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Full text of "Through Shên-kan; the account of the Clark expedition in north China, 1908-9"

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Through Shenkan 

THE ACCOUNT OF THE CLARK EXPEDITION 

IN NORTH CHINA, 

1908-9. 



By 

ROBERT STERLING CLARK 

and 

ARTHUR de C. SOWERBY 



Edited by Major C. H. Chepmell 



T. FISHER UN WIN 
LONDON: ADELPHI TKRRACE 
LEIPSIC: INSEI^TRASSE 20 
1912 



3S7/0 
CL(o3 ■ 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



INTRODUCTION. 



■yHIS book is issued in the hope that it may be of some interest to the 
general public, at a time when China is once again fixing the attention 
of all Western peoples. 

In its compilation an attempt has been made to carry the imagination of 
the general reader — by pen, brush, and film — into the very heart of the 
Celestial Empire ; and further, to set down with accuracy, and in as com- 
prehensive a way as possible, such facts and figures as may form a solid basis 
for the future explorer in North China. 

Including preparations, the expedition, in the course of which these facts 
and figures were obtained, extended over a period of eighteen months. During 
this time about two thousand miles of road were traversed. The names of 
convenient halting-places are, of course, mentioned as we reach them in the 
narrative, but complete itineraries for the use of future travellers in these 
regions are given in Appendix I., together with a table containing the 
latitudes and longitudes of all those places, whose positions were determined 
by observation. We venture to think that future explorers may rely safely on 
these figures, as very great pains have been taken to ensure their accuracy, 
and much of the route having been traversed twice, ample opportunity was 
afforded for checking results. It should perhaps be pointed out that figures 
given in the text are usually in round numbers, greater exactitude being 
reserved for the Appendices. 

The large Map (scale 1/1,000,000), which accompanies the book (in a 
pocket at the end), has been coinpiled from the plane-table survey made on 
the expedition by an expert. The original survey was on the scale of four 
miles to the inch, and the work was checked by astronomical observations, 
taken at intervals of not more than one hundred miles, along the line of 
march. A short description of the means and methods employed to ensure 
accuracy, together with a slight sketch of similar work previously done in 
the locality, will be found in Chap. XIV. For the general reader, a birds- 
eye map is given showing the more important points along the route. 

(i) 



Special attention has been devoted to the Zoological work of the 
expedition, in which connection some very interesting discoveries were made. 
Detailed scientific papers on the Mammals and Insects collected have been 
embodied in Appendices (II. — V.) ; but as the collections of Birds and Cold- 
Blooded Vertebrates contain no new species, scientific descriptions are not 
necessarj-, though the reader will find Chapters dealing in a more or less 
popular waj' with both these branches of Biology, as well as a review of the 
whole Biological work. 

The Meteorological observations will be found in tabulated form 
(App. VI.), interesting points concerning the climatic conditions of the 
country being detailed in Chapter XV. An attempt, too, has been made to 
give a general sketch of the Geology of the country passed through. 

The photographs and coloured plates which illustrate the book, have been 
chosen with a view to presenting different types of natives, geological 
formations, scenery, and other matters of general interest. It is unfortunate 
that, owing to the necessity for a distribution of the plates throughout the 
volume, these cannot always fall at — or even near — the mention of them in 
the text ; but, as far as possible, references are given where they illustrate 
places visited or explain points raised, as, for example, in the Chapters on 
Natural History and Geology. 

We take this opportunity of acknowledging our debt of gratitude to the 
British War Office for lending the services of Captain H. E. M. Douglas, 
V.C., D.S.O., R.A.M.C. ; and to the Survey of India for those of Hazrat Ali, 
our surveyor, whose sad death in the performance of his duty is so deeply 
regretted by every member of the expedition. 

Out best thanks are also due to the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, M.A., 
F.L.S., for the paper on Siphonaptera ; to Mr. H. R. Hogg, M.A., F.Z.S., for 
his contribution on Araneidae ; to the members of the British Museum Staff, 
who kindly examined and classified the specimens belonging to the orders of 
Invertebrates contained in the collection ; to Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, of the 
Smithsonian Institution, for his description of five new species in the collection 
of Mammals ; and to the Rev. Frank Madeley for his assistance in connection 
with the history of the mounds and monuments examined round about Hsi-an Fu. 

Major L. D. Fraser, Royal Artillery, afforded invaluable assistance in 
undertaking the preparation of the Map, in correcting the spelling of Chinese 



place-names, and in so many other ways — not only in the production of the 
book, but also in the original arrangement and fitting-out of the expedition —that 
it is impossible to over-estimate our obligation to his kindness. 

Owing to the circumstances under which a great part of the manuscript 
was produced, it stood in need of considerable revision and compilation, and in 
the absence of both authors from England, Major C. H. Chepniell, late R.A., 
kindly undertook these duties, and has carried out a difficult task with 
painstaking skill. Expert assistance was obtained where special knowledge 
was required; and our best thanks are due to Mr. R. I. Pocock, F.R.S., 
Professor J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S., F R.G.S., and Mr. R. Corless, M.A., 
F.R.Met.Soc, . for consenting to revise our proofs dealing with Natural 
History, Geology, and Meteorology respectively. 

ROBERT STERLING CLARK. 
ARTHUR DE C. SOWERBY. 
August, 1912. 



(iii) 



CONTENTS, 



Chapter I. — Inception, Aim, and Outfitting of the Expedition .. 

II. — Narrative OF March TO THE Yellow River .. 

,, III. — Passage of the Yellow River — March to Yu-lin Fu. . 

IV. — March to Yen-an Fu — Winter Quarters 

,, V. — Clark and Sowerby's Narrative of Journey to Hsi-an Fu . 

,, VI. — Description of Hsi-an Fu — Clark and Sowerby's Journey to 
Lan-chou Fu . . 

,, VII. — March of Douglas and Grant to Lan-chou— Description of 
Lan-chou Fu . . 

,, VIII. — Murder of Hazrat Ali 

IX. — Return March of Grant and Sowerby from Lan-chou to 
T'ai-yuan 

,, X. — Biological Work^by A. de C. Sowerby . . . . 

,, XI. — Birds of North China — by A. de C^ Sowerby 

,, XII. — Reptiles, Bairachians and Fishes — by A. de C. Sowerby 

„ XIII. — Geological Notes — by A. de C. Sowerby . . 

„ XIV. — Survey Work of the Expedition — by R. S. Clark . . 

,, XV. — Meteorological Report — by A. de C. Sowerby 

Appendix I. (a). — Itineraries 

„ I. (b). — Table of Latitudes and Longitudes 

,, II. — Mammals Collected in Shansi, Shensi and Kansu — by A. de 
C. Sowerby 

„ III. — Invertebrates Collected on the Expedition — by A. de C 
Sowerby 

,, IV. ■ — Description of three New Species of Siphonaptera, — by the 
Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, M.A., F.L.S. 

, V. — Araneidae of the Clark Expedition to Northern China 
(Diagrams p. 218) — by H. R. Hogg, M.A., F.Z.S. 

, VJ. — Dlary of Meteorological Observations 



PAGE 

I 

6 
16 
24 
34 

44 

55 
63 

70 

79 

96 
109 
115 
130 
135 
155 
170 

171 

186 

194 

204 
219 



COLOURED PLATES. 



PACING PAGE 

The Fort, near Yii-lin Fu, Ordos Border . . . . 20 

Cave Inn, near Yen-an Fu . . . . . . . . 36 

The Yellow liiver, near K'ang-chia-t'a, Shansi 76 



Brown Snake and Toad-headed Lizard 
Sunset on the Ordos Border 
In the T'sing-ling Shan 



PACING PAGE. 

no 

130 



PLATES. 



Plate I.— Hazrat Ah 

2. — Native Hunters, T'ai->Tian-Fu, Shansi. . 
3.- — Camp at Chao-chuang, T'ai-yiian Plain. 

Waishing Sheep 
4. — Chin-sso Miao Pagoda, near T'ai-yiian 

Fu, Shansi . . 
5- — View from Summit of Mo-erh Shan, 

Shansi 
6. — Threshing Floor, Shansi 
7. — Ch'eng-wu Miao (Temple), Ch'ing-ting 

Shan, Shansi 
8. — Washing Clothes. Shansi Type 
9. — The Yellow River at Huang-ho-yiieh . . 
10. — Sand Dunes, east of Yii-lin Fu, Shensi 
11. — Pi Jung-pei, Head of the PoUce, Yii-lin 

Fu, Shensi . . 
12. — Chinese Lady 
13- — Towers of the Great Wall, north of 

Yii-lin Fu, Shensi . . 
14. — View of the Great Wall, showing 

encroaching sands . . 
15- — Epitaphs in Sandstone Outcrop, near 

Yii-hn Fu, North Shensi . . 
16. — Horse Fair, outside South Gate, Yii-hn 

Fu, Shensi . . 
17- — The Sandstone Strata near Ch'ing-chien 

Hsien, Shensi, in winter . . 
18. — Cave Temple (Sung Dynasty) at Yen-an 

Fu, Shansi . . 
19.— Representation of Buddhist Hell, in the 
Lung-wang Miao, at Yen-an Fu, 
Shensi 
20. — " Goddess of Mercy " in the Cave 

Temple atYen-an Fu, Shensi 
20A. — Cormorant Fishing on the Wei Ho, 

Shensi 
21.— Robert S. Clark (left) and Arthur de 
C. Sowerby (right) with Christmas 
Day's Bag of Pheasants . . 
22. — Loess Canon and Plateaujf, south of 

Fu-chou 
23. — Sowerby and his First Bustard 



1 Plate 2.). — Gateway marking Boundary between 

2 the Provinces of Shensi and Honan 
•> 25. — Roadside Scene, Honan. . 

4 „ 26. — Rubbing from Tablet in the Pci Ling 

(Monument Grove), Hsi-an Fu 
6 „ 27. — Camel Inn at Ta-yii-ch'eng, Shensi 

28. — Hua-kuo Shan, Shensi . . 
8 ,, 29. — Colossal Buddha, at Ta-fu-ssQ, Shensi. . 

10 ,, 30. — General Ma's .\ venue, Kansu . . 

,, 31. — Criminal in cage on his way to execu- 
12 tion in Lan-chou Fu, Kansu . . 

14 ,, 32. — Temple on Loess Spur at Kan-ts'ao- 

16 tien, near Lan-chou Fu, Kansu . . 

18 .. 33. — Yellow River at Shao-shui-tzil, near 

Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. The river 
22 here cuts through granite . . 

24 .. 34- — Peasant Woman. Kansu Type 

35. — Ssu-ch'uan Women, settlers in Kansu. . 
26 .. 3(>- — Peasant Woman. Kansu Type 

„ 37. — Wang Tao-t'ai of Ku-yiian Chou, with 
28 his Secretaries and Guard . . 

„ 38. — Loess Valley, near Hui-ning Hsien, 
30 Kansu 

„ 39- — Loess Canon, Ying-t'ao-ho, Kansu 
32 ■, 40. — Manchu Lady 

41. — Our Military Escort from Lan-chou Fu 
£4 „ 42. — Exiles in Chains. Hui-ning Hsien, 

Kansu 
38 „ 43. — Chang-t'ai-p'u, Kansu . . 

44. — Guard House on Hsi-an to Lan-chou 
Road, Kansu 
40 ,, 44A.— PecuUar Head-dress. Only worn in 

the vicinity of Ch6n-yuan Hsien, 
42 Kansu 

45. — Deserted Cave Village, Kansu . . 
42 ,, 46. — Isolated Column of Sandstone, Hai- 

shui-ssQ, Kansu and Shensi border 
„ 47. — Wild Boar shot near Yen-an Fu 
44 . 48. — Chipmunk. {Eutamias asiaticus sene- 

scens) 
46 „ 48A. — Mole-rat. (Myospalax cansus) 

48 ,, 49. — Sand Hamster. (Phodopus hedfordice) . . 



50 
52 

54 
St* 
58 
60 
62 

64 

68 



70 
72 
74 

78 

80 

84 
88 
90 
94 

96 
100 

104 



104 
106 

108 
112 

114 
114 
120 



FACING PAGE* 

Plate 49A. — David's Squirrel. (Sciurotamias david- 

ianus) . . .. .. .. 120 

„ 50. — Three-toed Jerboa. (Dipus sowerbyi) . . 122 

,, 51. — Suslik. (Citellus mongolicus) .. .. 126 

5 1 A.- — Polecat. (Mustela larvata) .. .. 126 

52. — AUactaga. (Allactagamongolicalongior) 128 

52A. — The Pika. (Ochotona annectens) .. 128 
„ 53. — Wild Pig. (Sus moupinensis) . Shot 

near Yen-an Fu, Shensi . . . . 136 

,, 53A. — Domastic Pig .. .. .. .. 136 

54. — Mud Turtle. (Trionyx sinensis) .. 140 
54A. — Day's Bag near Yen-an Fu. Roedeer, 

pheasants and hare . . . . 140 



FACING PAGE. 

Plate 55. — The Summit of Mo-erh Shan, Shansi . . 144 
■ • 55A- — Sandstone Beds, west of the Chiao- 

ch'eng Shan, Shansi . . . . 144 

„ 56. — Loess Plateaux, east of Fu-chou, Shensi 148 

,, 56A. — Loess showing stratification, Shansi . . 148 
„ 57. — Valley near Chen-yiian Hsien, showing 

the dip of the Sandstone beds . . 150 
,, 58. — Sandstone Strata at Sui-te Chou, 

Shensi . . . . . . . . 154 

,, 58A. — Canon in Limestone Formation west 

of Fcn-chou Fu, Shansi . . . . 154 



MAPS. 



General sketch of route followed by expedition 

(Scale 1/6,000,000) . . . . Frontispiece. 



Route of the Clark Expedition through Shansi, 
Shensi and Kansu (Scale 1/1,000,000) 

(In pocket at the end) 



PLATE 1. 




r\ 



CHAPTER I. 

INCEPTION, AIM, AND OUTFITTING OF THE EXPEDITION. 

CIX centuries have elapsed since Marco Polo returned to Europe from his long 
sojourning in the unknown East. Wonderful indeed were the tales he 
brought, but none surpassing his description — incredible as it seemed — of the 
mighty dominions of the Grand Khan. It is related that on his death-bed the 
Venetian traveller was adjured to recant his narrative. But he remained firm ; 
succeeding years have steadily piled up an overwhelming weight of testimony 
to his truthfulness ; and never throughout this whole period have the peoples 
of the West failed to find in China a source of most lively interest and 
unlimited speculation. 

Nor, indeed, has this interest been of a purely abstract character, for, as 
centurj' has followed century', merchants, missionaries, explorers and scholars, 
have made their way in ever-increasing numbers, to the shores and boundaries 
of the Celestial Empire. They have penetrated into the interior, studied the 
language, and investigated customs, classics, and folk-lore. They have written 
many books, compiled maps, and brought away pictorial records on film and 
canvas. Numerous Treaty Ports have been established, each with a large and 
increasing European population. In many towns of the interior, schools, 
colleges, and hospitals have been started under the direction of Europeans, 
who, living thus amongst the Chinese, obtain ample opportunity of studying 
their characteristics. Railways, too, have been opened, connecting the large 
cities of the maritime provinces, as well as those of the Hinterland. With 
all these facts in view, we may be tempted to wonder whether any great scope 
for the explorer still remains. 

And yet how little is really known. Cathay, with its paradox of barbarism 
and civilisation, its teeming millions of fellow-skinned agriculturalists — 
toiling to-day with implements as rude as those their forefathers wielded 
two thousand years ago — its mighty rivers and mountain ranges, its rich 
mineral deposits, its ancient tombs, and its relics of a bygone prosperity, 
remains still a land of mystery — enigmatic, perhaps inscrutable. Who can 
say that he knows the Chinese people ? What scholar has wrested from their 
classics and their records all the secrets of that dim past, when war raged 
without cease along the Tartar marches, and the first dynasties of the infant 
Empire were emerging from the tumult and the strife ? Can we be confident 
that even in the littoral and more traversed regions the flora and fauna hold 



in store no new surprise for the biologist ? Can the geologist explain intricate 
hill systems, or tell the formation of high mountain ranges and vast plains that 
occur throughout the length and breadth of the land ? 

No. All these questions must be answered in the negative. Much useful 
knowledge has been brought to light by many and eminent explorers ; much 
has been done, much remains to do ; and this, too, in almost every branch of 
human knowledge. A reliable map is useful to the explorer ; a complete and 
accurate surve}' indispensable to the geographer ; and yet at the present time 
vast areas remain still unmapped, whilst a large proportion of the maps in use 
are misleading in their detail. The naturalist needs good collections of 
animals from all parts, in order that he may form a comprehensive idea of the 
spread of species in Eastern Asia, and of their relationship to the creatures of 
the surrounding islands. The enormous mineral resources of the country are 
only now beginning to be realised in the West, and great financial schemes — 
depending for their successful development on an increased knowledge of 
potential markets — all tend to augment the clamour for full and trustworthy 
information. And thus it came about that the expedition, of which this book 
gives the account, was undertaken in the hope of rendering some service to 
the Western world by increasing — be it only by a fraction — the knowledge of 
China and things Chinese. 

The expedition, organised and financed by Mr. Robert Sterling Clark, of 
New York, should start, it was proposed, in the autum of 1908, from T'ai-yiian 
Fu in Shansi, and after traversing Shen-kan {i.e., the provinces of Shensi and 
Kansu), skirt the Tibetan border to Ch'eng-tu Fu, in SsiSch'uan ; then descend- 
ing the Min River to Sui-fu (Hsu-chou Fu) return to Shanghai via the Yang- 
tzu. Its primary objects were, a careful plane-table survey of the whole route 
followed, and astronomical observations for latitude and longitude of all 
important towns visited along the line of march. In addition, it was decided 
to take and record daily meteorological observations ; and photography was to 
play a great part in many ways. A useful and extensive outfit of instruments 
for all these branches of work was purchased in Europe, in addition to tents, 
camp furniture, stores, and other equipment required for a long trip in 
Palsearctic regions. 

Mr. Clark, after making all preparations possible in England, proceeded 
to India, and was there fortunate in securing the services of an expert native 
draughtsman, kindly placed at his disposal by the Survey of India. This was 
Hazrat Ali, a native of the Panjab, who, with fifteen years' experience of 
survey work in the Army, and speaking seven languages (including English 



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and Chinese), had every qualification for the undertaking. A good Mussul- 
man, he required a co-religionist to do his cooking, and in consequence a 
second Panjabi, Muhammad Husein, who had been a camp follower in the 
Soudan and South African wars, was also engaged. Accompanied by these 
two men, Mr. Clark continued his journey to Peking, and there engaged the 
services of Mr. Grant, a gentleman who had resided in China for several 
years, as interpreter, and to assist in the general management of the 
expedition. Mules and horses had been purchased already in Honan, and 
these were sent to T'ai-yiian Fu, the city which, as stated above, was to be 
the starting-point. Thither, too, the party proceeded by rail, with a following 
of native servants, and the numerous boxes and panniers containing stores, 
and settled down to perfect their preparations for the long journey westward, 
meteorological observations being commenced on May i6th. 

On May 27th a camp was made close to a small village named Chao- 
chuang, situated on the plain about five miles north-west of T'ai-ytian Fu. 
Here Messrs. Clark and Grant, with Hazrat Ali, Muhammad Husein, and 
some of the Chinese servants, took up their quarters for the purpose of 
measuring a " base line." Owing to many interruptions this work took a long 
time, but eventually a base line of 2400 feet was measured twice over by 
means of an invar tape ; the probable error working out to one in fifty 
thousand (i in 50,000). A visit of four days duration was paid to a temple in 
the hills about ten miles north-west of T'ai-yiian Fu. From a peak close to 
this, angles were observed to various other peaks and stations, including both 
ends of the base line in the plain, and various other points in the vicinity 
were fixed. Hazrat Ali, then commenced his plane-tabling, and before very 
long had mapped out a wide sweep of the country extending north-east and 
north-west of T'ai-ytian Fu for a distance varying from twenty to fifty miles. 
A splendid view of the surrounding country was obtained, and a good idea of 
its configuration could be formed. The following description is taken from a 
diary kept at the time : " Fifteen hundred feet below, the valley of the Fen Ho, 
now covered with bright green rice-fields and the golden ripening corn, 
spreads southwards in an ever-widening plain of rich alluvial soil, irrigated by 
numerous canals from the river. Ten miles beyond the river, to the east, the 
mountains, which, running northwards, ultimately join the Wu-t'ai Shan, rise 
in successive terraces of loess to a height of 5000 feet. To the north-east of 
this position rugged bare mountains form a half-circle, and join up with this 
range, which is rocky and steep on its eastern side, but slopes gently in the 
usual loess terraces towards the river on the west. A little to the north the 



F^n Ho cuts through the range, and there the sides are precipitous. Beyond 
this and away to the west stretch range upon range of mauve-blue mountains, 
some of the peaks in which are from 8000 to 10,000 feet high." 

During our visit frequent thunderstorms and heavy rains were experienced 
so that the river was continually on the rise and fall. After rain in the 
mountains to the north-west, there would be a great rush of water, and the 
river would become impassable for several hours. Every time the water rose 
large quantities of silt were brought down, and the fords had to be moved 
repeatedly, owing to the treacherous and shifting nature of the river bottom. 
On several occasions different members of the party got into trouble with their 
ponies in crossing ; but although the animals would sink rapidly in the quick- 
sands up to their haunches, they always succeeded in scrambling out again. 
The camp was frequently visited by sick natives asking for help, which they 
usually received in the form of simple drugs, or "first aid" treatment in the 
case of injur}'. A lad with his head cut open would be brought in, or an old 
man with a shoulder dislocated would hobble from his work in the fields 
e.xpecting some miraculous cure ! The mules during this time were kept in 
T'ai-yiian Fu, but the ponies, being required for work continually, were kept 
tethered in the open out at camp. 

By July i6th everything in connection with the base line and triangula- 
tion had been completed, and the party returned to T'ai-yiian Fu, where they 
put up at a private house, rented for the purpose, to await the arrival of further 
supplies. Preparations in the way of packing the provisions and outfit, in loads 
suitable for mule transport, were commenced. This was no light task, as can 
be imagined, when we consider the length of journey contemplated, and the 
varied nature of outfit necessary ; and it kept all at work. Further, it had 
been decided to have a medical man with the party, and the services of 
Captain H. E. M. Douglas, V.C., D.S.O., of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 
were very kindly lent by the War Office for this purpose. On arrival. Captain 
Douglas at once took over the meteorological work. Mr. Clark desired, 
moreover, to add a zoological department to the expedition, and to undertake 
the charge of this he engaged the services of Mr. A. de C. Sowerby, who had 
recently returned from a collecting trip in Shensi. 

This increase in personnel naturally entailed a further store of provisions, 
to obtain which Mr. Grant paid a visit to Shanghai, at which place, too, he 
took over an additional supply of photographic material just arrived from 
Europe. 

Arrangements, too, were made for the telegraphic determination- (from 



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Tientsin) of the longitude of T'ai-yiian Fu. Major Davies, of the General 
Staff, a well-known Chinese explorer, very kindly undertook to perform the 
observations necessary at Tientsin, whilst everybody was kept busy at the 
T'ai-yuan end of the line on the nights of September gth and loth. The 
determination was entirely successful, and the longitude thus obtained — 
together with the latitudes already taken — were reduced to the Hsin-an M6n 
(the Eastern Gate of the Southern Wall of the city), the position of which was 
found to be : longitude, ii2°-33'-55'.73 E., and latitude, 37°-5i'-36".3 N. 

After this, final preparations for an early start westward were pushed on 
with all speed and completed by September 27th. AH stores were packed 
away in suitable cases, the surveying instruments carefully stowed, the photo- 
graphic material arranged so as to be easily accessible, and each member of 
the party finally told off to his individual task. 

The constitution of the expedition then at starting was as follows : — 

Leader R. S. Clark. 

Doctor and Meteorologist - - Captain H. E. M. Douglas, 

V.C, D.S.O., R.A.M.C. 

Artist Haviland B. Cobb. 

Interpreter and General Manager G. A. Grant. 

Naturalist - - - - A. de C. Sowerby. 

Surveyor ----- Hazrat Ali. 
Muhammad Husein, fifteen muleteers, three grooms, two survey coolies, eight 
personal servants, and Josephus, a young shikari, engaged for two months 
only ; making a total of thirty-six persons. 

At the last moment it was found necessary to hire several extra pack 
animals, so that the expedition started with forty-four mules and five donkeys. 
There were besides eight ponies for the use of the Staff and two attendant 
grooms. 



CHAPTER II. 

NARRATIVE OF MARCH TO THE YELLOW KIVEK. 

"yHE 28th of September broke fine and clear, and in the courtyard of the 
house which had sheltered the members of the expedition since the middle 
of July all was bustle and excitement. Outside, the street was crowded with 
mules, braying and kicking, their drivers busy roping up the last few loads. 
But by eleven o'clock the last load had been hoisted on to the last mule, and 
the long train, slowly working its way across the city, passed out through the 
Western gate to a stretch of level flats already bared of their rich crops of 
grain. It made a striking picture as it crossed the low-lying land between the 
muddy waters of the Fen Ho and the great d\ke raised to shield the city from 
the summer floods. The pack-animals, each with his jangling bells, 
swinging tassels and waving pompons, were kept in single file by their 
drivers, who swore at them, cracked their whips, and seemed anxious generally 
to outrival the bellowing of their charges. The animals were all fresh, well- 
conditioned, and full of fight, and, though their spirits calmed down 
wonderfully after a few marches, always ready to give trouble. 

It had been decided to make the first stage a very short one, so after 
fording the river without any mishap, we pitched our camp on the threshing- 
floor of a village named Nan-shih, about five miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu. 
This village was the home of our shikari, Josephus, and he and all his people 
did their best to make things comfortable for us. The loads were deposited 
in a field hard by, and the servants set to work with a will on pitching tents 
and erecting our cooking-stove, and although their good intentions were 
hampered by a lack of experience, everybody was comparatively snug and 
comfortable by nightfall. Two policemen had been sent by the Yang-wu-chu 
(Board of Foreign Affairs) " to protect the foreigners," and were set to guard 
the loads. These worthies, not relishing the task, hunted up the head-man 
of the village, and warning him that he would be held responsible in case of 
theft, ordered him to send someone to watch the things. This proved to be 
a verj' sound and sensible arrangement, and the practice was adhered to 
throughout the whole expedition. The servants, as was to be expected, found 
the greatest difficulty in preparing food ; but as they gained in experience, and 
got at home in the new conditions, our meals became soon quite appetizing. 
There were five tents in all, of which two were occupied by the Staff, one by 



PLATE 4. 




c 
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£ 
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3 

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Hazrat Ali and his compatriot, and the remaining two by the personal 
servants. The muleteers and grooms found quarters for themselves and their 
animals in the village, and, during the time that tents were used, camping- 
grounds were always chosen to be within easy reach of some suitable village. 

On September 29th an early start was made. Just before camp was 
struck we received a farewell visit from Mr. and Mrs. McCoy, who, with Miss 
Sowerby, had ridden over from T'ai-yiian Fu to see the last of the expedition. 

For the first five miles our road gradually ascended the dry boulder-strewn 
bed of a mountain stream. It then entered a deep, narrow gorge, and up this 
we travelled for several miles, and after a sharp ascent reached the village of 
Hsieh-tao-ts'un. From this point we obtained a last view of T'ai-yiian as-it 
lay in the plain, a thousand feet below us, with its gate-towers and sweeping 
city walls. 

From Hsieh-tao to Sheng-yi, where camp was pitched, the road lay along 
the tops of shale ridges ; in places it was very rough, but no great difficulty 
was experienced by the sure-footed mules. The country along this part of the 
road was wild and covered with scrub, whilst the slopes surrounding Sheng-yi 
were clothed in conifers. This district is full of small game and wild pig, and 
in consequence is frequently visited by residents of T'ai-yiian Fu during the 
shooting season. The natives we found to be very poor, sufficient crops to 
last them through the winter being raised only with the greatest difficulty. 
Several coal mines were noticed near Hsieh-tao ; but the low price of coal in 
T'ai-yiian affords the miner but a poor return for his labour. The coal, after 
being carried for fifteen miles on mules, is delivered to the consumer at the 
rate of two and a half cash per catty, which works out at about eight 
shillings a ton. 

From the figures recorded on the road-wheel, Sheng-yi was estimated to 
be sixteen miles from T'ai-yiian Fu, and almost due west of it. On 
September 30th the caravan left Sheng-yi, and continued its route over the 
mountains, still in a westerly direction, patches of scrub, pine spinneys and 
small spaces of cultivated ground being met with. By climbing a peak to the 
left of the bridle-path, which served as a road, an extended view of the 
surrounding country could be obtained. Ahead of us some eighty miles 
towered the Chiao-ch'6ng Shan, and so clear was the air that in every 
direction the peaks stood out sharply defined, as though viewed through some 
powerful telescope. 

Throughout the march a sharp look-out for game was kept by the more 
enthusiastic sportsmen of the partj'. Clark and Grant found abundance of 



subjects for their cameras ; the naturalist busied himself in the pursuit of 
chipmunks through the ravines ; and from time to time Hazrat Ali and his 
coolies could be Seen hard at work in country which, for the purposes of the 
surveyor, it would be hard to beat. 

After reaching an altitude of well over 5000 feet, we commenced to 
descend ; at first gradually, but after some distance the end of the ridge was 
reached, and the road fell away sharply as the valley of the Ffin Ho came in 
sight. At about four o'clock we entered Ku-chao, a large village situated on 
the right bank of the river, and some thirteen miles from Sheng-yi. It may 
be noted that the river runs from Ku chao in a south-easterly direction, but 
then taking a turn enters the plain iifteen miles north-west of T'ai-yiian Fu 
and, having fallen 300 feet since leaving Ku-chao, flows past that city in a 
southerly course, thus forming two sides of a triangle, along the base of which 
we had travelled. The population of Ku-chao was estimated at five hundred, 
including women and children. A peculiar square-built tower, rising above 
the rest of the buildings, was found to mark the house of a local magnate. 
Several other small villages could be seen scattered along the valley in both 
directions. We halted at this place for a day to afford the servants an 
opportunity of getting things straight, for, unaccustomed to this nomadic life, 
they had allowed our commissariat to get in a terrible state of muddle. 

On the following day, October ist, the journey was continued still in a 
westerly direction. At a spot about a mile from Ku-chao the Fen Ho, coming 
from the north-west, changes direction as a large affluent joins it from the 
west, and up this latter lay our road to the Chiao-ch'eng Shan, so that the 
caravan had perforce to quit the bed of the main stream. The road was good 
all the way to Tsa-k'ou, where we pitched camp. During the day we passed 
some nine small villages, with an average population of from a hundred to a 
hundred and fifty. In one was a little Roman Catholic church, and all the 
villagers appeared to be converts. The valley varied in width from one to 
four furlongs, and though boulder-strewn or sandy in places, contained 
occasional cultivated fields. The hills on either side were covered with the 
usual loess terraces, bearing rich crops of millet, buckwheat, castor-oil, and 
potatoes, and the natives were busy harvesting after a very good season. 

On October 3rd our march was resumed up the valley, the sides 
of which were now lined with lofty straight-boled poplars. The road soon 
became very rough, and began to ascend sharply, until at last a high pass was 
reached at a height of over 6000 feet. The descent from here into the bed of 
a second wide stream, running from south to north, and consequently at right 



PLATE 5. 




angles to that just quitted, was very steep and roiigli, but it was negotiated 
without mishap. Mi-yiieh-ch'^ng, distant from Tsa-k'ou about nineteen 
miles, was reached in the afternoon, and we encamped in a grassy field close 
to the village. 

From Mi-yueh-ch'eng the road ran southward up the valley, the country 
becoming wilder and the mountains higher with each succeeding mile, until at 
last the valley narrowing and changing direction we began to ascend, west- 
wards again, to another high pass. Here an altitude of nearly 8000 feet was 
attained, lofty forest-clad peaks rising still higlier to right and left. A descent 
of about 1000 feet brought us into the Mo-aii valley, and a camping-ground 
was chosen in a sheltered ravine at the foot of a mountam named Yiin-t'ing 
Shan (" Cloud-roof Mountain"). No village was passed during this day's 
march ; only here and there a cluster of two or three huts, and the muleteers 
were forced to go on down the valley for about five miles to a village, where 
they could stable their mules. The grooms, however, managed to find 
sufficient accommodation for the ponies in the cattle-sheds of a tiny hamlet 
across the valley, near the camp. 

The ravine chosen for the camp was comparatively wide, and opened 
towards the north, so that astronomical observations could be made 
comfortably. Towards the south it soon narrowed, ascending rapidh' at the 
same time until lost in the forest-clad slopes of Yiin-t'ing Shan. The ridge to 
which this mountain belongs runs east and west, commencing with a series of 
peaks, heavily covered with forests of larch and fir, and diminishing in size till 
they merge into the shale and loess foothills, and terminating in the supreme 
grey granite crest of Mo-erh Shan. From its base again branch out several 
lower ridges, of which the largest, curving towards the south, splits into a 
number of sharp peaks. As a rule, the slopes facing north are clothed in 
dense forests of pine, spruce, larch, and birch, interspersed with patches of 
impenetrable hazel scrub, whilst the slopes facing south are grassy, or covered 
with low herbaceous growth. The forests commence at about 7500 feet, and 
extend to the summits of the ridges. At the season of our visit the larch's 
autumn foliage of bright gold and the coppery tints of the hazel stood out in 
striking contrast to the deep blue-green of spruce and pine. 

A trip was made during our stay in camp to the summit of Mo-erh Shan 
for the purpose of taking a round of angles to check the plane-table work. 
From this point the panorama that stretched itself before us was magnificent 
in the extreme. In every direction winding vallejs threaded by sparkling 
streams ; granite crests and rugged scaurs, all ablaze witii colour ; and, as a 



background, the more distant ranges shading away, wave upon wave, in every 
tone, from mauve to deepest blue. Eastward, beyond the T'ai-yiian valley, 
the Lung-wang Shan were plainly discernible, flanked to north and south by 
ranges marshalled in complex and bewildering formation. Only to the north- 
west was the horizon flat, indicating the wastes of the great Ordos desert. 
To the west, ridge upon ridge of rounded loess hills, broken only by the three 
lonely peaks of the Ch'ing-ting Shan. It is no exaggeration to say that our 
view e.xtended for over a hundred miles in every direction, except perhaps the 
south — a scene indeed not easy to match in either the Old World or 
the New. 

The expedition remained in this neighbourhood for nearly a fortnight. 
Deer were reported plentiful, and several hunting trips were organized, but 
without any very remarkable success, though hare, pheasant and partridge 
were frequently bagged. Sowerby, however, was more successful on a 
miniature scale, and managed to secure a good collection of mice and voles. 
The vegetation of the district is luxuriant, and comprises not only the forest 
trees and hazel already mentioned, but herbaceous trees and shrubs in 
countless variety. The natives, though poor, are healthy-looking ; the men 
stalwart and well-built, the women decidedly better looking than those in and 
around T'ai-yiian Fu. However, goitre seems not uncommon, and we noticed 
many cases of sore eyes, the result, no doubt, of smoky wood fires. The 
cultivation of oats and potatoes — the only crops that will ripen at such an 
altitude— affords a meagre source of livelihood. The cutting and hauling of 
timber, though supplying fuel and building material for the rude huts, are 
useless for trade purposes, no easy means of transport existing, such as the 
Fen Ho provides to the people of the Ning-wu district further north. During 
the winter months musk-hunters visit the district, and medicine-hunters from 
Ssuch'uan prosecute their search for genseng . and other roots at all times of 
the j'ear. Roman Catholic missionaries have penetrated these mountains 
and made many converts, who abjure the smoking of opium. One or other 
of the Fathers from T'ai-yiian Fu visits the district twice yearly. In 1900, 
during the Boxer troubles, Yu-hsien, the Governor of T'ai-yuan, sent troops 
to execute the converts ; but the people, most of whom own a firearm of some 
sort, and are of a sporting turn, rose at once, and chasing the soldiers over 
the mountains killed them almost to a man. 

On its becoming known that one of the party was a doctor, the usual 
deputations begging for medicine invaded the camp. One and all received 
attention and a " cure " in some tangible form, even were this nothing more 

ro 



PLATE 6. 




imposing than a reliable pill. The weather was now becoming very cold, and 
before the party left the nei,s;hbourhood a heavy fall of snow had draped the 
mountains in its thick white mantle. ~ At last, on October i6th, camp was 
struck, and the caravan moved slowly down the valley, winding from side to 
side like some monstrous serpent. Several large villages were passed, and 
word having gone ahead, the inhabitants turned out en masse and stood in 
groups, mouths agape and eyes wide open, to stare at our procession. We 
felt gratified at the thought that they evidently regarded us as some sort of 
travelling circus. After the first two or three miles of rough and rocky going, 
the valley opened to a width of about a quarter of a mile, and the path 
became less uneven, sloping gently to the west. Soon the high ridges and 
wooded slopes were left behind, and we found ourselves once more amidst the 
shale and loess. Camp was pitched at Ma-feng, a village situated at an 
altitude of about 4500 feet, and some ten miles from Yun-t'ing Shan. The 
inhabitants, about three hundred in number, took the greatest interest in our 
proceedings, crowding eagerly round the camp. This was natural enough, as 
the only Europeans they had seen before were Roman Catholic missionaries, 
who adopt the native style of dress. The explorers, with upturned moustaches, 
outlandish clothes, leather saddles, and countless strange accoutrements, were 
indeed something to see, and will probably afford a subject of conversation 
for many years to come. 

That night our larder was raided by a wolf. He got away safe, and no 
doubt satisfied, for the servants thought it necessary to send to the village for 
Josephus and his gun, though several members of the party would have been 
only too happy to exchange their chances of sleep for a shot at the robber. 

On October 17th the journey was continued down the valley, which here 
bends to the south, and Feng-hsiang-ch'eng, a village of some size, was reached. 
From Ma-feng to this point, a distance of about eight miles, and on to 
Yung-ning Chou, a good cart-road exists, though no carts were met with. 
Just beyond Feng-hsiang we turned up into the loess hills to the west. Our 
road ascending gradually, and becoming more and more rough as the loess 
gave place to shale, finally reached the head of the pass, at a height of about 
5300 feet. From here the valley of the Yellow River was distinctly visible. 
Descending slopes, covered with scrub-oak and hazel, into a deep and narrow 
ravine called Sung-chia-k'ou, we passed three tiny hamlets, and pitched our 
tents in a ploughed field lying between a towering cliff and a sheer drop of 
about fifty feet. This latter bid fair to become a death-trap to many of the 
mules, rampaging madly round after being relieved of their loads. At this 



11 



place it was found necessarj- to get rid of the head-groom. He was found to 
have been habitually under-feeding the ponies and bullying his subordinates, 
and was dismissed on the spot. From his departure there was a verj- marked 
improvement in the condition and spirit of the animals ; some which, till now, 
had seemed lazy and unwilling, developing a liveliness which made it 
imperative to ransack our stores for curb-bits. The altitude of this camp was 
estimated at about 3900 feet, and its distance from the last halt about 
seventeen miles. 

The following day after continuing down the ravine for another ten or 
twelve miles, we arrived at the walled town of Lin Hsien, situated on the 
slope of a broad valley. Just before we quitted the ravine, a fine golden eagle 
was shot whilst feeding on the body of an infant child by the roadway. Such 
a sight is by no means uncommon in a country where the people refuse to 
bury dead babies under the curious belief that if eaten by a wild animal the 
child is born again to its original parents. On hearing of our approach, scores 
of men, women, and children, poured forth from the town gates. They 
flocked round the camp, and were only kept from entering our tents with the 
very greatest difficulty. The gentleman acting as deputy in the absence of 
the Hsien magistrate certainly did his best to make things comfortable for us, 
but he had no real authority over the crowds that surrounded the camp. The 
party entertained him, however, together with a native Roman Catholic 
evangelist at dinner the same evening, and they seemed to appreciate the 
meal. We had another visit that night, this time from three wolves ; how- 
ever they contented themselves with a serenade. Sowerby went after them, 
but the moonlight was insufficient to afford any chance of a shot. 

Lin Hsien, a well built town, surrounded by a wall in an unusually good 
state of preservation, contains a population of about 3000. The Roman 
Catholics have established here a Mission station, where a priest resides. 
The place owes its prosperity mainly to the fact that it forms the mart and 
distributing centre for a large stretch of country. Situated, as already stated, 
on the western slope of a broad valley, running north and south, a part of its 
wall ascends and encloses the crest of the hill overlooking the main portion of 
the town. This is a means of protection very frequently employed in a land 
where towns and cities are perforce built under high cliffs and hills. In the 
river bed to the eastern side of the town a strong d\ke of massive stone blocks 
has been constructed to withstand the fierce attack of mountain torrents. 
These sweeping down the valley in the rainy season, unbroken sheets of water 
eight or ten feet deep, and filling it from side to side, would very quickly 

12 



PLATE 7. 




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C 

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3 

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undermine the walls, were it not for the protection given by the dyke, which 
stretches the whole length of the wall, and incidentally forms an excellent 
esplanade. 

Next day camp was struck, and our march resumed. For the first three 
miles the road lay in a northerly direction up the valley, and then entered a 
ravine on the west. The rest of the day's journey was up this ravine, which, 
commencing of some width, where it meets the Lin Hsien valley, gradually 
dwindles to a chasm in the loess. At Kan-tsao-k'ou, where a suitable camping 
ground was found, it again widens out, and divides up into several branches, 
which run up into and drain the eastern slopes of the Ch'ing-ting Shan 
about two miles distant. Kan-tsao-k'ou means literally " dry grass pass " — 
the name being applied equally to ravine and village. This nomenclature is 
almost invariably adopted where a village lies near the head of a long ravine. 
For example, Sung-chia-k'ou (literally " the pass of the Sung family ") was 
the name applied not only to the ravine where the expedition passed the night 
of October 17th, but also to the village just above that camp. 

From Kan-tsao-k'ou it was decided to make a trip to the summit of one 
of the Ch'ing-ting Shan peaks, to estimate the altitude, latitude, and longitude, 
and also to secure a round of angles to check the plane-table work. As this 
would necessitate a halt of a few days duration, Cobb and Sowerby decided 
to go on in advance of the main body. The former was anxious to get to 
Yu-lin Fu that he might set up a temporary' studio, and fix his impressions on 
canvas ; the latter to make a collection of the desert fauna before -the cold 
weather definitely set in. Marching from Kan-tsao-k'ou with their baggage 
and the mules necessary on October 2ist, these two gentlemen reached 
Yii-lin Fu six days later without adventure. They found quarters first at an 
inn inside the town, and afterwards in a fine temple, San-yeh Miao, outside 
the south gate. 

Meanwhile at Kan-tsao-k'ou we had been obliged to postpone our r.scent 
of the mountain for several days owing to heavy rains ; but on October 24th, 
after a stiff climb, the temple of Ch'eng-wu Miao was reached. This is a 
building curiously like a mediaeval fortress. No observations were possible 
that night owing to cloud and mist ; but next day was clear and sunny, and a 
fine view was obtained. This isolated upland covers an area of not more than 
twenty-five square miles, and protrudes in a peculiar manner above the sur- 
rounding loess, of which the whole neighbourhood on three sides, save one 
low range across the Yellow River, is formed. This gives the scenery a very 
curious and distinctive character ; the country with its hummocks and water 



13 



courses resembling nothing so much as a Titanic crumple of brown paper. 
Eastward, the hills are more rocky, and {gradually increasing in height fade 
away into the blue and lofty peaks of the Chiao-ch'^ng Shan. 

We returned to camp on October 25th, and the following day resumed our 
march to the Yellow River. A high pass, about 5400 feet, between two of the 
peaks of the Ch'ing-ting Shan, was easily negotiated, the ascent being neither 
rough nor steep. An equally easy descent brought us into yet another deep ravine, 
along which our route was continued till Ts'ai-chia-wei, a village of about 300 
inhabitants, was reached. The first five miles of this march had lain through 
limestone and shale, which then gave place entirely to loess, cut and hollowed 
by many rains into the most fantastic shapes : weird grottoes, deep chasms, 
narrow ridges, and isolated columns. 

On October 28th, after leaving this village and following the ravine for 
about ten miles, we ascended about 1000 feet, and kept along the top of a 
winding ridge, terminated by the steep descent to the bed of the Huang Ho, 
facing the little village of Huang-ho-yeh. The altitude here was estimated at 
2400 feet. As it was found impossible to cross the river that night, camp was 
pitched on the eastern bank. 

The slope behind the village opposite being very steep, it had been found 
necessary to build platforms for the houses. These were constructed in the 
form of rows of Roman arches, with the result that the whole village had the 
appearance of the ancient Roman ruins so common in Italy, In fact Mr. 
Cobb, the artist of the party, has declared that the hills and general scenery 
of Western Shansi recall in a most striking manner the clear and sunny 
atmosphere of the Apennines. These vaulted platforms, supporting similarly 
vaulted houses, are characteristic of the villages along the banks of the Yellow 
River, in this district. They are also found in other parts of Shansi and 
Shensi, but nowhere so frequently as here. 

A good idea of the formation of the sedimentary rock, which extends 
through a large part of Western Shansi and over the whole of Shensi north 
of the Hsi-an Fu plain, was obtained at this spot. The Yellow River having 
cut deeply into this bed, a section some five hundred feet deep is exposed. 
Nowhere were any faults noticed, though the strata were found to be in places 
slightly undulating. 

The general conformation of the country between the Fen Ho and the 
Yellow River may now be considered briefly. The most striking feature is, of 
course, the range of high mountains, which, commencing near Ning-wu Fu, 
about one hundred miles north-west of T'ai-yiian Fu, and stretching south- 

14 



PLATE 8. 



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ward in a more or less unbroken line beyond Ffen-chou Fu, a large city about 
seventy miles to the south-west, forms the watershed between the two rivers, 
F6n and Huang. The average height of this chain is between 7000 and 8000 
feet, but here and there great peaks like Mo-firh Shan rise to a far greater 
altitude. These are usually of granite, or some similar crystalline rock, 
probably of an intrusive nature. On the eastern side of this divide numerous 
ravines running together form valleys, which vary in width from one to four 
furlongs, and extend in a more or less easterly direction. Those near the 
source of the Fen Ho in the Ning-wu district run south-south-east, and are 
succeeded a few miles further down the course of the river by others running 
south-east, whilst in the country west of T'ai-yiian Fu the valleys run almost 
due east. West of the divide there are fewer large valleys, but these are 
broader and run more nearly north and south between ridges of shale and 
loess. They are joined on either side by numerous gorges, which cut down 
through the strata to a considerable depth. The broad valleys join the bed 
of the Yellow River some distance southwards. It was noticed that the 
country east of the divide was much rougher and more irregular than that on 
the west, whilst the hills were uniformly higher and more pointed. Reference 
has been made already to the peculiar isolated peaks of Ch'ing-ting Shan. 
West of these the ravines all had a south-westerly direction, opening finally 
into the bed of the Huang Ho. 



15 



CHAPTER III. 

PASSAGE OF THE YELLOW RIVER — MARCH TO YU-LIN FU. 

^^N October 29th we proceeded to cross the river, an undertaking which 
required some little management owing to the recent heavy rains. 
Several large ferry-boats were brought over from Huang-ho-yeh, and into 
these the mules and baggage were all bundled without further ceremony ; 
though anyone who knows the Chinese boatman, and the Chinese muleteer 
and mule, will realise that the operations were conducted without any very 
elaborate regard to silence. Each ferry-boat was divided into three compart- 
ments, of which two were occupied by the animals, and the third by their 
loads. The crossing — effected by keeping the nose of the boat pointed at an 
angle up and across the stream — was a perilous undertaking. As each of the 
unwieldy craft approached the western shore it was caught in a swirling eddy, 
and seemed bound to capsize, but at this juncture, the ferrymen, bending 
vigorously to their oars, forced it slowly to the land. These oars are effective 
but very primitive in pattern, usually split tree-trunks, one end pared down to 
form a handle, and each is manned by two or three men. The mules showed 
no reluctance to leave the ferry-boats, which, by the end of a passage, 
contained several inches of water. It took five hours to get the whole caravan 
across, and we were fortunate in that no losses were sustained. The current 
was running like a mill-race, and, had one of the oars broken under the strain 
to which it was subjected, the result would have been disaster. 

At last, when all had been landed safely, the pack-train, preceded by the 
Staff on their ponies, entered the mouth of a deep gorge leading westward. 
The walls of this caiion rose sheer for over a hundred feet and the floor was 
very rough, strewn with boulders and square masses of rock. A comparatively 
large stream flowed through the cafion, and the strata, which were of sand- 
stone, exhibited surfaces honeycombed in a peculiar manner. The remains of 
a well-paved road were in places recognisable, and seemed to suggest that this 
had been at one time an important highway. For some distance the canon 
continued rugged and bare, but at one place, where it narrowed, a small stone 
fort guarded the passage. At last the loess began to show on the sides, and 
we noticed the first village, or sign of cultivation, since leaving Huang-ho-yeh. 
A steep ascent was made and camp was pitched near a village named 

16 



PLATE 9. 







/ ^ 



^'^^ 








3 

r 



Liu-chia-mo, some five and a half miles from Huaiifj-ho-yeh and at an altitude 
of about 3100 feet. Sand from the desert, in small patches, was noticed here 
for the first time. 

The following daj', October 30th, our road led first over a small plateau, 
from which it descended into the sandy valley of the Tui Ho. This river, 
though not large, flows swiftly down a channel which it has worn out of the 
rock, leaving the greater part of the valley to the wind-borne sand, drifted 
doubtless from the Ordos. After crossing the Tui Ho near a small village, the 
road ascends another rough ravine. For the rest of the day's march no 
villages and but very little cultivation were seen ; the country was growing 
steadily wilder and more desolate, desert sand was noticed, and the loess itself 
was composed of larger particles of silica. The ravines and gorges were found 
to shelter large coveys of red-legged partridges, many of which were bagged 
for the pot. We reached camp rather late. This had already been pitched by 
the now expert servants at Chin-chia-k'ou, a village some seventeen miles from 
Liu-chia-mo. The weather was becoming a trifle too cold for tents ; the 
stoves leaked abominably, and no fuel but a very smoky bituminous coal was 
obtainable. The minimum temperature at Chin-chia-k'ou was 23"5 Fah., 
which gives sufficient indication of our experience. The altitude worked out 
to about 3400 feet. 

Next day a march of five miles brought us to Chiu-ts'ai, a hamlet on a 
stream called Chia-lu. This lies slightly lower than our last camp, but the 
going was very bad, the road being mainly across an isolated belt of sand — the 
first really definite sign of the great Ordos Desert towards which the expedi- 
tion was gradually working. 

On November ist the journey was up a broad valley, varying in width 
from a quarter to half a mile. A good road e.\tended all the way. Sand in 
patches was frequently seen, and it was also observed on the coarse-grained 
loess forming the sides of the valley. Two tiny hamlets were the only signs of 
habitation noticed ; but camels loaded with soda, and donkeys bearing coal 
and salt were encountered, giving some idea of the products of the neighbour- 
hood. After a march of about nine miles we halted at Yang-chia-tien, where 
quarters were secured in a large Buddhist temple. Of this the priest seemed 
rather the landlord than an officiating minister; however, to show his piety, 
he had instituted religious processions, in which apparently all the ragamuffins 
of the locality took part twice daily. The impossibility of serving God and 
Mammon holds as little real place in Chinese ethics as perhaps in those of 
some other nations. So comfortable were the quarters that we were loath to 

B 17 



hurry, and it was decided to spend a day in idleness. This fact was turned to 
account by the sick and ailing, who came to Captain Douglas with their 
troubles. A good many proved to be maJades imaginaires, and were treated to 
Livingston Rousers, which the experienced Army Surgeon declares of the 
highest efificac)' in this class of case. Several of the native servants were 
noticed during the day sitting in the sun with their coats off, conducting 
exhaustive investigations into the probable cause, or causes, of a personal dis- 
comfort from which they had for some time suffered. It may be mentioned in 
this connection that the Staff of the expedition had recently found it advisable 
to make their own beds. 

On November 3rd the march was continued up the valley for about two 
miles, and then up a narrower gully for three more; the latter portion running 
along an overhanging path but a few feet wide. Then, a loess divide being 
crossed, our tents were pitched near the small but well-built and prosperous 
village of Liu-chien-hua. It was estimated that at least one quarter of the 
terrain passed over that day was of loose sand. The cliffs and hills, too, were 
very sandy in their composition, and it was only on the highest and most 
wind-swept ridges that loose sand was not in evidence. Vegetation had been 
for some time very scarce, and the stunted trees were everywhere half buried 
in the sand. Nevertheless there was no sign of drought, for every ravine held 
its stream of fresh, if not always very clear, water. The salt, of which we had 
seen some fifty donkey-loads in the day, was for distribution amongst the 
villages on the Yellow River. The altitude of this camping-ground was 
estimated at 3500 feet. 

Next morning, November 5th, an early start was made with a view to 
covering the fifteen miles lying between us and Yii-lin Fu in good time. The 
road proved to be satisfactory almost the whole way, but the sand became 
markedly more abundant. The sides of the streams were no longer cliffs, but 
high banks of loose sand sloping sharply to the water's edge. At last Yii-lin 
was reached, and we gladly took up our quarters in the warm and comfortable 
accommodation provided by the hospitable officials of the city. 

San-yeh Miao, a Buddhist temple of considerable dimensions, and 
admirably suited for the purpose, had been placed at our disposal. It com- 
prised two large courts, one some ten feet higher than the other. Into the 
former opened several smaller courts, containing the living rooms which had 
been done up for our reception. The large upper room and side rooms of this 
court were devoted to images of Buddha with his attendant spirits ; whilst 
the far end of the lower court was occupied by the usual theatre-stage. One 

IB 



PLATE 10. 




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large room was set aside as our dining and general living room, adjoining 
which w;is a small sleeping chamber. This latter was converted into a dark- 
room, and Grant, who had a large number of plates to develope, had his bed 
set up in the living room. Clark and Sowerby found comfortable quarters in 
two cave rooms, and above was Cobb's studio, where he had his bed and a 
small stove. Douglas, preferring quiet and early hours, betook himself to 
a well-ventilated apartment adjoining the outer court, where it was only by a 
most lavish use of rugs and blankets that he survived the cold. It was 
decided to stay some time in Yii-lin Fu, as there was plenty to be done. 
A large number of exposed plates had accumulated since the commencement 
of the journey, and it was thought best to get these developed and packed 
away out of hand. Some time, too, was necessary for making the good 
collection of desert fauna, upon which the naturalist had set his heart ; and, 
in addition, the surrounding district had to be investigated. It was also 
desirable to get a good set of astronomical observations, and considerable 
interest would attach to a series of meteorological data collected over a 
lengthy period. 

Cobb and Sowerby had, at their arrival, called upon the Chih-hsien 
(District Magistrate), at whose residence they met several other local officials. 
They were kindly received, and, presenting their cards and that of Mr. Clark, 
e.xplained the objects and work of the expedition. The mention of astro- 
nomical research seemed to awaken particular interest, and it transpired 
subsequently, through certain remarks made by the Chih-fu (Prefect), that 
these eminent public servants had jumped to the conclusion that Clark was 
a learned astrologer, and his failure to predict deaths in the Imperial Family, 
which occurred a few weeks later, was to them a source of the most grave 
disappointment. On his arrival, Mr. Clark, in turn, accompanied by Sowerby 
as interpreter, paid a round of visits to all the officials, who promptly returned 
the calls. One and all sent presents — sheep, chickens, eggs, and sweetmeats 
— to which Clark responded by taking their photographs and presenting them 
with copies, which were highly appreciated. Although long conversations 
were held with the Chih-fu and the Head of the Police, little of interest 
concerning the history of Yii-lin Fu was obtained. The informants seemed 
as ignorant of the subject as their interrogators. The Head of the Police, 
Pi Jung-pei, was a particularly pleasant and agreeable old man, and he often 
called for a little chat, or when some official communication had to be made. 
The highest military official in Yu-lin Fu was the Brigadier-General, or Chfin- 
t'ai ("Commander of One Thousand Men"), of whose force, however, 

19 



some six hundred had existence on paper only. At the date of our visit he 
was suffering from chest trouble, and the severe effects of having to abandon 
the use of opium. For this reason he excused himself for not calling; but 
a professional visit from Douglas seemed to be much appreciated by the 
invalid. 

Yii-lin Fu, an ancient border city on the eastern bank of the Yii-lin Ho, 
is a busy place, forming, as it does, the chief mart for all commerce between 
the Southern Ordos Mongols and the Shensi Chinese. On the eastern side, 
sand from the desert has in many places banked itself up in a ramp against 
the city wall, thus affording an easy means of entrance to belated travellers. 
The western wall runs along the valley of the Yii-lin Ho. There are numerous 
temples within the city, in one of which, situated on high ground at the 
eastern end, a fine spring rises and pours its waters into a stream which, 
flowing through the town, fills in turn some large ponds within the western 
wall. From these the water escapes through a low heavily-barred archway, 
and is utilised to irrigate a large tract of cultivated land lying between the 
river and the city. One long street runs north and south from gate to gate, 
and from this issue many side streets. The main street, lined as it is with 
shops and pedlars' stalls, presents a busy and interesting scene. Hides in 
great numbers lie pinned out to dry in the sun, whilst on all sides blacksmiths 
are busy turning out Mongol stoves, wolf-traps, household utensils and 
agricultural implements. Provisions, such as flour, vegetables, fowls, and 
mutton are very cheap. Excellent mutton may be bought at thirty-five cash 
per catty, or about a penny a pound ; ten cabbages can be bought for the 
same sum. The chief commercial products of the city and district are horse 
and cow hides, the skins of antelopes, foxes, sheep, and goats, camel's wool, 
and various sorts of hair and wool, both unmanufactured and in the form of 
felt and sacking. We obtained some very serviceable felt socks, made to fit 
over the boot, whilst the serA-ants and muleteers laid in an ample stock of the 
strong native boots, for the manufacture of which the city is famous. A 
bituminous coal, which burns well, though with too much smoke, is obtained 
from a mine about a mile from the south gate. Outside the same gate several 
horse fairs are held annually, to which Mongols from every part of the Ordos 
bring their ponies, shaggy and unbroken, for sale or barter. One of these 
fairs took place during our stay, and an opportunity was thus afforded us of 
seeing some of these typical desert-dwellers. 

Just within the Great Wall, and about three miles north of the city, stands 
a large fort built originally to guard the entrance, through which runs the 

20 



The Fort near Yii-lin Fu, Ordos Border. 



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main road from the Ordos. It is some ninety feet in height and surrounded 
by a high wall. There are three storeys : the first a solid block of masonry 
about thirty feet square ; the second and third similar, but lessening in size. 
Access to the second storey is gained by a stairway inside the lowest, but the 
steps from this to the top are on the outside. From here a splendid birdseye 
view of the desert is obtainable — countless sandhills stretching away north 
and south to the horizon ; in the near distance two affluents of the Yu-lin Ho, 
their banks marked out by elms and willows. The sandhills assume varying 
hues of pink and yellow, swept from time to time by a darker patch of mauve, 
the shadow of a drifting cloud. The delicacy of the colouring, remarkable at 
all times, becomes specially so at sunset. A peculiar phenomenon was noticed 
from the temple, the great sandbank that lies beyond the river taking on at 
night a deep red glow particularly noticeable in the moonlight. The Great 
Wall at this point, and indeed along the whole boundary-line between the 
Ordos and Shensi, is little more than a low ridge of earth. Its course, 
however, is easily distinguishable by the watch towers still existing at 
intervals of about three hundred yards. In many cases these are in admirable 
preservation, leading to the supposition that the Wall in this part was not 
itself faced with brick or stone. It seems possible that there were battlements 
of brick, but there is no indication of any further masonry. It has been 
suggested that the towers are of later date than the W^all, or that they alone 
have been kept in repair ; but there is no good reason for either view, and 
certainly there is no trace of any repair whatever.* But so much has been 
written about this stupendous work that any further discussion or remarks 
here would be superfluous. 

An interesting visit was paid to a temple situated on the bank of the 
Yii-lin Ho. at the point where it cuts through the Wall. It is formed mainly 
by caves hewn out of the solid sandstone, which appears here as a massive 
outcrop. Opposite the temple, on the western bank of the river, are numerous 
epitaphs carved on the face of the cliffs in Chinese and Tartar characters. 
They are to the memory of officials and Mongol princes, whose sepulchres 
can be seen as deep excavations below. Photographs of the fort and temple, 
and of the Wall at various points, were secured. A series of astronomical 
observations of both sun and stars, reduced to the South Gate, seemed to 
indicate that the old Jesuit longitude is about twenty-eight miles out. 



* A< a matter of historical irtemi, it may be mentioned that the Wall was repaired by Chien Sben, of the Ming 

dynasty (1463-87). 

21 



The country about Yii-lin Fu is wild and inexpressibly dreary. Very 
few trees are to be seen, and the bare brown cliffs and yellow sand are devoid 
of any vegetation, save an occasional tuft of some sage scrub. In places, 
especially where, as in the north-east, it rises to any prominence, gloomy 
chasms, with deadly quicksands lurking in their depths, gape in the sandstone 
and the half-formed shale. To north and west the prospect is heart-breaking. 
Sand-dunes and sand-dunes, and again sand-dunes — shifting with every storm 
and obliterating every landmark. Only here and there, as tiny islands in 
a sea of desolation, small clusters of mud huts, where some little oasis marks 
the site of a spring or well. 

An unpleasant discovery was made soon after our arrival at Yu-lin Fu. 
The current expenses of the expedition had been under-estimated, with the 
result that there was a serious shortage in the silver available. After some 
consultation it was decided that Cobb and Grant should start at once for 
Hsi-an Fu, the capital of Shensi, where it would be possible to negotiate 
certain drafts and wire to Peking for a further supply of specie. As Cobb's 
time was nearly up, and there were urgent reasons for his early return to 
Europe, he decided to make this his farewell to the expedition, and to push 
straight on to the coast from Hsi-an Fu. Grant would return with the silver 
as far as Yen-an Fu, a city midway between Yii-lin and Hsi-an, where the 
main body would meet him. After a farewell dinner, and amidst the customary 
leave-takings and regrets, Cobb and Grant, with a small caravan of mules, 
started southward on November 27th. 

The winter was now coming on apace, and it was thought wise to set 
about making an early start for Yen-an Fu, where we could go into winter 
quarters, and accordingly the remaining members commenced to busj' them- 
selves packing and preparing to resume the march. A few days later we were 
all astounded by the news of the three deaths in the Imperial Family — those 
of the Dowager Empress, Emperor, and Emperor's uncle. This was indeed 
startling. What would happen ? Would the long-expected revolution break 
out and sweep all before it ? Where were Cobb and Grant ? These and a 
hundred similar questions tormented our minds, for there was nothing to be 
gained by ignoring the fact that we were in the heart of a country where very 
many atrocities had from time to time been committed. However, after 
discussing matters, we came to the conclusion that everything would pass off 
quietly, and that there was little need for anxiety. Nevertheless, as a 
precautionarj- measure, the rilles wore overhauled and a good supply of 
i2-bore cartridges filled with buckshot and issued to all hands. The Chinese 

22 



PLATE II. 









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Pi Jung-pei, Head of the Police, Yii-lin J-u, Shensi. 



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officials sent reassuring messages to the leader of the expedition by the mouth 
of Pi, the Head of the Police, who himself anticipated no trouble whatever. 
And thus reassured, the party continued their preparations for an early 
move southward. 



23 



CHAPTER IV. 

MARCH TO VEN-AN FV — WINTER QUARTERS. 

/^N December 5th our long string of animals were once more on the march. 
The mules, after their month's rest, were particularly obstreperous. 
Loads were pitched off in every direction, and kicking, braying animals went 
careering over the sandy flats. However, after much trouble, the refractory 
brutes were captured, the loads straightened out or re-made, and the train 
continued on its way. The cold was now severe, and the travellers often 
suffered acutely. The stoves were hardly adequate in such temperatures as 
were now registered; and the doors of the inns en route were as a rule 
ricketty, ramshackle contrivances, miracles of ventilation, calculated to admit 
the maximum of air in the minimum of time. Very often too the only fuel 
available was a smoky coal, which caused many severe headaches and con- 
siderable discomfort generally. It should be remarked that tents had been 
discarded for the time being. 

The whole journey between Yii-lin and Yen-an occupied fifteen days ; the 
country passed through taking the form of loess hills of from 500 to 1000 
feet in height above the valley bottoms, and their summits characterised by a 
singular uniformity of level, which in conjunction with the excessive cold, 
rendered Hazrat Ali's work extremely difficult. However, he stuck bravely 
to his plane-table, though of course the extent of country mapped on either 
side of the road was of necessity reduced. This uniformity of level is the 
natural result of the geological formation. A huge deposit of loess, cut up in 
every direction by deep ravines and gulleys, lies upon a substratum of 
carboniferous rock — sandstone, shale, and slate. In many places there are 
seams of coal, and at one spot there were thought to be signs of mineral oil. 
This is by no means improbable, as the famous oil wells of Yen-ch'ang Hsien 
are not far distant. Unlike those of Shansi, every ravine and gully here has 
its stream of sweet clear water, which flows into some affluent of the Yellow 
River. The majority of these affluents are of a quite respectable size, and 
all flow in an easterly direction. 

Except for the eccentric behaviour of the mules at starting, the first day's 
journey was without incident. The road followed the course of the Yii-lin Ho 
all the way. The country was covered with thick layers of sand, and very 
little cultivation was noticed. Many little streams enter the river on either 

24 



PLATE 12. 




Chinese Lady. 



side. A mile or two south of Yii-lin P'u we passed a massive stone bridge 
spanning the river at a point where it cuts through an outcrop of rock, and 
some miles further south came upon the remains of a swinging chain bridge. 
So far as could be gathered, two chains, their ends fastened to rocks on either 
side, had carried across the river a roadway of timber. In any case the 
contrivance had long fallen into disuse, the chains were rusted nearly through, 
and but fragments of the planking still visible. At other points the passage 
of the river had to be effected by fords, or ferries. Seven small villages were 
passed, and towards the end of the day, after covering twenty-one miles, we 
reached Yii-ho-p'u, a small walled town which at one time held a garrison of 
soldiers, though the present population cannot exceed two hundred all told. 
Our entry was effected over the top of the north wall, where sand had banked 
up to such an extent as to render this possible. Huge mounds of sand from 
twenty to thirty feet high were also noticed inside the wall. 

December 6th saw us once more on the march. The road still continued 
down the valley of the Yii-lin Ho, and was excellent throughout. Shortly 
after leaving Yii-ho-p'u, the last of the sand was left behind. The valley 
widened out considerably, being bounded on either side by low loess hills 
overlying a thick, faultless and slightly undulating stratum of shale. The bed 
of the river was cobbly, but no signs of limestone, or anything but slate, 
sandstone, and shale were visible. The river flowed down a bed some ten to 
twenty feet below the level of the rest of the valley. Round the villages we 
noticed numerous plantations of jujubes valued for their sweet, date-like fruit. 
It was ascertained that wheat, millet, and sorghum form the chief crops 
grown in the valley, and on the surrounding hills. The latter are not so 
carefully terraced as in Shansi, where the natives dislike cultivating any but 
level surfaces. At a village named Yen-wa (literally " salt scrape " or 
" scratch ") extensive salt works were found. To collect the salt, flat surfaces 
are prepared, and allowed to remain for a few days, at the end of which time 
an efflorescence appears. This is scraped off, and put into large perforated 
earthenware jars, through which water is allowed to percolate, thus dissolving 
out the salt. The impregnated liquid is next boiled down, and the salt 
extracted. This product, containing as it did a considerable portion of alkali 
which could not be separated, was found to be of very poor quality. The 
whole population was engaged in this industry, and the village looks a very 
dismal place. We noticed the remains of numerous forts, some perched on 
the hills, others extending across the valley; whilst high mounds at half-mile 
intervals marked the sites of watch towers, which had run in a regular chain 

25 



from Yii-lin Fu. Mi-chih Hsien, a walled town of about two thousand 
inhabitants, was reached after a long march of over twenty miles. As at 
Lin Hsien, the wall encloses the hill behind the town. In this case, however, 
the hill is extremely steep, and rises to about 700 feet above the valley. 
Satisfactory quarters having been secured at the inn, it was decided to remain 
here for two days. Moreover, it had been found that in this class of country 
Hazrat AH could only manage from eight to ten miles a day, and it was 
thought best that the main body should rest and march on alternate days, 
covering from eighteen to twenty miles at a time ; thus the number of our 
halts would be halved, and the surveyor, without losing touch with us, could 
work along daily at the rate which best suited him. During our stay we were 
fortunate in escaping what might have been a nasty accident ; one of Clark's 
trunks had its bottom burnt through, having been placed on the kang 
immediately over the fireplace ; the smell of burning wool was noticed just in 
time for the explosion of a case of Express cartridges in the trunk to be 
prevented. The maximum and minimum thermometer was stolen during the 
night, but on investigation it was " discovered " by one of the inn servants 
some twenty feet away from the window-sill, where it had been placed. 

On December gth we left Mi-chih Hsien, and continued our journey 
southward. The road was still excellent, and followed the valley of the Yii-Iin 
Ho till Sui-te Chou was reached. Here the Yu-lin changes its name, and 
becomes the Wu-ting Ho (literally " river of no certainty.") This name is 
given to it owing to the uncertainty with which it rises and falls. The same 
features which had characterised the country between Yii-ho-p'u and Mi-chih 
still prevailed, though the valley was considerably wider, and the hills much 
higher. The road in places skirted the edge of the valley, with the river some 
thirty feet below it. Everywhere the country was under cultivation, and the 
villages looked decidedly more prosperous. Sui-te Chou is situated some 
twenty-one miles south of Mi-chih Hsien, and on the opposite (right) bank of 
the river. The walls here are of stone, and embrace a large portion of ridge 
to the south. Just before reaching the town the river makes a sharp turn to 
the east, and is crossed by a temporary trestle bridge, very shaky and insecure. 
The town is a picturesque place of some importance, four high roads meeting 
here, viz., those from Yu-lin Fu, T'ai-yiian Fu, Yen-an Fu, and Ning-ling 
T'ing in Kansu. That a considerable amount of traffic passes through may 
be gathered from the number of inns. Few of these, however, offer 
accommodation suitable for European travellers, and it was with difficulty 
that we managed to secure rooms at all passable in the southern suburb. 

26 



PLATt 13. 








On December nth, the expedition left Sui-te Chou, and entering the hills 
to the south commenced to wind up and down a tortuous ravine, usually not 
more than sixty or seventy feet wide, and with perpendicular sides of 
considerable height. In this ravine, as in all the others encountered during 
the day, a stream, now covered with a thick layer of ice, flowed down a 
channel carved from the bedrock. Here and there large hollows held deep 
pools; numerous frozen waterfalls were passed, and from the sides of the 
ravine hung great masses of icicles. In short there was every indication of 
an abundant supply of water for the inhabitants of the small villages dotted 
at frequent intervals along the line of march. Soon after leaving Sui-te the 
end of the first ravine was reached, and after crossing a high pass we entered 
a second. This was followed throughout its course until a small village 
named T'ien-chuang was reached, and here we halted for lunch. The road 
turned up next into a third ravine, which was followed to within a short 
distance of its head, and here quarters were secured in a small village named 
Shih-ts'ui-yi. This, as the name indicates, was at one time a changing post 
for the quick horse-courier service. This organisation has long been dispensed 
with owing to the peaceful state of the border, but in the days when constant 
watch had to be kept for Mongol raiders the village must have been a highly 
important place. The present population cannot be more than one hundred 
and fifty, and the houses are roughly built of shale slabs rudely cut and 
arranged in herring-bone pattern. The distance from Sui-te Chou is about 
nineteen miles, and the road being newly cut was excellent, though some of 
the gradients would not allow of wheeled traffic. Hazrat Ali arrived on the 
evening of the I2th, having completed his survey up to this point. It was 
fortunate that he passed this night within reach of medical assistance, as he 
was taken violently ill : a result of poisonous fumes after his long exposure to 
the cold. This necessitated our spending another day at this place. 

On December 14th the journey was resumed, and we crossed a high pass, 
3725 feet, a few miles south of Shih-ts'ui-yi. The top of the pass was barely 
a hundred feet lower than the surrounding hills, so that a view to the south 
and east was obtainable. The horizon was remarkably level, the summits of 
the loess hills being, as usual, of uniform height. The descent into the valley, 
which we followed for the rest of the day as far as Ch'ing-chien Hsien, was 
very steep. The road though good, was frequently on the bedrock, into 
which the stream had cut very deeply. Ch'ing-chien, an insignificant town, 
is distant from Shih-ts'ui-yi about eighteen miles. Here an excellent quality 



27 



of lignite is obtainable I this is mined at An-ting Hsien, another small town 
about twenty miles higher up the valley, to the west. 

One day was spent at Ch'ing-chien, and on December i6th, after a march 
of nearly twenty-two miles, we put up at a miserable village named Ma-chia- 
k'ou. The road for the first two-thirds of the way followed down the same 
valley as before, but just before reaching the dilapidated and almost deserted 
town of Yen-ch'uan Hsien, it turned to the west up another ravine. The 
same geological formation was noticed, and nothing worthy of note occurred. 
The whole country from Yii-lin Fu to this point was remarkably bare of 
vegetation, and almost equally devoid of game ; only a few small coveys of 
partridges, and some large flocks of rock-doves being sighted. Adhering to 
the decision made at Mi-chih Hsien, we halted here for a day to enable Hazrat 
Ali to keep pace with us. Only very poor coal is obtainable in the place. 

Next day a distance of twenty-four miles was accomplished ; a high pass 
— about 3600 feet — being surmounted without difficulty, thanks to the good 
quality of the road ; and after following down a wide valley for some miles, 
we entered that of the Yen Shui, a short distance up which lay Kan-ku-yii. 
This day's journey was somewhat more interesting. Pheasants were seen in 
considerable numbers, whilst a flock of several hundred pigeons came in for 
its fair share of attention. Out of this flock thirteen birds were bagged at one 
shot. There was considerably more vegetation in the valleys, which were 
themselves broader than any met with since the Yu-lin Ho had been left 
behind. This night we had thirty-eight degrees of frost. Kan-ku-yii must 
have been at one time an important town, as indicated by the remains of a 
high and well built wall. At present it contains but one small street of very 
poor houses and inns. It is probable that, but for its being a regular stopping 
place for travellers passing between Sui-te Chou and Yen-an Fu, the place 
would be utterly deserted, The country generally was under cultivation, 
though very thinly populated. 

On December 19th a start was made with the intention of covering not 
more than ten miles, but no suitable quarters being found anywhere on the 
road it became necessary to push on to Yen-an Fu, which place we reached 
late in the evening. All along the valley, which was fully a mile wide in 
places, the patches of scrub yielded any number of pheasants, so that we 
managed to enjoy the best shooting yet secured on the expedition. Only very 
small hamlets had been passed during the day, and but little traffic was 
noticed. The Yen Shui was frozen over to a depth of several inches. Really 

28 



PLATE 14. 




good quarters were obtained in Ycn-an Fii, and we all settled down to spend 
Christmas and New Year in comfort. 

Yen-an, a city of about three thousand inhabitants, was built, it is 
believed, early in the Sung dynasty. It has sustained many sieges from time 
to time, these chiefly at the hands of the Mongols, whose ravaging hordes 
poured in from the Ordos by the valley of the Yen Shui, on which river 
Yen-an Fu is situated. During the Ming dynasty the northern part of Shensi 
was in the hands of the Mongols, from whom it was wrested "by the famous 
Yang. This intrepid soldier, making his headquarters in Yen-an, drove the 
intruders back across the border, and there held them successfully at bay. 
His remains lie in a large cemetery situated in the valley about a mile to the 
north of the city. In more recent times the city was sacked by Mohammedan 
rebels, the inhabitants cruelly massacred, and the temples — in part at least — 
destroyed. It is built under the brow of a high and precipitous hill, and the 
wall as usual runs up the steep slope taking in the crest, which is divided from 
the rest of the ridge by a deep chasm cut by the original builders to preclude 
the possibility of attack from that quarter. Immediately outside the eastern 
wall flow the muddy waters of the Yen Shui. 

Up the side of a high sandstone cliff, facing the city on the left bank of 
the river, is built a most beautiful temple — a relic of the Sung dynasty. Its 
most interesting feature is an enormous hall hewn out of the solid rock, in 
which sit three colossal Buddhas, each on the sacred lotus lily. These, 
however, received but little of our attention, as though large and very 
gorgeously painted they are made only of mud. But the walls of the hall 
itself are lined with thousands of little Buddhas carved from the rock in 
strong relief, not one square foot of wall being left blank. Here and there 
were larger statues of other deities; one of which, a beautifully carved figure 
of the Goddess of Mercy in a reclining attitude, called forth our special 
admiration, and considerable pains were taken to obtain a good photograph of 
this exquisite piece of work. There were evidences that the carvings and 
statues had been at one time coated with paint ; but that they look far better 
in their present condition we have no doubt. There were signs of a strong 
Indian influence in this artistic work. The priest attached to the temple told 
us, on being questioned, that it was si.x hundred years old. On the crest of a 
high hill above, and beyond this, there are still visible the remains of what 
must have been at one time another magnificent temple. It was evidently of 
very considerable proportions, and is said to have been destroyed by the 
Mohammedans. Sections of an immense stone stairway are still visible on 

2!) 



the sides of the steep hill. Inside the citj* walls are several other temples, 
Confucian and Buddhist, whilst in the cliff near the northern gate is another 
cave similar to the one across the river, but in a sad state of disrepair. 

From the sportsman's point of view, Yen-an Fu affords winter quarters 
hard to beat. Several large valleys meet at this point, and in these the 
numerous patches of thorn-scrub shelter great numbers of hares and 
pheasants. The rocky sides of the valleys form the homes of large coveys 
of red-legged partridges, and at no great distance from the town roe-deer and 
wild pig are abundant ; the former having been seen even within a mile of the 
town walls. Wild fowl, chiefly mallard and teal, may be shot on the Yen 
Shui, where they are often to be found disporting themselves in the open 
spaces of an otherwise ice-bound river. They afforded a very welcome 
addition to our bill of fare ; in fact during our stay we may be said to have 
lived almost entirely on the spoils of the chase ; deer, hare, pheasant, 
partridge, pigeon, mallard, or teal always contributing to our table. 

It was a great disappointment to find that Josephine, who had come with 
us from T'ai-yiian and had the looks of a good setter, was useless in the field. 
The birds would lie low till the guns were right on top of them, when they 
would break cover with a terrific thundering of wings, flying in every 
direction. The result was disconcerting in the extreme. On being disturbed 
they would always make for the hills, when long tiring scrambles would 
become necessary, if more birds were to be secured. Needless to say that 
shooting under these conditions was often erratic, whilst the bags were never 
very large in spite of the abundance of game. However, hot corners were 
frequent, where the sportsman could have managed very well with two or 
three loaders. Even as things were, it was often possible to load two, three, 
or even four times before the last bird rose from the surrounding scrub. On 
Christmas Day, Clark and Sowerby had a particularly good day's pheasant 
shooting. The latter on his specimen-trapping excursions had obtained a 
good idea of the spots where pheasants were most likely to be found in large 
numbers. Riding out at about lo a.m. with their guns and a mounted 
attendant, they made for a large patch of thorn-scrub some distance from the 
Yen Shui valley. It was their intention to work back slowly from here to the 
city, and then up another valley till daylight failed. The sport commenced 
with a hot corner, where the guns got right into the thick of a large flock of 
pheasants, bringing down six birds with the first few shots. From that spot 
onwards the place seemed to be alive with birds, and throughout the day the 
party never once drew blank. Here a bouquet yielded its quota of fine fat 

30 



PLATE 15. 




