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THROUGH NEW GUINEA AND 
THE GANNIBAL GOUNTRIES 



Through New Guinea 
and the Cannibal Countries 
By H. Cayley-'^ebster + •!■ 



WITH iuA:srRA'no,\>^ and map 




LONDON : T. FISHER UNWIN 
PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 1898 



{All rights refiervrd .) 







ro 
The Hosbi.e, WALTER ROTHSCII/LP. 



PREFACE. 



Within the pa^es of the following book I have endea- 
voured to describe, from my own personal obsei*vations, 
the manners and customs of inhabitants of the various 
countries I visited and passed through, who are almost 
entirely unknown to the European. In the interior of 
German New Guinea I traversed a greater distance on foot 
than any white man has done before or since, and on that 
expedition I discovered the non-existence of a range of 
mountains previously marked on the chart. 

In a paper read before the lioyal Geographical Society 
I explained some of the great difficulties and dangers one 
has to overcome and pass through before such material 
work can be accomplished. But in this book I have 
written a fuller account of that journey, as well as that 
of a later cruise extending over a period of three years. 

The Appendix has been very kindly added by my 
friends, the Honourable Walter Rothschild, Dr. Hartert, 
and Dr. Jordan, of Tring, whom I have also to thank 
for so much other assistance rendered to me during 
my travels. 

The majority of illustrations are from photographs 

taken by myself, but for the few which were not I am 

indebted to Richard Parkinson, of Ralum, and other 

gentlemen with whom I met, and who kindly presented 

vii ' ♦ 



viii PREFACE, 

them at a time when I was either without plates, or those 
I had were useless owing to the severity of the climate. 

It now only remains to be said that if my patient 
reader will bear with me to the end, I shall indeed be 
grateful, and shall consider that my shortcomings have 
been indulgently overlooked, and that my task has been 
thoroughly successful. For the rest, allow me to thank 
all those who so kindly assisted me daring my expeditions, 
but whose names I have not been able to individually 
mention here, and I hope the day may come when I shall 
be permitted to return, hi some way, the many kindnesses 
I received at the hands of those whom it was my good 
fortune to meet during my travels in the Eastern 
Hemisphere. 

OsTEND, August 11, 1898. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAOP. 
THK FIRST EXPEDITION — TITE START — ARRIVAL AT SINGAPORE- THE 

PALACE OF H.H. SULTAN OF JOHORE — THE TOWN OF JOHORE . 1 

CHAPTER TI. 

WEDDING OF THE CROWN PRINCE, THE PRESENT REIONING SULTAN 7 

CHAPTER III. 

ON BOARD THE NORTH GERMAN LLOYD STEAMER *' LUBECK " — 
JAVANESE LABOUR COOLIES- GAMBLINCJ ON BOARD - ARRIVAL 
IN NEW GUINEA — HEAD-QUARTERS OF THE ASTROLABE BAY 
COMPANY — SIMBANG MISSION STATION — A NATIVK VILLAGE — 
NATIVES — A JOURNEY UP THE SADDLEBER(» .... 19 

CHAPTER IV. 

DEATH OF AN OFFICIAL — NATIVES CARRY HIS- EXCELLENCY'S PIANO 

— THE START FOR THE INTERIOR 33 

CHAPTER V. 

WE BID GOODBYE TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR — ASTONISHED 
NATIVES — ANGRY NATIVES — WE SHOOT SOME PARADISE BIRDS — 
ONE OF OUR MEN CATCHES A STRANGE MAMMAL —AM ATTACKED 
WITH RHEUMATIC FEVER 86 

ix 



X CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 



PAOE 



WE FELL A TREE TO CROSS THE RH'ER — ARE MET BY A FEW 
NATn'ES : THEY SPEAK THE BOKAJIM DULECT — SOURCE OF 
THE Rn'ER MINJEM — A LABORIOUS ASCENT — ARE OBLIGED TO 
CUT OUR WAY — THE SUMMIT — NO BISMARCK MOUNTAINS — 
CANNOT FIND NATIVES — BAD WATER — WE START ON THE 
RETURN JOURNEY 48 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE DESCENT — ONE MAN DIES— PHOTOORAPH OF THE SOURCE OF 
THE RIVER — A (H)OD DAY's MARCH — WE SEND TO DUMBU FOR 
FOOD — HARDLY ANY OBTAINABLE — HOSTILE NATIVES — THE 
LOVE OF RED PAINT — DUMBU VILLAGE -A NARROW ESCAPE 
WE SHOOT A WILD BOAR — DISSATISFIED NATIVES — ATTACKED 
BY NATIVES — WE KILL ONE MAN IN THE ACT OF DRAWING 
HIS BOW — ARRIVE BACK ON THE C(»AST — SEVERE ATTACK 
OF FEVER — RETURN TO FREDERICUWILHELMSHAFEN — WITNESS 
A CHRISTENING — A NATIVE DANCE — NATIVE FEAST — TASTY 
MORSELS — WE BID FAREWELL 49 

CHAPTER VIII. 

NEW BRITAIN — THE IMPERIAL JUDGE TAKEN FOR A PUBLICAN — 
HERBERTSOH — RALUM — THE PLANT.\TIONS OF MRS. KOLBE — 
CANNIBALISM — THRILLING ESCAPE — NATIVE DANCE — ARRFV^AL 
OF THE MAN-OF-WAR — DESTRUCTION OF NATIVE VILLAGES — A 
CLEVER NATIVE — A BULLET-PROOF OINTMENT — MORE DEVICES 
FOR RAISING THE WIND — NATIVE MARKET . . . .68 

CHAPTER IX. 

BISHOP COUPE — ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSION — FAREWELL TO NEW 
BRITAIN — AN ILL-FATED EXPEDITION — ON THE WAY TO THE 
SOLOMON ISLANDS — ARRIVE AT RUBIANA — SUICIDE OF A NATIVE 
GIRL — MURDER OF A TRADER — THE TRADERS — A VISIT FROM 
INGOVA, THE GREATEST CHIEF IN NEW GEORGIA — A TRIP UP 
THE RUBIANA LAGOON — MEET WITH UNFRIENDLY NATIVES — 
PHOTOGRAPHY UNDER DIFFICULTIES 97 

CHAPTER X. 

THE FATE OF THE "ESPERANZA" — PREPARING FOR A DEATH FEAST 
— SOLOMON ISLAND WAR CANOES — A HOUSE OF SKULLS — WE 
VISIT THE ISLAND OF Y8ABEL — HOSPITABLE NATIVES — NATIVES 
WHO BUILD THEIR HOUSES ON TREE-TOPS . . . .119 



CONTENTS. xi 

CHAPTER XI. 

PAGE 
DISCOVERY OF THK SOLOMON ISLANDS — NAXrVE TYPES — MURDERS — 

MANY ENGLISHMEN KILLED 134 

CHAPTER XII. 

VOYAGE TO SHORTLAND — I BREED THE ORNITHOPTERA — NARROW 

ESCAPE FROM THE NATIVES — VOYAGE TO SYDNEY — HOME . 141 



PART II. 
CHAPTER I. 

ARRIVAL IN JAVA — BATAVIA — THK VICTORY OF THE DUTCH AT 
WATERLOO — BEAUTIFUL BUITENZORG — THE BOTANICAL GAR- 
DENS — PALACE OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL — A TEA ESTATE — 
A ZO()LO(JICAL COLLECTION — MY VISIT TO A HEALTH RESORT 
— A NATrV'E THEATRE 144 

CHAPTER II. 

NATIVES ARE UNWILLIN<i TO ACCOMPANY MK - WK TAKE ON BOARD 
DYNAMITE — JAVA A TROPICAL (lAKDKN — THK BEAUTIFUL WOMEN 
OF BALI — RUINS OF HINDOO TKMPLKS — LOMBOK — PALACE OF 
THE LATE SULTAN — THE LOMBOK WAR — DKFKAT OF THE 
DUTCH — THE SUTTEE: SELF-SACRIFICING WOMEN — MACASSAR 
— EXCITABLE NATIVES — STORY OF TWO MEN WITH ONE 
WIFE 156 

CHAPTER III. 

I ARRIVE AT AMBOYNA — COSTUMES OF THE NATIVES — GREAT 
DESTRUCTION BY EARTHQUAKE — THE RESIDENCY - I ENGAGE 
SOME HUNTERS — NATIVE FONDNESS FOR L-\W — BANDA — THE 
GARDEN OF MOLUCCAS — NUTME(J PLANTATIONS — AN ANCIENT 
PORTUGUESE FORT — ARRIVAL IN NEW GUINEA — MURDER OF A . 
MISSIONARY — I DEPART FOR THE KEI ISLANDS . . . 167 

CHAPTER IV. 

ARRIVE AT TOEAL, KEI ISLANDS — I OCCUPY THE PRISON — INTERVIEW 
THE RESIDENT — LAZY NATIVES — I BREED QUANTITIES OF THE 
ORNITHOPTERA PEGASUS — AN ABUNDANCE OF USH . . . 176 



xii COXTIiXTS. 



CHAPTER V. 



PAOE 



DEPART FOR ARU — ARRIVAL AT DOBBO- CHKAP STORKS- I SHOOT 
SOME DKER — I KXGAGK SOME HUNTERS- A SCURVY TRICK — 
I MOVE ON TO MAYKROR — WE RUN ON TO A REEF — THE 
MURDER OF A CHINESE TRADER — MY HUNTERS DESERT ME — 
THE CHIEF STEALS MY CKIARS — I PURCHASE A LIVE PARADISE 
BIRD 195 

CHAPTER VI. 

RETURN TO DOBBO — A (JAY SEASON — THE ARRIVAL OF THE 
STEAMER — COCK FIGHTING — A NATIVE BURIAL GROUND 
NATn'E LEGENDS — A DEAD CHIEF — A LOATHSOME CEREMONY 
— MY STEWARD MUTINIES — ARRIVAL AT AIDOEMA — I VISIT 
A WOMAN CHIEF — TRITON BAY — I DISCOVER THE ANCIENT 
REMAINS OF FORMER ENGLISH HABITATIONS — TERRIBLE MAN 
TRAPS — DEPART FOR ETNA BAY 205 

CHAPTER VII. 

A NATIVE PILOT — HE DESERTS ME— CONTRARY WINDS AND CURRENTS 
— TRAVEL THREE HUNDRED MILES FOR NOTUINi* — ARRIVE IN 
KYAMAKA BAY — ETNA BAY — ARRIVAL OF NATIVES — POINTED 
TEETH — TERRIBLE FIGHT WITH NATIVES — THREE OF MY MEN 
MURDERED — CONTINUOUS FIGHTIN(4 — I CAPTURE THE CHIEF — 
LEAVE ETNA BAY — RETURN TO TOEAL— DUTCH GOVERNMENT 
— THE DRY SEASON — SCARCITY OF LIVING CREATURES — THE 

QUEEN OF Holland's birthday — arrival of mail steamer 

— I depart for port DARWIN 216 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE HARBOUR AT PORT DARWIN — THE CABLE COMPANY'S HEAD- 
QUARTERS — THE TERMINUS OF THE TRANS - CONTINENTAL 
RAILWAY — CHINATOWN — I TAKE UP MY QUARTERS AT THE 
RESIDENCY — A CORROBORBE — .\N ABORIGINAL'S CAMP — PORT 
DARWIN AS AN IMPORTANT SEAPORT — ARRIVAL AT THURSDAY 
ISLAND — THE PEARL FISHERY — NUMBERS OF JAPANESE — THE 
ARRIVAL OF THE YACHT — I DEPART FOR NEW GUINEA — YULE 
ISLAND — OPPOSITION MISSIONS — PORT MORESBY — I WATCH A 
WOMAN BEIN(i TATOOED- THE *' MERRIE ENGLAND" — VOYAGE 
TO SAMARAI — MISSION STATION AT KWATO— THE ONLY STONE 
CHURCH IN NEW GUINEA — THE NATIVES — I LOSE MY FAVOURITE 
DOG — DEPARTURE FOR NEW BRITAIN 240 



CONTENTS. xiii 



CHAPTER IX. 



CHAPTER X. 



PAGE 



THE CHINA STRAITS— THE TROBRIAND ISLANDS — BEAUTIFUL NATIVE 
CARVINGS — EBONY — A NATIVE PEARL FISHERY — THE NATIVES 
OFFER ME TOMAHAWKS FOR SALE — THE DISCOVERY OF NEW 
IRELAND- ST. GEORGE*S CHANNEL — I ARRIVE IN BLANCHE BAY 
— I (JIVE A CONJURING ENTERTAINMENT — THE DE^^L-DEVIL — 
DUKE OF YORK ISLANDS — MIOKO— THE GRAVES OF MURDERED 
EUROPEANS — NATIVE FESTIVITIES — THE DUK - DUK — I AM 
POISONED BY A FISH — A NARROW ESCAPE FROM DEATH — I 
AM LAID UP WITH FEVER — METHOD OF RECRUITING LABOUR - 
WOMEN MANUFACTURIN(» NAVIVE MONEY — LOCAL BUTTERFLIES 
— ABUNDANCE OF FISH — THE MIOKO TREE AS A LANDMARK . 258 



A BAD GALE — I AM OBLIGED TO RETURN TO MiOKO — A FRESH START 
— NEW IRELAND NATIVES — STEFFAN STRAITS — NATIVES BRIN(i 
CANOE LOADS OF PINEAPPLES — I MEET A FRENCH TRADER IN 
AN OPEN BOAT — I AM PRESENT AT A NATIVE DANCE WHICH 
TOOK TEN YEARS TO PREPARE -WE ARRIVE AT KUNG — A THIEF 
— THE DESTRUCTION OF A VILLAGE- STRAN(JE NATIVE HEAD- 
DRESS — THE NATIVES COLLECT BEETLES CURIOUS NATIVE 
IDEAS — PALMISTRY — ONE OF MY SAILORS RUNS AWAY — 
PROBABLY EATEN BY NATIVES — MEN AND WOMEN QUITE NAKED 
— I START FOR THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS .... 279 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS — EXCITEMENT OF THE NATIVES — ST. 
GABRIEL ISLAND — I RECEIVE A VISIT FROM THE CHIEF — 
PECULIAR STYLE OF DRESSINCi THE HAIR — NATIVE COSTUME — 
A VISIT FROM A WOMAN — THE NATIVES ARE TOO DANGEROUS 
TO PERMIT OF OUR LANDING —THE MURDERERS OF A WHITE 
M.\N — THE CHIEF STEALS MY HAMMER — I DISCOVER AN 
UNCHARTED PATCH OF ROCK — I DEPART FOR ADMIRALTY 
ISLANDS 801 

CHAPTER XII. 

SMART NATrVES -FRIENDLY SALUTATIONS — EXTRAORDINARY 3IEMORY 
— ARRANT THIEVES— NO WOMEN — THE NATIVES CONTEMPLATE 
KILLING ME — SPEAR WOUNDS ON NATIVES -- COWARDICE — MY 
OWN MEN ARE VERY FRIGHTENED — VERY RICH ISLANDS - 
NATIVE VOCABULARY 814 



t; 

xiv COXTEXrS. 

i, CHAPTER XIII. 



\ 



I 



■ ( 
I 



'I 

I. 



J I 
f 









,« 



PAOB 
LEAVE THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS -WE ARE WRECKED ON A 

REEF OFF NEW IRELAND — RETURN TO NEW BRITAIN— CHINESE 

CARPENTERS REPAIR THE YACHT — THE HOT SPRINGS IN BLANCHE 

BAY — THE BOILING RIVER — THE BEEHIVES — EXPERT FEMALE 

DIVERS— I LEAVE FOR THE SOLOMON ISLANDS — CALL AT SIR 

CHARLES HARDY ISLANDS — I DISCOVER THE MURDER OF AN 

ENGLISHMAN — I PHOTOGRAPH THE ASSASSINS — STORY OF A 

WHITE MAN SWEI»T AWAY IN A BOAT AND KILLED AND EATEN 

BY NATIVES — AN ACTIVE VOLCANO — BOUGANVILLE — DANGEROUS 

NATIVES — THE CANNIBAL WHO WANTS A SOVEREIGN — H.M.S. 

"rapid" PUTS ME IN QUARANTINE — IVORY NUTS — I START FOR 

AUSTRALIA — ANOTHER ACCIDENT — RETURN TO THE SOLOMONS 

— H.M.S. *' wallaroo" — THE YACHT CONDEMNED — I LEAVE FOR 

AUSTRALIA IN THE MAN-OF-WAR 820 



CHAPTER XIV. 



.| STRANGE NATIVE CUSTOMS — METHOD OF COOKING FOOD — SALT 

■} WATER SOLD FOR THE INTERIOR — NATIVE I-ISH - HOOKS - 

? DISEASE — NATIVES WITH MANY WIVES — YOUNG GIRLS WITH 

LARGE FAMILIES — TREACHEROUS PEOPLE — REUGION — TOTAL 
EXTINCTION OF THE RACK — FINIS 852 



APPENDICES 859 

INDEX 888 



t ( 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ISTANA 

I8TAXA ZAHKAU .... 
TOWN OF JOHORK BAKHA 
THK ROYAL BATH 
BAMBOO ARl'H, .lOHORE . 
A (JKOL'P AT THK ROYAL MARRLV(iK 
A I'KKF IN THK PALACK (iROUNDS 
FRKDKRKHWILHKLMSHAFKN . 
CO.VSTAL VILLA(iK, NKW Ol'INKA . 
A TOBACCO PLANTATION. NKW (ICINKA 
NKW OUINKA NATIVKS . 
NKW <iriNKA WOMKN . 
LANI>IN(i SOL'TH-KAST NKW (H'lNKA 
VILLAOK, NKW OUIXKA 
AN UNFRIKNDLY VILLAOK 
A (IROUP OF NATIVKS . 
SOURCK OF THK RIVKR MINJKM 
DUMBU VILLAGK .... 
OURSKLVKS AT DUMBU 
MAN .\ND WOMAN 

THK visitors' HOUSK, NKW (tUINKA VILLA(J 
A WKALTHY CHIEF FROM THK INTKRIOR WITH UPP 
KACH HALF SKWN UP INTO HIS NOSTRILS AS 
RALUM, NKW BRITAIN . 
TYPK OF NKW BRITAIN NATIVK 
TYPK OF NKW BRITAIN NATIVK 
THK VOLCANO, BLANCHE BAY 
BLANCHK B.VY, NKW BRITAIN 
NATH'E CHIEF, NEW BRITAIN 
THE CRATER .... 



R LI 
ORNJ 



P SLIT 
KNT 



\M 



AND 
VTION 



PA(iK 

2 
3 
T) 
9 
11 
18 
17 
21 
24 
25 
28 
29 
31 
37 
38 
44 
47 

r,i 

63 

ar, 

(57 
68 
69 
71 
73 
76 



XVI 



IJST OF fLLrSTRATIOXS. 



N.VTH'K 3f.VRKF.T. RALUM 

NATHE MODK OF CARRYINCt .... 

A NKW BRITAIN CHIKF . : . . . 

RICH CHIEF IN THE INTERIOR WITH His WIVES AND C 
A NATIVE DANCE, NEW BRITAIN .... 
GATHERING OF NEW BRITAIN NATIVE^ . 
BISHOP <'OUFK AND HIS CHILDREN — THE BOYS 
BISHOP COUPES CHILDREN — THE GIRLS 

SISTERS OF THE MISSION 

X.\TIVE DANCE ON MRS. PARKINSON'S BIRTHDAY . 
IN(ti)« A ........ 

VIEW IN THE RUBIANA LA(tOON .... 

PAN<JA PANGA VILLAGE IN Rl'BIANA LAGOON 

NATIVE GIRLS OF LILLIO 

SOLOMON ISLAND WAR CANOK .... 

RUBIANA NATIVE SHOWING DISTENDED EARS 

A TREE HOUSE, YSABEL ISLAND .... 

RUBIANA LA(M)ON NATIVE WITH DISTENDED EARS 

VIEW FROM THE HEKJHTS OF PO-PO. YSABEL ISLAND 

PO-PO VILLAGE, YSABEL ISLAND .... 

MYSELF WITH MY NATIVE HUNTERS 

THE CONCORDIA MILITARY CLUB, BATAVIA 

KIN<rs PLAIN, BATAVIA 

GOVERNOR-CiENEKAL's PALACE, BUITENZOHG 

THE V<>LCANO. BUITENZOKG .... 

A BANTlN(i WILD COW AND CALF OF JAVA CROSSING 

THE .lUNiJLK 

AMBOYNA ........ 

M-UN STREET OF AMBOYNA 

THE OKNITHOITERA BREEDING .... 

A NATIVE FORiJE, KEI ISLANDS .... 

ETNA BAY, THE SCENE OF OUR FIGHT 

THE SCENE OF THE MURDERS OF ,TOHNSTON AND S.\M 

THE HOME OF MY WOULD-BE MURDERERS 

A MALAY DANCE ....... 

A DANi E IN WHICH NONE BUT THOSE OF THE HIGHER 

PERMITTED TO TAKE PART .... 

THE NATIVES BRING ME VEGETABLES, ETC., T(» BUY 
PORT MORESBY ....... 

A NATIVE (iIRL ....... 

A VILLACiE BELLE ...... 

THREE SISTERS ....... 

A <tRoUP OF NATIVES ...... 





PAGE 




77 




79 




83 


CHILDREN . 


85 




89 




91 




96 




99 




. 103 




. 105 




. 109 




111 




. 115 




. 117 




121 




123 




. 1*26 




. 127 




. 129 




. 131 




. 137 




146 




. 147 




. 149 




. 151 


\ RIVER IN 






154 




168 




171 




179 




183 




222 




226 




229 




235 


CASTE ARE 






287 




245 




246 




247 




248 




'249 




. 251 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



xvn 



KWATO MISSION HOUSK 

NATIVKS ........ 

A TYPICAL NKW GUINEA RKSIDKNCK 

TYPK OF NATIVE 

A NATIVE GIRL 

A CONJURING ENTERTAINMENT .... 

THE GRAVEYARD AT MIOKO 

A GROUP OF THE DUK DUK .... 

THE DUK DUK 

NATIVE DANCE 

A NATIVE MARKET 

A NEW IRELAND GIRL ; 

N.\TIVE GIRL 

A TRIBAL FIGHT, NEW HANOVER .... 
A VILLACiE ON THE ISLAND OF KUNG, NKW HANOVER 
NEW HANOVER NATIVES ON BOARD . : 

TWO NEW HANOVER MEN WITH THKIU WIVES 

A FEMALE DANCE 

KANAU, A CHIEF OF ST. (iABRIEL 

ADMIRALTY ISLANDERS 

A TYPICAL VILLAGE IN THE INTERIOR OF NEW BRITAIN 

A NEW BRITAIN GIANT 6 FEET J) INCHES IN HEIGHT 

THE HOT SPRIN(J, BLANCHE BAY .... 

THE TWO CHIEF'S AT NO ROUP .... 

NISSAM, A TRADINCi STATION .... 

NATIVES OF NISSAM WHERE OLIVER BEAVIS WAS MURDERED 

GROUP OF WOMEN, SIR CHARLES HARDY ISLAND . 

MEN AND WOMEN, SIR CHARLES HARDY ISLAND 

A NATIVE OF BUKA, SOLOMON ISLAND . 

.ATTACKED 



PAOK 

2.14 

2r>tt 

260 
261 
263 
265 
268 
269 
271 
275 
280 
281 
285 
287 
291 
295 
299 

'm\ 

807 
«23 
3-25 
829 
831 
335 
337 
341 
843 

846 

•I ."• " 



THROUGH NEW (irTNEA. 



PART I. 

CHAITKIC I. 
THK FiKST KxrHDiriox Tin: staim" vkhival at sin(;a- 

POHK — TIIK PALACK OF H.H. Sl'I/IAN ol' .loHOHK — 
THH TOWN OF .lolIOIJF. 

On Au<,aist 4, ls<):^. 1 hjt London on the \\ S: (). stcjuncr 
BaJJarnt, JU-conipMnicd 1>\ (';i|>t;iin Cotton, Ji friend wlio 
WHS witli nic tln-ou«,diout my first cxiu'dition, to New 
(riiincji, trjinslii|)|)in<^' at ('olond)o into the lioliilhi, 
tmotluT W sk (). stcjinier, which took us as far as 
Sinijjiipore. Th(T(* we found wc should he ohli^^cd to 
wait seven weeks hefore ])rocee(hn^^ to our destination, 
as the mail service hetween New Guinea and Sin^^apore 
was onlv hi-monthlv. We therefore made u]) our minds 
to avail ourselves of the hospitality held out hy liis 
Hi<jjlniess the Sultan of Johore, whom I had previously 
met and paid a visit to in the Isle of Wi^dit. So after 
a few days spent in Sin^^apore we went on to the Istana, 
the Sultan's beautiful residence in Johore. On our 
arrival W'o wen^ most kindlv received hv the Crown I'rince 
and tlie Prime Minister, the Dato Metri. 



2 THROVGH NEW Gi'IXEA. 

The state of Johore, wliicli la situated at the extreme 
Boutli end r)f the Malay Peninsula, in indei>en(lent, and is 
t^oveniod by tlie Sultan, a faithful ally to Great Britain, 
ami whi). until his ileath, which lias occurred since my 
visit there, was a well-known fifjure in English and 
continental society. 

Tlie majority of his officials who administrate his little 




kinttdom are Uritish, and althouKl' ''^ i** under a treaty to 
accept a reprcstuitative of our (iovernnicnt at his court, 
it is most unlikely that such an occurrence will ever t^ke 
place so louf,' as affairs are carried out as they ai'e to-day. 
The palace, or Istana as it is called, is built in the 
usual style of eastern palaces, containing a great number 
of reception rooms, the finest perhaps being the dining, 
drawing, and ball rooms, each about eighty feet in length. 



THE PALACE AT J OH ORE. 3 

One entire wing of the palace '\v, set apart lor baclielors, 
the whole being luoHt luxuiioiisly fiinuslied throughout, 
although perhaps to our European tastes a little too 
gorgeously. The grounds are very extensi\c and ex- 
quisitely laid out, and dotted alx)ut here and there 
aniongfit rare palms of the east, may be seen picturesque 




and beautifully built edifices, the residences of court 
officials. About a hundred and fifty yards distant from 
the palace is another edifice lately erccti'd for the Tiinku 
Makota, Crown Prince and his hridc. i'or the son of the 
Sultan was about to be married. 

A channing little bungalow on the left, and higher 
up a slope, catches the eye fui' its picturcsqueness, 
and one does not need to he tuld tliat it is the 



4 THROl'GII XEW CriXEA, 

alxxle of an Ent^lishnian. Here resides the Marine 
Superintendent, Mr. Ker. Farther down the avenue 
throuf^h the trees can be seen the Istana Zahrah ; Hke 
the pahice itself it is ^niardod by the Sultan's sentries. 
As a huildin*^ it is even larjjjer than the Istana proper, 
and is inhabited by the feminine ix)rtion of the royal 
family. Yet another buildinj^ still further on, called the 
Bali Besar, was especially built for the solemnisation of 
the marria^^e ceremony of the Crown Prince. It is built 
in the sha])e of a cross, is floored with white marble, and 
has massive stone pillars from end to end within ; and in 
the centre of the buil(lin<( is erected a raised dais on 
which the bnde<^n'oom has to under»j:o the nuptial cere- 
mony. The whole interior was dra]>ed with yellow silk 
han<^nn^'s, and when at ni^dit the structure was lighted 
by means (»f candles set in ma^^mificent cut-glass 
chandeliers, it imi)arted a very gorgeous and dazzling 
effect. 

The roval stables contained some thirty horses, and 
all sorts and conditions of carnages, from the gilded state 
conveyance, with its orange satin upholstery, to the 
lowly 'rickshaw — tlie whole presided over by an English- 
man. 

The town of Johore lies at the foot of the palace 
grounds, containing about nine thousand inhabitants, of 
whom the ubiquitous Chinese pred(miinate. The principal 
landing place is named the Edinburgh Pier, and was built 
in connnemoration of the visit of his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Edinburgh to Johore some years ago. The town 
contains a gaol, hospital, club, and many other minor 
buildings of less importance. Overlooking the town can 
be seen the Fort, the quarters of the Johore forces. 




CHAPTER II. 

WEDDING OF THE CROWN PRINCE, THE PRESENT REIGNING 

SULTAN. 

I WAS fortunate enough to be here at the time when the 
Crown Prince who, since liis father's death, has been 
crowned Sultan, was married to his cousin. The ceremony, 
whicli of course, being Kastern, was of a most gorgeous 
nature, took about tliree weeks to accompHsli. The 
preUminary ceremony, performed on the '21st of September, 
was principally noteworthy for the absence of the bride. 
Various passages from the Koran were read oyer by the 
high priest to the bridegroom, who stood upon the dais 
in the Bali Besar, surrounded by an enormous retinue 
and numerous guests. 

A few minutes sufiiced for this portion of the proceed- 
ings, and after prostrating himself and a great deal of 
handshaking he returned to the Istana, where he 
remained in his own apartments guarded by sixteen 
women, and from then, until the following Thursday, 
according to the Mahometan rite, he was not allowed 
outside. On that day a second and far more imposing 
ceremony took place, the Crown Prince appearing in 
most gorgeous apparel of cloth of gold — with the palms 
of his hands, his nails, and his feet, which were bare, 
dyed a brilHant red, according to the Malay custom. A 
procession was fonned in the following order : — 

1. The Royal Ensign. 



S TflROl'GH XliW CCIXEA. 

2. The niilitary bniss hand of the Johore forces. 
:i The Cahiilis (hiard. 

4. The Ciiiides, consistin^jf of four Princes in a state 
coac'li. 

5. A state coacli containin;^ two Royal Kris Panjang 
Bearers. The Hearer of the State Sword, and the Bearer 
of the Koval Betel ]^ox. 

« 

<). The hride^^Tooni in a t^ilded state carria<^e drawn 
hv a beautiful team of horses, and accompanied by two 
princes as groomsmen. 

7. Twelve of the Hoval l^odvtruard who marched at 
equal distances apart on either side of the state carriage. 

S. Four roval carria<(es containin<' the sixteen woni3ii 
who had been in attendance during the past week, each 
carryinjj: the roval candlestick. 

U. I'he Koval Malav Militarv (luard. 

* • « ' 

10. Connnandant of the Johore Forces. 

11. Koyal cai'iiages and guests. 

TIk.' wholes rorthjc ])i'oceeded at a foot's pace through 
the principal streets of the town, and eventually readied 
the Tstana Zahrah. where the bridegroom held a reception. 

On the followin*^' Tui'sday evening the bride made her 
hrst ap[)earance to the pubh'c, accompanied by the 
brid(*groom ; for on this occasion they were to partake of 
the pubHc bath, a custom never omitted, and the most 
essential ])art of a ]\lalay lioyal wedding. This bath 
]'es(nnl)Ies somewhat a monument, the sunnnit of which is 
reached by short, steep steps, upon which the Koyal retinue 
of women were seated. At the top, and sunnounted by a 
gilded dome, a fountain is in such a way manipulated 
as to throw water over the whole structure from top to 
bottom, consequently, when the Prince and his bride 
arrived beneath the dome, water whi(.'h had been laid on 
from a reservoir, some two niih's distant, was suddenly 
started and the whole assembly drenched to the skin. 



THE ROYAL BATH. 9 

The beauty of tliis function, wliicli took place at night, 
was greatly enhanced by tlie fact that the whole scene 
was lit up by thousands of fairy lights and Japanese 
lanterns in all colours. After a gorgeous display of 
fireworks and the Sultan's national anthem per- 
fonned by the bands in attendance, the lioyal couple 
descended, and the nuptials were complete, and the 
Crown Prince and his l)ride were considered man and 
wife. 



if^ 






'a.'w ^ 




*iiT 









TilK KOYAL BATH. 



On the following week another royal wedding took ])lace, 
the bridegroom on this occasion being " Unku Salaman," 
a nephew of the Sultan. Although not so much gorgeous 
dis])lav was exhibited, this ceremony was exceedinfrlv 
interesting. The bridegroom was an hour and three 
quarters late, and consetjuently we were all ke[)t 
waiting. On his arrival he told us his bri<le's brother, 
whose consent as her gunnlian was indispensable, was 
missing, and he was eventually discovered in the middle 



lo THROUGH XEW GlIXEA, 

of a ^aiiie of billiards in a house some half a mile away. 
I aftorwanls learned from another member of the Royal 
family, that the real reason of the bridegroom's absence 
was accomited for from the fact that he had fallen asleep 
on the verandah of his own house. 

The long delay was in a way a greater punishment to 
me. inasnnich as I was obliged to sit in Eastern fa«hion 
until my legs became very numbed and painful. 

When he did, however, arrive, he was accompanied by 
the judge of his district, sword-bearers, and eight female 
attendants, who chanted Malay melodies throughout the 
whole proceedings. 

This wedding niatta'ially diflfered from the more 
imposing ceremony of the Crown Prince, inasmuch as it 
was completed in three days. 

After the High Priest had pronounced his Benediction, 
the bridegroom was Ic'd behind a screen at the end of the 
room, and tliere, before twenty girls, whom I perceived 
squatting on the floor, changed his dress, to one literally 
ablaze with gold and diamonds, from the wonderful 
ornament on his head to the bejewelled slippers on his 
feet. After having n^ceived our individual congratula- 
tions, he repaired to the Istana Zahrah, where we followed 
him and found all the doors barred and zealously guarded 
by the ladies of the harem, as according to Malay custom 
a tax is levied before the bridegroom can gain admission 
to his bride. We were all, therefore, invited to help pay 
the tax, and many were the dollars, gold pieces, and notes 
thrown over the door to tluj eager sirens within. By 
this means door after door was opened to us ; one door 
only remained, but alas ! the funds of the whole company 
had l)ecome entirely exhausted, the only remaining coin 
that could be found l)eing a bad dollar, which had been 
palmed oif on me by a wily Chinaman the day before ; 
however, it answered well enough, and the remaining door 



I 

I 



M Y SER VA NTS TA S TE FOR CHA MP A ONE. 1 5 

was passed, but we found that a more exciting part of the 
performance was yet to come. 

At the top of the stairs stood the bride, but between 
her and the attacking male party were at least a hundred 
ladies. Tiirough these we had to force our way, and 
eventually, very hot and exhausted, we reached the bride 
and handed her over to the l)ridegro()m, who was placed 
upon a magnificently gilded couch to again receive the 
congratulations of his guests. After being presented with 
a marriage favour I retired, accompanied by the Crown 
Prince, and adjourned to the Johore Club, where the rest 
of the evening was passed. 

One evening, when dining alone with the admiral of 
the Sultan's Heet, otherwise the Marine Superintendent, 
in the palace, I was surprised to hear the butler opening 
so many bottles of champagne. After three corks had 
flown I said — 

*' Surely the man's off his head ; what on earth is he 
opening so many for? " 

On being interrogated, he said he was only doing it for 
my sake as the Tuan Ingris (HngHsh gentleman) was 
very fond of champagne. I asked him in Malay what he 
meant by such a statement. "Well," said he, "all I 
know is that vour native servant comes down at least ten 

« 

times a day for a bottle of champagne for his master." 

I need hardly say I had never sent for nor received any at 
all. This had been going on for days, and my scoundrel 
of a boy must have made a good thing selling wliat he 
could not drink. I had at least the consolation of know- 
ing that he had a little real pain as well, and his head 
must have been sore for a week. 

The remainder of our visit in Johore was occupied in 
elephant and tiger shooting, which the Crown Prince 
inaugurated for our benefit. A few days before leaving, 
however, at tlie invitation of the Sultan, I drove over to 



i6 THRorcii xiiw giixea. 

Tyersall, his Singapore jmlace, over which lie ven* kindly 
personally conducted nie. This palace, situated on a hill 
two miles from the tow^n of Singapore, may justly lay claim 
to the title of an Oriental palace of ^n-eat artistic desi^i. 
It is of most suhstantial structure, with a verandah 
of not less than a quarter of a mile in circumference. 
Its marble floors, stately halls, magnificent reception and 
ball rooms and spacious suites of sleeping apartments, 
furnished and decorated throughout in a most princely 
and luxurious manner, make it an edifice of singular 
beauty and elegance. 

The drawing-room furniture struck me as being 
exceptionally unique — it was of cut-glass upholstered in 
vellow satin. 

The palace contains a collection of curious pictures, 
bronzes, and other articles of vertu, which constitute 
this palace without doubt by far the most beautiful 
Euro])ean edifice in the East, as its owner is distinctly 
the most hospitable of all Eastern potentates. I cannot 
close this chapter, however, without expressing my 
sincerest gratitude for the very kind treatment I received 
at the hands of the late Sultan and his son, who now 
reigns, and of all his officials, and I shall always look back 
upon my visit there as two very ])leasant months. 



CHAPTER TIL 

ON HOAHI) THK NORTH (rERMAN LLOYD STEAMER 
** LURECK '* — JAVANESE LABOUR COOLIES — GAMBLING 
ON boar;) — ARRIVAL IN NEW GUINEA — HEAD- 
QUARTERS OF THE ASTROLABE JiAY COMPANY — 
SIMBANC; MISSION STATION- -A NATIVE VILLAGE — 
NATIVES — A JOURNEY UP rill-: SADDLEBERG. 

The ss. Luheck. wliich runs hctwcM^n (jcniian New 
Guinea and Sinj^apore, was crowded with Cliinese coolies, 
some two hundred in nund)er, wlio liad l)een en^^a«^a'd by 
the New (luinca Company to work on tlR^ir tohacco phm- 
tations. Our nine fellow-])ass(;n<{ers were on their way to 
New Guinea to take u]) ditferent govermiient appoint- 
ments there. 

After two days we arrived at Batavia, the chief port 
of Java, where we took on ])oard about a hundred 
and tiftv Javanese coolies of both sexes, bound for the 
same destination. The Dutch Government agent, who 
shipped these unfortunate creatures, was, without ex- 
ception, the most tyrannical bully it has ever been my 
misfortune to come across, hitting and kicking the poor 
people for no apparent reason, until I remonstrated and 
censured him for his conduct. 

Lnmediately the vessel left the port the Chinese 
contractor who had come over from New Guiiu'a ex- 
clusively to engage these labourers, proceeded t(^ open 

19 



I 



:\-' 7.VA •■-,/.-• \F.ir iJVIXEA. 

a i.'aiiil.iii;i: -^il .■:: i-.i«rt-n -irtrk- ■•n his own account, 
ai-liii:: l.!m--r:f s- i':iTikrr Bv ihi> means the thirty 
.J.illar- w]:!ih t-.i-i. ^-»:i-. i.:ii rtvrivt^l a* an advance 
-if «:!-.-.. «..- -ivi \:.y irAn-.frrTt-.i !■■ his pockets. This 
aj>iH;ir.-.I I.. \.- -.i ^^-;.i..::i;inr ]>r. xvedinj;. bnt I hope 
I'<n:; |. f. tc \-::- •.;.-. a-.-.i-,T-.nt> haw l^vme cognisant of 
tin- f:u-t. aii.l };livi- <ij>].rt~.^l the practice. I was toW 
nil iiLi-t r.:::ii:i- :i:ii!;.-niv that the civilies on certain 
I<l;miaii..n~ in X.ih^rlari.i- In.iia. on receinng their 
iiiiiuial wai:.-. i;:\;iri;i1.iy nMuhV- H-ith the planter himself, 
\\li....ii tli.-, .^v:i-i..!i> ;.;w^.y- acts a^ lianker. the pame 
-'f |Kiu ..r faii-i:i WvAji !i.;ialiy piayeii. the result in these 
iii>.{uiu-i-. li-.iii:: ilif ^:i:ii- \h:\i i-aiiiv to pass on board the 
l.ithr,!;. ■|'|„- f!iiii..:i:iiv. i^ ni.-si iin.l.iuhte<lly an in- 
v.-t.i-jil.' y;iiul.Ur : thaT aTii tin- hal.it .'f opiuiu smoking 
fir.- l.is tw.. iii.ii^|Miisit.;,- h-.\-,in<--. I have been told by 
an <itil i.Iiini.r iliai a m.-iivaui ..f ..piinu is most beneficial 
tn iijiii. ami aft,r a m.-ii-nite use iif it thej- can be 
illciTU-ril tn wnl'k iiitiiiiivly W-iu-r. 

()ii th.- \\x\\ i.f N..v,iiii..r w, arrive*! at Frederichml- 
li.liiisliar.ii. til,- ,lii. t i*..n an.l the headquarters of the 
New (iiiiiitii (■nin(.any. 1 (.lii.ve since my visit this 
l>laee has Ineii al.aii.lniu,] fm- a liarU.ur some twenty 
itiitisili.wii the cnasi. ili.; Kxielleiiey the Governor, or 
liiiinl.sliiiuptiiiiin. UN he is style.l. came on board, and 
idvili'cl us at nine tn take lip c.ur :ih<Hle at the Kesidency. 
aiul 1 may say lliat.iliuin;,' the whnle. .four \-isit in German 
New Ciiin.iL. he did cviiythiiij; in his power to make US 
ecKufnitnI.I,' iinii ici cany mit the instructions he had 
ren-iverl licrii Heilin as to asMstiii<; us in the contemplated 
cnllci'tinii^ iiiiii exj.lnralinns in the interinr. 

AlliT ;i teiii|Hii-iUT Visit rif a few (lnys we Went to 
StcpliausnrL. the ln'aili|uuftfrrt nf tlie .\stnilabe Bay Com- 
]>iuiy, situated soiiio twenty-two miles south of Frederich- 
wilhelmshafon. On arrival there we were much pressed 



ARRIVAL IN NEW GUINEA. 23 

by the Head Administrator to make his liome our head- 
quarters whilst in the country, and as it seemed that from 
here we sliould be better able to carry out our designs we 
<(ladly accepted the invitation. This appeared to be an 
admirable field for the collection of birds and lepi- 
doptera, and we now commenced in real earnest to collect 
birds, mammals and butterflies. Onj of my earliest 
captures was a magnificent specimen of the Onithoptera 
Paradisea, of which only one specimen had before reached 
Europe, and I felt that it was worth the whole of my 
journey to New Guinea to see this truly superb insect 
lying glistening in my hand. 

A morning or two Jifter we arrived, I was unfortunately 
a witness to the public flogging of a Chinaman who had 
incited six of his countrvmen to run awav, leading them 
to believe that China itself would be found cm the other 
side of the great Finisterre mountains looming up about 
ten miles in the interior. Tliey wen? captured after a 
very few hours and brought back, but it apj)eared to me 
that the ofl:ence hardly merited the terrible punishment 
inflicted by the authorities. 

As the weather was so unpropitious, and we were told that 
it would not improve for about a month, we took advan- 
tage of the government steamer YsubrI going to Simbang 
to migrate there, in the hope of an imi)rovement in the 
weather further south, and we were not disappointed, for 
during the whole of our visit to that part of the country 
there were onlv two or three showers, and we were a])le to 
add some thousands of sp(»cimens to our collection, in UwX 
I look back upon our Simbang additions as being the finest 
and rarest of anything captured during the whole of my 
first expedition to New Guinea. The mission station at 
which we staved is situated on a hill directlv above the 

» ft 

beach and at the mouth of a river; it was a long, one- 
storied house, built on piles, very airy and most comfortable. 



24 



THROUGH SEW GlINEA. 



The luissionarien, tliree in number, heartily welcomed us, 
and during the month we stayed in their house did every- 
thing they could to make our visit a pleasant one. On 
the opposite bank of the river could be seen an old coffee 
plantation, at one time %vorked by the New Guinea Com- 
pany, but now abandoneil, the missionaries gathering what 
littlo coffee remains for their own use. 

About three-«iuarters of a mile up the river one comes 
upon ji most lovely waterfall, overhung by exquisite tropical 




foliage which is so dense that tlie sun hardly ever penetrates 
through it. lioutowing, as it is called, is truly one of the 
most licautiful spots in that great virgin forest of New 
Guinea. T repaired here daily, wJicre some of our most 
vahiable gleanings of onitlioptera, spapilios, Ac, were taken. 
The natives were all most willing to heip, and came every 
morning for liutterHy-nets and fresh supplies of papers, 
which they invariably filled by night time. 

The village, which is built at the mouth of the river below 
the niissinn stjition. is considered for New Guinea a very 
large one. the bouses being one and all built upon piles, 



THE NATIVES. 27 

with small openings at one end sufficiently large to allow a 
human being to craw^l in and out. They were all more or less 
carved, and in some instances this form of decoration was 
exceedingly well done. The natives are true Papuans, 
and I noticed here, as indeed I have seen throughout the 
whole of the country, both in the British, Gennan, and 
Dutch possessions, a strong Hebrew type running through 
their features. The men were finely built, and in some 
instances exceptionally so, their only clothing being a 
small piece of stringy fibre wound round the loins and 
passed up through the legs. The hair in most cases is 
wound up and tied with a similar su])stance ; a small net- 
work basket is invariably slung on the right shoulder, in 
which is carried the lime-pot, betel-nut, and such usual 
impedimenta of the South Sea islander. The betel-nut, 
which is as indispensable to the native as tobacco is to the 
white man, is the fruit of a certain palm and is excessively 
hot and nasty ; after nnich use of it the teeth and gums 
become very nuich discoloured, and long before the eater is 
adult become perfectly black. The lime which is eaten 
at the same time adds a little to the fierv taste of the 
betel-nut, and the whole, when mixed up with a pepper 
leaf which is also added, makes the mouthful a veritable 
pate an diahle. 

The women, who are shorter in stature and, if possible, 
more hideous in appearance than the men, although on 
some very few occasions I have observed young girls 
with passable features, are all well nourished, and ap- 
peared to me to be invariably either in a condition of 
carrying infants or about to do so. Their clothing con- 
sists of grass, about a foot in length, the ends of which are 
strung together and tied round the waist. The hair is in 
most instances caked up with some black, sticky substance, 
which gives it the aj)pearance of a sheep skin draggled 
in the mud for a considerable time and then allowed to 



28 THROrCH XliW CVIMiA. 

dry. Notwithstanding the use of betel-nut they all smoke 
tobacco, wiiich has been intnxluced into the countrj- by 
Europeans, and I have on moi^ than one occasion ob- 
ser\'ed a mere infant reiuijve the pipe from liis inoutb to 
refresli himself from the natural food produced by his 
mother. I liave also eecn a woman nourishing her cliild 
and a aniall pifj at the sjmie time, carriing one under 




each ann, appeariiifj to he more anxious for the welfare 
of the latter, in consequence of its greater market value. 

The natives have a bc^lief that everything having life 
can si>eak, the trees, fish, pbuits, Ac, and they are always 
exijcctinj; them to talk in tbeir particular language. 
Another curious native belief hero, as to tlic existence 
of numerous small islamls wliicli are dotted about the 
coast, is that unce upon a time tlime lived a wicked 
woman who was the wife uf a <,'ri-at cliief ; she wasalways 



THE HOY TOG I. 29 

eatiiijj, and at last one ilay slic became very ili, and 
thriiwinj^ up her food lirst in one place and tlien in 
another, tlie different islands sprang,' np as we see them 
now. 

One boy, about seventeen years of aj^e, who had {?ot 
himself into trouble hy figbtinji and killing; a chief of 
another tribe, and who was born at this villajie, took a 




jjreat fancy to me. I taught him ainnnfjst other things 
to shoot, and when I left heaccumpariieil nie. His name 
was Tofp, and be i-ost me some lew yards of red eloth, 
a tomahawk, and some handfuls of beads. He turned out 
to be a most valuable help, afterwanls assisting; me with 
my photography and natural history collections generally. 
He eventually accompanied mc to England, where I 
exhibited him at the University Hall of London on the 



30 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

occasion of my reading a paper before the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, hut after a few months in this comitr}' 
he succumbed to an attack of pneumonia. 

Whilst at Simbang I met a Gennan gentleman named 
Kembadi, who was recruiting labour for the New Guinea 
Company, but at the time of my visit was not veiy successful. 
He infonned me that the year previously he had recruited 
13H natives from Berlinhafen, a harbour a few miles north 
of the Government station, and brought them down to 
Frederichwilhelmshafen. After remaining one night, 
however, 180 of them ran away, and tried to get back 
along the coast to their village, which was only a few^ 
miles distant. Not one of these unfortunate creatures 
accomplished the distance, for they were all killed and 
eaten by other tribes living along the coast. 

During our stay at Simbang we paid a visit to the 
Saddleberg, a mountain some twelve miles away in the 
interior, in a north-westerly direction. The first part of 
the journey, which was undertaken in a boat, occupied 
about three hours. We were accompanied by two of the 
missionaries. Landing at a small bay named Katigot, we 
commenced the ascent, and when about half way up, we 
were met by the missionarj^ wiio lived at the summit of 
the mountain, whose house is the farthest inland and at 
nmch the highest elevation of any white man's residence 
in the whole of New Guinea ; it is at an altitude of 3,000 
feet. After many hours of hard climbing we gained the 
top, and received a hearty welcome from Mrs. Fleyel, the 
wife of our host. I observed during the ascent many 
native villages and plantations. At an altitude of 1,500 
feet I discovered ripe raspberries, which, although small, 
were almost identical in taste and appearance with the 
European species. At 2,000 feet I came across acorns 
and many P^uropcan shrubs. The climate at the 
summit was most delightful, my thermometer registering 



FINCHHAFEN. 31 

at (5 P.M. only (iCP Fiilirenlieit. Tlie house was built by 
the misMioiiiiiy himself, and coiisistecl of sticks tied to- 
fjetlier with fibre, and althoiisb it was a very rougli-and- 
tuiuble edifice I slept as comfortably that night as on a 
down bed of state. The wlmk; building is siiiTotinded by 
a liifjh bamboo fence, constructed to prevent any sudden 
surprise from the natives ami also to guard against 
theft. 

From this house we obtained a most beautiful view of 
the surix)undin'' countrj'; the sea, which was ten miles 




distant, appeared at our feet, and the great island of New 
Britain was also plainly disceniible. Immediately beneath 
us lay Finchhafen, the original headquarters of the New 
Guinea Company. This harbour was after two years 
abandoned in consequence of its unhealthiness, very 
many of the Gennan officials having died there, Not 
a soiU is now to be seen, and even the graveyard, in 
which lie the bodies tif many I'.unipeans, their wives 
and children, is an uncared-for wilderness, and no sound 
is hean] save the wauk-wank of the panidise bird ni the 
day-time and the dismal boom of tlie native drum at 



32 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

night, Ro often the herahl of a midnight cannibal fe 
and orgie. I collected here a great many specimens 
the beautiful Paradisea Guilielmi, in my opinion k 
of the most extjuisite of all the Paradisea ; also a gr 
number of rare and new papilios. After spending a i 
days here we returned to Simbang in time to catch 
Ysahely which took us back to Stephansort. 




CHAPTER IV. 

DEATH OF AN OFFICIAL — NATIVES CAIIRY HIS EXCEL- 
LENCY'S PIANO — THE STAKT FOR THE INTERIOR. 

The day of our return was marked by the sad death of 
Mr. liichter, one of the officials of the Astrohibe Bay 
Company. This gentleman, who had only arrived from 
Europe by the previous steamer, was attacked by fever 
after breakfast and was buned at four o'clock on the 
same day. Attending his funeral, I had the misfortune 
to catch a chill, which brought on a severe attack of 
rheumatic fever. The doctor was most attentive, and 
remained with me for several days and nights, although 
in a most delicate state of health himself. 

This illness necessitated a still further delay, the more 
annoying as the weather had become apparently more 
settled, and I had received a letter from his Excellency 
the Governor informing me that the bearers and military 
police with whom he had promised to furnish us for the 
expedition to the interior were at our disposal. At the 
same time he requested me to come to Frederichwilhelms- 
hafen to make final arrangements, and promised to send 
on the following week his steam launch to fetch me for 
that purpose. It required, nevertheless, a fortnight before 
I was strong enough to make the journey. 

Arrived at P'rederichwilhelmshafen I saw all our men 
medically examined, and handed them over to Sergeant 

A 33 



34 THKOnJH \H\V GTIXEA. 

Pearin^. a German t »dioiaI wh«.»m I t- n^ajied to accompany 
us, and. takin^; the pn»ptrr «|aantitie> of rice, beef, and 
other pn.ivisii.m^. and si^aiinjz an ajireement with tlie 
Governor. I hr»ui:hi ihtrm all. firty in nmnber. back with 
me to Stephen^i-irt. where Captain Cotton had remained, 
and fR»m which place we intended >tartin<r for the 
interior. 

When at Fretlerichwilhelm>hafen a piano arrived for 
his Excellenjv. and S4»mf natives were told oflf to carrv 
the stranjje-I'Nikinj: case fr»»m the beach Uy the house. 
After ^<»ini: a few yanl> i»n • stumbleil, thereby causing 
tlie comer i>f the crate to strike thv ;^.»unti. and, ever on 
the alert for strangle >«»ands and n^iises. their ears were 
immediately pres?<Hl a;:ainst it. listening mitil the ting 
of the wires had die«l away. Ajrain. after a yard or 
two. a similar mi<h;ip occurred, aiiain many ears were 
listening to the strauize s«»and s*.* foreijrn to them, until 
one, a little moiv kn«»wini: tlian the rest, with a heave 
raised the whole ca<t* s«»me inches from the ground and 
let it go. The noi>t» which issued fn»m the inside hud 
by this time worked them up to such a frenzy that they 
one and all seized up»>n it and rolled it over and over, 
dancing with joy at the >tranj:e sounds which came forth, 
and it was not until this i>erformance had been repeated 
manv times that the eve i>f an official was attracted bv 
the shouts and veils of tlie natives, not before, however, 
much damage had been done and many strings broken. 

The natives who speak pidjin English call this instru- 
ment a '' box belong cry." 

Tiiey say. * Whitey man he tight him belong hand, 
box he crv out tcx) much.** 

« 

The following is a list of the provisions, «!tc., I took 
with me : Tobacco, matches, medicines, beads, looking- 
glasses, axes, tomahawks, plane irons, red paint, knives, 
forks, plates, cooking utensils, cocoa, brandy, biscuits, 




FAREWELL TO THE COAST 35 

candles, cornflour, flour, salt, meat extract, tea, soap, 
sugar, tinned meats, natural history collecting apparatus, 
tent, scientific instruments, five guns, ten rifles, ammuni- 
tion, blankets, and rice. 

Our provisions packed and everything ready, we at last 
said goodbye to the coast, and it was not without a 
certain amount of trepidation that I looked back upon 
the sea-beach and wondered if I should ever see it again. 



CHAPTER V. 



WE BID (iOODBYK TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOK- 



ASTONISHED NATIVES — ANGRY NATIVES — WE SHOOT 
SOME PARADISE HIRDS — ONE OF OUR MEN CATCHES A 
STRANGE MAMMAL — AM ATTACKED WITH RHEUMATIC 
FEVER. 

We left Bokajim, the villa^jje near Stephensort, in the 
Astrolable Bay, on March 2*2, 1894, and after receiving 
many good wishes for a successful journey and safe return 
from his Excellency and all the oflBcials, w-ho gathered 
to<T[cther to witness our departure, and amid the silent 
wondcrin^s of the manv natives who crowded round us 
we coiniuenccd the journt^y, accompanied by a German 
missionary named Hoflinann and two natives, their object 
being to introduce us to a chief of a native village some 
ten miles inland, and to assure him that our expedition 
was in ik^ way a hostile one, but solely for the purpose 
of exploration and to collect specimens of natural history. 
Taking a southerly course along the bank of the river 
Minjeui, which was in flood, we were obliged to cross 
and recross no less than eleven times. So strong was 
the current that on many occasions our only possible 
means of navigating it in safety was to lash the whole 
cavalcadt^ together with iibre, and in this way reach the 
opposite bank. Nevertheless, in spite of these precau- 
tions, we had many narrow escapes, and on more than 

36 



THE VILLAGE OF W I ENGL 



37 



one occasion articles of value were swept away clown the 
river at a pace which utterly precUided any possibility of 
recovery. 

At about midday the two coastal natives deserted us. 

