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■COM. Cooi^lf 



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P' 




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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 



H. D. ROUSE, LiTi 



THUCYDIDES 

n 



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THUCYDIDES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

CHARLES FORSTEtt SMITH 



m FOUE VOLUMES 



HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR 
BOOKS III AND IV 



LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 



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439942 



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CONTENTS 



Central Ureece and Pelopoimeaua . . To fac 
Pyloe and iCa Environs „ ,. 



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THUCYDIDES 
BOOK III 



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eOYKYAIAOY KTOPIAI 



I. Tow S' eirtyiyvofUvov 6epov<i TleXoTroPV^tot 
Kal oi ^vfifi.a'^oi a/ia t^ atTip aKfid^ovTi earpd- 
Teuffav es t^i* 'Attik^v (^yelro Se ainav 'Apxi- 
Bafia 6 Zev^tSdfiOV, AaKehaifiovCtov ^aaiXev^), 
Kal eyKa$e^6fievoi e'SiJow ttjv y^ii- xal Trpoa^oXat, 
aa-rrep el(io0€i7av, eylypovro tSip ' ABiivalmv Itnrkwv 
OTTij •jrapeiicat, xal top -irXetaTov ofuXoe tSiv ip'iX.Stv 

'" flpyov TO firi ■Tpoe^i6vTa<{ twv onXtiip tA iyyii'i 
2 T^! TToXeois KaKovpyelv. ifip^ivavret fie j^poi'Oi' 
oil elyov TO, irnia ave)^<tipj)aap xal Ste\v0t}crav 
KaTtt, TToXeK. 

II. MerA Se t^i* ia^oXijv rmv TleXovovvriffifDV 
evOv'i A^ff;So9 (vXijv M>j^i;^;'ij!) d-rrearr} a/jro 
'A6r)vaiav, ^ovXjj04vTe^ fiev Kal~Trpo tou TroXepav 
{aXX' oi Aaicehaip.6vtoc ov trpoaehe^avTo), dvarf- 
Kaadevrei Se /cat TavTijv Trjv atroiTTaaai npoTepop 

2 ^ BiepoovpTO •troi'qaaadai. rutv t€ yap XipAvtov 
rify xwtTiP ical reix^P otKoS6p.J)atv xal veav 

' ^ytilene waa an oliji^rcbiaal state, with dependent 
^wnB, AntiaBS, Pjrrha, and Eresus, only Metbjrinna on tbe 
nortfaem coaat retaining its democratic conxtitution and ita 
' n with Athens, For the revolt, </. Diod. Sic. xii. 



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THUCYDIDES 
BOOK III 



I. During the followiag summer, when the grain t 
was ripening, the Peloponnesians and their allies 
made an expedition into Attica under the leadership 
of Archidamus son of Zeuxidamus, king of the Lace- 
daemonians, and setthng in camp proceeded to ravage 
the land. And sallies were made as usual by the 
Athenian cavalry wherever opportunity offered, thus 
preventing the great mass of the enemy's light- 
armed troops from going beyond their watch-posts 
and laying waste the districts near the city. The 
invaders remained as long as their provisions tasted, 
then withdrew and dispersed to their several cities. 

n. Directly after the invasion of the Pelopon- 
nesians, all Lesbos,' except Methymna, revolted 
from Athens. The Lesbians had wished to do this 
even before the war, but the Lacedaemonians had 
not taken them into their alliance, and even in this 
instance they were forced to revolt sooner than they 
had intended. For they were waiting until the 
work should be finished of blocking their harbours, 

45, The complaint of the Mytilenaeans was founded on the 
Athenian attempt to prevent their ceutraliaation. See W. 
Herbst, Der Ab/ail Mj/iiltnei, 18S1 ; Leith&uaar, Dtr Abfall 
Mytilena, 1ST4. 



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THUCYDIDES 

Troir)<Tiv etrefievop re'Kea'Orjvat, Kal oaa ek tov 
Xiitvrov eSei w^iiceaBai, Tofora? tc koI airop, 
3 xal & fieTavefi,n6/i,evot r/aav. TeeiSioi y^p SpTti 
avTol^ Bidtftopoi Koi Mtjdvfivaiot xai avrStv Mv- 
Tt\T)vai(iiv Itiif dvBpa Kara (rTatriv, upo^evoi 
'A$T}vaicin', "^fH^vTal jiyvovrai toi? 'A.0TfvaioK 
OTi ^uvoiiel^ova-i re t^i" Kea^ov es rijv tAvTiX'^i'rjv 
fila Kal Tijv TTapaffKevijv airaaav fier^ AaicfSai- 
fiovitnv Koi, ^oioitS)v ^vyyevStv Svtiov e-rn atro- 
oTocfei ivfi^^gvrar «al el ^^ Ti<; TrpoKaToK^- 
■^rerat ^Sti, aTep^treadai avTov'! A.ea^ov. 

III. Ot 8' A0t}valoi {^crav yap reTaXaiTrtopr]- 
fievoi inro re t^! vorroviKaL tov iroXip.ov Japri 
KadcarafUvov xal a.KfmgovTO'i') fieya fiev epyov 
ij-youiTO &,vtu Aea^ov TTpoairoXepMaaadai vav- 
' TiKOV e\ov<Tav xai Svpa/uv ajcipatov, Kal ovk 
atretix'^'''^'> '^'> "fpfinov to? Kd.TTjyoptai , p.et^op 
pApo^ vip^ovrei t& -/iij -^ovXeaSai dXriOij elvar 
iTreiBi) p.ivTot ieal Tre/ii^ai'Te? irpivQeit ovk 
eveiffov Tovii MvriXiivaLov^ rrjp t€ ^vpoiKicrtp 
Kal T71V TraparTKevriv hiciXveiv, Seicravre'; irpoKara- 

2 Xa^eiv i^ovXovTO. xal "Trepfirovaui e^aTrivaio>^ 
TeaaapOKOPTa vav^, at ervy^op Trepi TleKoirov- 
iiTjffov -jraperTKeuaapevai trXelv. KXei7r7rt5ij9 Se 

3 o Aetyiou _T£tTO5_ayT0s iarpar'^yet, iatfyykXBij 
ykp avTols ok ei-q AttoWwjio? MoXocitos efw 

' The word maans literally " public ouBHt," or " friend." 
Under the condition of entertaining and aBeiating ambMM- 
dors and citizens of the state they represented they enjoyed 



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BOOK III. II. 2-1II. 3 

building walls, and constructing ships, and until 
the arrival of what they needed from Fontus — 
archers and grain, and whatever else they were 
sending for. But the people of Tenedos, who 
were at variance with them, and of Methymna, 
and some of the Mytilenaeans themselves, men in 
private station who were proxeni ' of the Athenians, 
were moved by partisanship to turn informers and 
notify the Athenians that the Mytilenaeans were 
attempting to bring all Lesbos into a political union 
centred in Mytitene ; that all their preparations were 
being hurried forward, in concert with the Lacedae- 
monians and with their kinsmen the Boeotians, with 
the purpose of revolting; and that unless someone 
should forCT tall them forthwith, Lesbos would be lost 
to AthensT"" 

IIL But the Athenians, distressed by the plague 
as well as by the war, which had recently broken out 
and was now at its height, thought it a serious 
matter to make a new enemy of Lesbos, which had 
a fleet and power unimpaired ; and so at first they 
would not listen to"the'cIiSi^cs, giving greater weight 
to the wisli that they might not be true. When, 
however, the envoys whom they sent could not per- 
suade the Mytilenaeans to stop their measures for 
political union and their preparations, they became 
alarmed and wished to forestall them. So they sud- 
denly despatched forty ships, which happened to be 
ready for a cruise around the Peloponnesus, under 
the command of Cletppides son of Deinias and two 
others ; for word had come to them that there was a 

certain privileges from that atate, and anawerod pretty nearly 
to our Coneula and Rtaidtitii, though the proxeniM waa always 
a raember of the stale where he served. 



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THUCYDIDES 

rrjv TToKem^ eopTr/, ev jj •navhrift.el MvTiXt;iJa£o( 
eoprd^oviTi, Kal iKiriBa etvai hreix^eva in eVi- 
ireaelv a^vw xal ^v /lev ^vfi^^ if velpa- el Se 
/iij, MvTi\t]vatoi^ eiiretv vaus re TrapaSovvai 
Koi reixv KaBeXfiv, fiij TreiOo/iiptov Be -rroXefieiv. 
i KOI al fiiv j^fif w^^ouTO" tAs Se r&v Mvt[X»j- 
vai<av SeKa rpi^pei^, ai eTvj^ov ffor]$ol Trapa 
adta^ KaT^ to ^v/ifiaviKov Trapovaai, KaTea")(OV 
01 'AOjipaioi xal rows &vtpav i^ aurmi' e's 

5 tftvXaKjjii ettoL^aavTo. tok hk MvTtXjjwxiot? 
aV7)p eK T&v 'A6t}vS>v Bia0^s «'? Eii/Sotav Kal 
w€^fj iirl TepattTTw i\^<iiv, oX/edSo^ avayofitvt}^ 
iTTiTv^wv, ^Xjj '^(jnjadfiievo^ Kal rptTotos iv tSiv 
^AdT}vS>v et MvriK'^vTiv atfrncofievot ar/yeWei top 

6 eirC-TrKovp. ol Be oCtc e's top MaXoei/ra e^riX0ov 
TO re aXKa tSip Tei^Siv Kal Xifiivav trepl tA 
fjluriXeaTa (ftap^d/ievoi. e^vKaaaov. 

IV. Kal ol Adrivaloi ov -TroXit varepop KaTa- 
irXevaavTe^ ms emprap, av^yyeiKav uep ol OTpa- 
Ttffol tA eTre\rTa\fieva, ovk eiraKOVovTtov Bk r&p 

2 MvTiXtjvaimp es iroXefiov KaditTTaPTO. airapd- 
ffxeuoi Be ol MvTiXjjvaloi xal e^ai<ppi)^ dpoyKa- 
<TOhiTe<t iroXtftelp eKirXovp fiep Tipa ivof^aavTo 
tS)V ve&v <0! eir\ pavfia-)(lav oXi/yov wpb Tov 
\tfUvo<!, eireira /caTaSitovBevrei inro rStv 
'AttikSip veStv Xoyovi ^Sij irpoa-itfupop TOt? 
ffTpaTi)yot^, ^ovXap-evoi ras vavs to trapavTiKa, 
el SvpaivTO, ofioXoyta nvl etrietKel dirowSfiyjra- 

3 <T0ai. Kal ol o-TpaTTjyol twu 'A0i)vaiwp direSi- 



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BOOK III. III. 3-iv. 3 

festival of Apollo Matoeis ^ outside Mjtileoe at which 
the whole populace kept holiday, and that they 
might hope to take them by surprise if they should 
make haste. And if the attempt succeeded, well 
and good ; but if not, the generals were to order the 
Mytilenaeaus to deliver up their ships and pull down 
their walls, and if they disobeyed, to go to war. So 
the ships set off; and as there happened to be at 
Athens at the time ten Mytilenaean triremes serving 
as auxiliaries in accordance with the terms of their 
alliance, the Athenians detained them, placing their 
crews in custody. But the Mytilenaeans got word of 
the expedition through a man who crossed over from 
Athens to Euboea, went thence by land to Geraestus, 
and, chancing there upon a merchantman that was 
potting to sea, took ship and on the third day after 
leaving Athens reached Mytilene. The Mytilenaeans, 
accordingly, not only did not go out to the temple of 
Apollo Maloeis, but barricaded the half- finished 
portions of the walls and harbours and kept guard." 

IV. When not long afterwards the Athenians 
arrived and saw the state of affairs, their generals 
delivered their orders, and then, a£ the Mytilenaeans 
did not hearken to them, began hostilities. But the 
Mytilenaeans, being unprepared for war and forced 
to enter upon it without warning, merely sailed out a 
short distance beyond their harbour, as though 
oflering battle ; then, when they had been chased to 
shore by the Athenian ships, they made overtures to 
the generals, wishing, if possible, to secure some sort 
of reasonable terms and thus to get rid of the fleet 
for the present. The Athenian commanders accepted 

' Or, with Krttger, " but alH> guarded the other pointa 
after throwing barricades around the hatf.finiBhed portiom 
of Uie walli aud harbours." 



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THUCYDIDES 
^atrro.^Kal avTol ^o^ovftevoi fit) ovx i/cavoi &<rt 

fievoi trefiiroviTiv e? t^s 'A^ijwra? ol Mvri\/ijvaioi 

rmv re tta^aXKomtov eva, w fieT4fi.e\ep r^Sti, ical 
aX\ov<i, et TTtuT Treifj'eiav to? vav<; aTreXSelv w? 

5 <rtf>S)v ovSev vea-repiovuTfov. ev toutw Se otto- 
ffTeXXoviTt «aX e? ttjv AaieeBaC/i-ova irpea^eK 
Tjiii]pei XaSovTe'i to t&v ' Kdi^vaiav vavriKov, oi 
apfiovv ev tjj MaXea Trpo^ $opiav t^? TroXeo)^- 
oil yap itriffTevov tois atrh -rav 'A$rivaCo>v trpo- 

6 %w/)^>7e(c. Koi 01 fiev e's t^i* AatcehaLp-ova 
TaXafJrdtpaifi SiA tov ■neXar/ovi.KOft.iadhne'i ainoZ^ . 
€TTpa<Taov OTTW? T(s Qoijdeia T}^ei. 

V. 0( 8' i/c T&v 'Ad^v&v TrpeaffeK w? ovBea 
^7t£oVf iTpd^avTe^, e? iroXe/iov Kadt<naino ol 
MmiXrjvaiot koI tj qXXt] Aea0ov trXifV Mij- 
Svpvt}';- ovToi Se rot? ^Affr/vatoK i0efforiff^Ke<rav 
xal'l/iffptoi Kal Ai}fivioi ital t&v aXXaiv oXCyot 

2 Ttyf? ^vp.p.d-)(wv. ical e^oSov fiev Tiva Trau&rifiel 
i-Koirjiravfo ol MvTiXjjvaioi iirl to twi' 'Adtjvaiav 
aTpaTotreBov, koX pa-xn eyevero, iv ^ ovk tXaaa-ov 
exofre^ ol M^vTiXf)vatoi oCtc iirrivXtaavTo ovie 
imaTeva-av a^laiv avroit, akX' avex^'pi^a'av 

3 etrena oi_jiiv rit7ii-)(a^ov, ex UeXoirowijaov xai 
fiej' oXXij? •rrapaaKev^'i 0ouX6fievoi ei 'rvpoa- 

4 yevoiTO Ti KivBvpevetv icai yap ainoK MeXeas 
.; ' AaxQif a(f>i/cv£iTai Kal ' EpfiaidtvSai STj^atoi;, 

ot wpaaveaTaX'qaav f/^v t^s a7ro<rTao-e(i>9, <f>dd<rai k,, ■ 
Se oil Svvdfievot top twc ' AOrjvaiav iwlirXovv/ 
KpvAa f /*€tA riiv frnvvv^ tarepov itrirXeovtri 
Tpiijpei, leal irapyvovv •trei».-new Tpiijpif aX\t}v Kal 



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BOOK III. IV. 3-v. 4 

their proposals, being themselves afraid tliat they were 
not strong enough to make war against all Lesbos. 
So the Mytilenaeans, having concluded an jmiistice , 
sent envoys to Athens, among whom was one ot ttie 
informers who was by now repentant, in the hope 
that they might persuade them to recall their fleet, 
on the understanding that they themselves would 
not start a revolution. Meanwhile they also sent 
envoys to Lacedaemon in a trireme, which eluded 
the Athenian fleet lying at anchor at Malea north of 
the town ; for they had no confidence in the success 
of their negotiations' with the Athenians. These 
envoys, arriving at Lacedaemon after a hard voyage 
through the open sea, began negotiating for some aid 
for their countrymen. 

V. But when the envoys to Athens returned with- 
out having accomplished anything, the people of 
Mytilene and the rest of Lesbos, except Methymna, 
began war ; the Methyranaeans, however, supported 
the Athenians, as did also the Jmbrians, Lemnians, 
and a few of the other allies. The Mytilenaeans made 
a sortie in full force against the camp of the Athe- 
nians, and a battle occurred in which the Mytile- 
naeans had the advantage ; nevertheless they did not 
have enough confidence in themselves to bivouack on 
the field, but withdrew. From this time on they kept 
quiet, being unwilling to risk an engagement with- 
out reinforcements from Peloponnesus and elsewhere. 
Such reinforcements they expected, for there had 
come to them Meleas a Laconian and Hermaeondas 
a Theban, who had been sent out before the revolt, 
but being unable to arrive before the Athenian 
expedition,, had sailed in secretly after the battle in 
a trireme, and now advised them to send a second 



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THUCYDIDES 

irpiff&eK fieff eavrStv xal iKirefi-TTova-iv. VI. oi 
Be A$r]vaioi iroXu i-n-i ppa ffdiv re'i Bia rrjv rmv 
MvrtX'rivaitiiv ijavxiav ^^v/j^fia.j(^ov<; re vpoae- 
KaXovv, ot TToKii Baatrov Trapfjo'av op&vre^ ovSkv 
ti7j(ypov OTTO Twn Aeff/Si'fuy, ical Trepiopfitcra/iei'oi ' 
Ka'i ^ TO irpo^ ^oToif t^s TrdXews ireix^aap arpa- 
ToweBa Bvo ifCaripoiBev t^? ttoXem? koI tov^ 
etf>6pp,ov<; iiT a./j.<f>OT£poK tok Xip-eaiv iiroiovvro. 
2 Kal T^ fiep OaXdaini^ elpyov ftij j^pfjaOat Totis 
M.VTi\r)vaiovt, Tfj^ Si 7^9 t^s /tev aWij? ixpd' 
TOW oi MvTiXtjvaiot xai ol aXKoi. Aiff0ioi 
TTpotr^efioijdTjKOTe^ ^Sjj, to Si -Trepl tA arpaTo- 
weSffl ov TToXv Korelxov oi 'AOrjpaioi, vavi7TaS- 
fiov Se fiaXkov ^v avrOK irXoCwv «al a ^opa ^ Vi>!> 
MaXea. teal ra ftep wepi MLTiXiJfijv ouTbt; 
iiro\ep4iro. 

VII. K(itA Bi rbv aiirhp yfiovov tov depov; 
rovTov ' Adrjiiaioi xal itepX TieKovovvtiaov vavi 
diriffreiKav TpiaKovja Koi 'Xaanriov top ^op- 
pitovo'; tfrparriyou,: KeXevaavrrov ' A/capvavatp -riav 
^op/uosiia^ Tiva a<f>iat nifitlrat r) vlov -fj ^vyfevi) 

2 dpxovra. xal trapatrKiovaai al c^e? Trj<i Aaxto- 

3 viKJ]'! rh e-m0a\da-(na X^pia. irropS'oa'av. erretra i 
tAs fiev TrXet'ou? d wo Tre/tTret t&v veav wakiv eir 
oiKov o Aaa)TTio<{, ainm S' e^&iij B<oSeKa axpiK- 

4 velrai et ^avTraicTOv, ital Sarepov 'Axappavaf; 
avaar^a^ irapBrjp.el aiparevei iir OtpidSa^ Kal 
Toi? Te ^aval Kard top 'AyeXpon ^irXevae Kal 

5 o Kar^ yrjv itt/Joto? iSgov t>)P ^oipai'. ms S ov 
•}rpoat%ii>povv, rav p.iv tre^bv d^Tjffiv, avrht Bi 

> < Hal 3- , BO Hude with Steuk>, as a part of the 9«et must 
have oontiDued at anchor north pf the cit;. 



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BOOK III. V. 4-Tii. s 

trireme and some envoys to accomponj' them. And 
this the Mytilenaeaus did. VI, Meanwhile the Athe- 
nians, much encouraged by the inactivity of the My- 
tilenaeans, summoned their allies, who put in an 
appearance the more quickly as they saw that no ener- 
getic measures were being taken by the I^sliians. 
They also placed their ships at anchor round the 
southern part of the town, and established a block- 
ade against both harbours. Thus they excluded the 
Mytilenaeans from the use of the sea ; but as for the 
land, the Mytilenaeans and the other Lesbians, who 
had now come to their aid, dominated all the island, 
except the small strip held by the Athenians in the 
neighbourhood of their camps, and it was Mslea 
rather than their camps that they used as a station 
for boats and supp lies. Such was the course of the 
war at Mytitene. 

VII. About the same time during this summer 
the Athenians sent also on a cruise round the Pelo- 
ponnesus thirty ships with Asopius son of Phormio 
as commander ; for the Acarnanians had requested 
them to send them as commander either a son or 
some other kinsm an of Phormio 's. And the ships as 
they sailed past ravaged the coast of Laconia. After- 
wards Asopius sent mtfst of the ships back home, 
but had twelve with him when he reached Naupactus. 
Then later, having called out all the forces of the 
Acarnanians, he made an expedition against Oenia- 
dae, sailing with the ships up the Achelous, while his 
army on land ravaged the country. As, however, the 
inhabitants would not come over to him, he dismissed 



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THUCYDIDES 

itpo^aLii Tc i-7riei«i}i /i^jSefda inrdpypt t^ Arro- ^"^ 
trrdaew;- S Koi fjftXv koI ' k.$rfvaioi'; ov/c ^v, fi/rjSe 
'■ s>T}) j(elpovs Sofw/Mc elvai, el eV rij eipiji/ij Tifuo- 
fievoi v-w' air&p ev toi? Beivoh a^KTrd/aOa. 

X. "Ilepl y^p rov BiKoiou teaX dpfrrp irpSiTov, 
al^\^^^jl£.jca.i ^vp.fuiyLafi heop^evoi, tow Xotow? 
■jroi7)a'6p£&a, eiSoTe<i ovTe ipiXiav iJiwraif fii^atov 
ytyiiofieirtjv ovre Kotvaviav iroXeaiv i<; ouSev, el 
fii) fier' apcTTJ^ SoK ov<rt]';_ it aXXiJXovs yiyvoivro 
Koi rSXXa ofiOioTpoTTOi eleif' if yap xp htaWdtr- 
iTOvri T^? yuatfitji; KoX ai Btatftopal tS>v epyav 
KoBLaravrai.. 

2 " 'Hyuw Se icaX ' XOtivaioiv ^vfip^y(l,a iyevero 
irp&Tov aTroXtTroCTCdf p,£v vfiMV ix tov MijSucov 
voXepov, ■frapapxivdvTtav Be eKeivtav irph^ rh 

8 v'TToKottra tSiv epyatv. ^vp/tay(pt p.evroi eyevo- 
peSa ovK hrl tcaraBovXtotret t&p 'EXX^wv 
' K0r}vaCoi's, dXX itr iKev0epd>aei airo rov M^Sov 

4 Tot; "EXXijffti'. Kal p^e^t fiiv diro tov Xaov 
f^ovvTo, irpodipfn^ eciropeda- eireiSrj Se ewpStpev 
aiiTOw T^f p^ TOV yi-qBov exOpa" dvievTa^, Tt)v 
Be r&v ^vp,fidj(env BouXfuffiv eiretyopevovi,^ ovk 

6 dSeei<! It* ^/tei'. aivvarot Be ovm jeaO^iv^ytvo- ) 
pevoi Bt^ ■jro\tr<^<f>lai> dpvvaoSai ol ^vp,paxot 

6 iSovXtodrja-av •rr\i}v fjpMV Kal XuDf ^/xei; Si 
avTovopoi Bi} ofTSf Kal eXevOepoi fr^ ovopari) 
^vv&XTparevaapev. kou irtuTov'; ovxeri eivo/tn' 
tffep^vat 'A0i}vaiov^, trapateCypaai roii irpofyet^- 

' htiy»ittravt, RoBi' conjecture for irayo/iirtiit of the M8S. 



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BOOK III. IX. 2-x. 6 

that there were no reasonable eitcuse for their revolt. 
But these conditions did not obtain between us and 
the Athenians ; therefore, let no one think the worse 
of us on the ground that we were honoured by them 
in time of peace and now revolt from them in time 
of danger. 

X. " We wilt first discuss the question of justice 
and rectitude , especially as we are seeking an alliance, 
for we know that neither does friendship between 
men prove lasting, nor does a league between states 
come to aught, unless they comport themselves with 
transparent honesty of purpose towards one another 
and in general are of like character and way of 
thinking; for differences in men's actions arise irom 
the diversity of their convictions. 

" Now between us and the Athenians an alliance 
was first made when you withdrew from the Persian 
war but they remained to finish the work. We be- 
came allies, however, not to the Athenians for the 
enslavement of the Hellenes, but to the Hellenes 
for their emancipation from the Persians. And as 
long as they maintained their hegemony on terms 
of equality we heartily fallowed their lead ; but 
when we saw them relaxing their hostility to the 
Persians and eager for the enslavement of tlie allies, 
we were no longer without alarm. And the allies, 
being unable, on account of the number of those 
who had votes, to unite for self-defence, were all 
enslaved except ourselves and the Chians; white we 
shared their campaigns as presumably "independent " 
and enjoying at least the name of freedom. And 
we could no longer regard the Athenians as trust- 
worthy leaders, taking as warning examples the 



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. THUCYDIDES 

fikvot^ f(pa>fLevoi' oil y^p eiVo; ^i* aiirov^ o&f fiev 
. ft€$' fjfiMv (V(tit6vSou'; iTToi^ffavTo /earaarpi- 
l-'-'j* i^aa0ai, Toi'9 Se vTroXotirov^, ei trore apa hvvq- 
[»"' $elev,^ fiTj Spaaai touto. 

XI. " K.al el p,€v avTovopiOi In tjaev - airavTe ^, 
^effaiorepoi av tj/uv t/aav pTjBev veairepielv viro- 
Xftpiovv Be exoi'Te'S tou? TrXetous, r/p-ip Be airo tow 
taov op-iKovvTet, ;^aX€TrtiiTe/ioi' cikotW ep-etCKov 

IoXffeiv leat Trpo^ to vXeof ^Bi] eiKoW tov jjp^repov 
6Ti fiovou avTurovfUvov, oXXois re Kal S(7<p 
BuvaTonepot avrol avTotv eyiy vovto xal ^fieK 
ipTjpoTepoi. TO Be dvTiira\oV'Bio<; p^vov viarov 
, \ei; ^vp.fiMXi'CLV 6 y^p vapd^aiveiv ri ^ov\6p,evo^ j 
2| T^ pii irpovxi^P ap e-rre\8eiv awoTpiireTai. airro- 
vopjoi re e\ei<f>ffijpei' oii Bi aWo ri ^ oi^ov airroh 
£5- Ttjp apxv" evvpeneia t6 Xoyov /cal yvc!ipi]<; 
'■'■ pmXKop i<f>6B^ ^ l^xvot TO, irpdypaTa i^aLvsTo 

■ '3 Kortpi-vrrd. a/ui p.^v yap paprvplq> expS>vTO 
fill &p TOW ye Iffoffn^tpov^ aicovTa%, el pij ti 
, ■^SUovp oh eirjJTap, ^vaTpaTtveiP' iv r^ aiir^- — 

Bi Koi TO, KpaTiffra iirC Te tou5 vTroBeearepov^ 

, TTpaiTOV^ ^vveiryyop /xal reXevrala^ Xitropreyrov 

aXXof irepi'Tjp^filpcw 'MrdepetTTepa epeWou e^eiv. 

el Be a^ ^/xwf ^p^avro, e^^di'TOJi' ert r&p TrdpToiv 

' luntflilff, Dohree's ooniectare tor iiiiri\BTiaar of the 
MSS. 
' [ri] Tf \4vTa1a : Til deleted with KrUger. 



1;. Google 



BOOK III. X. 6-xi. 3 

events of the p&st ; for it was not likely that they, 
after subjugating those with whom thej bad entered 
into treaty relations together with us, would not do 
the same to those who were left, if ever they should 
possibly have the power. 

XI. "Again if we had all remained independent 
we should have had better assurance that they would 
make no violent change in our status ; having, 
however, the majority under their hands, while 
still associating with us on an equal footing, they 
would naturally find it more irksome that our state 
alone still maintained its equality as compared with 
the majority that had already yielded, especially 
since they were becoming more powerful in propor- 
tion as we became more isolated. Indeed it is only 
the fear that arises from equality of power that con- 
stitutes a firm basis for an alliance ; for he tliat would 
transgress is deterred by the feeling that he has no 
superiority wherewith to make an attack. And we 
were left independent for no other reason than be- 
cause they clearly saw that with a view to empire 
they must get control of affairs by fair-seeming words 
and byattacksof policy rather than of force. For, on 
the one hand, they had as evidence in their favour 
that surely those who have an equal voice with them- 
selves would never have taken part in their campaigns 
had not those whom they attacked been guilty of 
some wrong ; and on the other hand, they also 
brought the united strength of the strongest states 
against the less powerful first, and leaving the 
former to the last they counted upon finding them 
weaker when all the rest had been removed from 
around them. But if they had begun with us, while 
the whole body of allies were not only sUll strong in 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

avrtav re Itrxpv koX ■jrpo<i(S)7i XPV t^Vfcti, ovk 

* &v ofiaico'i e-)(etpa>aavTQ. to te vavriKov jjfiatv 

vapelxe nva <j>60ov fi^j ttots koB' tv yevofievoir 

tf vfilv fj aXKtp Tq> TTpoffdefievov kIvSvvov tr^iai, 

6 wapdaxV' """^ ^^ *'*^ ^'"'^ depaiTeias tov t€ 

■^ Komov avT&i' xai rwv atel •KpoeaT wrmv i repieyi- 

6 yvofi.e0a, ov nevroi eVi "koKv 7' av ehoKOV^t/EV 

ZvvriBfjpat, ei /iij 6 voXepav 5Be naTeoTTf, irapa- 

Setyfiacrt xpf^M^vo* tow e? tous oXXous. 

XII. "Tm ovp avTij\^)<^iXia iyiyvero ij eXev 
6epCa TTiiTTiJ, €v rj •jrapa, yviifirfv aXX^Xav^ wre- 
Se^ofieBa koI^I ftev ij/ia? iv rip iroXifitfi SeSiOTe^ 
eSepdirevopT^ r]p,eK Se iKelvovi iv ry ^t^^X^^ "^^ 
avro iiTOtovp^v 3 re tok aXKoti fioKtara evvoia 
TTtOTiv 0£0aiol, fjfitv TO WTO o ipo^o^ ix^pov 
traptZxe, Seei re to -rrXeov ij tfiiKta itarexop^oi 
^v/ifutxoi fiftep' KoX otrorepOK Baaoov irapdirxot 
do'ipdXeia Bdpaov, o&TOi irparepol ti Kal irapa- 

2 ^■^etT0at efieXkov. Sxrre tt'T^SoKovfief dSixetv ^ 
•rrpajniroardvTe^ Sii ^i)v ixeivav fieXKrunv toiv es 
^/id^ SeiP&p, aiiTol ovk avravapeivatTe"; aaif>wi 

3 elSevai ei ri avr&v ecrrai, ovic 6p0m aKO-jrel. el 
ydp SvvaTol Jifiev etc toS taov koI dvreiTifiov- 
Xeva^ai, Kal airri/ieWijaal t( eBei Tjp^^ ex toC 
o(ioLov i-Jt' eKsivovv tevat- eir' exeivoK Sf/ovTOV 
aiel TOV itrtxttpfif /koX eif>' ^fitv elvai Set to 
TTpoafiwaaSai. 



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BOOK III. XI. 3-xii. 3 

their own strength, but also had a leader to rally to, 
they would not have got the mastery so easily. Be- 
sides, our navy caused them some fear, lest it should 
some day be augmented by being united either with 
yours or another's and thus become a menace to 
themselves. To some extent also we owe oar aal- 
vatioD to the court we paid to the Athenian people 
and to the political leaders of the day. But we 
could not have expected to be able to survive for 
long, if we may judge by their conduct toward the 
other allies, unless this war had broken out. 

XII. "Was this then a friendship or a freedom to 
put faith in, where we violated our real feelings 
whenever we treated each other as friends? They 
courted us in time of war only because they were 
afraid of us, while we acted in the same manner toward 
them in time of peace ; and good faith, which in 
most cases is made steadfast by good will, was in our 
case made secure by fear, and it was fear rather than 
friendship that held us both to the alliance ; and 
whichever of us should soonest gain boldness through 
a feeling of security was bound to be the first to 
commit some act of transgression also. If, therefore, 
anyone thinks that, just because they postponed 
the measures we dread, we do wrong in revolting 
first, without having waited on our side until we 
were quite sure that any of our suspicions would 
come true, he is in error. For if we were in a 
position to meet their plotting by counter-measures 
on equal terms with them, it was indeed incumbent 
upon us on our part to postpone likewise our offensive 
against them ; but since the power of attack is 
always in their hands, the right of acting betimes in 
our own defence must necessarily be in ours. 



..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

XIIZ. "TotaiJTO! exovrev trpotftdaeK «oi a*- 
riav, w AaiceSatfiovtoi icaX ^vfL/j.axot, a-7ri<ni}fKv, 
<Ta^eii; fiev toc9 axovovfft yvcovai tu? eiKOTcoi 
ehpaaa/iev, iKavai Si ■^/ia,<i eK<fia^'^(rai Kal Trpof 
dtrijiaXetdv Ttva Tpe-\^ai, SovXofi4vovi fixv Kai 
traXai, (frf Iri iv t^ elpv^Jlj ^irepiirafiev att i/i&v 
TTtpl dvoaTtiffea^, vp.Siv Bi ov irpoahe^afievav 
KtoKvBep'ras' vvv Se eireiSi) Boiwrol n£oyK^e- 
^jzatTo, evdvt v-TTtiKovaap^v, xai ivopi^opxv dtro- 
ar^aeffdai SixX^v awoaraffiv, atro re rmv E\- 
X^f (df fiij fujj KOKm noieiv avrov^ fier 'A6i}vaimv, 
oM.^ ^vveKevGepovv, dirh re Afftjvatmv pri avrol 
Bta^dapfjvcu vir iieeivaiv iv varep^, aXka irpo- 

2 •notr/aai. ^ fiivrot awovraaK rjp.S>v daaaoy 
yeyhii}Tai xal Sirapaffxevm' A ical /j.aWov 

— XP'} ^vfiiidxof^ Se^ap-ipov^ ij/ta? StA rax^oiv 
^ly^deiav aTromeKXeiv, "va tftaiv rfaOe dfjivvoine^ 
^€ ol'i Set KoX iv t^ aurp toi^ iroXep,iov^ ffKdir- 

3 TOVTei. Katpb^ Be w? ovttw irportpov. voatp re 
yhp i<f>6dpaTat 'ABijvaloi /cal XPVf^'^'^'' BairavT}, 
fijh T€ avroi<! al fiev wept ttjv v(ierepav etiriv, 

4 ai S' €0' Tip-lv TCTti^aTof waTe ovk €tKOf avrovs 
- irepiovaiav vtaiv ex^tv, ^v v/j.el<; iv rp dipei rqiSe 

vavai Tfi Kol ire^^ ap.a iKeff^dXijre to Bevrepov, 

oW' ^ Vfia^ OVK dpvvovvTai iwfiT\iopra<t fj dv 

6 dpifiOTipwv diroxop-^aoinai. vofdap re ptiBel^ 



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BOOK HI. XIII. 1-5 

XIII. "Such were the motives and reasons, Lace- 
daemonians and allies, wliich led us to revolt, and 
they are clear enough to convince all who hear them 
that we had good grounds for our action, and cogent 
enough to alarm us and impel us to seek some means 
of safety. This we long ago wished to do while you 
were still at peace, when we sent envoys to you 
suggesting that we should revolt, but were pre- 
vented from doing so because you would not re- 
ceive us. But now, when the Boeotians invited ' 
us we responded promptly. It was our intehtion 
to make at once a double withdrawal — from the 
Hellenes^ and thus aid in liberating them instead 
of joining the Athenians to do them wrong ; and 
from the Athenians, and thus destroy them first in- 
stead of being ourselves destroyed by them after- 
wards. Our revolt, however, has been made pre- 
maturely and without preparation ; wherefore it is 
the more incumbent upon you to receive us as allies 
and quickly send us aid, in order that all men may 
see that you protect those whom you ought to 
protect and at .the same time harm your enemies. 
And it is an opportunity such as never has been 
before. For the Athenians have been ruined by 
pestilence as well as by heavy expenses. Part of 
their fleet is cruising about your coasts,' pai-t is 
arrayed against us ; so that it is not likely that they 
have any ships to spare if you attack them this 
coming summer a second time, by sea as well as by 
land ; but they will either not resist you when you 
sail against them, or else they will have to withdraw 
their fleets both from our waters and from yours. 
And let no one think that be will be incurring a risk 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 



aWoTpla^ 7^ Trepi ^ oiKetov kivSwov l^etv. a 

■ y^p hotcet-fiaiepttv a-Trelvai r] Aitrffov, rijv 0}<j>e\iai' 
auTp t^yvffev irapi^ei. ov yhp iv t^ 'Att(«^ 
effTot o troKefLOf!, &i; rf? oXerai, aXk^ hC tjv ^ 

5 'Am*^ Qi^eXeiTot. etrtt Si tSiv -j^prfftarap airo 
T&v ^vfifidyav 1} Trpotro^D?, koi, en ftet^mv larai, 
ei ■^fiav KaTatrrpeyjroiTaf ovre yap airoffT^aerat 
dWo^/Ta re i}p.eTepa irpoiryev^tTeTat, irdSoifUv 

7 T &v Seivorepa ij 01 ttplv SovXeuoi/re?. ^OTjff'rf- 
(TOVTOiv hi v/i&v TrpodvpMt; •jroktv re Trpo&X-qri^eaOe 
vavriKov ej(ova-av p.iya, o^ep vp.lv fiaktara 
■JTpoffSei, Kal ' XOjivaLovv paov xaOaip^eje tiif>ai- 

I povmev aiiT&v tovv ^vpp.a-)(pv'i {OpaavreptoVjyctp ,) 

1 was _T(j ■tfpoiT'x^iopjia-eTai), t^p re tdriav atro- 
(fiev^effde fjv etj^ere pri ^or)9eiv toi? atfiiffrafUvoii, 
t)v hi ikevdepovvret! i^atvi/o-^e, to Kparoi; ^ov 
iroXefiov ^e^aiorepov e^ere. 

XIV. " Kia-)(yv8h'Tef; ovv rdi re r&v 'EXK^vav 
e<t ^/ta? eXTTtSo? ical A/o top 'OXvp/mop, hr o5 Tp 
lep^ iaa koi IxeTat eafiev, eirap,vvaTe MvriXi^- 
vaioK ^vfipaxoi yepop^vot, xal fiij irpoTiaffe ^/tdi, 
iSiov pev TOP kipSvpov rmp catpdreov trapa^aXta)- 
pApov^, Koip^p hi T^f tK ToO KaTopdSiffai aiipeXiay 
S.-TTOO'i hoKTOPTav, ert Si leoiporepav ttjp ^dSwt 

2 ei pj] 7reiff0epTrDv vpMv atfiaXrjaopeda, ylypeaBe 
Si aphpei oiova-irep vpav aX re "EXXtji/c? dfiova^ 
Kol TO Tipet epov deos 0ov\eTai." 

' fix ii inBerted by Uude. 



BOOK III. xm. 5-xiv. 2 

of his own for the country of another. For though 
Lesbos seems to him to be a long way off, the help 
she will bring him will be close at hand. For the war 
will not be in Attica,^ as some think, but in those 
countries from which Athens derives its support. 
The revenues of Athens come from her allies, and 
they will be still greater if they shall subdue us ; for 
for not only will no one else revolt, but our resources 
will be added to hers, and we should be .treated with 
greater rigour^ than those who have long been slaves. 
But if you give us your hearty support, you will add 
to your league a state that has a large navy, a thing 
of which you still stand most in need, and you will 
find it easier to overthrow the Athenians by gradually 
drawing their allies away from them — for every one 
will be emboldened to come over to your side— and 
you will free yourselves of the reproach under which 
yOu have heretofore laboured, of refusing* to aid 
those who revolt from the Athenians. But if you 
openly play the part of liberators,* the mure certain 
will be your victory in the war. 

XIV. "Reverencing, then, not only the hopes 
which the Hellenes place in you, but also that Olym- 
pian Zeus in whose temple we are even as suppliants, 
succour the Mytilenaeans by entering on this alliance ; 
and do not abandon us when we are hazarding our 
lives in a risk all our own, but shall bring to all a 
general benefit if we succeed — and a still more 
genera] injury if through your refusal we shall fail. 
Prove yourselves, therefore, men such as the Hellenes 
account you and our fears would have you be." 

* i.e. the war will not be decided in Attica. 

^ Espeoially aa regards the tribute which would be exacted. 

' q/". I. btii. 1, 6. * «/. n. viii. 4. 



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THUCYDIDES 

XV. totavra fitu ol MuTtXijiiatot elTTOv. oi 
Se AaKeBaifiovtoi xal ol ^vfi/iaxoi cVei£^ ijKovaav, 
Ttpoahe^afievoi. tol'? Xo-yovi^vfifLaxovi Te tou9 
A.£(T0lov<; iTTOi^aavro Kal rr/v es t^jj 'Arn/cfiv 
iaBoXiiv TOi? re ^vfifidj^oi^ vapoum nark t^^o? 
itftpa^oii Ihrai 6? Tov Itrdftov toI^ Svo jiepeffiy ai 
■a-oiTjiTOiJ.evoi, ical avTol "rrp&Tot atpiKovro, leai 
o\k:ov<; trapeaKeva^oi- twv veaiv ev Tp iaffp.^ ws 
vireppiiT OVTe ^ ix t^s K.opiv$ov «5 t^p wpo5 
'Pi.6r)vai QoKaaacai teal vavai teal ire^^ afta 

2 iiTi6vTe<;. zeal ol fuv irpodvp-io^ Tavta hrpaaaov 
oi Be dWoi ^vfifiax^i ^paSems re ^uveX^yoiTo 
Kal iv Kaptrov ^vyKOfuBjj Tja-av Kai dpptoana 
Tou irrparevetv. .v^tj! 

XVI, Aitrffofievot Be avroii'; ol 'A^ijuotot Bia 
KaTiiyveaa-tv aaSeveia'; a^mv wapaa/ceva^ofiepov^, 
SijXwffot 0ov\6fievoi OTt ova opdoii iyvdixafftv, 
ak\ oloi. Te etai fit) Kivoiivre'; to cttI Aea^tp 
vavriitov icaX to airo JlekoTtowqaov iinov 
paBimi afiViieaOai, eirX^peuaav pav^ eKarov 
eaffuvrei avroi t€ ttX^ji iTnretDV Kal irevraKO- 
iTioneSifivwv KUi ol p^ToiKoi, Kal irapa top itrdfiov 
avayayovTe^ eTrtSetfti' re eTroiovvTO KCti aito- 

2 ^daei<; t^? JleXoTtovv^aav jj BoKoiri avroK. ol 
Be AaKeBatfiovtot opmvrev iroXiiv tow irapdXoyov 
ra Te inro tmu Aea^ioiv p-qOevra ijyovvTO ovk 

' cf. II. X. 2. 

* Of citizana ubueJIv only the 8qT<i, who were light*arnied 
troops ou l&nd, aerved in the fleet (vi. xliii) ; bat in oritioal 



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BOOK III. xy. r-Jfvi. 2 

XV. Thus spoke the Mytilenaeans. The Lacedae- 
monians and their alhes, after they had heard tliem, 
aecepted their pro])o$als, and received the Lesbians as 
allies. Those allies who were there present were 
directed to assemble with all speed at the Isthmus 
with two-thirds' of their forces for the purpose, of 
making the proposed invasion of Attica; and the 
Lacedaemonians themselves arrived first and pro- 
ceeded to construct on the Isthmus hau l i n p:-machi nes 
with which to transfer the ships from 'Corinth to the 
sea on the Athenian side, in order to attack Athens 
both by sea and by land. They set to work zealously 
at these tilings, but the rest of the allies collected 
slowly, since they were busy gathering in their 
harvest and were in no mood for campaigning. 

XVI. Meanwhile the Athenians, perceiving that 
the enemy, in making their preparations, were acting 
upon a conviction of their own weakness, and wishing 
to show that they were mistaken in their judgment, 
and tiiat without moving the fleet at Lesbos they could 
easily ward off the new force coming from the Pelo- 
ponnesus, manned one hundred ships, the citizens,^ 
-—except the knights and the highest class— em- 
barking as well as the resident aliens. Then putting 
out to sea they displayed their strength along the 
coast of the Isthmus and made descents upon the 
Peloponnesus wherever they pleased. As for the 
Lacedaemonians, when they saw how greatly they 
had miscalculated, they concluded that the reports 
of the Lesbians ^ were untrue, and regarding the 

times membera of the three upper claBBes, whoBe regular 
duty was hoplite service, might be pressed into servioe in the 
fleet (VIII. jcwv. 21. 
» </. oh. xiii. 3, i. 



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THUCYDIDES 

akrjdff Koi iiropa vofu^ovTe^, o>; aiiTOK koI oi 
^vfi/taxoi afia oil Trapria-av Koi ^yyiWovro icai 
at trepl -njv IIe\o7r6vvTji7ov TptdteovTa j^es T<av 
'AOf/iraiaiv Ttjv TrepioiKiSa ainaiv ttopdovaai, ave- 
■)(wpt}aav iir ot/cov. varepov Se vavTiKOV trape- 
aneva^ov o ri ■rreti.'^ovmv es ttjv Aea^ov ical 
KaTa TToX-eK eirryyyeXav TeairapaKOVTa ve&v 
■jrXfjdo'i Koi vavap-ypv -ttpoaeTa^av 'AXKiBav, S5 
i efieW^i/ iirtTrXevaeadai. airevatpijirai/ Be xal ol 
'A6j}yaiot Tat? exaTOv vavaiv, e-neiBi) val eKeivou^ 
elSov, 

XVII. Kai ^ Kara rov j^pavoii joviov hv ai 
v^flS etrXtov iv tok -rrXeunai Br] i^e? a.(i 
ainoh ivepyol xaXXei ^ iyevoino, irapaTtXijtnai 

2 Be Koi Iti TrXet'ou? apvop-evov rov iroXifiov. t^v 
re yhp 'Attikyjp koI Eu0oiav Kal XaXa/itva 
ixarov ecfivXaaaov koi irepl HeXoirowTjcoi' erepai 
tKarov ^trav, ;^<iipi? Bk at -n-epl TlorlSaiaii ical 
tv TOK aXXoii ^(ai pioii, aiffre at ndaai a/ia 
cytyvovTO iv iv\ Sipei BiaKoatat koX TrevT-qKOVTa. 

3 KaX TO 'xjy^fiwra tovro pAXiara vTravaXataf fi^rh, 
IIoT(Sata?. Tiji* Tc yap YlotiBaiav BiSpa^oi 
oirXtrat ii^povpovv (avroJ fap koX VTrr/perp 
Bpax/t^v eXdfiffape t^? rifiepa';), Tpia-)(i\ioi fiev 
at, TTpwTOf, S)v ovK eXdtraov; BieiroXiopKija'av, 
e^aKOffioi Bi xal XiXwt /Aera ^opfuiavo'i, 0( 
irpaaTT^Xdov vijit re ai iraaat rov avTOV p.i<T0op 

' ThU whole chapter ia condemned aa apurioue by Stenp, 
followed b; Hude. 

' Untranslatable in this context : Stalil writes kbI &\\gr, 
van Herwerden iwai iwti, CuUinan iiiK\ai, L. Herbil a' 



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BOOK III. 



f-xvii. 3 



expedition as impracticable, since their allies had not 
yet arrived, and, besides, word had come to them that 
the thirty* ships which were cruising around the 
Peloponnese were ravaging their own country dis- 
tricts, they went back home. Later,* however, they 
prepared a fleet which was to be dispatched to 
Lesbos and sent orders to the allied states for forty 
ships, appointing Alcidas who was to sail as admiral 
of this fleet. And when the Athenians saw that 
the enemy had withdrawn, they also returned home 
with their hundred ships. 

XVII. At the time when these ships were at sea 
about the largest number the Athenians ever had 
at once were on active service, though there were as 
many or even more at the beginning of the war. 
For one hundred .'ihips were guarding Attica, Euboea 
and Salamis, and another hundred were cruising olf 
the Peloponnesus, besides those at Potidaea and in 
other places, so that the number in service at the 
same time in a single summer was all told two hun- 
dred and fifty. It was this effort, together with 
Potidaea, that chiefly exhausted their resources of 
money. For in the siege of Potidaea the hoplite 
received a wage of two drachmas a day, one for him- 
self and one for his attendant ; and there were at 
first three thousand of these, and the number was 
not less than this throughout the siege, besides six- 
teen hundred who came with Fhormio, hut went 
away before the siege was over; and the sailors 
on the ships all drew the same pay as the soldiers, 
' ^. oh. vii. 1. * (/. oh. XJ.V. 1 ; xxvi. 1. 



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THllCYDIDES 

i eAepov. t^ fiiv oHv ^fujfuiTa oCtib! inravaXaOf} 
TO w/JWToy, Kal vrje^ Tovaxnai Bi/ ■n-Xettrrat 

i-TrXrjptoSf] aav. 

XVni. MuTtXiji'awt Se Kath, thv aiiTov ypo- 
vov %v 01 AaxeSatfi'Ovioi trepl top l<T0fiop r/aav 
i-nX M^dvfivav tti? •irpoBiBofi€PT}v iarpdrevaav 
Kara yijv avroi re Kai oi iirUovpoi- /eal npocr- 
ffa^ovrei Tfj 7rdX«, e-rreiSi] ov npovydipei 17 
irpoaeSe'j^ovro, air^XOov itr 'AvTi(Ta-i)<! Kai Ilvppai 
KaX 'Rpiaov, teal KaTatnrjtj-afievot t^ iv rot? 
■noXeai ravrai't ^e^aio-repa Koi Tuyt} tcparv- 

2 vavre^ Sta Ta-)(pv; aTrrjXffov eir' oIkov. earpd- 
revaav Se xal oi M i)dvfivaioi ava-^tDpT/aavTav 
avTtov itr Avri<T<rav' Koi eV^Soij^eia? tivo? •fevo- 
fievi}'; •rr\T}yivTe<; vtto ts t5iv ' Aj/Tiaaalwv nai 
rS>v e-rriKovpav airedavov re TroXXot nai dveyw- 

3 pTjaav oi Xotirol Kara Taxo'i. oi &e ^Adijvatot 
irvvdavoftevot TavTa, rou'i tc MuTiXij^atou? t^s 
7^5 KpaTovvTa-; j<at Tot's tr^eTepov; cnpaTidiTav 
ovy ixanoi? 6vTa<i ftpyetv, Trip-Ttovat trepX to 
(f>0iv6-!T(iipov ^Sjj ap)(pfievoi/ TldyriTa tov 'Etti- 
Kovpav aTpaTtj'fov k(U x'^^°^^ ottXi'tos eavrdv. 

4 oi Si avrepeTai TrXevaavres ravvewv a<fiitevQvi'7at 
ical Treptretvl^ovai MvTiXijvriv iv nvKKrp aTrXp 
ret^ec tf>povpia S' earip ol eTrt tSui icaprepSiv 

6 eyieaToiKohopsiTai.. koI 17 pip MvTtXijfij Kark 
KpaTO^ ijSr} a/Kfyoriptadep xal ix yij^ jcal ix 
$aXaaiT7i^ etpyero, xal o yeifiaiv ^pXPTO yL- 
yvea$at. 

XIX. Wpoffheofievoi hi oi ^A0jjvaioi vpij/iaTaii' 
ii rrjv iroXiopKlav, xaX avrol itTepeyxoPTei ro-re 



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BOOK in. 



[. 3-xi 



It was in this way, then, tliat their money was ex- 
hausted at first, and this was the largest number of 
ships manned t>y them. 

XVIII. While the Lacedaemoniaiis were at the 
Isthmus, the Mytilenaeans and their auxiliaries ' 
marched with tlieit army against Methymna, which 
they supposed was being betrayed into their hands ; 
and they assaulted the city, but when tlieir attempt 
did not succeed as they had expected, they went off 
to Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus, and after establishing 
their interest in these cities on a firmer basis and 
strengthening the walls, went home in haste. As 
soon, however, as they had witlidrawn, the Methym- 
naeans in tiieir turn made an expedition against 
Antissa ; but a sortie was made by the inhabitants of 
Antissa and the auxiliary troops in which the Metliym- 
naeans were defeated and many of them slain, 
whereupon the rest withdrew in haste. Now when 
the Athenians learned that the Mytilenaeans were 
masters of the country and that their own soldiers 
were not numerous enough to keep them within 
their walls, about the beginning of autumn they 
sent Paches son of Epicurus in command of a thou- 
sand Athenian hoplites, who also served as rowers.* 
When they arrived at Mytilene, they encircled it 
with a single wall, in which forts were built at a 
number of strong positions. Mytilene was thus at 

■last completely cut off both by sea and land just as 
the winter set in. 

XIX. Now the Athenians, finding themselves in 
need of additional funds for the siege, having then 



' The faot of hoplites serving at the oars — eTJdently for 
economical reasons (</. eh. six. I )— ia aapecially emphftaised. 



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THUCYDIDES 

Trpwroi' ea^ophv Ziaxoaia ToKatna, i^etrefi-^av 
Kol ewi TOU9 ^Vfifj-d-x^ovi apyvpoXoyou^ pav^ 
Bmhexa /cot AvffiieKea TrefjLTtTov aiiTov aTpaTrjyop, 
i 6 Se dWa T€ rjpyVfioKayei koI -nepieTrXfi, koX 
T^5 Viapiat ix Mvovvtoi ava^as Sta tov 
MaidpSpov TrehCov fiexpi tov XavBlov \6^ov, 
eTTiBefievcav rS>v Kapwv xal 'AvauT&v, outos T6 
Btatpdeiperai kol t^s aWrfi; arparid'! ttoXKoL 

XX. Too S' avTou ;^ey*tuco5 oi nXarm^? {ert 
yap iiroKiopKOvvTO inro t&p HeKonovvijtrioiv Kal 
Bo(WTWj') iireiSr} Tifi tc air^ firikenrovTi eTrU^ovro 
Kol aiTo TMv 'k.6t]v<tiv ovBefUa eXwl? ^v Tip-mplav 
ovSe dWi} oa-rripia etpaivero, iTTtfiovKevovaiv 
avroi re xal 'AfftjpaUop oi ^VfiiroKi.opKavp.evot 
TrpatTov p,ii> travre^ i^ek$eip Kal virep^rfvai rii 
TeCj^i] T&v •KoKep.Loiv, •^v SvvwiTai ^idtTaaBai, 
e<7-rfyT}(j-aft€V(i)p Trjv welpav ainoK &€aivt70V re 
TOV ToKfdBov, dvBpo<t fidinero'i, ««i Rinrop.'rriSov 

2 TOV ^alfuiyov, 8? icaX earpar^er hreira ol ftev 
rip,iaei<; dirdiKVTjadv -jTm^ top icivSvvop fieyav 
'^yjjo'd/ievoi, e? Se avSpa^ Bia/eoaiovv xal eiKotyi 
fidXitTTa ivkp.uvav ry e^oB^ i0e\ovTai rpoTrp 

3 TOt^Be. xXifiaKav iwot^aavTO fo-as t^ ret^e' 
T&v troXefumii- ^vvep,eTp-^<TavTo Bk toI^ iirt^oXaU 
T&p "nKivBwv, fi eTv)(e irpo^ iripa^ ovk i^aXt)- 
Xifi/iivop TO reix"^ avTuv. ripiBp^owro Bk TroXXaX 
dfia T^; iiriffoXeti koX e/ieXXov ol iJ.ep Ttve^ 



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BOOK III. TIT. i-XT. 3 

for the first time resorted to a property tax ^ upon 
themselves to tlie amount of two hundred talents, 
also sent to the allies twelve ships under the com- 
mand of Lysicles and four others, to collect money 
from them, He cruised about and collected money 
at various places ; but on his way inland from Myus 
in Caria through the plain of the Meander, after he 
had reached tha hill of Sandius, he was attacked by 
the Carians and the Anaeitans and slain, together 
with many of his army. 

XX. During the same winter the PlataeanSj who 
were still' being besieged by the Peloponnesians and 
the Boeotians, began to be distressed by failure of 
their supply of food, and since there was no hope of 
aid from Athens nor any other means of safety in 
sight, they and the Athenians who were besieged 
with them planned to leave the city and climb over 
the enemy's walls, in the hope that they might be 
able to force a passage. The attempt was suggested 
to them by Theaenetus son of Tolmides, a soothsayer, 
and Eupompidas son of Dfumachus, who was one of 
the generals. At first all were to take part, but 
afterwards half of them somehow lost heart, thinking 
the risk too great, and only about two hundred and 
twenty voluntarily persisted in making the sortie, 
which was carried out in the following way. They 
made ladders equal in height to the enemy's wall, 
getting the measure by counting the layers of bricks 
at a point where the enemy's wall on the side facing 
Plataea happened not to have been whitewashed. 
Many counted the layers at the same time, and while 

' The ta^api was an extraordinary tax levied only in war 
time. See Boeckh, Pvhlic Economy, p. 612. 
' For previous d^ussion of Ihia siege, see ii. Izii.-lxxviii. 



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THUCYDIDES 

afiapTqueirdai, o'l hi ■n^eiovt reiifefftfat toO 
a.\r)6ov'i Xoytfffjiov, dWm^ re km woWaKt^ 
dpt&fiovvrei Kal a/ia ov iroXii aTreX""^^' ^^^^ 
pqSia>i Ko&opoifievov e? S e^ovXopro rov Tct'^^ous. 
4 r7)V p.ev oZv ^vfifieTptjaiv rStv ic\tp,dic<DV oBtw? 
eKa^ov eV rov Trd)^ov<i rfji TrXivdov eiKdaavTe^ 
TO fiMrpov. 

XXI. To he T«^09 rjv Tap TleXoirovpjjaiwv 
ToiovBe rij olKoSoii^tret. el^e fi(v Svo rot's irepi- 
ffokovi, irpo^ re Tt\arat&v koI ei ris e^adev air 
' A$rjvSiv e-Kioi, hiei^pv he oi -jrepiffoXoi etcKoiBeKa 

2 TToSa? fiakitna air' aXXijX(av, to oZv p^ra^v 
rovro o'l eKKaiSexa TrdSt? ' roc? iftv'ka^tv otK-^/uiTa 
htavevefii^pAva a>Koh6p/r]TO, Koi Tiv ^we-xfi^ atrre 
If (jiaivfaBai rei^oii waxi> ETraXfew exov dp^o- 

3 ripaSev. Si& SeKa &i e-rrdX^euDV Tru/yyot ^aav 
/jteydXoi Kal IffOTrXareii tQi Tet%fi(, SiiJKOVTei ee 

mare rrdpohav pi) elvai rrapa •Trvpyov,^ dXXA Bi' 

4 ainSiv /ieaoiv Sijjaav. ras o^v vvK-ra';, ottotc 
■)(€ipxi>v e!r} vorepo's, riis pev iirdX^eK drreXeiwov, 
ex Se Tojv irvpyoiii ovrav Bi' ohJrfov leaX avaidev 
ffreyavaii t^j' ipvKaKrjV iiroioOvro, to p£v otv 
■ru-j(p<i cS rrepie^povpovvTo oi IIXaTatij? toiov- 
TOV ^v. 

XXII, 0( S", iTreiBi/ ■jrapetrKeiatTTo ainoti, 
TijpriaavTe<i vvKTa x^ipepiov vBart Kal dvepa Kal 
ap^ dveKr^vov e^^<Tav riyovvro Be oiirep «a( t^s 

' o! ii[«o(J<icB *iStt deleted by van Herwerden, followed 
by Hude. 

* (vvtxH with all M83. encept C, which Hude followa. 
" napi r&,-yar deleted by Nftber, followed by Hude. 



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BOOK III. XX. 3-xxii. I 

some were sure to make a mistake, the majority were 
likely to hit the true count, especially since they 
counted time and again, and, besides, were at no great 
distance, and the part of the wall they wished to see 
was easily visible. The measurement of the ladders, 
then, they got at in this way, reckoning the measure 
from the thickness of the bricks. 

XXI. The wall of the Peloponnesians was huilt in 
the following fashion. It had two encircling lines, 
the inner looking towards Plataea, the outer to guard 
against attack from the direction of Athens, and the 
two circuits were distant about sixteen feet from one 
another. This interval of sixteen feet had in building 
been divided up into rooms assigned to the guards ; 
and the whole structure was continuous,! so as to 
appear to be a single thick wall furnished with battle- 
ments on both sides. And at every tenth battlement 
there were high towers of the same width as the wall, 
extending both to the inner and outer faces of it, so 
that there was no passage^left at the sides of the 
towers, but the guards had to go through the middle 
of them. Now at night when the weather was rainy 
the guards left the battlements and kept watch from 
the towers, which were not far apart and were 
roofed overhead, Such, then, was the wall by which 
the Plataeans were beleaguered. 

XXII. After the Plataeans had finished their 
preparations, they waited for a night that was stormy 
with rain and wind and at the same time moonless, 
and then went forth. They were led by the men 

' I.e. the two irtplBoXoi were joined together by a roof, 

33 



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THUCYDIDES 

TTCt/Ja? atTioi tjtrav. koX Trp&Tov fikv Tt)v raippov 
Ste^ijaav fj -jrepieix^v aiiTov^, eweiTa irpoo-efitt^ap 
T^ T«;^et rStv •jroXefiifov XaBovre^ tov^ <fii/\aieai, 
av^ TO iTKOTeivov /lev ov •n-polSovrmv avrtov, '^otfxp 
Be Tp iK Tov Trpotnivai ainoiiv avrnvaTayovmo'S 
Z TOV ai/Sftov oil learaKoiiaavTiav a,fi.a Se Kal Sii- 
^ow6S -jroXii jjtroj', ottoi? t^ OTrXa ^17 Kpovofteva 
fTpo^ wXXjjX« ata$r)iTiv Tiapk-f^Qi. T/aav he evtrra- 
Xets re r^ oTOdffei icaX tov aptuTepov fiopov iroSa 
OiToSeSefievoi d(T<f>a\eia'i evexa T^s ttjOo? top 

3 TTTjXoP. Karh oiv p^ra-Trvpr/iov vpoaep,tafov irpot 
tA? eVaXfei? h'Sotcs oti epfjooi elffi, irprnTOV ftev 
ot Ta? Kki.fW.Ka'i ifiepoiiTei, ical Trpoaedeaav eiretTa 
^t\ol SaiSeKa ^iie ^tif>iBiai Kal daipa/ci ave^aivov, 
av -^yeiTo 'Aftfiea's 6 Kopoiffov xai vp&TO'i ave^r), 
fierk Se avrbv ot e-nop-evoi ef ei^' eKarepov r&v 
TTvpywv api^Mvov eweiTa ip'iXot aXXoi fiera 
TOVTOvi fuw Soparloi^ l)(Q>povv, ols Irepot kutowiv 
ri? dffTriSai e^epov, oirai'i exelvot paov 7rpoa^aC~ 
VQiev, Kat e/ieXXov Swaeiv ottots Trpos tok TroXe- 

4 fiioii elev, ojs 5^ acw irXeiovi iyepoPTO, jjtrOopro 
ol 4k tSiv "TTupyatp ij)vXaKe<;' xare^aXe ydp rt? roil' 
TlXaraiap aPTtkapL^avofLevo^ airo rSiv indX^etav 

5 Kepap-tSa, ^ veaovaa Bovttov enolrja-ev. xal 
avTiKa ^oif ^v, TO Se a-rpaToweBov eVi. to Teixo^ 
&pp.7)aeP' ov ykp ytei o ti *jp to Seivov UKOTeiv^^ 
vVKTo-i Kal x^ifioipo^ ourot, km apu oi e'c rp TtoXet 
tS>p IIXaTaicifi' imoXeXeiftfievoi i^eXdovre^ irpoiri- 
^aXXov T^ Telnet twp TleXoTrovvrjffiav ck rovfi- 



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BOOK III. XXII. 1-5 

who were the authors of the enterprise. First they 
rrossed the ditch which surrounded the town, then 
reached the foot of the enemy's wall unobserved by 
the guards, who in the all -pervading, darkness could 
not see aliead and could not hear because the clatter 
of the wind drowned the noise of their approach ; 
and, besides, they kept a good distance apart as they 
advanced, in order that their arms might not rattle 
against each other and cause detection. And they 
were not only lightly armed but also had only the 
left foot sandalled, for security against slipping in the 
mud. So they came up to the battlements at a space 
between two towers, knowing that the battlements 
were deserted. First came the men with the ladders, 
who set them against the wall ; next came twelve 
light-armed men, with dagger and corslet only, who 
mounted the ladders. These were led by Ammeas son 
of Coroebus, who was the lirst to ascend, and after 
him his followers ascended, six men going against 
each of the adjoining towers. Next after these came 
other light troops armed with short spears, their 
shields being borne by another group which followed, 
that the firmer might advance more easily; and 
their-shields were to be handed them when they were 
close to the enemy. Now when several had got up, 
the sentinels on the towers became aware of their 
presence ; for one of the Plataeans in laying hold of 
the battlements threw down a tile, which fell with a 
thud. And immediately there was an outcry, and 
the garrison rushed to the wall ; for they did not 
know what the danger was, as the night was dark 
and stormy, and at the same time the Plataeans who 
had been left behind in the town went out and 
attacked the wall of the Peloponnesians on the side 

35 
D 2 



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THUCYDIDES 

traXiv fj ol a.vhpe<; avr&v vnepi^aivov, oirws 

6 ^KKTra TTpo^ aiiToi^ rov vovv exoiev. iffopv^ovPTO 
fiev ovv kutA j(<t>pav /iivovTe^, ^otjQelv Se ovSeij 
e-ToXfiM tK rfj'i eavrmv (jjvXaK^, aXX' iu airoptp 

7 ^(Taf eUdtrai to yiyvonevov. Kol ol rpiaieoa-iot 
auT&v, oU fTeraicro Trapa^oij&eZp e! rt Sioi, 
i'j^atpovp e^mdep tow teIxov^ Trpm ri/v ffo^v, 

S tjtpuKTol Tc rjpovTO «'? r^s 0ij/3as voXep.toi' irapav- 
Zu'xpv hk Kol ol i/c T^5 TfoXeto^ HXarairj^ airo 
jov reixovv ^pvK-roii^ ttoXXou? irporepop Trape- 
axevaafihiov^ iq airo tovto, ottoi! aaaip^ t^ 
ffffftela TTft tpvurmplav Tot? -rroXefiioK ji koI fit) 
0oriBoi€v, aX\o Tt vopiaavTe<i to yiyvofitvop elvai 
^ ri OP, TTpiv iK^Siv ol dvSpe^ ol eftovres Sia- 
<Pvyoi€ii xal Tov dffipaXov^ dvTiXd^oivTO. 

XXIII, Oi 5' virep^aipopTe'i t&p IlXaTatav ev 
rovTq>, (OS 01 -Trp&TOi av7mv avt^e^^Keaav KaX 
TOv vvpyov sKaTepov TOtr? ipvXaKav ^iaj>6etpavTet 
£KeKpaT'^K€<rati, tbs Te SiaBovi tSiv "rrvpywv 
epffTaPTei; avTol 4t})vXaairop fi-qhiva. hi avTwv 
i-jrt^OTjdeip, Kal KXtfiaKat TrpotrOevTe^ aTio tov 
Telxovi Tois irvpyoti Ktu iirava^i^dtravTeii apBpa^ 
■rrXeiovi, ol /iiv u/rro -rStv Tvpyaip tous itn^oridovv- 
ra? KaX Karadev xal &p<oBev elpyop ^aXXovre^, 
ol B' iv TOVT<p ol irXelov^ iroXXk^ trpoerdevTei 
KXl/MiKa<! afta koX t^7 etrdX^eii; atriixravTe^ Si^ 

2 TOV itera-Kvpyiov vvepi^atpop. 6 Bi SiaKOfu^o- 
fievo^ altl 'IcraTo ivX tov ^etXowe tjj^ Td<f>pov 
36 



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BOOK III. 



;ii. 5-! 



opposite that over which their men were climbing, 
to distract attention from them as for as possible. Now 
the sentinels remained at their posts, though in a 
state of eKcitement, no one daring to leave his station 
and lend aid, but all being at a loss to conjecture 
what was going on. Furthermore, the three hundred, 
who had been appointed to bring aid wherever it was 
needed, proceeded outside of the wall in the direction 
of the outcry, and beacon fires indicating danger 
from the enemy were flashed towards Thebes. But the 
Plataeans in the town at the same time raised from 
their wall many beacons, which had been prepared 
beforehand for this very purpose, that the enemy's 
beacon signals miglit be rendered unintelligible and 
that the Thebans, thinking that the situation was 
dilFerent from what it really was, might defer bring- 
ing aid until the Plataeans who were leaving should 
have made good their escape and reached safety. 

XXIII. Meanwhile, when the foremost of the 
Plataeans who were scaling the walls had mounted, 
slain the guards, and got possession of the two towers, 
they themselves took position inside the towers and 
guarded the passageways, that no one might come 
through these against them. Then from the top of 
the wall they placed ladders against the towers, 
got up a number of men, and kept all assailants 
away from the towers, shooting at them from l>elow 
and above.' Meanwhile the others, the' main body, 
had put up a large number of ladders and thrown 
down the battlements, and were climbing over 
through the space between the towers. And as each 
one got over he halted on the edge of the ditch ; and 



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THUCYDIDES 

Kol ivrevOev eto^evov re xal ^Kovri^ov, et tk 
tvapa^OTtdSiv Trapi, to Teixo'i KioXvrriv yijpono 

3 T^S Bia^aereai^. iirel Se TravTev huwetrepaiaivTO, 
ol a-KO tS)v "jTvpyav vaXeTrw? ol TtKevToioi, Kara- 
^ahoinev e-}(o>pavv evX ttjv ToSpov, ital eV tov- 
iip ol Tpta/corrtot atnoti; itreifiepoPTO Xo^TraSa? 

4 e^oin-e?. oi fiev ovv TlXaraiiji iKeivovi etopruv 
fiSXXop eK Tofl (TKOTOv; eo'T&Te'i iirl tov ;^e(X(iu? 
T^? Toippov, teal eTo^evov t< koi iaijKOVJt^ov e? 
jit yv/ivd, avTol Be iv T7I dtfiavet Sprei ^aaov hi^ 
tA? Xa/iTraSo? KadetapSiVTO, werre ipddvovai rSiv 
UXoraiwc leaX ol vararot Bia^dvre^ t^c Toippov, 

5 j^aXeTTiw! S^ Kol ^taieof KpixnaXKot; re yitp 
eTreTrrj'yei ov ffeffaioi if avTf} aar i'lreXdetv, dW 
olov airjiXiiOTOV ^ ^opiov ^ uSotwSij? paXKov, Kol 
rj vi>^ roiovTtp dvep^ iiTrovet^op-ivi} troKv to SSoip 
ill airp i-7reiToti}icei, S fioXit iiirepexoPTe^ iwepaid- 
dtjaav. eyevero Bk leal ^ Btd^ev^i^ ainoK /ioXXoc 
Si& TOV \eificopoi TO p.eyeSo'i. 

XXIV, 'Of)/t)}(racT6« Bi d-ro t^5 rd^pov oi 
liXaraiTf! ejmpovp ddpoot ttjv es QijiSo? (ftipov- 
trap 6B0V ev Be^ia exovTei to toO 'AeBpoicpdrov^ 
7}p^ov, vofit^oPTe<{ iJKiar &P <r<pd'; Tavnjp airou? 
imoTovfiaat Tpa-Treadai. Trjv e'5 tou? voKe/uovf 
xal afia edipaiv Toi? TieXoirovprialowi Tr}v irpo^ 
K.iBatpoiva Kol Apvbi xeipaXd^ ttjv ett 'Adrjptuii 
2 tpipovaav p^Tet XapirdSap SiantovTas. Kal eirX 
fiiv ^f ^ ItttA araBiovi 01 TlXaTui^v Tr/v eirl rtav 
QriffSip ej(dipvo'<iV! eTreid' vwoaTpiT^avTe^ r)aav 
T^v TTpot TO Spot <pepov<rav oSop es 'EpvOpa^ koX 



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BOOK III. xKiii. 2-xxiv. 2 

from there they shot arrows and hurled javelins at 
any enemy who tried to approach along the wall and 
interfere with their crossing. And when all these had 
reached the other side, the nien who had held tlie 
towers, tlie last of whom descended with difficulty, 
advanced toward the ditch ; and at the same time the 
three hundred bore down upon them, carrying 
torches. Now the Plataeans, as they stood on the 
edge of the ditch, saw them better out of the dark- 
ness, and kept launching arrows and javelins at their 
uncovered sides, while they themselves, being in the 
shadow, were rendered less visible by the enemy's 
torches. Consequently even the last of the Plataeans 
got safely across the ditch, though only with difBculty 
and after a Jiard struggle ; for in the ditch ice had 
formed that was not firm enough to walk on but 
mushy, such as is formed when the wind is east 
instead of north ; and since the night, the wind being 
from that quarter, was somewhat snowy, the water in 
the ditch had become so deep that they could 
scarcely keep their heads above it as they crossed. 
It was, however, chiefly the violence of the storm 
that enabled them to escape at all. 

XXIV. Starting from the ditch, the Plataeans 
advanced in a body along the road toward Thebes, 
having on their tight the shrine of the hero Andro- 
.crates;forthey thought that no one would ever suspect 
them of having taken this road, which led towards 
their enemies; besides, they saw the Peloponnesians, 
torches in hand, taking in pursuit the road toward 
Cithaeron and Dryoscephalae, which is the road to 
Athens. And for six or seven stadia the Plataeans 
proceeded on the road toward Thebes, then turned 
and followed that leading towards Erythrae and 

39 



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THUCYDIDES 

'Tffta!, leal Xaffo/ievoi rav op5>v Btaipevyovaiv e? 
ri? 'A^jjco?, avSp€i Stohe/ca koX BiaKotrioi a,ir'6 
ttKeiovtov elcrl yap Tivts aoroiiJ oi averpd-TTovTo 
i^ T^ii TToXtv TTplv VTrep/3aiveiv, eli S' eVi Tf} e^a> 
3 Taippcp TofoTJ;? eXiJ^^ij. oi /tec o3i' IleXo- 
Trovv^ffiai xar^ ympav iyevovro t^? ^orjdeia^ 
iravcrdpsvoi.' ol B' eK tjjs TroXeto? nXaraf^s TWf 
/ifi/ yejevrfp^poiv et'SoTC? ouSeV, twj' Se aTroTpairo- 
fjAvtov atfiiaiii a-TrajyeikdvTcov m? oiJSet? wepteort, 
K^pvKa eic7rip.i^av7€';, evel ^fiipa iyevero, eairev- 
SoPTO avaipeiTiv tok veKpoK, fiadovrci Se to 
dX^Sfi hrawravro. oi p.kv hij rStv Yi\arai&v 
avSpev ovT<a virep^avTet iaa>fft]iTav. 

XXV. 'E/c hi T^? AaKeSat/iovoi tov ainov j^«- 
pMivot TeXevTtojiTos eKirifiiterai ^d\ai6o<! 6 Aaice- 
Satfioviov es MvTiX^vr)p rpt^pei. sal TrXtva-at i^ 
Ilvppav Kal i^ avTrji; ire^'p ica-rh ')(a.pdhpav rivd, 
■p vwep^ajov * ^v to TreptTei^ia-pM, StaXaO^v 
iaepverai ii t^v Mi/TiXjJi/Tjii, koX eXeye toZ'; 
trpoltpoii St( iiT^oX^ re ap.a e's rrjv 'Attiktip 
Ha-rai teal ai Teaa-apdKovTa vrje^ •jrapea-avTa.i 
&S ehet ^otjffrjaai avToii, TrpoaTroTrep.<f>6r}vai re 
avTOi TOVTtcip ivsKa tal afia twc dXXwv etri/teXi}- 

2 copxvo'i. Koi ol piv yivTiKtjvaiQt iOdpaovv re 
Koi irpoi T0V1 ASTjvaiov; ^<T<rov eiyov t^v 
yv<ofi7]p oxTTt ^vft0aiveiv. o Te xeiitmv ireXtvTa 
owTOS, Koi TerapTov Ito^ rp iroXep.^ ereXevra 
T^Be 8c QowiieuStSijs ^vveypaifrev. 

XXVI, Tov S' e-niyiyvop^kvov Bepov; ol IleXo- 
wowijfftoi. tTreiBii ras iv Trjv MvTtX^vriP^ Tea- 

' Van Herwerden susgeeU ireSvriy, followed bj Eude. 
■ iiv Kal ot the MSS. before TtrtapiKtrra suapeoted by 
Kriiger und deleted by van Herwerden. 



....r.o.Nic 



BOOK in. XXIV. z-xxvi. I 

Hysiae, and reaching the mountains escaped to 
Athena. They were only two hundred and twelve 
men out of a larger number ; for some had turned 
back to the town without trying to climb the wall, 
and one man, an archer, had been taken at the outer 
ditch. The Peloponnesians, then, desisted from the 
pursuit and returned to their post. But the Plataeans 
in the town, knowing nothing of what had really 
happened, but informed by those who had turned 
back that no one survived, sent a herald at daybreak 
and asked for a truce that they might take u)) their 
dead ; on learning the truth however, they desisted. 
So these Flataeans got over the wall in the manner 
described and reached safety.' 

XXV. Toward the close of the same winter, Salae- t 
thus the Lacedaemonian was sent in a trireme from 
Lacedaemon to Mytilene. Landing at Pyrrha and 
proceeding thence on foot, he followed the bed of a 
ravine, where the circuit-wall could be crossed, and 
came undetected into Mytilene. He told the magis- 
trates that there would tie an invasion of Attica 
and that simultaneously the forty ships ^ which were 
to come to their aid would arrive, adding that he 
himself had been sent ahead to make these announce- 
ments and also to take charge of matters in general. 
Accordingly the Mytilenaeans were encouraged and 
were less inclined than ever to make terms with the 
Athenians. So this winter ended, and with it the 
fourth year of this war of which Thucydides wrote 
the history. 

XXVI. During the following summer the Pelopon- 4; 
nesians first despatched the forty ships which they 

' For the fate of the city and of the Plataeans who re- 
mained in it, see chs. lii.-liviii. 
s c/. ch. svi. 3. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

trapaKovra vav"; awivTetXav ap-^ovra ' A\«lSav, 
S? ^v aiiTOK vauppxat, irporrrd^avre^, avTol e? 
r}]v ArTiKijv xal ol ^v/i/iaxot eae^aXov, OTran; 
ol 'A0rjvaiot ajj-i^oTepaiStv dopv^ovftevoL ^iraov 
Tail vavaXv es "rijV MuTtXiji/?)!/ tcaTairXeovirat^ 

2 i-7rtffor}ff'i}<r(ita'iv. ijyetTO Bi t^5 ea^oXtj^ rauTT)^ 
K.Xeofiivi}'; VTrep liavaaviov tov YlXeiarodvaKTO^ 
uteo? jSaffiXe'to? ovto<; koI vetaripov €Tt, irarpbi 

3 Bi) aBeXtf)6<i &v. eB^wirav Bk t^s 'Att*«^? to, 
re irporepov jeTit^^JHeva,^ ei ji i^e^XauTTJKei, 
Kol offa iv Tai<; irp'tv itr^oKat^ TtapeKeXeiirjo' 
Koi r) e<T^o\ii avrt} ■y^dKetranaTr} eyivero rots 

4 Affr/vaioK /ierA t^i" Bevripav. eTrip-ivovTe^ yap 
aU\ a-!rb -rij't A4ff0ov t* Tievaeadai iStv vewv 

7 epyovjast ^Bi] ■neiTepaiwpivtavetTe^fiX.Oov t^ ttoWo 
Te/ivoine^. w? 8' oiiSkif UTreffatvev ainolv Siv 
TTpoaeBexovTO «ai eireXeXotTret 6 alro^, ave-)(<i>- 
pt]aav iea\ Bi^ Xydif aav /car a voXeK. 

XXVII, 0( Be MvTiXjjvaioi iv tovt^, w? at re 
vijei; auT0(9 oiix ^kov airo t^9 HeXoTrovv^irou, aX\& 
ive'X^povt^ov, Kal o triTOS eTreXeXoivet, aiiay/cd- 
2 ^omai ^vp.^aivetv tt/jo? Tov'i ' AO^vaiov; Bth rdBe, 
6 XdXaiSo'i «al avTO^ oi) trpoaSej^p/ievos en t^s 
vav<i oirXi^et tov Btj/iov trpoTepaiTyf-^op SpTa &^ 
' Ko! of the MSS. before ti ti deleted by Diudorf. 



c. Google 



BOOK rir. XXVI. r-xxvii. 2 

had promised to Mytilene, appointing in command of 
them Alcidas, who was the Lacedaemonian admiral, 
and then invaded Attica, themselves and their allies, 
in order that the Athenians, threatened on both sea 
and land, might be deterred from sending a force to 
attack the fleet that was on its way to Mytilene. 
The leader of this invasion was Cleomenes, regent for 
his nephew Pausanias son of Pleistoanax, who was 
king but still a minor. And they ravaged the parts 
of Attica that had been laid waste before, wherever 
any new growth had sprung up, as well as those that 
had been left untouched in the former invasions. 
And this invasion proved more grievous to the 
Athenians than any except the second ; ' for the 
enemy, who were momentarily expecting to hear 
from Lesbos of some achievement of their fleet, 
which they supposed had already got across, went 
on and on, ravaging most of the country. But when 
they found that nothing turned out as they ex- 
pected and their food was exhausted, they withdrew 
and dispersed to their several cities.* 

XXVn. Meanwhile the Mytilenaeans, seeing that 
the fleet had not arrived from the Peloponnesus but 
was Toitering on the way, and that their food was 
exhausted, were compelled to make terms with the 
Athenians by the following circumstances. Salaethus, 
who himself no longer expected the fleet to come, 
equipped the commons with heavy armour,^ instead 
of their former light arms, intending to attack the 

and then, after hearing of tho succesB of the fleet at Leaboa, 
t« withdraw'. But they were kept in Attica longer than they 
had intended by the delay on the part of the fleet. 

' Witli shield and spears and breaat-plate. The light- 
armed truops wore no defenaive armour and carried spear 

43 



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THUCYDIDES 

3 itre^iuv TOts "Adtjvahir ol Si e-rrethri e\a$ov 

oTrXa, ovT€ riKpo&v To en tS)v apxovTav, xarh 
^vXXoy ovS re yiypofievot fj rbv aiTov ixiXetiop 
TOW? SvvaTOvv <}>ipav ei to ^avepov Koi, Biavifjsiv 
d-!raatv, ^ avrol ^vyx'^p'^aavre'; vpOR 'A^jji'qiovs 
e^aaavTtapaZmtreivTrfVfroXiv. XXVIII. yv6vre<! 
hk oi-iv -ToK-jrpd'Yfiaaiv o5t' awoKcaXveiv SwutoI 
SvTe<;, et t airofiopmff^aovra i t^9 ^v/iffaaeco^, kiv- 
hvveverovTe<!, TroioOvrai icotvy ofioXoyiav irpo? re 
TTfi'yjTfi Koi TO <rrpaT07reSov, w<TTt ' ASrivaiot^ 
phi i^etvai ffovXevrrai iref^ MvTiKrjvtuav oirolov 
av Tt 0ov\fi>vrai Kal rrjp crTpaTikv ii Trjv ttoXip 
5e;:^eiT^ai aiiTOv^, irpea^dav Bi avoaTeWeiv es 
T^S 'Xd^pat Mvrikrjvatovv vepl eavTtaV ev oaip 
B' &v TToXiv ^0miTi, ndx^ra /iijTe Sijaai 
MvTfXtfvaiojv prjSiva p/rfSk dvSpa-jroSlaai /t^re 

2 airoKTeivai. ^ piv ^vp^aai^ avrr} eyevero. oi 
..'■ Be irpd^avTe'; ■JTpb'; rom AaKsSatfiovtov^ pdXtaTa 

T&v MvTiXrivaieav ■rrepjSeei'! ovTetj^ms i) ffTpaTt^\^i- 
io-rjKdep, oiiK j^via^^^ovro, aXX^ iwl tou? ^wpov^ 
opo)'; naQi^ovutv Ilaj^? S' dvaaTqaa'; avrov^ 
&<TTe pi) dSije^trat, KaraTiOeTat e? TieveSop p^Xfii 

3 o5 ToZi ' Adt}tiaiot^ Ti S6^. ■nefi^ai Bi ical ei 
jijp "AvTKTaav Tpf^petv frpoa-aeT^jtrajo Kal TiXXa 
TCL ■rrepl to aTpaTOTteBov KaSwjaTO 37 ain^ iSoicei. 

XXIX. 0( 5' ip Tots TeaaapaKOvra vavirX 
TliXoirovvqa tot, 0&9 eSet eV Tayet vapcvytpeadai, 
.irXeocTes Ttepi re avrrjp t^v HeXoTToimtiffop ivBii- 



1;. Google 



Athenians; but the commons, as soon as they 
bad got arms, would no longer obey their com- 
manders, but gathered in groups and ordered the 
sristocrats to bring out whatever food there was and 
distribute it to all ; otherwise, they said, they would 
come to terms with the Athenians independently and 
deliver up the city. XXVIII. Thereupon the men in 
authority, realizing that they could not prevent this 
and that they would be in peril if excluded from the 
capitulation, joined the commons in making an agree- 
ment with Paches and his army. The conditions 
were that the Athenian state should have the power 
to decide as they pleased about the fate of the My- 
tileneans and that the besieging army should be 
admitted into the city ; but it was conceded that 
the Mytilenaeans might send an embassy to Athens 
to treat for terras, Paches, meanwhile, until the return 
of the embassy, agreeing not to imprison or enslave 
or put to death any Mytilenaean. Such was the agree- 
ment But those of the Mytilenaeans who had been 
most involved in the intrigue with the Lacedae- 
monians were in great terror when the army entered 
the town, and could not keep quiet, but notwith- 
standing the agreement took retiige at the altars. 
Paches, however, induced them to leave the altars, 
promising to do them no injury, and placed tliem for 
safe keeping in Tenedos until the Athenians should 
reach a decision. He also sent triremes to Antissa 
and took possession of it, and made such other dis- 
positions with reference to the army as seemed best 

XXIX. Meanwhile the Peloponnesians in the 
forty ships, who ought to have arrived speedily at 
Mytilene, wasted time on their voyage round the 

45 

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THUCYDIDES 

Tpi-\^p Kol Kara top aXXov irXovv ff-)(oKaloi ko- 
fj-iaOivre"; tow? /xev ex t^5 TroXew? 'A^drivaiovq 
XavBdvoviTi., iTpXv Bri Tp AjjXp etrj^ov, Trpoir/iei- 
^avTe^ Sk air aiiT^ t§ 'ladp^ Koi MviVOf^ wv- 
2 BdvovTai irp&TOv ot( ^ MvTiXi^vij edXwKev. fiov- 
\6fi€voi Si TO ireKfth elSSvat KaTeirXeva-av i^ 
Efi^arov Ttfi Epvffpala^- rjpApai Be fidXiaTa 
■!)<Tav Tt} M^vTtX^i/r] eaXaiKvia eTna ore e? to 
'E/iffarop KaieirXevaav. -jrvdofievot Bk to <7a<j>e^ 
iffovXevoiTO ix tS>v Trapavraiv KaX eKe^ev avTot^ 
'YeinlairXo^ avi/p 'HXeto^ rdSe. 

