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SB 123 







VOL. I. 













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Director of the Colonial Botanical Establishment, Ceylon 












IV. UPSALA , . . . 85 












ON THE CASTLE HILL, UP8ALA . ... Vignette title 

LINNJEUS IN SMALAND To face page 22 


(At end of volume) 





Beneath yon birch with silver bark 

And boughs so pendulous and fair, 
The brook falls scattered down the rock, 

And all is mossy there. COLERIDGE. 

AT RSshult, in the heart of SmSland, a province of 
South Sweden, on a slope beside the trunk railway line, 
stands a small shingle-roofed wooden house, painted 
deep red, with white windows draped with the whitest 
muslin the best laundry ever aided a bleaching-ground 
to produce. A granite obelisk before the house, be- 
tween it and the rail, tells all the world, or, to be accu- 
rate, the few persons who daily travel through SmSland 
by the slow cattle and timber train, that Carl von 
Linne, oftener spoken of as Linnaeus, was born here on 
May 23, 1707. The obelisk was erected in 1866. No 
other building is visible until we arrive at the small 
station at Liatorp. 

VOL. I. B 



This is, indeed, being flung into medias res, as 
Horace recommends ; for if any place can fairly be 
defined as medias res, it is R&shult in SmSland. Even 
in Sweden there is no getting at it without patience. 
It is the kernel of everything ; leading apparently from 
nowhere to nowhere, yet really on the main road to 
every town of interest in Sweden. 

At 10 P.M. the late and lingeringly slow ' cargo ' 
train stops at Liatorp station for ' Linnseus,' as every 
one understands and is careful to inform us, and moon- 
light on the islanded lake Mockeln, and the last gleams 
of dying daylight, at the end of May, make it easy to 
find the small hotel with its ' Rum for Resande.' 

We can see the mat of fresh spruce boughs laid, as 
is customary, at the foot of its wooden threshold steps, 
and above this we meet the welcoming smile of a plea- 
sant-looking woman, who has been sitting in the porch 
watching by the tender light, still tinting the sky 
with daffodil and wild-rose colour, to see the train 
come in. 

4 Yes, this is right for Linnseus. And so the 
stranger ladies want to find out all about our Lin- 
iiseus ? This is charming. Yes, here is Stenbrohult, 
his early home; and yonder is ESshult, his birth- 
place. To-morrow you can drive over and visit it. 
It is about half a mile from here.' 

1 It is not worth while to drive that little step.' 

1 Half a Swedish mile ! ' 
1 Rum is a room in Swedish; it is pronounced room, and not rum. 


'Ah, to be sure there is a difference.' 

( So the English people really care about our 
Linnaeus ? This is delightful.' 

It seems very amusing to them likewise. The train 
was still waiting, and would have carried us on farther 
had we been misled. 

Meanwhile mistress and maid draw out a bed which 
shuts up telescope-fashion at the foot, and prepare a 
sofa whose cover lifts off, and, drawing out at the side, 
formsia trough-like receptacle for an extra guest. All 
sofas, however splendid the apartment, are thus formed 
as spare beds in Sweden. Going to bed here is like 
laying oneself by in a drawer. Presently the round 
table, sleek with white linen, is spread with a star- 
shaped arrangement of tiny glass dishes of relishes, 
served to provoke appetite (they do this with hungry 
English people), to be removed by a second course of 
exquisitely cooked cutlets and potatoes a pleasant 
sight at 11 P.M. for famished travellers weary with the 
time-murdering train, that dawdles fifteen minutes at 
every wayside station, where there seems no excuse for 
having a station at all ; and, besides these, a junction 
at every alternate station gives one ample time for 
making excursions in the district. The groaning 
train of timber-trucks stretching from horizon to 
horizon, with some pig and cattle vans, and a pas- 
senger carriage at the end of all as a concession, steams 
slowly in and out of each station at one-horse no, 
one-donkey or puppy-dog power. Let not over-wise 


travellers avoid the snail t&g 1 (snail train) lest a 
worse thing, the cargo train, befall them. But here 
we are 011 our ground, in medias res, as explained before, 
which is a comfort ; for I defy anyone to get at Stenbro- 
hult from any civilised place, other than Scandinavian, 
within a fortnight or ten days at least. 

Liatorp is in the parish of Stenbrohult, of which 
Nils Linnaeus, father of our hero, was rector, so this is 
the scenery of the great botanist's early life. 

These wooden houses, the only sort known in Swedish 
villages, are much larger than from the outside they 
appear to be. They have shingle roofs, set on mostly 
at a right angle sometimes more, sometimes less, but 
thereabout. This seeming trifle shows a naturally in- 
artistic feeling in the Swedes. The right-angled gable 
always makes a common-looking house ; it has no 
specific character. 

The wooden walls being so thin makes the apart- 
ments surprisingly roomy inside ; yet they are warm 
and comfortable withal. Every bedroom by day be- 
comes a fine sitting-room with handsome mahogany 
sofas, even in poor houses. The flowers, too, are a great 
adornment, for the inhabitants keep plants in every 
window. That cactus (you would take it for a green 
rock or a fossil cactus) is seventy years old, for certain ; 
it has been so long in the family, and was not young 
when it came to them. It may be over a hundred 
years old. It or its immediate ancestor belonged to 
Nils Linna3us. It is not rash to suppose it one of 

iff, fast train. 


his four hundred rare plants; though more probably 
it was a Mexican importation, sent by Linnaeus to his 
father. I do not say it was so, but much of the best 
legal evidence is made up of likely conjecture. The 
other plants here are flowers roses and such-like with 
less pedigree but more beauty this is la vieille roche. 

The smallest cottages here are comfortable, and 
the people, though poor in actual coin, are yet easy, 
happy, and contented. One can best judge of the 
happiness of a country by the condition of its poor 
people. Here, though it is hard to make a living, there 
appear to be no poor people in our sense of the word ; 
that is, none verging on pauperism. The villages are 
trim and clean, without being over scrubbing-brushed 
as in Holland. The floors are of clean bare boards. 

Give your linen to the maid, and you will see her 
wash it at the pump, soap it, beat it on a bench 
thoroughly with a kind of cricket-bat, bleach it on the 
flowery turf, and return it to you lint-white, with all the 
patent washing-powders and dirty messes, with which 
townspeople give themselves blood-poisoning and all 
manner of skin diseases, driven out of it. Brave, strong 
girl ; I see her in the garden doing her washing so 
honestly. The farmyard with the fowls, and, besides 
the pump, a well with a bucket to wind up, has a 
neatness, without being at all prim or fancy-farmed, 
which makes it very pleasant to look down upon. A 
long ladder reaches to the attics or garrets, where the 
swallows build in the eaves. There are also wooden 
steps up to the slightly elevated ground floor. 


Many vehicles, of a sort between a cart and a 
carriage, drive into the yard, arid the drivers unharness 
and put up their horses in free, old-fashioned, homely 
style, and, doffing their huge frieze overcoats, awaken 
themselves up into the belief that it is a pleasant sum- 
mer-like day. Such a funny old equipage has just 
driven into the yard ! an ancient form of cabriolet or 
chariot with a hood ; low, small, crunched-up, and, oh, 
so shabby-genteel ! Out of it step an ancient pair, in 
clothing like old pictures, just spoiled with a few 
modern remnants of the fashion of ten years ago. The 
lady trails her snuff-brown silk skirt, with one scanty 
flounce at the bottom of it, through the farmyard with 
a genteel amble, keeping her quality from contact with 
the general coffee-room. She is unaware that dresses 
are worn short now, and that flounces such as hers are 
no longer admired. The gentleman's tailor can never 
have smiled again after executing that esteemed order. 
The gentleman, furnished by him, is short, and stout, 
and brown of extreme neutrality a faded brown, 
further neutralised by long lying by, when the style of 
the day I speak of Sweden is a symphony in spinach 
colour, with velvet collar of a livelier hue of green, a 
bronze-green billycock hat with a peacock's feather in 
the band, and a tasty alpaca umbrella of ultramarine 
blue, all cushiony and full. They use a simple sort of 
sledge here in the snow-time one sees them lying by 
in handy corners ; in summer they run light home- 
made well-made carriages, constructed to hold two 


medium-sized and two small persons, with cushions 
of home-grown and home-tanned hides. One of these 
was now brought round to take us to K&shult. 

The sandy road to RSshult meanders about the rail- 
way-line like the serpent round the rod of ^Esculapius. 
The railway men ply swiftly to and fro between the 
stations on the line, paddling their little tricycle trucks, 
or six of them more arduously pumping along their 
i Sociables.' This is much quicker travelling than the 

Whortleberries, juniper shrubs, and wild straw- 
berries form the undergrowth beneath the pines and 
among the grey boulders set in wood anemones, among 
which as we passed lay a snake curled up like one of 
the twisted cakes used as the sign of a baker's shop. 
Three flaxen-haired, dark-blue-eyed girl children dressed 
in shades of pink and grey and rosy scarlet greeted us 
from their cottage garden gate with wondering but 
modest gaze. 

The people are polite, the wayside greetings are 
very courteous, yet everyone minds his own business, 
and a pushing crowd never gathers round an artist as 
in Belgium and elsewhere. There is no fear of pick- 
pockets, or other robberies or disagreeables. 

I will here give part of Linnaeus's own characteristic 
description of the scenery, taken from his diary. 

4 Stenbrohult, a parish of Sm&land, is situated on 
the confines of Sk&ne, in a very pleasant spot adjoining 
the great lake Moklen, which forms itself into a bay 


about a quarter of a (Swedish) mile long, and in the 
centre of this bay stands Stenbrohult church. It is 
surrounded on all sides, except to the west, where it 
fronts the lake, by well-cultivated lands. At a little 
distance to the south the eye is relieved by a beech 
wood; to the north the lofty mount Taxas 1 rears its 
head, and Moklen lies on the opposite bank of the lake. 
Moreover, to the east the fields are encompassed with 
woods which westward inclose broad meadows and large 
spreading trees. In short, Flora seems to have lavished 
all her beauties on the spot that was to give birth to our 

We drive through an avenue of hoary-lichened firs 
with the lake Mockeln shimmering between their stems, 
coloured no longer with the glassy reflections of last 
night before the sundown, but fresh, blue, and spark- 
ling in the limpid air, fragrant with flowers and buds of 
the lichen-clothed juniper shrubs. We cross a bridge 
over an arm of the lake. The influence of a gardener 
lasts long and spreads wide ; we still perceive the influence 
of Nils Linnaeus and his clan, all of them great gar- 
deners, in the variety and comeliness of the vegetation, 
which is hereabouts unusually rich. Yet one tree that 
used to flourish here, the famous lime tree of the Linnaei, 
is conspicuously absent. There is no lime tree growing 
here now, or none of any stateliness. And yet there 
might be ; for if De Candolle's list of the ascertained 

1 Linnaeus had seen few mountains when he wrote this. It is 
as if we might say, ' the lofty Primrose Hill rears its head,' &c. 


ages of certain trees be correct, there are limes that 
have lived a thousand and nearly twelve hundred years. 1 

This famous lime tree, according to Pulteney, one 
of the most careful biographers of Linnaeus, stood on the 
farm where he was born, and three progenitors of his 
family took their names from it Lindelius, Tiliander, 
and Linnaeus. This shows the inaccuracy of even a 
careful historian, for Linnaeus was not born on a farm 
at all, but at the parsonage house of RSshult, and his 
ancestors who named themselves from the lime tree lived 
at Hwitaryd, near by. It is not unusual for Swedish 
families to name themselves from natural objects. 

The peasants regard the lime tree as sacred ; in early 
spring they deck the graves of lost relatives with its 
fresh green boughs. 2 

A large linden tree would always be an object of 
note in that land where the pine, the spruce fir, and the 
birch are the principal vegetation above the variegated 
carpet of the ground. The tree in question may be here, 
should be here, but I have not identified it, nor could I 
hear of it. The tradition of its three branches dying at 
the extinction of the three families and the dead stump 
remaining is, I suspect, a legend. 

For those who care for the study of race, of descent 
of talents and qualities through pure genealogies, the 

1 The lime is one of the most lasting of trees, living to 1,076- 
1,147 years. This is measured by the concentric zones. Professor 
Henslow considers De Candolle overrated the ages of his trees one- 

2 Horace Marryat. 


story of the linden tree of the Linnasi should have great 
interest, showing as it does how the pride of hard-won 
place went hand in hand with a deep and increasing 
love of nature, inherited from three worthy peasants 
of Hwitaryd (who dwelt under the shadow of the great 
lime tree) whose descendants intermarried, and their 
fine qualities combined to form one brilliant descendant, 
the flower of the family tree the splendid Linnaeus. 

For all that Buckle holds that there is no such thing 
as hereditary transmission of qualities, no virtue in pure 
race, the general experience of the world runs otherwise. 1 

In speaking of a botanist like Linna3us it is in- 
cumbent on one to mention root and branch, and Lin- 
naeus was proud of his genealogy. In his notes made 
for his autobiography which never became a book he 
gives in full the genealogy of the Linnaei, with their 
botanical and clerical traditions, which I shall epitomise 
here. Skip it, ye who care not for such matters ; easier 
reading lies beyond. Yet one has to learn less interest- 
ing lines of kings, and there are crowds who read the 
pedigrees of horses in the stud-book and racing calendar. 

' Ingemar Suensson, a peasant at Jomsboda, in the 
parish of Hwitaryd in Smaland : from him descended 
Charles Tiliander, who took his name from a tall tilia 
standing between Jomsboda and Linnhult. He studied 

1 Galton, in his book on Hereditary Talent, says, 'I would 
strongly urge that the sketch should be pretty exhaustive as regards 
the nearer kinsfolk, male and female, certainly including aunts and 
uncles on both sides, and preferably great-aunts, uncles, and cousins. 
This has great statistical value.' 


at Upsala in 1660, and died without issue 1697. His 
brother, Suen Tiliander, 1 studied at Upsala 1678. He 
lived as domestic chaplain to Count H. Horn at Bremen, 
and died rector of Pjetteryd in 1712.' [Our little 
Linnaeus may have remembered him, his great-uncle. 
Suen's sister Ingrid married Carl's grandfather.] ' He 
was a peculiar lover of gardening and natural history. 
His sons were Abel Tiliander, who succeeded him as 
pastor, and was drowned in a well in 1724, and Nicholas, 
chaplain to a regiment. The latter left issue, Carl 
Tiliander, born 1701, who studied at Lund 1720, became 
adjunct teacher of Philosophy there in 1729, and adjunct 
teacher of Divinity there 1730.' 

Doubtless this Carl, who was six years older than 
our Carl Linnaeus, was held up as a model to his younger 
cousin, who was reckoned among the dunces. He was 
high in Lund University at the time Linnaeus was 
entered there as a student, with a bad character from 
his grammar school. We do not hear of the two having 
had much communication. I fear me Carl Tiliander 
was a prig, and ashamed of his country cousin. Yet the 
Tilianders seem to have been the pedagogues of the 
Linnaeus family for a long while, for Suen, the pastor 
of Pjetteryd, took our hero's father, Nils Linnaeus, into 
his house ' to educate with his children, and, having a 
good garden, he gave him also a taste for horticulture ' ; 
and a certain John Tiliander, a severe man, which is all 
we can find out about him, was the earliest tutor of the 
1 Linnaeus's maternal uncle.- -SiR J. E. SMITH. 


great botanist. LinnaBus now takes the line of another 
stem of his family. 

' Anders, a peasant at Jomsboda.' These peasant an- 
cestors were all men of virtue and value. i His progeny 
were : (1) Ambern Lindelius, born 1600 ; took his name 
from the same linden tree.' He was the first to do so. 
* He was made Master of Arts in 1632, teacher, lecturer, 
and rector, &c., and died in 1684. (2) Lars Lindelius, 
who died rector of Jonkoping in 1672. Eric Ambern 
Lindelius, son of the former, studied at Upsala 1655, 
died preacher at Quanberga in 1715,' when Carl 
Linnaeus was eight years old. Lars Lindelius' son 
John was a physician of great repute at Wexio. He 
studied at Lund 1672, Upsala 1680, and died in 1711.' 
Thus both the Swedish universities and many of the 
rectories in South Sweden teem with Linnaean traditions. 
1 No remaining males of this family,' says Linnaaus. 

Now comes the line of Linnasus's father's family, the 
main stock. 

4 Benge Ingemarson, also a peasant in the parish 
of Hwitaryd, had issue Ingemar Bengtson, born 1633. 
He was farmer of the manor of Erickstad. His son 
Nicholas (Nils), who also took his name of Linnaeus 
from the same linden tree, was born 1674; assumed 
clerical functions 1704.' At the age of thirty-one he 
married Christina Broderson, the young daughter of 
the pastor of Stenbrohult, who was only seventeen. 
This was in 1705 ; at the same time he was appointed 
vicar of Stenbrohult, in the curacy of the district of 


R&shult. At the time of the great botanist's birth Nils 
Linnaeus was cornminister, which, on the Swedish Church 
establishment, is a clergyman somewhat similarly cir- 
cumstanced to one who in England serves a chapel of 
ease. 1 The ' Swedish Biographical Dictionary' mentions 
many other ancestral connections and collateral branches, 
including a cousinship with the British Admiral Kem- 
penfelt, who was drowned in the ' Royal George,' 1782, in 
the course of five pages of genealogical tables, comprising 
a number of respectable people, nearly all of them clergy- 
men or medical doctors. 2 There is also a genealogical table 
in the appendix to Pulteney's biography, going further 
arid more minutely into the pedigree, including various in- 
teresting particulars, such as this concerning Ingemar of 
Waras, in the parish of Hangeryd, who was blind many 
years, and spontaneously recovered his sight in advanced 
age. But this is enough for the indulgent reader. 



Anders, a peasant at Jomsboda Ingemar Suensson, a peasant at 

in the parish of Hwitaryd, Jomsboda, had sons 

bmaland, had sons 1. Carl Tiliander, died 1697. 

1. Ambern Lindelius, born 1600, 2. Slum Tiliander, died 1712; 
died 1684. and a daughter, Ingrid Inge- 

2. Lars Lindelius, died 1672. marsdotter. 

Ambern's son Suen Tiliander had sons 

Eric Ambern Lindelius, died Abel Tiliander, pastor, drowned 
1716. 1724. 

Lars' son Nicholas Tiliander, army chap- 
John Lindelius, physician at lain. 

Wexio, died 1711. Nicholas's son, Carl Tiliander, 

born 1701. 

Pulteney. s Scenskt Biograjiskt Lcxikon. 



Benge Tngemarson, peasant in the parish of Hwitaryd, had a son, 

(Ingemar Bengtson, born 1633, farmer of the manor of Erickstad ; 

j he married 

\ Ingrid Ingemarsdotter, sister of Suen Tiliander, pastor of Pietteryd . 
They had a son, 

(Nicholas (Nils) Linnceus, born 1674, rector of Stenbrohult ; he 

\ married 

( Christina Brodersonia, daughter of his predecessor in office. 
They had two sons and three daughters 

Carl Linncsus, born 1707, married Sarah Elizabeth Moraea ; had 
two sons (both died childless) and four daughters. 

Anna Maria, born 1710, married Gabriel Hok, rector of Wirestad. 

Sophia Juliana, born 17 14, married Johan Collins, rector of Kysby. 

Samuel, born 1718, married the daughter of the prebendary of 
Markaryd ; had several daughters, no sons. 

Emerentia, married Branting, receiver of the land-tax in the Hun- 
dred of Sunnerbo. 

No heir male of the three families. The arms of 
Von Linne were broken on the tomb of Carl von Linne, 
son of the great Carl Linnaeus, ennobled as Von Linne. 1 

Nils Linnseus afterwards became rector of Stenbro- 
hult. His father-in-law, Samuel Petri Broderson, rector 
of Stenbrohult, died December 30, 1707, of a fall by 
which his clavicle was broken. The vicar of Wexio 
succeeded Samuel Broderson, but, dying in the same 
year, Nils Linnasus succeeded him in the living of 

The family tree is the linden of Linnhult. 

Thus Linnseus was, in fact, rooted in R&shult ; it was 
more than an ordinary birthplace. The linden tree 

1 How often we see in cases of great hereditary abilitj r the line 
dies out after the most talented member of it has brought it into 
special prominence. 


under whose shade the family grew up stood in the 
vicinity of his native place, between Jomsboda and 
Linnhult. The linden tree has passed away, but in 
this cottage, this very cottage, Linnaeus's father dwelt, 
so long do these wooden houses last. This one looks as 
new and strong as do the other houses round, and as 
cheerful with its white muslin window draperies, for it 
is inhabited, and the climbing plants growing up round 
it, ever youthful in their buds and blossoms. Children 
still peep from those windows, still play about this sloping 
garden. A little pair are before me now. But that this 
boy's eyes are of the usual Swedish blue, like the speed- 
well of their fields, in this fair child I can almost imagine 
I see the intelligent and bright-faced Carl Linnaeus, a 
boy with rosy cheeks, sparkling brown eyes, and light 
silky hair, almost white in its fairness ; and that tiny 
maiden, with the dazzlingly fair neck, and flaxen locks 
escaping from under her cotton gipsy bonnet, might be 
the little Anna Maria Linnasa, long since lying in 
respected sleep as Fru Hok in the rectory churchyard 
of Wirestad, near by. .Nils, the perpetual curate of 
RSshult, having been born in 1674 makes the little 
house connect us with that date, which has so long since 
drifted into history, in a more intimate way than do 
many more ancient buildings. Life here altogether 
carries us back in the past, so completely is it the life 
of Linnaeus's own day and that of his ancestors before 

There has been no regular biography written of 


Linnaeus since Stoever (of Altona) wrote in German his 
valuable ' Life of Linne" ' in 1794, and Pulteney his in 
English in 1805. 1 

These two biographers abuse each other politely in 
long prefaces. Stoever says of Pulteney's book, c It is 
in several other respects imperfect and deficient. The 
learned author ought to have had recourse to Baron 
Haller's " Bibliotheca Botanica," torn ii. What follows is 
a translation of this work.' Pulteney speaks of Stoever's 
' Life of Linne ' as containing interesting particulars, 
< but it is not without a considerable number of errors.' 

Sir William Jardine, in his brilliant epitome of both 
books, made as a short biographical notice of Linnseus 
for the Naturalists' Library, speaks of Linngeus's diary * 
as owing its preservation to Dr. Maton who edited it. 3 
Almost as precious as this are the letters and diaries 
of travel kept by Linnaeus, which came with his other 
collections into the possession of Sir James E. Smith, 
the founder of the Linnaean Society. These papers, 
written either in Latin or Swedish, have been par- 
tially edited and translated by him, and some few of 
the diaries have been separately published in German, 
but some of them have never hitherto been brought to 

1 Turton's biography, written in 1806 to accompany a translation 
of Linnaeus's General ' System of Nature,' is compiled from these. 
The smaller biographies are abridgments of Stoever. 

2 The marvel is that Stoever did his work so well without the diary 
and documents that Dr. Maton appended to the second English edition 
of Stoever. 

3 The diary, down to 1730, was put into Latin by Archbishop 
Menander. It is written in the third person. 


light at all. Sir J. Smith is our most trustworthy 
authority on this subject, as he possessed materials of 
which both Stoever and Pulteney were ignorant, although 
he only used them biographically in a short memoir 
written for Rees's ' Cyclopaedia.' 

What the present generation knows of Linnaeus is 
an obsolete system and a few trivial anecdotes. In 
painting his portrait I have tried to give as a background 
the things he saw, the scenes he moved in, the con- 
tinuous diorama of his life, which abounded with 
adventure more than usually falls to the lot of scholars 
* whose fame is acquired in solitude.' I wish it may be 
thought a pleasant yarn about Linnaeus. 

Stoever, and all the short biography writers who about 
his time pillaged rather than translated him, begin with 
a hot dispute concerning Linnaeus's birthday. Some 
say it was the 3rd of May, some the 13th, some the 
23rd, and various other dates. 1 Linnaeus in his genea- 
logical table says : < On May 12, 1707, at RSshult in 
SmSland, was born Carl Linnaeus ' ; but as his own 
flowery language in his commenced autobiography says 
he was ' brought into the world in a delightful season of 
the year, between the months of frondescence and flo- 

1 The New Style being then in process of gradual adoption in 
Sweden, the year 1704 was regarded as a common year in that 
country ; consequently the true date of Linnaeus's birth, according 
to our present reckoning, was May 23, 1707 ; the commonly received 
date, May 24, being an error due to supposing the calendar in 
Sweden and Kussia at that time to be identical. Encycl. Brit.> 

VOL. I. C 


rescence,' this gave a good opening for controversy. The 
4 Times' of April 1885, speaking of the new statue 
of Linngeus in the Humle Garden at Stockholm, says : 
{ On the 13th of next month a statue of the celebrated 
Swedish botanist Linnaeus will be publicly unveiled at 
Stockholm. The day will be the 178th anniversary of 
his birth.' The obelisk says he was born on May 23. 
Linnaeus's own diary fixes the date with scrupulous 
exactness, as May \\-\^ between 12 and 1 in the 

The reason of these aberrations regarding his birthday 
is that, taking the 1 3th of May as about a central date, 
some authors in their 'cuteness, thinking they are the 
first to remember the fact of the late change in Sweden 
from the Old to the New Style in the calendar, have 
put him on or back eleven days, or some only ten days 
inclusive, not being able for the life of them to remember 
whether it should be eleven days forward or backward ; 
accordingly the date ranges from the 3rd to the 24th 
of May, an important difference in the short Swedish 
spring. Carl was the first-born child of his parents ; 
other little ones followed quickly on three daughters 
and a second son. 

We will have one short look round the curate's 
cottage at R&shult before removing with him to the 
somewhat larger house and much larger garden of 
Stenbrohult rectory. The granite obelisk, surmounted 
with the Polar star in gold, stands tall in front of the 
small red cottage (of the curacy) at the top of the slop- 


ing garden, still set with flowers and beehives on grass 
thick with anemones and tiny pansies, and wild straw- 
berries under the yellow-flowering gooseberry bushes 
and other shrubs. The cottage stands in a beech grove 
which forms with the spruce, larch, and other trees a 
forest around it. The ground at the foot of a good-sized 
oak growing below the cottage is powdered with wood 
anemones. The land is undulating hereabout, and very 
agreeably broken and diversified. The railway-line 
passes directly before the obelisk and cottage, being 
only divided from the garden by a pair of iron gates. 
Beyond a stream, which one passes by a plank bridge, 
a wood rises on the opposite side across the railway. 

The well is still worked by a pole lever, one of the 
earliest and simplest ways of raising water for garden- 
ing purposes. Above the vibrating sound of the wood- 
pecker's tapping rises the prolonged coo of the wood- 
pigeon. The air is vocal with birds and perfumed with 
buds and flowers. It is the very fittest early home for a 
student of natural history, the science of peace. The 
garden is walled on two sides with granite, the large 
stones being smoothly laid and fitted without mortar. 
A granite slab forming a small table in an arbour is 
inscribed with Linnaous's name ; the Polar star and 
other devices are decipherable on it, traced in outline 
with tinges of colour. This, of course, has nothing to 
do with the infancy of Linnaeus. 

His father was appointed rector, instead of curate, 
of Stenbrohult in 1708, and the family moved to the 

c 2 


rectory when Carl was a year old. The present rectory 
house is not the home of Linnaeus's childhood that was 
burnt down some forty years later and rebuilt. Here 
was a much larger garden, and Carl was as a child in 
the Garden of Paradise. ' From the very time that he 
first left his cradle,' says the enthusiastic Turton, ' he 
almost lived in his father's garden, which was planted with 
the rarer shrubs and flowers ; and thus were kindled, 
before he was well out of his mother's arms, those sparks 
which shone so vividly all his lifetime, and latterly 
burst into such a flame.' ' The same thing that is said 
of a poet nasciiur, non fit may be said without im- 
propriety of our botanist.' * Carl was nursed in beauty, 
fragrance, and pure delights. His toys were flowers, 
and Christina, his young mother, herself with only 
eighteen years of youth, used to stop his cries by giving 
him a flower to play with. 

The smallness of the rector's income obliged him to 
make the best of husbandry. He was his own gardener. 
His child was his constant companion, enjoying to the 


Delight and liberty, the simple creed 
Of childhood, whether busy or at rest. 2 

Here on the scene one seems to see the sunny-haired 
child running about among these ferny foregrounds, 
his baby feet sometimes bare like his young brethren 
around, sometimes, as became the rector's son, with tiny 
canvas shoes with a buckle-strap across the instep care- 
1 Linnaeus's Diary. 2 Wordsworth. 


fully stepping between the plants so as to injure none of 
them, as I have seen a little London-bred boy do among 
the ferns at Hampstead Heath. Perhaps Carl oftenest 
wore those national thick shoes with heels, but cut off 
low at heel, like slippers, which it is almost impossible 
to wear out. In these he went out scampering and 
chasing the butterflies across the broken ground where 
the granite boulders are almost lost among the whortle- 
berries, his keen eyes and swift feet following their 
flight into the grey mystery of the fir woods until 
tempted away by the discovery of a nest of game birds, 
all full of dear little palpitating balls of fluff. 

His eyesight was from a child remarkably acute a 
seemingly indispensable requisite to the naturalist, did we 
not remember that Huber, Reboul, and Rumphius, among 
the most eminent observers of nature, have been blind. 

Carl needed his keen bright eyes to trace the airy 
path of the butterflies, for, as a rule, these are very 
small in Sweden. 1 The brimstone butterfly, the only 
large one I saw here, is one of the largest, at least 
among the common ones. 

I have just caught, killed, and stuck a tiny fairy, 
a blue butterfly, 2 smaller and more fragile than our 
smallest chalk-hill blues. Did I call natural history 
the science of peace ? Oh, monstrous fiction ! But 
Linnaeus was as yet innocent of trying to compass 
their death. He wanted to keep them alive, as most 

1 The family of the Lycainida being numerous!}* represented. 
'-' One of the Lyca-nidcc. 


children do ; it was only by sad accident that they were 
bruised and maimed. He formed a museum of live 
insects. He scarcely knew which he loved best, the 
caterpillar or the plant it fed upon. He loved the 
troops of ants that crowd the dust with palpable life. 
Some of the sorts found hereabout are large enough to 
be visible to the most casual observer. 1 

What pleasure to a child thus to run, beloved yet 
wild and free, beneath the trees, sheltering the cooing 
doves, and the dryad's hair of the silver birch, his feet 
lapped in leaves of the wild lily of the valley with minia- 
ture racemes 2 ; the pimpernel and fern curls fringing the 
foundations of the boulders, which served little Carl for 
seats and tables ! Where we can generalise only a mazy 
bewilderment of grey stems, and in the foreground a 
crumbling grey intricacy of boulders touched with 
orange lichen, the colours of the orange-tipped butter- 
fly, his classifying infant eyes can spy the minute 
green butterfly, 3 invisible to anyone else, upon the 
whortleberries the moment it waves the brown upper 
sides to its wings preparatory to a fresh start. It has 
been safe, even from Carl, so long as the metallic green 
under-sides to its closed wings hid it among the crowd 
of leaves. Distinct to him also are a small brown-and- 
white speckled butterfly, and an atomy dark brown 
spotted one, 4 nearly black ; and among the commoner 

1 There are five species of Formica found in Sweden. One kind 
is said to be eatable. 

2 Maianthemum bifolium. s Thecla Jtubi, Lin. 
4 Ccenonympha Hero, Lin. 



white cabbage butterflies he can discern a rarer fairy, 
a tender Psyche, looking to the ordinary world like a 
wood anemone or an oxalis flower. 1 The brimstone 
butterflies are a thought yellower than ours, and there 
are many small-sized tortoiseshells. George Eliot men- 
tions how not one polype for a long while could Mr. 
Lewes detect in some seaside holiday ramble, after all his 
reading so necessary is it for the eye to be educated 
by objects as well as ideas. For one thing, however, 
the little Linnseus's eyes were never strained over the 
horrible uncivilised print that the Germans blind them- 
selves with, as, though the Danes and Norwegians use 
the Gothic character, the Swedes use Koman letters, and 
the Swedes seldom wear spectacles. 

The church of Stenbrohult is three-quarters of a 
Swedish mile from Liatorp station, and the parish is very 
scattered, entailing considerable labour on the clergyman ; 
but the congregation make light of twelve English miles 
to go and come to church. The village and the indis- 
pensable all-sorts shop of Diwerse R'okeri, and the Bageri, 
or baker's shop, are at Liatorp. There are no squalid 
cottages in Liatorp such as we too often see in Devonshire 
villages ; yet all nature is less kind, and the winter is cruel. 
Though in the stony wilderness of SmSland there would 
be hardly a square yard of turf unless cleared by hand 
labour, and they cannot plant a cabbage till they have 
cleared a space, the cheerful content of the people would 
be surprising, but for the thought that a field once cleared 
1 Leucophasia sinapis of the Pieridee. 


is always clear and profitable when once the boulders 
are piled up into fences. If I seem tediously minute, 
remember that Stenbrohult is the foundation stone of 
Linnasus's history. This is the summer life. In winter 
the social joys are perhaps keener and more common, for 
it is easiest to get about when frost has made the land 
and water all alike, when the snow has filled up and 
smoothed the roughnesses of the ground between the 
boulders, and the Swedish landscape is daylighted by 
its own purity of snow, its landmarks effaced, and one 
can best travel by the compass of the stars. The worst 
season is before the frost sets in, when these Northern 
forests have a dreadfully aguish feeling. The little 
Linnaeus, all his life a gouty subject, was very suscep- 
tible to neuralgia and suffered much from toothache. 

His pleasures, however, as a child redeemed his 
pains. He has recorded how the love of natural science 
that followed him through life was first decidedly dis- 
played when he was scarcely four years old. The child 
was indeed father to the man. It must have been at 
Whitsuntide after his fourth birthday when Carl ac- 
companied his father to a feast at Mockeln, on the 
other side of the tall alder-fringed lake. In the even- 
ing the guests seated themselves on some flowery turf, 
listening to the pastor, who explained to them the 
names and properties of various plants, showing them 
the roots of the Succisa, Tormentilla, Orchides, &c. 
The child paid deep attention to all he saw and heard, 
and from that time never ceased harassing his father 


with questions about the name, qualities, and nature of 
every plant he met with ; but though his memory was 
good, and later became remarkably so from its constant 
exercise with attention, childlike he forgot the names 
of the plants and the result of all his questions. These 
things require to be impressed on children's memory 
by constant repetition, line upon line, like the nursery 
rhymes and other lore they learn. His father refused 
to tell him more until he showed with the curiosity a de- 
termination to remember. Indeed, it was a long lesson 
to learn the names of all the plants in the home garden ; 
for Linnaeus in a letter to Baron Hal ler says it con- 
tained more than four hundred species, many of them 
rare and exotic. 1 His father was his tutor in other things 
besides natural history. He taught Carl Latin, religion, 
and geography, i to qualify him for the pulpit and to 
conduct his botanical studies more skilfully,' until he 
was seven years old, when he was placed under the 
care of John Tiliander, a relative, who, I suppose, came 
to stay with the family, or came, perhaps, as curate. 2 
He was in no way fitted to be tutor of an intelligent, 
vivacious, and peculiar child, the child of the young 
century, John having in teaching but one idea of his 
own an idea already antiquated: that of obstinate 
severity an idea impossible to maintain at a time when 

1 ' To this early discipline Linnasus afterwards ascribed his tena- 
cious memory, which, added to his sharpness of sight, laid the 
foundations of his eminence as a reforming naturalist.' JACKSON. 

2 Linnaeus marks the date Sept. 15, 1714. 


the swathes and bandages of the European intellect were 
bursting. The budding energies might be controlled 
and swayed, but could not at that impulsive epoch be 
sternly repressed. Childhood has the mind in minia- 
ture, but, having its seed leaves still on, we do not 
always recognise its sort. 

To the late day of his writing his autobiography 
Linnaeus bore a grudge against John Tiliander. This 
man, morose, and probably disappointed in the ambition 
he shared in common with his family, vented his dis- 
content with circumstances on poor little Carl. 

But the boy's pains and penalties were mitigated by 
a joy, a new sense that of proprietorship. At eight 
years old his father allotted Carl a piece of ground of 
his own, and he at once began to form a botanical 
garden in miniature on an independent plan. His love 
of science disturbed even his father when the boy 
brought in weeds and wild herbs hard to eradicate, and 
worse than these wild bees and wasps, with all their 
concomitant inconveniences. In a garden necessarily 
cultivated for profit such practical science had to be 



The breeze that flung the lilies to and fro, and said 

The dawn, the dawn, and died away, 

Thence shall we hear 

The music of the ever-flowing streams, 
The low deep thunders of the booming sea. 

Clouds, ARISTOPHANES (translated by ME. COLLINS). 

IN the spring of 1717, l Carl's father took him to Wexio 
to be entered at the grammar school (or trivial school, 
as Linnaeus calls it in his diary) in that town where 
already his connection John Lindelius had been cele- 
brated as a physician. It is true John had been dead 
these six years, but his interest would still be alive in 
the place, and might be useful to the boy now for the 
first time leaving his parents' roof. Carl's outward 
appearance had been transformed to suit his altered 
circumstances. The long silky white hair was cut short 
as befits a schoolboy, and he was provided with new 
boots for state occasions high loose boots reaching 
up the calf. Linnaeus's account of his schooldays is long- 
worded, after the fashion of his time ; but Stoever's 
biography of him is very funny. He begins the story 

1 A note-book of Linnaeus's says September 1714, but this date 
is evidently an accidental interpolation. See note 2 p. 25. 


of Carl's going to school, ' At the epoch of this deter- 
mination ' viz. of his father sending him to school 
' Linnaeus had seen his second lustre.' This makes 
Stoever difficult reading, one so often stops to laugh or 
to consult the dictionary (often Lempriere). His full- 
sailed prose expresses everything in long measure. 
Stoever's rococo pages are stiff with embroidery of style 
rather than embroidery of thought. 

Can one imagine a greater pleasure to an inquiring 
boy of ten than, escaping from the severe rule of John 
Tiliander, to travel with his father, also a lover of nature, 
enjoying an unwonted excursion in spring through an 
interesting country ? Even though the journey was to 
end in going to school, still school was a novelty ; and to 
one with whom travel in his own country was a passion, 
this was a joy to stand out salient through life. The 
parting from home gave it the touch of pathos that 
thrilled the nerves and made the feelings more sensitive 
to every impression. They were off in the morning 
early, for they had before them a ride of over five-;, ml - 
thirty miles. They rode, most likely, both on one horse. 
Good-bye, loved mother and fond little sisters ! Their 
handkerchiefs are waved dry before the dear travellers 
are out of sight from the knoll on which they stand. 
Sweden in spring is one vast natural history collection, 
all careless of mankind, and SmSland is the very pith 
and core of the country as regards entomology and 
botany, both of them our Carl's wild delights objects 
that he loved as other bovs love their boats and bats. 


SmSland is one huge moraine which has poured itself 
upon a lake, filling it, except where a few pools are left 
so mingled with the stones that it is hard to say where 
dry land begins and ends. It is said of Soderman- 
land (Sudermania), which is likewise a confused mixture 
of lake and forest, that here the Creator omitted to 
separate the land from the water. This is still more 
aptly applicable to Smaland, which is the superlative of 
this. Solitary it is, yet full of life that never allows 
the country to feel gloomy the early heron fishing in 
the lake ; the young trees springing all about ; happy 
families of fir-trees, thick as grass 

Those delicious self-sown firs, whispering, 
What has been shall be. 

How vivid is the verdure of the spruce in spring, 
enhanced by that blue low distance to the northward, 
where the ground has been partially cleared ; elsewhere, 
the hoary limbs of patriarchal trees harmonising with 
the primeval boulders, make all one grey mystery, into 
which the sharp eyes of our young Linnaeus can pierce 
and he can find out treasures for his collections, where 
perhaps only a pair of kites are visible above the 
slanting splinter fences to a more ordinary observer 
where some, perhaps, can merely see the gates which 
so often cross the Swedish roads to keep the cattle 
within bounds, and others see only the vast chaos of 
the land ! 

The ground somewhat changes character on ap- 
proaching Alfvesta on Lake Salen, where the marsh 


marigolds, heralded forth by the cuckoo, as they say in 
Sweden, are flowering right out into the water beyond 
rushy peninsulas ; and the ancient church of AringsSs 
is seen, with its curious detached belfry mounted on a 
wooden scaffolding, or, rather, a peculiar arrangement 
of wooden columns. Fergusson who, however, is too 
hard upon Swedish architecture generally says, ' The 
most pleasing objects in Sweden are the count r}^ 
churches with their tall wooden spires and detached 
belfries. If these do not possess much architectural 
beauty, they, at all events, are real purpose-like erec- 
tions, expressing what they are intended for in the 
simplest manner, and with their accompaniments 
always making up a pleasing group.' Swedish archi- 
tecture is mostly very simple, but fully expressive of 
its intention. There is no opulence or splendour in 
Sweden, not even in nature; the beauty there takes 
other characteristics fair flowers, blithe birds and 
insects, and fair women. God manifests Himself in 
different ways in different countries, through other 
darkened glasses. In Sweden its air, its snow, its 
social life, its moralities all are pure; therein lies its 
charm. It is plain, but with the purity of snow. 
Nature and science go hand in hand in Scandinavia ; 
art is left out of daily life altogether. Their school of 
painting is only nature transcribed, or set on canvas, 
with affectionate feeling but no ideal grace. There are 
some interesting runic stones at AringsSs. 

Here Nils Linnaeus stopped to dine at the house of 


one of his wife's relatives Professor Lars Johansson 
Humerus, a cousin of the Brodersons, and also con- 
nected with the Tilianders. The rector introduced his 
pretty boy, who evidently made a favourable impression 
upon the professor, for he counselled his father to send 
Carl to complete his education at Lund University, 
where he promised to be kind to him. The travellers 
then proceeded on their way to Wexio. 

Their road skirted the lake, and, though still wooded 
and rocky, the scenery was less wild and unconquered 
by man than their own Stenbrohult, and the climate 
even milder than at Liatorp, the most fertile part of 
their own parish. Here the gooseberries were setting 
for fruit ; at home they were still in blossom. 

' All nature is alive, and seems to be gathering all 
her entomological hosts to eat you up,' says Sydney 
Smith of the wildernesses of Brazil. In Sweden, 
awakened nature at the close of May is arraying her 
entomological hosts for work or warfare. Still wood 
and rock ; though some of the larger masses of stone 
here are not boulders, but the living rock, showing 
traces of glacier action in its rounded smoothness. 
These rock walls are stained red with microscopic 
lichen, against which the hoary stems of pine and fir, 
all powdered or dusty with their parasitic moss, and the 
coarser ragged lichen hanging about the low wiry twigs 
of the firs, look ruder and rougher than ever. The 
principal crop grown hereabout is telegraph posts. 

This place is called Gemla ; though why it bears a 


name at all it is difficult at first to see, for only now 
and then a back settler's cottage is discoverable by the 
track that leads to it through the woods, and a few 
patches of pasture are carelessly enclosed here and 
there by the rudely made fences of splinters stuck 
obliquely between tall upright rods of irregular height. 
There are nowadays, however, several manufactories 
tucked away inside these rude forests, and served by the 
branch railway to Wexio. About four miles further 
lies Bappe, at the junction of the two lakes, Helgasjo 
and Bergquarasjo, on whose borders rises the picturesque 
ruined castle of Bergquara ; and here the father and 
son are nearing the end of their journey. The ground 
is smoother ; that is, there are fewer boulders than at 
Gemla, though occasionally a huge immovable block of 
granite stands right in the middle of a field of rye. 
They cross a wooden bridge over the narrowest arm of 
the smaller lake, and can see in the distance another 
large islanded lake, with a church spire and blue hills 
on its further shore, which lake is connected in the usual 
Swedish labyrinthine watery manner with the Helgasjo 
at Rappe. 

This is the approach to Wexio, a clean, white, 
comely, empty-looking town, seated on a pretty blue 
lake which is part of a vast general water system in 
these parts, where there is now (in 1886) an esplanade 
with seats; and in the evening when the fashionable 
folks turn out to promenade it looks like any modern 
watering-place, only prettier and pleasanter than most. 


It had not altogether this appearance in 1717, for 
the town has been stone-built since the fire of 1843 ; but 
in some parts its aspect is unchanged. The cathedral, 
dating from 1300, with its curiously battlemented 
tower and its six transepts, is one of the quaintest I ever 
saw. It focusses a pleasing scene as one sits in the 
leafy avenues of its close, admiring the truly Swedish 
mixture of its colours, red, white, and grey, set in foliage, 
and backed by a deep blue sky. Not until one comes 
to draw the building does one perceive the variety of 
its forms and tracery. It looks so simple with its six 
transepts all set in a row, yet it puzzles one's perspective 
more than many more seemingly elaborate churches. 

A bridge under the railway leads to the sea, I was 
going to write, the blue lake looks so like the sea from 
the avenues round the church ; and a lofty bridge over 
the railway leads to the higher gardens they are laying 
out above the lake borders, Wexio is an attractive place, 
and none so small either ; on closer view it has all the 
consequential appearance of a flourishing town ; though, 
with a population of only 4,000, it looks over-housed. 

It must have seemed a prodigiously fine place to 
young Linnasus, now seeing a town for the first time ; 
but the happy hunting-grounds for natural history 
looked a long way off. Father and son repaired at once 
to the grammar school now called the old grammar 
school, for a handsome new one has been lately built 
and the old school-house has been handed over to a lower 
class of boys, who, however, look very respectable and 

VOL. i. D 


fairly well to do, besides being well-mannered but this 
last is universal in Sweden. The old grammar school bears 
a family likeness to the cathedral, having a frontage of 
five gables in a row, and a large playing-field before it 
fringed with fine avenues of plane trees. An obelisk 
to H. Siogren, on a grassy mound, faces the school. It 
bears the motto Aliis, non Sibi. Lasnerius, the rector of 
the school, was a botanist; the two rectors talked of 
botany and looked round the garden together. Now the 
father could jog home rejoicing : this brother botanist 
would be kind to his boy. 

The Linnaei next went to call on Dr. Eothman, the 
successor of their relative John Lindelius as the physician 
in highest repute at Wexio, to bespeak his interest in 
the lad. While the elders were holding a long chat 
over botany, a subject of interest in common with both, 
we may suppose young Carl eagerly listened to their 
talk, and when it turned on medical topics for it is 
more than probable that the rector took the opportunity 
of speaking with the doctor about his own ailments, as 
we know that he afterwards consulted Dr. Rothrnan 
on a malady to which he was subject the observing 
Carl found objects of interest in the room to occupy 
his attention and a country child's natural weakness of 
wonder. They were pressed to stay to supper, but the 
hospitality was declined. Father and son spent their 
last evening together. They sat by the delicious 
lake talking in the sunlight, now at eight o'clock 
(May 28), glancing on the little rowboats out a-fishing: 


the water so clear, the opposite shore reflections so soft, 
exquisitely tender as the parent's heart. Young Carl, 
though he cared less for fish than for any branch of 
natural history, was yet interested in the unprofitable 
fishing of the men and boys from the turfy bank. The 
fish themselves had unsuccessful sport ; it was equally 
amusing to see the numerous fish leaping up at the 
swarms of gnats above the lake, and the way the gnats 
darted away and escaped. 

The Linnaei took their evening meal together, in a 
garden overlooking the lake (one can enjoy this even in 
Sweden on May 28), while watching the moon (at 8.20) 
rising white, dim, spectral, above the lake out of the 
mist not silver, only just a dead white, gradually (at 
8.45) becoming more normal in brightness. 

The inhabitants of Wexio come out to wander up 
and down in the cool sweet air. The women affect 
fawn colour and rosy-pink, and brick-scarlet cottons 
over their ordinary grey-blue woollen clothes; these 
contrasts have a pleasing effect in the landscape. They 
wear white or pink kerchiefs on their heads ; otherwise 
there is no especial costume in this part of Sweden. 
This kerchief is the national head-dress ; it is worn of 
black silk or cashmere edged with lace on best occasions. 
All this town gaiety, which at another time would have 
been so brilliant and dazzling to the country-bred lad, 
loses its charm this evening while he clings to his father 
as the time of parting draws near. 

Andres Celsius of Upsala had not yet invented his 


thermometer, for he was a boy then only six years 
older than our Carl ; but the temperature on the following 
morning really stood at 13-14 (Celsius^), making the 
fire in the white stove in the coffee-room of the inn 
very acceptable as, after stirring its embers with a brass 
trident, father and son sat down to breakfast off fish and 
eggs and a basketful of three shades of brown rye and 
barley bread, and the pretty maiden who waited on them 
brought some fine white bread besides as a special 
welcoming. ' Tak, tak,' say they both the Swedish for 
' Thank you.' Since Charles XII. 5 s wars carried off the 
men women have always been waiters in Swedish inns. 
The sun coming out makes it warm, but not yet 
oppressive, as they walk to the school by way of the 
sparkling blue lake. It seems higher water than last 
night, as if there were a tide in it. But feeling rises 
above the line of noticing such things as the moment of 
parting draws near. It comes, the embrace is over, the 
blessing left behind, and all the love that can be con- 
centrated in one last yearning look, and the parent, with 
chill at his heart, foreboding on his mind, and a prayer at 
his lips, rides home through the pine woods, still tragic 
with their traces of snow-havoc. A young forest tree 
had been uprooted and hastily put in to fill a gap in 
the splinter hedge. Pastor Nils Linnaeus looks at it 
painfully and then turns quickly away. How glorious 
were these forest aisles when solid with the crystals of 
winter, and when his boy played in them and lit all 
nature up for him with the gladness of his rosy face : 


the trees a vista of white pyramids, each tree topped 
with a pinnacle of snow! He rides wearily home 
beneath the ' querulous fraternity of pines ' ; the light 
dies out of the landscape for him now Carl is gone ; the 
boy is a child no longer ; it is almost like losing him to 
feel that the loved babe is gone, changed into another 
form improved, it may be, but the same no longer. 
He is a son gone out in the world. Henceforward, the 
pastor must enjoy his flowers alone ; yet he will enjoy 
Carl's interest in their growth in the rare periodical 
visits home rare of necessity because the family is poor 
and journeys long and Hope shines at the end of a 
long vista of years. The pastor is not a great man, 
though he had youthful aspirations ; but Carl will be 
great, and make a name that will be known throughout 
the province throughout Sweden, it may be. He may 
even rise to be a bishop in the Church, for he is a lad of 
noble promise. These duties of weaning oneself from a 
parent's joys are painful from the pang of shearing a 
boy's golden locks to the greater grief of his severance 
from the home world. Perhaps one feels these most 
with the first and the last to go. 

Wexio was a large world to Carl : the school and 
gymnasium had in his time 210 scholars. 1 His progress 
in the Latin school was not satisfactory as to Latin ; 
yet everyone spoke well of his good conduct and pleasing 
manners ; but he was inattentive, and he took every 
opportunity of escaping out into the country to collect 
1 Linnaeus mentions this in his SkSne Journey. 


plants. On holidays no pupil was so little found at 
home as Linnaeus. How he admired the plants that 
everybody keeps in his window in Sweden ! that is, 
everybody but schoolboys; it is difficult for them to 
have plants of their own. Dr. Rothman seems to have 
been kind to him for his father's sake a little, and 
more for the look of bright intelligence which flushed 
his face when a word was spoken about botany ; but a 
physician in full practice has not much time to spare 
over a boy of ten or twelve ; if he ' tips ' him or asks him 
now and then to tea with his children, it is the utmost 
he can do for him. 

Carl had been a year at Wexio when his brother 
Samuel was born, in 1718. The parents had thus been 
absorbed in new joys and cares ; a tragedy, too, had 
happened in the family; Abel Tiliander, rector of 
Pietteryd, was accidentally drowned in a well. 1 

In 1719 Carl was put under the private tuition of 
Gabriel Hok, who afterwards married his sister Anna 
Maria. This man possessed a milder disposition and 
much better talents for teaching than John Tiliander ; 
but he could not overcome the distaste the boy had 
contracted towards the ordinary studies of the school. 

Carl's progress was still slow. Not for three years 
did he receive promotion to a higher form in the school, 
called the ( circle ' ; 2 and this time must be unusually 
prolonged or it would not be remarked upon. In the 
circle he had more liberty and leisure, and devoted both 
1 Diary. 2 Notes for Autobiography. 


to the study of his choice. He wandered about the 
outskirts of the town seeking plants. Laenerius, the 
rector of the school, often talked with Dr. Rothman 
about the talent of the boy, and, being himself such a 
lover of botany, perhaps relaxed discipline in his favour. 
Stoever says he viewed his pursuits with complacency ; 
at least, he considered them as innocent. l He grew 
fond of a youth who so ardently entered into his own 
researches and displayed such extraordinary talent. He 
formed a proper judgment of his genius and applica- 
tion, while Carl's schoolfellows considered him as a 
vagabond who wasted his time in useless studies and 
running about.' * It is true he was not sent to school 
for that. 

At sixteen he began forming a small library of 
botanical books, comprising Hanson's Orta-bok,' or 
herbal, Tilland's < Catalogue,' Palmberg's ' Serta Florea 
Suecana,' the ' Chloris Gothica ' of Bromelius, and 
Rudbeck's ( Hortus Upsaliensis.' These latter he could 
not as yet understand, but he committed them to 
memory. 2 For this his schoolfellows nicknamed him 
the Little Botanist. Our nicknames in England are 
seldom so well-sounding, but boys are more mannerly 
in Sweden. He was confirmed in the cathedral of 
Wexio, by the bishop and another minister, in full lawn 
sleeves and copes of crimson velvet with great gold 
crosses on the back. 3 It is a pretty sight to see all the 
little fair heads of the girls as the deaconesses range 
1 Jardine. 2 Diary. 8 The Swedish clergy always wear ruffs. 


them in their places in the cathedral before confirmation, 
the rosy boys hanging shyly about the columns of the 
church, waiting to be shown their places. 

In 1724, when Carl was seventeen, he was removed 
to the upper school, or gymnasium, a separate building, 
where the higher branches of literature were taught. 
Here his tutors, like those of Newton at Cambridge, 
gave him up as a hopeless dunce. There was no 
modern side to a public school then ; a lad had to fight 
his way against and through the classics. A test 
examination showed that his time and attention had 
been all absorbed in his eagerness after flowers and 
insects. His father was written to and a manual 
employment recommended. This was what the Swedes 
call a Job's post a bad news-letter. The examiners 
were severe, and although in mathematics, and particu- 
larly in physics, Carl did well at Wexio, still the Greek 
and Latin grammars reigned supreme, and the tutors 
told him flatly he was fit for nothing but to be a cobbler. 

His fate was otherwise decided. At one of his 
visits to Dr. Bothman he met with Tournefort's c Ele- 
ments of Botany.' Away went all remembrance of the 
examiners : from henceforth he could be nothing but a 
botanist. This was the keynote in his career. 

Though a good and pious boy, he entertained an 
intense dislike of the study of divinity as a profession ; 
his sense of duty to his parents fought against his dread 
of their forcing him into the ministry, for which he felt 
no vocation. He roamed the fields now more in distress 


of mind than for research : he wandered off as far as 
the royal tumulus of Amlech Shakespere's ' Hamlet ' ; 
his disturbance of mind was, perhaps, equally great. 
Had Linnaeus been able to read English he would have 
found a kinship in Hamlet's unwilling acceptance of 
life, with its problems not always adapted to man's 
varying mental constitution. To be or not to be a 
clergyman : that was the question. How dare assume 
to guide others, when every blade and leaf taught him 
his own ignorance ? He could not receive the narrower 
doctrines the only ones then current as to what objects 
were the best worth seeking in this world. How was 
it, then, that his companions, who, he could not help 
seeing, were most of them less talented than he, were 
able without difficulty to pursue studies that for him 
were like beating his head against a stone wall ? He 
was brought down to earth again. What ! Were all his 
botanical excursions to be stopped ? his only pleasure 
at Wexio, where ' amid his wild-wood sights he lived 
alone. As if the poppy felt with him.' 

Stoever proceeds in his inimitable way : ' Dogmati- 
cal acquirements, the Hebrew language, and the more 
solid branches of scholastic science had been forgotten 
amidst the allurements of the goddess Flora, and still 
continued to enjoy their usual share of oblivion.' 

When we read passages like these our own pon- 
derous Johnson feels less sesquipedalian. He seems 
light reading after seeing Stoever and other Germans 
disporting themselves like whales. Carlyle talks of 


how ' old German books, dull as stupidity itself nay, 
superannuated stupidity gain with labour the dreariest 
glimpses of unimportant extinct human things.' But 
they are always trusty as to dates, according to their 
light, and mostly as to facts, when one can get to the 
bottom of their meaning. Carl's parents took the com- 
plaints of the professors and lecturers of the college 
much to heart, foreseeing in the evil report the 
probable ruin of their fondest hopes. The mother 
argued thus : c His father loved plants too, yet he got 
the divinity, or theology, into his head. Why could 
not Carl ? Was all the rise in the family to go for 
nought ? Was the peasant family to be again de- 
graded to the ranks ? He must toil at this uncongenial 
study for his forefathers' sake and for theirs. His 
father had no money to give him, and the boy could not 
expect to live by picking flowers.' 

His father came out to see him soon after this. 
The first evening was a happy one. The meeting 
could not fail to awaken pride and delight in his boy in 
his merely physical aspect. Nils saw himself young 
again, with added charms such as he could not remem- 
ber in himself; besides, he had never been without in- 
fluence over his son. Oh yes, all things would be set 
right by some mild yet firm parental talk. The lad had 
promised to be so clever in earlier days. But the next 
morning, after the masters of the school had pronounced 
him unfit for any learned profession, a cloud of sadness 
rose between father and son ; they were no longer able 


to see each other's mind. The tutors had no opinion of 
Carl's abilities, and again counselled his father to put 
him to some mechanical trade a tailor, or better still a 
shoemaker, a favourite craft in Sweden, and, I suppose, 
therefore the most profitable ; it was, at all events, a 
secure livelihood. 

The account in Linnaeus's diary runs thus : ' 1726. 
The father came to Wexio, hoping to hear from the 
preceptors a very flattering account of his beloved son's 
progress in his studies and morals. But things hap- 
pened quite otherwise ; for, though everybody was 
willing to allow how unexceptionable his moral conduct 
was, yet, on the other hand, it was thought right to 
advise the father to put the youth as an apprentice to 
some tailor or shoemaker, or some other manual em- 
ployment/ Good as is the evidence of the diary, it is 
only the rapid rough draft of the fuller and sometimes 
slightly differing account in the autobiography begun 
in Latin, and continued in Latin or Swedish by various 
hands from dictation, or compiled from conversations. 
This date of 1726 seems to be an error, as we know this 
event occurred three years before his admission to Lund 
University, where he went in 1727. With filial obedi- 
ence Carl avowed his readiness to study divinity, but 
owned at the same time his want of inclination, his 
great aversion. His father therefore resolved to make 
his son ' take absolute leave of the muses ' old Stoever's 
expression and to bind him apprentice to some honest 


Would Linnaeus ever have sung at his cobbling 
shopboard like Hans Sachs ? No, for Linnaeus was no 
poet, no psalmist, no student of men. He would have 
reared himself a bower of greenstuff and followed with 
melancholy musings the movement of the flies in his 
window. He might have been himself lost. Who can 
tell ? Would so strong a bias have created for itself an 
opening to the light if imprisoned in an uncongenial 
forced labour ? 

One person only appreciated the form of industry of 
the boy, of whom none spoke in any blame except that 
he had no taste for the grammar school routine a thing 
not uncommon among idle boys. Yet Carl was not 
idle : there lay the problem. The rest never thought of 
solving it, only of smashing it open. This person was 
Dr. Rothman, the physician and medical professor in 
Wexio College. 

The old clergyman, having for some weeks laboured 
under a complaint which perhaps had now been increased 
by his anxiety, was obliged to consult Dr. Kothman 
professionally, and, grieving at the seemingly wayward 
and careless disposition of his son, he opened his mind 
to the doctor, who kindly prescribed for both his 
mental and bodily sufferings. 1 ' Rothman intimated 
that he found himself equal to the cure of both com- 
plaints.' 2 The boy might arrive at eminence in medi- 
cine, as being more intimately connected with that 
branch of his own choosing. He counselled his not 
1 Sir W. Jardine. 2 Diary. 


being forced to the Church, but to a more congenial 
profession which would utilise his botanical studies. 
He finally offered to give young Linnseus board and in- 
struction for a time if he were permitted to continue 
his studies at the gymnasium not in divinity, but in 
medicine. At the end of a year they might see if a 
trade were really the better decision. 

This was some comfort to carry home to the anxious 

' Life is not long/ says Dr. Johnson, ' and too much 
of it must not pass in an idle deliberation how it shall 
be spent.' But it is human nature all the world over 
to seize any delay in making a change for the worse 
something may turn up. 

Rothman spoke kindly of the lad of his diligence, 
his peculiar endowments for his favourite studies. The 
first praises of his boy sounded sweet in the father's 
ears. Rothman was himself an eminent man, cele- 
brated throughout all Wexio. No matter the area, the 
celebrity was the thing ; he was first in Wexio. 

Carl added his entreaties to Rothman's persuasion. 
Many times had he heard his father say that a young 
man ought to learn that for which he felt the greatest 
inclination, because the natural propensity of a person 
always advanced him most in point of perfection. He 
was right in a general sense. It requires the highest 
genius to fight its way through all drawbacks. It is 
like good roads and good walking-shoes to a traveller 
that the line of life should go with the general bias. 


An actor or actress should not be overweighted by per- 
sonal unfitness. 

With a shrug of the shoulders at parental weakness, 
the masters who had urged his being articled to a shoe- 
maker received back young Linnaeus as one who was 
to fail in medicine likewise. They showed even less 
penetration than the easily-blinded father. Dr. Roth- 
man had the clearest eyes of any of them. They gave 
it as their opinion that Carl was not endowed with such 
parts as would qualify him for any learned profession, 
grounding this judgment on the little progress Linnaeus 
had made in Latin. No sooner, however, had Roth- 
man directed him to read Pliny than his progress be- 
came rapid ; because the contents of that author corre- 
sponded entirely with his own natural propensity. To 
this circumstance may be ascribed his predilection for 
Pliny and the laconism of his style. Yet he loved the 
Georgics even better. 

The father had still to consult with his wife, who 
would be deeply hurt at the ruin of her hope of seeing 
her son a minister. Equally disappointing was it to the 
father, who had himself raised the family from the peasant 
station, to find it must return to the clay from whence 
it sprang who had hoped to see himself surpassed in his 
boy. How should he break it to the mother, the proud 
ambitious mother, who was waiting at home listening 
for the splash of oars on Lake Mockeln for her husband's 
return with details of the lad's triumphs, that her boy 
was considered good for nothing ? 