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cocks; there a couple of hens, driven up by the p;room, were neatly bafjgcd 
as they headed for the hillside. At last a long patch of scrub was reached, 
from which it seemed impossible to drive the birds away. They flew out and 
back again ; a bird or two being secured each time they rose. A couple of 
hares breaking cover were bowled over before they had gone a dozen yards. 
Then as the day drew to a close and the pheasants had all gone away to roost 
up the deep ravines, the sportsmen, tired and hungry but in high spirits, 
returned homewards with a bag of twenty- five pheasants and two hares. A 
certain amount of rivalry had only sufificed to rnake both men more keen, and 
the day's shooting ended in Clark's favour, with two hares and three birds to 
the good. As usual, several wounded birds got away into the thick scrub, and 
were lost. In some places the shooting was so hot and the birds rose in such 
numbers that it was impossible to mark every bird that was hit. The groom 
who was holding the ponies was able, by watching the proceeedings carefully, 
to point out many lost birds, but a good many escaped even his hawk-like 
eyes. 

The absence of reliable dogs is certainly to be regretted, but they are 
very difficult to obtain in the interior ; Josephine, in fact, had only been lent 
to us by a friend in T'ai-yiian. Later on, when Clark visited Shanghai, he 
brought back two good pointers, but the season was by that time rather far 
advanced, and the expedition came to an end before we could get the full 
benetit of their services. The natives occasionally use dogs — half pariah and 
half wolf — for hunting pig, but they are not of much use. No doubt if good 
boar-hounds were procurable, a fine old-fashioned form of sport could be 
enjoyed : the hounds bringing the boar to bay, and the hunter using the spear 
on foot. The native dog of the hilly and mountainous country is a fine 
looking animal, closely resembling a wolf in appearance, and capable of 
enduring extremes of both heat and cold, but so far as is known he has not 
been trained to the chase. 

Hazrat Ali was a shikari of a very high order. His object, however, was 
not sport, but rather to make sure of a good bag. With this intent he might 
be seen creeping cat-like upon a covey of unsuspecting birds, and when he 
fired two or three brace were often the result. He prided himself that the 
number of birds killed usually exceeded the number of cartidges expended. 
He kept careful tally of both, and could give a good account of each cartridge 
he used. A ludicrous incident occurred, in which this quiet but deadly fowler 
drew down upon himself vials of wrath from the rest of the guns. The whole 
party was on its way to take observations from a peak to the north of the city, 

31 



when a flock of mallard was spied on a small open patch of water in the 
river. Clark, Grant, and Sowerby at once dismounted, and started off down 
stream with the intention of working round, and coming upon the ducks under 
cover of a high bank on the opposite side of the river, where they could take 
the birds as they rose. Meanwhile Hazrat Ali, who apparently had not 
grasped the meaning of their manoeuvre, advanced upon the ducks in the 
open. The rest of the party, having caught sight of the intruder moving 
rapidly upon what they justly considered their game, howled at him to desist. 
Not hearing the remonstrances hurled at him, he continued to move towards 
the apparently mesmerised ducks, and when within easy range opened fire 
killing three. This was typical of all his shooting ; heedless of the rules of 
sport, he was, nevertheless, an excellent pot-filler, which is after all a ver}' 
useful attribute on an e.xpedition of this nature. 

On December 28th, Grant arrived back from Hsi-an with a huge mailbag. 
He reported all quiet at the capital, and gave us the account of a pleasant 
journey to Hsi-an and back again. Cobb had started off safely in a litter for 
Honan, whence he could proceed by rail to Hankow. Grant reported 
excellent game country almost all the way to Hsi-an, in support of which 
intelligence he had several brace of pheasant and duck, beside a couple of 
geese on his mules. He stated that Cobb and he had been somewhat 
alarmed at the news of the deaths in the Imperial family, and that on the 
day of its receipt they seemed to meet an unusual number of men travelling 
northward with their women and children, and noticed also several bands of 
disreputable beggars hurrying south. The former they took to be fugitives ; 
the latter human vultures flocking to scenes of butchery. Their fears, 
however, were dissipated, for on reaching Yen-an Fu they found everything 
quiet. 

Amongst the letters brought back by Grant were some advising of the 
landing of provisions, etc., at Shanghai; these being to enable the expedition 
to prolong its duration and extend its work. As matters now stood, our 
equipment was inadequate for extended work on the Tibetan frontier ; our 
ammunition especially was running very short ; the tents though good were 
found to be insufficient for the party; and the stoves were by this time almost 
useless. Nothing but charcoal could be used in them without their smoking 
badly ; their chimneys were too narrow, and indeed the rough handling of 
careless natives had practically demolished them. It was therefore decided to 
separate for the time being as follows ; Clark and Sowerby would hurry down 
to Hsi-an Fu. from which place Clark would go on alone to Shanghai, take 

32 



PLATE 16. 










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over the provisions and two large tents specially ordered for the summer 
work, procure suitable stoves, and with all speed proceed to Lan-chou Fu, 
picking up Sowerby again on his way. Sowerby, after Clark's departure from 
Hsi-an, would stay in that neighbourhood and collect, until on the receipt of 
a wire from Shanghai he would proceed to Honan, and there re-join Clark. 
In the meantime Douglas and Grant, with the greater part of the pack-train 
and stores, were to proceed westward into Kansu, taking an unfrequented 
road to Lan-chou, at which place they would await the arrival of Clark and 
Sowerby. Hazrat Ali would accompany this party, and carry on his plane 
table survey from Yen-an to Lan-chou. Everything having been arranged in 
this way, the party set about re-packing stores, etc., to suit the altered plans ; 
and on January 28th Clark and Sow-erby left Yen-an Fu on their southward 
journey. A few days later the remaining division, having completed their 
arrangements, started westwards. 



33 



CHAPTER V. 

CLARK AND SOWERBY'S NARRATIVE OF JOURNEY TO HSI-AN TV. 

AS already stated in the last chapter, we left Yen-an Fu on January 28th 
on our way south to Hsi-an Fu, the capital of the province of Shensi. We 
took with us a small caravan of hired mules and three ponies. A groom to 
look after the ponies, and three personal servants including Lao Chao, a 
muleteer temporarily promoted, formed our retinue. The mules, of course, 
were accompanied by their owners, but these last devoted their energies 
mainly to opium-smoking, and incidentally to driving and feeding their 
animals. Lao Chao had first attracted attention in camp at Chao-chuang 
by his courage and unusual strength — on one occasion he forded the F6n Ho 
in flood to get provisions for the party. Showing himself very ready to be of 
use, he had been selected to accompany Cobb and Grant on their journey to 
Hsi-an Fu, and even went with the former as far as Honan, working his way 
back independenth' just in time to come with us on this trip. 

Grant had kept notes of the country passed through on his journey some 
weeks earlier, and these supplied us with a list of halting-places and inter- 
vening distances, information always warmly appreciated by travellers in 
China. The first day's journey was across some very fine game country, 
which had already been visited by Grant and Sowerby deer-hunting. The 
travellers followed a long valley to its head in the high shrub-covered loess 
hills ; a pass was crossed and a second valley entered, similar to the first. 
Numbers of charcoal-burners were noticed in this wooded area. Near the 
pass stood a roughly made hut, sheltering a small detachment of soldiers, who 
were stationed there to protect travellers against highwaymen, for whose 
atrocities this lonely stretch of country was at one time notorious. The 
robbers found ready cover in the many ravines branching off from the main 
valley ; but since the opening of the new road, and the posting of this little 
garrison, they had found it advisable to disappear. The first halt was made 
at a small town named Kan-ch'iian Hsien, ninety li from Yen-an Fu, and 
here comparatively comfortable quarters were found. 

An early start, and a long journey down an ever-widening valley, where 
large numbers of pheasants were seen and a few shot, brought us next day to 
a village not far from the large town of Fu Chou. 

34 



PLATE 17. 







The road branched off to the east up a small ravine about a mile north of 
Fu Chou, and at this point two or three inns and a few miserable houses 
formed the village of Ts'a-fSng ; and here we halted. This stage is reckoned 
to be eighty-five li. At this time of year travelling was anything but pleasant, 
owing to the severe cold. The inns were never warm, the badly-fitting doors 
and torn windows admitted streams of cold air, which effectually counteracted 
any benefits accruing from the use of charcoal braziers and a small portable 
stove. The innkeepers are far too poor to keep the kang fires lighted during 
the day, and as these estimable contrivances take some hours to heat up, and 
in addition smoke abominably, they were tabooed. By hanging up waterproof 
sheets over the doors and windows we could manage to render the temperature 
a little more endurable ; but bed was the only really comfortable place. The 
early rising, necessitated by our desire to cover long stages every day, was 
perhaps the hardest trial, although again precedence might be given to the 
keen head wind which, in spite of the heaviest clothing, seemed on some days 
to cut through to the very bone. Usually, however, when once fairly on the 
move, we found that the interests of the road, the not infrequent opportunities 
of sport, and the varying scenery kept us from noticing the low temperature 
and the biting wind. The road was in excellent condition, and in that way 
did credit to the soldiers who made it. But it is probable that the absence of 
wheeled traffic had more to do with its present smooth surface than anything 
else. At first it was hard to understand why no carts made use of this 
magnificent road, but after seeing some of the gradients no further explanation 
was necessary. The only wonder that remained then was why so much 
labour should have been expended to construct a cart road, whilst such 
important details as suitable gradients, easily obtainable with very little extra 
work, had been utterly neglected. However, even this is explainable by the 
reflection that the work was carried out by Chinese. 

Leaving Ts'a-f6ng before daybreak, we travelled for a short distance up 
the small ravine which we had entered the night before. Snow commenced 
to fall, and alas ! for hastily formed opinions, the road became abominable. 
Its smooth surface becoming greasy offered no foothold, and as several steep 
ascents had to be made, travelling became not only unpleasant, but distinctly 
dangerous. The mules with their heavy loads had the greater difficulty in 
keeping their feet, but even the ponies floundered about in a most distressing 
manner. However, the badness of the road led to no mishap, though Clark 
met in another fashion with a most unfortunate accident. In stepping from a 
high kang in an inn, where the party stopped for lunch, he slipped and 

35 



sprained his ankle severely. Coming, as it did, soon after an earlier injury 
sustained out pheasant-shooting, just before we left Yen-an, the sprain 
assumed a dangerous aspect. It was only by exercising the greatest care that 
he could set foot to the ground by the time Hsi-an was reached. Needless to 
say, the rest of the journey was rendered anything but enjoyable to the victim 
of such misfortune. Soon after the departure from Ts'a-feng a steep ascent 
was made, and we found ourselves upon a flat wide plateau of loess, cut up in 
every direction by canons of considerable depth. These, however, were not 
noticeable till the observer got within fifty, or one hundred yards. After 
travelling across this table of loess for some five or six miles, the party came 
to the edge of a vast valley, across which lay the road. On the other side of 
the valley could be seen the commencement of a second tableland, and this 
sort of experience was repeated all this day, and half of the next. It seems 
probable that this formation represents a great loess deposit in its early stages, 
before the action of rain and water has rounded the great sections between the 
caiions and ravines into the hills and ridges so typical of most loess country'. 
Indeed, the moulding process was noticed along the sides of the larger valleys, 
where, instead of the abrupt cliffs and sharp edges of the ravines and canons, 
the sides were rounded off, and sloped with comparative ease to the stream 
below. On the plateaux some bustards were seen not far from the road, 
whilst a fox was put up from a clump of graves. Pheasants were noticed still 
on the fields, but they were few in number and very shy. The surfaces of the 
plateaux were under cultivation, but nowhere could any villages be seen. 
This was explained, when it was discovered that the villages were either built 
on the sides of the smaller ravines, or formed by extensive excavations below 
the surface level. In the latter case each dwelling would consist of one large 
square pit, twenty to thirty feet deep, and forming the courtyard, from which 
opened deep cave-rooms, occupied by the members of the family and their live 
stock. The courtyards were reached by long and gently sloping shafts, fitted 
at their lower ends with stout wooden doors. The villages built above ground 
were the larger and more important, and few and far between. After crossing 
three plateaux, the caravan stopped, late in the evening, at the town of 
Lo-ch'uan Hsien, where the usual well-ventilated quarters were secured. This 
day's journey was eighty li. 

The following day, after crossing two more plateaux, and winding up and 
down several deep valleys, the party reached Chung-pu Hsien, close to which 
is situated a huge mound, supposed to be the grave of the great Huang Ti, or 
Yellow Emperor (B.C. 2700), one of the five mythical emperors of Chinese 



36 



Cave Inn, near Yen-an Fu. 



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history. The mound was noticed certainly, but so great is it, that we actually 
took it for a hill. A large grove of cypress trees, planted near the town in 
memory of the same monarch, was also obsen-ed. 

The country immediately to the south of Chung-pu Hsien was unin- 
habited, and very wild. As in the case of the deserted area south of Yen-an, 
this district was well wooded, and large flocks of pheasants were seen. The 
travellers amused themselves by shooting at these with their revolvers ; so 
much good shooting had been enjoyed that it needed something more than a 
pheasant to draw anything but a few revolver shots. It snowed heavily half 
the day, and in consequence much difficulty was experienced in negotiating 
the heavy gradients of the road. It was fortunate for Clark that he was riding 
a particularly sagacious and careful pony, for he was, of course, unable to 
dismount at difficult places, as the others did. Even as it was, poor Blacky, 
as the pony was called, slipped once, and rolling over, threatened to crush his 
rider. Sowerby and the groom left their ponies and rushed to the rescue, 
helping Clark up on to his sound foot. At this juncture all three ponies took 
it into their heads to bolt, and were soon lost to view round a bend in the 
road. Things looked decidedly bad, as the mules were a considerable distance 
away, and the nearest village was ten miles off. The ponies did not go far, 
however, and, stopping to feed on the stubble by the roadside, allowed them- 
selves to be caught. Later on, one of the mules went down a steep slope, and 
as it frantically struggled to regain its feet, was momentarily within an ace of 
destruction by falling over the edge of the deep ravine. From this terrible 
predicament it was only rescued with the greatest difficulty. A halt was made 
that night at a small town named Yi-chun Hsien, seventy li from Chung-pu 
Hsien. 

The following day we passed through a splendid game country, where the 
beauty of the scenery seemed emphasised and enhanced by its covering of 
new-fallen snow. The road for the first eight miles led along the top of a long 
ridge of high shale mountains. Many deer were seen from the road, and in 
one place a huge wild boar was chased right across our path by a pack of 
hounds, followed shortly by their master. Unfortunately the necessity for 
haste on this journey prevented us from joining in the chase. The last two- 
thirds of the day's march were along a deep, rocky, and very beautiful ravine, 
which widened out into a fine valley towards the end of the day. In the 
ravine we saw, besides many other birds, a large number of handsome blue 
magpies. Here, for the first time in North Shensi, was any faultiness noticed 

37 



in the sandstone and shale strata. In places immense folds existed, and 
everywhere were evidences of considerable disturbance. 

At a small village, where the midday halt was made, a band of SsQch'uan 
emigrants was encountered. These people, in their light summer clothing 
and hemp sandals, seemed to be suffering great distress. It was a pathetic 
sight to see little children of four and five trudging along in the snow and 
slush, each carrying a little bundle. The still younger children were carried 
on their mothers' backs. These unhappy folks had travelled up from 
Ssuch'uan, via Han-chung Fu, in the coldest part of the cruel winter, in order 
to reach their destination in time to till the ground for a summer crop. They 
seemed to be possessed of but few goods and chattels ; what they had, being 
carried on their backs, or in wheelbarrows. Their faces were rounder, and the 
features flatter, than in the natives of this portion of the country ; and they 
wore turbans. The hemp sandals formed their only footgear, and they seemed 
to have little in the way of quilted or wadded clothing, just braving the winter 
in their thin cotton things. Such men and women could hardly fail to make 
good settlers, and, in later journeys in Kansu, opportunity was given to some 
members of the expedition of seeing the good results obtained b}' these hardy 
peasants. 

That night, T'ung-kuan, a military town, was reached, and a visit was 
received from the Secretary to the Head Military Official, who made apology 
for the absence of his chief. He offered the party a small escort of soldiers to 
see them safely to Hsi-an Fu. This offer, however, was politely declined, 
there being no necessity for such guardianship. This town is situated ninety 
li from Yi-chun Hsien, the stage being long and difficult. T'ung-kuan 
produces a fine class of dried persimmon, than which few more palatable and 
nourishing dried fruits exist. 

The next halting-place was Yao Chou, a large and busy town, but of no 
particular interest. On the road between T'ung-kuan and Yao Chou a belt of 
limestone was traversed, the first sign of this rock yet noticed in Shensi. The 
day's journey was not so long and fatiguing as the one before, the distance 
covered being seventy li. 

Throughout the greater part of the following day, the road led down a 
broad valley, which finally opened out into a series of great loess terraces or 
steps, on which were observed several large flocks of bustard. Sowerby tried 
hard to secure one of these magnificent game-birds, and was rewarded finally 
with a nice sixteen-pounder. Towards the end of the day the little party 
descended from the heights to a great plain — the valley of the Wei Ho — in 

38 



PLATE 18. 




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which is situated Hsi-an Fu, one of the ancient capitals of China. That night 
we put up at a miserable inn in the large, busy and populous city of San-yiian 
Hsien. Though only a " Hsien " {i.e.. sub-prefecture), San-yuan is larger 
than any of the prefectural cities in the province north of this point. An 
immense ravine has been eroded by water since the citj- was built, and is now 
spanned by a large and well-constructed bridge. The sides of this bridge are 
built over with shops, after the fashion of old European bridges, so that, but 
for a glimpse he gets as he approaches it, the traveller would not suspect that 
he is crossing a ravine of considerable width and depth. Many industries are 
carried on in the southern, and by far busiest, portion of the town. Brass- 
work of all descriptions forms the most important of these ; but there is also 
a considerable amount of carpentry and bamboo-work. It may be noted that 
there are not more than 400,000 inhabitants in the province north of this. 

The change from the mountainous to the flat country was also accom- 
panied by a decided difference in the character and appearance of the people. 
Not only do these stamp them as being of a southern type, but their manners 
and customs are also markedly distinct from those in the country just left. 
A great difference was noticeable in the food, and method of eating. It seemed 
as if everybody ate their meals in the street, purchasing them from stall- 
keepers, who prepare them on the spot. And not food only, but boiling water 
as well, for it is only the more wealthy citizens who keep fires in their houses. 
There was something not at all displeasing in this mode of taking meals, 
extreme sociability being the keynote. Numerous tables, on either side of the 
street, and sheltered by light mat roofs from sun or rain, afforded accom- 
modation to scores of merry diners. Travellers from all parts of the Empire 
freely mi.xed and chatted with the citizens of the town, and everybody seemed 
thoroughly happy, and perfectly contented with the prevailing conditions. 
A distinctly southern touch was added to the streets by the huge bamboo 
baskets of oranges, pommeloes, and sugar-cane — delicacies never seen in 
towns of the northern interior. The streets, paved with huge stones and 
crowded to suffocation, formed a marked contrast to the wide and dusty 
streets of the towns recently passed through. San-yiian Hsien may be 
considered in some respects a rival of Hsi-an Fu itself. It is situated eighty 
li from Yao Chou. 

Being anxious to reach Hsi-an in good time, we made an unusually early 
start on February 5th. Our intention was to ride hard so as to arrive in time 
for lunch, knowing as we did full well the hospitality of the missionaries whom 
we were likely to meet. It was still dark as we rode clear of the suburbs of 



San-yiian ; but ere long a faint glow in the east heralded the approach of day. 
The air was filled with the distant honking of geese ; and, with the spreading 
of the glow in the east, long chains of wild fowl became visible, flying south- 
ward. Presently a small river was reached, and there, thick upon the 
southern bank, were hundreds of geese and duck, the latter being of the 
species Sheldrake, or as it is usually called in China " Yellow Duck." Soon 
after sunrise we passed a large pagoda, which had been noticed standing out 
against the gathering mists as we descended the heights the preceding after- 
noon. At last the bank of the Wei Ho was reached, and considerable delay 
experienced in getting across. The weather was very gloomy, whilst the 
mournful calling of the ducks, the dismal flats, and grey sombre river all 
combined to enhance the feeling of depression which seized the travellers as 
the heavily-laden ferry moved slowly across the sluggish water. Though the 
temperature was not in reality very low the cold seemed unbearable, a result 
doubtless of the moisture in the atmosphere. Moored alongside either bank 
of the river were huge coal-barges with quaint roofs and dragon-headed joss- 
poles, which, in the morning mist, seemed to assume strange forms, gigantic 
and menacing. As the ferry-boat passed close to a sandbank in the middle of 
the river, an immense cloud of duck rose with a thundering whirr. After 
circling overhead, and flying up and down the river in a rapidly moving, ever- 
changing cloud, the birds suddenly swooped into the water, countless little 
jets of spray marking the spot where they had struck its smooth surface. 

On landing we noticed some geese not far off, and Sowerby, riding up to 
the small flock, managed to secure one from the saddle. The rest of the 
journey to Hsi-an lay over a flat country, the first part of which was much 
intersected by irrigation canals, supplying water to the swampy rice fields. 
Here many mallard and teal were feeding, and round the villages the beautiful 
pink and white ibis waded knee-deep in the black, oozy mud. As Hsi-an was 
neared, the rice fields and canals gave place to wide, rolling fields of early 
wheat, the green of which was hailed by the party with the liveliest satisfac- 
tion. The pleasure afforded to the eye by a green field, after the yellow, grey, 
and brown of a North China winter, cannot be expressed. A quaint charm 
was added to the scene by strong battalions of geese drawn up in serried ranks, 
as if on parade. In every direction, too, were little detachments, giving the 
impression of the outposts, pickets, and scouts of main opposing armies. 
When approached and fired upon, the flocks arose eii masse, honking wildly 
The noise was deafening, and the sky black with frightened birds till, breaking 
into chains, they flew off in all directions. 

40 



PLATE 19. 







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For some time we had been straining our eyes for a sight of the city of 
Hsi-an Fu. It seemed difficult to beheve the natives, who declared it to be 
close at hand ; but when the travellers were within a quarter of a mile of the 
place, suddenly the massive towers and solid walls sprang into view, and the 
capital lay revealed in a large depression. Entering by the East Gate we 
made straight for the Baptist Missionary Hospital, where Dr. and Mrs. 
Jenkins gave us a warm welcome, and entertained us royally. Then a visit 
to the Post Office, to secure any letters that might be there ; and Mr. Mullen, 
the Postmaster, insisted on his visitors taking their evening meal with him, an 
invitation which, after months of rough and often badly cooked food, they 
were only too ready to accept. The inn at which accommodation was secured 
turned out to be surprisingly poor, especially when the size and importance of 
the city are remembered. However, parado.xical as it may appear, it seems to 
be the rule in North China that the quarters obtainable vary inversely with 
the size and prosperity of the town. Away in some lonely place, where the 
people hardly know how to secure a living, it is almost invariably possible to 
find roomy and comfortable lodgings ; but in a large and populous city such as 
Hsi-an, full of fine residences, large shops, and all signs of considerable 
luxury, the only accommodation procurable is of the very dirtiest and poorest 
nature imaginable. We could, of course, have accepted the hospitality 
generously offered by the Missionaries or the Postmaster, but a short stay only 
being anticipated, it seemed a pity to disturb the routine of their quiet 
households. 

Observations were taken at Hsi-an on the 5th and 6th, and the rate of 
the chronometer-watch determined ; and on the 7th the party left the city and 
reached Lin-t'ung, a place fifty // distant, where some famous hot-springs 
exist. Quarters were secured in the grounds of the gardens attached to the 
springs, and the exquisite luxury of a hot mineral bath was enjoyed. 

The discovery of the springs goes back to a very early date, but the 
building of the present commodious baths is attributed to the famous 
K'ang-hsi (1662-1723). There is no charge for the use of the baths, a small 
tip to the attendant securing privacy in the warmest and cleanest of the series. 
This spacious bath lies under the arch of a large cave, and is capable of 
holding comfortably some fifty or sixty bathers. It is fed from a spring that 
issues directly from the back of the cave, and is divided from a second bath by 
a wide stone platform, pierced by several low arches through which the water 
flows. This second bath lies in the open, but is enclosed by a high wall. 
From here the water is conducted underground to two small private baths, 

41 



adjoining large staterooms. From these in turn the water escapes into a 
beautiful artificial lake, planted with lotus-lilies and full offish ; its sides steep, 
and overhung with masses of yellow jessamine. In the centre of the lake 
stands a pretty T'ifig-tzu, or summer-house, intended as a dining-room for 
visitors. The grounds are planted with flowering shrubs and stately trees ; 
and the clear placid lake, its surface faithfully reflecting summer-house, trees, 
and wealth of golden flowers, presents an entrancing picture. In an adjoining 
compound, a second series of baths fed by another spring is devoted to the use 
of the common people. When first built this series was intended for 
K'ang-hsi's queen and her court, whilst her lord and master disported himself 
in the beautiful grounds first described. The waters are slightly sulphurous in 
composition, and having, therefore, a very relaxing effect upon the system, are 
far-famed for their medicinal properties. The temperature of the water was 
found to be io8 Fahr., and entering the bath is a slow process, as it is 
necessary to accustom the body to the great heat gradually. So hot indeed is 
the water that bathers, after leaving it, can dry and dress themselves in a keen 
wintry wind, without suffering any inconvenience. From both series of baths 
the water, still quite warm, flows out eventually into small canals, covered in 
with matting, and is thus conducted over ground carefully cultivated, where 
rich crops of vegetables are raised. These — onions, and a special variety of 
garlic during the winter months — are grown in hollows, and are also covered 
with matting. There can be little doubt that the splendid crops obtained, as 
well as the wonderful display of jessamine-blossom round the lake, are largely 
due to the warmth of the water which permeates the soil. A large pool, just 
outside the grounds, must not be forgotten : here all the pigs in the neighbour- 
hood wallow, their snouts just showing above the surface. 

On February 8th, Clark tore himself reluctantly away from Lin-t'ung and 
started off for Shanghai, via Ho-nan Fu and Hankow ; and three or four 
days later Sowerby returned to Hsi-an Fu, and proceeded to investigate the 
fauna of the mountains to the south of that place. 

At the end of a fortnight, spent in the collection of mammals and birds, 
Sowerby received a telegram from Shanghai, and in accordance with its 
instructions started for Ho-nan Fu, from which place he would proceed by 
rail to Hankow, there to await Clark's arrival. Leaving Hsi-an Fu, he 
marched to T'ung-kuan Hsien, a town situated close to the junction of the 
three provinces of Shensi, Shansi and Honan. The road, though exceedingly 
bad and marshy, is very interesting, running a few miles north of, and parallel 
to a chain of magnificent, and precipitous mountains. At Hua-yi Miao a 



PLATE 20. 




"tioddess of .Mercy" in the Cave Temple 

at Yen-an Fu, Shensi. .,_._, ^ 




Cormorant Fishing on the Wei Ho, 5hensi. 



palatial temple with gold-tiled roof and beautiful grounds is to be seen, built 
in the face of a precipitous and castle-like mountain. Hua Shan, one of 
the five sacred peaks of China," famous as representing Buddha's hand. 
Indeed, several deep chasms, cutting perpendicularly through the massive 
square-topped peak, seem to suggest the fingers and thumb of a Titanic 
hand. Numerous Buddhist temples are perched about its summit, and these 
form places of pilgrimage for the devout, as well as admirable summer resorts 
for the wealthy people of the plains. At T'ung-kuan Hsien, the Yellow River, 
after having flowed southward between the provinces of Shansi and Shensi, 
turns abruptly to the east. All along the road from Hsi-an Fu to this point 
waterfowl of every description were very abundant, and remarkably tame ; so 
much so, indeed, that on one occasion Sowerby was able to ride into a small 
flock, and bag a goose with a cut of his whip. From T'ung-kuan eastward 
the road lies along deep, and most disagreeable loess gullies. Dust lies on the 
surface of the road to a depth of a foot or eighteen inches, the depth of the 
gullies preventing any possibility of its removal by the wind. The result 
being that in dry weather it is raised in high, choking clouds by every passing 
vehicle, and in wet it forms a veritable morass. After experience of both wet 
and dry weather in the district the opinion may be expressed with confidence 
that this is the very worst road in North China. 

Being, of course, anxious to reach Ho-nan Fu by the date given in the 
telegram, Sowerby managed to accomplish the last four days" journey — 109 
miles — in thirty-six hours ; a performance which, considering the state of the 
roads, speaks well for the endurance of his mount, a typical Manchurian pony 
of thirteen hands. 

Nothing of any particular interest occurred at either Hankow, or 
Ho-nan Fu. Some difficulty was experienced in obtaining the carts necessary 
for the transport of the additional stores at Ho-nan Fu, but eventually 
arrangements were made, and we left this place on April 13th, and regained 
Hsi-an Fu on the 24th after an uneventful journey. 



* The five Sacred Peuks of China ore : Hang Shan, in Shnnsi ; Hua Shan, in Shensi ; .*^ung Shan, in Honan ; 
Heng Shan, in Hunan ; and T'ai Shan, in Sbantun|{. 



43 



CHAPTER VI. 

DESCRIPTION OF HSI-AN FU — CLARK AND SOWERBV's JOURNEY TO 

LAN-CHOU FU. 

l_ISI-AN FU, the Western City of Peace, ancient capital of China, the 
home and burial-place of many illustrious emperors, lies in a great plain 
watered by the Wei Ho, a navigable and important tributary of the still 
mightier Huang Ho or Yellow River. A city of no mean appearance, its 
extensive walls and massive gate-towers rival those of the modern capital. 
The population, fixed and floating, is very large ; merchants, pedlars, and 
other travellers of every sort flocking hither from all parts of the empire. 
The traffic of six great highways pours daily through its streets. The road 
from Peking, joined at the frontier of the province by that from Honan, enters 
on the east ; a second from the south-east, in which direction lie Hankow and 
the Han River, with the water-borne commerce of Shang Chou ; a third taps 
the produce of Han-chung Fu and Ssuch'uan in the south-west ; a fourth 
enters the western side from Kansu, and its north-western extension, the New 
Dominion, and from Tibet ; a fifth and sixth from the north-west, and north 
respectively, bringing with them, the former skins and wool from Ning-hsia 
Fu, the latter the trade of North Shensi, and Mongolia. The unceasing 
ebb and flow of wealth from this enormous area places Hsi-an Fu in the first 
rank of importance as a distributing centre. 

The plan of the city differs but little from that of any other large Chinese 
capital. Outside are the usual extensive suburbs, and within long streets 
lined with shops, and crossed at intervals by shorter streets; some of the 
points of intersection being spanned b}- square, four-arched towers. The 
most important and central tower in the place, the Ku-lu* (or Drum Tower), 
is, however, set slightly back from the main street, and astride of one of the 
cross streets. The open spaces in front of the various Ya-mcn are thronged 
with busy crowds ; cooked food of every description is sold and eaten in the 
streets ; and on all sides hawkers display their wares under booths of straw- 
mat or blue cloth. The fat lands round the city produce great quantities of 
wheat, rice, and cotton. Of these, the last is sent off in wheelbarrows to the 
railhead+ at Ho-nan Fu, whilst the surplus grain is distributed over Kansu and 
South Shansi. 

* Our obser\'nttoiis for latitude and longitude were reduced to the centre of the base of this tower. 

t The projected railway from Honan-Fu to Hsi-an Fu tiV! Shan Chou and T'ung-kuan Hsien, has as yet only fifty miles 

of earthwork under construction, starting from the first-named, 

44 



PLATE 21. 




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Living in Hsi-an Fu is extremely cheap, flour being sold at eighteen to 
twenty cash per catty, or about a half-penny a pound. Vegetables are sold at 
correspondingly low rates, and even meat is less expensive than in most places 
further north. Oranges, pommeloes, pears, persimmons, and grapes are 
particularly abundant, though only the last three are actually grown in the 
district. The two first, together with sugar-cane, bamboo -shoots, and 
innumerable dried luxuries — cuttlefish, mushrooms, shrimps, and sharksfins — 
are imported at comparatively low prices from the south-east and south-west. 

But in the present chapter it is proposed to deal, not so much with the 
commercial importance of Hsi-an, as with the many interesting relics which 
are to be found in the neighbourhood, and which bear witness to the former 
glory and prosperity of the ancient capital. A thorough e.xamination of these 
would demand months, at least, of patient research ; an adequate description 
would fill several volumes ; so that we must content ourselves with making 
mention of such objects of archaeological interest as were brought to our 
notice, and setting down any legends or stories about them which came to our 
ears. 

The visitor to Hsi-an, as he travels over the rolling plain from no matter 
what direction, cannot fail to notice numerous mounds of unusual shape dotted 
about everywhere like immense molehills, often attaining a height of at least 
100 feet, and standing on bases of very considerable area. So remarkable are 
they that he will instinctively seek information concerning them, and will 
learn that they are the tombs of kings and emperors, and their wives, and of 
scholars and sages notable in their day. But few indeed have anything in the 
way of tombstone or epitaph to tell who sleeps beneath the tons of yellow 
earth ; though, concerning some, fantastic legends still linger in the minds of 
the people. Perhaps the best known of the many hundred mounds that go to 
make the Hsi-an plain a veritable Royal Cemetery, is the one that marks the 
burial place of Shih Huang-ti, of the Chin dynasty, the builder of the Great 
Wall. This mound is situated some twelve or fifteen miles to the east of 
Hsi-an and close to the small town of Lin-t'ung Hsien, famous for the hot 
springs already described. This mound differs from the others in resembling 
a bell-tent, much depressed, instead of a camel's hump, and in being 
surmounted by a monument. It rises to a height of about thirty feet, and is 
said to contain vast treasure. The story goes that e.xtraordinary precautions 
were taken to prevent the rifling of the tomb ; special mechanism was devised 
to secure the vault, and the workmen who constructed it were buried inside. 
Shih Huang-ti (iie Prince Ch'eng) was hated by the literati of his age because 

4S 



he ordered the destruction of many classics and other valued books, and 
eventually, on remonstrance being made, burnt alive 400 of the philosophers 
themselves. He sought to strengthen the nation by means of martial 
exercises rather than by increased book-learning, with the result that his 
countrymen, averse to militarism in any form, remember him with odium to 
this day. In fact the people living in the immediate vicinity of his tomb still 
use his name to frighten their children into good behaviour, and as a term of 
abuse in scoldings and quarrels. 

The next mound of more than ordinary interest is situated on a loess 
rise some six miles south of the city. It contains the remains of Kao-ti the 
first Emperor of the Western Han dynasty, which lasted from 206 b.c. to 
25 A.v. Not far distant, on another prominence in the loess, lies a third mound, 
wherein rests the Empress Dowager, illustrious mother of Kao-ti, and heroine 
of a quaint legend. Of humble parentage, it seems that when but a girl she 
had a dream in which an old man informed her that she would become the 
mother of an emperor. She told her strange dream to the neighbours ; and 
being spread abroad, it came to the ears of the reigning emperor. With true 
Oriental cunning, this superstitious but wily ruler hit upon the simple 
expedient of marrying the woman, who, in due course, presented him with a 
son. In this way the succession was assured to his family without any 
opposition being offered to the supposed divine prophecy. As already 
indicated, the son, although as born of a secondarj' wife, not the real heir, 
actually succeeded to the throne, and became the first Emperor of the glorious 
Han dynasty, and at his death was buried in the spot now marked by a huge 
mound. Both these famous mounds can be seen from the walls of the city. 
Before leaving this subject we will refer to the mound which marks the burial- 
place of the famous Yellow Emperor at Chung-pu Hsien. One of the five 
semi-mythical emperors of China, Huang-ti*, is supposed to have begun his 
reign in the year 2698 B.C., and to have continued on the throne for 100 years. 
Beyond this, little is known of the warrior king. It may be interesting to 
note that according to our generally received chronology, Noah must have 
been a comparatively young man — about 250 years old — at the time of 
Huang-ti's accession. Other mounds contain the remains of emperors of the 
Western Han and Chou dynasties. 

The district further abounds in ancient tablets and monuments of stone, 
some adorned with beautiful pictures, others studded with characters and 

* This monarch h/nr ixcel/eact ihe Huang. li (Vellow Emperor) of Chinese history, though all hi* successors h»ve 

borne the same title. 

46 



PLATE 22. 



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recording interesting historical events. Thus of the many large and beautiful 
temples within the confines of the city, the famous Pei-ling (Monument 
Grove) is perhaps the most interesting. Here are preserved over a thousand 
tablets of stone, on which are carved many of the ancient masterpieces of 
Chinese brushwork, both literary and pictorial. .Ml styles of writing are 
represented, many being of extraordinary beauty and quaintness. The temple 
is a somewhat rambling place, and the tablets are arranged in rows in long 
halls, or grouped under shed roofs. Others are let into the walls, but these 
are smaller and would be more liable to unauthorised removal. The place of 
honour in the grand upper hall is occupied by a large portrait of Confucius, 
and to this the Chinese who visit the place always make obeisance on entering 
the hall, or in crossing the pavement that leads up to it. There is a certain 
dignity in the features of the Oriental teacher, as depicted on the tablet, but it 
cannot be said to equal several portraits of the sage extant in various parts of 
China. In the same hall there are full-length portraits of other celebrities 
and deities. To the left the Goddess of Mercy is shown on a large monument. 
The artist, in this instance, has succeeded in getting wonderful grace of line in 
the sweeping curves of the drapery. The typically Indian features, pose, and 
attire only serve to emphasise the strong influence which that country has had 
upon the Chinese in religion, culture, and art. .A. smaller monument near to 
the sacred Confucian portrait gives a remarkable picture representing a 
certain Ta-mo (pron. " Dah-mah "). who, according to ancient legends, came 
from the West about the beginning of the Christian era as the teacher of 
a new religion. He is supposed to have carried his religion to the Japanese, 
crossing the sea by miraculous agency on a straw. A picture of the missionary 
standing on a stem of wheat, which floats on the conventional waves of 
Chinese art, also stands in the Confucian hall. In both pictures the head is 
remarkable by its difference from the Mongol type. The abundance of curly 
hair, the markedly Semitic nose, the thick eyebrows, moustache, and beard — 
all suggest the Je^\ . From the Rev. F. Madeley comes a tentative suggestion 
that the original of these portraits and legends was no other than St. Thomas 
the .\postle, who is supposed to have travelled into Central -■Ksia as a 
missionary. The name is distinctively suggestive. 

Kuan Li (or Kuan Kung), the God of War, is also represented in this 
wonderful stone portrait gallery. In the accounts of this redoubtable warrior, 
fact and fiction are so inextricably mingled that it is difficult to know what to 
believe concerning him. However, it seems fairly certain that, originally a 
market-huckster {circa i8o A.D.), on becoming a soldier he espoused the cause 

47 



of Liu-pei, towards the end of the second century A.D., and became a national 
hero. He was canonised in the I2th century, " became in time a tutelary 
deity " at the end of the i6th century, and was " promoted " to the " rank of 
God " by the Emperor Wan Li (Ming). 

Let into the wall, and immediately behind the Confucian portrait, is a 
small tablet on which are shown the two sides of a fan. On the one side, 
amongst reeds and water lilies, stand two cranes, on the other is neatly 
written a quotation, or composition. The original picture and writings, from 
which the cuttings were made, are acknowledged to be the handiwork of the 
scholarly Emperor K'ang-hsi ; and they certainly attest his ability. 

Leaving the grand upper hall, we pass down a roofed pavement, lined 
on either side with large tablets covered with various writings in everj' 
conceivable style of character. To-day some of these even Chinese scholars 
cannot decipher. Here and there a single large rendering of the character 
" Fu" (prosperity) occupies the whole surface of a tablet, and is much admired 
by scholars as the work of some famous scribe. One example, executed with a 
single continuous sweep and flourish of a large brush, is placed to the credit of 
K'ang-hsi, and is especially valued and admired. 

Turning to the right, when about half way along the avenue of 
monuments, one reaches shortly a large side room, wherein a fine collection of 
massive monuments are arranged in picturesque confusion, some standing on 
solid cubical bases, some leaning against the walls or propped against one 
another. This room seems to be devoted to artistic productions rather than 
to literary works, and some of the pictures it contains reach a high standard. 
Particularly is this the case with a large tablet that faces the door ; a repro- 
duction of a rubbing from this stone is given in Plate 26, so that a description 
is unnecessary. On another tablet, of equal size, are given the eight principal 
views round Hsi-an Fu, a description of each appearing below it. This tablet, 
and two others bearing quaintly executed representations of T'ai-pei Shan and 
Hua Shan, two of the five sacred mountains of China, show that scenic 
beauty appeals to the cultivated Chinese mind. T'ai-pei Shan is a lofty peak 
lying some days' journey south-west of Hsi-an. It is studded with temples, 
but extensive and very precipitous, giving shelter to the Tahkin (a peculiar 
animal, looking like a cross between an ox and a goat), the goral (goat- 
antelope), and other animals of shy and retiring habits. The priests of the 
temples, and the natives of the district, being good Buddhists, do not chase 
these animals, which fact no doubt accounts for their presence in great 
numbers. Hua Shan, as stated in the preceding chapter, is situated close to 

48 



PLATE 23. 




■4 



> 




' 13 

i !5 




the eastern border of the province of Shensi, not far from T'ung-kuan, and is 
supposed to represent Buddha's hand. The pictures of both mountains have 
something of the form of charts, each temple having its name cut beside it ; 
whilst the paths up to them are marked by dotted lines. Sweeping clouds, 
mountain torrents, lakes and waterfalls are all represented conventionally, 
but with wonderful grace. 

Our attention is next drawn to what is known as the Kno-t'wg, a sort of 
lobby that divides one court from another in large Chinese buildings. Here 
we find the famous Nestorian tablet,* about which so much has been written. 
This was erected about 7S1, A.D., to commemorate the advent of Christianity 
into China in the 6th century, the followers of Nestorius founding a church 
in Shensi about this period. Up till about two years before our visit, the 
tablet stood unprotected in the west suburb of the city ; but on an attempt 
being made by a Swedish collector to carrj' it off for some western museum, 
the Chinese authorities realised that what was worth removing was worth 
retaining, and it was placed amongst the other tablets in the Monument 
Grove. This interesting relic of early Christianity in China stands upon a 
large stone tortoise and is of considerable size. The combined height of 
tablet and tortoise must be over ten feet, so that one does not envy the 
collector the task he had set himself in endeavouring to transport it out of 
the country. As a matter of fact, this enterprising gentleman had an exact 
counterpart of the monument made, and this he almost succeeded in getting 
out of the country ; but after endless troubles with Customs officials and 
others, he dumped it down and left it somewhere along the Yang-tzu. The 
mention of museums recalls a story told by one of the missionaries at Hsi-an 
Fu. He had bought a complete set of rubbings of all the massive stone 
monuments in the Pei-ling — one thousand odd, and sent them to a famous 
museum in Europe. The rubbings were returned with thanks, and an 
intimation that the originals would be greatly appreciated! 

A set of galleries — in many wa3's the most interesting part of Monument 
Grove — is next reached. The sixteen classics are here set forth in ordinary 
caligraphy, written upon both sides of some one hundred and fifty tablets of 
immense size. These alone would serve to mark the galleries for special 
veneration and respect amongst all classes in China ; but there are, in addition, 
many other tablets of interest and renown. What are supposed to be the 
oldest of Mohammedan monuments find shelter within these sacred walls. 



A very interesting account of tl.c Ncstoriiiii tablet is given in *'Cbina and Relipion," by Profes^-r E, If. Piuker, M.A. 
D 49 



The}- are dated 742 A.D. and are special!}- interesting as giving early Arabic 
and Chinese history. The Rev. Frank Madeley, for some years resident in 
Hsi-an, was the first to draw the attention of Mr. Marshall Broomhall (of the 
Chinese Inland Mission) to the two monuments, and the latter subsequently 
brought out a book upon them. 

The monument Hsia Yu Ch'ii Shui Pi (" How Yu of the Hsia dynasty 
controlled the flood ") is also ensconced within this building. As the 
description sets forth, it deals with the controlling of a flood by one Yii, who 
lived in the 21st century B.C. The flood referred to was doubtless due to the 
overflow of the Wei Ho, and to this day the banks of the river have to be 
carefully watched, continuous earthworks running parallel to its course some 
little distance from the water's edge. The stor}- goes that the great Yu was 
deputed by the then ruler of the kingdom to reclaim the flooded lands, and 
confine the river to its proper course. He showed great devotion to this duty 
by labouring unceasingly for two years; nor did he once during that time cross 
the threshold of his home to see his newly-wedded wife. Even when he heard 
the cry of his infant son, as he passed the house, he refused to enter. He 
eventually succeeded in bringing the water under subjection in the year 
2286 B.C., and was ennobled. In 2205 he ascended the throne and founded 
the Hsia dynasty. His death took place in 2107 B.C. ; from which it will be 
seen that he enjoyed a portion of the longevity so common at that period of 
the world's history. This monument is in the " bird-foot " character, with 
ordinary Chinese character added where the meaning is known. 

A quaint picture carved upon a small tablet and representing a clump of 
bamboos— the leaves cunningly arranged to form a number of Chinese 
characters — is supposed to be the work of Kuan Li, the God of War. Close 
by stands another interesting tablet of about the same si^e. This has, carved 
on alternate squares, what seem at first five weird symbols, and paragraphs of 
descriptive writing. The five symbols are supposed to be maps of the Five 
Sacred Mountains already mentioned. 

The pictures and writings in most cases were executed originally not on 
stone, but on paper. They were carefully preserved, but in spite of all 
precautions began to show signs of perishing. Accordingly, the famous and 
scholarly Emperor K'ang-hsi had the valuable inscriptions and pictures 
accurately transferred to stone, so that they might be everlastingly preserved 
to the Chinese people. Thus many of the monuments themselves are not 
more than 250 years old, though the originals of the writings and drawings 
preserved upon them are mostly of great age. A fair proportion of the actual 

50 



PLATE 24. 




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monuments themselves are of considerable antiquity, notably the Hsia Y(i 
Ch'ii Shui Pi, the pair of Mohammedan monuments, the Nestorian tablet, 
and the sixteen classics. The stones are usually oblong in shape, and over 
six inches thick. In many, the sides have been decorated with beautiful scroll 
work, showing marked signs of Indian influence. In some of these designs 
are figures of animals and birds that strongly call to mind the Assyrian 
sculptures. Especially is this the case with some lions, which bear no 
resemblance whatever to the conventional Chinese form. For a moderate 
sum excellent rubbings of all the monuments can be bought from the 
gate-keepers of Monument Grove, who are moreover ready with any amount 
of information, accurate or otherwise. 

In a large pagoda a mile or so south of Hsi-an are two Buddhist 
monuments dated the fourth year of Yung Hui, which corresponds to the year 
653-4 A.D. of our Calendar. They tell of the visit of a Chinese pilgrim to 
India to learn what he could of Buddhism ; of how, after crossing the Ganges, 
he studied the language of the country and the new faith ; and of his eventual 
return to Hsi-an, where he was loaded with honours. The stones further 
relate how he translated 250 Buddhist books into Chinese ; but perhaps their 
date is the most interesting feature, coming as it does within a year or so of 
a date upon the Nestorian tablet. This seems to suggest that Christianity 
and Buddhism may have reached parts of China almost simultaneously. 

A few other monuments or tablets may be noticed here, though they 
cannot be said strictly to belong to Hsi-an Fu. Two of these form a pair 
near Chou-chih Hsien, a small town situated at the foot of the Middle-South 
Mountains (Chung-nan Shan), fifty miles west of Hsi-an. On these monuments 
are inscribed the whole of the Tao-iei-ching, the Taoist classics. At Yao 
Chou, a large town some fifty miles north of Hsi-an, is a broken Buddhist 
tablet dated 529 a.d. This is one of the oldest monuments in the district, 
but is otherwise of no great interest. There are besides, tablets, though of no 
very ancient date, cemented into the walls of the buildings within the grounds 
of the hot springs at Lin-t'ung Hsien, and testifying to the healing properties 
of the waters. 

At Hsi-an we were detained some days by the necessity of taking 
astronomical observations, but by May 6th we were once more on the road to 
Lan-chou. After clearing the western suburb and traversing some ten miles 
of low-lying country, we once more crossed the Wei Ho, and stopped the first 
night at Hsien-yang Hsien, which lies on the bank of that river. About three 
miles from this town the road begins to ascend a series of loess steps, and from 

31 



there onward steadily rises till it reaches an altitude of nearly 9000 feet at the 
summit of the Yung-yao Pass to the west of P'ing-liang Fu (Kansu). These 
mountains make a formidable barrier and can only be negotiated with great 
difficulty. The eastern slope is about three miles in length, in which distance 
it rises about 3000 feet. To accomplish this ascent, each cart needs about 
treble its usual number of mules, and several carters have to combine to help 
one another, their wretched animals being forced to make the heart-breaking 
journey two or even three times during the day. Not infrequently a caravan 
will spend the whole day in getting across this difficult pass. The severity of 
the strain on the animals may be gathered from the innumerable skeletons 
that litter the slopes close to the road. The difference in temperature 
between the eastern and western slopes of these mountains was very 
noticeable. On the eastern side foliage was well advanced ; the valleys and 
ravines were filled with dense bushes already in full leaf; the slopes were 
covered with scrub in an equally advanced condition ; whilst the trees that 
lined the roads had assumed their summer livery. The western side presented 
a very different aspect ; the slopes, valleys, and ravines were almost nude ; no 
green was to be seen ; a few straggling trees stood bare and brown in the 
bottoms of the hollows. In crossing the pass the travellers had stepped from 
a beautiful country, rich in animal life and sylvan scenery, into a dry, cold, 
and barren wilderness. 

At a small village about five days journey from Hsi-an, we came across a 
temple of the T'ang dynasty, Ta-fu-ssii (Great Sage Temple). This consists 
of a cave close upon seventy feet high, and proportionately wide and deep, 
in which sits a colossal Buddha placidly contemplating the eternal cycle of 
things, and supported on either side by gigantic attendant deities. The 
figures, as well as the cave itself, have all been hewn with infinite labour out 
of the solid cliff. This temple had been repaired recently, and the figures 
were covered with plaster and gorgeously painted. It is possible to view this 
Buddha from three different points ; the ground floor, a balcony at about half 
the height of the figure, and a second balcony on a level with the face. From 
this last a photograph of the face was obtained, and is reproduced in this 
volume. 

It may not be out of place here to mention another temple of the same 
dynasty lying some six miles south of Ho-nan Fu, and known as Lung-k'ou 
Miao (Dragon's Mouth Temple). This consists of a series of large caves in 
the side of a deep gorge cutting through a range of low, rocky mountains. 
Within the caves are large images of Buddha, and attendant sages, all hewn 

52 



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from the solid rock. The Buddhas, seated as usual on lotus lily pedestals, 
must be from twenty-five to thirty feet high, whilst the figures grouped 
around, all of which are standing, must be from twelve to eighteen feet. 

All the figures in both these temples are exceedingly ugly and ill- 
proportioned, in strong contrast to the beautiful statues found in the Sung 
dynasty temples of a later date round Yen-an Fu, and in north-central Shensi 
generally. Other points of difference between temples of the two periods are 
that the T'ang temples are much higher, and contain fewer but larger figures ; 
on the other hand the Sung temples have their walls lined with innumerable 
little images of Buddha carved out of the rock. It would seem as if at the 
earlier date the idea of multiplying images of Buddha, as an act of merit, had 
not been developed, though what may be regarded as the germ of the later 
idea is traceable in the Lung-k'ou Miao by tablets and slabs of rock, on 
which have been carved in low relief rows of little Buddhas an inch or so in 
height. It is interesting to note that the idea of e.xcavating Buddhist temples 
from solid rock cliffs and mountains seems to have originated in India. The 
mouths of these caves are usually built up with beams, bricks, and mortar, 
and aftenvards finished with tiling to form the roofs, verandahs and balconies, 
in imitation of the fronts of ordinary temples. 

But little of interest happened to us during our march to Lan-chou. We 
found the inn-keepers more artful and cunning than further north ; certainly 
more sophisticated than a man near Yii-lin Fu, who had run after us for three 
miles to enquire if we had taken his dish-cloth. At one place on this road 
we noticed a sediment in some hot water supplied to us ; this the inn-keeper 
tried to explain away as " only a few millet grains." But on being cross- 
examined he admitted that he had put the millet in on purpose to disguise the 
sediment, or at least to have an explanation ready. He was outdone, 
however, by another man who, on being asked for tea, gave us what seemed 
to be hot water with some grains and bits of stick in it. The sticks he 
described as " mountain tea." On being asked for millet gruel, he pointed to 
the grains, " This is millet gruel." On being asked for hot water, he again 
pointed, " This is hot water " ; thus keeping one fluid to meet all require- 
ments. It was certainly as much like one as another. 

This road from Hsi-an to Lan-chou has been described in detail by other 
travellers, and consequently requires but little description here. It runs through 
Hsien-yang Hsien, Li-ch'iian Hsien, Ch'ien Chou, Yung-shou Hsicn, Pin Chou, 
Ch'ang-wu Hsien, and, passing into Kansu, traverses Kan-chou Fu, P'ing-liang 
Fu, Ching-ning Chou, and then via Hui-ning and An-ting (vide pp. 58, 59). 

S3 



For the greater part it is lined with rows of lofty trees, limes, elms, and 
poplars. The majority of these were planted by General Ma's troops after 
they had quelled the Mohammedan rebellion ; hence the road is known as 
" Ma's Avenue." The notorious Tung Fu-shang similarly planted with trees 
many of the parts neglected by General Ma. Needless to say in a country 
so barren as the greater part of Kansu, these trees afford an inestimable boon 
to the jaded traveller. There are, of course, some pleasant spots along 
this wearisome highroad, such as the eastern slopes of the Yung-yao Pass, 
and the country adjoining the Yung-shou Hsien Pass, about four days' journey 
from Hsi-an Fu ; but for days together the traveller may see nothing but bare, 
brown hills, and dry, stony valle5S. The country from Ching-ning Chou to 
Lan-chou Fu was suffering from a protracted drought. The natives said 
that insufficient rain had fallen for three years. The dust was terrible, and 
it was with no little satisfaction that we arrived at the end of our nineteen 
days' journey, to find the other members of the e.xpedition, whom we had not 
seen for months, comfortably ensconced in a pleasant garden outside the walls 
of Lan-chou. 



54 



Plate 26. 




Rubbing from Tablet in the Hei Ling (iVlonument Grove), Hsi an Pu. 

5«e p. 4X 



CHAPTER VII. 

MARCH OF DOL'GLAS AND GRANT TO LAN-CHOU— DESCRIPTION OF 

LAN-CHOU FU. 

"yHE Other division of the expedition, under Captain Douglas and Mr. 

Grant, had left Yen-an Fu on January 30th, and moving by easy stages 
and with halts of varying duration, reached Lan-chou on April 6th. 

Following the same road as Clark and Sowerby as far south as Fu-chou, 
the caravan then turned westward, ascending almost immediately a long 
slope which led up to some loess plateaux similar to those encountered by the 
others to the east of that town. Ch'ang-ts'un-yi, distant from Fu-chou some 
17^ miles, was the first halting place reached after that town was left on 
February 5th. The road, owing to frozen snow and steep gradients, was very 
bad. Bustard were seen on the plateau, but none were secured. 

After resting a day at Ch'ang-ts'un-yi, the march was resumed and 
Hai-shui-ssu was reached on February 7th. This place is nearly seventeen 
miles from Ch'ang-ts'un-yi and is situated in an open fertile valley at an 
altitude of a little over 3000 feet. The journey was accomplished without 
difficulty as the road was good. A narrow plateau, reaching an altitude of 
3600 feet, was crossed during the day ; but elsewhere the road wound up and 
down ravines and valleys, all of which seemed to unite towards the south. 
The population of Hai-shui-ssii seemed to be about two hundred and fifty. 

On February gth, the border line between Shensi and Kansu was crossed 
soon after leaving Hai-shui-ssu. After travelling for twenty miles along a 
good road through a well wooded country, the caravan reached T'ai-pei-ch'Sng, 
a dilapidated village containing scarcely a hundred souls. All along the 
road lay ruined and deserted villages — results, it was ascertained, of the 
Mohammedan rebellion, and the great famine. Most of the people now in 
the district were found to be from Ssuch'uan, and they, but recent 
settlers, had not yet effaced the terrible marks of these ravaging influences. 
Miao-ts'un was reached on February nth, after a journey through very wild, 
heavily-wooded and almost deserted country. The timber was not large, 
showing that it had only been allowed to grow from a comparatively recent 
date. The distance between this village and T'ai-pei-ch'eng was, by road- 
wheel, seventeen miles. Hazrat Ali shot two roedeer in this country, and 
other game was plentiful. 

55 



The expedition continued its westward march on February 14th, and after 
crossing a pass at an altitude of over 5000 feet, and descending into a steadily 
widening and very fertile vallej^ reached the small walled town of Ho-shui 
Hsien. The hills on either side of the road were covered with scrub, and but 
few villages were seen. The road, since leaving Ch'ang-ts'un-yi, had been 
excellent for mule traffic, whilst the country consisted of loess, with here and 
there signs of carboniferous bed-rock. There was plenty of water, perennial 
streams, now frozen over, flowing at the bottom of each ravine, and in every 
valley. This last stage was nineteen miles. The following day Ch'ing-yang 
Fu was reached after a journey of over twenty miles through a terraced loess 
country, which, however, showed few signs of cultivation, and was but 
sparsely populated. There was every evidence that Ch'ing-yang Fu had been 
at one time a fine and prosperous city, but its population had fallen victims to 
a massacre in the Mohammedan rebellion, and the place had never regained 
its former importance, containing now at a liberal estimate not more than 
1000 inhabitants. A halt was made here till February 21st, when the journey 
westward was resumed. Pai-ma-p'u, a miserable village situated on a plateau, 
was reached that night after a march of fourteen miles through poor country. 
On the following day Hsi-feng-chen was reached, and here a halt was made 
till February 25th. The distance between this and the last stopping-place 
was twenty-one miles along a good cart-road lying over the loess plateau. 
Many bustard were seen, and Grant secured one at long range. 

On February 25th, the journey was continued still over similar country 
till T'ai-pei-ch'eng was reached, this being the second village of that name 
met with in Kansu; it is about sixteen miles from Hsi-feng-chen. Ch6n-yuan 
Hsien, the next halting-place, was reached on February 27th after a journey of 
fifteen miles, again over loess plateaux, on the western limit of which the 
town is situated. It is decidedly more prosperous than any of the places 
passed by the expedition since leaving Fu-chou in Shensi, and contains a 
Protestant Mission Station. Between Ch'ing-yang Fu and ChSn-yiian Hsien 
runs a cart-road, which, although not very good for carts, is excellent for mule 
traffic. From Chen-yuan it goes southward to P'ing-liang Fu. 

After one day's stay at Chen-yiian, the expedition continued its journey 
towards Lan-chou. Yang-shu-wan, situated at an altitude of about 5300 feet, was 
reached on March ist. The country passed through looked much more 
prosperous, and the land was all under cultivation. The road was good, so 
that the twenty-one miles between this village and ChSn-yuan were accom- 
plished in good time, the usual loess hills being encountered. Owing to the 

56 



PLATE 27. 




u 



■■3 
13 



melting of the recent heavy snows, the Chien-tsai Ho, up the right bank of 
which the caravan travelled all day, was slightly in flood, and the current was 
rapid, flowing at about six miles an hour. 

On March 3rd Liu-chia-hua was reached, a village situated another 
eighteen miles up the same valley. The road, though good, was very winding 
in its course, whilst the country was prosperous-looking and well cultivated. 
Leaving Liu-chia-hua on March 5th, the caravan continued up the valley for 
fifteen miles, finally reaching a small village named Jen-sa-ho. From here a 
high range of mountains could be discerned stretching away to the south. 
The following day a loess pass of some 7600 feet was crossed, and a descent 
made into Ku-yiian Chou. This large and prosperous town is situated close 
to the hills, and at the commencement of a somewhat e.xtensive plain. Away 
to the south can be seen the massive peaks and ridges of the Liu-p'an Shan, 
whilst to the north and west the country rises very gradually into loess hills. 
The population of this town must be close upon 5000, and it is the distributing 
centre of a large area ; its prosperity being due to the large number of 
Mohammedans, both in the town itself and in the surrounding district. The 
expedition rested here till March i6th, comfortable quarters having been found 
in the suburb outside the south gate. The town is about fourteen miles from 
Jen-sa-ho and has an altitude of about 6300 feet. 

On leaving Ku-yiian, the travellers encountered country which differed 
considerably from anything they had yet traversed, either in Shensi or Kansu. 
The road for the first few miles lay in a south-westerly direction, slowly 
ascending to the foot of a rocky ridge. Crossing this ridge, the caravan 
descended into a narrow valley running in a southerly direction between two 
other high and rocky ridges. For some miles the road slowly ascended the 
valley, which grew steadily narrower, ending finally in a low pass. The sides 
of the valley were very precipitous, ascending to the height of some thousand 
feet above the road. There was a certain amount of vegetation, but for the 
most part the highest slopes were covered with grass only. After crossing the 
pass the caravan followed a ravine, which extended in a south-westerly 
direction. The sides of this ravine were lower than those of that previously 
ascended, whilst rich, red earth took the place of the limestone hitherto 
encountered. To the east could be seen a chain of high, rugged and snow- 
covered mountains extending in a south-easterly direction. There was now 
more vegetation along the roadside, and the slopes of the red-earth hills were 
under cultivation. At last the ravine widened out, and a small village situated 
within and below the remains of an old garrison town was reached. This was 

57 



Ch'ano;-yi-p'u, about twenty miles from Ku-yuan, and containing perhaps a 
score of tumble-down houses. To the north and south ran ridges of high 
rounded hills, and eastward the massive peaks of the Liu-p'an Shan rose to an 
altitude of 10,000 feet. The country opened out to the west into a wide and 
fertile valley, bordered by comparatively low loess hills. 

On March i8th the descent was continued down the wide valley to the 
west, and after fourteen miles of pleasant, well-cultivated country had been 
traversed, Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u, a pretty walled village, was reached. Here the 
houses, though small and built mainly of sun-dried bricks, were in good 
repair, and the inhabitants looked prosperous. Once more the loess country 
had been reached, and only in the watercourses were there any signs of the 
rocky country just traversed. 

The next stage — a long one of twenty-four miles — brought the travellers 
to the large and busy walled-town of Ching-ning Chou. Just before this 
town was reached, the valley, which had been followed in its south-westerly 
direction from Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u, narrowed down to a deep gorge winding through 
a ridge of limestone. The villages passed through during the day were 
mostly Mohammedan, and were all prosperous-looking places, whilst the 
population of Ching-ning could not be less than 5000. Two days were spent 
here and on March 23rd the march to Lan-chou was resumed. At this point 
the road hitherto followed joins the great highway from Hsi-an Fu to 
Lan-chou Fu, so that the expedition was no longer traversing regions hitherto 
unexplored. The road from Ku-yiian Chou to Ching-ning Chou is suitable 
for wheeled traffic, and a considerable number of carts were passed. In 
places the going was a bit rough, but no heavy gradients exist, and the route 
is excellent for mule transport. The country west of Ching-ning consisted 
for the most part of high loess mountains, and was very barren, though 
everywhere the surface showed signs of actual or recent cultivation. The 
natives complained of the want of rain, and were very poverty-stricken. 
Immense caiions winding through vast deposits of loess were noticed 
frequently. Sometimes the road would follow one of these, and at other 
times it would lie over the top or along the ridges. 

On the first day after leaving Ching-ning, a pass of about 7500 feet was 
crossed, the caravan subsequently finding quarters in a village named 
Ching-chia-yi after a march of twentj-three and a half miles. Many villages 
were passed during the day's journey, but none were very large or important. 
On March 25th Hui-ning Hsien was reached after a hard journey of nearly 
twenty-six miles. This town is used as an exile-station, and although of 

98 



PLATE 28. 




ft 



considerable extent is almost in ruins, the population not exceeding 500 all 
told. On March 27th Hsi-kung-yi was reached, after a short day's journey of 
fifteen miles. The country passed through was entirely of loess, and no bed 
rock was seen, though the bottom of a deep canon, up which the road lay, 
was noticed to be full of boulders, cobbles, and gravel, all of which had 
evidently been brought down by water from high mountains somewhere to 
the west. 

Soon after leaving Hsi-kung-yi the caravan ascended the high loess 
mountains called Ching-liang Shan, and for some time continued along ridges 
of the same. In places, outcrops of rock explained the existence of the 
boulders and cobbles noticed on the preceding day. Towards the end of the 
daj' and after a long descent into a wide valley, a large walled town named 
An-ting Hsien was reached. This place is situated seventeen miles from 
Hsi-kung-yi, and has a population of about 3000. During the day's march 
many carts were encountered laden with waterpipe tobacco. Heavy snow was 
experienced during the forenoon, rendering the road, which was otherwise 
good, very slushy. 

On April 1st the caravan left An-ting Hsien, and after travelling for 
seventeen miles over a good road through the usual loess valleys, put up at a 
small place named Ch'6ng-k'ou-yi, the population of which was estimated at 
about 200. The inns being very bad, the travellers availed themselves of the 
privilege of stopping at the official rest-house. The following day the journey 
was continued ; the road gradually ascending till an altitude of 8000 feet was 
reached. From this point high mountains could be seen to the south and 
south-west. The road then followed the top of the ridge for a distance of 
seven miles ; the slopes on either side were very steep, whilst the ravine- 
bottom was judged to be a thousand feet, or more, below the road level. The 
ridge was composed chiefly of very hard and compact loess, though rock 
was noticed occasionally further down the slopes and along the beds of the 
ravines. Just before reaching Kan-tsao-tien — a prosperous-looking village 
some fourteen miles from Ch'6ng-k'ou-yi — the caravan made a sharp descent 
from the high loess ridges into the valley. The road traversed during the day 
was, in places, very bad, especially for cart traffic. The slopes on either side 
were all under cultivation. 

On April 4th, after crossing a low spur of loess, and travelling for some 
distance along a wide stream-bed, thickly strewn with cobbles and boulders, 
the caravan reached Hsiao-shui-tzu, a little village perched upon a rocky cliff 
on the south bank of the Yellow River. The stream, whose course- had been 

59 



followed most of the day, joins the river close to this village, after forcing its 
way through a thick layer of rock. At this point too, the Yellow River itself 
cuts deeply through the thick layer of igneous rock — its course being very 
tortuous, and the current swift. Immediately on leaving Hsiao-shui-tzu it 
turns northwards, continuing its way through a series of much contorted hills 
of igneous and water-formed rock. This day's march was found to be twenty- 
six-and-half miles. 

The following day Lan-chou Fu was reached after a journey of fifteen 
miles along dusty roads, lying for the most part over loess and sandstone hills. 
Three miles from Lan-chou, the road descends into a wide valley through 
which flows the Yellow River. The country here looked very deserted, the 
high loess hills on either side of the valley being bare of vegetation, whilst the 
valley itself presented the appearance of a sandy waste, thickly covered with 
graves. Notwithstanding the desolate appearance of the place, the travellers 
were heartily glad to have reached the end of their long overland journey. It 
was difficult to find quarters, all the inns being wretchedly small and dirty. 
Visits were made to many places, including a beautiful temple situated a little 
to the east of the city at Lien-hua-ch'ih (Lotus Flower Pool) ; and eventually 
the summer residence of a wealthy native family was engaged. In the 
pavilions of its lovely garden ample room was found for all the members of 
the expedition, and they settled down to await the arrival of Clark and 
Sowerby, with the supplies and extra outfit necessary for the intended 
extension of work along the Tibetan border. 

The city of Lan-chou Fu is of considerable size and importance. It is 
situated on the right (south) bank of the Huang Ho, at the point where the 
great high road into Chinese Turkestan crosses that river. Its population has 
been estimated at half-a-million, several sections having been built on to the 
western wall to take in and protect the buildings forming an overflow outside 
the main city. The streets, which at the time of our visit were being 
macadamized, are narrow; the houses well-built and very closely packed. 
The walls and gate -towers are in excellent repair, though several salients 
guarding the western approaches of the city have been allowed to sink into 
disrepair. The chief industries carried on are the manufacture of waterpipe 
tobacco, for which Lan-chou is famous all over China, and the curing of furs 
brought in from the west. Gold and silversmiths and jade-merchants do a 
good trade, whilst curio shops are very numerous. 

The valley in which Lan-chou is situated is of comparative fertility, due 
mainly to the supply of water readily obtainable from the Yellow River. For 

(iO 



PLATE 29. 




3 



a 

■a 
■a 

3 



•J 



purposes of irrigation the farmers resort to the method prevalent in 
Ssuch'uan ; immense wooden wheels with buckets attached arc placed so 
that the current of the river causes them to revolve ; the water is thus 
automatically carried up in the buckets, and being emptied into troughs flows 
into canals thus fertilising the thirsty fields, which would otherwise be of 
necessity useless. A considerable amount of opium is grown in the valley ; 
tobacco, vegetables, and a little wheat forming the rest of the crops produced. 
Immediately adjoining the city are some fine orchards, one of which was 
within the grounds of our residence. For the rest, the surrounding country — 
save for perennial streams along the ravine-bottoms — seems to be utterly 
dessicated and sterile ; indeed, Europeans who have been long resident in the 
district state that the desert is approaching slow-ly but surely from the north, 
and engulfing the country. Of the truth of this there can be but little doubt, 
and were it not for the Yellow River, Lan-chou would certainly cease to exist. 
The river, at this point some 300 yards wide and 25 feet deep, was formerly 
crossed in summer by means of an extensive but very shaky pontoon, liable 
to breakage in the rainy season by any more than usually heavy rush of water. 
An iron bridge was in process of construction during our visit, and was 
completed at the end of the same summer, so that the old boat-bridge is now 
a thing of the past. Great anxiety was felt by Mr. Coltman, the engineer in 
charge, as to how the bridge would stand the severe strain of the autumn 
floods ; but though the rains, which commenced in July, were the heaviest 
that had been experienced in the district for many years, and the river in 
consequence rose far above the usual high-water-mark, the well-planned and 
strongly-built structure stood the test, and remains a fine example of modern 
engineering skill. 

We saw the first samples of woollen cloth produced in Lan-chow. More 
than thirty years ago, Tso Ching-t'ang, an official of the city, had decided to 
start an industry in the manufacture of woollen goods. All the machinery 
necessary for a large factory was bought and transported overland from the 
sea-coast at great cost, only to be dumped down and allowed to rust on 
reaching its destination. Rockhill (author of "The Land of the Lamas") 
speaks of seeing the chimney of the wool-factory at Lan-chou, which was at 
that time (1888) abandoned. It is only quite recently that an official, more 
enterprising than his predecessors, has engaged European experts, and 
completed the building of the factory and the installation of the machinery. 
The Belgians employed in this have had their work cut out, but after untold 
labour they have succeeded in getting everything into working order. The 

61 



wool itself is certainly on the spot, and it will be interesting to see whether 
the enterprise succeeds, or fails, as all other large financial speculations 
undertaken and controlled by the Chinese have hitherto done. Lan-chou Fu, 
though throbbing with life and energy, owes its importance, not to any of the 
industries already mentioned, but to its geographical position and official rank. 
It forms the regular stopping-place and exchange for a vast amount of traffic, 
and countless commerce-laden caravans, situated as it is at the point where 
the main road from Sinkiang, Western Mongolia, Northern Tibet, and Siberia 
enters China proper. The administrative area of Lan-chou is greater than 
that of any other Chinese city except Peking. Its Viceroy controls an area of 
over 750,000 square miles, embracing the whole of Sinkiang, as well as Kansu 
and Shensi, or Sh^n-kan (as the two provinces in combination are called), and 
containing a population of about twenty millions. 

The population of Lan-chou Fu is largely made up of Mohammedans, 
who are viewed with suspicion by the officials. In theory they are not allowed 
to reside within the walls of the city, but only on the north bank of the river. 
This regulation, like so many other laws and regulations in China, is 
practically a dead letter. Since the quelling of the Mohammedan rebellion in 
1878, Sinkiang, or "The New Dominion" as Chinese Turkestan is called, has 
been rapidly peopled with settlers from other provinces, and is in consequence 
steadily increasing in importance, and in trade with China generally, and with 
Siberia. 

No place in China offers better opportunity than does Lan-chou of 
studying and comparing the various types that go to form the great Celestial 
Empire. The heavily-built Mongol rubs shoulders with the wild and savage- 
looking Sifan (Tibetan), or the Turco-Mongol from Kashgar ; here a 
Chinaman from one of the southern provinces, easily distinguishable by his 
short stature, slight figure, and sallow skin ; there a man from Ssuch'uan, 
with characteristic turban surmounting the equally characteristic moon-face. 
A Kansu Mohammedan with long curly beard, and clear-cut features, may be 
seen haggling with a broad-nosed, dull-faced native of the province ; or a hot- 
headed, rowdy carter from Honan, quarrelling over two grains of sorghum 
found in a manger, with a placid, but canny Shansi muleteer. 



62 



PLATE 30. 




"1 



c 
a 

3 
C 

> 

< 



C3 

c 



CHAPTER VIII. 



MURDER OF HAZRAT ALL 



MOW occurred the unfortunate murder of our survejor, Hazrat Ali, who was 
wantonly killed by the Chinese during the course of his survey duties. 
This outrage, which was committed without the least provocation on the part 
of the victim, or of any other member of the expedition, brought our journey 
to an untimely end. How bitterly we all regret the loss of one who was ever 
a faithful friend and a devoted worker, it is impossible to say. 

The sad occurrence is best described by extracts from the diary of 
Sowerby, who was the only foreigner travelling with Hazrat Ali at the time : 

" I left Lan-chou on June 20th with Hazrat Ali, his servant, Muhammad 
Husein, and a small following of Chinese, with half-a-dozen mules, escorted 
by two Chinese soldiers. 

" Our objective was Min Chou, a town about five days' journey to the 
southward, and we expected to be caught up by Clark's party en route. 

" Our road skirted a dry watercourse, which passes close to the west gate 
of Lan-chou, and at about five miles from the city we met a caravan of 
Tibetans. They were a picturesque-looking set of ruffians, some mounted on 
camels or shaggy little ponies, whilst others, including all the women of the 
party, trudged on foot. The ladies looked as ferocious as the men and were 
equally ready to engage us in conversation, which was an easy matter as both 
parties were familiar with Chinese. 

" All the Tibetans took great interest in our equipment : saddles and 
guns particularly causing much excited comment. 

" One, who appeared to be the leader of the party, was very anxious that 
I should present him with my rifle, and, indeed, tried to draw the coveted 
weapon from its case. Unfortunately I did not feel disposed to fall in with 
his somewhat extravagant demand, though it is possible that, had we not been 
so close to Lan-chou, the party might have attempted to help themselves by 
force. 

68 



" Later on we met a wealthy Kashgari, who had been trading in the 
south of the province. He was seated in a large cart, evidently not of Chinese 
build, to which three horses were harnessed abreast, in Russian fashion. 

"We continued to pass numerous carts and strings of camels and mules, 
which testified to the popularity of the road as a trade route. 

" At Wa-kang-ch'eng, a large village about ten miles from Lan-chou, the 
inhabitants were engaged in the manufacture of rough earthenware vessels, 
clay being plentiful in the district and fair coal obtainable in the neighbouring 
ravine. 

" About thirteen miles from Lan-cho\i, vegetation became denser and the 
watercourse, which had been dn*' up to now, commenced to hold a streamlet 
of water. We wound up the ravine for another two miles and then began a 
steep ascent to the summit of the pass (6500 feet) , whence we descended a 
steep ravine to the village of Ma-chia-k'ou. Here we decided to halt for a day, 
as the surveyor wished to visit some of the neighbouring peaks for purposes of 
triangulation. 

" Although everyone appeared perfectly friendly, I thought it better to 
re-iterate my warnings to Hazrat Ali never to work unarmed and always to 
take one of the Chinese soldiers with him on his excursions, as a sign that the 
party was travelling under official sanction. 

" On June 21st, Hazrat Ali started at an early hour to commence his 
survey from one of the high peaks about six miles to the east of our camp. 

" Unfortunately I was called away on some camp duty and missed seeing 
him before he left. I was consequently much annoyed to find later on that 
he was not accompanied by one of the escort. His servant assured me, how- 
ever, that he had gone out well armed, so that there appeared to be no cause 
for anxiety. 

" Rain fell heavily during the day, and, as I knew this would interfere 
considerably with the progress of the survey, I did not expect Hazrat Ali to 
return until towards nightfall, as I knew how conscientiously ,he always 
carried out his day's work. 

" As night drew in without his returning, I decided to take out guides to 
his assistance, in case he should lose his way in the darkness. 

" As our party was on the point of setting out, one of the plane-table 
coolies crawled into camp, covered with wounds and with his arm broken. 

" The poor fellow informed us that the survey party had been attacked, 
without warning or provocation, by a large gang of natives from the villages 

64 



PLATE 31. 




on a plateau about six miles east of our camp. The man himself had been 
severely assaulted and robbed of his watch, but had made good his escape. 
He knew nothing of the fate of the surveyor or of the other plane-table coolie. 
His assailants had informed him that they intended to make an immediate 
attack on our camp at Ma-chia-k'ou, in order to kill all the foreigners. On 
hearing this, the servants became panic-stricken, and vainly implored me to 
return forthwith to Lan-chou. The night was now pitch dark and the guides 
flatly refused to assist me in searching for traces of the surveyor, and without 
their aid it was impossible for me to find Hazrat Ah, as I knew nothing of the 
neighbourhood. 

" I therefore sent back a mafoo (groom) towards Lan-chou with a letter to 
Clark, urging him to obtain search-parties from the officials to look for the 
missing man. 

" Meantime I prepared against the threatened attack on our camp by 
distributing all available firearms amongst my party. I was now further 
disquieted to find that Hazrat Ali, in spite of my express injunctions, had left 
his weapons behind, and had not even a revolver with him. 

" Our defensive preparations became known to the villagers of Ma-chia- 
k'ou and they probably warned our intending assailants, for although at about 
2 a.m. we heard a considerable beating of drums, the noise died away and we 
were not molested during the night. 

" As soon as it was light enough to see, I collected a search-party to beat 
the ground to the east of our camp, and at the same time sent back the mules 
and baggage to Lan-chou. 