XXX. " 'AXiciBa xal HeXoTovvfjat'tov ocroi trdp- 
eap^v a,p^ovTe<i Tij? <rTpaTiai, i/iol BoKet TrXeiP 
tifia<i itrl 'MvtiXijptjp Trpip eK-KvaTov; •yeviadai, 

2 &<niep e^opsv. tcaja yap to elxh^ avBpmp veaarl 
TToXiv ^;(;ovT(Dj' TToXv TO d^vXaiCTOv evprjiTOfiev, 
Kara /xeP 0dXa<rffav xal Trdpv, J iicetvoi Te apeX- 
TTHTTOt eTTiyipiaOat ap Tipa a<^ii7t iroXep.top ifoX 
fiplav rj aXicrj Tvyx"-^^*- p-dXtina. ovaa' elieo<; Be Ktti 
TO tre^op avToip kot olnia^ apeXioTepop mi xexpa- 

3 TiiKOTap BieffTrdpdai. el o^p Trpoa-Treaoip^P atfipw 
Te xal jiv«T09, iX-TTL^co /agto t&p spBov, €1 T(? dpa 
fipXv ea-TiP vwoXotTTOs evpovi;, icaraXri^$^pai &v 

i T^ TTpdy/taTa. Kal pr/ airoKp^awpev top xivZwov, 
vopiaavTei ovk dXXo rt ehai to kuipop tov 
woX^fiov ■!) TO TotovTov o et t« a-Tparriyof !p re 

46 

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BOOK III. XXIX. i-xxx. 4 

Peloponnesus and on the rest of the way proceeded 
leisurely. They were unobserved by the Athenian 
home fleet until they reached Delos ; but when after 
leaving Delos they touched at Icaros and Myeonos 
they received the first tidings that Mytilene had been 
taken. Wishing however to know the exact situation 
they sailed to Embatum in Erytliraea ; iind it was 
about seven days after the capture of Mytilene thai 
they came to Embatuni. Now that they had learned 
the truth, they took counsel in view of the present 
emergency, and Teutiaplus, an Elean, spoke to them 
as follows : 

XXX. "Alcidas, and you who, like myself, are 
present here as commanders of the Feloponnesian 
forces, it seems to me that we should sail to Mytilene 
before our approach becomes known, without a 
moment's delay. For in all probability we shall find 
that men who have but lately come into possession 
of a city are very much off their guard. At sea, 
indeed, they will be altogether so, where they have 
no expectation of any possible hostile attack and 
our rfile is chiefly to act on the defensive ; ^ and on 
land also their forces are probably scattered among 
the houses all the more carelessly because they be- 
lieve that they ate victors. If, then, we should fall 
upon them suddenly and at night, I believe that, 
in concert with our supporters inside, if any are left, 
we should find ourselves masters of the situation. 
And let us not shrink from the danger, remembering 
that the element of surprise in warfare is precisely 
of this nature.^ And if a general guards against 
such surprises in his own case, and, whenever he 
it here tliat our strenglli 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

avr^ <ftv\d<reTOiTo xal row ■7To\eixioi.<; evopStv 
iirix^ipoit}, wXeiar &v opffolro." 

XXXI. 'O fikv ToaavTa dvaip ovie eiteide tov 
'AKKiBav. aWoi Si rive^ rmv air 'Tcof I'a; <f>vydSriOU 
Kill ol Aiff^ioi oi^ fv^TrXeocres' trap'^vovv, eTreiSrf 
Tovrov TOV kCiiBvvov ^oBeirai, t&v iv 'Ituvla woX- 
etuv KardXa^ttv Tiva )) "K-vitriv ttjv AloKlBa, Sirwi 
iic TToXew? oppwfievoi Tt/v 'leoviav airouTi'jaaiijw 
(eKiriha S' elvai- ovBevl yap a./cov<noi^ a<f>i)(dat), 
Kol Trjv Ttpocrotov TavTi^v peylaTtjp ovrrav 
'Affjjvaiwv iv' v<f)£\a>ai ical apa, i^v ei^oppmat 
a<^iffiv, aiiroh Bawdvr] yiyvrjrar^ ireitreiv -re 
I oieaSai icaX Jiiaaovdviv Sxne ^vptroKepeiv. o 
hi Qvhk TavTa evehkyero, aSXa to irKeliTTQv TiJ? 
"yww/ijjs ^Xev, etteihi} Trji MuTtXijiii?? iiaTep-^Ket, 
oTi Ta)(t<yTa ry HeKo-n-ovvi^aip irdXtv Trpoap-el^ai. 

XXXIT. 'A.pa<; Zk ck toO 'E/i^ttroy wapiirKei, 
KOI trpoiriTj^fav Muoi'i'jjc-p rjj Tijiwii tovi alxi^i- 
XooTOW? 06? kmtA -nXovv el\-^tf>ei dirfuifja^e tow 

' dl before (untrXitrT*! added bj Madvig, followed by 
Hude. 

' xst -rti" rpiimiar . . . ^fyntroi. The first part of tbis 
vexed passage is in accord with the eBsentially unanimouB 
tradition of the MSS., except tliat Dobree'a conjecture, 1/ 
i^i\vvi, ia Bubstituted for iiv ifiKtiai, The second part 
(col iittt . . . yiyvTiTai) is in agreement with van Herwerden 
and Muller-Stmbing, Thuk. foricL, p. 97. after Codex M 
and a Schol. (t1 a^lirir sIitdTi o&x ^f" irayrwariay, iwi 
SiaipnUr, ical kotA ri irflaiv STOffTirrioy). Most MSS. have 
/iptpiiAiri ahrtis (or auToii) iniini aipliri yiyiniTai (B 7(71'(toi) ; 
U iipap/iiair abroii iripiii Emntni •yt-yi'iiTai. Dobree's conjec- 
ture (Im) not only gives a good construction for i^i\»iin— 
48 

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BOOK III. XXX. 4-xxxH. i 

sees an opportunity to employ them in the case of 
tlie enemy, makes the attempt, he will win the 
greatest success." 

XXXI. Thus he spoke, but could not win Alcidas 
to his plan. Then some others, exiles from Ionia, 
and the Lesbians ^ who were with the fleet, advised 
him, since he feared the risk of this enterprise, to 
seize one of the cities in Ionia, or Cyme in Aeoha, in 
order that they might have a city as their base and 
bring Ionia to revolt (and that there was a prospect 
of success, seeing that everyone welcomed his coming) 
and might thus steal from the Athenians this the 
greatest source of their revenue, and at the same 
time the Athenians might be put to expense, in case 
they should attempt to blockade their base. They 
thought, moreover, that they could persuade Pis- 
suthnes to join them in the war. Alcidas, however, 
would not accept these proposals, either, but his 
chief concern, now that he was too late for Mytiiene, 
was to get back to Peloponnesus as quickly as 
possible. 

XXXII. So he set sail from Embatum and skirted 
the coast; and putting in at Myomiesus in the 
country of the Teians he butchered most of the 
captives whom he had taken on the voyage. Then 

» The itpiaBtit of chs. iv., v, 

without altering the esaential meaning of the senteiice — but 
obviates the neceasity of making yi-yrirtm dependent on Svais, 
which is too far on and separated from it by too maoy 
subordinate clausos. If ^v a^i\vai be retained, with most 
editors, tlie sense would be; "and if they could steal 
from the Athenians this the greatest source of Ihair 
revenue, these might also at the same time, in case they 
should blockade them [the Peloponneaians], be pat to 
expense." 

49 



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THUCYDIDES 

i ■jToWovv. Koi es T^p "E^eo-oi' KoSopfuaapkuov 
avTQV %afiiwv rSsv i^ 'Avcumv a<f>iKo/ifvoi irpfir- 
ffeK eXeyop ov KaXw; t^v EXXaSa e\ev6epovv 
ainop, el avSpai Si4ij>6€ipev ovre ■)(€ipa'; avratpo- 
fiSvov^ ovre TroXe/xtouy, 'A0t}vala>v S^ inro aparfinj^ 
^ftpA')(pv<;- el re fii) iravaeTai, oKi'yov^ piv avTOV 
tS)v ijfOp&v e<t (j>tkiav Trpoffd^eo'dai, -rroXii Be 

S irXeiovt t&v <j>i\ti)v iroKepioui! Ifetf. koX q fiiv 
hreiadr} re xal Xloav AvSpa^ Saovt elx^^ ^* 
atfiTJKe Kal r&v &XKtav rivd^- 6pS>v7e<; yeip ri? 
vaiSs ol avdpOfiTOi ovk l(f>evyov, aXX^ irpoirej^^iopovv 
fioKXop (0? 'Attwow Kal iXiriSa ovSi rijv 
iKaxiarrip elxov /*»} vore 'Kdr^valtav t^? 
0a\dtTffij^ KparovvTeav vav<s YlekoTrawTjai.av i^ 
'Itoptap -rrapa^aXetv. 

XXXIII. 'Atto hk TT/s 'Eip^aov a AXxiSa; ewXe» 
KUT^ Ta^os Kal ipvyijv eiroielTO' &<^Q'ri yh,p viro t^s 
^oKapiviw Kol Ila^aXou en. trepX KXdpov opfimv 
(ai S' d-TT 'AOrfvotv ervj^ov ■rrXeova-ai), iiai BeSiM9 
TrjV hla^ip eiiXet Bt& tov ■JTeXdyovi ws yij eKovcriOi 

2 ov (TXV"^" ^Xij jj XleXoTTOWiJff^). tj) Bk lid^v^^ 
KoX T0(5 ' A.$r)vaioi<i ^Xde p.h> Ka\ atro t^s 
'RpvSpalat ayyeXCa, atf)iKvetTo Be Kal iravTaxoOev 
arei^l'^TOV fitp oCffjjs t^s Xeoviai p,iya to 8^09 

' These were probably the Samians who settled at Auaea, 
OD the coast opposite the igland, after the overthrow of 
Samoa in 439 b,c. (e/. i. cxvii. 3). They are referred to in 
ch. xix. 2m" Anaeitans." 



1;. Google 



BOOK III. xxxii. i-xxxiii. 1 

he anchored at Ephesus, ^rhere he was visited b^ 
envoys of the Samians who were settled at Anaea,^ 
who said that it was an ill way he had of freeing 
Hellas, to destroy men who were not lifting their 
hands against him and were not enemies, but were 
merely allies of the Athenians under compulsion ; 
and unless he abandoned this course he would win 
few enemies over into friendship and would turn 
far more friends into enemies. Alcidas was per- 
suaded, and set free all the Chians whom he still 
held and some of the others. It should be ex- 
plained that the people of the coast,^ when they 
saw the Peloponnesian ships, made no attempt to flee, 
but came near, supposing that they were Athenian 
ships ; and they had not the slightest expectation 
that while the Athenians dominated the sea the 
Peloponnesian fleet would ever venture over to Ionia. 

XXXIII. From Ephesus Alcidas sailed in haste 
and took to flight; for while still at anchor near 
Clams' he had been sighted by the Salaminia and 
Paralus,* which happened to be on a voyage from 
Athens, and in fear of pursuit he sailed through the 
open sea, determined that he would not, unless 
obliged to do so, put into land anywhere except in 
the Peloponnesus. Keports of him had been brought 
from Erythraea to Paches and the Athenians, and 
now kept coming from all quarters. For since Ionia 
was unfortified, a great alarm arose everywhere lest 

* i.e. the Greeks of whom Alcidas had taken bo many 



Alcidas knew that 
these two boats would notify the main Atheniao fleet under 
Pacbe« of his whereabonte, and that PacheB would make 
pnrBuit. 



.....C.DDgk 



THUCYDIDES 

iyevero fit} wapairXeovTet ol HeXowovp^ffioi, el 
leal &; /t^ ZievoovvTo /ieveip, ■jrapdSxxiv afta 
irpoatrtTnovTev ris iroXcts, avTdyjBkot S' aurov 
iiovaai ev t§ KXdpip ^ re HdpaXo^ xal ^ 

3 ^aXafuvia e<})paffap. 6 Bi tnro vTrovBij^ kTroteero 
T^v Sia^iv Kol fiSxpt piv ndrfiov t^s v^aov 
iweiim^ev, oi? 5' ovKeri iv KaraX'^^jrei e^aivero, 
i-7Tavej(atpu. KepBov Se ip6p,t<rev, iirethi} ov 
ft/erewpoK •jrepUTirx,ev, on ovSafiov iyKaraXij- 
<pSeti7ai ^vayKatrBriijav trTpaTo-jreZov re iroietirOat 
leal tpvXaicrjp a^lai koI e^6ppi)aiv -rrapaffyeiv, 

XXXIV. ^apattXkaiv hk iiaXiv eaye Koi es No- 
Tiov TO KoXo^ufioif, o& KaTUKTjVTo K.o\o<pcoi'toi 
T^! dvo) TToXeto? eaXoiKvia^ vtto 'Ira/idvov^ xal r&v 
ffapffdpmv Kara aTauiv IBia e-jraxdeVTOtv idXa 
Bk fidXia-Ta avTTj ot6 fj Sevrepa UeXoTroptnjalwv 

2 ia^oXi) «? rijv 'Ammijp eyiyveTo. iv olv rp 
NoTt§) ol Karatpvyoine^ koI KaroiK^aavre^ airodt 
a5^(9 araiTida-avTe^, ol fiiv -rraph Xitaaovdvov 
eiriKOvpov; 'Ap/cdB<av re xal twc ^apfidpiov 
firayar/ofievoi ev Btaretxlfp^Tt etX"" (*<*^ '^^'' 
ex T^i dvo) ■jToXeat'; KoXotficoviav ol p'qBia avre^ 
^vp€aeX06vT€'i i-jro'XiTevov), ol Bi vire^eXdomet 
rovTov<s Koi wres <f>vydS£v top Tld)(>]7a i-rrdyovTat. 



' i.e. aince they were only cruising. 

* Such a. blockade would nob ouly have been costly, but 
would also have kept Ibe fleet from carrying on its work at 



i;. Google 



BOOK in. XHXIII. 2_KKXIV. 2 

the Peloponnesians, while following the coast — even 
if, under the circumstances,^ they had nointentioil of 
remaining — might in passing fall upon their cities 
and plunder them. And finally the Paralus and the 
Salaminia brought the news that they had them- 
selves seen him at Clarus. So Paches eagerly under- 
took the pursuit ; and he followed him as far as the 
island of Patmos, but when it was clear that Alcidas 
could no longer be overtaken he turned back again. 
And since he had not come up with the Pelopon- 
nesian fleet in the open sea, he considered it a piece 
of good fortune that they had not been overtaken in 
some port and compelled to set up a camp there, 
thus giving the Athenian fleet the trouble of watch- 
ing and blockading them.' 

XXXIV. On the way back as he sailed along the 
coast he put in at Notium, the port of the Colopho- 
nians, where the Colophonians had settled when the 
upper town had been taken by Itamenes and the 
barbarians,^ who had been called in on account of 
party discord by one of the factions. And this place 
had been taken about the time when the second 
Peloponnesian invasion of Attica was made.* Now 
those who had fled for refuge to Notium and 
settled there again fell into sedition. One party 
called in mercenaries, both Arcadian and barbarian, 
whom they had obtained irom Pissuthnes, and kept 
them in a space walled olf from the rest of the city, 
and the Colophonians from the upper town who 
were in sympathy with the Persians joined them 
there and were admitted to citizenship ; the other 
party had secretly niade their escape, and, being 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

3 6 Be ■TrpoKaXeadfievo'i i<;\6yov<i 'X-mrlain&v ev r^ 
Bimeixta^fMiTi 'ApKaBcov dpxovra, aerre, ^f p-riBh> 
apeaxov Xiyr), irdXiv avrov xaraffTrjaeiv £9 to 
T€ixo'' <^^v Kal iryta, 6 fj£v i^rjXde trap' avrov, 
o S' eKthiov fJ.ev iv <f>v\aKf} dBetrfj.^ ^^X^^' '^^'''o? ^ 
■rrpoa^dKa>v rp retj^/ff/MiTi e^a-Kivairo'! Kal ov 
irpotrBexpfi^veov alpet, T01J9 re 'ApicdSai; Kal t&p 
ffap^dpcDV oaai iv^aav Bta^delpev Kal top 
'l-TTrCap varepov i(rayayii)v aarrep ea-rreitraro' 
iwet^i} evSop ^f, ^vWa/iffdvei xal KaraTo^euei. 

t K.o\o<l>a>vtoii Be Notioj' irapaBiBwai TrKi/p twii 
fifjBirrdvTWP. Kal vm^pov 'A$t}vaioi oiKia-Th^ 
ir4p.^avrev kutA, tov<; eavrmv vo/wu? Kar^Ktaav 
TO NoTtoi', ^vvayajopTe^ vdvra^ ix r&p iroKeaiv, 
et trav ti; ^v K.o\oip<iiviwp. 

XXXV. 'O 8e TIdxvf d^neo/xevo^ e5 t^c Mvti- 
Xijptfv TTjv Te Tlvppav Kal 'Epeaop irapeaTijaaTO, 
Kal ^dXaidov \a^Q>p ep t^ iroXei top AaKeSat- 
fiOPiop K£Kpvp.p.eyov aTroTrefnrei e? Tiis 'A8^pa<t 
Kal Toil? iic T^? Tei/eSov M.VTiKijpaCrap apSpai; d/ia 
o&; Karedero koI et tk oKKos avTi^ airtai iBoKci 

2 eipai T^ diro(ndiTefi>^' aTrovi/iTrei Bk Kal Tfjv 
aTpaTidf TO irKeop. td(? he XotTTOw virap-epav 
KoffiaTaTO rh irepl ttjp MvtiX^pijv Kai ti]v aXXtiP 
Aea^ov ^ avr^ eBoKei. 

XXXVI. ' AffitKOfiepap Be Tmv avBpS>p koX tov 
XaXalBov ol 'Adi}vaioi toi* p.ip %£Xai$op tiffvi 
dtriKTEivav, eartv S vap€x6p.evov Ta t dXXa Kal 
UTTO TlXaTat&P {eri ydp eTToXtopKOVPTo) awd^eiv 
54 



i;.Go<")gle 



BOOK III. Mxiv. 3-xxxvi. i 

now in exile, called in Faches. And he summoned 
Hippias, the commander of the Arcadians in the 
fortified quarter, to a conference, on condition that if 
his proposals were unsatisfactory he would restore 
him safe and sound to the fortress. But when 
Hippias came out to him, he kept him under guard 
but unfettered while he himself made a sudden and 
unexpected attack upon the fortress, captured it, and 
put to death all the Arcadians and barbarians that 
were in it. As for Hippias, he afterward took him 
into' the fortress just as he had agreed to do, and as 
soon as he was inside seized him and shot him down. 
He then delivered Notium to the Colophonians, 
excepting, however, the Persian sympathizers. The 
Athenians afterwards sent a commission and re- 
colonized Notium, giving it their own institutions, 
after they had first brought together all" the Colo- 
phonians from cities where any of them were to be 

XXXV, After returning to Mytilene Paches re- i; 
duced Pyrrha and Eresus, and having caught Salae- 
thus the Lacedaemonian in hiding in the town sent 
him off' to Athens, as also the Mytilenaean men whom 
he had placed for safe-keeping in Tenedos, and any 
others who seemed to hint-to blame for the revolt. 
He also sent back most of his army ; with the rest 
he remained, and proceeded to settle the affairs of 
Mytilene and of Lesbos in general as seemed best 

XXXVI. When Salaethus and the others arrived 
at Athens, the Athenians at once put Salaethus to 
death, although be offered among other things to 
induce the Peloponnesians to abandon Plataea, which 



55 

i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

2 n£X(»rovi^(r^if;- -ntpi hk rSni avBp&v yviifia^ 
iTToiovPTO, Kol inro opyjj^ eSo^ev avToK ov Toi>9 
irapovra^ Imovov airoKTetvai, aX\A Kal ro^ 
avavrai; MiTtXijiiatoi;? otrot fj^Stai, -rraiBa^ S^ 
Kol yvi'aiKa'; afSpa-rroSiaai, iiriKaXovvTe^ tiJc t€ 
aXXi}p . d-TTOffTaffiv on ovk apj^op.evoi uxrrrep ol 
aXXoi iiroiijtravTo, koX •npoa^vveXaftovro ovk 
eXo^to'Toi' T^s owt^S at TlekoTTOVvtio'iaiv vfje^ es 
'laviav iKelvoi<!/§OJ}ffol foX/j.^^rraa-af'Trapaieiv- 
BvpeOirar ov yhp a-rto ^pax^ia^ Siavoia^ iSoxovp 

3 T^i* dvoaraaii' iroi'qaatTSai,. irefiirovaiv oSv 
rpiTipTt m^ Ilti^Ta ayyeXov tS)v BeSoypevtov, kut^ 
rdxp^ iceXevopTet Siaj^p^aaaffat MuTtXjjwitous' 

4 Koi T^ iiarepaia fierdpotd Tt? eudij^ jjf avroii 
xal dpokoyia-po^wfiov to ^ovkevfia Kal ph^a 
iypSxfdat, ttoXm' oXijp Bia<f>0eipai fiSXXov fj oi 

6 TOv's alrlovi. w? S' ^aSopro tovto tSsv Mut(\ij- 
vaimv oi TTapowe^ wpiffffeti ical ol avroi^ t&v 
'Afftjvalwv ^vpirpdao'oi'Te'i, irapeaicevatyap roi>i 
if TfXei toare a.ZBi'; ypcopa^ wpoOelvaf KaX 
eTreiaav paov, Siort xal e/celpoit evSr/Xov ^v ffovXo- 
pepop TO ttX^ov twi' iroXnSiv avOLi Tivat a^latv 

6 diToBovpai ^av\evtra<r$at. KaTaaTaayyi B' ev0i><t 
iKxXijffla^ aXXat re yv&pai d<}>' ixderTtov eXi- 
yovTO Koi KX^ftH- KXeotceTow, Sa-7rep Kal rtju 
Tptyrepap ivepiici}ieet &vt6 d-jroKTelvai., S>v Kal i^ 
rd dXka j8(aiDTOTos r&v rtoXn&v rp re S^p^ 
56 



1;. Google 



BOOK III. xxxvi. r-6 

was still under siege ; as to the others they held a 
debate, and under the impulse of anger finally deter- 
mined to put to death, not only the Mytilenaeans w})o 
were there in Athens, but also all who were of adult 
age, and to enslave their women and children. The 
general charge which they brought against them was 
that they had made this revolt in spite of the fact that 
they were not held in subjection like the other allies ; 
and what contributed not least to their fury was that 
the Peloponnesian fleet had dared to venture over to 
Ionia to their support ; for from this they thought 
the revolt had been made after long deliberation. 
Accordingly they sent a trireme to Paches to an- 
nounce what had been determined upon, and bidding 
him to despatch the Mytilenaeans with all haste ; but 
on the very next day a feeling of repentance came 
oVer them and they began to reflect that the design 
which they had formed was cruel and monstrous, to 
destroy a whole city instead of merely those who 
were guilty. And when this became known to the 
Mytilenaean' envoys who were present and their 
Athenian supporters, they induced those in authority 
to bring the question before the people again ; and 
they found less difficulty in persuailing them because 
it was evident to them also that the greater part of 
the citizens wished that another opportunity should 
be given them to consider the matter. A meeting 
of the assembly was held immediately, at which 
various opinions were expressed by the several 
speakers. One of these was Cleon son of Cleaenetus, 
who had been successful in carrying the earlier 
motion to put the Mytilenaeans to death. He was 
not only the most violent of the citizens, but at that 
■ cj. oh. xxviiL 1. 

57 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

trap^ -TToXv hr t^ totc ■iri0ava>TaTO<i, irapeKB^v 
ahOit fKeye roidSe. 

XXXVII. " IloXXafci? fi€v ^S»; e'^io'fe «al SX- 
X0T6 eyv<av hr^ftoKpariav art ahvvaTov eariv 
eripav apj(eiv, fioXiiTTa B' iv tJ vvv vfteripa 

2 TTepl MvTiK'qpalai' ficrafieXeia. Sia ykp to jtaO' 
fip^pav aSeh xal avetTi^ovXeuTOv Trpo? aWjJXovs 

. ical e's Toil! ^vfifj.axovs._jo avro ej^CTe, «al Tt 
' fif ^ X07P ireiadevT&i v¥ auTpv apApTrire fl 
o(«T9> eVSwTe, ou« eVtKti'Si^i'w? r/yetade e? u/ia; 
Koi ou* e! T^v TWI" ^vfifid)((ov X'^P'-" /wXaKifeo-^ot, 
ov ffKoirovvre^ Sti TVpavviha e'yere ttjv dpj(,fp' 
Koi irph'i eiTi^ov\evovTa<i avrov'i icai axavra^ 
apxoftivovi, dl ^ ovk e^ &v &p ^a/)tf?;i7^c j9\a7r- 
ro/xepot aiirol aKpoSiinai vp,Siv, oKX' ef &v &p 
tff^i /iaWof ij TTj eKelvoiv evvoia tieptyeifjade. 

3 TravTtoi' Be BetvoraTov et fie^aiov ffjuv firjBeu 
Ka0€<rr^^€i ^v &p Sofj; "Tept, /iijS^ yvaxro/ieda on 
■Xelpoai vopOK aKivrirOK xpta/iivT] ttoKii xpeitro'tap 
eiTTu/^ icaXw expvaiv axvpoK, afia&ta re fierh 
ffmtppoffvvi)^ axjxXifiatTepop ^ SeftoTijs fier^ aKo- 
"Kaaia^, oX te ijiavKoTcpoi tS>v ay0paytro>v irpo^ 
Tovv ^weTwripovv eu? ^1 to ttX^oi* apxtvov 

4 otKOVffi rb.<t TToXet?. ot /lev yhp r&v re p6p.o>v 
iTOipa'Tcpoi ^ovKovrai ^alveffBai ratv re atel 
'XeyopivtDv h to koivop vepiyUfvttrOai-, m? eV 
cEXXot; fitt^oinp OVK &p BtiXdiravTei rijv yvat/iriv, 

' ot wantine in aU better MSS-i but adoptei] by Bekker, 
Kriiger, and Hude. 

58 

D,j™tci;. Google 



BOOK III. XXXVI. 6-xxxvii. 4 

time had by far the greatest influence with the 
people. He now came forward a second time and 
spoke as follows : 

XXXVII. "On manj other occasions in the past 
I have realized that a democracy is incompetent to 
govern others, but more than ever to-day, when I 
observe your change of heart concerning the My- 
tileoaeans. The fact is that, because your daily life 
is unaffected by fear and intrigue in your relations to 
each other,"- you have the same attitude towards 
your allies also, and you forget that whenever you 
are led into error by their representations or yield 
out of pity, your weaitness involves you in danger 
and does not win the gratitude of your allies. For 
you do not reflect that the empire you hold is a 
despotism^ imposed upon subjects who, for their 
part, do intrigue against you and submit to your rule 
against their will, who render obedience, not because 
of any kindnesses you may do them to your own 
hurt, but because of such superiority as you may have 
estabhshed by reason of your strength rather than of 
their goodwill. But quite the most alarming thing 
is, if nothing we have resolved upon shall be settled 
once for all, and if we shall refuse to recognize that 
a state which has inferior laws that are inviolable 
is stronger than one whose laws are good but with- 
out authority ; that ignorance combined with self- 
restraint is i pore ser viceable than cleverness combined 
with recklessness ; and that simpler people for the 
most part make better citizens than the more 
shrewd. The lAter always want to show that they 
are wiser than the laws, and to dominate all public 
discussions, as if there could never be weightier 
' <^. n, ixivii. 2. ' (/. n. briiL 2. 

59 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Kal ix Tov TOtovrov tA ttoXXA apaXkoviri, tA? 
woXew ol S' anivrovvreti rfj ef eavr&v ^vviirei 
afiaSeuTepoi fi,lv tS>v vofiwv d^iov<nv etvai, aSv- 
vaTonepoi, fie 7i>v ^ tov koXw etVoi'TO? fii/z/yfratrffai 

\cyov, KpiTal S^ orres a'TTO tov ttrov fidWov ^ 

i affaPiiTTal opdovvrai rb, ■n-\ei (i>. &s oBv ■)(pi} leal 
Tjfia<i iTOiovvra^ fxri Seivortjri Kal ^vviaeox; aywvi 
etraipofievov^ traph So^av rp vfierepip trX^Set 
wapatveiv. 

XXXVIII, "'Frfot /lev oiii a aino^ elfu TJj 
yvoj/ip Kal ffavfid^m /tev tS)v ttpoSevTOiv avBis 
irepl Mi/TtXijCfwoii' XiyetP ital j(p6vav ^tar pt8i iv 
4p,votf)advT<iiP, o iffTt Trpos r&v ■qSiicT)KOT(ap 
p£XKoii (6 yap TraSoiv t^ Spdaairri ■jdp.^vrepa 
TJ} opy^ erre^ipxiTat, ap,vvea6ai hh r^ iraffeai 
oil erfyvrarto Ksifievov avrlirs^moi' ^ pAXiara 
ri/v Tifioipiav \ap,^dva^), Bavfid^to Bi Kal Sctk 
emai 6 dvrepSiv koX d^mgtov a/rro^alveiv tA^ p.kv 
'iAvTiK-rjvalwv aSitcUfi ripiv wtf>e\lp.ovi ovaai, t^9 
8' ^fieripa^ ^vp^opa.!; rot"; ^vppAypi<i 0\d0av 

2 KaSifrrapiva^. Kal S^\ov art tj t^ Xeyeiv 
^wlffT€va^a•^ to travv Sokouv dvTaTroifirjvai wi ovk 
\eyvwffTatt dydpiaan' dii, ij xepBet iiraipopevoi to 
\evTrpevh tov Xoyov iKvovqaa<: ^irapdrfeiv Treipd- 

S (Terai. 17 he iro\(5 sk tSiv ToiavBe ayatveiv Tk 
fiev qffXa iTepoi<{ SiSaiaiV, ainri fiJ tous kivBvpovi; 

i dvat^kpei, ahtoi B' vp£K KaK&<t dyoivoderovvTK, 

' Til", added from Stobaens by Naber, followed bj Hude. 

' tr is deleted by Haase, followed by Hude, and 
generally. 

* \anfiirti, for i-fo^anOJ-'n of the MSS., Reiske, followed 
by Hude. 
60 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III, xxxvii. 4-xxxviii, 4 

qaestions on which to declare their opiDions, and as 
a consequence of such conduct they generally bring 
their states to ruin; the fonner, on the contrary, 
mistrusting their own insight, are content to be 
less enlightened than the laws and less competent 
than others to criticise the words of »n able speaker, 
but being impartial judges rather than interested 
contestants they generally prosper. Thus, then, we 
ought to act and not be so excited by eloquence and 
combat of wits as to advise the Athenian people 
contrary to our own judgment. 

XXXVIIl. "As for me, I have not changed my 
opinion, and I wonder at those who propose to 
debate again the question of the Mytilenaeans and 
thus interpose delay, which is in the interest of 
those who have done the wrong ; for thus the edge 
of the victim's wrath is dulle r when he proceeds 
against the offender, whereas the vengeance that 
follows upon the very heels of the outrage exacts a 
punishment that most nearly matches the offence. 
And I wonder, too, who will answer me and under- 
take to prove that the wrong-doings of the Myti- 
lenaeans are beneticial to us hut that our misfortunes 
prove injurious to our allies. Manifestly he must either 
have such confidence in his powers of speech as to 
undertake to show that what is universally accepted 
as true has not been established,' or else, incited 
by gain, will by an elalmrate display of specious 
oratory attempt to mislead you. But in contests of 
that kind the city bestows the prizes upon others, 
while she herself undergoes all the risks. And you 
are yourselves to blame, for your management or 

' Or, " ;our at>aoliit« reaolve haa reall; not boen adopted." 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

otrive^ elwBaTe Bearai fiiv r&» Xo^av yiyvtirffat, 
otcpoaTal Bh r&v ip^mv, -rh. /i.iv fiiWoina fpya. 
atro tS)v e^ dirommv aieoTrovvret &<! Bwari, 
,'• fiyviuBai, Tct Se vETTpayfieva ^Sij, oil to Spa&SgP 
TTtinoTepov S^ei^ Xa^ovrei ^ to aKOva&ev, a-rro 
B T&v Xo7p «o\u9 eirirt/j,7]a-dinti)V xal fierii Kaivo- 
TrfTO'i fikv X07DV wtraiaadat apurroi, fierei SeSoia- 
fiao'fievou Si u,i) ^vverretrSai. iffiXeiti, SoSXot ovtes 
T&v aUl aroTttav, VTrepainat hk tSiv ela>9oTwv, 

6 feat pAXiara fikv aiirot etVew iKooToi ^avKoitevot 
hivacrdai, el Si fij), aPrayavi^o/Aevoi tow roiavra 
Xerfovat ftif SaTfpoi aKoXovSfjffai Soksiv ry yv^ffi), 

,' ofsM? Si T( Xeyovroi! •n-poeTrcuviaat, xal wpo- 
aitrOesBsi Tfi irpoOvuot ^ rei Xeyop^va xal trpo- 
vo^aai 0paSei^ ra e'f avrav qj r offvaofteva , "' 

7 fjjToSvT^! re aXXo ti,i»5 elirelv, ij ev oh ^&/tep, 
(ftpovovvTe<; Si oiSi trepl tSip vapovrtov iKavm' 
d^Xw? re axo^^riSovg 'fiaatap.evoi Koi iroi^iffT&v 
Oearaii; eoneoTd Ka9i}p.evoi'i paXXov ^ irepl ttoXeiu; 
^ouXevofievofi. 

XXXIX. "'Hv iyoi Treipto/j£vo^ atroTpi'irtiv 
vfj-at diro<}>alvti>/M.VTiXi}Vaiov^ /laKitna S'T) piav 
2 ToXiv T}SiKt)K6Ta<t vpM<i. iyib yap, o'lrive'i /liv 
fj^j^vvarol ipipuv Trjv iifieiipav ap-^v ^ ot7iv€<i 
wo tS>v iToXefuoiv dvayKaademe^ direarrjaav, 
^vyyptitp/rjv e;^ei»^ jrijo-0(( S^ otnvei exovrev (jMrk 
reiySiv koX kolt^ ddXaairav pJtvov (fioSovfievoi 
TOW '^peripov^ TroXefitovj, ev m «al ai/rol rpi^piov 
irapao'Kev^ oiiK aatapicTot ^aav -rrpov aiirov^, 



C.Google 



BOOK III. XXXVIII. 4-xxxix. a 

these contests is wrong. It is your wont to be 
spectators of words and hearers of deeds, forming 
your judgment of fiiture enterprises according as 
able speakers represent them to be feasible, but as 
regards accomplished facts, not counting what has 
been done more credible, because you have seen 
it, than what you have heard, you are swayed in 
judgment by those who have made an eloquent 
invective. You are adepts not only at being de- 
ceived by novel proposals but also at refusing to 
follow approved advice, slaves as you are of each 
new paradox and scomers of what is familiar. Each 
of you wishes above all to be an orator himself, or, 
failing that, to vie with those dealers in paradox by 
seeming not to lag behind them in wit but to 
applaud a smart saying before it is out of the speaker's 
mouth ; you are as quick to forestall what is said 
as you are slow to foresee what will come of it. You 
seek, one might say, a world quite unlike that in 
^ which we live, but give too little heed to that which 
is at hand. In a word, you are in thrall to the 
pleasures of the ear and are more like men who sit 
as spectators at exhibitions of^sophists than men who 
take counsel for the welfare of the state. 

XXXIX, "And it is from these ways that I seek 
to turn you when I attempt to prove that Mytilene 
has done you more injury than any single state. I 
can make allowance for men who resorted to revolt 
because they were unable to bear your rule or 
because they were compelled by your enemies to do 
so ; but men who inhabited a fortilied island and had 
no fear of our enemies except by sea, and even there 
were not without the protection of a force of their 
own triremes, who moreover were independent and 



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THUCYDIDES 

avr6voft.ol re oiKovVTe^ xal Ttiitoftevoi if tA TTp&ra 
viro fjtL&v Totavra dpyaffavTO, rL SlWo oJiroi ^ 
iveffovXevaap re ical hraviarijaav ftaXKov ^ 
a-jria-Tija-av {arrotnaaiit t^ev ye t&p ^iaiov rt 
•traa-)(pvTwv eariv), efijTj^o-an re /leri r&v troXe- 
/iiaraTCDv fifia.'; a-rdpre^ hiatpffetpai; xairoi Seipo- 
Tepov etTTtp ^ el xaB' atnov<i Svpa/iiv KTii)p.evoi 

3 avTeTToXiji^a'ap. irapaBeiyfia Be avroU oiJTe tu 
T&e •rreXa'! ^vfufiapal iyevovro, oaoi aTTQ<naunes 
r}5»; rifj,Siv i^eipmOTj<rap, ovre ^ Trapovaa eiihai- 
fiovia ■rrapia-xfi' okvop /iij e'kOelv i'; tA Zetpd' 
yevofiepot Bi irpo^ to fiiWop Opaa-eit Kal ikm- 
ffavTft fiUKporepa /ihi t^; Bvvdfieaiq, iXatrata Be 
T^s jSoi/Xijo-ea)?, woKefMV ffpavTO, l<r)(pv d^iei- 
crawTes tou Sixatov TrpoOeipaf iv ^ yhp mij&t}' 
trap ■jrepieffeadai, eTredepjo -^fiip ovk aBiKovfievot, 

4 eXiaBe Bi Tftii' iroXeoiv als ap fidXia-ra d-n-poaBoicri- 
TD9^ Kal Si eKayioTOV einrpa^ia tkOrj, e? S0piv 

' 1 Tpeveip' ra Be voXXk Kar^ \6yop rots dvBpmTTOK 
evTv)(pvvTa da'(f>a\4<rTepa ^ trapii So^ap, Kal 
KaKOTrpayCavIwi el-jTeiv i paov avjadouirTai ^ evBai- ' 
' 5 p^piap Biaff^^prat, XRV" ^^ mvnXijvaiov^ jtal 
irdXui p.rjBiir-StatfiepovTru^ tmv oKXtav v^' 'fjp.Stv 
TeTtp,i)<rdai, teal oiiic d,p it roBe e^v^pi<rav tti^vKe 
yap Koi dXXaxi avdponrat rh_4ih> ffepawevov 
vttep^popeip, TO Sk p,i)-inreiKov 0avpA^etv. 
6 " ^oKaadivTtov Bi KaX vvv g^isit<; t^s aZiKtaT \- 
Koi fii) ToU P'iv oXiyoK ^ ahia irpoaTedij, top Bi 
64 



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BOOK III. xxxix. a-6 

were treated by us with tlie highest consideration, 
when these men have acted thus, what else is it but 
conspiracy and rebellion rather than revolt — for revolt 
is the work of those who suffer oppression — and a 
deliberate attempt by taking their stand on the side of 
our bitterest enemies to bring about our destruction ? 
And yet thb is assuredly a more heinous thing than 
if they had gone to war against us by themselves for 
the acquisition of power. The calamities of their 
neighbours who had already revolted from us and 
been subdued proved no warning to them ; nor did 
the good fortune which they enjoyed make them 
hesitate to take the perilous step ; on the contrary, 
becoming over-confident as to the future, and con- 
ceiving hopes which, though greater than their 
powers, were less than their ambition, they took up 
arms, presuming to put might before right ; for the 
moment they thought they shpuld prove superior 
they attacked us unprovoked. And indeed it is the 
lule, that such states as come to unexpected pros- 
perity most fiilly and most suddenly, do turn to 
insolence, whereas men generally find success 
less precarious when it comes in accordance with 
reasonable calculations than when it surpasses ex- 
pectation, and more easily, as it seems, they repel 
adversity than maintain prosperity. But the Myti- 
lenaeans from the first ought nevgj: to have been 
treated by us with any more consideration than our 
other allies, and then they would not have broken 
out into such insolence ; for it is human nature in 
any case to be contemptuous of those who pay court 
but to admire those who will not yield. 

" Let them be punished, therefore, even now, in a 
' befitting their crime, and do not put the 

65 



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THUCYDIDES 

S'^fiov airoKvOTjTe. irovre? yhp iifiiv ye 6/iol»^ 
iwiSevTO, oU y" ^f^»^ W ^/^1 rpaTrofiivoi.<;j vvv 
■naktv iv -ry iroXei eXvar aXXa tov fUra tS>v 
oKiyotv nivBuvov ^yijtrdfievoi ^e^iorepov Pvpair- 

7 eiTTtjtrai'. rmv re ^v/t,fidj(eov vxe^airOe Ut roiv 
re avayicavdetaiv iiiro tS>v iroKefuav cat rmi 
kKovffiv airoiTTai7t/Tai; aiira^ ^i}ftla'{ trpoad'^ffeTe, J 
riva.oXetTdt£vTtva ov 0pax^^<f'^pi>i>d-<iSi diroar^ 

*>- tnadai, Srav ij lett^opSmaavri ^ ^KevBipmtrii; ^ ^ 

8 fftfiakivTi yui^Sei; va Beiv^ av^K earov; ^pXv SfTrpo^ 
eKaffTtjv TToKiy li'jroKeKipSuveuffe'Ta.'i^ii re j(p^/j.ara 
Kcu at -^vj^ai' koX rvj^ovre^ fiev iroXiw i<f>8ap- 
fihn)v irapaKa^ovre^ rip eiretra ^ rvpoffihov, dt 
^v taxvofixv, ro Xoitrov arep^aeaSt, at^Xivre^ 
a -TToXefilovi Trpov Toi? vtrdpxovaiv l^o/iep, Koi 
S f ypovo v Tots PVP KaBearT/Koai B^ft ij(_8pol^ dv- 
0iaTMrSat, rotf otKeioK ^vp.fidj^oi^ Trd\efi.^ffop€v. 

XL. " Ovitovv Set rrpoBelvai* eK-rlSa ovre Xoyp 
VKTrijp oiire •)(p'qiiaATiv wi'IJT^c, mt ^yyvwfi/rjv 
dfiaprelv av6pa>triva<i X^y^ovrai. Srcovres pip 
yap oiiK e^Xayfrav, elSore^ S« iire^ovXevtrav ^vy- 
2 yvea/MV 5' ia-rl ro ^Kovawv, eyia ftiv oiv Koi 
rare irpStrov kcu. vvv Siafidy(pfiai p-i} fierajyvMyai 
vfiM^ rd vpoSeSoyjjAva, /itiSi rpial/rot^ d^vp.-'f' 
ipopardron jr^ dp^{j,ioiKTg> koI ■^Sovp Xoyrov Koi 

' hirra. Hade adopts inmlai, van Herwerden lutd H. 
Weil hTthv. 

' ifohrni, Huda retains wftrSiit-ai, with BC. 



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BOOK III. xxxix. 6^XL. 2 

Uame upon the aristocrats and exonerate the oommon 
people. For they all alike attacked you, even 
the commons, who, if they had taken our side, 
might now have been reinstated in their city ; bat 
they thought there was less risk in sharing the 
dangers of the ohgarchs, and so joined them in the 
revolt. Consider, moreover, your allies ; if you in- 
flict upon those who wilfully revolt no greater 
punishment than upon those who revolt under com- 
pulsion from our fobs, which of them, think you, will 
not revolt on a slight [iretext, when the alternatives 
MC liberty if he succeeds or a fate not irreparable if 
he fails? We, on the other hand, shall have to risk 
our money and our lives against each separate state, 
and when we succeed we shall recover a ruined state 
and be deprived for the future of its revenue, the 
source of our strength, whereas if we fail we shall 
be adding fresh enemies to those we have already, 
and when we should be resisting our present foes we 
shall be fighting our own allies. 

XL. " We must not, therefore, hold out to them 
any hope, either to be secured by eloquenoe or 
purchased by money, that they will be excused 
on the plea that their error was human. For 
their act was no unintentional injury hut a de- 
liberate plot ; and it is that which is unintentional 
which is excue^le. Therefore, 1 still protest, as 
I have from the first,* that you should not re- 
verse your former decision or be led into error by 
pity, delight in eloquence, or clemency, the three 

* Referring to what happened in the assembly of the day 
befont. ID wbicb, however, he had urged the ftctiou that was 
taken ; its reconHideration was not urged till the present 
meeting. 



.....C.DDgk 



s THUCYDIDES 

3 iiTteiKela, afiaprdvetv. ekeoi re yip irpo^ Toi)^ 
6/iMov^ 8t«aiof avTiSCBo9-dai tea* /li) jrpo9 tov<i 

OUT aVTkilKTMVVTa^jf^ avdrfin}^ T« (C flffeiTTMTqy 

a*« iToXe/uovi- ot re TipTTOvre^ X6y^ ^jjropes ^ 
'^ovai'^Kai ev oXXoi? ekdaa-baiv if^Civa, Kol ft^ 
I ih ff fiev iToXi^ 0paj(la tjadeiira/fieydKa fij/ttw- 
eroj , avTol Si eic rov €v elvelv to iraBeZv eS 
avrtXij^fTai- xaX r) iirieiKeia -Trpm tou; peX' 
Xourat hrtT7}&eiov<i leal to \onrov eaeaStu, txaWo v 
SlSoTa l' ^ TT/jos Tou! ofioia^ Ire Kal ovSev tjuirov 

. iroXefuovvjvTroXenrofUvov';. 

1 " "El* Ts ^uveXaiv Xe'-yoc TriBofievoi fiev e/tol 
ra re SiKaia e's Mut 1X171*010 us icat ra ^ufi^opa 
a/ia TTOf^aeTe, aXXo>? Be yvavre^ roK fiev ov 
yapielffOe, hfias hi airoiii /idWov Si/catataeaBe. 
et y&p oirroi opdas atrearriaav, v/tei^ Av ov 
j(pei>v ap-xpire. el he hrj/ital ov ■jrpoiT'iJKoi/S/uai 
a^toOre roOro hpav, irapi to ei^eos rot koI rova-Se 
^v/i^opoii Set KoXd^eadai, ^ irave<T$at tj}? apx^j^ 

6 ical ix rov dxivBuvov avBp<vya^i^adai. rp re 
aiiTy ^"Opia d^iiotrare ap-iivaadai Kal p,7} a.va\r/tf- 
rorepoi oi Bta(f>vy6vrev r&v hrt^ovK^wdmtav 
<f>ap!}vai, evdvp.'q0evre<; &. eUoi ^v avrovt ■jrot^vat 
KpaTQaavrat vp.&p, aXkia^ re xai ■Kpovirdp^avrat 
' tf,T»pts, deleted b; Naber, fallowed by Hnde. 



BOOK III. XL. i-s 

iafluences most prejudicial to a ruling state. For 
compassion may rightly be bestowed upon those who 
are likewise compassionate and not ujjon those who 
will show no pity in return but of necessity are 
always enemies. As to the orators who charm by 
their eloquence, they will have other opportunities 
of display in matters of less importance, and not 
where the city for a brief pleasure will pay a heavy 
penalty while they themselves get a fine fee for 
their fine speaking. And cleme ncy w ould better be 
reserved for those who willaiterwards be faithful 
allies than be shown to those who remain just what 
they were before and no whit the less our enemies, 

" I can sum up what 1 have to say in a word. If 
you take my advice, you will do not only what is just 
to the Mytilenaeans but also at the same time what 
is expedient for us ; but if you decide otherwise, you 
will not win their gratitude but will rather bring a 
just condemnation upon yourselves ; for if these 
people had a right to secede, it would follow that 
jou are wrong in exercising dominion. But if, right 
or wrong, you are still resolved to maintain it, then 
you must punish these people in defiance of equity as 
your interests require ; or else you must give up your 
empire and in discreet safety practise the fine virtues 
you preach.i Resolve also to punish theni with the 
same penalty that has already been voted,^ and that 
those who have escaped the plot shall not appear to 
have less feeling than those who framed it, bearing in 
mind what they would probably have done to you 
had they won the victory, especially since they 

' For the thought, r/ ii. luiii. 2, 

^ )Jo Steup explains. Most editors explain, " wilh tbe 
ume penaHj they would bava inflicted," following the schol. 
f ir hiiiufirniiTa nal alrrtl i/iat, iripfftviiiiyoi S/t&r, 

69 



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THUCYDIDES 



r€^epx>"'Tai /cai StokXyv ai,^ riv 
KivSwop vtfuipto/tepot rov viroKei-Troti.evov ey^dpov' 
6 yi^p p.T) fill' avayKij rt TraBiitv ■)(aXe'K<iOTfpo^ 
hia(f>vymv tov airo t^s (Vjj? i^ffpov, 

7 " M^ oJhi TTpoiorai yivrja-ffe v/j-wv ainStv, yevo- 
fievoi £* 5t( iyyvrara T§ yvaifirj tov Trao^etc Kol 
w! irpo TravT o; &,v eTiff^craaffe avrov^ x*V*"^ 
caudal^ yp" avTa-nohoTe p.r] fiaXaKta-OifTei irpoi ^^ 
TO irapop/avrUa p.t)Be tov liritcgepa^ivTot; Trore 

8 Stipov aJtv^yiiiioOtTe?, woXtitr ore Se afi'm; tou- 
Tove re «ai to(? aXXo(9 ^vp-p^xoit -irapaSfiypM 
criK^j? iKaTotrTiJiraTe, o; Sv d^itrrr^Tai, 0avdr^ 
^JIpueoiTOfiet'av. ToSe yitp t}v yiwaiv, ^<r<ro» T&v 
iroXepluv Sp/eK-rjiravrei tois vp.eTipoi'i avT&O 
fiaj(^ei<7Se ^vp./mxoK." 

XLI. TotoSra /t^f d KXifop eiTrev. p-sTo, S* 
auT^f AtdSoTo? o EvtcpaTovi, Sfftrep koI ep tJ 
wporip^ eKicXijala apriXeye pAXitrra p.j} a-rro- 
KTeivat ^vTtKqvaLovi, -rrapekBiitv Koi rare e\ey€ 
ToidSe. ^ 

XLII. "Ovre tov? vpoSevrav tV ^iayva>p,T)v 
avBi^ vepX ^VTiKtivcdmv attt&pai ovre tou; p^fi- 
tfiapAvovi p.rf iroXKaKK Trepi Tmv p,eyiiTTav ySou- 
XfveaBai i-n-aivw, vop,C^a} Sk Svo Tci ecavTWTara 
ev^ovXia tlvai, rd'j^o^ te koI opy^v, &v to piv 
fKTft avoiat ^iXei ylypetrOat, to Se /wtA airat- 
2 S€Vffia<i «ai ^paxvTtjro!; yviiapi^. TOv<i re Xoyom 
5<rT(9 5m/ia;^€Ta( /i'^ StBaaxaXov^ Ttov irpayp^- 

, followed by Hude and 



c. Google 



BOOK III. XL. s*xi.ii. a 

were the oggreaaors. Indeed it is generally those 
who wrong another without cause that follow him up 
to destroy him utterly, perceiving the danger that 
threatens from an enemy who is left alive ; for one 
who has been needlessly injured is more dangerous 
if he escape than an avowed enemy who expects to 
give and t^ke. 

"Do not, then, be traitors to your own cause, hut 
recalling as nearly as possible how you felt when 
tbey made you suffer and how you would then have 
gtvep y i^i^hing to crush them, now pay them back. 
Do not become tender-hearted at the sight of their 

E resent distress, nor unmindful of the danger that so 
itely hung ov er you, hut chastise them as they 
deserve, and give to your other allies plain warning 
that whoever revolts shall be punished with death. 
For if they realise this, the less will you have to neg- 
lect your enemies and light against your own allies." 
XLI. Such was Cleon's speech. Afler him Dio- 
dotus son of Eucrates, who in the earUer meeting 
bad been the principal speaker against putting the 
Mytilenaeans to death, came forward now also and 
spoke as follows : 

XLII. "I have no fault to find with thoee who 
have proposed a reconsideration of the question of 
the Mytilenaeans, nor do 1 commend those who 
object to repeated deliberation on matters of the 
greatest moment ; on the contrary, I believe the two 
things most opposed to good counsel are haste and 
passion, of which the one is wont to keep company 
with folly, the other with an undisciplined and 
shallow mind. As for words, whoever co ntend s' that 
they are not to be guides of our actions is either dull 
' Directed at Cleon's remarks, ch. xxiviii. 4 ff. 

71 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Twi" '^i,yp€<r$ai, ^ a^wero^ einiv ^ ihla t( awrp 
Sia^€£ei- a^vveroi: /i.ev, el aXKru rivl ^yeirav \^., 
■nepX Tov lifWomoi^vvarop etvat/xal /j-ij ifi- 
}->- ^avovi/^pdirai, SiaAepei S' avrm, el ffovXofiepa^ 
T( alrjT^pov ireitrai /eti fikp elTretv wfc Av riyetTat 
■nepi "TOV fit} koXov Bueaadai, cS Be Staffakav 
eKirXfj^at av tovs tc avTepovvrati Koi tow? okov- 
f 3 \aop,evov<;. y^aX^-rronaToi he koX oi/eirt XP'^I""^^ 
■rrpoKaTTjyopovvTeii-^TriSet^iv riva. el p.iv yap 
apxiSlav leaTrjTiSivTO, o p,i} •neiaa'; a^vvertorepo^ 
&v Sofa-j eli/ai i) aBiKti>Tepo<i anex^aipei' aSiKiav 
S" i-TTi'pepop.ivri^ •jreiaa^ re vwoirTot ylyverai xal 

4 p,!) Tv^a}v /a«tA a^vveaia^ Kal aBiico^. ^ re 
TToXt? ouK ai^eXeirai ev tjU Toi^Be- <f>offqt yitp 
a-iroaTepelrai -rmv ^vp^fiovXeov. koX wXeiffr &p 
opBoiTO ^vvaTov^ Xiyeiv e^ovira TOvv roiovrovv 
tS>v ■noKnav e\.a/)(iiT-Ta yhp av Tr€isSM T]ff -aif^ 

5 ap-aprdveiP. xph ^^ "^^^ ^^*' ayaSov wqKlttjv p-tj 
ex(f>ofiovvTa tov^ avrepovvra'i, aKK atrb tov laov 
tf)aiveiT0ai apsivov \eyopra, rrjv Sk trmippova troKiv 
Tp Tc TrXeiffTW ev ^ovKevovri, pr/ itpofTTiBevai 
rip^v, aX\& pi)S' eXaiTcrovv t^s virap')(ovtri}^, koI 
TOP p,r} rvxoPTa yvmpi)^ ov^ ottw? ^ijpiovv, dWit 

6 /i»j8' drip-d^eiv. ovtoj y^p 6 re leaTopS&p ^Kiara 
Ap iirl Tip eri pei.^ovaiv d^iayadai iraph^ yvtiipifv 

' -KneefiTiaav, Hmle adopts Madyig's conjecture utiaMii 
(vtaiiBinirtiy. 
72 



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BOOK III. xLii. 2-6 

of wit or has some private interest at stake — dull, 
if he thinks it possible by any other means to throw 
light on that which still Itelongs to the dim and 
distant future ; self-interested, if, wishing to pat 
through a discreditable measure, he realizes that 
while he cannot speak well in a bad cause, he 
can at least .ilandrr wrll and thus intimidate both 
his opponents and his hearers. Most^dangerous of 
^all, however, are precisely those who^' charge a 
speaker beforehand with being bribed to make a 
display of rhetoric. For if they merely imputed 
ignorance, the speaker who failed to carry his 
audience might go his way with the repute of being 
dull but not dishonest ; wlien, however, the charge 
is dishonesty, the speaker who succeeds becomes an 
object of suspicion, whereas if he fails he is regarded 
as not only dull but dishonest as well. And all 
this is a detriment to the state, which is thus robbed 
of its counsellors through fear. Indeed it would 
prosper most if its citizens of this stamp had no 
eloquence at all, for then the people would be least 
likely to blunder through their influence. But the 
good citizen ought to show himself a better speaker, 
not by trying to browbeat those who will oppose 
him, but by fair argument ; and while the wise city 
should not indeed confer fresh honours upon the 
man whose advice is most often salutary, it certainly 
should not detract from those which he already has, 
and as for him whose suggestion does not meet with 
approval, so far from punishing him, it should not 
even treat him with disrespect. For then it would 
be least likely that a successful speaker, with a view 
to being counted worthy of still greater honours, 
' Like Cleoii, ch. sxxviii. 2 ; xl. 1, 3. 

73 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

T( ical TTph^ X'*P"' ^^01, 6 re fiij ivirvx*>v ope- 
yoiro Tp ain&, x'^pi'^Ofievov Tt koI aiirov, irpoffa- 
yCffOat TO irX^8o<i. 

XLIII. 'fli" ^/iCK Tavavtia hp&fiev, Koi irpOT- 
ert, ^1" Tts Kal imovreirr)rat icepBov^ fiev Svexa, 
tA ^eXruTTa Bi oftoK Xiyeiv, ^ovijtravTei t^S 
ov fffffaiov SoKi}<T€(D'i /tmv xepBaur Ttfv ijiauep^p 

2 axfieXiav T^t ttoXeci); a^aipovpxda. KaOeaTtjxe 
Bi rayaOh a-n-o tou ev8eoi Xeyofteva ftTjBep avv- 
iroTTToTepa elvai rav Kaxav, Stare Sew 6/iola>i 
TOP re T^ Setporara 0ov\6fiepop ireicai/aTrdT^ 
trpeKTarj&rSai to tXjj^d^ KaXjrov ra afieCpoj XS- 

3 yopra i^evirdiievop ttkttov yepeaBat. ftopr/v re 
woXip Sti ri? ■rreptvota'i e5 voiijaai ix tov trpo- 
^avovt /li] i^atraTtjaavTa iBvparov 6 y&p SiSou? 
tfiavepA^ Tt ayadop apOvrtOTtreverai d<papw ttji^ 

i irXeop efeti*. XP^ ^^ tt/jos tA fiiyiffra icai ep t^ 
roi^Be a^tovp Tt ' ^/iav irepaiTepto Trpopoovvra^ 
X&yeiVf vfiav rap Bt oXiyov a/tovovPTtop, aXXav 
re ical v-rrevBvvop Tf/p nrapaiveaip e^oj^a? trp<K 

5 dvevdvpop T^if vfierepap aiepaaatp. et yhp 5 re 
Treiffo? KoX 6 iTrKTwofiePO^ ofiolax; ifiXdirropro, 
ffOi^paveiTTepov &,p eKpiWre- pup Be irpoi opyifp 



C.Google 



BOOK III. xur. 6-XLiiL. j 

would speak insincerely and for the purpose of 
winning favour and that the unsuccessful speaker 
would empluy the same means, by courting favour 
in his tnm in an effort to win the multitude to 
faimtelf. 

XLIII.' But we pursue the opposite course, and, 
moreover, if a mac be even suspected of corrup- 
tion, albeit he give the best counsel, we conceive 
a gnidf^e against him because of the dubious sar- 
mise that he is corrupt and thus deprive tJie state 
of an indubitable advantage. And it has come to 
such a pass that good advice frankly ^ ven is re- 
garded with just as much suspicion as the bad, 
and that, in consequence, a speaker who wants to 
carry the most dangerous measures must resort to 
deceit in order to win the people to his views, pre- 
cisely as the man whose projiosals are good must lie in 
order to be believed. And because of this excessive 
cleverness Athens is the only state where a man 
cannot do a good service to his country openly and 
without deceiving it ; for whenever he openly offers 
\. you something good you requite him by suspecting 
that in some way he will secretly profit by it. Yet even 
so, in view of the very great interests at stake, and 
in so grave a matter, we who advise must regard it 
as our duty to look somewhat further ahead than 
you who give matters only a brief consideration, 
especially since we are responsible advisers,^ while you 
are irresponsible listenSsT^indeed, if not only those 
who gave advice but also those who followed it had to 
suffer alike, you would show greater prudence in 
your decisions ; but as it is, whenever you meet with 

' It was open U> any Athenian citizen to impeach any la* 
or decree, aa contrary to aome existing law or 3s unjust or 
inezpedient, by a proceeding colled Ypof'^ naparifiur. 



THUCYDIDES 

ijvTiv' &v TvyftfTe eartv ore tr^aXhirev rr}p tow 
ireCo'avTov fiiav yvtofitjv ftj/ttouTe Kal oil T^s 
vfitripa<i avTiov, at •KoKKaX antral ^vve^ijfiapTOv. 

XLTV. " 'E701 S^ TrapfiXdov ovre avrepmv rrefA 
MvTiKtfvaCatv otSre icarrjyop'^^atap. ov yip vepl 
T^S iKeCvfov dSiKia^ rjfiiv o ayiov, el ffaxfipovovtiev, 

2 dXXd ■nepl t^s ■^/KTepa^ eiiffouXlai. ^w re yip 
avotji^va irdw atiKovvra^ avTOW, oil Ziit tovto 
Kol a-noicretvai xfKevaro, el fiij ^vfi^epov, rjv re 
Kol e^ovrdv ti ^vyyvaifii}^, eav} et Tg iroKei /17 

3 dya&ov ifyalvoiro, vo/u^ai Se wepl tou /mXXoito? 
tffi&'! fiSXXov fiotiXeveaSai fj rov wapovTo^. /col 
TOVTO h ftdXtara KXimv Iffji^vpi^eTai, e? to \oiirov 
^vfiiftipop eaeirSai Trpos to fjvtrov aipla-TaaOai 
ddvaTOv ^T}fuav irpoSeiai, Koi auro? vtpl tow e? 
TO fieXKop KaX(i><i ej^ovTov dvTiayypi^onevoi; ra- 

4 vainia yiyvaxTKa, xal ovk d^iA iiftd^ t^ ei~ 
wpewei Tov iKeivov \oyov to j^ptjiriftov tov iftav 
dirmtTairBai. BiKatorepoi yip &p ainov 6 X070? 
wpw T^n vvv vfitripav Qpyijv e's MvTtXi^catoii! 
Tax ^^ e-rTKTwdffatTO' ^/lets &e ov hiKa^op^Ba irpo^ 
aiiTom, mirrt rStv hiKaitov Belv, dWd QovKevo- 
fiieda irepl avrmv, Sttw? xprfffip^o^ e^ovaip, 

XLV. " El* oSif Tats TToXeat iroXXSip ffavaTOV 
^r)/uat -TTpoKeimai Koi ovk lawv r^Se, wXX' 
iKatxiToviav aftap-njfidrav Sfitot Si t^ iXwiBi 

' iir, Lindau's conjectura for tUr of the MSS. 
76 

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BOOK HI. xLiii. 5-xLv. 1 

: you give waj to your first impulse and 
punish yonr adviser for his single error of judgment 
instead of yourselves, the multitude who shared in 
the error, 

XLIV. "But I have come forward neither as an 
advocate of the Mytilenaeans in opposition to Cleon 
Dor as their accuser. For the question for us to 
consider, if we are sensible, is not what wrong they 
have done, but what is the wise course for us. For 
no matter how guilty I show them to be, I shall not 
on that account bid you to put them to death, 
unless it is to our advantage ; and if I show that they 
have some claim for forgiveness, I shall not on that 
account advise you to spare their lives, if this should 
prove clearly not to be for the good of the state. In 
my opinion we are deliberating alxiut the future 
rather than the present And as for the point 
which Cleon especially maintains, that it will be to 
our future advantage to inflict the penalty of death, 
to the end that revolts may be less frequent, I also 
in the interest of our future prosperity emphatically 
maintain the contrary. And I beg you not to be led 
by the speciousness of his argument to reject the 
practical advantages in mine. For embittered as you 
are toward the Mytilenaeans, you may perhaps be 
attracted by his argument, based as it is on the more 
legal aspects of the case ; we are, however, not 
engaged in a law-suit with them, so as to be con- 
cerned about the question of right and wrong; but 
we are deliberating about them, to determine what 
policy will make them usefiil to us. 

XLV. " Now the death-penalty has been pre- 
scribed in various states for many offences which are 
not so serious as this is, nay, for minor ones ; but 

77 



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THUCYDIDES 

inatpo/ievot Kivhvvevovai, koX oiiSeU tiw Kara- 
7OT>u5 eavToG fit} wepUataBat t^ 4irt0ov\evfUiTi 

2 ^Xfftv ii TO Betvov. froXtf re a^Lffranevt) rls ttw 
^(Toiii Tp BoK'^ati exovffa rT}v -rrapaffKev^v, f) 
oiKeiav i) aXKinv ^vfifiaxiifi Toury eVeYttpijffe; 

3 Tte^vKaai re airavrt^ KaX t'St'o icaX 67}fj,oaia 
dfiaprdpetv, icaX ovk mtl vofia^ otnts a-reip^et 
TOVTov, iirel Sie^eKrjXvdaal ye Bta vaaSiv tS>v 
^r)fU&v ol avdpavoi irpoaTidevret} el Ttat<i ^aaov 
iZiKoivTO VTTO Tuv Kaicovpyav. koi eucim ri 
•jToKai T&v p.tyiffrmv aBtKTjfiaTwv /taXofCwripav 
KeurOai avTw, trapaffaii'OfUj'wp Sk t^ ypovtp i^ 
TOP ffdvaTov ai vo\Xal dj/^KOttaiif Kai Tovra ' 

4 ofito^ "Trapa^aiverai. ^ roivvv BeivoTepov rt 
rovrov heos evpeTeov i<rT\v ^ ToSe y€ oii&iv 
ivitrvei, ak\' rj piv vevia avdyKi) ri/v ToKptLV 
•trapexovaa, i) 8' i^ovcia S^pei ttjv TrKeove^iav 
Koi tftpov^ftaTi, ai 5' SXKai ^vvTvylai c-py^ * TWC 
av$pa>trwi', 0)9 eKarnri tk KaTey^e-rat hit' dvr)- 

KiuTQV TLVO'; Kp€ifflTOVO<l, i^dyOVfflV eS TOVi 

6 Kivhvvovi. r) T6 cXttw itaX o epa><i i-nX TrocTt, o 
fUir ijyovfuvov, ^ S' e^eitopAvri, xaX 6 piv T^r 
eTTtySovX^c (Ki^povTi^aiv, r/ Se tijv eviropiav t^s 
TvxVi iiTTOTtOeiffa -TrXelaTa ^\d-7novai, Koi Svra 

6 atpavri Kpeiaao} effri tww opwpevav SttwoK. . Ktu 
-^ Tii^^i) eir' aiiToi^ ovBev eKaaaav ^vp,^a)tXeTai . 
it rit iTratpeiv aSo^ijTws yip eOTiv ore x«pt- / 
inafiipj} KuX ex tS>v vvoBeetrriptov KivSvveveiv rivA 

' aeHTTiMi^t J MSB., Kriigei rpaTieirrts, foUowed by Hude. 
" Hude'B correction. Or, readina cal touto with tbe MSS., 
"and still even this ii dieregardeiL" 

' JpT^ MSS., Stahl iM'< followed by Hade. 



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BOOK III. XLv. 1-6 

nevertheless men are so inspired by hope ss to take 
the risk ; indeed, no one ever yet has entered upon a 
perilous enterprise with the conviction that his plot 
was condemned to failure. And as to states, what 
one that was meditating revolt ever took the de- 
cisive step in the belief that the resources at hand, 
whether its own or contributed by its allies, were 
inadequate for success? All men are by nature 
prone to err, both in private and in public life, and 
there is no law which will prevent them ; in fact, 
mankind has run the whole gamut of penalties, 
making them more and more severe, in the hope 
that the transgressions of evil-doers might be abated. 
It is probable that in ancient times the penalties 
prescribed for the greatest offences were relatively 
mild, but as transgressions still occurred, in course of 
time the penalty was seldom Tess than death. But 
even so there is still transgression. Either, then, 
some terror more dreadful than death must be 
discovered, or we must own that death at least is no 
prevention. Nay, men are lured into hazardous 
enterprises by the constraint of poverty, which 
makes them bold, by the insolence and pride of 
affluence, which makes them greedy, and by the 
various passions engendered in the other conditions 
of human life as these are severally mastered by 
some mighty and irresistible impulse. Then, too, 
Hope and Desire are everywhere; Desire leads, Hope 
attends ; Desire contrives the plan, Hope suggests 
the facility of fortune ; the two passions are most 
baneful, and being unseen phantoms prevail over 
seen dangers. Besides these, fortune contributes in 
no less degree to urge men on ; for she sometimes 
presents herself unexpectedly and thus tempts men 

19 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

irpodyei Kal oux ^ffffov ri? TroXeii;, oacp trepl tS>» 
fieylartov re, eXevdepia^ ^ aWon' apxi]^, tai fiera " 
-rravrav Ixaaro^ aXoyiarav i-jri irXeov ri auTov 
7 iho^aaev. oTrXS? re ahwa-rov koI iroKK.^'i eiirj- 
0eia<i, o<ni<i oUrai, t^? apBpaiireiaj ^vaeiai 
opiiimfievi}<; -rrpodv/iwi T( irpa^ai, airoTpoirtpi rtva 

XLVI. " OvKovv j^pri our€ toO davarov ry 
^ijfii^ <i>? ^X^y^^ •Kia-reviTavTa'; x^Zpav ffovXev- 
oaaSat, owre airiXTTiarov KaTainijaai Tot? o-tto- 
ffTaa-w fti5 ovic earai fierayvwvai leai art ev 

2 0paj(yTdr<p rrfv ap^prlav KaToKvirai. a/ce-^utrffe 
yip OTt viiv fi€v, tJi" t(9 Koi airoaTaffa iroXti yv^ 
firj tt^ptevop.ev'ri, eXffot &v if ^vp,^aaiv Buvari} 
oZaa eri t^j" SaTrdmjv dirohot/vai koI tA \oiwbv 
viTQTeKelv eKeivm^ hk rtpa oie(T$e ^tniva ovk 
ap^tvov fikv ^ vvv irapaffKevaaeaOai, iroXiopKit} 
Se TrapaTevelirBat «s ro!ja)^arQp, el to aino Svva- 

3 Tat ffxoXf) «at Tax" ^vfiffifpan fip-lv re irw? ow 
fiXdffi] havavav KaBrip.et'Oi'! Bik to a^vp,^aTOV, KOi 
fjv eXtopsv, TTokiv e^dapp-ivifv -Trapakaffetv kcu t^s 
irpoToBov TO Xofrroii dv ain^^ a-ripeaQai ; tir^ii- 

4 opev Bt -npof Toi'9 'iraXep.lovf r^Ee. uirre ov Si/ca- 
aras Svra^ Sel fip.a.<i p,aXXov r&v e^apapravwrav 
dxpi^eli ^XaTTteaSai fj opav S-rrtav e; TOf etrtiTa 
So 



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BOOK III, XLV. &-XLVI. 4 

to take risks even when their resources are inade' 
quate, and states even more than men, inasmuch as 
the stake is the greatest of all — tlieir own freedom 
or empire over others — and the individual, when 
supported by the whole people, unreasonably over- 
estimates his own strength. In a word, it is im- 
possible, and a mark of extreme Simplicity, for any- 
one to ima^ne that when human nature is whole- 
heartedly bent on any undertaking it can be diverted 
from it by rigorous laws or by any other terror. 

XLVI. "We must not, therefore, so pin our faith 
to the penalty of death as a guaran tee against re- 
volt as to make the wrong decision, or lead our 
rebellious subjects to believe that there will be no 
chance for them to repent and in the briefest time 
possible put an end to their error. Consider now : 
according to your present policy ^ if a city has re- 
volted aitd then realizes that it will fail, it may come 
to terms while still able to pay the indemnity and to 
keep up its tribute in the future ; but, in the other 
case, what city, think you, will not prepare itself 
more thoroughly than now, and hold out in siege to 
the last extremity, if it makes no difference whether 
it capitulates quickly or at its leisure? And as 
for us, how can we fail to suffer loss, incurring the 
expense of besieging a city because it will not 
surrender, and, if we capture it, recovering one that 
is ruined, and losing thereafterthe revenue from it — 
the source of our strength against our enemies ? We 
must not, therefore, be such rigorous judges of the 
delinquents as to suffer harm ourselves, but we must 
rather see how for the time to come, by punishing 

> Athens bad not been accuetoined to treat secession from 
the alliaDce aa tressoa punishable witb death for the men 
and slaver; For the women and ohlldren. 

Si 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

■)(povov fitrpi«Kt Ko\ti^avre<; rai^ iroKemv e^ftev 
e? j^ijfidTmv \6yoii l<T-)(yavaai<; j(pT)affai, leal TffV 
iftvXatcijv fi/i} dirii TWf POfi^v t^s SsfyoTJ^Tos a^iovv 
Ttoietffffai, iX\' atro twf ^pytDv ti}? iiri/i€\eta^. 

6 o5 vvv TovvavTiov hpStvTeR, ^v riva iKevdepov koX 
^ia dp'ypiievov eltcoroK trpo^ avTovofuap airo- 
aTovra ')(eiptiiaaifie6a, ^^aXeiru? oioftfda '^(pifvat 

6 Tip^peZaSat. j^i} 8e tow? fkevdipou^ oiix d^i- 
(TTa/wcous aipoSpa KoXd^eiv, dXXA tt/jIc airoaTTJvat 
<T<p6Spa cfivXaa-aeiv km TrpoKaToXafi^dveiv otrtuxi 



/ells' i<! iirtvotav tovtov 


?o>o-(, KpaTTiaavrdii re art 


eV ikdxKTTOP T^w alru 


IV eiritfiepetv. 


XLVII. •"Tfis'KiSU 


KeyjraaSe oaov &v Kal rovro 


2 dfiaprdvone K7Ja>vi i. 


reiBoftevot. vvv fiev ykp 


hfiXv o S^pj>s ev trda- 


aK Tat? -TToXeatv eHvov^ 


iarl xal ^ ov fuca^iV 


Tarat TOif oKtyof; ^, tdv 



^ia<T0§, v-7rdp-)(et rots dirooT^ffaffi -n-oXefUO^ 

evBv^, xai T^? dvrtKa0ttTTafj,hT}<t TToXew? tA 

■7r\i}0o'i ^v/ipaxov ^X"*^^' ^' voKep.ov eTripx^^f- 

i ft Sk Sieuf'&epeiTe top Stj^iov tov MvriKTjvaUop, 

OTrXftjv iKpaTTftrev, etcaiv TrapeBiuxe t^v ttoXh', — 
. irpei>TOP /iev dBtx^fftre tov^ evepyera^ KTeipovre^, 
etreira KaTaffTi^aert toi? Sifvo/roK tS>v dvffpdnriav 
S ffovXovTai /idXioTa- d<ptardvTe<; yap ritv iriX€t^ 
TOf B^/*ov €v0vv ^vfiftaxov e^ovai irpoSei^dvrmv 
uftap rijp airijp ^■rjfuav to« re dhiieoiiatv o/Mtu? 
83 

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BOOK III. xLv1.4-x1.v11. 3 

moderately, we may have at our service dependent 
cities that are strong in material resources ; and we 
must deem it proper to protect ourselves against 
revolts, not by the terror of our laws, but rather by 
the vigilance of our administration. At present we 
do just the opposite : whenever a free people that 
is forced into subjection revolts, as it naturally will, 
in order to recover its independence, we think that, 
as soon as we have subdued it, we must punish it 
severely. We ought, on the contrary, instead of 
rigorously chastising free peoples when they revolt, 
to watch them rigorously before they revolt, and 
thus forestall their even thinking of such a thing ; 
and when we have subdued a revolt, we ought t« 
put the Uame on as few as possible.^ 

XLVII. " And do you consider, too, how great a 
mistake you would make in auotiier point also by 
following Cleon's advice. At the present time the 
populace of all the cities is well disposed to you, and 
either does not join with the aristocrats in revolting, 
or, if forced to do so, is hostile from the beginning 
to those who stirred up the revolt ; and so, when 
you go to war, you have the populace of the rebellious 
city as your allies. If, however, you destroy the 
populace in Mytilene, which took no part in the 
revolt, and which voluntarily £Ut_Uie city into yoor 
hands as soon as it got hold of arms, in the first 
place you will be guilty of kOling your benefactors, 
and, in the second place, you will bring about what 
the influential men most wish : the next time they 
instigate a revolt among our allies they will at once 
have the populace on their side, because you will 
have published it abroad that the same punishment 
' In answer to CIood'h demand, oh. xxxix. 6. 

83 



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THUCYDIDES 

4 K€l<T0ai Koi TOW ^"J- ^61 8e, Kai el ^Bl/ctjaav, fJ^ii 
TrpaairoietaBaL, oirw; & fiovov rifiiv en ^vfificf^^o^ 

B ea-vi ftr) TToXefMOP 'yiviirat. val tovto TroXXp 
^vfiifiopwTepov r}yovfiat e's rijP KaSe^iv t^? apX'""' 
eKocTtts TifJM^ ahiKtjdr^vai ij tiKalwi dD? /i^ Bei 
I Biacfidetpai- ical to KXewKO? t^ huto Stwatoi' koI - 
^vfi(popov rij'i Ti/j.copla'i ou;^ evpltrKerat if aina/ 
tvvaTOV w afui yi,yvea-0a,i. 

XLVIII. ""T/i€K Se!yv6vTe<{ dfiflva rd&e etvai/ 
xal /iijre oi«Tp TrXeop veifiavTei fvjr itneiKeiaf 
oh ovBe €ym e'w, irpoadyeadtu, av avrSiv Se twv 
•jrapaivovpxvmV weiGeuSe ftoi M.uTiKjjvaiai' o&? 
/tec ^a;^;^J? dir4-n-€/i-<^eP ei? dBixovvrat xptvai Ka6' 

2 f)iTvf(iav, rav'i B' aXXovi eav otKeiv. rdBe yip 
69 re TO ^e'Woy dyaBd koi toiv TroXefUoK ffBri 
(fto^epd- orTTK yip eJi ffovKeverai irpoi tous 
ivavrlovi Kpeiaa-av 4(n)p ^ /J£t' epywp tV^uo? 
avot(f iiritov, 

XLIX. Toiavra Be 6 AtdSoToe etirev. pq- 
ffeiff& v Sk Twji ypwp.Siu tovtiop p.d\itrra dvTt- 



vdXojv trpoi a\X'^\a<i/ol ' AOtjvaloi TfhSov pki 
if dyStva oftai^^ ri)^ Sijfij9 koI eyepovro eV t§ 
yeiporoplq ar ^a>fid\o i, eKpdnjire Bi t/ toD A*o- 

2 eoTOf. Kal rpfqpT} evdw aXXiji' dTrkareXkov 
Kara a-rravS^v, ovtat p,^ ifjdaadtrrii tij? Trporepa^ 
evpcofft Si6if>$app.evTiv t^u ttoXiv ■> rpoei j(e &e ■. 

3 rip,epa leaX ffxT^ pakiara. irapaaKevaadinap Bi \\ 
Twv MvTiKffvaiav Trpeuffeatv Ttj V7)l oXvov KaX 

' inm, with MSS. Bredow emends to dfutus, followed 
by Hude. 

" Tparipat, generally adopted. Valla and ft tew >ISS., 
agaiiiBt SfHT/fHii or iripas of other MSS. 

84 



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BOOK III. sLvii. 3-xLix. 3 

is ordained for the innocent &nd for the guilty. 
Why, even if they were guilty, you should pretend 
not to know it, to the end that the only class that is 
still Mendly to us may not become hostile. And it is, I 
think, far more conducive to the maintenance of our 
dominion, that we should willingly submit to be 
wronged, than that we should destroy, however 
justly, those whom we ought not to destroy. And 
whereas Cleon claims • that this punishment com- 
bines justice and expediency, it appears that in such 
a policy the two cannot be combined. 

XLVIII. "Do you, then, recognize that mine is the 
better course, and without being unduly swayed by 
either pity or clemency — for neither would I have 
you influenced by such motives — but simply weigh- 
ing the coasiderations I have urged, accede to my 
proposal .' pass sentence at your leisure upon the 
Mytileuaeans whom Paches sent here as guilty,^ 
but let the rest dwell in peace. Such a course will 
be best for the future, and will cause alarm among 
our enemies at once ; for he who is wise in counsel is 
stronger against the foe than he who recklessly 
rushes on with brute force.^ 

XLIX. Such was the speech of Diodotus. And 
after these opinions had been m aintained with nea rly 
ef ]ual force , the one against the other, the Athenians, 
in spite of the reaction, experienced such a 
conflict of opinion that in the show of hands they 
were almut equally divided ; but the view of Diodotus 
prevailed. They then immediately despatched a 
second trireme with all haste, hoping that the first 
trireme, which had the start by about a day and a 
night, might nofairive firet and the city be found 
destroyed. The Mytilenaean envoys provided wine 
> cf. oh. il. 4. ' cf. cli. iiiv. 1. „ 



THUCYDIDES ^i'^'^ 

aX^tTa ical fieyoKa {nTo^ofievfitv, el i pOdrTeia u, 
eytvsTo airovhr) tov -ttXov rotavrr] Sxne fjaBiov re 
afia iXavvoiTei oXv^ koX iXatif) akt^ira iretftvp- 
fUva, icai oi fikv virvov ^povmo Kmit fiipoi, oi 

evavTKo04proi xal tjjs /jiv irporipa^ wais ov 
o-TTOuSp iry^ovat}^ eirX trpayfia a XKoKoro v, Tavrij? 
8^ TOituJry TpoTrp iveiyofievrt^, ^ fikr ^fiOarre i*" 
ToaovTov^ o<rov Oa^ijTa avfyvaieivat to iffijtpiafiM 
ical ft^Xeiv BpaaeiP tA BeSoyfiepa, f) &' varepa 
avT^ iTTtKaTayerai xal SieKtiiKvae (it) Sia<f>6etpat. 

irapii TntTQiiTO fi fj.ev rj MuTtXlJl/J) ^\0e KlliSvpov. 

L. Tous S' aXkovi avSpa^ o&? 6 Ud^ij^ aire- 
pre/iifrar (hi atri^raTov^ SpTav tt}^ airoaTaaetos 

yKXeeoyos yvdp.riSiitfideipav ol 'Ad'T/vatoi {jjaav Si 
okLycp irXeiov^ ;;^iXta)i'), Kal MvTiXifvaimv Tetxv 

2 xaSetXov leal vav<i wapeXa^ov. vcrepov Bi tf>6pov 
fxev ovK era^av Aei7/9toi?, icX'^povi; Be Troti^avTe^ 
Tiji yij^ trXijv t^? i/lt/OvfipaLcoi/ Tptay^iXiov^, Tpia- 
KOtTiovt pxp T0t9 Scots' lepoiit; e^eXXov, 6tt\ Be tou? 
aXKovs a^Siv ainav KX^pov^oVi tovs Xa-xovTa^ 
aiT^ep^^av ols apyvptov Aea^toi ja^dp^VM tov 
KX^pov hedarov tov h-iavrov Bvo fJ.tiav <f>ep€iv 

• UeanUy the barley-meal was mixed with water and 
oil. 

^ A arew ordiDsrily stopped for meals and reitsd at tiDCbor 

* Foohe 

Lesbian n 
86 



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BOOK 111. 



U 3-L. 2 



and barlej for the crew and promised ■ large reward 
if they should arrive in time ; and such was their 
haste on the voyage that they kept on rowing as 
they ate their barley-cakes, kneaded with wine and 
oil,* and took turns at sleeping and rowing.' And 
since by good fortune no contrary wind arose, and 
the earlier ship was saihng in no hurry on so horrible 
'^ a business, while tlie second pressed onin the 
manner described, although the former did in fact 
arrive first, so that Paches had just time enough to 
read the decree and was about to execute the orders, 
the second put in close after it and prevented the 
destruction of the city. By just so much did 
Mytilene escape its peril. 

L. The rest of the men, however, whom Paches ' 
bad sent to Athens as chief authors of the revolt, 
numbering somewhat more than a thousand,' were 
put to death by the Athenians on the motion of 
CleoQ. They also pulled down the walls of Mytilene 
and took possession of the Mytilenaean fleet. After- 
awards, instead of imposing a tribute upon the 
Lesbians, they divided all the land except that of the 
Methymnaeans into three thousand allotments, and 
reserving three hundred of these as sacred to the 
goda they sent out Athenian colonists, chosen by 
~ _1"ti to occupy the rest. With these the Lesbians 
made an arrangement to pay a rental of two minas a 
year^ for eachjpt, they themselves to cultivate the 

brought to trial committed anioide in the preseDoe of his 
jodgaa. 

* Oa the gronnd that bq large a number 1b iuGompatible 
with ch. xxviii. 1,2; xxxy. 1, Steup conjeotures tptaKBrra 
[A' for fi). 

' The whole rental amounting to 90 talents; flB,000; 
987,300. 

8? 

D,j™tci;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

3 aiiTol etpyd^omo rijv yr^v. irap^Xaffov Si koX ra 
iv T^ ^wei/jp T TftKiafiara oi 'A8r}vaioi Saav 
'^VTiKifvatoi eiepaTow, ical vtt^kovop Sffrepov 
'ABfivalwv. rk fihi «aT^ Aiaffov oOrta? €y4peTo. 
LI. Ell Be T^ avT^ Bepei fierA t^v Aetrffov 
5X(iiatv ' AQijvaioi. Nixlov tou NiicT}paTov arpaTr)- 
yovpro^ earpaTevaav etri MtpwaiJ t^i" v^aov, ^ 
Ksirai TTpQ 'M.e'ydpwv ij(p€iVTo Be avrfj Trvpyov 

2 ivoi.KO&op.'QaavTeii oi Meyap^ <f>povpi^. e^ov- 
Xero Be Nixlai ri)v ^vKax^v ain6$ev Si e\d<T- 
aovov T0« 'A^JjKoiois Kol fti] awo tow BovSopov 
Koi T^s ^aXafuvov elvat, tows T6 TleXo-rrowT}- 
aiovs oirw^ fit) nroi^vrai eKirXou^ avroSev Xca/- 
Bdvovre^ rpi-qpiav re, alov koI tov irplv yevop'ei'OP, 
Kal XT/arStv eieirofvitaXv, Toi<i re MeyapeOtrtv 

3 afia firjSev iatrKelv. ehMV oiv avo tjjs Nt- 
ffatat -rrpoiTOv Svo irvpyco vpouxovre /tJ/x*""*'' 
ex BaXdaffrif leai rov 6<nr\ovv es to iiera^v rrft 
vijffov i\€vdepataa^ ef7rerei)(i^€ Kal to ex rrj^ ■^Trei- 
pov, p Kara yetpvpav Sict revdrfov^ iiriffo^deia 

4 ^v TJi vriatfi ov woXv Siexo'^'^H t^? tjireipov. <&? Be 
rovTo i^eipydaavTO ip rip.epaf; oKLyait;, vajepov 
Si) xal iv T^ i^ffip Telx^l ^ iyieaToKvjrwv KaX 
^povpip dvexaipi]a€ rp arpar^. 