Who knows, she thought in anger, the tutors them- 
selves might be jealous of his gifts ! Alas, poor fond proud 
mother, jaundiced now even to disbelief in Rothman ! 
Her son would have to be a shoemaker after all ! Oh, 
the sadness of that night ! Vainly did Nils defend his 
own favourite pursuit. She who had loved flowers all her 
life now loathed them. Never should the babe Samuel 
have anything to do with natural history ; he should not 
enter the hateful garden. The child should gather no 
wild flowers. This very restriction made Samuel in 
later years a botanist ; but his love for plants not being 
so ardent as that of his elder brother, his parents were 
not deprived of the gratification of seeing him in due 
time become a minister. That is, his strength of purpose 
was not so great as Carl's, or his sense of duty stronger. 

Christina, the daughter as well as the wife of a 
clergyman, felt more keenly on the point of family 
pride than Nils did. She felt the hope deferred that 
maketh the heart sick when her cherished wish had to 
be transferred to a younger boy. Carl's throne in her 
mind was vacant from henceforth. 

Though Carl redeemed this suffering nobly after- 
wards, he was not morally so great as Banks. Our 
admirable English naturalist had the stronger character 
of the two, the wider mind, which can take to itself 
even uncongenial learning. As an instance, once when 
overwhelmed by his great love of flowers, he said to 
himself, ' It is surely more natural that I should be 
taught to know all these productions of nature in pre- 


ference to Greek and Latin : but the latter is my father's 
command, and it is my duty to obey him. I will, how- 
ever, make myself acquainted with all these different 
plants for my own pleasure and gratification.' l He 
immediately began to teach himself botany. Banks 
was a rich man's son, and might with more impunity 
than Linnaeus have been idle. 

I admit the faults of my immediate hero Linnaeus ; 
I have no wish to make him out perfect : he had many 
weaknesses. He was a great man for all that. 

After much hesitation the parents at length con- 
sented to let their son follow the new line. How 
ardent became Carl's love of nature now ! how happy his 
life henceforth till he was twenty ! Linnaeus entered 
with redoubled eagerness into his now encouraged 
studies ; only disturbed by such hard facts as certain 
Swedish plants not being reducible to the rules of 
Tournefort's System, he could expand freely in the 
career he had hitherto pursued by secret and inter- 
rupted steps. The certainty and limitation of a settled 
plan of study concentrated his zeal and spirit. 

Rothman gave his willing pupil instructions in 
physiology and botany, and pointed out, somewhat 
superfluously perhaps, the advantage of studying the 
latter science according to the system of Tournefort. 
Carl's lynx eyes had discovered the text-book before. 
He had already begun to arrange every plant in its 

1 The somewhat priggish sound of this is due to the sym- 
pathising biographer. 


proper place, and even to doubt the situation of many 
species whose characters had not been properly ascer- 
tained. 'Rothman gave his pupil a private course of 
instruction in physiology on the Boerhaavian principles, 
that he might make more rapid progress. He was 
rewarded by his success/ l In both studies Carl made 
considerable proficiency. 

Tournefort, however, gave him the first view of the 
conveniencies of arrangement and the beauty of system, 
and was doubtless the foundation-stone of his own 
later structure. In writing the life of an eminent man 
it is customary to speak first of his ancestors, of his 
parents being poor and honest, and so forth ; his mental 
ancestry is of even more importance to his biographer. 
Linnaeus's immediate ancestor, metaphysically, was 
Tournefort. His valuable book 2 was not only illus- 
trated, but elucidated, by the insertion of a figure of a 
flower and a fruit of each genus. Carl saw nature by 
this fine strong light, as modern artists see the external 
movements of nature by the teaching of Ruskin. 
Little did Rothman think he was forming the mould of 
a greater botanist than Tournefort. 

Tournefort, who was born in 1656, died in 1708 the 
very year after Linnaeus was born aged only fifty- 
two. f He might have been alive now,' thought Carl 
regretfully as he turned over the book that was ablaze 
with light for him, * and I would have walked barefoot 3 

1 Pulteney. 2 Institutiones Rei Herbaria, Paris, 1700. 

Letter to Haller. 

VOL. I. E 


to sit at his feet had not that hideous accident de- 
stroyed him.' 

Tournefort, weakened by his laborious travels in 
the East, was felled by a blow on the chest from the 
axle of a carriage an injury from which he had not 
strength to recover. Tournefort was the first inventor 
of the Genera; therefore was he most immediately 
Linnaeus's metaphysical father. To meet with him at 
the first unfolding of his mind was a regeneration to our 
Carl. Tournefort was his real tutor, then came Vaillant. 
Carl's own neatly kept little library consisted of books 
calculated rather to fire than to satisfy his curiosity. 
These works, he felt, were only the beginning of science ; 
the fire laid, he longed to apply the match and fire 
the mass. 1 He attempted to arrange in systematic 
order the plants growing around him, which, being 
Swedish, varied considerably from the French examples 
of Tournefort and Vaillant. 

He felt acutely the imperfection of even Tourne- 
fort 's system. Oh, if he could perfect the system, or in- 
vent one which would be less incomplete ! This was his 
boyish dream : a fine ambition for a youth of seventeen. 
Even then he began to feel the difficulties attending 
classification. He had already got beyond Rothman, who 
worked very contentedly with his favourite text-books. 

Carl remained three years with the worthy Dr. 
Kothman, and gained his education. These three years 
at Wexio passed quickly, pleasantly, now that he had 
1 Jardine. 


liberty of thought. It is not altogether surprising that 
at Wexio, although he lived there ten years, they hold 
little tradition of Linnaeus. The old gymnasium, which 
now contains the Sm&landic museum, library, and collec- 
tion of antiquities and coins, has since honoured itself 
with Linne's bust, but only one person here and there 
in Wexio knows that he studied here at all : for even 
in his day he was only known as an eccentric young 
fellow who wasted his time on things outside the school 
routine, causing some surprise as to why, considering 
his parents were poor, he was allowed to remain there 
at all. He might have wasted his time less expensively 
at home. He seldom shared in the schoolboys' sports ; 
but the masters said, in more sarcastic but less witty 
words than Dr. Johnson used of himself, he contrived 
wonderfully well to be idle without them. 

One Christmas Carl invited his more kindly pre- 
ceptor Gabriel Hok to come home with him on a visit 
and tell him all about Lund University, where Hok was 
entered as a tutor. Here Gabriel saw Anna Maria, the 
eldest of Carl's three sisters, a pretty girl, if we may 
judge by her portrait, taken in later life, which now 
hangs at Hammarby. Hok, to please Anna Maria's 
parents, spoke well, indeed proudly, of Carl ; all of 
which promoted the enjoyment of that pleasant Christ- 
mas holiday. Carl, it appears, did not return to Wexio, 
but stayed some months unsettled at home. Probably 
the parents feared to risk, or were unable to furnish funds 
for his entrance to Lund University, until his mother's 


relative, Professor Humerus, urged their sending him 
thither, and offered to provide maintenance for him so 
long as he should need it. 

We can surmise how eagerly Carl accepted this offer 
by an entry in a pocket-book J of his of later date, 
where he says he flew to Wexio to ask from the rector 
the necessary testimonials for entering the university. 
He says he left his parents on May 1 (11), 1727, for 
Wexio, returning on May 2 (12) back to Stenbrohult 
with his testimonial. 

On applying to Nils Krok, rector of the gymnasium 
in that year, for a testimonial for entering the university, 
he was given the following a very curious example of 
the way professors then worded their certificates : 

1727. c Youth at school may be compared to 
shrubs in a garden, which will sometimes, though 
rarely, elude all the care of the gardeners ; but, if 
transplanted into a different soil, may become fruitful 
trees. With this view, therefore, and no other, the 
bearer is sent to the university, where it is possible 
that he may meet with a climate propitious to his 
progress.' Signed Nils Krok. rector. 

1 This pocket-book, in the possession of the Linnasan Society, 
is an interleaved copy of Operis agrostographici Idea, seu Gra-. 
minum, Juncorum, Cyperorutn, Cyperoidutn, usque qffinum methodus, 
authors Johanne Scheuchzero, M.D. Tigurin. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
Philippo. Tiguri : Typis Bodmerianis CIOIOCCXIX. It is in- 
scribed 'Carl Linnaeus, Upsal, 1728.' It is interleaved throughout, 
and annotated in dainty hand-writing and carefully-drawn flowers. 
In some of the blank pages at the end is written, 'Vita Carol i 
Linnaei. Ens entium, miserere mei ! ' 


Linnaeus, who must have, been amused at the arbori- 
cultural illustration, speaks of this as a not very credit- 
able certificate. 

He gives, in the pocket-book, his birth and parentage, 
and a list of his classes and masters at Wexio. The entry 
of farewell to his parents on his departure for Lund, 
August 14, 1727, seems to me to apply to his actually 
taking up his residence at the university after the long 
summer vacation. It is not likely that, after the hurried 
journey to Wexio in quest of the testimonial, he would 
have waited so long before entering himself at Lund 
as a student. Several circumstances in the story of his 
early days at Lund imply his entry previous to the 
summer vacation ; the solemn farewell to his parents 
would have occurred only on his taking up his residence 
at the university. 

When records are scanty one works best by putting 
likelihoods together, by following his road and describ- 
ing what he saw. 




Buoyantly he went. 

Again his stooping forehead was besprent 
With dewdrops from the skirting ferns. Then wide 
Opened the great morass, shot every side 
With flashing water through and through ; a-shine, 
Thick-steaming, all alive. Whose shape divine 
Quivered i' the farthest rainbow-vapour, glanced 
Athwart the flying herons ? He advanced, 
But warily .... 

Each footfall burst up in the marish floor 
A diamond jet : and if he stopped to pick 
Rose-lichen, or molest the leeches quick, 
And circling blood-worms, minnow, newt, or loach, 
A sudden pond would silently encroach 
This way and that. Bordello, BROWNING. 

IN 1727, when he was just twenty, Carl Linnaeus was 
matriculated at the university of Lund, in Sk&ne, South 
Sweden, where his father had studied, and contended 
with poverty for some years, but where Carl possessed 
two relations who would be of great help to him in his 
studies. One of these, his cousin Carl Tiliander, was 
a student of some years' standing. 

Speaking so well and so persuasively as Carl did, 
his mother still looked forward to his being one day a 
preacher. She hoped much from the university. Carl 


travelled southward alone this time : he was to meet 
his elder relative Humerus, who was a professor in the 
university of Lund, and who had promised to support 

It was his birthday, May 23 (May 13, Old Style). 
What makes the date of Linnaeus's birthday of moment 
is that nearly every journey of consequence that he 
took, and many of the chief events of his life, are dated 
from his birthday. It is true that this is just the time 
of the break into the pleasantness of spring, and there- 
fore, naturally, the time to begin botanical excursions. 
Carl looked up fondly at the red cottage, his birth-place 
at R&shult, as he passed it. Poor as he might be, a garden 
like that would be sufficient for his happiness ; surely he 
might hope to compass as much in life, or so little, as 
that. He walked on he was to walk the distance of about 
eighty-four English miles in four days carrying his 
knapsack, and resting at various farm-houses or priests' 
houses on the way. Twenty-one miles a day promised 
a pleasant walk. There is nothing more delightful to 
an active young man than a lightly equipped walking 
tour. Carl was lightly equipped enough, we may be 
sure, and he found much to entertain him on the way. 
Through life he always enjoyed travel even beyond the 
usual relish of youth. 

A walking-tour is a more formidable thing in 
Sweden than elsewhere, when one reflects that Sweden, 
containing 170,000 square miles, is consequently nearly 
three times as large as England and Wales together. 


Then the towns and cultivated lands bear so small a 
proportion to the fells, forests, and barren plains (super- 
ficially considered, a monotone of difficulty), which to- 
gether comprise 3,123 Swedish square miles, leaving, 
when we have deducted 429 Swedish miles for the lakes, 
only an area of 247 square Swedish miles of meadow 
and cultivated land. 1 One may travel for miles without 
seeing a human being. 

Carl walked lightly on with the brisk step of a 
youth who means to carve his own way to conquer the 
world. He had to depend upon himself now. He was 
happy, being filled with the great thoughts of what he 
meant to do, and with that longing to name and define 
things that marks the time of noontide in the mind. The 
sweet fanciful vaguenesses of childhood's dawn having 
vanished, with the dewdrops all about them dried, youth 
is the hour when one really possesses one's pleasures, 
instinctively realising happiness 

Yes, as I walk, I behold, in a luminous large intuition. 

His first day's journey took him through SmSland 
with its shingle-roofed red houses and its red lichened 
rocks, with juniper underwood, above which wave the 
silver birches whisking the flowing streams lightly and 
airily as does the line of a fly-fisher. The land was 
fair, yet for nearly the first time in his life Carl's own 
thoughts occupied him more than did external nature. 
It is true he had made a long day of it : the butter- 
flies had been asleep for hours. The white owl was 
1 H. Marryat. 


blinking himself awake, the white ghost-moth, just 
emerged from his chrysalis, was trying his yet moist 
wing. At 9 P.M. the evening light reflected the banks 
and trees in a white lake to the eastward on his left ; 
the western sky was still suffused with buff and pale 
pink when Carl entered Ousby, laden with specimens, 
and made for one of the wooden houses, raised on 
cyclopean stone foundations, where dwelt a brother 
clergyman of his father's, who received him with hospi- 
tality and a round lecture, such as he deemed good for 
youth, and for this youth in particular. 

Off betimes, for Carl did not care for a second lec- 
ture. He crossed the Helga by a ferry not across the 
river itself, but further down in the pretty islanded 
lake of Ousby. The landscape became more smiling 
and commonplace. But there is natural history every- 
where. From the rising ground at Hastveda he could 
trace the great plain of Skne below him. This ridge 
still looks like a devastated land, only peopled, appa- 
rently, by one long-legged stork with white body and 
black wings. This was of old the borderland between 
the Swede and the Dane : henceforward to the coast 
the people become more Danish. 

Carl would soon descend upon another world, a 
world of level mediocrity so it seemed to him as he 
looked down upon the reaches of distance without one 
salient point. Should he too soon be lost in that ex- 
panse, that waste? Dismal reflections in a boy are 
generally a sign of its being dinner-time, and no dinner, 


or not much, forthcoming. He ate his goat's-milk 
cheese it was his breakfast and his flat round rye 
biscuit, as large as our largest-sized dinner-plates, that 
he had slung round his shoulders by a string threaded 
through the hole in the centre. This is the Swedish 
bread of everyday life. He ate and felt better. His 
hand formed a cup at any stream. No, he was not 
lonely, his old friends were about him. The undulating 
ground here is still lined with whortleberry plants and 
polypodiums. One tasselled spruce above a rock reflected 
itself in the lake mirror ; boulders were standing up in 
the shallow water ; the lake was still surrounded by fir 
woods. Sm&land does not level into Sk&ne all at once 
in a hard sharp line : it melts away, blending two forms 
of beauty. The graceful white-flowered bird cherry, 1 
as they translate the Swedish hagg, a favourite tree of 
LinnaBus, and the aspen are still very common. 

A lake with boats upon it, all setting southward, in- 
vited Carl to step into one of the fishing-craft and work 
his passage for about half a Swedish mile. The swallows 
flew dipping and curving by the low banks on the 
eastern shore. As they rowed away from these rocky 
slopes towards the west the signs of prosperity came 
thicker on ; more linen webs were spread out to bleach, 
and boulders were cropping out among the corn what 
was a sign of poverty to them was to him a token of 
wealth : he was more used to seeing the stones crop out of 
the whortleberry masses. Carl bought caraway biscuits 
1 Prunus padus. 


and bread flavoured with anise-seed of a woman who was 
carrying her basket to the ferry, and the boatman offered 
him a drink of light beer from his firkin for his luck in 
catching fish. 

It was still broad daylight, for all that he had lin- 
gered, when he arrived at Hessleholm, where he walked 
about the town, or rather village, with its neat wooden 
houses with steps up and down at the porch ; houses 
not so dainty as in Switzerland, yet still pretty and 
inviting, set in gardens full of cherry blossom, which is 
in full bloom even so far south as Sk&ne at this date. 
Hessleholm is an increasing place now that the railway 
is made to carry off the stores of timber that its saw- 
mills make available to the outside world. No lectures 
for Carl to-night : these good people are strangers, and 
he has already fascinated them by his silver tongue and 
all the wonders he can show them in their own sur- 
roundings. They do not allow him to go forth with 
dry rye biscuit : they force on him an abundant break- 
fast, and they pack up a neat dinner of white bread and 
rarer fresh meat, and tempting cream cheese, and pickled 
fish, and bits of angelica steeped for weeks in honey. 

A third day's journey in the sweet fresh air there 
is something intensely balmy about the air of Sweden 
in May and a third day's pleasure. So this is SkSne, 
that he has heard so much of, as we in England hear of 
the mildness and fertility of Devon. One more ridge 
of limestone with a windmill on it, and now he is on 
lower ground, with meadows in the blue distance beyond 


the fringe of woods; another lake, the Tinga, with 
marshy borders and a little stone jetty built out into 
the deeper water, and rocky scenery to the left hand, 
on the east. Had it but a mild winter climate, how 
people would fight for this delightful land, thinks the 
passing stranger from the south. 

Though in some parts the soil is still poor and 
heather-covered, there is an appreciable difference in its 
average value as compared with SmSland. There are 
fine currants in blossom at Sosdala, and the church- 
spire at Mallby is set in what looks like amazingly rich 
land to Carl, and there are water-lilies in the meandering 
rivulet below the rude but pretty little double stone 
bridge. Here and there the land is fairly cleared for 
crops, yet it is often impossible to clear away the 
boulders so as to leave room to till the soil, notwith- 
standing that they gather up all they can into lines of 
rude stone fences.. The stones are, after all, too many 
for the hands they have to lift them. ' Here they 
should plant woods to shelter the clearer plains,' thinks 
the young Linnaeus, ever ready to set the world to rights. 
And there are woods hidden away behind the ridges of 
rock. There is one particular forest at Sosdala where 
the black stork builds her nest and hatches every year 
a brood of young ones, who disappear none knows where. 
That wheat is not yet sprouting here and barley is very 
backward, is what a traveller from the south would notice. 
But to Linnaaus Sk&ne's vegetation seemed in advance of 
everything he knew, save that of Liatorp itself, his local 


fondness would reserve, and Wexio, which is mild as any 
part of Sweden. He already felt traveller enough to in- 
stitute comparisons. What ! pine and spruce-clad rocky 
hills again ! From above it looked all one blue ocean 
of meadowland. He stands on another shelf of native 
gneiss rock, beyond the limits of the great moraine, 
which forms a shield to the fertile Scanian level. The 
boulders of the moraine are chiefly granite, the under- 
lying native rock is either gneiss or limestone. The 
granite has a good smooth fracture which adapts it for 
walls, bridges, and the cyclopean foundations of the 

It is softer, prettier country now, with fine rich earth 
too, and pigs in plenty and brown cows, and beech as 
well as birch woods at Tjorna.rp a sign to Linnaeus that 
he had come far south, for the beech was rare up in his 
country and a foliage-fringed lake. The lakes run 
through Sweden like necklaces of pearls : no sooner is 
one rounded than another rises ready on the string. 

Up hill and now down again among blue flowers. 
There is still much moorland scenery, with rugged 
wastes of heather and purling streams, and some un- 
awakened water in still pools, and wheat just springing 
in the well-sheltered patches of cultivation. Up and 
down hill in reiterating succession, in long stretches 
of both sorts, for this landscape comprises half a pro- 
vince. Here it resembles some lowland Scotch or York- 
shire scenery, a wild sierra region with beech and birch 
woods intermingled with rushy swamps spangled with 


marsh-marigolds, the more elevated ground whitened 
with wood-anemones. 

People are richer here at least they seem so to 
Linnaeus, who judges by the houses, built of great stones 
in cyclopean masonry, the fine pairs of horses browsing 
in the grass patches (I, in speaking to Southerners, dare 
not call them meadows), and oxen drawing huge stones 
on timber trucks. Carl now came in sight of the pretty 
Ringsjo, or Lake King, beech-fringed and beautiful, and 
the timber station at Hor, with the chips built up 
smoothly in large cone-shaped stacks. Here they would 
have hospitably received him for the night. A child 
winding blue yarn on a wheel by her cottage door 
smiled a welcome to the youth ; it was very tempting, 
but he had planned to get on to the Bosjokloster. He 
took a draught of milk and trudged on. He soon 
reached the peninsula on which stands the Bosjokloster, 
once a monastery, as its name shows, and even in 
Linnaeus' time ready to receive pilgrims, who used to 
come to it from far and near. Monasteries were then 
still numerous in these parts. Count Beckfries owns 
the Bosjokloster now, and pilgrims never go there, and 
tourists rarely. The famous oak tree, now forty feet in 
circumference, and the oldest tree in Sweden, was even 
then renowned ; but it was less remarkable th^n than now 
that the best part of two centuries are added to its age. 
Next day would be the last of Carl's journey: next 
evening he would see Lund and be received into the 
arms of his Alma Mater. 


He took the boat in the morning with the rest 
of the pilgrims, chiefly small traders, and rowed across 
the lake southward, leaving Stehag far off on the 
right hand. After landing the party the boatmen set 
to work with their fishing-nets and tackle. They had 
bunches of flowers tied to their masts ; the country 
people had them tied to their staves and in their hats : 
nowadays they tie blossoming branches and bouquets 
to the railway-carriages, such is their fondness for 
flowers, their welcome to the spring. 

The trees were bare here, the range of low hills looked 
purply-blue behind them. Linnaeus was surprised to 
see Sk&ne's broader aspect so wintry. It was nothing 
like our usual idea of hot summer bursting upon Sweden 
all at once ; this was certainly a slow-moving spring. 
What huge narcissus bouquets the people carry ! and yet 
what shawls, and wraps, and thick frieze coats they wear ! 
Larks and thrushes sang to welcome the abundant 
flowers, which were much more plentiful than leaves. 
On the hill-slopes everywhere were wild flowers in pro- 
fusion cowslips, orchis and marsh-marigolds, whose 
unfolding is the signal for the cuckoo to arrive and 
the roach to spawn. One field was blue with pansies ; 
blackthorn blossom peeped out among the boulder 
fences ; the birches were just dressed in tiny amber leaf, 
the cherry-blossom was in its first freshness, and the 
gardens at Eslof were masses of variegated and early 
flowers. It was a pleasant journey through varied pleas- 
ing country, presenting, besides the ordinary wooden 


houses and stone cottages with thatched roofs, and storks 
making themselves at home thereon, a view of several 
handsome country seats of gentlemen and nobles. 

At last Carl really descends once and for all upon 
the plain of SkSne ; in ten miles more he will be at 
Lund. He recognises the more fertile landscape of 
his father's description now, in a vast expanse of sunny 
green pasture sloping away downward into aerial grey, 
just marked by hedges, a few windmills, and pollard 
willows ; and a nearer water-landscape of a still river, 
full of fish, half shaded by birch and alder not quite in 
leaf; and, beyond a foam of pear-blossom, a fine reach 
of blue level distance seaward. 

Carl had turned aside from the road and now stood 
on the ' Saints' Hill,' from whence the view at sunset is 
so fine. Before him are the towers of Lund Londinum 
Gothorum, the London of the Goths superior to our 
own London in old, perhaps legendary times, when it had 
200,000 inhabitants and we had less than Lund has 
now. Lund is situated on the small river HojeS, which 
was formerly navigable for large vessels. 

From this height Carl can see Malmo and the sea 
beyond ; yes, and what is that fringe to the right, that 
range of further distant towers, melting in the horizon's 
gold ? They are not trees, they are towers the towers 
of Copenhagen. Now indeed he is a traveller ; he 
sees another country ! He must sit down to pause and 
gaze and think. That golden distance seems like his 
life spread out before him. He sits there at gaze, half 


dreaming, while the sun sinks, and then wakes with a 
start to remember he is a stranger to the town and 
has food and a night's lodging to seek. He is 
weary and somewhat footsore. It becomes chilly too, 
the sea breeze carrying the cold so uninterruptedly 
from the Tartar steppes causes him to shiver. It is 
colder here than further inland. The poplars are 
leafless, though budding, and hereabouts the young 
hedge leaves are quite pale green, almost white, as if 
grown in the dark. Still it is a prosperous easy-looking 
land, with slight undulations, and to all appearance well 

Carl entered the town by way of the bishop's palace, 
the hospital and university buildings, through the grove 
of elms and horse-chestnuts round the cathedral. The 
name Lund signifies in Swedish a pleasant grove. 

It is too late to present his credentials, such as they 
are, to-night ; besides, the longer he can postpone the 
ignominious process of showing the Wexio certificate of 
his incompetence the better. He must sup and look 
for an inn, as he does not know the address of his cousin 
Carl Tiliander's lodgings; and as for his relative 
Humerus, the professor with whom he is to live, it will 
be too late an hour to present himself before a college 
don after he has shaken off the dust of travel and made 
the best of himself. Besides, a few more hours of 
liberty will not come amiss. 

The Stadshuset Hotel is much too large and impor- 
tant for his purse. It is customary in Sweden to find 

VOL. I. F 


the town-hall building, where there is mostly a large 
ball-room, used also for theatricals and meetings the 
principal hotel. It was so in Wexio too, as Linnaeus 
remembered. A smaller house, with its modest ' Ruin 
for Resande,' with supper, was soon found. It had been 
light enough to write long after nine o'clock, but the 
excited Carl found so much to record that he lighted his 
candle and sat up late to finish the journal of his travels. 1 
Through life he kept a careful diary, not so much of 
personal occurrences as of his observations. He slept 
like a fossil. 

Carl had told the people to call him early. He had 
no watch a possession well-nigh indispensable in 
Sweden, where you never know in summer when to 
get up, nor when to go to bed, for daylight is no clue : 
in winter it is worse, for the darkness is then as 
perplexing as the overbright daylight in May and June. 
But it seemed, from the many noises of a town, to be 
nine or ten when he awoke. They must have forgotten 
to call him. Land of the great Gustavus, could it be 
that Swedes could thus forget a guest and break their 
promises? At length they knocked. They called it 
six. ' I don't believe it,' muttered Carl ; ' the people 
are too wide awake in the streets for Whitsun week.' 
People do not keep such outrageously early hours in 
Sweden as in Germany : the daylight keeps them up 
later at night. 

The market was being held in the open place before 
1 This one, alas, exists no longer. 


the Stadshuset, and it was raining a small steady rain. 
Carl did not wait to breakfast: he expected soon to 
find his cousin Carl Tiliander. A procession of the 
students was marching across the market-place, with a 
military band, and rabble following. Carl looked among 
the students for the other Carl, but could not distinguish 
him ; it is true he might not have known him. He 
must go and inquire for him at the Akademiska 
Forening, and also for Professor Humerus. 

On his way thither he looked up at the fine white 
Norman cathedral. It is really a grand building. To 
Carl it seemed stupendous, with its vast portal and 
lofty granite towers. It was suited to the time when 
Lund really housed 80,000 people, now dwindled to 
12,000. When desolated by Charles XII.'s wars the 
town had only 680 inhabitants. How much murder 
one man may do and not be hanged for it! Carl 
entered the church, the doors being open, which is not 
usually the case out of service hours in Swedish 
churches. A funeral was going on ; not actually the 
service, but the bier was lying at the foot of the 
seventeen steps leading from the nave to the transept, 
from whence two more lead to the choir, and again three 
steps to the high altar. It was evidently a person of 
consideration who had died, for the coffin was covered 
with wreaths, flags and memorials, and several persons 
stood watching the bier. Awed, but not much interested, 
Carl walked round the church, whose gilt and coloured 
roof was then only a shadow of its present self, for it 

F 2 


has been carefully restored. He walked up on the 
right-hand side, where eight steps lead to the raised 
chancel, examining the monuments, placed tablet-wise 
in niches, of an architect and a king and queen,. 
These look early in date, though, the inscriptions having 
been tampered with, one cannot be precise about it. 
Carl was afraid of being shut in the church, so he hurried 
past the old carved-wood stalls round the choir, by the 
bay where the model stands of the building as origin- 
ally planned, and through the archway facing this 
bay, where niched winged figures stand on grotesque 
animals, which have a Byzantine look, doubly strange 
in Sweden. These sculptures still bear traces of their 
former colours. The great square pillars of the nave ? 
and the great rounded pilasters with their chamfered 
capitals, are as imposing as the best Norman work in 
France. Carl did not then enter the mighty crypt, lighted 
by ten windows and supported by twenty-four pillars 
c the most beautiful and majestic part of the church ' 
which forms a ground-floor storey to the high-raised 
chancel : all of which reminds one of St. Denis, near Paris. 
Here are the colossal images of the giant Finn and his 
wife, said by legend to have built the church. These 
are huge stone figures clasping the great columns, which 
also have chamfered or sculptured capitals. The story 
read to Carl, later, when he had time to think about it, 
as if the old Scandinavian pagan heroes were buried in 
this crypt on the establishment of Christianity : or as 
if in 1080 the powers that then were in Scandinavia 


built this church under the direction of architects from 

This cathedral is said to have been consecrated by 
Archbishop Eskil, an Englishman, in 1145. It is pure 
Romanesque or Norman in its style, and in its sharp- 
edged whiteness reminds one much of the Conqueror's 
and Matilda's churches at Caen. When this was built 
Lund was styled the capital of Denmark. It was often 
the residence of the Scandinavian kings. 

Fergusson, who is never enthusiastic about Swedish 
architecture, says : ' The cathedral at Lund is older and 
better than either of these (Upsala or Linkoping). 1 It 
was commenced, apparently, about 1080, considerably 
advanced in 1150, and the erection of the apse must be 
placed between these two dates. The little gables over 
the apsidal gallery seem part of the original design, and 
are the only examples of the class we possess. With 
these the whole makes up a very pleasing composition.' 
I wonder at the usually perceptive Fergusson not 
recognising above the fine exterior arcade the gabled 
corona, typical of the crown of thorns, for this meaning 
is well known to even ordinary writers on Swedish 
architecture. It is not the only example of this in 
Sweden, and a church in Gothland has the same gabled 
corona. I do not delight in gush, but one may express 
feeling, and Fergusson is really too calm. Its contrast 
with the Swedish wildernesses makes Lund Cathedral 

1 In Fergusson, the name Lidkoping is manifestly a misprint for 


doubly impressive as a stately relic of tlie dawn of 
Christianity in Sweden. 

Leaving the cathedral, of which one watcher by the 
coffin was the only living tenant, Carl hastened through 
the elm groves on his way to the university. In his 
hurry he did not perceive the approach of a student 
who was diligently absorbed in a book. They jostled 
each other, and Linneeus recognised Carl Tiliander. 
To see his cousin and to claim his friendship was one 
action with our Carl ; but Tiliander was cool and did 
not respond to Linnaeus's overtures. The sight of the 
unfortunate certificate was sufficient to make the rising 
young student, who was one day to be a professor in the 
university, pause before he proclaimed his kindred with 
one who seemed at best an unpromising young scamp. 
He would not help him other than by reading him a 
lecture for his good, and Carl never relished such. 

We are nowhere told what was Carl Tiliander's 
relationship to the John Tiliander who was Linnaeus's 
early tutor, but we may be quite sure that whatever 
Carl had heard from John about the boy was bad. 
This Carl was an eminently respectable youth a bit of 
a Pharisee, I fear. He was not, as has been supposed, 
a professor at Lund on Linngeus's arrival in 1727 ; he 
was then only a distinguished student : he became ad- 
junct teacher in Philosophy two years later in 1729. 
This Carl was a celebrated man in his family ; he was 
rector of Jonkoping in 1741 and later a Doctor of 
Divinity. He was twice delegated as representative to 


the Swedish Diet. He coldly advised Linnaeus to do 
the best he could with his awkward certificate, lifted 
his college cap, and passed on. The bells were clanging 
loudly for the funeral. 

Indignant and astounded, our Carl stood rooted to 
the spot ; never, if he starved first, would 'he ask a 
favour of a Tiliander who could thus heartlessly disown 
him. Would Humerus do the same ? He almost dreaded 
now to meet his relative the professor, even though he 
had expressed himself in terms so kindly. The rain 
fell faster than ever. On leaving the shelter of the 
large horse-chestnut trees Carl passed the open square, 
now dignified with the statue of the poet Tegner, 
towards the red-brick round-arched building of the 
Akademiska Forening. Here the funeral procession 
was mustering to move towards the cathedral. The 
white-capped students, assembled under umbrellas, were 
following a grand display of banners with black cock- 
ades. The flagstaff of the building was twined with 
black. Linnaeus waited while the procession filed 
slowly by at the foot of a mound with three rough 
stones set upright, surrounded by four rude slabs a 
runic monument and asked a bystander whose funeral 
it was that was thus honoured. 

1 It is that of a professor in the university Professor 

Linnaeus staggered backward, but recovered him- 
self, and following the procession to the church door, 
entered, and looked again upon the coffin of his only friend 


in Lund. It seemed he was chief mourner there. What 
was he to do ? He went out of the cathedral with the 
others and still followed the procession, which now bore 
the coffin beneath the banners, the chaplets and 
mementoes being carried by the principal students, 
Carl Tiliander walking among the first. They carried 
the coffin first to the Kloster church (near the present 
railway-station), where an office was recited, and con- 
veyed it, now on a funeral car, to the cemetery on the 
high ground to the east of the town. White-capped 
students carried the banners, professors and students 
of the highest grade came next, the whole body of the 
students following to solemn music of a martial kind. 

What was Linnaeus to do now ? He must after all 
bind himself apprentice to one of the numerous shoe- 
makers in Lund. SkSne abounds in shoemakers, for all 
that many little boys run barefoot. That trade is over- 
crowded, for here, as in Denmark, it rains shoemakers 
and shoemakers' boys. 1 

They were all departing, when one of the principal 
men forming the procession perceived Linnaeus, and 
struck by his appearance of dejection as he sat himself 
despondently on a tombstone near the late professor's 
grave, he came up and spoke to him. It was Gabriel 
Hok, the suitor of his sister Anna Maria. Hok recog- 
nised him at once. 

' Hallo, Carl ! what are you doing here ? ' or its 
equivalent in Swedish. 

1 Danish proverb. 


Hok deeply sympathised with Carl's misfortune in 
finding his relative and protector dead on his arrival. 
He looked at the unflattering certificate from Krok 
of the gymnasium at Wexio, and decided he had better 
not hand it in. The case was urgent. Hok took the 
responsibility upon himself, and used his interest to pro- 
cure Carl's admittance into the university, and, with- 
holding the doubtful testimonial altogether, introduced 
him to the dean and rector as his private pupil and pro- 
cured his matriculation. 1 Thus, by Hok rather than by 
Krok, Carl's name was enrolled in the classes and the 
injurious document suppressed. He underwent with 
credit the matriculation examination of the dean and of 
Papke, the professor of Eloquence. He always had a 
silver tongue ; if he spoke he prevailed. 2 Having thus 
settled this important matter, Linnasus was enabled to 
pass the vacation in peace at home ; and, perhaps, with 
Hok's assistance, prepare for his first term. We are not 
told how Linnaeus found means to attend the lectures of 
Kilian Stobasus, the professor of Botany and Medicine, 
which he mentions as beginning on August 21, as 
he had no money to pay the fees ; but he did attend 
them, and these lectures enriched and rendered more 
exact the scientific knowledge of our young botanist. 3 

1 Diary. 

2 Papke's examination is said to have taken place in August 
1727, which has caused Sir J. E. Smith to suppose the matriculation 
was in August. Better evidence goes to show these events took 
place in the spring. 

3 Stoever. 


His attention and diligence interested the professor, who 
pointed out to him the means of making a hortus siccus. 
Linnaeus at once began drying plants and glueing them 
on paper. The dry air of Sweden is favourable to the 
drying of plants. Linnaeus always dried his plants and 
fixed them with isinglass, each on a half-sheet of paper. 
I dare say it was through the friendly offices of Hb'k, 
himself at this time a poor man, that Stobaeus was 
apprised of the ardent student's indigent condition ; so 
that Linnasus found in his extremity of need a second 
good physician ready to hold out a helping hand to a 
struggling young brother. Like the kind Rothman of 
Wexio, Stobaeus offered him accommodation free of all 
expense in his own family, and here Carl for the first 
time in his life met with a well-arranged collection of 
natural history. 

This fact of his being again gratuitously received 
into a family proves Linnaeus's good behaviour and 
manners, for we never hear of the ladies of these families 
objecting to him in any way. Stobaeus had very bad 
health; he was one-eyed, besides, and lame in one foot. 
But what nature had denied him in bodily advantages 
was amply compensated for in the excellence of his dis- 
position and the superiority of his mental attainments. 1 
This was a delightful life. Carl's mind grew apace. 
He became acquainted with curiosities he had never 
seen before. The Natural History Museum of Lund 
contained a fine collection of birds and snow-white 
1 Stoever. 


squirrels and winter-clad foxes from Lapland, besides 
minerals, shells, plants, birds, and other creatures, each 
one a specimen of a vast family out in the wide world. 
The present botanical garden of Lund did not then 
exist. The botanical garden of Carl's time flourished 
upon what is now a waste space in the form of a ne- 
glected shrubbery, where a few ancient cypresses with 
gnarled stems, old enough to have known Linnaeus, 
grow at the back of the old university building l where 
Linngeus studied. This is an oblong brick building 
of the Kenaissance mingled with a bastard Roman- 
esque, in three storeys, with quadrangular turrets 
at the angles and a rounded tower in the centre, 
loftier by a cornice and an additional storey than the 
main building. This central tower has a pure Roman- 
esque portal by which a winding staircase leads to the 
library 2 and reading-room. The books and pamphlets 
are arranged in open frames reaching to the roof. The 
grove of horse-chestnuts in front of this building must 
have been respectable young trees in Linnaeus's time. 

A small red building close by, led up to by a flight 
of steps, also near the large red-brick mansion of the 
Akademiska Forening, is the Kultur Historiska, one of 
the most interesting spots in Lund to Linnaeus, though 
it might now be overlooked among the more elegant 
white stone buildings of the new university, standing 
on a terraced pedestal of granite, in Vitruvian Classical 
style, with pediments and sphynges above the cornice of 

1 Curia Lundensis. 2 Universitets Bibliotekets. 


the central hall. REGIA ACADEMIA CAROLINA is inscribed 
on the garden front of this new university, which has 
been built within the last six years. At the entrance 
door are four colossal female figures with tablets in- 
scribed Theologia, Juris-Scientia, Medicina, Philosophia. 
This assemblage of new and old buildings gives a grace 
and dignity to Lund. PALESTRA ET ODEVM sufficiently 
designates the intention of another brick building com- 
pleting the group. Tegner's statue faces them all. 
The present botanic garden is on the eastern outskirt 
of the town. There are some large tree-ferns in the 
hothouses, and the garden is a fine one, with borders of 
poet's narcissus (in May) a foot deep in long continuous 
chains ; but, excepting these, there is a better display of 
flowers in the windows of the streets leading to the 
gardens. A notice was posted up inviting the students 
on May 28 to go on a botanical excursion to Refta and 
FogelsSng, this latter a favourite haunt of Linnaeus. 

They know nothing of Linnaeus now at Lund, but 
they are very proud of their poet Tegner and his house 
in the Klostergade. The students do not learn modern 
languages ; Greek, it appears, they speak fluently ; a 
little more German would be more convenient, and 
perhaps English; French they do not aim at. Their 
manners are more Gothic here than in the rest of 
Sweden, from their proximity to Denmark, where 
people are less polite, though a great deal of capping 
and bowing goes on. But to return to Linnaeus. 

He was allowed to attend Stobaeus's demonstrations 


of shells, petrifactions, and molluscs, which were ex- 
hibited to Matthias Benzelstierna and Retzius, two 
private pupils of Dr. Stobaeus. 1 

Plants remained, above all, his favourite study. His 
botanical arrangements so far were made entirely accord- 
ing to the system of Tournefort. His experimental know- 
ledge, drawn from nature, was rendered regular, exact, 
and more extensive by that obtained from books. 

There was also a young German student, Koulas by 
name, who lived with Stobaeus, and to whom, among 
other indulgences, was shown that of having access to 
the Doctor's library. Linnaeus formed a close friendship 
with this young man, and in return for "teaching him 
the principles of physiology, which he had learned from 
Dr. Rothman, he obtained books by means of Koulas from 
Stobasus's library, which contained the most valuable 
works on botany. Linnaeus's candle was often seen 
burning far into the night, to the terror of Stobaeus's 
mother, who was very old and a bad sleeper. She 
desired her son to chide the young SmSlander for his 
carelessness. 2 

Carl's candle was inimically observed by another 
person, a student named Rosen, higher in the university 
than himself, and a friend of Carl Tiliander, as well as 
a pupil of Stobaeus. This young man, Nicholas Rosen, 
who had been till now Stobaeus's favourite pupil, was 
jealous of the favour shown to the young Linnaeus at 
times even over himself. Carl was so eager, so clever 
1 Diary. Ibid. 


and original in his observations, that it is no wonder 
a man like Stobaeus enjoyed having the youthful zeal 
and brilliancy about him, encouraging his own drier 
studies and reinvesting them with the poetry they might 
have forgotten. 

Now was Rosen's opportunity. We may admit 
that he really thought badly of his new rival from what 
he had gathered from Tiliander, who was also honestly 
entitled to his opinion ; he thought it would be well if 
the professor's eyes were opened to the fact that he was 
wasting kindness on a worthless subject. He persuaded 
himself he could not bear to see the good professor 
deceived ; for that Linnaeus would disappoint him Rosen 
felt sure. Those two model young men, Rosen and 
Tiliander, were never without excellent motives. 

* Do you see, sir, that light in Linnasus's room ? He 
always keeps it burning very late.' 

' Pooh ! it is nothing.' Stobasus's second thought 
was, ' I fear the poor boy may feel ill.' 

Rosen sneered politely. 

' It may be so, but he loves company, and people 
passing his door have fancied they heard the sound of 

The Rosen doubts crept into the cockles of even the 
professor's unsuspicious mind when night after night 
the lamp shone on the trees outside. What a pity if 
that nice, clever fellow should be tempted into practising 
what were then called the lighter vices ! He was known 
to be of a social, convivial turn, and fond of company. 


He might be making merry with the servants while the 
family had retired to rest. Come what would, the good 
Stobaeus resolved that at all cost of unpleasantness to 
himself the boy should be saved. He burst into his 
room at eleven o'clock, and there sat Linnaeus intrenched 
with the works of Caesalpinus, Bauphius, Tournefort, 
and others. 1 These were his companions. Stobaeus 
ordered him at o*nce to bed after making him confess 
he had persuaded Koulas, the German student, to take 
the books out for him ; but, delighted to find his favourite 
reinstated in his good opinion, he gave him free access 
to his library and made him one of the family, treating 
him, in fact, like a son. 2 

Professor Hok was always kind to Carl, but his 
having taken to the medical branch of study drew him 
out of Hok's supervision, he being a teacher of Divinity. 

Carl had his livelier pleasures too the students' 
carnival of Valborg's mass eve, 3 the Walpurgisnacht, 
when they light the Valborg fires. They collect mate- 
rials for a bonfire on the highest and nearest hill, and the 
young people go up and fire the beacon and dance 
round the blaze in a ring, and tell fortunes by the flight 
of the storks. There were likewise the Midsummer fes- 
tivities, with fireworks and dancing. Carl also was of 
great assistance to his protector in his profession. 
Stobaeus being perpetually harassed with applications 
for medical advice from the nobility of Skne, Linnaeus 
was sometimes called to write letters and give advice in 

1 Stoever. 2 Diary. 8 Valborg's Day is May 1. 


the Doctor's stead ; but when he wrote a bad hand he 
was usually sent away again. 

Besides keeping his regular herbal, Carl made ex- 
cursions into all the neighbouring districts, exploring 
the animal as well as the vegetable kingdoms of nature. 
In an excursion to ' Fogels&ng, in the spring of 1728, 
with a brother botanist, Matthias Benzelstierna, Carl 
was attacked by an accident or malady for it seems 
uncertain which it should be called common to the in- 
habitants of the Baltic and Bothnian coasts. A small 
animal is said to penetrate the skin and bury itself so 
deeply in the flesh that it leaves only a black dot at the 
spot where it entered. Unless immediately extracted, 
the effect of the animal's poison is to cause inflammation 
and gangrene with great rapidity, and death in the 
course of a day or two, or sometimes within a few hours. 
That this malady is indeed caused by an animal has 
been doubted and denied by scientific men ; but Linnaeus 
was convinced of its being so, and notwithstanding the 
suffering he endured while a parish priest was kindly 
acting as surgeon and extracting the substance, about 
half-an-inch in length, from his arm, he carefully 
examined it, and in spite of its injured appearance, 
pronounced it to be a true vermes and called it 
the Furia infernalis, from an idea that it realised the 
description of the fatal powers ascribed by the ancients 
to an imaginary animal so named.' l Linnaeus utilised 
his mythological and other classical studies as aids in 
1 Smith. 


the nomenclature of his discoveries. He was at this 
time especially interested in examining the lower forms 
of animal life. 

Most Swedes think this furia is no worm, but that 
it owes its origin to a poisonous matter injected into the 
flesh by the sting of an insect. Though fruitless the 
result of all the researches made since Linnasus's time 
to discover an example of this worm, yet the disorder is 
common in the fenny parts of Eastern Sweden in autumn. 1 

Darwin, in his book on worms, says, i In Scandinavia 
there are eight species, according to Eisen, but two of 
these rarely burrow in the ground, and one inhabits very 
wet places, or even lives under the water.' It was most 
probably a moist place where Linnaeus was botanising ; 
but Eisen says nothing about stinging worms, and 
Darwin does not concern himself with flesh-burr owers. 
In Scandinavia worm-burrows (in the earth) run down 
to a depth of from seven to eight feet. 

1 Linnseus thus describes the Furia, in his Sy sterna, Natures : 
'Habitat in Bothniae Suecise Septentrionalis vastis paludibus 
caespitosis ; ex sethere deciduassepein corpora hominum animaliumque 
momento citus penetrat summo omnium dolore, immo interdum 
intra quadrantem horae pras dolore occidit, quo et ipse Lundini 1728 
laboravi. Anima 1 nonnisi rude siccatum vidi. Animalibus chao- 
ticis videtur proprietatibus affine. Quomodo aera petat, unde decidit 
a solstitio aestivali in hyemale, nullus dixit.' Linnaeus was no deep 
classical scholar : his Latin was fluent rather than accurate. 

- Sir J. E. Smith. Linnaeus's pupil Solander has recorded 
several cases of this accident or disease, and describes the animal as 
if he had seen it, in the Nova Acta Upsaliensia, vol. i. p. 55. The 
Furia infernalis seems an animalcule one-sixth of an inch long. 
Dr. Solander describes it as dropping out of the air in autumn. 
Art . ' Furia ' in Rees' Cyclopedia. 

VOL. I. G 


Linnaeus appears to have been seriously ill on this 
occasion, as both his biographers l remark that the skill 
of Stobaeus saved his life. His own diary says differ- 
ently : ' The arm immediately became so swollen and 
inflamed that his life was endangered, especially as, 
Stobaeus being about to set off for the mineral waters 

of Helsingborg, he was left to the care of . Snell, 

however, having made an incision the whole length of 
his arm, restored him to his former health.' 2 

Linnaeus had lived with Stobasus about a year, 
and the professor gave him hopes of becoming his heir, 
as he had no children. 3 But now, in order to recover 
his health, Carl went to pass the summer vacation with 
his parents in Smaland, and here he met his first friend, 
Dr. Rothman ; it is very probable he went to Wexio to 
see him, and the doctor advised him to leave Lund for 
Upsala, as a superior school for medicine and botany. 
Linnaeus, too, greatly desired to see more of the world 
and widen his learning, and he resolved to go to Upsala. 
How to compass it was another matter. 

His mother sighed to see Carl employ his whole 
time in glueing plants on paper, to the delight of little 
Samuel, who also loved plants better than Latin, and at 
last she abandoned her long-cherished hope of seeing Carl 
become a preacher. Linnaeus's young mother had been 
passionately fond of flowers, and was always melancholy 
from the frosts of October until spring; yet she now 

1 Stoever and Pulteney. 2 Diary. 

8 Ibid. 


solemnly adjured Samuel to look upon all flowers as 
prickly thorns and stinging nettles. 

c But what is Carl to live on ? ' she asked. 

c Never fear, mother, I will work my way ' ; and 
Rothman said the same. They all believed in him who 
believed in himself. 

' When I was as you are now, towering in confidence 
of twenty-one, little did I suspect that I should be at 
fifty-four as I now am,' thought the father, unable to 
supply his first-born son with the necessaries of student 
life ; perhaps he only felt what Dr. Johnson put thus 
into words. Rothman hinted the possibility of Carl's 
talents gaining for him a pension from Government 
that his studies might be utilised for his country, and 
the great likelihood of one of the many royal and other 
foundations of Upsala falling to his share. The hint 
lighted the spark of hope, the hope at once became a 
conviction in Carl's breast, and with a light heart, light 
luggage, his parent's blessing, and 200 silver dollars 
reckoned at about SI. sterling, his whole fortune all 
that his father could spare him, or his mother save he 
set out for Upsala to make his path to fortune and to 
fame. 1 

Linnaeus was a self-made man. It is as a man, 
and in the history of his self-making, that he is more 
interesting to this generation than as a scientist. 
He left Wexio, Lund, and even Upsala, with a 

1 A. de A. Fee says it was 100 crowns. Were these 6cus, or were 
they kroner ? 100 kroner would be little over 5Z. 

G 2 


reputation utterly disproportioned to his great abilities. 
He had not consulted Stobaeus about his removal to 
Upsala, although he must have written to inform the 
authorities at Lund of his intention, and asked for a 
testimonial of his attainments, as this time he carried a 
splendid Latin official testimonial from the rector of the 
university, in which he was called c politissimus orna- 
tissimusque dominus,' and was declared c to have con- 
ducted himself with no less diligence than correctness, 
so as to gain the affection of all who knew him.' * This 
testimonial, addressed to the Candido Lectori,' is signed 
Arvid Moller, rector. 

' With the stillest face, more touching than if it had 
been all beteared,' the still-young mother watched her 
boy depart, the stalwart son, losing with him her cer- 
tainty of finding a protector to herself and her little 
children, the youngest girl a mere infant. Father and 
mother then turned and again sobbed in each other's 
arms and prayed for their darling, the hope of their 
age and weakness, for whom they had no other help 
than prayer. It was answered openly. 

1 Smith. 



In the very beginnings of science, the parsons, who managed things 

Being handy with hammer and chisel, made gods in the likeness of 


Till Commerce arose, and at length some men of exceptional power 
Supplanted both demons and gods by the atoms, which last to this 

Yet they did not abolish the gods, but they sent them well out of 

the way, 

With the rarest of nectar to drink, in blue fields of nothing to sway. 


UPSALA is distant from Lund seventy-five Swedish, or 
about five hundred English miles ; from Stenbrohult it 
is eighty-four miles less. No biographer tells us how 
Carl made the journey, whether by sea or land, and 
those who mention it loosely give Michaelmas as the 

His previously mentioned pocket-book l says Carl 
took his departure on August 23, 1728, arriving at 
Upsala on September 5. It names Ekesio, Skenninge, 
Orebro, Arboga, Koping, Westerns, Enkoping as his 
route. The writer carelessly inverts the three last 
names, which if taken in that sequence would lead him 

1 Belonging to the Linmean Society. 


directly away from Upsala. Most travellers, poor, 
hurried, and unencumbered as he was, would have selected 
the more direct route by Jonkoping up the Vettern and 
Hjalmar lakes, whence a short road across country would 
bring them to the Malar, giving direct water communi- 
cation to the very quays of Upsala. I can only account 
for Carl's choosing the longer and more expensive route 
by his considering the land journey would afford him 
better opportunities for study on the road. 1 I do not 
purpose describing this line of country, because we shall 
travel over all the region of the Vettern with him in 
his later and less hurried tours. Carl's journey was of 
necessity hurried, for, having only SI. sterling, repre- 
senting his whole patrimony, to embark on life with, 
he could not delay nor turn aside to visit objects or 
places of interest. 

He arrived at Upsala, perhaps the poorest student 
who ever entered her walls. 2 I do not deny it, but the 
authorities have contradictory ways of making it out. 
Stoever says ' he had 200 silver dollars, worth about 
SI. sterling.' This might be so if they were German 
silver dollars, but 200 thalers would be 30. 200 francs 
would be nearer the mark, or Swedish kronor not so 
very far off, but the Swedes did not reckon by kronor 
in those days. I dare not contradict Stoever, lest I 
should rue discovering inaccuracy in a German ; and 

1 His journey averaged thirty-two miles on each of the thirteen 

2 Stoever. 


every little duodecimo biographer of early in this 
century has followed Stoever, via Pulteney, securely, 
and said Linnaeus had 8/. One writer kindly allows 
him this sum annually. 200 silver dollars make about 
40Z., varying of course with the dollar you reckon by. 
There is a considerable difference between SI. and 40/. 
to a young man in any country ; and 40?., according to 
the value of money in Sweden at that time, seems a 
good deal for Carl's father to have spared. Money seems 
to be measured in Sweden something on the Scotch plan 
of punds instead of pounds, and the cost of living is still 
small at the Swedish universities. Lund has now about 
600 students, Upsala double that number. 31. a month 
at Lund and 4/. at Upsala will cover all the student's 
expenses. If this be so now and it is an admitted fact 
Carl's 200 silver dollars made a fair first year's allowance 
for him, even deducting a small sum for his journey. 1 

1 Before 1777 accounts were kept in dahler of 4 marck, or 32 
ore, either in silver or copper coins ; the former being reckoned at 
three times the value of the same denominations of the latter. By 
the regulations of 1777 (which was the reckoning used when Stoever 
wrote his history) the specie riksdaler was to pass for the same 
value that 6 silver dahler or 18 koppar dahler formerly did. Kelly's 
Universal Cambist, 1835. 

The single ducats (the common gold coinage of Sweden) were 
to pass for 1 riksdaler 46 skilling specie; or 11 dahler 24 ore 
silver ; or 35 dahler 8 ore copper. 

The silver dollars used in Linnseus's youth were coins of Frederic 
and Ulrica Leonora, showing the two sovereigns side by side on the 
obverse, the reverse the three crowns of the realm ; and the rarer 
pieces of Charles XII. with the crossed arrows, a crown, and a star 
on the reverse. The rapid changes in value of the coinage after 
Charles XII. 's wars causes the difficulty in reckoning Linna3us's 


The Enkoping road, by which Carl entered the town, 
leads down the hill directly through the group of 
university buildings. The ground-plan of Upsala looks 
imposing on the map ; but as all the ' new town ' is as 
yet unbuilt, we see it pretty much as Carl Linnaeus saw 
it on the day he entered Upsala. 

Was it an omen that the first person he knew by 
sight was Eosen, his antagonist at Lund ? The youths 
met coldly and soon parted. Rosen and Linnaeus were 
about as unsociable as Swedish milestones. Carl gazed 
with more interest on the town itself; but, neglecting 
the fine cathedral, he flew to the botanical garden not 
then what it is now, and vastly different to what 
Linnaeus himself made it and he thought it in- 

The Botanic Garden now has well laid out walks 
and alleys, tall screens of dipt limes and lower hedges 
of hornbeam and other close-grown greenery sheltering 
the various gardens, and a fine botanical lecture-room, 
built in classic style with a peristyle, within which the 
object that first attracts the visitor is the marble statue 
of Linnaeus by Bystrom. The professor of Botany 
resides near the entrance to the garden. The present 
garden is on the high but sheltered ground behind the 
castle ; the botanic garden that Linnaeus saw was on the 
level ground on the opposite side of the river. 

Disappointed in the garden, Carl, impetuous in all his 
ways, flew up what is now the Carolina Park, and away 
by its steep alleys to the hill whereon the castle stands. 


He made himself master of the bearings of the town, 
and with experienced glance at once fixed upon the best 
site for a botanic garden, when he, the radical reformer, 
should once get a voice in the matter ; he examined 
the place with curiosity, considering what improvements 
he should make when high in the university for a great 
man he determined and fully expected to be. On the 
whole, he was pleased with the view of Upsala. These 
are his own words : < Upsala is the ancient seat of 
government. Its palace was destroyed by fire in 1702. 
With respect to situation and variety of prospects, 
scarcely any city can be compared with this. For the 
distance of a quarter of a Swedish mile it is surrounded 
with fertile corn-fields, which are bounded by hills, and 
the view is terminated by spacious forests.' 

Time was flying, and Carl had to report himself as 
arrived and enrol himself in one of the thirteen 'nations ' 
of the university. He had to find himself in lodgings and 
settle down : all this to do before dusk and the days 
shorten in September, especially so far north as Upsala. 
This palpable fact startled the young SmSlander. He 
briskly returned to the town across the broken turfy 
ground behind the castle, through the court (that was to 
have been a quadrangle, only it was never made so, the 
town front of the castle alone being built) containing 
the long-bearded bust of Gustavus Vasa mounted on four 
cannons. He scrambled round among the unfinished 
turrets, finding no path down the steep hill on that side, 
but lingering a moment to behold the panoramic view 


extending all over Upland, comprising Old Upsala, with 
its 'Assize Hill' and the three tall tumuli known as the 
Tombs of the Kings. 1 Geologically, too, this view is 
very interesting, and Carl already knew all the geology 
that was then known in Sweden, and was constantly 
discovering more. The period following the glacial 
epoch was that of the roll-stone or sand-ridges. Such 
ridges are very common in Sweden ; the celebrated 
mounds at Upsala are situated at the end of such a 
ridge. 2 This landscape is studded by Danmark and 
many other towers and villages, the Fyrisa 1 river gliding 
through the broad meadows which fade far off into the 
infinite ring of blue. He made his way round in front 
of the tall pinky-red castle where the green hill, which 
is here almost a cliff, makes a magnificent pedestal to a 
palace, and down into the university quarter if one 
may say so of a town which is all university ; though the 
academic buildings, looking like large private houses, 
are principally grouped on the north-west side of the 
town, just beyond the cathedral precincts. 

While Linnaeus is settling his affairs let us glance 
at the stately cathedral that he, who cared nothing 
for art, so heedlessly passed by. His own monument 
adorns it now, and his remains lie there in honour ; but 
his monument was the last thing he would be thinking 
of just now it was his work that lay before him. 
Victory before Westminster Abbey ! Upsala Cathedral, 

1 They are each 58 feet high and 225 feet in diameter. 

2 Du Chaillu. 


if less imposing than that of Lund, is a fine building, 
harmonious with the city's name of Upsalir, ' the lofty 
halls ' ; and made grander by being built on a height, 1 in a 
commanding and picturesque situation. It is approached 
from the main streets bordering the canal by a flight of 
steps leading through an archway framing delightful 
pictures of the Peasant's church, more ancient than the 
cathedral, and other buildings and parks, most of them 
connected with the university. 

The cathedral is a very interesting building and 
full of charm; but before hearing mine or any other 
traveller's ravings for travellers always come back 
raving from the North, though most of them do not 
intend to visit Sweden again : ' the sea-sickness is too 
horrid ' let us hear Fergusson, who never raves over 
Swedish buildings. He begins his concise account of 
Scandinavian architecture thus : ' No one who has 
listened to all that was said and written in Germany 
before the late Danish war can very well doubt that 
when he passes the Eyder, going northward, he will 
enter on a new architectural province. He must, how- 
ever, be singularly deficient in ethnographical know- 
ledge if he expects to find anything either original or 
beautiful in a country inhabited by races of such purely 
Aryan stock. If there is any Finnish or Lap blood in 
the veins of the Swedes or Danes, it must have dried 
up very early, for no trace of its effect can be detected 
in any of their architectural utterances ; unless, indeed, 
1 Mons domini. 


we should ascribe to it that peculiar fondness for 
circular forms which is so characteristic of their early 
churches, and which may have been derived from the 
circular mounds and stone circles which were in use in 
Sweden till the end of the tenth century.' 

Does this solve the hard fact of Linnaeus's coldness 
to art that he was purely Aryan? But surely the 
Greeks were Aryan too. Or, does Fergusson, having hit 
upon an idea, knock his head against it too hard ? c The 
cathedral of Upsala can scarcely be quoted as an ex- 
ample of Scandinavian art, for when the Swedes, in 
the end of the thirteenth century (1278), determined 
on the erection of a cathedral worthy of their country, 
they employed a Frenchman, Etienne Bonneuil, to 
furnish them with a design and to superintend the 
erection, which he did till his death. After Bonneuil's 
death the French principles of detail were departed 
from.' The university buildings are not individually re- 
markable, although their grouping between the quaintly 
simple lines of the towered castle on its commanding 
hill and the rich Renaissance twin towers of the cathe- 
dral spiring up the valley, together with the undulating 
and well-planted slopes of the ground on the north- 
western bank of the river, makes up a very pleasing 
prospect, with many picturesque points for the memory 
to retain. 

Carl's immediate professors were Olaus Rudbeck 
(junior) and Roberg, both old men. Under them he 
made rapid advances in the different branches of medi- 


cine and natural history ; and, regardless of the fact of 
his bread depending on the name he might win in the 
regular line of study, he revelled in all the gratifica- 
tions of intellectual luxury. Life was one sparkling 

His was a ( bright, healthy, loving nature, enjoying 
ordinary innocent things so much that vice had no 
temptation for him.' Chief among his enjoyments 
we know it from his remarks in after life was to sail 
up and down the river to the Almare Staket, where an 
arm of Lake Malar narrows itself into a more river- 
like branch, until it actually becomes the Fyrisa" River, 
flowing through Upsala. 1 The Malar resembles a great 
sea-anemone, with arms in all directions, only that 
these arms have other arms, and so ad infinitum : a 
deeply pinnate fern-leaf is a more exact comparison. 
To sail through the Malar is like seeing theatrical 
scenery unfolding as the capes and islands retire and 
disclose other islands, and beauties of lake and shore. 

