakespeare. 
Gray, with whom she also had literary talks, on the contrary 
loved Shakespeare, who, he said, had several souls to his own 
share. 

Hume thus alludes to his intercourse with the Conways, 
writing to Blake in 1767 : * My way of life here is very uniform 
and by no means disagreeable. I pass all the forenoon in the 



> ' Pam ' was the knave of clubs and ranked above the court cards of the trump 
suits. 

' Apparently there is authority for both spellings, as the original name is said 
to be * Lanterloo/ from the French ' Lanturelu ' (nonsense, fudged the refrain of a 
famous vaudeville of the time of Cardinal Richelieu. It appears under the title of 
* Lanterloo' in The Compieat Gamester of 1674. 



42 Three Generations of Fascinating IVotnen 

Secretary's house from ten till three, where there arrive from 
time to time messengers that bring me all the secrets of the 
Kingdom and indeed of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, 
I am seldom hurried, but have leisure at intervals to take up a 
book, or write a private letter, or converse with any friend that 
may call for me ; and from dinner * to bed-time is all my own. 
If you add to this that the person [General Conway] with whom 
I have the chief, if not only transactions, is the most reasonable, 
equal-tempered, and gentlemanlike man imaginable, and Lady 
Ailesbury [the General's wife] the same, you will certainly think 
I have no reason to complain, and I am far from complaining. 
I only shall not regret when my duty is over, because to me the 
situation can lead to nothing, and reading and sauntering and 
lounging and dosing, which I call thinking, is my supreme 
happiness, I mean my full contentment.' 

After Hume's occupation as secretary came to an end, he 
continued his friendship with the Conways. In 1771 he writes : 
* I am assured that Lady Ailesbury and Mr. Conway are to be 
with the Duke of Argyll this summer, which will oblige me to 
leave the Town for a fortnight and go to Inverara.' From there 
he writes to upbraid his publisher for not having sent Lady 
Ailesbury * a new edition of my history and essays.' 

Lady Ailesbury was also acquainted with Rousseau, who 
arrived in England from Paris in 1766 with Hume ; and it was 
General Conway who procured Rousseau his pension oi £\QO 
a year. Amongst other literary celebrities with whom she was 
intimate were the poets Thomson,^ Shenstone, Gray, and Mason, 
Gibbon, Hannah More, and the Miss Berrys. She and General 

' Three o'clock was the usual ^hionable dinner hour at this time. 
* Thomson she often met at Hagley, Lord Lyttelton's place in Warwick- 
shire. 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 43 

Conway visited Shenstone at Leasowes soon after their marriage. 
In his 'Pastoral Ode ' he thus alludes to them : 

Here too shall Conway's name appear : 
He praisM the stream so lovely clear. 

That shone the reeds among ; 
Yet clearness could it not disclose, 
To match the rhetoric that flows 

From Conway's polished toiigue. 



But what can courts discover more 
Than these rude haunts have seen before, 

Each fount and shady tree ? 
Have not these trees and fountains seen 
The pride of coiu'ts, the winning mien 

Of peerless Aylesbury ? 

Hannah More, writing in 1787, says: M spent a day at 
Lady Ailesbury's, In the evening there was a concert ; it was 
quite " le temple des beaux arts." Lady Ailesbury works 
portraits as Raphael paints them ; ^ and there was Mrs. Darner 
to remind us of her femous dogs of exquisite sculpture, and 
there was my Lord Derby to talk about his company of 
Richmond House Comedians, and there was General Conway, 
poet to the ducal theatre.* The Miss Berrys were introduced 
to Lady Ailesbury in 1789 by Horace Walpole, and from that 
time became constant visitors at her house both in London and 
at Park Place, and continued to be ever after the dear friends 
of herself and her daughter. 

Lady Ailesbury was a great patroness and admirer of the 

' The practice of executing pictures in needlework was greatly in fashion at 
this time, and Lady Ailesbury excelled all competitors in this art, and showed, as 
Horace Walpole says, < a wonderful genius for it' 



44 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

fine arts. Sir Joshua Reynolds, who often entertained her and 
General G^nway at his parties, said that Angelica KaufFmann ^ 
owed her introduction in London in 1766 to the Conways, they 
having been greatly struck with her portrait of Garrick, painted 
in Rome and exhibited at the Society of Arts in Maiden Lane 
in the preceding year. Lady Mary Coke writes : *Went 
to Lady Ailesbury ; found Mr. Conway and her going to 
a Paintress who is just arrived from Italy, brought over by Lady 
Wentworth. Went with them to see a picture she was painting 
of Miss Conway (now 1 8) ; *tis like and appears to me well done, 
but much too large, you would take it for a big woman ! * 
Angelica KaufFmann painted Miss Conway several times, as also 
Lady Ailesbury*s eldest daughter, Mary, Duchess of Richmond, 
and various other members of the family ; and Lady Ailesbury 
induced her sister-in-law, the beautiful Duchess of Argyll, nie 
Gunning, to sit to her in a group with her two daughters.^ 

Lady Ailesbury loved music even more than painting. She 
seldom, when in London, missed any representation at the New 
Opera House, where Box No. 3 was held in her name ; the 
other occupants being Lady Mary Coke, Lady Strafford, General 

' Sir Joshua was said to have been in love with her. In his Life (Leslie and 
Taylor) we are told that there are frequent entries of * Miss Angelica ' in his pocket- 
book, and sometimes ' Miss Angel,' and once there is the suggestive addition, * Fiori.' 
Anyhow, he was her steady friend, and aided her in procuring the dissolution of her 
marriage with a swindler, the valet of Count Horn, who, arriving in London with 
his master's stolen wardrobe and credentials, had figured successfully for a time in 
the character of the Count, and as such had wooed and won the £air Angelica. 
She married Antonio Zucchi, who was elected A.R.A. in 177a It is a curious 
coincidence that the real Count Horn, personated by the impostor who married 
Angelica Kauffinann, was a nephew of Lady Ailesbur/s first husband, his mother 
having been Lady Charlotte Bruce, daughter of the second Earl of Ailesbury by 
his wife Charlotte d'Argenteau, Comtesse d'Estieux. 

' This lovely picture, as well as the above-mentioned portrait of Miss Conway, 
is now in the possession of Mrs. CampbeU Johnston, whose husband was great- 
nephew of Lady Ailesbury. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 45 

Conway, Lord Hertford, and Horace Walpole. Lady Ailesbury 
gave musical parties in London, and at Park Place she constantly 
enjoyed the good music of her dear friend, Lady Cecilia 
Johnston,^ who was one of the finest amateur musicians of the 
day and generally called * St. Cecilia.* 

Lady Ailesbury was devoted to the drama, and she lived in 
a good time for those who had that taste ; for the stage was then 
adorned by Garrick, Kemble, Barry, Sheridan, Foote, Quin, 
Macklin, Bannister, Mrs. Siddons, Peg Woffington, Mrs. 
Pritchard, Kitty Clive, Mrs. Abington, Mrs. Cibber, Mrs. 
Pope, Mrs. Yates, Mrs. Bellamy, Miss Farren, and many other 
bright stars. * The Queen of Tragedy,* Sarah Siddons, owed 
her first footing in London to Lord Ailesbury. When acting 
at Cheltenham,^ quite unknown, he saw her and was struck with 
her beauty and grace in * Rosalind.* On his return to London, 
meeting Garrick at the Conways, he extolled her so enthusiastic- 
ally that Garrick sent down two emissaries to see her, the result 
of their reports being that she was engaged for Drury Lane at 
£^ a week. 

Miss Farren*s first patronesses in London were Lady 
Ailesbury and her daughter, Mrs. Damer. The Duchess of 
Leinster, who was sister-in-law of Lady Ailesbury*s eldest 
daughter, knew something of the Farren family in Ireland, and 
asked Lady Ailesbury to do what she could for Miss Farren. 
When the latter had reached her fame. Lady Ailesbury became 
one of the habituis of Miss Farren's celebrated supper parties 

' Lady Cecilia Johnston was daughter of John, first Earl De la Warr, by 
Charlotte, daughter of Donough MacCarthy, fourth Earl of Clancarty. She 
married General James Johnston, Colonel of the Inniskilling Dragoons. 

' Shortly before, as Sarah Kemble, she had been lady's maid in the family of the 
Greatheads of Guy's Cliff, who were great friends of the Conways, and quitted 
their service to be married to Mr. Siddons. 



46 Three Generations of Fascinating JVomen 

and constandy met Kemble and Mrs. Siddons there. John 
Riddell in his MSS.^ says : * I have often heard of these charming 
suppers from the late Lord Berwick, the diplomatist,^ who used 
to say, " Oh ! those charming suppers at the bow window in 
Green Street, Grosvenor Square, where I was admitted when 
I was a very young man, and where one used to meet General 
Conway, Lady Ailesbury, Mrs. Damer, the old Duchess of 
Leinster,^ and the Ogilvies,^ General Burgoyne,* Fitzpatrick, 
your father, and all the pleasantest people in London." * It was 
through Lady Ailesbury that Miss Farren became acquainted 
with Lord Derby, whom she afterwards married.^ Kitty Clive, 
of course, the Conways constantly met at Strawberry Hill ; ^ and 
they were very intimate with Garrick and his charming wife, 
who stayed with them at Park Place more than once, and with 
whom they often dined in London. 

There were amateur theatricals, too, in those days, of a very 
high order. In March 1751 all the fashionable world in London 
went to see * Othello * given in Drury Lane by the Delaval 
family — Sir Francis taking the part of * Othello,' and his sister, 
afterwards Lady Mexborough, that of * Desdemona.' The rage 
was so great to see this performance that the House of Commons 
adjourned at three o'clock to enable the members to go to it ! 
Then there was the Scotch company formed by Lady Dalkeith, 
Lady Ailesbury*s cousin, who acted at a theatre in Queensberry 

' John Riddell MSS., in Advocates' and Signet Libraries. 
' William Noel Hill, third Lord Berwick ; died 1842 at Red Rice, near Andover. 
' The Duchess of Leinster, daughter of the Duke of Richmond. She married 
secondly William Ogilvie, by whom she had two daughters. 

* General Burgoyne, author of The Maid of the Oaks. 

^ Lord Derby's first wife, Lady Betty Hamilton, was daughter of Lady Ailes- 
bury's sister-in-law, the Gunning Duchess of Argyll 

• Kitty Clive lived close to Horace Walpole, in a house which he called * Clive- 
den,' afterwards known as ' Little Strawberry Hill.' In 179 1 it became the residence 
of the Miss Berry s and their father. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 47 

House. Amongst the performers were Sir Harry Bellenden, 
Lady Ailesbury*s uncle, and Frederick Campbell, her brother, 
then * a most beautiful youth/ Lady Ailesbury says that their 
acting of Otway's * Orphan,* a good deal clipped and pared, was 
such a success that Frederick, Prince of Wales, asked for an 
extra performance for himself and the Princess and the audience 
they chose to nominate. But first of all in her affections were 
those theatricals originated by her son-in-law, the Duke of 
Richmond, at Richmond House, Whitehall, where her daughter, 
Mrs. Damer, took a distinguished part, and where Lord Henry 
Fitzgerald, the Duke*s nephew, acted so finely as to make 
Horace Walpole say he preferred him to Garrick ! * The 
World * newspaper of January 4, 1783, states that on one occa- 
sion a motion in the House of Commons was postponed in order 
to enable Mr. Pitt to be present at these theatricals. 

This rage for amateur theatricals led to some disastrous 
results. Professionals helped the amateurs, and more than one 
fair lady of the aristocracy fell in love with a handsome actor. 
The most notable of these cases was that of Lady Susan Fox- 
Strangways, Lord Ilchester's daughter and a cousin of the Duke 
of Richmond. When she eloped with O'Brien, the actor, in 
1764, a post was provided for him in America, where they 
remained eight years. At the end of that time he returned to 
England ; and on his refusing to go back. General Conway, 
who was looking into all the abuses of the Board of Ord- 
nance, dismissed him from his post. Lord and Lady Holland 
and Charles James Fox tried to make the General alter his 
decision, but he refused ; and it has been suggested that 
this was a proximate cause of Fox*s withdrawal from the 
Administration and his becoming in permanent opposition to 
the Court. 



48 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

The Margravine d'Anspach, formerly Lady Craven, both 
wrote plays and acted them, and her theatricals at Brandenburg 
House in later years became very celebrated. She was first 
cousin of Lady Ailesbury*s son-in-law, the Duke of Richmond ; ^ 
and Lady Ailesbury was very intimate with her. Her * Memoirs * 
arc amusing, if only for the extraordinary conceit which they 
display. She mentions that her portrait was painted by Sir 
Joshua and also by Romney, but that neither painter did her 
justice, one failing to represent the beauty of her face, and the 
other that of her figure ; nor did Mme. Vig6e le Brun*s portrait 
please her more. The Margravine says that Sheridan, under 
pretence of writing an epilogue for her play, * The Miniature 
Picture* (which was first performed at Newbury for charity), 
borrowed it and brought it out against her will at Drury 
Lane ; but she adds, ^ Yet enraged as I was, by the persuasion 
of Lord Orford and the Duchess of Devonshire and Lady 
Aylesbury in whose box I sat, I went to its last representation.* 

Amongst the many celebrities whom Lady Ailesbury men- 
tions as meeting, was that singular creature, * Le Chevalier 
d*Eon,* or rather we should say * La Chevaliire d'Eon,' as when 
Lady Ailesbury knew him he was passing as a woman. She met 
him at a party at the Cosways* in 1786 and at dinner in Sep- 
tember 1789, and also at a supper given by Mr. and Lady 
Cecilia Johnston, the rest of the party being composed of 
General Conway, Mrs. Damer, the Farrens, and Lord Mount 
Edgcumbe. The latter said, * Mile. d'Eon is her own widow.' 
Lady Ailesbury found her * entertaining and witty.' Twenty- 
five years before, D'Eon had been A.D.C. to the Comte de 

^ The Margravine was a daughter of the Earl of Berkeley, and her mother was 
a daughter of the first Duke of Richmond. The Margrave was a nephew of 
George II. 's queen. 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 49 

Broglie, and fought in the French army against the Anglo- 
Hanoverian army, the centre of which was commanded by 
General Conway ! He died at the age of eighty-three, having 
lived forty-nine years of his life as a man and thirty-four as a 
female. Beaumarchais, the author of * Le Mariage de Figaro,* 
proposed marriage to D'Eon. A notability who was often enter- 
tained by the Conways was Louise de Stolberg, Comtesse 
d'Albanie,^ the widow of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. She 
arrived in England in 1 791, and Lady Ailesbury gave several 
parties in her honour, as she was great-niece to Lady Ailes- 
bury*s first husband. Horace Walpole, who calls her *the 
Pinchbeck Queen,* says *she had not a ray of royalty about 
her ;* and Lady Ailesbury thought her ^the image of Hannah 
More.' 

In 1785 Lady Ailesbury met Mme. de Genlis and ^ Pamela ' * 
for the first time. They were staying in Portland Place, at a 
house taken by the Due d*Orl^ns, and were on their way, 
accompanied by Wilkes's daughter, to Oxford, where Mme. de 
Genlis was about to take her doctor's degree.^ Lady Ailesbury 
never had any doubt as to the paternity of Pamela ; and 
many years after, Mme. de Gontaut told her that she herself 
had been present when the Chevalier de Grave, premier 6cuyer 
de M. le due d'OrlAans, first arrived with her, and Mme. de 
Gontaut added : * Nous cherch^mes un nom de femille, et 

' Louise, daughter of Prince Gustavus Adolphus of Stolberg Gedem, and great- 
granddaughter of the outlawed Earl of Ailesbury, who died at Brussels. She was 
married to Prince Charles Eldward at Macerata in 1772. It was said that she 
married Count Alfieri, the poet, after the Prince's death. 

* Pamela ultimately became a connection of Lady Ailesbur/s, as Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald was nephew of the Duke of Richmond, Lady Ailesbur/s son- 
in-law. 

• H. Walpole. See his Letters to the Countess of Ossory^ vol. ii. p. 232, Letter 
cclxxvii. 



50 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

celui de Seymour fut choisi et proclamA/ ^ Mme. de Gontaut 
also told Lady Ailesbury that, although in early youth she 
had been fascinated by Mme. de Genlis, she had been equally 
disgusted in later times at seeing her in a tricolor dress with 
Pamela coifF6e du bonnet rouge, Mancing to the horrible air 
of « Ah ! 9a ira." ' 2 

Sir William Hamilton was a great friend of Lady Ailesbury's 
family ; and after he made the beautiful Emma Harte his 

' In Mme. de Genlis' Mdmoires she says : ' Je lui [Lord Edward Fitzgerald] 
montrai les papiers qui constataient sa naissance ; elle ^tait fiUe d'un homme 
nomm^ Seymours, qui avait de la naissance et qui ^pousa une personne de la classe 
la plus infi^rieure qui s'appelait Mary Syms et qui I'emmena k Terre-Neuve dans 
un lieu appel^ Fogo. Pamela y naquit, on la nomma Nancy. Son p^re mourut 
et sa m^re repassa en Angleterre avec Penfant ig^e de 18 mois. Elle s'^tablit 
k Christchurch. Ce fut Ik que quatre ans apr^s passa M. Forth, charg^ par M. le 
du d'Orl^ans de nous envoyer une petite Anglaise apr^s Pavoir fait inoculer.' 
This statement does not coincide with Mme. de Genlis' other declarations. In 
Pamela's marriage contract (1793) she had her put down as 'Citoienne Anne 
Caroline Stephanie Sims, fiUe de Guillaume de Brexey' ! This was signed by 
Philippe Egalit^. In the Masonic Magazine for January 1793 ^^ marriage was 
announced of 'The Hon. Lord Edward Fitzgerald to Madame Pamela Capet, 
daughter of his Royal Highness the ci-devant Duke of Orleans.' Mile. d'Epinay, 
daughter of the Baronne d'Epinay, one of Pamela's intimate friends, said she had 
heard Pamela express her belief that she was the daughter of Madame de Genlis, 
and a French writer talks of her astonishing resemblance to the Duke's children. 

* Mme. le Brun, in her Souvenirs^ writing in 1789 of the first terrors of the 
Revolution, says : * Nous passions devant la grille des Invalides oil se trouvait 
une foule immense compos^e de vilain monde avec des piques ef&ayantes, et j'avais 
une telle peur que je reprenais le chemin de la maison, quand nous vtmes arriver 
une jeune personne k cheval . . . k Pinstant I'horrible bande forme la haie de 
deux cdt^s pour laisser passer la jeune personne, que suivaient deux piqueurs k la 
livr^ d'Orl^ans. Je reconnus cette belle Pamela que Madame de Genlis avait 
amende chez moi. Elle ^tait alors dans toute sa fraScheur et vraiment ravissante, 
aussi entendions-nous toute la bande crier : '' Voilk celle qu'il nous faudrait pour 
reine ! " Pam^a allait et revenait sans cesse au milieu de cette d^goilitante popu- 
lace, ce qui me donna bien tristement k penser.' Miss H. Bowdler, writing to Miss 
E. Ponsonby from Bath in 1793, ^^Y^ : ' I am greatly shocked at the account I hear 
from various quarters of Madame de Genlis and Pamela. Can it be possible that 
that lovely form really contains the mind of a fiend ? I hear that when every one 
else put on mourning for the unfortunate Louis XVI., she wore red ribbons, which 
she said were " couleur du sang des aristocrates," with many other circumstances 
too shocking to repeat.' 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 51 

wife he brought her to see the Conwajrs, whom she delighted 
with her * Attitudes/ Lady Ailesbury remarks that, though 
Lady Hamilton had such consummate art in the management 
of her draperies on these occasions, her taste in ordinary dress 
was atrocious. One night she was in a box at Drury Lane 
near Lady Ailesbury, who noticed her rapt gaze at the actress, 
Mrs. Powell, as she came on the stage. It was afterwards 
explained to Lady Ailesbury that Mrs. Powell ' had been 
under-housemaid in Doctor Budd's house at Chatham Place, 
Blackfriars, at the same time that Emma Harte had been 
nurserymaid there. 

General Conway was much thrown with most of the poli- 
ticians of the day of every party, and when he was in office 
Lady Ailesbury entertained some of the foremost men of the 
time ; but Horace Walpole tells us that she * seldom thought of 
politics and understood them less.' She, however, felt most 
bitterly when, in 1764, her husband was not only dismissed from 
being Equerry to George IIL, but had the command of his 
regiment taken from him, in consequence of his voting in the 
House of Commons against the Ministry at the time of the 
prosecution of Wilkes. On this occasion Lord Hertford, the 
Duke of Devonshire, and Horace Walpole pressed General 
Conway to receive from them a sum equal to what he was 
losing ; but he refused all these ofFers, and said he should wait 
till * one day the great political wheel that is always in motion 
should turn him up, fly that he was, upon it.' He had not long 

^ Harriet Powell, a celebrated singer and actress, whose portrait was painted 
by Sir Joshua, Catherine Read, and William Peters, is said to have been married 
to Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth, whose first wife died in 1 767. She her- 
self died in 1779. Lady Louisa Stuart, in one of her letters to Sir Walter Scott, 
says : * Mrs. Powell had caught the voice, tone, and manner of Mrs. Siddons so 
exactly that I was more than once surprised into thinking, ^ How comes Mrs. 
Siddons to act so ill to-ni^ht?"' 

E 2 



52 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

to wait for his turn on the wheel of fortune ; in about a year's 
time he was Secretary of State and leader of the House of 
Commons. Lady Ailesbury shows in all the letters she wrote to 
her relations at this time how proud she was of her husband. 
Burke's laudation of him made her very happy. It was in his 
celebrated speech of April 19, 1774, that he said of General 
Conway, who was then leading the House of Commons : * We all 
felt inspired by the action he gave us. I remember, sir, with a 
melancholy pleasure, the situation of the honourable gentleman 
who made the motion for the repeal, in that crisis, when the 
whole trading interest of this empire crowded into your lobbies 
with a trembling and anxious expectation . . . when, at length, 
you had determined in their favour, and, your doors thrown 
open, shewed them the figure of their deliverer in the well- 
earned triumph of his important victory, from the whole of that 
grave multitude there arose an involuntary burst of gratitude 
and transport. They jumped upon him like children on a long 
absent fether. All England, all America joined in his applause, 
nor did he seem insensible to the best of all earthly rewards, the 
love and admiration of his fellow citizens. ** Hope elevated, and 
joy brightened his crest." I stood near him, and his face, to use 
the expression of the Scripture, was as if it had been the face of 
an angel. I do not know how others feel, but if I had stood in 
that situation, I never would have exchanged it for all that kings 
in their profusion could bestow.' 

Lady Ailesbury was very fond of visiting foreign countries, 
and took every opportunity that offered itself of accompanying 
her husband abroad. Though travelling was a somewhat serious 
undertaking in those days, its difficulties never seemed to deter 
her. In 1758 she went with him to Sluys, where he was sent 
* to settle a cartel with the French.' Colonel Conway in describ- 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 53 

ing their journey says : * We crept over the sea in four tedious 
days, and from thence stepped immediately into a bilander, 
which bilander is a certain vast fresh-water machine answering 
one*s idea of the ark, fitted with just such a motley complement, 
Dutch, English, German, Flemish, Civil, Military, male, female, 
dogs, cats, &c., but all, in appearance, of the unclean kind. In 
this agreeable conveyance we were dragged by two lean Flanders 
mares up a narrow canal, and then a melancholy flat to Bruges. • • • 
The next day, we changed our amphibious vehicle for its 
counterpart upon wheels, very improperly called a " Diligence,'* 
which brought us five or six leagues in twice as many hours, to 
Ghent.* 

In 1 76 1 Lady Ailesbury*s husband, now a general, was sent 
to join the British army serving with Prince Ferdinand of 
Brunswick, and commanded the centre. On Lord Granby*s 
return to England, General Conway was left in charge of the 
English army and took up his winter quarters at Osnaburg, 
where he was joined by Lady Ailesbury. This same year she 
went to Holland with him, and stayed at the Hague and 
at Amsterdam. Lady Ailesbury*s constant companion there was 
Lady George Lennox, whose husband was also with the army in 
Holland. She was a daughter of Lord Ancnun, afterwards 
fourth Marquis of Lothian, and two years before had eloped with 
Lord George to Gretna Green, where they were married by the 
blacksmith,^ Lord Ancrum having refused his consent. The 
marriage turned out thoroughly satisfiictory, and their son be- 
came fourth Duke of Richmond. The Con ways did not return 
to England till the conclusion of the peace in February 1763. 

^ They were also married in the orthodox manner at Dumfries. Lady George 
Lennox survived till 1830, when she died, aged ninety-four, clever and sharp to the 
last. She was then called Lady Louisa Lennox. 



54 Three Generations of Fascinating JVomen 

Some of the more prudish ladies in London society disapproved 
of these devoted wives following their husbands. Mrs. Scott, 
the sister of Mrs. Montagu, the blue-stocking, writes at this 
time as follows : * Report says that the Duchess of Richmond 
and some others, whose husbands are going or gone to Germany, 
are going there likewise, and are to lie at Brunswick. I much 
question whether their husbands will rejoice in their company, 
but certainly Prince Ferdinand will not be fond of such 
auxiliaries. It is the oddest party of pleasure I ever heard of. 
Diaforus, who invites his mistress to the lively amusement of 
making one at a Dissection, would be an agreeable lover to these 
ladies. . . . Perhaps they think Germany may afford .them 
more of their husband's company than they . cdn ■ bhtaiii in 
England, for some among them would think that a* \^ukWe 
acquisition, and possibly they may not be mistaken, for a drum 
that leads to battle may not be so powerful a rival to a wife as 
one that leads its followers only to coquetry.' This, however, 
was not applicable either to the Conways or to the George 
Lennoxes, both couples being proverbially attached to each 
other. 

Lady Ailesbury's first visit to Paris was in 1774-75, when she 
passed the winter there. In Mercy-Argenteau's letters to 
Marie ThArise, he tells us masked . balls were givtn by Marie 
Antoinette at this time every Monday, when country dances took 
place in Norwegian and Lapland dress ; amongst the dancers 
was ^ Milady Ebbury,' otherwise Lady Ailesbury. She was 
accompanied by her daughter, Mrs. Damer, and Lady Harriet 
Stanhope, and was joined by General Conway. The latter had 
been spending the months of July and August in Germany, 
whither he went for the purpose of attending some of the reviews 
of Frederick the Great. On his way he stopped at Celle to pay 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 55 

his respects to the unfortunate Queen Matilda of Denmark. In 
writing from Potsdam to his brother, Lord Hertford, General 
Conway describes his interview with Frederick. He says : * The 
King gave me a most flattering audience of more than half an 
hour and talked on a great variety of things with an ease and 
freedom the very reverse of what I had been made to expect. 
His music still takes up a great share of his time. On a table in 
his cabinets there, I saw, I believe, twenty boxes with a German 
flute in each ; in his Bed-chamber and Cabinet three arm-chairs 
in a row for three favourite dogs, each with a little stool by way 
of step that the getting up might be easy.^ I saw the Foot- 
guards exercise, especially the splendid First Battalion ; I could 
have conceived nothing so perfect and so great as all I saw : so 
well dressed, such men, and so punctual in all they did.* A 
month later he describes to his brother the manoeuvres near 
Breslau. He writes : * The beauty and order of the troops, their 
great discipline, &c., almost pass belief. I can't say how much 
I am obliged to his Majesty for his extraordinary reception and 
distinction shown me throughout. Each day after the manoeuvre 
he held a little Lev6e at which I can assure you it is not an 
exaggeration of vanity to say that he not only talked to me but 
literally to nobody else at all. He also called me up, and spoke 
to me several times on horseback when we were out, which he 
seldom did to anybody.' 

Lady Ailesbury and her husband became great favourites 
in French society, and made many friendships. Mme. de 
Deflfand, whose flattering opinion of Lady Ailesbury we have 
already given, writes of the General : * Savez-vous combien il 
connait d6ji de personnes dans Paris ? Quatre-vingt-six I 11 

^ The last thing the great Frederick said shortly before his death was to tell an 
attendant to throw a covering over one of his dogs who appeared to be cold.' 



56 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

n*est nuUement sauvage/ Lady Ailesbuxy, who, we know on 
Horace Walpole's authority, had a great love of dress, writes 
a most amusing account of the extravagant lengths, or rather 
we should say heights, that the Parisian fashions had reached. 
There was a story current at the time that Lady Ailesbury on 
her return to London found that the Duchess of Devonshire 
had still the highest feathers ; upon which she tried to get one 
higher, without success, till she luckily thought of sending to 
an undertaker. He sent word that his hearses were all out, 
but they were expected home in a few days, and then he hoped 
to accommodate her ladyship. 

Many of Lady Ailesbury*s French friends visited England, 
and all were cordially welcomed and hospitably entertained by 
her and General Conway ; and she also met them at the house 
of her son-in-law, the Duke of Richmond, who had been 
Ambassador at Paris. In 1783 Lady Ailesbury says there was 
an * Anglomanie.* The attractions of Newmarket brought over 
that year the Dues de Chartres, de Coigny, de Fitzjames, and 
de Polignac. The Due de Bouillon also came to England 
about this time. He called himself Mr. Godfrey and tried to 
pass as an Englishman. Horace Walpole said : * He would do 
better to call himself " the Duke of Mutton Broth." * The 
* Anglomanie,* however, began before this. In 1772 Lady Mary 
Coke wrote to Lady Ailesbury that a large party had arrived 
from France composed of persons of great distinction, amongst 
whom she mentions the Due and Duchesse de Rochechouart 
Mortemart, a family celebrated for their wit.^ The party stayed 
in England three months, and went to Bath under the auspices 

> The family of Mortemart, of whom Mme. Montespan was a member, was so 
celebrated for keen and polished wit that similar talent was, at one time, universally 
called * I'esprit de Mortemart' 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 57 

of Lord March. Mme. de Genlis says : * Ce furent les 
philosophistes, et surtout M. de Voltaire, qui r6pandirent en 
France Tanglomanie, qui devint si g6n6rale sur la fin du 
dernier siMe . • • les femmes ne portaient plus que des robes 
\ Tanglaise, des popelines, des moires, des toiles, du linon 
d*Angleterre ; elles vendaient leurs diamans pour acheter des 
petits grains d*acier et des verreries anglaises ; la poterie 
anglaise faisait didaigner la porcelaine de S^res ; on rel6guait 
dans les gardes-meubles les magnifiques tapisseries des Gobelins 
pour 7 substituer du papier bleu anglais ; on renon9ait \ toute 
conversation pour passer les soiries i prendre du th6 et & manger 
des tartines de beurre, on culbutait les beaux jardins de La N6tre ; 
on contour nait nos majestueuses allies, \ perte de voie ; on 
ditruisait nos bassins et nos jets d'eau ; on creusait de petits 
ruisseaux bourbeux, honoris du nom de riviires, on surchargeait 
nos pares de ponts, d*ermitages, de mines, de tombeaux ; nos 
jeunes gens allaient passer huit jours i Londres pour 7 apprendre 
\ penser. Le risultat de cette itude itait de raccourcir les itriers 
de leurs chevaux, de hausser le siige de leurs cochers, et, dans la 
sociiti, de terminer toutes les discussions par un pari. Enfin, 
on mitamorphosa des champs de verdure en tapis de jeu ; on 
itablit des courses de chevaux, on se ruina, on perdit toutes les 
habitudes nationales, on se moqua de Tancienne galanterie, de 
Tancienne politesse, on cessa d*6tre fran9ais/ 

In the summer of 1787 the charming Princesse de Lamballe^ 
came to England, nominally for her health. She suffered 
terribly from her nerves, and was always trying some new 
rigime. A bunch of violets or the sight of a crayfish, even in a 

* Marie Th^rtsc, Princesse de Savoie Carignan, bom at Turin 1749, married 
in 1793, when she was seventeen, the Prince de Lamballe, son of the Due de 
Penthi^vre, and became a widow at the age of nineteen. 



58 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

picture, made her faint. Mme. de Genlis,^ who hated her, pre* 
tended that these faints were simulated, and talks most satirically 
of the Princess's visit to Mr. Hope's collection of pictures 
in Holland, where she fainted at the sight of a Flemish 
picture representing women selling lobsters. Bachaumont says 
the Princess came to England to induce M. de Calonne to 
withdraw from his ^ M6moires ' certain statements r^^arding 
Queen Marie Antoinette ; and this may have been the case, as 
not only was Calonne in England at this time, but the infamous 
wretch, Mme. de la Motte, his mistress, who had been flogged 
and branded for her share in the Collier de la Reine aflair, was 
also there.* 

Lady Ailesbury was much with the Princesse de Lamballe 
during this visit, and accompanied her on sundry sightseeing 
expeditions. One of these was to see the Royal Military Aca- 
demy at Woolwich, and a field day of the Royal Artillery ; and 
another to go over a man-of-war, the Duke of Richmond (Lady 
Ailesbury's son-in-law) conducting the party. We also hear from 
Lady Ailesbury of a sumptuous dinner given to the Princess by 
the Duke of Queensberry,^ to which Lady Ailesbury was invited. 

* Mme. de Genlis was necessarily often in the company of the Princesse de 
Lamballe, being gouvemante to the children of the Duchesse d'Orldans, her 
sister-in-law, the daughter of the Due de Penthi^vrc. 

* Jeanne de Luz de St R^my married Monsieur de la Motte ; she called her- 
self Comtesse de Valois, because she was descended from a natural son of Henri 1 1. 
She was marked on the shoulder with a ' V,' for voleuse^ and condemned for life to 
confinement in the Salp^tri^re, but managed to escape from the latter place and came 
to London. Once when she was playing at piquet with Calonne, the ex-minister 
said, * Madame, vous 6tes marquee.' She took this as a double entente^ and got into 
the most violent rage. She upset the table, threw herself upon Calonne, and 
scratched his face. Her last days were spent in abject poverty ; and her death, 
which took place in London in August 1791, was the result of her having thrown 
herself out of the window. She was buried at St Mary's, Lambeth. 

* The Duke of Queensberry was a star of fashion, and his dress, carriages, 
&c. considered as models, and he was the best gentleman jockey of his day ; but 
he was a notorious profligate, and it is said that when he died, at the age of 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbtiry 59 

In June 1791^, the Princesse de Lamballe came again to 
England, having settled with her august mistress to do so 
simultaneously with the flight to Varennes. She arrived in 
England with her two ladies, Mmes. de Ginestons and de L^e, 
and their husbands and one child. Queen Charlotte and the 
royal princesses received her with gracious cordiality ; and this 
time, though the Princess went to Bath and to Brighthelmstone 
for her health, she certainly had an ulterior motive for her visit 
of paramount importance, which was to try and get the protec- 
tion of the English Government for the French Monarchy. Her 
correspondence with Marie Antoinette at this time, in compli- 
cated cipher, is all about this confidential mission.^ Marie 
Antoinette hated Pitt, and said to Mme. Campan : * Je ne 
prononce pas le nom de Pitt que la petite mort ne me passe dans 
le dos ; cet homme est Tennemi mortel de la France. Pitt a 
servi la Revolution fran^aise dis les premiers troubles.^ Je 
veux essayer de savoir jusqu'oii il compte nous mener, et pour 

cela j'envoie \ Londres M . II a kxk intimement \ik avec 

Pitt ; je veux qu'il le fasse parler, au moins autant que peut 
parler un pareil homme.* Mme. Campan goes on to say that 
shortly after the Queen said to her that her envoy had returned 
from London, and that all he had been able to extract from Pitt 
was that he would not allow the French Monarchy to perish, 
* but,' added Marie Antoinette, * il a gard6 le plus absolu silence 

eighty-five, his bed was covered with Httets doux which he had not the strength 
to open I Under the name of * Old Q ' he was the subject of many satires. 

* It is singular that in Lescure's Life of the Princesse de Lamballe the visit to 
England in 1787 is not mentioned, only the visit in 1791 ; whilst in Bertin's Life 
the former is mentioned and not the latter. 

' Correspondances iniditeSy Campan. 

■ And yet in Fouquier-Tinville's speech for the prosecution of Mme. Du Barry 
he says that * all the conspiracies of tyrants, nobles, and priests against the French 
Republic, march under the orders of Pitt ; ' and one of the charges against Mme. 
Du Barry was living habitually with Pitt, whose effigy she wore on a silver medal. 



6o Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

sur cc qui concerne le monarque/ The Princesse de Lamballe 
was told to cultivate the acquaintance of the Duchess of Gordon, 
who was supposed to possess more influence than any woman in 
England — in order to learn the sentiments of Mr. Pitt. It was 
to further this mission that the Princesse de Lamballe applied to 
the Duke of Richmond. Lady Ailesbury had her son-in-law to 
meet the Princess more than once, but he was unable to help her. 
At the end of four months, in October 1791, the Princesse de 
Lamballe entreated to be allowed to join the Queen, but Marie 
Antoinette always wrote to her not to come. * Non, encore 
une fois non ; ne revenez pas, mon cher coeur, ne vous jetez pas 
dans la gueule du tigre.* The Princess, however, insisted upon 
returning, and was one of the first victims. In August 1792 
she followed the Royal Family to the Temple and was massacred 
on September 3. 

Another Frenchwoman, of a very difi^erent type, paid no less 
than four visits to England in the years 1791-92.^ This was 
Mme. Du Barry ; and during one of these visits Lady Ailes- 
bury often met her at public entertainments, such as Ranelagh, 
Vauxhall, &c., and she also met her at a ^ rural break^t ' given by 
Mrs. Hobart, and at a party given by the Duke of Queensberry. 
Lady Ailesbury did not admire her looks very much, and agreed 
with Horace Walpole, who said she was * pretty, when you con- 
sider her, yet so little striking that I never should have asked 
who she was.' One must remember, however, that Mme. Du 
Barry was at the time forty-eight years ^ of age, so that of course 
her beauty was on the wane. Mme. Du Barry came to England 

* The expenses of Mme. Du Barry's second visit to London, which lasted less 
than six wedcs, amounted to the large sum of j£ 15,059 8j. 9^ 

' The following is the entry of her birth in the register of the church at 
Vaucouleurs : ' Jeanne, natural daughter of Anne Becu, sometimes called Quartigny, 
was bom August 19, 1743, and was baptised the same day, &c L. Galon, Vicar 
of Vaucouleurs/ 



r 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 6i 

to try and recover her jewels of great value, which were stolen 
from her ch&teau of Louveciennes in January 1791,* whilst she 
was attending a grand ftte given by the Due de Brissac in the 
Rue de Crenelle. The jewels had been taken to London, where 
the thieves were arrested ; but after a long delay they were 
ultimately acquitted, the robbery not having been committed 
within English jurisdiction. The diamonds which were recovered 
were placed in the bank of Messrs. Ransom, Morland, & Ham- 
mersley. Mme. Du Barry never regained possession of them, 
but it appears from recent investigations that they were removed 
by some one from the custody of the bankers. According to 
H. Noel Williams, the author of a * History of Mme. Du 
Barry published 1905, the jewels were sold by order of the 
Court of Chancery at the end of the following year, and the 
proceeds of the sale, 13,300 guineas, were paid over to Mme. 
de Boissaisson (her niece) and some creditors. 

Mme. Du Barry stayed in Bruton Street from May till the 
end of August in 1792, and it was during this visit that Lady 
Ailesbury met her. She paid a fourth and last visit to England 
in October of the same year, and remained till March i, 1793. 
Owing to the recent tragic death of her friend, the Due de 
Brissac, who was brutally murdered by the populace at Versailles, 
she went nowhere, excepting to see some of the SmigrSs^ notably 
M. Crussol, M. de Cahouet, M. de Calonne, M. d*Aiguillon, 
and the Prince de Poix.' Lady Ailesbury also saw her at the 
funeral service held at the Spanish Embassy Chapel in memory 

^ Her jewels were carried off by three German Jews, a Frenchman, and an 
Englishman named Harris. 

* The Prince de Poix was son of the Mar^chal and Mar^chale de Mouchy, 
who were both guillotined in July 1794. He bribed two members of the Com- 
mune, Martin and Danjon, and escaped as he was being conducted to the Abbaye 
Prison. (Matimer-Temaux, t iv. p. 443.) 



62 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

of Louis XVI., Mme. Du Barry's presence there being one of the 
accusations brought against her at her trial. At the end of four 
months she returned to Paris, notwithstanding the warning of her 
friends, and six months later she was arrested, though soon set at 
liberty, and then might have saved her life if she had gone back 
to England ; but she had now started another love affair, with 
the Comte de Rohan Chabot,^ and refused to go. She was re- 
arrested, and shortly afterwards guillotined, attaining at her death 
the unenviable notoriety of having been, it is said, the only 
woman in those dreadful days who showed abject terror. 

Lady Ailesbury had entertained at different times the Vicomte 
and the Marquis de St. Chamant, the Baron de Montesquieu, 
the Luxembourgs, the Lusignans, the de Guisnes, Mme. d'H6nin, 
the Duchesse d'Ayen, the Comtesse de Boufflers, the Duchesse de 
Gramont, the Duchesse du Ch^telet, the Comtesse de Noailles 
(Dame d'Honneur to Marie Antoinette, who called her * Mme. 
Etiquette ') and her husband, the Due de Mouchy, the Due de 
Coss^-Brissac, and the Due and Duchesse de Biron (better 
known in England under the name of Lauzun). All of these 
perished in the Revolution, and one can therefore well realise 
how vividly the horrors of those awful days must have come 
home to her.^ She was specially intimate with the Duchesse de 

^ Alexandre Louis Auguste de Rohan Chabot, afterwards Due de Rohan, bom 
1 761, died 1 816, greatgrandfather of the present Due de Rohan. (See Addenda, 

P- 334.) 

* The Mar^ehal Philippe de Noailles, Due de Mouchy, his wife, their sister-in- 
law the Duehesse de Noailles, their daughter-in-law the Duehesse d'Ayen, and 
their granddaughter the Vieomtesse de Noailles, all perished at the same time. 
The Duehesse de Gramont and the Duehesse du Chitelet were at first de- 
tained in the large hotel kept by the mad doetor, Belhomme, where also were 
the Talleyrand-P^rigords, Mme. la Duehesse d'Orl^ans, the Roehechouarts, the 
Nieolais, and the Demoiselles Lange et Mezerai, aetresses of the Th^tre 
Fran^ais. This was an arrangement of Fouquier-Tinville, who, when the prisons 
were so gorged with prisoners that they could hold no more, established auxiliary 
places of confinement for those who he thought could pay for this privilege. 



Caroline^ Countess of Ailesbury 63 

Biron, nie de Boufflers. This lady had a long illness when paying 
a visit at <joodwood ; and Lady Ailesbury, as well as her daughter 
the Duchess of Richmond, assisted by Madame de Cambis, helped 
to nurse her. When sufficiently well, the Duchesse de Biron 
insisted, notwithstanding the entreaties of Lady Ailesbury, upon 
returning to Paris, where she was almost immediately arrested, 
set at liberty through the intervention of her husband,^ re-arrested 
at the end of 1793 and confined in the Couvent des Anglaises. 
There she found the old Marichale de Biron, nie La Rochefou- 
cauld. After many weeks, an order came for * Citoyenne Biron ' 
to appear before the Tribunal. * Which ? ' asked the gaoler, and 
he sent up both, and both were sentenced and executed. The 
Duchess's worthless husband became an avowed Republican, 
but was afterwards suspected, seized by the Convention, and 
ordered to execution. He was allowed an hour's respite, and. 

Both he and Dr. Belhomme found it a very good speculation as every one tried to 
get there. As long as they were able to pay the exorbitant prices their lives 
were safe, but as soon as they came to the end of their resources they were trans- 
ferred to the common prisons and soon condemned. *£n v^rit^,' Mme. du 
Chdtelet said one day to Belhomme, * vous n'^tes pas raisonnable et il m'est, k 
mon vif regret, impossible de vous satisfaire.' * Allons, ma grosse,' answered 
Belhomme, ' sois bonne fille, je te ferai remise d'un quart ; ' but even this she and 
her friend the Duchesse de Gramont could not pay ; they had to leave the esta- 
blishment, and a few days after were guillotined, Belhomme remarking ' que ces 
dames p^rissaient victimes d'une ^conomie mal entendue.' The Duchesse de 
Gramont behaved heroically ; she never tried to defend herself before the terrible 
Tribunal, but only thought of Mme. du Chitelet, whom she had advised to 
return to France. She replied to her judges : * Je ne veux pas me d^fendre, mais 
cette ange qui est aupr^s de moi n'a pris aucune part aux affaires politiques, sa vie 
et son caract^re suffisent k la justifier : condamnez-moi et laissez la vivre.' ' N'as- 
tu pas envoy^ de I'argent aux ^migr^s ? ' demanda un des juges. ' Je pourrais dire 
non,' answered the Duchesse, * mais ma vie ne vaut pas un mensonge.' The two 
friends perished the same day. 

^ At the end of 1790 the Duchesse de Biron was at the play in Paris, when a 
song applicable to the Queen was encored ; she applauded with her fan on the box, 
and was pelted with a shower of apples, and a penknife with them, that nearly hit 
her. She brought it away and sent it to La Fayette, telling him to lay it on the 
altar of Liberty. 



64 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

on returning to his dungeon, sent for oysters and white wine, 
and drank to the health of the turnkey and the executioner 
when they came to tell him they could wait no longer. 

Some of Lady Ailesbury*s French acquaintances were wise 
enough to take refuge in England, and in 1 79 1-92 there was quite 
a colony of them established on Richmond Green, where she often 
went to visit them. Mme. de Cambis remained there till her 
death in January 1 809.^ She was a most delightful and attractive 
woman, and often stayed at Park Place, and, as Horace Walpole 
says, * doted on Lady Ailesbury and her daughters.* Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, writing in 1793, says : 'Paid a visit at Richmond to 
Mme. de Cambis, an old lady of high rank and a remarkably 
sensible and agreeable woman, whom I saw every morning for 
six months at Mme. du Defiund*s when Douglas and 1 were 
together at Paris.* Amongst the fugitives were the Princesse 
de Poix, the Princesse d*Hinin,^ Mme. de Fleury, Mme. de 
Coigny, Mme. de Simiane, the young Due de Richelieu, the 
Comtesse de Boufflers and her daughter-in-law, Comtesse 
Emilie de Boufflers. Sometimes Lady Ailesbury remained the 
evening with them, to play *Loto* and listen to Comtesse 
Emilie*s harp-playing. The following year — 1793 — many 
more (migrls of distinction arrived in London, amongst whom 
Lady Ailesbury mentions the Comtesse de Montault-Navaille 
and her daughter Josephine, accompanied by M. de St. Blan- 
card; Vicomte de Gontaut-Biron (whom Mdlle. Josephine 

' Gabrielle Charlotte Fran^oise, Vicomtesse de Cambis, was a sister of the 
Prince de Chimay and of the Prince d'H^nin. Horace Walpole describes having 
seen her at the Convent of St. Cyr in 1769, 'beautiful as a Madonna.' 

' Etiennette de Montconseil, daughter of the Marquis de Montconseil (married 
in 1766 to Charles, Prince d'H^nin, captain of the Bodyguard to the Comte 
d'Artois), was Dame du Palais to Marie Antoinette. She was rescued from Paris 
by Mme. de StaSl and sent to an hotel in Downing Street. Lally-ToUendal was 
supposed to be privately married to her. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 65 

married during their stay in England), the Conite de Noi, the 
Due de Gramont, M. de TAigle, the Prince de la Trimouille, 
Comtes Boson and Archambaut de Pirigord, and the Prince 
and Princesse de Lion. The latter, who was a very hand- 
some woman, held a salon, which was largely attended by the 
English ilite ; and Lady Ailesbury was often there, where she met 
the Beauvaus,^ M. d*Haussonville and his friend M. d*Aramon, 
the Fitz Jameses, Mortemarts, and the Due d'Harcourt.' The 
Princesse de Lion was not the only emigrle who entertained. 
* On riait au nez de la fortune,* as Chateaubriand said ; and 
many of them, after working for their bread during the day, 
met together in the evening and danced. The Duchesse de 
St. James entertained all the best company, and when any one 
was invited to dine with her it was an understood thing that 
they left three shillings in a cup which was on the mantelpiece ! 
At other dinner parties each of the guests brought a dish, and at a 
tea party every one brought their own sugar. 

In *93 Lady Ailesbury became acquainted with Mme. de Stad, 
but did not appreciate her, and said that she well understood a 
bon mot of Talleyrand which was often quoted at this time : * II faut 
avoir aim6 Mme. de Stad pour connaltre le bonheur d*aimer une 
bite.* ^ Mme. de Stad was now at the head of another colony of 
illustrious French exiles, established at Juniper Hall, Mickleham, 
near Dorking, Mr. Jenkinson*s house. These were * leS Con- 
stitutionnels,' and included M. de Lally-ToUendal, Mathieu 

> Marc Etienne Gabrielle de Beauvau, Prince de Craon, and his wife, Natalie 
de Mortemart, took up their residence at King's Wick, Sunninghill ; and here 
their son, Charles Francois Victumien, was bom, March 7, 1793. 

^ All of these were living at Staines and in the neighbourhood. M. d'Hausson- 
ville taught Latin to the children of his friend the Duchesse de Mortemart. 

* He had been on intimate terms with Mme. de StaSl, and had given up her 
society for that of Mme. Grandt, who was quite a fool M. Grandt was a native of 
Lausanne. 



66 Three Generations of Fascinating JVomen 

Due de Montmorency, M. de Jancourt, Guibert, the Vicomte 
and Vicomtesse de Narbonne,^ the Marquise de la Chitre,^ M. de 
Girardin, and General d'Arblay ; and M. de Talleyrand^ often 
visited there. Juniper Hall was very near Norbury Park, the 
owner of which — Mr. Locke,* a man of great taste and cultivation 
— was most hospitable to the French refugees ; and a daily inter- 
course took place between the two houses, one result of which 
was the happy though highly improvident marriage^ of General 
d'Arblay with Miss Fanny Burney, the authoress of * Evelina,* 
who spent a great deal of her time with the Lockes. 

Lady Ailesbury was one of those who, in answer to Mme. 
d'Arblay's appeal, subscribed for the poor French ecclesiastics, of 
whom there were 6,000 in England, besides 800 in Jersey, in 
utter want.' She also took part in getting up a bazaar for the 
benefit of the poor French ladies, and, indeed, she never lost an 
opportunity of showing her sympathy with the French in their 
terrible time of trial. On April 8, 1795, she was present at 
the funeral service for Marie Antoinette which took place at the 
Spanish Ambassador's chapel in Manchester Square. 

* The Vicomte de Narbonne was son of Comte de Narbonne by Mme. 
Victoire, daughter of Louis XV. The Comtesse de Narbonne saved the Princess 
from disgrace and declared the child was hers. Mme. Victoire survived till 
June 1799 ; her last days were spent in anguish. She and her sister, Mme. 
Ad^ide, were turned out of Rome and Naples and were obliged to take refuge 
in a small vessel at anchor. Mme. Victoire died twenty days after her release. 

' Mme. de la Chitre returned to Paris, and was guillotined in 1794. 
' Talleyrand had escaped from Paris in 1792, and came to England accom- 
panied by the French minister, Chauvelin, and lived in Kensington Square. 

* Mr. Locke bought Norbury Park in 1774. There appears to be some mystery 
as to his parentage, and I believe it was said of him that 'he was every one's 
father and no man's son.* Amongst the friends he entertained at Norbury were 
Dr. Johnson Sir Joshua Reynolds, Burke, and Gibbon. 

* The d'Arblays could only scrape together £,\oq per annum, and settled in a 
cottage in Norbury Park. 

* Monsignor TEvfique de St. Pol de Ldon was accepted as the primate of the 
emigrant priests. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 67 

The last time we have any account of Lady Ailesbury*s 
appearance at a public function was when she went on 
April 8, 1795, to St. James's Palace, first to see the procession 
of the Prince of Wales to the Chapel Royal on the occasion of his 
marriage with Princess Caroline of Brunswick, and afterwards to 
the Drawing Room. Lady Ailesbury took with her the Ladies 
Maria and Louisa Stuart,^ her cousins, daughters of the first 
Marquis of Bute. They went in chairs to the Palace a little 
before seven. At eleven the procession arrived from the Chapel 
Royal, and after that there was the Drawing Room in the great 
Council Chamber. Lady Ailesbury says the Princess looked in 
high spirits, but not so the Prince. The Princess's train was 
borne by four young ladies — Ladies Mary Osborne, Charlotte 
Spencer, Charlotte Legge, and Caroline Villiers. Lady Ailesbury 
particularly admired the latter, whom she described as * a most 
beautiful girl.* She little thought that the said young lady 
would ultimately, en secondes noceSy become the wife of her 
nephew George, Lord Lome, afterwards sixth Duke of Argyll. 
After the Drawing Room, Lady Ailesbury and the Ladies Stuart 
supped at Mrs. Herbert's, the Bedchamber woman ; Lord and 
Lady Carnarvon, Lady Jane Herbert, Lord Porchester, Mr. C. 
Herbert, Lady Townshend, Lord Malmesbury, and Miss Bruhl 
making up the rest of the party. Lady Ailesbury did not get 
home till one, rather a long outing for an old lady of seventy-four. 

Although, on the whole, the life of Lady Ailesbury was a 
happy and prosperous one, she had some great troubles. Her 
son-in-law, Mr. Damer, as the sequel of a short and dissolute 
life, shot himself in a tavern. She had the sorrow of losing 
her charming eldest daughter, Mary, Duchess of Richmond, in 

^ Lady Louisa Stuart has been brought before the public of late by the publica- 
tion of her clever letters. 

F 2 



68 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

1 796 ; ^ and she also survived Marshal Conway, who died at Park 
Place very suddenly in 1795,* thus losing a husband who, in 
the words of Horace Walpole, * living and dying thought only 
of her/ Without him the joys of Park Place were gone, and 
Lady Ailesbury sold it the following year to Lord Malmesbury, 
and subsequently made her home with her daughter Mrs. Damer. 
Two years later Lady Ailesbury had to mourn over the loss of 
her lifelong friend, Horace Walpole. Still she lived on into the 
next century, * the picture,* as Miss Berry writes in 1799, *of 
what an old woman ought to be and so seldom is.' She died 
on January 17, 1803, at her daughter's house in Upper Brook 
Street, after a few days' illness, in her eighty-third year.* Mrs. 

' Horace Walpole writing in November 1796 : ' I had loved the Duchess of 
Richmond most affectionately from the moment I first knew her, when she was but 
five years old ; her sweet temper and unalterable good nature had made her retain a 
friendship for and confidence in me that was more steady than I ever found in any 
other person to whom I have been the most attached. It is a heavy blow. I had 
flattered myself the last time I saw her, five months ago, for she came to me twice 
when I was so extremely ill last winter, that she would recover. She has languished 
ever since, suffered terribly, as much as could be discovered under her invincible 
patience and silence ; but she is gone, and I am still here, though above twenty 
years older ! The Duke, who is exceedingly afflicted, and retains all her servants, 
and pensioned them all for their lives, has sent me, as the dear soul had desired 
him, one of her own rings. I can never put it on my swelled fingers, but I will 
for ever carry it about me while there is ^nyfor ever for me I * 

' Field- Marshal Conway went from his house in Soho Square to Park Place 
the preceding day, apparently in good health. He was seized at three o'clock in the 
morning with cramp in the stomach, which proved fiatal at five. The following 
character of Marshal Conway which appeared in Lord Orford's works, but which 
Miss Berry owned came from her hand, says : Mt is only those who, like the editor, 
have had the opportunity of penetrating into the most secret motives of his (Marshal 
Conway's) public conduct, and into the inmost recesses of his private life, who can 
do real justice to the unsullied purity of his character — who saw and knew him in 
the evening of his days, retired from the honourable activity of a soldier and of a 
statesman to the calm enjoyments of private life ; happy in the resources of his 
own mind, and in cultivation of useful science, in the bosom of domestic peace — 
unenriched by pensions or places, undistinguished by titles or ribbons, unsophisti- 
cated by public life and unwearied by retirement.' 

* Lady Ailesbury was buried at Sundridge Church, where there is a bust of her 
executed by her daughter, Mrs. Damer. 



Caroline, Countess of Ailesbury 69 

Darner writes to Miss Berry the day after her death as follows: 
* My dearest, kindest of mothers expired yesterday morning 
without a groan, even without a sigh ; her countenance became 
placid and her fine features made her beautiful in death. Such, 
I am convinced, can be the end only of one possessing a virtuous 
mind and a conscience without reproach, and such a one, I am 
proud to think, was my mother ! A scene more affecting, more 
impressive than her end it was not possible to see, and much as 
I ever thought I should regret this dear mother, I find that 
regret deeper and more painflil than I expected. All the 
arrangements — every little improvement at Strawberry Hill — 
this house, all (sometimes imperceptibly at the moment to myself) 
tended wholly to procure her amusement and comforts, and all 
these have lost their value to me. Never more to behold that 
benign countenance brightening up at the sight of me : this 
does give me the feeling of an almost broken heart.* 

LINES UPON THE LATE 

COUNTESS DOWAGER OF AILESBURY 

Thou Hcav'n-born Saint^ with eVry virtue crownM 
That could adorn thy Sex, and give renown 
To polish'd manners, not disgraced by art, 
But flowing from the fountain of the heart : 
A heart replete with tenderness, tho' firm, 
Did all the actions of her life confirm ; 
Where gentle sweetness ever was the guide 
To Rectitude's unerring, powerful tide : 
Blessed with that calm Philosophy to cure 
Those ills, by Patience, which we must endure. 
Her lively wit with satire ever glowed, 
Tho* checked by better feelings as it flowM ; 
The scourge of vice alone was sure her aim, 
Since unexampled worth secures her fiune. 



Ill 

THE HON. MRS. DAMER 

David ne'er touched the harp like thee, 
Anson ne'er saw thy like at Sea,' 
Mansfield's eloquence is not like thine, 
Edgecumbe, who thinks thee all divine, 
Records his passion with this line. 

Lord Mount Edgecumbe ^ on Mrs, Darner, 

If Mrs. Darner did not fully inherit the conspicuous beauty of 
her grandmother Mary Bellenden, or her mother Lady Ailesbury, 
she possessed much of their fascination, and certainly exceeded 
them both in talent and acquirements. 

Born in 1 748, Anne Seymour Conway passed most of her 
childhood at Strawberry Hill under the care of Horace Walpole, 
who bestowed upon her the affection he had always felt for her 
father, Marshal Conway. She appears to have shown great 
intelligence at a very early age ; and when she was only four, 
Horace Walpole writes to her parents : * I shall tell you some 
stories of her understanding that will please you.' He took 
great pains with her education, and she became a most culti- 
vated and accomplished woman. She was thoroughly conversant 
with the best English, French, and Italian authors, and had 
a good knowledge of Latin ; Homer, Herodotus, Plutarch, 

^ This is in allusion to her conduct in 1772, when the packet in which she was 
crossing from Dover to Ostend was taken by a French frigate after a fight of four 
hours. She appears to have shown extraordinary coolness and courage. 



Thh H<i\. Mk) 



Damkh, vif Anne Srvmouh Civ. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 71 

Cicero, and Livy were amongst her favourite authors. Her 
taste for letters continued with her to the kst, and she 
eventually possessed one of the best selected and most valuable 
libraries ever formed by a female collector. When she was 
eighteen a casual occurrence induced her to take to modelling, 
for which always after she had a passion. It arose in the follow- 
ing way. She used to be a great deal with David Hume when 
he was at her father's house acting as his secretary, and notwith- 
standing the great disparity of their ages, he conversed and 
reasoned with her on all subjects. One day, when she was with 
him in her father's library discussing a book in which she was 
much interested, a little Italian boy, who was carrying about on 
a board some busts and models made in plaster of Paris, was 
brought in from the streets by her mother. Lady Ailesbury, who 
sent the boy into the library to show his busts. Hume, upon 
speaking to the boy, was so much struck with his vivacity and 
with the knowledge he showed concerning the manner in which 
his images were made, that he remained in conversation with him 
for a considerable time, till the patience of Anne Conway being 
exhausted, she exclaimed to Hume, * How is it possible that so 
great a philosopher as you are should lose so much time in 
talking to a poor ignorant little boy ? ' Hume, smiling, replied : 
* That little boy, so far from being ignorant, as you suppose, has 
a great deal of knowledge, and although his parents have not 
been able to lay out any money upon his education, he is more 
likely to become a distinguished sculptor than you are to become 
a distinguished woman, notwithstanding the large sums that have 
been laid out upon you. Be less severe ; these images were not 
made without the aid of both science and genius, and with all 
your attainments, you cannot produce such works.' Soon after, 
Hume received a head she had modelled in wax and subsequently 



72 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

executed in marble, which evoked his wonder and admiration* 
From that time she made sculpture her study and delight. 
She studied anatomy under Cruikshank, and learnt the technical 
part of working in marble in the atelier of Bacon. She also 
had lessons from the celebrated Ceracchi,^ and subsequently 
worked in Italy. 

Among those who sat to her were George III., Queen 
Caroline, Nelson, Fox, Dr. Darwin, Sir Joseph Banks, Sir 
Humphry Davy, the Duchess of Devonshire, Lady Melbourne, 
Miss Berry, Mrs. Siddons, the two Kembles, Miss Farren, &c. 
She had a singular taste for catching the character of animals, 
and modelled for her sister Mary, Duchess of Richmond, a 
group of two sleeping dogs, executed in marble, a beautiful 
piece of sculpture, now at Goodwood ; also a dog of Queen 
Charlotte's and two kittens belonging to Horace Walpole, which 
were so true to life and so characteristic that every one was able 
to recognise them. She cut the figure of the Osprey Eagle ^ in 
terra-cotta, which was in the gallery of Strawberry Hill, thus 
inscribed by Horace Walpole : * Non me Praxiteles fecit, sed 
Anna Damer.*^ And she modelled and executed in Portland 
stone two gigantic masks, representing Thame and Isis,* for 

> Giuseppe Ceracchi was guillotined in Paris in 1801. Ceracchi executed a 
statue of Mrs. Damer holding ' Isis ' in her hands. There is a similar one in the 
British Museum. 

' Horace WaipoU to Lady Ossory» — ' Mrs. Damer has given me her eagle, 
which I call the spoilt child of my antique one, it is in such a passion. I hope 
your ladyship will approve of the motto I design for it Do you remember the 
statue at Milan, with this legend, " Non me Praxiteles, sed Marcus finxit Agrati "? 
Mine is to be this pentameter, " Non me Praxiteles finxit, at Anna Damer." ' An 
osprey eagle was caught at Brocket Hall when Mrs. Damer was staying with 
Lord Melbourne, and in taking it one of its wings was almost cut off. Mrs. Damer 
saw it in that momentary rage which she executed exactly. 

^ The nymph's face for Isis was taken from Mrs. Freeman of Fawley Court 

^ Her * Cupid catching a Butterfly ' was much admired in the exhibition at 
Somerset House in 1784. 



I The Hoft. Mrs. Darner 73 

I the keystones of the middle arch of the stone bridge over 

the Thames at Henley, close to Park Place, her father's 
residence. She was also a proficient with the brush. There 

y is a picture painted by her at Panshanger, in which portraits 

of Lady Melbourne, Georgina Duchess of Devonshire, and 
herself appear. 

She was a very clever actress, and as an amateur had few 
equals. She was one of the leading lights of the Duke of 
Richmond's celebrated company, and contributed largely to its 
unequalled success. Miss Farren superintended the rehearsals, 
and Mrs. Siddons deigned to act with Mrs. Damer. She 
appeared with unbounded applause in the character of * Violante * 
in * The Wonder,' when Lord Henry Fitzgerald supported the 
part of * Don Felix.* Her ^ Mrs. Lovemore ' in * The Way to 
keep him,* and her ^ Lady Freelove * in the * Jealous Wife,* 
likewise created great admiration. In the ^Auckland Corre- 
spondence' these theatricals are thus described in 1787 : *The 
triumphs of the Duke of Richmond*s private company in Privy 
Gardens, which begun in April and May, continued through the 
season, and were resumed in the winter, divide the attention of 
the town with the French commercial treaty, Warren Hastings, 
the Prince of Wales's debts, &c.' 

Miss Conway married when she was twenty-one, on June 14, 
1767, the Hon. John Damer, eldest son of Lord Milton 
(afterwards Lord Dorchester). His mother, Lady Caroline 
Sackville, was the daughter of the Duchess of Dorset, who was 
a great friend of Lady Ailesbury, as she had been of Mary 
Bellenden. A letter of Horace Walpole to Sir Horace Mann 
in March 1767 thus announces her engagement : * Mr. Conway 
is in great felicity going to marry his only daughter to Lord 
Milton's eldest som The estate in Lord Milton's possession 



74 Three Gefierations of Fascinating IVomen 

15 already j^2 3,000 a year, 7 more just coming from the 
author of this wealth, an old uncle in Ireland. Lord Milton 
gives j^59000 a year at present and settles the rest. Miss 
Conway b to have a jointure of ^^2,500 and £^QO {nn money. 
Her fortune, which is ;^ 10,000, goes in jewds, equipages, and 
furniture** 

Notwithstanding his liberal allowance, Mr. Damer became 
immersed in debts, and at the end of nine years, his £ither 
refusing to pay them, he shot himself at the Bedford Arms, 
Covent Garden, on August 15, 1776. Horace Walpole, in a 
letter to Horace Mann on August 20, says : ^ On Thursday Mr. 
Damer supped at the Bedford Arms with four ladies and a blind 
fiddler. At three in the morning he dismissed his seraglio, 
ordering his Orpheus to come up again in half an hour. When 
he returned he found a dead silence and smelt gunpowder : he 
called the master of the house, who came up and found Mr. 
Damer sitting in his chair, dead, with a pistol by him and 
another in his pocket. On the table lay a scrap of paper with 
these words : ^* The people of the house are not to blame for 
what has happened, which was my own act.*' What a catastrophe 
for a man at thirty-two, heir to two-and-twenty thousand a year ! 
We are persuaded that lunacy, not distress, was the sole cause of 
his &te. Lord Milton, whom nothing can soften, wreaks his 
fury on Mrs. Damer, though she deserves only pity, and shews 
no resentment. He insists on selling her jewels. This is all 
the hurt he can do her.* Mrs. Damer was on her way to London 
the very day of this catastrophe. Charles James Fox met her 
and stopped her to prepare her for the dismal event. It gives 
some notion of the extravagance of Mr. Damer when one reads 
that after his death his wardrobe sold for ;^ 15,000. 

Soon after the death of her husband, Mrs. Damer, who was 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 75 

then only twenty-eight years of age, went abroad with her aunt, 
Lady William Campbell, visiting Spain and Portugal, Italy 
and Paris. The War of Independence was going on, and the 
Channel was teeming with French and American men-of-war ; 
and on their way to Ostend the packet in which they were 
crossing was taken by a French privateer after a running fight 
of four hours. * La belle Anglaise,' as Mrs. Damer was called, 
was, however, soon liberated, and she won great kudos on this 
occasion by the intrepidity which she showed. A propos of 
Mrs. Damer's visit to Portugal, Horace Walpole writes : * Mrs. 
Damer has been received at Elvas with all military honours and 
a banquet, by order of Mello, formerly Ambassador here. It 
was handsome in him, but must have distressed her who is 
so void of ostentation and love of show.' To Sir Horace Mann 
Horace Walpole writes to introduce her on her proposed 
journey to Italy, as follows : * I will say very few words on her, 
after telling you that besides being General Conway's daughter, 
I love her as my own child. She has one of the most solid 
understandings I ever met, but with so much reserve and 
modesty that I have often told Mr. Conway he does not know the 
extent of her capacity, and the solidity of her reason. We have 
by accident discovered that she writes Latin like Pliny and is 
learning Greek. In Italy she will be a prodigy.* The celebrated 
Princess DashkofF (or Daschkow), who made her acquaintance at 
Rome in 1780, writes of her as * so justly celebrated for her skill 
in sculpture and no less to be admired for her profound informa- 
tion and good sense, which under the veil of a peculiar modesty 
sought rather the disguise than the display of her acquisitions.' 
And this same lady writes later from Naples as follows : * Our 
morning pursuits were usually concluded in the studio of Mrs. 
Damer. There we generally found her employed with her 



76 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

chisel ; but this was a sanctum in which she received only her 
particular friends ; for her character was as devoid as possible of 
ostentation, and she made so little parade of her talents and 
learning that I remember one morning she was extremely 
disconcerted at my having observed a Greek work lying in her 
room, full of marginal annotations in her own handwriting.* ^ 

Mrs. Damer being delicate continued to spend most of her 
winters abroad, and wrote an account of her travels, which she once 
thought of publishing, but unfortunately it was left to be burnt 
with the rest of her papers, so we have to fell back upon her letters. 
In November 1790 she writes from Lisbon : *. • . Nothing can 
be more civil and attentive than the people in general are to me 
here — Mr. Walpole, our Minister, and his wife in particular. 

On Monday in the evening Mrs. , wife of one of the 

Factory, sees company ; on Wednesday, a Portuguese house, the 
Marquis D*Abrantes, is open ; on Thursday, Mrs. Walpole ; on 
Friday, the Long room (an assembly and ball) ; on Saturday, the 
French Ambassadress ; and on Sunday the opera and a Portuguese 
play, if one chooses to go : omnia habes^ except some dinners. • . . 
Yesterday I went to a concert and ball given by the Due de 
Cadaval, the first nobleman of Portugal and a prince of the blood. 
... I have been learning Portuguese, and it only deserves 
the name of a dialect, and to those who have learned other 
languages is ridiculously easy.' Of the visit to Paris which she 
made in 1 802 with her dear friend Miss Berry, we know something 
from private letters to her relations and from that lady's journal. 
It is curious now to read that * to go from London to Dover 

^ Princess Daschkoff was a good judge of talent and acquirements in others, as 
she was a most capable and clever woman. She was the friend and correspondent 
of Diderot, who had a high opinion of her intellect. In 1782 she was made Director 
of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in St Petersburg, and she projected and 
executed the first Russian dictionary. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 77 

in one day would, at the best time of the year, be a very long 
day*s journey,* and that they had to sleep at Sittingbourne. At 
Amiens they fell in with the peace * nigociateurs,* and met Joseph 
Buonaparte and his * thin, very ugly, and very vulgar little wife, 
Maria Julia Clary,* ^ and Lord Cornwallis. Arrived in Paris, 
Mrs. Damer, who was not at all above caring for dress, and was 
always reputed to be both smart and well dressed,^ carried off 
Miss Berry two days after their arrival to the great dressmaker 
of that date, Mme. Le Roi. Miss Berry says : * She was very 
civil, and not at all pert ; but if she had anything pretty, treated 
us as dames etrangireSy and showed us nothing that I should 
have liked to have worn, not on account of its singularity or 
youthfulness, but of its common vulgar look.* Mrs. Damer, 
of course, spent a good deal of time at the Gallery of the 
Louvre, where she met Mrs. Cosway, whom she knew inti- 
mately, and who, as well as her husband, had often painted 
her. It was equally a matter of course that Mrs. Damer should 
carry off Miss Berry to all the theatres. They saw Talma, but 
thought his voice rough, hoarse, and very disagreeable, and his 
* squint against him.* 

They met many old friends in Paris and brought letters of 
introduction to others, and received the greatest civility from all. 
They went into the society of the nouveaux riches as well as 
into that of the old world, and were immensely struck by the 

^ Julie Clary was the daughter of a rich tradesman in Marseille, where her 
father had made his fortune as a soap-boiler. Though of very unprepossessing 
appearance, she had many virtues and was witty and sparkling. Her sister 
D^ir^e, who was as beautiful as she was plain, became Queen of Norway and 
Sweden. Napoleon at one time wished to marry her, but her brothers said one 
Corsican in the family was enough ! 