' Ttlx"' — the text is probably corrupt, the verb being 



' cf. IV. lii. 3, where they are called laraTni Ti\iit\'^\lf^ 
^ Beferring to Braaidas' attempt, described II. xciii., xclv. 



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BOOK III. J.. 2-Li. 4 

land. The Atheniaas also took posBession of all the 
.JUm^s OQ the mainland which the Mytilenaeans 
cODtroUed,* and these were thereafter subject to the 
Athenians. Such was the course of events at Lesbos. 

LI. in the same summer, after the capture of 
Lesbos, the Athenians, under the command of Nicias 
son of Niceratus, made an expedition against the 
island of Minoa, which lies in front of Megara 
and was used as a garrison-station by the Me- 
garians, who had built a tower upon it. But 
Nicias was desirous that the watch which the Athe- 
nians kept should be maintained at that point, 
which would be at closer range for them, instead of 
at Budorum in Salamis, the purpose of the watch 
being to prevent the Peloponnesians from using the 
harbour of Megara as a base from which to send 
out unobserved either triremes, as they had done 
once before,* or expeditions of privateers, and at the 
same time to see to it that nothing was brought in 
by sea for the Megarians. Accordingly, by an 
attack from the sea he took by means of engines of 
war two projecting towers — first that on the island 
opposite Nisaea — and when he had thus cleared the 
way into the channel between the island and the 
Dtainland he walled off also the point on the side 
toward the mainland, where by a bridge across a 
morass aid could l>e brought to the island, which is 
not far distant from the mainland.' And when, after 
a few days, this work was completed, Nicias built a 
fort on the island also, left a garrison in it, and then 
withdrew his army to Athens. 

' This seema to be the sense intended. The passage ia 
verj much condeoBed or comipt. The two towers aeem to 
have stood on the atrait between Minoa and the mainland, 
one OD each aide, at the end of darns built out to narrow the 

89 

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THUCYDIDES 

LII. 'Tiro Be tov? outo^? J(/>6vov^ tow 04pow 
TOVTOV Kal 0( nXoTOi^s ovKeri ^opres trtrop 
ovBk Bvpa/ievoi itoKiopK€ta$ai ^vveffija'av to I? 

2 IleXoTrow^trioiT Tot^Se rpoirifi. trpoire^aXav 
avTOiv T^ TeLyei, oi &e ovk iBvvavro afwveffOat. 
yvov^ Be 6 AaKsBaifiovto^ apj((aii t>)v aa$eveiav 
avr&v ^ia /iev ovk i^ovXero e\eiv (elpijftevov yap 
^p^ aiiT^ e« AaKeBal/iOPO^, OTrais, el ff^ovBal yi- 
ypOiPTO TTOTC Trpi)'! AOrivaiovv xal ^vyj^tipotev 
oaa TToXSfi^ j(a>pta e-^ovaiv e/eaTtpoi airoBiBotrOat, 
fii} apdBoTo^ ett} 17 UXdraia w? ainS)V exoPTiov 
TrpOff^wpritTdiTdiv), TTpoa-Trifi/rret Bi aiiroK KrjpvKm. 
Xeyopra, el QovKovrai TrapaSoOvat rifv iroKiv ckov- 
TE9 TOi? AaKeSaip^vCoK xal BiKaaraK exeivot^ 
yprjiraaBai, toxk re dBiKOv<; KoXdaeiv, vapb, BIkijv 

3 B^ oiiBeva. rotravra fiev o Kripu^ elirev oi Be 
(^a-av yap t^B^ ev tm aadeveinaT^) TrapeBorrav 
T^p v6Xtv, teal Tous ItXaraia'! erpe^ov oi 
neXoTTOvvT^ffioi rj/iipai Ttvd<;, iv oarp at iK rijt 
AaKeBaip.ovo'i BiKamal, Trevre avBpei, diplxovTO. 

i eKBovTo>v Be oaitHiv KaTqyopia p,ep ovBefUn trpov- 
Te&T), fip«)T(av Be avrotK eiriKaXetrdfiepoi roiroOrov 
povop, et ri AaKeBaip,oviov^ xal rov? ^vfip,dy^ovv 
ep Tp TToXifiip T<p KadearSni dyaSiiv t( eipyaa- 

6 p^evot elatv. ol S' eXeyop aiT7]adp,epoi, paxpoTepa 
eiireiv Kal irpoTd^avreti ff<f>&p avrSyv * AaivpM)(hv 
T6 Toc AatoiroKdov Kal Adxwva top Aiet/tyijtrTOU, 

' ^v, bracketed by Hude, aa not read by tiie Soholisit. 
90 



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BOOK in. ui. i-s 

Lll. DuriDg this summer and about the same 
time, the Plataeaos,' who were now without food and 
could endure the siege no longer, surrendered to the 
Peloponnesians. It happened in the following manner. 
An assault was in progress upon their wall and they 
were unable to repel it The Lacedaemonian com- 
mander recognised their weakness ; but he did not 
wish to take Flataea by storm, for he had received 
orders to this effect from Sparta, to the end that, 
if ever a treaty of peace should be made with the 
Athenians and the Lacedaemonians should consent 
that all the places each had taken in war should be 
given back, Plataea might not have to be given up, 
on the ground that its inhabitants had gone over to 
Sparta voluntarily. So he sent a herald to them to 
say that if they would of their own accord deliver 
their city into the hands of the Lacedaemonians and 
submit to their decisions they would punish the 
guilty, but none contrary to justice. The herald 
made this proposal, and they, since they were now in 
the last stage of weakness, surrendered the city. 
And the Peloponnesians fed the Plataeans for some 
days, until the judges, five in number, arrived from 
Lacedaemon. When they came no accusation was 
brought against the Plataeans, but they were sum- 
moned by the judges and asked this single question : 
" Have you rendered any good service to the Lace- 
daemonians Mid their allies in the present war?" 
The Plataeans, however, begged to be allowed to 
speak at greater length, and appointed as their 
spokesmen Astymachus son of Asopolaus and Lacon 
son of Aeimnestns, who was a proxenus of the 

the oarrative from Iba md of ob. xxiv. 



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THUCYDIDES 

wpo^evov ovra AaKcSeufiOpitov ical iireXdovrev 
eKeyov roidSe. 

LIII. "Ti)v fikv ■jrapdhoiTiv t^s TroXews, 5> 
AaxeSaifiOvtoi, TriinevffavTet; i/fuv eiTonjaa.fi€0a., 
oi) Totdv&e Bixriv oloftevot v<f^i^eip, vofufionepaif 
Se Ttva eiT€<T0at, koI ev ZiKatTTOi^ ovk &v aWoi? 
Se^dftevot, Sanep koI eafiAv, lyeviaSai fj ii/uv,^ 

2 ■^ovfievoi TO tffov fidXi<Tr^ Av ^peadai. vvv 8e 
ifjo^ovfieffa fi7} dfiipoTipoiv dfut ^ftapr^Ka/iep' 
TOP T€ y^p dySiva wept rail' SeworaTwi' elvat flxo- 
TWS biroiTTevonev Koi vjia^ p.i) ov koivoX aTTo^fJTe, 
TeK/iatpofi.evot TipoKaTtjfopia^ rt -^fitov ov irpoye- 
yevijfievri^ ^ j(^pi) avretireiv (aXX airoi Xoyov 
r}Tr}frd/it$a) to re eirepmnjfia ^pa.j(y op, «u ra 
fihr aXrjOij diroKpivairBai, evapria yiype-rai, tA Se 

3 ^evhf) eKey)(pv e\ei. •7TavTa-)(o8ev 8^ d-rropot 
KodeiTT&Te'i dvayiea^ofieBa koX da^oKeoTepov 
hoKel elvai etirovras it KivSvpeveiv «al ykp 6 fiif 
prjBeXv X070V TOW wS' l^ovtriv atrLav Ac 'Vapd- 

Bi ly(^€i rifitv Trpoe to« oKKok xal ^ ireiOm. 
df^Stret flip ydp oiTes dXX^Xav dweaepeyKafievot 
fiapTvpta &v aireipot ^e utfteXovfieO' aP' pvp Si 
vpoi eliorai vdvra XeXi^erai,^ xaX Mhifiev ov\i. 



He htul commanded the PlaLaean 



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BOOK lit. I.U. 5-uii. 4 

Lacedaemonians.^ These men came forward and 
spoke as follows : 

LIII. "When we surrendered our city, Lacedae- 
monians, trusting in jour good faith, we had no 
thought that we should have to undergo a trial like 
this, but supposed it would be a more regular pro- 
cedure ; and when we consented to be on trial before 
jou and you alone as judges, as we now are, we 
believed that we should be most likely to obtain &ir 
treatment. But now we fear that we have been 
disappointed in both expectations ; for we have 
good reason to suspect, not only that the issues 
involved itt the trial are of the gravest nature ^ but 
also that you will not prove to be impartial judges. 
These inferences we draw from the fact that no 
accusation was first brought against us requiring a 
plea in defence, but we have had to ask leave to 
speak, and that the question which is put to us is so 
curt that a truthful answer to it is against our 
interests, while a false one can be exposed at once. 
But beset as we are with perplexities on every hand, 
we are forced, as indeed seems to be the safer course, 
to say something and take the risk ; for to men in our 
condition not to have spoken would cause us after- 
wards to reproach ourselves with the thought that, 
had the word been spoken, it would have saved us. 
A farther difficulty in our position is the task of 
convincing you. For if we were strangers to each 
other, we might find it to our advantage to introduce 
evidence on matters with which you were un- 
acquainted ; but as it is, anything that we shall say is 
already known to you, and what we fear is, not that 
' •.«. thai their very livei were at stake, whereas they 
had expected, after capitutation, that in the formal trial 
there could be no question of capital punUhRieat. 

93 



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THUCYDIDES 

fi,ri irpoieaToyiroiTe^ ^fLuv tA? aperh'; fyraox)^ elytu 
Tav vfieTepiai' eytcXtjfia avTO iroiiJTe, a\X^ fti) 
aXhoiii "xapiv i^epovre^ iirl Sieypota /ievriv xpttriv 
Ka6i(Trmp.e6a. 

LIV. " Ylapexopxvot S^ &ftia<! h ^j(o/*ti' U/ctua 
irpo^ re tA Qr)6aiwv Bid<fjopa «al e? Vjua? koI 
Tou; aXXovf EXkr/va^, rdii' eS SeSpa/teiioiv vito- 
fwt}eriv -TToiTjcrop^Ba teal TreiSeiv Tretpatrofuffa, 

2 <f>aftev yi/J trpm to epatTrj/ui to ^pay^v, et Tt 
AaKeBat/iOplovs koX tov^ ^v/j./j^xov<i eo Tp froKi- 
/i{) T^he ayadop Treiroi^Kap,ev, el p.iv an TrokefU- 
0V9 iptaraTe, ovk aBixetirSai vfia^ fii) elr va96v- 
raf, ^L\ov^ Se vopi^ovTai avTov^ apapTovav 

9 pAXhMv TQv<t ■fjp.iv etriffTpuTeuffavTa^. Ta S ev 
T^ elprjpt] Koi irpo^ Tov MijSov ayaOol yeyev^fte&a, 
rijv psv oil Xvcavre^ vijv TrpoTepoi, Tp Se ^vvetrt' 
Siftevoi TOTS ii iKevOepiav Ttjs 'EiWdBov ftovot 

4 BoMBTwc. Koi y^p rj-rretpuTal re Svm epavtmj(^- 
<Tapsv i-rr 'AprffuaC^, f^XV "^^ '^V **" '"P vf^^^P9 
73 y€POftev>) wapeyevop.eda vplv re koI Jlavaavli}- 
ei re Tt aXXo Kar' exeaiop top xpopov eyevero 
eiriieivBvpap rot? "EWijiri, trdvrmp vapct Svpmfttp 

5 p,eri(TXop^v. KoX vpXv, & AaiteSaip^vioi, i&C^, 
oTeirep Si] /ieyia-rov <f)6ffov TrepUffrr) ri}p XrrdfnTjv 
p£rh, Toii aeuTfiov rSiv e? ^\6o>p,Tjv Et'XtuTWi' ano- 

* ReferrtDg to the achievenienti of the PIata«u)a in Iba 
Penian wars. 

> t.e. the Tbebans. With bitter irony the Plataeuia 
ascribe to themselves the evident purpuse of the 



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BOOK III. Liii. 4-i,iv. 5 

you have already judged our virtues' to be inferior to 
your own and now make that a charge against us, 
but that in order to gratify others * we are to a^^ear 
before a court that has already decided against us. 

LIV. " Nevertheless, we shall present whatever 
just claims we have, both as regards our quarrel with 
the Thebans and as touching you and the rest of the 
Hellenes, and thus, by reminding you of our public 
services, shall try to persuade you. In reply to the 
curt inquiry of yours, whether we have rendered any 
good service to the Lacedaemomans and their allies 
in this war, if you ask us as enemies, we say that 
you are not wronged if you did not receive benefit at 
our hands; but if in asking it you regard us as 
friends, we reply that you yourselves rather than we 
are at fault, in that you made war upon us. But in 
the war against the Persians and during the peace 
which followed we have proved ourselves good and 
true men ; we have not now been the first to break 
the peace, and then we were the only Boeotians^ who 
rallied to defend the freedom of Hellas. For though 
we are an inland people, we took part in the sea-fight 
at Artemisium ; in the battle that was fought here in 
our own land * we stood side by side with you and 
Pausanias ; and whatever perils arose to threaten 
the Hellenes in those days, we bore our part in 
them all beyond our strength. And to you in par- 
ticular, Lacedaemonians, at that critical moment 
when after the earthquake Sparta was encompassed 
by a mighty terror owing to the revolt of the Helots 

LacedaemoniiuiB — by standing trial before a prejudiced court 
thej will "do a favour to the Thabaas." 

* RhetoriosJ inaoouracv, tor the Thwpiana did the MHn« 
(Hdt. VII. oxxiii.; VIII. 1.). 

* The battle of Plataea, 479 B.C. See Hdc. IX. Ixii. ff. 



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THUCYDIDES 

u^6.v^av, to rplrov fUpof •fffi&v aiirStp i^etrip.^a- 
fiev eV e-aiKovpiav Sip ovk elico^ afiv^iiavetv. 

LV. " Kai. ri /lev -rroKaia koX fteyiara ToiovTot 
^^uitaaiiep elvat, iroXefUoi Be eyevofieffa varepoif. 
vfteK Sk atTtof ieofievav f^p ^Vfi/tay(iai Sre 
tir}0aioi r)fia^ f^idaavro, bfteX^ aTvewraaOe kclX 
TT^o? 'A^ijcaiou! iKeXevere rpaweffOai ws iyyi/^ 

2 Sprat, vfimv h^ /uiKphv aitoiKOVPrwp. iv fUvrot 
Tp iroXifMp oiSfP eKirpe-jreffTepop vtro 7)p.&v ovre 

3 etraSere oure e/ieXX^trare. «' 5' aTroinijvai 
'A6t}patav ovK ^deXijaafiev Vfiwp KeXevaavTotv, 
ovK ^SiKoO//.ep- xai yip eieetvoi e^O'^ffovv rifUV 
ivavrla ftrj^atot? ore w^« I'fTraiicveire, xai ■trpo~ 
Bovvac aiiTovi; ovrceri ^v xaXov, dXXti)^ re icai o&9 
€2 -TraSaip Ti5 KOi avToi Beoftevo^ 7rpo(rt}ydyero 
fu/*/iii^oi'S Koi TToXiTtMis fifTeXaffev, levat hi iv 

4 ri trapayyeXXofiepa ei/co? ^v irpodvfita^. & Be 
exdrepoi efij^etir^e rolt ^vp./J.axot'i, oi/x ol etro- 
fupoi al-Tioi et Tt fir/ icaXSi^ iBparo, dXX' ol ayovre^ 
eTTi rh p/r) op6€i^ exovTa. 

LVI. " Qri^loi B^ troXXa fiiv koI aXXa ^/lav 
^BlxTftTop, t6 Bi TeXevTolov aiiroX ^vpiaie, BiSirep 
2 Kai rdSe irdaxopjev. ttoXiv yctp ai/roiit rijp ^peT4' 
pav KaToXafb^dvovTat iv TtrovBatt koX vpov^t 
lepofitjvia op0at re iTtfu»p>]tTdp£0a xari tov ■n-diri 
POfiop KoffeiTTwra, riv iviovTa iroXip.tov Sctov 

96 

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BOOK III. Liv. s-Lvi. a 

and their occupation of Ithome, we sent a third part 
of our citizens to bring aid. These are things you 
ought not to forget, 

LV. " Such was the part we were proud to play in 
the great actions of the past. It was not until later 
that we became your enemies, and for this you 
yourselves were to blame ; for when the Thebans 
oppressed us and we sought alliance with you, you 
rebuffed us and bade us apply to the Athenians, 
because they were near, whereas you lived far away. 
In the course of this war, however, you have neither 
suffered, nor were ever in danger of suffering, any 
extraordinary hann at our hands. And if we refused 
to revolt from the Athenians at your bidding, we 
were not in the wrong ; for they helped us against 
the Thebans when you held back. After that it 
would not have been honourable for us to desert them, 
above all when we were their debtors and when at our 
own request we had been admitted to their alliance 
and had shared the rights of citizenship with them. 
On the contrary, there was every reason why we 
should heartily obey their commands. And what- 
ever measures either you or they have initiated for 
your allies, it is not the followers who are to blame 
for any wrong that has been done, but those who 
have ted them into evil courses. 

LVI. "As for the Thebans, they have done us 
many wrongs in the past, and you yourselves are well 
aware of this crowning outrage, which has brought us 
into our present plight. They attempted to seize 
our city in time of peace, and furthermore on a day 
of festival; tlicrefore we were justified in punishing 
them in accordance with the law which has universal 
sanction, that it is right to repel him who comes 

97 



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THUCYDIDES 

etvai a/ivPStrOai, xal pvv ovk av elKorms Bi ainoiit 

3 ffKamolfieffa, ei yap r^ avrixa ^pijat/iq) VfiMii' 
re ttai iicetvwv wokefit^ ' to hiKatov X'^-'^eade, tov 
fiev opOov ^>av€t(rB( ovk aK't)$et'; Kpnai ovrei, to 

4 Si ^Ufii)>epov /iaWov 9epaTrevovTe<;. KaiToi el vvv 
vpXv ai<f)e\ip.ot BoKovaiv elvai, iroKv Kal ij/iei? /cat 
ol dXKoi "EXXjjve? fioXXov tots ore ev /tei^opi 
miiBvii^ ^re. vvv fiiv •yh.p k-ripofi vp.ti^ eTripj^ftrde 
Seii'oi, iv ineivut Bk r^ xaip^, ore iraat BovXeiav 

5 iiriipepfv 6 ^dp^apos, othe ps-r' avrov rjaav, teat 
BIkoiov yfi&v Tiji; vvv dfiapjla^, et apa ^p,a,pTriTai 
Tt, avTtdelvai tt)v tots TrpoffufUav, Kal /tet'fai re 
TT/ws eXdtrtria evp-^crere Koi iv icatpol<! ols avaviov 
f/v T&v 'VjXK^Vfav Tivh dpeT^v rp Sep^ov Bwdfj.et 
dvTtTa^affdat, iirppovvTo Te paXXov ol fiif tA 
^vfuf>opa irpb'i rifv eiftoBov avTotv ^ atr^Xela 
irpdatrovTe';, iOeXovTEi Be ToXfiav fiCTo, icivBvvwv 

TO. ^eKTiuTa, &v ^fiSK yevoftevot leal Tip.r)divTe^ 
i^ TO irp&Ta vvv eirl toF? avToU SeSi/MV p.i] Sia- 
^ffap&pev, ' Pi.6r}vaiovt k\6p.evoi Bixatto^ paWov ^ 

7 vpMf! KepBaXia^. Kahot XPV TavrA trepi tS>v 
aiiTuv op.oia'i ^aCvtirSai yiyvraaKovra'^ koI to 
^Vfi<f>epav p-if dXXo ti vopitrai, ^ tS>v ^vp/ui'^^iov 
Tots dyaffoK OTOi' alel ffe^aiov rijv xdpiv Tr^t 

' treXtiiiif, bracketed by Hude, aa derived fii>in a gloas 
'' airoU, Bekker and moat editors with U, Hude afrrwi. 
98 



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BOOK in. Lvi. 2-7 

agaiDSt you as an enemy ; and now we cannot reason- 
ably be made to sufl'er on their account. For if you 
shall decide the question of justice by such considers' 
tions as your immediate advantage and their hostility, 
you will show yourselves to be, not true judges of 
what is right, but rather to be mere slaves of ex- 
pediency. And yet if the Thebans seem serviceable 
to you now, we and the rest of the Hellenes were of 
far greater service to you wlien you were in greater 
danger. For now you are attacking others and are a 
menace to them, but in that crisis, when the barbarian 
was threatening us all with slavery, these men were 
on his side. And it is only fair that you should set 
our present error, if error there has been, over against 
the zeal we showed theu ; if you do, you wilt find, 
not only tliat the zeal outweighs the offence, but 
also that it was shown at a time when it was a rare 
thing for Hellenes to oppose their courage to the 
power of Xerxes. At that time the greater praise 
was given to those who, instead of intriguing in 
security for their own advantage with reference to 
the invasion,^ were ready to hazard the noblest course 
though fraught with danger. With these we took 
our stand and were honoured among the foremost ; 
but now, for the same conduct, we fear lest we 
are to be destroyed, in that we have chosen the 
Athenians trom regard to right rather than you for 
profit. And yet you ought to show yourselves con- 
sistent, giving the same judgment concerning the 
same things, and to consider your true advantage to 
be only this — to cherish an ever-enduring gratitude 

' As the Thebann did. If aineit be read, with cenrly all 
MS8., it must be construed with (^i>ti»', "working to further 
""" ' "n of the enemy." 



,,,.... Google 



THUCYDIDES 

aperi}^ ej(^ovat ^ Kal to trapavriKa ttov vfiiu * 
oxpiXtfjuii' KaGiartjTai. 

LVII. " Upoa-a-Keyjraffdi ' re art vvv fief irapd- 
oeiyfia rot? ttoWoi? tS>v 'EWijvioii avopayaoia^ 
vopi^eaSe- el 8e Trept r/fj-mv yinoaeffffe firj tA el/eora 
{oil 7^D a(f>avri Kpiveire Ttjv SiKtjv r-^vSe, itraipov- 
fievoi ok TTSpX ovo r}p.rav /w/xtttwi'), opare ottw? /i^ 
OVK a-TfoSe^utiiTat avSp&v dyad rap irepi awrou? 
dfieivov^ ovrafs a/npeTrh ti iirtyvSivai, ovSk irpos 
iepoit To« Koivoit a/evXa utto rjp.S)v t&v evepyerStv 

2 TVfi 'EXXti^o; dvajeB^vai. hetvov ht ho^ei elvai 
TiXdraiav AaKehaifioviov; 'jropOT^aai, koI Tovt fiiv 
•warepaf; dvaypd-'^at. et top rpnToSa top €P AeX^ot? 
Bt ap€Tr)v T']V voXiv, vpLO.'i he koI iic Trai'TO? tov 
'E\K7]PiKov TravoiKtjaia Sia ©jj^atou? efaXeti^at. 

3 ^s TovTo yiip S^ ^v/ufiopaf TrpOKe;^(a/)^«a/iec, 
o?T(jJc! M-^Btciv re KparritTdvTtop d7ra>>S\.vfi€da *:ai 
vvp ev vpXv Tot? irplv tfuXTuroi^ %i/ffaimv ria- 
a-m/ieda nai Svo dy&pat tov<; /ieyto'Tovi vTieanjitev, 
Tore niv, ttiv ttoKiv el p-if -Kap^Bopep, \ip^ Bia- 

4 tfidapijvai, iiOiJ Se OapaTov Sini} Kpipeadat. zeal 
vepteatafieda ex -KaPTOip XtXaTaiij-i, oi -rrapi 
Zvvap,iv irpoOvfioi e's tous "EiXXtjpat, eprjpoi leaX 
drifiatprirof Koi ovre tSiptots ^vpfiaxf^v m^eXel 
oiiSeii, t'}/ieU re, & AaKeBatp.6pioi, f) p.6p>i eXirU, 
SiSif^tP fii, oi. maioi ^T6. 

' HeilmaDn'a correclioD for fx""^ °^ ^1)B MSS. 

' Jowelt prefers iniif, with M, in which case the seoM 
would be general : " while (as a matter of courae) our own 
iiatnediate interests are sufficieutlj' secured." With iixai 
there is a return to the particular, I'.i. the ease oC the 
Lacedaemonians . 

s ■wqaaaKi'^a.ai; Meineke's conjectute tor itaaaKiiaa9i of 
the MSS. 



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BOOK ill, Lvi. 7-Lvii. 4 

toward the best of your allies for their valour, while 
also securing what may be to your advantage at the 
present moment. 

LVil. "Consider, too, that you are now regarded 
by most of the Hellenes as an example of upright- 
ness ; but if the verdict you give concerning us 
shall be inequitable, beware (since the case you are 
deciding here is not obscure, but you the judges 
are the object of men's praise and we the defend- 
ants are of no mean repute), beware, I say, lest men 
repudiate an unseemly sentence pnssed upon good 
men by men still better and resent the dedication in 
the common temples of spoils taken from us, the 
benefactors of Hellas. Monstrous will it seem that 
the Lacedaemonians sliould sack Plataea, and that 
you, whose fathers inscribed the name of our city on 
the tripod at Delphi in commemoration of her valour, 
should blot her out, house and home, from the map 
of Hellas — to please the Thebans ! For to this depth 
of misfortune have we come, we who, when the 
Persians prevailed, were on the verge of rain,' and 
now when we plead before you, formerly our closest 
friends, we are beaten by Thebans ; and we have 
had to face two supreme dangers, at that time of 
perishing by starvation if we had not surrendered our 
city, and now of standing trial for our lives. And 
we have been thrust aside by all, we men of Plataea, 
who were zealous toward the Hellenes beyond our 
strength, and are now desolate and undefended. No 
one of our former allies now aids us, and as for you, 
Lacedaemonians, our only hope, we fear that you are 
□ot steadfast. 

' The refereuce is to the burning of their city by Xerxes; 
K« Hdt. vin. 1. 

lOI 

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THUCYDIDES 

LVIII, " KaiTot a^tovfikv ye Kai deStv eveica 
Ttav ^v/ifiaxt'emv Trore jevofj-evtov Kot t^ aper^? 
T^ es Toiit "EXXijiiai; KafL(fi$tjjiai vfta^ xal fiera- 
ypoipai et rt viro ^ifffaLav eireiadriTe, tjJi' t6 Sa- 
peihv avTaTTanr)aat ainoii^ /J-i) Kreiveiv o6s >i^ i/iitu 
trpe-rrei, ff<i><f)poiid re avrl aiVj^as tcofdaatrda* 
■)(apti', KM ftT] f)Bovfiv B6i'Ta<i aXKoiv KaKiav av- 

2 TOW avTiKa^eiti. ^paxv y^p to t^ r/fjArepa 
ffot/iaTa Bia^Oeipai, eiriirovov Si ri]V BvatcXetav 
ai/Tov a<f)avi<Tar ovk eyOpov^ yhp 17/^;* etKorea^ 
TtfitapTjafffOe, aW' evpovi, kut' avwyKTjv TroXe/Lif- 

3 ffai'TO?. &<ne xaX tSiv a-to/idTmv aSetav woiovvre^ 
Scria &p BiKo-^oire xal trpovoovvTev on exopra^ t« 
ikd^ere Kol ^^eipa? iTpola-xofjAvov! (o Be vofio^ 
T0« "EXXijcrt fiT] KTeiveiv tovtov;), eri Be KOi 

t evepyeTa^ yeyevrj/iiuovi Bia iravToi. diro^Xe-^are 
yap €! irarepaiv tojv vfierepwv 9^ica<i, ot)^ otTro- 
Bapopra'i vtto Mj/San* koI raifieiiTa^ ip rp rifierip^ 
irifj-Sifj^v Kara ero^ exatnov Sij/wtria etrO'^fUKrl re 
Kol TOK dWofi vOfM/ioK, oaa re f) 7^ '^/mov 
opeSiBov (iipala, irdvTOiv d-wapxi,^ eiri^epovTet, 
evuoi ftkp etc (ftiXiai; ;^cii/}af, ^iififMj(oi Bi ofiaij(,~ 
/WK TTore yevop.ivoi'i. wu v/iets rovpapriov hv 

6 hpdffane p-r) opOm^ yvovre's. tTKe-^a<r6t Si'^ Tlav~ 



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BOOK HI. Lviii. 1-5 

LVIII. "And yet we adjure you, for the sake of 
the gods who of old sanctioned our alliance and for 
our good service in the cause of tlie Hellenes, to 
relent and change your minds, if you have been in 
any way won over by the Thebans,' and in your turn 
to ask of them the boon not to put to death those 
whom it ill becomes you to slay, that you may thus 
receive an honest instead of a shameful gratitude, 
and may not in giving pleasure to others get in re- 
turn ignominy for yourselves. It is a simple matter to 
take our lives, but a grievous task to blot out the 
infamy of it ; for we are not enemies whom yon 
would have a right to punish, but good friends who 
were forced into war with you. You would, therefore, 
render a righteous judgment if you guaranteed us 
security of life and if you bore in mind, before it is 
too late, that it was in voluntary surrender and with 
outstretched hands that you received us (and the 
usage of the Hellenes forbids the slaying of sup- 
pliants) ; and, moreover, that we have always been 
your benefactors. Turn your eyes upon the sepul- 
chres of your fathers, slain by the Persians and 
buried in our land, whom we have honoured year 
by year with a public offering of raiment^ and 
other customary gifts ; the first fruits, too, of all that 
the earth each year has produced have been brought 
them, the tribute of kindly hands from a friendly 
land and of allies to those who were once their 
companions in arms. All this you would reverse by 
an unjust verdict. Reflect : when Pausanias buried 

^ For ganneDta aa offeriDgi to the dead, e/, Soph. El. 402 ; 
Enr. Or. 123, 1436; Tac. A. iii. 2. But some understand 
ivBifuuri to refer to mcmming garnieDtB. See bIbo Pint. 
AriXidta, xxi. 



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THUCYDIDES 

caviar ftiv yhp eOawrev ai/rous vofti^oiv ev yj} tc 
(f>i\ia Ti$ki'ai Koi Trap" avSpda-t toiovtoi^- v/ietv 
Si el KTevelre rffiat koI j(<itpav riji/ nXarauBa 
&f)0aiBa irai^irere, tL SXKo i/ ev voXepLa re KaX 
vapit TOW avBevTai'i Trarepa^ roii^ vperepov^ xal 
^vyyeiieK ajifiovi yep&v o)v vvp ta-)(pvai tcara- 
XeC-^efe ; wpo^ Se xal yrjv ev ^ r}\evdepw$i}<Tav 
ol "EXXijw? houXroaere, Upd t€ Ofmv olt ev^d- 
piVQi MiJS(i)v fKpd-rqaav ipT/poure ^ xal dvala^ 
Tw? TrarptoVi twp e(Taap,ev(av xal KTuravrtuv 
aifiaip^eaffe. 

LIX. " Ov npo^ TJjs vpeTepa-i So^?, 5 Aa««- 
Satpovtot, ToSe, ovre e? t^ koivo, rSip 'fiXXiJcoip 
VQpj.pa ica\ i^ Tovt trpoyovQui apapTaveiv ovre 
fipai TOW eiiepyira^ aX\oTp[a<{ evexa e^Opa'i pij 
ainoiiv aZiKrjSevTaii Sia<fi0eipai, <^uera<rdai hi koX 
evi/c\a<r6rjvai t^ yvdiprj oi/ct^) fftoffipovi XaffovTav 
pi) &v ireiaopeda povov BeiPOTtjTa icaTavoovvTa<i, 
aXX' oloi re &,v owre? irdGotpev Kot &•; dtrrdd- 
pr}TOv TO T^s ^vpApopa^ i^Tivi TTo-T &,v KoX dpa^itft 
2 ^upviiTOi. fipeK Te, <U9 irpitrov ifptv itai at^ 7 
Xpf^*^ "fpodyei, alrovpeda vpd^, Beovs T009 
opo^apiov; xal koivovi t&v 'E-XKjjpwv hrifiodt- 
pevoi, irelaai rdSe, trpo^epopevoi * ^' SpKOv^ 0&5 
o( waTepe'i vpSiv aipoaav prj dpvqpoveZv IxeTat 

' iprifuivrt, Hude odopti Stahl'a ooDJectare ifninovmi, 
because of the strikinfi present between two futures. 

* e' after upoptfiiurai is Stahl's coDJectnre, adoptid by 
Hude. 



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BOOK HI. Lviii. s-ux 2 

them he thought he was laying them in a friendlv 
land and among friends; but you, if you put us to death 
and make the territory of Plataea a Theban province, 
will you tiot be leaving them in a hostile land and 
among their murderers ' — these your fathers and 
kinsmen — and dispossessed of the honours they now 
enjoy ? Nay more, you will l>e enslaving the very 
land in which the Hellenes gained their liberty ; you 
will be bringing desolation upon the temples of the 
gods to whom they prayed when they conquered the 
Persians ; and you will be robbing of their hereditary 
sacrifices the people who founded and established 

LIX. " These things are not consistent with your 
honour, Lacedaemonians, nor can it be so to offend 
against the common usage of the Hellenes and against 
your ancestors, or to put us, your benefactors, to death 
because of the enmity of others, when you have not 
been wronged yourselves. Nay, your good name 
demands that you should spare us and be softened in 
heart, regarding us with a dispassionate pity and bear- 
ing in mind, not only how terrible will be our fate, 
but who we are that must suffer, and how uncertain 
is fortune, whose strokes sometimes fall even upon 
the innocenL And we, as befits our condition 
and as our sore need demands, entreat you in the 
name of the common gods of the Hellenic race whom 
we invoke, gods worshipped by us all at the same 
altars, to listen to our prayers ; and at the same time, 
appealing to the oaths wherein your fathers swore 
that they would never forget us, we become suppliants 



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THUCYDIDES 

fvyvofjLeBa iifiSv rStv trarp^wp rd^oiii xal ivi- 
xaXovfieSa to is KeKfiijitoTai /ii) fevia0at imo 
^rf^aiot^ fir)Se rot? exOiaTotii ij>i\TaToi oktcs 
•trapaSodrjvat, rifiipa^ -re eaiafiifiviiffKO/ieii eKelvij^ 
^ rei XafiirparaTa iter' avrSiv Trpd^avTev vvv iv 

3 T^Se tA heivoTara KivZvvevofiev vaOflv. otrep 
hi dvayxatov re xal j(a.XeiTioTarop rot? eoSe 
ivovtn, X07OU TeKevrav, Biori xal rot) fiiov a 
Ktvhvvo<! iyyii'; fier airav, iravop^voi \eyop.ep ^Bj/ 
oTi oil Si}/3aio(f Ttapkhofiev ttjv TroXtf (elXoixeOa 
yhp in iTpo ye tovtov rp o(<r;^(ffTp 6\4$p<ip Xip^ 
TeXeuTtjirat), vp.lv Sk TriaTevtravTa irpoff^\0Ofi€U 
(_ieal BiKaiov, ei p,i) iTeidopfv, e; r^ aiird KaraoT'^- 
o-aiTas Tov ^vvTvy(piTa KtvSvvov ia<rat ^pa^ 

4 avroiK} kXttrffat), i-mtrK-qirroiiip t€ fi/ta fii} IIX«- 
raifk Svre^, ol trpodvpMTaToi Trepi Toh^ "EWT/ra^ 
yevop-evoi, ^rffiatoK Tol'i rjulv e)(6i<rToiii iie Twf 
vfteTipav xeip&v leai ti^s vfitTepa^ -rrta-TeWi U^rat 
ovre^, & Aa/ceBaip^ovtot, vapaho8rjvat, yeveaffai 
Bi troiTijpas ^p,&v xal fiij tov<! aXXows "EXXtjuay 
(KevOepovvra^ ij/i5s BioXeaai." 

LX. ToiauTa pfv 01 IIXaTot^ ttirov. oi Be 
%t)0aiot BeiffavTf^ Trpo? tov \6yop avrijv p.r) oi 
AaKeBaifiovioC ti ipB&ert, TrapeXdopTei^ eiftairav 
Kal avToi ^ovXeaOai el-Tretv, iveiBi] xal iKeivoiv 
irapd yvaip-rfv njv avT&v ftaxporepo^ X070? iBo&tj 
r^f trpbi TO epatTTfpM airoicpitrteav. tu; £' e>ci- 
Xevffoi', ?Keyov TOtoSe. 

LXI. "To^ p^p X070W ovK hv ^Ti}a-dpe0a 

' ■rtipf\$iiirtt, Hade adopU UUricb'i c<»ijeotare wp»rt\- 



BOOK 111. ux. i-Lxi. I 

before your ancestral tombs and call upoo the de- 
parted not to suffer us to come into the power of 
Thebans or permit us, who were their dearest friends, 
to be delivered into the hands of their bitterest 
foes. We also remind you of that day on which we 
shared with them ia the most brilliant deeds, we 
who now on this day are on the brink of the most 
awful fate. And now, bringing our plea to on end — 
and this must be, howbeit for men in our condition it is 
the hardest thing of all, seeing that with its ending 
our mortal peril also draws near — we say that we did 
not surrender our city to the Thebans — in preference 
to that our choice would have been to die of starva- 
tion, the most horrible of deaths — but capitulated 
to you because we trusted you. And it is but right, 
if we fail in our plea, that you should restore us to 
our former position and let us choose for ourselves the 
danger that shall confront us. And we likewise adjure 
you, Plataeans that we are, people who were most 
zealous for the cause of Hellas, and are now your 
suppliants, O Lacedaemonians, not to deliver us out 
of your hands and your good faith to the Thebans, 
our bitterest foes, but to become our saviours, and 
not, while liberating the rest of the Hellenes, to 
bring utter destruction upon us." 

LX. Tlius the Plataeans spoke. And the Thebans, 
fearing lest the Lacedaemonians might be so moved 
by their plea as to yield somewhat, came forward and 
said that they, too, wished to speak, since, against 
their own judgment, the Plataeans had been granted 
leave to speak at greater length than the answer 
to the question required. And when the judges 
assented, they spoke as follows : 

LXI. " We should not have asked permission to 
107 



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THUCYDIDES 

eittetv, el *cai avTol ^payew^ to ipm-rrfSiv atreicpi- 
vavTO teal /tif i-irl ^ftat rpa-irofievot Kar'^yopiap 
evoiTjaavTO Koi irepX avr&v e^co tSiii irpo/cetfiivtev 
KoX &/ia oiiSk yTiafiivrnv ■jtdKK.ijv t^w airoKo'^Ua' 
Koi eiratvov &v owSel? ipifi^ato. vvv hk irpos 
piv tA avrenrelp Sel, rav Bi Skey\op troiij(Tair$at, 
iva fir/Te T) Tjiie-repa avrotK Kaieui oxfieX^ ftijTe v 
Toi/TQii' So^a, TO B' aK^8h trefil afuftOTfpav 
aKovaaine<! KpiinjTe. 
2 " HfieK Bk avTot^ Bia^opoi ey£v6p,e0a to 
irpmrov on i]p,S>v KTiaavjuv TlXdraiav varepov 
T^? SK\j}ii BotajTt'a! Kol aWa ■)(mpia p.€T avTfj<{, 
fi ^ufipeiKTOv^ avdpmirovv e^eXdaavre'S ia-)(Ofiev, 
oiiK ii^iovv o5to(, 5>ov€p erdypji ro irpmTOV, 
fjyipaveveaOai v<p' ij/ia>c, efw Be tmv &'hXmv 
BotwTtiJi' -rrapa^aivovre^ to irdrpta, tTTeiSi/ vpoa- 
rivayxd^ovTo, Trpoaexwpr}aai' irpoi Affijvatov^ 
xal per ainSfv TroWa ^pa.'i e^Ka-wrov, dv& &» 
KoX aPTSiroffX'^''- LXII. eTreiBi} Be leal 6 ffdp- 
^apot tfKBev etr\ jifv 'EXXaSa, i^offl povot 
BoitDTuf oil /iJiBitrai, xal tovt^ pdXtara ainot 

2 T6 a^dXKovrat «ol ^/ta; XoiBopovatp. ^fieK Bi 
puBiaat piv aiirovi ov ^apkv Bioti ouS" 'Affij- 
vatovi, Tjj pAvTot avTfj iSea v<nepop lovrav 
' AO-riva'iaiv en-l tov? "EWijiia? povovs aC Boti»Twi» 

3 a-TTiieiffai. xaiToi iT/(e->fra(r0€ ev o"p etSei exaTepoi 

' Strabo mentinns PelaxgiauB, Thracinns, HyantianE. 



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BOOK III. Lxi. i-Lxii. 3 

make this speech, if the Plataeans had briefly 
answered the question, and had not turned upon us 
and accused us, at the same time setting up a long 
defence of themselves on matters foreign to the issue 
and on which no charge whatever liad been made 
against them, and praising themselves where aobody 
had blamed them. But as it is, we must answer 
their charges and expose their self-praise, in order 
that neither our baseness nor their good repute may 
help them, but that you may hear the truth about us 
both before you decide. 

"The quarrel we had with them began in this 
way : after we had settled the rest of Boeotia and 
had occupied Plataea and other places of which we 
got possession by driving out a mixed population,' 
these Plataeans disdained to submit to our leadership, 
as had been agreed upon at lirst, and separating 
themselves from the rest of the Boeotians and 
breaking away from the traditions of our fathers 
went over to the Athenians as soon as an attempt was 
made to force them into obedience, and in conjunction 
with the Athenians did us much harm, for which 
they atso suffered in return. LXll. Again, they say 
that when the barbarians came against Hellas they 
were the only Boeotians who did not medize, and for 
this especially they plume themselves and abuse us. 
We say, however, tijat the only reason they did not 
medise was because the Athenians also did not, and 
that, moreover, on the same principle, when the 
Athenians afterwards assailed all Hellas, they were 
the only Boeotians who atticised.* And yet consider 

^ Ever eioce the Feraian war mediie and medium had been 
termB of bitter laproach in Hellaa ; in the mouths of the 
Thebana aitieizc and alHcitm have a like invidioua meaning. 



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THUCVDIDES 

^/iw TOt>TO Svpa^av. rjfuv /tec fctp if iroXt; tot« 
e'Tvy)(a,v£v ovie Kar 6\tyapj(iav taovofuni tioKt- 
Tevovaa ovre Ka-rh StjfiOKpaTuiv Swep Si eaTt 
vofiOK fihi Koi rp <r<a<f>poveaTdrq> evavrtatrarov, 
eyyvTaTOt Bi rvpdwov, hvpaarela oXiyaip avSp&v 

i elx^ tA irpdyftara. koX ovtoi IStav Swdp^K 
iKirlffavre<; ^i fiaWov ctj^jJo-ch', el tA tou MfjSow 
KpaT-qtrete, Kare^favrei; iaj^vi to TrXijdo'i eTttjyd- 
yovTo avTov Koi if ^vp,traaa iroXi^ ovk airro- 
Kparasp oiffa eawT^5 tovt evpa^ev, ovS' d^tov 
avrp ot/eiBiaat &v fii) psrii vofimv fj/iapTcv. 

6 e^reiS^ yovv 5 re M^Sos dTri}\8e «ai. T01/9 v6p,ov^ 
ikafie, (TK^'^aaSai XPV' ' ^Orfiiaicov varepov evi- 
oi/TQ>i' T^v T€ aXXijv 'EWd&a koI ti)!/ ^pSTepai' 
j(a>pav iteipoip.evav v<j>' avroK irotelirSai teal icaT& 
oToatv ^Sij i^QVToav aur^? tA TToWd, el fta^o- 
p^voi ev K.optnvet^ nai vncr/travTei auTOws ijXeu- 
Beptauafiev t^c BotcnTtaj' KaX Toii^ SKKovv vvv 
TTpo^u/iW? ^weXevOepovfiev, Tttttous t« irapkxpVTe^ 
KoX -rrapauKevrfv Sinjv ovk SXKoi twj' ^vfiftd-^wv. 

6 KaX rh. p.h i^ top p.7]hi<TfMv roaavra diroXo- 
yovfteffa^ 

LXIII, "'ils Bi vpLCK fioKXov re ^StK^Kare 
TOU? "EXXjjwx? Kol d^twrepoC etrre ira<fij? ^iffilat, 

2 ireipaero/ieBa dwo^aiveiv. iyiveaffe iirl rj} ffp.e- 

t ruling olaas, 



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BOOK III. Lxn. 3-iJ(iii. z 

the circumstances under which we each acted «s we 
did. For the constitution of our city at that time 
was, as it happened, neither an oligarchy under equal 
laws' nor yet a democracy; but its affairs were in the 
hands of a small group of powerful men — the form 
which is most opposed to law and the best regulated 
polity, and most allied to a tyranny. These men, 
hoping to win still greater power for themselves if 
the fortunes of the Persian should prevail, forcibly 
kept the people down and brought him in. The 
city as a whole was not in control of its own actions 
when Thebes took the course it did, nor is it fair to 
reproach it for the mistakes it made when not under 
the rule of law. At any rate, after the Persian de- 
parted and Thebes obtained its lawful government, 
and when subsequently the Athenians became ag- 
gressive and were trying to bring not only the rest 
of Hellas but also our country under their own sway 
and, owing to factions amongst us, were already in 
possession of most of it," pray observe whether we 
fought and defeated them at Corooea' and thus 
liberated Boeotia, and whether we are now zealously 
helping* to liberate the other peoples, furnishing 
more cavalry and munitions of war than any of the 
other allies. Such is our defence against the charge 
of medism. 

LXIII. "We vrill now try to show that you 
Plataeans have wronged the Hellenes more than we 
and are more deserving of any punishment, however 
severe. You became allies and citizens of Athens 

' After the battle at Oeiiophyta, 4£S B.a. ef. i. cviii. 2, 3. 

•«6b,c. </. I. cjtiii. 2. 

* Tliia is mantioned with a view to JnBuencing Spartan 



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THUCYDIDES 

Tepa Tifitopla, At; ipaTt, ' \8r)vaimv ^vftfia^oi fcaX 

TToMreu. ovicovv XP'i" "^^ "rrpb^ fif»,a<; (tovop vfidi 
e-rrayeadai aiiToii'i koI /li) ^uveTrievai fier aviSiv 
a)CKoLti, Cnrap^ov ye vfiiv, ei t( icai aKOVTe^ vpotr- 
'^yeaffe vtt Adijvaienv, rrj^ t&v AaKe&ai/iovteop 
rSni&e tjSt] i-rrl rp MfJSp ^Vfi/iaj(lav yeyeirrjfiepT]^, 
^v aiiTol fioKtffra trpoffdWeaBe- lieav^ ye ^ 
^v fifiai re u/i&v airoTphreiv xaC, to p-iyia-TOV, 
aSeat -Kapi-xeiv fiovXeueadai. aW' exovre^ Koi 
oil ^ia^6p.evoi ert etXeaOe paXkov rh ^ A8r)vcuiav. 

3 Koi Xeyere ai? altry(p6p ■^p trpohovvai rovt eiiep- 
yera';- ttoXv Se ye ota-yiov KaX aStKtoTepov tow? 
■/ravrat EXKr/vai KaTairpohavvai, olv ^vvaifiotraTei 
^ ' A8i)valav^ fiMVOVi, rov'i pev KaraBavXavpiepov^ 

i Ti)P 'EWdBa, roiif Be iXevSepovprai. xaX ovK 
iai}p avToii TTjv X^P''^ avTairiBoTe ovhe atV^iJiitjs 
airriWay/iipifp- i/iew fief yip ahiKovpevoi ai/Tovv, 
C05 (ftare, eTn}yaiyeade, TOis Be dBneoviTiv oKXov^ 
^vpepyol KareaTrjTe. xairot tA? 6p.oiav j^aptra! 
pr/ aVTiBiSofat altr)(p6v paXXov i) t^i p^rh. 
StKaioa-vp^f pep aipetXiideiaa'i, ^5 aBiiciap Se 
aTraBiBofieva^. 

' Inari yt, Hade Kods imH) yip, with Cod. Orner. 

' q/. ch. Iv. I. 

* The alliance of the LacedaemonianB that ia in mind here 
would seem to be the e^neral league of the Hellenes in the 
Persian War, in which the Lac^aemonianB were leaders ; 
but in oh. Iviii. 1 the Plataeana use the words itiir rSr 
(vfiimxiKmy vDTt yimiiirmr especially with reference to the 
compact mentioned in n. Ixxi., wnere it ia Mid that the 
allies, at the instance of Pausanias, after the battle of 



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BOOK III. i^iti. 2-4 

that you might, as j^ou claitn,' obtain protection 
against us. In that case you ought only to Imve 
invoked their aid against us, instead of assisting 
them in their aggressions against others ; such a 
course was certainly open to you, in case you were 
ever being led on by the Athenians against your will, 
since the alliance of the Lacedaemonians here had 
already been organized against the Persians — the 
alliance of which you are always reminding us.^ 
That would have been enough to keep us from 
interfering with you, and, what is more important, 
to enable you to take your own counsel without fear. 
Nay, it was willingly and not now under compulsion 
that you embraced the Athenian cause. You say, 
however, that it would have been dishonourable to 
betray your benefactors ; but it was far more dis- 
honourable and wicked to betray to their destruction 
all the Hellenes, with whom you had swofn alliance, 
than merely the Athenians, when they were en- 
deavouring to enslave Hellas, the others to liberate 
her. And the recompense you made them is not 
equal, nor indeed free from dishonour. For you 
were being wronged, as you claim, when you in- 
voked their aid, but they were wronging others 
when you became their helpers. And yet, surely, not ' 
to repay favours with like favours is dishonourable; 
but it is not so when, though the debt was incurred in 
a just matter, it can only be retiaid by wrong-doing.^ 

Plataea, matuallj guamnteed the independence of all the 
Hellenic atatea, and of the Plataeans in particular. 

• e/. Cicero, de 0/. 1. 15. iS, mm, redden viro bona mm Iket, 
modo idfacert poeeii aine injuria. The whole sentence serves 
to subetantiate the words oliti aiirxirvt inriWayi^JrTiy, the 
charoe T^i i/mlai x^P"" fil imSitimi being, according to 
the Tbeban speakers, applicable to the FUtaetuiB. 



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THUCYDIDES 

LXIV. " A^Xoc T« eVonJffOTc ouSJ totc toJc 
EXXf/j'wj' evexa fiovot ov iii}hlaavTe^, aX>C Sti 
ovB' 'AOrivaioi ij/iet?' Si, toU /j.ep rauTa 0ov\a- 

2 fi€voi votelv. Toil St rapamla. ical vvv a^iovre, 
a<f>' Mv St' erepav^ eyiveade wyadoL, atra rovrap 
aKJ>e\ei<T0ai. aX\' ovic etxa^- atrtrep Se 'A6T)vai- 
0V1 e'CKeade, tovtoii ^vvaytovt.^eaQe, KaX /ii) -Kpo- 
<f>ep€Te T^ii Tore '^evofievriv ^vviofioatav oij XP^ 

3 air' avrii'; vvv am^effSat. aneXiTTfTe yap avrr/p 
icai Trapa^Mnei ^vyicaTfSovXova'Se /taXXov At- 
yiv^Ta<; xai aXXovi rtv^<; tmv ^vpop.oadvTiDv i) 
Si€Ka>Xver£, xal Tavta ovre aicovr£<i e)(pvret t€ 
T0V9 vo/iov^ ovmrep p-e^pi tov SeOpo Kal ovSevov 
una<i ^taaaftevav, StaTrep t/p.d^. tjjv reXevralav 
T€ irplv TrepiTeixt^ea'Sai -rrpoKXijaiv e's Tjavxiav 
7)fj.iav, mtrre fir/SerepoK a/ivveiv, ovk iSexeo'de. 

* Tivei &v ovv vp-Stv Bticaiorepov trdai toi^ "EXXijo-t 
fuaolvTO, otTMie? inl tA i/ceiva>v xatc^ dvSpaya- 
0iav Trpovdetrde; itai h /iSv irore XRW'^i- *V^" 
vec^Be, w<; (pare, ov trpoa-ijKovTa vvv e-jrehei^aTe, h 
■ 8e^ tftvai^ alei i^ovXeTO, e^ijXky)(8T) it to aXi)- 
8 if fterd yap ' \.6r}vaiti}v dSiKOv oBov lopTtav 

5 e;^ftjpri(raT6. rd fiev oOp e? top ^fierepop re dicov- 
criov p,r)Siafwv Kal top iifierepov eKouaiov dmKi- 
afwv ToiavTa aTrotfsatvofiev. 

LXV. " "A Bk reXevTaid <j>aT€ dSiKTjOTJvai 
{TrapavofUD'i yap iX$etv ^fidt iv aitovtals koX 

; Hude reads 



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BOOK III. LXiv. i-Lxv. 1 

LXIV. " You have, therefore, made it clear that 
even then it was not for tlie sake of the Hellenes 
that you alone of the Boeotians refused to medize, 
but merely because the Athenians also refused while 
we did not, and you preferred to act with the one 
party and against the other. And now you expect to 
be rewarded for the virtuous conduct that was due to 
the inspiration of others ! But that is unreasonable ; 
as you chose the Athenians, continue to fight on their 
side. And do not keep reminding us of the alliance 
you made then, and claim that it ought to save you 
now. For you have abandoned it and in violation of its 
principles have constantly aided, instead of trying to 
preventjthe enslavement of the Aeginetans^ and other 
members of the alliance ; and that, too, not against 
your will, since you then enjoyed the laws under 
which you have lived till now and were not, like us, 
under compulsion by another. Moreover, you 
refused to accept the last proposal we made you be- 
fore Plataea was invested ^— to leave you unmolested 
if you would aid neither side. Who, then, would more 
justly be hated by all the Hellenes than you, who dis- 
played your virtue in order to compass their injury F 
Furthermore, those noble qualities which, as you 
claim, you once displayed you have now made plain 
were not properly yours, but your natural longings 
have been put to the proof and shown in their 
reality; for you have followed the Athenians when 
they walked in the way of iniquity. Such, then, 
is our affirmation regarding our unwilling medism 
and your willing atticism. 

LXV. "As to your last charge of wrong-doing on 

our part — that we unlawfully attacked your city in 

' c/. I. cv., cviii.; II. iivii. ■ cf. n. btxii, 1. 

"5 
I 2 

:„-,:„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

tepatLt)via itrl ri}v v/ieTepaii troXiv), oil vo/M^ofiev 

2 el's' iv TovroK Vfi5>v fi^XKov a/iapTetv. el fiiv 
yctp fifiet; avToi trpoi re ri/v ttoKiv iXSovre^ ifta- 
j^o/teda icai t^c yi}!! e'SijoD/iei' 03<i "rroXifiioi, a£i- 
KOVftev el Se avSpeii vfiotv oi irpSnoi koi, ■)(pij/tMtrt 
icai yepei, fiou\6fi£vot t^ fiiu e^w ^v/iiia')(ia9 
vfia^ vavaat, i^ Bi tA xotvk rS>v travTav Botmrwn 
■trarpia KaraaTrjaai, hreKiikecravTo eKovret, rt 
aSDeovfiev; oi yap ayovrei Ttapavofiovoi /laXXoi' 

3 TMV eTTO/tevav. dW' ovt eKetiroi, wt ij/i«t? Kpi- 
voftev, ovrt ^fieiv- iroXirat 8^ Svrev Siairep vp,ett 
xaX ir\eia> irapa^aWofiepoi, to eavrSav Teixov 
dvoi^avTe<; xal es rrjv avrmp vokiv ifuXiovi, oi 
iroXe/uotrf ^ Kop,iaav7€i e^ovXovTO tou; re vfiStv 
Xeipov^ fitjKeTt fiaWop yeviffdai, toiJs tc dfielvovit 
tA a^ia exeiv, irto^popiaTai ovre^ t^9 ypti>fi.'f<i xal 
tS»v aoifiaTuiv tjjc irokiv ovk aXKoTptovpre';, d\K 
it Ttfp ^vyyipuav o(«eto Oi'te?, e^^pous ovBevl 
KaBitrravre':, diram 5' ofLoiam iva-rrop&ovi. 

LXVI. " TeKftTjpiov Bi oi? ov 7roXc|itMf 4-7rputr~ 
ffofiev ovre yap '^BiK-qiraftep ovSeva, irpoeiTrop^p 
re TOP 0ov\6fiePQp xaTh to. tup ■rrdvrmv Qoiwrmv 
2 iraTpia TroXiTeveiP levcu vpot f)pa<;. Kal vfixis 
Str/ttpoi ^dt^^o'ai'Tef xal ^vft^acriv ■jroiijtrdp.evot 
TO ftiv wpSiTop ^ffi/^aJiETe, vcnepop &i Karavo'^- 
, Stenp'B correction for fi\[»t ^ 

' tf. II. ii. 2. ■ Parody on oh. Iv. 4. 



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BOOK III. Lxv. i-LXvi. 2 

time of peace and on a day of festival — we do 
not think that in this matter, either, we are more at 
fault than you. If it was of our own motion that we 
went to your city, fought you, and ravaged your land 
as enemies, we are in the wrong ; hut if some of your 
countrymen, the leading men in both wealth and 
family,' wishing to put an end to your alliance with 
an outsider and to restore you to the traditions of our 
fathers which are common to all the Boeotians, of 
their own free will invoked our aid, of what wrong 
are we guilty f For it is those who lead that break 
the laws rather than those who follow.^ But in my 
judgment neither they nor we did wrong. They, 
who are just as much citizens as you and had more 
at stake, opened their gates and conducted into their 
own city friends, not enemies, because they wished 
that the baser sort among you should not become 
still worse, and that the better sort should have their 
deserts, being the censors of your|>olitical principles' 
and not seeking to deprive the state of your persons, 
but rather bringing you back into a natural union 
with your kindred, and that without making you an 
enemy of anyone but restoring you to peace with 
all alike. 

LXVI. "The proof that we acted in no hostile 
spirit is that we wronged nobody, and made a pro- 
clamation that anyone who wished to be a citizen 
according to the hereditary ways of all the Boeotians 
should eome over to us. And you came gladly, and 
entering into an agreement with us you kept quiet 
at first; but afterwards, when you became aware that 

' aa>ippiinmat,rBeu.\AUiTaor aeneoTB, those who bring others 
to a right mind and ara a check on vice and lawloSBnesa. It 
waa a, techGical term applied to magislnitee, ten in number, 
at Atheua, who superintended tfia morale of the youth. 

117 



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THUCYDIDES 

Tt avemeiKetTTepov irpa^at oi/ ft^rh rov irX^ffou^ 
iiftrnv io'eXdovTe'i, rh fiev 6/iola oiiK atrraTreBore 
ti^Xp, /tifre vetoreptaai epyq> XoyoK re Trelffuv 
&ine i^eKdeiv, evidefievoi Be -Kapii ttjv ^v/a- 
ffaffiv, oC; fi^v iv j^epalv aveKreipare, ov)^ 
op^iai akrfovfiev (^Karb, vofiov yap fijj Ttva ftra- 
a-^op), 06? hi y^sipa'i irpolaxop-epovi Koi ^wypt]- 
ffavre<i vvoaxofiepoi t6 ■^pip Scrrepop ^ /iij KTSPeiP 
vapavQpMi'; SteibOeipaTe, ■n&'i ov Seivh etpyaaBe; 

3 Kal TflVTO rp€t<; aStitta? ip ohlyp irpd^apref, rtjv 
re \udeiaav ofioXoyiav ital twk dpSp&p top vtrre- 
pop Odparop ical T^f trepl avrSni ij;ttt> fii) tcreveiv 
i^virOeZiTap vTrb<Ty_eaiv, y\v -rh iv tok aypoi^ 
vpXv p.T} aZiK&iLev, o/xoi? i^aie ^paf Tfapapop-fjirat 

t KiA avTol a^iovre ptj avrtSovpai Hkt^p, ovk, tjv 
ye ovToi TO. ap8a yiypcooK^aiv vaPTWP Be auTotv 
Ipeica KoXaad^treaSe. 

LXVII. " Kal ravra, & AatceSat/MOPiot, rovrov 
Svexa i'7re^t]\0oij,€v xal virkp vfi&v fcai fniSip, "va 
vfieK likp eihryre Kttt BiicaUov aiirSip /caTa/yva>tr6- 

2 fiepoi, ^fielf Be e-rt oamrepop Te-ripMprjp^vot. KaX 
pt) TraXaiav ape-rav, eX T« apa koX e'lye'ivro, oucov- 
ovTC? eTriKXaadrJTe, A? XPV '''°'' /*^c dBtieovpApoK 
hrucovpov!; elpai, tok Bi cuitj^op ti hpaxri Bt- 
nXaaia'; ^rjfiia'i, oti ovk ck irpoarjKOPTiap apap- 
TtipoviTt, p^Bi oXotpvpfi^ Kal ottCTt/i axfteXeltrSap, 

' SirTtpar fiii trirtir, Hude traosposes /il) mtnir Simpor, 



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BOOK III. Lxvi. 2-Lxvii. 1 

we were few in number — even supposing we might 
seem to have acted somewhat inconsiderately in 
entering your town without the consent of the pop- 
ular party — you did not repay us in kind, resorting 
to no act of violence but endeavouring by arguments 
to induce us to withdraw, but you assailed us in 
violation of your agreement. Now as to those whom 
you killed in hand-to-hand conflict we are not so 
much grieved^for they suffered, we grant you, by a 
kind of law — but as regards those whom you spared 
when they stretched out their hands to you, and then, 
though you afterwards promised us that you would 
not kill them, lawlessly butchered — was not that an 
abominable deed? And after committing these three 
wrongs within a short space of time — the violation 
of your agreement, the subsequent murder of our 
men, and the breaking of your promise to us not to 
kill them if we spared your property in the fields — 
you nevertheless assert that we were the trans- 
gressors, and claim exemption from punishment for 
yourselves ! No, not If these judges decide aright ; 
but for all these crimes you must be chastised. 

LXVII. "We have discussed these matters at 
length, Lacedaemonians, both for your sakes and 
our own, in order that you, for your part, may know 
that you will justly condemn them, and we that we 
have still more righteously exacted vengeance. And 
let not your hearts be softened when you hear 
them speak of their ancient virtues, if indeed they 
ever had any ; for virtues might well be a succour 
to the victims of wrong, but should bring a two-fold 
penalty Upon the authors of a shameful deed, because 
their offence is out of keeping with their character. 
And let not their lamentation and pitiful wailing 

119 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

traTepav re rdipovi rSiv vfiereptny eTTiffowfieiioi 

3 teal TTfv a^eiepav epijfUav. nal yap fjiieiv avraTTO- 
<^aivofi€v TToXXji SeiuoTepa iraOovirav ri}v inro 
Tovjap rjKiieLav TjiiSiv Bieipffapfiein]v, Stv irajepev 
01 fier trpo'i u/ita? Ti]v Qotwriav dyovrt^ att^Oavav 
iv Kopaveia, ol Si -Trpea^viai XeXeijifUvoi Kar * 
olietat! iprjfiot iroXX^ BiKatorepav v/j.wv licerelav 

4 TTOtovvrai ToiJffSe ri/j.<op^<raiT&ai. otxrov ts 
a^taiTtpot Tuyy(ati£iv ol d-npeire^ ri waff^onres 
rS>v avBpm'Traiv, ol 8e SiKata^, atrirep o'lSe, T& 

eVt'^apTOi eivat. xal t^p vvp iprjfuav 
ovaiv Toy? yelp dfieivov; ^u/i/ia- 
ypv; eKovTe-i dwetiiaavTo. wapevop/ijadv re ov 
■trpoTraOoPTet vif) ti/i&v, piaei Bi v\iov ^ Stucp 
KplvavTS';, Koi ovk^ &v dvTaTroBoKTe^ vvp t^f 
10-171' TifiMpiav evvo/ia ykp veiaovrai Koi ov)^ ex 
fiaxv^ ^etpa? irpoiff'^^op^voi, &aTrep ^aaiv, aXV 
dirit ^vfi^dtreoti er SIktip tr^a; avToiK irapaBopre^. 
fl d/ivi'are o^v, w AaKeSaip-ovcot, koI Tp Twv'EXX^- 
ffDC pofi^ VTTO TavBe Trapaffaffivri koI fjiiXv dpo/ta 
TaOavaiv avTairoSoTe ' X^piv Bixaiav Siv irpo- 
dvfioi yeyev^/xeOa- KaX fiif tok T^vSe Xoyoi^ 
veptaerBStfiev iv vfiiv, Ttot^trare Be toss "EXXjjff* 
irapdSeiyfia ov \6y<Dv Toii<t d^S»va<; Trpod^(ropre<!. 
dXX epywv, aip dyaS&p fiiv Svrwv ^pa^eta 7 

' icar' niVfai, Stdhl'a oinendatiou for mil olufdi of the MSS. 

* lui 4>TnToiiiiT«(, Doliree addoJ ir. 

' iiToiiJSoTt, Hude knaMitort Tt, after GerM. 



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BOOK 111. Lxvii. 2-6 

avail them, nor their appeals to the sepulchres of 
your fathers and their own desolate state. For 
in answer we too would point out that a far more 
dreadful fate befell our young men who were 
butchered by them, of whose fathers some died at 
Coronea* trying to win Boeotia to your cause, while 
others, left desolate at home in their old age, with 
far greater justice make supplication to you to take 
vengeance upon these men. Pity is more worthily 
bestowed upon those who suffer an unseemly fate, 
but those who, like these Plataeans, deserve their 
fate afford on the contrary a subject for rejoicing. 
As for their present desolation, that also is their 
own fault ; for of their own free will they rejected 
the better alliance. They acted unlawfully without 
having received provocation at our hands, but 
through hatred rather than according to a just 
judgment, and they could not possibly pay now a 
penalty equal to their guilt, for they will suffer a 
lawful sentence: and they are not, as they claim,* 
stretching out suppliant hands on the field of battle, 
but have delivered themselves up to justice under 
formal agreement. Vindicate, therefore, Lacedae- 
monians, the law of the Hellenes which has been 
transgressed by these men, and render to us who 
have suffered by their lawlessness a just recompense 
for the services we have zealously given, and let us 
not because of their words be thrust aside when we 
plead before you,* but make it plain to the Hellenes 
by an example that the trials you institute will be of 
deeds, not words, and that, if the deeds are good, a 

' As at ch. Ixii. 5, a reminder flattering to tlie Lacedae- 
moniani. " i^. ch. Iviii. S. 

' Note the mocking qnotation of phraaea in the speech of 
ch. Ivil 3, 4. 



i;. Google 



LXVIII. T 


Ota 


STaS< 


AaKeZatfioviot 


at. 


eaoTO 


„<l,U,v 


ipfm 


efo 


*, «I -7 


arfaSin 


' ireiTovda 


».. s< 


«!.». 


SijO™ 


auTous 


aaviov 


IJ^ra n 


roc 


Mii«< 



THUCYDIDES 

an'aY7e\[a apKet, afiapravofiivaiv Se Xo^ot ewetrt 
1 KOtTfitjOevre"; npoicaXv/i.futTa •yvyvavrai. tiX-X' ^n 
01 rfye^ov^'i, &irrrep vvv ufieK, Kc^aXaioiaavrei 
TTpo? TOW! ^vfiTTavra^ Siayvdf/ia^ irof^atiaSe, 
^aaov Tis eV' ahiKOK epyoK Xoyovs xaXoii^ 
^TjT^iret." 

I &i ot Srj^aloi, €t-n-ov. ol Se 
I vofil^ovre^ to iirep^-rt]/*a 
I ev T^ vo\efi((> vv avrStv 
OTl TOV T6 aXS.ov XP^^"^ 
Kara tA? TraXatas Tlav- 
tv o-jroi-SAs ■^a-vxa^etv «ai 
ore va-repov h irph tow •nepnetxt^eadai -n-poei- 
ypvTo avTotf, Koivovi eivai xar exeiva';,^ ouk eS4~ 
faiiTO, rjyovp.evoi ry tavr&v Bixaia ^ovKi^tret 

2 eKairovSot ^Eij utt' auroii' KavSi'i nevovOevai, 
aZ6i<i TO avTO eva ^Kainov irapayayovTei /cat 
epaiT&vreii, ei ri AaiceSatpovlov; Kal Tovt ^vp-fid- 
Xovi wyaBov ip r^ iroXep^ BeBpaxore^ elaCv, 
QTTore /irj tjtalev, avdyoine'i direKTetvov koI e'fai- 

3 perov tnai'ija'aino ouBit/a. Bt€<j>6ecpav Bi IlXa- 
TaiSiv fitv avrmv ovk iXdaaov; Biaieoatayv, 'A-Bt}- 
vaiwir Bi TTevTe koI eiKOfft, ot ^wetroXiapicovirTO- 
yvpatKa^ Bk rjvSpaTr6Si(Tap. ttjv Be iroktv iviav- 

' kit' i«fCrtis, Badham'B conjecture for xar' Jutiva &i of 



' Referring to the IripuirTiiia BpfX" of oh. lii. 4; liii. 2. 
Posaiblv -wpit Toi( (ifLira»Tat goea with Smyiiiijioi rsi^inwVa, 
" and then ae a warning to allpaea ai ' 



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b60K m. utvii. 6-LXviii. 3 

brief recital of them suffices, but if tbey are wrong, 
speeches decked out with phrases are but veils to 
hide the truth. Nay, if all leaders, like you in the 
present instance, should first state the facts briefly 
for all concemed,^ and then pass sentence, there 
will be less seeking of fair words afler foul deeds." 

LXVill. Such was the speech of the Thebans. 
And the Lacedaemonian judges decided that their 
question, whether they had received any benefit from 
the Plataeans in the war, would be a fair one for 
them to put ; for they had at all other times urged 
them, they claimed, to maintain neutrality in accord- 
ance with the old covenant which they had made 
with Paasanias after the Persian defeat ; and when 
afterwards, before the investment of Plataea was 
undertaken, their proposal to the Plataeans that 
they remain neutral in accordance with the earlier 
agreement had not been accepted,' they thought 
themaelvea thenceforth released from all obligations 
of the treaty because their own intentions bad been 
honourable, and considered that they had been 
wronged by the Plataeans. So they caused them to 
come forward again, one at a time, and asked them the 
same question, whether they had rendered any good 
service to the Lacedaemonians and their allies in the 
war, and when they said " no " they led them off and 
slew them, exempting no one." The number of the 
Plataeans that perished was not less than two hun- 
dred, and of the Athenians who had taken part in 
the siege twenty-five ; and the women were sold as 
slaves. As for the city itself, they gave occupation of 

* The text ia certainty cormpt. Badham's aUsht cbange, 
adopted by Hude, teems to be the eimpleat solutiaii of the 
diffionlty. 



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THUCYDIDES 

vavTiKov vot^avre^ it ttjv Kipievpap trXevtrai 
tTToaia^ovaav, SmSexa /j.€vvav<rl fiovat^ vapovrtov 
'A&i)vai(uv -n-epi NavtraKTOP, ■Trplv Si trXeov t» 
iTrtdor/Brjaai iie r&v ABrivav vavriKOV, ottoejS 
■npo^ffdffaai, Koi -rrapea Kevd^omo 5 re BpaaiSa^ 
Koi, 'AXtcCBa"; ir/io? TaOra. 

LXX. Of yap KepKvpaioi iarairia^ov, etretS^ 
01 aiXP^^^TOt ^Xdov avT 01^ ol €k tmv irepl 
' EwlSa/ivov vav/xa-^iwv {/Tro li.optvdi<t)v a.i^€0evTe<i, 
T^ p.kv Xo7p Ofcraieoa-iaiv ToKavraiv tok itpo^tvot^ 
Sif)yyVT]p.evai, epytp Se -rreTreia fiivoi KopipSioK 
Kipxvpav wpoffiroitjtrat. xai eirpatrffov ovroi 
€KaaTov t£>p tToXnmp p.en.ovre'!, Sttw? dirotrT^' 

2 trctxriv 'A0t)vai<ov Trjv -rroXiv. koX a^iicop.hi)<t 
'Att(«^5 te fCQ)! Koi KopivSCat wpitrfftK wyov- 
a<av icaX e<! Xoyov^ lea-raaravraiv i-^^iaavro 
KepKvpaioi AdijvatoK fiev ^ufiftaj^ot elvai Karit 
tA ^vyiceip^va, HekoTravmia-ioi'i Be <f>iX.oi &airep 

3 Koi irpoTepov. Kal {Tiv y^p Tleiffia^ eSeXonpo^evm 
Te T&v AB-rjvaiwv leal rov SjJ/iou irpoeiar^Kei) 
vTTarfOviTui airiov ovTot oi dv&pet eV BCkijv, Xeyovret 

4 ' AOtjuaioii! Trjv KipKvpav ita-raBovkovv. o Si 
dvoipvyaiv dpOvtrdyet avr&v tov^ TrXovaioyrdrovt 
irevTE avBpa^, tfidaKtap Tefoieiv j(dpaKa<; eV tow t6 
A(09 ToO Te/tevovv ical rov 'AXieivov ^i}p.la Bk 

6 /eaff eicdartjv j^dpaKa irreKeiro (Trarr/p, ai^Xovrtov 

' </. I. xlvii.-lv, 
' The ftgreenient \ 
</■. I. xliv. 1. 



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BOOK III. iJLix. a-LO. s 

their fleet and to sail to Corcyra, which was in the 
throes of a revolution. The Athenians had a fleet of 
only twelve ships at Naupactus, and the Lacedae- 
monians desired to reach Corcyra before a larger fleet 
could come from Athens to re-enforce them. It 
was with this end in view that Brasidas and Alcidas 
set about making their preparations. 
'T'lXX. The Corcyraeans had been in a state of 
revolution ever since the home-coming of the captives 
who had been taken in the two sea-fights olT 
Epidamnus' and had been^released by the Corinthians. 
They had nominally been set free on bail in the sum 
of eight hundred talents * pledged by their proxeni, 
but in fact they had been bribed to bring Corcyra 
over to the Corinthian side. And these men had 
been going Irom citizen to citizen and intriguing with 
them, with a view to inducing the city to revolt 
from Athens. And on the arrival of an Attic and 
Corinthian ship bringing envoys, and after the envoys 
had held conferences with them, the Corcyraeaas 
voted to continue to be allies to the Athenians 
according to their agreement,' but on the other 
hand to renew their former friendship with the 
Peloponnesians. Thereupon the returned prisoners 
brought Peithias,a volunteer proxenus of the Athen- 
ians and leader of the popular party, to trial, charg'- 
ing him with trying to bring Corcyra into servitude 
to Athens. But he, being acquitted, brought suits in 
turn against the five wealthiest men of their number, 
alleging that they were cutting vitie-poles from the 
sacred precincts of Zeus and Alcinous, an offence for 
which a fine of a stater* for each stake was fixed by 



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THUCYDIDES 

Si avT&v Kal vpoi t& Upi licerav KaBe^OfiAvtav 

6 toare Tm vofip ■^(pyaaadai. oi S' cVei£^ t^ tc 
f o/iQ) e^eipyoino xal 5.p4i eirwddvovro toi" JXei^iav, 
fia? ^( /9ouX^ eo-Tt, p.iKXeip to wX^5o9 ava- 
velaetv rov^ ainoti^ 'AStjvaloi^ iftiXovt re koI 
ej^0povi vofd^etv, ^uvlaramo re ital Xaffovrev 
ey^etpiSta i^a-mvaia)^ i<i t^v ^ovXifv iaeXdopre^ 
Tov TE Yieidiav Kretvovfft teal dX\ov^ t&v tc 
^ovXevrStv koX ISuaT&v eV e^^KOpra- oi Be tivk 
T^? avrfji; yvaipjjs Tp lietSCa oXiyoi « t^ 'Att*- 
k}]p Tpi^p^ KaT€<pvyov ?t( irapovaav. 

LXXI. A/)(MraiT6s hi tovto kuI ^vyxaXiirapTev 
KepKvpalov^ eltrop Sri toOto koX ffiXTiara tit) 
Kal ^Kiar &p hovXtuBeKP W 'Ad-t/paiiap, to re 
Xotirop pr/Serepovi Se')(ea$at dX\' ■fj pi^ viji ■^aujfa- 
^opra^, TO Bi trXiop troXeptop '^eiadat. m? Si 
elwop, Koi eirtKvpwtrai ^paryKaa-ap rrjv ypu>pr)v. 

2 TiepTTovtri Be xal es t^s 'A^iJ^a? eiidix; irpitrfieK 
•jrepi ^e tS>p iretrparfpepmp SiSti^opTa<i w ^vve^epe 
Koi TOIK tKeZ KaTa-7re<f>€vy6ra^ weLaovTat; pr/Siv 
avtirir^Seiov vpaaaetv, Sttcds /i»J Tt? iwiarpo^i) 
yhnirai. LXXTI. iXffoprmv Bi oi ^Xfffjpaioi. tow? 

' Or, perhapa, triirTpa^i = animadmrgio, "that do att«n- 
tioD should be paid " — bjr way of pimishmeDt for the ohtuigo 
in Corayraean poliny. 
laS 



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BOOK III. Lxx. s-Lxxii. I 

law. When they had been convicted and because of 
the excessive amount of the fine took refuge at the 
temples as suppliants, that they might arrange for 
the payment of the fine by instalments, Peithias per- 
suaded the senate, of which he was also a member, to 
let the law take its course. The condemned men, 
seeing that they were debarred by the law from carry- 
ing out their proposal and at the same time learning 
that Peithias, so long as he continued to be a member 
of the senate, would persist in his attempt to per- 
suade the populace to conclude an oflTensive and de- 
fensive alliance with the Athenians, banded together 
and suddenly rushing into the senate with daggers 
in their hands killed Peithias and others, both sena- 
tors and private persons, to the number of sixty. A 
few, however, who held the same political views as 
Peithias, took refuge in the Attic trireme that was 
still in the harbour. 

LXXI. After they had taken these measures the 
conspirators called the Corcyraeans together and 
told them that it was all for the best, and that 
now they would be least likely to be enslaved by the 
Athenians ; and in future they should remain neutral 
and receive neither party if they came with more 
than one ship, regarding any larger number as 
hostile. Having thus spoken they compelled the 
people to ratify their proposal. They also sent at 
once to Athens envoys to explain recent events at 
Corcyra, showing how these were for the interests 
of Athens, and to persuade those who had taken 
refuge there to do nothing prejudicial to them, in 
order that there might not be a reaction against 
Corcyra.* LXXII. But when the envoys arrived, 
the Athenians arrested them as revolutionists, and 
129 



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THUCYDIDES 

re irpea^ei^ (is veo>T£pi^oiTa^ ^vWaffoi/re^ xal 
Saovi etreurav xaTeffevTo es Atytvav, 

1 'Ec Z\ TOiirp T&>v KepKvpaiav ol exovTei: to. 
■aparjiLa-ra iKBovari% rpi'qpow Kopiv6ia^ leal Atuee- 
Baiftoviav iTpi<y^eaiv eimiOevrai t«3 h-qp,^ icaX 

3 p^x^f*^'"'^ ivi/CT}<rav. a^iKOfievi)'i he vvkto^ o 
fiev S^fM^ e'f Tjjv oKpotroKiv KaX rk /ierempa t^s 
TToXetot KaTa4>€vyei ical avrov fuWcYels iSpv0tj, 
Kol Tov 'tWalKov \ifieva ei^^ov' ol Se t^v re 
dyopae KariXa^ov, otirep ol ttoWoI ^kovv avrStv, 
Ka\ TOV \ip,eva tov npo'i avrrj xal irpo'i rrjti 
^ireipov. LXXIII, t^5' inTTepaia^KpaffoXlrravTo 
re oXiya xal e? tow aypoii^ ■n-epUtrep.-rrov afi<^6- 
repoi, TOU! BovXovv ■napaica\ovvTe<; Te koX iKev- 
Beplav inTiiTX'">vfievof leal t^ fiiv S^p.^ rStv 
otKerSiv TO ttX^^os irapeyititTo ^up,p/V)(pv, rot? S' 
(Tepoif en Tvj? ^Ttetpov iviKovpot oKTaKoaiot. 
LXXIV. hia'kfrrovar]<; S' fjp^pa^ f^XV «5^(? 
ytr/verat, leal ptxa 6 BijpM<; %w/MftJi' re iffj^vt /cat 
TrXjJ^et irpoiixf^v oX re yvvat/ceq avTOK roKp^rfpSi^ 
fi/jierreXa/Sorro 0aX\oua-at airo t&v oIki&v Tp 
Kepdfi^ xal -n-apk t^vaiv vTTop.4vova-ai top 0opv- 

2 ^ov. yevop.lvTj'i Be rij? TpmriJ? m-epl BfiXi/v o>jriav 
Bel<rafre'i oi oXtyoi p,Ti avToffoel a S^/io? too re 
vetDptov KpaTTfiTetev eireXdiav icaX tri^a,^ Bta<fi$et- 
peuv, ipntiirpaat -rat olicia^ t^s iv kvkX<p t% 
ayopa,^ leal to? fwoixtas, Stto)? /j,^ y ItfioSo^, 
<f>€iB6p,€voi ovTs otKeia^ ovre aXXorpUK, Sare leat 

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BOOK III. Lxxii. i-Lxxiv. a 

deposited them in Aegina, together with such of the 
fugitives as they had won over. 

Meanwhile the dominant party at Corcyra, on the 
arrival of a Coriathiau trireme with Lacedaemonian 
envoys, attacked the people and were victorious in 
the fight. But when night came on the people fled 
for refuge to the acropolis and the high places of the 
city, and getting together in a body established 
themselves there. They held also the Hyllaic har- 
bour,' while the other party seized the quarter of the 
market-place where most of them lived, and the 
harbour ^ adjacent to it which faces the maioland. 
LXXIII. On the next day they skirmished a little, 
and both parties sent messengers round into the 
fields, calling upon the slaves and ulfering them 
freedom ; and a majority of the slaves made common 
cause with the people, while the other party gained 
the support of eight hundred mercenaries from the 
mainland. LXXIV. After a day's interval another 
battle occurred, and the people won, as they had 
the advantage in the strength of their position as 
well as in numbers. The women also boldly took 
part with them in the fight, hurling tiles from the 
houses and enduring the uproar with a courage be- 
yond their sex. But about twilight, when their forces 
had been routed, the oligarchs, fearing lest the 
people, if they came oil, might at the first onset get 
possession of the arsenal and put them to the sword, 
set fire to the dwelling-houses around the market- 
place and to the tenements,* in order to prevent an 
assault, sparing neither their own houses nor those 
of others. The result was that much merchandise 
' Probably the proaont bay Chalikiopulon. ' Now bay of 
Kastradu. ' Large buildings reuted bo Beveral poor familiea 
( — iiMu/oe at Rome). 



„,.u,. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

j(p^fiaTa voW& ift.tropmi' KareKavdrj koi v v6Xi<i 
iKivSvvtviTt TtcLaa hiatfsOapfjvat, fl avefWt eire- 
3 yiveTQ rp ^'Koyi iiri^opo-i ei avrijv, ical oi /Lev 
•travadfievoi t^s P-^Xt^ ^ exaTtpoi ^o-uj^offai'Te? 
T^v vvK-ra iv ifivXa/ey ^aav Kol tj KopivBia vaO^ 
Tov S^fMiv KeKpaTTjKoros v-Tre^av^yeTo, koI rdw 
iitiKovpmv o'i TToXXoi e's t^i* ■ij'Keipov Xaffovrev 

LXXV, T^ Se €Viyi^vop,evji ^fiepf N(«:o<JTf)aros 
o AtetTpe^us, ^Adijvaititv arpaT^yo^, irapa- 
yirfiierai 0ot^6S>v 4k ^auTrd/crov Sto&e/ca vavtri 
xai Meccnjvimv TreinaKoa-CoK oTrXsVots- ^vp.^aaiv 
re i-npaiTffe Kal ■neiSei. wa-re ^vyx<i}prjacu tiXXij- 
Xoi? Se'ico p.ep S^hpat tows alriwrdTowj icpivai, ot 
ovKiri epeivav, roix; S' aXXows olxelv <nrovS^^ 
Trpoi; liXXijXoiis troiija'apivov^ xai Trpo? 'A0rivaiov^ 
Siaie Tovf avTov; ixOpov<i koI tpiXou^ vap.L^etv. 

2 ical piv Tavra TTpafas epeWev a-TroTrXeuffeadai- 
oi Si TOV SiJ/iow irpocnd-Tai ireiOoumv airrov trhne 
/lev vavi rmv avrov <7<f)i<Ti itaraKiTreip, otrtjo<t 
^aaov T» ev xiv^aei Sxriv ol ivavTioi, itra<i Sk 
avTol irXTjpaKTatn-ei iic ff<f>&P avrav ^vft-Trep-iltfiv. 

3 Kal 6 fii-v ^vvex^pv^Pt oi Be Tob^ exffpovv xare- 
\eyov es ri? irav-i. Setffavrei; Sk tKeivoi fti} i<; rii 
'A^^vas dtroTrept^Saiai icaBi^ovaiv eV to twv 

4 Aioaicoptitp lepov. Ntxoo'TpaTO? Sk aurou? uviaTrf 
Tfi Kol ■napep.vSetTO. ti)? S' oiiK etreidiv, 6 3^/to; 
OTrXfffSels iirl t^ irpo4>atTei Tavrt], ws ovBhf 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK III. Lxxiv. a-Lxxv. 4 

was burned up and that the whole citj was in im- 
minent danger of being entirely destroyed if a wind 
blowing toward the city had sprung up to reinforce 
the flames. And during the night, after they had 
desisted from battle, both parties rested but re- 
mained on the alert ; and now that the people bad 
got the upper hand tlie Corinthian ship slipped out 
to sea, and most of the mercenaries were secretly 
conveyed over to the mainland. 