" Just as our search-party was starting, the second survey-coolie arrived in 
camp, covered with blood and showing signs of severe ill-usage. He had 
contrived to escape whilst the mob were pursuing Hazrat Ali, but of the 
latter's fate he knew nothing. After attending to the wounded man, I set out 
accompanied by Muhammad Husein and three servants. The official escort 
declined to come with us, and returned to Lan-chou with the baggage. We 
started to ascend the hills to the east, but had not gone far when we were 
overtaken by the ma/oo, bringing Clark's reply to my letter of overnight. I 
was relieved to learn that the officials had promised every assistance in 
searching for Hazrat Ali, and that soldiers were probably even then on their 
way. 

" After a march of some miles through a broken and difficult country, 
much intersected by precipitous ravines, we came upon traces of Hazrat Ali — 
easily distinguishable by his hob-nailed boots. There were also footprints of a 

8 65 



crowd of Chinese, evidently bent on his pursuit. The tracks showed that the 
surveyor had been headed off in more than one direction, but had finally made 
his way to the end of a deep ravine, where all signs of him were lost, though 
there were the marks of a crowd of Chinese at this spot. From these indica- 
tions I concluded that the unfortunate man had been captured, and had 
probably been taken to one of the neighbouring villages. I therefore decided 
to make for Wa-kang-ch'eng, a distant village on the high plateau where 
Hazrat Ali had been first attacked, to see if any traces of the surveyor could 
be found there, and also to effect a possible junction with the promised search- 
party. 

" En route we arrived at a village, all the able-bodied inhabitants of 
which were absent, and were informed by some old men and women that they 
had heard rumours of the murder of a foreigner but were ignorant of any details. 

" As darkness was now coming on we headed for Wa-kang-ch'eng, which 
was reached about ii p.m. Here we learned that Clark's party had passed 
through about five hours before and were now at Ma-chia-k'ou. I found a 
lady-missionary in the village, and, in view of the disturbed state of the 
vicinity, told off Muhammad Husein and one of my servants to escort her to 
Lan-chou. I myself with one servant hurried to Ma-chia-k'ou, only to find on 
arrival that Clark's party had passed through an hour before. By pushing on 
rapidly, I managed to catch them up about 4 a.m. Clark informed me that in 
spite of strong representations to the officials, the promised search-party had 
never been sent, and that, fearing for the surveyor's safety, he had been 
obliged to ask the four available Europeans to push off with him at once in 
relief. Clark, before leaving Lan-chou, had informed the officials of his 
intentions, but they acted in the usual dilatory manner and afforded him no 
assistance." 

The party, now united once more, determined to make a thorough search 
through the neighbouring villages, and at the first one entered found several 
Ya-inen runners comfortably smoking in one of the huts, whilst their horses 
were tethered outside. When questioned, they said they had been sent out to 
investigate the affair but had as yet discovered nothing. This was hardly 
surprising, as, except for themselves, the village was absolutely deserted ! 
These loafers having flatly declined to assist us in the search, we visited 
several of the neighbouring villages, all of which we found deserted except for 
the women and children, who disclaimed any knowledge of the affair. 

We now came to a tableland, intersected by deep ravines, and on several 
commanding positions we observed parties of men collecting. With a view to 

66 



extending our inquiries as widely as possible, the party was now split up, each 
of us making for a different isolated group of men. 

Emboldened by the fact that they had only a single man to deal with, the 
natives in some cases assumed the offensive, and it was unfortunately neces- 
sary to have recourse to firearms in self-defence. Two of our party received 
injuries in this unfortunate affair, whilst one native was killed and two 
wounded. The use of force was much regretted by us all, but the attitude of 
the natives was extremely threatening and our revolvers were only used as a 
last resource. 

On reassembling, two of the party brought in apparently reliable reports 
that Hazrat Ali had been murdered, but no information was forthcoming as to 
where his body might be found. 

The whole position was now so serious that it became imperative to 
telegraph at once from Lan-chou a full report to the British and American 
Ministers at Peking. Whilst awaiting their instructions, the leader of the 
expedition made repeated representations, in person, to the local authorities, 
the remainder of the party continuing to prosecute inquiries in the 
neighbourhood of the tragedy. Warned by recent experience, they kept 
together, a course which, though practically dictated by circumstances, had 
the disadvantage of delaying the rate of search. But more clearly, almost 
hour by hour, the sickening conviction was borne in upon us that hope was 
slipping away, and that we must prepare our minds to accept the worst. The 
storj' told by the natives, as it began to disentangle and shape itself — or be 
shaped — was that the surveyor had been alarmed by a crowd of peasants 
chasing a runaway cow, that he had thought the demonstration directed 
against himself, that he had tried to escape from his imaginary danger and 
had fallen over a precipice. All the versions agreed in these two points : that 
he was dead, and that his body was irrecoverable. 

At Lan-chou the officials received Mr. Clark with effusive civility and 
every protestation of friendliness, coupled indeed with edifying homilies on the 
virtues of patience, and with these for some time he had to be content ; for 
although every persuasion was tried to arouse them to action, it did not appear 
that they had any intention whatever of taking practical steps in the affair. 
However, after a little, it became evident that they had in reality been engaged 
in satisfying themselves, through the reliable channels of information at their 
disposal, that Hazrat Ali had in truth met his death. This heartbreaking 
confirmation of our fears carried with it but one consolation, and that of a 

67 



poor sort ; he was at least no longer in the hands, or at the mercj', of Chinese 
captors. 

Sympathy, of an official sort, was freely proffered ; ' It had been an acci- 
dent, no doubt, and most regrettable ; but one of their own countrymen had 
been killed as well, making one each side, so that we were now quits.' It was 
in vain that Mr. Clark appealed for such redress as was possible and for 
punishment of the guilty parties ; the formula of reply was always the same : 
' An accident no doubt, and most regrettable,' and concluding invariably with 
the cold-blooded balancing of human lives. It was just one of those situations 
where he who cares least comes off best ; and the man, who had lost not only 
a faithful fellow- worker but a personal friend, was at great disadvantage in 
face of hide-bound officials, who could treat the fate of their own countryman 
with the bland unconcern of chess players discussing the sacrifice of a gambit- 
pawn. That they were not altogether so easy in mind as they would have 
had it believed, was evident, and they would have given much to be able to 
produce Haxrat AH alive; for, after all, some very searching interrogatories 
were bound to come from Peking. That they were a little doubtful about the 
truth of its being an accident was indicated, perhaps, by a tendency to post- 
date the surveyor's death till after the shooting of the Chinaman ; but this 
was not very clear, and discussion through interpreters may easily lead to 
misunderstanding. Eventually it became quite obvious that, if any sort of 
reparation was to be obtained, this would only be forthcoming at the Capital. 
However, before there had been time to decide on a course of action, the 
replies to Mr. Clark's telegrams arrived from the Ministers. These, whilst 
promising full enquiry, strongly counselled — in fact, allowing for diplomatic 
forms, peremptorily demanded — the return of the expedition. There was, of 
course, no alternative but to comply. 

It should be mentioned that on obtaining trustworthy official confirmation 
of the surveyor's death, Mr. Clark had at once withdrawn the search-party to 
Lan-chou, as no further good could be done, and the risk of bloodshed was 
ever present. In spite of the fact that the entire party were now concentrated 
in Lan-chou, it would have been inconvenient for the whole expedition to start 
at once on its long march, and the actual details of withdrawal required some 
little consideration. Mr. Clark's presence in Peking was urgently necessary, 
and Captain Douglas, as a British officer, had to comply with the 7\mbassador's 
instructions at the earliest possible moment ; but at the same time the recent 
tragedy had opened our eyes to the risks run by a small party travelling in 
Kansu, However, after due consideration, it was decided that, well-armed 

68 



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and well-mounted, the little body would run no unjustifiable risk of attack ; 
and accordingly Clark and Douglas started on July 2nd, and travelling via 
Hsi-an Fu and Ho-nan Fu reached Peking by the end of the month. Grant 
and Sowerby, after a fortnight spent in getting matters ship-shape for the 
return journey, started for the capital via Ch'ing-yang, Yen-an, and T'ai-yiian 
on July 15th. 

Thus the sad occurrence described above forced us to retrace our steps 
just as we had reached the threshold of what promised to be the most 
interesting part of our travels. The death of Hazrat Ali was a deep loss to 
the whole party, and a real blow to everyone of us. Besides being a first 
class surveyor, he was a faithful and loyal friend, cheerful under all circum- 
stances, and had endeared himself to his comrades of the expedition. 

It is regrettable that, although every sort of pressure Was brought to bear 
upon the Chinese Foreign Office, no reparation has ever been made for this 
deliberate murder of a British subject. 



CHAPTER IX. 

RETURN MARCH OF GRANT AND SOWERBY FROM LAN-CHOU TO T'AI-YUAN. 

UAVING disposed of as much of the ammunition, photographic materials, 
and provisions as the European community in Lan-chou could take, 
Grant and Sowerby, with a train of fifty heavily-laden mules, left the citj' on 
July 15th. Their instructions were to follow the road leading through Ching- 
ning Chou, Ku-yiian Chou, and Ch'ing-yang Fu to Yen-an Fu, and thence 
proceed via Sui-te Chou and Fen-chou Fu to T'ai-yiian Fu. En route they 
were to take astronomical observations for latitude and time at the following 
places: Ching-ning, Ku-yiian, Ch'ing-yang, Yen-an, and Fen-chou. 

In addition, meteorological observations were taken twice daily, three 
aneroid barometers, checked from time to time by the mercurial barometer, 
being used. Boiling-point readings were also taken, and the humidity of the 
air tested with wet and dry bulb thermometers. 

A good deal of attention was devoted to photography. Grant made some 
very successful attempts at photographing small living animals, and the results 
are given in the chapters dealing with the biographical work of the expedition. 
A large number of quarter-plate pictures of Chinese countrywomen were taken 
with the handy Reflex camera, in the use of which Grant became an expert ; 
and a unique collection of portraits were obtained. The utmost ingenuity was 
necessary in dealing with the fair sitters. Far less trouble was experienced in 
dealing with the case of Sowerby's nervous little animals, for these were 
usually tied by a string, and willy-nilly had to come into the picture. The 
ladies, on the other hand, at the shghtest sign of an attempt to snap them, 
would seek their homes, whence nothing could dislodge them. Anything 
striking in the way of feminine head-gear was sought after most eagerly ; whilst 
scenery and peculiarities in geological formation were not neglected. 

Sowerby kept a sharp look-out for anything of biological interest : snakes, 
frogs, and lizards all finding their way into his alcohol tanks ; and butterflies 
being eagerly chased and captured to be packed flat in specially made envelopes. 
In one place a large collection of Mammals was made, containing three 
new species. But all these will be dealt with in their right place, and it is best 
to return to the commencement of the journey, taking events in their proper 
sequence. 

70 



PLATE 33. 



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For the first few miles of the road we had the company of Messrs. Coltman 
and Dello, two Europeans resident in Lan-chou, who came to speed us on our 
waj'. The expedition moved eastward until it reached a small place named 
Hsiao-shui-tzii, situated on the right bank of the Yellow River, which here 
cuts through thick strata of igneous rock. This was the last we saw for many 
days of that mighty river, which, having its birth in the eternal snows of the 
Tibetan highlands, flows through Western Kansu, divides the Ordos from the 
rest of Mongolia, forms the boundary between the provinces of Shansi and 
Shensi, and after draining Northern Honan, Southern Chihli, and the Shantung 
peninsula, ultimately pours its water into the Gulf of Pei-chih-li. 

For the first thirty miles there was ample evidence of heavy rains ; in 
places the old roads over the loess were completely cut away, new routes 
having been hastily chosen by recent travellers. Notwithstanding the 
abundance of water since the middle of June, the crops for the first five days 
of the journey were in a very poor condition. In many places, instead of the 
fields of ripening wheat or tall millet, bare, yellow, sun-baked loess alone was 
visible. From time to time we passed the sawed-up remains of telegraph 
poles ; and in one place came upon the scene of further depredations com- 
mitted but a few hours earlier. Poles recently pulled down and stripped of 
their wire lay about, whilst the fresh tracks of the perpetrators of this mischief 
must have led to inevitable discovery and arrest in any district adequately 
policed ; however, here it meant nothing but that another fifteen miles of line 
had been rendered useless. 

On July 23rd we reached Ching-ning Chou, the first large town since 
leaving Lan-chou. This town is at the junction of the two roads eastwards; 
the one taken by our party leading away to the north-east, that taken by 
Clark and Douglas leading in a slightly southerly direction. Some successful 
astronomical observations were made, and Sowerby secured a new polecat, the 
pet of a market-gardener, from whom it was bought. The little animal was 
very tame, and submitted with good grace to being photographed. 

On July 24th the expedition left Ching-ning, and after passing through a 
deep gorge penetrating a range to the north of the city, entered a broad and 
fertile valley, where the rich crops of cereals afforded a pleasing contrast after 
the meagre productions of the famine-stricken wilds west of Ching-ning. 
There was no sign of opium, and this was partly explained by the fact that the 
inhabitants of the valley were all Mohammedan. Indeed, on this journey it 
was noticed that, wherever the ordinary Chinese tilled the soil, the best land 
was devoted usually to the cultivation of the poppy ; whereas the Mohammedans 

71 



used all their land for cereals, hemp, and other useful products. The result 
was a marked difference in the prosperity of the two classes, Buddhist and 
Moslem ; the former showed signs of much want and degradation, whilst the 
latter were comparatively prosperous and healthy-looking people, their homes 
cleaner and better appointed, their faces less haggard and less careworn. The 
scenery, too, became more beautiful at every step. In place of bare yellow 
loess mountains — only pleasing towards the end of the day when the soft 
lights of evening clothe them in delicate shades of mauve and blue — there now 
spread out on either hand broad fields and lofty slopes resplendent in rich 
coats of verdure. Hurrying rivulets and sparkling brooks took the place of 
yellow sluggish streams, so alkaline as to be useless for the watering of sheep. 
We put up that night at a pretty little village named Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u. 
This consists of two sections, each surrounded by a high and crenellated 
wall. The larger boasts of two gates and a moat, and one long broad street 
running from gate to gate with the houses on each side symmetrically arranged. 
The smaller section was perched upon some high ground overlooking the 
larger, which in other ways it closely resembled. As a result of the symmetry, 
so carefully adhered to by the designer, the village presented a very pleasing 
picture, especially when viewed from the eastern gate. That night another 
heavy deluge rendered the road unfit for travel. For several hours the rain 
came down in sheets, and a fall of nearly \V was recorded. Sowerby took 
advantage of the delay thus afforded to persuade the natives of the village to 
go out into the surrounding country and dig up small quadrupeds, for which 
he paid them sums varying from five to fifteen cents, (ijd. to sjd.). By this 
method a large and valuable collection was obtained. 

After leaving Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u, we continued up the valley to the foot of a 
high mountain chain, and encamped in a beautiful spot close to a small village 
named Ch'ang-yi-p'u. An excursion into the mountains was undertaken by 
the two Europeans ; but, though some deer were seen, little in the way of 
specimens for the collection could be secured. 

From Ch'ang-yi-p'u the road turns northward, skirting the high mountains 
till it reaches a conveniently low pass, when it again turns east. Following 
this route we reached the large walled town of Ku-yiian Chou, where 
astronomical observations were again taken. Close to Ku-yiian lie the remains 
of Tung Fu-shang, the famous Kansu general, whose lawless troops came to 
the aid of the Empress Dowager in the coup d'etat of 1897, and took their share 
in the Boxer atrocities of 1900. It is no uncommon thing in Kansu to see 
substantial, well-appointed residences, which have been recently erected by 

72 



PLATE 34. 










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followers of Tung Fu-shang, who " made their fortunes in the East." The 
undisciplined hordes looted far more from the natives of Chihli than they did 
from Europeans. During the troublous times when all communication 
between the Capital and the outer world was cut off, unspeakable scenes of 
horror were enacted in the interior, besides the siege of the Legations in 
Peking and the massacres of missionaries in Shansi. The brutal soldiery, 
called in from the wilds, indulged themselves in every form of pillage and 
rapine at the expense of their countrymen ; the proceeds of which they carried 
back to their homes in Kansu. 

From Ku-yiian Chou to Chen-yiian Hsien, the next walled town, the 
country seemed comparatively prosperous. For Kansu, the crops were good, 
and the people seemed less poverty-stricken ; in some places the farmers were 
already harvesting. The road lay along broad valleys running through more 
or less hilly country. At Chen-yiian Hsien the party were hospitably enter- 
tained by Miss Petersen, a Swedish missionary, who, with another lady, lived 
alone in this out-of-the-way place. Miss Petersen had a school of some twenty 
or thirty girls, who, much to their delight, were photographed by Mr. Grant. 
Pages of eulogy would not do justice to the heroism and devotion of such 
women as Miss Petersen and her colleague, whose lives are spent in patient, 
unremitting toil, far from all their loved ones, and surrounded by a dirty 
thankless people, to whom they have consecrated their lives. 

On leaving Chen-yiian, the party ascended a long slope and came out upon 
a broad loess plateau, exactly similar to the one met with two days' journey south 
of Yen-an Fu, which has been described in chapter v. The road continued over 
this sort of country for two and a half days. From time to time steep and 
difficult descents were made into broad valleys, only to be followed by equally 
bad ascents. At last, at mid-day on August 8th, the plateaux were left behind, 
and, winding for the rest of the day along valleys and gullies, the expedition 
reached Ch'ing-yang Fu late in the afternoon. In this district were many 
Ssiich'uanese settlers, and their well-tended fields of flourishing crops formed 
a significant contrast to the bare and neglected land owned by the lazy, opium- 
smoking men of Kansu. These immigrants were in all respects similar to those 
met by Clark and Sowerb}- in January, travelling through the bitterest cold 
and snow, badly clad and with bare feet, in search of land whereon to settle. 
Here they had settled, and the same thrift and perseverance which had carried 
them through the privations of that terrible winter journey, were now earning 
the reward of plentiful harvests in a land whose natives were starving for 
lack of rain ! 

73 



About half-way between Chen-yiian and Ch'ing-yang we came upon a 
most remarkable cave-village, evidently long deserted. All the dwellings had 
been hewn out of the solid sandstone cliff forming one side of a broad valley. 
There was now not a scrap of woodwork left, whilst rank foliage had covered 
the courts, and in some cases great masses of rock had fallen away, leaving 
the higher caves inaccessible. The rooms, cubical in shape, were not large, 
but showed traces of kaugs and broken stone mangers. The scene was 
suggestive of the Stone Age, and this impression was enhanced when two 
children, naked and unkempt, ran out of one of the caves, attracted no doubt 
by the strange voices. These little troglodytes were not in the least 
embarrassed at the invasion of their sanctum, but eagerly took the biscuits 
and cake offered them. They looked in need of better nourishment. So 
thoroughly did the spot conjure up visions of a remote past, that we decided 
to rest awhile and enjoy the illusion to the full. But alas ! the inevitable 
staring crowd soon collected — not very large, but none the less annoying — and 
the last vestige of enchantment was dispelled when someone volunteered the 
information that the cave-village had only been deserted some thirty' years. 
Whereupon the disgusted travellers mounted their ponies and rode away ; 
not, however, before some photographs had been taken. It may be added that 
the wretch who had destroyed our day-dreams about the cave-village ascribed 
its desertion to the massacres that took place throughout the country during 
the Mohammedan rebellion. On the opposite side of the valley was a temple, 
wherein were some large caves not unlike those of the Sung dynasty temples 
at Yen-an Fu. They were said to date from the same period as those at 
Yen-an Fu, but were in a much better state of preservation, although in this 
case the sculptures were not so fine, nor were the walls so completely covered 
with images. 

After arrival at Ch'ing-yang Fu it was necessary to make astronomical 
observations, and two days elapsed before a suitable set could be obtained. 
During our short sojourn in the city we received several visits from Father 
Calbrecht, a Roman Catholic missionary stationed there. Conversation had 
to be carried on in Chinese, this being the only language equally familiar to 
both parties. Ch'ing-yang Fu, a city of considerable dimensions, showed 
none of the prosperity that might have been expected. The greater part of 
the buildings enclosed within the high strong walls were in ruins; the broad 
streets in many places overgrown with grass and weeds ; the temples and 
official residences in sad disrepair ; the inhabitants few and poverty-stricken. 
The city, once populous and wealthy, formed one of the chief strongholds of 

74 



PLATE 35. 










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the rebels in the terrible Mohammedan rising that devastated the country in 
the ' sixties.' It then sustained a long and severe siege, which ended in the 
massacre of its wretched inhabitants, and from which it has never recovered. 
At the present time there was not even a blacksmith's forge within its walls, 
so that several of the ponies and mules of the expedition which had cast shoes 
were forced to continue their journey as far as Yen-anFu without being re-shod. 

From Ch'ing-yang eastward for some days the scenery was exquisite. The 
long-abandoned loess hills were overgrown with vegetation almost tropical in 
its luxuriance, and only down the valleys was any cultivation noticed. There 
were long stretches of uninhabited country, in which wild life of every kind 
was abundant. Many kinds of game-birds were to be seen in the valleys and 
along the streams, including pheasant, partridge, snipe, and several varieties 
of duck, whilst roedeer in great numbers wandered over the hills. Everywhere 
the tracks of wild pig were visible, and in places wolf and leopard spoor were 
noticed. 

Along the streams were to be seen two kinds of kingfisher, their radiant 
colours flashing in the sunlight, as they dived after minnows in the limpid 
waters, or darted like living gems along the rocky banks. Over these water- 
courses, too, hung countless dragon-flies of every description. Big pale 
fellows, with wonderful translucent eyes, hovered high in the air, darting 
down, ever and anon, to devour one of their smaller relations. Skimming 
over the rippling surface of the water Were others of a slaty blue colour. Here 
a streak of vivid crimson marked the passage of the beautiful male of yet 
another species ; and there, settled upon a rock — her wings outspread to get 
the full benefit of the sun's warm rays — sat his little brown mate. There was, 
in addition, another most striking variety, with shining body, broad wings, and 
long tapering tail, all ordinarily jet black, but now scintillating with a 
thousand shades of blue, green, and gold as they caught and reflected the 
sunlight at various angles. Of this species there was a decided predominance ; 
and t times they collected in swarms over the reeds and rushes on which 
they sought to settle. Their flight resembled that of the butterfly in its 
uncertain fluttering course, rather than the graceful evolutions, lightning 
dash:-, and motionless poisings of other dragon-flies. Amongst them were 
pale brown specimens which lacked the irridescent colours of the darker forms. 
The insect life was by no means confined to the stream and the dragon-flies. 
Over hill and dale floated gorgeous butterflies of every hue. Sometimes round 
a single clump of flowers a dozen different species might be counted. Down 
one ravine the graceful Swallowtail would abound, whilst on the adjacent hill 

75 



Red Admirals or Painted Ladies .would predominate. In the streams were 
small minnow-like fish, large green frogs, and funny little crabs, which hid 
beneath the rocks and stones. The natives said that otters were to be found 
in this district, and Grant saw one creeping through the tall grass on the bank 
of a large stream. The party enjoyed some good deer-stalking at a place 
named Miao-ts'un, which was situated right in the heart of this charming 
sylvan country, and where we stayed a day for the purpose. 

The following is an extract from Sowerby's diary for August 15th : — 

" This morning we were off by 7 o'clock. A little way down the valley I 
put up a roedeer. The road to-day has led through beautiful countrj'. Some- 
times we would be travelling along the sides of the clear stream where 
kingfishers could be seen and butterflies and flowers were abundant. At other 
times we would be skirting the base of the hills. On either side the slopes 
were wooded, but more especially on the southern side. Occasionally we 
would pass a farmstead built in the loess on the northern side of the valley 
(i.e., facing south). The valley bottom was filled for the most part with 
magnificent fields of hemp and millet and occasionally buckwheat. Numerous 
flocks of sheep and herds of red cattle could be seen grazing along the slopes. 
We caught some nice flies during the day. Butterflies, both common and 
rare, were very numerous. In the afternoon I rode on ahead to select a 
camping-ground, and put up two more deer not far from here. We have 
pitched camp on a grassy stretch close to the village of T'ai-pei-ch'eng. I 
shot a duck this evening. I found a beautiful snake down by the water's 
edge. It is very long and extremely thin. Of a brown colour, it has a white 
stripe down the middle of the back, with dark mottlings. The natives say 
there are otters here. I found some crabs in the river higher up." 

The following day the border-line between Kansu and Shensi was crossed. 
The caravan camped that night at a large village named Hai-shui-ssii, situated 
in a picturesque valley, just at the point where it narrows down to a few 
hundred feet. A peculiar spur of rock rises high beside the village, and on its 
crest is built a pretty temple. On the road between this place and Fu Chou, 
two days further east, numerous large flocks of sheep and goats were passed. 
These poor animals were on their way to Shansi, and had already come a 
great distance. Before reaching Fu Chou we crossed another large loess 
plateau, from which we descended into the broad valley wherein that town is 
situated. There were no suitable inns, and we pitched our camp in an open 
space before a large temple. 

For the three following days our journey was in a northerly direction, 

76 



The Yellow River, near Kang-chia-ta, Shansi, 



.ieneilci ,ii-Bifl3-s(>s>i isan ,i9vi)l wollsY ailT 



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heavy rains being experienced, which rendered the roads very bad. The latter, 
being cut in the loess, became very slippery and treacherous. So bad was th'e 
weather that we were forced to make a halt of one day at Kan-ch'uan Hsien 
("The dry fountain town"). In the Lo Shui, which flows down the valley, 
numerous mud-turtles were seen, and the party indulged in the (to them) 
novel sport of turtle-shooting. Sowerby, of course, claimed the bag for 
scientific purposes, and the ugly creatures were carefully preserved in alcohol. 

On the third day after leaving Fu Chou we entered the fine game 
preserves where deer were shot the previous winter, and we decided to camp 
there that night and try our luck. We were amply rewarded for our pains, 
each securing two roedeer that evening, while Sowerby shot a magnificent 
wild boar next morning, an account of which is given in the chapter on the 
general biological work of the expedition (Chapter X.). 

On August 22nd Yen-an Fu was reached, and astronomical observations 
were taken. Next day we ascended a peak some distance south of Yen-an Fu, 
where we made solar observations for latitude. The temperature on this peak 
was now about 90° Fahr. in the shade — a striking contrast to that experienced 
in January, when the party visited the same peak for similar purposes. The 
thermometer then registered — 1° Fahr. at 10 a.m. 

On August 25th we left Yen-an Fu and travelled northward to Sui-tfi 
Chou. Nothing worthy of mention occurred on this part of the road, which 
has been dealt with already, except that one of the mules died from the 
excessive heat. Travelling up the deep loess ravines the caravan was cut off 
entirely from any cooling breezes, and the heat became insupportable. It is 
noteworthy that in this same district the travellers had suffered most severely 
from cold during the previous winter, when the temperature fell to 
—e'' Fahr. 

After leaving Sui-te Chou the party turned eastward once more till the 
Yellow River was reached two days later at a place named K'ang-chia-t'a. 
The crossing was effected once more in safety, and all rejoiced at setting foot 
again on Shansi soil. The road now lay along the rocky boulder-strewn 
valleys so characteristic of Shansi. The first large town passed was a busy, 
evil-smelling place named Liu-lin-chen. This town should have been called 
" the city of flies," for nowhere in all our travels had we seen such swarms of 
these noisome insects. The food on the street stalls was literally buried 
beneath black masses, which, when disturbed, flew up in dense clouds— the 
air filled with the hum of myriad wings. They swarmed on the mules and on 
the naked backs of the natives, who, however, did not seem to mind ihem in 

77 



the least ! They tormented the Europeans beyond endurance, so that it was 
with considerable relief that we quitted the place on September 3rd. 

The arable land along the valleys was devoted with great success to the 
cultivation of millet, sorghum, beans, tobacco, indigo, cotton, castor-oil seed, 
melons, and pumpkins, rich crops of which Were seen on either side of the 
road. Yung-ning Chou, a large but dilapidated town with but a small 
population, was reached on the evening of the 3rd, and the following night the 
travellers put up at a small place named Wu-ch'eng, situated in the midst 
of high rocky mountains known to be full of game. Time, however, could not 
be spared for a shooting trip, and, on September 5th, Fen-chou Fu, a large and 
populous city on the T'ai-ytian plain, was reached. Here astronomical 
observations were again taken, and we continued our march north-eastward 
towards T'ai-yiian Fu. The crops in this plain seemed to be very rich indeed, 
consisting chiefly of millet, sorghum, and beans. Part of the country between 
F6n-chou and T'ai-yiian is famous as being the finest grape-producing district 
in North China, and we were able to indulge in the luscious fruit at a 
halfpenny per pound ! 

T'ai-yiian Fu was reached on September 8th, and here the ponies and 
mules were sold and the expedition came to an end, the party proceeding by 
rail from T'ai-yiian to Peking. 



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CHAPTER X. 

BIOLOGICAL WORK — BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

HTHE narrative of the expedition having been set forth in the preceding 
pages, this chapter takes the form of a general description of the 
biological work, which was entrusted to me. The specimens which I collected 
were presented by Mr. Clark to the United States National Museum. Captain 
Douglas made an interesting collection of insects, which were presented to 
the British Museum. As our route has already been described, it is needless 
for me to do more than mention the names of places from which specimens 
were taken. 

My outfit for the work was very simple and somewhat incomplete. 
Except for a few traps and instruments, which I already had, I was obliged 
to get all my requisites locally. The chief trouble was the lack of a good 
supply of traps, especially those for large animals. The main object of my 
work was the collecting of mammals. Birds were taken whenever interesting 
species were seen, and I was not too busy with mammals to prepare 
them. Reptiles, batrachians and fishes were caught whenever met with, and 
were preserved in alcohol. Captain Douglas confined his attention chiefly to 
blood-sucking and parasitical insects, such as fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, but 
he also collected a few beetles, spiders, and flies. I made a large collection of 
butterflies and dragonflies towards the end of our expedition in Eastern Kansu 
and Central Shensi. 

Before going into further details of the present work, it might be well to 
say something about that already done in the same districts. In connection 
with the Duke of Bedford's Exploration of Eastern Asia in the early part of 
igo8, Mr. Malcolm P. Anderson and the writer had already made collections of 
mammals in Shensi, at Yen-an Fu and Yu-lin Fu. We also collected in the 
mountains of Shansi, north-west of T'ai-yiian Fu. Mr. Anderson visited the 
Chiao-ch'6ng Shan district towards the latter part of 1907. From these 

79 



collections the following new species and sub-species were described by Mr. 
Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., in papers read before the Zoological Society of 
London : — 

In Shansi. 

At T'ai-yiian Fu.* 



At Ning-wu Fu. 



I. 


Meriones auceps 




2. 


Cricetulus andersoni 




3- 


Craseomys shanseius 




4- 


Capreolus bedfordi ... 




5- 


Ochotona bedfordi 




6. 


Ochotona sorella 




7- 


Eutamias asiaticus intercessor 




8. 


Microtus Inez 




9- 


Microtus johamus ... 




10. 


Cricetulus triton incams 





At K'e-lan Chou. 



At Yii-lin Fu. 



In South Ordos Desert. 
At Yen-an Fu. 



In Shensi. 

1 . Erinaceus miodon 

2. Eutamias asiaticus ordinalis .. 

3. Cricetulus bedfordix ... 

4. Dipus sowerbyi 

5. Lepus swinhoei subluteus 

6. Mus confucianus luticolor 

Previous to these explorations the mammalogy of Shansi, Shensi, and the 
Ordos Desert had not been touched. Many of the mammals mentioned in 
the following pages have been described from other parts of China. 

For scientific descriptions of the various species of mammals mentioned 
in this chapter, I must refer the reader to the following sources : — 

1. Recherches sur les Mammiferes, par M. Milne Edwards. 

2. Papers by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S., published in the 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society from time to time during the 
years 1907 to 1909. 

3. Descriptions by Mr. Gerritt S. Miller, of the United States National 

Museum, of five new species and sub-species discovered on the 
present expedition. These descriptions, which have already been 

• The localities here cited are those of the type-specimen only. Many of the species and sub-species were 
subsequently captured elsewhere, and some occur both in Shansi and Shensi. (See Froc. Zooi. Sec, 1908, pp. 635-646, 963- 
983 ; also Ann. Mag Nal. Hist. (8), U., 1908. 

A species of Myospalax collected by Messrs. Anderson and Sowerby at Ning-wu Fu and identified in r9o8 as M. 
Jonlanieri. Mr. Thomas has recently discovered to bene.* and described as M. fontanus (Ann. Ma^. JVaf. Hist. Jan., 1913, 
p. 93). 



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published bj' the Smithsonian Institution, have been embodied in a 
detailed report on the mammals collected by me, and they appear in 
Appendix II. 

I must direct the readers' attention to a paper by Paul Matschie, " Ueber 
Chinesische Saugethiere besonders aus den Sammlungen des Herr Wilhelm 
Filchner," containing many interesting photographs of the skulls of certain 
Chinese mammals. 

The birds of China are undoubtedly much better known than the 
mammals. Nevertheless, there seems to be no record of any work hitherto 
done in the districts traversed by our expedition. Mr. Anderson and I 
collected a few birds on the expedition referred to above, but no new species 
were discovered. A very complete account of the birds of China has been 
written by Armand David and E. Oustalet, and published under the title of 
" Les Oiseaux de la Chine." 

As far as I know, the only reptiles, batrachians, and fishes collected 
hitherto in these districts were those obtained by Mr. Anderson and myself. 
Here again there is nothing new to report, the few species secured having 
been recorded from other parts of Asia. The number of new species of ticks, 
spiders, and fleas discovered on the present expedition shows that in this 
branch of zoology little had previously been done. 

On our leaving T'ai-yiian Fu, I began my work at once. A single 
woodmouse {Apodemus speciosus) trapped in the mountains immediately west 
of T'ai-yiian Fu, and a few chipmunks (Eutamias asiaticus senescens) shot en 
route were the only specimens secured till we reached the Chiao-ch'Sng Shan 
district. This country has already been described as consisting of high, 
rugged and heavily forested mountains. It is excellent from the collector's 
point of view, and during our stay a good collection of rodents was made. 
I soon had out a long line of traps, which were visited daily. The woodmouse 
was again secured, besides Anderson's hamster {Cricetulus andersoni) and two 
species of voles {Craseomys shanseius and Microtus pullus). The last has been 
described as a new species by Mr. Miller; while Craseomys shanseius and 
Cricetulus andersoni were first discovered by Mr. Anderson in this district. 
The woodmouse and Anderson's hamster were common almost everywhere. 
Craseomys shanseius was found in or near the heavy forests, which commenced 
at an altitude of about 8000 feet. One specimen was secured on the summit 
of Mo-6rh Shan, the highest peak in the district. Microtus pullus is closely 
related to M. johannus, a species first found by me in the K'6-lan Shan, about 
sixty miles north of the present locality. Both species are found on open hill 

p 81 



sides, where their burrows are made conspicuous by the quantity of new earth 
thrown up at the mouths. A single specimen of the molerat (Myospalax 
census) was bought from a native (Plate 48). This specimen presents some 
peculiarities of its own, and, further, is the only one of the species hitherto 
recorded from Shansi. The type locality of this species is in Kansu. 

I noticed evidences of the existence of some form of pika, a small rabbit- 
like rodent, on the rocky summit of Mo-6rh Shan ; but although I climbed this 
peak three times, in my endeavour to secure specimens, I failed to do so. 
I have always found members of this genus {Ochotom) most difficult to trap. 
Some more chipmunks were shot in the mountains and valleys. The only 
other mammal secured in the district was a much decomposed shrew (probably 
Crocidura coreas). The specimen was too far gone to identify properly. 

Other mammals seen in the district were the roedeer {Capreolus bedfordi), 
the wild pig (Sus moupinensis), the wolf {Canis lupus), the fox {Vulpes wipes), 
and the hare (Lepus suinhoei subluteus). The country is known to contain musk- 
deer, and many musk-hunters live in the district. Leopards have frequently 
been shot in these mountains, and the natives say that tigers also exist. 

There are quite a number of birds in the vicinity. Those noticed were 
eagles, vultures, hawks, nutcrackers, timelines, accentors, woodpeckers, tits, 
and finches. I was too busy with the mammals to spend time on these. We 
found pheasants and partridges very common, while I noticed the feathers of 
the Manchurian eared pheasant lying about. The season was too far advanced 
for collecting reptiles, but Captain Douglas secured a few flies and spiders. 

The forests consisted mainly of spruce, larch, and pine, whilst some of 
the slopes and ravines were thickly overgrown with scrub-oak, birch, and 
hazel. Close to the summit of Mo-6rh Shan I found some red-currant bushes, 
with the half-dried fruit still hanging. In the valleys there were a very thorny 
variety of gooseberry and also some raspberry canes. Along the banks of the 
streams, numerous late flowering herbs were noticed, including several varieties 
of anemones and gentians. Some of the unwooded slopes were covered with low 
bushes of a thorny leguminus shrub, whilst elsewhere rich grass was abundant. 

On the journey between this rich and fertile district, and the sandy 
country round Yii-lin Fu, in North Shensi, very little collecting was done. I 
shot a few more chipmunks, and also secured a few specimens of a small 
species of frog. The latter were found in the little streams, which ran along 
the ravine-bottoms in the loess country near the Yellow River. At one place 
a magnificent golden eagle was shot, and some ibis-billed curlews were 
secured near the Chiao-ch'6ng Shan. 

82 



In company with Mr. Cobb, I left the main expedition at Kan-tsao-k'ou 
and hurried on to Yii-lin Fu, reaching that place on October 26th. Knowing 
from previous experience that trapping would be useless in this sandj' region, 
I at once set the natives to work digging up specimens ; and a comparatively 
good collection was thus made. The lateness of the season, however, 
interfered considerably with my work: many species of small mammals were 
already hibernating, and in this way we missed the Ordos hedgehog 
(Erinaceus miodon), and the common suslik or ground-squirrel [Citellus 
mongolicus), (Plate 51). The first specimens brought in were some little sand- 
hamsters (Phodopus bedfordiz), (Plate 49). This species was first secured in 
this district in the spring of the same year by Mr. Anderson and myself. It 
was placed in the genus Cricetulus by Mr. Thomas, and named after Her Grace 
the Duchess of Bedford. Mr. Miller has, however, since made for this 
species a new genus, Phodopus, based upon some unique peculiarities in the 
foot of this little creature. A large series of specimens of this little rodent 
was obtained, and a photograph was secured as well. 

A single specimen of Cricetulus griseus was collected. This hamster 
closely resembles Anderson's hamster in shape, size and appearance. It 
differs, however, in being of a lighter, more buffy colour, and also in having a 
black line down the middle of the back. The tail is considerably shorter, and 
the feet are more hairy in C. griseus than in C. andersoni. The latter is an 
inhabitant of the hilly or mountainous districts of Shansi, Shensi, and at least 
the eastern part of Kansu. C. griseus, on the other hand, is usually met with 
on the grassy or sandy plains on the borders of Mongolia. Both species differ 
greatly in appearance from Phodopus bedfordix, though all three forms are 
characterised by the possession of large cheek-pouches opening into the 
mouth. 

A good series of the three-toed jerboa (Dipus sowerbyi) was secured, (Plate 
50). This jerboa, the only three-toed species hitherto recorded from China, 
was discovered by me in this region on my previous visit. A purely sand-loving 
animal, this jerboa inhabits the dunes which exist in, and on the borders of, 
the Ordos Desert. Like those of the sand hamster, its burrows are almost 
impossible to find. It is a question whether this species fills up the mouth of 
its burrows purposely, as do the American Dipodidse, or whether this is done 
naturally by the loose sand. It was too late in the year for me to investigate 
this problem, as the jerboa was hibernating. On my previous visit I often 
saw the tracks of this lively little creature in the sand. From these I 
gathered that the animal is capable of jumping eight feet. Two living 

83 



specimens which were placed in a jar some three feet deep jumped out without 
touching the sides. When asleep, they lie on their sides for the better 
accommodation of their long hind legs. If proceeding slowly, they hop rabbit- 
fashion on all four feet. It is only when progressing at some speed that they 
use their hind legs alone. When hopping, one foot precedes the other, instead 
of both being kept together. Many of the specimens caught were torpid, but 
they soon became active in a warm room. Their bodies were loaded with 
thick layers of fat. 

Some molerats belonging to the Shensi species, Myospalax cansus. were 
brought in (Plate 48). This rodent is an extremely interesting animal: it 
combines, as the name suggests, the attributes of the mole and the rat. The 
different species vary in size, the present one being roughly about seven inches 
long, not including the tail. In appearance the molerat also bears some 
resemblance to the American pocket gopher. It is covered with a soft, grey 
fur. The fore feet are large, being armed with powerful claws for burrowing. 
The tail is short, and, like the feet, of a pink colour. Both are naked, except 
for a few stray hairs. The head is flattened above and resembles a spade in 
shape; it is used for shovelling loose earth, when the powerful muscles of the 
neck are brought into play with great effect. The eyes are small and almost 
hidden, whilst the ear is little more than a small round hole. The jaws are 
armed with thick and powerful incisor teeth, which suggest that the animal 
feeds on roots. The molerat seldom comes above ground, but that it does so 
occasionally may be gathered from the fact that I have found its remains in 
owl pellets. The Chinese peasants declare that by watching the mouth of a 
molerat's burrow they can foretell the weather. The burrows, they say, are 
left open when fine weather may be expected, and closed before the advent of 
rain. 

A single mole (Scaptochirus gilliesei) was bought from a native. This mole 
resembles the Peking species, but is much smaller. At that time it 
was unknown to science, but it was described from a specimen from south 
Shensi by Mr. Thomas, before my specimen could be identified as belonging 
to a new species. 

Two skins of a new and interesting polecat {Vormela negans) were secured. 
Resembling the common polecat in shape, this species is characterised by a 
peculiarly marked and brightly coloured pelt. The face is black and white, 
whilst the throat, legs and belly are of a shiny black. The nape of the neck 
is of a pale cream colour, which becomes a bright yellow on the back shading 
into a rich orange on the sides, and towards the base of the tail. From the 

84 



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shoulders backwards there are spots and motthngs of a deep brown colour. 
In this respect it differs from the western form, Vormela peregusna. In this 
species the ground colour is brown, while the mottlings are of yellow. For 
this reason Mr. Miller gave this new species the specific name of negans. The 
Chinese call this animal Ma-nai-ho. I could not get the meaning of the first 
two words, local authorities disagreeing as to the proper characters to apply. 
All were agreed that the last syllable ho is that for monkey. This, doubtless, 
indicates a semi-arboreal life at least. Yii-lin Fu marks, as far as is at 
present known, the extreme eastern limit of the range of vormela. 

A couple of specimens of Meriones auceps were trapped by me amongst 
the sand-hills. This beautiful gerbil was first described by Mr. Thomas from 
specimens taken by Mr. Anderson in T'ai-yiian Fu. Another form also e.xists 
in the Ordos Desert and other parts of Mongolia, and is known as M. 
mguiculatus. The two species differ in colour and skull measurements, and 
also in their habits. M. auceps is strictly nocturnal, while M. mguiculatus is as 
purely diurnal. During my previous travels in the Ordos, I saw great 
numbers of the latter animal playing about the mouths of their burrows. 
These gerbils do not hibernate, and may be trapped even in the coldest 
weather. 

The pale desert chipmunk (Eutamias asiaticus ordinalis), originally 
described from this locality, was secured. In size and form this chipmunk 
does not differ from the ordinary North China form, but it is paler and 
decidedly more yellow in colour. 

Fo.xes, wolves, badgers, and wild cats I knew to be in the district, but 
none were secured. Some antelopes were seen by two members of the 
expedition. The skins of these animals were very common in the fur shops 
in the city. The poor people use them in the manufacture of clothes. Not 
many species of birds were seen, but a heron, an eagle-owl, a woodpecker, and 
some pheasants were secured. 

On the sandy flats of the river there were large flocks of cranes, mallards, 
teal, and ruddy sheldrake. The last would allow of a close approach, so that 
an opportunity of tasting their coarse and oily flesh was afforded. A few 
small flocks of geese were seen on our arrival, but a few days later these had 
gone south. Black storks were also seen during the first part of our stay in 
the district. Magpies, crows, kites, pigeons, shrikes, and larks were the only 
land birds remaining as the severe North China winter closed down upon us. 

Before the streams which feed the river at this point froze over, I secured 
some specimens of fish and frogs. In all there were some five species, four of 

6S 



the former and one of the latter. Some httle sand-inhabiting lizards {Phyno- 
cephalus frontalis) were secured, and also two varieties of non-poisonous snakes. 
These were Tropidonotus tigrinus, a green water snake, and Coluber dione, a 
brown species which inhabits the sand-hills and loess country. 

Some interesting insects were also secured, amongst others being a new 
flea and a new tick, both from one of the molerats. There was very little to 
record in the way of plant life. Elms and willows were the only trees noticed, 
while small patches of a sort of sage bush were scattered over the sand dunes. 
I found one sprig of parsley, whilst a very coarse and straggly grass existed in 
some parts. 

Yen-an Fu was the next place where I made collections. Between Yu-lin 
Fu and this city the country was very desolate and void of animal life. Not far 
from Yii-lin Fu a flock of bustards was observed. Elsewhere the common 
rock dove and stock dove were seen in large flocks. A few coveys of partridges 
were also noticed, whilst here and there a lonely golden eagle would be 
sighted. In the ravine bottoms some dippers were visible, and one was 
secured. A specimen of the peculiar wagtail-like bird called Henicurus sinensis 
was obtained at Shih-ts'ui-yi. 

The only mammals seen were two David's squirrels (Plate 49), both of 
which were secured, and a few hares. The latter were not observed till we 
were in the valley of the Yen Shui, close to Yen-an Fu. Here pheasants 
were very plentiful. 

At Yen-an Fu I again took to trapping with good results. I soon secured 
some more specimens of Cn'cetulus andersoni and Meriones auceps, both of which 
species were very common in the locality. Besides these I caught some 
specimens of the sulphur-bellied rat {Mus or Epimys confucianus luticolor), which was 
described from the locality. This rat seems to be a purely rock-inhabiting 
species, and is caught in the same places as David's squirrel. It somewhat 
resembles the common brown rat, but is not quite so large, is of a conspicuous 
tawny tinge, and has much longer ears and tail. The latter is white towards 
the end, and on the under surface. The fur of the belly varies from a rich 
cream to a pale sulphur-yellow. The latter colour soon fades, however, 
in preserved specimens. This new subspecies was first discovered by me 
earlier in the same year. 

A field mouse {Apodemus agrarius pallidior) was also trapped. This mouse 
has a dark stripe down the middle of the back. It is usually to be caught in 
open bushy fields, either in the valleys or upon the hill-tops. Two or three 
specimens can usually be trapped at the same hole. 

66 



The large grey hamster {Cricetulus triton) was caught. This rat resembles 
C. andersoni in colour, but is considerably larger. It is a pugnacious and 
predatory animal, storing up large quantities of beans and millet in its deep 
burrows. Many of the poor people dig up these stores of grain in the 
districts where this rat is abundant. In Shansi a still larger form, C. triton 
incanus, is found. It is particu^rly abundant on the T'ai-yiian plain. 

I secured a couple of good specimens of the local hare {Lepus swinhoei 
subluteus), which was first described from a specimen shot by me in the Ordos 
Desert. This hare is considerably paler than its cousin {Lepus swinhoei) from 
the Shantung Peninsula. 

I tried trapping for wolves and fo.xes, but without success. The only 
traps I had were some native-made ones from Yii-lin Fu. These were 
excessively clumsy and difficult to conceal. 

Not being very well satisfied with the country immediately around Yen-an 
Fu I decided to go further afield. Taking a few stores and necessaries with 
me, I visited a valley about twelve miles south of the city, putting up at a 
small inn. The country here was much more to my liking, and I was able to 
secure a few more species. Roedeer were plentiful, and I soon managed to 
shoot a good specimen. Mr. Grant also secured one, and later on some more 
were shot in the same locality. The North China roedeer differs from the 
European forms in being larger, with a much yellower coat. This tendency 
to yellow in the fauna of Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu, is doubtless due to the 
uniform yellowness of the loess country which composes the greater part of 
the three provinces. The roedeer is extremely common in suitable country, 
and not much hunted by the natives. 

My traps here yielded poorly, a result no doubt of the excessive cold. I 
secured a specimen of the pika {Ochofona bedfordi). It was at Yen-an Fu that 
I first discovered this interesting species, which was subsequently described as 
new from specimens obtained in Shansi at Ning-wu Fu. The burrows of 
these pikas are usually deep and intricate, and are situated where the thorn 
scrub grows thickest, or up the sides of the deep loess gullies. I did not see 
any stores of hay like those made by the Siberian and American species, 
neither did I hear any sound from these interesting little creatures. They live 
in little communities like rabbits, the ground surrounding their burrows being 
covered with a network of little paths. 

A single specimen of the little vole Microtus inez, was trapped in one of 
the ravines. This interesting little vole was discovered by Mr. Anderson in 
the mountains near K'6-lan Chou, North Shansi. This is, as far as I know, the 

87 



only vole hitherto recorded in North Shensi. It differs from the 
other voles already mentioned in being smaller and of a rich reddish brown 
colour. It is trapped usually amongst the dead leaves, or on mossy banks at 
the bottom of loess ravines in well vegetated country. Some more wood-mice 
and David's squirrels were also secured here, besides a fine specimen of the 
hare. David's squirrel {Sciurotamias dauidiamis), (Plate 49), is a rock-inhabiting 
species. It is about the size of the common European red squirrel. Its fur is 
of a dull earth-brown colour above and creamy beneath. The ears are not 
tufted, though the tail is very bushy. Like the chipmunk it possesses cheek 
pouches. It also resembles the chipmunk in its habits and mode of life, 
except that it does not hibernate. This squirrel enjoys a very wide range 
being recorded from the mountains near Peking, from various places in 
Shansi, Shensi and Kansu and also from Ssuch'uan. 

Birds were more plentiful in this district. Some specimens of the 
beautiful blue magpie {Urocissa sinensis) were secured and Azure -winged 
magpies {Cyanopolius cyanus) were also plentiful, springing my traps and 
making themselves generally disagreeable. A pretty timeline (Pomatorhinus 
graviuox) was also very common. The country was teeming with pheasants 
and I saw the tracks of wild pigs, wolves and leopards. 

This country had not been under cultivation since the great famine of 
1877-79 when parts of North China were terribly depopulated. As a result in 
this and many other localities the mountains, hills and valleys have become 
scrub-covered and even well wooded. Good cover for game and wild animals 
of all kinds is thus afforded. It is possible that many species owe their 
existence in North China to-day to these periodical famines, which check the 
ever increasing human population. Where conditions are favourable to 
cultivation in North China, it is extremely difficult for the naturalist to find 
suitable collecting grounds. Every foot of land is utilised. It is only in such 
spots as these whence man has been driven out, and which have lain fallow 
for a generation or so, or in places like the Chiao-ch'^ng Shan, precipitous, 
rocky and cold, that one finds animals at all plentiful. 

After a week's stay in this country I returned to Yen-an Fu. Here I 
secured a nice specimen of the spotted wild-cat {Felis chinensis) and another 
of the large marten {Maries flavigula borealis). Both of these animals were 
said to be fairly common in the district though very hard to secure. 

Nothing in the way of reptiles, batrachians or fishes was secured, but a 
new and interesting flea was taken from one of the roedeer. The female of 
this flea was found in large numbers in the nostrils of the deer. The insects were 

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much swollen, and were at first taken for maggots. Detailed descriptions of 
this and two other fleas discovered appear elsewhere* in this volume. On 
the same deer a new species of tick was also secured. 

This completed the zoological work done in this district. 

Mr. Clark and I left Yen-an Fu on January 28th, 1909, on our way south 
to Hsi-an Fu. The journey was accomplished as rapidly as possible, so that 
no collecting could be done. About five days journey south of Yen-an Fu we 
passed through a belt of uncultivated country, also a result of the famine. 
Here again game was abundant. Roedeer were seen close to the road, and a 
wild boar was chased across in front of our mule-train by a hunter and his 
dogs. Pheasants were so numerous that we amused ourselves by taking shots 
at them with our revolvers as we rode along. 

As we neared Hsi-an Fu we came down upon some great loess steps. 
Here we saw large flocks of bustards. I managed to secure one of these 
handsome birds with a rifle shot. It weighed 16 lbs. At last we reached the 
great Hsi-an Fu plain and shortly found ourselves in a veritable fowler's 
paradise. The banks and flats of the rivers we crossed were black with wild 
fowl, while great flocks of geese were seen feeding on the fields of early wheat. 
They were easily shot from horseback. Here and there were small flocks of 
stately cranes, whilst in the irrigation canals and marshy rice fields were 
feeding numbers of Chinese ibises {Nipponia nippon), pink, white, or grey. 

We spent two days in Hsi-an Fu, and then went to a small town called 
Lin-t'ung, where there are some famous hot springs. Here Mr. Clark left 
me, hurrying on eastward to Ho-nan Fu in Honan, and thence to 
Shanghai. I spent a few days trapping round Lin-t'ung but secured nothing 
more than a specimen of the common mouse {Mus wagneri mongolium). On 
the plain I shot geese, duck, hare, snipe, and bustard. In the course of a 
single morning's shooting I was able to make the respectable bag of five 
geese, three mallard, a fifteen pound bustard, and a hare. 

I next tried a place at the foot of the high mountains about fifteen miles 
due south of Hsi-an Fu, finding quarters in a temple in a little village 
named Liu-ts'un, at the mouth of a long ravine, and began trapping again, 
this time with more success. The sulphur-bellied rat, the field-mouse, the 
wood-mouse, and David's squirrel, were the only rodents secured. 

Two minks (Lutreola sibirica) were caught in the temple, after repeatedly 
stealing game from my larder. These animals displayed the utmost ferocity 
when caught. I have never witnessed such fury incarnate even in much 
larger animals of more sinister repute. 

• Appi^ndix IV. 
89 



Just before I left the locality the old priest of the temple showed me the 
horns of a goral {Urofragns galeanus), and told me that this animal was to be 
found on a high peak some five miles away. I could not leave without 
making an effort to secure a specimen, so decided to postpone my departure 
and visit the peak in question. I was successful in my hunt. Taking a 
native with me to carry my shot-gun, in case some small animal presented 
itself, I went up the ravine, and after a hard climb reached the summit of the 
peak, where, perched at an altitude of about 4000 ft. we found a quaint 
Buddhist temple. The top of the peak was conical in shape, and covered 
with cypress and other conifers. A long and steep flight of stone steps led 
up to the temple. The priests told me that there were several gorals living 
on the peak free from persecution ; they themselves as Buddhists, not being 
allowed to take life. However, they had no objection to my killing these 
animals, which habitually fed upon the little patches of wheat and maize 
kept by the priests half-way down the mountain slope. 

In a scramble through the woods round the sides of the peak we soon 
put up a handsome goral, which bounded up the steep slope with wonderful 
agility, and made its escape round the top of the peak. Its tracks after 
rounding the peak vanished over the edge of a precipitous peak, which fell 
away almost perpendicularly for hundreds of feet. Carefully I climbed down 
making use of the little cypress trees that sprang from the cracks in the rocks. 
When about half way down I heard something scrambling above and to the 
left of my position. I looked up and once more caught sight of the goral 
climbing towards the top of the precipice. Balancing myself with one foot 
on a ledge, the other on the trunk of cypress, empty space beneath me, I 
took a rapid aim, and fired just as he gained the top of the cliff. I missed, 
but the animal passed within twenty yards of my bearer, who was lying 
exhausted from the severity of the climb and chase. He heard my shot, and 
looking up saw the goral. He let drive with a dose of buckshot, killing the 
animal on the spot. 

The goral, of which there are many species, is a goat-like animal that 

inhabits, in China, the highest and rockiest mountain-ranges of the central 

and western provinces. It is a daring climber, bounding up precipitous 

cliffs that a man would hesitate to attempt. The present species differs 

but little from the Yang-tzu form. In appearance this goral is something 

between a goat and an antelope. It has thick heavy legs, with large hoofs, 

a slight crest down the neck, and small, sharply sloping, and very pointed 

horns. It is of a dark-grey colour, with cream-coloured legs, and a creamy 

patch on the throat. 

90 



PLATE 40. 




I • 



9^ r • 



I 



A\aiKliu Lady. 



There were some interesting birds in the vicinity. I collected some 
prettily coloured timelines, including a large dusky one named Dryonastes 
perspicillatus. A beautiful Chinese representative of the common jay {Garrulus 
sinensis) was also secured, besides the graceful blue magpie (Urocissa sinensis), 
the tiny wren (Anorfhura fumigata), the green woodpecker (Gecinus canus), and 
the redstart {Phoenicurus auroreus). The beautiful sweet-voiced wall-creeper 
(Tichodroma muralis) was also seen, but I failed to secure a specimen. The 
golden eagle, pheasant, and partridge were again met with. 

In the mountain-stream that flowed down the ravine I caught an 
interesting freshwater crab (Potamon sp.) and some small fish too young to 
identify. In the ravine were numerous varieties of ferns, mosses, and rock 
plants, while here and there in sheltered nooks were small clumps of dwarf- 
bamboo. 

After leaving this locality my collecting work was discontinued till the 
beginning of May. I hastened to Ho-nan Fu, where I received word to go to 
Hankow to meet Mr. Clark. On the road between Hsi-an Fu and Ho-nan 
Fu I saw great numbers of geese and ducks. At Ho-nan Fu I was told of 
great forests in the mountains a few miles southward where, the natives said, 
flying squirrels, monkeys, and bears were abundant. 

Mr. Clark and I returned from Hankow with all speed, and early in May 
left Hsi-an Fu for Lan-chou Fu. Along the road I shot some ground 
squirrels (Citellus mongolicus), (Plate 51), and a single chipmunk, which resembled 
that from Yii-lin Fu in the pale colour of its pelt. Travelling at the rate we 
were, there was no opportunity of trapping. Such specimens as were 
obtained were shot near the road. 

As the greater part of the country in Kansu was suffering from a protracted 
drought, there was little to be seen, hares, squirrels, chipmunks, fo.xes, and 
some roedeer being the only mammals noticed. Pheasants, partridges, snipe, 
and a few small waders were seen from time to time. 

We reached Lan-chou Fu, in Kansu, on May 24th. While here I tried 
to induce the natives to bring in specimens, but without success. Five 
specimens of Citellus mongolicus were the only things obtained. The country 
had been suffering from a severe drought for three years, and no doubt this 
had much to do with the scarcity of animal hfe. 

About the middle of June I went south to some mountains where 
conditions were a little better. Though I trapped and shot on several 
days, the only specimen secured was one of Apodemus speciosus. I might here 
draw attention to the great range of this species. On the present expedition 

8t 



it was the most easterly species obtained, as well as the most westerly. It 
was trapped at Liu-ts'un, our most southerly point, and also in the Chiao- 
ch'eng Shan, almost our most northerly point. It is recorded from Ning-wu 
Fu, in North Shansi, and from the Imperial tombs, sixty miles east of Peking, 
in Chihli. Whilst in the country south of Lan-chou I saw a large wolf one 
morning, and in our daily excursions we came across fresh tracks of pigs and 
musk-deer. There were quite a number of pheasants, but little else. 

The reasons for the termination of the expedition at Lan-chou have 
already been mentioned. I was forced to return to that city, and my work 
ceased till, on July 15th, Grant and I started on our homeward journey with 
the main division of the expedition. We travelled almost continuously till we 
reached T'ai-yiian Fu on September 8th, with a few short halts en route to 
take astronomical observations, or when we were held up by rains. We took 
the unfrequented route which runs in an easterly direction from Lan-chou, 
collecting what material we could along the road. For the first few days our 
path lay through utterly barren and sun-scorched mountains, so that a few 
ground-squirrels only were seen. At Ching-ning Chou, where we stayed two 
days, I secured two specimens of an interesting eastern polecat (Mustela larvata), 
(Plate 51), which is superficially like the European animal, but with larger 
teeth. A new pika [Ochotona amedens), (Plate 52), was shot close to this place 
by one of our men. This species is similar to Ochotona bedfordi, but is smaller 
and with differences in the skull. Several chipmunks (Eutamias asiaticus 
senescens), (Plate 48), were also obtained. The type of this chipmunk was 
described from specimens from near Peking by Mr. G. S. Miller, and like 
Apodemus speciosus, it seems to enjoy a very wide range. 

On July 25th we left Ching-ning Chou and reached a small place to the 
north-east called Chang-t'ai-pu. That night rain fell in such torrents that we 
were unable to proceed next day. Accordingly I enlisted the villagers into my 
service, sending them out to catch or dig up specimens. All that day and 
the next I was inundated with specimens, the following species being well 
represented : — Myospalax cansus, Allactaga mongolica longior (new to science, 
Plate 52), Eutamias asiaticus senescens and Ochotona annectens (new to science, 
Plate 52). A single specimen of Cricetulus andersoni and another polecat were 
also amongst the animals brought in. I refused to take any more specimens 
of Citellus, having my hands full of more important material. 

The " allactaga " which has been described by Mr. Miller as a new 
form is a species of jerboa. It differs from Dipus sowerbyi in having five toes 
on the hind foot instead of only three, while its ears are considerably longer. 

82 



In colour it is greyer than the three-toed jerboa, and it is a larger animal. 
The " allactaga " is not so essentially a sand-inhabiting animal as the jerboa. 
The present species differs from Allactaga mongolica in having appreciably longer 
ears, longer feet, and a slightly different skull. 

After leaving this locality, bats were seen for the first time on the expedi- 
tions, and between here and Yen-an Fu in Shensi several specimens of a 
large brown bat (Eptesicus serotinus pollens) and a single specimen of a very small 
bat [Pipistrellus sp.) were shot. The large bat has been described by Mr. Miller 
as a new subspecies. 

From Ching-ning Chou eastward the country was much more favourable 
for collecting. There were plenty of vegetation and water so that we were 
able to do good work considering the rate at which we were travelling. Grant 
and I devoted our attention to entomology as we travelled, and made large 
collections of butterflies and dragon-flies. Frogs were also secured from the 
streams, besides some more fresh-water crabs and some snakes. Two varieties 
of kingfisher were shot. One was a large handsome bird named Halycon 
pileatus and the other a small brilliant little fellow named Alcedo ispida. This 
species resembles the British form but is smaller. 

We saw more roedeer ; and specimens, in their red summer pelts, were 
obtained. 

Two day's journey south of Yen-an Fu a mud turtle (Trionyx sinensis), 
(Plate 54), was shot. As we travelled along beside the river we saw great 
numbers of these ugly creatures basking in the sun on the mud flats. On our 
approach they made for the water and were lost to view before we were in 
shot-gun range. Looking at them through a powerful pair of field-glasses, 
we could see every head pointed in our direction. 

On August the 21st we reached the spot, south of Yen-an Fu, where I had 
collected the previous winter. Here some more roedeer were obtained and I 
was fortunate enough to put up and shoot a large wild boar (Sus moupinensis) . 
(Plate 53). Rising early in the morning I made my way up a long loess ridge 
where I had seen pig-rootings the previous evenings. I was accompanied by 
a native and we tramped a long way without seeing anything. Just as I was 
about to return to camp, there was a hoarse roar in some dense scrub on the 
left, and a huge pig broke cover and scampered off tossing his head in a 
vindictive manner. I caught a glimpse of his wicked little eye glaring at us as 
he tore his way through the dense scrub. I tried to draw a bead on him, but 
his course was too erratic and the abrupt way in which he had appeared upon 
the scene had somewhat disconcerted me. Presently however he stopped to 

93 



listen and I could see his round back showing above the tall gently waving 
grass. Aiming low I fired, hitting the pig, as I afterwards found, in the flank, 
More grunts followed and he plunged away apparently unhurt. We followed 
in hot pursuit and presently the native spied our quarry standing in the shade 
of some young poplars about 200 yards away. Taking careful aim I fired and 
when the smoke cleared away we saw the boar spinning round like a terrier 
after his tail. As I rushed up he plunged about wildly, but I managed to put 
a bullet into his shoulder as he vanished into a small ravine, from which now 
began to issue a deafening noise. The ravine opened abruptly into a hugh 
chasm the sides of which were perpendicular for about 200 ft. Towards this 
chasm the badly wounded animal struggled, and reaching the edge rolled over. 
He would have disappeared into a deep water tunnel yawning below, but for 
some stout birches which caught and held him. From my position above the 
madly struggling brute I fired a final shot into his chest, and soon he lay quiet. 
A long tramp back to camp for breakfast and to secure men to help me carry 
home my prize was necessary, (Plate 47). The day was far spent before we 
finally laid the huge animal on the grass outside the tent. He looked very 
peculiar in his short summer coat. He was a fine specimen measuring 6 ft. 
2 in. from the tip of the snout to the end of the tail, and weighed 240 catties. 
One catty is supposed to be equal to a pound and a third, which would bring 
the weight of the pig up to 320 lbs. But I have since had reason to doubt the 
accuracy of the native scales used, and believe that the weight above stated 
is somewhat over the mark. 

The range of the wild pig in North China is considerable. It is very 
plentiful in the mountains of Shansi, where of late years it has been hunted 
by European residents. Nothing very striking in the way of records have 
been obtained, however, 350 lbs. being probably the outside weight of the 
largest animal shot up-to-date. The largest tusk that I have seen measured 
9J inches along the curve and i inch in thickness. The average length of 
tusks secured in Shansi up to the present would be about 8 inches. The 
nocturnal and destructive habits of this pig agree with those of the European 
and Indian species, to which it is closely related. It does great damage to 
crops, and we frequently saw little booths beside the fields, wherein the 
farmers kept watch against this troublesome pest. Sus moupinensis was first 
discovered by the indefatiguable P^re David, in the principality of Moupin in 
Eastern Thibet, from whence it derives its name. It is of some economic 
value. The flesh of a good fat female will fetch a fair price, but that of the 
male is coarse and of a strong flavour. The thick hide is used in the 

94 



PLATE 41. 




manufacture of large drums, and also of the better class of saddles. The 
guns used by native hunters are so inferior that little is done in the way of 
hunting this formidable beast, which when only slightly wounded seriously 
menaces the life of its assailant. It seldom attacks unless provoked, but I 
have more than once heard of a pig charging some harmless woodcutter and 
inflicting serious wounds. I have frequently come across pigs' nests in the 
form of great heaps of dried branches piled over a pit in the ground. In this 
the sow produces her large litter of prettily striped young. 

With a few odd roedeer skulls and a fine specimen of David's squirrel 
the collection was completed. The country between Yen-an Fu and 
T'ai-yiian Fu in Shansi presented no facilities for collecting. In all some 250 
mammals were taken representing thirty-four species and sub-species, of 
which five have been described as new by Mr. Miller in the appended paper. 
(Appendix ii.). Several species in the collection, though possessing peculiari- 
ties, were so poorly represented that it was not deemed advisable to describe 
them as new. 



95 



CHAPTER XI. 

BIRDS OF NORTH CHINA — BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

"THE provinces of Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu through which the expedition 

passed are comparatively rich in feathered inhabitants, though there 
seems to be little, if any, likelihood of new discoveries being made in this line. 
Birds being easily collected owing to their diurnal habits and conspicuousness, 
are naturally the first to be studied by naturalists in a new country. For 
these reasons, it was decided that I should devote my energies more especially 
to mammals. 

As, however, there are many interesting features attached to the study of 
birds in a new country, especially during the migratory seasons, a chapter 
dealing with those noticed on the expeditions may not be out of place in this 
volume. 

Space will not permit of a very detailed treatment of the subject, and I 
shall do little more than give the names of the birds, mention their haunts and 
breeding-places, and describe the general appearance of the more remarkable 
species. 

In North China, as in all other north temperate regions, birds belonging 
to the great order of Passeres (perching birds) predominate. Crows, larks, 
finches, wagtails, flycatchers, or thrushes are met at every turn. Let us take 
the family Corvidae (crows) as a starting point. During some years of travel 
in the six northern provinces of China, I have noted some twelve species 
belonging to this family. The raven (Coruus corax), carrion crow (Cohjus corone), 
white necked crow [Coruus torquatus), black crow {Coruus sinensis), Chinese 
jackdaw (Coloeus dauuricus), rook [Frugilegus pastinator), and chough [Graculus 
graculus), are common everywhere. Closely related to the black and white 
Chinese jackdaw (Co/oeuj dauuricus), is an entirely black variety [Coloeus neglectus) 
which is somewhat rare in the north. It may sometimes be seen in company 
with the former. 

In some provinces, the raven acts as scavenger in towns and villages, but 
usually it prefers the high mountainous districts or remote desert regions. 
Amongst the Chinese who live on the borders of the Ordos Desert and out in 
north-western Kansu, this evil-looking bird goes by the name of "The Mongol's 
Coffin." That it deserves this name may be gathered from the fact that the 



PLATE 42. 




Mongols do not bury their dead, but drag them out into the desert, where they 
leave them to be devoured by the fowls of the air or the beasts of the field. 

The pretty little Chinese jackdaw, whose clean white collar and breast 
and shiny black head, back, wings and tail give it a neat, clerical appearance, 
often associates in large flocks with the handsome red-billed chough. They 
frequent the same localities and both build their nests in crevices and holes in 
high loess or rocky cliffs. 

The white-necked crow is never seen in mountainous regions, and even on 
the fertile plains is not over abundant. It is a very solitary bird, and is 
seldom seen except singly. Its near cousins, the carrion crow and the black 
crow, are on the other hand more common and gregarious, being found in 
flocks wherever there is a chance of obtaining sustenance. 

The common magpie [Pica caudata) and the azure-winged magpie 
(Cyanopolius cyanus), a beautiful little pie with delicate mauve-grey body, white 
throat, black head and azure blue wings and tail, seldom fail to appear in every 
locality. The graceful blue magpie {Urccissa sinensis), not unlike the last 
mentioned species but larger, with crimson beak and legs, more blue and 
purple on the body, and proportionately longer tail, is less widely distributed. 
It is found only in central and southern Shensi, southern Shansi and parts of 
Kansu. 

In the mountains of Shansi and in southern Shensi, a handsome jay 
(Gamilus sinensis) is found, while in the pine forests of Shansi and Kansu the 
noisy nutcracker {Nucifraga caryocatactes) sends forth its rollicking, laughter-like 
call. All these species nest in the country, but some only are partially 
migratory. This is noticeable chiefly in the case of the rooks, which at the 
approach of winter, leave the northern parts of the provinces, where they 
build their nests in the trees of the towns, and villages, accepting the 
protection of man. They fly to the warmer plains of the south or to the flat 
coastal regions of Chihli. 

Finches in vast numbers cross these provinces during the migratory 
seasons, nesting in the remote mountainous regions of the north and west. 
Few if any remain to breed on the plains. Amongst the most noticeable of 
these are the crossbill [Loxia curuirostra) , hawfinch {Coccothraustes japonicus), 
Chinese goldfinch [Ligurinus hawarahiba) , brambling {Fringilla montifringilla) , 
rosefinch {Carpodacus roseus), and a beautiful scarlet-tinted finch named 
Propasser pulcherrimus. 

Three species of bunting, Emberiza ciopsis, E. rusiica and E. elegans might 
also be added to this group, but they are non-migratory, nesting in the 

C 97 



mountains and winterinp in the foothills and on the plains. The Chinese 
capture these finches \vith the aid of bird-lime made from hempseed oil. In 
the spring and autumn the bird-catcher repairs to some wooded, hilly district, 
and having: made his preparations, he takes up his position on the top of some 
ridpe. He is armed with several Ions' rods, on the ends of which are fastened 
branchinof twigrs, carefully smeared with bird-lime. Several call-birds in capes 
are hungr in the leafy parts of some suitable young pine, and the rods are placed 
in such a position that the twigs stick out just above the highest branch of each 
respective tree. The protruding twig offers a tempting perch for any passing 
finch and many a wretched bird thus falls into the ruthless hands of the snarer, 
who has been quietly waiting a few yards distant. The birds are sold according 
to their value as songsters or trick birds. Crossbills, hawfinches, and bram- 
blings are readily trained to do various tricks, whilst the Chinese goldfinch 
and the rosefinch are valued for their vocal powers. 

A large and handsome grosbeak, named Eophom melamra, is also caught 
during the migrations and is especially valued by the Chinese as a trick bird. 
This bird is of a dull grey colour with shinv black head, wings and tail. It 
possesses a large very thick and strong beak of a bright yellow colour. We 
saw many larks, the exact names of which I was not able to ascertain. 

Soft-billed birds are very numerous. These are found throughout the 
summer, but most of them migrate to the south in winter. 

The first to appear in the spring are the starling (Stemus sinensis), and the 
redstarts (Phcenicurus auroreus and Ruficilla rufiventns). These are shortly 
followed by great numbers of other species, which scatter over the country, 
taking up their abodes where conditions are most congenial to their modes of 
life. Thus we find a variety of wheatear (Saxicola morio) repairing to the 
desert areas, such as exist in and on the borders of Mongolia. Here it shares 
the burrows of the ground-squirrel (Citellus), and brings up a lively brood of 
from four to six hungry squawking fledglings. 

The pied wagtail (Mofacilla alboides) finds a suitable nesting-place in the 
bushes that line the ravines and gorges of the mountains, whilst a beautiful 
yellow-headed variety {M. citreolides) , after swarming along the rivers and over 
the marshes during the spring, travels north to the rich Siberian plains. 

A third very common wagtail (M. alba) seems to find suitable nesting 
places everywhere, and many may be seen from March till October. 

The redstarts resort to old temples and disused buildings, making their 
nests in suitable holes in the masonry. The black redstart {Ruticilla rufiventris) 
is much rarer than the other species and nests in out-of-the-way ravines, 
either of loess or rock, 

98 



Many kinds of warblers pass through the country, the most noticeable of 
which are the ruby-throated warbler {Erythacus calliope) and the blue-throated 
warbler {Erythacus caeruleculus). 

The little green wren or Silver-eye (Zosterops erythropleura) is very common 
during the summer, while in the spring the pipit [Anthus spinoletta) abounds on 
the plains and in the valleys, especially where marshy ground exists. 

The nuthatch {Sitfa amurensis) keeps mainly to the pine forests of the 
mountains, where it scrambles like a woodpecker up and down the great tree- 
trunks, or hangs upside down from the cones. Tits are very common in the 
same districts, the chief of these being the tomtit {Parus minor), the coletit 
(P. hensom), the bluetit {P. venustulus), the crested tit {Lophophanes dichrous), and 
the long-tailed titmouse [Acredula glaucogularis) . The foregoing species, 
together with the larks, timeline birds and hedgesparrows, are non-migratory. 

The timelines are thrush-like birds, all more or less gifted with song, and 
many a sweet note rising above the countless pleasant sounds of the wilderness 
mav be attributed to these birds. The commonest member of this family is a 
graceful though sombre-coloured bird called Pterorhinus davidi, sometimes known 
as the " seven sisters bird." This peculiar name is derived from the fact that 
birds of this species are frequently found in little groups of five, six or seven 
playing about in the underbrush. 

A much smaller species, with proportionately longer tail, goes by the 
name of Rhopophilus pekinensis, and, like the foregoing species, is very common in 
the mountains of the north, where it builds a compact, deep nest in the low 
bushes of the valleys. 

Pomatorhinus graiAvox, a very handsome species, is found in wooded districts, 
further south. It has a particularly sweet song. In the mountains south of 
Hsi-an Fu in Shensi, I came across two other species, one of which, called 
Dryonastes perspicillatus, is a large dusky coloured bird. The other, Trochalopteron 
prjeoalsh'i, resembles Pterorhinus davidi in size and form but is characterised by 
having the wing and tail feathers of a peculiar metallic lustre which show either 
a brassy yellow or steely blue colour according to the way the light falls on them. 

Two species of thrush, namely Turdus ruficollis and T. naumanni are winter 
visitors only. Both are characterised by having reddy brown tails and breasts, 
but the breast of the latter is spotted with black. Their heads, backs and 
wings are of a grey-brown, whilst their bellies and rumps are white. These 
birds are seen throughout the winter in large flocks. During the spring, 
however, ere they betake themselves northward, they split up into smaller 
groups of three and four. 

99 



A third species, the beautiful rock thrush {Monffcola erythrogastra) inhabits 
the deep loess gullies during the summer. The head, back and wings of this 
bird are of a light slaty blue colour, while the tail and breast are of a deep 
brick-red. 

The dipper, an entirely brown species named Cinclus pallasi, is very common 
along the clear streams that flow at the bottom of every ravine in the loess 
countrj- of Northern Shensi, which localities it shares with the pretty little 
brown wren (Amrthura fumigata) and a large wagtail named Henicurus sinensis. 
This handsome bird is pied somewhat after the fashion of the pied wagtail but 
is larger and has a long widely-forked black tail, and also long flesh-coloured 
legs. 

The high cliffs of loess, shale, or granite in all three provinces form the 
home of the beautiful wall-creeper [Tichodroma muralis), a small grey bird with 
crimson spotted wings, long slender cur\'ed beak, and long sharp claws, which 
enable it to climb about the flat surfaces of the rocks with the utmost ease. 
The wall-creeper has a long, sweet, vibrant song, which it utters as it flits 
butterfly-like across the valleys. 

The accentor [Accentor nipalensis), a pretty little soft-billed bird, somewhat 
smaller than the starling, inhabits the stony cairns and rocky summits of the 
highest mountains ; while its near relation, a smaller, though as prettily 
marked, hedge sparrow {Tharrhaleus montanellus) frequents the valleys. 

The graceful waxwing (Ampelis garrulus) may be seen during the migrations 
in large flocks, when it subsists chiefly upon the glutinous mistletoe berries, 
yellow and red, that abound in the poplar and elm trees. 

Three species of shrikes, or butcher-birds, namely, Lxinius sphenocercus, 
L. bucephalus, and L. superciliosus, are found throughout the three provinces. Of 
these, only the first, commonly known as the great grey shrike, is at all 
plentiful. This somewhat striking bird may be seen in winter on any large 
plain, where it loves to perch upon the top of some spare and solitary shrub, 
sorghum stem, or giant reed. From this coign of vantage it pounces upon 
any unsuspecting insect that may have been tempted above ground by the 
warmth of the brilliant winter sun. 

The beautiful golden oriole [Oriolus indicus) inhabits during the summer 
the groves of the plains and foothills, not fearing to take up its abode 
in temple-grounds close to the habitations of man. Its hanging nest, built 
high up in the tree and at the end of some yielding branch, is free from the 
attacks of small boys and cats. 

On the plains also, the jet black drongo [Dicrurus cathoBcus) is very 

100 



PLATE 43. 




3 

Q. 



u 

c 



u 



common. It may frequently be seen dashing out from the willows lining 
the roads or river banks, to seize some passing insect, when its long black 
deeply forked tail give it a most graceful appearance. 

Amongst the first arrivals in spring are the swallows and martins. The 
former belong to the species Hirundo striolata, and are characterised by having 
spotted breasts. They are welcomed wherever they choose to build their nest, 
both by the Chinese and the Mongols, who consider them to be birds of good 
omen. 

The martin (Cotyle sinensis) resorts to the high rocky cliffs of the foothills, 
where it builds its nest well out of reach of the passer by. 