' Mrs. Damer was the first female in England who wore black silk stockings ; 
for this and other habits she obtained the nickname of the *• Epicurean ' in the 
newspaper epigrams of the day. 



78 Three Generations of Fascinating IVonien 

superiority of the latter, not only in manners but in dress and 
looks. Soon after their arrival they dined with Mme. Chabot 
de Castellane in the Rue Plumet, where they met Mme. de 
Beauvau, Mme. de Mortemart, Mme. (Louise) de Talleyrand- 
Pirigord, Mme. d'Audenarde, Mathieu de Montmorency, and 
Mme. de Stad. The latter had known Mrs. Damer in London, 
and she invited her and Miss Berry to dinner to meet the 
Neckers, de Saussure, Benjamin Constant, and Mme. de R6camier. 
Though incontestably beautiful. Miss Berry does not seem to 
have been attracted by Mme. de Ricamien She describes her as 

* thinking much of herself, with perfect carelessness about others ; 
her manners doucereuseSy and dressed with much affectation of 
singularity.* Mme. de StaCl entertaining Mme. Ricamier forcibly 
reminds one of the various bons mots related i propos of their 
friendship— the terrible snub to th^ gauche young man who, sitting 
between them, said how happy he was to be between wit and beauty. 

* Yes, and possessing neither,* being the retort of Mme. de Stad. 
And Talleyrand's answer to Mme. de Stad when she asked him 
before Mme. de Ricamier, if he found himself on a plank in the 
sea with both of them and could only save one, which it should 
be. Turning to Mme. de Stafil he said, ' Vous savez nager, je 
crois, Madame.* 

Another evening Mrs. Damer and Miss Berry went to Mme. 
de Beauvau to meet Mme. d'Hinin, Mme. de la Rochefoucauld 
(widow of the Duke killed in the Revolution), the Due de Rohan 
Chabot, his nephew the Chevalier Chabot, the agreeable and 
witty Henry Luttrell, and Lord Henry Petty (afterwards Lord 
Lansdowne), the Maecenas of his age. And they attended an 
assembly at the Duchesse de Luines's, one of the very few houses 
of the ancien rSgime that still received, where they admired Mme. 
de Bouillie, Mme. de Chevreuse, and Mme. de Montmorenci. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 79 

They also went to two balls — one given by M. de Crillon, 
whom they thought a perfect specimen of a middle-aged gentle- 
man. He was a son of the Due de Crillon, and had managed, 
by remaining at his post, to get through the Revolution better 
almost than any one else. He still inhabited the same handsome 
house on the Place Louis XV., and was even waited on by the 
same servants. The other ball was given by the Russian, M. 
DemidofF, and was a gorgeous afFair. In the antechamber was a 
houquen'hre who presented every lady with a large bouquet of 
beautiful forced flowers, worth, says Miss Berry, * not less than 
twelve or eighteen livres apiece, and these bouquets were changed 
as often as you pleased.* Dancing in those days was an art ; and 
Miss Berry mentions that at this ball Vestris danced a quadrille 
with Mme. Hamelin, one of the best dancers in Paris, and also 
alludes to the dancing of M. Jacques Laflitte, the well-known 
banker, said to be the best dancer of Paris. 

Mrs. Damer and Miss Berry were present at several entertain- 
ments given by the Ministers. At Berthier's, the War Minister, 
they met young Beauharnais, * good-looking, but by no means 
distinguished-looking ;' La Place, the mathematician and astro- 
nomer ; and Cambacirfcs. Le Brun (afterwards Due de Piacenza), 
who had met Mrs. Damer before, in Paris in 1755, at the sale 
of the Prince de Conti's pictures, invited her and Miss Berry to 
a party where they met General La&yette, *a gentlemanlike, 
sickly-looking man, in no sort of uniform, a plain blue coat, 
round hat, and cropped head.' Mrs. Damer and Miss Berry 
were presented by Mrs. Cosway to Buonaparte's mother at her 
house in the Rue Chaussie d'Antin. Miss Berry describes 
Mme. Buonaparte mtre as possessing the remains of great 
beauty, with large dark eyes and an intelligent mild countenance. 
But Mrs. Damer*s great treat was reserved for April 8, when she 



8o Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

and Miss Beny went by appointment to the Tuilcrics and were 
presented to the First Consul, who spoke to each of them for a 
few moments. Mrs. Damer had the greatest possible admiration 
for Buonaparte, and had come to Paris solely in the hope of 
meeting her hero. She and Miss Berry had previously seen 
him at the femous parade, when the latter lady described him 
as ^ a little man, remarkably well on horseback, with a sallow 
complexion, a highish nose, a very serious countenance, and 
cropped hair.* At the presentation. Miss Berry says : * His 
manner was simple and unaffected, his hair very dark ^ and 
cropped very short, not so little as represented, with good 
teeth, and his mouth, when speaking in good humour, has a 
remarkable and uncommon expression of sweetness ; eyes of 
light grey, and he looks full in the face of the person to whom 
he speaks.* Thirteen years later, when Mrs. Damer was ia 
Paris in 1 8 1 5, she presented to the Emperor Napoleon at the 
Palais de TElys^e a bust in marble which she had done of 
Charles James Fox ; and shortly after she received by the hands 
of General Bertrand a magnificent snufF-box with the Emperor's 
portrait surrounded by diamonds, now in the British Museum, 
to which she left it. 

In early life Mrs. Damer took an active part in politics. 
She was a decided Whig ; and when Westminster was divided by 
Fox's friends into three districts, Georgiana, Duchess of Devon- 
shire, took the management of one, Mrs. Crewe of another, and 
Mrs. Damer of the third, and she is said to have canvassed for 
her favourite with great activity and success. Charles James 
Fox was a nephew of Mrs. Damer's brother-in-law, the third 
Duke of Richmond. 

' The writer has a large lock of Napoleon's hair given to a member of her 
family by General Bertrand. It is not black, but a very dark rich brown, of a 
most beautiful texture, fine, and very glossy. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 8i 

Nelson was another of Mrs. Damer*s heroes. She knew 
him well ; and he sat to her, immediately after his return from 
the Battle of the Nile, in the coat which he wore during the 
battle and which he afterwards gave her. Mrs. Damer made a 
bust of him in marble, * heroic size,* which she presented to the 
City of London, and it was put up in the Common Council 
Chamber at Guildhall. 

To enumerate even the half of Mrs. Damer's friends would 
be impossible, but it is scarcely too much to say that she was 
acquainted with almost every one who was celebrated, not only 
in the world of fashion, but in the world of letters, science, and 
art. Among the literary lights whom she knew well, besides 
those whom we have already mentioned, we find the names of 
Byron, Scott, Rogers, Campbell, Horace and James Smith, Joanna 
Baillie, Sir James Mackintosh, Lord Brougham, Lord Jeffrey, 
Sidney Smith, Burke, and Tommy Moore. Amongst her scientific 
acquaintances were Mrs. Somerville, John Hunter the surgeon. 
Sir Humphry Davy, Sir Joseph Banks, and Playfair. The latter 
in writing to Miss Berry says : * Among my obligations to you 
I must not forget the acquaintance of Mrs. Damer : the liberality 
of whose mind, the good sense, and sound reason that dictates 
her opinions are not less remarkable than her elegance and taste.* 
Mrs. Damer was a pleasing combination of intellectual attain- 
ment and all the lighter accomplishments. She was a most 
graceful and finished dancer in those days when dancing was 
worth looking at, and when she was young she enjoyed going 

to balls. In 1 778, Horace Walpole says : * The quadrilles at 

were very pretty : Mrs. Damer, Lady Sefton, Lady Melbourne, 
and the Princess Czartoriski, in blue satin with blonde, and collets 
months ^ la reine Elizabeth ; Lord Robert Spencer, Mr. Fitz- 
patrickj and Lord Carlisle, and I forget whom, in blue dresses with 

o 



82 Three Generations of Fascinating IVomen 

red sashes, black hats with diamond loops and a few feathers 
before,' opened the ball. In Taylor's * Life of Reynolds ' we read 
that at the opening of the Pantheon a great many of the ladies 
chose to adopt male dominoes. Among the most distinguished 
of these * pretty fellows ' were the Duchess of Ancaster, Lady 
Melbourne, and Mrs. Damer.^ 

Horace Walpole, Lord Orford, left Strawberry Hill and 
;^2,ooo a year to Mrs. Damer, who was his executrix and 
residuary legatee. She therefore in 1798 took up her abode 
there with her widowed mother. Lady Ailesbury, going only to 
London for the winter. She became thus the near neighbour 
of her dear friends the Berrys, Lord Orford having left them 
Little Strawberry Hill. Mrs. Damer fitted up a small theatre at 
Strawberry Hill and indulged in her favourite amusement of 
private theatricals, assisted by the Berrys and other friends. Miss 
Berry gives the cast of two plays acted there in 1 800 ; and in 
the following year a comedy in five acts, by Miss Berry herself, 
called * Fashionable Friends,' was acted there by Mrs. Damer and 
her troupe, the prologue and epilogue being written by Miss 
Joatma Baillie. 

Mrs. Damer also gave most popular garden parties, and 
received many distinguished visitors. Among those who came 
most frequently were Mrs. Siddons, Garrick's widow, and 
Joanna Baillie. Caroline, Princess of Wales, was also often 
there, and constantly invited Mrs. Damer to Kensington Palace, 
Blackheath, or Connaught Place. This intimacy was brought 
about in a great measure through the medium of Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, Mrs. Damer's first cousin, who was for some years 
Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess, and stood by her till 

^ By this it must not be understood that these ladies were dressed in male 
attire, but that they merely put on men's dominoes over their ladies' costumes. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 83 

she could do so no longer in justice to her own reputation. 
Miss Berry describes the Princesses first visit to Strawberry Hill, 
and says that ^ after going over the house, but talking more than 
looking at anything, she departed with a thousand thanks to 
Mrs, Darner/ The next day she sent Lady Glenbervie to 
propose to Mrs. Darner to share with her a box at Covent 
Garden — that is to say, have it on the Opera nights — to which 
arrangement Mrs. Damer did not accede. 

Queen Charlotte paid Mrs. Damer a visit at Strawberry Hill 
in 1 8 10. Her Majesty thus alludes to it in a letter to one of 
her children : * We dined [at Strawberry Hill] at 3 and had, to 
the honour of Mrs. Damer's housekeeper and cook, as elegant 
and good a dinner as if a Cordon Bleu had directed it ; we were 
very chearfuU and a little after 4 we drank CofFe * {sic). Queen 
Charlotte much admired the flowers at Strawberry Hill. Mrs. 
Damer was a great gardener and worked herself amongst them. 
Miss Berry writes in 1 799 : * Mrs. Damer chips away at her 
marble one half of the morning and trots about the grounds 
the other half, in all weathers, and is much the better for this 
variety of exercise.* 

In 181 1 Mrs. Damer resigned Strawberry Hill in fevour 
of the then Countess Dowager of Waldegrave, in whom the 
remainder in fee was invested. At first she went to a house of 
Lady Buckinghamshire's at East Sheen, and in 1 8 1 8 she moved 
to York House, Twickenham, which she bought from her 
friend Prince Stahremberg, the late Austrian ambassador.^ 

^ Count Stahremberg used to play a great deal. His English was not so good 
as his luck. Playing one night at trente-et-un, his Excellency, who was not very 
nice in his person, kept proclaiming the state of his hand by saying, ' I am dirty I 
I am dirty 1 ' At last, when he had achieved the best possible hand, he almost 
embraced Lord fiarrymore, exclaiming, ' I am dirty I I am dirty one I ' Barrymore, 
who had no liking for the nasty embrace, said : * Damn it, so you are ; but that's 
no reason why I should be dirty too I * 

G 2 



84 Three Generations of JFascinating Women 

York House had formerly belonged to the great Lord Claren- 
don, who gave it to James, Duke of York (afterwards James IL), 
when he married his daughter, Anne Hyde ; and it contains the 
state room in which Queen Anne was born, though it has been 
so often erroneously asserted that she was born at Swallow- 
field, near Reading, the seat of her uncle, the second Earl of 
Clarendon. 

For the remainder of her life Mrs. Damer lived at York 
House during the summer, and in winter at her house in Upper 
Brook Street, where she died on May 28, 1828, aged eighty, of a 
gradual decay.^ She lost her sight for a few previous hours, but 
retained her hearing and other faculties to the last moment. 
Her deathbed was attended by George, sixth Duke of Argyll, 
her first cousin, and by Sir Alexander Johnston, who had married 
her cousin, the daughter of Lord William Campbell. She was 
buried at Sundridge Church, near the married home of her 
grandmother, Mary Bellenden, her working tools and apron, by 
her express desire, being buried in her coffin.* 

About a year before her death the Duke of Clarence,' on 
becoming Lord High Admiral of England, was anxious that 

* In * The Creevey Papers * there is a letter of Mr. Creevey's written in February 
1 821, in which he says : * As soon as Brougham was ready, we set off to pick up 
Mrs. Damer, who was to dine also with the Queen. And here let me stop to 
express my admiration for this extraordinary person. You know she is Field- 
Marshal Conway's daughter, cousin of Lord Hertford, &c. She is the person who 
paid all her husband's debts, without the least obligation upon her so to do, and 
she is the person who renounced all claim to half of Lord Clinton's estate when 
she was informed that by law she was entitled to it. She is seventy years of age 
(as a matter of fact she was seventy-three) and as fresh as if she was fifty.' 

' There is an inscription in Latin to her memory on the south side of the 
church. 

* Mrs. Damer had made a cast of Mrs. Jordan's leg, for which H.R.H. the Duke 
of Clarence sent a note with his own and Mrs. Jordan's thanks ; and at the death of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, who had the cast, the Duke of Clarence applied for it in form 
to Burke, as one of Uie executors, and the latter sent it to H.R.H. 



The Hon. Mrs. Darner 85 

Mrs. Darner should execute for him a bust of Nelson in bronze. 
Notwithstanding her great age, Mrs. Darner began the under- 
taking at once ; and, in spite of her infirmities and weakness, 
succeeded in finishing it, to her great satisfaction, a very few days 
before her death. Lady Johnston, her cousin and residuary 
legatee, shortly after took the bust to the Duke, at the same 
time presenting him with the coat which Nelson wore at the 
Battle of the Nile and which he sat in to Mrs. Damer and 
afterwards gave her. The Duke of Clarence ultimately gave 
the coat to Greenwich Hospital, where it was deposited in the 
Painted Hall. 

Mrs. Damer left York House to Lady Johnston, whose 
daughters sold it to the Due d'Aumale for the Comte de Paris, 
who lived there till after 1891. She also settled all her busts, 
and the paintings worked by her mother. Lady Ailesbury, as 
heirlooms upon Lady Johnston and her daughters ; the last of 
these ladies died unmarried in 1880, when Mrs. Damer's 
possessions passed into the hands of their brothers, in whose 
families they now are. 

Mrs. Damer was painted twice by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
three times by Cosway, and more than once by Angelica KaufF- 
mann, all of whose portraits have been engraved. She was 
also painted by Romney. The following is a description of 
her by a contemporary : * She was fair, with luxuriant hair ; 
her face a perfect oval, her features marked yet delicate ; her 
nose aquiline ; her mouth shewed strong decision of character, 
being firmly closed, though with a merry smile ; her eyes full of 
thought and spirit ; her head well set on a long neck. She was 
gay and witty in society, and had most fascinating manners.' In 
moral character she was irreproachable, and there was never even 



86 Three Generations of Fascinating Women 

a breath of slander raised against her fair fame. Princess 
Elizabeth of Hesse wrote to Lord Harcourt in 1795 • * Mrs. 
Damer*s engaging and enchanting manners must please every- 
body &c.' 

Anne Seymour Damer may surely take her place in this 
family group of three generations of fascinating women. 



A GIPSY PREDICTION FULFILLED 

One summer's day in the year 1752 four or five young ladies, 
accompanied by their respective chaperons and attended by 
some gay gallants, were wending their way through the fashion- 
able crowd down the Mall in St. James's Park. The young 
girls were cousins — some were Cholmondeleys and some were 
Merediths^ — ^lately arrived from Cheshire on their first visit 
to the metropolis. They had just partaken of the syllabubs, 
which was the fashionable thing to do,^ and were about to return 
home when a swarthy woman came out from a booth and begged 
to tell them their fortunes. Some of them at once put out 
their hands, but Mary Meredith drew back and said she had no 
faith in such nonsense. The gipsy then shook her fist at the 
pretty girl, and screamed out, * You think yourself very clever, 
but you'll marry a man who'll be hung, and you yourself will 
never die in your bed.* 

That evening this young lady, who had probably almost for- 
gotten the episode of the morning, met her fate. Laurence, fourth 
Earl Ferrers, made her acquaintance at an assembly, followed her 
to the country, and after spending a few days in her company at 

* Henrietta Meredith, who married the Hon. Frederick Vane, son of Lord 
Darlington ; and Elizabeth Meredith, who married William Bankes of Winstanley 
Hall, Lancashire. 

' The last remains of the Milk Fair were cleared away in September 1885. 



88 A Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 

Henbury, the house of her brother, Sir William Meredith, 
became engaged to her, and shortly after, on September 1 6, they 
were married. 

Now, if poor Mary Meredith*s father or mother had been 
alive, they would probably have made some inquiries respecting 
this suitor for the hand of their young and innocent daughter, 
and they would have ascertained that his antecedents were not 
satisfactory. Though of a very ancient and noble family, many of 
whose members were well known to fame, on one side he came 
of what Horace Walpole calls * a very frantic race.' His uncle 
Henry, Lord Ferrers, whom he succeeded, was a lunatic, and 
died in a maison de santi at Kensington Gore ; and his aunt. 
Lady Barbara Shirley (as well as another one, * Lady Betty'), was 
out of her mind.^ Lord Ferrers himself, as a boy, was strangely 
moody and passionate, and had since taken to drink, and though 
in many ways he was exceedingly intelligent, in others he showed 
marked signs of insanity.^ The poor young wife was not long 
in finding this out ; for, from the commencement of her married 
life, he cruelly ill-treated her, and she was soon obliged to leave 
him, being in terror of her life. He always took pistols to 
bed with him and threatened to kill her before the morning, 

^ See evidence given on trial. Several other members of this branch of the 
family were merely eccentric, and, like Lady Selina Shirley, gave forth their 
erratic enex^gies in a good cause. Lady Selina married the Earl of Huntingdon ; 
she was a fervent disciple of the celebrated Whitfield and the St Theresa of the 
Methodists, and was, as Lord Dover says, the peculiar patroness of enthusiasts 
of all sorts of religion. Her chapels are to be found all over the kingdom, and 
Lady Huntingdon's name is looked upon with much veneration by some sectarians. 
Whitfield in his will says : *• I leave my house in Georgia with all my negroes and 
everything of which I am possessed to that elect Lady — that mother in Israel, 
that mirror of true and undefiled religion, the Rt Hon. Selina Countess Dowager 
of Huntingdon.' Horace Walpole says : * With all his madness. Lord Ferrers was 
not mad enough to be struck with his Aunt Huntingdon's sermons.' 

' Dr. John Monro, a specialist for lunacy, gave evidence at the trial to this 
effect, havmg treated him when under the influence of lunacy. 



A Gipsy Predictimt fulfilled 89 

and he also beat her. She was separated from him in 1758 by 
an Act of Parliament, which appointed Receivers of his estate 
in order to secure her allowance. This angered Lord Ferrers 
greatly ; however, he named his steward, Mr. John Johnson, 
a very worthy, honest old man, as one of the Receivers. Lord 
Ferrers now left his family place, Stanton Harold, and went 
to live at Muswell Hill, near Highgate, with a Mrs. Clifford, 
by whom he had four daughters. Whilst here, we are told, he 
was in the habit of mixing his beer and porter with mud, and 
he habitually shaved only one side of his face. His relations 
discussed the question of shutting him up, but no steps were 
taken to carry this plan into effect. 

At last, in January 1760, the climax came. On finding that 
Johnson had paid Lady Ferrers £^0 without his knowledge. Lord 
Ferrers, who was then at Stanton Harold, took a sudden deter- 
mination to kill him. There was some method in his madness, 
for on the fatal day he not only sent Mrs. Clifford and her 
children away, but also his only two menservants. When 
Johnson arrived in answer to Lord Ferrers's invitation, the latter 
locked the door and ordered him to sign a paper confessing that 
he was a villain. This the steward reftised to do ; upon which 
Lord Ferrers forced him to kneel down, and there shot him with 
a pistol. Johnson did not die at once, and Lord Ferrers sent for 
a surgeon and also for the poor man*s daughter. Johnson was 
conveyed to his own house during the night, and died the next 
day. Lord Ferrers was taken to Leicester Gaol, and a fortnight 
after was brought up to London under a strong guard, but in his 
own landau drawn by six horses. On this occasion, we are told, he 
was dressed like a jockey. Arraigned before the House of Lords, 
he was committed to the Tower, and two months later was again 
brought up for trial at the bar of the House of Peers. He cross- 



90 A Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 

examined the witnesses himself with great clearness, and, as Horace 
Walpole said, * it was a strange contradiction to see a man trying, 
by his own sense, to prove himself out of his own senses.* And 
*it was moving to see two of his own brothers^ brought to 
prove the lunacy in their own blood in order to save their 
brother*s life/ Lord Talbot prophesied that, * not being thought 
mad enough to be shut up till he had killed somebody, he will 
then be thought too mad to be executed.' This prophecy, 
however, was not realised ; for the trial, which lasted three 
days, resulted in Lord Ferrers being sentenced *to be hanged 
by the neck till he is dead, and that his body be dissected 
and anatomised/ His mother presented two petitions to the 
king without avail, and he himself wrote to the king to beg 
that he might suffer where his ancestor the Earl of Essex 
had suffered, and hoped to obtain that favour, as he had the 
honour of quartering part of the same arms and of being allied 
to his Majesty.^ All the concession granted was, * in conse- 
quence of his rank,* a few days* extension, and the privilege of 
having a special scaffold. Lord Ferrers retained his composure 
to the last. The night he received sentence he played piquet 
with his warders ; and the evening before his execution he 

^ The Hon. Robert and Walter Shirley. 

^ Sir Henry Shirley, second baronet, married in 1615 Lady Dorothy Devereux, 
daughter of Robert, Earl of Essex. It is by this alliance that the Earls Ferrers 
quarter the arms of France and England with their own ; the Earl of Essex being 
maternally descended from Richard Plantagenet, grandfother of King Edward IV., 
and also from Thomas Plantagenet, youngest son of King Edward III. Apropos 
of this, James, Earl of Charlemont, tells the following story, which he said was 
characteristic of the French. 'General Flobert, when on parole, was breakfasting 
with me, when some one came in and told me that the day was appointed for the 
execution of Lord Ferrers. I saw his surprise, and upon the departure of the 
gentleman he eagerly said, ** Mais, comment ? est-ce vraiment un milord qu'on va 
pendre pour avoir tu^ un boux^geois ? " To increase his wonder, I replied, " Oui, 
vraiment, et non seulement milord, mais parent du roi." '* Pardieu, dit-il, cela est 
singulier, et cependant, cela est beau." ' 



A Gipsy Prediction ftiljilled 91 

made one of his keepers read * Hamlet ' to him after he was in 

bed, and half an hour before the sheriffs fetched him, corrected 

some verses he had written in the Tower in imitation of the 

Duke of Buckingham's epitaph ('Dubius $ed non improbus 

vixi ) : 

In doubt I lived, in doubt I die. 

Yet stand prepared the vast abyss to try, 

And, undismay'd, expect eternity. 

He was visited by the Bishop of Rochester, by Whitfield, and by 
his aunts Lady Huntingdon and Lady Fanny Shirley. 

At his particular desire, Lord Ferrers went to Tyburn in his 
own landau drawn by six horses, and he was then dressed in his 
wedding suit of white and silver. He was preceded and followed 
by an immense procession, consisting of constables, ^ horse 
grenadiers,* and *foot soldiers,' which moved so very slowly 
that it took two hours and three-quarters in getting from the 
Tower to Tyburn. It is said to have passed by * many hundred 
thousand spectators,* and Lord Ferrers appears to have met with 
universal sympathy. He was accompanied by Paul Vaillant, the 
Sheriff of Middlesex,^ as well as by Mr. Humphries, the chaplain. 
The sheriff told Lord Ferrers that it gave him * the highest 
concern to wait on him upon so melancholy an occasion, but that 
he would do everything in his power to render his situation as 
easy as possible, and hoped that whatever he did his lordship 
would impute to the necessary discharge of his duty * 1 Lord 
Ferrers thanked him, and asked him if he had ever seen so great 
a concourse of people before ; and upon the sheriff answering that 
he had not, said, * I suppose it is because they never saw a lord 
hanged before * 1 The chaplain took occasion to observe that 
the world would naturally be very inquisitive concerning the 

> Paul Vaillant, a French bookseller in the Strand. 



92 A Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 

religion his lordship professed, to which Lord Ferrers answered 
that he did not think himself at all accountable to the world for 
his sentiments on religion, but that he had always believed in and 
adored one God, the Maker of all things ; that whatever his 
notions were, he had never propagated them, or endeavoured to 
gain any persons over to his own persuasions ; that all countries 
and nations had a form of religion by which the people were 
governed, and that he looked upon whoever disturbed them in 
it as an enemy to society ; that he very much blamed my Lord 
Bolingbroke for permitting his sentiments on religion to be 
published to the world ; that the many sects and disputes which 
arise about religion have almost turned morality out of doors. 
Concerning the unfortunate Mr. Johnson, he declared most 
solemnly that he had not the least malice towards him. When 
they approached the place of execution. Lord Ferrers told the 
sheriff that there was a person waiting in a coach near there for 
whom he had a very sincere regard, and of whom he should be 
glad to take his leave before he died ; to which the sheriff 
answered that if his lordship insisted upon it, it should be 
arranged, but that he wished his lordship would not do so lest 
the sight of a person for whom he had such a regard would 
unman him, and disarm htm of the fortitude he possessed. To 
which his lordship replied : * Sir, if you think I am wrong, I 
submit.* And upon the sheriff telling him that if he had anything 
to deliver to that person he would faithfully do it, his lordship 
delivered to the sheriff a pocket-book, in which was a banknote, 
a purse with some guineas, and a ring. On the scaffold Lord 
Ferrers with an audible voice repeated the Lord*s Prayer, and 
afterwards, with great energy, the following ejaculations : * O God, 
forgive me all my errors — ^pardon all my sins.* Lord Ferrers, 
then rising, took his leave of the sheriff and the chaplain, and 



A Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 93 

presented his watch to the former, saying, * It is a stop-watch and 
a pretty accurate one ; it is scarcely worth your acceptance, but 
I have nothing else.' He then called for the executioner, who 
asked his forgiveness ; upon which his lordship said, ^ I freely 
forgive you, as I do all mankind and hope myself to be forgiven.' 
He intended to give the executioner five guineas, but by mistake 
giving it into the hands of the assistant, an unseemly dispute 
arose, which the sheriff instandy silenced. His body was con- 
veyed with the same procession to the Surgeons' Hall in the Old 
Bailey to undergo the remainder of the sentence. A print of the 
time shows the corpse as it lay there. It was afterwards delivered 
to his friends for interment, and was buried privately at Old St. 
Pancras Church, in a grave dug twelve or fourteen feet deep 
under the belfry, but was removed in 1782 to Stanton Harold. 

Thus was realised the first part of the gipsy's prophecy. 

Nine years later, when Lady Ferrers was thirty -two years of 
age and still a very pretty woman, besides being a most exemplary 
one, she took to herself another husband,^ who was as much the 
opposite of her first as it was possible to be. Lord Frederick 
Campbell, her second choice, was the third son of John, fourth 
Duke of Argyll, and his wife the beautiful Mary Bellenden, and 
was remarkable for his grace and refinement and for the noble 
and generous qualities of his heart and mind. ^ He united much 
charm of manner with a very handsome exterior ; ^ his manners, 
noble yet soft, dignified yet devoid of any pride or affectation, 

^ Her second marriage took place in March 1769 at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
The writer has a very pretty pastelle of her, painted about this time, the 
draperies and the pose being a replica of Rosalba's pastelle of 'Winter' in the 
Louvre ; and an engraving of her by Sherwin, done in 1784. There is (or was) 
also a portrait of her at Winstanley Hall, Lancashire, belonging to Meyrick 
Bankes, Esq., great-grandnephew of William Bankes, who married Lady 
Frederick's third sister, Elizabeth Meredith. 

' This is seen in the fine portrait of him painted by Gainsborough. 



94 ^ Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 

conciliated all who approached him.' Such was the description of 
him by a contemporary. Certainly, from all accounts, public and 
private, so far as goodness and kindness and charm were concerned, 
he appears to have been a very prince among men. Without any 
very shining talent, he held various posts with great credit to 
himself and satisfaction to others. At the time of his marriage he 
was Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,* and held 
the lucrative place of Lord Clerk Register of Scotland, which was 
conferred on him for life.^ 

The Duke of Argyll, his father, made over his place. Combe 
Bank, near Sevenoaks, to Lord Frederick during his lifetime, and 
this became Lady Frederick*s favourite residence. The situation 
and neighbourhood were lovely, and the house contained many fine 
pictures and interesting objets d'art ; but Miss Berry, Lady Mary 
Coke, Lady Ailesbury, and Mrs. Damer, all of whom constandy 
went thither, describe it as very uncomfortable and very cold. It 
was here that after many happy years poor Lady Frederick came to 
her tragic end when she was in her seventieth year. On June 25, 
1 807, Lord Frederick went to London ; and that night Lady 
Frederick sat up in her dressing-gown, reading, as usual, till a late 
hour. Her maid left her a litde before midnight, and this was the 
last seen of her. At five o'clock the next morning smoke was 
perceived issuing from the house by a labourer, who gave the 
alarm. It was then discovered that Lady Frederick had not 
been in bed ; and on searching her dressing-room, which was 
on fire, the remains of her body were found there, literally burnt 

^ Lord Townshend. 

' Lord Frederick was a Privy Councillor, one of the Vice-Treasurers of 
Ireland, a member of the Board of Control for Indian Affairs, Treasurer of the 
Society of the Middle Temple, at one time Keeper of the Privy Seal in Scotland, 
a Commissioner of the Public Records of Great Britain, and a Trustee of the 
British Museum, and he sat in Parliament for thirty-eight years. 



IKHICK Ca.mpbhli.. 



A Gipsy Prediction fulfilled 95 

to ashes. It was conjectured either that the unfortunate lady 
had fallen asleep, or that she had had a fit and so set fire to 
herself and the room, fulfilling, by this terrible death, the second 
part of the gipsy prediction.^ 

^ Lord Frederick Campbell survived his wife nine years, dying in his house 
in Queen Street, Mayfair, on June 8, 1816, aged eighty-seven, < elegant and 
distinguished even in decay.' Edridge did a charming likeness of him in 1812, 
when he was eighty-three. 



MORE ABOUT THE GUNNINGS 

So much has been written of late years about the two beautiful 
Miss Gunnings that it seems almost superfluous to attempt to 
say anything more on the subject ; and yet, being in a position 
to add some further details concerning the fair sisters and their 
family, as well as to correct some erroneous statements which 
constantly crop up, we venture to produce them, thinking they 
may interest their descendants, and we must be forgiven if 
sometimes we necessarily go over familiar ground. 

Though generally called Irish, from the fact that their father 
and three previous generations had lived in Ireland and married 
Irishwomen, the beautiful Miss Gunnings were of Cornish 
descent. The name was originally * Gonning,* the * o ' being 
turned into *u' about the middle of the sixteenth century. 
According to Sir Bernard Burke, * the family seat was Tregonning 
in Cornwall, and the senior line became extinct there in 1587, at 
the death, without male issue, of Sir John Gonning, Kt, of 
Tregonning.' ^ Be this as it may, it is about a younger branch, 
which migrated to Somersetshire in the middle of the fifteenth 

^ In an account of that part of Cornwall by W. Penaluna, published in 18 19, 
the author says : ' The highest hill in Breage is denominated Tregoning Hill, from 
the principal house and estate upon it, once a place of very considerable impor- 
tance, having a large building and chapel adjoining it' Leland also says that the 
hill was called Gonyn. On visiting the spot a few years ago we found a farm 
called * Tregonning,* and the name * Gonning* still existing there amongst the 
lower orders. 



More about the Gunnings 97 

m 

century, that we have to speak. For two hundred and fifty years 
this branch was settled in the immediate neighbourhood of Bath 
and Bristol, several of its representatives rising to considerable 
wealth and becoming merchants of position in Bristol in its 
palmy days. The first of the name that we find there was 
William Gonning, son of Thomas Gonning of Tregonning, who 
married Alice Long, settled at North Stoke, near Bath, and died 
in 1458. In 1642 when the Speaker of the House of Commons 
sent a letter to the Mayor of Bristol (John Locke) and Aldermen 
requesting contributions from the City for the Parliament, John 
Gonning and his brother-in-law, Edward Pitt, appear in the list 
of non-subscribers. In 1643 when Prince Rupert invested the 
City the Council resolved to offer a present to the King * as a 
testimony of the love and good affection of the City.' Alderman 
Gonning and John Gonning, jun., contributed, the latter giving 
;f 150. This same year Fiennes levied contributions, and a 
mandate, which has been preserved, desires John Gonning, jun., 
to pay forthwith ;^200, * which sum in respect of your estate is 
below the proportion required of other persons of your quality.' 
In April 1644 Queen Henrietta Maria spent a night or two at 
Bristol, and the Council resolved that ;^500 should be presented 
to her Majesty. Some trouble was found in raising the money, 
but Mr. John Gonning again came to the fore. In October 
1645 the Parliamentary leaders determined upon extensive 
changes in the Common Council at Bristol and suspended some 
who were loyally affected during the Royalist occupation. The 
favour shown to John Gonning is one of the puzzles of the time. 
He was then nominated Mayor, and in a note to the magisterial 
records for 1655 we find that * Mayor John Gonning, a Cavalier, 
was serving for the second time,' and in 1661 he was reinstated. 
In 1662 John Gunning, Mayor and Alderman of Bristol, was 

H 



98 More about the Gunnings 

granted arms : Gu, three guns or cannon barwise in pale, arg ; 
Crest, a wheel, gu, between two wings arg (Had. MS, 144 1). 
These canting arms are totally different from those borne by his 
third cousin, Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely, which were Gu on 
a fess arg, between three doves of the second, beaks and legs or, 
claws az, as many crosses patee of the first. The Gonnings 
continued in the neighbourhood of Bath and Bristol till 
the end of the seventeenth century, when they became 
extinct in the male line at the death of Sir Robert Gunning 
of Cold Ashton, who married Ann, daughter of Sir Robert 
Cann, Bart, and died without issue.^ At the death of Sir 
Robert Gunning in 1682 there were many suitors for the 
hand of his widow, who besides being very rich was said to be 
beautifuL Of these the one she favoured was Mr. Dudley North. 
He was brother of Lord Chief Justice North, afterwards Lord 
Guilford, Keeper of the Great Seal, and he himself became Com- 
missioner of the Treasury to King Charles IL, but up to this 
time he had led an adventurous life abroad and had no abiding 
place ; and Sir Robert Cann, Lady Gunning's father, who was 
a very crusty morose old gentleman, made objections to the 
engagement and said that ^ when Mr. North had purchased an 
estate in land of three or four thousand pounds a year, whereby 
he might make settlements suitable to his daughter's fortune, he 
would hearken to the proposition, but none of less estate in land 
must pretend to her.* Then Mr. North wrote a proposition to 
settle ;^20,ooo to purchase an estate, &c. The old man answered 
thus, * Sir, my answer to your first letter is an answer to your 
second. — Your humble servant, R. C Mr. North returned, 
* Sir, I perceive you like neither me nor my business. — ^Your 

^ His sister Elizabeth (or Hester) Gunning, who died 1704, married Sir Thomas 
Langton of Newton Park, a quo the present Earl Temple. 



More about the Gunnings 99 

humble servant, D. N/ And there ended the correspondence 
with the father at that time, but in the meanwhile Sir Robert 
Cann wrote to his daughter to show her * the precipice she was 
upon ; going to marry a desperado, not worth a groat, and one 
that certainly would be hanged/ The old curmudgeon, however, 
ultimately consented to the match, which we are told ^was 
solemnised with a very honourable attendance,' and * he came at 
last to be very proud of his son-in-law.* This same year Dudley 
North was knighted, a distinction we are told he would not have 
accepted had it not been that he could ^ not bear separation from 
his wife, even of names,' and it was considered necessary that as 
long as he was only Mr. North she should remain * Lady Gun- 
ning.' The marriage was a very satisfactory one. Sir Dudley 
died in 1691, and she survived him upwards of twenty-five 
years, and both lie buried at Glemham in Suffolk. Meanwhile, 
in the middle of the sixteenth century, a younger son of 
one of these Bristol merchants — Peter, fourth son of John 
Conning of Swainswick and Cold Ashton (by his wife Mary, 
daughter of William Dodington of Dodington) — moved to 
Kent, and is described as ^ of Brookland and of Ash.' He 
died in 1567, leaving by his wife (Elizabeth Alchorne.^) a 
son, Thomas Conning of Ash, born 1554 and died 1635, who 
had four sons.* The three eldest remained in Kent : (i) Peter, 
Vicar of Hoo, near Rochester, and Rector of Cravesend ; 
(2) Thomas of Southfleet ; (3) Robert of Meopham ; and the 
fourth was Richard, ancestor of the fair sisters. But before 
we go to him and his descendants, we must follow his elder 
brother, the Vicar of Hoo. The latter married, in 161 2, 

^ Alchomes of Hall's Place, Kent, descended from the Alchoraes of Alchorne, 
Rotherfield, Sussex. 

* A manuscript pedigree of the Tracy family states that Thomas Conning of 
Ash had also foiv daughters. 

H 2 



loo More about the Gunnings 

Eleanor, daughter of Francis Tracy of Hoo ^ (and aunt to 
Sir John Tracjr, Bart.), and died in 1615, leaving an infant son, 
Peter, who became the famous Bishop of Ely. Born in 1613, 
he was sent when very young to the King's School in Canterbury, 
his father having requested in his will that his wife should 
bring him up to learning. At fifteen Peter Gunning went to 
Clare Hall, Cambridge, and when he was twenty he took orders, 
and very soon became celebrated as a preacher and distinguished 
himself by his zeal for the Church and King. The Tracy MS. says 
that at Tonbridge * he exhorted the people in two sermons to 
make a charitable contribution for the relief of the King's forces 
there ; which conduct rendered him obnoxious to the Powers 
then in being, who first imprisoned him, and, on his refusing to 
take the covenant, deprived him of his Fellowship.* Being thus 
ejected, he removed to Oxford. During his residence there he 
officiated two years at the curacy of Cassington, and sometimes 
preached before the King, for which service he was given the 
degree of B.D. in 1 646. Soon after this he became chaplain to 
Sir Robert Shirley, who was so pleased with his great worth as 
well as learning that he settled upon him an annuity of ;f 100 a 
year. At the death of Sir Robert he held a congregation at the 
chapel of Exeter House in the Strand according to the Liturgy of 
the Church of England ; yet it is said * he met with no further 
molestation from the Usurper Cromwell, than that of being now 
and then sent for and reproved by him.' On the return of 
Charles II., he was restored to his Fellowship, and created D.D., 
having first been presented to a prebend in the church of 
Canterbury ; soon after, he was instituted to the rectories of 

^ Mrs. Peter Gunning, mother of the future bishop, married secondly Edward 
Henshaw, and died in 1643, having had by her second husband two sons, Tobias 
Henshaw, Archdeacon of Lewes, 1670^ and Bernard Henshaw, living in 1^3. 



Peter Gunning, Bishop of Eli 

From a Prial a/Irr the P:iluri by Loggav. 



More about the Gunnings loi 

Cottesmore In Rutlandshire and of Stoke Breweme In 
Northamptonshire. He was also In the same year made Master 
of Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, and also Ladjr Margaret 
Professor of Divinity, and In a few months succeeded to the 
Regius Professorship of Divinity and the headship of St. John's 
College, he ' being looked upon as the properest person to settle 
the University on right principles again after the many cor- 
ruptions that had crept Into that body.* Dr. Gunning was 
reckoned one of the most learned sons of the Church, and was 
one of the Committee upon the revision of the Liturgy, when it 
was brought into that state of sufficiency where it has rested ever 
since ; and we must not omit to say that It was he who wrote the 
prayer * For all sorts and conditions of men,* originally much 
longer. In 1669 he was made Bishop of Chichester, and five 
years later promoted to Ely. He died unmarried In July 1684, 
aged seventy, and was buried in Ely Cathedral under a monu- 
ment of white marble, which has an inscription that has often 
been printed. (See Appendix.) 

Both Pepys and Evelyn frequently allude in their Diaries 
to Peter Gunning. Evelyn writes in 1672 : *The Bishop of 
Chichester preached before the King admirably well, as he can 
do nothing but what is well;' and again in 1673 he says: 
* Carried my son to the Bishop of Chichester, that learned 
and pious man. Dr. Gunning, to be instructed by him before 
he received the Holy Communion, when he gave him most 
excellent advice which I pray God may Influence him as long as 
he lives.* 

Dr. Gunning Is described as ^ handsome in his person and 
graceful in his manner.* Baker says of him : ^ His looks were 
the most graceftil I ever saw.* As to his character, his life 
is described as blameless. He was of a very generous and 



I02 More about the Gunnings 

charitable disposition, and gave much during his lifetime towards 
supporting scholars at the University and adding to the en- 
dowment of poor vicarages. Masters in his * History ' says : 

* Among the disputed points in his character were, whether his 
head was as good as his heart, and whether his judgment was as 
solid as his parts were quick/ 

Dr. Gunning was one of those principally concerned in the 
conference with the Dissenters at the Savoy in 1661, and Mr. 
Richard Baxter, the emiiient Nonconformist, speaks thus of him : 

* Dr. Gunning was their forwardest and greatest speaker. . . . 
He seem'd a man of greater study and industry than any of 
them ; was well read in the Fathers and Councils, and of a ready 
tongue, but so vehement for high imposing principles and Church 
pomp, and so very eager and fervent in his discourse, that he 
often overran himself.* Burnet says he was a dark and per- 
plexed preacher, and that his sermons abounded with Greek and 
Hebrew and quotations from the Fathers. He was nevertheless 
admired by the Court ladies ; the King (Charles 11.) said 

* they admired his preaching, because they did not understand 
him.* 

We must now return to the Bishop's uncle, Richard Gun- 
ning, who was born in 1587. Being a younger son, he deter- 
mined to become a soldier of fortune and went to Ireland, where 
he was rewarded, for the assistance he gave Sir Charles Coote in 
quelling the rebellion, by the grant of a large tract of land in 
county Galway ; and here he built himself a house close to the 
village of Fuerty and in the immediate neighbourhood of Castle 
Coote, Sir Charles's own residence. 

John, the eldest of this Richard Gunning's grandsons, was 
the ancestor of the baronets of that name. Bryan, the youngest 
(who lived at Holywell, county Roscommon), married Katherine 



John Gukmno, Esq. 

FivMi :i l'j>l.;U by !■'. Colts. R. i .il Sa-.tllouwU. 



More about the Gunnings 103 

Geraghty and had sixteen children,^ the second of whom 
was John, father of the beautiful Miss Gunnings — he being 
described at the time of his marriage as ^a barrister of the 
Middle Temple.' He married on October 23, 1731, the Hon. 
Bridget Bourke, youngest daughter of Theobald, sixth Viscount 
Bourke of Mayo,^ by his first wife Mary, daughter of John 
Browne, Esq., of Westport ^ (ancestor of the present Marquis 
of Sligo). Bridget Bourke was a very pretty woman, with refined 
features, as may be seen in her portrait by G)tes at Inveraray ; 
and we are told that she was highly accomplished as well as 
* gentle and elegant' In fact, there is no tradition in the family 
to give colour to the purely imaginative and very ugly word- 
painted portrait of her as depicted in the pages of a popular 
modern novelist. 

Soon after their marriage the young couple went to live in 
Huntingdonshire, and there rented for some years the old 
Manor House (commonly called the Red House) at Heming- 
ford Grey, near St. Ives ; the probable cause of their choice of 
this locality being that their relation, William Mitchell, repre- 
sented the county of Huntingdon in several parliaments and 

^ Of the daughters were (i) Mai^garet Gunning, who married four times : first 
to John Edwards of Dublin, secondly to William Lyster of Athleague, thirdly to 
Captain Francis Houston, and fourthly to Theobald, Viscount Mayo. (2) Eliza- 
beUi Gunning, married in 1749 William Mitchell, M.P. for the county of Hunting- 
don, whose son, Knight Mitchell, married the Hon. Amelia Molesworth. (3} Anne 
Mary Gunning, married first Kelly and secondly the Hon. Charles Caulfield, and 
had issue. 

• Mary Browne's mother was Maud, daughter of Theobald, third Viscount 
Mayo, so that Bridget Gunning's fother and mother were first cousins. This may 
have had something to do with the consumption which carried off so many of the 
family. 

* The title of Viscount Mayo was created in 1637 and ceased in 1767 with 
Mrs. Gunning's brother, the eighth viscount. The peerage of Mayo was resuscitated 
in 1 78 1, when John Bourke, M.P. for Naas, a descendant of an old branch, was 
created Viscount Mayo of Moneycrower a quo the present earl. 



104 More about the Gunnings 

lived in the neighbourhood. He was Mrs. John Gunning's 
nephew, and later on became John Gunning's brother-in-law. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Gunning lived happily and peacefully at 
Hemingford Grey for nearly six years ; and here their four eldest 
children were born, namely : (i) Mary (or Maria, as she is gene- 
rally called), in 1 732, and baptised at the beautifully situated church 
of Hemingford Grey on August 1 5 of that year ; (2) Elizabeth, 
in 1733, and baptised in the same place on December 17 ; 
(3) Catherine (commonly called Kitty), baptised June 12, 
1735; and (4) Sophia, born in 1737 and died the same 
year.^ 

In 1 740, John's eldest brother, Bryan Gunning, dying with- 
out male issue, the family property in county Roscommon 
devolved upon him ; and this same year he and his wife and their 
three young daughters left Hemingford Grey and setded there. 
Here two more children were born to them — ^John, their only son, 
and another daughter, Lissy, who was born in February 1 744. 
She gave signs, it was said, of even greater beauty than either of 
her elder sisters, but died of consumption on December 3 1 , 1752, 
aged eight years and ten months. She was buried at Heming- 
ford Grey, where there is a monumental slab to her memory 
erected in the chancel. 

' When the two eldest Miss Gunnings were in the zenith of their feme a large 
wager was laid between an Englishman and an Irishman, each claiming that their 
country was the birthplace of the beauties, and the dispute actually came into 
court. Dr. Dickens, the clergyman of Hemingford Grey, was one of the witnesses, 
and brought with him the parish register. The Solicitor-General Wallace cross- 
questioned him and tried to confuse him. * I find, sir,' said Wallace, * that you 
call yourself Doctor. Pray what sort of a doctor are you ? Are you a horse 
doctor?* Dickens, who was a man of humour and had been a schoolmaster, 
replied ; * Non sum doctor equinus, indoctos doceo, docui, semperque docebo.' 
This produced a loud peal of laughter in the court, in which the Lord Chief Justice 
Mansfield (who dearly loved a joke) joined. The parson gained the cause. The 
Englishman won his wager, and the county of Huntingdon ^'on the prize of 
beauty. 



g 0. 



More about the Gunnings 105 

In 1 747 the John Gunnings and their family were living in 
Dublin ; and Lady Charlotte Campbell tells us in her Journal that 
her mother, Elizabeth Gunning, was presented to Lord Harring- 
ton, the Lord Lieutenant, at the early age of thirteen. Lady 
Charlotte says : * The fame of her sister's beauty and her own had 
spread to Dublin ; and though I have heard from all relators that 
her father was the best and the purest of men, his heart was not 
proof against vanity, and he carried his two eldest daughters at 
that early age to the Casde at Dublin, where they were presented 
and followed by crowds of admiring spectators.' 

Mrs. Bellamy, the actress, mentions in her Memoirs that 
about this time the Gunnings had the bailiffs in their house, and 
that Mr. Gunning being away she received Mrs. Gunning, 
Maria, and Elizabeth in her house, whilst the three younger 
children went to their aunt. Miss Bourke, * a lady of exemplary 
piety.' This being the financial state of affairs, it is not unlikely 
that Thomas Sheridan, then manager of the Dublin Theatre, did 
suggest, as stated by Horace Walpole and by Cunningham, 
that the fair sisters should go on the stage ; but it is very im- 
probable that Mr. Gunning, who had immense family pride, 
ever gave a thought to such a plan, and he shortly after left 
Ireland and settled in England. The Gunnings went first of 
all to Windsor, then to Edmonton, and then to Enfield, and 
from the latter place they moved for a time to Sunninghill, 
which was then a fashionable resort for drinking waters, being 
more select than Bath or Tonbridge, and which had plenty of 
music and dancing. One of Richardson the novelist's female 
correspondents writes to him from Enfield in July 1750 : * The 
celebrated Miss Gunnings have for a while left Enfield, the 
place together with the Assembly not being gay enough to retain 
them, so are gone in pursuit of more brilliant diversions, and 



io6 More about the Gunnings 

may the Installation, Sunninghill, &c., do more for them than 
could . . / 

Early in 1751 they settled in London. Horace Walpole 
first mentions them in June of that year, when he writes to Sir 
Horace Mann : *The two Miss Gunnings are twenty times 
more the subject of conversation than the two brothers and Lord 
Granville. These are two Irish girls of no fortune, who are 
declared the handsomest women alive. I think their being so 
handsome two, and both such perfect figures, is their chief 
excellence, for singly I have seen much handsomer than either ; 
however, they can't walk in the Park, or go to Vauxhall, but 
such mobs follow them that they are generally driven away ; ' 
and two months later he writes to the same correspondent : * As 
you talk of our Beauties, I shall tell you a new story of the 
Gunnings, who make more noise than any of their predecessors 
since the days of Helen, though neither of them nor anything 
about them has yet been " teterrima belli causa." They went 
the other day to see Hampton Court ; as they were going into 
the Beauty-room, another company arrived ; the housekeeper 
said, " This way, ladies ; here are the Beauties." The Gunnings 
flew into a passion and asked her what she meant ; ^^that they 
came to see the Palace, not to be showed as a sight themselves." ' 
Jesse in his * Memoirs ' says : * The surpassing loveliness of the 
Gunnings has almost become a matter of history ; nor perhaps 
is there any instance of mere beauty having excited so extra- 
ordinary a sensation as that produced by the appearance in the 
fashionable circles of London of these two portionless girls.' 

On March 5, 1752, Maria, the eldest, married George 
William, sixth Earl of Coventry. Directly after the marriage 
they went to Crome, Lord Coventry's seat in Worcestershire, 
where the fame of her beauty had already spread ; and soon after 



Makia, Cou\ti;ss oh Coventrv, ii£e Gcnmng. 



More about the Gunnings 107 

a shoemaker at Worcester got two guineas and a half by showing 
a shoe that he was making for the Countess, at a penny apiece. 

In July, Lord Coventry took his bride to Paris, James 
Murphy French, writing from the Temple on June 25, 1752, to 
Mr, Harry Duncombe, says : * By the bye the sooner you cross 
the Alps the better. You remember after your first arrival abroad, 
I informed you I was swallowed up in a terrible earthquake that 
happened on the appearance of the Miss Gunnings in England ; 
now I would have you make your escape over the Alps, or else 
prepare for your descent underground with all expedition. 
Whether the waves gave us Venus (as the Poets give out) or not, 
we have certainly resigned her in Lady Coventry to them ; they 
are now wafting her to the Continent ; Lady Coventry approaches 
France every moment, and I do not doubt but so polite a nation 
as France will also entertain her with an earthquake on her 
landing, and so, dear Harry Duncombe, take care of yourself. 
In plain English, she is a most beautiful girl and I had rather 
make the tour of her charms, a thousand times, than the tour of 
Europe.' 

Lady Coventry did not, however, make the same furore in 
Paris, being, as Horace Walpole tells us, * ignorant of the world, 
and not allowed to wear neither red nor powder.* She could 
not speak French, and the saucy naiveti and gaucheries of this 
unsophisticated girl of eighteen ill suited the Court of Louis XV. 
There were some fireworks at Mme. de Pompadour's, to which 
she was invited, but she excused herself on the ground of her 
music-master coming at that hour. Lord Coventry was as 
gauche as she was ; being pressed to remain for the grand f£tes 
at St. Cloud, he said he would not like to miss a musical meeting 
at Worcester. The MarAchale de Lowendahl was pleased with an 
English fan belonging to Lady Coventry, who very civilly gave 



io8 iMore about the Gunnings 

it to her. Lord Coventry made his wife write for it to be sent 
back the next morning, ^ because he had given it her before 
marriage, and her parting with it would make an irreparable 
breach ; * and she sent an old one instead of it 1 

Lady Coventry's great want of tact is exemplified in her well- 
known mal Tt propos speech to George II. When he was quite 
an old man he was talking to her and regretting, for her sake, 
that there had been no masquerades. ' Oh I ' said the incon- 
siderate beauty. ^ As for sights, I am quite sick of them. There 
is only one which I am eager to see — that is a coronation.* But 
notwithstanding this. Lady Coventry was a great favourite of 
the King. Horace Walpole writes that at some masquerade 
*when his Majesty sent for her to dance a minuet, ' it was quite 
like Herodias, and I believe if he had offered her a boon, she 
would have chosen the head of St. John.' This was in allusion 
to the young Lord Bolingbroke, with whom she is said to have 
had a great flirtation. When Lady Coventry told the King that 
she had been jostled and mobbed by the people in the Park one 
Sunday evening, he said that, to prevent the same, for the future 
she should have a guard ; and on the following Sunday evening 
* she did actually,' writes Mr. Jenkinson (afterwards Sir Charles) 
to Mr. Grenville, * go into the Park attended by two Sergeants 
of the Guards in front with their halberds, and no less than 
twelve followed her. The whole guard was ready to have 
turned out if there had been occasion, and the Colonel of the 
Guard in Waiting kept at the proper distance ; with this 
ridiculous parade, she walked from 8 of the clock till lo, and 
as all this could not prevent the mob from having curiosity, 
some of Fielding's ^ men that attended took up the most trouble- 

* Fielding, half brother to the novelist, was a police magistrate, and, though 
blind from his birth, was most active and sagacious in the performance of his 
duties. 



More about the Gunnings 109 

some.* The following are two accounts of Lady Coventry's 
appearance written about this time : * One Sunday afternoon in 
November/ says Mrs, Delany, *a ducal friend brought the 
&mous Countess to see me, to feast me, and a feast indeed she 
was. Her dress was a black silk sack \sic\ made for a large hoop 
which she wore without any, and it trailed a yard on the ground. 
She also wore a cobwebbed lace handkerchief, a pink satin long 
cloke \sic\ lined with ermine mixed with squirrel skins ; that 
wonderful face was adorned with a French cap that just covered 
the top of her head, of blonde, and stood in the form of a butter- 
fly with wings not quite extended. The whole was completed 
by lappets tied under the chin with pink and green ribands. . . . 
She has a thousand prettinesses in her cheeks, her eyes a little 
drooping at the corners, but fine for all that ; she has a thousand 
airs, but with a sort of humour that diverts me.* 

Mrs. Calderwood of Polton does not give us such a pleas- 
ing portrait in her Journal published in the Coltness Collection, 
but she often dipped her pen in gall. She writes in 1756 : 
* I saw the Countess of Coventry at Ranelagh. I think she is 
a pert-like husy \sic\ going about with her face up to the sky, 
that she might be seen from under her hat which she had 
pulled quite over her nose that nobody might see her. She 
was in deshabille and very shabby drest.' At this time William, 
Duke of Cumberland, was one of Lady Coventry's special 
admirers. We have an account of a Russian masquerade in 
1755, at which he never left her side, when she is described 
as being ^ dressed in a great style and looking better than ever ; ' 
and again the following year, Horace Walpole says : * The 
Duke had appeared in form on the causeway in Hyde Park 
with my Lady Coventry* How happy she must be with Billy 
and Bully 1 I hope she will not mistake and call the former by 



1 1 o More about the Gunnings 

the nickname of the latter.' About this time the following lines 
were written by Soame Jenjrns * On a Nosegay in the Countess 
of Coventry's Breast : ' 

Delightful scene in which appear 
At once all beauties of the year ; 
See how the Zephyrs of her breath 
Fan gently all the flowers beneath ; 
See the gay flowers how bright they glow 
Tho' planted in a bed of snow ; 
Yet see how soon they &de and die, 
ScorchM by the sunshine of her eye. 
Nor wonder if, overcome with bliss. 
They droop their heads to steal a Idss. 
Who would not die on that dear breast ? 
Who would not die to be so blest ? 

In 1757 and 1758 she had her third and fourth children ; 
and Lady Elizabeth Waldegrave writes at this time : * The 
height of Lady Coventry's ambition at present is to play at 
quadrille^ at which she plays four hours a day and prefers it 
to all other diversions/ Probably the poor giddy soul was 
warned by her medical advisers not to go out at night, for 
the insidious disease which was so soon to carry her off 
must even then have shown some signs, though it had not 
yet marred her beauty. In November 1759 she went to the 
meeting of Parliament, in bitter weather ; and in December 
Horace Walpole writes : * The Kingdom of beauty is in as great 
disorder as the Kingdom of Ireland. My Lady Pembroke looks 
like a ghost — poor Lady Coventry is going to be one.' In the 
spring, however, she rallied ; and in April 1760 he says : * At the 
trial of Lord Ferrars, to the amazement of every body Lady 
Coventry was there, and, what surprised me much more, looked 
as well as ever. I sat next but one to her, and should not have 



More about the Gunnings 1 1 1 

asked if she had been ill — yet they are positive she has few 
weeks to live. She and Lord Bolingbroke seemed to have dif- 
ferent thoughts and were acting over the old comedy of eyes/ 
In less than six months from this time poor Lady Coventry was 
dead. She died at the age of twenty-seven, of consumption, as 
her youngest sister had done eight years before, and as her sister 
the Duchess of Argyll and her nephew the Duke of Hamilton 
did some years later. The end came at Crome. She was 
attended by Dr. T. Wall, who wrote, on August 8 previous, 
an account of her illness to George Selwyn, who was one of 
her greatest friends. * I make,' said he, * no excuse for being 
minute, because I believe it would be most agreeable to you 
that I should be so. I have spent most of my time at this place 
[Crome] since My Lord went to London, and indeed Lady 
Coventry has been so extremely ill, so much worse than when 
you saw her last, that she wanted all the attendance L could 
give her. . . . Yesterday a letter came from the Duchess of 
Hamilton directed for Lord Coventry. Lady Coventry knew 
the hand and unluckily opened it. - " Hinc illae lachrymae ! ** The 
Duchess had too plainly expressed her sentiments of Lady 
Coventry's condition, expressing her concern as for one already 
in the grave.* You who know how apt Lady Coventry is to be 
afFectedi may easily conceive the anguish which such a letter 
would occasion. Indeed it did almost kill her ; I was called 
to her and found her fainting and almost dying away. However 
she soon after recovered and I took my leave, but after I was 
gone the same scene was renewed and her attendants thought 
her dying. They despatched an express to their Lord, who 

^ The Duchess, who was unable to be with her owing to the condition of her 
own health, expressed a hope that the Rev. Mr. Brooke, who constantly visited 
Lady Coventry, should administer the Holy Sacrament to her. 






Sfz^€ j5.i(r / V 



OuMMiHlS 




: Ladr 



to the 



zrjLS^ 










c-^T rw; 7 






ax>i a son : 1^ ***7 



Maria. Coi.ntkss of Covh 



112 More about the Gunnings 

I suppose will, in consequence, arrive this evening/ Lady 
Coventry lived nearly two months after the date of this letter. 

The furore she had created in life followed her even to the 
grave, and ten thousand persons are said to have witnessed her 
funeral. 

The following poem was written on Lady Coventry's death 
by Mason : 

Yes, Coventry is dead. Attend the strain, 

Daughters of Albion ! ye that light as air 

So oft have tripped in her fantastic train, 

With hearts as gay and faces half as fair ; 

For she was fair beyond your brightest bloom, 

This envy owns since now her bloom has fled. 

Fair as the forms that wove in Fancy's loom 

Float in light vision round the poet's head. 

Whene'er with soft serenity she smiled, 

Or caught the orient blush of quick surprise. 

How sweetly mutable, how brightly wild 

The liquid lustre fi'om her eyes ! 

Each look, each motion waked a new-born grace. 

That o'er her form a transient glory cast ; 

Some lovelier wonder soon usurped the place 

Chased by a charm still lovelier than the last* 

That bell again ! it tells us what she is 1 

Or what she was, no more the strain prolong ; 

Luxuriant fancy, pause, an hour like this 

Demands the tribute of a serious song. 

Maria claims it fi-om that sable bier. 

Where cold and wan, the slumberer rests her head. 

In still small whispers to reflection's ear 

She breathes the solemn dictates of the dead. 

Lady Coventry left two daughters and a son : Lady Mary 
Coventry, aged six ; Lady Anne, aged three ; and Lord Deerhurst, 
only two years old. Her first-born child, Elizabeth, had died 






Elizabbth, Duchess of Hamilton and of Argyll, nie Gunning. 



More about the Gunnings 113 

four years previously, aged three. Lady Anne seems to have 
had considerable good looks, but both sisters had wretched con- 
stitutions. Lady Mary married Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt of 
Spye Park, Wilts, and died in 1784, aged thirty, leaving no 
male issue. Lady Anne married first the Hon. Edward Foley, 
and secondly Captain S. Wright. Lady Coventry's only son 
became the seventh Earl of Coventry, and the present Earl is his 
great-grandson. . 

We must now take up the history of Elizabeth Gunning, 
who was a year younger than her sister. Lady Coventry, ; but 
as the commencement of their life was the same and they were 
never separated till their marriages, which took place within three 
weeks of each other, we need not recapitulate her early successes. 

With regard to the comparative good looks of the two 
sisters, they seem to have had their fair share of admirers. Lady 
Charlotte Campbell writes : * My mother [Elizabeth Gunning] 
has ever told me that her sister Maria exceeded her in beauty. 
She was not by an inch or more so tall as my mother, who, 
without the aid of heels, was at least five foot seven,^ but Lady 
Coventry's form was faultless, and her dark eyes and the jet 
black of her eyelashes, with that animation which conscious 
beauty gave, rendered her more dazzlingly attractive than her 
younger sister, whose mild * dignified air characterised her 
beauty. Grand and majestic, her manners checked. the passion 
her charms inspired, and I have always heard that the soft beams 

^ One criticism of Elizabeth Gunning's looks was that she was *too tall to be 
genteel, and her &ce out of proportion to her height.' 

* Dr. Moore in one of his poems alludes to this characteristic : 

... at length he roves 
By princely Hamilton's high-cultur'd plains 
To greet the Lady of those isxt domains, 
Whose judging eye each native charm has graced 



114 More about the Gunnings 

of her blue eye never were known to give one glance in favour 
of coquetry/ Though her manners were mild, the Duchess 
had a strong character and a great deal of spirit, which she 
exemplified on many occasions. When the Wilkes Riots took 
place, the mob insisted upon every house being lighted up in 
honour of Wilkes having been returned for Middlesex at the 
head of the poll. Lord Lome was in Scotland, but his wife the 
Duchess, who was in their house in Argyll Buildings awaiting 
her confinement, refused to illuminate, though the mob brought 
iron crowbars, tore down the gates, pulled up the pavement, 
and battered the house for three hours. 

Another example of her spirit is recounted by James Boswell. 
He accompanied Dr. Johnson on his visit to Inveraray in 1773, 
and was very out of favour with the Duchess, having been 
counsel for Mr. Douglas ^ in the celebrated litigation with her 
son. The faithful biographer gives the following account of 
the visit : * The Reverend Mr. M*Aulay, one of the Ministers 
of Inveraray, accompanied us to the Castle, where I presented 
Dr. Johnson to the Duke of Argyle ; we then got into a low 
one-horse chaise, ordered for us by the Duke, in which we drove 
about the place. Dr. Johnson was much struck by the grandeur 
and elegance of this princely seat. He thought, however, the 
Castle too low ; said, ^^ What I admire here is the total defiance 
of expense." The Duke placed Dr. Johnson next himself at 

With all the polished elegance of taste, 
Mild as her aspect, as her soul serene, 
Pure as her life, which never knew a stain. 

The Duchess seems to have had particularly good taste, judging by all the beautiful 
marqueterie furniture &c at Inveraray Castle. The finest things there, including 
the tapestry, were nearly all collected by her and the Duke during their visits 
abroad. 

^ Dr. Johnson espoused the cause of the Duke of Hamilton in this trial 



More abotit the Gunnings 115 

table. I was in fine spirits, though sensible that I had the 
misfortune of not being in favour with the Duchess, who was 
very attentive to Dr. Johnson ; 1 know not how a middle-state 
came to be mentioned, her Grace wished to hear him on that 
point. " Madam," said he, " your own relation, Mr. Archibald 
Campbell, can tell you better about it than I can ; he was a 
Bishop of the nonjuring communion and wrote a book on the 
subject."^ We went to tea — the Duke and I walked up and 
down the drawing-room conversing ; the Duchess still continued 
to shew the same marked coldness for me, for which, though 
I suffered from it, I made many allowances. Her Grace made 
Dr. Johnson come and sit by her, and asked why he made his 
journey so late in the year (October). " Why, Madam," said he, 
" you know Mr. Boswell must attend the Court of Session." " I 
know nothing of Mr. Boswell," said the Duchess, with some 
sharpness. I felt the Duchess's speech as rather too severe ; 
but when I thought that the punishment was inflicted by so 
dignified a beauty, I had that kind of consolation which a 
man would feel who is strangled by a silken cord. Dr. John- 
son used afterwards a droll expression upon her enjoying the 
three titles, Hamilton, Brandon, and Argyll. Borrowing an 
image from the Turkish Empire, he called her a Duchess with 
three tails ! * ^ 

When the Duchess was one of the Ladies of the Bed- 

^ Archibald Campbell was son of Lord Niel Campbell and grandson of the Mar- 
quis of Argyll executed in 1661, and his mother was Lady Vere Ker, daughter of the 
Elarl of Lothian. He was made a bishop of the Scotch Church in 171 1, but lived 
almost entirely in London, where he died in 1744. He was a strong Jacobite and 
Nonjuror. He took part in the Monmouth Rebellion, but escaped to Surinam. His 
book, to which Dr. Johnson alludes, was called Some Primitive Doctrines revived: 
or Intermediate or Middle State of Departed Souls (as to Happiness or Misery) 
before the Day of Judgment^ plainly prat/ d by Holy Scripture and the Concurrent 
Testimony of the Fathers of the Church (17 13). See Lockhart Pc^ers^ ii. 99-102. 

' The Duchess's usual signature was * £. Argyll Hamilton.' 

I 2 



1 1 6 More about the Gunnings 

chamber, Queen Charlotte, jealous of her influence with the 
King, treated her at one time so badly that she contemplated 
resigning her post.^ The Duke consented on condition that he 
might dictate the letter of resignation. The letter was accord- 
ingly written ; but the Duchess, dissatisfied with the terms, added 
a P.S. to this effect : * Though I wrote the letter, the Duke 
dictated it ' ! • Ultimately the afiair was arranged and the 
Duchess retained her place. 

Lady Charlotte Campbell in her Journal says : * My mother 
once told me a little anecdote which I think proves better 
than volumes the different dispositions of the sisters. For 
a grand masked ball that was to take place at Chesterfield 
House, my mother had a magnificent Sultana's dress, sparkling 
with gold and jewels.^ She appeared in all that blaze of 
beauty before her sister, who had not yet attired herself in 
the habit of a Quakeress which she had chosen, and who no 
sooner cast her eyes on the brilliancy of the Sultana dress 
than she became perfectly dissatisfied with her own ; my 
mother saw this and instantly proposed an exchange. As the 
modest Quakeress my mother became a duchess, for it was that 
night the Duke of Hamilton proposed to her.' James, sixth 
Duke of Hamilton, was the only son of the fifth Duke and 
Lady Anne Cochrane, one of the three beautiful daughters of 
the Earl of Dundonald. He inherited some of his mother's 
good looks, but was an inveterate gambler and dissipated in 

^ Horace Walpole says the Queen was angry with the Duchess of Hamilton 
for making friends with the Duchess of Gloucester. This she certainly did ; and 
the author has a pastelle portrait of the Duchess of Gloucester which she gave to 
the Duchess of Hamilton. 

' It is said that the funds as well as the time were wanting to procure suitable 
fancy dresses for both sisters, and that Sheridan, hearing this, immediately went to 
Peg Woffington and borrowed frt>m her for one of them an Eastern dress in which 
she acted one of her most effective characters. 