LXXV. On the following day Nicostratus son of 
Diitrephes, general of the Athenians, came to their 
assistance from Naupactus with twelve ships and five 
hundred Messenian hoplites. He tried to negotiate a 
settlement between the factions, and succeeded in 
persuading them to come to a mutual agreement : 
that the twelve mcD who were chiefly to blame 
should be brought to trial (whereupon they fled at. 
once) and that the rest should make peace with 
each other and dwell together, and enter into an 
offensive and defensive alliance with the Athenians. 
When he had accomplished this, he was about to 
sail away ; but the leaders of the people persuaded 
him to leave them five of his ships, that their 
opponents might be somewhat less inclined to dis- 
turbance, agreeing on their part to man and send 
with him an equal number of their own ships. He 
agreed, and they began to tell olf their personal 
enemies as crews for the ships. But these, fearing 
that they might be sent off to Athens, sat down 
as suppliants in the temple of the Dioscuri. Nico- 
stratus, however, urged them to rise and tried to 
reassure them. But when lie could not induce them 
to rise, the people took this pretext to arm them- 
selves, interpreting their distrust and refusal to sail 

133 



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THUCYDIDES 

vy(e5 Siavoovfiievwv t^ tow fii) fw/wrXelw 
re SirXa avrav iie t&v oliciav tkafie 
Kai avT&v Ttva? oh iweTV^ov, et fit] NiiKOtrT/jaros 

fi eKai\va-e, BUtpBeipav av. 6pa>me<! Be ol aX\ai 
TtL •yiyvoficva icaSi^ovtnv i<; to "Hpatov iKerai 
Kai fl/ypovrai ovk (Kaaaov^ rerpatcoirlotv. a hk 
Byfiov Seio-a? /AJ) Tt veatTepitrmatv aviffTijffi re 
auroii^ ireLirav KaX SiaKo/u^ei e's t^v trpo toS 
'Hpaiov vijaov Koi tA iirtr^Beia eKetire airoK 
Sieirffiirero. 

LXXVI. T^? Bk ina,ae<o<i ev tovt^ owrt]^ re- 
Taprji 'fi TrifiirTT) r/fiepa fji^ra t^v t&v avBp&v es 
T)jc v^aov BtaKOfLttriv at iv Ttj^ KuXXiJiiiji IleXo- 
irotniTjateav v^e?, fierh tov ix t^ 'Imvta; irXovv 
e^opfioi oua-ai, ■napaylyvovTai rpeis KaX trevr^- 
Kovra- ?ipx^ B^ avTOtv 'AXKiBas, voirep Kol -n-po- 
repav, Koi B/iatriSa; aurp ^v/t^ouKo^ iTrtTr\€i. 
opfuadfiei/ot Be ii ^v^ora Xtfieiia t^ ijvetpov 
apa Efp ^Tr€Tr\eov t^ Kepicvpa. LXXVII. oi Be 
■jroW^ Sopi^fp Kai ■jretpo^rjftivoi rd t iv t^ 
TToKeL KoX TOV i'Trl-n-'Kovv -rrapfa-Kevd^ovro re apa 
i^^Kovra vau? xal to? aUl Tr\f)povpeva<t e^i- 
irepTTOP TTpoi Toii^ ivavriovt;, ■jrapaivovvrtae 'A$rf- 
vaio>v atfta-i re eacrai -rrparov eKitXevacu Kol 

2 varepov ttdaaK dpa iKelvovt eTri,yeve<r0ai. a>s Be 
auTots -rrpot; toi? iroXepioiv ^trap mropdBe^ at 
vfje^, Svo pev ev6v^ TjvTop^Xija'av, iv irepaK Bi 
oKK^Xoii ol ep,ir\ioine<i ipA)(ovo- ^v Si ovBelt 
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BOOK III. Lxxy. 4-LXXvii. 2 

with Nicostratus as proof that their intentions were 
anjthing but good. Accordingly they took arms 
from their houses, and would have slain some of the 
oligarchs whom they chanced to meet, if Nicostratus 
had not prevented them. The rest, seeing what was 
going on, sat down as suppliants in the temple of 
Hera, and they were not less than four hundred in 
number. But the people, fearing that they might 
start a revolution, persuaded them to rise aud con- 
veyed them over to the island which lies in front of 
the temple of Hera ; and provisions were regularly 
sent to them there. 

LXXVI. At this stage of the revolution, on the 
fourth or fifth day after the transfer of the men to 
the island, the Peloponnesian ships arrived > from 
Cyllene, where they had been lying at anchor since 
their voyage from Ionia, being fifby-three in number; 
and Alcidas was in command of them as before, 
with Brasidas on board as his adviser. They came to 
anchor first at Sybota, a harbour of the mainland, and 
then at daybreak sailed for Corcyra. LXXVII. But 
the Corcyraeans,^ being in great confusion and thrown 
into a panic by the state of affairs in the city as well 
as by the approaching fleet, proceeded to equip sixty 
ships and at the same time to send them out against 
the enemy as fast as they were manned, although 
the Athenians urged that they themselves be per- 
mitted to sail out first, and that the Corcyraeans 
should come out afterwards with all their ships in a 
body. But when their ships were near the enemy, 
scattered here and there, two of them deserted 
immediately, while in others the crews were fighting 
one another ; and there was no order in anything 



135 



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THUCYDIDES 

3 KOfffioi Ttuv iroiovfievtov. ISovre^ hk ol IleXoTroi'- 
vjjiTioi T>)u Tapayriv eiKoai fikv Vavi7i TTpot rovi 
KepKvpalov<i frd^avTo, to« Be Xotirali wpo^ tA? 
BtitSeKa vau? r&v ' ABiji/aiaiP, &p ■^av at Svo 7 ^ 
^oKafitvia Kai YlapaXo^. 

LXXVIII. Kal 01 fMi> KepKvpatoi Katca^ t€ 
xal tear 0X1705 TipoavtinovTei erctKaitratpovv to 
Ka0' avToW' oi 8 'A.$^vatot <f>offovfievot to 
trXfjffoi ical -njv treptKVKXwiriv affpoaii ftiv ov 
irpoaeiri.vTov ovSe KaTot fieaov Taw e'<^' eavTOim 
rerayfiivaK, wpoa-^aXovTe'i Sk tear^ ictpa^ Kara- 
Bvovai fiiav vavv. ical fier^ javTa kvkXov Ta^a~ 
fiivruv airav irepteiTXeov KaX efreip&vro dopv^etv. 

2 fvovre'; Be ol irpos tow Kep«upal,ot<i Kal SeiaaVTSi 
p.rf Strep ev 'NauTraKT^ yevono, eviffoijSavfft, 
Kal yevopiei/ai aSpaai al vrje^ afia top evlvKovv 

3 roK 'Affi}vaCoi<{ eTroiovvTO. oi B' {/•n-ej^ojpovv tjBt} 
wpvp-vav Kpov6p.epoi Kal a/ia riis tS)v KepKVpaitov 
i^ovKopTO TrpoKaTa<f>vyetv on fLoXiara, eoutqjv 
ayipk^ Te {/iraj^aipovvTaiV xtd "irpot crtpai Teray- 

i /ieptov rSiP evavrUav. if fiiv oiv vavfUiyLa 
TOiavTT) yevofiepr} ireXeura i^ ^'XXov Bvirtv. 

LXXIX, Kai ol KepKvpatot Bela-aprev fi^ 
<Tif>itTiv ewtTrXeva-avTe^ eVt rrfp voXtv (u? «pa- 
Tovpre^ oi ■ttoXep.wt ^ Toys e« t^? v^<rov avaXa- 
ffti>atv fj Kal aXXo rt perorepicrcaai, T01J9 tc e* t^ 
cijffow irdXiv i^ to "tipaiov BieKOfuaap Kal rijp 

' q added by Kriiger. 
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BOOK ni. Lxxvii. 2-LJixix. I 

they did. And when the Peloponnesians saw their 
confusion they arrayed only twenty ships against 
the Corcyraeans, and all the rest against the twelve 
Athenian ships, among whieh were the two sacred 
ships, the Salaminia and the Paralos, 

LXXVIII. Now the Corcyraeans, since they were 
attacking in disorder and with few. ships at a time, 
were having trouble in their part of the battle ; and 
the Athenians, fearing the enemy's superior numbers 
and seeing the danger of being surrounded, did not 
attack the whole body together nor the centre of 
the ships that were arrayed against them, but charged 
upon one of the wings and sank a single ship. And 
then, when the Peloponnesians after this move 
formed their ships in a circle, they kept sailing round 
the Peloponncsian fleet, trying to throw it into 
confusion. But those who were facing the Corcy- 
raeans, perceiving this manoeuvre and fearing a 
repetition of what happened at Naupactus,^ came to 
the rescue, and the whole fleet, now united, advanced 
simultaneously upon the Athenians. Thereupon the 
Athenians began to retire, backing water,* hoping at 
the same time that the Corcyraean ships might as 
far as possible escape into harbour,' as they them- 
selves retired slowly and the enemy's attacks were 
directed only against them. Such then was the 
course of the battle, which lasted till sunset. 

LXXIX. The Corcyraeans, fearing that the 
enemy, confident of victory, might sail against the 
city and either take on board the prisoners on the 
island or commit some other act of violence, trans- 
ferred these prisoners once more to the temple of 

' ef. II. Ixiiiv. " i.(. keeping their facee to tha enemy. 

* i.e. with as miLiiy ships as possible ; as it was tlie; lost 
thirteen shipa. 

>37 



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THUCYDIDES 

2 'jToKtv ei^vkaiTtTOV. oi S' etrX fiiv t^c woXiv oiiie 
eroKfL-qaav -KXevaai. KparovvTe^ Tp vaviiaj(la, 
Tpeti Bi ndi Btxa pav^ ex^VTe^ twh Kepievpaiatp 
airenXevaav is rrjv !]-jreipov o6ewep avtjyayovTO, 

3 T^ S' vuTepata i-nX fiev t^v troXtv ovBhi fmKXov 
etreirXeoP, Kattrep iv ttoW^ rapa^V *<»^ 'f'^^V 
ovTa<i leal BpairiSou ■trapaivovmos, (&? Xeyerai, 
'AXiciBa, Iffoyfr^ov Se ovk ovtos- eVl Be Trfp 
AevtcifWtjp TO atcptitT^ptov aTro/Sovrc? iiropdovi' 
Tou? aypov';. 

LXXX, 'O 8^ Stj/iOi r&v KepKVpaCav ev Tovrip 
■trepiBei}<! yevofievo^ fiij itrnrKevtraixip at v^a, roll 
T€ tJceTOts fiaav ii \6yovi xal rot^ aXkois oirm? 
<TO>d^aeTai ^ iroXi^. Kcd Ttva; avr&v errettrav 
es tAs vav^ iaffijvar itrX^paaav yitp Sfia^ rpid- 
2 KovTa.^ oi Bi TleXonrovvjiTioi ft^XP^ fieaov r}fUpa^ 
Sj/axTaiiTe'i rtjp yijp aweTrXeva'av, Koi vtto vvxra 
airroK i^ppuKTap^ffija-ap e^^xapTa c^e? ^ A.6r}vaiaiv 
TrpoenrXiovaat otto AevxdBo^- Ss oi ' AB^jvaXoi 
irvp$av6/iepot t^h ardaiv Kal ra? f^er' 'AXtciSov 
vav? iirl K^ipievpap fieXXovaa^ irXeip aTredTeiXap 
KoX KvpvfieBopra tov &ovkX4ovi; aTparr/yop. 

LXXXI. Ol /t^C OVP HtXovopprjtTioi T^S 
vvKTK eiidiis Kark rd^ov ixofd^opro iv oXkov 
irapit TTjp yijv Kal vTrepeueyKopre^ top AtvKaSimv 
t<T0fiOP tA? cat);, ottms ^^ wepitrXiovTet o^Smviv, 



C.Google 



BOOK III. i-jtxix. i-Lxxxi. I 

Hera and then took measures to protect the city. 
The Peloponnesians, however, although they were 
the victors in the naval battle, did not venture to 
attaek the city, but with thirteen Corcyraean ships 
which they had taken sailed back to the harbour on 
the mainland from which they had set out. On the 
next day they were no more inclined to attack the 
city, though the inhabitants were in a state of great 
coniiision and fear, and though Brasidas, it is said, 
urged Alcidas to do so, but did not have equal 
authority with him. Instead, they merely landed on 
the promontory of Leucimne and ravaged the fields. 

LXXX. Meanwhile the people of Corcyra, becom- 
ing alarmed lest the ships should attack them, 
conferred with the suppliants and also with the other 
members of the opposite faction on the best means of 
saving the city. And some of them they persuaded 
to go on board the ships ; for in spite of all the 
Corcyraeans had manned thirty ships. But the 
' Peloponnesians, after ravaging the land till midday, 
sailed away, and toward night a signal was flashed to 
them that forty Athenian ships were approaching 
from Leucas. These ships had been sent by the 
Athenians, under the command of Eurymedon son 
of Thucles, when they learned of the revolution at 
Corcyra and that the fleet under Alcidas was about 
to sail thither. 

LXXXI. The Peloponnesians accordingly set sail 
that very night for home, going with all speed and 
keeping close to the shore ; and hauling their ships 
across the Leucadian isthmus,^ in order to avoid being 
seen, as they would be if they sailed around, they got 

I ThiB iBthtnaa waa the iierii 4'<(|m» of Homer (a> 378), 
now Saata Manr», the Deck of land, about three stadia in 
width, joining Leucas with the mainliiDd. 

139 



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THUCYDIDES 

2 airoKOfU^ovTOi. KepKvpaiot Si alaOoftevoi Tai tc 
'ATTt«a9 vaik TrpoffirXeovffai Tas tc t&v woXe- 
fdtav olj(pfievav, Xad6vre<; ^ tows re Meaa-qvtow « 
rtfu iroXip ^yayop trpoTepov efw &vra^, koX tAs 
vav^ iTepnrXeva-at KeKevaavre^ &5 iwK^ptairav e? 
rov TXXalKOv Xiftiva, ev oa-p wepteicoftl^ovTo, r&p 
e\6pS)u ei rtva Xd^otev, aVfKTeiirov koI €k t&v 
peav offOfs etteiaav io-fiijvat eK^i^a^ovTci atre- 
■ypwvTO, i^ TO "Hpaiav re eXSom-e^ rmv Ik€t&v 
i»5 TTevrT]icovTa avSpa^ StKr/v virocr'^etv lireia-av 

3 xal KaTeyvrntrav irdvrmv Sdirarov. ol Be voXXoi 
T&v UeTotv, otroi, oiiie iireltrdtjaav, wt iwpwv tA 
ytrfv6;/.£va, Sietpffeipov avrov iv r^ Up^ aXXijXQV^ 
Kal eK T&v ShrSptDV Ttve; dw^yj^ovro, oi S' A? 

4 eKaaroi itvvavro uvtjXovvto. r/fiepa': re kirra., &s 
diptKOfievo^ 6 Kipvp-iBoiv tmi? e^^KOvra vafffl 
TTapifietve, KepKvpatot trxfimv ainSiv rovi ex8pov<i 
BoKovvrav elpai iipovevov, t^v fiev aiTiav ewi- 
tpepovre^ Tot? rov SijfLov KaraXvovaiv, arredavov 
Be Tive^ KOrl ISia^ ^yOpas ivexa, koI aXXoi XPV~ 
pA-rmv ffipiatv otfteiXop-ivtiii) inra r&v Xa^ovrav 

5 rtdad re IBea Karearr) Qavdrov, xaX olov 'f>iXet iv 
T^ rotovrip ylyvetrOai, ovSiv 5 ri oil ^vpiffi} koX 
eri TrepatTepat. jeal ykp irarijp iralBa arre- 

' \aB6mt, Hude'g conjecture for kaBirrti of the MSS. 



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BOOKIH^-wxxi. 1-5 

away. Now the Corcyraeans iiad'DO sooner perceived 
that the Athenian fleet was appToa<^hing and that 
the enemy's fleet had gone than' [hey secretly 
brought the Messenians,! who had till then hfeen.oot- _ 
side the walls, into the city, and ordered thesi^tfts,, 
which they had manned to sail round into the . 
Hyllaic harbour ' ; then while these were on their 
way thither they slew any of their personal enemies 
whom they could lay hands upon. They also put 
ashore and despatched all those on board the ships 
whom they had persuaded to go aboard, then went 
intA the temple of Hera, persuaded about fifty of 
the suppliant there to submit to trial, and con- 
demned them all to death. But most of the sup- 
pliants, not having consented to he tried, when 
they saw what was happening set about destroying 
one another in the sacred precinct itself, while a 
few hanged themselves on trees, and still others 
made away with themselves as best they could. And 
during the seven days tliat Eurymedon, after his 
arrival, stayed there with his sixty ships, the Cor- 
cyraeans continued slaughtering such of their fellow- 
citizens as they considered to be their personal 
enemies. The charge they brought was of conspiring 
to overthrow the democracy, but some were in fact 
put to death merely to satisfy private enmity, and 
others, because money was owing to them, were slain 
by those who had borrowed it. Death in every form 
ensued, and whatever horrors are wont to be per- 
petrated at such times all happened then — aye, and 
even worse. For father slew son, men were dragged 

' The object wjia that the oligarcha on them might be cut 
off from their friends in the neighbourhood of the agora and 
in the temple of Hera. 



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THUCVDIDES 

KTeive Kol ceiib. riiv iepS>P aveair&vTo fcal irpot 
avroit eKreivopro, ol Be Tive? Kal TrepioiKoSo/ir)- 

■ ".-'LXXXII. OuTW! a>fit) ij o-TotriS ' •Kpovyatpiqae, 
•KoX eSo^e fiaWop, Siori iv Tot? trpatTi) eyeveTO, 
eTTeX vaT€p6v ye xal ttav ai! el-Kelv to E,XKi}vikqv 
eKtv^drj Sta<f>opmp ouaSiv eKaara-)(ov Tot? re tSiii 
SjJ/iMi' -TrpoaTdraii too? 'Adrjvalov; eTiiiyea6at 
Kal TOK 0X1701? Tou? AaKeBaifi,ovt.ov<i. icai iv fitv 
elprfvy ovK av €;^o*'Tti>v TTpo^aa-iv ouB' e7oifj,ti>v 
TTapaKoXeip avrow, •jro\sii.ov[ievoiv tk Kai. ^vfi.. 
fUiyta^ OLfia eKarepoit rp t&v ivav^^wv tcaieaia-ei 
Kal iTtfiiffiv avToi'i SK tov aiiTov ■jrpoa-n^oiTjtret 
paBio)^ at lirayioyai, Tol'i pewTspi^tiP rt ^avXo- 

2 fxevoi^ iiropL^ovTo, ical eTreirea-e iroXXA xal 
XaXeira KWra tnatJiP rait TroXeai, yiyvop^pa /tew 
xal alel itro/ifva, la>; &p ^ avr?) ifiuffti ap$ptoiro>v 
^, fi&XXop Se Kal ^a-vT^atrepa Kal tok etSeert 
BtifWayp^ua, a>s &p ^Kaarai ^ at fiera^oXal tbUc 
^vprvx^^" i^i'^r^Pjai. ep fiep yap etp'^ptj Kal 
ayaSol^ irpdyfiaaip ai re TroXett Kal at IBiotTot 
apxtvQv^ TO? ypiitp.a'i e-)(av(7t, Sto to /tij e? aieov- 
alovi apdyKat: trtTnetv hi troKep^i; {»j)e\a)v rijv 
einroplav tov KaO' ■^fiepav fftato^ BiBdffKaXvi Kal 
7rpo5 tA TrapoPTa to? opya^ tS)v troWSip opoiol. 

3 'Eo-TOtrtafe re o^p ra t&p -rroXeav koI Ta 
iijiviTTepi^ovTa irov irvtrTet twk trpoyepoftepaiv 



' UtXT 



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BOOK HI. Lxxxi. s-Lxxxii. 3 

from the temples and slain near them, and some 
were even walled up in the temple of Dionysus and 
perished there. 

LXXXII. To such excesses of savagery did the 
revolution go ; and it seemed the more savage, because 
it was among the first that occurred ; for afterwards 
practically the whole Hellenic world was convulsed, 
since in each state the leaders of the democratic 
factions were at variance with the oligarchs, the 
former seeking to bring in the Athenians, the latter 
the Lacedaemonians. And while in time of peace 
they would have had no pretext for asking their 
intervention, nor any inclination to do so, yet now 
that these two states were at war, either faction in 
the various cities, if it desired a revolution, found 
it easy to bring in allies also, for the discomfiture at 
one stroke of its opponents and the strengthening 
of its own cause. And so there fell upon the cities 
on account of revolutions many grievous calamities, 
such as happen and always will happen while human 
nature is the same, bnt which are severer or milder, 
and different in their manifestations, according as 
the variations in circumstances present themselves 
in each case. For in peace and prosperity both 
states and individuals have gentler feelings, because 
men are not then forced to face conditions of dire 
necessity ; but war, which robs men of the easy 
supply of their daily wants, is a rough schoolmaster 
and creates in most people a temper that matches 
their condition. 

And so the cities began to be disturbed by revolu- 
tions, and those that fell into this state later, on 
hearing of what had been done before, carried to 

>43 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

iroXv ewtipepe rrjv vTrep^oKijv tov xatvovaOai tAs 
Siavoia^ T&v t' iirtj(eipiji7fQ)v treptTe'xy'^ffei Kal 

4 T&v rtp.o>piS>v aToirla. ical rfiv eio)$uiav a^ltuaiv 
Ttov opo/idrto!' e's ra epya uwJXXafai' ry St- 
teaitoaei, ToXpa fiiv yap aXoyiffTO^ avhpeia 
AiXeratpoi epopiadtf, /icWTjo-f? 5^ 7r/jo/tij^7? 
oetKla evirpeTT'^^, to Se amtfipov tov avdvSpov 
■jTpo<T-)(y)pxi., Koi TO -rrpbi a-Trav ^vverbv iwl irav 
apyov TO S' ipTrX'^KTox; o^v dvSpot jiolpa. wpoir- 

' (tWij, aa^aXeia hi to ^ hn^ovKevaaaOai diro- 

5 T/joTT^s •jTpotfjaai'i evXoyo'i. xal 6 pev ^aKe- 
•rraiviov tnaroi aid, 6 fi' dvTtKer^wv avT^ vTroirTo<i, 
iTrifiov\evaa<i Be t(? Tvy^aip fufCTOs teal vnoPOTj' 
iras ert SeivoTcpo^- TTpopov\,evaa<i he ottw? pijSev 
avT&p BeijtTei, ri)? t€ eTaipia^ StaXvT^'i koi Toi/t 
evavTiov; iKTrerrXriypipa^. a-jrK&^ T6 tfyffdcTa.^ 
TOP p.eK\ovTa tcaicov ti Bpav iirr/peiTo km, o etri- 

KfKevaa^ top pi) Siavoovftepop. icai pi/p icaX to 
I^UYTewe^ tov ercuptitoO ahXoTpidnepop eyepero StA 
TO kToipoTEpov elvai avpo^aat<TTio'i ToXpay oi 
y^p perk twc xeipipoiv vopiav mtfteXia ^ al Toiav- 
Tat ^uvoSoi, dWd Trapk toijs jtadeaT&ra^ ffXeo- 
pe^ia. Kal ra? es aiftd'; avTOvs Trltneiv ov T(i 
dei^ Popip pSXKop eKpaTvvovTQ ij r^ Koipfj rt 

7 Trapavopijtrai. ra re diro t&v evavTitap xaXSi^ 



Xejopeva epeSivopTO epymv tftuXa/cfi, e, 
K<u ov yevpaioTtjTi. dpriTipapi^ffaa 



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BOOK III. LMxii. 3-7 

still more extravagant lengths the invention of hew 
devices, both by the extreme ingenuity of their 
attacks and the monstrousness of their revenges. 
The ordinary acceptation of words in their relation to 
things was changed as men thought fit. Reckless 
audacity came to be regarded as courageous loyalty 
to party, prudent hesitation as specious cowardice, 
moderation as a cloak for unmanly weakness, and 
to be clever in everything was to do naught in any- 
thing. Frantic impulsiveness was accounted a true' 
man's part, but caution in deliberation a specious 
pretest for shirking. The hot-headed man was 
always trusted, his opponent suspected. He who 
succeeded in a plot was clever, and he who had 
detected one was still' slirewder ; on the otiier hand, 
he who made it his aim to have no need of such 
things' was a disrupter of party and scared of his 
opponents. In a word, botli he that got ahead of 
another who intended to do something evil and lie 
that prompted to evil one who had never thought of 
of it were alike commended. Furthermore, the tie 
of blood was weaker than the tie of party, because 
the partisan was more ready to dare 'without demur ; 
for such associations are not entered into for the 
public good in conformity with the prescribed laws, 
but for selfish aggrandisement contrary to the estab- 
lished laws. Their pledges to one another were 
confirmed not so much by divine law as by common 
transgression of the law. Fair words proffered by 
opponents, if these had the upper hand, were re- 
ceived with caution as to their actions and not in a 
generous spirit.* To get revenge on some one was 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

irepi vXeioptK ^v ij avTov fti] irpoTradetv. icai 
SpKot e? TTou dpa yivoimo fufaXXa7^, iv t^ 
avTiKa TT/Jos TO diropov etca-repa hiBofievoL iir-^vov, 
ouK i)(6pra)v dWodev Suvaftiv iir Be 7^ trapa- 
TUy(6v7t 6 ifidaffai Oapafiaai, el tBoi atf>apKTOP, 
^Siop S(i T»;v iriaTiv iTtp,wpetTo ij avo tov irpo- 
tf>avo!h, xal TO T€ da-(f)a\ii ikoyl^ero Hal on 
a-n-dr-rf irepiyepo/tevo^ fui^Vem? arfotviafut irpoae- 
Xdfiffavfp. paov S" 01 noWoi xaKovpyoi Svres 
Be^ioi KeKkrjVTCU ^ dp/iOevi diyaOiA, Kai t^ fxiv 
alffxypovrai, cttI Bi t^ dydXKovTat, 
i TlavTCOP B' atn&v aXriov ^ dpXV ^ * ^*^ ttXso- 
ve^iav koi <f>iKori/uav, iK B' ain&p Kal es to 
ipiXoviKeiv Kadiarafiewav to vpoBviMV. ol ykp 
iv Totf TToXeffi irpotndme^ ner ovofunrK ixd- 
repoi evTrpeirov'i, irXtjdovi t€ iaovQp,la<; TToXtTwti}? 
Kai ap((7T0«paTta? ffwif>povo'i vpoTifi^treL, tA fihi 
KOivd \o7p 6epaTT€vopTe<i d0\a etioiouvTO, vavrX 
Si TpoTTOi dymvi^op^voi dW^Xtov irepiyCyveiidat 
eToXfirjffdv ts Td BeivoTaTa, ewe^adv Te tAs 
Ttficopia^ It( fiel^ou^, oil fiexpi- tow SikoIov koX 
TJ TToXti ^ufii}>6pov ■irpa(nt6iVTe^? i'; Be to ixa- 
repoi^ irov atel ^Boirr/v e)(ov opi^ovTet, xal ^ fierk 

■ aXiiof, Hude deletes, with Mftdvig. 

' i, Hude deletes. 

' rpaHTMyrts, Dion. Hal. tor irporifltir*! of the MSS. 



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BOOK III. utxxii. 7-8 

more valued tlian never to have suffered injury 
oneself. And if in any case oaths of reconcilement 
were exclianged, for the moment only were they bind- 
ing, since each side liad given them merely to meet 
the emergency, havingat the time no other resource; 
but he who, when the opportunity offered and he 
saw his enemy off his guard, was the first to pluck up 
courage, found his revenge sweeter because of the 
violated pledge than if he had openly attacked, and 
took into account not only tlie greater safety of such 
a course, but also that, by winning through deceit, 
he was gaining besides the prize of astuteness. And 
in general it is easier for rogues to get themselves 
called clever than for the stupid to be reputed 
good,' and they are ashamed of the one but glory in 
the other. 

The cause of all these evils was the desire to rule 
which greed and ambition inspire, and also, springing 
from them, that ardour' which belongs to men who 
once have become engaged in factious rivalry. For 
those who emerged as party leaders in the several 
cities, by assuming on either side a fair-sounding 
name, the one using as its catch-word " political 
equality for the masses under the law," the other 
" temperate aristocracy," * while they pretended to be 
devoted to the common weal, in reality made it their 
prize ; striving in every way to get the better of each 
other they dared the most awful deeds, and sought 
revenges still more awful, not pursuing these within 
the bounds of Justice and the public weal, but limit- 
ing them, both parties alike, only by the moment's 

• Or, T* Ttfiauiim', "pncty-apirit." 

• For the objectionable terms " demooraoj " (STj/ioit/xiTta) 
«Dd "oligarchy" {hkiyafxi*)-^ 



„-,:„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

■^ij^ov aBiKov xaTayvwaewt ' ■!} X^^p'^ KTmfievoi to 
Kpareiv eroifioi ^<rav jijv avriKa ^iKoviKLav 
i/CTrifiirXdvat. wine evae^eia /tec ovSerepoi evo- 
fii^ov, evtrpeTreCa Be Xoyou oU ^vfi^air) eTTi<l>06pa>t 
ri Ziatrpd^aadai, a/ieivav ijieovov. t^ Se fUaa 
Tmp •jro\ir€>i' vir d/i<poTepa>v f} Sti, ov fuwjywM- 

LXXXIII. OiJtw traaa thia icariar^ xaxo- 
Tpoirlat iih TOt ardaei^ r^ '^XKifvtK^, xat to 
evT^de'i, ot TO yevvalov TrXettnop fi€re)(et. Kara- 
ye\avOev ^^antV^ij, to Be dinirerdxdai oKX^Xok 

2 ry yvatfij) (iTrtffTfu? ewl uroXii SttjveyKeii' ov yap 
tJc o SiaXvamv oine Xoyo-; exvpcK; ovre 6pK0<i tf>o- 
y9epo!, Kpetaaovi Se ovTe? airavTes Xoyiap^ e^ to 
dviXTTiiTTOV Tou 0effaiou fitj traOetv paXXov -trpov- 

3 aieoTTOVv ^ TnajeiKTai. iSvvavTo. leai ol ^avXo- 
repoi yvmp/t}v ws t« irXeiio •jrepieyiyvovTO- rp yap 
hehievai to ts avT&v ipBeki Kal to rav ivavTimv 
^vv€t6v, p.T} Xoyon Tfi rjaaovi aiffi Kot ex tov 
•jToXvTpaiTov avTuiii t^s yv<op.7}^ ^ddawai wpoetrt- 
^ovXevofievot, ToX/iijpws vph'i to, epya e^iiipovv. 

4 ot 8e xaTa^ipopovvTe^ Kav -TrpoataBeaBai «at epy^ 
ovBep <T(f>a^ Betv Xap^dveiv h yi/dtfifi e^ecrTiv, 
a^apKTQi paXXov Btt<p0etpovTo. 

^ KurayniTtiii, Hudo deletes, with van Herwerden. 

' Or, OB Shilleto, "leaning in calculation to considerlnK 
that security waa hopeleES, they rather t«ok precautions . . . 
1^. Schol., iiwoi'Ttt !i oi £repisvai iuTt \iiyia/u>'' 'P^i f* l*h 
4\rS((ir Tiva ii'imr leal BtBaloTitTa. 
148 



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BOOK III. LTxxti. 8-Lxxxiii. 4 

caprice ; and they were ready, either by passing an 
unjust sentence of condemnation or by winning the 
upper hand through acts of violence, to glut the 
animosity of the moment. The result was that 
though neither had any regai'd for true piety, yet 
those who could carry through an odious deed under 
the cloak of a specious phrase received the higher 
praise. And citizens who belonged Ui neither party 
were continually destroyed by hoth, eitlier because 
they would not make common cause witli them, or 
through mere jealousy that they should survive. 

LXXXIII. So it was that every form of depravity 
showed itself in Hellas in consequence of its revolu- 
tions, and that simpUcity, which is the chief element 
of a noble nature, was laughed to scorn and dis- 
appeared, while mutual antagonism of feeling, com- 
bined with mistrust, prevailed far and wide. For 
there was no assurance binding enough, no oath 
terrible enough, to reconcile men ; but always, if they 
were stronger,'- since they accounted all security 
hopeless, they were rather disposed to take pre- 
cautions against being wronged than able to trust 
others. And it was generally those of meaner intel- 
- lect who won the day ; for being afraid of their own 
defects and of their opponents' sagacity, in order 
that they might not be worsted in words, and, by 
reason of their opponents' intellectual versatility 
find themselves unawares victims of their plots, they 
boldly resorted to deeds. Tlieir opponents, on the 
other hand, contemptuously assuming that they 
would be aware in time and that there was no need, 
to secure by deeds what they might have by wit, 
were taken off their guard and perished in greater 
numbers. 

149 



..Googk 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXXIV. 'Ev S' ovv Tp Kepicvp^ rti iroXKk 
ainC>v •TrpoeroKfj.'^Br], Kal ovotr &ii^ v^pei (ikv 
apxofisvoi TO wXiop ^ atD^potrvvj] {nrb rav T7P 
Ttfunptav vapaffj^ovTav oi avTap.vv6fievot Bpd- 
aeiav, Trew'09 &e t^s elwdvLa<i airoKXa^iom^ 
Tiveii, /mkiara S' &v Sia ira^ovi e-TTi&v/iOVVTe^ 
tA twc iri\a<; ey^eiv, vapa SUtip yiypaitTKOtev, & 
T6 fj.}) in-l TrXeope^ia, awo taov Sk fiaXuna eiri- 
0JT6S avatheurria opyi)'; wXeiCTToi' eK^epoftevoi 

2 wfiSs^ KoX a-rrapaiT^TfO'; iiriXOoiev. ^virrapa-)^- 
ffevToi re tov fiiov es Toe Kaipov rovrov t^ -noKei 
KOI t5>v vo/iwv Kpar-^eratra ^ avOparjreia tftvait, 
eltiffvZa Kal irapa roix; v6p.ov<! ahiKetv, eurfUvi) 
iS^oiffev aKpaTT}i fiev opyiji ovaa, icpeiaaiav &i 
tov Btxalov, TTokefiia Zi tov irpovyovto^. oil yAp 
&v TOV Te oatov rh Tifitopela-dat wpovTideaav tov 
T€ pa) dSiKeiP TO KepSaivetv, ep q> prj ^KaTrrovaav 

3 i<TX*'v e^X^ '"^ ^Sovelv. a^iovai re Toii^ koivov^ 
vepl raiv toiovtiov oi avOpwrroi vopovi, dip' &v 
d-jraaiv iKirlt vTroxeiTai aifiaKeltTi x&p avToit^ 
Siat7m^eadai, iv S.W<ov TtpapCait TrponaTokvetv 
Kal fiii inroXeiTreffOat, et tiOTe &pa Tts Kivhvvevaas 
Tivo'i he-^OETai airrSiv. 

> inii^ ir, Hude's ooirecUon for imnaa of the MSS. 



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BOOK III. Lxxxiv. 1-3 

LXXXlV.i It was in Corcyra, then, that most of 
these atrocities were first committed— all the acts of 
retaliation which men who are governed with high' 
handed insolence rather than with moderation are 
likely to conunit upon their rulers when these at last 
afford them opportunity for revenge; or such as men 
resolve upon contrary to justice when they seek 
release from their accustomed poverty, and in con- 
sequence of their sufferings are likely to he most 
eager for their neiglihours' goods ; * and assaults 
of pitiless cruelty, such as men make, not with a 
view to gain, but when, being on tenus of com- 
plete equality with their foe, they are utterly carried 
away by uncontrollable passion. At this crisis, when 
the life of the city had been thrown into utter 
confusion, human nature, now triumpliant over the 
laws, and accustomed even in spite of the laws to 
do wrong, took delight in showing that its passions 
were ungovernable, that it was stronger than justice 
and an enemy to all superiority. For surely no man 
would have put revenge before religion, and gain 
before innocence of wrong, had not envy swayed him 
with her blighting power. Indeed, men do not 
hesitate, when they seek to avenge themselves upon 
others, to abrogate in advance the common principles 
observed in such cases — those principles upon which 
depends every man's own hope of salvation should 
he himself be overtaken by misfortune — thus failing 
to leave them in force against the time when per- 
chance a man in peril shall have need of some one 
of them. 

the ancient grammariaDs, is not mentioned by Dionysius of 
HalicamBSBus, and is obelised in Codex F. 

''Or, ii^uSTa r ht SA iriBovs hiSu/uiirTts, "would be 
above all men pnssionatoly eager for . ■ ." 



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THUCYDIDES 

LXXXV. Of fiip ohi KaTci t^p iro\iv Kep- 
Kvpaioi Toiavraii opyatv rah vptinai^ iv oXXtJ- 
Xovs e^^ffovTO, Kal 6 Kvpv/ieSroi/ leal oV \9r)vaioi 
aTrettKevaav Tat? vdvaLv varepov Se oi, ^eufovre^ 
S T&v KepKVpaiwv (hLeataOijtrav yap avr&v i<; vev- 
raKOffiov^) rdx^ re Xa^ovre";, a ^v iv rfj ^-n-etpip, 
iKpaTow TJj? TT^pav otieeta^ yiji xai e^ avri}^ 
opfuop^voi ik-p^ovro Tous eV t^ wtJo-^ koI iroW^ 
e^kaiTTOv, Kol Xifio'; laxvpo'i fyivero iv rij troXet. 

3 iwoea-^evovTo Sk leal i^ t>}v Aa/ceBalfiOva xai 
KoptvOav irepi KaSoSov xai tu; ov&ev ainoit 
hrpaaaejo, vaTipov XP°''V '"'Xola xal eiriKovpov^ 
TTapaffKevaadfievot hU^r^trav it rrjv vrjffov e^aKo- 

4 (Ttoi fidXioTa oi n-afre?, ical T^ TrXoia ifivp-q- 
aavTe<i, itrw; diroyvoia y toD aXKo Tt ^ Kparetv 
T% lyi}?, ava^avret es to 2/jos T171' 'lardiv'rfv, 
rety^oi; ivoiicoBofj/ijadfievoi e(pdetpov tou? & t^ 
■TToXei xal T^s 7^9 iKpdrovv. 

LXXXVI. Tou 5 d^ToC depov; TtXemmPTO^ 
'Aff7]vaiot eiKoai caC? eareiXav it XiiceXiap xal 
Adx^Td Tov MeXavdiTOV arpaTtiyov ain&v Ka\ 

2 lLapoia,Br)v tov lS.v<f>iK-^TOv. oi yap XvpaKoaioi 
Kal AeofTiUOi e? Tr6\e/j.ov dXkijXot^ Kadiaraaav. 
^vfifiax"^ ^^ '''"'^ ''**' ^vpaKoaiof; ijaav TrXijv 
Ka/iapivalav al dXXai A&i/^/Se? ttoXci;, a'iirep teal 
wpos ri/P Ttui' AaxeBaifxaUfitv to Trpanov dpyppA- 
VQV TOV "TToXe/iav ^vnp,ayiav eTaydijcrav, ov fiiv- 
Toi ^vvtiro\€p.T}adv ye- toi? 8e AeorTiVot? at 
XaXxtStKal TToXeK xat KapApipa' r^s Sk 'iTuXlai; 
AoKpol fih 'ZvpOKOfftwv fjaap, 'Vr^yivoi Zk Karh 

3 TO ^vyyevi<! Aeoprivav, is oSp t^? 'A^iJ^a? 



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BOOK III. Lxxxv. i-LXTXvi. 3 

LXXXV'. Such then were the first outbreaks of 
passion which the Corcyraeans who remained at home 
indulged in toward each other ; and Eurymedon 
sailed away with the Athenian fleet. Later, hoW' 
ever, the Corcyraean fugitives, of whom about five 
hundred^ had got safely across to the mainland, seized 
some forts there, and thus dominating the territory 
belonging to Corcyra on the opposite coast made it a 
base from which they plundered the people of the 
island and did them much harm, so that a severe 
famine arose in the city. They also sent envoys to 
Lacedaemon and Corinth to negotiate for their restor- 
ation ; but since nothing was accomplished by these 
they afterwards procured boats and mercenaries and 
crossed over to the island, about six hundred in all. 
They then burned their boats, in order that they 
might despair of success unless they dominated the 
country, and went up to Mt. Istone, and after 
building a fort there began to destroy the people in 

Vthe city, exercising dominion over the country. 
- LXXXVI. Toward the close of the same summer 
the Athenians sent twenty ships to Sicily under the 
command of Laches son of Melanopus and Charoeades 
son of Euphiletus. For the Syracusans and the 
Leontines were now at war with each other. In 
alliance with the Syracusans were all the Dorian 
cities except Camarina — the cities which at the out- 
break of the war had joined the Lacedaemonian 
alliance, although they had taken no active part in 
the war — white the Chalcidian cities and Camarina 
were allies of the Leontines. In Italy the Locrians 
allied themselves with the Syracusans, and the Rhe- 
gians with the Leontines, because they were kins- 
meu.' The Leontines and their allies sent an 
* e/. ch. IX. 2. * i/, VI. xliv. 3. 



THUCYDIDES 

irefiyjravret ol rav Aeojnivwv ^ufifiaxot Kara re 
wdXatav ^Vftfiay^iav Koi Sri "Itove^ ^ffuv, irei- 
$ovat TOW? 'ASi}vaiovv irefi-^ai aAltyi vavf v-rro 
yeip tS>o %vpaKorjLav tijs re 7^5 eipyovTo xal Tiji 

4 daXdacrtji. xal ^TrefV^av oi Adrfvaloi tiJs fi^v 
otVctoTTjToe Trpo<fid'T€i, ^ovKoixevoi Se /iijVe aiTov 
e? T^i* HtXoTTowijtfOP ayecrSat avroSeii wpoTreipdv 
TE irotovpevot el (Ttpiiri Suvara etfj ^k iv rp 

ZtxeX^ Trpdryfuna viro-^elpta yevtadai. Kara- 
ardpre^ oSc ^ 'Pijytoc ttj^ IroKia^ tov iroKeuov 
ivoiovvTO fieri r&v ^v/ipM-ffov. xaX to Sepot 
ereXevra, 

LXXXVII. Tot) 8' eiriyiyvopivov j(et/i&voi ^ 
poiTOi TO Stmepov ewiireve to« 'A07]iraioK, ixXt- 
trovffa piv ovSeva y(p6vov rh iravrdwao'iv, iyevero 

2 B4 Tie opa>s SioKo>)(t}. irapipietpe 8i to piv iitrre- 
pov oVK ?\a<T<Tov fviavTOv, to B^ vpoTepov xal 
Bvo iv), &ffre ^A07)va[ovi ye p.^ ejvat 6 ri /taX- 
Xov TOi'Toi' e-jrUat koX ixaKoyire rifp Bvvapiv, 

3 TerpaKoaLrav yiip 6ir\iT&v «ai Ter/jaietiTYtXtojv 
OVK eKa<7tT0V'i direOavov ex Totv Ta^eiav xai Tpia- 
KOuLtap iwTreap, rov Sk dWov Sj^Xou ape^evperav 

i dpiBfiof. eyivovTo Be xal oi ttoXXo^ aeiapal tots 

T^? yrfi Ip re 'AO^vai^ xal 4p Evffoia koI iv 

BoM>TO(; Kai ftdXiiTTa, ep 'Opypp,ep^ t^ BotuTi'p, 

LXXXVIII. Kai oi p^v iv ^tieeXl^ 'A0r,patot 

KoX 'PijyXvoi ToO avToO x^^/^^o'! TpidKOPra paval 

' At the head of this embassj wai the celebrated rhetori- 
cian Gorgiiu. 

'' cf. C.I. A. i. 33 for some fragments of treaties of allisnoa 
renewed under thearchon Apaeudes (433-432 b.c), 

» cf. n. xlvii. ff. 

«54 



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BOOK III. Lxxxvi, 3-LXXXV111. I 

embasGyi to Athens and urged them, both on tbe 
ground of an earlier alliance ^ and because they 
were lonians, to send them ships ; for they were 
being excluded from both the land and the sea by 
the Syracusans. And the Athenians sent the ships, 
professedly on the ground of their relationship, but 
really because they wished to prevent the importation 
of grain from Sicily into the Peloponnesus, and also 
to make a preliminary test whether the affairs of Sicily 
could be brought under their own control. So they 
established themselves at Rhegium in Italy and pro- 
ceeded to carry on the war in concert with their 
allies. And the summer ended. 

LXXXVII. In the course of the following winter t 
the plague again ^ fell upon the Athenians ; and in- 
deed it had not died out at any time entirely, though 
there had been a period of respite. And it continued 
the second time not less than a year, having run for 
two full years on the previous occasion, so that the 
Athenians were more distressed by it than by any 
other misfortune and their power more crippled.* For 
no fewer than four thousand four hundred of those 
enrolled as hoplites died and also three hundred 
cavalry, and of the populace a number that could not 
be ascertained. It was at this time also that the 
great number of earthquakes occurred at Athens, in 
Euboea,andin Boeotia,and especially at Orchomenus 



LXXXVIII. The same winter the Athenians in 
Sicily and the Rhegians made an expedition with thirty 

* This statement ma; have been written withoDb a know- 
ledge of the later events of the war, eapociallj the Dnhapp; 
iasue of the Sicilian expedition (see Introd. p. xiii.) — unless 
Svvo^i be taken to mean "fighting strength," or sometliing 
"---1 "power." 

»55 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

errpaTe6owiv itrl t&i AtoXov i/ijo-ov; xaXovfih/af 
ffipov; yAp St avvtplav aSvvaTa ^v eirtarpaTevetp. 

2 vip/3inat Si Kiirapaiot avrd^, K.viSia>p dnottcot 
SiT€^. oIkov<tl S" iv fiia twii vijamv ov fieydXy, 
KoKeiTai Se Anrdpa- Tii? Be oKXa^ e« ravTijf 
oppMfiei'Oi yeotpyovo'i, AiSvfi,i}v leal XTpoyyvKr]!' 

3 Koi 'lepdv. pofd^ovffi &k ol skuv;) apdpawoi ip 
TTJ 'lep^ u; o "Hi^aioTOS ^aXxevei, oti ttiv vvktu 
tpalperai trvp dpoZihovtra ttoKv KaX ^i)V ^fi^pav 
Ka-TTPOP. KCiPTat Si at pijirot airrat xar^ rifv 
%tKeX&v KaX yieatrrjvltup yt/v, ^vp.p.aj^pi S' ^trap 

i Xvpaxoalap' -rejioPT^'i S' oi ' A-drfvaiot ri}v yrp/, 
(is ai) 7r/>0!7e;^«poiif, dirtir'kevaav es to 'P'^iov. 
Koi 6 j(eipia>p ireXeura, /cal vepinop ero? t^ 
iroXefiip ireXevTa T^Se op ©oVKvSiSt)^ ^vveypai^ev. 
LXXXIX. Tow S iwtyiyvop.epov depovi IleXo- 
trovp^aioi Kol ol ^vpp^'xpi /ie'^P* ^i* toP Itrffpov 
fjXdov ws it TTIV 'AmKijP ea^dXovvTet AyiSo^ 
Tov 'Ap)(^iSdfiov fjyovfiipov, AaKeSaifioviwp ffaai- 
Xiwi, aeiffp^&p Se yevopAvaip -rroXXoiv aTrerpdirovro 

2 TToXip xal ovK iyivero etrySoXij, KaX irepl toutovi 
Toiis XP""""^' "^^^ '^^'■ffp.&p KinexoPTCOP, t^i 
Eifffolav ip '0/jo/9tat? ij SdXaa<ra eirape\0ovaa 
dvo T^ TOT6 ownjs 7^s Kal xvp^TiaBetaa cV^X^fl 
7% TToXew? p-ipot T», Kal to p^p KarexXvae, to S' 
VTrenoo-TijffB, Kal ddXoffaa pSp e<ni irpirepov oSaa 

' Strnbo nnmea three more, mo<lem geographers eleven or 
twelve, iJtroDgyle, the raodera Slromboli, B«at of an active 
156 



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BOOK III. Lxxxviit, t-Lxzxtx. 2 

ships against the islands of Aeolus, as they are called; 
for it was impossible to invade them in the summer 
time on account of the lack of water there. These 
islands are occupied bj the Liparaeans, who are 
colonists of the Cnidians. They have their homes 
on one of the islands, which is not large, called 
Lipara, and from this go out and cultivate the rest, 
namely Didyme, Strongyle and Hiera.' The 
people of this region believe that Hephaestus has 
his forge in Hiera, because this island is seen 
to send up a great flame of fire at night and 
smoke by day, . The islands lie over against the 
territory of the Sicels and the Messenians, and 
were in alliance with the Syracusans ; the Athen- 
ians, therefore, laid waste tlieir land, but since the 
inhabitants would not come over to their side they 
sailed back to Rhegium. And the winter ended, and 
with it the fifth year of this war of which Thucydides 
wrote the history. 

LXXXIX. In the following summer the Pelopon- * 
nesians and their allies, led by Agis son of Archida- 
mus, king of the Lacedaemonians, advanced as far as 
the Isthmus with the intention of invading Attica ; 
but a great many earthquakes occurred, causing 
them to turn back again, and no invasion took place. 
At about the same time, while the earthquakes 
prevailed, the sea at Orobiae in Euboea receded 
from what was then the shore-line, and then coming 
on in a great wave overran a portion of the city. 
One part of the flood subsided, but another en- 
gulfed the shore, so that what was land before is 

volcano, has recently become especially notable on account 
of its neamesB to Messina and Reggio, where the great earth- 
quake occurred, Dec. 28, 1908. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

7^' Kol avOpamov^ SiS<pffttpev Sffoi fi^ iSvvapro 

3 <f)&f)i'at wpb^ rit fierempa avahpafutvra^. koX 

trepl 'ATaXdvTrjvTijv inl AoKpoKTOit Oirovinioii 

vfjaop irapaTrXTfala ylyverai ettiieXvai^, koI toO 

re <f>povpiov tcui' ^ASfjvaiav 'jrapeiXe xal Svo veStv 

i aveiXxvfffiSvtDV t^v eripav xarea^ev. i'^hiero Se 

Kal e'w Tl€7rap^0^ icvfuiTOi C7raw»;^(a/M;(rts Ti9, ov 

fievTOt iirixXvffi ye' xal tretrr/Miv rov ret^ow Tt 

Kare^aKe Ka\ to trpv-raveiov Koi aWtvt oiieta<; 

S oXiyav. alriov S' eymyt voiii^io tov toiovtov, 

5 lO'j^vpoTaTO^ 6 tj-eicfios eyevero, KaT& TOvro 
attoerreKKetv re rrjv dahaaaav koX i^a-rrivrfi! irakiv 
eTTianafUi^v *^ ffiaiorepov rtfv eirlicXvaiv iroielv 
avev Si auafiov qvk av fiat Soicei to rotovro 
^v/i^ijpai yevetrffat. 

XC. Tov B' aiirov dipov^ ewoXe/iovii /ihr xal 
aXXoi, mi eKacTois ^vve0aivev, iv xp ^iKeXia Kal 
avTol oi XiitfXtanai i-jr' aXX^Xovi aTparevovra 
Koi oi 'A&t}vaioi ^vv roi^ aiperipoi^ ^u/iftdy^oK' 

6 Se Xoyov ftdXtara a^ia ^ ^t^ twv ' KOt^vaitav 
oi ^vftfia^oi enpa^av fj npo^ tov? ' AOrjvatovi 

2 oi avrfKoXefiot, rainwv iivr)(T$'qaofiai. XapoiaSov 
yitp r}Sr) TOV 'AOr}vaia>v arpaTtjyov TedvTjKoroi 
viro %vpaKoai<av iroXi/i^, Ad^i;? airaaav iyo"' 
r&v veSiv rifv apy(tjv empdjevae fiej^ rStv ^vfi- 
fiAjfav eirl iAvXai riii iAeaa^viuv, ervx^f Sk 
* Madvig reads hiimiittniy, after Schol., folloired by 



* '* ThaoydiJeB is pointing out the connection between Itie 
earthquake and the inundation. Where tlio earthquake was 
most violent, there the inuudatioa was greatest. But the 
iS8 

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BOOK III. LXXXIX. 2-XC. 2 

now sea; and it destroyed of the people as many 
as could not run up to the high ground in time. 
In the neighbourhood also of the island of Atalante, 
which lies ofF the coast of Opuntian Locris, there 
was a similar inundation, which carried away a part 
of the Athenian fort there,^ and wrecked one of 
two ships which had been drawn up on the shore. 
At Peparethos likewise there was a recession of the 
waters, but no inundation ; and there was an earth- 
quake, which threw down a part of the wall as well 
as the prytaneum and a few other houses. And the 
cause of such a phenomenon, in my own opinion, was 
this : at that point where the shock of the earthquake 
was greatest the sea was driven back, then, suddenly 
returning ^ with increased violence, made the inunda- 
tion ; butwithoutan earthquake, it seems to me, such a 
thing would not have happened, 

XC. During the same summer war was being waged 
in Sicily, not only by other peoples as they each had 
occasion to do so, but also by the Siceliots them- 
selves, who were campdigning against one another, 
and likewise by the Athenians in concert with their 
allies ; but I shall mention only the most memorable 
things done by the Athenians in concert with their 
allies, or against the Athenians by their opponents. 
After Charocades, tlie Athenian general, had been 
slain in buttle by the Syracusans, Laches, being now 
in sole command of the fleet, made an expedition 
with the allies against Mylae, a town belonging to 
the Messenians. It so happened that two divisions 

eEEect vaa indirect, being immediately caaaed by the recoil 
of the eea after the earthquake waa over ; hence rii' M\a<r- 
aar, and not, aB we might expect, T^r atia/iir, ie the subject 
of rtuir, &iiaffTJ\\<ii- either active or neuter." (Jo|vett.] 
159 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Bvo ^vXal iv Tats MiJXat? t&v MeirtTfiviaiv <j>pov- 
povirai Kai rtva ical evihpav •ire'7T0tf)ftipai tok cltto 

a t5>v veS)v. at Be 'ASrfvatoi xal o'l ^Vf4,/iaj(pt Tou<i 
te etc r^5 eviSpa^i TpeTTOvai Kal SiatftSetpoviri 
TToWovi, Koi T^ ipvfiaTi -rrpoa^oKovre^ ^vdy- 
Kaaav 6/io\oyla rijc re aiep6wo\iv irapaSouvai koI 

i eVi Heaa^vTiv ^vrrrpaTeOirai. *:ai /xctA tovto 
iireK$ovT(iiv oi Mgcto-ijvjoi tSw re Adrjvaiaiv tcaX 
Ttov ^Vfiiio/xav •rTpotTe')(aipr}(Tav Kal avroi, oftijpov^ 
T£ Sofrei Koi to. aXKa ■mina ■7rapaiT)(0fievoi, 

XCI. Tot) 8 avTov dipovi ol 'A0>}vaiot Tptd- 
Kovra [lev vavi etneiKav -jTepi XieXoTrovvrfaov, Stv 
ecnpaTriyet Atifioa6iv>}V re 6 ^AXxurBivov; koI 
TlpoK\T}i o %eoSatpov, k^rjicovra S^ i<i M^Xov xaX 
S(it;^(X,(OUS oTrXiVa?, eaTpa-niytt Be airrSfv NtKtai 

2 o HiKtjparov, roi/f yap MjjXious oera^ vrj<Tiana<; 
Kal ovK e0iXovTa<! v-rraKOveiv ovBe es to avrSiv 

3 ^vfip^xi/cov Uvai e^ovKovro ■n-poerayajeaOai. &« 
8^ aiiToh StfOvftePTj^ t^9 7^9 ov Trpomytapovv, 
dpavTe? eK t^ MiJXou uvtoI p.h eirXevirav e? 
'ilponrbv t^s rpaiit^i;, tnro vvKTa Be iTj(6tne<i eiOit^ 
hropevovTo ol fm\lrai, atro rap uemir iref^ ei 

i 'Tdvaypav t^9 BoiiuTta?, ol Be ix rfj^ TroXew? 
iravBtj/iel 'Adrivaiot, 'IttttovIkov re tov KaXXiov 
arparf)yovi'Tov koI KitpvfiiSovro^ rov &oVKXiov<t, 

diTo <Tr}/ieiov e'9 TO avTo xarh yrjv avrivratv, koX 
orparorTeBev<Tap.evoi raini)v r^v 7\p.kpav ev rij 
Tavdypa iB^ovv Kal ei"}vXl<7amo. «ai Tp uot«- 
160 



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BOOK III. xc. 2-xci. 5 

of the Messeiiians were in garrison at Mylae, and 
that these had laid an ambush against the men who 
had landed from the ships. The Athenians and their 
allies, however, put to rout the ambushing troops, 
slaying many of them ; then, assaulting the forUfi- 
cation, they compelled its defenders to surrender 
the acropolis by agreement and march with them 
against Messene. After this, on the approach of the 
Athenians and their allies, the Messenians also sub- 
mitted, giving hostages and offering the other 
customary pledges of good faith. 

XCI. That same summer the Athenians sent thirty 
ships round the Peloponnesus under the command 
of Demosthenes son of Alcisthenes and Procles son 
of Theodorus, and sixty ships and two thousand 
hoplites under the command of Nicias son of Nicera~ 
tus, to Melos. For the Melians, although they were 
islanders,^ were unwilling to he subject to Athens 
or even to join their alliance, and the Athenians 
wished to bring them over. But when they would 
not submit, even after their land had been ravaged, 
the Athenians left Melos and sailed to Oropus in the 
territory of Graia, and the hoplites, landing there at 
nightfall, proceeded at once by land to Tanagra in 
Boeotia. There they were met by the Athenians 
from the city in full force, who, under the command 
of Hipponicus son of Caltias and Eurymedon son of 
Thucles, came overland upon a concerted signal and 
joined them. And after they had made camp they 
spent that day in ravaging the territory of Tanagra, 
and also passed the night there. On the next day 

' The MelioDB and Tberaeana, as Laconian colonistB (v. 
liiiiv. 2), alone in the Cyolades held aloof from the Aths' 
□iaD alliance. 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

paitf fidxv KpaT^aavTe<} roitv eirefeX^oiTas tmk 
Tapoypaiap /cal @i]fiiua>v riph^ vpoiT^e^o7]drj- 
KQTa<i icaX SirXa \a^6vre<: Ka\ -rpoTraZov aiijaavTev 
aiie)(aipTia-ati, ol fiev e^ rr/v troKiv, oi Bf hrl tos 
6 vaui. iccu irapaTrXevaav 6 N«('a9 Tat9 i^^xovra 
vaval Tiji AoKpiSo<! to, eiridaXaaaia erefie xal 
avex'^pyjirep iv ot/cov. 

XCII. "tiro B^ Tov y^povov toutov AaKtBaifioi'i.oi 
'UpdKXeiav rf/v ei/ Tpaj^ivia atroiKiav teadiaTajTO 

2 airb TOiaaSe yvwfir]^, MjjXj^? ol ^vfivavrei flai 
fiev rpia fiipJ), TlapaXioi, 'le/J^!, T/jop^t'ciot* roii- 
Tap B^ Ol Tpaj^iPiot •jroKi.p.^ iifiBapfievai irwo 
OtTaiiDP ofwptov omaiv, to irpmrov fieKKqaapre^ 
'ABijpaioK irpotrBeivai cr^a? avrovt, heiaavret Se 
fiij oil t7<jilm ■jritTTol Stat, irep.-rrovtriv «s Aowe- 

3 halfwva ekofiepoi wpecT^evT^v TeiaafLtPOP. fvve- 
•npev^evQVTO Be auTOK xal ^apitji, tj fit}TpaTro\iq 
■rS>v AaictBaifxopliiiv, tS>v avrofv Beofievor v-rro yAp 

4 T&v Olraiav xal aiiTol 4<ftffelpoPTo. aicovacLPTe^ 
S£ oi AaKeBaifiovioi yv<ofi,i)v ely(pv Tr)v aTroiKictv 
sKTrifiwetv, to(9 tc Tpaxtviofi ^ovKofievot koI toI? 
^(DptfVffi Tifioipetv. Kal dfia toO irpbi 'Affr/veuov^ 
iToKefiav KaXmt avroK iBoKSt f) -iroXt? Kadttrra- 
ffdai- eiri re yip rp "Ev^ol^ vavriKop irapa- 
ffieevaffdrjpai dv, 5>aT iic ^payeot T^f Btd^atriv 
ylypea&ctt, t^s t« eVi &pa,ici]^ irapoSov jfpijct/tms 
Ifetc. TO T6 ^vfiirap aipf^jPTO to ^(mpiov xri^ew. 

5 irp&TOv fjiiv oiV ei> AeX^oiv top Oeov hrrfpovro, 
KekevovTOf Bk i^iTre/i'^pup tov? otK^ropa^ ain&v 
162 



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BOOK III. xci. s-xcii. s 

they defeated in battle the men of Tanagra who came 
out againat them, as well as some Tliebans who had 
come to their aid, then taking possession of the arms 
of the fallen and setting up a trophy they returned, 
the one party to the city, the other to the ships. And 
Nicias sailed along the coast with his sixty ships, 
ravaged the seaboard of Locris, and then returned 
home. 

XCII. It was about this time that the Lacedaemoni- 
ans established Heracleia, their colony in Trachinia, 
with the following object in view. The people of 
Malia, considered as a whole, consist of three divisions, 
P&ralians, Hiereans, and Trachinians. Of these the 
Trachinians, after they had been ruined in war by 
their neighbours the Oetaeans, at first intended to 
attach themselves to the Athenians, but, fearing that 
these might not he loyal, sent to Lacedaemon, 
choosing Teisamenus as their envoy. And envoys 
from Doris, the mother city of the Lacedaemonians, 
also took part in the embassy, making the same 
request, for they too were being ruined by the 
Oetaeans. After hearing their appeal, the Lacedae- 
monians were of the opinion that they should send 
out the colony, wishing to aid both the Trachinians 
and the Dorians. At the same time, the site of the 
proposed city seemed to them well adapted for carry- 
ing on the war against Athens ; for a fleet could be 
equipped there for an attack upon Euboea and the 
crossing thus made from a short distance away, and 
the place would also be useful for expeditions along 
the coast towards Thrace. In short, they were eager 
to found the settlement. They therefore lirst con- 
sulted the god at Delphi, and at his bidding sent 
out the colonists, consisting of both Spartans and 

■63 



„,.u. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

re leal t&v irtpMtKmv, ical r&v SXKtuv 'EKK'^vam 
Tov ^ovXitfievov eKeKevov eTreirOai ttA.^i' Itavav 
ical 'A.-)(aiS>v koX eanv av aXKmv iSv&p. oiKiaTol 
Si Tpeii AatceSatfioviwv ^y^irat'To, Aecoc xal 

Tiji" TToXtv ix leaivrj';, ^ vOv 'Upate^eia Koketrat, 
aiTi-ff>viTa ^pfiowXwv irrahiow fioKttrTa retra-a- 
paKoera, "riji Bi daXatrvi}^ eixotri. vetapid re 
irapeiTKevd^ovTo xal etp^av to xar^ ^ep/iOVvXat 
KOT aiiTo t6 arevav, ottq); evijivKaKTa avrolt 

XCIII. 0( Si 'ASr}i'atot t^s wdXew? ravnjt 
^vvoiiei^Ofiivvi<; to Ttpmrov ISeiadv re km evo/uaav 
eVl rp EvySot^ p-dXtcrra KadiixTatrBai, Sri ffpaxvt 
iffTiv 6 StavrXouf Trpo? to KiQvatof rifi EwjSota?. 
eweira pivroi Trapa Bo^av avroi^ aite^tj- oil y&p 

2 iyii/ero air' avT^v Betvov ovBiv. ahtov Bi ^v oZ 
T6 QeaaaXol ev Bwd/iei oi/res t&v ravrr) j^atpicov 
Kal &v iTil rji 7p (KTi^era, tjio^ovnevoi pi] tr^iiri 
fieydXrj tayyi vapoiK<a<Tiv, l^eipov koX Bik 
wavTiK ewoXifMVP avSpattroit veoKaraardroi^, 
Sax; i^Tpv')((a(Tav ytiropevow ri vp&rov leal vdvv 
nroXXovv (wa? yap Tts AaxeSaip^Picav OiKi^ovTotv 

3 BapaaXetut jr«, ^0aiov vofii^aiv t^h ttoXiv)' oii 
fihrrot 7}Kia-Ta ol dpxovret avTwv r&v AaxeSat- 
paviav Ol &^LKvovpevai ra irpdyfiatd tc ^Seipov 
xal ^s oXi/favOptaTrCav xareaT^aap, ex^^^^travret 
164 

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BOOK III. xcii. 5-xcin, 3 

Perioeci,! and they invited any other Hellenes who 
so desired to accompany them, except lonians and 
Achaeans and certain other races. The founders of 
the colony in charge of the expedition were three 
Lacedaemonians, Leon, Alcidas, and Damagon. 
When they had estahlished themselves they built a 
new wall about the city, which is now called Heracleia, 
and is about forty st^ia distant from Thermopylae 
and twenty from the sea. They then proceeded to 
build dockyardsj and in order that the place might 
be easy to guard fenced off the approach on the side 
toward Thermopylae by a wall across the pass itself. 
XCIII. As for the Athenians, while the colonists 
were being gathered for this city, they at first became 
alarmed, thinking it was being established chiefly as 
a menace to Euboea, because it is only a short distance 
across from here to Cenaeum in Euboea. Afterwards, 
however, the matter turned out contrary to their ex- 
pectations ; for no harm came from the city. And the 
reasons were as follows: the Thessalians, who were the 
paramount power in those regions and whose territory 
was being menaced by the settlement, fearing that 
their new neighbours might become very powerful, 
began to harry and make war continually upon the 
new settlers, until they finally wore them out, although 
they had at first been very numerous ; for, since the 
Lacedaemonians were founding the colony, everybody 
came boldly, thinking the city secure. One of the 
principal causes, however, was tliat the governors 
sent out by the Lacedaemonians themselves ruined 
the undertaking and reduced the population to a 
handfiil, frightening most of the settlers away by 
' The old inhabitaiita, chiefly of Achaean stock, who hod 
been reduced to a condition of dependence (not slavery] by 
the BorianB. 

165 



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THUCYDIDES 

roin -TToXKov^ j(aX€wSi<t re koX ivriv & ov koK&v 
i^t]yovfJ.evoi., fiffTfi pfov ^8ij ain&p ol irpocrotKOi 
itreKparovv. 

XCIV. Tou S' aiiTOV 0epou<i, xal irepl toii ainov 
ypovov hv ev T^ M^Xp ol ^Adtjpatot KaTeif(pvTo, 
Koi ol a-rro r&v rpiaKOVTa vtS>v 'AStjiiaioi -jrepi 
XleXoTTOVt'^iTOV Sprev irpmtov iv 'EXXofiev^ t^s 
AevteaBias ^povpov^ Tifa; Xoj^^rravre^ SUipffei- 
pap, ^tira voTcpov sttI AevKtiSa pxi^opi (ttoK^ 
^\9ov, Axapvaai re •jrao'tv, Oi iravSrjp^l ■jrS.-qv 
OlptaS&p ^vveaTTOVTo, zeal ZaKwdloiv koI Ke^aX- 
X^fft ical KepKvpaimv Tripre Kai Sitca vavalv. 

2 Kal ol flip AeuKoZtot, t^v tc Ifw 7^? SijovpAvi]^ 
«al T^? ipTos ToO ladpav, iv jj icaX ri Aevxd^ itrri 
Kal TO lepov Tov 'AttoXXmho!, TrX^dei ^la^o/ievot 
^avj(a^ov 01 Bi 'Aicappapei ^^iovv Atj/mjo'^gi^ 
TOP <TTpaTt}ybv tS>p ' ABifvaiosv dTroret^^iJcd' aw- 
TO1J9, vop.l^ovT€^ ftaZlwt 7* &v i/ciro\iopKijiTai xal 

3 TToXcoj? a.Ul a<f>i<Ti voXepiai atraXkayfjvat. Aj;- 
p.oodkpT)'! h' apaireiBerai Karh. top j(p6vop tovtov 
VTTO M.eoarji't.tov a>i xaXop avr^ arpaTia^ roaau- 
T»j5 ^vveiKeyp.iptji AlroiXol^ iirtdiirOai, Nau- 
waKTq) re TroXe/t^ot? oSiri, xal ^v KpaT^at) avr&v, 
p^lati Kal TO aXXo ^TreiptoTiicov to ravTtj 'Adv^- 

A vatof? irpoinroi.^iT€iv. to yap tBpo^ /liya fi,ev 

' This iBthmue, which at this time connected the island 
with the mniuland, had beeD previouily cot throDsh by the 
Corinthians (Strabo, p. 452 0) ; bnt it hod been filled with 



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BOOK III. xciii. 3-xciv, 4 

their barsh and sometimes unjust administration, so 
that at length their neighbours more easily prevailed 

XCIV. During the same summer, and at about the 
time when the Athenians were detained at Melos, 
the troops of the thirty Athenian ships that were 
crnising round the Peloponnesus first set an ambush 
at £llomenus in Leucadia and killed some of the 
garrison, and then, later on, went against Leucaa 
with a greater armament, which consisted of all the 
Acamanians, who joined the expedition with their 
entire forces (with the exception of the people of 
Oeniadae), some Zacynthians and Cephallenians, 
and fifteen ships from Corcjrra. The Leueadians, find- 
ing themselves outnumbered, were obliged to remain 
quiet, although their lands were being ravaged both 
without and within the isthmus,* where stands Leucas 
and the temple of Apollo ; but the Acamanians tried 
to induce Demosthenes, the Athenian general, to 
shut them in by a wall, thinking they could easily 
reduce them by siege and thus rid themselves of a 
city that was always hostile to them. But just at 
this time Demosthenes was persuaded by the Mes- 
senians that it was a fine opportunity for him, seeing 
that so large an army was collected, to attack the 
Aetolians, because they were hostile to Naupactus, 
and also because, if he defeated them, he would find 
it easy to bring the rest of the mainland in that region 
into subjection to the Athenians. The Aetolians, 
they explained, were, it was true, a great and warlike 

sand before the Peloponnesian wac, «a is evident from con- 
stant allusions to hnilting ships across. It is clear from the 
context that the territory of the Leueadians included a part 
of the mainland of Acaruania, 



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THUCYDIDES 

«lvai TO T&v AirrnXoav «al /xaxi'ftov, oIkovv Si 
Karb, Kiiifia^ aTeif(iiTTQV^, itaX ravra^ htk TroXXot), 
«ffli axev^ ^iXj y(_p(u/iepou ov ■)(a'KeTrov aire^xuvov, 
ft trplv ^vfiffo^ffflaai, Karaarpa^rfvat, iiriX'^Lpeiv 
8" ix^Kevov vpStTov p,iv 'AiroBioTOi<!, ^Tretro Si 
'OijuovtOtri, Kal ps-iii tovtovs Evpvraaiv, o-nep 
fieyuTTov fUpoi iarl ruf KlraKSiv, wyvetKnorarot 
Si yXfao'irav /cal a/uxpayoi eliriv, u; X^ovrat. 
•ro'6'Twv y^p Xtf^deprav ^aSicov Kol r&Wa wpoa- 

XCV. 'O m T&v MeirtTijvtav X'*/'*'"* Tetff^el? 
Kol pAXiffTa vofiiaat dvev 1^7 t&v 'A0Tiirai(ov 
Svvdp,eaii roiv tjireipuTaK ^vfifidj^OK p-erh -rStv 
Ai-TtaUav Svvaa$at hv KaTtt yrjv i\ffeiv itrl Boia- 
TOU9 S(^ AoKpSiv tSiv O^oXSiv iv Kutiviov rh 
AapiKov, iv Se^ta e)(wii tov Jlapvaenrov, &>9 
KaTaffaii] eV ^laieia'i, ot ■npo$vfiw% eBoKOvv xarit 
Tfiv 'kBrfvaitev ateC irore <f)t\iav ^vtrTparewrttv ^ 
K&v ^ia trpoaaj^Qrivai {icaX ^sdkkwtiv ^Sri oftopot 
fl BouuTia earlv), apa<! o3»' ^■Op.ivavTi, t^ trrparev- 
/AOTt atro Tq? AevKaZot cucovrmv twv 'Axapvdvap 
I traphrXevtrev i^ SoXXtov. KOiva>aa<i Si t^v hn- 
voiav TOK 'AKapvaaiv, <»s ov vpoaeSi^avro Sih 
T^s \evKdSo<! riji/ oii trepneixtfftp, avTO? rp Xovrr^ 
tTTparia, Ke^aXX^t xol Meffffijviott xal Zokup- 
OioK KoX 'A6t)valtop rptaKoaiofi rots 4vi^dTai<; 
Twc tr^eripap pe&p (at fkp veprt icaX S4Ka r&v 
168 



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BOOK III. iciT. 4-xcT. 3 

people, but as they lived in unwalled villages, which, 
moreover, were widely separated, and as they used 
only light armour, they could be subdued without 
difficulty before they could unite for mutual defence. 
And they advised him to attack the Apodotians first, 
then the Ophioneans, and after them the Eurytanians. 
These last constitute the largest division of the 
Aetolians, their speech is more unintelligihie than 
that of the other Aetolians, and, according to report, 
they are eaters of raw flesh. If these tribes were 
subdued, they said, the rest would readily yield. 

XCV. Demosthenes was induced to make this 
decision, not only by his desire to please the Mes- 
oenians, but chiefly because he thought that, without 
help from Athens, he would be able with his allies 
from the mainland, once the Aetolians had joined 
him, to make an overland expedition against the 
Boeotians by passing through the country of the 
Ozolian Locrians to Cytinium in Doris, keeping 
Parnassus on the right, until he should descend into 
Phocian territory. The Phocians would presumably 
be eager to join the expedition in view of their 
traditional friendship with Athens, or else could be 
forced to do so ; and Phocis is on the very borders of 
Boeotia. So he set sail from Leucas with his whole 
armament in spite of the unwillingness of the 
Acamanians and went along the coast to SoUium. 
There he made his plan known to the Acamanians, 
but they would not agree to it because of his refusal 
to invest Leucas ; he therefore set out upon his 
expedition against the Aetolians without them, 
taking the rest of his army, which consisted of 
Cephallenians, Messenians, Zacynthians, and three 
hundred Athenian marines from his own ships — for 
T69 

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THUCYDIDES 

KepKvpaiatv a-7r^X0ov vijev), i<npaTevaev ev* 
3 AtTwXow, copfJMro Bk «f Oipe&vo9 rij^ Xo/cpiSoi. 
oi Bi 'O^oXai odroi Aotepol ^vfifiaxoi ?i<rav, koI 
eBet avroiii Trauarparia atravr^aai tov; 'A^ij- 
vaiai'j it Ttjp (Ktroyeiav oin-es yhp opapoi to*? 
AtVatXoi; Ktti 6p,6ffKevoi peyoKr) oxpeXla eSoKOW 
elfai ^vfTTpaTevovTe; /wi^? re ip,-rr€ipii} t^s €««- 
vwv Koi yaipitav. 

XCVI. Av\tiTafi€PiK Si Tp arpar^ iv toO 
Aio? ToO "Sefietov rji Up^, iv ^ 'Ha-loBoi o iroiT)- 
T^s Xeyerai itro 7<av raurj; avoBavetv, ■)(fir)adkv 
ain^ ev Ne/t«a tovto tradetv, apa Tp lip apa^ 

2 iiropevero e's ri/v AirtoXiap. xal aipti rij wpatT-p 
■f}pkp^ HoTiBaviav xai t^ BeVT4ptf KpoxvXuov xai 
T§ T/JITJ7 Teij^Lov, epeve re ai/TOv xal rijv Xelav it 
EvTTaXiov rij^ AoKpiSot aTriTrep,i}rev T^c yhp yweS- 
p.t]V elx^ tA dWa KaTaaTpeyjrdpsiiot ofrrm? iirl 
'Otfttoveai;, el /ii} ^ovXoivto ^vyxfopetv, it Nav- 

3 -rraKTOV eTravaxfop^aat arpareiiaai vtrrepov. rovt 
Bi AtTtoX-oyf ouK iXavdavev avrr} ^ ivapaaKevif 
ovT€ ore TO •np&Tov eTre^ovXeveTo, eVetSiJ re o 
arparot iae^e^rjKet, iroWfj %eipl eve^offBovv 
■n-avret, werre *roi ol eirxaroi 'Oifttoveav oi trpot 
TOP MijXkucoi' ttaXirov Kad-^Kov7ev, BoiyUi^f Kai 
KaXXf^, iffo'^ffijaav. 

XCVII. T?) Si A7)p^a$evet ToiovBe rt ol Metr- 
a^ptoi wap'pvovp, Sirep koI to vpStJOP- avaBiBd- 
vKOVTit aiiTov rmp AtTaiXwi" ws eti; paSia ij 
170 



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BOOK III. xcv. 2-xcvii. I 

I fifteen Corcyraean ships had gone back home, 
base from which' he started was Oeneon in 
The people of this country, Ozolian Locris, 
e allies, and they with their whole force were to 
pt the Athenians in the interior ; for since they 
B neighbours of the Aetolians and used the same 
ms, it was believed that their help would 
Bof great service on the expedition on account 
f:heir knowledge both of the Aetolian manner of 
■ting and of the country. 

ICVI. He bivouacked with his army in the pre- 

p:t of Nemean Zeus, where the poet Hesiod^ is 

1 to have been killed by the men of that region, 

Koracle having foretold to him that he should suffer 

Is fate at Nemea ; then he set out at daybreak for 

etolia. On the first day he took Potidania, on 

e second Crocyleum, on the third Teichium. There 

b remained, sending his booty back to Eupalium in 

is ; for his intention was to subdue the other 

:s tirst, and then, in case the Ophioneans would 

■at submit, to return to Naupactus and make a 

Iccond expedition against them. But all these pre- 

larations did not escape the notice of the Aetolians, 

either when the design was first being formed or 

■ afterwards ; indeed his army had no sooner invaded 

'r country than they all began to rally in great 

I force, so that help came even from the remotest 

' tribes of the Ophioneans, who stretch as far as the 

Maliac Gulf, and from the Bomians and Callians. 

XCVII. The Messenians, however, gave Demos- 
thenes about the same advice as at first : informing 
him that the conquest of the Aetolians was easy, 



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THUCYDIDES 

ifiireipoi Si£^9elpovTO- km yhp 6 ^€/imv ainot<t 
TWF oS&v XpofiMV 6 Mcffo-jjwos eTvyy(^ape reffi^- 

S «<w. ol Se AiTttiXoi effaieovri^opTes TroXKovf fiev 
avTOV ev t^ t/sott^ Ka-rh. ttoSs? aipovvre';, avBpw- 
wot ■jToSatKfi'i Koi TJrtXoi, Steif)0eipou, to^j Bi 
TrKeiov^ rmv oB&v aiiaprdvovTa^ xal e's t^J' vXtjv 
ia-tf>epop4vov^, odev SU^oSoi, ovk ^trav, irvp KOfu- 

3 adfievoi Trepteirifi'Trpaaav ■jraad re ISia /cOTei7Tij 
riji; tfivyJiv xal tov oXiSpov t^ inpaTOTTiBqi r&v 
'A$r]vai<ov, p.6\i.s "re etrl rijv ddXafftrav leai top 
Oivewva TT)'; AoKpCSo'i, odeinrep Koi mpftriOrjaav, 

A oi ■jrepi'yevop^voi xareipvyov. dtrWavov hk tAv re 
^vfifidxtDV TToXXol KoX avT&v 'A0r}»aiwv Q-irXirat 
irepl eXicoat pAXuna koI i/carov. toctovtoi pxv 
TO TrXiJ^o? Koi riXiKia i) ainrj^ ovtoi fieXritrToi Bi) 
avSpe^ ev t^ iroXefup r^Be ex t^5 ' Adi}vai<iiv 
■jr6\tw<; Bieij)ddpr)ffav dtreBave Bk itai a Irepo? 

S aTpaTJ]yoi UpoxX^S. roi)^ Be vexpoii^ VTrotrvov- 
hovt dveXopevoi wapa tSiv AtVtuXwi' koI dva- 
X<i>/M?o'ai^e5 ^5 NavTraKToK varepov i^ Tiif 'A^iji-a? 
Taif vavrrlv iK0fua6t)frav. Arjfj.oaSevi]'! Bt Trepi 
NatrrraKTOv Kal ,tA ■)(mpLa ravra inreXel^di) T0E9 
treirpwypivoL^ ^offo^pevoi rov"; ' AO'qvalov'i, 

XCIX. "Karet Bi tov<; avrovi XP^"*^' ""'^ "* 
wepl 'S.uceXCav 'A0r)vatot irX^vtravre^ e? T*ji' Aoie- 
piBa iv d-rrofidffei re nut tou? irpoa^arjQ'^aavTav 
AoKp&v 6Kpd-rt}aav koX •jrepnroXiop cupovffi.v h ^v 
i-Trl T^ 'AXtjKi TTorap^. 

C. Toy S" avTov 04pou^ AhtoXol vpoiripflfravre's 
wpoTepov e? re Kopivffov xal iv AaKeOfUpova 
•npia^eii, ToXo^oi' re tov 'Otjtiovea Kal ^opid^v 

' ^ oMi, Hade i) tfini. 
174 



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BOOK III. xcvm. i-c. r 

they perished ; for Chromon, the Messenian, who had 
been their guide on the way, had unfortunately 
been killed. The Aetolians kept plying their javelins, 
and being swift of foot and lighUy equipped, follow- 
ing at their heels they caught many there in the 
rout and slew them ; but the greater number missed 
the roads and got into the forest, from which there 
were no paths out, and the Aetolians brought fire 
and set the woods ablaze around them. Then every 
manner of Hight was essayed and every manner of 
destruction befell the army of the Athenians, and 
it was only with difficulty that the survivors escaped 
to the sea at Oeneon in Locris, whence they had set 
out. Many of the allies were slain, and of the 
Athenians themselves about one hundred and twenty 
hoplites. So great a number of men, and all of the 
same age, perished here, the best men in truth 
whom the city of Athens lost in this war ; and 
Procles, one of the two generals, perished also. 
When they had received back their dead from the 
Aetolians under a truce and had retreated to Nau- 
pactus, they were afterwards taken back by the fleet 
to Athens. Demosthenes, however, remained behind 
in Naupactus and the region round about, for be was 
afraid of the Athenians because of what had happened. 

XCIX. About the same time the Athenian forces 
over in Sicily sailed to Locris * and disembarking 
there defeated the Locrians who came against them 
and took a guard-house which was situated on the 
river Hal ex, 

C. During the same summer the Aetolians, who had 

previously sent three envoys to Corinth and Liace- 

dsemon, namely Tolophus the Ophionean, Boriades 

' i.e. the territory of the Epizephyrian Locri, north of 

Rhegium in Italy. 



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THUCYDIDES 

rbv Evpvrava koI Telrravhpov tqv ' AitoSwtSv, 
treiOoixTtv wffre <rtf>iat wi/iilrat ff-rparthv ^Trt t^av- 

1 iraieTOii St& Ttjv t&v 'A6t]vaia>v eTraycoy^v. Kid 
e^eire/tiffav Aa/ceSai/ioviof 7T€pi to ^BivoTraipov 
Tpta^tkiov^ OTrXtTfl? twv ^vfifiay^cuv. Tovrav 
rfuav irevraicocrMi eP 'HpawXet'as, t^S ev T/M^tpt 
TToXeoJ? Tore peOKTunov ovar}<i- 1.Tr a.pTia.Ti^'i S* 
^PX^v 'E.vpvXoj(p<; T^9 iTTpaTiat;, koX ^vptj/toXov- 
Sovv avT^ MaKaptof ical MeireSa,io<; ol %Trap- 
Tidrat, CI. ^vKKeyeiTOi Sk tov arparevfiaTOt 
e's AeX<f>ov^ iirfK'tjpUKevero EupuXo;^o? AoxpoK 
TOi? 'Oi^oXat?' Sia toutwp y&p 17 oSa-; ^ ^9 Nav- 
iraKTOV, Koi &fia t£)v ' AB-rjvalaiv iffovKero onro- 

i (TTfjaai aiiTOvi. ^vveTrpaaaov Si p.d\iaTa avr^ 
TUf AoKpSiv ' Aii^iaaffi h,h, ra rSiv ^<oKeatv 
e'X$o<i SeStoTt?' KoX aiirai TrpS>Toi Soi/re? op/^povs 
KoX Toi/f aK\ov<i eirftaav Sovvai <f>o^ovp4i'ovi rbv 
hriovTa mpaTov, vpwTov iiiv ovv tovi ofiopovi 
auTOi? Mvovea^i (ravrji yap Bva-trr^oXroTaTO^ rf 
AoKpK'), fTTfiTa liri/iat xal 'Merraairiovt xal 
Tpnaieav xal XaXaiov; koI ToiXotfxovlovv xal 
Ho'triou; teal OtavOia^, otrot xal ^weaTpaTevov 
wdvrev. OXTratoi Be op.^pov; p^v e&oaav, ^koXov- 
dovv Si ov- ical 'Taioi ovk ehoaav o/i'^pov<t trpiv 
aiiT&v etXov Kaipt/v IloXcv Svop^ ^ovtrttv. 

CII. 'EfTreihtj Si irapeaxevaffTO ■navra KaX Toii^ 
Oftr/povi KarkSero eV ^vrivtov to ^(npiKov, iywpet 
T^ iTTpar^ eVi t^ NaviraKTOV BlA t&v AoKpwif, 
KoX TTopevo/taro^ Olve&va alpel ain&v itai Gv- 

2 waKiov ov yiip Trpotrej^wptjaav. yevoftevot S' iv 
TJ} tfavrraKTitf xal ol AItoiXoI apa tjSif irpotrffe' 

176 

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BOOK III. c. i~cn. 2 

the Eurytanian, and Teisander the Apodotian, urged 
them to send an army against Naupactus because 
this city had brought the Athenians against them. 
So towards autumn the Lacedaemonians sent three 
thousand hoplites of their allies, among whom were 
six hundred from Heracleia, the city which had re- 
cently been founded in Trachis. The commander of 
the expedition was Eurylochus a Spartan, who was ac- 
companied by the Spartans Macarius and Menedaius, 
CI. And when the army was collected at Delphi, 
Eurylochus sent a herald to the Ozolian Locrians ; 
for the road to Naupactus lay through their tenitory, 
and he also wished to induce them to revolt from 
Athens. Of the Locrians the people of Amphissa 
co-operated with him chiefly, these being afraid on 
account of their enmity to the Fhocians ; and after 
these had taken the lead in giving him hostages 
they persuaded the rest, who were afraid of lie 
invading army, to do likewise^first their neighbours 
the Myoneans, who held the country from which 
Locria was most difficult of access, then the Ipneans, 
Messapians, TritaeeanSjChalaeans,Tolophonians,Hes- 
sians and Ocantheans. All these tribes also took part 
in the expedition. The Olpaeans gave hostages, but 
did not take the field with the others; and the 
Hjaeans refused to give hostages until a village of 
theirs. Polls by name, was taken. 

