(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Three kingdoms. A handbook of the Agassiz Association"

LIBRARY OF 
WELLESLEY COLLEGE 




PRESENTED BY 
Emanuel D. Rudolph 



THREE KINGDOMS 




A HAND-BOOK OF THE 
AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION 



PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION 



bring us the airs of hills and forests, 
the sweet aroma of birch and pine, 

give us a waft of the north-wind laden 
with sweetbriar odors, and breath of kine ! 

— 'Whittier 



NEW YORK 
THE WRITERS PUBLISHING COMPANY 
1888 




BY 



HARLAN H. BALLARD 



Seventb ^boueant) 



Copyright, 1888, by 
H. H. BALLARD 



32C921 

an 

6/ 
223 



PRESS OF FLEMING, BREWSTER d ALLEY, 
81-33 W. TWENTY-THIRD ST., NEW YORK. 



DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF 

%o\xiB Bga60i3 

IN THE HOPE OF LEADING MANY TO FOLLOW 
IN HIS FOOTSTEPS 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



This* book is the child of necessity, and was made 
to serve instead of a personal reply to the inquiries 
concerning the Agassiz Association, which came more 
rapidly than pen could answer them. For about two 
years a list of all such questions was carefully kept, 
and then the answers were written here as concisely 
and accurately as possible. As the Association has 
grown the questions have increased in number and 
scope, so that with each new edition comes the neces- 
sity for an enlargement and revision of the book. 
The author has been so greatly assisted in its prepa- 
ration and revision that he is now little more than 
its grateful editor, who begs to return his thanks to 
those whose kindness has contributed so essentially to 
the value of the book. Professor Hyatt has honored 
our work to the verge of flattery in his whole-hearted 
introduction. To Professors W. W. Bailey, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; T. H. McBride, of Iowa City, la., and 
William B Werthner, of Dayton, O., our readers are 
indebted for the valuable suggestions in botanical 
work. Professor W. O. Crosby has revised the chap- 
ter on the study of minerals. The Manhattan Chapter 
of the Agassiz Association has given assistance with 
regard to taxidermy. The List of Books could not 
have been properly prepared but for the co-operation 
of Professors McBride, Crosbv, Stokes and Clarke ; 
Geo. Bird Grinnell, Ph.D. ; ^S. P. Sharpies, State 
Assayer ; Hilborne T. Cresson, and, particularly, Mr. 
O. Bjerregaard, of the Astor Library, and Dr. W. H. 
Seaman, who have diligently revised the entire list. 



vi 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



Other assistance is acknowledged in the text, and if 
among so many helpers any have failed of mention, it 
is not for lack of appreciation, but because the book 
is now in press and cannot be consulted. Finally, the 
author wishes to express his gratitude to the publish- 
ers for their hearty interest and most kind and cour- 
teous consideration. • 

PiTTSFiELD, Mass., Jan. 14, 1888. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Boston Society of Natural History, 

Boston, Mass., Jan. 2, 1888. 

The Writers Publishing Company : 

Dear Sirs, — Having done me the honor to request 
that I should send you an introduction to your new 
edition of the Hand-book of the Agassiz Association, 
I have written out a few thoughts which I hope will 
be considered suitable for that purpose. I have also 
taken the liberty of making an appeal, which you had 
not requested me to do, but which I think ought to 
be made, in order to secure the future of the Asso- 
ciation and the continuance of the good work it has 
begun. 



If science has any moral strength, it lies in making 
the fearless pursuit of truth an end in itself, with- 
out reference to the ordinary limitations of expe- 
diency. Nevertheless, this higher mode of life, when 
carried to excess, has certain more or less injurious 
reactions upon the mind. The scientific recluse shut 
up in his own thoughts, as in a cell, and magnifying 
the grandeur and importance of his own work at the 
expense of that of others not exclusively devoted to 
research, is more nearly a modern imitator of the 
monastic original than most persons are apt to suppose. 

Three classes of men have been required for the 
accomplishment of the greater triumphs of science : 
the investigators or discoverers of abstract and often 
apparently useless truths, teachers of all grades, and 
popularizers. The great man after whom your organ- 



viii 



INTRODUCTION. 



ization has been named, Louis Agassiz, was in his 
younger days pre-eminently an investigator, later in 
life he became, perhaps even more, a teacher, and also 
a popularizer of natural history. He possessed facul- 
ties of rare power in all three directions, and, there- 
fore, succeeded in making a deep and lasting im- 
pression upon the history of science, as well as upon 
the minds of the people. Before his day scientific 
men were looked upon as busy triflers ; after that time 
they had gained a certain standing in the eyes of the 
public, and in the permanent respect of the better 
educated classes. I have often heard him say that 
science in America could not prosper without the good- 
will and respect of the people. 

Darwin's service to science would have been much 
slighter in its immediate effect had it not been for the ^ 
multitude of teachers who echoed his voice in every 
institution of learning,and the lecturers who repeated 
his theme with infinite variations from every rostrum 
and newspaper throughout the civilized world. 

Fortunately for the future of science in this country, 
there is now a daily increasing popular constituency. 
This has been largely gained by the unselfish and 
unrewarded efforts of investigators, and also by a 
growing disposition on their part to help forward all 
organizations having the education of the public in 
view. Though needing as much as other men the 
comforts of life, and having as great desire for the 
enjoyment of its luxuries, and feeling quite as keenly 
the need of making every effort remunerative, they 
have nevertheless not hesitated to sacrifice their valu- 
able time that others might be better educated and 
the cause of scientific culture advanced. 

Sooner or later in the history of institutions there 
comes a period of ripe development and increasing 
usefulness, which must be supported not only by those 



IN TR OD UC TION. 



ix 



benefited — the members and patrons— but by larger 
income derived from invested funds or from the gov- 
ernment. The work of the Agassiz Association is of 
vast importance to science, but if it were .not dependent 
upon voluntary labor, its efficiency would be even 
greater than it is. It has already reached a period 
when provision should begin to be made for placing 
its work upon the more permanent basis of funded 
property and paid labor. That it is w^orthy of the 
support already received from its thousands of mem- 
bers cannot be questioned, and this is a sufficient 
guarantee that it would be a proper and useful trustee 
and administrator of a part of the large sums annually 
distributed by public-spirited persons to institutions 
having not a tithe of its claims to their favorable con- 
sideration. 

The support now obtainable from legislators for the 
uses of science is hard to get, simply because they 
have, as individuals, no practical experience of the 
benefits of science-teaching, either in their own lives 
or those of their children. They allow themselves to 
be persuaded frequently into giving appropriations for 
the benefit of science, but they know that their con- 
stituents have little sympathy, and are even less dis- 
posed than themselves to allow the public money to 
be used for what seems to them purely aesthetical 
purposes. The arrival of the public at a stage of 
enlightenment and proper appreciation w^hich must 
render the task of science lighter and more effective, 
will probably be much facilitated by the work of the 
Agassiz Association. The numerous chapters scat- 
tered throughout the land cannot fail to effect more 
or less of a revolution in the modes of life and thought 
of thousands of families, and through them sensibly 
affect many communities. Leaving out of sight all 
other effects, this influence alone would entitle the 



X 



INTRODUCTION. 



Association to the support of scientific men. The 
labors of the Association are, however, entitled to 
serious consideration in other ways, and the actual 
results of the work done are as astonishing as the 
unprecedented quickness of growth of the Association 
in numbers and influence. 

The originator of this enterprise has done some- 
thing permanent toward developing and spreading a 
taste for self-culture in an almost new sense, so far as 
the majority of people are concerned. He has shown 
that there is a practicable method by which the aver- 
age intelligence and self-reliant character of the peo- 
ple outside of the schoolroom, as well as in it, can be 
effectively increased. He has taught thousands how 
to work with whatever means were at hand, not only 
for their own intellectual improvement, but for that of 
their children and neighbors. This must also even- 
tually affect the curriculum of the public schools in 
many places, through the creation of a demand for 
better and more natural methods of instruction. If he 
devote the remainder of his life to carrying on and per- 
fecting the system he has originated, he can do nothing 
more desirable for the interests of science in this coun- 
try, or more likely to secure future happiness and per- 
sonal satisfaction for himself, as well as for many thou- 
sands of his country-people of all ages and both sexes. 

I shall also take the liberty of saying that material 
returns should not be wanting, in order to secure 
the enjoyment of something more than the personal 
satisfaction of having done good work, and that the 
Association should be placed on a permanent basis, 
and its work secured, now and in the future, by means 
of large invested funds. 

Respectfully yours, 

Alpheus Hyatt. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. PAGE 
History of the Agassiz Association 13 

CHAPTER II. 
How TO Organize a Chapter and Conduct a Meeting 

— Parliamentary — By-Laws 23 

CHAPTER III. 
A Plan of Work 31 

CHAPTER IV. 
How TO Start a Museum c 37 

CHAPTER V. 

The Collection and Preservation of Plants ... 45 

CPIAPTER VI. 
How TO Collect and Preserve Sea-weed . . . . 55 

CHAPTER VII. 
Plans for Botanical Work 58 

CHAPTER VIII. 
How TO Collect, Study, and Preserve Insects . . 64 

CHAPTER IX. 
How TO Collect and Preserve Birds and Eggs . , 71 

CHAPTER X. 

How TO Collect, Study, and Preserve Minerals . . 76 



Xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XI. PAGE 
Arch.?:ology and Ethnology 82 

CHAPTER Xn. 
What to do in Winter — Work for the City . . , 85 

CHAPTER Xni. 
Exchanging 89 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Reports from Chapters and Correspondii^g Members, 91 

CHAPTER XV. 
Books Recommended loi 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Notes 127 

CHAPTER XVII. 
The Council of the Agassiz Association 132 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Hhlps over Hard Places 137 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Badge — The Charter — "The Swiss Cross" — The 

Hand-Book , 144 

CHAPTER XX. 
Recapitulation and Conclusion 147 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Hints and Helps for Agassiz Association Workers, 157 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



CHAPTER I. 

HISTORY OF THE AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION — THE ORIGIN. 

The Agassiz Association, for the observation and 
study of natural objects, was founded in 1875 by 
the writer, in connection with a school which he was 
then teaching in Lenox, Mass. It was the outgrowth 
of a life-long love for nature, and a belief that edu- 
cation is incomplete unless it include some practical 
knowledge of the common objects that surround us. 
For several years the little school society continued its 
work pleasantly and with profit. The president grad- 
ually came to the opinion (strengthened by reading 
an account of a somewhat similar, though far more 
limited, organization in Switzerland), that there might 
be other communities in which a like society would be 
welcomed, and several branch societies were organ- 
ized. To test the matter more fully, having obtained 
the cordial co-operation of the editors of the Sf. 
Nicholas^ a general invitation to unite in the work was 
published in 1880, in the November number of that 
magazine. It was substantially as follows : 

the INVITATION. 

You must know that, across the ocean and over the 
Alps, the boys and girls of Switzerland have a bright 
idea. They have formed a society, and they have a 
badge. The badge is a spray of evergreen, and the 
society is a Natural History Society. 



14 



THREE KINGDOMS, 



Once a year, in the spring-time, when the sun has 
lifted the ice-curtain from the lakes, so that the fishes 
can look out, and the flowers can look in, the children 
from far and near come together for a meeting and a 
holiday. They are the boys and girls for a tramp ! 
Their sturdy legs and long staves, their strong bodies 
and short dresses, their gay stockings and stout shoes 
prove that beyond a question. 

The long golden hair of the girls, tightly braided 
and firmly knotted with gay ribbons, flashes brightly 
as they go clambering over rocks, leaping across rivu- 
lets, scrambling along glaciers, and climbing steep cliffs. 

When the village schoolmaster, who usually leads 
these excursions, blows his horn, back come the chil- 
dren, like laughing echoes, with baskets, pockets, boxes, 
and bags full of the treasures of the wood. 

Then they eat their dinner as we would take a pic- 
nic, and after that, spread out their trophies, and 
decide who has found the most, and who the rarest. 
They get the master to name them, if he can, and 
laugh in mischievous triumph when he fails. 

With the lengthening shadows, the children return 
to their homes, and arrange their mosses, ferns and 
flowers, their pebbles and beetles and butterflies, in 
cabinets, and declare, in their quaint accents, that 
they have had a glorious time. And have they not? 
The fresh, crisp air, the holiday, the sunshine, the pic- 
nic, the gathered specimens, and a teacher to tell them 
Latin names ! No wonder they enjoy it. Would not 
you ? 

But, on reflection, we have all those things in this 
country, could we once bring them together in the 
right proportions. We have holidays enough — there 
are Saturdays. Schoolmasters are as plentiful as 
schools. This is the same sun that shines on Switz- 
erland, and it can find golden hair to kindle, without 



THE AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION. 



waiting for the sea to turn under it. Why, then, can- 
not we have a Natural History Society in America? 
In fact, we already have a little one, up here in these 
Berkshire Hills. And we enjoy it so thoroughly, and 
learn so much from it, that we wish it to grow larger. 

Not many of you need be told why we have named 
our Society The Agassiz Association. There are 
few that have not heard something of the life and 
work of that famous man — so universally honored and 
beloved — Professor Louis Agassiz. In 1846 the great 
Naturalist left his native Switzerland, made America 
his home, accepted a Professorship at Harvard Col- 
lege, and built up the greatest school of Natural His- 
tory in this country. Though one of the most learned, 
he was also one of the most devout and gentle of men. 

Mrs. Agassiz, the widow of Louis Agassiz, and Pro- 
fessor Alexander Agassiz, his son, lend their cordial 
approval to our Society and its work, and have very 
kindly given us permission to use the father's name. 

THE RESPONSE. 

This invitation met a response at once gratifying 
and unexpected. A very general interest in the study 
of nature has been evinced by young and old. Classes 
or Chapters have been formed in different towns, under 
the direction of the central organization, and, where 
this has been impracticable, individuals have joined as 
corresponding members. Within seven years, more 
than fifteen thousand students have been aided, and 
more than twelve hundred local scientific societies es- 
tablished. Though originally planned as an aid to 
young people, the interest of the older ones has 
proved even greater, and we are gratified to find on 
our roll of membership the names of many fathers 
and mothers, teachers and professors. Several of our 



i6 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



chapters are composed wholly of adults ; many of old 
and young working together. Family Chapters are 
among our most successful branches. 

SCHOOL SOCIETIES. 

As the A. A. has become better known, it has found 
a wide field of usefulness in connection with schools, 
both private and public. Many teachers who have not 
been able to find a place for natural science in the 
ordinary curriculum, and who have yet felt that their 
pupils should not grow up strangers to the flowers, 
trees, birds and butterflies, have been glad to devote 
an hour once a fortnight to the guidance of a meeting 
devoted to these studies. In almost every school may 
be found, at the least, six of the more intelligent boys 
and girls who will willingly spend an evening now and 
then in united study and discussion. The young are 
naturally fond of collecting. Most school committees 
will cheerfully grant the use of a room for the meet- 
ings, and many will even provide suitable cases for the 
specimens. In each of the several hundred schools in 
which branches of the Agassiz Association have been 
organized, the resultant work of personal observation 
has had a marked tendency to counteract the evils of 
rote-work and routine. In most cases cabinets have 
been secured and have been filled with specimens col- 
lected by the pupils themselves within a radius of five 
miles of the school-house door. Visit such a society 
as the Agassiz Chapter in Greenfield, or Fitchburg, 
Mass. ; or that in Davenport, Iowa ; or that in Tacoma, 
Washington Territory ; or that in Kioto, Japan, and 
ask to be shown representations of the local fauna, 
flora, or mineralia. The young men and women will 
show you collections carefully prepared, accurately 
labeled, diligently studied, highly valued, and exceed- 



SCHOOL SOCIETIES. 



17 



ingly valuable. The Agassiz Association does not so 
much care for rarities or monstrosities. Our cabinets 
are neither junk-shops nor dime-museums. Our pur- 
pose is rather to learn about the stones by the road- 
side and in the quarry ; to become familiar with the 
plants we pass on our way to school, and with the 
insects that feed upon and fertilize them ; to get on 
speaking terms with, and out of all cruel relations to, 
each warbler of the orchard and the wildwood ; to dis- 
cover what fishes swim in our brooks, what shells sing 
on our beaches and hide in our groves, what invisible 
animalcules live in our ponds and ditches, what stars 
shine in our sky. It was a dream of Louis Agassiz 
himself to see American youth early led into the 
pleasant paths of natural science ; to see them for- 
saking all foolish and wanton sport for the sake of a 
wise and loving study of the works of God. 

Every teacher has at some time felt how delightful it 
would be if she could only lead her pupils to see the 
inexpressible beauty that lies hid from unawakened 
eyes in pebble, and leaf, and wing. But many have 
been discouraged from making any serious endeavor 
from fear of failure. It is better to try and fail, than 
fail for fear of trying. It must be admitted, however, 
that there are usually serious hindrances in the way. 
First of all many teachers feel that they are already 
working at too high a tension. Then, others, not hav- 
ing enjoyed special training in natural science, feel a 
modest reluctance about attempting to train others. 
In other cases it is found difficult to inspire and main- 
tain among the young a strong and growing interest in 
these matters.. The first of these objections can be met 
by making the association-work an avocation instead 
of a vocation ; a calling from work, instead of a call- 
ing to it. Take your pupils with you for an occasional 
afternoon, if you can get leave of absence ; and, my 



i8 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



word for it, you and they will fare none the worse at 
the end of the term for the exchange of one or two 
grammar recitations, or examinations in geography, 
for a little practical knowledge of what lives and 
moves and has its being out of doors, and a few lung- 
fuls of crisp June or October oxygen. 

Your own ignorance, if that is what you do own on 
these matters, will the better enable you to study with 
your pupils ; and next to instruction from the most 
gifted master, nothing is more inspiring than such 
friendly companionship in learning. As for failing to 
interest your pupils, remember that a taste for the pure 
pleasures of natural science, like a taste for olives, 
must be cultivated by persistent tasting! After one 
or two excursions, followed by a careful study of the 
specimens obtained, with the personal use of micro- 
scope or blowpipe, enthusiasm generally grows like 
purslane. You will find, too, that the Association will 
be a great help to you. We have now about fifty 
scientific specialists always ready to aid the members 
by answering their letters of inquiry, and by determin- 
ing their specimens for them, free of cost, save postage. 

A boy in a grammar school in the uttermost parts 
of Dakota becomes interested in fishes. He finds the 
common varieties that he knows, and studies them. 
By and by he takes in his net or on his hook a 
stranger. He finds no account of him in the small 
zoology in the school library. The teacher cannot 
help him. He studies the fish with his eyes, examines 
fins, and scales, and skeleton. Then he prepares a 
description, as accurately as he can, perhaps aided in 
this by the teacher, and sends it with a rude sketch, it 
may be, to Dr. Holder, of the New York Central Park, 
who is one of the gentlemen who kindly assist our 
students. In a few days he receives a letter, giving 
him the name of his fish, and, what is better, the name 



COURSES OF STUDY. 



19 



of a book from which he can learn much more about 
fishes than from any volume that ever before found its 
way into his village. How he is encouraged by this 
graceful sympathy ! He hoards his earnings till the 
book is bought. He studies it by candlelight after 
the chores are done. He masters it, and presents it 
to his little society, where it becomes the nucleus of a 
scientific library, which ten years from now may re- 
quire a building to protect it. By the time this boy 
has finished school he knows more about the fish in 
the local waters than his parents or instructors, and 
he has become fired with ambition to go to some place 
where he can meet men who know enough to teach 
him more. He enters a college or higher scientific 
school, and becomes, before many years are gone, 
himself a specialist, ready, nay eager, to help other 
poor boys in other isolated places. This is no fancy 
sketch, but has been realized over and over again since 
the Agassiz Association was founded in 1875. 

SPECIAL CLASSES. 

Among the pleasant features of the A. A. have been 
our special courses of study. These have been con- 
ducted by men high in their departments, and have 
always been free. Dr. Marcus E. Jones, of Salt Lake 
City, has taken a class through elementary botany; 
Prof. G. Howard Parker has directed a six-months' 
course in entomology ; Prof. E. L. French, of Wells 
College, has managed a very successful course of 
botanical collecting and exchange ; and Prof. W. O. 
Crosby, of the Boston Society of Natural History, has 
conducted two classes, each of one hundred and fifty 
pupils, through highly interesting courses in the ele- 
ments of determinative mineralogy. All these gentle- 
men have most generously volunteered their services, 
and we cannot but hope that others will be found to 



20 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



imitate their example of true philanthropy. One of 
the most urgent needs of the Association is the vol- 
unteer assistance of competent men to conduct in 
botany, biology, entomology, and chemistry' courses 
of study on a plan similar to that so successfully 
inaugurated by the gentlemen just now named. 

THE PLAN OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

From this brief sketch of the origin and work of" 
the A. A., the purpose of its founder may be fairly in- 
ferred. The Association was designed to be an ex- 
tended free school of natural science open to persons 
of all ages and conditions. Local classes, or chapters, 
were to be formed, quite independent of each other, 
and of the President, except in so far as by adopting 
a common name, and by a facility of inter-correspond- 
ence and exchange, they might render to each other 
mutual encouragement and aid ; and by correspond- 
ence with the President, receive such guidance as he 
should be able to give them. 

As.it has been our constant intention to have the A. 
A. relieved from all machinery, politics, and red tape, 
we have adopted the following extremely simple Con- 
stitution, which gives us just enough cohesion to stim- 
ulate an esprit de co7'ps, but leaves each class, or chap- 
ter, absolutely free from any jurisdiction whatever. 

CONSTITUTION. 

A7't. I. The name of this Society shall be The Agassiz Asso- 
ciatio7i. 

Art. 2. It shall be the object of this Association to collect, study, 
and presence natural objects and facts. 

Art. J. The officer of this Association shall be a President, who 
shall perform the customar}- duties of such officer, and who 
may nominate his own successor, who may be elected by the 
votes of- a majority of the chapters of the Association. 



MAGIC WINDOWS. 



21 



Art. 4. New chapters may be added with the consent of the 
President, provided that no such chapter shall consist of less 
than four members. Chapters shall be named from the towns 
in which they exist, and, if there be more than one chapter in 
a town, they shall be further distinguished by the letters of 
the alphabet. 

Art.^. Each chapter may choose it own officers, and make its 
own by-laws. 

Art. 6. The Swiss Cjvss shall be the official organ of the Agassiz 
Association. 

Art. 7. This Constitution may be amended by a three-fourths 
vote of the Association or its representatives. 

The wisdom of this plan of organization seems to 
be estabHshed by the rapid growth and increasing 
prosperity of the Association. 

ADVANTAGES. 

The advantages which may result from the forma- 
tion of a branch in the family or school far outweigh 
the labor and time required. Habits of observation 
are formed ; valuable knowledge is acquired ; spon- 
taneous study is secured ; health-giving rambles are 
taken ; the elements of parliamentary law are learned 
and practiced ; subjects for compositions are abun- 
dantly supplied ; power of debate is attained ; practice 
in letter-writing is necessitated ; valuable collections 
are made ; useful libraries are founded ; pleasant ac- 
quaintances are formed ; windows are opened into dis- 
tant States, through which we catch glimpses of scenery 
new to us ; we see various strange forms of animal and 
plant life ; we read fossil records of the past ; we be- 
come acquainted with the modes of thought and ex- 
pression which prevail outside our own homes. Cor- 
respondence with chapters in different States is like 
the magical glass of the Arabian prince. 

Sitting by our study-table, we can see in every 
direction sturdy boys and graceful girls, searching 



22 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



eagerly for nature's hidden treasures. We see them 
scouring the prairies of Kansas ; climbing the foot- 
hills of the Sierras ; discovering beautiful caves in the 
Rocky Mountains ; analyzing magnolia blossoms in 
Mississippi ; killing rattlesnakes on their own door- 
steps in Colorado ; studying geology in England ; 
gathering edelweiss from the slopes of the Alps ; 
wandering, by permit, through New York's Central 
Park ; spying out specimens from the mica mines of 
Vermont ; picking up tarantulas and scorpions in 
Texas ; searching for the flowers and insects of the 
Argentine Republic ; gathering algse and sea-shells on 
the coast of Florida ; growing wise in the paleontology 
of Iowa ; arranging the variously colored sands of the 
Mississippi river in curious bottles ; in Massachusetts, 
anxious to know whether "the Linmanthe7num of our 
waters has roots ; " sending from Chicago to learn 
about the centre of buoyancy ; holding field-meetings 
in Illinois ; celebrating the birthday of Professor 
Agassiz (May 28), in many States, with a picnic and 
appropriate exercises ; giving entertainments and real- 
izing enough to buy a cabinet and have thirty dollars 
over to start a library in Oregon ; making wonderful 
collections in Virginia ; enjoying the assistance and 
listening to the lectures of eminent scientists in Phila- 
delphia ; enrolling scholars and teachers in Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island ; determining to become pro- 
fessors in the District of Columbia ; writing fraternal 
messages from Canada ; selecting quartz crystals from 
the hot springs of Arkansas ; discovering Geastrums 
on Long Island ; and everywhere learning to detect 
the beautiful in the common, and the wonderful in 
the before despised. 



CHAPTER II. 



HOW TO ORGANIZE A CHAPTER AND CONDUCT A 
MEETING PARLIAMENTARY LAW BY-LAWS. 

We will now proceed to answer the most important 
and constant questions that come to us from day to 
day. Naturally the first inquiry is, ^' How can I form 
a chapter of the A. A. ? " 

As four is the smallest number of persons recognized 
as a chapter, the first thing to do is to find at least three 
persons besides yourself who are interested in the 
plan. Call a meeting and appoint a temporary chair- 
man. Explain to your friends the purpose for which 
you have called them together, and make a motion to 
the effect that a chapter of the A. A. be organized. 
If this motion prevails, it will be well to have a com- 
mittee appointed to draft your by-laws, or the rules by 
which your chapter is to be guided. After choosing 
this committee you may adjourn. 

At the next meeting, hear and act upon the report 
of your committee, and elect your permanent officers. 
It will prove of great service to you to conduct your 
meetings, as far as may be, in accordance with parlia- 
mentary law. Your by-laws should contain an article 
stating what authority shall control you in this regard. 
You will find ' Roberts' Rules of Order ' an excellent 
and intelligent guide. If you have no book of rules, 
the following will be found to cover the principal 
points which may perplex you : 

rules of order. 

I. A quorum of members is always required for 
the transaction of business, and in the absence of a 



24 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



special law, a majority of the members constitutes a 
quorum. 

2. There is properly no business before the house 
until a member has been recognized by the chairman 
as having offered a motion. 

3. It requires a two-thirds vote to suppress a ques- 
tion without permitting debate. 

4. A motion to reconsider a question once decided 
can only be made by one who has voted affirmatively. 

5. A rule adopted must be enforced by the chair 
without question. 

6. Motions to lay on the table, and for the previous 
question, are customary methods for disposing of 
questions and abridging debate. 

7. Debate must be confined to the question, and 
personalities are out of order. 

8. Motions which are undebatable are : The previous 
question ; to lay on or take from the table ; an objec- 
tion to the consideration of any question ; an appeal 
relative to indecorum or violation of rule ; questions 
relative to the order of business, to the withdrawal 
of a motion, to reading papers, or to suspending the 
rules ; and motions to adjourn, to fix the time to 
which to adjourn, or to postpone indefinitely. None 
of these can be amended except that to fix the time to 
which to adjourn. Precedence is given to motions in 
the following order ; and any motion, except to amend, 
can be made w^hile one of a lower order is pending, 
but none can supersede one of a higher order : 

1. To fix the time to which to adjourn. 

2. To adjourn. 

3. A call for the order of the day. 

4. To lay on the table. 

5. The previous question. 

6. To postpone to a certain time. 

7. To commit, amend, or postpone indefinitely. 



BV-LAIVS. 



25 



BY-LAWS. 

Very much of the comfort and harmony of your 
meetings will -depend upon the wisdom of your by- 
laws. They should be simple, short, and comprehen- 
sive, and should cover such points as what officers 
you will have, how long they shall hold office, what 
initiation fee you will require, how many members you 
will admit, what fines, if any, you will impose for ab- 
sence, what duties shall devolve upon your officers and 
members, and what order of exercises you will follow 
in your meetings. The following schedule may prove 
serviceable as a suggestion : 

1. The name of this society shall be — . 

2. The officers shall be — . 

3. The entrance fee shall be — . 

4. The regular dues shall be — . 

5. The order of exercises at all regular meetings 
shall be : a. Roll-call ; Minutes of last meeting ; 
c. Treasurer's report ; d. Report of corresponding sec- 
retary ; e. Reports of members, on specimens, etc. ; 
/. Miscellaneous business ; g. Adjournment. 

6. New members may be elected at any regular 
meeting of the society, by ballot, and — adverse votes 
shall exclude. 

7. The meetings of this society shall be conducted 
in accordance with the rules of order contained in — . 

Each chapter is expected to have a by-law to the 
effect that its secretary shall send to the President of 
the A. A. a carefully prepared amiual report on the date 
assigned by its charter, and that, should the chapter at 
any time disband, immediate notice shall be sent to 
the President. Full directions for these annual re- 
ports are given on another page. 

Some chapters have a by-law requiring each mem- 



26 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



ber to suoport our official organ, The Swiss Cross, but 
all these matters are left to local option. It is well, in 
a final section, to define the manner in which your by- 
laws may be amended. 

The second article, concerning officeTs, should con- 
tain a clause limiting the time during which the vari- 
ous offices may be held ; but as the address of your 
president or secretary is to be published in T/ie Swiss 
Cross and in the Official Register, for the benefit of 
other chapters, those officers should be made permanent 
if possible. In any case, you should decide on some 
address for the chapter, which may remain unaltered, 
whatever official changes may occur. This 7natter of 
an exact a?id per?na?ient address is of the highest im- 
portance. 

In societies where members are of nearly the same 
age, the decision of the majority should be regarded 
as absolute, and be cheerfully agreed to by the minority. 
In family chapters, and those under the direction of a 
teacher, it is well to have a by-law giving the pres- 
ident the power of veto, and making a three-fourths 
vote necessary to pass a motion over his veto. Such 
branches may, if they choose, constitute simple classes, 
and remain entirely subject to the control of parent or 
teacher. The Constitution leaves each branch entirely 
free in these matters. 

The first duty of your secretary, after having re- 
corded the minutes of your meeting for organization, 
will be to send to the President of the Association an 
account of the formation of the chapter, giving the 
date of organization, the names and addresses of your 
officers, and the names and ages of all your members. 
Once a year thereafter, a report of progress will be 
expected, and we shall also be glad to hear from every 
chapter informally at any time. The nature of this 
annual report can best be learned by a study of those 



REPORTS FROM CHAPTERS. 



27 



presented hereafter in this book, but a few words of 
explanation here may be acceptable. 

ANNUAL REPORTS. 

In order to give each chapter fair opportunity to 
acquaint the Association with its progress, methods, 
and plans, the Association has been divided into 
centuries^ consisting of one hundred chapters each. 
The chapters of the first century, numbers i to 100 
inclusive, are to report on the ist of January annually ; 
those of the second century, on the ist of February, 
etc. The time when the report of any chapter falls 
due may be seen from the following table, only pre- 
mising that the reports should be in the President's 
hands by or before the dates given : 

1st Century, Chapters i-ioo. Annual report due Jan. i 



2d '* " 101-200. " Feb. I 

3d *' " 201-300. " March I 

4th " 301-400. *' April I 

5th " 401-500. May I 

6th " 501-600. " June i 

7th 601-700. " " July I 

8th *' 701-800. Oct. I 

gth " 801-900. " Nov. I 

loth " " 901-1,000. •* Dec. I 



If reports reach us promptly on the dates specified, 
we shall be enabled to print them, in whole or part, 
in the succeeding issue of The Swiss Cross. It will 
be observed that we call for the reports of the eighth 
century. Chapters 701-800, on or before October i, 
instead of August i. The reason for this is that we 
wish to allow two months for the summer vacation, 
which is now almost universally enjoyed by our 
schools and colleges. Besides this general notifica- 
tion, we shall indicate each month in The Swiss Cross 



28 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



the chapters which are to report the month following, 
and we shall also, for a time, send notices to the sec- 
retaries by mail. Having thus done our part by way 
of reminders, w^e shall rely on the chapters to see to it 
that their annual reports are properly prepared and 
promptly forwarded. We have been asked with regard 
to reports from chapters, whether they are limited 
to annual reports. Not at all. We are glad to hear 
from every chapter and from every member just as 
often as they feel moved to write. The number of chap- 
ters is so great that we cannot undertake to publish a 
report from each in The Swiss Cross oftener than once 
a year, but additional reports, notes, or letters may be 
sent at any time, and will always receive prompt at- 
tention. Every communication received is promptly 
answered ; so if you fail to receive a reply within 
a reasonable time, say ten days from time of mailing 
your letter if you live east of the Mississippi, you 
may safely conclude that the letter has been lost in 
the mails, and write again. 

These annual reports should never be hastily pre- 
pared, nor deferred until the latest possible moment. 
Each chapter has, once a year, a fair chance to set 
forth its work and its results. A careless secretary 
may injure the standing of an excellent chapter. 
Most of the reports sent us are admirable, and show 
conscientious preparation. 