More about the Gunnings 117 

every sense of the term. At this time he was twenty-eight 
years of age ; but before he was twenty he had engaged himself 
to another Elizabeth, the famous, or rather infamous, Miss 
Chudleigh. She was descended from an old Devonshire family, 
and her father. Colonel Chudleigh, had a post at Chelsea 
College,^ but at his death his widow and daughter were left 
in poor circumstances. The latter made the acquaintance of 
Mr. Pulteney, who obtained for her an appointment as Maid 
of Honour to the Princess of Wales. She soon became dis- 
tinguished for the brilliancy of her repartee and the extreme 
vivacity of her nature, and, notwithstanding that she had a violent 
temper, appears to have been in early life most fascinating. 
Amongst her many admirers the young' Duke of Hamilton was 
the one she preferred, and he was very fond of her. He 
obtained her promise that on his return from a foreign tour she 
should become his wife, and they agreed to write to each other 
on every opportunity. Miss Chudleigh during his absence 
went to live with an aunt, Mrs. Hanmer, who immediately set 
to work to favour the views of another of her admirers. Captain 
Augustus Hervey. Miss Chudleigh particularly disliked him ; 
but the aunt worked successfully on the pride of her niece by 
intercepting the letters of the Duke, until at last, piqued by 
his supposed neglect, she was prevailed on to accept the hand 
of Captain Hervey, and they were privately married in August 
1744 at Lainston, in the county of Southampton, in a private 
chapel adjoining the country house of Mr. Merrill. She 
virtuaUy separated from him the day of their marriage, which 
was kept secret, and they saw little of each other afterwards, 

1 This was then quite away from London ; and we are told, as an example of 
the courage of Miss Chudleigh's mother, that she walked thither each evening 
from London, with a brace of pistols in her pocket as the means of her defence I 



ii8 More about the Gunnings 

she returning to her post as Maid of Honour ; but she had 
one son by him, who died an in&nt. On the return of the 
Duke of Hamilton, he again renewed his addresses, and, like 
the Duke of Ancaster and others, was rejected. She then 
went through a career of pleasure; but the threats of her 
husband to disclose their marriage always hung over her, and 
at last she thought she would destroy the sole evidence of the 
ceremony. The clergyman who married them was dead, and 
she obtained access to the register and tore out the entry con- 
cerning herself. Some years after. Captain Hervey succeeded 
to the earldom of Bristol and a considerable fortune, and his 
wife then repented what she had done, and it is said went again 
to the chapel where she was married, and surreptitiously paid to 
have her marriage re-inserted. After this, the Duke of Kingston 
being much in love with her and willing to marry her, she 
managed, with the collusion of Lord Bristol (who was now most 
anxious to be quit of her), to get a sentence of the court pro- 
nouncing the nullity of their marriage ; and in March 1 769 she 
married the Duke of Kingston at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
by special licence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, she being 
called in the licence * Spinster.' The fevours, we are told, were 
worn by the highest personages in the kingdom, including the 
Prince and Princess of Wales. During the lifetime of the 
Duke no attempt was made to dispute the legality of the pro- 
cedure ; but soon after his death, a woman, who had been present 
at Miss Chudleigh's marriage with Mr. Hervey, went to the 
relations of the Duke and acquainted them with every fact, the 
result being that the Duchess was indicted for bigamy. The 
trial, which lasted five days, ended in her conviction, and she 
narrowly avoided being branded. She escaped and went abroad, 
finally settling at St. Petersburg, where she was well received by 



More about the Gunnings 119 

the Empress Catherine. She there bought an estate for ;^25,cxx5, 
which she called * Chudleigh,' and where she erected works for 
making brandy. Ultimately she returned to France, where she 
bought more estates, and died there in 1788 at Sainte- Assise. 

And now, after this long digression 7t propos of Elizabeth 
Chudleigh to whom the Duke of Hamilton was once engaged, 
we must return to Elizabeth Gunning, to whom, as we have 
seen, he offered his hand and heart at Lord Chesterfield's mas- 
querade eight years later. A month after, they were married 
at Mayfeir Chapel by the Rev. Alexander Keith. The 
ceremony took place on February 14, 1752, according to the 
story repeated by Horace Walpole, at midnight, a curtain ring 
being used on the occasion ! 

The public crowded to see the Duchess quite as much after 
her marriage as before. When she was presented at Court in 
March, Horace Walpole tells us that * even the noble mob in 
the drawing-room clambered upon chairs and tables to look at 
her.' Her sister Maria, Lady Coventry, went about with her 
until both brides left London, which they did in April. The 
Duke and Duchess then went to Hamilton Palace. The * Dublin 
Journal ' for May 2, 1752, says : * When his Grace the Duke of 
Hamilton arrived at Berwick with his Duchess on his way to 
Scotland, all the country gentlemen and persons of distinction in 
the town assembled to satisfy a natural curiosity of seeing a lady 
whose superior charms Fame has carried to the remotest corners 
of the nation without the least exaggeration. His Grace gave a 
splendid entertainment and concluded the evening with a Ball.* 
Horace Walpole writes in March : * The world is still mad about 
the Gunnings : there are mobs at their doors to see them get 
into their chairs, and people go early to get places at the theatre 
when it is known they will be there.' It is actually said to be 



120 More about the Gunnings 

a fact that the Duchess gave Tate Wilkinson, the actor, benefits 
at his theatre. On their way to Scotland the Duke and Duchess 
of Hamilton stopped one night at an inn in Yorkshire, and no 
less than 700 people sat up all night to see the Duchess get into 
her post-chaise in the morning. 

During the next three years the Duke, who proved himself 
a worthless husband, kept the Duchess almost entirely at 
Hamilton, whilst he devoted his time to hunting, drinking, and 
low company. Her justly offended pride ill brooked the 
mortification she daily endured, but she found a sensible, clever, 
and sincere friend in Lady Susan Stewart (afterwards Lady 
Stafford), who was her constant companion during this period ; 
and the Duchess occupied herself in trying to ameliorate the 
condition of the peasantry on the Hamilton estate. She started 
looms for spinning cotton and linen yarn and making fine 
Holland cambric and lawn. In January 1753 she gave birth 
to her daughter Elizabeth (afterwards Countess of Derby), and 
in 1755 and 1756 to her sons James and Douglas, both of 
whom became successively Dukes of Hamilton. In October 
1756 the Duchess reappeared in London, when Horace Walpolc 
writes : * The Duchess of Hamilton has brought her beauty to 
London at the only instant when it will not make a crowd . . . 
so much are we engrossed by this ministerial ferment.* 

In January 1758 she became a widow at the early age of 
twenty-four. The Duke had increased his natural delicacy by 
the vicious habits of his life, and he died from internal inflam- 
mation, which came on after a * hunting match ' at Great Tew in 
Oxfordshire, the seat of his uncle, Anthony Tracy Keck, being 
only thirty-four years of age. The Duchess spent much of the 
first year of her widowhood with her three young children at 
Hamilton Palace, which now belonged to her eldest son, James, 



I 



John, 5th Dv\ 



More about the Gunnings 121 

seventh Duke of Hamilton, who was barely three years old ; 
then she went to London, where she had a house in Bond Street, 
opposite the * Blue Posts,' an inn immortalised by Etherege in 
his comedy, * She would if she could ' — a circumstance which 
gave rise to many jokes. 

Soon after the year was over, the Duchess married the 
handsome Jack Campbell, son of Colonel John Campbell and 
the beautiful Mary Bellenden. He was then only a colonel in 
the 14th Regiment of Dragoons, but his father was heir-apparent 
to his first cousin, Archibald, third Duke of Argyll.^ Horace 
Walpole, writing to the Hon. H. Conway, says : Ht is the 
prettiest match in the world since yours, and everybody likes it 
but the Duke of Bridgewater ; ' ^ and to Sir Horace Mann he 
writes : * The Duchess of Hamilton is going to marry Colonel 
Campbell, Lady Ailesbury's brother. It is a match that would 
not disgrace Arcadia. Her beauty has made sufficient noise, 
and in some people's eyes is even improved ; he has a most 
pleasing countenance, person, and manner.' To another corre- 
spondent he says : * If her fortune is singular, so is her merit. 
Such uncommon noise as her beauty made has not at all 
impaired the modesty of her behaviour.' Mrs. Elizabeth 
Montagu, the celebrated blue-stocking, no mean judge of 
character, thus announces the engagement in a letter to her 
husband, now in the possession of the writer : ^ * Duchess 

^ His father succeeded as fourth Duke two years later, when Colonel Campbell 
became Lord Lome, and in 1770, at the death of his father, he became Duke of 
Argyll. 

' Francis, Duke of Bridgewater, was desperately in love with the Duchess, who 
refused him. Lord Chesterfield in one of his letters says that soon after his refusal 
the Duke withdrew entirely from the fashionable world, and from this ducal Hegira 
dates the rise of British canal navigation. 

* This letter, which has hitherto never been published, was given to the writer 
by Mrs. Climenson, nit Montagu, who is about to publish a collection of Mrs. 
Montagu's letters. 



122 More about the Gunnings 

Hamilton is going to be married to Colonel Campbell, a young 
man of good character and heir to the Duke of Argylle \s%c\. 
So between her husband's interests in Scotland and her son's she 
will be queen of Scotland. She is as good as she is fair, and 
consequently almost an angel : she has behaved with ye decency 
and dignity due to ye rank to which she has been raised/ Some 
months after her marriage Horace Walpole entertained the 
Duchess at Strawberry Hill, when he raved about her beauty, 
but at the close of the same year he writes that she is much 
altered, has become a skeleton, and is Mn a deep consumption.' 
It is possible that the seeds of this insidious disease may have 
already shown themselves,^ and we do find that she was ordered 
abroad for the winter ; but the alteration in her looks was 
merely temporary, and may have been the result of her grief 
in losing her sister. Lady Coventry, who died this year, and to 
whom she was devotedly attached, this trial coming upon her 
before she had recovered her strength after the birth of her first- 
born Campbell child. Later, Horace Walpole writes to Horace 
Mann in Florence : ' I question whether you will see the Duchess : 
these mails have brought so good an account of her that unless 
she grows worse they will scarce pass Lyons, where they are 
established for the winter.' Accordingly we find that she returned 
to England the following May, apparently quite well, and in 
July was chosen as one of the two ladies sent to bring over to 
this country George IIL's bride. In July 1761 Horace Walpole 
says : * Lord Harcourt is to go to the Court of Mecklenbui^- 
Strelitz, if he can find it, to arrange the marriage of George III. 
with Princess Charlotte of that ilk.' The Duchess was made 
one of the six Ladies of the Bedchamber, and went with the 

' Gilly Williams, writing to George Selwyn as early as 1765, says of the Duchess 
of Hamilton, < She has already begun to cough.' 



More about the Gunnings 123 

Duchess of Ancaster * to meet her at Stade. When the Princess 
saw the two Duchesses it is said that she burst into tears and 
exckimed, * Are all the women of England as beautiful as you ? * 
The voyage back was performed in an Admiralty yacht under 
the charge of Admiral Kingsmill, and lasted ten days, and the 
two Duchesses were extremely ill. The royal party landed at 
Harwich, and they slept that night at Lord Abercorn*s house at 
Witham. The following day they went on to London. When 
the Princess saw the palace she turned pale, at which the Duchess 
of Hamilton smiled. * My dear Duchess,' said the Princess, 
* you may laugh ; you have been married twice, but it is no 
joke to me/ The day after the marriage there was a Drawing 
Room, and all the ladies were presented to the Princess by the 
Duchess of Hamilton. 

At the coronation, Horace Walpole says, *the Duchess of 
Hamilton was almost in possession of her greatest beauty.* On 
November 26 there was a small private court ball, consisting 
of not above twelve or thirteen couples, which began at 6.30 
and was over by one, and the Duchess of Hamilton was one 
of the dancers. The King danced the whole time with the 
Queen. Of the appearance of Queen Charlotte the Duchess of 
Hamilton gives this unflattering account : * Niggardly endow'd 
by Nature with any charms to render her desirable, the stiff 
German stays added formality to her Majesty's already stiff 
figure, and her hair which was black and greasy, being drawn 
tight from the head in an erect dry frize, betray 'd the oilyness 
of the bare skin between every black pin that supported it. . . . 
At night she insisted on sleeping in her stiff stays — a German 

^ The Duchess of Ancaster ever afterwards was an intimate friend of the 
Duchess of Hamilton, and she gave her her portrait in pastelle, which is now in 
the possession of the writer. 



124 More about the Gunnings 

piece of prudery to which, I should imagine, the King had no 
objection.' 

In August 1763 the Duchess of Hamilton went to Paris 
with the Duke and Duchess of Ancaster. Horace Walpole says : 
* The French do not arrive in such shoals as we do at Paris ; 
there are no fewer than five English duchesses there, Ancaster, 
Richmond, Bridgewater, Hamilton, and Douglas : the two last, 
indeed, upon an extraordinary lawsuit.* This lawsuit became 
one of the most Ttmzx\i?k!i& causes citibres ever litigated. In 
1 76 1, Archibald Douglas, third Duke of Douglas,^ having died 
without issue, the ducal title became extinct. The marquisate 
of Douglas devolved upon the young Duke of Hamilton, who 
was then only six years old. The real and personal property 
went to Mr. Archibald Stewart, his nephew, who was served 
as nearest and lawful heir to the Duke of Douglas, and in 
consequence took the name of Douglas and claimed the title of 
Earl of Angus, as being a title which descended through the 
women. Mr. Archibald Stewart claimed to be the son of Sir 
John Stewart, Bart, of GrandtuUy, by his wife Lady Jane 
Douglas, sister of the last Duke of Douglas ; but the guardians 
of the young Duke of Hamilton asserted that he and his 
nominal twin brother Sholto (who had died an infant) were not 
the children of Lady Jane, who had surreptitiously procured 
them in Paris and passed them off as her own, she being at 
the time in her fifty-first year^ and the event being attended 

> This Duke of Douglas was a man of ungovernable passions and not of sane 
mind He killed a Captain Kerr, who was staying with him, in cold blood because 
he heard that he wished to marry his sister Lady Jane. He was not prosecuted 
for the murder in consequence, it was said, of his adherence to the House of Hanover. 

' Lady Jane Douglas was in her forty-ninth year when she married Sir John 
Stewart She died in 1753, and Chambers says her death *took place under 
circumstances of great distress in the second flat of a humble cottage at Drumsheigh, 
entered by an outside stair.' 



Mary, Duchess of Ancaster. 

From a Paittllt at Simlloufitd. 



More about the Gunnings 125 

with many peculiar and suspicious circumstances. Voluminous 
evidence was taken in France as well as in Britain, and it 
was to consult with Mr. Andrew Stuart, one of the young 
Duke's guardians who was living in Paris for the purpose of 
collecting evidence, that the Duchess came there in 1763. 
In 1767 the courts of Scotland decided in the Duke of 
Hamilton's favour. The decision caused great riots in Edin- 
burgh. Seven judges voted on each side, and the Lord President 
gave the casting vote against the son of Sir John. The judges 
who gave their decision for the Duke had their windows broken, 
and seven asses * in honour of them ' were led through the 
town.^ An appeal being made to the House of Lords, the 
first judgment was reversed, and the cause finally determined 
in 1 77 1 in favour of Mr. Douglas, a judgment in which Lord 
Mansfield and Lord Camden united,^ and against which only 
five of a numerous body entered a protest. Meanwhile, whilst 
the Douglas case was going on, the young Duke of Hamilton 
fell ill and died, and his brother Douglas, eighth Duke of 
Hamilton, became the * pursuer.' 

The death of her first-born son, whom she idolised, was a 
most terrible and crushing blow to the Duchess. He and his 
brother had scarlet fever at Eton some two or three years before, 
when she went there to nurse them. The eldest was never strong 
afterwards, and outgrew his strength, being 5 feet 8 inches in 
height when only fourteen years of age. He ultimately showed 
signs of rapid consumption, from which he died on July 7, 1769, 
deeply and deservedly regretted by all who knew him. He was 



> These seven judges were Lords Clerk, Alemoore, Kennet, Baijarg, Elliock, 
Stonefield, and Hailes. 

' Lord Monboddo, as the chief pleader on Mr. Douglas's side, was said to have 
convinced Lords Camden and Mansfield. 



126 More about the Gunnings 

singularly handsome — Gilly Williams says, * the handsomest boy 
he ever saw ' — and he was equally charming, clever, and good. 
This opinion is endorsed by Dr. Moore, who wrote the epitaph 
which is on his tomb in the mausoleum at Hamilton Palace. 

All the reflected dignity that shines 

Through the long annals of two princely lines ; 

And all that liberal nature could impart, 

To charm the eye, or captivate the heart ; 

With every genuine mark that could presage 

Intrinsic greatness in maturer age : 

A bosom glowing with fair Honour's flame^ 

A love of Science, and a thirst for Fame, 

Adorn'd the youthful tenant of this tomb, 

Torn from his country*s hope in early bloom. 

Whoe'er thou art, who view'st this plaintive stone, 

If e'er thy soul exalted o'er a son ; 

If public fame, avowing his desert, 

Echo'd the praises of the partial heart ; 

Though all may mourn, 'tis thou alone can'st know 

The piercing anguish of a parent's woe. 

And in one of his works Dr. Moore says of him : * He was 
distinguished by more brilliant personal advantages and nobler 
endowments of mind than I ever saw united at that period of 
life.' This Dr. Moore who attended him in his last illness, 
assisted by Dr. Cullen,^ was, besides being a skilful physician, a 

^ Sir James Macintosh writes in 1784: 'Dr. Cullen was the most celebrated 
medical teacher and writer in Europe, whose accurate descriptions of disease will 
probably survive a long succession of equally specious systems. When quite a 
young man he was first brought forward in the following manner : Archibald, Duke 
of Argyll, was staying in the neighbourhood of Shotts, where Cullen was practising 
amongst the farmers and country people. The Duke was engaged in some 
chemical research for which he wanted some apparatus, and his host, thinking that 
young Cullen could help him, asked him to dinner, which was the commencement 
of a lifelong acquaintance with the house of Argyll. After this the sixth Duke of 
Hamilton had him when he was suddenly taken ill, and was so benefited by his 
skill and gratified by his conversation, that he obtained for him a place in the 



More about the Gunnings 127 

rnan of great general attainments and an author of some note. 
His chief work was * Zeluco,' which at the time met with extra- 
ordinary success, and was the professed prototype of * Childe 
Harold.' ^ It is curious to find this now absolutely unknown 
author criticising and advising Robert Burns, who received all 
his criticisms and advice with grateful humility. We have 
before us one of Dr. Moore's letters to the poet, in which he 
says : * You ought to deal more sparingly for the future in the 
provincial dialect. Why should you, by using that, limit the 
number of your admirers to those who understand the Scottish 
when you can extend it to all persons of taste who understand the 
English language ? ' And then the Doctor goes on to recommend 
him how to set to work. Burns writes to him : ' The hope to 
be admired for ages is, in by far the greater part of those even 
who are authors of repute, an unsubstantial dream. For my part, 
my first ambition was, and still my strongest wish is, to please 
my compeers, the rustic inmates of the hamlet. I am very 
willing to admit that I have some poetic abilities ; and as few, if 
any writers, either moral or poetical, are intimately acquainted 
with the classes of mankind among whom I have chiefly mingled, 
I may have seen men and manners in a difiFerent phasis from 
what is common, which may assist originality of thought. Still 
I know very well the novelty of my character has by far the 
greatest share in the learned and polite notice I have lately had ; 
and in a language where Pope and Churchill have raised the 
laugh, and Shenstone and Gray drawn the tear, where Thomson 

University of Glasgow, where his talents soon became conspicuous. He afterwards 
settled at Hamilton, where the celebrated surgeon, William Hunter, was his assistant 
for three years. 

^ Lord Byron says in his preface : * Had I proceeded with this poem, this 
character would have deepened as he drew to the close, for the outline which I 
once meant to fill up was, with some exceptions, the sketch of a modem Timon, 
perhaps a poetical Zeluco.' 



128 More about the Gunnings 

and Beattie have painted the landscape, and Lyttelton and Collins 
described the heart, I am not vain enough to hope for distin- 
guished poetic fame/ And in another letter Burns writes to 
Dr. Moore : * Pardon my seeming neglect in delaying so long 
to acknowledge the honour you have done me in your kind 
notice of me. Not many months ago I knew no other em- 
ployment than following the plough, nor could boast anything 
higher than a distant acquaintance with a country clergyman. 
Mere greatness never embarrasses me, but genius polished by 
learning, and at its proper point of elevation in the eye of the 
world, this spectacle I frequently meet with and tremble at its 
approach. I scorn the affectation of seeming modesty to cover 
self-conceit. That I have some merit I do not deny ; but 
I see, with frequent wringings of heart, that the novelty of 
my character and the honest national prejudice of my country- 
men have borne me to a height altogether untenable to my 
ability.' 

The Duchess was inconsolable at the loss of her eldest son, 
and never went anywhere for three years. To add to her sorrow, 
her second son, the eighth Duke, also showed signs of a delicate 
temperament, and at the age of sixteen she had to send him on 
a lengthened tour abroad, where he remained till he was twenty- 
one. He was accompanied by Dr. Moore and his son John, 
with * a suitable attendance.' The connection with the Duke of 
Hamilton nearly cost young Moore his life. The Duke, though 
only sixteen, was allowed to wear a sword. One day, in an 
idle humour, he drew it, and began to amuse himself by fencing 
at his companion, and laughed as he forced him to skip from 
side to side to shun false thrusts. The Duke continued this 
sport till Moore unluckily started in the line of the sword and 
received it in his flank. Dr. Moore was speedily on the spot, 



DouoLAs, 8th Duki; ok Hamilton-, 



More about the Gunnings 129 

and found his son wounded on the outside of his ribs. The 
incident led to the formation of a lasting friendship between 
the penitent and his almost victim. The Duchess procured a 
commission for John Moore as ensign in the 51st Regiment, 
which he joined at Minorca in 1776, being then only fifteen 
years of age ; and he ultimately became the famous hero of 
Corunna.^ 

The interests of another child at last roused the Duchess 
from her grief, and she once more entered the gay world for the 
purpose of launching into the vortex of fashion her daughter, 
Lady Betty Hamilton, who made her dibut at Almack's, which 
was then the most aristocratic and the most autocratic assembly 
that probably ever existed. It owed its origin to the Duchess. 
Her maid, who was sister of Dr. Cullen,* married one Mackal, a 
tavern-keeper. He was a clever pushing man, and Lord Lome, 
the Duchess's husband, advanced him money to set up this 
assembly in King Street, St. James's.^ It was opened in 1765 
with a ball, at which the Duke of Cumberland, then called * the 
hero of Culloden,' was present, the Duchess having induced 
him to patronise it.* Mackal reversed his name and called himself 
Almack, and became a large adventurer in clubs. He first formed 
the club afterwards known as Brooks's, which in the beginning 
of its career was held at Almack's rooms. 

In 1777, on the return of the Duke of Hamilton, the 
Duchess seems to have had no further cause of anxiety on the 

^ In a large picture painted at Ronie by Gavin Hamilton, Dr. Moore and his 
son John are introduced as well as the young Duke. 

* See p. 126. 

^ Later known as Willis's Rooms. Almack died in January 1781. 

* Gilly Williams, writing to George Selwyn in 1765, says : * Our female Almack's 
flourishes beyond description. Almack's Scotch face, in a bag wig, waiting at 
Supper, would divert you, as would his lady, in a sack, making tea and curtseying 
to our Duchesses.' 



130 More about the Gunnings 

score of his health, and he had grown into a very handsome 
young man, as may be seen in Pompeo Battoni's beautiful 
portrait of him at Inveraray, which was painted in 1775 when 
he was at Rome ; ^ but the wildness which he inherited from his 
father soon began to assert itself and gave his mother many 
a pang. Before he had sown his wild oats he married Miss 
Elizabeth Ann Burrell, the youngest daughter of Mr. Peter 
Burrell of Beckenham, Kent, and the sister of his friend Mr. 
Burrell, who became the first Lord Gwydir.^ Lady Charlotte 
Campbell writes of Miss Burrell : * In her my brother had all 
with regard to mental and moral qualities that could have 
yielded him domestic happiness. With respect to her person 
people's taste differed. She was little, though very well made, 
very fair in her complexion,^ and her manners wei-e gentle and 
reserved.* These last two characteristics seem to show that she 
was ill suited to brook with her young madcap of a husband. 
Mrs. Montagu in one of her letters thus announces her engage- 
ment : * Miss Burrell is to marry Duke Hamilton and accom- 
panies him to America, where it is very proper he should go as 
the amplest field for him to indulge his passion for shooting. 
He has exercised himself with shooting out of a wind-gun 

^ There is another picture, in which he appears on horseback on the sea- 
shore. It was painted by G. Garrard and was engraved by W. Ward. Douglas, 
Duke of Hamilton, was the first who wore his hair short, and set the fisishion. 

' Lord Gwydir married Lady Elizabeth Bertie (sister of the last Duke of 
Ancaster), to whom, on her brother's death, reverted the barony of Willoughby 
de Eresby, with the inherited office of Great Chamberlain. 

' Soon after their marriage Sir Joshua painted Douglas, Duke of Hamilton, and 
his bride. She is on horseback in a red riding-habit, and he is standing by her side. 
There is a curious history attached to this picture. After his wife divorced him, 
the Duke gave it to his mistress, Mrs. Estens, the actress, who afterwards allowed 
Sir Thomas Lawrence to have it in exchange for a portrait by him of herself. At 
Sir Thomas Lawrence's death it was sold and came into the possession of Mr. 
Strutt. The £Eice of the Duchess is very like a miniature of her by Cosway which 
belonged to the late Mr. William Russell. 



Lady Augusta Campbbll. 



More about the Gunnings 131 

across Hanover Square, to -the utter dismay of old Lady West- 
morland and Sir Thomas Fredericks/ The marriage turned 
out very badly ; and after sixteen years' matrimony, during which 
time the Duchess had no child, she divorced him in 1794. 
Lady Hester Stanhope, in her Memoirs, says : * The Duke never 

lived with the Duchess. He was in love with Lady , and 

used to disguise himself as a one-legged soldier — as a beggar 
assuming a hundred masquerades, sleeping in out-houses, &c. 

That was the woman F. M married. Oh L there was a 

man (the Duke) perfect from top to toe, with not a single flaw 
in his person.* He died in 1799, aged forty-three, a life of 
constant excesses of all kinds tending to undermine his naturally 
delicate constitution. Having no legitimate issue,^ he was suc- 
ceeded by his father's half-brother,^ Lord Archibald Hamilton, 
in all his titles except the barony of Hamilton of Hambledon in 
Leicestershire, which devolved upon him at his mother's death, 
and now went to his half-brother the Marquis of Lome.® 

The Duchess of Argyll did not live to see the sad finale of 
her son's matrimonial fiasco, but she was doomed to meet with 
still further disappointments in her family. 

In a contemporary magazine of the day we read an account 
of one of the * Birthday Balls ' given at St. James's in 1777, ^^ 
which Lady Augusta Campbell is described as dancing with the 
Duke of Cumberland, her dress being white satin and boue de 
Paris, with gold and white trimming, foil, &c. ; and again, in 
May 1779, ^^ magnificent ball given by the Knights of the 

^ Douglas, eighth Duke of Hamilton, left an illegitimate daughter who was 
called * Anne Douglas.' She married in 1820 Henry Robert, third Lord Rossmore, 
and died s.p. in 1844. 

* The Duchess of Hamilton remarried, in 1800, the first Marquis of Exeter. 

' Elizabeth Gunning, Duchess of Hamilton and Brandon and of Argyll, was 
created in 1776 Baroness Hamilton of Hambledon (Leicestershire) in her own 
right. 

K 2 



132 More about the Gunnings 

Bath was opened by the Duke of Cumberland and Lady 
Augusta. .Lady Augusta was the Duchess of ArgylFs eldest 
Campbell daughter, and was only seventeen at this time. Though 
not a great beauty, she had considerable looks ot a most refined 
and aristocratic nature,^ and she sang exquisitely. A little later, 
in 178 1, we read that she was present with her mother at the 
ball given at Windsor to celebrate the Prince of Wales's nine- 
teenth birthday. He was then paying her considerable attention, 
dancing a great deal with her, and making her sit next to him at 
supper at one of the three small royal tables. Lady Charlotte 
says : * Augusta received for some time, with undissembled 
pleasure, the addresses of the Prince. Whither my mother's 
ambitious views tended I cannot attempt to fathom, but a cool- 
ness ensued between her and the Queen from this moment. . . .' 
The Prince sent Lady Augusta a valuable diamond necklace, 
which, as it was not accompanied by an offer of marriage, was 
very properly sent back by her mother to H.R.H. *When 
all my mother's romantic hopes in this direction were over. 
Lord Graham, eldest son of the Duke of Montrose, was 
the next person her eyes were turn'd upon as a proper and 
eligible husband for Augusta ; ^ the idea pleased my father also, 
who, tho' never addicted to plans or intrigues in this most 

^ Lady Charlotte Campbell had a lovely picture by Angelica Kaufimann, in 
which Lady Augusta is standing in front of her mother playing the harp. This 
picture is now in the possession of Mr. Campbell Johnston. Bartolozzi made 
a three-quarter-length engraving of Lady Augusta from it ; and there is also another 
well-known engraving of her by the same artist, entitled * The St James's Beauty.' 

' The following is a paragraph from one of the society papers of the day : 
* Although the Drawing-room at St James's on Monday was rather thin, the Ball- 
room at night was exceedingly crowded. Lady Augusta Campbell danced the 
2nd Minuet with the Marquis of Graham. Her dress was a pea-green satin 
enriched with a gold trimming and a great quantity of artificial flowers. The 
elegance of this young lady's person, her graceful manner of dancing, and the 
particular taste of her dress were exceedingly admired' 



\ St. Jamks's Beautv." 
'(, Paii.li<:ii hyj. H. Btnifeh 



More about the Gunnings 133 

innocent sense, still thought such a match desirable for the 
daughter he adored. My mother, who was very fond of Lord 
Abercorn, then Mr. Hamilton, made use of him as a tool to 
bring this matter to bear ; but whatever might once have been 
Lord Graham's intentions with respect to Augusta, her undis- 
guised passion for the Prince had checked every favourable 
opinion he might have entertained for her. Indeed, for some 
time she did not attempt to rouse herself from the state of 
lethargy and despondency into which she had fallen.' Lady 
Augusta Campbell remained single until she was twenty-eight, 
when she married, without her parents' consent, Henry Mor- 
daunt Clavering, son of General Sir John Clavering, K.B., and 
his wife, Lady Diana West. * This match,' says Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, * had been made from a masquerade after only a fort- 
night's acquaintance in the Highlands. Though an honourable 
man in the world's acceptation, Colonel Clavering was of a 
character little likely to make a woman's happiness and fortune, 
and splendour lent no brilliant light to gloss over the rude 
surface with illusion.' The marriage was not a happy one, and 
after some years both agreed to part. Lady Augusta died in 
1 83 1, aged seventy-one, leaving one daughter, Charlotte Catha- 
rine Clavering (who married in 1817 Miles Fletcher, Esq., son 
of Archibald Fletcher the author and a learned lawyer, as Lord 
Brougham calls him, styled the * Father of Burgh Reform,' and 
two sons, Douglas Clavering, who was drowned in the Redwing, 
and Rawdon Clavering, R.E., father of Sir Henry Augustus 
Clavering, the tenth and last Baronet. 

The Duchess had now deeply felt the hand of adversity, and, 
considering the dazzling brightness of her morn of life, its noon 
was scarcely to be envied. The loss of her darling eldest son, 
the wild life of the second one, and the matrimonial miseries of 



134 More about the Gunnings 

her daughters, all conspired to prey on her delicate frame, where 
Nature had already sown the seeds of that fatal hereditary 
disorder, consumption ; and during the last five years of her life 
the beautiful Duchess was in a very bad state of health. She was, 
however, blessed with the most excellent and devoted husband, 
which enabled her to bear up against all her trials, and for his 
sake she was cheerful and beautiful to the last. Some one had 
said of her that * she seemed composed of a finer clay than the 
rest of her sex,* 

But coughs will come when sighs depart — ^and now 
And then before sighs cease ; for oft the one 

Will bring the other, ere the lakelike brow 
Is ruffled by a wrinkle ... 

. . . and while a glow, 

Hectic and brief as summer's day nigh done, 

Overspreads the cheek which seems too pure for clay. 

During this time the Duchess was never in Scotland. She livec^ 
mostly very quietly either at Argyll House, the family mansion 
in Argyll Street, Regent Street,^ or at Ealing Grove, which the 
Duke bought as a country residence for her near London. At 
both places she had a little coterie of relations and intimate friends 
who were constantly with her. Lady Charlotte Campbell in her 
Journal mentions among the hahituis of this date. Lord and Lady 
Frederick Campbell, Marshal Conway (* the divine Marshal,* as 
she calls him) and Lady Ailesbury, Mary, Duchess of Richmond, 
Lady Mary Coke ^ and her sisters Lady Greenwich and Lady Betty 
McKenzie, Mrs. Damer, the two Miss Gunnings (daughters of 
Sir Robert Gunning, Bart., one of whom became Mrs. Digby and 

^ This afterwards became the property of Lord Aberdeen, and was pulled 
down about 1865. 

^ Lady Mary Coke for many years had a quarrel with the Duchess, but became 
quite reconciled and was very attentive to her in her last years. 



i.izAiiKTH, Duchess of Hamilton and BRANDor 
AND HKR Dai'chters, 
Ladv Auoubta Campbkll and Ladv Chahloi 

om a I'klmc by Au;tlic,i hanfnia.,,,, noH' '» Hii /-o^^f-i',-', .■(' ,1 



More about the Gunnings 135 

tint, other Mrs. Ross), General and Lady Cecilia Johnston, Mrs. 
Grenville, Mrs. French, Lady Dillon, Lady Mount Edgcumbe, 
the two Miss Berrys, Mrs. Anderson, Lord and Lady Abercorn, 
Horace Walpole, Sir Andrew Stewart, Sir Robert Keith, and 
Generals 0*Hara, Skene, and Murray. 

When cold weather began, the Duke always took the Duchess 
to the South ; and the last time she appeared at any public 
assembly was in 1785 at Marseilles, where she and her family 
spent three months. Cradock in his * Memoirs ' says : * I had 
the honour of dining with them the day of the Picnic Ball, and 
the Duchess as soon as possible retired to dress. She came 
down to coffee in all her splendour : every one was struck with 
astonishment, and the Lieutenant of Police, who was present, 
exclaimed, " I have never seen any one so completely beautiful 
before ! " ' And this was when the Duchess was fifty-one years 
of age and in very bad health. Cradock says in another part of his 
* Memoirs,' written at Marseilles : * The Argyle family, aflable to 
all, has greatly contributed to enliven our evenings. There were 
no cards introduced, but they had frequent concerts, and their own 
family could always supply excellent catches and glees ; but the 
health of the Duchess rather declined, and though she had her own 
physician, Dr. Robertson, with her, yet from mere kindness she 
condescended to call in Dr. Fischer of Gottingen, who gave so much 
satisfaction that her Grace was pleased to write a letter in his 
behalf to the Duke of York, who was then resident at Gottingen.' 

The winter of 1789 was spent in Italy, whither the Duchess 
went *with a great train,' which Horace Walpole says she 
always loved. Besides her young daughter. Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, who was only fourteen, she was accompanied by her 
two married daughters — poor Lady Derby, who was now a con- 
firmed invalid, and Lady Augusta Clavering and her husband — 



■PgaBBag ju 1— — — iiJBi 



136 More about the Gunnings 

and other members of her family ; and of course her own doctor 
went with them. During this winter the Duchess saw a great 
deal of Sir William Hamilton, who was related to her first hus- 
band ; and Mr. Cordy JeafFreson in his * Historical Biography 
of Lady Hamilton/ founded on letters in the possession of 
Mr. Alfred Morrison, says : Ht is certain that the Duchess's 
good and numerous acts of kindness were powerful in determin- 
ing Sir William Hamilton to marry Emma. Many things might 
be told yet again to Elizabeth Gunning*s honour, but of them 
all, none smells sweeter or blossoms brighter than her brave and 
sympathetic goodness to Emma Hart.* The Duchess did not 
return till the summer, and died the following December, being 
then fifty-six years old, having kept her bed for some days only. 
She was buried at Kilmun, the burying-place of the Argylls. 

The portraits existing of the Duchess are not fequal to her 
beauty. It is very unfortunate that Gainsborough, who painted 
her husband, did nothing of her ; and apparently Sir Joshua only 
painted her once (1758-9), and this picture, such as it was, a 
full-length life-size (in red mantle lined ermine, with two doves), 
has entirely lost its colours and has a ghastly green hue .all over 
the face.^ The best portraits of her are by Gavin Hamilton, 
Francis Cotes, R.A., and Angelica Kauffinann. The full-length 
by Gavin Hamilton, with the greyhound, is well known- by 
Faber*s mezzotint. In * Andromache bewailing the Death of 
Hector,* by Gavin Hamilton, the Duchess appears as Helen 
of Troy. It is an immense picture, with thirteen figures life- 
size, and is at Gordonstown, the seat of Sir William Gordon 
Gumming, Bart. It was engraved by Sir Robert Strange. 
At Inveraray Castle and at Swallowfield are lovely portraits 

^ This picture was lent by the Duke of Hamilton to the Exhibition at the 
Grosvenor Gallery in 1884. v . 



p Hamilton and of Argyll, iw Gunm 

!»■; bv F. C.'Us. H.A . al Smilhiffield. 



El.lZABKTH, Dli 



More about the Gunnings 137 

of her, by Cotes, in pink and green draperies, leaning against 
a large stone urn with a sunflower turning towards her, painted 
in 1767. Cotes also did many pastelle portraits of her, and, 
being a Galway man, took a special interest in depicting all the 
members of her family. One of his portraits of her, taken at 
the age of seventeen, is now in the possession of the writer. It 
is signed and dated (1751), and was engraved by McArdell. 
Angelica Kauflinann did a very graceful group in which the 
Duchess is the central figure, seated with Lady Charlotte Campbell, 
as an infant, on her knee, and Lady Augusta Campbell standing 
in front of her playing the harp. This picture, with its com- 
panion, one of Lord and Lady Derby, formerly belonged to Lady 
Charlotte Campbell, but they are now in the possession of members 
of the family of Campbell- Johnston. Miss Berry talks of seeing 
in Hamilton Palace an unfinished portrait of the Duchess by 
Gavin Hamilton, in which the Duke thought the likeness so 
striking that he took it from the painter and never would allow 
it to be finished. Miss Berry adds, * Without being a good 
picture, it gives an exquisite idea of her beauty, and the head 
greatly resembles that of the Venus de* Medici.' This is now 
at Altyre, N.B., in the possession of Sir William Gordon 
Cumming, Bart., and it was photographed by the Loan Exhibition. 
The portrait of the Duchess in the high cap, painted by Catherine 
Read, which is at Inveraray, is world-femous from the beautiful 
engravings taken from it by Lowry and by Finlayson. In the 
original picture the cap has blue ribbons, and the cloak is black 
with a white fichu. The Duke survived his wife sixteen years, 
dying in May 1 806, aged eighty-three. He had been created a 
British peer in the lifetime of his father as Baron Sundridge of 
Coomb-bank in Kent in 1766, and became Field-Marshal in 
1796. He left four children, George William, sixth Duke, who 



138 More about the Gunnings 

inherited from his mother the Barony of Hamilton, of Hamble- 
don, she having been created a peeress of Great Britain with that 
title in 1776 ; John Douglas, seventh Duke ; Lady Augusta 
Campbell, married General Clavering ; and Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, married Colonel John Campbell. 

Mrs. Grant of Laggan, writing in 1773, says : *I am told 
their children (those of the Duke and Duchess of Argyll) excel 
in beauty even the Hamilton family. So they should, having a 
double claim ! their father having been a model of manly grace 
in his day. And here I could find in my heart to stop and rail 
at the world ; one hears so little about him, he is so quietly 
passed over to make room for dashers and boasters, and fighters 
and talkers. He does not wish to be talked of, 'tis certain, but 
then I would not have them quite so complaisant as to give him 
all his will in this particular. Seek for a great man's true and 
solid praise at his own door, among his tenants and neighbours, 
and let it be a material part of his praise, that he has neighbours, 
that is to say that he lives at home among them. In this parti- 
cular the Duke is unrivalled. Every mouth here will tell you 
of some of these " quiet waters, soft and slow," that steal silently 
on, carrying bounty and beneficence into all the corners of 
obscurity. Don't be tired now, for I have a whole volume to 
write of this good Duke's worth and wisdom, which improves 
and blesses the whole country. . . . Yet I hope when this modest 
and amiable benefactor of mankind sleeps with his fathers, and 
when the tenants have ceased to say, " He is the best of country- 
men," some powerful voice shall say with effect : 

Rise, muses, rise, add all your tuneful breath. 
Such must not sleep in darkness and in deadi.' 

When Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton and Brandon and 



Mks. Tkavkhk, iw Krn-v Gu\mn-c. 



More about the Gunnings 139 

of Argyll, died, she was the last of the Gunning sisters ; for 
Catherine, or Kitty, as she was commonly called, the third sister, 
had predeceased her by seventeen years. She was born at 
Hemingford Grey in 1735,^ being two years younger than the 
Duchess. She had a very pretty fece, but her figure was slightly 
deformed and she was marked with the smallpox. After her 
sisters' marriages she lived with her mother at Somerset House 
till 1 769, when she married, at the age of thirty-four, Mr. Robert 
Travers (or Travis) of Allhallows, Lombard Street, who belonged 
to a Derbyshire family.^ He was only twenty-three and had 
considerable means. For a short time after their marriage they 
lived in county G>rk ; but in 1770, on the death of her mother,^ 
she was given the appointment of housekeeper at Somerset 
House, and removed there, where her eldest daughter, Elizabeth 
Dorothea, was born the same year. In three years she died 
herself, aged thirty-eight, leaving a daughter, Brianna, who 
married the Rev. Nichols G>le Bowen, fifth son of Henry Cole 
Bowen, Esq., of Bowen's Court, Kildorrery, co. Cork, by whom 
she had seven children. The writer has a beautiful pastelle of 
Kitty Gunning, painted and signed by Cotes in 1751, which was 
engraved by Houston. Mr. Robert Travis married secondly, in 
1 775, Frances, daughter of James Compton, and sister of Penelope, 
Lady Muncaster. 

The beautiful Miss Gunnings had only one brother, John, 
who was the youngest of the family. He was educated 



^ She was baptised at Hemingford Grey, June 12, 1735. 

' She was always called ' Kitty Travers/ and the present representatives of her 
husband's family call themselves Travers, but in the Somerset House Register his 
name is entered as * Travis.' He was son of Samuel Travis and his wife Sarah 
Manlowe, and he was baptised as such at St Alkmund's, Derby. 

' Mr John Gunning died at Somerset House in 1767. The writer has a 
beautiful pastelle of him, signed and dated by Cotes in 175 1. 



140 More about the Gunnings 

at Westminster School/ and went into the Army ; became 
Colonel of the 65th Regiment, and in 1775 ^^^ serving in 
America, and at Bunker's Hill * shewed the greatest proofs 
of military conduct and personal bravery/ and was honourably 
mentioned in despatches. He rose to the rank of major- 
general in 1787, and was deputy-adjutant-general in North 
Britain. He died in September 1797 at Naples.^ When very 
young he had married, in 1763, Susanna, daughter of James 
Minifie, D.D., of Fairwaters, Somersetshire, by whom he had 
one daughter, Elizabeth,^ commonly called 'Betty.' The 
Duchess of Argyll, who doted on her brother, took his daughter 
to live with her in order that she might introduce her to the 
great world. The young lady hoped that the luck of the 
Gunnings (which in Ireland had passed into a proverb) would 
attend her, and that she would make a brilliant alliance ; but as 
she was neither handsome nor clever,* she failed in her object and 
only made herself ridiculous by her manoeuvres to entangle 
Lord Blandford in an engagement. She began by bestowing 
her attentions on her cousin George, Lord Lome, who was at 
this time very young and singularly attractive, and she fancied 
herself in love with him — *a fancy too pleasing to be rejected,' 
says Lady Charlotte Campbell, who goes on to say, * My brother, 

^ In the Dublin Journal for June 29, 1751, we find the following paragraph : 

On Tuesday last the celebrated Miss Gunnings visited Westminster School where 

their brother is just entered, and begged a holiday for the scholars, which the 

Master readily granted, politely observing that nothing could be denied to such 

fair solicitors.' 

^ The writer has a pastelle portrait of him, done in 175 1 ; he appears to be a 
youth of about fourteen or fifteen, but was probably younger. 

' Not Catherine, as stated by some writers. 

^ All the prints of her make her decidedly very plain, but she was said to have 
a beautiful hand and arm, and agreeable manners. She managed to ingratiate 
herself into the affections of her aunt the Duchess, and her cousin Lady Charlott 
Campbell, who, as a child, was quite devoted to her. 



More about the Gunnings 141 

in the first iclat of youth, novelty, and good looks, had little 
leisure or inclination to think of an ugly cousin at home, but 
that unfortunate girl chose to imagine otherwise.' When the 
beautiful Duchess died in 1790, Betty Gunning went home to 
her father and mother, who were living in St. James's Street, 
next door to Brooks's, and it was then that she started the 
idea that Lord Blandford wished to marry her. Horace Walpole 
in his numerous allusions to this subject, which he calls 
* The Gunninghiad,' christened her * the Princess Gunnilda.' 
The origin of this nickname was that in some paper there 
appeared a notice about General Gunning, in which it said that he 
was thirty-second descendant in a direct line from Charlemagne, 
which assertion so tickled the fancy of Horace Walpole that he 
always after called him the * Emperor ' or * Carloman,' and his 
daughter * the Princess Gunnilda.' Ultimately the young lady 
behaved so badly about this affair, that not only did the Duke of 
Argyll refuse to receive her in his house, but her own father also 
declined to have anything to say to her. She and her mother, 
who took her daughter's part, went away, first to Dover and 
then to Boulogne. There they met Major James Plunkett of 
Kinnaid, co. Roscommon, whose family had always lived near 
the* Gunnings in Ireland. He had been seriously implicated in 
the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and was condemned to death, but 
managed to escape to France. After a time Mrs. and Miss 
Gunning returned to London, where the mother died in Dean 
Street in 1 800, aged sixty, and was buried in Westminster Abbey ; 
and in 1 804 * Gunnilda ' married Major Plunkett. Through 
the Duke of Argyll's influence he obtained leave to return to 
England, and they settled at Long Melford in Suffolk, where 
she had some friends, William and John Campbell of Lyston 



142 More about the Gunnings 

Hall^ cousins of the Duke of Argyll.^ She died there in 1823, 
and her husband some time after received permission to return 
to Mount Plunkett, his place near Elphin, but died in London.^ 
With the death of General John Gunning in 1797 this branch of 
the family of the Gunnings of Castle Coote became extinct in 
the male line,^ though the descendants of the feir sisters are 
very numerous, especially those of Elizabeth.* 

' Sons of William Campbell (brother of the fourth DukeX who died in 1797 at 
Lyston Hall, which he bought Their mother was Susanna, daughter of Thomas 
Bernard of Jamaica. 

^ Major and Mrs. Plimkett had five children : (i) James Gunning Plunkett, 
married Jane, daughter of Major William Kelly of "l^ncannon, Galway, and had 
a son, James Gunning Plunkett, in the Army, and another who was Chief Justice 
in New South Wales. (2) Coventry Plunkett (3) Argyll Plunkett, married Miss 
Lysaght ; they went to America, where he practised as a doctor, as did also his son 
Nelson Plunkett (4 and 5) Twin daughters, who went to America, and one married. 

' Although there are now no Gunnings descended from John Gunning and the 
Honourable Bridget Bourke, there are Gunnings still in Roscommon who are 
descended from his Neither, Bryan Gunning. Mr. Alexander George Gunning, 
the present owner of St. John's, is a grandson of the Rev. Alexander Gunning 
who married Miss Hudson of St. John's, a niece of Oliver Goldsmith. 

^ See Gunning Pedigree in Appendix. 



THE MAID OF THE OAKS 

On April i, 1797, a handsome man, still in the prime of life, 
was riding home through one of the charming Kentish lanes on 
his return from hunting, when he was obliged to draw on one 
side to allow a funeral cortige to pass. Curiosity led him to ask 
whose it was, and the answer came, the Countess of Derby. 
He was much moved, as well he might be, when he thought of 
the bright and innocent girl whose heart he had won before 
she was out of her teens, and whose life's happiness had been 
wrecked through his dishonour. 

Lady Elizabeth (commonly called Lady Betty Hamilton), 
the only daughter of James, sixth Duke of Hamilton, and the 
beautiful Elizabeth Gunning, was born on January 26, 1753, 
when the latter was only nineteen. At the age of five she lost 
her father, and the following year her mother married Colonel 
Jack Campbell (afterwards fifth Duke of Argyll), and shortly 
after became Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Charlotte. 
Lady Betty was brought forward at a very early age ; Lady 
Mary Coke mentions seeing her at Court when she was not 
sixteen, and talks of her * fine figure ; ' and a year later this same 
writer describes her at Lady Holderness's assembly as * appearing 
gayer than was necessary.' The gaiety was supposed to be ill 
judged, the decision in the celebrated Douglas case having been 
just given against her brother the Duke of Hamilton. 



144 ^^^ Maid of the Oaks 

Lady Charlotte Campbell, her half-sister, thus describes her : 
* Though far from a beauty, my sister Betty had the figure of 
a sylph, the air and step of a Hebe, with all the iclat of natural 
rosy red and lily white, together with a sweetness of disposition 
and manners that won every heart, and which time, sorrow, and 
sickness never deprived her of ; but a natural want of solidity of 
character, joined to a tender and artless disposition, left her an 
easy prey to folly and to vice.' 

John Frederick, third Duke of Dorset, a man of agreeable 
ingratiating address, and as accomplished in mind as he was in 
manners, won her earliest affections, and, for a time, paid her 
the greatest attention ; but this gay Lothario never dreamt of 
marrying, and, on being appointed to some foreign mission, 
left her to mortification and despair. Daily and hourly she 
hoped to hear from him, but he made no signs, and after a 
while Lady Betty's despair gave place to pique. Lady Charlotte 
Campbell writes : ^ The pride of youth and of woman enabled 
her to bury her mortification in dissipation and admiration. 
Among the number of her professed lovers, Mr. Nisbet of 
Dirleton was one of her best conquests, and 1 cannot help 
marking his addresses, because they seemed to flow from dis- 
interested attachment, as the rest of his life, even to this hour, 
has ever proved. He went to Inveraray, as 1 have heard tell, 
with old Baron Mure (who was a most intimate friend of my 
father's) merely to stay a couple of days, but love riveted him 
to the spot for I know not how long — long enough, however, for 
prayers, entreaties, and ardent passion so far to get the better 
of Lady Betty's reluctance as to allow Mr. Nisbet strong hopes 
of success. Possessed of these he set off immediately for Italy, 
where the Duke of Hamilton was then upon his travels, merely 
to ensure his consent and hoping to return doubly armed with 



The Maid of the Oaks 145 

power to gain the object of his affections ; but " L'amour est en 
absence ce qu'un feu est au vent : il 6teint le petit, il ranime le 
grand," and my sister's heart was barred against his addresses for 
ever. To have given hope she could not fulfil appears unpar- 
donable coquetry, yet in the situation she was there are pallia- 
tions for her conduct that the memory of her many gentle and 
fascinating qualities makes me take pleasure in discovering. 
Had she married Mr. Nisbet her fate in all probability would 
have been far different, but it was otherwise decided.' At this time 
Lady Charlotte Edwin, an aunt of her father's, and a woman 
of an intriguing spirit, set to work to arrange a match 
between Lady Betty and her nephew Edward, Lord Stanley 
(afterwards twelfth Earl of Derby), and in the event of this 
marriage taking place she promised to make the Duke of 
Hamilton heir to her large fortune.^ Lady Charlotte Campbell 
writes : * My mother, imagining that wealth, title, and splendour 
would suffice the demands of her daughter's heart, gave in to 
the plan, and though she did not command, yet used every 
argument and set forth every circumstance likely to win upon 
my sister's will. Many were the means employed till Lord 
Derby's constant and assiduous care veiled the ugliness of his 
person before the idol he worshipped. Time and despair made 
Lady Betty give a hasty and undigested consent. After a day 
of persecutions from every quarter, while a hairdresser was 
adorning her unhappy head she traced the consent with a pencil 
on a scrap of paper and sent it wet with her tears to my mother. 
Unhappy, ill-fated haste ! The paper was despatched to Lord 
Stanley. Everything was shortly settled, and no blandishments 
that power and passion could bestow were spared to dazzle the 

^ Lady Charlotte Edwin died in 1777, and left the greatest part of her large 
fortune to the Duke of Hamilton. 



146 The Maid of the Oaks 

unhappy victim.' On June 10, 1774, a great fite champ&tre was 
given by the bridegroom at The Oaks, his villa at Epsom.^ All 
the town rang with the magnificence of the entertainment ; every- 
body was in masquerade, but not in mask. * It will cost ;^5,ooo,' 
says Horace Walpole, writing the day before to Mann ; * Lord 
Stanley has bought all the orange-trees round London.' * A 
figure habited like a Druid came forth with verses and flowers,' 
says Lady Charlotte Campbell, * to strew in the bride's path and 
flatter her vanity.' The ftte was managed by General Burgoyne 
(brother-in-law of Lord Stanley), who composed, expressly for the 
occasion, his once popular piece, * The Maid of the Oaks,' ^ in 
which Mrs. Abingdon delighted all London by her wonderful per- 
formance of * Lady Bab Lardoon.' There are charming pictures 
at Knowsley representing this ffete, which introduce portraits of 
Lady Betty and Lord Stanley. They were painted by A. Zucchi, 
the husband of Angelica KauflTmann, and have been engraved.^ 
Even after this, poor Lady Betty made a feeble eflFort to break 
oflF her matrimonial engagement ; but ultimately she was married 
on June 23, 1 774, at Richmond, by special licence, quite privately, 
very few persons being present. Lord Stanley would not hear 
of any delay, and barely allowed time for the settlements to be 
transcribed, as will be seen in a letter in the Addenda.* 

A few weeks after her marriage Lady Elizabeth Stanley was 
presented at Court. Lady Mary Coke writes : * 'Tis said she 
did not look so satisfied a bride as the Duchess of Devonshire — 

^ Lord Stanley, when Lord Derby, instituted in 1789 the race called the Oaks, 
winning it himself ; a year later he founded the * Derby.* The first race brought 
thirty-six entries at fifty guineas each. 

» Garrick produced this play at Drury Lane shortly after. 

» One is called *The Supper Room,* A. Zucchi, 1773 ; the other, «The Ball 
Room,' A. Zucchi, 1777. Both formed panels in Lord Derb/s dining-room in 
Grosvcnor Square. The former was engraved by Caldwell. 

* See page 339 



The Maid of the Oaks 147 

her dress was approved of and her diamonds are very fine. She 
returns no visits, excuses herself upon the account of her going 
so soon into Lancashire, where she will find a scene very new to 
her : she goes to " plain work and to purling brooks, old-fashioned 
halls, dull aunts, and croaking rooks, &c." ' Lord Stanley, how- 
ever, went to Lancashire by himself; and Lady Betty remained 
at The Oaks, where she was joined by her mother and her sisters 
and brothers. The King and Queen honoured her with a visit 
there, and Lady Mary Coke writes : * The Duchess of Argyll 
and her famUy seem much in favour at Court. To-morrow 
being the birthday of the Princess Augusta, there is to be a 
supper and some entertainment at Kew House, to which her 
Grace and Lady Betty are invited though not now in the 
neighbourhood.' In the winter Lady Betty came to town, 
and we read of her giving parties * to shew her fine house ' 
(No. 4 Grosvenor Square), built and decorated by Robert Adam. 
Early the next season the Duke of Dorset reappeared, 
talked of letters he had never written, messages he had never 
sent, said her mother had deceived her, poured poison into her 
soul, vowed over and over all his former professions, and then 
with affected generosity bade her be happy while life was a 
chaos to him. *My unfortunate sister,* says Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, * was plunged into a pit from whence she had neither 
sense nor sound principles enough to extricate herself, and her 
husband, to whom she avowed the state of her heart, with 
unheard-of vanity and folly, plunged her deeper in the abyss by 
perpetual scenes of dissipation and everything that tended to 
relax principle instead of giving tension to its feeble fibres.' 
Lady Betty was now to be seen everywhere, and was every- 
where admired. We read in Sir Joshua Reynolds's * Life ' how 
* conspicuous among the beauties gathered in Westminster Hall 

L2 



148 The Maid of the Oaks 

on the 15th April 1776 to witness the trial of the Duchess of 
Kingston ^ were the beautiful young Duchess of Devonshire and 
the still lovelier young Countess of Derby,' ^ * with their work- 
bags full of good things/ says Hannah More, * to sustain nature 
during the proceedings ; * and we also hear that she was present 
at Admiral Keppel's trial, * looking lovely.' At Almack's, we 
are told, she was * one of the stars, brilliant and beautiful.' The 
painters of the day loved painting her. Sir Joshua's whole- 
length of her wreathing the altar of Hymen was one of the most 
admired portraits exhibited by that artist at the exhibition of the 
Royal Academy in April 1777.^ Angelica KaufFmann painted her 
twice ; one of these pictures is at Knowsley, and the other (in 
which Lord Derby appears) belongs to Mr. Campbell Johnston. 
Cosway also painted her twice ; and H. D. Hamilton did a pro- 
file of her in 1777, which was destroyed, but was engraved by 
George Townley Stubbs. The most charming portrait of all 
those existing of Lady Betty is the one by Romney, a half- 
length sitting, which the first Lord GranviUe bought in Paris, 
and which the late Lord GranviUe sold to Sir Charles Tennant. 
This also has been engraved, in 1770, by John Dean. 

In January 1777, in an account of the Birthday Ball at St. 
James's, we read of * Lady Derby looking charming ; ' and a little 

' Lady Betty must have been doubly interested in this trial if she knew, which 
probably she did, that her £&ther had once been engaged to Elizabeth Chudleigh. 

' This year Lord Stanley succeeded to the title and estates of his grand£sither. 

' Unfortunately the whereabouts of this picture, if it still exists, which is more 
than doubtful, is unknown. Mr. Scharf in vain searched for it, and came to the 
conclusion that it had been destroyed. A fine engraving by Dickinson, however, 
shows one what it was. In it appears Sir Joshua's celebrated macaw, concerning 
which Northcote tells us how the bird used to fly in fury at the portrait of Sir 
Joshua's housemaid, between whom and the bird no love was lost. Sir Joshua 
frequently repeated this experiment before Burke, Johnson, Goldsmith, and most 
of his friends, and it never failed of success, though the macaw took no notice of 
any other picture. 



The Maid of the Oaks 1 49 

further on, the account mentions the Duke of Dorset in a gala 
suit * gris de Daric6 \sic\ embroidered upon all the seams.' All 
through this year his name appears wherever she was. In 
August we hear of a party assembled at Castle Howard (Lord 
Carlisle's) for York races, * including Lord and Lady Derby 
and the Duke of Dorset.' This was one of the last times Lord 
and Lady Derby appeared in public together. After a few years 
of splendid misery, writes Lady Charlotte Campbell, * Lady 
Derby left her husband, and went to Brighthelmstone early in 
1778.' Lord Derby consoled himself in the company of Mrs. 
Armitstead,^ and he failed to get a divorce for which he tried in 
November of the same year. 

The instant Lady Betty's flight was known, her mother, who 
idolised her, followed her to Brighthelmstone, accompanied by 
her husband, the Duke of Argyll, and by Lady Betty's brother, 
the Duke of Hamilton. The Duke and Duchess remained on 
there with Lady Betty, and henceforward the Duchess's chief 
object in life seemed to be trying to rehabilitate her daughter's 
lost character. In this, however, she never succeeded. She 

^ Elizabeth Bridget Blane, otherwise Mrs. Armitstead, whom Charles James 
Fox married at Witton, Huntingdonshire, September 28, 1795. In 1799, ^^ ^is 
fiftieth birthday, he addressed to her the following lines : 

Of years I have now half a century past, 

And none of the fifty so blessed as the last. 

How it happens my troubles thus daily should cease 

And my happiness thus with my years should increase. 

This defiance of nature's more general laws 

You alone can explain, who alone are the cause. 

Mrs. Fox survived her husband many years, and died July 8, 1842, aged ninety- 
seven. Lord Albemarle visited her, accompanied by the Duke and Duchess of 
Bedford, at St. Ann's Hill when she was in her ninety-third year, * but still hale 
and handsome ; ' and, he adds, * she insisted upon showing us all over the house 
herself, pointing, among other things, to the tiny table on which Fox wrote his 
James W Mrs. Armitstead sat to Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1779 for Lord Derby, 
and again ten years later. 



150 The Maid of the Oaks 

made Lady Deroy write at once to Queen Charlotte acquaint- 
ing her Majesty that she had left her husband, and put out 
a feeler to see whether she would still be received at Court. 
The following is a copy of the Queen's answer to Lady Derby : 

* Madam, your attachment to the King's family is so well 
known to him and her, that you may rest secure that no apparent 
want of attention will ever be laid by either of us at your door. 
1 cannot at the same time help adding that I am sensible of your 
confidence in stating your present situation so frankly to me. 

* I shall ever remain. Madam, your friend and well-wisher, 

* Charlotte. 
* Queen's House: May^^st^ 1778.' 

In consequence of the Queen refusing to receive Lady Derby 
at Court, the Duchess (her mother) gave up her post of Lady in 
Waiting. Lady Derby went abroad, where at first she was joined 
by Mrs. Campbell of Carrick, a cousin of the Duke of Argyll, 
and was sometime at Spa and Nice. She was at Vienna in 1781, 
where the Emperor made much of her ; and after that she went 
to Brunswick, where she spent a summer with Augusta, Duchess 
of Brunswick (sister of George IIL), who was always most kind to 
her. Sir John Stanley (afterwards Lord Stanley of Alderley) was at 
Brunswick as a youth in 1782, and in his * Praeterita ' says : * Lady 
Derby came to Brunswick this summer and was paid all sorts of 
attention by the Court, and ffites were given on purpose for her. 
She claimed me as a relation, and said, " Why will you not come 
and speak to your cousin } " I knew little of her story, but I 
think she had a feeling of my keeping aloof from her purposely. 
She was beautiful, and I have her contour and engaging smiles 
and manner vividly in my memory at this moment ; but, young 
as I was, I could observe her unhappiness in the midst of the 



The Maid of the Oaks 151 

flatteries she received and the attempt to please and make her 
happy. The opera of " Pyramus and Thisbe " had been got up 
at Brunswick, and I was near enough to Lady Derby to see 
her shed tears when one of the songs was sung. I was quite a 
child when I saw her first, soon after her marriage ; I saw her at 
Brunswick as fascinating as she had been in her fuU glory.' The 
following letter was written by the Duchess of Brunswick to the 
Duchess of ArgyU soon after Lady Derby's departure from that 
Court. 

*Bronsvic : the ii of Oct. 1782. 

* Dear Duchess, — I feel for the happiness of having your 
children together. I owe a letter to Lady Derby, but would not 
write by the same post to her. She is still in such a hurry that 
I cannot expect that her Bronsvic mother should be often 
thought of ; tell her that I love her with all my heart, and that 
the better she behaves the more she will confound her enemies. 
I hear the Prince of Wales earnestly beg'd to have Lady Betty 
permitted to come to Court again ; the answer was, if Lord Derby 
would live with her again she would be admitted.^ The Prince 
of Wales, I am told, has behaved vastly well upon the death of 
his little brother, and has shown great feeling for his parents ; 
that is well, and I am glad to have an opportunity of commend- 
ing him, tho' I do not dispair of living to see him make a great 
and good figure in the world. I must recommend the Austrian 
Ministers wife to you because she has wrote me a fine letter 
that I shall send the King without any remark. I knew her at 
Frankfort ; she is pretty, but I have heard that in Denmark she 
has been very coquette — at Frankfort, they had not long been 
married, and it was a love match, so all was then very proper. 

^ Lady Derby would have returned to her husband, but by this time he had 
become infatuated about Miss Farren, the actress, and refused to receive his wife 
back. 



152 The Maid of the Oaks 

He I liked better than her. I must recommend a book to you, 
but only to you. Not for youths ; it's " Les Confessions de 
Rousseau"— one learns to know oneself by reading that book. 
Compliments to the Duke of ArgyU and Hamilton and Lady 
Augusta, and remain, my dear Duchess, 

* Your most affectionate friend, 

* Augusta.* 

At the end of three years Lady Derby returned to England 
with a broken heart and a broken constitution, being now only 
twenty-eight years of age. For some years she was able to go 
abroad every winter with her mother and other members of her 
family, but in 1 790 she had the misery of losing that mother, 
who, however ill judged she had been about her daughter's 
marriage, had always adored her. From that date Lady Derby 
rapidly declined. She got too ill to leave England, and 
lived for some time at Teignmouth with her young brother. 
Lord John Campbell, who was there with a tutor. The end 
came when she was in London staying at the house of Mr. J. C. 
Hamilton, a relative of her father's, in Gloucester Street, Portman 
Square. She died on March 14, 1797, and was buried (by her 
express desire) at Bromley in Kent. The register there says she 
was interred on April i,^ and an affidavit was made stating that the 
rule ordering persons to be buried in woollen cloth was remitted. 

* Odious ! In woollen ! 'T would a saint provoke,* 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke. 

The Duke of Dorset must indeed have felt a pang when he 
met her funeral. But this episode — which was death, and a sad 
lingering death, to the woman — as usual did not affect the man's 

^ Lady Derby's body was at first placed in the vaults of South Audley Street 
ChapeL 



The Maid of the Oaks 1 53 

welfare. She was an exile from society, she was deprived of her 
children,* and forbidden to appear at Court ; but he, her destroyer, 
was sent as ambassador to Paris, where we hear of him basking 
in the smiles of Marie Antoinette, one of the favoured few ad- 
mitted to the celebrated rural fttes at the Petit Trianon,^ and 
on his return he was made Lord Steward of the Household, and 
he married a beautiful heiress.^ 

Lord Derby, who had been assiduous in his devotion to Miss 
Farren for so many years * that Horace Walpole uses his con- 
stancy as a proverb, did not wait long to claim her as his bride. 
On April 8 she appeared finally in her celebrated part as Lady 
Teazle, and on May i, 1797, just six weeks after Lady Betty's 
death, she became the second wife of Lord Derby .^ 

^ Lady Derby left three children : Edward, thirteenth Earl, &ther of the Prime 
Minister, bom 1775 ; Lady Charlotte Stanley, bom 1776, who married her cousin, 
Edmund Hornby of Dalton Hall ; and Lady Elizabeth Henrietta, who married 
Stephen Cole, Esq. 

' Mercy-Argenteau tells«us that Marie Antoinette used to walk about during 
the masked balls at the Opera, attended by an escort of men of distinction, and 
mentions the Duke of Dorset as one whom her Majesty treated with special favour. 
The Duke of Dorset \[remained] in Paris as ambassador till 1790, when he was 
recalled because his liveried servant, who had been seized by the mob, was found 
to have a letter in his pocket addressed to the Comte d'Artois. 

' The Duke of Dorset married in 1790 Arabella Diana, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir Charles Cope, Bart., of Breweme, by Catherine, sister of Lord de la Zouch ; 
these Copes being ajyounger^branch of the Copes of Hanwell, now of Bramshill. 
Arabella, Duchess of Dorset,'married secondly, in 1801, Charles, Earl of Whitworth. 
Her only son, the fourth Didce of Dorset, was killed out hunting in 181 5, when the 
title became extinct. 

^ Fifteen years, during which time she had the most wonderful influence over 
him, and quite altered his life. Lord Derby and Charles James Fox seem to have 
had a great sameness in their tastes as to women, for Fox was also furiously in 
love with Miss Farren and at one time seemed likely to cut out Lord Derby, but 
he married instead Mrs. Armitstead, Lord Derby's former Mre amie, 

' It may be remarked that the histrionic talent has come out strongly in the 
second Lady Derby's great-granddaughter, Mrs. Charles Crutchley, generally 
considered to be one of the best amateur actresses of the day. 



A CANNY SCOT 

The Campbells of Ardentinny,^ afterwards of Skipness,* 
Shawfield, and Islay, are said to be descended from Sir Colin 
Campbell of Ardkinglas, second son of Sir Colin Campbell of 
Lochow, ancestor of the Dukes of Argyll.^ Be this as it may, 
* It is (if we may use the old saying in this sense) a fer cry to 
Lochow ! ' 

The motto of CampbeU of Ardkinglas, *Set on,* seems 
certainly to have been appropriate to some of these offshoots 
of the Campbell dan, for, like many of their neighbours, they 
were formerly cattle-lifters, and lived chiefly on their depreda- 
tions and on the Black Mail they levied. It should, however, 
be understood that neither of these modes of procedure must 
be viewed in the light that they would be nowadays. Cattle- 
lifting was then looked upon in the Highlands as a kind of 
clan warfare, and came to be considered rather as a gallant 
military enterprise than a theft, and young men regarded a 
proficiency in the art as a recommendation to their mistresses. 

' Ardentinny, or the * Fire Hill/ at the mouth of Loch Long. 

^ Skipness, also written Skipneis, Skippinche, and Skipnishe, &c. 

' This descent is given them in Nisbet's Heraldry (1742), and by Crawfurd. 
The bearing of Campbell of Ardkinglas was gironn6 of eight, or and sable within 
a bordure of the first. Crest, a lymphad (galley) with oars in motion. 

Of Ardentinny, the same, but the bordure charged with eight crescents. Crest, 
two oars disposed in saltier, motto, ' Terra, mare, fide.' 

Campbell of Shawfield, the same as Ardentinny, but crest, a griffin erected 
holding the sun between his fore-paws, with the motto, * Fidus Amicis.' 



: l)(jxcA\ Cami'bell, Lohd of Lochow, and his Wifb, Makjoky, 

DAirr.niKR Oh- TKK Hhgknt Duki: of Albanv. 
Diik ofMomiment 1433, al Kdmm. Holy L-d'. Clydf. .V.B. 



A Canny Scot 155 

They thought, to use the words of the poet, *that they 
should take who have the power, and they should keep who 
can.' We are even told by Tennant that when undertaking 
these expeditions the Highlanders prayed as earnestly to heaven 
for success as if they were engaged in the most laudable enterprise. 