Leaving the perching birds, we will next turn our attention to the birds of 
prey, such as eagles, hawks, and owls. These groups are fairly well 
represented m the ornithology of Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu. One's mind 
naturally turns first to the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus) whose regal poise 
and fierce far-seeing eye have won for their owner the name of King of Birds. 
Alas for romance, this powerful bird, though a first class hunter, often 
descends to the useful, but disgusting, level of scavenger, and many are the 
times it robs the ignoble kite or the croaking raven of their lawful food, and 
gorges to repletion on the remains of some leprous beggar considered unworthy 
of decent burial. 

In fact, its taste for food, other than that of its own killing, is so marked, 
that I have known native hunters turn it to their advantage in an ingenious 
way. A beast or bird having been shot and lost in dense scrub, the hunter at 
once makes his way to a neighbouring eminence. Immediately, as if from 
nowhere, a golden eagle appears and commences to circle round and round 
above a spot in the scrub. Noting the spot, the hunter makes for it, and 
— the eagle has made no mistake about that anyway — the game is there. 

The speed of the golden eagle is prodigious, and it is with a keen thrill of 
pleasure that I recall to mind an exhibition of feathered speed witnessed by 
me on the present expedition. 

I was out on a hillside collecting my rodent traps, when a golden eagle 
sailing overhead disturbed several pheasants that had been feeding a few yards 
up the slope. All the birds sought cover in a small copse of stunted cypress, 
except one, which broke away towards a wood some two hundred yards 
distant on the level ground below. Like lightning the eagle swooped down 
upon his prey. The pheasant had, however, gained a high speed on her 
downward course, and now frantically struggled to reach the friendly wood. 
The pace was terrific, but the great marauder was slowly gaining upon his 

101 



intended victim. The flight of the fastest duck would have been slow 
compared with such speed, for the birds were not only gaining impetus from 
their rapidly descending course, but adding to their motive power by a 
vigorous use of their powerful wings. The chase must have ended 
disastrously for the pheasant, but for the wood which suddenly loomed up in 
front of the terrified bird. Without wavering she dashed into the wood, 
crashed through some hindering branches and fetched up with a sickening 
thud against a stout trunk, coming to the ground like a stone mid showers of 
twigs, leaves and feathers. The eagle, with a supreme effort shot upwards, 
narrowly missing the tops of the trees, and rose high into the air before the 
momentum generated by the headlong downward swoop gave out. Hurrying 
to the spot where the pheasant had fallen I was surprised not to find her, but 
there were several souvenirs of her devastating journey through the upper 
branches of the stately pines. 

A bald-headed eagle [Haliaetus leucocephalus) and a white-tailed eagle 
(//. pelagicus) also inhabit North China, though the former is rather rare, two 
only being seen on the present expedition. The latter is found along the 
rivers of the large plains, generally as the ice is breaking up in the spring. 

Two vultures are found in the highest mountain ranges. One of these, 
the lammergeier [Gypaetus barbatus) is comparatively common, while the other, 
the cinereous vulture {VuHur monachus), a large black species, is very rare. One 
specimen measured by me was gj feet across the wings. 

The kite {Miluus melanotis) is very common, not only in the country, but 
also in the large cities, where, together with pigs and dogs, it renders valuable 
services to yellow humanity, as a scavenger of undoubted efficiency. These 
birds may frequently be seen in large flocks circling continuously at great 
altitudes and at the same time moving steadily in one direction till they 
disappear from view. This is suggestive of a migration, but is in no way 
connected with the regular spring and autumn migrations of other birds. 

The North China kite also seems to migrate in sandstorms. This act 
may, however, be involuntary, the birds overtaken when at a considerable 
height above the earth, being driven helplessly by the fury of the gale till 
they succeed in reaching the ground. Whatever the explanation, the fact 
remains that the traveller overtaken by one of these sandstorms — which come 
down from Mongolia with the appearance of mighty walls thousands of feet 
high, and blotting out the landscape as they approach — will shortly see 
the dark forms of innumerable kites in every direction. 

The sacred falcon [Falco sacer), the peregrine {Falco peregrinus), and the 

102 



sparrow hawk (Accipifer m'sus), all comparatively common, are trapped by the 
natives of the country and trained to the ancient and noble sport of falconry. 
The kestrel {Cerchneis timunculus), and the red-footed falcon {Erythropus vespertinus) 
are abundant on every plain, whilst the fierce but somewhat clumsy buzzard 
(Buteo hemilasius) takes heavy toll of the hares, partridges, and ground squirrels 
of the broad valleys. 

Over the marshes the elegantly shaped hen harrier {Circus cyaneus) glides 
in its search for small aquatic fauna of all kinds, whilst occasionally the 
osprey [Pandion haliaetus), king of fishing hawks, visits the larger ponds and 
lakes. Here he may be seen circling high in the air, till some large fish coming 
to the surface, catches the marauder's eye. Down he comes like a bolt from 
the blue, cleaves the surface of the placid waters, scattering wide the 
shimmering spray, and, burying his talons deep into the quivering flesh of his 
prey, carries it off to the nearest pinnacle of rock or lofty tree. 

Owls are represented by the five following species. The great eagle-owl 
{Bubo maximus), the long-eared owl {Otus vulgaris), the short-eared owl {Otus 
brachyotus), the little owl {Athene plumipes), and the scops owl {Scops stictomt us). 
The last mentioned is somewhat rare and is found usually round old temples. 
The little owl may frequently be seen in the loess gullies and ravines of the 
foothills, or out on the plains, where some lofty hollow tree affords adequate 
shelter. 

The long-eared and short-eared owls are inhabitants of the plains, while 
the great eagle-owl frequents the highest and wildest mountains. 

Following the owls, I might mention the night-jar {Caprimulgus jotaka), a 
bird that is not often seen, but which inhabits the bush-covered slopes of the 
lower mountain ranges. At dusk on warm summer evenings it flits on 
noiseless wings over the hazel scrub and waving oatfields, chasing the large 
pink-winged grasshopper, which always seems more active and noisy at this 
time of the day. 

The nearest relative to the night-jar in North China is the white tumped 
swift (Cypselus pacificus) which appears rather late in the spring, rears it young 
in the hollow eaves of temples and gate-towers, and is away again long before 
the cold sets in. 

We may now take a rapid survey of the game birds of the country, and 
ornithologists must forgive me if I place pheasants, bustards, ducks, pigeons 
and snipe in one large category. 

Belonging to the phasianidae are some half dozen species, any of 
which may give the traveller welcome relief from the monotony of the long 

103 



journey, and a diet of tinned food, by appearing within easy and tempting 
range of the road. From the sides of the loess ravines or the bare shale 
foothills, the rowdy cackling chukar, or red legged partridge [Caccabis chukar) 
sends forth its taunting call to the passer by, who, if he be a sportsman, fails 
not to take up the challenge. Rapidly climbing the steep cliff, he is hkely to 
find himself in the centre of a large covey of birds, which break cover with 
terriffic whirr and whistling of wings, and rocket away in every direction. 
The novice frantically swings the muzzle of his gun first in one direction and 
then in another, and usually ends by making a double miss. 

In the broad valleys out on the plains or again upon the great grassy slopes 
of the high mountains, the little bearded partridge [Perdix daurica), a bird not 
unlike the common partridge in size and appearance, but characterised by 
having a peculiar beard of ochreous feathers, may often be found in large flocks. 
The migratory quail {Cotumx cotumix) seeks refuge in the stubble of the plains 
and valleys, whence it is easily ' walked up,' affording a good mark for the 
quick gun. 

The common pheasant {Phasianus torquatus) abounds wherever there is 
any cover at all, whilst in the great pine forests of the highest and most 
inaccessible mountain ranges the handsome eared pheasant {Crossoptilon) 
wanders in large flocks of from twenty to forty birds. There are two varieties 
of the latter, one being found in Shansi and the other away out in western 
Kansu. The Shansi variety {C. manchuricum) , is a large gamy bird, with black 
breast, head and wings, greyish white back and tail, the long curved feathers 
of which end in black. There is a white patch on the throat which is con- 
tinued on either side of the head in the form of ear-like tufts. These give the 
bird a sinister and bellicose appearance. The Kansu variety {C. auritum), 
commonly known as Pallas' eared pheasant, differs from its Shansi cousin in 
being almost uniformly of a slate blue colour, there being but little white in 
the tail, though the white throat and ear tufts are present. In both species the 
face is naked and scarlet as in the common pheasant, while the legs are of a 
dull crimson. 

The eared pheasant runs with considerable speed, taking to its wings with 
great reluctance. Dogs only succeed in treeing this handsome game, whilst it 
is almost impossible to shoot them in the dense dark woods that they frequent. 
If, however, a flock can be induced to break cover, the sportsman may 
enjoy the time of his life, as the large birds after fluttering clear of the trees, 
spread their wings and sail up and down the valley, crossing and re-crossing 
each other in their mad endeavour to find safety. They seem to lose their 

104 



PLATE 44. 




Guard House on Msi-an to Lan-chou Road, Kansu. 




Peculiar Head dress. 
Only worn in the vicinity of Chen yiian Hsien, Kansu. 

See ftp, 70 ant/ 7J. 



heads completely at the first shot and will often fly straight towards the guns, 
discovering their mistake in time, only to swerve to right or left, offering the 
while an excellent mark. On alighting, the frightened birds scurry up through 
the woods with wonderful agility and gaining the summits of the ridges once 
more break cover and sail away across to the opposite ridge. In this way they 
very soon outdistance the sportsman, who will shortly lose all traces of them. 

There seems to be but one representative of the grouse family in these 
provinces. Pallas' three-toed sand grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus) is found on the 
great plains during the winter months. This bird is really an inhabitant of 
the great Mongolian Desert and Southern Siberia, but in severe winters it 
frequently seeks the slightly less bitter weather of the Chihii and Shansi 
plains. Its flight is very swift and is accompanied with a shrill whistling, 
caused by the rapid beating of the long pointed wings. The feet of this 
pretty little bird look ver}' much like those of a rabbit, the toes being short, 
padded and covered with hairlike feathers, which are continued up the leg. 

Two varieties of pigeons may be classed with the game birds, but one of 
these, the stock dove (Columba intermedia) is practically a domesticated breed 
frequenting the habitations of man. The other, a variety of rock dove 
(C rupestris) differing from the European form in having a broad white band 
across the tail, inhabits the loess gullies and rocky ravines of the foothills. 
These two species may often be seen in vast flocks feeding together by 
hundreds on the cultivated fields, along the roads, or in the boulder-strewn 
mountain valleys. 

Two other members of the dove family also frequent the woods and 
groves, one [Turtur decaocta) inhabiting the plains, and the other, a turtle dove 
{Turtur chinensis) , preferring mountainous regions. 

In certain localities the lordly bustard (Otis dyboivskii) is very common. 
Wherever large level tracts exist, be they uplands or lowlands, plateau or 
plain, there this, the prince of game birds, is to be found. The sandy 
stretches of the Ordos, the watery plain of Hsi-an Fu, the loess plateaux of 
central Shensi, and the Shansi tableland — all are equally favoured by this 
handsome bird. It does not, however, breed in these localities, but at the 
approach of summer flies northward to the solitudes of the Gobi Desert or 
Southern Siberia, where the female raises a large brood. 

We now come to the geese and ducks, a group so large that justice 
cannot be done to them in the limited space at my disposal. During the 
spring and autumn the bean goose [Anser segetum) appears in vast flocks. 
Spreading over the plains in their hundreds and thousands they resemble an 

105 



invading army. In squadrons and battalions they march over the fields of 
winter wheat, uprooting and devouring the tender seedlings, till the ground is 
left bare and brown behind them. Whether taken with rifle or shot gun, 
stalked, or shot as they pass in long chains overhead, they afford excellent 
sport. Closely allied to the bean goose is the grey lag goose {Anser ferus). 
The latter is a much rarer bird in North China, and is only met with in the 
more out of the way places, such as the lonely marshes of the Ordos Desert. 

The ruddy sheldrake {Casarca ferruginea) is extremely common in some 
places. We found this duck most numerous on the Hsi-an Fu plain in South 
Shensi and in Honan. Here they were seen in pairs in every field, but at 
Yii-lin Fu they occurred in large flocks. We seldom paid any attention to 
these birds as they were easy to shoot and their flesh was coarse and oily. 
The common sheldrake {Tadorm cormfa) is only occasionally met with. 
The wild swan {Cygnus Jerus) is also an occasional visitor. 

Coming to the ducks we find that the commonst species are the mallard 
{Anas boscas), the teal {Nettion crecca), the pochard (Nyroca ferina), the shoveller 
(Spatula clypeata), the golden eye {Clangula glauciori) and the pin-tail {Dafila acuta). 
There are other less common species such as the exquisite mandarin duck 
{Aex galericulata) and Swinhoe's duck {Anas zonorhyncha). 

Of all the foregoing the only species that remain north of Hsi-an Fu 
throughout the winter are the mallard and teal. 

The mallard and Swinhoe's duck not infrequently breed in the marshes 
of Shansi. 

The Baikal teal (Nettion formosum) may sometimes be seen during the 
migratory season together with the smew (Mergus albellus), the red-breasted 
merganser (Merganser serrator) , and the goosander (Merganser castor). The red- 
breasted merganser often remains for the winter, when it may be found in the 
valleys of the high mountain ranges where open streams not infrequently 
exist even in the dead of winter. 

It is but a step from ducks to waders and aquatic birds in general, in 
which branch of bird life the provinces of North China are particularly rich. 

A small species of gull (Larus crassirostris) follows up the course of the 
Yellow River and many of its larger tributaries. It may be seen flitting over 
ponds and marshes wherever these exist. On the present expedition these 
birds were noted in Shansi, on the T'ai-yiian plain, again on the Hsi-an Fu 
plain in Shensi, and also near Lanchou, in Kansu. The tern is a summer 
visitor only. 

The bittern {Botaurus stellaris), the heron (Ardea cinerea), the black stork 

106 



PLATE 45. 




c 

u 

a 



> 
a 

u 

u 

« 
U 

Q 



(Ciconia nigra), the night-heron {Nyctkoiax nyctkorax), tht spoonbill {Platalae 
leucorodia), and the curlew {Nimenius arquatus), together with lesser waders, such 
as red shanks, sandpipers, turnstones, sanderlings, stints, and sand plovers*, 
congregate in little flocks, or disperse in pairs over the sandy flats of the large 
rivers, along the shores of ponds and lakes, or even upon the cultivated fields 
of the plains. The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is found along the rivers. It 
builds its nest on crags of high precipitous cliffs. 

On the waters of the lakes and marshes the cormorant [Phalacrocorax 
carbo), the coot [Fulica atra), the moorhen [GaUinula chloropus) , the great crested 
grebe (Podiceps cornutus), the little grebe (Colymbus ru/icollis), disport throughout 
the summer, building their nests in the rushes, where skulks the water-rail 
[Ralius indicus) . 

Snipe are very common and many a good bag can be made in the rice- 
fields and reed-beds. There are two species of snipe in North China, the little 
jacksnipe (Limnocryptes gallinu/a) , a.nd the pin-tailed snipe (Gallinago stenura). The 
latter is frequently found along the banks of streams in mountainous districts. 

One must not forget to mention the common crane {Grus grus) which 
passes north or south during the spring and autumn respectively in immense 
flocks containing from twenty to two hundred birds. They are usually very 
shy, and the hunter finds great difficulty in approaching them, but as they 
get further north they seem to lose their fear of man and can easily be 
brought down with a shot gun. The demoiselle crane {Anthropoides virgo) may 
also be seen occasionally. 

In the boulder strewn valleys of the high mountains may be heard the 
plaintive cry of the remarkable ibis-billed curlew {Ibidorhynchus struthersi), as it flits 
along the stream beds, while the pretty little ringed plover {y^gialitis alexandrinus) 
deposits its clutch of eggs amongst the pebbles that they so exactly resemble. 

The crested plover (Vanellus uanellus) and the grey-headed plover (Micro- 
sarcops cinereus) may be seen during the spring and autumn. 

The Chinese ibis {Nipponia nippon) builds its nest in the large trees that 
grow on the margins of the rice-fields, seeking sustenance for itself and young 
in the muddy waters of the latter. Its chief food is a large water-snail, 
together with mussels, frogs and aquatic insects. 

Before drawing to a close, it will be well to mention various other families 
represented throughout the mountains, plains, hills and valleys of the 
provinces by not more than one or two species. 

Here, where the mountain stream plunges into deep defile, or stays to 

* Tbc species to which these be'-ong I ban u yet been aaable to determine, 

107 



wander in rich meadow, we may mark the little emerald-hued kingfisher 
{Alcedo ispida) ; or there, watching for his prey from some branch over the 
glassy pool, the larger long-tailed variety {Halcyon pileatus), easily distinguishable 
by his black head and purple back. 

The handsome hoopoe (Upupa epops), with its golden crown, pied wings 
and long curved bill, abounds in Shansi. It is found in the other provinces, 
but is less common. Its peculiarly characteristic call, " ho poo poo," uttered 
at short intervals with three nods of the head, announces to the worthy 
celestial the approach of spring, but it is not till the voice of the cuckoo 
(Cuculus canorus) resounds o'er hill and dale that he commences to sow his 
seeds. The Chinese call the cuckoo " chung-ku " (pronounced ' joong goo '), 
which means "plant (your) millet." These syllables, they aver, form the 
notes of the bird's call, which is intended for a direct message to the husband- 
man. Almost simultaneously with the cuckoo comes the wryneck (lynx 
torquilla), but it is a comparatively rare bird, keeping away from the beaten 
tracks of man. 

Three or four species of woodpecker arc found in the country, and of these 
the great spotted woodpecker {Dendrocopus major) is decidedly the most 
common. The green woodpecker (Gecinus canus) comes next, while the little 
spotted woodpecker (lyngipicus doerriessi) may also be seen from time to time. 

A bird which would appear to be the great black woodpecker [Picus martius) 
was described to me by some of the mountain people of Shansi, but it must 
be very rare indeed. 



108 



PLATE 46. 




Isolated column of Sandstone. Hai-shui-ssu, 
Kansu and Shensi border. 



Sire /». /.v. 



CHAPTER XII. 

REPTILES, BATRACHIANS AND FISHES — BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

TN these branches of the Biological work of the Expedition comparatively 
little was done chiefly because there was so little to collect. North China 
is very poor in cold-blooded vertebrates and the whole collection included not 
more than sixteen species, which were presented by Mr. Clark to the U.S. 
National Museum. 

The explanation for this can be expressed in three words : unfavourable 
climatic conditions. 

In the first place the excessive cold of the North China winter tells very 
severely against snakes and lizards. For three months the thermometer 
nightly registers from twenty to forty degrees of frost. The ground is frozen 
hard as a rock to a depth of several feet. Rivers and lakes are covered with 
layers of ice from two to four feet thick, whilst marshes and mountain streams 
become solid. 

Following the severe winter frosts, comes a long period of drought lasting 
through the spring into early summer. Sometimes this drought is prolonged 
through the whole of the latter season. This terrible dryness is very hard on 
batrachians, especially as it usually occurs during the spawning season, when 
they need water most. Apart from one or two small varieties, fish do not 
exist, except in permanent streams, rivers or lakes. 

There is little wonder then, that North China boasts so few species 
belonging to these classes of vertebrates. As was shrewdly remarked about 
them, they have to hibernate in winter and aestivate in summer. 

Reptiles. 

On the present expedition three species of snakes only were secured. 

The commonest of these was the olive water-snake ( Tropidomtus tigrinus), a 
beautiful reptile of a bright sap-green colour. On the throat are patches of 
orange red which extend down either side of the body, growing smaller till 

109 



they vanish somewhere near the tail. Alternating with these are patches of 
black, which commence just behind the jaw, two being larger than the rest. 
The sides of the head are striped with black, while the lower jaw and throat 
are white. In the shape of the head and general appearance, this snake 
resembles the common British grass snake. Specimens of this species were 
taken in all three provinces. One was caught in the temple 3'ard at Yu-lin 
Fu, but usually they were found along the banks of streams and rivers. 

The second species fCoIuber—or Elaphis—dioneJ was secured only at Yii-lin 
Fu. This is a prettily-marked variety, which varies in colour from a rich 
orange-brown to a dull grey-brown according to the time since the skin was 
shed. The markings commencing in the shape of a U, behind the head, 
extend in transverse bars down the back. The edge of each bar is darker 
than the rest. On either side of the body occur rows of dots, also with 
darkened edges. These alternate with the ends of the transverse bars. 
Besides these markings, two broad lines of a slightly darker shade than the 
ground colour extend from the head along either side of the back to the tail. 
This species is very common in the Ordos Desert and in the loess country of 
the adjacent provinces. It may frequently be found in the houses of towns 
and villages, to which it is probably attracted by the abundance of rats, mice 
and sparrows (see coloured plate) . 

The third species (Zamem's spinalis) was secured only in Kansu. Here a 
single specimen was caught on the bank of a large stream. This species 
somewhat resembles Coluber dione in colour, but is more whip-like in shape and 
is differently marked. It has three white stripes down the back, and there are 
white markings on the head. Though the specimen in question was caught 
on the side of a stream in a valley, the snake cannot be said to frequent such 
places. I have seen it in mountainous country in Shansi, on the top of rocky 
ridges far removed from any water. It is, however, rather a rare species. 

All these three species are non-poisonous. There seems to be only one 
poisonous snake in North China, namely, a species of viper {Ancisircdon 
intermedius) . This is the common Central Asiatic form. Fortunately for the 
inhabitants it is very rare in these provinces. No specimens were met with 
on the present expedition. 

Three species of lizards were added to the collection. 

The dullard lizard [Eremias argus) was noticed in all three provinces, 
though very few specimens were taken. A very common species, it is 
particularly abundant in the Ordos. It is frequently seen along the sides of 
the road in the loess country. The species is very widely distributed. 



no 



Brown Snake [Coluber dione). 
Toad-headed Lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis). 



In the country round Yil-lin Fu a good series of the little sand- 
inhabiting lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis) was secured. I have not met 
this little lizard anj'where but in, and on the borders of, the Ordos Desert. 
Here it may be seen in great numbers during the warmer months of the 
year. These little creatures are very pugnacious, and indulge in desperate 
battles with one another. They have a peculiar habit of rapidly curling and 
uncurling their tails over their backs. This action looks very venomoup, and is 
strongly suggestive of the vicious swishing of the scorpion's deadly caudal 
weapon. This lizard is of a general sandy colour above, with creamy under- 
parts. Blotches of a darker shade occur over the body, and extending along 
the tail grow darker, finally ending in a series of black rings. The last half 
inch of the tail is black. The under surface of the tail is pale vermilion, 
while a crimson-mauve patch occurs behind each fore-limb. The head is 
shaped like that of a toad, the eyes being black with white eyelids. It makes 
holes in the sand in which it shelters at night, or when threatened with dangjer. 

The remaining species of lizard is the little gecko {Gecko japonicus), 
which frequents buildings, temples, and caves. It may also be found in 
crevices in loess or rocky cliffs. It is perfectly smooth-skinned, and is free 
from frills of any sort. In colour it is a dull mottled grey, admirably adapted 
to protect it from discovery, as it clings to the surface of brick wall or rocky 
cliff. Some eggs of this species were found in a temple. Several of these 
were hatched out in the course of a few weeks. The Chinese greatly 
fear this little creature, crediting it with being venomous. In reality it is a 
great boon, as it keeps the houses clear of all kinds of vermin. It is nocturnal 
in its habits. The Chinese name is " Hsieh-hu," meaning " scorpion tiger." 
This name is given because the gecko is supposed to eat scorpions. 

The only other reptile secured on the expedition was a species of 
mud-tortoise (Trionyx sinensis). This species abounds in some of the tributaries 
of the Yellow River in Shensi. Here it may be seen floating in the quiet 
waters below rapids, or basking in the sun on the muddy banks. It also 
exists in the Yellow River itself. Some were secured in the fish market 
in Ho-nan Fu, in Honan. Others were taken in the rivers near Yen-an 
Fu, in Shensi. The Chinese esteem these ugly creatures a great delicacy ; 
and certainly, when properly cooked, they are quite palatable. At the 
same time, it is considered a foul beast, and is emblematic of all that is 
vile. These mud tortoises are extremely vicious, snapping angrily at the 
hand when disturbed. They are capable of making a noise, and I have 
heard them scream when being killed for the table. 

in 



Batrachians. 

In this branch of cold-blooded vertebrates, the provinces passed through 
are very poor. Only two species of frogs and two of toads were secured. 

The large edible frog (Rana esculenta) was common in places where there 
was a good supply of water. In the small streams joining the Yii-lin Ho, 
at Yii-lin Fu, these frogs were very common. They were also met with 
in great numbers in the few fertile valleys of Eastern Kansu and West 
Central Shensi. This handsome frog is not unlike the common British form 
{^Ram temporarid), but is somewhat larger and of a beautiful green colour, either 
dark or light. It possesses a bladder on the side of the head, which distends 
and contracts as the frog emits its loud, hoarse croaks. It is very agile and 
difficult to catch. The flesh of the legs is edible and is a great delicacy. 

The small brown frog (Rana japonica) was frequently met with in 
the ravines of the loess country of North Shensi. It is capable of with- 
standing long periods of drought, burying itself deep down in the beds of 
the streams and pools. In colour this frog varies considerably in different 
places. Some were of a deep brown colour above, yellowish-pink beneath, 
shading into red on the under surfaces of the legs. Others were of a light 
fawn colour, and cream or yellow beneath. The former was secured at Yu-lin 
Fu, while the latter were found in the streams of the loess country in all three 
provinces. All specimens agreed, however, in having a black or dark brown 
band crossing the eye on either side of the head. 

Of the two toads met with Radde's toad (Bufo raddei) is characteristic of the 
country. This amphibian does not attain any great size. The female is verj' 
prettily marked, somewhat resembling the natterjack toad of Europe ; the male 
is of a dull greenish-brown colour, and does not possess the beautiful marking of 
the female. There can be no doubt of this animal's powers to withstand drought. 
I have found it amongst the sand-dunes of the Ordos, as well as in the loess 
hills of other parts. Specimens were secured in Kansu, within the famine area 
near Lan-chou Fu. Here, the natives said, there had been no rain for three 
years. In spite of its frequenting such dry places, it thoroughly appreciates 
an abundant supply of water, as I have found them in the ponds and back- 
waters of rivers, not only while spawning but at all times of the year, excepting 
winter. The spawning season is regulated by the rains, and in a dry year I 
have known it to be postponed till July. 

The other toad obtained is identical with the common European species 
(Bufo vulgaris). It is much less common than B. raddei. Only very young 
specimens were secured on the present e.xpedition. 

112 



PLATE -t7. 



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UkiUiSHE 



""'^^' ^-""' 



J 



Nothing in the way of salamanders or newts were seen, and I do not 
believe that they exist in these provinces north of the 35th parallel of latitude. 

Fishes. 

On the expedition very few fish were secured. Constant watch was kept 
for anything in this line in the mountain streams but with poor success. No 
doubt the Yellow River would have yielded a fair number of species if we had 
had the means and opportunity of exploring its muddy depths. However, its 
commonest denizens are undoubtedly the cat-fish (Silurus asotus) and the carp 
(Cyprims carpio). Both these species attain a large size, and are eagerly fished 
for by the natives who transport them to various large centres. 

The cat-fish is usually transported alive. The carp on the other hand 
are not transported till winter, when they are frozen and covered with a layer 
of ice to preserve them. 

Cyprinus carassius is the species from which the Chinese and Japanese 
have bred the gold fish. Specimens (young) were obtained from the streams 
at Yfl-Hn Fu. This is a comparatively common fish, being found in most lakes, 
ponds and rivers. It often finds its way to the tables of Chinese gentlemen, 
but has a muddy taste and is excessively bony. The serving of such a fish 
at a feast, where such expensive luxuries as bird's nest soup and white 
fungus are on the menu, speaks volumes for the scarcity of fish in North 
China. 

In the fish-markets of Hsi-an Fu and Ho-nan Fu I noticed one or two 
other species of fish, but as I could get no satisfactory statement as to where 
they came from, I did not consider it worth while to secure specimens. 

Monoptenis javanensis, a species of eel, was secured at Hsi-an Fu where 
it was commonly found in the black oozy mud of the rice-fields and irrigation 
ditches. It is remarkable for the total absence of fins. Its gills are verj' 
small and inconspicuous. It might thus be easily mistaken for a snake. It is 
of a dark olive-brown colour, with mottling of a darker shade closely dotted 
all over it. The head is very snake-like. Large specimens were for sale in the 
market at Hsi-an Fu. 

Misgvrnus anguillicaudatus is an eel-like loach, specimens of which were 
secured at YU-lin Fu. I noticed larger specimens for sale in the fish-market 
in Ho-nan Fu and round Hsi-an Fu. As far as I could gather, it is an inhabitant 
of large rivers and their affluents, and occurs in flat country, but is never seen 
in mountain streams. 

Cobitis tinia is the only species of fish which is really abundant in the 

K 113 



the northern parts of the three provinces of Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu. It 
is found in most streams, whether in the high rocky mountains or in the loess 
hills. This loach was secured in large numbers at Yii-lin Fu. Specimens were 
also captured in Kansu, and at other places, but these unfortunately were 
spoiled. 

It is highly probable that this species can survive the drying up of the 
streams in which it lives, as I have found it in places where such conditions 
must frequently prevail. 

Specimens of a minnow {Phroxims Sp.) were caught at Yii-lin Fu and again 
in the mountain streams south of Hsi-an Fu ; but I have been unable to 
identify the species. 



IM 



PLATE 48. 




Chipmunk. iEutamias asiaticus senesceus). 



.SV<- //v. t^2 and lyd. 




Mole rat. iMyoapalax cansus). 



See />fi. S4 anti 182. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

GEOLOGICAL NOTES — BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

TT is with some hesitation that I set forth the following notes and remarks 
•^ on the Geology of the country traversed by the Expedition. With but 
a mere smattering of knowledge, picked up from text-books whilst on the 
march, I realise my unfitness for the task of giving anything like a Geological 
description of the Provinces passed through. Nevertheless it would seem to 
be a pity were I to shelve even such meagre notes as I have been able to 
gather about a country so little known. Eminent authorities on Geology have 
travelled in North China, but the route taken by the present Expedition 
seems to have been almost altogether through districts entirely new, so far 
as this science is concerned. That part of Shansi west of T'ai-yiian Fu, and 
the whole of Shensi north of the Wei Ho were out of Richthofen's path. This 
interesting countrj' was missed too by the members of the Carnegie 
Expedition 1903-4. It seems, however, to present features not found 
elsewhere in China, a proper study of which would throw light upon many 
problems in connection with the great loess deposits of North China. 

Throughout this Chapter I adopt the momenclature used by the authors 
of " Research in China." This book (published by the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington) deals with the results of the Carnegie Expedition already 
mentioned, and in it, where dealing with this subject, Mr. Bailey Willis calls 
the whole of the Yellow Aeolian deposits, so extensively found in all the 
northern provinces, the Huang-fn formation. In Chinese, the word Huaiig-t'u 
means literally " yellow earth." It refers to the true wind-deposited loess, as 
well as to the fluvial deposits of the Chihli plain and elsewhere. Bailey Willis 
took the name, which is a very happy one, from Huang-t'u-tsai, a village 
situated about ten miles north of T'ai-yOan Fu. 

Another substance containing a large percentage of clay, and occurring 
in many places with the loess, is called Sliao-t'u which means literally "baking 
earth." It derives this name from the fact that it is suitable for mixing with 
coal-dust to form a good burning substance. The mixture is either dried into 
cakes, or is put on the kang-hre wet. It burns well, but slowly, forming a 
very economical fuel. 

Throughout this Chapter I shall use the word Shao-t'tt in its real Chinese 
sense, and the word Huang-t'u in the sense given to it by Bailey Willis. I 
shall thus have three terms to use in connection with yellow deposits : — 

113 



(i) Huang-t'u referring; to all deposits, whether Aeolian or fluvial. 

(2) Loesp, the pure seolian or sub-aerial deposit. 

(3) Shao-t'u, that substance, which resembles Loess, but contains a certain 

proportion of clay. 

The last usually contains more carbonate of lime than the second,* and 
generally occurs at the bottom of the deep ravines in the Huang-fu formations. 
So far as I have been able to gather, the lime nodules mentioned by various 
writers occur in the Shao-Vii. The orig^in of the latter is difficult to determine.^ 
but it is believed by some to be the result of decomposed Felspathic rock. 
For want of any other name, I call the sedimentary beds of Shensi "the 
Shensi formation," but the exact relationship between this and the Shansi 
formation I cannot define, thousrh it certainly resembles the formation between 
Chiao-ch'eng Shan and the Huang Ho. 

The country in the immediate vicinity of T'ai-yuan Fu, our startinp- 
point, has been investigated by the members of the Carnegie Expedition, so 
that I will commence drawing on my note book at the western bank of the 
F^n Ho. In the preparation of this Chapter I have had frequent recourse to 
"Research in China"; the line of march followed by the authors of that 
work was from Pao- ting Fu in Chihli westward to Wu-t'ai Shan in Shansi; 
thence southward through the middle of Shansi as far as T'ung-kuan Hsien, 
just beyond its south-western border ; and from this point westward again in 
exploration of the Ch'in-ling range and the country south of the Wei Ho in 
Shensi. 

After continuing westward from T'ai-yiian Fu, in Shansi, to Yu-lin Fu, in 
Northern Shensi, our own route lay in a direction roughly parallel to that of 
the Carnegie Expedition, extending as it did from North to South down the 
middle of Shensi. The Carnegie Expedition did not enter Kansu at all, and 
the country we traversed seems to have been visited by no geologist. We 
thus had the opportunity of seeing a mountainous country, namely the Chiao- 
ch'eng Shan, dividing the F^n Ho from the Yellow River, the existence of 
which seems to have been unsuspected by Richthofen, and only guessed at by 
the members of the Carnegie Expedition. Both parties apparently confined 
themselves to the valley of the F6n Ho, and formed their opinions of what 
lay to the westward from what they saw of the small range of mountains 
forming the north-western boundary of that valley. 

Richthofen speaks of the country between the Fdn Ho and the Yellow 

• The lows bas a luge pioportioD ofcUy, bttl dissFininaled and not separated as appeus to be the case with the SMao-t'ti. 
t The CaOjCOj of ihe calcareous norules U p'f.V-pbh derived fr(>Di the upper beds by water action. 

116 



River as a plateau of nearly horizontal coal-bearing strata ; whilst Bailey 
Willis suspects that the rock below the Sinian Limestone, together with the 
Sinian Limestone itself, forms the mass of the mountains west of the small 
range already mentioned. Neither of these observers mentions the great 
divide of Igneous and Metamorphic rock, which extends in a more or less 
complete line from Ning-wu Fu, five days journey (about lOO miles) north- 
west of T'ai-yiian Fu, to Yung-ning Chou, four days journey south-west. 
Having penetrated these mountains at five different points I can vouch for its 
existence. Professor Lyman of the Shansi University discovered Granite and 
Gneiss in the mountains west of W6n-shui Hsien, a town about fifty miles 
south-west of T'ai-yiian Fu. 

From my notes it will be seen that Richthofen was not altogether wrong 
when he discussed the country west of the Fen Ho as a plateau of horizontal 
coal-bearing strata. There are undoubtedly great stretches of country marked 
by beds of this nature ; but on the other hand there are large areas where, 
but for the Loess, the Sinian Limestone would form the surface. I have found 
this to be the case in the mountains west of K'6-lan Chou a town about sixty 
miles north-west of T'ai-yuan Fu, and again at Wu-ch'eng a village half-way 
between Yung-ning Chou and Fen-chou Fu. It also forms certain high peaks 
situated physiographically between the Shansi formation and the pre-Cambrian 
rocks in the Ning-wu district. Of course the outcrops of Pre-Cambrian 
(Igneous and Metamorphic) rock, already referred to, form a large area. 

The folding and vertical dips mentioned by Bailey Willis occur, as far as 
I can make out, only in the small range — not more than twenty miles wide— 
which extends from north-east to south-west along the north-western edge of 
the T'ai-yuan Fu plain. Westwards from this range till the Chiao-ch'Sng 
Shan are reached the strata are horizontal. Further north, as the Ning-wu 
district is approached, these strata are arranged in a series of ridges having a 
north-east to south-west trend and formed by dip-slopes on the south-eastern 
and scarps on the north-western side. The dip-slopes vary generally from 30° 
to 80°, some being almost perpendicular. As already stated, between these 
ridges of Shansi formation and the great outcrop of pre-Cambrian rock, occur 
very high and precipitous ridges of Sinian limestone. These form very pointed 
peaks, varying in altitude from 7,000 to 8000 feet above the sea-level. Their 
dips slope to the south-east at angles of from 45° to 60", becoming almost 
perpendicular as the crests of the ndges are reached. The escarpments are 
due, doubtless, to erosion on the eastern side of an immense fold ; the softer 
rocks on the anti-cline of this fold have been carried away by denudation, 

117 



leaving exposed the Plutonic rocks, which now form the crest of the great 
divide between the F^n and Yellow Rivers. 

There is plenty of good coal in the district, as well as a certain amount of 
silver ore. The former is mined, but the mining of the latter is prohibited by the 
local officials, who fear the imposition of heavy taxes by the central Government. 

In the Ning-wu district I discovered a series of small lakes situated at an 
altitude of about 7,000 feet above sea-level along the summits of the shale 
ridges of the Shansi formation. They occur in hollows formed by scarps on 
the one side, and dip-slopes on the other : their existence bearing testimony 
to the impervious nature of the shale. The accompanying sketch shows one 
of these lakes, and other physiographical features of the district. The lakes 
are very deep and contain clear, sweet water. Their overflows join the F6n 
Ho, in spite of the fact that they are much closer to the Huai Ho, which 
flows northward, and ultimately joins one of the rivers traversing Chihli. 
(An account of the discovery of these lakes was published in " Travel and 
Exploration," October, igio). 

The foregoing remarks refer chiefly to those parts of the mountains west 
of the F6n Ho which lie outside the path of the present Expedition. I will 
now take in more detail the rocks and formations noticed along our own line 
of march. On entering the mountains west of T'ai-yiian Fu, the first rock 
encountered was the dark limestone (Cambro-Ordovician) dipping slightly to 
the west. This is deeply cut through by water-courses which enter the plain 
from the west. At Lan-ts'un, a village about fifteen miles north-west of 
T'ai-yiian Fu, the Fen Ho cuts through this formation. The height of the 
limestone cliffs here must be between 300 and 400 feet. A similar formation 
occurs again about three miles north-east of the same village. Here a narrow 
winding gorge cuts deeply through the limestone for a distance of about 
fifteen miles. The limestone, in places, exhibits a pale creamy colour. This 
outcrop appears to form the eastern edge of a great, but shallow synclinal 
fold. The western outcrop appears along the eastern side of the great divide 
of igneous rock, already mentioned. 

At a level of about 300 feet above the plain, the Limestone formation 
gives place to the Sandstone and Shale formations typical of Shansi. These 
continue the crest of the range to an altitude of 2,500 feet above the level of 
the plain. The shale deposits in this small range are horizontal and free from 
faults, and are inter-stratified with beds of Pyrites, Conglomerates, and thick 
seams of coal. The colours of these shales vary considerably, being blue-grey, 
dark madder, yellow ochre, greenish yellow, or green. 

119 



The Conglomerates, formed of well-worn and rounded pebbles, occur at 
an altitude of about 500 feet. The Pyrites, a grey and friable variety, occurs 
at an altitude of between 300 and 400 feet. The sulphur is extracted by the 
natives, who roast the pyrites in perforated clay vessels, the residue being a 
soft, earthy substance the colour of yellow ochre. When roasted again, this 
turns into a bright red powder, largely used in the manufacture of paint for 
houses and furniture. In places, where the second roasting is carried on, 
the whole of the surrounding ground, for a considerable distance, becomes 
stained a bright red. Many such patches mark the slopes of these mountains, 
and might at first sight be mistaken for outcrops of Red Haematite. 

The coal from this district is also very sulphurous, and unpleasant to use 
in open grates, being very smoky and giving a large percentage of ash. In 
places, where the seams were exposed to the air, we often noticed an 
efflorescence of pure sulphur. 

There is also a considerable amount of iron-ore in these mountains ; and 
some of the streams in the range are strongly alkaline : a fact especially 
noticeable when they are frozen. 

After crossing this ridge, we descended first through loess and then 
through shale to the bed of the Fen Ho at Ku-chao. Here, a little way up 
the ravines, which join the river, iron-smelting is carried on ; brown iron- 
ore being easily mined. Iron, coal and clay occur together in these spots ; 
otherwise, there would be no smelting done. The price of pig-iron is too low 
to allow of any one of these materials being transported for use from a 
distance. Baron von Richthofen has described the native method of smelting 
so well that any further remarks would be superfluous. 

The formations, from Ku-chao westward for a distance of twenty miles, 
are entirely of Sandstone, Shale and Huang-t'u. As already stated, the strata 
of these sedimentary rocks were found to be horizontal, and free from foldings 
and faults. 

At Ts'a-k'ou, about forty-five miles west of T'ai-yuan Fu, Sinian Lime- 
stone again makes its appearance, and a little further on the Pre-Cambrian 
rocks, which form the Chiao-ch'eng Shan district, commence. We first 
travelled up a long valley leading westward, the sides of which were composed 
of precipitous limestone peaks. As we ascended the pass at the head of this 
valley, we crossed a dyke of Pegmatite exposed in the cutting of the bridle- 
path, the rest of the slopes being composed of Mica Schists. On the western 
slope of the pass, masses of white Felspar with large pieces of embedded 
Muscovite were noticed. Large stones of both fine and coarse-grained Gran ite , 

120 



PLATE A<). 






V. 



V^ 










*' 



H 




^. 



^ ' - ^V 



Sand Hamster. [Phodopus bedfordise). 



Sec pp. Sj ami /So. 




David's Squirrel. iSciurotamias davidianus). 

Sit pp^ as and /70. 



besides Pegmatite, Felspathicand Micaceous rocks, and Gneisses were plentiful 
in the valley-bottoms on either side of the pass. 

With my limited knowledge, it would be hopeless to attempt a full 
description of the complicated structural formation of the Chiao-ch'^ng Shan 
district : the most I can do is to mention the names and the positions of the 
rocks which I noticed. So far as I could gather, these mountains, like those 
in the Ning-wu district, are formed by a great fold, the softer rocks of which 
have been denuded, thus laying bare the Plutonic rocks. The tops of the 
peaks and ridges are undoubtely of granite, which varies in colour from grey 
to pink, and in texture from a fine to a coarse grain. The summit of Mo-erh 
Shan (9,200 feet), the highest peak in the district, is in the form of a hugh cone 
of grey granite, slowly breaking up into large blocks — roughly cubical — many 
of which lie scattered down the mountain's side. Slightly curved joints — 
very noticeable in our illustration (Plate 55) — cut across the summit, and 
appear to form an anticline. On the next highest peak YOn-t'ing Shan, red 
granite appears, as well as the grey. To the north, the peaks and ridges seem 
to be composed of gneiss and other metamorphic rocks, with ribs of granite 
here and there. 'The valley-bottoms are strewn with boulders, and stones 
of all kinds of crystalline rock ; the minerals quartz, mica, and felspar 
predominating. 

On descending the western slope of this great ridge, which divides the 
basin of the Fen Ho from the Yellow River, we soon reached again the beds 
of shale and sandstone. They present here features similar to those east of 
Chiao-ch'eng Shan. Huang-t'ti is very widely distributed, and in many places 
hides all other formations by extending right down to the valley-bottoms. 

At a distance of about fifteen miles from the Chiao-ch'dng Shan range, we 
crossed another small divide, the summit of which was composed of shale 
protruding through the Huang-t'u. Between here and the next pass — about 
twenty miles further west — lies the river valley, in which the town of Lin 
Hsien is situated. The valleys between these three divides run from north- 
east to south-west, eventually joining the Yellow River. 

The Lin Hsien valley is filled with vast deposits of Huang-t'u so that 
only at the ravine-bottoms is the substratum of sandstone exposed. 

One might consider the chain of mountains, which divides the F6n Ho 
from the Yellow River, as forming the eastern boundary of a vast flat basin, 
which takes in the whole of Northern Shensi, and the adjacent parts of Shansi, 
and Kansu. This basin is underlain by the Sinian Limestone, upon which 
lie Sandstone and Shale formations, which in turn are covered by a thick layer 

121 



of loess. Except at the edges, these successive layers are practically horizontal. 
I will refer to this as the North Shensi basin, and will deal with it more 
closely in my remarks on the Huang-fu formation. 

About fifteen miles west of Lin Hsien a very peculiar formation 
occurs. Three peaks, composed chiefly of granite, pierce through the 
Htiang-t'u mantle, and rise to an altitude of from 6000 to 7000 feet. The 
peaks, which go by the name of Ch'ing-ting Shan (" clear summit moun- 
tains ") run roughly in a line, north and south, their bases covering a square 
of five miles to the side. All round are loess hills. So far as could be 
gathered, these isolated peaks are the result of folding ; but on this point I 
would not care to offer a positive opinion. 

Westward, to the Yellow River, the country consists of loess lying upon 
a thick layer of sandstone. Through the latter, streams flowing towards the 
Yellow River in a general westerly direction have cut down to a depth 
commencing at from 20 to 30 feet and gradually increasing to about 300 feet 
in its bed. This sandstone doubtless belongs to the Shansi formation ; it is 
perfectly horizontal in stratification, and nowhere were any faults noticed. It 
is in the form of freestone, and is admirably illustrated in the accompanying 
photograph (Plate 9). 

On the western bank of the Yellow River, the same formation extends to 
the borders of the Ordos, though the depth of the sections exposed along the 
sides of the river-valleys becomes less and less till only along the largest rivers 
is there any outcrop. 

At Yii-lin Fu the loess formations give place to a peculiar, hard, purplish 
rock containing a certain percentage of sand. Though not nearly so hard, it 
closely resembles shale, and doubtless only requires pressure to be converted 
into it. This hardened, sandy mud, or mudstone, protrudes through the thick 
layer of loose sand in the form of low rounded hills ; one of which appears 
in the photograph of the sand-dunes (Plate 10). 

The sand that exists in this district, is of the same yellowish fawn tint as 
the loess, and is from fifty to one hundred feet deep. It is very soft and 
loose, and in the river-beds and damp ravine-bottoms forms dangerous quick- 
sands. About Yii-lin Fu itself the sandstone, where visible, is of a pale 
greenish colour ; but further to the south-west along the Ordos border it is of 
a brick-red. A deep bed of this red sandstone occurs at the head of the Yen 
Shui valley, a few miles south of Ching-pien. Here the cliffs rise to the 
height of some 200 feet, whilst the waters of the Yen Shui are stained a deep 
red. Red sand is deposited along the valley near Yen-an Fu. 

122 



PLATE 50. 




§ 
•« 
e 
« 

^ 



e 

K 

in 

a 



O 



o 



Travelling southward from Yu-lin Fu to Yen-an Ku we encountered 
Huaitg-t'u formation upon horizontal strata of sandstone and shale. The 
sandstone in places shows very marked bedding, and, owing to the deposition 
of mica between the layers, can be split without difficulty. This strongly- 
bedded sandstone occurs chiefly between Sui-t^ Chou and Ma-chia-k'ou. A 
good illustration of this may be seen in the photograph of icicles, taken about 
three miles south of Ch'ing-chien Hsien (Plate 17). The photograph shows 
too a typical source of the plentiful water-supply to be found in every ravine of 
North Shensi. 

At Yen-an Fu, the sandstone, still of a pale greenish colour, continues to 
show marked bedding. At low levels a pink and green cross-bedded sandstone 
was noted. In the region of Yen-an, the sandstone contains many crystals of 
Iron Pyrites. These, of course, where exposed, are very much oxidised, but 
some fine unoxidised specimens were secured at Lao-shan. 

There is little to say about the Huang-Vu of this vicinity, except that 
at the ravine-bottoms it is inclined to be clayey, resembling Shao-Vu rather 
than loess. In the wooded area — which extends in a great belt, east and west, 
some twelve miles south of Yen-an Fu — there is an even greater predominance 
of Shao-t'u. Here also finely-laminated, dark blue-grey shale occurs just 
above the sandstone. 

Coal is mined at various places along the route from Yii-lin Fu to Yen-an 
Fu. Seams, reached by rather deep vertical shafts and showing no outcrops, 
occur within a mile of the former place. These mines produce a good- 
burning, but rather smoky, bituminous coal. At Sui-te Chou, a peculiar coal 
was secured : it was said to have been transported from Ning-hsia, on the 
western border of the Ordos. It is very heavy and dirty, but absolutely 
smokeless, and smoulders like charcoal. Once ignited, it will continue to 
burn with a dull glow till the mass is reduced to soft white ash. The substance 
is certainly not charcoal, and those who sold it said that it was mined like 
coal. It has neither the appearance, nor the lustre of graphite. At Ch'ing- 
chien a fine quality of lignite is obtainable. This comes from mines at An- 
ting Hsien, a town situated some twenty miles to the north-west of Ch'ing- 
chien. At Ma-chia-k'ou a very poor quality of coal occurs. This ignites 
only with the greatest difficulty, and leaves an enormous percentage of ash. 

Yen-ch'ang Hsien, a town situated about forty miles east of Yen-an Fu, 
is famous for its petroleum wells ; which are worked with European machinery, 
and produce a high grade of oil. We bought a supply of the oil, and found it 
burn well. It is sold at the rate of 2jd. per catty (i catty=i| lbs.) and finds 

123 



a ready market. The poor people use the crude oil, which they purchase at 
half the price of the refined. There was no evidence of any other useful 
minerals in this district. The coal-beds however must be very extensive and 
valuable. 

Working southward from Yen-an Fu, the same horizontal sandstone bed- 
rock without faults is encountered, whilst the loess deposits are in the form of 
great plateaux, all uniform in height (Plate 22). These continue from Fu 
Chou to near Chung-pu Hsien, a distance of about seventy miles. South of 
the latter town the rock-beds, in the form of shale, rise considerably above 
their normal level, and the loess mantle is very much reduced in thickness, 
being in some places entirely denuded. Continuing southward, we found the 
shale strata very much contorted. Still further south again, at Yao Chou, we 
passed through a great outcrop of grey limestone, dipping sharply to the north. 
This seems to mark the southern boundary of the great North Shensi basin. 

From here the coQntry gradually slopes down to the Hsi-an plain. The 
loess on the southern side of the limestone ridge is very thick, completely 
hiding the under-lying rock, and extending right over the plain. The country 
south of the Wei Ho was visited by the Carnegie Expedition, and a good 
account of its geology appears in the book subsequently published by the 
Carnegie Institution. I will not do more than draw attention to the variable 
temperature of the hot springs at Lin-t'ung Hsien. Bailey Willis found 
them to be 40° Centigrade (104° F.). Kockhill records their temperature at 
106° F. When we visited them they were at 108° F. whilst Dr. Jenkins, a 
resident missionary of Hsi-an Fu says that he has known them to reach 
112° F. In the mountains immediately south of Hsi-an Fu I found granite 
occuring at very low levels. Viewing the mountains southward from the 
top of the peak, about 5000 feet in altitude, I could make out nothing but 
igneous rock masses. 

Leaving this vicinity we will now follow the westward course of the main 
division of our Expedition on its way to Lan-chou Fu in Kansu, and for this 
we must return to Fu Chou. From that point westwards for about thirty-four 
miles the same loess plateaux as lie to the south and east were encountered. 
Then a stretch of very moist country : deep and clear streams in every valley 
and ravine : the hills clothed with luxuriant vegetation. Denudation must have 
been at one time very extensive, for not only is the loess low and well rounded- 
off, but the sandstone and shale substrata also show marked wearing. 

At Hai-shui-ssu, a peculiar column of sandstone — all that is left of a 

124 



great bluff cutting across the valley — rises to a height of about 200 feet above 
the stream-beci (Plate 46). 

At Ho-shui Hsien the bed-rock is chiefly in the form of dark-maroon or 
grey shale, finely laminated. This gives place at Ch'ing-yang Fu to grey 
sandstone with marked bedding. Immediately west of this city the loess 
plateaux commence again. The country is noticeably drier than that to the 
east, and the plateaux continue for about sixty miles, ending abruptly at 
Ch^n-yiJan Hsien. 

From here westward, the loess formations become much deeper and less 
regular. The bed-rock rises gradually and is no longer perfectly horizontal. 
Immediately west of Ch^n-yiian Hsien, the sections exposed on the side of the 
valley show a red sandstone with marked bedding. It dips towards the west 
at an angle of 20°. This is very clearly shown in the accompanying 
photograph (Plate 57) of a view looking westward about five miles west of 
Ch^n-yiian Hsien. 

The sedimentary formations from Chdn-yuan westward rise steadily in 
altitude till the Liu-p'an Shan are reached. This great range of mountains 
(8000 to 10,000 feet high), composed of crj-stalline rocks, and extending from 
north-west to south-east, lies to the west of Ku-yiian Chou and Wa-t'ing and 
may be considered as the western rim of the great North Shensi basin. The 
highest peaks are very precipitous, and resemble the Chiao-ch'eng Shan of 
Western Shansi in their formation. The lower peaks are composed of lime- 
stone, through which run many deep ravines. 

Ku-yiian Chou is situated in an immense loess basin, bounded north, east 
and south by hills of sedimentary origin, and on the west and south-west by 
the Liu-p'an Shan. On the western side of this range the formation is chiefly 
of limestone, at a higher level than the sedimentary rocks to the east of the 
range. 

From Ku-yiian the path lies in a general south-westerly direction till 
Ching-ning Chou is reached. Immediately north of this city the limestone 
formations are deeply cut through by a stream coming down from Liu-p'an 
Shan. Westward from Ching-ning Chou the loess deposits increase 
enormously in depth. High loess-covered mountains occur, divided by deep 
ravines, and the substratum appears in only a few places. A photograph of 
one of the deep canons is given (Plate 39). This was taken at Ying-t'ao-ho 
immediately east of a high loess pass, and about sixty miles west of Ching- 
ning. It is typical of the formations that occur throughout this area as far as 
Hsiao-shui-tzQ, near Lan-chou Fu. In places the loess is replaced by a dark, 

125 



alluvial clay strongly impregnated with alkali, through which run deep caiions : 
an especially large one occuring to the east of Hui-ning Hsien (Plate 38). 

As Hsiao-shui-tzu is approached, a system of high mountains makes its 
appearance to the south and south-west. From these mountains thestreams bring 
down great quantities of pebbles and boulders of limestone and crystalline rocks. 

At Hsiao-shui-tzu (or Shao-shui-tzu) itself the Yellow River is again 
reached, at this point cutting through a thick dyke of granite to a depth of 
200 feet (Plate 33). On this granite lies a layer of green sandstone and on 
this again a deep deposit of loess. The loess here seems to contain a certain 
amount of whitish clay, and becomes extremely hard under the influence of 
the hot sun. 

The formations round Lan-chou Fu are very complex. There is a good 
deal of felspathic rock, especially north of the river, which here flows through 
a long valley, from two to three miles wide. 

To the south of the city, sedimentary rocks are first encountered, but 
these give way to crystalline rocks, which rise to a height of from 10,000 to 
11,000 feet. Westward, the mountains to all appearance are formed of igneous 
rocks, and very complicated. Gold, silver-ore, jade and precious stones are 
obtained in this range. 

The sedimentary strata, which occur some ten miles south of Lan-chou 
Fu, namely at Wa-kang-ch'^ng, are coal bearing ; whilst a plentiful supply of 
clay — derived probably by decomposition from igneous rocks — allows of 
extensive pottery-works being carried on. 

There is a good deal of grey cr3'stalline limestone in the mountains south 
of the city. These are more or less rounded, no very prominent peaks existing. 
Loess occurs at an altitude of over 7000 feet. 

The next stretch of country to be discussed is that along the road taken 
by the Expedition on its return journey from Sui-t6 Chou, in North Shensi, 
eastward to Fen-chou Fu, in Shansi, and thence north-eastward to T'ai-yiian 
Fu. Between Sui-te and the Yellow River very deep deposits of loess and 
Shao-fn occur. The latter is found usually at the bottoms of the deep ravines 
and is of a deep brick-red colour. In places the ravine-bottoms are formed of 
the usual sedimentary strata (Shensi formation) with marked horizontal 
bedding. Within five miles of the Yellow River the loess gets very shallow, 
and in many places the sandstone substrata are exposed in the form of rounded 
hills with precipitous ravines. The depth (500 to 600 feet), to which the river 
has cut through the sedimentary formation, is much greater here than at the 
spot further north where the Expedition crossed on its journey westward. 

126 



PLATE 51. 




Suslik. {Citellus mongolicus). 



Si:i: />p, qt ami l-jy. 




Polecat. (Mustela larvata). 



■Set /</i. t^j attii 174. 



Our course lay in a north-easterly direction up the right bank of the river 
for about six miles, and the sections exposed were carefully noticed. The 
strata on the left bank (Shansi side) seem to be chiefly of red-brown and green 
shales, arranged for the most part in slightly folded beds of varj-ing thickness, 
dipping slightly to the south-west. Near Wu-pao Hsien, where the caravan 
effected a crossing, this folding is rather more pronounced than elsewhere. On 
the right bank the strata are composed of yellow-grey sandstone arranged in 
horizontal beds, and rise to a height about two hundred feet lower than those 
on the left. 

After crossing the river, we continued up a deep ravine through strata of 
green and red-brown shale, finally crossing a ridge upon the summit of which 
loess to a depth of fifty feet occurs. The descent from the crest is first through 
loess, and then through shale till a small river-valley is reached. Here the 
section showed nothing but horizontally stratified shale, and sandstone v ith 
thick superimposed loess beds. Our road lay up this valley as far as Yung- 
ning Chou where the granite and gneisses, which occur in the Chiao-ch'^ng 
district, again appear. Working east from Yung-ning, we approached 
Wu-ch'^ng, a large village situated about twenty miles distant, and again 
encountered the Sinian limestone, dipping in a north-westerly direction at a 
slight angle. On crossing a divide we descended into a deep ravine cutting 
through the limestone, which extends to within ten miles of F6n-chou Fu. 
Here the strata are perfectly horizontal, as shown in the accompanying 
photograph (Plate 58), which also gives a good idea of the depth of the limestone 
beds. Between the end of these beds, which form a surface free from loess, 
and the valley of the Fen Ho, the ordinary Shansi coal-bearing series occur 
covered by a thick deposit of Hua}ig-t'u formation. The latter comprises here 
both loess, and Shao-t'u. 

The road from Fen-chou Fu to T'ai-yuan Fu has been traversed by several 
geologists, so that I will not presume to offer any remarks about it. 

The Huang-t'it Formation. 

One of the most characteristic features of the provinces of Chihli, Shansi, 
Shensi, and Kansu is afforded by the vast Aeolian deposits, commonly called 
the " Chinese Loess." This has also received the name of " the Huaitg-t'u 
Formation," and is divisible into two classes : — 

(i) That which is purely wind-deposited, and may be called Loess. 

(2) That deposited by rivers in the form of great plains, such as those 
of Pao-ting Fu and T'ai-yUan Fu, and conveniently termed Fluvial Loess, 

127 



We will not do more than mention the latter, which is of course derived 
from the former : it resembles in its characteristics, such as vertical cleavage 
and compactness, the true Loess. 

The true Loess, which forms the bulk of the Hnaitg-t'ii formation 
encountered by us on our journej', is apain divisible into two classes, con- 
taining a greater and lesser proportion of separated clay respectively. To the 
former I give the name of Shao-fti. which has already been explained in the 
'earlier part of this Chapter ; for the latter we may still use the name Loess. 

The extent of the Huaiig-t'n formation is very great : it covers, roughly 
speaking, an area of 200,000 square miles. Occurring as a sort of mantle 
overlving the greater part of Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu, it extends into Honan 
and forms also the great plains of Chihli. But nowhere are such vast deposits 
found as in the Province of Shensi, north of the Wei Ho. 

The physiography of North Shensi has already been likened to a great 
basin, and it is in this basin that we can see loess at its best. It covers the 
whole of the sedimentarj' rocks to an average depth of 1000 feet. In some 
places — notably along the sides of the Yellow River — it gets rather thin, but 
in the country immediately south of the Ordos Desert the depth increases to 
about 2,000 feet. The greater part of these Loess deposits are cut up by the 
action of water into rounded hills of uniform height. 

To the east, south and west of Fu Chou, in North-Central Shensi, the 
Huang-t'ii formation assumes the form of immense plateaux, divided from one 
another by deep valleys, and cut up along their edges by deep and narrow ravines 
(Plate 56). The surfaces of these plateaux are perfectly flat ; and all are equal 
in height to one another, and to the loess hills extending over the rest of the 
basin. The hills immediately adjoining the plateau-area are the more flat- 
topped, showing a gradual transition from the plateau to the hill form. From 
these facts it may be argued that the whole of the North Shensi basin was at 
one time in the form of a great loess plain, formed during a long period of 
drought, when little or no erosion was taking place. I cannot conceive of such 
a plain having been formed under the weather-conditions prevailing at the 
present time. It is certain that deposition is going on nowadays, but I do not 
think its rate can be in any way equal to that of erosion. Many facts may be 
cited to show the enormous rate at which the present torrential rains, 
occurring in summer, erode the soft Loess. Some twenty miles north-east of 
Yii-lin Fu, where deep deposits of loess occur along the Ordos border, huge 
ravines or canons, many miles in length and hundreds of feet deep, cut through 
the Great Wall into the Ordos. Everything points to the fact that these have 

128 



PLATE 52 




Allactag:a. [Allactaga mongolica longior). 



Sr-e /»/». Q2 a»d iS^. 




The Pika. {Ochotona annectens). 



See f'f>. Qj and t8l. 



been formed since the Wall was built. The city of San-yuan Hsien, situated 
twenty miles north of Hsi-an Fu, has been cut in two, since it was built, by a 
ravine 200 feet deep and over 200 feet wide. Again, in the Loess country of 
North Shansi one may often notice the remains of a succession of old roads, 
one below the other, along the side of a ravine. The ravine in these instances 
marks the original trace of the road. This was washed away, so that it 
became necessary to form a new road along the margin of the first. This in 
turn became dangerous or unfit for use, owing to the continual falling-away of 
great masses of loess, and again a new road had to be made. To-day a 
yawning chasm remains, which has swallowed up each successive road, leaving 
perhaps remnants of the last two or three. The whole process has taken 
place within the memory of the older iuhabitants of the district, who can 
testify to the facts. Places like this occur along the roads from T'ai-yuan Fu 
to Shou-yang Hsien, and Hsin Chou. Of course the practice of the inhabitants, 
who each winter root up or cut down every trace of vegetation, greatly 
accelerates the denudation of the loess deposits ; but even taking this into 
consideration, we must conclude that the rainfall, during the time when the 
loess plain was forming, was far less than it is now. 

It may be suggested that these loess deposits were laid down at the bottom 
of a lake, but there is no proof of this ; nor is there any reason to suppose 
that it is a fluvial deposit such as the Chihli plains. The north Shensi basin 
is open to the north, and there can be no doubt that the loess was originally 
brought down from the Gobi Desert, of which the Ordos is but an arm. 

During our stay in Yu-Hn Fu we had excellent opportunities of noting 
how the wind, which we found to prevail from the north, carries southward 
the material of which the Loess is composed. The inhabitants of North 
China are familiar with terrible dust-storms, which sweep down from the Gobi 
Desert at all times of the year. 

The Loess sometimes shows stratification. A good example of this 
appears in the accompanying photograph (Plate 56)*, which was taken a 
few miles west of the Chiao-ch'eng Shan in Shansi. The strata occur in 
alternate layers of brick-red, and light-coloured loess ; the former having 
rather the constitution of Shao-t'n. 

In many places we noticed, embedded in the loess, shells of a little snail 
inhabiting the country at the present time ; whilst bones of the Mole-rat — 
a rodent with an underground mode of life like the mole's — were also found. 
No fossils of any kind were discovered in the Loess. 

• cf. Plate 55. 
I 129 



CHAPTER XIV. 

SURVEY WORK OF THE EXPEDITION — BY R. S. CLARK. 

T^HE Map* accompanying this volume is based on the plane-table work 
carried out by Hazrat Ali, of the Survey of India, the ill-fated member 
of our party, whose death at the hands of the Chinese near Lan-chou brought 
the expedition to an untimely close. A short description of the means and 
methods employed on the survey will, we trust, be found of interest. 

Commencing with a list of the instruments used, and remarking 
where necessary as to their pattern etc., we give a few notes to indicate 
briefly the methods employed for fixing our base, for carrying out the whole 
survey and for determining certain check-measurements ; finally connecting 
up the results of our work with such records of previous surveys as are 
available. For the benefit of future travellers itineraries of the routes 
traversed are given in Appendix I., together with a table containing Latitude, 
Longitude, and — in most cases — Altitude of every important place visited. 

Instruments, etc. 

The instruments and appliances used were : — 

1 3-inch Astronomical Field Telescope. (Cary London) 

2 5-inch Micrometer Theodolites. ( ,, ,, ) 

3 Half-Chronometer Watches. (Blockley, Kew certificated) 
I Half-Chronometer Watch with Chronograph. 

3 Aneroid Barometers. (Cary) 

I Boiling-point Thermometer. ( ,, ) 

I Georges Mercurial Barometer. ( ,, ) 

I loo-foot Invar Tape. 

I Plane-table. 

I Road-wheel. 

Base-lines. 

(A) As described in Chapter I, the party went into camp a few 
miles out of T'ai-yiian Fu to measure a base-line, the site chosen for 



• In a pocket at the eod of volume. 

130 



Sunset on the Ordos Border. 



.isbioH ?.obiO 9riJ no J9enu<? 



.«E» 








1 


k 




W 






<^ 


i 










^ 




J 


^• 


V 


/ 




n 


> 



actual measurement being about two miles north of the town. The base 
was 2400 feet long and was measured twice by means of the Invar Tape ; 
the probable error being 1/50,000. The longitude of one end of the 
base was assumed, and the latitude calculated from astronomical 
observations. This was subsequently corrected by the telegraphic 
longitude reduced to the South East Gate of the City. 

(b) On our arrival at Yen-an Fu, the surveyor found himself at 
fault, and it was considered advisable to measure a new topographical 
base. This base was 8 miles long and connected with the longitude by 
occultation. 

Datum Lei<el. 

From the T'ai-yiian base-line, five elevated points were fixed by 
triangulation, their vertical angles were taken with the theodolite, and 
their altitudes determined trigonometrically. The altitude of the end of 
the base from which they were determined was assumed to be 2700 feet. 
As there is only a very gradual rise to this point from T'ai-yiian Fu (alt. 
2600 feet as found by the French Railway Survey) we think that the 
height assumed may be taken as correct to within 50 feet. 

Plane-table Survey. 

The plane-table work was executed by Hazrat AH on the J-inch 
scale. The country traversed was, generally speaking, of the very 
hardest that could be found for the plane-table. With the exceptions of 
the mountain country extending 80 miles west of T'ai-yiian, the range 
immediately to the west of Ku-yiian Chou in Kansu, and the mountains 
in the vicinity of Lan-chou Fu, the whole terrain was covered with loess. 
Such a surface with its bare, rounded hill-tops — all usually of the same 
level and rarely varying more than 100 feet — affords no salient features 
suitable for triangulation ; whilst the deep gullies cutting it in every 
direction make access difficult. In addition the valleys of even the 
larger water-courses offer but very little better fields of view, being never 
more than a mile, and but seldom more than a few hundred feet, wide. 
In every way, a loess country taxes the abilities and patience of a surveyor 
to the utmost, and I do not believe that too much praise can be given to 
Hazrat Ali for the consistent and conscientious accuracy of his work. 
Never was he seriously out but once. At Yu-lin Fu the work checked 
out to within 5' of Long, and 4' of Lat. ; but our last three marches before 

131 



reaching Yen-an Fu were hurried — owing to various circumstances — 
and the survey got in consequence considerably out, i6' of Long, and 
8^' of Lat. It was adjusted by the distance as measured by road-wheel 
— incidentally showing to advantage this less ambitious apparatus — and 
a new base was established as described above in (b), from which the 
survey was begun afresh. 

At Lan-chou Fu, where I again joined the main body, the plane- 
table results checked out to 12' of Long, and 6' of Lat. 

The map, which is based on the plane-table sheets, has been 
adjusted to the correct positions of the various towns, as determined 
by observations. 

Latitudes. 

The Latitudes in the Table (on Page 170) are always the mean 
of at least two observations, and more often of from four to six. As the 
greatest variation never exceeded 8", we think they can be taken safely 
as correct. 

In taking the Latitudes for the ends of the base (b) the two 
theodolites were used, both Grant and myself reading 30 faces on each 
instrument. In one case the results checked to within i"5" and in the 
other to o-8". 

Longitudes. 

By the co-operation of Major H. R. Davies, General Staff, who 
kindly offered to take the Tientsin end, we were able to determine the 
telegraphic Longitude of T'ai-yiian Fu. One set of six taps at 10 second 
intervals, and another set of six at irregular intervals were sent and 
received on three nights. Four persons received at T'ai-yiian Fu, and 
two at Tientsin. The mean result was unexpectedly good, working out 
to a probable error of 4 seconds of arc. 

In taking the Longitudes by occultation at Yen-an Fu, Hsi-an Fu 
and Lan-chou Fu, never less than three observers took the time. The 
greatest variation between the times of two observers was three-quarters 
of a second. The immersions were always on the dark limb. These 
results can be taken safely to a quarter of a mile. 

The Longitudes by Chronometer can, we think, be considered as 
exceptionally good. All but that of Fen-chou Fu were between two points 
fixed by occultation or telegraph. Two separate Longitudes of Yu-lin 
Fu, one connected with the Longitude of T'ai-yiian Fu and the other 
with the Longitude of Yen-an Fu checked to i'. 

132 



In going to Lan-chou Fu from Yen-an Fu the Longitudes of Ch'ing- 
yang Fu and Ku-yiian Chou were not satisfactory, as Grant only had two 
watches and the time consumed was too great. In coming back he took 
a second set, which worked out exceptionally well, the rates of the 
watches having been very regular, and the time consumed by the journey 
being comparatively short. The Longitude of Yen-an Fu, as determined 
by the watches, was iog°-27'-33", and that as calculated from occultation 
previously taken iog°-26'-49". However, calculating the Longitudes back 
from Yen-an Fu, as a starting point, the biggest variation was 2'. We 
consider the chronometer Longitudes correct to i mile. 

The position of Lan-chou Fu (South Gate) was fixed as Lat. 
36°-3'-6"; Long. i03°-4o'-54". This was the only place on our trip where 
we had a subsequent opportunity of comparing our determinations with 
those of another traveller. Mr. Clementi, who travelled from Kashgar 
to Kowloon in 1907-8, gives the position of Lan-chou Fu as Lat. 
36°-3'-ii"; Long. i03°-46'-7". His latitudes were taken by N. and S. 
stars and his longitudes by chronometric differences. 

Altitudes. 

After leaving T'ai-yiian Fu all determinations to within 30 miles of 
the Yellow River were trigonometrical [i.e., obtained by vertical angles 
with a theodolite). All subsequent heights are barometric. For baro- 
metric determinations they can be taken as reasonably accurate, as the 
aneroids were frequently compared with the mercurial barometer. The 
mean of the barometer and the boiling-point readings was taken as the 
correct height. 

Previous Surveys. 

Without pretending to give any exhaustive record of previous foreign 
surveys of the country traversed, we offer a slight summary of such as we 
have been able to trace. 

Early in the Eighteenth Century the Emperor Kang-hsi ordered 
a survey of the Eighteen Provinces to be carried out. In this he 
most probably had the assistance of the Jesuit Fathers, whose influence 
during this reign was very great. The Chinese method of map-making 
is to give a separate sheet for each " Fu " or " Hsien " district, and it 
is of course possible to piece together a number of these sheets to form 
a survey of the whole country. This however leads to a thoroughly 
untrustworthy map, as it is vital " to work from the whole to the part, 

133 



and not from the part to the whole " ;* and it may have been a realisation 
of the necessity of a framework on which to hang the detail which led 
the Fathers to determine the positions of many towns in China. Their 
observations, especially when the inadequacy of their early instruments 
is borne in mind, are entitled to the very greatest credit. 

In 1877-80 Count della Szechenyi published an Atlas of a Portion of 
East Asia (Scale 1/1,000,000). The Lan-chou sheet takes in a part of 
our route, viz., Lan-chou to P'ing-liang Fu via An-ting Hsien. 

In 1903-5 Herr Wilhelm Filchner, made a trip into Kansu, 
subsequently publishing a map of Kansu (Scale 1/1,000,000). No 
hills shown. 

In 1906 Major C. D. Bruce travelled in company with a Rurki- 
trained surveyor from Lan-chou to Peking. Starting from Lan-chou he 
proceeded via Hai-ch'6ng Hsien to Ch'ing-yang Fu, thence following the 
same route as that taken by us, viz., Fu Chou, Kan-ch'iian Hsien to 
Yen-an Fu ; then bearing east and crossing the Yellow River at Yen- 
shui-kuan he reached T'ai-yiian by Yung-ho Hsien and Fen-chou Fu. 
An account of this trip, with a route sketch map (Scale 1/3,500,000, 
based on a plane-table traverse), appeared in the Royal Geographical 
Society's Journal, 1907. 

In 1907, as mentioned above, Mr. Clementi travelled from Kashgar 
to Kovvloon, taking astronomical observations with the theodolite 
throughout his line of march, which however intersected our own at 
Lanchou only. 

In 1910, the Russian Geographical Society published routes of their 
expedition into Kansu (Scale 40 versts to i inch). 

The German Karte (Scale 1/1,000,000, sheet Hsi-iigan and Yii-linFu). 
takes in a great proportion of our route, but the sheet giving Lan-chou 
Fu has not yet made its appearance. 



• Vide Text Book of Topographical and Geographical Surveying by Colonel C. F. Close, C. M. G., R. E. 

13-1 



In the T'sing-Iing Shan. 



.neiia snil-gnia'T srij nl 



CHAPTER XV. 

METEOROLOGICAL REPORT — BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

1\4ETE0R0L0GICAL observations were commenced at T'ai-yiian Fu, in 

Shansi, on May i6th, igoS, and were kept up — with as much care and 

regularity as circumstances would permit — throughout the whole duration of 

the expedition, i.e., till September 12th, igog. The instruments used were : — 

One portable mercurial barometer. 

Three aneroid barometers. 

One hypsometer, with spare thermometer. 

One small psychrometer (wet and dry bulb thermometers). 

Three swing psychrometers. 

Six swing thermometers. 

One maximum and one minimum thermometer. 

One six-inch diameter rain gauge. 
All thermometers were graduated on the Fahrenheit system, while the 
barometers, boiling point thermometers, and swing thermometers were 
provided with Kew certificates. 

The barometer observations were made either with the mercurial 
barometer or with an aneroid. In the former case the readings have been 
corrected for temperature, so that they represent the true air pressure at 
station level ; and in the latter case, comparisons between the mercury 
barometer and the aneroids were carried out at intervals, in order to guard 
against errors due to changes of zero in the aneroids. 

The readings of dry and wet bulbs printed in the diary were made with 
swing thermometers. This was necessary on account of the inevitable absence 
of a suitable screen for the exposure of the instruments. The reduction of 
the readings in order to determine the humidity of the air will therefore 
require tables appropriate to the well-ventilated psychrometer. The tables 
commonly used in England, which are based on Glaisher's Factors, are not 
suitable for the reductions, and would give values of the relative humidity 
lower than the true values. The tables of the U.S. Weather Bureau, which 
were prepared for use with sling psychrometers, are more appropriate. 

The readings of the maximum and minimum thermometers are probably 
less reliable than those of the dry and wet bulbs, because it was necessary to 
improvise some shelter for them, and some of the readings may be affected by 

135 



radiation. In the case of the maximum thermometer, it was impossible to 
expose the instrument during the day when the expedition was on the march. 
Frequent readings of the thermometer were, however, made during brief halts 
at the hottest time of the day, and the highest of these readings was taken to 
be the maximum temperature for the day. In the diary, the readings of the 
maximum and minimum thermometers are printed opposite the first observa- 
tion for each day for the sake of uniformity. It is to be noted, however, that 
the maximum reading refers to the same day as that against which it is 
printed, whilst the minimum refers to the lowest temperature of the preceding 
night. 

The highest temperature recorded on the expedition was on July 5th, 
1909, at Chen-yuan Hsien, in Eastern Kansu, when the thermometer 
registered i02*2° F. in the shade. On July 5th, 1908, at Chao-chuang, near 
T'ai-yuan Fu, the thermometer registered ioo-o° F. in the shade. On August 
5th, 1908, the same temperature was recorded within the walls of T'ai-yuan Fu, 
while on the 8th of the same month a temperature of loo'a'' F. in the shade 
was recorded. 

The lowest temperature on record was at Kan-ku-j-ii, near Yen-an Fu, in 
Shensi, when the thermometer went down to— e'o" F. on December 19th, 
1908. At Yen-an Fu, on January 19th, 20th, and 21st respectively— s's** F. 
and— 2'5"' F. and zero were recorded. These records were made within the 
shelter of the town walls, and it is probable that far lower temperatures pre- 
vailed in the open valleys outside. 

The greatest rainfall occurred on July i8th, 1908, at T'ai-yuan Fu, when 
3"66 inches fell in twenty-four hours. On July 17th and i8th, 1909, at 
Ch'dng-k'ou-yi, in Kansu, i'32 inches, the next heaviest rainfall, was recorded. 

Cloud formations, and the strength and direction of the wind were also 
noted daily. 

Good sets of observations were secured at the following places : — 

1. In and near T'ai-yiian Fu, Latitude 37°5i'36" N., Longitude 

Ii2°33'56" E., altitude 2600 ft., from May i6th to September 
28th, 1908. 

2. Yun-t'ing Shan, Latitude 37°54'o« N., Longitude iii°33'48" E., 

altitude 6950 ft. in the mountains 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian 
Fu, in Shensi, from October 4th to i6th, 1908. 

3. Yii-lin Fu, Shensi, on the borders of the Ordos Desert, Latitude 

38°i6'54" N., Longitude i09°45'o" E., altitude 3170 ft., from 
November 5th to December 5th, 1908. 

136 



PLATE 53 




\\ ild Pig. {Sus moupinensis). Shot near Yen an Fu. Shensi. 




Domestic Pij;. 



4. Yen-an Fu, Latitude 36°35'33« N., Longitude io8"^26'49" E., 
altitude 2769 ft., in north central Shensi, from December 
19th, 1908, to January 30th, 1909. 
6. Lan-chou Fu, Latitude 36°3'6" N., Longitude I03°40'54" E., 
altitude 5106 ft., in western Kansu, from April 5th to July 
15th, 1909. 
In this chapter an endeavour will be made to deal with the meteorological 
observations month by month as they come ; but at the same time stress is 
laid upon the periods enumerated above, when sets were taken during lengthy 
stays at various places. 

May, 1908. Tai-yUan Fu, Shansi (Altitude 2600 ft.) and 
neighbourhood. 