Finding the river winding a little to the westward we 
kept our course, and struck out for the village of Wiengi, 
and a camp was made about a mile therefrom at four 



lb '"''' ' '■ 








kl^&b 


;4 


y\ _ (- , . . 




^mHi 


fe^'i 






Bff^t'v'-.-'^.-,', 




i '" ^ 


B^i 


l^^^^T-- " 




__-:-'"-9^i 



o'clock in the afternoon, at a distance of seven miles 
from the coast. 

The next morning we moved into the village and de- 
cided to remain the day there to rearrange the baggage. 
Notwithstanding the presence of the missionary who, as 
I have previously stated, jLccompanied us thus far to intro- 
duce us, the natives seenie<l ill-disposed to trade with us, 
and treated us altogether with scant courtesy. 

At 6 P.M. the thermoiueter registered 75° Fahrenheit. 



38 



THROUGH NEW GVIXEA. 



The natives in this village, who were very much decorated 
mth feathers from tlie paradise bird, passed the whole of 
the night beating their tom-toms, shouting, and dancing, 
which prevented us from getting a moment's sleep. 

Mr. Hoffmann liere left us and returned to Stephen- 
sort. He had hardly gone before the natives requested 
us to move on, and 1 could see by their demeanour that 
they were not well disposed towards us. However, I had 
found a papilio, which appeared to nie to be different 
to the one of that species I had collected at Stephensort, 






l\ 



and so I remained another day, which enabled me to 
obtain several more specimens of it. 

The next morning at 7 A.M. we struck camp, and 
moving in a south-westerly direction passed through 
much dense virgin forest, over mountains, and down 
steep ravines, until at noon the village of Vittib was 
reached, when after a short halt we proceeded in the 
same south-westerly direction until at two o'clock we 
passod tlu! village of Dibbori, a short distance further on, 
and camped for the night. 

It was astonishing, as soon as a halt was called and our 



A STRANGE MAMMAL. 39 

men were told that thev were to remain there for the 
nicjht, how quickly and ingeniously they erected their 
houses, which consisted solely of poles and sago palms 
lashed together ; their resting places inside consisted of 
poles raised ahout three feet from the ground laid along 
a cross piece. 

In a few minutes quite a large village seemed to spring 
up, and the little huts, with their palm-leaf roofs, 
dotted here and there among the trees, gave the scene 
quite a picturescpie and homely appearance. 

Some of our hearers being natives of one coimtry and 
some of another — for 1 had not thought it wise to choose 
all the men of (me race — thev invariahlv made different 
styles of houses. Those natives from }^uka, in the Solo- 
mon Islands, some twelve in number, alwavs destroved 
their domiciles each morning before leaving, in order, as 
they told me, U) prevent any one else from sleeping there 
after thev had left. 

« 

This camp was made on a ridge above the valley of the 
river Minjem, which river I could plainly see, running in 
a south-westerlv din^ction. During the dav one of our 
bearers was taken ill, and several had sores on their shoul- 
ders from carrving such unaccustomed burdens. Before 
dark two of the boys brought in six birds of paradise, 
which kept me far into the night skinning. At (> p.m. 
the thermometer registered 75", the aneroid showing 
1,540 feet above sea-level. 

Th(? next morning, after proceeding a short distance, 
a mannnal, Kchidna, was captured, but much to my 
regret it had been so nuich injured, and the young one in 
the pouch killed, that I had with great reluctance to kill 
and skin it. After marching about two hours we passed 
through an old and deserted plantation, and shortly after- 
wards descended into a very deep valley, at the bottom of 
which was a beautiful stream comin<: from the south. 



40 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

Climbing a ver}' higli mountain on the other side we 
began to see signs of natives, and a short distance fartlier 
on entered a large village called Jillim, which consisted of 
eighteen houses. The natives at first were very frightened 
and hacked away from us shouting, **Ki-ki Ki-ki?" (What 
do you want here?). After our having reassured them 
they proved most hospitable and useful, and brought us 
delicious water in long bamboos. Upper JilHm, situated 
close by, stands at an altitude of 2,000 feet above the sea, 
but the country we passed through was mountainous and 
unfit for culture. By gestures we explained to the 
natives that we desired to sleep there, and that we 
required food for all our men. It was our object to save 
our own provisions as much as possible, until the time 
came, perhaps, when we should be unable to procure any 
from the natives. We showed them red paint and beads, 
when taros (a native root, resembling a turnip, ver\' 
extensively cultivated throughout the South Seas) and 
sugar cane were brought in great abundtince. 

Our men, who by this time had recovered their health 
and spirits, evidently enjoyed themselves, and the night 
was far spent ere they ceased from singing their native 
legends and settled dowTi to sleep. We were now at an 
altitude of 1,450 feet above the sea-level. None of the 
natives at this village had ever been to the coast, nor 
had they ever seen the face of a white man before, never- 
theless, they seemed to have absolute confidence in us 
and were anxious to accompany us part of the way on our 
journey. Six of them did ccmie a little way and proved 
themselves very useful indeed in relieving some of the 
weakest of our bearers. During the following morning 
we passed through a native plantation, where the men 
regaled tlieniselvt^s with sugar cane, and so on to 
Dumbu, a very small village nearly 8,000 feet above 
the s(^a. To got here we descended an extremely steep 



BAD WEATHER. 41 

ravine and had a lon^ climb afterwards. This was the 
highest point we had yet attained. The country here- 
abouts had rocky and stony soil. Here again w^e obtained 
plenty of taros. Red paint seemed to be the favourite 
mechum of trade, as a few spoonfuls obtained for us as 
much as we required. We were glad to pitch our tent 
and get the men into houses, placed at their disposal, as 
the rain was descending in torrents. 

Fn^n this date until we arrived back in Stephensort 
we experienced the most terrible weather. 

The natives here grow a species of tobacco round their 
houses, the leaves of which they pluck, and after drj'- 
ing them in the sun for a few hours, roll them up into 
a very primitive kind of cigar which is at once smoked. 
This was the last village we saw, although we heard of 
others in the neiglibourliood. The thermometer here at 
() P.M. registered GS*^ P'alirenheit. We were obliged to 
remain another day in this village, as it poured without 
ceasing for nearly t wen tv- four hours. 

On the '2nd of April w(i waited until nearly mid-day 
for the rain to cease and then started in a south- 
westerly direction, skirting a mountain and the end of a 
large valley afterwards, but as soon as was practicable 
changed our course for a westerly one, and very soon came 
on to the Minjeni running north. We were accompanied 
thus far by a Dumbu native who had promised to guide 
us to Imbli, a village a mile or two further on and 
not much out of our true line. J3ut as after a few 
hundred yards he ran away, we changed the direction to 
due south, crossing several mountain streams until we 
again came to the Minjem running north. 

The bad weather we were experiencing, for it was in- 
cessantly raining, very materially affected our collections, 
and as our shot cartridges were feeling the effects of 
the terrible damp, we were obtaining fewer paradise birds 
every day. 



N 



42 THROrCH XFAV Gl'IXEA. 

We pitched our camp towards sundown above the ri^ht 
bank of the river, our altitude Ixnn^^ 880 feet above sea- 
level and the tliermonieter at j».m. ref][isterin^^ Hl2o. We 
were obliged to remain liere for two or three days as 1 
had a shai*}) attack of fever with rheumatism. In the 
meantime we sent some men back to Dumbu to 
request the natives to brin^ us taros and yams, which 
they did on two occasions. The few days we camped 
here it rained without ceasing day and ni<i[ht. Conse- 
quently the river became very hi^h and quite impassal)le. 

On the 7th, the fever havin<( left me, we pushed on 
ap[ain, but owinjif to the dense forest were obliged to cut 
our wav, still in a south-westerlv direction, crossing manv 
mountain streams, in one of which 1 discovered a dam, 
evidently nuide by the natives to catch fish, but as we 
coidd not discover any tracks at all presumed they luid 
travelled down the stream for some distance. 



BISMARCK MOUNTAINS — CANNOT TIND NATIVES — BAD 
WATKR — WK START ON THK RETURN JOCRNEV. 



43 



I 



CHAPTEK YI. 

I 

WE EELL A TREE TO CROSS THE RIVER — AliE MET BY A 
FEW NATIVES I THEY SPEAK THE BOKAJIM DIALECT — 
SOURCE OF THE RIVER MINJEM — A LABORIOUS ASCENT 
— ARE OBLIOED TO CUT OUR WAY — THE SUMMIT — NO 



The country wc passed throu^^li now was very swampy, * 

and enormous ferns nearly twenty feet hi<^di towered on j 

either side of us. On this morninjjf, Hth of April, we a^ain 
struck tlie river, hut found it too much in flood to cross, 
and so selectinj^ an enornums tree <^n*owin<if close to the 

« 

hank felled it as a means of transit. On reachin<^^ the j 

opposite side we were ^nveted In' a dozen natives, who, i 

havin^T lieard of us, hrou^^ht five or six inferior taros for | 

sale, not enou^di for ;i meal for one man. Th(*se men, •• 

who were mis(»rahly thin and poor, and without ornaments I 

of any description, helon^^^ed to Oomlxili, and were the 
last natives we saw. 

Stran<^ely enou<(h they spoke the Bokajim dialect. 
This was a matter of <,n-eat interest, as they did not even 
know the name " Hokajim," had never seen the s(^a, and 
it is extremelv improhahle that thev have ever had, at anv 
rate for a <(reat numher of years, any connnunication one 
with another. It seemed the more curious as all the } 

other villages lu^tween there and the coast s[)oke ditierent j 

dialects. We gave them a good sui)i)ly of red paint, 



1 



v 



44 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



beads, and other things to induce them to direct us to 
the mountain we were makinf]; for, the peak of which 
could be Keen looming in the distance. But immediately 
after receiving them they all ran away. 

The river went westerly that day tor a while, and we 
left it several times as we found it better to cut a road 
through the forest. But we were obliged again in the 




afternoon to re-cross it, but not without experiencing the 
greatest difficulty in doing so, the current being excep- 
tionally strong and rapid. 

On the 9th we made an early start, following the river. 
We baited at midday for an hour or two to enable our 
men to cook themselves a meal, for the rain liad been so 
heavy on the previous evening, lasting up to ten o'clock in 
the morning, tliey had been quite unable to light any fires 



NO BISMARCK MOUNTAINS. 45 

at all. About two o'clock we started again, and soon came 
to where the river parted — one branch running to the 
south-east for a short distance, when it began to fall in 
cascades from a mountain, the other running to the south- 
west, where, after about a mile, it fell in waterfalls from 
the same mountain. This was evidently the source of the 
river Minjem, where we camped for the night. 

Early the following morning we commenced to ascend 
the mountain on our side of the river, taking a westerly 
direction. After cutting our way for many liours, towards 
evening we arrived at the sunnuit, an altitude of 5,400 
feet above the sea. This was the farthest inland point I 
reached, and was forty-two geographical miles from the 
coast. During the ascent of this mouittiiin we met with 
many fruits, among wliich were raspberries and straw- 
berries. One of our men was very ill the latter part of 
the journey, and had to be carried the last few hours. It 
was now neariy dark and the rain began to pour in 
torrents, and this continued without intermission until 
daylight on the following morning. 

At 6 P.M. the tliermometer registered 61° Fahrenheit, 
and it was with great difficulty we managed to keep 
ourselves warm. The next day was beautifully fine, and 
we were able for the fust time during the expedition to 
get everything dried. Immediately after breakfast we 
sent five men with rifles and ten others to try and discover 
a village in the neighbourhood, and also to look for fresh 
water, as that which we discovered the night before, a 
short distance from the camp, proved to be very brackish. 

I looked in vain for the range of Bismarck Mountains 
marked on the chart, which should have been hereabouts, 
but could see nothing resembling anything of the kind at 
all, except that sixty miles in a south-south-easterly direc- 
tion I observed a high range running east to west which I 
knew to be in British New Guinea. The whole day was 



46 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

spent in clearing the top of the mountain to enable me 
to take proper observations of the surrounding country. 

At dusk our people returned without having seen 
any natives, nor even signs of them, and the water 
they had discovered was too far off to be of any use. I 
sent them again the next day with the same ill success, 
and, therefore, having ascertained the true position of the 
Albert Victor range of mountains in British New Guinea, 
which was from here plainly discernible, and also the 
various landmarks on the coast of German New Guinea, 
it was useless to prolong our stay. I unhesitatingly assert 
that the range of mountains marked on the chart as in 
latitude ()0 liy, longitude 145-80 E., is not to be seen in 
that situation, and as we cannot change the configuration 
of the earth, perhaps it may bti as well to alter the map, 
which I believe is now being done. 1 presume the 
mistake was caused by some who, ascending the 
coastal range in German New Guinea, situate some few 
miles from the coast, observing some high range in the 
interior, returned with tluj news that such a range existed, 
and proudly named it after the late ex-chancellor, when 
in all ])robabiIity they were gazing at the Albert Victor 
range in British New Cruinea. 



CHAPTER VI r. 

THE DESCENT — ONE MAN DIES — PHOTOdHAPII OF THE 
SOURCE OF THE lUVER - A GOOD DAY'S MARCH — WE 
SEND TO DUMRr FOR FOOD-- HARDLY ANY OBTAIN- 
ABLE — HOSTILE NATIVES — THE LOVE OF RED PAINT 
— DUMBr VILLAGE — A NARROW ESCAPE — WE SHOOT 
A WILD BOAR — DISSATISFIED NATIVES — ATTACKED BY 
NATIVES — WE KILL ONE MAN IN THE ACT OF DRAWING 
HIS BOW — ARRIVE BACK ON THE COAST — SEVERE 
ATTACK OF FEVER — RETl'RN TO FRHDERICHWILHELMS- 
HAFEN — WITNESS A CIIHISTENINc; — A NATIVE DANCE 
— NATIVE FEAST - TASTY MOJiSELS — WE BID FARE- 
WELL. 

On April the l^kli wo started on our return journey at 

(} A.M., with the thernionieter re^nsteiin;^^ oO" Falireiilieit. 

The sick man unl'ortuuatelv (hed when wti were ahout 

lialf way down, and we buried him underneath some 

leaves. On amving at tlie river \\v rested for an hour 

or so and photoi^raphed its source. 

To our great dcdight we found the river had fallen very 

much during our absence on account of the iiiu; weather, 

and we managed to pick our way for some; distance along 

the rocks instead of through the fon^st. Later in the 

day, however, and for some hours we were obliged to 

wade waist-deep in the river. At 5 p.m. we camped, 

drenched to the skin, for it had been raining heavily since 

two o'clock. 

5 



so THROUGH XEW GUINEA. 

This was the longest march we had as yet made, and 
had covered in one day what on the way up took us 
three to accomphsh. The next morning we struck our 
old tracks and travelled in a north-easterly direction 
towards the village of Dumbu, camping that night on 
the bank of a stream about two miles from that village. 
It was our intention to remain here for a few davs for 
the purpose of collecting some specimens of natural 
history. 

I sent half a dozen men to Dumbu for food, and 
they returned with a very few bad taros, having paid very 
dearly for them. 

Early on the following day we sent Piering with twelve 
men to again solicit provisions, and the day being 
tolerably fine we one and all dispersed in the forest to see 
what we could find, but I am sorry to say the result was 
anything but satisfactory', no particular novelties being 
added to our collections. At 4 p.m. Piering returned 
with not enough for a meal, as the natives were in- 
disposed to part with anything more, the fact of the 
matter being that they had verj' little else to sell, and 
had it not been for the influence of the women who 
still wanted more red paint and beads, he might have 
received even a more unfavourable reception. At times 
there is no difficulty in obtaining a stock of taros, yet, 
let the suspicion or the fear of the native be aroused from 
almost any cause, and he refuses to trade oflfliand. 

In such cases he does not look to his own advantage in 
the way of profit, nor does humanity prompt him to keep 
the wolf from the door of his fellow creature. In such 
cases he has a lofty scorn for the stranger's substitute for 
gold or whatever may be the temporary means of ex- 
change and barter. But once let him be inclined for a 
deal and his greed for red paint knows no bounds. The 
Papuan of New Guinea dearly loves red paint, it is more 



SECOND VISIT TO DUMBU. 53 

to liim than rouge to the actress or woad to our British 
ancestors when Caesar first visited these sliores. For a 
handful of red paint one may obtain sufficient bread stuff 
and vegetables of the country to stock a Covent Garden 
market. Nor should the traveller omit to cany a goodly 
supply of salt. In the lack of that commodity the natives 
resemble those Mexicans whom Cortes first met with in 
the earlier days of the conquest of Mexico. I remember 
on one occasion we were mixing some salt with flour 
previous to breadmaking. J gave a small pinch to a native 
standing close by ; he at once put it in his mouth and 
made manifest signs of keenly appreciating the foreign 
dainty, the first of its kind he had ever tasted, liushing 
off to the far end of the village he quickly returned 
accompanied by the entire population, who, like Oliver 
Twist, did not scruple to ask for more. 

It was with much reluctance that we decided to move 
on, having only our own provisions to rely upon, which were 
now getting rather low. During the day I c<ame across 
stinging-nettles, rose briers, a species of quince, maiden- 
hair ferns, and the laurustinus in the forest. The natives 
of Dumbu, on our second visit, appeared anything but 
friendlv, in fact thev were decidedlv hostile, both old 
and young being armed with spears, bows, and arrows. 
I had luckily obtained, however, a photograph of the 
village and some of the inhabitants on our previous 
visit, though not without considerable difficulty. Mani- 
festly the natives held the camera in wholesome dread, 
either as a fetish or as an implement of the white 
man's annour}-, which might go off at any minute and 
kill them (m the spot ; hence they scuttled oft* in all 
directions, and we had no little trouble to induce the 
bravest of them to return and submit to the ordeal by 
lens. At length by persuasion and free gifts of tobacco, 
and by my standing amongst them, we induced some few 



54 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

to come back, and were thus enabled to procure a photo- 
graph, which was taken by my own native sei^vant. 

On the 16th of April, therefore, at 6 a.m., although it 
was raining heavily we struck camp and marched on 
to Dmnbu. About half a mile before reaching the village 
we discovered that the natives had obstructed the 
track with trees, rocks, »lx., whereupon we formed an 
advance and rearguard of military police. Arriving at the 
village the natives were seen in all the paraphernalia for 
fighting, and anned to the teeth with spears, bows and 
arrow^s. We halted for a few minutes in the village, and 
took no notice of them whatever, detennining not to fight 
unless absolutely necessary. Luckily they did nothing, 
and so after a short time spent for refreshment we pushed 
on to the village of Jillim, where our reception was in 
marked contrast to that of Dumbu. The natives here 
were delighted to see us again, jumping, running, and 
rolling on the ground. They immediately brought us 
taros, sugar-cane, and native bananas. We pitched our 
tent in the centre of the village, a large house being placed 
at the disposal of the men. 

The next morning, the 17th, we were forced to wade 
again for many hours down a river, as the forest was 
impenetrable. Captain Cotton had a most marvellous 
escape from drowning, as suddenly missing his foothold 
he was carried down by the torrent at terrific speed, and 
only escaped certain death by becoming entangled in a 
fallen tree, which lay partially across the river. That 
evening we discovered the loss of two hundred pounds 
of beef, which had been eaten surreptitiously by the 
bearers, considerably (liminishing our supply. I found 
the natives of Buka exercised a most demoralising efifect 
on all our other men, and although they had been trained 
as native police, wifh very few exceptions they were a 
lazy, thieving, and disobedient lot ; one of them, never- 



ATTACKED BY NATIVES. 57 

theless, named ** Ranga," was a very good boy indeed ; 
I used him principally to cut the track, and when given 
a certain direction to travel seldom deviated from the 
course, however dull the day or dense and dark the 
forest. 

During the afternoon one of the men shot a wild boar, 
which, on our arriving at the village of Vittib some hours 
later, was claimed by the natives as their property. 
Having no brand or ear-mark of any sort I knew this 
to be untrue, but still, not desiring to quarrel with 
them, gave them what they asked in payment for it, viz., 
one axe and a little red paint. There was great rejoicing 
that night, and much excitement among the men over the 
cooking of it. 

On the 18th we were up early, and soon ariived at 
Wiengi, where we found the whole village in arms 
against us. I at once demanded the reason, and was 
told that we had killed and eaten a pig on the previous 
day that belonged to them. This was, of course, 
ridiculous ; but still wishing, if possible, to avoid hos- 
tilities, T inquired what they wanted, and, strangely 
enough, the same payment was asked that had already 
been paid, of course proving that communication had 
been made during the night between them and the 
Vittib people. We gave them what they wanted 
and recommenced our journey, but had not proceeded 
more than two hundred yards when they made a most 
desperate attack on us from the rear, a shower of spears 
and aiTows falling thickly amongst us. I was then 
obliged to order the miHtary police to fire, but to aim 
high and only to frighten them, the result being the 
retirement of the enemv without manv casualties. ]>ut 
one man was shot whilst in the act of drawing his 
bow, the bullet running up liis left ann, across his 
chest, and half-way down his right arm. 



58 



THROVCH SEW GUINEA. 



We tlieii struck off in a north-easterly direction to 
a small river, about tliroe miles farther on, where we 
camped for the night. 

We remained in the same cam]! all the following day, as 
it poured with rain, iind I wiis attacked with fever, which 
lasted until late in the evening; but on the '20th, at (JJW, 
we struck camp for the last time, and at twelve o'clock 




reached Stephensort. We had hardly iiixived before 
my companion and I were botli Hcized with malaria, 
and for wime days were unable to move out of the 
house, but on the "iotli we miinaged to take the steam 
launcli to Frcderichwilhelmshafen, taking with us all 
our men and all our luggage. Here again, as guests of 
his I'^sci^llency, we awaited the arrival of tlie ss. Liihcc/i. 
My companion again collapsed, and became so ill that he 



IVE WITNESS A CHRISTENING. 59 

decided to ^o into the excellent hospital, to be there 
nursed by the kind sisters. 

On the occasion of this visit his Excellency the 
Governor rowed nu; across the harl^our to a villa<jje named 
Sear, situated on the coast a mile or so from Frederich- 
welhelmshafen, where the natives were holding a great 
entertainment. It happened that a child had just been 
])orn, and according to native custom, on the day of the 
birth of an infant all women of the village assemble at 
the house of the mother, where thev remain the whole 
night through, dancing and singing dolefully. The next 
morning the mother takes the child into the sea, if they 
are coast natives, and if not into a water hole, and after 
washing both herself and her offs[)ring she returns to the 
village, where the oldest or most inHuential woman names 
it, sometimes after a tree, an animal, or a fish, but 
more generally a name is given of an indecent nature. 
His ivxcellency the (lovernor had on more than one 
occasion been requested to name a child, and in this 
instance he named the babv after his own sister. There 
was also a dance taking place, aiul the Crovernor himself was 
desirous of witnessing this sing-sing, the more especially 
as there were visitors from Dampier, an island nearly 
twentv miles awav. 

I?i the centre of the villag(N ranged in a long line, were 
several heaps of large and beautifully constructed earthen 
pots. On the top of each hea]) the chief laid various 
articles, su(.*h as grass clothing for the women and 
ornaments, spears, ^:c., for the men, having accom- 
phshed which he then went down the line, and striking 
the first hea[) with a rattan which he carried in his hand, 
called out the names of the visitors for whom it was 
intended as a present, at the same time saying a few 
ap[)ropriate words. This was repeated at each heap 
until the last, and by far the most valuable one, was 



6o 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



reached, when addressing himself to the visiting chief, 
whose gift it was to be, he made a very elalwrate Bi^eecli, 
lasting quite ten minutes. Of course, although it was 
quite gibberish to me, I was fully satisfied that whatever the 
subject of his discourse might be, he was at least a most 
fluent si>eaker, and I was quite surprised at this wild and 
cannibal savage speaking with all tlie pathos and apparent 
learning of a ix»Htician. This ended, enonnous bowls were 
filled with cooked pig, dog, and otlier mixtures, as well as 




yams, taros, and sago, covered with scrai>ed cocoaiiut. 
This savoury mixture was presented to the visitors, but 
as they were so long picking and choosing their pieces, all 
hands and feet being in the bowls at once wc did not wait 
to witness the repast, but cuuic away. I may mention 
that it is the visitors who, on these occasions, do all the 
dancing and entertaining, some of their dances taking 
many months to learn. 

In tlie event of one man abducting the wife of another 
lie is compelled to pay a certain smn in native money to 



THE RESULTS OE OUR EXEEDiriON. 6i 

the injured husband. This satisfactorily terminates the 
proceedings. The woman may, or may not approve of 
this arrangement, but as she is simply so nmch property 
she has no voice in the nmtter. 

I cannot close this chapter, which ends my visit 
to German New Guinea, without sayin«[ that his 
Excellency the Governor, who I am sorry to say 
is since dead, proved himself a most hospitable friend. 
Frederichwilhelmshafen which, as 1 have said before, 
w<as then the seat of the Government and the head- 
quarters of the New Guinea Company, has since been 
abandoned, and there is nothin*):, I believe, to mark 
the spot, which once was a fair-sized settlement, but 
a few ruined remains of houses and many heaps of 
empty tins and bottles, which l)y now I have no doubt 
are entirely hidden by the lon<:(, rank ^rass and thick 
jungle. 

To sum up the result of my expedition to the 
interior, here I saw many strange places and extra- 
ordinary people, so far unknown to the white man's 
experience. The country passed throut^h and seen for 
many miles round is, in my opinion, far too mountainous 
and difficult of access to ever prove useful for cultivating 
purposes. The soil in the interior is in some parts rocky, 
in some of clay, but altogether far more heavy than that 
on the coast.* I made a number of barometrical and 
thermometrical observations. We collected a great many 
species of entomological and ornithological specimens, 
and finally, the journey was not bv anv means barren, as 
I have before stated in a previous chapter, from a 
geographical standpoint. 

'■-' It is not niv intention here to describe fully the customs and 
manners of the Papuans of New Guinea, but if my readers will bear 
^^ith me till the second part of this volume, T will endeavour to depict 
the natives of this, the largest island in the world, as I fomid them. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

NEW KKITAIN — THE IMPEIUAL .irpriE TAKEN FOR A 
Pr m.ICAN — HKHHEKTSOH — HALIM — THE PLANTA- 
TIONS OF Mils. KOLHE— CANNIBALISM — THRILLING 
ESCAPE NATIVE 1>AN( E — AHllIVAL OV THE MAN-OF- 
WAH — PESTIUCTION OF NATIVE VILLAGES — A CLEVER 
NATIVE — A lULLET-PlIOOF (UNTMENT — MORE DEVICES 
KOH HAISINC, THE WINP- NATIVE MARKET. 

On May 4tli tlit' I.uluch arrived, and l)iddint; farowell to 
our friends and thankin*^^ the (lovernor for all his 
kindness, we set sail for New I^ritain, arrivin*; there on 
the 11 til instant. The first news we heard here was of 
an outra^'eous attack just made on tlie New Guinea 
Company's sehooner Scnta, when the mate, two white 
and several ])lack men were surprised and massacred. 
They were at the tinu* recruiting lahour for the tobacco 
plantations, off the island of New Ireland, and whilst 
in the ship's boat close to the beach they were suddenly 
surrounded and tomahawked to death. 

The imperial jud<i[e, Captain Brandeis, invited us to 
stay with him, and that evening told us that just 
before our arrival a Norwegian vessel had come there. 
The captain came ashore, and seeing on his right an 
open house with wide verandah and large round table 
on it, mistook it for the hotel, and entering called for 
an attendant. The judge's own Mahiy servant stepping 
forward asked, " Apa ma, tuan?" bein;^ the Malay for 

G3 



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K 








7 


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1 


i^H^ 


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THE JUDGE AS A PUBLFCAy, 



67 



"What do you want, sir? ' The captain, who did not 
understand a word, hit it off very nicely by shouting 
"Beer," one of the only words of Enghsli the Malay 
boy understood. Finding it nice and cool he very 
soon called for a second bottle, and whilst in the act of 
drinking it the judge returned home, and bowing politely 
to the visitor said he was pleased to find that he made 
himself at home. The old salt, taking him for the land- 
lord, invited him to take a glass, which invitation was 




courteously accepted. Aft^^r a pleasant chat, ami drink- 
ing yet another bottle! on which occasion the judge 
acted the part of host, the old Norwegian pulled out his 
purse and asked how much he had to pay, when the 
judge, with a merry twinkle in his eye, informed him that 
it was his private imnse. and that although ho was the 
imperial judge it gave him very great pleasure to enter- 
tain him. The poor man was quite overcome, and after 
many apologies retired covered with confusion. 

Herbertsoh, which is the only port in New Britain, is 



68 



THROVGl! SEW C.VIKRA. 



the hcadquartere of the German Now (iiiinea Company 
in that country. Kituated at the entrance to Blanche 
Bay, it comiuandH a )>i.'aiitiful view of the IJuke of York 
IslanilK, New Ireland, and the viilcanocK on the north 
coast of Now Bntain, 

A mile or w) farther down tlic bay will be found 
Kahun, by far the finest and most valuable plan- 
tation in the Konth Seas. It is owned by a half-caste 
Sanioan huly. Started many yeai-s apo by the present 




owner's late huwhand, and also her brother-in-law, it 
consists of many thousimd acres of rich, undulating land. 
At present the staple pruducts ai-e cocoannts and cotton. 
There sirf, however, still thousands of iicres to be cleared 
and planted, and its value a few years hence will be at 
least doubled, as every year thirty thousand yonufj cocoa- 
nut trees are planted. It is Mrs. Kolhe's intention to 
imp(jrt cattle from Australia, and fatten theiu for the 
Sinf;aiKJre and Javanese markets. The climate, more- 
over, is as nearly perfect as possihlc. and the fever, which 
ruL'cs in New Ciuinea, is of rare oecuiTcnce hero. 



;) 

..i 



rf 



1 1 
r 



I i 



I t 



if 






MRS, KOLRE AND THE CANNIBALS, 75 

Mrs. Kolbe and her sister, Mrs. Parkinson, are, as I 
have said before, half-caste Samoan ladies, their father, 
an American gentleman, having settled some five and 
forty years ago in Apia, Samoa. It would be impossible 
to speak in terms too high of the kindness and hospitality 
we met with at their hands, and Mr. Parkinson, who is 
the manager of the estate, did everything in his power 
to make our visit a pleasant one. Besides the plantation 
itself, there are many large outlying trading stations, 
managed by European traders, and are all owned by 
Mrs. Kolbe. Some of these stations are many hundreds 
of miles from Ralum, the most remote ones being in the 
Mortlock group. The houses on the estate are beauti- 
fullv situated above the shores of the bav, and are most 
picturesque edifices, furnished throughout with beautiful 
taste, and one can almost imagine oneself inside a 
country residence of Western civilisation rather than in 
the wilds of a cannibal country — for the natives here 
may be classed as amongst the most ferocious cannibals 
of the South Pacific. Within a mile or two of Ealum 
one may find even to-day chiefs who keep slaves for the 
purpose of food, and who are in the habit of killing them 
every few days to satisfy their diabolical tastes. Not 
only do they do this, but they boast of it, and I have had 
these people come and tell me how they have enjoyed 
their feast on the previous evening, which had been some 
portion of a human being. 

Some few years ago, these ladies with whom we stayed, 
and whose houses are but a few minutes' distance from 
one another, during the absence of the manager, were 
approached by some three or four hundred natives from 
the interior, half the number surrounding one house 
and the rest the other. Thev swanned on to the 
verandahs, anned with spears, bows and aiTows and 
tomahawks, their intention being to carry each lady 



76 THROl'GH XEW GVISEA. 

off into the liush, for ^Ylmt puqiose I will leave to the 
inia^nation of luy readers. Mrii. Parkinson managed to 
send by a black lx)y a message to lier sister stating that 
she intendetl to hold out to the last, and exhorting her to 
do likewise. Fortunately each of those women was with- 
out fear, hence their ultimate safety. Siq)iK)rted by three 
or four luinse-hovs, Jlrs. ParkiiiKon boldly stepped for- 
ward, and, speaking to the ringleaders, informed them 
that she would shoot the first man who took one step 
in her direction. On a movement being made she 




fired, killing the two foreuiost "f the party. Thcre- 
u])on the otherw tnrned and ignoiiiiniouwiy fled, and tlie 
people of the otiier house, hearing the shots, did likewise. 

Mrs. Parkinson ti)-d!iy could walk through the whole 
comitry unarmed and unattended, for that occun-ence 
apjmrently ins^iired such respect that the natives for 
many utiles ruuiul worship the very ground she walks 
upon. 

One morning, uccom])Linied hy the niiinager of the 
estate, I rowed across the hay to the volranic luoimtain 
on the opposite side. After an hour's pull we arrived 







S^8«i 




SSI 9 


liA?-/- .l^.i,.M^... 



A REMARKABLE IMPOSTOR. 8i 

at the foot, where we landed and began to ascend, 
collecting many specimens of natural history on the way 
up. About fifty minutes' hard climbing brought us to 
the mouth of the crater, which on this occasion was 
quiescent. I took a photograph of the crater and also 
of the magnificent view lying at my feet. 

Farther in towards the head of the bay is the island 
of Matupi, on which is to be found the coaling-station 
for steamers and men-of-war visiting this part of the 
South Seas. There is also established on the island the 
head trading-station of the Genuan firm of Messrs. 
Hemsheim, who also collect copra. Copra is the dried 
kernel of the cocoanut, from which oil is extracted. 

The natives split the nut in half, and, taking out the 
kernel, hang it under cover and smoke-dry it, afterwards 
threading it on strings of rattan — ten on each. It is 
then ready for the trader. "The ten on a strin^j'* 
is the standard of all trade. My readers will doubtless 
be aware that this product is valuable for its oil. Sun- 
dried copra is better than that prepared in this manner ; 
but the treacherous and inclement nature of the climate 
in these latitudes prevents the natives from adopting 
this mode of curing. 

Whilst we were in New Britain the white people 
were experiencing a considerable amount of trouble 
from the natives, and it was not until after the arrival 
of a man-of-war, and a company or two of blue-jackets 
had marched into the interior and had killed several and 
burned down their villages, that thev were left un- 
molested. It appears that a native had induced them 
to fight by offering for sale a substance, the virtue 
of which rendered him whose body was be-smeared 
with it bullet proof. He exhorted the natives to buy 
it from him and go down and fight, saying, '* Let us kill 
the white men and live in their houses." To prove his 

7 



82 THROrGII XFJV GCIXfiA. 

stuff was genuine, he painted some one with his mixture, 
and, holding up a bullet, he substituted for it a berry 
not imlike it in appearance, and, inserting it into the 
muzzle of an old gun fired at the man, of course 
without injuring him. \^y this means he collected many 
hundreds of pounds worth of ** dewarra " (native money), 
and had it not been for the timelv arrival of the man-of- 
war might still be doing a good trade. 

The fjinie of this marvellous discovery spread far and 
wide, and natives flocked from all the villages within 
many miles to possess themselves of the ointment. The 
fellow became enormously rich, but the war breaking out, 
{ind several natives who had anointed themselves being 
killed, his life was in imminent peril from his own 
countrymen, and he repaired to lialum, where he sought 
protection and where 1 met him. This fellow was far 
too clever to be a cannibal savage, for on a previous 
occasion he had devised a plan which to our ears is, if 
possible, more ludicrous than his life-preserving oint- 
ment — that of collecting unto himself the riches of this 
W7)rld. This also was an ointment, a modicum of which 
had to be swallowed, and if a receptacle was then hung 
up in a tree and left there for one moon (one month) the 
owner would find it filled with dewarra at the end of 
the stated time. Of course at the end of the month no 
money had arrived, when the victim would approach and 
interrogate the owner of the marvellous drug. 

*'Ah ! " he would say, **you nuist have eaten betel- 
nut " (knowing the usual habit of his fellow creatures) ; 
** that is the reason the *tabaran ' (evil spirit) has not sent 
you any money. Now go and hang it again for six 
moons and you will find it full, but first give me a fathom 
more for this small quantity." 

Tn this wav, and bv manv similar subterfu^^^es, the 
natives were imposed upon, and the owner of the rubbish 



.VEir BR ITALY XATIVBS. 87 

became rich at the cxpc'iise of his fooHsh and unsophisti- 
cated fellow-countrymen. 

Every third day the natives were in the habit of 
comin<^ down from the bush with manv articles of 
produce for sale — taros, yams, bread-fruit, bananas, 
eggs of the meyapodium (a species of jungle fowl), and 
all alike found a readv market at Kalum. This traffic 
is always carried on bv the women, and the loads they 
carry slung over their backs in bags or baskets, which are 
hung from their foreheads by a narrow band of fibre, 
would in every instance surprise a strong man of civilisa- 
tion, the more especially as the majority of them carry 
these burdens in some cases as manv as ten or twelve 
miles, returning the same distance on the same day. 
They wear, for the most part, no clotliing whatever, are 
one and all exceedingly dirty, tlie majority suirering from 
a skin disease which is called the cus-cus, a disease very 
prevalent throughout the South Seas. They are, with 
very few excei)tions, very uncomely to look ui)on, differ- 
ing very nmch from the women of better features from 
X(^w Ireland, onlv a few miles distant. 

Although some hundreds come down with their })ro- 
duce, for which they are invaiiably paid in tobacco or 
dewarra, they do not bring nearly enough food to provide 
for all the labour coolies employed on the plantation, and 
Mrs. Kolbe is obliged to send boats for many miles up 
and down the coast daily for taros and yams wherewith 
to feed her people, there being more than a thousand 
hands employed. 

We were obliged to remain here for some weeks, as the 
date was not known when a ship would arrive to take us 
cm to the Solomon Islands, our destination after leaving 
New Britain. And a most enjoyable visit it was ; from 
a naturalist's point of view also it was singularly success- 
ful, amongst the many things new to science being a 



88 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

beautiful papilio, which has since been described and 
named the Papilio Websteri. 

Mrs. Parkinson took me for many excursions into the 
interior, and on one occasion to the village of a ver\' 
influential chief, a hoary-headed old scoundrel, who had 
the deaths of many people on his conscience, if he had 
such a thing, and one of the most ferocious cannibals in 
that part of the country. This man was holding a great 
festivity, and the village, as I approached it tlirough the 
forest, resembled somewhat a large country fair. Huge 
chains of various coloured crotons and flowers strung 
together hung from tree to tree, the trunks of which 
were encircled by garlands of beautiful creepers. Upwards 
of three thousand natives were assembled from all parts, 
and many hundreds of them were covered with leaves, 
which, together with their paint and their enonnous 
feather head-dresses, imparted to them a most imposing, 
but at the same time wild, appearance. The whole scene 
was quite the most unique I had witnessed in the 
country. 

The performers themselves were all assembled, as it 
were, behind the scenes ; a large screen of ferns and 
flowers had been erected for the purpose. At the sound 
of the tom-tom each tribe in its turn came forward and 
performed its dance, and with their fierce noises and many 
extraordinary gyrations, one could not help but experience 
a feeling of awe. The dance is the private property of 
the chief of each village, who either designs it himself or 
purchases it from some neighbouring warrior. 

On the one side were the women and children of the 
many different villages, squatting, as none but natives can 
squat, on their hams — indulging probably in the latest 
village gossip ; but not one of them, as far as T could 
see, exhibiting the slightest interest in the performance 
which was being enacted in front of them. On the other 



^ 


P 




B 


1^^ 


^ 




J 





TRIBAL DAXCnS. 93 

side were the men ehewin<^^ their betel-niit and apphiuding | 
the varicnis performances as they appeared on the scene. 
In the centre was erected an enormous screen, about 
forty feet in hei*:(ht, on which were hun^y countless coils 
of dewarra, each coil heinj^' worth t*25 in English money. 
This dewarra, which is the native money of New Britain, 
is comprised of a particular kind of small shell, resembling 
the cowrie. These are bored and strun<^' together on 
narrow stri})s of cane. It is very much sought after by 
the natives, as with it they ])urchase their wives, their 
slaves, pigs, and in fact all articles of trade. A fathom of 
this shell money is worth 'Js., and when *250 fathoms are 
gathered together they are formed into a coil very skilfully 
laced up with cane or rattan, giving it the appearance 
of a huge lifebuoy. On this screen were also hung 
innumerable ornaments and tro])hies, such as skulls of 
vancpiished enemies, s})cais, \'c. 

All this property, I was told, at the death of this chief, 
as is invai'iably the custom, would be ecpially divided ' 
amongst his relations, but would not go to his own 
chil(ln;n, who W(*re expected to look out for themselves 
during his lifetime. It is the custom of the chief to 
present any distinguished visitor with one or two fathoms 
of dewarra, which are to signify his pleasure at their 
presence ; but in the case of all ordinary people attending 
the festivity he has the light of levying a small tax in 
payment for the entertainment. I have been told that 
certain native missionarv teachers, who were unable to 
procure the attendance of the people in any other way, 
have instituted such dances, styling them religious 
festivals, and thereby obtaining large quantities of 
dewarra, and by this means have procured as much 
as £400 in one year. It was also said that this practice 
was not confined to the native teachers alone, but as to 
its truth I did not trouble to ascertain. Having received 



94 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

lay two fathoms, and thanking the cliief for the pleasure 
I had experienced at so strange a gathering and heaping 
many comphments upon liim, not a word, of course, of 
which lie understood, and presenting him with a real 
Havana, T took my leave well pleased with the day's 
outing. 1 mav sav, nevertheless, that mv hand hardlv 
ever left mv revolver, which was carefiillv hidden in mv 
pocket, as I had been previously advised that the natives 
in this district were not quite reconciled to the white man 
for having burned down their villages only a week or two 
previously. 



CHAPTER IX. 

BISHOP COUPE — ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSION — FAREWELL 
TO NEW BRITAIN — AN ILL-FATED EXPEDITION — ON THE 
W^\Y TO THE SOLOMON ISLANDS — ARRIVE AT RUBIANA 
— SUICIDE OF A NATIVE GIRL — MURDER OF A TRADER 
—THE TRADERS — A VISIT FROM INGOVA, THE 
GREATEST CHIEF IN NEW GEORGIA — A TRIP UP THE 
RUBIANA LAGOON — MEET WITH UNFRIENDLY NATIVES 
— PHOTOGRAPHY UNDER DIFFICULTIES. 

Whilst we were in New Britain we received an invita- 
tion from Monsei<(neur C()ii})e, the Konuin Catholic bishop 
and the head of the Sacred Heart Mission in New Britain, 
to hinch with him, and we gladly availed om'selves of 
the opportunity of goin<( over this excellent Mission. We 
spent a most delightful day, and after luncheon listened 
with much interest to an acctjunt of the formation and 
development of this religious sect here, and took one or 
two photographs of the children and also of the sisters 
attached there. 

It appears this mission was founded as far back as 1845, 
when l^ishop Epal, with twelve missionaries, sailed from 
Svdnev to the Solomon Islands, landing first at St. 
Christoval. After a short visit, and not considering this 
a serviceable site for the establishment of the Mission, they 
sailed on to the island of Isobel, where they were at once 
attacked, the natives wounding the bishop and two of 
the missionaries. Unfortunately the former died three 

8 



98 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

days afterwards on board the ship. The survivors then 
returned to St. Christoval, where they at once foniied a 
mission settlement. After a few months here one of tlie 
fathers died, and a ferocious attack made upon tliem by 
fhe natives resulted in the death of three more, who wercj 
eaten by the savages. The remaining few were besieged 
by the natives. This siege lasted for six months, but at 
the expiration of this time a vessel arrived from Austraha 
with another bishop on board. Under cover of the dark- 
ness they managed to send a letter to the ship by a 
friendly native, informing the new comers of the state of 
siege in which they were, when a j)arty at once went 
ashore and rescued them from their perilous situation. 
They then made sail and departed for Woodlark Island, 
and established themselves there. But discovering it to 
be too small a field for the labours of so many they se])a- 
rated, the bishop and some of the fathers going to Kcjok 
Island, off the coast of New Guinea, where a Mission was 
formed. Fever, however, raged to such an extent in both 
of these islands that they migi-ated to Fiji, where they 
remained for some time, the Italian Missionary Society 
there rendering them every possible assistance. Here the 
bishop died, and fever killing many more of them they 
abandoned the Mission for the time being. During many 
subsequent years the work of the Sacred Heart proceeded 
irregularly in this part of the world. But in 1889 the 
society sent out five missionaries to establish a distinct 
vicariat in New l^ritain under a bishop. For nearly a 
year and a half after their arrival they were forbidden by 
the German New Guinea Company to prosecute their 
ministrations or in any way to attempt to interfere with 
the natives. But after a huge amount of coiTespondence 
the permission was obtained from Berlin. In the mean- 
time, however, it had been decided by the officials to 
estabhsh distinct districts — one for the Protestant and 






w% 


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(■■ 


i 


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. • •• 












METHODS OF THE MISSION. loi 

^ another for the Catholic missionaries. Permission to do 

this had again to be obtained from the Foreign Office in 
Beriin, pending which the members of tlie Sacred Heart 
were obHged to refrain from all work and to remain inac- 
tive. About this time Bishop Coupe was appointed with 
the title of *' Vicariat Apostolique " of New Britain. 
This comprised Xew^ Britain, Bismarck archipelago, 
British and Gennan Solomons, and the Admiralty group. 
In 1890 he visited Europe for the pur[)();se of being 
consecrated, and went to Berlin to decide the question of 
district for the labours of his Mission. Again, during the 
whole time he was absent, the missionaries had to 
preserve a policy of masterly inactivity. Immediately on 
his return, however, the good work began, and has ever 
since been pushed forwai'd with the greatest energy and 
success. The plan the bishop has adopted, and which to 
my mind is a most admirable one, is, firstly, to thoroughly 
educate the children in order to totallv eradicate the old 
native habits and customs, and to establish an entirely 
new rajime. The first stage of this curriculum consists 
in the adoption of as many small native chihh'en as 
possible, and giving them a good moral and secular 
education as far as their intelligence will permit. 
Secondly, to teach them thoroughly useful industries, 
trades, and agriculture, and thirdly, when they have 
arrived at a marriageable ag(» they will be established in 
villages on the land which the Mission has already 
acquired from the natives. The Mission will endow each 
young couple with a certain amount of land, stock it with 
cattle, assist them in planting it with cocoanuts, and also 
in the building of a house. At the present moment both 
boys and girls are being well educated. IMiey are obliged 
by law to be taught to read and write in German. Their 
comforts as regards clothes and food are thoroughly 
considered. Several brave ladies have left their friends 



I02 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

and homes and have come out to take char^^e of the little 
girls. 

A large stone church is contemplated. I^lans have 
already been drawn up by the bishop himself, and it is 
to be entirely built by the brothers of the Mission, who 
have left their native country for ever to propagate this 
good work. Mr. Parkinson, the manager of the Ralum 
estate, during cmr visit presented the Mission with several 
thousand acres of good land, lying within easy distance. 
This munificent gift was most tliankfully received by the 
bishop, whose whole heart and soul is in his work. 

One June*21st we embarked on a small schooner, having 
made aiTangements with the captain to take us down to 
the Solomon Islands, and bidding farewell to all our kind 
friends at lialum, set sail in the afternoon, anchoring 
next morning at Cocoanut Island, which adjoins the coast 
of New Ireland. Near here was the spot chosen by the 
members of the ill-fated Marquis de Ke expedition as 
their settlement. If my memory serves me rightly, this 
expedition was propagated some twenty-five years ago by 
a Frenchman, the Marquis de Ke, who collected an 
enonnous smn of money in some French ])r()vinces, and 
led the more uneducated people to believe that he had 
discovered a countrv veritablv flowing with milk and 
honey, where a new republic was to be formed and, 
apparently, every one was to be the president. Many 
thousands of poor deluded Frenchmen were canied away 
by the outrageous promises held out to them, and handing 
over the savings of their life-time, were put on board old 
and unseaworthv crafts, which had been chartered or 

ft ' 

bought for the ]mrpose, their destination being New 
Ireland. Needless to say, a great number never reached 
that countrv at all, whilst others onlv arrived to be 
immediately killed by the natives. The prime mover in 
the scheme was subsequently aiTested and suffered a term 



JFE PROCEED TO RUBIANA. 107 

of imprisonment, but I believe died before the expiration 
of his sentence. I have seen mvself the remains of more 
than one of these ill-fated vessels, and I have also taken 
from the natives, who were wearing them as ornaments, 
a great many small bronze religious tokens, which had 
doubtless been stolen from the unfortunate victims of this 
expedition. 

We lay at anchor here all night, but did not think it 
wise to go on shore, although a great many of the natives 
pressed us to do so. The next morning we made all sail 
for Alu, a small island otY Shortland in the Solomon 
group ; and after many days of contraiy winds and calms, 
we arrived there on July 2nd. 

Here we found an Englishman trading. 

It had been our intention to remain here for a short time 
to collect specimens of natural history among the surround- 
ing islands, viz., Bouganville, Choiseul, and Ysabel ; but we 
found the trader was then in the act of building a new house, 
and literally had no acconmiodation to otfei* us, and so we 
decided to go on to Kubiana, where we wvw sure to find 
a hearty welcome from the Knglishmen trading there. 
During the passage down we passed an Austi'ian man-of- 
war. Thev very kindly hailed us and asked us if we were 
in need of any pi'ovisions. lic^plying in the negative we 
kept on our course, but on acctount of the contrary winds 
it was many davs ere we reached our destination. 

•• •■ 

One evening, at about H.8(), we witnessed a very beautiful 
sight: although quite dark the heav(*ns were suddenly lit 
up by a perfect lunar rainbow stretching from horizon to 
horizon. 

On tlie following Sunday we arrived at Nusa Sanga, 
a very small island Iving at the entiance of the Kubiana 
lagoon and off the coast of New (reorgia. 

The next morning we took up our abode on the ishand 
under the hospitable roof of a young Australian who 
was trading there. 



io8 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

This island is only two acres in extent, and is one 
on which the British fla^ was hoisted when England 
recently undertook the protection of the Solomon Islands. 
We found the trader in great trouble, owing t(j tlie death 
of his housekeeper, which liad occurred on the previous 
evening. She had successfully hanged herself from a 
beam in the house, it being the third attempt she had 
made upon her life. On the two previous occasions she 
had been cut down when in a dying ccmdition. We 
heard, too, of the death of another young Englishman 
named Guy, who had been assassinated a few days pre- 
vious to our arrival by the natives a few miles further up 
the lagoon, and his head was the only part of him our 
friends had been able to recover. This was a most 
diabolical murder, the more especially as Mr. Guy was 
very popular amongst all the natives. Unfortunately for 
him in this instance he allowed their canoes to come up 
on either side of his boat for the j)ur[)ose of trading, and 
while in the act of stooping to pick up some articles of 
trade he was set upon from both sides and tomahawked 
to death. 

These natives are not only head-hunters and canni- 
bals, but nuike no secret of it whatever. They are 
the most treacherous of all the people of the South Seas, 
and when apparently on the most friendly terms are only 
awaiting a favourable opportunity to catch the stranger 
unawares, and to add one more head to their already huge 
collection. I may say that during the whole of my visit 
I hardly ever had mv revolver out of my hand. 

The morning after our ariival we received a visit from 
Ingova, the greatest chief and at one time the most 
successful head-hunter of liubiana. He was a pleasant, 
intellectual man, and spoke pidjin English very well. He 
invited mo to ])ay him a visit, when he said he would show 
me his canoe houses, his wives, and all his belongings. 



THE RVIUAXA LAGOOX. 113 

H'j is on the most friendly terms with all the traders 
in the neighl)ourliood. After considerable persuasion, 
backed by some small presents, he allowed me to take liis 
photograph. 

The Rubiana lagoon, with its many thousands of cocoa- 
nuts waving along the beach, and the many villages dotted 
here and there along its shores at intervals of about half 
a mile, presents a most picturesque appearance, and one 
would scarcely believe that there was lurking amongst 
tliose waving cocoanuts and within those rustic-looking 
little houses a ferocious treachery entirely unknown to 
men of the civilised world. 

During one of my collecting expeditions which I took 
daily to the mainland of New (Georgia, and when some 
few miles from the coast, there suddenly sprang up before 
me about a dozen natives who ap|)eared anything but 
friendly, and as 1 knew they had been unfortunate lately 
in their head-hunting excursions I considered discretion 
to be the better part of valour, and so hurriedly returned 
to the coast. 

Our stay here was attended with much malaria, passing 
more than half the time in our beds. Nevertheless, a very 
fair collecti(m of natural history sj)ecimens was taken. 

The first l^iglish trader to be regularly estal^lished in 
this group, Fergusson by name, is l)uried on this island. 
He fell a victim to the treachery of these natives whilst 

« 

trading amongst them, and I could mention a score of 
others who sutTered a like fat(». 

(Jne morning, when feeling free from feviM*, I made a 
short cruise up the lagoon and called upon a Mr. Wick- 
ham, who is one of the oldest traders in tlie group. After 
lanching with him, I proceeded a few milc^s further to the 
village of J^mga Panga, when' I managed to collect a 
few rare specimens of lej)i<loi)tera, and also took a photo- 
graph of the village, nc^t without v(?ry great difficulty, as 

9 



CHAPTER X. 

TIIH FATE OF THE ** ESPEUAXZA " — PUEPARIXCi FOU A 
DEATH FEAST — SOLOMON ISLAND WAR CANOES — A 
HOUSE OF SKL'LLS — WE VISIT THE ISLAND OF 
YSABEL— HOSPITABLE NATIVES — NATIVES WHO HUILD 
THEIR HOUSES ON THEE-TOI'S. 

A SHORT time ii<^^) a schooner niiiiied the K.^iperanza 
anchored in Ariel Cove, Kulahan^'a, an island near here, 
to trade witli the natives for copra. Tiiere were two 
white men on l)oard with twi-lve l>lack sailors. The 
natives told them thev had a lar<^e (luantitv that thev 
would sell tliem in their c:)[)ra hous(\s, l)iit thev required 
the helj) of some of tlie men to carry it down to tlie 
l^each. The traders unsuspectin^dy sent some of their 
men in the boat to fetch it. At a ^dven si<^mal from the 
shore the natives who were on tluj schooner suddenly 
seized the two En^dislimen and tomahawked them to 
death, the crew sutTerin^^ a like death at the hands of the 
j)e()ple in the villat^e. The ship was then looted and after- 
wards l)urned. 

I Indieve a man-of-war has since been then^ to punish 
them, but as they invarialdy run into the Imsli on per- 
ceivint( its smoke on the horizon little or no harm has 
been done to them, and until some more strenuous efforts 
are made to punish the natives for their wron^^ doings 
murders like this will be carried on daily throughout the 
South Sea Islands, and with impunity. The only punish- 

119 



i 



I20 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

ment inflicted upon them up till now is the burning down 
of their houses, but as these arc built of bamboo and 
palm-leaves tied together they are always re-erected in a 
few hours.* A few days before leavin^^ I paid a visit to a 
village in the Rubiana lagoon, for the purpose of wit- 
nessing the ceremony of preparing for a feast, on account 
of the girl who had hanged herself. I entered a low- 
roofed house in the village, which, until my eyes became 
accustomed to the uncertain light, apj)cared to be in total 
darkness. After I had remained a few minutes within I 
discovered that there were at least fifty people lying on 
the ground, and i)icking my way amongst them 1 was 
directed to the spot set apart for the mother of the 
deceased girl. This woman, according to the custom of 
her country, was not allowed outside her house, nor allowed 
even to w\ash herself for a hundred and fifty days after 
the death of her daughter. My visit was paid on the 
thirtieth dav after the occurrence, but even then there was 
so much dirt and tilth caked upon her face and body that 
her features were entirely hidden, and the smell was 
almost unbearable. 