* Black Mail,' or * Watch Money,' was a system of com- 
promise by which honest persons were enabled in some degree 
to secure themselves against losses. For a number of years 
the six independent companies of Highlanders commonly called 
the * Reicudan Dhu,' or * Black Watch,' were effective in 
keeping down the system of cattle-lifting, and when those 
companies were formed into a regular regiment, the cattle- 
lifting burst out again with renewed vigour. Mr. Graham of 
Gartmore, writing on this subject, says that as late as 1745, £sfiOO 
was spent yearly in Black Mail either openly or privately. We 
read in * Waverley ' that when a raid had been made upon the 
cattle of the Baron of Bradwardine, his daughter Rose suggested 
paying Black Mail to Fergus Maclvor for restitution of the 
same, and that Captain Waverley, on asking if this sort of 
Jonathan Wild was called a gentleman, was greatly astonished 
at being told that Maclvor claimed precedence over all the 
neighbouring lairds.^ 

Gittle-lifting was probably very lucrative in Argyllshire, 
and no doubt this is the origin of the saying : ^ It came in 



^ Macdonald of Barrisdale was said to have been the original of the character 
of Maclvor. He was the last Highland gentleman who carried on the plundering 
system to any great extent, and it is said that he made a clear ;£5oo a year by 
Black Mail. He was a man of fine address and person, and had polished manners, 
was well-read and a scholar. He engraved on his broad-sword the following 
lines : 

* Hse tibi enmt artes — pacisque imponere morem, 
Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos.' 



156 A Canny Scot 

hides and it will go in latchets/ alluding to the power of the 
Campbells. 

The first of the Ardentinny Campbells whom we find called 
* of Skipneis ' was Matthew Campbell, who appears as * Capetanis 
Casteli in Skipneis,' with his wife Devorgilla Macalister in a 
charter,^ dated December 7, 1576.^ 

Then we find the second Matthew Campbell * Captain of 
Skipness,' who died before 1670. Who his father was it is 
impossible to say with any certainty, but he may have been 
the John Campbell of * Skipness ' whose daughter Mary 
married John Stewart of Ardmoleish, Sheriff of Bute (from 
whom descends the present Lord Bute).^ 

There is also about this time another of the ^ Captains of 
Skipness ' whom we find difficult to affiliate ; this is Donald 
CampbeU, a well-known character. He betook himself early 
to the profession of arms and went into the service of Gustavus 
Adolphus, King of Sweden, in 1629. He was then under the 
command of General Alexander Leslie (afterwards Earl of 
Leven), and when that eminent soldier, who rose to be a foreign 
Field-Marshal, was called to Scotland in 1638 to take the 
head of the army of the Covenanters, Donald Campbell 
returned with him to his native country and continued to fight 
under him, being at the famous camp at Duns Law, where 
the words * For Christ's Crown and Covenant ' were written 
in golden letters over each captain's tent. Wodrow in his 

^ In this charter they grant certain lands to Donald, Filius Liberalis of John 
Campbell, and Moir Macalister, his spouse. Matthew Campbell, Captain of 
Skipness, also witnessed a marriage contract in 1588. 

' In this charter they grant certain lands to Donald, Filius Liberalis of 
John Campbell, and Moir Macalister, his spouse. 

* This John Stewart was Lord of the Bedchamber to King James VI. 
He attended the Parliament in Edinburgh as Commissioner for Buteshire in 

1579. 



A Canny Scot 157 

* Eminent Men of Scotland,' says ot Donald Campbell of 
Skipness : * Devotedly attached to the Presbyterian cause, he 
took a prominent and decided part in the sanguinary struggle 
between Charles and the Covenanters. His military genius, 
which shone in many memorable engagements, his firmness and 
decision in the hour of difficvdty and danger, together with 
his high sense of honour, soon raised him to the distinction of 
a formidable leader. He particularly distinguished himself in 
arresting the progress of the forces of Montrose, and was 
actively engaged at Philiphaugh.' 

Donald Campbell met his death in July, 1 647, at Dunaverty 
in Cantire, on an occasion the reverse of glorious to his party, 
when the Marquis of Argyll and General Leslie, with an army of 
three thousand, besieged the castle held by three hundred of 
Alexander Macdonald's men. This castle of Dunaverty was 
one of the most famous strongholds of the Lords of the Isles, 
and for a considerable time was very gallantly defended. Several 
desperate attempts were made to take it, but the assailants were 
always repvdsed with considerable loss, and Donald Campbell, 
Argyll's Major, was one of the first who fell. At last the 
garrison was compelled to surrender in consequence of Leslie 
having cut off their water supply, and they were all killed in cold 
blood. John Neave,^ the chaplain of General Leslie's army, was 
the most bloodthirsty of the besieging party and urged that no 
quarter should be given, and when they were viewing the bodies 
after the massacre, Leslie said to him, as he saw his shoes reeking 
with blood, * Have you enough of it now. Master John ? ' Sir 
James Turner, who was with Leslie at Dunaverty, says that he 
several times spoke to the Lieutenant-General to save these 
men's lives, and he always assented to it and was unwilling to 

^ Sometimes called < Nevoy.' 



158 A Canny Scot 

shed their blood, but that Mr. Neave * never ceased to tempt him 
to that bloodshed, yea, and threatened him with the curses that 
befell Saul for sparing the Amalekites,' and he goes on to say : 
* I verilie believe that this prevailed most with David Lesly, who 
looked upon Neave as the representative of the Kirk of Scotland — 
advise him to thai^ act who will, he hath repented it many times 
since, and even very soone after the doeing it.* ^ According to 
tradition there is one bright spot in this ghastly tale : the nurse 
of the infant son of Archibald Macdonald — whose name will for 
ever live in that family — Flora McCambridge, managed to 
escape with the child. As she fled she met Captain Campbell of 
Craigneish, one of Argyll's soldiers, who not only spared the child 
but said (when she alleged that it was her own) ^ It has the eye 
of the Macdonald ; no matter, it wants clothing,* and cutting off 
the tail of his belted plaid, gave it to her for a covering for the 
naked infant. So she got it away in safety,^ and concealed her- 
self in a cave, still known as * Macdonald's Cave,* where the 
adherents of the clan attended to her wants until the Covenanter's 
army had left that part of the country. 

Before they did so Argyll burnt the castle and razed it to 
the ground. The feuds between the two rival dans of Mac- 
donald and Campbell had long existed, and at this time the latter 
were smarting under the ravages of Montrose. 

Argyll and Lesley were not slack 

Sternly to pay the outrage back ; 

When leagured by that western sea, 

In the strong-walled Dunaverty, 

Those clansmen iamishly implored 

Mercy, and found the merciless sword. — Kilmahoe. 

^ Sir James Turner's memoirs of his own life and times. 
' The child grew up to be the Ranald Macdonald who married Anne Stuait, 
sister of the first Earl of Bute. 



A Canny Scot 159 

Donald Campbell's body was taken to Cambelton to be buried 
with his ancestors, and his grave was still visible in 1877.^ The 
following epitaph, said to have been written by the bloodthirsty 
Chaplain Neave, was copied by Neil Brodie in 1825 from his 
tombstone, the last remaining in the old burying-ground : 

A Captain much renowned 

Whose cause of fight was still Christ's right 

For which his soul is crowned. 

So briefly then to know the man 

This stone tells all the story ; 

On earth his race he ran with grace, 

In heaven now rests in glory. 

The second Matthew, Captain of Skipness, had three sons, 
-ffineas or Angus, Walter, and Colin. -Sneas married in 1671 
Jean, daughter of Sir James Stewart of Ardmoleish, Sheriff of 
Bute, and their marriage contract, attested by his brother Walter 
CampbeU, is in existence. Colin, who joined the chief of their 
clan in his disastrous attempt in 1 645, was hanged at Inveraray, 
with seventeen other Campbells, by order of the Marquis of 
AthoU.^ Either -Sneas or Colin must have had a son John, as 
Walter alludes to this nephew. He was a goldsmith in the 
Strand and principal of the banking firm which afterwards 
became the famous bank of Coutts & Co. In George 
Baillie of Jerviswood's correspondence we find two letters written 
to him from Secretary Johnstone, in which Campbell the 

^ The late J. T. Campbell of Islay in a letter to the writer says : < I sought the 
grave at Campbell-town. The churchyard was made into a promenade ; a tomb- 
stone with the name had been used as a door-step within living memory, and an 
old broad-sword taken out of the grave had been sold.' 

' A small obelisk of chlorite erected close to the church at Inveraray com- 
memorates their death. Mr. Charles Campbell (son of Lord Niel Campbell), 
who was confined by fever at the gates of Inveraray, was also to have suffered, 
but the Privy Council, at the intercession of some ladies of distinction, prevented 
the Marquis of Atholl from carrying this into effect. (Fountainhall's Chronicles.) 



i6o A Canny Scot 

goldsmith is mentioned. One dated December 1 704 says : 
* There is an order signed bjr the Queen for ;^I30 to be 
remitted to Campbell the goldsmith here as money laid out 
for her service, which may pass for secret intelligence, as part of 
it indeed is.* And again in January 1 705 he writes : * I wish 
at least £^0 of that money to come to Campbell could be got.* 
John Campbell died in 1 7 1 2, and was buried in the churchyard 
of St. Paul's, Covent Garden. He left his partner, George 
Middleton, his sole executor (described as his honest and faithful 
partner) in trust for his four children, i.e. William, Mary, 
George, and Elizabeth.^ George Middleton married Mary 
Campbell and took George her brother into partnership about 
1729. He died in 1748, leaving the bank then solely in the 
hands of George Campbell. At this time there were only two 
banking houses west of Temple Bar, one Whig and one Tory. 
The latter was Andrew Drummond's, and the Whig bank was 
George Campbell's, patronised, of course, by his chief, the great 
Duke of Argyll. It was not till 1754 that George Campbell 
took into partnership James Coutts (son of John Coutts, the 
banker of Edinburgh), who had married Polly Peagrim,^ his niece, 
that same year. 

The firm then became Campbell and Coutts. When George 
Campbell died in 1761, James Coutts took his brother Thomas 
as a partner and changed the name of the firm to James and 
Thomas Coutts.^ 

^ Elizabeth Campbell married Mr. John Peagrim of Colchester. 

' Their only daughter, Frances Coutts, married her cousin, Sir John Stuart of 
Allanbank. 

* Thomas Coutts married twice ; by his first wife he had three daughters, one 
married the third Earl of Guildford, another the Marquis of Bute, and the youngest 
Sir Francis Burdett, Bart., fether of the present Lady Burdett Coutts. Thomas 
Coutts married, secondly, Harriet Mellon, the actress, who became after his death 
Duchess of St. Albans. 



A Canny Scot i6i 

Walter Campbell, ' Captain of Skipness,* the eldest of 
Matthew*s sons, was granted in 1670, by Archibald ninth 
Earl of Argyll, a new charter of the lands of Skipness which 
his father had. He also was *out' in 1685 with Argyll, but, 
more fortunate than his brother Colin, he managed to escape, 
and, dropping the sword for the pen, became a notary in the 
Goosedubs. Notaries in those days were much in request, as 
most Scotch gentlemen at this time were very poor scribes and 
had to get all their writings done for them. Walter thus made 
a &rly good income, to which he added somewhat by at least 
two of his three marriages, his first wife, Anne, being the 
daughter of Sir James Stewart of Ardmoleish,^ Bart., Sheriff of 
Bute, and widow of Alexander Macdonald of Sana (Islay), and 
his third wife was the daughter of one Stewart, factor to James, 
Earl of Bute. In any case he was able before his death in 1 702 
(aged 72) to settle something on each of his four daughters,^ 
as well as on his five sons. Angus the eldest, born 1669, is 
described as *a trader in black cattle at Cambelton,* which 
sounds a more legitimate if less romantic calling than that of 
some of his forbears. Many men, even of birth and position, 
went into this trade, and Sir Walter Scott used to tell a story 
of the Hon. Patrick Ogilvie who was engaged in it, and on 
being remonstrated with by his brother, the Earl of Seafield, 
dryly remarked : * Better sell nowte than sell nations.' Lord 
Seafield as Chancellor of Scotland had been deeply concerned 
in bringing about the Union. This same Angus became 
Deputy-Lieutenant of Argyllshire, and was one of the * Free- 



^ The two brothers Angus and Walter married sisters. 

^ His four daughters married respectively Colin Campbell of Ardentinny 
(first cousin) ; Charles McAllister of Tarbert (ancestor of McAllister of Loup), 
Duncan Lamont of Achnasiloch, and Robert Campbell of Balemo. 

M 



1 62 A Canny Scot 

holders and Heretors within the shire of Argyle,* convened to 
meet at the Tolbooth of Inveraray on August ii, 1715, *for 
the purpose of being made acquainted with an invasion designed 
by the Pretender, and to concert proper measures for the 
service of the Government/ In this list Angus is called * of 
Skipnidge/^ Walter Campbell's four remaining sons, Daniel, 
John, Matthew, and Robert,^ became prosperous merchants and 
proved the truth of the adage * Union is strength,* as they all 
acted in concert with each other. John, who in 1691 was 
trading in America, was Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1 7 1 9-20, 
1723-24, and M.P. for Edinburgh 1721-2, also 1727-34. He 
held several government appointments, having been successively 
Master of the Works, Groom of the Bed-chamber, and Commis- 
sioner of Customs for England and Scotland. He died in 1739. 
He was a strong advocate for the Union and consequently was 
unpopular with the larger proportion of the community. A 
song of thirteen stanzas printed soon after George I.'s accession 
begins : 

If ever I have seen 

Such a parcel of rogues in a nation, 

The Campbells and the Graeme 

Are equally to blame, 

SeducM by strong infatuation. 

1 Angus was succeeded by his son Colin, Captain of Skipness, bora 1690. He 
raised an independent company in 1725, and was captain in the Earl of Crawford's 
regiment in 1739. He married his cousin Ann, daughter of Daniel Campbell, but 
had no issue, so that at his death in 1756 Skipness devolved upon his cousin, the 
second Daniel of Shawfield. Angus had a daughter Grizel, who married Will 
Boyd of Portnacross. 

* Robert's arms are given as follows : The paternal coat of Campbell within a 
bordere cheque argent and azure for Stewart of Bute, and charged with eight 
crescents ar:gent for his difference. Crest a dove with an olive branch in his bill 
proper. Motto, * Gaudium adfero.' 



A Canny Scot 163 

Another of the stanzas runs thus : 

Tweddale and his club 

Who have given many a rub 

To their honor, their Prince and their nation, 

Next to that heavy drone, 

Poor silly Skipness John, 

Have established the best reputation. 

Matthew, a merchant sailor, married in 17 10 Magdalene, 
daughter of Sir Francis Kinloch, second baronet, and died 1721, 
leaving a daughter Mary, who married Sir Robert . • . . of Gogar. 
Robert Campbell was a merchant in Stockholm, but Donald, or 
Daniel, as he was generally called, the second son of Walter Camp- 
bell of Skipness, far surpassed all his brothers in business capacity, 
and proved himself a very canny Scot. By his indomitable energy 
and general shrewdness, combined, we must add, with a certain 
amount of what his countrymen call * pawkiness,* he, from a very 
small beginning, amassed a large fortune, and from an insignificant 
position raised himself to one of great importance, not only in 
Glasgow, where for many years he was the most prominent of its 
citizens, but also in Westminster, where he had considerable 
influence. Born in 1 670 he began trading in a very small way 
at an early age, and after serving apprentice to Robert Campbell, 
a merchant of the Dean of Guild ^ of Glasgow, he started in 
business on his own account in 1 69 1 . The following year he 
joined his brother John at Boston and traded with the West 
Indies, whither he went himself in 1 694. He became the owner 
of several merchant ships, and in 1 696 he got a grant from the 
Treasury for losses incurred by ships being taken by the French. 

^ In 1605 the inhabitants of Glasgow, in consequence of the losses which they 
sustained by strangers usurping their commercial privileges, nominated a body of 
merchants and craftsmen, under a Dean of Guild or Gild, who had always to be 
a merchant, a merchant-sailor, and a merchant-venturer. 

M 2 



164 A Canny Scot 

Argyll and Queensberry made the order. From his own letters 
we find that at this time, and during the following six years, he 
did a roaring trade, and it is dreadful to read that amongst his 
articles of commerce were both * niggers,* whom he bought and 
sold ! and servants whom he exported to the West Indies, there 
to be purchased I ^ Daniel Campbell came home in 1 694 in the 

* Adventure,' of which he was part owner. On his return he 
was made a burgess of Glasgow, and his name appears in 1 696 
amongst those who subscribed for the * Company of Scotland 
trading to Africa and the Indies,' his subscription being ;^ 1,000. 
This scheme, which was set on foot by William Paterson (the 
first projector of the Bank of England), was to plant colonies in 
Asia, Africa, and America, and to establish trade with these 
countries. It was enthusiastically taken up by an immense 
majority of the leading men of Scotland, and the subscriptions 

* sucked up all the money of the country.* Notwithstanding the 
opposition of the English Government, the first expedition sailed 
in 1698 and was followed by two others, a colony of twelve 
thousand Scots being planted at Darien, which was to be a general 
emporium. It proved a most calamitous venture,^ and the 
following year the settlement was attacked by Spaniards and 
ultimately abandoned. Few survived to return to Scotland, and 
the whole capital was lost. We shall see later on how Daniel 
Campbell managed to recoup himself, and meanwhile, nothing 
daunted by this disaster, he engaged in various other commercial 

^ In 1702 he was engaged in the Guinea trade, exporting niggers to Nevis. 
Between 1680 and 1700 about 140,000 negroes were exported by the African 
Company and 160^000 more by private adventtu-ers. Bryan Edwards estimated 
the import into the British colonies and the West Indies from 1680 to 1786 at 
2,130,000^ and this is much less than was commonly supposed. 

' The Scotch say it might have succeeded had it not been for King William's 
indifference to their interests and still more for the commercial jealousy of the 
£. I. Company. 



Dambi. Cami>I!KI.i„ dp Shawfield. 

F.iFW a Piclun iu llu f fsioi; <■/ Cipl.ioi IWillir Camtb.il 



A Canny Scot 165 

enterprises both at home and abroad. In 1701 he and his sailor 
brother Matthew presented a petition asking to be allowed the 
privileges of a manufactory * for distilling brandy and other 
spirits from all manner of grain of the growth of this kingdom, 
in order that the nation may be the more plentifully provided 
with the said commodities, as good as any that have been 
imported from abroad, and because the distilling will both be 
profitable for consumption and for trade for the coast of Guinea 
and America, seeing that no trade can be managed to the places 
foresaid or the East-Indies, without great quantities of the fore- 
said liquors/ The brothers Campbell proposed setting up an 
additional sugar-work in connection with the distillery and 
engaging * several foreigners and other persons eminently skilled 
in making of sugar, distilling of brandy &c., whom, with great 
travel, charges, and expense, they had prevailed to come to 
Glasgow.' The petition was granted. 

Besides his mercantile transactions, Daniel Campbell increased 
his fortune by lending money on land securities and acting as 
banker at a period when there were no banks in Scotland. In 
those troublous times the Scottish lairds were always in need of 
ready money to carry them on and were glad to offer their 
broad acres as security, and in many cases the landowners 
were unable to pay back the moneys they had borrowed. Even 
in 1696, when the Bank of Scotland was first instituted, the 
branches which were opened at Glasgow and elsewhere, proving 
unsuccessful, were at once given up, and as late as the middle of 
the eighteenth century all the banking business in Glasgow was 
carried on by private traders. As early as 1697 we find by 
his papers that Daniel Campbell was lending money to the 
Argyll family, and we also find mention of loans to Maccalister 
of Loup, <his cousin, to Stewart of Appin, to Sir Mungo Stirling, 



1 66 A Canny Scot 

to the Earl of Kilmarnock, to James and Adam Montgomerie, 
and many other lairds. By this means, as well as by his 
mercantile transactions, the opening of the eighteenth century 
found him a rich man, and he began to buy property. In 1701 
he was still living in the Salt Market, but in 1708 he was the 
owner of the estate of Shawfield and Rutherglen on the Clyde, 
which he bought for ;^2,2oo ; and henceforward was known 
as Campbell of Shawfield. Four years later he purchased the 
estate of Woodhall, in Lanarkshire, for ;^4,384. This was a 
good investment, for in 1862 it sold for ;^ 17 5,000, after 
yielding ;^ 12,000 annually. Woodhall became the family 
country seat, and Daniel Campbell was made Deputy-Lieutenant 
of the county in 1716. He was now much taken up with 
politics and left some of his commercial affairs to subordinates. 
He was a steady supporter of the Whig ministry and served in 
the Scottish Parliament as member for Inveraray from 1 702 till 
1 707.* 

Before the Union, in order to remove as far as possible the 
iU-blood caused by the failure of the Darien scheme, the 
English Government arranged to pay an * Equivalent,* this 
being a compensation of ;^400,ooo of ready money sent from 
England,^ to be applied partly to the discharge of the public 
debt, but chiefly as a restitution of the money lost in the 
African Company, the payment to become due upon the signing 
of the Union. Daniel Campbell was made one of the twenty- 
five Commissioners of * the Equivalent,* and got back his 

^ This was before he bought Shawfield, and he was then described as < Daniel 
or Donald Campbell of Ardentinnie, councillor.' 

" We read in i>\^ Edinburgh Gazette under August 7, 1707 : *This day the 
Equivalent money came in here from South Britain in fivteen waggons drawn 
by six horses, guarded by Scots Dragoons.' This escort was very necessary, as 
the unfortunate drivers of the waggons were constantly pelted with stones by 
those who thought their country was being sold. 



A Canny Scot 167 

thousand pounds as well as his pay as a Commissioner. He 
was a strong advocate for the Union and was one of the Scotch 
Commissioners for the treaty, and his name appears among the 
* Approvers ' in the Parliament of 1 706. At the Council-chamber 
in the Cock-pit he signed the treaty as * Daniel Campbell of 
Ardintinnie ; ' he also signed the twenty-five articles in Edinburgh, 
his seal upon the original document in the registry office having 
the Skipness cross-oars for crest. He was one of the members 
returned to represent Scotland in the House of Commons of 
the first Parliament of Great Britain as member for Glasgow 
1707-8, and again during the Parliaments extending from 
1 71 6 to 1722, 1722 to 1727, and 1728 to 1734. Daniel 
Campbell was a very great personal friend of Sir Robert 
Walpole,^ and when the latter was expelled from the House 
of Commons in December, 171 1, a charge of corruption 
having been brought against him,^ Mr. Campbell retired with 
him and accompanied him to the Tower. Lady Louisa Stuart, 
in her introductory anecdotes to the ^Life of Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu,' says : * Whichever way truth may lie, 
Walpole afterwards proved how keenly he felt the mortifying 
transaction ; but proved it in a manner creditable to his heart — 
by showing gratitude, not by seeking revenge. On his being 
ordered to withdraw while the House voted his commitment to 
prison, one personal friend only, Daniel Campbell, of Shawfield, 
a Scotch member, arose, went out with him, and attended him 
to the gates of the Tower. Sir Robert did not forget this 

^ Captain Walter Campbell has a portrait of Sir Robert Walpole which was 
psunted for Daniel Campbell ; it is now at Holly Grove, Windsor Park. 

« The charge brought against him was that of having, when Secretary for War, 
accepted two sums of ;£5oo from the contractors for supplying forage to the 
army, in consideration of taking their contracts, the said contracts being very 
high, by which means the Government was put to extraordinary unnecessary 
lexpense. 



1 68 A Canny Scot 

when he was minister. Mr. Campbell, a moderate man, asked 
few favours for himself; but any person in whose behalf he 
could be induced to say a word had a fairer chance of success 
than if patronised by the greatest and most powerful of Walpole*s 
supporters.' Daniel Campbell's^ paramount influence and the 
consequence it gave him are alluded to in Lord Binning's 
satirical ballad upon the * Duke of Argyll's Levee : ' 

-when, lo ! 



Great Daniel showed his &ce. 

At sight of him low bowed the peer ; 

Daniel vouchsafed a nod. 
" Fve seen Sir Robert, and 'tis done. 

You've kept me in, by j »» » « 

At this time Daniel Campbell held several offices under 
Government, all of which tended to augment his income, 
amongst them that of * Tacksman of the Revenue.' The 
Tacksmen and their officers were, of course, not favourites in 
the country where the feeling in favour of undutied liquors 
was so strong, and the execution of the revenue laws caused 
much bad blood.^ Campbell of Shawfield was not, therefore, 
popular, and he further incurred the hatred of the inhabitants 
of Glasgow by furnishing, as it was supposed, the Government 
with such information of the manner of trading in Scotland as 
occasioned an Act of Parliament to be passed which struck a 
heavy blow at their tobacco trade. Ten years after the Union 
much of this was in the hands of Glasgow merchants, and the 

^ Daniel Campbell was often called * The Great Daniel/ partly from his stature 
and build, and partly from the position he achieved. 

' Gentiemaffs Magazine^ February, 1740, p. 87. 

' Burton in his < History of Scotland' says : * The revenue officers, looked upon 
always as an English force, or, what was worse, renegade Scotsmen in English 
pay, received little countenance from the local authorities.' 



A Canny Scot 169 

wealth of the tobacco-lords,^ which was the name given to those 
at the head of the trade, was very great. Bristol, Liverpool, and 
Whitehaven, having been up till then the great entrepots, 
became alarmed, and petitioned the House of Commons on the 
subject. New officers were appointed, Campbell of Shawfield 
was made Collector of Customs at Port-Glasgow, and it was said 
that his evidence ruined this trade in Glasgow. 

The culminating point of his unpopularity was reached in 
June 1725 when he voted in Parliament for the tax of (>d. on 
every bushel of malt. Up to this date the chief beverage of the 
Scotch was a light ale usually sold at id. for two quarts, and 
therefore commonly called * twopenny.* The Government 
thought they might raise £iOfiQO per annum by the tax, and 
Campbell of Shawfield used his influence largely in favour of 
its imposition. Where it became evident that this measure 
would occasion a desperate resistance the tax was reduced to 3^/., 
but in spite of this reduction a very serious riot took place in 
Glasgow the day that the Act came into force. This rising was 
called * Shawfield's Mob,* because the chief violence was directed 
against him. He seems to have anticipated something of the 
sort, for not only did he send to General Wade for military 
assistance, but we are told he removed many of his most 
valued possessions, and placed them in the houses of his 
neighbours and friends, and he also took good care to be away 
from home that day ; this was lucky for him, as Lockhart in his 
Papers says, * Had Mr. Campbell himself been in town they had 
certainly dewitted him.' ^ As it was, the insurgents sacked his fine 

^ Previously to the breaking out of the American war the < Tobacco Lords' had 
a privileged walk, where they promenaded in long scarlet cloaks and bushy wigs. 

' This quotation is interesting as being an example of the newly coined word 
* dewitted,' i.e. murdered by the mob. The brothers Jan and Cornelius De Witt 
were torn in pieces by an infuriated populace in Holland in 1672. 



lyo A Canny Scot 

new house and carried off the silver which his second wife had 
brought with her from West Shields, and after wrecking the 
contents of the mansion the mob broke into his cellars and 
inflamed their fury by indulging in the contents. The military 
were called out, and nine persons were killed and seventeen 
wounded. As it was but too justly believed that the magistrates 
sympathised with the mob, Duncan Forbes, the celebrated Lord 
Advocate, went to Glasgow, accompanied by General Wade him- 
self, who commanded a considerable force, and had them confined 
in their own prison, and afterwards sent to Edinburgh. The 
following curious song, entitled *The Glasgow Campaign,* 
appeared at this time : — 

* To Glasgow, to Glasgow we*ll goe, 
With our cannon and mortar weMl make a fine show, 
With three thousand stout men, so gallantly led 
By our Advocate-General and his A.D.C. Wade ; ^ 
There's Daniel the traitor, and John of goud sleeves, 
And Campbell of Carrick and his Highland theeves. 
With loyal Duncan and Diamond so bright. 
Which he got for abjuring the Hanover right. 

To chastise these rebels for appearing so keen 
For the House of Hanover in the damned year '15 
Long live the grate Walpole 

May he \y then reign ; 

But if Garge gets his eyesight 
He may happen to swing.' 

^ General (or Marshal as he became) Wade is chiefly remembered now in 
connection with roads in the Highlands. There were absolutely none there till he 
made them. Troops were employed on extra pay for this work, which took eleven 
years. On the road between Inverness and Inveraray, near Fort William, an 
obelisk was erected with these naive words : 

* Had you seen these roads before they were made. 
You would lift up your hands and bless General Wade ! ' 



A Canny Scot 171 

The Lords Justices wrote a letter of condolence to Campbell 
of Shawfield, assuring him that they would resent what had 
befallen him as in effect done to King George himself. Allan 
Gimeron, writing to Lord Inverness shortly after, says : * Weeve 
had a hot tryal in the Justiciary Court of Glasgow rioters ; the 
Earl of Hay and Lord Royston with the out most zeal to find 
the libel relevant to infer the pains of death, the other Lords 
insisted it could go no ftirther than one arbitrary punishment 
and carried it except where any person was proven guilty of 
actually pulling down Campbell's house. . . .* A Bill was 
passed ordering the community of Glasgow to pay Campbell of 
Shawfield ;^9,ooo damages, to be raised from an imposition laid 
upon all the beer and ale brewed in Glasgow.^ About this time 
Daniel Campbell made a good deal one way and another out of 
the forfeited lands of the Jacobites. Katherine, wife of John 
Walkinshaw of Barrowfield, had petitioned the King to grant the 
benefit of her husband's forfeiture for her and her children. 
Daniel Campbell in 1722 presented a memorial to the Lords of 
the Treasury, stating that he was a very considerable creditor 
upon the estate, and prayed that the grant might be limited. 
The result was that Parliament granted Daniel a considerable 
sum for losses and damage. Soon after this Daniel was anxious 
to possess the estate of Kilsyth, with the value of which he was 
thoroughly acquainted.* It was forfeited by Viscount Kilsyth at the 

^ The following curious minute of the Corporation appeared on May 6, 1746, 
twenty-two years after the sacking of the house : 'John Cochrane, Master of Work, 
represented that by advice of the magistrates he had sent to London to sell the 
broken necklace of diamonds which was found among the rubbish of Daniel 
Campbell's house with a piece of gold coin, and that the same had been offered 
to Lady Shawfield, who refused to take it in regard that Shawfield was satisfied by 
the Parliament as to his damages, and that it was sold for ;£3q, and the piece of 
gold for £2 I or.* 

' It yielded a clear rent of 800/. 



172 A Canny Scot 

time of the rebellion in 1 7 1 5 and had been sold by the Com- 
missioners of Enquiry to the York Buildings Company/ who had 
let it in 1721 to one Stark for nineteen years at ;^8oo a year. 
This was no bar to our friend Daniel ! In 1725 he managed to 
persuade Stark to give it up, paying him a douceur of ;^700, and 
he then induced the Company to lease it to him for ninety-nine 
years at ;^500 a year (;^300 less than Stark had paid), and, more- 
over, he entered into possession at Whitsuntide 1727, though the 
lease was only made out from March 1728 ! * 

In January 1745, Charles Edward, after spending a week 
in Glasgow, marched with a column of the Jacobite army to 
Stirling, and stopped a night at Kilsyth House, where his 
troopers helped themselves liberally to Daniel Campbell's 
possessions, leaving a message when they moved on that he 
must repay himself with the Kilsyth rents.^ 

The following was the final stroke of policy by which Daniel 
was said to have augmented his fortune : he had become Feuar 
of Smerbie and Clockfinn in Cantire, part of the Argyll estate, 
and often acted as chamberlain or agent to Duke John, who 
one day, as the story goes, sent for him and said that, hearing 
that the islands of Islay and Jura were for sale, he should like 
his advice as to the desirability of purchasing them. Now this 
canny Scot knew Islay well, for his mother came from there, 
and he had lent money on it to the owner and had long envied 
its possession.* However, he sent back an adverse opinion. 

* The company of Undertakers for raising the Thames Water in York Build- 
ings, London. 

^ All this came out in evidence in a case brought before the House of Lords. 
' Daniel's grandson, Walter Campbell, sold Kilsyth in 1783 to Sir Archibald 
Edmonstone, Bart., of Duntreath. 

* In 1769 the rental was about ;£2,3oo ; it now amounts to £y>jOOo a year. 
The late Mr. Morrison bought it for ;£45q,ooo. 



I.I,, 1)K bHAWFlKLD. 
■« pfCaplaiii M.iiH^omirie 



A Canny Scot 173 

The Duke did not buy Islay, but the merchant banker did ! 
This is the story told, but the real facts of the case are these. 
In the year 1722 the owner of Islay and Jura, John Campbell 
of Cawdor, M.P., mortgaged these islands to Daniel Campbell 
for the sum of ;^6,ooo, reserving power to redeem them up till 
the year 1744, and in 1726 he sold them both to Daniel for 
the additional sum of £fiyQOO. It was true that the Duke 
asked Daniel to bid for him, but the estates went beyond the 
limit his Grace gave, so that Shawfield was in his right to buy 
them for himself. The Duke, however, was apparently aggrieved, 
which may account for what Wodrow writes : *In July 1726 
Campbell of Shawfield waited on John Duke of Argyll at 
Edinburgh ; his entertainment was not very satisfying.* And in 
July 1729, Wodrow writes: * It's given out that the Duke 
is to drop Dan Campbell, and they say he would not see him 
at Greenock and at Inveraray. It's talked that Shawfield at 
London vyes with the Duke and reckons he stands on his own 
legs.' This shows what an influential position he had attained 
when he dared to brave 

^ Argyll, the State's whole thunder born to wield, 
And shake alike the senate and the field.' 

Shawfield's second marriage with the sister of a well-known 
peer had probably given him a lift in the social scale, and his 
eldest son John further helped to aggrandise his family by 
making two noble alliances, one of which gave his descendants 
several royal descents, both Scottish and English.^ The canny 
old Scot died at Woodhall in 1753, aged eighty-three.^ By his 

^ His granddaughter Margaret, Countess of Wemyss, had sixteen quarters 
displayed on the escutcheon or hatchment placed over the family mansion at her 
death. 

' Captain Walter Campbell has a portrait of him by Ramsay, which is here 
reproduced. 



174 ^ Canny Scot 

first wife, Margaret, daughter of John Leckie,^ of Newlands, 
merchantandburgessofGlasgow,by hiswifejannet, ofL . . . .,^ 
who died in 171 1, he had three sons and three daughters.^ 
His second wife, whom he married in 17 14, was Katherine 
Erskine, eldest daughter of Henry, third Lord Cardross (by 
Katherine, daughter and sole heiress of Sir James Stewart of 
Strabrock), sister to the Earl of Buchan and widow of Sir 
William Denholme ^ (Denham), Bart., of West Shields.* By her 
Daniel Campbell left one daughter, Catharine Campbell, who 



^ The femily of Leckie was settled in the north of Ireland for several centuries, 
and a branch was early established in the neighbourhood of Stirling, where the 
ruins of the ancient seat are still visible. Daniel Campbell's wife was probably 
the granddaughter of Alexander Leckie of Leckie. ' Joannes Leckie de eodem ' 
was served heir of his father, * Alexander Leckie de eodem,* January 17, 1648. 

Professor Robert Baillie, of Glasgow, in his Letters and Joumalsy writes in 
1640: 'Our countrymen in Ireland being pressed there by the Bishops to 
countenance the Liturgie and all their ceremonies, did absteeme much from the 
public worship ; and in privatt, among themselves, their ministers being all 
banished, did in that place and tyme of persecution, comfort themselves with 
prayer and reading. The most of this good people flying over to us, were heartilie 
embraced of us all, their privatt meetings were overseen. We let alone till the 
Laird of Leckie, one who had suffered much by the Bishops, was marked, useing 
his Irish forme of privie exercise in Stirling.' Professor Baillie goes on to describe 
the religious dissensions between the said Alexander Leckie and Guthrie, 
minister of Stirling, afterwards Bishop of Dunkeld— dissensions which went on 
till Professor Baillie called in the aid of Argyll, who was the instrument of a 
* happie concord.' 

* One daughter Margaret married Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell ; Anna 
married her first cousin, Colin Campbell, Captain of Skipness, but had no children ; 
and the third daughter, Janet, married Alexander Macmillan, Clerk to his Majesty's 
Signet. 

' John Leckie's signature and that of his wife 'Jannet' appear on an old 
parchment still preserved, but her surname is illegible. 

^ In the contract of marriage between Daniel Campbell of Shawfield and 
Dame Katherine Erskine she signs herself ' K. Denham.' 

^ Sir William Denholme was ' out ' with the Earl of Argyll in 1685. In the 
Wodrow Correspondence there is a letter from Wodrow to Daniel Campbell, 
written in 1722, excusing himself from any intention of disparaging in his 
history the conduct of the late Sir William Denholme, Lady Denholme having 
taken exception to something he wrote of her first husband. 



A Canny Scot 175 

married, in 1737, Thomas Gordon of Earlston, Bart.^ Daniel's 
three sons died in his lifetime.^ The eldest, John, a Commissioner 
of Inland Revenue, was born in 1696, and died in 1746, aged 
fifty. He had married first Lady Margaret Campbell, daughter 
of the Earl of Loudoun, who descended from a common ancestor 
with the Duke of Argyll ; by her he had no children, and he 
married secondly, in 1735, Lady Henrietta or Harriot^ Cunning- 
ham,^ daughter of William, twelfth Earl of Glencairn, and his 
wife Lady Henrietta Stewart, by whom he had four sons, the 
eldest of whom, Daniel, succeeded, at his grandfather's death in 
1753, to the estates of Shawfield, Woodhall, Islay, and Jura. 
This second Daniel was a great character in his day, but of a 
totally opposite sort to his grandfather. The first Daniel of 
Shawfield had a genius for making money, and accumulated a 
large fortune which this grandson helped largely to diminish. 
He is described as living in great style. He kept hounds, was 
a conspicuous dandy, his wonderfid wardrobe being sold in 
Edinburgh in 1854 as ^theatrical dresses.* And he spent his 

^ Catharine Gordon, nde Campbell, had three children, only one of whom, a 
daughter Catharine, left any descendants ; she married in 1770 General Stewart 
of Afton, and had one son, who died unmarried, and four daughters. 

' Daniel's second son Walter, bom in 1700, died in 1733. He was Receiver 
General of Customs, and was described in the dedication of a book by the 
Rev. James McRobe, minister at Kilsyth, as * an honest man, of great integrity 
and religiously inclined.' He married, in 1728, Mary, daughter of Sir James 
Campbell of Ardkinglas, and had two daughters. There is a large full-length 
portrait of him in the possession of Captain Montgomerie, R.N., and a half- 
length, belonging to Captain Walter Campbell, is now at Holly Grove, Windsor 
Park. 

* In her will she is called * Henrietta ; ' in the sermon preached after her death, 
which was printed, her name is given as ' Harriot.' 

^ Lady Henrietta survived her husband many years. By her will, signed at 
Woodhall in 1773, she leaves everything she possessed (with the exception of 
a few legacies to her two sons, Daniel and Walter) to Miss Katharine Erskine 
Drummond, daughter of Alexander Drummond, late Consul at Aleppo, who had 
lived with her from a child.' Lady Henrietta died in Edinburgh in 1774. 



176 A Canny Scot 

money right and left, even more on others than on himself. 
He was a well-informed travelled man, had considerable literary 
tastes, bought many valuable books, subscribed to rare 
publications, and helped Wodrow to publish his metrical 
version of McPherson's *Fingal.' He was very musical and 
played well on the violin, and collected rare old instru- 
ments. When as a young man he made the Grand Tour 
he visited St. Petersburg, and there became acquainted with 
the famous Princess Daschkow, on whom he seems to 
have made considerable impression. This remarkable woman, 
daughter of Count Worontzow, was born in 1 744, and was for 
many years the friend and confidante of the Empress Catherine II. 
of Russia, and is said to have been, when only eighteen years of 
age, the prime mover in the Revolution of 1762 which deposed 
and murdered the Emperor Peter III. and put Catherine, his 
wife, in his stead. Her husband. Prince Daschkow, who was sent 
by Catherine to place Poniatowski on the throne of Poland, died 
at Warsaw, having accomplished his task, leaving her a widow at 
twenty. Princess Daschkow then made a journey through Europe 
with her two small children, accompanied by Mile. Kamensky 
and M. Worontzow. When at Aix in Provence she met Daniel 
Campbell again ; both spent a winter season there, and made 
many excursions together, in company with other English.^ 
They went to Montpelier, Marseille, and Hyires, and in spring 
the party proceeded to Switzerland. Princess Daschkow in her 
Memoirs says : * The day after our arrival at Geneva, I sent to 
beg permission to call on Voltaire, accompanied by my friends. 



^ Mrs. Hamilton, daughter of Mr. Ryder, Archbishop of Tuam ; Mrs. Morgan, 
daughter of Mr. Tisdall, Solicitor-General in Ireland, and Lady Ryder. Mrs. 
Hamilton afterwards visited Princess Daschkow in Russia, when the Princess 
named a new village built on her estate ' Hamilton,' after her dear friend. 



A Canny Scot 177 

Although very unwell, he assured me of the pleasure he should 
have in seeing me, and that I was at liberty to bring whom I 
pleased. On the appointed evening Mrs. Hamilton, Lady 
Ryder, MUe. Kamensky, my cousin Worontzow, and Mr. 
Campbell of Shawfield, went along with me to his house. The 
night before he had lost some ounces of blood, and, though 
very ill, desired it should be kept a secret, that we might not be 
deterred from the projected visit. On entering his room we 
found him lying back in a great chair, weak, and apparently in 
pain. I went up to him, and half-upbraidingly insisted that in 
his present situation our visit must be considered an intrusion, 
and that the most flattering proof I could receive of his esteem 
was to be thought capable of appreciating the value of his health 
so far as to have suspended for some days the pleasure of his 
society. A few compliments followed, and then we talked about 
the Empress of Russia. After making a pretty long visit, when 
I proposed returning home he earnestly requested us to go to his 
niece Madame Denis's apartment, where he hoped we would 
indulge him with our company at supper. We agreed, and 
were not long with Madame Denis before we were joined by 
her uncle. Voltaire was supported into the room by his valet- 
de-chambre, and placed on his knees in a great chair, over the 
back of which he leant and continued opposite to me in this 
uneasy posture during the whole of supper time.' During his 
stay at Geneva Daniel Campbell acquired some likenesses of 
Voltaire. Some of them were by Hubert, who had many 
opportunities of observing Voltaire's peculiarities, as he 
frequently played at chess with him. These likenesses no 
doubt savoured of caricature, and we have, besides Princess 
Daschkow's assertion that * Voltaire was afraid of him,* the 
opinion of Le Vieux Malade de Ferncy himself. In writing to 

N 



178 A Canny Scot 

Madame Du Defiand in 1772 he says : ^Puisque vous avez vu 
M. Hubert, il fera votre portrait : il vous peindra en pastel 4 
rhuile, en mezzotinto : il vous dessinera sur une carte avec des 
ciseaux, le tout en caricature. C*est ainsi qu'il m'a rendu ridicule 
d*un bout de TEurope 4 Fautre. Mon ami Fr^ron ne me 
caract^rise pas mieux, pour rijouir ceux qui achitent ses 
feuilles.' M. Hubert was always one of Princess Daschlcow*s 
party, and it was thus that Daniel Campbell became intimate 
with him. When the Princess left Switzerland, Mr. Campbell 
continued to travel with her and her friends. They engaged two 
large boats for carrying them down the Rhine. * Mr. Campbell,* 
writes the Princess, ^ was our spokesman whenever we left our 
boat, till, by his continual mistakes, I was encouraged to speak 
German.* At Carlsruhe the party were most hospitably enter- 
tained by the Margrave and Margravine of Baden. From there 
they returned via Dttsseldorf and Frankfort to Spa, whence they 
parted. The Princess set out for Russia, ahd the others for 
England, but five years after the Princess and Mr. Campbell 
met again. She wished to place her young son at the University 
of Edinburgh under Principal Robertson, the historian, and 
accordingly proceeded to the Athens of the North, and she tells 
us in her 'Memoirs* that on arriving at Edinburgh she 'engaged 
apartments in Holyrood House, the ancient palace of the 
Scottish sovereigns.* The Princess stayed in Scotland during 
her son*s entire course, and describes this time as ' the most 
satisfactory and happiest of her life.* She saw a good deal of 
Daniel Campbell in Edinburgh, and in the summer she visited 
him at Woodhall, and it was upon this occasion that he is said 
to have given her the celebrated Shawfield pearls, and she 
presented him with her portrdt, which was sold at Woodhall in 
1850. Whilst she was yet in Scotland, Daniel Campbell died, 



Voltaire. 

■» the f:,sf/ssh« of Ihiiii 



A Canny Scot 179 

aged forty. He appears to have been a most charming and 
loveable man, and the following is a sketch of his character 
which was printed for private circulation at the time of his death. 

* A Sketch of the Character of 
The late Daniel Campbell, Esquire, of Shawfielo. 

" Quando uUum invenient parem ? " 

Bring every sweetest flower, and let me strew 
The grave where Shawiield lies. 

* He was one of the most accomplished gentlemen his country 
has produced. Nature was liberal to him of her choicest gifts. 
A happy education, an accurate knowledge of mankind, carried 
these to a high degree of improvement. 

* He was distinguished by the essential qualities of true 
excellence — untainted integrity, unsullied honour, difilisive 
benignity, and every social virtue. He possessed the graces 
in perfection ; not as a pack of hired, servile flatterers, but as 
the faithful ministers of every gracious ofHce. To make all easy 
and happy was his art of pleasing : and being a perfect master 
of the most engaging manner, he could not possibly fail of 
success. Taste and elegance seemed natural to him ; they 
appeared in every word and action, they descended to the lowest 
border of the garment. His household resembled a small but 
well-regulated republic, where harmony and happiness constantly 
prevailed. He was the friend of man. His graceful hand 
placed every character in the fairest point of light ; and no 
unfavourable reflection could be offered without being reproved 
by the decorum of his presence. His charity was boundless. 
Few knew the world better ; none valued it less. His soul 
melted at the sighs of distress. The hopes of the indigent were 

N 2 



i8o A Canny Scot 

always exceeded. Under his friendly shade multitudes lived in 
ease and affluence, and through all his extensive possessions the 
voice of oppression was never heard. 

* The fine arts were his chief amusements ; and those authors 
he chiefly valued who nobly planned the public welfare. He sat 
in two Parliaments ; and gave such specimens as declared him 
qualified to have made an eminent figure in the British Senate. 

* Above all the inefl&ble sweetness, the flowing sensibilities of 
his heart, enhanced every accomplishment ; gave a charming 
lustre to the whole man ; and rendered him, at once, admired 
and beloved by all who knew him. 

* His country has not lamented the loss of a more worthy 
patriot, nor Friendship shed the tear for a more faithfld votary. 

* Is there yet a blank ? It shall be filled up His piety was 
manly and rational. It exerted itself in supporting an eminent 
station with whatever was beneficial to society, or ornamental to 
human nature. Indeed, there was in him something so truly 
great and good which could not be ascribed to any other cause. 
Let Folly blush ; but Wisdom triumphs while I write. He 
entertained the most venerable sense of the sublime truths of 
religion : his bosom by nature kind, but still more refined with 
their heavenly dictates, became the parent of all that was 
generous and exalted. 

^ In the full strength of manhood he resigned this transient 
life, with that perfect serenity, and firm confidence in a better, 
which the assured hopes of immortality natively inspire. 

* These are the rude lines of a great original — ^The hand of a 
complete master, alone, can do it justice. 

*Itis enough. The picture is already fully drawn, in more 
lasting characters, on the hearts of his friends. Upon that sacred 
tablet, the beautiful features, the tender endearments, of one of 



A Canny Scot i8i 

the most amiable of men will be preserved, as the most precious 
treasure, as the only solace of their woe.* 

Daniel Campbell was succeeded by his brother, Walter 
Campbell of Skipness/ an advocate* He married first in 1768 
Eleonora Kerr, daughter of Robert Kerr of Newfield, grandson 
of the first Marquis of Lothian, by whom he had ten children. 
He married secondly Mary, daughter of William Nisbet of 
Dirleton, with whom he acquired Pencaitland, Saltcoats, and Dech- 
ment. By her he had two daughters.^ He died in 1 8 1 6, aged 
seventy-five. Of his eight daughters only three left descendants, 
namely, Harriet, who married Mr. Hamilton, the present Lord 
Hamilton of Dalzell being her great-grandson ; Margaret, who 
became the wife of Francis, seventh Earl of Wemyss, whose 
grandson is the present Earl of Wemyss ; and Katherine, who 
married Sir Charles Jenkinson, tenth baronet, nephew of the first 
Earl of Liverpool. 

Walter Campbell sold Shawfield and the Isle of Jura in his 
lifetime, but left an estate to each of his surviving sons. 
Robert had Skipness ; Walter, Sunderland (Islay) ; and Colin, 
Ardpatrick. John, the eldest, who married Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, daughter of the Duke of Argyll, pre-deceased his 
father, and his son Walter Frederick succeeded at his grand- 
father's death to Islay and to Woodhall. It is sad to think 
that of all the estates acquired by Daniel Campbell only one 
now remains in the possession of his descendants, namely 
Ardpatrick, which belongs to James Campbell, R.N., the grand- 
son of the last Campbell of Shawfield.* The head of the family 

^ His mother, Lady Henrietta Campbell, in her will, dated October 7, 1773, 
calls him <my son Walter Campbell, new of Skipness^ 

' Mary, Lady Ruthven, and Hamilton, Lady Belhaven. 

' Archibald Campbell, Provost of St Ninian's, Perth, the Bishop-elect of 
Glasgow, is the eldest son of the last Walter Campbell of Skipness. 



i82 A Canny Scot 

is Giptain Walter Gimpbcll,^ C.V.O., Groom-in-waiting to King 
Edward VIL, and Deputy-Ranger of Windsor Great Park, who 
is the great-great-great-grandson of The Canny Scot. 

^ His talented elder half-brother, John F. Campbell of Islay, well known as an 
author, died in 1885. He was a distinguished Gaelic scholar and an enthusiastic 
Highlander, and his contributions to folklore are most valuable, his great work 
on that subject being TeUes of the West Highlands. He also wrote Frost and Fire^ 
Natural Engines^ Toolmarhs and Chips^ and other scientific works, and he invented 
the sunshine-recorder for indicating the varying intensity of the sun's rays. Mr. 
Wilson, in his Notable Men and Women of Argyleshire^ says of him : * Iain og He' 
(young John of Islay), a man of most lovable nature, preserved, as he deserved, all 
the affectionate loyalty of the islanders of Islay, although he had lost the estates of 
his fathers. An obelisk was raised to his memory in June 1887, on the summit of 
Cnoc-na-Dkb^ a hill in Islay near his birthplace.' 



A BYGONE BEAUTY 

Croker in his Diaiy on July 23, 1828, makes the following 
entry : * Dined at Sir Henry Hardinge's, where besides Lady 
Emily we had Lords Brecknock, Lowther and Downe, Sir 
Herbert Taylor, Robert Farquhar, Messrs. Calcraft, Planta, 
Holmes, Col. Cradock. Talking of beautiful women, I told the 
anecdote that I had separately asked the King [George IV.] and 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, whom they thought the most beautiful 
woman they had ever seen, and before I gave their answer 
I asked the present company to guess whom they had named. 
Sir Herbert Taylor and Holmes both agreed in saying Lady 
Charlotte Campbell, and it was Lady Charlotte that both his 
Majesty and Sir Thomas selected. I have never met any one 
except the Duke of York who had known her in their youth 
who did not represent her as the most beautiful creature they 
had ever seen.*^ The beauty in question, Charlotte Maria 
Campbell, had indeed every right to those looks for which she 
was so justly celebrated. Her mother was one of the beautiful 
Gunnings,* and her father — John, fifth Duke of Argyll, himself 

^ In Croker's manuscript he says on another occasion : ' Lady Charlotte 
Campbell was thought by. the best-judging of her contemporaries the most beautiful 
creature ever seen. I saw her in 1801, still magnificent, whole theatres turning 
round to look at her/ 

' Kirkpatrick Sharpe goes the length of saying that she was ' handsomer than 
either mother or aunt,' and adds that ' no picture did her common justice.' 

Mackenzie, in his Reminiscences of Glasgow^ says : ' We remember seeing very 
frequently the Duke (of Argyll) in Glasgow, who was an exceedingly handsome 
roan, accompanied by his two sisters, Ladies Augusta and Charlotte Campbell ; 
when Lady Charlotte in particular came to visit some of our haberdashers' shops — 



184 A Bygone Beauty 

a very handsome man — was son of the beautiful Mary Bellenden. 
Born on January 28, 1775, she received the name of Charlotte 
from George III/s queen, who was her godmother, and that of 
Maria in memory of her aunt. Lady Coventry, 

* The Flower of the House of Argyll,' as she was called, 
showed early signs of that beauty which became so remarkable. 
Horace Walpole, writing to Miss Berry (afterwards one of Lady 
Charlotte's most intimate friends) in January 1791, says 7i propos 
of the Duke of Argyll's family : * Everybody admires the 
youngest daughter's person and understanding.' At this time 
she was only just sixteen, and had lost her mother six months 
previously. For some years past the Duchess of Argyll had 
been obliged to spend every winter abroad, and Lady Charlotte, 
who always accompanied her, has left a detailed account of these 
wanderings in her Journal, which shows, for one so young, a 
very remarkable and true appreciation of all that is most ele- 
vating in nature and art. Her love for Italy was then, as it 
continued to be throughout her long life, a veritable passion. 
She became an accomplished Italian scholar, and in the French 
language she was equally prpficient. She was celebrated for 
the grace and agility of her dancing, and she played the harp 
and sang with great delicacy and expression. We have the 
testimony of Tommy Moore, who said that of all those who sang 
his melodies no one gave him such pleasure as Lady Charlotte ; 
and * Monk ' Lewis,^ describing a party at his cottage, writes : 

then few and far between — in the Trongate or Argyle Street, such was her tran, 
scendant beauty that crowds ran after her to get a glimpse of her, and tell that 
they had really seen her : 

" For ne'er did Grecian chisel trace 
A Nymph, a Naiad, or a Grace, 
Of finer form or lovelier face." * 
^ Lady Charlotte Campbell was the bright particular star which held a powerful 
influence over the life of Matthew Lewis, and he celebrated her charms in his lyrical 



A Bygone Beauty 185 

* Oh ! there was music since she was prevailed upon to sing, and 
the high-born and fairest of Caledonia's daughters breathed the 
simple melodies of her native hills to many a spellbound heart.' * 

A full-length life-size portrait of Lady Charlotte, painted at 
Naples by Tischbein (now in the possession of the writer), gives 
a good idea of her dawning beauty when she was about sixteen, 
although the colour has somewhat faded fix>m the face.^ The 
tall graceful form and long limbs are veiled in a simple clinging 
robe of white, with draperies formed by a scarf of pale gold 
colour recalling the tint of the hair, which is crowned by 
a wreath of pink roses. The wondrously small foot, with its 
arched instep, is encased in a white and gold shoe. One of the 
beautifully moulded arms is uplifted to bend down a branch of 
the oak tree under which she sits, whilst a fawn nibbles the leaves. 
The right hand (the length and lissomness of which appear 
somewhat exaggerated) rests on a roll of music. 

When she was about seventeen Lady Charlotte was presented 
at Court, and we have Lady Hester Stanhope's description of 
her at that time. She says : * I remember Lady Charlotte 
Campbell's first going to Court, and the effect was very much 
what she describes of Miss Mordaunt [a character in one of 

effusions under the title of * Amoret' She was also his heroine in The Monk, 
Lockhart, in his Life of Sir Walter Scott : ' When Lewis reached Edinburgh, Lady 
Charlotte Campbell, always distinguished by her passion for elegant letters, was 
ready, ^ in pride of rank, in beauty's bloom,'' to do the honours of Scotland to the 
'* Lion of May£air,'' and I believe Scott's first introduction to Lewis took place at 
one of her Ladyship's parties.' It is curious now to read that at this time Scott 
was much flattered at his literary work being noticed by Lewis, and that he told 
Allan Cunningham thirty years after that he thought he had never felt such elation 
as when *the Monk' invited him to dine with him for the first time. 

^ The late Alfred Bunii, in his Retrospections^ was present at this party and 
says : * The vocal talent of Lady Charlotte and Scottish music will long be talked of 
together.' 

' This picture was for many years on the staircase of 39 Upper Brook Street 
(now ' Brook House '), exactly facing a window. 



1 86 A Bygone Beauty 

Lady Charlotte Campbell's novels], that is, somebody said, " Sh6 
is too thin, very handsome to be sure, but too thin;" and 
somebody else observed that in a year*s time, when she filled out, 
she would be remarkably beautiful, which turned out to be the 
case. She had such a hand, and arm, and such a leg ! She had 
beautiful hair too, gold colour, and a finely shaped nose and fine 
complexion. In about three years she all at once disappeared 
from the beau monde ; she married her cousin and was still Lady 
Charlotte Campbell, but always in uneasy circumstances. If I 
were rich enough I would invite Lady Charlotte here, and she 
would come, for she has children and would like to shew them 
the East. How pleasant it would be for me to have such a 
companion for two or three hours a day ! What a beautiful 
woman she was ! What an arm and hand 1 I have seen the 
whole Opera House turn to look at it on the front of the box. 
The last time I ever met Lady Charlotte was walking with her 
brother in Kensington Gardens. She walked so well ! not 
mincing like some women, nor striding like others, but with a 
perfect use of her limbs, unaffected and graceful.^ The Duke 
[George, sixth Duke of Argyll] was like her in that respect, 

^ Lady Charlotte dressed in the extreme of the ^mode' when clinging trans- 
parent draperies showed every line of the figure. Gillray drew a portrait of her 
under the title of * Modem Elegance,' May 22, 1795. I^ >s thus described by 
Wright : * The celebrated beauty is drawn in profile, seated in a reclining posture, 
while a mirror gives back the reflection of her full &ce. The features are noble 
and the figure voluptuous. 

Limbes fondlie fashioned in the wanton moulde 
Of Nature 1 Warm in Love's slie wytcheries, 
And scorning all the draperie of Arte, 
A Spider's loom now weaves her thinne attire, 
Through which the rogueish tell-tale windes 
Do frolicke as they liste ! ' 

Once when Lady Qiarlotte was walking in the streets of Glasgow with her 
handsome sister-in-law, Lady Jenkinson, such a mob followed them that they had 
to take refuge in a house and send for an escort to return home* 



Lady Charlotte Campbell. 
From a Picluri by Aaim Toailli at Sa'allou-fitld, 1795. 



A Bygofte Beauty 187 

and his smile was incomparably sweet. Her features were 
equally charming with her person, ۥ told me she is still 
[1838] a loveable woman^ and that the Persian Ambassador left 
England desperately in love with her/ 

Lady Charlotte married, on June 14, 1796, John Gimpbell, 
eldest son of Walter Campbell of Shawfield, Woodhall, Jura, and 
Islay, by his first wife, Eleonora, daughter of Robert Kerr, 
grandson of the first Marquis of Lothian. The cousinship to 
which Lady Hester Stanhope alludes was of the most distant 
kind even for ^ Scotch cousins,* and consisted in the fact that 
the Campbells of Ardentinny (ancestors of the Campbells of 
Shawfield) were said to be descended from Sir Colin Campbell 
of Lochow, great-grandfather of the first Earl of Argyll ! ^ 

John Campbell — or Jack Campbell, as he was generally called — 
was at the time of his marriage in the 3rd Regiment of Foot 
Guards (Scots Guards), and became Colonel of the Argyllshire 
Militia and M.P. for the borough of Campbelton. He was only 
twenty-four, and a fine handsome man, and it was a love match 
on both sides ; * but it was a very poor alliance for the spoilt 
beauty. His father, though well-to-do, had fourteen children and 
was himself scarcely fifty-five years of age, so he gave his eldest 
son only a moderate allowance. After their marriage Colonel 
and Lady Charlotte Campbell at first paid many visits, and then, 

> This is so according to Nisbet and Crawford. 

' Lady Louisa Stuart, writing from Inveraray in 1804, says : * Lady Charlotte 
is a sweet creature, and her character as well as her beauty improves upon a 
nearer view. I wish she were better bestowed than on that great fellow her 
husband ; but she loves him tenderly, and he is after his fashion fond of her.' We 
conclude that Lady Louisa did not admire his build. Jack Campbell was like the 
rest of his generation, a very tall strong man, of whom it was said : 

* When Campbell walks the street 
The paviours cry 
" God bless your legs ! " 
And lay their rammers by.' 



i88 A Bygone Beauty 

in 1 803, took up their residence at Hartwell, in Bucks, celebrated 
as being afterwards the residence of Louis XVIII. of France 
whilst exiled from his throne (from 1807 to 18 14), of which 
at this time Monk Lewis says, ^ Nothing can be more beautiful in 
its kind, rustic colonnades, fruit and flowers in profusion/ Colonel 
Gunpbell predeceased his father, dying in Edinbui^h in 1809, 
aged thirty- six,^ and leaving Lady Charlotte a widow at the age 
of thirty-four, with nine children very ill provided for. Her 
impoverished condition induced her to accept, a year after her 
husband's death, the position of Lady in Waiting to Caroline, 
Princess of Wales. She had been her friend for some years ; and 
Lord Teignmouth mentions that Princess Charlotte, accompanied 
by Lady Charlotte Campbell, was present at an installation of the 
Knights of the Bath in Henry VII.'s Chapel as early as 1 8o6, 
In 1 8 13 the Princess of Wales sent Lady Charlotte to the Prince 
Regent with a letter petitioning him to allow her freer inter- 
course with her daughter ; but Lady Charlotte says nothing could 
be more insulting than the manner in which it was received.^ 
This year Lady Charlotte was living at 1 3 Upper Brook Street, 
and was, she tells us, going out morning, noon, and night. Up 
till now she had loyally stood by the Princess of Wales, and seems 
really to have thought her conduct only very foolish and most 
undignified ; ^ but she now, it is evident, had many misgivings on 
the subject. In 18 14 she made excuses to leave the Princess, 

^ Colonel Campbell was buried at Bothwell^ near his mother. 

' We conclude that the insulting manner was solely directed at the sender of 
the petition, and not at the bearer, as Lady Charlotte tells us that * few persons 
ever have or ever can possess greater £stscination than the Prince of Wales ; ' and 
we also know that his Royal Highness thought Lady Charlotte the most beautiful 
creature he had ever seen. 

* Lady Charlotte also said that the Princess was very fond of scandalising 
people by things she said. Once she told Lady Charlotte that she had had nine 
children, and did not explain for some minutes that they were adopted children. 



Colonel John Campbell, of Shawpibld. 

From a MiKiatHrc at Swallowftild. 



A Bygone Beauty 189 

and went for several months to Geneva with her youthful family 
and their governess. It was on this occasion that, stopping 
en route at Calais, Lady Charlotte Campbell tells us : ^ Emma, 
Lady Hamilton — the Lady Hamilton I had seen twenty-five 
years ago at Naples — sent me a message to say that one who 
had known me long and well, and dearly loved those I loved, 
wished to see me again. Poor soul I I was sorry for her, and a 
mixture of curiosity and sadness made me desire to see her once 
more. I went to her apartment — ^time had marred her beauty, 
but not effaced it — and when I said " Toujours belle,** a smile 
of pleasure reanimated her fine eyes. My compliment was not 
altogether untrue, althov^h it was a little more than reality : 
but such reality is not worth adhering to. Her eyes were filled 
with tears : she said the remembrance of the past crowded upon 
her, and excited them. She talked agreeably and spoke of her 
own fate. In mentioning the child she brings up, she assured 
me it was not her own, nor Could be. When anybody assures 
me of a thing that may be true, and is favourable to themselves, 
I always believe them. It may be silly, but I cannot help it.* 

Lady Charlotte stopped at Paris for some days, where we are 
told she was much admired. She tells us herself that she saw 
more and did more then than she ever saw or did in the same 
given time. Amongst other things she went to Court, and the 
King, Louis XVIII.,* said to her in English, with marks of 

^ Louis XVIII. had retunied to France from his exile in England in April 
of this year. Lady Charlotte was intimate with the French royalties. The Comte 
de Beaujolais and his brother stayed with her tor some days in 1801, and on 
leaving, the former said he hoped Lady Charlotte would call the child she was 
then expecting after him ; and accordingly Lady Charlotte's third daughter was 
christened Beaujolais, and the name as a female one continues in her fEunily at 
the present day in the third generation. The Comte de Beaujolais was second 
brother of King Louis Philippe. He had a vie arageuse : he spent five years 
of his childhood in prison at Marseille, eighteen months of the time in a dungeon 
on bread and water ; then when he was thirteen he was shipped off to America. 



190 A Bygone Beauty 

feeling, that he should never forget what he owed to England. 
Lady Westmorland was the only other English lady present. 
At Geneva Lady Charlotte took a house called Les Grottes, and 
was soon in the midst of the clever literary set that was 
assembled there at this time, and met constantly Pictet, Vernet 
the painter (his son-in-law), De Saussure, Sismondi, Schlegel, Sir 
James Mackintosh, Sir Humphry Davy, Sydney Smith and 
Robert Smith (* Bobus *),* Mme. Necker (of whom her cousin, 
Mme. de Stad, said : ^ Elle a toutes les qualitis qu*on me donne 
ct toutes les vertus que je n'ai pas *), and last, not least, Mme. 
de Stad herself, * whose name," Lady Charlotte says, ^ must, like 
Aaron's rod, swallow up the rest.* Lady Charlotte had made 
the acquaintance of Mme. de Stad in the summer of 1812, 
when she wrote to a niece ^ the following ecstatic letter : 

*I have seen her, that wonderful woman who has more 
knowledge of the human heart in its moral sense than the whole 
College of Surgeons and dissectors in the physical. I can 
scarcely tell you what Mme. de Stad is like, for I never saw 
any one to whom I can resemble her — she is ugly — but that first 
glance once passed which tells you so, she produces all the 
effect of beauty for one wishes to love her — she is middle-aged, 
straight made, neither fat nor thin — has little or no d^ided 
shape, but she has grace. Her eyes are very fine : they have the 
gift of the same eloquence with which her speech is imbued. 
She remained two hours and a half here. I really thought it 
only two minutes. She asked innumerable questions, and seised 

^ < Bobus ' Smith was the eldest of four brothers. Sir James Mackintosh said 
that < of all the men he had ever known, Bobus Smith was the one that had the 
most robust vigour of intellect No, he added after a pause, I must not say that, 
but Mr. Fox was the only man that I would put before him.* Sydney Smith was 
the well-known Canon of St. Paul's. 

' Charlotte, daughter of Lady Augusta Clavering. 



A Bygwte Beauty 191 

the sum of what I said before I could utter my answers ! Her 
tone of voice has no sweetness, but without being loud, it carries 
the decision and quickness of the intellect which it interprets. 
Mme. de Stad flatters you as another person would tell you a 
disagreeable truth ; her flattery therefore carries more sure success 
with it because it seems as if it were not flattery. She says 
nothing for nothing — nothing merely to shine or be agreeable ; 
but during the short period I saw her to-day the conversation 
was confined too much to question and answer for me to taste of 
that torrent of continued eloquence which her writings as well 
as fame report to be so peculiarly her own. In short, I have 
only seen enough to make me long to see more of her ; and yet, 
by a £ital impression she seems to have received of the poor 
Princess, I am much afraid she will not go to her, and this will 
necessarily drive her considerably from my society, as it is 
perfectly impossible consistent with any degree of gratitude that 
I should become an intimate of a person who shews a marked 
rudeness to the Princess, which it will certainly be if, after the 
latter*s inviting her, which I know she will do, they persuade 
Mme. de Stad to decline. ... I think this desultory account of 
what I feel about this wonderfid personage may amuse you. I 
am too much under tlie influence of the excitement her presence 
created to write you a literal distinct history of her person 
and speech, but I pour out my detached descriptions, which 
perhaps may convey my sensations better than a more regular 

account.' 

No doubt Mme. de StaCl flattered Lady Charlotte right well, 
for old sake's sake. Mme. de Stael, eight years before, had 
been much in love with Lord John Campbell, Lady Charlotte's 
youngest brother, the fact of his being eleven years her junior 
proving no bar to her passion. They were together for many 



192 A Bygone Beauty 

months in Switzerland, 1 804-5, *^^^^ which she wrote to him 
several letters entreating him to return to her. In one dated 
* 23 Juillet 1805, Coppet,* and directed to 

lord John Campbell 

in vererajr argyll's house. 

North britania, Scotland, 

she says : * . • . J*irai vous chercher dis que je le pourrai sans 
dichirer mes liens naturels . • . ne pouvant plus mener ici la 
douce vie que je vous devais, celle que j*aurais voulu prolonger 
tout le reste de mon existence. . . • Vous m'avez rendue 
par&itement heureuse pendant nos relations ensemble. ... Si 
vous aimer est un crime, je suis bien coupable. Je ne puis me 
consoler de your escape.^ J'aurais kxk pour vous un doux 
geAlier. Farewell.* 

In another letter, writing from ZOrich, she says : * II me 
semble, my dear lord, que vous pourriez me donner le bonheur 
de vous poss^der encore un ou deux mois en Suisse. • . . J ai 
une maison toute pr^te pour vous \ la campagne pr^s de 
Lausanne i Ouchy. . . . Est-ce un rfive que tous ces projets, 
my dear lord, et voire coeur les rialisera-t-il } Ecrivez-moi votre 
decision ; avec quelle joie je recevrai Tespoir d*une longue con- 
tinuation de nos relations ensemble ! Adieu, my dear lord, dites- 
moi que vous m*aimez et que vous croyez que je vous aime 
directement^ 

^ Lord John was travelling in Switzerland in 1803, after the rupture of the Peace 
of Amiens, when Napoleon ordered the arrest of Englishmen travelling on the 
Continent Mme. de Sta^l asked him to come to Coppet, which he did ; but the 
Duke of Argyll begging of him to return to Scotland at once, he left for Berne. 
Marshal Ney was there, and Lord John was about to be arrested, but managed to 
escape by disguising himself in woman's dress provided by Mile, de la Chaux, 

a Swiss lady, a friend of his family. Dr. R , Lord John's travelhng companion, 

was arrested. 