In response to numerous inquiries as to the nature 
of the reports desired, we will say : 

First, we wish sojne kind of report from every chap- 
ter. Even if you send only six words on a postal 
card, it w^ill suffice to advise the Association of your 
existence and address. If you can say only, " Chapter 
993 still lives ! " that is infinitely better than no report. 
Even if you should be obliged to report, "Chapter 
Blank is dead," the communication of the intelligence, 



THE ANNUAL REPORT. 



29 



unfortunate as it would be, would save the rest of us 
much uncertainty, confusion, labor, and expense. 

Second, the annual report should contain a complete 
list of all changes in membership that may have oc- 
curred since your latest report. 

Third, the annual report should give a brief sum- 
mary of the year's work, number of meetings held, 
excursions made, entertainments given, special plans 
executed. 

Fourth, the annual report should contain a brief ac- 
count of the most interesting facts learned during the 
year by the personal observation of the chapter or any 
of its members. This is the point most frequently 
overlooked, yet it is second to none in importance. 
No society can work faithfully for a year without 
learning something which has interested its members, 
and which must, therefore, prove of interest to the 
Association at large. We recommend each chapter to 
bear constantly in mind, during the year, its next 
annual report. Let there be a large envelope labeled, 
" Items for next Annual Report," and into this let the 
secretary or any member, from time to time, drop 
slips of paper containing such facts as may be incor- 
porated into the report. You will be astonished, at 
the end of the year, to discover what a wealth of ma- 
terial will have been accumulated. Let this, then, be 
carefully sifted and nicely arranged, and you will have 
an interesting and worthy report. 

Fifth, when possible, let pictures accompany your 
reports. A sketch of some rare plant found last 
autumn, a photograph of your cabinet, or room ; in a 
word, a good picture of anything that has proved 
specially interesting and instructive to you. The use 
of the camera as an aid to science can hardly be over- 
estimated, and it brings accurate picture-making within 
the capacity of nearly all. 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS. 

It frequently happens that an individual wishes to 
join the A. A., but is not able to interest enough com- 
panions to form a chapter. To provide for such per- 
sons, we allow them to become corresponding mem- 
bers of the Association on payment of a registration 
fee of 50 cents, and the purchase of this book. There 
are no subsequent dues. 

Those who join us as corresponding members, are 
expected to work in their chosen departments, and to 
send to the President, once in two months, a concise 
report of their progress, modeled somewhat after the 
letters given later in the Hand-book. They enjoy all 
the privileges of charter members, except voting, and 
are at liberty to correspond and exchange with mem- 
bers of the regular chapters. 

Four or more persons in different towns may unite 
by correspondence to form a chapter, and shall then 
be entitled to all the privileges of ordinary chapters. 



CHAPTER III. 



A PLAN OF WORK. 

The leaders of those chapters that desire to study 
the scientific classification of the objects of nature 
will do well to follow some such method as this : Con- 
sider, first, the three great kingdoms — Animal, Vegeta- 
ble and Mineral. Let one meeting be devoted to the 
study of each as a kingdom. Let all the objects in 
your collection be classified so far as to determine re- 
garding each, whether it belongs to the first, second, 
or third of these kingdoms. Determine the same re- 
garding a multitude of substances — as air, water, milk, 
sugar, amber, alcohol, ink, paper, steel, paint, silk, 
flannel, steam, smoke, coal, kerosene, vinegar, etc. 

Next take up the branches into which the several 
kingdoms are subdivided. These are for animals : 

I. Protozoa. V. Anthropoda. 

IL Coelenterata. VI. Molluscoidea. 

III. Echinodermata. VII. MoUusca. 

IV. Vermes. VIII. Tunicata. 

IX. Vertebrata. 

Let these be carefully studied one by one, and thor- 
oughly discussed, and illustrated by specimens, until 
any animal can readily be referred to its proper branch. 
If the books which contain this later classification are 
not at your command, you will do very well with the 
older divisions after Cuvier, viz. : 

I. Vertebrates. III. Mollusks. 

IL Articulates. IV. Radiates. 

V. Protozoans. 



32 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



These you will find in ordinary text-books. For 
chapter libraries, and for all who can afford it, I know 
of no better general work than the Standard Natural 
History, in six octavo volumes. 

The divisions of the Vegetable kingdom are vari- 
ously given by different authors. For the great ma- 
jority of students the text-books by Wood and Gray 
will prove sufficient. Gray's Manual and Wood's 
Manual will be useful to more advanced students, 
while professional botanists must, of course, have re- 
course to various works in French, German, and 
Latin. Special works will be referred to in the chap- 
ter on ' Books Recommended.' The divisions and 
subdivisions of the Vegetable kingdom will become 
intelligible to the student as he progresses, and need 
no mention here. 

The Mineral kingdom is divided into Metallic and 
Non-metallic substances, and these again comprise 
objects which exhibit different degrees of hardness, 
fusibility, specific gravity, etc., regard being had also 
to their chemical composition, and their peculiar forms 
of crystallization. Dana's Mineralogy is a good 
guide, and Brush's ' Determinative Mineralogy and 
Blowpipe Analysis ' is an excellent manual for more 
advanced students, while beginners cannot do better 
than get Mrs. Ellen H. Richards' ^ Plrst Lessons on 
Minerals ' and Professor Crosby's ' Tables for the 
Determination of Common Minerals.* 

One object of this division and subdivision in the 
several kingdoms is so to classify all natural objects 
that we may determine the precise name of any speci- 
men we may find. The more minute the subdivision, 
the more difficult often becomes the analysis. Thus, 
it is usually an easy matter to distinguish between an 
animal and a vegetable. It is not difficult to deter- 
mine whether we are examining an insect or a worm. 



PERSONAL OBSERVA TION, 



33 



If we find an insect, we may presently refer it to the 
Lepidoptera, and then to the butterflies : but when it 
comes to distinguishing between the various Vanessas^ 
with their curious punctuation marks, the matter 
grows more serious, and we are compelled to obtain a 
book more restricted in scope than a zoology, and, in- 
deed, than most entomologists. 

As a result of this, it becomes necessary for him 
that would accurately study any department of nature 
to limit himself early to a small field. One will 
choose, for instance, dragon-flies, and by devoting 
years to them will become a specialist and an authority 
in that department. It is the tendency of the times 
to produce specialists. 

Many persons, however, are not willing to restrict 
themselves to so narrow a field of study. They pre- 
fer to range freely over mountain and along stream ; 
and having acquired the power to analyze a flower or 
determine a mineral, they leave the one to nod and 
smile on its dewy stem in undissected beauty, and the 
other to sparkle in the sunlight, instead of crackling 
in the reducing flame of a compound blowpipe. Yet 
we must have strict scientists, and we honor the men 
who for the sake of expanding the world's knowledge 
are willing to confine their own researches to a narrow 
field. 

For those, then, who are old enough to pursue a 
systematic course, we have briefly outlined a plan 
which may be followed in any department of natural 
science. It consists in first obtaining a general view 
of the whole field, and then in learning its successive 
subdivisions, until analysis is complete. 

The rest of you, and especially you, my little folk 
of ten years old and under, may, for the present, leave 
the big books unopened, and the Latin names un- 
learned. Watch the minnows dart about in the crystal 



34 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



water ; count the daisy flowers, and may they prove 
oracles of joy ; blow off the dandelion's plumes to see 
if mother wants you ; test your love for butter by the 
glimmer of the buttercup beneath your chins ; find 
pretty pebbles by the brook, and keep them bright in 
glasses of water ; gather brilliant autumn leaves, and 
press them for the days when their colors will be in 
the sky ; study the beautiful crystals of the snow, 
lightly falling on your sleeve as you plod to school ; 
learn to love the music of the rain, and the singing of 
the wind, and the moaning of the sea. You may not 
discover many wonderful things — or things that you 
will recognize as wonderful. But if the boys and girls 
in all the different places visited by The Swiss Cross 
were to tell each other about the common things in 
each one's own vicinity, there would be wonder enough, 
I am sure. 

Yet you may find something altogether new. Did 
not little Maggie Edward find a new fish for her 
father ? What ? Never heard of Thomas Edward — 
the dear old shoemaker who use to make ' uppers ' all 
day, and then lie all night in a 'hole in a sand-bank, 
with his head and gun out, watching for ' beasts ? ' 
In that case, you would do well to read the book 
called ^ The Scotch Naturalist,' by Samuel Smiles. 

Nature must be studied out-of-doors. Natural ob- 
jects must be studied from the specimens themselves. 
The rocks must be broken open, the flowers must be 
studied as they grow, and animals must be watched as 
they live freely in their own strange homes. Quaint 
old Bernardin de St. Pierre, author of ' Paul and Vir- 
ginia,' says : 

" Botanists mislead us. They must have magnify- 
ing-glasses and scales in order to class the trees of a 
forest ! To show me the character of a flower, it is 
presented to me dry, discolored, and spread out on 



LESSONS FROM NA TURE. 



35 



the leaf of an herbary. Who can discover the queen 
of the flowers in a dried rose ? In order to its being 
an object at once of love and philosophy, it must be 
viewed when, issuing from the cleft of a humid rock ; it 
shines on its native verdure, when the zephyr sways 
it, on a stem armed with thorns." 

Nothmg can take the place of personal contact with 
nature. No great naturalist has learned his lessons 
from books only. 

Agassiz had learned more about fishes before he 
ever saw a fish-book, than he found in the book after 
he got it. 

Audubon lived in the woods, and learned the voices 
of all the birds, and could tell them also by their 
flight. 

Gilbert White wrote charming letters about the 
swallows under his eaves, the cricket on his hearth 
and the old tortoise that lived in his kitchen-garden. 

W. W. Bailey braves the frosts of winter, and rambles 
by the icy brooks, or through the snow-carpeted aisles 
of the naked forest, to see what nature does when 
summer is ended. He writes : 

" The pretty little stream is bordered by a fringe of 
white ice, under which we can see great bubbles press, 
squeezing themselves into very curious forms. The 
stream murmurs some pleasant story of the summer 
violets. On its still pools float leaf-gondolas of curi- 
ous patterns. Great fern-feathers, unwithered by the 
frost, droop over the brook, and velvety mosses cushion 
the shores." 

These men understand Nature. They enter into the 
spirit of her mighty, throbbing life, and interpret the 
secrets of her wondrous love. 

And if you have ever known what it is to feel a 
great love for the very earth, so that on some sunny 
day you have wandered off alone, and under the 



36 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



fragrant shade of an ancient pine, have thrown your- 
self upon her broad bosom, like a tired child ; or if, 
when the wind was bending the long grass, you have 
lain among the daisies, like Robert Falconer, watch- 
ing your kite floating far up in the blue sky, and 
wondering what there is beyond the kite, and beyond 
the sky ; or if, on some dark day in December, when 
gray clouds were skurrying across the sky, you have 
climbed a hill alone, and from a swaying perch in a 
leafless beech watched the drifting snow as it wrapped 
the world in ermine — then you may believe that a 
portion of the spirit that animated Agassiz, and 
Edward, and Audubon, and White, and Wordsworth, 
has fallen upon you. 



CHAPTER IV. 



HOW TO START A MUSEUM. 

A MUSEUM may be a source of constant pleasure, or 
the cause of perpetual annoyance. All depends upon 
the purpose with which it is started, and the manner in 
which it is managed. Before giving advice as to the 
best way of making a museum permanently enjoyable, 
I will mention some of the most common causes of 
failure. 

1. Many fail because they start their museum ^^just 
for fun." It is true that a great deal of pleasure can 
be got from a collection, but not when amusement is 
made the main purpose. 

2. Others fail because they think that a museum is 
the same thing as a curiosity shop, and seek only those 
things that are quaint or rare. They want something 
that will make their friends open wide their eyes, and 
they like to have people ask, in surprise, Why, where 
in the world did you get that ? " 

3. A third cause of failure is the attempt to collect 
all sorts of things at once. You shall see, crowded 
together on the same shelf, coins, stamps; Indian rel- 
ics, birds' eggs, autographs, sharks' teeth, sand from 
the Mississippi, wood from the home of Walter Scott, 
sea-beans, and pieces of the funeral decorations in 
niemory of Lincoln or Garfield. In this way, the 
mind, confused and wearied, soon loses its interest. 

4. An equally fatal error is the neglect to learn all 
that can ba learned about each specimen. This usu- 
ally follows the first and second sources of failure 
already mentioned. It sometimes results from a sel- 
fish spirit of gain, an inordinate love of possession. 



38 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



I once had a boyish craze for coin-collecting. My 
chief motive was to see how many I could get ; to 
get more and rarer ones than my friend Jack had. 
When Jack and I parted to go to different schools, our 
rivalry ceased, and with it, my numismatic zeal with- 
ered away. 

In later years, while looking at the remains of my 
collection, I became interested in a coin of Trajan. 
On one side was the head of the Emperor ; on the re- 
verse, the Temple of Janus, and this inscription in 
Latin : The Roman people, having secured peace on 
land and sea, has closed Janus." Coming, then, to 
look at coins as a means of verifying and vivifying 
histor}% my old enthusiasm instantly revived, and hav- 
ing now a reasonable rooting, became permanent. 

5. Many young persons suppose that it is of para- 
mount importance to know the name of every speci- 
men. Therefore, finding it difficult to ascertain all 
names at once, they become discouraged and give up 
their purpose. 

6. Finally, a mercenar}' few collect, hoping to sell 
again. It is needless to say that they are usually dis- 
appointed in this hope, and that whether or not they 
succeed in making money, they utterly fail of reaping 
the true benefits we propose for them from their home 
museum. 

This mention of some of the more common causes 
of failure anticipates by contrast the sources of suc- 
cess. A museum should be started for the purpose of 
learning by personal observation, or of furnishing an 
opportunity for others to do so. Resolutely exclud- 
ing the curiosity-shop idea, the collector should first 
definitely decide what kind of a museum he will make. 

To aid him in this, I will indicate several distinct 
sorts of museums, adapted to persons of dift'erent 
tastes. 



ABOUT MUSEUMS. 



1. An unlimited collection ; usually unfortunate. 

2. A collection limited as to place. For example, all 
the different specimens that can be found in a given 
county, in a certain township, by the banks of some 
stream, or on a selected mountain. 

3. A collection limited as to time. As coins between 
1776 and 1861 ; or specimens found between May and 
September. 

4. A collection limited in kind, e. g., minerals, 
stamps, ferns, beetles, seeds, snow-crystals. 

5. Collections limited in two or more of these ways ; 
as, for example, flowers that blossom on Mt. Washing- 
ton in June ; the varieties of quartz that occur in your 
own town ; the insects that visit your rosebush during 
one year. 

6. Group-collections, by which I mean collections 
of objects of the same general kind ; and in connec- 
tion therewith, other objects naturally grouped with 
them. To illustrate, suppose a tree-collection. If 
you begin with the chestnut, you might get a piece of 
the wood, showing the grain ; then you would group 
about this specimens of the chestnut bark, leaves, 
flowers, and fruit. You would add all the varieties of 
moss that grow on the tree, all insects that frequent 
and injure it, perhaps a sketch of the entire tree, and 
whatever else you might conceive to be naturally con- 
nected with it. 

One variety of group-collection might be called a 
Development-collection, by which I mean a collection 
that shows different stages of growth. If you wished 
to show the progress in methods of lighting, you could 
arrange a series containing a pine-knot, a rush-light, 
tallow dip, wax taper, whale-oil lamp, fluid lamp, kero- 
sene lamp, gas-fixtures, and the arc and incandescent 
electric lights. Or to illustrate the life-history of an 
insect, you could have a series of specimens beginning 



40 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



with the egg, and continued through the various forms 
of the caterpillar after his moultings, the cocoon and 
chrysahs, to the perfect iinago. 

So, with a plant, an interesting group would repre- 
sent its growth from seed to plumule, and through the 
succeeding daily forms to bud and flower and fruit, 
and back again to seed. 

Another variety of group-collection shows the sev- 
eral stages in the manufacture of common substances. 
Beginning with the cotton-boll, you would have the 
ginned cotton, the thread, and various kinds of fabrics 
that are woven from it ; starting again with the stalk 
and flower of flax, you would have the soft, inner, 
fibrous bark, the linen thread, linen and paper made 
therefrom, also the seeds, and linseed-oil pressed out 
of them, the linseed meal obtained by grinding the 
oil-cake left after the oil has been expressed, and the 
various other valuable products that make flax so 
necessary to our comfort. 

7. The last sort of museum that I will mention may 
be called the Type-collection. This is a collection of 
typical specimens chosen to illustrate the branches, 
classes, genera, and other divisions into which objects 
are classified. Following the popular system, there 
might be in the Animal kingdom, a cat to represent 
the vertebrates ; a lobster for the Articulates ; an 
oyster for the Mollusks ; for the Radiates, a star-fish ; 
and for the Protozoans, a sponge. Of course the 
classification may be carried to any extent you choose ; 
but you would need only a few type-specimens in each 
division. 

These must be considered merely as illustrations of 
the different kinds of museums that may be made. 
They range from the unlimited ' Omnium gatherufu^ 
which, I fear is the most common, as well as the most 
unsatisfactory, through all the degrees of limitation. 



CARE OF SPECIMENS. 



41 



Having decided what kind of museum you will have^ 
the question arises, how to get your specimens. 

The best, because the most profitable and enjoy- 
able method, is by personal search. This is particu- 
larly true of the fifth and sixth classes of museums. 
The same sort of pleasure attends this plan that at- 
tends the sports of fishing and hunting ; and the same 
qualities — keenness, caution, and patience — are devel- 
oped. The next best plan is by a system of exchanges. 

The worst plan (except stealing) is to buy your 
specimens. Here, however, an exception must be 
made if you are making a collection of manufactured 
articles, or are arranging for a regular course of study. 

Having secured your specimens, they must be pre- 
pared for the cabinet. Many excellent manuals are 
published containing full instructions for this prepa- 
ration. If you can get the advice and example of 
some competent person, it will be still better. 

For the reception of your treasures, the variety of 
cases is great. Let security and simplicity be chiefly 
sought. Boys who are not contented without showy 
and elaborate cases, seldom make valuable collections. 
It is not the boy with the fifty-dollar rod that catches 
the largest trout. 

In arranging specimens, give each the largest prac- 
ticable space. Do not huddle them. Nearly all kinds 
of specimens look well set on separate blocks of wood, 
neatly covered with white paper. Each one thus placed 
has an individuality obtainable by no other plan. In- 
sects, eggs, mosses, shells, fossils, and minerals all 
appear to great advantage in this way. To retain the 
eggs in position, set each one on a little ball of putty, 
and press it gently until it forms a little socket for 
itself. Most oologists, however, keep eggs in sets in 
the proper nests. 

Cultivate neat habits. Leave no debris for mother 



42 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



-to take care of. Allow no disagreeable odors in the 
room. Keep all glass brightly polished. Keep every 
tool in its proper place. Remove all traces of dust. 
A distinguished scientist tells me that he makes many 
tests and analyses in his parlor, and that by attending 
to the matter, he does not make enough dirt to soil 
his handkerchief. 

Do not make your museum a nuisance. Many great 
naturalists have erred here. Enthusiasm for science 
is not a valid excuse for forgetting the feelings of 
others. Remember that although you have no fool- 
ish fear of snakes, it may be very cruel in you to 
expect your sister to share your unconcern ; and that 
although you may have grown indifferent to the fumes 
of stale and slimy alcohol, it may cause your mother 
serious distress. 

Finally, do not keep your museum simply as an 
ornament. Study your specimens, and give others 
a chance to study them. Put up for a notice Hands 
on," rather than "Hands off." Classify your collec- 
tion as well as you can, but remember that classification 
is not the most important thing. Take your specimens 
one by one, and look at them, taste them, smell them, 
feel of them, and learn their properties by personal 
observation. 

HOW TO iMAKE A CABINET. 

In * Rollo's Museum,' a charming little book by Jacob 
Abbot, we read that Jonas made an excellent cabinet 
for RoUo, from a large packing-box. He stood it on 
end, fitted it with shelves, and closed it by doors at- 
tached by means of leather hinges, and fastened by a 
wooden button. Such a cabinet, neatly finished, looks 
very well, and costs almost nothing. To those who 
would like to try their hands at something a little more 
elegant, we offer the following simple design : 



PLAN FOR A CABINET. 



43 



The picture shows the cabinet complete, and the plan 
following it is drawn so that every measurement in it 
is one-sixteenth of 
the corresponding 
measurement in the 
finished cabinet. 
No nails are used. 
Wood of light color 
looks well ; chest- 
nut is easily work- 
ed. The ends of 
the top and bottom 
are mortised into 
the sides. Close 
to the side boards, 
holes are bored 
through the projecting parts of the tenons ; and 
wedges are inserted and hammered tight. 

The frames of the doors are doweled at the corners, 
each joint being made by boring a hole through one 
piece into the next, and inserting a dowel coated with 
glue. The short dotted lines in the plan help to ex- 
plain this. The glass should not be set with putty, 
but with narrow strips, beading, or rattan, fastened 
with brads or needle-points. Butt-hinges may be 
used, with ornamental hinge-plates set outside as 
shown. Hook one door to the shelf, and it will hold 
the other door shut. 

The shelves may be made with raised edges, like 
trays — the front rims are not shown in the picture on 
the following page. These edges will keep the con- 
tents from rolling off when the trays are taken out. 
The shelves slope forward to show the specimens to 
better advantage ; and they rest on dowels let into 
auger-holes in the side boards. To prevent them from 
slipping, pegs are set in them underneath, resting 




44 THREE KINGDOMS. 



against the backs of the forward dowels. The shelves 
may be put in flat, and may rest on screw-eyes screwed 
into the sides of the cabinet. 

Metal ears are set on the back, projecting above 
the top, for hanging the cabinet ; in addition, it is 
well to drive a screw from the inside through the back 
into a stud in the wall. 

The scalloping at 
the top of the back 
may be done with a 
fret-saw. The hole 
in the center of each 
scallop is bored right 
through. The orna- 
mental lines across 
the sides are made 
with a gouge, and 
should be covered 
with two coats of 
white shellac varnish. 
Those skilled in fret- 
sawing may like to set in the top the letters B. B., in Old 
English text. If you are puzzled over any of the details, 
the nearest cabinet-maker will give you a friendly hint. 

Many chapters, wishing something still more elab- 
orate, have given various sorts of entertainments, and 
earned money to buy them, and in many ca£.es the 
school authorities have generously furnished our young 
friends with cabinets, and rendered them other sub- 
stantial aid. 

One of the most desirable kinds of cabinet is made 
like a shallow show-case, and the top is covered v^ith 
a glass door which may be lifted up. In a case for 
insects, this top may be tightly fastened down by 
means of thumb-screws, and may be rendered air- 
tight by the interposition of strips of rubber. 













w 


r c 












w 











CHAPTER V. 



THE COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF PLANTS. 
THE COLLECTION OF PLANTS. 

A FEW words may be useful in regard to the collec- 
tion and preservation of plants. The processes are 
simple and easily learned, yet it is astonishing how 
few seem to acquire them. Things are sent to a 
botanist for identification in such form as to make 
him shiver, devoid of essential parts, ill selected, and 
badly, or not at all, pressed. Good judgment lies at 
the bottom of specimen-making — as it does of most 
other things. We may lay down rules in vain if com- 
mon sense comes not in to temper and control. There 
is no rule for supplying this ; it is a matter of temper- 
ament and antecedents, though it may be increased by 
education. A sense of neatness is almost as essential. 

Now as to directions. First, when you go on an 
excursion, wear strong and plain clothes that you are 
not fearful of injuring. Briers and bogs are no re- 
specters of raiment. Select broad, low-heeled, com- 
fortable shoes. Repentance follows upon a tight boot, 
especially in m.ountainous regions. And, by the way, 
in such rough districts, it is well to stud the soles with 
hob-nails. They aid very much in climbing. 

The outfit should consist of a pocket-knife of some 
sort, a cane, hooked at the end, for pulling down 
branches of trees, or securing water-plants otherwise 
unattainable ; a ball of twine ; some vials and pill- 
boxes. The last are carried, not for any medicinal 
value, but for preserving seeds, algae or other small 
objects. 



46 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



By all means take a note-book in which to jot down 
memoranda of various sorts. Few persons can trust 
the memory implicitly concerning the occupations and 
collections of a day. Field-notes carefully made are 
often of more value to others than to the person im- 
mediately concerned. Moreover, the taking of them 
inculcates a useful lesson of painstaking observation, 
terse expression, and neatness of style. Nothing 
should be done in a slovenly way. Sketches, well 
made, and illustrative either of landscapes or plants, 
are a commendable addition to such notes. A set of 
such note-books, kept through a series of years, be- 
comes, indeed, a diary of delightful facts. Through- 
out life, and in periods of despondency, the records 
will recall scenes of inexpressible joy. It is well to 
provide one's self with a pocket-map of the county or 
region to be visited. On this can be recorded the 
roads, forests, hills, springs, marshes, etc. The geo- 
logical formation, too, can be put in by colors, and 
even the favorite haunts of the rarer flowers can be 
indicated. 

It is surprising how, by this means, a person will 
acquire a nearly perfect knowledge of the features of 
a district. If your state or county is a large one, cut 
up the map into portions, and paste these on cloth. 

If you have an eye to the inner man and creature- 
comforts, take a drinking-cup and provide a luncheon. 
In these preliminary directions we have cleared the 
way for the consideration of the really technical ap- 
paratus required. There are two modes of collecting 
plants, both of which possess certain advantages. We 
find different collectors wedded to one or the other, 
and, indeed, prepared to do valorous battle for the 
one they have chosen. Our own attitude is con- 
ser^'ative. Sometimes we try one place, sometimes 
another. It depends somewhat upon the occasion 



THE BOTANISTS OUTFIT. 



47 



and the environment. Some botanists use only the 
tin box; others use only the portfolio. We employ 
either or both as the case demands. The box, or vas- 
culum, is usually a flattened cylinder of any size to 
suit the caprice of the owner. 
It opens through nearly the 
whole of one side, and has a 
cover confined by a sliding 
bar. We have one small one, 
and another that is often mis- 
taken for a wash-boiler. Such a box may be of one 
compartment, or divided into several. Plants, espe- 
cially if closely packed, will keep in it for a long 
time. For ordinary study or school work, the box 
is to be preferred. By it the plants are brought in 
fresh, and with their natural contour and expression. 
It is well during a journey to sprinkle them with 
water now and then. Probably the largest and best 
collections are made by means of the portfolio. This 
consists essentially of two binder's-boards of standard 
size, 17x12 in. — that is, a little larger than the sheets 
upon which the plants are subsequently to be mounted. 
These should be covered with enameled clgth, and 
left free ; that is, not connected by the back in the 
manner of a book. Around them must pass a couple 
of straps, held in place, and by which pressure can be 
brought to bear on the contained papers. Within 
these covers we have the field-folios, or sheets of 
bibulous paper, with here and there a regular drier 
to give firmness to the whole. So much for outfit. 
We must now state how our apparatus is to be used. 
The first thing is to select your plants. Beginners 
make the mistake of collecting things that are too 
young — perhaps with a fellow-feeling for the inex- 
perienced. Be patient ! Wait till the plants are well 
in flower, and if possible, even partly in fruit. If you 




48 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



cannot get fruit and flower together, visit the locality 
again for the former. At any rate, always secure it. 
The fruit is often essential to the identification of a 
plant. In the same way one must have the under- 
ground parts, roots, tubers, root-stocks, etc., paring 
these down if too bulky. Do not, on any account, 
merely nip off the top of a plant, and think you have 
a specimen. You w^ill, in such case, only lay up 
trouble for yourself and others. 

Ferns require the underground parts. The Umbel- 
lifercBy C7'udfe?'CBy Caj'ices^ and Potamogetons must be 
collected in fruit. Grasses, on the other hand, oftener 
need the flowers. 

Generally a number of specimens will be growing 
together. Of these some will be better than others. 
Select the best ; those which seem most representa- 
tive, least injured in any way ; good average examples 
of the whole. If you are using the box, no special 
advice is necessary. Lay the plants in smoothly, 
avoiding injury so far as is possible. If the port- 
folio is employed, open it, and put one or more 
plants of the same species in a single sheet, carefully 
laying them out, and then bringing down the upper 
sheet over them. On either side put drying-papers, 
then another species-sheet with more specimens, then 
more driers, and so on. Never mix species on the 
same sheet. Put with each species a field-label, 
stating, if known, the name of the plant, and the 
date and place of collection. To these data may 
usefully be added color of flower, height of plant, 
nature of soil, and habit of growth, though much of 
such information is best left in the note-book, with 
reference to the specimens. 

The ultimate process of drying, upon which so 
much depends, is, in effect, pretty much the same as 
the field-work with the portfoHo, only now one uses a 



PRESSING AND MOUNTING. 



49 



regular press. We say a regular one ; but, on second 
thought, we should correct by saying the simplest press 
you can make. As good as any consists of two strong, 
cleated boards, with a weight on top. The plants are 
removed from box or portfolio, and placed in their 
species-sheets, between driers, or wads of bibulous 
paper. A pile is thus made. The specimens re- 
main permanently in their special folios, but the dri- 
ers must be frequently changed, and new ones put in, 
while the wet ones are exposed to sunlight or heat. 
Herein is the whole secret of good specimen-making : 
well-regulated pressure^ and incessant change of driers. 

We ought to state, however, as this is a perverse 
world, and inanimate objects often seem imp-directed, 
that when one wholly forgets a series of specimens, 
and leaves them in the press for weeks, they occasion- 
ally come out better than others that hav.e been 
watched. Yet, dear youthful collector, build not too 
high hope on this result of laziness ! Eternal vigi- 
lance is the rule. Various forms of press are used. 
Some are provided with straps, others with screws and 
levers. After all, a simple weight, following the plants 
down as they shrink, is as good as any thing. The 
length of time that a plant should remain in press can 
best be learned from experience. Judge by the feel- 
ing whether it is dry. If still damp, let it remain. 

THE MOUNTING OF PLANTS. 

The collector's work does not cease when he has 
pressed his plants. Indeed, it has then hardly begun. 
Supposing that they are now perfectly dried, they must 
next be poisoned. This is necessary to prevent the 
attacks of insects which will otherwise be likely com- 
pletely to destroy them. One has a feeling of de- 
spair when he goes to his cases some day and finds 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



the work of years in ruins. Corrosive sublimate ap- 
plied with a soft brush is the best remedy known. It 
should be dissolved almost to saturation in strong 
alcohol, and the bottle plainly marked as poisonous. 
Keep the solution out of the way of small children 
and irresponsible persons. Small plants may be di- 
rectly immersed in the fluid, contained for the time in 
a shallow pan. 

Prevention is better than cure. Keep the bugs out 
in the first place. Cases cannot be too tight. Mr. 
Sereno Watson tells us that he would rather rely on a 
tight case than on the poison itself. Inquire always 
whether plants received in exchange have been prop- 
erly poisoned. Quarantine them until you are sure. 
If, despite all precautions, the cases become infested, 
fumigate them with bisulphide of carbon. Here, again, 
bear in mind that this liquid is dangerously inflam- 
mable. Put a little of it in each case. • In a few hours 
it will evaporate. Then open windows and ventilate 
the room before bringing lights, or fire of any kind, 
near. 

Plants are mounted in various ways according to 
individual taste and judgment. Sometimes they are 
stuck down by slips of adhesive paper ; oftener by 
glue. We ourselves employ Le Page's carriage-glue, 
and thus escape the nuisance of a glue-pot. The 
medium is always ready. Apply the glue lightly on 
one side of the plant, laid for the time on a sheet of 
waste paper. Then lay the plant, sticky side down, 
on the sheet to which it is to be fixed. Place over 
it some dr}4ng paper, and apply light pressure. We 
often mount a hundred plants in a day. Put only one 
species on a sheet. In order to make your heap lie 
smooth in the case, and without bulging in the middle, 
place some plants on one margin of the page ; others 
on the opposite margin ; some at the top, others at 



L A BEL ING SPE CI MENS. 



51 



the bottom. Leave room, if you can, for other speci- 
mens of the same plant from other places. Apply 
your own label to the lower right-hand side ; the col- 
lector's label to the lower left. On these labels write 
legibly the name of the plant, the date and place of 
collection, and such other data as can be compressed 
in so limited space. A portion of the label can 
always be printed as per sample : 



HERBARIUM OF T. Z. JONES. 



Much bad taste is shown in the construction of 
labels. Avoid all tendency to fancy borders. Strive 
for clearness and simplicity. At the same time, let 
the paper of the label be such as will readily take glue 
without too much curling. Mounting-paper can be 
obtained from any naturalists' agency, or from a bind- 
ery. The standard size is 16^ inches by 11 Uni- 
formity is desirable, so that when the collection is 
broken up, as it is sure to be in time, it may find a 
fitting abode in some public herbarium. 