Not long after this I paid a visit to Ingova, and he very 
kindly brought out and manned one of his war canoes, or 
Tomakos as they are called, for me to photograph. These 
canoes, of which he has seven or eight, are magnificently 
constructed without the aid of one single nail, the planks 
being laced together with rattan, and the whole covered 
over w'ith a species of chinam. They are very much 
decorated with carvings and are inlaid with quaint designs 
in mother-of-pearl from stem to stern, and are capable of 
holding from fifty to sixty warriors. Whilst gazing \vonder- 
ingly upon these beautiful specimens of uncivilised art, 1 

■-' Were tlie (iovcrniiient to send out such a man as Captain Davies, 
K.X., late of H.M.S. Jini/alist, and fjive liini a free lianil for two 
years, I thorouj^hly believe that head-huntinfj;, murders, and other 
atrocities would eease to be enacted in this group. 




i 



/: 



7 
ir. 



DISTENDED EARS—HEAD-HUXriXC. 125 

observed a l)oy with very lar<^ely diRtended ear-lol)es, and 
requested Inorova's permission to photo<jfrap]i him. This 
was immediately f^iven, and the boy, who was tennbly 
frightened throughout the ordeal, was rewarded with a 
stick of tobacco. The lobes of his ears had been pierced 
in infancy, and from time to time had had sticks thrust 
through them, each succeeding stick being larger than 
the last, until arriving at the age when I met him they 
had been stretched to such a degree that they were hang- 
ing on to his shoulders, and it was quite possible to pass 
a small dinner plate through each of them. Although it 
is the custom of all Solomon Islanders to practise this 
habit T had never seen so remarkable a case as this 
before. 

T observed several large heaps of skulls under a dilapi- 
dated thatched roof l)ehind the canoe house. This place 
is the village temple. T could not induce the chief to 
speak about it, nor would he for any remuneration what- 
ever part with one of the skulls, which T presumed to be 
the heads of victims captured during one of his head- 
hunting expeditions. 

On July 24th Mr. Wickham verv kindlv offered to take 
us for a week's cruise to Praslin harbour, on the north 
coast of the island of Ysabel. 

After two days' sail through the Hawthorn Sound * 
we arrived at Po-po, a village in Ysabel standing up(m 
rocks which rise up perpendicularly from the water, 
and look as inaccessible as the rock of Gibraltar. 
These natives, who are of a peaceful nature, were 
driven to build their village in this way owing to the 
hostility of the more warlike tribes further down the 

'■'• The name given to a harbour between Xew (leorf^ia and theishuid 
of Wana-Wana. In most places in tliis sound no ancliorage can be 
found, but vessels drawing any depth can tie up to the bank on either 
side. Foniierly there was a store of coal kept here for her Majesty's 
ships, but now discontinued. 



126 



THROVGH NFAV GUINEA. 



coast. After some hours of hard chmbing we arrived at 
the top, where we received a Iiearty welcome from the 
people of the village. The view which presented itself 
from this point was exceptionally fine, and I have seldom, 
in my travels to all parts of the world, seen anytliiiif:; 
so magnificent as the view I saw on this occasion, and of 
which I took a photograph. 




This island was a fine field for the collection of lepi- 
doptera and coleoptera. The natives, too, vied with each 
other as to who could bring the greatest numher of 
specimens — beetles and insects of all kinds— but in almost 
every instance they sjxiiled what tlioy caught by rough 
handling, and we were obliged to throw them away. 

The women, better looking than the generality of females 
in these islands, were not at all shy, and were eimtinuully 



k 



HOUSES IN THE TREE-TOPS. 133 

paddling out in their canoes from the shore to the schooner, 
lying about on the decks the whole of the day and some- 
times a great part of the night. 

Occasionally the natives in Ysabel, besides building 
their villages resembling forts, as in the case of the village 
of Po-po, build their houses on the tops of trees. Some of 
these houses arc 80 to 100 feet from the ground, and are 
reached only by ladders made of bamboo and rattan. In 
the distance they appear like enormous birds' nests some 
twenty feet in circumference and surrounded by a small 
platfonn with a hole in the middle, through which any 
enemy ascending can be killed by having stones dropped 
upon him. 



CHAPTER XI. 

DISCOVERY OF THK SOLOMON ISLANDS — NATIVE TYPES — 
MURDERS — MANY ENGLISHMEN KILLED. 

The Solomon Isles, of which we at home knew compara- 
tively little or nothin;:^ until a few years ago, were 
discovered by the Spanish explorer Mendana in 1507, and 
extend for a distance of over ()0() miles, N.W. and S.E. 
The natives were very friendlv to him, hut were dis- 
gusted when he at once threw overboard the present 
which the chief sent him, consisting of a quarter of a boy 
with one hand and arm attached. 

The rainfall is considerable, but the climate infinitelv 
superior to that of New Cluinea. From the time when 
Mendana first discovered these islands for upwards of 
two hundred years we do not hear of their having been 
visited, until in 17(37 a vessel was fitted out and sent on a 
voyage of discovery to the South Pacific. This ship, The 
SwalloWj conmianded by Captain Carteret, sighted theiiL 
Subsequently many officers, among them being Lieutenant 
Shortland, Mons. Bougainville, Admirals D'Entre, Castre- 
anx, and I)'Ur\ille also visited the group. The islands 
are volcanic, and on manv of them there are to be seen 
mountains ranging fnmi five to ten thousand feet in height. 
On the island of Bougainville and some few others in the 
group, the volcanoes are still active, occasionally belching 
foi'th tongues of Hame to the terror of the natives. 
Earth(]uiikes iu\) of very frequent occurrence, and during 

134 



THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 135 

my visit to the j^roiip T experienced many micomfortable 
sliakin^^s on account of tliem. The shores of most of the 
ishmds are fringed witli man<(roves, and most of the 
country is clothed with dense forest and prolific under- 
t^rowth. Nevertheless, on Bou<(ainville, Choiseul, Ysabel, 
and Guardalcanar there is much excellent land, the last- 
named especially being very fertile. The inhabitants are 
Papuans, although the ^lelanesian type as well as the 
Polynesian can easily l)e distinguished in various parts of 
the group. 1 also noted many natives bearing unmistak- 
able Hebraic features, and their aptitude for trade and the 
keenness with which they execute their various dealings 
would lead one almost to believe that they comprise one 
of the lost tribes of Israel. Tliev are one and all cannibals, 
frightfully cruel and terribly treacherous, i lead-hunting 
seems to be their only occupation, and the practice of 
offering up human sacrifice on even tlie most trival 
occasion prevails tlu'oughout the gioup. 

It was not far from the island of Mandoliana that Jiiiuit. 
l^owen of If.^I.S. ,SV///r/////. and also a nund)erof his boat's 
crew, were killed in ISHO at the hands of a head-hunting 
party close to where I was staying. And when I was at 
Kubiana thei'e was head nionev offered for the heads of 
certain natives who had displeased a certain chief. On 
manv occasions the same reward has been offered for the 
heads of white men ; 1 was tluM'efore cautioned never to 
move without my revolver in hand, llead-bunting raids 
are constantly being organised upon villages near at hand, 
but never has it bei^i known that any one expedition has 
been formed and sent out to any particular village without 
first bein«' confident that thev were attacking a verv nuich 
weaker party than their own. On these occasions every 
available canoe is manned, some of the larger ones holding 
as manv as sixtv warriors, who, armed to the teeth, set 
out on their nmrderous journey. 1 have been an eye- 



136 THROUGH XEW GllXEA. 

witness tr) more than one such expedition, when a large haul 
had been made and more tlian sixty trophies in the shape 
of heads had been captured, which were immediately smoke- 
dried and preser\ed by bein«( plastered over with cliinam. 
They were then taken to the temple or tambu house, when 
the chief made an oration mentionin*^ by name every 
successful warrior who had added to the store. The whole 
village then commenced a wild and frantic dance, brandish- 
ing their weaix)ns until they all fell to the ground in a 
state of absolute frenzv and exhaustion. On one occasion 
the excitement increased to such a degree that I grew 
rather apprehensive, and so slowly walking to the boat I 
regained it and returned home, not, however, without 
being the recipient of many scowling looks and yells from 
the excited rovsterers. 

Gratitude is, we know, rare enough even in the civilised 
world, but it is a nomen incogftitum in the Solomon Islands. 
The captain of the schooner wln) eventually took us to 
Sydney told me that in one dehbenitely planned attempt 
to murder him and his crew the ringleader had been a 
man wliom he ha<l previously nui*sed back from sickness 
to health and for whose welfare he had d<me all that lay 
in his power. 

The natives may be considered a finely proiX)rtioned 
race although slightly under the average height of man ; 
they are considerably darker than the natives of New 
Britain. Eacli island has its own particular dialect, and the 
people are for ever at war with one an<>ther. 

The fact that these islands lie out of the track of all 
steamers probably accounts for the neglected condition in 
which thev have been allowed to remain. Thev are easily 
accessible nevertheless, being at the extreme east of New 
Guinea, and within the last few veai*s a considerable ti*ade 
has \)vcn opened up and a ^aeat deal more would be done 
were it not that the natives are such fierce head-hunters 



i 



J/ANV ENGLISIIMEX KILLED. 139 

<an(l cannibals, "cooked man" hii\\\\i^\\\ki\x inhcc de resistufice 
as the pate dr foie (jra.s is to the civilised <(ourniet. 

Their weapons are spears, bows, and arrows. The 
former, tipped with barbs of human bone cleverly 
inserted and of most formidable appearance, are <(enerally 
about ten feet in len<j^th ; they are occasionally poisoned, 
but such instances are rare. The arrows, wiiich are made 
not unlike the spears in appearance, are beautifully carved, 
and many hours of laborious work are spent upon each. 
The majority of natives wear no clothing whatever, and 
even thosii who wear a narrow band of cloth use the 
scantiest j)ossil)le quantity. A gieat many ornaments 
are worn both by men and womcMi, ])earl shell and pig 
teeth being mo';tlv used ; but ihev have a beautifully 
linished arm-ring made from tiie clam shell, and rubbed 
down on sandstone to an ex({uisite fineness. These 
latter are greatly prizL'd, and it was with considerable 
difficulty that I obtainiMl some ])e:fect specimens. 

I believe som:^ vears ago, when iMiglishmen lirst took to 
recruiting labour for tlie Queensland plantations in this 
group, seveial instances of gieat cruelty were practised 
towards the natives, and I am glad to say the offenders 
were severely punished, as in the case of the Hopeful, and 
manv others too numerous to mention. And dearlv have 

• %,■ 

the Knglish traders wlio have settled there within the last 
sixteen years suffenMl through it. The following is a list 
of a few of the men who had been murdered for apparently 
no reason vhatevei*: — 

Captain Fergusson, Ca])tain Townsend, James Morrell, 
I'homas Dobell, fjieutenant l^ower, K.X., an entire boat's 
crew of H.M.S. Sundjiij, J. II. Cooper, Charles Ladden, 
Willijim Dobell, W. Child, Captain Craig, Frederick 
Howard, Captain Havie, Mi'ssrs. Nelson, Adams, Quim, 
Martin, Donald Guy, a Government agent and liis boat's 
crew, F. Nyburg, Jeffrey, Klsden and four saihn's, Arm- 
strong, and scores of others. 



HO THROUGH NFAV GUINEA, 

Of the traders at present in the group I met nearly all, 
and found them a very generous-hearted, hard-working, 
and self-sacrificing body of men, but they all have one 
common grievance. It appears that the Solomon Islands 
under the British Protectorate are open for pur2)oses of 
trading to all vessels of any nationality whatsoever 
while that portion of the group annexed by the 
Genuan Kmpire is open only to Germans, or to 
foreigners on payment of an annual licence tl2 10s. 
But, as in this case, the British subject, or whoever he may 
be, is not allowed to employ a native to work ashore, it is 
impossible to do any successful trade. 

Max Miiller has affirmed the justice of the idea that, in 
order to understand what the so-called civilised people 
may have been before they reached their higher enlighten- 
ment, w^e ought to study savage tribes such as we find 
' them still at the present day ; it is a lesson w^hich has 
been taught us, applied to the stratification of the human 
race. 

I found throughout the Solomon group, and also in 
New Guinea, very many distinctly different languages, 
but in the latter place the dialectal variety is very much 
greater. 



CHAPTEK XII. 

VOYAGE TO SHORTLANI) — I hRKED THE OKNITHOPTERA — 
NARROW ESCAPE FROM THE NATIVES — VOYACIE TO 
SYDNEY — HOME. 

The last few days reiiiaiiiin<j; to us — for the schooner had 
arrived which was to take us to Sydney — I spent ahnost 
entirely in New Geor^^ia collectin*^^ the fauna of that 
country, and many pleasant hours were spent roaniinp; 
near the sea-shore, for after my former experience I did 
not deem it advisahle to ^^o very far inland. 

On the 12th oi Au^uist we sailed in the schooner lAwk 
for Sydney, she hein<; bound first for the Shortland Islands 
with provisions for the trader livin^^ there. On our 
arrival at Alu on the coast of Shortland, we found 
that there was much copra to he taken on board, which 
necessarily delayed our departure for a few days. T was 
not sorry, however, because it ^iwe us an opportunity of 
adding somethin*.^ more to our already large collections, 
and the captain havin*^^ kindly lent us his boat we made 
many excursions to the various islands in the nei^^hbour- 
hood. Amon<^ other thinj^s, we obtained very many 
specimens of the Ornithoptern D'Un'illicifia, both in the 
buttei'fly state and in the puptp — many of the latter I 
hatclied in my cabin on the way to Sydney. It may 
be interesting to know that innnediately after this 
ornithoptera is born it resembles very much the 
Ornithoptera PriamiiSy and only assumes its blue colour 

141 



142 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

an hour or two after coining to life. I also hatched one 
specimen of the Ornithoptera Victoria , which was born 
two days before our arrival in Australia. 

The day before we left I took the boat and one or 
two natives with nie to an island sonic few miles dis- 
tant, in the hopes of obtaining particular species of 
lepidoptera which I knew to exist there. On arriving 
at the village, which was situated a few yards up from 
the beach and densely surromided by cocoanut trees, I 
looked in vain for the inhabitants, who had not put in 
any appearance, as they usually do on the landing of a 
stranger. This augured of evil, as the native is in the 
habit of remaining inside his house on the arrival of anv 
person he does not wish to see. I took very little notice 
of this as I had a gun and revolver with me, but left 
two boys with the boat with distinct instructions not to 
leave it under any circumstances. 

Betuming after an hour or two spent in the forest with 
the object of my visit safely stowed away, I found all the 
men of the village assembled together in the council 
house — at least a hundred in number — apparently much 
excited and gesticulating wildly. On perceiving me they 
all pointed at me, and at the same time cast by no means 
friendly glances in my direction. I sauntered directly up 
to the chief, and, slapping him on the back, offered him 
a cigar and at the same time intimated that I required 
some cocoanuts to drink, and after some hesitation and 
delay they were brought. Knowing quite well that 
they w^ould not attack me from in front, I placed my 
back against a tree before quenching my thirst and 
appeared apparently quite unconcerned, although I was 
quite aware of the dangerous position in w^hich I was. 
Again walking up to the chief, I shook him by the hand, 
and, turning away, slowly walked down to the beach 
without turning my face from the people, and I was by 



RXD OF OCR FIRST FXPEDITION. 143 

no means sorry to find nivself safe in tlie boat once more, 
r attributed my safety, and T can but little doubt that 

• • • ' 

r owed my life, on this occasion, to the fact that I, 
apparently inadvertently, displayed a lar^re revolver as 
well as the shot ^nni which I had slun^ over my shoulder. 

On tlie 2*2nd of Au^^ust we left for Sydney, where we 
did not arrive until the iHth of September, after a month 
of terrific weather, experiencin<^' very frij^ditful hurricanes, 
and on more than one occasion we wen? compelled to 
heave to. Durin<( such times I was ol)li<^'ed to keep 
to my bunk as, still verv weak from the; effects of the 
malaria contracted in New (iuinea, I did not seem to 
possess enou<^di stren«(th to be clin<^nn<{ on outside. 

Sydney harbour was at len«j;th entered, however, and 
after a stay of two or thn;(; days we cau«dit the mail 
steamer and arrived in JMi^land on the lUth of November, 
1H<)4. 

Our collections durinj^^ this ex])editi()n, of which a 
partial list is <^iven in the A))))endix, comprised s(mie 
Ki.OOO s))ecimens of le))idoi)tera, and a <,n'eat many orni- 
thological s))ecimens, and coleoptera, besides numerous 
snakes, mammals, and etlmolot^ncal specimens, and not a 
few species of the different orders were, I am ^dad to 
say, new to the scientific world. 



PART n. 

CHAPTER I 

ARHIVAL IN JAVA- JATAVIA — THE A1^"Ti»JiY OF THE 

I»I'T<H AT WATEKI.'H^— hKAT'TirTL P.riTENZoRO THE 

h^»TAVI< AL *\1::*}:S lALA* r. ••>■ THE G<i\'ERNOR- 

OENEJJAL — A TE\ ESTATE — A ZrN>L«>,KAL COLLEC- 
TION — MY VI^IT T<' A HEALTH KE?-«.»RT — A NATTVE 
THE\T};E. 

In thf- autumn '.f l^jgri I Mart«-<^ f«»r iiiv >ct.N»nd and l>v 
far ili«r uii*r*f l»-nLtl]y exiHr*iiii*.n. Travelling: overiand 
by Tarii- t" Mar-^ ill^-. I iliin- t*»«'k a Mt-s>ai:erie Mari- 
tiijjt' ^i^-iiiiif'T. all'] a iij^ntlj ^r >«• later I arrivetl at 
Sin^rajMin . \v]i»-rt' I <.nly n'iijain».-.i **ue ninht. and, tran- 
slii|»j»M::: ii;t*» "U*- «»f tin- c'«iii[»ain's <inalK-r steamers, 
I r»'a«:l;«'«j I^atavia ..ji the Kt *»{ Xi»vemlH:*r. Hen? I 
was oblij.'»-<] t*» rtrinaiii f«»r >'»mf **hort time as I was 
d^r-irou- i.f ♦iiL'aLniiL' -"lur M:ilay> t<» take with me to 
tlir- fartiit-r Ka-t. Tht-r^r lia- \h.'vu >*• much written 
alr»'a«]y '»f Java an«i it- 'it'iH: ii«uncies that it is not my 
irit»:riti"ii to dwt-11 luurli «.ii that iountrv, hut merelv to 
<:iv»' a 'I--' riiitiMii ..f the phi.-t-- aiui plantations I per- 
•^•iially vi-itt'i. ainl ..f tlu- -^•vial \ih- ..f the Dutch in 
N<fth<Tlan«]- Iniiia. 

On arrivin-j 'it Tanj'.ii_: I'li-.k. thr harl—ur fn»ui which 
Bjjtiivi;j i- r* a'K» •]. I t''«ni:.] I wa- ohliLTt .i t.« leave all inv 
ritl»- aii'i aiiiiiriiiiti.'ii m tlit- i.'U-t<'iii-. luui iliat I should 

144 



/?// TA VIA. 145 

only be penuittecl to take them into the country on 
obtaining a special permission from the Governor-General. 
This tlie J^ritish Consul very kindly arranged for me, at 
the same time obtaining a special permit to travel in 
Netherlands India for a period of one year. The small 
railway ninning to the harbour from the town passes 
through a verA* pretty bit of troi)ical scenery and, for the 
greater part of the distanci?, some five or six miles, side 
by side with one of those canals for which the Dutch are 
so noted. The town of Batavia itself has long since ceased 
to liold the residences of the European population, but 
is now set apart as the business portion. All the old 
mansions, with their massivi* staircases and wonderful 
carvings, are now turned into othces, or "go downs," 
as thev are called bv the merchants established there. 
A mile or two further on and one comes to the upper 
part of Batavia, called " WeJtt^vreden," which is un- 
questionably the finest of all Indian towns. It is to 
this part — the veritable Hyde Paik of Hatavia -that the 
l^uropeans, one and all, return aftrr the heat and labour 
of the day. And with one or two cxcc))tions, such as the 
l^isser Senin and the Passer Bahroc, where mav be seen 
Malay and Chinese shops, the wiiole of this part of 
the town reminds one of some beautiful park with its 
picturesque villas dotted here and there and built in rows 
and ai)proached by most pretentious carriage sweeps, 
and beneath the shade of truly superb tamarind trees 
with all their exquisite beauty of tropical foliage. It is on 
the verandahs and inside a great many of these very pretty 
villas, with their overhanging Bougainvillia and tropical 
creepers, that are exposed iov sale all European wares, 
for be it known the.se are the shops of Weltevreden, and 
1 nuist say that at night-time when they are all lit up — 
for electricity has ev(?n found its wav to this citv in the 
Far East — they remind one of so many fairy palaces 

II 



1+6 THROUGH NFAV GUINEA 

amongst tlie trees. But one can fonu no idea of the 
beauties of this wonderful city until a drive has been 
taken past tlie palace of tlie Govenior-General to the 
barracks of tlic cavalry, along by tlic Waterloo l*lain, 
and finishing by making a complete detour of the King's 
Plain, on tlie sides of whicli all the crenie de la crime 
of Netherlands Indian society resides. 

Of its buildings, the palace of the Governor-General, the 






IS, the opera house, and the Harmonic and C'on- 
conlia Chibs form the princi|»al. The Harmonic, which is 
the civilians' club, is (situated on the banks of the canal and 
near the palace, and on certain evenings during the week 
one of the military bands discourses bi-autiful nuisic in its 
griHinds. On these occiisions ladies arc admitted to tlie 
club- Til,' CoiK-onha. \vhi<:li is tlu- Tiiilitary dub, was 
limit by the English dining their occupaliim of Java 



THE KIXG'S PLAIN. 



1 4; 



at th« c(Jiiiiiien<;<?nieiit of tlie preMent century — a truly 
iiiatiriificeiit edifice witli its stately luills, and floored 
tliroiiKltout with Itiiliiin iiuirblc, it holds rank with the 
tineKt lmildin','H in the country. It stands amidst very 
extensive (,'nninds in tlie centre of which is erected a 
stand, and on Wednesdays and Katunlays, from 1) to I'i, 
one of the finest bands I have ever heard out of f^urope 
f^ves pleasure ti) the people. 




The private residences of the more wealthy |M)pulation, 
who, as I have already said, surround the Kind's I'lain, are 
truly beautiful. They are approached from the road by 
way of an avenue some fifty yards in length, the whole 
compound heiny encliised by a low stone wall. The 
houses tlieniselves are yenei-ally built on stone pillars 
niised a few feet from the t,'round, for health's sake, and 
are entered by ascending some marble steps, the whole 



148 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

house being surrounded by a very wide marble-floored 
verandah, and in the front of which may be seen invari- 
ably a large massive table, set round with innumerable 
rocking chairs — for the Dutch always sit round a table 
when talking to one another. 

The small EngHsh population of course, being, as usual, 
more energetic than the people amongst whom they are 
living, have successfully established a very excellent 
tennis club and golf links, and during the time I was 
there the formation of a polo club was on the tapis. 

In the centre of the Waterloo Plain and facing the 
whole line of Cavalry Bairacks, not at all unlike those of 
the Royal Artillery at Woolwich, towers a massive monu- 
ment, on the top of which is an absurdly small figure 
representing what I took to be a lion. Underneath is 
an inscription which states that this monument was 
** erected in memory of the battle of Waterloo, won by the 
Dutch, June 18, 1815." l^rave Hollanders ! ! ! 

Kunning through the principal streets of the town is a 
very well-constructed canal, by the aid of which all the 
refuse of the town is carried to the sea ; notwithstanding 
this native men, women, and children may be seen at 
all hours of the day and night either bathing, or washing 
their sarongs and their rice. 

A very neglige costume is worn throughout the day by 
the Dutch ladies. It consists of a sarong and kabaja, 
the former a long strip of native-made material, with 
very quaint designs printed upon it in many various 
colours. The size of this garment is that of a large bath 
towel, and it is deftly wound round the waist so as to con- 
ceal the two ends, which overlap. Reaching down as far 
as their ankles, it permits of the upper part of the foot 
being exposed to view; tlieir toes are invariably encased in 
the snijillost of velvet slippers embroidered with gold 
tliread. The kabaja resem])les very much our idea of 



nviriixzORC. 149 

a lady's rtressiiifj jjicktt. except that it luis nii fastening 
at all in the fn)nt, but is just held together by a small 
brnoch <ir safety-pin This costume is chantied in the 
evening for one more ccmventional. 

After a week or two spent licre I took ti-jiin to 
Buitenzorg, which is consiilereil the health resort of Java. 
It is situated H(>'i feet above the sea, and enjoys a 




r^es 



distinctly difforeTit climate to the nnich damper heat of 
Hatavia. Hero the (riivernor-Genenil makes his home. 
The palace, whieb is iiuilt on a Hkc in the centre of a 
mat;nitic(int park, is a most imposing building, and from 
the; gates IcHiking up the heautiful avenue of tamarind 
and canary trees, and with the many hundreds of deer 
that one sees grazing in all directions, one would scarcely 
re out of Europe. Here, 



believe this to be 



ISO THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

also, are the celebrated Botanical Gardens, which were 
estabhshed in 1817 by Reinwardt, and have long since 
become well known all over Europe. They contain a 
collection of palms second to none in the world, besides 
thousands of other rarities which are not to be seen else- 
w^here. Connected with these gardens is a huge labora- 
tory, intended for botanists visiting Java. Scientific men 
have come from all parts of the world to see and study 
here. 

From the hotel at which I staved there is, I consider, 
one of the grandest views the world contains. At one's 
feet is the valley of Tjiliong, down the centre of which is 
rushing a mountain torrent where the natives are daily 
bathing, and on either bank can be seen their little pictur- 
esque villages, peeping out from beneath the stately cocoa- 
nut palms, and in the distance the wood-covered slopes of 
the Salak mountain gradually ascending to a height mostly 
hidden by the clouds, but in the early morning from the 
summit of whose peak can be seen the wreaths of smoke of 
an active volcano. Whilst here I received an invitation 
from a Dutch gentleman, on whose tea plantation I had 
spent a most enjoyable fortnight some few years ago 
when on a visit to Java, big game shooting, and I 
quickly availed myself of his kind hospitality. Mr. Kirk- 
hoven, who is partly Scotch by descent, is one of the most 
charming Dutchmen it were possible to meet. His 
beautiful plantation, Sinagar by name, is well known 
now in Europe for the excellence of its tea. The estate, 
which is entirely lit by electricity, is some few miles 
from Buitenzorg, and is reached either by carriage or by 
train. 

The house itself is a massive edifice of stone, of verv 
large pr()))()rti()ns, and built throughout for comfort. On 
the back verandah may ])e seen a teh^plione, by which 
communication can not onlv be made over the entire 



A BIG-GAME HUNTER, IS3 

estate, to the residences of the diflferent managers and 
overseers, but also over the whole of Java if the operator 
so wishes. 

jNIr. Kirkhoven owns a very valuable stud of thorough- 
bred horses, and is also the president of the Racing 
Club in Java, and the winner of inniunerable racing 
cups. His partner, Baron von Heckeren, who also 
resides at Sinagar, was pleased to show nie the many 
hunting trophies he had gained, for he and Mr. Kirk- 
hoven are without doubt the gi*eatest " shikarras " in 
Netherlands India, passing some months in the autunm 
of each year on a big game expedition. It was here 
that a vear or two a<;o his Koval Highness the Arch- 
duke of Austria came and was shown so much sport 
by these two well-known hunters. Unfortimately my 
visit was spent at the wrong time of year for such an 
expedition, but I hope one day to be able to accept my 
friend's kind hospitality again, and shoot some tiger. 
Sinagar owns quite a large zoological collection, and at 
five o'clock each afternoon every living beast and creature 
on the estate is brought to the front of the house to 
receive a caress, a kindly word, and a handful of paddy 
(rice). A huge Sumatran elephant, showing magnificent 
ivory, is always first and foremost, the horses, the cattle, 
and sambwa deer, pigeons in all varieties from the 
beautifully crested Victoria pigeon from New Guinea, to 
the common fan-tail of Europe, all crowding round their 
master for their share ; and last, but bv no means least, a 
perfect specimen of the l^anting (wild bull) of Java, now 
perfectly tame through the energ\' and persevering patience 
of his worthy owner. 

After a few days spent here, and finding that my time 
was getting short, I was obliged, with many regrets, to bid 
farewell to the keenest sportsman and the most genial 
host it has ever been my good fortune to meet in the Kast. 



'54 



TUROVGH XEW GVIXEA. 



From liere 1 took train to Hoekaboenii , ii name wliich 
signifies the " desire of the world," another of Java's 
liealth resorts. I was advised that I should probably be 
able to en{»age the men required licre. With an avcrajio 
temperature of 75° Fahrenheit, and with onlv a moderate 
rainfall, SoekaiK)enii may be said to possess a most lovely 
climate. Standing on a hill above the town is a con- 
valescent establishment, where one can lodge upon veiy 
reasonable terms. 

Whilst liero I witnessed the iwrfonnance of the 




Wajang, a Javanese theatre in which the natives i>er- 
form n^presentations of ancient legends, wearing masks 
varying in colour and design according to the nature 
of person they represent. J*'or instance, should the 
actor be represt^nting a god, tliey are painted bkie, for 
a devil or evil spirit, red. I^^or giants or distinguished 
people the colour used is white. 'I'beir i)lays liist for some 
considerable time, and on some occasions I have witnessed 
part uf a perroniiance that has been going on for days. 
The actors tbrinsclvcs <1<. not speak their |)iirts. bul 
listening t.> tlie peison wlici is earcfullv concealed from 



A JAl'AXESE THEATRE. 155 

tlie audience, gesticulate according to the words whicli he 
gabbles off at some furious rate from an old book. The 
majority of the spectators, on the occasion of which I 
speak, consisted of persons of all classes, high and low 
caste Javanese, Malays, and Chinamen — some asleep, 
some engaged in earnest conversation, but not a single 
one paying any attention to the ])erformance. 



CHAPTEK II. 

NATIVES ARE UNWILLTNCI TO ACCOMPANY ME — AVE TAKE 
ON HOARD DYNAMITE — JAVA A TROPICAL GARDEN — 
THE BEAUTIFUL WOMEN OF RALI — RUINS OF HINDOO 
TEMPLES — LOMROK — PALACE OF THE LATE SULTAN — 
THE LOMROK AVAR — DEFEAT OF THE DUTCH — THE 
SI^TTEE : SELF-SACRIFICIN(^ WOMEN — MACASSAR— EX- 
CITABLE NATIVES — STORY OF TWO MEN WITH ONE 
WIFE. 

From liere I paid a visit to another tea plantation hi^di 
up in the mountains, some twenty miles distant. My 
luggage was carried by coolies for ten solid miles to the 
top, for the small sum of ten cents apiece, which equals 
twopence.* This plantation is owned by an Englishman, 
and is very prettily situated on the top of a range of 
mountains, many thousand feet above the level of the sea. 
I soon afterwards learned that the steamer would 
start in a few days for Macassar, and so I was obliged to 
hurry back to Batavia without any success as regards en- 
gaging hunters, for it appears that on the very mention of 
the name New Guinea the Javanese and Malays fly, and 
whether it be on account of the cruelty many of them 

'••' And as an instance of the many miles coolies are sent for little 
payment, I may mention that on one occasion durinj^ my stay here 
I received a letter bearing insnflicient jiostage, and two days later 
received a notice from a post-master tliirty-tlnee miles distant, and 
sent hy hand, tlie man lieing on foot, requesting the ])aym(.nt of i\\v 
cents, being the amount di:e on the unpaid letter. 



/ PURCHASE A YACHT. 157 

have received at tlie liands of certain planters there, the 
fear of sniall-pox, or whether it is hecause tliev have lieard 
so many cannibal stories of tiie Papuans, I cannot say, 
hut certain it was 1 (juite failed to en<(a<(e tlie services of 
any for my forthconiin*^' expedition to tliat country. 

Tlie native po])ulation of Java consists principally 
of Javanese, Chinese, Malays, and Arahs, and I 
believe there are over twentv millions of inhabitants 

■ 

in the island. Thev all exhibit a healthv, strontr, and 
well-fed appearance, for the most part excessively 
clean ; and their reli<j:ion, which prohibits the use of 
alcohol, assists them to be free from manv common 
diseases of more civilised nations. Naturallv a lascivious 
race, the continual (•i)ntact they have had with Kuropean 
people has proi)a*{ate(l ratlun* than diminished their love 
of vice. 

Before leavin<j Java I wrote to Hn<dand for a vaclit 
to be purchased foi* me, as I found the steam service 
was so irre^'ular to tlic countries I intended to visit, and 
to som.' there was no connnuuication whatever. \ there- 
fore made arran^^'cmciits for tlic purcliasc of a vessel in 
Austraha whirh should mci't nic in the Kei Islands, in 
the coui'sc of a few niontliN' time. 

P>iddin^' ^'oodbyc to Hatavia. I took passa^'e on 
one of the steamers of tlie Koninklijke Paketvaart 
Maatscha])])ij bound for Macassar, and two days later 
anchored in the roads oil Sov'iabaja, where we only 
remained a few hours to take in some (rases of 
dynamite. The town of Soerabaja is the second largest 
town in Java, and is situated on the eastern end of the 
island. It possesses, if possible, a hotter climate than 
that of Batavia, and altliou<;h a very large business centre, 
ha-i very few places of interest in (n* around it. I cannot 
leave Java, however, without savin<' how verv much 
struck I was with the beautiful scenerv thniuirhout the 



IS8 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

whole of the countiv, and from its tiuv railway winding 
over the numerous mountains and down into the depths 
of the many valleys, I saw tlie most lovely tropical 
scenery I had ever ^^azed upon. The prolific tropical 
undergrowth with its intense gi'een, the paddy fields 
fonning ridges up the slopes to the very summit of the 
highest mountains, the myriads of cocoanut palms, the 
picturesque villages, and the numerous rivers winding 
here and there in all directions, all combine to enhance 
the beauty of the scene, and to liken Java to one vast 
tropical garden. 

The next day, after lea\ang Soerabaja, we arrived 
at Boeleleng, on the island of Bali, and as we had 
some few hours to w-ait before the departure of the 
steamer again, I went on shore for the purpose of visiting 
some Hindoo temple a few miles in the interior. 
Engaging a ** sadoe " (pony carriage), after much diffi- 
culty, from a native, I drove to these temples, which 
date from the eighth century, and are built entirely after 
the Buddhistic style. In appearance they very much 
resemble, though on a much smaller scale, the famous 
temples of Boro Boedoer in Java. They contain innumer- 
able Buddhist images sculptm*ed in stone, with many tiers 
and ten'aces surrounding them, and although the temples 
are partially in ruins the frescos are in a wonderful state 
of preservation to-day. Spending a very pleasant hoiu- 
in examining the many beautifully sculptured bas-reHefs, 
and the many designs of the Buddhist sculptor, I then 
returned to the poii and took a stroll through the market. 
Bali is the only remaining Hindoo island in this group. 

Of the natives, the women are exceptionally beautiful, 
with erect carriage and with flowing black sarongs ; they 
present a striking contrast to tlie undersized Javanese. 

Passing along the coast and beneath the very shadow of 
the beautiful peak of Bali towering up int(j the clouds, 



••I ••,.•• 
• • t ! • • • • 



LOMBOK. 159 

we arrivcMl the next inornin*,' at Ainpeiiiuu in Lombok, 
and some ofticers of a Dutch man-of-war accompanied me 
on sliore. This place is the scene of the hite war vva^^ed 
a<,'ainst the Dutch on account of their interference in the 
native tribal troubles. The town, which is now strongly 
fortified, is surrounded entirely by ramparts, consisting 
of logs and fallen trends piled one on another. Many 
cannons are to be seen in the streets and sentries of 
])utch Indian troops are parading everywhere. The 
natives were originally Sassachs, but they were conquered 
1)V the 13iu'gis and have almost entirely disap})eared, but 
the few wlio do remain hold the ])resent occupiers of the 
countrv in undving hatred, willing and readv at anv 
moment to rise up and make a terrible onslaught on 
them. 1 paid a visit to llie ruins of the palace of the 
late Sultan, and also to tlie small Hindoo temple where 
the Dutch troops took refuge from tlie natives during^tlie 
massacre two years ago. The remains of the j)alace itself 
— for the Dutch (hu'ing the engagement almost entirely 
razed it to tlie ground — must have been of huge 
dimensions, covering many aci'es of ground, and must 
have been one of the most icmai'kabje palaces of the l^ist, 
for the Sultan himsrlf was one of the richest of all the 
Indian potentates. In the grounds is built a swimming 
bath some three-([uarters of a mile in circumference, and 
in the centre, b(*neath a richly carved circular eanojn', is 
a small resting lounge where the Sultan was in the habit 
of n^clining to view the dailv ablutions of the many 
hundred women wliich constituted his harem. This 
monarch was the instigator of the terrible attack made 
upon the Dutch in 181K^-U4, when a whole regiment of the 
latter, who were encamped on a small [>iece of open 
ground half a mile away from the palace, were suddenly 
surprised in the night and massacred to a man. 

This man taxed his people terribly, and the many 



i6c THROUGH \'EW GUISE A 



rfKe? be nc^:^c*i ;.. \*y ^ash^er i« wether the enor- 
n>"*a> n-.'^h^e* .i wLzci Le wi:? ibe p:«5«5<e:«<>r. caused him 
lo t«e n.'s^rL hfcScti. \\ ii nrpi-rtrti iLii *:»n his becoming 
aoizLkinicti wiih ir>e :-rier :si»;^ed £•:<• his capture, after 
itinf >r».*^oefiis fr.ci Jav^ hi»i srs-x-vsrfoily repulsed the 
natiTcs in Licit* k. be .-;fc;2?«i«i :•> t^ tLp>wii no less than 
twv* "ollIz^ c Kr-^iish -s* T^rfieL^ns ini* '-ce «»f his lakes, 
ba; w'oeth^rr :Li> t^r trse I -A'-r. ;: siy. He was after- 
wanis t^kkrc ».. JiTi. -Kber^ L-e ijcti vx-c after, the bonds 
♦ •f o;ipdviiT 'v^ iT^-- hT-ATi-j .£1 LiiL.. an-i his a*.»n. finding 
tha; he hAi liiil-e ,r "■; r» "^^er r^t,a:r>ini:. cv^mmitted 
soicrie. 

t>n ii-y walk iswk 5.. iL-e shir I |»S45<rti a native who 
ha^i fas:«rn-ei ::: his ^;fcr ci: wba: apf^eaned to me to be 
a ver>- r^r .^^ f>i^ y o;irvai kris nacve dagger*, and I 
askeri ^-w :.:- 1-e!: ni-ie exACiicie :5. and with much 
reiQctanot be ii. wL-ec I a; .-oo^ -iiso-Tened it to possess 
a tr-a^ivt: ^ li Ljkn-il-c. initio wiih 'ri.anK'Ods and other 
si.-C'es. A b'-^ rrxt: w^^s . 5rrv»i bin: : .-r it, bat he refused 
t»> s«el- I: :> my dm: c^li-rf :bi: tbis : sm>ed pan of the 
many :b :isAni pcints w nh i val-iii'jcs which were 
I > ic^t r^nn^ ::.^ sackir.^ > : *br mlac-v. 

I r>?*rrvtr»: ibais ^h^ lyiich weiv h-er^ er^^tini! very 
larc^ l;irTsok>, :n:ci:r.r>^ iris riJiC*: :.> i»:d a large 
rirr.^ n. : r ihrv >::!* trnienam i c^rsain amount of 
i-^'-i^ \z.hr. :b: r-iiiv-^^ miY i^iir. r:<^, ar>i im^ck^ if they 
'RrTr : * >. .:i a::% > r: f >v>:cii-a;:c way and with 
-3.:>:r-rn-^: ^tr.tr-.l^ : l-ri-.: ih-tiii. ih-r 1^'ch w.»ald find 



»^ 1— ^'i --tr-. I -^ .i.> : : :: in rXTrtrbnirv custom 
•1::.-^: ^_ :_ :..r ":_-.:: : >c .>.:— i-::lir::n. and 
- " - "-\ - _- :-i_t iJ:-.^-. ii-.f .1:: -• :•- w :: ihr hidian 

• • I r-, ; : :.- rt r-L.v i ir-fcnm-Mi of 

-' - ' -. :. : .--..: : !.:„:♦ * «:vesi-av suffer 



A MODiriED SUTTEE. i6i 

tliomselves to be burned Jifter tlie deatli of their husbands 
— they are not compelled to do it. They iiave the choice 
of allowing themselves to be burned or krised (disem- 
bowelled by the native da^j^'er). The first is the most 
rare. The wives of the liajahs, however, sutler them- 
selves to be l)urned. Having' been present at one of 
these horrible spectacles I will relate how it was c(m- 
ducted. The ^uisti, who died at Ampenan, left three 
wives. One of them would let herself be krised for his 
honour, and that a^^ainst the will of all on both sides of 
her family. The woman was still youn^ and beautiful ; 
she had no children. Thev said to me that a woman 
under such circumstances who sutl'ered herself to be killed 
had indeed loved her husband. She inti*nded to accom- 
pany him on his lon<,' journey to the ^'ods, and she hoped 
to be his favourite in the other world. Tlu* dav after 
the death of the <^aisti his wife took many baths; she was 
clothed in the richest manner, she passc^d the day with 
her friends in eatin<(, drinking', chewing' of sirrih, and 
prayin*^^ About tlu? middle of tlie space before the house 
thev had erected two scatlol(liii<^s of l);iml)o<), of the 
len^ah of a man. and three feet al)ove tlie ^nound. Tnder 
these they had ({\\\i a small pit, to receive the water and 
the blood that should ilow. In a small house at one side, 
and opposite these frameworks, were two others entirely 
similar. At four o'clock in the afternoon men brought 
out the body of the «^nisti wra])ped in linen, and placed 
it on the left of the two central platforms. A ])riest of 
Mataram removed the cloth from the bodv, while 
youn^' persons hastened to screen it from the public t(aze. 
They threw much water over the corpse, washed it, and 
covered the whole body with Howers. Tlu'y then bn^ujL^lit 
a whiti* net. Tht; priest took a cup tilled with water, on 
which he strewed some tlowers. lie first sprinkled the 
deceased with this water, and then jK^ured it throu^di the 

12 



i62 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

net on the body, which he blessed, praying, singing, and 

making various mystical and symbolical motions. He 

afterwards powdered it with flour of coloured rice and 

chopped flowers, and placed it on dry mats. Women 

brought out the wife of the gusti with her arms crossed, 

and she was clothed with a piece of white linen only. 

Her hair was crowned with flowei-s. She was quiet, and 

betrayed neither fear nor regret. She placed herself 

standing before the body of her husband, raised her anns 

on high, and made a prayer in silence. Women 

approached her and presented to her small bouquets of 

kembang, spatii, and other flowers. She took them (me 

by one and placed them between the fingers of her hands 

raised above her head. On this the women took them 

away and dried them. On receiving and giving back 

each bouquet the wife of the gusti turned a little to the 

right, so that when she had received the whole she had 

turned quite round. She prayed anew in silence, went 

to the corpse of her husband, kissed it on the head, the 

breast, below the navel, the knees, the feet, and returned 

to her place. They took oflf her rings. She crossed her 

anns on her breast. Two women took her by the arms. 

Her brother (this time a brother by adoption) placed 

himself before her, and asked her with a soft voice if she 

was determined to die, and when she gave a sign of 

assent with her head, he asked her forgiveness for being 

obliged to kill lier. At once he seized his kris and 

stabbed her on the left side of the breast, but not deeply, 

so that she remained standing. He then threw his kris 

down and ran off. A man of consideration approached 

her and buried his kris to the hilt in the breast of the 

unfortunate woman, who sank down at once without 

utterin*^ a cry. 

'* The women placed heron a mat, and sought by roHing 
and pressure to cause the blood to flow as quickly as 



JVE ARRIVE AT MACASSAR. 163 

possible. The victim bein*; not yet dead she was 
stabbed a^ain witli a kris between the shoulders. They 
then laid her on the second platform near her liusband. 
The same ceremony wliich had taken place for him 
now began for the wife. Both bodies were covered 
with resin and cosmetic stuffs, enveloped in white linen, 
and placed in the small sick-house on the platforms. 
There they remain until the time has come, when they 
are burned together. It is always a near relation who 
gives the first wound with the kris, but never father nor 
scm. Sometimes dreadful spectacles occur ; such was (me 
at which Mr. K. was present. The woman had received 
eight kris stabs and was yet (juitc; sensible. At last she 
screamed out, driven by the dreadful pain, ' Cruel 
wretches, are you not al)le to give me a stab that will 
kill me? ' A gusti, who stood bi'hind her, on this pierced 
her through and through witli his kris. The native 
spectators whom 1 had around me saw in this slaughter 
which took place before our eyes nothing sliocking. They 
laui^hed and talked as if it wen* an everv-dav occurnnice. 
The man who had given the last three stabs wiped his 
kris, restored it to its place in as cold-blooded a manner 
as a butcher would hav(* done after slauglitering an 
animal." And such a ceremonv is a modification of the 
Hindoo suttee. 

The next afternocm we set sail once more, and very 
soon afterwards the cone of that gigantic mountain on 
Lombok, and known as the (Toenoeng Kindjani, and the 
highest peak in the whole archipelago, was lost to view. 
On the morning of the 0th of l^ecinnijer we arrived at 
Macassar, and 1 at once took up my residence at the 
Macassar Hotel, kept by a half-caste Pa})uan woman, as 
the ship in which I came went no further, and, much to 
mv dismav, I found that I should be obliged to wait here 
for about ten days before the arrival of another that would 
take me fui'ther east. 



i64 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

Macassar is the chief town of Celebes, and is the 
eiuporium of the whole of the Moluccas. Bein*jf a free 
port, it carries on a very extensive trade with China, 
Australia, and Singapore. The entrance to the harbour 
is singularly picturesque, and entirely different from any- 
thing I have as yet seen. For miles along the sea-beach, 
from beneath the waving palms, can be seen the houses of 
the natives built upon high poles, sometimes in the 
water. There are hundreds of praus (native ships) to 
be seen riding at anchor, w^ith their strange, turned-up 
sterns. Many high, bamboo scaffoldings are everyw^here 
rising out of the sea, and used by natives to watch the 
position of the many shoals of fish as they enter into the 
hai'bour ; and the weird sound of the drum is continually 
heard, by which the native pi*au owners make known 
their arrival or departure. On shore the white houses 
of the Europeans enclosed by high, whitewashed stone 
walls, all help to make this a quaint. Eastern market — 
for as such the town of Macassar can be well described. 
The principal roads are overhung by lofty and beautiful 
trees, imparting to the town a very shady and cool appear- 
ance. On either side of these tamarind avenues are the 
residences of the European population. The first large 
building I came upon was the club, and here I may say, 
before going any further, that in every Dutch town I have 
visited one of the first and principal buildings is the club, 
on the verandahs of wliich are invariably to l)e seen the 
residents, either playing cards or bilhards or chatting 
together. In all these clubs I have never failed to find 
all the leading English papers, which goes a long way to 
prove that even the Dutchman holds the English Press in 
grciat esteem. Farther on, and about the centre of the 
town, is the residence of the Governor, a fine white 
building, entered through two huge and massive gates 
bearing the arms of Holland upon them ; the other 



ONE WIFE BETWEEN TWO, 165 

principal buildinpjs l)ein^ tlie hospital, the law courts, 
and the theatre. 

The town of Macassar is exceptionally clean. Alth<m<^h 
it is under Dutch rule it is necessary to obtain pennission 
from the Rajah of Goa before enterin<if his territory, which 
lies within a mile of Macassar, and even whilst I was 
here two Swiss ^i^entlemen, botanists and ^'eo<(raphers, 
upon penetratintr to the interior, were arrested and con- 
ducted back to the coast, as they were unable to show 
the necessary permit. Like every other Dutch colonial 
settlement I found here a verv first class militarv band, 
which plays on certain evenin»(s outside the club-house 
after dinner. 

On more than one occasion I accepted the hospitality 
of her Majesty's ship WilhcJminn, and the oihceis, who 
all spoke Ent^hsh perfectly, did everthin<^^ that lay in their 
power to make my enforccMl delay here a pleasant one. 

The natives, for the most part of ^lalay ori^nn, are of a 
much more excitable temperament than tin* inhabitants 
of Java — evei- ready to en^'a^^e in a (juarrel. They are a 
loud-speakinf(, dectntful race. The women, who differ also 
very much from the Javanese, wear the saron^^ hant,nn<^ 
in wide folds around them, whilst another sarong' is 
placed n^und their head and shoulders and is held up by 
their left hand. 

One mornin<( two native youn<; men, of about 
the a<^e of twenty-five, and brothers, called upon me, 
hearinf( that I was desirous of engaj^nng some hunters for 
my expediticm to New Guinea and other islands. They 
told me that either was willing' to <^'o, and I could choose 
which one I liked best, but thev would not both be able 
to do so. Bein<; willing to engage both, I asked them 
their reason for only one wishing to accompany me. 
Thev then said thev were verv sorrv, but as thev onlv had 

• • • ft. ' ft. » 

one wife between them, one, it did not at all matter 



i66 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

which, would have to stay behind to look after her. After 
a good deal of conversation I deemed it advisable not to 
engage either, fearing that after we had gone the pangs 
of jealousy might enter into the soul of the one I had 
with me, when he might desert me to return to the matri- 
monial and fraternal couch. 



CHAPTER III. 

I ARRIVE AT AMBOYNA — COSTUMES OF THE NATIVES — 
(JREAT DESTRUCTION BY EARTHQUAKE — THE 

RESIDENCY — I ENGAGE SOME HUNTERS — NATIVE 
FONDNESS FOR LAW — HANDA — THE GARDEN OF 
MOLUCCAS — NUTMEG PLANTATIONS — AN ANCIENT 
PORTIXtUESE fort — ARRIVAL IN NEW GUINEA — 
MURDER OF A MISSIONARY — I DEPART FOR THE 
KEI ISLANDS. 

On the 15th of December I left bv one of the Roval Steam 
Packet Company's steamers for Aml)ovna, and two days 
later entered the beautiful Bay of Ambon. Here again 
I was doomed to disappointment, for I discovered there 
to be no connection to the Kei Islands until the '2Hth inst. 
There was nothin^^ for it, therefore, l)ut to wait as 
patiently as possible, which under the circumstances I 
could hardly attempt with very g(;od grace. 

The town of Amboyna, whicli is very prettily situated 
between two high, precipitous tongues of land, with its 
white-painted liouses and the long stone walls of the fort 
which facetlie sea, presented a most pleasing picture from 
the landing pier, on which were crowded a great many 
gaily dressed natives, to welcome the arrival of the ship 
and to while awav the time. The roads, which are con- 
tinually being swept, cause a complete absence of dust, and 
the prolific colourings from the various crotons and shrubs 

167 



i68 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



which are to be seen ever>-where, make it altogether a 
model settlement. 

The natives, who are for the most part ChriKtians, 
do not wear tlie head coverinf; of tlie JIalay. They have 
a Btn)nfi mixture of PortiigucBe and Dutch blood in tlieir 
veinn, and as their food consists entirely of fish and sago, 
and is very easily obtained, the AmiMinesc are natniTilIy 
very lazily inclined. Tlie women, a.s is generally the csise 
when tinctured with the blood of Europeans, are much 




finer featured than the women of Java, and all don the 
sombre colour of blai'k. Everj' article is carried on their 
heads, and it is amusing sometimes to see a woman with 
(miy a glass bottle peivhed up in this jxtsition. 

On Sunday I was pnifoundly interested in looking 
at the iM'ople on their way ti) chuifh. The native 
costumes had iK-en thnwn aside for those more 
iip|iruachiiig civilisation — the men with black felt hats, 
long frock-coats and trousci-^, in some instances 
bo. .is. lint in every case white cotton gloves ; the 



AMROYNA, 169 

women with a lono^, wide dress of some black, shiny 
material, white stockin<^^s, carrying a long, lace pocket- 
handkerchief over the left arm, and with sharp-pointed 
shoes turned up at the toes, after the style of the sixteenth 
century, and one and all appearing most uncomfortable, 
and longing for the morrow, when everything is put away 
until the next Sabbath, and they can go about half nude 
and barefooted again. 

The Ambonese are a verv light-hearted and excitable 
race. By no means total abstainers, they are exces- 
sively fond of arrack and gin, making also a third 
fermented beverage from the juice of the sugar palm, 
which they have named " sageroe." They speak a 
mixtures of Malay and Portuguese, many of their words 
being of the latter language. This is excessively strange, 
inasmuch as it is more than 'ioO years since the Portuguese 
left the island, and there is not a single native living 
to-day who has any idea that his language is partially 
composed of a Kurojiean one. 

The houses, which are mostly built of stone, 
resemble the old stvle of early Dutch architecture, 
with their balconies facing the street. One misses 
very much the pretty little gardens always seen in 
front of the houses in Java. A second house is always 
built near at hand for the residents to take refuge in in case 
of earthquakes, so connnon here ; and indeed, since my 
visit, they have been visited with one of these subterranean 
explosions, almost entirely demolishing the town and 
carrying away the fort altogether. 

The ]{esidencv, some half mile behind the town, stands 
under the shadow of the precipitous volcjino, and is sur- 
rounded by a very extensive, park-like garden. One 
morning, soon after my arrival, the Governor himself 
paid me a visit, and excused himself not offering to me the 
hospitality of his house on the ground that his daughter 



I70 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

was very sick. There I engaged two native hunters and 
bird skinners ; one of them was fonnerly with the late 
Baron Mackay, and the other assured me he was with 
Wallace nearly forty years ago. This assertion, I informed 
him. I begged leave to doubt, Jis he certainly was not 
more than forty years of age himself. 

On Christmas Eve I attended Divine service in the 
Church, and was the only European present. Neverthe- 
less I could not make this statement in the presence of a 
great many of the congregation, I fear, without giving 
mortal oflfence. The place was full to overflowing, and 
principally consisted of native women, all dressed in their 
funereal costumes, only relieved by the white pocket- 
handkerchiefs hanging down to the knee on the one side. 
The clergyman was preaching most vociferously, notwith- 
standing every man, woman, and child in the building 
was talking to somebody else, and paying not the slightest 
attention to the words emanating from the pulpit. I 
overheard one conversation in Malay by two women 
sitting near me about the state of the local native fniit 
market, and as I could see most others engaged in the 
same manner it went to show that the entire congrega- 
tion had come together to talk of their businesses and 
gossips, rather than to listen to the Word of God. These 
people are Christians ! 

I was struck by the great number of natives in Amboyna 
with hare-lips, and although I have asked on many 
occasions the reason, have never been able to ascertain 
the cause. 

These people have a great mania for appearing in 
the public law-courts, and they are continually bringing 
actions against one another for imaginary grievances, 
so in this wav tliev become notorious. There is also here 
a very fine brass band, which plays on certain evenings 
on tlie green in front of the fort. 



CHARACTER OF THE AMBONESE. i;i 

I was not at all sorry when I was told by the manager of 
the shipping company that the Bteamer Cainphuijn would 
arrive on the following day and would leave again after a 
few hours for Kei, and on the 2Hth instant I turned my 
back upon Ainboyna without, I think, one single regret ; 
for whether it was the close contact with the Kuropean, 
or for any other cause, the Ambonese is a shallow, 
thieving, and untruthful member of humanity ; and my 




previous impressions were not altered when the two men 
1 l.ad engaged failed to put in an appeanince when the 
ship started, and I was tiiid by others that they never had 
any intention of leaving their native town, but only 
desired tii get a month's wages, whicli they anticipated I 
would give them in advance. 

The next day I anived at the Banda Islands, whieh 
may Ikj fairly described in all respects as being the most 



172 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

picturesque in the Moluccas. Of the three the one on 
which the town is built, named Banda Neura. is the 
principal ; a large volcanic island close by. Gunong Api 
(fire mountain), and the larger island of Banda a little to 
the southward. These three islands form a circle, and 
having only a naiTow passage at either end, the space 
enclosed c(mstitutes the charming harbour of Banda, and 
is entirely landlocked. 