A Bygone Beauty 193 

Another says : * J*itais bien convaincue avant de vous 
connaitre qu'il itait possible de me plaire, de m*int^resser, mais 
non pas de me rendre la vie tout-i-fait douce. Mon &me 
naturellement agitie n*a trouvi du calme qu*aupris de vous, 
dire . . . de revolution m*avaient fiiit mipriser les hommes et 
vous m*avez rendu ce que j'^prouvais i vingt ans, Testime et la 
confiance. Pardonnez-moi done si j'ai senti je ne sais quel 
d^chirement inexprimable quand le dernier lien de Tespoir s'est 
bris6 — il m*en reste un cependant, c*est que vous acceptez la 
proposition que je vous ai faite d'un rendez-vous en Allemagne. 
Auguste ^ meurt d*envie d'etre mis en pension i Edimbourg 
. . . si je vous donne mon fils, n*est-ce pas que j*irais en Ecosse 
le printems prochain ? et je suis tent^e comme Don Quichotte 
d*obliger tous ceux qui me liferent \ vous, c*est-i-dire que je vous 
aime et que vous devez m'aimer . . . je vous en prie . • . 
Quelques lignes ^ la fin de votre journal ; mettez sur un petit 
papier yV vom aimey je me porte bien et s*il le peutyV vous attends 
Id teljouVy voil^ des lignes qui feront plus de bien que toute la 
puissance consulaire n'en pourra jamais produire. N'est-il pas 
doux de penser qu*au milieu de Tempire du pouvoir Tempire de 
Tafiection reste, et que Tamiti^ dispose encore du bonheur ? • . . 
Si cette lettre vous parvient \ tems pour me rejoindre en 
Allemagne, ah 1 my dear lord, attendez-moi — je vous aime tous 
les jours plus — il y a des trisors dans votre 4me que je vous 
dicouvrirai \ vous-m6me, et vous redeviendrez heureux en 
sentant mieux tout ce que vous valez. Ecrivez-moi, icrivez- 
moi, jamais vous aurez caus6 un plus doux sentiment 4 
personnel 

In June of the following year she writes again from Coppet : 
* Ah my dear lord, il y a un an que j*6tais avec vous, un an que 

^ Auguste de Stael-Holstein, Mme. de Stall's son, born 1780. 

o 



194 ^ Bygone Beauty 

j'itais heureuse, et ma vie est foudroy6e ; jamais, jamais je ne 
reprendrai ni de Tintir^t ni de Tespirance ; je remplirai mes 
devoirs, j'ilfeverai mes enfants, mais il n'y aura plus sur cette 
terre un but pour moi, il n'y en aura plus. Je mfenerais mon fils \ 
Edimbourg Fannie prochaine, c*est mon projet, mais si vous 
veniez ici je ne pourrais pas me difendre de n*y pas 6tre . . . 
il faut que je vous revoye. . . . Je n*ai plus dans le present que 
la contemplation du pass6 ; je ne vis que pour y songer. Ma 
sant6 est abtm^e — je ne puis 6crire deux pages sans tremblement. 
Adieu.* 

To this love affiiir the world probably owes * Corinne,* ^ in 
which Mme. de Stad gives utterance to a personal experience. 
Sainte-Beuve, d propos of this chef iTauvrey says : * Comme dans 
^^ Delphine " il y a des portraits. On savait de quels 6Uments un 
peu divers se composait la noble figure d'Oswald, de m6me qu'on 
croyait \ la v6rit6 fidMe de la sc^ne des adieux.' It is easy to 
see that Lord John was in her mind's eye when she describes her 
hero as a Scottish nobleman, aged 25, who, when travelling abroad 
for his health after an unfortunate episode with a lady, meets with 
Corinne, a woman much older than himself, and they become 
deeply attached to each other. That the scenes are taken from 
real life is evident even in such detail as the form in which she 
addresses him, * My dear Lord * being a literal translation of the 
* Mon cher Seigneur * in * Corinne.' 

In 1 8 10 Mme. de StaCl married secretly Monsieur de Rocca,^ 
a distinguished officer, who was a handsome young man, many 

' The idea of Corinne, we are told, first came to Mme. de Stagl in 1804. She 
worked at it during the two consecutive years, and it appeared in 1807. 

* Monsieur de Rocca died of consumption. Mme. de Stael always said she 
hoped she would not survive him ; and she had her wish, for she died a short time 
before him, in consequence of the fatigue she underwent in her journey to Russia, 
following shortly after the birth of her child. 



A Bygone Beauty 195 

years younger than herself, and by him she had a son who 
died young. Lady Charlotte mentions his paying her a visit, 
and says there was an open kindliness of manner in him which 
was peculiarly pleasing. When Mme. de Stad paid her first 
visit to Les Grottes, Lady Charlotte tells us she took particular 
pains to decorate it, but that Mme. de Stad's only observation 
upon the pretty villa and its comfortably arranged rooms was — 
* Ma chfere, vous avez trop de luxe.* Mme. de Stad's own 
house at Coppet was a specimen of what she considered a proper 
dwelling, and certainly, says Lady Charlotte, * a more comfortless 
and barren-looking abode could not be found.' Lady Charlotte 
says Mme. de Stad considered that luxurious surroundings 
tended to weaken the mind, and, Lady Charlotte adds, * literary 
genius is seldom united with taste.' 

After Lady Charlotte had been some months at Geneva, to 
her horror the Princess of Wales put in an appearance there — and 
such an appearance ! A ball had to be got up in her honour, and 
she went to it dressed, or rather undressed, most injudiciously, 
quite i la Vfnus. Lady Charlotte writes : * The natives were, 
as the Princess would have expressed it, all over shock, and 
when she began to waltz the terra motus was dreadful. Waltz 
she did, however, the whole night, and amongst others whom 
she honoured with her hand upon this occasion was Sismondi. 
These two large figures turning round together were quite 
miraculous.' The Princess of Wales did not leave Geneva till 
she had extracted a promise from Lady Charlotte that she would 
rejoin her later at Genoa, and go on with her to Naples and 
Rome. 

In October Lady Charlotte left Geneva and went to Nice, 

where she spent six months, in the Faubourg de la Croix de 

Marbre, and was there during the excitement caused by 

o 2 



196 A Bygone Beauty 

Napoleon's evasion from Elba. Lady Charlotte writes that 
on Thursday, March 2, the Prince of Monaco came to see 
her and told her that Bonaparte had landed at Grasse the 
previous day and bivouacked close by that night, and the 
Prince also said that he had been stopped on his way to his little 
dominions by Bonaparte, who asked him whither he was going. 
* A mes terres, sire,* was the reply. * Et moi aussi, je vais aux 
miennes,* said Bonaparte. Six days after, the * Aboukir,' com- 
manded by Captain Thompson, came from Genoa in pursuit of 
the small frigate in which Bonaparte had escaped — a day after the 
fiiir, as Lady Charlotte remarks. A few days later still. Sir Neil 
Campbell arrived at Nice ; and Lady Charlotte says she was 
curious to hear what he would say, as she had been under the 
impression that he was stationed off Elba to prevent Bonaparte 
getting away, and as a matter of fact he was at Leghorn at the 
time ; Captain Aidy (i/V), his subordinate, and his frigate being 
also away, having gone to fetch Sir Neil. Lady Charlotte, how- 
ever, adds that Sir Neil entirely exonerated himself, and told 
her that he did not consider himself Bonaparte's jailer and had 
no hold over him. He also told Lady Charlotte that, after 
Bonaparte's evasion, he called upon Princess Pauline Borghese 
and Mme. M^re, both of whom were at Elba at the time. 
They professed to know nothing of Bonaparte's movements, 
but the Princess took the hand of Sir Neil (he being, says 
Lady Charlotte en parentKtsey a very handsome man) and 
pressed it to her heart, desiring him to feel how it beat with 
anxiety. * I could not,' said Sir Neil, * perceive any symptoms 
of alarm, and, being in haste, shortened my visit as much as 
possible.' 

Lady Charlotte left Nice for Genoa in April 18 15 in the 
Princess of Wales's frigate, the * Clorinda,' forty-eight guns, 



A Bygone Beauty 197 

commanded by Captain Pechell,^ and took with her all her 
young £imily and their governess. When she entered the 
Princess's palace at Genoa, the person who opened the door to 
her was, she says, * the one whom it was impossible to mistake, 
hearing what is reported, six feet high, a magnificent head of 
black hair, pale complexion, mustachios which reach from here 
to London. Such is "the stork."** Whilst at Genoa the 
Princess of Wales seems to have been paid much attention. 
She was visited by the Queen of Etruria, the King of Sardinia, 
the Archduke Constantine, and by (which sounds curious) the 
Pope, who had fled to Genoa when Murat had declared the 
independence of Italy. Lady Charlotte says the Pontiff sat with 
the Princess for half an hour, when she and Lady Glenbervie 
had time to fall in love with the Almoner. Lady Charlotte says : 
* The Pope went away blessing all whom he passed, the scullions 
and cooks coming out in a crowd to kiss his toe, which they 
did most audibly. When he finally left, he turned and made 
the most graceful bow I ever saw ; * and she goes on to say, 
•his countenance is very fine and his figure most venerable.* 
From Genoa Lady Charlotte went to Milan with the Princess, 
where the latter was also very well received, a coriige of ladies 
and gentlemen being appointed to accompany her everywhere. 
The Grand Duke met her at the entrance of the Court ball and 
conducted her round. Lady Charlotte says this was the most 
magnificent f£te she ever beheld. 

In May 18 15 Lady Charlotte finally left the Princess of 
Wales, having remained with her longer than any other member 

* Samuel John Pcchell, Rear-Admiral, R.N., F.R.S., C.B., K.C.B., bom 1785, 
succeeded his lather, Sir Thomas Pechell, as third Baronet in 1826. Lady 
Charlotte describes him as very good-looking, as also his brother George, who was 
with him on board the ' Clorinda/ She knew their mother, who was a daughter of 
Sir John Clavering, and their uncle (General Clavering) had married her sister, 
Lady Augusta Campbell. 

' Bergami. 



198 A Bygone Beauty 

of the English suite, the rest having quitted her the previous 
March. Among the names of witnesses moved for in 1820 to 
be summoned on behalf of the Queen is that of Vthe Lady 
Charlotte Bury/ This brings us to Lady Charlotte's unfortu- 
nate change of name. Ever since her husband's death she had 
had a train of admirers, but her nine children and want of money 
must have proved a bar to her making any second marriage that 
would be advantageous to her. When she returned to England 
in 1 8 1 5 she was in her fortieth year, but apparently as young 
in her ways as she had ever been. Miss Susan Ferrier, the 
authoress, writes at this time : ' I thought Lady Charlotte look- 
ing more like herself, for she would dance and sing and go 
about and talk blue, and that is hard work in this town ; ' and she 
(Miss Ferrier) goes on to say : * Lady Charlotte seems more eaten 
up with sentiment than ever ; all her sayings and doings are 
delightful, but how odd they would seem in the ugly part of the 
creation ! ' A contemporary, writing this year, couples her name 
with that of the handsome Mr. Locke ; ^ and another says : * I 
think Lady Charlotte is a little smitten with the handsome 
Algernon Percy. She said to me his voice and looks are 
supremely interesting, and she talked to him the whole night.' * 
Just at this time there came upon the scene Mr. Edward John 
Bury, a man of good family,^ but with no money and the most 

' Sir Thomas Lawrence said to Mme. d'Arblay in 1826: M have seen much 
of the world since I was first admitted to Norbury Park, but I have never seen 
another Mr. Locke ! ' Sir Thomas was, at the time he made this speech, painting 
his beautiful picture of Mrs. Locke senior. 

' Algernon Percy was a son of Lord Beverley, and was taken prisoner in 
France with his father. The latter remained a Menu on parole for twenty-one 
years at Tours and Moulins. Algernon Percy became Minister at Berne, and 
died in London of cholera. He had been engaged to the beautiful Rose Bathurst, 
who was drowned in the Tiber. 

' Mr. Bury's father, who died at Bridgwater in 1837, aged eighty, was a lineal 
descendant of Douglas, Earl of Morton. 



A Bygone Beauty 199 

extravagant tastes. He undertook to travel in Italy with Lady 
Charlotte's eldest son, Walter Frederick Campbell, who had 
lately left Eton and was now seventeen years of age. Mr. Bury 
was a clever and accomplished man and an artist of a very high 
class, his paintings being in the style of Turner, and some of 
them comparing most favourably with those of the great master.^ 
His love of Italian art, and all his artistic accomplishments, made 
him a most agreeable companion to Lady Charlotte, and after 
some acquaintance she foolishly engaged to become his wife. 
They were married on March 23, 18 18, at nine in the morning, 
at Lord Burghersh*s house in Florence. Admiral Sir Thomas 
Fremantle ^ gave her away, and she was attended by the Misses 
Mary and Agnes Berry. Mr. Bury had been ordained, and in 1 823 
became rector of Titchfield in Hants, a parish which contained 
at that time only thirty souls, and he does not appear to have 
done duty there himself. By Mr. Bury Lady Charlotte had two 
children, both daughters. The eldest died an infant ; the second, 
Bianca Augusta Romana, married David Lyon, Esq., of Goring 
Park, Sussex. As far as Lady Charlotte herself was concerned, she 
seems to have been quite contented with her second choice. Five 
years after she wrote : * In my husband I am really bless*d. He 
has his ^ults, like us all, but as a husband has as few as possible — 
inexpressibly careful and tender of me — quite lover-like, never 
leaving me, and all his tastes and pursuits those which are most 
refined and most of a nature to keep him constantly at my side ; 
indeed he has no wish ever to leave me and his child for a 
moment.* 

* In an article in the Quarterly Review for 1834 the writer says : * The world 
has lost a truly great artist by the death of Mr. John Bury, though the modesty of 
his character prevented him from making any public display of his extraordinary 
accomplishments during his too short life.' 

* Grandfather of the present Lord Cottesloe. 



200 A Bygone Beauty 

At this time Lady Charlotte made a good deal of money 
by her writings, her novels ^ meeting with considerable success. 
They were all romantic love tales about the Upper Ten, full 
of sentiment, but with excellent morals. She also wrote some 
poetry, the best known of her poetical works being * The Three 
Sanctuaries of Tuscany.* An article in the * Quarterly Review * 
for 1834 says : * In verse and in prose Lady Charlotte Bury has 
painted the " beautiful gloom of Vallombrosa*s bowers " with a 
skill and a grace which must do honour even to her name.* 
This work was illustrated by some beautiful Turneresque draw- 
ings by Mr. Bury. She also published several religious works, 
amongst which were ^Prayers for every day in the month,* 1826, 
and * Suspirium sanctorum, or Holy Breathings,' 1830. Lady 
Charlotte sent a collection of her poems to Sir Walter Scott in 
1 799, and in return he sent her a manuscript copy of his own 
poems, with the following lines : 

Of old 'tis said in Ilium's battling days, 

Ere Friendship knew a price, or Faith was sold, 

The Chief, high-minded, famed in Homer's Lays, 
For meanest brass exchanged his arms of gold. 

Say, lovely lady, know you not of one 
Who with the Lycian hero's generous fire 

Gave lays might rival Grecia's sweetest tone 
For the rude numbers of a northern lyre ? 

1 Amongst her novels were the following: Self-Indulgence^ 181 2; Conduct is 
Fate, 1822 ; Alia Giomata, 1826 ; Flirtation, A Marriage in High Life, 1828; 
The Exclusives, The Separation, 1830; The Disinherited, The Ensnared, 1854 ; 
The Devoted, 1836 ; The Divorced, Love, 1837 ; Family Records, The History 
of a Flirt, 1840 ; The Manoeuvring Mother, 1842. Nathaniel Parker Willis, the 
American author, writes : ' Lady Blessington's novels sell for a hundred pounds 
more than any other author's, except Bulwer's. Bulwer gets ;£ 1,400, Lady Bles- 
sington ;£4oo> Mrs. Norton ^£250, Lady Charlotte Bury ^£200, and most other 
authors below this.' 



A Bygone Beauty 201 

Yet — tho* unequal all to match my debt, 
Yet take these lines to thy protecting hand, 

Nor heedless hear a Gothic bard repeat 
The Wizard harping of thy native land. 

For each (forgive the vaunt) a wreath may grow 
At distance due as my rude verse from thine, 

The classic laurel crown thy lovely brow, 
The Druid*s magic mistletoe be mine ! 

Walter Scotty Edinburgh^ 1 799, 

Sir Walter Scott also paid Lady Charlotte the compliment of 
placing four lines of hers as a heading to one of his chapters in 
the * Heart of Mid-Lothian/ ^ 

The only work of hers that has survived is * The Life and 
Times of George IV.,* of which a new edition has lately been 
published. The greater part of this consists of Lady Charlotte's 
private journal and was never intended for publication. Mr. 
Bury took possession of it, made a few alterations and additions, 
introducing some remarks on Lady Charlotte byway of disguise, 
and published it without her knowledge, adding many letters 
addi-essed to her by the Princess of Wales, Sir William Gell, 
Keppel Craven, Mrs. Darner, most of all by Mr. C. Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe, the Horace Walpole of Scotland. The disguise was so 
flimsy that every one at once recognised the real author, and it 
was then quite easy to fill in all the names that were left partially 
blank. Five thousand copies of the review in the * Literary 
Gazette * of Almack's, which indicated some of the characters, 
were sold. The publication of this journal naturally gave great 
offence to many of Lady Charlotte's friends, who never forgave 

^ Sir Walter Scott, writing to George Ellis in 1802, says : U am glad you have 
seen the Marquess of Lorn, whom I have met frequently at the house of his 
charming sister, Lady Charlotte Campbell, whom, I am sure, if you are acquainted 
with her, you must admire as much as I do.' 



202 A Bygone Beauty 

her caustic remarks on themselves and their relations ; and others, 
notably Mr. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, were furious at their letters 
being published without their leave. Lady Charlotte was a 
great letter-writer and wrote a fine large hand, and her letters 
were often witty and most entertaining. One of them, addressed 
to Mr. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, is published in a collection of 
letters as a good specimen of a quaint and pithy style, though 
by no means one of her best. 

Lady Charlotte was thrown much in the society of many of 
the leading men and women of the day. In her diaries and 
letters are constant allusions to Lords Aberdeen, Byron, 
Brougham, Castlereagh, Erskine, Grey, Liverpool, Melbourne, 
Moira, and Wellesley ; to Sir Walter Scott, Tommy Moore, 
Rogers, Thomas Campbell, ^ Monk ' Lewis, the brothers Smith 
(authors of the * Rejected Addresses *), Lady Blessington, Sydney 
Lady Morgan, * L. E. L.* (Miss Landon), the Miss Berrys, 
Canning, *Fish* Crauford, Percival, Luttrell, George Selwyn, 
Sydney Smith, Sir William Gell, Sir William Hamilton and 
the beautiful Emma, and hosts of other celebrities ; and with 
many of these Lady Charlotte was on intimate terms. 

Lady Charlotte's latter years were spent entirely in London, 
where she lived at 5 Audley Square, and also at 8 1 South Audley 
Street. Shortly before her death, which took place on March 3 1 , 
1 86 1, she moved to 91 Sloane Street in order to be near her only 
two remaining children. Lady Arthur Lennox and Mrs. William 
Russell, one of whom or their daughters were with her every 
day. Up to the last there were here daily assembled many of 
her old friends and countless relations, and though her intellect 
became sadly impaired and latterly her memory totally gone, she 
always received and welcomed them with that wonderful manner 
which was so characteristic of her a mixture of queenly dignity 



■ Charlotte Campbell. 

By] Ho/'pHtr. R.A. 



A Bygone Beauty 203 

and gracious urbanity. The writer can see her as she sat very 
upright in her carved armchair, always dressed in the softest 
and richest satin (for many years before her death she never 
wore any other material), with a long sort of mantle trimmed 
with chinchilla, and her very small mittened hands in a large 
muff of the same ; and on her head the high mobcap of gauze 
trimmed with satin ribbons and tied under the chin, made on 
the same pattern as the one of her beautiful mother, the Duchess 
of Hamilton, represented in the well-known engraving of Miss 
Catherine Read's picture.^ She was generally surrounded by 
her Maltese dogs, * Titania,' * Oberon,' * Mab,* * Margo,' and 

* Piccolo,' with her Swiss servant Charles and her maid 

* Anachini ' always in attendance. She passed peacefully away 
at the age of eighty-six, without any pain, simply from a gradual 
decay of nature ; and as she had been beautiful in her life she 
was beautiful in death. 

Lady Charlotte transmitted much of her beauty to some of 
her children. Three at least of her daughters were most beauti- 
ful women — the beauty of the Gunnings * lasted like huckaback,* 
as Horace Walpole says. Her seven daughters were : (i) Eliza, 
married Sir William Cumming, Bart. ; (2) Eleonora, married 
the Earl of Uxbridge (afterwards Marquis of Anglesey) ; 
(3) Beaujolais, married the Earl of Charleville ; (4) Adelaide 
Constance, married Lord Arthur Lennox ; (5) Emma, married 
Mr. William Russell ; (6) Julia, married Mr. Langford-Brooke ; 
(7) Bianca (Bury), married Mr. David Lyon. Her sons were 
Walter Campbell of Islay and John Campbell, the present male 
representative of the family being her grandson, Captain Walter 
Campbell, C.V.O., Groom in Waiting to Queen Victoria from 
1880 to 1 90 1, and the same to King Edward VII., and Deputy 
Ranger of Windsor Great Park. 

* This picture is at Inveraray Castle, but is inferior to its engraving. 



*N. OR M.' 

In the early sixties a middle-aged spinster lady was living with 
her maid in poorly furnished dreary rooms in a lodging-house 
in Brompton Row.^ She seldom went out, and, with the 
exception of two or three persons, no one ever came to see her ; 
a more obscure individual apparently did not exist, and no one 
at the lodging-house wondered, therefore, that when the time 
came for her removal to her last home, one hack-cab conveyed 
all the mourners, and after that every trace of her seemed blotted 
out of existence. 

And yet this lady had been a personage in her way : she 
held quite a salon in Park Lane, where she delighted the 
political and literary lights of society by her brilliant conversation 
and lively wit ; an Emperor was one of her devoted admirers 
and correspondents, and she had been engaged to be married to 
two English dukes. 

Who was this lady ? If we follow her to that most melan- 
choly spot, the Brompton Cemetery, we read on the plain stone 
slab which marks her grave only the name ^ Catherine Black 
Campbell,* and even to that name she had no right. She was 
a natural daughter of George Campbell, sixth Duke of Argyll. 
Her birth, which took place in April 1806, is wrapped in 
mystery. She herself said that her mother was the Countess 

^ Brompton Row no longer exists ; it was part of what is now known as 
Brompton Road, and was close to Ovington Square. 



<0E, 6th Dukr oh Ahoyjx. 

Mdh by Hiiah Hiimilloa, al ^^ivaUKu-fitld. 



' N. or M' 205 

of M., and this assertion is so far corroborated by the fact that 
there was a great deal of scandal about that lady's connection 
with Lord Lome (as he then was). Anyhow, whoever the 
mother was, she left her daughter an annuity which was regularly 
paid through the Rev. Dr. G. Penfold (of Dorset Square), who 
knew the secret of her birth and probably had the care of her 
during her childhood. When she was fourteen years old she 
was sent to Paris, where she remained till she was twenty. 

In 1 8 10 her father married the beautiful Caroline, Lady 
Paget ; by this lady he had no children, and some years after 
they separated. The Duke then sent for his daughter Catherine, 
publicly recognised her as such, and made her the mistress of his 
house, 29 Upper Brook Street, the corner of Park Lane. She 
was well received by her father's friends and relations, and 
at once took her place in society ; which is testified by her 
voluminous correspondence, all of which she preserved, even to 
every note of invitation to dinner or soirde^ and we have before 
us letters of the most friendly description from many celebrities 
addressed to her. 

The writer has an oil portrait of Miss Campbell painted at 
Rome in 1832 by Horace Vernet. It represents her with a 
clear olive complexion, brown eyes, black hair and eyebrows 
and a slight duvet on the upper lip. It must have been an 
excellent likeness, as it was the image of her in later life. She 
was of medium height, and had remarkably small hands and feet ; 
these and her magnificent teeth constituted her best points. 
Looking at her portrait it is impossible not to come to the 
conclusion that somehow or other she had a strain of foreign 
blood in her veins.^ She had not a look of her fiither, neither 

^ She is painted in the dress of an Italian peasant, which of course adds to 
her foreign look. 



2o6 ' N. or M' 

can one trace any resemblance to Sir Joshua Reynolds's beautiful 
portrait of Lady M. ; but strong physical characteristics often 
skip a generation, and it would be interesting to trace back 
Lady M/s ancestry on both sides. 

Miss Campbell was a very clever and agreeable woman and 
an accomplished linguist, and had many estimable qualities, but 
she had an ungovernable temper which in later years she vented 
on her best and dearest friends, taking offence where no offence 
was intended, and launching out into the bitterest invectives, 
which she was very fond of committing to paper ; but she had a 
warm affectionate heart and a generous disposition, and it is fair 
to say that she had much to embitter a naturally proud and sensi- 
tive nature. After living for many years in the lap of luxury, 
fitted by the great and idolised by her father, she suddenly found 
herself, by the death of that fiither in 1839, reduced to compara- 
tive poverty. This, added to the accident of her birth, which 
seems to have been overlooked before, lost her all social position. 
Her proud temper could not endure this change. She shut 
up the house in Brook Street, which her fether had left her with 
all its contents, and in a few years retired to the Continent, 
living there till a year or two before her death, when she came 
to Brompton to be near her now almost sole remaining friends^ 
Lord and Lady Arthur Lennox, the latter being a niece of 
Miss Campbell's fiither. To this lady she left all she possessed, 
including many boxes of letters and papers. A great portion 
of these were destroyed soon after her death, but the remainder 
have been preserved by the writer, and form a most interesting 
collection of autographs. A packet of letters addressed to Miss 
Campbell by the Czar Nicholas unfortunately was lent to a lady 
who died shortly afterwards, and her executors, not knowing 
what they were, burnt them ! Amongst the papers still existing 



: Ri,M-K Ca.MPBKLC 



' N. or MJ 207 

are two letters labelled in Miss CampbeU's writing, * The two 
last.* They were written to her by the Duke of Newcastle* 
shortly before the date fixed for their marriage. The first 
of these two letters is dated December 30, 1 844, and says : 
* I long to be with you again, my very very dear Catherine. I 
trust not again to part without being tied by the bands of 
wedlock ; ' and the Duke goes on to say : ^ Look over and con- 
sider the marriage service. I will do the same. We shall then 
be quite an fait^ for in all else we have tried ourselves pretty 
well, I think ; and yet, thank God! here we are on the point 
of making the happiness of each other as I most firmly believe. 
In great haste, Yr. ever most aflfec**. N. * 

The second letter is written by the Duke from Clumber 
shortly after, acquiescing in Miss Campbell's wish to break oflT 
their engagement. The Duke appears to have been sincerely 
attached to her, and after all was over between them, he wrote 
as follows to a mutual friend — a Swiss lady : * Aux grandes et 
belles qualitis de Mile. Campbell je rends, j*espire, une justice 
parfaite, et je serais des plus ingrats si je la refusais, car j'en 
ai souvent profit^, et je lui dois beaucoup aussi bien i ses 
pens6es et son conseil qu*i des bienfaits r6els et substantifs.* 

No doubt Miss Campbell bitterly repented her mad folly. 
Though sick at heart, mortification led her the following year to 
accept the addresses of another suitor, and she became engaged 
to George, fifth Duke of Marlborough.^ She seems, however, 
not to have cared for him, and broke off her engagement at 
the last moment. Amongst the papers she left, and which have 
been preserved, is the licence for * the marriage of George Spencer 
Churchill of the parish of Woodstock, a widower, and Catherine 

* Henry Pelham, fourth Duke of Newcastle, bom 1785, died 185 1. 

' George Spencer Churchill, fifth Duke of Marlborough, bom 1793, died 1857. 



2o8 * N. or M: 

Black Campbell of the parish of St. Luke Chelsea between the 
hours of eight and twelve in the forenoon, given this 22nd of 
November, 1845/ 

In each case Miss Campbell's engagements were broken off 
by herself, and the marriage so near that the trousseaux were 
in her possession. Both were found untouched after her death, 
marked with the ducal coronets and the letters N. or M. 



STRANGE VICISSITUDES OF A HIGHLAND LADY 
OF QUALITY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

It seems difficult to realise that as late as the middle of the 
eighteenth century a lady of unimpeachable character, born of 
gentle lineage, and nearly allied to some of the highest in the 
land, could have been incarcerated by her husband in a lonely 
castle and deprived of proper food and clothing ; and yet 
such was the case with Primrose Campbell, the subject of this 
sketch. 

In later years this lady was wont to say that the vicissitudes 
of her life would make a good story, but that nobody would 
believe them. Born in 1710, she was the twelfth child of the 
Hon. John Campbell of Mamore by his wife the Hon. Elizabeth 
Elphinstone,' and was given the name of Primrose by her aunt 
and godmother, Lady Elphinstone, nie Elizabeth Primrose, who 
was a daughter of Sir William Primrose, Bart., of Carrington 
(ancestor of Lord Rosebery). 

Primrose Campbell's father having joined, though unwillingly, 
his father Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll, in his invasion of 
Scotland, was capitally convicted on his own confession, but the 
sentence of death was commuted into banishment, and this was 

^ The daughter of John, eighth Lord Elphinstone, by his wife Lady Isabel 
Maitland, whose brother Richard, fourth Earl of Lauderdale, married Lady Anne 
Campbell, daughter of Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll. 



2IO Strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 

rescinded in 1689. He died in 1730, leaving his femily totally 
unprovided for. Luckily the four eldest daughters, though 
they had not only no dowries but * ne'er a bawbee to bless 
themselves with/ had all married, perhaps not so much in con- 
sequence of their looks as from the fact that they were first 
cousins of John, the great Duke of Argyll, and of the Earl 
of Islay,^ and also that Queen Anne had taken them under 
her protection. Mary Campbell, the eldest, married James, 
second Earl of Rosebery, and her son Niel was great-grand- 
father of the present Earl. Anne Campbell married Archibald 
Edmonstone of Duntreath, ancestor of the present Baronet of 
that name ; Isabel Campbell married Captain William Mont- 
gomery of Rosemount, of the fiimily of the Earls of Mount 
Alexander ; and Jean Campbell married Captain John Campbell 
of Carrick. Primrose, who was twenty at her father's death, 
was still single, but in 1733 her friends and relations arranged a 
marriage for her, as a matter of policy, with the notorious Simon 
Eraser, twelfth Lord Lovat* He was the second surviving son 
of Thomas Eraser of Beaufort, fourth son of Hugh, ninth Lord 
Lovat, and at his birth was very far from being heir to the title 
and estates which he afterwards acquired. 

In 1696 Hugh, tenth Lord Lovat, had died without male 
issue, leaving a widow (Lady Amelia, daughter of the Marquis 
of AthoU) and four daughters, the eldest of whom was heir 
to the title and estate, and assumed the title of Baroness of 
Lovat, but Thomas Eraser and his son, Captain Simon Eraser of 
Beaufort, claimed to be the next heirs male. This Thomas Eraser 
was, as we have seen, a cadet of the fiimily of Lovat and had no 
manner of estate, having only a lease of a piece of land called 

^ Their brother, who had married the beautiful Mary Bellenden, became fourth 
Duke of Argyll in 1761. 



strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 2 1 1 

Beaufort, belonging to the said family, to maintain himself and 
his children. Litigation ensued ; and Simon, as an effectual way 
of ending the strife, attempted to carry off the aforesaid Baroness 
of Lovat, who was still a child. She was, however, brought back, 
and eventually married some one else.^ Nothing abashed, and 
determined by hook or by crook to get possession of some of the 
Lovat estates, he seized and forcibly married Amelia, the Dowager 
Lady Lovat, mother of the aforesaid young lady ! For this act, 
which was accompanied by great violence,' Captain Simon Fraser 
was condemned to death in 1698, but escaped to France, where 
he adopted the Catholic religion and offered his services to 
James IL, who employed him to raise recruits in Scotland. 
After this it became known in France that he had revealed 
the substance of his commission to the British Ministry, and 
consequently he was, on his return to that country, put into the 
Bastile, where he was kept for some years. On recovering his 
liberty he went to St. Omer and entered into the order of the 
Jesuits. At the death of Queen Anne Lord Lovat, as he had 
become, received a full pardon and a grant of the Lovat estates ; 
and in 17 17, his former marriage having been declared invalid, he 

' She married Alexander Mackenzie, who took the name of Fraser of Fraser- 
dale. 

' Having raised a gallows on the green before Castle Downie, where she then 
resided, to intimidate all who might wish to protect their mistress, he kept her a 
prisoner ; and then, as we are told in the indictment, ' one night, having dragged 
out her maids, proposes that she should marry him, and when she fell in lamenting 
and crying, the great pipe [bagpipe] was blown up to drown her cries, and the wicked 
villains ordered the minister, Mr. Robert Munro, to proceed, and though she pro- 
tested with tears and cries, and declared she would sacrifice her life sooner than 
consent to their proposals, nevertheless the said minister proceeds, and declares 
them married persons ; and Hugh Fraser and Hutcheon Oig, both of them thieves 
and murderers, are appointed for her waiting -maids, and though she often swarved 
[fainted] and again cried out most piteously, yet no relenting. But the bagpipe is 
blown up as formerly, and the ruffians rent off her clothes, cutting her stays with 
their dirks, and so thrust her into bed.' 

p 2 



2 1 2 Strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 

married Margaret, daughter of Ludovic Grant of Grant, and had 
the reputation of making her an unkind husband. She had barely 
been dead a year when it was suggested that he should marry 
Primrose Campbell, and it is not to be wondered that she strongly 
objected. Besides his moral delinquencies, Simon, Lord Lovat, 
had the disadvantage of being thirty-two years her senior and 
was very plain in appearance, becoming in later life a monster of 
fat, as may be seen in his well-known portrait by Hogarth.^ 

It is said that it was only by the following stratagem that she 
was finally induced to consent. She received a letter purporting 
to be from her mother, desiring her to come to her at once to 
a particular house in Edinburgh where she was lying very ill. 
She hastened there and found — Lovat. On her reiterating her 
abhorrence of his addresses, he told her that the house stamped 
infamy on any female who was known to have crossed its 
threshold, and thus she was literally forced into marrying him. 
She was married at Roseneath, and the marriage contract was 
signed by her mother and brother, her uncle Lord Elphinstone, 
her aunt the Countess of Mar, the Duke of Argyll, and the Earl 
of Islay. It is not to be wondered at that Lord Lovat found his 
bride ' irritable and sullen ; ' ^ from the first it is said that he treated 
her with the greatest brutality, and after the birth of her only child 
he shut her up in two or three rooms in a lonely turret of his 
castle, which she was never allowed to leave. A modicum of the 
coarsest food was sparingly supplied to her, enough to keep body 
and soul together and nothing more ; she was not allowed to wear 
her proper clothes, and suffered intensely from the cold. Added 
to this, he constantly threatened to shoot her should she thwart 

^ Burton, in his Ufe of Lord Lovat^ says that, if plain, he was eloquent and 
pleasing, even fescinating. 

' As Primrose Campbell she was said to have had a sweet and gentle expression, 
with delicate features and complexion. 



strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 2 1 3 

him. For a long time she tried in vain to let her friends know the 
state of afiairs. At last rumours reached them, and they sent a 
lady to visit her unawares, who was to report what she saw. The 
wily tyrant, who was an adept at dissimulation, was not to be caught 
this way. Sir Walter Scott thus tells us what happened : * Lord 
Lovat*s last wife, though nearly related to the House of Argyll, 
was treated by him with so much cruelty that the interference of 
her relations became necessary. A lady, the intimate friend of 
her youth, was instructed to visit Lady Lovat, as if by accident, 
to ascertain the truth of these rumours concerning her family. 
She was received by Lord Lovat with an extravagant affectation 
of welcome and with many assurances of the happiness which his 
lady would receive from seeing her. The Chief then went to 
the lonely tower in which Lady Lovat was secluded without 
decent clothes and even without sufficient nourishment. He laid 
a dress before her becoming her rank, commanding her to put it 
on to appear, and to receive her friend, as if she were the mistress 
of the house in which she was in fact a naked and half-starved 
prisoner. And such was the strict watch he maintained and the 
terror his character inspired that the visitor durst not ask, nor 
Lady Lovat communicate, anything respecting her real situation. 
It was, however, ascertained by other means, and a separation 
took place.* The way in which Lady Lovat effected this was by 
rolling up a letter in a clue of yarn and dropping it out of a 
window to a confidential person who conveyed it to her friends. 
In 1 747, when her husband was in the Tower awaiting execu- 
tion for high treason, she offered to go to him. This he declined, 
but in his letter wrote ^ the only expressions of kindness and 
regard she had ever received from him since her marriage.* 
After the death of her husband, Lady Lovat's jointure, small as it 
was, being only ;^i2o per annum, was not paid to her for several 



2 1 4 strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 

years, during which time, being absolutely destitute, she lived 
with one of her sisters. She was offered the loan of money by 
many friends, and especially by Lord Strichen,* who was a kinsman 
of Lord Lovat and who had married Lady Anne Campbell, sister 
of John, Duke of Argyll (and widow of Lord Bute), and con- 
sequently her cousin ; but she declined to borrow from any one. 
When at last she received the arrears of her jointure she bought 
a flat at the head of Blackfriars Wynd, in Edinburgh, and 
furnished it. Here she lived till her death, and on her small 
income managed not only to entertain many nephews and nieces, 
but gave a permanent home to several relations. Her niece. 
Lady Dorothy Primrose, lived with her for many years \^ and 
Lady Lovat also gave a home to an old cousin, the Hon. Mrs. 
Elphinstone, who was always called the Mistress of Elphin- 
stone, or ^ the Mistress,* and to one of her grandsons whilst his 
father was living at Algiers. This boy, who was thirteen or 
fourteen years of age, was probably half crazy.' He took a 
great dislike to his grandmother, and one day put poison 
into the oatmeal porridge which she was accustomed to take at 
supper. Feeling unwell that night she did not eat it ; Mistress 
Elphinstone took it instead, and notwithstanding all the efforts 
of the doctor who was called in, she died from the effects. The 
boy, who lamented the result with many tears, being very fond 
of Mrs. Elphinstone, was sent to sea and died in obscurity. 
Lady Lovat continued to live in her flat in Blackfriars Wynd * 

^ Alexander Fraser, Lord Strichen, was a Lord of Session, and sat for forty- 
five years on the Bench ; he was uterine brother to the celebrated John, Earl of 
Crawford. 

' She married in 1766 Sir Adam Inglis of Cramond. 

* Lady Lovat used to say to him when he frowned at any contradiction, * Aie, 
callant, dinna gloom that gate, ye look sae like your grandfather.' 

^ The old Scottish tirling-pin of her housedoor is preserved in the Museum of 
the Scottish Antiquarian Society. 



strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 2 1 5 

till her death, which took place in May 1796 when she was in 
her eighty-seventh year, having survived her husband nearly 
half a century. She was aware of her approaching death for 
some time, and, in anticipation of her obsequies, had her grave- 
clothes ready and the stair whitewashed. 

Lady Lovat's appearance as an old woman is thus described : 
^ When at home her dress was a red silk gown with ruffled cuffs 
and sleeves puckered like a man's shirt ; a fly-cap encircling the 
head with a mob-cap laid across it, falling over the cheeks and 
tied under the chin. Her hair dressed and powdered ; a double 
muslin handkerchief round the neck and bosom ; lammer-beads ; 
a white lawn apron edged with lace ; black stockings with red 
gushets and high-heeled shoes ; the heels being three inches 
deep. She usually went abroad in a chair, and any one who 
saw her sitting in it, so neat and fresh and clean, would have 
taken her for a queen in waxwork pasted up in a glass case.* 

She left one son, the Hon. Archibald Campbell Fraser of 
Lovat, born in 1736, who was a merchant in London and 
appointed G)nsul-General at Algiers in 1766, and who in 1782 
succeeded to the family estates at the death of his half brother. 
General Simon Fraser, to whom, in consequence of his dis- 
tinguished services, all his father's forfeited lands had been 
re-granted subject to the payment of ;^2o,983.^ Archibald 
Campbell Fraser married Janet, daughter of William Fraser, and 
sister of Sir William Fraser, Bart., of Leadclune, by whom he 
had five sons, all of whom predeceased him.^ He himself died 

' General Simon Fraser was a man of irreproachable character, and he raised 
the Fraser Highlanders or old 71st Regiment. 

" The five sons were : (i) John Simon Frederick, M.P., died 1803 ; (2) Archi- 
bald, died 1792 ; (3) Henry Emo, died 1782 ; (4) George, died 1781 ; (5) William, 
died 1801. The Complete Peerage says there was a sixth son ; if so, perhaps he 
was the one who poisoned Mistress Elphinstone. 



2 1 6 strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 

in 1 815, and there being then, it was said, no descendant of 
Thomas of Beaufort living, the male representation of the family 
devolved upon Thomas Alexander Fraser of Strichen (the 
descendant of the second son of the sixth Lord), who was created 
Baron Lovat in 1837 and was grandfather of the present Lord 
Lovat ; but in 1885 a claimant arose in the shape of one John 
Fraser, an old miner who hailed from Carnarvon, who told the 
following romantic story. At the death of Thomas Fraser of 
Beaufort in 1698, when he was succeeded by his youngest son, 
Simon (the husband of Primrose Campbell), his eldest son, 
Alexander, who was said to have died in Wales, was still living 
and working there as a miner, his story being that, having killed 
a piper in a quarrel on some festive occasion, he had been 
obliged to flee from Scotland, and had hidden himself in Wales, 
working first of all in the mines of Lord Powys (who was a 
Jacobite), and afterwards for forty years in the mines of Sir 
Nicholas Bayley, grandfather of the Marquis of Anglesey. He 
married in 1738, at the age of sixty-five, a Welsh girl of the 
name of Elizabeth Edwards, by whom he had four sons, and 
died in Anglesey in 1776, aged, it is said, 103 1 During the 
early part of his life in Wales he took every means to disguise 
his identity, but in his later years spoke openly on the subject, 
and was called ^ Lord Lovat * or * Lord Fraser.* He died as he 
had lived, a poor man. His son, John Fraser, called himself, 
and was called by others, * Lord Lovat * or * Lord Fraser,' and 
in 1 8 1 7 he appeared in Scotland and laid claim to the title and 
estates of Lovat, but from his great poverty was unable to 
prosecute his claim. William Hone in his ^ Table Book' says 
that he also applied to the Lord Mayor for advice and assistance, 
and that he was in person and face as much like the rebel lord, 
if one may judge from his pictures, as a person could be. The 



strange Vicissitudes of a Highland Lady 2 1 7 

old man, who said he was about sixty, was very ignorant, not 
knowing how to read or write, having been born in the mine 
and brought up as a miner, but he said he had preserved 
Alexander Fraser's Highland dress and that he had it in Wales. 

In the history of the case brought forward to support the 
claim of John Fraser in 1885,^ evidence was adduced that a 
Scotch miner of the name of Alexander Frazier, or Fraser, did 
come into Anglesea in 1762 in search of mines, and after visiting 
Parys Mountain, two miles from Amlwch, gave the owner (Sir 
Nicholas Bayley) so flattering an account of his property as 
induced him to sink shafts and seek for copper ore ; but the 
work was soon stopped by an influx of water. Two years after 
a Macclesfield company, who took a lease of the mines, dis- 
covered, within seven feet of the surface, solid mineral which 
proved to be that vast body which has since been worked with 
such advantage. 

There is no doubt that the claimant is the direct descendant 
of this miner, but it has yet to be proved that the miner 
Alexander Fraser was one and the same as Alexander of 
Beaufort. 

^ A suit was instituted before the House of Lords, but the Committee of 
Privileges decided that in their opinion * John Fraser has no right to the titles, 
dignity, and honours claimed in his petition.' 



AN EMPRESS OF FASHION 

Come, Paris, leave your hills and dales ; 

Youll scorn your dowdy goddesses, 
If once you see our English belles, 

For all their gowns and bodices. 

Here's Juno, Devon, all sublime ; 

Minerva, Gordon's wit and eyes ; 
Sweet Rutland, Venus in her prime : 
You'll die before you give the prize. 

Epigram written on ike Duchesses of Devonshire^ 

Cordon^ and Rutland. 

Horace Walpole, writing in 1791 to Miss Berrjr, says : 'One 
of the empresses of fashion, the Duchess of Gordon, uses 
fifteen or sixteen hours of her four-and-twenty. I heard her 
journal of last Monday. She first went to Handel's music in 
the Abbey, she then clambered over the benches and went to 
Hastings* trial in the Hall ; after dinner, to the Play, then to 
Lady Lucan's Assembly ; after that to Ranelagh, and returned 
to Mrs. Hobart's faro-table ; gave a ball herself in the evening 
of that morning into which she must have got a good way ; and 
set out for Scotland the next day. Hercules could not have 
achieved a quarter of her labours in the same space of time.* This 
energetic lady — ^Jean or Jane, daughter of Sir William Maxwell, 
Bart., of Monreith, N.B., and his wife Magdalen, daughter of 
William Blair of Blair — was born in Wigtownshire in 1750. She 
was one of a large family of sons and daughters who grew up 



An Empress of Fashion 2 1 9 

distinguished for their beauty and intelligence,* but Jane out- 
stripped them all. Apart from the endowments that Nature had 
bestowed upon her, there was little in the early life of Jane 
Maxwell to foretell the brilliancy of her future career. At the 
beginning of George III.'s reign, the houses, or rather flats, in 
Edinburgh, in which many of the best Scottish gentry were wont 
to live and bring up their families, were odorous and inconvenient, 
and the closes or streets were often so narrow that persons 
could shake hands with their opposite neighbours from window 
to window. In one of these dismal places, called Hyndford*s 
Close, our heroine spent a great part of her early days. The 
house had a dark passage, and the kitchen door was passed in 
going to the dining-room. In this passage, we are told, the 
fineries of Lady Maxwell's daughters were usually hung up to 
dry, while the underclothes were slung from a pole projecting 
from a window I Miss Eglintoune Maxwell ^ used to be sent 
with the kettle across the street to fetch water from the fountain- 
well to make the tea, so says Robert Chambers ; and he 
adds : ^ An old gentleman who was their relation told me that 
the first time he saw these beautiful girls was in the High Street, 
where Miss Jane was riding upon a sow which Miss Eglintoune 
thumped lustily behind with a stick I It must be understood 
that in the middle of the eighteenth century vagrant swine went 

' The present head of the femily, and the direct descendant of Jane Duchess 
of Gordon's brother, is the talented and learned writer Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
Bart, M.P. 

' Miss Eglintoune or Eglantine Maxwell, called after her uncle the Earl of 
Eglintoun, married in 1772 Sir Thomas Wallace, Bart, of Craigie, and also became 
celebrated in Scotch society for her * extraordinary cleverness, genuine wit, and 
delightful abandon^ Robert Chambers says : * It almost seemed as if some 
faculty divine had inspired her.' She was, however, fiery-tempered, and when the 
English censor refused to allow her play, ' The Whim,' to be acted, she went off to 
France, where, being anything but a Democrat, she nearly lost her life in the French 
Revolution. 



220 An Empress of Fashion 

as commonly about the streets of Edinburgh as dogs do in 
our own day, and were more generally fondled as pets by the 
children of that generation. It may, however, be remarked that 
the sows upon which the Miss Maxwells rode were not the 
common vagrants of the High Street, but belonged to Peter 
Ramsay of the Inn, and were among the last that were permitted 
to roam about. The two romps used to watch the animals as 
they were let loose from the stable-yard, and get upon their 
backs the moment they issued from the close/ 

Miss Jane*s attractions appear to have developed early, for 
before she was grown up a song called ^ Jenny of Monreith * 
was composed in her honour. ^ The shape of her face was a 
very beautiful oval, but her chin rather too long. Her hair, 
eyes, and eyebrows were dark, her upper lip short, and her 
mouth, notwithstanding a certain expression of determination, 
was sweet and well defined/ Such is an account of her looks 
given by a contemporary. Another says : * Above middle size, 
very finely shaped, she had dark expressive eyes, very regular 
features, fine xomplexion, and a most engaging expression.^ 
She was eminent for agility and grace in the performance of 
those exercises which display beauty and symmetry, and for the 
gaiety, spirit, and brilliancy of humour and wit which so agree- 
ably set off her acute and vigorous understanding.' 

* The Flower of Galloway,' as she was called in song and 
story, when very young became deeply attached to a young 
officer, and he to her. They had soon to part, as he was ordered 
abroad with his regiment, and shortly after news came that he 



^ There are several beautiful pictures of Jane, Duchess of Gordon. A lovely 
one of her with her son, painted by Romney, was formerly in the possession of 
Sir Herbert Maxwell, fiart One painted by Sir Joshua in 1775 was engraved by 
Dickinson. Raebtun also painted her. 



An Empress of Fashion 22 1 

had been killed. This was generally believed, and Jenny Max- 
well was plunged in grief ; but when the young Duke of Gordon 
appeared as a suitor, she was induced to accept his hand. They 
met at a ball in Edinburgh in the Old Assembly Rooms, and a 
story is told of how, on her way thither, Jane Maxwell discovered 
she had a hole in one of her thread stockings, and stopped 
en route at a friendly shop to have it mended. On leaving, the 
shopkeeper presented her with a pair of silk stockings, saying, 
* When you are Duchess of Gordon you must patronise my 
establishment.* The shopkeeper knew that the Duke was to be 
present at the ball, and had implicit faith in the fascinating beauty 
of Miss Maxwell. The Duke accordingly did fall in love at first 
sight, and they were married in October 1767, when she was still 
only seventeen years of age. The marriage took place in Edin- 
burgh at the house of her brother-in-law, Mr. Fordyce, who had 
married her eldest sister, Catharine, in the beginning of the same 
year, and after the ceremony the Duke and Duchess went to 
Ayton, Mr. Fordyce's place in Berwickshire. During the honey- 
moon the Duchess received a letter addressed to her in her 
maiden name and written in the well-known hand of her early 
lover. He was, he said, on his way home to complete their 
happiness by marriage ! 

The wretched bride, who was alone at the time, fled dis- 
tractedly from the house, and according to local tradition was, 
after long search, found in a swoon by her husband, who read the 
letter, and it was said that in consequence they never got on well 
together. The result of this heartrending episode ^ was that the 



^ It has been said that this story suggested the ballad of * Auld Robin Gray.' 
The authoress, Lady Anne Barnard, was sister of Lady Margaret Lindsay, who 
married the banker Alexander Fordyce a near relation of Mr. John Fordyce, the 
Duchess's brother-in-law. 



222 An Empress of Fashicm 

young Duchess threw herself at once into a life of excitement to 

* drown dull care/ and after a short time her natural high spirits 
began to assert themselves, and she soon became celebrated, not 
only for her beauty, but for her gaiety and exuberant wit. On the 
occasion of a visit of Lord Monboddo, the philosopher, and his 
usual companion, Lord Kames, to Gordon Castle — when the 
Duchess, we are told, was unusually brilliant in her admirable 
sallies of ready wit and jeux d^ esprit — Lord Monboddo said : 

* Her Grace has a brilliancy and radiance about her like the rays 
round the head of an apostle.* To her beauty and wit the 
Duchess added a conspicuous tact which made her universally 
popular with all sorts and conditions of persons, from the 
highest to the lowest ; and she was especially a great favourite 
with persons beneath her, owing to her habit of suiting her 
conversation to her company, and had the power of making all 
persons within the sphere of her actions pleased with them* 
selves. A writer of the day, alluding to this characteristic, 
says : * I remember, in 1777, just ten years after the Duchess's 
marriage and when she was twenty-seven years of age, spending 
an evening at the Inn at Blair when a large party of country 
gentlemen came there from the Duke of Atholl's place, where 
she had been one of the guests. Her charms were the theme 
of universal praise for several hours, and on asking one of the 
visitors what he thought was the secret of her fascination he 
replied that it was because she gave every one an opportunity 
of speaking on the subject on which he supposed he could speak 
well. " Not all her engaging qualifications," he said,. " made 
such an impression on my father as a conversation in which he 
was enabled to bring forward his favourite opinions on planting 
trees and potatoes, as most beneficial both to gentlemen and the 
poor ! and his good neighbour was no less captivated by her 



' GoilllON, AND HKH SoN', THE MaRQUIS OI 



An Empress of Fashion 223 

Grace's discourse with him on sheep-farms I You may depend 
upon it/' continued the young man, ^^ that her understanding 
and manners, independent of her face, countenance, and figure, 
will secure to her an ascendency in any particular company in 
which she happens to be placed as well as the general circle in 
which she moves." * The Duchess's tact was sometimes at fault* 
Once when she was careering through the country upon some 
of those electioneering schemes which often occupied her fertile 
imagination, she called on the Laird of Craigmyle, a very simple- 
minded man, and having heard that he was making bricks on 
his property, with her usual tact she opened the conversation by 
saying, * Well, Mr. Gordon, and how do your bricks come on ? ' 
Craigmyle, having lately taken to a new leather part of his dress, 
looked down on his nether garments and said in pure Aberdeen 
dialect, *Muckle obleeged to yer grace, the breeks war sum 
ticht at fiist, but they are deeing weel eneuch noo.' 

It was the Duchess of Gordon who started in London the 
custom of dancing at routs, an agreeable change from the inter- 
minable card-playing ; and she also introduced Scotch dancing — 
till then unheard of in the fashionable world — much improving 
it by adding grace to agility. She was the originator of the 
Northern Meeting. In the memoirs of a Highland lady edited 
by Lady Strachey we read : * The Northern Meeting had been 
set agoing soon after my birth (1797) by her who was the life 
of all circles she entered, the Duchess of Gordon.' Both the 
Duchess and her daughters danced beautifully ; and Sir William 
Hamilton, describing a ball given by the Duchess in Paris, alludes 
to Lady Georgina Gordon dancing a gavotte and a minuet with 
Vestris. It is not therefore remarkable that the life and spirit 
of the London season were said never to commence till the 
Duchess of Gordon arrived in town. Once, when she remarked 



224 -^^ Empress of Fashion 

to Henry Erskine that she would not go to some races, as they 
would be dull, he replied in the following impromptu lines i 

^ Why, that is as if the sun should say 
A cold dark morning this, I will not rise to-day I' 

According to Beattie, the Duchess of Gordon was feelingly 
alive to every fine impulse, demonstrative herself, and hating 
coldness in others, the life of every party, the consoling friend of 
every scene of sorrow, a compound of sensibility and vivacity, of 
strength and softness ; * but this was not the view of every one. 
She was sometimes accused of being unfeminine in her actions, 
coarse in her wit, and worldly in her ambition. To the last two 
indictments we fear she certainly must plead guilty : that she was 
by no means scrupulous in her remarks cannot be denied, and it 
would be impossible to quote many of her bom mots \ but it must 
be remembered that the licence of speech, even amongst ladies, 
was very great in those days, and that Scotland, where she had 
been brought up, was far behindhand in refinement.^ Although 
many of her sayings are on record of which the keen wit is 
unquestionable, as also the indelicacy, the Duchess's morality was 
irreproachable, and there never was a breath raised against her 
fkir name even by her detractors. Worldly in her ambition she 
undoubtedly was, and kept the main chance always in view as 
regarded the aggrandisement of her family. This may be seen 
in the matrimonial projects she evolved for her daughters, as 

^ Jane Maxwell had not many advantages of education and was married at 
seventeen, therefore it is not surprising to hear that, on her first arrival in London, 
she astonished the beau mande occasionally by her expressions. When George 
the Third inquired how she liked London, the young Duchess answered, * Not at 
all, your Majesty, for it is knock, knock, knock all day, and friz, friz, friz all night' 
This story is told by Sir Walter Scott, who goes on to say ; * It would appear, how- 
ever, that the Duchess subsequently g^rew very fond of London life, and once she 
said, ** I surprised my bed last night before 12 o'clock, laughing at the unusual 
circumstance." ' 



An Empress of Fashion 225 

well as by the marriages she ultimately arranged for them. The 
Duke was a man of calm inert nature, with no energy excepting 
for country pursuits, and he left the entire management of his 
family to his better half. For her eldest daughter. Lady Charlotte 
— whom even Cosway's art has succeeded in making only very 
pleasing-looking, but who had some of the wit of her mother — 
she fixed upon Pitt as an eligible husband ; and it is said that, 
difficult as he was to approach in that light, he nearly succumbed, 
and would have done so had it not been for Dundas, who, trembling 
for any interference with his influence, pretended that he himself 
was a suitor for the hand of Lady Charlotte, upon which Pitt 
instantly retired. Once when Pitt and some of his friends 
were spending the evening with the Duchess of Gordon and 
her daughters, and were amusing themselves with capping verses, 
Dundas remarked to him how fine a woman the Duchess of 
Richmond was, and what small feet she had for her size. At 
the time the Duchess did not seem to hear, but when she left to 
go home, she said * Though you have not done your game, 
gendemen, I must bid you good night, and the next time you 
are capping verses let me beg of you to take care that you don't 
put in more feet than belong to them ! * Apropos of Pitt we 
are reminded of another well-known story of the Duchess of 
Gordon. Ferguson of Pitfour, long the Father of the House 
of Commons and a great friend of Pitt, was most eccentric, and 
had a servant, John, who was a well-known character. He used 
to talk a great deal about his master and Mr. Pitt, and Dean 
Ramsay says he always prefaced his conversation with something 
in the style of Cardinal Wolsey's * Ego et rex meus ; * it was 
always * I and Pitt and Pitfour * went somewhere and did some- 
thing. The Duchess one day wrote to him as follows : ^ John, 
put Pitfour into the carriage on Tuesday and bring him up to 

Q 



226 An Empress of Fashion 

Gordon Castle to dinner.' John showed the letter to Pitfour, 
who said dryly, * Well, John, I suppose we must go.* After this 
same dinner games were started in which every one had to 
propound a riddle. The Duchess's was as follows : 

My first is found upon the banks of Tyne, 
My second is scarce quite the half of nine, 
My whole a Laird of Aberdeenshire race, 
An honest fellow with an ugly face. 

Answer : Pitfour. 

The following story ot the Duchess of Gordon is very 
characteristic. A marriage was on the tapis between her daughter 
Lady Louisa Gordon and Lord Brome, whose fether, the celebrated 
Lord Cornwallis, objected on the grounds of madness in the 
Gordon femily. No doubt — though sixteen years had passed 
since the Gordon Riots, and then, through the great ability and 
eloquence of the Hon. Thomas Erskine, Lord George Gordon 
had been acquitted — the horrors consequent on his conduct were 
still fresh in the public mind. He was generally admitted to be 
insane, and at this time he had embraced Judaism, wore a long 
beard almost reaching to the ground, and called himself Israel 
Abraham George Gordon 1 ^ 

The Duchess, who was very anxious to bring about this 
marriage for her fourth daughter, who had not the good looks of 
her sisters, is asserted to have said to Lord Cornwallis, * I give 
you my word, Louisa has not a drop of Gordon blood in her 
veins.' Se non i vero i ben trovato? The marriage did take place, 
and Lady Louisa Gordon became eventually the Marchioness of 
Cornwallis. The Duchess succeeded in marrying three others of 
her daughters to dukes. The eldest. Lady Charlotte Gordon, 

^ In 1 791 he was confined in Newgate for a libel on Queen Marie Antoinette, 
and died there, aged forty-one. 

* The Duchess told this story herself to Lord Stowell. 



An Empress of Fashion 227 

became fourth Duchess of Richmond ; ' Lady Susan married 
William, Duke of Manchester ; and Lady Geoigina became the 
wife of the sixth Duke of Bedford. Lady Georgina, who was 
very handsome, was engaged to Francis, fifth Duke of Bedford, 
a man conspicuous for his virtues and talents ; but before they 
were married *an over-exertion at tennis ' caused his death at the 
age of thirty-one. The Duchess of Gordon was not going to let 
the Dukedom of Bedford escape her, and after Lady Georgina 
had left oflT her mourning for her betrothed, she became engaged 
to his brother and successor, John, sixth Duke of Bedford, to 
whom she was married a year later.^ For her other daughter, 
Lady Madelina, who was not good-looking, but clever, the 
Duchess h 
Sinclair. . 
about a s 
Aberdeen, 
himself els< 

en secondes noces Charles Fysshe Palmer of Luckley Park, Berks.^ 
She died in 1847 and is buned with her second husband at 



228 An Empress of Fashion 

According to William Beckford,^ the Duchess once thought 
of him as a possible son-in-law, and he gives a most whimsical 
account of her visit to Fonthill. * I never/ says he, * enjoyed 
a joke so much. At that time everybody talked of Mr. Beck- 
ford's enormous wealth— everything about me was exaggerated 
proportionately. I was in consequence a capital bait for the 
Duchess of Gordon — so she thought ; I thought very differ- 
ently. She had been told that even a dog-kennel at Fonthill 
was a palace — my house a Potosi. What more on earth could 
be desired by a managing mother for a daughter ? I got a hint 
from town of her intention to surprise me at Fonthill. . . . 
I resolved to give her a useful lesson. Fonthill was put in 
order for her reception, with everything I could devise to 
receive her magnificently — not only to receive her, but to turn 
the tables upon her for the presumption she had that I was to 
become the plaything of her purposes. The splendour of her 
reception must have stimulated her in her object. I designed 
it should operate in that manner. I knew her aim — she little 
thought so. My arrangements being made, I ordered my 
major-domo to say, on the Duchess's arrival, that it was un- 
fortunate Mr. Beckford had shut himself up on a sudden — 
a way he had at times — and that it was more than his place 
was worth to disturb him, as his master only appeared when 
he pleased, forbidding interruption, even if the King came to 
Fonthill. I had just received a large lot of books ; nothing 
could be more opportune. I had them removed to the rooms 
of which I had taken possession. The Duchess conducted 
herself with wonderful equanimity, and seemed much surprised 

^ The celebrated author of Vathek^ written when he was twenty-one, was a 
son of William Beckford of Fonthill Abbey. He married in 1783 Lady Margaret 
Gordon, who died three years after. 



An Empress of Fashion 229 

and gratified at what she saw, and the mode of her reception — 
just as I desired she should be, quite on tip-toe to have me 
for a son-in-law. When she got up in the morning, her first 
question was, "Do you think Mr. Beckford will be visible 
to-day } '* " I cannot inform your Grace — Mr. Beckford*s 
movements are so very uncertain. Would your Grace take an 
airing in the Park — a walk in the gardens } " Everything which 
Fonthill could supply was made the most of, whetting her 
appetite to her purpose still more. "Perhaps Mr. Beckford 
will be visible to-morrow } " was the Duchess*s daily consolation. 
To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow came and went — 
no Mr. Beckford. She remained seven or eight days, mag- 
nificently entertained, and then went away, very angry, without 
seeing him ! * 

The Duchess of Gordon mixed much in French society and 
was very fond of going to Paris. When she was there in 1 802 
with her daughter. Lady Georgina Gordon, she received flattering 
marks of attention from Napoleon, of whom she was a great 
admirer. Lady Malmesbury writes to Hookham Frere in 1 803 : 
* The Duchess of Gordon is returned from Paris raving about 
Bonaparte and talked such real treason that if it would not give 
her too much consequence, she ought to be sent to the Tower.* 
It was said that the Duchess wished for Eugine Beauharnais 
as a husband for Lady Georgina. She had not much knowledge 
of the French language, and Madame Le Brun in her * Souvenirs * 
says : * Je me souviens qu'un jour que j'allai diner chez la 
Duchesse de Gordon, elle me montra le portrait de Bonaparte en 
me disant : " Voili mon Z6ro.'* Comme elle parlait fort mal le 
fran9ais, je compris ce qu*elle voulait dire, et nous rimes beaucoup 
toutes deux quand je lui expliquai ce que c*6tait qu'un z6ro ! * 
Sir Walter Scott, alluding to another of the Duchess of Gordon's 



230 An Empress of Fashion 

visits to Paris — in 18 15 — ^writes that it was reported that she 
said to the box-keeper at the theatre : ^ Ne laissez pas entrer 
aucun Anglais dans ma boite.* 

Although the Duchess was so much taken up with the 
world, and was such a lover of society, she was by no means 
frivolous. We hear of her, both in Edinburgh and at Gordon 
Castle, occupying herself with elevating pursuits, reading much 
and bestowing great pains on the education of her daughters. 
In Edinburgh, where the Duchess and her family were wont 
to take up their residence in the winter and spring, she was the 
leader of society. She tried to get all the literary and other 
men of note to her parties there ; * and when Burns first went to 
the Athens of the North in 1787, at which time he was little 
known, she invited him to her house and did all she could to 
help him. * There is a great rumour here,' wrote one of his 
friends in Ayrshire, * concerning your intimacy with the Duchess 
of Gordon. I am told that " Cards to invite fly by thousands 
each night." ' Later on the Duchess asked Addington, the Prime 
Minister, to meet Burns at Gordon Castle, and it was on leaving 
after this visit that the poet wrote the song of * Bonnie Castle 
Gordon.' * Beattie, with whom she became very intimate, shows 
by his letters, in spite of their rather exaggerated adulation, 
that he respected the understanding of the woman to whom he 
wrote. His happiest hours were passed at Gordon Castle, and 

^ The European Magazine^ in noticing the Duchess of Gordon's death, said of 
her : * She aimed to gain the esteem and render herself worthy of all the most 
eminent literati of her country. She was the correspondent of Lord Kames, of 
Dr. Beattie, of Dr. Robertson, of Mr. Hume, and other eminent writers of that day, 
apd in her extensive correspondence she displayed a depth of reading, a solidity of 
judgment, and a taste in composition, which, if her letters should ever reach the 
public, would place her high in the estimation of the literary world.' 

^ The Duchess of Gordon occupies a prominent place in the picture which 
Mr. C. Hardie, A.R.S.A., painted to commemorate the centenary of Bums's intro- 
duction to Edinburgh society. 



An Empress of Fashion 231 

he was with the Duchess when he wrote the following * Lines 

to a Pen : * 

Go and be guided by the brightest eyes, 

And to the softest hand thine aid impart 
To trace the fair ideas as they arise, 

Warm from the purest, gentlest, noblest heart. 

Sir William Forbes in his Life of Beattie says : * So tenderly 
solicitous was she (the Duchess) at all times to soothe his sor- 
rows and dissipate those gloomy ideas that preyed upon his 
mind, that he found consolation and relief in the free inter- 
change of thoughts with which her good nature delighted to 
indulge him ; and he was never more happy than in the society 
he found in Gordon Castle. . . • He was charmed by her 
beauty, the brilliancy of her wits and her cultivated understand- 
ing/ * This culture, or the increase of it,' Miss Margaret Forbes - 
tells us in her recent Life of the poet, * the Duchess partly owed 
to her intercourse with Beattie. He took much pleasure in 
directing her reading, and was often astonished at the rapidity 
with which she grasped the salient points of a book. He used 
to say he frequently gave her a book one day and was astonished 
to hear her discussing it the next at table with her guests, when 
he knew she had been so occupied as not possibly to have had 
time to read it except overnights.' 

She was a keen politician of High Tory principles, and was 
most energetic as a Government Whip, particularly at the 
celebrated election for Westminster in 1784, when Sir Charles 
Wray was opposed to Charles James Fox, who had for his 
female champion the celebrated Georgiana, Duchess of Devon- 
shire. The poll continued open for forty days, and every nerve 
was strained on either side. At this time the Duchess of 
Gordon lived in Buckingham House, Pall Mall (now the War 



232 An Empress of Fashion 

Office), the splendid house of the then Marquis of Buckingham,' 
and eveiy evening numerous persons attached to the Adminis- 
tration gathered in her saloon, as well as many doubtful 
members, with whom she used all her art to confirm their 
all^iance to PitL^ The Prince of Wales spent a part of almost 
every evening in her society, and when it was determined by 
his friends to appeal to the House of Commons concerning his 
debts, she acted as mediator between him and Fox, Sheridan, 
Lord Loughborough, and Pitt alternately, it is said, advising, 
consoling, and reproving the Prince. At the time of the King's 
illness, approving of Pitt's plan, the Duchess, we are told, 
reprobated with much indignation those who, having professed 
themselves the King's friends, joined the opposite party when 
they knew it was likely to be in the ascendant ; and she was 
not sparing in her animadversions on their fickleness. She 
accosted with very great and just severity a well-known peri- 
patetic, and exposed his conduct in a strong and humorous satire. 
In one of the Duchess's letters to Beattie quoted by Miss 
Forbes in her book * Beattie to his Friends,' her Grace says : 
* I have been constantly going for days into the country, and 
Mr. Pitt has been mostly of our society — never was so merry 
and pleasing a companion. In one of our evening conversa- 
tions poetry was the subject ; my favourite " Minstrel " I talked 
of as I felt, and was delighted to find a certain Beattie and 
Milton being his first favourites. During the course of the 
evening he repeated the most of it. When we meet I will show 

* She also, at a later period, gave political parties at No. 6 St James's Square 
and at No. 1 5. 

' There was no limit to her efforts in this respect. Major P. L. Gordon, in 
writing about Sir James Mackintosh, says : * The Duchess of Gordon told me that 
she had in vain tried all her persuasive powers, and they were not small, to 
detach Sir James from his party. I took the liberty to observe to her Grace that 
I was well acquainted with him, and knew that his politics are his principles.' 



An Empress of Fashion 233 

you his favourite lines. There is an elegance in his taste, and 
a wise kind of folly in his social hours of conversation, that 
raises him more in my estimation than even his political talent. 
But come and be convinced, you would be delighted with him ; 
there is a rectitude of mind, and steady firm principle of honour, 
in every word. Do come soon.' 

The Duchess*s energy was almost unparalleled ; we have 
seen one example of it, here is another. In 1794, when there 
was a scare of a French invasion, her son, the young Marquis 
of Huntly, offered to raise a regiment fi-om the Gordon tenantry, 
and letters of service were granted him for this purpose. Upon 
hearing that at first the recruits were coming up but slowly, the 
Duchess set off from London, in the midst of winter, for the 
Highlands (no small feat in those days), and, chiefly owing to her 
personal exertions, within four months a corps of volunteers a 
thousand strong was raised, which developed into the regiment 
known as the Gordon Highlanders. Her modus operandi was 
as follows. She attired herself in a regimental jacket with a plaid 
of the Gordon tartan — 

* O* a* the tartans cast or west, 
I like the Gordon tartan best * — 

and putting a cockade and a diced border on her Glengarry, she 
then mounted her palfrey and went the round of the country, 
especially frequenting the fairs where the rustic youths most 
congregated, and offered a kiss to every one who would take the 
King's shilling ! Afterwards, when the Duchess was relating 
this feat in the salon of a Whig magnate, a young man of high 
degree said to her, * I wish I had been present, I would have 
taken the kiss and the shilling myself.* * But,' said she, * you 
would not have understood what I said in broad Scotch.' * Oh, 



234 -^^ Empress of Fashion 

yes, I would ; I understand Scotch, however broad/ * Well, 
I will try you,' said the Duchess, * and if you tell me what I 
mean Til give you a kiss/ * My canty carle, come pree mi mou.* 
This her Grace said with great rapidity, and the Englishman 
exclaimed, * Oh ! that's French, not Scotch ! * * You have lost 
your kiss, my Lord,' replied the Duchess ; * what I said was Scotch, 
and means " My handsome fellow, come taste my mouth/' ' ^ 
The regiment of the Gordon Highlanders was gazetted as the 
looth, but afterwards as the 92nd. It was embodied at Aberdeen 
on June 24, and the Duchess's young son, the Marquis of 
Huntly, was appointed lieutenant-colonel commandant. Though 
only twenty-four years of age, he had already seen a good deal 
of service, and was captain in the 3rd regiment of Foot Guards 
when he was twenty-two. The first move of the Gordon 
Highlanders was to the camp at Netley Common, and soon 
after they were sent to the Mediterranean, where they remained 
for several years. On Lord Hundy's passage home the vessel 
he was in was taken by a French privateer ; he himself was 
plundered of everything and put on board a Swedish ship, in 
which he arrived at Falmouth in September 1796, greatly to 
the relief of the Duchess, who had not seen him for so long. 