Our plants are now mounted and labeled. Place 
them next under their proper ^ genus covers,' and in 
their ordinal relations in the proper pigeon-holes of 
your case. It would lead us too far to speak of the 
various cases used. Suffice it to say that the case 
should be of convenient height, and the compartments 
deep and broad enough easily to receive the sheets. 
If possible have tight doors, excluding dust and in- 
sects — the whole fastening by the ^Jenks,' or some 
other combination lock. 

We are often asked how to learn classification. It 
can be learned only by classifying. A summer spent 



52 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



in collecting and arranging a lot of plants conveys 
more definite ideas of * affinity ' than hours of lecturing. 
It is the fashion nowadays to decry systematic work, 
but it is likely to have its uses for some time to come. 
The average young pupil is more interested in the 
plants afield than in the differentiation of the punctu7n 
vegetatio?iis : at least such is our experience. 

In conclusion, we will say that dried plants can be 
studied almost as well as the fresh. A short soaking 
in water softens the parts, restores the contours, and 
makes everything available for dissection. Indeed, 
the larger part of a systematic botanist's work is upon 
dried plants. The herbajium is a sort of cyclopaedia 
— a book of reference, where the explanations are 
afforded by the plants themselves. It is out of the 
question personally to collect all the plants even of a 
single family whose times of blooming and fruiting are 
different, and whose localities are remote, and perhaps 
to you inaccessible. In the herbarium you have the 
whole range side by side and can institute compari- 
sons. In the useful study of plant-distribution, as 
in many other ways, then, the ho7'tus siccus is a ne- 
cessity. 

It may not be out of place, in connection with rules for 
preserving plants, to give the following method of pre- 
paring specimens of wood for the cabinet : Cut boards 
five by eight inches and a quarcer of an inch thick. 
Season, and plane smooth. Varnish one-half. Then 
cut from a sapling, two or three inches in diameter, 
some pieces one-quarter of an inch thick. Saw these 
in a square mitre-box. Saw off several, as seme may 
w^arp or split. In summer, the pieces will season with- 
out a fire. In winter, a fire is needed, but the wood 
should not be put too near it. When the end sections 
are seasoned, smooth one side carefully with a rasp, so 
as not to mar the bark. Finish w4th fine sand-paper. 



CARE OF PLANTS. 



S3 



Polish, oil, or varnish, being careful not to varnish the 
bark. When dry, fasten with small screws, from the 
back, to the centre of the boards previously described. 

For most of the excellent advice regarding the care 
of plants, which is presented in this chapter, we are 
indebted to Prof. W. Whitman Bailey, who gave it 
first in The Swiss Cross. In closing, we commend to 
our readers the following hints contained in a letter 
from Mr. Herbert M. Ellis to the Selborne Society of 
England : 

"It seems most curious, and yet I think there can 
be no doubt of the fact, that the chief culprits as re- 



gards the destruction of wild flowers and ferns, and 
birds and insects, are those w^ho in their hearts have 
most sympathy and love for them. One of those be- 
nighted beings, though I suppose they form the ma- 
jority of our fellow-creatures, on whom the quiet beauty 
and serene loveliness of the country is lost, to whom a 
growing field in June is but a field of grass, to whom 
the loveliest dell in Devonshire is only worthy of notice 
if he wants a quiet smoke, whose only manner of dis- 
tinction among birds is large or small, to whom all 
sea-birds are gulls, all water-birds dabchicks, and all 
wild flowers simply as the grass under his feet — such 




SPECIMEN OF WOOD. 



54 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



a one, though much to be pitied, is quite innocent of 
the posies of dead wild flowers by the wayside, or the 
ghastly arrays of ill-stuffed birds and beasts in musty 
cupboards and on bookshelves at home, or heaps of 
unfortunate little butterflies which never get as far as 
the setting-board. No ; such sights as these are gen- 
erally the work of those who love the things of nature 
not wisely, but too well. Like Mother Eve, they can- 
not be satisfied with seeing, without wanting to possess 
more than is necessary for them or good for others. 
What is it, then, that is needed in our rambles and ex- 
cursions ? Is it not a thoughtful love for these things ? 
I would offer the following practical suggestions, which 
I think can scarcely hinder any one from enjoying the 
country as much as ever, and at the same time help to 
carry out the objects which your Society has in view : 

1. When in the country do not ruthlessly pull up 
and pick every flower you come across when you first 
set off. Gather your flowers if possible in the latter 
part of the day, when they will be less likely to die. 

2. Do not entirely denude one place of flowers, 
whatever they may be. 

3. Do not pluck flowers which by nature fade di- 
rectly, such as wood anemones and wood sorrel, which 
never look half so well in vases as in their native 
place. 

4. Do not dig up flower-roots at the time of flower- 
ing, a most common and pernicious practice ; it is the 
worst possible time for transplanting." 



CHAPTER VI. 



HOW TO COLLECT AND PRESERVE SEA-WEED. 

Louisa Lane Clarke, in 'Common Sea-weeds/ 
gives the following suggestions, which are evidently 
the fruit of experience : " We dabble in the cool, clear 
tide-pools, and scarcely know what we take up ; there 
is a world of life in each. The speckled prawn is 
balancing himself, and waving to and fro his sensitive 
feelers, springing away under the rich foliage that con- 
ceals his hiding-place ; and the small blenny darts like 
a lightning-flash from cranny to crevice, the fear and 
the dread of man upon it. On the green Ulva creeps 
the lovely little slug — a bright green, spotted with 
white — called Acteon viridis^ and on darker sea-weeds 
the great purplish sea-hare. Sea-spiders lurk amid 
the coralline ; and as we gather a bunch of sea-weed, 
we shake out dozens of a pretty little snail called 
Rissoa, besides gathering, if we please, bright yellow 
Nerita^ the commonest sea-snail of our coast. All 
these force themselves on the notice of the sea-weed 
gatherer, as we scramble over the rocks, and pause 
to consider where we shall begin. 

I advise taking a little of everything — not much, 
for they so soon spoil in waiting to be mounted — and 
naming each specimen as it is decided by reference to 
your manual. If you have but a day for a sea-side 
holiday, go down to the lowest ebb of the tide, in 
hopes of the best red sea-weeds, and work back to the 
commoner, but still beautiful, green sea-weeds, Ulva 
and Cladophorce. 

Suppose, now, that we have made our search, and 
have brought home a tangled mass of olive, red, and 
green sea-weeds. 



56 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



We get some soup-plates, fresh water, a bit of 
alum, some camel-hair pencils, and / use needles 
mounted on lucifer matches, to assist in disentang- 
ling the mass. 

Of course we are prepared with paper cut into 
large and small squares ; and, as much of the beauty 
of the specimens depends on the quality of the paper, 
it should be fine, and at the same time stout, almost 
as good as drawing-paper. 

Now float a piece of weed in fresh water ; if very 
dirty or sandy, wash it first, and in renewed water 
float it on a piece of paper supported by your left 
hand, whilst with your right hand you arrange the 
plant in a natural manner, using a mounted needle 
or porcupine-quill, and thinning out the superabun- 
dant branches with a fine-pointed pair of scissors. 
When the specimen is placed as you like it, cautiously 
raise the paper that the position of the plant be not 
altered, and let it rest somewhere with sloping inclina- 
tion, that the moisture may run off whilst other speci- 
mens are treated in the same way. 

Do not leave them long thus, for they must be 
pressed before the paper is dry. 

A convenient traveling- press consists of two pieces 
of deal board about two feet long and one foot wide, 
a couple of quires of whity-brown paper, and a double 
strap. Lay blotting-paper between the coarser paper, 
and you can strap them closely and carry your sea- 
weed very safely in your hand. 

In drying them, you must have old linen or fine 
muslin, old and soft, to lay upon the weed and prevent 
it sticking to the upper paper, but do not leave it be- 
yond a day or so, lest it leave chequered mark-s upon 
the surface of the weed, especially those with broad 
fronds, like Delesseria. 

Experience will give the best lessons. Some sea- 



PLANTS OF THE OCEAN. 



57 



weeds, such as Melogloia, ^which are glutinous, must 
not be pressed at all, but laid out to dry, and when 
perfectly so, then moisten the under side of the paper, 
and give a gentle pressure only. 

Others will not adhere to paper, and therefore, 
when dry, brush them over with a little isinglass dis- 
solved in gin (laid on warm), and they will then be 
fixed closely to the card-board or paper. 

Another preparation is : One ounce oil of turpen- 
tine, in which some gum mastic the size of a nutmeg 
has been dissolved. This gives a gloss to the speci- 
men, and helps to preserve the color. 

You must change the blotting-paper and muslin at 
least twice during the process of drying larger sea- 
weeds ; the smaller ones will be ready in a couple of 
days for the album, on the second day giving heavy 
pressure by stones and weights besides the strap. 



CHAPTER VII. 



PLANS FOR BOTANICAL WORK. 

The following suggestions written by Mr. Wm. B. 
Werthner, for Chapter 940, Dayton, O., are so exceed- 
ingly practical and valuable that we are glad to repro- 
duce them here for the benefit of the whole Asso- 
ciation : 

" As spring comes on, an interest in nature is awak- 
ened, and as botany offers so many fields for individual 
work, the following suggestions are made with the hope 
that they may induce more out-of-door study. The 
student will easily find that one season's work does not 
exhaust the subject, and that he may continue from year 
to year, always learning some things he did not know 
before, and that his investigations may lead to discov- 
eries of the highest importance, giving him a deeper 
understanding of natural forces and a better appreci- 
ation of life itself. This science is so comprehensive 
that men have long ago given up the idea of being 
master of it all ; and so you will see that one or two 
things carefully studied and collected will give you 
more pleasure, and lead to better results, than a super- 
ficial study of the whole field. 

The question is asked : What can I do out of 
school, in summer and other times, to keep up my 
interest or direct my attention to botanical problems? 
Here are a few topics for investigation : 
I. Make experiments with living plants. 

(a) Seedlings. Note under what circumstances dif- 
ferent seeds will germinate ; whether they all 
need the same amounts of air, warmth, water, 
etc. Compare their modes of growth ; plant 
in various kinds of soil, and at different times. 



PRACTICAL WORK IN BOTANY. 



59 



[b) Make a study of the life history of a single 
plant ; start corn, beans, peas, sunflowers, morn- 
ing-glories, etc., to growing ; study the needs 
and behavior of the growing plant, its rapidity 
of growth, its relation to warmth, light, water, 
wind, insects, other plants ; learn the uses of 
all its parts ; note the circumstances of the 
unfolding of its buds, leaves, flowers, the for- 
mation of its fruit ; watch it daily and write 
down your observations ; draw all its organs ; 
investigate its motions and determine their 
causes and uses. You will often be in the 
dark about certain phenomena, but the work 
will be of great interest. 

[c) Cut off pa?'ts, such as branches, flowers, leaves ; 
keep them in water and watch closely ; plant 
them to see if they will take root. 

[d) Subject certain plants to various amounts of 
light, heat or water; note their behavior. 

(^) Make special study of the movements of plants ; 
of what use they are ; how caused ; observe 
the conditions under which blossoms open and 
close, or leaves turn, or tendrils curl, etc. 

II. Habitats of plants ; why some grow here and not 

there ; why some are very common and others re- 
stricted to very narrow limits ; what effect a cer- 
tain location may have on the plant. 

III. Collect and study certain families or groups, such 
as violets, roses, cresses, mints, grasses, compo- 
sites, ferns, mosses, etc. See why they are grouped 
together, w^hat ties of relationship they have, 
whether of size, structure, habitat ; whether cer- 
tain families are more common in some places 
than others, and why ? 

IV. Local Flora, the plants of a certain locality, a 
wood, meadow, railroad-bank, swamp, etc. Follow 



6o THREE KINGDOMS. 



up a brook, find what plants accompany it, why 
they are absent in some places and abundant in 
others. A waste piece of land ; see what weeds, 
shrubs or trees are there ; how they came, which 
were first arrivals, why not all the immigrants re- 
mained. Or try to account for the large number 
of plants often found crowned in the same field. 

V. Plants found growing without cultivation within 

the city limits; account for their presence ; note 
whether they are transient, or appear from year 
to year. 

VI. Make a study of the many parasites found on 
plants. (With these microscopes should be used). 

VII. Make comparative studies of buds, roots, leaves, 
bark, leaf-scars, pith, etc. ; get many specimens 
to compare form, size, structure ; see how similar 
functions are performed in very different ways, 
or how similar organs have very different offices ; 
e.g.^ see how climbing may be accomplished in one 
plant by twining, in another by tendrils, a third 
by rootlets, a fourth by hooks, etc., or learn how 
one tree may have its buds protected by scales, 
another by wool, a third by varnish, etc. 

VIII. Collect and study different kinds of wood; qual- 
ity, color, uses, structure, etc. Make sections and 
study with the microscope ; note the difference 
between heart wood and sap wood, or between 
roots and branches, or the nature of woody 
climbing plants. 

IX. Make drawing fro77i ?iature a specialty ; buds and 
branches, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, entire 
plants. 

X. Trees; their appearance in winter and in summer ; 

their foliage, mode of branching, habitats, etc. 
Note localities where fine specimens occur, take 
measures ; learn to distinguish them by their 



METHODS OF STUDY. 



6i 



bark, branches, leaves, as well as flowers and 
fruits. Take a 'single tree, e, g., the hickory, for 
special investigation ; collect and study its buds, 
branches, bark, wood, leaves, flowers, nuts, seed- 
lings, saplings, etc. Learn the uses of forests, 
their relations to rivers, winds, frosts, rain ; their 
help to civilization, the desirability of trees and 
parks in cities. 

XI. Fruits and seeds; color, form, structure, modes of 
attachment ; make sections and draw. Study the 
distribution of plants, the agencies concerned (such 
as insects, birds, squirrels, other animals, wind, 
rivers, etc.) ; see how man voluntarily and other- 
wise aids in this process. Note the various adap- 
tations in fruits, seeds, or in the whole plant to 
further dissemination. 

XII. Color in plants. 

(1) Of flowers ; note whether the seasons have par- 
ticularly prominent colors ; whether the colors 
have any relation to insects ; make lists of white 
flowers, of red, yellow, blue, etc. 

(2) Of fruits ; aids to dispersion by birds, protec- 
tive colors of green fruits, etc. 

(3) Of foliage ; relation to the season, light, shade, etc. 

XIII. Our native shrubs; collect and study the flowers 
and fruits ; note their habitats. 

XIV. Make lists of spring flowers, summer flowers, etc., 
or flowers of a certain month. Note the proces- 
sion of flowers. 

XV. Study the odors of flowers ; make lists of fragrant 
ones, note at what seasons they are found, and 
their relation to the color, habitat, etc., of the 
plant, and to insects. 

XVI. Study the weeds^oi a locality, and try to learn 
why they are so common, how their seeds are car- 
ried, why they are troublesome or so difficult to 



62 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



exterminate. Try to find out their original home 
by reference to books. 

XVII. Make a list of the flowering times of our com- 
monest plants. Repeat this next year and note 
whether the dates are the same ; if not, why ? 

XVIII. Note the ways in which plants protect them- 
selves against cold, rain, insects, or other ene- 
mies ; study thorns, prickles, hairs, wax, bad 
odors, etc. 

XIX. Relations of plants to each other; helpful, harmful. 

XX. Relations of animals to plants; helpful in distrib- 
uting seeds or carrying pollen ; harmful in de- 
stroying leaves, buds, fruits, roots, etc. 

XXI. Relation of wind and 7vater to plants ; carrying 
pollen, seed, roots, etc. Wind bringing rain, rain 
dissolving food in ground, etc. 

XXII. Climbing plants ; make list of those found ; study 
their ways and means and habitats ; note how the 
same end may be attained in very different man- 
ners ; observe how trees and other objects on 
which they grow are affected. 

XXIII. Study those plants that bloom before their 
leaves appear; fhose whose flowers and leaves 
appear together; try to understand the advan- 
tages of such habits. 

XXIV. See why insects visit flowers, how they are 
attracted, of what use they are to the plant, and 
what various mutual adaptations have taken place. 
Note whether insects visit only certain flowers, or 
any indiscriminately ; find out whether they can 
distinguish colors or the fragrance of blossoms. 
Note how cross-fertilization is also carried on in 
other ways, by wind, birds, etc. 

XXV. Study the phyllotaxy, not alone of trees, but 
also of shrubs and herbs, as well as flower-clusters 
and fruits. Those who take pleasure in mathe- 



PERSONAL SEARCH. 



63 



matical problems will find some here in Nature's 
workshop that will give them plenty to do. Make 
lists of your findings. 

XXVI. Moncecious and Dioecious plants ; make lists ; 
note their places of growth, how far the latter 
are often apart, and by what means the pollen 
is carried. 

XXVII. Winged fruits. 

XXVIII. Plants injurious to man. 

XXIX. Aquatic plants ; foliage, time and manner of 
flowering, etc. 

XXX. Effects of cultivation on plants. 

XXXI. Watch the development of the fruit from ttie 
flower through its various stages in the cherry, 
apple, rose, grape, maple, pea, bean, walnut, 
corn, etc. 

The most enjoyable and profitable way of studying 
or collecting is that of personal search and indepen- 
dent work. 

Look for specimens on all your walks, keep your 
eyes open ; you have no idea how much your powers 
of observation will be increased by constant practice. 

Never go out without your tools — knife, trowel, 
string, note-book and pencil, and whatever you may 
want to use in carrying home your specimens. Don't 
be satisfied with the observations merely ; wi'ite down 
what you have seen, note any questions that may occur 
to you, for future study. 

Always date your finds, giving time, place, and cir- 
cumstance ; otherwise your observations will too often 
be useless. Repeat your work, and don't be in a 
hurry. Nature herself is not. 

Make frequent drawings., not so much that you may 
become proficient in this art (though this would be 
great gain), but that you may see the parts of the 
object clearly and make them your own. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



HOW TO COLLECT, STUDY AND PRESERVE INSECTS. 

Of the members of the Agassiz Association, more 
have expressed a preference for the study of ento- 
mology than for almost any other branch. Curiously 
enough, the girls seem to be quite as fond of insects 
as the boys are. It is not difficult to account for this 
preference. The many-hued wings of butterflies flash- 
ing in the sun, the metallic gleam of beetles, the fea- 
thery grace and rich coloring of the moths, the dreamy 
pinions of dragon-flies, the excitement of the chase, 
and above all, the mysterious and symbolic changes 
which attend insect life, shed a bright fascination 
about insect-study. 

Attracted by this light our boys and girls are flut- 
tering about the homes of bugs and beetles very 
much in the same manner that bugs and beetles flutter 
about the lights in our human habitations. Let me, 
then, hasten to answer the three questions which 
are puzzling so many of our correspondents : How 
catch ? how kill ? how keep ? By far the best way 
to catch a butterfly is to find a caterpillar ; keep 
him in a glass box ; feed him with leaves of the 
plant on which you found him ; and watch him day 
by day, as he changes his various garments, spins 
himself up till he bursts or perforates his cerements 
and unrolls his wings, with every painted shingle in 
its place, his feathers quite unruffled on his liead, and 
his six legs under him in unmutilated perfection. 

In addition to this method of capture, you will need 
a light gauze net. Any boy can make one of these 
in half an hour. Get three-fourths of a yard of 



THE CYANIDE-JAR. 



65 



silk veiling ; ask mother to make a bag of it, with 
a hem around the top wide enough to run a pipe- 
stem through ; pass a thick wire through this, and 
bend it into the shape required ; fasten the ends of 
this wire to a light stick, five or six feet long, and 
your net is made. A piece of a bamboo fishing-rod 
makes a good handle. You may also need a stouter 
net for beating about in the bushes. 

A third method of capturing moths is that of paint- 
ing trees with a mixture of rum, beer, and sugar. This 
is done in the early evening, and later, lantern in hand, 
you go about from tree to tree and tap into your net 
the insects stupefied by the sweet but fatal sirup. 

A very successful lure may be formed by enclosing 
a female moth, alive, in a box covered with gauze. 
Frequently a large number of moths may be taken 
in a single evening as they hover about the impris- 
oned insect. 

For the capture and conveyance of beetles, etc., a 
good supply of pill-boxes and vials of various sizes 
may be carried in the pockets. Small forceps are 
convenient for picking up spiders, which, however, 
are not now classed with true insects. 

These smaller insects may be dropped at once into 
a bottle of alcohol, and cared for on reaching home. 

Butterflies are easily killed by a sudden and strong 
compression of the thorax. They are best carried 
home by folding the wings back and enclosing them 
in little three-cornered envelopes, not glued, but merely 
folded over them. 

A vial of chloroform with a camel's-hair brush 
attached to the inside of its rubber cork, is conve- 
nient. A drop on the head of an insect will render 
it insensible, and it may be pinned into your col- 
lecting-box. But the best means for killing large 
insects is the cyanide-jar. 



66 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Take a wide-mouthed candy-jar ; get your drug- 
gist to lay four or five pieces of cyanide of potassium 
as large as walnuts in it, and cover them with a layer 
of sawdust. Over this fit a piece of writing-paper. 
Then pour over all half an inch of liquid plaster-of- 
Paris. This will quickly harden, forming a smooth 
floor, on which any insect when dropped, will quickly 
and quietly die. 

The jar must be labeled poison, and must be kept 
closed with an air-tight cover. 

A collecting-case can be made of any light, shallow 
box, by lining it with cork, and aflixing straps by which 
it may be slung around the neck. Compartments may 
be miade in it, for the C3'anide and chloroform bottles, 
for forceps, insect-pins, envelopes, etc. Having got 
your insects home, they must be carefully mounted. 
You should have several 'setting-boards.' These 
are simply thin boards, grooved at inters^als so as 
to admit the bodies of moths and butterflies, in such 
a way that their wings may be flat on the board. Strips 
of cork may be glued along the bottom of the grooves 
to receive the pins. 

Pin your specimicns in a groove of proper depth, 
and spread the wings carefully with your forceps, or 
with needles set in wooden handles. 

Fasten them by laying strips of glass over them, or 
by pinning strips of paper across them. They should 
be allowed to dry for a week or two according to size. 
The bodies of large lepidoptera should be brushed with 
a solution of corrosive sublimate, one-half drachm ; 
arsenic, four grains ; alcohol, one-half pint. This is, 
of course, very poisonous, and should be so labeled 
and treated. 

If your insects have become dry and brittle, they 
must be relaxed before you attempt to mount them. 
This may be done by laying them on wet sand, but 



CABINET PESTS. 



67 



Mr. Neumogen, who has one of the largest collec- 
tions in the world, places such specimens in a small 
tin box provided with a cork bottom. The cork is 
dampened, and the temperature and moisture is 
controlled by a pipe that connects the interior of 
the box with the outside air. In four weeks the 
most hardened specimen has never failed to relax. 

Your insects may now be pinned into cedar cases, 
made air-tight, and guarded by lumps of camphor 
gum. In addition to these precautions, all speci- 
mens should be subjected to a rigid quarantine of a 
month before being transferred to the collection. 
Even then the cases must be carefully examined 
every month, and any indications of danger must 
be regarded. If such appear, pour a few drops of 
chloroform into the case, and close the cover. This 
will drive the destructive creatures into sight from 
crack and cranny. Kill them, preserving one or two 
for specimens, and renew your previous precautions. 
A simpler, and as effectual a method, is to give your 
mounted insects, cases and all, a thorough baking in 
the oven, but this also requires great care, as the heat 
will spoil some kinds. 

Mr. E. S. Morse gives a good device for arranging 
an insect-box for the cabinet. It consists of a light 
wooden frame like a slate-frame, with paper stretched 
upon the upper and lower surfaces. Dampen the paper 
and glue it to the frame, and when the paper dries, it 
will contract and become as tight as a drum-head. In- 
side the box, upon two sides, fasten cleats, and let their 
top edges be about a quarter of an inch above the bot- 
tom. Rest the paper-covered frame upon these cleats. 
The bottom of the box should be covered with soft 
pine to receive the points of the pins. The space 
under the frame should be dusted with snuff and 
camphor to keep out insects. 



68 



THREE KINGDOMS, 



But, after having tried many methods, I have been 
best pleased with the appearance of insects that I have 
set up on separate papered blocks of wood, such as 
are used for minerals. Indeed, I know of no way of 
showing any of the smaller specimens, such as shells, 
bird's-eggs, insects, and fossils, to so good advantage 
as to set each by itself on a white block of suitable 
size. 

I will add for the benefit of our young entomologists 
a few hints on methods of observation furnished by 
Prof. G. Howard Parker, of Cambridge, and Prof. Asa 
Packard, Jr., of Providence. Every naturalist should 
have a pocket note-book always with him, and make 
careful entries of such points as are here indicated. 
Suppose, for example, you take first, butterflies and 
moths. It would be an excellent plan to prepare a 
paper, in which you might : 

1. Give a brief but clear description of the order {Lepidopterd) . 

2. Give a careful report of your own observations on any one 
species of the order. In this report should be included : 

A. Description of the insect, accurate as may be, and, if possi- 
ble, accompanied by drawings, however rude. 

[This description should be made as follows : 

a. If a moth or butterfly, note : ist. The form of the anten- 
ncB, whether pectinated or simply hairy, or spindle-shaped. 2d. 
The form and size of palpi, and length of tongue. 3d. Wings: 
First pair, form, shape of costal, apex, outer-edge veins. Second 
pair, same. 4th. Markings on wings. 5th. Feet, spurs. 

b. If a caterpillar, note : ist. Form of head, wider or narrower 
than segment next. 2d. Dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral stripes. 
3d. Position of tubercles, warts or spines, and spots. 4th. Spirac- 
ular line. 5th. Supra-anal plate ; its form and markings. 6th. 
Number of abdominal legs, and form of last pair. 

c. Difference in coloration of the sexes ; varieties observed ; 
probable cause of such variation, such as differences of food, 
location, and time of year.] 



INSECTS BY MAIL. 



69 



B. Habits. — Date of appearance and disappearance of the per- 
fect insect ; number of annual broods ; localities most favor- 
able, etc. 

C. Transformations. — I. The egg : description, sketch, duration 
of this stage ; where and how deposited by the female. 2. Larva : 
number of molts, and changes noticed in these molts ; duration of 
each molt, and entire time consumed in this stage ; food-plants of 
the larva ; drawings. 3. Chrysalis : description ; methods of pro- 
tection and fastening ; duration of this stage ; special observations. 
4. Parasites observed during these stages (ichneumons, chalcids, 
etc.). 

D. Concluding remarks, with notes drawn from various works 
on the subject, and a list of such references. 

Having thus worked up a few species of Lepidoptera, 
you might, to advantage, take up successively the other 
orders, Hymenoptera^ CAeoptei-a, Neuropte?'a, etc., treat- 
ing them in the same way, and concluding the course 
by a careful study of insects as a class. Then you can 
return to your favorite order or family, and carry on 
your special researches and observations, minutely and 
intelligently. 

We add the following Department directions for 
sending insects by mail : 

All inquiries about insects, injurious or otherwise, should be ac- 
companied by specimens, the more the better. Such specimens, if 
dead, should be packed in some soft material, as cotton or wool, 
and inclosed in some stout tin or wooden box. They will come by 
mail for one cent per ounce. Insects should 7tever be inclosed loose 
in the letter. Whenever possible, larvae {i. e., grubs, caterpillars, 
maggots, etc.) should be packed alive in some tight tin box — the 
tighter the better, as air-holes are not needed — along with a sup- 
ply of their appropriate food sufficient to last them on their jour- 
ney ; otherwise, they generally die on the road and shrivel up. 
Send as full an account as possible of the habits of the insect 
respecting which you desire information ; for example, what plant 
or plants it infests ; whether it destroys the leaves, the buds, the 
twigs, or the stem ; how long it has been known to you ; what 
amount of damage it has done, etc. Such particulars are often 



70 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



not only of high scientific interest, but of great practical impor- 
tance. In sending soft insects or larvae that have been killed in 
alcohol, they should be packed in cotton saturated with alcohol. 
In sending pinned or mounted insects, always pin them securely in 
a box to be inclosed in a larger box, the space between the two 
boxes to be packed with some soft or elastic material, to prevent 
too violent jarring. Packages should be marked with the name of 
the sender. 

In reply to numerous inquiries concerning entomo- 
logical books, we recommend to the general student 
^Harris on Insects Injurious to Vegetation,' and 
Packard's ' Guide to the Study of Insects ; ' and to 
those beginning the study, * Insect Lives,' published 
at one dollar by The Writers Publishing Company, of 
New York. The last is the only book of low price we 
know of that treats the subject so as to make it inter- 
esting to the young. 



CHAPTER IX. 



HOW TO COLLECT AND PRESERVE BIRDS AND EGGS. 

It is hardly worth while to make a collection of 
mounted birds. This requires too much time and 
too much room. But, especially, skins are better 
and more convenient for study than mounted birds. 
Skins may be kept in a cabinet with tightly fitting 
drawers, with plenty of camphor, or insect-powder. 
The best arm for general purposes is the double- 
barreled, breech-loading shot-gun. Three-fourths of 
your cartridges should contain small charges of mus- 
tard-seed shot, and the remainder, No. 8 and No. 4. 
You can indicate the kind of shot in each shell by 
having numbers on your shot-wads. Early morning 
and late evening are the best hours, and well-watered 
and wooded spots among the best places for collect- 
ing ; although, as each bird has its own peculiar haunts, 
the hunter should cover as wide a range, and as great 
a variety of country, as possible. As each specimen is 
secured, it must be carefully cleansed and smoothed. 
Plug mouth, nostrils, vent, and shot-holes with cotton, 
and thrust the bird head-first into a paper cone, to 
keep the plumage from injury. 

A fish-basket is excellent to carry the birds home. 
Before skinning, each bird should be measured, to de- 
termine the total length, and the spread of wings. 
Note, also, the color of the eyes, bill, and feet, as they 
may fade. Enter all these memoranda in a note-book, 
and also on the specimen label. Add also date of 
capture, sex, locality, name of collector, etc. 



72 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



SKINNING. 

We do not propose here to attempt a detailed ac- 
count of the taxidermist's art, but the general mode 
of procedure should be as follows : 

See that throat, nostrils, and wounds are well 
plugged with cotton, and fasten some also around 
the bill. Should any blood get on the feathers, re- 
move it at once with a damp sponge, and dry with 
plaster-of-Paris. Lay the bird on its back, separate 
the breast-feathers right and left, cut from the breast- 
bone to the vent (not cutting the flesh), and raise the 
skin carefully on each side as far as the legs. Cut off 
the legs at the knee-joints, inside the skin, and after- 
ward skin down to the tarsus, scraping the flesh from 
the shin-bone, but leaving that bone in place. Next 
skin around the coccyx, or tail-bones, and cut off the 
coccyx inside the skin, leaving enough flesh to hold 
the feathers. 

Large birds can often be more easily handled if 
suspended, head downward before the operator, by a 
strong hook firmly inserted in the exposed stump 
of the rump ; but with a little experience this becomes 
unnecessary. Now carefully strip off the skin, turn- 
ing it back like a glove, as far as the wings ; cut 
off the wings, inside the skin, at shoulder-joint. Skin 
the wing-bones and scrape the flesh from them, as from 
the legs. Skin over the head to the bill, taking especial 
care not to stretch the skin. The skin above the ears 
and eyes will have to be detached by cutting. The eyes 
must now be picked out, and the entire base of the 
skull removed, together with the brain, and the flesh 
between the jaws. If the head is too large to be 
skinned in this way, some persons make an incision 
under the throat, but a writer in Random Notes gives the 
better method of openmg it on the back of the head. 



TAXIDERMY. 



73 



The skin is now inside out. Powder with arsenic, 
or soap with arsenic soap, turn it right side out, smooth 
the plumage, set the bones of legs and wings into 
proper position, and the bird is ready for stuffing. 
A pellet of cotton, as large as the bird's eye, should 
be passed into the skin, and pressed into each socket. 
Over this adjust the eyelids. Wrap a little cotton 
around the leg-bones of large birds. Insert a cyl- 
inder of cotton, rather smaller than the neck, into the 
neck. Mould the body-stuffing into a mass, rather 
smaller than the bird's body. Bring the edges of the 
skin nicely together over this, and the stuffing is 
completed. Fold the wings neatly, adjust the head 
and neck, bring the feet together, and press the bird 
into the proper shape. The usual fault is too much 
stuffing, especially between the shoulders. For mount- 
ing specimens some knowledge of comparative anat- 
omy is desirable. The habits of each bird must be 
carefully studied, as well as its peculiar manner of sit- 
ting, standing, holding the head, etc. The art of tax- 
idermy should be carefully studied, from such manuals 
as Swainson's, Brown's, or Sylvester's. Captain Brown's 
book is published at $1.50, by G. P. Putnam's Sons, of 
New York. It is still better to secure a few practical 
lessons from a good taxidermist. - 



EGG-COLLECTING. 