The Almare Island, with the ruined castle of St. 
Erik's Borg, stands in the middle of the strait or Staket, 
where a swing-bridge lets the boat pass into the long 
and sleepy Skarfven, as this arm of the lake is called ; 
the shores are lined with gambrel-roofed cottages set 
in foliage ; boats, fishing-nets, and good agriculture 
enliven the soft and soothing landscape. Then comes 
the red-roofed town of Sigtuna, which has gone so com- 
pletely to sleep these last seven hundred years, that 
1 There are no lakes immediately by Upsala. 


after being one of the largest and handsomest towns 
in Sweden, it is now a mere village with picturesque 
ivy-covered ruins and five hundred inhabitants. The 
massive silver doors of one of its churches were carried 
off in 1187 by the Esths to Novgorod, where they 
may now be seen. Numbers of the white-capped 
students of Upsala are to be met cruising about this 
part of the lake and river nowadays. Rail and steamer 
both aid their peregrinations. 1 

The grass here grows vividly green, and the trees 
are fine and flourishing. Presently (we are sailing to- 
wards Upsala) the foliaged banks subside to a narrow 
low-shored arm of the lake, looking like a shallow 
river rather than a lake, lying between water-meadows, 
until the banks rise again into fir woods and hills 
clothed with silver birch and the foaming white-blos- 
somed bird-cherry essentially a Linnsean tree, as it 
always grows abundantly round his dwelling, wherever 
that may be. 

At Skogkloster once a forest monastery, now a fine 
square chateau, with copper-roofed towers at the angles 
and much magnificence within the water widens out 
into a broad bay on the left bank, and the channel 
turns off to the right towards Upsala. The water's local 
colour is a greenish brown or warm olive, lowered by 
the sky reflections to a neutral grey. The boat here 

1 The undergraduates wear a white cap with a black velvet 
band and a small blue and yellow rosette in the centre, symbolic of 
the Swedish flag. 


enters the Fyrisa" through a drawbridge and by a chain 
of low islets with wind-tost and water-washed fir-trees 
growing on them. The river, shallow, muddy, and rush- 
banked, is rich in water-lilies and marsh plants. The 
green slopes shelve gently upward to the Scotch fir" 
spruce, and pine trees, which feather down to the grass : 
the banks are so rotten that they are worn away by every 
wavelet. The fine modern agricultural school here has 
not devoted its attention to the first principle of riverine 
agriculture, the solidifying of the land-banks. The 
mud dissolves like sugar behind the passing steamers, 
and is swept down in rich liquid form, to settle at the 
bottom of the Malar. 

The boat sweeps by the famous ' King's Meadow,' 
which Linnaeus afterwards so loved, which in spring is 
one carpet of fritillary, chiefly purple, mingled with the 
white and red sorts. High above this historical scene 
rises the round red tower of the Slott, or Castle of 
Gustavus Vasa, with the Dutch-looking town of Upsala 
lying at its foot, and the long stretch of canal- like 
river is closed in by the lofty brick cathedral re- 
flected in the pools between the five bridges. 

Carl, free from care or anxiety respecting his bodily 
support, worked with all possible zeal. He had one 
great disappointment, however. The greatest adept in 
natural history, and especially in botany, in Sweden, 
was Olaus Celsius, 1 the first professor of Divinity, and 
dean of the chapter of Upsala. Linnaeus described him 
1 Olof in the Diary. 


later in a letter to Haller l as the only botanist of his 
country, and Carl had hoped to profit by his learning. 
Celsius at this time was away on official business at 
Stockholm, so that Carl was obliged to continue his 
favourite study with no guidance save that of his 
own genius and the works of the men of the last 
two centuries in fact, the same materials that Celsius 
himself had ; but he was minus Celsius' years of experi- 

A year passed. With his vivacity of temperament, 
he could not manage his small finances to advantage 
he was too sanguine he felt too sure of immediately 
conquering fortune somehow. Well as he had been 
trained in economy, it is difficult to square SI. with 
a journey, clothes, board, lodging, and tuition for a 
year. It is not very easy to do it for 40Z. by a popular 
fellow, naturally open-handed, whose pleasant speech, 
and face beaming with frankest good-humour, made him 
courted by the pleasure-loving youths of the university. 

A short time before Carl came northward, his rival 
at Lund, Nils Rosen, had been appointed adjunctus of 
the faculty of medicine at Upsala ; he laughed at 
LinnaBus's hopes of that pension for his talents which 
Rothman had encouraged him to look for. The pro- 
fessors looked coldly on one who brought no ready- 
made reputation with him, and who seemed unlikely to 
do them credit, as he only pursued an inferior or inci- 
dental branch of learning for botany, until Carl made 
1 Dated from Hartecainp, near Leyden, May 1737. 


a profession of it, was not a profession at all. He was 
finding his level among them, the students thought, and 
Rosen said it. ' Young Linnaeus always had too good an 
opinion of himself.' One would say, we often do say, 
that to know the marvels of creation keeps one humble ; 
yet, somehow, young scientific men are seldom humble, 
in expression at least, and Linnaeus was no exception. 
But he did not often get a snubbing, 1 nor were his days 
sorrowful, though he had not yet set the FyrisS on fire. 
Now were his joyous friendships, his pleasures of hope. 
Carl gave little heed to Rosen now : he was absorbed in 
a deep friendship. Hear the beginning of it in his own 

( In the year 1728,' says Linnaeus, ' I came to Upsala. 
I asked what student was most eminent for his know- 
ledge in natural history. The name of Artedi was 
heard everywhere ; he had studied there several years 
before me. I felt the most ardent desire to see him. 
On paying him a visit I found him pale, downcast, and 
weeping because his father had just died. Our con- 
versation turned on plants, stones, and animals. The 
novel remarks he made, the knowledge he displayed, 
struck me with amazement. I solicited his friendship, 
he wished for mine. How valuable, how happy was 
our intercourse! With what pleasure did we see it 
cemented ! If one of us made a new observation he 
communicated it to the other ; not a day elapsed with- 
out our receiving reciprocal instruction. Rivalship 
1 A Swedish word ; snubba, a rebuke. 

VOL. I. H 


increased our diligence and researches ; though we lived 
at a great distance, yet it would not prevent us visiting 
each other every day. Even the dissimilitude of our 
character turned out to advantage. He excelled me in 
chemistry, and I outdid him in the knowledge of birds 
and insects and in botany.' 

Artedi also studied alchemy : the poor youth added 
the golden dream to that of the lordship of creation. 
Peter, or Pehr, Artedi was two years older than Linnaeus. 
He was born in 1705 in Angermania, likewise of poor 
parents. His behaviour at the college of Hernosand was 
the counterpart of our Carl's at Wexio, preferring the 
study of nature, especially that of fishes, to all other 
accomplishments. In 1724 he came to Upsala to 
study divinity, but he soon exchanged theology for 
natural history. 

Pehr Arctedius for this was his name in Swedish, 
only he shortened it to Artedi went to Angermanland 
to discharge the last duties to his father, and on his 
return gave himself up to the pleasures of a friendship 
with Linnaeus. Artedi was of a tall handsome figure ; 
Linnaeus was shorter, stouter, more hasty in temper, and 
fuller of youth's certainty of success. They both had a 
noble spirit of emulation ; they were ' opposing mirrors, 
each reflecting each ' ; every discovery or thought re- 
turned to each improved, enlightened by passing through 
the other's mind ; the flashes of illumination were caught 
in talk and fixed. 

Enthusiasm is catching. Carl's flame fired Artedi 


also. { As soon as one found himself unequal to the 
progress of the other in one species of study he dedi- 
cated himself to another. They therefore divided the 
kingdoms and provinces of nature between them.' l They 
began to study insects and fishes together, but in a 
short time Linnaeus yielded the palm to Artedi in ich- 
thyology and the latter acknowledged Linnaeus to be his 
superior in entomology. Artedi undertook to reduce 
amphibia, and Linnaeus birds, under a regular arrange- 
ment. Each kept his discoveries to himself, 2 though 
for no length of time, since not a day passed without 
one surprising the other by narrating some new fact. 

Artedi finally confined his botanical studies to the 
umbelliferous plants, in which he pointed out the dis- 
tinction which arises from the differences of the involu- 
crum, leading to a new method of classification, which 
was afterwards published by Linnaeus, with a tribute to 
his friend. i But the chief object of Artedi's pursuits, 
which transmitted his fame to posterity,' says the rap- 
turous old Stoever, ' was the empire of Neptune, or the 
knowledge of the natural history of fishes, called ichthy- 
ology. Linnaeus relinquished to him this province.' 
Emulation is the soul of improvement. Laying their 
plans so as to assist each other in every branch of natural 
history and medicine, Artedi had projected the happy 
plan of introducing a new method and classification in 
ichthyology, which cheered' and strengthened Linnaeus 
to effect the same thing in botany. They ' worked 
1 Linnaeus. 2 Diary. 

H 2 


deliciously hard ; felt light, happy, invincible ' ; and they 
loved like David and Jonathan. 

To Artedi Linnasus was like a young brother like 
himself, but more ardent : as Frederika Bremer says of 
another naturalist (Kingsley), ' a young mind that he 
could like, love, quarrel with, live with, influence, be 
influenced by, follow through the thorny path, through 
tropical islands, through storm and sunshine, higher 
and higher ascending into the metamorphosis of exis- 
tence/ Both were handsome in feature, improved by 
the beauty of expression caused by the habitual admira- 
tion of God's works : the love of beauty, and of God who 
made such beauty, passes into the countenance and 
glorifies it. Their faces were thus habitually cast in noble 
lines, animated by the eagerness of innocent discovery. 
They had no lower lusts, poverty kept them from all 
other indulgence, disciplined them. They had none but 
intellectual pleasures, and these of a fine kind. At first 
they laughed at poverty they, so rich in gifts, health, 
youth, affection, admiration, all that makes life so 

Dans un grenier, qu'on est bien a vingt ans. 
Earth, air, and water were full of their familiar friends. 
They daily sought and found that beauty which Plato 
defines it goes best in French i Le splendeur du vrai,' * 
while Aristotle as truly declares that beauty consists in 
the complete development of beings, each according to 
its sort and nature, the groundwork of all science. The 
1 Which, indeed, is the best definition of Art. 


two young men lodged far apart. Artedi naturally 
preferred the situation by the river-side, below the 
castle hill and the present hospital, where the Strom- 
parterre is now, where the band plays of an evening ; 
while Linnseus chose to be nearer the botanical garden 
and the museums. Sometimes they met farther down the 
river by the flowery ' King's Meadow/ where the water- 
by ssus grows in ditches by the wayside, particularly 
in places sheltered from the wind. ' It resembles the 
cream of milk,' Linnaeus says, ' and is called by the 
peasants the water-flower.' Here both were best suited 
Sometimes they would be seated on the moss-tufted 
castle slopes, where grows the rare moss, the lichen 
nivaliSj 1 looking away over the distance, far-reaching as 
their fancies, talking of the future ; where often also 
the two elderly professors, Rudbeck and Roberg, might 
be seen, as the professors may frequently be seen at 
this day, pacing the grassy terrace in front of the 
castle, not exactly arm-in-arm, but the taller with his 
arm around the other's neck, the shorter holding the 
other round the waist a sight queer to English eyes, 
but which passes perfectly unnoticed here in Upsala : 
these would be talking of the past. And what a difference 
in the ideas and the talk of the two pairs ! Contrast the 
seniors' converse, tough and sententious, with the burning 
young ideas or the limp new-born ones coming forth 
copiously and with every form of expansion. Yet there 
was occult talk between the juniors also, Artedi groping 
1 Linnaeus. 


his way in the unutterable and sublime ; Linnasus more 
practical, eager for praise and profit. Their minds, if 
raw, were receptive. The elders' were closed to any new 
discoveries : memory was broad enough for them. These 
two old professors could not sympathise with the young 
men, but Celsius would come soon, they reflected, and 
Celsius would understand them. 

Young people think our old inheritance of ideas, 
our civilisation, our religion, and our principles are 
ancient petrifactions. They are not so ; rather are they 
like wood, old yet alive, from which spring the shoots, 
the leaves, the sprigs, that look so different. They will 
become the same : intrinsically they are the same. 

Sometimes the youths would dart down the steep 
slopes and chevy away in the far distance in chase after 
a bird or beast, or something attractive viewed miles 
away. Both were swimmers : most Swedes are so, and 
have need to be in that lake country. There was no 
end to Carl's feats of agility in rock or wall-climbing, and 
of adventurous courage to get birds' eggs from orchard, 
cliff, tree, or tower ; unwearying his zeal, that never felt 
fatigue while in the chase, by night or day. Of happy 
disposition generally, Carl was of quick temper; his 
anger was violent, but soon over ; though he would 
sometimes be chafed to exasperation by a seeming trifle. 
He loved the hardest study, laboriously travelling in 
search of facts ; not careering his mind through fine 
districts the villas, parks, and esplanades of classic lore 
but changing ancient unreal dreams for facts, he 


fought his way through difficulties in unknown or fresh- 
broken ground. 

Though genial in temperament Linnaeus cared little 
for athletic sports. Perhaps few Swedes do. I have 
seen Swedish boys at brisk play in the gravelled or 
pebbled squares in front of their grammar schools ; but 
games do not seem to thrive among them like football 
does with us. They are such long years behind us with 
their tools their bicycles, for instance that as we 
laugh at their i wobbling ' movements we forget how we 
grinned at our own early velocipedes. They play 
croquet too, now that it has been for some dozen years 
superseded by lawn tennis. 

Carl's favourite haunts were beyond Danmark 
Church and the ten ancient Mora stones, round by 
Hammarby and Sofja, where the clay soil of Upsala Vale 
changes into the heathland of the hills consisting of 
sand and stones ; he was reminded by these glacier-worn 
rocks of his home in SmSland. Here he could revel in 
discovery ; here he felt those glorious moments when the 
soul, risen by hard-won ways mountains high, overlooks 
the fair world of common things in the clear air, the 
second heaven, of purity. He prolonged the comfort of 
these excursions to the latest autumn, ( those seasons of 
silence and twilight when nature seems to sympathise 
with the fallen ... to soothe and comfort, to inspire 
and support the afflicted.' For as time went on and a 
second winter was approaching a Swedish winter 
and yet appreciation came not, bringing scholarships 


and all fat things, it seemed as if the corporeal portion 
of the complete development of these two poor geniuses 
were at a standstill. Petronius says it is Linnasus who 
quotes him here ' Poverty is the attendant of a good 
mind/ ' Never mind,' said Carl, cheerily quoting a local 
proverb, ' put a Smalander on a barren rock in the sea, 
and he will manage to make his living.' Artedi shook his 
head. Less hopeful than Carl, Artedi was pensive and 
sentimental, and susceptible of soft emotions. Philo- 
sophy is much, but it is not bread and butter. Carl's 
pockets were quite empty, and he had no chance of ob- 
taining private pupils, who, in fact, are seldom put under 
the care of medical students. It is said he obtained on 
December 16, 1728, a royal scholarship, of the value 
of which we are not informed, 1 but which was quite 
insufficient to maintain him. Stoever denies this, and 
it seems doubtful. The Englishman has perhaps con- 
founded this with a bursary he really did afterwards 
obtain Wrede's exhibition, value about 5Z. 

The woodland soft fruits were all' over ; the nuts 
would soon be gone too, and the edible roots that the 
two friends knew so well how to find in summer; 
the fish, too, that they caught, examined, dissected, 
cooked, and ate with their rye biscuit, would soon all be 
locked beneath the ice, as winter fell ' a heavy gloom 
oppressive o'er their world.' Hitherto they had relished 
their plain living and high thinking while, over some 
old book recently ferreted out of the lost corners of the 
1 Smith. 


library, or some fresh winged thing discovered in the air, 
they seasoned their spare dinner with proverbs either 
national or of their own coining, bracing up their soul 
with maxims, persuading themselves that the wants, 
anxieties, privations of life were nought when set 
against the endless rapture of perpetual effort to realise 
a grand conception. 

Had we means answering to our mind. 1 

c Nothing like poverty for strengthening the 
character,' would Artedi say, capped by Carl with 
' Many things are more precious than a full stomach,' 
and his friend's rejoinder by-and-by, that ' royal roads 
do not make a great people.' Yet the burden of their 
inmost feelings was i Oh for Celsius ! Oh, if Dean 
Celsius would but come!' If he came their talents 
must be recognised. ' Alas, good and quickly seldom 
meet,' said Artedi, with the ready proverb's l deep 
though broken wisdom.' The aged medical professors, 
Eudbeck and Roberg, were limited and dull, and little 
inclined for improvement, which meant movement ; and 
old men are disinclined to stir. These men were pamphle- 
tary rather than practical ; but Celsius was still in the 
prime of life and zealous for his favourite science. 

Linnaeus felt his woes deeply aggravated by Celsius's 
prolonged absence, as his coat became more and more 
frayed at the seams and edges, and threadbare. For all 
their tall talk about the royalty of science, it was hard 
when Rosen stalked by neatly dressed, or was seen 
1 Paracelsus, BROWNING. 


sitting at the windows of the Stadhuset dining with a 
professor ; it was hard to feel that they two would be 
known for the handsomest young men in Upsala had 
they but had new coats and white silk caps. Carl's 
shoes, too, he had had them soled thrice ; he thought he 
had better have upper leathers put to them this time for a 
change. At last nothing was left of them but the strings, 
he tramped so much ; and there were irreparable defects 
in some parts of his equipage which could not be con- 
cealed by ' all sorts of coaxing, darning, or sitting 

A blasted bud displays yon torn 
Faint rudiments of the full flower unborn. Sordello. 
But who divines what glory coats o'erclasp of the bulb dormant. 


There was a certain grim humour in seeing these 
two ragged students portioning out the animal, vege- 
table, and mineral kingdoms between them ; dividing, 
as the Eomans had done, the domination of the world. 1 
They who could not buy an oxstek 2 or a juicy turnip in it ; 
yet were they victors. Like Alexander, they had whole 
provinces to their hand in little epitomised on their 
study shelves : collections of rubbish, valueless in them- 
selves, valuable in their classification; their mineral 
collection, complete in granite, and gravel, and iron- 
stone ; the cells for gold and silver empty ; rubies 
would come by-and-by ; meanwhile there was their 
place ready and their analysis neatly written out. As 
Elia says of Captain Jackson, ' with nothing to live on 
1 BaecU. 2 Beefsteak. 


he seemed to live on everything. He had a stock of 
wealth in his mind not that which is properly termed 
content, for in truth he was not to be contained at all, 
but overflowed all bounds by the force of a magnificent 
self-delusion.' Artedi took to himself the realm of 
fishes, which Linnaeus willingly ' conveyanced ' to him ; 
but when Artedi required a province of his friend's own 
particular kingdom, and wished to take the umbelli- 
ferous plants under his rule, this was a harder conces- 
sion to friendship. 

The two friends were always finding something 
fresh, acquiring property too a treasure-chest but of 
a sort whose key was in their mind. There is nothing 
like having little or no cash for making one's collections 
of value. One buys no trash, nothing that salesmen of 
curiosities consider suitable for amateurs. One gleans, 
not from books, but from the substances around, com- 
pleting an area, exhausting the neighbourhood, from its 
chalk-hills to its clay-beds. Each saw himself in the 
glass of his friend's admiring mind, and each felt comfort 
in the possession of commanding talent. They must 
rise, and they would. 

1 Or, staggered only at their own vast wits,' no wonder 
if these two students felt stuck-up, over-elated at times, 
when they considered the education the rest of the 
fellows were getting in the university. Professor Hud- 
beck exhibited to the students his beautifully coloured 
drawings of birds, and Professor Koberg lectured on the 
problems of Aristotle according to the principles of Des 


Cartes. In anatomy and chemistry there was profound 
silence ; neither did our botanist ever hear a single lec- 
ture, public or private, on the study of plants. 1 Oh, when 
would Celsius come and disperse this gloom, stir this 
stagnation, and begin to teach ? 

c During this period of intense receptivity ' 2 Linn&us 
read in the Leipsic commentaries a review of Vaillant's 
treatise on the sexes of plants. Here was a ray of 
light. Oh, for Celsius to come and help him to read 
by it! 

Linnaeus was beginning his second year at the 
university. His pockets were empty ; subsisting on 
accidents, he picked up a meal here and there by 
helping duller students, and from their charity. He 
learned by heart that marvellous lesson in natural 
history, that ' of all God's creatures, man alone is poor.' 
Now his clothes gave way completely, and winter was 
coming on. Winter begins to bite early in Sweden. 
Carl, who was proud of his personal appearance, and 
had always taken pains with his dress, was now glad to 
cover himself with the cast-off clothes of his more 
wealthy companions. He grew used to ' the mean and 
bitter shifts of poverty,' and gaunt and haggard with 
actual famine. 

He often spoke of this in later life (as well as in his 

installation speech in 1741 as professor at Upsala), 

telling how under severest poverty he could return 

thanks to God whose Divine Providence guarded and 

1 Stoever. 2 Jackson. 


supported him. He thus made his own case an en- 
couragement to other poor students, and also a lesson 
in patience ; for victory does not come with a leap her 
path must be laboriously prepared. 

He put cards and pasteboard in the worn-out shoes 
given him by his comrades, and stitched and mended 
them with birch bark, neatly and carefully, for he was 
neat-handed with his glueing of plants and preparation 
of specimens a good thing for him, for, as George Eliot 
wisely says, Some skill with the hands is needful for 
the completeness of life, and makes a bridge over times 
of doubt and despondency.' The lowest price of a pair 
of common boots was nine (copper ?) dollars, and of strong 
shoes five dollars. 1 He thought, as he sat mending 
his shoes, that perhaps the cobbler's trade had been a 
better life after all. This brought to memory his father's 
kindness. He felt like the repentant prodigal I will 
arise and go to my father. But no, his father could not 
help him his parents had too many mouths to feed ; 
he would not sponge upon their small store. 

He would gladly have returned to Stobaeus at Lund, 
but Stobaeus had taken it ill that a pupil whom he had 
treated so kindly should have left the university without 
consulting him. 2 No, he must win his way upwards 
by himself; and as Artedi saw the conqueror shine 
through the darkened splendour of his eyes, he sighed 
that he himself had not the same victorious constitution, 
that he could not equally pull the chariot of science. 
1 Linnseus's Lapland diary. 2 Stoever. 


Meanwhile cold and hunger both grew harder to 
bear ; i the owl, for all his feathers, was a-cold ' ; and in 
the depth of a Swedish winter, where to study one must 
also burn the midday oil, Carl could buy neither candles 
nor oil for his study lamp. Winter was Linnaeus's 
especial enemy, putting ice for minerals, shrivelling his 
flowers to dust, and leaving him thin as his own 
darning-needle. Where a good-natured friend gave 
him a light, it was a sacrifice to burn the rare and 
luxurious candle that he might have eaten. What a 
conflict between the bodily and mental appetite ! 

When Dr. Johnson said l the distinction of seasons 
is produced only by imagination operating on luxury ' 
he had not felt a Swedish winter. What sounds wise 
and sensible when said over the second bottle of port at 
the c Mitre ' is less true when, empty of pocket and of 
stomach, one shivers in thin garments outside the tavern. 
Skating is glorious exercise, but one cannot even slide, 
Sam Weller fashion, barefooted. When one has sewn 
one's boots with birch-bark and pasteboard, one is as 
careful of them as Don Quixote was over the second 
edition of his helmet. 

Nothing in poverty so ill is borne, 

As its exposing men to grinning scorn. 

The Swedes are too polite to sneer at even un- 
professional cobbling, and Carl carefully stitched and 
mended his best shoes so that returning daylight might 
at least enable him to go out and gather plants. Spring 
was opening up after the long and bitter winter, when 


cold and famine fought over his body ; when even his 
mind starved in those noontide twilights, without even a 
rushlight to warm body and soul by ; when at night he 
would shiver for hours till he fell asleep. Each day at 
dinnertime he felt the want of the meal ; and though he 
at first fought this off by trying to absorb himself in a 
book, he found his mind wandering through faintness, 
and he had to go and lie down till the hunger pang 
passed off. Carlyle, in the inflated style of his youth, 
feelingly says, ( Few things in nature have so much of 
the sublime in them as the spectacle of a poor but 
honourable-minded youth, with discouragement all 
around him, but with never-dying hope within his 
heart ; forging, as it were, the armour with which he is 
destined to resist and overcome the hydras of this 
world, and conquer for himself in due time a habitation 
among the sunny fields of life.' The ancient Scandi- 
navian spirit within him made Linnaeus ' firm to inflict 
and stubborn to endure.' 1 

But the broad blaze of summer now coming, when 
even beggars might be fed cheap and warmed for 
nothing, would be all the more radiant for the long 
howling darkness of six months. Even this dreary winter 
stage had been sweetened to Linnaeus by youth's hopes 
and friendship, the sweet savour of life, the peculiar 

boon of heaven, 

To men and angels only given, 
To all the lower world denied. 

The friends inspired and warmed each other with fine 
1 Southey. 


words, and such visions Linnaeus could raise by his 
eloquence in the mind of his hearers, his Pylades, his 
1 solitary luxury, his friend,' that at times they even 
grew drunk with the wine of their enjoyment. But 

Fate is tardy with the stage 

And crowd she promised. Lean he grows and pale, 

Though restlessly at rest. Sordello. 

Sadly Carl munched his rye biscuit by the warmth 
of the stoke-hole fire in the winter plant-house, and still 


The woods were long austere with snow ; at last 
Pink leaflets budded on the beech, and fast 
Larches, scattered through pine-tree solitudes, 
Brightened . . . Our buried year grew young again. 

Carl, who had sighed for Celsius to come for his 
instruction merely, now looked to his coming as his only 
possible salvation. How, he knew not ; but with all the 
faith not yet starved out of him, he was sure that a 
new life for him would at once begin. He was now in 
debt for his lodging, and debt gnaws sharply. 

At last, in desperation, and by the advice of Professor 
Eoberg, Carl applied for the situation of gardener in 
the academy gardens ; but this was refused him by Pro- 
fessor Rudbeck, who remarked at the same time that he 
thought him qualified for a far superior station. 1 He 
says ' he repined very much at this denial.' 

Oh, if he could but be free of debt he would forsake 
all his hopes, all his dreams; he would leave Upsala, 
leave his friend, and go home and be obscure ! With 
1 Diary. 

UPS ALA 113 

energies burning themselves out unused, anxiety, worn- 
out hope, and leanness preyed upon him. He did not 
know what it was to have a full meal. Bitterest of 
all to him was the sense of failure. There was one 
lower step. If our Johnson felt savage as he did when 
some well-meaning clumsy person put new shoes out- 
side his door, what must Linnaeus have felt when Rosen, 
who was now going abroad for the purpose of improv- 
ing himself and obtaining his Doctor's degree (which 
by the Swedish rule must be taken in some foreign 
country), left him an old but respectable suit Rosen, 
who had despised Linnaeus in his rags ! 

' I would rather die than put it on,' cried the fierce 
Linnaeus. In debt though he was, he could not be 
indebted to Rosen. The excellent Rosen complacently 
thought of coals of fire. Rosen went abroad, and by- 
and-by became a distinguished man at Upsala ; he was 
ultimately ennobled as Von Rosenstein. In the mean- 
time his place as adjunct teacher was supplied by an 
incompetent student named Preutz. Linnaeus, bound 
by poverty and chained by debt, could not leave Upsala 
even to become a mechanic in SmaUand, not for all the 
flowery language in which Stoever talks of his taking 
leave of the Muses and of the goddess Flora. But he 
endeavoured to do so : he made a determination : he 
would beg money of his father, of his relations, of 
Stobaeus ; he would so far humble himself, and leave 
Upsala and the bright future he had failed to conquer. 

Oh, for Celsius ! Oh, why had Celsius never come ? 

VOL. I. I 




Thou seek'st in globe and galaxy, 
He hides in pure transparency. 
Thou ask'st in fountains and in fires, 
He is the essence that inquires. 
He is the axis of the star ; 
* He is the sparkle of the spar ; 
He is the heart of every creature ; 
He is the meaning of each feature ; 
And his mind is the sky 
Than all it holds more deep, more high. 

Woodnotcs, EMERSON. 

LlNN^EUS was about to quit Upsala, when, standing one 
morning in the garden he loved so well, before a newly- 
opened flower one he had never seen bloom before^- 
* I will cut it/ said he ' a last specimen for my herbal, 
a " minne " of happy days gone by and then depart/ 

Carl stood not in the garden alone : a voice answered 
from behind, ' You will do no such thing ; leave the 
flower.' It was the professor of Divinity at Upsala, 
in gown and ruff; it was Dean Celsius himself, but 
Linnaeus did not know him. 

Old Stoever gives another version of the tale. I 
prune it of some of his exuberant syllables. ' One day 


in the autumn of 1729 ' [it was, in fact, early summer], 
* while Linnaeus was intently examining some plants 
in the academic garden, there entered a venerable old 
clergyman ' [Stoever always adds the picturesque touch, 
but Celsius was just forty-nine. 1 Is that such a vener- 
able age ?] ' who asked him what he was about, whether 
he was acquainted with plants, whether he understood 
botany, whence he came, and how long he had been 
prosecuting his studies. 

' Linnaeus answered all these questions, and, when his 
interlocutor showed him various plants, mentioned their 
names agreeably to the system of Tournefort. Being 
further asked what number of specimens he possessed, 
he replied that he had above 600 indigenous plants pre- 
served in his cabinet. He was requested to accompany 
the gentleman who had thus interrogated him to his 
house, which proved to be that of Dr. Olaf Celsius, and 
the interrogator was the Doctor himself just returned 
from Stockholm.. 5 

The Dean spoke kindly to the youth ; Linnaeus 
trembled like the aspen. Intuition told him who this 
was. Had Celsius, had Fortune really come at last ? 
Carl's thin cheek reddened, his eyes filled at the tone of 
kindness. Hot tears, a choking sensation in the throat, 
came at the words of encouragement from an elder ; the 
first for so long. Youth is always so hungry for kind- 
ness, and Carl was used to wanting bread. The ragged 
youth spoke of the plants to Celsius, describing them 
1 He was born 1680. 

i 2 


with an exactness surprising in a student, and upon 
nearer conversation displayed such extensive knowledge 
as struck Celsius with astonishment. At last the sun 
had risen upon Linnaeus. They talked; the dean 
listened with interest while the young man spoke with 
an enthusiasm which for the moment sent the rich 
blood of health into the student's pale features, long 
since wan with insufficient food. His threadbare 
clothes and patched shoes told their own tale ; ' starva- 
tion wrote as a. notice-board on his hollow cheeks, 
skinny fingers, and sunk eyes, went straight to the 
heart.' 1 Soap costs little and water nothing in Sweden, 
and manners come by nature : the gentlemanly bear- 
ing and the exquisite personal cleanliness of Linnaaus 
made him known for a gentleman at once ; all the rags 
in Upsala could not disguise the gentlemanhood of the 
man refined by loving all things lovely. 

Carl had an agitated walk to Artedi's lodgings. 
His eyes glittered with excitement as he told the good 
news to his friend. Now they should both get on : he 
would give his friend a helping hand. How volubly 
they talked ! It was as good as a full meal to both. 

Inquiries were made. Celsius heard of Carl's dis- 
tresses and his inoffensive mode of life, and the dean 
took him into his house and was ever kind to him, and 
made him tutor to his younger children. The advan- 
tages were mutual. Celsius too had found what he 
wanted. For thirty years he had been intent upon 
1 Sam Slick. 


illustrating the plants of Scripture, and, himself an 
adept in Eastern tongues, had travelled to the East to 
inquire into and study these plants in their native soil. 
He was now at work preparing his ' Hierobotanicon :- a 
Critical Dissertation on the Plants mentioned in Scrip- 
ture,' only needing some more youthful help to make the 
work perfect and bring it before the world . Now had come 
the hour, the man, and the collaborator ready made to 
his hand. < There is no education like adversity ' : one 
readily turns one's hand to anything. Linnaeus bore an 
active share in the production of this learned work, 
which is in Latin, and, alas, sadly fails in interesting 
the ordinary reader. It was published in 1745 and 1752 
in two volumes. As there were only two hundred copies 
printed, the book is of course now very rare, which is as 
well. The dean could not even interest his eldest son in it ; 
but then he was working at his own line of mathematics. 
The arrival of this young man, just six years older than 
himself, was a great additional pleasure to Linnaeus. 
They became firm friends. Andres Celsius is one of 
Sweden's most celebrated men. Later he joined Mau- 
pertuis and his associates in the measurement of the 
Lapland degree, and afterwards built an observatory at 
Upsala. He was the first who employed the centigrade 
thermometer. He wrote astronomical and meteorologi- 
cal observations and a collection of the Aurorae Boreales 
observed in his time in Sweden. 1 Linnaeus, however, 

1 Under the title CCCXVI Observationes de Lumine Boreali, 
1733. Nuremberg. Andres Celsius, born 1701 at Upsala, died 1744, 


took a deep interest in the ' Hierobotanicon ; ' as we shall 
see later on, it was a subject on which he felt keenly aa 
the central point of botanical study, comprising as it 
does objects of such vital necessity and convenience 
to mankind. This book of Celsius' could never have 
satisfied Linnaeus, who would have liked a complete 
Flora Palestina with all the plants that Scripture does 
not mention by name as well ; but it gave him an in- 
sight into the way of preparing such works 7 and made 
him ambitious himself to become an author. 

The sap rose in the frozen body : it was the spring- 
tide of his life, and, as usual, the epoch of creative 
power. Carl had already composed a little catalogue of 
his botanical observations, under the title of ' Spolia 
Botanica,' Upsala, 1729. 1 This was never published. 
The original, written in Swedish, is preserved with the 
collection of MSS. brought to England by Sir J. E, 
Smith. It was dedicated to Professor Eoberg, and 
contains sketches of a few of the plants, arranged on 
Tournefort's system, and a rude map of their habitat. 

must not be confounded with his father Olaus Celsius, 1680 (some 
say 1670) to 1756, theologian and botanist ; or with his grandfather, 
Magnus Nicholas Celsius, 1621-1679 (?), mathematician and botanist. 
Linnseus probably accompanied the younger Celsius in a rapid visit to 
Dannemora, of which we find the only trace in the dates in tlie 
note-book previously mentioned : ' Journey to Dannemora, May 24 ' 
[he had just kept his birthday], 1729 ; June 10, travelled to Upsala/ 
No biographer of Linnasus mentions tlds expedition. It must have 
been very soon after his appointment with Celsius. The dates of his 
life at Upsala present many difficulties, Stoever, the diary, and the 
note-book are so contradictory. Even Linnaeus's own written dates 
do not always tally. 
1 Pulteney. 


The arranging of the ' Hierobotanicon * was one of 
the chief motives which made Celsius take Carl into 
his house (though he afterwards became like a son to 
Celsius, and he a father a true adoption). For this 
purpose also he had free use of Celsius' library, one of 
the richest and most valuable in Sweden. Here Carl 
now met with Vaillant's small treatise on the sexes of 
plants, 1 a review of which he had already read in the 
Leipsic commentaries ; which gave him the first notion 
of the sexual distinctions of flowers, the groundwork of 
his celebrated system ; which, after all, contains the 
spark of a grand illumination. Hitherto he had worked 
on Tournefort's lines of classification by form. 

This was the germinating moment of his life. To 
many of us it happens to be once, if only once, struck 
dead, as it seems, to all outward things by the lightning 
shock of an idea. This flash is what must be brought 
to crystallisation by hard and continuous labour. This 
idea immortalised Linnseus's name, and deservedly so, 
since although this was no new notion that of sexes of 
plants Linnaeus first applied it to classification and 
elucidated it. ' Principles had to be imbibed in copious 
draughts all through his education. The collision, 
combination, harmonising of these constitute specula- 
tive insight and conduct to original thought.' 2 The 
Linnaean is an artificial system ; its author saw that fact 
as plainly as we do. But, though imperfect, it was a 
high road towards a new method of thought. 

1 Sermo de Structura Florum. 2 Bain on Mill. 


It was a new doctrine in his day, and brilliant 
in its brand-new gloss, although derived from a hint 
as old as Aristotle, who gives this glimmering ' If 
the dust of the branch of a male palm be shaken over 
the female tree, the fruit of the latter will ripen quickly.' 
Le Vaillant was not the first to read Aristotle, but he 
was the first to apply the idea to flower-structure, to 
the pistils and stamens of plants. One can go further 
with other people's ideas than with one's own, is a saying 
true all the world over : it was left to this young Swede 
to take the leap from Le Vaillant's standpoint and bring 
the long-desired system out of the obscurity beyond. 
' Till now Linnaeus had considered plants by their bloom, 
hitherto the stamina and pistilla had been considered in- 
significant.' A mere finish to the beauty of the flower, 
a fringe and tassels. ' The idea of a better system than 
that which Vaillant had hinted now guided his botanical 
observations.' As in human nature families are named 
from their marriages, so with plants he would make 
this the basis of nomenclature. The further he brought 
his theory forward the more consistency did he discover 
in his own knowledge, the more powerful were the 
attractions of the plan. Oh, the fear lest someone 
might forestall him ! And this alarm was not un- 
founded ; for though a truth may have lain dormant 
for thousands of years, yet the moment the earth is 
ready for its appearing it will spring up, and someone 
will, and must, be the first to light upon it. 'The 
sexes of plants now occupied his thoughts night and 


day.' 1 During this time of intellectual fever he kept 
his ruind jealously aloof. He hugged his precious 
secret even from Artedi : their habit of keeping their 
discoveries close till perfected was of service to him 
now : he would wait until at last he could bring out 
his fair idea complete, clothed in a system, and show 
his new Eve to his bosom-friend, and then under four 
eyes only. Artedi was the first ; next day it was un- 
expectedly public to all Upsala. A disputation was 
held before Bishop Wahlin on the 'Marriage of the 
Trees : sive Nuptiae Arborum.' This was a blooming 
new idea in the summer of 1730. 2 Linnaeus was pre- 
sent. The subject of the controversy was familiar to 
him. None found it more pleasant, nor had anyone at 
Upsala studied it better than himself. 3 Linnaeus was 
in his element ; now was his hour the opportunity 
that comes once in life to all men. Even Artedi, his 
bosom-friend, was astonished at his radiance. 

The account in the diary adds a few particulars. 
' There was just then published a philological disserta- 
tion " De Nuptiis Plantarum " 4 from the pen of George 
Wahlin, librarian of the university; and as Linnaeus 
had no opportunity of publicly opposing it, or of stating 
his doubts, he drew up in writing a little treatise on 
the sexes of plants, and showed it to Dr. Celsius, who 
put in the hands of Dr. Rudbeck. The latter honoured 

1 Diary. 

* Glittering Darwin's Loves of the Plants delighted the reading 
world in 1789. FREDERIC HARRISON. 

1 Notes for Biography Linn. * Or Arbwwm. 


it with the highest approbation, and expressed a wish 
to be better acquainted with the author. 

This small treatise, replete with new and luminous 
observations, delighted Professor Rudbeck; he was 
struck with the young author's spirit of observation 
and the solidity and novelty of his knowledge. Old 
Rudbeck was not altogether one of those professors 
' miserable creatures lost in statistics ' ; he loved a theory 
dearly. He wrote paradoxes by the score, and a thick 
book of hypotheses to prove that all Europe was civi- 
lised from Sweden. 

i We'll verify his words, eh, Artedi ? ' l said Linnasus. 
The young men used good-humouredly to laugh at the 
good old theorist. ' Rarely has such a variety of profound 
and extensive learning been united as in Rudbeck,' 
writes Linnasus. * But he maintains the strangest and 
most unbounded paradoxes. He pretends that Sweden 
was the abode of the ancient Pagan deities and of our 
first parents ; the terrestrial paradise, the true Atlantis 
of Plato ; and that it was the origin of the English, the 
Danes, the Greeks, the Romans, and all the rest of the 

Linnaeus was brought forward to dispute upon his 

1 The view now gaining ground is that the Aryans originated 
in Europe, say in North Germany or Sweden, that the Sanskrit- 
speaking conquerors of the Land of the Five Rivers were, in fact, 
the Eurasians of their time. Mr. Saporta's notion is that the human 
race originated within the Arctic circle at a time when most of the 
surface of the globe was too hot to be inhabited by man. Hibbert 
Lecture, May 1886. 


thesis, which he did in the most brilliant style. With- 
out a copper dollar in his pocket, though no longer in 
rags, he was an object of great attention. This was 
life indeed. It was as if he had dropped from the stars, 
so little had he been recognised in Upsala. ' Thought 
is the soul of act.' He had prepared his soul in unre- 
cognition, as all such souls must be prepared. Now he 
could expand, give wings to thought, ply act on act ; 
build an edifice on what was once but a theory, like an 
architect's design set in accomplishment. To work out 
both demands outward influence. His was a fresh soul 
created, late in space, as the new stars are, when the 
world was ready to receive it. 

Professor Rudbeck, under whom he had been prin- 
cipally working, was the most amazed. Celsius' swan, 
then, really was a swan. We can readily fancy the 
triumph of the worthy dean in having at once made 
the discovery that the other professors in over eighteen 
months had failed to make. Of course some envy was 
excited, but Rudbeck was too generous to feel piqued 
with either Celsius or the youth. 

Most people know who Rudbeck was, but in case 
overloaded memory should confound him with a greater 
Olaus Rudbeck, his father, I will faintly outline the 
lives of both. Olaus Rudbeck, junior, born 1660, was 
the son of Rudbeck, an anatomical discoverer, or more 
like what we now call a comparative anatomist, protected 
by the clear-sighted Queen Christina of Sweden. The 
senior Rudbeck established the botanical garden at 


Upsala. He travelled at the Queen's expense and 
collected a vast quantity of plants and herbs, most of 
which, and the greater part of his valuable writings, 
with nearly all the 1,000 blocks prepared for the en- 
gravings of his great botanical work, were destroyed in 
the great fire at Upsala in 1702. Oxford possesses some 
relics of this work, and the Linnaean Society a few of the 
engraved blocks. Rudbeck did not long survive the de- 
struction of his labours : he died at Upsala, December 12, 
1702, leaving his son, who had accompanied him in his 
Lapland travels, to carry on his work and repair if 
possible the havoc of the fire. Linnaeus named a plant 
after him. The junior Rudbeck (with whom his father's 
dying wish was a pious heritage that he had never yet 
been able to fulfil) was now seventy, and going out and 
giving lectures were difficulties for him. He wished 
for an assistant. Rosen being gone, Rudbeck had hitherto 
employed his nominee, Preutz, to read his lectures for 
him ; but his incompetency deprived them of all their 
spirit : a dull man himself, Preutz dimmed whatever he 
handled. The perusal of Linnaeus's treatise, and further 
examination, determined Rudbeck to fix on him to 
replace Preutz. Accordingly, he invited Carl to live in 
his house, and give the botanical lectures for him. 

Linnaeus was examined by the faculty and judged 
worthy of being placed (as adjunctus) in Preutz's stead. 
' Professor Roberg, however, thought it hazardous to 
make a teacher of a young man who had not yet been 
three years a student, and still more so, to entrust him 


with the public lectures. But there was no other 
person so proper. 1 

This was in 1730. The young student of twenty- 
three supplied the aged professor's place with every mark 
of approbation. The botanical lectures became the talk 
of Upsala and the attraction of the university. The viva- 
city of Carl's instructions and the novelty of their matter 
charmed his audience, accompanied as these were by all 
the graces of delivery, and the secret of oratory to be in 
earnest. His heart was in the work, his handsome face 
glowing with the love of lovely things as he joyfully 
taught the students what his superior talent had enabled 
him to discover. They relished it as our generation 
has enjoyed receiving light at Ruskin's hands. The 
effect of his teaching was heightened by the beauty 
of his voice and diction, and the enthusiasm that fired 
and enlivened his whole frame, giving a dignity to his 
personal appearance which had never been remarked 
before. He seemed born for a professor. The young 
lecturer himself gained by his residence with Rudbeck 
an extensive acquaintance with ornithology a great 
conquest for one who took the whole of nature for his 
province ; and he now laid the foundation of several of his 
works the ' Bibliotheca Botanica,' ' Classes et Genera 
Plantarum ' ; for which works Professor Rudbeck's fine 
collection of books and drawings was of infinite use. 

His good fortune did not come single. When one 
person has made a discovery (of a person, place, or thing) 
1 Diary. 


another will usually follow in his wake, the brilliant 
trail of light being visible and self-evident. Not only 
was Preutz obliged to give way to Linnaeus, who thus, 
after little over two years' residence at Upsala, was 
judged qualified to teach the science of botany, but 
Rudbeck, knowing him to be tutor to Dean Celsius's 
children, engaged him in the like capacity to his own 
sons by his second wife. Carl now said grace before full 
meals ; and as the students entertained the most marked 
contempt for Preutz's abilities, many of them as Let- 
strom, Sohlberg, and Archiater Rudbeck's first wife's son, 
Johan Olof put themselves under the private instruc- 
tions of Linnseus. The presents they made him enabled 
him to assume a more decent appearance in his dress. 1 
Dress for gentlemen was a more important and exten- 
sive thing than it is now, involving ruffles and em- 
broidery and much fine linen. As adjunctus oh 
triumph of all ! he held Rosen's very post. 

Now Carl had enough to do ; what with the ' Hiero- 
botanicon,' lecturing for Rudbeck, these tutorships, and 
his private pupils, who flocked to him so soon as he did 
not need them, and his own books, to say nothing of 
his researches tacked on to his regular studies in 
medicine, he was in a whirlwind of work. ' His morn- 
ings were passed in giving instruction to pupils and 
his evenings in composing the new system and meditat- 
ing a general reform of botanical science. He began his 
" Bibliotheca Botanica," " Classes Plantarum," " Critica 
1 Autobiography. 


Botanica," and " Genera Plantarum." Hence, not a 
moment passed unoccupied during his residence at 
Upsala.-' 1 

But he was so strong and young that nothing came 
amiss to him. ' Blessed is he who has found his work ; 
let him ask no other blessedness. He has a work, a' 
life purpose ; he has found it, and will follow it.' 2 
Celsius had brought spring out of the winter of Carl's 
discontent. Poverty had not narrowed his mind, but 
now he felt a renewing as he bathed in the bliss of work. 
It was no fancy, or, if fancy, then ' most real and practical, 
as many of our fancies are.' He was endowed with 
twenty-student power no, twenty-tutor power. No 
bird, or beast, or insect passed by him unnoticed ; while, 
for the beautiful embroidery of the earth, ah, there are 
times when, for very gladness, tears only can express 
our reverence, thankfulness, and perception of the 
beautiful. Linnaeus had little imagination ; and if he 
seemed to lack veneration also, and perception of the 
beautiful, it was because the artistic capability which 
expresses these was deficient, yet these things reverence 
and perception were there, unspoken but not unfelt. 

Carl now seemed to belong to the successful class, 
who have never known what it is to lack a meal in their 
life ; and with advantages of dress and pocket-money, 
he looked a different creature to the lean starving 
student of last year. Prosperity told upon his humour 
too : now that he was better off, that he had no 
1 Stoever. 2 Carlyle, Past and Present. 


gnawings of poverty to contend with, he became popular. 
The elder professors enjoyed his wit and humour they 
love to be lightly amused, the old do ; the younger and 
more earnest sought him for the less sparkling treasures 
of his mind. A walk with him was of immense interest ; 
he crowded the air and earth with things of life ; Pan 
lived again. He abounded in conversation, and delighted 
to pour forth the treasures of his knowledge, and 
thoughts no longer unspeakable ; tongue-loosened by 
the oil and wine of gladness, revealing to their astonish- 
ment Nature's open secret. It was not the money he 
made : it was the fact of success, of appreciation, that made 
him 'burst out and rollick along in the joy of existence/ 
Youth had long been stoppered back with him. It was 
his delight in finding those dreams were true all with 
which he used to live in dreamland with Artedi. 

Ah, why was there no Boswell at his elbow to colan- 
der his best for us ? The diaries only give us the bare 
facts : we know not what it was to hear his thoughts, 
fresh, full, powerful like a clear mountain stream; but 
we know for certain it was fine to hear his ideas bubble 
forth new-born in beauty in his native tongue, for in after 
years students, ay, and professors, crowded to Upsala 
simply to hear him speak in Latin too. These would 
not have travelled to that far-off nook had not the 
object been well worth the journey. He was a good 
listener too, and loved to hear Rudbeck tell all about bis 
journey with his father into Lapland, and the wonders 
of the great lone North. Eagerly he explored the 


ruins of old Kudbeck's work and wished the whole 
could be restored. One of the elder Rudbeck's works 
he did restore. 1 ' Owing to Rudbeck's age and infirmi- 
ties the botanic garden had fallen into a very low con- 
dition. Carl caused the garden to be entirely altered 
and planted with the rarest species he could procure, 
both indigenous and exotic, according to a method of 
his own. He also instituted botanical excursions with 
his pupils, who had become numerous. To hear all this 
must have rejoiced his father. It was, indeed, a hopeful 
change that Carl was now thought capable of teaching the 
science of botany, and placed virtually at the head of an 
establishment in which a year before he had applied for 
the situation of gardener. Besides botany ' it was de- 
creed,' says Stoever's quaint translator, ; that he should 
establish a better order in the other reigns of nature, 
especially among the classes of the animal reign.' One 
would think he was translating from the French. 

We hear less of Artedi now. ' We have been brothers, 
and henceforth the world will rise between us ; ' 2 but 
success did not harden Carl's heart, nor make him 
unmindful of his beloved friend ; while of Celsius he 
never spoke but in terms of reverence and warmest 
admiration. Carl possessed greatly the arts of winning 
and keeping affection. 

In Linnaeus's eagerness to hear all that the garru- 
lous Rudbeck loved to tell of his father's travels in 
Lapland, which it had been left him as a sacred legacy to 
1 Diary. 2 Paracelsus. 

VOL. I. K 


perpetuate, the professor now thought he saw a way to 
renew all the parental discoveries. Linnaeus's youth and 
strong constitution, his remarkable powers of mind, and 
his energy pointed him out as the deputy for the 
work Rudbeck himself had failed to fulfil. The Eoyal 
Academy of Sciences at Upsala had long fostered the 
hope of forming a complete survey of the whole of 
Sweden, investigating its capabilities and its natural 
treasures in order to develop the latent resources of the 
country. Prompted, doubtless, by Rudbeck's great 
desire, they proposed to begin by a searching examina- 
tion of the arctic regions of Sweden. ( They wanted a 
fresh and virgin intelligence to observe and consider the 
country.' l Celsius and Rudbeck both proposed that 
Linnaeus should undertake the first expedition, and 
without one thought of the difficulties of the under- 
taking, the small pay offered, and the disadvantage of 
being lost to sight of the scientific world for many 
months, Carl accepted the offer with alacrity, and al- 
though the Lapland expedition could not take place 
till next summer, he at once made his preparations and 
arranged his affairs, chiefly negotiating the publication 
of his manuscript books. 

The author of ( Spolia Botanica ' had not when he 
wrote it in 1729 * espoused his theory of a sexual differ- 
ence in the vegetable kingdom, though within three 
years afterwards it was sufficiently matured in his mind 
for the arrangement of the Lapland plants in that 
1 D 'Israeli's Endymion. 


method.' l Now that he had formed his own system, he 
seems to have given up all intention of publishing this 
his earliest work. Linnaeus thus advertises the MS. of 
his second book: ' Upsala. January 1732. A student 
of medicine and natural history at this university, of 
the name of Carl Linnaeus, takes great pains to repre- 
sent these two sciences, and botany likewise, in a better 
light, and to render them more nourishing. The foreign 
herbs and plants, which are cultivated either in the 
fields or gardens of Upland, have already been enrolled 
by him in a little work which appeared last December, 
1731, called Hortus Uplandicus." ' 

In this book he speaks with praise of his father's 
garden at Stenbrohult on account of the great number 
of rare plants in it. 

Pulteney, in a footnote, says, ' Stoever mentions a 
work of Linnaeus called " Hortus Uplandicus," which is 
supposed to be the first in order of time of all his pro- 
ductions ; but as the date of it is 1 730 2 it would not have 
been earlier than the work mentioned above (" Spolia 
Botanica "). The arrangement is stated to be founded 
on the doctrine of a sexual difference. I do not find any 
mention of the " Hortus Uplandicus " in the catalogue of 
Linnaeus's works given in his own diary.' ' Which,' had 
Stoever but seen the diary, he would comment thus in 
his polite, roundabout, and long-winded way of learned 

1 Pulteney. 

2 This book was written two years before the advertisement of 
it appeared. 

K 2 


squabble-conducting, ' which by the intensely-respect- 
able-well -born-but-not-his-eyes - using - English - gentle- 
man a careless -and -idiotic -manner -of -precious- and - 
priceless - documents - an - evidence -of- unenlightened] y- 
searching-example is.' For the name is in the diary as 
plain as a pikestaff and in Pulteney's own book too, 
second edition. The real difficulty is that he has muddled 
the dates, both year and month of when the book ap- 
peared: errors which Stoever must have crowed over 
when he met with Pulteney's work. 

Linngeus thus prematurely announces another book ; 
or it is advertised for him : ' Upsal, February 15, 1732. 
An able student of medicine, Mr. Carl Linngeus, causes 
a botanical work to be printed here, entitled " Funda- 
menta Botanica." ' This did not appear till four years 
after, in 1736, at Amsterdam. Linnaeus sent the MS. 
to Griefs walda, but he could not find a person who 
would undertake to publish it. This shows how early 
Linnaeus prepared his system, what alterations he made 
iii the ' Fundamenta Botanica,' and at the same time 
how eager he was to make his system known, even by 
advertising works which still remained in MS. 

While these things were in preparation who should 
return but Rosen return to see his old rival lecturing in 
his place ! One can picture to oneself Linnaeus * biting 
his lip to keep down a great smile of pride.' How did 
Rosen like all this ? The diary throws some light upon 
the matter. Late 'in the year 1731, the Medicines 
adjunctus, Dr. Rosen, having returned from his travels 


abroad, and having perfected himself in anatomy and 
the practice of medicine, got into universal request, 
there being no other practitioner at Upsala. He like- 
wise commenced a course of lectures on a branch con- 
nected with Professor Rudbeck's office. As the latter 
was seventy years of age there was a good prospect of 
his being chosen Rudbeck's successor, and of his having 
no competitor unless Linnaeus got forward. He (Rosen) 
also applied for permission to lecture publicly on botany, 
but Rudbeck was unwilling to trust this department to 
him, as he had never studied it. Rosen tried to per- 
suade Linnaeus to give up the lectures to him sponta- 
neously, which Linnaeus would have done had Rudbeck 
consented to it. Thus Linnaeus had scarcely surmounted 
poverty before he became an object of envy a passion 
that played him too many tricks, of no use to be mentioned 
here. The faithless wife of the librarian Norrelius lived 
at this time in Rudbeck's house, and by her Linnaeus 
was made so odious to his patroness ' [Rudbeck's 
wife] ' that he could no longer stay there ; and as Rud- 
beck had often related to him the curious facts he had 
noticed and the plants he had discovered on his travels 
in Lapland, Linnaeus conceived a great inclination to 
visit that country. The secretary of the academy, the 
Master of Arts, Andres Celsius ' [who four years later, 
1736, himself visited that country] 'strongly recom- 
mended him to go there.' l The machinations of his 
enemies prevailed, and Rosen, who had never been 
1 Diary. 


above using mean arts, at length got rid of Linnaeus, 
at any rate for the present. Linnaeus left Rudbeck's 
house and gave up his situation of tutor towards the 
end of the year, at which time he went to his native 
province of Sm&land. 1 Linnaeus passed part of the 
winter with his father at Stenbrohult. A vastly different 
home-coming from before : the young man honoured with 
a state commission of importance, the vicarial professor 
of botany at Upsala, was quite another being from the 
struggling student who was merely seeking his way. 
The sisters might well be proud of such a brother, 
and Gabriel Hok, now rector of the adjoining parish of 
Wirestad, was glad to make a visit to his old pupil 
an excuse for also enjoying the society of Linnaeus 's 
fair sister. We are not told precisely when the rector 
of Wirestad married Anna Maria Linnaea, but we 
may reasonably conclude it was about this time, and 
it is very probable that Gabriel's bridesman, a clerical 
friend, on the same happy occasion met and admired 
the lively and equally pretty sister Juliana, whom he 
afterwards carried off to another South Swedish rectory. 2 

In January 1732 Carl paid a visit of some days to 
his kind friend and preceptor Stobasus at Lund, who 
had by this time forgiven him for leaving his protection. 
One of Carl's objects in visiting Lund was to study the 
collection of fossils belonging to Stobgeus, this being 
the only branch of natural history he was not well versed 
in. Linnaeus's mind had grown since he used to look 

1 Diary. 2 Both their portraits are at Hammarby. 


at this collection with respectful awe. It is often so 
with us, the mental garments we once wore with pride 
no longer fit us. Stobaeus's cabinet of minerals, con- 
sisting chiefly of petrifactions, did not now satisfy Lin- 

He returned to his parents' home in SmSland, 
and spent some weeks, and then went to Upsala to 
prepare for the great journey and learn the result of his 
publishing negotiations. Just after his return from Sten- 
brohult another advertisement appears, dated Upsala, 
March 15, 1732, of the ' Insecta Uplandica,' and a book 
relating to the birds of Sweden. He took an affectionate 
leave of Artedi, who was going to England to complete 
his studies in ichthyology. They made their wills, and 
the friends mutually assigned to each other such MSS. 
treating of natural history, as they should be in posses- 
sion of, in case either of them should die in their travels. 
Linnseus bore also messages and letters from Artedi to 
his relatives in Angermania. 




Spring clothes the fields and decks the flowery grove, 
And all creation glows with life and lore. 

From the Latin of LINN JBUS. 

THE account of Linngeus's Lapland journey was written 
by himself in a diary called c Lachesis Lapponica ' ; this 
MS. was purchased from the widow of Linnaeus, with 
the rest of the great botanist's writings and collections, 
by Sir J. E. Smith. It became his duty and wish to 
render them useful. Great was his disappointment 
to find the ' Lachesis Lapponica ' written in Swedish. 
For a long time it remained undeciphered. At length 
Mr. C. Troilus undertook the translation. It proved to 
be the identical journal written on the spot during the 
tour ; but the difficulty of interpreting it proved unex- 
pectedly great. The bulk of the composition is Swedish, 
but so intermixed with Latin, even in half sentences, 
that the translator, not being much acquainted with 
this language, found it necessary to leave frequent 
blanks. The translation is in two volumes, octavo. 

It is such a journal as a man would write for his 
own use, without a thought of its ever being seen by 


any other person. The composition is entirely artless 
and unaffected, giving a most pleasing idea of the writer's 
mind and temper, and it is interesting in showing the 
development of a mind such as that of Linnaeus. It is 
not a professed description of Lapland, nor even a regular 
detail of the route of the traveller. What was familiar 
to Linnaeus, either in books or in his own mind, he 
omitted. By the brilliant sketches he has left us in his 
1 Flora Lapponica,' written in Holland some years later, 
we see his journal perfected by after-research, which 
makes it more solid but not so fresh. In the journal 
we meet with the first traces of ideas, opinions, or dis- 
coveries, which scarcely acquired a shape, even in the 
mind of the writer, till some time afterwards. The 
familiar and correct use of the Latin language, and the 
general accuracy of the observations, give a very high 
idea of the author's accomplishments, considering they 
are made without a single book to refer to or a com- 
panion to consult. The original, moreover, displays a 
natural eloquence, of which the translation, especially 
when condensed, falls short. The numerous sketches 
with a pen that occur in the MS. are strikingly illus- 
trative. His handwriting was small, but legible and 
elegant. 1 The ' Lachesis Lapponica ' had not been 
translated when Stoever and Pulteney wrote, so that 
it is here first given with the c Life.' It is interesting 
to read this in connection with the journeys of Wheel- 
wright and Du Chaillu on the same roads ; Linnaeus is 
1 Partially abridged from Sir J. Smith's preface. 


by far the closest observer of the three, while the diffi- 
cult Lycksele episode is exclusively his own. His outfit 
sounds strange 150 years later. 


Having been appointed by the Royal Academy of 
Sciences to travel through Lapland for the purpose of 
investigating the three kingdoms of nature in that 
country, I prepared my wearing apparel and other 
necessaries for the journey as follows. 

1 My clothes consisted of a light coat of Westgoth- 
land linsey-wolsey cloths without folds, lined with red 
shalloon, having small cuffs and collar of shag ; leather 
breeches ; a round wig ; a green leather cap, and a pair 
of half-boots. I carried a small leather bag, half an 
ell in length, but somewhat less in breadth, furnished on 
one side with hooks and eyes, so that it could be opened 
and shut at pleasure. This bag contained one shirt, 
two pairs of false sleeves ; two half-shirts, 1 an inkstand, 
pencase, microscope, and spying-glass ; a gauze cap to 
protect me occasionally from the gnats, a comb, my 
journal, and a parcel of paper stitched together for dry- 
ing plants, both in folio ; my MS. " Ornithology," " Flora 
Uplandica" and " Characteres Generici." I wore a hanger 
at my side, and carried a small fowling-piece, as well as 
an octangular stick graduated for the purpose of mea- 
suring. My pocket-book contained a passport from the 

1 What is a half -shirt 1 


governor of Upsala, and a recommendation from the 

I make more copious extracts from the earlier por- 
tion of the journal, as the part of Sweden treated of has 
not often been described. The aspect of the country is 
almost unaltered since Linnseus's day. In his shorter 
diary account of his Lapland tour he says he set out 
on horseback without incumbrances of any kind, and 
having all his baggage on his back. 

c I set out alone from the city of Upsala, on Friday, 
May 12, 1732 [Old Style], at 11 o'clock, being within 
half a. day of 25 years of age. 1 At this season nature 
wore her most cheerful and delightful aspect, and Flora 
celebrated her nuptials with Phoebus.' 

A flowery way of saying it was a fine day. Carl 
seems to have been made vain by the praise bestowed 
on his eloquence, and to have enriched it at this time 
by tropes and classical allusions, after the manner of 
youth. One forgives Linnaeus for his flowery language 
it was a fashion, like the embroidered waistcoats 
worn by those dear dandies, the curled darlings of his 
day for he wrote sense. It is only l grand nonsense ' 
that is insupportable. 