The most striking feature of the panorama is the 
volcano — generally in activity and conical in shape — at the 
foot of which many houses are owned by native fisher- 
men, who are alwavs on the look out for the shoals of fish 
so c<mtinually entering the harbour. The water is so 
clear that it can be seen through to a great depth and 
appears to be bluer and clearer tlditr elsewhere. Standing 
high up against the town, in bold ^relief against the 
sky, rises a medianal castle with battlements and pin- 
nacles, and were it not for the presence of the many 
natives who surround the ship at anchor and the 
extraordinarily constructed canoes in which they paddle 
themselves about, one could almost fancy oneself trans- 
ported to the shores of Southern Italy, so rich in tone and 
verdure is everything around. 

The captain escorted me (m shore and introduced me to 
a Dutch-Indian gentleman, who at once offered to show 
me over the island. He took me through his nutmeg 
plantation, the name of which was Herstella. Tln^ 
luxuriant growth of the nutmeg trees, unobstructed by 
imderwood, proved a most delicious and cool retreat, and 
the little streams trickling down from the higher land 
in all directions to the harbour added very materially to 
the beauty of the scene. 

The number of troi)ical birds I saw here, and the many 
varieties of buttei*fiies, made me long for a time when 1 
should be able to revisit this delightful group, but as the 



THE NUTMEG, 173 

steamer was already whistling to make me aware that 
the hour for departure had arrived, I was obliged to 
be satisfied with the few specimens I obtained, all of 
which proved to be rare, more especially a merle, occumng 
only here. Dm'ini^^ the hour I was on shore, however, I 
managed to chnib to the top of a hill on the island, where 
there was a telegraph station overlooking the town and 
harbour and from whence I obtained a magnificent view 
of the surrounding scenery. The whole of these islands is 
given up to tlie cultivation of nutmegs. This tree, which 
is always in bloom, i)()ssesses a magnificent dark-green 
fohage, tlirough which is ol)served the fruit in all stages 
of ripeness, from the small, round, green nut to the large 
and ripe fruit, yellow in appearance, the dark red mace 
appearing through it as it splits open. Every now and 
then one meets a native with a basket slung over his 
shoulder, carrying a long bamboo pole, with an arrangement 
at the end resembling a pruning hook, by which to procure 
the fruit far above him. Shading these well-cared-for 
orchards, tluj lofty canary tree spreads its branches, and 
thereby forms a [)rotecting slu^lter against the noonday 
sun so harmful to the young fruit. High up in the 
branches of these trcL's is heard continually the deep and 
booming note of the (UiriH)pli(i(i(i conccnHd, a larger pigeon 
which is met with all over the South Pacific. These birds 
swallow the fruit, discharging the nut in an undigested 
state, therebv assistin<^ in the <rrowth of new trees. These 
islands being volcanic, tlu? ground and roads are nearly all 
crystalline basalt, while on the shore are scattered huge 
blocks of coraline limestone. 

We left the same evening, and many thoughts passed 
through mv mind as to whether 1 should ever be fortunate 
enough to view the spot again. The last thing which 
struck me on leaving the harbour was the old, deserted fort 
standing on the hill, and by its massive appearance I was 



174 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

reminded how seriously the old East India Company 
must have regarded the welfare of this group. There is 
no doubt that their present owners nmst have fought very 
dearly for them, for the story of the colonisation of Banda 
is one long series of frightful atrocities. 

The next morning we stopped at the small island of 
Gisser, situated on the coast of Ceram. In the midst of a 
group of other small islands, and rising but a few feet out 
of the water, it can be tenned hardly anything but a sand- 
bank. I went ashore and walked roimd it, followed bv a 
motley crowd of men, women, and children, all lost in 
wonder at the white man who would brave the heat of 
a glaring and scorching sun at midday simply for the 
pleasure of a stroll. Although there was but a small 
amount of cargo to be discharged, the natives proved them- 
selves to be very independent, and refused to do a hand- 
stroke until their exorbitant demands had been acceded to. 

On the 31st of December I amved at Sekar, a village on 
the coast of New Guinea, but did not go ashore as the 
vessel only waited while a few letters were delivered to 
the one or two Arab traders living there. In the afternoon 
we arrived at Skroe, another village further down the 
coast, where we were obliged to anchor for the night. We 
received a visit from a Catholic missionary, who came on 
board to see the faces of white men again, and to hear 
some views of the outside world. I had a long conversa- 
tion with him, and he told me of the many difficulties 
he experienced in his endeavours to teach the Gospel. 
I am sorry to say his arduous labours, however, proved of 
no avail, for wutliin a month of my becoming acquainted 
with him the poor man was murdered by the very people 
for whose spiritual welfare he had sacrificed his life. 

At six o'clock on the morning of January 1, 189(i, the 
vessel proceeded to Kapauer, a mission station situated on 
the coast a few miles further on — notwithstandinir the 



A USELESS MISSION. 175 

rain, which was coming down in torrents, I went ashore, 
as I was desirous of learning whether this would be a good 
spot lor me to return to, to make natural history collec- 
tions. The mission house stands at the mouth of the 
river from which it takes its name, and is a large one, 
occupying a place on the beach surrounded by the dense 
and virgin forest. It was here that I first placed my foot 
on the soil of Dutch New Guinea, and the thought passed 
through my mind as to whether one day I should be 
unfortunate enough to leave my l)ones in that country. 
The natives seemed quite to hold the position, for men, 
women, and children roamed indiscriminately all over the 
house, and the missionaries, who were two in munber, 
were apparently at their beck and call. 

There were some twenty or thirty little children squat- 
ting on the verandah holding slates and waiting to receive 
their daily lesson ; but as their schoolmaster, a native of 
Anil)()yna, named Christian, had begged me to let him 
have my gun immediately I had put my foot on the beach, 
and had gone oil* into the forest to shoot birds for me, 
the^y did not proceed any farther with their education at 
least for that day. It quite passes my comprehension 
what possible good can ever result from these good men 
establishing themselves here. In the first place, neither of 
them could speak a word of tlu; language ; and secondly, 
liad they been 5il>le to do so, thev were afraid to go one 
mile away from the shore on account of the treacherous 
nature of the natives. They even requested me to remain 
in sight of the house, as tlie natives, altlunigh apparently 
friendly, might at any moment become hostile - and I 
must say a more ferocious looking lot of cut-throats it 
would be hard to find. I returned on board at twelve 
o'clock, and we at once proceeded to Toeal in the Kei 
Islands. 



CH.\rTEK IV. 

ARRIVE AT TOE.VL. KEI ISLANDS — I IXCUPY THE PKISON — 
INTERVIEW THE RESIDENT — L.\ZY NATIVES — I BREED 
QUANTITIES OF THE ORNITHOPTERA PEGASUS — AN 
ABUND.VNCE OF FISH. 

During that aftermxm we met with a ven^ nasty s<j[uall. 
during which an enunuous Kittle of Kjaputi oil, 
which was standing in the comer of my cabin, l>ecame 
upset, the whole contents of which spivad over the flix>r, 
thereby causing a powerful oilour tlin.>ughout the ship. 
This oil, which comes from the island of Boiu", resem- 
bles somewhat the eucah'ptus oil of Australia. It is 
manufactured bv the natives, is of a JXl>^t?Hish hue, and 
has an excellent virtue in cases of rheiunatism, »!tc. 

We anived at Toeal, the chief town of the Kei Islands, on 
the 2nd of Januarv, and I immetliatelv went on shoiv and 
paid a visit to the Controlleur iGoveniment Kesident>, who 
lived in a prettily situated house some hundred feet above 
the town. I found him extremely kind, and he begged 
me to come and reside with him and his wife during the 
few months I intended to remain in the islands, which 
offer I felt it best to refuse, preferring if possible to rent a 
Ihjusc where 1 could with greater ease and convenience 
make a good collection of natural histtu'v specimens. He 
informed me tliat the only empty house, in fact the only 
building fit for occupation at all. was the disused prisoii, 
and lie ottered it to nie at the rent of twelvti irueKlers i'l) 

176 



/ LODGE IN THE PRISON, 177 

a month. I at once established myself in it, and found 
the house in every way a suitable abode, and even while 
I was superintending the removal of my luggage from the 
steamer, coolies were sent to carrv down a bed and every 
necessary article of furniture that I should require from 
the Residency itself, the controlleur's wife sending many 
little articles which she considered would add to mv 
comfort. 

In the front was a capital verandali floored with 
Portland cement, and a large, open living-room in the 
centre of the building, in which was a billiard table, 
provided for the recreation and amusement of the three 
Europeans on the island. On either side were two very 
Large rooms, and at the back were several cells, which 
served my pui'j)ose as stoi*e rooms, dark room for photo- 
graphy, and sleeping rooms for my servants. The whole 
house being floored with the same material as the 
verandah, it was, therefore', very easily kept clean, 
and alwavs cool. 

■ 

I now began to cast about me for hunters to send into 
the forest, and notwithstanding the many dilhculties I 
met with from the natives on account of their extreme 
laziness, I secured the services of six men, and mv col- 
lections in lepidoptera therefore proceeded fairly well, 
although the only man I could find who could be induced 
to shoot for me could not i)e persuaded to go any distance 
into the interior on account of his indolence, so as far as 
my ornithological collection went 1 hardly got anything 
but what I shot myself ; and as there was not a single 
man who could be taught to skin, that part of the work 
was done here, as eveiywhere, on the whole of my expedi- 
tion bv mv own hands. I obtained manv varieties 
and innumerable species of butterflies and beetles little 
or entirely unknown to European collectors. 

Of the papilios I captured, 1 took a long series of the 

»3 



178 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

Codrus, which is quite unlike its fellow of New Guinea, 
Ceram, or Celebes ; also some albino species of the Pajnlio 
Ormanus, which, although known, is very rarely seen in 
European cabinets. Of the Ornithoptera Pegasus, so 
closely allied to the Priamus, that lovely and stately 
buttei'fly, with such an expanse of wing exhibiting so 
much gi-een and gold about it ; and so much sought after 
in Europe, I captured and bred as many as 150 speci- 
mens.* The hunter I sent into the bush to shoot could 
not be taught to distinguish the common green Loiry 
from one of a rarer species, and consequently I had so 
many of the commoner ones brought me that I very soon 
dispensed with his services altogether. 

The Carpophaga Concenna, which I have already 
mentioned in a previous chapter, the magnificent pigeon 
described by Wallace, I found herQ, and shot about 
twenty specimens. It measures from twenty to twenty- 
five inches long, with grey head, neck, and breast ; its 
back and wings are of metallic bronze colour, and its legs 
and feet coral red. I have found as many as twelve 
enormous canary nuts, which are each the size of a 
walnut, in its crop at one time. Of other pigeons I took 
about thirty species, some of which were very lovely, 
their plumage being of a most gorgeous description. 
Unfortunately, however, I arrived at a time when birds 
were in the moult. 

The Kei Islands consist of a number of coral islands, 
only a short distance from one another, the two principal 

• This butterfly was numerous here, and small native urchins from 
the Campong brought me quantities daily, receiving some small pay- 
ment hi exchange, but on account of the rough handling a great mai»y 
proved to be worthless. On one occasion some were brought to me 
for which I offered a ruinous price, but as I had ai)peared perhaps a 
little too eager to possess them my offer was indignantly refused, 
wlien thev were at once taken to the house of the Gennan trader 
liviiiij litTC. and were sold to him for less than half mv offer. 



PRA U-IUJILDING. i8i 

being Great Kei and Little Kei, on the smaller of which is 
the town of Toeal, and the seat of the Dutch Government. 
The natives of Little Kei are a verv mixed race, some 
being Papuans, but the majority consist of Malays, Arabs, 
find Chinamen, and in the market place it is a common 
occurrence to see a rajah, attired in some gaudy gannents, 
hobnobbing with a man in flowing robes whom one easily 
detects to be a hadji. Then the Chinaman in his 
spotless white linen, smoking his opium and discussing 
the price of beche le mer or rice with a half-cast 
Portuguese. 

The market itself in the morning presents a very busy 
appearance, and is overabounding in fish, bananas, and 
other tropical fruits. The entire population almost 
solely exists on fish, and for a few cents one can buy 
enough of that commodity to keep a family for some 
(lavs. 

The harbour always presents here a busy sight, with 
the countless praus, either loading with beche le mer, 
timber, k^:., or discharging their cargoes of cloths, 
provisions, and European goods, which they have lately 
brought from Macassar, l^atavia, or even Singapore. 
These praus, which are for the most part built at Har, 
a place on the larger island of Kei, are very well worthy 
of mention, inasnmch as thev are built whollv and en- 
tirely from stem to stern without the aid of a single nail. 
They are made from the excellent timber found in the 
forests of Great Kei, and by felling many trees the 
natives secure suflicient for the purpose. The adze 
is then brought into requisition, and very adroitly they 
split the trees into i)lanks of the proper dimensions, 
and with the same tool plane ofl" the edge so that each 
fits flush with its neighbour. After the middle piece has 
been properly shaped and curved, these planks are built 
up on either side, joined together by strong wooden pegs 



i82 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

driven into holes bored for the purpose, and so closely do 
they fit that had they been turned out of a shipbuilder's 
yard they could hardly be more serviceably made. AVhen 
the boat has been built up to the requisite height, the 
cross-beams are fixed by means of notches cut in either 
end and lashed with rattan. Thus is completed a prau 
fit almost to travel in any sea, as is often necessary ; and, 
indeed, experience has shown me that the South Pacific 
glassy seas, pictured so glowingly by many writers, are of 
a very angr>' disposition at times. 

Taking advantage of the Controlleur's kind offer to lend 
me his steam launch for a week, I paid a visit to one of the 
smaller islands of the group, where there was a beautiful 
waterfall and a most likely place for buttei*flies. On my 
aiTiving at Oot Island on the way, some few miles from 
Toeal, I found the sea was too rough to permit continuing 
on that day, so I was obliged to anchor there for the night. 
Going on shore I found the natives to be veiy busily employed 
making axes and knives, using a native forge for their 
manufacture. This forge, of which I give a small sketch 
I took on the spot, consists of two large cylinders of 
bamboo about three feet in height, having a small hole 
bored in each at the base, and into each is inserted a thin 
bamboo about two feet long, and meeting one another at 
a point where is placed a small heap of charcoal, con- 
stituting the fire of the forge. Seated on a small frame- 
like chair above the bellows was a Papuan slave, holding 
in either hand a staff, at the end of which were fastened 
huge bunches of feathers, each resembling a mop. These 
were inserted one in each cylinder, and by pumping 
vigorously caused a very considerable draught, and thus 
the native smith was enabled to heat the iron and 
manufacture his implements, which he did in a very 
creditable manner. 

The whole of this small island was planted with cocoa- 



A nUGOS'G. 



■83 



nut trees, each Ijeariri}:; tlie different marks of their 
owners, and it is astonishing that although some may 
helong to a man who perhaps Hves many miles away, and 
in another country, and who only comes once or twice a 
year to collect the nuts, there is not a being wlio lives on 
the island who could be |K!rsuaded to steal one. 

It rained very heavily that night, and the small craft, 
which was only about thirty-two feet long, was in con- 
sequence verj' uncDiiifortabJe, and I was therefore 
drenched to the skin. 



.>«fe.=^ 




On the folliiwing morning, the sea having gone down, we 
went on tn the waterfalls, where we arrived in the after- 
iiiioii. and niiide pr.'p.irations for my stay of a week. 
Shortly after we had anchore<l tlieri' was great e.Kcitement 
among the natives on tlie ai'rival of a large canoe with an 
enormous dugong on board. This creature, which the 
natives had siwai-ed, resembled soniewhut a hippo|)otanms 
and a cow, and I sli{)uld think weighed fully half a ton. 
It was a most hideous brute to look at, Init I am told the 
tlesh is very good to eat. I had myself, on a previous 



i84 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

occasion, shot at them .from my boat, but without 
success. 

The canoes of the natives here were quite different 
from the more liuropeanised craft made at Toeal. 
From forty to fifty feet long, they rise up in the bows to 
some twelve feet and at the stern to fully eighteen feet, 
and are decorated with rows of cowrie shells and huge 
bunches of cassowary hair and feathers of brightly 
plumaged birds. These canoes are capable of holding 
fifty or sixty men, and travel at an enonnous speed, the 
natives on board shouting and singing while dashing their 
paddles far into the water, they cast up clouds of spray 
as they go along. 

After about a week spent here, and collecting many 
interesting species of lepidoptera, I returned to Toeal, 
greatly to the disappointment of these simple islanders, 
to whom I had been very lavish in my presents of 
aiTack and tobacco. Reaching Toeal, without anything 
worthy of notice, on the following evening, I at once made 
preparations for my visit to Great Kei, the largest island 
of this group and the only one which is at all moun- 
tainous. The Controlleur again offered me the use of his 
steam launch, but the weather being unpropitious I 
considered it more advisable to charter a prau owned 
by a native of Macassar then at Toeal. 

A week or two before I had made arrangements with 
the natives who were continually crossing from the larger 
island that they should build me a house high up in the 
mountains there ; and receiving an intimation that it was 
finished and ready for me, I put about a fortnight's pro- 
visions on board the prau and embarked with my servants 
and hunters about ten o'clock at night. I only had about 
twenty miles to go, but sometimes, if the winds and 
ciUTents are not favourable, these vessels take several 
days to accomplish it. The owner had made it as com- 



THE POST-HOLDER, 185 

fortable as lie possibly could . for me by spreading mats 
on the bamboo floor inside. Nevertheless, the horrible 
smell of bilge water and rank cocoanut oil prevented me 
from getting any sleep at all, and I spent most of the 
night and succeeding day outside. We had, I should 
imagine, quite forty people on board, men, women, and 
children, who had begged a passage across, and as these 
people can sleep anywhere and in any position, even 
stretched out on a bamboo pole, the overcrowding did 
not afifect them in the least, and it appeared the only 
one who suffered at all in the matter was the unfortu- 
nate being who had chartered the craft for his own 
convenience. 

After a most horrible voyage, spent in the fierce 
tropical sun, we arrived in the evening of the second day 
at the settlement, amid the beating of drums, banging 
of tom-toms, and shouts and yells of the people both on 
board and on shore. T at once re[)aired to the house of 
the Post-holder, the Dutch oflicial stationed there, and 
although he could not speak a word of any hmguage but 
his own except Malay, we were obliged to converse in 
that tongue to one another. He was very pressing in 
his invitation to me to remain some time with him, and 
it was only on my promise to pay him a longer visit on 
my return I was permitted to take my departure to the 
interior. 

With the first peep of dawn on the following morning 
the Post-holder took me in his small boat (my own people 
with all the provisions, ^rc, being in a native prau lent 
to me for the puq^ose) to Elraling, a village some few 
miles up the coast, and from whence it was necessary 
for me to obtain guides to take me up the mountain 
where my house had been built. A couple of hours' hard 
pulling, and we rounded a point and ran into a charming 
little sandy cove, at the head of which we found the 



1 86 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

village, where we were received in the most courteous 
manner by the Orang Kaya (native chief). 

This native was one of Nature's gentlemen. He in- 
vited us into his house, w^here he had prepared quite a 
magnificent feast in my honour, consisting of coffee, 
cakes, and fruits of all kinds. Here the Post-holder 
bade me farewell, and the chief at once ordered some 
sixty men to carry my paraphernalia up the mountain. 
The natives themselves, however, were very reluctant to 
go, on account of the many ghosts they said inhabited 
the higher country ; and it was not until the chief had 
harangued them for quite ten minutes, reminding them 
that he had been elected their chief by the wliole village, 
and if they did not intend to obey him it was useless 
having a head man at all, and with the promise of much 
tobacco from myself, that they were at last induced to 
start ofif. 

The first part of the journey was very rocky and 
excessively steep, but after a while, entering the denser 
forest on the mountain side, the track became better and 
more easily accessible. I was now passing through the 
magnificent virgin forest of a country very little known 
to the white man. The luxuriant midergrowth and the 
magnificent timber so durable and well known throughout 
the Moluccas, the picturesque ravines in the hollow of 
w^iich I found many waterfalls, all added to the beauty 
of this island. Every now and then from some dazzling 
height T would catch a peep of the sea with its many 
little bays and inlets, fringed with beautiful white sand, 
imparting a most peaceful appearance. I remarked the 
absence of the native vam and taro ^^ardens one 
usually sees, and was told that the people almost entirely 
subsist on cocoanuts and rice, obtaining the latter from 
the tnidcM's who visit here from Aru in exchange for the 
wooden bowls and native crockery, for the manufacture 



k 



MY HUT IX THE MOUNTAINS. 187 

of which they are noted. These bowls, of which I pro- 
cured a very fine specimen, are about the size of, and 
resemble very much, an Knglish wash-tub. They are 
hewn out of the solid block of wood bv the aid of their 
knives and adzes, and are sent to every country in the 
Moluccas. 

Towards evening, and when T had just about had 
enough of it, I came upon the small hut which the 
natives had built for me at an elevation of 8,300 feet 
above the sea-level. It was entirely built of bamboo 
and leaves laced together, and about twenty feet square. 
A sorry looking residence, but one which, so long as it 
would keep out the wet, would answer my purpose very 
well, as I was anxious to obtain specimens of natural 
history by going into the forest from this high point 
of elevation daily — expecting to find entirely different 
species from those obtainable down below. 

After presenting each carrier with a small Dutch coin 
and a large handful of tobacco in reward for his services, 
they all took their departure, and very soon afterwards 
we all were in the arms of Morpheus, and slept as 
soundly as possible until the sun was high up the next 
morning. 

J^y following the various water-courses I captured 
during my visit here a great many interesting papilios, 
some being new to the scientific world, but there 
a[)peared to be very few birds, and the ones I shot 
did not appear to differ from those of the coast. My 
hunters also took it into their heads that there were 
ghosts and devils roaming about in this strange and 
silent forest, and it was onlv bv the use of violent 
threats and promises of extra payment that they could 
be induced to go any distance away from the hut. 
Enonnous ants and centipedes abounded everywhere — 
in my bed, my clothes — and in boots that perhaps I 



i88 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

had not worn for two days I was sure to find one, if 
not more, formidable scorpions ; but although these 
objectionable creatures are found in every possible nook 
and corner, I never had the misfortune to be bitten 
by any of them. Small, brightly coloured lizards would 
dart across the path at every few feet, shining in the 
sunlight like so many beautiful emeralds and turquoises. 
I also obtained a great variety of beetles, the little 
*' Brenthidae ** being the most common, jumping out of 
the way at every step one took. Sometimes, whilst 
standing up to my knees in water in a small mountain 
stream in the very depths of the forest, that beautiful 
and graceful buttei-fly, the Papilio Hestia, would come 
lazily and slowly towards me, a moment afterwards to 
find itself snugly ensconced in a triangular paper. In 
this way also I would take that splendid black and 
yellow Papilio Euchenor, and by means of trtips set 
along the edge of the streams, consisting of sugar mixed 
vnth over-ripe bananas, I could ver>^ often obtain speci- 
mens of the Codrus and other high and swift flying 
papilios I should never otherwise have been able to 
capture. 

One morning one of my hunters brought me one of 
those strange marsupials, the Cuscus. It is an animal 
about two feet in length, and, like the opossum of 
Australia, has a long, prehensile tail. Its thick, woolly 
covering gives it the appearance of a very fat Maltese 
terrier, and it cries verv much like an infant. After 
ttakin^r its skin I handed over the carcase to mv bovs, 
who quicklv cooked and ate it. Mv rambles in the 
forest day bv day were i^roductive of verv successful 
results, and it was with a certain amount (^f regret that 
I was obliged, owing to tlie discontented nature of my 
hunters and their excessive fear of the gliosis in the 
forest, to return to the coast and once more live under 




COyjURLYG TRICKS. 189 

the extreme heat of the tropical sun, for the climate I 
had lately been experiencing at such an elevation was 
delightful in the extreme. 

The Post-liolder was very glad to see me again, and 
the surprise of the natives at our return was very great, 
for they said they never expected to see us again, 
thinking the evil spirits would have made away with 
us. Seeing these simple people were so superstitious, 
1 got as many as possible together in the village one 
evening and showed them a few sleight of hand tricks, 
an accomplishment I have possessed in a very modest 
wav for manv vears, and one I have found very useful 
to me throughout my travels in the South Seas. Their 
wonder at seeing a dead chicken placed in a hat, and 
lay two fine eggs before their eyes, and the few other 
manipulations with native money, kc, I showed them, 
was unbounded ; and when at last 1 told them in Malay, 
the language that most of them understood, that I was 
now about to turn all the men into women and ince 
versa, they all disappeared in the twinkling of an eye, 
and it was with great difiiculty 1 could persuade them 
to return. One old man followed me wherever I went 
for some days, until at last T stopped and asked him 
what it was he wanted, and then with a great many 
tears he told me his daughter had been married for ten 
years, but was not blessed with children, and that if I 
would only come and place a covering over her as I had 
done to the dead chicken in the hat, he was confident that 
I could produce her heart's desire. 

Here was a fix. 

What was I to do to keep up my reputation ? 

Thinking for a moment, I told him that it was evidently 
Allah's will that no children had been bom to her, and 
that as it was my greatest desire to please him I could 
not possibly attempt to go against his wishes. This 



190 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

evidently satisfied him, as he went oflf and I never saw 
him again. 

During the time I waited here for the praii to take me 
back to Toeal I took up my residence with the Post-hohler 
and his family, who were very kind, sliowing me all 
the attention they possibly could. 

One evening, strolling through the village I entered the 
house of the chief, and was surprised to see the number 
of brass cannon, muskets and gongs. These I found to 
be of considerable value, as the natives here consider such 
articles to be real property, through whose medium they 
purchase their wives, slaves, and plantations. There 
were also .several small elephant tusks, which had 
evidently been purchased from the Arab traders. 

This village was noted for the manufacture of pottery, 
and the bowls, jars, and pots are very creditably made, 
afterwards finding their way even as far as Singapore. 
After being shaped in the clay they are painted with 
grotesque designs by the women, and great trouble 
and care is spent upon them. These women, in a 
great many instances, had very fine features, and one 
especially, the daughter of the chief, was a most beautiful 
girl, and were it not for the fact that her teeth were 
spoiled from the constant use of the betel nut she would 
have been as near perfection as possible in face and form. 
It is the custom with the men to file their teeth down to 
the very edge of the gum, an operation which imparts a 
very repulsive look to their features, and I should imagine 
a very painful one to undergo. 

A few days before leaving, accompanied by a native 
guide, I made an expedition over the mountains to the 
sea on the other side of the island, and was well repaid 
for the journey by the capture of many interesting 
specimens. One village we passed through on the 
way, and high up in the mountains, was inhabited 



THE IMAGE A XI) THE UMBRELLA. 191 

by a people entirely diflferent from those on the 
coast. They had long, frizzly hair and features of the 
Papuan type, and their skin much darker in colour. 
They were evidently not accustomed to the sight of so 
strange a being as myself, for they all ran away at my 
approach into the forest, leaving the village deserted, and 
although T called many times and my guide shouted to 
them to come back, they could not be induced to show 
themselves. 

Leaving a small present of tobacx'o on a stone in the 
village 1 passed on, thinking how piteous it was to see so 
near to civilisation such a wild and ignorant people. A 
day or two later, the prau being ready, I said goodbye to 
(xreat Kei, and late that night, by the aid of a fair wind 
and twenty strong men as rowers, arrived at Toeal, 
not at all sorry to i)e once more in my comfortable prison 
abode. Here I found an invitation from the French 
Jesuit missionaries, stationed some few miles distant, to 
i)av them a visit, which I <i:ladly did shortlv afterwards, 
and found them very hospitable. Their Mission House, 
situated in the middle of one of the largest villages in 
the Kei Islands, is a verv larj'e one and comfoi'tablv 
built, having an enormous verandah running right round 
it. Adjoining this is the church, a very tine edifice built 
of wood, and ca])able of holding from three to four hun- 
dred people. On the outside of this building is erected — 
as I believe is usual in the churches of this order — a large, 
life-size figure of our Saviour. The image here was a 
present from some beneficent person in Europe. They 
told me that on its arrival and during its erection it had 
suddenlv commenced to rain verv heavilv, when one of 
the natives had run into the house unseen by any one, 
and fetched an umbrella, the handle of which he tied to 
the arm of the figure, and when a few moments later the 
padre arrived on the scene he was scandalised to find 



iij2 rUROVGH SEW Gl'tXEA 

(TDWiiK I if niitivi^K hintfin^ and shouting around it thus 
rr|iii])]NMi- -for tliese natives, m» unlike the Papuans of 
New (iiiinra. jire nf a most excitable anc] jViWuI natuxv, 
rriniii(lin<; one of sii nianv schrw)! children running; riut in 
a |ilav<^M'iMiMfl. 

Wlirn at TiH'al I had many opixirt unities nf nbsen-ing 
tlic r(invi(*ts in th<' [)rift«m, wliich had been built within 
a W\\ vanis (»f tlic old edifice where I resided. The 

« 

<\irriiir laxilv <»f tlic warders and the excessive licence 

■ 

(itlfn-d In tli«' dcliiKjucnts was evidently fully appre- 
riat«>«l l>v tlifni. From dayli^dit until dark their cell 
dnors \\v\v iirvt-r sliul, and when thev were n«ii workinir 
Mil tlir rnads tlicv wen* j^'enenilly seated in ^ju)>s in 
I'mnt of my Iimisr |)layin<: at cards or stretched on their 
l>arks last a^l«'«'p. On Sundays they were allowed to 
work i'(»r aiiv niif. and I alwavs emploved several of them 
tn )iK) iiiid tlic forest to slioot for luc, and I have no doubt 
wlnii I wriit awav tlu'V missed tlie ** Tuan Inms " who 
paid tiiriii so Will for sliootin*: such small and to theui 
imiiittrcstin^' hirds. 

Hnr nioriiiii*: a man arrived all tlie wav from Great 
Kri. I la villi,' luard of my powtTs as a wizjird. Some 
^^^•Vl•n or ci^'ht days pit^viously, it apiH^arcd, he had 
accidcntly (:liop[)rd otl" one of liis rtn^'crs. Taking the 
disnicinlM-n'd portion he stuck it on his hand, wrapping 
the whole ii[) in some cotton clotli, but findin*^ sifter some 
days it liad not joined itself a;;ain, lie took the first 
o[)portunity to come across and ask mt; to make him 
another fin«,'er. It was quite a wonder that blood 
poisoning' had not set in, for the putrid finj^er was all 
clotted into the wound. It was with stmie difticultv I 
separated it and dressed his hand. 

Just at this tinu' I sulfered very much from the hite 
of some small insect which attackt.'d me when wtilkin*: 
in the lon^^ «i:rass in the forest. This minute creature. 



THE RAJAH OF TOEAL, 193 

whicli resembles a f^rain of cayenne pepper, burrowed 
beneatli tlie skin of my feet and ankles, creating a 
most intense irritation which would last for four or 
five days. This happened every time I went off the 
))ath into any grass, and after a while my ankles and 
feet broke out with several most obstinate and inflamed 
ulcers, eating right into the bone, not only preventing 
me from walking, but confining me to the house, 
where 1 was obliged to lie in a recumbent position 
owing to the excessive pain when standing. Wounds of 
this kind are always very difficult to heal in tropical 
climates, and with every care and precaution, suft'ering 
intensely the whole time, it was quite six weeks before I 
was able to bear a shoe again. 

The Kajah of ToeaK a veritable dandy, who was always 
dressed in the latest of Kei Island fashion, with a gold- 
embroidered smoking cap and many coloured robes on, paid 
me a visit one morning, and it was with the greatest diffi- 
culty 1 could ))revent him from stealing everything his eye 
lit on. But the special attraction was a j)air of field boots 
he caught sight of on the verandah. He begged me very 
hard to give him these, and promised me everything he 
had, and more that he had not, if I would only let him put 
them on and walk ot!' through the town in them. How- 
ever, I was obdurate, referring him to the Chinaman's 
store, where he could for a few guelders purchase a pair of 
sandals or even white canvas shoes. " But," he said, ** I 
have not a few 'guelders,'" and then he wept and brought 
all his persuasive powers into activity again for the loan 
of two rupees. This time he might have been more 
successful, if it were only to get rid of him, but at that 
moment my Chinese boy, Anthony, interposed, and in- 
formed me that the Eajah was in his debt to the sum of 
two rupees twenty cents, and although he had been con- 
tinually dunning him for the past month for its return, 

14 



194 THROUGH XEW GilXEA. 

had not been successful. I therefore told the old scoundrel 
I was ashamed of hun, which, apparently, had little or no 
eflFect. I told him also that if he would bring me fowls 
and fruit or eggs I would buy them, and then he could 
pay back the money he owed, and he faithfully promised 
he would do so, but 1 never saw him again. 

On the 6th of Mav mv vacht came from Australia, and 
her arrival caused immense excitement in the town, people 
coming in from all parts of the ** blakang tanna " (back 
country), to sec the **capul aier" (sailing ship), or the 
** capul Ingris '' (English ship), as they called it. Immedi- 
ately she dropped anchor I went on board, and the captain 
handed me the ship's register and papei*s, and infonued 
me that on the passage up he had had the misfortune to 
break the main boom and had been obliged to lower the 
top mast and utilise it. I was so anxious to get on to the 
Am Islands that I said I would start the next day, and 
he could then get another boom out of the forest there. So 
the rest of the day was si>ent in packing up my nmnerous 
collections and getting them on board. 



ClTAn^KK V. 

I DKPAUT von AUr— ARRIVAL AT DORBO — CIIKAP STORES — 
I SHOOT SOMK DKKR I KNCIACrK SOME HINTERS — A 
SCrRVV THICK — I MOVE OX TO MAVKROR — WE RUN 
ON TO A REEK — THE MERDER OE A (MIINESE TRADER 
— MV HEXTERS DESERT ME — THE t'HIEE STEALS MY 
C'KiARS— I ri'RCHASE A LIVE PARADISE BIRD. 

The next duv, the 7tli of Mav, I bidfjuvwell to Toeal amid 

• ft 

tlie shoutin^j^s of the natives, who liad <j[athered down to 
the si lore to view my dej)artiire, and after two days' sail 
arrived at l)ol)i)o, the chief settlement in the Am Islands. 
Dohho is a villa^^e on the island of Wamma, Jind is 
situated on a narrow projection of sand only just wide 
eiR)U<(h to permit of the ei'ection of a few houses. In the 
s<)Uth-(Ni-it monsoon vi^ssels jinchor on one side of the village 
and in the north-W(^st monsoon on the other. It is occupied 
principally hy Chinese and J^ur«;is traders from Macassar, 
who come in their praus with a fair wind of the one 
monsoon and return with the other, takin<( hack with them 
])earl shell and beche le mer in exchant^e for clothes, knives, 
and even nionev which thev hrin^ with them.* 

• The Am Islands aire hy no means the least important of Dutch 
possessions, for from Dohho alone, althoiij^li only occupied hy Durgis 
and Chinese - and no European ever hardly visits here - many 
thousands of pounds' worth of native produce are exported annually ; 
the i)rincipal, as I have said, hein«^ pearl and tortoise shell, trepang or 
heclie le mer. 

195 



196 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

Immediately I arrived I went on shore to pay a visit to 
the Post-holder, for the Dutch Government has placed an 
official here to look after the interests of tlie pearl fishery 
and to prevent the importation of arrack into the country-. 
But from my observation regarding the packing of the 
smaller shell, of prohibitive size, and from the jollifica- 
tions of the people, I do not consider his presence has 
any restraint over the one or the other. Unfortunately I 
found that this gentleman had gone to the blakang tanna, 
and was not expected back for twenty days. This was 
the more annoying as it was absolutely impossible to 
procure native hunters without his help, on account of the 
thoroughly indolent disposition of everybody here. I had 
nothing therefore to do but to wait patiently until his 
return, occupying my time meanwhile in enlarging the 
saloon and my cabin, painting the ship, and cutting and 
making a new boom. 

The description given of this place in Wallace's ** Malay 
Archipelago " is correct even to-day, and it well might be 
but only a day ago that he was here and wrote about it 
instead of over forty years, for the people, who are not at 
all an ambitious lot, have not altered one single house, I 
believe. 

In all the stores you can buy Km'opean articles — for 
instance, straw hats, soap, cotton cloths, canvas boots, 
plates and dishes, gaudy colom*ed handkerchiefs, and even 
clothes are to be purchased for very moderate sums 
considering the great journey they have made. I bought 
some long, cane, deck-chairs and many other little knick- 
knacks of European manufacture. 

On the 17th of June the steamer arrived, this being the 
farthest port of call of the Shipping Co.'s. steamers, except 
that twice or three times a vcar they are under contract 
with the Dutch Government to go on from here to 141^ off 
the coast of New Guinea, where thoii" possessions meet the 



A SCURVY TRICK. 197 

British portion. Here they he for forty-eight hours and in 
the wet season quite out of sight of land, as the shallowness 
of the water there and the numerous reefs will not permit 
of their getting within a mile or so of the coast. 

The Controlleur of Kei was on hoard, having come to pay 
an official visit to these islands, and the same afternoon he 
paid me a visit on the yacht, accompanied hy the portly 
Post-holder, who had returned to Dohho the previous 
evening. He gave me messages to the chiefs in the south 
of the group, requesting them to help me in every way 
they could. 

On this day T spent a few hours in the forest and was 
fortunate enough to procure two magnificent specunens 
of the Hamhur deer, which have been imported and are 
now to be found in great quantities here. That evening, 
at my earnest request, the Post-holder paid me another 
visit, bringing with him several njitives, who called them- 
selves Portuguese, for me to engage as hunters, but he 
told me it were better for me to go to another island in 
the group if 1 desinnl to get any work out of them, as they 
are so lazv and will do nothinfr unless awav from home. 

After nnich trouble and manv journevs into the forest mv 
captain found, on the island of Wokan, a mile or two 
distant, a suitable tree for a Ix^om, and having felled it I 
engaged forty natives to drag it to the beach some mile 
and a half distant. This took the whole of our day, and 
for t'jn succeeding ones my captain, boatswain, and crew 
were hard at work making it into the spar 1 recpiired. 

It was just finished, and a few hours before 1 intended 
getting it on board some one came off and told me to 
come and look at it. From his looks and gestures I 
feared there was something amiss, and jumping into my 
gig was pulled ashore, only to find that some scoundrel 
liad, with a fine saw, cut right through the centre, leaving 
but an inch or so to keep it together. This blackguardly 



198 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

act must have taken some considerable time to accomplish, 
and althoiit^h I offered a reward big enough to purchase 
a really good spar from a shipwright's yard at home, I 
never succeeded in discovering the culprit. Suspicion 
fell verv heavilv on the onlv car])enter in the island, a 
Chinaman, whom I had previously engaged to help make 
the alterations on the ship, but who had stolen so many 
odds and ends eveiT time he came cm board that after 
two days I paid him for what he had done and politely 
informed him that if he showed his pigtail within a 
hundred yards of the shij) again I would cut it off. 

Here was a pretty go, a fortnight's hard work for all 
mv men wasted and no boom I 

ft' 

ijuckily the old one had not been thrown away, so 
re-adjusting it I set sail on the following morning for 
Maykror, one of the more southern islands of the group, 
and taking with me eight hunters. Owing to headwinds 
and contrary tides, however, the journey, which could 
have been taken in only a few hours, was not accom- 
plished under four days. On the second day out my 
man at the masthead must have gone to sleep, for we 
ran on to a reef, but luckilv there was hardlv any wind 
and the sea as smooth as glass, so that after a very short 
delay and with the aid of two kedge anchors we managed 
to get off without any damage being done. On Sunday 
afternoon T arrived at the mouth of the Watelai river 
after many hours' beating uj) the Wannambai Straits. 

In the evening, the tide being in our favour, we 
managed to drift up the river for about two miles, and 
anchored at the mouth of a small creek on the south side. 
This creek 1 found to be only navigable for a boat for 
about a mile. At the head of it T found a small stream 
of fresh water. 

Here I found. liaU" liidden bv the thick underirn^wth 
and conipletely surrounded by the huge trees of this 



MURDER OF A CHINESE TRADER. 199 

virgin forest, one solitary liouse, if indeed I could give 
it such a dignified appellation. It certainly was a 
dwelling, for it contained at least forty people, with an 
interior of not more than twenty feet square. This 
was the very house occupied by the man whose name is 
so familiar to even' naturalist — 1 refer to Alfred Russell 
Wallace — and occupied as it was in his time, by numerous 
families, who greeted me with most vociferous acclamations 
of joy. And although they are the children and grand- 
children of those the great naturalist found here, they 
liave rather gained than lost the faculty of speech. Every 
one appeared to try and shout louder than his fellow and 
one and all crowded round my boat, and laughed and ran 
and jumped for joy. 

My collections, I am sorry to say, got on but slowly, 
owing to mv lazv hunters, who would start off at 
sunrise with an amount of energy that would inspire 
one with the hope that they would return over- 
laden with the good things of the forest, but innnediately 
thev were out of sight thev would make for the nearest 
native house to remain there until the sun was fast sink- 
ing in the west, when they would return with the news 
that ** This place he no good, ])lace belong me he plenty 
good too nuich," meaning to say that if 1 would only take 
them back thev would be able to bring me evervthing, 
which T knew^ would be nothing. 

A few days after 1 arrived here a Chinaman passed 
me in his prau, and 1 told him it would be better 
for him to anchor near me and not attempt the 
smaller creek ; but he wanted to anchor close to the 
one solitary house, as he could then trade better 
and with less trouble with the families it contained. 
The next morning at daylight the news was brought 
me that he had been nuirdered and his ship burned. I 
at once went to the scene and found liis body stripped 



200 THROUGH NEW GCIXEA, 

of all clothing and tied by the pigtail to a mangrove 
stump. 

There was an enormous wound in the left side, ap- 
parently made by a parang (Malay knife), which had been 
so forcibly driven into his side that there was a small cut 
where the point had shown itself on the other side, com- 
pletely disembowelling him. The only man he had with 
him to help him sail his prau was a half-caste Malay and 
Burgis, whom I at once sought and inter\'iewed. I found 
him, not far away, standing on the bank of the creek and 
in conversation with a bloodthirsty looking ruffian, who 
had as much low-caste Javanese blood as he had Papuan 
in his veins, and who was evidently in league with the 
sailor. I asked him how it happened, and how it came 
that the ship, of which I saw the chaiTed remains, was 
burned, and that he was on shore with his boxes and all 
his clothes, and yet the Chinaman's were all burned. He 
told me he was awakened in the night by the fire, and 
hastily taking his own things managed to land in safety. 
And he first said he thought the wild people had come 
down from the interior and murdered the Chinaman and 
set fire to the vessel, and afterwards he said that the 
Chinaman had killed himself when he saw his prau on fire. 
Thi^ I knew to be impossible, as the wound had evidently 
been delivered from behind. Also I knew that the natives 
in Aru are a very friendlily disposed people, and even if 
they were not they are of such a superstitious nature that 
nothing could have induced them to have come in the 
night to connnit such an atrocity. He appeared to be very 
frightened of me and was so anxious that 1 told him there 
was no doubt but that he was the murderer himself. I 
learned later in tiie dav that the Chinaman had a valuable 
pearl on board, wliicli lie had found in a poarl oyster, and 
also three liundnMl guelders, and my firm belief is tliat 
this miserable sct)un(lrel waited till the poor man was 



J/V //rXT/t A\S DRSERT ME. 201 

asleep in his l)unk and lyin^ on his face — a common 
enou<i[h custom amon^^st natives — and then stahbing him 
from above had robbed him of his pearl and money, and 
set fire to the ship in the ho|)e that the body woidd be 
consunuMl in the flames. On mv return to Dobbo I 
informed the l*ost-holder of mv convictions, who inmiedi- 
atelv sent for the man and had him arrested, but whether 
he ever received the punishment which his ofl'ence 
deserved it is hard to sjiv. 

Juhj ^^th. The murder has had such an effect on my 
hunters, or at least thev ])retend it has, tliat thev one and 
all refuse to go into the forest and insist on returning 
home. 1 said 1 intend(Ml remaining, even if I had to go 
into the forest bv mvself. (\ have often thought how 
miraculous it is that, however far oiu; mav take a native 

« 

away from his home, he has ahvavs means of hearing 
from his relations, and the only message he ever receives 
is that they are indis])osed and recpiire his piesence before 
there is any chance of their becoming convalescent.) 
They all said that their wives, fathers, mothers, cousins, 
in fact all their relations, were so seriously ill that uidess 
thcT immediatclv returned thev would all die. I told 

• ■ « 

them 1 would not pay them any wages at all, and would 
re<piest tlu* Post-holder at l)obl)o to make them give* back 
the cloth and knives I had already paid them in advance, 
and that their time was not up for another month ; but 
thev were obdurate and said, with a smile, in their verv 
best Malay, that the Tuan Mister) might certaiidy speak 
to the l\)st-holder as much as he liked, but one thing was 
certain — they would go home and nothing should induce 
them to stav. 

They therefore obtained a large canoe from some other 
natives, and started off to Dobbo without anv wages. I 
afterwards learned that thev had received intimation that 
Dobbo was now ovei*Howing with people. Traders from 



202 THROUGH XEW GlIXEA. 

Java, Ceraiii, Sin<raix)re, and all parts of the Moluccas 
had arrived, and in fact the societv season had com- 
inenced, therefore little wonder was it that they preferred 
to lie alK)Ut and roam at will in the street^ of so animated 
a town, to the more monotonous occupation of catchin*^ 
buttcfrflies and sliootin<:( paradise birds in a lonely forest. 

I set sail the next mornin*^' for Maykror. a village further 
south, to ascertain its advanta^'es as a collectin<jj fjround 
later. We airived the same evenin*^ and anchored a few 
hundred vards f)flF the shore. The village was a model of 
cleanliness, and was inhabited by a people who differ most 
materiallv from the natives of Wannambai. who are for 
the most part Papuan with some Ceram. some Malay, and 
a little Chinese blood in their veins, exhibiting; one of the 
most extraordinary mixtures of breedin*; it is jK)ssible to 
ima^'ine. Here they are very much bri<;hter in colour, 
and are distinctlv descendants of the earlv rortu<:(uese 
navif^ators, and althouj^di a <;reat many had bou<rht Aru 
women for their wives, the majority of them had women 
of their own nationality -if it is possible to strain the point 
and a(!knowled<(e them to belon<:( to any cme particular 
race. 

Nevertheless they were all dressed in cotton clotliin<; 
and lui^ged me to sell them soap. I may here mention 
that this was the first and only occasion durin<( the whole 
period of my expeditions that I was ever asked foi* this 
commoditv. I was luckv en()U<;ii to have with me two 
or three; cases, and by its means 1 was enabled to ])urchase 
fowls and ef;<(s. Th(» former are in threat demand through- 
out the whole group, the natives oftentimes asking as 
much as two guelders (8s. 4d.) apiece for them. But I 
secjurcid as many as I wanted for half a bar of soap, value 
'2(1. eacli. I fnund a clinrcli, a scliool. and a ])()tterv, for 
tlic natives lici-c send out many thousands of eartlien p(;ts 
to fai'-awav islands every vear. 



NATIVE RESPECT FOR PROPERTY. 203 

The women were very comely to look at, being fat and 
well cared for, which is not usual amongst Papuan tribes. 
The Orang Kayer (rich man or chief) paid me a visit 
directly I hit go the anchor. He was dressed in a black 
coat and hat with white trousers and boots, wliich kept 
him in a constant state of unrest the whole time he was 
on board. If I woidd only stay, he said, lie would help 
me in every way and make some of his people work for 
me. l^ut instead of helping me he helped himself, for I 
found after he had gone that a box of cigars and a bottle 
of rum I had produced in his honour had disappeared. 
He had [)assed them over the shi[)'sside while I was down 
below for a moment, and mv own steward told me he saw 
him do it, but thought 1 must have given them to him. 

1 tried in vain to see him afterwards, but was always 
informed he had gone into the foi'est and no oiu* knew 
where to find him. Tliis was the result of a litth^ civilisa- 
tion, he having received his education (viz., his knowledge 
of clothes) at Amboyna; for in Dobbo, when* there are 
no courts of justice nor police, and only one oflicial, 
himself a half-caste, and for whom the people care little 
or nothing, the* natives, who are about as ignorant and 
bloodthirstv lookin</ a lot of cut-throats as it would be 
possible to fmd anywhere on th(» face of the glol)e, can 
[)ositively leave their houses open and unguarded day and 
night without fear of mol(*station or robb(*ry ; and although 
a man will cheat his neighbour over a d(*al, and is con- 
sidered a smart fellow for so doing, ])etty larceny or crimes 
of this sort, which seldom or ntner occur, are looked upon 
with universal ill favour. 

Just before leaving this village I observed a sight which 
caused me to modifv niv conclusions about the cleanliness 
of these people. A man was squattmg on the ground 
with a naked girl, about fifteen years of age, laid across his 
legs, while with tlie point of a knife he was literally 



2Q4 THROUGH XEW GUIXEA. 

picking out the parasites frx>iu her head, and I felt as I 
gazed ujwn the slaughter that I would have given the 
price of a g(X)d many fowls which I had come on shore to 
purchase to have missed the sight. I will be indulgent, 
however, and say that |>erhaps they had run out of soap 
for some time, and now that they had it again things would 
change. 

My cook took a stroll into the forest one evening, and 
was rewarded with a ver}* fat wild pig which he shot, and 
which kept the yacht going for a few days in fresh meat. 
Just before leaving this place a native brought me, in a 
small bamboo cage, a very tine specimen of the great 
paradise bird. It was a line male, and I instantly bought 
it, and very soon afterwards transferred it into a large 
cage which one of my sailors made for it. Becoming 
very tame, it would feed out of my hand, and lived for 
many months afterwards, and every one on board became 
much attached to it. 



CHAPTEK VI. 

HKTrKN TO DOKIU) — A ClAV SP:AS0N — THE AlUHVAL OF 
THK STEAMEH — COCK FIGHTING — A NATIVE lU'IUAL 
(iHOl'NI) — NATIVE LE(;ENI)S — A DEAD CHIEF — A 
LOATHSOME CEKEMONV — MY STEWARD MUTINIES — 
AHIUVAL AT AIDOEMA— I VISIT A WOMAN CHIEF — 
TKITON BAY — I DISCOVER THE ANCIENT REMAINS OF 
FORMER ENGLISH HARITATIONS — TERRIBLE MAN 
TRAPS — DEPART FOR ETNA BAY. 

On the lOtli of Jiilv I (imvcd in J)()bl)(j at^iiin with a fair 
wind, and T niav here sav that tliis was the first I had 
encountered sinee settin*^' sail in these waters, and I am 
not tlu? first to travel in the South Seas who has com- 
plained of the Clerk of the Weather treating' him with 
scant courtesy in this res[)ect. As a rule, if you desire to 
travel north tlie wind invariably blows from that (juarter, 
if south, it comes from the south, and the same rule exists 
for every otlu^r point of the com[)ass. 

Dobbo presented a very (Hfi'erent a])pearance now. 
There were hundreds of people, who had arrived during 
my absence, who had brought cargoes of sarongs, plates, 
knives, and many other articles to trade with the natives 
for their tripang — pearl shell, beche le mer, tortoise shell, 
and other island produce. 

The praus, which numbered considerably over a hun- 
dred, were all hauled up on the beach, and men were soon 
caulking them with chinani and painting them, preparatory 

2U5 



2o6 THROUGH XEW GUINEA, 

to their departure : for the trading season, which does not 
last long, will soon he over for the year, and Dohho again 
deserted, save for the few remaining Chinamen who are 
so heavily in deht in more civilised parts of the world 
that they choose to remain here to sleep and smoke away 
another vear. 

The morning after my arrival I started into the forest, 
and after walking along the beach for about a mile turned 
in past several mangrove swamps to higher ground and 
had a very successful day. It is not my intention to 
describe here the various l)irds I shot, which 1 have 
included in the Appendix of this v(^lume, but I cannot 
leave the Am Islands without mentioning a few facts 
concerning the large, black cockatoo which 1 first met 
with here — the Macroglossum aterrimum. This bird, 
which has a plaintive note and one quite unlike the shrill 
scream of the cockatoo of Australia, is entirely bla^k 
with the exception of the cheeks, which are a bright 
red. There is a powdery substance covering the whole 
plumage, and which I first took to be dust, but found 
afterwards to l)e the secretion characteristic of the 
cockatoo family. Its head is enormous in comparison to 
the bodv, which is verv small and weak, and it owns a 
large, hooked bill of astounding strength. It lives princi- 
pally on the kernel of the canai^ nut, which it expertly 
cracks. 

To those of mv readers who have met with the canarv 
nut and are, therefore, cognisant of the hardness oi its 
shell, I need say nothing, but to those who have been 
less fortunate (1 sav less fortunate advisedlv, for the nut 
itself is most delicious, resembling a now walnut or 
filbert), T say that the canarv nut requires a very hard 
blow with a sledge-hammer to make any iuipi'ession on it 
at all, and T liave sj)ent sometimes a (quarter of an liour 
with an ordinary hammer before getting at tlie nut inside. 




THE PEOPLE OF ARU. 207 

This bird, however, takes it endways in its bill, saws 
awav until it cuts a notcli in it and then, bv fixin<( this 
notch in the lower mandible, by a supreme effort breaks 
off a portion ol' the shell. Then with the upper nnuuhble, 
which is lon<i^ and sharply pointed, it [)icks out the kernel, 
which is immediately seized by its prehensile ton^rue. 

On the 17th of July the steamer arrived, brin^ijing me 
four Macassar men I had en<^'a«^ed as hunters from Kei, a 
fresh sui)ply of provisions, and three thousand more cart- 
rid.^^es, so that 1 was now enabled to leave for the 
promised land of all naturalists — New Guinea. 

Tlui people of Aru are extivmely fond of cock-ii<^hting, 
and nearlv everv man owns a favourite bird, which he is 
always ready and willin*^ to back a^^ainst his nei<,dd)()ur's. 
It is no um'ommon si<^dit to see tlu»m sittin*^ on the 
^'round with an enormous roostei' standiui^^ up between 
their le^^^s, m:i-;sa<i;in»^ it, an ()[H'ration apparently very 
much enjoyed by the bird, who remains perfectly still, 
whether on his fe(*t or his back, durin*^^ the whole 
o[)eration. 

The Aru women wcai' a considei'able nund)er of orna- 
ments, but the men, like all tiue Pa])uans, wear by far the 
<rreater nund)cr. The eai-rin<»s worn bv the women are - 
made of co[)p<M' oi* silvei* in the shape of a [)]ain bar, which 
is ])assed throu^^di a hole in X\\v lobe, and twisted over so 
that the ends cross, and when there is no more room, the 
sides and toj) of the ear aie treated likewise. I have 
sometimes seen so many of these ear-rin»^^s that the ears 
of the weaier were completely pulled over with the 
wei^^ht. 

Outside the houses and under the eaves can ])e seen 
baskets in rows for the fowls to lay in. Inside, red, 
^'reen, and blue lorries, and half-starved native dogs, 
pi«4s, and cats roam at will. 

\\\ the evening melancholy Malay songs are heard issuing 



2o8 THROUGH SEW Gl'ISEA. 

from the praus and l>each. while iiiixe<l with the noise 

of Jew>*-haq>s. toni-toius. and jHr-rhaps a mouth-orjxan, 

can l»e heanl an <»ccasinnal Portii«:uese h^^wn-tune siin^ 

to Mahiv wiirds. In tht- niid>t t»f all S4»nie frantic veils, 

sh(»ut>. and j<Teani> are heard and <»ne is made aware that 

an interesting' c<>ck-ti^ht is taking place. 

Just outside the villatre. and a little way al<»nt]^ the sandy 

shore. I came ujH»n the native hurial-jrround, and another 

instance of the honest v of those far-awav sava<;es is 

evinced hv the fact that on each tond» I fomid verv manv 
• • • 

of the shell anulets S4> much souirhl after and prized 
by the natives, and which occupy some months in their 
manufacture. These probably the proiHuty of the 
deceased, are laid upon a w<Mxlen ornament which marks 
his burial-place, and yet none are ever st<»len. 