Hardly any other branch of natural history is so 
liable to abuse as that pertaining to the eggs of birds. 
There is something fascinating about the search for 
them. The artful devices of the nest-builders to hide 
their fragile buildings in sequestered places, as if to 
challenge the acuteness, alertness, and agility of boys ; 
the interesting structure of the nests ; and the rare 
beauty of the eggs themselves ; have always proved 



74 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Stronger temptations to idle plunder than the average 
youth can resist. Yet great harm is done by an indis- 
criminate robbery of eggs ; and while oology, if scien- 
tifically pursued, is an entirely commendable and val- 
uable study, yet we have felt obliged to impose certain 
not severe restrictions upon its pursuit in connection 
with our Association. Our attitude is sufficiently de- 
fined by the following extract from an editorial note 
in our official organ, The Swiss Cross : 

There is no conflict between scientific study and a gentle spirit 
of mercy. There are, indeed, times when the interests of science 
require the suffering-, and even the death, of insect, bird, and 
beast ; but every true scientist shrinks from these necessary occa- 
sions, and makes them as few as possible. There is no room for 
cruelty in any laboratory. Whenever pain must be caused, it 
must be made as slight and as short as it can be made. When- 
ever life must be taken, it must be taken reverently, as a costly 
sacrifice, and in the speediest and most merciful manner. The 
responsibility of drawing the delicate line which is to divide be- 
tween the cursed ground of cruelty and that honorable but sor- 
rowful region in which the claims of science may properly assume 
supremacy at the cost of pain, has .been forced upon us by the re- 
quests of many persons to publish notices of the desired exchange 
of bird-skins for bird-skins, and of eggs for eggs ; and, on the 
other hand, by the simultaneous and equally strenuous prayers of 
well-meaning philozoists, that we would strictly refuse to counte- 
nance at all either the killing of birds or the taking of eggs. The 
solution of the question, which w^e have reached after long consid- 
eration, is included in the following rule, which we shall hence- 
forth adopt, with reference to the publication of such exchange 
notices : 

Notices of the exchange of birds' eggs or bird-skins unll be 
p}inted in ^ The Swiss Cross,' provided that the person sending 
the notice shall be a member in good standing of the Agassiz Asso- 
ciation, that his collections shall have been made in conformity to 
the laws of the State in which he may reside, and that the descrip- 
tion of his material for exchange shall be in terijis sufficiently 
accu7'ate to indicate that he is doittg scientific work. 

The egg-collector's outfit consists of a pair of 
climbers, a suit of stout clothing (buttons riveted 



ROBBING BIRDS' NESTS. 



75 



if possible ! ), a few tin boxes full of cotton, and a 
note-book. The best collectors take the nest and a 
full set of eggs, and in such case they need some sort 
of basket in which to carry them. Less damage is 
done by actual students, even if they take the nests 
and all the eggs, than by mere robbers, who perhaps 
content themselves with stealing " only one egg from 
a nest ; " because the latter are never content with 
one good specimen, but continue pilfering accessible 
nests until, in some instances, they accumulate hun- 
dreds of useless robins' and bluebirds' eggs, and rob 
the orchards of their melody. Eggs should be blown 
through one neat hole in the side, and for this purpose 
a set of egg-drills and a blowpipe should be procured. 
The specimens should be rinsed with some poisonous 
solution, and may then be arranged in cabinets in their 
proper nests, or in compartments filled with sand, 
cedar sawdust, or cotton. The lesson of their fragility 
is one speedily learned by experience. It is frequently 
vividly impressed upon the student while, during his 
descent from some towering pine or oak, he carries his 
treasures in that most available receptacle — his mouth. 

It may not be out of place to caution the young 
collector against a danger that attends the exploration 
of deep holes in trees, such as wrens delight in. Un- 
less the opening is evidently large enough to give 
comfortable room for the arm, never allow your arm 
to crowd into a hole beyofid the elbow^ or you may not 
be able to withdraw it. 

With eggs, as with all other specimens, their value 
depends largely upon the fulness and accuracy of the 
data accompanying them. Date, location, and descrip- 
tion of birds, both male and female, together with such 
other facts as may be observed, should be carefully 
noted at the time of collecting, and to this should 
be added, of course,- the name of the collector. 



CHAPTER X. 



HOW TO COLLECT, STUDY, AND PRESERVE MINERALS. 

Geology, the history of the earth, the science of 
rocks, fossils, and minerals, is the most comprehensive 
of all the natural sciences, embracing many depart- 
ments or subordinate sciences, some of which, like 
mineralogy, are often studied quite independently of 
the others. 

It is unnecessary to refer particularly to the interest 
and practical importance of this world-wide science ; 
but it is desired to guard the student against dis- 
couragement at the outset by calling attention to the 
fact that, although geology covers so broad a field, 
and embraces in every department almost endless de- 
tails, the main principles, and the leading facts, are 
comparatively few and simple. This is even true in 
what are often regarded as the dryest branches of 
geology — descriptive mineralogy and lithology. To 
acquire a satisfactory and useful knowledge of these 
subjects is not a vast undertaking ; for, although 
geologists recognize many different species or kinds 
of minerals and rocks, the most of them are very rare 
and of little consequence in ordinary life. Not more 
than twenty minerals, and as many rocks, are of the 
first importance, but these are very abundant, com- 
prising, so far as we know, at least 999-1000 of the 
earth. 

These few common minerals and rocks are, in one 
sense, among the most familiar objects of every-day 
life, for they are in the fields, walls, houses, and streets ; 
and yet how few persons know anything definite about 
them. There is no other direction in science where 



PERSONAL CONTACT WITH NATURE. 



77 



SO little work will make the student master of so much 
ground. 

It is a great advantage if the study of minerals can 
be preceded or accompanied by at least a little work 
in chemistry; and some knowledge of zoology and 
botany is indispensable to good work in palaeontology, 
or the study of fossils ; while other branches of ge- 
ology make large demands upon physics, mechanics, 
etc. In short, a competent geologist, in the broadest 
sense, must be a cultured person in the whole field of 
natural science. 

The golden rule in natural science is to study natu- 
ral objects rather than books ; and it is especially im- 
portant that this rule should be observed in the study 
of minerals and rocks. The most perfect descrip- 
tions and pictures cannot take the place of the actual 
specimens or examples, but all knowledge of any real 
or permanent value must be obtained first hand, /. 
must be based upon personal observation. Books are, 
of course, useful for reference and to supplement real 
learning or observation ; but the student should re- 
gard them merely as auxiliary, and never make them 
his main reliance. 

When we must resort to books, it is, of course, im- 
portant to have the best ; and the list of works rela- 
ting to the different departments of geology, which 
may be found on another page, will aid students in 
making a wise selection. 

Since the student's main reliance should be upon 
nature, and not upon books, the collection of speci- 
mens becomes in most cases a very important pre- 
liminary to good work in geology. And students and 
chapters are requested to bear in mind Professor 
Agassiz's excellent advice to the effect that the most 
valuable work a society can do, is to make a complete 
collection and thorough study of the specimens found 



78 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



near its own home. Do not let visions of sparkling 
crystals or gleaming ores from distant States blind 
you to the value and importance of the sandstone 
under your feet, the slate on your roof, the coal in 
your cellar, or the pebbles by the brook. 

Geological collecting is comparatively easy, since 
minerals and fossils do not have to be pursued over 
brier and brake, like butterflies, nor are they perish- 
able in their nature. They have not to be pressed nor 
kept in alcohol. The chief drawback is that rocks are 
hard and heavy. The former difficulty is, however, 
readily overcome by a geological hammer, and the 
latter by a stout bag and a strong arm to carry it, al- 
though it is better if the bag can be suspended by a 
strap from the shoulder. 

Hammers of various shapes and sizes are useful in 
breaking and trimming specimens ; but the best ham- 
mer for general use is one weighing from one to two 
pounds, with a square head at one end, and tapering 
to a chisel-like edge at the other. The square head 
is used for breaking and trimming hard masses, while 
the chisel-edge, which should be at right angles to the 
handle, is well adapted for splitting shales, schists, 
etc., and for digging out crystals and fossils. A cold- 
chisel, or some similar sharp pointed iron, is also very 
useful for these purposes. 

The extraction of fossils from the rock is often an 
admirable test of patience. If the rock be hard and 
crystalline, try to get off a chip containing the fossil, 
take it home, and then with a small (tack) hammer 
carefully clean it. For the more delicate fossils, like 
crinoids, various sharp instruments like files or broken 
dentist's-tools are often useful. Note the essential 
points in your note-book, and sketch the fossil. If 
you break it, clean the pieces, and stick them together 
with mucilage in which a few drops of glycerine have 



COLLECTING FOSSILS. 



79 



been incorporated. (The glycerine prevents the gum 
becoming brittle when dry.) 

The beautiful ferns, the curious fruits, the ornate 
Sigillaria^ and the bewitching glimpse given us of a 
subtropic jungle, characterizing the coal-formation 
and its flora, present a difficulty to the collector. 
Most of the fossils are on shales — and that crumbles 
to pieces so easily when it gets dry. To prevent this, 
dry it thoroughly, and put it in a shallow vessel (pie- 
plate) in which is some paraffin. - Allow the whole 
arrangement to stand on a warm plate until the par- 
affin is melted, when the shale will soak it up, and, on 
cooling, be much more able to stand the risks of trans- 
portation. 

A Caution. — Find out first from the specimen itself 
what the genus is — be it animal or plant. Then put 
on a provisional label, like this : 

FAMILY No 

Genus 

Specific name 

Collected by at .... 

Named by 

Don't stick the label on the fossil, but stick on a 
small bit of paper with a number on it to correspond 
with your label. If you have your labels printed, tell 
the printer to put them in nonpareil. We will suppose 
you have found a fossil ; and on turning to the pic- 
tures in the Geology you find it looks like Rynchonella 
capax, or like Spirifer Niagarensis^ or, it may be, Or- 
this lynx. You have here not only (3) genera, but 
(3) families represented. Now, which is it ? Refer- 
ence to Dana's handbook, page 170, tells you that the 
families are distinguished by differences of internal 
structure, that your specimen, being solid, gives no 
information about. Turn to Macfarlane's Geological 



8o 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Railroad Guide, and you will find there the geology 
of the nearest station given. Discuss in your meeting 
why it should be an Orthis rather than a Rynchonella^ 
and if still fairly puzzled send it to a specialist for 
name. Then destroy your provisional label, and put 
the same number on your final one. Label nothmg by 
guesswork. Take nothing for granted, and don't send 
imperfect specimens, or too many kinds at once, for 
names to those willing to aid you. 

In collecting rocks we should be careful to get 
clear, unweathered specimens, and, so far as practi- 
cable, carefully trim them to a uniform shape and size. 
For private or chapter collections, the specimens 
should be about 2^x3 or 3x4 inches square, and 
one-half inch to one inch thick. The beginner will be 
surprised to find how much this careful selection and 
trimming of specimens adds to their appearance and 
value. 

Specimens that are worth collecting are worth a 
little pains to keep them in good condition. Although 
minerals are hard, yet they are very easily injured or 
even ruined by rough handling, and especially by 
knocking or rubbing against one another. When start- 
ing on a collecting-trip, put a number of old news- 
papers in your bag, and then let each specimen be 
securely wrapped as soon as collected. Small wooden 
or pasteboard boxes are almost indispensable for fragile 
crystals and fossils. After each collecting-trip, your 
specimens should be carefully labeled, either by num- 
bers referring to a catalogue, or by cards containing 
the name, locality, etc. The record of the locality is 
particularly important, since many kinds, especially of 
rocks, are rendered almost valueless by the loss of this 
interesting fact. Geological specimens will not bear 
huddling together ; but their appearance is greatly 
enhanced by placing each by itself in a neat pasteboard 



EARLY MAN IN AMERICA. 



8i 



tray, or on a block of wood ; and the label can then 
be attached to the beveled edge of the block. 

As just explained, the ideal plan is for the student 
to collect his own specimens ; and it may be fairly 
said that for the collector specimens have an interest 
and value beyond what they would otherwise possess. 
It is, however, often impracticable to obtain suitable 
material in this way ^ for a general course of study. 
The best plan then is, not to fall back on the books 
and dispense with the specimens, but to buy them. 
Those desiring to purchase minerals, rocks or fossils, 
will do well to send to Prof. W. O. Crosby, Boston 
Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass., for a cata- 
logue of specimens and collections. 



CHAPTER XI. 



ARCH.?:OLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Perhaps we can help our students in this most 
interesting department in no better way than by pre- 
senting to them the following letter from our specialist, 
Mr. Hilborn T. Cresson, of Philadelphia : 

From what I can learn upon the subject, many of our A. A. 
chapters have collections of ethnological and archaeological speci- 
mens, such as bones from the shell-heaps and mounds, stone 
arrow-points from the graves of Tennessee, and surface * finds,' 
stone axes, pipes, pottery, etc. It would certainly be a great 
source of satisfaction, if all the chapters of the A. A. throughout 
North and South America would unite in preserving archaeolog- 
ical specimens, especially those of Tennessee, throughout the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, Florida — in fact, all our western and southern 
States. Specimens collected should be carefully labeled with 
precise details as to where found, whether in aboriginal mounds, 
cemeteries, graves, or surface of ground ; by whcm fcund and 
date of finding ; occupation of person finding same, etc. (this last 
question indicates whether it be a professional dealer, picker, 
farmer, school-boy, or A. A. member ; specimens obtained by the 
three last-named being much more reliable, we think, than those 
handled by the two former — especially if the object be of impor- 
tance and rarity). Archaeological specimens that are rough and 
uncouth in appearance and rudely made, should not be thrown 
aside for this reason. They are of great value, especially if from 
a mound or cemetery ; nor should the smallest fragment of pottery 
be thrown aside. They all help to unravel the mystery about 
those beings w^ho made them and have long since crumbled into 
dust. Photographs {those made by members preferred) of rare 
specimens in private collections are very valuable, if minute details 
in regard to them be preserved — very frequently upon the decease 
of their owner they are scattered to the four winds by the auction- 
eer's hammer, never to be reunited. They are in this case of 
little value for scientific study ; the photographs, however, show 
them as they were before separation. 



COUNTERFEIT RELICS. 



83 



Specimens from one locality should be kept together. For ex- 
ample, if a shell-heap is examined (in exploration of a shell-heap, 
it should be done in sections, so that the exact depth at which each 
object is found can be noted. Samples should be taken at the top^ 
middle and bottom of the heap, so as to show the actual condition 
of the material forming it ; and in order to study the fauna of the 
time the heap was being formed, large collections should be made 
of the different shells found in it, bones of fish, reptiles, birds and 
mammals), the articles collected from that particular heap should 
be kept together — not distributed at random throughout a cabinet. 
The object of this is obvious, from the fact that it shows the 
exact condition of the people who formed the heaps, the imple- 
ments they used, the food they ate, and the animals that lived at 
that period. Specimens from mounds and graves should be treated 
in a like manner. Members should never explore mounds, graves, 
or cemeteries of aboriginal man unless they be conducted by, 
or under the direction of, an Agassiz Association specialist, or 
other professional archaeologist, who may direct the operation 
in a proper manner. Much harm has been done in this way by 
ignorant persons. Never open a mound by the old method of 
digging a hole in the centre. The earth should be removed sec- 
tion by section. We will furnish details to chapters that may 
desire them in cases where immediate action is necessary, as 
in exploring a mound that has to be removed or leveled. Pho- 
tographs of mounds, earthworks, and cemeteries, with careful 
drawings, surveys, measurements, and maps (of their exact posi- 
tion) are of great value. If the mounds have been excavated, 
details should be obtained as to methods pursued by the excava- 
tors in opening them, the articles found therein, and what became 
of them. If the possessors thereof will not present them to the 
Association, to be forwarded to some museum and preserved for 
the interests of science, photographs should be taken, and endeavors 
made to induce wealthy citizens to purchase and present them to 
some museum in good standing. The Peabody Museum of Ar- 
chaeology and Ethnology at Cambridge, Massachusetts, Frederick 
Ward Putnam, Esq., Professor and Curator, is probably the best 
conducted museum of this kind in America. If the Indian grave, 
burial-mound, or cemetery remain intact, the owners of the prop- 
erty on which it has been discovered ought to be applied to at 
once for the sole right to excavate it in the interests of science. 
This will prevent the wanton destruction of Indian mounds by 
dealers in (so-called) Indian relics. We earnestly appeal to all 
the Agassiz Association chapters to defeat, if possible, the dese- 
cration of Indian mounds, cemeteries, and graves by the vandals 



84 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



referred to. Let our chapters get up entertainments and form a 
fund for their purchase and presentation. Old and young- should 
respond cheerfully to this suggestion. In this way aboriginal 
monuments that are fast disappearing before the onward march of 
civilization can be preserved, at least until a scientific examination 
can be made of their contents. 

Some day, I hope, the Agassiz Association Museum will be 
formed, and among its various departments may that of ethnology 
and archseolog}' be pushed with vigor. If I am not misinformed 
you have already dreamed of this. Assuredly some well-filled 
pockets will aid the great work that you are directing. 

More especially since the publication of The Swiss Cross do 
inquiries reach me from the ^Vestern States and South America. 
Many of these are from persons who seem deeply interested in 
early man, and his descendants who occupy our reservations, still 
wander over certain districts of the far north, or dwell in the for- 
ests of South America. Quite frequently I have packages forward- 
ed to me from elderly persons for classification and examination. 
In many cases the specimens are supposed to have been found 
under circumstances that verge on the marvelous. These are 
generally purchases from unreliable dealers in antiquities, and are 
not 'finds' made by themselves; hence they are apt to prove 
counterfeits, which at the present time are made in large quantities 
throughout the Western and Middle States. I deem it necessary 
to warn all our chapters against notorious gangs of counterfeiters 
(of mound specimens) that exist in Ohio, others in Illinois and 
Kentucky, and last, but not least, against those clumsy * antiques ' 
that emanate from the marble yards of Philadelphia, 



CHAPTER XII. 



WHAT TO DO IN WINTER. WORK FOR THE CITY. 

No question has been more frequently repeated 
than What can be done in the Winter ? " 

First of all may be mentioned the study of minerals. 
What can be more delightful than to analyze with 
blowpipe and test-tube the specimens gathered from 
cliff and quarry during the open months. Directions 
for this work are to be found in any of the manuals 
referred to in the list of books, which is given on an- 
other page. 

Chemistry is another science which can be pursued 
in winter as well as summer, and as it lies at the base of 
nearly all the other natural sciences, students in other 
departments may well devote the time when they are 
debarred by weather from outdoor work to its culti- 
vation. In fact, however, there is hardly a branch of 
natural history that cannot be followed even out-of- 
doors for many days of every month in the year. 

One of the things which those who live in cities 
can do, is to make drawings of snow-crystals, to ex- 
change for specimens more easily found in the coun- 
try. Catch the crystals, as they fall, on a dark 
cloth. Look at them through a magnifying-glass, 
if you have one, and draw as well as you can from 
memory. Photograph them if possible. 

The drawings should be made of a uniform diam- 
eter of half an inch. Six drawings may be made 
nicely on a card as large as a postal-card. For con- 
venience in exchanging, we all may make them of 
the same size and arrange them in the same way, as 
follows : 



86 



THREE KINGDOMS. 




SNOW CRYSTALS. DRAWN BY CORWIN LINSON. 

To have these crystal pictures valuable, we must 
notice the conditions which prevail as the snow falls. 
Look at the thermometer and barometer, and note the 
strength of the wind, as well as the date. Attention 
to these details will enable us to decide whether or 
not snow-crystals vary in shape with heat and cold 
and density of air, etc. 

The frost-pictures on the window, too, are well 
worthy your attention. Each form is fashioned ac- 
cording to some fixed law ; yet so varied are the beau- 
tiful shapes, so intricate the crystalline curv^es and 
angles, that it requires much patient study to trace 
the operation of cause and effect. Many of our mem- 
bers have photographic outfits, and they could render 
valuable service by securing pictures of these fairy 
frost-pencillings. 

Indoors, again, the microscope reveals a world rival- 
ling in beauty and infinity of extent the outer world 
that is open to our unaided vision ; and this instru- 
ment can be used in the city as well as in the country, 
and in winter as well as in summer. 



WORK FOR WINTER. 87 



Another thing you of the city can do, is to suspend 
seeds in bottles over water, and study the growth of 
different plants as the tiny leaves unroll. Make neat 
cases also for insects or minerals, and exchange them 
for specimens. Collect specimens of veneers from 
cabinet and piano shops, and prepare them for ex- 
change. Nearly all the grains, and nuts, and spices, 
and fabrics, and seeds, and barks, and woods, and 
metals, can be found in city shops, and for these you 
can readily get anything you may wish from the coun- 
try. Again, many of you have books or pictures on 
subjects of natural history which are old to you, but 
which some member of the Association would be very 
thankful to get. These also can be exchanged. 

Besides these things, we need only mention birds' 
nests abandoned in leafless trees, cocoons suspended 
from bushes and tucked away under fence-rails, 
beetles burrowing in old stumps, sections of wood 
and bark, cones and buds, to show that there is plenty 
of outdoor work, even in winter ; while, indoors, 
cabinets are to be built, specimens determined, 
labeled, and arranged, philosophical experiments 
performed, books read, letters written, exchanges 
made. 

Many of our members capture caterpillars and 
other insects in the fall, and keep them during the 
winter, watching their curious habits and wonderful 
transformations, as is detailed in the following bright 
letter : 

Dear Mr. Ballard, — I have been reading "Insect Lives." 
It is the nicest book I have ever read.* I could read a whole 
library full of books just like that. I am getting on famously 



* Insect Lives, by Mrs. Julia P. Ballard, is published at one dollar by 
the Writers Publishing Company, 21 University Place, New York, N. Y. 
We know of no better book for the beginner in the study of butterflies and 
moths. 



88 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



with my collection. But one of my caterpillars does act so 
funny. It is the caterpillar of that moth — the Polyphemus^ 
is it ? I found him two days ago, and put him in my box. He 
seemed very sluggish. If I turned him over, he would very 
slowly turn himself over back again ; but I thought perhaps he 
was going to change his skin, or something like that. The next 
afternoon I looked at him, and there were hundreds of little 
worms coming out of holes in his skin (horrid things!). I was 
going to burn him up, but decided to wait and see what would 
come of it. The next morning nearly all of them had changed 
into little grayish-brown cocoons, and tumbled off, leaving tiny 
holes in his skin, and now he is twisting about like a good fellow. 

Annie Bosworth. 

The sequel to this tragedy was told in a subsequent 
letter from the same writer. 

** My poor worm died the day after I wrote you, and a day or 
two after the little rice-houses began to open, and hundreds of 
tiny flies came out from them, but I threw them away in disgust." 



CHAPTER XIII. 



EXCHANGING. 

One of the pleasantest features of the A. A. is the 
exchange of specimens between members. Some 
hints may be helpful. When you have duplicates 
which you wish to exchange, decide as nearly as 
possible what you wish in return. Send your request, 
tersely written to the President. It will appear in 
The Swiss Cross in either one or two months. The 
magazine is printed some time before it is issued, so 
that you should send any notice at least a month 
before you wish to see it in print. In preparing 
packages for the mail, be sure that you enclose the 
specimens in a box sufficiently strong to withstand 
the frequent concussions of the way, and so securely 
wrapped and tied that it shall not become undone. 
About one-third of the packages received here are 
broken on the way. Minerals should be separately 
wrapped in paper or cloth before being put into the 
box. Eggs may safely be sent in auger-holes bored 
in little blocks of wood. Flowers and ferns should 
be carefully inclosed between strong sides of paste- 
board. Insects should be pinned with the utmost 
possible strength and care into boxes thoroughly 
lined with cork, very strong, light, and doubly wrapped. 
Beetles and bugs may be sent in cotton, like eggs. 
Always prepay postage in full. Inclose no writing in 
the package (except the labels of the specimens, which 
are allowed), but never neglect to accompany the 
package with a postal-card or letter, describing con- 
tents, stating from whom it comes, and rehearsing 
what you expect to receive in exchange. It is often 



90 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Utterly impossible to determine the sender of a pack- 
age, or to know what to send in return. Tie the 
parcel strongly, but do not seal it, unless you wish to 
pay letter postage. One or two fine specimens are 
always more acceptable than several inferior ones. 
No propositions for exchange can be noticed in The 
Swiss Cross, excepting from subscribers, or from mem- 
bers of the A. A. For this, among other reasons, it 
is necessary for us to keep a full register of all mem- 
bers, and names of new members should always be 
sent us at once. 

Whenever any one writes proposing an exchange, 
courtesy requires him to enclose a stamp for reply. 
Requests of this nature should always be promptly 
answered. Aim to give rather more than you receive. 
A graspmg spirit of trade is utterly foreign to the 
nature of a true scientist. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



REPORTS FROM CHAPTERS AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBERS. 

Perhaps the actual working of our Society cannot 
better be illustrated than by giving a few extracts 
from the thousands of letters that constantly come to 
us from our friends of the A. A. We shall select 
such as contain practical suggestions for work ; and 
the first shows what may be done in the way of out- 
door excursions : 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

I write to inform you of the organization of a Chapter of the 
Agassiz Association in Salt Lake City. Several of us boys have 
been more or less interested in natural history for some time, and 
when we read about the A. A. , we thought that it was just what 
we wanted. So on Wednesday, August 2nd, four of us met and 
organized the chapter. 

We have already taken several tramps after specimens. On the 
first one we found the terminal moraine of a glacier, and our 
honorary member gave us a long description of glaciers — the 
manner of their formation and movements, and the way in which 
moraines are formed. Our last trip was to a mining district 
situated 9,300 feet above the sea. It lasted five days, and we 
walked sixty miles, and found many rare Alpine plants, fossils, 
minerals, and bugs. 

Fred. E. Leonard. 

The next shows how Boards of Education help us : 

Hyde Park, Illinois. 
I am happy to inform you that a Natural History Association 
has been formed in our High School. We have seventeen mem- 
bers, all of whom are enthusiastic in their work. We all desire to 
connect ourselves with the A. A. We had a cabinet made, which 



92 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



cost $25.00. The Board of Education has kindly advanced the cost 
of this, provided we leave our collection in the building. They 
also allow us to meet in the building. We have an entrance fee 
of 50 cents, in order that none but workers may join. We are very 
careful about electing new members. 

W. R. GWYXN. 

Among our most delightful branches are what we 
call ' Family Chapters/ in which the members of 
one family unite to form a little society and study 
together. 

Flushing, L. I. 

I want to tell you how much we enjoy our meetings. The 
subject of the last meeting was Mistletoe, and here is what was said 
about it. Mamma said, " The botanical name of the mistletoe is 
Viscum album. In olden times it was thought to be poisonous, 
for Shakespeare speaks of the * baleful mistletoe.' The Druids 
used it in religious rites. It is a parasite, growing chiefly on 
apple-trees." Miss Scott had tasted the berr}-, which is sweet and 
glutinous. She painted me a lovely picture of mistletoe and holly. 
In the evenings when papa is at home, we have music, and, if 
possible, pieces bearing on our subject ; for instance, this evening 
we had a song entitled ' The Mistletoe Bough,' and an instru- 
mental piece, the ' Mistletoe Polka.' Mamma plays on the 
violin, and I on the organ or piano. 

From your friend, F. M. H. 

There is no limit with regard to age. Little 
children have bright eyes. 

The Oaks, Tioga Center, N. Y. 

I am nine, and my sister is five. We have examined a 
geranium-bug, and it is beautiful. Its body is g^een, and it has 
six legs that are clear like crystal. The antennae are longer than 
the insect, and are sometimes thrown backward. It has a long 
beak. The body has two horns at the end. The eyes are reddish 
brown, with tiny white dots. 

Angie Latimer, Sec. 



HO IV TO EARN MONEY. 



93 



Several of our chapters publish local papers. 

Macomb, 111. 

Progressing nicely. We meet at each other's houses every 
Friday afternoon after school. Almost all of us have been collect- 
ing insects during the summer. We have a paper read every two 
weeks, to which we contribute original articles on anything per- 
taining to natural history. The chapter is divided into two parts, 
and each part edits the paper alternately. We cannot understand 
how other chapters have so nice club-rooms and cabinets and 
microscopes, etc. Where do they get their money ? We like the 
A. A. very much. 

Nellie H. Tunnicliff. 

The next letter shows how to raise money when it 
is needed. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Our report is sornewhat tardy, owing to an entertainment given 
for our microscope fund. We reahzed $85, which, with the amount 
on hand, gives us about $100 to invest in a good instrument. Our 
chapter has increased to twenty-four active and two honorary 
members. Owing to the lateness of the season, we have collec- 
tively made but one excursion, though individually we have not 
been idle. 

Cora Freeman. 

The girls are as enthusiastic workers as the boys. 

We are pupils, of the Waco Female College, Texas. About 
four years ago our teacher began to teach us to love nature, and, to 
keep our eyes and ears open, often took us to the woods. Oh, 
how we enjoyed those rambles ! Such rides to and from the 
woods ! We soon got a collection, and determined to form a 
Natural History Society. We were deliberating on a name when, 
to our great joy, your first article was read to us. We forthwith 
adopted the name, constitution, and by-laws. Since then we have 
varied with wind and weather, but have now launched upon a 
smooth-sailing sea. We have twenty-six members. Some of our 
prominent citizens have joined us. By carefully hoarding our dues 
of admission, etc., we have been able to buy a fine microscope, a 
number of shells, and a few books and pictures. We have a book 
in which the librarian pastes articles and pictures selected by some 
one member every week. We have another into which the secretary 
transcribes the papers read by the members before the society, and 



94 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



also articles of interest which cannot be cut from valuable books. 
The president always appoints one member to ask three questions 
to be answered at the next meeting. The correct answers are 
copied into our manuscript scrap-book. Oh, we have so much to 
say to you, and to ask, I hardly know where to begin or leave off ! 
We have a specimen of the Texas centipede for exchange, also a 
stinging lizard and a horned frog. Jenny Wise. 

Ledyard, Conn. 
W^e live far apart from one another, and on cold winter evenings 
it is quite an effort to drive two or three miles to a meeting ; but 
we have held them just the same, with hardly an exception. Wc 
bought a mineral collection, and studied the specimens in order, 
bringing our own specimens to compare with them. Memorial 
Day we celebrated by an excursion to Lantern Hill. Twenty-two 
of us reached the foot of the hill before noon, and there had sing- 
ing and select readings from The Swiss Cross. After dinner we 
climbed the hill. Orchids, star-flowers, and ragwort excited re- 
mark among our botanists. We chiselled * A. A. '87 ' upon the 
bark of a chestnut oak, gave three cheers for Agassiz and three 
for our chapter, and then wended our way to the silex-works. 
Here each member tried to find a large cr\-stal, several succeeding 
in getting them as large as a man's thumb. Besides these we 
brought home handfuls of the powdered silex, which is sent to 
New York to be made into crockery, paint — and sugar. In the 
fall we hope to purchase books, and raise money for a course of 
scientific lectures. " So, high in hope, we wait the summer 
through." Mary A. Avery. 

And our ranks are recruited by an increasing 
number of adult members, who are equally welcome. 

New Brunswick, N. J., Oct., 1887. 
My Dear Sir, — W^e are now under full steam ; eighty-eight 
members ; list increasing rapidly. W^e have organized sections 
under which the members register a la the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, as follows : Microscopy, Dr. A. 
V. N. Baldwin ; Botany, Dr. N. Williamson ; Photography, P. 
T. Austen, Ph.D. ; Zoology, Professor Van Dyck ; Astronomy, 
Professor Merriman ; Natural Philosophy, Mr. Ranney ; Geolog>% 
Professor Cook ; Meteorolog>', Professor McGann ; Ornithology, 
Dr. C. H. Voorhees. Membership will probably strike about 200. 

Yours, very truly, 

Peter T. Austen. 



THE A. A. IN SCHOOLS. 



95 



When a wide-awake teacher takes Upld of the mat- 
ter, the most important results follow. 

About six months ago, Chapter 266 A. A. was organized in 
connection with my school. We have succeeded wonderfully, both 
in point of numbers and collections. We now number thirty-three, 
and the prospects are that we shall soon have as many more. The 
boys, some twenty or more, have over five hundred specimens, 
consisting of fossils and insects. The girls, of whom we have 
lately added a dozen, are busily engaged in gathering leaves, 
roots, and seeds, and, when they make a report, we shall classify 
them botanically. The whole neighborhood has been awakened 
by the enthusiasm of the boys and girls. All this work is col- 
lateral ; that is, no part of school-time is taken up. The County 
Superintendent of Schools was so delighted with the idea, that he 
has earnestly requested me to bring the matter before our County 
Institute, the third week in December. The Institute numbers 
six hundred teachers, and if this is done, the A. A., no doubt, will 
spread in this county. 

T. G. Jones, St. Clair, Schuyl. Co., Pa. 

Another marked instance is that of Chapter 285, 
Greenfield, Mass., as shown by this extract from the 
Springfield Republican : 

"Principal Sanderson started a good deal of zeal among the 
high-school pupils, some two years ago, in the study of natural 
history, and as a result the natural history society was organized. 
The work began in a small way in the collection of birds, plants, 
and minerals, until the foundation has been laid for a permanent 
museum. The society now has one large case of stuffed birds, 
containing 150 well preserved specimens. These are mostly 
native birds, caught and mounted by members of the society. 
Several in this way have become quite expert taxidermists. The 
society belongs to the Agassiz Association, and by exchanges has 
added to some of the departments. The local organization is 
made up of thirty-six members, who were ambitious enough, last 
fall, to hire of the town the old brick house near the high-school 
building, paying a rental of $150 a year. These youthful scien- 
tific investigators want encouragement from the citizens at large, 
and are going to ask the town, at its annual meeting, to contribute 
the rent of this building. It would seem that the voters could 
very properly encourage the young people in this way. As the 



96 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



natural history rooms are located close to the high-school build- 
ing, it can very readily be made a beneficial adjunct to the public 
schools. Already the zoological classes have enjoyed the advan- 
tages of these rooms and their collections." 