CH. When all preparations had been made, and 
the hostages had been deposited at Cytinium in 
Doris, Eurylochus advanced with his army against 
Naupactus through the Locrian territory, taking on 
his march two of their towns, Oeneon and Eupalium, 
which refused to yield. And when they reached the 
territory of Naupactus, the Aetohans meanwhile 

177 
VOL. n. N 

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THUCYDIDES 

ffoTjdtjKOTf^, eSyow ri)v yrjv kuI to -rrpoaTreiov 
areiyuTTov 6v elX^ov etrt re MoXvKpeiov ekOovre^, 
•Ti)V K.opiv0io)v fiiv aitoiKtav, 'A^tjuoaww he inrij' 

3 Koov, aipoOfftu, Aij/ioff^ei'ijf Be 6 'A^Tjcato? (ert 
yap inij^avep Stv fiera ra eie t^9 AtVwX/a? vepl 
NaviroKTOv) trpoaiaSop^vo^ tow arparov KaX 
Seitra^ wepl aini}^, i\0a>v tr eiBei. 'AKapvava^, 
j^aXetrm Bia t^j/ e« t^s AevKtiStK ava^topTicrij', 

4 0O7i0jjaai NauTTaicTip. Koi ire/iTrovai p^r airrov 
«Vl tS>v vemv ^tXt'ous oTrXtTOs, oi iaekdovTe^ 
Trepieiroiiiaav ro ytopiov heivov yap ^v /tij, fttyd- 
\ov Sptoi tov T6t;toi/9, okiymv Be t&v ap/vvopjevatv, 

5 oiiK avTtrTj(a><Tiv. Eu/aiiXo^os Be xal oi p.€r avTov 
ws ^aSovTo rt/v crTpaTiiip eaeXrjXvBvUiv xal dBv~ 
parov ov Trjp ttoXi-p ^ia iXetv, avej(<i)pTiaav oiiK 
eirl TleXoTTovp^aov, aXX e? tt)v AtoXiSa T^f pvp 
KaXovfUvr}v, ViaXvhmva koI YlXevpSiva koX e; t^ 
TavTj) ympia, Koi e'e Wpouxiov Trp AlrtaXia^. 

8 oi ykp AfiTTpaKiatTai iXBoVTev Trpo'i ainovs ir€i- 
BoviTip mare ptrA a^Stv "Apyei re Tp 'Ap<f>tXo- 
Yt«p xal 'Ap^t\oj(ta t^ dXXj] £ntj(eipt]ffai kciX 
Axapvavla dfui, Xeyovre^ oti, ^p tovtcov xpa- 
Tijffdjffi, Trail TO 'ijnetpeoTiKov AaKeBatp,opioi^ fvM" 

7 piaxov Ka$eaTri^ei, Koi o p.e.p E,vpv\o-)(p'i ireiffBel^ 
Kai Toi? AlrteXoiit di^eh fi<j-vX0-K^ t^ (TTpOTp 
irepX rovi j(a>pov^ toiJtou?, eai^ Tots 'Ap/irpa/ciiii' 
TOt? ixiTTpaTeva'ap.h'Ot^ irtpX to 'Apyoi Biot ySo*;- 
0elv. Kai TO 6epoi ireXevra. 



i;. Google 



BOOK III. cii. 2-7 

having come to their support, they ravaged the land 
and took the outer town, which was not fortified ; 
and advancing against Molycreium, a colony founded 
by the Corinthians but subject to Athens, they took 
it. But Demosthenes the Athenian, who happened 
to have remained in the neighbourhood of Naupactus 
after his retreat from Aetolia, got information of the 
expedition, and fearing for the town went and 
persuaded the Acarnanians, though with difficulty 
on account of his withdrawal from Leucas, to come to 
the aid of Naupactus. And they sent with him on 
board the fleet ^ one thousand hoplites, who entered 
the place and saved it ; for there was danger that 
they might not be able to hold out, since the walls 
were extensive aud the defenders few in number, 
Eurylochus and his men, perceiving that the army 
had entered and that it was impossible to take the 
town by storm, now withdrew, not to the Pelopon- 
nesus, but to the district of Aeolis, as it is now called, 
to Calydon, namely, and Pleuron, and the other 
towns of that region, and to Proschium in Aetolia. 
For the Ambraciots came and urged him to join 
them in an attack upon Amphilochian Argos and the 
rest of Amphilocliia, and at the same time upon 
Acamania, saying that if they got control of these 
places all the mainland would be brought into 
alliance with the Lacedaemonians. Eurylochus was 
persuaded, and dismissing the Aetolians remained 
Inactive, keeping his army in these regions until 
the Ambraciots should take the field and the time 
should come for him to join them in the neighbour- 
hood of Argos, And the summer ended. 



..Google 



THUCYDrDES 

fforjfffjKorft, iStiovv rfjv yijp xal to irpodo'Tetao 
aTeiviarov 6v elKov iiri re MoXvKpeiov e^-dovret, 
t}}P Kopivdlajv fiev a/KOiielav, 'Afftjvaloyv Si \nrq- 

3 Koov, aipovaiv. ^^fUiffOev^f Sf o 'A8t]vaio<; (eri 
•yap irvyxavev mv fiera la ex rrj'i AirtoKia^ irepX 
"SavTTOKTOp) trpotuadofieiroit rov a-rparoO koI 
Set'ffas trepl avTrj^, iXdaiv Trei'flet 'Axapvava^, 
yaXeTTws o*i rrjv i/t Tij? AevKiiSo^ avaywpifaiv, 

4 poffOijaai NaiwrtwcTy. xai itip-TTovtri fisT aiiTov 
hrl r&p veS>v -xikiovi oTrXira^, ot effeXSovres 
weptenoiT]ffav to ^(u/atoi'' Betvov yap ^v p,^, /ayd- 
Xov ovTo^ Tov Tei)(pv^, oXiymv Sk twc a/ivvopevtav, 

6 ovK mniaywaiv. EuptiXovo? Sc ical ol fier avTOv 
MS' perffovro t^v aTpari^v e(re\r)'Kv8vtav Koi oSw- 
vaTov ov TTjv iroKiv /Sta eXetv, ave)(atp7]aav quk 
eVi neXowocujJo-ou, aXK e's rijv Alo\iSa Trju vvv 
KaXovfUtrriv, K.aXvhS>va icaX TVkevpSyva Kol it rh 
ravrr/ ympia, koX e? TVpoa-xiov t^ AtVmXta?. 

6 oi y&p AfJ.Trpaicia>Tai iXdovTei Trpot aiiTovi; Ttei- 
ffovaiv ware /wtA cnft^P 'Apyei re Tp 'Apif>i\o- 
viK^ Koi 'Afi<jii,\oj(ia r^ aXXjj eTn^eip^ai ical 

Axapi/avia dfut, Xiyovre^ on, fjv rovrav icpa- 
TijVdMTt, Trap TO rjireipfDTiKov AaKehaipovloit ^vft- 

7 fuiyov KaSeirrri^ei. koX 6 p-€P Eupv\oxov ireiaBelt 
K(U TOV! AtTwXoii? o0ei? ijavya^t rtp trrpaTa 
TTfpl Toi? ;t<i/wws rovrovi, &>? TOts 'Afi^paxiia- 
Tflts iKarparevaapevoKi rrepX ro 'Apyot Se'ot /Soij- 
Oeiv. ical ro Oepo^ ire\evra. 



178 

D,j™tci;.GOOglu 



Hikes' X(<«~i;. «i4>k^ ««$ jh4 Vcti^^i ; 
it But PWMwnhenet lie Ad>«r,i«L, •)>.- JiW^^r-wioS 

t ■[u.Ti'l.Mwi ^DJ fc »' ■ ■!g £v li>e Uivn «<«t AMii) 

tbc aid fltf" Xaspaciss. And ih&x jwnt '•rilli him fW 
bovd tht: ta*^ okc thoasukl hc^ilttes. wW ^wtrrnt 
Uk ]da(C md SKTtd it ; f<3r dtert w»s danjffM' thitt 
Acy MfchI Mt be able to boM out. siwv ttw <mlts 

i and Ibe defeodwrs few in numlwr. 

d bis loen, pri>c«irin}f thxt ttt« xraiy 
1 and that it ms imfiossible ta t«ke tV 
low witbdiew, not to the IVK«H*n- 
iiesms,bDt totbe district of A«olis, as it isnowr«lW. 
to CalydoD, namely, and Pleuron, Mid the «t|l)et 
towns of that region, and to Prosehiunt in Aetttlttt, 
For the Ambradols came and urged him h* jwiii 
them in an attack upon Ampbilochitut Arfcas aiul the 
rest of Amphilochia, and at the sanie time \i|Min 
Acxmania, saying that if they got mi)trt>l of these 
places all tiie mainland would Ite brought Intit 
alliance with the Lacedaemonians, Ruryloehua wnn 
persuaded, and dismissing the Aetiilians reitintiiei) 
inactive, keeping his army in these refilons until 
the Ambraciots should take the field antl ttie tlwp 
should come for him to join them in the neighbour- 
hood of Argos. And the surouier ended. 



..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

CUT. OlS'ivrfi'S.iKeKia^AditvaioeTOviTnyi'fi'O- 

fj.aywv Kol otroi ^ticeXatv Kara icpdro^ ap^^o/x^voi 
vvh %vpaKoal(ov Koi ^vp./j,axoi Sirrei airoindvTe^ 
avTot'; ^ ^vve-Kokefiovv, eir 'Iinjaaav to XfcfXiKOv 
TToXiffjia, ov Ti}v axpoTToKiv 'S.vpaKiXJMt, et)(pv, 
irpoa40aXkov, xai (ii? ovk eSvvavro eXelv, air^uav. 

2 iv Se Tji avaxo'p'i'^ft vaTepoii; 'Adrfvaitov to*? 
^Vfifidxpi'! apaj(topova'tv e-Trnidevrai oi e« tov 
'rei)(i<^P-ci-'To% Xvpavoo'ioi, Kal TrpoffTreo'ocTes rpe- 
TTovai re p.epo^ t( tov atpaTOV Kal a-rreitretvav 

3 OVK oXiyovt. *-a(. (Uera tovto d^o t&v veSiv o 
Adxv^ Kal oi 'A6tivaloi e? rijv AoxpiSa aTro0dtret<; 
Tiva^ •Traii)(rdpjevQt Kark rov KaiKtvov iroTafihv 
TOiit TTpoa^oTjdovvTa^ AoKpStv f^erd Upo^ivou rov 
KoTTaTwj'o? (OS Tpiaxomovi p-d^p iKpaTqtrav kuX 

CIV. Toy S' avTQii j^^ei./ioii'os »ral A^Xow e«a- 
Bripav 'A9t}valoi Karit xPV'^'f^^'' ^V Ti^a. iicddjjpe 
fiev '^ap KOi Tleia[i7rpaT0<{ o rvpawoi rrporepov 
avTijv, ovx dvacrav, a\V aaov d-rro tov iepoO 
iipecaparo rfj^ v^aov Tore Be iraaa eKaBdpdr) 
2 Toi^he rpoTrq). B^Kat oa-ai rj<Tav tS)v -reBveioTtiOV 
iv A^Xm, Tidaa'i dveiXov, xal to Xotirov rrpoevirov 
p,rfV£ ivaTroBvjjaxeiv iv TJj v^a^ /i^re ivriKTetv, 
tiXV es T^i* 'PjjveiajJ SiaKopC^eadai. dirix!^'- ^ 
f} 'Piqveta T^s A^Xov outws oXCyov Mare IIoXi/- 
KpaTifv, 6 Xapitav Tupavvo<t, tirxvira'; nvd XP^""" 
vavTiK^ Kal T&v re aXXav p^ffmv dp^a^ Kal rrfv 
'P^ptiav eXa>D ivi07}K€ t^ 'AvoXXavi rp AifXi^ 

' ii-i ZopaKoalaii after outoIi, delated by vttQ Herwerden. 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. cm. i-civ. a 

cm. The following winter the Athenians in 43Sb.< 
Sicily, with their Hellenic allies and such of the 
Sicels as had been unwilling subjects and allies of 
the Syracusans but had now revolted from them and 
were taking sides with the Athenians, attacked the 
Sicel town Inessa, the acropolis of which was held 
by the Syracusans, but being unable to take it they 
departed. On their retreat, however, the allies, who 
were in the rear of the Athenians, were attacked by 
the Syracusan garrison of the fort, who fell upon them 
and put to flight part of tile army, killing not a few 
of them. After this Laches and the Athenians took 
the fleet and made several descents upon Locris ; and 
at the river Ca'icinus they defeated in battle about 
three hundred Locrians wlio came out against them, 
under the command of Proxenus son of Capato, took 
the arras of the fallen, and returned to Rhegium. 

CIV. During the same winter the Athenians puri- 
fied Delos in compliance with a certain oracle. It 
had been purified before by Peisistratus the tyrant,' 
not indeed the whole of the island but that portion of 
it which was visible from the temple ; but at this 
time the whole of it was purified, and in the following 
manner. All the sepulchres of the dead that were 
in Delos they removed, and proclaimed that there- 
after no one should either die or give birth to a child 
on the island, but should first be carried over to 
Rheneia. For Rheneia is so short a distance from 
Delos that Polycratea the tyrant of Samos, who for 
some time was powerful on the sea and not only 
gained control of the other islands* but also seized 
Rheneia, dedicated this island to the Delian Apollo, 
' Sirgt tyranny 560 B.c; death 527 B.C. 



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THUCVDIDES 

iXvffet B^av Wjoo? t^i* Afj/Kov. xal r^v irepre- 
rr)piZa tots -rrpStTOV fi€T^ t^p KaOapfftv hrMTiirav 

3 ol 'AdijvaZoi.^ ^v BS irore teal to wdXat /ieydXr} 
fwoSos « rifv A^Xof TOiv 'Ifuntow re koI treptXTio- 
v5>v vrffnanStv ^vv re yAp ywat^l koI ■jraurip 
ideijopovp, &mrep vvv h rh 'E<f>itTia 'latvet, Kat 
aymv e-KOiMTo avroBi leal yv/ivucm Kol fiovauco^, 

4 Xopovt re av^yop at 7ro\et?. BtjKol Si ftdXtara 
Ofufpot oTt Toiavra ^v iv rots e-rretri rotate, a 
iffTiv etc irpooifiCov 'AttoXXqwos' 

aXXore* AiJXp, ^ot^e, ftaXiard ye Bvftov erep- 

evOa TOi eXfcej^iTOiiiev 'laone? ^yepeSovrai 
avp a-<f>ol<nv rexeeacn yvvai^l re <yr)v h ayvtav 
evBa tre Trvyfiaxh *"^ 6px>}arvi km aoiS^ 
fimjadfieyot ripTTovffiv, orav KoBkauKJiv ayStva. 

5 iri hi Ka\ /lovai/crj^ dywi' ^v xal aymviovftevoi 
ejtoirmv ev roiahe av SijXoi, a ecTTip ix rov aiirov 
rrpooipiov. rhv ykp AtjXiaKOP X'^P^" ^**'' y^o*- 

' li &i\ia, dfter ol 'AitiraUi, deleted by van Henrarden, 
followed by Hude. 

* li^AaTf, CamerariuB* conjecture, now eenernlly adopted, 
for the VulgAte i\K' in, whiob Hude retaini. 

' "Ab a symbolical eipreiiion of indiMolable onion" 
(Cartius). 

' i.e. celebrated every fiftb year. 

' Honier is clearly regarded by Thncydides aa the author 
of the hymn b«re cited. How definite a peraonality h« waa 
l8a 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. CIV. a-s 

and bound it with a ch&in to Detos.^ It was at this 
time, after the purification, that the Athenians first 
celebrated their penteteric* festival in Delos. There 
had indeed in ancient times been a great gathering 
at Delos of the lonians and the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring islands ; and thej used to resort to the 
festival with their wives and children, as the lonians 
now do to the Ephesian games ; and a contest was 
formerly held there, both gymnastic and musical, and 
choruses were sent thither by the cities. The best 
evidence that the festival was of this character is 
given by Homer ^ in the following verses, which are 
from the hymn to Apollo ; * 

"At other times, Phoebus, Delos is dearest to 
thy heart, where the lonians in trailing robes 
are gathered together with their wives and 
children in thy street; there they delight thee 
with boxing and dancing and song, making 
mention of thy name, whenever they ordain the 
contest." 

And that there was a musical contest also to which 
men resorted as competitors Homer once more 
makes clear in the following verses from the same 
hymn. After commemorating the Delian chorus of 

to Thucjdides ia shown by the words "in which he also 
mentione himaelf." 

* irpaoffiur, proem or introduction. In connection with 
epic poems the hymns were called trpootnia, because they 
were sung before other poems, i.e. by the rhapsodists as 
preludes to their rhapsodies. Schol. i( S/irav robt yiip S/irous 
itpaolii-ia iKi*.9ur. The question has been raised whether the 
hymn w»b a prdnde to the rhapsodies or was, as f.g. here, 
in itself s rhapsody. The citntions here made by Thncydides 
are from the Mymn to the Delian ApoUo, 146 ff. and 166 S. 



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THUCYDIDES 



kS)v u/tirtjffos ereKevra tow iiraipov ^ rdSe tA 



uXX' Srjed', SXtjucoi f^p 'AnroXKoiv 'Apre/uBi ^vv, 
yaipere B' u^iiew ■Tfairui. ifisio Se icai fi^Toirio'ffe 
fiv^craa$\ ovirore ksp rt? iTri.-)(9ovia>v apOpwirap 
' iffdS' aveip'ijTai TaXanetpio'i ctXXos iirtkdiop- 

'n Kovpai, Ti^ S' v/UP aprjp ^hitrro^ doiBSiv 
tvffdBe TTtaXelTai koI rem rip-neaBe fid\i<na; " 
v/iei'i S' tv fidXa wdtrai vTroKpivaadai ew^jJ/Mc?'' 
" TiA^Xo? dpijp, oUei Se Xt'p eft TratirakoeaiTTj." 

J Toffowra /i^c "Op.i)po^ iTeKfit]plmtrep oti ^v koI 
TO TToKai. fjs^dX-ri ^vvaho<t nal eopri) ip t^ i^Xjc 
v<nepov Be tov-; fiev -xopovi; ol PT/at&rat fcal oi 
'Adrjpatot /ieS' lep&p eirefLTrop, xa Be wepl tow? 
dy&i'a'; zeal rd -rrXelara icareXvQt} ii-KO ^iifJ.<f>opS>f, 
019 elKot, TtpXv Brj ol 'A9rjvaioi. rare top d/ympa 
iwoiTirrav Kal !'jnroSpofiia<i, o TrpoTspop ouk iji/. 

CV. ToC S' avTov ;^€(/idii'09 ' AfiTrpaKiSyrai, 
axTvep virocry^ofiepoi EipvXo-j^^ t^c tTTpaTidv 
KaTe<T-Xpp, eK(TTpaTevovTat eVl 'Apyo^ to *Afi<jit- 
Xoj^iKop- TpiaxCKifOK oirXiTaii, Koi itrffaXoPTei es 
T^c 'Apytlap icaraXafi^dpovffip 'OXttb?, Teixof 
ewl X6<t)OV la-)(ypop Trpo? Tp BaXdtrrr^, o W0T€ 
^Axappovei Tftx^o'dfiepot koip^ BiKaaTrjpup 
i-Xp&vro- diT^ei Bi diro rij^ 'Apyeitop iroX««« 



' i.e. either a federal ooart of the Acarnaniani, aa Steup 
maintaias (see Sohoemanu, Or. AUtrtha/ntr, ii'. p. 76). or a 
court of juaCice oommon to the AoamaniaiiB ana Aniphilo- 

184 



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women he ends his praise of them with the foliowing 
verses, in which he also mentions himself : 

" Come now, let Apollo be gracious and Ar- 
temis likewise, and farewell, all ye maidens. 
Yet remember me even in after times, whenever 
some other toil -en during man, a dweller upon the 
earth, shall visit this isle and ask : ' O maidens, 
what man is the sweetest of minstrels to you of 
all who wander hither, and in whom do you 
take most delight?' Do jou make answer, all 
with one accord, in gentle words, ' The blind 
man who dwells in rugged Chios.' " 
Such is Homer's testimony, showing that in an- 
eient times also there was a great concourse and 
festival in Delos. And in later times the people of 
the islands and the Athenians continued to send 
their choruses with sacriflces, but the contests, and 
indeed most of the ceremonies, fell into disuse in 
consequence, probably, of calamities, until the Athen- 
ians, at the time of which we now speak, restored 
the contests and added horse-races, of which there 
had been none before. 

CV. During the same winter the Ambraciots, 
fulfilling the promise by which they had induced 
Eurylochus to keep his army there, made an ex- 
pedition against Amphiiochian Argos with three 
thousand hophtes, and invading its territory took 
Olpae, a stronghold on the hill near the sea, which 
the Acarnanians had fortified and had at one time 
used as a common tribunal ' of justice ; and it is 

cliianB (see Kruse, Hdlaa, ii. p. 333), as Ciaasen explains. 
The latter view haa the auppurt of Steph. Byr,, : '0\irai- ^poi- 
plan, Koivhv 'KHiiiivivwv iinl 'Ap^iAif^Bit tmavriifioy, ©ouKuSiiTjj 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

iwidaXafftTta^ ofim;? Trei/Te icai eiKotri trraBiov^ 

2 fioXiffra. 01 Si 'AKapvave^ oi ftiv e? "Apyo^ 
^vve^o-qdavv, ol Bi t^ ' Afi<fiiKo'}(ia^ iv rovTip Tp 
^q>/m'p 5 Kpfjvai icaXeiTat, tfivXaatrovre'; tous 
/*€Ta EvpvXoj^ov HeXoirovi/Tiiyiovi fit} XdBonat irpoi 
Toii^ ^ AfitrpaKimra^ SieXdovre';, i<TTparoireBev- 

3 a-avTO. ireinroviTt Sk Kal eirt A^jfioirffevt} rov i^ 
TJ]P AlreaXlav ^AB'qvat'ov tTTpaTrjyijffavTa, oirtoi 
tr^iffiv Tiyefioiv yiyinjrat, ital iirl to? eixoin vav^ 
'Adijvattitv at eTvy(pv irepl neXoiravvrfffOV oZaai, 
&v ^px^" 'Api(TroTeX^<t re 6 Ti/iO/tpdrovs Kid 

i 'lepotft&v 6 ' AvTLpv^aTov. aTretrreiXav Sk xal 
ayyeXov ol irepi tA? "OXira? ' AfiirpaKi&rai ^s 
Ti}p -iroXiv KeXevovTe^ tr^iai 0or)deiv iravStj/i.el, 
BeSiore^ p.i] oi /act' KvpvXoxpv ov SuvtavTai BieX- 
deiv row 'Afcapvavas koI aipiiriv ^ fiovatOeliTtv 
ij pM^V yevrjrat ^ ova^wpetif fiovXop,evai^ ovk jj 
aa^aXe<!. 

CVI. 0( likv ohv p.er EiipvXoxov IleXowoi*- 
v-^inoi to? 7}cr0ovTO Toi? ev 'OX-Tratv 'Ap,TrpaKiiora^ 
^Kovrai;, apavret ite rov Upoux^"^ e^or)6ovv Kara 
rajfO'!, Kol Bia^a,vre<; rov 'A'^eX^ov e^'^pouv Si 
'Axapvavta^ oCtrij? ip^pov Bta t^v e? A/yyo? 
^orfdeutv, ev Be^ia pev e^orre? rijv XrparCcov 
■woXiv Koi rijv <f>poup^v avr&v, ev apturepa Be rr/v 

a S.XX-IJV 'AKapvaviav. Kal Bte^Mopret ri/v "^rpa- 

' After the retuni of the thirty ships (oh. leviii, 5}, these 
twenty had been sent out ngain round the PelopoutiMnB. 
1 86 



c. Google 



BOOK III. cv. i-cvi. 2 

about twenty-five stadia from the city of Argos, 
wtiich is by the sea. Meanwhile some of the Acar- 
nanian troops came to the relief of Argos, while the 
rest encamped at a place in Amphilochia which is 
called Crenae, keeping guard to prevent the Pelo- 
ponnesians with Eurylochus from passing through un- 
observed to join the Ambraciots. They also sent for 
Demosthenes, who had led the army of the Athenians 
into Aetolia, to come and be their leader, as well as 
for the twenty Athenian ships ' which happened to 
be off the coast of Peloponnesus under the command 
of Aristotle son of Timocratea and Hierophon son of 
Antimnestus. A messenger was also sent by the 
Ambraciots at Olpae to the city of Ambracia with a 
rec[uest that all the forces of the town should be 
dispatched to their aid, for they feared that Eury- 
lochus and his troops might not be able to make 
their way through the Acamanians, and, in that case, 
that they themselves would either have to fight 
single-handed, or, if they wished to retreat, would 
find that unsafe. 

CVI. Now the Peloponnesian forces under Eury- 
lochus, when they learned that the Ambraciots had 
arrived at Olpae, set out from Proschium with all speed 
to reinforce them,and crossing the Acheloiis advanced 
through Acarnania, which was without defenders be- 
canse of the reinforcements which had been sent to 
Argos, and as they advanced they had the city of 
Stratus with its garrison on their right, and the rest 
of Acarnania on their left. Then traversing the 
territory of the Stratians they advanced through 

Their real goal wns Naopaetns (oh. cuiv. 2), but answeriDg 
the appeal of the Acanutnians they turned aside for the 
It to the Ambiaoion Gulf (ch. cvii. 1). 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Ttwn 'pfv i-yiapow Btk rfj^ ^vrlai koI aSfftv 

MeSemPd irap ea^ara, Iwe (to hih. Ai/j-vala^' 
Kal eVey9»)ffaf rij? 'Aypaitov, ou/eeri 'A/eapvavlav, 
3 (fiiKia'i Se a^iai-v. "Ka^ojievoi he tov @vd[iov 
Spov;, o itntv 'Aypalxop,'- exf^povv S(' ainov koI 
KUTf^rivav it TT)V 'Apyelav vvKTOt ^5»j, Kal 
Sie^eXBovret fiera^ii tjJs tc 'ApyeitDn TroXeois xal 
Trji i-TTt KpijvaK AKapvdvav tfji/XaKii<; e\a6ov 
Kal Trpoae/iet^av toi? ep "OX-jraii ^Afi-rrpaKidnati. 
CVII. Tevopj^vQi Se ddpooi afia t^ fifiepa 
Kadt^ovaiv eirl Tr}V M»)T/)07roX(v fcdKovpAvijv koX 
arpWTotrehov eiroiriaavTo. ^AdivaZoi Be Tttty 
et/cofft vavalir av irohXr^ varepov irapayiyiiovTai 
^5 TOV 'Ap.'TrpaKiKov koXttov 0o'>]Oovvret to(9 'Ap- 
yeCoK, Kot At) /io(TOevJi<; Metrff-ijvimv /j.€v exa>v 
SiaKotriou^ OTrXtTtt?, e^ijKovra S^ Tofora? 'A9tj- 

2 vatoiv. Kal at /icv vfjet irepl 7^9 "OXtto? tov 
X6<j)ov^ iK ffaXdaaij^ i<f)ci>piiovv ol Sk ' AKapvaire^ 
KaX Afuf>tXoxwv oXiyoi (ol yap TrXetou? irrrb 
' Ap.tr paKianStv ^La xarelx'^PTo) et -ro'Apyo^ iiS-rj 
^vveXtiiXt'OoTet TrapeuKEi/d^ovro oi? ftaxpvpevot 
Tolt ivavTlof;, KaX riysp-ava tov TravTO? ^vp.fjxi.- 
XiKoO alpavvTai ^r)poade.vri fier^ toiv a^e-riptov 

3 UTpaTryyoiV. 6 Se vpoaayaymv iyyvt t^? "OXtt*/? 
iffTpaToweSeua'aTO- x'^pdSpa B avToi/t fieyoKff 
Sielpyep. Kal r]p,epat fj,€P irevTe ria-uxa^ov, tJ) S" 
^KTi} erdaaovTo a/KparepoL 0)5 it pMx>}v. teaC 
{p.ei^op yelp iyivero xal rrepiea-xe to t5>p IleXo- 
irovptitTtMp oTparoTreBov) 6 A'np.orT$epT}t Beitrav 

' 'Ayiiai«if, for Kytioiicar or liypiiiiiar of the MSS., corrected 
by 0. Mueller. 

' Ti» Ait^ov, deleted by van Herwerdeo, fuUowed by Hude, 
188 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. cvi. z-cvii. 3 

Phytift, from there skirted the borders of Medeon, 
and tlien passed through Limnaea; and finally they 
reached the country of the Agraeans, being now 
outside of Acamania and in a friendly country. 
Arriving next at Mt. lliyamuSj which belongs to the 
Agraeans, they went through the pass over it and 
came down into Argive territory after nightfall, 
whence they succeeded in passing unobserved 
between the city of Argos and the Acarnanian 
guard at Crenae, finally joining the Arabraciots at 
Olpae. 

CVII. After the two armies had effected a 
junction, at daybreak they took post at a place called 
Metropolis and made camp. Not long afterwards 
the Athenians with their twenty ships arrived in the 
Ambracian Gulf, reinforcing the Argives ; and 
Demosthenes also came with two hundred Messenian 
hoplites and sixty Athenian bowmen. The ships 
lay at sea about the hill of Olpae, blockading it ; but 
the Acamanians and a few of the Amphilochians — for 
most of these were kept from moving by the 
Ambraciots — had already gathered at Argos and were 
preparing for battle with their opponents, having 
chosen Demosthenes to command the whole allied 
force in concert with their own generals. And he, 
leading them close to Olpae, encamped ; and a 
great ravine separated the two armies. For five 
days they kept quiet, but on the sixth both sides 
drew up in order of battle. Now the army of the 
Peloponnesians was larger than that of Demosthenes 
and outflanked it ; he, therefore, fearing that he 
189 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fi^ KVKkaS^ '\oj(i^ei i^ oSov riva KoCktjv «(4 
Xox/^wSj} oTrXtra? Kal -^(Xou? ^vpafitporepov; es 
rerpaKoalov;, ovia^ kot^ to virepij^ov tSiv evav- 
rtayv eV t^ fuvoS^) aurp i^avaardvTe^ ovtoi Karh 

4 vmrov ylyvmvTai. iirel Se irapeaKevaaro afu^o- 
TspoK, j/a-af e? ^(etpa^, ^7}(i,oa6evqt fiiu ro Be^iov 
Kipas exeav fierh. Meera-ijvioiv Kal 'Ad^vatatv 
6\iyav TO Se aXXo 'AKapva,ve<i a>? etcaarot reray- 
fj-^voi iveixop Kal 'AiMpiKox^v ol TrnpofTGs axov- 
TtffTai' Ile\oiTovpi^aioi Bi kuI 'AfnrpaKi&Tat 
ivafil^ Teray/ievoi trXijp Mavriveatv oinoi Bi. €V 
T^ evwvupftp fiaWov teal ov to Kepai dxpov exov- 
T€S a$p6oi ^aav, d\V Evpv\oxo<! e<TXctTov elxe to 
evatpvfiov koX ol fier aiiToS, Kara Mccro-Tjutov? Kal 
^'rjp.oaOkvJ}, 

CVIII. 'fl? S' en xe/wlK ^81; Smet trepUirxov 
T^ icipa 01 neXowovvi^iTioi xal itcvicKovvTo to 
Be^tov T&v evavriwv, ol Ik t^s eveBpat 'Axapvaj/ei 
i-jTtyevofiepoi avToit xarh vmTov trpocrvi-inovtTi 
T6 ical Tpi-TTOvaLV, djffTe /iifre es aXxi)!) VTrofietvai 
if)o^i}8ePTav re ei <^vyi]P Kal to vXeop tov irrpa- 
Teviiarot KaTaffrijaai' iveiBtj yip etSov to xar^ 
Evpv\oj(pv teal o Kpariarov ^v Bia<f>0€tp6fitPov, 
voXK^ fiSXXop i(f>o0ovvro. vai ol Meaffijpiot 
onTe? ravTij fieret tov Ajj/wtrBevovi to woXii tov 

2 epyov eTT€^^\0op. ol Bi ' AftwpaKt&Tai Kal ol 

icaT^ TO Be^iav xipa^ eptKwP to Koff koMToh^ koX 

TT/jos TO "Apyoi iireBCm^ap'^ /cal 7A/3 ^^t/«»TaTot 

' IwtHutw, for tnnti»iar of the MS8., Hkosa'a conjeotnrs. 

igo 



C.Google 



tiooK: in. cvii. 3^viii. i 

might be surrounded, stationed in & sunken road 
overgrown with bushes an ambush of hoplites and 
light-troops, about four hundred all together, his 
purpose being that in the very moment of collision 
these troops should leap from their hiding-place and 
take the enemy in the rear at the point where his 
line overlapped. When both sides were ready 
they came to close quarters. Demosthenes with 
the Messenians and a few Athenian troops had the 
right wing ; the rest of the line was held by the 
Acarnanians, arrayed by tribes, and such Amphi- 
lochian javelin-men as were present. But the Pelo- 
ponnesians and Ambraciots were mingled together, 
except the Mantineans ; these were massed more on 
the left wing, though not at its extremity, for that 
position, which was opposite Demosthenes and the 
Messenians, was held by Eurylochus and the troops 
under him. 

CVIII. When finally the armies were at close 
quarters and the Peloponnesians outflanked with 
their left the right wing of their opponents and 
were about to encircle it, the Acarnanians, coming 
upon them from their ambush, fell upon their rear 
and routed them, so that they did not stand to make 
resistance and in their panic caused the greater 
part of their army to take to flight also ; for when 
they saw the division under Eurylochus, their best 
troops, being cut to pieces, they were far more 
panic-stricken. And it was the Messenians, who 
were in this part of the field under the command 
of Demosthenes, that bore the brunt of the battle. 
On the other hand, the Ambraciots and those on the 
enemy's right wing defeated the troops opposed to 
themselves, and pursued them to Argos ; and indeed 

191 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDroES 

Twv trepl sKelva tA vapla Tvyx^vovaip Svrev. 

3 i-rravaveopovvTe^ 8e <&! emptav to irXiav vepuciifikvov 
Koi 01 aXKoi ' Aitapvav£<; a^iai •npoaeKeiVTO, 
y(aXeTro><; Bteeroi^ovTO et; ra^ "OXTra?, fcal iroXKoi 
airkdat'ov av-rSiv, aTaKTiixi icai ovZevl Koap.^ 
TrpotTTriTTTOVTe^ frXiiv MavTiveav ovtoi S^ pd- 
Xiara ^vvreray p.evoi, ttbi'to? tov tnpaTov ai/e^^eo- 
pijirav. Koi f) pev p-a-xv iTeXevra e-; 6-<jre. 

CIX. MeceSaio? Se ry varepaia, Ei/3 uXo^^ow 
TedvefOTOi Koi Mataptov auros TrapeiXijtfia)^ trjv 
apx^jv Koi a-TTopotv peyaXi)^ rfj^ ^ ^ffffi)<i yeyevtj- 
pAvtf^ OTp Tpowtp ij pevmv iroXiopK^aerat, sk tc 
7^ Kal (K BaXafftrif-i raK ' Att ucal'; vavffiv 
atroK€KKrip.evoii, ^ Kal a,pax^p<Ap hLaaa)8ri(T6Tai, 
trpoffifytpei Xoyov TrepX mrov^Siv Ktu a,vaX(<>p^iTfa>v 
^Tjpoadevei koI tok ' AKapvavtov aToaTifyal'i KaX 

2 irepl viKpiav dp^ avaipeaeaii. oi Sk peKpov^ 
pep a/rrihacraP KaX rpo-jrcuop airraX eari)<Tap KCiX 
Toii'i kavrSip rpiaKocrtov^ paXiara avoOavoprav 
avftXoPTO' aca;^(wpj)o-[i' Se e« p£v tov Trpo<fiapov<i 
ovK inTreitrapro dwairt, Kpvtfia Si Ai]poadiptj<; 
^eri tS>v ^vrnpaTriyoiv rSiv ^ ' Axappaprnp inrep- 
hoPTai MaiiTti/eCat Kal M.epeSatq> koI tok aWots 
apxovai r&v IleXtnrovvtjiTiatv koX o<toi avrStv 
rfffap a^ioXoycoTaTOi aTroycapetp Kara Ta^o^. 
0ov\opxpo^ ■\^i\Si<Tat T0V9 AfitTpaKiwrat T€ koI 
TOV futrOmfiopop SxXop,^ paXuxTa Bi AuKeBa*- 

' tSi ndded by Hude. 

^ TBr, before 'Axoftiritt, added bj Erilgor, followed by 
Hude. 

» Til- (4t'iK6i', given in MSS. after Sx^oi; deleted by van 
HerwerdoD, followed by Hude. 
192 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK III. cviii. 3-cir. 2 

these are the best fighters of all the peoples of that 
region. When, however, they returned and saw 
that their main army had been defeated, and the 
victorious division of the Acamanians began to press 
hard upon them, they made their escape with 
diffieulty to Olpae ; and many of them were killed, 
for they rushed on with broken ranks and in disorder, 
all except the Mantineans, who kept their ranks 
together during the retreat better than any other 
part of the army. And it was late in the evening 
before the battle ended. 

CIX. On the nest day, since Eurylochus and 
Macarius had been slain, Mened^us had on his own 
responsiUlity assumed the command, but the defeat 
had been so serious that he was at his wit's end how, 
if he remained, he could stand a siege, blockaded as 
he was by both land and sea by the Athenian fleet, 
or, if he retreated, could get away safely. He tliere- 
fore made overtures to Demosthenes and the Athe- 
nian generals regarding a truce for his retreat and 
also about the recovery of his dead. And they gave 
back the dead, set up a trophy themselves, and took 
up their own dead, about three hundred in number. 
They would not, however, openly agree to a retreat 
for the whole army, but Demosthenes with his 
Acamanian colleagues secretly agreed that the Man- 
tineans and Mened^us and the other Peloponnesian 
commanders and the most inSuential men among 
them might go back home, if they did so speedily. 
Their object was to isolate the Ambraciots and the 
miscellaneous crowd of mercenaries,' and above all to 



' Opinjoiu differ as to who are meant. The; were pro 
bably mercenaries from the neighbourii^ Bpirote tribes ii 
the pay of the Ambraciota. 



1;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fu>piovi; Kol Ile\oTrovvi}iTU>vv Sta^aXetv ^5 tovv 
itceivr] ■)(_pfi^a)V "EWijfas eli^ xarawpoSovrt^ to 

3 iavT&v TTpovpyiatjepov eTTOi-^aamo. koX oi fiiv 
Tous TC veKpovt avetXovTO koI hik rd^ov^ (OairTOv, 
watrep inrffpj^e, koI rijv aTtoxaipTjaiv Kpvtfia 0I9 
iSeBoTO €we0ov\evov. 

GX. T^ a Ajifioadevet ical rot; 'A.KapvatTiv 
dyyekXerai tov^ 'AfnrpaKKora^ roi/^ iK t^s 
•iroKea^ ■irai'hr)fifl Kari TtjU TrptuTiji' e« tup 
'0\ira>v ayytXlaP iiri^o-fdeiv SiCt r&U ^Afuf>l- 
XoYwi', ^ovKofLEvovi ToEs ev "OXirai'; ^vp^l^ai 

2 ciSoTo? avSh/ T&v yeyevrffievwv. Kal -rrifiiret 
ev0iiv Tov vrparov fiipot ri -rcKt oSoiit trpoXo- 
■)(iovvTa<i Kol tA KapTtph irpoKaToKti^oiUvovt, 
Kal rfi oXXj; aTpari^ apa irapeatcevei^eTO Soif- 
6elv eV aiiTOvt. 

CXI. 'Ec Toi^rp S' ol Mai^ti^ Koi oI? taTteuno 
irpodtai^tv iirl Xaxapiap^v xal ^pvyava>v fuX- 
\oy7)v e'feX^ocTC? virairyvav Kar' oKi/fov;, afta 
^vkXiyoine'; i<f>' h e^tjXffov hfjOev -irpoKextopr}- 
*0T«9 Be >)Si) anttoBtv tffi 'OXtdj? dairaov a/rre- 

2 ^«a/70fi'. 01 S A fin pax i&r at xal ol aXkoi oaot 
ftiv ^ irvyyavov oStws aOpaoi ^vveKffovTe^, atv 
eyvcoaav airiovrat, &p/j.tjffap koX avrol Kal edaop 

3 Spofi^, etTueaTaKa^etv ^ovXopsvoi. ol &k 'Aieap- 
fdvEv TO p^v irpSiTov koi itaxncK evofuacoj atrUvtu 

' Hude reads tv»i n^ iTiyxartv ■reirait kBpiei (vrtCi^Birrts. 

' Ab distiogaiehed from the Ambraciots who after the 
battle were shot up in Olpae (ch. cxi. 2). 

* The text ie most probably con-apt. Classen oETen 
the best remedy : d! Si 'AfirpMiSTai koI ol tWoi Eo-gi 
liBroi/iivoi driyxaroy •frm, i$p6»i ivvt^tirrti lit fynMrav 

D,j™tci;.GOOgl(J 



BOOK III. tax. i-cxi. 3 

discredit the Laeedaemenians and the Peloponnesiuis 
with the Hellenes of this region, on the ground that 
they had committed an act of treachery through pre- 
ference for their own selfish interests. Accordingly 
the Peloponnesians took up their dead and hastily 
buried them as best they could, while those who had 
permission began secretly to plan their retreat. 

ex. Word was now brought to Demosthenes and 
the Acamanians that the inhabitants of the city of 
Atnbracia,' in response to the first message that came 
from Olpae, were marching in full force through the 
Amphilochian territory, wishing to Join the forces 
in Olpae, and that they were quite unaware of what 
had happened. So he immediately sent a part of his 
army to forestall these troops by setting ambuscades 
along the roads and occupying the strong positions, 
and at the same time began preparations to lead the 
rest of the army against them. 

CXI. In the meantime the Mantineans and the 
others who were included in the agreement, leaving 
camp on the pretext of gathering pot-herbs and fire- 
wood, stole away in small groups, gathering at the 
same time what they pretended to have gone to 
seek ; then when they had already got some distance 
from Olpae they quickened their pace. But the 
Ambraciots and all the others who happened to have 
come together in a body, when they realized that 
these were taking their departure, also set out them- 
selves and ran at full speed, wishing to overtake 
them.^ But the Acarnanians at first thought that 
all the fugitives were going away without covenant 

iwiinat, ifiaimo' Kal abrel . . : " But the Ambrsoiots and 
all tliB others who chanced to be left came together in a 
bodj, and when the; realiged that they were taking their 
departure set off also thsmaelTefl ..." 



.....C.DDgk 



THUCYDIDES 

aiTirovSov^ ofioCat^ ical tow? IleXoTrowijfftows ^Jrc- 
Siaitov, Kal Tivaf avTSiv tmjj rTTpaTf)yo)v kio\V' 
ocTa? Kal tf>dffKOvra^ iairelaSai aii-rol'; ■fiKovria'k 
Tt?, vofi.Lo'a'i KaratrpohLhoirOat aAaf eTrena 
fiivToi Tov'i (lev MavTti'ea? Koi Tovt XleXo-jrov- 
vtiaiovi atfiUaav, tou? B' 'AfiirpaKitorai; eiereivov. 
i Kol ^ iToXXii 6jO(! Kal aypoia ehe ^ Kfi.TrpaKi.diT'tp 
TK iffTiP eire UeXoTrovv^aio'i. xal e's Biaxofftov^ 
fiev Tiva^ avrSiv UTreKreivav ol S' aXKoi Bie- 
tfivyov e? Ti}v 'AypatSa Ofwpov ovaav, Kal SaXwc- 
Bto'; avTOiK a ^aaikeiit twi- 'Afpaiav ^1X09 &v 

CXII. O* fi' e« T^? jToXean ' AfiTrpaKt&rai 
aAiKVovvTat eit' 'YBofiev^v. itnov Bi Bvo Xo^u ^ 
'ISofievt] v\}rrjX<a- tovtoiv tov /lev fiei^a vv«to9 
eviyevop.ivrj'i ol TrpoaTroaraXepTe^ vtto tow i»j- 
(ioadevov^ otto tov trrpartyTriBov eKaOov re icai 
e<p6a(rav ■npoKaTdXa^ovre';, tqv B' iXda-ata ^ erv- 
■)^QV ol ' AfiTrpaKiaiTai irpoava^avTe'; iceu, r/vXi- 

2 o'avro. d Bi ^iifiorrO evr)<i Benrvqaa'; eycopet leal 
TO aWo inpaTeufia airo emrepa'i euDu?, avrb^ 
piv TO TJp^trv ey_^v eVt Tryi eV^oX^s. to S' aXXo 

3 Bta rwv ApxpiXoxiKwv opSiv, teal d/Mi 6p6pif 
evfirltr-ret rots 'Afj/rrpaKtonait It( ep to« eiivavi 
Kal ov tipoT^adripAvoK tA feyewjpAva, aXXA TroKii 

i lioXKov vofutTaai tovs eatrrSiv elvaf xai yhp 
Tov<; MeiTtnjviovs vpai7ov<; ^TrtTijSes d &7)fi,o<70iv7}<; 
Trpovra^e koI Trpoaayopeveiv exeXeve, AatpiBa t« 
yXaxTO-av levrai Koi tok Trpo(fivXa^i triariv trape- 
j(ppivou^, apa Bi xal ov Kadopa>p4vov9 t^ oifret 
' is ia inserted before rhr i' ihiirvo by Hade, following 
KrUger. 
196 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. CXI. 3-cxii. 4 

or truce and therefore set off in pursuit of the Pelo- 
poimesians ; and when some of the generals tried to 
prevent this, saying that a truce had been made with 
them, someone hurled javelins at them, believing 
that they had been betrayed. Afterwards, however, 
they let the Mantiueans and Pelopoonesians go, but 
began to kill the Arabraciots. And there was much 
dispute and uncertainty as to whether a man was an 
Ambraciot or a Peloponnesian, About two hundred 
of the Ambraciots were slain ; the rest of the fugitives 
escaped into the neighbouring country of Agraea, 
and were received by Satynthius the king of the 
Agraeans, who was friendly to them. 

CXII. Meanwhile the troops ^m the city of 
Ambracia arrived at Idomene. Now it consists of two 
lofty hills, and of these the higher had already been 
seized unobserved during the night by the troops 
which Demosthenes had sent forward from his main 
army ; but the lower had previously, as it chanced, 
been ascended by the Ambraciots, who spent the 
night there. After dinner Demosthenes and the 
rest of the army set out immediately after nightfall, 
he himself with half of them niaking for the pass, 
while the rest took the road through the Amphilochian 
mountains. And at dawn he fell upon the Ambraciots, 
who were still in their beds and had no knowledge 
at all of what had previously happened. On the 
contrary, they supposed these troops to be their own 
men, for Demosthenes had purposely put the Mes- 
senians in front and directed them to accost the 
enemy in the Doric dialect, thus getting themselves 
trusted by the outposts ; besides, they were indis- 
tinguishable to the sight, since it was still dark. 



197 

C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

5 KWAto? ^T( oiSffij?. &<; o5v hrerreoe t^ (rrparev- 
fMTi aiiT&v, rp^Ttovtn, koX tow /a^ iroXKoit 
ainov bie^Seipav, ol hk 'Komol xark rii opt} it 

6 tfivyijv &pfi.'i)<Tav. TrpoKareiXr)/i.fiiv<i)v Se rav oSap, 
ital apM tS>v /i€v 'A/t^iXo^o>v ep.Tteipa>v Svratv 
T^S eavTfov yiji jtal t^iXav -rrpo^ onrXira^, twc Bi 
aireipatp xal ave7ria'Ti)fi,6vtiiv o-Trrj rpdirwyrai, 
eVirtTTTOi^e? 1<1 re yapahpai; koX tAs 7r/>o\eXo- 

7 ;^iff/Miw9 eveSpa^ BietftOeipovTO. «at €9 irotrai' 
(S^av ^mp^a-avre^ Ttpt ^^7^5 irpdiToino rive^ Kai 
iv T^i" BaXatraav oil iroKv (i7re;^ouffai', Kal to? 
6!£op tAs 'Attwco? vaC? Tra/wwrXeouffos 5/Mt tow 
Hpyov Tfj ^vvTV^iq, vpoaevevtrav, ^rja-dfUPOt a» 
T^ avrlxa <p6ffq) Kpeiaaov elvai a'f>i<TiP inro rtov 
iv Tat? vava-iv, cl Set, hta^daprfvai fj vwb Tdjl" 

8 ffap^dpap ical ex^CfTTav 'Afu^iXox^f. ol ph> 
o5i> ^Afnrpa4cmrai TotoiiTp Tpo-rnp KOKatBevret 
0X1701 aiTo TToKtiMV iffa>dijiTav it rijv ttoXiv* 
Axapvavtt Bk aKv\.ev(TavTet; roiit veKpovv zeal 
rpOTTota tFTTjaavret owe^topjjffai' «5 'Apyot, 

CXIII. Kal avroU tj {nrrepaif ^Xfle leijpv^ 
dtrb Tap it 'Aypaiovt Karcu^vyavraiv ix rfft 
OXiTtit ' AfntpaKiarSiv, dvaipeaiv aiTTjtrtav tS>v 
veKp&v otn diriKreivav va-repov t^s tt/imtt?? fid- 
Xtti ore /ierd t&v MavTivecav /cat tuv wroanrop- 
2 Swv ^vve^a-av da-TrovBoi. iSiov S' 6 Kifpv^ ra 
oirXa Twv dtro t^S iroXeat ' A/i^paictanvp iOav- 
(ia^€ TO ttX^^os' oi ydp jfSet to ird.0ot, aXX' fSero 

198 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK III. cxii. 4-cxiii. 2 

So they fell upon the army of the Ambraciots and 
put them to rout, slaying the majority of them on 
the spot ; the rest took to flight over the mountains. 
But as the roads had already been oceiipied, and as, 
moreover, the Amphilochians were well acquainted 
with their own country and were light infantry op- 
posing heavy-armed troops, whereas the Ambraciots 
were ignorant of the country and did not know which 
way to turn, under these circumstances the fleeing 
men fell into ravines and into ambushes which had 
previously been set for them and perished. And 
some of them, after resorting to every manner of 
flight, even turned to the sea, which was not far dis- 
tant, and seeing the Athenian ships, which were sail- 
ing along the coast at the very time when the action 
was taking place, swam toward them, thinking in 
the panic of the moment that it was better for them 
to be slain, if slain they must be, by the crewa of the 
ships than by the barbarian and detested Amphiloch- 
ians. In this manner, then, the Ambraciots suffered 
disaster, and but few out of many returned in safety 
to their city ; the Acarnanians, on the other hand, 
after stripping the dead and setting up trophies, 
returned to Argos. 

CXIII. On the next day a herald came to the 
Athenians from the Ambraciots who had escaped 
from Olpae and taken refuge among the Agraeans, 
to ask for the bodies of those who had been slain 
after the first battle, at the time when unprotected 
by a truce these attempted to leave Olpae along with 
the Mantineans and the others who were included 
in the truce. Now when the herald saw the arms 
taken from the Ambraciots who came from the 
city, he was amazed at their number; for he did 
not know of the recent disaster, but thought that 
199 

r,.-,.c,=. Google 



THOCYDIDES 

3 TMV fierk triftSiv elvai. ical t(? airrip fipero 5 Tt 
Bavfid^oi Kol OTTOffOi aiiT&v reOpaaiv, olo/xevo^ 
a5 6 epo>T&v etvai top K^puiea awo rStv iv 'I5o- 
fievaX'i, 6 B' Itfii) SiaKOffiov^ fiaKt<rTa, inro\a- 

i ffa>v S' o ipmrSiv elirev " OSteovv tA S'TrXa ravrl 
Siaitoaiav ^ <fiaiv€Tat, aX\h wKeov ^ ^(^iXitov. 
aiiOit &k elirev ixeipoi' " Ovk apa twv p^d" f)pS>v 
fiaxoph/(op i(rrip" 6 S' a-Tre/cplvaro' " Etirep ye 
v/j-eU ip 'iSopep^ -xPii epdxeoSe." " *AXX' -fipeiv 
yt oiiBevl ipMj(^6pe6a ;^^es, aXXA trpairjp ev rp 
dirox^pVO'etJ' " Kal piv Si) tovtok ye r)psK 
Xd^f; a.-7ri) rip ttoA^qi? fforiffi^iTatrt T^t 'AprtrpaKua- 

5 tS)V ipaxopieOa." 6 Be KTjpv^ (!>? ^kov<t€ koX 
eyvet 3t* if OTTO T^f 7ro\6Q)9 ^o^Geta BUi^Baprat, 
dpotpa>^a<; ital eKirXayeli t^ peyeOei twp -napov- 
Ttuv fcatcStp cf7rr)k$eii evdvi dirpaxTO^ leal ovKSTt 

6 aTT^Tei Toiii pexpov^. •trd9o<i yhp toCto pt^ nro- 
X«( 'KXKrjpiBi ep iffai,<t ^pipan piyurrop St} t&v 
Kari TOJ' woXepap ropBe iyipero. Kol dptSpov 
OVK eypa-^a rwp diroSapopraiP, Start airirrrop to 
■TrXiiSoi \eyerai. diroXeaOai «9 ir/jos to p^effov 
T^? ttoXeoie. 'ApTrpaxiap pePTOi ol&a OTt, el 
iffovXijdriffav 'Axappapei xal 'Ap<f>i\oj(pt 'A5»;- 
paioK Kal Aijpoirdevei -treiOopevot iveXdeiP, ai~ 
toj3dei &p elKop- pvv 5' eSeurap pi) oi ' ABtfpaloi 

' SiiKiMrliii, added by Kriigar. 



c. Google 



BOOK III. cxiii. 2-6 

the arms belonged to the men of bis own division. 
And someone asked him why be was amazed, and 
how many of his comrades had been slain, the 
questioner on his part supposing that the herald 
had come from the forces which bad fought at 
Idomene. The herald answered, " About two 
hundred." The questioner said in reply, "These 
anns, though, are clearly not those of two hundred 
men, but of more than a thousand." And again 
the herald said, " Then they are not the arms of 
our comrades in the battle." The other answered, 
" They are, if it was you who fought yesterday at 
Idomene." " But we did not fight with anyone 
yesterday ; it was the day before yesterday, on the 
retreat." " And it is certain that we fought yester- 
day with these men, who were coming to your aid 
from the city of the Ambraciots." When the herald 
heard this and realized that the force which was 
coming to their relief from the city had perished, 
be lifted up his voice in lamentation and, stunned 
by the magnitude of the calamity before him, 
departed at once, forgetting his errand and making 
no request for the dead. Indeed this was the 
greatest calamity that befell any one Hellenic city 
in an equal number of days during the course of 
this whole war. The number of those who fell 
I have not recorded, seeing that the multitude 
reported to have perished is incredible when com- 
pared with the size of the city. I know, however, 
that if the Acamanians and Amphilochians had 
been willing to hearken to the Athenians and De- 
mosthenes and had made an attack upon Ambracia 
they would have taken it at the first onset ; but as 
it was, they were a&aid that the Athenians, if they 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

&<TiP. 

CXIV. Meri Se ravra rpirov fJ.ipo<i veifiavre^ 
rS>v ffKvXtav TO(f 'AdrfvaioK t^ dXXa Kara to? 
TToKeK BietXovTO. Kal t^ fihi t&v ABtjvaieov 
irKeovra eaKa), rh Sk vvv dvaKeCfteiia ev to?; 
'ArTt/eoi! Upolt Aiifu>adevet i^^gpeBtjirav rpiaxo- 
irtai wavoir\iai, xal ayav avT&ii xariTrXevuer 
Kol iyivero &/ui avr^ fi€rd t^p sk t^? AlTwXlat 
^vpf^opeiv d'TTo tuvti)'! t^s frpd^efai dBeearepa ^ 

2 KodoSo^. diTf)\6ov Sk Kal oi ev raK eiKoat vav- 
(rlv '\0r]vaiot is Naviraierop. 'Axapvaves Se «al 
^Ap^ikoxoi direXOoVTwv 'AOi^pcdatv leaX Aij/ioer- 
dhiovt rott ai? ^oKvvffiov xal 'AypaLovi xa^a<flv- 
fovaip 'AnwpaKttinati xal tleXoiroprnifftoi-i dva- 
;^oo/j)7(r(f iaveiaavro i^ OtviaSiiv olvep koI /lerav- 

3 earr}ffav -rrapk %aXvp6iov, ical i^ rbv etretTa 
j^povov tTirovBk'i xal ^v/ifuvxidv eiroi^cavTO eiea- 
Top ervf 'Axappavts Kal ' AfuftiKoxot irpo? 'Ap,irpa- 
Ku!)Ta<! iirl TOiffSt, &trre fitire ' AfitrpaKtmras 
ftsrd 'Axappaptov inpareveiv iirX Tl€Xovopvj}ffiov9 
/ii^TC 'Ajcapvavas /tcr^ ' AptrpaiciwT&p i-Tr 'Adtf- 
valovv, ffoTfdeip Se ttj dW'^Xwv, xal dvoSoOvai 
A/iirpaxtotTas ovoaa ^ ^cDp/a f) 6p,^povs 'Afi<^t' 

Xop^mi' expvai, koL iiri ' Avajc-ropiov p.ri ^orjSeiv 

4 ■noXifUOV tv 'Axappaffiv. ravra ^vvdep-epoi Sic- 
Xvaav TOK iroXenov. fierk Se ravra Kopipffioi 



i;. Google 



BOOK III. cxiii. 6-cxiv. 4 

hod die town in their poasession, would be more 
tronblesoiue neighbours than the Ambraciots. 

CXIV. After this the Acamamans apportioned a 
third of the booty to the Athenians and distributed 
the rest among their cities. The portion which 
fell to the Athenians was captured from them on die 
voyage 'home; but the dedicatory offerings now to 
be seen in the Athenian temples, consisting of three 
hundred panoplies, were set apart as Demosthenes' 
share, and were brought home by him when he 
returned. Furthermore, bis return could now, in 
consequence of this exploit, be niade with less 
apprehension after his earlier misfortune in Aetolia. 
The Athenians in the twenty ships also departed, 
returning to Naopactus. As for the Acarnanians 
and Amphilocbians, after the Athenians and Demos- 
thenes had gone home, they concluded a truce with 
the Ambraciots and Peloponnesians who had taken 
refuge with Salynthius and the Agraeans, allowing 
them to withdraw from Oeniadae, whither they had 
gone after leaving Salynthius. The Acarnanians 
and Amphilocbians also concluded for the future a 
treaty of alliance with the Ambraciots to last for 
otie hundred years, on the following terms : The 
Ambraciots were not to join the Acarnanians in any 
expedition against the Peloponnesians; nor were 
the Acarnanians to join the Ambraciots against tiie 
Athenians, but they were to give aid in defence 
of one another's territory ; the Ambraciots were 
to restore all places or hostages belonging to the 
Amphilochiana which they now held ; and they 
-were not to give aid to Anactorium, which was 
hostile to the Acarnanians. On these terms of 
agreement they brought the war to an end. But 

ao3 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^vXaxijii iavT&v if rijv 'A./iwpaKiap aTretrreiXav 
e's TpiaKoaiov^ oirXlra^ Kal BevoKkeiSav tov Ew- 

T^l ■^tretpov dtfttieovTO. t^ fiev Kwr Afi-rvpaKiOV 
ovTWi efevETO. 

CXV. Oi S' ev r^ "S-iKeXCa 'ASrjvalot tov avrov 
X^tP'Stvo'i es Tc Tr]v Ip.epatai' a-Ko^aatv eVotJj- 
ffavTO ix Ttov veSiv p.eTa -rStv 'S.i.Ke'h.Sni r&v avadev 
e(T^effKt}ic6To>v es rit lixxtno. t^s 'l/iepaiai teal 

2 evl TO! AloXov v^uovi evXevaav. dvax<^pV~ 
ffofTCs Se «s Pijyiav nvdoStopov tov IffoXd^cw, 
'Affrjvaiwv ffTpaT7}yop, KaTak.afi,^avou<Ttv eVi rav 

3 vav<! SiaSoxop &v 6 Adxn'' VPX^"- <*' y^P *" 
%iKe\ia ^vfifiaj(p'^ vKevaavTet hreiaav tows 
^ABifvaiovt ^ot}0€iv (rtpiai irXeiofft vavrrlv Tijii 
p,ep yiip 7^5 aiiToip oi %vpaie6i7ioi eiepdrovp, t^ 
he 0a7iAffiT7}f o\iyiu<i vavfflp elpyo/iepot irape- 
OKevd^oPTO vavTiKOV ^upoyeipovrei li? oi trept- 

4 oTfrofievoi. Kol hrXripovP vavi TeaffapaKOvra ol 
*ASr}paloi <&5 diroo-TeXoOcTes avroif, afia fiev 
^yov/ifvoi Oaaaop rov evel -rroXefiOP Karakvdt}- 
treaOai, a/M> &i ^ovXapjepoi. psXenjv tov pavrtKOv 

6 iroveladai. top fxkp oBi' epa t&v aTpaTTjySip dni- 
ffTeiKap Jlv66Sfiipop oXXyat^ vavtri, ^otfioxXia Si 
TOi' %a>aTpaTiSou teal EvpvfilBoura top 0ot/«Xeous 

^ iirl T&P irXeiopwp pe&v dizoTrip/i^etv ep^Wop. o 
Sk Ilv86Si}opo<; tjBjj exofp t^v tov Aa;^»^os t«h 
veap dpxh" ivXevere Te\(vTmvTo<; tou ■)(eipMVQ'i 
304 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. CUT. 4-cxv. 6 

after .this the Corinthians sent to Ambracia a 
garrison of their own troops, consisting of about 
three hundred hoplites, under the command of 
Xenocleldas son of Euthycles, who, making- their 
way with difficulty across he mainland, finally 
reached their destination. Such was the course of 
events at Ambracia. 

CXV. During the same winter the Athenians in 
Sicily made a descent from their ships upon the 
territory of Himera, in concert with the Sicels 
from the interior who bad invaded the extreme 
border! of Himeraea; and they also sailed against 
the islands of Aeolus. Eteturning thence to Rhe- 
gium, they found that Pythodorus son of Isolochus, 
an Athenian general, had come to succeed Laches 
in command of the fleet For their alhes in Sicily 
had sailed to Athens and persuaded them to aid 
them with a larger fleet ; for though their territory 
was dominated by the Syracusans, yet since they 
were kept from the sea by only a few ships they 
were collecting a fleet and making preparations 
with the determination not to submit. And the 
Athenians manned forty ships to send to them, partly 
because they believed that the war in Sicily could 
sooner be brought to an end in this way, and partly 
because they wished to give practice to their fleet. 
Accordingly they despatched one of their generals, 
Pythodorus, with a few ships, and were planning 
later on to send Sophocles son of Sostratidas and 
Eutymedon son of Thucles with the main body 
of the fleet, Pythodorus, now that he had taken 
over the command of Laches' ships, sailed toward 
the end of the winter against the LiscriaD fort which 
'- I.e. toward tlie interior. 



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THUCYDIDES 

^ttI to AoKp&v ippovptop 8 irpOTepov liayvfi . ethsv 
icaX viKtiSeU t^o^XO hirh tS>v Aoiepav aireyaprftrev. 
CXVI. ^EppVT} Bi irepl aino to eap tovto 6 
pva^ rov irupo! iic t^s A?tt^, tixrirep koI irpo- 
repov, teal f^v Tiva ei^eipe t&v K.aravaitia', ot 
' viro T^ Atrfrj Ty opei olKOv(7tv, ovep fi4yi<rT0P 

2 iariv 6pos iv t^ "^iiceXla, Xeyerat Si ■jreint)- 
KQffTm erei pwrjvai toOto fierit to TTporepov pev/ia, 
TO Si ^vfiTrav Tph ye-yepfjaSai to pev/ut aip' oS 

3 ScfcXi'a VTTO 'EW^tov olxecrai. ravra p.iv lear^ 
TOP ;^ei/i(oi'a Toi>TOf iyevero, xal ^ktov ero? r^ 
voXefi^ ireXevra r^Be hv ©ow/cvStSij? ^uveypa'^frev. 



' f be eruption of Aetna mentioned in the Parian Marble, 
lii. fiT f., as contemporaneous with the battle of Plataoa 
(479 B.C.); so that the BSpreBSion "fiftieth year" is not quite 
exact. IVom hie form of expression in what foUows, it 



c.Googlu 



BOOK III. CTV. 6-cxvi. 3 

Laches had previously captured ; ' but he was 
defeated in battle by the Locrions and returned to 
Rhegium. 

CXVI. At the beginning of the following spring 4 
the stream of fire burst from Aetua, as it had on 
former occasions. And it devastated a portion of 
the temtory of the Catanaeans who dwell on the 
slope of Mount Aetna, the highest mountain in 
Sicily. This eruption took place, it is said, fifty 
years after the last preceding one ; * and three 
eruptions all told are reported to have occurred 
since Sicily has been inhabited by the Hellenes.' 
Such was the course of events in this winter, and 
therewith ended the sixth year of this war of which 
Thucydides composed the history. 

is clear that Thucydidea, when he wrote thia passage, eonld 
have had no knowledge of an eruption later than 425 B.C. 
Ho must therefore have died before that of 396 B.C. or, 
if he lived after that date, never revised this paslage. 

' i.e., since the eighth c«Qtor7; Bee the account at the 
heginning of Book vi. 



307 

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c.Googlu 



BOOK IV 



i;. Google 



1. ToC B' iiriyiyvofievov Sepovv irepl airov e«- 
ffoX^p XvpaKoaliov Sexa vye^ vXevaairat Kol 
AoKpCSet laai Mfa-ai}iniv t7]v 4v %iKeXla xariXa- 
00V, avr&v eTrayayoftevtov, ital diria-n} Meira^vi} 

2 ' X6r}valwv, eirpa^av Be tovto fidXitna oi piv 
^vpaxoffioi opoiVTE'; T!-poa0o\i}V e^ov to p^w^oi' 
T^9 2t/ceX(a5 KoX (^o^ovfievoi rov^ 'Adtjvalou^ fti) 
ef airoO opp^p^voL Trore o-^itrt fifi^ovi irapa- 
(Tieev^ eTriX$fDtriv, ol Be AoKpol kutcI e^do^ to 
'Pjjytvajy, 0ov\6fiievoi ap/^oTepmBev ai/TOU? icaTa- 

3 ■noKep^tv. icai eae^effX'^neaav apa e's t^h 'Ptfyi- 
vuiv ol AoKpol ■jrapo'TpaTia, "va pi/ ivt^orjOSiat 
To2<i Mtfftrijiitoi?, dpa Be ical ^vve-jrayovTav 'Prjyi- 
vwv ifivydSmv, ot Jjtrav Trap avTol<;- rit ykp 
'V'^yiov eVl TtoXvv xpovov itrraaia^e xal aSvvara 
Jjv iv T^ TrapoVTi toi"; AoKpovi apvveadai, 7} Kal 

4 paWof eireTidevTo. Brjtoaavre'i Si ol pev Aoxpol 
T^ TTcf^ (iTre;)£w/3i;(raii, at &i v^e? Meffff^prfv 
i<ppovpovi'- Kal aXKat^ 'TrXrjpovp^vai epeWov av- 
Toae eyKaBoppurdpevcu tqv iroXepov ivrevOev 
iToiijaeffffai. 



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I. The nest summer, about the time of the earing 45 
of the grain, ten Sjracusan and as many Locrtan ships 
sailed to Messene in Sicily and occupied it, going 
thither on the invitation of the inhabitants; and 
Messene revolted from Athens. The chief reason for 
this act, on the part of the Syracusans, was that they 
saw that the place olfered a point of attack upon 
Sicily and were afraid that the Athenians might some 
tiine make it a base from which to move against Syra- 
cuse with a larger force ; the motive of the Locrians 
was their hostility to the Rhegians, whom they desired 
to subdue by both land and sea. And, indeed, the 
Locrians had at this same time invaded the territory 
of the Rhegians with all their forces in order to 
prevent them from giving any aid to the Messenians ; 
and, besides, some Rhegians who were living in exile 
among the Locrians also urged them to niake the 
invasion ; for Rhegium had for a long time been in 
a state of revolution, and it was impossible at the 
moment to make any defence against the Locrians, 
who were consequently the more eager to attack. 
The Locrians first ravaged the country and then 
withdrew their land forces, but their ships continued 
guarding Messene ; and still other ships were now 
being manned to be stationed at Messene and to 
carry on wu from there. 



p 3 

..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

TI. "Two Se Toii^ avToiK 'Xfiovow tov ^po<i, TrpXn 
Tov viTOv iv aKfi.^ elvai, TleKoTrovv^o'tot xal ol 

'A-yt? 'Ap-)(^tSafU)v, AoKeBat/iovimv ffaatXtw'), 

2 Koi iyxaBe^ofievoi iSijovv t^v 7^1/. 'hdrjvaXoi he 
Tiis re reffvapaKOVTa cow ^? XuceXlap airSarei- 
Xac, wtrrrep irapea/ceva^ovjo, icaX <rrpaTt)yow Toii^ 
vvo\oiirov<i HiipuftiBoirra xal ^<f>OK\ia' Hv06- 
Stopo'i 7A/) o TpiTos avT&v ^Sr} vpoa^uero e? Suce- 

3 liiav. elttov Si Tovrof; xal Kepicvpatav &fia 
irapaTrKi.ovTa'; t&v iv t^ iroKei 4tnp£Kt}6rivat, 01 
iXjiarevovTO v-jro tw» ev Tp 8pei ipvyaStov xai 
HeXoTTOWJiaiaip ainotre V7)e^ e^^Kopra irapeire- 
TrXfiujeeo'ai' rot; iv t^ opei Ttfiapol xal Xiftov 
SvTOi fieydKov iv ry iroXei vofu^ovre^ Karaffj^iJ- 

4 iretv fXfSiWi rh irpayfiaTa. Ar}/i,O(70ivei Se 5vTt 
iStwTjj fteTh ri/v apa'xo^pvtv Tt/v ef 'AKapvaviav 
air^ Sei}04pri elirov j(p^<idat raZ? vavai ravraK, 
■fjv ffovK'ijrai, trepl rijv Tle\Qir6vpT)<xov. 

III. Kol Ol? iyevoPTo TrXiopres /carel rrjv AaxtD- 
vnti]v KoX i-irvv0dpovTO OTt at p^ei ev Kepxvp^ 
ifSt) elirl iSiP TieKo-KOPprfaiwv, a pxp Evpvp,fBayv 
Kal Xot^oxXiji ^ireiyovTo is rr/v KipKi/pav, o Bi 
Aifp-offBipiji 65 Ttjv IlvXov irpaTOv etciXeve ff^oy- 
Tfl? aVTOv^ Koi wpd^avra^ & Set tov ttXow* 
irotetaOoi- avrtXeyoprtov Se tcari tvx')v X^^f^" 
iiriyevo/ievo^ xaT^peyKe tA? vav^ eVl t^ii IlvXov. 
2 Kol o Ai}/*oadevt}^ euffw •^^iov Teixi^cT6tu to 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. 11. i-iii. I 

II. About the same time that spring, before the 
grain was ripe, the Peloponnesians and their alhes 
made an invasion of Attica, under the command of 
Agis son of Archidamus, king of the Lacedae- 
monians; and encamping there they ravaged the 
land. But the Athenians despatched the forty ships ' 
to Sicily, as they had previously planned, together 
with the two remaining generals, Eurymedon and 
Sophocles, who were still at home ; for Pythodonis, 
the third general, had already arrived in Sicily. 
These had instructions, as they sailed past Corcyra, 
to have a care for the inhabitants of the city, who 
were being plundered hy the exiles on the moun- 
tain,^ and the Peloponnesians with sixty ships had 
already sailed thither, with the purpose of aiding 
the party on the mountain and also in the belief 
that, since a great famine prevailed in the city, 
they would easily get control of affairs. Demos- 
thenes also, who had retired into private life after 
his return from Acarnania,^ now, at his own request, 
received permission from the Athenians to use the 
forty ships at his discretion in operations about the 
Peloponnesus. 

III. Now when the Athenians arrived off the coast 
of Laconia and learned that the Peloponnesiaii fleet 
was already at Corcyra, Eurymedon and Sophocles 
were for pressing on to Corcyra, but Demosthenes 
urged them to put in at Pylos first, do there what 
was to he done, and then continue their voyage. 
They objected ; but a storm came on, as it happened, 
and carried the fleet to Pylos. And Demosthenes 
at once urged them to fortify the place, as it was for 

' ef. ni. cxv. 4. ^ fif- nL Ixxxv. 4. 



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THUCYDIDES 

j^rapCov (eirX toOto y^p ^vveK-rrXevaat), Koi aite- 
<f>anre ttoKXtjv tinropiav ^\a>v re ical \lSoiv teal 
(fiuiTei xaprepov 6v koI ipijfiov avro re «ai iirl 
iroXi) Trji xiiipaf aTrij(€t. fhp trTaSioiK fioktaTa ■>) 
tliiXo? Trjt; %'jrdpTt]<; TeTpaKotriou^ ical euTtv iv rf) 
M.eaa>}via ttote ovaji y^, icakovo'i. £e out^ii ot 

3 AaKeBaiitovioi K.opvtf>datoir. ol Se iroXXA^ e^a- 
aav elvai aitpa^ (p'jfiovi rrj'i IlfXoTrovv^tTOv, ■^ 
^ovXTjrat KaToXaiiQavtav -rrjv -ttoXiv Zavavav. 
Tp Se Std<f>op6v Tt iSo/cei eh/at Tovro to j^toptov 
erepov fioXXov, Xip.ivoi re Trpoaoi/TO^ teal TOvf 
Meiro-ijfiou? olKeiov; ovraf ttwrp to apxalov xal 
Oftoffitopov^ Toif AaKeBacftovioii; TrXelaT av /SXair- 
reiv ef ainov opfjMfievovi xai ^e^atov<! d/ia tow 
^Mptov ipvXaKai eaeaOat. 

IV. '11? ti ovK eiretffm' ovte tow? aTpaTjjyoii 
ovre Toin aTparirina^, Sinepop xal to« ra^idp- 
ypit KoiVQMj-a^, j/uvxa^ov iiiro airXoiav, p^XP'' 
airott TOts a-Tpa-TimTaiti a")(pXd^ovaiv 6pp,i] eve- 

2 -Keire Trepimaatv eKreix^a-ai to x^P''°^- *'*^ 
i-Yx^etp^ff-avrei; etpyd^ovro, triS'^pta fiep Xidovpyit 
OVK 6^oi'T69, XaydSifv Bi ^ipovTe<; XlBov;, koX 
^vverldeaav (o? eKaarov ri ^vp.ffaCvor xal top 
tryfKov, et wov heoi xp^'^^'^h o77€ki'1' diropK^ exi 
TOW vnoTov eipepov ey«««u0oTes Te, d>i pdXima 
p^Xoi. eiripeveiv, «al tw ;^e(^e es Toinri<ro> fv/t- 



BOOK IV. III. a-iv. 2 

this purpose that he had sailed with them ; and he 
showed them that there was at hand an abundance 
of wood and stone, that the position was naturally 
a strong one, and that not only the place itself but 
also the neighbouring country for a considerable 
distance was unoccupied; for Pylos is about four 
hundred stadia distant Irom Sparta and lies in the 
land that was once Messenia ; but the Lacedaemon- 
ians call the place Coryphasium. The other generals 
said there were many unoccupied headlands in 
the Peloponnesus, which he could seize if he wished 
to put the city to expense. Demosthenes, however, 
thought that this place had advantages over any 
other ; not only was there a harbour close by, but 
also the Messeniaus, who originally owned this land 
and spoke the same dialect as the Lacedaemonians, 
would do them the greatest injury if they made this 
place their base of operations, and would at the same 
time be a trustworthy garrison of it. 

IV. But Demosthenes could not win either the 
generals or the soldiers to his view, nor yet the com- 
manders of divisions to whom he later communicated 
his plan ; the army, therefore, since the weather was 
unfavourable for sailing, did nothing. But at length 
the soldiers themselves, having nothing to do, were 
seized with the impulse to station themselves around 
the place and fortify it. So they set their hands to 
this task and went to work ; they had no iron tools 
for working stone, but picked up stones and put 
them together just as they happened to fit ; and 
where mortar was needed, for want of hods, they 
carried it on their backs, bending over in such a 
way as would make it stay on best, and clasping 
both bands behind them to prevent it from falling 

»I5 



c. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

3 irX««oin-«, Sircu? fii) avonhrroi. iravri re Tpinrip 
rftre^otno ijiS^vai Toii^ AaiceSaifWviov^ r& iirtfta- 
j^wTOTO e^tpyaad/tetiot irplv eTrt^orjOrfaai, to 
* ffilp TrXeov tow ')(wplav aino Kap-repov vTrfjpxe Koi 
oiBh eBn Tei^ow. V. oi Se eopr^v riva erv^pv 
ayovTc;, Koi apM iruvdavopsvoi h> 6\iya>pia 
itroiovVTO, OK, orav i^iXdtaa-iv, t} ov)^ imopsvovv- 

avTovi 6 crrpaTbt ert ev Tali 'Aff^vaK ^f hrevyjev. 

2 TeiytaavTet Se ot 'A07}valoi, toO j^atpiov tA trpo^ 
^ireipov Kal h p-aXttTTa ISei iv r]p,ipcu<i e^ tov /*ev 
ii.tjfio<Tdivri pvrh veSm trevre avrov ^liXaxa Kara- 
'KeitroviTi,, rah hi irXeCotn vaval top ^ T^y K^p- 
Kvpav 'TrXot'i' koX %iKe)da» rjtreLyovTo. 

VI. Ot &' iv Tjj 'Attm:S opr^i XlfXoTTOvv^ioi 
<B5 eirv6ovra t^s WvKov KareiXij/i/t^i^;, ave-)(<ii- 
povv lear^ ra^o^ eV oikov, vofu^ovrei fiev oi 
AaKeSaifiovioi koX 'A71; o ffa<ri\evv otKeiov ai^im 
TO irepi rijv XLvKov ap^ Be trp^ ia^a\avTe<; koX 
rov aiiTov ert ;^X<u/mi) outos iinrdvf^ov Tpotf>7}V 
Tot? TToWoii, ^(etpMv re etriyevopievo^ ftet^^u vap& 
rt}v KaBttTTi)Kvtav wpav iwUffe to arpaTevfui' 

2 &ffT€ rroXKaxoden ^vviffi) dvaj^mpyjtrai rt Saaaov 
airrov^ xal ^pax^rdrj/v yeveaBat t^h itrffoXijv 
TavTijv ^p.epa'; yhp irerre koX Uku eftetvav iv Tp 
'ArrtKij. 

ai6 



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BOOK IV. IV. a-vi. 2 

off. And in every way they made haste that they 
might complete the fortification of the most vulner- 
able points before the Lacedaemonians came out 
against them ; for the greater part of the place was 
so strong by nature that it had no need of a wkII. 
V. As for the Lacedaemonians, they happened to be 
celebrating a festival when tliey got word of the 
undertaking, and made light of it, thinking that the 
Athenians would not await their attack when they 
got ready to take the field, or, if they should, that 
they could eaaly take the place by force ; and the 
fact also that their army was stilt in Attica had some- 
thing to do with their delay. The Athenians in six 
days completed the wall on the side toward the land 
and at such other points as most needed it, and left 
Demosthenes there with five ships to defend it ; 
they then took the main body of the fleet and 
hastened on their voyage to Corcyra and Sicily. 

VI. But the Peloponnesions who were in Attica, 
when they beard that Pylos had been occupied, re~ 
turned home in haste ; for King Agis and the Lace* 
daemonians thought that the Athenian operations at 
Pylos were a matter of deep concern to them. And 
at the same time, since they had made their invasion 
early in the season when the grain was still green, 
most of them ^ were short of food, and bad weather, 
which came on with storms of greater violence than 
was to be expected so late in the spring, distressed 
the army. Consequently there were many reasons 
■why they hastened their retirement from Attica and 
mode this the shortest of their invasions ; for they 
remained there only fifteen days. 

* Bkch division had its own commiraariat. uid soma were 
beltflT proviBioned than tbe main body. Classeii esplaine, 
" were abort of food for «o largt an army " (tdii iroWoTi). 

317 



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THUCYDIDES 



VII. Kara Be rw avrov ')(_pavov XtftaviBij^ 
KOrjvaidiv arpaT'Tjyo^ 'Hiova t^v sttI &paK7jti 
MtpSaitov aTTOiKtav, iroXeftCav Be otaav, ^vKKe- 
fdS 'Kdrivaiov; re oXLyovt 4k tS>v iftpovpiwv xal 
tSiv iteeivp ^v/i.p-d'y^av ■n-Xijdo'; -n-poStBofieirtjv xare- 
Xa^ev. xal 7^apa;^;p^/xo eTri&oijdrjrTtiprioii XaX- 
KiBiatv Kol RoTTialav i^Kpovadt) re xal a/rre^aXe 

iroKkoilli .t5)V (TTpaTKDT&V. 

VIII. 'Aira^wptirrdi/Tmu Bi Toil' ex T^s 'Att(«^? 
Hf\o7rovvr](7lo>v oi %TraprMTai, ainoi fiev xal oi 
iyyvrara tS)v -rreptoUwii evOvs e^orjOovv itrl rifV 
IliJXoi', rSiv Be aXXwi' AaxeSaifiovlaip ffpaBvrepa 
iyiyveTo r/ e^Bof, dpn atfjij/ieucop dtf erepav 

2 arpareia^. ^tpiijyyeWov Be koI xara rr/v IIcXo- 
■7row't}<rov ^orfSelp on Ta^KJ-ra ctti XIvXcv ical cTri 
tAs iv TT] Kepievpa vaO^ irtpav T^9 i^^icopTa 
eTTefi-^ap, at virepevexSeitj-at top AevKaBLap 
Icrdfibp xal Xa&ovaat tA? iv ZaKvv&m 'Att(«A? 
paiii d(fiiKPOVPTai em, YIvXov Traprjv Se ^Sij Kal o 

3 wejo? (TTpflTos. Aij>xo<r5ew)s Be irpoinrXeainatP 
h-i r&v XieXoTTOvvqtTlioP vireKi{ep.-jrei if>&dtia^ Bvo 
pav^ d/yyetXat Eupvp-eSovrt xal rots iv rati Pavirlp 
ep ZaKvv$^ 'Adi/palot^ irapetpai to? tov -xjiopCov 

4 KipBvvevopTO'i. Kai at fiep pije'; Ka-rii. Taxo'i e-TrXeov 
Kara to. eTrearaX/iepa vtto ArjfiQaBipav;- ol Bk 
AaKeSaip.6pio( -n-apea-Kevd^oPTO a>5 r^ retj(^uT~ 
pari irporr^aXavprei Kara re yfjp Kal Karet 0^- 
Xaairap, eXtri^ovre^ paBlo)^ alp^aeiv olxoSop/ijfia 
Sih Ta;^eaJi' etpya<ip,evop Kal avBpaynaiP oKiyav 



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PLAIN OF L\ 




..Gocgk 



BOOK IV. vii.-viii. 4 

VII. About the same time Simonides,an Athenian 
general, getting together a few Athenians from the 
garrisons in Thrace and a targe farce from the allies 
in that neighbourhood, got, by the treachery of its 
inhabitants, possession of Eion in Thrace, a colony 
of the Mendaeans and hostile to Athens. But suc- 
cour came promptly from the Chalcidians and the 
Bottiaeans and he was driven out with the loss of 
many of his soldiers. 

VIII. On the return of the Peloponnesians from 
Attica, the Spartans themselves and the Perioeci who 
were in the neighbourhood of Pylos at once came to 
its relief; but the other Lacedaemonians were slower 
in coming, since they had just got back from another 
campaign. Word was also sent round to the states 
of the Peloponnesus, summoning theui to come to 
the relief of Pylos as quickly as possible, and also to 
the sixty ships that were at Corcyra.' These were 
hauled across the Leucadian isthmus, and without 
being discovered by the Attic ships, which were now 
at Zacynthus, reached Pylos, where their land forces 
had already arrived. But before the Peloponnesian 
fleet had yet reached Pylos, Demosthenes managed to 
send out secretly ahead of them two ships which 
were to notify Eurymedon and the Athenian fleet 
at Zacynthus to come at once to his aid, as the place 
was in danger. And so the fleet proceeded in haste 
in compliance with Demosthenes' summons ; mean- 
while, however, the Lacedaemonians were busy with 
their preparations to attack the fortification both by 
land and by sea, and they thought that they would 
have no difficulty in capturing a structure which had 
been built hastily and was occupied by only a few 

> e.f. ch. ii. 3. 

919 



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THUCYDIDES 



5 ivovrmv. wpoaSejf^oftevoi £e t^v airo t^; Zoxtw- 



$pa fttj trpcnepov eKaa-i, xai tou? e<Tw\ov^ ; 
\ifievot ifufidp^at, oirat fiif y tok 'AOtiPaLoti 
i^pfiiaatrdai, it ainov. 

6 'H yap vijtTOt ^ ^if>a/cTr}pia KaKovftanj t6v rt 
\ip4va, irapaTelvowa koX efyv<s iirticetfiiin], ij(y- 
pov troiet Koi Toii'; eirirXovt arevov^, rp piv hvolv 
veoiv StaTrXowc Kar^ to reixiapa r&v 'ABijvaiav 
KoX rrjv IIvXoc, Tp hi TTpm T^v SWtiv ^iretpov 
OKjia I) ivvea- vXtiBijt re xai arpi^Tji traffa vw' 
eprffuat ^p leaX piyeBtK "Kepi irhne koX Sixa 

7 (TTaSlovi (toKuTTa. roii<t piv oip ianr\ov<; ravi 
vavfflv avrtirpippoK ffv^J/v xX^ireiP e/(«XXoi'- t^v 
&e vijirot' ravtr^v ^O0ovp,evoi p,i} ej out^5 tow 

* The harbour of Pyloa in regarded bv Claesea and nearly 
all recant commentatorB as idearical with the modem Bay of 
Navarino, the taxKm toS Xtfiimi beiog the ontronoes north 
sod south oC Sphacteria or (iphagia. But the entranae to 
the harbour of Navarino south of Sphagia ia now — and most 
have been in Thucydidea' time^a channel more than three- 
guarterH of a mile wide, and deep all the way acroM, so that 
it does not answer to Thucydidea' description of a passage 
onlr wide enough to admit eight or nine triremes ; rather, 
as Arnold aava, "a hundred Greek ships might have found 
room to Bail abreast Quite aa easily as eight or nino." 
Clearly, then, Thucydides could not have been personally 
acquainted with the scene, and was misinformed as to the 
breadth of the harbour's mouth, as Leake supposed. Or we 
nmst BBaume that the dimeDsions of the entrances mentioned 
tjy Thucydides were rather of those north and south of 
CJoryphasium, the modem Palaeo-Kastro, and the " har- 
bour was not the Bay of Navarino, aa Xhucydides aup- 
3>» 



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BOOK IV. vui. 4-7 

men. But since ibcj expected the Athenian fleet 
to arrive soon from Zacynthus, it was their intention, 
in case they should fail to take the place before 
these came, to block up the entrances to the harbour 
and thus make it impossible for the Athenians to 
anchor inside and blockade them. 