Cock o* the North, my Hundy bra*, 
Where arc you with my Forty-twa ? 
Oh ! wae's my heart that yc*rc awa*. 

Carle now the King^s come — Sir Walter Scott. 

The Duchess*s untiring energy was not confined to politics 
and pleasure. She exerted herself much on behalf of the poor 

^ The Duchess at all times spoke with a Scotch accent. Mrs. Delany writes : 
* Lady Bute brought the Duchess of Gordon here on pretence of showing her my 
herbal— really to show me her beauty ! I fancy I got the better bargain for she is 
beautiful indeed. She is very natural and good-humoured, but her Scotch accent 
does not seem to belong to the very great delicacy of her appearance. 



An Empress of Fashion 235 

on her husband*s estates. At the time of her marriage Lord 
Kames addressed a letter to her impressing upon her the great 
responsibility of her position, and he lived to see the day when 
he could ^ thank God that his best hopes had been realised * in 
regard to the manner in which * his dear pupil * had given effect 
to his views. In a letter which she wrote at a later period to 
her devoted and attached friend, Henry Erskine, the Duchess 
says : * For years I have given premiums for all kinds of 
domestic industry — spinning, dyeing, &c. — and most years had 
some hundreds of specimens of beautiful colours from herbs 
of the field.^ But there is an evil I cannot remedy without a 
large sum of money. The children are neglected in mind and 
body^ — cold, hunger, and dirt carries off hundreds. The cow-pox 
would save many ; no doctors for thirty miles makes many 
orphan families. ... I wish to add to the comforts of the aged 
and take the children, teach them to think right, raise food for 
themselves, and prepare them to succeed to their fathers* farms, 
with knowledge of all the branches of farming, &c.* 

Mrs. Grant of Laggan, writing in 1 802, says : * The Duchess 
had a seat at Kinrara, near Laggan, where she spent the summer 
months. Unlike most people of the world, she presented her 
least favourable phases to the public ; but in this her Highland 
home all her best qualities were in action, there it was that her 
warm benevolence and steady friendship were known and felt.* 
Again, in 1 809, she says : * I called on the Duchess yesterday, 
she and I having a joint interest in an orphan family in the 
Highlands which created a kind of business between us. She 

^ George Gordon, of Fodderletter ih Strathaven, who was both a chemist and 
a botanist, discovered that by a simple preparation of a species of lichen found 
among the rocks of the Grampian Hills a purple dye could be procured. This 
dye, which was called * Cudbear,' was largely used in the Highlands for dyeing 
the home-made cloth. 



236 An Empress of Fashion 

had a prodigious levee, and insisted on my sitting to see them 
out, that we might afterwards have our private discussion. 
I saw Lord Lauderdale, who made me start to see him almost a 
^^ lean and slippered pantaloon,'' who, the last time I saw him, was 
a fair-haired youth at Glasgow College . . . more gratified was 
I to see Sir Brooke Boothby, though he too looked so feeble 
and so dismal. Being engaged to dinner, I could stay no longer. 
The Duchess said that on Sunday she never saw company, nor 
played cards, nor went out. In England, indeed, she did so 
because every one else did the same, but she would not intro- 
duce those manners into this country. I stared at these 
gradations of piety growing warmer as it came northward, but 
was wise enough to stare silently. She said she had a great 
many things to tell me and I must come that evening, when she 
would be alone. At nine I went and found Walter Scott, Lady 
Keith (Dr. Johnson's * Queenie * ), and an English lady, 
witty and fashionable-looking, who came and went with Mr. 
Scott. No people could be more easy and pleasant. ... I think 
Mr. Scott's appearance very unpromising and commonplace 
indeed ; yet tho' no gleam of genius animates his countenance, 
much of it appears in his conversation, which is rich, 
various, easy, and animated.' This same lady writes from 
Stirling to another correspondent (John Hatsell) in 1808 : 
* 1 was sitting quiedy at the fireside one night lately, when 
I was summoned with my eldest daughter to attend the Duchess 
of Gordon. We spent the evening with her at the inn, and very 
amusing and original she certainly is. Extraordinary she is 
determined to be wherever she is and whatever she does. She 
speaks of you in very high terms, which, you know, always 
happens in the case of those whom the Duchess " delighteth to 
honour." As the highest testimonial of your merit that she 



An Empress of Fashion 237 

can give, she says you were one of the great favourites of Mr. 
Pitt, and then she pronounced an eloquent eulogium on that 
truly great man. Her Grace*s present ruling passion is literature — 
to be the arbitress of literary taste and the patroness of genius — 
a distinction for which her want of early culture and the flutter 
of a life devoted to very different pursuits, has rather disqualified 
her. Yet she has strong flashes of intellect, immediately lost in 
the formless confusion of a mind ever hurried on by contending 
passions and contradictory objects, of which one can never be 
obtained without the relinquishment of others. Having said 
all this it is but fair to add that in one point she never varies, 
which is active — nay, most industrious benevolence. Silver 
and gold she has not, but what she has — her interests, her 
trouble, her exertion — she gives with unequalled perseverance.* 

In one of the Duchesses letters to Beattie she says : * Have 
you no commands for me ? My amusement is to get commis- 
sions and places for unprovided countrymen/ And we find her 
accordingly getting an appointment for Beattie's son through 
Dundas and for his nephew through Lord Chatham. 

During the last few years of her life the Duchess had many 
domestic sorrows, of which perhaps the keenest was the loss of 
her dearly loved youngest son. Lord Alexander Gordon, who 
died at Edinburgh in 1 808, after a severe illness, in the twenty- 
third year of his age. His death had a great effect upon her, 
and she became a changed woman, fully realising the hollowness 
and vanity of the world, and bitterly and genuinely regretting 
the worldliness of her past life. She survived her son four 
years, and died in London on April 11, 18 12, aged sixty-two, 
in great composure and peace, having spent her last weeks in 
prayer. 



A DUKE *BORN IN A BARN, AND DIED IN 

A BARN' 

Croicer, writing to his wife in 1819, says that the fourth Duke 
of Richmond, who died in a barn, was also born in a barn. His 
mother. Lady Louisa Lennox (a daughter of Lord Lothian, and 
wife of Lord George Lennox) was taken ill when on a fishing 
party, and there was only time to carry her to a neighbouring 
farmyard, where the future Duke was born in 1764. 

He became a gallant soldier and one of the most fearless of 
men, but is chiefly celebrated for his duel with the Duke ot 
York, for the memorable ball which he and his wife gave at 
Brussels in 1 8 1 5, and for his tragic death in 1 8 1 9. 

The history of the duel is as follows : In May 1789, at a 
masquerade given by the Duchess of Ancaster, the Duke of 
York joined Lord Paget, who was walking with the Duchess of 
Gordon, and in the course of conversation H.R.H. said that 
Colonel Lennox had heard words spoken to him at d*Aubigny's 
Club to which no gentleman ought to have submitted, and added, 
* The Lennoxes don*t fight.* This observation being repeated to 
the young soldier, who, though barely twenty-five years of age, 
was a colonel in the Coldstream Guards, he shortly after took 
the irregular mode of publicly asking the Duke (who was his 
commander-in-chief), at a field day, what were the words he had 
alluded to and by whom they were spoken. To this the Duke 
gave no answer and ordered him to his post. After the parade 



A Duke ' bom in a bam, and died in a bam ' 239 

was over he sent for Colonel Lennox, declined to give his 
authority, but said before his officers that * he desired to derive 
no protection from his rank as a Prince and his station as 
commanding officer, and that, when not on duty, he wore a 
brown coat and was ready as a private gentleman to give the 
Colonel satisfaction/ Colonel Lennox then wrote a circular 
letter to every member of d'Aubigny*s Club requesting to know 
whether such words had been used to him, begging for an 
answer within seven days, and adding that no answer would be 
considered equivalent to a declaration that no such words could 
be recollected. The seven days having expired and no member 
answering. Colonel Lennox sent a written message through Lord 
Winchilsea to the Duke of York, calling upon him to give him 
the usual satisfaction. This was acceded to ; and accordingly the 
Duke attended by Lord Rawdon, and Colonel Lennox by Lord 
Winchilsea, met on Wimbledon Common on August 26. The 
ground was measured at twelve paces ; the signal given. Colonel 
Lennox fired, and the ball grazed His Royal Highness's side curl, 
but the Duke did not fire himself. Lord Rawdon then said he 
thought enough had been done. Colonel Lennox pressed that 
the Duke should fire, but he positively declined, and so this 
duel terminated.^ Some time after a person named Theophilus 
Swift wrote a pamphlet on the subject, taking the Duke of 
York's side, whereupon Colonel Lennox called on Mr. Swift 
and demanded satisfaction, and another duel took place in a field 
near the Uxbridge Road. Colonel Lennox was attended by 
Sir W. A. Browne, and Mr. Swift by Colonel Phipps. Ten 
paces were measured by the seconds, and it was settled that 
Colonel Lennox should fire first, the result being that he shot 

^ Lord Rawdon always said that by delaying the signal for firing, and thus 
rendering Colonel Lennox's aim unsteady, he had saved the life of the Duke 
(Comwallis Memoirs). 



240 A Duke ' bom in a barn^ and died in a bam ' 

Mr. Swift through the body ; but the ktter ultimately recovered 
from his wound. Colonel Lennox soon after exchanged from 
the Duke of York's Regiment into the 35th Regiment of Foot ^ 
quartered at Edinburgh. On joining, the officers gave him a 
grand entertainment, and Edinburgh Castle was illuminated to 
mark their sympathy and approval of his conduct. He was 
greeted in the streets with clapping of hands and other demon- 
strations of applause, and was certainly the most popular man 
in Edinburgh at the time. He had the freedom of the city 
conferred upon him by the magistrates, and the corporation of 
Goldsmiths made him an honorary member of their body and 
presented him with a beautiful snuffbox. The same year he 
married Lady Charlotte Gordon, eldest daughter of the fourth 
and sister of the last Duke of Gordon. After this he served in 
the Leeward Islands, and arrived in St. Domingo in 1794 at 
the time of the breaking out of the yellow fever, to which forty 
officers and six hundred rank and file fell victims in two months. 
In 1806 he succeeded his uncle as fourth Duke of Richmond, 
and in 1 807, when the Portland Administration came into power, 
he was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, where he remained for six 
years and won all hearts by his genial manners.^ Sir Arthur 
Wellesley was appointed Chief Secretary,® and the great intimacy 

^ He exchanged with Lord Strathavon. 

^ The Hon. Mrs. Swinton, in her Reminiscences of Lady de Ros^ quotes a letter 
of Mr. Ogilvie to his wife, the Duchess of Leinster, written in 1809, in which he 
says: * No Lord-Lieutenant ever reigned so much in the hearts of the people of every 
rank and religion, and no man ever was more respected at the same time. He 
understands them and manages them beyond anybody I ever saw, and the Duchess 
is also a very great favourite.' 

* Sir Arthur only accepted this post conditionally, * that it should not impede 
nor interfere with his military promotion or pursuits.' Accordingly, that same year 
he went in Lord Cathcart's expedition against Denmark and successfully bom- 
barded Copenhagen. During these operations Lord Rosslyn rode occasionally 
a favourite mare which, soon after the return home, produced a colt, which 
in consequence was called 'Copenhagen' and eventually carried the Duke of 



rE, Di;cHKSS l 
II :i Miiiialuti' by I 



A Duke * born in a barn^ and died in a barn ' 24 1 

between the Iron Duke and the Lennox family ^ dates from this 
time. 

The following, written by Lady Sarah Napier to Lady Susan 
O'Brien when staying with the Duke and Duchess of Richmond 
at the Viceregal Lodge in i8n, describes the family party in 
pleasing colours : * We are ourselves now in the very great 
world, for we are a week with the Richmond s, where, in spite of 
the just attention they pay to being retired during the poor 
King's illness, still a Lord and Lady Lieutenant's house must be 
publick. At least, comparatively so to me, but as I am permitted 
to be a privileged person and wear the individual cap and gown 
I do at Castletown, I feel no inconvenience for coming here, 
for I do not care if strangers say, " How can the Duke have that 
queer old blind woman in the corner ? " and 1 do care very much 
that the affection of my dear nephew should induce him to have 
me here, surrounded by his delightful girls, who absolutely vie 
with each other who shall attend most to me, and the Duchess is 
kindness personified to me on all occasions. There are seven 
girls in this house, and I rejoice to hear from all quarters that 
those who are known meet with universal approbation from true 
judges ; . . . their minds are as well regulated as their manners, 
and their adoration of their father is the most delightful thing, 
for it produces a reciprocal good, as he enjoys their society and 

Wellington throughout Waterloo. Copenhagen died in 1835 at Strathfieldsaye, 
where his grave is much visited. 

^ The Iron Duke stood sponsor to the Duke of Richmond's youngest son, Lord 
Arthur Lennox, and he was also his guardian. The writer has a letter of his, 
giving him good advice on his entering the Army ; in it the Duke says : ' The 
only chance that you have of being either respectable or comfortable in life is to be 
economical, not to waste your money, and above all not to run into debt You will 
have to submit to many privations, and it is best that you should accustom yourself 
to them at an early i>eriod, as you may rely upon it that neither your brother nor I 
can or will defray any extravagant expense incurred by you. I think it best to say 
this to you thus early. . . .' 



242 A Duke * born in a barn^ and died in a barn ' 

seems to depend on it for the comfort of relaxation at his leisure 
moments. ... It is impossible not to dread the Duke's removal 
from a country which he is absolutely formed to govern with the 
even hand of perfect justice tempered by humanity.' 

Soon after his return from Ireland the Duke of Richmond, 
having six sons and seven daughters, settled in Brussels for 
purposes of economy in 1813. He rented a house in the 
Rue de la Blanchisserie ^ from Simon, the celebrated coach- 
builder, who built the six gala coaches used by Napoleon at 
his coronation.^ There, on the night of June 15, 1815, the 
eve of Quatre-Bras (not on the 17th, as is so often erroneously 
stated), the Duke and Duchess of Richmond gave their memo- 
rable ball, immortalised by Byron in the beautiftil stanzas in 
* Childe Harold.' The Duke of Wellington had received news 
of Napoleon's movements, and at first it was decided that 
the ball should be put off; but on second thoughts he not 
only desired it should take place, but issued orders that the 
general officers should attend, thinking it highly important that 
the people at Brussels should be kept in ignorance of the real 
state of affairs as long as possible. The officers were told to 
leave the ball quietly at ten o'clock to join their divisions en 
route. We cannot do better than here quote the words of the 
late Lady de Ros,^ the Duke of Richmond's daughter, and are 
induced to do so the more in consequence of the late Sir William 
Fraser * having given to the world sundry assertions anent the 

1 Hence always called by the Duke of Wellington ' the Washhouse.' 

^ Simon himself being a tenant of a M. Van Asch. Jacques Vanginderachter, 
also a coachbuilder, purchased the house in 1807 from Van Asch, and his son 
turned it into a brasserie^ which it has continued to be till quite lately, when I 
believe it has been demolished. 

' Taken from the Hon. Mrs. Swinton's deeply interesting Ufe and Remim- 
scences o/Georgiana^ Lady de Ros^ published by John Murray in 1893. 

^ Sir William Fraser, Bart, of Leadclune, and not Sir William Eraser, Kt, the 
well-known biographer of Scotch families. 



A Duke ' born in a barn, and died in a bam ' 243 

ball which are totally opposed to the vivid recollections of both 
Lady de Ros and her younger sister, Lady Louisa Tighe, The 
constantly repeated asseverations of Lady de Ros, who was one 
of the most clear-headed and accurate of persons, and who was 
present at the ball, should surely prevail against the theories of 
Sir William Fraser, who merely visited the scene fifty years after. 
Sir William Eraser's contention was that the ball did not take 
place in the room on the ground floor of the Duke's house, 
but on the first floor of the coachmaker's dep6t at the rear of 
the house, used, when he visited it in 1888, as the brewer's 
granary.^ In corroboration of this he quoted a letter of Lady 
de Ros's in which she said that ^ the house had belonged to a 
coachmaker, and the warehouse in which he kept his carriages 
was converted into a long narrow room in which the ball took 
place.' The conversion to which Lady de Ros here alluded was 
not a conversion at the time and for the purpose of the ball, 
but a conversion made before the Duke of Richmond took 
possession of the house ; and Lady de Ros and her sister were 
positive that the ball took place in the house in which they lived, 
and on the ground floor. Lady de Ros says : * My mother's 
now famous ball took place in a large room on the ground floor 
on the left of the entrance, connected with the rest of the house 
by an ante-room.^ It had been used by the coachbuilder, from 

^ This granary, which is approached by fifteen steps, is only ten feet high, the 
floor is painfully uneven, and it is supported by six strong square posts which have 
never been painted and which run down the centre of the granary. Scarcely a 
place which would have been chosen for a ball ! 

' This statement is borne out by the accompanying plan of the ground floor of 
the Duke's house, which plan was drawn during his tenancy ; and a professional 
civil engineer, who compared it with the premises in 1889, wrote to us as follows : 
* The declaration of Sir William Fraser is not accurate. ... I have compared the 
plan in Murray s Magazine with the present house. The ball-room, the front hall, 
and the billiard-room can easily be recognised, as you will see from the following 
plan. All that is erased exists no more. Lady de Ros visited the spot and could 

R 2 



244 ^ Duke * born in a bam^ and died in a barn ' 

whom the house was hired, to put carriages in, but it was papered 
before we came there, and I recollect the paper — a trellis pattern 
with roses. My sisters used the room as a schoolroom, and 
we used to play battledore and shuttlecock there on a wet day.^ 
The accompanying plan of the ground floor of our house was 
given me by my brother William and corresponds exactly with 
my recollections and those of my sister. Lady Louisa Tighc. 
When the Duke arrived rather late at the ball I was dancing, 
but at once went up to him to ask about the rumours. He 
said very gravely, " Yes, they are true ; we are oflF to-morrow." 
This terrible news was circulated directly, and while some of the 
officers hurried away,^ others remained at the ball and actually 
had not time to change their clothes, but fought in evening 
costume.^ I went with my eldest brother (A.D.C. to the Prince 

see nothing of the house, and being told that it had ceased to exist, accepted the 
statement ; but this can be explained by the fact that houses were built between 
the wall of the ball-room and the present aiignement of the Rue de la Blan- 
chisserie.' 

^ This room was also used by the Duke of Richmond's family for theatricals. 
Lord William, who got up these entertainments in 1817, writes : <The scene of 
our histrionic efforts was the room immortalised by Byron ... it was a long gallery, 
with an alcove at the end admirably suited for a temporary stage. . . .' 

' Captain Bowles (Coldstream Guards), afterwards General Sir George Bowles, 
wrote : 'After the Prince of Orange, who had whispered to the Duke of Wellington 
a few minutes, had left the supper table, the latter remained about twenty minutes, 
and then rose to go, and asked the Duke of Richmond if he had a good map. The 
Duke of Richmond said he had, and took him into his dressing-room. The Duke of 
Wellington shut the door, and said, " Napoleon has humbugged me, he has gained 
twenty-four hours' march on me." The Duke of Richmond said, " What do you intend 
doing ? " He answered, " I have ordered the army to concentrate at Quatre-Bras, 
but we shall not stop him there, and if so, I must fight him here " (at the same time 
passing his thumb-nail over the position of Waterloo). The Duke of Richmond 
was to have had the command of Reserve if it had been formed.' The late Lady 
Louisa Tighe told the writer that she remembered that the Duke of Wellington, 
finding that there was no table large enough in her father's room for him to see 
the map comfortably, moved into the Duchess's bedroom and spread the map on 
the bed. 

' Major Henry Percy, A.D.C. to the Duke, who took home the despatch 




•*« 



246 A Duke ' born in a barn, and died in a barn ' 

of Orange) to his house, which stood in our garden,* to help 
him to pack up, after which we returned to the ball-room, where 
we found some energetic young ladies still dancing. It was 
a dreadful evening, taking leave of friends and acquaintances, 
many never to be seen again. The Duke of Brunswick, as 
he took leave of me in the ante-room, made me a civil speech 
as to the Brunswickers being sure to distinguish themselves 
after " the honour " done them by my having accompanied 
the Duke of Wellington to their review 1 I remember 
being quite provoked with poor Lord Hay — a dashing merry 
youth, ftill of military ardour, whom I knew very well — for his 
delight at the idea of going into action, and of all the honours 
he was to gain ; and the first news we had on the 1 6th was that 
he and the Duke of Brunswick were killed. ... At the ball 
supper I sat next to the Duke of Wellington, when he gave me 
an original miniature of himself painted by a Belgian artist. . . . 
On the 1 8 th we walked about nearly all the morning, being 
unable to sit quiet, hearing the firing and not knowing what 
was happening. The wounded officers who were brought into 
Brussels kindly sent us messages about my brothers being safe. 
The first sight of the poor wounded was sickening, and each 
litter, as it came into the town, filled us with intense anxiety to 
know whom it contained. We went to the Marquise d*Asche's ^ 

announcing the victory, actually arrived in London in the same clothes in which 
he had danced at the ball and fought at Waterloo. 

^ This was a little pavilion which was in the garden, half hidden by the 
chestnut trees, and according to Mr. Vanginderachter, the late proprietor (a 
brewer), was pulled down to construct the small * Hdpital privd des Soeurs Hospi- 
tali^res' which now stands in the Rue des Cendres (No. 7), the said street having 
only been in existence since 1835. 

" At Queen Victoria's Jubilee, the King of the Belgians, having heard of Lady 
de Ros's wonderful memories of 181 5, begged to be allowed to call upon her, and 
was deeply interested in her reminiscences of Brussels. In reading the list of the 
guests at the famous ball, the King remarked upon the names appearing of four of 



A Duke * born in a barn, and died in a barn ' 247 

house (at the corner of the Pare and the Rue de la Pipinifere), 
from whence we saw Lord Uxbridge and Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset, the Prince of Orange, and others brought in. . • . 
My father, with my brother William, who had been prevented 
from taking part in the action by an accident, rode to the army,^ 
but the Duke of Wellington would not let them remain.* 
In the evening of the i8th the brilliant victory was known in 
Brussels, and most thankfril we were that our immediate belong- 
ings had been mercifully protected,^ and that war was at an end, 
although the losses were fearfully great. The next morning we 
heard that the Duke had arrived in Brussels, so I walked with 
my father at about 10 a.m. up to the Pare, his house being in 
the Rue de la Montagne du Pare, and my father went into the 
house to inquire for the Duke, who sent word he would join us, 
which he accordingly did, and took a turn with us. He looked 
very sad, and when we shook hands and congratulated him, he 
said, " It is a dearly bought victory. We have lost so many fine 

his attendants, one of whom, Count d'Asche, was the grandson of this lady. The 
family of the Marquis d'Asche is a very ancient one. In their arms appears the 
famous icaiUcy which means that they trace back to the time of the Crusades, and 
some of them went to Palestine under Godefroi de Bouillon. 

' It is recorded that, as the Enniskillings were on the point of advancing across 
the Wavre road to charge, an individual in plain clothes on their left called out, 
* Now's your time ! ' This was the Duke of Richmond, who even rode into the 
squares of infantry while under the fire of the enemy. 

' Lord Stanhope, in his Notes of Conversation with the Duke of Wellington^ 
quotes that when Lord Fitzroy Somerset said to the Duke, *• You always were very 
particular in sending away from dangerous positions men who had no duty to per- 
form there,' the Duke mentioned having done so, the morning of Waterloo, to the 
Duke of Richmond, and having said to him, ' You are the father often children ; you 
have no right to be here ; you should go — ^and you may go now — ^but a quarter of 
an hour or twenty minutes hence you could not go — it would no longer be right.' 
<^Had the firing not then begun ?' 'It was only just beginning, but it was already 
quite clear we should have a terrible day. It did not do him much good, poor 
fellow !— he died by a more distressing death, but, however, he lived a few years 
longer.' 

' Lord March and Lord George Lennox were in the battle. 



248 A Duke ' born in a bam, and died in a bam ' 

fellows." My fethcr asked him to dinner, but he refused. The 
reason of his coming early ^ into Brussels was that he had given 
up his bed at Waterloo to poor Sir Alexander Gordon, who 
was dying of his wounds. The Duke tried to sleep on the floor, 
but after being called up to speak to Sir Alexander he could not 
go to bed again, and began to write his despatch ; however. Sir 
Alexander's groans were so distressing that he could not get 
on with it, and so he rode into Brussels, where he was busy 
with despatches all day long, and left on the 20th.* 

The winter of 1 8 1 5 was spent by the Duke of Richmond 
and his family in Paris, and in 18 16 and 18 17 they were 
at Cambrai during the occupation of the British army, when 
they often stayed with the Great Duke at Abbaye, Mont 
St. Martin. 

In March 181 8 the Duke of Richmond was appointed 
Governor-General of Ginada and assumed his duties there in 
June.* In * Old Quebec * by Gilbert Parker and Claude Bryan, 
the authors say : * The Duke of Richmond, a chivalrous but 
uncompromising advocate of the extreme views of his party in 
England, almost atoned for the political narrowness of his 
administration by the stimulus he brought to the social life of 
the capital and the sincerity of his belief that by personal influ- 
ence he could harmonise contending Actions. Under his mag- 
nificent patronage, Chiteau St. Louis became once more the 
scene of lavish hospitality. Dinners, dances, and theatricals 

^ Lord Stanhope in his Reminiscences writes that the Duke told him he ' rode 
off there at four in the morning.' On Lord Stanhope saying ^ Was your Grace up 
at four the day after the battle ? ' he replied ' Yes, and even earlier. Between three 
and four they came to tell me that poor Gordon was dying, and I went immediately 
to see him, but he was already dead.' Lord Stanhope then added, ' At what o'clock 
did you dismount on the evening of the battle ? ' ^ About eleven, I think.' 

^ The Duke was accompanied by two of his sons, William and Frederick, and 
by four of his daughters, Ladies Mary, Charlotte, Louisa, and Sophia. 



A Duke ' bom in a bam, and died in a bam ' 249 

were the order of the day — with pomp and circumstance the 
Duke made progress through his dominions everywhere, speak- 
ing, entertaining, endeavouring to conciliate.' 

The following year he commenced a tour of inspection 
of the outposts under his command, and left Quebec in a 
Government ship. The first station he visited was Mount 
Henry (now Sorel), on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, 
about 120 miles from Quebec, and it was there, between 
June 23 and 28, that the lamentable accident took place which 
caused his tragic death. The Duke had with him his ^vourite 
dog Blucher, and a fight took place between this animal and 
a pet fox belonging to a private. The Duke in separating 
them was bitten by the fox in his hand, but the wound was but 
a slight one and he paid no attention to it. So little was then 
thought of the afllair that there is no mention of it in the Journal 
of his daughter, Lady Louisa Lennox, who was at Mount Henry 
at the time ; but Lady Louisa told the writer that she perfectly 
remembered her fether * coming into the sitting-room at Mount 
Henry with a silk handkerchief over his hand, and that he said 
the fox in the yard had bitten him.* ^ We read in Lady Louisa 
Lennox's Journal, in the entry for June 28, as follows : *This 
morning we left Mount Henry, where we had spent four 
very pleasant days. Went in the "Malsham" to Montreal. 
We got out at the foot of a rapid below Montreal and walked 
about a mile to the hotel. The Mansion House is really very 
comfortable.' 

From Montreal the Duke went up the country, accompanied 

^ Mrs. Richard Trench writes in her journal in October 1819, apropos of this 
tragic affair : ' One circumstance only it may not be wholly unprofitable to keep in 
mind. The bite was inflicted by an irritated animal — a fox, which had been con- 
fined, escaped to the woods, was retaken, and became enraged at being again sub- 
ject to confinement. 



250 A Duke ' bom in a bam, and died in a bam ' 

only by Colonel Cockburn, D.Q.M.G., and Major Bowles, 
Military Secretary. By the time he reached Kingston the wound 
had completely healed, and when his two sons, Lord William 
and Frederick, joined him at Niagara, the circumstance had 
almost been forgotten. After a visit to Drummond's Island, the 
Duke returned to Kingston, where he remained for a week, 
during which time he was in the highest spirits, playing racquets 
and cricket with the officers of the garrison. The Duke was 
said to be the finest formed man in England, and his playing 
at cricket was praised as an exquisite display of grace, strength, 
and skill. 

And now we come to the last week of the Duke's life. 
Wishing to inaugurate a new township to be called in his name, 
Richmondville, he left Kingston on August 20, accompanied by 
Colonel Cockburn and Major Bowles, and it is from the Diary of 
the latter that we have the following particulars : * The Duke,' 
writes Major Bowles, * travelled sometimes on horseback and 
sometimes on foot, and on the 21st we reached Perth. The next 
morning (the 22 nd) he walked for three hours round the Settle- 
ment. On returning, a violent shower of rain wetted most of 
the party through, but his Grace refused an umbrella and rather 
enjoyed the circumstance. He changed his clothes the instant 
he returned to the Inn, appeared in perfect health, and we dined 
a large party. The following day (the 23rd), it being determined 
to remain at Perth, we again walked for two or three hours to 
look at the Settlement, and the Duke went to bed apparently 
perfectly well, having arranged to proceed early the following 
morning towards Richmond. On being called, he complained to 
his servant that he felt unwell and had not slept in consequence 
of a pain in his right shoulder and throat, and we observed that 
he did not make his usual breakfast. I recommended him to rub 



A Duke ' born in a barn^ and died in a bam ' 25 1 

his shoulder with spirit of turpentine, which he agreed to do. 
We proposed remaining on another day at Perth, but this he 
declined, and we accordingly set out for Beckwith. His Grace 
rode, excepting here and there where the road was bad. I 
remarked, however, that he was unwell, and he agreed to remain 
three hours at a house halfway, where he laid down, slept well 
for an hour and a half, ate some chicken broth, and appeared 
better. He drank frequently weak brandy and water, and was 
particularly thirsty. On the 25th his servant observed that on 
attempting to wash his face, the Duke had a sort of spasm and 
he complained to him of a pain in his throat. He ate very little 
breakfest, and said he would lay down till we were ready to set 
out. We endeavoured to prevail on him to return to Perth, but 
he preferred going on. It was then arranged we should make 
two days of the journey to Richmond instead of one, and we 
accordingly halted for a few hours during the heat of the day at 
a cottage, where the Duke slept a short time and drank some tea. 
Thinking his indisposition proceeded from cold, I persuaded him 
to drink a large glass of hot wine and water after going to bed, 
which he did.* The next day (the 26th) his Grace was up the 
first of the party. He said he had slept well, and wished to 
set off immediately. I observed that he had not washed or 
shaved himself, but it being a small cottage and the distance 
to Richmond only three or four miles, I was not surprised, 
thinking he intended to postpone it until his arrival in that 
place.^ He drank a little tea, but complained of a difficulty 

^ Another account says that when his servant brought the negus he looked at 
it, shuddered and turned away, but said, ^ I dare say it is very good, my good 
Baptiste, but I have changed my mind ; take it away, and bring me pen, ink, and 
paper.' 

' The Duke said overnight to his servant Baptiste, * When I am to wash in 
the morning do not bring me water, but dip a towel in water and bring it me 
squeezed dry.' 



252 A Duke ^ born in a barn, and died in a barn ' 

in swallowing. I did not observe anything particular in his 
appearance, altho' I thought he looked unwell. The Duke 
walked very strong and made his way through the swamps 
to Richmond without difficulty, but observed to me that on 
seeing a person jump or run into a wet place he had a sort of 
spasm in his throat for which he could not account. On our 
arrival at Richmond he said he preferred seeing the Stores, 
Village, &c., before he breakfasted, and this he did. We then 
returned to the Inn and went to dress. Before I was ready the 
Duke came into my room and asked the name of the Surgeon. 
I immediately sent for the only medical man in the Settlement. 
On his arrival he examined the Duke's throat and recommended 
his using a gargle of Port wine, vinegar, and sugar, and taking 
a little medicine. On going away he told me he thought the 
Duke would be quite well the following day. The Duke used 
the gargle frequently, but always with difficulty, and he made me 
observe that even taking the cup in his hand gave him a spasm : 
he said it was very extraordinary, but he could not help it ; he 
treated it rather as a joke, and in other respects appeared perfectly 
well. He talked on a variety of subjects and appeared in good 
spirits. He then wrote for an hour, and having finished a letter 
brought it open to me and said as nearly as I can remember, — 
" Now, my dear Governor, do not think me a fool, but here is a 
letter which, if anything happens to me, you must deliver to 
Mary." ^ I was much alarmed at his manner, which, though 
mild, was particularly serious, and I endeavoured to laugh him 
out of what appeared to me a nervous fit. He then again 
alluded to his throat, and said that as a sudden spasm might 
carry him off, he thought it right to be prepared. He then 

^ Lady Mary Lennox, his eldest daughter, who afterwards married General Sir 
Charles FitzRoy, K.C.B. 



A Duke ^ bom in a bam, and died in a bam ' 253 

talked on the subject of the letter and on some other subjects, on 
which he was very solicitous, and said that having done so, and 
having written, he felt better. I again endeavoured to rally him, 
but on my making a remark that he would certainly deliver his 
letter himself, he said very earnestly, " No, my dear Governor, 
you will deliver that letter." I then noticed one of the gknds 
of his throat appeared a little swelled. He persevered in con- 
stantly endeavouring to swallow small quantities of water, but 
the spasms were evident. I felt his pulse, which was about 72 
and quite regular. Three or four officers belonging to the 
Settlement dined with us. The Duke was in good spirits, drank 
wine with most of the party, and made a joke of the spasms, 
remarking to me, laughing, that it was fortunate he was not a dog 
or he should certainly be shot as a mad one.^ The evening 
passed as usual, and the Duke went to bed about 11, being 
determined to proceed the next day to the banks of the Ottawa, 
as he wished to keep his appointment at Montreal. 

* At daylight on the 27th the Duke sent for me. I found 
him in bed. He said he had passed a very disturbed night, had 
awoke several times with a feeling of the nightmare, and an idea 
that something dreadful had happened ; that he would not 
attempt to go to sleep in that bed again for the world ; that he 
knew it was absurd, but he could not help it. I was much 
alarmed at his manner, although he was perfectly collected and 
even more than usually kind and mild. He wished to set off 
immediately ; I endeavoured to dissuade him, but in vain, and after 
a short time left him to dress and prepare for our departure. On 
returning to the Inn I found the Duke walking up and down the 

^ The Duke, four years before, had ridiculed the terrors of hydrophobia, and 
said there was no such thing, and that he had been bitten a hundred times and 
had never seen a case. 



254 ^ Duke ' bom in a bam^ and died in a barn ' 

house in a very disturbed state with G>lonel Cockburn. He 
was abusing himself for allowing the spasms, and his looks and 
manners struck me as extraordinary ; he desired us to go to 
breakfast, and whispered to me to take no notice of him when he 
came in, as it would increase the spasms which he knew the sight 
of the tea would occasion. He soon came in, and attempted to 
swallow some tea, but got down very little. We endeavoured 
to prevail upon him to give up the idea of proceeding that day, 
but he was determined to go on. It was then arranged that his 
Grace and myself should travel part of the way in a canoe, and 
we accordingly walked down a mile to the place of embarkation.* 
On coming to a ravine the Duke's spasms redoubled, and his 
companions experienced so much difficulty in getting him across 
it that they suspected brain fever was coming on. At length the 
river was reached, where he was to enter the canoe which was to 
take him down about seven miles. He asked eagerly if there 
was no other means of conveyance. He was answered * No, except 
by walking,' to which he was now quite unequal. He appeared 
much agitated and very reluctant, but at length said, * Tie a hand- 
kerchief over my eyes, and lead me to the boat ; I cannot get in 
myself.' This was done, and the moment he got in, he threw 
himself flat on his face and held tight by the sides. He could 
not breathe without great apparent difficulty, but, writes Major 
Bowles, ^ he endeavoured to control himself and forced a smile 
whenever I looked at him.' The boat had not gone many yards, 
however, when, from the splashing of the oars, the Duke's 
agonies became greater than he could bear, and he cried out, 
*Take me on shore instantly or I must die.' They put back in 
consternation, and the moment he was landed he broke from 
them and flew through the woods, leaping over fences and other 
obstacles with the strength and agility of a hunted criminal flying 



A Duke ^ bom in a bam, and died in a bam ' 255 

for his life. His affrighted attendants soon lost sight of him, 
and were in extreme distress till they again saw him flying like a 
maniac, without his hat and covered with mud and perspiration. 
Colonel Cockburn and Major Bowles caught him up with great 
difficulty ; when they did so they directed his steps towards a 
farm a few miles distant, but it was all they could do to get him 
over three or four small drains which lay in their path. When they 
reached the &rm the Duke ran into an open barn, which, being a 
little further from the river, he said he preferred to the house ; 
and throwing himself upon some straw, said, * Here Charles 
Lennox meets his fete.' *This was early on the 27th. Colonel 
Cockburn then,' writes Major Bowles, * left to endeavour to pro- 
cure some assistance. The Duke could not long lay down, but 
walked about slowly, holding my arm. He then became more 
tranquil and conversed most seriously and earnestly ; ... he was 
perfectly convinced he could not recover, and dictated messages 
and remembrances to his femily and friends. During this period 
I had ventured to propose a short prayer, to which he instantly 
agreed ; and after a few moments' reflection he prayed most 
earnestly to be enabled to support whatever trials were deemed 
good for him with patience and resignation, professing at the 
same time his perfect willingness to quit this world, his con- 
fidence of being acquitted of ever having done an intentional 
injury to any human being or having ever acted dishonourably 
by any one, and his hopes that his smaller offences would be for- 
given. He forgave every one from the bottom of his heart who 
had ever injured him, and his whole conduct and demeanour 
on this occasion proved the piety, the fortitude, and the purity 
of his heart. During the most violent agonies not a murmur 
escaped him. His only anxiety was for his femily. He only 
hoped it was not presumption to pray that his sufferings might 



256 A Duke ' born in a barn, and died in a bam ' 

be shortened ; he professed the most perfect confidence in his 
future happiness, and his hopes of finding his ^ther and his 
uncle to receive him. On the arrival of Colonel Cockburn and 
the surgeon the Duke consented to be blooded, and about 2 
pints were taken from his arm. This at first appeared to relieve 
him, but the paroxysms soon returned and became more violent 
every moment. Towards evening he was able to swallow about 
20 drops of laudanum in some peppermint water, and after- 
wards took a grain of solid opium in a little chicken broth. 
During his fits of delirium he fancied himself with Lord 
Wellington in battle, cheered his men, rallied them &c. with all 
the fire and impetuosity of a hero ; then thought himself fight- 
ing in defence of Quebec, wounded and dying, and desired to be 
buried under the Ramparts. At other times, evidently alluding 
to the cause of his sufferings, begged to have ^^ that nasty beast 
taken out of the room," and said " Will nobody throw the animal 
overboard ? " On one of these occasions I brought the Duke*s 
dog Blucher to him in my arms, and said ^^ Here is the animal ; 
I will have him taken away and destroyed." The Duke looked 
up and said " Oh 1 no, not my faithful Blucher ; give him to me." 
He kept him by him till he died, and preserved his affection for 
him till the last moment of his recollection, and in the midst 
of violent pain would call out to him in his natural tone of 
voice. One of his last directions was, ** Give Blucher to Mary : 
it will make her cry at first, but turn him in when she is alone 
and shut the door." 

^When composed, the Duke would say to himself in an 
undertone, " Richmond, for shame 1 Is this your courage ? " 
At another time he said, ** Charles Lennox, rouse yourself, you 
have &ced death before." His kind and affectionate manner never 
forsook him for a moment ; he kept his hand almost always in 



A Duke ' bom in a barn, and died in a bam ' 257 

mine, and knew all those about him till nearly 12 o'clock at 
night, when he fell into a sort of stupor. About 7 the next 
morning the quantity of saliva collected in the throat and mouth 
caused a remarkable appearance of foaming at the mouth. An 
hour later his sufferings were terminated without a struggle, 
leaving his companions in a state of horror and distress better 
imagined than described ; yet they had no time for indulging ih 
grief. A coffin was at once made with such materials as they could 
procure, and in eight hours after his decease was placed in the 
same boat from which he had fled, and conveyed to Montreal. 
His body was from there removed to Quebec, and, after lying in 
state in the Ch&teau, was buried beneath the Communion table 
of the Cathedral.' 

The following were the Duke's last messages as dictated to 
Major George Bowles : * Tell March that I know he will regret 
being Duke of Richmond, but that I am satisfied I leave my 
titles and estates to one of the most honourable men in England. 
Tell him that I know he will take care of his brothers and sisters. 
Give my love to dear Car.^ God help them both. Tell my 
mother ^ that I know she possesses the soul and spirit of a Roman 
matron with all the polish of 18 19. She will rejoice that her 
son died in honor, although he could not have his wish of 
doing so on the field of battle. Give my love to George and 
tell him I know he will do well. Give my kind love to the 
Duchess, and desire her to remember me to the Regent and to 
the Duke of York. Louisa Lennox will, I know, do well. Let 

^ Lord March's wife, Lady Caroline Paget, the beautiful daughter of the 
Marquis of Anglesey, whom he had married in 1816. 

' The Duke's mother was a daughter of Lord Lothian ; she survived till 1830 
She accompanied her husband, Lord George Henry Lennox, in many of his cam- 
paigns. She was ninety-four when she died, and was described as clever and 
sharp to the last t She was a great-great-granddaughter of the great Duke of 
Schomberg, and sixth in descent from King James L 



258 A Duke * born in a bam, and died in a barn ' 

Charlotte follow her example, and little Sophia bring up the 
train. Love to dear little Georgy, I leave Harriet Emma to 
her, Blucher to Marjr. Arthur will, I think, make a good sailor.^ 
Love to William and Jane. Give Cockburn my pencil. I give 
you my watch. My will is at Goodwood — I think March knows 
where. Mary will take care of Baptiste — he is an honest fellow. 
Let my funeral be moderate — in the Lower Province or the Ram- 
parts at Quebec. Remember me to Anglesey and Jane Paget, 
to Peel, to the Duke of Wellington, to Steele, to Sir Charles 
Vernon, Lord 0*Neil and John O'Neil, to Sneyd, Huntly, 
and Harvey. Tell my sisters^ I bid God bless them. Tell 
Sarah' that with my latest words I forgive her and General 
Maitland from the bottom of my soul, and they and their family 
have my blessing. Give my love to Bathurst, to my sister, to 
Apsley and Georgina Bathurst. Tell Ready* I know he will 
deeply regret his old master. I die in charity with all the world 
and in perfect confidence of mercy from the Almighty. I think 
I was injured by one man, and him I forgive from the bottom of 
my heart. A message to Lady E. Berkeley not to repine at her 
husband's death and to set a good example on this subject to 
my family, who wiU need it.* 

^ Lord Arthur Lennox, the Duke's youngest son, did not go into the Navy, 
and the Duke of Wellington gave him a commission in the Army. 

' The Duke had three sisters, to whom the King's warrant was granted that 
they should enjoy the same rank as if their father had succeeded. The eldest, 
Lady Mary Louisa Lennox, died unmarried in 1843, aged eighty-three ; the second, 
Lady Emilia Lennox, married her cousin, the Hon. George Berkeley, and had five 
children : Sir George Berkeley, Grenville Berkeley, Anne Berkeley (who married, 
first Sir Thomas Hardy, Nelson's friend, and secondly Lord Seaford), Georgina 
Berkeley (who married Admiral Sir George Seymour), and Mary Berkeley (who 
married the Duke of Grafton). The third sister of the Duke of Richmond, Lady 
Georgina Lennox, married Earl Bathurst. 

* Lady Sarah Lennox had married, without her father's consent. Colonel 
Maitland, who was very poor, though extremely handsome. 

^ Ready was his coachman. 



A Duke * bom in a bam, and died in a barn ' 259 

The Duke was only fifty-two years old at the time of his 
death. By his wife, Lady Charlotte Gordon, who died in 1 842, he 
had fourteen children, twelve of whom survived him. They were : 
(i) Lady Mary, who married Sir Charles FitzRoy, K.C.B. ; 
(2) Charles, who became fifth Duke of Richmond ; (3) Lord 
George ; (4) Lady Sarah, who married General Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, G.C.B. ; (5) Lady Georgina, who married William, 
twenty-third Baron de Ros, and died in 1891, in her ninety- 
seventh year ; (6) Lady Jane, who married Lawrence Peel, son of 
Sir Robert Peel, Bart. ; (7) Lord Henry Adam, who was drowned 
in 18 12 ;^ (8) Lord William Pitt ; (9) Lord Frederick, Captain 
7th Foot, who died in 1829; (10) Lord Sussex; (11) Lady 
Charlotte, who married Lord Fitzhardinge ; (12) Lady Louisa, 
who married the Right Hon. William F. Tighe, and died in 1 900, 
in her ninety-seventh year ; (i 3) Lord Arthur ;^ (14) Lady Sophia, 
who married Lord Thomas Cecil, and died in 1902, in her ninety- 
third year, was the last of his children, but about sixteen of his 
grandchildren, of whom the writer is one, are still living. 

^ Lord Henry, a most amiable and promising youth, was a midshipman on board 
the * Blake.' >Vlien that ship was coming to anchor at Port Mahon, in Minorca, 
he fell into the sea whilst going aloft to assist in furling the sails. One of his 
comrades swam to save him, but he was found lifeless, having probably received a 
fatal blow in his fall. His remains were interred in Fort St. Philips, amidst the 
tears of those present and deeply lamented by Captain Codrington and all on board. 

» The following is a copy of a letter written by Arthur, Duke of Wellington, 
to Lady Georgina Lennox in October 1819 : 

* Dearest Georgy, — I have not written to you since the accounts were received 
of the dreadful misfortune which has occurred, but I am sure you will give me 
credit for having felt it and for you as I ought, and for the motive of my silence. 
I am anxious, however, to have a line from you to tell me how you are, as well as 
to have some account of the Duchess and Jane. Pray remember me to them 
both most kindly. You will have heard that I am to have the charge of Arthur 
[Lord Arthur Lennox]. Will you ask the Duchess whether she approves of what 
I propose to do for him, or whether she wishes to have him educated for any other 
line or profession. I proposed that of Woolwich as being immediately under my 
own hand. God bless you, dearest Georgy. Believe me ever yours most aflfy., W. 

s 2 



THOMAS SCOT, THE REGICIDE 

Many and various descents have been assigned to Thomas 
Scot, one of the most conspicuous of the regicides. In the 
work entided * The Compleat Collection of the Lives ot 
those Persons lately executed, by a Person of Quality (W. S.), 
London, i66i,** Thomas Scot is said to have * been born 
in Buckinghamshire of no noted family/ Lipscombe says * it is 
probable that he was descended from Thomas Scot, a Yorkshire- 
man, who married Margaret, daughter of Robert Pakington, and 
widow of Benedict Lee of Burston, Bucks ; ' while Burke in 
* Landed Gentry,* under * Scott of Carbrooke,' quotes Blomefield, 
who in his * History of Norfolk* states that he was son of 
Thomas Scott the elder, of Watton, co. Norfolk, who left 
the Manor of Rockells in Watton by will in 1672^ to his 
grandson Thomas Scott, son of the regicide. 

Now none of these is correct, and on examining sundry 
wills, visitations, marriage licences, &c., it seems clear that 
Thomas Scot the regicide was son of Thomas Scot of Chester- 

* This was a reprint of Rebels no Saints^ published in 1660 with the * Lives' 

added. 

^ If this were the case, ' Thomas Scott the elder, of Watton/ must indeed have 
been an elderly man when he made his will in 1672, as the regicide is described 
as an old man in 1660 ! 



'I"homas Scot, thb Regicide. 



Thomas Scot, the Regicide 261 

ford, Essex, and of Cambridge and London, by his wife 
Maiy Sutton,^ grandson of Thomas Scot of London and 
Ellen, daughter of William Brumsted, Esq., of co. Cam- 
bridge, and great-grandson of another Thomas Scot. Further 
back than this we cannot trace the regicide*s ancestors with 
certainty, but there seems every probability that his family was 
a branch of the ancient family of Scot of Scot's Hall, Kent. 
William Scot,^ great-grandson of Sir William Scot, Lord Chief 
Justice in 1346, settled at Stapleford Tawney, Essex, and died 
in 1 49 1. He married Margery, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Swynborne of Yorkshire ; and their son, John Scot, married 
Margaret Drax, and in a Visitation of Essex the arms of the 
Scots of Essex quartering Swynborne and Drax are attributed 
to the regicide, and also the arms that are emblazoned on the 
monument to the regicide's wife in Westminster Abbey are 
those of the Stapleford family of Scot. 

Thomas Scot the regicide was educated at Westminster, 
under the head-master Lambert Osbaldeston, with Sir Arthur 
Haslerigg (or Haselrig), Sir Harry Vane, and other notorious anti- 
monarchists ; and Ludlow in his * Memoirs ' says that Thomas 
Scot went on to Cambridge. The regicide's connection with the 
county of Bucks was through his marriage, he having married 
first, in 1626,^ Alice, daughter and heiress of William AUanson, 
citizen and Salter of London, and described as * descended out of 
Yorks.' This William AUanson was a rich man, and owned 

^ When the regicide was instrumental in displacing Mr. Foumess, the vicar 
of Great Marlow, one Daniel Sutton was 'entruded' in his place — not unlikely a 
relation, and probably of the family of Sutton of Littlebury, Essex, of which was 
Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charterhouses 

^ Younger brother of Sir John Scot (of Scot's HaH, and Constable of Dover, 
Ed. IV.) and of Thomas and Michael Scot 

' He was married at Chesterford Essex, June 27, 1626. (Colonel Chester's 
London Marriage Licences,) 



262 Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 

breweries in Bridewell Precinct and Stockwell Green and had 
* messuages and land at Great and Little Marlow,* and probably 
lived at the latter place, where his first wife was buried. He died 
in 1 633, and left these lands to his son-in-law, Thomas Scot, whom 
we find accordingly described as * of Westthorpe, Little Marlow, 
CO. Bucks.' ^ He is said to have been an attorney or solicitor at 
Aylesbury, but he certainly was also a partner in the breweries of 
his father-in-law, and must have taken some share in the business. 
We find him continually called by his enemies *the Brewer's 
Clerk,' and in some imaginary conversations published in 1660, 
entitled * The Private Debates, Conspiracies, and Resolutions ot 
the late R., imported to publick view,' one Ledsum says to 
Thomas Scot : * For Godsake, Master, be not so dismayed, but 
comply and keep your offices. Alas ! what will become of your 
poor servant else ? I must be again confined to the narrow 
gains of Bottle-ale.' 

In 1640, by order of the *Long Parliament' which met 
in November, lands in Aylesbury belonging to Sir John 
Pakington were taken from him for the use of the people, and 
trustees were appointed ; Thomas Scot was one of them, and 
three years later he was one of the committee left at Great 
Marlow after the surrender of the town. . It was not, however, 
till the following year that Thomas Scot began to make any mark. 
He then married his second wife, Grace, eldest daughter of Sir 
Thomas Mauleverer, Bart., by Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Wilbraham. She died the following year, aged twenty-three, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey in the vault of the Mauleverers. 
Upon a pillar adjoining the Chapel of St. Michael, in the north 

^ See Whitaker's Luds ; and he is also thus designated in a private manu- 
script belonging to the Sykes family. 



Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 263 

transept, is a small monument erected to her memory and inscribed 
as follows : 

GRACE, ELDEST DAUGHTER TO SIR THOMAS MAULEVERER OF ALLERTON-- 

MAULEVERER, IN YORKSHIRE, BAR"^, BORN IN THE YEARE 1 622, 

MARRIED UNTO COLLONEL THOMAS SCOT A MEMBER OF THE 

HON^^^ HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1 644, AND DIED THE 24 OF FEB, 1 645. 

Below are these lines : 

He that will give my Grace but what is hers 

Must say her death hath not 

Made only her deare Scot, 

But virtue, worth and sweetnesse, widowers. 

Thomas Scot's alliance with Sir Thomas Mauleverer seems 
to have still further advanced his republican tendencies, and 
about this time he abandoned the profession of the law and 
entered into the Parliamentarian Army as a major ; and the 
following year, when a vacancy occurred in the Long Parliament 
for the borough of Aylesbury, he and Simon Mayne were 
returned to represent it, and Whitelock tells us * Scot and 
Fountaine that same year brought Colonel Fleetwood, one of 
the new Knights, into the House with great triumph, though 
the election was but yesterday/ 

Scot soon began to make himself disagreeable to Oliver 
Cromwell, and continually opposed him. In November 1647, 
at the celebrated rendezvous at Ware, when, as Carlyle says, 
* Cromwell and the General Officers had to front the Levelling 
Principle, in a most dangerous manner, and trample it out or 
be trampled out by it on the spot,* Scot and Lilburne were 
foremost in raising the mutiny. Three of the mutinous soldiers 
were condemned to death, but were given * the mercy of the 
dice,' and the two whom the lot reprieved shot the third.^ 

^ Carlyle says : * The name of him is Arnold ; long memorable among the 
Levellers 



264 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

Lilburne was committed to the Tower, and Scot put into the 
marshal's custody at Ware. It seemed probable that Scot 
himself would lose his life for his share in this insubordination. 
The regiments of Fleetwood, Whalley, and Barkstead, in their 
petition to Fairfax, ask that * inquisition be made for the blood 
of Colonel Rainsborough and Scot ; * and the * Mercurius 
Melancholicus ' for November 1 647 says that * Shuttle-cock 
Major Scot, the goodly Cabinet of Treason and Religion, is like 
to pay Scot and lot in a halter for all the good services he has 
done the State ; O may the heads of all such saints triumphant 
be so exalted ! ' This * exaltation,* however, was destined to be 
deferred, and we find that Scot was very soon discharged. 

Thomas Scot was one of those who advocated putting the 
King to death, and was only twice absent from the so-called High 
Court of Justice. He assisted in giving judgment, and signed 
and sealed the warrant for the King's murder. Soon after 
this the Parliament, having resolved to constitute a Council 
of State to carry on the executive part of the government, 
authorised five of their members to agree upon the persons 
they thought fit for this purpose. Thomas Scot was one of 
these five ; afterwards he was himself constantly one ot the 
Council of State, and in the work already alluded to, *The 
Compleat Collection,' it is said of him : * He acts in the nature of 
a Secretary of State and is made the only person to manage the 
intelligence as well foreign as domestick both publick and private, 
and thinks himself little other than a petty Prince, in which 
condition he continued till the year 1653.'^ If Thomas Scot 
did think himself a petty prince, it did not prevent him from 

^ Scot was returned for Aylesbury in the second Parliament called by Crom- 
well ; in the Parliaments of 1654, 1656, and 1658 he represented High Wycombe. 
About 120 Republican members were excluded. 



Thomas Scot, the Regicide 265 

being bitterly opposed to Cromwell calling himself Lord High 
Protector and assuming somewhat of the state of a king. 

When the second Parliament of the Protectorate assembled 
in 1656, Scot, Haselrig, Ashley Cooper, Chute, and others were 
refused admittance ; Carlyle calls them * stiff republicans — 
intolerability of the Single Person their one Idea, which in feet 
they carry with them to the gallows at Charing Cross, when no 
Oliver any more is there to restrain it and them ! Poor windy 
angry Haselrig, poor little peppery Thomas Scott ! * 

* The Compleat Collection ' says : * When Oliver Cromwell 
took the government upon himself Scot did nothing observable, 
but that government ceasing and Richard Cromwell being settled 
in the scornful seat of his fether, Mr. Scot begins to show him- 
self.' Richard Cromwell would not let Scot take his seat in 
the House until he signed an engagement not to disturb his 
government, to which he reluctantly submitted. This does 
not, however, appear to have deterred him from becoming a 
very active instrument in dethroning that foolish pretender, 
and he was a chief councillor at Wallingford House with 
Lambert, Fleetwood, &c., for the re-establishment of the Rump 
Parliament. 

One of the witnesses against Scot at his trial gave evidence 
that he had heard Scot say, while Richard's Parliament was 
sitting, * I have cut off one tyrant's head, and I hope to cut off 
another.' On the retirement of Richard Cromwell, Scot rose to 
greater consequence than ever, and was considered * one of the 
firmest pillars of the State.' General Monk's commission as 
commander-in-chief was signed by him in January 1659 as 
President of the Council of State appointed by the Parliament. 
As late as November 1659 he was appointed one of the 
Council of State and Custos Rotulorum of the City of West- 



266 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

minster; but on November 29, 1659, Mr. Josiah Berners, in 
writing to Mr. John Hobart, says : * I hear Mr. Nevle [Neville] 
Scott &c. are left out of the new Comittee of the Militia for 
Westminster &c. because they utterly disowned the Comittee 
of Unsafetie*s lettre and order, and voted that they, being 
appoynted by Parliament, according to their trust they ought 
not nor would obey any orders from or give accompt unto any 
but the Parliament or their Councill of State &c. It's strange 
to see these seraphelists can act without law, against Parliaments 
and against morality, as if God had not as much comanded the 
duties of the second table to be kept as the first. Surely they 
hope for another John of Leyden to be sett upp againe, though 
not so good as their late Oliver, and, like Knipperdolen, 
to be lifted uppe by and under him.' On January i, 1660, 
when General Monk left Scodand for England, Thomas Scot 
and Luke Robinson were sent as commissioners from the 
Parliament to meet him, ostensibly to congratulate, and with 
private directions to try and make him take the oath of 
abjuration. Scot had kept up a long correspondence with 
Monk, and in some of the letters received from the General 
the latter declared his resolution to live and die with the 
Parliament without a King, single person, or House of 
Lords. And Ludlow says that Scot and Robinson were much 
courted by Monk, who pretended to be wholly directed by their 
advice ; but evidendy Scot had now begun to mistrust him, if 
we are to believe the account given by Dr. Skinner in his * Life 
of General Monk.' He says : * All the way from Leicester to 
St. Albans, Scot and Robinson took up their quarters in the 
same house with Monk, and when they withdrew to their own 
apartment they always found or made some hole in the door or 
wall, to look in or listen (which they had practis'd so palpably 



Thomas Scot, the Regicide 267 

that the General found it out and took notice of it to those 
about him, reflecting on their baseness and evil suspicions), that 
they might more nearly inspect his actions and observe what 
persons came to him, and also be in readiness to answer the 
addresses and to rush with those that brought them. But here 
they were so plainly and severely reprimanded by those gentle- 
men that came, that Scot in great passion reply'd tho' his age 
might excuse him from taking a part, yet as old as he was 
(before this present Parliament should be entangled by restoring 
the excluded members, or by new elections) he would " gird on 
his sword again and keep the door against them." * 

Dr. Gumble, one of Monk's chaplains, in describing the 
General's march to London, tells the following anecdote about 
Thomas Scot : * One story I cannot but relate which I was an 
eye-witness to : in the coach and six horses wherein Mr. Scot 
and Mr. Robinson came down to meet and attend the General, 
these two, Scot and Robinson, sitting at each end of the coach, 
upon some great shaking and descent in the road, their heads 
beat one against the other, and Scot's head fell into a very great 
bleeding which to stanch they were forced to call for a chyrur- 
geon of the Army, and to make some stop in their journey for 
his application. This was then observed as a preBice to some 
great disaster, Mr. Scot's future execution.' * 

Skinner also relates a ludicrous episode concerning Scot 
which occurred later on in the march. At Barnet General 
Monk, for the first time since he left Leicester, managed to 
throw off his * two evil angels ' and got a house to himself. 
Scot, receiving in the middle of the night news of some muti- 

^ They met Monk between Leicester and Nottingham. The General, writing 
to the Speaker, says that when he wrote they had < nott yett met because the wayes 
are soe unpassable they cannott reach beyond Leicester in a coach.' 



268 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

nous behaviour of the soldiers in the suburbs of London, got 
alarmed and, not stopping to dress himself, went through the 
town to the General's quarters * in the Dishabit of his night- 
gown, cap, and slippers,' urging General Monk to march forward 
instantly. Monk, however, took the news very calmly, refused 
to move, and persuaded Mr. Scot to return to his bed and put 
his fears under his pillow. Soon after Monk's return Scot and 
others of the fiercest Republicans, fearing that proceedings tended 
to the restoration of the King, tried to induce Monk to assume 
the government himself. 

Scot finished his parliamentary career with the following 
declarations : * Tho' I know not where to hide my head, yet I 
dare not refuse to own that not only my hand but my heart also 
was in it ; ' and after defending the murder of the King, he con- 
cluded : * I desire no greater honour in this world than that the 
following inscription may be engraven on my tomb : ** Here 
lieth one who had a hand and a heart in the execution of Charles 
Stuart, late King of England."' He then left the House, 
followed by all those attached to his principles, and retired into 
the country. On the calling of a new Parliament, however, in 
April 1660, notwithstanding that the House consisted, with few 
exceptions, of persons friendly to the royal family, Thomas Scot 
had still sufficient influence to be again returned a member, 
though he never sat. 

Ten days after Charles II. landed at Dover, a proclamation 
was issued to command the regicides to surrender themselves 
within fourteen days under the penalty of being excluded out of 
the Act of Indemnity. Amongst those excepted absolutely as 
to life and estate was Thomas Scot. He accordingly at once 
attempted to escape to the Continent, and got on board a vessel, 
but was * intercepted by some pirates' who, after plundering 



Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 269 

him, set him on shore in Hampshire. He made a second 
attempt and landed in Flanders, where he was seized by an 
agent of the King*s ; but Don Alonzo de Cardenas, Governor of 
the Netherlands, who, when Ambassador for the King of Spain 
to the Commonwealth, had received civilities from Scot, set him 
free. Scot then surrendered himself to the English agent, 
hoping to be entitled to the Act of Indemnity, and he was 
brought over to England to take his trial. He was first taken 
to the Tower, and then conveyed to Newgate. In July of this 
year (1660) the regicide's third wife, Anne, petitioned * to enjoy, 
though even as a close prisoner, the company of her husband who 
from a place of freedom has given himself up in confidence, 
which his Majesty only can say was not unfounded,* and her 
petition was granted. 

Scot was indicted at Hicks's Hall, Clerkenwell, on the 9th, 
and tried on October 12. He combated every legal objection 
made to his defence, but was found guilty and condemned to 
be hanged, drawn, and quartered. Whilst under sentence he 
conducted himself with great intrepidity. When his wife 
mentioned her intention of soliciting Sir Orlando Bridgeman 
(the Lord Chief Baron of Exchequer) to be a mediator with 
the King for his life, he said : * Perhaps Sir Orlando may 
think I shall confess guilt, and that I cannot do, for, to this 
day, I am not convinced of any, as to the death of the King.* 

About three or four in the morning of October 1 7, the day ot 
his execution, he was visited by many friends, and by his wife and 
children, and they all prayed. In * The Tryal of the Regicides * 
it is said that as soon as Mr. Scroope ^ had ended praying, Scot 
turned about, and opening his arms, he embraced his wife and one 

' Colonel Adrian Scroope, who suffered the same day as Thomas Scot. 



270 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

of his daughters. Scot and Mr, John Jones ^ were drawn upon 
the same sledge through Fleet Street to Charing Cross, where they 
were hanged, drawn, and quartered, the sentence being literally 
carried out.^ Evelyn writes in his Diary on this day : * Scot &c. 
suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross in sight 
of the place where they put to death their natural Prince, and in 
the presence of the King his son whom they also sought to kill. 
I saw not their execution but met their quarters mangled, and cut 
and reeking as they were brought from the gallows in baskets on 
the hurdle.' Their heads were all set up on poles upon the tops 
of the City gates. Scot's was on the gate of London Bridge, 
and his quarters were set up on the gates of the City.^ 

Scot began to make a speech from the ladder immediately 
before his execution, justifying his conduct from his apprehension 
of the approach of Popery, but the sheriff stopped him and advised 
him to occupy the little time left to him in prayer. Accordingly 
Scot did then make a very long prayer, expressing assurance 
of future happiness and blessing God that He had engaged 
him in a cause not to be repented of, mentioning with much 
fervour a manifestation of the divine presence in his cell that 
morning. The prayer is given in extenso in * The Tryal of the 
Regicides.' * 

In the British Museum there is an old ballad which was 
found pasted on the lining of a trunk. It is headed * A relation 

' Mr. John Jones, member for Merionethshire and brother-in-law of Oliver 
Cromwell. According to The Tryal of the Regicides it was Gregory Clement who 
went in the same sledge as Thomas Scot, and John Jones with Adrian Scroope went 
together an hour after. 

' This was a most horrible and barbarous custom, as the bodies were cut down 
* being half dead,' and mutilated before the head was cut off. 

* The writer has a curious contemporary sketch of it as it then appeared. 

^ It is said that in the middle of Scot's prayer he was stopped by the hangman, 
who stooped down to take dnnk which was reached up to him on the ladder. 



Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 2'ji 

of the grand infamous tray tors who were executed Oct. 1660 
&c/ Part of it runs thus : 

Next Wednesday foure came 

For murder all imputed, 
There to answer for the same, 

Which in judgement were confuted, 
Gregorie Clement, Jones and Scot 
And Scroope together for a plot 

Likewise were executed. 

To be sung to the tune of * Come let us drink, the time 
invites/ 

The emoluments from Thomas Scot's offices must have been 
very considerable. He purchased the Archbishop's palace at 
Lambeth for the sum of ;^7,073 os. Sd. conjointly with Matthew 
Hardy. They did not agree as to their division of it, and 
presented a petition to Parliament, which was referred to a 
committee in November 1648. Scot, ultimately becoming 
possessed of that part which contains the chapel, demolished its 
beautiful windows, and, it is said, made his dining-room at the 
east end. Furthermore it is said that this fanatic broke open 
Archbishop Parker's tomb, sold the leaden coffin, and cast his 
bones into an outhouse. In the * Athenae Oxonienses,' however, 
this is stated to have been the act of Hardy. 

Thomas Scot had a large family. By his first wife, Alice 
AUanson, he had five sons and three daughters ; and by his third 
wife certainly one daughter and a son, if not more. 

(i) William, born 1627, described * of Marlow,' ^ to whom his 
grandfather, William Allanson, left * a messuage at Kennington.' 
He married Joanna, daughter of Brigge Fountaine of Sail, 
Norfolk, and sister of Sir Andrew Fountaine — and they had one 
child, Elizhia. After the Restoration William fled into Holland, 

* Visitation (Bucks), 1633-4. 



272 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

and appears to have acted as a spy in the pay of the Dutch. He 
is constantly alluded to in the Calendar of State Papers under the 
name of * Celadon,* and we read that * Long John ' gave William 
Scott of Rouen a place of 1,000 dollars or guilders a year. 
Apparently he returned to England in 1667, when he is 
described as of St. Mary Overy. 

(2) Thomas Scot, born 1628, became a colonel in the Parlia- 
mentarian army, and was even more violent than his father. He 
took part in the conquest of Ireland, and after the terrible massacre 
at Wexford was granted the manor of Longrange in that 
county as payment of arrears due to him. He married Martha, 
daughter of Sir William Piers, Bart., of Tristernagh, and had 
eleven children, most of whom married in Ireland and had 
numerous descendants. 

(3) Francis Scot had lands at Storrington in Sussex, left 
him by his grandBither Allanson. Among the certificates in 
General Monk's Order-Book is one stating that Mr. William 
Carre had informed him in 1659 that * Francis Scott, sonne of 
Tho Scott, had vowed to kill him.* 

(4) Colonel Richard Scot, to whom his grandfather left his 
brewery at Bridewell Precinct, went to Jamaica. His first grant 
of land there was in 1675, ^^^ ^^ years later he settled the 
plantation called * Y.S.* (* Wyess ') in the parish of St. 
Elizabeth. He became joint owner of land there with Julines 
Herring, and when the latter died (in 1690) Richard Scot 
married his widow. He was M.P. for St. Elizabeth from 1677 
till 1688, and seems to have been a prosperous man. His step- 
daughter,^ Bathshua Herring, married in 1726 Peter Beckford, 
the Speaker of the House of Assembly in Jamaica, who had 

' His own two daughters, Anne and Julines, married, the one Richard Mill, and 
the other Francis Moore. 



i 



Thomas Scot, the Regicide 273 

inherited the immense wealth of his father, the Hon. Colonel 
Peter Beckford, commander-in-chief in Jamaica. 

(5) John Scot also went to Jamaica and died there. In 
Brooks's MS. in Heralds* College it is said that he was buried 
on the * Y.S.' estate, and that on his tombstone was the follow- 
ing : * Here lies the remains of John Scott, who had a hand and 
heart in the execution of Charles Stewart.* Verily these fanatics 
seemed to glory in their iniquities ! 

The regicide's eldest daughter, Elizabeth, born 1630, 
married Richard Sykes, lord of the manor of Leeds and of 
Ledsham Hall, Leeds, of the same family as the present Sir 
Tatton Sykes, Bart. He is described as * a good man and pious, 
and of admirable natural parts, was a good justice in bad times 
and favourable to the Royalists that were then under a cloud.' 
They had four daughters : one married Thomas Wilson, grand- 
father of Christopher Wilson, Bishop of Bristol, and one married 
Ralph Thoresby, the celebrated antiquary.^ The latter thus 
describes his marriage : * Mr. Thomas Wilson recommended his 
wife's sister Anna, the comely and virtuous daughter of Mr. 
Richard Sykes. I was very solicitous for Divine directions and 
prayed fervently for guidance in a matter of so great concern to 
me both in respect of this world and of a future. And it pleased 
God to hear and answer, so that we were joined together in Holy 
Matrimony in the parish church of Ledsham, by Mr. Hammond, 
the Vicar, Feb. 25th 1684, a day of mercy never to be forgotten 
by me or mine, having since that happy moment enjoyed her 
endeared society thirty-five years (in which space it pleased 
God to give us six sons and four daughters), and 1 have by 
experience found her to be the greatest blessing, she being 

* There is a portrait of Ralph Thoresby at Sledmere, probably by Parmentier, 
and also a pedigree of his family, of whose ancient descent he was very proud. 