As already stated, observations were commenced on May i6th, from which 
date to the end of the month daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 
recorded, besides somewhat erratic observations for the pressure and humidity 
of the atmosphere. The maximum temperature noted was on the 27th, 98'2° 
F. being recorded. The minimum temperature occurred on the 31st, when 
the thermometer stood at 47*0° F. Both these records were taken at Chao- 
chuang, a small village on the plain some fifteen miles north-west of T'ai-yiian 
Fu. The average maximum temperature for the period is 8i"2° F., average 
minimum, 56'5° F. The lowest barometrical observation, 26-84 inches, was 
made on the 26th, at T'ai-yiian Fu, the highest, 27*05 inches on the 23rd, and 
again on the 30th, both at T'ai-yiian Fu. 

The first part of the second half of the month was marked with consider- 
able dryness, the difference between the wet and dry bulb readings being as 
much as i9'2° F. on the 21st. Towards the end of the month rain and 
thunder were noted. 

June, 1908. Tai-yikm Fu (Altitude 2600 ft.) and neighbourhood. 

Throughout June, the members of the expedition were encamped at 
Chao-chuang, where daily observations were made. From time to time the 
mercurial barometer, which was left in T'ai-yiian Fu, was read. Much hotter 
weather was experienced than in May. The maximum temperature, 98*0° F. 
was recorded on the loth, and the minimum, 42-9° F. on the 7th. The 
average maximum temperature for the month, excluding the last four days 
which were spent in the hills west of T'ai-yiian Fu, was 90'0° F., the average 
minimum was 58.4° F. The barometer was at its lowest on the 24th, the 
reading being 26"67 inches, whilst the highest reading 27*08 inches occurred 

137 



on the 20th, both at Chao-chuang. The month was comparatively dry, 
though thunderstorms occurred at Chao-chuang on the 3rd and 4th, and at 
Tou-fu-ssu, a temple, in the hills north-west of T'ai-yuan Fu on the 27th, 
28th and 29th. The last three storms were accompanied by very heavy rain, 
and the F^n Ho rose several feet and became unfordable. Thunderstorms were 
also noted from Chao-chuang in the mountains to the north-west on the i8th, 
and to the south-west on the 19th. Rain, varying from a few drops to gentle 
steady showers, was recorded on seven other days during the second half of 
the month. The amount was not registered. 

The presence of wind of varying degrees of strength was recorded on 
seventeen days, from the 12th to the end of the month. Previous to this 
hardly any weather notes were made. A strong gust of wind, accompanied 
by dust, and lasting only half an hour almost demolished the camp on the nth. 
On the 12th, strong wind, accompanied by dust, blew from the north-west 
during the greater part of the day. On the i8th, a heavy wind from the 
north-east blew for a few hours. The direction of the wind was usually from 
the north-east or north-west, though it also blew at one time or another from 
the east, south, south-west and west. 

Cloud formations of all kinds, except nimbus, were recorded, though 
cumulus and cirrus were the most frequent. No connections between the 
various cloud formations, and the humidity or dryness of the air could be 
established. 

July, 1908. Tai-yuan Fu (Altitude 2600 /il.j and neighbourhood. 

Half of July was spent in camp at Chao-chuang, and the rest of the 
month in T'ai-yiian Fu. During this time observations were taken from three 
to eight times daily; whilst detailed notes on the very varied weather were 
kept. 

July and August may be considered the rainy season of North China, and 
the present month was no exception to the rule. Rain more or less heavy fell 
on eight days, and thunderstorms occurred on four others. Thunderstorms 
occurred in the surrounding hills on five days. The total rainfall for the 
month was over 6'29 inches, the rain that fell on the third not having been 
recorded. 

The heaviest rain fell on the i8th, when 3"66 inches in 24 hours was 
recorded. 

The highest barometrical reading was taken on the 7th, and the lowest 
on the 19th and 22nd, when 27.09 inches and 26'67 inches respectively were 

138 



recorded. The average barometrical reading was 26*92, some 8 points higher 
than that of June. 

The average maximum temperature of this month was lower than that of 
the previous one, though some very hot weather was experienced. The 
maximum temperature was recorded on the 5th, when the thermometer stood 
at 100° F. in the shade. Oddly enough 577° F., almost the minimum 
temperature for the month was recorded on the same day, thus giving a 
variation in about twelve hours of 42-3° F. The actual minimum temperature, 
which was 55'4° F. occurred on the 15th, whilst the average minimum 
temperature was 65'8° F., or I2"4° F. more than that of June. 

It may be noted here in connection with the thunderstorms of this district, 
that they usually come in the afternoon after very hot days. Thus on the 5th, 
when the maximum temperature was ioo"o° F. in the shade, a thunderstorm 
occurred at 6-30 p.m. The same thing occurred on the 8th, 12th, 13th, and 
28th of this month, and also on the 3rd, 4th, 19th, and 23rd of June. A 
heavj' downpour is not a necessary and inevitable result of a hot day, but it is 
safe to say that the one is usually preceded by the other. On the other hand 
continuous steady rains such as occurred on the 3rd, the 17th, and the i8th 
of July are usually accompanied by comparatively low temperatures such as 
74'2° F. on the 3rd, 75"5° F. on the 17th, and 74*0° F. on the i8th. 

This month cirrus clouds seemed to predominate, though cumulus, 
stratus, cirro-cumulus, nimbus, cirro-stratus, and strato-cumulus were 
also noted, coming in the above order as regards their frequency of occurrence. 
On two out of three days on which nimbus clouds were recorded, they were 
followed by rain ; whilst rain almost invariably followed stratus clouds. 

It can hardly be said that there was any prevailing wind during this 
month, though it was most often recorded as blowing from the west. Wind 
blew from the north-east, north-west and south-west with almost equal 
frequency. Rain was most frequently brought up by south winds, though it 
was recorded from all parts of the compass. 

The month ended with less rain, and with finer and more settled weather 
than that with which it commenced, whilst the maximum temperatures of the 
last few days were considerably above the average, as also were the mininum 
readings. 

Aufj^ist, 1908. Tai-tjiian Fn. Altitude 2600 ft. 

The whole of the observations this month were made in T'ai-yiian Fu 
where the members of the expedition were busy with astronomical observations 

139 



and general preparations for the forthcoming journey westward. Under these 
circumstances, weather notes were entirely neglected, though all other records 
were kept. 

The maximum temperature occurred on the 8th, the thermometer 
registering 100-4° F- On the 5th, ioo'o° F. was recorded. 6i'3° F. the 
minimum temperature for the month occurred on the 28th. The average of 
the maximum temperature readings works out at Sy2° F., or 5-4° F. less than 
that of July. As in July the average minimum temperature showed an 
increase on the month before, that for the present month being 7i"4° F. 
compared with 65*8° F. in July. Thus in the three months June, 
July and August, we have a steady decrease in the average maximum 
temperatures and a steady increase in the average minimum temperatures. 
It is doubtless the increased night temperatures of August that make it seem 
the hottest month of the year in this part of China. 

August, this year, did not keep up to its reputation for heavy rains. 
There were only seven days on which rain was recorded, whilst the total 
rainfall for the month was i"94 inches. The heaviest fall occurred on the 
15th, when o'6 of an inch was measured. 

No records of wind, or cloud formations were kept. 

Sej^temher, 1908. Tai-yiian Fu. Altitude 2600 //;. 

From the ist to the 28th the expedition remained in T'ai-yiian Fu, when 
the usual observations were taken. On the 28th the journey westward was 
commenced, and as the last three days of the month were spent in travelling, 
and the observations in consequence were taken at varying altitudes, they 
cannot be included in the following averages and remarks. 

The weather during the month was, generally speaking, fine, though no 
notes to this effect were made. 

The average temperatures were distinctly lower than those of August, 
especially at night. The highest temperature occurred on the 6th, when the 
thermometer stood at 86-o° F., and the lowest on the 23rd, when 46-5° F. was 
recorded. The average maximum temperature was 77*5° F., and the average 
minimum was 58'i° F. 

The atmospheric pressure was considerably less than that of August ; 
27*22 inches on the 23rd being the highest reading, 26*79 inches on the loth 
the lowest, and 27*05 inches the average for 28 days. 

Contrary to what one might expect, judging by the barometrical records, 
the rainfall of the month was greater than that of August. The total rainfall 

HO 



PLATE 54. 




Aluil Turtle. (Trionyx sinensis). 



Sec pp. gs and III. 




Uays Bag ntar Yen-an Fu. koedeer, pheasants and hare. 



was 2*02 inches, the heaviest rain occurring on the 15th, when 0*94 
inch fell. On the 2nd o.gi of an inch was recorded. Though rain fell 
on two other days the amount was recorded on these two only. 

No wind or cloud notes were made. 

From the morning of September 28th till the evening of October 4th, the 
expedition was travelling in a general westerly direction, first up the valley of 
one affluent of the F^n Ho, and then up that of another, till the Chiao-ch'eng 
Shan district was reached, where camp was pitched in a ravine at the base of 
a high mountain named Yiin-t'ing Shan. During these seven days all 
observations were kept up, including notes on the clouds and wind. The 
caravan mounted slowly from an altitude of 2600 ft. to one of 6950 ft., which 
rise, as might be expected, was accompanied by a steady decrease in the 
temperature of the atmosphere. Cirro-cumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds 
were noticed on the 2nd and 3rd of October, strong wind from the east on the 
last day of September and light wind from the west on two other occasions. 
For the rest, the sky was clear and the weather fine. 

October, 1908. Yiin-t'ing Shan. Altitude 6950 ft. 

The expedition remained at this spot, close to the great divide between 
the basin of the Fen Ho and the Yellow River, for twelve days, so that good 
sets of observations were secured. The average maximum temperature during 
this time was 57'2° F., whilst the average minimum was 327° F. The 
maximum and minimum readings taken at Yiin-t'ing Shan were 6i'o° F. and 
26-0= F. 

The barometer ranged between 23'66 inches the highest reading, and 
23"45 inches the lowest, while it averaged 23"57 inches. 

Rain was recorded on the 4th, 5th and 13th, though the amount was not 
noted ; while a heavy fall of snow occurred on the nights of the iith-i2lh. 
Cirrus, cirro-cumulus or cumulus clouds were noted almost every day, and 
mists occurred twice, each time following rain. There was little or no wind 
felt in the ravine where camp was pitched, though a very cold wind blew over 
the pass, about a mile east of the camp on the day of arrival. Wind from the 
west was also noted on the summits of Yiin-t'ing Shan and Mo-6rh Shan the 
highest peaks in the district, both of which were thickly covered with snow on 
the 13th. An ascent was made to the summit of Mo-erh Shan (Alt. 9200 ft.) 
on the I2th, and observations for temperature and pressure taken. The two 
aneroid barometers showed an average reading of 2i"58 inches, the hypsometer 
I95"5° F- and the thermometer 39'2 between 3.00 and 4.00 p.m. 

1-41 



On October i6th the expedition left Yun-t'ing Shan and from that date 
travelled in a westerly direction slowly, and with frequent halts till November 
5th, when Yii-Hn Fu was reached. 

On the first day a descent of over two thousand feet was made after 
which the altitude varied between 5300 ft. the height of one of the passes, and 
2400 ft. the bed of the Yellow River. 

The highest temperature was recorded on October 19th at Lin Hsien 
(Alt. 3269 ft.) where the party stayed two days. Here the ma.ximum 
thermometer registered 67-4° F., the highest temperature experienced since 
the T'ai-yiian Fu plain was left behind on September 29th. 

From the evening of the 20th till the morning of the 27th the expedition 
was encamped in a deep ravine, at the foot of some isolated granite peaks 
called Ch'ing-ting Shan, that towered above the surrounding loess hills to a 
height of from 6000 ft. to 7200 ft. The camp was situated close to a village 
named Kan-tsao-k'ou, and its altitude was estimated at 4664 ft. 

Two members of the party pushed on to Yu-lin Fu, reaching that city on 
the 26th. They reported rain every day from the 21st to the 26th, and 
experienced a severe sandstorm from the west on the 26th. 

Meanwhile the rest of party, which remained at Kan-tsao-k'ou recorded 
rain on the 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 26th, the fall on the first three days being 
i'97 inches. On the 26th a strong wind from the west blew all day, though 
neither sand nor dust was recorded. Hoar-frost occurred for the first time 
on the 30th at Liu-chia-mo in Shensi, after which time it was frequently 
noticed till the temperature became too low in December. 

Light variable winds were noted most of the time between Yiin-t'ing 
Shan, and Yti-lin Fu, while strong winds blew from the east and the west on 
the 3rd and 4th of November respectively. Cirrus and cumulus clouds, as 
usual, were most frequent, nimbus clouds were noted on the 23rd of October, 
and stratus on the 3rd of November. Mists and dust hazes also occurred 
from time to time. 

November' 5th to December 5th, 1908. Yu-lin Fu. Altitude S17 Oft. 

The expedition spent a month at Yii-lin Fu, from November 5th to 
December 5th. The following remarks and averages will include the whole of 
this period. 

Situated as it is on the border of a great sandy desert, Yu-lin Fu exhibits, 
as might be expected, meteorological conditions somewhat out of the common. 
The district was chiefly remarkable for its dryness, neither rain nor snow 

142 



occurring once throughout the thirty days during which observations were 
taken. The only signs of moisture were hoar-frosts which occurred every few 
days. Frequently the temperature was below the freezing point, and the 
humidity was not always recorded, but strange to say when it was, the difference 
between the bulbs was never very great. 

From this, one would gather that there was a certain amount of moisture 
in the atmosphere, but that other conditions prevented the formation of 
rain clouds. In fact, clouds of any kind were extremely uncommon. 
The observations were taken in a temple, situated outside the city, not more 
than three-hundred yards from the Yu-!in Ho, a fair-sized river. The writer 
can state from previous experience in this district, and along the Ordos border 
generally, that dew is not infrequent, though rain and snow are very rare, and 
clouds uncommon. On the other hand scarcely a day passes without steady 
wind from some direction or other. 

From November 5th to December 5th, wind was recorded every day. 
The prevailing direction was from the north, the wind being in this quarter 
fifteen days, in the north-west four and in the north-east three. On only five 
occasions did it blow from the south, and twice from the west. Once it was 
recorded as variable. 

On November igth and 21st, strong wind from the north was recorded, and 
again from the north-west on the 25th. These brought down quantities of 
sand, which, being thus driven against the surfaces of buildings and monu- 
ments in exposed positions, would in time wear away the softer materials used 
in their construction. On examination, several dagobas, pagodas and monu- 
ments situated on some high ground to the east of the city, showed much 
wear on their northern sides, whilst their southern sides — as well as 
the eastern and western to a less degree — were in good condition, even the 
pointing of the brick-work remaining intact. From this it is reasonable to 
assume that the strongest winds which prevail in this district are northerly. 

The barometer, in spite of the lack of rain and clouds, varied considerably 
from day to day, and even between the two daily readings. The highest reading 
was 26"88 inches on November 27th, and the lowest was 26-28 inches on Decem- 
ber 4th. The readings of the last three days at Yii-lin Fu were all very low, but 
no change in atmospheric conditions resulted. It will be noticed that the 
difference between the extreme readings during the time spent at Yu-lin Fu 
was greater than that of any of the preceding months. The average of all 
barometrical readings for the thirty days was 26"6i inches. 

The temperature during this time steadily decreased, and hygrometer 

143 



readings became fewer, ceasing almost entirely on October 24th, not to be 
renewed till February, igog. 

The maximum temperature was 57*0° F. on November loth, and the 
minimum was i2-5° F. on November 27th. The average maximum and 
minimum readings were 46'8° F. and 20'5° F. respectively. 

On December 5th the expedition left Yii-hn Fu and commenced the 
journey to Yen-an Fu, about 170 miles to the south. The country passed 
through was chiefly of low loess hills cut up in every direction by deep ravines 
and valleys, along which the roads chiefly lay. The observations were kept 
up as usual. The lowest temperature experienced during the whole winter 
occurred on this journey at Kan-ku-yii, just before reaching Yen-an Fu, on 
the night of December iSth-igth. The thermometer registered 38 degrees of 
frost (-6-0° F.). 

The wind was from the south on the day that the expedition left Yii-lin 
Fu, but blew from the north each of the three days following. It veered 
round to the south-east on the gth, and then to the north-west on the loth. 
After this date it was recorded almost daily as variable. These winds, which 
seem to come from every quarter at once, are typical of North China. It is 
impossible for the traveller to find any bank or crevice in the loess which will 
shelter him from this cold and searching wind. 

Cirrus and cumulus clouds predominated as usual, stratus and nimbus 
being each recorded but once. Slight hoar frost was recorded on the 19th, 
on which date Yen-an Fu was reached. 

Decemher I9th to Slst, 1908. Yen-an Fu. Altitude 2769 ft. 

During these twelve days fine but cold weather was experienced. A light 
wind blew continually, but its direction was only recorded thrice, namely, once 
from the south, once from the south-west, and once from the north-east. At 
other times it was the same variable wind experienced on the journey from 
Yii-lin Fu to Yen-an Fu. Frequently the sky was clear, though cirrus and 
cumulus clouds were noted. 

The maximum temperature experienced was 40*0° F. on the 2gth, whilst 
the minimum was 3*5° F. on the 20th. Average maximum and minimum 
temperatures were 34"3° F. and i2'2° F. respectively. The highest 
barometrical reading was 27-26 inches on the 31st, the lowest was 2672 
inches, and the average of the twenty-five readings was 26*90 inches. 

No observations for humidity were made, while neither snow nor 
hoar-frost occurred. Rain, of course, was out of the question with such low 
temperatures. 

144 



PLATE 55. 




f_ ^ 

The Summit of Mo-erh Shan, Shansi. 



Sec pp. o atui /.'/. 



f^::'.-. 



t 



•:.^ n 

«*»> 




""•^^0^^ '^ 






t 



Saiia.sluiic Beds, west of the Chiao.ch'enK Shan, Shansi. 

.Siv p. tig. 



January, 1000. Yen-an Fu. Alt. 2769 ft. 

January again was a month of extremely cold, but on the whole fine 
weather. The proportion of cloudless days was not quite so great as in the 
last twelve days of December, while light falls of snow, usually following 
stratus clouds, were recorded on the loth, nth, 12th, 13th, i6th, and 30th, 
Hoar-frosts were recorded daily from the 23rd to the 27th inclusive. In cloud 
formations there was a decided predominance of cumulus, or cirro-cumulus 
clouds, over anything else. Cirrus also occurred with comparative frequency, 
whilst stratus were also recorded more frequently than usual, being generally 
followed, as already stated, by snow. Again the light variable wind was the 
rule, though from time to time it freshened, when its general direction was at 
once discernible. It was then recorded from the north-west, west, and south. 
Wind was not once recorded from an easterly direction. 

From the 19th to the 22nd some very low temperatures were experienced. 
The minimum temperature for the month was — 3*5'^ F. on the 19th, while the 
average minimum was I2"2° F. 

The maximum reading for the month was 39.0" F., which temperature 
occurred on the 4th, 5th, and 28th. The average maximum was 32* 1° F. 

The highest, lowest, and average barometrical readings were 2j'i6 inches. 
26'64 inches, and 26"86 inches respectively. 

Yen-an Fti to Lan-chou Fti. 

On January 30th the expedition left Yen-an Fu for Lan-chou Fu, in 
Kansu. The journey, including many stoppages, was accomplished in a little 
over two months. 

Observations were regularly taken at altitudes, ranging from 2769 ft., the 
altitude of Yen-an Fu to 7468 ft. in the high loess country of Kansu. 

Temperatures remained comparatively low till the commencement of 
March, when the weather began to get distinctly warmer. On April 3rd, just 
before Lan-chou Fu was reached, the maximum thermometer registered 
680^ F., and the minimum 32.0° F., and on the morning of April 5th, the 
day on which the expedition entered Lan-chou Fu, the minimum temperature 
was 4i"o^ F. This was the highest minimum temperature recorded since 
November 4th, 1908. Twice in the early half of February the minimum 
thermometer registered 2*0° F., but no temperature lower than that was 
experienced. 

Owing to the various altitudes of which observations were taken, nothing 

K 145 



much can be remarked about the barometrical readings, except that when a 
number of readings were taken at one place, owing to a longer stay than usual 
being made at that place, considerable fluctuations were noticeable. Thus at 
Ch'ing-yang Fu, on February 17th, the barometer stood at 26"i3 inches. 
On February 19th, it stood at 26'55, giving a difference of forty-two points. 
Again at Ku-yiian Chou, the barometer varied from 24-05 on March gth to 
24*47 O'^ the i6th, also a difference of forty-two points. No atmospheric 
disturbance, or changes followed these fluctuations. 

Wind was recorded every day. During most of the time it was but a 
light wind, but on nineteen occasions it freshened up, being recorded as 
moderate, whilst on eight occasions it was noted as strong. 

On sixteen days the wind blew from a north-westerly direction. It was 
from this direction that it generally blew when it was of more than usual 
strength. On nine days it blew from the north, and it freshened up usually 
when in this quarter. When the wind was in the south-west or west, as it was 
on eight and seven days respectively, it was never very strong, whilst a 
southerly wind was generally fresh. The prevailing wind during this time 
of the year maybe considered to have been from a general northerly direction, 
though it frequently shifted to other points of the compass. 

An analysis of the weather notes leads roughly to the following deduc- 
tion : — North winds usually meant fine weather with cloudless skies, while 
north-westerly winds brought decidedly more clouds. West wind brought 
snow or rain, and was invariably cloudy. South-west winds brought snow, 
clouds, or fog, while south winds again invariably brought up clouds. Any 
thing might be expected if the wind was in the south-east, east, or north-east, 
but it was so seldom in these quarters that no certain deductions could be 
drawn. 

Clouds were recorded very frequently during these months of travel, 
every variety being noticed. Cumulus clouds predominated, being recorded 
thirty-two times, and were brought up from the north-west, and south-west 
most frequently. Cirrus clouds were also very frequently recorded, being 
brought up by north-westerly or southerly winds. Cumulus and cirrus were 
almost always noted when the wind was variable. Stratus clouds occurred on 
sixteen occasions, most frequently when the wind was from some westerly 
quarter, whilst nimbus clouds were noted seven times from all directions. 

Hygrometer readings were commenced on February 14th, as soon as the 
temperature was high enough, and were kept up with increasing regularity. 
Usually no very great difference between the two bulbs was recorded, but on 

146 



PLATE 56. 




Loess Plateaux, east of Fu chou, ShensL 




rt^ 




»li^ 



& 



-^ 



Loess shewing stratafication, Shansi. 



March the gth when an east wind was blowing, the difference between the bulbs 
was 34'2° F. 

Snow was recorded eleven times and rain three times during the journey. 
As already stated, both were proportionately more frequent when the wind was 
in the west, in which direction lies Kokonor, the great lake of Eastern Thibet. 
It may be that the snow clouds originate in this district. Hoar-frost was 
recorded from time to time. 

^^/, 1909. Lan-chou Fu. Alt. 5106 Jt. 

When the expedition reached Lan-chou Fu on April 5th, that city, and 
the district generally were suffering from a protracted period of drought. 
According to native reports there had been no rain to speak of for three years. 
Judging from the extreme bareness of the country with its parched sun-baked 
hills and valleys this might well be the case. 

It seems as if the desert were slowly creeping in from the north and 
north-west. It was stated by more than one of the Europeans, long resident 
in the district, that ten years ago the countrj' immediately north and north- 
west of the city for ten or more miles was fertile. Year by year this fertile 
area has decreased till the whole of the country north of the Yellow River, 
which flows under the northern wall of Lan-chou, has become a howling 
wilderness, without a vestige of green anywhere. The expedition found the 
country south of the river for some twelve miles in a condition scarcely better 
than that of the country to the north and north-west. 

During the months that the expedition spent at Lan-chou the drought 
broke up, and towards the end of June and in the beginning of July rain fell in 
great quantities. 

Thus the season cannot be considered as a normal one, its commencement 
being towards the end of a three years' drought and its termination coinciding 
with that of the drought, and with general atmospheric disturbances. 

During April the weather was dry, and generally speaking fine. Wind 
was recorded daily, whilst clouds were noted most of the time. The prevailing 
wind was from the east, which blew with more or less strength on fourteen 
days. Once it shifted to the south-east but at other times it was either from 
the west or north-west. 

Cumulus and cirro-cumulus clouds prevailed throughout the whole month, 
cirrus and stratus clouds being recorded but once each. Dust hazes were 
frequent and on the 13th a dust-storm was recorded. 

Towards the end of the month a little rain fell. 

147 



Again the barometer showed considerable fluctuations, the highest readings 
being 25-27 inches, and the lowest 2472 inches. The average of all readings 
was 25"oo inches. 

The highest temperature during the month was 83*0° F. on the 25th, 
and the lowest was 30*0° F. on the 7th. The averages were 68'6° F. for the 
maxima and 4i'2° F. for the minima. The temperature steadily 
increased throughout the month, though one or two cold days were 
experienced towards the end. 

Mai/, 1909. Lan-chou Fu. Alt. 5106 ft. 

With the exception of six days, which were spent in the mountains to the 
south of Lan-chou, a very complete set of observations was made during the 
month of May. 

The observations differed but little from those made in April. 

The temperature was increasingly warmer, the barometer averaged a 
little higher, but was perhaps a trifle more unsteady ; whilst there was more 
rain, more strong winds, and slightly greater variety in cloud formation, 
stratus clouds appearing more frequently. 

The prevailing wind was again in the east, though winds from the north- 
east and north-west were recorded with some frequency. 

Rain fell on eight occasions ; the rainfall, which was recorded on four days 
only, being o'og of an inch. Late in the afternoon of the nth a remarkable 
phenomenon was noticed. Two strong winds, blowing from the west and 
east respectively met over Lan-chou, when hail and rain fell for about an hour. 
This was followed by rain during the night, fog next day, and snow upon the 
surrounding hills, and it may be noted that a wind from the west was largely 
responsible for the latter. Most of the rain that was recorded fell during these 
few days of atmospheric disturbance. The temperature fell to considerably 
below the average, whilst the barometer ran up to the highest level recorded 
during the three and a half months' stay in Lan-chou. It may 
here be noted that whenever the temperature was unusally low the barometer 
was high, and vice-versa. 

The average maximum temperature was 75'5° F., and the average 
minimum was 487° F., the highest and lowest temperatures being respectively 
88-o° F. on the 30th and 35-0° F. on the 13th. 

The barometrical readings averaged 25'07 inches, a slight increase on 
that of the April readings, while the highest point reached was 25*30 on the 
13th and the lowest, 2478 inches, on the 28th. 

148 



The relative humiditj- of the atmosphere was usually very small, the 
difference between the wet and dry bulbs generally exceeding ten degrees, and 
not infrequently exceeding fifteen degrees. 

Jwne. 1909. Lan-chou Fit. Alt. 5106 Ji. 

June was decidedly hotter than May, and the rainfall was greater. The 
prevailing wind was no longer in the east, but blew from the north-east. 

On the gth, at 3.30 p.m., a fierce gale swept up from the west, tearing 
branches off the trees and carrj'ing them for considerable distances. No 
serious damage was done, however. A strong wind and a dust storm were 
recorded on the loth ; a strong wind on the nth ; and another on the 12th. 
During these three days of disturbance the barometer fell from 24*90 inches 
to 24-68 inches, rising once more to 25.06 inches. On the 12th rain fell, and 
continued intermittently till the 17th. Heavy rain was also reported by two 
members of the party at work in the mountains to the south of Lan-chou on 
the i2th and 13th ; whilst a heavy deluge, preceded by a violent wind, was 
recorded by one of them on the 14th. Rain was again recorded on the 15th 
in the same district, while a little to the east of this position heavy rain was 
recorded on the 20th. On the 22nd a west wind was noted, followed by 
rain, and again on the 26th a west wind brought up rain clouds, when 72 of 
an inch of rain was recorded in sixteen hours. The wind continued to blow 
from the west for two days, then, shifting right round to the east, seemed to 
bring back the rain clouds. 

It must here be noted that rain was frequently brought up by a north- 
easterly wind. The fact that the Yellow River flows in a north-easterly direction 
from Lan-chou Fu may account for this. It cannot be doubted that the 
Kokonor has some effect upon this district, but it is equally certain that it is 
not the only agency at work, and an analysis of the wind direction and 
corresponding periods of rain leads to the idea that the large volume of water 
flowing down the bed of the Yellow River is another powerful element in the 
meteorology' of the district. Only on very rare occasions (in April) was rain 
recorded from any quarter but north-east and west. The total rainfall for the 
month was i"i4 inches, notwithstanding the fact that on five occasions 
the fall was not measured. 

Clouds appeared every day of the month. Cumulus formations pre- 
dominated, though stratus clouds were not infrequent, cirrus clouds occurred 
more often than in May. 

The maximum temperature was 90*0° F. on the 26th and 29th. The 



minimum was 43"o° F. on the 13th. This temperature, it will be noted, 
occurred on the night after the highest barometrical reading, 25'o6 inches was 
taken. The lowest barometrical reading occurred on the 28th, between the 
two maximum temperatures for the month. This seems to bear out the rule 
regarding the inverse relationship between the thermometer and barometer. 

The average maximum and minimum readings were 8i*i° F., and 57*9° F. 
respectively, whilst the average barometrical reading was z^'Sy inches. 

The psychrometer showed differences between the two bulbs of io'o° or 
more, more frequently than not ; but only once on the 25th, did the difference 
reach i5'o°. This was followed on the 26th by absolute saturation in the air, no 
difference between the bulbs being discernible. The rainfall on the 26th, as 
already stated, was "72 of an inch. 

July, 1909. Lan-chou Fu. Alt. 5106 ft. 

Observations were made at Lan-chou Fu from the ist to the 15th of this 
month, when the expedition left the district. 

During these fifteen days the average temperatures were slightly higher 
than those of June. The barometer remained correspondingly low, never 
once reaching 25*00 inches. The humidity of the air varied from saturation 
to a dryness showing a difference between the bulbs of ig'5°. 

Rain fell on six of the fifteen days, making a total fall of i'2g inches, 
considerably more than that of the previous month. 

The direction from which the rain came was not properly recorded this 
month, but the last wind recorded before each period of rain was from the 
north-east. 

Wind was of less frequent occurence than during the preceding months, 
calm being recorded on seven days, whilst no reference whatever was made to 
the subject on three others. What wind there was came usually from the 
north-east. 

Cumulus and stratus clouds were prevalent till the 15th, when cirrus 
clouds were recorded. Nimbus clouds appeared on the 2nd. 

The maximum temperature for the fifteen days occurred on the gth when 
87-8° F. was registered. The minimum was 53"o° F. on the 2nd. The 
highest barometer reading occurred on the ist close to the date on which the 
minimum temperature was recorded, whilst the lowest barometrical readings 
occurred on the same date as the maximum temperature for the month. 

The highest and lowest barometrical readings were 24*98 inches, 2470 

150 



PLATE 57 




•a 

u 

c 






5 

a 
■5 



E 



:3 

e 






inches, whilst the averages for maximum temperatures, minimum temperatures 
and barometrical records were 82*0° F., 6i"2°F., and 24'8i inches respectively. 

During the three and a half months spent at Lan-chou the barometer 
varied from 24"6o inches to 2530, an extreme variation of o"j inch. The 
barometer at T'ai-yiian during the three months ending July 31st shewed an 
outside variation of only 0*42 inches. 

On July 15th the expedition left Lan-chou Fu on its way back to T'ai- 
yiian Fu, by the same road which it had travelled in the spring. The journey 
occupied nearly two months, during the whole of which time careful 
observations were kept. No long stoppages were made. 

On the 17th the party was held up for two days at Ch'eng-kou-yi by very 
heavy rains, which rendered the roads through the soft loess country 
impassable. The rainfall recorded on this occasion was i'32 inches in ten 
hours. Unfortunately the rain gauge overflowed during the night so that it 
was impossible to estimate the exact amount that fell. The head native of the 
expedition said that it was the heaviest rain he could remember since the time 
(about 1888) when the Fen Ho overflowed. It then flooded the T'ai-yuan 
plain, and, entering that city, demolished the Tartar quarter in the south- 
western corner. 

At Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u the expedition was again held up by rains from the 
evening of the 25th to the 28th. During this time a total of i"45 inches 
fell. Altogether the total rainfall for the month was 4*33 inches. The 
weather was usually bright and calm, though frequently very hot. 

August found the expedition once more at Ku-yiian Chou, and for some 
days the weather was fine and calm. Rain fell on the 4th, after which the 
party experienced intermittent rain, overcast skies, heavy dews and mists till 
the 25th. The total rainfall for the month was 1*63 inches. From the 
25th to the 31st the weather was again clear and calm. During the whole 
month there was scarcely any wind. 

On the 5th the thermometer registered a maximum temperature of 102.2° 
F. at Ching-yuan Hsien, and 99-0° F. was recorded at Ch'ing-yang Fu. 
four days later. 

From this date the temperature seemed to fall steadily though some very 
hot days were experienced in the loess ravines of the country between Yen-an 
Fu and Sui-t6 Chou, which place was reached on the 29th. 

The first three days of September were wet, the rainfall being '52 
inches. From then onwards the weather was clear, with but little wind. The 

151 



temperature was distinctl}' cooler than that which had been experienced for 
some months. 

On the 8th, T'ai-jiian Fu was reached, but observations were kept up till 
the I2th, when the expedition officially came to an end. 



SUMMARY OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

May, 1908. 

Maximum 98-2°, 27th Highest Bar. 27'05 inches, 23rd and 
Average max. 85"6° 30th 

Minimum 47*0°, 31st Lowest Bar. 26-84 inches, 26th 

Average min. 56-5° Average Bar. 26-95 inches 



Jiine, 1908. 

Maximum 98*0°, loth 
Average max. 90*0° 
Minimum 42*9°, 7th 
Average min. 53*4° 

July, 1908. 

Maximum ioo'o°, 5th 
Average max. 88-6° 
Minimum 55-4°, 15th 
Average min. 65-8° 



August, 1908. 

Maximum 100-4°, 8th 
Average max. 83*2° 
Minimum 61-3°, 28th 
Average min. 71-4° 



Septemher, 1908. 
Maximum 86-0°, 6th 
Average max. 77-5° 
Minimum 46*5°, 23rd 
Average min. 58-1° 



Highest Bar. 27-08 inches, 20th 
Lowest Bar. 26-67 inches, 24th 
Average Bar. 26-84 inches 



Highest Bar. 27-09 inches, 7th 
Lowest Bar. 26-67 inches, 19th and 

22nd 
Average Bar. 26-92 inches 
Rainfall over 6-29 inches 
Heaviest fall, i8th, 3-66 inches 

Highest Bar. 27-17 inches, 30th 
Lowest Bar. 26-82 inches, 6th 
Average Bar. 26-97 inches 
Rainfall 1-94 inches 
Heaviest fall, 15th, -6 inch 



Highest Bar. 27-22 inches, 23rd 
Lowest Bar. 26-79 inches, loth 
Average Bar. 27-05 inches 
Rainfall 2-02 inches 
Heaviest fall, 15th, -94 inches 



152 



Xovemher 5th, 1908 to December 5th. 

Maximum 57"0^ 7th and loth Highest Bar. 2688 inches, 30th 

November November 

Average max. 46*8° Lowest Bar. 26*28 inches, 4th 
Minimum i2*5°, 27th November December 

Average min. 20'5^ Average Bar. 26"6i inches 

Wind recorded 30 days: — 15 from N., 3 from N.E., 4 from N.W., 5 from 
S., 2 from W., one variable. 

Strong wind, 3 times, N.W. i., N. 2, moderate once N. 

December I9th to 3lst, I'JOS. Yen-nn Fa. Alt. 2709 ft. 

Maximum 40"o°, 2gth Highest Bar. 27*26 inches, 31st 

Average max. 34*3° Lowest Bar. 2672 inches, 20th 

Minimum y^°, 20th Average Bar. 26*90 inches 



o 



Average min. 12*2 

January, 1909. Yen-an Fu. Alt. 2769 ft. 

Maximum 39*0°, 4th, 5th and 28th Highest Bar. 27*16 inches, 19th 

Average max. 32*1° Lowest Bar. 26*64 inches, 3rd 

Minimum —3*5°, 19th Average Bar. 2686 inches 
Average min. 12*2° 

Apnl,\9m. Lan-chou Fu. Alt. 5X00, ft. 

Maximum 83*0°, 25th Highest Bar. 25*27 inches, 5th 

Average max. 68*6° Lowest Bar. 24*72 inches, 15th 

Minimum 30*0°, 7th Average Bar. 25*00 inches 
Average min. 41*2° 

il/«j/, 1909. Lan-chou Fu. Alt. 5106 ft. 

Maximum 88*0°, 30th Highest Bar. 25*30 inches, 13th 

Average max. 75*5° Lowest Bar. 24*78 inches, 28th 

Minimum 36*5'', 15th Average Bar. 25*07 inches 
Average min. 48*7' 

133 



June, 1909. Lan-chou Fu. 

Max. go'o°, 26th and 29th 
Average max. 8i'i° 
Min. 43"0°, 13th 
Average min. 57*9° 



Alt. 5106/(5. 

Highest Bar. 25.06 inches, 12th 
Lowest Bar. 24.60 inches, 28th 
Average Bar. 24-87 inches 



July, 1909, 15 days. 

Maximum 87'8°, gth 
Average max. 82'0° 
Minimum 53"0°, 2nd 
Average min. 61*2° 



Lan-Chou Fu. Alt. 5106 ft. 

Highest Bar. 24*98 inches, ist 
Lowest Bar. 2470 inches, 9th 
Average Bar. 24*8 1 inches 



154 



PLATE 38 




Sandstone strata at Suite Chou, Shensi. 



See pp. 2b and 123. 




Canon in Limestone i'ormatiun west of Fen-chou h'u, Shansi. 



,/,./.7. 



APPENDIX I. (A). 



ITINERARIES. 



No. 


From 


To 


Distance 

IN 

Miles 


Remarks. 


I 


T'ai-yuan Fu 


Yii-lin Fu - 


220 


via 


Lin Hsien. 


2 


Yu-lin Fu - 


Yen-an Fu 


176 


via 


Sui-te Chou. 


3 


Yen-an Fu 


Fu Chou - 


48 


via 


Kan-ch'uan Hsien. 


4 


Fu Chou - 


Ch'ing-yang Fu - 


112 


via 


Ho-shui Hsien. 


5 


Ch'ing-yang Fu - 


Ku-yuan Chou - 


129 


via 


Chen-yiian Hsien. 


6 


Ku-yiian Chou - 


Ching-ningChou 


58 


via 


the Hai-tzii Pass. 


7 


Ching-ningChou 


Lan-chou Fu 


154 


via 


Hui-ning Hsien 
and An-ting Hsien. 



ITINERARY No. i. 

T'ai-yiian Fu to Yii-hn Fu (via Lin Hsien). 

Distance 220 miles ; 17 stages. 

Communication between rail-head at T'ai-yiian Fu and Yii-lin Fu, 
on the northern borders of Shensi. 

Generally speaking, the road is a fair mule track, with some steep 
gradients and for the most part stony. The Yellow River is crossed by ferry 
in Stage 13. 

From T'ai-yuan there is telegraphic communication with Peking via the 
Railway and S. to T'ung-kuan Hsien (Shensi). There is also a Head Post 
Office (Taiyiianfu).* 

• The place-name in bracket* is the spelling adopted by the Postal Serrice and does not agree with the "Wade" 
sy<item. To ensure delivery of I<-tters and telegraus. the postal system of spelling should always be carefully followed, in 
addressing all communications. 

155 



Stage I. Sh6ng-yi (i6 miles). General Direction : West. 

Cross F^n Ho (3 feet deep in September) and pass over level plain 
to Nan-shih (5 miles). Then ascend narrow, stony gorge, passing 
Pei-hai-ts'un (6J miles), Hsi-ming-ts'un (8 miles), and reaching summit 
at Ho-shih-ts'un (12 miles). Thence road bends S.W. and runs easily 
along a ridge to Sh6ng-yi (population 100). 

Stage 2. Ku-chao (13J miles). General Direction : N.W. 

A stony road runs easily along the ridge, and at Chao-chia-li 
(4 miles) bends N.W. and becomes less stony. At 8 miles a steep 
descent is made to the F^n Ho and the road runs along the left bank 
for 3 miles to Ku-chao (population 500). Good supplies of coal here. 

Stage 3. Wu-chia-chuang {gh miles). General Direction : S.W. 

A good mule-road ascends the Fen Ho for 2 miles to its junction 
with a tributary and then ascends valley of latter, passing Hsiao-6rh 
(3 miles), Mu-kou (5 miles) and Chi-ya (7 miles). 

Stage 4. Tsa-k'ou (10 miles). General Direction : W. 

Good mule-road continues easily up the valley, passing Yi-la 
(2 miles), Chao-san (6J miles), and Ma-ho-chuang (8 miles). 

Good crops of millet, buckwheat, corn, potatoes and oats in the 
valley. 

Stages. Mi-yiieh-ch'Sng (17 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

A rough, stony road ascends 1600 feet to the summit of the valley 
at II miles, passing Kuan-t'ou (4 miles), Shan-t'ou-p'u (6 miles), and 
Ti-tzQ-t'ou (7 miles). Thence a steep, stony descent is made to 
Mi-yueh, on the left bank of the Nan-fan Ho. 

Stage 6. Camp in Mo-an Valley (11 miles). General Direction: S.W. 

Road ascends valley of Nan-fan Ho in southerly direction and at 
3 miles becomes narrow and steep. At Ta-shih-ho (6 miles) it bends 
west, and crossing a col at 8 miles, descends to the Mo-an valley, 
where camp can be formed in a wide ravine, on the north slopes of 
Yun-ting Shan. There are no villages convenient for camping in. 

Stage 7. Ma-f6ng (12 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

Road descends the Mo-an valley, and for the first three miles is 
rough, afterwards improving, passing Wan-chia-chuang (7 miles) and 
Ch'ih-ch'ien (gj miles). 

Population of Ma-fcng about 300. 

156 



Stage 8. Suiig-chia-k'ou (16 miles). General Direction : \V. 

A good cart-road to Yung-ning Chou descends the Mo-an %'alley, 
passing Liu-chia-chuang (4 miles) and the large village of Feng-hsiang- 
ch'eng (6 miles), and a mile beyond the latter, at Chou-chia-yuan, the 
main route is left and a rough, stony mule-road turns W. and ascends 
goo feet to summit of a pass at 12 miles. Thence a steep descent is 
made to Sung-chia-k'ou, on a small tributary of the Lin Ho. 

Stage 9. Lin Hsien (13 miles). General Direction : W.S.W. 

A good mule-path descends the valley to the Lin Ho, where 
2 miles down stream on the left bank is Lin Hsien, a walled town of 
about 3000 inhabitants. The following villages are passed en route : 
Miao-chia (2 miles), Ch'ien-ch'ang (6 miles), K'ang-chia-wan (7^ miles), 
and Cho-tziS (gj miles). 

Lin Hsien contains a Roman Catholic Mission, and supplies are 
numerous. There is a Postal Agency here Linhsien Sha). 

Stage 10. Kan-tsao-k'ou (15 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

The road ascends the Lin Ho valley for 3 miles and then strikes 
W. up a ravine, gradually narrowing as it ascends. Tu-chia-kou is 
passed at 8 miles, after which the road is steep and rocky, ascending 
the eastern slopes of Ch'ing-ting Shan. 

Stage II. Ts'ai-chia-wei (14 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

Road ascends fairly easily for 4 miles to a pass between two peaks 
of the Ch'ing-ting Shan, and thence by easy gradients descends a small 
valley to Ts'ai-chia-wei, passing Sha-p'o (84 miles), Chuang-t'ou 
(10 miles), and Yang-p'i (12 miles). 
Stage 12. Huang-ho-yeh (14 miles). General Direction: N.W. 

A good mule-track descends the valley easily for 10 miles, and 
then, at Lung-wang-miao, a steep, winding ascent is made to the head 
of the valley, whence the road descends steeply to the valley of the 
Huang Ho (Yellow River), on the left bank of which is Huang-ho-ych. 
There is a ferry over the river here and several large ferry-boats are 
available. 

Stage 13. Ch'i-chia-wei (10 miles). General Direetion : W. 

Crossing the Huang Ho, the road ascends 700 feet steeply, and, 
crossing a pass at Liu-chia-mo (54 miles), traverses a small plateau and 
descends to Ch'i-chia-wci, on the left bank of the Tui Ho, a tributary 
of the Yellow River. 

157 



Stage 14. Chin-chia-k'ou (11 miles). General Direction : S.W. 

The road makes a bad, rocky ascent up the valley of the Tui Ho, 
passing Wang-chia-shan (4 miles), Hsti-chia-mo {7 miles), and 
Fdng-huang (9 miles). 

Stage 15. Yang-chia-tien (14 miles). General Direction : W. by S. 

Crossing a low, sandy plateau, the road descends to the Chia-lu 
Shui, a stream about 15 feet wide, at the village of Chiu-ts'ai (5J miles), 
and thence an excellent mule-track ascends the valley, passing 
Yao-^rh-wan (8 miles), Tsao-chia (10 miles), and Shang-ts'ai (iii 
miles). 

Stage 16. Liu-chien-hua (9 miles). General Direction : W. 

The road ascends the Chia-lu valley and at K'ang-chia-wan 
(2 miles) becomes a narrow path, only 2 feet wide in places, skirting an 
overhanging cliff for 3 miles, when a low sandy ridge is crossed and the 
road descends easily to Liu-chien-hua (population 200). 

Stage 17. Yii-lin Fu (15 miles). General Direction : W. 

A good mule-road descends the valley easily, passing An-chia-kou 
at 2 miles, and at Yang-chia-shan, a mile beyond, crosses a low, sandy 
plateau, passing Ta-li-kou (4 miles) and Tien-wa-mao (8 miles). 
Traversing two successive low, sandy ridges, the road reaches the S. 
gate of Yii-lin Fu. 

Yii-lin Fu contains a small garrison and is the centre of a 
flourishing fur trade. There is a branch Post-Offlce here (Yiilinfu). 

ITINERARY No. 2. 

Yii-lin Fu to Yen-an Fu (via Sui-te Chou). 

Distance 176 miles ; 13 stages. General Direction : S. 

An excellent mule-road, and wide enough for carts, though in some places 
the gradients are too steep for the use of wheeled transport, notably in the 
vicinity of the Kuan-t'i Pass in Stage 9 and of the T'ien-m6n Pass in Stage 12. 



Stage I. Kuei-ti-p'u (loj miles). General Direction: S. 

The road, which is level and in excellent condition, though sandy 
in places, descends the left bank of the Yii-lin Ho, passing San-ts'a-wan 
(5 miles) and Niu-kuo-tsai (8 miles). 



158 



Stage 2. Yii-ho-p'u (ii miles). General Direction : S. by E. 

The road, which is still in excellent condition, continues to skirt 
the Yii-lin Ho, passing Mi-chia-jiian (2 miles), Kao-chia-wa (6 miles), 
and Li-chia-kou (8 miles). Yii-ho-p'u is a small walled market-town ; 
population 200. 

Stage 3. Ch'i-chia-p'o (14 miles). General Direction: S.E. 

Road continues in e.xcellent condition down the Yii-lin Ho valley 
and is no longer sandy. The following villages are passed en route : 
Yii-hua-mao (6 miles), Tang-chia (8 miles), Shang-yeh-wan (10 miles), 
and Liu-chia-p'o (12 miles). 

Stage 4. Mi-chih Hsien (13 miles). General Direction : S.E. 

A good mule-road down the Yu-lin Ho valley, passing through the 
following villages: Shui-chi (i mile), Liu-hsien-chuang (2 miles), 
Kao-lien (4J miles), Ch^n-chia-p'o (6 miles), and Chiang-chia-kou 
(11 miles). 

Mi-chih Hsien is a town of about 2000 inhabitants, with wall and 
buildings in good repair. There is a Postal Agency here (Micheh). 

Stage 5. Ssii-shih-li-p'u (12 miles). General Direction : S. by E. 

Road is still good and descends the Yii-lin Ho (or Wu-ting Ho) 
valley, passing through F6ng-chia-chuang at 3 miles and Ma-chia-hsin 
at 9 miles. 

Stage 6. Sui-te Chou (15 miles). General Direction : S. by E. 

An excellent road, descending the fertile Wu-ting valley, here \ to 
I mile wide, and passing en route : Chiao-chia-kou (i mile), Pai-chia- 
ch'u (6 miles), Yen-chia-ts'a (7^ miles), Tung-chia-shan (9 miles), 
Liu-chia-wan (11 miles), and Lung-wang (13^ miles). Just before 
reaching Liu-chia-wan a road branches E. to T'ai-yiian Fu via Yung- 
ning Chou and Fen-chou Fu. There is a Postal Agency here 
(Suitehchow). 

The Wu-ting Ho is crossed just before reaching Sui-t6 Chou 
(which lies on the right bank) by a shaky trestle-bridge. 
Stage 7. T'ien-chuang (12 miles). General Direction : S.W. 

Leaving Sui-t6 Chou by the S. gate, the road ascends a narrow 
gorge and is wide enough for carts, though some of the gradients are 
too steep for wheeled transport. Passing Pien-shang at 2 miles, the 
the road ascends steeply for 900 feet to the summit of a small spur at 4 
miles, descending steeply thence to Ma-chia-p'ing (6 miles), on the 

159 



Huai-ting Ho, a tributarj' of the Wii-ting Ho, which it joins about 5 
miles below Sui-te. The road now bends W.S.W., and ascends the 
Huai-ting valley through a narrow gorge to T'ien-chuang (population 
150). 

Stage 8. Mu-chia-ho (12 miles). General Direction : S. 

The road which is generally in good condition, ascends the fertile 
Huai-ting Ho valley, passing the following villages : — Ssii-chia (3J miles), 
Kang-chia-wan (5 miles), Wang-chia-p'u (6 miles), P'ing-tzQ-ko (8 miles), 
and Shih-ts'ui-yi (11 miles). Mu-chia-ho is situated 2 miles below the 
crest of the Huai-ting valley. 

Stage 9. Ch'ing-chien Hsien (15 miles). General Direction : S. 

The road, which is generally good, ascends steeply for 600 feet to 
the head of the Huai-ting valley at 2 miles, and, crossing the Kuan-t'i 
Pass, descends steeply to Lao-to-p'u (4 miles). Thence the road 
descends with occasional steep gradients to Ch'ing-chien Hsien, passing 
through Ts'ai-tzu-wan (6J miles), Chou-chia (9I miles), and Shih-li-p'u 
(iii miles). Ch'ing-chien is a dirty, dilapidated town, with little 
commercial activity. 

Stage 10. Yen-ch'uan Hsien (14J miles). General Direction: S. by E. 

An excellent road, fit for wheeled traffic, descending the Hsien Ho. 
Just below Ch'ing-chien, the road crosses to the right bank of the river. 
The following villages are passed : — Erh-shih-li-p'u (5 miles), Ying-tieh 
(8 miles), and Ho-chia-wan (12 miles). 

Stage II. T'ou-chia (17 miles). General Direction : W.S.W. 

The road ascends a tributary of the Hsien Ho and is in good 
condition, though stony in places. The following villages are passed : — 
Hsing-shan-ku (2 miles), Ma-chia-tien (4 miles), Ma-chia-k'ou (6 miles), 
Wen-an-yii (10 miles), and Ju-tsui (12 miles). 

Stage 12. Yao-tien (15 miles). General Direction : S.W. 

Ascending with some steep gradients to the head of the valley, the 
road crosses the T'ien-men Pass at 4J miles, and descends thence 
steeply to the Yen Shui valley, passing Lao-chia-wan at 7 miles, and 
reaching the Yen Shui at Kan-ku-yii (11 miles). Thence a good cart- 
road ascends the left bank of the river to Yao-tien. 

Stage 13. Yen-an Fu (15 miles). General Direction: S.W. 

An excellent cart-road skirts the left bank of the Yen Shui, passing 
through SsCi-shih-li-p'u (ri miles), Kuai-maoshang (4 miles), Nai-Ii-chia 

160 



(7 miles), Liu-shu-kou (9 miles), and Yang-chia-wan (11 miles). 
There is a Postal Agency here (Yenanfu). 

ITINERARY No. 3. 
Yen-an Fu to Fu Chou (via Kan-ch'vian Hsien). 
Distance, 48 miles ; 4 stages. General Direction : S. 
A good mule-road, generally practicable for wheeled transport. 



Stage I. Hsia-ho (12J miles). General Direction : S. 

A good mule-road ascends easily in a S. direction up the valley of 
a small tributary of the Yen Shui, through a sparsely-populated and 
poorly cultivated country. The following villages are passed : — Nan- 
ch'i-li-p'u (2 miles), Shih-li-p'u (4 miles), Kao-mao-shang (7 miles), 
San-shih-li-p'u (g miles), and Ma-p'u (11 miles). Hsia-ho is at the 
head of the valley ascended during the march. 

Stage 2. Kan-ch'iian Hsien (14 miles). General Direction : S. by W. 

Crossing a low spur just S. of Hsia-ho, the road descends into the 
valley of a small tributary of the Le or Lo Ho, through a thinly- 
populated district. The following villages are passed : — Su-chia-ho 
(3 miles), Lao-shan (7I miles), Pai-t'u-p'o (10 miles), and Yang-chia- 
pien (12 miles). Kan-ch'iian Hsien is a walled town, situated on the 
left bank of the Lo Shui. 

Stage 3. Tao-tso-p'u (10 miles). General Direction : S. 

The road is good and fit for carts, skirting the left bank of the 
Lo Shui and passing Liu-shu-ying (ij miles), An-chia-p'ing (4 miles), 
Cheng-chia-wan (7 miles), and San-liu-mao (8^ miles). Tao-tso-p'u is 
a walled village, formerly of considerable importance, but now con- 
taining only about 150 families. The Lo Shui is here 10 yards wide 
and 3 feet deep (in Januar>0, and there is a trestle bridge at the village. 
Stage 4. Fu Chou (11 miles). General Direction: S. 

A good cart-road continues down the left bank of the Lo Shui, 
passing the following villages :— Ts'ui-chia-kou (3^ miles), Yu-lin- 
ch'iao (5 miles). Ma-fang (7 miles), and Ts'a-feng (gj miles). At 
Ts'a-f6ng a road goes E. to Yi-ch'uan Hsien, up the valley of a 
small tributary of the Lo Shui. This road is in places too steep 
for carts. Fu Chou is a clean, prosperous town of about 500 
families. 

I, 161 



ITINERARY No. 4. 

Fu Chou to Ch'ing-yang Fu (via Ho-shui Hsien). 

Distance, 112 miles ; 7 stages. 

Good mule-road, except in stage i, where there are some steep, rough 

gradients. 



Stage I. Ch'ang-ts'un-yi (17 miles). General Direction: S.W. 

After skirting the right bank of the Lo Ho for about a mile, the 
road bends W. and becomes steep and rough. It ascends, winding 
round the hillside, with several steep descents to streamlets, until at 6 
miles a plateau is reached. The road then descends the hillside, 
skirting the Ch'ing-shui Ho, a tributary of the Lo Ho, the gradients 
being steep in places. Ch'ang-ts'un-yi is a prosperous village, situated 
on the right bank of the Ch'ing-shui Ho. The following villages are 
passed en route: Sha-hsi-kou (2 miles), T'ai-ch'i (4 miles), T'u-ling 
(5 miles), Yang-chiian (7 miles), Shan-huo (9 miles), Yao-shang-wan 
(15 miles), and Hsin-ch'eng (16 miles). 

Stage 2. Hai-shui-ssu (17 miles). General Direction: N.W. 

The road ascends the right bank of the Ch'ing Shui and is in good 
condition. Passing Chih-fang-kou (2 miles) and T'ang-fang (4J miles), 
the road at the village of Tai-shih-tien (6 miles) crosses a small steep 
spur, and again descends to the river at Ch'ih-1^ (loj miles), and, 
crossing to the left bank, passes An-chia-shan (15 miles) and reaches 
Hai-shui-ssu, a village of about 250, surrounded by ruined walls. 

Stage 3. T'ai-pei-ch'^ng (20 miles). General Direction : W.N.W. 

A good mule-road skirts the left bank of the Ch'ing Shui through 
a well-wooded but sparsely-populated valley, which has suffered greatly 
from famine and is poorly cultivated. The following villages are 
passed : Hsiao-shan (2J miles), Ch'iu-shu-lin (4J miles), Wang-chia 
{5 miles), Ch'uan-chuang (7 miles), Chang-chia-wan {9 miles), Ma-chia 
(10 miles), and Ho-shang-yuan (12^ miles). T'ai-pei-ch'eng is a ruined 
village of 100 souls, on the right bank of the Ch'ing Shui, just below its 
junction with a small tributary— the Miao Ho. The boundary between 
Shensi and Kansu is crossed about a mile to the east of the village. 

Stage 4. Miao-ts'un (17 miles). General Direction : W. 

The road, which is in good condition, ascends the left bank of the 
Miao Ho through densely-wooded and poorly populated country. The 

162 



following villages are passed : Wang-mao-chuang (3 miles), Ning-huan- 
kou (4 miles), Yang-chia-pien (9 miles), Chang-chia-p'u (iij ipiles), 
T'u-p'o (13J miles), and Ta-6rh-wan (15 miles). 
Stages. Pai-chia-lao (II miles). General Direction : W. by S. 

The road ascends to the summit of the Miao Ho valley, and at 4 
miles descends through a pass to the valley of the Ma-lien Ho and 
descends the right bank past Chien-shui-p'u (7 miles) and Chia-chia- 
kou (8 miles) to Pai-chia-lao. 

Stage 6. Ho-shui Hsien (12 miles). General Direction : S.W. 

A good mule-road descends the right bank of the Ma-lien Ho 
through sparsely-cultivated country to Ho-shui Hsien, passing the 
following villages: Ch'6n-chia-ho (i mile), Chang-chia-lao (3 miles), 
Hao-hsii-p'u (6 miles), Shih-ch'iao (8f miles), Chiu-chan (10 miles), 
and Chiian-chia (11 miles). 

Stage 7. Ch'ing-yang Fu (18 miles). General Direction : W. 

The road continues to ascend the right bank of the Ma-lien Ho, 
passing Pai-chia-kou (2 miles) and Hsii-chia-yiian (5 miles) and at 
Yao-tzu-t'ou (10 miles) crosses a small ridge and descends to the 
Huan Ho at M6ng-chia-ch'iao (13 miles). Thence it ascends the left 
bank of the Huan Ho past Kan-kuo-tien (14 miles) and Wu-li-p'u 
(17 miles) to Ch'ing-yang Fu, formerly a prosperous commercial town. 
There is a R.C. mission here. 

ITINERARY No. 5. 

Ch'ing-yang Fu to Ku-yuan Chou (via Chen-yuan Hsien). 

Distance, 129 miles; 8 stages. General Directions: W. by S. 

A good mule road with some steep gradients and in stage 2 a good 

cart-road. 



Stage I. Pai-ma-p'u (14J miles). General Direction : S.W. 

Crossing from the town to the right bank of the Huan Ho, the 
road ascends the left bank of a small tributary, passing Ch'i-li-p'u at 
2i miles, and Shih-li-p'u at 4 miles. At 6 miles, the stream is left 
and the road ascends S.S.W. up a steep ridge passing Hsii-chia-yiian 
at 10 miles. At 11 miles, at San-chia-tien, the road reaches the summit 
of a loess plateau and turning W., runs easily to Pai-ma-p'u, a poor 
village of 25 families. 

163 



Stage 2. Hsi-f^ng-ch^n (20 miles). General Direction : W. for 8 miles then S. 
A good, much-used cart-road with easy gradients, passing through 
a prosperous and well-cultivated countrj'. The road ascends easily up 
the plateau, passing Miao-ling at 3 miles, Hsiao-lo-p'u at 4 miles, 
Hsia-chia at 5 miles, and Tang-chia at 7 miles, and at 8 miles turns S. 
and runs over a level plain, passing Yi-ma-kuan (9 miles), Ts'ao-fan-p'u 
(12 miles), Hua-chia-k'eng {14 miles), Li-chia (15 miles), and Yen-ssu- 
miao (18 miles). 

Hsi-feng-chen is a prosperous, walled village, peopled chiefly by 
immigrants from Ssiich'uan and Shensi. From the village, roads run 
N. to Huan Hsien, S. to FSng-hsiang Fu, and E. to Ning Chou and 
Pin Chou (Shensi). 

Stage 3. T'ai-pei-ch'6ng (15 miles). General Direction : W. 

A good cart-road runs W. along the plateau passing Ma-chia at 2J 
miles, and at 5 miles becomes an ordinary mule-track, descending, fairly 
steeply in places, to the valley of the P'u Ho and crossing by a foot- 
bridge to the right bank at Ts'ai-yiian (10 miles). Thence the road 
ascends fairly easily up a loess ridge to T'ai-pei-ch'6ng (70 families), 
passing en route through Yang-ts'un (11 miles), and Liu-chia-kou (13 
miles). All the country passed through is well cultivated. 

Stage 4. Ch^n-yiian Hsien (14J miles). General Direction : W. by S. 

From camp the road ascends by a mule-track to a small stream — 
the Chiao-ko Ho — which is crossed at Pao-chia (3 miles). Thence the 
road ascends fairly easily up a plateau, passing T'ang-chia-wan (5 miles), 
and reaching the summit at Mao-chia-p'u (8 miles). After running 
level along the plateau for 3 miles, the road descends to the valley of 
the Chien-tsai Ho, on the left bank of which stands Chdn-yiian, a 
prosperous walled town, containing a Protestant Mission Station. 
Carpets are woven here on a small scale. 

Stage 5. Yang-shu-wan (19 miles). General Direction : W. by N. 

The road ascends the left bank of the Chien-tsai Ho, through fairly 
well-cultivated country, passing Wu-li-kou (3 miles) and Chiu-lnng 
(6 miles). Just after passing K'ai-pien (12 miles), the road bends S.W. 
and passing Chi-chia (13 miles) and Ch'6n-chia-p'ing (16 miles), reaches 
Yang-shu-wan (80 families). 
Stage 6. Liu-chia-hua (17I miles). General Direction : W. 

A good mule-road continues to ascend the left bank of the Chien-tsai 

164 



Ho, with considerable windings. The country is well cultivated, 
and the following villages are passed en route : — Wang-chia-p'ing (3 
miles), Han-chia-chai (5 miles), Yii-chia-kou (9 miles), J6n-chia-wan 
(12 miles), and Wang-chia-wan (16 miles). 

Stage 7. j6n-sa-ho (15 miles). General Direction : W. by N. 

A good mule-road continues to skirt the left bank of the Chien-tsai 
Ho for ij miles, and then strikes W. up the valley of the Hsien Ho, 
a small tributary. Many small villages are passed en route, including : — 
Kao-chia-wa (4 miles), Ta-shih-kou (7 miles), Ts'ao-chia-p'o (10 miles), 
and Huang-chia (13 miles). J6n-sa-ho contains about 25 families. 

Stage 8. Ku-yiian Chou (13J miles). General Direction : N.W. 

A good mule-road still ascends the left bank of the Chien-tsai Ho 
to the head of the valley at 8 miles, and, traversing the Hua-mao Pass, 
descends the valley of a small tributary of the Ku-yiian Ho, reaching 
the main river a mile below Ku-yiian Chou. The following villages 
are passed: — Liu-chia-wa (2 miles), Ta-ho-tien (3 miles), Liu-chia-yao 
(6 miles), Wang-chia-hsin (7 miles), and Ching-shih-hsiang (12 miles). 
Ku-yiian Chou is a prosperous commercial town of about 5000 
inhabitants. There is a telegraph office here, and lines run N. to Ning- 
hsia Fu, S.E. to Hsi-an Fu, with offices en route at P'ing-hang Fu and 
Chin Chou, and W. to Lan-chou Fu. 

There is also a Postal Agency (Kuyiian). 

ITINERARY No. 6. 

Ku-yiian Chou to Ching-ning Chou (via the Hai-tzii Pass). 

Distance, 58 miles ; 3 stages. 

A good cart-road throughout with easy gradients. The telegraph line 
from Ku-yiian to Lan-chou follows this road. 



Stage I. Hsiao-ch'6ng (17 miles). General Direction : S.W. 

A good mule-road, fit for carts, ascends S.W. easily over a plain, 
passing Yang-fang (3 miles) and Mao-chia-lao (5 miles), and reaching 
the edge of the plain at K'ou-chia (8 miles) crosses a small ridge and 
descends to the valley of a streamlet, up which it ascends fairly easily 
in a S. direction. Passing Hai-tzii-ho (11 miles), and Ta-wa-tien (14 
miles), the road just beyond the latter village traverses the Hai-tziS 
Pass, 1700 feet above Ku-yiian, penetrating the Liu-p'an Shan range at 

165 



this point. Thence it descends to a tributary of the Ku Shui and passes 
through Sung-chia-\va {15 miles) to Hsiao-ch'eng. 
Stage 2. Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u (17^ miles). General Direction : W. 

A good mule-road, practicable for carts, continues to descend the 
valley, which is grassy and well-cultivated, passing Ch'ang-yi-p'u at 
3 miles. Here it bends W., and skirting the right bank of the stream, 
past Hsi-lien-p'u (5 miles), Ch'i-chia (8 miles), and Ma-lien (13 miles), 
to Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u, a small walled village on the left bank of the Ku 
Shui. The village contains about 30 families and a small military post. 

Stage 3. Ching-ning Chou (23 miles). General Direction : S. by W. 

A good level cart-road descends the Ku Shui valley, which is well- 
cultivated (wheat chiefly) and dotted with prosperous villages, mostly 
inhabited by Mahommedans. Passing Wang-chia-p'u at 7 miles, and 
Shan-chia at 10 miles, the road at ni miles crosses to the right bank, 
and traversing Kao-chia-ch'eng (12 miles), T'uan-chuang (14 miles), 
and Hsia-p'u (20 miles), reaches Ching-ning Chou, a prosperous town 
of about 5000 inhabitants. 

ITINERARY No. 7. 

Ching-ning Chou to Lan-chou Fu (via Hui-ning Hsien and An-ting Hsien). 

Distance, 154 miles; 11 stages. 

A good mule-road, but rough in places. The telegraph line from Ku-yiian 

to Lan-chou follows this road. 



Stage I. Chieh-shih-p'u (13 miles). General Direction : W.N.W. 

A rough mule-road with steep gradients in the first six miles. 
From Ching-ning the road goes N., skirting the left bank of a tributary 
of the Ku Shui, and at zi miles crosses to the right bank and ascends 
a steep spur to the summit at Teng-chia-p'u (3^ miles). Crossing a 
narrow pass, the road then descends steeply to the Hei-lung Ho, which 
is reached at the village of Sung-chia-kou (6 miles). The road now 
ascends the left bank of the stream, passing Ch'i-li-p'u at 8 miles, and 
Hsia-chia-p'u at 10 miles. 

Stage 2. Ch'ing-chia-yi (11 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

A rough mule-track continues to ascend the left bank of the Hei- 
lung Ho, the loess hills bounding the valley being fairly well cultivated. 
At 4 miles the road branches N.W. up the valley of a small tributary, 

166 



passing Kuan-chih-hsiang (5 miles), Han-chia (6 miles), and Wu-li- 
ch'iao (9 miles). Ch'ing-chia-yi is a small village in bad repair, but 
contains numerous inns. 

Stage 3. Kao-chuang (13 miles). General Direction : W. 

A rough mule-track, much cut up in places, ascends to the head 
of the valley, passing Pai-chia-chi at 2 miles, and reaching the summit 
at the village of Ta-shan-ch'uan at 4 miles. Traversing a pass in the 
mountain-range, the road descends into a narrow valley, flanked by 
loess hills, and skirts the stream, which it crosses and re-crosses several 
times. T'ai-p'ing-chen is passed at 7 miles, T'ai-p'ing-tien at 8 miles, 
and Man-yang-chuang at 9 miles. Kao-chuang is a fair-sized walled 
village. 

Stage 4. Hui-ning Hsien (13 miles). General Direction : W. 

The road continues to descend the valley, which now opens out, 
and passing Wu-li-p'u (3 miles), Chang-ts'un-p'u (5 miles), San-li-p'u 
(6 miles), and W6n-chia-chuang (7 miles), reaches Hui-ning Hsien, a 
busy town on the right bank of the Lan Ho, with one long main street 
containing many shops. There is a Postal Agency here (Hweining). 

Stage 5. Hsi-kung-yi (15J miles). General Direction : W. by S. 

A fair cart-road, but rough in places. Descending the valley of 
the Lan Ho in a N.W. direction, the road at 2^ miles crosses to the 
left bank and passes Yang-chia-ts'ai (3 miles), Chang-chia-ho (4 miles), 
and Tung-erh (5 miles). At Chi-erh-ts'ai (6 miles) the road reaches 
the junction of the Lan Ho with a tributary stream, and, skirting a 
small fort, turns S.W. up the valley of the tributary and skirts the left 
bank of the stream, which is bounded by high loess cliffs. The road 
passes Ts'ao-chia-p'u (7 miles), Ts'ao-chia-ho-p'ang (9 miles), Hsia- 
chia-ying (11 miles), and Liang-chia-hua (14 miles), and reaches 
Hsi-kung-yi, a village of about 70 families, surrounded by a ruined wall. 

Stage 6. An-ting Hsien (14 miles). General Direction : W.S.W. 

A good mule-road ascends the valley, passing Ma-chia {2 miles), and 
thence begins to ascend the loess slopes of the Ching-liang Shan, 
passing Shan-t'ou-shang at 4 miles and Ching-liang-shan at 9 miles. 
The summit of the pass is reached at Ssu-fang-p'u (11 miles), and the 
road then winds easily down the hillside, passing Ch'en-chia-chuang 
(iij miles) and Chia-ho-kou (15 miles). An-ting Hsien is a busy town 

167 



of about 3000 inhabitants, on the left bank of the An-ting Ho. There 
is a telegraph office here and a Postal Agency (Anting Kan). 

Stage 7. Ch'eng-k'ou-yi (16J miles). General Direction : N.N.W. 

Crossing by a bridge to the right bank of the An-ting Ho, a good level 
mule-road descends the river northwards, passing Wu-li-p'u (2 miles), 
Shih-pa-li-p'u (4 miles), and several other prosperous villages. At 12 
miles the road leaves the main stream and strikes W. up a small 
tributary, passing Ch'a-k'ou (13 miles), and Liao-chia-p'ing (15^ miles), 
Ch'^ng-k'ou-yi has a population of about 200 and an official rest-house, 
but the inns are poor. 

Stage 8. Kan-tsao-tien (14 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

The road, which is rough in places, ascends the stream for i^ miles, 
and then strikes N.W. up the hillside for 4 miles, passing Tuan-chia-yao 
(2 miles), Fa-niu-p'o (3 J miles), Chin-chia-chuan (5 miles), and Hsien- 
tzu-shang (7 miles). Just beyond the last-named, it traverses a low 
pass (8050 ft.), and runs level along the ridge to a mile beyond Ta-wan- 
lou (8 miles), where it begins to descend to the well-cultivated valley of 
a tributary of the Yellow River, and passing Pai-t'u-yao at ii|^ miles, 
reaches Kan-tsao-tien, a prosperous village on the left bank of the 
stream, containing many inns, and enjoying a considerable trade with 
Lan-chou Fu. 

Stage 9. Ta'i-ya-p'u (16 miles). General Direction : N.N.W. 

A good mule-road continues to descend the left bank of the stream, 
through a well-cultivated valley, passing Shan-tung-ying at li miles, 
and Ch'ing-shui-yi at 6i miles. At Hsu-chia-t'ai (10 miles) a road 
goes S.W. to Chin Hsien, 8 miles distant, via Shuang-tien. The route 
continues to descend the left bank, crossing a small spur and tributary 
at n miles, and passing Hsia-kuan-ying at 15 miles, crosses to the 
right bank of the stream at T'ai-ya-p'u. 

Stage ID. Sang-yiian (15 miles). General Direction : N.W. 

A good mule-road continues to descend the right bank of the 
stream, passing Yueh-chia-lao at 4 J miles, and Chin-chia-yai at 6 miles, 
and crossing to the left bank of the stream at 8J miles. Passing 
Hsiao-shui-tzu at 13 miles, the road at 14 miles reaches the Yellow 
River where it joins a route coming in from the N.E. from Ching-yiian 
Hsien. The road now skirts the right bank of the river to the village. 

168 



Stage II. Lan-chou Fu (lo miles). General Direction : W. 

The road continues to ascend the right bank of the Yellow River, 
passing Tung-kuang at 5 miles, and K'uei-hsing-t'un at 6 miles, and 
crosses a sandy, poorly-cultivated plain to the town. 

Lan-chou Fu is the capital of Kansu, and the seat of the Viceroy 
of Shenkan. It has a population of about half-a-million. It is a busy 
commercial centre, and a considerable amount of cloth is manufactured 
in the neighbourhood. There is a telegraph office at Lan-chou, and 
communication eastwards with Hsi-an Fu, via Ku-yuan Chou, and 
north-westwards with Kuldja and Kashgar, via Liang-chou Fu, Yung- 
chang Hsien, Kan-chou Fu, Kao-t'ai Hsien, Su Chou, and An-hsi 
Chou, at all of which towns there are telegraph offices. There is also 
a Branch Post Office (Lanchowfu). The Yellow River is crossed N. 
the town by an iron bridge. 



169 



APPENDIX I (B). 

TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 



Place. 



SHANSI— 
T'ai-sman Fu . . 
Yiin-t'ing Shan 
Lin Hsien . . . . 



Ch'eng-wu Miao 
(In Ch'ing-ting 
Shan Range) 
Fen-chou Fu 



SHENSI— 
Yii-lin Fu 

Sui-te Chou 

Yen-an Fu . . . . 
Hsi-an Fu 

KANSU— 
Ch'ing-yang Fu 
Ku-jriian Chou 
Ching-ning Chou 
Lan-chou Fu . . 



Observation Point. 
(Altitude in ft.) 



S. East Gate (2600) . . 
Camp at foot of (6950) 
East Gate (3269) 

(7201 of Peak to N) . . 

East Gate 

S. Gate (3170) 

S. Gate (2330) 

S. Gate (2769) 

Ku-lu (Drum Tower) 

East Gate (3080) .... 

S. Gate (6610) 

West Gate (6700) 

S. Gate of S. Suburb . . 
(5106) 



Latitude N. 
By theodolite 
observations. 


Longitude E. 


37 


1 
51 


363 


112 


33 


5573 


37 


54 


00 


III 


33 


48 


37 


57 


32 


110 


58 


51 


38 


7 


31 


no 


50 


16 


37 


15 


42 


III 


48 


2 


38 


16 


54 


109 


44 


59 


37 


29 


51 


no 


13 


49 


36 


35 


33 


109 


26 


49 


34 


15 


5 


108 


53 


7 


35 


59 


40 


107 


45 


56 


36 


00 


23 


106 


6 


28 


35 


31 


55 


105 


28 


41 


36 


3 


6 


103 


40 


54 



Long, obtained by 



Telegraph with Tientsin 

Three chronometers with 
T'ai-yiian Fu 



*f *i 



ff If 



Three chronometers with 
T'ai-yiian Fu and 
Yen-an Fu 



Occultation 



Three chronometers with 
Yen-an Fu 



Occultation 



170 



APPENDIX II. 

MAMMALS COLLECTED IN SHANSI, SHENSI AND KANSU 
— BY A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

•THE Mammals collected during the expedition, and presented by Mr. Clark 

to the United States National Museum, number 220 specimens. Follow- 
ing are details of the 33 species represented, besides the number, sex and 
locality of each specimen. 

A series of these, representing all the species taken, was brought to 
London in the summer of igio by Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, in whose company I 
compared them with the Chinese material in the British Museum. Complete 
facilities for this work were courteously granted by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
F.R.S., Curator of Mammals at South Kensington. The new forms which 
the collection contained have already been described by Mr. Miller in two 
papers issued August, 1910 and February, 1911. The first of these is entitled 
" A New Carnivore from China " (from the proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, vol. .xxxviii., pages 385-386), and it deals with the new 
species Vormela ncgans from the Ordos Desert. The second paper is 
entitled " Four New Chinese Mammals " (from the Proceedings of the 
Biological Society, Washington, vol. xxiv., pages 53-55). This deals with the 
four new species and sub-species Eptesicus serotinus pallens, Microtus pullus, 
Allactaga mongolica longior, and Ocholona annectens, from Shansi and Kansu. 

The descriptions are embodied in this report. 

The determinations and names of the other species dealt with in this 
paper have been kindly verified and revised for me by Mr. Miller. The new 
species or subspecies are underlined. 

I. Eptesicus serotinus pallens, Miller. 

igii. Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, xxiv., page 58. 

3 244. 18 miles east of Ku-yiian Chou, Kansu. Alt. 530 ft. August 

1st, 1909. 

<? 246. Chdn-yiian Hsien. 70 miles west of Ch'ing-yang Fu, Kansu. 

Alt. 4000 ft. August 4th, 1909. Type of sub-species. 

(? 249 2 250. 80 miles south-west of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 

3500 ft. August 17th, 1909. 

171 



Type. — Adult male (skin and skull) No. 155, 156. U.S. Museum. Collected 
at Chen-yiian Hsien, 70 miles west of Ch'ing-yang Fu, Kansu, China. 
August 4th, 1909, by Mr. Sowerby. 
Original number 246. 

Diagnosis. — In general, like the European Eptesicus serotinus, but colour 
somewhat less dark, particularly below, the contrast between that of 
dorsal and ventral surfaces evident enough to produce a slight line of 
demarcation along side of neck ; forearm shorter than in true serotinus ; 
skull tending to be rather short and broad. 

Measurements in mm. — Type : head and body, 70 ; tail, 50 ; tibia, 22 ; foot, i3"8 ; 
forearm, 49 ; thumb, io"6 ; third finger, 90 ; fifth finger, 65 ; ear, 19 ; 
Skull : condylo-basal length, I9"0 ; zygomatic breadth, 14-0 ; interorbital 
constriction, 4'6 ; breadth of brain case, g'6 ; mandible, 15 ; maxillary 
tooth-row, exclusive of incisors, 7*2 ; mandibular tooth-row, exclusive of 
incisors, 8"2. 

Specimens examined. — Four, from the following localities : Chen-yiian Hsien, 
70 miles west of Ch'ing-yang Fu, Kansu (altitude 4000 feet), i ; 18 miles 
east of Ku-yiian Chou, Kansu (altitude 5300 feet), i ; 80 miles south-west 
of Yen-an Fu, Shensi (altitude 3500 feet), 2. 

All shot flying round camp at dusk in loess country. 

2. Pipistrellus sp. 

<? 245. 60 miles east of Ku-yiian Chou, Kansu. Alt. 4500 ft. August 
3rd, 1909. 

An immature individual, too young to be positively identified. 

Shot on bank of river under loess cliff at dusk. 

3. Scaptochirus gillesei, Thomas. 

2 loi. Yii-lin Fu, North Shensi, on border of Ordos Desert. Ait. 
3000 ft. November 8th, 1908. 

This mole is somewhat rare and one would hardly expect to find it in 
so dry and sandy a country as the vicinity of Yii-lin Fu and the Ordos 
Desert. 

It has since been recorded from the plain of Wu-chai in North- 
western Shansi ; also a dry and sandy locality. It has also been recorded 
from T'ai-yuan Fu, North Central Shansi ; while the type locality is 
Southern Shansi. 

m 



4- Felis chinensis, Gray. 