Mr. Sanderson is no longer living, but ^The San- 
derson Chapter,' named in his honor, is still growing 
and prospering. 

Young men can accomplish excellent results by 
themselves. 

New York, N. Y. 
In looking over the records of the year, I was pleased to find 
that it has been a very prosperous and successful year for our 
chapter. Standing forward in bold relief, we find several facts, 
among which may be mentioned our evening entertainment, 
which, thanks to the generous help of our friends, brought us a 
clear profit of over one hundred dollars. Then there is the enor- 
mous increase in membership, which was greatly due to the cir- 
cular issued by the executive committee, wherein they called at- 
tention to the work carried on by the chapter, and requested gen- 
tlemen who might not be able to take active part in the work of 
the chapter, to join us nevertheless, and thereby encourage the 
growth of it. The number of members on roll in December, 
1885, was thirty-one ; in December, 1886, it was sixty, an increase 
of twenty-nine. It is pleasing to note, that, although many strange 
faces have joined us, still the sociability and good feeling which 
always prevailed among us have not abated, but increased. Then 
there was the celebration of our fifth anniversary, and at the same 
time that of Agassiz's birthday. Mr. A. W. Miller sent us an in- 
vitation to meet at his house, our old headquarters, which we 
thankfully accepted. The members enjoyed a very pleasant even- 
ing ; many speeches were made and toasts offered. We have had 
during this year nineteen lectures and discussions, all of which 
were of an instructive and interesting nature. A number of even- 
ings have been profitably spent under * Notes and News,' where 
we exchanged our knowledge of interesting things, which were 
too short to make up a lecture. The members can undoubtedly 
recall the pleasant times they have had this summer at the chapter 
excursions to Mamaroneck ; the two-days' excursion to Morris- 
town, and, on invitation from the Torrey Club, to Annandale, 
Staten Island ; the moth-hunts to East New York, which, I am 
sorry to say, are the last, because the woods have been sold, and 



A MODEL REPORT. 



97 



the privileges we there enjoyed are at an end. Then the excur- 
sions of the Curator's Committee, to which all members were wel- 
com.e, to Tarrytown Heights, Staten Island, Perth Amboy, and 
other places, were very pleasant. Quite an improvement has been 
made by the Curator's Committee on our old way of choosing sub- 
jects for lectures, by preparing a calendar for each month, which 
is sent to all the members, thus also giving the lecturer more time 
to prepare. The Curator's Committee have also made Tuesday 
evenings an interesting feature. These evenings are spent in pre- 
paring specimens for the cabinet, and usually one of the curators 
gives a short lecture. 

One Tuesday evening of each month is set aside for what they 
call ' exhibition night,' when they show and explain the speci- 
mens to the friends of members. The cabinet is apparently in ex- 
cellent condition : it contains about twenty-two hundred different 
kinds of specimens, also many miscellaneous curiosities and many 
instruments. We have received during the year numerous kind 
donations, of which I make mention of one hundred specimens 
from the disbanded Fairview Chapter, and nineteen specimens of 
marble from Mr. Ruckert. A good variety of books may now be 
found in our Hbrary : there are 315 volumes and many hundred 
magazines and pamphlets. 

Secretary of Chapter 87. 



Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

The past year has been very encouraging to us. It began 
rather unfavorably. We were obliged to leave the small house 
in which we had met. W^e soon found new quarters in the 
unoccupied harness-room of a barn ; but we had no means of 
heating it, and when cold weather set in we returned to our old 
method of meeting at members' houses. But we needed a place 
we could be sure of, and at last decided to have a small house 
built. We got up a stock company called the 'Agassiz Building 
Company,' and issued one hundred shares of the par value of one 
dollar. These were quickly taken by our friends, and a house 
12x18 feet was built on land belonging to the father of one of 
our members. It is painted yellow, with olive trimmings, and the 
roof is red. We pay rent to the treasurer of the company, and 
out of this, at the end of the year, five per cent, is paid on the 
stock, and the remainder is spent in redeeming the shares, so that 
finally we shall own the house. We have a flagstaff and a flag. 
The flag has a red cross on a yellow ground, with ' 760 ' in white 
on the cross and a red *A' on each side of the upper arm, and is 



98 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



kept flying when we have our meetings. Several of the meetings 
of the Boston Assembly have been held at the Chapter House. We 
have quite a collection of minerals, and are adding to it all the 
time. We built a piazza in front of our house ourselves. We 
opened it with a reception, June 4, to which about seventy of our 
friends came — not all at once, but between 4.30 and 8.30 We 
have just had a stove put in, and are preparing for cold weather. 
Wishing the A. A. success, 

C. S. Greene. 

Chapters in which both sexes, young and old, teach- 
ers and pupils, unite, have been equally successful. 
Witness the following report from our largest chapter, 
which has grown up under the affectionate care of 
Professor E. Adams Hartwell : 

FiTCHBURG, Mass. 

We organized, as you know, in January, 1886, our present 
chapter being formed by the union of four smaller chapters pre- 
viously existing here, and on February 5 held our first regular 
meeting. With one exception, meetings have been held once in 
two weeks since then. Fourteen members were registered at our 
organization, and since that time our growth has been steady. 
We have registered on our books up to date one hundred and forty- 
two names. At first our meetings were held in a room in the high- 
school building ; but, as our membership increased, we felt the 
need of more convenient quarters, and accordingly in September 
we hired a hall on Main Street, where we have our cabinets and 
hold our meetings. We have had built two cabinets 4' x 7' x 12", 
to hold our large collections of minerals, shells, birds, bottled 
specimens, etc. We have also a valuable herbarium of over five 
hundred specimens. In addition to these we have a few maga- 
zines and pamphlets, and hope some day to own a good library. 
On May 28 we celebrated with appropriate exercises and great 
success the birthday of Agassiz. On that occasion we had on 
exhibition our collections, both individual and collective. At our 
meetings members are encouraged to bring in reports of observa- 
tions, items of scientific interest found in papers and magazines, 
specimens of various kinds, etc. The principal exercises of the 
evening consist of essays or debates, varied occasionally by the in- 
troduction of a mock trial or a mock senate. I.ast autumn a com- 
mittee was appointed to investigate the mineral wealth of RoUstone, 



LIBRARIES AND READING-ROOMS. 



99 



where the granite-quarries are, and they presented not long since 
a very interesting report of their researches. In the spring we 
shall expect a similar report from a committee appointed to inves- 
tigate Pearl Hill, another of our landmarks. During the spfing 
and summer, in addition to our bi-weekly meeting, we had sev- 
eral field excursions, when we took long walks into the country. 
Early in July a picnic was held at a lake a few miles from here. 
While the greater part of our members are young people from the 
schools, mostly the high-school, however, we have several teachers 
and some of the city's merchants in our ranks. 

Nellie F. Marshall, Secretary. 

Valuable libraries and reading-rooms are founded 
in connection with the A. A. 

Montreal, Canada. 

We have a splendid cabinet, six feet high, three feet wide, and 
two feet deep, containing forty-eight drawers, twenty-two of which 
are allotted to the entomological section. Nineteen of these are 
already filled with insects. Our library promises to become a 
great success. We are trying to secure a room in the St. Antoine 
School for a museum and reading-room. We have had two 
very successful field-meetings, on one of which prizes were offered 
for the best collection made during the day. I expect to see the 
Montreal branch of the A. A. take a leading position among the 
scientific institutions of Canada. One of our most successful 
evenings was spent with the microscope. 

W. D. Shaw. 

Mr. Shaw, who was one of the brightest and most 
promising young men in the Association, died about a 
year ago, at the early age of nineteen, leaving a name 
beloved and honored wherever it was known. 

Greenup, Ky., December, 1887. 

The Public Library formed here under our auspices has now a 
thousand volumes, and we are busy cataloguing them. 

Mrs. George Gibbs. 



lOO 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



In some cases members take turns in giving lec- 
tures. 

We have given a parlor concert. C. K. Linson gave us a 
* chalk talk.' At one side of the parlor we had a table with some 
specimens on it, and after the entertainment we invited our friends 
to inspect them. We have now money enough to get a cabinet. 
We have decided to have a course of lectures — one delivered by 
each member on his chosen branch. 

A. D. Phillips, Brooklyn, E. D. 

A love for Nature often affects the whole character. 

But the best of all, and that for which I want sincerely to 
thank the A. A. and its projector, is the result of the work in 
one particular case. As a teacher, you know how difficult it is to 
do just the best thing with a roguish, careless boy, smart, but 
caring little for study and with little or no will to work. Geology 
last year and chemistry this prepared him for an elementary 
course in determinative mineralogy. This he has undertaken, 
under the guise of association work, and to this we largely attribute 
a most wonderful improvement in the boy. Spare moments are 
spent in the laboratory instead of in mischief ; he has begged to 
return to Latin, which he had dropped, and bids fair to stand at 
or near the head of his class in that and other studies. Instead 
of lawless lounging at recess, he is quiet and gentlemanly. 

A Friend. 



CHAPTER XV. 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 

{The figures refer to the Publishers' addresses given below. Books 
marked * are illustrated.) 

DIVISION I. 

ASTRONOMY. Price. 

G. B. Airy. ^Popular Astronomy. . . . $e lo 48 

R. S. Ball. ^Elements of Astronomy. . . 2 25 29 

C. Flammarion *The Atmosphere. . . . 2 00 36 

* Astronomical Myths. . . . . 5 00 36 

A. Guillemin. *The Heavens 4 50 47 

*The Sun i 50 47 

*Wonders of the Moon. . . . . i 50 47 

*The World of Comets 7 00 47 

J. F. W. Herschell. ^Outlines of Astronomy. . 4 00 29 

D. Kirkwood. Meteoric Astronomy. . . i 50 61 

*Comets and Meteors. . . . . i 25 61 

J. K. Lockyer. ^Elements of Astronomy. . i 25 29 

^Studies in Spectrum Analysis. . . . 2 50 29 

O. M. Mitchel. Planetary and Stellar Worlds. . — 28 

E. Nelson. *The Moon and the Configurations 

of its Surface. 10 00 40 

S. Newcomb and E. S. Holden. ^Astronomy for 

High Schools. 2 50 38 

Briefer course. . . . . . . i 25 38 

J. A. Westwood Oliver. ^Astronomy for Ama- 
teurs . 2 25 40 

R. A. Proctor. *The Orbs Around Us. . . i 75 40 

*Other W^orlds than Ours i 75 29 

*The Moon. . . . . . . 2 00 29 

*The Universe of Stars . . . . 3 50 40 

*Star Atlas (large). . . . . . 6 00 40 

*Star Atlas (new) I 75 40 

*The Poetry of Astronomy. . . . 2 25 40 

*The Stars in their Seasons. . . . 2 00 40 

*Myths and Marvels of Astronomy. . . 2 25 40 

G. W. Plympton. *The Star Finder. . . i 00 48 

H. E. Roscoe. ^Spectrum Analysis. . . 6 00 42 



I02 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



ASTRONOMY — Cont'd. Price. 

H. Scheilen. ^Spectrum Analysis. Ed. by Hug- 
gins. With maps . . . . . $6 oo 29 

T. W. Webb. Celestial Objects for Common 

Telescopes. . . . . . . 3 00 40 

BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 

Grant Allen. *Flowers and their Pedigrees. . i 50 29 

F. Jeffrey Bell. ^Elements of Comparative 

Anatomy. ...... — — 

Edward Clodd. *The Stor)^ of Creation. A plain 

story of Evolution. . . . . . i 75 40 

Charles Darwin. Origin of Species. . . . 2 00 29 

Descent of Man. . . . . . 3 00 29 

^Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. i 25 29 

^Fertilization of Orchids by Insects. . . i 75 29 
Cross and Self-Fertilization in the Vegetable 

Kingdom. ... ... 2 00 29 

■^Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the 

Same Species. . . . . . . i 50 29 

*The Power of Movement in Plants. . . 2 00 29 

Insectivorous Plants. . . . . . 2 00 29 

Vegetable Mould and Earthworms. . . i 50 29 

Variations of Animals and Plants. . . 5 00 29 

R. J. Har\^ey Gibson. Elementar}^ Biology. . 1/5 40 

G. B. Howes. An Atlas of Practical Elementarj' 

Biology 4 00 42 

E. Haeckel. *The Evolution of Man. 2 vols. . 5 00 29 

*The History of Creation. 2 vols. . . 5 00 29 
T. H. Huxley and H. N. Martin. A Course of 

Elementary Instruction in Practical Biolog}'. 2 60 42 

T. H. Huxley. Origin of Species. . . • . i 00 29 

Lectures on Evolution. .... 15 34 

Physical Basis of Life. . . . . 15 34 

A Manual of the Anatomy of Invertebrate 

Animals. . . . . . . . 2 50 29 

A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrate Animals. 2 50 29 

*Man's Place in Nature i 25 29 

Charles Letourneau. Biology. Translated hy 

W\ Maccall i 50 61 

J. Lubbock. ^British Wild Flowers in Relation 

to Insects. . . . . . . i 25 42 

T. C. Magginly. ^Biology i 25 34 



BOOK'S RECOMMENDED. 1 03 



BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION — Coflfd, Price. 

H. N. Martin and W. A. Moale. *Hand-book 

of Vertebrate Dissection. 3 parts. Each. $0 60 42 

H. A. Nicholson'. "^Introduction to the Study of 

Biology 60 29 

William Noble. *Hours with a Three-Inch 

Telescope. . . . . . . i 50 40 

T. Jeffrey Parker. A Course of Instruction in 

Zootomy. 2 25 42 

Geo. J. Romanes. Animal Intelligence. . . i 75 29 

Wm. Sedgwick and E. B. Wilson. General 

Biology . — 38 

Karl Semper. Animal Life as Affected by the 

Natural Conditions of Existence. . . 2 00 29 

S. H. Stevenson *Boys and Girls in Biology. . i 50 29 

John Tyndall. ^Floating Matter in the Air, in 

Relation to Putrefaction. . . . . i 50 29 

Robert Wiedersheim. Elements of the Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Vertebrates. Translated 

by W. N. Parker 3 00 42 

J. H. Wythe. Easy Lessons in Vegetable Biology. 40 43 

CHExMISTRY. 

A. H. Allen. Commercial Organic Analysis. 3 

vols. ....... — 71 

H. E. Armstrong. Introduction to the Study of 

Organic Chemistry. . . . . i 50 29 

D. Allfield. Medical Chemistry. . . . 2 00 60 

Barker. College Chemistry. . . . i 50 10 

C. L. Bloxam. "^Laboratory Teaching. . . i 75 59 

F. W.Clarke. The Elements of Chemistry. 1884. i 40 29 
J. P. Cooke, Jr. The New Chemistry. . . 2 00 29 
W. Crookes. "^Select Methods of Chemical 

Analysis. . . . . . . 8 00 40 

Douglas and Prescott. ^Qualitative Analysis. 188 1. 3 50 ,48 

G. E. R. Ellis. ^Introduction to Practical Or- 

ganic Analysis. ..... 50 40 

G. Fownes. "^Manual. 2 vols. . . . 7 00 59 

Frankland and Japp. Inorganic Chemistry. . — 71 

C. R. Fresenius. ^Qualitative Analysis. . . 4 00 50 

■'^■Quantitative Analysis. . . . . 7 00 50 

W. Jago. ^Inorganic Chemistry. ... 75 40 

Kolbe's *Short Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry. 2 50 40 



104 THREE KINGDOMS. 



CHEMISTRY — Cont'd. Price. ^li^ ^ 

Lewis. Chemical Labels. . . . . $o 50 48 

Carl Lange. ^Sulphuric Acid and Alkali. 1879. 12 50 75 
Jean Mace. The History of a Mouthful of Bread. 

Translated by ISIrs. Gatty. . . . i 75 36 
Wm. Allen Miller. Introduction to Inorganic 

Chemistry. . . . . . . i 50 29 

Clifford Mitchell, M.D. Dental Chemistry. . i 25 9 

Campbell Morfitt. ^Mineral Phosphates. 1873. 20 00 74 
C. Plattner. *Blowpipe Analysis. (Translated.) 

1885 5 00 48 

*Payen's Industrial Chemistry. . . . . 10 50 40 

A. B. Prescott. ^Proximate Organic Analysis. 1887. 5 00 48 

G. W. Rains. ^Exercises in Qualitative Analysis. 50 29 
Ira Remsen. Introduction to the vStudy of 

Chemistry. . . . . . . i 40 38 

J. Emerson Reynolds. Experimental Chemistry. i 20 40 
Roscoe and Schorlemmer. Treatise on Chemis- 
try. 6 vols. . . . . . . 24 GO 29 

V. von Richter. ^Organic Chemistry. Trans- 
lated by Smith. . . . . . 3 00 59 

F. H. Storer, S. B. Agriculture in some of its 

Relations with Chemistry. 2 vols. . . 5 00 47 

A. Strecker. *Text-book of Organic Chemistry. 5 00 29 

F. Sutton. Volumetric Analysis. . . . 5 00 59 

T. E. Thorpe. "^Quantitative Chemical Aralysis. i 50 40 
Thorpe and Muir. ^Qualitative Analysis and 

Laboratory Practice. . . . . i 50 29 

William A. Tilden. Introduction to the Study 

of Chemical Philosophy. . . . . i 50 29 

Practical Chemistry. ..... 45 40 

H. W. Tyler. Entertainment in Chemistry. . 55 7 
H. Watts. Dictionary of Chemistry. An Ency- 
clopaedia. 9 vols. . . . . . 75 00 40 

R. Wagner. *Chemical Technology. . . 5 00 29 

Ad. Wurtz. The Atomic Theory. . . . i 50 29 

Wanklyn and Chapman. W^ater Analysis. 1876. 75 74 

[N.B. — The best general book on Chemistry is Fownes's 

Manual. Wagner gives an excellent description of chemical 
processes as applied to technical arts. For the laboratory, Fre- 
senius's books are the standard guides, but the works of 

Douglas and of Prescott are also good, and more recent. For a 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



beginner, Cooke's * New Chemistry,' and Barker's * College 
Chemistry,' are excellent. The latter has descriptive chemistry 
last, and hence the last part should be read first by the tyro. 
The first part is a concise and accurate synopsis of chemical 
theory as now understood, and the student should read it care- 
fully as he is able to understand it.] 



GEOLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY. p^ice ^^^'^ 

No. 

Louis Agassiz. Geological Sketches. 2vols,,ea. $i 50 ig 
E. B. Andrews. Elementary Geology of the In- 
terior States. 432 illustrations. . . 117 55 
C. R. Boyd, M.E. ^Resources of Southwest 

Virginia. . . . . . . 3 00 50 

Bernhard von Cotta. Rocks Classified and De- 
scribed. . . . . . . . 5 00 40 

James CroU. *Climate and Time. . . . 2 50 29 

W. O. Crosby. Common Minerals and Rocks. 
40c. ; cloth, 60c. Fifty labeled speci- 
mens. ....... 2 00 16 

J. D. Dana. Geological Story Briefly Told. . i 35 39 

Text-book of Geology. . . . . 2 30 39 

Manual of Geology. . . . . . 4 45 39 

J. W. Dawson. Acadian Geology. . . . 6 50 42 

Story of the Earth and Man. ... — — 

*The Geological History of Plants. . . i 75 29 
Archibald Geikie. Physical Geography {Science 

Primer). ....... 45 29 

Class-book of Physical Geography. . . i 10 42 

Geology {Science P^'imer.) .... 45 29 

Class-book of Geology. . . . . 2 60 42 

Text-book of Geology. . . . . 7 50 42 

Outlines of Field Geology. . . . . i 00 42 

J. Geikie. Great Ice Age. . . . . 2 50 29 

Gilbert. Lake Bonneville. .... — 3 

H. C. Hovey. Celebrated American Caverns. . 2 00 54 
E. Hull. Building and Ornamental Stones. . 3 50 42 
T. S. Hunt. Mineral Physiology and Physi- 
ography 5 00 15 

Alpheus Hyatt. Pebbles 15 18 

J. W. Judd. "^Volcanoes. . . . . 2 00 29 

Charles Kingsley. Town Geology. ... 15 34 

Joseph Le Conte. Compend of Geology. . . i 40 29 

Elements of Geology. . . . . . 4 00 29 



Io6 THREE KIXGDOMS. 



GEOLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY — Cotlfd, Price. 



Pub's 
No. 

J. Macfarlane. *Coal Regions of America. . $5 oo 29 
*American Geologdcal Railway Guide. . i 50 29 

G. A. Mantell. Petrifactions and their Teachings 2 50 61 

H. A. Nicholson. Manual of Paleontolog}-. . 76 29 

Life Histon' of the Earth. . . . . 2 00 29 

* Text-book of Geology-. . . , . i 25 29 
John Phillips. Manual of Geology. ... — 79 

k. Pumpelly. "^Geology. (Text-book.) . . 2 50 38 
Joseph Prestwich. Text-book of Geology. 2 vols. 15 25 42 
E. Reclus. *The Earth. . . . . . 5 00 36 

*The Ocean. . . . . . . 6 00 36 

W. B. Rogers. Geology of the Virginias. . . 5 00 29 
Russell. Histor}- of Lake Lahontan. . . i 50 3 
Frank Rutley. The Study of Rocks. . . i 75 29 

X. S. Shaler. First Book in Geolog\*. . . i 00 18 
T. D. Steele. New Popular Geology . . i 25 30 
John Tyndall. Forms of Water. . . . i 50 29 

*Glaciers of the Alps. (Scarce.) ... — — 

A. R. Wallace. Island Life 4 00 36 

S. G. Williams. "^Applied Geology. . . . i 40 29 
Alexander Winchell. *World Life. . . 2 50 6 

Sparks from a Geologist's Hammer. . . 2 oo 6 
*Sketches of Creation. . . . . 2 00 36 
Geological Excursions for Young Learners . i 50 6 
United States Geological Sur\-ey : Annual Reports, 
Monographs, Bulletins. To be obtained 
at cost on application to the Director U. S. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Reports on the Geology of Canada. Application 
should be made to the Director Geological 
Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 
Reports on the Geolog}' of various States, espe- 
cially New Hampshire, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, In- 
diana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Missouri and California. Uusually 
to be obtained through the State Geologist, 
State Librarian, or Members of the Legis- 
lature. 

American Journal of Science, Per year. 600 

American Geologist ^ Minneapolis. . . . 3 00 

Geological Magazine, London. .... — 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



PALEONTOLOGY. Pub's 

L. Lesquereux. Coal Flora of Pennsylvania. 
3 vols. With atlas. Pennsylvania Geo- 
logical Sun^ey. ..... — — 

G. A. Mantell. Petrifactions and their Teachings $2 00 29 

H. A. Nicholson. Ancient Life History of the 

Earth 2 00 29 

Paleontology. . . . . . . 5 00 79 

S. H. Sciidder. Fossil Butterflies of North 

America. ...... — 26 

L. Ward. Sketch of Paleo-botany. Fifth An- 
nual Report of U. S. Geological Survey. . — — 

PHYSICS. 

N. Arnott. *EIements of Physics. . , . 3 00 29 

*Park Benjamin. . . . . . . 2 00 47 

L. Blodgett. ^Climatology of United States. . 5 00 61 

A. Daniell. *Text-book of Physics. . . 3 50 42 

A. Ganot. ^Physics. 5 00 51 

E. A. Dolbear. *The Art of Projecting. New 

edition. . . . . . . . 2 00 20 

R. F. Glazebrook. ^Physical Optics. . . 2 25 29 

R. F. Glazebrook and Shaw. ^Practical Physics. 2 25 29 
W. R. Grove. *The Correlation of Physical 

Forces. . . . . . . . 2 00 29 

T. H. Huxley. Physiography, (Very valuable). i 80 42 

A. Irving. A Short Manual of Heat. . . 75 40 

Fleeming Jenkin. Electricity and Magnetism. . i 50 29 

A. M. Mayer. ^Sound, $1.00 ; *Light. . . i 00 29 ' 
C. W. MacCord. Kinematics of Machines. . 5 00 50 

J. C. Maxwell. *Theoryof Heat. . . . i 50 29 

Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford Claren- 
don Press. 2 vols. . . . . 8 00 42 
T. C. Mendenhall. A Century of Electricity. . i 25 19 
Thos. Nolan. *The Telescope. ... 50 48 
R. H. Scott. ^Elementary Meteorology. . . — 79 

^Weather-Charts and Storm- Warnings. . 2 00 40 

B. Silliman. ^Principles of Physics. . . 3 10 39 
Balfour Stewart. ^Conservation of Energy. . i 50 29 

Physics 45 29 

S. B. Thompson. Elementary Lessons in Elec- 
tricity. I 25 42 



io8 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



PHYSICS — Cont'd. 



Price. 

1: 



J. Tyndall. "^Molecular Physics, 

*Heat as a Mode of Motion. ... 2 
^Lessons in Electricity. . . . . i 
* Light and Electricity. .... I 
*Light. 
■^Sound. 

*Modern Meteorology. 

[X.B. — In Physics, Silliman and Ganot are both good text- 
books, but Daniell represents much better, for advanced students, 
the style of modern thought on this subject. In Electricity, the 
small work of Thompson is an excellent introduction ; that of 
Clerk Maxwell is suitable for advanced students.] 



00 
50 

GO 
25 
50 
GO 
50 



Pub's 
No. 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
48 



MICROSCOPY. 



Lionel S. Beale. *How to ^Vork with the ^licro- 










$7 




42 


E. Bausch. Manipulation of the Microscope. 




50 


53 


J. W. Behrens. The Microscope in Botany. 








Translated by Hervey. .... 


5 


00 


26 


W. B. Carpenter. *The Microscope and its 










5 


50 


42 


L. L. Clark. "^Objects for the Microscope. 


I 


75 


48 


M. C. Cooke Ponds and Ditches. 




75 


49 


One Thousand Objects for the Microscope. 




50 


49 


C. S. Dolley. Technology of Bacteria. 


2 


GO 


26 


Erev. The Microscope. Translated bv Cutler. 








iSSo ' . 


4 


25 


51 


P. H. Gosse. Evenings at the Microscope. 

J. W. Griffith and A. Henfrey. ^Micrographic 


I 


50 


29 








Dictionary. ...... 


20 


GO 


75 


labez Hogg. "^The Microscope. 


3 


50 


46 


C. T. Hudson and P. H. Gosse. *The Rotifcra 








or Wheel-Animalcules. 2 vols. 


24 


GO 


40 


E. L. James, M.D. Elementary Microscopical 












50 


79 


C. Henry Kain. Reproduction of Schmidt's At- 








las of Diatoms. ..... 


7 


50 


79 


Lee. Microtomist's Vade Mecum. 


3 


GO 


71 


W. P. Manton. Beginnings with the Micro- 












50 


2G 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 109 



MICROSCOPY — Cont'd. Price, 

J. Mayall, Jr. Lectures on the Microscope. 

1886 * . . $0 80 63 

Poulsen's Botanical Micro-Chemistry. Trans- 
lated I 00 26 

H. J. Slack. *Marvels of Pond Life. . . i 75 70 
J. E. Smith. How to See with the Microscope. 2 00 5 
G. M. Sternberg. Photo-Micrographs and How 

to Make Them. 3 00 21 

Alfred S. Stokes. Microscopy for Beginners. . i 50 36 
Mary Treat, S. Wells, and F. L. Sargent. 

Through a Microscope. .... 55 7 

C. O. Whitman. Microscopical Anatomy and 

Embryology. 1885. . . . . 3 00 26 
J. G. Wood. Common Objects for the Micro- 
scope. ....... 50 46 



American Monthly Mia'oscopical Journal, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ..... . — — 

The Microscope, Microscope Co., Detroit, Mich. . — — 
Monthly Microscopical Journal. 1 869-1 877. 

Discontinued. ...... — — 

Quarterly Journal Microscopical Science, London. — — 
Journal Royal Microscopical Society, London. 

From 1878 — — 

[N.B. — The best general book on the Microscope is Carpenter. 
James gives the complete history of a slide according to the most 
recent modes of mounting. Behrens is very complete for the 
botanical student, and Frey and Beale equally sc for the medical.] 



DIVISION II. 

BOTANY. 

Class I. — Structural Botany. 

M. J. Berkeley. *Cryptogamic Botany. 
C. E. Bessey. Botany for High Schools. . 
G. L. Goodale. Physiological Botany. 
Asa Gray. Structural and Systematic Botany. 

Sachs. Text-book of Botany. Translated 

by Bennett and Dyer. 1875. . 
O. W. Thone. Structural and Physiological 
Botany. Translated by Bennett. 1877. . 



— 68 
$1 35 38 

2 30 39 

2 30 39 

— 42 



no 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Class II. — Classification, etc. Price. 

Henry Baldwin. *The Orchids of New England, 
Bentham and Hooker. Genera Plantarum. 2 

vols. 1862. 

James Britten, F.L.S. "^European Ferns : their 

Form, Habit and Culture. Colored Illus- 
trations from Nature by D. Blair. 
M. C. Cooke. Hand-book of British Fungi 

1871. Scarce. .... 
A. W. Chapman. Flora of the Southern States, 

1872 

J. M. Coulter. Botany of the Rocky Mountains 
A. De Candolle. *Prodromus Systematis Natur- 

alis Regni Vegetabilis. 17 vols. 1824-1873 
W. G. Farlow. "^Marine Algae of New England 
Asa Gray. Manual of the Botany of the Northern 

United States. 1878. 
Synoptical Flora of North America. 2 vols, 

Each, 

Harvey. Nereis Borealis Americana. . 

Sir W. J. Hooker. Flora Borealis Americana 

Every Known Fern. 1868. 
L. L^squereux and T. P. James. *AIanual 

the Mosses of North America. 
W. S. Sullivant. Musci and Hepaticae of United 

States. 1866. .... 
H. Tuckermann. Lichens of North America. 
L. M. Underw^ood. Hepaticae of North America 
A. Wood. Class-book of Botany. 1855. . 
H. C. Wood. Fresh Water Algae of N. America 
F. WoUe. Fresh Water Algae of United States 

2 vols. 1887. .... 
Desmids of United States. 1886. 
Botany of Geological Surs-ey of California. 2 

vols. 1880 Each. 



Pub's 
No. 



$2 


50 


50 








7 
/ 




12. 








2 


50 


39 


2 


50 


39 






79 


I 


50 


26 


2 


50 


39 


5 


00 


39 






4 






45 




GO 




4 


50 


26 






26 


3 


50 


26 


I 


50 


26 


3 


50 


30 


7 


50 


45 


10 


GO 


56 


5 


GO 


56 


5 


GO 


79 



Class III. — General Works. 

W. W. Bailey. Collector's Hand-book. . . i 50 13 

M. C. Cooke. Microscopic Fungi. . . . 2 gg 70 

*Rust, Smut, Mildew and Mould. . . i go 70 

A. De Candolle. Histor}^ of Cultivated Plants. . 2 go 29 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



Ill 



BOTANY — Cont'd. 


Price. 


Pub^ s 
No. 


\jr, J-j. VJUULldlC. Xi. F cVV V^UIIIIHUH xlctllUo. . • 


$o 


25 


18 


As3. Gray. How Plants Grow. 


I 


OO 




School and Field Bota,riy. 


2 


lO 




VJCl Ll Ll\JC X_<. XXctiC X-ziULiC. X H_/Wd X f-^lJlt;. . 




50 


67 


TT Ti T-TrMirrVi Ti^l^^m Anf"c r\f V nrf^iitt'\T 

X . xj. xxuu^ii. x-iicixxciiio ^Ji X vjicoui y. . . 


2 


00 


CA 


A A TCnicrVil" A Primf^r r»f T^ntiinv 

xA.. XVili^lXL. XI. X iliilCi '-'I XJOLcHiy. . . 




35 


67 
^ J 


W^. P. Manton. P ield Botany. 




50 


■ 20 


D. P. Penhallow. Vegetable Histology. 


I 


00 


79 


H. Willey. Introduction to the Study of Lichens 


I 


00 


79 


O. R. Willis. Flora of New Jersey. . • . 


I 


00 


30 


A. Wood. American Botanist and Florist. 


2 


50 


30 


Wood and Steele. How to Study Plants. 


2 


50 


30 


E. A. Youmans. First Book of Botany. 




75 


29 




I 


40 


29 



Class IV. — Popular and Aesthetic. 



J-/, rx. xDaiiey. 1 aiKS /\nci(j. auom x iania diiu 








the Science of Plants. .... 


I 


00 




Bentley and Trimen. Medicinal Plants. 5 vols. £ 


II IIS. 