{ Now the winter-corn was half a foot high, and 
the barley had just shot out its blade. The birch, 
the elm, and the aspen tree began to put forth their 
leaves. I left old Upsala on the right, with its three 
large sepulchral mounds or tumuli. The few plants 
1 A birthday treat of the sort he best enjoyed. 


now in flower were Draba verna, called in Sm&land the 
rye-flower, because as soon as the husbandman sees it in 
bloom he sows his Lent corn ; dandelions, scorpion- 
grass, violets and wild pansies, Thlaspi arvense, Litlio- 
spermum arvense, sedges, 1 rushes, 2 Salisc, Primula veris, 
as it is called, though neither here nor in other places 
the first flower of the spring, 3 the Swedish caper, &c. 
The lark was my companion all the way, flying before 
me quavering in the air. Ecce suum tirile, tirile, suum 
tirile tractat. 

c Hogsta is a Swedish mile and a quarter from 
Upsala. Here the forests began to thicken. The 
charming lark here left me, but another bird welcomed 
my approach to the forest, the redwing, whose warblings 
from the top of the spruce fir were no less delightful. 
Its lofty and varied notes rival those of the nightingale 

Linnaeus followed the high road, which still exists, 
like the string of the bow which the railway makes in 
curving towards Dannemora. 

1 In the forest are innumerable dwarf firs, 4 whose 
diminutive height bears no proportion to their thick 
trunks, their lowermost branches being on a level with 
the uppermost, and the leading shoot entirely wanting. 
It seems as if all the branches came from one centre, 
like those of a palm, and that the top had been cut off. 

1 Carex. 2 Juncus campestris. 

3 The primrose blooms quite to the end of June in Upland. 

4 Pimis plicata. 


I attribute this to the soil, and could not but admire it 
as the pruning of nature. 

' At Laby (one and a quarter Swedish mile further) 
the forest abounds with the Spanish whortleberry, 
now in blossom. Next came a large and dreary pine 
forest in which the herbaceous plants seemed almost 
starved ; the soil hardly two inches deep above the 
sand bore heather, and some lichens of the tribe 
called coralloides. The Golden Saxifrage } was now in 

He speaks of a runic monument near the posting- 
house, but the inscription had already been copied. 

' Opposite Yfre is a little river, the water of which 
would at this time have hardly covered the tops of my 
shoes, though the banks are at least five ells in height. 
Near the church of Tierp runs a stream whose bank 
on the side where it curves is very high and steep. The 
great power of a current, in the way it undermines the 
ground, is exceeding visible at this place. It now grew 
late, and I hastened to Mehede, two and a half miles ' 
[S.] ' farther, where I slept.' 

He travelled this day over seven and a half Swedish 
miles, or about fifty English miles. 

1 May 13. Here the yew grows wild. The forest 
abounds with yellow anemone, hepatica, and wood- 
sorrel. Here for the first time I heard the cuckoo. 

' Having often been told of the cataract of Elf 
Carleby, I thought it worth while to go a little out of 
1 Chrysosjjlenium alternifolium. 


the way to see it, especially as I could hear its roar 
from the road, and saw the vapour of its foam rising 
like the smoke of a chimney. I perceived the river to 
be divided into three channels by a huge rock. The 
water in the nearest of these channels falls from a 
height of twelve or fifteen ells, 1 so that its foam and 
spray are thrown as high as two ells into the air. On 
this branch of the cascade stands a sawmill. Below 
the cataract is a salmon-fishery. Oak trees grow on 
the summit of the surrounding rocks. At first it 
seems inconceivable how they should obtain nourish- 
ment ; but the vapours (of the cataract) are collected 
by the hills above, and trickle down in streams to their 
roots. In the valleys I picked up shells remarkable for 
the acuteness of their spiral points. Here also grew a 
rare moss of a sulphur-green colour. 

' I hastened to the town of Elf-Carleby, which is 
divided in two parts by the large river. I crossed it by 
a ferry, where it is about two gun-shots wide. The 
ferryman ' [of course he likens him to Charon] ' asked for 
my passport, or license to travel. At Elf-Carleby for the 
first time I beheld what I had never before met with 
in our northern regions, a peculiar variety of purple 
anemone 2 hairy and purplish, stamens numerous and 
very short.' This flower (a peculiar variety) grows 
plentifully near Borgholm on the island of Oland. 
Linnaeus also met with it there later. 

1 The fall is forty-nine feet high. 

2 Pulsatilla ajriifolia or Anemone rernalis. 


* A mile from Elf-Carleby are the iron- works called 
Harnas. The ore is brought from Dannemora and from 
Engsio in Sudermania. Here runs the river which 
divides the provinces of Upland and Gestrickland. 
The post-houses or inns were dreadfully bad. The 
forests became more hilly and stony, white and dark 
granite ; the rose-willow abounded. Near Gefle stands 
a runic monumental stone, rather more legible than 
usual, and on that account better taken care of. By 
eleven o'clock I arrived at Gefle, where I was obliged to 
stay all day, for it was evening before I received from 
the governor of the province of Gestrickland the requi- 
site passport ; owing to which delay and my attending 
morning service next day at Gefle church, I could not 
quit that place till one o'clock.' 

Gefle, with 7,000 inhabitants, is now one of the 
principal seaport towns of Sweden ; well-built and 
clean, with neat granite quays, and substantial modern 

' At this town is the last apothecary's shop, and 
also the last physician in the province: these are not 
to be met with further north. The river is navigable 
through the town. The surrounding country abounds 
with large red stones. Here begins a ridge of hills, ex- 
tending to the next post-house, three-quarters of a mile ' 
[S.] c further, separating two lakes. In the marshes 
to the left the note of the snipe was heard continually ; 
on the right are the mineral springs of Hille. Troye 
post-house, which Professor Rudbeck the elder used to 


call Troy, is surrounded by a smooth, hill. The road 
from hence lay across a marsh called by the people the 
walls of Troy. The sweet gale l and dwarf birch form 
a sort of low alley through which the road leads. Here 
and there grew the marsh-violet with its pale grey 
flowers, marked with five or seven black forked lines 
on the lower lip ; and in the forests on the other side 
of the marsh were many kinds of club moss. A quan- 
tity of stones lay by the road-side, which the governor 
of the province had caused to be dug up in order to mend 
the highway. 2 

4 They looked like a mass of ruins, and were clothed 
with Campanula serpyllifolia [the plant afterwards called 
Linncea borealis]* 'whose trailing shoots and verdant 
leaves were interwoven with those of the ivy. On the 
right is the lake Hamrange Fjarden, which adds greatly 
to the beauty of the road. I arrived at Hamrange 
post-house during the night. The people here talked 
much of an extraordinary kind of tree : no one could 
find out what it was. Some said it was an apple-tree 
which had been cursed by a beggar-woman, who one 
day having gathered an apple from it, and being on 
that account seized by the proprietor of the tree, de- 
clared that the tree should never bear fruit any more. 

1 Myrica Gale, the bog myrtle, or Scotch or Dutch myrtle. 

2 There are four kinds of road in Sweden : the Itungsvag, king's 
road, being the finest ; country road, hdradsvdg (sometimes called 
by travellers horrid way), most of which are very good ; sockenvag 
(nick-named shocking way), parish road, which is often bad ; and 
the byrag, village road, narrow and very rough. Du CHAILLU. 

3 One of the honeysuckle family. 


Next morning I rose with the sun to examine this 
wonderful tree. It proved to be nothing more than a 
common elm. Hence, however, we learn that the elm 
is not a common tree in this part of the country. 

' The redwing, cuckoo, black grouse, and mountain 
finch made a concert in the forest, to which the lowing 
herds of cattle under the shade of the trees formed a 
bass. Iceland moss grows abundantly in this forest. I 
arrived at the river Tonna, which divides Gestrickland 
from Helsingland and empties itself into the Bay of 
Touna. The lake called Hamrange Fjarden extends 
almost to the sea. I was told it did actually commu- 
nicate' [with the Bothnia]. ; At least there is a ditch 
in the mountain itself whether the work of art or 
nature is uncertain called the North Sound, hardly 
wide enough to admit a boat to pass. This is dammed 
up as summer sets in, to prevent the lake losing too much 
water by that channel, as the iron from several foundries 
is conveyed by the navigation through this lake. 


' The common and spruce firs grow here to a very 
large size. The inhabitants had stripped almost every 
tree of its bark. A red byssus stains the stones here, 
and near Norrala there is a bright red ochre in the 
earth, and staining the water. Several pairs of semi- 
circular wicker baskets were placed in the water to catch 
bream. Here I observed the black-throated diver, 
which uttered a melancholy note, especially in diving. 

VOL. I. L 


1 In the course of this day's journey I observed a 
great variety in the face of the country as well as in the 
soil. Here are mountains, hills, marshes, lakes, forests, 
clay, sand, and pebbles. Cultivated fields indeed are 
rare. The greater part of the country consists of un- 
inhabitable mountainous tracts. In the valleys only 
are to be seen small dwelling-houses, to each of which 
adjoins a little field. The people seemed somewhat 
larger in stature than elsewhere, especially the men. 
The women suckle their children more than twice as 
long as with us. Brandy is not always to be had here. 
The people are humane and civilised. Their houses 
are handsome externally, and neat and comfortable 
within.' [Are not these advantages due to their having 
less brandy than elsewhere ?] 

' The ore used at the capital iron forge of Eksund is 
of several kinds : first, from Dannemora ; second, from 
Soderom ; third, from Grusone, which contains beautiful 
cubical pyrites ; fourth, a black ore from the parish of 
Arbro, which lies at the bottom of the sea, but in stormy 
weather is thrown up on the shore.' A kind of blueish 
stone (Saxum fornacum ?) is used for building the tun- 
nels and chimneys ; it is considered more compact and 
better able to resist heat than other building-stones. 
The limestone procured from the seashore abounds with 
petrified corals. 

1 Of course he calls the workmen sons of Vulcan. Fashions have 
hanged : we never laugh when modern tourists call them sons of 
Thor, nor when we invoke all the Valkyrie. 


* In every river a wheel is placed, contrived to lift 
up a hammer for the purpose of bruising flax. When 
it is not wanted, a trap-door is raised to turn the stream 

c Several butterflies were to be seen in the forest, as 
the common black, and the large black and white. 
Between the post-house of Tygsund and Hudviksvall 
a violet-coloured clay is found in abundance, forming a 
regular stratum. I observed it likewise in a hill, which 
was nine ells in height, near the water, a span-width 
of violet clay between two layers of barren sand. The 
clay contained small and delicately smooth white bivalve 
shells, quite entire, as well as some larger brown ones, 
of which great quantities are to be found near the water 
side. At this spot grows the Anemone hepatica with a 
purple flower a variety so very rare in other places that 
I should almost be of the opinion of the gardeners who 
believe that colours of particular earths may be commu- 
nicated to flowers. 

The produce of the arable land here being but 
scanty, the inhabitants mix herbs with their corn, and 
form it into cakes two feet broad, but only a line in 
thickness, by which means the taste of the herbs is 
rendered less perceptible. Hudviksvall is a little town 
situated between a small lake and the sea. Near this 
place the arctic bramble was beginning to shoot forth, 
while Lychnis dioica and Arabis Thaliana were in flower. 
The larger fields here are sown with flax, which is 
performed every third year. The soil is turned up by 

i- 2 


a plough and the seed sown on the furrow, after which 
the ground is harrowed. The linen manufactory furnishes 
the principal occupation of the inhabitants of this 
country. Towards evening I reached Bringstad, and 
continued my journey at sunrise. 

' May 17. I overtook seven Laplanders driving their 
reindeer, about sixty or seventy in number, followed by 
their young ones. Most of the herd had lost their horns 
and new ones were sprouting forth. The drivers spoke 
good Swedish. 


' Here the common ling grows more scarce, its place 
being supplied by a greater quantity of the bilberry. 
Birch trees became more abundant as I advanced. I 
spied a brace of ptarmigans. All over the country I 
this day passed the large yellow aconite is as common 
as ling on a moor. Not being eaten by any kind of 
cattle, it increases abundantly in proportion as other 
herbs are devoured. To the north of Dingersjo stands 
a considerable mountain, called Nyackersberg, the 
south side of which is very steep. The inhabitants had 
planted hop-grounds under it. 1 As the hop does not in 
general thrive well hereabouts, they designed that this 
mountain should serve as a wall for the plants to run 
upon. These hops were very thriving, being sheltered 
from the north wind and at the same time exposed to 
the heat of the sun, whose rays are concentrated in this 
1 Ale (67) is the common drink in Sweden and Norway. 


spot. I ascended on foot, with a guide, Knorby Kuylen, 1 
the highest mountain in Medelpad, finding many un- 
common plants in greater perfection than I ever saw 
them before. The summit is crowned with a beacon 
used as a signal during the war with the Russians. 
Every sort of moss grows on this mountain that can be 
found anywhere in the country round. When at the 
summit we looked down on the country beneath, varied 
with plains and cultivated fields, villages, lakes, rivers, 
&c. Hares run about on the very highest part of this 
hill. An eagle owl (Strix Bubo) rose up suddenly 
before us as we were sliding down in the descent of the 
steep south side. We found its nest. Here and there 
among the rocks were a variety of herbaceous plants, 
pansies and others. Of the heartsease some of the 
flowers were white, others blue and white, others with 
the upper petals blue and yellow, the lateral and lower 
ones blue, while others again had a mixture of yellow 
in the side petals. All these were found within a foot 
of each other; sometimes even on the same stalk 
different colours were observable a plain proof that 
such diversities do not constitute a specific distinction. 
( Proceeding farther on my journey, I observed by 
the road a large reddish stone full of glittering portions 
of talc. The greater part of my way lay near the sea- 
shore, which was strewn with the wrecks of vessels. To- 
wards evening I reached Sundswall, a town situated in 
a small spot between two high hills. On one side is 
1 Norby Kullen. 


the sea, into which a river discharges itself at this place. 
About sunset I came to Finstad, but continued my 
route the same evening to Fjahl, where I was obliged tc* 
pass a river by two separate ferries T the stream being- 
divided by an island. 

1 May 18. Being Ascension Day, I spent it at this 
place, partly on account of the holiday, partly to rest my 
weary limbs and recruit my strength. 

' I was so unfortunate in my journey through Medel- 
pad as not to meet with a single horse that did not tumble- 
with me several times, in consequence of which I was 
at one time so severely hurt as to be scarcely able tc* 
remount. Having already collected a number of stones 
and minerals, which were no less burdensome than un- 
necessary to carry with me further, I rode to Hernosand r 
on the Bothnian Gulf, where I left these encumbrances. 
I did not, however, stay there above two hours. Near 
here I picked up a number of chrysomelas ' (a sort of 
beetle) f of a blueish green and gold. 1 The city of 
Hernosand stands upon an island, accessible to ships 
on every side, except at Varbryggan, where- they can 
scarcely pass. 

f I left Fjahl at sunrise, and at Hasjo, the next church, 
I turned to the left out of the main road to examine a 
hill where copper ore was said to be found. The stones,, 
indeed, had a glittering appearance like copper ore, but 
the pyrites to which that was owing were of a yellowish 
white a certain indication of their containing chiefly 
1 The beautiful Chrys&niela graminu* 


iron. I examined a cave formed by nature in a very 
hard rocky mountain, formerly a retreat of a criminal 
who had concealed himself for two years in this retired 
cavern. The roof and sides of this cave, near the 
entrance, were clothed with Byssus cryptarum. Every- 
where near the road lay spar full of talc, or Muscovy 
glass glittering in the sun. Now we take leave of 
Medelpad and its sandy roads, as well as its yellow 
aconite, both of which it possesses in common with 


1 We no sooner enter this district than we meet 
with steep and lofty hills scarcely to be descended with 
safety on horseback. 1 In the heart of the Angerman- 
nian forest trees with deciduous leaves, the silver birch, 
Betula alba (with densely matted branches) and the 
hoary-leaved alder (Betula incana) abound equally with 
the common and spruce firs. These hills might with 
great advantage be cleared of their wood, for a good 
soil remains wherever the trees are burnt down not 
barren stones as in Helsingland and Medelpad. The 
valleys between the mountains, as in those countries, 
are cultivated with corn or laid out in meadows ; but 
here are spacious plains besides. Every house has near 

1 On the coast south of Ornskoldsvik the scenery increases in 
beauty, and as far as Sundsvall the coast is the highest in Sweden. 
Numerous islands dot the sea along the shore, the principal ones 
being North and South Ulfo, inhabited by a few hundred fishermen. 


it a stage to dry corn and pease on, about eight ells in 
height, formed of perpendicular posts with transverse 
beams. The hay, or flax, is hung up to dry on these 
crossbars of what appears to be a gigantic six-barred 
gate about twenty feet high. The rye, less plentiful 
here than barley, is laid here to dry. 

f To whatever side I cast my eyes, nothing but 
lofty blue mountains were to be seen. The little straw- 
berry-leaved bramble (Itubus arcticus) l was in full 
bloom. A quarter of a mile further is Doggsta, near 
which, close to the road, stands the tremendously steep 
mountain of Skula. This I wished to explore, but the 
people told me it was impossible. With much difficulty 
I prevailed on two men to show me the way. We 
climbed, creeping on our hands and knees, often slipping 
back again. Sometimes we caught hold of bushes, 
sometimes of small projecting stones. I was following 
one of the men in climbing a steep rock, but seeing the 
other had better success, I endeavoured to overtake him. 
I had but just left my former situation, when a large 
mass of rock broke loose from a spot which my late 
guide had just passed, and fell exactly where I had 
been, with such force that it struck fire as it went, and 
was surrounded with fire and smoke. If I had not 
providentially changed my route nobody would ever 
have heard of me more. At length, quite spent with 

1 The Rubus arcticus is a valuable plant for its fruit, which par- 
takes of the flavour of the raspberry and strawberry, and makes a 
most delicious wine, used only by the nobility in Sweden. SMITH. 


toil, we reached the object of our pursuit, which is a 
cavity in the middle of the mountain a mere cavern. 
The stones that compose it are of very hard quality, or 
spar ; yet the sides of the cavern are in many places 
as even as if they had been cut artificially. Several 
different strata are distinguishable, particularly in the 
roof, which is concave like an arch. In that part a hole 
appears, intended, I was told, for a chimney. Several 
sorts of ferns grow on the adjacent parts of the moun- 
tain. We descended with much greater ease. Laying 
hold of the tops of spruce firs which grew close to the 
rocks, we slid down upon them, dragging them after us 
down the precipices. 

c I had scarcely continued my journey a quarter of a 
mile before I found a great part of the country covered 
with snow, in patches some inches deep. The pretty 
spring flowers had gradually disappeared. The buds of 
the birch, which so greatly contribute to the beauty 
of the forests, were not yet put forth. The high moun- 
tains which surround this track and screen it from the 
genial southern and western breezes may account for 
the long duration of the snow. 

' The cornfields afford a crop two years successively, 
and lie fallow the third. Rye is seldom or never sown 
here, being too slow in coming to perfection ; so that the 
land, which must next receive the barley, would be too 
much exhausted. 

4 May 21. After going to church at Natra I re- 
marked some cornfields, which the curate had caused to 


be cultivated in a manner that appeared extraordinary 
to me. After the field has lain fallow three or four 
years it is sown with one part rye and two parts 
barley mixed together. The seed is sown in spring, as 
soon as the earth is capable of tillage. The barley 
grows rank, ripens its ears, and is reaped. The rye 
meanwhile goes into leaf, but shoots up no stem, as the 
barley smothers it and retards its growth. After the 
latter is reaped the rye advances in growth, and ripens 
the year following without any further cultivation, the 
crop being very abundant. The inhabitants here also 
make broad thin cakes of bread. The flour used for 
this purpose commonly consists of one part of barley 
and three of chaff. When they wish to have it very 
good and the country is rich in barley, they add but 
two portions of chaff to one of corn. The cakes are not 
suffered to remain long in the oven, but require to be 
turned once. Only one is baked at a time, and the fire 
is swept towards the sides of the oven with a large 
bunch of cock's feathers. The coverlets of the beds at 
this place are made of hare-skins. To-day I met with 
no flowers except the wood-sorrel, which here is the 
primula, or first flower of spring. The lily of the valley 
and strawberry-leaved bramble were plentifully in leaf. 
1 May 22. Apple trees grow between Veda and 
Hornoen, but none are to be seen further north. No kind 
of willow is to be met with throughout Angermanland, 
nor is the hazel. Cherries do not always ripen, but 
potatoes thrive very well. Tobacco and hops both 


grow slowly and are of rare occurrence.' [One marvels 
that tobacco grows at all. It shows that the sun shines 
down very hot there, and brings an annual plant 
quickly forward.] ' In the road I saw a cuckoo fed by a 
Motacilla (water wagtail ?). Near the coast was a quick- 
sand, caused here, as in SkSne, by the fine light sand 
of the soil being taken up by the wind into the air and 
then spread about upon the grass, which it destroys. 
The road in several parts lies close to the seashore. 

( May 23. After having spent the night at Norma- 
ling, I took a walk to examine the neighbourhood, and 
met with a mineral spring, already observed by Mr. 
Peter Artedi at this his native place. It appeared to 
contain a great quantity of ochre, but seemed by the 
taste too astringent to be wholesome. 

' I observed on the adjacent shore that an additional 
quantity of sand is thrown up every year by the sea, which 
thus makes a rampart against its own encroachments, 
continually adding by little and little to the continent. 1 

' In proportion as I approached Westbothland, the 
height of the mountains, the quantity of large stones, 
and the extent of the forests gradually decreased. Fir- 
trees, which of late had been of rare occurrence, became 
more abundant. 

1 Angermanland is a beautiful province, and many of its valleys 
are very productive. The Angermanelfven, running through its 
whole territory, is the deepest river of Sweden, and may be ascended 
by steamboats as far as Nyland, sixty [English] miles, and by small 
craft to Holm thirty miles farther.' The river is two miles wide at 
Wedga beyond Hernosand. Du CHAILLU. 



' The ground here is tolerably level ; the soil sand, 
or sometimes clay. In some places are large tracts of 
moss. Thus the country is by no means fertile, though 
it affords a good deal of milk. Barley is the chief grain 
raised here. No flowers were to be seen here not even 
the wood sorrel, my only consolation in Angermanland. 
The two sorts of cotton-rush were now coming into 
bloom. The dwarf birch was abundant enough, but as 
yet showed no signs of catkins or leaves. Throughout 
the whole of this country no ash, maple, lime, elm, nor 
willow is to be seen, much less hazel, oak, or beech. 
Towards evening I reached Roback, where I passed the 

f May 24. Close to Roback is a fine spacious mea- 
dow, which would be quite level were it not for the 
hundreds of ant-hills scattered near it. Near the road, 
and very near the rivulet that takes its course towards 
the town of UmeS, are some mineral springs, abound- 
ing with ochre, and covered with a silvery pellicle. I 
conceive that Roback may have obtained its name from 
this red sediment from roc?, red, and back, a rivulet.' ! 

Carl was ferried over to UmeS 2 by a l brawny bald 
grey-headed, grey-coated Charon,' just such as Eudbeck 
had described to him. 

1 Not a difficult guess. 

2 Umea,' a little dirty old town, with a remarkably fine white 
church, and the largest prison I have seen in the North. WHEEL- 


' Baron Grundell, the governor of the province, a 
pattern of mildness, received me kindly, showed me 
several curiosities, and gave me much interesting in- 
formation. The birds I saw here were the crossbill 
(which cleverly fed on the cones of the spruce fir), 
yellowhammers, swallows, snow-buntings and ortolans. 

* Ruffs and reeves had been in plenty this year. 
In the cornfields lay hundreds of gulls (Larus canus) of 
sky-blue colour. 

* In the garden the governor ' [the pattern of mildness] 
' showed me orach, salad, and red cabbage, 1 which last 
thrives very well, though the white cabbage will not come 
to perfection here ; also garden and winter cresses, scurvy- 
grass, camomile, radishes, goosetongue (Achillea ptar- 
mica), rose-campion, wild-rose, lovage, spinach, onions, 
leeks, chives, cucumbers, columbines, carnations, sweet- 
william, gooseberries, currants, the barberry, elder, 
guelder-rose, and lilac. Potatoes here are not larger than 
poppy-heads ; tobacco, managed with the greatest care, 
and when the season is remarkably favourable, some- 
times perfects seed. Dwarf French beans thrive pretty 
well, but the climbing kinds never succeed. Broad 
beans come to perfection ; but peas, though they form 
pods, never ripen. Roses, apples, pears, and plums 
hardly grow at all, though cultivated with the greatest 
attention. Cherries, apples, pears, and plums always fail. 2 

1 If he had a good cook for these herbs, this is, perhaps, the 
origin of his designation. 

1 In UmeS Du Chaillu saw a garden filled with flowers, straw- 


The people wear a kind of shoes, or half boots, called 
kangor, easy in wearing and impenetrable to water. 
Those who walk there may walk in water up to the tops 
without wetting their feet, for the seams never give way 
as in our common shoes. They only cost two copper 
dollars. They are cut so that not a morsel of leather 
is wasted. Thick soles are here needless ; neither are 
heels wanted. Nature, whom no artist has yet been 
able to excel, has not given (high) heels to mankind, and 
for this reason we see the people of Westbothland trip 
along as easily and nimbly in these shoes as if they went 

May 26. I took leave of Umea 1 and turned out of 
the main road to the left,, my design being to visit 
Lycksele Lapmark. By this means I missed the ad- 
vantage I had hitherto had at the regular post-houses, 
of commanding a horse whenever I pleased, which is no 
small advantage to a stranger travelling in Sweden. It 
now became necessary for me to entreat in the most 
submissive manner when I stood in need of this useful 
animal. The road grew more and more narrow and 
bad, so that my horse went stumbling along at almost 
every step among great stones at the hazard of my life. 
My path was so narrow and intricate along so many by- 
ways that nothing human could have followed my track. 
In this dreary wilderness I began to feel very solitary 

berries, raspberries, currant bushes, peas, carrots, and potatoes, with 
a stretch of green fields beyond. Cauliflowers, cabbage, and lettuce 
had headed, peas were bearing fully, and melons were growing 
under glass. 


and to long earnestly for a companion. The mere 
exercise of a trotting-horse in a good road, to set the 
heart and spirits at liberty, would have been preferable 
to the slow and tedious mode of travelling which I was 
doomed to experience. The few inhabitants I met with 
had a foreign accent, and always concluded their sen- 
tences with an adjective. Here grew a willow l very 
hairy all over ; its catkins were for the most part 
advanced and faded. 

' In the evening I arrived at Jamtboht, where some 
women were sitting employed in cutting the bark of the 
aspen tree into small pieces scarcely an inch long and not 
half so broad. The bark is stript from the tree just when 
the leaves begin to sprout, and laid up in a place under 
the roof of a house till autumn or the following spring, 
when it is cut up to serve as good for cows, goats, and 
sheep, instead of hay, a very scarce article in these 
parts, for the fields consist principally of marshy tracts 
with coarse herbage. On my inquiring what I could 
have for supper they set before me the breast of a cock 
of the wood (Tetrao Urogallus), which had been shot 
and dressed some time the preceding year. Its aspect 
was not inviting, and I imagined the flavour would 
be not much better, but I was mistaken. The taste 
proved delicious, and I wondered at the ignorance of 
those who, having more fowls than they know how 
to dispose of, suffer many of them to be quite spoiled, 
as often happens at Stockholm. After the breast is 
1 Sallx lanata. 


plucked, separated from the other parts of the bird, and 
cleaned, a gash is cut longitudinally on each side of the 
breast-bone quite through to the bottom, and two others 
parallel to it a little farther off, so that the inside of the 
flesh is laid open in order that it may be thoroughly 
dressed. The whole is first salted with fine salt for 
several days. Afterwards a small quantity of flour is 
strewed on the under side to prevent its sticking, and 
then it is put into an oven to be gradually dried. 
When done it is hung up in the roof of the house, to 
be kept till wanted, where it would continue perfectly 
good even for three years if it were necessary to pre- 
serve it so long. 

'It rained so violently that I could not continue 
my journey that evening, and was therefore obliged to 
pass the night at this place. The pillows of my bed 
were stuffed with reindeer's hair instead of feathers. 
Under the sheet was the hide of a reindeer with the 
hair on, the hairy side uppermost, on which people told 
me I should lie very soft. They use willow bark for 
tanning the leather. 

1 May 27. At noon I pursued the same bad road as 
yesterday the worst road I ever saw, made of stones 
piled on stones among large entangled roots of trees. 
The frost, which had just left the ground, made matters 
worse. All the elements were against me. The 
branches of the trees hung down before my eyes, loaded 
with raindrops in every direction. Wherever any 
young birches appeared they were bent down to the 


earth ' [across the path], ' so that it was difficult to pass 
them. The aged pines, which for so many seasons had 
raised their proud tops above the rest of the forest, 
overthrown by the wrath of Juno (!), lay prostrate in 
my way. The rivulets, which traversed the country in 
various directions, were very deep, and the bridges over 
them so decayed and ruinous that it was at the peril 
of one's neck to pass them on a stumbling horse. 

Many persons had confidently assured me that it 
was absolutely impossible to travel to Lycksele in the 
summer season ; but I had always comforted myself with 
the saying of Solomon (?) that ' nothing is impossible 
under the sun.' However, I found that if patience be 
requisite anywhere, it is in this place. To complete 
my distress, I had a horse whose saddle was not stuffed, 
and instead of a bridle I had only a rope, which was 
tied to the animal's under jaw. Here and there in 
the heart of the forest were level heathy spots, as even 
as if they had been made so by a line, consisting of 
barren sand, on which grew a few straggling firs and 
some scattered plants of ling. Some places afforded 
the perforated coralline lichen (L. uncialis), which the 
inhabitants in rainy weather, when it is tough, rake 
together in large heaps and carry home for the winter 
provender of their cattle. These sandy spots, about a 
mile ' [Swedish] < in extent, were encompassed as it were 
with a rampart or very steep bank fifteen or twenty 
ells in height, so nearly perpendicular that it could not 
be ascended or descended without extreme difficulty. 

VOL. I. M 


It often happened that above one of these sandy 
heaths lay another equally barren. The interstices of 
the country between these embanked heaths were 
occupied by water, rocks, and marshes, producing 
abundance of firs, intermixed with some birches, all 
covered with black and white filamentous lichens. The 
few small juniper bushes were all close pressed to the 
ground. At Abacken, and on the road beyond it for a 
considerable way, some loose ice still remained, which 
surprised me much at this season of the year ; 1 yet I 
recollected I had but a week before met with snow near 
Mount Skula. 

1 Nothing but water can be had to drink. Against 
the walls of the houses an agaric, shaped like a 
horse's hoof, 2 was hung up to serve as a pincushion. As 
a protection against rain the people wear a broad hori- 
zontal collar made of birch bark, fastened round the 
neck with pins. 

1 The women wash their houses with a kind of 
brush made of twigs of spruce fir which they tie to the 
right foot and scrub the floor with it. The peasants, 
instead of tobacco, smoke the buds of hops, or sometimes 
juniper berries or the juniper bark. 

' In the evening I reached Texnas in the parish of 
Umea 1 . Seven miles ' [Swedish] c distant from this place 
is the church, the road to which is execrable, so that 
the people are obliged to set out on Friday morning 
to get to church on Sunday. On this account they can 

1 This is June in the New Style. z Boletus igniarius. 


seldom attend Divine service, except on fast days, and 
Whitsunday, Easter, and Christmas days. Timber for 
the purpose of building a church here was brought so 
long ago as the time of the late Abraham Lindelius ; l 
but it has lain till it is rotten. 

' May 28. I left Texnas and proceeded to Genom, 
where I was obliged to stay till next day, as there is no 
conveyance but by water to Lycksele, and the wind blew 
very hard.' Here he saw a beaver, which he describes. 

' May 29. Very early in the morning I quitted 
Genom in a haep, or small boat, proceeding along the 
western branch of the UmeS River. When the sun 
rose nothing could be more pleasant than the view of 
this clear unruffled stream, neither contaminated by 
floods nor disturbed by the breath of ^Eolus. All along 
its translucent margin the forests which dotted its banks 
were reflected like another landscape in the water. On 
both sides were large level heaths guarded by steep 
ramparts towards the river, and these were embellished 
with plants and bushes, the whole reversed in the water, 
appearing to great advantage. The huge pines, which 
had hitherto braved Neptune's power, smiled with a 
fictitious shadow in the stream. Neptune, however, in 
alliance with ^Eolus, had already triumphed over many 
of their companions : the former by attacking their 
roots, while the latter had demolished their branches. 

' Close to the shore were many ringed plovers and 
sandpipers.' [He saw also owls, white swans, and 
1 Was this an ancestor of Linnaeus ? 

M 2 


cranes.] c The peasant who was my rower and com- 
panion had placed about thirty small nets along the 
shore, in which he caught pike. A dried pike of 20 
Ibs. weight is sold for a dollar and five marks, silver 
coin. In one of the nets he found a large male goosander 

' The river along which we had rowed for nearly 
three miles ' [S.], ' and which had hitherto been easily 
navigable, now threatened us with interruptions from 
small shelves forming cascades, and at length we came 
to three of these, very near each other, which were ab- 
solutely impassable. One of them is called the water- 
fall of Tuken. My companion, after committing all 
my property to my care, laid his knapsack on his back 
and turning the boat bottom upwards, placed the two 
oars longitudinally, so as to cross the seats. These 
rested on his arms as he carried his boat over his head, 
and thus he scampered away over hills and valleys, so 
that the Devil himself could not have come up with 
him.' Linnaeus made a sketch of the boat, which was 
in 'length 12 feet, breadth 5 feet, depth 2 feet. The 
four planks which formed each of its sides were of root 
of spruce fir ; the two transverse seats were of branches 
of the same tree ; the seams were secured obliquely 
with cord as thick as a goose-quill.' He gives a 
humorous sketch of the man running off with the boat, 
half covered with it. ' Now and then some poplars are 
to be seen. The forest was rendered pleasant by the 
tender leaves of the birch, more advanced than any I had 


hitherto met with. Among the plants were golden rod, 
marsh marigold, and the Linncea borealis ; among birds, 
the ringed plover, the redwing, the tufted duck, and the 
black-throated diver. A little before we reached the 
church of Lycksele, a fourth waterfall presented itself. 
This is more considerable than the preceding, and falls 
over a rock. On its brink the curate had erected a 
mill. Some islands of considerable size are seen in 
the river as we approach this waterfall. The adjoin- 
ing mountain is formed of a mixed spar, and extends a 
good way to the right, being in one part very lofty, 
and perpendicular, like a vast wall, towards the shore. 
At eight in the evening I arrived at the hospitable 
dwelling of Mr. Oladron, 1 the curate of Lycksele, who, 
as well as his wife, received me with great kindness. 
They at first advised me to stay with them till the next 
fast day, the Laplanders not being implicitly to be 
trusted, and presenting their firearms at any stranger 
who comes upon them unawares or without some re- 
commendation. In the morning (May 30), however, 
my hosts changed their opinion, being apprehensive 
of my journey being impeded by floods if I delayed it.' 
Here he gives drawings and descriptions of the para- 
phernalia used in driving the reindeer ; the ornaments 
of the saddlery, harness, and so forth. l The pasture- 
ground near the parsonage of Lycksele was very poor, 
but quite the reverse about quarter of a mile distant. 

1 Or Pastor Gran. In the abridged account of his tour, drawn 
up as a report to the Academy, this name is given. Possibly the 
name was Olaf Gran. 


Here the butter was remarkable for its fine yellow 
colour, approaching almost to a reddish or saffron hue ; 
wherever the birch abounded the pasture-ground was 
of the best quality. In the school here were only 
eight scholars. The church was in a miserable state. 

'At Whitsuntide this year no Laplanders were at 
church, the pike happening to spawn just at that 
time. This fishery constitutes the chief trade of these 
people, and they were therefore, now, for the most part 
dispersed among the Alps, each in his own tract, in 
pursuit of this object. Divine service being over, on 
May 31 I left Lycksele in order to proceed towards 

In this tour he describes the Linncea borealis. His 
own ' neglected fate and early maturity are said to be 
typified by it.' He gathered it at Lycksele on May 29, 
and chose it for his own especial flower. Hitherto this 
elegant and singular little plant had been called Cam- 
panula serpyllifolia, thyme-leaved bell-flower; but 
Linnaeus, prosecuting the study of vegetables on his 
new principle, 1 soon found this to constitute a new 
genus. He reserved the idea, keeping it warm in his 
heart, till his discoveries and publications had entitled 
him to botanical commemoration, and his friend Grono- 
vius, in due time, with his concurrence, undertook to 
make this genus known to the world. It was published 
by Linnaeus himself in the c Genera Plantarum,' 1 737, and 
in the same year in the ' Flora Lapponica,' with a plate. 

1 Smith. 


It is mentioned in the ' Critica Botanica ' as ' an humble, 
despised, and neglected Lapland plant, flowering at an 
early age.' This he regarded as typical of himself. 

Linncea borealis grows in shady places in Scotland, 
Switzerland, Canada, &c., and was cultivated (after 
Linnseus became famous) in the Jardin du Roi in Paris. 
The plant has a slight perfume in the evening. It is 
said to be specific against gout and rheumatism ; though 
Linnseus, who suffered from these complaints, never 
mentions the plant as medicinal. 

Fries l speaks of the Linnsea as ' one of the prettiest 
of plants, which by its colours and its exquisite vanilla 
perfume enlivens the dark pine woods of Sweden.' 

At this place too, Lycksele, he seems to have adopted 
the motto Tantus amor florum, i Thus great is the love 
of flowers.' 

1 The present Director of the Botanical Garden at Upsala. 




Men there are whose patient minds, 

In one object centred, 
Wait, till through their darkened blinds 

Truth has burst and entered. 
Then, that ray so barely caught 

Joyfully absorbing, 
They behold the realms of Thought 

Into Science orbing. 

Men there are whose ambient souls, 

In rapt Intuition, 
Seize Creation as it rolls, 

Whole, without partition. J. C. MAXWELL. 

1 WE here behold, not the awful preceptor of the 
learned world in his professorial chair, but a youthful 
inexperienced student full of ardour and curiosity, such 
as we ourselves have been.' * This Lapland journey was 
the first and most difficult of the six travels of Lin- 
naeus : a sort of labours of Hercules. Even now the 
young inquirer asks concerning Lapland : f Haven't you 
got to eat bears' grease there always ? ' To know the 
country better is to find that there is very little bears' 
1 Sir J. E. Smith. 


grease to be had. A hundred and fifty years ago, 
when Linnaeus travelled, the country was not known at 
all ; Rudbeck's memorials were destroyed and his son's 
memory was failing. The utmost that was known of 
Lapland had been learnt by Linnaeus sitting at the feet of 
the younger Rudbeck before his memory failed him alto- 
gether. It was a Robinson-Crusoe-like form of journey ; 
for not only did Carl travel alone, but he met with the 
scantiest of population, in miles and miles of loneliness 
studded with here and there a cottage. Excepting in 
the larger towns and on board the steamers, the popula- 
tion of Sweden is still everywhere ' understood but not 
exprest.' Here in Lapmark it is not even understood : 
the country is one vast emptiness, like the rest of the 
world in the days of Paradise; peopled only by the 
1 lovely phantoms of the waterfalls.' 

The intrepid hardy-bred Linnaeus, with his un- 
tiring energy, was the very man to undertake a journey 
of discovery like this. He observed everything : had 
an eager appetite for all forms of nature. His indomit- 
able industry was well suited to that interminable Lap- 
land day 'in which one loses all hope that the stars 
and quiet will ever come.' It only enlarged his oppor- 
tunities to see 'the dawn shine through the whole 
night till it be morning.' To be out and away into the 
wide open, was his longing desire. He had studied 
books enough ; now for the mind's liberty, now to range 
through broad nature. To educate is to set free the 
mind, new sculptured, from its marble block. Truly this 


journey was broad enough. Round Lapland, skirting 
the boundaries of Norway, he returned to Upsala by 
the eastern side of the Bothnian Gulf, having in five 
months travelled nearly 4,000 English miles, much of 
it on foot. That many modern travellers and sports- 
men do the same is only to say that many people go 
to America and many view the Pacific ' from a peak 
in Darien ' ; but for all that there is but one Colum- 
bus and one Cortez. Linnseus's journey is as good as 
a guide-book even now, for the face of the country is 
unchanged, and he is as clearly descriptive as Baedeker 
or Murray. Even Du Chaillu scarcely reads clearer, 
fuller, or more modern. I select such portions from the 
two volumes as best illustrate his character and history. 
1 May 31. The Divine service of this day being over 
I left Lycksele for Sorsele, taking with me only three 
loaves of bread and some reindeer tongues by way of 
provision. I presumed that I should procure among 
the Laplanders reindeer-flesh, cheese, milk, fish, fowl, 
&c. Nor indeed could I well take anything more at 
present ; for whenever we came at any shoals or falls in 
the river my companion took our boat on his head over 
mountains and valleys, so that I had not only my own 
luggage to carry but my guide's likewise. At one 
place, close to the river, was a Laplander's shop raised 
on a round pole as high as a tall man and as thick as 
one's arm. This pole supported a horizontal beam, 
with two cross-pieces, which together formed the foun- 
dation of the edifice. The walls are very thin ; the 


ceiling is of birch bark, with a roof of wood and stone 
above it. It is scarcely possible to conceive how the 
owner can creep into this building, the door being so 
small, and wherein he is like a bird in a tree. The 
birch bark is extremely useful to the Laplanders : they 
make their plates or trenchers of it, and boat-scoops, 
shoes, tubs to salt fish in, and baskets. They also tan 
their leather with birch bark, like the Russians. 1 

t June 1 . We pursued our journey by water with 
considerable labour and difficulty all night long if it 
might be called night, which was as light as day, the 
sun disappearing for about half an hour only, and the 
temperature of the air being rather cold. Fir trees 
were thinly scattered, but they were extremely lofty. 
Here were spacious tracts producing the finest timber 
I ever beheld. The ground was covered with ling, red 
whortleberries, 2 and mosses. In the low grounds grew 
smaller firs, amongst abundance of birch, and red 
whortleberries, which grew larger as he travelled north- 
ward, as well as the common black kind. 3 On the dry 
hills, which most abounded with large pines, the finest 
timber was strewed around, felled by the force of the 
tempests. The Laplanders formed their huts of these. 
The huts were at this time mostly deserted. We found 
guides in various Laplanders, and proceeded up the 

1 The oil from this bark gives the peculiar odour to Russia leather. 

2 Vaccinium Vitis Idcea. Idaean vine, as Scott called it in the 
* Lady of the Lake.' Idaean, relating to Mount Ida in Crete. 

* Vaccinium Myrtillv/s. 


Umea 1 River, turning off to the right at the Juita 
branch. Here I found crake-berries, 1 as large as the 
black bilberry, and herb Paris. But what most sur- 
prised and pleased me was the little round-leaved 
yellow violet 2 described by Morrison, which had not 
before been observed in Sweden. 

' I shall not dwell on the inconveniences I had to 
undergo every time we had to seek for any of* the 
Laplanders, while I was quite destitute of provisions. 
These poor people themselves had at this season no- 
thing but fish to eat, as they had not yet begun to 
slaughter their reindeer nor to go a-fowling ; neither 
had they as yet milked any of their reindeer. 

' June 2. We were obliged to leave our boat ; the 
river being so rapid, and so much impeded by falls, 
that we were obliged to undertake a walk of a few 
miles ' [Swedish] ' further, which I was told would bring 
us to a more navigable stream. A fen or marsh lay 
before us, seemingly half a mile ' [Swedish] ' broad, 
which we had to to cross. At every step the water was 
above our knees, and ice was at the bottom. Where the 
frost was quite gone we often sunk still deeper, some- 
times to the waist. If we thought to find footing on 
some grassy tuft it proved treacherous and only sunk 
us lower. Sometimes we came where no bottom was 
to be felt, and had to measure back our weary steps. 
Our half-boots were filled with the coldest water. 
When we had traversed this marsh we sought in vain 
1 Empetrum nigrum. * Viola Uflora. 


for any human creature, and were therefore under the 
necessity, a little further on, of crossing (in pursuit of 
my new Lapland guide) another bog still worse than 
the former, and a mile ' [Swedish] ' in extent. I know 
not what I would not rather have undertaken than to 
pass this place, especially as it blew and rained vio- 
lently. We reposed ourselves about six in the morning, 
wrung the water out of our clothes, while the cold 
north wind parched us as much on one side as the fire 
we lighted scorched us on the other, and the gnats kept 
inflicting their stings. I had now my fill of travelling. 
These marshes are called stygx. The Styx of the poets 
could not exceed them in horror. We now directed 
our steps to the desert of Lapmark, not knowing where 
we went ' [in the diary account of his tour he calls this 
place Olycksmyran the unlucky marsh]. 'My Lap- 
lander, after a weary search, brought a woman of very 
diminutive stature to see me, who addressed me in Swed- 
ish in the following terms : "0 thou poor man ! what 
hard destiny can have brought thee hither, to a place 
never visited by anyone before ? This is the first time 
I ever beheld a stranger. Thou miserable creature ! 
How didst thou come, and whither wilt thou go ? " I 
inquired how far it was to Sorsele. " That we do not 
know," replied she, " but in the present state of the 
roads it is at least seven days' journey from hence, as 
my husband has told me.' There was no boat to be 
had on the next river. It was not possible to proceed 
further in this direction, and we had to return by the 


horrible way we came. The good woman conducted us to 
a side path, whereby we avoided about half a mile' 
[Swedish] ' of the way we had come. In a shed sup- 
ported by four posts hung some clothes and a small rein- 
deer cheese, which I wished to purchase. The woman 
refused, as she wanted it herself; but my hunger was 
such that I could not lose sight of this cheese. " I 
have no desire," she said, " that thou shouldst die 
in my country for want of food," and at last she let 
me buy it.' Even she was struck with his wretched 
appearance. 1 ' We continued our voyage down the 
river, being carried with great velocity by the current, 
the whole of the next day. At length coming to an 
island, the Laplander failed in his attempt to weather it, 
and the boat, striking against a rock, was dashed to 
pieces. We both found ourselves in the water. My 
conductor lost not only his boat, but a hatchet and 
a pike. I lost two stuffed birds one a large heron, 
black, with a white breast ; the other a red bird, or 
gvousachj as the Laplanders call it. 2 With difficulty 
we got from this island to the shore. 3 The sun shone 
warm, and after having wrung the water out of our 
clothes we walked on for about a mile ' [Swedish] ' along 
the bank of the river, amongst thickets and bogs, 
till we came in sight of a colonist who was fishing for 

1 He actilly looked as if had been picked off a rock at sea and 
dragged through a gimlet-hole.' S. SLICK. 

2 Corvus infaustus. 

8 He thinks first of the loss of the birds ; his own rescue is a 
minor detail. 


pike. He gave me some provision, and conducted me 
to Grano, where I only stopped to rest one night, and 
on the evening of June 8 arrived at Umea*. These 
poor people roast their fish thoroughly, and boil it 
better and longer than ever I saw practised before. 
They know no other soup or spoon-meat than the water 
in which their fish has been boiled. I could not ob- 
serve that the nights were at all less light than the 
days, except when the sun was clouded. On the banks 
of the river, where fragments are to be found of 
all the productions of the mountains, I met with silver 

1 A Laplander, whose family consists of four persons, 
including himself, when he has no other meat, kills a 
reindeer every week, three of which are equal to an ox ; 
he consequently consumes about thirty of those animals 
in the course of the winter, which are equal to ten oxen, 
whereas a single ox is sufficient for a Swedish peasant. 
The bountiful provision of nature is evinced in provid- 
ing mankind with bed and bedding even in this savage 
wilderness. The great hair moss l is used for this pur- 
pose. They choose the starry-headed plants, out of the 
tufts of which they cut a surface as large as they please 
for a bed and bolster, separating it from the earth be- 
neath. This mossy cushion is very soft and elastic, not 
growing hard by pressure ; and if a similar portion of it 
be made to serve as a coverlet, nothing can be more 
warm and comfortable. They fold this bed together, 
1 Polytrichum commune. 


tying it up into a roll that may be grasped by a man's 
arms, which, if necessary, they carry with them to the 
place where they mean to sleep the night following. If 
it becomes too dry and compressed, its elasticity is re- 
stored by a little moisture. 

1 June 12. I took my departure (from Umea 1 ) very 
early in the misty morning. The sun appeared quite 
dim, wading, as it were, through the clouds. Andro- 
meda polifolia was at that time in its highest beauty, 
decorating the marshy grounds. The flowers are quite 
blood-red before they expand, but when full-grown the 
corolla is of a flesh-colour. Scarcely any painter's art 
can so happily imitate the beauty of a fine female 
complexion ; l still less could any artificial colour upon 
the face itself bear a comparison with this lovely 
blossom. As I contemplated it I could not help think- 
ing of Andromeda as described by the poets, which 
seemed so applicable to the plant before me, that if 
these writers had had it in view they could scarcely 
have conceived a more apposite fable. This plant is 
always fixed on some turfy hillock in the midst of the 
swamps, as Andromeda herself was chained to a rock in 
the sea which bathed her feet, as the fresh water does 
the roots of the plants ; dragons and venomous serpents 
surrounded her, as toads and other reptiles frequent the 
abode of her vegetable prototype, and, when they pair 
in the spring, throw mud and water over its leaves and 
branches. As the distressed virgin cast down her blush- 
1 A Swede can judge of fine complexions. 


ing face through excessive affliction, so does the rosy- 
coloured flower hang its head, growing paler and paler 
until it withers away. Hence, as this plant forms a new 
genus, I have chosen for it the name of Andromeda. 1 

'All the woods and copses by the way abounded 
with butterflies of the fritillary tribe without silver 
spots. An elegant little blackish butterfly, besprinkled 
with snow-white spots like rings, smooth and lustrous on 
the under side, was very plentiful in the paths. The 
great dragon-fly, with two flat lobes at its tail, and 
another species with blue wings, were also common. 

4 The poorer Laplanders rock their infants on 
branches of trees. 2 In the part of the country where 
I was now travelling the cradles rock vertically, or from 
head to foot. 

'I now entered the territory of Pitea". Here I 
met with kind entertainment from Mr. Solan der, the 
principal clergyman of the place.' 3 [He shot and 
sketched a Striae ulula, which was too much damaged 
to allow of stuffing.] ; Just at sunset on June 151 
reached the town of Old PiteS, having crossed the 
broad river in a ferry boat. Immediately on entering 
the town I procured a lodging, but had not been long 
in bed before I perceived a glare of light on the wall of 

1 Linnaeus has carried the fanciful analogy farther in his Flora 
Lapponica : ' At length comes Perseus in the shape of Summer, dries 
up the surrounding water, and destroys the monsters, rendering the 
damsel a fruitful mother, who then carries her head (the capsule) 

2 ' Hushaby, baby, on the tree-top.' 

* Father of Dr. Solander the naturalist. 
VOL. I. N 


my chamber. I was alarmed with the idea of fire, but 
on looking out of the window saw the sun rising, per- 
fectly red, which I did not expect would take place so 
soon. The cock crowed, the birds began to sing, and 
sleep was banished from my eyelids. Near the new 
town of PiteS, close to the shore, grew the round- 
leaved water- violet, 1 with perfectly snow-white flowers. 
' June 19. I went out to sea in a boat for some 
miles ' [Swedish] ' to explore the neighbouring coast and 
islands, and returned at length to the new town. In the 
island of Longoen, three miles' [S] 'from Old PiteS, I 
was lucky enough to find growing under a spruce fir the 
coral-rooted orchis (Ophrys corallorrhiza) in full bloom. 
It is a very rare plant. I proceeded to LuleS, being 
desirous of reaching the alps of Lulean Lapland in time 
enough to see the midnight sun, which is seen to greater 
advantage there than at Tornea 3 . The new town of LuleS 
is very small, situated on a peninsula encompassed by 
a kind of bay. The soil is barren. Indeed the slight 
eminence the town stands on is a mere heap of stones, 
with sea-sand in their interstices. It seems as if the 
sea had carried away all the earth, and, like a beast of 
prey, had left nothing but the bones, throwing sand 
over them to conceal its ravages. As no horse was to 
be procured in the whole place, I proceeded by sea to 
Old LuleS, half a mile ' [Swedish] ' distant. Here the 
curious kind of grass 2 which is called in Sm&land " old 
man's beard " is known by the name of Lapp-heir , " Lap- 
1 Viola jjalustris. 2 Nardus strict a. 


lander's hair." It was now in blossom. There is great 
conformity between this country and Sm&land.' His 
old home friend the bird-cherry (hagg) grew plentifully 
here it grows even within the arctic circle. ' Many 
herbaceous plants grow here which are not to be found 
in Upland, Sudermania, Ostrogothia, 1 nor SkSne, 
though natives of Sm&land. The water swarmed with 
innumerable fishes just spawned, so pellucid that they 
were rendered conspicuous chiefly by their large eyes. 
The observer of nature sees, with admiration, that the 
whole world is full of the glory of God.' 2 

The weather had become fair, and Linnaeus says, 
1 If the summer be indeed shorter here than in any 
other part of the world, it must be allowed at the same 
time to be nowhere more delightful. I was never in 
my life in better health than at present.' 

1 June 24 (Midsummer Day) [July 4 N. S.]. Blessed 
be the Lord for the beauty of summer and of spring, and 
for what is here in greater perfection than almost any- 
where else in the world the air, the water, the verdure 
of the herbage, and the song of birds ! 3 

4 Sunday, June 20. After Divine service I took leave 

1 East Gothland. 

2 The parish church of LuleS is regarded as the oldest in West- 
bothnia, having been built in the very earliest ages of Christianity, 
and was very famous while the Catholic religion prevailed in 
Sweden. It contains a remarkable old altar-piece, the gilding of 
which cost 2,408 ducats. In the vestry a copy of the canonical law, 
in seven vols. folio, is still preserved. 

8 Du Chaillu says : ' I had not before heard so many birds singing 
together after midnight, enjoying the spring. Before two o'clock 
the swallows were out of their nests.' 

N 2 


of LuleS. Half-way between SvarlS, and Harns I met 
with the (Pedicularis) Sceptrum Carolinum, first observed 
by Professor Rudbeck. This stately plant was not yet 
in flower. It grew in a dry soil. Near Harns is found 
a fine handsome blue clay, in some measure fireproof; also 
a rare kind of iron ore/ He notes the purple Pinguicula^ 
June 29, in LuleS-Lapland and ' a Pinguicula the 
fore-part of whose petal was white, the hind part 
blue, which is certainly a beautiful as well as singular 
variety. The little alpine variety of the ptarmigan 2 
was now accompanied by its young. I caught one of 
these, upon which the hen ran so close to me that I 
could easily have taken her also. She kept continually 
jumping round and round me ; but I thought it a pity 
to deprive the tender brood of their mother ; neither 
would my compassion for the mother allow me long 
to detain her offspring, which I restored to her in 

' I embarked on the LuleS River, which I continued 
to navigate upwards for several days and nights, having 
good accommodation both as to food and boat. After 
three days and nights we reached Quickjock. 

' My companion was a Laplander, who served me 
both as servant and interpreter. Few persons are 
met with on these alps who speak Swedish, and I 
had already suffered much in the Lapland part of 
UrneS for want of knowing the language. Nor was 
a companion less required to assist me in carrying 
1 Butterwort. 2 Tvtrao Lagopus. 


what was necessary, for I had sufficient encumbrances 
of my own without being the bearer of our provisions 
into the bargain. The pine trees are more barren of 
branches on their north sides ; hence the people know 
by these trees which way the north lies. Brandy is here 
made from the fir, as well as from the berries of the 
mountain ash. The Angelica sylvestris is a dainty in 
great request among the Lapps ; they use its root for 
the cure of their terrible colic. The common method 
of the Laplanders for joining broken earthenware is to 
tie the fragments together with a thread and boil the 
whole in fresh milk, by which they are cemented to each 
other. The reindeer milk is very glutinous. 

c July 1. When I came to the lake Skalk in the way 
towards Kionitis I was much struck with an opening 
between the hills to the N.W., through which appeared a 
range of mountains, from ten to twenty miles ' [Swedish] 
* distant, as white as the clouds, and seeming not above 
a mile ' [S] ' from the spot where I stood. Their 
summits reached the clouds, and indeed they resembled 
a range of white clouds rising from the horizon. They 
recalled- to my mind the frontispiece of Rudbeck's 
u Lapponia Illustrata." Mountains upon mountains 
rose before me in every direction. In one word, I now 
beheld the Lapland Alps.' [He gives a clever pen-and- 
ink sketch of the view."] * At Kionitis I rested durino- 

-I F3 

the whole of Sunday, July 2. Here the beautiful corn 
was growing in perfection in valleys between the snowy 
mountains. It had shot up so high as to be laid in some 


places by the rain. It was sown on May 25 or 26, 
as at UmeS. 

' " Alone I crossed the Hyperborean tracts of ice, 
the snowy Tanais, and fields never free from Riphaean 
frosts." ' Virgil, ' Georgics,' iv. 517. [Linngeus quotes 
the passage.] 

' After several days' travelling, on the evening of 
July 6 I ascended Vallivari, the first mountain of the 
Alps on this side. On my first ascending these wild alps 
I felt as if in a new world. I saw few birds, except some 
ptarmigans running with their young along the vales. 
The declining sun never disappeared sufficiently to 
allow any cooling shade. The midnight sun, deep red, 
glowing like a fierce charcoal fire, tinged everything with 
roseate hue, most magical upon the snow, bewildering 
the brain, and producing a drowsy effect. 1 

The peak of Sulitelma is 6,326 feet high. The blue 
glaciers hereabout are magnificent. Du Chaillu says 
he never lost sight of the blue outline of Sulitelma, 
but the peak was mostly hidden from view. 2 Linnaeus 
specifies no peak as Sulitelma, but only speaks of the 
mass as Vallivari. When at length he was able to turn 

1 Often was I seized with an indescribable feeling of loneliness, 
and at the same time a desire to wander farther away. Du 

2 As the sun shone upon the ice its hue was simply marvellous ; 
it seemed in many places like a huge mass of sparkling topaz ; its 
extent was enormous, and patches of snow were scattered over its 
surface. There were only two breaks of dark rock visible in the 
frozen mass ; and towering above all was Sulitelma, dark and 
gloomy, looking down upon the sea of ice. Du CHAILLU. 


his eyes from the magic of the mountains Linnaeus was 
equally enchanted with the new world of arctic nature 
at his feet. 

' When I cast my eyes over the grass and herbage 
there were few objects I had seen before, so that all 
nature was alike strange to me. I walked in snow as 
if it had been the severest winter. All the rare plants 
that I had previously met with, and which had from 
time to time afforded me so much pleasure, were here 
as in miniature, and now also in such profusion that I 
was overcome with astonishment, thinking I had 
now found more than I should know what to do with. 
I sat down to collect and describe these vegetable 

He gives a list of thirty, all described and named 
extemporaneously. 1 Not one of these names has subse- 
quently been set aside by any of his severest critics. He 
noted the silken-leaved alpine lady's mantle, the deep 
green sibbaldia, the little purple-flowered azalea, the suc- 
culent rose-root, the red lychnis, and several ranunculi, the 
beautiful saxifraga stellaris, rivularis, and oppositifolia, of 
which last Du Chaillu says, c Many times have I remained 
standing in admiration before this exquisite flower, which 
looks like a velvety carpet of purple moss, and grows in 
patches on the dark rocks, often surrounded by snow.' 
And the Primula farinosa of which Linnaeus speaks, 
' This primula, the splendid crimson of whose flowers 
attracts the eyes of all who traverse the fields of Sk&ne 
1 One plant was dedicated subsequently to Jussieu. 


and the meadows of Upland in early spring, did not 
occur during my whole journey till after I had ascended 
the Lapland Alps ' here it was as the face of a friend. 
< The time passed unperceived away, and my inter- 
preter was obliged to remind me that we had still five or 
six miles ' [Swedish] ' to go to the nearest Laplander, 
and that if we had a mind for any reindeer meat we 
ought to bestir ourselves quickly.' They had been re- 
freshed by the snow-water running down in streams. 
They hastened on and reached the summit of the ridge, 
standing on the brow of Vallivari, ' from hence the ver- 
dant appearance of Norway, lying far beneath us, was 
very delightful. The whole country was perfectly green, 
and, notwithstanding its vast extent, looked like a garden 
in miniature, for the tallest trees appeared not above a 
span high. Our calculations were very inadequate to 
what we found its actual distance. At length, however, 
we reached the plains of which we had enjoyed so 
stupendous a prospect. Nothing could be more de- 
lightful to my feelings than this transition from all 
the severity of winter to the warmth and beauty of 
summer. The verdant herbage, the sweet-scented 
clover, the tall grass, reaching up to my arms, the 
grateful flavour of the wild fruits, and the fine weather 
which welcomed me to the foot of the alps, refreshed me 
both in mind and body.' 



'At the place where I stopped to rest after my 
fatiguing journey they gave me sword-fish l to eat, which 
much resembled salmon in flavour. 

' Here I found myself close to the sea-coast. I took 
up my abode at the house of a shipmaster, with whom I 
made an agreement to be taken in a boat the following 
day along the coast. I much wished to approach the 
celebrated whirlpool called the Maelstrom, but I could 
find nobody willing to venture near it. We set sail next 
morning, according to appointment, but the wind proved 
contrary, and the boatmen were after a while exhausted 
with rowing. Meanwhile I amused myself in examining 
various petrifactions, principally medusae, zoophytes, and 
submarine plants of the Fucus tribe, which occupied 
every part of the coast. I was kindly received at the 
house of the pastor of Torfiorden, who had an extremely 
beautiful daughter, Sarah Rask, eighteen years of age. I 
must not omit to write to him hereafter ; for, according to 
his account, he never expected to see an honest Swede.' 
[By the Norwegians the Swedes were always accounted 
fair and false, as Scott says of the Scots.] ' Next day 
we proceeded further on our voyage and returned to our 
place of departure, the wind being still contrary.' [They 
could get no further than Rorstad church, near the 
mouth of the fiord.] ' On the following morning I climbed 
one of the neighbouring mountains With the intention 
1 Xiphias gladiut. 


of measuring its height. While I was reposing tran- 
quilly on the side of the hill, busied only in loosening a 
stone which I wanted to examine, I heard the report of 
a gun at a small distance below. I was too far off to 
receive any hurt, but perceiving the man who had fired 
the gun, I pursued him to a considerable distance in 
order to prevent his charging his piece a second time. 
I could get no explanation of this attack. 