<? 158 Yen-an Fu, Shansi. Alt. 2800 ft. January 19th, 1909. Skin and 
skull only brought in by natives. 12 caudal vertebrae remaining, measured 
146 m.m. Measurement of ear while still fresh and soft was 50 m.m. 

This cat, though common over the greater part of China, is here very 
seldom seen, and is difficult to capture. The Mongols of the Ordos trap 
it in large iron gins, usually set for wolves and foxes. The fur is valued 
by the Chinese. 

The present specimen was killed while it was raiding a chicken coop, 
and it displayed great ferocity. 

5. Vormela negans, Miller. 

Proc. U.S. National Museum, xxxviii., page 385, August 19th, 1910. 
Among some mammals collected in North-Western China and the Ordos 
Desert were two spotted polecats, readily distinguishable from the 
western Vormela pcregusna by a peculiar inversion of the colour pattern 
of back. 

The larger skin was brought to me in a very poor condition. The skull 
was missing, as were also the leg bones, while the tail was torn in two, and 
one eye was torn. I offered large rewards for a complete specimen ; but 
though several Mongols and Chinese were induced to enter the Ordos in 
search of them, I obtained nothing more than a small dry skin which 
accompanies the above-named specimen. From what I could gather the 
animal is not at all common. It frequents spots where trees exist, and 
climbs freely. The Chinese name " Ma-nai-hou " would also signify this 
fact, the last syllable " hou " meaning " monkey " or " ape." They are 
sometimes caught in traps set for foxes. Their skins, however, have no 
market value. They are very savage when caught. The above-mentioned 
facts were given and confirmed repeatedly by natives who had traded in 
the Ordos. 

Type specimen. — Adult male (skin only). 

Cat. No. 155,001. U.S. National Museum. 

Taken bv natives in the Ordos Desert about 100 miles north of Yii-lin 

Fu, Shensi. Original number 92. 

Diagnosis. — Like Vormela peregusna, but light markings paler and more 
extensive, those on posterior half of back confluent, so that this region is 
yellow mottled with brown, instead of brown mottled with yellow ; under 
parts, fore-legs, and inner surface of hindlegs black instead of dark brown. 

173 



Measurements in mm. — Type (from skin, apparently not much stretched). 

Head and body, 340; tail, 210. 
Specimens examined. — Two, both from the Ordos Desert. 

6. Martes flavigula boreaHs, Radde. 

? 157 (skin only). Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. January i6th, 1909. 
19 caudal vertebrae remaining measured 333 m.m. ; hind foot, fresh and 
soft, measured 100 m.m. ; ear, fresh and soft, measured 42 m.m. 

Common, but hard to secure, this handsome marten is seldom seen. 
It inhabits the deep ravines of the loess country. The Chinese name 
" huang-yao " means " yellow marten," a name given in consequence of 
the brilliant yellow throat of this animal. 

7. Mustek sibirica, Pallas. 

3 178, 179. Liu-ts'un, foot of mountains 15 miles south of Hsi-an Fu, 
Shensi. Ah. 1500 ft. March 7th, 1909. 

Both specimens trapped in drain in temple yard, after stealing game 
from larder. Very savage. Common all over North China, especially in 
large towns, where they live upon rats and other vermin. The two 
specimens were markedly different in shape and colour, also in skull pro- 
portions. Chinese name, "huang-shu-lang," meaning "yellow rat wolf."* 

8. Mustela larvata, Hodgson. (Plate 51.) 

3 196, 248. Ching-ning Chou, 150 miles east of Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. 
Alt. 5500 ft. July 24th and 25th, 1909. 

<? 212. 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. 
July 26th, 1909. 

The three specimens are all immature, and their determination can 
be regarded as no more than provisional. Specimens bought from 
natives, who used them to capture small rodents in the same way that 
ferrets are used in Europe to capture rabbits and rats. Chinese name, 
" Sao-hu," meaning "ermine fox." 

9. Capreolus bedfordi, Thomas. 

? 149. 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 400 ft. January 8th, 
1909. 

2 247. 30 miles east of Ch'ing-yang Fu, Kansu. Alt. 4500 ft. August 
14th, 1909. 

* Giles gives the name " Huang-shu-laog " 10 the North China polecat or Siberian weasel 

174 



S 251. Near Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 4000 ft. August 21st, 1909. 
<J 254, 255, 256 (skulls and horns only). Yen-an Fu, Shensi. 

Specimen 149 was in winter pelage, and specimens 247 and 251 were 
in summer pelage. The skulls were picked up by natives in the hills 
near Yen-an Fu. 

These deer are very plentiful wherever sufficient cover exists, 
whether it be in the low loess hills prevalent in North Shensi and Eastern 
Kansu, or in the high rocky mountains elsewhere. 

This species is somewhat larger than the European forms, and 
decidedly more yellow in colour. It is not so large as the Siberian form. 
Roedeer horns, when in velvet, have a certain market value amongst the 
Chinese as medicine for female complaints. 

10. Urotragus galeanus, Heude. 

1894. Kemas galeanus, Heude. Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois ii., 
part 4, page 243. 

<f 180. Mountains near Liu-ts'un, 15 miles south of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. 
Alt. 4000 ft. March 7th, 1909. 

Essentially a topotype of the species. Resembles U. arnouxianiis, 
Heude ; but the head and ears are lighter, and the throat patch appears 
to be less extensive. 

The status of this animal, like that of other Chinese members of the 
genus, is far from being clearly understood. 
Dimensions measured in the flesh. — Head and body, 1160 mm. ; tail, 170 mm. ; 
hind feet, 300 mm. ; ear, 150 mm. 

This goral inhabits the highest and most precipitous peaks of the 
range south of Hsi-an Fu. 

11. Sus moupinensis, M. Edwards. (Plate 47.) 

<? 252. 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 4000 ft. August 
22nd, 1909. 

A fine adult male in its peculiar summer pelt. I have examined P^re 
David's specimen in the Natural History Museum, Paris. This specimen 
seems to be a fully adult male, and as such is much smaller than the 
present form. It is also considerably darker in colour, and has smaller 
tusks. However, it has not been thought advisable to separate the two. 

Dimensions measured in the flesh. Head and body, 1555 mm. ; tail, 290 mm. ; 
hind foot, 270 mm.; ear, 120 mm. 

176 



Other measurements. — Height at shoulder, 2 ft. 6 ins. 
Weight, 320 lbs. (about). 

This pig is a great scourge to the natives of the countrj', as it 
destroys acres of crops. It is common in most mountainous or hilly 
districts with good cover. Its range extends at least from Shansi to 
Tibet. 

12. Sciurotamias davidianus, M. Edwards. (Plate 49.) 

^ 119. 9 miles south of Ch'ing-chien Hsien, Shensi. Alt. 2600 ft. 
December i6th, 1908. 

2 120. 15 miles east of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2500 ft. December 
19th, 1908. 

^ 171, 173, 177, ? 181, 182. Liu-ts'un, foot of mountains 15 miles 
south of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 1500 ft. March, igog. 
^ 253. 15 miles south of Ch'ing-chien Hsien, Shensi. Alt. 2600 ft. 
August 27th, 1909. 

Found in rocky hills and mountainous country from near Peking in 
the east to the furthest limits of Kansu in the west. It is recorded from 
Ning-wu Fu, Shansi, and also from Ssuch'uan. 

It resembles in habits and mode of life, the chipmunk, but does not 
hibernate as does the latter. 

13. Eutamias asiaticus senescens, Miller. (Plate 48.) 

S 2. Sheng-yi mountains 18 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shansi. Alt. 
5000 ft. September 30th, 1908. 

J 6, $ 3, 4. Ku-chao, 30 miles west of T'ai-yuan Fu, Shansi. Alt. 
4000 ft. October ist, 1908. 

? 7. 60 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shansi. Alt. 4450 ft. 
October 3rd, 1908. 

S 34, 24, 44. Chiao-ch'eng Shan, mountains 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian 
Fu, Shansi. Alt. 7000 ft. 

,? 45, 46. 30 miles west of Lin Hsien, Shansi. Alt. 4000 ft. October 
2ist, 1908. 

(? 185. Chien-ch'uan-ch'^ng, 50 miles north-west of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. 
Alt. 3100 ft. May gth, 1909. 

2 197, 198, 199. Ching-ning Chou, 150 miles east of Lan-chou Fu, 
Kansu. Alt. 5500 ft. July 25th, 1909. 

176 



S 232, 233, 236, ? 234. 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, 
Kansu. Alt. 5200 ft. July 27th, 1909. 

A very common and widely distributed species. 

14. Eutamias asiaticus ordinalis, Thomas. 
<? 118. Yii-lin Fu, Shensi. 

A pale desert race found round the borders of the Ordos Desert, 
where it inhabits the deep ravines, which take the place of loess gullies 
further south and east. It has not been recorded from the desert itself. 
It might be noted that specimen No. 185 of the preceeding species 
closelj- resembles in the lightness and yellowness of its pelt E. a. ordinalis. 
Similar agencies may have been at work in both cases to cause this 
lightening of colour, for specimen No. 185 was taken close to country, 
which bore some resemblance to that round, and in, the Ordos. Wide 
stretches of flat, somewhat sandy land, was there, inhabited chiefly by 
Citellus tnongolicus, and Lcpus swinhoei subluteus, two other Ordos forms. 

15. Citellus mongolicus, M. Edwards. (Plate 51). 

3 184, 5 183. 18 miles west, north-west of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. Ait. 
1700 ft. May 7th, 1909. 

S 186. Lung-t6 Hsien, 40 miles west of P'ing-liang Fu, Kansu. Alt. 
6800 ft. May i8th, 1909. 

<? 188, J 187, 189, 190. Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. Alt. 5500 ft. June 
4th, 1909. 

? 192. 15 miles south, south-east of Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. Alt. 
8500 ft. June 20th, 1909. 

3 200, ? 193. 52 miles east of Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. Alt. 6700 ft. 
July 26th and l8th, 1909. 

? 195. 125 miles east of Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. Alt. 6300 ft. July 
22nd, 1909. 

S 211, ? 231. 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 
6200 ft. July 26th, 1909. 

? 248. 25 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 7000 ft. 
July 28th, 1909. 

Cohimon in dry or sandy districts as well as on flat plains. Parti- 
cularly plentiful in and round the Ordos Desert. The only thing alive in 
the famine-stricken area round Lan-chou Fu, in Kansu. Chinese name, 
" Sha-shu," meaning "sand-rat." 

M 177 



i6. Meriones auceps, Thomas. 

S 98, J 97. Yu-lin Fu, Shensi. Alt. 3000 ft. November 17th, 1908. 
<? 122, 126, 138, ? 123, 125, 136, 137. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. 
December 21st to 23rd, 1908. 

This species is nocturnal in its habits, in which respect it agrees with 
M. psammophiltis, and differs from M. luigiiiculatus. Usually found in 
colonies. M. aiiceps seems to prefer bushy country, and its burrows occur 
in patches of thorn scrub or other protective bushes. 

M. ungiiicnlatus is found on the open plains of Mongolia, away from all 
bushes, and M. psammophilus on plains and in river valleys of the northern 
provinces. The latter seems to prefer sandy places. Chinese name, 
" Huang-shu," meaning "yellow rat." 

17. Epimys confucianus luticolor, Thomas. 

J 121, 129, $ 127, 128, 131, 134. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. 
December 21st and 23rd, 1908. 

These form a series of topotypes, the subspecies having originally 
been described from this locality by Mr. Thomas.* 

3 162, 163, 164, 167, $ 161. Liu-ts'un, foot of mountains 15 miles south 
of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 1500 ft. February 26th to 28th, 1909. 

This rat is a rock-loving species, being found usually along the rocky 
sides of ravines and valleys in both Shansi and Shensi. Easily trapped, 
and frequently found to be covered with fleas and ticks. A new flea 
(Ceratophyllus suhcaecatus)^ was taken from one of the Yen-an Fu specimens. 
The stomach of another was found to contain parasitical worms. 

18. Mus wagneri mongolium, Thomas. 

S 159. Lin-t'ung Hsien, near Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 1500 ft. 
February 14th. 

Caught on hillside on very barren ground. 

19. Apodemus speciosus, Temminck. 

3 I. Sheng-yi mountains, 18 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shensi. Alt. 
5000 ft. September 30th, 1908. 

3 28, 30, 38, ? 17. Chiao-ch'6ng Shan, 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, 
Shansi. Alt. 7000 to 8000 ft. October 7th to i8th, 1908. 

• Abslr. P.Z.S., 1908, page 45, December 15th, also P.Z.S., 1908, p. 972 (under Mus\ 
t Described by ibe Hon. N. C. Kotbschild, and published in present volume, Appendix [V. 

178 



<? 145. ^54. 5 148. 153- 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 

4000 ft. January 6th to nth, 1909. 

$ 174, 175, 176. Liu-ts'un, foot of mountains 15 miles south of Hsi-an 

Fu, Shensi. Alt. 1500 ft. March 2nd and 3rd, igog. 

S 191. Mountains 15 miles south of Lan-chou Fu, Kansu. Alt. 7000 ft. 

June 17th, 1909. 

A very widely distributed species, common wherever scrub or woods 
are at all extensive. 

20. Apodemus agrarius pallidior, Thomas. 

S 135, ? 140. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. December 23rd and 
27th, 1908. 

<? 160, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170. Liu-ts'un, foot of mountains 15 miles 
south of Hsi-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 1500 ft. February 26th to March ist, 1909. 

Usually found in low, bushy country, on hill tops, or in open valleys. 
Those taken at Liu-ts'un were caught on hill side amongst loose stones, 
in small cypress wood, or along the bottom of a deep ravine. Enjoys a 
comparatively wide range. 

21. Cricetulus triton, de Winton. 

$ 130. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. December 22nd, 1908. 

Apparently not C. iriton incanus, as described by Mr. Thomas.* True 
C. triton iticanus has hitherto only been found in Shansi, though the 
present species seems to be an inhabitant of both Shansi and Shensi, as 
well as of Shantung. 

It is just possible that in all three provinces two forms exist, one a 
large form (incanits) with ridges on the skull, and the other a smaller one 
with smooth skull. Both C. t. incanus and C. triton are abundant on the 
T'ai-yiian Fu plain. 

Chinese name, " Pan-ts'ang." " Ts'ang " means a " granary," 
and refers to this animal's habit of storing away large quantities of grain 
and beans for winter consumption. A very fierce and pugnacious animal. 

22. Cricetulus andersoni, Thomas. 

S 9, 15, 22, ? 10, II, 12, 14, 23. Chiao-ch'6ng Shan mountains, 90 
miles west of T'ai-yilan Fu, Shansi. Alt. 7000 to 8000 ft. October 6th 
to 8th, 1908. 

* Ab«tr. P.Z.S., I90<, page 4S (December ■;), alio P.Z.S., ifoS, p. 973. 

179 



<? 139- Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. December 27th, 1908. 

3 242. 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. 

July 27th, 1909. 

Those of the above mentioned specimens that were taken from 
Chiao-ch'eng Shan form a topotypical series. This little hamster was 
first secured from this district by Mr. M. P. Anderson, whose name it 
bears. This species is very common in Shansi and Shensi, but is 
comparatively rare in Kansu. Chinese name, " Tsang-erh," means 
" storer." 

23. Cricetulus griseus, M. Edwards. (Plate 49). 

2 103. Yu-lin Fu, Shensi. Alt. 3000 ft. November i8th, 1908. 

This hamster seems to take the place of C. andcrsoni in and on the 
borders of desert country. It is also recorded from Chihli and Shantung. 

Its burrows are usually to be found along the sides of cultivated 
fields, irrigation ditches, and watercourses. Chinese name, " Ts'ang- 
kuan," or " granary official," from its storing habits. 

24. Phodopus bedfordise, Thomas. 

<? 49. 54. 55. 59. 60, 65, 66. 72, 73, 77, 81, 82, 83, 88, 90, 91, ? 48, 53, 
58, 61, 68, 71, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80, 84, 85, 87, 89. Yu-lin Fu, Shensi. Alt. 
3000 ft. November 2nd to 14th, 1908. 

This hamster was originally placed in the genus Cricetulus by Mr. 
Thomas. It was noticed, however, by Mr. Miller that the sole of the foot 
instead of having several small distinct pads, as is the case in other 
hamsters, has a single large pad formed by the coalescence of the usual 
pads. For this reason he created a new genus Phodopus. 

In appearance this species differs markedly from the hamsters 
hitherto mentioned. In colour, it is pinkish buff above and pure white 
beneath. The tail is very short, and the soles of the feet are thickly 
covered with white hairs, which enable the little animal to progress with 
ease over the deep loose sand. Extremely common. Present series are 
topotypes. Specimens have also been recorded from Wu-chai Hsien, a 
town situated on a plain on the west of the Ning-wu Fu mountains, in 
Shansi. Chinese name, " Mi-tsang," meaning " storer of millet." 

25. Microtus pullus . Miller. 

Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, xxiv., page 53. February, 191 1. 

3 18, 20, 32, 42. Chiao-ch'^ng Shan mountains, 90 miles west of 
T'ai-yiJan Fu, Shansi. Alt. 7000 to 8000 ft. October nth to 14th, 1908. 

180 



Type. — Adult male (skin and skull), No. 155,047. U.S. National Museum. 
Collected at Chiao-ch'eng Shan, 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shansi. 
Alt, 7000 ft. October llth, 1908. 
Original number, 32. 

Diagnosis .—Size, and general characters as in Microtus {Phaomys) Johannes, 
approaching mars-brown instead of dull ochraceous-buff. 

Colour. — Upper parts a uniform fine grizzle of cream buff and black, with a 
distinct brownish wash on crown and along middle of back, the general 
effect suggesting Ridgway's mars-brown, and not in the least resembling 
the pallid ochraceous-buff of Microtus Johannes. Sides not so dark as back, 
the grizzling less evident. Under part light cream-buff, much clouded by 
the blackish-slate under colour. Feet dull buffy-white, with an evident 
brownish wash. Tail whitish below, brownish above, not sharply bi-colour. 

Skull and Teeth. — The skull and teeth do not differ appreciably from those of 
Microtus Johannes. They are conspicuously smaller than in M. mandarinus. 

Measurements in mm. — Type : head and body, 104; tail, 18; hind foot, without 
claws, I5'5 ; ear, 9 ; skull, condylobasal length, 24*8 (27'4)* ; zygomatic 
breadth, 16-2 (i7'8); interorbital constriction, 3-6 (4*0); occipital breadth, 
13-0 (i3"o) ; occipital depth, 7-0 (7.2) ; nasal, 6-2 (7"o) ; diastema, 7-8 (9"2) ; 
mandible, i6*4 (i8"2) ; ma.xillary tooth-row, 5*8 (6"4) ; mandibular 
tooth-row 5"8 (6'4). 

Specimens examined. — Four, all from the type locality. Caught on grassy hill- 
side, away from woods. Much earth thrown up in front of burrows. In 
both these respects this vole agrees with M. Johannes. The latter, 
however, seems to be an inhabitant rather of loess mountains than of the 
high rocky mountains that form the habitat of this species. It has also 
been recorded from similar country near Ning-wu Fu, Shansi. 

26. Microtus inez, Thomas. 

3 152. 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 4000 ft. January 
9th, 1909. 

The only vole hitherto recorded from Shensi, north of Hsi-an Fu. 
Very rare here, though plentiful enough in similar districts in Shansi. 
Inhabits the bottoms of well vegetated loess ravines. 



* Ueasuremenu in parcnthesU are those at as adult male Mitnlus mandarinus fnm the vicinity of X'ai-yaan Fo, 

Sbanii. 

181 



27. Craseomys shanseius, Thomas. 

^ 27, 29, 36, 39, 9 41. Chiao-ch'^ng Shan, 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian 
Fu, Shansi. Alt. 8000 to 9200 ft. October gth to 13th, 1908. 

All trapped amongst moss-grown rocks in or near dense spruce or 
larch woods. Specimen No. 41 was caught on the summit of Mo-6rh 
Shan, the highest peak in the district (9200 ft.). Common in moun- 
tainous and well-wooded districts ; but not found elsewhere. These 
specimens form a topotypical series, the first known specimens having 
come from this same district. Also recorded from mountains near K'6-lan 
Chou and from those near Ning-wu Fu, further north in the same province. 

This vole feeds upon leaves of young plants growing amongst the 
rocks, underneath which its burrows ramify. It can easily be tempted 
into traps with a little grain or millet. 

28. Myospalax cansus, Lyon. (Plate 48). 

S 35. Chiao-ch'eng Shan, mountains 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, 

Shansi. Alt. 7000 ft. October 12th, 1908. 

(? 115, 117, ? 99, 100, 102, 116. Yu-lin Fu, Shensi. Alt. 3000 ft. 

November 17th to 21st, 1908. 

S 143. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. January 2nd, 1909. 

S 201, 202, 209, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, ? 203. 15 miles north of 

Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. July 26th and 27th, 1909. 

Specimen No. 35, an adult male, is the only one of this species 
recorded from Shansi. In some ways this specimen differs from those 
secured from Shensi and Kansu. The skull is heavier throughout, with 
more pronounced ridges. It is not considered advisable to separate it 
from M. cansus, which it most resembles, especially as there is only the 
one specimen from this locality. The Shensi and Kansu specimens are 
identical and cannot be separated. 

With these facts in view it would seem that the two species, M. cansus 
and M. fontanierii, overlap each other in their distribution. A specimen 
o{ M . fontanierii was secured in the Southern Ordos, at a point lying almost 
exactly between Yii-lin Fu, in Shensi, and Ching-ning Chou, in Kansu, at 
or near both of which places M. cansus has been secured. 

At the same time, here is a specimen of M. cansus which has 
encroached upon the acknowledged habitat of M. fontanierii in Shansi. 
More material is needed before this and other points can be cleared up. 

182 



Chinese names " Ha-lao," " Ha Hui " or " Hsia-lao." " Ha " and 
" Hsia " mean " blind," " lao " means " old," and " Hui " means " grey." 
The above names may be translated " the blind old one " or " the blind 
grey one."* 

29. Dipus Sowerbyi, Thomas. (Plate 50). 

3 57, III, 112, ? 104, 108, lOg, no, 113. Yii-lin Fu, Shensi. Alt. 
3000 ft. November 2nd to 19th, 1908. 

2 86. Ordos Desert, 15 miles north-west of Yu-lin Fu. Alt. 3000 ft. 
November 12th, 1908. 

A good topotypical series of a race of three-toed jerboas inhabiting 
the Ordos Desert and immediate vicinity, the only three-toed jerboa 
hitherto recorded from China. 

Their food seems to consist of delicate shoots and seeds of such 
scrubby plants as can find sustenance in the arid desert. 

Chinese name " T'iao-6rh " (The Jumper). 

30. AUactaga mongolica longior, Miller. (Plate 52). 

Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, xxiv., page 54, February, 191 1. 

3 205, 206, 207, 208, 213, 219, 220, 223, 224, 239, 241, 2 204, 221 (in 
alcohol), 222, 240. 

15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. July 
26th and 27th, 1909. 

Type. — Adult female, skin and skull, No. 155, 183, U.S. National Museum. 
Collected 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. 
July 26th, 1909. 
Original number, 204. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to true AUactaga mongolica {Pallas), but ear and hind 
foot longer and audital buUoe larger. 

Measurements in mm. — Type : head and body, 150 ; tail, 230 ; hind foot without 
claws, 76; skull: condylobasal length, 38-4; zygomatic breadth, 26'0 ; 
interorbital constriction, ii"4; breadth of brain case, I9"8 ; depth of 
brain case at middle, I3'6 ; nasal (median), I5'4; diastema, I2'6; 
mandible, 24"8 ; maxillary tooth-row, alveoli, 8'0 ; mandibular tooth-row, 
alveoli, 7'8. 

Specimens examined. — Twelve all from the type locality. Dug up by natives. 
Apparently very numerous in this district, though not met with else- 

* Giles gives " Hsia-Iao*sbu" as the " Mole-rat." 
183 



where. Reported to exist round Lan-chou Fu in Kansu, but none were 
seen. Chinese name T'iao-t'u-tzu, meaning "Jumping Hare." This is 
ascribed by Giles to the Siberian Jerboa. 

31. Lepus swinhoei subluteus, Thomas. 

<? 141. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 2800 ft. December 27th, igo8. 
5 151. 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 4000 ft. January 
8th, 1909. 

Very common. 

32. Ochotona bedfordi, Thomas. 

? 155. 12 miles south of Yen-an Fu, Shensi. Alt. 4000 ft. January 
nth, 1909. 

On a previous visit to this locality, several specimens were secured, 
but on the present visit I could scarcely find any inhabited burrows, and 
had much difficulty in trapping this single specimen. 

This species was described by Mr. Thomas from specimens in their 
summer pelage, taken in Shansi at Ning-wu Fu, in igo8. Those taken 
from Yen-an Fu on the same expedition being in their winter coats. 
The U.S. National Museum now possesses specimens in winter pelage 
from both localities. Those from Shansi are found to be somewhat 
darker and more ochraceous in colour than those from Shensi. In other 
respects the specimens from both places agree closely. 

The present specimen from Yen-an Fu agrees exactly with those 
taken from almost the same locality in March, 1908. 

Chinese names "Hao-t'u" meaning "rat-hare" and "Ti-t'u" meaning 
" ground-hare." 

2i. Ochotona annectens, Miller. (Plate 52). 

Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, xxiv., page 54. February, igii. 
J 194. 116 miles east of Lan-chou, Kansu. Alt. 6300 ft. July i8th, 
1909. 

<? 225, 226, ? 227, 228, 229, 230. 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning 
Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. July 27th, 1909. 

Type. — Adult male (skin and skull) No. 155, 164, U.S. National Museum, 
Collected 15 miles north-east of Ching-ning Chou, Kansu. Alt. 6200 ft. 
July 27th, 1909. Original number 225. 

184 



Diagnosis. — Similar to Ochotona datiurica, Pallas, from the Mongolian Plateau, 
but dorsal outline of skull less converse and audital bulloe slightly larger. 
Differs from O. bedfordi, Thomas, of Shensi and Shansi, in smaller 
size (particularly of skull) more convex upper cranial outline, and much 
smaller audital bulloe. 

Colour. — As in the related species the general colour is a light buff darkened by 
a plentiful sprinkling of black hair tips, the buff everywhere predominat- 
ing, and becoming clearer and more yellowish, along sides, particularly in 
region of shoulder. A faintly indicated pale area between ear. Under- 
parts and feet dull white with a slight buffy tinge ; throat crossed by a 
broad band of dull buff, this area sometimes extends backward along 
median line. 
Ear with the usual dark marking on outer side. 

Measurements in mm. — Type : head and body, i8i ; hind foot, 29 (26) ;* ear 20 ; 
skull, condylobasal length, 40^0 (42"4) ; zygomatic breadth, 20'4 (2i'2) ; 
interorbital constriction, 4*2 (4'2) ; postorbital constriction, i3'2 (i3'8) ; 
mastoid breadth including bulloe, 20'8 (200) ; depth of brain case at 
middle, ii'o (li"4) ; nasal, 15-0 (i5'o) ; diastema, 98 (io"8) ; mandible, 
27'2 (3o"2); maxillary tooth-row, alveoli, 7'4 (8'6) ; mandibular tooth-row, 
alveoli, 7"4 (8'4). 

Specimens examined. — Seven, six from the type locality and one from Ts'ai-chia- 
wei, 116 miles east of Lan-chou, Kansu (altitude 6300 ft.). This species 
inhabits the deep loess gullies and ravines of central Kansu. Probably 
common. Habits similar to those of 0. bedfordi. Very shy and hard to 
secure. 



Measaremencs id parenthesis aie those of an adult male Ockolona bedfordi fiom Wu-cfaai H&ien, Shansi (No. 173, 601). 

185 



APPENDIX III. 

INVERTEBRATES COLLECTED ON THE EXPEDITION — 
BY ARTHUR DE C. SOWERBY. 

IN this branch of zoology the work done was not very extensive, though the 
results have proved to be of some interest. The greater part of the work 
was carried out by Captain H. E. M. Douglas, V.C, D.S.O., R.A.M.C, who 
made collections at T'ai-yuan Fu and in the Chiao-ch'eng Shan district in 
Shansi, and also in northern Shensi. 

The collections contained representatives of nine orders, viz. : — Coleoptera, 
Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Mallophaga, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Scorpiones, 
Aranese, Acari. The Lepidoptera and Neuroptera were collected by Mr. 
Grant and myself. 

It was unfortunate that the season was so far advanced when the 
expedition commenced. As a consequence this work suffered considerably. 

The collection was sent first to the Royal Army Medical College, but 
was subsequently presented to the British Museum (Natural History) in 
exchange for the identification of the specimens it contained. Many species, 
represented by single specimens only, have been left undetermined, while the 
bad condition of some specimens has rendered their identification impossible. 

For the identification of the various species contained in this collection, 
thanks are due to the following specialists : — 

E. E. Austen (Diptera). 

C. J. Gahan (Coleoptera). 

G. Meade-Waldo (Hymenoptera). 

S. Hirst (Scorpiones and Acari). 

— all of the British Museum. 

The Hon. N. C. Rothschild very kindly undertook the identification of 
the Siphonaptera, while Mr. H. R. Hogg, has been equally kind in working 
out the Aranese.* Good results have been obtained in the two last orders, 
some eight new species having been described. 

Altogether the following new species were contained in the collection. 

In the Acari, two undetermined species belonging to the genera 
Hsemaphysalis and Leiognathus. 

* Appendices IV. >nd V. 

186 



In the Araneae, five species — 

1. Lycosa clarki. 

2. Lycosa ordosa. 

3. Evippa douglasi. 

4. Pardosa shansia. 

5. Pardosa sowerbyi. 

In the Siphonaptera, three species — 

1. Ceratophyllus subcEecatus. 

2. Neopsylla anoma. 

3. Vermipsylla dorcadia. 

In the case of the two new species of Acari, Mr. Hirst has been unable to 
pubhsh descriptions, but he hopes to do so later. 

The chief interest attached to the collection is the locality in which it 
was made. No previous collections have been made in the same district. 

Most of the species are representative of very widely distributed genera. 

On the return journey from Lan-chou Fu to T'ai-yuan Fu, Mr. Grant 
and I made a collection of butterflies and dragonflies. This was forwarded, 
with the mammals, to the Smithsonian Institution. A description of this 
journey and the country where these insects were most prevalent appears in 
another chapter so it need take up no space here. At the end of the present 
chapter appears a list of the butterflies. I received no report on the collection 
from the Smithsonian Institution, and have been forced to make up the list 
myself, trusting largely to memory, and to the coloured plates and descriptions 
in Leech's " Butterflies of China." 

In northern Shensi where the climate is dry and vegetation scarce, 
butterflies and dragonflies are comparatively rare, while scarcely any were 
seen west of Ching-ning Chou in Kansu. In the mountains of Shansi 
butterflies are plentiful and the marshes and rivers of the plains in the same 
province support many species of dragonflies. Nowhere however, on the line 
of march, were either of these orders seen in such quantities as in the loess 
valleys of eastern Kansu and central Shensi. 

Whether any of the species collected in these localities are new I cannot 
say. 

Specimens of a fresh water crab were obtained by me in the mountain 
streams south of Hsi-an Fu in Shensi and also near T'ai-pei-ch'eng in eastern 
Kansu. They belong to the genus Potamon. 

187 



List of Insects, etc.. collected in N. China 
By Captain H. E. M. Douglas, V.C, D.S.O., R.A.M.C. 



DiPTERA. 

By E. E. Austen, F.E.S. 

Fam. Mycetophilidae (Fungus Midges). 
Sciophila sp. incert. (a fragment). 

Yun-t'ing Shan : in open ground 6,974 ft., 5-X-igo8. 

Fam. Bibionidae. 

Bibio sp. incert. {Nea.T B. johannis h.) i ? 

Yiin-t'ing Shan : in village 6,974 ft., 5-X-1908. 

Fam. Chironomidae (Midges). 
Chironomus sp incert. i J 

T'ai-yiian : in grass, near pond (no date mentioned). 

Fam. Culicidae (Mosquitoes). 
Culex fatigms Wied i 2 

T'ai-yiian Fu : in Chinese courtyard, 9-VIII-1908. 
Grabhamia sp. incert. i J 6 $ J 

T'ai-yiian : feeding on horse, 28, 29-VIII-1908 ; in grass, near pond, 
30-VIII-1908. 

Some 9 or 10 other mosquitoes, including i Anopheles {sensu stricto) 
■ were brought back, but the condition of these specimens is such as to 
render definite determination impossible. 

Fam. Stratiomyidae. 

Stratiomys sp. incert. 2 larvae. 

Yii-lin Fu : 14-XI-1908. The larvae of species belonging to the 
genus Stratiomys are aquatic. 
Fam. Asilidae (Robber-flies). 

Gems et sp. incert. allied to Cyrtopogon. Lw. i 3 

Kan-ts'ao-kou : caught in open ground, 4,226 ft., 20-X-igo8. 

Fam. Syrphidae (Hover-flies, etc.). 
Catabomba pyrastri L. i 2 

Yii-lin Fu : on sand, 3,169 ft., 11-XI-1908. 

A common and very widely distributed palaearctic hover-fly, 
which also occurs in N. America. 
Sphaerophoria sp. incert. 2 <? J I 2 

T'ai-yiian: in grass, near pond, 24-VIII-1908. 

188 



Eristalis iemx L. (the Drone fly) i 5 

Yii-lin Fu : on sand, near river, 3169 ft., 15-XI-1908. 

This very common and widely distributed species, to which it is 
believed that the Bugonia-myXh* of the ancients referred, besides being 
found in most parts of Europe, is known to occur in India, China, 
Japan, South Africa, and North America, and in recent years has 
become fairly common in New Zealand. 
Fam. Tachinidae. 

Pycnosoma remuria Walk, i ? 

Yun-t'ing Shan. 14-X-1908. 
Lucilla sp. incert. i ? 

Yun-t'ing Shan. 14-X-1908. 
Calliphora sp. incert. (Blow-fl)) i 9 

Yii-lin Fu. 15-XI-1908. 
Hypoderma sp. incert. (a Warble-fly, allied to H. diana, Brauer), 9 larvae from 
beneath the skin of a roebuck. 

Yen-an Fu. 19-XII-1908. 

Fam. Muscidae. 

Musca domestica L. (the common House-fly) i <? i ? 

Yun-t'ing Shan. 8-X-1908. 

This species, which has undoubtedly been carried about the world 

by human agency, is now almost universally distributed. 

Muscina stabulans Fin. 3 c? c? 

Yu-lin Fu. 15-XI-1908 

A common palasarctic species, which also occurs in North America ; 

frequently found in houses in England. 

Fam. Scatomyzidae. 

Scatophaga sp. incert. (a Dung-fly) 4 (? (? 5 ? ? 

Yun-t'ing Shan : in village 6,974 ft., 5-8-X-1908. 
Fam. Helomyzidae. 

Genus et sp. incert. i ? 

Yu-hn Fu. 16-XI-1908. 
Fam. Hippoboscidae. 

Mippobosca capensis von Alfers (The Dog-fly) 2 <? J 3 J ? 
T'ai-yuan Fu : from dog. 11-17-VIII-1908. 

This species is a parasite of domestic dogs from South Europe to 
North China. It also occurs in parts of Africa. 

* Tbe ancient belief thai bees were generated in decaying carcases of cattle, etc. (c.f., Judges xiv., 13 — 18, and Virgil's 
Fuurth Oeorgic). The factA are. that the fly F.ristatis tenax resembles the honey-bee, and that its larvie are carrion-eattrs ; 
hence when they have finished a caicase they pupate tjeneath the slctii and dibris that remain, emerging eventually as perfect 
insects in crowds which were mistaken for swarms of liees. 

189 



COLEOPTERA. 

By C. J. Gahan, M.A., F.E.S. 

Fam. Tenenbrionidae. 

Anatolica sp. incert. Several specimens from Yii-lin Fu, Shensi, 
on border of Ordos Desert, 12-16-XI-1908. Impossible at present to 
identify species. New to British Museum collection. 

Extremely common amongst the sand hills of the Ordos, and 
together with the four following species, forms the chief food of the 
Ordos hedgehog {Erinaceus miodon). 

Anotolica augustata St. Two specimens from Yii-lin Fu, Shensi, 
on border of Ordos Desert, 12-16-XI-1908. 

A larger species than the above, and equally common. 

Blaps rugosa Gebl. One specimen from Yii-lin Fu, Shensi, on 
border of Ordos Desert, 12-16-XI-1908. 

A very common species, chiefly found in old buildings, but also 
in open country. 

Akis fumestra Fald. One specimen from YU-lin Fu, Shensi, and 
one from T'ai-yuan Fu, Shansi. No date. 

As common as Blaps, but found more often in open country. 

Fam. Meloidae. 

Meloe sp. incert. One badly damaged specimen labelled N. China. 
Very common throughout North China, frequenting low shrubs and 
bushes. Sometimes seen in great numbers. 

Fam. Chrysomelidae. 

Chrysomela sp. incert. One specimen from Ytin-t'ing Shan 
mountains, 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shansi, 8-X-1908. 

A small herbivorous beetle. 

In addition there are a few species of Carabidae, predaceous beetles 
depending for their subsistence upon their power to run down and 
kill animals weaker or less protected than themselves : and of 
Staphylinidas, commonly called "cocktail beetles," usually found in 
rubbish heaps, or where decaying animal or vegetable matter exists. 
These few species cannot be determined. 

190 



Hymenoptera. 

By G. Meade-Waldo. 
Fam. Vespidae. 

Polistes jadwigae D.T. One specimen from T'ai-yiian Fu, Shensi. 

This species was first described as " japonicus" but later was 
changed to jadwigae by Dalla Torre. A rare species, of which the 
British Museum possessed but one specimen previous to the present 
addition. A much darker species than P. hebraeus F., of which it is 
possibly a subspecies. 

Polistes hebraeus F. Two specimens from Yu-lin Fu, Shensi, on 
border of Ordos Desert. 

This species is much commoner and more widely spread than 
P. jadwigae and may be found all over North China. Inhabits towns 
and villages, gathering material for its nest from the paper windows 
of the houses. 

Fam. Sphegidae. 

Ammophita tydei GmW. One specimen from Yii-Iin Fu, Shensi, on 
border of Ordos Desert. 

A sand-loving race. In the British Museum collection there are 
specimens from Sfax in Tunis, Spain, Madeira, Cyprus, Teneriffe, 
Karachi, in North-West India, and from South-Western Persia. 

Fam. Pompilidae. 

Pompilus sp. incert. 

Fam. Apidae. 

Sphecodes sp. incert. i <? 

Fam. Formicidae. 

Camponotus sp. incert. 

Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Coelichneumon sp. incert. 
Ophion sp. incert. 

Both these genera are widely distributed, and the species, which 
it is impossible to identify, are not unlike those found in Europe and 
even in Great Britain. 

Hemiptera. 
Lygaeus equestris Linn. Several specimens from Yii-lin Fu, 
Shensi, on borders of Ordos Desert, 11-XI-1908. 

191 



A very common and widely distributed form, recorded from both 
the old and new worlds. 

Cori2us hyalims Fab. Several specimens from Yiin-t'ing Shan 
Mountains, 90 miles west of T'ai-yiian Fu, Shansi, 8X-1908. 

A widely distributed species. Specimens from Mexico Cit)', 
West Indies, and Budna and Cattaro in Dalmatia being in the 
British Museum. 

Tettigoniella viridis Linn. Several specimens from T'ai-yiian Fu, 
Shansi, 26-VIII-1908. Taken near river. 

Commonly known as Cuckoo's spit, owing to the larva 
surrounding and protecting itself with a little mass of froth, which 
is lodged in the fork at the base of leaf-stem or grass-blade. In 
China this species is commonly found in chrysanthemum gardens. 
It appears in great swarms in the autumn, and may be seen in clouds 
round lamps at night. 

Mallophaga. 

Hzmobothrion sp. incert. Several specimens of an indeterminable 
species of this large bird-louse were taken off an eagle. 

SCORPIONES AND ACARI. 

By S. Hirst. 
Fam. BuTHiDAE. 

Buthus martensi Karsch. Yii-lin Fu, Shensi. 

Very common throughout North China. Found in old buildings, 
used and dis-used, as well as in open country. 
Fam. IxoDiDAE (Ticks). 

Argas reflexus Fabr. Yu-lin Fu, Shensi. 
Two specimens from wall of temple. 
Haemaphysalis. Yen-an Fu, Shensi. 

A number of specimens taken from a roedeer {Capreolus bedfordi). 
A very common species in North China. Closely related to H. japonica 
Warb., but somewhat smaller in size. 
Fam. Gamasidae (Gamasid mites). 

Leiognathus. Yii-lin Fu, Shensi. 

Several specimens taken from the body of a mole-rat {Myospalax 
cansus), a rodent with the underground mode of life of a mole. These 
mites are somewhat uncommon, as many mole-rats were examined 
for them without any more being found. 

192 



Laelaps agilis Koch. Yen-an Fii, Shensi. 

Several specimens, taken from Mus confucianus luticolor, a rat 
related to the common sewer rat, on which Laelaps agilis usually 
occurs. These specimens cannot be separated from the above 
species, though in some respects they differ slightly. 

Lepidoptera and Neuroptera. 

By A. DE C. SOWERBY. 

1. Mycalesis gotama. Several specimens. Very common, especially on loess 

hill tops. 

2. Mycalesis sericus. Several specimens. Also very common. 

3. Lethe rohria. Several specimens. Common. 

4. Athyma sulpitia. Two specimens. Very rare. Found only amongst bushes 

on hill side. 

5. Callerebia phyllis. Common in loess gullies near Yen-an Fu, Shensi. 

6. Melanargia halimede var. montana. Rare. 

7. Pararge deidamia. Very common everywhere. 

8. Apatura here. Common only in valley-bottoms near Yen-an Fu, Shensi. 

9. Argynnis aglaia. Not very common. 

10. Grapta c. aureum, var pryeri. Common. 

11. Chrysophanus dispar $ and <? . Very common. Recorded from Kansu by 

Potanine. 

12. Lycaena argus 2 and J . Common everywhere. 

13. Sericinus telamon. var. telamon. Very common in certain valleys of Eastern 

Kansu. 

14. Sericinus telamon, var. greyi. Less common. Inhabits same district as 13. 

15. Colias hyjle. V^ery common everywhere. 

16. Papilio machaon. Comparatively common. A few specimens caught in 

well watered valleys. 

17. Gonepteryx rhamni. A yellow leaf-like butterfly. Fairly common in valleys. 

18. Leucophasia sinapis, var. sinensis. Rare. Very few specimens seen, 
ig. Pieris cisseis. Very common. 

Amongst the commonest of the dragonflies which were collected were 
various species belonging to the genus Matrona. These beautiful insects, as 
stated elsewhere,* abounded in the watery valleys of Eastern Kansu. 

• P»«« 75- 

M 193 



APPENDIX IV. 

DESCRIPTION OF THREE NEW SPECIES OF SIPHONAPTERA 
OBTAINED BY CAPT. H. E. M. DOUGLAS, V.C, D.S.O., R.A.M.C, ON THE CLARK EXPEDITION IN 

NORTH CHINA 

BY THE HON. N. CHARLES ROTHSCHILD, M.A.' F.L.S. 

T^HE collection of fleas contains three .species, which all prove to be new. 
The most interesting of them is the one found on a roedeer. Its nearest 
ally is a flea which occurs in Turkestan on horses, cattle, etc., and does a 
great deal of damage. The types of the species are in the British Museum. 

I. Ceratophyllus subcaecatus spec. nov. (Fig. i and 2). 

<? 5 The chief peculiarities of this species are the non-pigmented eye 
and the large eighth abdominal sternite of the <? , which characters remove 
the species from true Cercitophyllus. There is, however, in that genus another 
species, C. silantiewi Wagner (1898), which is closely related to subcaecatus, 
although abundantly distinct. This C. silantiewi has the eye non-pigmented 
in the centre and its clasper is very similar to that of C. subcaecatus, the 
eighth sternite being small. The two species, however, may easily be 
distinguished by the shorter rostrum of subcaecatus, the pointed genal lobe, the 
very short bristles of the second segment of the antennae in both sexes (these 
bristles being long in the ? of silantiewi), the smaller number of bristles on 
the abdomen and by other characters as well. 

Head. — Frons vertical from the tubercle downward, the latter a little 
nearer to the central sensory organ (pale dot) than to the oral corner. Eye 
round, very feebly pigmented, excepting the anterior and postero-inferior 
edges, at a certain focus appearing excised. A row of three large bristles 
before the eye, the central one slightly nearer to the lowest, in between these 
bristles some minute hairs, and in front of the row another row of three, the 
uppermost of which is placed close to the antennal groove in the J, and is 
absent in the ? . Genal lobe more or less pointed. The occiput has one 
large bristle above the antennal groove before the centre, and a subapical row 
of 6 on each side, of which only the most ventral one is large. Along the 

194 



antennal groove there is a row of about twelve short hairs in the S and about 
six in the 2 . In the ? there is no trace of a suture from the antennal groove 
to the vertex. The groove is posteriorly open in both sexes and extends well 
on to the propleura in the $ . The bristles of the second segment of the 
antenna are minute in both sexes ; the club of the antenna is half as long 
again as it is broad in the ? . The maxillary palpus nearly reaches to the 
apex of the forecoxa, and the rostrum extends to the trochanter, but not 
beyond it, as is the case in silaniicwi. 

Thorax. — The pronotum bears a comb of i8 pointed spines and a row of 
10 to 12 long bristles. The mesonotum has a posterior row of lo to 12 
bristles, and before it about 8 to 11 small bristles on the two sides together ; 
on the inner side, before the apex, there are 6 to 8 bristle-like spines. The 
mesopleura have 6 or 7 bristles, and at the upper anterior corner a few small 
hairs. The metanotum has 2 rows of bristles, the anterior one containing 9 to 
12 and the posterior one 11 or 12. The metepisternum bears 2 bristles, 
the sternum i, and the epimerum 6 to 8 (2 to 4, 3, i). Metanotum on each 
side with 2 dark brown spines, one such spine being similarly placed on the 
2 or 3 anterior abdominal tergites. 

Abdomen. — The stigmata are situated above the first bristle of the 
posterior row, excepting the seventh segment of the 2 , where this bristle is 
absent. The position of the spiracles is different in the sexes, the stigma 
being close to the row of bristles in the 3 , and at a considerable distance in 
front of the row in the 2 . The numbers of bristles on the tergites are in the 
anterior and posterior rows of the two sides together in the specimens before 
us : in the <? , 4 to 8, 10 ; 4 to 6, 12 ; 3 to 5, 12 ; i to 5, 12 ; i to 4, 12 ; 
2 to 7, 12 ;-in the 2 : 6 to 7, 8 ; 4 to 9, 12 ; 2 to 4, 12 ; 2 to 4, 11 or 12 ; 
2, 12; 2, 2, 10; 4 or 5, 8. The sternites bear one row, there being no 
additional bristles in front of the row ; the numbers are on the two sides 
together, in the <? : 2, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6 ;— in the 2 : 2, 6, 6, 6, 6, 8 to 11. The 
basal sternite has in addition one or two lateral bristles on each side. There 
are two antepygidial bristles in the S , the upper one measuring about one- 
third of the other. In the 2 there are three, the upper being about one-fourth 
and the lower four-fifths the length of the central bristle. 

Legs. — The hind coxa has about 7 bristles on the outer side, a row of 8 to 
10 on the inner, and 5 to 7 at the edge, apart from the apical bristles. The 
hind femora bear on the outside i to 3 lateral bristles anteriorly, and one 
subapical bristle posteriorly. On the inner surface there is a row of 4 or 5 
bristles on the mid femur and of 5 to 7 on the hind femur. The hind tibia 

195 



bears on the outer side a row of 7 to 10 bristles (inclusive of one placed close 
to the apex), and on the inner side an oblique (or broken) row of 4 to 6, there 
being also several small bristles at the anterior edge, apart from the thick 
apical and subapical ones. The longest apical bristle of the hind tibia extends 
to the subapical notch of the first hindtarsal segment, or a little beyond it. 
The longest apical bristle of the second hindtarsal segment reaches nearly to 
the middle of the fifth in the ? , while in the <? there are three apical and one 
subapical bristles on the second segment which extend to near or beyond the 
middle of the fifth segment, the third segment also bearing a long apical bristle 
in the S ■ The fifth segment has in all the tarsi five pairs of lateral bristles 




Fig. 1. 

and two short stout apical ventral ones. Lengths of the tarsal segments : — 

Foretarsus ... <? 11, 11, 8, 7, 17 — J 13, 13, 10, 8, 18. 

Midtarsus ... <? 19, 17, 10, 8, 18 — ? 23, 20, 13, 9, 19. 

Hindtarsus... <? 43, 30, 17, 10, 20 — ? 50, 36, 18, 11, 22. 

Modified Segments. — 3 . The eighth tergite (Fig. i, viii. t.) bears about 8 

small hairs above the stigma, and is characterised by 16 to 18 strong bristles, 

of which 8 to 10 are grouped together on the side of the segment as shown in 

the figure. The eighth sternite is not very much smaller than the tergite. It 



196 



resembles the preceding sternite, but is longest ventrally as shown in the 
figure (Fig. i, viii. st.), and bears on each side only one long bristle, which is 
accompanied by a few hairs. The clasper (Fig. i, CI.) is not separated by a 
suture from the internal portion of the ninth tergite, and this internal portion 
of that segment is produced into a kind of manubrium. The manubrium of 
the clasper itself terminates in a slender point. The dorsal posterior portion 
of the clasper forms a broad process (P), which is about as long as it is wide. 
The moveable process (F) is almost shaped like a thumb in side view, the 
distal margin being much more strongly rounded than the pro.ximal margin. 
The distal margin bears one slender bristle at one-third or one-fourth from the 
base and a much longer one beyond the centre or at two-thirds, besides a 
number of short ones as indicated in the figure. In the second <? the " finger " 
is more rounded at the apex than in the one figured. There is only one long 
bristle at the edge of the clasper below the insertion of the finger and several 
small hairs. The ninth sternite (Fig. i, ix. st.) is exceedingly slender, the 
vertical arm as well as the horizontal one, excepting the apex of the vertical 
arm. The distal half of the horizontal arm is about twice the width of the 
proximal half, and its peculiar shape reminds one a little of a rocking horse 
reversed. This portion of the sternite is elbowed beyond the centre, the apical 
two-fifths being curved downwards and bearing at the proximal ventral corner 
on each side two long bristles, which are evenly curved and are accompanied 
by two more, which are short and spine-like in shape. The tip of the sternite ■ 
is truncate, the apical portion being triangular and bearing along the upper 
edge a row of hairs on the outer side and two hairs on the inner side, and at 
the ventral angle one short spine-like bristle on the inner side. The tenth 
tergite is distinctly separated from the ninth b)- a suture, which is situated at 
some distance from the sensory plate. The tenth tergite bears about 6 short 
hairs on each side and a row of short bristles along the apical edge. — J . The 
apex of the seventh abdominal sternite is very slightly incurved twice (Fig. 2). 
The eighth tergite bears 5 to 7 short hairs above the stigma, and one or two 
long bristles, accompanied by one or two small hairs below the stigma. The 
apical margin is rounded and slightly undulate, with the lower angle projecting 
(Fig. 2). There are only 8 or 9 bristles on the outer side of the lower half of 
the eighth tergite and 4 on the inner side. The bristle at the tip of the stylet 
is much shorter than the bristles of the posterior row on the sixth tergite, but 
longer and thicker than the longest bristle of the anal sternite. This latter 
sternite bears ventrally in the centre, where it is slightly elbowed, a cluster of 
short, thick, spine-like bristles, which are separated from the subapical 

197 



bristles by a small gap. The stylet is about twice as long as it is proximally 
broad, and bears two bristles besides the apical one. The receptaculum seminis 
has a short globular head and a broad tail, which is thinnest at the base.* 

Length (mounted specimens) : <? 2.2 mm. ; $ 2.4 mm. 

Two <? 3' and 9 S 2 from Yen-an Fu, Shensi, taken off Mus confucianus 
luticolor on December 22nd, 1908. 

" The host is a rock-inhabiting rat, very often with numerous ticks and 
fleas. In some cases this rat is trapped in small caves in rocks where human 
remains have been deposited, and it is possible that they feed upon these dead 
bodies." 

" Yen-an Fu, a city situated in North Central Shensi." 




Fig. 2. 
2. Neopsylla anoma spec. iwv. (Fig. 3 and 4). 

3 ? Similar to N. bidentatiformis Wagner (1893), but at once 
distinguished by the hind coxa bearing a patch of short spines on the inner 
surface. 

Head. — Frons evenly but so strongly rounded that the oral corner points 
obliquely backwards. Eye absent, being only indicated by a bar projecting 

• For the sake of economy of space the receptacle is drawn lying in the eighth segment. 

198 



from the incrassate margin of the antennal groo%'e. There are two rows of 
bristles on the frons, the anterior one containing 6 to 8 and the posterior one 
4 longer bristles, one of these 4 being placed at the edge of the antennal 
groove. The occiput bears three rows of bristles, the numbers of the bristles 
being on each side 3, 5 or 6, 6. The second segment of the antenna bears a 
row of bristles, of which the longest is one-third the length of the club in the 
$ , while in the $ there are 4 bristles which are as long as the club or nearly 
so. The genal angle bears two spines, the outer one being short, broad, 
triangular, and crossing the inner one, which is long and narrow. The lobe of 
the genal angle itself (partly covered by the spines in lateral aspect) is lanceo- 
late. The rostrum is about one-fourth shorter than the forecoxa. The 
maxilla reaches to the apex of the third segment of the rostrum, and the 
maxillary palpus to the base of the fifth segment. 

Thorax. — The pronotum has a comb of 18 spines and a row of 12 or 13 
bristles on the two sides together, there being no bristles in front of this row. 
The mesonotum has two rows of bristles, the anterior row containing 17 or 18 
and the posterior row 12, there being also 3 or 4 additional small bristles in 
front of the rows, numerous small hairs at the base, and 10 bristle-like spines 
before the apex on the inner side. The mesopleura have seven bristles. The 
metanotum also bears two rows of bristles, the numbers being 20 and 12. 
The metepisternum has two bristles, the sternum one, and the episternum 11 
to 14 (in J 5, 2, 5 or 6, 2 ; in ? 5, 4 or 5, 2). There are no apical spines on 
the metanotum in the two specimens before us. 

Abdomen. — The first three or four tergites bear two or three apical spines 
on the two sides together. All the tergites have two rows of bristles, there 
being usually a few additional bristles in front of the rows, the numbers being 
as follows : in the J 2, 16, 15 ; 2, 14, 18 : i, 7, 17 ; o, 6, 17 ; i, 4, 18 ; o, 4 
16 ; I, 6, 15 ; and in the 2 5, 15, 12 ; 2. 21, 16 ; 2, 16, 17 ; 0, 15, 16 ; 0, 15, 
15 ; o, 15, 14 ; 3, 12, 13. The sternites bear one row of bristles and a few 
small hairs before the row as follows ; in the ^ 2, 4, 6 ; 2, 7, 6, 6 ; 6, 7 ; and 
in the ? 2 ; 5, 7 ; 6, 8 ; 5, 8 ; 14, 12. The first sternite of the ? bears in 
addition 2 or 3 small bristles on each side. There are three antepygidial 
bristles in the ? , the upper and the lower bristles being about one-third the 
length of the middle one. In the S there are two bristles above the long one, 
the two being about the same in length as the fourth on the one side, while 
on the other side the one nearest the long bristle is apparently (its tip being 
broken off) nearly as long as the large bristle. 

Legs. — The hind coxa bears posteriorly before the apex 3 bristles and 

199 



about forty bristles on the outer and inner sides together, apart from the short 
spine-like bristles of the inner surface and the bristles placed at the apex. 
The hind femur has two subapical bristles on the outer side, and one on the 
inner side, this side bearing also one or two lateral hairs in the basal half. 
The hind tibia has on the outer surface in the S lo or ii, and in the ? 7 or 
8 bristles, the latter arranged in one row only, while in the S there are some 
bristles ventrally (or anteriorly) to this row. The bristles at the outer edge of 
the hind margin are nearly all of the same length and thickness, being all very 
strong; they number 11 if the apical ones are included. At the inner edge 
there are 4 long bristles, one of them being placed at the apex and extending 
somewhat beyond the apex of the first tarsal segment. The first mid tarsal 




Fig. 3. 

segment is one third longer than the second ; the bristles placed at its hinder 
edge are short and thick, as are the corresponding bristles of the hind tarsus, 
while the bristles at the anterior edge of the segment are much thinner (apart 
from the apical ones) and fewer in number. The longest bristle of the second 
hind tarsal segment extends to the apex of the third segment. The fifth 
segment bears in all the tarsi 4 pairs of lateral bristles and two short apical 
ventral bristles. The lengths of the tarsal segments are in both sexes : — 

Foretarsus ... 10, 9, 8, 6, 14. 

Midtarsus ... 21, 16, 10, 7, 14. 

Hindtarsus ... 30, 22, 15, 9, 16. 



200 



Modified Segments. — S. The eighth tergite, which is quite small in this 
genus, bears about 6 short hairs above the stigma. The sternite, which is 
large, is apically truncate-emarginate in side-view, with the angles strongly 
rounded off, and bears along the ventral margin and near it about 15 or ib 
bristles, of which 5 or 6 ventral ones are especially large and are arranged in 
a row. The clasper (Fig. 3) is about as long above as beneath. Its upper 
distal angle is rounded off and the lower angle acute. The upper edge bears 
a number of bristles, of which one is considerably longer than the others. 
The manubrium is slender, of nearly even width and gently curved upwards. 
The moveable process (F) projects but little above the upper angle of the 
clasper and extends far down, as is the case also in several allied species. It 




Fig. 4. 

is almost the shape of a sugar loaf, with the lower end rounded. The bristles 
which it bears are all small, the longest one being placed near the apex, and 
being about as long as the process is broad at that point. The internal arm 
of the gth sternite (Fig. 3, ix. st.) is elbowed and very broad, while the 
horizontal arm is narrow, being narrowest about the centre and widening a 
little in the apical half, where the gently rounded ventral edge bears a 
row of short bristles. One long bristle is placed proximally to the middle 
of the horizontal arni and several smaller ones are still further proximal. — 
2 . The apical margin of the seventh sternite is incurved below its upper 
angle and then excurved (Fig. 4). The eighth tergite bears about 6 short 
hairs above the stigma. There is no bristle below the stigma. The lower 



201 



portion of the segment bears 6 or 7 long and strong bristles, 4 or 5 of which are 
placed near the edge, there being 3 to 8 additional smaller bristles proximally to 
the large ones. On the inner side there are about 8 to 10 bristles. The eighth 
sternite is sharply pointed. The sensory plate is convex as in the allied species 
(not in Mesopsylla). The head of the receptaculum seminis is longer than it 
is broad, while the tail is about half as long again as the head in the view 
represented by our figure. 

Length (mounted specimen) : 2.5 mm. 

One pair from Yii-lin Fu, Shensi, taken off Myospalax constis on November 
24th, 1908. 

" Yii-lin Fu, a town situated on border of the Ordos Desert. Surrounding 
country very dry and sandy." 

" Myospalax consus, a rodent with the underground habits of a mole. 
Fleas very rare on the animal." 

3. Vermipsylla dorcadia spec. nov. (Fig. 5). 

3 $ . As we are preparing a fuller account of this very interesting species, 
we confine ourselves here to pointing out some of the more striking characters 
by which both sexes of the new species are distinguished from its nearest 
known ally, V. alakurt. The tergites of the thorax and abdomen bear two 
rows of bristles, the anterior row being dorsally more or less incomplete and 
the bristles of both rows being short with the exception of the two bristles 
situated on each side below the stigma, which are fairly long. The female has 
even less bristles on the tergites than the male, the anterior row being almost 
completely absent. The sternites of the abdomen bear only one bristle on 
each side. The legs are very different from those of V. alakurt, especially the 
tibiae and tarsi, in which character the two sexes are practically identical. 
The mid tibia has four and the hind tibia only three pairs of long bristles at 
the dorsal edge, including the apical bristles, the other bristles being reduced 
to the size of the slender bristles situated on the outer surface, which are no 
longer than the lateral bristles of the femora. The thin dorsal bristles and 
those lateral ones which are placed between the dorsal edge and the centre of 
the tibia are directed backwards. The first segment of the fore tarsus as well 
as the mid tarsus is much shorter than the second. The bristles at the hinder 
edge of the first hind tarsal segment are thin and short ; this segment is only 
one third the length of the hind tibia and has a pale base. The second to 
fourth hind tarsal segments have each several apical bristles which are very 

202 



long and extend beyond the fifth segment, these bristles being thinner and 
shorter than the corresponding long bristles of V. alakurt. 




Fig. 5. 

The species was discovered on a roedeer at Yen-an Fu, Shensi, by Capt. 
H. E. M. Douglas on January 19th, 1909. The much distended females were 

" taken from the nostrils of the Roedeer Several roedeer were 

shot in the district, but nothing more of the kind was noticed." 

The males were " taken from the skin of the same Roedeer " on which 
the distended females were found. 

A small series of both sexes was obtained. 



203 



APPENDIX V. 

ARANEIDAE OF THE CLARK EXPEDITION TO NORTHERN CHINA — 
BY H. R. HOGG, M.A., F.Z.S. 

■yi-IE small collection of spiders herein described were taken during the 

R. S. Clark expedition to Northern China, in the autumn of 1908 and 
early part of igog, by Captain H. E. M. Douglas, V.C., D.S.O., R.A.M.C. 

The districts from which they came were Yiin-t'ing Shan, in the Chiao- 
ch'eng Shan, a mountainous forest-country ninety miles west from T'ai-yiian 
Fu, Shansi, and Yii-lin Fu, in North Shensi, a dry sandy area on the borders 
of the Ordos desert. 

Owing probably to the time of year, the specimens taken cannot be 
supposed to represent the Arachnid fauna of the district, an outlying part of 
what is known as the Indo Malay. A large proportion of the number have 
not reached the adult stage. 

They comprise eight species of four families, and two of the latter, 
Argiopidae and Drassidae, are represented by a single specimen only of the 
genera Araneus, Clerck, and Drassodes, Westring. 

There are three specimens of Thomisidae of the genus Diaea, Thorell, the 
remainder being all Lycosidae of the genera Lycosa, Latreille, Pardosa, 
C. Koch, and Evippa, Simon. 

Evippa is a small genus whose members are recorded from the deserts of 
N. Africa, Palestine, and China; but the distribution of the others are 
world-wide. 

The Drassodes appears to agree closely with D. lapsus, described by 
Rev. O. P. Cambridge, from Yarkand,* and the Diaea is perhaps D. subdola 
Cambr., but none of the others seem to have been previously noted from 
India, China, Burma, or the neighbourhood. The known species of Araneus 
and the Lycosidae are so Tiumerous, and many so widely spread, that they 
may have been recorded from even so far as Japan on the one side, or Western 
Europe on the other. As I cannot trace them I have taken them to be new 
species. 



• Second Yarkand Mission, pt. VIII., Arachn : O.P. Cambridge, 1885. 

204 



Family Drassidae, Sub-fam Drassodinae, Group Drassodeae, 

Genus Drassodes, Westring. 

D. ? LAPSUS. O.P.Cambr. 

Female. — The Cephalothorax is bright orange yellow thickly covered with 
downlying grey plumose hair interspersed with a few upstanding hairs or 
bristles. The Mandibles, somewhat darker orange, are thicklj' covered with 
short upstanding grey bristly hair. Fangs reddish yellow. 

The Lip, Ma.xillae, Sternum, and Coxae all orange yellow with rather long 
grey bristly hair, thickest on the latter. The Legs and Palpi similar, but 
rather paler. The Abdomen above is yellow at the base, the remainder pale 
yellow grey with brownish grey thin short hairs. Underneath it is a pale 
yellow, almost white at the edges, with short downlying grey hair in transverse 
ridges. The Spinnerets darker yellow, one jointed, cylindrical. 

The Cephalothorax is convex, rounded at the sides and straight in front, 
where it is rather more than half its greatest breadth, which is two-thirds its 
length. 

The front row of Eyes is straight, the median pair half their diameter 
apart, and the same distance from the margin of the Clypeus. The laterals, 
touching them, are nearly the same diameter, but placed sideways look oval. 
The rear row of eyes are sessile, the median, oblong, are half their shorter 
diameter apart at the upper corners, and their long diameter away from the 
laterals, the whole row being procurved and slightly longer than the front. 
The front and rear median are rather more than the diameter of the former 
apart, the long diameter of the rear ones being slightly shorter. 

The Maudibles are kneed at the base and straight at the sides, as broad 
in the front as at the base. The fangs are broad at the base, thence tapering to 
a fine point. There are two quite small blunt teeth on the inner margin of 
the falx sheath. 

The Lip is longer than broad, tapering from the base to a narrow rounded 
upper margin. It is two-thirds the length of the Maxillae. The latter are 
rounded both at the base and in front, impressed in the middle and slope over 
the lip. 

The Sternum is oval and flat, with thick upstanding bristles all round the 
margin and downlying flat hairs in the middle. The rear Coxae are close 
together. 

The Legs are short, fairly thick in the femoral joints, tapering to the 
tarsi, which are quite fine. The front two pairs are without spines, and have 
scopulae, thin in the middle, on the tarsal and metatarsal joints. The Tibia 

205 



and Metatarsus of the rear pairs are thickly bespined, with a bunch at the 
posterior end of the latter, but have no scopulae. 

The Abdomen is oval, rather flat above and below, thickly covered with 
short fine hair. The Epigym consists of two nearly circular hollows, open on 
the outer sides and separated by a flat longitudinal bridge. The Spinnerets 
are one jointed cylindrical, the inferior pair longest three-fourths their 
diameter apart. 

The measurements in millimetres are as follows : — 







Long. 




Broad. 








Ceph. 


2i 




If (I 


in front). 






Abd. 


4 




2i 








Mand. 


I 










ixae. 


Tro. & Fenr 


1. Pat 


. & Tib. Metat. & Tar. 




1 


4 




4 




2 = 


7l 


h 


2 




2 




If = 


6i 


i 


li 




If 




2 = 


6 


i 


2 




2* 




2^ = 


7i 



Legs I 

2 

3 

4 

(Palpi : Pat. longer than Tars.). 

I female from Yii-lin Fu, North Shensi. 

Family Argiopidae, Group Argiopeae. 
Genus Araneus, Clerck. ? sp. 

Cephalothorax pale yellow on the cephalic part, dark yellowish grey on the 
thoracic, scantily clothed with short white hair. The Mandibles are yellow 
blotched with grey, similar white hair, and fangs yellow brown. Maxillae 
yellow with grey fringes. Lip and Sternum yellow brown with grey hair and 
a pale longitudinal median stripe on the latter. The Legs pale yellow with 
white hair on the upper joints, brown bristles on the tarsi, which are them- 
selves brown at the anterior end. The Abdomen is greyish green all over, the 
Spinnerets olive green. 

The Cephalothorax is convex and one-fourth longer than broad. The 
cephalic part obtusely rounded in front and straight at the sides, the 
thoracic part rounded at the sides. The rear row of Eyes is straight, the rear 
median pair equal in size to the front median are only half their diameter 
apart. The front pair are one-and-a-half diameter apart and the same distance 
from the rear, thus forming a trapezium considerably broadest in front. The 
front laterals are rather smaller than the median, and two diameters of the 
latter away from them. They are half their diameter from the rear laterals, 

206 



which are three diameters of their median distant from them. The Clypeus is 
the breadth of a front median eye. Both lateral eyes are nearly sessile. 

The Mandibles are slightly kneed at the base, the fangs short and weak. 
The Lip is broader than long, less than half the length of the Maxillae, which 
are rather widely divergent at their anterior ends. The Sternum is broad shield 
shaped, convex, hollowed at the margin for the coxae, and pointed at the 
rear end, where the coxae are contiguous. 

The Legs are tapering to the tarsal joints, which are fine, cylindrical, and 
rather short. The tarsal joint of the Palpi is flat and dilated at the base, and 
the palpal claw has about four pectinations. The tibial and patellar joints are 
of equal length. 

The Abdomen is nearly globular, but one-fifth longer than broad, the 
surface is silky and rather finely granulated. The Spinnerets conical, two 
jointed, rather large. 

The measurements in millimetres are as follows : — 

Long. Broad. 







Ceph. 




2 


ij (i in front). 








Abd. 




2i 


2 










Mand. 




1 










Coxae. 


Tro. 


& Fern. 


Pat 


. & Tib. 


Metat. & Tar. 




I 


f 




If 




I* 


i| = 


5f 


2 


1 




a 




i^ 


i^ = 


4f 


3 


f 




I 




I 


I 


3l 


4 


* 




li 




li , 


li = 


4i 




k 




h 




^ 


i = 


J^l 



Legs 



Palpi 

One non-adult female from Yun-fing Shan, North China, to which it is 
not desirable to attach a name, although the species belongs to a series in the 
genus of the type represented by A. hirtus C. Koch. 

Family Thomisidae, Sub-family Misumeninae, Group DuEEiE, 

Genus Diaea, Thor. Species Psubdola, Cambr. 
The Cephalothorax has a wide oblong area of pale yellow reaching from 
the margin of the Clypeus to the top of the rear slope. A similarly coloured 
narrow stripe passes round the edge of the cephalic part with fine white hairs 
thereon, the space intervening between the two being blotchy brown. The 
Mandibles, Lip, Maxillae, and Sternum bright canary yellow; Legs and Palpi 
the same, with clusters of brown spots on the femora and tibiae, grey spines 
and grey scopulae on the tarsi. The Abdomen is pale yellow on both upper 

207 



and under sides, including the Spinnerets ; it is sparsely clothed with short 
flat white hairs. On the underside are two longitudinal rows of impressed 
spots. 

The Cephalothorax is glabrous, as broad as long, tapering to a bluntly 
rounded front, it is strongly convex, much rounded at the sides of the thoracic 
part, a very distinct broad fovea separating the cephalic part from the 
thoracic. Viewed from above both rows of Eyes are recurved and all about 
equal in size ; the front median are twice their diameter apart and rather more 
than their diameter from the laterals. The rear row is longer than the front. 
The median eyes are four times their diameter apart, and more than half that 
distance from the laterals. The two rows are three diameters apart, and the 
Clypeiis as wide as a back and front median eye and the space between. 

The Mandibles are conical with thin weak fangs. The Lip is as broad as 
long, tapering from the base to a rounded point, and more than half the length 
of the Maxillae which lean over it. The Sternum is as broad as long, straight 
in front, and passing with a straight stem between the rear coxae, which are 
widely separated. 

The Abdomen is ovate, smallest and nearly straight in front, and almost 
circular at the rear. 

The Legs are long and fine. Scopulae on all tarsi, two spines above on 
the femora of the rear two pairs. 

The measurements in millimetres are as follows : — 

Long. Broad. 



Ceph. 




I 






I 


(^ in front). 






Abd. 




2 






2 








Mand. 




h 














Coxae. Tro. 


& Fern 




Pat 


.&Tib. 


Metat. & Tar. 




i 


2^ 






2| 




2| 


== 


8i 


I 


2| 






3 




3 


=^ 


9 


I 


if 






li 




If 


= 


5 


I 


2 






li 




li 


= 


5i 


I 


t 






I 




f 


-= 


If 



Legs I 

2 

3 
4 
Palpi 

Two females from Yiin-t'ing Shan, Shansi, North China, ninety miles 
west of T'ai-yiian Fu. 

This species resembles in size and some points the Rev. O. P. Cambridge's 
Diaea subdola from Tarkand (loc. cit.), but his description is too meagre to 
render it certain. 

208 



Family Lycosidae, Group Lycoseae, Genus Lycosa Latr. 

L. clarki sp. n. 

The Cephalothorax is orange yellow, with white downlying hair, 
darkening; into brown in the well marked fovea separating the cephalic and 
thoracic parts, round the margin of the thoracic part, and in a row of rather 
large spots a little above the margin. The sides of the Eyespace are black, 
but not the middle part. The Mandibles are yellow brown with short white 
hairs. The Maxillae are yellow with long upstanding brown hair. Lip yellow 
brown. Sternum and Coxae bright yellow with brown upstanding hair, 
the other joints of the Legs canary yellow with white hair and faint grey rings, 
the hair darkening to grey on the tarsal joints. 

The Abdomen is yellow on the upper side, mottled with rather large 
brown spots and short downlying white hairs, underneath pale yellow covered 
with rows of rather coarse downlying white hair. 

The Cephalothorax is rather broad in front, rounded at the sides with a 
short thin longitudinal fovea at the top of the rear slope. The front row of 
Eyes are straight, the median pair larger than the side, half the diameter of the 
latter away from them, and twice that distance from one another. They are 
their own diameter from the margin of the Clypeus, and two-thirds that 
distance from the eyes of the second row. The latter are nearly twice the 
diameter of the front median, and their own diameter apart. They are the 
same distance from the rear row, which are rather smaller, and three of their 
diameters apart. 

The Mandibles are as long as the front of the Cephalothorax is broad. 
They are sparsely covered with fine hairs, thickest at the outer margin. The 
fangs are long, not much curved. On the inner margin of the falx sheath 
are two equal teeth followed by one small. 

The Lip is as broad as long hollowed in front, about half the length of 
the Maxillae which are broadest in front where they nearly meet. 

The Sternum is convex ovate pointed at the rear end, where the Coxae do 
not quite meet. There is also a space between the second and third pairs. 
It is moderately covered with downlying fine hair and upstanding bristles at 
the sides. 

The Legs are of moderate length and tapered to a fine point at the tarsus, 
there are no scopulae and the front two pairs have only a few short spines on 
the tibia. The two rear pairs rather long spines. The superior claws are 
pectinated at the basal end, the lower smooth. 

O 209 





Ceph. 




Abd. 




Mand, 




Coxae. 


I 


1 


2 


t 


3 


* 


4 


f 



2^ (i^ in front). 




2i 




& Tib. Metat. & Tar. 




2i 2i = 


H 


2i 2i 


1\ 


2 3 = 


7i 


3 4l 


Hi 


1 


3l 



The Pfl//>V are short, the femoral joint curved inwards and widening 
anteriorly, the tibial joint is as long as the patellar. 

The Abdomen is oval and is thickly covered with short downlying hair, the 
Spinnerets are two jointed and of moderate length. The male and female are 
coloured alike. 

The measurements in millimetres are as follows: — 

Long. Broad. 
3 
4 
H 
Fern. Pat. 

Legs I I 2j 

2 

3 
Palpi i li 

A few specimens from Yii-lin Fu on the borders of the Ordos desert. 

Lycosa, ordosa sp. n. 

The Cephalothorax is dark yellow brown, black on the eye area, thickly 
covered with downlying white hair on the slightly lighter median stripe, 
reddish on the side slopes, and white again on the marginal border. The 
Mandibles are brighter yellow brown with upstanding white bristles on the 
basal half, brown bristles on the lower half, and black fangs. The Lip is dark 
yellow brown, paler at the front margin, the Maxillae brighter yellow, both 
with long upstanding hairs and bristles. The Sternum is black brown, with 
a short wedge shaped longitudinal, yellow patch in front, and long upstanding 
bristly hairs. Legs bright orange, thickly covered with downlying white hair, 
grey rings on the femoral joints and brown spines. The Abdomen both on 
upper and under surfaces is darkish yellow thickly covered with flat white 
pointed hairs. The Spinnerets rather darker yellow brown. 

The Cephalothorax is convex rounded at the sides square in front with a short 
narrow longitudinal fovea at the top of the rear slope. The front row of Eyes 
are slightly procurved, the median larger than the side — rather more than half 
their diameter apart, and less than half of the same from the laterals. The 
Clypeus is three fourths the diameter of the front median and they are the 
same distance from the eyes of the second row. These are nearly twice 
the diameter of the front median and slightly more than their own diameter 

210 



apart. The eyes of the rear row are the same distance away, a little smaller 
and twice as far apart as their distance from the second row. 

The Mandibles are kneed at the base, have stout moderately long fangs, 
and two equal sized teeth on the inner side of the falx sheath. 

The Lip is as broad as it is long, hollowed in front, and half as long as the 
Maxillae which are upright, broad in front, and have a few upstanding hairs 
on the outer side. 

The Sternmn is broad, truncate in front and pointed at the rear, where the 
coxae are contiguous. 

The Legs are moderately thick at the base, tapering to the tarsal joint, 
the femora bent to the side of the body, no scopula but numerous upstanding 
bristles on the tarsi of III. and IV., a scopula on tarsus I. and II., and spines 
on all legs. There are two spines above on the femur of all legs, two single 
and two pairs above on tibia III. and IV., one inside the patella of III. and 
IV. 

The A bdomen is oval, the Spinnerets two jointed, the first cylindrical the 
second hemispherical. 

Measurements in millimetres as follows : — 

Broad. 

2^ (i| in front). 

rib. Metat. & Tars. 

Legs I I iJ 3i 3i -= "i 

3 3i = II 
2i 3 -= 9i 

4 5J = M\ 
Palpi I ij ij li = 4l 

Three males not quite adult and several females doubtfully so from 
Yii-lin Fu, N. Shensi. 

Group Pardoseae, Genus Pardosa. 
P. shansia sp. n. 

The Cephalothorax is black brown with a grey haired marginal stripe, a 
median grey longitudinal stripe on the thoracic part only, and grey haired side 
stripes radiating from the thoracic fovea. The Mandibles are black brown with 
reddish hairs on the basal half, dark brown on the anterior, fangs black. The 

211 









Long 






Ceph. 


3i 






Abd. 


4 






Mand. 


If 




Coxae. 


Tr. & Fem. 


Pat 


I 


I 


il 




2 


I 


3i 




3 


I 


3 




4 


li 


4 






I 


ij 





Lip and Maxillae are black brown. The Sternum and inner part of the 
Coxae intensely black with long dark brown hairs, but at the anterior end of 
the Coxae pale yellow grey hair. The Abdomen is without pattern above, the 
skin dark brown, the hairs sandy yellow. Underneath, a broad black area 
extends from the epigyne to just in front of the spinnerets. The sides and 
rear are yellowish grey. The Legs and Palpi have the femoral joint red 
brown with yellowish grey hair, the other joints black brown with the same 
coloured hair over the main portions, but a black haired spot on the inside of 
the patella, at the anterior end underneath the tibia, and a black bare streak 
along the inner side of the Metatarsus. The Scopula on the Tarsus and 
Metatarsus of the front two pairs is grey, that on the rear tarsi black, spines 
black. 

The Cephahihorax, 2mm. longer than broad, is convex, rounded at the 
sides, the cephalic part raised. At the Clypeus it is nearly two thirds the 
greatest breadth of the thoracic part but only half that width at the upper 
eye space which is the same height above the clypeus margin. The front row 
of Eyes is straight, the median larger than the side, half their diameter from 
one another and rather more from the second row pair, slightly less from the 
laterals. The Clypeus is the breadth of a front median eye. The diameter of the 
eyes of the second row is equal to the breadth of one of the front median 
eyes together with its distance from its lateral. They are not quite their 
diameter apart, and the whole row is shorter than the front row. They are 
their diameter distant from the third row pair, which are oval when viewed 
from above, as broad as the front median, and 3J times that distance apart. 