70 


C. E. Bessey. Botanical Atlas. 2 vols. 


$6 


00 


41 


W. Boot. Illustrations of the Genus Carex. 






79 


D. C. Eaton. *Ferns of North America. 2 vols. 


30 


00 


26 


N. H. Eggleston. Hand-Book of Tree-planting. 


75 


29 


G. L. Goodale. ^American Wild Flowers. 


15 


00 


26 


Grant Allen. Vignettes from Nature. 




15 


34 


*The Colors of Flowers. .... 


I 


00 


42 


S. B. Herrick. * Wonders of Plant-Life. . 


I 


50 


45 


A. B. Hervey. *Sea-Mosses. .... 


2 


00 


13 


Marcus E. Jones. Ferns of the West. 




30 


66 


J. Lubbock. Flowers, Fruits and Leaves. 


I 


25 


42 


Thomas Meehan. Native Flov/ers and Ferns of 








the United States. 3 vols. 1879. . 


17 


00 


24 


Michaux and Nuttall. North American Sylva. 














79 




10 


00 


20 


E. M. Pendleton. Scientific Agriculture. . 


I 


50 


30 


Wm. Rhind. Vegetable Kingdom. . 






77 


J. Robinson. Ferns : Their Homes and Ours. . 


I 


50 


26 


Alfred Smee. My Garden. .... 






69 


Edward Sprague. *Bulbs. .... 


2 


50 


19 


*Flowers for the Parlor and Garden. . 


2 


50 


19 


*Garden Flowers : How to Cultivate Them. 


2 


50 


19 



112 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



BOTANY— Cont'd. Price. ^^'"^ 

Orchids . $3 oo ig 

^Rhododendrons. ..... 2 00 19 

W. C. Strong. "^Fruit Culture and the Laying 

Out and Management of a Country Home. i 00 ig 
L. M. Underwood. Our Native P'erns. . . i 50 13 
Wild Flower Portfolio. Three series, each being 
a selection of 40 wild flowers, printed in 
chromo-lithography, and put up in two 
handsome boxes. 6 boxes in all. Each. i 50 32 
Wild Flowers of the Rocky Mountains. PortfoHo. 
A selection of 24 of the finest wild flowers, 
from original water colors. In 12 to 15 
colors. 3 boxes, 8 pi. in each box. Each. i 50 32 
Botanical Gazette yCr2iV^iord?>\\\\Q,lnd. Per annum. 2 00 — 
Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, Columbia College, 

N. Y. City. . . . Per annum. i 00 — 

[N.B. The classification given by Bentham and Hooker, in 
their * Genera Plantarum,' is the one now accepted. Gray's 
Manual describes the plants east of the Mississippi and north of 
Virginia, Chapman's gives those of the Gulf States, and Coulter's, 
or the Botany of California, the west coast plants. In structural 
and physiological botany, Sache is recent and exhaustive, Thome 
is good and smaller, Bessey covers the entire field of plant-Hfe in 
general. Smee's * My Garden ' shows how much there is to ob- 
serve and find out in a very limited area. De CandoUe's Pro- 
dromus contains, in Latin, a description of all known plants. 
In cryptogamic botany, the w^ork of Berkeley is scarce but very 
good, Sachs and Bessey both include cryptogams in their struc- 
tural books. The older editions of 'Gray's Manual' included both 
ferns and mosses, but the mosses are left out of the later editions. 
Cooke's Fungi applies almost as well to the United States as to 
England. WoUe's books on Desmids and Fresh Water Algae 
take the place of all others on these subjects for the United 
States.] 

MINERALOGY AND METALLURGY. 

W. R. Balch. Mines, Miners and Mining Inter- 
ests in the United States. ... — 62 
Hilary Baurman. "^Systematic Mineralogy. . $2 25 2g 
G. J. Brush. Manual of^ Determinative Mineral- 
ogy and Blowpipe Analysis. . . . 3 5^ 50 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. I 1 3 



MINERALOGY AND METALLURGY — Cont'd, Price. 

S. M. Burnham. Precious Stones in Nature, Art 

and Literature. $3 50 26 

History and Uses of Limestones and Marbles. 6 00 26 

A. H. Chester. A Catalogue of Minerals. . i 25 50 
Crookes and Rohrig. A Practical Treatise on 

Metallurgy. 3 vols. .... — 40 

J. H. Collins. First Book of Mineralogy. . 75 45 
W. O. Crosby. Tables for the Determination of 

Common Minerals. . . . . i 25 16 

H. B. Cornwall. ^Blowpipe Analysis. . . . 2 50 48 
E. S. Dana. Text-book of Mineralogy. . . 3 50 50 
J. D. Dana. Descriptive Mineralogy. . . 10 00 50 

Manual of Mineralogy. . . . . 2 00 50 

W. Elderhorst. *Blowpipe Analysis. . . 2 50 64 

I. C. Foye. *Hand-book of ll. S. Minerals. . 50 79 
H. P. Gurney. ^Crystallography, ... 50 44 
G. G. Gore. *The Art of Electro-Metallurgy . 2 25 29 
J. B. Jordan. ^Elementary Crystallography 

(Valuable) i 50 72 

C. W. King. Antique Gems and Rings. 2 vols. — 69 
A. G. Lock. *Gold : Its Occurrence, etc. . . 20 00 79 
E. H. Richards. First Lessons in Minerals. . 10 18 
W. A. Ross. *Blowpipe Analysis. . . . 4 00 48 
Hussak Smith. Instructions for the Determina- 
tion of Rock-forming Minerals. 103 plates. 2 00 50 
J. Swank. *Iron in All Ages. . . . . — 79 
E. H. Williams. A Manual of Lithology. . i 25 50 



See Reports and Bulletins Geologic Survey of United States, 
Washington, D. C, and the Surveys of Many States. 

[N.B. — In Mineralogy, Dana, Brush, and Plattner are standard 
authors. In the determination of minerals, the microscope has 
within a few years been applied with wonderful success, but the 
only book yet written in English suitable for a text-book on this 
subject is Hussak. The principal one is in German by Prof. 
Henry Rosenbusch, called Mikroskopische Fhysiographie.'] 

ZOOLOGY — In General. 



W. B. Carpenter. ^Comparative Zoology. . — 79 
Buel P. Colton. Elementary Course in Practical 

Zoology. $0 80 18 



114 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



ZOOLOGY — Cont'd, Price. 

Claus (Sedgwick). Text-book of Zoology. 

(Standard.) 2 vols. . . . . $8 oo 42 

C. Gegenbaur. Comparative Anatomy. Trans- 
lated by Bell and Lancaster. . . . 5 50 42 

T. H. Huxley. The Crayfish. An Introduction 

to Zoology. ...... I 75 29 

J. S. Kingsley. "^Riverside Natural History. 

(Standard.) 6 vols. . . . . 36 00 19 

A. M. Marshall and C. A. Hursh. Junior Course 

in Practical Zoology. . . . . 3 50 45 

E. S. Morse. *First Book of Zoology. . . i 00 29 

A. S. Packard. *Zoology for High Schools. . 3 00 38 

J. D. Steele. *Fourteen Weeks in Zoology. . i 50 30 

Sanborn Tenney. "^Elements of Zoology. . i 85 39 

Natural History of Animals. . . . i 40 39 

*Manual of Zoology. . . . . 2 30 47 

Andrew Wilson. Facts and Fictions of Zoology. 15 34 

ZOOLOGY. — Special. 

I. LOWER INVERTEBRATES— COXCHOLOGY. 

E. C. Agassiz. *First Lesson in Natural History. $0 25 18 
Alexander Agassiz. *Seaside Studies in Natural 

History. ....... 3 00 19 

W. K. Brooks. *Hand-book of Invertebrate 

Zoology. . . . . . . . 3 00 26 

Check-List. North American Shells. . . 25 4 
J. A. Dana. *Corals and Coral Islands. . . 4 00 33 
J. H. Emerton. *Life on the Seashore. . . i 50 26 
Structure and Habits of Spiders. . . i 50 26 
A. A. Gould. "^Invertebrates of Massachusetts. — 27 
S. Haldeman. Fresh Water Univalve MoUusca. 25 00 65 
N. M. Hentz. ^Spiders of the United States. . 3 00 26 
Hudson and Gosse. The Rotifera, or Wheel-Ani- 
malcules. . . . . . . 24 00 40 

Alpheus Hyatt. *Oyster, Clam, etc. . . 25 18 

*Hydroids, Corals, etc. . . . ' . 20 18 

*Sponges. ....... 20 18 

Worms and Crustacea. . . . . 25 18 

W. Saville Kent. A Manual of Infusoria. 3 vols. 25 00 70 

Josiah Keep. *West Coast Shells. . . . i 50 79 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. I 1 5 



ZOOLOGY — Cont'd. Price, 

D. Landsborough. "^British Zoophytes, or Coral- 

lines. ....... — 42 

Isaac Lea. *Conchology. 3 vols., folio. (Scarce.) — 79 
Joseph Leidy. Fresh Water Rhigopods of North 

America. ....... — 79 

M. Roberts. Popular History of Mollusca. . — 42 

E. B. Sowerby. ^Popular British Conchology. . — 42 

G. B. Tryon. "^Structural and Systematic Con- 

chology. 3 vols. ..... $20 00 65 

Cheap edition, i vol. . . •. . 12 00 65 

Manual of Conchology. (Now publishing.) — 65 

A. E. Verrill. * Invertebrates of Vineyard Sound. 3 00 — 

S. P. Woodward. * Recent and Fossil Shells. . — 42 

Manual of Mollusca — 4 

2. INSECTS— ENTOMOLOGY, 

J. P. Ballard. ^Insect Lives ; or, Born in Prison. i 00 52 

H. S. Conant. "Butterfly Hunters. . . . i 50 79 
E. T. Cresson. Synopsis of the Hymenoptera of 

North America, 1887 3 00 57 

P. M. Duncan. Transformations of Insects.' . 2 00 32 

A. J. Ebell. "^Insects and How to Observe Them. 30 79 

Canadian Entomologist. Monthly. . Per year. i 00 — 
Edwards. * Butterflies of North America. Series 
I, $35.00 ; Series 2, $40.00; Series 3, in 

parts Each. 2 25 19 

G. H. French. Butterflies of the Eastern United 

States. ....... 2 00 61 

T. W. Harris. *Insects Injurious to Vegetation. 

$4.00 and 6 50 41 

H. A. Hazen. Synopsis of Neuroptera of North 

America. ....... — 4 

John Lubbock. *Ants, Bees and Wasps. . . 2 00 29 
Le Conte and Horn. Classification of the Cole- 

optera. ....... — 4 

C. J. Maynard. ^Butterflies of New England. . 7 00 26 
J. G. Morris. Synopsis of the Lepidoptera of 

North America. — 4 

A. S. Packard, Jr. Guide to the Study of Insects. 5 00 38 

William Saunders. Insects Injurious to Fruits. . — — 

M. Van Beneden. Animal Parasites. . . . i 50 29 



ii6 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



ZOOLOGY — Confd. Price. 

S. H. Scudder. Butterflies : their Structure, 

Changes and Life Histories. . . . $3 oo 38 

Mary Treat. My Garden Pets. (Ants, Wasps, 

Spiders, etc.) ...... — 22 

T. Say. ^Entomology of North America. 2 vols. 15 00 — 

J. G. Wood. "^Insects at Home. . . . 3 50 40 

*Insects Abroad. . . . . . 3 50 40 

J. O. Westwood. Entomologist's Text-book. 37 50 42 



[See for valuable notes on Economic Entomology, Reports and 
Bulletins of the United States Department of Agriculture, and 
Entomological Commission, Washington, D. C] 

ZOOLOGY. 

3. VERTEBRATES, 



a. In general. 

D. S. Jordan. Vertebrates of Northern United 

. States $2 50 8 

Manual of the Vertebrates. ... 2 50 8 

b. Reptiles. 

Samuel Garman. ^Reptiles and Batrachians of 

North America. ..... 4 00 54 

c. Fish. * 

C. Girard. *Fresh Water Fish of North America. i 50 4 
Hugo Mulertt. *The Gold Fish and its Culture. 60 54 

H. G. Seeley, F.R.S. *Fresh Water Fishes of 

Europe. . . . . . . . 5 00 32 

Various Government Publications : 



d. Birds. — Ornithology, Oology and Taxidermy, 



J. J. Audubon. *Birds of America. 7 vols. 

(Scarce.) ....... — — 

Austin. *Taxidermy without a Teacher. . . 50 20 

S. F. Baird. *Land Birds of California. . . 10 00 21 
Baird, Brown and Ridgeway. *Birds of North 

America. Land Birds. 3 vols. $30.00 ; 

colored, $60.00; Water Birds, $24.00; 

colored. . . . . . . . 60 00 21 

T. Brown. ^Manual of Taxidermy. . . . i 50 45 

Elliott Coues. *Birds of the Northwest. . . 4 50 27 

Check-List of Birds 3 00 17 

*Key to North American Birds, and Field 

Ornithology 7 50 i? 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



117 



ZOOLOGY — Cont'd. Price. 

Elliot Coues and W. A. Stearns. *Bird-Life : A 

Manual of Ornithology $5 00 20 

Geo. H. Holden. "^Canaries and Cage-Birds. . 2 00 37 

Ernest IngersoU. *Birds'-Nesting. . . . i 25 26 

J. H. Langille. Our Birds in their Haunts. . 3 00 26 

C. J. Maynard. Manual of Taxidermy. . . i 25 26 

Olive Thorne Miller. Bird- Ways. . . . i 25 19 
H. D. Minot. Land and Game Birds of New 

England 3 00 26 

R. Ridgeway. , Manual of North American iBirds. 7 50 61 
Bradford Torrey. Birds in the Bush. . . i 25 19 
Alexander ^Yilson. ^American Ornithology. Ac- 
cording to style, . From $110.00 to 7 50 64 
Wild Birds Portfolio. A selection of 40 beauti- 
fully Colored Plates of Familiar Wild Birds. 
Two handsome boxes. . . Each. i 50 32 
American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of 

North American Birds. . . . . 3 00 — 

e. Manunals. 

F. S. Buckland. *Log-book of a Zoologist. . 3 00 61 

Hartman. Anthropoid Apes. . . . . i 75 29 

St. George Mivart. The Cat. 200 illustrations. 3 50 47 

f. Man — Archceology and Ethnology. 
Abbott, C. C. "^Primitive Industry of the Native 

Races of America. ..... 3 00 23 

American Journal of Archceology. . Per year. 5 OO 81 

Arch.^:ological Lnstitute Publications. . — n 



I. School of Classical Studies at Athens. 

a Bulletin I. {All out in 1887.) 

b' Preliminary Report of an Archaeo- 
logical Journey in Asia Minor. 
Inscriptions. 

c ^Papers I. {All out in i88y.) 

d *Report on Explorations at Assos, 
1881. {All out 1887.) 

II. American Series, 
a *New Mexico. 

b *Tour in Mexico, 1881. 

III. Reports. 

Bancroft. Native Races. 5 vols. . . . $22 50 2 
Bureau of Ethnology. ^Reports I. -IV. Each. 3 00 4 
W. Boyd Dawkins. *Cave-Hunting. . . 6 00 42 



IlS THREE KINGDOMS. 



ZOOLOGY — Cont'd. Price. ^^'"^ 

De Mcrtillet. L' Homme Pre his tori que. . . 5 francs. 7S 
J. W. Foster. *Prehistoric Races of the United 

States $3 00 6 

C. C. Tones. Antiquities of the Southern In- 
dians. ....... 6 00 29 

T. P. Maclean. The Mound-Builders. . . i 00 54 

Antiquit}' of Man. ..... 60 54 

O. T. Mason. Articles in American Naturalist. — — 

M. de Xadaillac. Prehistoric America. . . 5 00 45 

Peabody Museum of Ethnolog)'. 21 Reports. — 23 
John F. Short. *North Americans of Antiquity. 

8vo. 3 GO 36 

H. R. Schoolcraft. Algic Researches. Out of 
print, and ver}- scarce at second-hand for 

about . . , . . . . 3 00 — 
H. R. Schoolcraft, *Archives of Aboriginal 

Knowledge. 6 vols., folio. . . . 90 00 61 



Smithsonian Institution. Miscellaneous Publica- 
tions, commonly illustrated. For example : 4 

Inst. No. 

Abbott. Stone Age in New Jersey. . . . $0 25 394 
Boehmer. Index to Smith. Inst. Anthrop. Pub. . 10 421 
Brans ford. Antiquity of Costa Rica. . . 10 619 
■ " Archaeological Researches in Nica- 
ragua . 2 00 3S3 

Cope. West India Bone Cave. . . . . 2 00 489 
Dall. Remains of Later Prehistoric Man in 

Alaska Caves 2 00 318 

Desor. Palafattes of the Lake of Xeuchatel. . 10 360 
Gibbs^ Hardist)\ Jones, Ross — Tinneh or Chep)e- 

wyan Indians . 10 365 

Gillman. Mound-Builders of Michigan. . . 20 393 

Gore. Tuckahoe, or Indian Bread. ... 5 4S2 

HakUman. Polychrome Bead from Florida. . 5 404 

Henry. Circular on Archaeology and Ethnolog}'. 2 205 

Henry. List of Photographic Portraits of Indians. 10 216 

Hoiuitt. Australian Group — Relations. . . 5 596 

Joms. Aboriginal Structures in Georgia. . . 5 400 

** Aboriginal Remains in Tennessee. . . 3 00 259 

Keugla. Archaeological Map of D. C. . . 5 537 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 1 19 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PUBLICATIONS — Cont'd. Price. 

Knight. Savage Weapons at Philadelphia Ex- 
hibition $0 25 415 

Lapham. Antiquities of Wisconsin. . . . 10 00 70 
Mason. Latimer Collection of Antiquities of 

Porto Rico 5 397 

Mason. Miscellaneous Anthropological Papers, 

1879. 10 420 

Mason. Miscellaneous Anthropological Papers, 

1881 ID 481 

Ran. Flint Implements Found in Illinois.- . . 5 370 

** Drilling Stone without Metal. ... 5 372 

'* Gold Ornaments from Mounds in Florida. 5 403 

'* Palenque Tablet. . . . . . 2 00 331 

** Stock-in-Trade of Aboriginal Lapidary. . 5 402 

Romer. Prehistorical Antiquities of Hungary. . 2 392 

Sitnpson. Coronado's March in Search of Cibola. 5 " 561 

Squier. Aboriginal Monuments of New York. . 6 00 15 

Szvaji. Haidah Indians. . . . . . 2 00 267 

Trans. Anthropol. Institution of Washington. 

Vol. I., 1879-1882. . . . . I 00 501 

Trans. Anthropol. Institution of Washington. 

Abstract. 1879-1880 i 00 502 

Trans. Anthropol. Institution of Washington. 

Vol. II., 1882-1888 I GO 544 

Thomas. Directions for Mound Exploration. . 2 601 

g. Guides. 

Louis Agassiz. *Methods of Study. . . . i 50 19 
H. H. Ballard. Hand-book of the Agassiz Asso- 
ciation. 75 52 

H. D. Butler. Family Aquarium. ... 75 34 

J. S. Kingsley. Naturalists' Assistant. . . i 50 26 

C. T. Maynard. Naturalists' Guide. . . 2 00 26 

DIVISION III. 

NATURAL HISTORY. — Popular. 

F. Albertsen. *Four-footed Lovers. . . i 00 20 

A. B. Buckley. *Life and Her Children. . . i 50 29 

Winners in Life's Race. . . . . i 50 29 

P. A. Chadbourne. Lectures 75 30 



I20 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



NATURAL HISTORY — Coilfd. Price. 

Cecil's ^Natural History ' . |o 85 28 

Sarah Cooper. Animal Life in the Sea and on 

the Land. . . . . . . i 50 36 

Ernst Haeckel. A Visit to Ceylon. . . . i 75 — 

A. B. Harris. Door- Yard Folks. . . . i 00 22 

J. Hinton. *Life in Nature. .... 15 34 

C. F. Holder. "^Living Lights. . . . 2 00 32 

W. Hooker, "^Child's Book of Nature. 3 parts. 
No. I, 60c.; 2 and 3, each, 65c.; bound 

in one. . . . . . . . i 60 36 

Ernest IngersoU. Old Ocean. , . . . i 00 22 

*Habits of Animals 75 7 

J. Johonnot. Glimpses of the Animate World. . i 20 29 

H. C. McCook. Tenants of an Old Farm. . 2 50 35 
McGuffey's Natural History Readers : 

1. Familiar Animals and their Wild Kindred. 58 55 

2. Living Creatures of Water, Land and Air. 58 55 
Gilbert White. Selborne. .... 75 36 
J. G. Wood. Popular Natural History. 500 

Illustrations. ...... i 75 64 

Homes W^ithout Hands. . . . . 4 50 36 

^Strange Dwellings. ..... i 75 40 

*Out of Doors I 75 40 

*Bible Animals. 3 50 40 

^The Branch Builders. . . . . i 00 40 

^Wonderful Nests i 25 40 

*Homes Underground. . . . . i 25 40 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Abercrombie. Weather. . . . . i 75 29 

Louis Agassiz. ^Journey in Brazil. . . . 2 50 19 

*His Life and Correspondence. By E. C. 

Agassiz. 2 vols. . . . . . 4 00 19 

Francis Bacon. No^nlm Organum and Advance- 
ment of Learning. . . . . . 2 00 47 • 

H. W. Bates. ^Naturalist on the Amazons. . 2 50 25 

Mary E. Bamford. The Look- About Club. . i 50 22 

My Land and Water Friends. . . . i 50 22 

Mrs. Boyle. Days and Hours in a Garden . . 2 00 25 

J. Bernstein. The Five Senses. . . . i 75 29 

C. L. Brightwell. Lives of Labor. . . . i 25 79 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



121 



MISCELLANEOUS — Coufd. Price. ^^r^ ^ 

John Burroughs. Birds and Poets. . . . $i 50 19 

*Wake Robin i 50 19 

Winter Sunshine. . . ... i 50 19 

Locusts and Wild Honey. . . . . i 50 19 

Pepacton and other Sketches. . . . i 50 19 

PVesh Fields i 50 19 

Signs and Seasons. . . . . . i 50 19 

A. B. Buckley. *The Fairyland of Science. . i 50 29 

H. J. Clark. "^Mind in Nature. . . . 3 50 29 

J. W. Draper. The Conflict Between Religion 

and Science. ...... i 75 29 

G. F. Figuier. "^The Human Race. . . . 4 50 29 

■^Primitive Man. . . . . . 3 00 32 

*The World Before the Deluge. . . i 50 29 

*The Ocean World i 50 32 

*Birds and Reptiles i 50 32 

*The Vegetable W^orld. . . . . i 50 32 

John Fiske. Excursions of an Evolutionist. . 2 00 19 

Mrs. Alfred Gatty. "^Parables from Nature. . 75 31 

L. Grindon. Life : Its Nature and Varieties. . 225 61 

Plant Life. i 00 14 

Emblems i 00 14 

Sexuality of Nature i 00 14 

Trees of Old England. . . . . i 00 14 

C. Hartwig. *The Sea and its Living W^onders. 3 50 40 

*The Tropical World. . . . . 3 50 40 

*The Polar World 3 50 40 

*The Subterranean World. . . . 3 50 40 

*The Aerial World 3 00 29 

*Sea Monsters and Sea Birds, . , . i 00 40 

*Denizens of the Deep. . . . . i 00 40 

■^Volcanoes and Earthquakes. , . . i 00 40 

C. F. Holder. * Marvels of Animal Life. . . 2 00 47 
W. Houghton. *Countr}^ Walks of a Naturalist 

with his Children. ..... — 79 

P. H. Gosse. Romance of Natural History. . 2 00 61 

A. Humboldt. Kosmos. 3 vols. (Bohn's library) — 29 

Views of Nature. ..... — 29 

T. H. Huxley. Darwin and Humboldt. . . 15 34 

Ernest Ingersoll. ^Friends Worth Knowing. . i 00 36 

*01d Ocean. i 00 7 

R. Jeffries. *W^ild Life in a Southern Country . i 75 25 



122 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



MISCELLANEOUS — Cont'd. Price. ^l^-^y 

Dr. D. S. Jordan. Science Sketches. . . $i 50 8 

A. Karr. Around in My Garden. ... — 79 

J. Le Conte. Sight i 50 29 

G. P. Marsh. The Earth as Modified by Human 

Actions. . . . . . . 3 50 47 

J. Michelet. The Bird. . . . . . 4 00 80 

The Ocean World — 80 

The Desert — 80 

The World Before the Deluge. ... — 80 

John Milne. Earthquakes. . . . i 75 29 

R. Mudie. Observations of Nature ... 75 36 

Maurice Noel. Buz. i 00 38 

H. O. Oersted. Spirit in Nature. (Bohn's Li- 

brary.) — 79 

F. Papillon. *Nature and Life. . . . 2 00 29 

*A World of Wonders 2 00 29 

J. Patton. Natural Resources of the United 

States 3 GO 29 

J. B. Pettigrew. Animal Locomotion. . . i 75 29 

F. A. Pouchet. *The Universe. . . . 8 00 47 

T. L. Phipson. *Utilization of Minute Life. . — 42 

E. P. Roe. Nature's Serial Story. . . . i 50 33 
Roberts. Rules of Order. ... 75 3^ 

F. B. Sanborn. Life of H. D. Thoreau. . . i 25 19 
Samuel Smiles. ^Scotch Naturalist. . . i 50 36 

^Robert Dick i 50 36 

Maurice Thompson. Byways and Bird Notes. . 60 28 

D. Thoreau. Walden ; or, Life in the Woods. . i 50 19 

A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. i 50 19 

Excursions in Field and Forest. . . . i 50 19 

The Maine Woods i 50 19 

Cape Cod. i 50 19 

Early Spring in Massachusetts. . . . i 50 19 

J. Tyndall. Faraday as a Discoverer. . . i 00 29 

Science for Unscientific People. . . . 2 50 29 

Belfast Address. 50 29 

Mrs. Ware. Thoughts in My Garden. . . — 29 

C. D. Warner. In the Wilderness. ... 75 IQ 

The Naturalists' Directory : containing an alpha- 
betical list of nearly all the leading natural- 
ists, with their specialties and addresses. . — 15 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



123 



MISCELLANEOUS — Coflfd. 

Herbarium — Ballard, H. H., and Thayer, S. P. 
For the convenient preservation of flowers, 
ferns and leaves. Contains directions for 
collecting and preserving plants ; blanks 
for an analytical record of each specimen, 
pages for mounting plants, and gummed 
paper to fasten them. .... 
J. G. Wood. Nature's Teaching. Human In- 
vention Anticipated by Nature. 

AN INDEX OF INDEXES. 

The young student may begin with the conviction that some- 
thing of value has been written about everything, if it can only be 
found. To find it is the difficulty, and to overcome this difficulty 
so many indexes of different kinds have been made, that now the 
student needs a catalogue of indexes. It is true that those boys 
and girls who live in the country, away from large cities where the 
large libraries are, find it very difficult to get hold of the books 
they need, even when they know their names. Quite likely some 
of the Agassiz Chapters might make an arrangement such as they 
have in Australia, where the great libraries in Melbourne and the 
other large cities have a branch office in each of the little towns 
for hundreds of miles around, and send boxes, made for the pur- 
pose and filled wnth the books called for, every wxek or two weeks, 
to these towns by rail, so that the country people have almost as 
much good of the big libraries as those people who live in cities. 
Of course they contribute to the big library some money, but they 
have a great many more books to select from than if the same 
money was spent on a little home town library. 

SOME OF THESE INDEXES ARE : 

Index to Periodical Literature. By W. F. Poole. Boston : 

Osgood & Co., 1882. 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers. Royal Society of London : Triib- 

ner & Co., 1879. Continued. 'S vols. 
Dictionary of English Literature. S. A. Allibone. Phrfadelphia : 

Childs & Peterson, 1859. 
Reports of Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature. See 

Yearly Reports of American Association Advancement of 

Science. 



Price. 



Pub's 
No. 



$1 50 12 
2 50 25 



124 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicse. Pritzel. Brockhaus. Leipzig : 
1872. Modified, somewhat enlarged, and republished as 
Guide to the Literature of Botany. By Benjamin Daydon 
Jackson. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1881. 
These works contain the names of all books on botany. 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Government publications of the 
United States. B. P. Poore, 1774 to 1881. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. 

Nomenclator Fungorum. J. A. Streinz. Supplement to 1863. 

Nomenclator Botanicus. E. D. Steudel. Second Edition, 1841. 

Synonymise Botanicae. L. Pfeiffer, 1870-T874. 

Bibliographical Index to North American Botany. Serano 
Watson. 

Smithsonian Contributions. XV. 1878-1880. 

[Members of the A. A. , desiring more special information regard- 
ing any book, may address Mr. O. Bjerregaard, librarian of the 
Astor Librar\', N. Y. City, w^ho has most generously volunteered 
to place his invaluable experience at the service of those who 
require such assistance.] 

PUBLISHERS' OR AUTHORS' ADDRESSES. 

1. The Bancroft Co., . History Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

2. The History Co. , . " " 

3. Director U. S. Geological Survey, . Washington, D. C. 

4. Smithsonian Institution, . . ** 

5. Duncan Bros., ... 56 State St., Chicago, 111. 

6. S. C. Griggs & Co., . 87 Wabash Ave., ** 

7. The Interstate Publishing Co., ... 

8. A. C. McClurg & Co., 

9. Clifford Mitchell, M.D 

10. J. P. Morton & Co., .... Louisville, Ky. 

11. Archselogical Institute, ..... Salem, Mass. 

12. H. H. Ballard, Pittsfield, Mass. 

13. E. A. Bates, ....... Salem, Mass. 

14. H. H. Carter & Karrick, . . . Boston, Mass. 

15. S. E. Cassino, . . . 137 High St., ** 

16. W. O. Crosby, care Boston Soc. of Nat. History, Boston, Mass. 

17. Estesv& Lauriat, ...... 

18. D. C. Heath & Co., 

19. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., .... ** 

20. Lee & Shepard, ...... *' 

21. Little, Brown & Co., ** 

22. D. Lothrop & Co., 



LIST OF PUBLISHERS. I 25 



23. Peabody Museum of Ethnology, . . Cambridge, Mass. 

24. L. Prang & Co., ..... Boston, Mass. 

25. Roberts Brothers, *' 

26. Bradlee Whidden, " 

27. Wright & Potter, . 18 Post Office Square, 

28. John B. Alden, ... 393 Pearl St., New York. 

29. D. Appleton & Co., ** 

30. A. S. Barnes & Co., ** 

31. Robert Carter & Bros., . . 530 Broadway, 

32. Cassell & Co., " 

33. Dodd, Mead &Co., 

34. Jos. Fitzgerald, . . 108 Chambers St., ** 

35. Fords, Howard & Hurlbert, .... ** 

36. Harper & Brothers, ..... ** 

37. Geo. H. Holden, . . . 240 Sixth Ave., " 

38. Henry Holt & Co., 

39. Ivison, Blakeman & Co., .... " 

40. Longmans, Green & Co., 15 East Sixteenth St., 

41. Orange Judd Company, ..... 

42. Macmillan & Co., ...... New York. 

43. Phillips & Hunt, . . . 805 Broadway, " 

44. E. & J. B. Young & Co., 

45. G. P. Putnam's Sons, ..... " 

46. George Routledge & Sons, 9 Lafayette Place, 

47. Charles Scribner's Sons, 

48. D. Van Nostrand, 

49. Frederick Warne & Co. , 20 Lafayette Place, * ' 

50. John Wiley & Sons, . . 15 Astor Place, 

51. William Wood cS^ Co., . 27 Great Jones Street, ** 

52. The Writers' PubHshing Co, , 21 University Place, *' 



53. Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, N. Y. 

54. Robert Clarke & Co., .... Cincinnati, O. 

55. Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co., ... " 

56. F. Wolle, Bethlehem, Pa. 

57. American Entomological Society, . . Philadelphia, Pa. 



58. H. Carey Baird & Co., 810 Walnut Street, 

59. P. Blakiston, Son & Co., ... ** 

60. Lea Brothers & Co. , .... *' 

61. J. B. Lippincott Company, ... *' 

62. Mining Industrial Pub. Co., ... 

63. Jas. W. Queen & Co., .... 

64. Porter & Coates, ..... " 

65. G. W. Tryon, 

66. Dr. Marcus E. Jones, . . . Salt Lake City, Utah. 



126 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



67. Ginn & Co., . 

68. H. Balliere & Co.. 
6g. George Bell & Sons, 

70. David Bogue & Co., 

71. J. & A. Churchill, . 

72. Thomas Murby, 

73. Sonnenschein, Lowery & Co. 

74. Triibner & Co., 

75. J. Van Voorst, 

76. William Blackwood & Sons, 

77. Blackie & Son, 

78. Rheinwald, . 

79. The Baker & Taylor Co., 

80. Thos. Nelson & Sons, . 

81. A. L. Frothingham, 



Boston, Mass. 
London, Eng. 



Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Glasgow, ' ' 

Paris, France. 
New York. 