T did not stay to examine the ^rraves, as the native who 
accompanied me. and who s[K)ke Malay fairly well, 
informed me' that the [XM)ple did not like any one looking 
upon their tombs, and knowing' that any trespass of this 
kind is always resented, 1 resi)ected their superstition and 
came avvav. 

There are many le»^ends amon<^' the inhabitants of these 
islands, wnerallv told bv the old men, and alwavs 
thorou^rhly believed in by the people. The principal is 
that many years a^o some stran«:^ers arrived in bi^^^ ships 
and fou<^ht with them, carrying' away their chiefs and a 
great nuujber of women and children, whom they still 
believe to l)e alive, and are continually askin*,' of the 
traders who now visit the ^n*ou]) if they have lieard any 
tidings of them. When 1 was questioned about their 
whereabouts I said that wherever thev went to it was 
quite certain that they were dead long ago, whereupon 
thev scornfullv told me I didn't know anvthin^ at all 
about it. \WiT not they theinsolvt^s alive, and their 
fatliers had told tlii'iii of tlieir ehit^fs' faptuiv? 



A LOATHSOME CEREMOXY. 209 

So had not the chiefs themselves told their children 
and why did they, the children, not come l)ack ? 

1 had many messages <^ivcn me by these sim[)le people 
to ^ive these ima^^inary (mes, all of which I faithfully 
promised to deliver if I ever met witli th(»m. 

l^efore I left the «;roup I anchored at a small villa<^^e on 
the island of Wassia to take in water, as the water of 
Dohbo was so bad, and indeed, if there hap])eiu*d to be a 
drou^dit, I have no conce])tion how the inhabitants would 
exist, for there is no river in the whole ^^roup, and with 
the exception of one or two very small cret^ks, all the 
water obtained by the jn^ople has to be du<^' for, and is 
consequently of a very brackish nature. 

At the villa^^e I found a \ixv\\i concourse of people who 
had come from a lon<j: distance, as tlu' chief of tlie [)lace, 
who happened to be an old and influential man, had died 
some two weeks ])reviouslv. The bodv, which was not 
vet buried, was laid out on a l)aml)oo sta<'i? inside the 
])rincipal house in the village. There were <,n'eat lamen- 
tations, doleful sont^^s were sun^^ and tom-toms beaten 
without ceasin*^' all day and ni«,dit. and it ap])eared that ever 
since the man died weird noises and nnu-li shoutin*^ had 
been carried on from sumise to sunset, an<l so all through 
the ni^dit ; also they lU'ver seemed to tire of keepin*^ ^'i^l 
beside the corpse of the once powerful warrior. I sent 
some of mv men into the house to see what the body 
looked like, but thev verv soon came; awav, saviuij: it was 
terribly swollen, and bein^ eaten by the thousands of 
ants which were crawlin*^' all over it. 

The dav I arrived, I was informed, was the one on 
which the last rite was to be performed, and although 
I did not personally go ashore to see this loathsome 
cenMuony, one or two of my people did, and they told 
me that the body, wliich had assumed huge propor- 
tions, was taken out of the house and laid on another 

«5 



2IO THROUGH NEW GUIXEA. 

bamboo stage raised about three feet from the earth. 
The head and feet being fastened with rattan at either 
end, the body sank shghtly towards the centre, and 
owing to its terribly decomposed condition a thick, 
dark, mattery fluid emerged and (h'opped to the ground. 
Natives now came from all parts, and holding out 
banana leaves or cocoanut shells caught some and 
drank it, thereby believing that they were imbibing the 
virtues of their dead chief. It was with a sense of 
sickening horror that I ordered my captain to heave up 
the anchor and make sail as fast as possible from a place 
where the people filled me with so much loathing and 
disgust. 

July 19^//. — I steered a straight course for Aidoema, an 
island on the east coast of Dutch New Guinea, and after a 
tolerably fair passage I arrived at the Straits of Aidoema, 
and entering at the south end anchored for the night. 

Just as it was getting dark I observed several canoes 
slowly creeping down close to the land, but although 
I called out to the natives in them they could not be 
induced to come nearer than hailing distance of the 
yacht. My Chinese servant on board had begged me 
at Aru to let him remain behind, but of course, having 
no other, T refused. He told me that he had heard that 
no one ever returned alive from New Guinea, and would 
I let him go. 

As a result of my refusal, he laid down on the passage 
across, saying he was seasick, and would not do a stroke 
of work. When the anchor was down I went forward 
to the forecastle and called to him to get u]) and come 
and make ready my table for dinner. He came up, but 
said he was too sick, at the same time, taking up two 
large carving-knives, made as if to stab me. Quick as 
lightning my revolver was out and covorino- liim, where- 
upon he dropped both knives, and, falling down, implored 



A JrOMAX CHIEF. 211 

me to spare his life. This act of cowardice is truly 
characteristic of the Chinese race. In stabbing a man in 
the back they excel to perfection, but to meet a man face 
to face is not within their category of possibilities. The 
punishment he received taught him such a lesson that he 
never again disobeyed me during the whole time he was 
in my sen'ice. At daybreak the fc^Howing morning 1 
sailed up the coast looking for the village I had heard was 
hereabouts. Shortly afterwards I saw- signs of life in the 
shape of cocoanuts waving to and fro in the breeze. Then 
a canoe or two would shoot out into the strait a mile 
or so ahead and pull across to the mainland. At last 
I saw% in a httle inlet, some houses, and, letting go in 
twelve fathoms only a few hundred yards from the beach, 
1 quickly had my boat lowered and went asliore. The 
chief here was a woman — a most unusual occurrence — 
and was styled the liajah l^rumpoean, or AVoman Chief. 
She received me verv cordially in a tolerably well-con- 
structed house on the Ix ach, built high up on piles some 
twenty feet from the ground and entered bv very uneven 
steps made of bamboo or wood [)oles lashed to two up- 
right [)osts. She was surroundrd by many courtiers, 
men, women, and children. The Arab traders who visit 
here once everv vear have certainly done a great deal 
to further the civilisation of these i)eople, teaching them 
the Malay language and giving them clothes to wear 
in exchange for paradise birds' skins (the l^urrong Mass, 
or (iold Bird, as it is called, being the bird which has 
a market value), tortoise shell, and p(»arls. I purcliased 
two or three of the latter, which were of fair size and 
colour, for a few needles, a reel of cotton, and a sarong. 
The queen wore a great many ear-rings, similar to those 
worn by the women of Aru, and also many cheap and 
tawdry rings, such as are to be found in a prize-packet, 
and which I suspect had been received for pearls and 



^' ' 212 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

skins. I offered her a small j2;old chain if she would get 
iiie some more pearls, but she exclaimed, *' Teda mass " 
— Malay for ** not gold/' My assurances were of no 
avail, the more especially after one man had taken it 
and put it in the sea for a sliort time and nothing 
happened to it ; for he said had it been real gold like 
the things the Arabs gave them, the salt water would 
have turned it black. I may mention that the ornaments 
to which he alluded are of some ver\' inferior metal cmlv 
very slightly gilt over. The dishonesty of the Aiab and 
his wonderful powder of persuasion have even reached this 
far-away spot, and the unsophisticated savage has been 
imposed upon. Had I some cheap trinkets now, such as 
are to be found in the celebrated arcade in l^iccadilly, I 
could return laden with pearls. 

The Rajah Prumpoean was kind enough to give me 
two men to accompany me into Triton Bay, which 
directly faces the island on which she has taken uj) her 
residence, and she further promised others to shoot birds 
for me in a day or two. 

The women on this island wear their hair in a 
different manner to the Papuans further south. It 

(I is done up into three plaits, starting from the front 

i of the head and traversing it right over to the nape 

; of the neck, imparting a very strange appearance as 

i if their craniums were devoid of all hair, but that they 

had taken three baker's twists, and, plastering them 
on their heads, had then painted them black and smoke- 
/ dried them in a chimney. 

In the afternoon I bid adieu to her Majesty and sailed 
to the head of the bav, where 1 anchored at the mouth of 
a very large river, appan^ntly running between two high 
ranges of mountains. 1 also perceived on tlie left bank 
some signs of former European habitation in the shape of 
a p(.)rtion of a stone jetty and some large blocks of stone, 



TRACES OF ENGLISH HABITATIONS. 213 

which luicrht have foniied the fouiulations of substantial 
liouses. T also perceived Hnie and bread-fruit trees. The 
natives, who could speak a httle Malay, told me that 
formerly, and many years a<^o, the Orang In^n*is, i.e.y 
En<(lishmen, lived here, so their fathers had said. Indeed, 
it is quite possible that they may have done so, for it will 
be remembered that in 1()*20 the Dutch drove the English 
out of Bantam, and thev went to Ambovna, where a few 
years later they were the victims of a plot invented by a 
Dutchman for their destruction, and were again routed, 
some escaping to the mainland of New (xuinea. This is 
very correctly styled The Massacre of Amboyna, and took 
place on the 17th of February, 1(V28. 

What eventually became of the few who thus escaped 
is uncertain, but in all [)r()l)ability those who survived the 
terrible ravages of the malarious climate in this part of 
the world were killed and eaten bv the cannibal inhabi- 
tants of these shores. How long they did exist I cannot 
tell, but they nuist have felt that they were condenmed 
to a living tondj here in this desolate s])ot where no man 
ever comes or goes, and where no other sound is heard 
save tlu; " wok, wok" of the [>ara(lise bird, the screech of 
the cockatoo, or the weird and distressing boom of the 
tom-tom to remind them that a cannibal repast is taking 
])lace close bv. The bav itself is entirelv landlocked 
with precipitous mountains towering u|) directly from 
the water's edge on either side, and 1 hardly think it 
])ossible, even in the heart of Switzerland to behold 
grander scenery. 

i found no natives living on the shore, but my guides 
informed me that a long way off and high up in the 
mountains, the Arfours (wild men of the mountains), 
reside, and that if I would let one or two of my own 
men go with them with rifles to protect them, they would 
go and call them down to see me, when I might persuade 



214 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

them to obtain new or rare paradise birds. I therefore 
sent four men, who after proceeding a mile or so, returned 
to the coast owing to the terrible dangerous traps that ^t 
ever}' stride lay in their path. 

These traps, which are set by the Arfours to prevent 
enemies approaching their mountain retreat, consist of 
small spikes of iron wood, about ten inches long, and 
steeped in the juice of some poisonous plant. They 
are firmly imbedded in the ground with the exception of 
two or three inches, which is left at an angle of forty-five 
degrees and pointing towards the sea coast. These are 
placed in the native tracks a few feet apart, and are 
expertly hidden by twigs or leaves, but on any one walk- 
ing upon them they penetrate right through the foot, 
being so finely pointed. 

On the second day after my arrival here T obtained a 
very poor specimen of the Paradisea ni(jra, and one 
magnificent specimen of the beautiful crown pigeon of 
New Guinea. This bird, which is the size of a turkey, 
weighs about tw^elve pounds, is a beautiful bluish grey, 
and has a superb crest of fan-like feathers. It proved a 
truly excellent dish. Several praus arrived in the even- 
ing, and the natives all seemed very anxious to go and 
shoot for me in the moimtains. 

The next morning the natives brought me a great many 
of the spikes I have mentioned : they had found them in 
all the paths leading from the beach. A native had one 
foot entirely pierced by one, and had I not immediately 
withdrawn it and propei-ly dressed the wound, very serious 
results might have followed. It is the custom amongst 
these natives that if the loin-cloth which a man wears, 
made of the bark of trees, is wound tightly round him 
all is well, and vou mav approach him with safety, but 

• •11. %/ 

should it he hanging down from behind, then beware, 
for he is in hi.s fighting apparel, and is on the war-path, 



/ STAR 7^ FOR ETNA BAY. 215 

and sharpenin*,' his cannibal teeth preparatory to a 
feast. 

After spending a few days here and finding it im- 
possible to hunt the forest on account of these fri<{htful 
man-traps, I started on the 'i^^rd of July for Etna Bay. 



CHAPTER VII. 

A NATIVE PILOT — HE DESERTS ME — CONTRARY WINDS AND 
CURRENTS — TRAVEL THREE HUNDRED MILES FOR 
NOTHING — ARRIVE IN KYAMAKA BAY— ETNA BAY — 
ARRIVAL OF NATIVES — POINTED TEETH — TERRIBLE 
FIGHT WITH NATIVES — THREE OF MY MEN MURDERED 
— CONTINUOUS FIGHTING — I CAPTURE THE CHIEF — 
LEAVE ETNA BAY — RETURN AT TOEAL — DUTCH 
GOVERNMENT— THE DRY SEASON — SCARCITY OF 
LIVING CREATURES — THE QUEEN OF HOLLAND'S 
BIRTHDAY — ARRIVAL OF MAIL STEAMER — I DEPART 
FOR PORT DARWIN. 

The old man T had engaged to pilot us, and to shoot in the 
forest, begged nie to let hini go as we sailed past his house, 
putting forward the usual excuse- -his wife's sickness. I 
told him he had promised to remain for a lucmth with 
me, and that if he left now he would go unpaid. He 
then promised to follow me in a day or two, but as he 
asked mo to give him his wages I felt certain that he had 
no such intention, and told him so, whereupon he intimated 
that he considered me a very cruel man, and the spirits 
had told him his wife was reallv verv ill and that he onlv 
just wanted to go on shore to look at her and then he 
would come straight back to me. 1 again refused to 
allow him to do so, knowing that every word he was 
uttering was an untruth, it being nothing but his cowardly 
fear to go so far from liome. Besides, 1 felt quite justi- 

■116 



CONTRARY WINDS AND CURRENTS. 217 

fied in endeavouring to keep him, as he had not only 
been ordered by the queen to come with me but also had 
an accurate knowledge of the many reefs and different 
passages down the coast. He said nothing more, but 
watching his opportunity when I was below at tiffin he 
quietly slipped over the ship's side and swam ashore. 
T was soiTv to lose him, as, apart from his seafaring 
knowledge, he was a very interesting old cannibal, and 
amused us on manv occasions bv his droll remarks and 
many native superstitions. Besides all this he had 
become an excellent shot and had brought me many 
good things from the depths of the forest. Towards 
evening the wind freshened, and at ten o'clock was 
blowing so hard we were compelled to stand out to sea. 
This gale lasted for two days, during the whole of which 
time I was under closelv reefed sails. On the third day 
the weather cleared a little and we made the land, but 
unfortunately instead of being at Etna Bay, so strong 
had been the current to leeward that we found ourselves 
back in Triton l^ay, after covering a distance of at least 
three hundred miles. We then made our way through 
the inner passage and inside the straits, and after 
struggling for a whole week against a most terrific 
current we managed to put into Kyamaka l^ay, after 
accomplishing a distance of only twelve miles. We 
were all so tired after being knocked about for so 
long that I ordered the captain to find a suitable anchor- 
age so that we could stay here and have a good night's 
rest. Kvamaka J^av extends north and south for a con- 
sidera])le distance inside the headland. It has not yet 
been surveyed, but I found deep water everywhere. 1 
sailed all round the bav in mv endeavours to discover the 
existence of natives, but with the exception of a few 
frigate birds, who seemed to inhabit a large rock some 
distance down the bav and close to the mainland, and 



218 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

one or two cocoanut trees dotted here and there, the 
whole bay was apparently deserted. 

On a small island or, rather, a lon*:]^ rock, at the entrance 
of the bav I observed a very curious instance of water 
bein^ forced to some considerable hei<^ht, which 1 should 
estimate at over a hundred feet. The water is dashed 
with ^reat fury against this rock, when it apparently 
proceeds to some underground channel, and from thence 
it is forced in dense volumes through a snuill hole in the 
top of the rock, giving it in the distance the appearance 
of the spurting of a huge whale. 

The next morning we again got under way and made 
another attempt to reach Pltna Bay, which was now 
onlv a mile or two distant round the headland, but after 

« 

battling for nine hours against a strong head wind and 
terrific current were obliged to put back and spend 
another night in the same anchorage. 

At daylight one more start was made, and the distance 
of three miles into Etna Bay was at last accomplished 
after eighteen hours' hard beating, making it eleven 
days to cover a distance of fifteen miles. The cuiTcnts 
along this coast are the strongest 1 have ever ex- 
perienced. Tlu»y are influenced vctv greatly by the 
ditferent monsoons, sometimes travelling at the rate of 
twelve miles in the hour, so that in the south-east 
monsoon it is practically impossible for a sailing shi]) 
to b(?at along the coast. Htna Bay, after proceeding 
in a northerly direction for a few miK s, turns off to the 
eastwanls and winds itself between two ranges of moun- 
tains for seventeen miles, and at its widest place hardly 
leaching half a mile across. 

A verv prrttv watcMlall at tlu^ rntrance of the narrower 
[»ortion of the hay lushed down from a considerable height 
over pi'('ci)>it(His rocks into tlu^ sea hcncath. 1 proceeded 
lo the \(.\\\ head ot" the hav and some i'our miles further 



HTXA BA y, 219 

than tlie line of soundings given on tlie chart, and finding 
there a coni])aratively suitable spot whence I could make 
some extensive collections and where a few small rivulets 
ran down between the ravines to the l)each, 1 ancliored and 
made preparations for a long visit. As there were no cocoa- 
nuts to be seen, and nothing but dense forest running to 
the very water's edge, I concluded that there were no 
natives in the neighbourhood, the last sign of life I had 
seen being a few houses on a small sandv beach at the 
entrance of the bay. I was surprised, however, to find, 
immediately 1 went ashore, many traces of people, and of 
verv recent date: in fact, some one had evidently becui there 
on the previous day, as branches and twigs that had been 
broken were not yet withered, but although 1 called and 
caused a gun to be fired no one put in an appearance. 

The next morning we all made excursions to the forest, 
and although it was a verv cloudv day were verv successful 
in securing many ])rizes. One female ornithoptera I 
ca])tured repaid me for the hard task I had experienced in 
reaching there. Imm(Mliately T saw it I knew it to be 
something new ; it ha.s since l)een desci'il)ed as a new 
species. I exti acted an c\i^^ from the body, as T was 
most desirous, if possible, to ol)tain the male.* 

This <•<,'«;, jifttT ;i lapse of a week. Iiatclicl into a cat(.'ri>illar, uiid 
tluMi it was. if 1 lia<l anv <l()ubt hcforr, that I knew it to l>e a new 
spt'C'it's; the white stiijn' connnon to all (unithoptera caterpillars was 
niissin«^', the red spikes were not there, and the insect itself was very 
much l.ir^'i'r at hirth. I managed, after a ^re it amount of trouble, to 
secure the lij^dit food for it, and nursed it most c.uefully until it assumed 
the form of a chr\>>alis. I then im.ij^ined that all my trouble was 
rmisln'tl. and I was deli;;hted to see that it nnist evidently, on account 
of it-i size and shape, be the male. K\ervthin^' went well until I 
arri\e.l at Port Darwin a month or two afterwards, where of course 1 
took it on shore with me, as by that time I was expectin*,' it daily to 
hatch out. Placing' it in a small, open box in my bedroom, I hunj; it 
from a l)eam so that it would be >ecure. What was then my horror 
to be awakened in the middle of the nij^ht by a strange noise, and 



220 THROUGH SEW GUI SEA. 

Arfionff??t many other species «»f lepidoptera no less 
interesting;. t^>j5ether iiith five iua«:niifii.t:nt specimens of the 
Paradi^ea ajHMla, three of the Paradi^a nitjra, a superb 
anrl ver\- rare kinffrisher, an<i fivt- «»r six taher smaller birds, 
all tti which had rarely or ne\ t-r l»t^n exhibitetl in Euri>pean 
cabinets, were the result of my first tramp in that <»Teat 
vir^n forest, never before tnjdden by tlie f«:Mit of the white 
man. 

Towards evening: fin the 5th of Au^st I sighted a canoe 
on the northern side of the bay : it was occupied by some 
ten or twelve natives, who hailed us fn>m a long distance 
and spoke a dialect of the Ceram language which was 
luckilv partiallv understood bv one of mv Macassar hunters. 
Their s|>eaking this language was verj' strange and only 
showed me that at some remote date these people must have 
had connection with the Ceramese notwithstanding the 
considerable distance which separates them. They had 
the Dutch flag hoisted in the canoe, but thev could not be 
induced to come anv closer until I went off to them alone 
in a boat bareheaded, when after much gesticulating and 
promises of presents made to them by signs, they were 
enticed to the vacht. Thev seemed verv frightened, and 
were continuallv asking me with unmistakable motions, 
such as the drawing of their fingers across their throats, 
if it was mv intention to kill them. Thev verv soon 
gained confidence, however, and all came on board, when 
they r(?c(!ived each man something. These men were 
mis(;rablv tliin and were evidentlv lialf starved, for thev ate 
most ravciioiislv the huge bowls of cooked rice and taros 
which I ha<l placc^d l)efore them, ofl'ering me in exchange 

jiniil)in^ ii|) to i'md a Inif^e rat liad climbed down the cord and seized 
my treasure in \\\>> iiioiilh and was even then niakin*,' off with it. 
Thai was lh«' hist I ever saw of what I liad reason to believe was a 
iiiah' of this spcc-ics. 

A mah' lias sincr been (h^cn\ere(l wlucli ])ro\('s to be far more 
beautiful thoU''li not unlike the OrmfJiojftcf'd partn/isra. 



/ FEED THE NATIVES. 221 

a few bows and arrows and small arm-rings, ko,. At 
sunset tliey departed, promising to return on the follownng 
morning. 

At daybreak on the ()th of Au<aist the man on watch re- 
ported many canoes approaching filled with ])e()ple. I at 
once came on deck and invited them on board, and after 
some hesitation thev came — men, women, and children. All 
day long canoes were seen gliding down the l)ay from both 
shores and close under the mangroves. At about midday 
one large canoe displaying the Dutch flag came alongside. 
It held a very old man, who had to be carried on board by 
his wife, who told us that he was the* head man of the tribe. 
Tliey were all ravenously hungry, and it was most anmsing 
to watch the great amount of greediness displayed, 
especially by the men, when food was i)laced before them, 
the whole scene ivminding me somewhat of the feeding 
of the animals jit the Zoological (iardens, only, unlike that 
establishment, I am afraid the females and the children 
did not fare equally with the ()p[)osite sex. 

After they had filled their connnissariat departments, 
they all gathercMl together to heai* what I had come for, 
and when I explained as best J could that it was for beetles 
and butterflies thev all laughed verv much and w-ere 
anxious to start right away and search the forest. The 
old man promised me his assistance, and at once sent 
several men to see what they could find. Their clothing, 
which was of the scantiest descri])ti()n, consisted only of 
a piece of fibre no thicker than stout twine and fastened 
round the loins; a narrow piece of native cloth about an 
inch wide was passed through the legs, hanging over 
slightly in front and IxOiind ; every one had plaited hair. 

I was sorry, however, to see that the majority of them 
had their teeth sharpened to points, resembling the tooth 
of the shark, this being in my own personal experience a 
very bad sign in natives. They asked me if I would like 



THROraH SEW CCIMIA. 



to purchase one or two ^\r\?, whom thw liad for nale. 
When I atike^t thein what I should do with them, they 



.5tc*4a, i 




intiiii;ili-d Unit of .■ourso [ slioiild fatten them for ii 



hollsrs, mill -nll.H'til' 



TERRIBLli OXSLAUGHT. 223 

own Imnters and T went without hindrance into the dense 
forest, the natives apparently bein*^ of a most friendly 
dis])osition, and ^^^ainin^:: confidence daily when tliey saw I 
had not come to harm them. 

l^ut alas! on the 11th of Aujj^ust, all my ^'ood opinions 
of them were horribly and suddenly dispelled by the 
terrible and determinc^d onslau<;ht they made upon us, 
and mv earlv fears, which T had formed owin<^ to tlieir 
sharpened teeth, were indeed realised. l^arly on this 
mornin<^' two of my crew went on shore as usual to shoot, 
and after breakfast the ])utterfiv collectors were taken in 
the whale-])oat bv my boatswain, Johnston, and one of 
the sailors, round a point about a mile distant, where 
there was a very ^i^ood river, on the banks of which they 
told me thev had seen manv line butterflies the day 
before. 

Shortly after thev started a veiv hum* canoe, containing; 
about twenty-five people, came alon«;side, and all its 
occu])ants canu^ on deck, includin^^ one old woman, wlio 
])rou<(ht with Ium* a child, which she; was very anxious for 
m(» to purchase. I'heir maimer was even more friendly 
than usual, and throu<^di this I then, for tlu» first time, 
suspected hostile intentions, and so, takin*^^ away a larp^e 
knife, with a ])Iade about fifteen inches in len«;th, from a 
man who was sitting' on the tallVail close to the back of 
my cliair, I told the captain to keep a ^ood look out. 

It is mv firm belief that this act saved mv life. The 
natives, evidently ol^servin^^ my suspicions, connnenced 
talkin*; very excitedly amonj^^st themselves, and I must say 
that the boat, which by now had had ample time to return, 
and was not f()rthcomin<^^ caused me very much anxiety 

so nnich so that I was on the point of sendinij some one 
after it when I o])served what 1 first took to ])e tlie l)oat, 
but afterwards found was a lar^a^ cano(\ returning from 
round the point; and had 1 known then that its comin^j 



224 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

heralded the accompHshment of their hloody deed not one 
man, woman or child of those twenty-five on board tlie 
yacht should have lived to have reached the shore. Seein^y 
then that their own mission, which had evidently been 
to murder us and seize the ship, had proved futile, they at 
once departed, and not a moment too soon for them, for 
about a quarter of an hour afterwards ** Jimmy," one of 
the two hunters who had started at daybreak in the 
morning, was observed rushing down to the beach and 
entering the water. I shouted to him to know the reason, 
when he called out, ** Fire the big gun ; Lennel has been 
killed.'' 

At that moment a shower of arrows and spears were 
seen whizzing through the air over his head, as he swam 
out to the ship, but fortunately not one struck liim. 
I then brought the Knipp gun I had mounted on deck 
to bear upon the beach, and by its assistance kept back 
the swarming natives from following Inm, and a few 
moments afterwards he reached the ship in safety. He 
told me that he and Lennel were just returning from the 
bush with a number of paradise birds, the result of their 
morning's work, and were sitting down in front of the 
village, drinking the cocoanuts the natives had given 
them, when he suddenly saw a man raise a native axe 
and strike Lennel across the neck from behind. The 
poor man, he said, sank down without a murmur. He 
then ran back again into the forest, but was so hard 
pressed by the overwhelming numbers that he doubled 
back to the beach and swam for his life. 

1 was obliged to keep up a continuous and deadly fire 
for about ten minutes, to prevent the people from hauling 
up their canoes on the shore, which by now began to 
float off with the rising tide. 

About two o'clock, Rangoon, one of the butterfly boys 
was seen to run out of the forest and push a canoL' into 



/ SCUTTLE THE CAXOES. 225 

the water. He also reached the ship without any injury. 
Rangoon said that my men, who had taken liim with the 
otliers in the boat in the morning, liad been attacked by 
swarms of natives, Imt he had rushed oflf into the jungle, 
and tlius escaped ; tliat there were also hundreds of 
natives running backwards and forwards in the forest 
filled with excitement. About an hour later T saw two 
more of my men creeping through the mangroves a few- 
hundred yards north of the village, and making for a 
canoe which was tied u]) close by, but the natives dis- 
covered them a few vards before thev reached it, and 
attacked them in a most ferocious manner, only running 
away after I had fired several rounds of the Knipp gun 
over their heads. A few minutes later these two men 
were safelv on board, and I could not but be amused at 
the ])luckv wav in which one of them had stuck to his 
butterflv-net all the time, and esiu^ciallv wIk'U he told me 
that he could have reached the canoe nmcli quicker had 
he not bad it in his hand. Tlu^v informed me that when 
the boat was attacked tbcv ran away, as they were 
unarmed, but that Johnston, Sam, and Abdullah, the 
Macassar man, were all together. 

The canoes wliich lined the l)each opposite the village 
liad by this time all Uoatcd olT, as the tide had risen, and 
owing to the continuous fire 1 had ])een obliged to keep 
up to prevent the natives from securing them. I therefore 
now sent some men with axes, and in this wav scuttled 

ft- 

about forty, which were to ])e seen floating in the bay in 
all directions. This act evidently enraged the natives to 
such an extent that otlu*r canoes, overcrowded with people, 
sprang out of the mangroves from every point, and 
sinmltaneously made a desj)erate attack upon us. 

These canoes, some sixty or seventy in number, con- 
taining in all about three hundred people, were kept at 
bay for a considerable time, and finding evidently that it 

16 



226 



THROVGH SFAV GVISEA. 



was an impossibility to secure the prize they so much 
coveted, they tlivided and disappeared, doing us but very 
little injury. Tlie bay presented by this time a gruesome 
sjiectacle — the wreckage of destroyed canoes, bows and 
arrowK, and many other articles of the enemy's fighting 



'>AO>l X 



\J^ 




paraphernalia were to be seen floating in all directinns. 
The noise of the tom-toms could be heard sending ont 
their weiixl and diamiil sounds from range to range, dusky 
objwts cciuld he ncnii skimming ncrosw a little open patch 
or cicc|iirig through the un<liTgm\vth near tlic watfi's 
<'dgi> all vuinid uk; and it reflects grL^t credit ui.nn the 



THE RETURN OF ABDULLAH. 227 

remains of my small but plucky crew that so large a force 
on the shore was unable to approach and capture the 
ship. 

There was not a breath of air to enable us to move, and 
the sun had nearly set, nevertheless immediately the tide 
turned 1 weighed anchor and dropped in the direction I 
had sent tlie boat in the morning, to endeavour to find 
out something of the three missing men. I fired a rifle 
at regular intervals on the way to enable them to know 
the ship's position, although I had but little hope of 
their being then alive. 

At 10 P.M. we again let go the anchor, and about 
half an hour later I perceived, by the phosphorescent 
disturbance of the water, that something was coming 
towards the ship. In response to my inquiry I heard the 
faint word ''Cowan" (Malav for friend), and knew at 
once it must bo Abdullah, and very soon managed to get 
him on board. It appeared he had hidden in the jungle 
until long after dark, and then when he heard the chain 
running through the hawse-pipe he knew that the ship 
was again at anchor. So making his wav some mile or 
two to windward along the coast he had cut a spar, taken 
off his clotln^s, and struck out for the centre of the bay, 
knowing that the strong current running at the time 
would verv soon carrv him down to the vacht. Had he 

«. a. k 

started even fiftv vards lower down the current would 
have swe])t him past the ship without ever reaching it, 
iUid we sliould never have seen or heard of him again. 
As it was he arrived on board in a terriblv exhausted 
condition, with his feet all cut and bleeding, and his body 
scratched to pieces from the prickly undergrowth he had 
been obliged to penetrate, as the natives had so hotly 
pursued him, the most persistent being a man and a boy, 
both of whom he had killed with his kris. 

My worst fears were now realised, for he told me 



r 



228 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

JohoBton and Sam were both dead. On landing in the 
morning, he told us, the boat had been hauled np on 
the beach, and they bad all Bat ander a cocoanat tree. 
Suddenly they were aurprised by Bome hnndred natives 
mshing ont of the forest and attacking them, whereapon 
they made a bolt for their rifles, which they had foolishly 
left in the boat, when others in canoes attacked them 
(ram the ftea. He just had time to see that Sam had 
been cut in the back and pierced with arrows, and poor 
Johnston, my boatswain, had hterally been pierced 
through nnd through, when he ran off to save himself. 

By eldveu o'clock that night by the hght of their fires 
I could (tee that the village was full of natives, and from 
the noise of .their drums and tom-toms, and from an 
observiLtion one of the hunters had made on the shore, I 
knew only too well the nature of their horrible and 
repulHivt! festivity. They had killed three of my men, 
had captured five rifles and my boat, and I was powerless 
U> revenge these dastardly murders. All through that 
night and many succeeding ones I never left the deck, 
for on Re\'eral occasions these natives, who were the 
))n1ilest anil moat ferocious I had ever seen, made several 
desperate attempts to capture the vessel, and I am con- 
fident that if it had not been for the quick-firing Knipp, 
the yacht would have passed into other hands, and this 
book never have been written. 

On the 15th of August we had still not a breath of air, 
but at daylight, the tide being with us, I weighed anchor 
and drifted slowly down the bay. I picked up one of my 
butterfly boxes floating down and saw hundreds of arrows 
and spears, &c., also about a dozen more canoes, which had 
evidently floated away in the night, as the natives had 
been too frightened to show themselves on the beach to 
make them fast. About midday the tide turning, I was 
obliged to let go the anchor, as there was still no breath 



THE NIGHT AFTER THE BATTLE. 229 

in tlie heavcnK, I shortly afterwanls perceived caiioe 
after canoe full of natives creeping up under the man- 
groves after nie, hut a few well-directed shots at those in 
the leiul quickly caused the othei^s to turn and paddle back 
again. From sundown I i-eniained on deck throughout 
the night,- straining my eyes at every movement in the 



=■' ' f„J-,„. 1, r.. 


- ''■'■■ "-^^ A.yJ.^\^ 




''"% 







water and my ears at the slightest possiMe sound, and 
sevcnil times during the small hours of thu moniing the 
slight bump against the ship's stern caused me anxiously 
to peer over the taffrail, only to find thiit it was one of 
the canoes I had captured, but owing to its particularly 
clever design and carving 1 had not destroyed. T would 
not allow one single light of any description, as it might 



330 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

havi- hfi-n ii fi»"<lti to our -whereaboiits for onr -wouid-be 
mnrderers. and so, as tlio oight was dark as pitch, I was 
obliged to {^i)e my way ii]» and down. 

At dayiiglit I got \mAet way again with the tide, 
followed, as I cuuld see, but at safer distance, by hondredB 
of natives, nut only in cunoes, but creeping along the 
mangroves of the shore, I could every now and then 
both see ii,nd hear them. On this day we entered the 
narroweat portion of tho Imy, being only a hundred yards 
or BO wide from shore to shore. Here the tide was moch 
stronger, and we were thus enabled to travel a consider- 
able diHtiiiiRo, anchoring at the waterfall nearly at the 
entrance. 

Here we caught sight of two canoes coming from 
thu ujijKJBitB direction altogether, and presuming they 
knew nothing of the Hglit, I hailed them, when they 
came within speaking distance. They flew the Dutch 
flog, and dipped it three times to me. They said they 
had come from Kjomera liay to buy yams luid sago from 
the people of Lahabia, whose chief , the Bajah Bai, was 
on board. This chief was the son of the old man who 
hail boeii earrit'd on ljn;vt<l 3ome days before, and was the 
head man of the very people who had fought us, but 
whether he knew anything about the matter I could not 
ascertain, as he had remained at his village at the 
entrance of the bay, and had not followed us iip with the 
rest of his people on our arrival the week before. At any 
rate he was their chief, and I considered that I should be 
thoroughly justified in making him my prisoner. 

I enticed the canoes nearer and nearer until they were 
alongside, and after producing an arrack bottle, which he 
evidently recognised from his dealings with the Burgis and 
Arabs, he consented to come on board and was followed by 
about twenty men. I then told him through Abdullah, 
who spoke a little of his dialect, that his people had 



/ CAPTURE AND RELEASE A CHIEF. 231 

murdered three of my men and had stolen my boat and 
five guns, so that 1 intended to keep liim as a prisoner. 
]^efore he had been told half the sentence he made a bolt 
for the side ; but I was too quick for him, and he found 
himself handcuffed and tied to tlie mast in a far shorter 
space of time than it requires to write the account of 
it. Meanwhile his friends had deserted him and were 
swimmint( vigorously towards the canoes, whicli had been 
paddled off at the first intimation of trouble. I told 
him that he must tell his people in the canoes that I 
gave them three days in which to go and fetch my boat 
and my guns ; at the end of that time, if they were not 
fortlicoming, 1 should kill him. J3ut notwithstanding his 
requests to them to do as I bid, they paddled off as fast 
as possible in an entirely opposite directicm. I now held 
a consul taticm as to the best course to adopt, and after 
turning the matter well over in my mind, 1 decided to let 
him go on his undertaking to return to me as quickly as 
possible with my property — this promise I set little or no 
value upon, but 1 felt ol)liged to make him guarantee 
something as an excuse for setting him at liberty. My 
true reason, however, was that tlie Dutch Government 
would have undoubtedly sent me off to Macassar to 
attend his trial, and 1 could ill afford the many 
months T should have to remain there before the 
law was carried into effect. 1 learned afterwards from 
the Controlleur of Kei that 1 had acted very wisely by 
so doing, and had saved myself a lot of trouble and 
time. Calling back one of the canoes by telling them 
that their chief was free to go, they returned within 
a hundred yards of the ship, but no power of 
persuasi(m or assurances could induce tliem to come 
any nearer. I therefore permitted the chief to get into 
the canoe I was towing astern, and payed out rope to 
enable liim to reach his own people, and had I not covered 



THROVGH NEW Cr/XEA. 

him several times with ii riHe the old scoundrel would 
have cut the painter aii<i made off, canoe am woU. The 
next tide took us out of the hay, and very soon afterwards 
we caught the fine, steady wind of the south-east monsoon. 

It was with a sense of exquisite rehef that I was now 
enabled for the first time for many days to go below and 
sleep in safety, and llic strain and anxiety which I had 
experienced the last week can never, if I live to be a 
hundred, be forgotten. 

Two days later the beautiful forests of the Kei Islands 
hove in sight, and befoi-e sunset, with an imnjense feeling 
of pleasure, I once more came to anchor off the hospitable 
little town of Total, where I was to leave my lumters 
and whither I had come to make my statement and 
complaint to the Dutch Government, and to try and 
obtain one or two Malay sailorn to replace my poor 
murdered men, to help us down tti North Anstraha. The 
Controlleur showed his great kindness again by assisting 
me in my search ; but we were only able to obtain one 
man who was willing to leave the country. 

On turning up the records of occurrences in his districts, 
the Controlleur showed me the entry respecting an attack 
made iipuii ii wNjiilut in Etn:i liny, in issll, wXwn- the 
captain, who had gone ashore with two of his officers, 
had been savagely attacked by the natives of Lahabia 
and murdered, and the natives had afterwards made a 
desperate attempt to seize the ship. Some time later I 
learned that another writer, speaking of this very village, 
stated it to be dangerous. To quote what he says: 
" This part of New Guinea is inhabited by the most 
bloodthirsty and treacherous tribes. It is in these dis- 
tricts that the commanders and portions of the crews 
of many of the early discovery ships were murdered. 
and scarcely a year now passea but that some lives are 
lost." Again the same writer states, when speaking 



RE7URN TO TOEAL. 233 

of Lahal)ia in Etna Bay: ** In tlie very same village 
four years before more than fifty Goramese were mur- 
dered " (these people from the island of Goram, as well 
as Arabs and Ceramcse, are in the habit of visiting 
annually this part of New Guinea to trade with the 
natives), ** and as these savages obtain an immense booty 
in the praus and all their appurtenances it is to be feared 
that such attacks will continue to be made at intervals 
as long as traders visit the same spots and attempt no 
retaliation. Punishment could only be inflicted on these 
people by very arbitrary measures, such as by obtaining 
possession of some of the chiefs by stratagem and ren- 
dering thom responsible for the capture of the murderers 
at the peril of their own heads. But anything of this 
kind would be (|uite contrary to the system adopted by 
the Dutch Government in its dealings with natives/' 
For my own. part, 1 must say 1 do not consider it a good 
plan to distribute, as they do, the flag of their country 
haphazard to all tlu? natives with whom they come in 
contact, and in my opinion it would be far wiser were 
thev first to obtain some knowledt^e of their character 
and disposition before placing in their hands such a token 
of civilisation, which, as the candle lures the moth, has 
drawn so many innocent people to destruction. 1 may 
also sav that 1 have since been in communication with 
tlu* J^'oreign Office, and have made a strong appeal to 
the Netherlands Government, but whether or no 1 shall 
ever receive anv redress remains vet to be seen. 

I had some few days to wait at Toeal before the arrival 
of the steamer from Singapore, which might possibly 
bring mc some letters. The place presented a very 
ditferent aspect to what it did some few months ago ; the 
scarcity of rain was the cause of the scorched up 
appearance of everything now ; the grass'', so green when 
I left in May, was nowhere to be seen ; the cattle of the 





254 THROUGH A/iiV CVINEA. 

Ccmtrollear, so fat and ia snch excellttnt couilitimi before, 
were now drs^^ing themselTes from tree tn tree in their 
BndeavouriD to find the wherewithal to keep themselves 
alive. I sent out some men, aiid alao went njywlf intti 
the fore&t to see what I could find ; but wo all returuwi 
empty-hauded, as thia terribk' drj' Hea»un seemeil to have 
destroyed every Uving creatart; ; there was iiothmf; there- 
fore but tj' wait sa patiently JiH ijutwihlc fur the arrival 
of the Bte»mer. 

The 31st of Aognst being the birthday of the Queen 
of HoUand, the whole town was clothed in its hoHday 
Zkiment of red, white, and blue ; and it struck me at the 
time as beiag ao extremely strange that, although witliin 
a conple of days' travel froin tribes of wild and savage 
cannibals who know absolutely nothing iif the civilised 
world, theue people ahoold be celebrating the anniversary 
of the birth of a .young queen so many thousand miles 
sway on the other side of the i^iohe. Guns were Bred 
tontinnally from daylight to dark— sijuibs, crackers, and 
rockets were being let oflf indiscriminately from every 
house. The natives amused us hy swimming, racing in 
tajioes, imd various other sports, for piiztiB of tobacco, 
cloths, EUid even money, ending up tho day with dancing 
and other festivities. 

It is the great ambition of every native to obtain from 
the Chinamen a few crackers or squibs, and he is <}uite 
satisfied to go away by himself and let them off for his 
own amusement, a little fizzing, a very occasional small 
report, the flare up of half -dampened . powder, and all is 
over ;_ but he is quite satisfied, and dances and rolls on 
the ground for joy. 

On September 10th, the Dutch mail having arrived the 
day previously, I started for Port Darwin, which is 
situated on the north-east of Australia, and where I was 
obliged to go, being so short-handed. It would have 



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[/7: ARRIVIi AT PORT DARWIX. 239 

been impossible during the south-east monsoon season to 
beat all the way to Torres Straits, where I desired to go 
on my way to British New Guinea, with so few sailors, 
and 1 calculated that at Port Darwin I should be able to 
obtain the requisite number of hands. 

On the wav out of Toeal Harbour we were fortunate 
to hook three enormous king-fish, each weighing fully 
thirty pounds, and were thus provided with fresh fish for 
tJie voyage. 

A fine, steady breeze blowing from the south-east brought 
us, in four days, to Melville Island, off the coast of 
Australia, and a day or so afterwards we ran into Port 
Darwin, or Palmerston, as the town is called. The only 
sailors I found here were some verv inferior and drunken 
Manila natives, but as it was a case of those or none, I 
was compelled to engage two. 1 tlien sent the yacht on 
to Thursday Island, in th(^ Torres Strait, remaining 
behind myself, as T intended to wait for the China mail 
from Hong Kong, in which 1 could take passage for 
I'hursday Island, nnd m the meantime benefit by the 
change on shoic. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE HARBOrR AT PORT DARWIN — THE CABLE COMPANY'S 
HEAD-QUARTERS — THE TERMINUS OF THE TRANS- 
CONTINENTAL RAILWAY — CHINATOWN — I TAKE UP MY 
QUARTERS AT THE RESIDENCY — A CORROBOREE- AN 
aboriginal's camp — PORT DARWIN AS AN IMPORTANT 

SEAPORT — ARRIVAL AT THURSDAY ISLAND THK 

. PEARL FISHERY -- NUMBERS OF JAPANESE THE 

! ARRIVAL OF THE YACHT — I DEPART FOR NEW GUINEA 

— YULE ISLAND — OPPOSITION MISSIONS — PORT MORES- 
BY — I WATCH A WOMAN BEING TATOOED THE 

i **MKRRIE ENGLAND" — VOYAGE TO SAMARAI MISSION 

STATION AT KWATO — THE ONLY STONE CHURCH IN 
NEW GUINEA — THE NATIVES — I LOSE MY FAVOURITE 

/ ' DOG — DEPARTURE FOR NEW BRITAIN. 

i 

The harbour at Port Darwin is situated in a verv .sheltered 
position behind the town of Pahnerston. The rise and 
fall are very considerable — some ei^diteen to twenty feet. 
Tlie small pier on wliich the railway runs is very well 
constructed, but at the time of my arrival a new one was 
in course of contemplation. Tlie town itself is of some 
importance on account of its being the head-quarters of 
the British Atlantic Cable Company, tliis being the place 
where telegraphic connnunication witli Australia coni- 
menc(^s. It is prettily situated on a peninsula (n'crlookini^ 
the harbour on one* side and tlie oct^an on the other, and 
nuiy therefore be considered in all n^spects very healthy. 

•240 



f . 



PALMERSTOX. 241 

It possesses a fairly ^ood town-liall, post-ofiice, library, 
and excellent Government buildin^^s. The site of the 
Government Kesidency is an exceptionally well-chosen 
one, connnanding, as it does, an excellent view of town 
and harbour. Here also is the terminus of the great 
Trans-continental Railway, an undertaking which has 
never yet been completed, although some hundreds of 
thousands of pounds have been spent upon it. China- 
town, wliere live by far tin* greater number of the 
population, is in a hollow ratber below the l^iUropean 
quarter, and tlie great stores and warehouses to be seen 
here remind one tliat, although the J^ritisher may be 
dreaming away his dreary existenc(? beneath the scorcliing 
heat of tlie trojncal sun, the Chinaman, at least, is 
extending his trade and pushing his way inch by inch 
forward bere as in evt^v other town when^ he establishes 
liimself. 

At the kiud invitation of the (lovermnent Resident, His 
Honour Judge Dashwood, I took up my abode at the 
Residency, and during the time I was obliged to remain 
liere, pending the arrival of the steamer, rec(Mved many 
kiiul attentions and much hospitality at his hands. On 
one occasion, at his riMpiest, the aborigines collected 
togetlier for many miles round to exhibit their native dance 
or corroboree, in which some eighty or a bundred men 
took part. Dressing themselves in leaves, and by the use 
of paint, oclu'e, il'c, covering themsc^lves with fantastic 
designs, tliey conuueiu'ed tbeir weird gyrations before me, 
and around a huge boutire, which had Ix^eii lighted in the 
open space selected for the purpose. This entertainment, 
whicli connnenced at about nine in the evening, was 
carried on all through the night. Sometimes their dance 
would be accompanied by a low and melancholy clianting 
sound, and at others by terrible sliouts and veils as of 
men rushing on to victory. Sonietiiueb their motions 

17 



242 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

would betray their various passions in love, which to the 
European eye appeared to be very lewd and disgusting. 
At other tinjes they would go through the evolutions of 
war, imitating an attack or defence with such perfect 
mimicry that one could hardly believe that it was any- 
thing butone tribe in combat against another. 

Amongst the many and beautiful drives for which the 
Resident took me during my visit was one to the blacks' 
camp, a few miles up the coast, where there were some 
two or three himdred natives congregated together. 
These people, who appear to be about the lowest class of 
any natives, build no houses whatever, but live upon 
the seashore in small holes dug out in the sand. They 
are filthy in the extreme, living a wandering life, picking 
up scraps here and there, but never doing any work. 
The time cannot be far distant when this race of people, 
like the aborigines of Tasmania, will have entirely dis- 
appeared from the face of the earth. 

The Residency itself is most substantially built of stone, 
found in the district. It lias some very fine reception- 
rooms, and a most delightful verandah under glass, 
completely encircling the building. The interior deconi- 
tions hav(^ been thoughtfully carried out, and the 
artistically hand-painted ceilings and walls all go to show 
the good taste of the Resident, l^rettily laid-out grounds 
and a veiy tirst-rate asphalte tennis-court complete the 
home chosen by her Majesty's South Australian Govern- 
ment for the man whom they apj)oint to guard tlrtB 
interests of their people in this far-away corner of 
Australia. 

It struck me as beini^ rather stranixe that Port 
])arwin. which is the nearest point of Australia to 
Western civilisation, and in a dinM-t line from China and 
India, both of those c-otnUric^s hein*' i-eacluMl from here bv 
smooth water all the way, should not have become, long 



THURSDA V ISLAND. 243 

ere this, a town of greater magnitude. The excellent 
land of this northern territory, the extensive gold-mines 
in the district, and the abundance of water should in my 
opinion have gone a long way to enhance its value as a 
shipping port, and 1 believe that when the time arrives, 
as surely it nuist, when coloui'ed labour is allowed, this 
colony will bid fair to be a very dangerous rival to its 
sisters — Victoria and New South Wales. 

On the arrival of the China Steam Navigation Company's 
boat, I took my departure for Thursday Island, but I 
cannot bid adieu to this charming town without expressing 
my sincerest gratitude for all the exceptional hospitality 
I received at the hands of the Government liesident. A 
more deligjitful host it would be impossible to find, and 
no trouble was too great where the comfort of his guest 
was concerned. 

After a passage of thn^e days we came to anchor at 
Thursday Island, where is situated the head-quarters of 
the great pearl tishery of Australia. The hundreds of 
pearling luggers, surrounded by their supply schooners, 
are to be seen everywhere, but the picture here is of a far 
ditlerent nature to the pretty town we have just left. 
The want of foliage and green of every description is very 
obvious. A few offices and stores in the midst of a 
number of dilapidated shanties and billiard saloons mark 
the contrast, and 1 thoroughly believe that a few years 
hence, when the pearling industry is exhausted, Thursday 
'Island will be given up to the half-caste Manila men 
and Japanese who infest the place. ^ly yacht had not 
arrived, and I was therefore obliged to take up my 
cpiarters in an hotel, with nothing to do but to sit down 
and wait patiently. 

The firm who were acting as my agents had established 
a branch of their business here, and I was therefore able to 
obtain fresh stores, of which I was beginning to become 



244 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

sadly in need, without being obliged to write to Melbourne 
or Sydney for them. On the arrival of the yacht, which had 
been unfortunate in meeting with many calms, delaying 
her passage, I at once set about getting my things on 
board, maldng a few repairs that were necessary and 
dgii^iig ft Qfiw crew. This finished, I set sail for Port 
Moresby, where the seat of government is situated in 
British New Guinea. Experiencing very wet weather and 
lipftil winds, our passage to Yule Island extended longer 
iliiiii it would have done otherwise. This was the first 
point we made on the coast of British New Guinea. The 
i<ilaii<l is two miles broad and four in length, and coD- 
Uiirm numerous peaks, the highest of which is about 600 
feel. 

Sailing down the straits between the island and the 
mitinl:ind we very soon came upon the Mission Station of 
th<' 1 « indon Missionary Society, and on the small island 
iiiiinvit Lolo, exactly facing it and about one mile and a 
half ilistant, I could see the many houses, schools, and 
cimri'lt of the French Catholic Mission which is estab* 
lislKul there. It appears to me rather foolish that these 
I HO luissions, both excellent in their own way, should 
have chosen stations in such close proximity, to teach 
religions which differ so much in form one from the 
other. An amusing cartoon which has lately appeared in 
the Sydney BvXUtin, portraying a native in the act of being 
dragged by the legs by the missionaries on either side, goes 
a long way to show that there should be no divided 
opinions in the teachings of our Lord. 

The Bishop of Navarre, who presides over this Boman 
Catholic Mission, I met whilst at Thursday Island, whither 
he had gone on a visit. Knowing that I was on my way to 
New Britain he requested me to take a letter to his old 
friend Bishop Coupe, to whom lie had not written for years, 
and with whom he was very desirous of communicating. 



BISHOP corp/rs disappo/xtmext. 245 

This letter I lia<l in my poHMcssioii for hoiiiu considerable 
time, and when iit last I had again the pleasure of meeting 
Bishop Coupe, 1 haitdud it to him, but to his intense dis- 
Hppoiiitmerit lie discovered that lie was reading a com- 
munication to some individual in I'aris, as the iJishop of 
Navarre bad placed tlie wrong letter in liis envelope. Of 
course to thowe living at lionie a mistake of this kind is 
thought little or nothing of, as it can be so easily reetiHed, 




but to those living in the T-'ar East, where distances are 80 
great and [xists so seldom — ^n occasions many months 
between each— it was, to say the least of it. extremely un- 
fortunate that siicli a misfortune should have occurred. 

Sailing down the coast with all our canvas spread, it was 
not long befon; we hove Port Moresby in sight ; and shortly 
afterwards, just as tlie suii was sinking beneath the horizon, 
came to anchor in Fairfax Harbour, when we were imme- 



246 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



diately boarded by a young Englishman, who held the ap- 
pointment, amongst numerous others, of Custom House 
officer, for it could not poHsibly be aii EngHsh port, however 
small, without a Customs Department. I was told that a 
great many improvements had been effected here, although 
at the time of my visit it woul<l be hard to find a more dreary 
and dried-up looking spot anywhere in the South Pacific. 
Unfortunately Sir William MacCJi-egor was absent in the 




interior, on one nf those expeditions which he so often 
undertakes, to acquaint the natives with tlie niaimcrs and 
customs of the white man. to prop.igate civilisation, and 
for whicli he is so eminently renowned. It was my great 
wish to meet him. iis I eiitertaineil iin eiionuous respect for 
the capalile iriariTicr ln' liiis carried on the govenimenl of 
this cnimtrv lor so riiariy ymrs piist. itJid my dis^qipnint- 
riii'iit at litidint,' him uway was very great imleed. How- 



THE NATIVES. 24.7 

ever, the f<ciitlenian who was acting for him ilid everything 
he could to make my shiirt visit a [ileasant one, showing 
me over the head station and native tradinfj institution 
wliich is estabhshed here, the principal native villajfe in 
the harbour, and all the otiicr places of interest in the bay. 




The fact i>f its bcinj,' tlie dry season on the occasion of 
my visit perhaps accomits for the balf-starved and miser- 
ably thin appeanince of the natives, whose only dress 
consisted of a small piece of cord round the waist of the 
men, and a. short skirt, manufactured of banana leaves 




of being tattooed, for it is the custom to tattoo from head 
to foot every female. Commencing from infancy, they are 
marked witlr strange designs and Hgiires, until, when they 
are grown up, there is no space left for more. 

At one house, where I could see a woman stretched on 



A WOMAN TATTOOED. 



249 



the ground undergoing tlio somewlmt painful operation, I 
stepped in to watcli the modus operandi. Laid flat on 
her back, and witli several people on either side to hold 
lier still, she was undergoing tlie torture, for I am call it 
bv no other wind, of liavinf» circular and zigzag lines 




scored round lu-r breiists, A wutuan kncclin;; beside her, 
with a small ])ieee of stick, sonic eight inches in length, 
attached to the poiut of which, and at right angles to it. 
Has a long tliorn, rescnililing Honiewhal a sharp daniing- 
needle, was the operator, and after nketchiug tlie requisite 



2SO THROUGH NEW GVWBA. 

design upon the Iwidy nf the victim in charconl and some 
black and sticky snlwtance obtaiuud frniu the bark of a 
certain tree, with another umall and weighted stick in the 
other hand, nho CLimnien«?d striking tlie implement which 
bIic bad placed uiwn the skelched-oul portion mitil she 
bad pricked Kufficionlly that part sbe was riesirouB of 
taltuuitig, and bkiod was flowing copiously. 

Further on past the village Sir William MacCiregor has 
cansed water piiies to he laid, so that not only have the 
natives a fresh water BUppty bniught to them, hnt ships 
can fill their tanks without tTOuble. and it is also utilised 
for in-igating the gmund f[>r some considerable distance, 
thus enabling the natives to liave a gotxi supply of 
vegetables in the driest season ; altboiigb I am surely 
afraid tliat the indolent disposition of the pwiple will 
never allow them to have anj-tliing in the way of food 
except that which grows itself and is all but placed in 
tbeir mouths, 

Mr. Muagrave, tlie Government Secretary, very kindly 
offered me a passage as far as Haniarai on the Govern- 
ment steam ysu^ht Merrle JCtifilantJ, and at the same time 
promised she should tow the yacht behind her. Tliere- 
fure, after remaining here for furty-i-ight himrw. during 
which time my water tanks were rejflenished, I went on 
board the Merrie England and started. The coast after 
leaving Port Moresby assmnes a far more regular aspect 
than I had as yet experienced. A reef which runs for 
many miles parallel to the coast has caused the destruc- 
tion of many vessels at different times. 