T 



274 Thomas Scot, the Regicide 

eminent for piety and devotion, meekness, modesty, and sub- 
mission (tho* there has rarely been occasion to try this, except in 
matter of baptising and education of our children, after I changed 
my sentiments as to Conformity), and singular prudence in a 
provident management of the family concerns. Notwithstanding 
our designed privacy, we were met (on our return from our 
marriage) by about 3CX) horses. But our joy was presently 
turned into mourning for the death of the king, which was 
bewailed with many tears for the gloomy prospect of Popery. 
The License was taken out in King Charles the second's time 
and we were iharried the very next week, yet King James II. 
was then upon the Throne.' At the landing of the Duke of 
Monmouth, Richard Sykes was imprisoned for a short time, and 
his son-in-law, Thoresby, was summoned to appear before the 
sheriff, but Thoresby says : * Nothing save Non-Conformity 
being objected against me I was immediately dismissed ; ' and 
he adds : * The danger that our holy religion was in from the 
enemy made me more sensible of and I hope penitent for a 
practice I had unwarily (since my marriage into a family which 
though very pious was more averse to the public Establishment 
than ours had ever been) and insensibly stepped into, viz. read- 
ing some pious piece of practical divinity at home to my fiunily 
when I should have been joining with the congregation in public. 
For this, though good at other times, has neither so good success 
nor promises made to it in Scripture. I therefore more con- 
stantly joined in the public prayers and worship as judging the 
Church of England the strongest bulwark against Popery and a 
union of Protestants absolutely necessary.' 

The regicide's second daughter, Mary, married William 
Rowe, one of the trustees and manager of the sale of crown 
lands, who is mentioned by Ward in * Athenae Oxonienses * as 



i 



Thomas Scot, the Regicide 275 

one of the six captains sent by the Rump Commission in 1649 
to Woodstock to survey lands belonging to the King. 

His third daughter, Alice, married Edward Pearse of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, a Nonconformist minister and author, 
of whom there is a notice in Calamy*s account of the ministers 
ejected after the Restoration. 

Anne Scot, the regicide's fourth daughter, was probably the 
child of his third wife, Anne. She went to Jamaica with one of 
her brothers, and there married twice. First she became the wife 
of Colonel Thomas Ballard of St. lago de la Vega and of New 
Hall, Jamaica, who was a captain in the regiment commanded 
by General Venables in the expedition to St. Domingo in 1655, 
and, after the Restoration, a member of the King's Council. He 
died in 1690, and she then married in 1692 (as his second wife) 
the Hon. Colonel Peter Beckford,^ commander-in-chief in 
Jamaica, from whom were descended the Dukes of Hamilton, 
Newcastle, and Leeds, the Earls of Devon, Carnarvon, Effingham, 
and Suffolk, and Lords Howard de Walden, Bolton, Penrhyn, 
Rivers, and Dorchester.^ 

The regicide's third wife, Anne, whom he must have 
married after 1645, outlived him. We do not know her 
surname, but she was of a Royalist family, and in 1660 sent a 
petition to the King to say she was in great distress, as, besides 
her husband's estates and goods being seized, her * unnatural 
brother withholds her portion.' What became of her we know 

^ There were other intermarriages between the Beckfords and Scots, and the 
relationships are most puzzling. After Anne Scot married the Commander-in- 
Chief Beckford, her granddaughter (by her first husband), Mary Ballard, married 
in 17 13 Thomas Beckford, one of her stepsons ; and in 1726 Peter Beckford, the 
Speaker, her other stepson, married the stepdaughter of her brother Richard 
Scot. 

' The two latter titles have lately become extinct, but that of Dorchester has 
been revived. 

T 2 



276 Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 

not ; but her son, Thomas Scot, called after his father like his 
elder brother (between whom there must have been nearly 
twenty years' difference), settled in Dover. This town had long 
been a stronghold of dissent, and the inhabitants were almost 
unanimous on the side of the Parliament. The Rev. S. Statham 
in his interesting * History of Dover ' says that * Dover was one 
of the first places in Kent to declare against Charles I., and the 
Castle was captured by several of the townsmen and handed over 
to the Parliamentary authorities as early as 1642. The demand 
made upon them for ship-money in all probability accentuated 
their dislike to the King's government, and another reason was 
the anti-Popish feeling, always strong in Dover, which had 
received a considerable impetus in 1621 by the arrival of 
numerous Protestant refugees from France, driven from their 
own country as a result of the Protestant rebellion under the 
Due de Rohan which broke out that year. In 1642 the 
inhabitants of Dover threw themselves with fervour into the 
arms of Parliament, and in a published list of suspected persons 
in Kent (made by the Parliamentarians) under twenty are given in 
Dover. Thus young Thomas Scot found himself in the midst of 
congenial souls. Among them were the femily of Dell, who had 
come from Aylesbury, where they had been friends and neigh- 
bours of the regicide Scot. One of the * Five eminent Ministers ' 
ordered by the fifty-nine commissioners (of which the regicide 
was one) to give King Charles I. * spiritual assistance ' before 
his execution was William Dell. This William Dell had been 
chaplain to General Sir Thomas Fairfax in 1646,^ and afterwards 
to Oliver Cromwell, and in 1652 was Master of Gonville and 

* William Dell brought the Articles of Oxford to the Parliament in June 1646, 
when a gratuity was publicly presented to him. He was the author of innumerable 
religious works, and a great many of his sermons were published and are constantly 
offered for sale in catalogues. 



Thomas Scot^ the Regicide 277 

Caius College, Cambridge. In 1660 his daughter Susanna 
married Thomas Scot, and they continued to live at Dover. 
He became a * Dutch and Russia merchant' trading with 
Hamburg, and was the founder of Lathom's house of business 
and bank, and built the house. In 1690 and 1691 he was Mayor 
of Dover. He was the father of Hester Scot, who married in 
1699 Michael Russell, and their son was the first Sir Henry 
Russell of Swallowfield. 



THE TWO LORDS WHITWORTH 

AND SOME OF THEIR KITH AND KIN 

The tide of Whitworth is now extinct, as the only two peers of 
this name, Charles Baron Whitworth and Charles Earl Whitworth, 
died, the one in 1725 and the other in 1825, without legitimate 
issue. They were both remarkable men, and both were celebrated 
for the number and importance of their embassies ; and it is 
somewhat singular that each of them should have been sent to 
the Court of Russia, not only for their ability, but because it was 
hoped their personal influence with the two Empresses Catherine ^ 
would assist their diplomatic relations, and that in both cases the 
plan was eminently successful. 

The Whitworths were an old family. Shortly after the 
Conquest Robert de Whitworth held the Manor of Whitworth, 
near Rochdale, and there have been Whitworths in that neigh- 
bourhood ever since, their name appearing constantly in the 
Surveys of both Lancashire and Cheshire. John Whitworth, 
grandfather of the first Lord Whitworth, was an anabaptist, 
and one of the church surveyors employed by the Common- 
wealth.^ He died in 1688 and was buried at Adbaston, Salop. 

^ Catherine I., Empress of Russia, bom about 1683, died 1727 ; Catherine II., 
bom 1729, died 1796. 

' Some surveys of lands for the Dean and Chapter of Chester were returned in 



The two Lords IVhitworth 279 

His son Richard, we are told, * raised his fortunes by being 
steward or land agent to several gentlemen in Staffordshire, and 
settled at Blowerpipe (or Blorepipe), near Adbaston, about 1680/ 
He was steward to Charles Gerard, first Earl of Macclesfield, 
and to his two sons, Gerard, second Earl, and Gerard Fitton, 
third Earl, and also to their sister. Lady Gerard of Bromley. 
It was in connection with this family that Richard Whitworth 
was the involuntary cause of the celebrated duel between the 
Duke of Hamilton ^ and Lord Mohun,^ in which both com- 
batants were killed. The Duke and Lord Mohun married 
nieces of Charles, second Earl of Macclesfield, and the latter 
left the chief part of his estates, including Gawsworth, to Lord 
Mohun, passing over the Duchess of Hamilton, who was the 
daughter of his elder sister.^ The Duke brought an action 
against Lord Mohun, and this Chancery suit had been going on 
for years. The feelings of the two parties were mutually much 
embittered in the course of the proceedings, and the animosity 
was increased by the divergence of their political opinions. On 
November 13, 1712, the two litigants met by appointment in 
Lincoln's Inn, at the chambers of Mr. Orlebar, a Master in 

the Registry Office in September 1649 signed by him ; and again in 1653 we find 
his name afi&xed to an indenture between the High Sheriff and the Constables 
when Cromwell nominated Colonel Charles Worsley for Manchester. 

^ James, fourth Duke of Hamilton and first Duke of Brandon, K.T., K.G., one 
of the handsomest men in Scotland, bom 1658, married secondly Elizabeth, 
daughter of Digby, fifth Lord Gerard, of Gerard's Bromley, by Lady Elizabeth 
Gerard, youngest daughter of Charles, fifth Earl of Macclesfield. 

^ Charles, fifth Baron Mohun, of Boconnoc in Cornwall, married first Miss 
Charlotte Mainwaring, daughter of Thomas Main waring by his wife, Lady Charlotte 
Gerard, eldest daughter of Charles, fifth Earl of Macclesfield. 

' It is said that Lord Macclesfield passed over the Duchess because the Duke 
of Hamilton had refused to perform an engagement to which he had bound himself 
respecting his wife's fortune and guardianship. Lady Gerard also so highly 
resented the Duke's action in this matter that she left all she had to her brother, the 
aforesaid Lord Macclesfield, and she left her daughter, the Duchess, ^y^ shillings. 



28o The two Lords IVhitworth 

Chancery. On the examination of Mr. Whitworth, Lady Gerard's 
steward (now an old man), on behalf of Lord Mohun*s case, the 
Duke raised an objection to the witness, saying he had lost his 
memory and had * neither truth nor justice in him ; * upon which 
Lord Mohun replied : * I know Mr. Whitworth is an honest 
man, and he has as much truth and justice as your Grace.* No 
further recrimination passed ; another business meeting was 
arranged for the Saturday following ; the Duke, on retiring, 
made a low bow to Mohun, who returned it. There were 
eleven persons present, and none expected any evil consequence ; 
but the next day Lord Mohun sent General Macartney with a 
challenge to the Duke, which was accepted, and accordingly they 
met the following morning at eight o'clock at the Ring in Hyde 
Park. Colonel Hamilton of the Scots Guards was the Duke's 
second, and General Macartney was Lord Mohun's. All four 
drew swords ; it was a most sanguinary aflair, the Duke and 
Lord Mohun fighting with peculiar determination and ferocity.^ 
They thought nothing of self-defence, but from the first made 
desperate lunges at each other, and each received four serious 
wounds. Lord Mohun died on the spot, the Duke's weapon 
finally going right through him up to the hilt, so that the 
surgeon's hands met in the wound from opposite sides.^ The 
Duke had the tendons of his sword-arm cut, which occasioned 
such loss of blood as alone would soon have caused death, even 
if he had not received the stab in the left breast, which was the 
last inflicted. This stab, by one account, was given by Lord 
Mohun, who shortened his sword when the Duke fell over him ; 
but according to the positive oath of Colonel Hamilton and the 

^ There is a small drawing of the duel in Crawl^s Illustrated Pennant in the 
British Museum. 

' This thrust was effected by the Duke with his left hand. 



The two Lords JVhitworth 281 

general opinion, it was a case of foul play, and dealt by General 
Macartney. Dr. Garth affirmed, on his word as a medical man, 
that it was utterly impossible for Lord Mohun to have given the 
Duke the death wound, which must have been inflicted by some 
one standing above him. So strong was the presumption of the 
truth of this, that the General absconded ; but a circumstance of 
no small weight in his favour was, that though nine or ten park- 
keepers came up as well as the Duke's steward. Colonel Hamilton 
did not have him seized, but allowed him to walk quietly away. 
When the Duke, who was on his face on the ground, was 
lifted up, he walked about thirty yards and then sank down and 
expired on the grass. His body was taken to his house in 
St. James's Square while the Duchess was still asleep. Lord 
Mohun's body was taken to his house in Marlborough Street, 
when the only remark made by his widow ^ was an expression of 
great displeasure that the men had lain the body on her state- 
bed, thereby staining with blood the rich and costly furniture. 

Dean Swift, in writing to Mrs. Dingley about this duel, says : 
* Before this comes to your hands you will have heard of the 
most terrible accident that hath almost ever happened. This 
morning at nine my man brought me word that Duke Hamilton 
had fought with Lord Mohun. I immediately sent him to the 
Duke's house, but the porter could hardly answer him for tears, 
and a great rabble was about the house. The dog Mohun was 
killed on the spot, and when the Duke was over him, Mohun, 
shortening his sword, stabbed him in at the shoulder to the heart. 

' Lord Mohun's second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Thomas Lawrence 
(physician to Queen Anne), and widow of Colonel Edward Griffith. Lady Mohun 
married as her third husband Colonel Charles Mordaunt, a nephew of Lord 
Peterborough, who was greatly her jimior. She sold all Lord Mohun's Cornish and 
Devonshire estates in 171 7 for ;£54,ooo (a very cheap bargain) to Governor Thomas 
Pitt. 



282 The two Lords JVhitworth 

• 

1 am infinitely concerned for the poor Duke, who was an honest, 
good-natured man. I loved him very well, and I think he loved me 
better.' A tremendous sensation was occasioned by this duel, owing 
to the circumstance of the Duke of Hamilton being regarded as 
the head of the Jacobite party, while Lord Mohun was a zealous 
champion in the Whig interest. What seems to have originated 
in personal animosity was considered by the Tory party as a 
dastardly attempt on the part of their political opponents to 
inflict a vital wound on the Jacobite cause. The Duke had 
just been appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to Paris, with 
powers to eflPect an arrangement for the restoration of the exiled 
Stuarts at the death of the Queen ; and it was also understood 
that Lord Arran, the Duke's eldest son, should receive in 
marriage the hand of the Princess Louisa Stuart, youngest 
daughter of James IL^ Queen Anne was devoted to the Duke, 
and when she bestowed on him the Garter (he having already 
the Thistle), and it being remarked to her that the case was 
without precedent, she replied that * such a subject as the Duke 
of Hamilton has a pre-eminent claim to every mark of dis- 
tinction which a crowned head can confer.' Miss Strickland 
tells us the Queen was stupefied with grief at his loss, and 
when the news of his death reached Scotland every one went 
into mourning. 

The night before the duel the Duke wrote the following 
letter to his eldest son : ^ 

* London : November 14th, 1712. 

* My dear Son, — I have been doing all I could to recover 
your mother's right to her estate, which I hope will be yours. 

^ This princess died a few months after the duel. 

^ James, Marquis of Clydesdale (after fifth Duke of Hamilton, KT.), married 
Lady Anne Cochrane, one of the three beautiful daughters of the Earl of Dundonald ; 



The two Lords JVhitworth 283 

I command you to be dutiful towards her, as I hope she will be 
just and kind to you ; and I recommend it particularly to you 
if ever you enjoy the estate of Hamilton and what may, I hope, 
justly belong to you (considering how long 1 have lived with 
a small competence, which has made me run in debt), I hope 
God will put it into your heart to do justice to my honour and 
pay my just debts. There will be enough to satisfy all and give 
your brothers and sisters ^ such provisions as the state of your 
condition and their quality in Scotland will admit of. May God 
preserve you, and the family in your person. My humble duty 
to my mother,^ and my blessing to your sisters. If it please 
God I live, you shall find me share with you what I do possess 
and ever prove your affectionate and kind father whilst 

* Hamilton.' 

A proclamation was issued offering ;^500 from the Govern- 
ment and ;^300 from the Duchess of Hamilton for the ap- 
prehension of General Macartney, who, however, escaped and 
established himself at Antwerp. At the accession of George I. 
he returned to England and surrendered himself. He was 

and his son, the sixth Duke of Hamilton, married the beautiful Elizabeth Gunning. 
The following curious anecdote occurs in a manuscript account of this family : 
' In 1726, when James, fiAh Duke of Hamilton, was installed Knight of the Thistle 
at Holyrood Palace by the Earl of Findlater as King's Commissioner, the regalia 
being locked up in the castle, they wanted the sword of state for that purpose, and, 
as the story went, they had recourse to the Earle of Rothes's, which was not only 
gifted by General Macartney to him, but the same with which he should have so 
basely stabbed the Duke his father.' 

* The Duke's daughters were : (i) Lady Catharine Hamilton, who died a fort- 
night after her father ; (2) Lady Charlotte Hamilton, who married Charles Edwin of 
Dunraven, and, dying in 1777 s.p., left a large fortune to the seventh Duke of 
Hamilton ; (3) Lady Susan Hamilton, married Anthony Tracy Keck, Esq., of Great 
Tew. The Duke's younger sons were Lord William Hamilton, who married Frances, 
daughter and heiress of Francis Hawes of Purley Hall, Berks ; and Lord Anne 
Hamilton, so named after Queen Anne, his godmother. 

' Anne, Duchess of Hamilton in her own right, married Lord William 
Douglas ; she died in 17 16, aged eighty. 



284 The two Lords JVhitworth 

tried in the King's Bench in June 171 6, The jury, by direction 
of the court, acquitted him of the murder, but found a verdict 
of manslaughter, of which he was discharged by the formality 
of a cold iron immediately made use of to prevent appeal. At 
this trial Colonel Hamilton deviated from what he had sworn 
before, and only averred that he saw Macartney's sword over 
the Duke's shoulder. Colonel Hamilton was obliged to sell his 
company in the Guards, and to leave the kingdom to avoid a 
prosecution for perjury, and died October 17, 1716.^ 

Richard Whitworth, the involuntary final cause of this 
terrible catastrophe, did not long survive it. He had married 
in 1674, when he was thirty-six, Anne Mosley, aged nineteen, 
niece of Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart.,^ and by her he had six sons 
and one daughter.^ Of three of the sons we know little beyond 
their names and professions, and presumably they left no descen- 
dants. These are Gerard (called after Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield), 
who took orders, had a living in Kent in 1724, and was chaplain 
to King George I. ;^ John, born 1680, a captain of Dragoons ; 
and Edward, born 1686, who went into the Navy and became 
captain of a man-of-war. The three other sons were Charles 
(the eldest), Richard, and Francis. Charles was born in 1675, 
and baptised on October 14 at Wilmslow Church, Cheshire, of 
which his maternal grandfather was rector. He was educated at 
Westminster School under the head-mastership of the celebrated 

' Justin McCarthy says : * Probably Macartney and Mohun and Hamilton and 
the Duke of Hamilton are best remembered in our time because of the effect 
which that £eital meeting had upon the fortunes of Beatrix Esmond' 

" She was daughter of the Rev. Francis Mosley by his wife Catherine Daven- 
port, daughter of John Davenport of Davenport. 

' The daughter, Anne Barbara Whitworth, married Tracy Pauncefort of 
Witham, ancestor of the present Lord Pauncefote. 

* In 1720 Gerard Whitworth (whose name appears also to have been Charles) 
was elected a Fellow of the College of Manchester ^ and on March 13, 1722-3, we 
find an account of his preaching before the King in his chapel at Whitehall. 



Charlks, Lord Whitworth, (/Etat 62) 1752. 
Fr.m a Painting at Sinillowfitli. 



The two Lords JVhitworth 285 

Dr. Busby, and went on to Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he became a Fellow (B.A.) in 1699. Macky in his * Characters * 
speaks of him at this date as being ^ of great learning and good 
sense, very handsome in his person, of a fair complexion, and of 
perfect address.' ^ 

Directly after leaving Cambridge, under the direction of 
George Stepney, the statesman and poet,^ he entered upon that 
diplomatic career in which he became so distinguished, it being 
said of him that, after Stepney, he understood the politics of the 
Empire better than any Englishman during the reign of Anne. 
In November 1701 Mr. Stepney writes to Mr. Secretary, Sir 
Charles Hedges, recommending Mr. Whitworth as Minister 
at Ratisbonne, and says : * He having been about with me 
through several Courts of Germany, has thereby acquired some 
knowledge both of their affairs and language.* The answer duly 
came from Mr. Secretary Vernon, who succeeded Sir Charles 
Hedges, announcing that her Majesty approves of Mr. Whit- 
worth and * supposes an allowance of 40J. per diem will be 
a competent encouragement for him at present.' And accord- 
ingly Mr. Whitworth was sent to represent England at the Diet 
of Ratisbonne in February 1702. 

In 1704 he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary to Moscow 
with the view of negotiating the adhesion of Russia to the 
Grand Alliance, and also of securing advantages for English 
merchants in Russia, which post he held with the greatest credit 
for six years. He arrived in Russia in time to see Petersburg 
springing from the ground, Peter the Great having laid the 

^ The three portraits of this Lord Whitworth, one at Knole and two at 
Swallowfield, do not give any idea of good looks, but they were taken when Lord 
Whitworth was fifty years of age. 

* George Stepney appears as one of the minor poets in Johnson's Lives of the 
Poets, Burnet says he had * admirable natural parts.' 



286 The two Lords IVhitworth 

foundations the previous May. Menshikow was then all- 
powerful ; Mr. Whitworth was very unfavourably impressed 
with him. He says : * Menshikow [or MenzikofF] is of very 
low extraction,^ extremely vicious in his inclinations, violent and 
obstinate in his temper. However,* he adds, * by his assiduity 
and diligence he has gained such favour with the Czar that no 
subject ever had the like.* The nation was suffering from 
Peter's sweeping and tyrannical reforms. Between 1705 and 
1708 there were two terrible revolts which shook the empire, 
and the insurgents seized Astrachan, the third city in the 
kingdom. Mr. Whitworth says this was due to the brutal 
manner in which the officials enforced one of the Czar*s despotic 
edicts. The women had always been used to wear a long loose 
gown buttoned down the front, and the ukase ordered them to 
wear petticoats. * The Governor of Astrachan,* he adds, * placed 
officers at the doors of the churches, who cut off the women's 
loose garments, and pulled out beards of venerable persons by 
the roots.* In 17 10 Mr. Whitworth left Russia, and Peter the 
Great gave him, on parting, his portrait set in diamonds. 

Early in 1 7 1 1 the Emperor Joseph of Austria died of small- 
pox, and Queen Anne sent a message to both Houses to say she 
had come to a resolution to support the interests of Austria and 
to use her utmost endeavours to get the King of Spain made 
Emperor ; * and the English Ministry followed this up with a 
proposal to make peace by yielding Spain and the West Indies 
to King Philip. With these instructions Mr. Whitworth was 
now sent to Vienna, and many of the Duke of Marlborough*8 
despatches of this year are addressed *To Lord Ambassador 

' Voltaire says Menzikoff was a pastrycook's boy. 

' Queen Anne, we are told, was anxious to write her wishes in favour of 
Charles with her own hand, but was hindered by the gout, and Bolingbroke penned 
the despatch for Whitworth. (SichePs Bolingbroke^ p. 316.) 



The two Lords IVhitworth 287 

Whitworth.* Finally, Marlborough in November 171 1 writes 
to him from the Hague as follows : 

* I propose to go to the Brill to-morrow to be at hand to 
make use of the first opportunity of a wind to embark, but must 
not leave this place without repeating to Y. £. my hearty thanks 
for your constant and useful correspondence, which I am per- 
suaded the Ministers at home must be very sensible of, and you 
may depend I shall omit no opportunity of doing you justice to 
them. You will hear from other hands of the measures that are 
taking for putting an end to this ruinous war. I do not enter 
into particulars because I am to have no share in the negotiations, 
but I can assure you no man living can be more desirous than 
I am of a good and speedy peace, and I shall be more than 
satisfied with the thoughts of having in any way contributed 
towards it. I pray the continuance of your friendship and that 
you will believe me with great sincerity &c., M.' 

Later on in the same year Mr. Whitworth was again sent to 
Russia, having been appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to the 
same Court in consequence of a serious difficulty that had arisen 
between England and Russia, and which threatened a rupture 
between the two countries. The case was this : In May 1 707 
the Czar sent M. de MatviifF^ to London to endeavour to exert 
personal pressure over Marlborough and Godolphin with a view 
to secure the possessions he had conquered in the Gulf of Finland, 
and to offer them large presents ; and in the draft Peter added 
with his own hand : * I do not think that Marlborough can be 
influenced in this manner, because he is enormously rich, but you 
may promise a few 100,000 or so, or more.' MatviifF could get 
nothing settled satisfactorily. He wrote back to the Czar : * The 
Ministry here is more subtle even than the French in finesse and 

^ His name also spelt Matueof and Matv^ieif. 



288 The two Lords JVhitworth 

intrigue, their smooth and empty words being nothing but loss of 
time.' In July 1708 (o.s.) Monsieur de MatviifF was recalled to 
Russia, and, after attending Queen Anne's levee and taking 
formal leave of her, was arrested in Charles Street, St. James's, 
by bailiffs at the suit of Thomas Morton, laceman, of Covent 
Garden, his creditor for ;^50, and taken with much indignity to 
a sponging house called the Black Raven. From there the Mus- 
covite ambassador sent to one of the Secretaries of State to 
inform him of how he was being insulted. Only Mr. Walpole, 
an under-secretary, could be found, who came to him (as the 
Czar afterwards observed) to be witness to his disgrace, for 
instead of being discharged he was only allowed out on bail. 
He resisted manfully, and seriously wounded several of his 
captors. As soon as he was liberated he left England and 
went to Holland, from whence he sent a very serious com- 
plaint to the Czar, who threatened to declare war with Eng- 
land and meanwhile stopped all intercourse of trade with this 
country. The Prussian and other foreign ministers as well, 
looking upon themselves as concerned in this affair, demanded 
satisfaction for the outrage. The explanation forthcoming was 
not deemed satisfactory,* and it is said that Peter wrote a most 
curious letter to Queen Anne asking her to return him by 
bearer the head of Morton, together with the heads and hands of 
any of his abettors in the assault that her Majesty might have in- 
carcerated in her dungeons ! The Queen sent the Czar back an 
answer that she had not the disposal of any heads in her king- 
dom but those forfeited by the infraction of certain laws which 
Mr. Morton and his posse had not infringed. An angry corre- 

^ The case was tried in the Court of the Queen's Bench before the Lord Chief 
Justice Holt, who referred the point to a scrutiny at which all the other judges 
were to assist 



The two Lords Whitworth 289 

spondence continued for two years, when the troublesome aflair 
was at length terminated by her Majesty deputing Mr. Whit- 
worth to deliver a letter from her to the Czar in a public manner, 
and at the same time to do all in his power to pacify the enraged 
potentate. There can be little doubt that Mr. Whitworth stood 
high in the favour of Queen Anne, who writes to the King of 
Prussia on April 18, 171 1, *that she has ordered Charles 
Whitworth, Esq., who is going as her ambassador to his Russian 
Majesty, to stop at Berlin to explain her sentiments to the King 
of Prussia upon the present conjunction and to confer upon the 
measures most fitting to be taken for the tranquillity of the Empire 
and for the support of the interests of the common cause in this 
situation of public aflairs the most ticklish that ever was.' 

Mr. Whitworth made a solemn entry into Moscow, accom- 
panied by a vast concourse of Russian officials and two regiments 
of Russian Guards which were sent to meet him, and after he 
arrived at the Court he made a speech to the Czar and presented 
the Queen's letter, which stated that she had had the law repealed 
so that his Imperial Majesty's ambassadors could never be 
subjected to further insults.^ The Czar then made a short 
answer, in which he said he accepted this as a satisfaction ; and 
after a conference which Mr. Whitworth had a few days later 
with the Russian Ministers, the difference ended to the mutual 
satisfaction of the two Powers.^ The Czar, by way of marking 
his sense of Mr. Whitwortli's conduct in the affair, gave orders 
to Soltikof to entertain him for three days with the greatest 
magnificence, the officers of his Majesty's household serving at 
table. Mr. Whitworth's negotiations were rendered easier by the 

' This was really done, and ever since then the persons of ambassadors and 
their suites have remained sacred from arrest 

' We are told that Peter was specially pleased at Mr. Whitworth commencing 
his speech, * Tr^s-haut et tr^s-puissant EmpereurJ 

u 



290 The two JLords JVhitworth 

friendship of the Empress, with whom he had had tender rela- 
tions in her earlier days when he little could have realised that 
she would have such an extraordinary career. Born about 1683 
in Livonia, she was the child of a small Catholic yeoman, Samuel 
Skovronsky — some accounts say the natural child — by a country 
girl. She was adopted by a Lutheran pastor of the name of 
Gluck at Marienburg, where she was employed in attending on 
the children. In 1701 she married a Swedish dragoon named 
Johan, who disappeared entirely directly afterwards. The follow- 
ing year, when Marienburg was taken by the Russians, Catherine, 
or rather Martha, as she was then called, attracted by her youth 
and beauty the notice of General Bauer, who took her under his 
protection. Not long after Prince Mentzikof purchased her as 
a servant for his wife and transferred her to Moscow, where she 
lived with him till the beginning of 1704, when the Czar Peter 
took her for himself and seven years later married her, after she 
had been received into the Greek Church and re-christened 
Catherine Alekycevna. The marriage was publicly solemnised 
at St. Petersburg in 17 12, at seven o'clock in the morning. The 
Czar had settled that one of her brothers, whom he had unearthed 
from Lithuania and ennobled for the occasion, should, with Prince 
Romodanowski, walk on either side of him in the procession. 
Now this Prince was the highest noble in Moscow, and, after the 
Czar, was the greatest personage in the empire ; and when this 
order was notified to him, he said, * On which side of the Czar 
am I expected to place myself?' On being told that the 
brother-in-law of his Majesty would take the right, he replied, 

* Then I shall not attend.' This answer reported to the Czar, 
the latter said, * You shall either attend or I will hang you T 

* Say to the Czar,' replied the haughty boyar, * that I entreat him 
first to execute the same sentence on my only son, who is but 



The two Lords Whitworth 291 

fifteen ; it is possible that, after having seen me perish, fear 
might make him consent to walk on the left hand of his 
sovereign, but I can depend on myself never to do that which 
can disgrace the blood of Romodanowski.' The Czar yielded, 
but to revenge himself on the independent spirit of the Musco- 
vite aristocracy he built Petersburg. Catherine's bridesmaids were 
two of her own little daughters ! In the evening there was a 
ball, during which the Czar drew Mr. Whitworth and Comte 
Vitzthum ^ aside and jocosely informed them that the wedding 
was a fruitful one, as, though he and his spouse had only been 
married a few hours, they had five children.^ At this same ball 
the Czarina sent for Mr. Whitworth to dance with her. As 
they began the minuet she squeezed his hand and said in a 
whisper, * Have you forgot little Kate } ' 

Mr. Whitworth, when he was sent as Ambassador, had also 
been deputed to ascertain the state of Russia, so that in the 
event of his endeavours to avert a war being unsuccessful, he 
might be able to report to his Government upon the resources 
of the Emperor. Accordingly he wrote * An Account of Russia 
as it was in the year 17 10,' which was printed by the Strawberry 
Hill Printing Press in 1758.^ 

In 1 7 14 Mr. Whitworth was appointed English Plenipo- 
tentiary at the Congress of Baden * and Minister Plenipotentiary 

* Comte Vitzthum was Minister of Augustus II., King of Poland. 

^ She bore him eleven children in all, of whom two only, Anne and Elizabeth, 
survived him. 

' Lord Whitworth's despatches and correspondence are contained in the 
voluminous Sbomik^ or Collections of the Russian Imperial Historical Society, 
vol. Ixi. 

* Lord Bolingbroke writes, April 27, 1714 : * Mr. Whitworth will be imme- 
diately despatched into the Empire : I prevailed last night that he should not be 
ordered directly to Baden, which might have exposed him to make a very mean 
figure, the French and Imperialists being locked up there, as they were at 
Rastadt. . . ,^—BoL PoL Carr, vol. iv. pp. 122-28. 

U2 



292 The two Lords Whitworth 

to the Diet of Augsburg and Ratisbon ; in 17 16 Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister to the King of Prussia ; and in 171 7 
Envoy Extraordinary to the Hague, from whence he sent the 
British Government many communications respecting Jacobite 
conspiracies. During his stay at the Hague he had become 
acquainted with the de Salengre family. They were of ancient 
and noble lineage, originally from Hainault, but in the time 
of the religious persecutions under the Duke of Alva (1567-73) 
they left their country and settled in Holland. Albert Hendrick 
de Salengre, seigneur de Grisoort in Holland, married Gertruida 
Jacoba Rotgans, sister of the celebrated Dutch poet of that name, 
and Lord Whitworth married their daughter, Magdalena Jacoba 
de Salengre. The marriage took place at the Hague on June 24, 
1 720, * the ceremony being after the English fashion.' ^ 

In 1 72 1 Mr. Whitworth was appointed Minister to the King 
of Prussia, and this same year King George I. remunerated his 
long public services by creating him Baron Whitworth of Galway 
in Ireland. In 1722 he was appointed Ambassador and Pleni- 
potentiary to the Congress of Cambray.^ 

Lord and Lady Whitworth came to England in 1722-3, 
and that same year he was returned to Parliament for Newport, 
Isle of Wight. Lady Whitworth's brother, Albert de Salengre, 
who was Councillor of the Princess of Orange and Commissaire 

^ Baron de PoUnitz in his Memoirs, published 1739, mentions that Lady Whit- 
worth gave a smart rebuke to Cardinal Corsini, afterwards Pope Clement XL, for 
trying to meddle with their household affairs at the Cambray Congress. It appears 
that the Cardinal, who was very penurious, had a fancy to regulate every plenipoten- 
tiary's household. One day he took it into his head to give his economical niles 
to Lord Whitworth, but he did not find her ladyship very complaisant, and, said she, 
' M. le Marquis, we make use of the Italians to regulate our concerts, but as for the 
table, pray give us leave to consult the French.' 

> His chaplain on this occasion was Richard Chenevix, afterwards Bishop of 
Waterford and great-grandfather of Richard Chenevix Trench, Archbishop of 
Dublin. 



The two Lords JVhitworth 293 

des Finances des Etats G6n6raux, came with them to England, 
Although he was only twenty-nine years of age, he was a most 
distinguished author, and on arriving in England was made a 
member of the Royal Society. Immediately after his return to 
Holland he was attacked with smallpox and died at the Hague 
in July 1723, to the great grief of Lord and Lady Whitworth. 
Two years later Lord Whitworth himself died at his house in 
Gerrard Street, aged fifty. He probably died of apoplexy, as we 
know that he had been treated by the celebrated Dr. Arbuthnot for 

* vertigo.' ^ .This doctor, writing to Swift in November 1 723, says : 

* I know how unhappy a vertigo makes anybody that has the 
misfortune to be troubled with it, and I will propose a cure for 
you, that I will pawn my reputation upon. I have of late sent 
several patients in that case to the Spa, to drink thereof the 
Geronstere water, which will not carry from the spot. . . . But 
because the instances of eminent men are most conspicuous. Lord 
Whitworth, our Plenipotentiary, had this disease (which, by the 
way, is a little disqualifying for that employment) ; he was so bad 
that he was often forced to catch hold of anything to keep him from 
falling. I know he has recovered by the use of that water to so 
great a degree, that he can ride, walk, or do anything as formerly.* 

Lord Whitworth was buried in the south aisle of West- 
minster Abbey on November 6, 1725, and a funeral sermon was 
preached upon his death at Wostram by George Lewis. Lord 
Whitworth's widow survived him eight years. She married 
secondly, at the Hague on October 9, 1729, Fran9ois Marie 
de Villers de la Faye, Comte de Vaulgrenant (of Burgundy), 
who was Ambassador of France at Turin. She died at Malles- 
sous-Pizzighettone, near Cremona in Lombardy, in 1733. 

^ In Johnson's Dictionary one of the examples given of the use of the word 
' vertigo/ taken from Dr. Arbuthnot's Works, is as follows : * The forerunners of an 
apoplexy are dulness, vertigos, tremblings.' 



294 2^^^ ^'^0 Lords JVhitworth 

Lord Whitworth had no children, and by his will, dated at 
Berlin, March 1722-3, which was proved by his brother Francis 
Whitworth, the latter was made his heir. Lord Whitworth thus 
passed over his brother Richard, probably because he did not 
approve of his Jacobite principles. * The Honourable ' Colonel 
Richard Whitworth, as he was generally called, was Colonel 
of the * Queen's Horse.* When he was fifty he married a lady 
of means, Penelope, widow of North Foley, Esq., of Stourbridge, 
and daughter of William Plowden of Plowden. He owned land 
in Northamptonshire and a house in Conduit Street, but it was 
said that he lost a great part of his property through having 
to pay a heavy fine which was levied upon him by the Govern- 
ment for high treason, in consequence of his saying he would 
rather raise a regiment for the King of France than for the King 
of England. No doubt he was a Jacobite at heart. His wife*s 
family were staunch supporters of the Stuarts ; and he may have 
imbibed these principles also from his own mother, whose brother. 
Sir Oswald Mosley, had received Prince Charles Edward at his 
house at Ancoats during one of his secret visits to England. 

Colonel Richard Whitworth's only son, Richard, born in 
1745, was a most eccentric character. He was M.P. for 
StaflFord, and published in 1769 a political work called 'The 
Injured Ghost of Liberty.' Towards the close of the eighteenth 
century he raised at Adbaston, near where he lived, a body of 
volunteers, sailors as well as soldiers. The sailors were trained 
on a large ship with guns, which he had on a lake or canal which 
he made near his house.* He never married, but he was once 
engaged to Miss Pigott of Edgmond, Shropshire. This lady, 
after visiting him at Batchacre Park, broke off the engagement in 

' The writer has a curious mezzotint of the said Richard in camp at Winchester 
with his dog Neptune. 



Col.. RiCHAHi) Whitwokth, M.P. 

1.1 Ctim/'al Wi.,rl'rrn. I77S. 



The two Lords Whitworth 295 

consequence of his eccentricity. The death of Miss Pigott's 
father, which took place in May 1770, was memorable in this 
wise. When he was upwards of seventy, Mr, Pigott's son Robert 
agreed with Mr. Codrington to run their fathers' lives one against 
the other, Sir William Codrington being a little over fifty ; and 
the wager was laid for ;^5oo.^ Mr. Pigott was already dead when 
the bet was made, quite unknown and unexpected by either party. 
To show the then utter impossibility of it being known at the 
time of the bet, we are told that Mr. Pigott died at 2 a.m. in 
Shropshire on the day on which the bet was made after dinner 
at Newmarket ! Mr. Pigott was induced to resist payment ; and 
Lord March (afterwards the well-known Duke of Queensberry), 
who had taken Mr. Codrington's bet, was compelled to bring 
his action, which he gained. Lord Mansfield deciding that the 
impossibility of a contingency is no bar to its becoming the 
subject of a wager, provided the impossibility is unknown to 
both the parties at the time of laying it.^ The case was tried in 
the Court of King's Bench in June 1771. 

^ Dick ' Whitworth, as he was commonly called, died in 1 8 1 1, 
aged seventy-six, greatly lamented by the poor, to whom he was 
most kind and generous.® He left his property to Lord Aylmer, 
who had married his cousin Catharine Whitworth ; then to 
Mr. Edmund Plowden of Horton Hall (who, however, died 
before Lord Aylmer) ; and then to his cousin, Mr. Pauncefort, 
to him and his sons for ever. Sir Charles W. Pauncefote 
Duncombe sold it. 

^ The wager was that if Sir William Codrington died first, Lord March was to 
pay Mr. Pigott i,6oo guineas ; and if old Mr. Pigott died first, Mr. Pigott junior 
was to pay Lord March 1,500 guineas. 

* Burrov^s Reports. 

' Among other benefactions he gave a house and land at Adbaston for the 
support and education of the poor. 



296 The two Lords IVhitworth 

Francis Whitworth, whom Lord Whitworth made his heir, 
was born in 1684. He was elected member for Minehead in 
1723, and altogether was in Parliament for nineteen years during 
the Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, and appears to have 
been a supporter of the Ministry. In 1724 he bought the 
manor and castle of Leybourne Grange, near Mailing in Kent. 
In 1725 he succeeded to the estate of his brother. Lord 
Whitworth, in 1728 was appointed a Gentleman Usher of the 
Privy Chamber, and in 1732 Surveyor-General of the King's 
Woods and Forests, and Secretary of Barbadoes. He died 
in 1742, aged fifty-eight. He had married Joan, daughter 
and heir of William Wyndham of Clowerworth, Gloucester- 
shire, by his wife Rebecca, daughter of Sir Nicholas Strode 
of Chevening and Westerham, Kent, and left one son, 
Charles, born in 17 14-5. After leaving college this young 
man seems to have gone out in London society a good deal, 
and later on gave himself up to political life. The following 
letter, which mentions a private festivity in which he took 
part, seems worth publishing to show the contrast of the 
luxury of the present day with what was considered * handsome * 
for a duke's table in those days. It is written by a son of Lord 
Wentworth to his father in 1733- * Dear Papa, — ^We were last 
night at the Duke of Devonshire's, it was a ball, there were 
8 couple, viz. Lady Caroline Cavendish and Lord Sunbury, 
Lord Hartington and Lady Mary Montague, Lord Conoway 
\s%c\ [Conway] and Lady Harriet [her sister], Mr. Walpole and 
Lady Lucy [sister], Mr. Conoway and Miss Wortley, a Mr. 
Webster and Lady Dorothy [sister], Mr. Whitworth and Lady 
Betty Cavendish, me and Lady Betty Montague, and we had a 
very handsome supper, viz. at the upper end cold chicken, next 
to that a dish of Cake, parch'd almonds, Sapp biskets [jiV], next 



The two Lords Whitworth 297 

• 

to that a dish of tarts and cheese cakes, next to that a great 
custard, and next to that another dish of biskets, parch'd almonds 
and preserved apricocks, and next a quarter of lamb/ This 
same young man writes again : * Your lordship order'd me 
before you went out of town to go to Major Fouberts^ an 
inquire abS the price of learning to ride. Went this morning 
and he say'd the price was 6 guineas enterence and 3 g". a 
month. There was about 7 people riding, my L**. Holderness, 
my L**. Dalkeith, my Lord Deerhurst, Mr. Roper, Mr. Wallop, 
Mr. Whitworth, and Mr. Ashburnham.' 

Mr. Whitworth became a prominent and most useful man. 
He sat in Parliament for thirty-one years during the Administra- 
tions of Pelham, Newcastle, Pitt (Lord Chatham), Lord Bute, 
Grenville, Rockingham, Grafton, and North. He was chairman 
of the Committee of Ways and Means for ten years, and was 
knighted in 1768. Amongst other measures that he brought 
forward was one for improving the paving and lighting of 
London, and he was the author and compiler of many useful 
books of the day. He was Lieutenant-Governor of Gravesend 
and Tilbury Fort for twenty years, and had a house at Green- 
wich. On returning to it from London one day in 1767 a 
footpad stopped his carriage at the end of Peckham Lane and 
demanded his money, but instead of complying Mr. Whitworth 
let down the glass and fired at him with a blunderbuss. The 
coachman drove on, and the footpad was found dead. 

Sir Charles Whitworth appears to have got into straitened 
circumstances, for in 1776 an Act was passed to enable him 

^ A Monsieur Foubert came to England from France on account of his religion 
in the reign of Charles II., and started a Riding Academy in Regent Street on the 
site of the mansion of the Countess of Bristol. He is mentioned by Evelyn in his 
Diary and by Sir John Reresby in his Metnoirs, Major Foubert was his son, and 
taught the young nobility mathematics as well as riding. 



298 The two Lords IVhitworth 

to sell his property in Somersetshire, called Blachford, and he also 
sold Leybourne Grange ^ and removed to Stanmore. He died 
at Bath in 1778, aged sixty-four, and is buried at Walcot 
Church, where there is the following epitaph : * Here lies, in 
expectation of a joyful resurrection. Sir Charles Whitworth, Kt., 
whose eminent qualities it would be impossible, were they to be 
enumerated, to comprise on this tablet. Suffice it to say that 
his whole life was a constant and cheerful display of every public 
and private virtue. He served his country in five successive 
Parliaments, and departed this life on the 21st of August, 1778/ 

Sir. Charles married in 1748 Martha Rose, daughter of 
Richard Shelley, Esq., son of Sir John Shelley, third Baronet, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of Sir John Gage, Bart. Lady Whitworth 
survived her husband eight years, and died in Great Ormond 
Street in 1786.^ By her Sir Charles had nine children, all of 
whom were christened at Leybourne : (i) Margaret, born 1750, 
wias Maid of Honour, and died unmarried in October 18 12, aged 
sixty-two ; (2) Catharine, married Lord Aylmer, by whom she was 
mother of Rose Aylmer, immortalised by Landor ; (3) Charles 
(afterwards Earl Whitworth) ; (4) Mary, married T. Lloyd ; 
(5) Francis (Sir), Colonel R.A. ; (6) Richard, R.N. ; (7) 
Priscilla, married first Sir Bellingham Graham, Bart.,^ and 
secondly Viscount Lake ; (8) Robert ; (9) Anne Barbara, 
married Sir Henry RusseU, Bart.'* 

Colonel Sir Firancis Whitworth, Sir Charles's second son, was 

* Leybourne Crahge was sold to James Hawley, M.D., F.R.S. 
' '• Sir Charles Russell has a family group by Hogarth in which Lady Whit- 
worth appears, as well as her father, mother, and sister. 

' She was grandmother of the present Sir Reginald B. Graham, who has a 
lovely picture of her by Romney. 

^ Anne Barbara >Arhitworth was also painted by George Romney a few years 
after her marriage, and this beautiful picture is now at Swallowfield in the 
possession of Sir Charles Russell, Bart., her great-grandson. 



The two Lords JVhitworth 299 

born in 1754, and entered in 1768 as a cadet in the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich. In 1 77 1 he received his commission 
in the Royal Artillery, and in the following year embarked for 
Gibraltar, where he remained some years till recalled to fill a staff 
commission in that corps. Soon after the commencement of the 
war with France, having been promoted to a company, he was 
detached with it to the West Indies, where, under General Bruce 
and Sir Charles Grey, he very eminently distinguished himself in 
the eventful campaigns of that period, and ultimately succeeded to 
the command of the Artillery. He was aide-de-camp both to 
Lord Cornwallis and to Lord Chatham when they were Masters 
General of the Ordnance ; and in the expedition to the Helder 
he embarked with Sir Ralph Abercromby, and in the various 
situations which the events of that campaign produced, his active 
exertions were most eminently conspicuous. Shortly after his 
return to England it became necessary for the general good of 
the country that an incorporation should be made of the corps 
of Royal Irish Artillery with that of England. In this most 
delicate service, with which he was intrusted by Lord Cornwallis, 
then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he had the principal share in 
arranging the union of the two corps, which was ultimately 
effected notwithstanding the obstacles opposed to it. Sir Francis 
died at his house in Bruton Street, Berkeley Square, in January 
1805, in his forty-ninth year, and was buried at Plumstead. 
A contemporary account says of him : * Early introduced into 
life, no man was perhaps more indebted to nature for those 
excellences which are calculated to gain the esteem and favour of 
the world — no man enjoyed them to a greater extent. Handsome 
in his person,^ graceful in action, and accomplished in manners, he 

* Sir Charles Russell has an oil-painting of him by Linnell, copied from a 
miniature by Engleheart 



300 The two Lords IVhitworth 

early attracted the esteem and admiration of his associates. In 
his further progress in life these endowments were but in him 
secondary, for to them was added a disposition and temper 
peculiarly kind and conciliatory, which he universally and 
successfidly exerted for the interests and happiness of the 
society in which he lived/ 

Sir Charles Whitworth*s two remaining sons were both 
drowned. Richard, born 1755, was a lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy, and during the American war was on the * Roebuck,' 
commanded by Sir Andrew Snape Hammond, in the squadron 
under Admiral Graves off the Chesapeake. Young Whitworth 
volunteered to carry in a small vessel to Lord Howe the 
intelligence of the arrival of the French fleet oflF the coast. In 
the evening his vessel was seen making a press of sail to get 
through the French fleet, and it must have been lost, for it never 
again was seen or heard of. This took place in 1777, when he 
was in his twenty-second year.^ 

Robert Whitworth, Sir Charleses youngest son, was drowned 
the following year in the Thames. He was a * King's Scholar,' 
aged sixteen, at Westminster, and went out in a small boat with 
three other youths, the sons of Mr. Fenton and Dr. Warren. The 
boat capsized opposite Vauxhall, and Dr. Warren's son alone was 
saved. Robert Whitworth was buried on May 13, 1778, in the 
south cloister of St. Peter's, Westminster Abbey. 

Charles Whitworth (afterwards Earl Whitworth), the eldest 
son of Sir Charles Whitworth by his wife, Martha Rose Shelley, 
and grand-nephew of Charles, Lord Whitworth, after whom he 
was named, was born in 1752 at Leybourne Grange, Kent, and 
baptised there on May 29. He was educated at Tonbridge 
School under James Cawthorn, the poet, and Towers, the trans- 

' Sir Charles Russell has an oil-painting of him. 



The two Lords iVhitworth 301 

lator of Caesar and other classics. On leaving this academy he 
entered the Army, with a commission in the ist Regiment of Foot 
Guards, in 1772, and attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 
1783 ; but that mauvaise langue Wraxall says he was more distin- 
guished during this period of his career by success in gallantries 
than by anything else. He was conspicuous for his good looks, fine 
presence, and charming manners, so it is not surprising to hear 
that when John Frederick, third Duke of Dorset, the Ambassador 
at Paris, who was his intimate friend, introduced him into French 
society he should have had great succis with the ladies of the 
Court ; but, more than this, he made a very fevourable impression 
upon the Queen (Marie Antoinette), who not only distinguished 
him by flattering marks of her attention, but interested herself in 
promoting his fortune, and, when he quitted the Army and aspired 
to enter the Corps Diplomatique, recommended his interests to 
the Duke of Dorset, who, not without great difficulty, at length 
obtained for him, in the year 1786, the appointment of Minister 
Plenipotentiary to the Court of Stanislas Auguste Poniatowski, 
King of Poland. Warsaw was then the centre of intrigues, but 
Colonel Whitworth at once justified the interest shown in him, 
and gave great satisfaction during the two years he remained 
there, which included the troublous period immediately pre- 
ceding the second partition. Recalled from Warsaw early in 
1788-9, he was in the following August selected and nominated 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court 
of Russia, where he remained nearly twelve years. We are told 
he was * well received by the Empress Catherine,* and the words 
of the poet ^ thus described his arrival : 

Suppose him then at Petersburgh ; suppose 
That pleasant capital of painted snows ; 

^ Lord Byron intended them as a description of Colonel Whitworth. 



302 The two Lords JVhitworth 

Suppose him in a handsome uniform ; 

A scarlet coat, black facings, a long plume. 
Waving, like sails new shiver'd in a storm, 

Over a cocked hat in a crowded room. 
And brilliant breeches, bright as a cairngorme, 

Of yellow kerseymere we may presimie, 
White stockings drawn, uncurdled as new milk, 
O'er limbs whose symmetry set off the silk ; ^ 

Suppose him sword by side, and hat in hand. 
Made up by youth, fame, and an army tailor — 

That great enchanter, at whose rod's command 
Beauty springs forth, and Nature's self turns paler. 

Seeing how Art can make her work more grand 
(When she don't pin men's limbs in like a jailor). 

The courtiers stared, the ladies whisper'd, and 

The Empress smiled ; the reigning favourite frown'd— 

I quite forget which of them was in hand 
Just then, as they are rather numerous found, 

Who took by turns that difficult command 
Since first her Majesty was singly crown'd ; 

But they were mostly nervous six-foot fellows, 

And fit to make a Patagonian jealous. 

Catherine, I say, was very glad to see 

The handsome herald, on whose plumage sat 

Victory ; and, pausing as she saw him kneel 
With his despatch, forgot to break the seal. 

Her Majesty look'd down, the youth look'd up — 

And so they fell in love — she with his face. 
His grace, his God-knows-what. 

^ The writer has a charming mezzotint of Captain Whitworth, engraved by 
Robert Laurie from a portrait by A. Graff, which depicts him at this age and in 
I uniform with a cocked hat ; and we may add that Lord Whitworth was celebrated 

i for the symmetry of his leg. 



Coi.. Chai»i.i;s Whitworth, afterwards Haul Whitworth. 

Vnm ,• M.iihili're hy Caff. 



The two Lords IVhitworth 303 

He, on the other hand, if not in love, 

Fell into that no less imperious passion, 
Self-love — which, when some sort of thing above 

Ourselves, a singer, dancer, much in fashion. 
Or duchess, princess, empress, * deigns to prove * 

('Tis Pope's phrase) a great longing, though a rash one. 
For one especial person out of many. 
Makes us believe ourselves as good as any. 



And Catherine (we must say thus much for Catherine), 
Though bold and bloody, was the kind of thing 

Whose temporary passion was quite flattering. 
Because each lover look*d a sort of king. 

All the ambassadors of all the Powers 
Inquired, * Who was this very new young man. 

Who promised to be great in some few hours ? ' 
Which is full soon (though life is but a span). 

Already they beheld the silver showers 
Of rubles rain, as fast as specie can, 

Upon his cabinet, besides the presents 

Of several ribbons, and some thousand peasants. 



Juan, who found himself, he knew not how, 

A general object of attention, made 
His answers with a very graceful bow. 

As if born for the ministerial trade ; 
Though modest, on his unembarrassed brow 

Nature had written * Gentleman.' He said 
Little, but to the purpose, and his manner 
Flung hovering graces o'er him like a banner. 

Allowing for poetical licence, there seems no doubt that 
Colonel Whitworth, or * Milord Witford,* as he was then called 



304 The two Lords Whitworth 

at Petersburg, seized the Empress's fleeting fiincy ; and even 
after ZoubofF became chief fevourite (in 1789) he maintained his 
influence over her through one of her ladies, the beautiful 
Princess or Countess GerebtsoflF (or JerebzoflT),^ ZoubofTs sister, 
who became desperately enamoured of the handsome Ambassador, 
and continued so for many years, to his cost, as will be seen 
later. The Empress frequently passed her evenings in the 
society of Platon ZouboflF,^ Princess GerebtsoflF, and * Milord 
Witford,' and they played whist at ten roubles the rubber, also 
rocambole, piquet, and Boston, always for very low stakes. The 
Empress was on these occasions surrounded by her English grey- 
hounds, the original pair having been given her by Dr. Dimsdale, 
whom she sent for from London in 1768 to inoculate her.® 
The head of the race of greyhounds she called * Sir Tom 
Anderson,* and his spouse * Duchess Anderson * 1 

In 1 79 1, in consequence of Pitt's foreign policy, Mr. 
Whitworth went out of favour with the Czarina, and she said to 
him one day ironically, * Sir, since Mr. Pitt is determined to 
drive me out of Petersburg, I hope he will permit me to retire 
to Constantinople.' Peace between Russia and the Porte was 
concluded at Galatz in August 1791, partly owing to the threats of 
England. Better terms for Turkey might have been obtained had 
not Pitt been thwarted by Mr. Adair, who was sent to Petersburg 



1 It is also written Jerebstof. 

3 Masson says : * Les demi^res anndes de sa vie (Catherine) ZoubofTsetrouvait 
k la lettre Empereur de toutes les Russies.' 

' The Empress was the first, or almost the first, in her empire to be inoculated. 
A boy of seven, called Morkoff, who had been inoculated first of all, in order to 
inoculate from him, was ennobled, and was given the surname of Ospiennzi (ospa ■> 
smallpox). The family of this name, now occupying a high position in Russia, 
owes its fortune to this ancestor. Dr. Dimsdale received the title of Baron and a 
pension of j^5oo. 



The two Lords Whitworth 305 

by Fox for that purpose.^ The Empress, to mortify the allied 
Powers, pkced Adair on her right hand in the place of honour, 
and on the conclusion of the peace gave presents exactly of the 
same kind to both him and Mr. Whitworth, but of greater value 
to the representative of Mr. Fox. Mr. Whitworth took his 
revenge in the following manner. The Empress asked him, 
* Est-ce un homme trfes considerable ce Mr. D'Ada ? * * Pas 
trop, Madame,* answered Mr. Whitworth, * quoique son pfere itait 
grand Satgneur.' (Alluding to the fact that Adair's father was 
a surgeon.) Gradually the Ambassador more than recovered 
his position, probably through the influence of the ZoubofFs. 
Baroness de Bode (nSe Kynnersley) writes in 1795 of having 
been from Petersburg to Finland with * a most agreeable party 
of pleasure, consisting of Sir Charles Whitworth * (the Ambas- 
sador had been made a K.B. in 1792 for his share of Jassy), *his 
nephew Aylmer,^ Count ZoubofF's sister and her son, and his 
tutor, a French abb6, all the party agreeing vastly well together.* 
Mme. de Bode appears to ignore the well-known liaison 
which existed between Mme. de GerebtsofF and the English 
Ambassador.^ Mr. Childe-Pemberton, in his Memoirs of the 
Baroness de Bode, says ^ propos of this : * The ZousbofF were in 

^ This furnished a stanza to a squib which appeared in the Anti-Jacobin called 
A Bit of an Ode to Fox.' Adair is introduced in the character of a goose : 

* I mount, I mount, into the sky : 
Sweet bird, to Petersburg I fly, 

Or, if you bid, to Paris. 
Fresh missions for the Fox and goose 
Successful treaties may produce, 

Though Pitt in all miscarries.' 

' Matthew, fifth Baron Aylmer. At the death of Lord Whitworth, he assumed 
by royal permission the surname of Whitworth before that of Aylmer, and the 
arms of Whitworth in addition to those of Aylmer. 

' Mme. de GerebtsofF maintained that Lord Whitworth had promised he 
would marry her if ever she got a divorce from her husband. 



3o6 The two Lords JVhitworth 

consequence of it Anglophile in their tendencies and tastes, and 
Mme. de GerebtsofF is said to have so far indulged her love 
of English fashions and of Sir Charles, as to substitute at his 
instigation the unheard-of innovation of late dining, according 
to the vogue of London, for the practice, then invariable at 
St. Petersburg, of dining at the early hour of 2.30.' ^ Mme. 
Vigie Ic Brun tells how she and her daughter, being en- 
gaged to dine with that lady, arrived at 2.30, but that *une 
heure, deux heures se passent • . . vers six heures ma pauvre 
fille et moi, nous itions tellement aflamie . . . je me sentais 
tout-i-fiiit mourante. Ce ne fut qu'i sept heures et demie 
qu'enfin Ton vint nous dire que Ton itait servi ; mais nos 
pauvres estomacs avaient trop soufFert. U nous fiit impossible 
de manger — thanks to Sir Charles Whitworth/ 

The Empress at last gave way to the solicitations of the 
British Minister and agreed to support the league against France. 
She also promised to join the English fleet with a squadron 
of twelve ships and eight frigates, and to provide at least 60,000 
men in return for a large sum of money. This treaty was 
* justly regarded as a triumph for Whitworth's diplomacy,* 
though, unfortunately, just before the date fixed for its final 
ratification by both countries, the Empress Catherine II. died 
suddenly of apoplexy (February 1795). Her son and successor, 
the Emperor Paul I., commonly called *the mad Czar,* who 
hated the memory of his mother in consequence of the manner 
in which she had always treated him, set to work from the 
moment of his accession to reverse all Catherine's policy and to 
annul all her decisions. One of his first acts, therefore, was to 

^ The Empress's hour for dining was earlier than this. Waliszewski tells us 
that * up to the time of the Swedish war, dinner was at one o'clock ; afterwards 
the hour was put off till two, at which it remained.' 



The two Lords JVhitworth 307 

refuse to sign the treaty put forward by Sir Charles Whitworth, 
though the latter did later on manage to carry it through. 

Among Paul's autocratic reforming ukases at this time was 
one forbidding the wearing of frock-coats, pantaloons, or round 
hats, the latter being his particular aversion. Whenever a round 
hat was seen it was snatched off by the police ; and Sir Charles 
says that he saw large numbers of persons of all grades bare- 
headed in the streets, the stock of privileged headgear not being 
equal to the demand. Sir Charles used his influence to get the 
ukase modified so &r as it affected strangers, and the police were 
ordered merely to detain the wearer of a round hat till he proved 
he was not a Russian. There was a special decree passed by the 
Czar for the dress of Englishmen — namely, a three-cornered hat, 
a long queue with a curl at the end of it, a single-breasted coat 
and vest, buckles instead of latches at the knee-breeches and shoes. 

Individually Paul was friendly to Sir Charles, who was 
included in many of the dinners and petits soupers given at the 
time of the coronation ; and at the Court balls, where it was not 
etiquette for the Ambassador to dance, we hear of him playing at 
piquet with the Empress. The now dethroned King of Poland, 
Stanislas, who lived at Grodno on a pension allowed him by the 
three sovereigns who had divided his kingdom, arrived in Peters- 
burg at Paul's invitation, after thirty years' absence, to take part in 
the coronation, Stackelberg, formerly Ambassador to Poland, 
being nominated to act as his chamberlain. In the King's 
Journal he makes frequent mention of *M. de With wort,' 
who entertained, and was entertained by him.^ Mme. Vigie 
le Brun in her * Souvenirs' says she used constantly to meet 

^ Stanislas's dinners and suppers were most recherchdy his maitre d^hdtel^ 
Fremeau, being famed. The ex-King was evidently a gourmet. Sir Charles 
Whitworth tells us of a supper given by Stanislas in honour of Princess Dolgo- 
roukt's birthday for which he (Sir Charles) provided * the first oysters ' which were 

X 2 



3o8 The two Lords JVhitworth 

*Lord Wilford* at Mes petits soupers du Roi de Pologne,* 
where the Marquis de Rivifere made up the partie carrUy and 
she says : ^ Apr^s le souper il s*£tablissait constamment une 
causerie charmante/ Sir Charles had staying with him his 
nephew, Mr. Lloyd, who also partook of Stanislas's hospi- 
tality. At Gaczyna, formerly the residence of Gr6goire OrlofF 
(one of Catherine's lovers), which was the Emperor's fevourite 
residence. Sir Charles Whitworth was the only diplomat besides 
Count Dietrichstein invited to the Empress's ftte ; Sir Charles 
stayed in the Palace with the King of Poland as the guest of 
the Emperor. He mentions an affecting incident which took 
place while he was there : when Stanislaus presented the Empress 
on her ftte-day with a magnificent oljet d*art which had formerly 
belonged to Marie Antoinette, the Princesse de Tarente (grand- 
daughter of Louise de la Valliire), who was present, was much 
overcome and burst into tears. She was deeply attached to that 
unfortunate Queen and was herself in prison during the Reign of 
Terror. One of Robespierre's satellites said to her, " Si vous 
dites : Je hais la Reine, vous aurez votre liberti.' She answered, 
*Je I'ai toujours aimie, aujourd'hui je I'adore.' At Moscow, 
during the coronation festivities. Sir Charles dined with King 
Stanislas and met Cobentzel, the Austrian Ambassador, Prince 
Repnin and his wife and daughter, and Princess Radziwill nie 
Przezdziecka, and another night the King dined with Sir Charles, 
the remainder of the party being M. Tremo, Baron de Steding 
(Swedish Ambassador), the Chevalier Itorla (Portuguese minister). 
Count Dietrichstein, Baron de Leykam, and Mr. Lloyd. When 
Stanislas went to Kamienny-ostrow, which the Emperor had 
occupied during Catherine's life, and which he now gave to the 

much appreciated. This supper appears to have been lively, and after it the Duke 
de Crussol sang a song in honour of the King of Poland. 



The two Lords Whitworth 309 

King of Poland as his summer residence, he sent for Sir Charles 
the first day to sup with him as well as Count Golowkin, 
M. Waleki, Cobentzel, Count Chreptowiez, and Prince and 
Princess Dolgorouki. Sir Charles says they all went en chaloupCy 
followed by another full of musicians. Early the next year the 
ci-devant king died somewhat suddenly of apoplexy brought on 
by his long-continued worries. 

In 1798 Sir Charles * obtained the adhesion of the Czar to 
an alliance with Great Britain, with the object of putting a stop 
to the encroachments of France ; ' but on the British seizure 
of Malta, Paul grew furious and abruptly dismissed the English 
Ambassador. He wanted to become Grand Master quite as 
much from the desire of appearing in a picturesque dress 
before his latest fancy, Princess Lapoukine, as from any political 
consideration, and he actually sat on his throne several times in 
this costume. 

Mrs. Richard Trench tells the following ridiculous story in 
her * Remains ' : ' One assigned cause for Sir Charles Whit- 
worth*s disgrace with the Court of Russia is curious. The 
Emperor had given orders no empty carriage should pass a 
certain part of the palace. Sir Charles, ignorant of this, had 
left his coach to speak with a workman, and desired it might 
drive on and meet him at a distance. The sentinel stopped the 
carriage, the servants insisted on driving on, a scuffle ensued. 
The Emperor, ever on the watch about trifles, inquired into the 
cause of the dispute, and, on learning it, ordered the servants 
to be beat, the horses to be beat, and the coach to be beat 
(Xerxes lashing the sea). Sir Charles Whitworth, by way of 
washing off this stain, ordered the servants to be discharged, his 
horses to be shot, his carriage, after being broken into a thousand 
pieces, to be thrown into the river. The Emperor, indignant 
at this mark of offended pride, insisted on his recall.' 



3IO The two Lords JVhitworth 

On his return from Russia Sir Charles was created, on 
March 21, 1800, a peer of Ireland by the title of Baron Whit- 
worth of Newton Pratt, in the county of Galway, and soon after 
he was sent as Plenipotentiary Extraordinary to Copenhagen on 
a special mission, the seizure of a Danish frigate having induced 
strained relations with that Court. The mission was backed by 
a strong squadron. After a considerable time elapsed in dis- 
cussion, an adjustment at last took place in August 1800, and 
Lord Whitworth returned to England. 

Soon after his arrival in London he presented himself to the 
Duchess of Dorset, whom he did not know before. She was 
the widow of his friend John Frederick, Duke of Dorset (who 
had died the year previously), and was thirty-three years of age, 
the daughter of Sir Charles Cope, Bart., of Brewerne, by 
Catherine, sister of Lord De La Zouche, and was rich as well 
as good-looking,^ * a capable woman,* says Wraxall, * with a taste 
for power and pleasure.* Lord Whitworth was now forty-eight 
years of age, and a very handsome man, described as noble- 
looking and commanding in person, and combining the 
most dignified deportment with the most conciliating manner. 
So far as his looks are concerned, this account is certainly 
j ustified by the canvas of Sir Thomas Lawrence, who painted him 
more than once.^ After a short courtship they became engaged, 
and were married by special licence at Dorset House, Whitehall, 
on April 7, 1801. The Duchess*s income was thirteen thousand 
a year, and she held the borough of East Grinstead for life, and 
eventually Dorset House and Knole, and another nine thousand 
a year passed into her hands.^ 

^ There are two portraits of her at Knole : one by Madame Le Brun, and 
a full-length by Hoppner. Isabey also did a lovely one of her. 

' One of these portraits is at Knole, one at Swallowfield, and one at the Louvre. 

* In a letter from Lady Wellesley to her husband, she says : ' The race of the 
Duchesses is run, and Dorset is the winner,' alluding to the fact that two other 
Duchesses, Leeds and Newcastle, were in the running ! 



ABA11B1J.» D.ASA, DUCHKSB OK DoHSHT 

W,r» „7 Cn««.-i.. E..,. W.iit.o.t,. 



The two Lords JVhitworth 311 

Meanwhile, according to some accounts, the Princess 
GerebtsofF had succeeded in procuring her divorce, and was on 
her way to England. At Leipzig she read in a newspaper that 
Lord Whitworth's marriage to the Duchess of Dorset was ex- 
pected to take place shortly. She hurried forward, but when she 
arrived in London she learnt that she was too late. The fair 
Russian was very irate, and her protestations became so great that 
Lord Whitworth had to buy her off with ^10,000.^ 

In 1 802 Lord Whitworth, having been previously sworn of 
the Privy Council, was appointed Ambassador and Plenipoten- 
tiary to the French Republic, and in November proceeded to Paris, 
accompanied by the Duchess and her children, Mr. Talbot (the 
secretary of Embassy), Mr. Mandeville (secretary), Mr. Hodgson 
(chaplain), and Dr. Maclaurin. 

G)lonel Whitworth, Lord Whitworth's brother, and Captain 
the Hon. Edward Pierrepont, also formed part of Lord Whit- 
worth's staff. The Embassy was in the Caraman mansion. 
Faubourg du Roule, and Maria Edgeworth, in writing to Mrs. 
Sneyd from Paris in November 1 802, says : Mt is a singular 
circumstance that Lord Whitworth, the new Ambassador, has 
brought to Paris the same horses and the same wife, and lives 
in the same house, as the last Ambassador did eleven years ago ' 
(she alludes to the Duke of Dorset). 

On November 10, writing from Calais, Lord Whitworth 
says : * We arrived here this day at three o'clock after a pleasant 
passage of four hours and a half. We were received on our 
landing by an immense concourse of people, and with much 
huzzaing. The guns were fired and flags displayed. When we 

^ This lady died at an advanced age, having amassed an immense fortune. 
Another account of her visit to London is quite different, and says she came with 
her husband ! 