1 1 saw no flies in Lapland, but in Norway the houses 
are full of them. I was, however, no longer infested 
with swarms of gnats. 1 

4 On July 15 we set out on our return, and that 
whole day was employed in climbing the mountains 
again, the ground being extremely steep as well as lofty. 
It is customary for those in our part of Sweden who 
fancy themselves indisposed to frequent watering-places 
or mineral springs during the heat of summer. For my 
own part I have, thank God, for several years enjoyed 
tolerable health ; but, as soon as I got upon the Alps I 
seemed to have acquired a new existence. I felt as if 
relieved from a heavy burthen ; and after having spent 
a few days in the low country of Norway, though with- 
out having committed the least excess, I found my 
languor or heaviness return. When I again ascended 
the Alps I revived as before. The Lapland water, too, 

1 Du Chailln says until the end of June there are no gnats.' I 
suspect they are local, for I have seen them in swarms on May 29, 
and I have passed in previous and following weeks through many 
provinces of Sweden without seeing any gnats at all. 


is uncommonly grateful to the palate. Since I set out 
on my journey I have become able to walk four times as 
far as I could at first, yet I could not but wonder at 
my two Laplanders one of them upwards of seventy 
who had accompanied me during the whole of this day's 
tedious walk. While I was resting they played and 
frisked about. This set me seriously to consider the 
question put to me by Dr. Rosen : " Why are the Lap- 
landers so swift-footed ? " To which I answer that it 
arises not from any one cause, but from the co-operation 
of many. 1. They wear no heels to their half-boots' 
[2, 3, 4, and 5 are also very good reasons, but foreign to 
our present purpose]. 

1 Every Laplander constantly carries a sort of pole, 
tipped with a ferule, and furnished with a transverse 
bar of wood. When he is tired he leans his arms and 
nose against it to rest himself.' Linnaeus gives a drawing 
of their snowshoes, as also of their chessboard, and 
describes at length the rules of their elaborate game. 
Their chess king has a castle and eight Swedes his 
subjects ; sixteen Muscovites are their adversaries. 
Several games are common among these people, who, 
for all their hard climate and circumstances, are by no 
means always at work. 

1 We turned our course towards the alps of TorneS, 
which were described to me as about forty (Swedish) 
miles distant' [270 English miles]. < What I endured 
in the course of this journey is hardly to be described. 
How many weary steps was I obliged to set to climb 


the precipices that came in my way ! Sometimes we 
were enveloped with clouds ' [the greatest danger in 
Lapland travel, because of the unseen precipices], 'some- 
times rivers impeded our course and obliged us to choose 
a very circuitous path, or to wade naked through the 
snow-cold water. 

' Without the fresh snow-water, our only drink, we 
should never have been able to encounter the excessive 
heat of the weather. 1 

c Having nearly reached the Lapland village of Cai- 
tuma, the inhabitants of which seemed perfectly wild, 
running away from their huts as soon as they perceived 
us approaching from a considerable distance, I began to 
be tired of advancing further up into this inhospitable 
country. "We had not tasted bread for several days, our 
stock being exhausted, and the rich milk of the reindeer 
is too luscious to be eaten without bread. I was de- 
sirous of having my linen washed, but the people under- 
stood my request as little as if I had spoken Hebrew, not 
a single article of their own apparel being made of 

' The dwarf birch bears very small leaves in those 

1 Du Chaillu records his experience on the same line of travel : 
' Of all the bleak landscapes I had seen on the journey this seemed 
the most dreary ; it was absolutely grand in its desolation. There 
was an indescribable charm in the loneliness and utter silence ; bare 
mountains of granite and gneiss formed the setting of the picture, 
and all around were stones of all sizes and shapes, piled in heaps. 
Over these we had to wind our way for hours, jumping from one to 
another almost continuously. All the hard pedestrian exercise I had 
ever taken was as nothing compared to this.' 


elevated regions. In this part of the country the crake- 
berry (Empetrum) serves for firing ; otherwise the most 
common fuel is the dwarf birch and the willow, 1 with 
white hairy leaves, so abundant on the Lapland Alps.' 

In the * Flora Lapponica ' he describes one of these 
night journeys, when the low-focussed central light was 
sending the long oblique shadows in dense blue bands 
round a crimson world. l While I was walking quickly 
along over the celebrated mountain of Vallivari, facing 
the cold wind at midnight if I may call it night 
when the sun was shining without setting at all I 
perceived, as it were, the shadow of this plant (Andro- 
meda tetragona), but did not stop to examine it, taking 
it for the Empetrum. But after going a few steps 
farther, an idea of its being something I was unac- 
quainted with came across my mind, and I turned 
back, when I should again have taken it for the 
Empetrum had not its greater height caused me to 
consider it with more attention. I know not what it 
is that so deceives the sight in our Alps during the 
night as to render objects far less distinct than in 
the middle of the day, although the sun shines equally 
bright. The sun, being near the horizon, spreads its 
rays in such a horizontal direction that a hat can 
scarcely protect our eyes ; besides, the shadows of the 
plants are so infinitely extended, and so confounded 
with each other from the tremulous agitation caused 
by the blustering wind, that objects very different in 
1 Salix Laj) 2 onum. 


themselves are scarcely to be distinguished from each 
other. Having gathered one of these plants, I looked 
about and found several more in the neighbourhood, 
all on the north side, where they grew in plenty ; but 
I never met with the same in any other place after- 
wards. As at this time they had lost their flowers, and 
were ripening seed, it was not till after I had sought 
for a very long time that I met with a single flower, 
which was white, shaped like a lily of the valley, but 
with five sharper divisions.' 

' July 24. This night I beheld a star, for the first 
time since I came within the arctic circle. Still I 
could see to read or write easily enough.' l 

Linnasus now determined to return towards Quick- 
jock, a journey of about forty Swedish miles. In the 
course of this journey he met with an accident which 
might have been serious. Walking over the snow, 
he broke through the icy crust covering a deep hole. 
This cavity was very steep, and so hollowed out by the 
water that it surrounded our traveller like a wall. The 
guides could not release him until they had procured a 
rope, when he was drawn out, with no other injury than 
a hurt on the thigh, which continued to be felt for a 
month afterwards. 

' July 25. The lakes in this part of the country 

1 Du Chaillu travelling here about the same time in July and 
August says, I was gladdened by the view of a star, the first I had 
seen for .about three months. It was Vega, twinkling bright, an old 
friend, who had often helped me to find my way through the African 

' LA CHE SIS LAP PO NIC A ' i g i 

did not afford me so many plants as those further south. 
Their bottoms were quite clear and destitute of vege- 
tation. The shores were no less barren. No water- 
lilies, no water-docks, &c., grew about their borders, 
but the surface of the water itself was covered with the 
water ranunculus, bearing round as well as capillary 
leaves, and whitening the whole with its blossoms. I 
could not but marvel to see these broad patches of 
white spread over the lakes, as when I passed up the 
country only a fortnight before I had not perceived the 
least appearance of even the herbage of the ranunculus 
that composed them ; now its branches, an ell in length, 
swam on the surface. The growth of the stem must be 
very rapid, as it often proceeded from a depth of three 

'At sunset we reached Parkjaur, where we vainly 
attempted to procure a boat. We had no resource but 
to make ourselves a float or raft, on which we com- 
mitted our persons and our property to the guidance 
of the current of the river. The night proved very 
dark in consequence of a thick fog, insomuch that we 
could not see before us to the distance of three fathoms. 
After a while we found ourselves in the middle of the 
stream, and it was not long before the force of the 
water separated the timbers of our raft, and we were 
in imminent danger of our lives. At length, however, 
with the greatest difficulty, we reached a house situated 
on an island, after a voyage of half a mile ' [Swedish] 
' from where we had embarked. 


1 The next day I was conducted to the river of 
Calatz, to see the manner of fishing for pearls,' from 
the then nearly exhausted bed of pearl-mussels. He 
carried thence the germ of an idea of pearl-making with 
him, brooding over it for years. 

6 July 28. Several days ago the forests had been 
set on fire by lightning, and the flames raged at this 
time with great violence, owing to the drought of the 
season. In many different cases, perhaps in nine or ten 
that came under my notice, the devastation extended 
several miles ' [Swedish] i distance. I traversed a space 
three quarters of a mile ' [Swedish] ' in extent which was 
entirely burnt ; so that Flora, instead of appearing in her 
gay and verdant attire, was in deep sable a spectacle 
more abhorrent to my feelings than to see her clad in 
the white livery of winter. The fire was nearly extin- 
guished in most of the spots we visited, except in ant- 
hills and dry trunks of trees. After we had travelled 
about half a quarter of a mile across one of these scenes 
of desolation the wind began to blow with more force 
than it had done, upon which a sudden noise arose in 
the half-burnt forest, such as I can only compare to 
what may be imagined among a large army attacked by 
an enemy. We knew not whither to turn our steps. 
The smoke would not suffer us to remain where we were, 
neither durst we turn back. It seemed best to hasten 
forward, in hopes of speedily reaching the outskirts of 
the wood ; but in this we were disappointed. We ran 
as fast as we could in order to avoid being crushed by the 


falling trees, some of which threatened us every minute. 
Sometimes the fall of a huge trunk was so sudden that 
we stood aghast, not knowing whither to turn to escape 
destruction, throwing ourselves entirely on the protec- 
tion of Providence. In one instance a large tree fell 
exactly between me and my guide. 

c This day I observed the harvest beginning. The 
corn now cutting at TorneS, though sown but a few 
days before midsummer, was nevertheless quite ripe. 

{ On July 30 I arrived at LuleS. I visited the Lax- 
holms, islands so called from the salmon-fishery. 1 Those 
who fish for salmon come to this place about a fortnight 
before midsummer, and remain till St. Bartholomew's 
Day, August 28, as during that space of time the 
salmon keep ascending the river. Few of the fish 
escape being taken so as to return down the river. 
At Michaelmas the fishermen come here again, when 
they catch a smaller sort of salmon. 

' I rested for a day or two, and then proceeded to 
Tornea 1 . 

' August 3. At sunrise the marshes were all white 
with hoar-frost. In the preceding night winter had 
paid his first visit and slept in the lap of the lovely 

< On leaving Sangis I left my mother-tongue behind 
me. At Saris I met with native Finlanders only, 
whose language was unintelligible to me. Between 
this and Tornea* are three ferries to pass. 

1 Salmo solar , named Lax by the Swedes. 

VOL. I. O 


' August 7. The town of TorneS, stands on a small 
island I call it an island because it is bounded on the 
north by a swamp, on the south-east by the great river 
of TorneS, and on the west and south-west by a shallow 
arm of the sea. No kind of plough is used at Tornea 1 , 
the ground being turned over with the spade.' 

Linnaeus detected the cause of a dreadful disease 
among the reindeer of North Lapland : some had died 
in the winter, but more in the spring when turned out 
to grass. He discovered the water-hemlock, 1 one of 
the most virulent of vegetable poisons, growing in the 
marshes. By pointing out the plant he enabled the 
people to guard against the danger ever after. He re- 
commended the Torneans to employ people to root it out. 

' Not understanding the Finnish language, I found 
it inconvenient to proceed, and preferred returning. I 
made several excursions to an adjacent island. 

' September 4. I went to Biorknas in order to be 
instructed in the art of assaying. Here I stood sponsor 
to the son of the burgomaster (or mine-master) Swan- 
berg, who was born in the preceding night.' In the 
summary of his travels he mentions how, on his return 
through Lulea", he learned the art of assaying from 
the mine-master Swanberg, at Calix, in two days 
and a night ; and having suffered extreme fatigue, 
lie reposed himself at the house of M. Hoyer, the 

' September 14. I took my leave of Biorknas. The 
1 Cicuta virosa. 


weather was cold and rainy. Such of the forest trees as 
are of a deciduous nature had now assumed a pallid hue 
in consequence of the cold nights, but the evergreens ' 
[that is, the pines] ' were rendered conspicuous by their 
dark green colour. The hills appeared sandy, and such 
places as had been burnt were now perfectly white with 
reindeer moss. 

c September 15. I received one hundred dollars, of 
copper money, from the chief clergyman at TorneaV 
[This seems to have been left here in deposit for him by 
the Academy.] 

( Having noted the Finnish names for such articles as 
I should be most likely to want at the inns, I ventured 
once more to enter East Bothland, in order to pursue 
my journey that way homeward. I considered that in 
a new country there is always something new to be 
seen, and that to travel the same road I had come 
would probably afford but little entertainment or in- 
struction. I had still less inclination, at this advanced 
season of the year, to encounter the hazard of a sea 
voyage. I therefore pursued my way along the coast 
through East Bothland and Finland, visiting UleS, 
Brakestad, Old and New Carleby the latter is as big 
as Wexio Wasa, a handsome little town, the residence 
of the governor, Christinestad, Biorreberg, and Abo, 
seat of the Finland university, remaining four days at 
the place last mentioned. I then went by the post-yacht 
to Aland, crossed the Sea of Aland, and at one in the 
afternoon on October 10 arrived safe at Upsala. To 

o 2 


the Maker and Preserver of all things be praise, honour, 
and glory for ever ! 

c The whole extent of my journey amounts to 633 
Swedish miles ' [about 3,798 English miles]. 

Linnaeus speaks very modestly of this journey in 
his diary. ' On his arrival at home he delivered to the 
Academy of Sciences an account of his expedition, 
which obtained their approbation, and they returned 
him 112 silver dollars (not more than 10Z. sterling), 1 his 
travelling expenses. They also elected him one of 
their members/ He considered his labour amply re- 
paid by the payment of his expenses, the information 
he had gained, and the discovery of new plants upon 
the higher mountains. He has eulogised the country 
in the c Flora Lapponica ' as all that could be desired ; 
happy and smiling, free from many diseases and the 
scourge of war, and possessing plentiful resources in it- 
self ; while the inhabitants are said to be innocent and 
primitive, displaying the greatest hospitality and kind- 
ness to a stranger. 2 c See what pure nature could do for 
these men,' cries Linnaeus; but this was the memory 
of a Swede in Holland. The journal shows us the 
seamy side. 

It is amusing to read in Smith's preface, c So valu- 
able was the MS. of the Lapland tour considered, that 
on Linnaeus's whole collection and library being sold, 

1 Pulteney. Mr. Jackson, Secretary to the Linngean Society, 
reckons these 112 dollars as less ban 251. sterling. 

2 Sir W. Jardine. 


after the death of his son, it was remarked that these 
papers at least ought to have been retained in Sweden 
as a national property, the journey which they record 
having been undertaken at the public expense, and the 
objects illustrated thereby being necessarily more im- 
portant to the author's countrymen than to any other 




I am as earnest as a bee, 

But savage as a hornet. FARRAH. 

AFTER his tour. Linnaeus again felt the pressure of 
poverty, as one cannot live only upon fame. Imme- 
diately after his return from Lapland he made applica- 
tion for Wrede's exhibition, called Ofverskotts medlen, 
which he obtained chiefly by the kind assistance of 
Professor Valraves. From this he enjoyed the first 
year 30 plStar (about 5L sterling). I can discover no 
other university prize obtained by Linnaeus while an 

He was no longer tutor to Kudbeck's sons, nor 
could he live with Rudbeck as before, on account of 
the aforementioned feminine influence. But Menander, 


afterwards Bishop of Abo, was at that time a student, 
and assisted Linnaeus considerably with money : the 
latter taught him natural history in return. 

Having learnt the art of assaying metals during his 
ten days' residence at the mines of Biorknas, near Calix, 
in the course of his Lapland tour, Linnaeus, early in 


1733, began a private course of lectures on this subject. 
The novelty of his information, the vivacity of his style, 
and the grace of his delivery soon gained him celebrity 
in this line also. Linnaeus had a general elegance of 
manners in common with most Swedes; but beyond 
this, as was said of our Dr. Johnson, l few persons quitted 
his company without perceiving themselves wiser and 
better than they were before'; while, as a lecturer, 
he had the faculty of expressing what he meant to 
convey in clear incisive words, in sentences vigorous 
and full, from his complete mastery of the subject. 
One relished hearing him as one enjoys seeing a master 
workman use his tools. 

He was above his age in the same sense that the 
flower is above the plant, that the sunflower crowns the 
stem. In him the natural arrogance of youth was not 
the arrogance of a fool swollen with conceit and vapour, 
but the arrogance of Aristotle's i man of lofty soul, 1 
who, being of great merit, knows that he is so and 
chooses to be so regarded.' 2 He had passions ' passions 
in general lofty and generous, but still passions/ Though 
entirely free from malice, he was impulsive and vehe- 
ment in temper, and when roused to indignation could 
be very fierce. 

Few persons have all kinds of merit belonging to 
their character ; ' a fallible being will fail somewhere : as 

1 Froude. 

2 ' It is the heroic arrogance of some old Scandinavian conqueror ; 
it is his nature and the untamable impulse that has given him power 
to crush the dragons.' M. FULLEB, speaking of Carlyle. 


Johnson says, ' It is well where a man possesses any 
strong positive excellence.' Rosen, his old rival, whose 
position as adjunctus to the chair of Anatomy and 
Physics l gave him great weight in the university, owing 
to Professor Roberg's advanced age and weakness, had 
his envy roused by Linnaeus's rising fame; he was 
not above taking mean measures to rob the brilliant 
young lecturer of his reputation, and even threatened 
to stop his lectures as illegal. All this made Linnasus 
very bitter. ' There is no precedent for this, as I am 
the first person who has ever lectured in this way,' said 
Linnaeus when one day he called on Rosen, hoping to 
settle the matter in talk. Rosen, sitting grumpy as a 
polar bear, eyed him with suspicion and distrust, c and 
would not come forth into open parley at all.' 

f There is a rule against such lectures,' said Rosen. 
4 An obsolete regulation,' retorted Linnaeus. The con- 
stant opposition his natural bent met with on all hands 
had doubtless its result in deepening in Linnaeus a 
certain irascibility of temper that often underlies the 
sweetness of the Swedes. The old Goth peeps out, the 
Berserk spirit of the Saga heroes. 

That he in the fulness of his strength should not be 
let to use it were unreasonable and unnatural. Work 
had to be done, ideas to be enlarged : was he not to be 
permitted to do these things and to maintain himself? 
It was a manifest injustice, under which he could not 
but smart. His clever tongue had a sting in it too, as 
1 Physiology and physics were formerly considered as synonymous. 


we can tell from a letter of Haller's. 'The man is 
active, I cannot deny, and a zealous lover of nature, for 
which I love him ; but his character has for me a some- 
thing I know not what to call it of asperity, fickle- 
ness, and unevenness.' The fact was, his vanity clashed 
against their vanity. Unless very first-class men them- 
selves, they were afraid to measure tongues with him ; 
they were fearful, too, lest he should spy out and expose 
the poverty of their land. 

Linnaeus shall now state his own case in an extract 
from his diary. 

1 In the year 1733 Linnaeus began a course of 
lectures in the art of assaying, which had never been 
before taught in this university. He delivered them 
for 2 pl, tar ' [about 7s.] ' each person, on which account 
he gained a great number of pupils. Rosen, observing 
that Linnaeus came forward more and more, and fearing 
lest he should at last become a dangerous competitor, re- 
quested Linnaeus to lend him his MS. lectures on botany, 
which he had himself composed, and which he valued 
more than anything that belonged to him ; and when 
Rosen found he could not attain them by fair means he 
held out threats to Linnaeus, who then gave up to him 
a part of them ; but as soon as he was informed that 
Rosen copied the MS. no intimidation could induce 
him to deliver into Rosen's hands the remainder. In 
the meantime Rosen had taken by the hand a young 
Master of Arts, named Gottskalk Wallerius, who had 
studied medicine under him almost a year. The office 


of adjunctus in the medical faculty at Lund was now 
instituted, and Linnaeus endeavoured to obtain it at 
the urgent desire of Professor Rudbeck. Rosen was at 
this time (1733) practising at Wiksberg, where people 
went to drink the mineral waters. The chancellor of 
the university, Count Carl Gyllenborg, was of the 
number, and consequently Linnaeus stood no chance 
against Wallerius, who obtained the office of adjunctus, 
though it was of less advantage to him than it would 
have been to Linnaeus.' 

Disappointed in his views of medical advancement, 
Linnaeus turned his attention to mineralogy, one of the 
kingdoms of his universal empire. 1 

Being prohibited from publicly lecturing, Linnaeus 
accepted the invitation of some of his former pupils to ac- 
company them to the mines of Falun and other places. 

On his return from Lapland Linnaeus paid par- 
ticular attention to mineralogy, which was the prin- 
cipal reason of his visiting the district of mines a 
spot the most favourable of all others for acquiring that 
knowledge of minerals which could alone enable him to 
form a correct system.' 2 He was impressed, besides, 
with the interdependence of the natural sciences. 

At the end of the year 1733 Linnaeus went to the 
mine district called in Sweden Bergslag, in a dreary 
desolate country resembling the bleak high Cornish 

1 In 1733 he studied mineralogy and the docimastic art. Encyl. 
Brit., eighth edition. 

2 Diary. 


mining districts for the purpose of investigating and 
arranging the minerals of his native country, where he 
visited Norberg, Bispberg, Afvestad, Garpenberg, a sort 
of quadrilateral of mines, and the iron-foundries, mines, 
and town of Falun, which place he has memorialised 
by his Lichen Faluniensis, a production more resem- 
bling some ramifications of the neighbouring copper 
ores than anything of vegetable origin. Linnaeus was 
received in this rich but desolate mining district with 
the most flattering distinction, and attentions were 
paid him which were heard of in Upsala. He was in- 
troduced to Baron Reuterholm, the governor of the 
province, who requested Linnaeus to undertake, at his 
(Reuterholm's) expense, a journey all over Dalecarlia, 
with other naturalists, to survey the physical produc- 
tions of that province. 1 

Reuterholm delighted in the study of nature, and 
chiefly spent his leisure hours with the productions of 
the mines. His charge as director of the mines became 
more lucrative in proportion to his knowledge of their 
produce. He also wished his sons to learn these things, 
and he rejoiced in their rapid liking for the gifted young 
stranger, and encouraged their intimacy. Baron Reu- 
terholm was himself charmed with the enthusiastic 
young man who descended the mines by day and passed 
the night in the foundries by the furnaces. So practical, 
too, he was, that, not satisfied with discovery, he at 
once sought to put every material to use. ' It is not the 


finding of a thing, but the making something out of it 
after it is found, that is of consequence/ l 

Reuterholm meant to put Linngeus to use likewise. 
He persuaded him to undertake the travelling tutorship of 
his two sons through Dalecarlia and over the Dalecarlian 
Alps to Norway an idea which soon after enlarged 
itself into having a complete survey of the province, in 
every department of its natural history, undertaken at 
the governor's expense a patriotic work, by which 
also Baron Beuterholm expected largely to profit. But 
nothing was definitively settled about the undertaking, 
and the idea went to sleep during the night of the 
Swedish winter. 

Linnasus remained a whole month at Falun, and 
then returned to Upsala. 

' The very distinction he had so justly acquired turned 
out to his prejudice. Envy and rivalship combined with 
self-interest gave rise to all the violence of animosity. 
Linnasus had not taken his degree, which according to 
the Swedish custom must always be taken abroad, and 
Linnaeus was too poor to travel. This excluded him from 
the right of delivering public lectures, which is the exclu- 
sive privilege of doctors. He was too obnoxious to his com- 
petitors, who were determined to check his rising fame.' 2 

The applause which he received was unendurable to 
Rosen, now (in 1734) become a more formidable enemy 
through his marriage with the niece of the Archbishop of 
Upsala. 3 Rosen, conceiving that the genius and reputa- 

1 J. E. Lowell. 2 Stoever. s Turton. 


tion of Linnaeus stood in the way of his own fame, and 
attracted to the new doctrines some of Rosen's own pupils, 
determined to suppress his competitor. Sir J. E. Smith, 
who also speaks strongly on the mean jealousy of Rosen in 
surreptitiously copying Linnaeus's botanical manuscripts, 
of which he had the forced loan, mentions as ' the basest 
action of Rosen, and which proved envy to be the sole 
source of his conduct, this, that, having married the 
niece of the archbishop, he obtained through his lord- 
ship's means an order from the chancellor to prohibit 
all private medical lectures in the university. This, for 
which there could be no motives but conscious inferiority 
and malice, deprived Linnaeus of his only means of sub- 
sistence, and the students of any information which 
might endanger their reverence for his rival.' Smith is 
very bitter on the prosperous nephew of an archbishop. 

c Rosen procured an edict from the Chancellor 
Cronhjelm, that a medical teacher should never be 
received in the university of Upsala to the prejudice 
of the adjunctus.' 1 

There was no precedent, it would seem, concerning 
private lectures. Linnaeus in his tabular summary says : 
' 1733. Lectured privately on mineralogy he was 
the first person who had done so at Upsala.' 2 The re- 
gulation concerning public lectures, it appears, existed 
before, but had fallen into abeyance or been forgotten 
through there being no outsider competent to lecture, 
as we hear that Rosen informed against his rival c before 
1 Diary. 2 Notes made by Linnaeus for his biography. 


the senate of the university, and insisted that in virtue 
of the academical statute Linnaaus should be no longer 
suffered to give public lectures.' 1 He thus meanly sought 
to strangle the reputation of Linnseus and deprive the 
world of the benefit of his knowledge because it was 
not sanctioned by academic forms. 

The proud spirit of Linnaeus had to submit to all the 
vexations and restrictions entailed on him by his poverty 
griefs more galling, perhaps, to bear than were his actual 
hardships when an undistinguished student. Poverty 
is a mighty strengthener as well as tamer and chastiser ; 
but for this discipline at Upsala Linnaeus would probably 
never have vanquished the world with his system. He 
had now nothing but private lectures to depend upon. 
'Ah ! ' cries Dante (in the ' Paradiso '), 'if the world but 
knew the heart of him who goes from trouble to trouble, 
begging his life ! ' 

Linnaeus was summoned to appear before the senate. 
Many of the members were anxious to waive the pro- 
hibition in consideration of the virtues and talents of 
him at whom it was now pointed ; 2 but Rosen pleaded 
the inviolability of the statutes, which the senate was 
bound to enforce, and Linnaeus was forbidden to con- 
tinue his lectures. Rosen was prepared with his special 
edict, pointed directly against Linnaeus and his lectures, 
public or private, in case of the votes going against 

This was a dreadful blow to Carl. His ambition 
1 Stoever. 2 Ibid. 


hemmed in the sphere of its operations, no outlook was 
open to him. l The bitterest of griefs is to know much 
and accomplish nothing.' l Linnaeus was terribly sore, 
and no wonder. It was his ruin. c When roused I am 
like a furious bard of ancient days. I poured forth such 
a dreadful torrent of sarcasm and truth that I shook 
him to death,' says our English painter, 2 when likewise 
chafing under ill-treatment. 

No wonder if the wrath of Linnaeus burst forth in a 
most unbounded manner. The wild-beast vein of the 
ancient Goth rose in him. In the tempest of his pas- 
sion he forgot himself, his future happiness, and every 
moral consideration, but ' who ever saw far in a storm ' ? 
Boiling with pugnacity and rage, with flaming eyes more 
piercing than his knife, he swore ' By all the Valkyrs ! ' 
he would slay his foe. 

When Rosen left the senate Linnaeus waited for 
him, and with desperate fury drew his sword, and would 
have run it through the body of his enemy had not the 
bystanders fortunately wrested it from him. He flew at 
Rosen's throat and grappled with him in a fierce struggle. 
He was with difficulty separated from his prey. 3 Rosen, 
who was a member of the academy, complained of this 
gross assault and of this daring violation of the laws of 
public safety. The rigour of the law threatened Lin- 
naeus with proscription, and he could never afterwards 
have made his appearance at Upsala. Dean Celsius 
interposed, allayed the resentment caused by this event, 
1 Herodotus. 2 Haydon. * Stoever. 


and brought round matters so far that punishment was 
changed into a bare reprimand. Linnaeus was now 
spared penalty, but he still cherished the idea of ven- 
geance. His fiery temper almost drove him to despera- 
tion. Rising to a white heat, he still meditated the 
design of stabbing Rosen if he met him in the streets. 

I can realise the transports of fury of Linnaeus because 
I have twice seen men of these Northern nations give 
way to fits of frenzy of the like sort. Once it was a gentle- 
man who had quarrelled with some of his countrymen in a 
railway-carriage about a mere trifle. Rendered speechless 
by his own fury, all trembling with passion, he became an 
amusing spectacle of pantomimic rage. The other case 
was a more serious affair, and likely to become tragic. It 
was a common man in the island of Gothland, who, in 
an outburst of savage wrath only comparable to that of an 
ancient Berserk, hurled the huge stones that lay about 
the cliff in his madness at his enemy, who fled terrified 
into a house near by. A woman came out and faced 
the seeming maniac, crossing her arms proudly as if she 
said, i You pass this threshold only over my body.' I must 
do the furious Goth the justice to say that in his wildest 
transports he hurled no stone against the woman a 
noble-looking creature though at every minute the 
demon repossessed him ; and he flung his body and the 
great boulders about blindly and with renewed vehemence 
as the thought of his wrongs rushed over him again. Such 
was Linnaeus at this time ; a renewed personal struggle 
with Rosen would have been like Molin's fine statue of 


the belt-wrestlers l at Stockholm, which represents the 
jealous wrestlers struggling to the death with their sharp 
short knives, such as are used among these Northmen 
to this day, and bound together by a strong leathern 
belt in order that the fight may only end with the death 
of one or both of them. 

But that history says it was a sword, I should think 
it more probable that Linnaeus rushed on Rosen with 
the stout sharp two-edged weapon, the tolle-knife, that 
the Scandinavians so generally wear in an ornamented 
sheath at their thigh ; though, as the trial was a cere- 
monial occasion, dress swords may have been worn. 

Duelling, to which severe penalties were attached 
by a law of 1682, had long been unknown in Sweden. 
It was advantageously replaced in the universities by 
( national ' 2 quartette-singing, in which Linnaeus seldom 
or never joined. 

Thus cruelly deprived of resources which promised 
an ample reward for his studies, and reduced again to 
indigence, which he had too keenly experienced formerly 
to render this a matter easily forgiven, Linnaeus con- 
tinued inflamed with rage against Rosen, who had stood 
in his way from his first entrance upon life. Nature 
could not heal his wounds, nor Friendship, for Artedi 
was away in England. No faithful sympathy could be 
found to soothe him, for mere fellowship in science does 
not serve us at the hardest pinch ; nor could he disarm 

1 Bdltespdnnare. 

2 In allusion to the thirteen nations ' of the University. 

VOL. I. P 


the deserved blame of his elder friends. Although a 
good man and a pious, Linnaeus was no saint. Heaven 
helped him, however. 

While his desperate resolution lasted ferociously as 
ever, he awoke one night in agonising consternation 
from a hideous dream ; he dreamt he had killed Rosen. 
He gave serious reflection to the horrid idea, and at length 
reason and religion calmed his violent passions, ' What 
an awful, wonderful thing a violent death is, even in a 
dumb beast ! ' says Kingsley anent the shooting of a 
horse. Oh, had he killed Rosen! The very thought 
was now agony to him. He felt he must go away and 
hide his face, his Cain-branded head, and (the Berserk 
fever over) sob out his thanksgiving that both of them 
had been saved. 

From that hour he forgave Rosen ; he even began to 
see that they two should be brothers in science. ' Shall 
God make us brother poets, as well as brother men, 
and we refuse to fraternise ? ' In grateful recollection 
of the impression made upon his conscience he wrote 
in after years a particular diary, called ' Nemesis 
Divina,' illustrating the words ' Vengeance is mine, I 
will repay, saith the Lord.' This is a small octavo 
pamphlet, written in Latin. 1 It contains meditations 
on texts of Scripture, Seneca, &c., and the self-search- 
ing of a penitent soul. That this penitence was not a 
mere passing impression is shown by the date of the 
'Nemesis' pamphlet, August 31, 1739. The motto of 
1 Price seventy-five ore. 


the book is Innocue vivito : Numen adest, which at 
this time replaced his personal motto, Tantus amor 
florum. But Rosen himself could not be reconciled : 
perhaps had they had an evening's chat or f a morning 
walk together on their heathery moors, it would have 
brought their hearts miles nearer to each other, and 
their heads too.' 

And so Linnseus and he still lived apart, both in- 
spired with the same lofty aims, each following his star 
the polar star * Se tu segui la tua stellaj 1 success is 
sure the essential is to see the star. They were to 
meet again. Carr tells us that Rosen, towards the 
close of his life, was glad of the medical aid of Linnaeus : 
and the great botanist acknowledges frankly that he 
owed his life to the skill of Rosen. But much was to 
happen between this and then. 

Linnaeus does not in the diary mention having 
drawn his sword upon Rosen, though in the ' Nemesis 
Divina ' he speaks of it befittingly. But he goes on in 
the diary to tell us, 4 By this edict Linnaeus was de- 
prived of his only means of subsistence, and Rosen 
made up his mind to believe that he had now totally 
ruined him ; but the following week there came a letter 
from Baron Reuterholm, with a bill of exchange en- 
closed, and a request that Linnaeus would set out on 
his travels in Dalecarlia.' 

No sooner was the door shut than the window was 
opened. Linnseus flew out of it like a bird. He was 
1 Dante. 

p 2 


not of those who lose an opportunity. The man who* 
habitually loses his opportunities is sure to fail. 

Here was the world opened to him again, the very 
best part of it, and life according to his liking. < Be- 
cause, though the whole earth is given to the children 
of men, none but we jolly fishers get the plums and 
raisins of it, the rivers which run among the hills, and 
the lakes which sit a-top thereof.' 1 For jolly fishers 
read naturalists, 

1 Kingsley. 




Up a thousand feet, Tom, 

Round the lion's head, 
Find soft stones to leeward 

And make up our bed. 
Eat our bread and bacon, 

Smoke the pipe of peace, 
And, ere we be drowsy, 

Give our boots a grease. 
Homer's heroes did so, 

Why not such as we ? 
What are sheets and servants ? 

Superfluity. KINGSLEY. 

IT took some time to organise the expedition, which was 
no single-handed affair like the Lapland journey. This 
was a caravan of naturalists, to be furnished with due 
scientific and all other requirements for the two young 
barons, Reuterholm's sons, could not be expected to 
travel without a certain amount of luxury. But to take 
servants and equipage were to imperil the objects of the 
journey ; and Linnaeus's fascinating tongue soon won 
over barons and all to trust to chance for their creature 

1 The adjective Dalecarlian is better Latinised Dalecarlicus, -a, 
-um ; but as Linnaeus wrote of his journey as Iter Dalecarlium, I 
have adopted his title. In Flora Dalecarlica the same. Linnaeus wrote 
it Flora Dalecarlia. Jackson also follows Linnaeus in this. 


comforts, and carry only tools and necessaries. ' Know- 
ledge is easily borne about,' said Nasman, the proverbial 
philosopher of the party. 

For organisation Linnaeus had a masterly talent, 
applying it to the arts of peace. He classified men as 
he classified other natural history specimens by their 
qualities and capacities. He set about his work in a 
workmanlike manner. 

He was accompanied by seven young naturalists, 
whom he selected from a crowd of volunteers. He enacted 
the laws and regulations of their course, and he ap- 
pointed to every member his functions, to each one his 
manual and scientific as well as his administrative 
work. To each one a distinct department was assigned, 
and a report was given in at the end of every day's 
journey according to written rules which had been pre- 
pared before starting, for the due observance of which 
every member made himself answerable. 

No writers of Linnaeus's life have given us his 
travels ; written in Latin or in Swedish, they have never 
been translated, except a few of them into German, and 
the Lapland journey into English. The unpublished 
journal of this Dalecarlian tour still exists, locked up, 
lying asleep, hitherto, in the Swedish tongue. 

Honest old Stoever never professed to work upon 
the Swedish records, but he toiled diligently through 
the Latin (excepting what he could not get at in Sir 
J. Smith's collection), and with true German pains- 
takingness which seems a right German sort of word 


-he has gathered together everything that was to be 
found in his time, and rolled it out in fine, respectable, 
nay more, genteel language, grandiose and flowery in 
the roundabout grammar of the period, when the 
ornate Louis Quinze style in rhetoric was thought the 
only thing fit for print. He gives this account of 
Linnseus's travelling companions and their functions, 
taken from the ' Hamburg News,' published some 
months later. 

c Nasman, who had made himself known by a good 
dissertation on the Dalecarlian language, was to act as 
geographer ; to give an accurate description of all the 
villages, mountains, lakes, rivers, roads, districts, &c. ; 
to say morning and evening prayers ; and to preach on 

' Ciewberg, as naturalist, was to make observations 
on the four elements, such as on the quality of the 
water, on mineral springs, on sources, on the snow 
which never melts in the Alps in summer; on the 
height of the mountains, the weather, the fruitfulness 
or sterility of soil, &c., and to act as secretary. 

' Faldstedt as metallist, besides collecting stones, 
minerals, earths, and all kinds of petrifactions (more 
.generally loved in those days than now Reuterholm 
especially affected them) &c. : as groom he was to saddle, 
water, and attend the horses. 

4 Sohllerg, an able student of physic, as botanist or 
herbalist, was to examine and preserve as well as pos- 
sible all the trees, plants, herbs, grasses, and fungi. 


He was also to precede the company as quartermaster, 
to procure them good lodgings, and to provide every 
necessary for their reception. 

' Emporelius was zoologist, to describe and depict 
the quadrupeds, and all the animals living as well in the 
water as on land ; also to shoot the game for the sup- 
port of the company, likewise to fish. 

' Hedenblad was to act as economist : to examine the 
dress of the Laplanders, their dwellings, way of pre- 
paring provisions, matrimonial and funeral rites, their 
knowledge of medicine, mode of living, diet, &c. ; and 
to describe all this with pen and pencil' [Linnaeus 
laid great stress on such graphic illustrations]. 'He 
was also to act as adjutant ; to distribute the president's 
orders ; to call the company together whenever it was 
required, especially in the evening, when an account 
was always given of the day's transactions ; and to see 
that they went to bed and rose at the proper time. 

t Sandel, an American, born at Pennsylvania, was 
steward and treasurer : he had the chief care of the 
fodder, cattle, wood-buying, and selling.' * 

This worked well. Tn the space of a few weeks it 

1 C. Linnagus, Smaland, Prseses, publics in privatum. 
Reinh. Nasman, Dalekarl., Geographus, Pastor. 
Carl Clewberg, Helsingland, Physicus, Secretarius. 
Ingel Faldstedt, Dalekarl., Mineralogus, Stallmeister. 
Claud. Sohlberg, Dalekarl., Botanicus, Quartermeister. 
Eric Emporelius, Dalekarl., Zoologus, Jirgmeister. 
Petr. Hedenblad, Dalekarl., Domesticus, Adjutant. 
Beraain Sandel, Americ., (Economus, Korntmeister. 

Iter Dal. July 3, 1734, Fahlun. 


seemed as if they had been accustomed to this life whole 
years together. 

The regulations are less remarkable than the fact 
that they carried them out to the end of the journey. 

1 The " Transactions " are printed (?) on forty-eight 
written sheets containing many important observations 
and discoveries. In the geographical part is a faithful 
description of the DalelfVen, the largest river of Dale- 
carlia, with all its arms and sources ; also a geography 
of the Alpine mountains. ... In mineralogy there 
exists a description of 120 different curious sorts of 
minerals and fossils, most of which are to be found in 
the district of Rattvik. In the botanical part is a list 
of all the plants growing in the whole province, called 
Flora Dalecarlia, with the synonyma and their eco- 
nomical and pharmaceutical virtues, written l by Baron 
Reuterholm.' 2 

Although Gieseke wrote as above, the ' Iter Dale- 
carlium ' never really seems to have been printed under 
the superintendence of its authors. It was consulted 
in MS. by Linnasus's pupils, and the botanical re- 
marks were inserted in his own printed works. The 
journal seems to have been used, artist fashion, as a 
quarry for materials. One particular fruit of this journey 
was a list of the pasture herbs of Sweden, published 
under the title of ' Pan Suecus.' 3 

1 Collated and transcribed. 

2 Article on the Iter Dal. in the Hamburg News, written by 

* In Pan Suecus are recorded over two thousand experiments to 


' When the president discovered a village it was not 
necessary for all the company to ride thither, but the 
geographer alone was sent to enter it. If some par- 
ticular stone or fossil was found on the way the metal - 
list was directed to alight ; at the sight of some curious 
plant or insect the botanist or zoologist did his duty. 
They took the respective objects with them, and pre- 
pared a description, to be inserted at night in the " Trans- 
actions," besides the name of the place where they had 
been found. At night they all met together ; the presi- 
dent then dictated to the secretary l the memoranda 
collected by each companion in a regular turn, from the 
geographer to the steward ; and if he happened to for- 
get any remark, the companion to whose office that 
part of the science belonged refreshed his memory.' 

This division of labour was found easily practicable 
by the party. All did not precipitate themselves on a 

ascertain what plants are eaten and what are rejected by horned 
cattle, goats, sheep, horses, and hogs. Linnaeus conceived the 
design of instituting these experiments when he was travelling in 
Dalarne. Horned cattle ate of the plants offered to them 276 
species, and rejected 218 ; goats, of 449 kinds, refused 126; sheep, 
of 387 kinds, refused 141 ; horses, of 262, refused 212 ; swine ate 
of those offered 72 kinds, and refused 171. Three-fourths of these 
(Swedish) plants are the same as ours in England. The utility of such 
experiments is evident, as they lay the foundation of further im- 
provements in the economy of cattle. Our hay might be much 
improved ; for although cattle will eat in hay those herbs which they 
reject while green and growing, yet it does not follow that all in 
their dried state are equally nutritive and wholesome. 

1 Gieseke. This may have been the original plan, but in the 
journal each man's observations are recorded in his own hand- 


plant, nor was there a struggle to obtain the best or 
only quarters for the night, as I have seen a party of 
thirty ' geologues ' in France simultaneously claiming 
the only rooms to be had in small French townlets, and 
clearing the neighbourhood of its cafe au lait ; jolly, 
very, but verily unsystematic. This was likewise a ' jolly- 
gizing ' trip, as the livery-stable keepers called Professor 
Sedgwick's adventurous rides with his train of pupils. 
Linnaeus set the fashion of such excursions, picnic 
jaunts, in which he and his pupils enjoyed nature, capping 
verses or quotations as they rode, keeping their eyes, 
minds, and hearts open. Youth and health are never 
at a loss for laughter. Young Faldstedt, the athlete of 
the party, who groomed their horses, acting, as he said, as 
Master of the Horse, was a playful, impudent, careless, 
jovial, capital fellow, always keeping their energies up to 
the mark ; Nasman was graver, as befitted his pastoral 
character, but always ready with a Swedish proverb, 
which Sandel, the Pennsylvanian, capped by a world- 
wide or smart American saying. 1 Linnaeus ruled his 
little troop well, being by nature superior to the rest 
of them, who were, however, of a high average. These 
young, pliant, susceptible natures had their lives 
coloured by his friendship, and their minds moulded to 
his by contact with his clear thought and elevated feeling. 
The air, too, is so fine in these inland parts of Sweden 

1 I have thrown the dry materials of the reports somewhat into 
narrative, and even ventured to introduce an occasional dialogue, 
founded always on the substance of the journal, unless it is for the 
purpose of introducing a Swedish proverb. 


as to brace and stimulate the faculties, and produce that 
state of wholesome intoxication which affords its pleasures 
without its penalties. Guthrey says that ' the inhabi- 
tants live so long as to find life tedious, and therefore 
go to other climes of less salubrity.' Never mind, they 
would find less inconveniently fine air in some of the 
mining districts where they were going ; mayhap they 
would even find diseases. Their object was to go to 
RoraSs, high up in the dreary mountain range dividing 
Sweden from Norway, where they might chance to die 
of cold and privation, aided by mining dangers, arse- 
nical fumes, and others. Though the copper exhala- 
tions are so deleterious to vegetation, they seem to offer 
some hygienic advantages to mankind. Falun, like 
Swansea, has always been exempt from cholera and 
other pestilence, and this immunity is attributed to the 
smelting of the copper ores. This is considered an 
excellent disinfectant. 

Sohlberg, a former pupil of Carl's at Upsala, one of 
the Dalecarlians of the party, led the way, because he 
knew it, and because his office was to quarter the troop 
comfortably on their arrival at the end of the day's 
journey. The rest rode more at ease, making busy 
notes for the journal, whose early pages are naturally 
the fullest and neatest. There are different hand- 
writings in each leaf, and a broad margin on the outside 
of each page, which Linnasus fills with his comments, 
which show how carefully he read every day's report. 

The papers each day begin with the geographer's 


report, then the botanist's (Sohlberg, whose day's public 
work is over early). The American c economist ' makes 
the most drawings, even more than Hedenblad, whose 
especial function it is ; he makes sketches of tools, 
appliances, and anything that hits his fancy as a 
c notion.' The first day's report is the neatest of all. 
It is a general experience ; one writes most, the fullest 
diary, on the day of leaving home ; one's blood is up 
and one is not yet tired ; all is hope and expectation. 
Nasman, the geographer, made a large careful map on 
time-browned paper, marking in water-colour the streams 
where they rise from lakes looking like leaves at the end 
of branches. The churches are all marked as far as Idre. 
The map itself goes no farther up. 

They left Falun on July 3, 1734, the seven Dale- 
carlians (including the two young Eeuterholms) as 
eagerly on the watch as the others for natural objects 
as yet unobserved by them. They were eager to dis- 
tinguish themselves in the diary. 1 The high road to 
Leksand 2 just after leaving Falun, covered with masses 
of mineral refuse, and bare of vegetation, presents 
much the aspect of the bleaker Cornish mining dis- 
tricts, with the range of the Stora Kopparberg forming 
a dreary barrier between it and the pleasanter parts of 
the world. There is a luxuriant vegetation outside 
Falun beyond the range of the fumes from the smelting- 
works. The mines of these ' big copper hills ' have been 

1 The Reuterholms never write in the journal. 
8 Spelt Lixan in the MS. 


worked over six hundred years. For the more complete 
exploration of the province they occasionally divided 
themselves into two bands. Some of them now took 
the northern road by way of Biursa's on the Rogsjo. 
The rest travelled by way of Junsta and the lakelet of 
Innsjo. The peculiar and primitive population of these 
valleys are among the handsomest of the Swedish race ; 
they still retain their national dress, and are proudly 
independent in their faithful adherence to their ancient 
customs. This was less remarkable to Linnaeus than it 
is to us, as at that time the Swedes in general resembled 
in costume and manners the Dalecarlians of the present 
day. A long boat loaded with about seventy of the 
Dalfolk, coming across the Innsjo to Brednas with a 
wedding-party, seemed a signal for a halt, and our 
travellers joined the holiday-makers in the spirited and 
delightful Dalecarlian dances. 

The four most interesting parishes of Dalecarlia are 
Leksand at the southern and Mora at the northern end 
of the Siljan Lake ; Rattvik, at the end of the large 
bight, extending north-easterly ; and Orsa, on the lake 
of that name, which is, in fact, a part of the Siljan 
before its volume is increased by the tribute of the 
Ost-Dal River. The population of these valleys is 
about 170,000. Besides their farm-work they make 
extensively (in their own houses) basket-work, clocks, 
watches and tools ; likewise bells, furniture, grindstones, 
&c. ; in all of which Sandel the oeconomus was vastly 
interested possibly because some of the appleblossom- 


complexioned female workers were so pretty! The 
diary does not say so, however. The frequent farms 
and villages of red and white painted houses set in the 
sylvan scenery of wood and dale, and the numerous 
boats on the silvery lake, make the soft and beautiful 
scenery animated and still further interesting. The 
costumes of the people are charming. The red bodices 
of the women rowing the long boats, reflected in the 
glassy Siljan Lake, are delightful in colour. Linnaeus's 
whole party were hard at work observing, collecting, 
and taking notes, alternately riding and boating. The 
country, being nearly one-quarter of it covered with 
water, seemed to leave to Emporelius, the fisherman 
and zoologist, the lion's share of the work of observa- 
tion. Still, the remaining fourth, intersected with 
brooks and feeders to the lake was 'just the sort of 
country to learn something in.' The yellow anemones 
were over, and all in seed, but the delicate perfume of 
the Linncea borecdis filled the air. The youths saluted 
this graceful plant l by the name it was thenceforward 
to bear, though the name was only printed on their 
hearts as yet. Wild strawberries and raspberries grew 
abundantly for their refreshing. 

So they passed by in their joy, like a dream, on the murmuring 

Some of the party rode round the north bank of the 
lake, passing through Kattvik, leaving Clewberg, Empo- 

1 Campanula serpyllifolia. 


relius the fisherman, and Sohlberg the quarter-master, 
who could not obtain horses, to come on by boat. The 
gay costume of the Rattvik women is as pretty as 
any white sleeves, blueish skirt with green border 
and dark waistband, a woollen apron with transverse 
bands of white, green, yellow, and blue, embroidered 
leggings, the cap black with red trimmings, or some- 
times of linen, with two balls falling on the back. 
One frequently sees this costume in Stockholm now, 
as well as other varieties of the Dalecarlian national 

The first four stages of their journey lay through a 
hilly well-wooded country, of which Wickarby, lying 
beyond the handsome church of Rattvik, is the most 
delightful district in point of scenery. The views from 
the hill-range called Bergsangsbackarna are extensive, 
and present with great attraction the varied charms of 
wood and water, the scenery becoming wilder as one 
penetrates the valley to Ofvanmyre and Boda, where 
there is a lofty waterfall (200 feet). The party formed 
a junction at the copper-roofed church of Mora, where 
the scenery becomes tame, and travelling tiresome on 
the sandy road. Linnaeus with most of the party again 
turned off at Mora Noret, where the Orsa Lake in a 
broad stream empties itself into the Siljan ; then took 
the eastward road to Orsa, forming a junction with the 
others where the roads join before Garberg, keeping 
the East Dal River to the left. He did not wish the 
young Reuterholms to be fatigued with the longer ex- 


ploring rides, so he left the boys in Nasman's and 
Sohlberg's care to travel by the shorter road. 

The active well-grown handsome farmers of these 
parts interested Sandel, the American, particularly; 
they can turn their hands to anything, having generally 
a trade such as blacksmith, tailor, or what not in ad- 
dition to their farming. Hedenblad made notes of their 
costumes. The men wear short coats of white home- 
spun cloth, generally two of these at a time, the under 
one being sleeveless ; they have white leather breeches 
and blue stockings. The women wear bodices of scarlet 
wool, showing their long white linen sleeves, a dark 
blue cloth shirt, and a yellow apron with a black border, 
white stockings, and shoes with a peg-like heel in the 
centre. These people are tall and well-grown, and alto- 
gether a fine race, which makes it the more remarkable 
that they, the men in particular, are said to seldom out- 
live thirty years of age. This is partially explained in 
several ways. In the notes on domestic medicine in 
the journal pleurisy is mentioned as a distemper of an 
epidemical nature in that country ; it is alleged that it 
arises from the excess which the inhabitants commit by 
gorging themselves with a kind of porridge made of flour. 
Hedenblad alludes, besides, to their mastication of a cer- 
tain kind of rosin, and describes their burying in the earth 
a certain species of rotten fish, called Lunsfisk, which 
they dig out again to prepare it for their food. They 
also drink the strong Norwegian wine made of berries. 
Linnaeus is of opinion, with regard to the early deaths 

VOL. I. Q 


at Orsa, that the mortality is due to hectic fever arising' 
from the pernicious exhalations of the mines. He thought 
he found a still better explanation of the disease when 
riding through the narrow streets of Orsa Kyrkoby, 
where sixty or seventy farms lie very close together, and 
the close unwholesome stabling attracts swarms of flies. 
He was inclined to think here lay the root of the eviI 7 
the extreme closeness of the dwellings and the sudden 
exposure to cold air precipitating the disorder. Lun- 
den, a hamlet by the shores of Orsa, is a wholesomer, 
pleasant er place than Orsa Kyrkoby (church town), 
where the dazzingly white and clean parish church is a 
fine example set to the householders. The people here 
are poorer than at Leksand. It is good and pleasant, 
for them to get away for the summer months to the 
fahodar (saeters), where the marshy pasture-lands afford 
rich feeding for the cattle, and the ponds, fringed with 
horsetail, 1 are filled with clean water, while the air is 
filled with the fragrance of the pines. One hears the 
girls calling the cattle with a horn, or sees them knit- 
ting stockings, surrounded by the herd, which they lead 
readily by means of a pocket of salt at their waists. 

For their own part the exploring squadron preferred 
to sleep in a barn on new hay, or on bags filled with the 
dry Dalarne moss. l These mosses of the Dalarne woods 
are all in some way remarkable. Fontinalis antipyretica, 
the longest of the tribe, is much used by the peasantry 
as a remedy in their chest complaints, also as a preserva- 
tive against fire. The farmers place it between the stones 
1 Equisetum. 


and wooden walls of their houses ; like asbestos, it will 
neither light nor retain light.' The young men's evenings 
spent quietly in the barns were as pleasant as those occu- 
pied in dancing. * With them talk was what it ought to 
be an exchange of information, thought, and argument.' 
The party exchanged their news, having again formed a 
junction : the eager enjoyment of novelty was still felt by 
all. While waiting eagerly for their turn to write their 
notes in the journal they came outside and left the place 
silent and undisturbed to the immediate writer, while 
they relished that greatest enjoyment in life, ' intercom- 
munion of equal minds and sympathetic hearts.' They 
had passed a studious winter, and ' headwork demands 
physical relaxation.' l How to develop the physical 
powers sufficiently for making the very best of life's work 
' without engendering brutality and coarseness,' is the 
puzzle of this age. Linnaeus, the Kingsley of his time, 
seems early to have solved it. t Plant-hunting was to 
him what sports are to other persons.' 2 While himself 
' in ecstasies of observant study,' ' this robust genius, 
born to grapple with the whole army of nature and to 
marshal it,' was yet able to train the young men who 
formed his school an anticipation of his future court 
to guide rather than to rule them by the life, the plea- 
sure, the intensity of interest he infused into every 
object, and by his sympathy with the opening of this 
revelation to them, and with their new enjoyment of the 
' magnificent smile of mother nature, most genial but 
1 Kingsley. 2 Bain on Mill. 

Q 2 


most silent.' In view of his after career, the experi- 
ence that Linnaeus now gained in training the attention 
and winning the affection of young men was the most 
valuable result of the Dalecarlian tour. When the 
young Reuterholms complained of the great length 
of the Swedish summer days, Linnaeus was prompt to 
show them how much their country was to be envied 
for this very thing : how two great batches of work could 
be worked off in each year in Sweden, such as could not 
be steadily performed where time was more broken into. 
They had the long summer days for discovery, the long 
winter nights for classification. At least this is what 
he seems to mean when he speaks of the dark winter 
days as such an advantage of the Swedish climate. 
Linnaeus had pre-eminently the faculty of being wide 
awake not the highest endowment by any means, but 
the most useful for his purpose. Linnaeus never lost 
himself in dreams : he was always more in the body 
than in the spirit. He never thought, like the poets, 
of seeing the invisible things, but he kept a keen look 
out for things visible but as yet undiscovered, while his 
ears were awake to Clewberg's, and more especially to 
Emporelius's and Sohlberg's, tales of discovery, related 
with all the fire of youth. * Every fly that lit upon the 
boat side, every bit of weed that we fished 'up, every 
note of wood-bird, was suggestive of some pretty bit of 
information on the habits, growth, and breeding of the 
thousand unnoticed forms of life around.' l 
1 Capt. W. Congreve. 


They changed horses at the pretty hamlet of Gar- 
berg, ' pleasant with red houses, verdant fields, and 
groves, and a stream of clear water.' * The next hamlet 
of importance is Elfdal, near which are now celebrated 
porphyry works. 2 Faldstedt made a special report upon 
them, while Hedenblad's attention was drawn to the 
signs of Lapp ancestry among the people, who are short 
and ugly, at only fifteen miles' distance from the 
finely-peopled parishes of Orsa and Mora. The scenery 
round Elfdal is very picturesque. The numerous falls 
and cataracts formed by the Dal river add much to the 
beauty of the landscape. Henceforward traces of human 
industry become less frequent ; mountain, ravine, cata- 
ract, and pine-forest follow each other in endless suc- 
cession. The shooting in these forests is highly spoken 
of bear and elk, capercailzie and hazel-hen, and most 
kinds of game. Emporelius's gun was constantly at 
work for specimens ; he fed the party well besides. 


Ten miles farther up is Asen, with a chapel, where the 
pastor received them for the night. 

They crossed the East Dal at a ferry near Asen, 
keeping the river on the right hand, and after a long ride 
they rested at a large hay-house. From Asen to Sarna 3 it 
is six Swedish miles, with no hamlet or post-station be- 
tween these places. This long march from Elfdalen to 

1 Du Chaillu highly praises this landscape. 

2 Linnaeus's monument in Upsala Cathedral is made of the red 
porphyry of Elfdal. 

8 Spelt Serna in the MS. diary. The spelling of proper names 
is unsettled throughout. 


Sarna is cheered by the fact of the road passing through 
the wildest and mgst magnificent scenery of the whole 
pass. The cattle-bells tinkled and the herd-maidens 
played delightfully o-n the horn. While Emporelius was 
fishing in the Elf, 1 and having the eatable specimens he 
had shot prepared for their supper, Sandel, the American 7 
and the young Reuterholms amused! themselves with 
improvising a concert and improving their own method 
of calling the party together by the sound of the horn . 
This instrument, however badly played, never failed of 
its effect about meal times ; at bed and getting-up times 
it was less successful. The boys said Hedenblad had 
feeble wind he must practise longer to strengthen it ; 
and they wondered what profession would admit of their 
lying in bed the longest. They had to be up early on 
the morrow, for they had loitered a good deal on their 
way. Not until July 14 did they arrive at Sarma. They 
set their three-quarters of a dozen watches and went to 
bed. Linnaeus alone had no watch ; he knew the time 
of day or night by the birds and flowers. ' Hasten them 
up, it is late/ said the leader on the morrow : ' it is five 
o'clock ; the yellow mountain poppy has just unfolded, 
The blue-throated robin woke the day three hours 

Sarna is prettily situated on the river, which here 

widens into a lake. The pastor housed part of them in 

the parish church, the inn even then a good one being 

full on account of a fair that was about to open. Sarna 

1 Or Dal, or Dai-elf, river of the dale. 


Lake was on their right, but they crossed the river 
again above Sarna, keeping the Idre Lake on the left and 
the Stadjan Mount on their right. It is three Swedish 
miles hence to Idre a poor hamlet, with scattered farms. 
The present carriage-road ends here. It was merely a 
bridle-path in Linnseus's time. The forest path leading 
to Norway was then the roughest of tracks. They could 
not make much headway on horseback through the 
forest ; they found it easier to dismount and lead the 

' Better so for my trade,' said Claes Sohlberg the 
botanist, holding up a prize specimen of Andromeda 
florecceruleo. This was on July 16. 

f He who is afraid of leaves must not come into a 
wood,' said Nasman the proverbial philosopher. 

* I expected to find so many more birds as we came to 
the deeper forests,' said Emporelius ; 4 we never hear a 
song here.' 

' That is because autumn is coming on,' said several 
of them. i Sweden is always silent in autumn : one hears 
only whisperings from the wood.' 

c It is a general mistake,' said their leader, ' to expect 
to find song-birds in the deep forests : they cannot find 
their food there ; while their enemies the larger birds 
hawks and owls, that feed on flesh are more abundant. 1 
The song-bird is the friend of man, and loves his neigh- 
bourhood, which includes his corn-fields and fruit- 

1 Lowell also notices this. 


c A thousand probabilities cannot make one truth,' 
observed the sententious Nasman. 

Pine woods are generally said to be silent, never- 
theless Sweden in spring is highly musical, indeed 
quite orchestral, with birds. 

They came out to an open space where were willow- 
grouse in abundance. Close time was not then and 
there thought of ; Emporelius had levelled his gun for a 
shot, when he was stopped by the sight of an unfamiliar 
species of kite poised motionless above. He wavered 
and missed everything. 

' All covet, all lose,' quoth Nasman. 

' I wonder we never see the red grouse of England 
and Scotland here,' said 'Sandel, who had stayed in 
England on his way from America. ' The feeding 
would be much the same.' 

f It may be the same bird as our grouse, changed 
somewhat by the conditions of our climate,' said 
Linnaeus. 1 

The red grouse of the Scotch and Welsh hills are 
the only large and conspicuous creatures entirely con- 
fined to the British Isles. All our other animals have 
come to us from somewhere else, but the red grouse is 
found nowhere else than in Britain. The only bird 
at all closely resembling it is the willow-grouse of the 
Scandinavian peninsula, which changes its plumage 

1 Linnasus classed several species of birds in the genus Tetrao. 
Dr. Bree considers that the affinities of the willow-grouse ' are more 
wita the ptarmigan than the red grouse, but it is distinct from both.' 


annually with the approach of white winter. It is pro- 
bable our bird closely represents the common ancestor 
of both species, which must have come north >vard into 
the unoccupied hills of Scotland and Norway when the 
vast glaciers of the great ice age began to melt off 
the face of sub-arctic Europe. In proportion as each 
northern grouse grew lighter and lighter during the 
winter season would its chances of escape in the struggle 
for existence grow ever greater. The darker-coloured 
individuals would thus at last entirely disappear, being 
one by one weeded out and annihilated, while the white 
alone were left to form the parent stock for future 
generations. 1 

The dark fringe of the pine-forest rested on the 
white cloud-masses above the snow-topped hills of the 
lofty Slerol Stadet. 

How sharp the silver spear-heads charge 
When Alp meets heaven in snow ! 

The mountain precipices at times overhung their narrow 
pathway as the discoverers followed each other in line, 
some looking professionally upwards to the hills above, 
some downwards to where the clouds floated in dense 
masses below their path on the left hand, others curiously 
investigating the walls of rock on the right, which were 
as if fresco-painted by the variously coloured lichens that 
climbed, holding tight by their tiny teeth, while other 

1 Condensed from Times, September 5, 1885 'Grouse of Great 
Britain and Ireland.' 


mosses seated on higher crags expanded themselves and 
wrote their history in capitals on those giant walls. 
' Wit in a poor man's head and moss in a mountain 
avail nothing,' said the poor curate Nasman. Linnaeus 
contested this. 

' The stag's-horn club-moss ceased to straggle across 
the turf and the tufted alpine club-moss takes its place : 
for they were now in a new world a region whose 
climate is eternally influenced by some fresh law (after 
which Clewberg vainly guesses, with a sigh at his own 
ignorance) which renders life impossible to one species 
possible to another.' l The scenery and its solitude 
would have been oppressively magnificent had it not 
been for the stimulating quality of the air, which raised 
their energies to meet the demands made upon them. 
Their minds were set in full tension of receptivity, a 
new intellectual World seemed to unfold itself before 
them, wooing them to its conquest. It was like awaken- 
ing out of a night of ignorance ; and they were at 
the end of the day's ride, and Faldstedt, who had dis- 
burdened his pockets of their mineral collection, was 
already leading off the horses to shelter before they had 
exhausted their questions to Nature and their leader. 
Without actually expanding in verse an instrument few 
of them had cared to practise the grandeur of the land- 
scape, and the excitement of being the first to examine 
it, set these ten young fellows all glowing into poetry at 
once in the joy of discovered relationship with infinity. 
1 Glancus. 