Threading our way through the numerous coral patches, 
which are to be traced by the discoloured water, in this 
vicinity, we quickly made the open sea, but soon after- 
wards a. strong wind and heavy sea rising, we were obliged 
to let go the yacht's hawser, as my captain signalled there 
was too much stram upon her. After coimuuiiicating 



PASS MOUNT VICTORIA. 



251 



witli him to come on as quickly as possible to Samarai 
.ly iifterwards she was lost 



Rteanied ahead, and shortly : 
sight of below the horizon. 

Passing the Owen Stanley 
of the Papuan Gulf, I could 
Victoria on account of its fj: 
This is the highest peak in the range. Numerous \ 
were seen all along the coast, and cocoanut trees in great 



range to tlic eastward 
;ee quite plainly Mount 
cat height— l;l'200 feet. 




profusion were iihscrvcd even high up ill the mountains, 
hut I was inform(?d that the natives were very treache- 
n)iis, and bore a bad cliaracter, notwithstanding the fact 
that Sir Witham MacGrcgor. with an iron thougli kindly 
hand, has ruled the country for so long. Owing to the 
severity of the weather anil the heavy head sea the pas- 
sage t(Mik longer than we expected, and it was not until 
the morning of the fourth day that we passed the island 



252 THROUGH NEW CUIN 

tif Kwato, and aiKihored nppoBite the hoaflcs »i Sninariu 
BoiUQ half an horn- later. 

Saiiiarai, or Dinrnar Island, as it is cttlled. is flat, with 
th« (!xceptii»n of a small hill on the eastcni side. It is the 
scat of the Governmeut fur tins eaBtem portious of New 
Guinea, and whon I arrived there was a judge from 
Queeiietaiid ntsidiitg ihwre to try the numerous small 
native L-aiwe. The whole island lias been planted with 
cocoaniit trees, and that which at one time was a Imi^e 
Bwamp in the uentre of the island lias now twen filled up 
and converted into a cricket ground, and a place ()f 
recreation for the one or two Riiropeane whose occupa- 
tioi!B oblige tlieni to remain here. Pineapples seem to 
grow in great (jnantitios. and the Government buildinf^a, 
tbti ont- or two stores, and the Ix-autiful avenue leiuling to 
the judge's residonee. and the many and various-i^oloured 
orotona growing by the wayside, make Samarai a« liahit- 
able as possible. About tive hundred tons of coal are 
stored here for the use of her Majesty's ships. The 
island was once the property of the London Missionarj- 
Society, having bee.n bought by them from the natives, 
but was given up to the Oovernment, iis being more sTiit- 
able. in exchange for the island nf K\\,,ti.. nti \s\\\<:\\ tlie\ 
are now established. Mr. Abel, the missionary in charge 
of the station, paid me a visit, and on learning that my 
yacht was expected in the course of a few days persuaded 
me to come on shore and live with him until she came. 
Availing myself of his kindness, and thanking the captain 
and officers of the Merrie England for all their hospitality, 
I was pulled over to this small island, which is only about 
three-quarters of a mile in length and half a mile in 
width, and high up in the centre of which is situated the 
missionary's hi>use. 

Mrs. Abel received me with much cordiality, and the 
week I spent with them passed only too quickly. The 



MR. AnRL'S Af/.SS/OX. 



2S3 



niisfiiim house is large and very well built; furnislied with 
exiiiiisite taste, it is replete witli everj' comfort, and I could 
hardly believe, after f,"'''-''!!-' round the prettily arranged 
dni\vin<;-rooni, that the liuul I saw before me contained all 
the malarious swamps imd unknown forests of New Guinea. 
Mrs. Abel, wliose duty it is to snpenntend the training of 
the numerous native children they have adopted, held a 
scboiil every morning, and it is truly wimderful what an 




amount of intelligeiice these small savages display even 
after a few weeks of Hiition. In the afternoon a class for 
nei-dlework takes place, and the expert and dexterous 
fingers of these young people again prove that they have 
been sent into the world Tor some purpose. 

At the time of my visit Mr. Abel was in the act of 
buihhng a stone church, the tirst ever erected in New 
Cruinea, with no other help tlian the few native children 



254 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA 



whd carried up tJie lime and stone from the Ix^ach below, 
and the few Papuans who collected the material >md 
burned the lime for him. This wa» all the inoi'e wondeiful 

as there itt mil, tn hefmmd a s(iujire yard of level jrrouiidon 
lln^ whdif i.slaiid. iiiul the i.iisk nf K-v.-llinj; lln- if-inisite 




portion, where rock and boulders had to be contended 
with, seemed to me to be almost a herculean one. 

Taking a stroll one evening on the island of Kogeai, 
wliich is separated frntii Kwato by jv very deep channel 
some two hundred yards in width, 1 passed thi-ough 



MV YACHT ARRIVES. 255 

numerous villages, thickly populated with natives, the 
women in many instances being hard at work making 
nets, but the men as a rule lying sleeping or chattering 
together. A great many pigs were seen, also chickens, 
but everywhere the pariah dog so common amongst all 
the islands of the South Pacihc. ^I'he natives, who were 
friendly, crowded lound mic and asked innumerable ques- 
tions. Their frizzy liair, which grows to an enormous 
extent all over the head, is kept from altogether becoming 
a tangled mass by a pronged bandjoo cond), which every 
now and then they pass through it. Ijike the natives on 
the mainland, they wear little or no clothing, and are for 
ever busv chewing the betel nut and lime. The women — if 
possible more hideous to look upon than the men — are 
tattooed from head to foot, and the custom of besmearing 
their faces and lieads with a Idack, sticky substance re- 
send)ling pitch during their time of mourning is practised 
here. Their weapons consisted of bows, arrows, and spears, 
and I saw njany evidences of their dealings with the 
white men in the ownership of knives and tomahawks. 

At night could be lieard far away in the forest weird 
sounds from their tom-toms and drums, wailings and 
shouting, which told us that their lewd dances and other 
disgusting orgies were taking place. 

One evening a crv of *' Sail I " resounded throughout 
the island from every mouth that could give tongue, a 
custom which is universal, wherever a white man n^sides 
in these ]mrts, on sighting a ship, and on running round 
the verandah I perceived in the far distance the white sails 
glistening in the evening sun of my little vessel, and 
running up a signal from the flagstaff* of the Mission, I 
very soon acquainted the captain with my whereabouts, 
and ere the last glinnner of daylight had departed she 
was riding at anchor bv Kwato Harbour. 

The one and only regret I have in my memory of the 



256 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



visit I paid here was the loss of iny little fox-terrier 
" Spot," who had been such a companion on the voyage 
and such a safe guard to the ship. His hatred for any one 
black was unbounded, and many times I have spHt with 
laughter on seeing him clear the deck of many natives by 
causing them to jump overboard in their absohite terror 
of him, and on more than one occasion, when one has 




taken ii nitlior Innger time t<i get over thf side, he has left 
the impression of his teeth in sumc pour man's calf. I 
took him on shore one evening for a run, and so great 
iippeiired his delight at being on terra firma that he 
rushed madly ;ib()ut all over the island terrorising the 
n;itivi's and causing' us much arriuseinent hy his antics. 
Presently i lost siglit of liim, and although I ciilled and 
searched the whole island Inim end to end 1 eould not 



/ TAKE LEA VE OF MR. ABEL. 257 

find him, and whether he was snapped up by an aUigator 
on the beach, or whether he attempted to swim to the yacht 
and was taken by a shark, I never knew. But that was 
the last I ever saw of him, and his disappearance must 
thus remain for ever a mystery. 

1 cannot close this chapter without expressing the very 
highest feelings of regard I have for the way in which 
Mr. Abel is carrying out his work here. His perfect 
knowledge of the language of course brings him in very 
close contact with the natives, and he is thus enabled 
to dispel many of the superstitions so prevalent amongst 
them. His style of teaching, in my opinion, so much 
better than I have hitherto seen practised by Protestant 
missionaries, must without fail mark him sooner or 
later as a well-known figure in mission labour in New 
Guinea; and his love for athletic sports, the taste for which 
he is fast infusing into the minds of the natives, will one 
day cause him, I should say, to become the most popular 
teacher in the country. Bidding adieu to my kind and 
hospitable friends, I set sail for New Britain, calling 
at Samarai to get on board the few articles I had pur- 
chased in the store there. 



18 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE CHINA STRAITS — THE TROBRIAND ISLANDS — BEAU- 
TIFUL NATIVE CARVINGS — EBONY — A NATIVE 
PEARL FISHERY — THE NATIVES OFFER ME TOMA- 
HAWKS FOR SALE — THE DISCOVERY OF NEW IRE- 
LAND — ST. George's channel — i arrive in blanche 

BAY — I give a conjuring ENTERTAINMENT — THE 
DEVIL-DEVIL — DUKE OF YORK ISLANDS — MIOKO — ■ 
THE GRAVES OF MURDERED EUROPEANS — NATIVE 
FESTIVITIES — THE DUK-DUK — I AM POISONED BY 
A FISH — A NARROW ESCAPE FROM DEATH — I AM 
LAID UP WITH FEVER — METHOD OF RECRUITING 
LABOUR — WOMEN MANUFACTURING NATIVE MONEY — 
LOCAL BUTTERFLIES — ABUNDANCE OF FISH — THE 
MIOKO TREE AS A LANDMARK. 

Passing through the China Straits, w^hich separate the 
south-east coast of New Guinea from the island of Sariba, 
and which gained their name from the explorations of 
Captain Moresby, K.N., in 1873, when it was found 
that these straits would prove the most direct route to 
China from Australia, and successfully navigating the 
numerous coral patches I found there, I set my course 
towards the Trobriand Islands, the northernmost point 
of whicli lies in latitude 8° 27' 40" S., and longitude 
151" 3' 40" E., and on the following day ran along the 
coast of North Island, one of the islands in the group. 
A great many natives came off in canoes, and offered for 

258 



THE TROBRIA.VD ISLANDS. 259 

sale many of their ornaments, and I was surprised to see 
how very much better they were made than those of the 
New Guinea people. Their weapons, spoons, and bowels 
were delicately carved in ebony, and they led me to 
believe that a great quantity of this wood was to be 
found there. Their hair was worn in ringlets hanging 
over their shoulders, and they appeared to be a far finer 
race of men than the inhabitants of the mainland. At 
first very shy, they very soon gained confidence, and 
crowding round the ship, were all very eager to trade. 

There have been great numbers of pearls discovered 
here by the natives, and for which they have received 
from the white traders visiting them such an over-abundant 
supply of tomahawks that these tools were willingly 
offered me for a stick' of tobacco each. 

Having heard so much of the great power the chiefs 
exercise over the people in this group of islands, I was 
most anxious to find the mission station, which I was 
told was hereabouts, so that the missionarv could show 
me through one of their villages, but unfortunately the 
natives, who could not speak any Knglish, seemed quite 
unable to understand my desire, and although I anchored 
and sent my boat away the whole of one day to look for 
it, I was unable to discover where it was. 

The canoes in which the natives surrounded the ship 
were of excellent design and most beautifully carved, 
being dug out from the solid trunk of a finely grained 
tree, partially decked over in the bows. Although I 
ofifered a considerable amount of trade, thev could not 
be induced to part with one. The whole of these islands 
seem to be flat, but very thicklv wooded with enormous 
trees, some of w^hich were quite 150 feet high ; and 
judging from the quantities of yams, taros, and other 
products brought to me for sale, the land must be of a 
most fertile nature. 




THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



CimtinitiiiK my journey past Nonoandy Island, a large 

idand in the eonth of the d'Ehtiecasteauz group, I 

-J , 'Oibortly afterwards sighted Cape St. George, which lies at 

-*l>!^'^the extreme south of New Ii^and, and where the settlers 

of the Manjiiia de R^ Expedition I have already described 

landed, and afterwards met with their untimely end. 

New Ireland wns discovered in the seventeenth century, 
anil was, with New Britain, for considerably over a 




hundred years, considered to be a portion of the island of 
New Guinea, and this idea was not dispelled until the 
visit of Dauipier in the eighteenth century, when it was 
found that the straits which bear his name divided 
New Guinea from it, and even another fifty years elapsed 
before New Ireland and New Britain were discovered by 
Carteret to be two distinct islands. 

Beating up St, George's Channel against considerable 
head winds and currents, it was uot until a week later I 



/ CrVF. A CO.yjrRIXG F.XTIiRTAINMnNT. 261 

perceived the houses at Heibertsnh , which, as I have 
already mentioned in the first part of this volume, is the 
seat of Gerumn Government in this aivliipeIaf;o. 

After !i short delay I sailed on to Kalum, and for the 
second time liad the pleasure of meetin<; my old friends. 

Here 1 found fjreat improvements had been made; the 
Itlantations had been considerably extended for many 
miles into the interior, roads liad been cut throu^jh the 
entire estate, and horses and carriages imported from 
Australia. Mrs. Kolbo had built herself a most palatial 





rcsidi'iicf. and, in fact, cvciythint; had changed with the 
e.vception of their wclcoiuc, fur they were as kind and 
hospitable to nic as un the last occasion of my visit. 

A few (lays after my arrival I promised the natives to 
shciw them some coninrint; and sleij;ht-of-bund tricks. 

On the day fixed, from (laylit,dit in the morninj,- natives 
tIiK,-keil down from all parts of the interior and from 
many miles along the coast to witness the performance, 
and 1 was afterwards held in yreat awe and veneration 
by every one I came across. No matter how simple the 



THROUGH NEW GrWEA 




36» 



triekft the mtm* wen apen^noiithed in thei^ vniailer, 
aul that iaj Mined for me the title of " taburan " (dci^'U) 
throagbont the ^riiole ot New "Batm n . aod vntbiMit a doabt 
a faandreil jaur* henoe the " tiboran " who came id a 
ship ADil made mango tmoB gnnr Ix-fi^rc their eyes, and 
fin.' DfitoB out <rf hn monUi, will Ite talked of a& imc 
of the wonden (rf their eoontry. and I daresay with 
ttiovh exa^entioD. 

Time was girtting ebnrt, and the object of ni; calling 
hi^rf. namely, to get bontcKB to go lo the Admiialt; 
Islnnds, wu with great difficult Bc(!oitiph6hed. and so in 
lh<; hopeji of getting <Hie Cfr two luon; I sailed over to 
Mioko, one of tin smaller islands of the Puke of York 
(^up, and possessing a veiy wull -sheltered harbour, 
bavin;; tv,o entntnces, ctqiable of wlmitting vessels of any 
Kize. 

This gamp of islands (xmsiatB of tliirteen in nomber, 
(t( which the Dnke of Yortt Island is the larjt;e5t. The 
]»luud of Hioko has been choa^i by a large German- 
Haiuoaii company, sa a coiua and recruiting station, and 
h managed by a gentleman named Scliultze. About a mile 
in Icii^'tli, and three-quarters in width, vnib its high land 
at one end gradually sloping down to the sea at the other, 
it is a most picturesque q>ot. The station itself is 
charmingly situated at the lower t:m\ of the islanrl. and 
obtaining the direct sea breezes fnoii ull p<<inti> ••i the 
compass, is considered one of the healthiest spots in the 
Bismarck archipelago. It is completely surrounded by 
cocoanut and orange trees, and has its mi^nificent 
natural harbour on the one side, and is protected from 
tidal waves and hurricanes on the other by a large reef 
running out to a considerable distance. 

At tlie far end of the island I found a large, underground 
grotto, abounding with ferns. Here, until quite recently, 
natives who, according to their own confession, are 



THE DUK-DUK, 267 

cannibals, held their man-eating festivities. A walk 
along the beach through a shady avenue of cocoanut 
trees, and I came upon a cemetery, a little enclosed patch 
well kept and fenced round with a neat bamboo rail. 
Here lie buried Dr. Kleinschmidt and his two assistants, 
Messrs. Schultze and Becker, who were sent out by 
Messrs. Godefroy and Sons, of Hamburg, to collect 
curios and natural history specimens. Whilst here, 
desiring to visit the mainland of New Britain, they 
attempted to engage natives to paddle them across. 
But as the Duke of York Islanders and those on the 
mainland of New Britain were then at war they refused 
to take them. With a little strategy they obtained the 
services of the people of Outuan, another of the islands in 
the harbour, but they also, on learning their destination, 
declined to take them and started for home. The Germans 
then followed them, and stupidly fired a gun to frighten 
them into compliance with their wishes, whereupon the 
natives turned and attacked them, spearing and toma- 
hawking them to death. The chief of the island, Bokop, 
took no part whatever in this murder, and was afterwards 
influential in delivering up the perpetrators to the Govern- 
ment. There are several other graves, the names on 
them having been erased by time and weather, but they 
all belong to white men who have been murdered in this 
group. 

During my visit a curious custom was being enacted. 
The Duk-Duk, for that is the name it goes by, is an 
interesting institution, originally emanating from this 
group of islands. Many hundreds of years ago it was 
invented bv a celebrated chief here, as a form of native 
police. At the outset, men who had misbehaved them- 
selves in the principal village, and were consequently 
debarred from getting food there, used to cover them- 
selves with leaves, worked into weird and strange shapes, 



268 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

and repair to neighbouring villages, and on their terriiymg 
the people to such an extent, they willingly gave them 
food in onler to get rid nf them. This costume proved 
BO successful in working upon thu feai-s and superetitions 
<]f the natives that eventually the chiefs arrogated to 
themselves the right of clothing a kind of police in this 
manner, and any of their enemies were thus honted 
down by the Duk-Duk who could and did kill any one 
with impunity. 

Any womiin liHjkiii^' ufxiri ihe Diik-Diik wasi imme- 




diately put to death, and oven liown to the present day 
uiMtn the faintest sign of the approafh of this dreadful 
apparition the women all fly in terror and bury them- 
selves in the densest jungle possible. 

I was very fortunate to be here when the Duk-Duk 
was en evidence. 

One morning the King of Outuan, who is quite the 
most important chief here, paid me a visit, accom- 
panied by several men and women, whose bodies were 
very artistically painted and who were decorated with 
many coloui"ed croton leaves and native flowers. He 







Mm 


Ri 


^HnHHHk^ \_i 



• * 



I J 



/ A.V XRARLY KILLED BY A FISH. 273 

came to exhibit his own native dance in hf)noiu* of mv 
presence. After performing various strange evolutions and 
singing many songs of love and war to the accompaniment 
of their native drums, thev were with considerable diffi- 
culty persuaded to allow themselves to he photographed. 

The king then received a few fathoms of dewarra and 
many sticks of tobacco as renuuieration, and presenting 
me with a very handsome dancing spear, they all took 
their departure. 

On one occasion a native brought me a small fish 
on his spear point, saying in j)idjin I^nglish, '* That 
fellar he savey too much, lu; ki-ki along o' me plenty, 
me die finish," meaning to say that the fish was 
an artful customer and if l)itten bv him 1 should die. 
IMacing it in a bottle of spirit 1 unfoitunately touched 
one of tlu* sj)iky fins, whilst pressing in the cork. 
Immediatt^ly I felt an electric shock run up my arm and 
one drop of blood appeared on my linger. Hushing to 
the verandah I at once [>n)cure(l brandy and ammonia, 
in which T batlied my injured hand, but in an incredibly 
short space of time I became inst'nsil)le, and had it not 
been for the timely ai'rival of a captain of a recruiting 
schooner then lying <^tr the island 1 should probably never 
have n^covered. The cai)tain at once proceeded to ad- 
minister brandy in enormous doses, with the result that 
after sonu^ time 1 recovered consciousness. He* then 
walked me u[) and down, though feeling dead beat, for 
manv hours, continually dosing me with brandy until the 
poison was concpiered. I was, however, confined to my 
bed for ten days, a severe attack of fever supervening. 

In spite of this unfortunate occurrence my collection 
here was very satisfactory, many new species being dis- 
covered. The captain of this recruiting ship would 
kindly sit by me during my sickness and spin many 
yarns in connection with his recruiting work. 

19 



274 THROUGH XEW GUINEA, 

')l\w liKKle of procedure in thus obtaining the labour 
liands for the various plantations is as follows : — The ship 
arriving at the country wliere the captain is desirous of 
^a»ttinjj liands, ket^ps as near the shore as the reefs will 
allow, l^oats are then lowered equipped with axes, 
tomahawks, coloured calic(x*s, pij^es, tobacco, ^lass beads, 
and many other small articles likely to prove attractive to 
tlic eyes of the natives. They then pull ashore and go 
close to the lK»acli, stern lirst,so as to be able to pull away 
at once in case of attack. This is, of coiurse, a very 
dan«:;erous undc^rtakin*,', as the natives would in many 
instancies kill the recruiter and crew, were they not 
deterred hv the si^dit of so nianv rifles and revolvers. 
l^'or every native who elects to f,'o, for a i)eriod of never 
less tlian three years, which is understood, presents of 
tomahawks, calicoes, iV:c., are at once handed over to his 
relations, and when thev liave a sufficient number of men 
tlujy are put on board a second boat and sent to the ship. 

In this way, calling; at many villages as they go along, 
occasionally in a very short time they get their full 
complenjent, wlu^n they at once start off for New Guinea 
or for wherevter they are recruiting; labour. The natives 
receive payment at the rate of about five marks per 
montii. hut as their wages are always paid in kind I am 
afnii<l tiiey do not always receive the just amount. Each 
native is provided with a small metal disc, which is 
fast(!ned round I lis n(H'k, bearing a number corresponding 
to his name in a book ke])t for the purpose, but many 
times tliese (lis(*^ either get lost or exchanged, and the 
natives themseivt^s, for^^etting even the very name of their 
own village, ;|et landed on their return at the wrong place, 
and an' coiiscMjiUfntiy killed and eaten. 

Stroliin^^ tlirougli a villa^^e one day with my gun in 
(juest of some new sjx'cies of (ornithology, I perceived 
some women very busy manufacluring a native money 



I 



i 

1 

f 



THE ISLAND OF MIOKO. 277 

peculiar to these islands. Taking some small white or 
black shell they expertly chip it until it assumes the 
shape of a gun wad, and the size of a small glove button, 
but only half its thickness. A hole is then bored 
through the centre with a small piece of flint fixed in 
the end of a stick, resembling somewhat a Chinese drill. 
Thousands of these are thus made, and then strung upon 
a thin strip of rattan or cane and sold in lengths of 
twelve inches or so. By this means food is bought, 
articles exchanged, and debts paid from one village to 
another. 

On another occasion, rambling along a native path with 
my butterfly-net, I came across and captured many hun- 
dreds of small buttei-flies, wliich were all crowding together 
in one spot only. This particular species I did not see 
anywhere else in the group. I afterwards found them to 
be new, and thev have since been described. This is one 
instance of proof that these insects arc very local. 

Among other birds, T collected many pigeons, the most 
beautiful of which was a ground pigeon of metallic bronze, 
and apparently very common throughout these islands. 

I got but little assistance from the natives, as they 
were one and all so infernally lazy, making their women 
do everything for them, except to eat and sleep. 

There is a mission station situated in Port Hunter in 
the northern part of the larger island, but I did not 
visit it. 

We obtained enormous supplies of fish here, which 
kept the ship going all the time she was in harbour, 
but owing to the extreme indolence of the people, vege- 
table produce was very scanty, and that, in a way, no 
doubt accounts for the number of ulcers and skin diseases 
which I found so prevalent amongst the natives. 

In the centre of the island of Mioko is an enormous tree 
some 150 feet in height, and a landmark for many miles. 



278 



THROUGH NFAV GUtNEA. 



Id the upi)er branches docks of flying ^oxes and pigeona 
make their homes, and towards suiKiown the sky is black 
with them circling round and round before roosting. Mr. 
Schultze has had a large Bpace cleared round the base, 
and employs a native to keep it in order. 

Having obtained the services of the one or two men I 
required, 1 said giwid-hye to my kind host, who bad been 
so excessively thoughtful in arranging everything ftir my 
comfort, coniix-'iling me every day to dine with him, and 
presenting me on my departure with a very fine collection 
of cthniilii',Hcal 8[K.-cimen8. 



i 



CHAPTER X. 

A BAD GALE — I AM OBLKJED TO RETURN TO MIOKO — A 
FRESH START — NEW IRELAND NATIVES — STEFFAN 
STRAITS NATIVES BRING CANOE LOADS OF PINEAPPLES 
— I MEET A FRENCH TRADER IN AN OPEN BOAT — 
I AM PRESENT AT A NATIVE DANCE WHICH TOOK 
TEN YEARS TO PREPARE — WE ARRIVE AT RUNG — A 
THIEF — THE DESTRUCTION OF A VILLAGE - STRANGE 
NATIVE HEAD-DRESS — THE NATIVES COLLECT BEETLES 
— CURIOUS NATIVE IDEAS — PALMISTRY — ONE OF MY 
SAILORS RUNS AWAY- PROBABLY EATEN BY NATIVES 
— MEN AND WOMEN QUITE NAKED- I START FOR 
THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS. 

On the 2n(l of Jamiarv, 1H97, I started for Klln<^^ an 
island on the extreme north coast of New Hanover, and 
situated in latitude 2° '2(V south, longitude 149° 55' east. 
My object in visiting this place was not so much that I 
was desirous of making collections in natural history as 
that I hoped to learn from a French trader living there 
some reliable information al>out the Admiralty Islands 
I purposed visiting, and also to learn something of 
Mathias Island, he having traded in those regions for 
some years past, and, I heard, had a very good knowledge 
of the natives. 

On the 4th of January, owing to a terril)le north-west 
gale, I was compelled to return to Mioko, as otherwise the 
currents might have swept me down the St. George's 

279 



ate THROUGH XEW GUtHEA. 

Channel. Aflcr two more days iiere the weather niode- 
ratcd a littlo. ihuI I ihcruforc made another start. Crawl- 
ing up till" north-east const ol N«w Hritain, so us to keep 
out or the full foiw of tho ourrentR, and ket'inng wpU 
under the lee of the land an far a» Man Inland. 1 managed 
to procure a good start in annrtherly direction, and a hing 
boanl acn>ss to the New Ireland coast, and so hy taking 
short ta^'ks wa« ahle tt> make f;ood headway. 

The nativcR, who so densely populatr Nl>w Irelantl, 




came out from their different viUagee in most beaatifollT'- 
constructed canoes as we went along, to exchange their 
cocoanuts, spices, and ornaments for tobacco. They are 
ferocious cannibals and very treacherous ; wear no cloth- 
ing whatever, and although many of them could speak 
pidjin Enghsh, having been away to Fiji, Samoa, and 
Queensland as labour hands for the plantations there, they 
are none the more to be trasted. In fact my experience 
has taught me that tliose natives of the South Pacific 
who have lived amongst white people, and have thua 



MAUSOLEUM ISLAND. 281 

gained a little knowledge, are generally worse when they 
return to their own countries, often inciting their fellow- 
creatures to kill and plunder. 

After many days of struggle against stomis, head winds, 
rain, calms, and terrific heat, we arrived in the Steffan 
Straits on the north-west coast of New Ireland. 

These straits derive their name from a naval officer 
who was wounded in an attack made by the natives, and 
they divide New Ireland from New Hanover. Tliey are 




ahont nine miles long and two hroad, with a current 
running like a sluice, and quite impossible to attempt 
to sail against. In front of us was a large island about 
the centre of the straits, named Mausoleum Island, that 
has one cone-like mount on it about nine hundred feet 
high. 

1 had been warned that the natives of this island were 
very treacherous, and si) did not stop at all ; Imt they 
came out in great numbers in canoes, and sold me 



282 THROUGH NFAV GUINEA. 

quantities of beautiful pineapples, which they said grew 
all over the island. 

A few miles inside the straits I canie to the out-station 
belonging to the Gennan Trading Company. Here I found 
a young Mexican, who was ver>' pleased to see a white face 
again. I anchored there for the night, resuming my 
journey with the tide at daybreak next day. Continuous 
streams of natives paid me visits, and traded fniit and 
fish for tobacco. Ten pineapples were obtainable for one 
stick of tobacco valued at a lialfpenny. Several natives 
came on board, all willing to show me the passage wliicli 
would enable me to sail up the east coast of New Hanover 
and inside a barrier reef wliich extends along that coast. 

After a mile or two we were inside, and tlie sight 
wliidi presented itself I shall never forget. The numerous 
islands forming the reef on my nght with densely 
wooded shores and prolific undergrowth, and the grand 
scenery of New Hanover to the left, with its mountain 
range extending as far as the eye could reach, and its 
peaks attaining an altitude of about 2,000 feet ; the bold 
headlands and the roar of the surf breaking over the coral 
reef for miles, reminded one of some beautiful panorama ; 
and althougli the temperature was about 104° in the 
shade, there was a cool and delicious breeze blowing all 
the time. 

Natives were to be seen, as we went along, in all 
directions, some here and there standing upright in their 
canoes with spear in hand, on the look-out for fish to 
l)ring me in exchange for the fragrant weed ; others 
running along tlie shores, and all frantic with the ex- 
citement of liaving a ship amongst them again. These 
natives reminded me verv mucli of the inhabitants of New 
Britain, and were all most anxious to tnule anvthin<' thev 
possessed for t()])aeeo. Tlie reefs are very numerous 
here, and require a considerable amount of circumspection 




A AT IMPORTANT FESTIVITY 283 

to navigate, especially with the sun ahead, and I was 
obliged to keep a man at the masthead all the w^ay. The 
wind falling light towards evening, and the current 
proving against us, I was obliged to anchor for the night. 
At the first intimation of returning day we were under 
way again, and at six o'clock, to our delight, though 
astonishment, I perceived the sail of a boat bearing down 
upon us. On reaching it I discovered it to contain the 
French trader to whom I was on mv wav. He was 

ft' ft 

going to the trader I had left the day before, but sending 
his boat on instead with a letter, he came on board and 
returned with me. 

He said that a mile or two further on oiu* way there 
was a large village on a small island, where the people 
were preparing a very big festivity and dance. This 
affair, he told me, had been no less than ten years in 
preparation, and promised to be something so exceptional 
that as it was to take place the very next day, I elected 
to anchor on purpose to witness it. 

About seven o'clock in the morning T went on shore 
with the Frenchman and two boys he had brought with 
him, and who were all anned, and also four of mv own 

' ft. 

men, all of whom I armed with a rifle a- piece. For 
although we did not anticipate any trouble, especially on 
the occasion of such a festivity, natives are strange 
beings, often incited to anger on the least provocation, 
and then at all times carrying their argmnent at the 
spear's point. The village was dressed in its holiday 
raiment, various coloured crotons decorated the houses, 
festoons of bright leaves and flowers hung from tree to 
tree, and at the end of the village and in front of the 
house of their chief, huge heaps of taros, bananas, pine- 
apples, and yams were stacked up to a very considerable 
height. The men, women, and children were covered in 
their war paint from head to foot. In the centre of the 



a«4 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

village ii liu'jic enclosure had been erected, eurrounded 
by higli branrhes though wliich it waa impossible to see, 
and which acted as the green room for the performers, 
!Uid witliin which every one taking part in the ceremony 
was collected, no one else being allowed inside. 

After we had arrived a short time the tom-toms com- 
menced their weird and dismal dronings, and we could 
see by -the faces and whiBperings of the women and 
visitors — for people had come from distant islands and far 
Rway conntri^ to witness thisperfonnance — that the time 
was approaching when the first item on the programme 
would comnionec. After a time, amidst a most deafening 
noise of yells, screams, and hootings, men bomided out of 
the bufih and begun their gyrations to the sound of the 
toni-toiiis, and 1 was nmcli pleased with the extnwrdinary 
time they kept tliroughoitt. Whirling round and round, 
waving branches of crotons, and handling their spears 
with great dexterity, they kept up in this way for fully 
half an hour, going through quite twenty different figures. 
8ome of which were really very pretty. I managed to 
secure two photographs, but the light under the trees 
proved tiio dim to hope for any good result. These two ■ 
negatives. 1 am worry tu hiiy. were iifterwanls destroyed | 
accidentally. After witnessing two or three more similar 
dances and one performed by women, who were by no 
means behind the men in agility, I retiuned on board 
and we at once set sail, arriving at the station on the 
island of Kung the following afternoon. 

This trader, who has been here a great number of 
years, is quite a character. At one time a convict in 
New Caledonia, he with four others escaped in a small, 
open boat, and after travelling in this small craft, without 
sails or compasses, and with but very scanty provisions, 
for some weeks, was pickeil up by a passing ship. Two 
of the party had succumbed, but the others were brought 



M. G ANGLO FF. 289 

to the Bismarck Archipelago, and Mons. Ganglofif, at 
whose house 1 had arrived, started trading as a HveHhood. 
He is the terror of the whole district, and the natives live 
in fear and trembling of him. An explosion of dynamite a 
year or two ago carried away his right arm and eye, but 
with the stump of the former he is very clever and uses 
it when gesticulating in a very amusing manner. He 
heard on our arrival that the natives had come over to 
his island from the mainland during his absence, and had 
stolen a box belonging to one of his boys, and his fury at 
learning it was unbounded. Taking a few of his New 
Britain boys in a boat, he pulled straight across to the 
village of the thief, and very soon afterwards I heard a 
shot or two fired and then saw smoke curling up above 
the trees, intimating that he had set fire to the village. 
It may seem hard, perhaps, that the whole village should 
suffer on account of the theft of one man. l^ut it appears 
that the natives of New Hanover are arrant thieves, all 
of them, and that had he not taken stringent measures 
at once, in all probability his own boats would eventually 
have been stolen and he himself nuirdered. The box 
was afterwards returned and an indtnnnity paid in the 
shape of so many pigs and a quantity of tortoise shell. 

Mons. Gangloff promised to i)il()t me to the Admiralty 
Islands if 1 would postpone my departure for a short 
period, as he was expecting the New Guinea Company's 
labour schooner Senta to come and take away the dried 
fish he had prepared. He has a contract by which he 
provides properly dried fish for 1*20 per ton to the New 
Guinea Company for their labour hands in New (juinea. 
Sending several boats away daily with charges of dyna- 
mite, he by this means captures enormous supplies of 
fish, every one of which is split and salted and spread 

out to dry. 

The island of Kung is in all respects similar to the 

20 



I 



' Vjo THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

many islnnds ilwayi to Ix* fonnd cm the coasts of 

ouiintries in ibe Sonth I*n .itic. It nun low and densely 
wooded, hail a ii«9. aamly heiurh, and wan siinonnded 
entirely by ».< kmg oiml reef, witJi but one or two 
passages widi.' enoiig^ tti jwrniit of a small boat entering 
and gi-oiuiiling on the l.tach. Tlit> ialnnd was frinKiid 
also with cotoannt pafatis. and altlmugh certainly not » 
mile in eimunferenoe. it contained two (food-sized 
villiiges, ciLcb tontainiiii: ^uveral hundred inhiibitoiitK. 

Tim nittives themselves iinj sonii^whtil similar to tlioRe 
of New Ireliitid, tbe.meii ;;iiiritj ixn-fi-cliy naked, while the 
woiiirii. hiNiiias weariilf: ;i small bimch of fibre in front 
and lieliinil iivemblingii vvisp of bay, and which is kept 
in it» \i\wf. by a tendril i>r suuie i>lant fastened ronnd Uie 
loins, also cover their hi':\ilK with a ciiriims airangemont 
of banana leases Beira iui,'(ther. resembling Homewtiat a 
fool's cap. but having a rurvL> backwards. 

Sweet |K)tittoesiand tams fjniw here in great tjiiantities, 
and the jKuiJe-conseqinntly are verj' fat and well and 
free from tlif varibns skin diseaBes usually so prevalent. I 
was astonlHln'S at bo many nf tliii natives speaking pidjiu 
Snglish, and on makinfi iiii|iiiries found that yeare ago a 
great number of them hail worked on the plantations in 
Fiji and Queensland bc^lore (iermany trKik poaBes§iun of 
.these islands.' This goet far tn jimvc the great intelligence 
. 'possessed by these people, us tliey >'ou]il imt. Imve worked 
for Englishmen since 1884, when G-reat Britain ceased to 
protect this archipelago, and yet .they have still retained 
their knowledge of our language, and in some instances 
spoke it most fluently. 

One morning, whijst passing through the village, I 
caught sight of a native apparently very much interested 
in the palm of the hand of another, and on interrogating 
him I learned that they have a behef that every man, 
woman, and child belongs to one or another species of 



J 






^pl 


1 - - V* 


'^^^1 




' ^/>^- 


fH 






\ut^ ^ 


^>. 



RAINS IN TORRENTS. 293 

birds, according to the lines of their hands. Those 
possessing sharp Hnes belong to the hawks, those with 
soft one to pigeons, and so on. This is truly a strange 
coincidence, that these wild and savage cannibals, who are 
for ever fighting and seeking whom they may devom% 
should believe in the old-time palmistry of our forefathers 
at home, and they believe in it to a far greater extent 
than we ever did. T asked him to what family of bird I 
belonged, and he at once told me. Some days afterw^ards 
I asked another man who belonged to another village, and 
he told me the same bird. 

The trader's house itself was indeed a wonderful con- 
struction ; built as it was by this one European who had 
but one arm, it could hardly be said to be faultlessly put 
together. It consisted of five small rooms, all of which 
were numbered in large figures, but all under the usual 
ordinary stretch of corrugated iron roofing. Mons. 
Gangloff is a veritable Brigham Young, and has many 
wives, principally natives of New Hanover. After I had 
been there a week the labour schooner arrived. But as 
the trader had unfortunately just at that time strained 
himself very badly he was obliged to go away to New 
Britain, where there was a doctor. 

The natives came oflf to the ship daily, and were very 
keen to collect beetles for me, receiving payment for each 
bottle they filled with them. But it rained in torrents 
every day, and I hardly ever saw the sun shine during the 
whole of my visit here, consequently the lepidoptera 
collection did not increase at all. Early in the morning 
sometimes the rain would hold off for an hour or two, and 
I was able to send my hunters out and get a few birds, 
but they were always back by midday, drenched. Some- 
times an enthusiastic savage would not only fill his bottle 
with beetles, but would cram in butterflies, lizards, and, 
in fact, everything he came across that had life, and great 



aw THttorofi ynw cvh^ea. 

Wdold \\o \\\f, chagrin when he saw mo empty out and 
throw away nfarly alJ liis day's work, Thpy wi-j* all very 
(MiriiKi^ tJi know wliat I did with tliow tliinge — did I 
cut Chcm i>r did [ takv thi-m tu niiot)ii;r country' and bring 
thwu U\ lift- o^aiiiV " Y«k, ihal's what h«ppens." they 
would Bay. " li» x&k*:* thciii iutoss th« wa to another 
c»)uiitr> and iiiak<'H them come hiwk to lifn," and one wba 
had boon to Australia would coirolxjrate this opinion hy 
lulling them that what they inta^ned was ijuite trtie, (or 
he had fiuon them hiimielf alive there. How many sticks 
nf tobaccti did I get i>aid for bringing them back to life 
and Irttiuf; tJicm go in my country 'f tht-y would ask me, 
and. ittnny otiicr itimple quvri^^s would Ixt put, until I got 
tiiwd of thfir clmtt<ir and would drive thftm off- After a 
week or two morv here, and Hiiding that the gi'eat bank^ 
of min r:loudH m^em tti travel right up fi"om New Ireland 
to thii« part iK'fori! di»iKT»ing, I deemed it advisable to 
shift roimd to the west coaat, where. 1 waH infurm<;d, I 
should find a wheltered Imy into which two rivers ran. 
and at thu same time shouJd be quite at the foot of llie 
mountains. 

My i:ijlpr>ptcra coUenrtion iit Kung was Kltt-r than T liad 
anticipatod, and it wuii throuf,'h tliis faet tlmt 1 was 
induced to stay kmgirr, U consiHtcd of about fiv« 
thou8iu>d 8pec'iiueti8 and uv<ir five hundred speciee, 
amongst which I lio|xul tn lind a number new to science. 
Of the one hundii-d and fifty i'irds I shot there were over 
a hundred different species, and some, I anticipated, were 
new. 

Sailing romid to the west coast of the island I found a 
bay with a tolerably good sandy beach and a small river 
running down from the mountains, and so I anchored 
liere and started again sending my people and going 
myself daily into tliu foiost. One day Harrj', one of my 
sailoi's, a»ked fur a gun tu try and shoot some birds for 



.^91 








i- ■ r 


IB^Mj^v^^vmi ^H 




j.S%£^^^ 




^ftm^^^^gtJff^KS^j^j"^ ^,^^ 



THE NATIVES, 297 

nie, and off he went. At night time I was surprised to 
see through my glasses one of the butterfly-hunters 
carrying his gun on the beach, who, when he came on 
board, told me that the sailor had seen him in the forest 
and had asked him to take back the gun as he was going 
away to live in the jungle. I never saw him again, and 
am at a loss even to-day to understand why he did such 
a thing. There is one thing certain, the natives after 
a time would be bound to kill him, being a stranger in 
their Land. He was one of my best men, and I had never 
had any occasion to reprove him for anything, which made 
it all the more strange. 

The natives here were very friendly, and brought us a 
great many taros daily. One man in particular got quite 
attached to us, coming off by himself on one or two logs 
of wood lashed together, for the natives had no canoes 
here, stating that they did not know how to make them. 
I suspect it was owing to their extreme laziness, however. 

This man would come at daybreak and stay till dark, | 

lying about, but occasionally being made to do a little work 
on the deck. \Vhat delighted him most was for one of 
my men to paint him from head to foot. He was very 
useful in this way, the men often trying the consistency of 
their paint upon his back or face, and one day when my 
captain was varnishing in the saloon this man received a 
coat of it all over himself much to our amusement, and, 
I may say, his also. 

They wore absolutely no clothing whatever, although 
decency has obliged me to have them draped for publica- 
tion, and modest v, as we understand it, in this way was 
absolutely imknown to them. Women and young girls 
were also quite nude, and often would swin) off to the 
ship for a stick of tobacco, but I made them tie a few 
leaves round their loins whenever they came on the deck. 

I found a great many snipe and wild duck here, 



^ 



298 



THROUGH NEW GU/XEA. 



and ustid to shoot them daily for the tabic. But 
thu birds were aliuout identical with those «hot ill 
Kung. After a week or ten dnya spent here, and tlu* 
tunnaoon being very steady, I made up my mind to 
start for the Admiralty Islando. and bo on tho Slst of 
Maifh I took in a fresh supply of water, and the 
Huxt morninp said gcjodbye to these simple savages. 
Aftur the anchor bad been hauled up at bre^k of day 
and wc wort; IcaviiiR the land far behind us, the sun 
bof^au to show bimsfilE abuvt; the tops of the trees, 
when we perecivod u solitary native paddling his loy 
of wooil after us as fa«l as lie could mid shouting 
all the time. It was our frit-nd, who had overslept 
himself, and 1 suppose wished to come on board and 
see what he could get for the last time, but all his 
endeavours to reach ns were in vain, and very soon 
after we left him, a liny spcrli upon the ocean, far 
astern. 



CHAPTER XT. 

THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS — EXCITEMENT OF THE NATIVES 
— ST. GABRIEL ISLAND — I RECEIVE A VISIT FROM 
THE CHIEF — PECULIAR STYLE OF DRESSING THE 
HAIR — NATIVE COSTUME — A VISIT FROM A WOMAN — 
THE NATIVES ARE TOO DANGEROUS TO PERMIT OF 
OUR LANDING — THE MURDERERS OF A WHITE MAN 
— THE CHIEF STEALS MY HAxMMER — I DISCOVER AN 
UNCHARTED PATCH OF ROCK — I DEPART FOR 
ADMIRALTY ISLAND. 

On the 8rd of April we sighted the Admiralty Group — 
which were discovered hy Schoiiten, a.d. 1G15, but 
about which very little information was obtained until 
H.M.S. Challenger steamed through them in 1875 — and 
some fifteen miles out observed the sails of very large 
canoes. The people had evidently sighted us from the 
mountains and had come off at once to meet us. The 
first to come up to us was an enormous craft, with out- 
riggers to steady it. Its sail was of matting and fibre. 
There were, I should say, quite thirty men on board. 
When they found they could not reach the yacht, not 
having hauled round in time, they all jumped into the sea 
and tried to swim to us, shouting and waving their anns 
in the madness of their excitement. The next to arrive 
was more fortunate, and coming close enough I 
ordered a rope to be thrown them, which they made fast 
round their bows. I pennitted two to come on board. 

801 



J02 THROUGH NEW GUW 

They were certainly the wnWest and strangest people I 
had ever beheld in my life. Hhoiiting tu thoBc in the 
Cftnoo being towed, they worked thoiuselvws iiitu wuch a. 
frenzy that I momentaxily expected them to full down in 
a fit. 

Shortly iifterwarda I arrived at the island of St. 
Gahriel, and found u vorj* good aiichorAige under the 
ol a Kiuall islet at the western end. Swanns of 
lives came out directly the anchor was down, gesti- 
lating wildly and all talking at once. I allowed the 
chief, whose name 1 fonnd to \n' Kanau, to come on board , 
ftcconipanied by a second chief. These two men, in point I 
of size, were very fine specimens of hmuanity, enormoHsly i 
fat and evidently extremely Ia/.y. They continued to I 
chew betel nut ounMtantly, without ceiitning, ax indeed [ 
did all the natives throughout thcise islands, and only i 
discharging the cu<l wliin desiring to eat ffxid, Tobacco i 
seemed unknown to them, and when, after nmch por- 
. suasion, I induced one man to try a little, the wTy faces \ 
l&e made caused a considerable amount of amusement. 
The island of St. Gabriel appeared to lie more thickly 
' populateil than some of the larger ones of this group, and 
I conlil see swanns of natives every day I was there, lining i 
the beach. The natives theniselves wore but few orna- 
ments, those they had consiBtinj; of Khell annletn and 
-.human bones. A cnriooB piece of carved wood, about 
. two feet long, deconted with feathers, is sometunes 
worn at the back of the neck, intimating that the 
wearer is on the war-path. The men allow their hair 
to grow to a considerable length and then tie it t(^thar 
at the top in a huge bunch, from which a great namber 
of feathers are always streaming. Many pronged bamboo 
combs, aJso tipped with long feathers, are worn at the sides 
and front. The " Bulla Ovum " shell, which is recorded 
to have been worn as their sole dress some years ago, is 



•t 

t 



A WOMAN BROUGHT ON BOARD. 305 

still invariably earned in the indispensable basket always 
seen slung on their arm, but a larger dress of native cloth 
wound round their loins and hanging down in front is 
substituted for it. They appeared most friendly, and 
brought me, as a present from their women, great 
quantities of sweet potatoes and another root, the 
name of which I forget, but which was evidently culti- 
vated to some considerable extent. They were most 
eager to barter their obsidian spears, arm-rings, and 
bowls, which were made in great varieties and 
exceedingly well carved, for small beads, files, and 
knives. These natives, who are born natural traders, 
will haggle over a small arm-ring or a piece of tortoise 
shell to such an extent that one at last loses patience 
and refuses in disgust to deal at any price. When 
offering any article they possess for sale their praises 
or protestations are accompanied by most appropriate 
expressions. One man especially, T remember, who 
endeavoured to persuade me to give him an axe for a 
blade or two of tortoise shell, might indeed have 
been a queen's counsellor urging the innocence of his 
client before a grand jury, and with every bit as much 
force and energy. 

For the few davs 1 remained here the chiefs came 
off at sunrise, and lolling about the deck, making 
everj'thing black and filthy they came in contact with, 
w^ould stay until they were literallv driven over the side 
at night. Only once was a woman l)r()ught on board, 
who was said to be the wife of the chief. Hideously ugly, 
and with hair matted with some filthy substance all over 
her head, she had a great many small, round marks 
burned into her body in rows, and round her legs 
had been woven grass bands so tightly that the 
flesh had grown right over them, and must have 
occasioned the poor creature considerable pain. 

21 



L 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

TIrv t<)l<] lue that a white man had lived there 
iiiaiiy ycaTH before, but that the natives had come 
iiv<'r from the largur island a few miles away aniJ 
iminlered him. but from the fact that I saw one 
with ti Kmull hatiii-glaMs (nut a trade one), and 
others witli articles of cookery, evidences of a white 
man'R abode, I should not have gone as tar away 
aa they said to look for his murderers, and I let 
them know my oiiinion." 

For one or two days is\^ry one was anxious to (;(tllvot 
beetles and butterflies in exchange for tiles, beadH, &<;., 
but none of my own hunlei's, offer them what I wonid, 
could be persuaded to leave the yacht, and I must say the 
l(M)ks of the people, and their superabundance of apparent 
friendship, weighed much with me in my decision not to 
land myself. NevcrthdeHs, I gave the natives butterfly- 
nets, and although it rained most of the time I Bto()ped 
h«rc they brought mo some few specimens, generally 
spoiled, but still the majority of thoiu were now to 
science, and have since hi-on dcHcribed by the Hon. 
Walter Roth«child. 

After two or tliree dayw the natives got tired of collect- 
ing, preferring to come and loll about the ship or climb 
the rigging Hke so many children, and seeing it was of 
no use to i-enuiin here any longer, I made up my mind 
to move on to Admiralty Island, where it might be 
possible to find an uniuhubited shore, which would enable 
my hmiterB and myself to go into the . forest. The day 
before' I departed the chief failed to put in his usual 
appearance, and suspecting something at once, I began to 

" It appears that this poor man, I believe a SootchmaD, had, with 
a certain ajuoiint of trade goods, visited in a schooner these ialands, 
but had been attacked and murdered, the natives robbing him of 
everything ; lor wiiich atrocious deed they have never been punished, 
and in tact, up to the time of my visit liere, none of the German war 
vessels wlio ure alwavH cruisinj; in the Bismarck Archipelago, have 
ever paid these ielunds a visit. 



r 



THE HAMMER STOLES'. 



307 



liK)k nmnd f(ir whiit iiiiglit l>e lost, iiin) it was not long 
before I diseoveied that ii lumiiiier one of the crew had 
been usinfj t!ie <liiy before wiis nut forthcoming. I at once 
informeil the niitives who were on board of the fact, and 
tbey iippeared very frightened and at once exclaimed, 
" Kana, Kami," offering at tlie same time to go and 
fetch it, but I knew liy their anxiety to leave the ship I 
should never see them again. They swam on shore, 




leaving their baskets of betel nuts and a large bow! they 
liad bronglit for sale beliind tliem, and it tnrned ont to be 
as I thought; they never returned. Tliis small incident 
sliuws full well that even in, I suppose, tlie farthennost 
part i)f the W(irld, away from civilisation of any kind, theft 
is l(M)ked upon as something for which pimishment is 
merited. 

On leaving the island of St. Gabriel I found, aljout four 



3o8 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

miles distant from it in a north-west direction from the 
north side of the island, a large, uncharted coral patch, 
of large area, and having three fathoms of water on it. 
Also another about two miles north t(^ north-north-east 
from the small island adjoining St. Gabriel with but one 
fathom cm it. 

On the 7th of April I arrived at Admiralty Island, 
entering the Barrier Reef between the two small islands on 
the north-east end. Numbers of huge canoes with great mat 
sails came out some miles to sea to meet me, all crowded 
with natives shouting and gesticulating wildly. The first 
to meet us was a smaller one, to whom we gave a tow- 
rope, and it was very amusing to see how others coming 
after tried to fetch the ship, and how they one and all 
failed, some capsising i^ the attempt, others springing 
into the water in their endeavour to catch hold of the 
canoe in tow\ 

Half a mile inside the reef we rounded up and dropped 
anchor under the lee of a small island, intending to remain 
for the rest of the day, but I was so surrounded by large 
canoes and overpowering numbers of natives, who appeared 
to be anything but friendly, all waving their obsidian 
spears and gesticulating in a most frantic manner, and I 
deemed it advisable to get under way again. These 
repulsive looking cannibals were impudent in the extreme, 
boarding the ship contrary to my orders, and at one time 
I felt it likelv that we should have trouble with them. 
Imagine if you can, reader, a small cruising yacht in a bay 
many thousands of miles from civilisation, with no steam 
power and very little wind, and but two white men on 
board — for with the exception of my captain, a Scotch- 
man, my crew were all coloured men — completely sur- 
nnuided ])v tliirtv-two enoi'inous war canoes, nearly every 
one oi wliicli was as lon^^ as llie yacht itself, and having 
fully ten men on each, all ferocious cannibals, carrying in 



SINISTER IIOSriTAUTY. 309 

their hands several formidable obsidian spears. 1 say 
imagine these numbers of wild people on every part of 
your bulwarks, all talking, screaming and gesticulating at 
once. The situation was not pleasant, and it was with a 
feeling of intense relief that I felt the ship moving ever 
so slowly through the water, and saw with great pleasure 
the canoes dropping one by one astern. 

This obsidian which they utilise for their spear-heads 
is a volcanic substance resembling thick green glass, 
generally worked in a triangular form, sharpened at the 
point to the fineness of a needle, and having the shape of 
a tongue of fire, about twelve inches in length. It is 
then fitted into the hard wood of the spear, and at once 
becomes a very formidable weapon. 

At sundown we anchored a few miles further on off the 
island of Pichalew, which was low and densely covered 
with forest, and having a sheltered bay and sandy beach. 
Strangely enough the natives here, who were very 
numerous, were entirely different in character to those 
with whom we had just parted, coming off in great 
numbers in their canoes with presents of yams, taros, 
bananas, and cocoanuts, and what is more unusual, a 
present of a large bowl of cooked potatoes from the 
women of the village, refusing to accept any payment 
whatever in return. It was hard to think that this 
apparent generosity was shown me with an ulterior object, 
but I am sorry to say I am forced to, as one boy I had 
with me who understood some words of their language 
heard them say among themselves that perhaps now I 
would come on shore, when thev at once would make 
short work of me, and capture the ship. This was indeed 
disheartening, for my hunters refused to leave the vessel, 
under any pretence whatever, and I feared it would be 
absolutely impossible for me to go on shore, at any rate 
where there were people. My boys all came to me shortly 



310 THROUGH NEW GUINEA, 

after this occurrence and told me that I might kill them 
if I wished, and they would not raise a finger against me, 
but they would not leave the ship and so allow their 
bodies to be cooked and eaten. I therefore made up my 
mind to retrace my steps and work round by St. George 
and Jesu Maria Islands, the south-east end of the group, 
and w-here j>erhaps I might be more likely to find some 
of the smaller ones uninhabited. 

On April lOth I arrived at St. (Tcorge's Island, which 
is densely wooded, and attains an elevation of about 800 
feet, finding but an indifferent anchorage, and also a great 
number of people. I thought it wise to go through the 
St. Andrew's Straits, which are situated the south end of 
the island, and anchor among several small islets I saw 
further to the eastward, and where it was not likely we 
should have so many visitors. The coastal i)eople on St. 
George's Island had been driven into the mountains by 
the people inhabiting the smaller island opjK)site, who 
had taken possession of the coast to plant their taros and 
sugar-cane. Passing down through St. Andrew's Straits 
I discovered another uncharted patch with only six feet of 
water on it, one mile from the north-east end of St. 
George's Island at the entrance of the Straits, and also 
several patches, covered with from three to five fathoms of 
water, so that any one entering these straits should do so 
with extreme caution. 

All the way dow^n the straits I was besieged by cjinoes 
hanging on by tow-lines, and quite seventy of the natives 
crowded on to the ship anxious to barter their spears and 
tortoist' slu'll. I was obliged to place my nuMi in different 
parts of the vessel with loaded rifles owing to the appear- 
ance of the natives, and. had it not been for this pre- 
caution, 1 am confident a desperate^ attack would have 
been made ui)on us. 1 found a verv effectual wav of 
clearing the decks witiiout «^iving offence was to suddenlv 



THE PRICE OF A WOODEN PIG, 311 

open an umbrella — an act which has served me in p^ood 
stead on many occasions, for those natives who have 
never seen this article before would invariably jump over- 
board at (mce. I found it extremely difficult to trade 
with them, as they all asked for axes and tomahawks 
for any small thinp^ I wanted to ^et from them. The 
reason for this was apparent. The officers on board 
H.M.S. Challemjer must have given them one or tw^o 
of these, and they have since discovered the extreme 
utility of them in the manufacture of their canoes, their 
own tools, made of shell or stone, bein<( of a very primi- 
tive nature. 