Princeton, N. J. 



NOTE. — Where the publisher is unknown or uncertain in the foregoing 
list, the address of The Baker &f Taylor Co., Booksellers, New York {No. 
79 in the list), is given ^ as the books can always be obtained through them. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



NOTES. 

It may be useful to give here a few notes that have 
been made by members of the A. A., partly to show 
what sort of work is being done, and partly to furnish 
a suggestion to new members of what they can do. 
These notes, as well as most of the letters from chap- 
ters and friends already given, are taken nearly at ran- 
dom from our m^onthly reports that have appeared in 
The Swiss Cross. Those wishing a full knowledge of 
our work, must refer to the numbers of that magazine 
since January, 1887. 

Birds of Pictou, Nova Scotia. 

I send you a list of the birds which I found and identified last 
year in Pictou. I found them all, the duck excepted, within a 
space of not more than thirty acres around Cliff Cottage. 

Willie Sheraton, Cor. Mem. Chapter i. 

Stray Pelicans. 

A neighbor was out with a lantern on every dark and foggy 
evening, when several pelicans flew against him, nearly knocking 
him over. They were evidently lost, and so bewildered that eight 
of them were easily captured, and, even then, the remainder of 
the large flock would not leave so long as the light was visible. I 
think they were the common white American pelican. 

Jesse French, Sec. Chapter 432, 

Grand Rapids, La Moure Co., Dakota. 

Bees and Petunias. 

After watching bumble-bees for the whole summer, I have never 
yet seen one enter the tube of the petunia. Instead of this they 



128 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



puncture the wall of the corolla at a point in the angle formed 
between it and the calyx, insert their proboscides, and extract the 
honey. 

Gilbert Van Ingen. 

Home-brewed Snow-Storm. 

I can testify to the following, which took place in the kitchen 
on wash-day. It was near Richmond, Ind. The temperature 
was about 15° below zero. While the room was misty from the 
vapor from tubs and boilers, the outside door was opened. A 
shaft of cold air struck across the room, and its course was dis- 
tinctly marked by a dense swarm of well-defined snow-flakes, 
which fell rapidly to the floor. We repeated the experiment for 
the sake of seeing a * home-brewed ' snow-storm. 

Joseph Moore. 

Effect of an Earthquake on Insects. 

On the night of August 31, 1886, when the first tremor was 
felt by members of our family, the music of hundreds of katydids, 
crickets, and other insects among the pines, suddenly ceased, and 
did not begin again until after the shocks (which continued about 
an hour) had ceased. The stars shone in a cloudless sky, no 
wind was blowing, and an oppressive silence covered the land. 
No sound was heard, with the exception of howling dogs and the 
cries of frightened negroes. 

Carrie H. Glosser, 
Morganton, N. C., Sec. Chapter 11. 

MusKRATS and Mussel-Shells. 

Having driven a muskrat into the water, I found a mussel which 
it seemed to have dropped. It was not open, but had one valve 
partially broken at one end. I broke the ice and found a large 
pile of shells just under the bank. These shells had one valve 
whole, and the other broken, at the places where the cords are 
that hold the valves together. 

Roger C. Adams, Pres. 955. 

I have watched muskrats by the hour : have seen them go into 
the water, come up on a log or stone with a clam, sit down on 
their haunches, take the clam between their fore-feet, and pull the 
shell open far enough to insert their noses and extract the mussel. 

D. A. Kinney, Pres. 565. 



PERSONAL OBSERVATION. 



129 



Flower-Traps. 

Look at the tempting pea-blossoms of Desmodium acuminatus, 
or ' beggar's ticks.' A fly alights upon the small pink flower, when 
lo ! it seems to explode, and the insect is greeted with a blinding 
cloud of dust. This is a trap so delicately set, that, at the lightest 
touch, the spring, consisting of a rigid column of filaments en- 
closing the young pod, is released from the overlapping petals, and 
the anthers shower the intruder with pollen. But this pollen- 
shower is an innocent joke compared with the trap of Apocynuvi 
androscemi folium, or * dog-bane.' Let a fly but thrust its tongue 
into a flower, and the stamens instantly fasten on its tip, holding 
the fly in a grip from which it seldom, if ever, escapes alive. 

Theodore Kellogg, De Pere, Wis. 

Frogs at Home in Winter. 
Some of the readers of these reports may have been puzzled to 
know where all the frogs came from last spring, almost before the 
frost was out of the ground. They all seemed well, and able to 
sing ; and in no way did they appear to have suffered from the 
cold weather. I am often obliged, during the winter months, to 
secure the assistance of a frog to make the fact of blood-circulation 
plain to my students in zoology, and, as I do not always have a 
supply of frogs on hand, I have many times gone to their winter 
homes and taken them out of their comfortable quarters for a 
course in the laboratory. A spring is selected, which contains as 
many stones, sticks, leaves, and as much mud, as possible, and a 
regular attack upon the inhabitants is at once commenced. I 
first dig a ditch to drain off the water, and then I remove carefully 
the sticks and stones, watching all the time for signs of life under 
each piece ; and afterward I dig down into the mud, usually with 
my hands, to avoid hurting the animals which may be buried in it. 
I have never failed to catch several frogs, cray-fish, newts, worms, 
and sometimes minnows and smaller animals, fit for winter study. 
I have always been repaid for my trouble by the enthusiasm with 
which three or four students — who volunteered to help me — dig in 
the mud after the specimens, and by the interest they take in 
learning how a frog passes a cold winter in north-western Penn- 
sylvania, at an altitude of twelve hundred feet above the sea, when 
the temperature is often twenty degrees below zero, and the ground 
frozen from three to five feet deep. Of course large numbers of 
these animals winter in swamps, though we cannot find them there, 
but we may always be sure of our game if we choose a living 
spring. ^ J. H, Montgomery. 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



LlNGUL^. 

Chinese boys go on mud sleds, and dig, at low tide, from the 
sandy shores of the Swatow Bay, great basketfuls of lifiguice, tiny 
mollusks with thin, green, horny, oblong shells. The lingula is 
found in beds, and is often buried in the muddy sand to a depth 
of ten inches. It is usually attached to a little stone by a muscu- 
lar pedicel, and by the extension and contraction of its pedicel it 
enjoys feeding in clear w'ater at high tide, and napping in sandy 
depths at low tide. Unlike the clam, which has its two shell- 
valves on its two sides, like a garment that opens before and 
behind, this little shell-fish has its two shell-valves on its back and 
front, like a garment that opens at the sides. Moreover, it is one 
of the very few kinds of living creatures that have existed un- 
changed from the earliest geological times. Before there were 
men, or sheep, or frogs, or trout, there were lingula; ; and this 
brave little tribe has held its place and perpetuated itself in the 
world, through many changes of climate and circumstance. But, 
although it is of so ancient race, it is not intellectually superior to 
other shell-fish, and should serve as a warning to us against pride 
of pedigree. The Chinese, who are mere upstarts in comparison 
with it, sell it in the market at three cents a pound, fry it in lard, 
and eat it as a relish with their rice. 

Adele M. Fielde, Swatow, China. 

A Woodpecker's Sugar-Bush. 

I have detected one of our yellow-bellied woodpeckers, Picus 
varius, tapping a maple-tree for the sake of the sap. Attracted 

to my window by a vigorous hammering, I saw a beautiful male 
bird sinking a shaft near the base of a large maple. It struck me 
as being a discouraging place to bore for grubs, as the tree was 
healthy and the sounds from the tapping gave no evidence of 
hoUowness ; so I thought at first it might be a case of misguided 
instinct, or perhaps merely an experimental bore. As soon as one 
hole was completed another was begun, and by the time that was 
done the sap had commenced to flow freely from the first. It was 
then I noticed that it was the sweet sap the fellow was after, and 
not with the hope of any other reward that the bore was made, 
for, as the sap flowed, it was sipped up, first from the first hole 
and then from the second, and meanwhile, between drinks, the 
little fellow was vigorously at work upon a third excavation. 
When this was done, and all three taps flowing profusely, his 
sweet tongue was not yet sated, but his scarlet head was kept 



PERSONAL OBSERVATION. 



bobbing to and fro, sipping the sap from the three holes, while he 
energetically started a fourth. This completed, and all four taps 
well under way, his whole attention was for a few moments de- 
voted to his sugar-bush, until, at length satisfied, he flew off — 
possibly to get a pickle ! 

T. W. Clark, Albany, N. Y. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



The Council of the A. A. 

We take extreme pleasure in presenting a revised 
list of the names and addresses of the gentlemen who 
have volunteered their services to our Association. 
These specialists are willing to answer questions and 
determine specimens in their several departments for 
any member of the Association. Many of them have 
been connected with us in this helpful capacity for 
several years, and as all such, in now renewing their 
previous gracious offer of assistance, have deplored 
the small number of requests for assistance they have 
received, instead of complaining of too frequent ap- 
plications, our members may feel that they cannot 
compliment our friends more highly than by freely 
bringing to them for solution whatever difficulties 
may perplex them. 

Arch.^ology. 

Hilborne T. Cresson, 224 S. Broad St., Philadelphia, 
Penn. 

Mr. Joseph Wigglesworth, Wilmington, Del. 

Bibliography. 
O. Bjerregaard, the Astor Library, New York, N. Y. 

Botany. 

Dr. A. W. Chapman [Southern Flora], Appalachi- 
cola, Florida. 

Marcus E. Jones, A.M. [Plants west of the Missis- 
sippi], W. 3d S. Street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



OUR HELPERS. 



C. R. Orcutt \Pacific Coast], San Diego, Cal. 

F. Leroy Sargent [ZuAens],V niwevsity of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 

W. H. Seaman, M.D., 1424 Eleventh St., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Prof. WilHam Trelease, Shaw School of Botany, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Prof. W. Whitman Bailey, 6 Gushing St., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Chemistry. 

Peter Collier, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. W^illiam Frear ^Agricultural Chemistry], State 
College, Penn. 

C. J. Lincoln, Aspinwall Hill, Brookline, Mass. 

S. P. Sharpies, State Assayer, 13 Broad St., Boston, 
Mass. 

A. J. Sherman, 308 Walnut St., Chicago, 111. 
Prof. Charles S. Doggett, Walpole, Mass. 

CONCHOLOGY. 

Harry E. Dore, Portland, Oregon. 
Thomas Morgan, Box 164, Somerville, N. J. 
Andrew Nichols, Jr., Asylum Station, Mass. 
C. R. Orcutt [^Pacific Coast], San Diego, Cal. 

G. H. Parker, Divinity Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. D. Bruce Richards, 1726 N. i8th St., Phila- 
delphia, Penn. 

Entomology. 

H. F. Bassett \^Gall- Flies'], Silas Bronson Library, 
Waterbury, Conn. 

A. W. Putnam-Cramer \_Lepidoptera], 308 Macon 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Prof. C. H. Fernald [^Small Moths], Amherst, Mass. 

Prof. Leland O. Howard, Dept. Agr., Division of 
Entomology, Washington, D. C. 



134 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



J. A. Lintner, Office of State Entomologist, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Geology. 

Prof. Le Roy F. Griffin, Lake Forest Univ., Lake 
Forest, 111. 

W. R. Lighton, 112 S. Esplanade, Leavenworth, 
Kan. 

Chas. F. Prosser \Devoj1ia71 Fossils\ Cornell Univ., 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Prof. C. R. Van Hise, Dept. of the Interior, Geo- 
logical Survey, A'Ladison, Wis. 

Microscopy. 

H. F. Atwood, Esq., Rochester-German Insurance 
Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Robert W. Wood, Jr., Revere St., Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

Mineralogy. 

Prof. O. W. Crosby, Post. Soc. Nat. Hist., Boston, 
Mass. 

Prof. Thomas Egleston, Columbia College, New 
York, N. Y. 

Prof. S. F. Peckham, Bristol, R. I. 

Prof. F. W. St^bner, Normal School, Westfield, 
Mass. 

Frank W. Traphagen, Ph.D. {Chemical A7ialysis\ 
Lock Box 135, Staunton, Va. 

Ornithology and Oology. 

J. de B. Abbott, M.D., Box 230, Bristol, Penn. 
Amos W. Butler, Acad, of Sc., Brookville, Ind. 
Arthur P. Chadbourne, Brattle St., Cambridge, 
Mass. 

D. H. Eaton, Box 1235, Woburn, Mass. 



CONDITIONS OF CORRESPONDENCE. 



Geo. Bird Grinnell, Ph.D., 37 Park Row, New York, 
N. Y. 

Physiology. 
Wm. M. Baird, M.D., Washington, N. J. * 

Zoology. 

C. F. Holder \^General Biology'], Pasadena, Cal. 
David S. Jordan [^Ftsh], Bloomington, Ind. 
Geo. W. Peckham [Spiders'], High School, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 

These gentlemen can hardly realize how great a 
service they are rendering. There are thousands of 
young and older amateur naturalists belonging to our 
society, most of whom, living in remote towns, have 
few opportunities of instruction in the subject of their 
choice. They are now placed in such a position that 
they can go on with their observations without leaving 
home; can be advised as to the best books for con- 
sultation in their several departments ; can exchange 
specimens and thoughts with members in all the 
different States and Territories ; and can have the 
assistance of men trained in special departments of 
science, and all without expense. May not the A. A. 
be the means of solving one of the most perplexing 
educational questions of the day ? 

CONDITIONS OF CORRESPONDENCE. 

The following rules must be strictly regarded not 
only in corresponding with the gentlemen just named, 
but also in addressing the President. 

I. Enclose in each letter, requiring an answer, a 
stamped and addressed envelope, or a postal-card. ( The 
envelope is better, as we frequently wish to reply by a 
circular or full letter?) 



136 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



2. Do not write for assistance until you have t7'ied to 
succeed without it. That is : Do not ask lazy questio7is. 
Consult this book and see whether the answer cannot be 
fou?id within. 

3. Use the ordinary size and style of writing-paper^ 
and write on only 07ie side of the leaf. 

4. Give your full address in each letter. State also 
the number of the chapter of which you are a member. 

5. Address all correspondence connected with the or- 
ganization of 7iew chapters^ 7iotices of excha7ige^ a7td, in 
fact, C07icerni7ig the Association i7i a7iy way, to Mr. H. 
H, 'Ballard, 50 South Street, Fittsfield, Mass. 



\ 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



HELPS OVER HARD PLACES. 

To conduct the work of a local society of natural 
history like one of our chapters continuously, with no 
diminution in the membership, and with no break in 
the interest, is not the easiest matter in the world ; 
and those who enter upon the work of the Agassiz 
Association with the expectation of uninterrupted sun- 
shine are the first to become low-spirited when the 
inevitable rainy days begin. An intelligent apprehen- 
sion of the difficulties to be met, and a know^ledge of 
the ways in which these difficulties have been met 
by others, must be of advantage to all who have re- 
cently enrolled themselves among us, and to all who 
are contemplating that action. A wise man, before 
beginning to build, sitteth down first and counteth 
the cost. The first trouble which chapters must ex- 
pect is loss of members. The chief causes of this loss 
are three ; and, in the order of their frequency, they 
are removal from town, loss of interest, death. The 
population of our country is restless, and ten years is 
a long time for a family to remain in the same town. 
This is especially true of the younger members of the 
family, who go from home to school, from school to 
college, and from college to business or professional 
activity. Against loss of members from this cause, 
and from death, there is no remedy ; and, unless a 
chapter has taken these inevitable contingencies into 
previous consideration, it is hard for it to stand the 
shock of the first removal. The best way to prevent 
the collapse of a chapter upon the loss of leading 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



members is to have, from the first, a fixed determina- 
tion to found and establish the chapter as a perma- 
nent and self-supporting society ; and not at all as a 
transient class. Let everything be done with an eye 
to perpetuity. Let the officers be such persons as are 
least likely to be called away ; /. e., residents in the 
town rather than visitors, principals of schools rather 
than assistants or pupils, persons of steady character 
and endurance rather than those of vacillating and 
fitful disposition. Let property be acquired by the 
chapter as such. A library, a cabinet, a room, a 
building, all tend to stability. Again, let there be 
such a system of enlisting desirable members from 
time to time, especially from the entering classes of 
schools and colleges, as shall render the chapter con- 
tinually able to sustain the loss of any who may be 
obliged to withdraw. 

With regard to the third cause of loss, decreasing 
interest, the remedy is twofold. In the first place, by 
way of prevention, only such should be received into 
the society as give reasonable promise of perseverance. 
It is not usually those who are most easily roused to 
excited enthusiasm who make the most steadfast work- 
ers. Choose rather those who feel their need of knowl- 
edge, and are willing to work patiently and persistently 
to acquire it. Having, then, carefully organized, the 
utmost care should be taken to have the offices dis- 
tributed with absolute fairness. Those who are most 
earnestly zealous for the pro^erity of the work, com- 
monly care least about the honors, but should be wil- 
ling to accept them if offered. The next essential 
thing is to keep every member at work, not by com- 
pulsion, but by providing an abundance of congenial 
occupation, and by generously recognizing and ap- 
plauding every faithful effort. It is also indispensa- 
ble that every member be kept fully informed of the 



IVAVES OF INTEREST. 



condition and progress of the Agassiz Association at 
large, and be led to take an active interest in its 
growth and prosperity. In the second place we must 
be prepared for inconstancy and defection, to a certain 
extent, in despite of our most conscientious efforts to 
maintain interest ; and, when it comes, we must neither 
be indignant nor discouraged. We must not be indig- 
nant, because steady, persevering action is not natural 
in young persons, but comes as the result of unusual 
native endowment or of careful training. The interest 
boys take even in their sports is fitful. They have 
' fevers ; ' — the baseball fever, the kite fever, the col- 
lecting fever, the Agassiz Association fever. Moreover 
many causes conspire to make the interest less at some 
times than others, — the fluctuations of the weather, 
the inequalities of health, the presence of unusual 
outside attractions, the pressure of approaching exam- 
inations. We must not be discouraged, because all 
these causes of a lack of interest are transient. Base- 
ball will be played just as vigorously when next season 
comes around ; the now neglected kites are sure to be 
tugging again at their strings by and by ; the collec- 
tion, now forgotten and covered with dust, will be 
cleaned and put in order after a time ; and the interest 
in our Association work that languishes in December, 
will certaialy bloom again in May. More than this, 
when the next wave of interest comes, it will come with 
more staying power ; we shall all be a little older ; we 
shall have profited by the errors of the past. The 
best chapters we have to-day, many of them, are chap- 
ters that have disbanded once or twice, and once and 
again reorganized. It is from these considerations that 
we were led to insert that clause in our rules, by which 
so long as even ofze member retains his interest, he is 
allowed to retain the name and number of a chapter, 
once properly organized, and maintained for six 



140 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



months. Wherever one earnest, faithful, indomitable 
worker is found, ultimate success is sure. Let us all 
imitate old Ben Jonson, who said, When I take the 
humor of a thing once, I am like your tailor's needle — 
I go through y 

In illustration of the same subject, we print here 
part of a report recently received from an excellent 
chapter : This programme worked ver}' well for a 
time, but soon, for some members, the novelty of 
the thing wore off, and, consequently, their interest 
began to flag. They still attended the meetings 
when there were no parties or entertainments to 
go to, or when their girls could not go walking, but 
they did not attend the meetings out of any desire to 
gain knowledge. The few who took an interest in 
their work did good work ; so good that, in less than 
six months, we had over three hundred specimens in 
our cabinet, of which two hundred and eight were 
labeled and catalogued. We had, besides these, a 
large number of birds'-eggs and insects. Among other 
things we counted valuable, were a buffalo's head, and 
a case of birds worth nearly thirty dollars. We owned 
a library of excellent books on zoolog}% mineralogy, 
and entomology. Our meetings we held weekly at 
my home till October, and after that at a room for 
which we paid four dollars per month. It certainly 
seems that, with ever}'thing around us helping, and 
everybody willing to help us, we might have had an 
excellent chapter. The case was, however, that out 
of the fifteen active members with which our chapter 
was blessed, just nine were more of a hindrance than 
a help. They sometimes condescended to attend the 
meetings, but when they did so those who wanted to 
work groaned to themselves and to each other. No 
one could read an essay or extract, for when he began, 
all those who did not care for it began to talk and 



A RACY LETTER, 



laugh, or box and wrestle. Soon those who wanted 
to work began to lose heart, and finally, March 25, 
1886, just a year, lacking two days, from the day we 
organized, we disbanded. Still there were four of us 
who never dropped the idea of having' a good chapter 
in time. Each of our four enthusiasts worked steadily 
during the summer, one collecting eggs and studying 
and stuffing birds and collecting insects, another learn- 
ing to stuff birds, the third collecting minerals, and 
myself collecting eggs. Two of our members have 
finished cabinets, made by themselves. Through all 
our troubles we have had an earnest desire to go on 
with our studies and form a new chapter, that we might 
get together once a week and discuss the things of 
interest we had seen in our rambles. Last Wednes- 
day, January 19, 1887, our new chapter, consisting of 
four members, held its second meeting at the home 
of the president, and finished drawing up a constitu- 
tion. The only officers we now have are a president 
and secretary. No person can become a member of 
this chapter without a vote of every member. We are 
going to make the initiation fee the contribution of 
one year's subscription to some paper on natural his- 
tory. We are not going to keep a cabinet, but when 
any interesting specimen is obtained it is to be brought 
to the next meeting, and a paper written about the 
specimen is to be read by the finder. At each meeting 
the secretary reads from some paper or book an arti- 
cle on natural history, and at the next meeting each 
member is to read an essay, written from memory, 
giving as nearly as possible the substance of the arti- 
cle read. In this way we shall remember better the 
things about which v/e study. We think that we shall 
at last succeed. I would like to say to all the chapters 
that have among their members persons who fool 
away their time, and who do not respect the desires 



142 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



and rights of those around them, but spoil their pleas- 
ure and steal their profit, that the best thing they can 
do for the welfare of their chapter is to put such per- 
sons out. Such persons are worse for a chapter than 
all the discouragement and ridicule that can be heaped 
upon it by outsiders." 

THE SUMMER VACATION. 

During July and August most of our schools and 
colleges will close their doors, many of those who live 
in cities will fasten the shutters, and the Agassiz As- 
sociation will be let loose along the seashore and in 
the forest and fields. Summer brings her arms full 
of leaves and flowers ; the softened earth loosens its 
grasp on mineral and fossil ; the air is gay with float- 
ing butterflies, and musical with the hum of beetles 
and the songs of birds ; nests in shaded thickets hold 
dainty secrets ; soft-bodied creatures are slowly mov- 
ing their frail and beautiful houses of shell along briny 
sands and over spongy moss ; and the warm air and 
clear sky continually invite all who are tired of roof 
and wall to go out into the larger habitation which is 
one continuous doorway all around, and infinite open 
window overhead. With all these advantages of field 
study, the vacation is a trying and dangerous season 
for many of our chapters. With the close of school 
classes separate, some never to be reunited, few to 
come together without some change. The regular 
succession of meetings is interrupted at the best, and 
unless the interests of the society are kept in mind 
during the summer, there is likely to be more or less 
difliculty about reorganizing in the fall. To avoid 
these dangers, let each member keep his thoughts on 
the fall reunion while he is away, and try to find as 
many interesting specimens as possible to bring back 



DURING VACATION. 



and exhibit by and by. Some chapters offer little prizes 
for the best summer work, to be awarded after due ex- 
amination of specimens and note-books. It is well, too, 
to remember the General Association, and to strive to 
make its aims and methods more widely known as we 
journey from place to place. Some of our young 
friends establish chapters in almost every place they 
visit, maintaining also during their absence regular 
correspondence with their companions who are de- 
tained at home. In this way the close of the vacation 
finds increased, rather than diminished, interest in 
nature, and the chapter gains a new impulse and 
enters upon its work with fresh elasticity and vigor. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



THE BADGE, THE CHARTER, THE SWISS CROSS," THE 
HAND-BOOK. 

The badge of the Agassiz Association is the Swiss 
cross. It is appropriate because Professor Louis 
Agassiz was born in Switzerland. The number on the 
badges changes with each chapter, and is the number 
by which each chapter is known. Mr. Hayward, now 
of Milford, Mass., has manufactured these badges 
for us since the beginning of our work, and has given 
excellent satisfaction. He makes the badges of plain 
silver and gold, and also, when desired, ornaments 
them with gems, and makes them into pins and other 
articles of jewelry. He will furnish an illustrated 
price-list on application. It is very pleasant to one 
traveling at a distance to meet a stranger wearing the 
neat little cross of the A. A., for it frequently leads to 
a desirable acquaintance. 

the charter. 

As each chapter organizes, there is sent to it a cer- 
tificate of admission, giving its name, number, and 
letter, together with the date on which its annual 
report will fall due. Many chapters have expressed a 
desire for something nicer than this cheap certificate, 
which is, after all, the best that can be afforded gratis^ 
and we have therefore designed and caused to be en- 
graved a charter suitable for framing. It is printed 
on heavy bond paper, in the manner of a college 
diploma. At the top is an excellent likeness of Pro- 



THE OFFICIAL ORGAN. 



fessor Louis Agassiz. This head is from a photograph 
kindly furnished for this purpose by Mrs. Agassiz, and 
the reproduction has received her cordial approval. 
The photograph represents Professor Agassiz seated 
at a table and looking down, in his intent, penetrating 
manner, at a sea-urchin which he holds in his hand. 
The vignette engraving does not of course reproduce 
the whole figure, but it gives very happily the fine face, 
and shows us the great naturalist engaged in what was 
the chief business of his life — personal observation. 
One great advantage of a handsome charter is that it 
attracts the immediate attention of all visitors to the 
rooms of a chapter, and leads to inquiries which often 
open the way to an invitation to the society. Then, 
too, it is a constant stimulus to the chapter itself, 
and a strong, bond of union among its members, like a 
flag to an army of soldiers. This charter is furnished 
postpaid, for seventy-five cents. 

^^THE SWISS CROSS.'* 

On the first of January, 1887, the Association ob- 
tained what it had long felt the need of, a magazine 
devoted to its interests. This magazine, which was 
accepted by unanimous vote as our official organ, 
was named The Swiss Cross, from the badge of the 
Association. Great credit is due the publisher, Mr. N. 
D. C. Hodges, who is also the editor of Science, for 
the attractive manner in which The Siviss Cross has 
been printed and illustrated. It has had the effect 
of uniting our scattered chapters more closely and 
harmoniously than perhaps any other agency could 
have done ; it has given ample opportunity for each 
chapter and member to place on record whatever per- 
sonal observations or discoveries may have been made, 
and it has made many persons before unacquainted 



146 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



with the A. A., its friends and helpers. It numbers 
among its contributors many of America's leading 
scientists. It should have the cordial support of every 
member of the society, and of all who wish it well. 

Dr. Henry McCook, of Philadelphia, writes of it : 
" I am very much pleased with The Siuiss Cross. It 
promises to be all that we could wish. There is 
nothing more needed in this generation than a scien- 
tific periodical of the kind you propose, which, without 
being dogmatic, shall be imbued with a reverent and 
Christian spirit. I shall hope to add to your list by 
influencing many others to take The Swiss Cross. I 
propose on next Sunday to recommend it from the 
pulpit to my congregation, which is a very large and 
influential one." 

Members of the A. A. should send immediate notice 
of any new and interesting observations they may make 
to the editor, who will also, when desired, receive and 
forward subscriptions. The price of the magazine is 
one dollar and a half a year, and it is sent to clubs of 
six or more for one dollar each. 

THE HAND-BOOK. 

This little volume has grown in a somewhat peculiar 
manner. The president of the A. A. kept a record 
for several years of all the different questions asked 
him by his correspondents. The answers to these 
inquiries, arrayed somewhat systematically, constitute 
this hand-book. 



CHAPTER XX. 

RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION. 

What, then, is the Agassiz Association as it appears 
to-day ? And what claims has it upon the interest of 
the public ? It is a union of local societies, each 
numbering from 4 to 120 members, of all ages from 4 
to 84. Our total membership is above ten thousand. 
We are distributed in all the States and Territories 
with very few exceptions, and have strong branch 
societies and active members in Canada, England, 
Ireland, Scotland, France, Chili, and Japan. 

The local societies are known as chapters. They 
take their names from the towns where they are es- 
tablished, and are further distinguished by the letters 
of the alphabet. Thus the first chapter established 
in New York City was called New York (A); the 
second, New York (B), and so on. They also have 
the privilege, if desired, of adopting such other dis- 
tinctive names as they may choose, such as ' The Man- 
hattan Chapter,' ' The Hyatt Chapter,' * The Cuvier 
Chapter,' etc. 

The word * association ' was chosen instead of 
* society ' from an impression, perhaps not entirely 
well founded, that that word could be taken to mean 
^a union of societies,' just as society means ^a union 
of individuals.' And our first plan was to have these 
local societies entirely independent of one another, 
except in the general name and in the purpose of 
studying nature. At that time no conventions were 
thought of, assemblies were not in mind, courses of 
study had not been contemplated, a badge was not 



148 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



designed, nor had we supposed it possible that thor- 
ough scientific work could be systematically done by 
many of the chapters, if at all. 

We chose the name ^Agassiz' because it was then 
uppermost in mind. His then recent death was fresh 
in the hearts of the nation ; and his birth in Switzer- 
land, where a similar organization was said to exist, 
rendered it especially appropriate. The choice was 
wiser than we knew. No one can read Mrs. Agassiz's 
life of her husband without feeling that no name 
could better stimulate us to faithful work. 

Having thus selected the name, a letter was sent to 
Prof. Alexander Agassiz, asking permission publicly 
to adopt it. Professor Agassiz replied that he cor- 
dially assents that this very pleasant and useful plan 
for children be called the Agassiz Association, and 
that we have his hearty good wishes for its success." 

The societies that joined us during the first year or 
two of our existence, when our plans were still uncer- 
tain and our methods comparatively crude, retain in 
many cases the notion that the Agassiz Association 
to-day is the same loose organization it was at first — 
an aggregation of local societies united only in name, 
allowed to drift hither and thither without direction 
or assistance. But the necessity for careful super- 
vision and guidance has grown more and more appar- 
ent. We have been constantly besieged with requests 
for systematic courses of study, elaborate plans of 
work, personal counsel and advice. Courses of study 
have accordingly been added, plans of work sketched, 
and a regular system of reports established. The 
conditions of admission have been defined, and, in 
short, more business-like methods adopted, until we 
now resemble rather an extended school with numer- 
ous classes than an ordinary society. 

I may mention four different sorts of chapters. 



KINDS OF CHAPTERS. 



149 



First, fa:mily chapters. The parents and children of 
a single family unite for joint study and research. 
Chapters of this sort are especially desirable, and 
prove almost uniformly permanent. Chapters of an- 
other sort are found in schools. There are many 
teachers able and willing to give their strength and 
time, beyond the exacting requirements of their con- 
tracts, to the encouragement and assistance of their 
pupils. Under the fostering care of such men and 
women, the happiest results have been accomplished. 
Not the least important result is seen in the pleasant 
personal relations thus established between teacher 
and pupil. Chapters of a third kind are organized 
and conducted entirely by young persons. A company 
of girls or boys meet together and decide to form a 
branch of the A. A. They elect their officers, draft 
their rules and by-laws, engage their rooms, build 
their cabinets, make their collections, prosecute their 
studies ; and, if I needed to awaken interest or arouse 
enthusiasm, I should have only to show what our girls 
and boys have done even when unaided and alone. 
They have made lists of all the flowers that grow 
about them, and of all the birds that fly over their 
heads. They have published papers, started museums, 
founded libraries. In doing this they have mastered 
the laws of parliamentary debate ; have learned to 
observe with accuracy, to write with fluency, to speak 
with power ; and, after working thus for a few years, 
many of them have pushed themselves into schools 
and colleges and laboratories of the highest grade, 
and are now completing their self-appointed prepara- 
tion for lives of commanding intelligence and cheerful 
service. Finally I will mention chapters of adults. 
In increasing numbers men and women of mature 
years, feeling the need of that scientific training 
which the schools of their childhood failed to give, are 



ISO 



THREE KIXGDOMS. 



organizing societies, joining their influence to our As- 
sociation, and receiving in return the benefits coming 
from united endeavor and from enthusiastic devotion 
to a common cause. But, excellent as the work of all 
these chapters is, we have found some needed work 
beyond their individual attainment. A general con- 
vention, for example, could hardly be received and 
cared for by a single chapter ; nor could a wide 
range of local observations be properly collated and 
discussed by the inhabitants of a single town. It has 
therefore been. deemed wise to bring about the union 
of all the chapters of a city or a state into more extend- 
ed organizations than the single chapter. These con- 
federations of chapters are called ' assemblies ; ' the 
most prominent at present, January, 1888, being the 
State Assemblies of Massachusetts, Iowa and New 
Jersey, and the City Assemblies of Philadelphia, Bos- 
ton, Brooklyn, Chicago, and New York. 

Embracing all the chapters, binding into one the 
larger and more powerful assemblies, and making 
room also for individuals when chapters cannot well 
be formed, is our Agassiz Association. And the influ- 
ence and prosperity of each chapter and assembly can 
be increased and perpetuated by spreading ever}-where 
we go a knowledge of our local work not only, and of 
our local organization, but also, and even with more 
emphasis, a knowledge of our entire Association, with 
its broader membership and its farther-reaching aims. 