312 The two Lords Whitworth 

arrived at our Inn, where I found a Captain's guard mounted, 
I was complimented by the constituted authorities, consisting 
of the Mayor, the Commissary-General Margand, the Juge de 
Paix, &c., then came General Barbasande at the head of the 
officers of the garrison, and after them the " poissardes " with a 
present of fish — in short nothing was wanting. After dinner we 
were formally invited to assist at the theatre, in order, as it was 
said by the Mayor, that the public might have an opportunity of 
seeing what had been so long and ardently desired, an English 
Ambassador in France. We could not resist an invitation on 
such grounds, and we were received with great enthusiasm. 
" God save the King " was struck up and played for a quarter of 
an hour, but almost drowned by the applause of the whole house, 
who followed our example of standing up while it was playing, 
in the good old English fashion.* 

Six days later Lord Whitworth writes from Paris announcing 
his arrival and describing his visit to Talleyrand. He says : 
* Were it permitted to judge of his disposition by the manner in 
which he received me, and by the terms in which he answered 
the assurances I gave him of the conciliatory tendency of my 
instructions, I might look forward to some degree of satisfaction 
in my intercourse with him. I communicated to him a copy of 
my credentials, and upon my requesting that he would take the 
First Consul's orders on the subject of my presentation, he told 
me that he did not apprehend that there would be any opportunity 
until the regular day of presentation, which is in something less 
than three weeks.* The First Consul did, however, see Lord Whit- 
worth one day sooner than the usual reception day, the ceremonial 
being as follows. The First Consul sent three of his carriages : 
one, with six horses, conveyed Lord Whitworth and a Prefect 
of the Palace ; the other two carriages, drawn by four horses, 



The two Lords Whitworth 313 

conveyed Mr. Talbot and the gentlemen attached to the 
Embassy ; and Lord Whitworth*s own carriage, drawn by six 
horses, followed empty. ' In this order,* says Lord Whitworth, 
* I set out on Sunday last for the Tuileries, and was conducted 
to the Audience Chamber, at the upper end of which stood the 
First Consul with the Second ^ and Third ^ Consuls on his right 
and left, — the Ministers, Generals, &c, behind him, and the 
Corps Diplomatique in a circle in front. I was led through the 
open space thus formed, by M. Talleyrand, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, and two Prefects of the Palace to the First Consul, and 
in presenting my credentials made use of the following ex- 
pressions: "J'ai I'honneur, G6n6ral Premier Consul, de vous 
presenter la lettre de cre&nce du Roi mon maitre en quality de 
son Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plinipotentaire aupr^s de la 
R6publique franjaise. Je vous prie d'ajouter foi aux sentiments 
qui y sont exprimis. Vous n'y trouverez, Giniral Premier 
Consul, que le disir sincere du Roi mon mattre de maintenir 
avec vous les relations de paix et d*amiti6." After the First 
Consul had received the credentials, and delivered them to 
M. Talleyrand, he replied : " Je suis trfes sensible \ ce que vous 
venez me dire des sentiments du Roi, et je vous prie d'assurer 
Sa Majesti que je desire ardemment avec elle, non seulement la 
paix, mais la meilleure intelligence. J'espfere que lorsqu'on me 
connaltra mieux, on me rendra la justice d'etre persuade de ma 
sinc6rit6. Je ripite toujours, c*est de la paix entre nos deux 
grandes nations que depend le bonheur du monde.'* He then 
asked me a few questions about my journey, and I fell back 
in the circle, where the English gentlemen who were to be 
presented were placed. In a few minutes he came round, and 
after conversing for a short time on indifferent subjects, I 

^ Cambac^r^s. ^ Lebrun. 



314 7"^ two Lords Whitworth 

presented, one after the other, six-and-thirty persons. He 
spoke a few words to each, and when he had done, on my 
apologising for having given him so much trouble, he addressed 
himself to the English collectively, and said : ^* Messieurs, je suis 
charmi de vous voir ici ; je desire que vous vous y amusiez, 
et qu'en retournant chez vous, vous emportiez Tassurance de 
Testime de cette nation pour la v6tre, et que leur bonne 
intelligence est nicessaire \ la tranquillity du monde. . . .'* 
We then proceeded to the apartment of Madame Bonaparte, 
where I was presented by the Prefect. She received us very 
afiably, but with a great deal of embarrassment. From thence I 
was conducted home, where I found an invitation to dine at six 
o*clock at the First Consul's. I accordingly went there with 
Mr. Merry.^ At this dinner were present Madame Bonaparte, 
the family of the First Consul, and her own, with several ladies 
attached to her person, the Foreign Ministers and their wives, 
and about two hundred and fifty others. After this dinner, 
which did not last above half an hour, the First Consul repeated 
in conversation the substance of what he had said to me 
more formally in the morning, and talked a considerable 
time of indifferent matters, with the greatest ease and aflfability. 
I yesterday, in compliance with what was signified to me as the 
established etiquette, made a visit to the Second and Third 
Consuls, sending previously to them to fix a time, and then 
to the individuals of the First Consul's femily — to Joseph, 
Lucien, Louis, his mother, and a sister. I left my name with 
them as well as with the Ministers of the country, &c. &c. 
A few days later the Duchess of Dorset was introduced to 
the First Consul and Madame Bonaparte at St. Cloud. She was 
received with every possible mark of civility and attention. The 

^ The British Agent 



The two Lords Whitworth 315 

Prefect-in-Waiting (the Master of the Ceremonies of this 
country) was ready to receive her on stepping from the carriage, 
and conducted her upstairs into the apartment where the circle 
was awaiting the arrival of the First Consul. The fauteuil next 
to Madame Bonaparte was kept vacant for her. ... I have 
already begun my round of dinners. The Duchess has received 
and returned a visit to M. Talleyrand, and, furthermore, intends 
to accept the invitation, which she has received conjointly with 
me, to dine with M. Talleyrand. This will be a great diploma- 
tique dinner, and of course no person admitted but such as the 
Duchess of Dorset can meet with propriety. The same might 
not be, perhaps, the case at other times or in other places ; but 
we have thought that the line which we are disposed to draw 
with regard to society should not extend to the house of the 
Minister for Foreign Ailairs, with whom it is my duty to be 
chiefly in relation, and the more particularly when the lady who 
presides in his house bears his name, and is in fact married to 
him, as far as the sanction of the Romish Church can make such 
a marriage lawful.' ^ 

After numerous preliminary conferences with Talleyrand on 
the subject of the retention of Malta by the English Govern- 
ment, Bonaparte sent for Lord Whitworth on February 17, and 
a long and important interview took place, which was unsatis- 
factory to both. Napoleon talked incessantly for upwards of two 
hours, flying from one subject to another, and scarcely ever gave 
Lord Whitworth an opportunity of sajring a word ; the latter, 
however, did not attempt to press his arguments, as he saw the 
First Consul was losing his temper. In giving an account 
of this interview, Lord Whitworth says : * The First Consul 
received me in his cabinet at the Tuileries with tolerable 

^ Talleyrand married Mme. Grandt 



3i6 The two Lords JVhitworth 

cordiality, and after talking on different subjects for a few 
minutes he desired me to sit down, as he himself did on the 
other side of the table, upon which he placed his elbows and 
began. He told me that he felt it necessary, after what had 
passed between me and M. de Talleyrand, that he should in 
the most clear and authentic manner make known his senti- 
ments to me in order to their being communicated to his 
Majesty, He said that it was a matter of infinite disappoint- 
ment to him that the Treaty of Amiens, instead of being 
followed by conciliation and friendship, had been productive only 
of continual and increasing jealousy. He now enumerated the 
several provocations which he pretended to have received from 
England. He placed in the first line our not evacuating Malta 
and Alexandria as we were bound to do by the treaty. In this 
he said that no consideration on earth should make him acquiesce, 
and of the two he had rather see us in possession of the 
Faubourg St. Antoine than Malta. He then adverted to the 
abuse thrown out against him in the English public prints, but 
this he said he did not so much regard as that which appeared in 
the French papers published in London.^ . . . He now went 
back to Egypt, and told me that if he had felt the smallest 
inclination to take possession of it by force he might have done 
it a month ago, &c. . . .' 

A few days later Lord Whitworth tells us he had a most 
interesting conversation with Joseph Bonaparte in which he 
deplored in very strong terms the calamities which the question 

* A few days after Lord Whitworth received by the petite poste a copy of the 
Courrier de Londres^ containing a most violent attack against the First Consul and 
his family, and the following words were written in a disguised hand on the margin 
of the paper : * II faut qu'un minist^re ait bien peu d'honneur et de bonne politique 
pour payer de pareilles infamies, et lorsqu'en m^me tems on envoie un ambassadeur 
k Paris, c'est une lichet^ ; ' and Lord Whitworth believed that this was written by 
the First Consul. 



The two Lords IVhitworth 317 

of Malta was likely to draw down upon France, and said that 
the determination of the First Consul was fixed, and that all 
the reasoning of his friends was unavailing. Three days later, 
on Sunday, March 13, occurred the celebrated scene between 
Napoleon and Lord Whitworth. The generally received version 
of what took place is that Napoleon got so violent that Lord 
Whitworth expected to be struck, and that in that case the 
Ambassador was prepared to run his sword through the body 
of the First Consul ; but we have not only Napoleon's but Lord 
Whitworth*s account of what occurred, which shows this to be 
considerably exaggerated. Barry O'Meara says : * I asked him 
[Napoleon] his opinion of Lord Whitworth. " Un homme habile, 
un intrigant," said he, " a man of address — un bel homme — ^your 
Ministers had no reason to complain of him, for he answered 
their purposes well. The account which was published by your 
Ministers of his interview with me was plein de fausset6s. No 
violence of manner or impropriety of language was used by me. 
The ambassadors could not conceal their surprise when they 
read such a mass of misrepresentations, and publicly pronounced 
it to be false. His wife, the Duchess of Dorset, was greatly dis- 
liked by the English in Paris. They said publicly that she was 
sotte with pride. There was much disagreement between her 
and many English ladies about presentation at Court. She 
refused to introduce any who had not previously been pre- 
sented at St. James's.' 

Lord Whitworth's account written to Lord Hawkesbury ^ is 
as follows : 

* Paris : March 14, 1803. 

* Until yesterday, Sunday, I saw no one likely to give me 

^ Lord Hawkesbury, then Minister for Foreign Affairs, afterwards Earl of 
Liverpool and Prime Minister, died early in 1827. 



3i8 The two Lords Whitworth 

any information as to the effect which his Majesty's message 
had had on the temper of the First Consul. I was, however, on 
that day a witness of, and in some degree a sufferer by, its 
violence. At the Court which was held at the Tuileries, and the 
which I attended for the purpose of introducing some English 
gentlemen and ladies to Madame Bonaparte, he accosted me, 
evidently under very considerable agitation. He began by 
asking me if I had any news from England. I told him that 
I had received letters from your Lordship two days ago. He 
immediately said, ** So you are determined to go to war." " No, 
Premier Consul," I replied, " we are too sensible of the advantage 
of peace." " Nous avons," said he, " d^jlt fait la guerre pendant 
quinze ans." As he seemed to wait for an answer, I observed 
only, " C'en est d6ji trop." " Mais," said he, ** vous voulez la 
faire encore quinze annies et vous m'y forcez." I told him that 
was very far from his Majesty's intentions. He then proceeded 
to Count Marcoff and the Chevalier Azzara, who were standing 
together at a little distance from me, and said to them — ^^ Les 
Anglais veulent la guerre, mais s'ils sont les premiers It tirer 
r6p6e, je serai le dernier k la remettre. lis ne respectent pas 
les trait6s. II feut dordnavant les couvrir de crftpe noir." I 
suppose he meant the treaties. He then went his round, and 
was thought by all those to whom he addressed himself to betray 
great signs of irritation. In a few minutes he came back to 
me, to my great annoyance, and resumed the conversation, if 
such it can be called, by something personally civil to me. He 
then began again : ^^ Pourquoi des armements ? contre qui des 
mesures de precaution ? Je n'ai pas un seul vaisseau de ligne 
dans les ports de France, mais si vous voulez armer, j'armerai 
aussi ; si vous voulez vous battre, je me battrai aussi. Vous 
pourrez peut-Atre tuer la France, mais jamais Tintimider." ** On 



The two Lords Whitworth 319 

ne voudrait," said I, " ni Tun ni I'autre. On voudrait vivre en 
bonne intelligence avec elle." " U feut done respecter les trait6s," 
replied he ; " malheur ^ ceux qui ne respectent pas les trait6s 1 
lis en seront responsables ^ toute I'Europe." He was too 
agitated to make it advisable to prolong the conversation ; I 
therefore made no answer, and he retired to his apartment 
repeating the last phrase. It is to be remarked that all this 
passed loud enough to be overheard by 200 people who were 
present. I was fortunate enough not to be betrayed into 
anything imprudent or which could be misconstrued ; I am 
persuaded that there was not a single person who did not feel 
the extreme impropriety of his conduct and the total want ot 
dignity as well as of decency on the occasion. I propose taking 
the first opportunity of telling M. de Talleyrand that I go to the 
Tuileries to pay my respects to the First Consul and to Madame 
Bonaparte, but if I am to be attacked there in that public manner 
by the First Consul, on topics which are made to be discussed in 
the Cabinet, I must refrain from presenting myself there until I 
have assurances that the same thing will not happen to me again.' 

Sir Walter Scott says : * It would have been more prudent in 
Napoleon to have left the conduct of the negotiation to Talley- 
rand . • . the character of the English Ambassador was as 
unfavourable for the Chief Consul's probable purpose (to brow- 
beat down all argvunents) as that of the nation he represented. 
Lord Whitworth was possessed of great experience and sagacity. 
His integrity and honour were undoubted ; and, with the 
highest degree of courage, he had a calm and collected disposi- 
tion, admirably calculated to give him the advantage in any 
discussion with an antagonist of a fiery, impatient, and over- 
bearing temper.' 

The following description of what took place on this occasion 



The two Lords IVhitworth 321 

have to answer for it to all Europe, and to God and man. He 
then inquired where the armaments in Holland were going on, 
for he knew of none. Then for a moment he quitted Lord 
Whitworth, and passed all the ladies, addressing Mrs. Greathead 
only, though the Duchess of Gordon and her daughter, Lady 
Georgina, were present. After speaking to several officers in 
the centre of the room, which was crowded, he returned to Lord 
W. and asked why Malta was not given up. Lord W. then 
looked more serious, and said he had no doubt that Malta would 
be given up when the other articles of the Treaty were complied 
with. General B. then left the room, and Madame B. imme- 
diately entered. As soon as the drawing-room was over, 
I observed to Lord W. that it was the first Cabinet Council 
I had ever witnessed ; he laughingly answered, by far the most 
numerously attended. Lord W. then addressed the American 
Minister who was very deaf, and repeated what had passed, and 
I perceived that he was very much offended at what had occurred. 
In justice to the First Consul, I must say that the impropriety 
consisted in the unfitness of the place for such a subject ; the 
tone of his voice was not raised, as was said at the time. He 
spoke in the same tone as when he inquired for the Duchess 
of Dorset.* 

Lord Whitworth had one other interview with Bonaparte on 
April 3, concerning which he says : * The Corps Diplomatique 
were assembled at one o'clock for the purpose of paying their 
compliments to the First Consul. He was, however, occupied 
from that time till five in the evening in inspecting the knapsacks 
of about eight thousand men assembled in the court of the 
Tuileries ! When that ceremony was performed he received us, 
and I had every reason to be satisfied with his manner towards me.' 

From this time the communications between the two govern- 

Y 



322 The two Lords IVhitworth 

ments were formal and constrained and limited exclusively to 
the question concerning Malta. Lord Whitworth agreed to 
lower England's claim of retaining that island in perpetuity to 
that of holding it for ten years, provided the First G>nsul made 
no opposition to the cession by the King of Sicily to the English 
of the island of Lampedusa if that King could be persuaded to 
cede it for a valuable consideration. Bonaparte, however, would 
not listen to any modification of the Treaty of Amiens. In the 
Times of May 7 we read as follows : ^ The painful task which 
we have for some days considered as almost inevitable, falls upon 
us this day ; and it is our duty to announce, that all the efforts 
and forbearance of ministers, all that patience and conciliation for 
which they have been so unjustly blamed, have not been able to 
avert the calamity of WAR. General Andreossi has applied for 
his passport to Lord Hawkesbury, in order that he may take his 
departure for Dover immediately, and may reach Calais by the 
time Lord Whitworth arrives at Dover.* On the night of 
May 12 Lord Whitworth left Paris, and on the i8th Britain 
declared war against France. 

Lord Whitworth had made all arrangements for leaving a 
week sooner,^ but at the last moment, and after their friends had 
taken leave of them, at twelve o'clock at night when Lord 
Whitworth and the Duchess were waiting for their passports, 
Mr. Huber being with them, a servant came into the room to 
say that some one wished to speak to Mr. Huber. On descend- 
ing to the street the latter found Regnault St. Jean d'Angily 
in his carriage, who said that he came from Joseph Bonaparte 

^ We read in the Times of May 9 : ^ The information given in our paper of 
Saturday of the unexpected stay of Lord Whitworth at Paris, produced an extra- 
ordinary and immediate sensation in the City. The Committee for managing the 
Stock Exchange would not suffer business to proceed till the truth of our intelli- 
gence could be ascertained. At their instance the Lord Mayor addressed a note 



The two Lords JVhitworth 323 

to make, through Mr. Huber,^ a proposal to the Ambassador 
which, if he agreed to, might bring the business to a conclusion 
in the course of a few hours, and this was that Malta should be 
put into the hands of the Emperor of Russia. Lord Whitworth 
says : ^ Mr. Huber came upstairs to communicate to me this 
proposal, and I can take no great merit to myself for having 
immediately and without the smallest hesitation declined it.' 

On the declaration of war all Englishmen in France between 
the ages of eighteen and sixty were constituted prisoners of 
war and ordered to be detained for twelve years, and unless 
ditenus gave their parole to abide in certain towns assigned to 
them, they were confined to prison.^ The two packet-boats sent 
from Dover for the remainder of the English Embassy were 
seized and the crews imprisoned. In the midst of the commo- 
tion and distress caused by this state of afiairs, it is amusing to 
read in a letter from Mr. Talbot to Lord Whitworth sent fix)m 
France with a French flag of truce, that although the members 
of the Embassy were detained nolentes volenteSy * the parcel con- 
taining the Duchess's dress for the King's birthday is embarked 
and will leave Calais that evening.' 

The Times tells us that at Lord Whitworth's departure a 
number of persons, whom curiosity or a juster interest had 

to Lord Hawkesbury soliciting information. To this note the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, Henry Addington, wrote a vague reply cautioning the Lord Mayor 
against receiving impressions through any unauthorised channels.' 

^ Mr. Huber was a connection of Necker. He belonged to a Swiss family long 
settled at Lyons. 

' Lord Elgin, late Ambassador at the Porte, who was in a bad state of health, 
was one of these detenus at Pau. He was arrested, and confined in the Chdteau 
de Lourdes, a few leagues from Bareges. Lady Elgin applied to the First Consul 
for his release, to which he would only agree on condition that a French General 
(Boyer) on parole in England should be given up in exchange. To this the 
English Government could not consent ; so after some weeks, during which Lord 
Elgin was treated with great severity, he was allowed to return to Pau. 

y 2 



324 The two Lords Whitworth 

assembled together, were affected even to tears ; and his lordship 
certainly quitted the unfortunate capital of France amid the 
regrets of the people. 

For the next ten years Lord Whitworth remained in retire- 
ment, the greater part of his time being spent at Knole, where 
he was most popular and esteemed by all around him, both high 
and low. When the country was threatened with invasion, he 
raised and clothed at his own expense 6cx) men, called the 
^ Holmesdale Battalion of Infantry,' and he frequently repaired to 
their headquarters at Maidstone. 

In March 1813 he was made Lord of the Bedchamber, in 
June created a peer of Great Britain by the title of Viscount 
Whitworth of Adbaston, co. Staffordshire, and at the same time 
appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in succession to Charles 
Lennox, fourth Duke of Richmond. Two years later he was 
promoted to the Grand Cross of the Bath and created Baron 
Adbaston and Earl Whitworth of Adbaston. 

In Ireland Lord Whitworth's reign was, says Mr. O'Connor 
Morris, ^ much troubled by disturbance and agitation, the result 
of the tithe collection, which was made sometimes with hardship, 
while its incidence was unfair, the poorer tenants being more 
severely mulcted than the wealthier sheep and cattle farmers. 
The peasant soldiers in this campaign against tithe were known 
as * Caravats ' and * Shanavests,' while in the King's County the 
opponents of the system adopted the abominable practice of 
'carding.' Hence it was necessary to renew the Insurrection 
Act. Meanwhile the agitation for complete Catholic emancipa- 
tion was proceeding. It was in Lord Whitworth's time that the 
famous duel took place between O'Connell and D'Esterre, when 
the latter was killed, the scene of the duel being Bishop's Court, 
now the residence of Lord Clonmell, but then the property of 
Lord Ponsonby. 



The two Lords Whitworth 325 

Lord Whitworth's tenure of the Viceregal office was sad- 
dened by the terrible domestic catastrophe which occurred a 
fortnight after this duel. The young Duke of Dorset, who 
had been as his own son ever since he was seven years old, on 
leaving Oxford at the end of 18 14 joined Lord Whitworth and 
his mother in Dublin. On February 13, 18 15, he went to pay a 
few days' visit to his friend and schoolfellow Lord Powerscourt, 
and the day after went out with Lord Powerscourt*s harriers 
round Killiney, mounted on a well-trained Irish mare and 
accompanied by Lord Powerscourt and Mr. Wingfield. Having 
been out for several hours without finding anything, they were 
actually on the point of returning home when a hare sprang up 
and the chase commenced. They had gone but a short distance, 
when the Duke, who was an excellent horseman, rode at a wall. 
The mare cleared it, but alighting among some large stones on 
the other side, turned headlong in the air and came down upon 
her rider, who had not lost his seat, and he was thus crushed 
with his back on a large stone and the mare on his chest. She 
at length disentangled herself and galloped away. The Duke 
sprang upon his feet, saying he believed he was not much hurt, 
and attempted to follow her, but soon fell into the arms of a 
Mr. Farrel who had come to his assistance, and to whose house 
he was conveyed. Lord Powerscourt, leaving his brother to look 
after the Duke, rode ftJl speed to Dublin to get a surgeon, but 
before Messrs. Crampton and Macklin could reach him, life was 
extinct. He lived about an hour after his fall and suffered no pain. 

The young Duke is described as having been endowed with 
great judgment and penetration, possessing, with the accomplish- 
ments of a perfect gentleman, all the qualities of an honest man, 
gentle and engaging manners, and warm and steady in his affec- 
tions. The Dean of Christ Church lamented his departure 



326 The two Lords IVhitworth 

from the University as ^the loss of an example of all that 
was amiable and proper.'^ At Harrow the Duke was fag 
to Lord Byron, and had been, Lord Byron tells us, ^his 
frequent companion in many rambles.' In the ^ Hoiu^ of 
Idleness ' there is a poem addressed to the Duke, written while 
they were both at Harrow, on the eve of Lord Byron's leaving. 
It commences with the following lines : 

D-r-t ! whose early steps with mine have strayM, 
Exploring every path of Ida's glade. 
Whom still affection taught me to defend, 
And made me less a tyrant than a friend ; 
Though the harsh custom of our youthful band 
Bade thee obey, and gave me to command. 

After giving him much good advice, Lord Byron goes on to say : 

Yes I I have markM thee many a passing day, 
But now new scenes invite me far away ; 
Yes ! I have marlcM within that generous mind 
A soul, if well matured, to bless mankind. 
Ah ! though mjrself by nature haughty, wild. 
Whom Indiscretion hail'd her favourite child ; 
Though every error stamps me for her own. 
And dooms my fall, I fain would &11 alone ; 
Though my proud heart no precept now can tame, 
I love the virtues which I cannot claim. 



Fain would I view thee, with prophetic eyes. 
Exalted more among the good and wise ; 
A glorious and a long career pursue. 
As first in rank, the first in talent too ; 
Spurn every vice, each little meanness shun ; 
Not Fortune's minion, but her noblest son. 

^ Mr. Gregory, writing to announce his death to Mr. Peel, says : He was 
surely a most inimitable young man in every good quality.' 



The two Lords IVhitworth jflTf 

The hour draws nigh, a few brief dajrs will close, 

To me, this little scene of joys and woes ; 

Each knell of Time now warns me to resign 

Shades, where Hope, Peace, and Friendship all were mine : 

Hope, that could vary like the rainbow's hue. 

And gild their pinions as the moments flew \ 

Peace, that reflection never frown'd away, 

By dreams of ill to cloud some future day ; 

Friendship, whose truth let childhood only tell ; 

Alas ! they love not long, who love so well. 

To these adieu ! nor let me linger o*er 

Scenes hailM, as exiles hail their native shore. 

Receding slowly through the dark-blue deep. 

Beheld by eyes that mourn, yet cannot weep. 
• •••••• 

D-r-t ! farewell ! I will not ask one part 

Of sad remembrance in so young a heart ; 

The coming morrow from thy youthful mind 

Will sweep my name, nor leave a trace behind. 

• • • but let me cease the lengthen'd strain, — 

Oh ! if these wishes are not breathed in vain. 

The guardian seraph who directs thy fate 

Will leave thee glorious, as he found thee great. 

Moore also wrote some lines of sympathy to the Duchess on the 
occasion of his death : 

We saw the hope you cherished 

For one short hour appear. 
And when that hope had perished 

We gave you tear for tear« 

The Duke's family honours devolved, at his death, upon his 
cousin Charles Germaine (son of Viscount Sackville), who became 
fifth Duke of Dorset, but died in 1843 unmarried, when the 
title became extinct and the representation of the family devolved 



328 The two Lords IVhitworth 

upon the two stepdaughters of Lord Whitworth — Lady Mary, 
married first to the Earl of Plymouth and secondly to Earl Am- 
herst, and died without children in 1864; and Lady Elizabeth, 
married in 18 13 to George John, fifth Earl De La Warr. She 
died 1870, leaving five sons and three daughters : (i) Charles 
Richard, sixth Earl De La Warr, d.s.p. 1873 ; (2) Reginald, 
seventh Earl De La Warr, father of the present Earl ; (3) Morti- 
mer, created Baron Sackville ; (4) Lionel, present Lord Sackville ; 
(5) William Edward ; (6) Mary, married first to second 
Marquis of Salisbury and secondly to Edward, fifteenth Earl 
of Derby ; (7) Elizabeth, married ninth Duke of Bedford ; 
(8) Lady Arabella Diana, married i860 to Sir Alexander Banner- 
man, Bart. 

At the close of the year 1 8 1 5 Lord Whitworth*s health began 
to give way ; and in February 1 8 1 7 Mr. Gregory writes to Peel 
that he is anxious about him, and says : ^ Every public considera- 
tion, every private feeling make Lord Whitworth an object of 
most anxious solicitude. He has made an excellent rule of not 
dining with any one, yet he is more in representation with his 
own dinners, drawing rooms, &c.' ^ In October of that year 
Lord Whitworth left Dublin and took up his residence at 
Knole. Lord Talbot,^ writing thence some little time after, 
says : * I returned to-day from Knole, where you will be glad to 
hear I found our amiable friend as well in health and spirits as 
I ever saw him. He rides 2 or 3 hours without fatigue, eats a 
hearty dinner, and sleeps perfectly well ; you will scarcely believe 
that he again weighs I3st. 2lbs., his former weight. 'Tis to me 

^ * Lord Whitworth entertained with great splendour.'— i/ir. Greg^s Letter- 
box, 

> Earl Talbot succeeded Lord Whitworth as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 
1 81 7, and was himself recalled in December 1821 and replaced by Lord Wellesley. 



The two Lords IVhitworth 329 

the most delightful part of my existence that I pass with him. 
To know Lord Whitworth is to love him.' 

In 18 19, after the restoration of the Bourbons, Lord Whit- 
worth with the Duchess revisited Paris ; and though he went 
in no official capacity, his visit was generally supposed to 
combine a mission of observation. While there he visited both 
Louis XVIIL and the Princes. In the following October he 
and the Duchess went again to Paris on their way to Naples, 
and at the latter place they were received with great distinction. 
In 1820 they were again settled at Knole, and in June the 
following year Lord Talbot writes : * I have just left our ftiend 
Lord Whitworth and the Duchess. Of the latter I will only say 
I never saw her better. Of the former, he is well, but quantum 
mutatus ab illo ! I am happy to think he is perfectly cheerful, 
with a comfortable flow of spirits, good appetite, and enjoying 
the comforts of life, the sight of his friends, &c., but he is much 
reduced, and he seems to want energy and his usual vigour of 
body. Yet I do not apprehend any change, and if the summer 
ever gets like itself, I should hope he will rally sufficiently to 
make a successful stand against the rude attacks of winter. I 
thought we did him good — Slade, the Verulams, Drummond 
and I, the party.* 

Lord Whitworth's last public appearance was in July 1821, 
when he assisted at the coronation of George IV. as ^ Assistant 
Lord Sewer.' 

In March 1824 Lord Talbot writes: *Our friends in 
Grosvenor Square are particularly well ; indeed Lord Whitworth 
is better than I have seen him for many years. He is lively, 
upright, riding out in all weathers, and looking younger than 
ever.^ I dined in company with him at Lord Camden's yester- 

^ Lord Whitworth was now seventy-two years of age. 



330 The two Lords JVhitworth 

day, to meet the Duke of York/ Five months later he writes 
that Lord Whitworth was sadly feeble and had gone to Sandgate. 
And in May of the following year Lord Whitworth died, after 
an illness of only three days, from an attack of indigestion 
following on gout. 

Lord Talbot thus announces his death to Mr. Gregory : 

'May 15, 1825. 

^ It is with a bleeding heart that I communicate to you 
(although you have probably heard it before) the departure from 
this world to a better, of our dear friend Lord Whitworth. 
" He was taken ill on Wednesday and expired on Friday evening. 
He had suffered much, but expired without a struggle. He 
was conscious up to the last and was not aware of his situation/* 
Thus writes Plymouth from Knole. 

* I will not attempt the description of my feelings on this 

painful occasion. They are such as will be common to you and 

to his friends. A greater private loss cannot be imagined. 

Honest, upright, and sincere, he was a pattern to his equals ; 

benevolent, humane, and affectionate, his loss will be felt by all 

classes. In him I lose a second father, a friend in whose honest 

judgement I always could depend, and a Minister in whose 

indulgence my failings always found a lenient judge. May we, 

my dear Gregory, be allowed to meet him and others who have 

preceded us, in regions of happiness, never again to be separated. 

May God bless you and yours, and believe me always your truly 

attached and affectionate 

* Talbot.* 

Lord Whitworth was buried at Sevenoaks Church, where, 
on the north wall, there is a ^ magnificent monument ' to his 
memory, the work of J. S. Carew. Ail the country round, far 



The two Lords Whitworth 331 

and wide, bore testimony to his high deserts by the crowds that 
sorrowed at his grave. It was said at the time that ^ in all the 
private relations of life Lord Whitworth was most exemplary, 
charitable and generous to the poor, benevolent to all classes, 
affable to his equals, and was justly considered a pattern to 
English noblemen.' 

Lord Whitworth left the Duchess his universal legatee, his 
personalty being under ;^70,ooo. She did not survive him 
three months ; she died August i following, and was buried on 
the loth at Withyam, near East Grinstead.^ 

^ The Atmual Register says that besides i6o of the tenants, 22 horsemen 
attended the remains of this lady, and that the expenses of the funeral amounted 

to £2fiOO, 



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338 Addenda 

Illud enim in Nostris nunquam delebile Nomen 
Imponet Fastis quo super astra voles. 

Gloria Virtutum Comes indivulsa sequetur, 
Teq; feret mentis Fama sonora tubis* 

Quisquis es ? hxc tacita tecum si mente revolves 
In tumulis etiam taedia nulla feres. 

EPITAPHIUM. 

Maximus exiguo jacet hoc sub marmore PrcBsuly 
Quam parva ingentem contegit uma virum ! 

Doctrina claruSj nuUi pietate secundus ; 
Exemplar ser(B posteritatis erit. 

Inter opes hie vixit inops ; dum viveret Astris : 
Hinc transmisit opes pauperis ore^ manu. 

Obiit die 6 Mensis/»/i/. Anno MDCLXXXIV. 



Page 103, Line i. 

The family of Geraghty of Connaught is of ancient Irish descent, of 
the same race as the O'Conors, Kings of Connaught. The name is 
derived from * Oireachtach/ signifying *The Man of the Territory,* 
Henry Mac Oiraghty was Bishop of Achonry 1296, and David Mac 
Oiraghty, Archbishop of Armagh, died a.d. 1343. The name was 
gradually anglicised MacGeraghty or Geraghty. The arms are : Arg. 
on a mount vert, an oak tree proper in chief, two falcons volant gules ; 
Crest, on a mount vert an oak tree proper, broken towards the dexter. 

In the * Will-books ' there is a brief entry of the brothers and sisters 
of Richard Geraghty. Of the sisters, one, Elinor Geraghty, made her 
will March 16, 17 19, and another, * Sarah, was wife of Bryan Gunning, 
Esq., of Castle Coote, co. Roscommon.' 

Page 123, Line i. 

The Duchess of Hamilton went on the * Catherine ' royal jracht and 
the Duchess of Ancaster on the * Mary,' and they sailed from Harwich. 



Addenda 339 

There *are two engravings of these yachts by P. L, Cano, after paintings 
done on the spot by T. Allen, 

Page 146, Line 22. 

Letter from Andrew Stuart, one of Lady Betty's guardians, to Baron 
Mure, also her guardian, June 24, 1774 : ^Dear Baron, For some time 
past, you could hardly expect to hear from me until the marriage 
ceremony was over, especially if you had any notion of the hurry there 
has been to get the marriage settlements &c. ready with the utmost 
expedition. To give you some notion of that hurry, as also of the nature 
of the business that was in agitation here, I send you enclosed a letter I 
received on Tuesday last from sollicitor Hamilton, wherein he states it as 
nearly impossible they could be got ready for Thursday, In consequence 
of this letter I posted out to the Duchess's house at Richmond on 
Wednesday, showed the letter to the partys concerned, and submitted to 
their consideration whether it would not be better to delay the marriage 
for a day or two, otherwise the settlements might not be ready. We had 
a pleasant discussion of this business in presence of Lord Stanley.^ He 
could not reconcile himself to the thoughts even of one day's delay ; so 
he came to town on Wednesday, and we went together to the houses 
of the men of law urging them in the most earnest manner to have all 
their papers ready, so as the marriage might be completed yesterday. 
I remained at Wedderburne's till the first draught of them was finally settled 
on Wednesday night at eleven o'clock. Then a variety of hands were 
employed all night in extending the settlements on parchment ; yesterday 
at two o'clock they were got ready for signing. Lady Betty and Lord 
Stanley signed them in London between two and three, the company 
assembled to dinner at the Duchess of Argyle's, at Richmond, between 
four and five ; the marriage ceremony was performed there between seven 
and eight ; and soon after the young married couple set out for Lord 
Stanley's house at the Oaks. ... I can only say that, in modern times, there 
are few instances of more ardent lovers than this young heir of the Derby 
roll. He was highly sensible of Lady Betty's merit and personal attractions, 
and you never saw any lover more impatient of delays than he has been. 

^ Succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Derby in 1776. 

z 2 



340 Addenda 

We had a very agreeable day yesterday at the marriage ceremony ; every- 
thing concluded in the most proper manner, and with the most hearty 
good-will and approbation of all concerned, at the same time without any 
parade or affectation. The only persons present besides the Duchess' 
own family were Lord Archibald Hamilton,^ who came to town on 
purpose to give Lady Betty away \ Lady Charlotte Edwin, two sisters of 
Lord Stanley's, General Burgoyne, and myself. 

It is my real opinion that it will turn out a happy and fortunate 
marriage in every respect. ... It has given me both health and spirits to 
see our &ir pupil, who is so deserving in herself, so well settled in the 
world. It is one of the most desirable connexions that could have been 
made in Britain, &c/ 

Page 171, Line 13. 

Volume I. of * Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society ' 
contains ^ An inventory of articles which escaped the hands of the mob 
on the occasion of the sacking of Shawfield's Mansion,' contributed by 
J. Dalrymple Duncan, F.S.A. This inventory was exhibited at a 
meeting of the Glasgow Archaeological Society in 1887 ; it was then the 
property of William Turner, Esq., of Glasgow. Mr. Duncan says, 
^ This is an extremely interesting document, and not only indicates how 
considerable Campbell of Shawfield's wealth was, but also throws a good 
deal of light on the dress and manners and customs of the day. It would 
be interesting to know if Shawfield took into account in any way the 
large amount of articles which were thus restored to him in settling the 
amount of the compensation awarded him by government, ;£^6,400 for 
damages to the house and ;f 2,600 for minor items. Some of the things 
were saved by neighbours, Peter Murdock (afterwards Provost of Glasgow) 
and James Spreull, and restored to him.' 

Page 175, Line 8. 

The peerage of Glencairn has been dormant since the death, without 
issue, of John the fifteenth Earl in 1796. The title was claimed by 
Sir Adam Fergusson, Bart., of Kilkerran, by Sir Walter M. Cunningham, 
and by Lady Harriet Don. In 1797 the Lord Chancellor dismissed the 

> Succeeded his nephew Douglas, as Duke of Hamilton, in 1799. 



Addenda 341 

claims of the latter two, and adjudged that Sir Adam Fergusson had 
clearly proved his being heir-general of the Earl of Glencairn from the 
first creation, but had not established his right to the title. The present 
heir-general of the Earls of Glencairn is the Right Honourable Sir James 
Fergusson, Bart,, of Kilkerran. 



Page 182, Footnote i. 

The following appeared in the Geological Magazine in 1885 : John 
Francis Campbell of Islay, F.G.S., the bearer of a name well known 
among geologists some years ago, was born in Edinburgh in 1821. . . . 
By birth he was heir to a large patrimonial estate. This inheritance was, 
however, lost to him through adverse circumstances shortly after he came 
of age ; and the magnanimous spirit in which through life he bore this 
reverse of fortune gained him the abiding esteem of the large circle of 
friends, whose regard his generosity of heart and many attractive qualities 
must in any case have secured. • • • He found occupation successively 
as private secretary to his chief, the Duke of Argyll ; Secretary to the 
Board of Health, to the Mines Commission, and to the Lighthouse Com- 
mission, the two latter employments stimulating him in those studies of 
geology and solar physics which engaged his attention and effort even in 
the last years of his life^ During the years 1 861-1880 inclusive he 
held in succession two pbsts in the Queen's household. Having with- 
drawn from the Court at the latter date, he occupied himself till the 
close of his life with scientific study, travelling, and the social life of his 
home. His many journeys in former vacations had taken him several 
times into Iceland and Scandinavia. On one occasion (1873-4) he 
passed from Archangel through Russia to the Caucasus, retxu-ning viA 
Constantinople and Southern Europe. He also visited Japan, China, Java, 
Ceylon, Syria, and Palestine, and twice resided in Egypt. In all these 
wanderings his instinctive powers as a practical linguist were very valuable 
to him ; his ready skill as a draughtsman not less so. . . • His mind was 
acute, ingenious, and indeiatigably active ; but he had never subjected it 
to received methods of scientific training. . . . His mental stores, whether 
gleaned in the field of folklore and myth or in that of experimental 
science, were original, not derived from other workers. His invention 
of the ^ heliometer,' an instrument in use at Green¥rich, and which was 

23 



342 Addenda 

4 

mentioned with honour by Professor Balfour Stewart at the meeting of 
the British Association in 1883, is probably the only distinction that will 
survive him. But he was not only entirely uninfluenced by any desires 
after a lucrative result of such work as he did, but comparatively indiflerent 
to the fame which it might have brought him. He loved knowledge for 
its own sake ; his desire was for ' more light.' His best praise will dwell 
in the hearts of his many friends ; all who knew what his own heart vras 
— those who have shared his refined and genial hospitality, or benefited 
by his ready generosity, counsel, and help-— will never lose their warm 
remembrance of his truly noble spirit and kindly bearing. • • .' 

Page 185, Line 3. 

In Sir Walter Scott's < Border Minstrelsy,' < The Mermaid,' a ballad 
by John Leyden, is dedicated to Lady Charlotte Campbell in these words : 

^ To brighter charms depart my simple lay, 
Than graced of old the maid of Colonsay, 
When her fond lover lessening her view, 
With eyes reverted, o'er the surge withdrew ; 
But happier still, should lovely Campbell sing 
Thy plaintive numbers to the trembling string. 
The mermaid's melting strains would yield to thee. 
Though pour'd difiusive o'er the silver sea, 

^ Go boldly forth — but, ah ! the listening throng, 
Rapt by the siren, would forget the song ! 
Lo I while they pause nor dare to gaze around, 
Afraid to break the soft enchanting sound. 
While swells to sympathy each flattering heart, 
'Tis not the poet's, but the Siren's art,' &c. 

Pace 192, Line i. 

Madame de StaCl and Lord John Campbell had met in 1803. We 
find her writing from Cappet on July 3 in that year to M. Meister as 
follows : ^^ Lord John Campbell et M. Robertson, deux Anglais auxquels 
je m'intiresse beaucoup, ont une lettre de moi pour vous, monsieur. • . . 
Si la lettre que j'ai donnfe ^ mes Anglais vous est remise, je vous prie 



Addenda 343 

de les recevoir avec int6r£t et de leur donner tous les renseignements nfces* 
saires & leur depart.* 

In a previous letter that she had written to ^^ M, Henri Meister, 
homme de lettres,' about Lord John and Mr. Robertson she said : ^ Tous 
les deux ont ce charme dans les maniires que nous avons perdu en France 
et qu'il est si doux de retrouver. Mais ils sont timides et parlent mal le 
fran^ais.' 

Page 224, Line 9. 

In writing to the Hon. Mrs. Boyd in 1783 Beattie says: ^Your 
sentiments of the Duchess are perfectly just. I have had the honour to 
know her long, and I think I know her well. A perfect character I 
have never yet met with, but of her I will ventive to say that the more 
it is known the more it will be admired, and that nothing but prejudice, 
or envy, or ignorance, or pure malice, can be insensible of its worth.' 

Page 227, Line 29, Footnote 2. 

Since this was written, Louisa, Duchess of Abercorn, has passed away. 
She died on March 31, 1905, aged ninety-two, at Coates Castle, Sussex, 
and was buried at Chenies, Bucks, by the side of her brother, Lord 
Wriothesley Russell. 

The following extracts from the * Daily Mail ' are worthy of record : 

^ For many reasons this famous old lady was one of the most interest- 
ing and remarkable personages in the British peerage, and, indeed, in the 
world. Born in 18 12, the second daughter of the sixth Duke of Bedford, 
she had lived in five reigns and had over two hundred descendants, of whom 
at least 160 are still living. As her grand&ther was born in 17 10 three 
lives covered the remarkable period of 195 years. 

^ Practically half the peerage will go into mourning because of her 
death. She was married in 1832, five years before the accession of Queen 
Victoria. She had seven sons and seven daughters, and eighty-five great 
grandchildren. Twenty-two of her descendants fought in the recent war 
in South Africa. • • • 

*On July 9, 1903, 145 direct descendants assembled in the gardens of 
Montagu House, Whitehall, to celebrate the completion of her ninety- 
first year. Such a gathering is without doubt unique, not alone for the 



344 Addenda 

number of those who thus honoured the parent of them all, but for the 
distinguished character of the gathering. The list of those attending 
presents a remarkable record of illustrious names, not only those of highly 
placed social leaders, but of many who had achieved distinction in 
statesmanship, letters, travel, and both branches of the profession of arms. 

^ Before taking her place in this great family group the Duchess was 
photographed with the Master of Dunglass — the grandchild of her grand- 
child. Then she presided over this unparalleled court of honour, and the 
photograph of the scene has become iamous. She was the grand- 
daughter, the daughter, the wife, the mother, and the grandmother of 
dukes, and their titles represented all the three countries which comprise 
the United Kingdom. These are the Duke of Gordon, the Duke of 
Bedford, the first Duke of Abercorn, the present Duke, the Duke of 
Marlborough, and the Duke of Leeds. She was half-sister to Lord 
John Russell.* 

Page 229, Line 24. 

In March 1803, Maurice Dupin (the father of George Sand) wrote 
to his mother as follows : • . • ^ Ren6 a donn6 ces jours-ci un tris-beau 
dejeuner od ^taient Eugine Beauharnais, Adrien de Mun, Milord 
Stuart, Madame Louis Bonaparte, la Princesse Olgarouky, la Duchesse 
de Gordon, Madame d*Andlaw, et Lady Georgina, laquelle passe dans le 
grand monde pour un astre de beaut6. II ne lui manque pour miriter sa 
reputation que d'avoir une bouche et des dents. Mais sur cet article 
Eugene et elle n'ont rien \ se reprocher. La duchesse ne demanderait pas 
mieux que de la lui &ire ^pouser, mais le cher beau-pire Buonaparte n*entend 
point de cette oreille-Ul. En sortant de table, nous allftmes nous promene, 
au Jardin des plantes, les uns en voiture et en boghei (? buggy), les autres 
dans la caliche \ quatre chevaux de la Duchesse. Nous vtmes tout dans 
le plus grand detail. Eugene distribuait des louis \ tort et \ travers, 
comme im autre eAt donn6 douze sous. II nous faisait les honneurs, et 
c'est tout au plus s'il ne disait pas au lieu du jardin du roi, le jardin de 
mon pire. A la suite de la promenade, la Duchesse de Gordon donna i 
la Rftp^ un dtner dont ni Eugene, ni Reni, ni Auguste, ni moi, ne fdmes 
pri&.* 

The Duchess of Gordon and Lady Georgiana were present at the 
memorable Court on March 13, when Napoleon's interview with Lord 
Whitworth took place, and they left Paris four days after. 



Addenda 345 

Page 237, Line 19, 

Once when the Duchess had promised to obtain the post of ^ Gauger ' 
for someone whom she wished to oblige, she heard by letter early in the 
morning that a vacancy in this line had just occurred, and instantly dressed 
and went off to Pitt's house. On the door being opened she asked the 
astonished servant whether Mr. Pitt was at home. On learning that he 
was, she desired her name should be sent to the Prime Minister. The 
servant said that Mr. Pitt would not be visible till twelve o'clock. * But,' 
said the Duchess, ^ I must see him at once ; show me his room/ The 
servant reiterated that it was impossible — that Mr. Pitt was in bed, and 
that it would be more than his place was worth to do so. * Then,' said 
the Duchess, ^ I'll go by myself,' and accordingly she forced her way past 
the servant, flew upstairs, and, knocking at the door of Mr. Pitt's bedroom, 
without waiting for an answer went in and seated herself on a chair by 
his bedside. Pitt, who had the most rigid notions of propriety, was dumb- 
founded, but the lady soon let him know why she had come. He then 
told her that he had promised this appointment to a member of the House 
of Commons who had been a great supporter of his Government, and that 
therefore, deeply as he regretted it, he could not give it to her. * But I 
must have it,' said the Duchess, ^ and out of this chair I do not move till 
you say I shall.' * You may have the next for your friend,' said the Prime 
Minister. ^ I must have this one,' replied the Duchess. Pitt knew she 
would be as good as her word and would not go till she got what she 
wanted, so he had to give in, and the Duchess secured the appointment 
for her protigie. 

Page 239, Line 23. 

I remember the Duke of Richmond in Ireland, when, as Colonel 
Lennox, he was an object of universal admiration to the young of both 
sexes. His duel with the Duke of York seemed to have something in it 
chivalrous, displaying a recklessness of all selfish considerations. He was 
supposed to excel in all manly exercises, and that was a higher praise in 
those days than it is in these more intellectual times. 

Page 257, Line 13. 

^ The body lay in state for two days, an impressive service was held 
in the English Cathedral, and the body of one who had been Canada's 



346 Addenda 

most splendid governor since the days of De Tracy and Frontenac vras 
deposited in the Cathedral vault ' (^ Old Quebec ')• 

Page 264, Line 14. 

We find in a MS. letter dated August 3, 1647, from * Washbume,' 
and signed ^ G. R«' (George Russell), the following : ' The King whom 
always the greatnesse of his spirit and resolution holds undaunted, beires it 
firme above the injurie of threatening, and remaines unhorrified, however 
Major Scot, an independent member (yet deserving something to hang 
on), lately, and in the presence of the King, being asked by Major G. 
Browne what good end they would make in the House, made a desparate 
sudden resolution, they could never make a good end, till they took off the 
King's head that stood there, to whom Major Browne replyed : ^^ I had 
thought, sir, you had come to have kissed the King's hand." ^^ Sir," said 
Major Scot, ^^ I had rather followed him to the gallows," and I tjiink he 
spoke the sense and intention of the armie. The Major General im« 
mediately addresseth himself to his majestie, made him knowing of that 
desperate language, takes Scot by the shoulder, saying, ^^ Sir, this is the 
man." The King whom ever highest Providence, and his own innocence 
with miracle protects, slights the madncsse and malice of so poysonous 
a tongue.' 

Page 302, Footnote. 

Mrs. Richard Trench, writing in 1799 from Dresden, says : ^ I went 
to Graff's, an excellent portrait painter. He is famous for catching the 
expression of the countenance, but he leaves nature pretty much as he 
finds her.' Graff viras born in 1736 and died in ^813. 



INDEX 



Abercorn, Louisa, Duchess of, 227, 

343-344 
Adair, Mr., 304, 305 

Ailesbury, Caroline, Countess of, 20-69 

„ third Earl of, 21 

Albanie, Comtesse d', 49 

Albemarle Street, 10 

Allanson, William, 261 

Almack's, 7, 129, 148 

Amelia, Princess, 33, 40 

Ancaster, Mary, Duchess of, 82, 123- 

124, 238 

Anne, Queen, 286, 14, 289 

Anspach, the Margravine of, 48 

d'Arblay, General, 66 

Ardentinny, 154, 156 

Ardkinglas, 154 

Ardpatrick, 181 

Argyll, George, sixth Duke of, 84, 131, 

186, 187, 204, 205 

John, second Duke of, i, 160 



}i 



n 



}) 



„ John, fourth Duke of^ 19, 118 
John, fifth Duke of, 18, 114-116, 

140, 149, 168, 172, 173, 331 
Marquis of, 157, 158 
Argyll House, 134 
Armitstead, Mrs., 149 
Ashe, Miss, 40 
Aylmer, Lord, 295, 298, 305 
Rose, 298 



n 



Baillie, Joanna, 82 
Ballard, Colonel Thomas, 275 



)» 



>9 



» 



» 



Batty-Langley, 23 
Beattie, 230-232, 237 
Beauhamais, Eugene, 79, 229 
Beauvau, Madame de, 78 
Beckfbrd, Peter, 272, 275 

„ Colonel Peter, 273, 275 
„ William, 228, 229 
Bellamy, Mrs., 105 
Bellenden, Sir Harry, 7, 47, 333 
Sir James, 333 
John, Lord, 2, 3, 5 
Sir John, 6 
Hon. Margaret, 17 
„ Hon. Mary, 1-19 
„ Sir William, 333 
Bergami, 197 

Berry, Mary, 38, 39, 76, 82 
Berrys, The, 42, 82 
Biron, Due and Duchesse de, 62, 63 

„ Vicomte de Gontaut-, 64 
Blandy, Francis, 24 

„ Mary, 24-28 
Blount, Mary and Teresa, i, 8, 9 
Boissaisson, Mme. de, 61 
Bolingbroke, Lord,. 108 
Bonaparte, Joseph, 314, 316 
Madame, 79, 320 
Napoleon, 80^ 229, 315-318 
320-321 
Boswell, 114, 1x5 
Boufflers, Comtesse Emilie de, 64 
Bouillon, Due de, 56 
t Bourke, Hon. Bridget, 103 
^ Bowen, Brianna Cole-, 139 



}9 



n 



348 



Index 



Bowles, General Sir George, 244, 250, 

254i 255i 257 
Brissac, Due de, 61, 62 

Bristol, Lady, 11, 12 

Bruce, Lord, 20 

Brunswick, Augusta, Duchess of, 150- 

152 

Brussels, 242-248 

Bulteel, Diana, wife of John, 7 

Bunker's Hill, 140 

Burgoyne, General, 46, 146 

Burke, 52 

Bumey, Fanny, 66 

Bums, 127, 128, 230, 231 

Burrdl, Elizabeth Ann, 130 

Bury, Mr. Edward, 198-200 

Byron, Lord, 326, 327 



CadoGAN, Lady Sarah, 32 

„ William, first Earl, 32 

„ second Earl, 32 

Calonne, 58-61 

Cambis, Mme. de, 64 

Camden, Lord, 34 

Campan, Madame, 59 

Campbell, Angus, 161, 162 

Rev. Archibald (Bishop of 

Glasgow), 181 

Rev. Archibald (Bishop), 115 

Lady Augusta, I3i-I33» i35> 

138 
Miss C. B., 204, 205-208 

Miss Caroline, 20 

Lady Charlotte, 82, 138, 183- 

203 

Sir Colin, 154 

Daniel, 163-165, 174, 340 

Daniel, junior, 176-180 

Donald, 156, 157, 159 

Lord Frederick, 47, 93-95 

Lady Henriet, 175 

John, 162 

John F., 182, 341 

Colonel John (of Mamore), 

13, 15 



n 



)> 



»> 



)9 



» 



n 



99 



») 



»> 



»i 



♦» 



» 



» 



» 



» 



» 



n 



» 



)) 



M 



I) 



» 



}> 



Campbell, Colonel John (Scots Guards), 

187 
Lord John, 152, 191-204, 341 

Matthew, 163 
General Sir Neil, 196 
of Skipness, 156 
Primrose Campbell, 205-217 
Walter, 181 
„ Walter, Captain, of Skipness, 
161 
Captain Walter, 182, 203 
Lord WiUiam, 18 
„ Lady William, 75 
Canada, 249 
Cann, Sir Robert, 98-99 
Caroline, Princess, 67, 82, 84 
Carstares, Rev. Mr., 5 
Catherine, Empress (the first), 290^ 291 
„ „ (the second), 301- 

306 
Caversham (Park), 31 
Cavendish, Lord George, 22 
Chabot de Castellane, Madame, 78 
Charlotte, Princess, 40, 183 

„ Queen, 83, 115, 123, 150 
Chenevix, Richard, 292 
Chesterfield, Lord, 1 1 
Chudleigh, Elizabeth, 117 
Clarence, Duke of; 84, 85 
Clary, Maria Julia, 77 
Clavering, Lady Augusta, 133 
„ Colonel Henry, 133 
Clayton, Mrs., 17 

„ Sir William, 33 
Clive, Kitty, 46 
Copenhagen, the horse, 240 
Cobbe, Sir George, 34 
Cockbum, Colonel, 249, 254-256, 258 
Codrington, Sir William, 295 
Coke, Lady Mary, 31, 34, 40, 44, 134 
Colzium, 4, 5 
Combe Bank, 17, 23 
Conway, Anne Seymour, 23 

Hon. Henry Seymour, 23, 29, 

30* 35, 40, 42, 43» 46, 48-56, 
68 



>, 



Index 



349 



Cope, Sir Charles, 310 
Comwallis, 226 
Coutts, Bank of, 159, 160 
Coventry, Earl of, 106, 107 

„ Maria, Countess of, 104-113 
Crillon, M. de, 79 
Crutchley, Mrs. Charles, 153 
Cullen, Dr., 126, 129 
Cumberland, Duke of, 21, 129, 131 

Dalhousie, Earls of, 6 

„ Mary, Countess of, 3, 5, 6 

Dalyell, General Thomas, 3 
Damer, Hon. John, 36, 67, 73, 74 

„ Hon. Mrs., 70-86 
Daschkow, Princess, 75, 76, 176-178 
DelTand, Madame du, 22, 55 
Dell, Rev. William, 276 
Denholme, Sir William, 174 
Denmark House, 8 
Derby, Lord, 43, 339 
Dorset, Arabella Diana, Duchess of, 310, 

311,315,317,323,325,331 
„ George John, Duke of, 324-327 

„ John Frederick, Duke of, 144, 

147, 152, 301 
„ Lionel, Duke of, 16 
Douglas, Duke of, 124 
Drayton, 15 

Du Barry, Madame, 334 
Dumbarton Castle, 5 
Dunaverty, 157, 158 
Duncombe, Harry, 107 
Dundas, 225 
Dundee, Lady, 3, 4, 5 
Dunglass, Master of, 343 

Ealing Grove, 134 
Eaton (Eton), 16 
Edgeworth, Maria, 311 
Edmonstone, Archibald, 220 

,, Sir Archibald, 5, 14 

Effingham, Earls of, 275 
Elgin, Lord, 323 
Elphinstone, Hon. Elizabeth, 209 

„ Hon. Mrs., 214 



Elphinstone, Lady, 209 
„ Lord, 212 

Enfield, 105 

Eon, Le Chevalier d', 48, 49 
Erskine, Henry, 223, 224, 235 
Evelyn, John, 270 

Farren, Miss, 45, 46, 48, 73, 153 
Ferguson (Pitfour), 225 
Ferrers, Lady, 87-95 
„ Lord, 88-94 
Ferrier, Miss Susan, 198 
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 50 

„ Lord Henry, 47, 73 
Fonthill, 228, 229 
Forbes, Duncan, 170 

„ Margaret, 231-233 
„ Sir William, 231 
Fordyce, Mr., 221 
Foubert, Monsieur, 297 
Fountaine, Sir Andrew, 271 
Briggs, 271 
Elizhia, 271 
„ Joanna, 271 
Fouquier-Tinville, 62 
Fox, Charles James,47, 74, 80, 149, 231, 

305 
Frazer, Hon. Archibald Campbell, 215 

„ Captain Simon, 210-21 1 

„ Thomas, 210 
Frederick the Great, 54, 55 
French, James Murphy, 107 

Galway, 102 

Garrick, 44 

Gay, 10 

Geneva, 190 

Genlis, Madame de, 49, 50, 58 

George IL, 108 

Gerard, Lady, 279 

GerebtsofT, Madame de, 305, 311 

Germaine, Lady Betty, 15, 16 

Gibbon, 42 

Glasgow, 168, 169, 171 

Golfers' Land, 5 



„ 



„ 



350 



Index 



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M 



ff 



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}i 



Conning, Sir John, 96 
„ John, 97 

Gontaut, Madame de, 49, 50 

Gordon, Lord Alexander, 237 

Lady Charlotte, 225, 226, 240 
Lady Georgina, 223, 227, 229, 

344 
Jane, Duchess of, 218, 342, 344 

Lady Louisa, 226 

Lady Madeline, 227 

Grant, Mrs. (of Laggan), 138, 235-237 

Grantham, Henri de Auverquerque, Earl 

of, 10 

Gray, 33 

Gretna Green, 53 

Gunning, Alexander, 142 

Miss Betty, 140, 141 

Hon. Bridget, 103 

Elizabeth, io5>io6 

John, 103 

General John, 139-142 

Mrs. John, 139, 141 

Kitty, 139 

Pedigree, 332 

Peter (Bishop of Ely), 98, 100- 

102, 335-338 
Richard, 102 
Lady, 98 



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91 



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» 



Hague, The, 3 

Hamilton, Elizabeth, Duchess of, 18, 36, 

37, I", 121 
Lady Elizabeth, 143-146 

Emma, Lady, 136, 189 

James, fourth Duke of, 279- 

283 
James, sixth Duke o^ 116, 

117, 119, 120 
James, seventh Duke of, 120, 

149 
James, eighth Duke of, 120, 

129, 130 

Palace, 126, 137 

Sir William, 50, 136, 202, 223 



n 

19 



» 



Hammond, Miss, 2 



Hampton Court, 8 
Hanmer, Mrs., 117 
Harcourt, Due d', 65 

„ Lord, 86, 122 
Hardwick House, 35 
Harleyford, 33 
Harte, Emma, 50^ 136 
Hartwell, 188 
d'Haussonville, M. de, 65 
Hawkesbury, Lord, 317 
Hawley, Hon. EUzabeth, 17 
Hemingford Grey, 103, 104 
H^in, Princesse d', 64 
Henley-on-Thames, 24-26, 34, 35, 73 
Herring, Bathshua, 272 

„ Julines, 272 
Hertford, Lord, 45, 51, 55 
Hervey, Augustus, 117, 118 

„ John, Lord, 10, 13, 15 

„ Lady, 10 
Hesse, Mary, Princess oi^ 35 
Holyrood, 5, 333 
Holywell, 102 
Hope, Mr., 57 
Horn, Count, 44 
Howard, Hon. Mrs., 9, 15-17 
Huber, 322, 323 
Hume, 41, 42, 71 
Huntly, Marquis of, 233-234 
Hyde, Anne, 84 

ISLAY, 172, 173, 181, 182 
Izzard, Miss Sarah, 18 

James, Duchesse de St., 65 
Jenkinson, Lady, 176, 181 

„ Mr., 65, 108 
Jersey, 30-32 
Johnson, Dr., 114-115 
Johnston, Sir Alexander, 84 . 

„ Lady, 85 

„ Lady Cecilia, 45, 48, 134 
Joran, Mrs., 84 
Juniper Hall, 65, 66 
Jura, 172, 173, 181 



Index 



351 



KABf£S, Lord, 222, 230, 235 
Kauflfmann, Angelica, 44 
Kemble, Sarah, 45, 46 
Kerr, General Mark, 24, 25 

„ Lord Mark, 25 
Khevenhiiller, Comte, 36 
Killiney, 325 
Kilsyth, 4, 171, 172 
„ Viscount, 3 
Kingston, Evelyn, Duke of, 118 

„ Duchess of, 118 
Kinloch, Magdalene, daughter of Sir 

Francis, 163 
Knole, 16, 324, 328 



Lafayette, 79 

Lamballe, 57-60 

Laufeldt, Battle of, 18 

Langton, Sir Thomas, 97 

Latimers, 22, 23 

Leckie, family of, 174 

Leicester House, 1 1 

Leinster, Duchess of, 45 

Lennox, Lady Arthur, 203, 206 

Lord Arthur, 241, 258, 259 
Colonel Charles, 238-240, 344 
Lady Charlotte, 226, 227 
Lady George, 238, 240, 259, 

260 
Lady Georgiana, 242, 243, 

258, 259 
Lord Henry, 259 
Lady Louisa, 243, 248, 249, 

257, 259 
Lady Sarah, 259 
Lady Sophia, 259 
Lord William, 244, 249 

L^n, Princesse de, 65 

Lepell, Hon. Molly, i, 9, 10, 14 

Leslie, General, 156-158 

Lewis, * Monk,* 184, 185, 188 
„ Lady Theresa, 38 

Leyboume, 296, 298 

Lisbon, 76 

Livingstone, Sir Thomas, 2 



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11 



Livingstone, William, 4 
Locke, Mr., 65, 198 
Lovat, Primrose, 210, 215 

„ Simon, Lord, 210-213 
Lowendahl, Mar^hale de, 107 
Lucchesini, Marchese, 320 
Lyon, David, 199 
Lyttelton, Lord, 34 



Macartney, General, 280, 283 
Macdonald, Archibald, 158 
Macdonald, Ranald, 158 
Mansfield, Lord, 125, 295 
March, Lord, 295 
Marie Antoinette, 59, 60, 66 
Marlborough, George, fifth Duke of, 

207 
„ Sarah, Duchess of, 16 

Marlow, Great and Little, 261, 262 
Matilda (of Denmark), 55 
Matv^ifi; M. de, 287, 288 
Mauleverer, Grace, 262, 263 

„ Sir Thomas, 262, 263 

Maxwell, Eglintoune, 219 

Sir Herbert, 219, 220 
Jane, 218, 220^ 221 
„ Sir William, Bart., 218 
Mayo, Viscount, 103 
Mead, Dr. Richard, 34 
Menzikoff, Prince, 286, 290 
Meredith, Mary, 87, 88 

„ Sir WiUiam, 88 
Mexborough, Lady, 46 

Minifie, Susanna, daughter of James, 140 

Minorca, 23 

Mohun, Lord, 279-281 

Monboddo, Lord, 232 

Monk, General, 265-268 

Moore, Dr., 126-128 

Sir John, 128-129 

Lady Mary, 5, 6 

Thomas, 184, 318 
More, Hannah, 42 
Mortemart, 294 
Mosley, Sir Oswald, 294 



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II 



II 



352 



Index 



Motte, Madame de la, s^ 
Mouchy, Due and Duchesse de, 62 
Mount Edgcumbe, Lord, 48, 70 
Mure, Baron, 339 
William, 333 



n 



Narbonne, Vicomte de, 66 

Navaille, Comtesse de Montaut-, 64 

Neave, Rev. John, 157 

Nelson, 81,85 

Newcastle, Henry Pelham, fourth Duke 

of, 207 
Newhailes, 6 
Newmarket, 295 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 12 
Nisbet, Mr., 144, 181 
Noailles, Comtesse de, 62 
Norbury, 66 

North Sir Dudley, 98-99 
Norton, Mrs., 37 



Oaks, The, 146, 147 

„ Maid of the, 146 
O'Brien, Lady Susan, 47, 241 

„ Mr., 47 
Ogilvie, Hon. Patrick, 161 

„ William, 46 
O'Hara, General, 37, 38, 135 
Orford, Lord, 82 
Orleans, Philippe, Due d', 49 
Orlebar, Mr., 279, 280 
OrlofT, Gr^goire, 308 
Ottawa, 253 



Palmer, Charles Fysshe, 227 
Pamela, 49, 50 
Panshanger, 73 
Paterson, 2 

Park Place, 23, 24, 26, 30, 31, 36, 68, 73 
Paul, Emperor, 306, 307, 309 
Pearse, Rev. Edward, 216 
Pechell, Captain, afterwards Admiral Sir 
Samuel, 197 



Pechell, George, 197 

Penfbld, Rev. Dr., 205 

Penketham, William, 1 1 

Percy, Algernon, 198 

Pdrigord, Comtes Boson and Archam- 

baut de, 65 
Peter IIL, Czar, 171 
Peterborough, Lord, 12 
Piacenza, Le Brun, Due de, 79 
Piers, Bart., Martha, daughter of Sir 

William, 272 
Pigott of Edgmond, Miss, 294 
Pitfbur, 225 
Pitt, 59, 225, 304 
Plowden, W., 294 
Plunkett, Major James, 141, 142 
Poniatowski, Stanislas Auguste, 176, 294 
Pope, 8, 9, 41 
Portugal, 75, 76 
Powell, Harriet, 51 
Powerscourt, Loid, 325 



Quebec, 249, 256, 257 
Queensberry, Duke of, 5, 58, 60, 164 



Rawdon, Lord, 239 
Rdcamier, Madame de, 78 
Richmond, Charles, first Duke o^ 32 

Charles, third Duke of, 36, 

58, 59, 73 
Charles, fourth Duke of, 

240-259 

Mary, Duchess of, 36, 37, 

72 

Richmond, 250-252 

Richmond Green, 64 

Richmond Lodge, 11 

Robinson, Anastasia, 12 

„ Luke, 266, 267 

Rocca, Monsieur de, 194, 195 

Roe, Bell, 2 

Rohan-Chabot, Comte de, 62, 334 

„ Due de, 78 

Romodanowski, Prince, 290, 291 



n 



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,} 



Index 



353 



Ros, Lady de, 236, 237, 239, 251 
Roscommon, 102, 104 
Rousseau, 42 
Rowe, Mary, 274 

M William, 274, 275 
Roxbuighe, William Drummond, second 

Earl of, 2 
Rutherglen, 166 



St. Ann's Hill, 149 

n Church, 18 

Salengre, Albert de, 292, 293 

„ Magdalena Jacoba, 292 
Sanford, Rev. J., 320-321 
Savemake, 21 
Scot, Alice, 275 

Ann, 275 

Francis, 272 

Grace, 262, 263 

Hester, 277 

John, 273 

Richard, 272 

Susanna, 277 

Thomas (of Dover), 276 

Thomas (of Longrange), 272 

Thomas (regicide), 261-271, 346 
u William, 272, 273 
Scott, Sir Walter, 200, 201 
Sharpe, Kirkpatrick, 15 
Shawfield, 154, 166, 175, 181 
Shelley, Sir John, 298 

„ Martha Rose, 298 
Shenstone, 43 
Shorter, Charlotte, daughter of Sir | 

John, 2 
Siddons, Sarah, 73 
Skipness, 154, 156, 157, 159, 161-163 
Somerset, Duke oJ^ i 

„ House, 7, 8, 17, 18, 21 
„ House Chapel, 21 
Spencer, Lady Alice, 5 
Stal^l, Madame de, 65, 78, 190-195 
Stahremberg, Prince, 83 
Stanhope, Lady Hester, 131, 185, 187 
Stanislas, Poniatowski, 301, 307, 308 , 



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99 



99 



Stanley, Sir John, 1 50 
Stephens, Mr. Serjeant, 24 
Stepney, 285 

Stewart, Archibald, 124, 125 
Strafford,' Countess of, 37 
Strawberry Hill, 23, 36, 69, 70, 82, 83 
Strode, Richard de la, 23 
Stuart, Andrew, 339-340 

„ Lady Louisa, 67 
Suffolk, Countess o^ 20 
Sundon, Viscountess, 13, 17 
Sundridge Church, 84 
Swift, 12, 274, 275, 
Swinton, Hon. Mrs., 240, 242 
Sykes, Elizabeth, 273 

„ Richard, 273 



Talbot, Lord, 328-330 

Talleyrand, 312, 313, 315, 316, 319 

Talma, 76 

Tarente, Princesse de, 308 

Thoresby, Ralph, 273, 274 

Tottenham Park, 21 

Trac>', Eleanor, daughter of Francis, 99 

Tregonning, 96, 97 

Trench, Mrs. Richard, 249, 309 

Vaillant, Paul, 91 

Vaulgrenant, Fran9ois, Comte de, 293 

Vestris, 223 

Vig^e le Brun, Madame, 305, 308 

Villiers, Lady Caroline, 67, 205 

Voltaire, 176-178 



Wade, General, 170 
Wales, Caroline, Princess of, 82, 83, 188, 
1959 197 
„ George, Prince of, 131, 132, 188 
Walkinshaw, Katharine, wife of John, 

171 
Wallace, Solicitor-General, 104 
Walpole, Sir Horace, 22, 23, 36, 37, 70 
„ Sir Robert, 167, 168 



A A 



354 



Index 



Ware, 263 

Warsaw, 301 

Warwick Street, 39 

Wellington, 240-242, 244-248, 258, 259 

Westmill, 6, 7 

Whiteknights, 32 

Whitworth, Anne Barbara, 298 
Catharine, 298 
Charles, Lord, 284-294 
Charles, afterwards Earl, 

3001 330 
Sir Charles, 297, 298, 309 

family of^ 278 

Francis, 296 

Colonel Sir Francis, 299, 300 

Mrs. Franci$, 296 

John, 278 

Magdalena, 292-294 

Hon. Margaret, 298 

Martha Rose, Lady, 298 



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Whitworth, Mary, 298 

Priscilla, 298 
Richard, 279, 280, 284 
Richard (M.P.), 294, 295 
Richard (R.N.), 300 
Colonel Richard, 294, 31 1 
Robert, 300 

Williams, H. Noel, 61 

Wilson, Thomas, 273 

Wingfield, Mr., 325 

Withyam, 331 

Wriothesley, Lady Penelope, 6 

York, Duke ofi 238, 239, 344 
York House, 83-85 

Zekany, Comte and Comtesse, 35 
ZouboiT, Platon, 304, 305 
Zucchi, Antonio, 44 



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