Now the island called Sphacteria stretches along 
the mainland, lying quite close to it, and thus makes 
the harbour safe and the entrances to it narrow ; 
on one side, opposite the Athenian fortifications 
and Pylos, there is only room for two ships to pass 
through, on the other side, next to the other part 
of tJie mainland, there is room for eight or nine.' 
The whole island was covered with timber and, since 
it was uninhabited, had no roads, its length being 
somewhere near fifteen stadia. Now it was the 
intention of the Lacedaemonians to close up the 
entrances tight by means of ships placed with their 
prows outward ; and as for the island, since they 
were afraid that the Athenians would use it as 

posed, but the Lagoon or Lake of ( 
bay, and now cut off from it by a ai 
of Gmndy — who in August, 1895, spent fonrteen dft^ there 
making a survey— lu to the lower entrance. The upper 
entrance, he thinka, waa closed already in Thucydidea' time, 
and the historian seema never to have apprehended tJiat 
fact. Grundy's view as to the lagoon being the harbour 
meant by Thucydides is accepted by Steup, but he does not 
approve of Orundy'a aaaumption that Thucydidea, without 
peraonal koowladfi^ of the region, following at different 
points reports of different informantc, confoaed atatements 
with reference to the harbour of Pjlos and aa to the bay as 
referring to one and the same. See Arnold in Ai»>. to 
Book IV. on Spboateria; Qrundy, "Investigation of^ the 
Topography of the Region of SptiacteriB and P;lo«," in 
Journt^ of HeUen. Stuaiet, ivi. 1-54 ; Steup, App. on IV. 



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THUCYDIDES 

■n-oXtfiOv <Tij>i<ri iroi&VTtu, owXtVo! ' Sie^lffaaav 
i<t avTriv /cal irapa rrjv ffvetpav a\Xou? era^av 

8- aSirw yhp tok ^AdifvaCofi Trjv re vr\aav ■rroKefdav 
ecrevdat nji' re f/ireipov a-rroffaiftv ovic exovaav 
(tA 7A/J avT^ T^! JIvKqv efai tou eaTrXou trpo^ 
TO TreXa705 aXifitva Sina ovj( e^etv Sdev opfiw- 
/ievoi a><f)e\^a'ov<ri, roiiv ainav), cr<f)€i<; SJ dvev re 
vavfiaxitK koX klp^vpou i/t-jroXtopK^a-eiv to xroptov 
Karii TO eU6<;, ffirav re oiiic iv6vTo<; kcu St' o>>iyi]<i 

9 rrapaaKevfii Karei\qftp.evov, <o? h' iBoicei airroK 
ravra, ical Sie^i^a^ov e? rtiv p^aov roi)^ O'ffXtTas 
arroKK'qpiorTavTe^ a-rro irdvraiv ratv \o^(t>ii. xal 
SUfirjffav /iev Kal aXXot Trporepov leara hiahoXQOt 
01 Sk reXevratoi xal erfKa'ra\i}^$evre% eiKoai leai 
TerpaKoiTioi ^aav xal EiA-wTec oi irepl atVrow?* 
^PX^ ^' o-vrSsv ETTfTttSa? o MoXo|9pou. 

IX. ArifLoirdevTi^ Bk 6pS>v Tous AaiteSaifioviov^ 
fUWovra^ irpaa^aXXeiv vavai re S./JM xal irefp, 
rrapeafcevd^ero xal ttyro?, xal rie rptripei'; at 
ireptrfaav aiir^ avo rStv xaraXettji&etawv dva- 
wdcra'; wttA to reCxtTfui Trpoa-etTTavptoire, xal 
Tou! vavrofi ef air&v &TrXi<T€P da-rriai ' ^auXats 
/ra^ otavivaii Ta?9 TToXXaw" ou 7^^ ^1/ OTrXa iv 
Xwpttp eptip,^ 'TTopCffaadai, dXXa xal ravra ix 
' T(, after inlai \o the M8S, , deUt«d hy Hnde aa not 
read bj Suidaa. 

' i.e., north of the enbraace, on the weHtern side. 
* Only threa : five bad been left him (ch. v. 2), bot two of 
these be had seat to warn the BquEulron at Zooynthns. 



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BOOK IV. VIII. 7-ix. I 

a base for carrjring on the war against them, they 
conveyed some hoplites across, at the same time 
posting others along the mainland. By these 
measures, they thought, the Athenians would find 
not only the island hostile to them, but also the 
mainland, since this afforded no landing-place ; for 
there were no harbours along the shore of Pylos 
itself outside the entrance,^ on the side toward the 
sea, and therefore the Athenians would have no 
base from which they could aid their countrymen. 
Consequently the Lacedaemonians believed that, 
without running the risk of a battle at sea, they 
could probably reduce the place by siege, since it 
had been occupied on short notice and was not sup- 
plied with provisions. As soon as they reached this 
conclusion they proceeded to convey the hoplites 
over to the island, drafting them by lot from all 
the companies. Several detachments had before 
this time crossed over, one group relieving another ; 
the last to do so — and this is the force that was 
captured — numbering four hundred and twenty, 
brides the Helots who accompanied them, and 
they were under the command of Epitadas son of 
Molobnis. 

IX. Meanwhile Demosthenes also, seeing that the 
Lacedaemonians intended to attack him by sea and 
by land at the same time, set about making his 
preparations, He drew ashore, close up under the 
fortification, the triremes ^ remaining to him out of 
those which had been left in his charge and en- 
closed them in a stockade ; he then armed their 
crews with shields — poor ones, indeed, most of which 
were made of plaited willow ; for it was not possible 
to procure arms in an uninhabited country, and such 

123 



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THUCYDIDES 

XjfOTptiei}^ i/le<rv7}piti>v Tpiatcovripov xal leeK-rfTO^ 
eKa^ov, of '^V')(OV irapaiyevofievoi, oirXiTal re 
TWi' Meererijw'wi' rovriov lin rewapa-KovTa iy4- 

2 vovTO, ol? ij(piJTo furit r&ii &XK<iov. to^ piv 
oSv iroXXou; r&v re oottXuv teal aitt\i(TfjAvav iwi 
rii Tereiyiafiiva fiaXicrra Ka\ ij(ypii tov ■)(iio(^ov 
irpo'i T^v ijiretpov era^e, •apotttraiv ap.uva<r$at 
Toc wefov, ^v irpotr^aXj}' auro? Se airoke^dfievoi 
ix travTiov e^tjKOVTa oir'klTa^ xal TofoTos oX^ffOW 
iyaypei 1^6} toO tc/%ous 4ttI t^c ^aXairo-ai', J 
p,aXK7Ta eKeivovi Trpocre&ijfeTO veipa<Teiv airo- 
fiaivetv, e? ^i^tupta /i^v %(iXeTro xal verpmhr} trpov 
TO ireXa70? rerpap.ph'a,, a-^tai fie tou Tcixom 
TavTt/ aaOeveariifrov ovto^ i<T^idaaadat * airroiK 

3 ^yeiTo irpoOvp,ri<Tea9at' ovre yip avrol eKiri- 
foiTc? TTOTe vaval lepaT^ceaSat qvk lffj(ypov 
eTe^ifon, eKeivoK ^e (9tafo/«i«Ms t^h airoffaa-iv 

i oKoiatnov TO j^apiov yi^vetrffai. Karei roSro o!n' 
■npin avTrfv ri]V 6aXaaaav ^w/^'jcai ^Tafe rovs 
atrklTat w? elp^mv, fy> SvvijTai, xai wapexeXev- 
varo TotdSe. 

X. "'AvSpti 01 ^vvapdpxvot rovSe tov jetpSw- 
vov, /tJjfieie iifiMv ev r^ ToiaSe avdyKTj fwero^ 
ffovXiadw SoKsiv elvai, €K\oyt^ap£VO^ airav to 
TTE/Nco'To; 'f]pa,% Seivov, p£\Xov ^ aTT epicrxeirTfUf 
<t>fiXirif ofioffe y^apijffai roK evainioK naX 4tc 
Tovrav hv vepiyevop^vo^. &i7a yhp i^ dvdffKtjv 
' inBiiaaatai : BO Hude, after Loeuwen, for Iwivriravtm. 



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BOOK IV. a. i-s. I 

as they had the; took from a thirty-oared privateer 
and a light boat belonging to some Messenians who 
chanced to come along, and included among them 
about forty hoplites, whom Demosthenes used along 
with the rest. He then posted the greater part 
of his troops, the unarmed as well as the armed, at 
the best fortified and strongest points of the place, 
on the side toward the mainland, giving them orders 
to ward off the enemy's infantry if it should attack. 
But he himself selected from the whole body of 
his troops sixty hoplites and a few archers, and 
■with them sallied forth from the fort to the point 
on the seashore where he thought that the enemy 
would be most likely to attempt a landing. The 
ground, indeed, was difRcuIt of access and rocky 
where it faced the sea, yet since the Athenian 
wall was weakest at this place the enemy would, 
he thought, be only too eager to make an assault 
there ; in fact the Athenians themselves had left 
their fortification weak at this spot merely because 
they never expected to be defeated at sea, and 
Demosthenes knew that if the enemy could force 
a landingthere the place could betaken. Accordingly 
he posted his hoplites at this point, taking them to 
the very brink of the sea, determined to keep the 
enemy off if he could ; and then he exhorted them 
as follows : 

X, " Soldiers, my comrades in this present 
hazard, let no one of you at such a time of necessity 
seek to prove his keenness of wit by calculating the 
full extent of the danger that encompasses us ; let 
him rather come to grips with the enemy in a spirit 
of unreflecting confidence that he will survive even 
these perils. For whenever it has come, as now 

VW. Ik 9 

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THUCYDIDES 

dtf>ticTai Avwep rdSe, XoytCfiov i^Kurra ivBexo- 

2 /ieva, KivBvvov tov ra-^larov wpoffSetrai. iyoi Si 
Kal TO, irXeLio 6pS> irpm 7)fi.S>v ovra, f/v edi\a>/Uv ye 
fielvai ital (it) t^ TrXiJ^et atnmv KaTairXayivre^ 
rA, vwapj^pvra rjpXv icpei<T<ra KarairpoSovvai. 

3 TOV re ykp j(6>piov to Svaep^arov fujUrepov 
vopt^fa, 8 * p.€v6vTiov ijh> fipAtp ^vfifiaxoif yiyve- 
Tat, vTTOjfmp^ffaCTt ^ Be Kalirep ^aXcTrii' fin eti- 
TTopov ecTai /iijSecos kwXvovtk, kuI tov no^^fuov 
SeiPOTepav e^ofuv p.i] paSia^ auT^ irdXtv oSarj^ 
rijs avax'op'oaeoi'i, ^v kou v^' ■^fiSiv ^la^rjTiw iwi 
yap rait vaval paaroi eifftv afivveaSeu, atra- 

4 Govts'; 8' ev t^ Xvrp ^Sij. to re irX^Oo^ ai/rSiv oiiK 
dyav Set ^o^daOat- icar oXiyop yhp fiaxeirat 
Kaerrep troXv ov airopta t^? irpoaopfutrea^, Kol 
ovK ev yfj arpaTo'i iariv ix tow a/iotov ful^av. 
aXV aTTo ve&v, al^ iroXX^ ri Kaipia Set ev rQ 

SaXdaffji ^vfi^ijvat. aare riK Tovratv d-nopia^ 
dvrtTTokovt ^yov/iai ra ^p£Tip^ trXijOei, Kol S.fia 
d^ta i/pMi, 'ASi/natous Sprat nal eiriarap.ipov<: 
ep-Tretpia ri)v vavrtKrjp ew' aXkovi diroffaatv Sri, 
et rit v-rropivoi, Koi p,r} iftofip fiodiav Koi pe&v 
SetPOTTiTot Kard/wKov {nroxo>poiTi, ovk dv n-orc 
fiid^oiTO, Kal avT0V9 vvv /teipoi re Kal dfivvo/ti- 
' It, Dion. Hal., MS8. omit. 

Taxaip^a-airi, the genitive waa to be expected aft«r 

236 



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BOOK IV. ». 1-5 

with us, to a case of necessity, where there is no room 
for reflection, what is needed is to accept the hazard 
with the least possible delay. However,as I see the 
matter, the odds are on our side, if we are resolved 
to stand our ground and are not so terrified by 
their numbers as to sacrifice the advantages we 
possess. As regards the position, the difficulty of 
approach I regara as in our favour, since if we stand 
firm that becomes a support, but once we give way, 
even though the ground be rugged it will be easy of 
access when there is none to resist; and we shall 
then find the enemy more formidable, since it will 
be no easy matter for them to turn and retreat, if 
they should be hard-pressed by us ; for though very 
easily repelled while on board their ships, when once 
they have landed they are on an equal footing with 
us. And, as regards their numbers, we need have 
no very great fear ; for however numerous they arcj 
they will have to fight in small detachments on ac- 
count of the diRicalty of bringing their ships to 
shore. And we have not to deal with an army, 
which, though superior in numbers, is fighting on 
land under like conditions with ourselves, but fight- 
ing on ships, and these require many favouring cir- 
camstances on the sea.^ 1 therefore consider that 
their disadvantages counterbalance our inferiority 
in point of numbers. At the same time I call now 
upon you, who are Athenians and know by ex- 
perience tliat it is impossible to force a landing 
from ships against an enemy on shore, if the 
latter but stand their ground and do not give 
way through fear of tlie splashing oars and of the 
awe-inspiring sight of ships bearing down upon 
them — I call upon you, in your turn to stand your 
' e.g. a fair wind, spaoe foe inanieuvTiag, etc. 



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THUCYDIDES 

iww? map auT^v t^p payiav tr^^eiv irfta^ tg 
avroim koI to j^mplop." 

XI. Too'at)Ta rov ^rfftoadevoxn irapaxekevira- 
fi^av oi 'Adijvaiot eSdpcrrfaav re fiAXXov Kal 
hnxaTa^dme^ erd^avro trap avTr/v ri}V Bdkatr- 

2 trap. 01 Bi AaxeSatfiai'iot apavrei rqt tc Kara 
7^1" arpuT^ TTpacri^oXKov Tp Tet;^i(T/*aTt KaX 
Tat; vav<TXv afta ovcraiv refftrapaKOpra Kat Tptai,, 
vavap^oi Si avT&v iirhr\ei SpatrvftijXiSaf o 
KpaTJjff(«\eov5, ^TrapTidrri^, TrpoffdffaWe Se 

S ^TTep 6 Ai}fto<jBhi-^<; TrpoaeZkx'^o. icaX ol piu 
'A.$7]paioi ap^oripadev, etc re yrj^ ical etc BaXdtr- 
ffijs, rffivvovro- oi hk Kar oXiya^ vavi; Su\6/i€voi, 
Stori oiiK ^v rr'KeiaiTt rrpomrx^'iv, sal ava-rravopre^ 
iv Tji p.ipei T0i)9 eiriVXous ewoiovvro, rrpoBvfdtf 
re irdtTTj ^(ptopepoi xai rrapa/ceXevtrp^, ei wms 
atffdpevoi eXoiey to reixi^h^- rrdvTtav Sk ^ave- 

4 fmraro^ BpaatSa^ eyevero. rpiipapx^P y^p f** 
opaiP rov ;^o)/jfow xaXeiroO 6pro^ Toys rpitjpdpxpv^ 
Kol KV^epprjrat, et irov koI BoKoif) Svparop etpat 
ff^^eii'i airoKvouvTaf ical <{>v\affffop4pov^ r&v vemp 
fit] ^vvrpi'>jr<affip, i06a Xeytop w? ovk 6*ko! ettj 
^vXtup tftetBopipovi TOU! TToXefiiov^ ip rp X'^P'^ 
rrepiiSeiP TSi^os TTerrofripkvovv, aXKa tus re <r^e- 
ripa<! vav^ ^la^Ofihovi r^v diro^aa-ip narayvv- 
vol iKeXeve Kal roi>9 ^vftpAxovj pi) dnoKpijiTai 
dvrl pe-ydXap evepyeaiiuv rii vavv tok AaxeSat- 
popioit ip Tp rrapavri imSovpai, oiteiKaprav Se 
xal wavrl rpoir^ arro^dvra^ rap r< opSpap «cal 
338 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. X. s-xi. 4 

groQud, and, warding off the foe at the very water's 
edge, to save both yourselves and the stronghold." 

XI. Thus encouraged by Demosthenes, the Athen- 
ians became yet more confident and going still 
nearer the water took up their position at the very 
brink of the sea. The Lacedaemonians, on the 
other hand, moved forward, and attacked the forti- 
fication at the same time with their land-army and 
with their ships, of which there were forty-three, the 
admiral in command of them being Thrasymelidas 
son of Cratesicles, a Spartan. And he attacked just 
where Demosthenes eipected. The Athenians, on 
their part, proceeded to defend themselves in both 
directions, by land and by sea ; but the enemy, 
dividing their ships into small detachments, because 
it was impossible for a larger number to approach 
the shore, and resting by turns, kept charging upon 
the Athenians, showing no lack of zeal and cheering 
each other on, in the hope tliat they might force the 
enemy back and take tlie fortification. Brasidas 
showed himself most conspicuous of all. fieing 
captain of a galley, he noticed tliat the captains and 
pilots, because the shore was rocky, were inclined to 
hesitate and be careful of their ships, even when it 
seemed to be practicable to make a landing, for fear 
of dashing them to pieces. He would therefore shout 
that it ill became them through being thrifty of 
timber to allow their enemy to have built a fort in 
their country ; nay, he urged, thej must break their 
own ships so as to force a landing ; and the allies 
he bade, in return for great beneflts received from 
the Lacedaemonians, not to shrink from making 
them a free gift of their shiTs in the present emer- 
gency, but to run them aground, get ashore in any 

a»9 

D,an:«i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Tov j(wplov KparijiTai. XII. xdl i fiiv tow t« 
oXXoff TOMGra eirfffirepj^e xal tov iavrov Kvfitp- 
v^fjv avayxaffai OKeTKai rrfv vavv ej(apei ewi 
rr)V atro^ddpap' Koi veipatfievoit a-rro^aiveiv ave- 
Kovrf inrb Totv 'AOijvaicev, teal TpavfUiTiaQeXt 
irdKKii iXi'Koi^vj(rf(Te re koX ireffovTot avTOv €9 
TtjV wape^etpefflav r) offitXt irepieppur] ^s t^w 
6a\aa<rav, Kal i^evexOeiirrj^ oir^! it rifv y^i* ot 
'Affijvaioi ave\6fievot, Hirrepov trpot to rpovaiov 
ij(pijiravTo 8 ea-rrjaav t^s Trpoff^SoX^? TauT*;?. 

2 Oi £' aXXof vpovdufiovvTo pAv, ahvvwroi £* fi<Tav 
a^offijvai r&v re x*"?^**"* X'*^'"' ''''"'?''' ""^ ''"'*'' 

3 A0rfvaieov peiiovrwp teal ouSkv irirojfwpovvrtDV. e9 
toOto T£ TrepiiarJ] f) rv)(r} cocrre 'Aff^vaiovi fifvite 
yifi re koX ravrrji AtucaviK^t dfivveffffat exetvovi 
iTTtTrKeovrat, AweeBaifioviaw Bi ix ve&v re xaX ^s 
rifv eavr&p iroXefdau oZtrav ht' ' Adrjvtuovj atro- 
fiaivetv evl iroXu yip inroUi t^s Sofi;? iv Ty 
rare roit fiev rjtreiparaiti paKiara eivai koX rh 
ve^k KpariaroKt, roli he ffaXatraiOK re ical ran 
paval irKeurrov irpovx^^"- 

XIII. Tavrr]v pev ovv rrjv ijpipav koI t^ 
wrTtpaiav /iipov t( irpoa^oK^t voitjtrdfievot eir4- 
rravvro' xaX r^ rpirj} iirl ^v\a e? fitjxtivkt iTap4- 
Trepyfrav ra>v ve&v rivai eV 'Aaivi)v, A,7rifoj^ee to 
Kark tov \ip.eva reZ^pt v^o? p,ev ej^ov, drto- 
2 /9ao'eQ)« Se fiaKicra otJtn;; iXew &p * ftijxttPiut. eu 
rovr^ a at iK r^ Zaxvvdov vSjei rS>p 'AOrjvaitap 

' Ir ftdded bji Ukdvig. 
•JO 

[,an:tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. xu 4-xiii. a 

mj they could, and master both the men and the 
place. XII. And he not only urged on the rest in 
this way, but, compelling his own pilot to beach his 
ship, he made for the gangway ; and in trying to 
land he was knocked back by the Athenians, and 
after receiviDg many wounds fainted away. As he 
fell into the forwanl part of the sliip his shield 
slipped off* into the sea, and, being carried ashore, 
was picked up by the Atlienians, who afterward 
used it for the trophy which they set up in com- 
memoration of this attack. 

The crews of the other Peloponnesian ships showed 
no lack of zeal, but were unable to land, both by 
reason of the difficulty of the ground and because the 
Athenians stood firm and would not give way at all. 
In such fashion had fortune swung round that the 
Athenians, lighting on land, and Laconian land at 
that, were trying to ward off a X-acedaemonian attack 
from the sea, while the Lacedaemonians, fighting in 
ships, were trying to effect a landing upon their own 
territory, now hostile, in the face of the Athenians. 
For at this time it was the special renown ot the 
Lacedaemonians that they were a land power and 
invincible with their army, and of the Athenians that 
they were seamen and vastly superior with their 
fleet. 

XlII, After making attacks that day and part of 
the next the Peloponnesians desisted- On the third 
day they sent some of the ships to Asine for wood 
with which to make engines, hoping that by means 
of engines they should be able to take the wall 
opposite the harbour in spite of its height, since here 
it was quite practicable to make a landing. Mean- 
while, the Athenian fleet from Zacyntiius arrived, 

331 

■ D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

vapayiyvoin-at wein^«owTO' Trpotreffo^Srjaav yhp 
tAc te <ppovp[Smv Ttvi^ aiiToti t&v ix NavTrdxTov 
3-xal Xiai •riaa'apev. u; Se slBov ttJv te ^Ttetpov 
OTrXiTOiv wepiirKewv TijV t6 v^tiav, ev re rp Xifxan 
ovaat tA? vavi koL ovk eKTrXeouaat, dvop^aavre^ 
Sttj] KaffopfUiTtainat, rare p}v it Ylpiarijp ri)v 
PTJiTOV, f) ou TToki) direxet ip/jfio"; oiaa, ewXevaaf 
ical rjvXiffavro, t^ S' varepoiif wapatnefvaffdpevoi 
(tH eirl vavfta-xLav dvrf^ovro, ^v fih> avreKirXelv 
iffiXaxri atf>l<TtP ee ttjv evpvj(wpLav, et 5^ /*ij, <i? 

i Kal oi fiev ovre avrap^yomo ovre & Btevo^Bii- 
irav, <f>6.p^tu rovt eairXovt, eTvj(pv Troiijtrai^es, 
^ffuxd^ovTe<! i" ev rtj 7)7 riis re caus eVXiJpouv 
Kal trapeaKevd^oirro, ^v iairKep tk, ant hi t^ 
\ip,evi SvTt oil tTfitKp^ vavpaj(v<'^ovTe9, XIV. 01 S" 
'ASfivaioi yvoirrei} Ka6' exdrepov tov ?a-ir\ovv 
&p/ii}aap ew avrovt, koI ri? /tev wXetovt Kal 
fiereoipovt ij&j tStv veStv KaX dpTtrrp^pov^ Trpotr- 
Treffocres es ^vyijp xwriff-nja-av, Kal iiriBiWKOPTti 
dxt Bth ^pax^ot eTpaa-av pkv TroWdv, whire Sk 
e\affov Kal ptap roinav avToXt dvhpd<nv raif H 
XotTrat! ev Tp y^ Karairetf>evyviai9 ivi^aWov. at 
Be Kal v\r)povp^pat eTiirplp dvd/yeffffat eKotTTovro' 
Kai Tivw Koi dvahovpitvoi Ktvht et\KOV tS>v dp- 

2 hpStpi<! <f>vyyv wpfitjpevmv. &. op&vre^ 01 AtuceSai- 

13a 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. XIII. z-xiv. 2 

now numbering fifty ships, for it had been reinforced 
by some of the ships on guard at Naupactus and by 
four Chian vessels. But they saw that both the main- 
land and the island were full of hoplites, and that 
the Lacedaemonian ships were in the harbour and 
not intending to come out ; they therefore, being at 
a loss where to anchor, sailed for the present to 
Prote, an uninhabited island not far from Pylos, and 
bivouacked there. The next day they set sail, having 
first made preparations to give battle in case the 
enemy should be inclined to come out into the open 
water to meet them ; if not, they intended to sail 
into the harbour themselves. ' 

Now the Lacedaemonians did not put out to meet 
the Athenians, and somehow they had neglected to 
block up the entrances as they had purposed ; on 
the contrary, they remained inactive on the shore, 
engaged in manning their ships and making ready, 
in case any one sailed into the harbour, to fight 
there, since there was plenty of room, XIV. As for 
the Athenians, when they saw the situation, they 
rushed in upon them by both entrances and falling 
upon their ships, most of which were by now afloat 
and facing forward, put them to flight, and since 
there was only a short distance for the pursuit,^ not 
only damaged many of them but also captured Hve, 
one of them with all her crew ; the rest they kept on 
ramming even after they had fled to the shore. Yet 
other ships were being cut to pieces while still being 
manned, before they could put to sea ; and some they 
took in tow empty, their crews having taken to flight, 
and began to haul them away. At this sight the 
' Or, "giving chase lo far as the short distance allowed,! 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fiovioi Kal Trepta^^vvTe^ t^ vdOti, oTiirep avr&v 
01 &vSpt<; aireKap-^dvovTO iv t^ v^atp, irape^o^ 
dovv, KaX itrea^aivovrei e? rr}v OaKaaaav fcf 
T0(? oir'Koi'i avBeiKKOV iin\aii.^avofievoi t&p ve&v 
Koi iv TOVT^ KtKtuXvaOai iioKti Ixaffrm ^ fii^ 

3 Tivi Kol aiiToi epy^ wn/j^c. ^ecero T£ 6 ffopv^ot 
fxeyai, xal dpTtiWayfUvov toO ixaripap rpovov 
wepl rhi vavt- etre yhp AaxtSaiftoviot inro vpo- 
ffvfaa<t Koi ^«(7r\jjfe(a! w? eiTreiv aXKo ovBev i} ex 
yrjt ivavfidxovv, ot Tt'A$7]vaioi KpaTOvvTe<t Kol 
^avKofievoi t^ wapovatj tvxV <^S ^""^ TrXettrroi' 

4 iwe^eXffeiv airo vewv iire^ofidj^ow. troKiniTtiravov 
vapaaj^ovrev «XX^\oiS koI rpavfunCiravT^ Sie- 
Kpidriaav, koX oi AaxeSai/iovtot Th<t xeva^ vavf 

6 irXrii' Tfljn to iipiaTov X-rii^dita&v hUattaav. Kara- 
ffTaCTes hk eKarepoi ee to trTpaToweSov ol fteti rpa- 
iratov re earrjaav KaX peKpovv dtrfSoirav vol 
vavayiav iKpuTrjaav, koX tijv vrjaov evOv^ irept- 
hrKeov koX ht tfivXax^ ftx""' ^^ "^^^ dvSpmv 
diretXtififUvav' ol S* ev ry ^ireip^ TleXoirovvijvtoi 
leal avo vavrtuv ^Sr) ^e^oij^ij/foTW ep^vov Karh 

X^paV fTTl TT) UvXp. 

XV- 'E? Si rrjv 'Ztrdpjijv ws fjyye\Si} rd yeyeprj- 

fxeva irepl TlvXav, IZo^ev avTolt m; iirl ^vp/popf 

peydX'g rd reXij KarafiavTa^ ^s to orpaToireSov 

2 fiovXeveip irapaj^fjpM opwinav 5 rt &v Sok§. Ktd 

o>v elSop dSvi/aTov if Ttfiatpetv toI? dvipdat /col 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. XI*. 2-xv. 3 

Ldcedaemonun soldiers on the shore, beside them- 
selves with grief at the impending caUmity, in th&t 
their comrades were being cut off oa the island, 
rushed to the rescue, and going down into the sea in 
full armour took hold of the ships and tried to drag 
them hack. Indeed, each man felt that no progress 
was being made where he himself was not at hand to 
help. The tumult that arose was great, especially 
since in this battle for the ships each side adopted 
the other's manner of fighting; for the Lacedae- 
monians in their eagerness and e«citement were virtu- 
ally waging a sea-fight from the land, while the 
Athenians, who were winning and wanted to follow 
up their success to the utmost while their good 
fortune lasted, were fighting a land-battle from their 
ships. Finally, after causing each other great distress 
and inflicting much damage, they separated, the 
Lacedaemoniano saving all their empty ships except 
those which had been taken at first. Both sides then 
returned to their camps. The Athenians thereupon 
set up a trophy, gave back the dead, secured posses- 
sion of the wrecks, and immediately began to sallround 
the island and keep it under guard, considering that 
the men on it were now cut off; on the other hand, 
the Peloponnesians on the mainland, and the rein- 
forcements that had now arrived from all directions, 
remained in position at Pylos. 

XV. At Sparta, when they received the news of 
what had happened at Pylos, regarding it as a great 
calamity they decided that the magistrates should go 
down to the camp, see the situation for themselves, 
and then determine on the spot what should he 
done. Now when these saw that no help could be 
given to the men on the island, and at the same 

»35 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

KivBvv€V€iv o6k i^avKovro ^ vvo \ifiov n iraOeiv 

eSo^v avTott itpa^ tou? OTpaTrjyovi TOiv 'Adrf- 
vaiav, rjv i0e\<i>ai, <nrocSis iroiijaa/iepovi rh 
TTepl HvXav dTro<rT£i\ai e? tA? 'Kff-^vai; wpi- 
apeii "Jrepl ^vp^da-eoi'; KalTOvvavBpai (u« rd-xitTTa 
•jreipdaOai: KOfiirracffat, 

XVI. ^e^afievav Be twv tnpaTijf&v rhv Xoyop 
eyirfvovTo ffTrovBal roiaiSe- AaKtBaip^viovs pep 
Tfl? vavi iv aU evavpd-)(r)aav leal tA? iv r^ 
AaicwviKy Ttdaai, oaai ^aav p/iKpal, irapaBovvai 
KopieravTa^ e? Ti.vKoii ' Adtji/aiOK, Kal oirXa p,ri 
iiTKJ}€peiv T^ TCfX^ff/iaTi ^7x6 icaT^ 7^ p-^re 
Kard $d\affffav, 'Adr]vaiov^ Si tok iv ti/ fijir^ 
dvBpdat alrov edv roi"i iv r§ yireipy AaKtBat- 
poviov; iavepvem TaKTOv icai, pepMyp^Pov, Bvo 
jfoiviKu^ tKaar^ 'Att(k^; dXiptTiav teal Bvo 
KorvXa^i oXvov KaX icpea^, 9epdiropri Bi TOVTom 
fjpicrea' ravra Si opwvrav rSiv 'ASr]vaiti)V iairip,- 
Treiv Koi -rrXoiov pr)Biv e<rTrX(tv XdOpif i^vKatrveiv 
hk Ka\ Ttjii iifjffov ^Adt]vaiov^ pr)Sev ^a-aov, oira fit) 
aTTofiaivovTa';, xal ottT^m pi} ivt(f>epetii t^ IIsXo- 
TTOVirrialav arpar^ p-J}T€ Kard yrjv p^e xard 
i ffdXairaav. o rt S' &v Tovratv Trapaffaivatrtp 
eiedrepoi koX oriovv, tots \i\viT9ai. rdi atiovBd<i, 
iffwelirdai Be avrd^ f^XP'' "^ etraveKQiatj-iv 01 ^k 
rSiv' AdrjvSiv AaKeSaipovioiv TrpiffffeK- d-n-oartiXai 
Be avrov'! rpttipei 'AaTivaiov; km -rrdXiv xopiirai, 
iXdovTtov Be Ttt? T6 o-TTorSAs 'keXva&ai t auras ical 
T^? fflu? dwoBovvM^ AOrjvaioVi opolav dtaairep &v 

' iipatii9iiv>u, CO, t, KpoT^Sqw, ABFM. 



C.Google 



BOpK IV. XV. 2-XYi. 2 

time were unwilling to run the risk of their being 
starved to death or forced to succumb to superior 
numbers, they decided, so far as Pylos was con- 
cerned, to conclude a truce with the Athenian 
generals, if they shpuld consent, and to send envoys 
to Alliens to propose an agreement, and thus try to 
recover their men as quickiy as possible, 

XVI. The generals accepted the proposal and a 
truce was concluded upon the following terms ; The 
Lacedaemonians were to surrender to the Athenians 
the ships in which they had fought the battle, and 
were to bring to Pylos and deliver to them all the 
other ships of war which were in Laconia, and they 
were not to attack the fortification either by land or by 
sea. The Athenians were to permit the Lacedaemon- 
ians on the mainland to send flour to the men on the 
island, a fixed amount and already-kneaded, for each 
soldier two quarts ^ of barley-meal and a pint of wine 
and a ration of meat, and for each servant half as 
much ; and they were to send these things to the 
island under the supervision of the Athenians, and 
no boat was to sail thither secretly. The Athenians 
were to go on guarding the island as before, but 
without landing on it, and were not to attack the 
army of the Peloponnesians either by land or sea. If 
either party should violate this agreement in any 
particular whatsoever, the truce should forthwith be 
at an end. The truce was to hold good until the 
Lacedaemonian envoys should ji^et back from Athens ; 
and the Athenians were to conduct them thither in a 
trireme and bring them back. On their return this 
truce was to be at an end, and the Athenians were 
then to restore the ships in as good condition as when 
' The choinix wtu about two pints, dry measure ; the 
coLvIe, about Lalf a piut. 

337 

[,an:tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

3 vapaKdfiaviv. ai fiiv avovBtd ivl rovrot^ eye- 
vovTO, xaX al vi}€<t vaptSodtjaap oSaai nepi 
i^KOvra, xal oi TtpiirffeK direaTaXtiaap, diftuco- 
fievot Se e? tAs 'Aff^va'i S\e^av rotdSe. 

XVII. "'E-nefi'y^av ^fiai AaKeSaifiovuii, at 
'AOtjvatoi, irepX t5>v ev t^ v^fi dvhpwv irpd^ov- 
ra? $ Ti &v vftlv re a»f>€\.tfu>v 6p to aino ireidtofifv 
KoX iffuv i<! rifv ^vft,<f>opkv^ »! ix t&v wapovrtDv 

2 KotTfiop pAXitTTa ywXXp Oiireiv. tov9 Sk \oyov^ 
fuuepaTepov^ ov -n-apet to eltado^ fi,r)KVVOVptev, dXA.' 
itrv)(a>pioo hv ^fuv o{> fikv ^paych apxAiri fiif 
iroXkoit yp^dat, trKeloai Si i» ^ &v Ktuptu 17 
SiSdiTKotnd^ Ti TWP vpovpyov \6yoK to Seov 

3 irpafftreiv. Xd^ert hi avTov<i p,i} •trokepiav p,t}B' 
w d^vverot SiSaaKo/ievoi, viro/ivijenv Bi rov «aX&>; 

4 0ov\evaaa$ai irpo^ fiSora'i yyjiirdpevoi. iip-Zv 
yhp tvTVxiav Tr^virapoviTav e^etrri xa\&v 04<TBai, 
exovtri fiiv &v KparetTe, ir poaXa^ovai Se ti/i.7]v 
Kal Sofoc, Kal fit) iradeip oirep 01 d^Oto^ t» 070- 
00V Xap.^dvovTet t&v dvBpayrrtov' alel ydp tov 
•jrXiovo^ ikTrlBt opeyomai Bid to xai rd trapovra 

6 dBoK^Tw; evrvXTJaai. ols Be ir\etaTCU p£Ta0o\a\ 
eV dfi^orepa £v/i0e0']Ka<Ti, BiKaiol eltri koI 
dTrta-roraTOt elvai Tats evirpayiatf b r^ re vfit- 
rip<f TToXei Bi ifiweiplav xal fj/uv pdXurr &v itc 
TOV 61V0T09 irpoffetyj. 

' ii tV ivfi^tfiv, bracketed by Hudo. 
238 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. XTi. a^xvii. 5 

they received them. The truce was concluded on 
these terms, the ships, sixty in number, were delivered 
up,and thecnvoysdispatched. When they arrived at 
Athens they spoke as follows ; 

X VI I. " The Lacedaemonians, men of Athens, have 
sent us to arrange, in behalf of our men on the 
island, such terms as we may show to be at once 
advantageous to you and also most likely under 
present circumstances, in view of our misfortune, to 
bring credit to ourselves. If we speak at some 
length we shall not be departing from our custom ; 
on the contrary, though it is the fashion of our 
country not to use many words where few suffice, 
yet, whenever occasion arises to expound an im- 
portant matter and thereby to accomplish by speech 
the end we have in view, we use words more freely. 
And do not receive what we say in a hostile spirit, 
nor fee! that you are being instructed as though you 
were without understanding, but regard our words 
as merely a reminder to men who know how to come 
to a good decision. For it is in your power to turn 
your present favourable fortune to good account, 
not only keeping what you have got, but acquiring 
honour and reputation besides. You may thus avoid 
the experience of those who achieve some unwonted 
success ; for these are always led on by hope to 
grasp at more because of their unexpected good 
fortune in the present, And yet those who have 
most often undergone a change of fortune for better 
or for worse have best reason to be distrustful of 
prosperity; and this would naturally hold tme of 
both your state and ours in an exceptional degree, 
in view of our past experience. 

439 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

XVIII. "TvwTe Be ical ^s ra^ ^fierSpai vv» 
^Vfi(f>opa'i a-mhovret, otrices a^i<o/jM fieyia-rov tS>v 
EAWr)vfov e'xovre^ ■qKOfiev vap iifiai, wpoTepov 
airrol Kvpianepoi vo/ii^ovre^ etvai Bovvai e<f>' h pvv 

2 a(f)tyiJ.evoi u/ia? ahovfieffa. /eairoi ovt€ Svpd/i€<09 
eVSet'f eTTado/tev avro ovre fiei^ovo'; ■n-poayevofUvTj'i 
iiffpitravTev, d-rro Be twv atei inrapjf^ovrmv yva/i^ 
v^aXevTei, ev at iraai to avro 6/i.oico^ vwdpxei. 

3 wtrre ovk elxw i/ia? Bi& ri)v •n'apov<rav vvv pap-i/p 
•TroXew re ical ratv irpoiTyeyevt}p.ivtov Koi to t% 

4 Tv)(if'; oieadat alel p.eS' vfi&v Saeadai., aa^povoiv 
Be apSp&v otrivev TayaB^ eV dfuplffoXov ' aatfta- 
Xw5 effevTO (xal rot? ^vpxfiopaU ol ainoi ev^uve- 
Tcorepov &p -Trpoa^epoiVTo), top T£ TroXtfiov 
vofiiffOKTi fi.il Ka& aaop av Tt? avTov p.epoi ffov- 
\t}Tai fteraxeipt^eiv, Toury ^vpeipai, d\K' »? &p 
ai Tu^^ot ainSiP Tjf^atoprai., KaX i\dy^iiTT dv ol 
roiouToi TTTatocTe? St^ to /*^ t^ opffovfiep^ ainov 
■inarevopTe<! e-naipetrQai ev t^ evrvxeiv ApfidXiffra 

6 KaTaXuoiVTO' S pvv v/jZv, w A0rivaioi, xaXra; ^^' 

irpot ^pMv irpd^at, Kal firfirore Sarepop, ^ ipa fiif 

ireiffo/ievoi ff^oX^Te, & woXXA ivSe)(eTai, POfu- 

aOfjpai rixv *^^ '''^ *''''' ''tpO')(<iap'^aavra Kpa-rijirai, 

* ilitplBoKar, MSS.; Eude reads iiu^UiiAar. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. xviii. r-5 

XVIII. "To be convinced of this, jou need only 
look at our present misfortunes. We who of all the 
Hellenes formerly were held in the highest con- 
sideration have come before you, although we have 
been wont to regard ourselves as better entitled to 
confer such favours as we have now come to beg of 
you. And yet it was neither through lack of power 
that we met with this misfortune, nor because our 
power became too great and we waxed insolent ; nay, 
our resources were what they always were and we 
merely erred in judgment — a thing to which all are 
alike liable. Accordingly there is no reason why 
you, because of the strength both of your city and of 
its new acquisitions at the present moment should 
expect that the favour of fortune will always be with 
you. Prudent men take the safe course of account- 
ing prosperity mutable ^ — the same men, too, would 
deal more sagaciously with misfortunes — and con- 
sider that when anyone is at war he may not limit his 
participation to whatever portion of it he may choose 
to carry on,' but that he must follow where his for- 
tune leads. Such men are least likely to come to 
grief, since they do not allow themselves to become 
elated by overconfidence in military success, and are 
therefore most likely to seize the moment of good 
fortune for concluding peace. And this, Athenians, 
is the policy which it is good for you to adopt towards 
us to-day, and not at some future time, should you 
perchance through rejecting our overtures incur 
disaster — and of this there are many possibilities — 
be credited with having won even your present suc- 
cesses through good fortune, when it is possible to 
' I.e. in warfara one canaot accept only the suocesaes and 
avoid the reverses bj stopping before the latter set in ; one 
is in the baoda of fortnne. 

a4i 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

efon aKivSvpoP S6in]<TW ia^voi Kal fvceo-eoif e? to 
eireiTa KaTaXitreiv. 

XIX. " AaKtSaifiOPioi Se u/m? irpoKoKovvrtu 
i^ ffirovB^^ Kol BciiXvffiv iroXefiOv, BiSoirre^ ftiv 
elprivfjv Koi ^vfifi,a-)(iav xal dWr]v if>i\tav ttoXXitv 
Kal oi/eetoTijTO. e? «\X^Xou9 inr dp')^€iv, avrat- 
ToCfTe? he Tou; e/c t^? i'iJo'ov dv&pav, xal afieuiov 
fjyovftevoi. a/jufioripoii /j,i} hiaKtvSvveveiT$at, eiTe 
ffiif &v ^ Siaifyvyoief •jrapaTV^ovctji rivof awr-qpla^ 
etre Kal eKVoXiapKtjffeinet /idXXov av ^eipa>9ele», 

2 vofd^ofjtev T6 Tat fieyaXat ej(dpa<i jiaXtin' Av 
BtaXve<T$ai ffe^aimt, ouk ^v uvrai*vvofi€PO<! tk 
Km ettiKpayrjaat ra ttXcim rov noXifiov tear 
avdyicrjv opKois eyicaTa\afiffd,pap fi.T[ dirh rov 
ttrov fu/i)Sp, dW ^v, wapop r6 airo Bpdtrai irpitt 
TO iiTietKe'i, «al dperfj aiirov vtK-qirws -Trapd & 

3 vpoaeS€j(€TO fteTpliav ^vvaXXa/yfi, otpeiXtitp yitp 
^Bii 6 evapTioi ftij dpTafiuvea'6ai at; ^laaOmlt, 
aXyJ avravoBovvai dperqp, iroifiOTepot etrrtp 

i at<7-)(ypri ifLfiiveiv oU ^vviOeTO. Koi /taWov tipm 
T0U9 fiei^6p6)t iy(^dpoi)^ tovto Bp&vtv oi dpBpatroi 
^ TTpo? TOW? fUTpia BiepeyOevrat' ire<f>vKaat t€ 
Tot? fiep eicowiaxt ipBoSfftp dv$r}ff<rdaSat pxff 
fiBovfjt, Trpoi Si rh {itrepav)(ovvTa xal vapd 
ypa>ft,7jv SiaKipSvveuetP, 

' if, Krdger's conJBctnre. 



c. Google 



BOOK rV. xviii. s-xix. 4 

leave to posterity an unhazftrded reputation at once 
for strength and sagacity. 

XIX. "The Lacedaemonians therefore invite you 
to accept terms and bring the war to an end, offering 
you peace and alliance, and apart from this the 
maintenance of hearty friendship and intimacy one 
with the other ; and asking on their side merely the 
return of the men on the island. They think it 
better for both parties not to take the risk cither of 
the besieged making their escape in spite of you, 
should some chance of safety present itself, or of 
their being reduced by siege to a still harder lot. 
We believe, too, that a permanent reconciliation of 
bitter enmities is more likely to be secured, not when 
one party seeks revenge and, because he has gained 
a decided mastery in the war, tries to bind his 
opponent by compulsory oaths and thus makes peace 
with him on unequal terms, but when, having it in 
his power to secure the same result by clemency, he 
vanquishes his foe by generosity also, offering him 
terms of reconciliation which are moderate beyond 
all his expectations. For the adversary, finding 
himself now under obligation to repay the generosity 
in kind, instead of striving for vengeance for having 
had terms forced upon him, is moved by a sense of 
honour and is more ready to abided by his agree- 
ments. Furthermore, men are more inclined to act 
thus toward their more serious enemies than toward 
those with whom they have had but trifling dif- 
ferences. And, linally, it is natural for men cheer- 
fully to accept defeat at the hands of those who first 
make willing concessions, but to light to the bitter 
end, even contrary to their better judgment, against 
wa overbearing foe. 

243 
R 2 



THUCYDIDES 

XX. " 'H/ui' Bk KoX&i eiwep nrore, ev€( afu^o- 
Tepoii fi ^vvaXX.a'^'^, ■npLv rt diitJKe(7Tov Sia ftetrov 
yevofievov ^fia^ KaraXa^eiv, in ^ avdyicri diSiov 
fjfiiv ^ ev6pav TTpov t^ koiv^ Kal iStav ex^tv, 

2 vpaii * he (nepTjd^vai S)v vvv -n poKa\ovp^0a. eri 
h' ovTutv aKpijwv Koi v/i,ip piv Sofi/? KoX rjperepa^ 
tfitXla'; irpoayLyvopevTi^, r)plv hi irpo alavpov 
Ttjio? T^9 ^vpif)opa<; p£Tpim^ KaTaTidefievtj'i SiaK- 
Xaympxv, xaX airroi re dvri iroKefiOv etprjpT/v 
eXtap^da km Tot? aXXots "EWijtrtv dvoTraviriv 
KaK&v troi'^aittpev ot koI ev rovrtp iip^v airieo- 
ripov^ riy^ffovTai. •n-oXepavvrai fifv yAp atro^ai? 
oiroTiptov dp^dvTiDV KardKvaeai^ 5i yevopitnjv, 
fj^ vvv vpsi'; TO irKeov Kvpiol eVre, rifv xdptv 

3 vp.lv TTpoaBrjaova-tv. fiv re yv&re, Aaxehai- 
p^ovioK e^eanp vpZv Al\ov^ yevitrSai ffeffaiai^, 
avraip re irpoieaXecrapepnip ^a^Mra/ievot^ re ^X- 

4 \ov ^ fiiaaaftivoit;.^ koX ev TOVTtp to. evovra 
dyaffi OKOTretTe oaa eiKov elveu- fipav ydp leal 
vpav rainci 'KeyovTmv to ye SXKo 'BiXKtfviKov 
tare on inroheeaTepov oi> rh p,iyiiTTa Tt/tqtret. 

XXI. 0( pikv ovv KaKehatpavioi roaavra 
eXitov, vOfd^ovTe^ tov? 'ABrfvcUovi ev tS> irpXv 
Xpovifi inrovh&p pkv i-mffvpslv, a^&v he ivav- 
TiovfUvtov KwXveaffai, Bihop,epri9 Bk eipifinj? d<r/j4- 

' Vfuy, with F. Haose and Classen ; Hade retaJDa the MSS. 
reading A/ur, with Stahl, folloviDg the Soholiaat. 
' Hude read« ^^i, with O. 
* Hude reads Sumifiiviiii', with C. 

' Or, reading iiSmr u)ilr . , . iiiii Si, a« Uude doe*, " ;oii 
Athenians would have our undying hatred . . . and we 
Spartans would be deprived of the advantages we now offer." 



c.C.oogltj 



BOOK IV. XX. i-xxi. I 

XX. " Now, if ever, reeonciliation is desirable for 
us both, before some irreparable disaster has come 
upon either of us and prevented it ; should that 
befall, we shall inevitably cherish toward each other 
an undying personal hatred, over and above that 
which we now feel as public enemies, and you ' will 
be deprived of the advantages ^ we now offer. While, 
therefore, the issue of the war is still in doubt, while 
your reputation is enhanced and you may have our 
friendship also, and while our disaster admits of a 
reasonable settlement and no disgrace as yet has 
betkllen us, let us be reconciled ; and let us for 
ourselves choose peace instead of war, and give a 
respite from evils to all the other Hellenes, And 
they will count you especially the authors of the 
peace ; for although they were drawn into the war 
without knowing which of us began it, yet if a 
settlement is effected, the decision of which at this 
time rests chiefly with you, it is to you they will 
ascribe their gratitude. And so, if you decide for 
peace, it is in your power to win the steadfast 
friendship of the Lacedaemonians, which they freely 
offer and you may secure by acting, not with violence, 
but with generosity. Pray consider all the advantages 
which may well be involved in such a course ; for if 
you and we agree be assured that the rest of the 
Hellenic world, since it will be inferior to us in 
power, will pay us the greatest deference," 

XXI. Such were the words of the Lacedaemonians. 
They thought that, since the Athenians had at an 
earlier period ' been eager to end the war and had 
been prevented by the opposition of Sparta, they 

* i.e. peace, alliance, intimate frieudabip (oh. xiz. 1). 
' i.e.. after hhe plague and the second invasioa of Attica, 
in 430 B.C. qf. u. lix. 

a45 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

vow Ze^eadai re xaX tou? ivBpa^ airoBioaetv. 

Z oi Se rh<t fikv fnrovSd^, Ij^ovre^ to^s av&pa^ ev t§ 
vijo"}), ^S?j aiftlaiv evofxi^ov erotfiovv eivai, onoTav 
ffovKwvTai TTOuiirffai "Trpoi ainov^, rov Be •a-XeovtK 

i wpeyopro. fidXtffra SI avroi/i ev^e Kkemp 6 
KXeaiverov, avi/p Stj/iaywyov Kar skuvov tov 
ypovov &v ' T^ wX'^Oei ttiBavtinaTOf fcal erreiaev 
aTTOKoivaa'dai (u; ^(flTf tA ftev OTrKa xal <7tf>d^ 
avTov<i TO 115 iv tJ iJiJiry TrapaSovra"; ttowtoc 
Kop,ia8r}vat 'Affrjva^e, eXSovrwv Be dvoSovrai 
AaKeBaifioviov; t^lirauip ical Hijyai; koL Tpo^TJva 
Kol 'A^aitav, &, ov iroKefi^ eKa^ov, d\K diro 
•nji{ TTpOTepa^ ^vfiffdrreto'; 'A$7)vat,tDV ^vyyiopij^ 
irdpTojv KUT^ ^Vfiifiop^^ Kol iv tji ToTfi BeofjAvtov 
Ti paCKKov ffTTOvhSiv, KopiaaaBai tov^ avBpai xai 
ffTTOi'Sos -nof^aaadai otroaov Av Bqk^ ■)(fiovov 
dfi^OTepoK. 

XXII. 0( Be irpbs li^v rijp d-n-oitpiaiv oiiSip 
avretTTOv, ^vveSpovi Be a<f>i<Ttv ixeKevov i\etr$ai 
oiTiiie'! XeyovTe^ xal d/covovre^ irepi kxatrTov 
^vp.^rjaovTai Kata r\avyj,av 3 Tt hv -jreiffrnffiy 

2 dXK^Xov;- KXeaiv Be evravBa Br] ttoXw? eveieetro, 
\eymv ytyvaxrieeip p-ev xtA trporepov ovBev ip v^ 
eyovrai BLkoiov avtovi, ffatpi^ B' elvai Kal vvv, 
otrive^ Ttp piv irXriOei oiiBev edeKoxiatv eiireiv, 
0X1701? Be avBpdai ^vpeBpoi ^ovXoprai ylyperrSar 
dWi et Ti iiyie^ Biavoovprai, Xeyeiv exeXevaev ' 

3 awatrip. opSnTet; Be 01 AaittBaip,6vtoi ovre atfturiv 
olov Te Sjj ev TrXijffei etTrelv, et rt koI inro 7579 



" Hade ii)«erte ir before Svoo-iv, with C 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. XX,. i-xxii. 3 

would, if peace were offered to them, gladljr accept 
it and give up the men. But the Athenians believed 
that, since thej held the men on the island, peace 
could be theirs the moment they cared to make it, 
and meanwhile they were greedy for more. They 
were urged to this course chiefly by Cleon son of 
Cleaenetus, a popular leader at that time who had 
very great influence with the multitude. He per- 
suaded them to reply that the men on the island 
must first give up themselves and their arms and be 
brought to Athens ; on their arrival, the Lacedae- 
monians must give back Nisaea, Pegae, Troezen, and 
Achaeia, which had not been taken in war but had 
been ceded by the Athenians ' in an agreement 
made scwae time before as a result of misfortunes, 
when they were somewhat more eager for peace 
than now. They could then recover the men and 
make a treaty which should be binding for as long a 
time as both parties should agree. 

XXII. To this reply the envoys said nothing, 
but they requested the appointment of commis- 
sioners who should confer with them, and after 
a Aill discussion of all the details should at their 
leisure agree upon such terms as they could mutually 
approve. Thereupon Cleon attacked them violently, 
saying that he had known before this that they had 
no honourable intention, and now it was clear, 
since they were unwilling to speak out before the 
people, but wished to meet a few men in cmiference ; 
he Itade them, on the contrary, if their purpose was 
famiest, to declare it there before them all. But the 
Lacedaemonians, seeing that it was impossible to 
announce in full assembly such concessions as they 

' qf. I. oxv. L 

347 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^v/upopoi iBoxet avToli ^vyj(a>peiv, fiif i^ tow 
^vfi/idjfpv^ BiaffXrjff&aiv eitrovrei xat ov tv- 
^ovrev, ovre tou? ^A0Tjpaiov^ inl pxTpiott irotif- 
aovra<: a. -rrpovicaXovvTO, dve-)(aiprj<Tav e« TtiV 
'A&rivwi/ aTrpaxTOi. 

XXIII. 'Atpi/cop-evcDv Se ainmv hitXekuvro^ 
ei&vi at mrovSal al irepl TlvXov, xal ras vaOv 
oi AaKeSaifwvioi aTr^Tovv, Kadairep ^vviieeno- 0( 
8' ' ABtivoIoi eyK\i^fj.aTa ^onre? iirthpofit^v t6 rp 
T6(;^('ff/iaTi irapda-Kovhoii koX aXXa ovk a^toXoya 
BoicovvTa elvai ovk d-7TeBi,ho<Tav, tiT'}(vpi^6/i€Vot 
Srt Bij etpfjTO, idv teal otiovv irapaffad^, \eX,vtr0at 
T^5 a--7ToiiBdi. al Be AatceSaifiovioi dvTeXeyov re 
Koi aSiK^ipa iiTiicaXeaaPTet to tmc ve^v anrek- 

Z B6v7€v e? iroXefiov leaOUfravro. ical tA irepX 
IliiXoc u'K afKhoTEptov Karh Kpdro% iwoXepeiTo, 
'A0T]vaioi p.eir Svotv veolv evavruup atel Tr)v vi}aov 
Tre/nirXeoiiTe? t^ ■fipApa'; (t^ Be vvkto^ Koi 
a-jTaaai Trepitopp/ivv, ttA.^c tA ■Kpo'i to -rriXayo^, 
iytroTi dvepo'! elrj- xal ix rmv ^AdtivSyv ourot? 
eiKoai frje^ d^iKovro ii Trpi <}iv\aK^v, i5ffTe ai 
TToffat k^Bop'^KOVTa ey^vovTo), JleXotrow^a-ioi Be 
tv Tfi TT) rf-rreipep ffTparo-mBevofievot xat vpo<r- 
fioka,'! ■noiovp.evoi r^ r£(^«, aKoirovvre^ Katpov 
ei Tts Trapairi<TOt Siare rov<; AvSpa^ aS>aai. 

XXIV. 'EiJ ToiiT^ Se ^ iv rp SiceXia Xvpa- 
Koaioi Koi oi ^vp./iaxot ■tTpov tow 4v Metrtnjvtf 
<f)povpovffaK vavrrl t^ aX\o vavriKOV h irapeaKeu^ 
d^ovTO irpotrieofiitaavTBt top iroKefiov ewoiouvTo e/e 

> With Cobet, for SitKiom of the MS8. 

^ al of the MSS., before ^x n ZiHtMii, deleted by 
Hude. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. XXII. 3-xxiv. i 

might thiok it best to make in view of their mis- 
fortune, lest they might be discredited with their 
allies if they proposed them and were rebuffed, and 
seeing also that the Athenians' would not grant 
their proposals on tolerable conditions, withdrew from 
Athens, their mission a failure. 

XXIII. When they returned, the truce at Pyloa 
was terminated at once, and the Lacedaemonians 
demanded the return of their ships according to 
the agreement; but the Athenians accused them of 
having made a raid against the fort in violation of 
the truce, and of other acts that do not seem worth 
mentioning, and refused to give up the ships, stoutly 
maintaining that it had been stipulated that, if there 
should be any violation of the truce whatsoever, it 
should be at an end forthwith. The Lacedaemonians 
contradicted this, and after protesting that the deten- 
tion of the ships was an act of injustice went away 
and renewed the war. And so the warfare at Pylos 
was carried on vigorously by both sides. The 
Athenians kept sailing round the island by day with 
two ships going in opposite directions, and at night 
their whole fleet lay at anchor on all aides of it, 
except to seaward when there was a wind ; while 
to assist them in the blockade twenty additional 
ships came from Athens, so that they now had 
seventy in all. As for the Peloponnesians, they 
were encamped on the mainland, and kept making 
assaults upon the fort, watching for any opportunity 
which might offer of rescuing their men. 

XXIV. Meanwhile in Sicily the Syracusans and 
their allies, having reinforced the ships which were 
keeping guard at Messene by bringing up the other 
naval force which they had been equipping,^ were 

' ^. cb. i. i. 

349 



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THUCYDIDES 

2 T^S MeatT'^mjt («al /iaXivra evrtyov m \oKpol r&v 
'Pijyivav xarA, ex^po-v, ical aiirol Bi itre^e^X^ 

3 Kerrav •rravEr]/i£l e? t^c yfiv ain&v), ical vav- 
fiayia'i atrotreipaaSai, e^ovXovTO, opSivrei roll 
^ AOrjvaiofi T^? p^v irapovira'i vavt; oh.i'ya'i, xaiS 
hk trXeiom Koi p^'KKov<jat<i ij^eiv ■jtwOavopevoi 

\ TTjv v^aov TroXiopKela-Oat. el ykp xpar'^a-eiav 
ry vavTUc^, to P^iov TjXirt^au ve^y re leal 
vavalv e^Qpp/ivvTe.1 paSieu^ j^eip<!>ffca6at, Koi ^£7 
att>a>v iayvp^ tA -npaiypMrra yiyiieaOat, ^weyyvi 
ykp leeipJvov rov re 'P^jiov aicpa>Tt}piov r^ 
'IraXta? t^s re Mefftr^iflj? rij? XuceXia.!;, tow 
AOtjvatoii -* ovK &p etvai ei^opp/eZv koI tov 
tropBp^v ttpareiv. lart Be 6 ■n-opOpoi rj pera^d 
'Pryyiov SaXaaaa ical MeCTc^mT?, ^wep ^pa.'xv- 
rarov "ZiKeXia t^ t/Treipov dTreyec icai effTiv ri 
yLapv^Bi^ ic\-r}dei(ra rovro, ^ 'Oovrro'ev'; XeyeTOt 
BiairKeva-ai. Bi^ arevoTrfTa Se xal e« p.eyaXtnv 
■nekay&v, toD t€ TvpiTTjifiKOv koI tov XixeXticoD, 
ianiiTTOvffa ^ OdXaacra e's avTO ^ «ai potaBrji 
oHira eUoroKt ■)(a\e'jri) evop,iff0r}. 

XXV. 'Ep rovT^ ovv tw fteTU^v ol ^vpaKotrioi 
Koi o( ^uppMYOi vavalv oKiy(p wXeiofftv i) rpid- 
KovTa TjvayKaaBTjtrav o^fre t^ rjfiepa^ vavpax^<ftu 
trep). ttKoIov Bia-rrKiovTW, aine-Travwyopsvitt wpo^ 
Tc 'Adiipaiav vav^ e/cxaiBeica xal 'Pi)yiva^ o/cTti. 

2 Kcd viieqSkvTe^ imo t&v ' Affrfi/aitov Bi& Ttij^ou^ 
dir€irXev<Tav to? IxatTTOi STvj(pv es tA oiKela trrpa- 

' Ti, after 'Ahtvn/mt in all MSS.' except Cod. DsiiicuB, jr 
bracketed by all later editors. 

' airi theMSS.; Hude emends to tbut^. 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. HIV. i-xTv. 2 

carrying oa the war from Messene. To this they were 
instigated chiefly hy the Locrians oa account of 
their hatred of the Rhegians, whose territory they 
had themselves invaded in full force. The Syra- 
cusans wanted also to try their fortune in a sea-fight, 
seeing that the Athenians had only a few ships at 
hand, and hearing that the most of their fleet, the 
ships that were on the way to Sicily, were employed 
in blockading the island of Sphacteria. For, in 
case they woo a victory with the fleet, they could 
then invest Rhegium both by land and by sea and, as 
they beheved, capture it without difliculty; and irom 
that moment their situation would be a strong one, 
since Rhegium, the extreme point of Italy, and 
Messene in Sicily are only a short distance apart, 
and so the Athenians would not be able to keep a 
fleet there ^ and command the strait. Now the strait 
is that arm of the sea between Rhegium and Messene, 
at the point where Sicily is nearest the mainland ; 
and it is the Charybdis, so called, through which 
Odysseus is said to have sailed. On account of its 
narrowness and because the water falls into it from 
two great seas, the Etruscan and the Sicilian, and 
is full of currents, it has naturally been considered 

XXV. Now it was in this strait that the Syracusans 
and their allieswere compelled one day toward evening 
to fight for a vessel which was making the passage ; 
and with thirty odd ships they put out against 
sixteen Athenian and eight Rhegian ships. They 
were defeated by the Atlienians, and hastily sailed 
hack, each contingent as best it could, to their own 

' I.e. in case Rhegiooi were taken by the Syracusans. 



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THUCYDIDES 

ToireSa > /dap vavv airoXeaapTei' val vv^ i^eye- 

3 vera r^ ^py^- fieri, Be tovto oi fiiv Aoicpol 
ajr^XSov ex t^9 'Vfiylvinv, eirX Bk Tfjt' Tlekruplha 
TJj? MeaiT'^vnii ^vXXeyeirrai al tatv "ZvpaitoaLtov 
Koi ^v/i./j.d')(^o}V P^ef wp/iovv leal 6 Tre^oi ainoK 

i "TrapTJv. irpoiT'TTXeviTavTe'; Bk ol ' Pk.6r}valot koX 
' P7)y ivoi opmvre^ T05 vav^ ir€v&^ evi^oKov, KaX 
XetpX a-iBTjpa iirt^\r]0€l<r^ fi.tav vavv aiiToi (Wco- 

S Xeaav t&v avBpav a'jroKoXvft^i}advTaiv. /cat /ier^ 
TOVTO rS>v %vpaKoaiaiv ia^dvTtnv es to? vavi xal 
TrapairXeavrav utto icaXia « T^f Meffa^vf)!', a50K 
TTpoaQaXovTet; oi ^AB-qvalot, a-rroatfLOnrdvTwv 
eKtivaiv KaX irpoefiffaXavrrov, eripav vavv dtroX- 

8 Xvovffiv, teal iv t^ irapoTrXy xaX t^ vavfuij(i^ 
TotovTOTpoTT^ yevOfUvj/ ovK eXatra-ov ej(OPTt^ oi 
XvpaKoacot ■jvapeitop.iaBrjaav it tow ev rtj Me<r- 
(T^pjl XifUva. 

7 Kal 01 piv 'Adrjvaloi, Kapaplvtjt oT^eA^etinj? 
■7rpoSCBo<T$ai Svpaicoaloii; inr 'Apj^iov «ai tww 
/^er' avTOv, eirXevaav exeiae- Mecr<T^vtoi 8 iir 
TOVTtp Ttavh7jp,eX Kara yijv icaX rai^ pavcXv ap^a 
ea^pdrevaav eVt "Sd^ov ri}p X-aXxiSifCT/p opapov 

8 oiaav. Koi rij tt^wtij ripepa Tei^VpeK tTQirj 
aavrei tow Naft'ous iB^ovv ti)v y^v, t§ B hiTTe- 
paitf TMis pep vavo'l •KepiitXevfravTtt Karit top 
' A.Ke<Tivriv •jroTapbv Tr)V yrjv iS^avp, rp Se Tref^ 

9 7r/)o? Ttjp woXtv Trpoai^dKXoy? ev TOvra he oi 
S(«6Xoi' inrtp t5>v aicprav ttoXXoX /caTedaivov 

' t6 Tt ir if Vltaaiti'v ical if t$ 'Pfly'r. "> ^^^ MSS. 
after vrftiriwtia, rejected by Hude, after Stehl and vui 
Herwerden. 

• For iai&tiKKiiy of the MSS. , Popptfa oocrectioD, accepted 
by most editora. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. XXV. z-g 

camps, having lost ooe ship ; and night came on 
while thej were in action. After this the Locrians 
left the territory of the Rhegiaos ; and the ships of 
the Sjracusans and their allies assembled at Peloris 
in Messene, where they anchored and were joined by 
their Und-forces. The Athenians and the Rhegians 
sailed up, and seeing that the Syracusan ships were 
unmanned attacked them; but they themselves lost 
one ship, which was caught by a grappling-iron cast 
upon it, the crew having leaped overboard. After 
this the Syracusans embarked and their ships were 
being towed along the shore by ropes toward Messene 
when the Athenians attacked again, but lost another 
ship, since the Syracusans made a sudden turn out- 
wards and charged them first. In the passage 
along the shore, then, and in the sea-iight that 
followed in this unusual fashion, the Syracusans had 
the best of it, and at length gained the harbour at 
Messene. 

But the Athenians, on the report that Camarina 
was to be betrayed to the Syracusans by Archias and 
his faction, sailed thither. The Messenians mean- 
while took all their land-forces and also the allied 
fleet and made an expedition against Naxos, the 
Chalcidian settlement on their borders. On the first 
day they confined the Naxians within their walls and 
ravaged their lands ; on the next day, while their 
fleet sailed round to the river Acesines and ravaged 
the land there, their army assaulted the city of Naxos. 
Meanwhile the Sicels came down over the heights in 



* at, before Avip, Kriiger'a anggestioi 
Hude. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^or]6ovvTe} eiri roiii Meamjviovv- Kid o! Naftoi 
(Uf el&of, dapcrr)aavT€'; koI TrapaxeXevofiepoi ev 
euuToi? (»s at AeovTtvoi aiptai Koi ol aXkoi 
"KKKr/vfii ^vfi/iaxoi e? ri/iwpiav iir^pxovTat, ix- 
Spa/iovre^ a^pto ix t^? ■woXews TrpoairlTrrov<ri 
Tots MeiTCT^ji'tot?, Kol Tpiifravre^ aTreicreivav re 
inrep ^^tXt'ovs ical oi XolttoI ^oXeTrw? wrre-xatpTiaav 
i-n oiKov Koi yap oi ^dp^apot ev tuk oSoi^ 

10 eVtTreffoi'Tes Toii TrXeiarov; hie^Beipav, koi ai 
PV^l Txovaai is rifv Meaa^ujiv var^pov eir' oticov 
e/catrrat &ieKpi67)aav. AeoPTivoi Be evBi^ xaX oi 
^v/i/iaj^oi p-erk 'Adjjvaitov e? ttjv Meaa'^v'tjv w? 
KeicaK(M>/i€vr)v iaTpdrevov, /cal -Trpoa^aXKovrev ol 
p^v 'Adi)paioi Ka-ra ritv Xifieva rai^ pavalv inei- 

11 pmp, o he 'TTefos Trpos tiji' iroXtv. iTre/eSpofiifv Se 
.■n-oiijadpsvoi ol Me<r<r-i]Ptot itat Aoxp&v rives ueri. 

■ "tov AripOTiXovi;, ot pe-ra to -rrddo^ eyicareXeKfidi)- 
Oav <ppovpoi, e^itLPaiois Trpoa-TreaovTes rperrova^i 
Tov (npaTevpaTot tS)v Aeoi'Ttnoji' to -koKv KaX 
a-Tviiereipav -rroKKovs- iSoktc? Se ot 'A07}vaiot koI 
atro^dpres oltto toip pe&p i^orjOovv, Kal Kare&iw 
fav Tous Metrarjviovs ttoXiv es Tt/p ttoXip, t€- 
rapaypepots eTriyepopevof ical Tpoiraiop enrjffap- 

12 765 dvex'l'PV'f^P ^'5 TO 'P^yiop. perh Se rovro ot 
fiep ev r§ "ZiKeXia ' EWijpes avev tuv 'ASijvaiotv 
Kari yrjv eaTpdrevop eV dXK^Xovs. 

XXVI, 'Ef Se Tp TlvK^ eri ettofuipKOVv tows 

ip tH vr)<T(^ AojceSatpoPLovi; oi ^ ABtjvaiot, iiaX to 

ep Tp TiireLp^ arpaTa-nehov twp HeXo-rropvria'itav 

2 Kara ^{o/>av ifievev. iTrlwovos S' ^v tois ^ASt}- 

vaiois ^ ^vKaKT} alrov re dvopl^ xaX CSaro^' oi 

D,j™tci;. Google 



BOOK IV. XXV. 9-xxvi. 2 

large numbers to help in resisting the Messeni&ns. 
When the Naxians saw them coming', they took he&rt, 
and caUing lo each other that the Leontines and their 
other Hellenic allies were approaching to defend 
them rushed suddenly out of the city and fell upon 
the Messenians, putting them to flight and killing 
overathousand ofthem. The rest got back home with 
difficulty ; for the barbarians attacked them in the 
roads and killed most of them. And the allied fleet, 
after patting in at Messene, dispersed to their 
several homes. Thereupon the Leontines and their 
allies, in company with the Athenians, immediately 
made an expedition against Messene, believing it to 
be weakened, and attempted an assault upon it, the 
Athenians attacking with their ships on the side of 
the harbour, while the land forces moved against the 
town. But the Messenians and some of the Locrians, 
who, under the command of Demoteles, had been 
left there as a garrison after the disaster at Naxos, 
made a sortie, and falling suddenly upon them routed 
the larger part of the army of the Leontines and 
killed many of them. Seeing this the Athenians 
disembarked and came to their aid, and attacking the 
Messenians while they were in disorder pursued them 
back into the city; theythensetupatrophy and with- 
drew to Rhegium. After this the Hellenes in SicOy, 
without the cooperation of the Athenians, continued 
to make expeditions against one uiother by land. 

XXVI. At Pylos, meanwhile, the Athenians were 
still besieging the Lacedaemonians on the island, and 
the army of the Peloponnesians on the mainland 
remained in its former position. The blockade, how- 
ever, was harassing to the Athenians on account of 
the lack of both food and water ; for there was only 

ass 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fap ^v Kp^vrf ort fitj fiia ev airrfi ifi dicpoiro\€i 
■7^9 Tlv\av KoX aSrt] oil fieyaXt}, aWa Stafim/ievot 
rhv it:dj(\TiKa ol wXeiaroi etrl t§ BaXdaaJi ewivov 

3 otop €iKO? {iBo)p. arevox^pta re iv oXl'yy a-paro- 
•7rehevop£voi% iyiyvero, xal -ratv vt&v ovk i^ova&v 
opfiov at likv aVrov ev rrj yfj jipovvro Kara /iipo^, 

i ai Be /i^reatpoi Stpfiovv. aOvplav re 7r\etaTt}v o 
■>(fiQVQ'; •!rapei')(€ Traph \6yov etiiyiyvopevo^, oft? 
^OVTO ripep&v oXlyaiv iieitoXiopH'^aeiv, ev vrfatp re 

5 ep'qp.r) KaX vSari akfivp^ yfimpevovj. at-rtov H 
jjii ol A.aKihaip,oviot irpoetTr6v7et; iv ttjv vrjirav 
iffdyeip trirov re top ^ovXopevov aX-r(X.€p.evov koI 
oIpov Kal Tvpop Koi eX rt aXXo ^pafia, oV &.p e'f 
TroXtopKi-ap ^vp,<f>ep^, rd^ai'Te'i dpyvpiov ttoWou 
/cot rmi EtXtBTwn t^ eaayayovri. iKeuQepLap vin- 

6 <T')(vovpepoi. KaX eaijyop dWoi re irapaKtphvvev- 
oprev Koi p-dKima oi E(!\utg?, d-naLpoPTe^ dtrh 
T^ YieKo^ow^oov oirodev Tir)(Otev koX KaTa-rrKA- 
OBret ?Tt vvKTOi ii rh ■jrpo<; to weXayoi; t^ pjja-ow. 

7 fidXiara Se ej^povv avip.<p Karai^epeaQai,- paov 
ydp Ttfp <f>v\aiei)P twi' rpf^ptatv ixdpffapop, ottotc 
wpevfut eK 1T0PT0V etij" avopov yctp eytypero trepi- 
op/telv, TOK Se d^i&f]<i o KaTd-nKov: KoffetffTjjteet' 
iirmKeXKop y^p tA irXoia Ttrip3)fi4pa j(pVf^'''^^' 
tcai o{ oirXiTai Trepl ris KaTo^xreK T^ vr)vov 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. XXVI. 8-7 

one spring, high up on the acropolis of Pylos, and a 
small one at that, and the soldiers for the most part 
scraped away the shingle upon the beach and drank 
water such as one might expect to find there. And 
there was scant room for them, encamping as they 
did in a small space, and since there was no anchor- 
age for the ships,' the crews would take their food on : 
land by turns, while the rest of the fleet lay at anchor 
out at sea. Very great discouragement, too, was 
caused by the surprisingly long duration of the siege, 
whereas they had expected to reduce the enemy in 
a few days, since they were on a desert island and 
had only brackish water to drink. But the cause of 
their holding out was that the Lacedaemonians had 
called for volunteers to convey to the island ground 
com and wine and cheese and other food such as might 
be serviceable in a siege, fixing a high price and 
also promising freedom to any Helot who should 
get food in. Many took the risk, especially the 
Helots, and actually brought it in, putting out from 
any and every point in the Peloponnesus and coming 
to shore during the night on the side of the island 
facing the sea. If possible they waited for a wind 
to bear them to the shore ; for they found it easier 
to elude the guard of triremes when the breeze was 
from the sea, since then it was impossible for the 
ships to lie at their moorings off the island, whereas 
they themselves ran ashore regardless of conse- 
quences, as a value had been set upon the boats 
which they drove upon the beach, and the hop- 
lites would be on watch for them at the landing- 

on the seaward side (oh. viii. 8), bo at raeBl-timea the crewa 
of one pari of. the fleel would make a laudiuK somewhere and 
eat, while the other part would be ont at sea on guard. 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

8 (TKOVTO. iveveov S^ Ka\ Karh tov Xi/ieva KoXvft' 
^r)Tal vfpvBpoi, KoX^Bl^ iv atrKOK iif>eKK0PTe9 
fLTjKiava /iefuXnt^fiiirriv «ai Xlvov airipfui xeKOft- 
/jAvov &v to irp&Tov XavBavovrmv ^vXaict^ 

9 iJffTepov iyevovTO. itaVTi re Tpotrq) eKO/repoi 
irey^avro, ot /j.kv iaire/iTreiv ret inria, ol Bi p.i] 
Xavdaveiv irtftat. 

XXVII. Ev Bi Tat; AS'^vai^ •nvvdavofievot 
irepl T^ ffT/jflTto?' 5t( raXaivaipwai xal trtrov 
Toi5 ^ rp nijo-qi on iairXei, j}w6pouv Kal iSeSoi- 
K€(rav //.r] a<f}S>v yei^av Trjp iftvXaKijv iiriXdffot, 
op&vrev tSiv re eiriTrfBeimv rr/p wepl rijv HtXo- 
TTowtiaov KOfiihrjV ahvi'arov itrofUvifv, a/ia iv 
X^opi^ ^PVH-V '^"■'^ °^^' ^^ ^epst oloi t€ ivT€<i txavi 
trepttrefitreiv, tov re eipopfiov -xfopiaiv aXi/i^wv 
ovritni oiite icro/^vov, aXX ^ aip&v avevrav rt)tf 
^vKaiCTiv ■neptyev^aeirffat rovf avhpa^ ^ tois vXoL- 
OK & TOV trirov avTOK ijye yeLp.~ava rt/p^aavrav 

2 iKirXevaeaBai. wdurmv re i^o^ovvro ftdXiffra 
rov<: AaxeBaifiopiov^, on ej^pvrd^ ri ta'xypov av- 
TOv<i ivofii^ov ovKeri a^taiv (TTtKtjpvKeveadai.- Koi 

3 fi-erep-ekovro t^; o-'irovS^; ov Be^d/uiioi. KXia>v 
Si yvovv avT&v ri]v es outoi' inro'>^tav irepl t^ 
KwXvfitj^ TJj? ^vp.^daete^ ov rdXtjBi} lifit} \^7€*i» 
TOW? e^yyiXXovrai.^ irapaivovvrav Si r&v atftiy- 

' So th« MSS.i Hilda adopta Krilger'a coDJcvtur*, Jv*y- 
■yiWorrm. 
2S& 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. XXVI. y-xivii. 3 

places OD the island. AH, od the other hand, who 
made the venture in calm weather were captured. 
At the harbour, too, there were divers who swam to 
the island under water, towing after them by a cord 
skins filled with poppy-seed mixed with honey and 
bruised linseed ; at first they were not discovered, but 
afterwards watches were set for them. And so both 
sides kept resorting to every device, the one to get 
food in, the other to catch them doing it. 

XXVII. At Athens, meanwhile, when they heard 
that their army was in distress and that food was 
being brought in to the men on the island, they were 
perplexed and became apprehensive that the winter 
would overtake them while still engaged in the 
blockade. They saw that conveyance of supplies 
round the Peloponnesus would be impossible — Pylos 
being a desolate place at best, to which they were 
unable even in summer to send round adequate sup- 
plies^-and that, since there were no harbours in the 
neighbourhood, the blockade would be a fnilure. 
Either their own troops would relax their watch and 
the men on the island would escape, or else, waiting 
for bad weather, tliey would sail away in the boats 
which brought them fofxl. Above all they were 
alarmed about the attitude of the Lacedaemonians, 
thinking that it was because they had some ground for 
confidence that they were no longer making overtures 
to them ; and they repented having rejected their 
proposals for peace. But Cleon, knowing that their 
suspicions were directed against him because he had 
prevented the agreement, said that the messengers 
who had come from Pylos were not telling the truth. 
Whereupon these messengers advised, if their own 



259 
■ 2 



..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

pikvaiv, el fiTi a^tat ■triarevovat, KaraaKoirov^ 
Ttvd,^ Tre/iijrai, ^pedtj KaTilfTKOTro^ awro? /wtA 

4 ©eoyecov? inro A0t]pataiv. Koi yvoiK art avoff- 
Kaa&^aerai. ^ Taiirh, \eyeiv 0Z9 Sti^aXXev ^ ra- 
vavria eiTrdic ■^ei'S^r tpav^eretrdai,^ Trap^vei TOt? 
'A0r)vaiotv, opSiv avrov<; xal ap/irjfiefovi t( to 
TrXe'oj' T^ yvrnfLri arpaTeveiv, w? ^jj KaTao-Ko^ou? 
/i^c p.it TT^fi'TTeiv pT/Si Sta/iA,Xenj icaipov Trapiivra^, 
el Bi Soicel avjoi^ aXtjOi] elvai t^ dyyeWofieva, 

6 TrXew ^ttI to^ avSpwi. ical ii "HiKiav tov Nikij- 
pdrov aTpaTfjybv Svra aTrea-^piamei', ex^po^ w* 
Koi e-mTi/icif, pahiov elvai ■jrapamcevy, el avSpet 
elev 01 (TTpariiyoi, ■jrKewewTa'i Xa^etv tows iv 
Tg v^<T^, KoX aiiTov y &v, et ^px^i 'Jroi^trai 
Tovro. 

XXVIII. 'O Se NtMO! Twv T6 'Adrtvalm rt 
iinoOopv^riadvTav ii tov KXiava, ti ov koI vvv 
7r\£t, el p^hiov ye aur^ iftalveTai, xal Hfia opStv 
ainitv iiriTip,a>iira, exeKevev ^VTiva ^ovXeToi Sv~ 

2 vapiv \a06v7a to sttI (npa"; elvat iTTixeipeiv. 6 Si 
TO fuv irpSiTov olopevas avTOv A.075J f"»'ov aipiaiai, 
irolfioi ijc, yfov'i oe rp Sini Trapahaio'ei.ovTa ane- 
yiiipu Ka\ ovK iij>r] avToi aXX ixeivov OTpaTi}- 
yilv, SeSiw? fjhii koX ovk &v olofievo^ ol ainov 

3 ToXfiijaai {nroxfpv'^o-i- avdn; he o Nixia^ ixi- 
Xeve Kal e^laTaro t^s itri Ilv\<p dp)(^^ xal fidp- 

1 80 all U8S. except B {ytwi,irtiiiiu) : Hude lulopU, with 
Kriiger, RoucbenBteui a coojecture fariiarrai. 
360 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. xxni. 3-xxvnL 3 

reports were not believed, that commissiotiers be sent 
to see for themselves, and Cleon himself was chosen by 
the Athenians, with Theagenes as fais colleague. 
Realizing now that he would either be obliged to bring 
the same report as the messengers whose word he 
was impugning, or, if he contradicted them, be con- 
victed of falsehood, and also seeing that tlie A thenians 
were now somewhat more inclined to send an ex- 
pedition, he told them that they ought not to send 
commissioners, or by dallying to let slip a favourable 
opportunity, but urged them, if they themselves 
thought the reports to be true, to send a fleet and 
fetch the men. And pointing at Nicias son ot 
Niceratus, who was one of the generals and an 
enemy of his, and taunting him, he said that it was 
an easy matter, if the generals were men, to sail 
there with a proper force and take the men on the 
island, declaring that this was what he himself would 
have done had he been in command. 

XXVIII. The Athenians thereupon began to 
clamour against Cleon, asking him why he did not sail 
even now, if it seemed to him so easy a thing ; and 
Nicias, noticing this and Cleon's taunt, told him that 
as far as the generals were concerned he might take 
whatever force he wished and make the attempt. 
As for Cleon, he was at first ready to go, thinking it 
was only in pretence that Nicias offered to relinquish 
the command; but when he realized that Nicias 
really desired to yield the command to him, he 
tried to back out, saying that not he but Nicias was 
general ; for by now he was alarmed, and never 
thought that Nicias would go so far as to retire in 
his favour. But ag-ain Nicias urged him to go and 
offered to resign his command of the expedition 

a6i 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

rvpas Tous 'Adrfvaiotx; iTroieZro. ol Se, olov Sj^Koi 
<f>i\€t iroiehi, Strip fiaXXov 6 KXetov inriifievye top 
■rrXouv ical i^avev(i>pei ra fipriftiiia, To<rp iveKe- 
\evoirro t^ NtKtrt trapaStSoval TtfV ap^rjv koX 

i eKeCvijt iire^oiav ir'Xeiv wtrre ovk e)^a>v Sttw? ratv 
eipi}ii.eva>v ^rf i^aTraWay^, vijitcrrarai top wXoOv, 
leai irapeKBrnv ovre ^o^elcrdat eij>7} AaKeBatfwviow 
■n-Xevaeadal re Xa$a)p eV fiiv t^s vo\ew<i oiiBtPa, 
Arifivlou^ hi icai 'Ifi^pi'ovi laiit vapovra^ kcu, 
ireKjaoTii^ m ^aav ex re AXvov ^e^orjBrjicoTei! Kal 
akXodet/ Toyota's rerpaKoalov^' ravra H extav 
e<}ir}'^ 7r/)o? tok ev HvX^ o-TpaTioiTaK ivTOi '^fte- 
poiv etKOtn 4 a^eiv AaiceSaifioviov^ ^Hinat ij 

6 avTOV atroKTevelv tok Se 'Adrjvaiotv iveireae 
//4v Tt xai yeXoDTOi rp Kov<j>oXoyi^ avrov, aa/i4- 
voK S' ofuais eyiyvero rots (rmppotrt tmv avdpa>irmv, 
Xoyi^op^ivoK hvolp ayadoiv tou iripov Tev^eaBai, 
■A KXimvo^ aTraXXay^rreaffat, fi /ioXXov TjXTTt^oi', 
tj aifiaXeiiTi yimfoj^ AaxeSaifiovCov^ trtfiifft ■^eipte- 
treadai..'* 

XXIX. Kai irdvra BiaTrpa^dp-evoit iv r^ 
ixicXrfffia Kol^'^^iaafievtav' AdTjvaieav airr^ tov 
vXovv, T&V re ev rivXaj a-TaUTrjywv tva trpoaeXo- 
p.evo<i, ATjfioadei"), trjv avayttiyTjv Sii, to^^ou? 

2 eVot«TO. TOV Bi ^tipoadanj npotriXaffe TrvvBavo- 
ficpot rrjp airo^aatp ainov et rijp p^itop Siavoei- 
a8ai. oi y^p OTpaTimrai KaKonadovprei tou 
yatpuiV T^ atropt^ Kal fiaXXop -rvoXiopKovp^voi ff 
TToXtopicouvTe^ wpfi^PTo BiaittpSvpevaat, koX avr^ 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. xxviii. 3'xxjx. a 

agftinst Pylos, calling the Athenians to witness that 
he did so. And the more Cleon tried to evade the 
expedition and to baek out of his own proposal, the 
more insistently the Athenians, as is the way with a 
crowd, urged Nicias to give up the command and 
shouted to Cleon to sail. And so, not knowing how 
he could any longer escape from his own proposal, 
he undertook the expedition, and, coming forward, 
said that he was not afraid of the Lacedaemonians, 
and that he would sail without taking a single 
Athenian soldier, but only the Lemnian and Imbrian 
troops which were in Athens and a body of targeteers 
which had come from Aenos, and four hundred 
archers from other places. Witli these, in addition 
to the troops now at Pylos, he said that within 
twenty days he would either bring back the Lace- 
daemonians alive or slay them on the spot. At this 
vain talk of his there was a burst of laughter on the 
part of the Athenians, but nevertheless the sensible 
men among them were glad, for they reflected that 
they were bound to obtain one of two good things — 
either they would get rid of Cleon, which they 
preferred, or if they were disappointed in this, he 
would subdue the Lacedaemonians for them. 