Are not the mountains, waves, and skies a part 

Of me and of my soul, as I of them ? 
Is not the love of these deep in my heart 

With a pure passion ? ' 

' We sprang from earth, the first and last home of our 
bodies, our souls (the habitation of the spirit) evaporate 
to the skies ; our whole nutriment is drawn from earth.' 
And these young men were now first winning their 
mental nutriment likewise from the lap of Nature. 

The sun was hidden : the pine-tops against the blue 
and white clouded sky became a view in black and 
white as the light went out. The sun burst forth 
again : the picture became a painting. The lyrist 
Clewberg, the only actual versifier of the party, was 
putting his feelings gifts from the greater world, he 
called them into tender sonorous words, when the horn 
sounded and Linnaeus called them to a demonstration 
on the material aspect of the world immediately about 
them. Perhaps this was even more poetical than Clew- 
berg's unwritten poem, which began as an invocation to 
divers forest nymphs. ' Pooh ! nymphs ? We want no 
nymphs,' said Linnaeus ; ' our mother Nature's beauty 
and beneficence are enough for us. Let us keep fast 
hold of her apron-string,' Modesty and deference 
1 virtues of sacred obligation,' inculcated by Nasman, who, 
insisting upon good manners, always said, i Do on the 
hill as ye would in the hall ' prevented the younger men 
laughing at the idea of Linnaeus never intending to fall 
in love, nor having yet done so. 


' He'll find out by-and-by that it is the nature of 
man to fall in love, and then he will have that sort of 
nature to study,' whispered the elder of the two Keuter- 
holm boys, who fancied himself grown up, to Hedenblad, 
who had prepared some careful notes on the matrimonial 
rites of the Laplanders. Hedenblad again wound his 
horn for the lecture. 

Linnaeus was standing on a rock making observa- 
tions on the weather from the movements of the birds 
and beasts. There had been a long drought, and now 
evidently something was taking place betokening a 
change. The creatures were restless yet not shy. The 
golden plover piped loud and long. The swallows were 
skimming the Idre Lake quite close to its glassy surface. 
i We need carry no barometer,' said the leader ; ' there is 
always one ready to our hands on these fells. The tools 
are always here ; we have to learn to use them. How- 
ever the clergy may construe it that the kingdom of 
heaven is within us, the kingdom of earth certainly is 
so, and education's business is to open up this kingdom 
to us. There, Emporelius's shot has broken up my 
barometer.' The sharp report sent with a start thousands 
of winged things all into the air at once. The sports- 
man took up bleeding and still palpitating one poor 
little willow-grouse in its summer dress, but with its 
wings, breast, and legs still unusually white. 'The 
rest are more frightened than hurt,' said Nasman 

It seemed as if the shot had brought down the rain 


with the bird, for a heavy shower, ' raining grass and 
gold,' came down, diluting Clewberg's ink and driving 
the young men to shelter. The hut, though dark, was 
anything but weathertight : the chinks and crannies 
were i all squirts and whistles.' 

1 A child may have too much of his mother's blessing, 
eh, Nasman/ said Clewberg, laughing as the candle 
hissed and went out, and he could not see to put his 
ink under cover. Two bats one the Vesp. borealis, the 
other a long-eared bat whirled inside the hut. They 
were caught that night. 

1 Change of weather finds discourse for ' 

' Englishmen,' finished the youth, merrily snatching 
the rude Gothic proverb, which says ' fools,' out of 
Nasman's mouth, who was peevish at having his pro- 
vince of proverbial philosophy invaded. 

* After clouds comes clear weather/ said Nasman, re- 
covering his temper, and the two left the hut together. 

They saw a strange sight. The short shower, which 
had been local, and focussed in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood, was over, but in the distance the vast moun- 
tain wall was partially illuminated by jets of flame, 
spouting upwards, or running about waywardly on the 
ground, and now and then shooting or darting forward 
like fireworks. ' It is the wildfire,' ' It is the ignis fatuus 
playing over those deep marshes/ were the utterances, 
awed or philosophic, as they watched these phantom 
fires. The thickening darkness intensified the effect, 
which was amazing, and at times horrible. Every now 


and then an explosion would be heard from a newly 
lighted flame, and each explosion brought down a burst 
of rain. They listened for thunder, but only cracking 
reports were heard, no long thunder-rolls. All at once 
the great mountain mass of the Slerol Stadet stood out 
black and terrific against a background of blue flame, 
and meteoric stones shot hissing into the pools of the 
marshes. ' Is it the Aurora Borealis ? ' whispered one of 
the young Keuterholms they had all gathered round 
Linnaeus for safety. He could not tell, he had never 
seen anything like it before ; it was some awful con- 
vulsion of nature, but it was not that. They must 
trust God's mercy for protection. 

One great clap was heard, thunder at last real 
thunder this time following a blaze of lightning so 
vivid as almost to obscure the deluge of blue flame now 
rolling round the base of the mountain, and down came 
the rain in torrents, driving them all to the shelter of the 
hut. The drought had broken up in a fearful storm. 

But the storm could not explain to Linnaous the 
meaning of those wayward fires, whose terrors were 
seemingly soon forgotten by the rest. He, who alone 
had appeared calm among them, could not conceal from 
himself that here were real terrors, and something 
more than met the careless eye. The storm was over. 
He wandered out into the valley all alone, carrying 
a lantern which cast a fitful ray over the warm, vapoury 
silent wilderness. He was the only moving object. 
There were neither stars nor moon, only the moist 


steamy dusk of a Lapland summer night when the air 
is still but not clear. With cautious steps he moved 
downward to the marshes : he could not return to the 
hut to rest, for he felt on the eve of a discovery. This 
is what he says of what he saw as morning light helped 
him on his search he says it later on in life, to the crowd 
of listening students at his first lecture l as a professor : 
' You will scarcely believe me when I tell you that there 
are whole mountains full of petroleum in Dalecarlia. 
Yet doubt not. This thing, hitherto unheard of, unseen, 
I myself saw with these eyes, and was surprised.' The 
terrors of the frown of nature were over ; only the aspect 
of her bounty remained. l God is always opening His 
hand,' said Nasman, who had also come out to view the 
scene. This, then, was the explanation of the terrific 
explosions of last night. The great heat had kindled 
the fire which fed upon the parched surface of the 
peaty ground. The thunderstorm had gathered force in 
time to prevent a vast general conflagration. 

The account of these petroleum discoveries is scarcely 
to be read in the pale and panic-stricken writings of 
July 17 ; on the 20th they blackened the ink down, or 
procured some more from a priest ; and Sohlberg's nerves 
were by this calm enough to classify his plants and cata- 
logue the vegetable products of these parts including 
Campanula serpyllifolia^ the Linncea borealis that graces 
these wilds as well as to note the great size of the trees 
forming the log-huts, those at least whose engraven runic 

1 ratio de Percgrinationum intra Patriam Necessitate. 


characters showed them to be very old. Trees seldom 
grow to such dimensions now in Scandinavia. 

The river is divided into three branches, two of them 
flowing from lakelets or mere ponds ; the third branch, 
which the travellers followed, flows from the Faemund 
Lake. Logs placed side by side across the bogs enabled 
their horses to pass the swampy tracts. They halted at a 
small farm on the shore of the Elgsjo (Elk Lake), which 
they reached by a ferry across the stream, which is 
here unusually deep. ' Be ye the last to go over a deep 
river,' said the proverbial philosopher, more cautiously 
following Clewberg, who had the ill-luck to be soused ; 
and there he stood, ' all shivering and shaking, and the 
water a-squish-squashing in his shoes, and his trousers 
all sticking slimsey-like to his legs,' as with fumbling 
feet he crawled and splashed out, a magpie all the 
while eyeing him keenly, with the instinctive humour 
of animals. The magpie was a find. It was a Dale- 
carlian magpie never described before, ' whose feet are 
not armed, like those of other magpies, with four claws, 
but have only three two before and one behind, which 
is rather stronger than those in front. 1 ' He's laughing 
at you, Clewberg,' said Sandel ; ' he's asking you about 
the quality of the water.' Emporelius's gun had already 
made an end of the poor magpie who had presumed 
to quiz a philosopher, and that very night he was pre- 
pared as a specimen. But the sportsman's triumph 
was of no long duration his ammunition had run out. 
1 Lowell. 


He had left a large depot at Sarna to take up on their 
return journey, and could only depend upon a chance 
supply until they should reach Kora^s. Hungry as 
they were, they must live on fish till then. The higher 
up the mountains they came the hungrier they grew, 
and the keener the relish they had for animal food. 

c It is too provoking, just as we come upon the line 
of the reindeer, that we can't get it now while it is so 
nice and fat,' grumbled the hungry ones. 

1 Dearths foreseen come not,' said Nasman re- 
proachfully to Emporelius. 

1 We have a proverb in Sm&land too,' said Linnaeus ; 
* that " one is sure of a supper if there's plenty in the 
knapsack." Now let us all go out and fish.' 

' The river is swarming. They are flopping and 
smacking about in all directions ; but, oh, dear ! why 
did Heaven make midges ? * said Reuterholm major, com- 
plaining (like our Kingsley) of Nature's inexhaustible 

' For our collections, to be sure,' said Emporelius, 
the zoologist. 

' Nasman says nothing,' remarked Clewberg. < He 
is thinking of " After meat, mustard." ' 

1 A close mouth catches no flies,' mumbles Nasman, 
drawing on his gauze cap.' 

Emporelius was no busier than the rest of the party 

in completing his insect collection. Before supper each 

one of them had slain a hecatomb of pertinacious flies. 

The insect collection made in this expedition is very 

VOL. I. R 


fine. In Linnaeus's tours in Lapland and Dalecarlia 
he gathered 1,000 species of insects, which are neatly 
pasted on paper ; among them are sixty-five different 
specimens of flies, including the large fly the oestorus, 
which makes such havoc among the reindeer in Lapland. 

The Linnasan Society possesses Linnasus's insect 
collections. They are in damaged condition, as Sir J. 
Smith was less of an entomologist than a botanist, 
so that there was no care given to arranging the 
specimens. 1 

6 Nature seems exhaustless in her invention of new 
insects hostile to vegetation.' 2 Sohlberg found none 
but imperfect specimens of leaves, which disturbed him, 
as, to his surprise, he found the leaves of broad-leafed 
plants, such as plane, and maple, and some poplars, 
become much larger as they journeyed northward, while 
the trees themselves were unusually small. 3 Linnasus 
accounted for this phenomenon, which he had himself 
observed in the north of Norway, by the long duration 
of the daily light in summer. 

They passed Fiellen, continuing their way through 
the forest, the refreshed mountains being now ' silver- 
veined with rills.' The clouds on the highest mountain, 
Slerol Stadet, which had first appeared below, now ap- 
proached the travellers, writes Clewberg in the journal. 
They skirted the reed-fringed Storbosjo and came to 

1 There are reckoned to be 112 species of butterflies in Norway, 
Sweden, Lapland, and Finland. 

2 Lowell. 

3 Much of this country belongs to the willow and birch region. 


Norvig, at the head of the Fasmund, which is a swollen 
stream, called here a lake. Near this point there is a 
pass to the left, ' where a rough path leads to the high 
road to RoraSs from Hudviksvall on the Baltic.' Here 
they crossed the Norwegian frontier. 

The Faemundsjo is 2,150 feet above the sea and 
35 miles long. This beautiful sheet of water has peculiar 
scenery not possessed by any other Norwegian or Swedish 
lake ; its shores are not abrupt, and in many places they 
are thinly clad with fir, and birch, and. fine reindeer 
moss. The clear water swarms with fish, and wild rein- 
deer browse upon its shores. 1 Its outlet, the Klara 
(clear) river, flows into Lake Venern. The exploring 
party made their way through the defiles of the moun- 
tains and looked upon the sister kingdoms. 

On July 30 the geographer, Nasman, gives a mar- 
ginal sketch of the rivers and lakes and Dalecarlia gen- 
erally, as he ' pervestigated it' (1734, Dalekarliam 
occidentalem et orientalem pervestigavit). On July 31 
Emporelius, the * zoologus,' makes a sketch of a rein- 
deer as if they first saw reindeer that day. The youths 
all shouted as they saw the comical portrait in the book. 
The intense stillness was broken into echoes by their 
shouts. Emporelius modestly admitted he was no great 
artist as the others were. He drew the lichens and the 
reindeer-moss these much more carefully and delicately 
in the diluted ink. They now stood on that highest point 
where there are no more hills, but one looks below into a 
1 Du Chaillu. 

B 2 


vast hollow fringed with blue, the border of which basin 
sometimes rises into a purple battlemented wall. They 
soon began the descent. Here man stepped into the 
scenery and set his huts among the great gables of the 
mountains. How dwarfed and ugly are all human works 
in a place where even the Parthenon would look like a 
packing-case ! The huts at RoraSs are infinitely mean 
and ugly. It is a poverty-stricken Falun tossed 2,000 
feet into the air. 

The interiors are more comfortable to view, and 
here men resume their natural proportions. Du Chaillu 
describes them as ' men in knee-breeches, white woollen 
stockings, double-breasted waistcoat with shiny brass 
buttons, and red Phrygian caps/ The hut that housed 
him holds ' old porcelain dishes and cups heirlooms ; 
a lantern hung from a beam in the ceiling ; an old clock 
near the bed.' Hedenblad and Sandel take no notice of 
these every-day details. The copper mines at RoraSs have 
been worked since 1644. The town is 2,000 feet above the 
sea level ; the Storvarts mines 2,800 feet. 1 The Hitter 
River flows through the centre of the town, the two parts 
of which are connected by wooden Norwegian bridges. 
The large church was not built in bur travellers' time ; 
but the woods were then more abundant and the climate 
milder. The wolf and the glutton, the reindeer's greatest 
enemies, were common in these woods. At present the 
country round Roma's is remarkably bare and bleak. 

The young naturalists found the Norwegians dirty 
1 H. Marryatt. 


and grasping. ' Bread with eyes and cheese without 
eyes,' quoth Nasman. He recommended his companions 
to 'be ready with the hat, but slow with the purse.' 
* A small sum,' said he, i will pay a short reckoning.' 
He tried it in vain. 

The sturdy Norwegian laughed at his civilities and 
held stoutly to his bargain. < Take it or leave it, but 
1 won't take an ore less.' Yet a minute afterwards he 
good-naturedly offered the whole hospitality of his house 
to Faldstedt, the metallist, limping beneath the weight 
of his specimens. The party remained four days at 
Roma's, examining the ores and mining-works, and 
after making an expedition of one Swedish mile to 
Grufum, they began their homeward route. The birds, 
too, were all preparing a farewell to RoraSs. The expe- 
dition, however, did not follow the swallows' flight due 
south, but, re-entering Sweden at Sverige, they followed 
the rough uneasy tracks of the West Dal, so difficult 
to find one's way in. They rejoiced when the evenings 
drawing in enabled them to travel by the polar star, 
called by the nomad Turcomans the Iron Peg, because 
it holds so firm. On August 4 the botanist Sohlberg 
speaks with some surprise of the large potatoes : an ex- 
ception to the general rule here, where ' potatoes usually 
grow so fast that the tubers are small, all the strength 
going into the stem.' l On the 5th he rejoiced to find the 
stately plant (Pedicula/rls) called the Sceptrum Carolinum. 
Linnaeus had already met with it in Lapland. 
1 Du Chaillu. 


On August 7 the reports are all very short, hurried, 
and so cramped as to be almost illegible. It was a hard 
day that, as the 6th had likewise been. They came to 
the Sarna Lake, where the East and West Dais rejoin 
and again diverge. The first church on the return 
journey is Transstrand. Here the road begins ; a mere 
track it was then. Then comes Lyma Kyrkia ; Makings 
and Eppleboda (Appelbo) are the next hamlets. The 
inhabitants of the West Dal are a quicker and more 
lively race than those of the East Dal so much so 
that they seem to be of different origin. The travel- 
lers still keep up the journal with its observations, 
but it has lost the spirit of the earlier record. They 
were all tired, by day only eager to get on, at dusk only 
eager to turn in. The Lapland bunting with his single 
call-note failed to waken them early. Linnaeus alone stood 
ever on the watch, like Columbus on the prow of his 
vessel, eager for fresh discoveries, patient, brave. But this 
was easy work to him after his toil in the Lapland Alps. 
As they get on lower and lower ground the days draw 
in perceptibly. l The sun's rim dips, the stars rush out. 
At one stride comes the dark.' 

They all wind their watches, implying by their 
action that they have well filled that day and may roost 
content. Their leader is watching the sun and moon, 
the mighty timekeepers. He is never contented with 
himself, as the world in general is never content with 
things outside. An early frost has blackened the potato 
patches and tinged the beautiful flowing hair of the 


birch trees with pale gold. The game-birds crowd 
into the sunny spots in the early morning to warm 
and dry their wings. The roads are soft and very bad. 
Next morning a sharper frost strung the boughs of 
the birch trees with icy pearls. Each leaf was out- 
lined in white hoar-frost crystal ; sharp splinters of 
frozen dew turned the pine-needles to rays of light, 
glittering like spar; while by the riverside the wet 
willow branches and the alders were hung with icicles, 
which shook and rung against each other like frost-fairy 
bells above the blackened river, which was covered in 
smooth places with ice quarter o'f an inch thick. The 
road, however, was good for travelling on. 

I [winter] make causeways, safely crost, 
Of mud, with just a pinch of frost. 

Lowell's phrase applies to Sweden still ' Winter is the 
mender of the highways : every road in Europe was a 
quagmire during a good part of the year, unless it was 
bottomed on some remains of Roman engineering.' 

With the changing of the sun's crimson into yellow 
and then into intense white, vanished also the fairy-like 
appearance of the crystallised groves of birches ; the air 
first grew steamy and then hot. The ground was em- 
purpled with the heather. 

The returning party kept the way down the noble 
valley watered by the West Dal River to its junction 
with the East Dal at DjursSs (Djura) on one side of the 
river and Gagnef on the other ; they followed back the 



East Dal to Ahl, or Al, on the Innsjo, and there took 
the high road to Falun. The last date in the journal is 
August 17. The mountains of Dalecarlia had now been 
twice explored fully on both sides. They and their leader 
had triumphed over many secrets ' wrung from nature's 
close reserve.' ' At the end of life La Gloria is sung/ 
quoth Nasman. 

Linnaeus gives a list of the parish priests who enter- 
tained them. This in itself incidentally shed a valuable 
light over the province ; the priests could not fail of being 
illumined by his conversation. Linnaeus always held that 
priests should study botany, for use in medicine in their 
out-of-the-way parishes, and science to enliven their own 
solitude ; for use, besides, in their glebe r said Nasman,. 
for ' good husbandry is good divinity.' 

c Good courage breaks ill-luck to pieces,' was his final 
proverb. The whole party arrived safe and well at, 
Falun after a journey of over seventy-nine Swedish 
(or 553 English) miles by the direct road.* To this. 

1 Distances in Swedish j miles. 

Fahlun . . Biursls 1 

Eattvik 12 

Oret . . . . . .10 

Orsa 13 

Mora 5| 

Elfdahl 14 

Sarna . . Serna 30 

Idre 16 

Fielten . . Fiellen . 6 

Norwegian frontier Norvige 19 

Bora's 20 

Grufum . 4 


we must probably add one-third for circuits and 

Linnasus put into the governor's hands the journal 
he had directed and superintended of all the observa- 
tions made on the journey ; l at the same time he de- 
livered to the Baroness Reuterholm's care her two sons 
in blooming health and high spirits. 

Linnaeus remained on his return from this journey 
at Falun, where he established a little college under the 
auspices of Baron Reuterholm, giving lectures on assay- 
ing and mineralogy. In a remote town like Falun the 
novelty of these instructions excited interest. He be- 
came rich, so to speak, in friends and money. 

' Returned from my journey,' says Linnasus later in a 
letter to Haller, 2 ' I took up my residence at Falun, the 
capital of Dalecarlia, began to give lectures on mine- 

Swedish frontier 

Sverige .... 

. 19 

Tokogne .... 

. 12 


Serna .... 

. 16 


. 32 

Malung .... 

. 12 

Appelbo . 

Nas .... 

. 24 


Floda .... 

. 8 

Gagnef . . 


. 8 

Gagneahl . 

Ahl .... 

. 4 



Linnaeus wrongly reckons this total as 313 
It is really 307$. 

1 The Flora Dalecarlia has been lately edited by Dr. Ewald 
Ahrling of Arboga. Jfrioi/cl. Brit., ninth edition. 

2 Dated Stockholm, Sept. 12, 1739. 


ralogy and was universally beloved.' In his diary he 
says, ( Linnaeus here at Falun found himself in quite a 
new world, where everybody loved and assisted him, and 
he acquired considerable medical practice.' 

He had now completed his mineralogical system, and 
read it, greatly to the satisfaction of the miners. Brou- 
wallius, at that time chaplain to the Governor Reuterholm, 
and tutor to his children, 1 conceived a particular regard 
for Linnaeus, and wished to be taught by him the art 
of assaying, mineralogy, botany, &c. Linnaeus therefore 
began a course of lectures on assaying at Falun, and for 
this purpose obtained permission to make use of the 
laboratory belonging to the mine district. A consider- 
able audience attended him. 

One thing marred his good fortune. On his return 
from Norway he found the sad news awaiting him 
of his mother's death, at the early age of forty-four. 
This was a heavy stroke to him, and all the more so 
that he had not been a comfort to her that his career 
had hitherto been a source of continued disappointment 
to her, or at best of hope deferred. 

Now that he was beginning to flourish she was 
dead and could not enjoy the knowledge of his rising 
fame. One can only have one mother. He wore 
deeper mourning for her in his heart than on his per- 
son wore it with a repentant, prayerful feeling like 
Johnson's ' Forgive me whatever I have done unkindly to 
my mother, and whatever I have omitted to do kindly.' 
1 Diary. 


The memory of all her unrepaid kindness to him was a 
sad yet loved relic. Let him now pay her the honour she 
would most care for in making her the mother of a 
distinguished son. 

The softened frame of mind into which the tender 
memory of his loss threw him made him the more sus- 
ceptible to impressions of feminine grace and beauty, 
and gave him a longing for woman's more intimately sym- 
pathetic companionship. ' His friend Brouwallius, after- 


wards professor and Bishop of Abo, 1 saw no means of his 
getting forward in the world without going abroad and 
taking a doctor's degree, in which case he could, on his 
return, settle where he chose with advantage ; and as 
money was necessary for all this, there seemed to 
his friend to be no alternative but for Linnaeus to pay 
his addresses to some young lady of fortune, whom 
he might render as happy as she might render him. 
Linnaeus approved theoretically of this advice ; but not- 
withstanding several plans were proposed, no one was 
just then adopted.' Linnaeus, in the previously quoted 
letter to Haller, speaks of his first and only serious 
love affair. ' The physician of that district ' [Falun] 
' passed for a rich man. Considering the poverty of 
the province, he could justly be deemed opulent. His 
name was Moraeus, eminent for his learning and skill 
among the Swedish physicians. Physic, especially prac- 
tical medicine, was the science which he esteemed and 
preferred above all others. He grew fond of me. I visited 
1 Diary. 


him frequently, and always met with an amicable re- 
ception. He had two daughters. Sara Elizabeth, the 
elder one, was a beautiful girl. A certain baron had paid 
his addresses to her, though without success. I saw her, 
was amazed, smitten, and fell in love. My caresses and 
representations won her heart. She promised her con- 
sent and vowed to be mine. But, as a poor man, I was 
much perplexed to ask her of her father. At last I 
ventured. Moraeus consented and refused. He loved 
me, but not my uncertain and adverse fate. He finally 
declared that his daughter should remain unmarried 
three years longer, and at the expiration of that time 
he would give his ultimate decision.' 

The diary gives the account of this affair with a 
slight variation. For both we have Linnaeus's own 
authority. In one place he is speaking to an acquaint- 
ance, in the other to himself, or to posterity. 

' Dr. John Moraeus, physician of the town, who was 
looked up to as a man of considerable fortune (for his 
situation in life), and who saw the progress of Linnaeus 
both with astonishment and jealousy, had determined 
never to bring up any one of his children to the practice 
of medicine. Linnaeus, however, in spite of all this, 
and though a mere student, after having spoken to the 
eldest daughter, presented himself to her father, and 
asked his consent to marry her, which Moraeus, to the 
great surprise not only of Linnaeus but of others, 
agreed to ; however, he could not obtain the consent of 
her mother.' 


1 Voluit et noluit,' he would, and yet he would not, 
writes the impatient lover to a friend of Dr. Moraeus. 
Himself a successful doctor, Morseus could not bear the 
notion of marrying his daughter to a man of science, in 
its broad sense, without any fixed and definite line of 
practice. He counselled Linnaeus to take the degree of 
doctor of medicine, which necessarily involved his going 
abroad, as at that epoch the university of Upsala 
granted no degrees to her own students. 1 Swedish 
students at that time used to graduate in some 
foreign university, and, like most of his countrymen, 
Linnaeus fixed upon Harderwyk in Holland, as the 
cheapest place. But cheap as it was, he had not the 
capital to sink in the preliminary expenses, including 
the journey thither. He was in possession of thirty- 
six golden ducats, 2 earned and saved. His Wrede 
pension amounted to sixty dollars, 3 reckoned at 5Z., per 

1 The university of Upsala does not (now) confer degrees unless 
the recipient of the honour has proved his capacity by passing a 
searching examination, no exception being made in the stringent 
enforcement of this wise regulation. Du CHAILLU. 

1 Linnaeus speaks of having 36 nummi aurei meaning ducats, 
the usual gold currency of Sweden. Nummus aureus, the single ducar, 
nearly as large as a sovereign, but thinner and lighter than our 
IQs. piece; value 9s. of our money. It weighs 54 grs. troy; our 
half -sovereign weighs 60 grs. The Swedish gold coins were double, 
single, and half-ducats. ' Exivi patria triginta sex nummis aureis 
dives ' are Linnaeus's own words. 

8 Charles XII. struck large pieces of copper and called them 
copper dollars. They went down immediately in value. This 
causes great difficulty in reckoning the money values of that 
century. The large copper pieces in general, but more particularly 
the two-dahler pieces, are called plates (plStar). 


annum. He strained every nerve to obtain a continu- 
ance of this, but failed. ' He had enjoyed it one year, 
but after that nothing, and as soon as he went abroad 
he lost this exhibition through his enemies.' l 

Falun had materially altered in its aspect for Lin- 
naeus since he had been absent. Sara Elizabeth, the 
elder of the two handsome daughters of Dr. Moraeus, 
had come from Sveden, her father's country seat at 
some distance from Falun, and she, like the rest of the 
world in the Dalecarlian capital, was curious to see the 
interesting traveller who had recently returned suc- 
cessful at the head of an adventurous band of explorers. 
In fancy I can see their introduction to each other ; 
they first shook hands, then she bobbed a curtsey, and 
he lifted off his hat. This is the order of the usual 
salutation in Sweden. The little girls and young 
women always dip a curtsey to everyone in the company ; 
even the youngest boys never omit to take off their hats 
separately to each person. * I was struck when I first 
saw her/ writes Linnaeus to his friend Haller, ' and felt 
my heart assailed by new sensations and anxieties. 
Nature is nature wherever you find it,' whether in the 
land of Romeo or of Linnaeus. Elizabeth, too, seems 
at once to have felt the strange power of eyes made to 
discover truth ; and here was a truth entirely new to 
him that the charm of a beautiful maiden is the 
most exquisite thing in the world. He who had coun- 
selled the young men, his companions, to keep their 
1 Diary. 


heads free of love was science all-sufficient for him 

In the fact of Elizabeth Moraea's habitual residence 
at her father's country house is the simple solution of 
what has been a difficulty to Linnaeus's biographers. In a 
small place like Falun a town not then a hundred years 
old, 1 and not then mustering half its present number of 
7,000 inhabitants it must otherwise have been difficult 
for the Beauty of the place, called the ' Fair Flower of 
Falun,' to remain unknown to a handsome and accom- 
plished young man whose society was sought by all the 
leading men, her father included, and who went about 
investigating, studying, and making himself known in 
all the separate villages which then composed the town 
of Falun. 

Sara Elizabeth had never seen anyone like Linnasus 
before ; he ousted the ' certain baron ' completely from 
his place in her fancy. His ideas were an outlook from 
the sordid, mercenary views of the mere speculators in 
copper with whom she was acquainted, her father at 
the head of them for shrewdness and tightness in 
grasping. She could not help admiring this bright 
being who despised the gods of her family cash and 
comfort who showed her fresh forms of wealth sur- 
rounding her, and beauty even here in barren, blighted 
Falun; and he loved her partly for her beauty, but 
chiefly for her sympathy. He loved her because, as 
Mahomet said of Fatima, * She believed in me when 
1 It was founded by Queen Kristina in 1645. 


none else would.' Her father could not be expected to 
do the same ; much as he liked Linnaeus personally, it 
was difficult to win him over to accept the student as a 
suitor for his daughter. But finally, after infinite per- 
suasion, it was arranged that if Linnaeus would take a 
doctor's degree, and if he could succeed in making a 
sufficient fortune during a three years' probation in 
absence abroad, at the end of that time he should be 
accepted as a son-in-law, and settle down in Falun as a 
practical physician under Dr. Moraeus. 

So closely was Carl wrapped in the romance of 
love's young dream that he did not feel this to be a 
clipping of his wings, nor suspect that in this way the 
parents might calculate on being fairly rid of him, and 
the baron might come on again undisturbed. Hard as 
the conditions were, with his usual impetuosity Carl ac- 
cepted them at once, and, to the astonishment of Dr. 
Moraeus and his wife, he undertook to set out at once 
for Harderwyk to fulfil the first article the obtaining of 
the doctor's degree. They would have been still more 
surprised had they known that their daughter, their 
prudent Elizabeth, brought him the savings of her 
pocket-money, one hundred dollars, 1 and gave them to 
him. How exquisite this Elizabeth was, thus to further 
his views, and make more precious the sacrifice she was 
ready to make for him, inspiring him with emotions of 
gladness and gratitude too deep for any words ! Elizabeth, 

1 Stoever considers this sum, with his own thirty-six ducats, 
made about six hundred copper dollars. 


as she handed him the purse (that bore Linnaeus's for- 
tunes), pleasantly cautioned him to be careful of his 
money. This care for him sounded divine : such playful 
lectures are sweet from the lips of a lovely girl who is 

In early life Linnaeus acquired habits of very strict 
economy and frugality the habits only (in which poor 
people often seem to overvalue money) ; but the love of 
riches was not a passion with him, as has been untruly 
said. Indeed he was rather thoughtless in spending, 
and needed someone to manage his purse for him. 
Linnaeus's one great passion hitherto had been for truth, 
for which in all respects he ever showed the most 
sacred regard. Elizabeth had been brought up to 
value money for its own sake. 

She now equipped her lover in the spirit in which 
ladies sent forth the warrior knights of old. They 
kissed and parted. 

My own affections, laid to rest awhile, 

Will waken purified, subdued alone 

By all I have achieved. Till then till then . . . 


Our philosopher went forth trustful, cheered, and stimu- 
lated, love-healthy, not love-sick. The words holy and 
healthy are both derived from the same old German 
word heilig. ( That old etymology, what a lesson it is 
against certain gloomy, austere, ascetic people ! ' ! 

Having spent the winter months in visiting his 

1 Carlyle. 
VOL. I. S 


friends and relations, 1 in preparing his academical dis- 
sertations, and arranging the collections of his materials 
of reform, which he considered his most valuable 
treasures, Linnaeus at the age of twenty-eight began, 
in April 1735, his travels in foreign countries the 
Wander jahr which ' ancient custom rendered necessary, 
and which became pleasant by the happy prospects of 
his further improvement and the enterprises he had 
planned.' He was not one of those who wait to do 
great things till they are rich and have time. 

It seems from what Stoever says, that Linnaeus could 
not resist making a hurried farewell visit to Falun. I 
fancy Elizabeth forgave him this pardonable misuse of 
some of her copper dollars. 

1 So says Pulteney, but as Stoever asserts he left Falun in April, 
and as we know he visited Stenbrohult in his southward journey, it 
is most probable he spent the winter in Upsala, as he went there to 
look after his Wrede pension, which, he says, his enemies caused 
him to lose. 




Enter ALMA MATER as a Hag. 
' Powers ! ' she cried, with hoarse devotion, 
' Give my son the clearest notion 
How to compass sure promotion 
And take care of Number One. 

' Let his college course be pleasant, 
Let him ever, as at present, 
Seem to have read what he hasn't, 
And to do what can't be done. 

Of the philosophic spirit 
Richly may my son inherit ; 
As for Poetry, inter it 

With the myths of other days. 

' Cut the thing entirely, lest yon 
College Don should put the question, 
Why not stick to what you're best on ? 
Mathematics always pays.' 


THE tree of all others that our botanist had now to 
study was the money-tree how to make that bear, or 
'rather how to sow his 600 copper dollars (about 15Z. 
English, according to Smith) so as to yield the best 

Linnaeus left Falun in April 1735, some say in 
company with Claudius, or Claes, Sohlberg, one of his 

s 2 


earliest Upsala pupils, the botanist of the Dalecarliais 
journey, a medical student also proceeding to Harderwyk 
to take his degree ; but as Class Sohlberg was now at 
Lund, Linnaeus would more probably have met him 
there or on the coast. We do not hear if he had as- 
many or more copper dollars than Linnasns, bnt he 
does not seem to have been a vastly interesting com- 
panion ; at any rate no kindred soul like Artedi. But 
Artedi was in England trying to transmute his learning 
into gold. Perhaps he and Carl hoped to meet some- 
where abroad. 

Carl sailed down the rough blue Lake Vetter to 
Jonkoping. He did not linger to enjoy the pleasant 
promenades of Jonkoping by the lake, nor to ascend 
Dunkellar Hill with its beautiful views, where now are 
numerous villas with well-planted gardens, testifying 
to the profits of the roofing-paper and match-making 
trades ; nor was he tempted by the merely picturesque 
charms and waterfalls of Husquarna. But the famous 
iron-mountain of Taberg did not lie much out of his 
way at least not in his mode of travelling, which was 
very frequently on foot. So leaving the high-road, 
which even at that date we may assume to have been 
a bridle-path, he bore away westward, following the 
course of the stream flowing from Taberg into the 
Vetter, and ascended Taberg at about eight English 
miles south of Jonkoping, from which height, 1,096 
feet, 1 he gained a grand survey of the forests of SmSland, 
1 It is 1,129 feet above the sea. 


and investigated the iron-mines, which had a special 
interest for him after his mining studies in Dalecarlia. 
This celebrated iron-mountain, with a few others found 
in Lapland, are the only ones in Europe where the ore 
is broken or blasted above ground. Taberg was doubt- 
less the attraction that determined his route to Holland 
this way ; and also the wish to revisit his home, to 
which his memory always affectionately clung. 

He travelled on southward by way of Eckersholm 
and Lindefors, following down the Laga stream to 
Wernano, where it expands itself into the fiord-like 
lake of Widastern. Wernano, on account of its well- 
attended annual fair, has good roads leading to it from 
all four quarters; but to ease his walking Linnaeus 
took a boat down the Widastern beyond Berga, where 
the lake contracts as far as Ljungby. Here a walk of ten 
English miles through a familiar country brought him 
to Lake Mockeln, where he was at home, and where 
any fisherboy would gladly give him a lift to Stenbro- 

His father was a lonely man now, being a widower ; 
his two elder sisters were married, and his brother 
Samuel was away studying for the ministry. For all 
his mother's careful wish that he should not enter the 
garden, husbandry and natural science remained ever 
Samuel's favourite lore. He shone later as an author and 
one learned in entomology, which, he flattered his con- 
science, was a branch of farming, in his heart classify- 
ing farming as a branch of entomology. Carl felt a 


renewal of his sadness at not having been able to see 
his mother before her death, but his letters had arrived 
so long after the event. Distances, too, are so huge in 
Sweden, and poverty forbids the indulgence of grief, a 
luxury permitted only to the rich ; but revisiting the 
scenes of his childhood brought his mother doubly near 
to him. 

' His mother was not permitted to see the successes 
and honours which her eldest-born was destined to 
achieve. Poor mother ! Her sun had gone down 
when it was yet midday ; she had borne the burden 
and heat of the noon, but the season of rest, of in- 
gathering and rejoicing she tasted not in this life, for 
she is laid in her lowly grave in the shadow of the 
church of Stenbrohult, and thither her son repairs to 
shed in secret the tear of filial love and regret. Per- 
haps he has never more longed for the sympathy of a 
mother's heart than now, when he feels the anxieties 
and fears of hope deferred and to whom could he have 
so unreservedly communicated the thousand hopes, joys, 
fancies, and desires that throng around his heart as to 
her who lies there ? Ah ! in vain he sighs and longs 
for some response ; there is no sound save that of the 
murmuring breeze that waves the harebells which 
cluster over the green sod beneath which she lies. 
"Alas, my mother ! " and again, " Alas, alas, my mother ! " 
he cries, and bitter tears fall fast. But soon he has 
dried them ; he may not yield longer to grief ; the day 
of life is yet before him, and he must gird himself and 


go on his way, and do his work ere it be night, and he 
too shall lie down and sleep.' l 

He walked over to Wirestad, where his sister, the 
lively young Anna Maria, was petted and beschool- 
mastered by her Gabriel in a tender and clerical way. 
From Stenbrohult the forest road to Traheryd 2 again 
follows the course of the Laga to Markaryd, where 
Carl had cousins. Here the river flows off westward to 
the Kattegat and the bridle-path works southward, only 
turning off westward at an elbow when within a few miles 
of Qvidinge, 3 where there are recently discovered and 
extensive coal-fields. Had Linnasus any suspicion of 
these valuable stores lying beneath his feet ? Fame and 
fortune were both lying unrecognised beneath his tread. 

Modern power, stored in the coal, and mediaeval 
power as represented by the ancient picturesque Herre- 
badskloster, meet on this spot, and several railway-lines 
now open up this district to common knowledge. Coal- 
mines and a popular bathing-place bring money into 
this corner of Sweden. Of Helsingborg Castle grey 
ancestor of the town on the hill, only a picturesque 
ruined watch-tower now remains. The tower of the old 
church is even more delightful, its scaled gable rising 
with lanceolate openings at each step. Here it is most 
likely Carl met his travelling companion, as Helsingborg 

1 Brightwell. 

2 Which must not be confounded with Traveryd near Lake 
Ralangen, where the floating islands are. 

8 Where the Crown Prince Carl August died suddenly in 1810 
and changed the dynasty. 


is at no great distance from Lund ; and in less than half 
an hour the two students are in another country. 

Elsinore had no especial attraction for Linnaeus ; ht? 
cared nought for the traditions of Holgar the Dane, and 
he had not read Shakespere. It is doubtful if c Hamlet r 
had then been translated into Swedish. It is translated 
into Danish now I am told by Norwegians, who think 
it clever (!), that many readers hold it even second to 
Ibsen. Hamlet's and Ophelia's graves had not ther. 
been invented. 

These tombs were unknown to Hans Andersen, who 
lived at Elsinore not in his childhood, I think, though 
Hare says so, but when he was nineteen and studying 
with the rector of Marienlyst. The Kronberg has really 
little to do with any poetical prince of Denmark, for 
' Hamlet had in fact no especial connection with Elsi- 
nore : he was the son of a Jutland pirate in the insignifi- 
cant island of Mors.' l Still the platform of the Kronberg 
will be famous as long as Danish history lasts ; and no 
Danish history will be accepted as complete without 
Shakespere's c Hamlet ' and his woful tale. 

Carl's journey hence, probably the easiest he ever 
took, is the most difficult of any to his biographer. 
Turton says he travelled across Denmark to Hamburg. 
Stoever of Altona, his personal friend in later life, who 
had abundant means of knowing all about his hero's life 
in these parts, says he went through Jutland, Schleswig, 
and Holstein ; most writers say he visited Copenhagen ; 
1 Hare. 


and as Linnaeus says he did so at one time of his life, 
there seerns but one other time when he had the oppor- 
tunity, which was when he travelled in Sk&ne, the sixth 
and last of his tours. Linnaeus's own diary says ' he 
continued his journey through Helsingborg to Elsinore, 
thence by sea to Travemunde and Liibeck, thence to 
Hamburg,' which seems clear and positive ; but Pulteney, 
who edits the diary, coolly sets it aside, saying he passed 
through part of Denmark. One can hardly call touching 
at Elsinore travelling in Denmark. Indeed Linnaeus 
himself mentions elsewhere (and previously to the SkSne 
journey) that he travelled in Denmark. There is some- 
thing rotten in the state of biography when discrepancies 
like these exist. We often find Linnaeus in far-off places. 
Where he dropped from we cannot always ascertain. 
We make light of this in cursory reading, but in actual 
travel the distances are enormous much too long to 
hop or skip. It is, as Fuller remarks, ' easie for a writer 
with one word of his pen to send an apostle many miles 
by land and leagues by sea, into a country wherein 
otherwise he never set his footing.' l 

Either view of the biographers gives Linnaeus a 
strangely roundabout and expensive journey to Hamburg, 
where they all meet on neutral ground. For my part, I 
believe Linnaeus's statement in all its simplicity, con- 
sidering the scarcity of copper dollars ; but as written 
history is so positive the other way, I have constructed 
a neat little hypothesis to meet their views, which has 
1 The Church Historic of Britain. 


the merit of reconciling all their statements. It is too 
plausible to be true, and 1 do not think he took this line, 
unless, indeed, he went to look for some little weed in its 
native habitat ; but as George Eliot says, ' I am beginning 
to lose respect for the petty acumen that sees difficulties.' 
He says he went by sea from Elsinore ; well, he took 
ship from Elsinore to Aarhus, the capital of Jutland, 
where Pulteney finds him ; thence he went by land to 
Neustadt, where Stoever picks him up, and by boat to 
Travemunde and Liibeck, where truth, history, and all 
the biographers make sure of him. He made the journey 
through the north of Jutland on his return, as he went 
by sea from Rouen to the Cattegat, where the wind went 
contrary and his farther voyage that way was stopped ; 
therefore I urge that he travelled from Fredrikshaven 
by land to Aarhus, whence he returned, as we know he 
did, to Elsinore. And this is the route I took in order 
to follow him according to my hypothecated plan of 
his travels. I speak as Chorus, and shall describe the 
country as I saw it. 

Aarhus is a large town with fine streets L one of 
them raised on a viaduct after the manner of our Hoi- 
born several handsome churches with carillons, and an 
old romanesque brick cathedral with a remarkable tower. 
This church is frescoed and painted elegantly inside. 
Here the two medical travellers landed, we must suppose, 
and proceeded southward with all speed. The evening 
mists hung heavy on the fields, and the climate felt 
milder and moister than in Sweden. More barley than 


rye is grown here, and at Aarhus one meets with vege- 
tables cheap and in plenty. I have bought for next to 
nothing the juiciest radishes I ever ate ; when at Chris- 
tiania, they were tough as fir-cones, and at famine price. 
It feels warm, but there are snow-scoopers to all the 
trains; it looks peaceful, but the Danish camp is arrayed 
with banners before a large square castle, built in the 
aggravated-barn style. The black and white cross-barred 
thatched houses of the peasantry look more comfortable, 
and group prettily into villages, among which the storks 
move about with stately familiarity. 

How soon one sees proofs of the greater prosperity, 
in actual coin, of the people here over the Northern 
Scandinavians ! They wear much more j ewellery if the 
Danish filigree can be called jewellery than the further 
Hyperboreans wear : many more rings and bracelets 
trash, if you will, and these things look like it messing 
is their name for it ; but even trash shows money to 
spare, and all appearance breathes of Jutland's mo- 
notonous fertility and middle-class ease ; not amounting 
to wealth, with its splendour, its picturesqueness and 
wickedness. This is such a virtuous-looking land, dull 
with the decorous domestic virtues, upon which, how- 
ever, a fine building, or a fine character, shows to the 
greatest advantage. The people are withal as fearful as 
the Germans of fresh air, even now in June. The lake 
scenery of northern Scandinavia is continued through 
Denmark, though the banks, set in sunny colza meadows, 
are softer and more sleepy. But here the fir trees are 


Christmas trees, in Norway and Sweden they are pines. 
We often read of richly timbered Denmark, and here 
are some wind-tossed oaks of small size ; but in all this 
region I have not seen a beech tree of respectable 
girth. Jahns, speaking of the pre-historic ages, says, 
1 In Denmark their division is marked even by the 
vegetation. The stone age lies buried under the fir 
tr-ees, the oak stratum conceals the bronzes, and the 
iron age is covered by the birch and elders ' a capti- 
vating idea, though I don't quite see the drift of it, or I 
would begin to dig at once. The four sorts of trees 
are all here closely side by side. It is one of those 
deep German ideas that mean anything you please. 

Here is a pretty fiord near Veile, with bulrushes in 
the foreground, set in undulating country covered with 
golden broom, backed by beech-clothed hills ; but these are 
woods, not forests. When people talk admiringly of the 
beech forests of Denmark, it is more often Holstein they 
are thinking of. Here is Fredericia on the belt of sea 
dividing Jutland from Funen. The strait (a silver streak) 
and a weed-fringed foreground stream winding among 
the black peat-pits, give light to a pretty Danish picture. 
The peat-pit is everybody's own private coal-cellar. Be- 
yond another fiord, with a pretty hamlet on its border, 
one sees Kolding with its high-placed ruined castle, of 
which one battlemented tower remains solid, while all 
the rest is gutted a mere shell. The canal now makes 
the timber-station of more importance than the proud 
castle, which stands all solitary but for the heavy 


heron's flapping flight. Here we cross the borders of 
what is now part of Germany. Slesvig was Danish 
in. Linnaeus's time. Here are women working in the 
fields a sight seldom seen in Sweden. The yellowing 
barley and blue-green waving blades of wheat have 
superseded the browner blooming rye of the north. 
Here, too, are thistles a rarity to Linnaeus, there are so 
few thistles in his country. Here they fix the heads of 
the cows and sheep in a long heavy wooden framework 
to keep them from migrating over the border. It is a 
most uncomfortable form of collar. 1 There are goats 
(collarless) and various other animals about. The ground 
is level here and boggy ; not. so well farmed as Jutland, 
nor so well peopled ; a dismal, swampy, flat, unprofitable 
country. I marvel at the Germans coveting it. They 
did not need it even to complete their ring fence. 
Perhaps if they had left it under the government that 
does not require so many soldiers ' Death's staunch pur- 
veyors ' it would have been better for the land. c One 
sighs to think how these unproductive consumers of 
Wurst, with all their blue and scarlet broadcloth, are 
maintained out of the pockets of the community. 2 ' 

The country is all but emptied for military service ; 
otherwise it might be good land if cultivated. We 
hear nothing of compulsory military service for the 
young men in Linnaeus's time in Scandinavia, that ia. 
The land improves as we travel on, but it is still flat as 

1 What is their Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 
about ? 2 G. Eliot. 


a board, and with no woods. The towns crowd about 
the broken ground where it rises anywhere ; one is so 
glad of a rising line as a relief to the eye. One is 
scarcely satisfied by the molehills nature here provides 
as a substitute for mountains. Man, feeling a need for 
more upright lines, built spiry steeples about here. We 
find this refreshment to the eyes in pretty Flensborg, with 
its spire set off by four small round spirelets clustered at 
the tapering point, its tiled gables and general diversity 
of level, its gardens and roods of yellow water-lilies, and 
its fiord, which is not visible from the railway. There 
is a small branch line into Flensborg. Friends gather 
in numbers on the platform to enact the moving scenes 
of real life and to wave the tear-bedewed (?) handker- 
chief at starting. It is quite a lounge for the town. 
Outside we find haymaking going on, and, for objects 
of interest, oats and white lambs, men in white ducks, 
broad-beans in flower, and pease-blossom, moth, and 

How summer crowds upon us in this journey down ! 
the season changes so rapidly. Beyond a beech planta- 
tion is some rising ground, and here is a railway cutting 
at last ! A great square barrack of a castle looms to 
the left, set in undulations and green hedges, and the 
mixed cultivation so refreshing after the monotonous 
vegetation of the north, and kitchen-gardening beauti- 
fied with purple cabbages. 

Schleswig on the Schlei a scattered town with 
spired churches cresting banks of pink campion and 


genista in full blaze. I do not see why Linnseus should 
have been so astounded at the furze-gold on Putney 
Heath. This yellow broom is just as full of sunshine. 

I am bringing you down express through the 
country, that I may efface myself the sooner : to be 
personally conducted is a bore. 

Level again ; the undulations sweep away to the 
westward. Many fine bay horses are grazing in this 
part of the country. Another river, or fiord rather, is 
overwaved by tall ash trees at Rendsborg, whose Dutch 
aspect shows how far southward we have moved ; the 
canals reflecting its brick church with lance-like spire, 
and its Gothic and modern Gothic buildings ; the level 
land melting off blue in the distance on one hand, and 
dimpling into dune-like hillocks on the other. 

Hedges again, and wild roses, and girls binding 

June lilies into sheaves 

To deck the bridge-side chapel, dropping leaves 
Soiled by their own loose gold meal. Sordello. 

After all one misses a good deal by living in the 
North. One misses summer; it is all spring or 
autumn there. My closer calculation is that in Sweden 
June is spring, July summer, August autumn, and all 
the rest winter. One is glad to see rich and varied 
vegetation again, and roses twining over porches, and 
to smell the sweet syringa. The hay, the flowers, the 
breath of the whole land comes up in great wafts of 
fragrance a scent of summer bloom, of clumps of pinks 
and picotees, and tall fiery tiger lilies, with cows licking 


each other all so friendly in the shade of great umbels 
of elder, such as must have made Linnaeus think of his 
former comrade Artedi, now gone to England. This 
sudden drop into summer is very striking in coming from 
the North, and must have been especially so to the born 
Swede Linnaeus. It is like the descent into Italy from 
the Alps, or into Damascus from Mount Hermon 

whitened with eternal sleet, 
While summer in a vale of flowers lies sleeping rosy at her feet. 

There is less length of daylight to see it by, however : 
the sun sets three half-hours earlier here. One is 
startled to see the distance purpling under the golden 
light, with sunset reflected in the eastern banks of rose- 
tipped pearly clouds ; and to feel the humid airs of grate- 
ful evening mild distilling from the greenery of fat and 
fertile Holstein a land of plenty and prosperity, with 
hedges deep in barley and long grass to mow, and 
yonder towers and spires of Kiel all grey under the veiled 
misty golden moon. 

The blossoming gardens here are turned to fairy- 
land, as it would have seemed to Linnasus ; to us it is 
more like the opera stage, with groups of girls, with 
faces more of the pretty Danish type than like the 
plainer Germans, dressed in short full skirts of plum- 
coloured velveteen, or of dark stuff with a coloured 
velvet band round the hem, tight-fitting basque bodices 
of black velveteen with very short puffed sleeves, showing 
the arm bare high above the elbow, and white bib aprons 
altogether absurdly like the theatre, and quite as pretty. 


A tiny white net cap, the size and shape of a pork 
sausage, made of a quilling of net round five inches' 
length of lace, is stuck on at the back of the head. 
This costume is generally worn by maidens of the in- 
dustrious orders in this part of the world, and very neat 
and maidenly it is. 

Timber-wharves show the speciality of Kiel, besides 
the men-of-war laid up in the harbour, and the numerous 
officers and seamen, whose capping of each other and 
the military reminds an Englishman of Portsmouth, as 
he walks along Kiel Strand. 

Morning sunshine shows the lake scenery of Holstein 
to advantage. It is very pretty country from Preetz 
to Greemsmiihlen with their fine beech woods encircling 
their lakes. But Eutin seen in a heavy rainfall looks 
like a failure, which is disappointing, as Baedeker praises 
it so highly. The sea-gulls only can venture out ; but the 
varied landscape of hill and dale, with streams and happy 
thatched homesteads, looks pleasing in the worst of 
weather, as one sits in a sheltered window eating white 
bread and the white butter given by the brown cows 
feeding in the black bog-beplastered fields. The people 
look rosier and prettier, and in fact more Swedish, about 
here than elsewhere in Germany; so Linnaeus was the 
less pained by the contrast. Our hero went by sea from 
Neustadt to Travemunde, thence up the sleepy river 
Trave to Liibeck. Here we are certainly on his foot- 
steps. Stoever, Turton, Pulteney, Fee, and the ' Ham- 
burg Courant ' all agree with Linnaeus himself in this. 

VOL. I. T 


The duodecimo biographers who never think, but only 
copy, of course agree likewise. Exit Chorus. 

A spiry place is peeping above yonder hill. It must 
be Liibeck. It is so. Now it looks like a dozen or so 
of spear-pointed steel pens with their points upwards 
as onr two Swedes arrive at the bridge by the gate of 
this quaint and ancient city ; an old, and what young 
persons who sketch call a most rapturous, gateway, 
dated 1477, bent with its age and weight, with a sheaf 
of spire-like lances rising behind it the shield and 
spears of the city. Above the portal arch is the legend 
CONCORDIA DOMI FORIS PAX. This heavy pile is shaped 
into two round towers, cone-spired, with a burgomaster's 
house betwixt them, from under which the broad low 
portal has been hollowed. The gate is brick-built in 
stripes of black and red, the black bricks, being vitrified, 
look white and lustrous at a distance, giving altogether 
a peculiar effect as of a large mineralogical specimen. 
It is all sunken in the ground, which has been excavated 
to leave its roadway clear. 

Friends were busy at the wharfs and coach-offices 
meeting friends ; but no one knew Linnaeus and his 
companion, bewildered with their first experience of 
encountering an entirely foreign language. The two 
Swedes carried their chattels up the hilly street, where 
now the tramcars climb ; and, oh ! they did indeed find 
views and architectural surprises. Linnaeus was as yet 
a novice in architectural criticism, and I find no com- 
ments so far in his diaries. It was all what he might 


have expected in the South. But even more experienced 
travellers than he have never seen any town so odd, so 
quaint, so Gothic, so riotous in invention, so queerly 
coloured, and so charming. Red-brick buildings, shiny 
black-brick arcades, and Gothic frontages, all crying 
out ' No dinner for you to-night ; so long as twilight 
lasts come out and look at me ' ; Renaissance and florid 
architecture of all styles retiring only to await their turn 
for attention. Other Gothic towns, even Bremen, subside 
into commonplace before the luxuriance of Liibeck. The 
shields on the buildings are gilt, coloured, and slung 
sideways anything for extravagant effect. Here are 
spires of all sizes, and gable-forms from great A to little z, 
and as the city lies on a slope they can all be seen together, 
like the diagram at the South Kensington Museum of the 
typical buildings of the world and their relative heights, 
from Cheops' pyramid down to a drinking-fountain. 
The drapers in this part of Germany have a way of 
arranging the basement cellar window beneath the shop 
in the same manner as the shop above. In Denmark the 
cellar window is also dressed, but it usually belongs to a 
different establishment, and generally vends vegetables 
or beer. 

The best way to see Liibeck is to do as Linnaeus 
most probably did, as he was a great one for hill-climb- 
ing that is, to take an evening walk up a forest-covered 
hill called Chimborasso, just outside the town, and so 
gain a concrete idea of the place, that one may the 
better relish afterwards the full and bewildering effect of 

T 2 


all its oddity and bustle, and realise the old-world scene 
in full perfection in the morning when the market- 
places are overflowing and streaming with colour and 
picturesque confusion. On the hill-top is erected a sort 
of scaffold staircase with benches, whence one can enjoy 
the view. The prospect from Chimborasso is of a mass 
of bright red roofs on the opposite hill, individualised 
by the white-gabled window-dotted fronts of houses, 
set in a forest of leafage melting into blue distant 
meadows, where two rivers the Trave and its tributary 
meet as they mingle with the verdure. The spires and 
pinnacles rise out from among the foliage and the town- 
roofs to the sky. Plenty of life and activity is going on 
below, its buzz mingled with murmur of windmills and 
sounds of trains and carts, of birds, and bells, and boats. 
Now we may recross the river to the town, ascending 
the hill, first on the side of the well-nigh deserted cathe- 
dral, which is always under repair, and always needs it. 
Its tall thin spires are so much out of the perpendicular 
that they would look atrocious in a drawing ; for one's 
reputation's sake one must straighten them and make 
them more untruly true. To stand under these spires 
is one of the risks of travel. It feels less dangerous 
- inside, where one does not see them. There are some 
remains of early coloured glass by the painter of the 
cathedral windows of Florence 'that most singular 
master who, in this art, was known in the world,' who 
was brought for this purpose ' from distant Liibeck on 
the Northern seas.' 


Most of the monuments take the form of portraits, 
chiefly with ruffs round the neck, and many of them 
well painted. There are some pictures of the old 
German school also, and an interesting medley of 
ornaments disposed about a kind of ecclesiastical 
trinkets. There is a quaint clock set on an inner rood- 
screen of carved wood with coloured figures, of which 
those above the clock strike the hours. Death turns his 
hour-glass upside down, strikes on the bell the number 
of the hour, and shakes his head. Life, a figure in 
green, strikes the half-hours and the warning before 
the hours. The face in the centre rolls its eyes at every 
tick. These old mechanical clocks are among the few 
things belonging to the towns that Linnaeus remarks in 
his diary. The clock in St. Mary's sumptuous church 
is still more elaborate than this, and the market-people 
crowd in to see the procession of figures as the clock 
strikes twelve at noon. The wealthy burghers of Liibeck 
meant to outdo the cathedral by building a finer church, 
with finer monuments of themselves. St. Mary's Church 
is bewilderingly rich in monuments in gold and colour, 
and Renaissance ornaments. The whole church seems 
a co-operative monument of family pride. 

The market-place on market morning ranks high 
among the sights of Ltibeck. The square and the 
surrounding colonnades are all crowded. The market- 
women wear straw hats tilted like bonnets, set on hind 
part before, with a broad ribbon of bright colour hanging 
behind in a loop. The hat fits over the little sausage- 


shaped cap, which sometimes has two narrow bands across 
it. The fishwives have blue ribbons on their hats, the 
fruit and vegetable sellers wear green, or both occasion- 
ally wear purple. They, and their customers likewise, 
carry pairs of baskets of vegetables, each a yard long, 
hung horizontally from a yoke. The butchers' market is 
held under the longest of the pointed-arched colonnades 
that divide the market-place from the busy interesting 
High Street and from St. Mary's Place. 

From Liibeck Linnaeus went to Hamburg, a city 
at least as ancient as Ltibeck : it is said to have been 
founded by Charlemagne, but, oh, how different from 
Liibeck ! a splendid great modern republic of a town, 
interesting to the student of social economy, made by 
commerce for commerce only, with its two diiferent 
quarters inhabited by the masters and servants of com- 
merce. The landscape leading to it from Liibeck is more 
varied in type than the rest of the vast monotonous plain 
of Northern Europe, and more happy-looking, having 
here and there a turfy slope covered with beech trees. 

In Hamburg the market-women wear very short 
ungraceful petticoats, and their black hats have stiff 
black buckram bows at the back beneath the brim, 
Strawberries come in early here, and roses. This is a 
land of summer. Sweden is the land of spring, and 
Norway the land of winter. The overhanging houses 
in the maritime and commercial quarters of Hamburg 
are gabled and quaint, tile-roofed and cross-patterned 
with wood, looking old and very German. The 


tall church towers, bulbous or spiry, most of them 
copper-sheathed, and green with oxide, stand boldly up 
above the great city. The rich residential part of Ham- 
burg by the Alster Bassin is handsome, new, and 
Parisian. Stoever would be the safest guide to Lin- 
naeus's history here, as besides being an Altona man, he 
was acquainted with Gieseke and the newspaper- writers, 
and all the persons interested in Linnaeus's stay in 
Hamburg, where he created a sensation of rather a Mr. 
Verdant Green sort. But Carl's own diary is quite full 
enough here, and more moderate in tone than one 
would expect of a greenhorn. 

Professor Kohl and Dr. Janisch, and the licentiate- 
in-law Sprekelsen, who held correspondence with the 
best naturalists and botanists of the age, and who had a 
beautiful garden, all showed him great civilities. 1 Here 
Linnaeus employed his whole time inspecting the fine 
gardens, museums, and everything else worthy of 
attention. ' It was like coming suddenly into a large- 
inheritance of unknown treasures ' : he had to settle down 
to enjoy his new property. In a private library at 
Hamburg he found the botanical work of Ray, which he 
had long wished to see. 2 Among other things he was 
shown the museum of the burgomaster Andersson, and 
a monster which Hamburg gloried in possessing the 
famous Siren lacertina, or stuffed Hydra with seven heads, 
belonging to Andersson's brother. This rare master- 
piece of nature had formerly been exhibited on an altar 
1 Diaiy. 2 Brightwell. 


in a church in Prague. 1 ' Linnasus was the first per- 
son who discovered that this wonder was not a work of 
nature but of art.' 2 Of course he proclaimed it. The 
price of the monster at once fell from 750Z. to less than 
5Z. Carl examined the heads and found in them the jaw- 
bones of seven weasels. I dare say he crowed and was 
cock-a-hoop and overbearing like many young scientific 
men, of whom one prophesies that they will be charm- 
ing at forty. The youngster never minds where he 
places his uncomfortable truths, nor whose idol he 
shatters. The owner of the Hydra, in true mercantile 
style, had fixed an enormous hypothetical value on the 
manufactured article. It was pledged to Anders son for 
the sum of ten thousand marks. The Anderssons were 
furious, an outcry was raised, and it was insisted on 
that the calumniator should prove in academical form, 
in public dispute, that the serpent was not a pheno- 
menon, or that he should own his error. 3 Dr. Janisch gave 
Linnaeus the friendly advice to quit Hamburg with all 
possible speed to avoid litigation. He did so and avoided 
the discussion, leaving the Hydra master of the field. 
He often said afterwards, <I had only one friend at 
Hamburg ; this was Dr. Janisch : he was a true friend 
to me.' Carl had made the place too hot to hold 
him during the month he stayed at Hamburg. The 
poor student could not compete with rich proprietors. 
The earthen pot would have been smashed to pieces by 
these heavy brazen pots. His vanity had made him 
1 Brightwell. 2 Diary. 8 Stoever. 


over-display his learning in a place where his country- 
men and their books had already the reputation of being 
too pedantic. He showed off, and they took him down 
a peg. 