Anchorinf( off three small islands — the lar<^a^st of which 
being Waikatu Island, where 1 found a village built on 
piles far out into the water — 1 made up my mind to remain 
here for a day or two and see what I could get on either 
of them ; but, alas ! these w(;re productive of Httle more 
than a few beetles and one jungle hen, which had evidently 
got there by mistake, as there were no other birds found 
there. A few people at different times came off. One 
man brought me an extremely well-carved imager of a 
pig of about three feet in length and cut out of a solid 
block of wood, forming a bowl, at first asking an axe 
for it, and, on this being refused, a fish-hook : 1 handed 
him the latter, when he said he recpiired a pieces of wire 
he saw on deck attached to tlie end. I did this, but 
he still seemed dis.satisfied, recpiesting a longer piece. 
I again fastened on some more wire, when to my disgust, 
he said, ** Fix on another fish-hook at the other end ! " 
I seized the lot and crannned it back into mv tradin<:-l)()x, 
driving him over the side. Keturning shortly afterwards, 
he gave me the bowl for one much smaller* fish-hook and 
without any wire at all ; but as he was just going away 
1 found that one of the legs he had artfully kept hidden 
was broken off', and, collaring him in time, I sat him down 



312 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

on the deck and told him to make a new one and fasten 
it on. This took him the whole afternoon, but it was 
very instructive to see how these people work with such 
unhandy tools — an obsidian knife and a bit of shell being 
the only implements he possessed. Breaking off a piece 
of a pole he had in his canoe and used for pmiting over 
the reefs, he squared the end to be joined on to the broken 
part, and, smearing it with some charcoal, pressed on the 
new piece, which showed him where more was to be 
pared off. This process was repeated several times until 
the two parts fitted to a nicety. Then, rounding off the 
new leg to the requisite length, he fixed in some small 
pegs and so fitted it on in a most ingenious manner, 
demanding an axe but receiving a few beads for his 
trouble. 

On April 12th, as I was about to go on shore to try 
again for birds and beetles amongst the thick undergrowth 
of one of the smaller islands, I counted no less than 
thirty-eight canoes coming towards the ship, and so 
abandoned the idea of landing. Shoii;ly afterwards they 
had all surrounded me ; there were quite 150 people, 
about eighty of whom came on board, for it was im- 
possible to keep them ofif without quarrelling. Up the 
rigging to the very masthead, into the 'galley, down 
the forecastle, and even into the saloon, they swarmed 
everywhere, and, what with their shouting and screaming 
at one another, the ship was a perfect pandemonium. 
They brought arm-rings, shell-dresses, dogs'-teeth, spears, 
bowls, tortoise shell and pearl shell, their lime-pots, and 
even pieces of their own hair to barter for beads, red 
cloth, or knives. It did not matter in the least what 
I offered them, they invariably desired something more, 
and the purchase of some small and useless curio would 
sonietiines take all the afternoon. These people are 
of the most intelligent order, often anticipating a remark 



JV/T OF THE NATIVES, 313 

you are about to make, and adding a few witty words 
of their own ; for their language is most simple and very 
easily understood, and, after learning about a hundred 
words, one can almost understand everything they have 
to say. 



CHAPTER XII. 

SMART NATIVES — FRIENDLY SAWTATIONS— EXTRAOHDI- 
NARV MEMORV— ARRANT THIEVES— NU WOMEN— THE 
NATIVES CONTEMPLATE KILLINH ME — SPEAH WOUNDS 
ON NATIVES— COWARDICE — MY OWN MEN AHE VERY 
PBinHTENED— VERY UlCH ISLANDS — NATIVE VOCABU- 



One iiiuruing two different lots nf tortoiae shell were 
otfei-ed to lue by two men. The ont- lot consisted of 
large and valuable shell and the other mther below the 
average size, and consequently not worth so much : for the 
former an axe was asked, and for the latter two knives. 
I had been in tlio habit of f^ivinp; a large knife for large 
shell and a small one for that of lesser size, whereupon 
I said: "Kurt mundrean pigmbon mundrean, kurt leem 
piginbon leem " (meaning to say, " Rig knife for big 
tortniw slicll. siiiiiJl knife for sniiill tnitois^ shell"). The 
brntlivrnl tlj<' i liirf. who \mis sitliTi^' rlus,' In ]nenn the 
deck, immediately produced two pieces no bigger than the 
palm of one's hand and of no value whatever, and, laying 
them down in front of me, exclaimed, in his own 
language, of which this is the translation, " Webster, 
this is for you ; you always speak the truth : hand over a 
small knife." 

The fii-st question invariably asked by all on my arrival 
at any village was "Tokalager?" ("What is your name?"). 
This always intimates that the people are desirous of 



THE DAGGER IN THE HAIR, 315 

establishing friendly relations. When you have once told 
it to them thev call you hv it always. Many natives 
spoke to nie of a certain ship's captain, mentioning his 
name, and who, T afterwards learned, had passed through 
the group nineteen years previously, when he had not 
remained amongst them foi* more tlian a w^eek. This 
at least proves the excellence of their memories. They 
are of a verv treacherous natui'e and horn thieves, and 
I was therefore obliged to keep a most strict watch day 
and night, alwavs having one and sometimes two of my 
men with loaded rifles. Nevertheless, notwithstanding 
the vigilance of my crew, something or another was stolen 
from the ship at every i)lace T called at. On one occasion 
a native shell-dress, for which 1 had bargained the greater 
part of the day and had at last purchased at the man's own 
price to get rid of him, so persistent he was in pushing 
it in my face and demanding a large knife for it, was 
after all stolen back again when my face was turned, and 
was the next day brought to me for sale by some one else 
altogether. 

With the (me excei)ti(m 1 have mentioned in a 
previous chapter, it was lu'ver my fortune to see any 
of their women nearer than 500 yards, and although 
I offered all sorts of inducements to the natives to 
persuade them to bring their women-folk to pay me 
a visit, they never did so, and of course, after the obsen'a- 
tions T have nuide and the treacherous looks of the people, 
I did not venture on shoie. 

The only two weapons they appc^ired to use were the 
obsidian spear and an obsidian dagger, the blade of the 
latter being about ten inches in length and the handle 
worked of the same material as their head-combs. This 
was carried by being passed through the hair, and so a 
native who apparently was unarmed very often had a 
dangerous weapon at hand, and it was always my custom 



3i6 THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 

to thoroughly examine their head-gear before pennitting 
them to come on board. The hair of these people is worn 
in a slightly different fashion to those of St. Gabriel : 
very bushy all round the front, they wear an enormous 
fringe which is combed backwards, but at the back of the 
head they tie it like the other natives in a huge knob 
resembling the tail of a prize draught horse at an agricul- 
tural show, bound round and round for about a foot in 
length, standing straight out from the head, and displacing 
a bushy tuft at the further end with a feather comb in it. 

A great number of the people I observed to have sj^ar 
wounds, but without one single exception they were all at 
the back of their persons, from which one draws the 
ominous conclusion that they do not present a bold and 
fearless front to their enemies. 

They repeat their words many times over when sj)eaking, 
every word being spoken in a louder and louder tone, until, 
at the end of the sentence, they are absolutely screaming. 
For instance, if a native wished to say, ** Tedor lockon 
solowan'' (** There are plenty here '*), he would exclaim 
** Tedor, tedor, lockon, lockon, lockon, lockon, solowan, 
solowan, solowan, solowan, solowan — solowaaaaan ! '' 

It is customary here, as in every other country in the 
world, when offering an article for sale to ask a gieat deal 
more than is expected, and often a native will take away 
his goods altogether and remain absent for days before 
offering them again, sometimes bringing something else 
in its place. Nevertheless eventually you will get what 
you want i)r()vided you have enough patience to wait until 
it is again show'n you, but once take an interest in it or 
express the slightest desire to i)()ssess it, you will have to 
give the man his own price or you will nev(»r own it at all. 

Tlie tliin<rs wliicli thev seem to srt least store bv are 
their howls, wliicli were I'c'iilly very Ix'autilully carved and 
are alwavs ()])tainal)ie fnr a few ])r;i(|s. 



IVE LEA VE THE ADMIRALTY ISLES. 317 

Finding that my number of visitors increased daily, 
from their gestures I imagined that it was about time for 
me to move, so on the fourth day, having a favourable 
breeze, I moved on through the innumerable patches and 
the many small islets to Jesu Maria, a larger island about 
ten miles distant, but on anchoring on the south side in a 
bay that was full of shoals, I found here, as everywhere 
else, the coast to be most thickly populated. The natives 
did not wait for me to anchor, but crowded the ship on all 
sides. 

I now finally abandoned all hope of obtaining any further 
collections in natural history. My hunters on board were 
by this time so thoroughly frightened at the wild appear- 
ance of the natives, and my captain and crew were also 
becoming very dissatisfied at my remaining among such 
people, who outnumbered us to such an enormous extent, 
that the next day, amid the yells and frantic gesticulations 
of the natives in canoes all around me, I set sail for New 
Britain with a wind which obliged me to set my course 
towards La Vandola Island, situated twenty miles to 
the east of Jesu Maria and the most eastern island of 
the group. 

The same evening I arrived under the cliff of that island, 
which is entirelv different in formation to any of the others, 
being of circular form and having a coast line of straight 
up and down cliff. The natives came off to me in great 
numbers, and were very eager for me to anchor, but finding 
no bottom except on a lee shore, and that at some consider- 
able depth, I merely laid to for an hour, bartenng with the 
natives for a few spears and shell ornaments, and then 
before dark again set sail for the slightly more civilised 
country — New Britain. 

Thus the great object of my journey to the Admiralty 
Islands had signally failed, and with the exception of a 
few hundred specimens of coleoptera and still fewer 



3i8 



THROVGH XEW GVtXEA. 



boUerflies ftod with bat «ae bird. 1 tamed iii; boi-k i>n 
lltew will! {wople who possess a crjontiy so rich in u 
latum unkoitn-D to Earopuan irtJIecbire. 

fiut p«ThaiM>. one day. it qmt be ujr good fortune to 
rvtnni and there U ootfaing I dioald desire more — taking 
with tue n Ktmngvr force of anus, to etMble me to remain 
Huui! Uioiithfi in tbi! ^mp. ani) onllect all tbe niH uid 
new tbinf^ I am ennHdcnt an- to be foond '\vstb. 

Tltu foll>m-uig ift a sooll vifcnbuLin* of Aditiintlty Island 
wordA 1 pickeil up from tlio nativ<» whilM trading with 
thiou:^ 



Mat^EUUmii. 








ttav— tbiUina J-MW. 




WwB-n-IWbbowi. 


linMl. 


Conio Iwic. bnni; Ei^uui. 


No. don't wMit-Hbrnnni. 


titi away-'Tuoiliu. 


Thoow it owny— Kmui. 


Go BWBV for good -TdobIuvhL 


rub-hook -Mok. 


Lonte, b(K-Jtuadr«B. 


Buw >uid amw— Jfemk. 


auuJI— I«nu 


Shigs UiKt, ciuiui— ColeiiJm]. 


SpoM-l-iclifli-fi. 


WiDd-Se*. 


J^xvi — Cimmcl- 


!tiun-li:ml«llA. 


KjiifB— Knn. , 


It is lictv— Lockon. 


!)e«l^Wj.I.. 


Iltrit.i -Solowim. 


Cl**h-Dr«.pp. 


Htrrv or lIick — Tedor. 


(lood-W.ven. 


This Of Uuit— Sclw. 


JUd-Momin. 


I'lVMot. f(ifl -Corns. 


Coine— AuBwii. 


Bleep-M»t »Mt. 


Iitlwid— Mook. 


Dead_Uarti. 


What b. vour ia.uuc ? ( -. , 


Toiiiniuiwk— SHWali. 


Tortoise shell— CijiiilxHi. 


The numbers are — 




One-EBM. 


Beven- Betalor. 


Two— EDour. 


Eight^Undralii. 


Three— Ettti. 


Nine — I'lidrexHie. 


Four^-AvLT. 


Te.i-Co. 


Five— El'iiiw, 


Eleven— t'o EsKf. 


yix-Aoii. 


Twelve-Co Ellour. 



ADMIRALTY ISLANDS VOCABULARY, 319 

Thirteen -Co Etal. j Eighteen — Co Undralii. 

Fourteen — Co Aver. Nineteen — Co Undressie. 

Fifteen — Co Elinm. Twenty — EUour Co. 

« 

Sixteen — Co Aon. Fifty — Elinia Co. 

Seventeen — Co Retalor One hundred — Co Co. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

I LEAVE THE ADMIRALTY ISLANDS — WE ARE WRECKED 
ON A REEF OFF NEW IRELAND — RETURN TO NEW 
BRITAIN — CHINESE CARPENTERS REPAIR THE YACHT 
— THE HOT SPRINGS IN BLANCHE BAY — THE BOILING 
RIVER — THE BEEHIVES— EXPERT FEMALE DIVERS — 
I LEAVE FOR THE SOLOMON ISLANDS — CALL AT 
SIR CHARLES HARDY ISLANDS — I DISCOVER THE 
MURDER OF AN ENGLISHMAN- -I PHOTOGRAPH THE 
ASSASSINS — STORY OF A WHITE MAN SWEPT AWAY 
IN A BOAT AND KILLED AND EATEN BY NATIVES — 
AN ACTIVE VOLCANO — BOUGANVILLE- -DANGEROUS 
NATIVES — THE CANNIBAL WHO WANTS A SOVEREIGN 
— H.M.S. ** rapid" puts ME IN QUARANTINE — IVORY 
NUTS — I START FOR AUSTRALIA — ANOTHER ACCIDENT 
— RETURN TO THE SOLOMONS — H.M.S. ** WALLAROO '* 
— THE YACHT CONDEMNED — I LEAVE FOR AUSTRALIA 
IN THE MAN-OF-WAR. 

From here I had a tine wind in my favour, the first I had 
experienced for some months, which brought me down to 
New Britain in two days, where I again anchored in 
Blanche Bay. The settlers were very pleased to see me 
again, having all made up their minds long ago that I 
had been killed and eaten by the natives of the islands 
I had just left. Losing no time here, I at once paid 
a visit to the liead Government orticial at Herbertsoh 
to get the necessary permission to recruit more natives 

320 



THE YACHT RUXS OX A REEF. 321 

to hunt for me in the Solomon Islands, where I was now 
bound, as my contract with the people I had expired on 
my returning to their country, and none of them were 
desirous of re-engaging. 

Receiving the necessary pennit I at once ran over to 
Kuras, a large village on the New Ireland coast opposite 
Blanche Bay, the reason for this being that after our 
experiences in the Admiralty Islands, and the intense 
fear of my New Britain hunters while there, I should 
have stood no chance whatever of getting any others from 
that country. 

Arriving in Kuras harbour on the following afternoon, 
I anchored a mile from the shore. A great many of the 
natives who came off in their canoes told me I should 
find a better anchorage inside the reef, whereupon I decided 
to shift my position, getting the advantage of a better 
shelter. Soon after the anchor was hauled up and the 
captain had given the order to go about to enable us 
to clear the reef, the wind fell light, and the ship 
missing stays, the current, which was very strong, swept 
us immediatelv on to a coral reef before there was time to 
let go the anchor again. Luckily the tide was low, and so 
1 knew it was only a matter of a few hours before getting 
off again, provided she held together until there was enough 
water to float her. Owing to a big sea running at the time, 
the ship suffered verv considerably, at one moment 
high up on the crest of a wave, only to be dashed down 
again with terrific force on to bed rock. All our crockery 
and glass was smashed, fittings and furniture were dashed 
to pieces down below. Hundreds of natives swarmed the 
beach, perhaps hoping — who knows ? — that the vessel 
would soon break up, when we should all fall an easy 
prey to them. My greatest fear was that they would attack 
us even before the ship became a total wreck, and I 
conceived the idea of passing a tow-line to the shore 

22 



f 

n 

322 THROIGH XEW GllXEA. 

\ requesting them to haul away, and thus I kept them 

ij fully occupied, and from planning any mischief. At 

s about ten o'clock at night, and after we had been 

jj bumping in a temble manner for about five hours, the 

tide rose sufficiently for us, with the aid of two kedge 
anchors, to get her off into deep water, and to my great 
joy we discovered that she was not making very much 
water. Unfoilunately the rudder gudgeons were broken, 
and the rudder casing a great deal damaged, a very 
considerable mishap. I found it (piite impossible to 
induce any one to come awav with me after this, so 
immediately we had temporarily fixed up the steering 
gear by the aid of wire rope, I returned to New Britain. 
This, however, was not so easily accomplished, owing to 
\ the strong south-east wind, and the cun-ent which 

* accompanies it. 

J After two days' hard struggle I fetched the north 

^ coast of New Britain, and anchored off the Wesleyan 

Mission Station situated there. An hour or two after 
^ starting the next morning, the ropes holding the rudder 

broke, owing to the temble strain and chafe upon them, 
and for some hours we were drifting, until my men fixed 
them as before, by no means an easy task with such a big 
sea running. Two days afterwards we successfully 
weathered the point by the volcano, and anchored off 
the llalum plantation. 

Finding no one here able to be of any service 
to us, we moved down the bay to the island of 
Matupi, w^here there was a Chinese carpenter living, 
who at once took the vessel in hand, and did his best to 
repair the damage done. Unfortunately, there were but 
two or three ftn^t rise and fall lier(\ and so we were 
()l)li<,^('d to take cvtMTtlnii^^ out, even to the ballast, to 

tli^j^litcu llu' ship sntVicicnlly, so lliat tli(? men could work 
at low watt'i". A ^reat inaiiy sheets of co))[)er had been 



m 

f 



f 



I 



I- 



I 



tt 



THE BEEHIVESr 327 



torn off on the reef, and a considerable amount of damage 
done to the stern-post. After working for some days the 
men dechired it to be impossible to repair her thoroughly, 
on account of our inability to beach her ; and so 1 nuide up 
my mind to make my way as best I could against the south- 
east UKmsoon now blowing in full force, to Australia 
beating down through the Solomon Islands, and from 
whence I should be able to make the Queensland coast 
in one board. 

Whilst waiting here for the ship to be ready for sea, 
I made many expeditions into Blanche Bay, and 
collected many interesting specimens. On one occasion I 
went for some miles to the head of an inlet, where 1 was 
told I should find some hot springs ; and after navigating 
a river running into the bay for some mile or two, the 
water commenced to be warm, and the further 1 went 
the hotter it became, until at last it was impossible forme 
to hold my hand in it. Then I could see steam bubbling 
up in all directions about me, proving that beneath the 
water there was some very great volcanic disturbance. 

The scenerv here was verv beautiful, and the trees which 
overhung the river most luxuriant, but the heat was so 
intense that I was glad to get out into the cool again. I 
luc'vily had my camera, and so with the aid of one of my 
black boys, whom 1 had already taught to scpieeze the ball, 
I managed to secure a photograph, which in some small 
degree pourtrays the beauty of the scene. 

On my way home I made a slight detour to inspect 
some rocks 1 had seen in the distance, and which have 
been named the Beehives.. On approaching them I found 
these were two in number, and of sandstone formation. 
Springing straight up perpendicularly from the sea, they 
are clothed from head to foot with most luxuriant 
vegetation, have deep water right up to thrir very base, 
rise to a height of about 2*20 feet, and are, I should 



328 THROraH MiW GUIXEA. 

say, ahout ci^'lity yards in circumference, and only 
separated from one another hv a few feet of water. There 
is a small led^e of coral at the hase of one of them, and 
on it a villa^^e has heen huilt, iK)piilated by fully three 
hundriMl {n'ople, who suhsist almost entirely on fish. On 
my arrival the youn;^' «^nrls and women clambered up to a 
small projection thirty or forty ft»et alK)ve the water, and 
immediately jum|H'd ott\ claimin*; a stick of tobacco for 
the accomplishment. 

T was sorry not to he able to take a photopraph of these 
remarkable rocks, but the sun had lonfj since sunk below 
the horizon, and the li^^hts from the torches of the natives 
fishin^jon the reefs round the bay were beginning to show 
up in all directions. 

On another occasion 1 visited the village of Nordup, 
on the North Coast of New Britain, for the purpose of 
reconcilin«^ two old warriors who had been at loj^gerheads 
with one another for yeai*s, their villa*(es joining. After 
a deal of piMsuasion 1 got them together, and, i>lacing 
a green palm-leaf of peace between them, got a photo- 
grai>h, afterwards giving a copy to each, at the same 
time obtaining a promise from them both that they 
would be brothers in the future. 

When the Chinese carpenter had done what he was 
able, 1 (piickly got my ballast on board and returned to 
Kaluni, to bid a Ihial adieu to all mv friends there. And 
taking, at the request of Mrs. Kolbe, some provisions and 
papers for an iMiglishnian who was trading for her in a 
gi'ouj) of islands just noith of th(^ Solomons, and who 
was apparently (piite isolated from the world, being out 
of tlic ti:ii"k (►!' all sliins, 1 iii;i«le an t'ai"Iv start on Mav 
lltli. 

J list as tlif aiiflioi' was heing hauled up 1 ]H'r('eived a 
boat I'oiiiiiig ot't' to nic with a liu^^e casi- on hoard, and 
I'oiuul it to contain two cassowaries 1 had l)oui:ht from 



f 

4 



^ i 



^ t 



I i 

: { 



k 



f • 



ii. 

ii 



J 



1: 

I : 



I 

: i . 
r I . 



L 



k 



/ FIND A MURDERED ENGLISHMAN. 333 

the natives, and in the hurry of departure had entirely 
forgotten. 

A fair wind took us down the St. George's Channel 
and past the south coast of New Ireland, and then 
making an easterly course a few days brought me to 
Sir Charles Hardy Islands, lying some miles to the 
east of New Ireland.* These are densely wooded and 
rather low, surrounded by mangroves, but here and there 
there is a small sandy beach where it is possible to land. 
It was one of these on which the Englishman for w^hom 
I was taking the papers, ^:c., was living. 

Sailing along the coast I soon afterw^ards observed a 
flag-staff raised up at the spit of a small island which 
I knew must be Nissam, the trading station ; and so 
lieading through a very narrow passage where the current 
was rushing like a mill stream, I was quickly taken to the 
back of the island, where there was a good anchorage and 
beach, and from which I could see the trader's house. 
But although the flag was flying I could see no one on 
the verandah, nor did any natives, as is customary, 
approach the sliip from the shore. Nevertheless I could 
see many dusky figures running through the trees which 
line the beach and at once remarked that something must 
be wrong. Firing a gun two or three times, but getting 
no response, I manned the boat and went on shore when 
my worst fears were at once realised. 

The Englishman, whose name was Oliver Beavis, had 
been murdered. His native housekeeper, a young girl 
from New Ireland, whom I found huddled up in the 
house in a most terribly frightened condition, said that 
Mr. Beavis had been expecting a schooner to come from 
New Britain with his stores for some months. I may 

'■'■ This group should in reality, according to my captiiin's observa- 
tions, l)e placed five miles further to the east than their present 
charted position. 



334 THROUGH SEW GVIXEA. 

mention liere that Mrs. KoUk* luid previously told me that 
her schooner, when I left New l^ritain, was then more 
than a hundred days overdue, and thev were tliemselves 
verv anxious for her safetv, as the natives on the east coast 
of New Ireland, where it had lu'en sent, were very 
treacherous, and that was the reason whv she had not 
been ahle to send this man his stores before. 

Whether the natives ima^Mued that he had been com- 
pletely deserted by his f(»llow -creatures or not, it is hard 
to say ; but one morning, when \\k\ was in the act of 
stooping' to pick up somethin*^ from the ground, thirty 
yards from his house, they had crept up l)ehind him, and 
with one of his own axes, stolen from the verandah, had 
struck him down. I at once sent for the chief of tlie 
island, but he refused to come, nor all the threats and 
inducements I afterwards sent would cause him to alter 
his decision, and, conseijucntly, I never saw him at all. 

Gatherinj^asmjiny natives as possible tot^^etherl interro- 
gated them, findin^i: that pidjin I\ii*,dish was not imknown 
to several, with the result that 1 discovered that one 
morninjjf, ten days jnvvious to my comin*^, the trader was 
in the act of feedin<jf his pi^'s, when a native had split liis 
head open with an axe from behind. The poor man liad 
stren<;lh (M1()U<^1i to run behiinl a cocoanut tree, followed 
bv his assassin, who wa^ then joined l)v other natives. 
Takin^j out his revolver he lired twice, woundin<^' one man 
in the hand and another in the shoulder. The trader's 
New Ireland boys iIhmi a|)]HMire(l on the seen(\ and the 
murderer deeampiMl, but was afterwai'ds shot l)y one of 
these boys with the trader's own ^nn, and close to the 
spot where he had stiuck down his xii'tini. Mr. Beavis 
maiia^^ed to sta<^^<i:er to his lioust\ l)iit fell on the threshold 
and expired l)et"oi'e he could ^^et u|)on his l)e(1. 1 could 
see the <rh:istlv siiins of tlic tViulitrul ^tiULT^K^ the ikk)!* 
man liad niade in tr\in;4 to L!«t tlnir. hut iii< stren<rth 






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/ PHOTOGRAPH THE MURDEROUS TRIBE. 339 

had given way, and he had died pulHng at the bedclothes. 
One can hardly imagine such a gruesome scene as the one 
I looked u[)on, for although ten days had elapsed nothing 
had Leen touched. 

The New Ireland boys buried the body just outside, and 
so, after seeing that his grave was properly attended to, 
and a baml)oo fence built round it, 1 examined his papers 
to try and discover his address, so as to give intimation of 
the sad occurrence to his friends. Unfortunately, I could 
find no letters that told me what 1 wanted, but just as I 
was giving it up 1 saw in the corner of his room a small 
and much used J3ible, wherein 1 found his address in the 
Isle of Wight. I comnnmicated with his friends on my 
arrival in Australia in July, while, at the same time, I 
wrote to New J^ritain, sending news of the murder. 

J^efore letting the natives depart 1 sent on board for my 
camera, and, with two rifles on either side of it, took a 
photograph of them ; this they seemed very h^h to allow, 
never having seen the apparatus before, and evidently 
imagining it might go off at any moment and kill them 
all. 

The natives of these islands are a very fierce race of 
people ; much above the average height, they appear to be 
very powerful and muscular, bold and danng. They 
wear no clothing, not even the T bandage, customary 
in the Solomon Islands. My photographs have been 
draped since. Their only weapons appeared to be bows 
and arrows, and on their right arm they wear a guard 
against the bow-string consisting of a creeper which 
they unwind from the stem of the tree on which it 
grows, and dry for their use : it forms a kind of gauntlet 
from the wrist to the elbow. I discovered them to be very 
expert in the use of the bow, for, wishing to divert their 
attention as much as possible from myself, I caused a 
thin bamboo stick, about two inches in circumference, to 




340 TIlROrCIl XliW CAIXEA, 

luMlrivcn into the sand, trivin*; a stick of tohiieco to every 
oiir who roiild spht it with an arrow at a distance of 
forty pacrs : in this way I ^n)t rid of a *xi*<-*it deal of tobacco 
in the afternoon, one man in partieuhir, splittinjjf it eveiy 
tinit». Th(» arrows wliieh tliese people use are not unlike 
those made hv the Solomon Ishmders, but are consider- 
ahly hetter made — harhed with small pieces of human 
hone and |>ointed with the same material, they are very 
formidahle \veaj)ons -and if a native is struck by one in 
le^' or arm it is quite impossible to withdniw it, and the 
only way he has of freeint^ hinjself is by driving it right 
thron;;h to thc^ other side. 

The next nlo^nin<,^ the tide bein<j[ in our favour, at six 
o'clock I turned my back upon the scene of this honible 
and atrtu'ious nnnder, another bein*; added to the already 
lon^f list of such crimes which have been and are being 
daily enacted throut^diout the South Seas, where the lonely, 
hanlwoikin*' tradtM* t»kes out a solitarv livelihood and 
spends the «j:reater part of his life living alone, outside the; 
pale of civilisation without friends and far, far away from 
home. 

.Vs we were InMn;^: swe])t through the passage by 
the li(M"ce <-urrenl running' at the time, the native who 
was on hoMid tn pilot us clear of the coast, told me 
how. a year or so a<:(), a white man had arrived in a ship 
to stav with the ti'adcr until the schooner returned a vear 
iil'ti-rwarcU. I>ui as the tid(» was I'unning out at the time 
lli«'>liil) (lid not attempt to entei' the jmssage but just 
stood off and on until the man had been lowered in his 
l>(»at with his four hovs and tluMi sailed awav. The white 
man had UfVi-i- hern able to ivach the shore although 
wlicii the ship left liini he was not, a mile distant from it. 
\\\\\ tlif ni\t iinn'iiui: ln' \\:i> iiowliei'e to i>e found, and 
it \\;i^ allrrwaiiU di>c(»\ cird that the current in the nit^^ht 
luul swept him ri^lil ae'r(»>> to the east coast of Xew 






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IVE REACH TREASURY ISLAND. 345 

Ireland, where he had been killed and eaten by the 
natives, his boys sharing a similar fate. 

After leaving Sir Charles Hardy Islands I laid 
along the coast of Bougainville, one of the largest 
and northernmost islands of the Solomon Group, being 
nearly one hundred and twenty miles in length and 
over thirty in width. Sailing down the coast we perceived 
high up in the sky flames issuing from the spnnnit of an 
active volcano, and although we must have been some 
thirty or forty miles distant it was plainly visible. There 
is a range of mountains which appears to run nearly the 
entire length of this island, and I should say, judging 
from our position, some of the highest peaks were several 
thousand feet above the sea level. I could sec many 
volcanic cones but only the one I have just mentioned 
appeared to be active. The villages along the coast 
appeared to be very thickly populated, but the ferocity of 
their inhabitants is very well known, and it would be very 
difficult indeed for a white man to make an expedition 
through the island with safety. Towards the southern 
end of the island (me or two large war canoes came out to 
us as we went along, each one containing about twenty 
men, who, like the Sir Charles Hardy islanders, were 
completely naked and very dark in colour. Thcnr faces 
were tattooed in lines, imparting a very fierce and repulsive 
appearance. 

On the third day we reached Treasury Island and ran 
into a very good anchorage ofi' the principal village. The 
natives, who have a very good reputation here, many 
having worked on the plantations in Queensland, but the 
greater number engaging themselves at difterent times as 
boats' crews to the traders of the Solomon Islands, 
swarmed on board immediately 1 let go the anchor. One 
of the first to arrive was a boy who went by the name 
of Tom, whom I immediately remembered as having 



346 



THROUGH NEW GUINEA. 



previously met before at liubiana when on my previous 
exjKiditiun. He was ven' anxious to come away with lue, 
aH in<U-v<t were a great many <»f them, and I received a 
(^eat luany presentH <»f yams, tanm, and kaukaus — a 
vegetable not unlike ii [xitato. One man who spoke 
pidjin Kngliuh fairly well hegfjed nie very hard for a 
wwereign, and when I offered liim a Bhiliing turned up 
bis noHe in disgust. Had be received what he wanted I 




!*i 



:iiii sure I i-ariiiut iMiiifcivc wlnit be wmilil liiive done with 
it, .■xc.'tit tliiit pui-Iiiips on tlif ill-rival of tlie brst trading 
sfliiioniT, lit', like many ..tlicr relinin-ii labour bands from 
(.,)ii,',-ii^laii(l Willi iiiniii'v, wnuM liavi- i>arti'il witli it for a 
lew brads Of a slid; or two oC lol,a<-,-M. 

Th.' .-liirf. \vl„> wa^ 111,' son of ■.^. ,.,.l.-l.rat,>a warri.n- 
iiiniK'^l ■■ Miilii K\^\y^r ioim ,in<v Av.uX. paid iiif a visit in 



IVE ARE PUT IN QUARANTINE, 347 

present, and receivin^^ in return some cotton red and 
tobacco, for it is always customary in every country 
tlirout^hout the South Pacific to ^ive presents and receive 
somethint^ in exchange on an acquaintance being made. 

Inunediately my water tanks were replenished we set 
sail again, but owing to the very light winds that pre- 
vailed it was many days before we reached Kubiana, 
where most of the English Solomon Island traders 
form their head-quarters. A fair wind springing up, 
we were about to run over the bar, which extends across 
the entrance of the lagoon, wlien a sail was reported on 
the starboard bow. This turned out to be H.M.S. iia^^irf, 
which quickly bore down upon us, and ascertaining as 
she steamed close under our stern that 1 had come from 
New l^ritain, at once sent off a boat with an official order 
from the High Connnissioner of the Western Pacific, 
prohibiting any connuunication whatever with any one 
for twenty-one days, owing to tlu^ fact that smallpox had 
broken out in the country 1 had just come from. Not- 
withstanding the fact that I had not b(H>n within two 
hundred miles of the infected district 1 was requested to 
remain outside the bar, s(^ T went and anchored off 
Kendova Island. 

Before they steamed away I had a short and shouting 
conversation with Mr. Woodford, who was on board and 
who had just been appointed to the post as Commissioner 
of the Solomon Islands. I had met this gentleman pre- 
viously in PiUgland. He cordially invited me to pay him 
a visit at Gavatu, an island off the coast of Florida, one 
of the southernmost in the group; but being in a hurry to 
get across to Australia I told him I should be unable to 
do so, little thinking at the time that force of circum- 
stances would compel me to go there, and that my ship, 
which had been my home for so long, was fated to renuiin 
there for ever. Shortly afterwards we said goodbye, and 
an hour or so later they disappeared beneath the horizon. 



348 THROUGH NFAV GUINEA, 

The next morning I found it necessarj^ to again repair 
the steering gear, and it was very difficult to make the 
natives who were continually crowding round us under- 
stand that we were in quarantine and that they were not 
to come on board, as being of a friendly disposition the}' 
are in the habit of boarding every ship they come in 
contact with. It was also very hard upon me as it had 
been more than six months since I had seen an English- 
man or heard any news of my own country, and I was 
now within a mile or two of several living just inside the 
lagoon, to whom a regular bi-monthly mail arrives and 
from w-hom I should have been able to have learned w-hat 
was going on in the world. 

These traders, who have established quite a little colony 
here, would, I know, have been very glad to see me. To 
Englishmen living at home and knowing nothing what- 
i ever of South Sea life and natives, except from an occa- 

sional glimpse of a print or photograph, picturing shady 
palms, glassy seas, and sandy beaches, the life of a trader 
would appear a very enviable one. But from what I saw 
i of the different traders who have been established in these 

i! latitudes for manv veais I should sav that it is, as a rule, 

* not so profitable as the uninitiated imagine. The life is 

/ one of extreme loneliness, monotonous to a degree, and 

I terribly harassing to the nerves. 

|i There are several men earning their livelihood by collect- 

ing and selling native products in the Solomon Islands. Of 
thos(* I met, Mr. Wickham, of Kubiana, and Mr. Nielson, of 
Florida, appear to be the most pros})er()Us; but from one 
and all 1 experienced the utmost courtesy and hospitalit3^ 
Tliey invariably live on some small island, consideriner it 
to be more safe tlian the mainland. 

Amongst till* many articles of trade* tlius collected is 
tlu' ivory nut, wliicli is about tlic size and appearance of 
an ordinary a[)j)lc, witli tlic depressions where the stalk 



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IVE CONTINUE THE JOURNEY. 349 

and the opposite indentation are accentuated. Tlie tree 
from wliicli this nut is taken <]jro\vs in low and swampy 
ground and takes a great many years to mature. The 
trees are cut down and the nuts gathered and put into 
bags, each tree yiekhng al)out six of tliese bags full. On 
the outer skin being removed the kernel has an appear- 
ance of a large-sized bilhard ball. It is as hard as ivory, 
and will retain anv dye. After being dried thev are 
exported to Europe and largely used in the manufacture 
of buttons, etc. The trade in ivory nuts has greatly 
decreased within the last few years owing to the depreci- 
ation of value, at one time being worth t'lO per ton, 
but now only bringing, I believe, about 1*8. 

Tortoise shell is also largely dealt with. It is the back 
of a turtle usuallv found on the reefs or on a sandy beach. 
The natives spear the turtles and, after eating the flesh, 
take off the blades and sell them to the trader in exchange 
for cloth, beads, or tomahawks. 

Mr. Ijouis Becke's tales of South Sea life are very 
pleasant and poetical with the descriptions of beautiful 
coral reefs and waving palms ; but when one looks upon 
those reefs and sees the ovcM'whelming numbers of poison- 
ous and stinging creatures indolently lying in wait for 
some unwary stranger, or when one finds some wild and 
ferocious cannibal with a long-handled native tomahawk 
or jagged stone club, or perchance even a poisoned arrow 
or two in his bow, behind that wavin<^ pahn, the poetry 

somehow fades away and one's hand steals quickly and j 

silently to the revolver so handily phiced in the belt. 

After a day or two I coiitimied my journey, and had a 
fair wind as far as Russell Islands, which lie to the north- ! 

west of Guadalcanar, one of the larger islands further \ 

east. Many natives came off in canoes laden with yams, : 

cocoanuts, and bananas ; but before they reached us a 
strong wind sprang up and we saw no more of them. 



350 THROUGH NFAV GUINEA. 

On reaching Guadaleanar, an island about eighty miles 
long and having many volcanic cones amongst the 
mountain peaks, which rise up to an enonuous height 
of about eight to ten thousand feet, I considered it 
advisable to anchor for the night in a harbour a little to 
the westward of Cai)e Hunter and fill up with water, as I 
intended this to be my furthennost point to the eastward 
before striking across to Australia. The south-east mon- 
soon was blowing steadily now with slight easterly vari- 
; ations. I therefore calculated 1 could reach Sandy Cape 

; . on the Queensland coast, a distance of 1,200 miles away, 

, on one board. There were verv few natives in tlie 

J village, and they did not interfere with us in any way. 

) . The next morning I made the final start for Australia 

) : w^ith a strong steady wind blowing east-by-south ; and by 

\ noon on the following day had covered a distance of 180 

\ miles. An hour after this the captain infonned me that 

* • the lower rudder gudgeon had again given way, leaving 

me no alternative but to turn back to Gavatu, the seat 
' of government, where in all probability I might find 

!; some suitable beach on which to make further repairs. 

Just at this time also we found that she was making 
more water than usuiil, owing, as 1 suspected, to the 
terrible straining she had received. 

Kunning up the Guadaleanar coast, and past the small 

island of Savo, 1 reached tlie island of Gavatu, and 

saiHng round to tlie let' side with what joy I perceived 

' tlu; St. (it'orge's cross tlying at the stern of a J^ritish 

niaii-of-wjir riding at anchor I 1 found it to be H.^NI.S. 
]\'aIl(ir(>o fioiu Australia, eoiniuanded by C-aptain Pollard, 
K.X. Mv anchor had hardly touched the bottom when 
I received a visit tVoni Mr. WOodford, who was verv 
])lease(l to >ee ni<" now that my [x-riod inr (juarantine had 
expired, l)Ul \\a> ;^rie\r<l to hear oi iii\ niis]ia[). 

i then paid a visit Lu the captain oi the man-of-war. 



THE YACHT ABANDONED, 351 

who, altlioii^j^h he had aiTan^^ed to leave for AustraHa on 
the follo\vin<^' morning, most kindly ofifered to postpone 
his departure until his en<jfineers and caq^enters had paid 
the yacht a visit and repaired the dania^jje. 

Ijonf^: hefore dayli<(ht Mr. Kowley, the navi^atin<( heu- 
tenant, accompanied hy another officer, came on hoard, 
and after a short dehheration and thor()u<i;h examination 
came to tlie conclusion tliat the dama<:^e was irreparahle. 
A survey was then called, and the ship condennied for all 
future sea service. C'ai)tain l^ollard at once offered nu^ a 
passa^i^e to Australia, which I ^dadly acce))ted, and quickly 
transhippintf my personal lu<^'«;a*^e, and as many of my 
specimens and collections as possihle, and leaving my 
captain and crew hehind to pack everything and hrin^' 
them over hy the tradin;^ steamer, which was expected in 
about a month, we slowly steamed out of harbour, leavin^j; 
for ever behind my home of the past two years ; and I 
imist confess to a verv sad feelin*; as 1 saw the vacht's 
ensign dipped as we j)assed her for the last time. 

Here, then, in this it^noble way, ended my cruise in the 
Southern l^icitic, and lookin*^ back on it now, I feel 
that in spite of all the misfortunes attendin*^ it the 
scientific discoveries I had made repaid me tenfold for all 
the anxieties and dan^U'rs I had passed throu^di, and the 
two years had certainly been the most interesting of my 
existence. 



( 

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CHAPTER XIV. 

STHAX(;K NATIVK CTSTOMS—METHOD of COOKIX.G FOOD 

— SALT WATKH SOLI) FOR THE INTERIOR NATIVE 

FISH-HOOKS — DISEASE — NATIVES WITH MANY WIVES 
— YorXCi OIHLS WITH LARGE FAMILIES TREACHER- 
OUS PEOPLE — RELIGION — TOTAL EXTINCTION OF THE 

i RACE — FLNIS. 

i 

t ' 

Y l)i'RiN(i my cruise I had many opportunities of studying 

• many of the stran^^e customs, manners, and habits of the 

different peoples wliose countries 1 visited. 

Yams, taros, native hananas, and bread-fruit form the 
■J principal food of the islanders of the South Pacific. Of 

1; course, those natives who live on the coast are furnished 

I with lar^^e supi)lies of shell and other fish, with which the 

^ reefs and shallows abound, and many and various are the 

I different methods used in (•a])turin<j^ theUL The pig is found 

[ everywhere, and is known in a <i:reat many places as **Cap- 

• tain Cook," presumably on account of its being that cele- 

brated navi<,^ator who first nnported them to those countries. 
i But it is only on special occasions, such as on the return 

of a successful party of marauders, or the death of a chief, 
oi' [)erhaps a visit from a friendly tribe, that one is killed 
and eaten. 

The method <j:enerally a(loi)ted for cooking food is by 
takin<^" s(>v(>nil stones al)()Ut the size of small cocoanuts, 
and buildiii^^ them \\\) into a moun(l-slia[)ed edifice. A 
tire i.> knulled within, and the article then buried in the 

3.V2 



NATIVE MAXUFACTURES. 353 

ashes, the wliole being covered with taro or banana 
leaves. In a very short time the food is tlioroughly 
baked. In some countries where cooking utensils are 
used, in the shape of pots or pans, the food is generally 
boiled ; and on the coast salt water is very much utilised, 
for the natives liave discovered that the salt contained in 
it adds much to make their food more palatable. In some 
parts bamboos containing this conmiodity find their way 
for many miles into the interior, and command a high 
native price. In some instances, where the mountain 
people are on unfriendly tenns with the natives of the 
coast, and where trading in anything else is, in conse- 
quence, not thought of, these bamboos are left beneath 
trees or at known spots in the forest, and those people for 
whom it is intended come down and fetch it away, leaving 
something, generally in the shape of food, but unobtain- 
able near the coast, in exchange. 

C'ocoanuts are also eaten very extensively everywhere. 
The young nut contains about a pint of liquid which is 
always cool and refreshin<'. From the cocoanut tree itself 
some natives (^xtract the sap, and fermenting it, manufac- 
ture an intoxicating drink. I found this to be an excellent 
substitute for yeast in bread-making, and it is used by 
every white man living in the South Seas in preference to 
hops. 

Native-made articles differ verv much in style and 
manufacture according to the countries to which they 
belong, but in most places exhibit a considerable amount 
of ingenuity and ability. The dresses in the Admiralty 
Islands are excej)tionally well made, consisting of small 
shells, which are rounded, bored, and strung togetlier in 
w-onderful (hnices and patterns, in the shape of a small 
apron, and decorated at the bottom with many various 
coloured feathers, numerous cowrie and other shells, 
forming tassels, so that the noise they make chinking 

24 



354 THROrCU XEW GllXEA. 

to^rthor Jis thi* wi*arer iiiovts alnn^ ciin be heard at a con- 
siderable distance. Fish-hooks are generally beautifully 
eonstructed. A piece of pearl shell is taken about two to 
four inch«'s in lent^th, and shape<l likt* a fish. Several 
small notches ari' cut at one en<l, by whicli Ji piece of 
tortoise-shell already rounded an<l [)ointod to the fineness 
of a needh*, is tij^htly strapped with native hemp. This 
barb is curved and pointed towards the shaft, and the 
whole of the construction is attached to a heiup-line, and 
trawled from the stern of a canoe, seldom or never failing 
to secure a lar<^'e specimen of which the hook is but an 
imitation. 

Scrofulous and venereal diseases are very prevjilent. 
Pulmonary alVections, oplithalmia, elephantiasis, leprosy, 
and niMiiy skin diseases are connuon, and are amongst the 
pri?u*ipal ailments with which the natives of the South 
Sea Islands are alUicted. In manv instances sores and 
ulcers so invariablv ne»:iected increase to such an extent 
that in time the limbs rot and fall olf. In one case that 
came under my personal observation the man's ripjlit lep 
had litciallv melted awav, and when I saw him he had 
lilt If or none of it left, but wherever he went a darkish 
tlnid stained the urountl. 

Polygamy is practisi-*] t-verywhere, a?id wives areboutT^ht 
and sold lik*' so much propt-rty. Youn^' ^nrls mature at a 
very (»arly a;^f. and ol'tfU an^ the j>()ssessors of lar^e 
families ix'tnri* ihev attain theii- seventeenth vear. 

'riii'i'r are, natural! v. a irreat manv ditVerent character- 
isties wlu'n- a i*aee is s(» mi\<'d as in these islands. In 
^onie t'ounti'ies they are ireae]ierou> to a de<j^ree. obtrusive 
and inlraetahle, whilst in others, perhaps only a few miles 
di>tant. tliev are at nnce iVii-ndK. ea^ilv tlealt with, and 
( \eii L:«'m:il M! t lull' i'elati<»ii^ With vmu. The kidna]>pin«4 
;iii.i it^ aljiihlanl at I'-^'-ioii^ erucity. a Irw year^ a^^o ]»rae- 
ll-^.•.l l)\ , I ;iiii >"rr\ to sa\. ni\ own rountrvnien, who 



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MORALS OF THE PEOPLE. 357 

recruited labour in these parts, has even to-day never 
been forgotten by tliese wild l)ut simple people, and has 
very often, and I am afraid will yet a<i:ain result, in many 
savap;e reprisals, for revenge in the heart of a South Sea 
Ishmder is everv bit as much looked forward to as it is in 
the majority of countries in Southern Europe. Never- 
theless, even in parts where the white man had never 
set a foot before, and the j)e()ple therefore could not be 
incensed by any wrongs, imaginary or otherwise, I found 
them here as elsewhere, of a bloodthirstv and treacherous 
character, never to be trusted for a moment, and always^ 
(m the look out for an oj)portunity, no matter how long 
thev have to wait for it, when thev can strike unawares. 

■ ft. 

It is astonishing that among a people showing little or 
no civilisation the rights of one man are religiously 
respectinl by another, and a native owning anything, be 
it a cocoanut tree or an implement, has only to put his 
mark upon it to secure it from the liands of any covetous 
person. 

Tn countries where the people have been recruited for 
plantations, and have lived for some years amongst the 
white men, theft is sometimes indulged in; but in every 
case, when discovery is made, heavy punishment is 
inflicted bv the chief of the village. 

ft "/ 

Religion they have none ; nevertheless there is a belief 
in every country of the existence of some evil s[)irit, and 
wherever 1 went I found that this superstition was a 
source of absolute terror to everv one. 

In conchision, T am perhaj)s scarry to say that in my 
opinion those I^Jlynesians inhabiting the far-away islands 
of the South Seas will die out as the Malav and Cliinese 
races extend, and if the flow of colonisation should move 
towards New Guinea there can be no doubt but that the 
Papuan race inhabiting tluit vast country will, like the 
aborigines of Tasmania and Australia, fade away. 



ii 



(■ V 



APPENDIX I. 



A CHAPTER ON THE BIRDS COLLECTED DURING 
CAPTAIN WEBSTER'S TRAVELS IN THE PAPUAN 

ISLANDS. 

By Ernst Hartkrt, 

Director of the Zoological Museum at Tring. 

iThis chapter has for its suhject all the hirds collected, with the excep- 
tion of the Hirds of Paradise, a list of which will he given hy the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, the principal authority on Birds of Paradise.) 

I. — On thk Birds collected in Germ.vn New (Iuinea. 

The collection made during Captain Webster's first expedition 
to Cernian New Guinea was, except for some fine Birds of 
Paradise, not very large, consisting as it did almost oidy of 
larger forms. 

Among the " Hawks " there was a skin of the rare Mci/dtri- 
orchis (Joriiw (Salvad. and Alb.). As it was, however, a young 
individual, it cannot be said with certainty if it agrees in all 
details with birds from other parts of New Guinea. Its 
measurements are like those of the type. Another specimen 
has been collected at Lolebu on the river Bumi by Mr. Geisler 
(/. F. O., 1892, p. 255). 

Of " Parrots " the large black Cockatoo, ^V/Vro(//o5.s'W5 ater- 
run us (Gm.) was found to be not uncommon. 

Of (rcoffroi/us both oriental is and johiensis were shot, and 
the large Eclcctus pectoral is was also found, as well as Loriiis 
erijthrotiwrax and Eos fuscata. The specimens of E. fuscata 
from German New Guinea have been separated under the 



1 



360 APPliXDfX I. 






i name of incofidita, but they cannot l>e distinguished from 

Y those of other parts of New Guinea. 

The rarest Parrot, and indeed the most interesting of all the 
captures of birds made by Captains Webster and Cotton, is a 
skin of Cijclcpsittacus diiivenbodci (Dubois). It was shot near 
Stephansort on November 18th. The interest attached to this 
specimen Hes in the fact that its exact home was formerly 

1 unknown. Now, however, we believe that this parrot is spread 

all along the northern coast of New Guinea from Stephansort 
to at least Walckenaar Bay, for the skins which have come 
with Dutch New Guinea trade skins have certainly not been 
procured in the German colony. (Compare Mr. Rothschild's 
note in Novitates Zoolotjicac, vol. i. p. 677.) 

Of Cuculiilae the large Ncsocentor menebeki, belonging to the 
CentropitutCy which build nests themselves and hatch their eg^s 
like other birds, but unlike the true Cucidinae, which are 
parasitic, as everybody knows of our own Cuckoo. 

The family of ** Kingfishers " is plentiful in New^ Guinea, 
and especially conspicuous is the genus Tani/siptera, or Racket- 
tailed Kingfishers. In German New Guinea only T. meijeri, 
\ with an almost white tail, was found. 

I The large-billed, very bright, but not beautiful Sauronwrptis 

gaiidichaiul was also shot. It can, in our opinion, not be 
^ separated from S. kubari/i, which we consider as only a 

nominal, but not real species. 

Notliing of spi^cial interest of the large order Passcres was 
; procured, but both Aiit-Tln-usbes, Pitta novaajuineae and 

P. mackloti were collected, as well as Minn dumouti, 
MelanopyrrhuH orirn talis, Cjijmnocorax senex, and many 
Cicinnunis regius and otiier Birds of Paradise, a list of which 
is appended by Mr. Rothschild. 

The collection of " Pigeons " is rather ricli. Tiiei'e are 
several of the beautiful green pigeons of the genus Ptilinopas 
or Ptilopus, and the long-tailed Mciialoprcpia poliiira. Of tlie 
large Fruit-Pigeons, Cavpophmja rufit'cnlris, zocac, and 
spilorrhoa were obtained, and the large (roura bcccarii was 
also shot. 

" Waterfowl *" were not met with in nunil) ts, to jud^e from 
the collection, but the fine duck, Tadonia radjaJi, was foiuul 
m to be common. 



APPEXDIX I. 361 

Several small birds were also preserved ia spirits, and these 
were found to be of much service for anatomical purposes. 
Skeletons of some are in the Tring Museum. 

II. — List of the Birds collected on the Aru Islands. 

The following list has been published in Novitatcs Zooloijicae^ 
vol. iii. pp. 534-536, but the numbers 44 and following have 
now been added, as they were sent in spirits and were not 
received when the list was published. Of some of the small 
birds, sp.^cimens were sent in spirits, the skeletons of which 
are mostly preserved in the Tring Museum. 

1. Panriisca apoda, L. Onti fe male. " Iris pale yellow." — 
2. Aeliiruedus mclanotis, Gray. — 3. Cicinniiru.s ro(jius (L). 
The Aru .skins do not differ perceptibly from those of other 
countries, though on the whole the wing is a few millimetres 
longer. (W.R). — 4. Manncodin atra (Less). --5. Macrocorax 
fnwicapillus (Gray). — i\. Mi no dunionti, Less. White bar in 
the wing rather narrow. — 7. Oriolus flarorinctioi (King). — ^8. 
DicruropHia rarhonarid (Miill.). Wing 147 mm. — 9. (Traucalus 
caendcoijriscus (Gray). — 10. (rniucalus mclanops (Lath.). — 11. 
Artamus Icucogaster (Valenc). Two specimens with remark- 
ably short wings. — 1*2. Cracticus quoiji (Less.). — 13. Cnirticus 
atasicu.s. 

14. Bhactes analogus, A. B. Meyer, or B. aniensis, Sluirpe. 

In Zi'itschr. /. f/es. Orn. i. p. 285 (IHSl) Dr. A. 13. Meyer 
separated some Aru specimens from R. analfxjus uiider the 
name of li. aruensis. The skin before us seems to agree with 
Meyer's birds, but Dr. R. 13. Sharpe in Ihis, IHSS, p. 437, 
declares that Meyer's Ji. analiujus is only the young of his U. 
anicnsia. See also Salvadori, Jf/f/. Oin. Papitasid, ii. p. 97 
(IH90). 

15. Bhectes ferrugineus brevipennis (subsp. nov.) 

Aru specimens have the wing very short, only 128 mm. 
All individuals of our very large series from New Guinea have 
the wings decidedly longer. A. B. Meyer, in Zeitschr. /. gcs. 
Orn. i. p. 285 (1884), had already pointed out this difference, 



APPENDIX I. 

and it is only on account of his cormimtnliim of our obser- 
vation ihnt we dare to Iwstow a aubspecific term on this 
fori]]. 

16. Philemon noTMgniseae arneneu, A. H. Meyer. 
Four skiuB from Dobbo. unfortunately not aexed. Out; o( 
these, probably an old vialt,. has a very long bill and a very 
high hump. These four birds have tha bill 46, 46, 48, and 
53 mm. long; their height at hump m IS, 19. 20, and 24 mm. 
Throe specimens of Ph. ju)vaei}uine4u tiibtitberosiis {antea, p. 
238) hnvo the bill 43. 4.5, 45 mm. long, and their height at 
hump iti 14. 15, 17 mm. 

17. I'iltu Hornf-'jiiineae. MiiU. it Schleg.— 18. Macroplerys 
mi/alacfu (Tcmm.). Wings 222-2-24 mm.— 19. Purianjivs 
ocellatits, Q. ft G.^20. Euryttomus austraiis. 8w. — 21. Tany- 
tiptera kyilriKharw, Gray. — 22. Batcyon xorfliHua Gould. The 
loral spot cannot hu called pure white, but has a distinct 
lhoii(ih faint ImfTy tinge. Wing 116 nnn. Ht-e anUa. p. 244. 

•Ii:i. Syma torotoro tentelare (nubsp. miv.). 

h'fmairx from Am have the bliiek spot on the head in or 
beliind the middle of the crown alxiul 15 inm. or tiiorc away 
from the bane of the bill, while in specimens from Northern 
Dutch New Guinea this spot is generally larger and L'xtends 
almost nr ijuite to the base of the culmen. The males of the 
Aru form do not differ perceptibly from H. torototv typica. 