Our Association is not by any means great or power- 
ful. As yet it is young, it is ignorant, it is weak. We 
have no occasion for vain-glor\\ Yet, on the other 
hand, while we have no excuse for vanity, neither need 
we feel vexation of spirit. Our purposes are good, 
our methods right. In spite of our feebleness, in the 
face of our ignorance, critics have been indulgent, 
and we hare been more encouraged and praised for 



THE A SSOCIA TION ' ^ FRIENDS, 1 5 I 



what we have tried to do than derided for our failures 
or censured for our faults. Scientific men of highest 
repute, men like Ramsay of England, and men like 
Agassiz, Hyatt, Winchell, Remsen, Gould, Oilman, and 
Scudder of America, have extended to us the hand of 
recognition. 

The press has almost always been indulgent; and, 
although we have often exposed ourselves to fair 
attacks of satire, our real desire to do honest work has 
turned the most caustic pen to kindness. 

In speaking of our helpers, I should be unjust if I 
failed to mention with renewed gratitude and honor 
the large number of scientists who have voluntarily 
devoted their valuable time to the cheerful and patient 
assistance of our needs. More than fifty gentlemen 
representing all departments of science hold them- 
selves always ready to answer the questions that puzzle 
us. Thanks to their benevolence, the boy who lives in the 
remotest and smallest village can send his bit of stone 
or his curious beetle to one of these men, and learn its 
name and history, and, better still, be taught how he 
may best study by himself its structure and its history. 
Some of these professors have even volunteered to 
conduct courses of study in various branches. We have 
had courses in botany, entomology, and mineralogy. 

It seems at first thought difficult, if not impossible, 
to suggest any general principle of study that can 
apply to the whole Association, for it is composed of 
elements so diverse. We are of all ages, of varying 
capacities and differing desires, living in places widely 
distant and strangely different. Some of us pick our 
violets in June, others in January. But there is a com- 
mon ground on which all stand — love for nature, and 
desire to learn. And there is one principle that under- 
lies and determines the methods of our study. It is 
this : Nature must be studied from her own book. 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



While, therefore, we do not undervalue the printed 
records of others' work, and w^hile we ever recognize 
in printed books and papers necessary and cherished 
guides, yet we believe that our first business is to meet 
Nature face to face. Therefore we leave the confines 
of the library and school, and go out under the open 
sky — into the forest, and along the stream. Forget- 
ting theory and useless wrangling, it is our purpose to 
see things as they are, and to record them as we see 
them. It is the business of the Agassiz Association 
to live for the truth. 

Those who first joined our ranks are growing out 
of childhood into manhood and womanhood. Many 
adult chapters, too, are forming ; and perhaps to-day 
one-quarter of our total membership may be over 
twenty years of age. What can we do for this in- 
creasing class ? In the first place we can give them 
the opportunity to help the younger, even as they 
themselves have been helped while young. It is to 
them, the scientists of the future, that we must soon 
look for special help, instruction, and guidance. 
Meanwhile we need them still among us to encourage 
us by their example, and to aid us by their work. And 
we want to help them, too. We must provide higher 
courses of study — discover the best books for students 
more advanced, and help those who need it to secure 
the best instruction. I was greatly pleased, while 
resting by the sea, to find in the laboratory at Annis- 
quam, among the twenty-five earnest workers who 
were bending day after day, and night after night, 
over the dissecting-table and the microscope, no less 
than seven men and women who either are or have 
been members of the Agassiz Association. Here is 
the moral of it : youthful observation of nature, wisely 
directed, grows into manly and womanly consecration 
to science. 



NEED OF A FUND. 



Now, one thing our Association ought to do in the 
near future is to secure control of one or more tables 
in this and other thoroughly equipped laboratories, 
and place them year by year freely at the disposal of 
such of our number as may show themselves worthy. 
May we not in time hope to establish here and there 
laboratories of our own, manned by our own pro- 
fessors ? 

We wish also to establish courses of study with 
greater regularity, and of wider range. I should like 
to see a yearly correspondence course in each of the 
branches of natural science, conducted by the best 
teachers of America. I should wish these courses, 
specimens included, to be absolutely free ; and 1 
should wish the men who give them well paid for their 
time and work. 

At present, as we depend entirely upon volunteers, 
our courses, though frequent, are rather desultory, and 
accompanied with some slight expense for specimens 
and printing. To do all we hope to do will cost much 
money, and the money must be raised. The Agassiz 
Association must be endowed, and the money will 
come, as time and devoted labor have long since come. 
There are plenty of wealthy men and women ready 
to give money as soon as we can prove that it can be 
given safely, worthily and well. Now, here we have a 
school of more than ten thousand pupils, confined to 
no one city, no one State, no one denomination. We 
have a corps of fifty volunteer instructors. We need 
no expensive buildings. And if we find that in order 
to meet the needs of our maturing membership 
we need a fund of ten or twenty or fifty thousand 
dollars, whose income shall be applied to giving 
worthy young men and women a chance to work under 
competent instruction, I have faith to believe that 
some man will be found deep enough in pocket, and 



154 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



broad enough in heart, to endow the Agassiz Associa- 
tion as he might a collegiate chair or a private school. 
Let each chapter and each member be like Diogenes, 
ever peering about with lighted lantern to find this 
man. 

But we need not wait for that. There is enough 
we can do unaided ; and, indeed, I am inclined to 
think that labor voluntarily expended by boys and 
girls in building their own cabinets, and by girls in 
decorating and caring for their assembly-rooms, is the 
cause of the truest satisfaction and enjoyment, and is 
also productive of the greatest interest in the weightier 
matters of scientific study. You can see most clearly 
through a microscope that you have worked and waited 
for. 

If the endowment ought to come, it will come in 
due time ; but in the meanwhile let each continue to 
do his best where he happens to be. The way to help 
the whole Association is to give your best attention to 
your individual work. Let the little ones gather their 
pebbles and their flowers. Let the elder look more 
closely into the structure and the habits of bird, or 
beast, or plant. Let us all be always living for the 
truth, and striving to read in every leaf of Nature's 
book her lesson of faith, her lesson of hope, her lesson 
of love. 

Admirably has one of our Iowa chapters united 
science and humanity. Organized as a society of 
scientific workers, it has made itself also a band of 
mercy. It has proved that, although the eye of 
Science is keen, her heart need not be cold, and that 
her hand, however cunning, may yet be kind. Two 
kindred spirits were Agassiz and Audubon ; and very 
many who, with us, have enrolled themselves under 
the name ' Agassiz,' have also joined the Audubon 
Society, while many others are learning — regarding 



CONCLUSION. 



155 



birds not only, but every living thing — never needlessly 
to hurt or to destroy. 

What, after all, is our purpose in studying Nature ? 
Is it to get for ourselves collections of rare and beau- 
tiful objects ? Is it to amuse us during our leisure 
hours ? Is it to train our powers of observation and 
strengthen our minds by careful discipline ? Is it to 
satisfy our natural thirst for knowledge, and to become 
familiar with all the little strangers of the roadside 
and the wood ? It is all this, but it should be much 
more. We ought to be learning the grand and solemn 
lesson that a Divine mind is showing its wisdom in 
every leaf and pebble, and that a Divine heart is ex- 
pressing its iove in every raindrop and in every flower. 
This was the truth that filled the heart of him for 
whom our Association is named — this was the secret 
of his untiring zeal, and the key to his deep love of 
Nature. It has grown to be a pleasant custom for 
our chapters to celebrate Professor Agassiz's birthday 
(May 28), by means of an excursion or picnic, com- 
bined with appropriate literary exercises ; and perhaps 
on such an occasion nothing will more truly bring 
home to us the sweet spirit of the great naturalist 
than Whittier's poem, ' The Prayer of Agassiz ; ' or 
Longfellow's lines on his fiftieth birthday, which, by 
the courtesy of his publishers, we are able to repro- 
duce. 



THE FIFTIETH BIRTHDAY OF AGASSIZ. 

MAY 28, 1867. 

It was fifty years ago. 

In the pleasant month of May, 

In the beautiful Pays de Vaud, 
A child in its cradle lay. 



156 THREE KINGDOMS. 



And Nature, the old nurse, took 

The child upon her knee. 
Saying : " Here is a story-book 

Thy Father has written for thee." 

^' Come, wander with me," she said, 

Into regions yet untrod, 
And read what is still unread 
In the manuscripts of God." 

And he wandered away and away 
With Nature, the dear old nurse, 

Who sang to him night and day 
The rhymes of the universe. 

And whenever the way seemed long, 

Or his heart began to fail, 
She w^ould sing a more wonderful song, 

Or tell a more marvelous tale. 

So she keeps him still a child, 

And will not let him go. 
Though at times his heart beats wild 

For the beautiful Pays de Vaud ; 

Though at times/he hears in his dreams 
The Ranz des Vaches of old. 

And the rush of mountain streams 
From glaciers clear and cold ; 

And the mother at home says, Hark ! 

For his voice I listen and yearn ; 
It is growing late and dark. 

And my boy does not return." 



CHAPTER XXI. 



HINTS AND HELPS FOR AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION WORKERS. 

Special attention is invited to the following works, selected at 
random from the catalogue of Messrs. Cassell & Company, Limited, 
of New York, London, Paris and Melbourne. A complete de- 
scriptive catalogue of their publications will be forwarded free to 
any address on application. Their new, address is 104 and 106 
Fourth Avenue, New York. 

** European Ferns : their Form, Habit, and Culture," by James 
Britten, F.L.S., Department of Botany, British Museum, with 
30 fac-simile colored illustrations from Nature, by D. Blair, 
F.L.S., and over 120 wood blocks, aims at giving a plain and 
intelligible account of European Ferns. Price, $7.50. 

"The Fresh Water Fishes of Europe: a History of their 
Genera, Species, Structure, Habit, and Distribution," by H. G. 
Seeley, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., is an elegant 
volume of nearly 450 pages, containing 214 illustrations. In this 
volume the fresh water fishes of Europe are systematically de- 
scribed for the first time. Price, $5.00. 

** European Butterflies and Moths," with 61 colored plates 
based upon Bergis' " Schmetterlingsbuch." By W. F. Kirby, 
Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum, and 
Secretary of the Entomological Society of London. This volume 
contains a full and complete index to English names and index of 
genera and species, and is issued in one large quarto volume. 
Price, $15.00. 

The works of Louis Figuiers, issued by this house at reduced 
price, demand special attention. The seven volumes in this set 
contain over 2,250 illustrations, and are published at $1.50 per 
volume, or $10.50 for the set. The volumes may be had separate, 
viz. : " The Human Race," with 242 illustrations ; ** The Insect 
World," 570 illustrations ; " Mammalia," 260 illustrations ; " The 
Ocean World," 427 illustrations; Reptiles and Birds," 307 
illustrations; The Vegetable World," 470 illustrations; "The 
World before the Deluge," 233 illustrations. 

Among the many exquisite portfolios which we notice on their 
catalogue are "Wild Flowers of the Rocky Mountains," a selec- 
tion of 24 of the finest wild flowers, from original water-colors, 
done in from 12 to 15 colors. These are put up in three boxes, 
eight plates to each box. Per box, $1.50. 



158 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



** Wild Birds Portfolio." A selection of 40 beautifully colored 
plates put up in two handsome boxes, 20 plates in each box. 
Price per box, $1.50. 

Their list includes "Garden Flower Portfolios," 4 boxes, 20 
plates in each box, at $1.50 each; "Wild Flower Portfolios," 
6 boxes, 20 plates in each box, at $1.50 each ; " Flower Garden 
Portfolio," 3 boxes, 12 plates g x 12 in each box, at $1.50 each. 

In selecting books for reference and study, members of the 
Agassiz Association cannot do better than consult the classified 
and descriptive catalogue of D. Appleton & Co. (New York). 

Besides the works of such masters in scientific investigation as 
Darwin, Figuier, Huxley, Herbert Spencer, Tyndall, Proctor, 
and others, they publish a number of important books in almost 
every branch of scientific study. Their "Scientific Primers" 
are noteworthy attempts to convey information in such a manner 
as to make it both intelligible and interesting to beginners. 

A series of elementary works on mechanical and physical 
science are published under the general heading of " Text-books 
of Science." These books are practical treatises, sound and 
exact in their logic, and illustrated by well-selected examples 
from familiar processes and facts. 

Mention should also be made of their well-known "Inter- 
national Scientific Series," which consists of sixty or more large 
volumes, covering a wide range of scientific research, and form- 
ing quite a respectable librar\' in itself. 

In glancing through the catalogue, we find many titles which 
are sure to excite an interest in the minds of the younger members 
of the Association. 

The " Fairy Land of Science," for instance, or " Life and Her 
Children," and "Winners in Life's Race," by Arabella B. Buckley, 
are sure of an interested audience in whosoever's hands they may 
fall. Then we have "A W^orld of Wonders; or. Marvels in 
Animate and Inanimate Nature," wherein many curious tales are 
told of marine and vegetable life and the insect and reptile world ; 
" Light Science for Leisure Hours," a series of familiar essays on 
scientific subjects, natural phenomena, etc.; Dr. Abbott's "A 
Naturalist's Rambles About Home," which tells of country walks 
and studies of the habits of the. wild creatures of our woods and 
fields; Sir John Lubbock's "Ants, Bees and Wasps," contain- 
ing the record of various experiments made with ants, bees and 
wasps during a period of ten years, with a view of testing their 
mental condition and powers of sense ; P. H. Gosse's " Evenings 
at the Microscope ; " Grant Allen's * ' Flowers and their Pedi- 
grees ; " and many others equally interesting. 



HINTS AND HELPS. 



The most recent of their pubUcations is Sir WiUiam Dawson's 
"Geological History of Plants," which aims to give in a con- 
nected form a summary of the development of the vegetable king- 
dom in geological time. 

The great *' American Cyclopaedia," the " Cyclopedia of Ameri- 
can Biography," and the Popular Science Monthly," are also 
published by Messrs. Appleton & Co. 

Besides their large list of works for the general reader on scien- 
tific subjects, Messrs. Appleton & Co. publish a number of excel- 
lent text-books for special study. These books will most interest 
the working members in the Association and help them to a prac- 
tical knowledge of the subjects in which they are engaged. 

Those interested in the study of chemistry will find Mary Shaw- 
Brewster's "First Book of Chemistry " a great help in making 
experiments. As all the experiments are elementary in character, 
only the simplest apparatus and chemicals are needed. Another 
useful book just published is J. D. Everett's '* Outlines of Natural 
Philosophy," in which the leading principles of that branch of 
science are presented in the plainest manner. 

Eliza A. Bowen's "Astronomy by Observation " is based, as its 
title implies, on the interesting, as it is, indeed, the only true 
method of studying the subject — that of observation. Careful 
directions are given when, how and where to find the heavenly 
bodies, together with many curious facts concerning them. 

Eliza A. Youmans' "First Book of Botany " is an excellent 
text-book for a beginner in that interesting study, taking the 
learner by the hand and leading him among the plants themselves 
to find out their history. "A Study of Leaves," by Mary B. 
Dennis, is also a useful companion. 

For students in Zoology we commend Dr. Edward S. Morse's 
" First Book of Zoology." The examples presented in this book 
are the common and familiar animals. The illustrations, of which 
there are upwards of three hundred, were nearly all drawn from 
nature by the author expressly for this work. 

The " Science Text-book Series," contains a number of im- 
portant books for more advanced work, in Descriptive and Phy- 
siological Botany, Geology, Zoology, Chemistry," etc., etc. 

The Agassiz Association owes Messrs. Appleton & Co. a vote 
of thanks for the delightful way in which young people are in- 
troduced to their animal friends in James Johonnot's series of 
Natural History Readers. The " Book of Cats and Dogs," and 
" Friends in Feathers and Fur," are sure to bring recruits to the 
Association from the ranks of the little folks, while older heads 
will find something of the charm of looking through the author's 



i6o 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



Spectacles in *' Neighbors with Wings and Fins," ** Some Curious 
Flyers, Creepers and Swimmers," "Neighbors with Claws and 
Hoofs," *' The Animate World," etc. 

D. Appleton & Co., No. 3 Bond Street, New York, will send 
their complete catalo^e of publications to any member of the 
Association on request. 

" Insect Lives ; or. Born in Prison," is the title of a most 
delightful book for young people, by Mrs. Julia P. Ballard, a 
copy of which should be in the hands of every member of the 
Agassiz Association. Every boy and girl who gets hold of it will 
at once begin a careful investigation of the habits and manners of 
all the caterpillars and butterflies which come within reach. Mrs. 
Ballard has a rare faculty of interesting her readers and imparting 
a vast deal of information, while she is disclosing the secrets of 
the prison-houses of these wonderful little creatures. If you are 
at all interested in the curious histor\' of moths, caterpillars, butter- 
flies, and other members of their family ; if you want to know 
where they come from, how they live, what they do and where 
they go, then you want to get this book without delay. The 
book is handsomely and beautifully illustrated, and may be had 
of all booksellers, or will be sent, post-free, by The Writers 
Publishing Company, 21 University Place, New York, on receipt 
of $1.00. 

No American scientist has ever left on record so large a list of 
standard works in his chosen department as did the late Professor 
Asa Gray on the subject of botany. His "How Plants Grow" 
remains at the present time as it was when first issued, the par 
excellence of elementary^ text-books. It is probably more largely 
used now than ever before, and this despite the fact that it has 
had almost numberless competitors which have arisen from time to 
time, and have fallen into merited disuse, while the " How Plants 
Grow" still remains apparently as fresh and popular as ever. 

"Gray's Lessons in Botany, Revised," the last work issued be- 
fore the author's death, is of a higher grade than the "How Plants 
Grow," but perhaps equally desirable in its way. This book, with 
the added "Field, Forest and Garden Botany," constitutes the 
well-known " School and Field Book," which is the book specially 
adapted for high schools, academies, and seminaries of the first 
class, and for individual learners not pursuing the study of botany 
as a specialty. For such students, there are the "Gray's Struc- 
tural Botany "and " Goodale's Physiological Botany" — these two 
being parts of " Gray's New Botanical Text-book," in four vol- 
umes, the concluding volumes having been left incomplete by the 
death of the author. These, however, it is understood, will be 



HINTS AND HELPS. 



i6i 



tinished by his disciples and friends, who were in full sympathy 
with Dr. Gray and his work, and conversant with his plans. 

Professor Coulter, of Wabash College, a man who stood high in 
Dr. Gray's regard, has prepared a " Manual of the Botany of the 
Rocky Mountains," which, being the only published flora of its 
locality, is well-nigh indispensable to Western students. This 
work, prefaced by "Gray's Revised Lessons," mentioned above, 
comprises a complete introduction, grammar, and lexicon of the 
subject for use in the West. For the special student and the 
library, "Gray's Synoptical Flora" is well-nigh indispensable. 
This was looked upon by the author as his life-work. The Gamo- 
petalous Dicotyledons are issued complete in one volume. Other 
sections of the work are understood to be ready for the printer, 
but the concluding parts will be left to other hands to finish. 

Gray's Botanists' Microscopes, with either two or three lenses, 
are admirably adapted to their purpose, and can be safely recom- 
mended to learners. 

It is attached to a box, one and a half inches high, and less 
than four inches long, into which it is neatly folded when not in 
use. The needles are used for dissecting flowers or other objects 
too small to be otherwise handled for analysis. The lenses mag- 
nify about fifteen diameters ; or, with three lenses, about one-third 
more. 

Dr. Gray's entire series of botanical text-books, a part of which 
is described above, is published by Messrs. Ivison, Blakeman 
«& Co., New York and Chicago. 

No reference book should be more freely consulted than Web- 
ster's Unabridged Dictionary. Its definitions of scientific words 
are unequaled, and in all other departments of lexicographic 
research it stands pre-eminent. It defines three thousand more 
words than any other dictionary published in this country. 
Thirty-six State superintendents of schools and over one hundred 
college presidents recommend it. It is the standard authority in 
the U. S. Supreme Court and in the Government printing-office. 

Little Flower People, by Gertrude E. Hale, presents funda- 
mental botanical facts in a fanciful dress, arousing interest and 
stimulating observation. Illustrated. 50 cents. A Primer of 
Botany, by A. A. Knight, brings the subject to the level of inter- 
mediate grades, and is especially valuable as an introduction to 
physiological botany. Illustrated. 35 cents. Published by 
Ginn & Co., Boston. 

The authority of Dr. Henry C. McCook, of Philadelphia, as an 
investigator in entomology has been strengthened and extended by 
his charming volume, " Tenants of an Old Farm : Leaves from 



l62 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



the Note-Book of a Naturalist." It describes a series of excur- 
sions afield, with inquiries into the appearance, dispositions and 
habits of bees, ants, spiders, crickets, moths, and a great variety of 
insects, detailed in a scientifically accurate but familiar and fasci- 
nating style. Numerous well-engraved original illustrations, after 
drawings from nature (except some comical character-drawings by 
Dan Beard, showing the humorous side of insect life), add much 
to the instructive value of the work. 460 pp., well indexed, 
$2.50. Will be mailed to any member of the Agassiz Association 
on receipt of $2.00 by the publishers, Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 
27 Park Place, New York. 

Every Chapter of the association, in its library, small or large, 
should secure the best works for reference on subjects in which it 
is interested. BRADLEE WHIDDEN, 41 Arch street, Boston, 
publishes some valuable books on birds and taxidermy, insects, 
mammals, the microscope, botany, mosses, lichens, algae, shells, 
marine life, minerals, and kindred subjects, which workers some- 
times need. Maynard's '* Butterflies of New England," with 232 
colored plates, $7.00 ; Brooks' ** Hand-book of Invertebrate Zool- 
ogy," $3.00; Behiens' "Guide to the Microscope in Botany," 
$5.00; Whitman's "Methods in Anatomy and Embryology," 
$3.00, bear heavy-sounding names, but are most useful and instruc- 
tive. Haeckel's "Visit to Ceylon," $1.75 ; "Manual of Taxid- 
ermy, "$1.25; "Birds' Nesting," $1.25 ; "Naturalist's Assistant," 
$1.50; " Life on the Seashore," $1.50, are just as useful and easy 
to understand. Catalogues sent to any one on application, or 
these books can be had through all booksellers. 

Mr. George O. Simmons, No. 352 Gates avenue, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., has prepared two very complete collections of minerals, 
which are arranged in cases in convenient form for reference. 
One of these, prepared expressly for the entertainment and in- 
struction of children in schools and families, is the "Diamond" 
Mineral Collection, 10 x 6 inches in size. This collection consists 
of fifty natural mineral specimens (mostly of the industrial vari- 
eties), classified according to the system recommended by Prof. 
J. D. Dana, in his " Manual of Mineralogy." It contains fifty 
specimens, arranged in a neat pasteboard box, the names of the 
species being printed underneath. The specimens are all of good 
quality and size, and exhibit well the characteristics of the min- 
erals. A neat eight-page descriptive manual goes with the col- 
lection, the price of which is $1.50, postpaid. The same collec- 
tion, consisting entirely of massive (uncrystallized) specimens, 
furnished for $1.00. The " Student's Complete Mineral Collec- 
tion " is one of great extent and variety, and is accompanied by 



HINTS AND HELPS. 



163 



Dana's Revised ** Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography " for ref- 
erence purposes. It comprises 300 species and sub-species, in- 
cludes most of the salient and many of the rare minerals described 
in Dana's manual. It contains cubes, octahedrons, dodecahe- 
drons, trapezohedrons, cleavages of rhombic and hexagonal 
prisms, and crystallizations of the minerals which occur only, or 
mainly, in crystallized form. Many of the specimens illustrate to 
perfection the property of cleavage. In massive specimens, 
numbers of the objects are duplicated, to show not only the con- 
trasts in colors which the same mineral often possesses, but also 
other differences between individuals of the same species taken 
from different localities. The specimens are arranged in the 
center of a square space, with the name of the species printed at 
the bottom. The numbers on the left are consecutive, and those 
on the right indicate the pages of the manual on which the 
descriptions are given. The specimens are of good size, and are 
quite characteristic of the species. The prices of this collection 
are as follows : No. i, polished black walnut case ; edges and 
corners rounded ; six drawers, which are secured by a hinged side, 
in which is fitted a lock and key ; size 12 x 65^ x 7 1^, $30.00. No. 
2, six pasteboard trays, with wooden sides ; contained in a strong 
box, also of pasteboard ; size 12 x6j^ $25. The collections 

are furnished without the manual for $2.00 less. Should the col- 
lection not be accepted by the purchaser, it may be returned, in 
which event the remittance will be refunded, less cost of trans- 
portation. Mr. Simmons will also furnish single specimens of 
any size consistent with the nature and rarity of the minerals 
wanted. His collections are indorsed by some of the highest 
authorities in mineraiogical science. Circulars giving detailed 
information will be mailed by him on application. 

A perfect understanding of zoology and mineralogy is best ob- 
tained by the examination of representative specimens, correctly 
named and located. James M. Southwick, Providence, R. I., 
U. S. A., is very particular in the preparation and furnishing of 
mineraiogical specimens, shells and eggs, also birds and mammals, 
both mounted and in skins. He has also for sale all the tools re- 
quired by zoological and botanical students. Circulars sent on 
application. 

The study of microscopy is one in which an increasing number 
of persons are yearly becoming interested. Societies for the 
study of this delightful branch of science are springing up in all 
parts of the country, and, like the Agassiz Association, their 
necessity demands an organ which will give not only information 
and instruction in this subject, but will also furnish society 



164 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



reports and general information in microscopy. Such a journal 
is The Microscope, a thirty-two-page illustrated monthly, filled 
with just the matter of most interest to the amateur or profes- 
sional microscopist. Subscription, $1.00 -a year, with 1,700 
microscopical slides as premium to select from. Sample free. 
The Microscope Publishing Co., 25 Washington avenue, Detroit, 
Mich. 

By its enlargement of our natural powers of sight (almost, 
indeed, conferring a new sense), the microscope is an invaluable 
aid in the study of nature near at hand. As reliable manufac- 
turers, we can recommend the firm of Jas. \V. Queen & Co., 924 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia, who publish a catalogue of micro- 
scopes which those interested would do well to send for ; they 
are always glad to advise with intending purchasers regarding the 
choice of a suitable instrument. A pocket magnifier, at least, is 
indispensable to the student ; these are illustrated and described 
in the catalogue above referred to. Botanical collecting cases, 
with sling strap, are supplied (in two sizes) by this firm ; also 
plant presses. Insect pins, in all sizes, and sheet cork may also 
be obtained at Queen's. 

The American Naturalist, an illustrated monthly, devoted to 
natural sciences in their widest sense, is published at $4.00 per 
annum, 40 cents per number, by Leonard Scott Publishing Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Every member of the Agassiz Association can have the Popular 
Science News sent to them one year for fifty cents only. The 
regular price is $1.00. The best and cheapest journal of popular 
science published in the world. It includes among its regular con- 
tributors Professors Young of Princeton, Shaler of Harvard, Sum- 
ner of Yale, Dr. D. G. Brinton of Philadelphia, Dr. Yarigny of 
Paris, France, and many other prominent scientists. Send a 
fifty-cent postal note to the publishers, or else your address on a 
postal card for a free sample copy and full particulars. Address 
Popular Science News Co., 19 Pearl street, Boston, Mass. 

Those interested in the study of bees, wasps, ichneumon-flies, 
etc., should obtain a copy of the Synopsis of the families and 
genera of the Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico, by E. T. 
Cresson, containing synoptic tables of the genera, also a catalogue 
of all the species that have been described, and a list of the works 
and papers that have been published on the subject. 350 pp., 
8vo, 1887. Published by the American Entomological Society, 
at Philadelphia, Pa., by whom a list of other entomological pub- 
lications for sale will be sent on application. 

The Auk, a Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, is an indis- 



HINTS AND HELPS. 



pensible magazine for all interested in ornithology It consists 
entirely of original matter, much of it more or less popular in 
character. While primarily devoted to North American ornithol- 
ogy, its department of reviews gives notices of all important gen- 
eral works on birds, as well as a full record of all publications 
relating to the ornithology of North America. Published at $3.00 
per year for the American Ornithologists' Union, by L. S. Foster, 
35 Pine street. New York City. 

The classification of every North American bird, with its popu- 
lar and scientific names, and a brief statement of where it is 
found, is given in "The American Ornithologists' Union Check- 
List of North American Birds." This list was prepared by a 
committee of five of our most distinguished ornithologists, and is 
the recognized standard authority on the subject. Price $3.00. 
Address L. S. Foster, 35 Pine street. New York City. 

" The Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States,'* 
by Dr. David S. Jordan, includes a great body of compact de- 
scriptions of vertebrates, and classifies them by a system more 
known to botanists than zoologists. It is indispensable to the 
amateur zoologist. $2.50. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, pub- 
lishers. 

" Science Sketches," by Dr. David S. Jordan, President Indiana 
University, is one of the best books on popular science lately pub- 
lished. It includes *' The Story of a Salmon," *' Johnny Darters," 
"The Salmon Family," "Dispersion of Fresh Water Fishes," 
" The Story of a Stone," " Darwin," " The Ascent of the Matter- 
horn," etc., etc. The style is charming, and the book is delightful 
as well as profitable. $1.50. PubHshed by A. C. McClurg & Co. 

For a general family cyclopedia we recommend, from personal 
experience, the International Cyclopedia, published by Dodd & 
Mead, New York. 

If one loves botany he should subscribe for some journal that 
will keep him informed of the progress of the science, of the new 
discoveries being made, that will describe the places and the 
persons that have become famous in connection with the science, 
and that will give methods of preserving and studying plants ; 
such a journal, for instance, as the Botanical Gazette, published 
at Crawsfordsville, Ind., which is an illustrated monthly costing 
two dollars a year. It is particularly newsy and readable, yet 
holds a high place among botanical journals. 

Frank H. Laitin, of Albion, Orleans Co., N. Y., is a dealer in 
natural history specimens, instruments, supplies, and publications 
of all kinds. Every A. A. Chapter should have a copy of his 
complete catalogue and price-lists before making purchases. His 



i66 



THREE KINGDOMS. 



specimens are the very best, and his prices will be found to be 
much lower than those of any other reliable dealer. 

The Naturalists' Bureau, Salem, Mass., are prepared to furnish 
mounting paper (fine quality, heavy weight and standard size) for 
$4.75 per ream ; genus covers, $2.75 per hundred ; driers at $1.00 
per hundred, or $4.50 per bundle of five hundred, and also scientific 
books and instruments. Send for catalogue and samples. 

"The Booklover's Rosary," being the Praise of Books in the 
words of about one hundred of the most famous writers, of all 
ages, from Socrates to Saxe, followed by " The Literary Revolu- 
tion " catalogue of choice books in ever)^ department of literature 
— books published at the lowest prices ever known — the whole 
forming a quarto volume of 132 pages, will be sent free to any 
member of the Agassiz Association who will send request there- 
for to John B. Alden, Publisher, 393 Pearl street, New York, or 
218 Clarke street, Chicago, 111. 

Many members of the Association use with profit Shaler's First 
Book in Geology ($1.00) ; Crosby's Common Minerals and Rocks 
(40 cts.) ; Colton's Practical Zoology (80 cts.) ; Hyatt's About 
Pebbles (10 cts.) ; Commercial and Other Sponges (20 cts.) ; Corals 
and Echinoderms (20 cts.) ; MoUusca (25 cts.) ; Worms and Crus- 
tacea (25 cts.) ; Goodale's Few Common Plants (15 cts.) ; Richard's 
First Lessons in Minerals (10 cts.) ; Agassiz's First Lesson in 
Natural History (20 cts.) ; and Clarke's How to Find the Stars 
(15 cts.). These books are published by D. C. Heath & Co., 
Boston. 

** First Steps in Scientific Knowledge," of which Paul Bert, ex- 
Ministerof Education in France, is the author, is pubHshed by the 
J. B. Lippincott Company, of Philadelphia. The translation of 
the work into English was done by Madame Paul Bert, and in the 
American edition such changes and additions have been made as 
were needed to adapt the work to American schools. The ad- 
ditions include all common and important American species of 
animals and plants. Each lesson is given in a conversational 
form, rendering it. both interesting and familiar, and sustaining 
the attention of the pupil. The numerous illustrations (550) are 
accompanied by explanatory notes. The experiments in physics 
and chemistry require only such apparatus as can be found in any 
community or purchased at the nearest store. The price of the 
complete volume is 60 cents. 



The Baker Taylor Co., 740 and 742 Broadway, 
New York, can stipply any of the works contained in 



HINTS AND HELPS. 



167 



the list of ^' Books Recommended^'' and offer liberal dis- 
counts on large orders. They deal in both miscellaneous 
and school books, and carry 07ie of the largest and most 
varied collections of books in the country. They are 
always ready to furnish inquirers, either personally or 
by mail, with information about current miscellaneous 
and educational publications. 



Date Due 





















> 

J. — . . . 




























































































































Library Bureau Cat. No. 1137