The Mandibles are stout and broad, rather flat at the base and clothed with 
long shaggy bristly hair. The fangs are stout and blunt. Low down on the 
inner margin of the falx sheath are three large blunt equal size teeth, and on 
the outer margin one smaller and then one larger also low down. The Lip is 
rather cup shaped, broader than long, hollowed in front and less than half the 
height of the Maxillae which are upright, convex, rounded at the upper and 
outer margins and thickly covered with long stout bristles. 

The Sternum is a broad shield shape straight in front pointed at the rear 
where the Coxae are close together ; it is thickly covered with long upstanding 
bristly hair. The Legs are moderately long and stout, they are thickly covered 
with very bristly hair, more especially on the underside of the femora. There 
are thick scopulae on the tarsi and metatarsi of the front two pairs, and on 
the tarsi only of the rear two pairs. There are no spines on the upper side of 
any of the tibial joints, but short stout ones at the side edge. 

212 



The Abdomen is oval and convex, fairly thickly covered with short smooth 
downlying hair on the upper side, thick and coarser at the sides and underneath. 

The Spinnerets are two jointed, the lower joint broadly cylindrical the 
upper hemispherical. The Epigyne is roughly triangular the upper edge 
straight with a median ridge descending therefrom into a sloping hollow. 

The measurements in millimeters are as follows : — 

Long. Broad. 



N, 







Ceph. 


II 


9 


(2itO 


5iin 


front). 








Abd. 


14 


lO 














Mand. 


5 














Coxae. 


Tr. & Fern. 


Pat. & Tib. 


Metat 


. & Tar. 


• 












5J 


4i 






-egs I 


3* 


8* 


8i 






10 


= 


30i 


2 


3i 


8 


8 






9* 


= 


29 


3 


3^ 


8 


7 






9 


= 


27i 


4 


3^ 


lO 


^ 






12* 


= 


34i 


^alpi 


2 


5 


4i 






3 


— 


I4i 






(Pat. shorter than 


Tib 


lia). 








One female from the mountainous forest 


country of 


Yiin-t' 


ing Shan, 


China. 


Captain 


Douglas, V'.C. 















Pardosa, sowerbyi sp. n. 



On the Cephalothorax is a red brown median stripe from the rear row of 
eyes to the rear and a similarly coloured marginal stripe, both with white 
downlying hair ; between these on the sides it is black brown with dark 
brown hair on the upper part, on the lower margin reddish, and the same 
at the sides of the eye space. The eye space itself is black brown. The 
Mandibles are red brown with short greyish yellow bristles at the base and 
outer margin, and longer upstanding brown hair on the remainder, the 
fangs are red at the base, darker at the point, but nearly black in the middle. 
Lip and Maxillae are orange with paler edging. Sternum rich yellow brown 
at the sides with a paler longitudinal median stripe thickly clothed with 
white, and a few brown bristly hairs. The Co.xae and Femora underneath are 
bright orange with white hair and grey spines ; the upper sides of the legs are 
dark brown with brown and white hairs. There is a grey Scopula on the tarsi 
and lower end of the metatarsi of the front two pairs, and brown hairs on the 
two rear pairs. The Abdomen is a uniform red brown above with downlying 
short reddish yellow hair, black brown at the sides, underneath pale 



213 



yellow-brown, thickly covered with downlying white hair interspersed with 
long upstanding brown hair. The spinnerets are brown with yellow tips. 

The Cephcilothorax is strongly convex, straight in front and straight along 
the median line ; from the second row of eyes to the rear slope there is a long 
deep fovea. The Eyes of the front row are slightly procurved, the median 
only a Httle larger than the side, they are about their diameter apart, and the 
row is shorter than the second row. The Clypeus is a little broader than the 
front median eyes, but the latter are nearly twice their diameter from the 
second row. The latter are more than one and a half times their diameter 
apart, and the same distance from the third row of eyes, which are two-thirds 
as broad as those of the second, and five times their diameter apart. 

The Mandibles are long and stout, but not much curved at the base. 
There are two very large teeth on the inner margin of the falx sheath. The 
Lip is straight but slightly hollowed in front, rounded at the sides, not quite 
as long as broad, and a little less than half the length of the Maxillae. 

The Sternum is ovate, rather pointed at the rear where the rear Coxae are 
contiguous. 

The Legs are fairly long and powerful, with very long stout spines above 
on Metatarsus iii. and iv., and a single long spine on the inside of the patella 
of same, and two above on the femur. There is a scopula on the Tarsus 
and lower end of the Metatarsus of the front two pairs, but none on the rear 
pairs. The claws are strong and well pectinated. 

The Abdomen is oval, only slightly rounded in front. The Spinnerets 
cylindrical, two jointed, the second joints being apparently protusible. 

The measurements in millimetres are as follows : — 

Female. Male. 

Long. Broad. Long. Broad. 



Legs 



Ceph. 


Al 


3 (2 


: in front). 




Ceph. 


3 


2j 


(I* 


in front) 


Abd. 


5J 


3 






Abd. 


6i 


3 






Mand. 


2 




Fema 


le. 


Mand. 


ij 










Coxae. 


Tr. 


& Fem. Pat, 


. & Tib. Metat. & Tar. 






3 I 


li 




4 


4 




4J 


'.- 




13* 


2 


n 




3i 


3i 




4 


= 




I2i 


3 


I 




3i 


3 




4 


= 




"i 


4 


li 




4i 


4 




4,2 

6 


= 




15^ 


>i 


\ 




ij 


li 




I 


--- 




4i 



Palpi 

2M 



Male (not quite adult). 
Coxae. Tr. & Fern. Pat. & Tib. Metat. & Tar. 
Legs I li 3I 3j 4 = 12J 

21 3 3. 3* = loj 

31 3 3 3* = loi 

4 li 5 4i '^'i = 16J 

Palpi I li ij ij = 4| 

I Male, I Female and three quite small from YUn-t'ing Shan, Shansi, 
N. China. I have named them after Mr. A. de C. Sowerby. 

Genus Evippa, Simon. 

E. DOUGLASI NOV. SP. 

Female. — The cephalic part of the Cephalothorax is black brown with 
flat downlying white or reddish hairs. The thoracic part is dark yellow 
brown in the median area, with two broad black patches reaching therefrom to 
the margin, and a thin paler streak quite at the margin, the whole covered 
with thick downlying reddish white hair. The Mandibles are dark yellow 
brown with long white bristly hair on the upper half, nearly smooth with long 
brown bristles on the lower, the fangs reddish yellow. The Lip and 
Maxillae have broad pale yellow margins, the outer and lower parts yellow 
brown, with thin upstanding brown hair. The Sternum is deep chocolate 
brown with downlying flat white hair. The Legs and Palpi are bright yellow, 
with a black streak on the inner side of the femur and small black spots on 
the other joints, on the upper surface are black spots in transverse bars. 
The Abdomen on the upper side is pale greyish yellow, thickly mottled with 
black spots, a black median scolloped pattern pointed at the rear end reaches 
from near the base to half-way down, at the sides of the last scollop are two 
pairs of black spots, and below them two pairs of transverse bars made up of 
smaller spots. It is thickly covered with short thick hair white and reddish 
white. The sides and underneath are yellow mottled with black spots, short 
thick downlying white hairs and upstanding brown bristles. 

The cephalic part of the Cephalothorax, which is square in front and 
straight at the sides, rises abruptly from the thoracic at an angle of 45 degrees 
and is separated therefrom by a deep and broad crescentic fovea. The 
thoracic part is convex and rounded at the sides with a deep longitudinal 
fovea running from the junction with the cephalic to the rear slope. The 
hairs are flat and wedge shaped. The front row of Eyes is procurved, the 

215 



median pair, their diameter apart are one and a half times the diameter of the 
laterals, from which they are distant the diameter of the latter. The second 
row pair are twice the diameter of the front median, one and a half diameters 
apart, they are twice their diameter from the rear pair, which are slightly 
smaller and four times their own diameter apart. The Clypeus is rather wider 
than the front median eyes. The Mandibles are longer than the breadth of the 
front margin of the Cephalothorax, kneed at the base and thickly covered 
on that portion with long upstanding thick bristly hair, the lower part is 
narrower and nearly smooth. On the inner margin of the falx sheath are 
two teeth. 

The Lip is nearly twice as broad as long, hollowed in front and with a 
rather wide sloping front margin. The Maxillae are upright, broad, rather 
square at the top, and the palpal trochanters rather remarkably long. The 
Sternum is broadly ovate, straight in front and pointed at the rear. It is 
thinly clothed with flat plumose bristles. 

The Abdomen is ovate, truncate in front, the Spinnerets remarkably short, 
conical, and flat at the anterior end. 

The Legs and Palpi are fine and only moderately long. The distal end of 
the tarsal joint has a sloping troncature, the superior claws being long and 
only slightly curved, the outer one has two or three short pectinations right at 
the base ; a slight compression of the sides, and a ring of bristles therefrom, 
conveys the impression of an onychium, which, however, seems to me to be 
false. Several not quite adult males are of the same colouration as the 
females. 

The measurement in millimetres are as follows : — 











Long. 


E 


>road. 










Ceph. 


i*)3i 




3 (ij in front). 










Abd. 


2 




3 










Mand. 


2 












Coxae. 


Tr. & Fern. 


Pat. & Tib. 


Metat. & Tar. 




Legs 


I 


li 


3l 


3i 




4 = 


121 




2 


li 


3i 


3l 




3l = 


I2i 




3 


li 


ih 


3J 




3J = 


III 




4 


li 


4i 


4i 




6 = 


i6J 


Palpi 




i 


2 


2 




il -" 


6 


These 


: specimens 


came from Yii-lin Fu, N. 


Shensi, on the border of the 


Ordos desert. 















216 



This species is somewhat near Rev. O. P. Cambridge's E. benevola from 
Yarkand (Yarkand 2nd Mission, Pt. viii., Arach p. 95). He does not mention 
the size of his specimen, but this would appear to differ from it in the darker 
colour of the whole of the pars cephalica, the lighter median area not passing 
thereto, the clypeus not so broad as twice the front median eyes, paler lip and 
darker sternum. There are no cretaceous white spots on the abdomen, the 
median longitudinal marking only reaches half way, and there is no 
longitudinal band or other marking on the underside. 

I have named it after Capt. Douglas, V.C., D.S.O., R.A.M.C., the 
collector of all the specimens brought home. 



217 




J'f. 



EXPLANATION OF ABOVE DIAGRAMS. 

1. Araneut ? «p. X 2 2 la, profile, nat, size. 

2. Pardosa shansia, tp. n. nat. >ize. 9 2a, eyes. 2b, epigyne. 2c, lip and maxillae. 

3. Diaea ' subdola. Cambr. 9x2. 3a, eyes. 3b, leg of 4lh pair (enlarged). 

4. Pardosa sowerbyi, sp. n. ? nat. size. 4a, eyes. 4b, lip and maxillae. 4c, teeth on inner margin of falx 

sheath. 

5. Drassodes ? lapsus. Cambr. ? X 2. 5a, eyes. 5b, epigyne. 5c, lip and maxillae. 

6. Lycosa clarki, sp. n. 9 X 2. 6a, eyes. 6b. epigyne. 

7. Lycosa ordosa. sp. n. 9x2. 7a, eyes. 7b, lip and maxillae. 

8. Evippa douglasi. sp. n. 9x2. 8a, eyes. 8b, profile. 8c, lip and maxillae. 8d. tarsal claws. 

NOTE. — The original drawing of this plate having been reduced in size by Jrd linear, the sizes shown 
herein must be increased by one-half, to agree with above explanation. 

218 



APPENDIX VI. 



DIARY OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
MADE ON EXPEDITION IN NORTH CHINA IN I908 AND IQCg. 



PLACE. 



feet. 



tTai-yiian Fu 2600 

(Shansi) 



Chao-chuang 



T'ai-yiian Fu 
Chao-chuang 

Chao-chuaug 



T ai-yiiau Ku 
Chao-chuang 



Tai-)'uan Fu 
Chao-chuang 
T'ai-yiian Fu 
Chao-chuang 



3000 



2600 
3000 

3000 



2600 
3000 



2600 
3000 
2600 
3000 



Tai-yuan Fu 
Chao-chuang 



... 2600 
... 3000 



Dale. 



1008 

May 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

21 

22 

23 

24 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

30 

31 

Jnne 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
9 

10 

10 

11 

11 

12 



13 



14 



16 



* Time of 
Observation. 



V J: 

a a 



iDcbcs. 



2.00p.m 
12.00p.ni 



4.00p.m 
U.OOp.m 



26 87 

27 04 
2692 
2695 
27 03 
2705 



26 86 
26 84 



27 05 



2705 



26 82 



.= E 



OF. 



206 5 

207 
2073 
207 1 
2070 



2068 



207 1 



2072 



26-82 

... 2068 
26 86 ... 
26 78 ; 206 6 



26 83 



206'8 



26 81 2069 



2702 ■ ... 
2683 2070 



Temperature. 



Dry 
Bulb. 

OF. 



844 
87 
769 
72 
74 

830 
852 



560 
78 1 



Wet 
Bulb. 



OF. 



600 
652 



652 
62- 1 
600 
595 
632 



538 



Max. 
OF. 



620 



820 
770 



914 j 

890 I 
518' 
800 
85 I 



84 



84-4 



820 

75 ' 650 



760 

82 7 
880 
900 
927 
920 

788 
840 
782 

857 
89 1 
982 
864 
748 
860 



900 
920 
95 3 
89 7 
930 
930 

920 
930 
930 

98 

87'4 

870 



i930 



94- 1 



920 



833 



Min. 
OF. 



580 

48'2 

54- 1 
622 
62 1 
645 

59-4 
53 1 
58 6 I 

593' 
630 



533 
484 



87 47 



430 
483 
55-6 
56 8 
54 
491 1 

429 
480 
482 

47 3 

587 

4"5-8 



51-6 



538 



480 



520 



REMARKS. 



Rain and thunder at 6.00 p.m. 
Rain at 11.00 p.m. 



Thunderstorm at 5.00 p.m. 
Storm at 5.00 p.m. 



4.00 p.m. Heavy gust of wind ; over in 

J hour, accompanied by dust. 
7.00 a.m. Fresh wind from S.W, 
11.00 a.m. Strong wind and dust from 

N.W. 
5.00 p.m. Wind fell to fresh. 
7.00 a.m. Very light wind from N.W., no 

clouds. 
12 noon. Calm, clear sky. 
1.00 p.m. Light wind from N.W. 
Cirro-stratus clouds, 7.00 p.m. no wind. 
7.00a.m. Light N.E. wind, few cumulus 

clouds. 2.00 p.m. same. 
3.40 p.m. Few drops rain. 

7.00a.m. Light breeze N. K , cirrus clouds. 

11.00 a.m. Calm. 1.00 p.m. Very light 
N.E. wind, cirrus clouds. 8.00 p.m. 
Cumulus clouds, no wind. 

7.00 a.m. Light N.t;. wind, sky over- 
cast, cumulus clouds. 11.00 a.m. few 
drops rain. 8.00 p.m. Sky still over- 
cast. 



* In hours and minutes after midnight (am), or after noon (p.m.). 
t Latitude 37° 51' 36" N., Longitude 112° 33' 56" E. 

219 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— co«/;>iw«a*. 



PLACE. 



T'ai-yiian Fu 
Chao-chuang 



Tai-yuan Ku 
Chao-chuang 



Tou-fu-ssa 



Station H. 
Tou-fu-ssa 



Station H. 
Tou-fu-ssfl 



<< 


Date. 


feet. 






1908 


2600 


June 
16 


I 3000 


17 




17 




18 




19 




19 




20 




21 




22 




22 


... 


23 




23 




23 


2600 


23 


3000 


24 


... 


24 




24 


... 


25 




25 




25 




26 




27 


4527 


27 




28 




28 




28 




28 


4984 


28 


4527 


29 


... 


29 


4984 


29 


4527 


30 



Time of 
Observation. 



10.00 a m 
12 night 

12 noon 



9.00 am 
n.OOp.m 



8.00 a. m 



6.00 am 



7.00 a.m. 

8.00p.m. 
7.00 a.m. 

8.00 a.m. 
noon 

11.00 a.m. 
1.00p.m. 
8.00p.m. 

6.00 am 

3.00p.m. 

midnight 



S.OOa.m, 

12.30p.m 
4.00p.m 
9.00 pm 

lO.OOp.m 
S.OOa.m 
3.00 p.m, 



6.00 a.m. 



^2 
inches. 



26 85 
26'81 



2675 



26 85 



2708 



2700 



2681 



26 90 
2676 
26 70 
26 67 

2668 

26 86 



25 58 

25-53 
2551 



25 11 
25 46 
2537 

25 05 



2542 



Tcmperatnre. 



° F. 



2067 



2066 



2069 



2070 



2072 



2070 



206 7 



206'8 



206 4 
206 3 
206 2 

206 3 
206 5 
206 5 
206 7 



204 1 



204 I 
204 1 



2034 



Dry 
Bulb. 



74 5 
653 
626 

87 



720 
744 



71-6 



640 



811 

795 
787 

768 
85 3 
89 7 
70 1 
690 
720 

685 
882 
650 
755 



726 



653 

750 
750 
720 
680 
706 
820 

707 



62'4 



Wet 
Bulb. 



61 3 
587 

729 



69 8 
65.0 



635 



620 



676 



69 



667 
620 



683 
64 9 

64 4 

65 



Max. 
OF. 



797 
920 

963 
747 



876 
859 
924 



915 



91 



84 
75 7 



760 



Min. 
OF. 



580 
51 3 

533 
608 



78 3 



576 
600 
589 

64-4 

586 
537 
62 1 

620 
62 7 
596 



RKMARKS. 



7.00 a.m. Very dull, and few drops rain. 
Calm. Gentle shower on and off all 
day Cleared up at 9.00 p.m. 

S.OOa.m Calm, clear. Noon LightN.W. 
wind, clear. 6 00 p m. Clouding over, 
light S.W. wind. 8 00 p.m. Light 
N.W. wind, thunderstorm to N.W. 
lO.OOp.m. Hea\7 wind, N.E. 12 night 
Clear, light W. wind. 

8.00 am Calm, cirrus clouds. 12 noon 
Calm, cirrus clouds. 5.00 p.m. Cumu- 
lus, fresh S. wind, dust. 7.00 p.m. 
Thunderstorms to S.W. and N.W. 
11.00 p.m. Still cloudy. 

7.00 a.m. Calm, cumulus clouds. 10.30 
a.m. Light wind and rain from S. 
Noon Cumulus clouds, light mnd 
N.E., thunderstorms along hills from 
S.W. toN.W. 2.00 p.m. Rain stopped, 
heavy stratus clouds 3.00 p.m. Rain 
re-commenced, continued to midnight. 

6.00 a.m. Calm, overcast, stratus clouds. 

Noon, Cumulus, light N.W. breeze. 

6.00 p.m. Strato-cumulus, light E. wind. 

7.00 a.m. Very light N.W. wind, cloudless. 

Noon Light S. wind, cirrus clouds. 

8.00 p.m. Fresh E. wind, sky overcast. 

7.00 a.m. Cloudless, very light N.W. 
breeze. 

Noon Cloudless, very light N.W breeze. 

8.00 p m. Cumulus clouds, E. wind. 

Midnight Steady rain (all night). 

8.00 a.m. Steady gentle rain. 

Noon Rain stopped, damp, overcast 

1.00p.m. Rain re-commenced. 8.00 p.m. 
Heavy clouds, no wind. 

6.00 am. Very misty, mackerel sky 

Noon Cirro-cumulus, light wind N.W. 

3.00 p m. Clear, fresh breeze N.W 

7.00 a.m. Clear, calm. Noon Heavy 
stratus clouds, calm. 7.30 p.m. Fresh 
S. wind, 

7.00 a.m. Dull, rain during night. 

Noon Dull, light wind from N.W. 

5.00 p.m. Cumulus clouds, calm. 

lO.OOp.m Thunderstorm and heavy rain. 

7.00 am Cumulus clouds, light N.W. 
wind. 

Noon Cirro-cumulus clouds, calm 

8.00 p m Cirro-Cumulus clouds, calm. 

9.45 p.m Thunderstorm since 5 00 p m. 

River flooded. 

8.00 a.m. Stratus clouds, calm. 

3.00 p.m. Strato-cumulus, light S.W. 
wind. 

5.30 p m Thunderstorm from S.W., river 
risen from 3 ft. to 8 ft. between 
morning and afternoon. 

6.00 a.m. Clear, fresh wind W. 



220 



M ETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— conftm/^rf. 











*<~ 


**• hi 








<i4 






gJS 


c g 


Tempermtare. 




PLACE. 


a 


Dale. 


Time o! 
Observation. I 


Bu^. 


Wet 






REMARKS. 




<< 






^ 


Bulb. 


Ma>. 


Min. 






reel. 






incbe>. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








■ 9=8 




















Jane 


















Tou-fu-ssfl 


4527 


30 11.00a.m. 


2545 




720 


660 




... 


Noon Cumulus clouds, light wind W. 


Btation H. 


4984 


30 6.30 a.m. 


24 98 




630 




... 




5.00 p.m. Strato-cumulus, light wind W. 


, , 




30 


11.00 a.m. 


25 04 




655 


... 


... 






Tou-fu-ssQ 


4527 


30 
July 


3.00p.m. 


... 


204.05 


77 3 


•*• 


... 


... 




•' 


4527 


1 

1 


9.00 a.m. 
1.00p.m. 


2555 
25 56 


204 3 


755 
81 2 


634 


812 


636 


7.00 am Clear, very light N.W. wind 
Noon same. 6.00 p.m. Calm. 9.00 p.m. 
Same as 7.00 a.m. 


Chao-chuang 


3000 


2 
2 


8.00a.m. 
8.00p.m. 


26 83 


2068 


747 
790 


676 
690 


903 


647 


6 00 a.m. Few cirrus clouds, calm, hazy. 
9 30 am. Cirro-cumulus, fresh wind S. 






2 


10.30p.m. 


2681 


2066 


738 


677 






3 00 p m. Thunderstorm in hills to W. 

6 00 p tn Cumulus increasing, strong 
wind N.E., thunderstorms E. and 
S.E. 10.30 p.m. Overcast, very light 
N. wind. 


,, 




3 


10.00 a.m. 


26 88 


2069 


700 


695 


74-7 


672 


6.00 a.m. Raining, calm. 


, , 


... 


3 


1.15p.m. 


2691 


207 


712 


660 






1.15 p.m. Rain stopped, fresh N.E. wind. 


T'ai-yuan Fu 


2600 


3 


6.45 p.m. 


2688 




708 




... 


... 


1.45 p.m. Rain re-commenced, stopped 
at 5 00 p.m. 


Chao-chuang 


3000 


4 


1.30 p.m. 


26 79 


2067 


822 


675 


86-8 


708 


8.00 a.m. Cirrus clouds. 






4 


6.00p.m. 


26 74 


206 7 


729 


668 






1.15 p m. Clear, fresh S. wind. 


Chao-chuang 


3000 


4 


10.00p.m. 


2676 


206 7 


687 


672 






6 00 p.m. Thunderstorm on N.E. hills, 


T'ai-yiian Fu 


2600 


4 


10.00 a.m. 


2681 




725 








Wind N.E. 10.00 pm. Hazy, calm. 


Chao-chuang 


3000 


5 


5.00 a.m. 


26 73 


2066 


61-4 


62-2 


1000 


.57'7 


5.00 a.m. No clouds, hazy, verj* light 


, , 




5 


11.00a.m. 


2679 


2066 


895 


737 




... 


S.E. wind. 11 00 am No clouds, hazy. 


,, 




5 


3.00p.m. 


2671 


206 5 


922 


750 




... 


calm. 3.00 p ni. No clouds, hazy, calm. 


•• 




5 


10.00p.m. 


2682 


2068 


722 


685 


... 


... 


6.30 p.m. Thunderstorms. 0.07 ins. 
rain. 10.00 p m. Overcast, calm. 


,, 


... 


6 


8.30 a.m. 


26 88 


2068 


809 


723 


91 3 


61 


8.30 a tn. No clouds, hazy, very light 


,, 




6 


11.30a.m. 


26 88 


2068 


860 


705 






wind N W. 11.30 a.m. Few cirrus. 


,, 


.•* 


6 


1.10p.m. 


2683 


2067 


879 


690 






hazy, light wind S.S.W. 1.10 p.m. 


,, 




6 


7.00pm. 


26 88 


2069 


780 


67 






More cirrus, hazy, fresh wind S.S.W. 


■ 




6 


10.00p.m. 


26 95 


2069 


750 


676 






3 00 p m. Strong wind W. 7.00 p m. 
Stratus, clear, calm. 10.00 p.m. Light 
S. wind. 11.00 p.m. Rain (Rainfall 
02 ins.) 


,, 


... 




9.00 a.m. 


27 00 


2070 


719 


680 


860 


649 


8.00 am Stratus clouds, calm. 








2.00p.m. 


2693 


2069 


84-6 


675 


*•. 




10.30 a.m. Stratus, calm, light rain. 








5.00p.m. 


2698 


207 


67 5 i 641 


... 


... 


4.00 p m. Strong wind from south fol- 


,_ 


... 


n 


8.30p.m. 


2703 


207 1 


65 3 65 5 


... 




lowed by rain. Rain throughout 




... 




10.30p.m. 
midnight 


2709 


207 1 


65 


655 






night (Rainfall 75 ins.) 


__ 






2702 


207 1 


650 


67 


... 


... 




,, 


... 


8 


9.30a. m 


2694 


2069 


726 


682 


805 


683 


9 30 a.m. Cirrus, very clear atmosphere. 




... 


8 


1.30p.m. 


26 90 


2068 


780 


682 




... 


Noon Cumulus and stratus, light wind 






8 


5.30p.m. 


2681 


206 7 


76 1 


680 




... 


S.W. 4.00 p ni. Thunderstorm S. (0 07 


■■ 




8 


8.45p.m. 


26 88 


206 9 


65 


650 






ins. rain). 5 30 to 7.45 p.m. Thunder- 
storms all round. 8 45 p.m. Very 
slight rain, N.W., calm. Midnight, 
Stars \'isible, light cumulus, calm. 




... 


9 


5.00a.m. 


26 83 


2069 


608 


603 


84 1 


60 1 


5.00 a.m. Cirrus, calm (overnight rain 




••* 


9 


11.45 a.m. 


26 87 


2067 


789 








01 ins.) 11 45 am Few cumulus. 






9 


2.30p.m 


26 82 


• >• 




.>• 


. >. 


... 


very light wind S W. 2 30 p m. Same. 




... 


9 


7.00p.m 




*.. 


760 


700 






500 pm Few cumulus, calm. 8 00 pm. 




... 


9 


lO.OOp.m 


2683 


2068 


720 


... 


... 




Few cumulus very light wind S W. 
10.00 p m Calm, cirrus, moonlight. 




... 


10 ' 9 30am 






687 


650 


77 


60'5 


1000 am Stratus and cumulus, light 




... 


10 10.00 am 


26-94 


2069 


71 1 


662 


... 


... 


wind S. 2 30 p m. Cirrus, light wind 




... 


10 2.30p.m 


2688 


2067 


760 


688 


... 




vS. 8.00 p.m. Clear, very light wind 


•• 


... 


10 8 00pm 


2683 

1 


2068 


690 


662 


... 




(Overnight rainfall 02 ins). 



221 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— co;?//«weo. 



I 



PLACE. 



Chao-chuang 



« 
feet. 



3000 



T'ai-yuan Fu 



2600 



Date. 



tgoS 
July 

11 

11 



15 
15 

16 
16 

17 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
19 
19 
19 

20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
21 



Time of 
Gbservation. 



8.30 am 
2.00p.in 



10.00 am 
I.OOp m 
I.SOp.m 
8.00 p. m 

ll.OOp.m 



8.00 am 
10.00 am 
noon 
2.00p.m 
4.00p m 
6.15p.m 
8.00 p. m 
lOOOp.m 



5.30 a.m 
9.30 am 
11, 30 am 
1.30p.ni 
8.00 p. m 



7.00 am 
9.15 a.m 

lO.OOp.m 



11.00 am 

2.00 p. m 

5.00 pm 

lO.OOp.m 

10.30 am 

l.OOp m 

5.30p.m 

8.30 p. m 

midnight 

10 00 am 

2.00p.m 

7.00p.m 

10.30 am 

2.30p.m. 

6.30p.m. 
12.30 a.m. 
10.00 a.m. 

2.30p.m. 

6.30p m. 



inches. 



2690 
26 86 



2691 
2684 
26 84 
2685 
26 89 



2683 
26 84 
2682 
2685 
2681 



26 84 
2687 

26 89 



26 85 
2684 
26 82 
26 83 
2675 
2674 
26 71 
26 73 
26 72 
26 70 
2667 
2668 

2673 
26 68 
2671 
2677 
2677 
2673 
2673 



to u 



"•X 

OF. 



2069 
2067 



2069 
206 7 
206 7 
2068 
2068 



2069 
2068 
206 7 
2067 
2067 
206 7 
2069 
2069 



2068 
206 7 
206 6 
2068 
2067 



2068 
2067 

2068 



2068 
206 75 
2068 
206 7 
206 7 
206 6 
206 6 
206 7 
2066 
2065 
206 5 
2064 

206 7 
206 5 
206 7 
206 7 
206 7 
2066 
2065 



Temperature. 



Dry 
Bulb. 

OF. 



773 
870 



84 
838 
722 
74 
690 



745 
857 

84 

85 1 
82 1 
686 
67 1 
65- 1 



652 
753 
723 
637 
643 



626 
723 



Wet 

Bulb. Max. 



OF. 



72 5 
759 



747 
711 
64 
695 
644 



700 
750 
765 
754 
74 2 
65 9 
64 -2 
63-5 



648 
71 2 
655 
62 1 
632 



605 
67 8 



74 671 



725 
716 
71 
67 1 
66'6 
688 
695 
682 
655 
700 
800 

74 1 

789 
838 

75 5 
702 
79 1 
87 
809 



70 1 
687 
670 
65 1 
650 
67 
67 5 

65 3 
63 7 

66 1 
699 
692 

715 
736 
693 
668 
700 
750 
735 



OF. 



906 



92 5 



90S 



802 



Min. 
OF. 



583 



587 



611 



61 9 



860 
756 

74 

83 2 

865 
882 



554 
611 
700 

64-8 

64 6 

674 
666 



REMARKS. 



8.00a.m. Light breeze N W., few cirrus 
clouds. 2.00 p.m. Overcast, light wind 
W. Midnight, cirrus, few stars ^•isible, 
calm. 

8.00 a.m. Clear, verj' light W. wind. 
10.00 am, N.W. Noon, Cirrus, very 
light N.W. wind. 1.00p.m. Thunder- 
storm from E . , few heavy drops. 
1.20p.m. Thunderstorm from W.N.W.. 
heavy rain. 8.00 p.m. Light cirrus, 
calm (Rainfall 25 ins.). 

8.00 am. Cirrus, verj- light wind W. 
10 a.m. Cirro-cumulus, light wiiid,W. 
Noon, Overcast, cumulus, light wind, 
W 2.00 p.m. cirro-cumulus, light 
wind N.W., thunderstorm in N. 
4.00 p.m. Nimbus, overcast, heavy rain 
from N. ; over at 4.30 (0 45 'ins.). 
5.00 p.m. Thunderstorm from S.W. 
over at 5.50 (0 13 ins). 6 00 p.m. 
Thunderstorm from N.W. 8.00 p.m. 
Still raining gently, thunderstorms all 
round (007 ins.). 9.30p.m. Overcast, 
calm (002 ins.). Total rainfall in 8 
hours = 067 ins). 

5.30 a.m. Strato-cumulus, very light 
wind N. 9.30 a.m. Strato-cumulus 
from S.W, light wind N.W. 11.00a.m. 
Overcast, fresh wind W., thunder in 
N.E. and S.E. 1.30 p.m. Heavy rain 
from E., over at 2.30 (0 19 inches). 
6.00 p.m. Cleared, nimbus and cirrus, 
calm. 8 00 p.m. Clear overhead, calm. 
10 p.m. Clear, calm, starry. 

7.00 a.m. Cirro-stratus, overcast, verj- 
light wind N.E. 9.15 a.m. Cirro- 
cumulus, light wind N.E. 

8.00 a.m. Cumulus, calm. 

T'ai-yiian Fu, 6 00 p.m. Clear. 10.00 p.m. 
Overcast. 

9.00 am. Raining gently, commenced at 
7.00 a.m. Noon, Raining gently. 
6.30 p.m. Raining hard. Midnight, 
Raining gently (052 ins). 

9.00 a.m. Raining hard, all night. 

10.00 am. Rainfall since midnight 
(2.89 ins.) 1 00 p.m. to midnight still 
raining. Total rainfall for 24 hours 
= 3'66 ins. 

10.00 a.m. Overcast. 2.00 p.m Same. 
5.30 p.m. Rain. Total rainfall since 
midnight 013 inches. 7.00 p.m. Light 
wind N. 9.00 p.m. Calm, clear. 

10.30 a.m. Clear, light N.E. wind. 

2.30 p.m. Thunder in N.E. 

6 30 p.m. Few cirrus clouds. 

12.30 a.m. Clear, calm. 

2.30 p.m. Cirrus, light wind W. 

6.30 p.m. Calm, clear. 

Midnight, Calm, clear. 



222 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con^/wco'. 





g-s' 




Time of 
ObservatioD. 


M 


11 


Temperature. 




PLACE. 


o 3 

a,s Date. 

CLj:: 


BujS. 


Wet 






REMARKS. 




« 






^ 


«| 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Mio. 






r«i. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








1908 


















T'ai-yiian Fu .. ' 2600 


July 1 
22 I n.30a.m. 


26 75 


206 1 


87 


1 


76 5 : 93 2 


71 






22 


3.30p.m. 26 67 


206-5 1 93 


2 


779! ... 




3.30 p.m. Clear, light wind N.W. 






22 


7.30p.m. 


26 68 


2064 


84 


2 


752 ... 








... 


22 


11.30p.m. 


2671 


2065 


78 


5 




*.. 






... 


23 


9.00 a.m. 


26 74 


206 7 


88 


I 75 5 ' 935 


732 


9.00 a.m. Few cirrus, light wind W. 




... 


23 


5.00p.m. 


26-70 


206-5 


93 


5 1 70 


... 


... 


5.00 p m Clear, light wind N.E. 






23 


midnight 


26-77 


206-7 


74 


5 ! 67 3 




... 


Midnight, clear, calm. 






24 


1.00p.m. 


2679 


206 7 


92 


8 


702 


950 


700 








24 


5.30p.m. 


2678 


206 7 


89 


5 


700 












24 midnight 


2687 


206 9 76 


2 


66 0: ... 


*.* 






... 


25 1 11 30 a.m. 26 86 


206 9 j 89 





692 97-5 


713 






... 


25 11.30p.m 26 88 


207 ! 75 


5 


70-4 1 ... 










26 11.00 a.m. 26 88 


207 89 





72 4 982 


71-5 


11.00 a.m. Few Cirrus, light wind N.K. 






26 


4. 30p.m. 26-82 


2067 98 


2 


75 3 1 ... 




4.30 p.m. Overcast, light breeze S.W. 






26 


11.00p.m. 26 86 


2068 78 





719 1 ... 


... 


11.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 






27 


I0.00a.m.j26 86 


206 9 1 86 





754 


980 


729 


10.00 a.m. Cirrus over stratus, calm. 






27 


3.00p.m.j26 80 


206 7 92 





78 1 






3.00 p.m. Overcast, wind S.E. 




... 


27 


5.00p.m.l26 79 


206 6 ' 91 





760 


>•• 




5.00 p.m. Cirro-cumulus, light wind S.W. 






28 


11.00 a.m. 


26-73 


206 5 1 86 


2 


78-5 


96 1 


741 


11. 00 a.m. Nimbus and stratus, wind S W. 




... 


28 


3.00p.m. 


2668 


206-4 87 


8 


765 


... 


... 


3.00p.m. Overcast, slight rain, wind S\V. 




... 


28 


7.00p.m. 


2678 


206 5 82 


8 


71-2 


... 


... 


7.00 p.m. Nimbus, threatening rain, wind 

W. 
10.30 p.m. Rain 004 ins. 




... 


28 


10.30p,m. 


26-81 


206 7 78 


5 


67-6 








... 


29 


9.30 a m. 


2692 


207 77 


2 


699 


• • * 




9.30 a.m. Stratus, light wind W. 






29 


noon 26 92 


206 9 85 


5 


720 


... 


... 


Noon Few cirrus, calm. 




... 


29 


8.00p.m. 26 90 


206 9 78 


5 


700 






8.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 




... 


30 ! 10.30'a.m.l26 90 


206 9 i 83 


1 


730 


93'4 


710 


10.30 a.m. Cirrus, light wind \V. 




... 


30 , 1.30p.m. 26 86 


2068 : 89 


5 


73 






1.30 p.m. Clear, fresh breeze. 






30 


7.30p.m. 


2683 


206 8 82 


1 


700 




... 


7.30 p.m. Clear, calm. 




... 


31 


10.30 a.m. 


26 88 


206 9 83 


5 


720 


980 


70-2 


10.30a.m. Cirro-cumulus, light wind S.-W. 




... 


31 


7.30p.m. 


26 85 


2068 


87 


7 


76 1 




... 


7.30 p.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 






Aog. 
























I 


9.00 a.m. 


2702 


2072 


73 


1 


691 


... 


703 


9.00 a.m. Rain from S.E. (0 05 ins.). 






1 


4.00p.m. 


26 92 


2070 


87 


8 


710 






4.00 p.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 






1 


9.00p.m. 


26 98 


207- 1 


800 


74 5 


... 




8.00 p.m. Rain (027 ins.). 9.00 p.m. 
Clear, calm. 




... 


2 


9.00p.m. 


26 97 




... 


... 


94 3 


77-7 








3 


9.00 a.m. 


27 02 


2073 


840 


74 


95-6 


783 






... 


4 


9.45 a.m. 


27 00 


207- 1 


853 


753 




793 








4 


noon 


26 98 






91 8 


760 












5 


4.00p.m. 


26 87 






970 


760 


100.0 


793 






... 


6 


10.15a.m. 


26 89 






928 


77-7 


985 


81 2 








6 1 12.45p.m. 


26 86 






902 


762 ... 










6 


5.00p.m. 


26 82 






964 


77-2 


... 


... 






... 


6 


10.30p.m. 


2687 




.. 866 


75-5 


... 


... 








7 


9.45 a.m. 


26 90 




893 


775 




811 






... 


7 


12.30p.m. 


26'86 




953 


790 




... 






... 


8 


8.00a.m. 


26 89 




.. 1814 


760 


1004 


79-8 






... 


9 


10.00 a.m. 


2691 




92 


772 


960 


81 4 






... 


9 


noon 


26 88 




.. 935 


777 


... 








... 


9 


6.15p.m. 


2691 






880 


770 


... 








... 


10 


noon 


26 93 






87 1 




87-2 


.•> 


Rainfall, 11 ins. 




... 


10 


5.00p.m. 


26-90 






783 


741 


... 








... 


11 


8.00 a.m. 


26 92 






738 


69-8 


... 


73"8 


Rainfall, 29 ins. 




... 


11 


1.30p.m. 


2691 






720 


680 


... 


... 








11 


6.30p.m. 


26 92 






700 


660 


... 


... 






... 


12 


7.30a.m. 


26 92 






682 


660 


859 


67-6 






... 


12 


8.30p.m. 


26 92 




'.'. 76 5 1 










... 


13 


8.30 am 


26 93 






769 


685 


906 


680 






... 


13 


5.00p.m. 


26 88 






81-3 


710 




... 





223 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/wwerf. 



PLACE. 



T'ai-yiian Fu 



£ 3 

<< 
feet. 



2600 



Date. 



1908 

Aug. 
13 
14 
14 
15 
IS 
16 
16 
16 
16 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
19 
19 

20 

20 

20 

20 

21 

21 

21 

22 

22 

23 

23 

24 

24 

25 

25 

26 

26 

26 

27 

27 

27 

28 

28 

28 

29 

29 

29 

30 

30 

30 

30 

31 

31 

31 

31 

Sept. 

1 

1 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 



Time of 
Observation. 



9.30p.m 
7.00 am 
7.30 p. Ill 
7.30 a. m 
9.30 p. m 
9.30 a. ni 

11.30a.in 
S.OOp.m 
9.30 p. m 
9.15 a. m 
1.30 p. Ill 
8.45p.ni 

10.15 a. m 
2.15p.ii] 
1.30p.m 
5.30 p.m 
9.30a.ni 
noon 
2.00p.ni 
4.30p.ni, 

11.15 a.m. 
5.25 p.m. 
9.30p.m. 

11.20a.m. 
5.00p.m. 

11.00 a.m. 
7.50p.m. 

11. 00 a. 11). 
4.30p.m. 

10.00a.m. 
2.30p.m 

11. 00 a.m. 
6.00p.m. 

1000p.m. 
9.30 a m. 
6.15p.m. 

10 00p.m. 
9 30p ni 
6 00p.m. 

10.00p.m. 
9.30 a.m. 

12.30p.m. 
6.00p.m. 

10.00 a.m. 

12.30p.m. 
6.00p.m. 
9.30 p.m. 
9.30 a.m. 

12.30p.m. 
6 00 p.m. 

1030p.m. 

10.00a.m. 

2.10p.m. 

9.30p,m. 

9 00 a.m. 
12.20 p.m. 

5.30p.m. 
10.45 a.m. 

7.30p.m. 



9 c 



inches. 



26 93 
26 96 
2691 

26 90 
2687 
2691 
2691 
2691 
2695 
2699 
2698 
2701 

27 03 
2697 
2697 
2695 
27 04 
27 00 
2697 

26 96 

27 08 
2707 
27 12 
2707 
2705 
27 02 
26-98 
27 02 
2690 
26 96 
26 87 
26 96 
2691 

26 98 

27 03 
26 97 

26 99 

27 12 
2701 
27 03 
2710 
27 07 
27 05 
27 17 
27 16 
27 07 
27 13 
27 08 
2701 

26 99 
2701 

27 13 
26 99 
2697 
2697 
2693 
2688 
26 93 
26 93 



.EE 



OF. 



Temperature. 



Dry 

Bulb. 

OF. 





800 


766 


825 


787 


760 


780 


728 


730 


71-8 


75 9 


840 


740 


780 


86 5 


843 


830 


800 


838 


870 


860 


750 


665 


645 


69'0 


700 


700 


690 


74 


71 5 


705 


84 5 


780 


825 


720 


745 


835 


74-5 


755 


855 


770 


70.5 


850 


803 


705 


773 


800 


720 


735 


71-5 


695 


680 



735 
795 
725 
680 
680 
660 
715 
789 



Wet 

Bulb. 



o F. 



720 

733 

70-2 
692 
680 

730 
75- 1 

70 7 
74 -5 
730 
75 

750 

78 
61 
605 
600 
632 

64 5 
64 
650 
650 
650 
690 
690 
660 
630 
665 
675 
665 
650 
665 
680 
660 
700 
690 
700 
680 
70 
67 

64 3 
650 
650 

65 

670 
705 
65 5 
650 
650 
630 
660 
650 



Max 
OF. 



93 1 
890 



85 7 

880 
870 

87'4 

873 

870 
7i20 
790 

850 



880 



900 



900 



825 



823 



Min. 
o F. 



REMARKS. 



753 
73-8 

708 

697 
74 3 

723 

71 8 

630 
650 
650 
640 
620 

690 

61 3 

650 

660 

685 

670 
680 
630 



Rainfall, 6 ins. 
Rainfall, 19 ins. 



Rainfall, 0.09 ins. 



Rainfall, 034 in. 



Rainfall. 91 ins. 



224 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/wi/erf 





ii 

<< 


Date. 


Timeo* 
Observmtion. 


S 


•si 

.rl 

n 


Temperatuie. 


REMARKS. 




PLACE. 


Baib. 


Wet 

Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






feeL 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 










1908 
























Sept. 




















T'ai-yiian Fu 


2600 


4 
4 


6.45 a.m. 
2.45p.m. 


2695 
26 98 




63 
850 


62 5 
660 


... 


655 










5 


10.30a.m. 


2707 




725 


658 


850 


6l"5 








... 


5 


1.30 p.m. 


27 03 




825 


675 




... 










6 


9.30 a.m. 


2710 




760 


67 5 


860 


670 








... 


6 


8.00p.m. 


2704 




704 


680 












... 


7 


9.00 a.m. 


2706 




68-4 


660 


794 


64 


Rainfall, 16 ins. 






... 


7 


7.00p.m. 


27 06 




685 


600 












... 


8 


9.00a.m. 


27 17 




690 


598 


720 


570 








... 


8 


7.00p.m. 


2710 


... 


680 


580 




... 








... 


9 


9.00a.m. 


2713 




620 


560 


78-8 


570 








... 


9 


7.00p.m. 


27 04 




71-5 


61 












... 


10 


9.00a.m. 


27 02 




650 


590 




610 








... 


10 


7.00p.m. 


26 79 




680 


600 




... 








... 


11 


9.00 a.m. 


27 02 


... 


680 


555 


790 


570 










11 


8.00p.m. 


2697 




690 


590 














12 


9.00 a.m. 


2702 




700 


57 


81 


570 










12 


8.00p.m. 


2696 




700 


600 












... 


13 


9.30 a.m. 


27 06 


... 


700 


600 


830 


58-5 








... 


13 


8.00p.m. 


27 02 




725 


640 












... 


14 


9.00 a.m. 


27 02 




715 


635 


830 


685 


Rainfall. 01 ins., between 5 00 and 






14 


7.00p.m. 


2697 




670 


640 






6.00 p.m. 






... 


15 


9.00 a.m. 


27 02 




650 


565 


7'8"o 


615 


Rainfall, 0'93 ins. 






... 


16 


9.00a.m. 


27 06 




595 


510 


75 


51 








... 


16 


7.30p.m. 


27 04 




690 


595 












... 


17 


9.00a.m. 


27 09 




650 


560 


750 


550 








... 


17 


7.00p.m. 


27 03 




71 5 


500 












... 


18 


9.00 a.m. 


27 14 




650 


585 


780 


55 "5 


Rain during night. 








18 


7.00p.m. 


27 10 




670 


570 


... 










... 


19 


9.00a.m. 


2707 




660 


530 


780 


550 










19 


7.00p.m. 


2704 




695 


630 














20 


9.00a.m. 


2704 




665 


590 


72"5 


580 










20 


7.00p.m. 


26-96 




710 


570 


... 












21 


10.00 a.m. 


27 13 




64 


515 


780 


545 










21 


7.00p.m. 


27 13 




62-5 


500 














22 


9.00 a.m. 


2720 




595 




760 


47'5 










22 


7.00p.m. 


27 15 




685 


57'5 












... 


23 


9.00a.m. 


27 22 




645 


54 5 


754 


4'6'5 








... 


23 


7.00p.m. 


27 15 




680 


595 




... 








... 


24 


9.00a.m. 


27 14 




630 


545 


7'4'2 


54 5 










24 




27 09 




705 


590 




... 








• .. 


25 


9.008. m. 


27 14 




625 


530 


7'6'5 


505 










25 


8.00p.m. 


27 06 




700 


61 5 












... 


26 


9.00 a.m. 


27 10 




645 


585 


87 '5 


56-5 








... 


26 


7.00p.m. 


2706 




735 


665 












... 


27 


9.00 a.m. 


27 10 


.. . 


650 


565 


81 


560 








... 


27 


8.00p.m. 


27 14 




71 


650 












... 


28 


8.00a.m. 


27 16 




615 


560 


755 


525 






Nan-shih... 


2875 


28 
28 




26 92 


207 1 


650 
534 


54 5 


... 




No clouds. 






• >. 


29 


7.00a m. 


27'07 




450 


41 


750 


365 






Hsieh-tao 


3304 


29 


1230p.m. 


25 50 




590 






... 






ShSng-yi 


5816 


29 


4.30p.m. 


24 90 


202 7 


583 


480 




... 


No clouds, light wind W. 




,, 




30 


6 30 am 


24 82 




36 5 


350 


640 


345 






Ku-chao 


2974 


30 
Oct. 


6.00p.m. 


26 56 


... 


600 


490 


... 




No clouds, strong wind E. 




,, 




1 


9.30 a.m. 


26 65 




530 


450 




347 


10.00 p.m Sky clear. 




,, 


... 


1 


2.00p.m. 


2678 


206 0. 


628 












__ 


..* 


1 


6.00p.m. 


26 50 




630 


49-0 










•• 


... 


2 


6.30a.m. 


26 84 




400 


360 


650 


390 


6.30 a.m. Cirro-cuuiuiu!> i.uv: <^i 


..I. . 



22s 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/wuco'. 





§2 


Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 




o S 

•■si 

So. 


Temperature. 




PLACE. 


BulS. 


W.t 






REMARKS. 




« 






{/J 


^s 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






fwt. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








iqoS 






















Oct. 


















Tsa-k'ou 


4112 


2 


e.SOp.m. 


2572 


204 1 


550 


470 






6.30 p.m. Clear. 




... 


3 


6.30 a.m. 


25 79 




370 


34 


630 


370 


Light wind -W. 


Mountain Pass ... 


6022 


3 


noon 


24 21 


2008 


602 








Cirrus until 5.00 p.m., then cumulus. 


Mi-yiieh-ch'fing ... 


4447 


3 
3 


6.00 pni. 
7.00p.m. 


25 60 


2038 


53-5 
51 5 


4'8-5 








,, 


... 


4 


6.30a.m. 


25 64 1 203 9 


386 


340 


620 


36-6 




Mountain Pass ... 


7032 


4 




2345 




44 5 






... 




JYiin-t'ing Shan... 


6950 


4 


4.00p.m. 


23 59 


1998 


422 


40 








_, 


... 


5 


9.00a.m. 


23 57 




490 


450 




34 5 


Rain since 5.00 p.m., October 4th. 




... 


5 


6.00 p.m. 


23 53 


1999 


440 


41 5 






Clouds and mist all day 


\\ 


... 


6 


9.00 a.m. 


23 66 




510 


460 


57 


360 


Cumulus all day, diffused light, darkened 


_, 




6 


4 00p.m. 


23 53 




54 




... 


... 


at 4.00 p.m. 


__ 




6 


6.00p.m. 








470 


... 


... 




II 




7 


9.00 a.m. 


23 66 




51 


460 


590 


31 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 


_, 


... 


7 


6.00p.m. 


2362 




380 


34 




... 




^_ 




8 


8.00 a.m. 


2361 




400 


360 


5'4-0 


260 


Cirrus and cirro-cumulus all day. 


■ 1 




8 


7.00p.m. 


2358 




405 


370 










... 


9 


10.00 a.m. 


2353 




44-5 


410 


59 


29 5 


Cumulus all day.' 


^, 




9 


e.OOp ni. 


2349 




390 


360 








It 


... 


10 


10. 00a. m 


23 47 




520 


400 


600 


32 2 


Cirrus and cirro-cumulus. 






10 


6.00p.m 


2354 




384 


34 -5 






3.00 p.m. Clear. 


,, 




11 


9.00 a.m. 


23 66 




500 


430 


600 


295 




„ 




11 


7.00p.m 


23 60 




364 


340 








^, 




12 


10.00a.m. 


23 65 




490 


440 


61 


330 


Cumulus all day, hea^-y snow during the 


,, 




12 


6.00p.m. 


23 62 




435 


390 






night. 


1* 




13 


10 00 a m 


23 56 




460 


440 


600 


320 


Rain and mist all day. 






13 


7.00p.m 


2345 




420 


410 








,, 




14 


10.00 am 


23 54 




490 


450 


590 


360 




^, 




14 


7.00p.m. 


23 58 




380 


350 








^, 




15 


10.00a.m. 


23 64 




452 


430 


550 


330 


Cirro-cumulus. 


,, 




15 


600p.ni. 


23 56 




435 


400 






2,00 p.m. Cumulus. 


,, 




16 


6.30p.m, 


2357 


19995 


422 


380 


590 


400 


Cumulus. 9.00 a.m. Few light cirrus. 


Ma-f6ng 


4445 


16 


5.00p.m. 


25 60 


203 9 


590 


520 






3.00 p.m. Large cumulus, light wind E. 


,, 




17 


6.30p.m. 


25 59 




400 


360 


590 


390 


Few cirrus all day. 


,, 


... 


17 


... 




2039 


45-5 


... 




... 


Light wind. 


Mountain Pass ... 




17 

17 




24-69 


202 5 


615 
650 










Sung-chia-k'ou ... 


3906 


17 


5.00p.m. 


2606 




62-8 


560 




... 




,, 


... 


18 


6.30a.m. 


2606 




44-5 


400 


630 


4'2-0 


Clear, light variable wind. 


,1 




18 






2047 


470 










Lin Hsien 


3269 


18 


7.00p.m. 


26-79 




Sl-5 


460 


... 


... 


Clear, no wind. 


, , 




19 


9.00 a.m. 


26 84 




485 


400 


67-4 


320 


Clear. 


,, 




19 


7.00p.m. 


2676 




510 


450 






3.00 p.m. Cirrus. 


,, 




20 


6.30 a.m. 


2677 




34 


330 


650 


32 


4.00 p.m. Cumulus. 


Kan-tsao-k'ou 


4664 


20 
20 


5.00p.m. 


25 52 


2036 


582 
580 


520 






Light wind. 


,, 




21 


10.00 a.m. 


25-52 




56 


490 


65 


390 


Rain during day. 


,, 




21 


6.00p.m. 


25-41 


... 


500 


452 








t> 




22 


10.00 a.m. 


25 44 




490 


490 


55 


41 


10.00 a.m. Rainfall for preceding 24 


,, 




22 


5.00p.m. 


25 45 




510 


500 






hours, 177 ins. Rain all day. 


(• 




23 


10.00 a.m. 


25 58 


... 


54-2 






490 


10.00a.m. Rainfall forpreceding24hours. 


,, 




23 


6.00p.m. 


2557 




520 


460 






20 ins., cumulus over nimbus, all day. 


,, 


... 


24 


10.00a. m 


25 73 


... 


370 




56 


340 


Three hours rain over night followed by 


,, 




24 


6.00p.m. 


2550 




510 


46-0 


... 




snow storm and gale, cumulus all day. 


,, 


... 


25 


10.00a.m. 


25 64 




450 


400 


560 


260 


Clear, no wind. 


,, 


... 


25 


6.00p.ni. 


2547 




420 


380 








,, 




26 


10.00 a.m. 


25 60 




370 


360 


520 


350 


Cumulus, mist. rain. 10.00 a.m. Clear. 


,, 




26 


6.00 p.m. 


25 49 




332 


320 






Strong wind -W, all day. 


,, 




27 


7.00a.m. 


25 57 




235 




52 


210 


Cloudy, light variable wind. 


Mountain Pass ... 


5377 


27 


... 


24-78 




295 











1 



} Latitude. 37" 54' N. 



Longitude, 111' 
226 



33' 48* E. 



Meteorological observations— continued. 





y 








•5s 

.rl 


Temperatnre. 




PLACE. 


Dale. 


Time of 
Observmtion. 




Dry Wet 




REMARKS. 




<< 






Bulb. 


Bulb. 


Mu. 


Min. 






feet. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 




Ts'ai-chia-wei 


3396 


ioo8 
Oct. 
27 


S.OOp.ni. 


26 70 


2060 


425 


390 








, , 


... 


28 


7.30 a. tn. 


2675 




330 


... 


490 


23-5 


Cimis. 9.00 a.m. Clear, light variable 


Huang-ho-yeh ... 


2406 


28 


e.OOp.m. 


27 68 


2077 


465 


400 


... 


... 


wind. 


(Shensi, on 






















Yellow River) 




29 


8.00 a.m. 


27 76 




320 




520 


250 


Clear, light variable wind. 


Lin-chia-mo 


3103 


29 

29 


6.00p.m. 


26 96 


2063 


430 
370 


380 


... 






,, 


... 


30 


8.00 a.m. 


26 82 




360 


... 


5'4'o 


230 


Hoar-frost during night. 


,, 




30 


... 




206 3 


370 




... 


... 


Clear, light variable wind. 


Chin-chia-k'ou ... 


3390 


30 


7.00p.m. 


26 56 


205 6 


430 


370 


... 


... 




,, 


... 


31 


8.00a.m. 


2661 




325 


... 


550 


23-5 


Hoar-frost during night, clear. 


Chiu-ts'ai 


3328 


31 
31 

Nov. 


5.00p.m. 


26 62 


205-8 


545 
455 


480 


... 


... 


3.00 p.m. Cirrus, light variable wind. 


,, 




1 


8.00a.m. 


26 66 


... 


400 


360 


590 


335 


Heavy dew during night, haze. 


Yang-chia-tien ... 


3634 


1 


6.00p.m. 


26 36 




445 


400 


... 




3.00 p.m. Clear, light variable wind. 


,, 


... 


2 






205 4 


372 




560 


31 


4.00 a.m. Light rain, later heavy mists 


,, 


... 


2 


10.00 a.m. 


2638 




412 


390 




... 


till noon, followed by clear sky. 


, , 




2 


5.00p.m. 


26 34 




492 


440 




... 


Light variable wind. 


,, 


... 


3 


8.00 am 


2634 


... 


340 


33 


61 


290 


Hoar-frost during night, cumulus. 


Liu-chien-hua ... 


3418 


3 


6.00p.m. 






460 


420 






10 00 a.m. Stratus. 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 
p.m. Little rain, strong wind E. 


„ 


... 


4 


10.00 a.m. 


26 39 




450 


410 


560 


... 


Cumulus all day, dust haze. 


,, 


... 


4 


6.00p.m. 


26 32 




440 


410 


... 


... 


Strong wind W. 






4 






205 4 


385 




... 










5 


8.00 a.m. 


2638 




36 


34 


520 


350 


Dust haze all day, light variable wind. 


•Yu-lid" Fu 


3169 


5 


S. 00p.m. 


26 66 




450 


405 


... 


... 




^_ 




6 


10.00 a.m. 


2665 


... 


400 


350 560 


230 


Clear, light wind N. 


__ 




6 


5. 00p.m. 


2655 


... 


444 


390 


... 




,, 




7 


10.00 a.m. 


2654 




365 


34 


570 


23'5 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 




... 


7 


6.00p.m. 


2652 


... 


440 


400 






Clear. Noon Light wind N. 


__ 




8 


9.00a.m. 


26 69 




31 4 




5'5"o 


270 


Few cirras all day. 


_, 


... 


8 


6.00p.m, 


26 68 




382 


360 


... 


... 1 Light wind N. 






9 


10.00a.m. 


2672 




370 


350 


560 


270 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 






9 


6.00p.m. 


26 68 


... 


42-2 


37 


... 




Clear, light wind N.E. 






10 


10.00 a.m. 


26 74 




382 


360 


570 


2'50 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


_, 




10 


S. 30p.m. 


2668 




405 


360 






Clear, light wind N.E. 


• 




11 


10.00 a.m. 


26 78 




360 


340 


550 


250 


Clear, light wind N. 


_, 




11 


5.30p.m. 


26 76 




430 


38 0| ... 






__ 


... 


12 


10.00 a.m. 


26 72 




310 




520 


150 


Clear, light wind S. 


,_ 




12 


5.30p.m. 


26 62 




320 


... 


... 


... 




^_ 


... 


13 


9.30a.m. 


26 66 




340 




490 


215 


Clear, light wind N. 


„ 




13 


5.00p.m. 


26 59 




420 


380 


... 








... 


14 


10.00a m. 


2660 




370 


340 


500 


21 


Clear, light wind S. 






14 


5.00p.m. 


26 60 1 ... 


445 


400 












15 


10.00a.m. 


26 64 1 ... 


350 


330 


500 


220 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


•• 


... 


15 


5.00p.m. 


26 64 


... 


450 


380 


... 




2.30 p.m. Heavy cumulus, light wind 
N.E. 






16 


10.00a.m. 


26 70 




34 


... 


460 


200 


Clouds disappear at 9.00 a.m. 




... 


16 


e.OOp.m 


2670 




300 








Light wind N. 






17 


9.30 a. m 


2664 




330 




46 


200 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 




'" 


17 


5.00p.m. 


2652 




430 


380 ... 




Cimis. 2.00 p.m. Clear, light wind W. 






18 


lO.OOa.m 


2636 




350 


330 470 


200 


Clear, light wind S. 






18 


5.00p.m. 


26 34 




475 


410 ... 










19 


lO.OOa.m. 


2640 




41 5 


360 545 


2S"0 


Hoar-frost during night, clear, light 


•• 


... 


19 


5.30p.m. 


2648 




480 


400 




... 


wind N. 2 00 p.m. Cirrus, strong 
wind N., dust haie. 






20 


11 OOa.m. 


26 58 




345 


• •• 


54 


23-5 


Slight hoarfrost during night, clear. 






20 


6.00p.m. 


26 58 




340 


... 


... 


... i Evening. Few cirrus, light wind S. 


" 


... 


21 


lO.OOa.m. 


26 72 




360 


34 45 


23 5 ; Cirnis and cumulus. 2.00 p.m. Clear. 



• Latitude 39" 16' 54' 



N., Longitude 109' 
227 



44' 69' E. 



Meteorological observations— cow/med'. 







Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 


n 


bet 


Temperature. 


REMARKS. 


PLACE. 


Bui?. 


Wet 








<< 






^ 


«:? 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






fen. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








igoB 






















Nov. 


















Yii-lin Fu 


3169 


21 


6.00p.m. 


26-72 




300 








Strong wind N. 


,_ 




22 


10.00 a.m. 


26 72 


... 


320 




420 


I'i's 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 






22 


eoop.m 


2668 




325 






... 


Clear, light wind S. 




... 


23 


10.00 a.m. 


26 62 




260 




42 


140 


Slight hoar-frost during uight. 






23 


6.00p.m. 


26 54 




370 


34-0 


... 




Clear, light wind N. 


^_ 




24 


10.00 a.m. 


2656 




350 


330 


430 


21 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


J, 




24 


6.00p.m. 


2644 




41 


350 






Clear, light wind W. 


,^ 




25 


10.00a.m. 


26-58 




315 




47.0 


21.0 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


^, 


... 


25 


noon 


26-56 




325 








Dust haze all day. 


,, 


... 


25 


6.00p.m. 


26-64 




275 








Strong wind N.W. 


__ 




26 


10.00 a.m. 


26-78 




250 




360 


200 


Wind till 2.00 a.m. Clear. 




... 


26 


6.00p.m. 


26 72 




220 








Light wind N. 


__ 




27 


9.30 a.m. 


26 64 




270 




360 


125 


Clear, light wind N.W. 


__ 


... 


27 


6.00p.m. 


26 60 




250 










„ 




28 


10.00 a.m. 


26 64 




270 


./. 


370 


25 


Clear, light wind N. 


__ 




28 


6.30p.m. 


26 62 




28 5 










,, 




29 


10.00 a.m. 


26 60 




305 




360 


190 


3.00 p.m. Cirro-cumulus and cumulus. 


^, 




29 


6.00p.m. 


26 68 




330 








Light wind N. 


J, 




30 


10.00 a.m. 


26 88 




275 




400 


190 


Few cirrus. Noon Clear. 


.. 


... 


30 


6.00p.m. 


26-76 




250 






... 


Light wind N.W. 






Dec. 
1 


10.00 a.m. 


26-74 




220 




380 


140 


Clear, light wind N. 


^, 


• •• 


1 


6.00p.m. 


26 66 




275 






... 




,, 


• *. 


2 


10.00 a.m. 


26-54 




290 




420 


170 


Clear, light N.W. 


1, 


... 


2 


6.00p.m. 


26 64 




300 






... 




,, 


... 


3 


10.00 a.m. 


26-54 




290 




360 


170 


Clear, light variable. 


,, 




3 


6.00 p.m. 


26 36 




340 




... 


... 




,, 


... 


4 


10.00 a.m. 


26 28 




350 


330 




230 


Cnmulus. 10.00 a.m. Clear, slight dust 


■• 


... 


4 


eoop.m 


26 40 




400 


350 






haze, moderate wind N. 2.00 p.m. 
Calm. 


,, 




5 


8 00 a.m. 


26 38 




21 




420 


185 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


Yu-ho-p'u 


2777 


5 


8.00p.m. 


2672 




360 


34 






Light wind S. 


,, 




6 


7.00 a m. 


27 02 


2067 


270 




... 


27 


Cirrus all day. 


Mi-cbih Hsien ... 


2468 


6 


7.00p.m. 


27 40 


207 3 


360 








Moderate wind N. 


,, 




7 


10.00 a.m. 


27 65 




260 




420 


12-0 


Cirrus all day. 


,, 




7 


6.00 p.m. 


27 50 




280 






.. • 


Light wind N. 


,, 


... 


8 


10.00 a.m. 


27 53 


... 


280 








Heavy cumulus all day. 


,, 




8 


6.00 p.m. 


27 48 




290 








Light wind N. 


,, 


... 


9 


7.00a.m. 


27 -38 




300 




400 


25-0 


Heavy cumulus all night, stratus and 


Sui-te Chou 


2330 


9 


5.30p.m. 


2751 


2076 


340 








nimbus. 4 00 p.m. Few cirrus, 
moderate wind S.H. 


,, 




10 


10.00 am 


2748 




280 




390 


17-5 


Cumulus till 4.00 p.m., clear. 


,, 




10 


6.30p.m. 


2742 




280 






... 


Light wind N.W. 


■■ 




11 


7.00a.m. 


2741 




24.0 




380 


230 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 


Shih-ts'ni-p 


3017 


11 


6.00p.m. 


2674 


206 2 


345 




... 


... 


Light variable wind. 


,, 


... 


12 


10.00 a.m. 


26 85 




36 5 


330 


380 


180 


Cirrus all day. 


II 




12 


6.00p.m. 


2681 




350 


330 






Light variable wind. 


•• 




13 
13 


10.00 am 
e.OOp.m 


2664 
26 75 




320 
280 


... 


465 


180 


Cirrus. 6.00 p.m. Clear 
Light variable wind all day. 


,, 




14 


7.00 a.m. 


26 95 




190 


... 


51-5 


170 


Cumulus. Noon Cirrus. 


Ch'ing-chieu 






















Hsien 


2583 


14 6.00p.m. 


27 26 


207 3 


280 




... 




Light variable wind. 


.. 


... 


15 


lO.OOa.m. 


27 05 




300 


... 


390 


180 


Clear, light variable wind. 


1. 


... 


15 


6.00p.m. 


26 99 


... 


300 




... 


... 




,, 




16 


7.00 a.m. 


2702 




190 




400 


160 


Nimbus and cumulus all day. 


Ma-chia-k'ou 


2369 


16 e.OOp.ni. 


27 30 


207 4 


34 




... 




Light variable wind. 


1* 


... 


17 


lO.OOa.m. 


2762 




320 




400 


240 


Clear, light variable wind. 


t* 




17 


6.00 p.m. 


27-58 




310 


... 


... 


... 




.. 




18 


7.00 a.m. 


2749 




12-5 




406 


11 5 


Clear. 2.00 p.m. Few cirrus. 


Kan-ku-jU 


2527 


18 


6.00p.m. 


27 17 


207 1 


190 


... 


... 


... 


Light variable wind. 



228 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/mwerf. 





k4 






"1 


n 


Temperature. 




PLACE. 


a 


Sale. 


Time of 
Observation. 


H 


Dry Wet \ \ 




REMARKS. 




<< 






^^ 


Bulb. 


Balb. 


Max. 


Min. 






feet. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








.908 


















Kan-ku-yii 


2527 


Dec. 
19 


1000a. Ul. 


27 19 




195 




280 


-60 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


•Yen-an Fu 


2769 


19 


9 00p.m. 2694 1 


2066 


230 








Clear, light variable wind. 






20 


11.00a.m. 26 78, 




170 






35 


Clear, light variable wind. 






20 


6.00p.m. 26 72 | 




30 5 






... 








21 


10 00 a.m. 


2686 




265 




350 


180 


Heavy cumulus all day. 




... 


21 


6.00 p.m. 


26 94 




320 


... 






Light variable wind. 




... 


22 


10.00 a.m. 27 08 




21 


... 


370 


120 


Clear, light variable wind. 






22 


6.00p.m. 26 96 




24-5 




... 










23 


10.00am. 26 90 




200 




320 


160 


Clear, light variable wind. 






23 


7.00p.m. 2682 




27 5 














24 


10 00a.m. 26 90 




220 




330 


180 


Few Cirrus during afternoon. 






24 


6.00p.m. 26 86 




300 








Light variable wind. 






25 


10 00 am 1 26 82 




260 




360 


105 


Cirrus all day. 




... 


25 


6.00p.m. 


26 76 




295 








Light variable wind. 






26 


10.00a m 


26 90 




205 




360 


lbs 


Cirrus all day. 






26 


6.00p.m. 


2688 




31 




... 




Light variable wind. 




... 


27 


10.00 am 1 26 96 




27 




350 


2'2'5 


Cumulus all day. 




... 


27 


6.00p.m. 


26 92 




310 








Light wind S. 




... 


28 


10.00a.m. 


2688 




210 






11 


Clear, light wind S.W. 






28 


6,00p.m. 


2688 




340 






... 








29 


10.00a.m. 


2678 


.•• 


170 ... 


400 


90 


Clear, light variable wind. 






29 


8.00 p.m. 


2678 


... 


285 














30 


10.00 a.m. 


2692 




200 


... 


360 


90 


Few Cirro-cumulus all day. 




... 


30 


6.00 p.m. 


27 02 




300 


... 




... 


Light wind N.E. 






31 


10.00 a.m. 


27 26 




190 


... 


350 


125 


Clear, calm. 


•■ 




31 


6.00p.m. 


27 10 


... 


190 




... 










1909 






















Jan. 


10.00 a.m. 


2690 




120 




31 


10 


Heavy cumulus all day. 






1 


6.00p.m. 


2678 




245 




• > • 


... 


Light variable wind. 






2 


10.00 a.m. 


26 76 


... 


250 


... 




190 


Heavy cumulus all day. 






2 


6.00p.m. 


26 68 




31 




::: 




Calm. 






3 


10.00 a.m. 


2672 




260 


... 


340 


11 


Clear, light variable wind. 






3 


6.00p.m. 


26 64 




330 




... 


... 








4 


11.00a.m. 


2668 




210 




390 


115 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 






4 


6.00p.m. 


26 74 


... 


345 






... 


Moderate wind N.W. 






5 


10.00 a.m. 


2684 




220 




390 


220 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 






5 


600p.m. 


26 82 


... 


295 






... 


Light wind N W. 






6 


10.00a.m. 


2684 




205 




34 


135 


Cirrus and Cirro-cumulus all day. 






6 


6.00p.m. 


26 78 




275 




... 


... 


Light variable wind. 






7 


9.30a.m. 


26 86 




20-5 


... 


330 


150 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 






7 


6.00p.m. 


26 84 


... 


290 








Light variable wind. 






8 


10.00 a.m. 


2676 


... 


180 




340 


90 


1 Cirrus all day. 






8 


6.00p.m 


26 66 




325 




... 




Light wind W. 






9 


10.00 am 


26 80 


... 


210 




360 


11 5 


Cirrus all day 






9 


6.00p.m. 


26 80 




330 








' Light variable wind. 






10 


10.00a.m. 


26 94 


... 


190 




380 


16 


Heavy cumulus and stratus all day 


•• 




10 


6.00p.m. 


27 00 




325 








; Noon to 6.00 p.m. Light snow. Light 
j variable wind. 






11 


10.00 a.m. 


27 08 




SI'S 




360 


1210 


Stratus. Light snow during night and 


" 




11 


6.00p.m. 


27 02 




^5 


'..'. 




i ... 


all day. Moderate wind S. 






12 


10. 00a. m 


2702 


... 


220 




360 


200 


Little snow during night. Cumulus all 


" 




12 


e.OOp.m 


27 06 




270 








day. Moderate wind W. 






13 


10 00 am 


27 10 




270 




320 


15 


Cumulus and stratus. Light fall snow 






13 


6.00p.m 


27 10 


... 


230 






1 


at 3.00 p.m. Light wind N.W. 






14 


9.00a. m 


27 02 


... 


10-5 


... 


290 


8 5 


Few cirrus. Light wind W. 






14 


e.OOp.m 


26 98 




250 


... 




1 ••• 


1 




... 


15 


8.30 am 


27 00 


•■• 


70 


... 


290 


1 5-5 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


•• 


... 


15 


e.OOp.m 


26 82 

1 


... 


280 


... 


... 


i 


Light wind N. 



Latitude 36« 35' 33' N.. Longitude 109' 26' 49' E. 
229 



M ETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/;«uc<^. 





1- 


D«le. 


Time ol 
Obscn'ation. 


sl 


°2 

bliv 


Temperature. 


REMARKS. 


PLACE. 


DiT 


Wet 








<< 






en 


Bulb. 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






feet. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 




Yen-an Fu 


2769 


'9=9 
Jan. 
16 
16 


10.00 a.m. 
6.00p.m. 


26 84 

2678 




230 

265 




300 


160 


Snow during night. Cirro-cumulus and 
cumulus. Light variable wind. 2.00 
p.m., clear. 


^, 




17 


10.00a.m. 


2672 




220 




320 


ISO 


Cumulus and stratus all day. 


^^ 




17 


6.00p.m. 


26.66 




290 








Light variable wind. 


^^ 




18 


10.00a.m. 


2686 




260 




300 


250 


Stratus all day. Moderate wind N.W. 


,^ 




18 


6.00p.m. 


27 10 




165 


• • • 


... 


... 




j^ 




19 


9.00 a.m. 


27 16 




-10 




27 


-35 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


,^ 




19 


6.00p.m. 


2700 




110 








Light wind N. 


,, 




20 


10 00 a.m. 


26 98 




10 




... 


-25 


Clear. Light variable wind. 


^, 




20 


6.00p.m. 


2696 




17-5 


... 


... 


... 




,, 




21 


10.00 a.m. 


26 95 




100 


... 


... 


Zero 


Clear, calm. 


^^ 




21 


6.30 p.m. 


26 94 




22 






... 




,, 




22 


10.00a m. 


26 96 




90 






1-5 


Cirro-cumulus during forenoon. 


^, 




22 


6.00p m. 


2684 




270 








Light wind S. 


,, 




23 


10.00 a m 


2694 




270 


... 




180 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


,, 




23 


6.00 pm. 


26 86 




320 


... 




... 


Clear, light wind S. 


,, 




24 


10.00a.m. 


26 78 




120 


• ■■ 


36 


80 


Slight hoar-frost during night. Clear 


,, 




24 


6.00 p.m. 


26 72 




305 








2.00 p.m. Hazy, light variable wind. 


,, 




25 


10 OOa.ra. 


2686 




180 




360 


90 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


,, 




25 


6.00 p.m. 


2680 




29 








Clear, light variable wind. 


^, 




26 


10.00 a.m. 


26 84 




150 




34 


60 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 4.00 


- 




26 


6.00p.m. 


2674 




335 








p m.. Cirro-cumulus, light variable 
wind. 


,, 




27 


10.00a.m. 


26 90 




280 




360 


185 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 2.00 


(• 




27 


6.00p.m. 


2690 




34 








p.m.. Cirro-cumulus, light variable 
wind. 


,, 




28 


9.00 a.m. 


26 92 




140 




390 


60 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


,, 




28 


6.00p.m. 


26 86 




295 








Light wind N. 


„ 




29 


10.00a.m. 


26 86 




200 






125 


Cumulus all day. 


,, 




29 


6.00p.m. 


2675 




355 






... 


Light variable wind. 


^, 




30 


7.30 a.m. 


2673 




190 






190 


Slight fall of snow during night, and 


Lao-shan 


3207 


30 


6.00p.m. 


26 34 




370 


... 






during day. Cumulus and stratus, 
light wind S, 


,, 




31 


10.00 a.m. 


26 34 




280 




420 


150 


Hoar-frost during night. Cumulus all 


'■ 




31 


600pm. 


26 27 




360 






... 


day. Moderate wind S. 






Feb. 
1 


7.30a.m. 


26 28 




300 




380 


280 


Hoar-frost during night. Stratus and 


Tao-t30-p'u 


2843 


1 


6.00p.m. 


26 68 


2062 


370 








nimbus all day. Light wind S. 


,, 




2 


1000a.m. 


2687 




370 




420 


2'3'o 


Cumulus. 11.00 a.m., clear. 


,, 




2 


6.00p.m. 


26 82 




305 






... 


Light wind N. 


,, 


• *t 


3 


10.00 a.m. 


27 08 




210 




420 


90 


Clear, moderate wind N. 


,, 




3 


6.00p.m. 


26 98 




385 




.1. 






,, 




4 


7.30 a m. 


27 00 




120 




400 


110 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


Fu Chou 


2912 


4 


6.00p.m. 


27 02 


206-8 


340 


... 






Cirrus all day, light variable wind. 


,, 




5 


7.30a.m. 


27 14 




85 




390 


80 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


Ch'ang-ts'un-yi ... 


3045 


5 


6.00 p.m. 


27 12 


207-2 


250 








Cumulus and stratus all day, light 
variable wind. 


»* 




6 


10.00 a.m. 


27 38 




200 




360 


40 


Slight hoar-frost during uight, few 


„ 




6 


6.00p.m. 


27 29 




270 








cirrus all day, moderate wind N. 


,, 




7 


7.30 a.m. 


27- 18 




20 




300 


2 


Cirrus all day, moderate wind . 


Hai-shui-ssQ 


3174 


7 


6.30p.m. 


2667 


2062 


280 




. ,. 






,, 




8 


10.00 a.m. 


2664 




24 


... 


340 


40 


Clear, moderate wind S. 


,, 




8 


6.00p.m. 


26 52 




330 




... 






,, 




9 


8.00 a.m. 


2659 




150 




360 


130 


Cirrus and cirro-cumulus all day. 


T'ai-pei-ch'eug ... 


3528 


9 


6.00p.m. 


2630 


2055 


385 








Moderate wind N.W. 


,, 




10 


10.00 a.m. 


2652 




21 




4'5'o 


11 


Cumulus, dust haze all day. 


,, 




10 


6.00p.m. 


2648 




350 




... 




Strong wind N.W. 


•• 




11 


8.00 am 


26 62 




95 


... 


370 


9-0 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 



230 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— <:o«//A,M«a. 







§2 


Dale. 


Time of 
Observation. 




11 


Tempermtore. 




PLACE. 


Bui?. 


Wei 






REMARKS. 




<< 






£3 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Mia. 






feet. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








1909 






















Feb. 


















Miao-ts'un 


4144 


11 


6.00p,in. 


25 78 


204 4 


280 


... 






Few cirms all day, moderate wind N.W. 


,, 




12 


10 00 a.m. 


2576 




250 




350 


i'o 


Clear, strong wind W.N.W. 


,, 


... 


12 


e.OOp.m. 


25-68 






310 










,, 


... 


13 


10.00 a.m. 


2553 






330 






105 


Clear, strong variable wind. 


,. 


... 


13 


6.00p.m. 


25 49 






380 










,, 


... 


14 


7.30 am 


25 52 






22 




45-5 


210 


Cirrus and cumulus all day. dust haze. 


Ho-shui Hsien ... 