The object of his journey was as yet unachieved, and 
Carl's copper dollars were melting away : he had not 
been sufficiently careful of his money. We do not hear 
what Claes Sohlberg said to all this whether he had 
gone on good-humouredly playing second fiddle to 
Linnaeus, or if he had already proceeded to Harderwyk ; 
but Linnaeus took boat at Altona for Amsterdam. 
Shore and harbour were full of masts and spires, 
bristling with them. Linnaeus had nowhere seen such 
wealth as here ; it was marvellous to him when he first 
saw it. He had thought Upsala and Aarhus grand. 
What were these to Hamburg ? Surely this must be the 
finest place in the world. No, he had read of Paris and 
of London. Should he ever see them ? He had no 
previous notion of the greatness of the carrying trade. 
Here men and cattle and all sorts of goods embark and 
disembark, coming in from Harburg and all quarters to 
be shipped off to Holland and to England. Here is a 
fleet of fishing-smacks drying their nets, yonder are 
luggermen wetting their tan sails by sprinkling them 
with their oars. Linnaeus takes the cheapest passage 
he can, and bargains hard for that with difficulty, as he 
can speak neither German nor Dutch. The captain is 
his own pilot, and cautiously threads his way among 
the multifarious craft, and the ice-breaking vessels, with 


strong rams, laid up out of use beneath the Seamen's 
Home, close by where are now the fine hotels built on 
green pedestals of hillocks, where the sheaf of light- 
green bronze spires tower above the tall and narrow 
warehouses at Altona. The ship sails down the broad 
Elbe, past the fine suburb of Blankenese, where the 
merchant princes dwell, and out to sea by Heligoland. 
During this voyage Carl says ' he was exposed to great 
peril ' ; in other words, he had a rough passage. Stress 
of weather caused them to run in to Emden to avoid 
being driven on the shoals that are so numerous between 
the outer islands and the coast. 

Emden is a pretty, picturesque town, and the ' Weis- 
sen Haus Inn ' gives a good view of the town-hall, the 
river and bridges, and the prettily grouped and coloured 
houses. Emden is a thoroughly German place, where 
they know nothing whatever of English people. The beds 
are a droll experience. The top sheet, buttoned on the 
quilt, is only meant to reach halfway down ; one sheet cut 
in two makes a pair. The rest of the bed is ultra-German 
in its manifold discomforts ; but it is all so soft and downy 
that it feels like going to bed in a batter pudding. 

At Amsterdam Linnaeus stayed eight days, and saw 
all the splendour and expense bestowed on that city. 1 
He then went by sea to Harderwyk, one of the dead cities 
of the Zuyder Zee, where, having undergone the requi- 
site preliminary examinations and defended his inaugural 
thesis on the ' Causes of the Cold Intermittent Fever,' 
1 Diary. 


he was admitted to the doctor's degree on the \\ th of 
June. I dare say the aspect of the ground in Holland 
and on the journey down added many ideas to his thesis, 
already prepared in Sweden. Linnaeus had a keen eye 
for country and climate from the hygienic point of view. 
In the dedication of the ' Hypothesis Nova de Febrium 
Intermittentium Causa,' among his Maecenates and 
Patrones we find the names of Rudbeck, Rothman, 
Stobaeus, Morgeus, &c., and Rosen. The hypothesis 
here advanced, most correctly so denominated, is truly 
Boerhaavian. 1 

Here Linnaeus won his doctor's hat, which is still 
preserved in his house at Hammarby, near Upsala. It 
is of greenish drab felt that once was green, turned up 
on three sides, with a pinkish bow that once was a red 
cockade. The university of Harderwyk, now long since 
swept away, was founded in 1372. In 1441 it contained 
more than three hundred foreign students. Harderwyk 
University gained a justly merited celebrity before it 
disappeared ; Boerhaave and Linnaeus, who have adorned 
the whole human race, graduated here. 2 The marble bust 
of Linnaeus stands in a niche in a red-brick octagonal 
tower 3 standing by the site of the former botanic garden 
(not that of an ancient cloister, as Havard asserts), 
beneath a grove of tall trees which play ^Eolian har- 
monies at eventide as the inland sea breeze wakes the 
memories of Harderwyk's palmy days. 

Harderwyk, a town of 5,000 inhabitants, now the 
1 Smith. 2 Havard. * Called the Linnaeus Tower. 


depot and training-school for recruits in the Dutch 
East Indian army, styled an unruly and violent class of 
youths they seemed quiet enough at the time I was 
there was formerly c the shepherds' refuge,' whence 
its name. When the Zuyder Zee extended itself 
beyond its actual limits, the wide meadows on its 
borders were sometimes suddenly flooded, and the 
shepherds with their flocks had to seek in higher 
ground a shelter against the encroaching waters. . 
They built several huts, and were soon joined here by 
the fishermen. In 1229 the shepherds' refuge, become 
by the grace of Count Otho the town of Harderwyk, 
held rivalry with Hamburg. 1 

It has now chiefly a seafaring population. As one 
wanders by the shore of what here looks boundless as an 
ocean, the seamen of the one or two vessels which at most 
enter the little port together, larking among themselves, 
alone ruffle the tranquillity of the scene, a peaceful 
Dutch landscape of a low coastline, a few trees, roofs, 
and a little jetty set on the verge of an expanse of 
lustrous silver sea, flushed with the pink after-glow of 
day. Only an occasional fanfaron from the East Indian 
military depot wakens faint melancholy echoes round 
the quiet shore. The turf near the sea is rosy-lilac with 
the thrift, as if reflecting the tender pink of the sky. 

The academic quiet was as deep when Linnaeus 
paced up and down here in thought. He had cause 
for thought if not for anxiety. He tells us himself: 2 
1 Havard. 2 Diary. 


' Now all the money he had carried with him from 
Sweden was expended, and being unwilling to trouble 
his father-in-law (that was to be), whose disposition he 
well knew on this score, he accompanied Claes Sohlberg 
from Harderwyk to Amsterdam.' 

Thoughts of his doubtful future would obtrude 
themselves even during his eager study of the natural 
objects round him in a country where he found so 
much food for reflection. In Sweden he had seen how 
subordinate a part man plays in fashioning the ap- 
pearance of the country, whereas at Amsterdam the 
mighty works of man's device a miracle of human in- 
dustry had literally made the land. It was the 
reverse in this place. On looking at the wilds round 
the Zuyder Zee it was difficult to realise their possible 
transformation into a prosperous country. The magic 
wand of capital had never touched them. Yet there was 
hope even for these natural dykes and banks shielding 
the salt marshes and crossing the dull flats ; for the c good 
God was watching them as carefully as He did the plea- 
sant hills inland ; perhaps even more carefully, for the 
uplands He has completed and handed over to man that 
he may dress and keep them ; but the tide flats below 
are still unfinished dry land in process of creation, to 
which every tide is adding the elements of fertility.' J 

And God would care for the student too, for he had 
it in him to be industrious and patient. Linnaeus looked 
at the tender flowers ; the thrift beneath his feet and 
1 Kingsley, Glaucus. 


the orchis of the sands of Zeeland were consolation, ay, 
and wealth. Harder wyk calmed his mind it was in 
harmony with his poverty ; but he could not remain there 
making no money. His talent now confirmed by his 
doctor's hat, he must display it to the world and see 
what price the world would pay for the article it symbo- 
lised. It were easier to live upon the hat than upon 
talent such as he had displayed at Hamburg. After a 
breakfast of bread and raw eggs, as they love them in 
Holland, and coffee sipped from egg-shell china, such as 
the Dutch learnt early to encourage the making of, in 
imitation of the fine imported Oriental ware, the learned 
young Swedes set out on foot for Amsterdam. 

Linnaeus had already walked out Zwolle way, through 
a desolate country of white sand-hillocks with sparse fir 
trees, where he might well expect the vegetation to have 
a character of its own, as none but the fittest could 
survive. Here he admitted the truth of what a patriotic 
Dutchman told him, one who conceded that there are 
no mountains in Holland, but hills, he declared, there 
were in plenty. Here are, indeed, sand-hillocks where 
the dunes have spread in from the sea, extending for 
miles inland and along the coast of the Zuyder Zee. 
Inland the ground we travel over gradually rises, and is 
sprinkled with fir trees, brooms, and newly-set beeches. 
The land being in process of creation, the fir-crested 
dunes impinge upon the old chaos of black waste with 
dark tussocky grass, like evil heather ; by degrees the 
sand will fill and dry the pits of bog and reclaim the 


gelatinous peat. The view is bounded by a range of 
dark purple hills Dutch hills, that is scantily clothed 
with firs and occasional beech and birch saplings, but 
no subsistence for man or beast. The land is not 
prepared to receive them yet. There is nobody moving 
about here, but further on we find a few old women 
wearing their silver heirlooms helmetwise upon their 
heads, and some ' mannikins ' (small boys) watching that 
the birds do not make off with the occasional blades of 
barley. The land gradually gets less sterile ; cattle, 
trees, and grass appear at Hatten, near which are flooded 
marshy meadows, and a bridge over a river, and Holland, 
as we know it best, appears again at Zwolle. But it is 
mostly a flat treeless country, with less capital laid 
out, and fewer inhabitants, than in West Holland, which 
is so much better situated for commerce. One looks 
out for the tumuli, or giants' graves, that one has heard 
of, but one only sees herons standing patient as monu- 
ments. The cottages are thatched, the few that exist, 
among the swamps and black peaty wastes, reminding 
an Englishman that the Frisians are his nearest re- 
lations. No wonder the Frisians and Saxons came to 
England ; it is a vastly more tempting country to 
settle in. This is a desert of bog and sand, dotted 
with a few long-woolled sheep ; the horizon is a dark 
indigo purple stripe, the middle distance a stripe of 
dead brown, the foreground a stripe of mottled drab ; 
it is as dismal a country as one can see, with clouds 
lowering over it, few hands to labour, and no capital. 


It shows what all Holland would be but for the capital 
supplied by commerce. At Krops Wolds the land 
improves into pasture ; but these wolds and fens are no 
better farmed than ours were in the days of the Hep- 
tarchy. I clo not suppose Linngeus wandered as far as 
Krops Wolds, perhaps not farther than Zwolle, of whose 
nine gates only the picturesque Sassenpoort remains. 

All this was rambling for pleasure and research in 
the interval of waiting till he knew whether he were 
an M.D. or not. Now he had to travel in real earnest 
and for his life. Scarcely a copper dollar remained he 
says not one ; therefore we may conclude he had only 
some very small change. The Swedes packed their 
papers and trophies, slung their new showy green-and*- 
pink hats, put on their old ones for use, and tramped 
to Amsterdam. 

' Men think to mend their condition by a change of 
circumstances. They might as well hope to escape from 
their shadows.' 1 The very countrywomen, with their 
gold ornaments and broad-frilled lace caps, were too 
wealthy for our young doctors to consort with. Nobody 
knew them to be learned men, unless by recognition of 
the dazzling doctors' hats : they knew nothing of the 
mental treasures these poor tramps carried with them. 

They followed on the road lined with brushwood, 
behind which a silvery line proclaims the Zuyder Zee, 
until the land breaks into hedges and falls into water- 
meadows, and meres replace the bogs. The land here 
1 Froude. 


is more varied in its produce ; there are standard fruit 
trees with currant bushes growing beneath them ; and 
there are more silver-helmed peasant women about, and 
grander females with gold frontlets and engraved-plate 
head-bands and earrings ; and here sound the sweet caril- 
lons of Sint Joriskerk at Amersfoort, where the young 
men rested to eat bread beside the canal rippling through 
the pretty town. On again across the sandhills, beyond 
which lies good ploughed land tilled with varied cereal 
crops, and the river Eem glides for rivers never run in 
Holland gently through a wood. The ground is slightly 
undulating here, so it is able to glide ; otherwise it would 
become a * mere ' like the rest of the rivers. Beyond 
this again the land is sandy and in all stages of re- 
clamation, with fir plantations and beech. Linnaeus 
6 saw all that, and saw all that lay behind it a miracle 
of human industry, two millenniums of human history. 5 1 
What a good description of the country hereabout is 
given in the name Watergrassmeer ! The man was a 
genius who coined the word ; the village here, with its 
pretty pleasure-houses set in bowers and ornamental 
waters, is an oasis among the sand-dunes ! 

Beyond the further marshy ground is a blaze among 
the colza. What a smoke ! It is a damp reed-hut on 
fire. The travellers rested again at Weesp a town 
fortified with grass terraces, and set as usual in a mere 
and they arranged their travel-soiled dress and put on 
the gay green hats that they might enter Amsterdam with 
1 Froude. 

VOL. i. u 


becoming dignity. How fine is the view of Amsterdam 
seen beyond the watery landscape on entering the city 
by the Y, and how profuse is the distribution of gold 
jewellery among the well-to-do womenfolk ! Alas for 
these poor young doctors, who can hardly muster a 
stiver between them, and who cannot even exercise 
their new profession for want of knowing Dutch! 
They must look out for learned patients who can con- 
verse fluently of their ailments in the Latin tongue. 
A poor prospect for Linnaeus. 

The pressing questions are, How can he work his 
passage home to Sweden ? and How will his Elizabeth's 
papa receive him when he gets there ? He faced both 
questions like a man. It seems Class Sohlberg had cash 
enough left to go home with, for we hear no more of him, 
nor of any difficulty in his finances. Probably a remit- 
tance awaited him at Amsterdam. Linnaeus may not have 
been so good a man of business as Sohlberg, but then he 
had more to do and to see wherever he went, and sight- 
seeing in towns involves fees. Perhaps, too, he was 
more unskilful in paying and giving away. Goldsmith, 
writing in 1759, 'Would you believe that in Sweden 
highway robberies are not so much as heard of? For 
my part, I have not seen in the whole country a gibbet 
nor a gallows ! ' Linnaeus, used to his own truthful 
people, was possibly often taken in. 




When lands are gone and money spent, 
Then Learning is most excellent. 

CARL'S first business was to see if anything had turned 
up since his previous eight days' stay in Amsterdam, 
where he had tried to place the MS. of his ' Sy sterna 
Naturae ' to advantage, and to present his letters of 
introduction to the rulers of the scientific world. He 
was anxious to make himself known to the leading 
Dutch naturalists before he returned home. Wearing 
his gay hat, he waited on the professor of botany, Dr. 
Burmann, with no immediate result ; but, as Carlyle 
says, l Hope diminished burns not the less brightly, but 
like a star of hope.' 

He afterwards proceeded through Haarlem to Ley- 
den, where he visited the botanical garden and Professor 
van Royen ; but of all the persons Linnaeus met with 
in Holland none paid him more attention than J. Fred 
Gronovius, doctor of medicine. 1 Carl having paid him 
a visit, Gronovius returned it, and saw the sketch of 

1 Diary. 

u 2 


his ' System of Nature ' in MS., which so astonished 
him by its novelty, that he requested Linnseus's permis- 
sion to get it printed at his own expense. 

What a triumph for the youthful doctor ! His 
talents were to be recognised at last. What mattered 
poverty or even hunger now ? He was to be known as 
the author of the New System ! He forgot that few 
people saw the necessity for a new system, or indeed 
for any system in botany at all. 

The publication of the work was accordingly com- 
menced a matter of immense importance to his after 
fame, and really better than bread and Dutch cheese in 
the present. But an engraved work finely got up on 
fourteen folio pages l takes some time to prepare, and to 
distribute it profitably takes still longer. 

Though Carl wanted so little, it seemed as if his 
life were always to be ' a progress from want to want, 
not from enjoyment to enjoyment ' ; that he must still 
cast about him to make something out of nothing, 
daily to twine his rope of sand. Still the greater, 
harder work, the chain of linked thought, was in pro- 
cess of production, and it was the first time he had 
tasted the exquisite cup of realising his dreams. 

It was hard that he could not afford to remain in 
Holland till the birth of the great System, but he could 
not live without work, and paying work had yet to be 

In this year, 1735, he published the first edition of 
1 Twelve folio pages, says Sir W. Jardine. 


his ' Systema Naturae,' consisting of eight large sheets, 
in the form of tables ; l this edition is now a great biblio- 
thecal curiosity. It contained a view of the animal, 
vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, and was the germ of 
that scheme of natural history which was a few years after- 
wards adopted throughout the world. ' In this way was 
the foundation laid of that system upon which almost all 
those of the present day are in many ways most inti- 
mately connected, and by which the arrangements of 
the older systematists were almost at once superseded.' 2 

By the advice of Gronovius, 3 Linnseus waited on 
Boerhaave in Leyden. Carl had particularly wished to 
see this eminent man, who was renowned throughout 
the world, so that a letter reached him from the Emperor 
of China, directed simply, ' To Boerhaave, the famous 
physician in Europe.' Not so very long after this it 
was Linnaeus's own turn to meet with similar recogni- 
tion. 4 Bjoernstahl saw at Therapia, in Turkey, a Greek 
walking in a field reading a book ; the man (formerly 
first physician to the Pasha) told him it was by ' the 
great man in Europe.' It was Linnaeus's c System of 

Boerhaave, 5 through press of occupation, had great 
difficulty in granting audiences even to his friends. Peter 
the Great had waited several hours in an antechamber 
for an interview : 6 how could Linnaaus, poor and a 

1 Carr. 2 Sir W. Jardine. 3 Diary. 

4 Carr. 5 Ibid. 

6 This was many years before in 1716, or perhaps in the Czar's 
earlier visit to Holland, in 1697. 


stranger, hope for admittance ? He awaited in anxiety 
the result of his application. l He who had lived in 
Hamburg too high for his means, in Leyden had to live 
low.' He was wiser and therefore humbler now. His 
lesson in Hamburg had taught him that a novus homo 
must not be arrogant when he enters the society of 
the scieritocracy, and that he must not run himself 
rashly against vested interests. Yet for all his poverty, 
Carl Linnasus seems to have lived in intimacy with 
the scientocrats of Leyden Van Koyen, Van Swieten, 
Lieberkuhn, Lawson, and Gronovius. Turton shrewdly 
says, { Among the causes which contributed to enlarge 
the views and ripen the judgment of Linnaeus may 
be reckoned the facility with which he made himself 
known and regarded by the most learned men of his 
time. Wherever he came he found a friend, and that 
friend generally of the first reputation in the sciences 
he studied.' 

Days passed on, and Linnaeus, having exhausted the 
sights of the ' Athens of the West,' was on the eve of 
leaving Leyden, when, on the eighth day after his first 
call upon Boerhaave, he was admitted to the physician's 
presence suddenly, and out of his turn, for several great 
people had been waiting longer than he. Learning was 
power here in Holland : whatever it may have been in his 
own country, here he was not without honour. It is true 
that in Holland, where one had only to ' invent a shovel 
and be a magistrate,' a new theory was certain to obtain 
respect, especially when it was about plants, which then 


meant tulips, which they adored. It seems that Gro- 
novius had sent to Boerhaave a copy (or more likely the 
original MS.) of the ' System of Nature,' which made 
the great physician desire an interview with the young 
Swede. Boerhaave, then in his sixty-seventh year, 
received Carl with the greatest cordiality, and invited 
him to his country seat, a mile out of Ley den. 1 All 
elderly men relished the vigorous and far-reaching 
conversation of young Linnaeus, and the freshness of his 
views, so well calculated to rouse their own flagging 
enthusiasm. Boerhaave, 2 one of the richest men in 
Leyden, was extremely plain and active, and a thorough 
Dutchman. His whole wardrobe consisted of two suits, 
which he wore till threadbare. His Dutch-built figure, 
standing in his old shoes, with his loose hair, and the 
large crab-stick which he carried, made him look like 
a common man. He was parsimonious, having been 
brought up in a frugal school ; but he was very bene- 
ficent to the poor. 3 

He had a botanic garden, and collection of exotics, 
among which he pointed out one of the hawthorn family 
(Cratcegus aria), and asked Carl if he knew that tree, 
which seemed to be remarkable in Holland. Linnaeus 
said he knew it well in Sweden, where it was common. 4 
As Boerhaave's garden was stocked with all kinds of 
trees that would bear the climate, Linnaeus had an 

1 Boerhaave was born at Voorhout, two miles from Ley den. 
His father was minister there. 

2 Stoever. * Carr. 4 Diary. 


opportunity of manifesting his skill in the science and 
history of botany. Boerhaave, observing this, advised 
him not to leave Holland immediately, as he had 
intended, but, on the contrary, to take up his abode 
there. Linnaeus admitted he had not the means of 
remaining a single day longer. As Carl proposed 
passing through Amsterdam on his way home, Boer- 
haave, who wished to serve him, gave him a warm 
letter of recommendation to his pupil, Professor John 
Burmann, and desired him to present it with his com- 

This altered the aspect of affairs : Carl's third visit to 
Professor Burmann was no failure. Next day Linnaeus 
called to see the professor, who personally conducted 
him over his collection, asking him which particular 
plants he wished to inspect. 

' Which of my plants do you wish to examine?' 
1 The greatest number, and even all of them,' said Carl, 
' but I do not know which plants you possess.' l 

The botanic garden of Amsterdam, formerly so 
celebrated, is now scarcely worth the notice of an 
English botanist. It is, however, neatly kept, and con- 
tains some good specimens. The Dutch in general seem 
still to retain that extravagant rage for buying rarities 
at an exorbitant price, for which they have long been 
famous. 2 A fine street in Amsterdam, leading to the 
botanical garden quarter, is named the Linnaeus Street, 
and a mile beyond the Muiderport is the Linnaeus 
1 Diary. 2 Sir J. E. Smith. 


Garden, a school of horticulture and forestry, where the 
glass-houses are kept in fair working condition, but 
not in apple-pie order for show. 

To return to our friends, ' This is very rare,' said 
Bunnann, pointing out a plant in his herbal. Linnaeus 
asked for a single flower ; he softened it in his mouth, 
examined it, and pronounced it to be a species of laurus. 
1 It is not a laurus,' said Burmann. ' But it is,' said 
Linnaeus ; ' it is the cinnamon tree.' ' It certainly is the 
cinnamon,' rejoined the other. Linnaeus then convinced 
him that this tree was a species of laurus, and also cor- 
rected his classification of other plants. 

Burmann was at this time preparing his ' Thesaurus 
Zeylanicus,' a great work on the plants of Ceylon, 1 and 
he was so charmed with Linnaeus that he offered him a 
handsome apartment, with attendance and his table, if 
he would be his guest and help him with his book. 2 
Linnaeus availed himself of these advantages until the 
following year. Burmann had a fine collection of natu- 
ral curiosities, and a well-chosen library. Carl took 
the opportunity of studying them to complete and 
publish his own 'Fundamenta Botanica,' 3 a small octavo 
volume of thirty-six pages, in the form of aphorisms, 
which contains the very essence of botanical philosophy. 4 
Linnaeus says he amused himself with looking over 

1 The Flora of Ceylon, though rich, has scarcely proved so volu- 
minous as was expected ; yet it comprises 3,000 plants. Ireland, a 
somewhat larger island, has only 800 kinds of plants. 

8 Diary. s Signed C. Linn., Stipend, Wredian. 4 Carr. 


Burmann's works on the plants of Ceylon, and fre- 
quently visiting the botanic garden. 

Mr. George Clifford, 1 J.U.D., burgomaster, banker, 
and one of the directors of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, was at this time the most enterprising botanist 
and horticulturist in Europe. He had a fine country 
seat and garden at Hartecamp, near Haarlem. 

He was out of health, and applied to Boerhaave for 
advice. The doctor recommended Linnasus to him ae 
one capable of looking after his health, and who would 
also be able to arrange his fine collection of foreign 
plants and form his garden, which cost the ' banker 
12,000 florins annually, and was his hobby and his 
pride. All Dutchmen love their gardens, but Clifford 
was no common tulip-fancier, but an ambitious man of 
scientific aims one of the men, Motley's republican 
Dutchmen, the makers of Holland, who made their small 
country a leader in European history. Hartecamp 
was no ordinary lusthaus, as Boerhaave well knew ; he 
also rightly judged that the eager enthusiastic young 
Swede was no mere classifier of plants in a herbal, but 
one who would tend and keep in order a paradise. We 
are not to suppose that, for all Carl's science, l a prim- 
rose by the river's brim,' a ' monopetalous hypogynous 
Pentandria monogynia ' was to him, and it was nothing 
more : on the contrary, he was first and above all things 
a florist. He kept the dried flowers in his herbal and 

1 Stoever and his copyists, following the German pronunciation, 
write the name Cliffort. Dutch books spell it Clifford. 


wrote a descriptive epitaph upon them, as we embalm 
the memory of our friends and adorn their graves. 

And 'tis and ever was my wish and way 
To let all flowers live freely and all die, 
Whene'er their genius bids their souls depart, 
Among their kindred in their native place. 
I never pluck the rose ; the violet's head 
Hath shaken with my breath upon its bank, 
And not reproacht me ; the ever- sacred cup 
Of the pure lily hath between my hands 
Felt safe, unsoiled, nor lost one grain of gold. 1 

Clifford visited Linnaeus at Burmann's, and invited 
them both to come to Hartecamp and see his hothouses 
and his Cape plants. This was a real pleasure to 
Linnaeus, as after the dead levels about Amsterdam, the 
more undulating country round Hartecamp afforded an 
enjoyable change of scene. He roamed through the 
gardens with a boy's delight, and examined the hot- 
house treasures, describing those that were known, and 
speculating on those that were new ; while many a truth 
fell from his lips, f contained within the concise limits of 
a passing jest,' in sportive vein, wreathed in dimpling 
laughter, showing in all simplicity his enjoyment of the 
holiday. He was one of the most loveable of young 
men. Clifford was equally delighted with him and his 
agreeable way of imparting knowlege which argues a 
familiar knowledge of Latin on Clifford's part. 

Burmann took up in the library the second part 
of Sir H. Sloane's ' History of Jamaica.' ' I have two 

1 Fasulan Idyl, W. S. LANDOB. 


copies of it,' said the banker, laughing, ' and you shall 
have this if you will give me Linnasus in exchange.' 
The proposal thus made, apparently in jest, soon led to a 
serious one, and Clifford invited Linnseus to live with 
him as his physician and botanist, and offered him a 
salary of 1,000 florins per annum. 1 

Linnaeus was dazzled and captivated by this new 
experience. Never had he met with a sort of life 
so tucked in with velvet curtains, such sumptuous 
appearances of equipage and well-laid table, and every- 
thing so rich and bankery : but these things alone 
would never have tempted him had there not been ample 
liberty and the garden at command, and unlimited 
powers given him to use both to the best advantage. 
He could here cultivate science without restriction. 
He was truly happy. Hear himself : * Thus Linnaeus 
moved to Clifford's, where he lived like a prince ; had 
one of the finest gardens in the world under his in- 
spection ; with commission to procure all the plants that 
were wanting in the garden, and such books as were not 
to be found in the library ; and of course enjoyed all the 
advantages he could wish for in his botanical labours, to 
which he devoted himself day and night.' His energy 
had a tremendous impulse now that he was settled and 
at leisure. He was an excellent companion too. He c had 
an immense fund of articulate gaiety in his composition, 
beautiful light humour,' never flying off into folly, ' yet 

1 Turton says 800 florins a year; Fee says 1,000 florins. We 
must take that sum which is nearest a ducat a day. 


full of tacit fires which spontaneously illuminated all 
his best hours.' This, which in his wife was. such a 
charm to even the serious Carlyle, is a good description 
of the gay gleams which Carl Linnaeus flung over a life 
which other scientific men contrived to render dry as 
dust. He could throw himself into wildest spirits in 
off-work hours. He would imitate the contortions, 
grimaces, and incantations of the Laplanders until his 
audience thought his acting equal to his science. 
Clifford felt he could never do enough for a youth who 
regilt life for him, wreathing it with flowers the while, 
and bringing back all the best aspirations of his younger 
days. The golden head brought back summer to the 
rich man, whose hair was already just flecked with snow, 
and showed him he still could enjoy ' more, indeed, than 
at first when unconscious, the life of a boy.' He loved 
Carl like a son, and gave him (what Carl most valued) his 
duplicate dried plants. 1 Does this seem a bathos ? It is 
really none. Now was Carl's time to bring forward his 
* Critica Botanica,' 2 his ' Genera Plantarum,' and to 
commence a fine folio volume called ' Hortus Cliffor- 
tianus ' a complete catalogue, splendidly illustrated, of 
the garden at Hartecamp. 

Tulips do not seem to have been of much account at 
Hartecamp, though I dare say the ; Admiral Enkhuizen,' 
valued at 4,000 florins, the 5,000 florin < Admiral Lief- 
kenshoek,' and the famous l Semper Augustus,' costing 
13,000 florins, displayed their splendour in the conser- 
1 Diary. 2 In one vol. 8vo. This book is very rare. 


vatory ; but the mania of a century before, 1636, when 
tulip-roots passed from hand to hand like bank notes, 
could never be revived. 

The Jacobea lily (Amaryllis formosissima) now first 
blossoming in Europe, was a gem of the cool greenhouse 
and ' nature herself favoured Linnaeus in causing 
through his diligence and care the fine plantain tree, 1 
also to bloom in Holland for the first time, which was 
looked upon through the whole country as a wonder. 2 
Even Boerhaave himself came to Hartecamp to get a 
demonstration of this musa ; described for posterity in 
the treatise that was afterwards published under the 
name of Musa Cliffortiana, whereby every gardener has 
been enabled to bring forward its flowers.' 3 Linnaeus 
here acquired great practical knowledge of plants, in- 
cluding palms, which he called the princes of vegetation. 4 
He visited every month the gardens of Amsterdam, 
Utrecht, and Leyden, but every day that of Hartecamp. 5 

The situation of Hartecamp is the pleasantest in 
Holland ; it has the sandhills of the North Sea for its 
horizon on the west, from which quarter the breeze 
blows during the greater part of the year and bends the 
trees landward. The young Swede rejoiced in the sea 

1 Musa paradisaica. 2 Stoever. 

3 This tree flowers at Kew Gardens Oct. to Dec. The fruit 
begins to set in April. 

4 * Man dwells naturally within the tropics, and lives on the 
fruit of the Palm tree ; he exists in other parts of the world, and 
there makes shift to feed on com and flesh.' LINN^US on Palms. 
' Honour the date-tree, for she is your mother.' MAHOMET'S com- 
mandment. 5 Diary. 


wind, from which his garden, however, was protected by 
the lines of overarching elm-trees, and the sand-dunes 
piled high beyond the water-meadows stocked with black- 
and-white cattle. Carl, though he had a carriage and four 
horses at his command, I dare say went oftenest to and 
fro between Hartecamp and Leyden by the barge, in the 
canals narrowed by the rapidly growing sedges, water- 
flags, and lilies ; where the labour is ever going on of 
dredging black mud into boats, then filling it into 
trough-shaped carts, or else plastering it upon the 
banks the canals covered with white water-lilies ex- 
panding their unsullied flowers to the morning sun, and 
intermixed with the yellow-fringed water-lily, which is 
very uncommon in England. The silence that accom- 
panies the Dutch (canal-boat) mode of travelling, so 
different from the grating of a turnpike road, increases 
in no small degree the pleasure of a journey. 1 

One can now go to Hartecamp from Leyden by train 
to Vogelenzang, and then inquire the way to Benne- 
brock. It is best to follow the peasant girls who get 
out at the station ; they are most likely going to pass 
the Hartecamp, as it lies on the main road to Haarlem. 
From what I had read I expected to find Hartecamp a 
pair of iron gates, a swamp, and perhaps an avenue ; 
but it is by no means the howling wilderness that writers 
represent it. The ground at Vogelenzang rises in pleas- 
ing undulations, chiefly of reclaimed sandhills clothed 
with fir trees, which wave refreshing scent beneath 
1 Smith. 


the silvery cloud-banks rolled up massively to show the 
blue ; the rich low ground all laid out in bulb gardens. 
German goes next to no way in Holland, and no one 
understood that I wanted to see the place where Linnaeus 
once lived how should they ? Luckily, a young gentle- 
man came up who spoke a little German. He showed 
me the way to Hartecamp (he lived in the next villa 
but one himself), and he spoke to the gardener for me. 
He pointed out the name ' Te Hartecamp ' on the gates 
and told me this was the actual and nearly unaltered 
house of Clifford. The plant-house or architectural 
conservatory something like the one they house orange 
trees in at Kew was also Clifford's, and the fine vine 
with the thick stem was here in Linnaeus's time. A row 
of fine bushy and aged Portugal laurels grows in front of 
the architectural conservatory. There are grand timber- 
like oleanders, which look as if they might have seen 
the great botanist, and ancient orange trees in tubs, and 
purple clematis twines about the pilasters. We hear it 
is an easy walk to Haarlem, which makes us independent 
of trains and able to enjoy the lovely garden. 

The guide-books are wrong in saying it is a waste 
place or wilderness ; though the glory of Hartecamp 
perished with Clifford, it is a fine garden still, with alleys 
and avenues in all directions, and winding sea-shell- 
sanded paths by the ornamental water, enlivened by 
swans and crossed by a fanciful bridge. Baedeker says, 
1 the beautiful gardens attached to the house have long 
since disappeared.' He must be either extremely curious 


in gardens or else he visited Hartecamp through an 
agent. It is a delightful place, not being on such a 
dead level as the rest of Holland. The house is shut 
up during half the year, while its owner lives at the 

In the pleasant deep bay-window of the central 
ground-floor room, at the back of the house, or on the 
great balcony above, Linnaeus often worked, and looked 
out upon the lawns and lakelet encircled with great 
purple and copper beeches, and variegated horse-chest- 
nuts, which have white leaf-masses near the trunk and 
thick stems, though the rest is green, being able to 
suck in the sunshine better from being exposed. The 
windows command views through glades right away to 
the dykes and dunes. 

The flower-border verges are left fringed with wild 
plants of all sorts, spreading into and embroidering the 
lush spring lawns. How we enjoy the delicious coun- 
trified look of all the plants and trees (we hail from 
London and Ley den), and having it all to ourselves like 
this ! for the young gentleman told the gardener to leave 
us alone to sketch. This civilised verdure if one may 
so express it is enchanting. From the avenue where 
I sit I see a brilliantly coloured vista of foliage beyond 
some emerald green elms, and one tree all over white 
blossoms, an oak with golden-tufted buds, and then an 
amber-coloured tree, and beyond again a clump of crim- 
son beeches. The trees all round are grouped with great 
taste some of them knew Linnaeus; the borders are 

VOL. I. x 


botanically arranged, as if tlie Linnaean traditions still 
held sway. The path leading from the front of the house 
to the conservatory has a border set amphitheatre-wise 
with lines of rare plants in sunken pots, sheltered by a 
pine grove. The foregrounds are massed with clumps of 
gunnera scabra and lady fern. The air is full of sounds 
of birds, the swans float by and halt, and lose themselves 
again in the thickets. The lawn in front of the house 
is planted like a park with various trees, well arranged 
with an eye to colour. The road, itself invisible, crosses 
the view, so that one can see the picturesque passers-by, 
who animate the scene at just the distance an artist 
would set them in his .picture ; beyond the road the 
park sweeps upward to a belvedere, high-raised (for 
Holland, that is) at the end of the vista. An immense 
oval bed of roses is spread just before the house. 

' One should think that the proprietor of all this 
must be happy.' l Nay, sir,' said Johnson. i All this 
excludes but one evil poverty.' So Clifford felt till 
Linnaeus came. Carl enjoyed it all without the cares 
attaching to ownership. I like to picture him with this 
pleasant background about him. The front door, as 
usual in houses of that age, is in the centre of the 
house ; the steps are flanked with large ornamentally 
painted tubs of palms, aloes, and masses of New Zealand 
flax. The inlaid marble pavement before the house is 
so deeply buried in sand, the driftings of the last few 
months, that it shows how important a factor the wind 
is in the making of Holland. It has a far quicker action 



than Darwin's earth-worm works. This pavement would 
be buried and grass-grown in a year. 

A deer, the Harte of the Hartecamp, points the vane 
above the clock on the top of the house. The enamelled 
white furniture of the villa is partially the same as in 
Clifford's time. It is about four miles to Haarlem, and 
we proposed to walk there. Seeing a baker's cartlet drive 
up to the house, I rushed to buy bans and fancy bread 
for luncheon, but the housekeeper, wife of the gardener, 
waved a teacup at us, beckoning us into the basement, 
which I had supposed to be cellars. Here was a range 
of low-roofed but most comfortable kitchens, unaltered 
since Linnaeus lived here ; the brick-paved floors, skirted 
with white tiles, had raised wooden movable floors laid 
on the bricks, and at the doors large mats of thick 
basketwork or fine hurdle work : and many hints and 
contrivances for comfort, showing how they successfully 
resist the subsoil dampness of even humid Holland ; and 
showing how comfortable daily life was in Holland, over 
a century ago, when we had far fewer of the minor 
luxuries. The good woman gave us bowls of coffee and 
milk, and then unlocked a side gate beyond the wood to 
show us the ' kooter way to loopen na Haarlem.' l 

It is a pleasant walk through the pretty woodland, 
on a good road lined with country houses and closely 
paved with small bricks, nice to ' loop ' on, as is usual 
in the main country roads hereabout. These roads 
must have been made at a frightful expense, but they 
1 Not pure Dutch, I fancy, but as it sounded to us. 

x 2 


were worth making. The ground about here is broken 
and uneven, with fir trees on the hillocks, all of which 
gives it a picturesqueness Holland generally lacks. 
The next house to Hartecamp, which is now one of a 
series of villas (!), has a lodge with statues and other 
ornaments, in the questionable taste of the eighteenth 
century. Near this is an obelisk to the memory of 
Count Floris van Zoon van Holland, and others who 
fought and fell with him. The way still passes between 
gay villa gardens with a woodland background. The 
character of the country is quite different from what it 
is about Leyden, though it seems to be only reclaimed 
dunes. This road, lined here with florists' bulb gardens, 
enters Haarlem close by a tall modern church, a turnpike, 
and the Flora Park, whence the tramway goes directly 
through the town to the railway-station. In Linnaeus's 
time all the Haarlem world was talking of the great 
organ erected in the cathedral in 1.735, this very date, 
at the town's expense. Linnseus never mentions it, 
but, as we know, he was not fond of music. 

In the Teyler library and museum is the original 
portrait of Linnaeus in his Lapland dress, which was 
painted from life at Clifford's. Several copies were exe- 
cuted, and a print ] of it is in the Linnaean Society's 
rooms in London. It represents him with boots of 
reindeer-skin ; about his body is a girdle, from which is 
suspended a Laplander's drum, a needle to make nets, 
a straw snuff-box, a cartridge-box and a knife, a grey 
1 Not a copy, as has been erroneously asserted. 


(or brown) round hat, and brown wig. He wears Lap- 
lander's gloves. This portrait shows a wart on the 
right cheek. It is altogether the most pleasing portrait 
of him that we have, representing a good-looking 
brown-eyed young man, of serious but intelligent ex- 
pression, aged twenty-eight. The lively colours of his 
garments are a blue collar lined with red, and a yellow 
worked yoke below the collar, a blue pouch, red watch- 
bag with yellow top, brown dress, green and yellow 
scalloped leather case for tools or collections, for which 
purpose he doubtless utilised also the Laplander's drum. 
He holds the pink flower, which had just been pub- 
lished under the name of Linncea borealis by his friend 
Gronovius. An engraving of this plant is given in the 
twelfth plate of the * Flora Lapponica,' which Linnaeus 
had succeeded in getting printed by means of a society 
at Amsterdam of which Burmann was a member, and 
which Linnaeus had often visited, the society offering to 
advance the twelve plates, 1 which are interleaved with 
verses as mottoes. Some of these are in Swedish, but 
they are chiefly from Ovid and other Latin poets. The 
andromedas figure in the first plate. The first page has 
some gushingly complimentary verses from Brouwallius, 
dated from Fahlun in Suecia, November 24, 1736, to 
his ' peerless friend Carolus Linnaeus, Med. Doc.' The 
frontispiece to Smith's edition of the book is a Lap- 
landish willow-pattern-plate sort of landscape : some 
precipices, like ruined steeples set in substantial clouds, 
1 Diary. 


are nearly upset by the solid rays of the midnight sun ; 
Laplanders are rushing about in wildest action with their 
canoes, tents, and other attributes ; a reindeer coucliant 
in the foreground supports a Laplander dining off his 
drum. The Linncea lorealis, a dried specimen, is in the 
right-hand corner. Linnaeus divides Lapland into two 
regions Alpes Lapponicse and Desertum Lapponicum. 
Preparing this work had been Carl's recreation amidst his 
severer studies. Oppressed at times by the weight of 
luxury around him, and by the heavy climate of Holland, 
he revelled in the recollection of the Lapland Alps for 
the memory of hardships had now become a pleasure. 
Except in the immediate society of Clifford and the 
scientific men who gathered round his table, Carl was 
very much thrown inwards upon himself. One wonders 
he had not shrunk narrower, thus dwelling in a small 
coterie of persons of one turn of mind exclusively, 
among whom he early took a leading part ; and he 
would have done so had he not taken the whole range 
of natural history for his province, and held fast his 
idea of benefiting his own Sweden by his researches. 
' Suddenly cast,' as Gibbon phrases it, ' on a foreign 
land, he found himself deprived of the use of speech and 
hearing ; incapable, not only of enjoying the pleasures 
of conversation, but even of asking or answering a 
question in the common intercourse of life ' ; for, as of 
old, Linnaeus, the inventor of words, never could learn 
words for words' sake. Like our Johnson, he only 
knew one Dutch word roes-knopies, rosebuds. ' And 


that is Swedish too roes, rose, knopie, knob.' When 
the rich banker's gardens became, as they sometimes 
were, the playground of a brilliant circle of fashionables 
from the Hague and Amsterdam : when the lawns and 
groves were crowded with modish folks with bright 
complexions, powder and patches, smiles, toques and 
turbans, tall ample-ribboned hats, trains and hooped 
petticoats, and all the paraphernalia of a breakfast 
party in the afternoon : the interesting but dumb young 
Swede at first shunned the band of youth and wit, and 
mingled with the fusty celebrities exclusively. 

Although ' endowed by art or nature with those 
happy gifts of confidence and address which unlock 
every door and every bosom,' and solid learning be- 
sides, to give these airy graces weight, what could 
these things avail him outside the learned and mascu- 
line circle ? Clifford enjoyed Carl's society intensely, 
and elderly men admired him. ' His gifts were just 
what Holland needed ; here he was brilliantly successful.' 
Young men envied him. from a distance, but women 
held him in too much awe. He possessed ' that flexi- 
bility of manner and readiness of gentle repartee ' which 
would have made him delightful to young women, but 
that his talk was all in Latin. What a pity ! Other- 
wise he could have talked quite as much nonsense as 
other people. What avails even a firework of wit if it 
is all in Swedish or Latin ? But they did not know 
that the young mute with the bright eyes,* expressive 
1 ' His eyes, of all the eyes I ever saw, were the most beautiful, 


countenance, and splendid reputation was engaged to 
a young lady living near the Arctic Circle. They might 
have won him from dry botany, but not from ' the fair 
flower of Falun.' He was as polished and graceful as 
the best of their adorers, even in that time, when a 
French and finished manner was accounted the acme of 

I love to see in all their fitting places 

The bows, the forms, and all you call grimaces. 

I heartily could wish we'd kept some more of them, 

However much we talk about the bore of them. 

Fact is, your awkward parvenus are shy at it, 

Afraid to look like waiters if they try at it. 

But after a while Carl relished his leafy silences being- 
broken by music, his tranquil lilies splashed by yawl 
and gondola amid the glancing water. He eked out 
his words of broken Dutch with frolic grace as he 
threw off the dominie for the time, and showed he too 
could laugh and enjoy youth and life among gladsome 
things, as. he and Bartsch, his friend, the only other 
youth among the savans, led the way among the glades 
and groves, with a lively following of beings all frivolity 
and fun. Yet all this while he carried next his heart 
his little pocket-book with his name and Elizabeth's, 
mysteriously written so that none else could read them. 1 

says Fabricius, speaking of him at fifty. What rmist they have been 
now at twenty-eight ? 

1 The little almanack he used in Holland, containing his name 
and his love's name inverted and intertwined, is now bound in 
crimson velvet and prized as a treasure by the Linnsean Society. 


These diversions never caused a break in his work : 
they only added to his difficulty in finding time. 
* Creative genius is not a passive quality that can be 
laid aside or taken up as it suits the convenience of the 
possessor.' l 

One day, while walking in the streets of Leyden, 
passing round the Jioek 2 by the ' informatory,' as they 
translate a school, Carl unexpectedly met his own loved 
friend, his second self, Artedi, who had just come from 
England ; and oh, what an outpouring in the dear old 
mother-tongue ! So much to hear and tell ; such 
struggles and successes, and on Artedi's side such con- 
tinual disappointment. He told Linnaeus ' he had 
spent all his money in London, and he was in want of 
more to purchase clothes and books, and also for the 
purpose of obtaining his degree and returning home, 
and he knew no means of raising it.' 3 Poor Artedi, 
with his golden dreams vanished ! Not only alchemy 
had failed, as Linnaeus had foretold it would, but learn- 
ing too, though everyone had prophesied it wouldn't. 
In the phraseology of those days, he saw Linnaeus, 
who had climbed the steps of the temple of fame, while 
he stood below on the muddy level of adversity. The 
prosecution of his studies had reduced him to beggary- 
life cost so dear in England. Could Carl put him in 
the way of earning any money ? 

* Linnaeus comforted him with the assurance that 
as he was not now under the confined circumstances 
1 B. K. Haydon. 2 Corner. 8 Diary. 


and the persecutions to which he was exposed at 
Upsala, he would take care that his friend should be 
assisted.' l He quickly cast about him for the means, 
first and foremost ordering out the coach-and-four. He 
thought of Burmann's ' Thesaurus,' which had been the 
beginning of his own prosperity. But no : another man 
had also a i Thesaurus ' Thesauri were the fashion. 2 
* Albertus Seba, a German apothecary at Amsterdam, 
had a short time before requested Linnasus to assist 
him in completing the third volume of his Thesaurus ' ; 
but, being then employed at Clifford's, LinnaBus could 
not accept this offer ; and besides, this third volume 
intended to be printed related to fishes, which Linnasus 
liked least of all the branches of zoology.' Linnaeus 
went to Seba with Artedi, with, I dare say, no little 
complacency at having a coach-and-four at his com- 
mand ; a troublesome equipage for going round the 
hoeks, but well calculated to assist the views of his 
friend as doors open wide to admit a coach-and-four. 
' He recommended Artedi to Seba as the first man in 
ichthyology. The work was accordingly put in Artedi's 
hands, with the promise of a handsome recompense.' 3 

Carolus found it is so pleasant to be called Carl 
again in the old familiar tongue, that he often went to 
see his friend, to chat with him of old happy miseries, 
which talk revived yet more his longing to go home 
to Sweden, home and beauty. While Artedi was pain- 
fully contrasting their lots Linnseus was beginning to 
1 Diary. 2 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 


feel satiated with luxury, and loved best to talk of 
other things in life than wealth can buy. ' To live, in 
the true sense of the word, is to feel, love, desire, 
admire, and not to breakfast, dine, sleep, and yawn.' 
For the first time Linnaeus cared to study the phe- 
nomena of human emotion. He longed for liberty and 
home, and did not feel he was so greatly to be envied. 
To himself he seemed like a lap-dog on a velvet cushion, 
who would prefer straw with its wholesome friction, and 
Artedi, though he now lived comfortably at Amsterdam 
and liked his work, yet felt it was not for his own fame, 
and looked forward likewise to his own return to Sweden. 
Artedi was out of heart about himself and doubtful of 
his own powers. His reception in England had been 
freezing. He felt ' remote, unfriended, melancholy, 
slow.' He had not the animal spirits of Linnaeus ; 
and, as Carlyle says, 'there is no fairy gift like this for 
helping a man to fight his way.' To his countryman's 
chagrin, he kept without the pale of the gay circle 
which welcomed the brilliant paradoxes of his exu- 
berant and irresistible friend, and he seldom visited 

'No sooner,' says Linnaeus in his diary, 'had I 
finished my " Fundamenta Botanica " than I hastened 
to communicate them to Artedi. He showed me on 
his part the work which had been the result of 
several years' study his " Philosophia Ichthyologica," 
and other MSS.' On these Artedi had built his 
hopes, and these he could not bring to light for lack of 


the gold he had failed alchernically to make. He began 
now to think of himself rather than his aims 

To dare let down 

My strung, so high-strung brain, to dare unnerve 
My harassed o'ertasked frame, to know my place, 
My portion, my reward, even my failure, 
Assigned, made sure for ever ! To lose myself 
Among the common creatures of the world, 
To draw some gain for having been a man. 

BROWNING'S Paracelsus. 

c I was delighted with his familiar converse,' says 
Linnaeus, ' yet meanwhile, overwhelmed with business, 
I grew impatient at his detaining me too long. Alas, 
had I known that this was the last visit, the last words 
of my friend, how fain would I have tarried to prolong 
his existence ! ' It was September 25. 1 Artedi had at 
length so far completed his undertaking for Seba that 
only six fishes remained to be described. This even- 
ing he was in company at Seba's, and on leaving 
Seba to return to his own home he fell into a canal and 
was drowned. The night dark, unknown the way, he 
came to the brink of a canal not enclosed by rails. 
His calls for help unheard, next day his body was 
found. 2 As soon as Linnaeus heard of this he went to 
Amsterdam to see what could be done to honour the 
name of his poor dead friend and save the ichthyo- 
logical MSS., to which he was heir according to the 

1 Diary. 

2 Preface to Artedi's PJiilosopliia Ichtliyologica, edited by 


will Artedi had executed before both the friends left 

' The landlord, however, having made out a bill to 
the amount of more than 200 guilders, Linnaeus went 
to Seba and tried to prevail on him to redeem the 
MSS. ; but the latter would give only fifty guilders 
towards the burial of Artedi. Linnaeus then persuaded 
Clifford to advance the money ' ; and himself afterwards 
raised the best monument to his friend's memory by 
finishing and publishing Artedi's work on ichthyology, 
with a pathetic account of his drowning in a foreign 
country in the preface. 

Ill-fated youth I on whose unclouded brow 
Hope faithless gleamed, to lure thee to thy doom ; 
And made thy various busy race below 
But a more speedy transit to the tomb 1 

And art thou gone ? Are all thy virtues dead ? 
Oh, no ! for Heaven's eternal justice reigns I 
Thy buds of Hope, though plucked, shall never fade; 
Their fruit shall ripen in celestial plains 1 * 

The death of his bosom-friend was a bitter loss 
to Linnaeus, who now began to feel the cruelty and 
silence of exile. 

1 Translated from a poem oil the death of Pehr Artedi. 




Wearily stretches the land to the surge, and the surge to the cloud- 

Wearily onward I ride, watchins: the water alone. 

Not as of old, like Homeric Achilles, Kvde'i yaiotv, 

Joyous knight-errant of God, thirsting for labour and strife, 

No more on magical steed borne free through the regions of ether, 

But, like the hack which I ride, selling my sinew for gold. 

Fruit-bearing autumn is gone ; let the sad quiet winter hang o'er 

What were the spring to a soul laden with sorrow and shame ? 

Blossoms would fret me with beauty ; my heart has no time to be- 
praise them ; 

Grey rock, bough, surge, cloud, waken no yearning within. 

Sing not, thou skylark above ! Even angels passed hushed by the 

Scream on, ye sea-fowl ! my heart echoes your desolate cry. 

Sweep the dry sand on, thou wild wind, to drift o'er the shell and 
the seaweed : 

Seaweed and shell, like my dreams, swept down the pitiless tide. 

Elegiacs, EINGSLEY. 

LlNNJSUS's longing for Sweden and the Lapland Alps 
was smothered for a while in a change of scene that 
occurred to him in the spring of 1736, turning his 
thoughts away from the North. Clifford, ever kind to 
him, saw his depression, and thought change of air 
would be beneficial to his favourite. Accordingly, his 


employment at Hartecamp was varied by a journey to 
England, at Clifford's expense, to see the nursery-grounds 
of London and Oxford, and the North American plants 
cultivated in both places. This scheme promised him 
an interesting comparison of plants growing in the same 
latitude and the same hard climate as Sweden, as well 
as the sight of some newly-imported specimens of a 
vastly richer Flora in the juxta-tropical zone on the 
other side of the Atlantic. 

Sir Hans Sloane was at the head of natural history 
in England, and to him Linnaeus carried a warm recom- 
mendation in a letter of introduction from Boerhaave, 
couched in flattering terms an unusual thing as coming 
from Boerhaave. It was written in Latin, in this style : 
' Linnasus, who will deliver to you this letter, is alone 
worthy of seeing you and of being seen by you. They 
who witness your meeting will behold two men whom 
the world can scarcely equal.' This elegant letter may 
still be seen, by anyone who takes a good deal of trouble 
about it, in the British Museum. 

Carrying the precious letter in his pocket, Linnasus 
embarked at Rotterdam for Harwich. The run down to 
Rotterdam shows some ultra-Dutch landscape scenery, 
with bright gleams of Cuyp-like sunshine upon it. 
In Holland one always thinks of the painters; yet 
perhaps as pretty a scene as any, and as truly Dutch, 
although no old master has translated it, is the view on 
the Boompjes, looking across the moon-lighted river to 
the willowy bank on the other side ; the whole seen 


through a veil formed of the rigging of the shipping, 
mingled with the darker branches of the trees. Carl 
thought to cross over to London in one day, and ex- 
pected to be away eight days altogether ; but he had to 
wait for a vessel, and, owing to rough weather, he only 
reached Harwich in eight days after leaving Eotterdam. 
Linnaeus was never sea-sick, which accounts for his 
being able to talk so much about the heathen gods 
unless, indeed, it is Stoever who here shows off his 
mythological knowledge on this appropriate occasion. 
From Harwich Carl went by land to London by coach 
probably ; or did he, being in funds, enjoy the learned 
luxury of a post-chaise ? The coach-road runs by the 
river Stour to Colchester, by Tiptree Heath Tiptree of 
Mechi fame (how the experimental farming there would 
have interested our Swede !) by Witham and Chelms- 
ford, by Ingatestone, Brentwood, Romford, and Stratford. 
Entering London by way of Bow, and passing by that 
1 strange anarchy of a place, the Stock Exchange '- 
Carlyle's Domdaniel he reached Charing Cross, then, as 
now, the flood-tide of human existence. i The London 
street tumult has become a kind of marching music to 
me,' says Carlyle. Linnaeus spoke of London in the 
only language he knew besides Swedish, which counts 
for nothing out of Sweden, as ' Punctum saliens in 
vitello orbis.' 

With neatly-arranged dress bloom colour, no doubt 
ruffles, and dress sword, and the pretty letter in his 
bosom, Carl soon found his way westward to Chelsea. 


Notwithstanding his stylish appearance Sir Hans Sloane 
received him none too warmly. He had been king of 
natural history too long to care about welcoming a 
possible successor, especially one who would try to upset 
all his arrangements. Fascinating men l are apt to dis- 
turb the world.' 

Sir Hans was getting too old to enter into new 
theories, and Linnasus's bold attempts (for he had heard 
of him otherwise than through Boerhaave) to introduce 
a new system of nomenclature excited in him more 
jealousy than admiration. 1 

Cake and wine of course were offered such was 
then the fashion for morning visits ; but Latin, as it is 
spoken, is hard to be understood between speakers using 
a different pronunciation. It is easy enough to those 
already used to Italian; but although the Latin lan- 
guage is much easier for scientific intercommunication 
than French or German, talk is still uneasy to Eng- 
lish Latinists. There is nothing more absurd than the 
modern crusade against Latin or Greek by people who 
deem science the only useful education. Considering that 
with every science we have to learn its terminology, it is 
absurd to think we can do better than learn those 
languages, which are the alphabet of all science. Who 
can even read a book on anatomy unless he has studied 
Greek and Latin ? The same with chemistry or mine- 
ralogy : every third word is in an unknown tongue. 
Any foreigner who knows Latin can read an English 

1 Stoever. 
VOL. I. Y 


book on science easier than an Englishman who knows 
no Latin. Every French and German book worth reading- 
is translated, but into a language founded altogether 
on Greek and Latin, and only the words of one syllable 
are changed. Never have Latin and Greek been more 
useful than now, if not absolutely essential : the first 
chapter of any scientific book will prove this. Latin 
and Greek represent less the language of the classics 
than the language of science. And for this we have to 
be grateful that the great nomenclator of science was 
a Swede, whose language does not pass current out of 
Sweden. Had so great a man been either English, 
French, or German, he would have tried to impose his 
own language on a rebellious world, and science would 
have had no neutral ground. A confusion of tongues 
would have been an infinite loss to science. What term 
would have had exactly the same shade of meaning in 
another tongue ? There was never a time when Greek 
and Latin were more needful to be learnt than now ; not 
as grammatical exercises, but for the words themselves. 
Without them one must be dumb or childish, asking the 
meaning of every other word. Without them one can- 
not add a word to the scientific vocabulary. The lan- 
guage of learning is studied not so much to read ancient 
lore as to understand and create modern science. The 
dead languages were never more alive than now since 
Linnaeus began the resurrection of the dead languages. 
' Of all professions, the medical profession is most 
scientific, but if you read a modern medical book you 


find a hundred new terms, Greek all of them, all of 
them incomprehensible to Anglo-Saxon readers. Why do 
they warn us off the " dead languages," as they call 
them, and then wrap up all their wisdom in Hellenic 
words?' 1 

Although Carl's visit to Sir Hans Sloane was a 
failure, there was another person in Chelsea to whom he 
also carried an introduction. This was Philip Miller, the 
since celebrated gardener to the Society of Apothecaries. 
Fee gives this account of the interview (direct from 
Linnaeus) : ' When I paid Philip Miller a visit, the 
principal object of my journey, he showed me the garden 
at Chelsea, and named me the plants in the nomenclature 
then in use, as for example; " Symphytumconsolida major, 
flore luteo." I held my tongue, which made him declare 
next day, "That botanist of Clifford's does not know a 
single plant." I heard this, and said to him just as he 
was going to use the same names : " Do not call these 
plants thus ; we have shorter and surer names we call 
them so-and-so." Then he was angry, and looked cross. 
I wished to have some plants for Clifford's garden, but 
when I came back to Miller's he was in London. He 
returned in the evening. His ill-humour had passed off. 
He promised to give me all I asked for. He kept his 
word, and I left for Oxford after having sent a fine 
parcel to Clifford.' 

Of this Chelsea garden Hare says, 2 c The Botanic 

1 Bishop of Oxford on Language, Feb. 11, 1886. 
* In his Walks in London. 


Garden, facing the river, is the oldest garden of the kind 
in existence in England, Gerard's garden in Holborn 1 
and Tradescant's garden at Lambeth having perished.' 
The Chelsea ground was leased to the Apothecaries' 
Company (who still possess it) by Lord Cheyne in 1673, 
and was finally made over to them by Sir Hans Sloane 
in 1722. Evelyn used to walk in 'the Apothecaries' 
garden of simples at Chelsea,' and admire ' besides many 
rare annuals, the tree bearing Jesuits' bark, which has 
done such wonders in quartan agues.' A statue of Sir 
Hans Sloane was erected here in 1733. Near it is one 
of the picturesque cedars planted in 1683 ; its com- 
panion was blown down in 1845.' They were con- 
spicuous objects. 

Our Carl found a great deal to talk about when 
actually in the garden with Miller, concerning the 
English Flora. He found a range of plants new to him 
in those that grow upon the chalky soil of England. 
Sweden is almost destitute of chalk, and the parts of 
the Low Countries that he knew have no more. Carl 
had never yet seen the line of white cliffs by Ostend. 
It is vastly different talking in the open air with 
an energetic young man, to sitting ceremoniously in 
a room with an elderly gentleman who is rather bored 
than otherwise by having to entertain you. The diffi- 
culty with the language was perhaps greater ; but the 
language of signs, of play of feature, and, above all, 
of sympathy, goes farther than neatly-turned Latin. 

1 Gerard, called the Father of English herbalists. 


Miller knew, besides, plenty of gardeners' Latin, and 
that first day they do not seem to have squabbled. 

They were proud of their hothouse at Chelsea, 
though it was no longer the unusual thing that it 
was when Evelyn spoke of it as so ' very ingenious, 
that the subterranean heat, conveyed by a stove under 
the conservatory, all vaulted with brick, so as he 
has the doores and windowes open in the hardest 
frost, secluding only the snow.' They were trying 
ineffectually to grow the Ricotia JEgyptmca : Lin- 
naeus recommended them to mix Nile mud in the pot. 
Linnaeus enjoyed his visit so well that he repeated 
it often not, I suppose, in his bloom-coloured coat, 
but in thrifty work-a-day dress ; though I dare say he 
donned the bloom-colour when he went in the evening 
to Ranelagh Gardens close by, deemed by Dr. Johnson 
himself * a place of innocent recreation.' It must have 
been pretty much like the Healtheries ' and succeed- 
ing amusements have been in our time, or like the 
evening fetes at the Botanical Gardens : not so low or 
lively as Cremorne, as they only danced the minuet at 

Bos well, comparing it with the Pantheon, of which 
we read so much in ' Evelina,' says, ' The first view of it ' 
[the Pantheon] ' did not strike us so much as Ranelagh, 
of which he ' [Johnson] c said the coup d'oeil was the finest 
thing he had ever seen. The truth is, Ranelagh is of a 
more beautiful form ; more of it, or rather, indeed, the 
whole rotunda, appears at once, and it is better lighted.' 


Johnson expressed himself ' a great friend to public 
amusements, for they keep people from vice.' Doubt- 
less Linnaeus, who was of a lively social turn, relished 
these things, and most likely would have had Dr. John- 
son pointed out to him. Though we never read that 
they met, they might well have done so, here or at Lady 
Ann Monson's house, and they could have talked Latin 
fluently together. The Hunterian Oration, which was 
then always delivered in Latin, was a subject of interest 
for Linnaeus. Johnson's name was already immortal, 
but, although John Hunter was even then a distin- 
guished representative of British surgery, the world did 
not yet know that both Hunter and Linnasua were as 
great as the lexicographer himself. 

Lady Ann Monsoii, herself a lady of talent, and a 
botanist of no mean order, was very kind and attentive 
to Linnaeus, who named a beautiful plant Monsonia in 
her honour. 

There was plenty of gaiety going on in London; 
for May has always been the London season, and this 
was May. Linnaeus saw Garrick act, and he saw the 
lions at Exeter Change, and on Sunday he went to the 
Foundling Chapel and heard the Te Deum, Jubilate, and 
an anthem (on occasion of the charity sermon) com- 
posed by George Frederick Handel, Esq., and per- 
formed under his direction, where, because of the 
pressure of the crowd, 'The gentlemen are desired to come 
without swords and the ladies without hoops.' 