Specimens from Fergusaon Island are rather dark below, 
but u young individual from Waigiii is similar in this respect. 
Iji one of the Ferguaaon /i-uudcK the head-spot is placed more 
backwards than usual, and thus it seems somewhat to point 
towards the Aru subspecies. According to Salyadori [Om. 
Papaosia, i. p. 4S5) females from Naiahui in S.E. New 
Guinea resemble those of Aru. and therefore most likely 
belong to the same subspecies. Another species has t>een 
recently described as S. megarhynrha by Salvadori from the 
Owen Stanley Mountains. 

The last form of the genus Si/iiiii is tailed ,S. jlacirostrh 
and inhabits Nurtli Queensland. In llie CaUilvyne of Birth, 



25. Sauroinarptis tyro (Gray). — 26. Microyloimus aterrimus 
(Gm.). ^Ving only 330 mm. — 27. Cyclopsittacus ariiensis 
(Schley.). — 2H. TrichoijlosHHH nujroijularisy Gray. I^arge and 
fine birds ; wings 150, 152, 153 mm. 



1 



( 



APPENDIX I. 363 ; 

vol. xvii. p. 197, it is said to dififer from S. iorotoro in J 

wanting the black mark along the tip of the culmen, and « 

this statement has been made before. However, it is quite 

wrong, the fully adult S. iorotoro never having any black mark 

on the culmen, a character peculiar to immature birds of | 

S. iorotoro only. On the other hand, I have not yet seen . 

a S. flavirostris quite without a black mark, and I ^ 

believe that even the most adult birds have it. In any • 

case it is a bad character for distinguishing these species, \ 

the nmch lighter and more greenish colour of the upper 

parts being the best distinguishing character of the Queensland ' 

form. The subspecific name proposed above is the native 

name of the bird in Aru, as Toroioro is its name in Dorey. , 



24. Sauromarptis gaudichaud (Q. c^- G.). 

No distinction from typical skins of New Guinea. There 
is certainly not more white on the back ; on the contrary, ; 

some of our birds from New Guinea (we have now thirtv-six ' 

without duplicates) show more white on the back. The blue 
of the rump of most of our Aru birds is rather dark, while 
it is certainly paler in most of the skins from S.E. New 
Guinea, but not constantly. The so-called S. kuharyi seems 
to differ in no way from .S. (jaudichaud typica. 



4 

I 

< 



Vi 



29. Chalcopsittacus scintillatus (Temui.). 

The majority of the Aru specimens have the breast more 
washed with brown and have very dark orange stripes along 
the shafts of the feathers on the breast as well as on the hind- 
neck, but the British Museum possesses specimens from New 
Guinea that are just like our Aru skins. The plumage of the 
sexes and different ages of this bird are not yet properly 
known. Some birds (? femaU'a) have the rump distinctly . ) \ 

bluish, some have no orange stripes at all. j^ 

* 

\ 



J 



r. 



364 APPENDIX I. 

30. EcleetoB pectoralia aruensis (Gray). 

: Specimens from, the Aru Islands have the tail in both sexes 

very prominently tipped with yellow. I do not find this 
so much in any other specimens from other localities. The 
Aru Island birds are also rather large (^ wing 263-269), and 
I believe they can stand as a subspecies. Cf. Gray, P. Z. S., 

; 1858, p. 182 ; Salvadori, Oni. Papiias, i. p. 201. 

* Specimens from the Solomon Islands seem smallest of all, 

next coming those from Fergusson, New Ireland, New Britain. 

31. Ptilopiis aurantiifrons, Gray. — 32. Pt. waUacci (Gray). — 
33. PL super bus (Temm. & Knip). — 34. Pt. iozoniis. Gray. 
**Iris yellow." — 35. Pt, coronulatus, Gray. *' Iris orange." — 
36. Mijristicivora hicolor (Scop.). — 37. Carpophaga zocae 
(Less.). "Iris straw-colour." — 38. C. pinon (Q. & G.). 
** Iris red ; feet coral-red ; bill greyish ; naked space round 
j eye red." — 39. Chalcophaps stephani, Rehb. Hitherto, I 

j believe, only doubtfully known from the Aru Islands. 



■ ( 

r 



I - 



40. Macropygia, sp. 

There are before us four skins of a Macropiffjia from Dobbo 
and Wannambai. According to Salvador's Catalogue of the 
Pigeons in the British Museum they would belong to M. 
doreya (Bp.), and Salvadori has identified the Aru specimens 
that came before him with the latter species. To us they 
seem to agree much better with M. batcJiiaueusis, and to be 
merely a form of that species with a less rufous chin and 
longer wings. Tlie wings of the adult males measure 
173-175 nun. From all we can see at present we must 
conclude that our Aru specimens dilTer from M. dorrj/a tt/j){cn 
and that they are nearer to M. hutclndficnsis ; further that 
M. (lorei/ii, M. cincreiccps, M. (jri.scifiiii'ha, M. batcliidnrN.siSj 
and M. ijoldici are more or less connected bv intermediate 
specimens and merely subspecies of one and the same 
species, l)iit that a lar^^c material with exact localities will 
he lU'ccssarv hefore oiK' can come to dctinitc conclusions 
ahout ihcm. 



APPENDIX I. 



36; 



41. Baza reinivardtt\ Miill. & Schleg. — 42. Haliastur 
girrencra, Vieill. — 43. Nycticorax caledonicus (Gm.). — 44. 
Alcyone pusilla (Temm.). — 45 Monarcha guttulatns (Garn). — 
46. Arses aruensis, Sharpe. — 47. Monarcha niiidns (Gould). — 
48. lihipidura tricolor (Vieill.). — 49. Gerygone palpchrosa 
Wall. — 50. G. chrysogaster, Gray. — 51. Myzomela nigrita 
Q. & G.. — 52. Microcca flavoviresccns, Gray. — 53. Cyclopsitta- 
CUH melanogenys (Rosenb.). — 54. Edoliosoma arnense, Sharpe. — 
55. Melilestes noraegnineae (Less.). — 56. (rraucalns hjipoleucns, 
Gould. 



III. List of the Key-Island Birds. 

I Dicacum he tense (in spirits). 

Cinnyris zenobia, C. theresia (in spirits). 

Zosierops urojyygiaUs (in spirits). 

(rraucalns ?nclanoj)s. 

Pli i lemon 2)1 u m igen is . 
Passekes. Calornis me tall tea. 

Lalage karu. 

Pitta mackloti. 
j Pachycephala rufipennis. 

A r tarn us leucorhynchus. 

Sphecotheres fla viven t ris. 



Parrots. 



Pigeons. 



Eclertus pectoral is. 

Geoffroyus kciensis 9 . 

Nasiterna keiensis (in spirits). 

Ptilinopus wallacci, P. xanthogaster, P. prasi- 

norrhous. 

Mac ropyg ia ke ie n s is . 

Geopelia maugeus. 

CarpopJtaga concinna separata. Hart. This 
form of the well-known C. concinna was 
described from a skin in the Tring Museum. 
Capt. Webster has now sent two fine series, 
and a large series has come to hand from Mr. 
Kuehn. All these Key-Islands* skins agree 
in ever}' detail with the type, and the Key- 
Islands' form is at a glance recognisable by 



3M APPENDIX I 

its snow-whito uixloiDuti, which is grt^y in 
the lypioiil C. cotiWdim. This pigeon ia 
probably resident in the Key group of islands, 
.1 j Aoiur albii'eulriit. 

I Pandwn luiliaetat ItueocepJuiUi*. 
I LiobivaneUu* miJe*. 
HinMntnpiit leucocepkaiui. 
Bhori:-Biri>b. ( Aetitit hypoleucm. 
' Sliltia isabetla. 
DemiegrHUt xacra. 



IV. I-IBT OF BULDS FKOM ETNA BaV AND TbITON BaT. 

Cdtlcctions from these parts of New Guinea are hardly ever 
received in this country, yitt they uni especially of inten^st, 
because many years ago tlte great Dutch naturalist, Salomon 
Miiller, uiudo collections there, and several forms were first 
described from iXwAO- ]>lit(.-tts. Wo wiMe, therefore, glad to gut 
any specimens from these parts, althougli the collection was. 
in c<)nBc<iucnc:c of the lawless chnrnctor of the natives aud the 
attack made on Captain Wtibslcr's pitrly, which resulted in 
the loss of several Uvea, only small. The beautiful series of 
the true Pnrrtiliwa minor minor, the small Papuan Bird of 
Paradise, was of value for comparison with the P. minor 
finschi from Kaiser WilhelmslauJ, and the enormous P. iniiwr 
johifHsi/i, Itothsuli. from Johi Island in tioi'lvink Bay. 

Pitta noi-teguineae. Midi, and Sehl, (No. 328.) Etna Bay. 
This fine, but common Ant-Thrush was also obtained at Sim- 
bang. 

Bhpctes eirrhocephala (Less.). (No. 297.) Etna Bay. The 
back is rather paler than in our skins from the northern coast 
of the N.W. peninsula of New Guinea. 

EupelM caerulescens, Temm. (No. 302.) Etna Bay. In 
British New Guinea this species is replaced by a closely allied 
form with block tips to the under taO-coverts. 

Tofhpsh cymiocepkala (Q. and G.). (No. 261.) This fairy - 
like little blue flycatcher was shot at Etna Bay. 

Arses teleitcupiithaltiui (Garnot). (No. '2Sii.) Tritpn Bay. 

Monachelia millUriana (Sohlug.), (No. 263.) Triton Bay. 



APPENDIX /. 367 

Jiliipidura setosa (Q. and G.). (No. 270.) Triton Bay. 

(rifmuocorax senex ( liess.). (No. 329). This curious large crow 
with its naked face, connnon in most parts of New Guinea, was 
shot at Htna Bay. Its iris is " pale hlue." 

Xcsorcntur tnvurheki (Less, and Gam.). (No. 291.) *' Iris red." 
Triton Bay. 

Tiuujsiptera tn/m]>lm (Temni.). (No. 314.) Etna Bay. '* Iris 
pale blue, feet and hill led." 

Tauysipteru ijalatc.n (? subspecies). (Nos. 260, 289, 274.) 
Three spt^ciniens (^f this beautiful racket-tailed Kingfisher from 
Triton Bay are somewhat puzzling. In their dimensions they 
stand somewhat between T. (jalatca and T. (jidatea micror- 
hyncha, the latter of which is only a poor subspecies, but 
generally recognisable by a smaller bill and mostly darker 
crown of the head. The latter character is also characteristic 
for T. tjdlatoa ruhicnsis, .\.B. M., from Rubi on the south of 
Geelvink Bay. The colour of the crown, however, varies very 
much in this grouj), and there are in Mr. Rothschild's museum 
two specimens with nmch paler heads than fifteen others that I 
could compare. The exact place they came from is not known, 
but they probably form a distinct subspecies. 

Hdlcyon Nii/nuj/dnfa, Wall. (No. 327.) A male was shot at 
Ktna Bay. ** Iris light blue, feet and bill entirely black." The 
alxlomen is deep blue in the male, white in the female, rufous 
in the young bird. 

Loriiis eri/throthnnix, Salvad. (Nos. 307, 302, 264.) Etna 
Bay and Triton Bay. The distribution of this species is 
interesting. It seems to occur all over the eastern parts of New 
Guinea, from (Jernum New Guinea, where C'aptain Webster 
also procured some specimens, to British New Guinea, and 
along the F'ly River to Etna Bay and Rubi, south of Geelvink 
Bay. In the latter place specimens are slightly smaller and 
are called L. crythrothonix rubifusis. 

AprosmictusdorsalU (Q. and G.). (Nos. 271, 279, 217, 320.) 
Etna Bay and Triton Bay. '* Iris orange. The old bird has 
the back blue, the young green." 

Carpophnija nitircntris, Salvad. (No. 319.) *' Iris orange. 
Bill black. Feet coral red." Etna Bay. 

Megaloprepia paella (Less.). (Nos. 308, 306, 313, 290.) This 



wt 

I 



368 APPEXDIX I. 

gay- coloured pigeon was shot at Triton and Etna Bays. It is 
well known in Western New Guinea, and is replaced by M, 
poll lira in Jobi, Central and Eastern New Guinea. 

Heinicardtoenas reinirardii griseotincta, Hartert. (No. 309.) 
Etna Bay. Iris yellow. Hartert in NoviUites Zoological, vol. 
iii., p. 18, separated the New Guinea form of this long-tailed 
pigeon under the above name. Moluccan birds are lighter. 

Ptilopiis anrantiifrons, Gray. Etna Bay. Captain Webster 
had also obtained it on the Aru Ishmds. ** Iris orange, feet 
coral, bill yellow." 

Ot id ijjhaps nobi lis, Gou\d. (Nos. 317, 331.) ** Iris orange, 
feet and legs yellow with red joints, bill red." Two fine 
specimens from Etna Bay. This species is found in Western 
New Guinea and Batanta. 

Eutrijijon terrentris (Gray). (No. 332.) **Iris yellow, bill 
black and white. Feet whitish." A fine skin from Etna Bav. 
Althougli not rare in Western New Guinea and Salaw'atti, 
good skins seldom reach this country. 

Goura coronata (L.). This large crowned pigejn was also 

found at Etna Bay. It is the oldest known species of crowned 

pigeon, being already mentioned as a ** large land fowl " in 

/' 1699 in Dampier's Voyage, in the third volume. Brisson 

(1760) and Edwards (1761) gave figures of it, and Linnaeus 
7 gave it the name Coin m ha annua ta. 

PtilopUH puh'holliiH (Temni.). Etna Bay. 

DiloijocnaH rufi(jula (Puch. and Jacq.). (No. 273), One male 
from Triton Bav. 

Mcgatriorchis (or Knitlirotriorchis) doriie (Salvad. and Alb.). 
Captain Webster obtained two specimens of this very rare 
s|)eci(*s (luiiiig his tiavels. One, evidently a young bird, was 
shot in (iernian New (luinea. It is a large bird, with the wing 
about "330 mm. long, like the type, and the one described by 
Sharpe. It (lifters in having no black ear spot, in being butl' 
on the underside with onlv nairow blackish brown shaft-lines, 
and ap])}ir(Mitly in being paUn* on the u|)perside. The other, 
evidently an :ulull ])iixl, was shot in l^tiia l^av. It is verv 
much snuiller, liavin^^ the wing only '2\K) nun. long, the tail 
ii(')0. tai'^iis So. In coloiiiation it seems to agree with the type. 
Jt is (Miher a male (the type haxin^^been a t'emale) or a smaller 



I ; 



\< 



i 



APPENDIX I. 369 

race. The similarity in colouration of this hird and ITenicoperni.s 
Umfficnuda is very striking. It reminds one of the case of Pernio 
ceh'hcnsis and Spizactns lanccolatuH in C'elehes, the former hein*^ 
an ally of Hcnicopctiiis. 

V. — List of the Birds Collectkd on New IIanovek. 

This collection is especially interesting^, as the ornithology of 
this island is practically unknown, and tlie scientific interest 
would have heen still f^reater if more of the smaller forms had 
heen sent. The present collection shows that the fauna of 
New Hanover is not fully identical with that of New Ireland 
and New J^ritain, hut that there is a sli«^ht admixture of the 
fauna of the Admiralty Islands in New lIanov(ir, although it 
is mainlv, of course, the same as that of New Britain and 
New Ireland, with, apparently, a small number of specialised 
indigenous forms. The ornis of New Britain and New 
Ireland is not sufliciently known, and it is hardly possible at 
present to state definitely how far they diil'er from each other, 
as it must he remembered that the Kev. Brown's collections 
from these islands were mixed up, and had no original labels.* 
That the ornis of New Britain and New Ireland, though 
mainly the same, differs in some ca.ses, is clearly shown by the 
Pititi tnarkloti and Pitta uocdrhiht'rnicfie, which replace each 
other in the two groups, an<l by other birds. 

There are, besides the skins enumerated in the following 
list, some birds in spirits of wine, which are not yet all 
properly identified, but a superficial examination proved that 
they are either represented in skins also (^uch as fjorici(his 
tenvr), or belong to the well-known forms of the Neobritannian 
group of islands. Two new species were disc^AertMl in New 
Hanover, and l)oth I have named in lionour of their discoverer. 

Mino kirffti, Scl. (Nos. 023, 47i), 0-24, :i07, :J0;3.) Expe- 
dition Bav, New Hanov(.'r. 

Eth)U<)H()}mt n'mn///m, Sharpe. (Nos. o.'jo, 410, 401.) Expe- 
dition Bay, New Hanover. 

* Thrn* is aKo soiiw uncertainty with roj^ard to oxat-t locality aixjut the 
siK'cinit-ns collected by Mr. Cinidir. in liritlNJi New CJuinfa. hut the fault 
in such cases is often not with thi; colirctor, liut with those* who did not 
instruct theui sufliciently.— E. Hahtkut. 

25 



■ .» 

V, : 



r 



t' 

M 
*' 

< ■ 

« . 



I 



} 



( 



370 APPENDIX I, 



Graucalus sclateri, Salvtid. (No. 508, 2 No. 350 ^ .) 
Expedition Bay, New Hanover. 

Pachycephala vielanura, Gould. (Nos. 383, 404, 396.) New 
Hanover, two males and a female. 

Pitta novaehihemicae {sic), Ramsay. Five skins (Nos. 531, 
■< 437, 338, 360, 480) marked partly " New Hanover,'* partly 

U ''Expedition Bay," agree very well with the description of 

\i Ramsay in the " Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New 

South Wales," vol. iii., p. 73, and are quite different from 
P. mackloti. It is strange that this excellent species should 
\\ have l)een overlooked so long. Count Salvadori erroneously 

J . united it with P. mackloti, of New Guinea, on the ground 

'. ! that specimens from New Britain helonged to P. muckloti. 

'{ , In this statement he is quite right, but then New Britain is 

:| ', not New Ireland. Pitta novaehihemicae (spelt thus) differs 

*, •' widely from P. vuxckloti in having no black guttural patch, 

; ' no black band separating the blue breast band from the scarlet 

I abdomen, the chin and upper throat being much paler, the ear- 

j coverts more distinctly bluish, the crown rather light. It 

jj ' -^ resembles in colour i\ rufivctitris of the Moluccas, but 

" ' differs at a glance by its larger size, which is like that of 

y P. mackloti, its brighter red hind-neck and less uniform and 

' less rufous brown crown. 

On Banda Captain Wel)ster obtained also a skin of P. 
viyorsi. This is said to live also on Timorlaut. 

Macroptcnjr my.stdcca (Less). (Nos. o3G, 439, 505.) Expe- 
dition Bay, New Hanover. Wings 8-75 to 89 inches in 
, length. Specimens from New Guinea have generally longer, 

I specimens from the Moluccas generally shorter wings. 

|! CaconKuilis ireh.steri, Hartert, s}). nov. (Nos. 387, 392.) 

Tliese two cuckoos do not agree with any of tlie known forms. 

One is evidently an adult bird, or nearly so. It is metallic 

■/ fuscous ^rey aboye, more ashy on the head, more metallic 

brownisli on the w ings, tail glossy black with small white tips. 
reniiges dark glossy brown witli large but^' spots on the outer 
we])s, near the leases. Eiitnu- under surface iniiforni dark grey, 
ineludinLr llic under winL:,-e(»vrrts, whieli show only traces of 
rusty l>ar>, ;iiid I lie under l.-iil-covci'ts, which are s|)arsely, but 
distiiiclK , haired with rusty ijrt)wn. " iris and feel yellow. 



APPENDIX. I. 371 

bill brown." Wing 120 mm., tail 126, bill 18. The other 
specimen, evidently a young bird in first plumage, is every- 
where barred and spotted with pale rusty rufous. 

Alcj/onctrchsteri, Hartert sp. nov. (No. 422.) A kingfisher, 
shot at New Hanover, on February 20, 1H97, proves to be a 
very fine new species. 

Adult (sex unfortunately not determined) : above, greenish 
blue, purer and more ultramarine on the back, rump and upper 
tail-coverts, as well as on the hind-neck, forehead duller, 
feathers of lores white with black tips. The feathers of the 
upper parts and sides of head and neck have, in fact, only wide 
blue tips, being black at base and whitish towards the utmost 
bases. Tail blue. Primaries and their coverts black, 
primaries whitish grey towards the bases on the inner webs. 
Secondaries black with broad blue edges to the outer webs. 
Under parts white with a very slight buffy tinge. Under 
tail-coverts deeper buff with blue tips. Sides of breast blue, 
flanks striped with blue and blackish ; breast crossed by a 
blue band, which is slightly interrupted in the middle. A large 
longitudinal whitish buff spot on the sides of the neck, l>ehind 
the ear-coverts. Bill and feet black. Wing 62, tail 43, bill 
53 mm. 

This very fine new kingfisher shows what an amount of 
work mav still be done in New Hanover, and it makes the 
want of knowledge of its smaller birds still more felt. 

Kurijaiomna solofnonensi.s, Sharpe (Nos. 446, 571.) It is 
rather a surprise to find iiere, at New Hanover, again the bird 
descril)ed by Sharj)e from the Solomons. Its bright blue tail, 
bright blue gular patch and red bill, without distinctly black 
tip, leave no doubt as to the fact. Only our birds have the 
head more green, but that may be due to the freshness of 
their plumage. Our birds are very fresh, and partly still in 
moult. 

LoriuH hifpoenochrous, G. R. Gray. (Nos. 342, 355.) ** Iris 
straw-yellow." New Hanover. This lory is spread from 
New Hanover to St. Aignan, and occurs also in the 
D'Entrecasteaux Group. 

Tnclwijlossus Jiacican.s, Cab. and Reichenow. (Nos. 336, 
337.) This panot is very much like Tnchoglossus cyano- 



372 APPENDIX /. 

gratmmis and T. viasscna, but the red is lighter, the green 
more olive. Captain Webster shot it in New Hanover. 

Geoffroyus heteroclitiis (Hombr. and Jacq.). (Nos. 339, 432, 
510, 345, 539, 540, and one with the label lost.) All from 
New Hanover, Expedition Bay. The iris is straw-yellow. This 
species, besides frequenting New Britain and New Ireland, is 
also found on the Solomon Islands, but I am not aware of its 
being on record from New Hanover. 

HypocharmosTjnn suhplaccns (Scl.). (Nos. 534, 364, 537, 
492, 527.) This series from New Hanover, Expedition Bay, 
is very nice, and the specimens agree with such from other 
localities. The species is well known in New Britain and 
British New Guinea, but is not, I believe, recorded from 
New Hanover. 

Loriculits tetier, Sclat. There is one skin (No. 438) of this 
rare little parrot, and one in spirits, both from New Hanover. 
It has been known only from the type in the British Museum 
and one in Canon Tristram's collection, both from Duke of 
York Island. Captain Webster's specimens have, like Canon 
Tristram's, yellowish bases to the feathers of the forehead. 
** Iris straw-colour, bill black." 

Ptilmopus ricolii (Prevost and Knip). (Nos. 335, 366, 394, 
429.) This pigeon is only known to inhabit the Duke of York 
Peninsula and New Ireland, from where Mr. Rothschild's 
museum has a number of skins. The specimens from New 
Hanover are exactly like others. The young bird has no white 
collar and no violet forehead. 

Ptilinopus johanniH, Sclat. (Nos. 397, 447, 465, 466, 390, 
528.) This line pigeon, which di tiers from P. rivolii and all 
other species of the genus by its uniform bright yellow band 
across the breast, was discovered bv the naturalists of the 
Challenger in the Admiralty Islands, and has been figured in 
the great work on the voyage of the ChalleiK/er. Jt has now 
been found in numbers on New Hanover, at Expedition Bay. 
The young differs from the adult in tlie same way as that of 
P. r/.rnlii. It is of interest to find two so closely allied species 
ill the same island. 

Plilinopiis iiisolihis, Schk'g. (Nos. 341, 44S, oi>G.) This 
])eculiar green pigeon with its enormous ])riglit red, hollow 



APPENDIX I. 373 

knob at the base of the bill was found at New Hanover, 
Expedition Bay. Its iris is pale 8traw-yellow\ It is known to 
occur on New Ireland, New^ Britain, and Duke of York Island. 

Ptilhwpus superbus (Temm and Knip.). (Nos. 348, 459.) 
This common, but pretty gi'een dove was also shot at New 
Hanover. 

Chalcojfhaps stephaui, Rchb. (Nos. 349, 414.) New- 
Hanover. 

PhloyocfuiJi joJunniae, Sclat. (No. 469.) One specimen shot 
at New Hanover on the 4th of March, 1897. Iris red. 

Caloenas nicoharica (Linn.). (Nos. 430, 376, 498.) This 
wide-spread island-pigeon is also connnon at New Hanover. 

Carpophaga ruhricera, G. R. Gray. (Nos. 499, 457, and 
one without a number). Tliis fine sj)ecies, conmion at New 
Hanover, New Ireland, New Britain, and Duke of York 
Island, was shot at Expedition Bay, New Hanover. 

It is quite inconsistent to acknowledf^e the genus Glohicera, 
on account of its nasal knob, if OedirhinuH is not separated 
from PtHinopus. That the latter is not possible to maintain 
is shown by PtilinopUH grannli/tous Hart, on Obi Mayor, 
which differs only by its knobs. This is a case similar 
to that of the lihnmphococciix, <fcc., of the Sunda Jslands. 

Mi/ristirivora snbflavescois (Finsch.) (Nos. 412, 431.) New 
Hanover. So far only recorded from New Ireland. 

Macropjjijia (?) spec. nov. (aff. carteretiac). Nos. 504, 403, 
452, 453, and 340 belong to a long-tailed pigeon, which is 
probablv different from M. carterctin. Thev have about 5 to 
10 mm. longer wings and their breast is more or less barred 
with blackish lines, w^hile old cartereiiae have no blackish bars 
whatever on the breast. There is, however, one New Hanover 
specimen with only faint remains of these bars, and as most of 
the others are not with certainty quite adult, I prefer to leave 
the question of these pigeons unsettled until I have examined 
a larger series of fully adult examples from New Hanover, and 
immature ones from New Ireland or New Britain. 

Haliastiir ijidns yirrenera (Gould). (No. 362.) The typical 
tjirrcnera with snow-white head, neck, and breast, without any 
dark shaft-lines, was shot on the 9th of February, 1897, in 
New Hanover. 



3-4 



AfPENDIX I. 



"H 



Astiir ,tampii-rl (/) Two akina (Noa, 44.'3 unA 45H) fi-om Nuw 
Ilanovpr cannot be identified with corlivinty, ns they are both 
immature. The one, evidently a, female, has the underparla 
barred buffy-white and rufou8 blown, but on the breast and 
thighs some uniform cinnamon rufous Teathers are appearing, 
showing what the tinal plumage will be like. The wing is 
245 mm. long. The others, a male, wing 310 mm., is white 
below with rusty brown spots, These hinls must belong to 
the A. f torques gi-oup, and, if A. daaipieri is a valid form, pro 
hahly belong to the latter. 

Riisa liiniHirrki, fthiiriK!. (Nob. 630, 529), Iwth from 
Expedition Bay, will, 1 think, belong to the bird named Bmtt 
hixnwrcki by Dr. Shurpe, One has the bars on the breast 
and ultdomen ushy-grey, the uthur brownish -black. Both, 
however, are remarkable for the width of the bars below, 
whicli aro fully 7 to 10 mm. wide, and the colour of the under 
wing-onverta, which iLre white with only a huff tinge, not deep 
ferruginous huff. The axillariea are barred as iu B. reinwnnlli, 
" Iris yellow," wings 330 mm. 

Nhwx vitrieffata (Q. and G.). Nob. ,S94, 435.) Two sicins, 
one with more irregular bars, apparently less aged. Rare iu 
collections. 

AiWnfl triotor, Gmy. (Noa. 368, 467.) " Iris red.'" Two 
New Hanover skins are remarkable for their rather short 
primaries, which hardly exceed the secondaries in length. 
There aro, however, skins from Dutch New Guinea, in Mr, 
Rothschild's museum, which closely approach them, and there 
is one from New Britain in the British Museum, which seenia 
to l>e inteiTOcdiate. The tijne seems not yet ripe tor discussing 
the various subspecies of this rail. 

Amniironiin nwluccatui (Woli,). (Nos. 39a, 456.) Two 
skins from New Hanover are rather deep slaty-grey below, 
and one haa an enonnous beak (fully 38 mm.). It may be 
another subspecies, but no final conclusion can he inaiic 
without further material. 

IhjpoliieiwUn phiUpjifiish (L.). {Nos. 413, 382.) This 
widesjiread species was also met in New IIiino\'er. 

Polhlimnas riiicrcus (V.). (No. 3B1.) One skin from New 
Hanover, the back rather rufous. 



APPENDIX I. 375 

Porplii/no calvus (? ollioti = fieohritanuiciis), (Nos. 423, 
451). Two skins, one from New Hanover, another from 
St. Gabriel, look very different at the first si^ht, the former 
having tlie chest bhie, tlie latter distinctly greenish. These 
characters may he local, but they are probably due to age. As 
Messrs. Meyer and Wiglesworth truly say : " Local races exist 
in this group, but individual variation is so great, that it 
obliterates the characters which are bound to the localitv." 
Thus the distribution P. calvus is best described as follows : 
'* From Java and South -East Borneo to Australia, Fiji, Samoa, 
and New Zealand, varying locally in almost every spot." 

Excalfactoria lepida Hartl. (No. 3H9.) One male from 
New Hanover, of this rare little game-bird, which is hitherto 
only known from New Britain. Th(; breast is slaty-l)lue, but 
with a few small red spots. 

Mcijapodius eremita, Hartl. (No. 334.) One adult bird 
from Kung, New Hanover. Messrs. Cabanis and Reichenow 
have named the New Hanover bird .V. Iiurskrri, but I do not 
see how it differs from specimens from the Solomons and New 
Britain, and that they are the same species is also the opinion 
of Mr. Grant. (Cat. J3. Brit. Mus. x.xii. pp. 452, 4/).3.) 

Besides the very interesting land-birds, which are enume- 
rated above, some of the widespread shore- and water-birds, 
which are of little interest for zoo-geographical studies. They 
are : Esacus tnmjuiroHtris, Art it is hupoloifcus, Hptrnictitis 
incauus, Auas suju'rciliosa, and four species of herons. 



APPENDIX il. 



BIRDS OF PAIIAIUSK COI.T.ErTED BY CAPTAIN 
CAYLRY WHHSTEB. 

IIV THI'. HONIILE. WALTER ROTHHCHILD. 

1 hftvi- lwt!n rcquDstod liy fiiiiitiiin Webster to give a Imt 
nnil acDoutil of the biniB of pai'ailise coliectud by him. Before 
doiDK HO I must Hay that though he got on his Beveral jonrueys 
0. consiilonvhle numlwr of siHsciea, hu wiia wi much hindereil by 
l)ad cartridges und opposition, botli on the pai*! of the natives 
and others, that he could not do himself justice. On his tirst 
expudllion to GMrninn New Guinwi iio troll or Iml the following 
Bpeoies : — 

1. Aclnroeilus huccoiilcn ftfislrr-ii-'ini, 

2. Vtilarkii mterreihin. 

3. Cicinnurui regiua. 

4. DiphylloiU* ma^nijicm, 

5. Paradisea minor Jin»clii. 

6. Paratlisea aiigUHticictorute, 

7. Paradixea guilklriii. 
i*. Manitcotlia atra. 
I have nothing to report on theee except that most of the 

specimens of I). iruti}nificu» belong to the form named 
sfp lentrionaliii. 

In £tna Bay and Triton Bay tha species collected were : — 

1. Piilorhis viagnifiea, 

2. Ciciinturits regius. 

'i. Paifidisea ininor minor. 

4. Minnic-»li,i aim. 

5. Manucoilia chalybata. 



APPENDIX II. 377 

In the Aru Islands Captain Webster procured- - 

1. Paradise a apod a 9 • 

2. Manucodia atra. 

3. Cicinnunui rer/ius. ^ 

4. Aclurocdus ynolauotis melanotis. 

As there were no new spt?cies and few rare ones among 
these three collections, I am at a loss to say anything alx)ut 
them, except tliat the good skins and fine condition of the 
specimens show wliat might have been done under more 
favourable circumstances. 



APPENDIX III. 



LIST OF NEW LKIUDOPTERA DISCOVKRED BY 
CAPTAIN H. C. WEBSTER. 



I.vc 



V. Zool. 



590 n, 9 iimi) 



589 II. 8 (1894) 
n. 3 (lS9tt) (N. 



Thysonotis peri Smith, 

(Sattelbei-g). 
phroao, id., I.e. iv. p. 313 n, 2 (ia97) (Etna Bay). 

hanno, id., .^rni. Mag. N.H. (6) xiv. p. 25 n. 1 

(1894) (N. Britain). 

hamilcar, id.. I.e. n. 2 (1894) (N. Britain). 

esme, id.. I.o. xiii, p. 501 n. 8(1894) (N. Britain). 

Epimastidia alhocoemlea. id.. I.e. xiii. p. 501 n. 7 (1894) (N, 

Britttin). 
Lampides eclectus, id . , Nov, 

(Sattelberg). 
Hypochryrops honora, id., 1.. 

Hanover). 

PtERIDAE. 

Delias georgiana, id., I.e. xv. p. 229 (1895) (N. Georgia). 

— ladas, id., Nov. Zool. i. p. 586 n. 1 (1894) (Saltelliei-g). 

geraldiiia. id., I.e. u. 2 (1894) (Sattelberg), 

Appias gisco, id., Ann. Mag. N.H. (6) sv. p. 229 (1895) (N. 
Georgia). 

P.\l'IIJOSIDAE. 

Papitio websteri. id., I.e. (6) xiii. p. 497 (1894) (N. Britain). 

euchenor neohannoveranus RothBcli., Nov. Zool. v. 

p. 217 (1898) {N. Hanover). 



APPENDIX III. 379 

Papilio ulysses j^^ahrielis, id., I.e. p. 217 (1H98) (St. Gabriel, 

Admiralty Is.). 

codrus auratus, id.. I.e. p. 218 (1H9H) (St. Gabriel). 

se^'onax tenebrionis, id., I.e. ii. p. 427 (1H95) (N. 

Georf^ia). 
Papilio sarpeden iiiipar Rothsch., I.e. p. 443 (1895) (N. 

(jeor^ia). 

Nymph ALiDAK. 

Asthipa inelusine Smith, Nov. Zool. i. p. 08(5 (1894) (Sattel- 

ber^r). 
Vadebra eboraci, id., Ann. Maj^., N.H. (()) xiii. p. 498 n. 2 

(1H94) (N. Britain and Duke of York). 

lacon. id., I.e. p. 499 n. 3 (1894) (N. Britain). 

Cetbosia «<abrielis Rothseh., Nov. Zool. v. p. 218 (1898) (St. 

CJabriel). 
C'baraxes latona diana, id., I.e. p. 9G (189H) (N. Hanover). 
Mynes websteri, Smith, Nov. Zool. i. p. r>8() n. 4 (1894) 

(Sattelber^). 
eottonis, id., Ann. Ma«(. N.H. (0) xiii. p. 499 n. 4 

(1894) (N. Britain). 
Klymnias melanipjx*, id., Nov. Zool. i. p. o88 n. 5 (1894) 

(Sattelberj;). 

erastus, id., I.e. p. 5H8 n. (> (1897) (Sattelber*,'). 

Myealesis barbara, id., I.e. p. o89 n. 7 (1894) (Sattell)erj^). 
maura, id., Ann. Ma*^'. N.H. ((>) xiii. p. o(X) n. h (1894) 

(N. liritain). 
matho, id. I.e. p. ">()1 n. (1894) (N. Britain). 



Ag.auistidak. 

Bur^ena ebalylxMita Rothseh., Nov. Zool. iii. p. 39 (1890) (N. 
Britain). 

(iKOMETRIDAK. 

Milionia assimilis Rothseh., I.e. iv. p. 510 (1897) (N. Hanover). 
websteri, id., I.e. p. 511 (1897) (N. Hanover). 



SOMK NKW COLEOPTERA DISCOVERED BY 

(rAI'TAlN H. C. WBDSTEH. 

Ckraubyoidak. 

NemophaB websteri Joril.. Nov. Zorjl. v. p. 41fl n. 2 (1898). 

J 9- Supra et infra lienae corallilio tomentostis ; ttntrnnis 
nigris, iirtiutilo 1" bhI dimfie punclnto ; ulytris scx fasciis tituis- 
versiB iiudJs nitiiliu alris punctalia orutis. 1' aiigusttt subbasali 
postscutellari. versus humeroti aaepe obsoletd (jijwc. Ii/p.), 
'i' pawlo latioro, 3** nubmodiunft et 4* jwstmoiliurm Intioribua, 
i]uabu{4 pDSticis lUi^iiHtie, plus ujiiiusvi? irfbgularibufi. saepe 
ooujuDctia ; pedibiiH nixris, punctatis. ftiiioribiis panim comllinn 
tomentoeis. 

Hah. Nirw Hanovtifii RisinArck ArcliiptilaKO, Morcb and 
April, IHST; a serteo of lioth aexea. 

Easily diBtinnuishable from N. gmyi (18.59). Southtirn 
Muliiccaij, by tlic uiitirtUy conklline red upper aud under sur- 
faces, the numlier and position of the black bands on th« olj-tra, 
and the punctumtion of tho legtj »nd fimt iintoniiul joint. .\ 
ct^rilral »i)nl on the- pronotuin and ibe upper side of thoracical 
tipiues an- oft.-n dfiiudiHl, 



HofflophaB cyaneBcenB, id., 1. 



, n. 3. 



S S ■ Formne tiniorunsi bal'icrrouhH dititae similis, sed pro- 
lliorace supra et infra nigro. subtilisainio bniniiescente pubes- 
cento ; elytris nigro-viridi-cyaneis ; processu mesostenioli 
minus vlevalo onna coxts quatuor postioJa nigro, distinguendus 

Hall. Kei Toeal, January to March. 1896 ; 1^.1 ? . 



Epepeotes websteri, id., 1. c. p. 420, n. 4. 
3 5. B. niger, lutoso tomento3us. Caput fere nudum occi- 
pite sparsioi pujiotulato. Anlennaruui artlculus primus den- 
aissime rugulosus, crasee rugoso-punctatus. Pronotutn medio 
sparsiro, versus latera parum deiieius totnentosutn, granulatum, 
medio tiuiisverse plicntum. Elytra dimidiobasali tortiler sat 
disperse punctata, humeris granulatis. punctis postice sparsis, 
mai'gine apicab bispinoso leviter concavo ; dense lutoso tomen- 



APPENDIX III. 381 

tosa, toiiiento in margine hasali fusco, tribus fasciis latis trans- 
versis plus miiiusve irregularibus aequidistantibus denudatis 
atris nitentibus, postbasali, niediana, postmediana ; inediana 
latus versus latiore guttam lutosain lateraleni includente ; 
praeterea maculis irregularibus anteapicalibus etiani denudatis. 

Prona fades medio sparsini, lateribus densius lutoso toinen- 
tosa. Pedes nigri,. punctali, tibiis anticis (J) infra crasse 
rugato-granulatis. 

J . Long, proth. (5, elytr. 23 mm. 

4. • •» »» '-'» i» ^^' »? 

J . Lat. proth. (apice) 7^, elytr. (hum.) 1*2^ mm. 

9 1 10^ 

liith. New Hanover, March and April, 1897 ; a series of 
b;)th sexes. 

Varies in size. Easily recognised by the pattern of the 
elytra, which reminds one of Xcmophaa and also of Diocliarcs. 
The J has the first joint of the anterior tarsi exteriorly tri- 
angularly dilated, as is the case in the other species of 

.\nthkihidae. 
Xenocems websteri, id., I. c. p. .'^70, n. 2S. 



APPENDIX IV. 



TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIMENS COLLECTED. 

OrnitbDlngical specimens tSO 

Lepidoptem 30,000 

Coleoptera 50,000 

Ethnological 1,S00 

CaBBon-arioe (two reached England alive) 4 

Misccllwittons 450 

TnWl 83,104 



INDEX. 



llecke, Mr. I^uU. hi> South Sea 
stories, H41I. 

iistHnt of Dr. Kleti 



ileslh. 237. 
AWI. Mr. HI1.1 MrK.. AW.a.i4 ; li.eir 


M'liiniril, killM. '2(17. 
Ileehive^, the. B27. 




Bftel-Tim, mnnner of ertliiiK, 37, 
Bishop of SKMim-. 344. 24-5. 
Itisiimrek MounUins, non-existence 


.Vlniiralty Islitud. »0M,.1(KP. 


A<lmir«lly WancU, the, 37'.l. ■i'flt, :wl- 


»l!l. 


of «.*e. 


AilniirHlly WhjicIs vooHbiilrtty. iin. 




31M. 


lilanche ]Uy :1«). 327. 


Ai'loeimi. \iH(. 


BoeleleitK. 3H. 


AlbtiH Victor lUriKe. part of it 


Bokttjini. ;W. 

Buknjiin lUiilect hpokpn bv niitiveB 




MouiitniiiA, i5. 411. 


l>eloii«inn to Oouibiili, 43. 


Alu, 107. 


Bokop. chief ol Mioko. 2117. 


Ambon, Iwy of, 1117. 


ILiu;,™!!-.!)!*'. 1117. l:«, 34.'>. 


Ambonese, cliaracltr til the. UV.I. 




Am boy tin, lli7. 


iJoUinical GariK'ii-. nt JiiiilzenzorR. 149. 


Aiiibovn«, iiiBsiHcrc of, 313. 


Braiifltis. CapWin. inijictiHl ju-lt(e in 


AmiH-i.«n. 1-511, 


Sew Btilain. «2 ; niist«ke.i for a 


Arloors, wild men of the nioiimaiii,. 


publican, 112.67. 


■2V.i. 


iJrilihb Allntitif CkWc Company, 240. 


Aru, iw.. l'.l.i. 


BoilzonzorK, 14!l. 


1!. 




Bullet proof oiiitinenl, nntive pretends 


Bali, l.iM, l.y.l. 


to have ai.-*overe.l, H2, 


I!.,ll.ir.,t. the. f. A-O. >t.-rtiim-, I. 


C. 


UKndiiMnnJ^. 171, 


BHnJn Neura. 172. 


Csri; St, Geot^e. ^HO. 


lliitavift, 1!». Ul-l.i7, 


Ceraiii. 174, 


Bcrtvis, Mr. Oliii-r. cliM.ovt-rcl miir- 


ih«tu<'ti"; H. M.S., 301. all. 


derwl. ;i:ir)-:(:tlP. 


China Straits, 25«. 



CluiKkmlnH, itftUre. 99. 

Choiwut. 107. 1S5. 

CtNKMuiul litlknd. 103. 

ContmlltUT al Kej laUna. ITft, W2. 

lar. am, 2»9. 

Cnpm ; Ihn ilrinl hnriwl of the cocoa- 

nul, HI. 
Coltua. Cuptnln, 1, M. 64 ; UlU (.i^k, 

CoupA, Ultillop, liRKil of tho Hacred 
Hoirt MisaitMi in New BhUin, SIT- 
101 ; histur? ot Uu musitin, 08 ; 
bis eiluMliiHiiil Hyslvai, 101 ; rfvialt 
htm, »4.f. 

1). 

buuwiKm, Judiic, 311. 

D'Giitn CmUmiux Group, SOO. 

DihhoH. an. 

Itelilw, IWi. 

Duk>' of York LUudn. 2lili, 2117. 

i)iili->liik, I'lirlouH (wrninony of Ihe, 

Diimbu. in, fi, S3. 

Dutvli tlmr. 230, 3U1 ; in«dviiuibillty of 

Ain[r]|)u(lni( it lo nutivea iiutiiicrlmi- 

tute);. salt. 
Ookih Qovcnmiunt agent, his cruultj' . 

Ci) .iHvaneiw [>ix>Li<w, 10. | 

Duloh litdiKe 111 Java, lluur «i«tume, ^ 



EcimiMt Mptiiroii, M!). 

Utperama. fiitc of tin K'hooner, 119, 

Etiin Buy. 21A, 'Jl^, 21'J, 2.12, 



FeRaussoK, Mr,, murder of. 113. 
FinchhnfeLi, original bee4quarlers of 

New UuiDen Gonipiiny, 31. 
logging o{ a Chioamsn bf the Daloh 

GovernmeDt, 33. 
Frederichwilhelmishiilen, hoadi) uartera 

of Sbw Guinea Company, 30; (jov- 

emor's hoHpitallty, 20, B3. .1H, Ul. 
French Catboliu Mission, 244, i!46. 



,lllu, iHUMJnii o( Ihe Chiueee 



30. 

GftDKlot. U„ SHS-am), 803 
aavKta. 350, 
OiHHfr. 174, 
Gon, Itajab of, 1><S. 
Goenoeng Rindjani, IKS. 
fluadnlcannr. 1150, 
Gutiunc Api, 172. 
Ouy, Mr.. ntordOTid, 108. 



UAWTBriii.v hound. 125. 
Bnxd-hiiiiting, lOH. 135. 
Jlediereii, liuron vou. ISH. 
Herlwrtson.n?. 2no. nW). 
HKrotella. IT'2. 
HoIImaDn. n Grrninn niiiwliiiiacy, 



3H. 



1, 



Ingova, r-hlnf of ItnbianiL, 100, 113, I'M 
iBtann. pivliMW of [lie SulUti of Joham 



I J«vi, 10, 144.1.i7. 

I Javnnme. chanteter of. 157. 

I JavunsBti coolieB. tfl. 

I Jtwiiil miHKlonarirs in the Kei IsUndAi 

I lUl. 

' Jmu MKriii Isljind. 310, 817. 

I JUIiui, 10. J>4, 

Jimmy, oiir of the bunleirfi, 834. 
I Joboftlao, boutfwiiiD, 823 ; kiUaii, 3:M. 

Joliun!, Saltan tiTid palace of. 1-llii 
cmwn prince of, bis iDarriB.ge cere- 
mony, 7-9. 



Kami:, chief of St- Giiliricl, 3(12, 

Kapaunr, 174. 

Katigot, bay □eui- Hnddlebci'g, BO, 



I.XDEX. 



385 



Kei Islands, 175, 170 ; inhabitants of, 

181 ; controlleur of, 176, 182, \\)1. 
Ker, Mr., marine superintendent of the 

State of Johore. 4. 
Kernhach, German recruiting? labour 

for New (ruinea, HO. 
Kirkhoven, Mr., his plantation of 

Sinaj^ar : his hospitality, 153. 
Kjaputi oil, 170. 
Kjoniera Hay, 280. 
Kleinschmidt, Dr., murdered, 207, 
Koninklijke I'aketvaart Maat.schappij. 

157. 
KoHm', Mrs., her plantation in New 

Britain, (»8, 87, 201, 328. 
Kung, 271», 281», 2<)0-21)8. 
Kuras, wrecked off, 321. 
Kwato, 252-254. 
Kvamaka 13av, 217. 

L. 

Lak.vhiv, the people of, 230. 

Lark, the schooner, 141. 

La Vandola Island, 317. 

Lennell, killed, 224. 

Lolo, 244. 

Lomlwk, 15'.M03; Sultan of, 150-100; 

self-immolation of women in. 1(»0- 

163. 
London Missionary Society at Lolo, 

244, 252. 
l.iihcrk, ss., I'J, 58, (»2. 

M. 

Macakkau, 115, 103-UJ6. 

Macgregor, Sir William, 240, 250, 251. 

Malita, 114. 

Man Island, 280. 

Mandoliana, 135. 

Marquis de lie F:xpedition, history of, 

102, 200. 
Mathias, island of, 271). 
Matupi, island of, 81. 
Mausoleum Island, 281. 
Melville Island, 239. 
Merrie England, steam jacht, 250. 



Minjem, the river, 30, 31), 41. 

Mioko, 202, 203-278, 279. 

Mission.s, 97-101, 241, 245; error of 

theological divergencies among, 

244. 
Moresby, Captaiin. 258, 
Mount Victoria, 251. 
" Mula Copa." his son visits the ship, 

340. 
Murdered tlnglishmen, list of, 130. 
Musgrave, Mr., 250. 

N. 

Navaickk, Bishop of, 244, 245. 

New Britain, arrival at, 02 ; troubles 
in, 81 ; heavy loads of women, 87 ; 
dirt and ugliness of natives, 87 ; 
native festivity in. 88-93 ; set sail 
for again, 257 ; considered to be 
part of New Guinea, 200 ; am re- 
puted to be a wizard throughout, 
202. 

New Georgia. 107, 113, 141. 

New Guinea, first arrival in, 20 ; 
natives of, 27 ; their legends, 28, 29 ; 
their love of red paint and salt, 52, 
53 ; New (luinea revisited, 210 ; 
probable extinction of races in, 357. 

New Hanover, 279, 282-298. 

New Ireland, considered a part of New 
(luinea, 200; pass by it, 280. 281 
wrecked off, 320. 

Nielson, Mr., 348. 

Nissam, 333. 

Nordup, 328. 

North Island, 258. 

Nu.sa Sanga, 107. 

O. 

Obsidian, u.se of, by natives, 309 
Onithoptcra Paradisea, 23. 
Got Island, 182. 
Orang Kaya, 180. 
Outuan, 267. 268, 273. 
. Owen Stanley Range, the, 251. 

26 



3«<i 



2 



I-ai 






1. iia. 



Tuiiuiui (ia\t. 3S1. 

I'nrkininti. Hm.. ]i»r Uvruio dnlencc or 
liwrbou-i.. 75. 71!. 

I'inno. imlivD vinwn on the Qovcrnor'jt, 

richulfv, HIHi. 

I'uiiunonit Itolt. 37,1 

l-oiUnl. Capmlii, of H.M.S. ir-.IIu.™., 

asfi. HS). 
l\<-pu. 139, lax. 

t'ori Ukrwin, 9MI, U3». 341. us. 
rort Hiintnr, a77. 
Port Mnr«iiy. a«*, UW, 250. 
t^UioMcr nt GtimI Kei. IKrt, ISO, 
fiixthulilpr M Dobln. I'm. 



II. 



R*j\ii 



1 Ilii made n iiriwinci-, 2At. 

lUjiih J-TOiiipw-niu r a woumn chief. 

3)1.313. 
llHiuiii. 7S. S7. S3M, 
HftTiKft, till- boy. fl7. 
ItikOgcMin. '2i!i. 
Itniiid. H.M.S.. pais im in (junrnnliiie. 



347. 
lEoci'uitinit r 

■m. 






Keii pftinl,' nnlivo love of, .5.'i. 
Kicht«r, Mr., death nf, ai). 
Rohilla, the, P. and O, Hlt-nniov. 1. 
Uoynl bath : ninrFiiige of tbo Ciov 

I'rince of Johore. 9. 
KubiftnH, 107, 113, 346, 347. 



St. Oftbriel. 303-307. 

St. QeoiRe's Channel, 2liO, -2711, ; 

St. George's IsIbiiJ, 310. 



Utiaii UonnUiiiB. IM. 

Hun, uui mui. 325 ; kllletl, -OS. 

SumnrU, S&O, 3S3. 

Sniulilp. n.M.S., or*w ol. 

186. 
Sanil; (^|ir. SfiO. 

. Kchuuton. dlscoviirat of the .iilmlmll] 

lalMds, SOI. 
SpUuIu*, Mr., Mxiitant of Dr. Klria 

Rfhmldt, killiHl, SOT. 
Si-liultic. Mr., managuT v( n Qmnaa 

Sumunn Coiiipuny in Mioko, S6S, 

37M. 
Senr. Si). 
>ial(iu-. I7t. 

ScIf-lmuiolAiiuo ut woiuoi), 160-1(13. 
■S>Mn, iwhoan«r, Altai'k an.St, KW. 
Hhortland, 107, 141. 
SInibnnK. Ktuo ol tame ut <nir Iw 

polWiloiw. 3S, 
SiuitKHi-. plantation uf. l.^D-]S3. 
Siiiimv^rD, 1,144. 
Kir Chiul<!s HKrdy IiIhihU. tinirtTcr In 

Skroo, 174. 

SuukiiUocnii. I.'f4, 

SiieriibiijA, 107. laN. 

Solomon UImiiIb, 107 ; itjswivery ot, 
inrnnliiie. 134; vialt, B45. 

" Spot." nij foi terrier, loat, 3Sfi, afi7. 
clhod of. Sleffiin StriiilB. ani. 

Stci)hensor[. headqunrlera of the 
Ajitrolilbe Haj ConpHity, 20, H«, SS. 

Sydney, ncrival M, 14S. 

Syintg HuUelin. nmusing ciirliHin m. 
344. 



TANJoNii I'riok, 144. 
T,illi)oini!o(ftwom«n. 24H-2.t1. 
Tliiirsdav Island, 239, 243. 
Tjilionff. 1.50. 
Toenl, 175, 176-182. 1S4. 191, 192, 2:i2. 

239 1 I lodge in the prison at, 177 ; 

KHJah of. 193. 194. 



IXDEX. 



387 



Torres Straits, 239. 
Triton Bay, 212, 217. 
Tunku Makota. Crown Prince of 
Johorc, 3 ; his marriap:e, 7-0. 

V. 

ViTTin, 38 ; natives accuse us of killinj* 
their pi|,', 57. 

W. 

WAiKvrr, 311. 

Wajan^, or Javanese theatre, l.i4. 

Wallnron, H.M.S., 3r>0. 

Wamnia, lUo. 

Wassa, 2m, 

Waterloo, tjre.it Dutch victory of, 148. 

Webster, Captain Cay ley, starts on hi^: 
first expedition, 1 ; stays with the 
Sultan of Johore, 2-l(» ; interferes 
on l)ehalf of .Javanese coolies, \\) ; 
buys a boy who is in trouble with 
his tribe, 29 ; starts for the interior, 
35 ; (li.scovers non-existence of 
Bismarck Mountains, H\ ; fights the 
natives about a pij^', 57; attends a 
savaj^e festivity, HH ; visits a native 
hou.se of niournint^, 120; finds hini- 
8elf alone amon^ hostile natives, 
142; starts for his .^iecond expedition, 
144 ; entertaine.l by Mr. Kirkhoven, 
150. 151 ; attends a Javanese theatre, 
154,155; writes to purchase a yacht, 
157 ; negotiates with two brothers 
who have the same wife, 100 ; 
loilges in a prison, 176, 177 ; per- 
forms c(»njurinK tricks before the 



natives, 189 ; i.s bitten by a dangerous 
insect, 192, 193 ; interviews the Rajah 
of Toeal, 193 ; inquires into the mur- 
der of a Chinaman, 200 ; visits a 
native burial j,'round, 208 ; is charged 
with mes.sages to an imaginary race, 
209 ; Chinese servant attempts to 
murder him, 210 ; visits a woman 
chief, 211; is attacked, 224; capture 
and releases the chief's .son, 231 ; 
again performs conjuring tricks, 201 ; 
nearly killed by a poisonous fish, 
273 ; notices natives studying palm- 
istry, 291-293; bargains with a 
grasping native wood carver, 311 ; 
effects a reconciliation between two 
hostile chiefs, 328; finds an English- 
man munlered, 333 ; the yacht put 
in quarantine, 347; end of his 
.second expedition, 351, 

Wickham, Mr., 113, 348. 

Wiengi : attack by natives, 57. 

Wilhelmina, H.M.S., hospitality of, 
105. 

Woman chief, 211, 212. 

Wootlford, Mr., Commissioner of the 
Solomon Islands, 347, 350. 

Y. 

Yacht arrives, 194; meets usatKwato, 
255 ; put in quarantine, 347 ; con- 
demned an<l abandoned, 350, 351. 

Yanln'L Dutch Government steamer, 
23, 107, 125. 135. 

Yule Island, 244. 



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Zhc <3rc0bam prcM. 

'JXWIN BROTHERS, 
WOEINO AND LONDON 



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