4146 


14 


6.00p.m. 


26 19 






430 


380 


... 




moderate wind S.W. 


,, 




15 


7.30a. m 


2625 


2054 


180 




490 


170 


Few cirrus and haze all day. 


Ch'ing-yang Fu ... 


4216 


15 


e.OOp.m 


26 29 


2055 


44 5 


390 


... 


... 


Light variable wind. 


,, 




16 


1000a. m 


2645 




300 




560 


21 


Few cumulus, noon, clear. 


, 






16 


600p.m. 


2632 






450 


39 




... 


Light wind W. 


, 






17 


10.00a.m. 


26 29 






320 




500 


24 5 


Clear, light wind S.E. 


, 






17 


6.00p.m. 


26 13 






480 


4'2'o 








, 






18 


10.00a.m. 


26 23 






360 


330 


52-0 


2"8'5 


Clear, light variable wind. 


, 






18 


e.OOp.m 


26 15 






480 


420 








, 






19 


1000 a.m. 


26 55 




.. 


31 


... 


560 


280 


Cirrus all day, light wind N.W. 


, 






19 


7.00p.m. 


26 44 






350 




... 






, 






20 


9.30 a.m. 


2645 






260 




560 


190 


Cumulus all day. 


, 






20 


6 30p.m. 


26 35 




.. 


370 


34 


... 




Light wind N.W. 


, 






21 


7.30a.m. 


2641 


2058 


260 




42 


250 


Cumulus, stratus and nimbus all day. 


Pai-ma-p'u 


5677 


21 


6.00p.m. 


25 30 


2035 


285 


... 




... 


Light wind S.W. 11.00 am. to 2 00 
p.m. snow fell. 


,, 




22 


8.00 a.m. 


25 20 


2034 


230 




360 


21 5 


Snow during night and forenoon. 


Hsi-feng-chen ... 


5546 


22 


6.30p.m. 


25 30 


2037 


300 




... 




Stratus and nimbus all day, light wind 
S.W. 


,, 


... 


23 


10.00a.m. 


25 22 


... 


280 




360 


180 


Hea\7 hoar-frost during night. 


'• 


... 


23 


6.00p.m. 


25 20 




360 








Fog 11.00 am. Cirro-cumulus. 4.00 
p.m. cumulus, light wind W. 


,, 


... 


24 


10.00a.m. 


25 35 




350 




420 


280 


Slight hoar-frost during night, cumulus. 


,, 


... 


24 


6.00p.m. 


25 30 




285 








Haze all day. light wind W. 


,, 


... 


25 


7.30a.m. 


25 26 


203 6 


205 




360 


19 5 


Slight hoar-frost during night. 


T'ai-pei-ch'Sng ... 


5119 


25 


6.00p.m. 


25 29 


203 7 


285 








Stratus and nimbus all day. 
Light wind S.E. 


,, 


... 


26 


10.00 a.m. 


2541 




25-5 






250 


Snow during night. 


" 




26 


6.00p.m. 


2540 


... 


350 








Overcast, stratus and cumulus all day, 
light variable wind. 


,, 


... 


27 


8.00 a.m. 


25 44 


2038 


265 




420 


215 


Cirrus, cirro-cumulus and cumulus all 


Chen-yiian Hsien 


4478 


27 


6.00pm. 


2604 


205 


410 


360 






day. light wind N.W. 




... 


28 


10.00 a.m. 


26 18 




41 5 


370 


4'20 


29.0 


Cumulus all day, few flaket snow. 


•• 




28 


6.00p.m. 


26 10 




370 


330 






Light wind N.W. 






Mar. 

1 


7.30a.m. 


2601 


2050 


21 




48.0 


190 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus all day. 


Yang-shu-wan ... 


5336 


1 


6.30p.m. 


25 54 


204 1 


440 


390 


... 




Light wind S.E. 


jj 


... 


2 


10.00a.m. 


25 74 




390 


360 


560 


180 


Cumulus and haze. 


,, 


• .. 


2 


6.00p.m. 


2561 




400 


360 






Light wind N. 


,, 


• •• 


3 


7.30 a.m. 


25 50 


2040 


260 




52 


225 


Cumulus all day. 


Liu-cbia-hua 


5763 


3 


6.00p.m. 


25.08 ! 203 2 


430 






... 


Moderate wind N.W. 


,, 


... 


4 


7.30 a.m. 


25 02 


... 


310 


_ 


480 


180 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus since noon. 


,, 


... 


4 


6.00p.m. 


25 05 




455 


40 






strong wind N.W. 


J, 




5 


7.30a.m. 


25 10 


2033 


305 




560 


300 


Cumulus and stratus all day. 


J€u-sa-ho 


6345 


5 


e.OOp m. 


24 55 


202 2 


21 








Strong wind N W. 


,, 




6 


8.00a.m. 


24 52 


202 1 


80 






50 


Slight hoar-frost during night, few cirrus 


*Ku-yuati Chou ... 


6333 


6 


6.00p.m. 


24 25 


201-7 


455 


400 






all day, light wind N.W. 


,_ 




7 


10.00a m. 


24 29 




455 


400 


560 


25 5 


Cirrus and cirro-cumulus all day, light 


,j 


... 


7 


6.30 pm 


24 20 






430 


360 


... 


... 


wind W 


*i 


... 


8 


10 00a m 


24 18 






530 


460 


570 


325 


Cumulus all day, dust haze. 




... 


8 


6 00p.m 


24 19 






490 


44 5 




-I • 


Light wind N W. 


,, 


... 


9 


lOOOa.m. 


24 09 






480 


420 


61 5 


290 


Cirrus and cumulus during afternoon. 


•• 


... 


9 


6.00p.m. 


24 OS 






382 


40 






Moderate wind K. 



Latitude 36° 00' 23' N., Longitude 106" 6' 28' E. 
231 



^ 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con//nwea. 



1 








'i 


°S 


Temperature. 








Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 




Me 
1| 




REMARKS. 


PLACE. 


Dry 
Bulb. 


Wet 








■<< 






in 


«:£• 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






feet. 






ilicbes. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








1909 






















Mar. 


















Kn-yiian Chou ... 


6333 


10 


10.00 a.m. 


2415 




365 


350 


57 


225 


Stratus and nimbus all day. 10.00 a.m. 




... 


10 


6.00p.m. 


24 20 






390 


350 


... 




to 1 00 p.m. Little rain, slight wind N 




... 


11 


10 30 a.m. 


24 36 






300 




45-5 


2'3-5 


7.00 a.m. to 10.30 a.m. Snow, stratus and 






11 


600pm. 


24 42 






290 








nimbus all day. Light wind N. 






12 


10.00 a.m. 


24 39 






300 




360 


200 


Snow. 10.00 a.m. Cumulus and stratus. 






12 


6 00 p.m. 


24-42 






280 








5.00 p.m. Clear. Light wind E. 




... 


13 


10.00 a.m. 


24 41 






300 






180 


Few cirrus all day. 




... 


13 


6.00p.m. 


24 35 






40-5 


360 






Light wind S. 






14 


10.00 a.m. 


24 26 






400 


360 


6'o-5 


32 


Cirrus and cumulus all day. 






14 


6.00p.m. 


2430 






400 


360 






Wind N.-W. 






15 


10.00 a.m. 


24 26 






380 




610 


300 


Fog. 11.00 a.m. Cumulus. 


_^ 




15 


6.00p.m. 


24 31 






415 


380 






Light wind N.E. 






16 


7.30 a.m. 


24-47 


2020 


310 




650 


31 


Fog and haze. Noon, Cirro-cumulus 


Ch'ang-yi-p'u 


6813 


16 


6.00p.m. 


2337 


1997 


360 








and Cumulus. Wind. a.m.. N. ; p.m., 
S.W. 
Snow till 11.00 a.m. Stratus and 


ti 




17 


10.00 a.m. 


2343 




330 




42.5 


19-5 






















cumulus. 


,, 




17 


6.00p.m. 


23 32 




300 






... 


Light wind \V. 


,, 




18 


7.15 a.m. 


23 20 


199-5 


310 






180 


Stratus and nimbus. 11.00a.m. cumulus. 


Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u ... 


6653 


18 


6.00p.m. 


23-95 


2008 


420 


370 






2.00 p.m. clear. Moderate wind S. 


_, 


... 


19 


10.00 a.m. 


24 08 




380 




4'5-0 


150 


Strong wind during night. Haze all 






19 


e.OOp.m 


24 06 




350 




... 




day. Moderate wind S. 






20 


7.00 a.m. 


24 10 


201 3 


300 






24-0 


Cumulus all daj'. 


Ching-ning Chou . 


6276 


20 


6.00p.m. 


2446 


201 8 


460 


40 




... 


Moderate wind S.W. 


,_ 




21 


10.00 a.m. 


24-34 




41 


380 


520 


395 


Small amount of rain in morning. 


•• 


... 


21 


6.00p.m. 


24-29 


... 


45 


425 






Cumulus and stratus all day. 
Light wind S.W. 


„ 




22 


10.00 a.m. 


24 38 




430 


400 


465 


33-5 


Fog and overcast all day. Light wind 


•■ 




22 


6.30p.m. 


24-59 




310 








W. 5.00 p.m. little snow. Small 
amount of rain in morning. 






23 


7.00a.m. 


24 80 


2028 


290 




460 


170 


Little snow during night. Cumulus and 


Ch'ing-chia-yi ... 


7468 


23 


6.00 p.m. 


24 10 


201-4 


24-5 






... 


stratus all day. Strong wind N. 


_^ 


... 


24 


9.30 a.m. 


24 07 




280 






60 


Clear, light wind W. 


,j 


... 


24 


6.00p.m. 


24 -48 




400 


35 


... 


... 




J, 


... 


25 


7.00 a.m. 


24 03 


2012 


200 




550 


180 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


Hui-ning Hsien ... 


6125 


25 


6.00p.m. 


24 49 


2020 


430 


390 






Light wind E. 






26 


10.00 a.m. 


24 37 




37 


330 


500 


22 5 


Little snow. Strong wind and dust 


,_ 




26 


6.00p.m. 


24 28 




390 


350 






storm S. Cumulus all day. 


,, 




27 


7.00 a.m. 


24 37 


2620 


280 




51 


21 5 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


Hsi-kung-yi 


6568 


27 


6.00p.m. 


24 16 


2013 


500 


380 




... 


Light wind S.W. 






28 


10.00 a.m. 


24-28 




430 


34 


570 


270 


Cumulus all day. Evening overcast. 


,, 




28 


6.00p.m. 


24 20 




490 


390 




... 


Light wind W. 


^, 




29 


7.00 a.m. 


24 25 


261-6 


34 




560 


325 


Snow during night and at 7.00 a.m. up 


An-ting Hsien ... 


6762 


29 


6.00p.m. 


23 88 


2011 


400 


350 


... 




to noon, fog. Clear towards evening. 
Wind N. Noon, wind S.W. 


__ 


... 


30 


10.00 a.m. 


23 83 




420 


360 


580 


205 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 


,, 




30 


6.00p.m. 


23-74 




580 


465 






Light variable wind. 


J, 




31 


10.00 a.m. 


24 00 




44 


380 


640 


2'8"o 


Cumulus all day. 


•• 




31 


6.00p.m. 


23 95 




430 


340 


... 


... 


Light wind N.E. 






April 

1 


7.15 a.m. 


23 87 


2009 


21 5 




620 


14-5 


Cirrus all day. 


Ch'6ng-k'ou-yi ... 


6839 


1 


6.00p.m. 


23 75 


2005 


510 


380 






Light variable wind. 


,, 




2 


7.15a.m. 


2380 


200 7 


300 




620 


270 


Few cirrus all day. 


Kan-tsao-tieti 


6781 


2 


6.00p.m. 


2381 


2006 


58 5 


390 






Light wind N.W. 


,j 




3 


10.00 a.m. 


23 86 




490 


450 


680 


320 


Clear, light variable wind. 


„ 




3 


6.00p.m. 


23 74 




540 


430 






Snow between 6 00 and 9.00 a.m. 


,, 


• •• 


4 


7.00 a.m. 


23 83 


2009 


420 


350 


580 


370 


Cumulus with haze all day. 


Hsiao-shui-t7.a ... 


5559 


4 


6.00p.m. 


24 96 


2030 


54 410 






Light wind N.W. 4.00p.m. Strong N.^W. 


•• 




5 


7 00a.m. 25 26 


203-8 


410 35 


560 


410 


Overcast, cumulus. 4 00 p.m. Clear. 



232 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS -continued. 





Mm 


Dale. 


Time of 
Observation. 


H 




Temperature. 




PLACE. 


B 


Dry 


Wet 




REM.\RKS. 




<< 






^^ 


^S 


Bulb. 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Mio. 






fcel. 






incbes. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








1009 


















*I<an-chou Fu 


5106 


Apr. 
5 


6.00p.m. 


25 27 


203 7 


480 


37 




... 


Light wind N.W. 




.•■ 


6 


10.30 a.m. 


25- 15 




460 


380 


560 


305 


No clouds, haze. 




.. 




6 


6.30p,m. 


25 00 




515 








Light wind N.W. 




.. 




7 


10.30 a.m. 


2491 




550 


440 


600 


300 


3 00 p.m. Cumulus. 




.. 




7 


8.00p.m. 


24 82 




54 


450 




... 


Light wind N.W. 








8 


10.00a.m. 


24 86 




440 


370 


630 


370 


Cirro-cumulus and dust haze all day. 




.. 




8 


7.00p.m. 24 84 ... 


600 


51 






Wind E. 




.. 




9 


10.00a.m. 25 00 ... 


51 


410 630 


450 


Cirro-cumulus and haze all day. 




.. 




9 


7.00p.m. 2491 


600 


510 ... 




Light wind W. 




.. 




10 


10.00 a.m. 24 99 ... 53 


450 


66 


4'5'5 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 




.. 




10 


6.00p,m. 24 80, ... 


650 


530 




... 


Light variable wind. 








11 


10.00a.m. 


24 80 1 ... 


510 


400 


69-5 


485 


Cirro-cumulus. 4.00 pra Overcast. 








11 


6.30p m. 


24 94 ; ... 


685 


500 




~ ... 


Light wind K. 4.00p.ni. ModeratewindE. 




.. 




12 


9.30 a.m. 


25 02 i ... 


575 


450 


73 


455 


Cumulus with haze all day. 








12 


6.00p.m. 


24 84 ; ... 


670 


550 




... 


Light wind E. 








13 


10.00a.m. 


24 98 


... 


590 


48 i 75 


450 


Clear. 1.00 p.m. Overcast, Light windE. 




.. 




13 


7.00p.m. 


25 02 


... I590 


40 Oi ... 




5.00 p m Dust storm, duration one hour. 








14 


9.00 a.m. 


25 14 


... i 560 


45 75 


400 


Clear, calm. 








14 


6.00p.m. 


2502 




675 


55 0| ... 








.. 




15 


9.30 a.m. 


24 92 




625 


530 750 


445 


Cumulus all day. 




.. 




15 


6.00p.m. 


24 72 




680 


580 


... 




Light wind E. 








16 


8.00a.m. 


2488 




615 


540 


765 


525 


Dust haze all day, light wind W. 




.. 




16 


600p.m. 


24 88 




630 


490 






3.00 p.m. Strong wind W. 








17 


9.30a.m. 25 12 




550 


415 


750 


41-5 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 








17 


6.00p.m. 25 01 ... I 62 5 


510 ... 




Moderate wind E. 




" 




18 


10.00 a. m.i 25 06 ... '52 


39 5 : 660 


360 


Noon, cumulus. 








18 


6.00p.m.!24 78 : ... 


61 


455 ... 


... 


2.00 p.m.. Strong wind E. 








19 


10.00 a.m. 24 96 ... 


536 


450 


695 




Overcast, cumulus all day. 








19 


7.00p.m. 25 04 


500 


480 




... 


Light wind E., 8.00 p.m. little rain. 








20 


10.00 a.m. 25 10' ... 


535 


450 


6o'o 


425 


Cumulus and haze all day. 




.. 




20 


6.00p.m. 25 01 1 ... 


595 


470 


• • • 




Light wind W. 








21 


8.00a.m. 25 14 1 ... 


430 


370 


690 


335 


Cirro-cumulus and cumulus. 4.00 p.m. 




•• 




21 


7.00p.m. 


25 04 


... 


600 


480 






Overcast. Light wind E. 4.00 p.m. 
Strong wind W. 








22 


9.30 a.m. 


25 06 


<•• 


530 


430 


680 


33-5 


Cirro-cumulus all day. 








22 


7.00p.m. 


24 92 




61 


51 5 






Light wind W. 








23 


10.00 a.m. 25 06 




620 


480 


750 


450 


Cirro-cumulus, cumulus and haze all day. 








23 


6.00p.m. 24 86 




730 


610 


... 




Light wind E. 








24 


10.00a.m.l24 90 




61 5 


500 


780 


435 


Noon, cumulus from E. Light wind. 








24 


6.00p.m. 


24 74 


..• 


720 


680 




... 


5.00 p.m. Strong wind one hour. 








25 


10.00 a.m. 


24 96 


... |63 


530 


830 


545 


Heavy cumulus, little rain. 








25 


7.00p.m. 


24 94 


... , 58 5 


485 






Light windW. Afternoon- Light wind E. 








26 


9.30 a.m. 


24 94 


... 


590 


450 


680 


410 


Morning Cirrus. Evening Cumulus, 








26 


6.00p.m. 


24 90 


... 


61 5 


515 


... 




Light wind E. 4.00 p.m. Moderate 
wind N.W. 5.00 p.m. Few drops rain. 








27 


10.00a.m. 


25 14 


... 


485 


430 


690 


465 


Fog, heavy cumulus, cumulus and stratus 








27 


6.00p.m. 


25 16 




450 


420 


.•* 


... 


Light wind S.E. Noon little rain 








28 


6.00 a.m.! 25 22 


203 3 


380 


370 


... 


365 


Cumulus all day. Moderate wind varia- 








28 


6.00p.m.' 25 16 


... ' 58 


485 




... 


ble. 








29 


9,30a.m. 25 16 




495 


390 


... 


31 5 


Clear, light wind E. 








29 


6.00p.m.! 24 94 


... 


71 


580 














30 


6.30 a.m. 


24 92 




410 


380 


750 


39-5 


Clear, light wind W. 


Ch'i-chia-ling ... 




30 


6.00p.m. 


23 35 


... 


61 5 


470 


... 


... 








May 
1 


6.30 a.m. 


23 36 




360 




75 


330 


Cirrus and few cumulus all day. 


CU'i-chia-shan 




I 


6.00 p.m. 


22 03 


..'. !60 


440 




Light variable wiml. 






2 


10 00 a.m. 


22 00 


... [64 


500 


... 


Cirrus and cumulus all day with haze. 


•• 




2 


6.00p.m. 


2193 


... 630 


500 




Noou, moderate wind \V. 



Latitude 36« 3' N.. Longitude 103" 41' 
233 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— co/i/mM^o'. 



PLACE. 



Ch'i-chia-shan 



Lan-chou Fu 



g 3 



feet. 



Date. 



5106 



Ch'i-chia-shan 
Lan-chou Fu 



1909 

May 

3 

3 

4 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6 

7 
7 

8 
8 
9 
9 



Time of 
Observation. 



s c 

■st.° 



inches. 



10. 00a. m 
e.OOp.m 

7.30 am 

eoop.m 

10.00 a.m. 

6 00p.m. 
10.00 a.m. 

6.00p.m. 

10.00 a.m. 
6.00p.m. 



22 15 
22 12 

2221 
25 04 
25 09 
24-96 
25 00 

24 96 

25 10 
25 06 



10.00 am 2520 
6 00p.m. 1 2502 

10 00 a.m.' 25.08 
6.00p.m. 2494 





11 


... 


11 




12 


... 


12 




13 




13 




14 




14 




IS 


... 


15 




16 


<•• 


16 




17 




17 




18 


5106 


18 


... 


19 




19 




20 




20 




21 


... 


21 




22 




22 




23 


... 


23 




24 




24 


... 


25 




25 




26 




26 




27 




27 




28 



10 9.30 a.m. 
6.00p.m. 
10.00 a.m. 
7.00p.m. 



9.30 a. m 
7.00p.m 



10.00 a.m. 
6.00p.m. 

9.30a.m, 
7.00p.m 

5.30 a. m 
6.30 p. m 

10.00 a. m 
7.00p.m 
6.00 am 
e.OOp.m 
9.00 a. m 
6.00 p. m 

10.00 am 
7.00p.m 

10.00 a. m 
6.30p.m 

10.00 a. m 
7.00p.m 
9.00 am 
6.00p.m 

10.00 a. m 
6.30p.m 
9.30 a. m 
e.OOp.m 
9.30 a. m 

Evening 

10.00 a.m 
7.00p.m 

10.30 am 
7.00p.m 
9.30 am 



24 98 
2498 
24 -98 
2492 



2518 
25 20 

2530 
2528 

2528 
2508 

25 06 

24 86 

25 06 
2494 

24 98 
2218 
22 29 

25 12 
2510 
25 06 
25 04 

24 90 

25 00 

24 96 

25 04 

24 94 

25 06 
25 04 
25 12 
2506 
25' 18 
25 10 
25 04 
25 02 
25 06 

24 90 

25 00 



Q E 

o F. 



Temperature. 



Dry 

Bulb. 

OF. 



Wet 
Bulb. 



OF. 



610 

54 

430 

65 
580 
680 
61 5 
620 

64 
650 

620 

66 5 
595 
700 

700 
71 
660 
615 



430 
430 

420 
480 

430 
545 

365 

67 
605 
700 
47 5 
570 
52 
630 
64 
69 
665 
730 
650 
715 

68 
805 
720 
690 
630 
710 
670 
740 
64 
720 
720 
78 
700 



45 
400 

380 
570 
490 
620 
500 
550 

550 
54 

510 
530 
510 
550 

530 
570 
530 
57 5 



410 
400 

395 
44 

410 
500 

34 

51 
510 
620 
440 
44 
44 

52 

54 
590 
490 
580 
500 

55 
540 
59.0 
550 
570 
530 
570 
520 
590 
490 
610 
54 
62 
54 



Max. 
o F. 



780 

780 
750 
74 

780 

750 
71 

730 

780 

790 
550 



760 
74 
650 

75.0 
780 
820 
840 
830 

780 
840 

sijo 



Min. 
OF. 



450 

410 
450 
490 

530 

520 
450 

450 
490 

380 

38-0 

370 

36-5 
545 
47"5 
390 
52.0 
46-5 
530 
510 
560 
55 
470 
460 
490 
500 



REMARKS. 



I 



Strong wind W. since midnight. Few 
cirrus and haze all day. Strong wind 
and dust storms N,W. 

Stratus, cumulus and stratus. 

Light wind E. 

Cumulus and stratus. Cumulus. 

Light wind E. 

Cumulus, cumulus and stratus. 



wind. 4.00 



Light 
p.m. 



Little rain 
wind E. 



wind. Moderate 

little rain. 
Cumulus and stratus all day. 

during night. Moderate 

6.00 p.m. Strong wind E. 
Cumulus with haze. Cumulus. Strong 

wind N.E. during night. Stiff wind E. 
Strong wind S.E. from 9 00 p.m. to mid- 
night. Cumulus all day. Slight 

wind E. 
Cumulus all day. Moderate wind E. 
Strong wind N.E. 3.00 p.m. little rain. 
Cumulus and stratus towards evening. 

Light wind. 5.00 p.m. Hail and rain 

for one hour. 

Rainfall since 6.00 p.m. May llth,=001 

inches. Cumulus, fog, haze. Snow 

on surrounding hills. 
Cumulus and stratus. Rain during 

night, 02 inches since 8.00 a.m. 

Light variable wind. 
Stratus and cumulus. Fog on mountains. 

Rainfall 003 inches. Cumulus to noon 

Calm. 
Clear. Moderate wind S.E. 

Cumulus all day. 

Light wind E. 

Cumulus with haze. 

Light wind N.W. 

Cumulus and haze. 

Strong wind N.W. 

Few cumulus all day. 

Light wind E. 

Cumulus all day. Light wind E. 

6.00 p.m. Dust storm. 

Cumulus all day. 

Moderate wind E. 

Clear. Light wind E. 

4.00 p.m. Strong wind E. 

Cumulus all day. 

Strong wind and dust storm E. 

Rainfall during night 02 inches. 

Cumulus and few stratus. Strong wind E. 

Few cumulus all day. 

Moderate wind N.E. 

Clear, Light wind E. 

Cumulus all day. 
Light wind E. 
Cumulus all day. 



234 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con//>;u^</. 











„ . 


»^ . 








22 

o3 


D*te. 


Time ol 
Observation. 


"S 

11 


"2 

Mb 

n 


Temperature. 




PLACE. 


Dry 


Wet 




REMARKS. 




<< 






*l 


«i" 


Bulb. 


Bulb. Max. 


Min. 






reel. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. OF. 


OF. 








'9'9 




















May 
















Lau-chou Fu 


5106 


28 


6.30 p.m. 


24-78 




780 


68 


... 




Light wind N.E. 


,, 




29 


10.00 a.m. 


24 96 




750 


60 


86 


550 


Few cumulus all day. 






29 


e.OOp.m. 


2490 




78 ' 62 


... 


... 


Light wind K. 


»■ 




30 


9.30 a.m. 


2518 




75 i 60 


880 


600 


Cumulus and overcast all day. 




... 


30 


5.00p.m. 


25 02 




78 66 


... 




Light wind S K. 


, , 




31 


10.00a.m. 


25 10 




610 60 


82 


590 


Cumulus all day. 


■• 


... 


31 


6.00p.m. 


25 04 




680 


620 


... 


... 


Light wind S.E. 






June 


9.30 a.m. 


25 00 




630 


590 




535 


Cumulus all day. 






1 


5.30 p. m 


24 72 




760 


65 Oi ... 


Light wind N.E 






2 


10.30 a.m. 


24 86 




67 


610 


78 i 56 


Cumulus and stratus, 2.00 p.m. 






2 


7.00 p.m. 


24 78 




750 


65 






Strong wind and little rain. 






3 


10.00 a.m. 


24 90 




730 


590 




520 


Few cirrus all day. 






3 


6.00p.m. 


24 -72 




860 


68 0' ... 




Light wind E. 






4 


10.00a.m. 


24 84 




780 


64 880 


590 


Cumulus and dust baze. 






4 


6.00p.m. 


24 82 




780 


650 ... 




Strong wind N.E. 






5 


9.30 a.m. 


24 94 




670 


60 84 


e's'o 


Cumulus. Stratus towards evening. 






5 


6.00 p.m. 


24 86 




725 


63 5 ' ... 


... 


Rainfall. 01 ins. Moderate wind N.E. 






6 


10.00 .i.m. 


25 00 




72 5 615 1 78 


600 


Cirrus all day. Light wind N.E. 






6 


7.00p.m. 


24 86 




75 62 5 ... 










7 


6.00 a.m. 


24 78 




610; 57 820 


590 


Cirrus and cumulus, 2.00 p.m. Cumulus 






7 


5.30p.m. 


24 74 




79 68 1 ... 


... 


and stratus. Moderate wind NE. 






8 


10.00 a.m. 


24 90 




63 62 780 


630 


Cumulus and stratus. Little rain all 






8 


e.OOp.m 


24 88 




66 i 57 1 ... 


... 


morning. Moderate wind N.E. 






9 


1030a. m 


24 90 




69 57 720 


490 


Cumulus all day. Light wind E. 






9 


6 00p.m. 


24 86 




69 60 






3 30 p m. Gale W. for half hour. 






10 


10.00 a.m. 


24 82 




68 j 58 


780 


5i20 


Cirrus all day. Moderate wind E. 






10 


7.30 p.m. 


24 68 




74 60 




... 


6.00 p.m. Strong wind E. and dust 
storm. 






11 


10.00 a.m. 


24 74 




75 640 


840 


600 


Cumulus. Stratus towards evening. 






n 


7.00p.m. 


24-78 




78 60 




... 


Light wind. Strong W. in evening. 






12 


10.00a.m. 


24 98 




72 60 810 


640 


Cumulus and stratus all day. Strong 






12 


7.00 p.m. 


25 06 




56 54 ol ... 




wind N.E. 5 00 p.m. Rain 






13 


10.30 a.m. 


25 00 




610 


58 1 780 


430 


Rainfall since 5 00 p m. June 12th. 017 






13 


6.30p.m. 


24 94 




690 


620 ... 




inches. Cumulus all day. Light wind 
N E. 
Cumulus. 3 30p.m. Stratus, cumulus. 






14 


10.00 a.m. 


24-94 




74 


63 82 


54 






14 


6.30 p.m. 


24 90 




71 


660 ... 


... 


light wind. 3.30 p.m. Strong wind N.E. 
Rain. 






15 


2.00p.m. 


24-84 




710 


630 84 


54 


Cumulus and stratus all day. 






15 


6.00p.m. 


24 90 




610 


580 ... 


... 


Strong wind N.E. Little rain. 






16 


10.00 a.m. 


24 94 




680 


63 , 82 


550 


Rainfall overnight Oil inches. 






16 


7.30p.m. 


24 82 




730 


650 ... 


• >. 


Cumulusand mist all day. Light wind E. 






17 


10.00 a.m. 


24 94 




700 


580 ... 


575 


Rainfall 01 inches. Cirrusand cumulus 






17 


5.00p.m 


24 84 




790 


670 ... 


... 


all day. Light wind E. 






18 


10.00 a.m. 


24 90 




710 610 84 


620 


Cumulus and haze all day. 




... 


18 


6.00p.m. 


24 98 




64 56 ... 




Light wind N.E. 






19 


11.30a.m. 


24 94 




750 620 820 


570 


Cumulus all day. Moderate wind W. 






19 


6.30 p.m. 


24 88 




74 63 


... 


... 








20 


10.00 a.m. 


24 90 




72 600 


780 


55 


Cumulus all day. 






20 


7.30p.m. 


24 86 




76 65 ... 




Light wind \V. 






21 


1000a m 


24 90 




69 62 I 80 


ee'o 


Cumulus and stratus all day. 






21 


6.00p.m. 


24 92 




74 68 ... 




Moderate wind \V. 11.00 a.m. Rain. 






22 


9.00a.m. 


24 96 




70 610 80 


550 








23 


6.00p.m. 


24 86 




80 66 ... 




Cumulus all day. Moderate wind W. 






24 


10.30 a.m. 


24 88 




710 650 860 


63-0 


Cumulus all day. 






24 


7.00p.in. 


24 90 




790 660 ... 


... 


Light wind E. 



235 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— co«//>7«ea'. 



PLACE. 



Lan-chou Fu 



Hsiao-shui-tzQ 

Kan-tsao-tien 

Ch'^ng-k'ou-yi 



An-ting Hsien .. 
Ching-liang-shan 

Ying-tao-ho 
Hui-ning Hsien .. 

Ts'ai-chia-Tsui .. 



<< 


Date. 


feet. 


1909 




5106 


June 
25 


... 


25 




26 


... 


26 




27 






27 






28 






28 






29 






29 






30 






30 




July 

1 






2 


... 


2 




3 




3 


... 


4 




4 


• .. 


5 


... 


5 


... 


6 


... 


7 




7 




8 




8 




9 




9 




10 




10 




11 




12 




12 


... 


13 




14 




14 




15 


5559 


15 


... 


16 


6781 


16 




17 


6839 


17 




17 




18 




18 




19 


6762 


19 


7217 


19 


... 


20 


6025 


20 


6125 


20 




21 


6363 


21 



Time of 
Observation. 



V V 



inches. 



10 00am. 24 90 
7 30p.ni. 24 86 
9.30a.m.! 2504 
6.00p.m. 25 00 



10 00 am 

7 OOp m 
10 ;iOa til 

6.00 p. m 
10 30a. m 

7 30p.ui 
10.00 am 

7 OOp m 



10.00 a.m. 

6 00p m. 
11 00 a.m. 

6.00p.m. 
11.00 a.m. 

5 00p.m. 
10 00 a.m. 

6.00p.m. 
10.00 am 

6.00 p.m. 
10.00 a.m. 
morning 

6.00p.m. 
10 00a.m. 

8.00 p.m. 
10 00 a.m. 

6.00p.m. 
10.00 a.m. 

evening 
10.00 a.m. 

10.00 a.m. 
800p.m. 
l.OOp.m 
2.00p.m 

6 OOp.m. 

7 00 a.m. 
4.30p.m, 
5.30 a.m. 
800p.m. 
7.00a.m, 
2.00p.m, 
8.00p.m. 

10.00 a.m. 
6 00 p.m. 
6.30 a.m. 
3.00p.m. 
8.00p.m. 
6.00 a.m. 
2.00p.m. 
7.00p.m. 
6.30a.m. 
6.00p.m. 



24 90 
24 74 
24 72 
24 60 
24 76 
24 -70 
24 82 
24 84 



24 94 
24 98 
24 -90 
24 88 

24 80 
24 97 
24 90 
24 92 
24 86 
24 89 
24 80 
24 71 
24 -75 
24 79 
24 75 
24 70 
24 88 
24 84 
24 93 

24 96 
24 90 
24 90 
24 82 
24 82 
24 86 
24 86 
24 87 
23 83 
23 79 
23 63 
23 60 
23 79 
23 78 
23 84 
23 80 
23 14 

23 14 

24 30 
24 23 
24 14 
2388 



MS 

■5 o 



OF. 



202 8 
202 8 
200 9 
2006 
2004 
2002 
200 6 
200 6 
200 6 

200 8 
1993 
1992 

201 6 
2016 
2016 
2009 



Temperature. 



Dry 

Bulb. 



780 
830 
600 
620 



64 
64 
660 
620 

71 
785 
705 

72 5 
82 
780 

73 
780 
770 
710 
710 

74 
860 

74 
750 
635 

690 
71 2 
790 
850 
81 
710 

75 
60 
730 

64 
74 5 
705 

65 
69 
595 
775 
67 
598 
790 
755 
630 
71 5 



Wet 

Bulb. 



OF. 



660 
680 
600 
600 



600 
640 
64 
750 
64 
670 
75 
620 



630 
620 

64 

62 
685 
710 

65 
660 
665 
71 2 
650 
68 
668 
660 

63 5 
675 
670 
680 
680 
685 

620 
61 
61 5 
722 
65 2 
65 

64 
560 
602 

61 
64 5 
630 
585 
598 
565 
625 
57.2 
52 

62 
600 
580 
637 



Max. 

OF. 



860 
900 

680 
860 
900 
860 

800 



815 



Min. 
OF. 



630 
600 

530 
570 
680 
640 

600 

530 

585 

608 

61 

64 5 
615 

662 

64 2 

655 

630 

562 

612 
61 

620 

580 

600 

575 
595 

545 

568 



REMARKS. 



Cumulus all day. 1 

Moderate wind E. - 

Cumulus and stratus. Moderate wind 
W. Rainfall 2 00 a.m. to 6 00 p.m. 72 
inches (2.00 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 51 
inches). 
Cumulus all day. 
Light wind W. 
Cumulus. Light wind W. 

Cumulus all day. Morning Moderate 
wind E. Evening Moderate windN.E. 

Rainfall Oil inches. Stratusandcumulus 
all day. Light wind N.E. 



9.00 a m. Rain 08 inches. Cumulus.and 
stratus all day. Light variable wind. 

Stratus and nimbus all day. Light 
variable wind. Rainfall 17 inches. 

Cumulus, stratus. Clear overhead. 

Rainfall =0 03 inches. 

Rainfall3 30a m.to8 00a.m.=0 lOinches. 

Cumulus and stratus. 

Clear, calm. 

Overcast. Light wind W. 

Clear, calm. Evening Stratus and 

cumulus. Strong wind E. 
10.00a.m. Dull. calm. 8 OOp ni. Overcast. 
Brisk breeze N.E. 

10 00 am Clear, calm. 6 00 p.m. Cum- 
ulus. Light wind N.E. 
Overcast, calm all day. 
10.00 p.m. Heavy shower of raiu. 
Rain all day. total rainfall .since 10.00 
p.m. July'lOth =0 92 inches. 

Morning Clear. Light breeze N.E. 

Evening Cirrus, calm. 
Clear, calm. 
Cirro-stratus. Fresh breeze N.E. 

Evening Cirrus, calm. 

Morning Overcast, calm. 

Evening Overcast, thunder clouds. 

Morning Clear. 

Evening ^ part cirrus, calm. 
8.00 p.m. Rain in torrents. 8.00 p.m. 
July 17th, to 6.00 am. July 18th, = r32 
inches. 
Overcast all day. Little rain. 
No wind. 

6.30 a.m. Overcast. 
3.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 

Cirro-cumulus. 2.00 p.m. Cirro-cumu- 
lus, calm. 
7.00 p m. Clear, calm. 
6.30 a.m. Cirro-stratus, calm. 
6.00 p.m. Cirrus, calui. 



236 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERYATIO'^S— continued. 



PLACE. 



Ts'ai-chia-Tsui .. 
Kao-chia-p'u 

Ch'i-chia-ta-slian . 
Ching-ning Chou 



Shan-chia-chieh .. 
Chang-fai-p'u .. 



Ch'ang-yi-p'u 



Ku-yiiau Chou 



S,= Date. 

r«t. 



6363 
5862 

6662 
6276 



6203 
6653 



Jen-sa-ho ... 5915 

Jen-chia-wan ... 5263 

Chung-tza-yang 

chia 



6813 



6333 



K'ai-pien 
Chen-yiian Hsien 

T'ai-pei-ch'eng .. 

Yi-ma-kuan 

Pai-ma-p'u 
Ch'ing-yang Fu .. 



Ho-shui Hsien 



4950 
4454 
4478 

5119 

5108 

5082 
4216 



4146 



1909 
July 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 

27 
27 
28 
28 



Auer 
1 
1 
1 
2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

5 

6 

6 

7 

7 

8 

8 

8 

9 

9 
10 
10 

11 
11 
12 
12 

13 



Time of 
Observation. 



6 30 am 
S.OOp.m 
7.30 am 
11.00 am 
6.00 pm 
8.00 am 
e.OOp.m 
6.00a. m 
2.00 p. m 
7.00p.m 
9.00 am 
6.00 p. m 

e.OOa.m 
5.00p.m, 
6.30 a.m. 
5.30 p.m. 



e.OOa.m 
6.00 p. m 
8.00 a 111 
6.00 p.m 

10.00 a. m 
e.OOp.m 



7.00 a. m 
2.00p.m 
S.OOp.m 
6.30 am 

e.OOp.m 
e.OOa.m 
e.OOp.m 
e.OOa.m 
e.OOp.m 
8.00 a.m 
e.OOp.m 
e.OOa.m 
e.OOp.m 
4.30 am 
e.OOp.m 
5.15 a.m. 
noon 
8.00p.m. 
7.00 a.m. 
e.OOp.m. 
e.OOa.m. 
e.OOp.m. 

6.00a.m. 
6.00p.m. 
8.00 a.m. 
7.00p.m. 

6.00 a.m. 



3.S 
inches. 



■o 9 

a S. 



OF. 



93 

32 

32 

64 

34 

46 

36 ' 

40 

13 

92 

01 

98 

98 
91 
97 
26 



200 
201 
201 
200 
201 
202 
202 
202 
201 
201 
201 
201 



Temperature. 



201 2 
2010 
2012 
2000 



23 26 199 8 

24 08 2016 
24 18 201 7 
24 17 201 6 



24 -27 
24 -28 



24 32 
24 40 
24 75 

24 71 

25 07 
25 10 
25 53 
25 64 
25 90 
25 93 
25 85 
25 89 
25 30 
25 28 
24 98 

24 97 

25 10 
2607 

26 11. 
26 07 
2609 
26 04 

2608 
2601 
26 09 



2605 



2018 
201 8 



203 
203 
204 
204 
204 
204 
204 
205 
203 
203 
203 
203 
203 
205 
205 
205 
205 
205 



Dry 
Bulb. 

OF. 



660 
73 2 
692 
71 
77 5 
710 
775 
70 5 
840 
680 
64 
720 

64 
800 
620 
736 



Wet 

Bulb. 



OF. 



600 
640 
628 

655 
64 5 
660 
655 
670 
620 
61 5 
660 

605 
652 
585 
629 



570 540 

77 2 660 

70 5 638 

678 628 



630 
71 



2019 59 

2017 76 

202 7 660 

2027 560 



205 2 

204 9 

205 1 
205 

2050 



760 
590 
77 
67 

73 2 

74 
798 
668 
670 
64 
725 
660 
80 5 
715 
730 
735 
630 
705 

630 
698 
67 5 
71 5 

64 4 



600 
640 



570 
590 
599 
530 

64 
570 
655 
630 

65 
640 
674 
638 
620 
620 
650 
628 
680 
67 
65 5 
665 
608 
636 

610 
65 8 
650 
675 

625 



Max. Min. 
OF. OF. 



815 

84"6 
930 

850 

92.0 
900 



845 



860 



905 



1022 



930 



990 



485 



650 



660 



600 



495 
578 

490 
592 

582 



51 

540 

490 
590 
640 
64 5 
570 
580 

645 

630 
648 

eO'S 



REMARKS. 



6.30 a.m. Clear, calm. 
8 00 p.m. Overcast, threatening rain. 
7 30 a.m. Overcast, threatening rain. 
6.00 p.m. Overcast. 

8.00 a.m. Calm, overcast. 
6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 
6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 



Heavy rain since 9.00 p.m. July 25th. 

=0 72 inches. 9.00 a.m. Overcast little 

rain. 
6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 

5 00 p.m. Cumulus, calm. 

Heavy rain during night Rainfall since 
ll.OOp ni. July 27th=0 73 inches. 6 30 
a.m. Entire cumulo-stratus, calm. 
5.30 p.m. Clear, breeze X.W. 

6 00 a.m. Clear, calm. 
6.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 

8 00a.m. Overcast, calm. 11.00a m. Rain, 
thunderstorm S. Rainfall=0 26 inches. 
6 00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 

Raining, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 



7.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 
2.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 
8.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 
6.30 a.m. Clear, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 
6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 
6.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 
6 00 a.m. Light rain, calm. 

8.00 a.m. Almost clear, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Strato-cuniuhis. calm. 

6.00 a.m. Overcast, stratus, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 

4.30 a.m. Overcast, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 

5.15 a.m. Entire cirro-cumulus, calm. 

Noon, Cumulus and light cirnis. calm. 

8 00 p ni. Raining. I'all = 08 inches. 

7.00 a.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 

6.00 p.m. Heavy rain S. 

e.OOa.m. Clear, calm. 

e.OOp.m. Stratus, calm. 

2 00 to 4.00 p m. Rainfall = 09 inches. 

6.00 a.m. Cirrus, calm. 

6 00 p.m. Raining 

Heavy rain since 6 00 p m August 11th. 

Rainfall for 12 hours ending 6.00 a in, 

=0 58 inches. Light cumulus, calm. 
Clear, calm. 



237 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— con/w«erf. 





8- 


Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 


"5 

? c 

H 


•56 


Temperature. 




PLACE. 


Bull. 


Wet 






REMARKS. 




« 






^x 


«:? 


Bulb. 


Max. 


Min. 






feel. 






inches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 








1909 


















Miao-ts'un 


4144 


AuB. 
13 


eoop.m 


25 39 


2039 


720 


670 






6.00 p m. Few stratus, calm. 


,, 




14 


2.00p.m. 


25 43 


204 2 


700 


662 






6.00 p.m. Raining. Fall since noon=0 23 


,, 


... 


14 


6.00p.m. 


2541 


204.2 


700 


67 0! ••• 




inches. 


,, 


... 


15 


6.00 a.m. 


25 39 


204 


645 


630 




54-'4 


6.00 a m. Overcast, calm. 


T'ai-pei-ch'fing ... 


3528 


15 


6.00p.m. 


2606 


205 1 


772 


678 






6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,, 




16 


6.30 a.m. 


2608 


205 1 


600 


597 




560 


Heavy dew 6.30 am Cirro-stratus, calm. 


Hai-shui-ssQ 


3174 


16 


7.00p.m. 


2624 


205 6 


705 


67 5 






7.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


(Shensi) 






















,, 




17 


7.00a.m. 


2632 


2055 


615 


608 




... 


7.00 a.m. Overcast, mist, calm. 


Ch'ang-ts'un yi ... 


3045 


17 


8.00p.m. 


2658 


2060 


71-5 


61 5 






6.00 p.m. Thunderstorm, without rain, 
from N.E 8 00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,, 




18 


8.00 a.m. 


2673 


2063 


685 


652 






8.00 a.m. Entire cirro-stratus, calm. 


Yang-chiian 


4085 


18 


noon 


25 99 


204 8 


755 


660 






Noon. Overcast, calm. 


Fu Chou 


2912 


18 


7.00p.m. 


26 76 


2064 


71 5 


64 5 






7.00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 


,, 


... / 


19 


5.40 a.m. 


26 79 


2064 


655 


620 




590 


5.40 a.m. Entire light cirrus, calm. 


Kau-ch'iian Hsien 


3416 


19 


8.00p.m. 


26 49 


2062 


655 


622 






Noon. Commenced to rain heavily. 
8.00 p m. Overcast, calm. 


,, 


... 


20 


7.00a.m. 


2649 


206 2 


620 


600 


770 


390 


Rain all night. Fall for 12 hours ending 


•• 


... 


20 


6.00p.m. 


2642 


2058 


675 


67-5 






11.00 a.m.=0 66 inches. 6.00 p.m. Few 

cirrus, calm. 


,, 




21 


6.30 am 


2642 


205 7 


62 2 


608 




600 


6.30 a.m. Overcast, calm. 8.00 p.m. 


Ma-p'u-tai-ho 


3756 


21 


8.00p.m. 


26 15 


205 3 


625 


595 






Overcast, calm. 10.00 p.m. Raining. 


,, 




22 


8 00 a.m. 


26 17 


205 4 


67 


62 




s'o's 


8.00 a.m. Clear, calm. Heavy dew. 


Yen-an Fu 


2769 


22 


8.30p,m. 


2667 


2062 


70S 


64 






8.30 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,, 




23 


8.00 a.m. 


2672 


2064 


670 


620 I ... 




8.00 am. Calm. 


■ I 


... 


23 


600p.m. 


26 64 


206 2 


780 


66 5 1 ... 




6.00 p.m. Calm. 


li 




24 


8.00 a.m. 


26 75 


2063 


64 5 


630 




615 


8.00 a.m. Scotch mist. 


,, 




24 


6.00p.m. 


26 62 


206- 1 


800 


675 






6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,, 




25 


6,30a.m. 


26 67 


206 3 


650 


61 5 




592 


6.30 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Yaotieii 


2514 


25 


2.00p.m. 


26 68 


206 2 


880 


698 






2.00 p.m. Cumulus, calm. 


Kan-kuyii 


2527 


25 


7.00p.m. 


2681 


206 4 


800 


67 5 






7.00 p.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 


,, 




26 


6.00a m. 


2681 


2064 


630 


605 


■ ■ . 


5'40 


6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Ma-chia-k'ou 


2369 


26 


7.00p.m. 


2693 


206 4 


820 


675 






7.00 p.m. Entire cumulus, calm. 


, , 




27 


5.00 a.m. 


26 98 


2066 


660 


620 


890 


59-'9 


5.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Ch'ing-cbien 






















Hsien 


2583 


27 


6.00p.m. 


26 74 


2063 


882 


694 






6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,, 




28 


4.00a.m 


26 79 


2064 


690 


64 8 


930 


630 


4 OOa.m. Clear, calm. 


Shih-ts'ui-yi 


3017 


28 


6 OOp m. 


2638 


205 7 


878 


702 






6.00 p.m. Light stratus, calm. 


,, 




29 


3 30 a m. 


2645 


205 8 


71 


658 






3.30 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Sui-te Chou 


2330 


29 


eoop.m 


2706 


206 9 


780 


... 




... 


6.00 p.m. Overcast, heavy cumulus, calm. 


,, 




30 


8.30 a m. 


27 16 


2070 


725 


65*0 


900 


635 


8 30 a.m. Overcast, calm. 


II 




30 


6 00p.m. 


27 09 


2069 


790 


690 


.. • 




6.00p.m. Overcast, threatening, breezeS. 


,, 




31 


5.45 a.m. 


27 17 


207 


720 


662 




68-2 


5.45 a.m. Overcast, calm. 5.00 p.m. Rain. 


Yii-ho-ch'eng 


2537 


31 


6.00p.m. 


2688 


2065 


70.0 


602 






6.00 p.m. Overcast, threatening, calm. 






Sept. 

1 


6 OOa.m 


2691 


206-6 


62-5 


570 






6.00 a.m. Overcast, threatening, calm. 


K'aiig-chia-fa ... 


1822 


1 


6.00p.m. 


2763 


2079 


685 


635 




... 


11.00 a.m. Rain till 2.00 p m. 6.00 p.m. 


(on Yellow River) 




















Overcast, calm. 


,, 




2 


600a.m. 


27 63 


2080 


670 


630 




59-4 


6.00 a.m. Overcast, calm. Rainfall for 


Liu-lin-chen 


2316 


2 


6.30p.m. 


27 18 


207 2 


730 


650 




... 


11 hours ending 6.00 a.m.=0 36 inches. 


(Shansi) 




















6.30 p.m. Clear, calm 




... 


3 


6 OOa.m. 


27-23 


207-2 


620 


585 




555 


6.00 a.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 6.00 


Yung-ning Chou .. 


2738 


3 


600p.m. 


26 79 


2066 


655 


620 






p.m. Raining. Fall since 3.00 p.m. 
=0 16 inches. 


,, 




4 


6.00 am 


26 84 


2064 


59-5 


580 




590 


6.00 a.m. Entire cirro-cumulus, calm. 


Wu-ch'^ng 


4165 


4 


6.00p.m. 


25 57 


204 


680 


625 






6 00 p.m. Overcast, calm. 


" 


... 


5 


5.30 a.m. 


25 58 


204- 1 


620 


590 




592 


5.30 a.m. Cirro-cumulus, calm. 



238 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS— continued. 





• o 






ti 


°t 




Temperature. 






S'S 






E- 














PLACE. 




Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 


a c 


Dry 


Wet 






REMARKS. 




<< 






U 


«£• 


Bulb. 


Bulb. 


Ma 


X. Min. 






feet. 






ioches. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF. 


OF 


\ OF. 








1009 






















Sept. 


















Fen-chou Fu 


2414 


5 


e.OOp.m. 


27 32 


207 4 


785 


690 




... 


6.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


, , 


... 


6 


6.00 a.m. 


27 31 


207 2 


660 


620 




632 


6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Kuan-hsin-cheu ... 


2591 


6 


7.00p.m. 


27 17 


207 


740 


650 


.. 




7.00 p.m. Strato-cumulus, calm. 


, , 


... 


7 


6.00 a.m. 


27 29 


207 3 


67 5 


530 




... 


6.00 a.m. Overcast, fresh breeze S.E. 


Chiu-ssQ 


2657 


7 


7.00p.m. 


27 27 


207 3 


62 5 


452 




... 


7.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


,. 


... 


8 


6.00 a.m. 


27 20 


207 2 


455 


41 




450 


6.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 


Tai-yiian Fu 


2600 


8 


10.00p.m. 


27 14 


207 


605 


502 






10 00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


, , 


... 


9 


8.00 a.m. 


27 24 


207 2 


64 


54 8 


80 


390 


8.00 a.m. Light cirrus, calm. 


, 






9 


5.00p.m. 


27 19 


207 1 


753 


558 


.. 


... 


5.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 


, 






10 


8.00 a.m. 


27 32 


207 3 


625 


532 


80 


4 452 


8 00 am. Light cirrus, calm. 


, 




... 


10 


7.00p.m. 


27 26 


207 2 


690 


582 


.. 




7 00 p.m. Misty, calm. 


, 






11 


8.00 a.m. 


27 29 


207 3 


690 


54 8 




600 


8.00 a.m. Overcast calm. 


, 




... 


11 


8.00p.m. 


27 22 


207- 1 


672 


56 5 






8.00 p.m. Clear, calm. 








12 


8.00 a.m. 


27 31 


2073 


650 


575 




520 


8.00 a.m. Clear, calm. 



238 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Acari 
Accentor 
Accipiter 
Acredula 
iEgialitis 
Aex galericulata 
Alcedo . . 
AUactaga 
Altitudes 
Ampe'-is 
Anas 

Ancistrodon 
Anderson (Mr. M. I 
Anorthura 
Anser . . 
Antelope 
Anthropoides . . 
Anthus spinoletta 
An-ting Hsien (Shensi) 
(Kansu) 
Apodemus 
Aquila . . 
Aranea; (Araneida;) 
Ardca cinerea . . 
Athene pluinipes 
Austen (Mr. E. E.) 
Badger . . 
Base line 

Baths (Lin-t'ung H) 
Bats 
Bear 

Bedford (D. of) 
Bittern . . 
Botaurus 

Broomhall (Mr. M.) 
Bruce (Major C. D.) 
Bubo . . 

Buddha (Buddhist) 17, 18, 29, 30,43 
Bufo .... 

Bugonia-myth 

Bunting 

Bustard . . . . . . 36, 

Buteo . . 

Butterflies 

Buzzard 

Caccabis 

Calbrecht (Father) 

Cambridge (Rev. O. P. 

Canis lupus 

Capreolus 

Caprimulgus . . 

Came^^ie Expedition (and Institution) 

Carp 

Carpodacus 

Casarca 

Catfish . . 

Cave-dwellings 

Ccrchneis 

Ch'ang-t'ai-p'u 



PAGE 

186, 187, 192 

100 

103 

99 

107 

106 

93, 108 

92, 93, 171. 183 

131, 133. 170 

100 

106 

no 

79, Si, 83, 85, 87, 180 

91, 100 

105 

■ 20, 85 

107 

99 

123 

53. 59. 134 

80, gi, 92, 178, 179 

lOI 

1S6, 187, 204-218 

106 

103 

186, 188 

85 

3, 130. 132 

41. 124 

93 

91 

. . 79, 83 

106 

106 

50 

134 

103 

48.49.51.52.53.90 

112 

189 (and Note) 

97 

38. 55. 56. 86, 89, 105 

103 

5. 76. 93 
103 
104 

74 

204 

82 

80, 82, 174, 192 

103 



115. 



116, 124 

"3 

97 

106 

"3 

36. 74 
103 
58, 72, 92, 151 



Ch'ang-ts'un-yi 
Ch'ang-wu Hsien 
Ch'ang-yi-p'u . . 
Chao-chuang . . 
Cheng (Prince) 
Ch'eng-k'ou-yi 
Ch'eng-tu Fu . . 
Cli'Cng-wu Miao 
Chcn-t'ai 
Chen-yiian Hsien 
Chia-lu . . 
Chiao-ch'eng Shan 



3. 34 



5". 73 



Ch'ien-chou 

Chien Shcn 

Chien-tsai Ho . . 

Chih-fu (Prefect) 

Chih-hsien (District Magistrate) 

Chihii . . 71, 73, 92, 97, 105, 115 

Chin-chia-k'ou 

Ching-chia-yi . . 

Ch'ing-chien Hsien 

Ching-Iiang Shan 

Ching-ning Chou 



7, 8, 14, 79, 81, 82 
117, 120, 121, 125 



Ching-pien 
Ch'ing-ting Shan 
Ch'ing-yang Fu 

Ch'in-Iing Shan 

Cliipmunk 

Chiu-ts'ai 

Chou-chih Hsien 

Chough 

Chung-nan Shan 

Chung-pu Hsien 

Ciconia . . 

Cinclus . . 

Circus cyaneus 

Citellus 

Clangula 

Classics (The Sixteen) 

Clemen ti (Mr.) 

Coal 7, 17, 20, 24 

Cobb (Mr. H. B.) 

Cobitis tinia 

Coccothraustes 

Coleoptera 

Coloeus . . 

Coltman (Mr.) 

Coluber dionc 

Columba 

Colynibus 

Confucius 

Coot 

Cormorant 

Corvus . . 

Coturnix 

Cotyle . . 

Crab 



21 

57 
19 
19 
116, 119, 127, 128, 129 
17 
58 
27, 28, 123 
59 
53. 54. 58, 70. 71. 92. 93. 125 
122 
10, 13, 14, 15, 122, 142 
50. t>9, 70. 73. 74. 75. 125, 

133. 134. 146 



PAGE 

■ • 55. 5'J 

53 

• • 58, 72 

136, 137. 138 

45 

59. 136. 151 

2 

13 

19 

151 

17 
88, 92, 
127, 129, 141 

53 

(note) 



12.1 



136. 



Si, 82 



28 (barges, 40), 
5. 13. 14. 



H9 
19. 



151 
116 

85. 88, 91, 92 

17 

51 

97 

51 

36,37.45, 124 

107 

100 

103 

83. 91. 98. 177 

106 

• ■ 49. 51 

^ii, 134 

120, 123, 124 

22. 32, 34, 83 

113 

97 
190 

96 

79 

ilo 

■• 105 
.. 107 

47 
107 

.. 107 

96 

.. 104 

lOi 

76. 91. 93 



186, 



. 61, 
86, 



243 





PAGE 






PAGE 


Cranes . . 


85. 107 


Goral . . 


. . 


. . 48, 90 


Craseomys 


80, 81. 182 


Graculus 




i6 


Cricctulus 


80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 92, 179, 180 


Grant (Mr. G. A.) 


•• 3. 4. 5. 7. 19 


22. 32. 33. 


Crocidura 


82 


34. 55. 56. 69 


70. 76. 87, 92, 93. 


132, 133, 186, 187 


Crossoptilon . . 


104 


Grebe . . 




107 


Crows . . 


85. 96, 97 


Grosbeak 


. . 


98 


Cuckoo . . 


108 


Grouse . . 




105 


Cuculus. . 


108 


Grus . . 


. . 


107 


Curlew . . 


82, 107 


Gull 




106 


Cyanopolius 


88,97 


Gypaetus 




102 


Cygnus ferus . . 


106 


Hai-ch'eng Hsicn 




134 


Cyprinus carpio 


113 


Hai-shui-ssu 




55. 124 


Dafila 


106 


Halcyon 




93, 108 


David, A 


81 


Haliaetus 




.... 102 


Pcre 


94 


Hamster 




.. 81, 83, 87 


Da\ ies (Major) 


5. 132 


Han River 




44 


Deer lo, 30, 55. 72, 7. 


), 76, 77, 82, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93 


Han-chung Fu . . 




.. 38. 44 


Dello (Mr.) 


71 


Hang Shan 




(see Sacred Peaks) 


Dendrocopus . . 


108 


Hankow 




32, 42, 43, 44.91 


Dicrurus 


100 


Hare 


.. 30.31. 


82, 86, 87, 89, 91 


Pipodida; 


83 


Hawks . . 




.. 82, loi, 103 


Diptera 


1S6, 188, 189 


Hazrat Ali 


.. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 


24, 26, 27, 


Dipus sowerbyi 


80, 83, 92, 183 




28, 31 32, 33, 


55, 63-69, 130. 131 


Dog 


30. 31. 37 


Hedgehog 




83 


Douglas (Captain H. E 


M., V.C.) 4, 5, iS, 19, 20, 


Hemiptcra 




186, 191 


3i. 55. <>8. 69. 71 


79, 82, 186, 188, 194. 203, 


Heng Shan 




(see Sacred Peaks) 




204, 213, 217 


Henicurus 




86, 100 


Dove 


28, 86, 105 


Heron . . 




. . 85, 106, 107 


Dragonflies 


75. 93 


Hirst (Mr. S.) . . 




. . 18(1, 187, 192 


Drongo 


100 


Hirundo 




loi 


Drj'onastes 


91.99 


Hogg (Mr. H. R.) 




. . 1S6, 204-21S 


Duck 


32, 40, 75, 89. . .91, 106 


Honan (and H. Fu 


) ■ . 3. 32. 33. 34 


42. 43. 44. 


tagle 


12, 82, 86, 91, loi, 102 




52, 62, 69, 89, 91, 


106, III, 113, 128 


Edwards (M. Milne) . 


80 


Hoopoe 




108 


Eel 


"3 


Ho-shui Hsien 




56, 125 


Elaphis 


no 


Hot Springs 




41, 45, 51, 124 


Emberiza 


97 


Hsi-an Fu 


14, 22, 32, 33. 34, 


36. 38-43. 


Eophona melanura 


98 


44-54. 58. 69. 


89, 91, 99, 105, 106 


113. 114. 


Epimys 


see Mus. 






124, 129, 132 


Eptesicus 


93. 171. 172 


Hsiao-shui-tzQ 


59, 60, 71, 125, 126 


Eremias 


no 


Hsia Yii Ch ii Shui Pi 


see Vu 


Erinaceus 


. . 80, S3 


Hsieh-tao-ts'un 




7 


Erythacus 


99 


Hsien-yang Hsien 




•• 51. 53 


Erythropus 


103 


Hsi-feng-chtn . . 




56 


Eutamias 


80, 81, 85, 92, 176, 177 


Hsi-kung-yi 




59 


Falco (Ealcon) 


102, 105 


Hsin Chou 


. . 


129 


Felis chinensis 


88, 173 


Hsii-chou Fu . . 




2 


Fen-chou Fu . . 


15, 70, 78, 117, 127, 132, 134 


Huai Ho 




119 


Feng-hsiang-ch'eng 


II 


Huang Ho (or Yellow River) 11, 13, i. 


, 15. 16, 18 


Fen Ho 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 


14. 15. 34. 116. 117. "9. 120, 


24. 43. 44. 59. 


60, 61, 71, 77, 82, 106, III, 113, 




121, 127, 141, 151 


116, iig, 121, 


122. 126, 128, 133, 134, 141, 


Filchner (Herr W.) . 


81, 134 






142. 147, 149 


Finches 


82, 97, 98 


Huang-ho-yeh 




14. I". 17 


Foxes . . 


..20, 82, 85, 87, 91 


Huang-ti 




36, 45, 46 (note) 


Fringilla 


97 


Huang-t'u 


115, lib, 120, 121, 


122, 123, 127, 128 


Frogs 


76, 82, 85, 112 


Huang-t'u-tsai. . 




115 


Frugilegus 


96 


Hua Shan 




. . 43. 48 


FuChou ..34. 35 


. 55. 5*^. 76. 77, 124, 126, 128, 134 


Hua-yi Miao . . 


. . 


42 


Fulica . . 


107 


Hui-ning Hsien 




■ ■ 53. 58. 126 


Gahan (Mr. C. J.) 


186. 190 


Hymenoptera . . 




186, 191 


Gallinago 


..107 


Ibidorhynchus 




107 


Gallinula 


107 


Ibis 




40, 89, 107 


Ganges . . 


51 


Imperial Family 




19, 22, 32 


Garrulus 


91, 97 


Tombs 




02 


Gecinus . . 


9 1 , 1 08 


India {and Indian 


inlluence) 


.. 2, 29, 47, .=ii 


Gecko 


III 


Inns and Innkeepers . . 


24. 26, 35, 53, y, 


Gee.se . . 


.. 32, 40, 43, 85, 89, 91, 105 


Instruments (Surv 


eying) 


1 3<i 


Gerbil 


85 


(Meteorological) 


135 


Gobi Desert 


129 


Iron Ore 


. . 


120 


Goddess of Mercy 


29. 47 


Italy . . 




14 


Goosander 


106 


lyngipicus 




. . 108 



244 









PAGE 


PAGE 


lynx 108 


Ma-chia-k'ou (Shensi) .. .. .. 28, 123 


Jackdaw- 






• • 96. 97 


(Kansu) .. .. .. 64,65.66 


Jade 






126 


Madelcy (Rev. F.) . . . . . . . . . . 47. 50 


Jay 






.. 91, 97 


Ma-£eng . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 


Jenkins (Dr.) . . 






41. 124 


Magpies • . 37. 85. 88, 91. 97 


Jen-sa-ho 






57 


Mallard . . 30. 32, 85. 89. 106 


Jerboa . . 






..83,92 


Mallophaga . . . . . . . . . . 186, 192 


Jesuits . . 






(see Missionaries) 


Marten 88 


Josephine 






. . 30. 31 


Martes 88. 1 74 


Josephus 






5. <>. " 


Martins . . . . . . . . . . . . loi 


Kan-chou Fu . . 






53 


Matschie (Mr. Paul) 81 


Kan-ch lian Hsien 






34. 77. 134 


McCov (Mr. and Mrs.) . . . . . . . . 7 


K'ang-chia-t'a 






77 


Meade-Waldo (Mr. G.) 186. 191 


K'ang-hsi (Emperor) . 






41, 42. 48, 50, 133 


Merganser . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 06 


Kan-icu-yii 






. . 28. 136, 144 


Mergus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 


Kan-tsao-k'ou 






13, 83, 142 


Meriones 80,85,86,178 


Kan-tsao-tien . . 






59 


Miao-ts'un . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 76 


Kao-ti . . 






46 


Mi-chih Hsien . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28 


Kashgar (Kashgari) . 






62, 64, 133, 134 


Microsarcops . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 


K'e-lan Chou . . 






.. 80, 87, 117 


Microtus .. .. .. 80, 81, 87, 171, 180, 181 


K'e-lan Shan . . 






81 


Miller (Mr. G. S.) . .So, 81. 83. 85. 92. 93. 95, 171, 180 


Kemas galeanus 






1 75 


Milvus . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 


Kestrel 






103 


Min Chou . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 


Kingfisher 






■ . 75. 93. 108 


Min Ho . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 


Kite 






85, 102 


Ministers (Briti.sh and American at Peking) . . 67. 68 


Kokonor 






147, 149 


Mink 89 


Kowloon 






133. 134 


Minnow . . . . . . . . . . 75. 114 


Kuan Li (or Kuan Kung) 




• . 47. 50 


Mi.sgurnus .. .. .. .. .. .. 113 


Ku-chao 




. . 8, 120 


Missionaries 8. 10. 11. 12. 39, 41, 50, 56, 66, 73. 74, 133 


Ku-lu (or Drum Tower) 




44 


Mi-yiieh-ch'eng . . . . . . . . . . 9 


Kuo-t'ing 


49 


Mo-an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 


Ku-yiian Chou 57, 58, 70, 72, 73, 125, 131, 133, 146, 151 


Mo-erh Shan . . . . . . 9, 15, 81, 82, 121, 141 


Lammergeier . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 


Mohammedan Rebellion . . 29, 54, 55, 56, 62, 74, 75 


Lan-chou Fu a. 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60 63, 65, 


Mole 84 


67, 70, 91, 92, loij), 112, 124, 125, 126. 130, 


Mole-rat . . . . . . . . 82, 84, 129 


131, 132. 133. 134, «37. 145. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151 


Mongolia .. .. 44, 62, 71, 83, 85, 98, 102, 105 


Lanius . . 


100 


Monkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 


Lan-ts'un 






119 


Monoptcrus .. .. .. .. .. .. 113 


Lao Chao 






34 


Monticola . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 


Lao-shan 






123 


Monument Grove . . . . . . (see Pei-Ung) 


Larks . . 






..85, 99 


Moorhen .. .. .. .. .. .. 107 


Larus . . 






106 


Motacilla . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 


Latitudes 






. . 70, 132, 170 


Mounds (about Hsi-an Fu) . . . . . . . . 45 


Leopard 






. - 75. 88 


Moupin . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 


Lepidoptera 






186, 193 


Mouse (wood, 81, 88), (field, 86, 89) . . . . 10, 89 


Lepus . . 






80, 82 87, 177, 184 


Muhammad liusein . . . . . . 3. 5, 63, 65, 66 


Li-ch'iian Hsien 






5i 


Mullen (Mr.) 41 


Lien-hua-ch'ih 






60 


Mus 80.86,89.178,193 


Ligurinus 






97 


Mustela. . .. .. .. .. .. 92, 174 


Limnocr)ptes . . 






.. 107 


Myospala.x . . 80 (note), 82, 84, 92, 182, 192, 202 


Lin Hsien 




12, 13, 26, 121, 122. 142 


Nan-shih . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 


Lin-t'ung Hsien 




41, 42, 45, 51, 89. 124 


Ne.storian Tablet . . . . . . . . . . 49, 51 


Liu-chia-hua . . 




57 


Nettion . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 


Liu-chia-mo 






17. 142 


Neuroptera . . . . . . . . . . 186, 193 


Liu-chien-hua . . 






18 


Xew Dominion . . . . . . (see Sinkiang) 


Liu-hn-chen 






77 


Ning-hsia Fu .. .. .. .. ..44.123 


Liu-p'an Slian 






• . 57. 58. 125 


Ning-ling T'ing .. .. .. .. .. 26 


Liu-pei . . 






48 


Ning-wu Fu .. 10. 14, 15, 80, 87. 92, 117. 119, 121 


Liu-ts'un 






. . 89, 92 


Nipponia . . . . . . . . . . 89. 107 


Lizards 






. . 86, no. HI 


Nucifraga . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 


Loach . . 






113.114 


Numenius . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 


Lo-ch'uan Hsien 






36 


Nutcracker . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 


Longitudes 






5, 21. 132, 170 


Nuthatch . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 


Lophophanes . . 






99 


Nycticorax . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 


Lo Shui . . 






77 


Nyroca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 


Loxia . . 






97 


Ochotona .. .. .. 80.87.92,171,184,185 


Lung-k'ou Miao 






.. 5.2. 53 


Oil (Mineral) .. .. .. .. .. 24,123 


Lung-wang Shan 






10 


Ordos Desert 10, 17. 20 .21. 29. 71. 80. 83. 85, 87. 


Lutreola 






89 


96. 105. 106, 110. HI. 112. 122. 123. 128. 129. 136, 143 


Lyman (Professor) 






117 


Oriole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 


Ma (General) . . 






54 


Oriolus . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 



245 













PAGE 




PAGE 


Osprey . . 

Otis dybowskii . . 










103 

105 


Sheldrake 
Sheng-yi 


40, 85, 106 
.. 7. 3_ 


Otters . . 










76 


ShCn-kan 


. . 2, 62 


Otus 










103 


Shensi (North S. basin) .. 122, 124, 


125, 128, 129 


Oustalet (M. E.) 










81 


Shih Huang-ti (Emperor) 


45 


Owl 










. . 85, loi, 103 


Sliih-ts'ui-yi 


. . 27, 86 


Pai-ma-p'u 










56 


Shou-yang Hsien 


129 


Pandion 










103 


Shrew . . 


82 


Pao-tiiig Fu 










116, 127 


Shrike . . 


85, 100 


Parker (Professor 


E. 


H. 






49 (note) 


Siberia 


62, 105 


Partridges 








17.28/ 


30, 75, 82, 86, 91, 104 


Silurus . . 


113 


Parus minor 










99 


Silver Ore 


119, 126 


Pei-chih-li 










71 


Sinkiang (or New Dominion) 


■ . 44. <>2 


Pei-ling 










47 et seq. 


Siphneus 


183 (note) 


Peking . . 


3. 


22, 


44. 


62, 68, ( 


'9, 73. 78. 88. 92. 134 


Siphonaptera . . . . . . 88, 186 


. 187, 194-203 


Perdix . . 










104 


Sitta 


99 


Petersen (Miss) 










73 


Smew . . 


106 


Phaeomys 










(sec Microtus) 


Snakes . . . . . . . . .. 76, 86, 93, log, 1 10 


Phoenicurus 










91. 98 


Snipe .. 75,85,91,107 


Phalacrocorax 










107 


Sowerby (Miss) . . . . . . . . . . 7 


Phasianus 










104 


Spatula . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 


Pheasant 28, 30, 


31. 


32 


34. 


30. 37. 75. 82, 85, 86, 

88, 89, 91, loi, 104 


Squirrel 83, 86, 88, 91 

SsQch'uan .. .. .. 2, 10, 44, 61, 62, 88 


Phodopus 










83. 180 


Emigrants . . . . . . . . 38, 55, 73 


Phroxinus 










"4 


Starhng . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 


Phrynoccphalus 










86. Ill 


Sternus . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 


Pica 










97 


Stork . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 106, 107 


Picus . . 










108 


Sui-fu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 


Pig (Wild) 


i" 


31 


37 


75. 77. 


82, 88, 89, 92, 93. 94 


Sui-te Chou .. ..26, 27, 28, 70, 77, 123, 126, 151 


Pigeon . . 










30.85 


Sung-chia-k'ou .. .. .. .. .. 11, 13 


Pi Jung-pei (Chic 


f of Police) 




19. 23 


Sung Shan . . . . . . . . see Sacred Peaks 


Pika . . 










82, 87, 92 


Suslik 83 


Pin Chou 










53 


Sus moupincusis .. .. .. 82, 93, 94, 95, 175 


P'ing-liang Fu 










52. 53. 56. 134 


Swallows . . . . . . . . . . . . loi 


Pipistrellus 










93. 172 


Swan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 


Platalae 










107 


Swifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 


Plover .. 










107 


Syrrhaptes . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 


Podiceps 










107 


Szechenyi (Count della) . . . . . . . . 134 


Polecat 










71.84,92 


Tadorna 106 


Polo, Marco 










I 


Ta-fu-ssu 52 


Pomatorhinus . . 










88, 99 


Tahkin 48 


Potamon 










91, 187 


T'ai-pei-ch'C-ng (2) . . . . . . . . 55, 56, 76 


Propasser 










97 


T'ai-pei Shan . . . . . . . . . . ... 48 


Pterorhinus 










99 


T'ai Shan see Sacred Peaks 


Kallus . . 










107 


T'ai-yiian Fu 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 15, 26, 30, 31, 


Kana 










112 


69.70.78,79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 92, 95, 106, 115, 116, 


Rat 










86, 89 


117, 119, 120, 126, 127, 129-140, 142, 151, 152 


Raven . . 










9O 


Ta-mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 


Redstart 










91, 98 


Tao-tei-ching . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 


" Research in Cli 


ina 








"5. "6 


Teal 30, 85, 106 


Rhopophilus . . 










99 


Temples 13, 17, 18, 20, 29, 30, 43, 48, 52, 53, 60, 76, 90, 138 


Richthofcn (Baron von) 






115. 116, 117. 120 


Tharrhaleus .. .. .. .. .. .. i"o 


Rockhill 










61. 124 


Thomas (St.) . . . . . . . . . . . . -i 7 


Rothschild (Hon 


N 


C.") 






. . 186, 194-203 


Thomas (Mr. O.) .. 80, 83, 84, 171, 179, 180, iS) 


Russian Geological Society 




134 


Thrush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >i') 


Ruticilla 










98 


Tibet (Tibetan) .. .. 2, 44, 62, 63, 94, 147 


Sacred Peaks (Five) 








43 (note) 48, 50 


Tichodroma .. .. .. .. .. 91, n>o 


Salt 










17. 18, 25 


T'ien-chuang . . . . . . . . . . . . -^7 


Sandstorm 










. 102, 129, 147, 149 


Tientsin 5, i.(2 


San-yeh Miao . . 










13. 18 


Timeline 82, 88, 91, <im 


San-yiian Hsien 










• • 39. 40. 129 


Tits 82, .)■) 


Saxicola 










98 


Toad 112 


Scaptochirus . . 










84, 172 


Tou-fu-ssfl .. .. .. .. .. .. 13*' 


Sciurotamias . . 










88,176 


Trion\'x . . . . . . . . . . 93. 1 • ' 


Scops . . 










103 


Trochalopteron . . . . . . . . . • <i') 


Scorpioncs 










186, 192 


Tropidonatus .. .. .. .. .. 86. nx) 


Shang Chou 










44 


Ts'a-fcng 35. 3" 


Shanghai 










.2, 31, 32, 33, 42, 89 


Ts'ai-chia-wei .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 


Shantung 










71. 87 


Tsa-k'ou 8. 9. 120 


Shao-shui-tzu . . 










(see Hsiao) 


Tso Ching-t'ang . . . . . . . . . . 61 


Shao-t'u 








■ ■ 115. 


116, 123, 127, 128, 129 


Tui Ho 


17 



246 



Tung Fu-shang 

T'ung-kuan. 

Turdus . . 

Turkestan 

Turtle, Mud 

Turtur . . 

Upupa . . 

Urocissa 

Urotragus 

Vanellus 

Vole 

Vormela 

Vulpes . . 

Vulture 

Vultur .. 

Waders 

Wagtail 

Wa-kang-ch'tng 

Wall, Great . . 

Wall Creeper . . 

Wan Li (Emperor) 

Warblers 

Water-rail 

Wa-t'ing 

Waxwing 

Wei Ho 38, 

Wen-shui Hsien 

Wheatear 

Wild Cat 

Wild Fowl 

WilUs, (Mr. B.) 

Wolf . . 

Woodpecker 

Wool and Woollen Cloth 

Wrens . . 

Wryneck 

Wu-ch'eng 



44. 50 



II, I 



PAGE 

54.72.73 
38, 42. 43, 44, 49, 116 

99 
60 

77. 93. "1 

105 

108 

88, 91, 97 

90, 175 
107 

10, 81, 87, 88 

. 85, 171. 173 

82 

. . 82-102 

102 

91, 106, 107 

98, 100 

64, 66, 126 

20, 21, 45, 128 

91, 100 
48 

99 
107 
125 
100 

51, 115, 116, 124, 128 

117 

98 

. . 85, 88 

30, 32, 40, 43 

115, 117, 124 

75, 82, 85, 87, 88, 92 

82, 85, 91, 108 

. . 20, 6l 

91, 99, 100 

108 

78, 117, 127 



Wu-pao Hsien 
Wu-t'ai Shan . . 
Wu-ting Ho 
Yang 

Yang-chia-tien 
Yang-shu-wan 
Yang-tza 
Yang-wu-chii . . 
Yao Chou 
Yellow Emperor 
„ River . . 
Yen-an Fu 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32 

53. 55. 69. 70. 73. 74. 75. 77. 79, 
89. 93, 95, III, 122, 123, 124 



Yen-ch'ang Hsien 

Yen-ch'uan Hsien 

Yen Shui 

Yen-wa 

Yi-chiin Hsien 

Ying-t'ao-ho . . 

Yii 

Yii-ho-p'u 

Yii-hsien 

Yii-Iin Fu 13, 18, 
26, 82, 53, 79 
III, 112, 113 



PAGE 
127 

3. "6 

(sec Yii-lin Ho) 

29 

17 

56 

49, 90 

6 

38, 39. 51. 124 

(see Huang Ti) 

(see Huang Ho) 

33. 34. 36. 37. 
80, 86, 87, 88, 

131. 132, 133. 



134, 136, 144, 145, 151 

..24,123 

28 

8, 29, 30, 86, 122, 134 
25 

• • 37. 38 
125 

• • 50. 51 
. . 25, 26 



Yii-Iin Ho (or Wu 
Yung-ho Hsien 
Yung Hui 
Yung-ning Chou 
Yung-shou Hsien 
Yung-yao 
Yiin-t'ing Shan 
Zamenis 
Zosterops 



19, 20, (description of) 22, 24, 25, 
, 80, 82, 83, 86, 87, 91, 106, no, 
114,116, 122, 123, 128, 129, 131, 

"132, 136, 142, 143 
ting Ho) 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28 



q, II, 121, 136, I 



144 

112, 143 

134 

51 

17, 127 

53. 54 
52, 54 
41, 142 
no 
99 



NOTE. — The Index includes all specimens mentioned in Appendices II. — V. (Insects by Orders). 



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247 



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