XXIX. When he had arranged everything in the 
assembly and the Athenians had voted in favour of 
his expedition, he chose as his colleague Demos- 
thenes, one of the generals at Pylos, and made haste 
to set sail. He selected Demosthenes because he had 
heard that he was planning to make his landing on 
the bland. For his soldiers, who were suffering 
because of the discomforts of their position, where 
they were rather besieged than besiegers, were eager 
to run all risks. And Demosthenes himself had also 

««3 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Srt pmfirjp Kal 1} pyjtro^ iix.irptf<r0et<Ta ttapiffjfev, 
3 TTporepov fJ.ep y^p ovo-ij? aiir^ itXwSovi ivl to 
TToKii ical arptpovi Sta t^c aUX iprffdop itftofietro 
Kal ■n-pot Tmv iroKefUaiv rovro evofu^e fLoXKov 
flvar TToAAp yelp &p aTparoiriS^ atro^avri i^ 
aij>avov^ ')(eap[ov •npoa^aXKovra'; avrovii 0\d-7r- 
Teiv. a^Cffi p-(» yhp t^^ ixelva^v d/uipTUK xal 
irapa<TKevi}v inro t^s wXij? ouk Ap 6fxoia>v B^Xa 
elvat, TOJ) Si ainav trTparoireSov xaToiftav^ &v 
elvat ircLvra rek Apapr^p^na, Stare TTpoinrivreiv 
fiv avToiii airpatrBoKTjTm^ ffovXoipro' ^' 
t (KtivoK y^p elvai Av Trjv eTrij^eiptja'ui. el S* 
a!i ^ Sa<Tv ywpiov fitdl^otTo opoo'e ih>iu, tov^ 
i\d<y<Tow, ipireipow Bi rq? j(^dipa<;, xpetaaov^ 
ivoiu^e t5>v irKeovatv aTveipfov \avddvetv te &v 
TO eavrmv ffTparoTreSov voKii &v Sta<f>0eip6pievov, 
qvK ouat)^ trp •Trpoffo^tus ^ XP^" dXK'^otv 
ihri^or^dv. 

XXX. 'Atto Si Tov AtraXiKov itaBou^, t S(^' 
Tr^v Z\-r)v fiepoi t( iyevero, oujf ^Kiara avTov 

2 lavra ia^ei. t&v Bi arpaTiairmv dvayicaadevTav 
&A TTjv <rTevox,^piav rifi VTjffov tok ia'j^aroK 
•rTpoaLa-)(pvTat dpiaroTTOielaOat Bib, iTpo^uXaKrfi 
Icai ep-rrp^travTo^ rivov Kar& piicpov rij'; vXt}9 
a.K0VTo<! Kal d-JTo rovro v TrvevpaTOi iTnyevopevou 

3 TO TToXu ain^ e\a0e KaraKavfftv. ourat Bif 

364 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. XXIX. 3-xxx. 3 

been emboldened by ai conflagration which had swept 
the islnnd. For hitherto, since the island was for 
the most part covered with woods and liud no roads, 
having never been inliabited, lie bad been afraid to 
land, thinlting that the terrain was rather in the 
enemy's favour ; for they could attack from an un- 
seen position and inflict damage upon a large army 
after it had landed. To liis own troops, indeed, the 
mistakes and tlie prejiarations of the enemy would 
not be equally clear by reason of the woods, whereas 
alt their own mistakes would be manifest to their 
opponents, and so they could fall upon them un- 
expectedly wherever they wished, since the power 
of attack would rest with tliem. If, on the other 
hand, he should force his way into the thicket and 
there close with the enemy, the smaller force which 
was acquainted with tlie ground would, he thought, 
be stronger than the larger number who were un- 
acquainted with it ; and his own army, though large, 
would be destroyed piece-meal before be knew it, 
because there was no possible way of seeing the 
points at which the detachments should assist one 
another. 

XXX. It was especially owing to his experience 
in Aetolia,' when his reverse was in some measure 
due to the forest, that these thoughts occurred to 
Demosthenes. But the soldiers were so cramped in 
their quarters that they were obliged to land on the 
edge of the island and take their meals under cover 
of a picket, and one of their number accidentally set 
fire to a small portion of the forest, and from this, 
when a breeze had sprung up, most of the forest was 
burned before they knew it. Thus it happened that 
» ef. ni. xovii., xcriiu 

a6s 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

TOW T< Aa/ceSaifioviovi fiSXKov KariSav vXsiow 
Svra^, {nrovomv -nporepov iKatTaotrt tov atrov 
aiiTov^ * eairefiTreiv, rijv re vijirov evaTroffarat- 
ripav ovaav. Tore ws fv' a^i6xp€top tow 'AOrj- 
vaiovt fiaXXop trirovBtiv iroieia$ai t^w iiriyei- 
ptfaiv wapeaKevd^eTo, aTparidv re fteTa'irefnrmEi 
ix T&v iyyii^ fu/i/ta^^wi' xal tA a\Xa eroifid^av. 

i KXeov Se iK€ivif> re ■jrpovefi-yjra'; ayye\ov <i? 
^^aiv Kol ej(0}V arpariav ^i* prya-aro, atpiKVelreu 
e; HvKov. Hal a/4M yero/icvoi rreiiwovai rrpmov 
es TO iv r^ fjrteip((> oTparorrehov K^pvKa, wpoxa- 
Xovfievoi, et ^ovXouno, dvev mvSvvov Toiii ev rg 
p^^ avSpa^ fftfttat rd re onXa xal atfia^ avTOvi 
KeXeveiv irapaSovvai, etf)' ^ tf>u\aKy rp fUTpiif 
TTip-qiTovTai , eu><i an ri irepl tov nXiovo^ ^ufifiaffji. 
XXXI. ov rrpoahe^aftevav hi ah filav ftiv 
^fjJpav iire<T)(ov, tJ 5' ixrrepaitf dvTjydyovTO fth> 
PVKTO^ e-rr' oXiyai vavt tow oirXlra^ irdvrai 
iTri^i^daavTe<i, rrpit hi t^ eai oXiyov arri^atvov 
rrp vrjuov tKareptoSev, eie tc tov veXd^ovi Kal 
rrpoi TOV Xi/ievov, oKraicoauit ftdXttrra Svtc^ 
onXirai, ical i^apouv Spofi^ ^l to itpStrov 

2 ^vXaicT'^piov T^s v^ffov. wSe y^p SieTcrdj^aTO' 
e» TavTt) /i£P r^ irpwr-g * ipvXaK^ <4s rpiditopTa 
^irap oirXtTat, ftAaov he KaX o/iaXwrarov Tt xat 

■ Bekker'a conjecture for a^sE of the USS, Hude retdi 
atrial, with Krilger. 

* Hude deletes, with KcQger. 
366 



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BOOK IV. XXX. 3-xxxi. » 

Demosthenes, who could now get a better view of 
the X^cedaemonians, found that they were more 
numerous than he had thought; for he had previously 
suspected that the number for which tliey were 
sending provisions was smaller than they stated.^ 
He also found that the island was less difficult to 
make a landing upon than he had supposed. He 
now, therefore, believing that the object in view was 
well worth a more serious effort on the part of the 
Athenians, began preparations for the attempt, sum- 
moning troops from the allies in the neighbourhood 
and getting everything else ready. 

Cleon, meanwhile, having first sent word to De- 
mosthenes that he would soon be there, arrived at 
Pylos, bringing the army for which he had asked. As 
soon as they had joined forces, they sent a herald to 
the enemy's camp on the mainland, giving them the 
option, if they wished to avoid a conflict, of ordering 
the men on the island to surrender themselves and 
their arms, on condition that they should be held in 
mild custody until some agreement should he reached 
about the main question.^ XXXI. This offer being 
rejected, the Athenians waited for one day, but on 
the next day while it was still dark they embarked 
all their hoplites on a few vessels and put off, landing 
a little before dawn on both sides of the island, on 
the side toward the open sea and on that facing the 
harbour, their number being about eight hundred, 
all hoplites. They then advanced at a run against 
the first guard-post on the island. For the forces of 
the enemy were disposed as follows : in this, the 
first j>ost, there were about thirty hoplites ; the 
central and most level part of the island, near their 
' ^. oh. xvL 1. * i.t. a ganeral peace. 

•67 



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THUCYDIDES 

irepl TO iSap ol TrXeto-rot airrav xal 'Eir(T<f5os o 
&p)(fDV elye, p^pos Se t( ov ttoXv avro ' to 
effyaTOf e^vXaa'ae trji cjJctou to tt/jo? rifv XlvKov, 
h ^v eK T€ BaXtkaat)^ anoKpTjfivov xai ex t^? 7^7 
^Ktara evipayov kuI yap ti kuI epvpa ainoSi 
^v iraXaihv XiOmv XoydSjjv veiroi.ijptvov, 8 evo- 
pt^ov iT^iaiv wijtiXipov &v elvai, et learaXafifidpot 
apax<'>PV'^'^ ^iciiOTtpa. ovra pkv TerayfUfot 

XXXII. Ot Se 'AOtjvaioi Toi^ pev irpa>rov<i 
(jiuKatea^, or? i-rriSpapov, ei/Ovi hia^Betpovatv, ev 
re rai? eiival'; eri KavctXan^iipovTat to oirka icai 
Xo^ocTe? ri}v diro^aaiv, olopAvav auraiv T^f 
povs xaja to e$oi es eipoppov Ti)s vv/CTOt irKetv. 

2 apa Be eqt yiyvopcvj] xal 6 aAAos mpaTo<i airi- 
^atvov, iit pev vewv e^Bop^Kovra Koi oXiyi^ 
TrXeiovwv TrtiCTe? v\r)v OaKapiSfv, W9 c/coo'Tot 
iffKCvaapevoi, TO^orai Be otcraKoeriot xal veX- 
TatTTal ov/c ekaffffov^ TOvrtov, Mefforjviwtt tc 01 
^e^orjBriKOjei; Kai ol dWoi Stroi irepl TlvXovicarti- 
j(ov irdvTfi -TrXf/v twi- e-irl rov tuj^ovi; tjtvXdKoiv. 

3 ^■q/ioerdevovv Sk Ta^avTO^ SiiffTtjaav xarh Sia- 
KOalovi Koi wXetovs, ea-ri S" J iXdffcrovi, r&v 
Xtopioiv rk p^rewpoTa-ra Xafiovre^, owm? oti 
irXet'tTTij dnopia tj toi? iroXepioK wavTaxo&^v 
KeKvKXap4voK kclX p,t) ^^<vc( trpo^ 5 T( di/rtrd- 

' BiVri, Bauer's correction i MS8. aSroH. 



• Not hewn, but brought just as they picked them out. 

• cf. oh. xxiii. 2. 

• Th« SjAofUTBi, or oanmsii of th« lowwt tiar. At tbii 
368 



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BOOK IV. XXXI. a-XKii 3 

water supply,^ w&s held by the m^n body of troops, 
under the command of Kpitadas ; and a small detach- 
ment guarded the very extremity of the island where 
jt looks toward Pylos. This point was precipitous on 
the side toward the sea and least assailable toward 
the land ; there was also here an old fortification, 
built of stones picked up,^ which the Lacedaemonians 
thought would be useful to them in case they should 
liave to retreat under strong pressure. Such, then, 
was the disposition of the enemy's forces. 

XXXII. As for the Athenians, they immediately 
destroyed the men of the first post, upon whom they 
charged at full speed, finding them still in their beds 
or endeavouring to snatch up their arms ; for they 
had not noticed the Athenians' landing, supposing 
that the ships were merely sailing as usual to their 
watch-station for the night.^ Then as soon as day 
dawned the rest of the army began to disembark. 
These were the crews of somewhat more than seventy 
ships (with the single exception of the rowers of the 
lowest benches*), equipped each in his own way, 
besides eight hundred archers and as many targeteers, 
and also the Messenians who had come to reinforce 
them, and all the others who were on duty about Pylos 
except the men left to guard the fort. Under 
Demosthenes' direction they were divided into com- 
panies of two hundred more or less, wliich occupied 
the highest points of the island, in order that the 
enemy, being surrounded on all sides, might be in 
the greatest possible perplexity and not know which 

titae a trireme was maimed by fifty-four 9aX«#iiT«i, fifty-four 
(■rrirai (occupftats of the middle bauk), sixly-tWO BpanToi 
(upper bank), and ttiirty rtpirt^ (reserve oarauien), inclndiog 
iitiif4nn and i*ifidTiu, 

26$ 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^avTai, aXX^ afi^iffoXot yiyva>VTai t^ wk^et, 
el fi€P TOts Trp6a0€i' evloiev, {nro r&v KaTOWtv 
ffaWofievot, el Bi tok nXayiot^, iiirb rwv exare- 
4 pcaSev Traparerajfi.h'wv. Karh vcotou re atei 
tfieXXov avrotf, 17 ^M/jiJcraan, oi irdX^fuoi laeaBat 
^iXoi, Kol 01 dvoponarot, ro^evfiaai xal ukov- 
T1019 tcaX Xidoi'i xal fftfievSovaK iic iroKkov 
e'XQvre^ aXx'qv 0I9 iirjhk eireXSeiP ol6i> re ^v 
^fvyovrh re yip iicparovv Koi avaX'^povatv 
i-n€KeivTO. roiavrij flip yvoifir} ^rifioaOevrf^ to 
re TTpSirov ri/v arra^aaiv ervevoei koI ev r^ ^pyv 

XXXIII. 0( B^ rrepX rw 'E.mrdhav koX oirep 
TfV rrXelarov ru>v ev rlj fij'ffp, lus elBov to re 
rrpiorov tfivXatCT^piov Bi£<f>ffapft£vov koI arparov 
aiplaiv irrtovra, ^veera^apro kcu rOK ovXlraiv 
rStv 'AdTjPoiov hr^oap, ^ovX6p.evoi if j(eipai 
ixBetp- «f ipaprla^ yitp ovroi KadetarfjKeffap, ix 
2 irXaylou Be at i^iXol icai Kara ptorov. rot; /*€» 
ovv oirXiratf ovk iBw^Otierap •jrpoap.ei^ai ovSi rtf 
a-(f>eripif ifirreipla ^pTjaaaBai- td yh.p ■<^tXol 
(KarepwOev ^aXXnvrei elpyop, Koi a/ia exeivoi 
OVK aPTe-TT^aav, aXX' riaix'^K"^- tows Be ^^iXoixi, 
fi fidXuna ainol^ •npoaSeovre'i rrpofficeoipro, Ihpt- 
rrov, teal oi vrroarpe^oprei ^nvpovro, avOptoTTot 
Kovixo^ re iaK(vciap.evoi Koi irpoXafi^dvovre^ 

370 



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BOOK IV. Kxiai. 3-xxxiii. 2 

attack to face, but be exposed to missiles on every 
side from the host of their opponents — if they 
attacked those in front, from those behind ; if those 
on either flank, from those arrayed on the other. 
And they would always find in tlieir rear, whichever 
way they moved, the light-armed troops of the enemy, 
which were the most difficult to deal with, since they 
fought at long range with arrows, javelins, stones, 
and slings. Nay, they could not even get at them, 
for they were victorious even as they fled, and as 
soon as their pursuers turned they were hard upon 
them again. Sucli was the idea which Demosthenes 
had in mind when he devised tlie plan of landing, 
and such were his tactics when he put this into 
effect 

XXXIII. Now when the troops under Epitadas, 
constituting the main body of the Lacedaemonians 
on the island, saw that the first outpost was de- 
stroyed and that an army was advancing against 
them, they drew up in line and set out to attack tlie 
Athenian hopiites, wishing to come to close quarters 
with them; for these were stationed directly in front 
of them, while the light-armed troops were on their 
flank and rear. They were not able, however, to 
engage with the hopiites or to avail themselves of 
their own peculiar skill in fighting; for the light- 
armed troops kept attacking them with missiles from 
either side and thus lield them in check, and at the 
same time the hopiites did not advance against them, 
but remained quiet. They did, however, put the 
light-armed troops to flight wherever they pressed 
most closely upon them in their charges ; and then 
these Utter would wheel about and keep lighting, 
being lightly equipped and therefore finding it easy 



1;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fD^liov T^s ^vy^v ■)(wpta>v re x'^^^^'^V^' ""-^ 
inrb TTfi ■nplv ipj}fi[ai rpaxecop oitwc, ev ol^ 
ol AaKfBatftavtoi ovk ehvvavTO BimKetv oTtXa 

XXXIV. Xpovov fiev o^v jiva oKvyov ovrta 
irpo^ aXXjJXous ^Kpo^oXiffavro- t&v Bi AaKeSai~ 
fiavtavovKeTi ii^eai^ iireKOelv fi irpoffTriTTTOtev Svva- 
fUvtav, yvovre'i avrow ol ^tkol ^paBvTepotn ij&r} 
Svra^ T^ afivvatrOat, Koi avraX rf} re S^frti tou 
Oapaeiv to v'ktiarov etXij^dre? •rroXKatrXdai.oi 
^aivoftevoi koX. ^vvetdi<yp4voi fiaWov /ii}K£t<. 
Seivovi aiiToii'i op.ot(o^ o^nri tftaiveaffai, St( ovie 
ev6i"i 3.^ia t^ TTpoaZoKia^ eire-jropdea-ap, Afftrep 
ore irpaiTop awe^aivov T17 yfd/ip Sehovkiufievoi &^ 
itrl AoKeSaiftaviov^, Karatftpov^irainev xal ip^otj- 
aavrev aSpooi mpp/qaav iir' avTou'; xai effaXXov 
XiOoi^ re teal ro^evp,aai xal aKovrioi^, (i? eicaffTO'i, 

2 ri Trpoxetpov eixef- yei/ap.evii^ Si rrjq ffotjt a/ui 
Tp eiriSpofi^ eKTrXjjft? re eviireerev avBp^irott 
atjOeai roiavrtji /ta^jj? koI a Kovioptit^ t^S {1X75 
veaarl KeKavpevTft ^X'^p^t iroXy? dpa, arropov re 
^v iSeiv TO irpo avrov iitrh twp ro^eupdrav icai 
\i0<av aTTO rroWaiv dvdpatTrojv pera rov xovioprov 

S &pa ^pop4va)v. to Te epyov ivraWa ^aXeirof 
TO(s AaieeSaip.0Piot<t KaOicraro. oCre 7A/) oi 
iTtKot itrreyov rk ro^evpara, Sopdria re ivaire- 

173 

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BOOK IV. xKKiii. 2-xxxiv. 3 

to take to flight in good time, since the ground waa 
difficult and, because it had never been inhabited, 
was naturally rough. Over such a terrain the LAce- 
daemonians, who were in heavy armour, were unable 
to pursue them. 

XXXIV. For some little time they skirmished thus 
with one another ; but when the Lacedaemonians 
were no longer able to dash out promptly at the point 
where they were attacked, the light-armed troops 
noticed that they were slackening in their defence, 
and also conceived the greatest confidence in them- 
selves, now that they could see that they were 
undoubtedly many times more numerous than the 
enemy ,aDd, since their losses had from the outset been 
less heavy than they had expected, they liad gradu- 
ally become accustomed to regarding their opponents 
sa less formidable than they had seemed at their first 
landing when their own spirits were oppressed by 
the thought that they were going to ^ght against 
Lacedaemonians. Conceiving, therefore, a contempt 
for them, with a shout they charged upon them in a 
body, burling at them stones, arrows or javelins, 
whichever each man had at hand. The shouting 
with which the Athenians accompanied their charge 
caused consternation among the Lacedaemonians, 
who were unaccustomed to this manner of fighting ; 
and the dust from the newly-burned forest rose in 
clouds to the sky, so that a man could not see what 
waa in front of him by reason of the arrows and 
stones, hurled, in the midst of the dust, by many 
hands. And so the battle began to go hard with 
the Lacedaemonians ; for their felt cuirasses afforded 
them no protection against the arrows, and the points 
of the javelins broke off and clung there when the 
373 

:„.„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

K^wXaoTo 0aWo/i4vav, tt^Sv re oiiBev a^latv 
avTOK ;t/3i)£ra(r^at a-TroKeKKjj/iivoi /liv TJj O'^i 
rov Tpoopav, vito Se t^ /let^opo^ i9oiJ9 t&v 
TToXefUav -rh iv ai/Tols irapayyeWo/ieva. ovk 
itraKovovre-i, Kivhvpov re iravraxoBep ■nepiearStTO'i 
KoX OVK exovres ekirtSa KaG' S t* j(PV afivvo- 
p^pov^ <T<i)9!}vai. 

XXXV. Te'\o9 fie rpav/iaTi^op-ivoiv ^Srj iroWav 
Bt^ TO del if Tp avT^ dva<rTpe^e<r8ai, ^uyxX^' 
ffavTet ^%aipJ7i7ay es to etr^^aTOi* epv/ia t^ v^tov, 

2 8 ou TToXi (iTret^e, kbI tou? eavT&v <f>vXaicaii. w? 
fi^ ivehoaav, ivrav9a fjhr) ttoXX^ It* irXeovt ^oj] 
TeBaparjKQTe^ oi i^lXoX iviKeivro, icaX ran Aaice- 
iatp.ovla>v SiTot fikv vTroXf^povinei eyxaTeXap^d- 
vovTO, diriSv^ffKOP, ol Be iroXXol Siaif>ijy6vT€<; ^? 
TO Ipvfia fierh T&P TUVTri ifivXditaiv CTa^aPTO 

t Trapb, "Kav u; dp-uvovp^voi ^vep ^v iiripMXfP' fat 
01 'Kdrjpalat evia-Kop.evoi irtpioSov (tip avrStp koX 
kvkXciXtip ^(o/st'ou la^y^ '"'* ^'X"*"' "fpooiovTeii Si 
i^ ivavTiai aaaaSat hreipSivro, koX Xfiovov ftip 
TToXiiv Koi T^? rifiipa^ to irXela^ov raXanrupov- 
pxpoi d/itftorepoi vvo Tt riji fidx'ri'< >c^ St^'^9 tal 
ijXiov dvreixop, treipatftevoi ol pip t^t\dffaa0ai 
ix Tov p^reii>pov, oi Se p,ii evSovvat- paov S' ol 
AaxeSaipovtoi ijpvvovro fj iv T<p Trpiv, ouk ovo'ij; 
ff<ftS>f T^S KVKXtOoeiDi; 4i ra trXdyia, 

XXXVI, EweiSi/ Si diripapTOP ^p, wpoa^Xff^p 
r&v M.ea'<Tr}vlwp aTpartfyo^ KXioivt koX Arfft,o~ 
«74 

Dijnjtci;. Google 



BOOK IV. jxiiv. 3-iHyi. i 

men were struck. They were, therefore, quite at 
their wits' end, since the dust shut off their view 
ahead and they could not hear the word of command 
on their own side because the enemy's shouts were 
louder. Danger encompassed them on every side and 
they despaired of any means of defence availing to 
save them. 

XXXV. At last when they saw that their men 
were being wounded in large numbers because they 
had to move backwards and forwards always on the 
same ground, they closed ranks and fell back to the 
farthermost fortification on the island, which was not 
far distant, and to their own garrison stationed there. 
But the moment they began to give way, the light- 
armed troops, now emboldened, fell upon them with 
a louder outcry than ever. Those of the Lacedae- 
monians who were intercepted in their retreat were 
slain, but the majority of them escaped to the fortifi- 
cation, where they ranged themselves with the 
garrison there, resolved to defend it at every point 
where it was assailable. The Athenians followed, 
but the position was so strong that they could not 
outfiank and surround the defenders. They, there- 
fore, tried to dislodge them by a frontal attack. 
Now for a long time, and indeed during the greater 
part of the day, in spite of the distress from the battle, 
from thirst, and from the heat of the sun, both sides 
held out, the one trying to drive the enemy from the 
heights, the other merely to hold their ground ; the 
Lacedaemonians, however, now found it easier than 
before to defend themselves, since they could not be 
taken in flank. 

XXXVI. But when the business seemed intermin- 
able, the general ' of the Messeoians came to Cleon 

' Named Comou, accardios to Fans. iv. xxvi, 2. 

'15 
t2 



THUCYDIDES 

irffii/ei aXXat ?^jj iTovetv o-^s' e* B^ ffovXovrat 
eavT^ Bovveu t&p TofoTww fjApov Tt KaX tS>v 
i^CKSiv ireptiivat Karh vmrov avrot; 6£^ ^ &v 
awTOS efi/Jj;. So^ein ^tairaaBai ^ Tiji" e<fioBop. 

2 Xaffo>v Bi & yT'ijaaTO, eif rov atf>avoOs op/i^a-a^ 
SiaTe fii) IBtiP iieeivov<!, icarit to ai'el irapetKOV 
Tov Kp>}ftva>Bov^ T^5 v^<rov irpo^aivtav koX ^ ol 
AaxeSaifioptot y<iipiov Iffyyt TriffTeviravre^ oiiK 
t'^wXacTffOu, j^aXetrai^ re Kal fioXit irepieXSibv 
eXaOe, Ka\ eni tov /ierewpov i^aTrifi}t diia<f>apei^ 
Atari vwTOv avrS>v rov^ ftev t^ o^okijt^ i^4- 
irXij^e, TOV! Bf h trpocrtBexoffo lB6vra<t ttoXK^ 

3 fiaXKov €veppt0iTfv. KaX ol AaKcSaifiovtot fiaWo' 
fiepoi re afi^o-rkptaBev ^Si; Koi ytypo/ievoi iv rp 
airr^ ^vp-TTTrofiari, an piKpov fuydX^ enedvai, 
T^ if ^epfiOTTuXai^ (^i/cttiroi re yitp tJ arrpatT^ 
iripieXdovTOiv tS)v Ile/io'cui' Bie^&dprj<rav ovroi 
Tt), dfi.if>i0o\oi ^B'l SpTtv ovKiTi avTelxov, dXX^ 
TToXA^i! re oXXyoi ftaxoftevoi koI daSeveiff aoo- 
/luTav Bi^ Ttfp (TiToBelav vTr€)(mpovv koX oi 
'Adtjvaloi iKpdrovp ^Bij toip eipoBtav. 

XXXVII. Tpoui Bi 6 KXeatp xal o Art/ioadevrji;, 
tl ical OTtoaovavp fiSiKKov ipB^iTOvat, Sia^ffapt)- 
aofUvovi avToiii inrb t^9 atpeTepa^ trrpaTiai, 
(hravaap ti)p /idj(r}v xaX tov^ iavT&v airetp^av, 
^ovXopevot ayayelv aurou; ' A0t)palot<t ^Sivra<t, el 

' Ah the MSS.; Hade fiiiatatKi, after Uadvig. 
376 

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BOOK IV. xxxTi. i-xxxvii. i 

and Demosthenes and said that their side was 
wasting its pains ; but if they were willing to give 
him a portion of their bowmen and light-anned 
troops, so that he could get round in the enemy's 
rear by some path or other which he might liiraself 
discover, he thought that he could force the approach. 
Obtaining what he asked for, he started from a point 
out of the enemy's sight, so as not to be observed by 
them, and advanced along the precipitous shore of 
the island, wherever it offered a foothold, to a point 
where the Lacedaemonians, trusting to the strength 
of the position, maintained no guard. Thus with great 
difficulty he barely succeeded in getting round 
unobserved and suddenly appeared on the high 
ground in the enemy's rear, striking them with 
consternation by this unexpected move, but far more 
encouraging his friends, who now saw what they 
were expecting. The Lacedaemonians were now 
assailed on both sides, and — to compare a small affair 
with a great one — were in the same evil case as 
they had been at Thermopylae ; for there they had 
perished when tlie Persians got in their rear by the 
path,^ and here they were caught in the same way. 
Since, then, they were now assailed on both sides 
they no longer lield out, but, fighting few against 
many and withal weak in body from lack of food, 
they began to give way. And the Athenians by this 
time were in possession of the approaches. 

XXXVII. But Cleon and Demosthenes, realizing 
that if the enemy should give back ever so httle 
more they would be destroyed by the Athenian army, 
put a stop to the battle and held back their own 
men, wishing to deliver tliem alive to the Athenians 
' tf. Hdt. viL 213. 

877 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

TTW! TOW KJipvyfiarov aKovtravren ivixXaaffeTev 
T^ yvciifij}' KoX -^uaifdeUv tov -rrapovrot hfivov, 
2 ix^pv^dv re, et 0ov\ovTai, ih oTrXa irapahovvai. 
«at aiftai avTovi ^6i}vaiOK totrre ^ouXtOaai 6 t* 
&y e/eeivOK BoK jj. 

XXXVIII. Ot Be oLKova'ainet trapetaav to? 
offTTiSa; oi TrXetiTTOt Koi tA? y(€ipa'; aveaeiaav 
BijXovvTE'i TTpoaitaSat tA KeKi/pvyfiiva. ikto. Sk 
raOra yevoftimi'i t^9 avoieru^i'i'; ^vi/ijXffov ej \iJ70t/s 

5 Te KXiaii ical 6 Aitp-oadevii Kal (Keivav Xtv^idv 

6 ^dpaKOR, Toiv -rrporepov apx^hrriov rov flip 
irpairov reOvriKoTO';, 'EttituSou, tou Si p^-r avTov 
'linraypiTov eipjiprj/ievov «V rati veicpalt en ^(uvTOf 
Ketfievov ai? TedveGtTO^, ainoi; rpno^ e<pj)pr)p^vo^ 

2 apx^etv Kark vop-ov, et n iictivoi TrtMrx*"^"- ^^?« 
fie Stu^wi' km, ol lier avrov 5ti ffovKavTai 
hiaKijpvKtvaaadai irpov Toiit iv rg rftreip^ Kaiee- 

3 Baifiopiovs o Ti XP"! "^^5 Troietv. jcai cKeivap 
/lev ovteva a^Uvrav, aiirSfv Be r&v 'A0Jipala>v 
KoKovirrap ck t^9 fiveipav tcripvicat koX yevofiepaiv 
iirepaTTjaerap Sis f) TpLi, a reXevTalo'; BiaTrXevaa^ 
airroK diro taiv ev tj}5 ^irelpov AaKeBa,i/ioviav 
dv>!p dirijyyetXep oti " AaKeSaifiovtoi xeXevovatp 
vp,di avrov^ irepl vfiaiv aiirSiv ^ovXeveadai /iijSev 
ata^pop TToiovPTa^.^ ol Si Ka& eavTOvi /Sou- 
Xevcdfiepot ra. ovXa wapiSoiiap Ka\ a-ipd^ avrovv. 

' After T^ yyii/i]i the MSS. have tA i*Ka napaiaurai, whi^h 
moat recent editors delete, after Krdger. 
378 



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BOOK IV. xrrvii. i-xxxviii. 3 

&nd in hopes that possibly, when they heard the 
herald's proclamation, they would be broken in spirit 
and submit to the present danger. Accordingly, they 
caused the herald to proclaim that tliey miglit, if 
they wished, surrender themselves and their arms 
to the Athenians, these to decide their fate as should 
seem good to them. 

XXXVIII. When the Lacedaemonians heard this, 
most of them lowered thetr shields and waved their 
hands, indicating that they accepted the terms 
jiroposed. An armistice was then arranged and a 
conference was held, Cleon and Demosthenes repre- 
senting the Athenians and Styphon son of Pharax 
the Lacedaemonians. Of the earlier Lacedaemonian 
commanders the first, £pitadas, liad been slain and 
Hippagretas, who had been chosen as next in suc- 
cession, now lay among tlie fallen and was accounted 
dead, though he was still alive; and Styphon was 
third in succession, having been originally chosen, 
as the law prescribed, to be in command in case 
anything should happen to the othpr two. He 
then, and those with liim, said that they wished to 
send a herald over to the Lacedaemonians on the 
mainland to ask what they must do. The Athenians, 
however, would not let any of them go, hut them- 
selves summoned heralds from the mainland ; then, 
after interrogatories bad been exchanged two or 
tliree times, the last man who came over to them 
from the Lacedaemonians on the mainland brought 
this message : " The Lacedaemonians bid you decide 
your case for yourselves, but do nothing dishonour- 
able." So they took counsel with one another and 
then surrendered themselves and their arms. During 



1;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

A KoX TavTJjv ^v Tifv ^/lApav koI t^v iwiovaav 
vvxra fv ^vXaxtj elj^ov avToi/i; oi 'Affrjiiatoi- ry S' 
vaT€paia ot ftev 'Adrjvatoi rpoiratov ari^aavreii hi 
rfi vqat^ tdiKKa Si£(rx6i'aZ|birro ait e; tfKovv koX 
T0U5 eJjiSpos Tots tpitjpapxoii BUSoaav es <pv\a- 
K^v, ol Si AuKeBai/topioi K^pvKa ■n-ep.-^avjei rov<t 

6 veicpovt SteicofiiaavTO. airWavov S' ^i* t!} iJiftrf) 
Kot ^rnvTsf eKr)^dij<Tav Totfothe- etKOtrt ftkv oirXiTai 
Bie^Tftrav icai Terpatcoffioi ol wafres' tovtwc 
l^aiirre^ iKop-iaO^aav dktq) awoMovre^ TpioKoaioi, 
ol Se aWot cnridavov. koI XwapTtarai tovtwv 
■^aav latv ^<i)vr<i)v irepl elicoat xal kiearov. 'ABij- 
vaLaiv Si ov iroWoX hie^Bdptjacaf tj yap ftaj(r} ov 
(TTaSia ^v. 

XXXIX. X/jopos Se i ^vfiira^ iyevcra oaov oi 
it/Bpei iv r§ v^utp i'jroXtopKtjOriaap, airo t^9 
vavp.axia<! p^'Xft tijs tv rfj cijo-p fidx')'ii e^Sop,^- 

2 KOina i)p,ipai Ka\ Bvo. Tovrtav irepl etxoat 
ifpipai, ev qj.<i oi -npea^Wi -rrepi twc atrovBa>v aTri}- 
aav, iaiToSoTovPTO, to? Be dWa^ roK icrtrXiovat 
\dOpa Bterpi^ovro' Kal ))c (7(tos tk ev ffj Pijff^ 
Koi dWa ^pmpara iyKUTeXijipdji' 6 yhp dpx^" 
'EniTdBa'! fi/Be«TT€prai'i exdinq) -rrapeljfev {) irpo^ 

3 Ol pev Btf Adtjvatoi ical ol IleXoiroeiii^aiot 
avextopijffav t^u o-Tparp 4k ri)<i HvXov ikarepoi 
itr' oiKov, Kal toD KXiaivat Kainep paviatBj)^ 
oinra f) {nroaxemt uTTefft]- ivrm ydp eiKoat 
riixepStv T^yar/e -v oil's &vZpa<t, wffirep vttiart}. 
XL. iraph yvmprpi re Bri fidXtvra tSiv Kard top 
ir6\e/u}v TouTo roU "EXKtiatv iyevero- Toi^ fkp 

380 

D,j™tci;. Google 



BOOK IV. xxxviii. 4-XL. i 

that day and the following night the Athenians kept 
them under guard ; but on the next day, after setting 
up a trophy on the island, they made all their 
preparations to sail, distributing the prisoners among 
the trierarchs for safe-keeping ; and the Lacedae- 
monians sent a herald and brought their dead to the 
mainland. The number of those who had been 
killed or taken alive on the island was as follows : 
four hundred and twenty hoplites had crossed over 
in all ; of these two hundred and ninety two were 
brought to Athens alive ; all the rest had been slain. 
Of those who survived one hundred and twenty 
■were Spartans.' Of tlie Athenians, however, not 
many perished ; for it was not a pitched battle. 

XXXIX. The time during which the men on the 
island were under blockade, from the sea fight up to 
the battle on the island, amounted all told to seventy- 
two days. For about twenty of these days, tlie 
period during which the envoys were absent nego- 
tiating the truce, they were regularly provisioned, 
but the rest of the time they lived on what was 
smuggled in. And indeed some grain was found 
on the island at the time of the capture, as well as 
other articles of food ; for the commander Epitadas 
was accustomed to give each man a scantier ration 
than his supplies would have allowed. 

The Athenians and Peloponnesians now withdrew 
from Pylos and returned home with their respective 
forces, and Cleon's promise, mad as it was, had been 
fulfilled ; for within twenty days he brought the men 
as he had undertaken to do. XL. Of all the events 
of this war this came as the greatest surprise to the 
Hellenic world ; for men could not conceive that the 



THUCYDIDES 

AaKeSaifiovlovv ovre \ifi,0 out ava^/c^ oiSe/it^ 

^^iovv 7k OTT\a trapaSovvai, aXXk ey(pvTa^ Kal 

2 fia-y^o/iefovi Itiis eBvvavTO aTroSv^tixeiv, dni' 

(TTouires^ fj,}} elvat toli? Trapa^ovTai rot? TeffveS)- 
aiv ofjLolov;. xai Ttyo? epofievov irori varepov 
rS>v ^AdTjPaimv ^viip.d)(av hi a-xQriZova * &a twi* 
iK T^9 vr^aov alxfi^Xiiirmv el ot TeOireSyre^ avr&v 
KoXoX Kayadoi, aTreKpivaTO avT<^ ttoWov &,V a^iov 
elvai Tov arpaKTOv, Xeyav roi/ qIotov, el tous 
ayaSovt hieytyvmaKe, hrfXtairiv Trotovftevo'i on 6 
evTu-y)(a.v<Miv Toi? re \L6qk xtd ra^evfUKfi Si€<j>- 

XLI. Kofiia-divrt^v Se twi- avBp&v ol 'A0r,vaw 
i^ovXevaav Setrftolt fiev avrow (fivXaaaeiv ftexpi 
oL Ti ^vii^Staiv, rjv S" oi TleXo-TTovv^aioi irph 
Tovtov is r^v yljv iff^aXXmaiv, i^ayayovre^ 

2 wjTOKTetvai, Ti}? Se YlvKov <f>v\aKriv KaTftmj- 
oavto, A-oi 01 eK t^s NauTriitTOi; Metta^vtot ok 
e? •naipLha raimjv {ean yhp tj YlvXos t^9 Meffffi;- 
PiSo! iTork ovaiTi 71}';) Triu.-^avre'i (r^mv ai/rav 
Toir? €TnTi)Beto7ilrov; eXjJforro re Ti}v AaKwvixijv 

3 Koi trXetaTa e^Xa-mov ofia^tovot Svrev. oi Se 
AaKtBatfioPioi ap.uSet'i ovre^ iv t^ irp'iv ■)(fi6vai 
X>]cr relas xal tov toiovtov iroXi/tov, t&v re 
E/X(oT(ui' aiiroiioXovvTdiv koX tpoffoufifvot fii) Koi 
eVt fiOKpoTepov aif>i<Ti ti viwrepiadfj tS>v Kartk, 
Tr/v ^topau, ov paiimt etpepov, aXXd, Kattr^p ov 
ffovXo/ievoi evSijXoi elvat Toir 'AStjvaioiv, itipea- 

> Ho ITude, with M ; most other MSS. i.^'<naZrTit ti. 
* Gr ix'<)i^™> deleted, by Hude, alter Rutherford. 
983 



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BOOK IV. XL. i-xu. 3 

Lacedaemonians would ever be induced hj hunger 
or any otiier compulsion to give up their arms, but 
thought that they would keep them till they died, 
lighting as long as they were able ; and they could 
not believe that those who had surrendered were as 
brave as those who had fallen. And when one of the 
Athenian allies sometinie afterwards sneeringly asked 
one of the captives taken on the island, whether the 
Lacedaemonians who had been slain were brave men 
and true,' the answer was, that the shaft, meaning 
the arrow, would be worth a great deal if it could 
distinguish the brave, intimating that it was a mere 
matter of cliance who was hit and killed by stones 
and bow -shots. 

XLL When the captives were brought to Athens, 
the Athenians determined to keep them in prison 
until some agreement should be reached, but if 
before that the Peloponnesians should invade their 
territory, to bring them out and put them to death. 
They also placed a garrison in Pylos, andthe Messen- 
ians at Naupactus, regarding this territory as their 
fatherland — for Pylos belongs to the country that 
was once Messenia— sent thither such of their own 
number as were best fitted for the task and proceeded 
to ravage the Laconian territory, and they did a 
great deal of damage, since they were men of the 
same speech as the inhabitants. As for the Lace- 
daemonians, they had never before experienced pre- 
datory warfare of this kind, and therefore, when the 
Helots began to desert and there was reason to fear 
that the revolutionary movement might gain still 
further headway in their territory, they were uneasy, 
and, in spite of their desire not to betray their alarm 

■ Implying that the anrvivort were not 



C.Google 



THUCVDIDES 

^evovTo Trap' aurow? koX hretpiavTo tijh T6 TivKop 
4 itaX Tois apBpav KO/u^eff$ai. ol Bk fiu^opap re 
apeyovTo Koi 7roXXa«i? <f>otTatvTa» aiirou^ airpaK- 
Tovs aiT&7rep,irov. raOra fikv to tiepi TlvKov 
yevofiepa, 

XLII. Tou B' avTov depovi /xeni ravra eiiOvt 
Afftjvatot e? t^i" Kopivffiav einpdreuaav v 
oySoijieoirra ural S(cr;^;(Xto(? OTrXiVat? i' 
en linrayiayoit vaval SiaKOaCot<! i 
\ov6qvv Be icai TOtv ^vp.pA'j^tov MiXi^o-tot xal 
'AvSpiot Kal Kapvarioi, iarpaTyyei S^ Ninria; 

2 t^tKyjptiTov rpiTO^ outo?. ■wXeoi'TCT Bi dfta ep 
e(r;^iM' /WTofi ^epaovqaov re (ceu. 'Petrou e's top 
at7iaXov toO ^^w/siou ^Tre/) ou o SoXiryeio? \6tfto<i 
iariv, iif' S" AwptJjj to ■waXat iBpvOevTe'; tow ei* 
T§ iroXet Kopcvdioii inoKep^vp o^aip Aia\evatf 
Kal Kminj pvb eV outoO 2oX.u7«o KaXoufiiv) 
eVtiV. otto Se TOU alytaXov rovrov evda ai c^ey 
Kajea-)(ov i) fiiv »<opi} avTt) Sa>Beica ffraSiov^ 
atr^xei, ^ Si KopipBleop ttoXk i^^KOPra, o Be 

3 itT0p,6<i eiKoat, KoptvOtoi Bk irpoTTvffopfvot ef 
'A/jyof? 0T( ^ a-rparia. rj^et, raip 'ABijpaiap ck 
vXeLovo'i iBo'^Bijaav e's laffpop TrdpTei •ir\f)p t&v 
efm iaSpou- KaX iv 'ApvpaKta Kal iv AevtcdSi 
dTrijaap avrStp irepraKoatot tppovpoi' oi 8' lEXXoi 
iravSrjpxl eireT^povp tow 'Adqpalov^ oX Kara- 

' At the time wlieo the Doriaiu, nnder the leadership of 
the Her&c1eidae, got possession of the Peloponaesus (e^ l 
lii. 3). See Busolt, Or. Oueh. i'. 208. 

384 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. iLi. 3-Mji. 3 

to the Athenians, kept sending envoys to them in the 
endeavour to recover Pylos and the jirisoners. But 
the Athenians coostantlj^ made greater demands and 
the envoys, although they came again and again, were 
always sent home unsuccessful. Such were the 
events at Pylos, 

XLII. During the same summer and directly after 
these events the Athenians made an expedition into 
Corinthian territory with eighty ships and two 
thousand Athenian hoplites, together with two hun- 
dred cavalry on board horse-transportS ; allied forces 
also went with them, namely Milesian, Andrian, and 
Carystian troops, the whole being under the command 
of Nicias son of Niceratus and two others. These 
sailed and at day-break landed midway between the 
peninsula Chersonesus and the stream RheEtus, at 
a point on the beach over which rises the Solygeian 
hill — the hill where the Dorians in olden times' 
established themselves when they made war upon the 
Corinthians in the city, who were Aeolians; and there 
is still on the hill a village called Solygeia. From 
this point on the beach where the sliips put in to shore 
tliis village is twelve stadia distant, the city of Corinth 
sixty, and the Isthmus twenty. But the Corinthians, 
having previous information from Argos that the 
Athenian army would come, had long before occu- 
pied the Isthmus with all their forces, except those 
who dwelt north of the Isthmus and five hun- 
dred Corinthians who were away doing garrison duty 
in Ambracia' and Leucas; all the rest to a man 
were now there, watching to see where the Athenians 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

4 <r)(riaovtTtv. w? Si avroi/^ eXa&ov vvkto's /cara- 
ir\€v(TaPTe^ xal ri. attiielaainoit fipBt}, KoraXi- 
vovre^ Toti? ^/ilirtii av-rStp iv Keyxp^'^< W "/«• 
0( A0r}patoi iTrl tov Kpo/ifivava tmatv, i^o'iOovv 
Kwrei. Td\oi. 

XLIII. Kai BaTTo? flit! 6 erepo^ Tmv arparri- 
ywv (SiJo yap ^o'av if r^ P^XO "' Tmpovre^') 
Xaffaiv Xo^oii ^\0€V iTrl ri]v SoXiJyeiac KiipTjti 
tf>v\d^a>ii a/retyiajov oZaav, AvK6tf>p(0P Be toi? 

2 &XKot<; ^vvepaKev. Koi vpSna fuv rp Sefip 
Ktpa T&v 'A0r)vaio)v evSv^ d-7TO^e0f]K6Tt irpo rrj^ 
'Kepaop^tTov ol Kopiv$iot ^ireicetvTo, e-jrena Si ical 
r^ aWp tTTparevfiari. real ^p t} pdj^r} Knprepa 

3 icai ip VfpTl irdira. koI to p,(P Se^iiiv fcepa<i r&p 
'AO^poiiav Kal Kapvariaip (ovtoi ydp trapa- 
TerwypAvoi J/aav eaxaroi) iSe^apro re Toii<; 
Kopipdiovi Kal ioxravTO /i6\i-i- ol Si inroj^ap^- 
aamet Trpo<; alfiaaidv {^p yap to j^iapCop -rrpoa-- 
avTf^ TTOi') ffd\\ovT€<; Tot? XiOi/i'! icadvrrepOev 
SvTe<i leaX TraiauLtraptes Sirijaap avOii, Se^a/iiptav 
Be TUJJ ' AdtjpaCmp 4p ^(epa'ip ijf irdkiv ^ P'dj^rf, 

4 Xo^o^ Si T»s Twc KopipOitap eTTt^oij^fjVos T^ 
evojpvfiq) Kep<f kavrS>v iTpe^p-e ratv 'Aflijcot'wi' to 
Se^iov K€pa<; koI iireSCtiy^ev e? t^c 6d\aa<Tap' 
irdXip Si UTTO tS>p veStv dviiTTpe^frap o'i re 'A^ij- 
patoi Koi ol Kapva-Tioi. to Se aWo arpaToireSov 
dfi<fn}r€pa>dfp ifid^ero fwe^^o)!, /xaKiara Si to 
Se^tov xipai raip KopiP0ttop, i^' ^ 6 AvKwf)po)v 



' The Cormthi&n «ait«ni haven, eeventf atadia from the 
oity. 
* The ohiet place on this coast-liue between the lathmu* 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. lui. 3-xLiii. 4 

would land. But when the Athenians eluded them 

bj making their landing by night and the Corin- 
thians were notified by the raising of fire-signals, tiiese 
left half of their troops at Cenchraeae,' in case the 
Athenians siiould ailer al! go against Crommyon,^ 
and in haste rushed to the defence. 

XLIII. Thereupon Battus,one of the twoCorintbian 
generals present at the battle, took a company and 
went to the village of Solygeia, which was unwalled, 
to gusrd it, while Lycopbron attacked with the 
remainder of their troops. Now at first the Corinth- 
ians assailed the right wing of the Athenians, which 
had just disembarked in front of Chersonesus, and 
afterwards engaged the rest of the army also. The 
battle was stubbornly contested throughout and 
fought at close quarters. The Athenian right 
wing, at whose extremity were stationed the 
Csrystians, received the charge of the Corinthians 
and drove them back, though with difficulty ; but 
the tatter retreated to a stone fence and, since 
tiie ground was everywhere a steep slope, pelted 
the Athenians with stonqs, being on higher ground, 
and then, raising ttie paean, charged a second 
time. The Athenians received the charge and the 
battle was again waged at close quarters. Then a 
com[>any of the Corinthians, reinforcing their own 
left wing, routed the right wing of the Athenians 
and pursued it to the sea ; but again upon reaeliing 
the ships the Athenians and Carystians rallied. The 
other divisions of the two armies were continuously 
engaged, especially the right wing of the Corinthians, 
where Lycophron was in command against the 
ami Megara, aome 120 atsdin from Corinth, knowD as the 
haunt of the wild boor killed by Theseus (Pans. I. xxvii. 9 : 
U. i. 3). 

38} 



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THUCYDIDES 

&v Karii TO eiotvvfiov tS>v KB^vattov ^/luvero' 
^Xiri^ov yip avToiii eirl rrfv %oXvyeian Katftr^v 
Treipdffeip. 

XL1V. Kpovoff fiev otv voXi/v avrelj^ov ovk 4vBt- 
fiof T6S aXX^Xo(5' eTreiTo (^aav yap T019 'AdT/ptuoiv 
oi (Vir^? in^iXifioi ^v/j.fi.axof>-evoi, tSsv ireprnv ovie 
i-^ovrmv Zintov<i) iTpdnovro 01 Kopivfftoi Kal 
irjrej(o>priuav -rrpm 7ov \6<pov koI tdevTO t^ ovKct 

2 Ka\ ovKSTi KaTe^aivov, aW T]<TV)(a.^ov. iv &k rp 
Tpoir^ ravr^ leaTh, to Seftor icipa<i oi tiKeiirroi re 
ainSiv a/jriBavov Koi AvKoi^pav o irrpaTiffOi. ij 
5^ aXki) rrpanii tovt^ rp rpotr^ ov xark Siai^iv 
itoWi/p oliSi Ta^ei'o? tpvyiji ytvofiivqii, eVel 
i^taaStf, iTTava')^wpi]i7aiTa Trpo? tA fieTeapa 
tSpvOi]. 01 he ' A-djiPahi, (is oinciri aiiTOK iir^frav 

3 es p,d)(rjv, TOVK ts vexpoi)^ e<TKvXevov Kal tou5 
eavTuiv avrjpouvTO, TpoTTOiov re ev^c'oi; larrftrav. 

4 TOiv B' fifdrreai. tS>v KopivSlwv, ot iv t§ Key^peia 
enddf}VTo ^vXaicef, prj inl top K.po/ip,vaii/a irXeu- 
awtri, TOwTDtf ou KaTaSr/XtK f) P-dxt ^v vtto tow 
Spovv rov ^Oveiov KOViopTOv Zk we elBov itai wy 
eyvioirav, e^o^Sow €v9v^. e^ojjfftianv Se xol oi ix 
Tfy; iroXetai irpea^vTepot t&v Kopiv9ia>v altrSo- 

6 /itvoi TO yeyevti/tevov. iSoi'tes' 8^ oi ^ AOifvaioi 
^vpTravra<t avrovv eVtoi'TB! icai vop-taavTet twv 
irfyvv acrTvyeiTOvav Il£\oTTo»pi}aia>p ffo^ecav 
iittivai, ave'X^povv Karii rdxpi iwl t^? vaw, 
exoPTei tA tTxvXev/ia-ra wot to^ iavrw veicpaii<; 
irX^f tvoiP, ottv iyKareXivov ov Swdp£voi ei/peiv. 

388 

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BOOK IV. xutL 4-xuv. 5 

Athenian left and kept it in check ; for they ex- 
pected the Athenians to make an attempt against 
the village of Solygeia. 

XLIV. For a long time they held out, neither side 
yielding to the other. Then as the Athenians had 
an advantage in the support of tlieir cavalry, whereas 
the other side had no horses, the Corinthians turned 
and retired to the hill, where they halted, and did 
not come down again but remained quiet. In this 
repulse it was on their right wing that most of the 
Corinthians that were lost were killed, among them 
Lycophron the general. But the rest of the Corinthian 
army retired in this manner — there was no long 
pursuit nor hasty flight, but when it was forced 
back, it withdrew to the higher ground and there 
established itself. As for the Athenians, when the 
enemy no longer came against them and oflered 
battle, they stripped the corpses, took up their own 
dead, and straightway set up a trophy. Meanwhile 
the other half of the Corinthian forces, which was 
stationed at Cenchraeae as a garrison to prevent the 
Athenians from making a descent upon Crommyon, 
were unable to see the battle because Mt. Oneium 
intervened ; but when they saw the cloud of dust and 
realized what was going on, they rushed thither at 
once, as did also the older men in the city of Corinth 
when they perceived what had happened. But the 
Athenians, seeing the whole throng advancing and 
thinking it to be a detachment of the neighbouring 
Peloponnesians coming to assist the Corinthians, with- 
drew in haste to their ships, having their spoils and 
the bodies of their own dead, except two, which they 
left behind because they were not able to find them. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

6 Kul ava^6vTev itrX rh.^ vaw iirepaiwdTiaav eV tA? 
ivtKei^tevat Ptiaovt, etc S' avr&v iin«T}pvKev<rd- 
fiepot Toili veKpoiiv o&? iyKaTiXiTTOv vtroavovhov^ 
dt/eiXopro. dttkdavov tk K.oaivQLa>v fiev iv ry 
l^XV ^■i^^c'o i^oX htaKoaioi, A6r]vaieov Sk o\*y^ 
(Kdaaovs •KevTriKoma. 

XLV. 'ApavTet S^ iK ra>v v^trrav ol 'A8f]vatoi 
hrXevaav avd'rjfiepov 4<; Kpoftp.vwpa t^9 Kopiv 
8ia^' a7rij(ei Be t^? TroXeai^ ei/coiri koI kxaTOV 
ffTaSiDu?. Kol KadoOfiiadfievoi Trp) tc t^v khrfuxrav 

2 Koi TT/i/ vvKTa ijv\i.aavTO. ry S' vffTepaia irapa- 
irXeuo-ai'Te? £S t^c 'E^iBavpiap vp&rov /cat diro- 
^aaiv Tiva •rroitjadfievoi difttKovro e's "Medava * tijc 
fieTa^v 'EiriSavpov xal Tpo^ijvo^, koI diroKa^ov- 
T6! Ton T^9 ^e/jffov^o-ov iadp-ov eVet^to-ai' ev tf ^ 
aidava einl. koX ^povptov KaTaaTi]adftevot 
iK'gurevov tov eveira y^povov r^v re Tpo^ipitav 
yrjv xal 'AXtdBa Kal '^TriBavpiav. rat! Be vavaiv, 
i-jTetSr} i^€reixio-ap to x^plov, dniirXeviTap eir 

XLVI. KotA 8^ Tov ainov ^povov, Kaff Sc* 
ToBra e'^iyvero, Koi EvpVfieBav xal So0o«X^5, 
hreiBrj ex rijf IIvXoo dir^pav es t^i/ X^KcX/af 
vavaiv' A6i}va.i<ov, atpi/co/j^voi e? KepKvpav iarpa- 
Tevcrav fieri tSjv etc tijt ttdXews eVl toi'? ec Tp 
i/)6( T^? 'IfTTWiff)! Ke/jKU/JotMj' KadiBpviievovv, oi 
TOTE /ier^ tV ardatv Bia^dvre^ eKpdrovv re rij^ 
2 7$9 Ktti TToXX^ effKa-rrrov. irpoa^aXavre^ 8e tA 
' MSS. give MtBiivii, but Strabo at&tea that the true usiine is 
MBava. Lowerdawn the MSS. read Jv^ ti H(0iivTi ^rrl, which 
in»nj editora bracket. If it is retained, iy j! muat be read for 
tr S, as MSara laj, not on the Isthmua, but on the west coast 
of the peninsula. '' itafl" li, with CXJM, omitted by ABEP, 
ago 



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BOOK IV. xLiT. 6-xLvi. a 

Sa thej embarked and crossed over to the adjacent 
islands, and sending thence a herald recovered under 
truce the bodies which they had left behind. There 
were slain in this battle two hundred and twelve 
of the Corinthians, and of the Athenians somewhat 
fewer than fifty. 

XLV. Setting out from the islands, the Athenians 
sailed the same day to Crommyon in Corinthian 
territory, which is distant a hundred and twenty 
stadia from the city, and coming to anchor ravaged 
the land and bivouacked during the night. The next 
day sailing along the coast they came first to the 
territory of Epidaurus, where they made a landing, 
and then to Methana, between Epidaurus and 
Troezen, where they walled off the neck of the 
peninsula on which Methana lies. Here they left 
a garrison, which afterward occupied itself with 
marauding excursions into the territory of Troezen, 
Haliae, and Epidaurus. But the fleet sailed back 
to Athens as soon as the fortifications at Methana 
had been completed. 

XLVI. It was at this time, while these events 
were occurring, that Eurymedon and Sophocles,' 
setting sail from Pylos for Sicily with an Athenian 
fleet, arrived at Corcyra. There they took part with 
the men from the city^ in an expedition against 
the Corcyraeans who had established themselves on 
Mt, Istone, and who at this time, after crossing over 
thither subsequently to the revolution, were domin- 
ating the country and doing a great deal of damage. 
The stronghold was taken by assault, but the men in 

■■=■ ('/. 



.....C.DDgk 



THUCYDIDES 

pikv reijiiaiia eVkov, ol Si SvBpev naTa-TreifievyoTev 
aSpooi iTfih^ fiereapov rt ^vpiffjjirap wffTc tov^ 
flip itrtJtovpovi trapahovvai, -jrepX Se a^&v rb, 
■OirKa irapahoPTtov tov ' K6r}vata>v Br/pav hiar/vSivai. 

3 Kcu, avTov<i eV Tr)V vijaav ol ffTpaTtjyol ri/v IItu- 
j^tan ii <j>v\aKf/v SteKOftiaav inroawovSov^, /*ixP* 
ov 'Ad-^va^e Treft/^Baiaip, mar idv ns aX^ oTroSt- 

4 tpdaKfov, wtraat, XeKvaBcu rw a'lrovBd'i. ol Bi tow 
B'^p.ov TTpoaraTai r&v K.epKvpaCo}v, SeStore? p-ij oi 
'AdtjiiaToi To^9 eXSovTa^ ovk dtroKTeipeoTi, pr}- 

5 j0iva>mat loiovBe rt- tS>v iv rfj vrjaip ireiOovai 
Ttra? oXlyov^, {nroTrep^JravTev tpi\ow leal Si&d- 
^avrei; w? Kar eSpoiav Bi} Xeyeiv Sti Kpartirrov 
avToit £11) (u? Ta^Krra atroBpapat, irXoTop B4 Ti 
aiiTol eroifidaeiP' piXkeip y^p S^ toiks trrpaTi}- 
yoiif TWi" 'AS^jpaimv trapahiiiaeip aureus Tp B^p^ 
tSip YiepKvpaiav. XLVII. (u; £e ^Tretaffjfffap xal 
p/r]')(avr}aapkviap to irXotov eKTrXiovre^ iKri^Tfoav, 
eXeXui/To Te al airovBaX kcH, to*? &epKVpaiOH 

■2 TTapeBiBoPTo ol TravTes. ^vveXd^oPTO Bi rov rot- 
ovTOv ovx ^Kiara, aiine cucpi^^ Tt)» irpo^aviv 
yepiaffai xal tow? re)^iTap4pov<t aSeiaTepop 
iy)(€ipij<Tat, ol tnpart)yol t5>p 'AB'^vaiaiv Kard- 
SijXoi, ovre^ roi/^ apSpav p-r/ &p ^ovKtffSat vir 
aXKtoi/ KopAaOevTa^, SioTi avTol c; %i,KeKtav 
etrXeov, Tr)u Tipi)P tok off overt wpoairotrjaat. 

3 -TrapaXaffoPTti Be avrovi ol KepKvpaiot i^ otKijfia 



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BOOK IV. xLvi. 2-xi.vii. 3 

it fled in a body to some high ground and there- 
capitulated, on condition that they should surrender 
their mercenary troops and give up their arms,, 
leaving it to the Athenian people to decide upon 
their own fate. The generals accordingly conveyed 
the men under truce to the island of Ptychia ' to be 
kept under custody there until they should be sent 
to Athens, and the understanding was that if anyone 
should be caught trying to run away the truce should 
be regarded as broken for thran all. But the leaders 
of the popular party at Corcyra were afraid that the 
Athenians would not put them to death on their 
arrival at Athens, and therefore resorted to the 
following stratagem. They first tried to persuade a 
few of the men on the island to run away, by secretly 
sending thither friends who were instructed to say, 
with a show of good will, that the best course for 
them was to do this with no loss of time, and 
promising to have a boat ready; for the Athenian 
generals, they explained, were intending to deliver 
them up to the Corcyraean populace. XLVII. And 
when the men had been persuaded, and were caught 
sailing away in the boat which the others had pro- 
vided, the truce was broken and the whole party 
was delivered up to the Corcyraeans. But what 
chieHy contributed to such a result, so that the 
pretext seemed quite plausible and that those who 
devised the scheme felt little fear about putting it 
into effect, was the fact that the Athenian generals 
showed that they would not be willing, as they 
were bound for Sicily themselves, to have the men 
conveyed to Athens by others, who would thus 
get the credit for conducting them. Now the 
Corcyraeans took over the prisoners and shut them 

' ef. III. Ixiv. 5 ; now c&lled Vido, 
■^ ■ '293 



THUCYDIDES 

fieya icaTeTp^av, koI Hinepov i^a^ovre-; Karit 
et/coai avSpa^ SiTjyov Btk Svotv <rToi-)(pw ovXirtav 
CKaTipmSev irapaTeTayjievuiv, 8e5e/i*woi'? re 7rpo5 
bXXjJXou? Koi traiofievov^ /cal K£VTOvp.ivov<i inro 
tSiv TTaparerayfiivojv, et ito\) ri<t rtva iSoir iyOpw 
eavTov- p.aaTtyo<p6pot re traptovres iirerdx^vav 
Tf}^ oSov Tous iTj^oXatTepov wpolovTa^. 

XLVIII. Kffll e's fiev avBptK; e^^icovra eXadov 
TOus ev T^ otKijfiaTt Tourp rp Tpov^ e^ayayovTe^ 
Koi Sta^eipavre^ {^ovto yi,p avrov'; fitTaimj- 
ffot/Tai; TToi: SXKo<r' i^a/^etv)- a^ Sk ^rj-dovTO km 
Ti9 aiiToh e8ijX^<re, rov'i re 'A.0riveuovi iTrexa- 
Xoui/To Ktd eKiKevov a<f>a<!, el ^ovKovrat, avTOv<! 
Stat}>ddpetv, ex re rov olK^paro<i ovKiTt ijdeXov 
i^ievai, ovS' ea-iivai e<f>acrav kutbl hvvafuv Trepto- 

2 ffreirdat. ouSiva, ol Bk Kepxvpaloi KartL piv ri? 
Bvpa'i ouS' ai/Tol Sievoovi/ro ffia^eadai, ava&dvTe^ 
6J i-rrX TO riyov rov oiic^pMTiK ical BieXovrei Ttjv 
opo<f>i}v e^aXXov t^ Kepdp,^ koL iro^evov Ka-rca. 

3 01 he e^vKatraovTO re oi? ehvvavro Kai dfta ol 
TToXXol <7<l>ai auToit^ Bietj>deipoi', olffTOvi t€ o6v 
dtfiCeirav eVetcot e? tA? atjiaycK; Ka8thre<; «al *'« 
kXivmv Tivatv, ai eTV^ov aurotv ivovtrat, rot? 
airdpToi^ tcaiiic t&v Ipiarimv trapatprjpata woiovv- 
Te? a-jTay)^6fievot. iravri re ^ tpoirip to ttoXv Trp; 
w/erii {itTeyipero y(tp vi)^ ry iraS^pMTi) dva- 
Xovvrev a<f)d<; avToi>9 xal ^oKKopevot inro r&v 

' T« ad4ed hj Pop|>o, 
394 

[,an:tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. xLvii. 3-XLViii. 3 

up in a large building ; afterwards ihey led them 
out in groups of twenty and marched them down 
between two lines of hoplites stationed on either 
side, the prisoners l>eing bound to one another 
and receiving blows and stabs from the men who 
stood in the lines, if any of these perchance saw 
among them a personal enemy ; and men with 
scourges walked by their sides to quicken the steps 
of such as proceeded too slowly on the way. 

XLVIII. In this manner about sixty men were led 
ont and killed without the knowledge of the men 
who remained in the house, who supposed that their 
companions were being led out in otder to be trans- 
ferred to some other place. But when they perceived 
what was going on, or were told by somebody, they 
appealed to the Athenians and urged them, if they 
wished to kill them, to do so with their own hands ; 
and they refused thenceforth to leave the house, 
and declared that they would not allow anyone to 
enter if they could prevent it. Nor had the Cor- 
c^aeans themselves any intention of trying to force 
their way in by the doors, but climbing on to the 
top of the building and breaking through the roof 
they hurled tiles and shot arrows upon them from 
above. The men inside tried to defend themselves 
as best as they could, and at the same time most 
of them set to work to destroy themselves by 
thrusting into their throats the arrows which the 
enemy had shot or by strangling themselves with 
the cords from some beds that happened to be in the 
place or with strips made from their own garments. 
Thus for the greater part of the night— for night fell 
upon their misery — dispatching themselves in every 
£ashion and struck by the missiles of the men on 

295 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

av. Koi avToim oi KipKvpatot, 
€TretHj fifiipa eyeireTo, <fiopfi7)Sov iirl dfid^a^ 

Bi yvpaiica^, oaai hi rp Tei'xj-o p-ari eaXaxrav, 
6 fjvhpaTroMiTavTo. toiout^ p^v rpoirip oi iic tow 
Spovt; KepKvpaioi viro rov hi^pov Sie<ji0dpr}aav, fcal 
7) arda-i^ ttoXXj^ yevopevt) eTeKevTqaev e<; toOto, 
oaa ye xarel tov v6\epap tovBb- oi y&p en ^v 
8 vTraXoiTTov r&v eT^pav S Tt xal a^i6\oyov, ol Sk 
'ABijvatoi eV tj/v XtKeKtav, Xvairep to itp&rov &p- 
p,r}VTO, aTroirXevaavrfi /iCT^ Twi" ixel ^vp^tA^etv 
eTToXefiovv. 

XUX. Kal ol ip T^ NauTrayerp 'ABTjuatot KtH. 
' A.Kapvave'! afia rekevT&VTO^ rov Oepov; arpareV' 
ird/ievoi ' AvaKTopiov Kopivffiwv -noKiv, § Kelrat 
ervX Tf) (TTo/tflTt TOV 'Ap.trpaicticav «6\irav, eXa/Soi' 
TrpoSoaia- Kal eicttep-^aine^ Koptv&louv^ avTol 
Axapvaveii oiK^ropa^ * otto irdinoiv ecr^ov to 
j^tapiov. Koi TO Bepo^ ereXevra. 

ii. Tow B' iiriyiyvop^vov -f^eip&vo^ 'AptaTeiBt]^ o 
Apy^tTTTrov, eli t€>v dpyvpoXoymv veStv 'Adfivaiatv 
aTpoTif/ot, at e^€Trip<j>arf(7ap Tr/jof tou? fv/t- 
p,d')(pv<!, ' ApToipepvi), avhpa 'Rep<jr}v, -n-aph. j9«cri- 
\ko)<i TTopevopsvov e? AaicehaLp^va ^vWafi^dvet 
1 if 'tiiovt T^ iwl £,Tpvfi6vi. KaX avrov Kop.ia9hiTo^ 
ol ^ A6t)valot Tat p^v ewtffToXa? p^Taypaifrdpievot 
iK rS>v ' Aacrvpimv ypap^uTOip dviyvaxjav, ev als 
•fto\Xt!>v aKkav ye^pappAvaiv K&^aKaiov ^c irpoit 
Aaaehaipovlovi ov yi^atoKeiv a Tt ffovXovTai' 
TToXX&v ydp eXBomatv Trpia^ewv ovSeva toutA 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. xLviii. 3-L. a 

the roof, they perished. When day came the Corcy- 
roeans loaded the bodies on wagons, laying them 
lengthwise and crosswise, and hauled them out of the 
city ; but the women who had been captured in the 
fort were aold into captivity. In such fashion the 
Corcyraeans from the mountain were destroyed by 
the popular party, and the revolution, which had 
lasted long, ended thus, so far at least as this war 
was concerned ; for there were no longer enough 
of the oligarchs left to be of any account. But the 
Athenians sailed for Sicily, whither they had set out 
in the first place, and proceeded to carry on the war 
in conjunction with their allies in the island. 

XLIX. At the end of the same summer the 
Athenians at Naupactus and the Acamanians made 
a campaign, and took by the treachery of its in- 
habitants Anactorium, a city belonging to the Cor- 
inthians which is situated at the mouth of the 
Ambracian Gulf; and the Acamanians, expelling the 
Corinthians, occupied the place with colonists drawn 
from all their tribes. And the summer ended. 

L. During the following winter Aristides ^ son of 
Archippus, one of the commanders of the Athenian 
ships which had been sent to the allies to collect the 
revenues, arrested at Eion on the Strymon Arta- 
phemes, a Persian, who was on his way from the 
King to Lacedaemon. He was conveyed to Athens, 
and the Athenians caused his letters to be transcribed 
from the Assyrian characters and read them. Many 
other matters were touched upon therein, but the most 
important, with reference to the Lacedaemonians, 
was that the King did not know what they wanted ; 
for though many envoys had come to him, no two 

' Mentioned again ch. Isxv. 1 aa general in these waters. 
»97 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDRS 

Xeyeiv et oHu n ^ovKovrat vatpei; Xeyetv, ■jrifi'^t 
3 fisra Tov Hipffou avSpm as ainov. tov Se 'A/jto- 
<f)4ppr) iirrepov ol 'A$i]valoi diroareWovffi rpiypei 
ei''E(pe(Tov Kol TTpia^eK afia- oi ■irv$6nevoi avrodi 
ffauiXea 'Apro^4p^i}p rov Hep^ov veeaiTTl reOvTf- 
Kora {Kara yip rovTOV rov ■)(povov eTeXev-njirep) 
iw' oiKov aveyatp-rjaav. 

LI. Tow 8' aiiTov yeift.Smo'i Ka\ Xtot to Tct^os 
irepieTKov to Kaiphu xeXevirdirTiBv 'AdTjvaiwv xot 
vTTOTnevirdvTwv e? aurous t( vearepieiv, TTofrj- 
ffdpsvoi fihirot -Trpbi 'AdrivaLovv TTto-rets xai 
ffe^aioT^ra ex twh BvvaT&v fitjBev -rrepX a<fia9 
veanepop 0ov\€va-€tv. jtoi o p(;ef/iwi' ereXevTU, leai 
e^Sofiov ero^ rp vokep^ irekevra t^S« 8v 
©ovKuSi'S))! ^vveypa-<jrep. 

LII. Tov S' etr iffpiop-evov ffepovs (vBii^ tdO t« 
T)>J.ov eKKi-rret ri iyevsT^ Trepi pov/n/vUiP fcal tov 

2 avTOv fi,-rivo<: latap^POV erreiaev. Kol ol MwTt- 
"Kifvaiav tpvydSei koI t&v dWav Aea-^ioiv, opfiat- 
ftevai ol TToXKoX iic t^? '^ireipov xal (iLa$a>a6.piepot 
eK re TleXoTTOvir^ffov iirtKovpiKov Kol airoOep 
^vPor/eCpaprei, aipovai 'PoCTStop, xal Xa^ovres 
BiaXiXiovi a-Tar^pai 0w«afT(w diriBoa-av iraKiv, 

3 oihivaSiK^aavres- koX fieTcbTovToe-Kl'AvTavhpop 
<TTpaTevffavTe<; TrpoBotrCat yepofUvri^ Xafi^dvovai 
T^v ■jTokiv. KaX ^p ainStv ^ Bidvota to? re aXXo? 

< After a reign of forty years (485-135 B.C.). 
398 



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BOOK IV. L, a-Lii. 3 

told the same tale ; if therefore they had any de- 
finite proposal to make, they should seod men to 
him in company with the Persian. As for Arta- 
phemes, the Athenians afterwards sent him to 
Ephesus in a trireme, together with some envoys ; 
these, however, hearing there of the recent death 
of King Artaxemes sod of Xerxes — for he died about 
that time* — returned to Athens. 

LI. The same winter the Chians demolished their 
new wall at the bidding of the Athenians, who 
suspected them of planning an insurrection against 
themselves ; they, however, obtained from the Athen- 
ians pledges and such security as they could that 
they would adopt no harsh measures against them. 
And the winter ended, and with it the seventh year 
of this war of which Thucydides composed the 
histo^. 

LII. At the very beginning of the next summer a «4 a 
partial eclipse of the sun took place at new moon, 
and in the early part of the same month an earth- 
quake. Also the citizens of Mytilene and of the other 
cities of Lesbos who were in exile, the majority of 
them setting out from the mainland, hired some 
mercenaries from the Peloponnesus, gathered still 
others on the spot, and took Rhoeteum ; but they 
restored it again without having done any damage, 
on receiving two thousand Phocaean staters.' After 
this they made an expedition against Antandros and 
took the city through treachery on the part of the 
inhabitants. It was, in fact, their plan to free the 

" The Phocaean stater was notoiioas for the badneaa of the 
gold (or rather electron) ; cf. Dem. xi. 36. It was worth about 
twenty-three silver drachmas. See Hultioh, Or. und rifin. 
Jfrfnrfojie', 184. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

iroKMii Tav 'Aiereua^ leaXovfiiva^, &; Trporepov 
^vrikTjvaiav pefiio/teveav 'Ad^jvaZoi elj^op, eKev- 

Bepovv, KoX trdvTwv ftaXidra Tr/v" Airravhpov koX 
Kparwdfievot ain^v {vavi re y&p einropia ^p 
■jTOteto'ffai, auToBev ^v\wv vvap'j^ovTmv xal t^s 
"ISjj? eirtKeifiivT}^, Koi tA aXXa aKevt)) paSieo^ a-n 
auTJj? opiJ.a>itevoi tjjV re Aerr ^air iyyv^ ovaav 
KaKWcreiv leal rcL ev r^ j/TreCp^ AIoXlkcI, -iroXia/iaTa 
4 •veipwueaBai.. koX oi fLev ravra. vapaa/cevd^eudat 

LIII. ' A$r}vatoi. Se €v t^ avr^ $4pei e^'^KOvra 
vavtrl Koi BitTXt^MiK oirXlrait Wirevat re oXlyotv 
ical rmv ^v(i,pM)(a>v MiXijiriov; Ka\ aWavv Tivhv 
dyovrei effrpdrevaav em K.v8tfpa- ^arpar-qyei &k 
avr&p NiKta? o NtKTjpdrov xal 'NiKotrrparov o 

2 AietrpSipovv ical AuTomXij? a ToX/iatou. rA, 8i 
K.vd'^paWDO'o^ iariv, eiriKeirai, &e r^ AaKtoviKi) 
icarh Mo^k)'- Aa/eeBatfiovioi S' etVl t(ui> irepioi- 
Ktuv, Koi KVOTipoBtKiTi ap')(i) fK TJj? ^-TrdpTTf; Sii- 
^aivev aiiroa-e tcard irot, oTrXirSiv re ^pavphp 
Bteirefitrov aiel fcal iroXX^c iwipeXeiav eTroiovPTO. 

3 ^p ykp aiiToK r&p re d-n Alyvtrrov koX Ai^vt}^ 
oXkoZup TTpOKT^oKri, Kol Xrjo'ral dpM rtjp Aaxta- 
piKrfp ^ffTov eXuTTow e« ^aXoffffijs, ^wep uovov 
otop re ^p teaxovpyeiirdar irda-a y^p av4xti 
■jrpo^ TO XiiceXtKov xal Kprjrucov triXayo^. LIV. 
KaraiTXopre^ oCi' ot 'ABt^valoi r^ <rrpar^ Sejca 



' i.e. of the iierii or promontory of the mainUnd north ol 
Lesbos. These had been taken from Mytilene by Pachas 
(qA HI. L 3). They are mentioned alao G.I.A. i. 3/. 
. ' i.e. if Cythera were well goaMed. 



c. Google 



BOOK IV. tii. 3-trt. t 

rest of the cities known tts the Actaean cities,* which 
had hitherto been in the possession of the Athenians, 
though inhabited by Mytilenaeans, and above all 
Antandros. Having strengthened this place, where 
there was every facility for building ships — timlier 
being available on the spot and Ida being near at hand 
— as well as for providing other equipments of war, 
they could easily, making it the base of their opera- 
tions, not only ravage Lesbos, which was near, but 
also master the AeoUc towns on the mainland. Such . 
were the phins upon which they were preparing to 
embark. 

LIII. During the same summer the Athenians 
with sixty ships, two thousand hoplites, and a small 
detachment of cavalry, taking with them also some 
Milesians and others of their allies, made an expedi< 
tion against Cythera. In command of the expedition 
were Nicias son of Niceratus, Nicostratus son of 
Dieitrephes, and Autocles son of Tolnuws. Now 
Cythera is an island adjacent to Laconm, lying off 
Malea ; its inhabitants are Lacedaemonians of the 
class of the Periocci, and an official called the Baililf 
of Cythera used to cross over thither once a year 
from Sparta ; they also used regularly to send over a 
garrison of hoplites and paid much attention to the 
place. For it served them as a port of call for mer- 
chant ships from Egypt and Libya, and, moreover, 
pirates would be less likely to annoy Laconia from 
the sea,' on which side alone it could be harmed ; 
for the whole coast runs out towards the Sicilian and 
the Cretan seas.^ LIV, Sothenthe Athenians, putting 
in at Cythera with their armament, consisting of ten 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

piv vaval Kol Stir)(t\loK MiKtja-lav ovXlrati 
T^n eVi 6aKti(Tir'p TroXtv XxavSeiav koKov- 

fiivTIv alpovvi, Tp Si aXX^ inparevfuiri a-rro- 
0dvT€i T^5 v^ffov ii r& vpoi MaXiav rerpa/i- 
Heva ij((opovv iiri Ttjv a-Tro BaKairtjTjs ^ ttqKiv 
r&v Kv0i)plaiv, koI ijSpov evdii^ avrow iarpa- 

2 TQirehev p^vov; diravTa^. koI pd)(i/^ yevofUvrj^ 
oKlyov p.ev Ttj/a j(p6vov viriaTijirav oi K.vd^piot, 
iw€iTa rpatrofi^voi teaTe<f>vyov e's tijv avco TroXtc, 
teal Sa-repov ^vve^Tjaav vpov NuK/ac xal tow? 
^vi/dpj^ovTa^ ' A.&T)valoi^ eirirpe-ip-at nepl tT<f>&p 

3 aiiTtov TrXriv davdjov, ^aav he tips'; koI yevofievot 
r& Nt«ia Xoyat irporepov Trpov tiuo! twh Kw^jj- 
pnop, Bi S Kal Odaaov xal eviT^BetOTepop to T6 
irapavTiKa xaX to eirevra tcL ^ rrj'; ofioXoyia^ 
etrpdydrf avTOK' dvicTTr)i7av yap &,v ^ ol 'A9r}palot 
Kvdr)plov<;, Kaieehatpoviov; t£ ovTa<! Koi hrl Tp 

4 AaKOjpiKJ} rfj^ pi}tiov ovTaxi eVi«e(/*ewjs. fieTa Se 
Tiiv ^vfi^aiTiv ol 'A&rjvaioi r^v tc XxavSetap to 
iwl Tp \ip4pi TToXifffia irapaXa^ovTet koi tmv 
Kvd^poiv i^vXaKrjv TToiii<Td/j.€vot eirXevaav e<; t6 
A<nvi^v KoX "EXoi xal tA wXeiaTa tSiv irepX 
ddXaaaav, kcu diro^diret'; Troiovp,evot Kal ivauXi- 

' Stahl'B coDJecture for M taXiaa^ of the M88., which is 
deleted by Hude. following Kriiger. 

^ Til, omitted by the best MS§. '&v, added by Eeilmann. 

' An incredibly large number. In viir. xxv. 2, where 
they are in their own land, the Mileainns can oppose to the 
enemy only HOO hopUteB. Nor would ten ships suffice for BO 
man;}^ epibntoe. Perhaps there is e. confusion in the nnmeri- 
cal sign, due to a copyist. 

° The haven of Cythera, some ten stadia distant from that 



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BOOK IV. Liv. 1-4 ■ , 

ships and two thousand Milesian hoplites,' took the 
city by the sea called Scandeia'; then, with the rest 
of their forces landing on the part of the island 
which looks toward Malea, they advanced against 
the city of Cythcra which is away from the sea,' 
where they found that all the inhabitants had im- 
mediately established themselves in camp. A fight 
ensued, in which the Cytherians stood their ground 
for some little time, tlien turned and fled to the 
upper town, but afterwards capitulated to Nicias 
and his colleagues, agreeing to leave the question of 
their own fate, except as to a penalty of death, to 
the arbitration of the Athenians. Some negotiations 
between Nicias and certain of the Cytherians had 
already taken place, and for this reason the settlement 
of the terms, both for the present and the future, 
was arranged more speedily and with better advan- 
tage to them ; for otherwise the Athenians would 
have expelled the inhabitants, since they were Lace- 
daemonians and the island lay in that position on 
the coast of Laconia, After the capitulation the 
Athenians took possession, of Scandeia, the town at 
the harbour, and having taken precautions for 
guarding Cythera, then sailed to Asine, Helus, and 
most of the other towns on the seacoast ; here they 
made raids or bivouacked at whatever place they 

' It aeemB neceaiary to adopt Stahl's conjecture iwii daXiv- 
mis, or delete ^1 tokiain. "One division of the Athenian 
force landed at Scandeia, another, disembarkiog on the 
N. K, coast, inarched on the capital. The second force found 
the Cytherians prepared to meet them ; in the battle which 
ensnea the Cjtheriana were routed, and fled to the upper 
city, I.e. the capital. This explanation is borne out by 
existing remains. See Frazer'a Fausaniaa, iii. 3SG, 386 ; also 
Weilin iftflAeil d. Arch. Int. inAlhen. v. 224-243." (Spratt.) 



1;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^fUpa-i fiaXtara etrTa. 

LV. O/ S^ AaKeZaifioviot, ISovre^ /iev tows 
'AOijvaiov^ tA Kv0i}pa ^omai, tr poatexof^voi- Be 
Koi ^ Tj/v yfjv ff^wc diTo^da-€K Toiavrat Troiijere- 
trOai, ddpatf pep ovSapov T^ Bvpdfiet duTerd^avTO, 
KaT& Be Trjv j(a>pai' tppovpa^ Sietrepyjrav, oirXtTwi' 
•7r\j}do<i, &>; eKaaToxpae e&et, koX to, oKKa iv 
<f)v\aicp iroXh,^ ^ffav, tfto^ovpevoi pi) <t^<ti 
veiinepov rt yimjrat t&v irepl rijv Kardtrratrtv, 
yeyepfjpiyov piiiTov ivT^ v^o'^ irdBotK dveXTTitrrov 
Kid peydXov, HvXov Se i-yppevrfi koX Kvffjjpcoii 
Koi iravTa.-)(ii$ev a^m TrepwffTWTW troXip^v 

2 rayiai; Koi d-Kpa^vXaKTOv, ware vapb. to elwdo^ 
tinria^ TeTpaxorriovv Karear^aavTO Kal ro^ra^, 
I? Tc tA TToXepiKd, eXirep nrore, pAXttrra Si/ okvti- 
porepoi eyepovro ^vvearSire'; irapi, t^v V7rdpj(t 
vav <Tif>o)P i&eav t% trapaaKevr}^ vaVTiK^ dymvi, 
Kol TDUTp TTpo! 'A^ijvatous, ols TO pi} itrix^ipov- 
pevov aiel iXXitrit ^v ti}? SojKijVeio! ti Trpd^etv 

3 Koi apa tA t^s Tvxt^ iroXXet Kal ev oXly^ ^vp.- 
ffdvra wapi Xoyov ainoi<t eietrXri^iv p^ltn-qv 
irapeixe, koI eSiSiaav p^ ■nore av0K ^vpifiopd tk 

4 aiiTOK irepnvxp ola koX ev t^ vrja^, droXpoTepoi 
hi hi aiiTO 69 7^9 pdy^a^ ■§<rap koI trdv o ti kivt^- 
ireuw tpovTO dpapT^ireirdai hiet to Ttfv yvbtpi)v 
avej^^yyvoi' yeytv^ffSai ix t^s •jrpXv di}6eta<i rod 
KOKovpa/yetv. 



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BOOK IV. uv. 4-LV. 4 

fouad convenient, and r&vaged the land for about 
seven days. 

LV. The Lacedaemonians, though they saw the 
Athenians in possession of Cytfaera and expected 
them to make such descents upon their own territory, 
nowhere massed their forces to oppose them, but 
sent garrisons here and there throughout the country, 
determining the number of hoplites by the strength 
needed at each point, and otherwise were very 
watchful, fe&ring lest some revolution should take 
place which would affect their constitution ; for the 
calamity which had befallen them at the island of 
Sphacteria had been great and unexpected, Pylos 
and Cythera were occupied, and on all sides they 
were encompassed by a war which moved with a 
swiftness which defied precaution. Consequently 
they organized, contrary to their custom, a force of 
four hundred cavalry and bowmen, and in miUtary 
matters they now became more timid than at any 
time before they were involved in a naval struggle 
which was outside their own existing scheme of 
military organisation, and that too against Athenians, 
with whom an attempt foregone was always so much 
lost of what they had reckoned on accomplishing,! 
Besides, the reverses of fortune, which liad befallen 
them unexpectedly in such numbers and in so short 
a time, caused very great consternation, and they 
were afraid that some time a calamity might again 
come upon them like that which had happened on 
the island ; and on this account they showed less 
spirit in theirfighting.andwhatevermove they might 
mAke they thought would be a failure, because they 
had lost idl self-confidence in consequence of having 
been hitherto unused to adversity. 

■•=/■■■■■".'■ 3„5 

VOL. II. X 

[,an:«i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

LVI. Tow Si 'AdrivaioK rare t^v irapa6ciK4.i7' 
aiov STjovai rit fiev TroWa r/ffuj^aaav, wj xaO' 
ixoffTriv ^povpav yiyvoiTO tk diroffacTK, irX^Oei 
re eKdaffov; ^xatrrot iffovfievot elvai koX iv rp 
TOiovT^- fiia &i (ppovpd, ^wep xal ^fiwaTO -jrepX 
KoTvprav «al A^poStrtac, rbv piv Sj(\ov r&v 
■A'tX&p ia-KeBaafiivov i^6Br}iTev eTnSpofi.{j, t&v Si 
owXtTui' Se^afiivdiv {nrej^aiprjffe irdXtv, xal avSpe^ 
T« Tive^ dtriOavov avrSsv oXiyoi Koi onXa iXy<f>0i}, 
jpoTratav re o-rijVai'Te! ol 'AOr/vatot dwe-rrXevaav 
2 e's KvOr/pa. e« Se aiiTiov TrepteirKevaav e's Ewt- 
Savpop rr/p Aifijjpav, ical Si]^a-avret fUpo<! rt t% 
7^9 d^LKvovvTai, ETri ^vpiav, ■^ eVrt /wv t§? 
^wovpia^ y^5 KaKovp^f)^, pxBopia Se t^? 
'AjOTrcto? Kcu AaKtovixifs. pep^p^voi 8e aiiripi 
eSoaav AaiteSaipMvioi Atyiv^rai^ eKirea-ovtriv 
ivottcelv Sid re rd; viro tov a-etfffiop a<j>im yevo- 
fiiva^ xal t&v ^aXcoTotP ti)v etravaaraaiv eiep- 
yeiriav xal Sri 'A9i}vai<ov vTroKOvovre^ a/ut>; irpm 
T^v exelvtiiv yvatftifv alel earaiTiv. 