Linnaeus seems greatly to have enjoyed Chelsea ; and 


that the officials here appreciated him is shown by the 
Chelsea garden being the first in England arranged 
after the Linnaean system. 'Miller allowed me to 
gather in his Chelsea garden, and gave me, besides, 
many dried plants, gathered in South America by 
Houston,' says Linnaeus, and he adds, i The English are 
certainly the most generous people on earth.' 

There is still a flavour of poetry about Chelsea, as 
if poets and philosophers had always dwelt there and 
left their impress on the place. There are memories too 
of Tudor sovereigns, for it was during several reigns 
the resort of the Court and fashion, and ' Ye Old Bun 
House' and Don Saitero and his tavern-museum in 
Cheyne Walk. There is, in the British Museum, a 
long printed catalogue of the rarities to be seen at Don 
Saltero's coffee-house, all in glass cases numbered a 
parent of the South Kensington Museum. The Don 
was a naturalist, so Linnaeus would certainly have 
visited his collection, and not superciliously, like the 

* Spectator,' who talks of the ingenious Don Saitero in 
a pitying tone of banter. Our own generation has 
known Turner, George Eliot, Rossetti, and Carlyle, and 
many other lights, on Chelsea river bank. 

The very public-houses at Chelsea and Fulham still 
have the pretty signs they had in Linnseus's time the 
1 Hand and Flower,' ' the Rising Sun,' the ' Daffodil,' the 

* Brown Cow,' the 'Three Jolly Gardeners,' the 'World's 
End,' &c. ; and various Puritan sentiments, as ' God 
encompasseth us ' and others ; besides Morland's own 


painting of ' Ye Goat in Boots.' Much of this poetic 
odour has vanished with the departed Brompton stocks. 

Carlyle describes Chelsea as a singular heterogeneous 
kind of spot, very dirty and confused in some places, 
quite beautiful in others, abounding with antiquities 
and the traces of great men Sir Thomas More, Steele, 
Smollett, &c. ' Picture a parade running along the shore 
of the river ; a broad highway with huge shady trees ; 
boats lying moored, and a smell of shipping and tan ; 
Battersea Bridge (of wood) a few yards off ; the broad 
river, with white-trousered, white-shirted Cockneys 
dashing by like arrows in their long canoes of boats ; 
beyond, the green beautiful hills of Surrey with their 
villages ; on the whole a most artificial, green-painted, 
yet lively, fresh, almost opera-looking business, such as 
you can fancy. Stroll on the bank of the river and see 
white-shirted Cockneys in their green canoes, or old 
pensioners pensively smoking tobacco.' Having become 
fashionable again with its new embankment, bridges, and 
its rose-red houses, Chelsea is now more heterogeneous 
than ever ; a greater mixture of blackness and bright- 
ness, of squalor and wealth. 

Linnseus went to Wimbledon Common and to Kew 
pretty, peaceful, still graceful, retired and courtly 
Kew, the village of dowagers, with its lanes of elms, 
and soft river scenes with mildly- active life upon them, 
of a well-to-do pleasuring sort, where the tender grace 
of a day that has fled seems ever to come back to us. 
It is like the summer evening of life of modern life ; its 


apple-blossomed market gardens gone, but all its learn- 
ing manifest in the magnificent scientific garden lying 
close behind its river. Kew Church and the youthful 
games on the green fill up the picture. 1 

The first time Linnaeus crossed Putney Heath the 
sight of the gorse blossom in its blaze of May made him 
fall on his knees in rapture to thank God for making 
anything so beautiful. 2 

Impulsiveness like this must have astounded the more 
stolid Englishman who saw the action. Foreigners, 
and particularly the Swedes, are more impulsive in 
their movements than we are. An action of this sort 
with us would be set down to extravagance or affecta- 
tion. But the vivacious Linnaeus, excited by the long 
unfamiliar fresh breeze of the heathland he, a stranger, 
and well-nigh a dumb creature, felt that the flowers 
were his friends : they spoke the language that he knew. 
He was touched by the sight of this flowery wilderness 
as many persons are moved by hearing grand organ 
music in a foreign cathedral, where one can without 
remark indulge the feeling of rapturous thankfulness 
to the Creator for making so exquisite an universal 
language. If music spoke not to Linnaeus it was not 
that the grand music of his time was weak in the im- 
pressions it could make : it was that Linnaeus ' had not 

1 There is a caricature portrait of Linnaeus in the Museum at 
Kew, said to have been drawn from life. 

2 It should be remembered that our common furze is entirely 
confined to Western Europe, and Linmcus had possibly never seen 
it before. 


the sensibility to perceive them.' Perhaps it is the 
English lack of ready sympathy that causes what struck 
Dr. Arnold so strongly in travelling abroad i the total 
isolation of England from the European world.' Hence 
one writer has found this only to record of Linneeus in 
England : ' Of his observations nothing is preserved 
but the tradition of his rapture at the golden bloom 
of the furze on Putney Heath.' Did he think the 
gorse at Putney like glorified juniper buds of his own 
Sm&land commons ? They should have told him of 
the old saying that ' when gorse is out of season 
kissing is out of fashion,' and that is never. Though 
the golden flood of the Maybloom is brightest and 
sweetest, there are nearly always some blossoms to be 
seen upon the gorse. Linnseus was always an admirer 
of the furze, and vainly tried to preserve it through a 
Swedish winter in his greenhouse. The most likely 
explanation of his extreme emotion lies in the fact of a 
great resemblance of Putney Heath to some parts of 
his native country ; not SmSland itself, but some of the 
Upland scenery near Upsala. The numerous wind-tost 
birches and the heather-clad waves of common-land 
cause a great similarity of landscape. 

After his being so long used to the flat fens and 
sluggish airs of Holland the fresh perfumed breeze 
playing direct from the Surrey hills would in any case 
have caused an intoxication of rapture and more excite- 
ment than the sight of the gorse itself. 



Over the heath the golden gorse is glowing, 

And making glad the breeze ; 
And lo ! a traveller by the wayside going 

Falls low upon his knees, 
And thanks his God for such a glorious vision, 

And such a rich perfume, 
As met him in what seemed a dream Elysian, 

Far from his northern home. 

So felt the great Linnseus, when before him 

The yellow gorse spread out. 
We may not from his far-off grave restore him 

With us to roam about ; 
But we may drink in, too, that loving spirit 

Which made him seek and find, 
Even in the humblest flower that grows, a merit 

Hid from the common mind. 

And we, like him, in loving faith may linger 

On many a foreign shore, 
Tracing the touch of an Almighty finger 

In plants unknown before ; 
And, while the beauty of creation feeling, 

Filled with a new delight, 
Our hearts, before the great Creator kneeling, 

May bless Him for the sight. EMILY CARRINGTON. 

Sweden does not, for all its distance off, feel to us so 
foreign a place as Holland, Belgium, or France. The 
Scandinavians are more like ourselves. I dare say Lin- 
naeus felt the same in England as we do in Scandinavia. 
Gladstone says, * I do not know whether in any foreign 
land I ever felt so much at home as in Norway.' He 
was touched by the universal kindness of the people. 
We all feel thus in Scandinavia. In Norway we are 
1 Aunt Judy's Magazine. 


among good-liearted people of our own family, as it 
were ; in Sweden we are in polite yet friendly company. 
I hardly know which I found the more pleasant : there 
is a charm in both. 

Linnasus had now to present his Oxford credentials, 
and see what could be gathered for Clifford there, and 
to try if he might there plant his system. He had, 
besides, to advertise it personally. These things were 
not then managed by circulars and letters to the 
Times. Linnaeus multiplied himself in travel. 

How he must have admired towered Windsor's 
stately glory and the rich vale of Thames c England's 
golden eye' after the tedious flats of Holland, the 
wastes of Sweden ! He had never seen anything to 
equal the scenery from Richmond to the spires of 
Oxford. It was the very opposite to the grandest 
scenery he knew, and in its way as fine. This was 
emerald magnificence, that was .crystal splendour. 

( Hark, the merry Christchurch bells ! ' These 
* agreeable strains of aerial music ' were as yet a novelty 
to him ; at Amersfoort only had he heard sweet carillons. 
There are few carillons in Holland, none in Sweden. 
Oxford with its domes, spires, and minarets lay before 
him, ' its rows of shady trees and still monastic edifices 
in their antique richness and intricate seclusion. ' I 
never saw a place,' says Hay don the painter, ' that 
has so much the air of opulence and ease as Oxford. 
After the bustle, anxieties, fatigue, and harass of a 
London life, the peace and quiet of those secluded 


Gothic-windowed holy chambers of study come over 
one's feelings with a cooling sensation, as if one had 
mounted from hell to heaven and been admitted on 
reprieve from the tortures and fierce passions of the en- 
raged, the malignant, the ignorant, and the lying to 
the beautiful simplicity of angelic feelings, where all was 
good, and holy, and pious, and majestic. I need not say 
it was vacation' (July 16). Learning was livelier ori 
Linnaeus's visit in May, and Oxford is always bustling 
in comparison with Upsala. ' The soil of Oxford is dry, 
being on a fine gravel. The north is open to cornfields 
and enclosures for many miles together without a 
hill to intercept the free current of air.' l This wide 
undulating amphitheatre, filled with spires and towers, 
must have looked splendid to the young Swede enter- 
ing by the High Street, the Oxford road from London, 
or standing upon Maudlin Bridge over the Cherwell. 

At Oxford Linnaeus was received in a friendly 
way by Dr. Shaw, who had travelled in Barbary, and 
who, having read the new system with great pleasure, 
declared himself his disciple. This was encouraging, 
but the other Oxford professors were less affable. They 
were devoted, and with good reason, to the system of 
Ray the indefatigable and learned Ray, of whom Dr. 
Johnson says that he reckoned twenty thousand species 
of British insects. 2 

1 Old guide-book, dated 1761. 

2 Ray died in 1705, two years before Linnaeus's birth ; a man of 
whom England may well be proud. 


F. J. Dillenius, a German, born at Darmstadt 1684, 
the botanical professor at Oxford, received Linnaeus 
haughtily, and with jealousy and dislike, as one who 
woul,d upset this cherished system of Ray. Dr. Sherard, 
who was to Dillenius what Clifford was to the Swede, 
was present at their interview. It is said, ' The English 
have much to learn from other nations not only in the 
arts of being serviceable and amiable with grace, but 
of being so at all.' l This is at least equally true of 
German scientific men. 

Dillenius, finding that Linnaeus did not understand 
English, spoke of him before his face to Sherard as { the 
young man who would confound all botany.' But Lin- 
naeus, though he spoke no foreign tongue, had invented 2 
a language, the language of science, reviving a dead 
language to aid his purpose. Confound and botany 
being words of Latin origin, Linnaeus understood the 
purport of his observation, though he remained silent 
for a while. His Swedish politeness was a check on his 
fiery temper. 

Sherard had formerly been consul at Smyrna ; he 
cultivated botany with ardour, discernment, and princely 
munificence. His vast herbarium and library are among 
the literary treasures of Oxford. 

1 The labours of the Sherards and Sir Hans Sloane 

1 J. S. Mill. 

2 This must be understood as a figure of speech, as only in the 
sense of his having given greater precision to the Latin and terms 
of science can Linnaeus be said actually to have invented the lan- 
guage of science. 


seemed to promise the establishment of the botanic 
sceptre in England (Chelsea, Eltham) ; but they were 
at a standstill for a system.' ] Ray's as he left it was 
imperfect, and too complex for general handling. It 
was because the question was so pressing, ' How is the 
king's government to be carried on ? ' the government, 
that is, of Sir Hans Sloane that Linnaeus, who had 
fixed the attention of all Europe with five works, the 
product, apparently, of a year, causing a revolution of 
thought through the whole realm of science, was re- 
pulsed by them as an innovator and a radical. Dille- 
nius in his letter to Haller treated Linnseus with a 
moroseness of criticism and harshness of language 
that the young Swede's learning and endowments did 
not deserve. Disheartened by his cold reception, and 
failing to conciliate the professor's kindness, Linnaeus 
called next day to take leave. ' Before I go,' said he, 
' I have to request one favour : tell me why you accuse 
me of confounding botany ? ' 

Dillenius perceived that the youth had understood 
his remark to Dr. Sherard, but did not care to explain. 
Linnaeus persisted, and the professor produced from the 
library a part of Linnaeus's own ' Genera Plantarum,' 
printed at Leyden, a copy of which Gronovius had sent 
to Oxford. Linnaeus found N.B. written on almost 
every page, and was informed that those letters marked 
the false genera. Linnaeus denied this, and they ad- 
journed to the garden. The professor referred to a 
1 Sir J. Smith. 


plant which he and other botanists considered to have 
three stamens. On examination it proved to have only 
one, as Linnaeus had said. * Oh, it may be so acciden- 
tally in a single flower,' said the professor; but on 
examining a number of them, it was found to be the 
rule, as Linnaeus had stated it. Dillenius, though slow 
to be convinced, was not above learning truths he did 
not yet know. He detained Linnaeus several days, and 
promised him what he had before denied that he should 
have the plants Clifford was so anxious to procure. 1 

The professor, now somewhat softened, invited the 
Swede's inspection of his own and the Sherardian col- 
lections, and here showed him what would interest him 

The Linnaean Society possesses a few of Kudbeck's 
blocks, engraved on rough wood which looks like pine. 

At Upsala, as we know, under Rudbeck senior, 
was laid the foundation of what is justly called * the 
great Swedish school of natural history,' when in 1702 
a fire reduced almost all the city to ashes, and the 
works of E/udbeck, with a thousand blocks already cut, 
and the materials for his work on the natural history of 
Lapland, were destroyed. All that remained of the 
great work the ' Campi Elysii,' folio, were a few copies 
of the second volume, and three only of the first, one of 
which is in the Sherardian Library at Oxford. The 
work was planned to be done in twelve volumes. The 

1 This story is given, among the anecdotes related by Linnseus 
himself, written in Latin, by Dr. Gieseke. 


remains were published under the title of 'Reliquiae 
Rudbeckianse,' folio, 1789. 

Dillenius also took him more carefully through the 
botanic garden, which is thus described in the Oxford 
guide-book of a little later period. 1 l In the garden are 
two elegant and useful greenhouses, built by the univer- 
sity for exotics, of which there is as considerable a col- 
lection as can be met with anywhere. One of the large 
aloes, after growing to the height of twenty-one feet, 
was blown down in 1750. In the quarters within the 
yew hedges is the greatest variety imaginable of such 
plants as require no artificial heat to nourish them, all 
ranged in their proper classes, and numbered. Also 
two magnificent yew trees, cut in the form of pedestals, 
but of enormous size, with a flower-pot on the top, and 
a plant, as it were, growing out of it. The pineapples 
raised in the hot-house have nearly (!) the same deli- 
cious flavour as those raised in warmer climates. The 
Earl of Danby purchased the ground (containing five 
acres) of Maudlin College, and gave it to Oxford as 
a physic garden.' [The gateway is by Inigo Jones.] 
c This useful foundation has been much improved by 
the late Dr. Sherard, who brought from Smyrna a 
valuable collection of plants. He built and furnished a 
library for botanical books. One end of this building 
hath within a few years been altered into a convenient 
apartment for the professor, whose salary is paid out of 
the interest of 3,0002., given by Dr. Sherard for that 

1 1761. 
VOL. I. Z 


purpose. The assistant to the professor is paid by the 

Linnaeus went to Blenheim with Dillenius, who was 
now eager for his conversation ; also to Ditch! ey and Stow. 
They agreed to differ on some points the merits of 
Ray, for instance, which Dillenius rightly held to be 
surpassing ; while Linnaeus speaks thus jealously of 
the great English botanist : c I am at a loss to divine 
why nobody takes notice of the discoveries of Caes- 
alpinus, and wishes to ascribe everything to Ray.' This 
quotation has been badly put into English. Linnaaus 
wrote it in Latin. Yet Linnaeus, as he frequently told 
his pupils in later years, never ceased to esteem Ray, as 
one of the most penetrating observers of the natural 
affinity of plants. And this is, after all, the foundation 
of the natural system the only lasting one, being 
based upon nature. 

Linnasus, though he cared little for the pictures at 
Blenheim, having no feeling for works of art, enjoyed 
the magnificent gardens, and showed himself abundantly 
interested in nature. He was even then making notes 
and studies for his ' Flora Anglica,' written in 1754 
(eighteen years later), in which he concisely describes 
the climate of England and its different soils and 
elevations as favouring the growth of particular plants, 
He says that Sweden abounds more in alpine, upland, 
and forest plants than England, which excels in marine 
plants and such as affect a chalky soil. This English 
Flora contains nearly a thousand plants, but the mosses 


and fungi are not introduced. 1 Clifford and Linnaeus 
were not conversant with mosses. The Dutch connois- 
seurs were all devoted to exotic plants, especially those 
from America. LinnaBus says of himself, ' I do not profess 
to be even a tyro in mosses. Holland produces very 
few of this tribe, in which Sweden abounds.' ' Such 
plants as are not to be found in Sweden are distinguished 
by the italic type, and of these there are nearly three 
hundred. A list is subjoined of one hundred, which the 
author could not fully investigate.' 2 

At Oxford, it has been well said, everything depends 
upon the society you fall into. If this be uncongenial 
the place can have no other attractions, besides its 
scenery, than those of a town full of good libraries. Dr. 
Arnold quotes the views of Oxford from 'the pretty 
field,' or from St. John's Gardens, as among the per- 
fectly beautiful scenes in the earth. He was an enthu- 
siast on Thames scenery, particularly specifying that 
near Oxford c the streams, the copses, the solitary rock 
by Bagley Wood, the heights of Shotover, the broken 
field behind Ferry Hincksey, with its several glimpses 
of the distant towers and spires.' 

Like Dr. Arnold, Linnaeus found ' some of the scenes 
at the junction of the heath country with the rich valley 
of the Thames very striking,' though doubtless more so 
from the rich variety of their flora than on account of 
their merely picturesque aspect. Both of these great 

1 Smith. * Ibid. 

z 2 


men delighted to dig up orchis roots in Bagley Wood, 
and botanise by the wild stream that flows down be- 
tween Billington and Cowley Marsh. 

Linnaeus in travelling abroad saw the best, as 
ordinary tourists abroad see the worst, specimens of 
humanity ' innkeepers, beggars, touts, and zany Cock- 
neys.' As Dr. Arnold says, in travelling one ' gets an 
unfavourable impression of the inhabitants in spite of 
one's judgment.' 

What with his explorations, and visits to Professors 
Martyn and Eand, and Dr. Shaw, and Mrs. Blackburne, 
another lady botanist, besides an intimate and lasting 
friendship he contracted with Dr. Isaac Lawson and 
Mr. Peter Collinson of Mill Hill, near Hendon, one of 
those cultivated Quakers who are such fervent gar- 
deners a man of various studies, a friend after his 
own heart, Linnseus's time passed very agreeably in 
England, and these friends added many treasures to 
the store he had procured at Chelsea of the rarest and 
nondescript plants he was collecting for Clifford. 

Linnaeus, at Dillenius's request, remained some time 
at Oxford exploring the country, riding, or oftener 
walking, round by what is now the Firs, Haddington, 
and by Livermore, where George Eliot describes c J. H. 
Newman's little conventual dwelling, and from whence 
one gains in returning a fine view of the Oxford towers.' 
He crossed the original ford whence Oxford took its 
name, and he saw New College, with its gardens, sur- 
rounded by the old city wall, the chapel where William 


of Wykeliam's crosier is kept, and the cloisters, ' which 
are fine but gloomy, and less beautiful than those of 
Magdalene,' and the lovely gardens of Merton College. 

Perhaps best of all Linnaeus loved the Botanical 
Library, and that glorious Bodleian, whose catalogue he 
would ransack, and eagerly scan the backs of the books ; 
for the good reason Dr. Johnson gives us ' Knowledge 
is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we 
know where we can find information upon it/ 

Linnaeus here found out, to his surprise, that Le 
Vaillant was not actually the first to clearly see the 
sexes of plants, although he had been given the credit 
of it. That discovery belongs to Sir Thomas Millington, 
of Oxford, in the seventeenth century. He flourished 
about 1670. 

Dillenius, writing to Dr. Richardson, says Linnaeus 
stayed eight days at Oxford. This was probably on 
a first visit, for we hear he remained at Oxford a 
month altogether. 

Pacing the cloistered Gothic arch of Trinity lime 
grove, the scent of the linden blossom recalled power- 
fully to his mind -the lime tree of his native place. 
Walking in the physic garden reminded him still more 
keenly of his Northern home. 

Linnaeus remained at Oxford till Midsummer Day, 
when the ceremonial much reminded him of Sweden, 
and revived with extra force his longing to get home. 

The old guide-book before quoted says : ' It is 
customary on St. John Baptist's Day to have the 


university sermon preached in the stone pulpit at the 
south-east corner of the first court within the college 
gate, the court on that occasion being decked with 
boughs and strewed with rushes, alluding to St. John's 
preaching in the wilderness and in commemoration of 
the hospitals being dedicated to St. John. The most 
advantageous view of the tower and niche with the 
head of John Baptist is from the Physick Garden. 
The tower contains a very musical peal of ten bells. 
On May Day morning the clerks and choristers assemble 
on the top of it, and instead of a mass of requiem for 
King Henry VII. sing cheerful songs and catches.' 

Music from the tops of towers is sometimes heard 
in Scandinavia to this day. I have heard Luther's hymn, 
and other solemn music, played on trumpets by men 
standing up outside the central tower of Roskilde 
Cathedral, on Whit Sunday after morning service. It 
was sweet to sit in the cathedral square and listen to 
the aerial music being played there aloft. 

Within the circle of your incantation 

No blight nor mildew falls ; 
Nor fierce unrest, nor lust, nor low ambition 

Passes those airy walls. 1 

Dillenius, though he never publicly adopted the 
Linnsean arrangement, at length became so partial to 
the young Swede that he would not leave him for an 

1 The Angclus, Bret Harte. 


hour. He was so impressed with his talents that he 
urged him to reside at Oxford and share the profits 
of his professorship with him. Dillenius frequently 
visited Eltham in Kent, where Dr. J. Sherard (William 
Sherard's brother) had a house and garden. We are not 
told that Linnaeus ever accompanied him thither, but 
several hints make me opine that he did so. William 
Sherard's aim was the continuation of Bauhin's 
4 Pinax.' i Such assistance as his,' Dillenius said to 
J. Sherard, speaking of Linnaeus, l in the continuation 
of Sherard's " Pinax " would be invaluable.' ' The 
nature of this Pinax,' Pulteney too rashly takes for 
granted, 'is too well-known to be explained/ Most 
people do not know what a pinax is ; few dictionaries 
or cyclopaedias even give the word < yea, I know it 
but in two.' Pinax, or synopsis pinax, a picture of 
the vegetable kingdom. 

1 It was undertaken by Sherard as a continuation of 
Bauhin's " Pinax Theatri Botanici," and it afterwards 
devolved on Dillenius to carry it forward in a similar 
manner. No part of it, however, ever came to the 
press ; but the whole MS., preserved in the Botanical 
Library at Oxford, deserves to be considered as an in- 
teresting monument of the scientific industry and 
erudition of Sherard and his first professor.' 

' When I was at Oxford,' writes Linnaeus to Haller 
from Hartecamp, April 1737, 'Dillenius was finishing 
the " Phytopinax " of Sherard, of which he had then 


entirely completed the fourth part.' c Had Sir Hans 
Sloane been warmer Linnaeus might have obtained an 
establishment in England, which it has been thought 
was his wish.' l As it was, he did not care to stay there 
helping Dilleiiius out of his impossibilities. 

Homesickness had come on always a real malady 
with the Swedes and Swiss and he could no longer 
combat the thought of his Elizabeth waiting for him 
in far-off Falun ; so notwithstanding a warmth of 
friendship on the part of the professors which no one 
would have expected from the coolness of his welcome, 
Linnaeus left Oxford, and soon afterwards returned to 

Linnaeus dedicated his ' Critica Botanica ' to Dille- 
nius, of whom, in writing to Haller, he said, ' Dillenius 
was the only person then in England who cared about 
or understood the genera of plants.' 

Linnaeus returned down the quiet silvery Thames 
to London. Even then the west end of the river pre- 
sented a remarkable contrast to the ' immensity of 
London at the pool ; ' but the full impression of mighty 
London's vastness never fully struck Linnaeus till he 
was leaving it by the Thames. 

1 London is the heart of the world, wonderful only 
from the mass of human beings. No one has any 
knowledge of London in which he lives. It is a huge 
aggregate of little systems, each of which is again a 

1 Turton. 


small anarchy, the members of which do not work 
together, but scramble against each other.' l Linnaeus 
felt this : the Swedes do not shove. Yet this saying 
of Carlyle's is not altogether true. Each individual 
wheel of the mighty clock keeps its own round. The 
philosopher himself admits it. ' The baker's boy brings 
muffins to the window at a fixed hour every day, and 
that is all the Londoner knows or wishes to know on 
the subject. But it turned out good men.' 2 London 
at once elevates and humbles us. Man is not merely 
an unit : he is subdivided. Carlyle goes on to say, 
' All London-born men, without exception, seem to me 
narrow-built, considerably perverted men, rather frac- 
tions of a man. Hunt, by nature a very clever man, 
is one instance ; Mill, in quite another manner, is 
another.' But it is in their work they are most sub- 
divided. To make the fraction of a pin perfectly is the 
aim of modern life. 

In London lies ' that medley of experience of every- 
thing, great and little, which a man can scarcely have 
anywhere but in the capital ' : the very opposite of 
Swedish life, which holds much that we leave out, and 
knows little of what we most prize art, wealth, &c. 
Without art our life were one sordid delirium. 

In 1793 Sir J. Smith, first president of the Linnaean 

Society, set out for Holland to expatiate on ruined 

Hartecamp, &c., ' after many an anxious look at the 

lofty plane and cedar trees of Chelsea gardens still 

1 Carlyle. 3 Ibid 

VOL. I. A A 


waving in unpropitious direction.' Linnaeus now looked 
at them anxiously likewise. 

The Chelsea planes and cedars at length showing a 
favourable wind, after a final week in London, Linnaeus 
sailed with the tide, winding slowly through the forest of 
masts, the great English forest a marvellous contrast 
to the silent pine-forests of Sweden in the Thames. 
1 The giant bustle, the coal-heavers, the bargemen, the 
ten thousand times ten thousand sounds and movements 
of that monstrous harbour, formed the grandest object 
I had ever witnessed. One man seems a drop in the 
ocean : you feel annihilated in the immensity of that 
heart of all the earth.' l And yet a few great minds 
dominate it all. 

In England Linnaeus had his mind opened wider 
than he expected, and in other lines. He knew of 
Boulton and Watt at least as Wedgwood, the ' father 
of the Potteries,' who was so closely allied with them, 
took a great interest in the modelling of his portrait, 
we may safely conclude he knew of those iron chief- 
tains who sold power. 2 c What a giant was Watt ! fit 
to stand beside Gutenberg and Columbus as one of the 
few whose single discoveries have changed the whole 
course of human civilisation. ' 3 Linnaeus was one of 
the very few men in those days capable of duly esti- 
mating any form of genius outside poetry, government, 
or military art. Other literary men were too closely 

1 Carlyle. 2 Dr. Johnson. 

3 Frederic Harrison. 


wrapped up in elegant literature to be able to compre- 
hend that men of science and men of business could 
revolutionise a world. 

Linnaeus returned to Holland deeply impressed with 
the importance of England as a country well fitted to 
forward the interests of natural science. 1 

1 Sir W. Jardine. 










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The Nicomachean Ethics, translated by Williams, crown 8vo. 7*. Gd. 

The Politics, Books I. III. IV. (VII.) with Translation, &c. by 

Bolland and. Lang. Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 

Becker's Charides and Gallus, by Metcalfe. Post 8vo. 7s. Gd. each. 
Cicero's Correspondence, Text and Notes, by R. Y. Tyrrell. Vols. 1 & 2, 8vo. 

12. each. 
Homer's Iliad, Homometrically translated by Cayley. 8vo. 125. Gd. 

Greek Text, with Verse Translation, by W. C. Green. Vol. 1, 
Books I.-XII. Crown 8vo. 65. 

Mahaffy's Classical Greek Literature. Crown 8vo. Vol. 1, The Poets, 7s. Gd. 

Vol. 2, The Prose Writers, 75. Gd. 

Plato's Parnienides, with Notes, &c. by J. Maguire. 8vo. 75. Gd. 
Virgil's Works, Latin Text, with Commentary, by Kennedy. Crown 8vo. Ws. Gd. 

JEneid, translated into English Verse, by Conington. Crown 8vo. 95. 

byW.J.Thornhill. Cr.Svo.75.6d. 

Poems, Prose, by Conington. Crown 8vo. 95. 
Witt's Myths of Hellas, translated by F. M. Younghusband. Crown 8vo. 85. Gd. 

The Trojan War, Fcp. 8vo. 25. 

The Wanderings of Ulysses, Crown 8vo. 85. Gd. 


Allen's Flowers and their Pedigrees. Crown 8vo. Woodcuts, 55. 
Decaisne and Le Maout's General System of Botany. Imperial 8vo. 315. Gd. 
Dixon's Rural Bird Life. Crown 8vo. Illustrations, 65. 
Hartwig's Aerial World, 8vo. 105. Gd. 

Polar World, 8vo. 105. Gd. 

Sea and its Living Wonders. 870. 105. Gd. 

Subterranean World, 8vo. 10s. Gd. 

Tropical World, 8vo. 105. Gd. 
Lindley's Treasury of Botany. 2 vols. fcp. 8vo. 125. 
London's Encyclopaedia of Gardening. 8vo. 215. 

Plants. 8vo. 42*. 
Rivers's Orchai-d House. Crown 8vo. 55. 

Rose Amateur's Guide. Fcp. 8vo. 45. Gd. 

Miniature Fruit Garden. Fcp. 8vo. 45. 
Stanley's Familiar History of British Birds. Crown 8vo. 65. 
Wood's Bible Animals. With 11 2 Vignettes. 8vo. 105. Gd. 

Common British Insects. Crown 8vo. 35. Gd. 

Homes Without Hands, 8vo. 105. Gd. 

Insects Abroad, 8vo. 10*. Gd. 

Horse and Man. 8vx>. 145. 

Insects at Home. With 700 Illustrations. 8vo. 105. Gd. 

Out of Doors. Crown 8vo . 55. 

Petland Revisited. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6cf. 

Strange Dwellings, Crown 8vo. 55. Popular Edition, 4to. Gd. 


General Lists of Works. 


Dresser's Arts and Art Manufactures of Japan. Square crown 8vo. Sis. Bd. 
Bastlake's Household Taste in Furniture, &c. Square crown 8vo. 14*. 
Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. 6 vols. square 8vo. 
Legends of the Madonna. 1 vol. 21s. 

Monastic Orders 1 vol. 21*. 

Saints and Martyrs. 2 vols. Sis. Bd. 

Saviour. Completed by Lady Eastlake. 2 vols. 42*. 
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Home, illustrated by Scharf. Fcp. 4to. 10*. Bd. 
The same, with Ivry and the Armada, illustrated by Weguelin. Crown 8vo. 3*. Bd. 
New Testament (The) illustrated with Woodcuts after Paintings by the Early 

Masters. 4to. 21*. 


Arnott's Elements of Physics or Natural Philosophy. Crown 8vo. 12*. Bd. 
Barrett's English Q-lees and Part-Songs ; their Historical Development. 

Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Bourne's Catechism of the Steam Engine. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Examples of Steam, Air, and Gas Engines. 4to. 70*. t - 

Handbook of the Steam Engine. Fcp. 8vo. 9*. 

Recent Improvements in the Steam Engine. Fcp. 8vo. 6*. 

Treatise on the Steam Engine. 4to. 42*. 

Buckton's Our Dwellings, Healthy and Unhealthy. Crown 8vo. 3*. Bd. 

Clerk's The Gas Engine. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

Crookes's Select Methods in Chemical Analysis. 8vo. 24*. 

Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy. 8vo. 16*. 

Fairbairn's Useful Information for Engineers. 3 vols. crown 8vo. 31*. Bd. 

Mills and Millwork. 1 vol. 8vo. 25*. 
Ganot's Elementary Treatise on Physics, by Atkinson. Large crown 8vo. 16*. 

Natural Philosophy, by Atkinson. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 
Grove's Correlation of Physical Forces. 8vo. 15*. 
Haughton's Six Lectures on Physical Geography. 8vo. 15*. 
Helmholtz on the Sensations of Tone. Royal 8vo. 28*. 

Helmholtz's Lectures on Scientific Subjects. 2 vols. crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. each. 
Hudson and Gosse's The Rotifera or ' Wheel Animalcules.' With 30 Coloured 

Plates. 6 parts. 4to. 10*. 6d. each. Complete, 2 vols. 4to. 3. 10*. 
Hullah's Lectures on the History of Modern Music. 8vo. 8*. Bd. 

Transition Period of Musical History. 8vo. 10*. Bd. 
Jackson's Aid to Engineering Solution. Royal 8vo. 21*. 

Jago's Inorganic Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. 

Kerf's Metallurgy, adapted by Crookes and Ebhrig. 3 vols. 8vo. 4. 19*. 

Kolbe's Short Text-Book of Inorganic Chemistry. (Jrown 8vo. It. Bd. 

Lloyd's Treatise on Magnetism. 8vo. 10*. Bd. 

Macalister's Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animals. 8vo. 10*. Bd. 

Macf arren's Lectures on Harmony. 8vo. 1 2*. 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. 3 vols. 8vo. Part I. 

Chemical Physics, 16*. Part II. Inorganic Chemistry, 24*. Part III. Organic 

Chemistry, price 31*. Bd. 


General Lists of Works. 

Mitchell's Manual of Practical Assaying. 8vo. 31*. 6d. 

Northoott's Lathes and Turning. 8vo. 18.?. 

Owen's Comparative Anatomy and Physiology ef the Vertebrate Animals. 

3 vols. 8vo. 73s. Gd. 

Piesse's Art of Perfumery. Square crown 8vo. 21*. 
Reynoldp's Experimental Chemistry. Fcp. 8vo. Part I. Is. Gd. Part II. 2s. Gd. 

Part III. 3*. Gd. 

Schellen's Spectrum Analysis. 8vo. 31s. fid. 
Sennett's Treatise on the Marine Steam Engine. 8vo. 21*. 
Smith's Air and Rain. 8vo. 24*. 

Stoney's The Theory of the Stresses on Girders, &c. Royal 8vo. 36*. 
Swinton's Electric Lighting : Its Principles and Practice. Crown 8vo. 5*. 
Tilden's Practical Chemistry. Fcp. 8vo. 1*. Gd. 
Tyndall's Faraday as a Discoverer. Crown 8vo. 3*. Gd. 

Floating Matter of the Air. Crown 8vo. 7*. Gd. 

Fragments of Science. 2 vols. post 8vo. 16s. 

Heat a Mode of Motion. Crown 8vo. 12*. 

Lectures on Light delivered in America. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

Lessons on Electricity. Crown 8vo. 2*. Gd. 

Note* on Electrical Phenomena. Crown 8vo. 1*. sewed, 1*. Gd. cloth. 

Notes of Lectures on Light. Crown 8vo. 1*. sewed, 1*. Gd. cloth. 

Sound, with Frontispiece and 203 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 10*. Gd. 
Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry. 9 vol?. medium 8vo. 15. 2*. Gd. 
Wilson's Manual of Health-Science. Crown 8vo. 2*. fid. 


Arnold's (Rev. Dr. Thomas) Sermons. 6 vols. crown 8vo. 5*. each. 

Boultbee's Commentary on the 39 Articles. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Browne's (Bishop) Exposition of the 39 Articles. 8vo. 16*. 

Bullinger's Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New 

Testament. Royal 8vo. 15*. 

Colenso on the Pentateuch and Book of Joshua. Crown 8vo. 6*. 
Gender's Handbook of the Bible. Post 8vo. 7*. Gd. 
Conybeare & Howson's Life and Letters of St. Paul : 

Library Edition, with Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. 2 vols. square crown 

8vo. 21*. 
Student's Edition, revised and condensed, with 46 Illustrations and Maps, 

1 vol. crown 8vo. 7*. Gd. 

Cox's (Homersham) The First Century of Christianity. 8vo. 12*. 
Davidson's Introduction to the Study of the New Testament. 2 vols. 8vo. 30*. 
Edersheim's Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 2 vols. 8vo. 24*. 

Prophecy and History in relation to the Messiah. 8vo. 12*. 
Ellicott's (Bishop) Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles. 8vo. Galatians, 8*. Gd. 
Ephesiaas, 8*. Gd. Pastoral Epistles,. 10*. Gd. Philippians, Colossians and 
Philemon, 10*. Gd. Thessalouians, 7*. Gd. 

Lectures on the Life of our Lord. 8vo. 12*. 
Ewald's Antiquities of Israel, translated by Solly. 8vo. 12*. Gd. 

History of Israel, translated by Carpenter & Smith. Vols. 1-7, 8vo. 5. 
Hobart's Medical Language of St. Luke. 8vo. 16*. 


Geaeral Lists of Works. 

Hopkins's Christ the Consoler. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. Bd. 
Jukes's New Man and the Eternal Life. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Second Death and the Restitution of all Things. Crown 8vo. 3*. 64. 

Types of Genesis. Crown 8vo. Is. Bd. 

The Mystery of the Kingdom. Crown 8vo. 3*. Bd. 

Lenormant's New Translation of the Book of Genesis. Translated into English. 

8vo. 10*. Kd. 

Lyra Germanica : Hymns translated by Miss Winkworth. Fcp. 8vo. 5*. 
Macdonald's (G.) Unspoken Sermons. Two Series, Crown 8vo. 3s. Bd. each. 

The Miracles of our Lord. Crown 8vo. 3*. Bd. 
Manning's Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost. Crown 8vo. 8*. Bd. 
Martineau's Endeavours after the Christian Life. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

Hymns of Praise and Prayer. Crown 8vo. 4*. Bd. 32mo. 1*. Bd. 

Sermons, Hours of Thought on Sacred Things. 2 vols. 7s. Bd. each. 
MonselPs Spiritual Songs for Sundays and Holidays. Fcp. 8vo. 5*. 18mo. 2*. 
Mailer's (Max) Origin and Growth of Religion. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

Science of Religion. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 
Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

The Idea of a University Defined and Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 7s, 

Historical Sketches. 3 vols. crown 8vo. 6*. each. 

Discussions and Arguments on Various Subjects. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching Con- 

sidered. Vol. 1, crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. Vol. 2, crown 8vo. 5*. Bd. 

The Via Media of the Anglican Church, Illustrated in Lectures, <fec. 

2 vols. crown 8vo. 6*. each 

Essays, Critical and Historical 2 vols. crown 8vo. 12*. 

Essays on Biblical and on Ecclesiastical Miracles. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent. 7s. Bd. 
Overton's Life in the English Church (1660-1714). 8vo. 14*. 
Bx)gers's Eclipse of Faith. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 

Defence of the Eclipse of Faith. Fcp. 8vo. 3*. Bd. 
Sewell's (Miss) Night Lessons from Scripture. 32mo. 3s. 6d. 

Passing Thoughts on Religion. Fcp. 8vo. 3.. Bd. 

Preparation for the Holy Communion. 32mo. 3*. 
Smith's Voyage and Shipwreck of St. PauL Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 
Supernatural Religion. Complete Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. 36*. 

Taylor's (Jeremy) Entire Works. With Life by Bishop Heber. Edited by the 
Rev. C. P. Eden. 10 vols. 8vo. 5. 5*. 


Alpine Club (The) Map of Switzerland. In Four Sheets. 42*. ' 

Baker's Eight Years in Ceylon. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

Rifle and Hound in Ceylon. Crown 8vo. 5*. 
Ball's Alpine Guide. 3 vols. post 8vo. with Maps and Illustrations : I. Western 

Alps, 6*. ed. IL Central Alps, 7s. Bd. III. Eastern Alps, 10*. M. 
Ball on Alpine Travelling, and on the Geology of the Alp?, 1*. 
Bent's The Cyclades, or Life among the Insular Greeks. Crown 8vo. 12*. Bd. 


10 General Lists of Works, 

Brassey's Sunshine and Storm in the East. Library Edition, Svo. 21s. Cabinet 
Edition, crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 

Voyage in the Yacht ' Sunbeam.' Library Edition, 8vo. 21s. Cabinet 

Edition, crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. School Edition, fcp. 8vo. 2s. Popular 
Edition, 4to. Gd. 

In the Trades, the Tropics, and the ' Roaring Forties.' Edition de 

Luxe, 8vo. 3. 13s. Gd. Library Edition, Svo. 21$. 
Crawford's Across the Pampas and the Andes. Crown 8vo. 7*. Gd. 
Dent's Above the Snow Line. Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Froude's Oceana ; or, England and her Colonies. Crown 8vo. 2s. boards ; 2s. Gd. 


Hassall's San Remo Climatically considered. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Hewitt's Yisits to Remarkable Places. Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Three in Norway. By Two of Them. Crown 8vo. Illustrations, 6*. 


I Beaconsfield's (The Earl of) Novels and Tales. Hughenden Edition, with 2 
Portraits on Steel and 11 Vignettes on Wood. 11 vols. crown 8vo. 2. 2s. 
Cheap Edition, 11 vols. crown 8vo. 1*. each, boards ; Is. Gd. each, cloth. 






Contarini Fleming. 
Alroy, Ixion, &c. 
The Young Duke, &c. 
Vivian Grey. 

Henrietta Temple. 

Black Poodle (The) and other Tales. By the Author of ' Vice Versa.' Cr. 8vo. 6*. 
Brabourne's (Lord) Friends and Foes from Fairyland. Crown 8vo. 65. 
Harte (Bret) On the -Frontier. Three Stories. 16mo. 1*. 

By Shore and Sedge. Three Stories. 16mo. Is. 

In the Carquinez Woods. Crown Svo. 25. boards ; 2s. Gd. cloth. 
Melville's (Whyte) Novels. 8 vols. fcp. Svo. Is. each, boards ; Is. Gd. each, cloth. 

Digby Grand. Good for Nothing. 

General Bounce. Holmby House. 

Kate Coventry. The Interpreter. 

The Gladiators. The Queen's Maries. 

Novels by the Author of ' The Atelier du Lys ' : 

The Atelier du Lys ; or, An Art Student in the Reign of Terror. Crown 

Svo. 2. Gd. 

Mademoiselle Mori: a Tale of Modern Rome. Crown Svo. 2s. Gd. 
In the Olden Time : a Tale of the Peasant War in Germany. Crown Svo. 2s. Gd . 
Hester's Venture. Crown Svo. 65. 
Oliphant's (Mrs.) Madam. Crown Svo. 3*. Gd. 

In Trust : the Story of a Lady and her Lover. Crown Svo. 

2s. boards ; 2s. Gd. cloth. 
Payn's (James) The Luck of the Darrells. Crown 8vo. 3s. Gd. 

Thicker than Water. Crown Svo. -2s. boards ; 2s. Gd. cloth. 
Reader's Fairy Prince Follow-my-Lead. Crown Svo. 5s. 

Sewell's (Miss) Stories and Tales. Crown Svo. Is. each, boards ; 1*. Gd. cloth ; 
2s. Gd. cloth extra, gilt edges. 

Amy Herbert. Cleve Hall. 
The Earl's Daughter. 
Experience of Life. 
Gertrude. Ivors. 

A Glimpse of the World. 
Katharine Ashton. 
Laneton Parsonage, 
Margaret Percival. Ursula. 

London : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 

General Lists of Works. 11 

Stevenson's (E. L.) The Dynamiter. Fcp. 8vo. Is. sewed ; 1*. 6d. cloth. 

Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Fcp. 8vo. 1*. 

sewed ; 1*. 6d. cloth. 

Trollope's (Anthony) Novels. Fcp. 8vo. Is. each, boards ; 1*. 6d. cloth. 
The Warden | Barchester Towers. 


Armstrong's (Ed. J.) Poetical Works. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 
(G. F.) Poetical Works : 

Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic. Fcp. 

8vo. 6s. 

Ugone : a Tragedy. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 
A Garland from Greece. Fcp. 8vo.9,s. 

King Saul. Fcp. 8vo. 5*. 
King David. Fcp. 8vo. 6*. 
King Solomon. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 
Stories of Wicklow. Fcp. 8vo. 

Bowen's Harrow Songs and other Verses. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. 6d. or printed on 

baud-made paper, os. 

Bowdler's Family Shakespeare. Medium 8vo. 14*. 6 vols. fcp. 8vo. 21s. 
Dante's Divine Comedy, translated by James Innes Minchin. Crown 8vo. 15s. 
Goethe's Faust, translated by Birds. Large crown 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

translated by Webb. 8vo. 12*. 6d. 

edited by Selss. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

Ingelow's Poems. Vols. 1 and 2, fcp. 8vo. 12*. Vol. 3 fcp. 8vo. 5*. 

Lyrical and other Poems. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. cloth, plain ; 3*. cloth, 

gilt edges. 
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome, with Ivry and the Armada. Illustrated by 

Weguelin. Crown 8vo. 3*. 6d. gilt edges. 

The same, Popular Edition. Illustrated by Scharf. Fcp. 4to. 6d. swd., 1*. cloth. 
Header's Voices from Flowerland, a Birthday Book, 2s. 6d. cloth, 3*. 6d. roan. 
Southey's Poetical Works. Medium 8vo. 14*. 
Stevenson's A Child's Garden of Verses. Fcp. 8vo. 5*. 
Virgil's JEneid, translated by Conington. Crown 8vo. 9*. 

Poems, translated into English Prose. Crown 8vo. 9*. 


Dunster's How to Make the Land Pay. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

Fitzwygram's Horses and Stables. 8vo. 5*. 

Lloyd's The Science of Agriculture. 8vo. 12*. 

London's Encyclopaedia of Agriculture. 21*. 

Miles's Horse's Foot, and How to Keep it Sound. Imperial 8vo. 12*. 6d. 

Plain Treatise on Horse-Shoeing. Post 8vo. 2*. 6d. 

Remarks on Horses' Teeth. Post 8vo. 1*. 6d. 

Stables and Stable-Fittings. Imperial 8vo. 15*. 
Nevile's Farms and Farming. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Horses and Riding. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Steel's Diseases of the Ox, a Manual of Bovine Pathology. 8vo. 15*. 
Stonehenge's Dog in Health and Disease. Square crown 8vo. 7*. 8d. 

Greyhound. Square crown 8vo. 15*. 
Taylor's Agricultural Note Book. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. 6d. 
Ville on Artificial Manures, by Crookes. 8vo. 21*. 
Youatt's Work on the Dog. 8vo. 6*. 

Horse. 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

London : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 


General Lists of Works. 


The Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes. Edited by the Duke of Beaufort 
and A. B. T. Watson. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 10s. Gd. 

Hunting, by the Duke of Beaufort, <fec. 

Fishing, by H. Cholmondeley-Pennell, &c. 2 vols. 

Racing, by the Earl of Suffolk, &c. 

Shooting, by Lord Walsingham, &c. 2 vols. 

** Other Volumes in preparation. 

Campbell- Walker's Correct Card, or How to Piay at Whist. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. fid. 
Dead Shot (The) by Marksman. Crown 8vo. 10*. Gd. 
Francis's Treatise on Fishing in all its Branches. Post 8vo. 15s. 
Longman's Chess Openings. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

Pole's Theory of the Modern Scientific Game of Whist. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. Gd. 
Proctor's How to Play Whist. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Ronalds's Fly-Fisher's Entomology. 8vo. 14s. 
Verney's Chess Eccentricities. Crown 8vo. 10s. Gd. 
Wilcocks's Sea- Fisherman. Post 8vo. 6s. 
Year's Sport (The) for 1885. 8vo. 21s. 


Acton's Modern Cookery for Private Families. Fcp. Svo. 4s. Gd. 

Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Brande's Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. 3 vols. medium Svo. 63s. 

Cabinet Lawyer (The), a Popular Digest of the Laws of England. Fcp. Svo. 9s. 

Cates's Dictionary of General Biography. Medium Svo. 28s, 

Doyle's The Official Baronage of England. Vols. I.-III. 3 vols. 4to. 5. 5s. ; 

" Large Paper Edition, 15. 15s. 
Gwilt's Encyclopaedia of Architecture. Svo. 52s. Gd. 

Keith Johnston's Dictionary of Geography, or General Gazetteer. Svo. 42s. 
M'Culloch'a Dictionary of Commerce and Commercial Navigation. Svo. 63s. 
Maunder's Biographical Treasury. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Historical Treasury. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Scientific and Literary Treasury. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Treasury of Bible Knowledge, edited by Ayre. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Treasury of Botany, edited by Lindley & Moore. Two Parts, 12s. 

Treasury of Geography. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Treasury of Knowledge and Library of Reference. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Treasury of Natural History. Fcp Svo. 6.?. 

Quain's Dictionary of Medicine. Medium Svo. 31s. fid., or in 2 vols. 34s. 

Reeve's Cookery and Housekeeping, Crown Svo. 7s. Gd. 

Rich's Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities. Crown Svo. 7s. Gd. 

Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. Crown Svo. 10s. 6d. 

Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines. 4 vols. medium Svo. 7. 7s. 

Willich's Popular Tables, by Marriott. Crown Svo. 10s. 






Abney'a Treatise on Photography. Fcp. 8vo. 3s. Gd. 
Anderson's Strength of Materials. 3*. Gd. 
Armstrong's Organic Chemistry. 3s. Qd. 
Ball's Elements of Astronomy. 6*. 
Barry's Railway Appliances. 35. Gd. 
Bauerman's Systematic Mineralogy. Gs. 
Descriptive Mineralogy. 6*. 
Bloxani and Huntington's Metals. 5s. 
Glazebrook's Physical Optics. 65. 
Glazebrook and Shaw's Practical Physics. 6s. 
Gore's Art of Electro- Metallurgy. Gs. 

Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry. 3s. Gd. Notes and Solutions, 3*. Gd. 
Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism. 3*. Gd. 
Maxwell's Theory of Heat. 3s. Gd. 

Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic and Mensuration. 3*. Gd. Key, 3s. Gd. 
Miller's Inorganic Chemistry. 3s. 6d. 
Preece and Sivewright's Telegraphy. 5s. 
Rutley's Study of Rocks, a Text-Book of Petrology. 4s. Gd. 
Shelley's Workshop Appliances. 4s. Gd. 
Thome's Structural and Physiological Botany. 6*. 
Thorpe's Quantitative Chemical Analysis. 4s. Gd. 
Thorpe and Muir's Qualitative Analysis. 3*. 6d. 

Tilden's Chemical Philosophy. 3*. Gd. With Answers to Problems. 4s. Gd. 
Unwin's Elements of Machine Design. Gs. 
^Yatsou's Plane and Solid Geometry. 3*. Gd. 


Bloomfield's College and School Greek Testament. Fcp. 8vo. 5*. 
Bolland Si Lang's Politics of Aristotle. Post 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Collis's Chief Tenses of the Greek Irregular Verbs. 8vo. 1*. 

Pontes Graeci, Stepping- Stone to Greek Grammar. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 

Praxis Grseca, Etymology. 12mo. 2s. Gd. 

Greek Verse-Book, Praxis lambioa. 12mo. 4s. Gd. 
Parrar's Brief Greek Syntax and Accidence. 12mo. 4s. Gd. 

Greek Grammar Rules for Harrow School. 12mo. Is. Gd. 
Hewitt's Greek Examination- Papers. 12mo. Is. Gd. 

Isbister's Xenophon's Anabasis, Books I. to III. with Xotei. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 
Jerram's Gracce Reddenda. Crown 8vo. 1*. 8d. 


14 A Selection of Educational Works, 

Kennedy's Greek Grammar. 12mo. is. Gd. 

Liddell & Scott's English-Greek Lexicon. 4to. 36. ; Square 12mo. Is. Gd. 
Linwood's Sophocles, Greek Text, Latin Notes. 4th Edition. 8vo. 16*. 
Mahaffy's Classical Greek Literature. Crown 8vo. Poets, 7s. Gd. Prose Writers, 

7s. Gd. 

Morris's Greek Lessons. Square 18mo. Part I. 2s. Gd. ; Part II. Is. 
Parry's Elementary Greek Grammar. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 

Plato's Republic, Book I. Greek Text, English Notes by Hardy. Crown 8vo. 3*. 
Sheppard and Evans's Notes on Thucydides. Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Thucydides, Book IV. with Notes by Barton and Chavasse. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Valpy's Greek Delectus, improved by White. 12mo. 2*. Gd. Key, 25. 6d. 
White's Xenophon's Expedition of Cyrus, with English Notes. 12mo. 75. Gd. 
Wilkins's Manual of Greek Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 55. Key, 55. 

Exercises in Greek Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 45. Gd. Key, 25. 6d. 

New Greek Delectus. Crown Svo. 35. Gd. Key, 25. Gd. 

Progressive Greek Delectus. 12mo. 45. Key, 25. Gd. 

Progressive Greek Anthology. 12mo. 55. 

Scriptores Attici, Excerpts with English Notes. Crown 8vo. 75. Gd. 

Speeches from Thucydides translated. Post Svo. 65. 
Yonge's English-Greek Lexicon. 4to. 215. ; Square 12mo. 85. Gd. 


Bradley's Latin Prose Exercises. 12rno. 35. 6d. Key, 55. 

Continuous Lessons in Latin Prose. 12mo. 5s. Key, 55. Gd. 

Cornelius Nepos, improved by White. 12mo. 85. Gd. 

Eutropius, improved by White. 12mo. 25. Gd. 

Ovid's Metamorphoses, improved by White. 12mo. 4.?. Gd. 

Select Fables of Phaadrus, improved by White. 12mo. 25. Gd. 
Collis's Chief Tenses of Latin Irregular Verbs. Svo. 15. 

Pontes Latini, Stepping-Stone to Latin Grammar. 12mo. 35. Gd. 
Hewitt's Latin Examination-Papers. 12mo. 15. 6-7. 
Isbister's Caesar, Books I.-VII. 12mo. 45. ; or with Reading Lessons, 45. Gd. 

Cfesar's Commentaries, Books I.-V. 12mo. 35. Gd. 

First Book of Caesar's Gallic War. 12mo. 15. Gd. 
Jerram's Latine Reddenda. Crown Svo. 15. Gd. 

Kennedy's Child's Latin Primer, br First Latin Lessons. 12mo. 25. 

Child's Latin Accidence. 12mo. 15. 

Elementary Latin Grammar. 12mo. 35. Gd. 

Elementary Latin Reading Book, or Tirocinium Latinum. 12mo. 25. 

Latin Prose, Palaestra Stili Latini. l'2mo. 65. 

SubsidiaPrimaria, Exercise Books to the Public School Latin Primer. 

I. Accidence and Simple Construction, ?5. 6rf. II. Syntax, 35. Gd. 

Key to the Exercises in Subsidia Primaria, Parts I. and II. price 55. 

Subsidia Primaria, TIT. the Latin Compound Sentence. 12mo. If. 

Curriculum Stili Latini. 12mo. 45. Gd. Key, 7,5. Gd. 

Palaestra Latina, or Second Latin Reading Book. 12mo. 5*. 

London: LONGMANS, GREEN, ,fe CO. 

A Selection of Educational Works. 


Millington's Latin Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 3*. Gd. 

Selections from Latin Prose. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6<f . 

Moody's Eton Latin Grammar. 12mo. 2s. Gd. The Accidence separately, It. 
Morris's Elementa Latina. Fcp. 8vo. 1*. 6d. Key, 25. Gd. 
Parry's Origines Romanse, from Livy, with English Notes. Crown 8vo. 4s. 
The Public School Latin Primer. 12mo. 2s. Gd. 

Grammar, by Rev. Dr. Kennedy. Post 8vo. 7s. Gd. 
Prendergast's Mastery Series, Manual of Latin. 12mo. 2*. Gd. 
Rapier's Introduction to Composition of Latin Verse. 12mo. 3*. 6d. Key, 2*. Gd. 
Sheppard and Turner's Aids to Classical Study. 12mo. 5s. Key, 65. 
Valpy's Latin Delectus, improved by White. 12mo. 2*. Gd. Key, 3*. 6d. 
Virgil's Mneiti, translated into English Verse by Conington. Crown 8vo. 9*. 

Works, edited by Kennedy. Crown 8vo. 10*. Gd. 

translated into English Prose by Conington. Crown 8vo. 9*. 
Walford's Progressive Exercises in Latin Elegiac Verse. 12mo. 2*. Gd. Key, 5s. 
White and Riddle's Large Latin-English Dictionary. 1 vol. 4to. 21*. 
White's Concise Latin-Eng. Dictionary for University Students. Royal 8vo. 12*. 

Junior Students' Eng.-Lat. & Lat.-Eng. Dictionary. Square 12mo. 5*. 

+ , ( The Latin-English Dictionary, price 3*. 
iteiy | The English-Latin Dictionary, price 3*. 
Yonge's Latin Gradus. Post 8vo. 9.?. ; or with Appendix, 12*. 


^Esop (Fables) & Palfephatus (Myths). 

32mo. 1*. 

Euripides, Hecuba. 2*. 
Homer, Iliad, Book I. 1*. 

Odyssey, Book I. 1*. 
Lucian, Select Dialogues. 1*. 
Xenophon, Anabasis, Books I. III. IV. 

V. & VI. 1*. Gd. each ; Book II. 1*. ; 

Book VII. 2*. 

Xenophon, Book I. without Vocabu- 
lary. 3d. 

St. Matthew's and St. Luke's Gospels. 
2*. fid. each. 

St. Mark's and St. Jo .n's Gospels. 
1*. Gd. each. 

The Acts of the Apostles. 2s. Gd. 

St. Paul's Epistle to tue Komans. l.. 6d. 

The Four Gospels in Greek, with Greek-English Lexicon. Edited by John T. 
White, D.D. Oxon. Square 32mo. price 5*. 


Caesar. Gallic War, Books I. & II. V. 

& VI. 1*. each. Book I. without 

Vocabulary, 3d. 
Csesar, Gallic War, Books III. & IV. 

9d. each. 

Caesar, Gallic War, Book VII. It. Gd. 
Cicero, Cato Major (Old Age). 1*. 6d. 
Cicero, Laelius (Friendship). It. Gd. 
Kutropius, Roman Historv, Books I. 

& II. 1*. Books III. & IV. Is. 
Hnrace.Odes', Books I. II. & IV. 1*. each, 
Horace, Odes, Book ILL 1*. 6d. 
Horace, Epodes and Carmen Seculare. 

Nepos, Miltiades, Simon, Pausanias, 
Aristides. 9d. 

Ovid. Selections from Epistles and 
Fasti. 1*. 

Ovid, Select Myths from Metamor- 
phoses. 9d. 

Pheedrus, Select Easy Fables, 

Phaedrns, Fables, Books I. & II. 1*. 

Sallust, Bellum Catilinarium. 1*. 6d. 

Virgil, Georgics, Book IV. 1*. 

Virgil, ^Bneid, Books I. to VI. Is. each. 
Book I. without Vocabulary, 3d. 

Virgil, JEneid, Books VII. Vin. X. 
XL XII. U6d.each. 


16 A Selection of Educational Works, 


Albites's How to Speak French. Fcp. 8vo. 56. Gd. 

Instantaneous French Exercises. Fcp. 2s. Key, 2s. 
Cassal's French Genders. Crown 8vo. 3.$. Gd. 
Oassal & Karcher's Graduated French Translation Book. Part I. 3*. 6d. 

Part II. 5. Key to Part I. by Professor Cassal, price 5s. 
Contanseau's Practical French and English Dictionary. Post 8vo. 3s. Gd., 
Pocket French and English Dictionary. Square ISmo. Is. Gd. 

Premieres Lectures. 12mo. 2s. 6d. 

First Step in French. 12mo. 2s. Gd. Key, 3*. 
French Accidence. 12mo. 25. Gd. 

Grammar. 12mo. 4s. Key, 3s. 
Contanseau's Middle-Class French Course. Fcp. 8vo. : 

Accidence, 8d. 

Syntax, Sd. 

French Conversation-Book, Sd. 

First French Exercise-Book, 8d. 

Second French Exercise- Book, 8c 

French Translation-Book, 8d. 
Easy Ftench Delectus, 8d. 
First French Reader, 8d. 
Second French Reader, 8d. 
French and English Dialogues, 8d. 

Contauseau's Guide to French Translation. 12mo. 3s. Gd. Key, 3s. Gd. 

Prosateurs et Poeies Fran9ais. 12mo. 5s. 
Precis de la Litterature Fraucaise. 12mo. 3*. Gd. 

Abrege de 1'Histoire de France. 12mo. '2s. Gd. 

Feval's Chouans et Bleus, with Notes by C. Sankey, M.A. Fcp. 8vo. 2*. Gd. 

Jerram's Sentences for Translation into French. Cr. 8vo. 1*. Key, 2*. Gd. 

Prendergast's Mastery Series, French. 12mo. 2s. Gd. 

Souveitre's Philosophe sous les Toits, by Stievenard. Square 18mo. Is. 6d. 

Stepping-Stone to French Pronunciation. 18ino. Is. 

Stievenard's Lectures FranQaises rrom Modern Authors. 12mo. 4s. Gd . 

Rules and Exercises on the French Language. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 
Tarver's Eton French Grammar. 12mo. 6s. Gd. 


Blackley's Practical German and English Dictionary. Post 8vo. 3s. Gd. 
Buchheini's German Poetry, for Eepetition. 18mo. 1*. Gd. 
Collis's Card of German Irregular Verbs. 8vo. 2s. 
Fischer-Fischart's Elementary German Grammar. Fcp. 8vo. 2*-. Gd. 
Just's German Grammar. 12mo. Is. Gd. 

German Reading Book. 12mo. 3j>. Gd. 

Longman's Pocket German and English Dictionary. Square 18mo. 2s. 6d. 
Naftel's Elementary German Course for Public Schools. Fcp. 8vo. 

German Accidence. 9d. 

German Syntax. 9d. 

First German Exercise-Book. Sd. 

German Proee Composition Book. 9d. 
First German Reader. 9d. 
Second German Reader. 9d. 

Second German Exercise-Book. 9d. 
Prendergast's Mastery Series, German. 12mo. 2*. 6d. 
Quick's Essentials of German. Crown 8vo. 3s. Gd. 
Selss's School Edition of Goethe's Faust. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Outline of German Literature. Crown 8vo. 4*. Gd. 
Wirth's German Chit-Chat. Cro\vn 8vo. 2s. Gd. 


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