LVII. XlpoaTtXeovraiv oSv eri rSiv 'AdrfvcUaiv 
oi Alyiprjrai to fiiy iwl rfj OaXdo'a'p h ervxov 
olKoSopovPTet relx'^^ ixkeivavaiv, it Si rip/ 
apoi TToXip, h ^ rnxovp, a'7re')(iap^aav drre- 
■)(pv(Tav araSlov; pAXtara Bexa r^s SaKairtrti^, 

2 xal auTOK rSiv AaKeSaiftoviwv ^aovpd fiia 
r&v rrepl ri}v ^mpav, rfnep xaX finjeretvife, 
^vve<Te\Seiv p.(v e's to Tetvo? oiix ^Oe\r)aap Seo- 
peptov tS>v Alyivr}r5)v, aX}C avrott xIvSvvq^ 
itpaiircTO it TO Teix^t KaraxX'^eo'dai' dvaxfiip'^- 
aame^ Se ^ttI t^ peTiapa dtt ovx ipopt^op afto/MX- 

3 x"' eipoi, ^iTvj(a^ov. iv royry Si ol 'A$r}vaioi 
306 

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BOOK IV. Lvr. i-tvii. 3 

LVI. Accordingly, while the Athenians vrete at 
that time ravaging their seaboard, they generally 
kept quiet when any descent was made upon any 
particular garrison, each thinking itself inferior in 
number and there being such depression. One 
garrison, however, which offered resistance in the 
region of Cotyrta and Aphrodisia, frightened the 
scattered crowd of light-armed troops by a charge, 
but when it encountered hoplites retreated again, a 
few of their men being kUled and some of their arms 
taken ; and the Athenians, after setting up a trophy, 
sailed back to Cythera. From there they sailed to 
Epidaurus Limera, and after ravaging some part of 
the land came to Thyrea, which belongs to the dis- 
trict called Cynuria, on the border between the Argive 
and Laconian territories. This district the Lace- 
daemonians who occupied it had given to the ex- 
pelled Aeginetans to dwell in, on account of the 
kind services shown themselves at the time of the 
earthquake and the uprising of the Helots, and be- 
cause they had always sided with their policy, in 
spite of being subject to the Athenians. 

LVII, WhUe, then, the Athenians were still sailing 
up, the Aeginetans lelt the fort by the sea which 
they happened to be building and withdrew to the 
upper town, where they dwelt, at a distance of about 
ten stadia from the sea. Now a detachment of the 
Lacedaemonian troops which were distributed in gar- 
risons about the country was assisting the Aeginetans 
to build this fort. But they refiised to enter the 
fort with them, as they requested, since it seemed to 
them dangerous to be cooped up in it ; but retreat- 
ing to high ground they kept quiet, thinking them- 
sehes no match for the enemy. Meanwhile the 

■ .....C.oogfc 



THUCYDIDES 

KaraiTxovTev Koi %w/j)j<ra*T6s evdii^ ird<rg rp 
trrparia alpovat ttJv ^vpeav. teal fffv re •jrokiv 
KaTiKavirav /cat tA ivovra e^eiropOtftrav, row re 
Aiyiviira'!, otroi fit] ev yepal hie^9dpr}aav, offovrev 
aitiKovro 4<; rai 'A0^va<t xal top apj^ovra S9 vaa' 
aOroK ^v rSfv AaKeSaifiovitav, TdvrdKov rov 

i TlarpOKXeov^- efwypij^ij yap rer piafiivoi, fifQv 
Si Ttcos xal €K ra>v Kvdijptov dvSpas oXiyov^, 06? 
iSoieei aaAaXeiai; evexa fLeraiTrrj(Tai. Kai rovrov^ 
fiiv ol ' Korivatoi i^ovXevaapro KaraSiffBat e? ris 
i/iiffovi, teal Tou? aXXou5 KudTjpiow oiKovvra^ rrjv 
^avTwi' <popoii reatrapa roXavra ^peiv, Alyiprjrav 
Bi diroKreivoi vavrat oaoi. idXtoirav Si^ ri/v 

6 TTporipav alei irore e^Opav, Tdvrdkov he irapA 
rovt aWovi rov^ ev t^ vri<T^^ AaxeBatfioviov^ 
KaraS^rrai, 

LVIII. Toy S' avrov ffipovt ev 'ZixeXi^ Ka/ta- 
pivaiovi KoX TeXtpom iiceveipta yiyverat wparop 
irpoi oKXriXoi/^- elra xai ol dXXoi ^iKeXi&rat 
^vveX^ovre^ «? FSXav, otto ttoo-wv t&v TvoXeatv 
irpe<r0eK, «? Xoyou^ xareartjiTav dXX^XoK, el 
nwi ^vvaXXayeieii. Koi dXXai re rroXXal yv5>fiat 
eXeyovro ett' d/i^orepa, hta^epofiAvtov Koi d^iovv- 
reav, m^ exaaroi ri eXatraovadai epo/ii^ov, Kal 
''Ep/ioxparji^ "Ep/iwvo? Xvpaxainot, o<nrep Kal 
eireiae pAXitrra airovt, e's to xotvap rotourovv 
Si/ Xoyov^ elwep. 

LIX. " OiiTe voXetcv &p iXaxiariji, & Siwe- 
Xi&rat, Toil? Xoyov^ iroc^o'Ofuii ovre wopovfieprj^ 
/utXttrra Tp -iroXifiip, is koivov Se rijv Boxovtrdv 

' titiit in Tp rtiaif. Hade deletes, after van Herwerden. 



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BOOK IV. Lvii, 3-LiT. I 

Athenians landed, and advancing straightwajr with 
their whole force took Thyrea. They burned the 
citj and pilhiged what was in it ; but they carried to 
Athens all the Aeginetaos who did not perish in 
the action, together with their iJacedaenionian 
conunander who was present, Tantalus son of Patro- 
cles, who was wounded and taken prisoner. They 
brought also a few men from Cythem, whom they 
thought best to remove for the sake of safety. 
These the Athenians determined to place for safe- 
keeping on the islands, and to permit the rest of the 
Cytherians to occupy their own territory on payment 
of a tribute of forty talents,' but to put to death all 
the Aeginetans who had been captured, because 
of their former inveterate enmity, and to imprison 
Tantalus along with the other Lacedaemonians cap- 
tured on the island of Sphacteria. 

LVIII. During the same summer, in Sicily, an 
armistice was first concluded between the Cama- 
rinaeana and Geloans ; then representatives from all 
the other SicUian cities came together in Geia and 
held a conference, to see whether they might not 
become reconciled. Many opinions were expressed 
for and against, the several envoys disputing and 
making demands according as they believed that 
their own rights were being prejudiced ; and among 
tiie rest Hermocrates son of Hermon, the Syracusan, 
whose word proved to have the greatest weight with 
the others, spoke in the general interest * words to 
this effect: 

LIX. "The city which I represent, Siceliots, is 

not the weakest, nor is it suffering most in the war ; but 

I propose to speak in the general interest, declaring 

■ £800, (3,840. ' Or, " before the meeting." 

309 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

/loi ^eXTtarfjv yvwfirjv elvai oTrwftaiPOfLevoi t0 

2 XixeXia Trao-jj. Kat irepl fih tov TroXe/j^iv «? 
jfaKetrov ri av rt? irav to ivav eKXiymv iv eiSotri 
fiaKprfyopoir}; ouSel? yh.p ouTe ufuiOia avar/Ka- 
l^erai aino Spav, ovre i^o^a, rjv otijTat T* »rXeoi» 
ayriaetv, diroTpeTrerai. ^v/i^alvei ^k to« p.h> 
rit tcipSi} fiei^ot tpaiveo'Sai Tav Seiv&v, ol Be Toi>t 
KivBvvov^ iBekovatv v^KTraadai trpo tov aiiruca 

3 Ti iXaffffovirBai' avri Bi Tavra ei fit) iv xaip^ 
rvy(piev exdrepot irpdvaoVTe^, ai irapaiveaeK 

i r&v ^vvaXKofySiv a)<p4\tfioi. 8 leal fip.lv iv Tp 
irapoVTi ■jreidofih'OK trXeiarov &v a^tov yevotro' 
Til yelp iSia luaaroi ep ^ovXo/ieuoi Sii fficrSai to 
T€ trpStTov iTToXep-^aafiev leal vvv Trpo^ oXXij'Xows 
Si dvTtKoytSiV 7r€ipu)fieOa KaTaWafyi}vat Koi, tjv 
apa fir} 7rpoy(wp^iTT) ttrov exdaTtp exp^'^^ d-TreXBelv, 
■naKiv iroXefi^ffOftep. 

LX, " Kairot yvStvai ypi) oti av Tiepl t&v 
IBCfov /wvov, ei a-atfepovov/iev, rj ftJuoSos einat, 
aXX' et iin0ovXevop4pi]v rijv vda-av StKeXlav, 
a>s iyo) Kfavoi, v-tt' 'A0T)valtov Bvvr}a-6p^9a ert 
Staauffai, xal BiaXXaKT^'i ttoXv twc i/iav Xoyav 
dvayKaioTepovi nrepX rwvBe 'A^ijcotou? vop-ltrai, 
o? Svvafuv l)^omej fjLeyiffTrjv twv 'EXX^vav Ta^ 

310 



i;. Google 



BOOK IV. Lix. i-LX. I 

the opinion which seems to me the best for Sicily as 
a whole. As for the miseries which war entails, why 
should one by expressly stating all that can be said 
make a long harangue in the presence of those who 
know? For no one is either forced to make war 
through ignorance of what it is, or deterred from 
making it by fear, if he thinks he will get some 
advantage from it. What really happens is this, that 
to one side the gains appear greater than the terrors, 
while the other deliberately prefers to undergo the 
dangers rather than submit to a temporary dis- 
advantage ; but if it should turn out that these two 
lines of action are both inopportune, each for the 
side which adopts it, then some profit may come 
from exhortations which advise a compromise. And 
so with us at the present time, if we could be 
persuaded of the wisdom of this course it would be 
to our great advantage ; for each of us began the 
war in the first place because we desired to promote 
our private interests. So now let us endeavour by 
setting forth our conflicting claims to become recon- 
ciled with each other ; and then, if we do not 
after all succeed in securing, each of us, what is fair 
and just before we part, we shall go to war again. 

LX. "And yet we should recognise the fact that 
the subject of our conference will not, if we are wise, 
be our private interests merely, but rather the ques- 
tion whether we shall still be able to save Sicily 
as a whole, for it is against it, in my judgment, that 
the Athenians are plotting ; and we must consider 
that we have an argument far more cogent to bring 
us together on these matters than my words, namely, 
the Athenians, who possess a military power greater 
than that of any other Hellenic state and are now at 

3" 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Tfi afiafyriav rifiStv njpovatv oX^ok vaviri irapov- 
Tfif, Kol ovofiaTi hrpofj-qi ^vfi/utxiav to ^vaei 
•!ro\ifitov evTrpttroi'i ^s to ^vfupepop KaOiffraiiTat. 
2 TTokefj-ov ykp alpopAvav ■^na)v Kal iirayo/iivfov 
axiTovi;, avSpav ot xal rots fi^ iiriKaXovfihoK 
avTol iTTtinpaTevoviTt, Kattt^t re Tiiia<! ainovt 
■aotovintap t&^^i to(9 oiKeioK, jcal rrj^ ^PXV^ 
&fia TrpoKOTTTovTav iKeivoti, titeo^, orav fvSiatv 
r}fjM<; TST/Ju^w/Mi'oi'!. ical trXiovi trort tnoXtp 
e\0oPTa^ avTov^ rdBe ■ndvia ireipdaaffffai (nro 
ff^a; Troieladai, 

LXI. " Kairoi Ttj kavTmv eKaarov^, el aaii^po- 
vovfiev, XP'I '''^ f^V TTpoariKovra itiiKrafUvov^ 
fiaXXop ^ ri erotfta ^XdirTOVTai ^vfifidxou^ re 
iirayeaSai koI tov; Kivhvvov^ TTpotTKap-fidveiv, 
vopirrat re indaiv fidXiaja <f>6eipeiv tA? iroKeK 
Koi Ttjv ^meKbav, ^9 ye ai evoticoi ^vp/rravTSs p-ev 

2 eTn0ov\ev6/ie0a, xaT^ 7roX«(s Bk SUrrrafieu, & 
XPV ypovrav xal tBuor^v ihiatrj} icaraWay^vat 
Kal TToXtv 7ToX«, ital •jreipaaSai icotv^ aa^etp rifp 
trairav XticeTdav, TrapeffTdvai B^ fir/Sepl ais ot 
p,€P A(B/w^s ■^jiuv -TToXifuot Tot? ^A0r}valoK, to 

3 Si XaXiciSixov ri} 'IdSi ^vyyepei^ d<Ttf>a\e9. oil 
yhp -Toll ^OvetTip, 5t( Six'^ tr^^VKt, rov krepov 
^dei e-rriaaiv, dXK^ tSip iv 'S.iKe\i(} dyaOmv 

4 itpUfttvoi, & Kotv^ xeKT^p.e0a. eBi]\ci><rap Bk pvv 
iv t5 Tofl XaKxiSiKov yevov^ irapaxXi^aef to« 
y^p ovSeTTWTTOTe ff<f>iat Kara to ^viipaxucov 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. Lx. i-Lxi. 4 

hand with a few shipg watching for our mistakes, 
and under the lawful name of alliance are speciously 
trjnng to turn to their own advantage our natural 
hostility to them. For if we begin war and call them 
in — men who of their own accord are ready enough 
to intrude their forces even on those who do not ask 
for their intervention — «nd if we spend our own 
revenues in doing hurt to ourselves, and at the same 
time pave the way for their supremacy, we may well 
expect them, when they see that we are worn out, 
to come sometime with a larger armament and try 
to bring evetTthing here under their Bway. 

LXI. " And yet, if we are prudent, we ought, each 
of us in behalf of his own state, to call in allies and 
incur dangers only when we are seeking to ivin 
what does not belong to us and not when we imperil 
what is already ours ; and we should remember that 
faction is the chief cause of ruin to states and 
indeed to Sicily, seeing that we her inhabitants, al- 
though we are all being plotted against, are disunited, 
each city by itself. Recognizing these facts, we must 
be reconciled with each other, citizen with citizen 
and state with state, and join in a common effort to 
save alt Sicily. And let no one imagine that only 
the Dorians among us are enemies of the Athenians, 
while the Chalcidians, because of their kinship with 
the lonians, are safe. For it is not through hatred 
of one of tlie two races into which we are divided that 
they will attack us, but because they covet the good 
things of Sicily which we possess in common. 'Hiey 
have just made this clear by their response to the 
appeal which the people of Chalcidic stock made to 
them J ^ for to those who have never given them aid 
' ^ III. liutvi. 3. 

313 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

■n-poaffor}d^a-aiTiv ainol to Bixaiov /iSXXov rfjtf 

5 fw^ijjwjs TTpoBvfiai'i irapkaj^otno. koI tov<; ftev 
' A.6i)vatov<i ravra TrXeoveKrelv re «ol TrpovoeliT0at 
TToXKi) ^vyyvatft,^, koH ov tok apj(tiv ffovXopAvoK 
fiip^opMt, dXXA Tot^ inroKoveiv eroifiOTepoi^ 
oimv TTS^VKe yhp to dvOpta-rreiov StA Trai/To^ 
apxetv flip tov eticopTiK, ^vXdaaetrdai Se to 

6 hriov, StTOi Bk ycyvaxrKoi'Te'i aini fiij op6&^ 
TrpoaKoirovpsv, firiBh toOto t(9 •npeuBi'TaTOv fj/eei 
Kptva^, TO xoivm ^o^epov airavTai ew SeaOai, 

7 dfutprdvofiei'' TayiaTa &' &y diraWayi) airrov 
•yivaira, ei irpb^ dW^Xov^ ^vp-^aifiev oii ydp 
dwo T^? avTciii opp,SsvTat AOfjpaioi, dW eV t^ 

8 Tav itrtKoKeaapAvav. koX ovtw^ ov woXffUK 
troXep.^, elp^VTf Sk Bia(f>opal dirpafp^vas irav- 
ovrai, oX T iviKKijToi einrpetrm ahiKOt eKdoin-e^ 
evXoyo)'; ^irpaKTOt dirlaatv. 

LXII. " Kal T^ fikv tTpoi Toii^ ^A0t)vaiov^ 
TorrovTOV d/fadhp eS ^ovXevofihioK eiiplo'KeTai' 
2 TTiv Be VTTO nrdvTwv 6p.o\o'^ovfiepr)v apitrTov elvai 
eip^ffjp TTw? ov j(fii) Koi iv fjpXv avTot^ wof^- 
aaaSat; ^ BoKtl ye, et rp t* eirnv dya$6p ^ ei 
T§> tA ivavTia, oiix V'^v-)(ia p.d'KKop ij iroXe^os to 
/thi iravaat av eKarepqt, to S^ ^vvhtaaStaai, tcaX 
Tcm Tip-dt KoX Xap.wpoTTjraii dietpSwoTtpai e)(etv 
Ti}v etp^vrjp, dXKa re ova «c /i^xti Xoyav av rts 

3»4 

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BOOK IV. Lxi. 4'Lxi[. 2 

according to the terms of their alliance they of their 
own accord have fulfilled an ally's obligations with 
a zeal exceeding their compact. That the Athenians 
entertain these designs of aggrandiseiaent is quite 
pardonable ; and I have no word of blame for those 
who wish to rule, but only for those who are too 
ready to submit ; for it is an instinct of man's nature 
always to rule those who yield, but to guard against 
those who are ready to attack. If any of us, know- 
ing how matters really stand, fails to take proper 
precautions, or if anyone has come here not ac- 
counting it of paramount importance that we must 
all together deal wisely with the common peril, we 
are making a mistake. The speediest relief from this 
peril would be gained by our entering into an 
understanding with one another ; for the base from 
which the Athenians propose to move is not their 
own territory, but that of the people who asked 
them to intervene. And if ite follow this course, 
war will not end in another war, but without trouble 
quarrels will end quietly in peace, and those who 
have been invited to intervene, having come with 
a fair pretext for injustice, will depart home with a 
fair plea for failure. 

LXII. "So far, then, as the Athenians are con- 
cerned, this is the great advantage we win if we are 
well advised ; but as to the question of peace, which 
all men agree is a most desirable thing, why should 
we not make it here among ourselves? Or, think 
you, if one person now enjoys a blessing and another 
labours under adversity, it is not tranquillity far 
more than war that will put an end to the latter 
and perpetuate the former ? And has not peace its 
honours and less hazardous splendours, and all the 

31S 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Sti\0ot mairep irepl tow iroKefieiv;^ A \pr) trxe^a- 
fihovv fiil row ifioii^ fMyovv inrepiheiv, t^p Si 
avTOv riva ffwnjpiav (loXKov air avrStv TTpoitetv. 

3 Kol el Trt jSe^cucof Tt ^ t^ Bixai^ ^ ^iq, irpd^eiv 
oUrat, T^ Trap eKirLha fiif ^aXeirS? tr^aXXeaOw, 
yvoii^ oTt TrXe/ow! ^Sjj, xal Ti/zmpiai^ fieriovre^ 
Tou? dSi/covvra^ xal eXTTKraiTes Srepoi Svvdftei t» 
TrXeoiwcTjJffetc, ot /t^c ov^ oaov ovk ^/twairo 
aXX' ovh' iaw$i)tTav, tows 8' avrl toC wX^ok e;^eM' 

4 TrpoffKOTaXiTretc rk avrwv ^vv^^tj, Ttftapla yitp 
OVK eiiTVX^i Sneaitat, ort Kal a£iK€iTaf ovBk Iit)(v^ 
ffSffaiov, StoTi ical eue\-j7i, to Se amddpiiTov tov 
fiiXXovToi (i? hrl -TrkelffTov tcpaTet, trdinav Te 
a<fia\epanaTov &i/ o/Mia^ xai j^prjaipdiTarov ^aive- 
Tcu- ef tffov ykp 8c8toT€S vpofiti^ia ftaXXov eV 
dW^Xovi! £p-)^afie6a. 

LXIII. " Kal vvv TOV aifiavov^ tc toCtov Sik to 
aTiKfiapTov Seos xal Sik to ^Bj}, tfiofiepoix; irapov- 
TWi 'Adrfj>alov9, kut dp^oTepa iKV\ayevTe^, icaX 

TO ^>CKtTTh T^? yVtopTl^ aV IwOffTO? T( <p^01)/X€l' 

vpd^eiv rai<! KtoKvfUUf TavTai; iKavm vopitravTe^ 
elpx&^vai, Tovt eifte<TrSira<; vo\efuov<i « t^9 
Xatpai; atro'tTip^tapsv, icaX airroX fuiXiina piv ^s 
aiSiov ^vfL^&pev, el Sk /iij, j^oiwv li? irXeto-Tov 
trtreiadp^VQt t^; Ihia^ iia^opas e; ai6i^ dva- 
^ firirtp npl tsS xXf/uiv, deleted by Hode, &ft«r KrUger. 



3i6 

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BOOK IV. Lzii. d-Lxiti. t 

other advantages on which one might dilate aa easilj 
as on the horrors of var ? Considering these things, 
you should not overlook my advice, but should rather 
look forward each to his own salvation thereby. 
And if any of you cherishes the confident beliet 
that he can gain anything either by insisting on 
bis rights or by an appeal to force, let him not, 
through the baffling of his hopes, suffer a grievous 
disappointment ; for he knows that many idco ere 
now, whether pursuing with vengeance those who 
have wronged them, or in other cases, hoping to gain 
some advantage by the exercise of power, have, on 
the one hand, not only not avenged themselves but 
have not even eome out whole, and, on the other 
hand, instead of gaining more, have sacrificed what 
was their own. For revenge has no right to ex- 
pect success just because a wrong has been done; 
nor is strength sure just because it is confident. 
But as regards the future, it is uncertainty that for 
the most part prevails,'- and this uncertainty, utterly 
treacherous as it is, proves nevertheless to be also 
most salutary ; for since both sides alike fear it, 
we proceed with a greater caution in attacking one 
another. 

LXIII. "So let us now, taking alarm on account of 
both these things— the vague fear of this hidden 
future and the immediate fear of the dread Athenian 
presence — and charging to these obstacles, as elfectu- 
ally blocking our way, any failure in the plans which 
any one of us had hoped to realize, let us dismiss 
trom the country the enemy who is at our gates, and if 
possible let us make peace among ourselves for ever- 
more ; but if that may not be, let us conclude a truce 
for the longest practicable period, and put off our 

317 

D,an:«i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

2 ffaXwfieda. to ^vftirav re Si} 'fliStfiep itiBofuevoi 
fiiv ifxol TToXii- efofTes Iteairrov ekevBipav, atf>' ^s 
avroKpatope^ oi'te; tov eS koI iecucw% Sp&vTa 
ef laov aperfj afivvovfieOa, fjv S' aTruTT^iraVTe^ 
aXKot<i vvatco^tTco/iev, oil irepl tov Ti/j,a>pTJa-aff6ai 
Tiva, aXKk Ka\ ayav el Ti^o(/iev, ^i\oi aev av 
TOf? eyOLiTTOt';, Stdipopot Si ol? ov j^prj kot 
avdyKT/ii lyiyvoifieSa. 

LXIV. " Koi 6*7^ /Mc, &irep ical dpvoftevo^ 
elwov, TToXiv Te /ieyiaTt]p irap^XPfifvo^ leal eiritov 
Tp fM,XKop i) d/iuwd/tero? ' a^iSi TrpoiBoftevoi * 
avT&v ^vyx<»p^tv, icai p.t) tows evavTiQv<i oStm 
KaKW hpav utine aiirot ra ifXelai ^XdvTtffOat, 
fii}Si fnapta i^iKoviKmv -fiyeladai ttj^ re olxeia^ 
yvtiop/i]^ opotiof avTOKpaTwo elvai ical ^i OVK 

2 apxc^ TVXV^' ^^^' otrov etKo^ ^a-a-aaSai. xal 
T0U5 aXXovt SiKai& TaiiTO fwi iroi^aai, iiifi' vfiMv 
ai/T&v not p-r) vTro rStv iroKep.imv tovtq iraBetv 

3 ovSiv y&p aia~Xpov oliceCov^ olxeCeDj/ fiaaaaOai, 
fj Awpta Tiva Awpt&i; ^ Xa\KiS4a t&v ^vyyevav, 
TO T£ ^vp.iTap yelTOva^ avTa% KoX ^vvoCicov^ fua^ 
■)(mpa^ Kol trepippvTov icaX ovofia. tv KetcXfipivov^ 
2,tKe\iQ)Ta^- 01 TToKep.riaop.iv re, olfiai, OTav 
Jw/ifSS. xal ^vyX'^PV'^^f^^^ 7^ iraXiv KaS' i}pak<i 

4 avTou! XayoK Koivoli xP^/^^^^' '''""'^ ^^ dXXo- 
(pvKovi eTTfXdavTa? dBpooi atel, tjp <TO><f>pov&p^v, 
aptUVOvp^eBa, etirep Koi /caB" i/edarov^ ffXawTO- 
fievoi ^vpTravre^ KivSwevopev, ^vp.pdxov'i Bk 

' ifiwiiityoi, Hude followed by Steup, for iiiuroiiatos ol 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. Lxin. i-LHv. 4 

private differences to some other day. In fine, let ua 
feel assured that if my advice is followed we shall 
each keep our city free, and from it, since we shall 
be arbiters of our own destiny, we shall with equal 
valour ward off both him who comes to benefit and 
him who comes to harm. But if, on the other hand, 
my advice is rejected and we give heed to others, it 
will not be a question of our taking vengeance on 
anybody, but, even if we should be never so success- 
ful, we should perforce become friends to our 
bitterest foes and at variance with those with whom 
we should not be. 

LXIV. " As for me, as I said in the beginning, 
although I represent a most powerful city and am 
more ready for attacking another than for self- 
defence, I deem it my duty, with these dangers in 
view, to make concessions, and not to harm my 
enemies in such a way as to receive more injury 
myself, or in foolish obstinacy to think that I am as 
absolutely master of Fortune, which I do not control, 
as of my own judgment ; nay, so far as is reasonable 
I will give way. And 1 require of the rest of you to 
follow my example and submit to this, not at the 
hands of the enemy, but of yourselves. For there is no 
disgrace in kinsmen giving way to kinsmen, a Dorian 
to a Dorian or a Chalcidian to men of the same race, 
since we are, in a word, neighbours and together are 
dwellers in a single land encircled by the sea and are 
called by a single name, Siceliots. We shall go to 
war, no doubt, whenever occasion ^arises — yes, and 
we shall make peace again by taking common counsel 
among ourselves ; but when alien peoples invade us, 
we shall always act in concert, if we are prudent, 
and repel them, seeing that any injury suffered 
by one of us brings danger to ua all; but never 
3J9 

[,an:tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

oitSiTroTe to Xoiirov iira^ofieffa ovBi BtaX\aKTd<t. 
6 Tofie y&p ■rroiovpTe^ ev re r^ Trapomi Svoiv aya- 
6oiv oil aTep'^aofiev ttjv Xi/ceXlae, ^ ASijvaitnv T6 
avaXfijiy^vai teat oIkeIov ttoXe/xol', KaX i^ rh 
eiteiTa Ka6 ■^M'^V avrovi fXevffepav vefiovftf0a 
KoX inro aWtov fjiraov Itrt ^ovKevofiivrfv" 

LXV". ToiavTa tov 'EpfiOKparov^ elfroPTo^ vet- 
Softevoi 01 XtKeXtwrai avrol fi-ev Kara a^a^ avrov^ 
fui'iji'ijffiijtrav yvtop,^ a>are avaWairffeadai tov 
iTo\i/iou exofre^ & eitaaroi Ivovtri, to*! Sk 
K.ap.apivaioK Mopyavninjv elvai apyvptoir tuktov 

2 T0« XvpaKOo'ioK a-rroBovo'iv ol Bi t&v 'A0rivalo)v 
^v/ipMXOi TTapaieaXia avret aiirmv tou? ec reKei 
ovTa<i el-rrov oti ^vp.^^aovTai KaX ai airov^X 

itroiovvro Ttjv op-oKoyiav, Koi ai v^e? twc ^AOif- 
vaiwv airevXevaav p-erh. ravra tK SiKfiXux?. 

3 eK96vTa<! hh roii^ iTTpaTTfyovtt ol iv rg woXm 
'Affrjvaloi TOvi p^v 4>vy^ i^rjfuwffav, XlvBoheapov 
Kol Xoi^aKXia, tov Be toItov EipvpeBovra "XfiV' 
para evpa^avTo, tu; e^av ainoK tu iv %tKe>Uif 
KaraaTpe'^aadai Swpotf ireiadivTet a7ro;^<Dpi}- 

4 (Ttiav. otnw Tp ye wapovarj evrvxi-if XP'^f^"^ 
ri^iow a^iai fitjBiv evavTiovaBai, aXXa Koi 
TA Swara ev Xutp koa rh, aTropwrepa fieyaKp 
TC ofioiiav Kol ivZeeiTTepa irapaffxev^ xarep- 
yd^eirOai. alria S' ^v tj irapk Xoyov r&v 
■jrXeiavaiv evrrpayia ainoK vrroTiBetaa laj(i)V 
Try; eXTrtSo?. 

LXVI. Tow 8' ainov $epov^ Meyap^^ ol ep t§ 
TTokei TTie^op^vot inro t€ AOtjvaimp ry ■no'KkfMp, 

D,j™tci;.GOOgl(J 



BOOK IV. Lxiv. 4-LKTi. I 

henceforth shall we ask outsiders to intervene, either 
as allies or as mediators. If we follow this policy, 
we shall at the present time not rob Sicily of two 
desirable things — -getting rid of the Athenians and 
escaping from civil war — and for the future we shall 
dwell here by ourselves in & land that is free and less 
exposed to the plotting of others." 

LXV. After Hermocrates had spoken to this effect 
the Siccliots, accepting his advice, came to an 
understanding among themselves. They agreed to 
end the war, each city keeping what it had, except 
that the Camarinaeans were to have Morgantina 
on payment of a stated sum of money to the 
Syracusans. The SicUian allies of the Athenians 
then summoned the Athenian generals and said 
that they proposed to make peace and that the 
treaty would also include them. And when the 
generals assented, they proceeded to make the 
agreement, whereupon the Athenian fleet sailed away 
from Sicily. But when it arrived at Athens, the 
Athenians sentenced to exile two of the generals, 
PythodOiTis and Sophocles, and fined Eurymedon, 
the third, on the charge that when it had been in 
their power to subdue Sicily they had been bribed to 
withdraw from it. To such an extent, because of 
their present good fortune, did they expect to be 
thwarted in nothing, and believed that, no matter 
whether their forces were powerful or deficient, they 
could equally achieve what was easy and what was 
difficult. The cause of this was the amazing success 
which attended most of their undertakings and 
inspired them with strong confidence. 

LXVr. The same summer the people of the city of 
Megara, being harassed in the war by the Athenians, 

$31 
VOL. II. T 

D,an:«i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

alel Karit Ito? cKaarov 8w ia^oKKovrtap vav- 
ffrparia it rtjv -xatpeiv, xal inro rmv v^erepav 
tpvydSwp Tu>v iic II'jywj', ot aTaffrnffavrav ix- 
■jveaovTei virb tow -TTXrfdov^ ■x^aXeTTol ^aav Xg- 
ffTevoprei, eTroiouvTO \6yovv iv aXXfjXoi; m9 Xf^ 
Se^afievovt Toii'i ^svyovra^ pi.ii dfUpoT€f>o>&ef T^ 

2 TToKiv tf>6eip€iv. ol W ^l\ot t&v efm top $poCv 
aladofievoi tftavepS)^ /ioXkov rj -n-porepov koX aiiroX 

3 ^^tovv TOVTOV Tov \6yov ex^i^fftu. yvavrei Si 
ol TOV Siytou iTponnarai ov Svvarop rw Sij/MV 
eaop^vov inrh rSiv Kaiciav fterh, atftAv KapTCpeiv, 
■jTOtovvrat \6yov<i Sela-apre^ vpo^ Tovt t&v 'Affr)- 
vaiatv crTpa-njyovs, 'IvTro/tpdrtj re rbv 'Api(j>poi'o^ 
Koi. A7]fio<rdev]) tov "'AXraa&et'ovtj ^ovXoftaiot 
evSoiiveu rifv iroXiv ical vopi^ovret eXa<rm» <Ttf)iff't 
TOV Kivhvvov tj Toix; ifCTTffTovTa'i Irrrh it^mp kutsK- 

i Oelv. ^vvi^TiadvTeirpaTap.evTafUiKpa.reixn^^i'' 
' k.d7}vaiov<i {^v hk aTaSiov fLoXiara oktq) airo t^s 
■jToXeoj? ivl ri/p Nitratav top Xtfiepa avT&p), ^ttivs 
fir/ itn^OT}8^au<n,v iic rtji Nitratas ol HeXoirov- 
vrfaiai, iv ■§ avTol /lovoi icfipovpovv ^e^aioTifTOt 
evexa raiv Meydpav, eirena Se k{u rifv dva •no'Ka' 
veipdaeaOcu iv&ovvcw pdov S" ^2i} ffteWov irpotr- 
■)((iipr)(Teiv rovTov yeyevfffievov, 

LXVII. Ot otp 'Aerjvaloi, iiretSi, Sltto re t&p 
ipymv Koi TUf Xoytav irapeaKevaaTo dft^oTepoK, 
vTto vvKTU vXevaavTe^ ii Mivwaf t^i' Meyape^v 
vijaov o'TrXiTaK i^aKOaioK, &» 'lirTTOKparrit ^p~ 

3,22 



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BOOK IV. Livi. i-LTvii. I 

who regularly invaded their country iu full force 
twice every year, and also by their own exiles in Pegae, 
who had been expelled in a revolution by the popular 
party and kept annoying them by raiding the country, 
began to say to one another that they ought to 
receive the iugitives bade, so that the city should not 
be exposed to ruin from both directions at once. 
And the friends of the exiles, noticing the murmuring 
of the people, all began ntore openly than before to 
urge that this proposal be adopted. But the leaders 
of the popular party, realizing that the populace 
under the pressure of their distress would not be 
able to hold out with them, became frightened and 
made overtures to the Athenian generals, Hippocrates 
son of Ariphronand Demosthenes son of Alcisthenes, 
proposing to surrender the city to them ; for they 
thought that this course would be less dangerous to 
themselves than the restoration of the citizens whom 
they had banished. They agreed, in the first place, 
that the AiJienians should take possession of the 
long walls (the distance between the city and the 
harbour at Nisaea was alxiut eight stadia), in order to 
prevent the Peloponnesians from sending reinforce- 
ments from Nisaea, where they formed the sole 
garrison to keep their hold on Megara, and, in the 
aeccmd place, that they would do their best to hand 
over to them the upper-town as well, believing that, 
as soon as this was done, tlieir fellow-citizens would 
more readily go over to the Athenian side. 

LXVII. So, then, as soon as due preparations, both 
in word and act, had been made by both parties, the 
Athmians sailed under cover of night to Minoa, the 
idand which lies off Uegara, taking six hundred 
hoplites under the command of Hippocrates, and took 



,n:,u,.C00ylc 



THUCYDIDES 

Xev, iv opvyfuni iKaOe^ovro, $6ev 4wKtp0evop ra 

2 reixv Koi atrelx^v ov iroXv- ol Bk lifrtt tow 
^Tjftoffffepov^ TOW erepov trTparf]yov TlXaratfj'i 
TE y^tXol KoX irepoi ■rrepi-n-oKoi evrjhpevaav if to 
'EvvaKtov, 6 ivTiv tXarrirop a-rrw6ev. xaX ■ff<rdero 
ouSet5 et fiT} oi dvSpe^ ols eTTi/teki^ ^v eiBeveu rifv 

3 vvKTa TavTjjv. leal i-n-eiSri io)<; l/ieXXe yCyveirffai, 
Ol irpoStSovTe^ t&ii Meyap^mi' ^ ovrot roiopBe 
eTToitjaav. axaTiov afu^rjptKov ok Xfiarai, tK 
TToXXot) TeBepairevKOTe^ Tr)v avoi^iv Tatv trvK&v, 
elmBeacve eirX apd^rf, treiSovre^ tov apj^ovra, Si^ 
T^s rd^pov KaraKOfU^eiv •riji vvkto^ eirl rifv 
BaXairaav Koi eKirKttv koI trplv ri/itpav elvat 
■traXiv avTO r^ ^fid^r/ Koptaavre^ es to Tet^o? 
Kara tAs TruXas iafjyov, a-ir<ai; to« ix t^? Mtvoia? 
'Adrjvaiot? aipavi)^ Bif etij ff (fivXav^, prj Sirrof 

4 ev T^ Xifievt "ttXoiov ^avtpov pr]hev6f, koI rare 
TT/jo? Till? ■7Tv\at<; ijBT} ^v if ipa^a, koX dpoix- 
Beitrmv tca-rh to etQ)So9 m Tf) dtcari^ oi 'AOtivaioi 
(iyCyvero yap otto ^vvS'qpaTO'; to TotoDTOn) 
tSojiTe? edeov Bpofx^ ex t^s iveSpat, ffovKoftevoi 
^dda-ai irplv ^vyKXjjaffrjvai TtdXiv ri? TruXas 
Kol ^&>; ert ■^ &pji^a ev airaiq ^p, KoiKvpM oStra 
wpotrdeivar xai avTot^a/ia koL at ^vpTTpdaaovrev 
Meyaprji tov"; Karh ttuXo? 0i5XaKas KTetvovffty, 

5 KoX irp&Tov pev ol Trepl rbv Ayipotrdimj JlXarattj^ 
T€ Kol TTc/jtVoXot eaiBpapov ov vvv TO Tpoiratov 
irrrt, xal eiiOv^ ivTW fuv iruKoiv {^<T$ovro fkp 

' ol Trfeiitirtft ■tmr Miyafiimr, deleted by Hnde. 

3'4 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. Lxvii. i-s 

cover in a ditch, not far from the town, where bricks 
had been made for the walls. A second company con- 
sisting of light-armed Plataeans and frontier-patrols 
under the command of theother general, Demosthenes, 
set an ambuscade at Enyalius, which is somewhat 
nearer. And all that night no one perceived what 
was going on except the men whose business it was 
to know. Then, at the approach of dawn, these 
would-be Megarian traitors began their work as 
follows. For a long time before this they had been 
carefully preparing for the opening of the gates by 
regularly assuming the guise of pirates and taking a 
sculling boat, drawn on a cart, through the ditch and 
down to the sea, where they would put out. This 
they did evwy night, first securing the consent of the 
commander.* Then before daybreak they would cart 
the boat back into the fortifications, taking it in by 
way of the gates, their object being, as they pretended, 
to keep the Athenian garrison, which was stationed at 
Minoa, in the dark, as no boat would be visible in the 
harbour. On the night in question the cart was already 
at the gates, and when these were opened as usual as 
if to let the boat pass through, the Athenians, who 
were acting throughout in accordance with an agree- 
ment, seeing it, ran at top speed from their ambush, 
wishing to get there before the gates were closed 
again and while the cart was still in the passage, thus 
fomiing an obstacle to the shutting of the gates ; and 
at the same time their Megarian accomplices killed the 
guards at the gates. And first the Plataeans and the 
patrols under Demosthenes' command rushed into the 
place where the trophy now stands, and as soon as they 
were inside the gates the Plataeans engaged with the 
* i.e., of the PelopoimeBiaa gorrifKm. 



.Coogl. 



THUCYDIDES 

Of e^vrara TleXovowqatot) fiaxofievat tovi 
trpoa^oTjOovmai; o( nXarai^e expaTTjaav koI rots 
Ttav A$Tivai.o)V 0Tr\i,Taii eTruj>epofievoK ffeffaiov^ 
tA? •jrvXa.'; TTdpitrxpv. LXVIII, eveira Si xal 
T&v 'Adfivaiaiv ^81; o alel eWo? yeypofiepo^ ')(apei 

2 itiX TO Tet;^o?. «al 01 IleXoTrojjyijo-tot tppovpol to 
fih vpStTov avTta -jfovTet '^fivvopro oXirfoi, km 
aireOavov Tivei avrav, m hk ir^lov^ e'9 if"yv^ 
leaT^arriaav, ^o^T)9hne<i hi pvktC re Tro\e/u»v 
Ttpoo'TreTrTaiKorwv ical t&v ■wpoSiBovreav Meyapemv 
avTi/iaj^Ofjiivav vofiiatane^ tou5 awatna^ ir<f>di 

3 Meyapea^ -Trpohe&aKevat. ^vvhreire yhp xal Ttai 
T&v '' ASrjvatiov KijpvKa cup' eavrav yPti/iTjf terf- 
pv^ai roir ffovKop.epov levai Meyapitov fteri 
'ABi/vaiwv Oija-o/itvov tA oirXa. 01 S' w? ^Kovtrav, 
oiiieen a.v4fi€vop, aXXk xp Spxi vofdiravrf^ KMvy 

4 iroXepelffBai KaTi^vyop es rifv Niaatav, &/M Si 
?^ iaXtoKorav ^Srf t&v Tei%mi koX t&v iv tJ 
iroXei Meyapemv Sopv^oVfUvrnv oi wpo^ tov? 

A07)vaiovi irpd^avTa teal dXXo fter aiiT&v 
vXijdoi, h ^vv^Set, e^taaav j^pijvat avoiyeiv t^c 
G irvXcK Kol hre^Uvai iv fidjfrpi. ^wi/teiro Si 
avTOi'i -T&v tniXmv avotx0€icrwv eKrmirTeiv roir; 
^Adj}uatov<i, avTol Si SidSriXot ep-eWov etretrffat 
(Xiira yhp dXety^eadai), owtD'i fxij dSiK&vreu. 
dinftdXeia Si avTolt lioKKov eybyvero t^^ dvoi^eta^ 
ical yhp 01 diro r^ 'EXeiwtuo? «otA to fwy««- 
p^vov rer paKiiT)(lXioi iirtuTai r&v 'A0t}vaimp Koi 
»6 



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BOOK IV. Lxvii. 5-Lxvni. 5 

reinforcements which came up — for the nearest 
Peloponnesians hftd become aware of what was going 
on — and defeated them, thus securing the gates for 
the onrushing Athenian hoplites. LXVIII. After 
that every Athenian who got inside immediately made 
for the wall. A few of the Peloponnesian garrison at 
first stood their ground and defended themselves, 
some of them being killed, but most of them took to 
flight, being seized with panic, both because the 
enemy had attacked them at night, and also 
because they thought the Megarian traitors were 
fighting against them ; and they supposed that alt die 
Megiirians had betrayed them. For it so happened 
also that the Athenian herald, acting on his own 
responsibility, made a proclamation that any Megarian 
who so desired might espouse the cause of the 
Athenians. When the garrison heard this proclam- 
ation it no longer held out, but, verily believing that 
a concerted attack was being made upon them, fled to 
Nisaea. And at daybreak, when the walls had already 
been taken and the Megarians in the city were in a 
tumult, those who had negotiated with the Athenians, 
and a large number besides who were privy to the 
plot, expressed the opinion that they ought to open 
the gates and go out to battle. It had, in fact, been 
agreed between them and the Athenians, that as soon 
as the gates were opened the Athenians should rush 
in, and, in order that they might themselves escape 
injury, they were to be distinguished from the rest by 
being anointed with oil. They were also to have 
additional security in thus opening the gates, since 
the men who according to the compact were to 
march by night from Eleusis, four thousand Athenian 



3*7 



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THUCYDIDES 

6 Trapfjuav. dXijXtiifiivap Se avrSiv Kai ovrav ^Stf 
irepX ri? irvKai Kanvyopevei Tts fweiS^f tok 
erepoK to iiti^ovKevfta. koX ot ^vaTpa^ivret 
ad pool ^\9ov KaX ov/e e^vav -xji^vai oure 
eve^teuat (ovSi yhp trpoTepov irw tovto (ffj^oiTes 
juaXXoK ToXfifjffai) oSre i^ kivSvvov ^avepov t^ 
iroKiv Karayayeiv. et re prf vetirerai Tm, auTOV 
Tr]v pM^T]v eaeaBai. eS^Xouv Sk oiiBkv art taatri 
ri irpa<Trr6p.epa, aXKa an to ffiXnara ySouXew- 
ovrei Iffx^pi^ovTo, xal apa trepX tos iruXa^ 
irapip^vov ifivXaa-aovTet, Sxttc ovx eyivero tow 
e-rrtffovXevovtri itpa^at S epeXKoy. 

LXIX. Vv6vre<t S^ oi r&v 'Adtjpoiav arparijyi^ 
on ivavrLapM ri eyivero koI t^i* iroXiv ^ia ov;^ 
oXot re ^aovrat Xaffeiv, r^v Wtraiav evBint ireptt- 
relx^^ov, vopi^ovre<i, el irpXv iTTi^oijS^<Tai rtwos 
t^eXotev, datrcrov &v xal rh iieyapa irpotry^up^ 

2 trai (irapeyivero Se triSijfjof re iie r&v 'AOi/vrnv 
ra)(V Kal Xiffaupyol koX riXXa eVtT^Seia)' ap^d- 
p/evoi S awo rou ret^ovt h Etj(av Kal StottcoSop^- 
ffavTES TO wpoi Meyapia^, air' eKeivou exarepiodev 
« SdXaatrco' rrj^ Utaaia^^ riMppov re koI reij^tj 
BieXop.4vi] fjyev * ^ o-rpaTid, ex re rou wpoarreiov 
Xi6oi<i KOl ttKIvBok j(pmpePot, Kal xorrrovre^ ra 
SevSpa «al SX^fv airetrTavpovv et ttij Seoiro tc 

' waaniriiimi, Ratharford's conjecture far r^foiimm ot 
the MSS. ' Hudo delelM r^t Nuralat, after Stahl. 

* liytr added bj Slahl and Ranohensteiii. 

3«8 



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BOOK IV. Lxviii. s-Lxuc. a 

hoplites and six hundred cavalry, were now at hand.' 
But after they had anointed themselves and were 
aheady near the gates, an accomplice divulged the 
plot to the other party. And they, gathering in a 
body, came and declared that they ought neither to 
march out to fight — for they had never ventured to do 
such a thing before, even when they were stronger 
— nor to bring the city into manifest danger ; and, 
they added, should anyone refuse to obey, the fight 
would take place on the spot. Butthey gave no signs 
whatever that they were aware of the plot which was 
going on, but stoutly maintained that their advice 
was for the best, and at the same time stayed about 
the gates keeping watch, so that the plotters had 
no opportunity to carry out their intentions. 

LXIX. The Athenian generals, however, saw that 
some obstacle had arisen and that they would not be 
able to take the city by force, and therefore at once 
began to invest Nisaea with a wall, thinldng that, if 
they could take this town before any succour came, 
Megaia also would soon capitulate. A supply of iron 
quickly arrived irom Athens, as well as stonemasons 
and whatever else was needed. Beginning then at 
the part of the fortification which they already held 
and building a cross-wall on the side of it facing 
Megara, from that point they built out on either side 
of Nisaea as far as the sea, the army apportioning 
among them the ditch and the walls and using stones 
and bricks from the suburbs. Moreover, they cut 
down fruit-trees and forest-wood and built stockades 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Kal at oIkUii rov wpoaineiov hrdX^i'; 'Ka/i^d- 
vovacu avraX virijpxov epvfia, koX ravrt/v fiiv 

3 ri)ii fifiMpav oKTfv elpya^ovTO' r^ &^ vtrrepaia -jrepl 
Sei\f]v TO Tfixpi o<Tov ovK airertriXetTTO, ical ol ip 
Ttf Nttrota Beia-avTe^, aCrov re aTTOpia (e^' ^fj.epav 
•yap e« T^9 avm TToXeius e;(^MCTo) *al tows IleXo- 
vovttiviov^ oi iiofii^ovre'; ray^ii eTrtfforjd^etv, tous 
re Meyap^a-; iioXefuov^ fjyovfievoc, fui«j9>j<ra» 
Tots 'A0rivaioi<; pT/TOv p.kv iKaa-Tov dpyvpiov airo- 
Xvdfjvat oTfXa vapaSopra^, tok Sk AajteSat- 
ftovioti, T^ TC dpj^ovri xal el tk dWoi ivi^i, 
y^ijadai ' AfftjvaioiK 5 ti Ay ^ovXavrai. ^i tov- 

i Tot? ofioXoyijaavTe'; i^XSov, Km ot A$rp>atoi 
Til (laupct reij^rj oTro/jpiJfarre? awo rrj^ rav 
Meyapmv woXew; koX t^v Nia-aiav irapaXa^inei 
rSXXa trapeoKevd^ovTo. 

LXX. Qparriha^ 8^ o TeXXtSo! AaKfSatftovtO'i 
/carh TOVTOV top yjiovop i-rirfyave irfpl Xucv&i/a 
Kal Kopuidov Syy, iirl Qp^KTf; <npareiav irapa- 
a-Keva^o/iepo^. Koi »? ^crdero twc retx**" "^^ 
SXenatv, Seffffls iref^ re roi^ ev t§ Nuraia IleXo- 
iroppTjixloit Kal fii] tA M&yapa Xrj^Bfj, irifnrei I? 
T€ Toil? BoiwTO^ KtXevwp KaTtl raj^o? arpart^ 
avavr^aai eVl TpnroBtffKov (eari Se le^ftT] rjjt 
MeyapiBo'i ovofia tovto exovtra vno Tp Spei r^ 
Vepaveia), Kal air6<i e^civ ^XBtv eirraKoalovi /tev 
Kal Snr;n;iX(ou9 KoptpSCwP ovXlrai}, ^Xtiairimv Si 
reTpaxoaiov^, %iKVWviwp Se e^aKO<Tiov<! Kal tov? 
330 



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BOOK IV. LXix. 2-uix. I 

wherever thej were needed ; and the hoases of ttie 
Euburbs with the addition of battlements of theia- 
selves furnished a rampart. They worked the 
whole of this first day, but on the next day toward 
evening when the wall was alt but finished the garri- 
son of Nisaea, becoming alarmed by the shortage of 
food, seeing that they received provisions from the 
upper-city for only a day at a time, and not antici- 
pating any speedy relief from the Peloponnesians, 
Mid believing the Megarians to be hostile, capitulated 
to the Athenians on condition that they should give 
up their arms and pay a ransom of a stipulated 
amount for each man ; as for the Lacedaemonians 
in the garris<«, the commander or anyone else, 
they were to be disposed of as the Athenians might 
vrish. On these terms they came to an agreement 
and marched out. The Athenians then made a 
breach in the long walls in order to separate them 
from the wall of the city of Megara, took posses- 
sion of Nisaea, and proceeded with their other 
preparations. 

LXX. At this time firasidas son of TelUs, a Lace- 
daemonian, happened to be in the neighbourhood of 
Sicyon and Corinth, preparing a force for use in 
the region of Thrace. And when he heard of the 
capture of the walls, fearing for the safety of the 
Peloponnesians in Nisaea and apprehensive lest Me- 
gara should be taken, he sent to the Boeotians 
requesting them to come in haste with an army and 
to meet him at Tripodiscus, which is the name of a 
village in the district of Megara at the foot of Mount 
Geraneia. He himself set out with two thousand 
seven hundred Corinthian hoplitcs, four hundred from 
Phlitts, seven hundred from Sicywi, and such troops 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fii%ff airrov S<rot ij&r) ^vittKery/ihrot ^aav, olofievos 
2 Ttjp Niffatav en icaTaXifiJreaB ai dvdXwrov. wi Si 
eirvdero, (Irvx^ y^p wtCTO^ eVl rov TptiroSltTKOi' 
i^eXdwir) afTo\e^a<i rpiaKoiriovs lou tTTparov, irplv 
eKiTvt7To<! yepia6at, -n-poiT^Xde rp twv Meyapitov 
iroXet XaSoJv tow? ^A$i]vaCov^ oviat -jrepX t^h 
BdXaaaav, ffouXa/i^voi fikv tbIi ^07^ koX a/ia ei 
SvvatTO epy<p t^? Ntffatas freipaaai, to Bk fieyi- 
trrov, rtfv rap MeyapSmv voXiv ia-eXdav /Se^atw- 
ffoirdai. ical ■^^lov Be^acrdat tr^a? Xeywu iv 
eXwCSi etvat avaXa^elv l^Caaiav. LXXI. at Se 
T&v Meyapimv <rraa-€tv ^o^oiz/xcvat, 01 f^v fiij 
Toi? ifievyomai tnf>i(Ttv iaayayatv auro^? sK^aKy, 
01 &k fiif avro toGto o S^/io? Seitrai errWijTOi 
aijtifft KoX ^ 7roXj5 iv p^aXV *<*^' i^vri^v oZaaiyytK 
etfteBpevovTWV 'AStiuaicov airoXtfraL, oiix eSe^avro, 
aXX' a/itf)OTipot^ ihoKei ^av^daaffi to fiiXXov 
2 irepiiSeiv. rfXTTt^ov yap koI /td')(r}v exaTepai 
loeaBai rSiv re 'A.6r)v<u.tav Kal rStv ■jrpaa^Qrj&y)- 
advrav, Kttl owTo tTipC<Tiv aff^Xeorepoj? e)(eip, 
oh Tit etij evvovit, lepanjaaai ■iTpoa)(ap'}<Tai.- 6 Si 
BpairiSat i»s ovk eireidev, avex'^pV'^e irdXip it to 
&XXo ffTpdreufta. 

LXXII. "Afia &e t^ ep ol Boiarol wapijaav, 
Siavevoijfiivoi p.h> KaX vp\v QpaaiSav TTeni^i 
^07)detv iirl rh M.eyapa, ws ovK dXXorpiov octos 
TOW KivSvvov, zeal ifBif Sinet iravarpaTta IlXa- 
raiaaiv eveiSi) Se km ^\0ep 6 ayyeXot, iroXX^ 
/mXXov ippaa0'>iirav, koI aTroaraKavTe^ Staxo- 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. utx. i-Lxxii. 1 

of his own as had already been levied, thinking that 
he woald arrive before Nisaea had been taken. 
But when he learned the truth — for he happened to 
have gone out by night to Tripodiscus—he selected 
three hundred of his own army, and before his 
approach was known reached the city of Megara un- 
observed by the Athenians, who were down by the sea. 
His plan was, ostensibly — -and really, too, if it should 
prove possible — to make an attempt upon Nisaea, but 
most of all to get into the city of Megara and secure 
it. And he demanded that they should receive him, 
saying that he was in hopes of recovering Nisaea. 
LXXl. But the rival factions of Megara were afraid, 
the one that he might bring in the exiles and drive 
them out, the other that the populace, fearing this 
very thing, might attack thent, and that the city, 
being at war with itself, while the Athenians were 
lying in wait near at hand, might be ruined. They, 
tjierefore, did not admit Brasidas, ixtth parties 
thinking it best to wait and see what would happen. 
For each party expected that there would be a battle 
between the Athenians and the relieving army, and 
so it was safer for them not to join the side which 
anyone favoured until it was victorious. So then 
Brasidas, when he could not persuade them, with- 
drew once more to his own army. 

LXXII, At daybreak the Boeotians arrived. They 
had intended, even before Brasidas summoned them, 
to go to the aid of Megara, feeling that the danger 
was not alien to them, and were already at Plataea 
with all their forces ; but when the summons actually 
came, they were greatly strengthened in their pur- 
pose, and sent on two thousand two hundred hoplites 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

ffiovv ical 8w7;t(X*otJ? orrXiTwe /col l-rrtrew} e^tuto- 

2 trioui TOK •nTUloirw a-jrTJKOov -ttoXiv. vapovro^ 
Se ^Sri ^vfiTTavr<i<i rov trrpareufLaro^, OTrXn&v 
ovK iXaaaop k^aKt/TVihloiv, Koi r&u 'Affrp/aiwP 

Ttav fikv oTrXiTtav trepi re Ttjii Ni<7(wai' Svrmv xaX 
T^v 6d\a<T<Tav ev rd^ei, roiv Sk ■•p'lX&p dvii to 
treSiov eiricehaafjAvav, o'i iirvij'; o'l Totv ^oiiotSsv 
atrpoahoic^TOK eimreffovie'; rot? ■^tXot? erpe^av 
eirl T^ji &aKa<Tuav (eV 'yhp t^ trpo tov ovSefua 
Bo-^6eia. TTca Tolt Meyapeviriv ovhap-odev iitijXQep)' 

3 «cTE7re|^6\acroj'T«9 te xal oi tmp 'A6i}veuap 6? 
velpai ■ga-av, ital iyivero IvirofiajfLa ctti voXv, ev 

4 J) a^iovaiv etcdrepoi ovx ^affov^ yeveaSai. rw 
pMv y&p 'i-rrtrapxop ratv BoKdTwv lEai aXXais rwits 
ov BToXXo^ irpa^ avrtiv ri/v Ntaauw "KpoaeKd- 
aavra^ ' cl 'A8i)vaioi /eai UTTOtcreii/avre^ eiTKvKev- 
aav, Kcu Twc re veiep&v tovtwv Kpetrrja-avrev 



aTrebocap teat Tpawatop ea-Ti]aap' 
oil * }iivTOV ev je rw Traprl eprftp /SejSatms ovSire- 
poi TeXeUTi; trail Tei direKpldija'av aXX' * oi /i€V 
BotoiToi Tipo^ TOvs eavT&p, oi Be sttI ri}v "Niaatav. 
LXXIII. MerA S^ tovto ^paaiBa^ ical to 
CTpaTevp-a e')(a>povv iyyvTepo) t^9 daXdo'a'^ wt! 
T^s Twc Meyapemv TroXeo)?, km, KaToKaffovres 
vtopiov sTTiTigSeiov trapina^d/ievoi rjavval^op, 
oi6fi€V0t aiplaip eTTiiveu tovv 'A^ijvwious Kai tou5 
Meyapia^ evtaTa/i^pat irepi.opoi/ih'ov^ ottoTtptop ^ 
2 piKf) etTTat. icetKSt^ Si evofu^ov tripurtp d/i^orepa 
^ecp, apM (ikp TO fir) iiTtx^ipeXv ttporipov^ fiifSi 

' Portus' correction tor wpottXdtayrtt of the MSS. 
' Hnde sdopts Rutherford's conjecture oM/r. 
^ ix\', Hude deletes, as not translated by Valla. 



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BOOK IV. uixii. i-Lxxiii. 2 

and six hundred cavalry, returning home witJi the 
larger part of their army. Then, finally, when their 
whole army was at hand, consisting of not less than 
six thousand hoplites, and the Athenian hoplites were 
in line about Nisaea and the sea, while the light- 
armed troops were scattered up and down the plain, 
the Boeotian cavalry fell upon the latter and drove 
them to the sea. The attack was unexpected, for 
hitherto no reinforcements had ever c<Hne to the 
Meg^ans from any quarter. But the Athenian 
horsemen charged upon them in turn and a prolonged 
cavalry action ensued, in which both sides claimed to 
have held their own. Tlie Athenians did succeed in 
killing the commander of the Boeotian cavalry and a 
few others who had charged to the very walls of 
Nisaea and despoiled them, and having got possession 
of their bodies they gave them back under a truce 
and set up a trophy ; in the action as a whole, how- 
ever, neither side finally gained a decisive advantage, 
and so they separated, the Boeotians gmng to their 
own army, the Athenians to Nisaea. 

LXXJII. After this Brasidas and his army advan- 
ced nearer to the sea and the city of Megara, aod 
there, taking up an advantageous position, they drew 
up their lines and kept quiet, thinking that the 
Athenians would come against them, and feeling 
assured that the Megarians would wait to see which 
side would he victorious. And they thought that 
matters stood well with them in both of two re- 
spects : in the first place, they were not forcing an 

335 



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THUCYDIDES 

fidxt^ xa^ Kii/Bvvov €KovTa^ dp^ai, cTretBii fe ev 
<papep^ iBfi^av eroifioi oi^e; a/wvetrOai, Kal 
avTOi'i tomrep aKovirl rr/v viicr^v BiKatm^ avaride- 
aSai' ev rp avrff &e koX irpb^ tovv Meyapeai 

i opdani ^vfi^aiveiv ei jiev yap fir) tatpdijcrav 
iWoprei, ovK kv eV rv-)(Tj '^i^vetrOcu fftftitriv, dXXa 
<Ta(ftio^ &v &airep fiaa-rjdkvreov a-reprfB^vai evOim 
rrjq woXewv vvv Sk ic&v Tv^elv avroii^ 'AdTjvaiov^ 
p,ri ^ovXTjdhrrav ayavC^eaffai, uxrre a.fui'xt)rl iv 
trepiyeviaBai ainoK Stv evexa ^Xffov. ovep icaX 

i (jeveTO. 01 yap Meyapij^, w? oi Affrjvatot 
eTa^avTO fiiv ■jrapa r& /MiKpa Telyr} efeX^ocTCS, 
'r](Tv-)(a^ov he Koi ainoX fir) eTnovrtav, Xoyi^ofiet'Ot 
/eal ot 4k€i.vq>v (TTpaTr/yoi jj/>] atTiiraXop ewat 
a<f>iat Ton KivBvpov, iireiBi] xal tA irXela avrol'; 
'7Tpovfeej^o)p7)Kei, dp^aai fidxtv wpo^ irXeiocav 
avrav ^ Xa^eiv viic^a-avTiK M&yapa ^ <r<pa\i}rra^ 
Tp /SeXxfo-Tp ToO o7r\(T(«oO ^Xatftffijpat, Tovt Bi 
fv/tTTotrijs T^? Bvpd/iea^ xal rmv trapovTuov ixkpoi 
^KaaTov KtvBvveveiv eixoTcoii eOiXetv ToX/iOH, 
■)(fi6vov Bi eTTiaj(ovTe^ Koi ws ovBev dt^' ixaTepaiP 
eVe^eipetTo, a-jrfjk&ov npoTepoi oi 'Ad'rjvaiot es 
Tqn Niaatav Kal aS^is ol HeKoTTovv^fftoi offevirep 
iipp,'^0rfaav ovrm Sif yp fikp BpaaiSq, avrp leaX 



' Apparently there is an anacoluthon, the leatietKie b«- 
(puning as if rf Bfxurlif ivoiyowi T^t ailAai were to be the 
predicate, but after the long pareDthesis the snbjeot is 
resumed in partitive form, «I t£v /puyiSsni f (aoi Mrfaftii. 



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iBOOK IV. Lxxiii. 2-4 

engagement and had not deliberately eaurted the 
risk of a battle, although they had at least plainly 
shown that they were ready to defend themselves, 
so that the victory would justly be accredited to 
thent almost without a blow; and at the same time 
they thought that things were turning out right as 
regards the Megarians also. For if they had failed 
to put in an appearance there would have been no 
chance for them, but they would clearly have lost 
the city at once just as though they had been de- 
feated ; but by this move there was the possible 
chance that the Athenians themselves would not care 
to light, with the result that they would have gained 
what they came for without a battle. And this is 
just what happened. For the Megarians did what 
was expected of them.* When the Athenians came 
out and drew up their lines before the long walls, 
they too kept quiet, since the Peloponnesians did 
not attack, and their generals also reckoned that 
they were running an unequal risk, now that almost 
all their plans had turned out well, to begin a battle 
against larger numbers, and either be victorious and 
take Megara, or, if defeated, have the flower of their 
hoplite force damaged ; whereas the Peloponnesians 
would naturally be willing to risk an engagement 
which would involve, for each contingent, only a 
portion of the entire army or of the troops there at 
hand.* Both armies therefore waited for some time, 
and when no attack was made from either side, the 
Athenians were the first to withdraw, retiring to 
Nisaea, and next the Peloponnesians, returning to 
the place from which they had set out. So then, 
finally, the Megarians who were friends of the exiles 



337 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

roK o-'TO TWi* iroXewi' a,py(ava'iv ol rmv ipevyovTtDv 
^i\ot Mey ap^v, w? itriKpaT-^aavn Kol t&v 
'Aff'^vaiap ovKSTi ide\ijaavTa>v p,a/x.^o8ai, 6ap- 
aovvTe<i pMhXov avolyoval re tAs ttiJX^? ical 
Bf^d/ievoi KaravewKTfyfiivmv ^Srj twc wpo^ rod^ 
'ABtipaiow Trpa^dpTtov i<; \070ws Ipy^ovToi. 

LXXIV. Kai vtTTepov o fikv SiaXvOeinrnv t&v 
^u/ifid')^mv Kara iroXeK tTraveXSmv Kal avroi es 
T^v KoptvOop, rijv itrl ^paxTjv trrparetav irape- 

2 sKeua^iv, ivatrep Kal to -rrpSnov app.ijro' ol hi 
iv T3 TToXet Meyap^, d-rfO')(a)p'qeTdvrav Kai t&p 
' AdijuaitDV eV oXkov, Saot p£v r&v irpaypAratv wpos 
Tot's 'A^ijiiaiot/s p^\i<TTa p^retrxoVi etSoT« Sti 
w<f>0rjaav evdv^ inre^^T^Bov, at Si aWoi koivqKo- 
ytjadfifvoi tow twc i^evyovrmv <fit\oK KaTayovtri 
Toil'! etc lli)ymv, opKaxravre'i triareo'i fteydXaK 
fiijSev /iVJ]iTiKaKijiTeiv, ffovXevtreiv Se t^ iroKa tA 

3 apiara. ol Se iireiSi) iv rail dpj(atv iyevovTO Kal 
t^eraaiv O'lrXmv hrai-^aavro, BiatrTijaairrei T0U9 
X6}(^ov'i e^eXi^aPTO tSiv tc ex^P&v *ai o* iSoKOVV 
fidXitna ^vfiirpa^ai rk tt/ws tows ' Adi]vaiov<t, 
dvBpa^ <ie sKarop, xal roiirwv irepi apayKdaavT&; 
TOP hifpMv ■ilf?)(ftov <^avepcai hieveyKtlv, eos <caTe- 
yv<i>a$'rj<Tap, tKTEipav, Kal 4^ oXiyapx^'^'' "ri 

4 fiaXioTa KaTecrTr/aav ttjv waXtP. xal irXettrTOv 
Bi) xpopop aSri] iiv eXaj(t<rTav yepofietn} ix ard- 
tretoi /lerdffTaai^ ^vvifietvev, 

338 

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BOOK IV. Lxxiii. 4-Lxxiv. 4 

plucked up courage, and opened the gates to Brasidas 
and the commanders from the various cities, in the 
feeling that he had won the victory and tiiat the 
Athenians had finally declined battle.^ And receiving 
them into the town they entered into a conference 
with them, the party which had been intriguing with 
the Athenians being now quite cowed. 

LXXIV. Afterwards, when the Peloptonnesian 
allies had been dismissed to their several cities, 
Brasidas went back to Corinth and began pre[iara- 
tions for the expedition to Thrace, whither he had 
originally been bound. But when the Athenians 
also returned home, all the Megarians who had been 
moat implicated in the negotiations with the Athen- 
ians, knowing that they had been detected, inuned- 
iately withdrew secretly from the city, while the 
rest, communicating with the friends of the exiles, 
brought them back from Pegae, after first binding 
them on their oath by strong pledges not to harbour 
ill-will, but to consult for the best interests of the 
city. But as soon as these men attained office and 
had ntade an inspection of arms, separating the 
companies they selected about one hundred of their 
personal enemies and of those who seemed to have 
had the largest part in the negotiations with the 
Athenians, and compelling the popular assembly to 
take an open vote concerning these, when they had 
been condemned, slew them, and established an 
extreme oligarchy in the city. And there was never 
a change of government, effected by so small a 
number of men through the triumph of a faction, 
that, lasted so long. 

' Or, adopting Rutherford's coojecture, i8t\iiaiyroiv, "and 
that Uie AtheniaoB woald not care to fight again." 



..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXV. Tow 8' airrov B^povt t^s 'ApravSpov 
imo Twv MvriXrivaCav, mairep BievoovPTo, jj.e\- 
Xovtrr)'; KaTatr/cevd^ecrffai, ol tSv apyvpoKoyav 
A.6i)valaip ve.o>v arpaTTjrfoi, ^tffioSoKO^ icai 'Apt- 
(TT6(8j)?, ojiTfi? -rrepl 'EiW^ffvovrov (o yap TptTOf 
ainav Aapit-xo^ Siva vavalv e? TOf Tiovrov 
itreKeirkevKei) m ■^trddvovro rijv -jrapaaicevify tow 
X^piov KoX eSoKu aiiTOK Beivov elvai pr) &awep 
T^ 'Avata evX rp %dp<(i yevTjTat, euda ol tfieuyov- 
Tfis Toil' Xaplwp KaTaoTtipTei toik; tg YleXoTtop- 
prjffiov^ axpeXovp i^ t^ vaurixa Kv^epp-^ra^ trip- 
TTOVTcs KaX Tovs ep T'p -jroKei l-apiov^ e? rapaj^v 
KaSlrTTaaav xal tous i^tovTa^ ihej(ppTo- ovtw Sij 
^vvayeipavres a-rro tosp ^vppdj(i»p a-Tpariav xal 
■!r\eviTavTe<i, /ta^!? """^ viK^cavret; rovi ex t^s 
'AprdvBpov eiie^e\66pTai, dpoKapffdvovtri to 

2 ')(iaplov TrdXiv. xal ov ttoXv iifftepop h top 
TloPTOP ifftrkivtra'; Adfta^oi, ep rij 'HpaicKeatTcSt 
oppiiTa<i e? Toy KaXjjra irorapop dvoXKvai tA? 
paOv 5SaT0? avmdev yevopepoii xal /careXdovTOi 
altftPiSiov rov pevfunos' aino^ Se /cat tj tnpartii 
7rfi£'§ hik 'QiOvpav &paKo>p, oZ elfri. vepap ep tj 
'Ao-ta, oifujcpetTat e's KaXxv^opa, rijp iirl r^ 
aiofiari rov nwTOV Msyapieop arn'oiKiav. 

LXXVI, 'EiJ 6^ Tp avT^ depet ital At/poirdetnj^ 
^ A8i)vaA,U)V trrparriyb'i Ttao'apdKOPTa pavahi i/piK- 
vetrai ^9 NavTra/crop, eiiBv<! p^rit rifP ix t% 

2 MeyapiSiK dpax'iop'riatP. t& yap 'iTnTOKpare'i koX 
exeiv^ ra BotwTta Trparfpara aira TiPtap dpBp&v 
340 

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BOOK IV. Lxxv. i-LXJtvi. a 

LXX V. During the same summer, when Antandros 
was about to be strengthened ^ by the Mytilenaeans 
as they had planned, the generals in command of the 
Athenian ships which were collecting the tribute, 
namely, Demodocus and ArisUdes, who were in the 
neighbourhood of the Hellespont- — for Lamschus, 
their colleague, had sailed into the Pontus with ten 
ships — heard of the fortification of the place and 
thought that there was danger of its becoming a 
menace to Lesbos, just as Anaea was to Samos^ ; for 
the Samian exiles, establishing themselves at Anaea, 
kept aiding the Peloponnesians by sending them 
pilots for their fleet, and also brought the Samians who 
lived in the city into a state of tnrmoil and continu- 
ally offered a refuge to those who were sent into exile. 
The Athenian generals, therefore, collected an army 
from among the allies, sailed thither, defeated in 
battle those who came out against them from Ant- 
andros, and recovered the city. And not long after- 
wards Lamachus, who had sailed into the Pontus and 
anchored in the river Cales in Heractean territory, 
lost his ships in consequence of a rain which fell in 
the uplands and brought down a sudden flood. He 
and his army, however, going by land through the 
Bithynian Thracians, who were on the other side, in 
Asia, arrived at Chalcedon, the Megarian colony at 
the mouth of the Pontus. 

LXXVI. During the same summer, immediately 
aft«r the Athenians retired from Megara, Demos- 
thenes, the Athenian general, arrived with forty 
ships at Naupactus. For he and Hippocrates were en- 
gaged in negotiations about affairs in Boeotia, at the 

' cS. ch. lii. 3. ' ly". III. xbt. 2, xxxii. 2. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

^11 TOW iToKeaiv errpdaaero, ^ovKofjAveov ftera- 
aT^a-at rov Koafiov koX is hrifiOKpaTiav &<rirep 
ol ^ A.dtjvaiok ■"■ Tpei^af KaX Yi^oloZ<i)pov fioKiuT 
avipot ^vydSoi etc %t]^S)V ia-rfyovphiov ToSe 

3 avTOK ■jrapeaKevdadi]. St'^as fJ^P epeXXop Tive<s 
■jTpoSaia-eiv (at Si Xii^at elal t^s &etnnic^i yfj^ iv 
T^ ^piffaitp KoKw^ itridaXaffaLBiot)' Xatpaiveiav 
h4, ^ ^9 'Op')(ppet'bv TOP Mivvetov irpoTepop koXov- 
psvov, vvv he BotuTtoi', ^wreKet, aXKoi i^ 'Opj^o- 
p.evov iveSiSoffav, koI ol Opxotteviiitv ffivydSes 
^vveTTpaarrov rh, p,dXiina xal dvSpa^ ffuaOovvTO 
tK HeXoTToi'i'ija'ov (effTi Si f] Xaip(opeia ^a^arov 
T^t BotfDTt'o? Trpot Tp ^avoTiBi T^ ^aiciSos), xai 

4 <^eaKeii>v pereixoi' Ttfe?. roin Se 'AffrjpaCov^ eBei 
AijXioi' xaToKa^eiv, ro ev rij Tava/ypaCa irpQ^ 
^v^oiav rcTpappAvov 'AiroWatvoi iepov, d/ia Si 
ravTa h> Vf^P<} PV^V yi^yvetrBai., ottw? p.i] ^vp.^or)- 
B^ffotffLV eTri TO AjjXtoi' ol 'Boimrol dffpooi, oXX* 

6 ewl T^ atfiiTepa avr&v evaaToi tctvovfieva. xal el 
KaTopdotTO rj iretpa icaX to ^'^Xiov TEf)(i<f8ei/if, 
pqSia>t! ffK-wi^ov, el «al p-T) TrapavTdca veanepi^otTO 
T( Twc kotA tAs TToXfTctas to(! BoibiTOK, i'xp' 
pAvo>p TovTOiv T&v ymplav leal Xjjffrevopemj'i t^ 
yiji Kal outnjs eKatrroK Sc& ffpax^os dtroaTpo^rfi, 
oil pevetv Kard jfiapav rd Trpdryp^ra, aXXa ^of^ 
r&v 'A$r)vanai> pxv irpoaiovTotv Tots d^tirftfKoiJi,, 
' Aa^tp 01 'A»))«I«i, bracketed by Hude, att«r RulbeTford. 
34a 

D,j™tci;.GOOglu 



BOOK IV. Lxxvi. 2-5 

instance of certain men in several cities who wished 
to brin^ about a change in their form of govern- 
ment and to transform it into a democracy, such as 
the Athenians had. The leading spirit in these 
transactions was Ptoeodorus, an exile from Thebes, 
through whom Demosthenes and Hippocrates had 
brought about the following state of affairs. Siphae, 
a town on the shore of the Crisaean Gulf in the terri- 
tory of Thespiae,was to be betrayed by certain men ; 
and Chaeronea, a city which is tributaiy to Orcho- 
menus — tlie city which was formerly called Minyan, 
but is now called Boeotian— was to be put into the 
hands of the Athenians by others, the fugitives from 
Orchomenus, who also took into their pay some Pelo- 
ponnesians, being especially active in the conspiracy 
Some Phocians also had a share in the plot, Chaeronea 
being on the borders of Boeotia, and adjacent to 
Phanotis, which is in Phocis. The Athenians were 
to occupy Delium, the sanctuary of Apollo which is 
in the territory of Tanagra and opposite Euboea ; 
, and all these events were to take place simultaneously 
on an appointed day, in order that the Boeotians 
might not concentrate their forces at Delium, but 
that the several states might be occupied with their 
own disaffected districts. And if the attempt should 
succeed and Delium should be fortified, tiiey con- 
fidently expected, even if no immediate change 
occurred in the constitutions of the Boeotian states, 
nevertheless, so long as these places were in their 
possession, from which Boeotian territory could be 
ravaged and where everyone might lind a convenient 
place of refuge, the situation would not remain as it 
was, but in time, when the Athenians should come 
to the support of the rebels and the forces of the 

343 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

T0« Be ovK ov<JTi<i aBpoai t^s Bwafj^a^, Kwra- 
vT^aeiv ainh, e's to eirn^Sewv. 

LXXVII, 'H fiip ovp eiriffovXi/ Toiavrif trape- 
t7Keud^ero' 6 Si 'l-mroKpaTij^ aurov /lev e« rfj^ 
ttoXgw? Bvva/MV e^tfv, oTroTe Kaipo'i eirj, epeXXe 
arpaTeveiv €? tov? BotwTOiJ?, rov Be £i.r)poaBein} 
irpoaireareiXe rats reaaapd/totna vaualv ?? rijv 
NavTraxTov, ottojs ef eKsCvmP Twi' -x^mpiaiv orparov 
fuWefaS 'Axappdvmv re >cal t&v aXKwv ^v/i- 
fid')(a>v Trkkot eirl Ta<; '%L^a<; m<; vpoBodrjaoftevas' 
rifiepa S' airrot^ etpijTo J eBet ravTa irpdaaeiv. 
2 Kul o fiev ATiftoaOhtf^ d^tKOfievtK, OwtoSas Si 
inro re 'AKapvdvmv wdvrav KaTtjvayKacTfih'ovi 
tcaraXa^wv e? ttjp 'ASrjvaiaip ^vfifiay(lav koL 
avTm dvainri'Ta'; to fu^i/ta^tKov to ixetPT) irav, 
ivi 1,aXvvdiov Koi 'Aypaiovi aTpaTevcav irporTOV 
KaX irpoavoiriadfisvoii T&XXa tJTOtp^^ero &9 iiri 
T^? St^ct!, oral- Seji, d-jravnjtTop.epo^. 

LXXVIII. SpairCSai Sk xar^ tou avriip ■)(p6pov 
TOV depowi wopevofievo"! iirraKoaioK *fli ^tX/oi? 
oirXiraii ej ra cirt ^pdtcr]^ iTretSif eyevera ev' 
UpakXeLO, T^ eV Tpay^tPt zeal, irpoTre/i^ravro? 
avTov ayyeXop €s ^dpuaXop irapk rovt eViTij- 
Beiovi oftouKTOS Stayed' eauTOK «ai ri}p trrpaTidp^ 
^Xffop e<t MeXtTetav t^? ^A-f^tuta^ Udiratpa^ tc ncai' 
Aw/JO? «ai 'iTTWoXo^tSav «al TopuXao^ leai 2t/)o- 
tftaKO^ TTpo^vov &p XaXKiSStov, totb S^ iiropivero^ 
' OP Se Koi dXXoi QeatraXiop aiirop xal ix Aapi- 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. Lxxvi. 5-Lxxvin. 2 

oligarchs were scattered, they could settle matters 
to their own advantage. 

LXXVII, Such was the plot which was then under 
way. It was the purpose of Hippocrates, when the 
proper moment should arrive, to take troops from 
Athens and in person make an expedition into 
Boeotia ; meanwhile he was sending Demosthenes 
in advance with a fleet of forty ships to Naupactus, 
in order that he should first collect in this region 
an army of Acarnanians and of other allies of 
Athens and then sail to Siphae, in expectation of 
its being betrayed ; and a day was agreed upon 
between the two generals for doing these two 
things simultaneously. Upon his arrival at Nau- 
pactus, Demosthenes found that Oeniadae had al- 
ready been forced by all the rest of the Acarnanians 
to join the Athenian alliance ; he himself then 
raised ail the allied forces in that district, and after 
first making an expedition against Salynthius and 
the Agraeans ^ and securing these, proceeded with 
his other preparations so as to be present at Siphae 
when needed. 

LXXVIII. About the same time in the course of 
this summer, Brasidas, whowas on his way to TVi-o^- 
with one thousand seven hundred hoplites, r 
Heracleia in Trachis and sent forward a mes 
to his friends at Pharsalus requesting th' 
conduct him and his army through. Accordir 
was met at Meliteia in Achaia by Panaerus, 
Hippolochidas, Toryiaiis, and Strophacus, wl 
proxenus of the Chalcidians, and then proi 
on his march. Me was conducted by several 
salians also, among whom were Niconidas of Lj 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

<7i;9 N(«oBt5a9 YlepSiicKa, iiriT-^htiov we. ryy yap 
&€iTa-a\tav aX\&>9 re ovK evTtopov ^v BiUvM avev 
dytoyov koI fier^ oTiXav ye B^, koI toii Traai ye 
oftoita^ EXXijtrii' fiiroTTTOi' Kaffeiarijicet Tf)v t&v 
irAa? p.7) -neiaavTas Suevai- tok re 'AdT)vaioit 
aiet TTore to irX^doi r&p QetrtraK&v euvow inr^p- 

3 ^ev. wtTTE el fii} SvvtuTTeCa fioXXov ■^ ttTOVOftia 
exp^PTo TO ey^wpiov ^ oi Qea-fraXoi, ovk av iroTfi 
irporfhdev, errel koX tots vopevofievtp ain^ awcai- 
rt/travTe^ aXKoi tS>v TavavrLa Tovroit; ^ovkopAvmv 
iitX Tp 'Eftwei nrorap.^ ixaiXvov xal aSiiceZv etf>a- 

4 aav avev tow trdtnijop KOtvov -TTopevo/itvov. ol Bi 
ar/oirrei oure aieovTmv i^aaav Sid^eiv, ai<j>piSt6p 
T6 trapayevofievov ^evoi owtcs tcofil^etv. eKeye Se 
Koi aiiTOi o BpaaiBa'i r^ &eaaa\av yy koI aiiTots 
^iXo; &v ievai Koi 'Ad7)vaioK trokepioi^ oiiri koI 
OVK exeivotv ovXa iiTK^peiv, ©eo-o-aXow tc oiic 
elBepai xai AaiceSatpoviaii e%8pav ovaav Sttne Tp 
oAiXi^Xfoc 7^ p.r} j^pfjirdat, vvp re djcovrmp ixeivrnv 
aiiK £f TrpoeXOeip {oiiSi yh,p &v Bvpa,70ai), ov 

6 p^vToi d^iovv ye etpyeaQat. naX ol fiev dicou<7aPTe<i 
ravTa dirTiKBov 6 Se KeXevoprrav tSiv dyiay&v, 
irpw 71 irXiov ^uffrrivat to Ka>\0(TOP, ^x^P^* oi/Skv 
iiriffx^" Bpop^. KcU TOVTjj pip T0 VP-^Pf' V ^* 

' ri iyxi-iliur, Hude ohftQgeB to ilX''pWi *fl«r t# iyxff^ 



c.Googlu 



BOOK IV. Lxxvrii. 2-5 

friend of Perdiccas. Indeed, Tliessaly was not in any 
case an easy country to traverse without an escort, 
and especially with an armed force ; and among 
all the Hellenes alike to traverse the territory of 
neighbours without their consent was looked on 
with suspicion. Besides, the common people of 
Thessaly had always been well disposed to the 
Athenians. If, therefore, the Thessaiians had not 
been under the sway of a few powerful men, as is 
usual in that country, rather than under a free 
democracy, Brasidas would not have made headway ; 
even as it was, he was confronted on his march, 
when he reached the river Enipeus, by other Thes- 
salians belonging to the opposite party. Theee tried 
to stop him, warning him that he was doing wrong in 
proceeding without the consent of the whole people. 
But his conductors reassured them, saying that, it 
they were unwilling, they would not conduct him 
further, and that they were merely playing the 
part of hosts in escorting an unexpected visitor. 
Brasidas himself explained that he came as a friend 
to Thessaly and its inhabitants and was bearing arms 
against the Athenians, who were enemies, and not 
against them ; moreover, he was not aware of any 
such hostility between the Thessaiians and the Lace- 
daemonians as to debar them from access to each 
other's territory, but if in this instance they were 
unwilling, he would go no further, nor indeed could 
he do so ; he hoped, however, that they would not bar 
his progress. On hearing this the Thessaiians de- 
parted ; but Brasidas, takuig the advice of his escort, 
before a larger force could be collected to hinder 
him, set out at full speed and without making any 
halt. In fact, he finished the journey to Pharsalus 

347 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

TJTS MeX*T6ms aipaip/itjaev, es '^dpaaXov t€ ireketre 
KaX ia-jpaTOweSevaaTo eVt Tp 'ATrtitid^ trorafip, 
eicelBey Be e's 4>axwi', «al e'f avrov e? Heppatffiap- 
6 iwo 8e TovTQV f)hri oi fikv ^eaaaXSiv arfot^aX trakiv 
a,iT^\dov, 01 tk Heppaifiol avrov, virtjKooi Svre^ 
QeffcraXwp, icaTf(m)<Tav ei A.iov t^ Uep&UKov 
apyi}^, % vira t^ 'OXu/wt^) Ma/CG^Di'La; Ttpit^ 
^eaaa'Koi)<; iroXia-fia /eetrai. 

LXXIX. TovTcp Tp TpoTT^ BpaffiSa? ©ec- 
iraXiav ^Sdaai Si4Spafi€ nrpLv Tiva xcoKtreiv irapa- 
a-KEvaaaadai, xal a^Uero &<; IlepSiieKav koI e? 

2 T^c XaX*tSi«^p. ^« yhp t^i IlgXoTroi'iJiJffou, w? 

^paxf)"; ai^Eo-TCdTE! 'A.drjvaiaii' leal Hephixica^ 
i^i^yayov tou o-rpaTov, oi fiev XdXjctS^ vofU^ov- 
T6S iiri <7tf>di Trp&Tov opfi-^o'eiv rovi 'Affrjvatovv 
(kctI afia at irXTjmo^topot TroXets atn£>v al ovk 
atfieo^'njKutai ^vvetr^ov icpvipa), HepSiitxtK Se 
■n-oX4fuo^ fiev ovk &v ex rov ipavepov, <fio^ovfiepo9 
Si leal avToq ra tiakaia Siiupopa rSiv hOiyvaimv 
Koi, /iaXiffTa ^ovXafUvm Appdffaiov rbv AuyKr)- 

3 iTT&v ^aaiXia irapatrr^a-aa-dai. ^vi/ifftj Be avTOi<i 
ware pqov ix T^? neXoTropvjJo-ov trrpa-roi' i^aya- 
yeip, ri r&v AaiteBai/iovCrov ^v t^ irapoiTi Kaico- 
trparfia- 

LXXX. TSiv yap 'ABrjvatai' hfKeifievtav Tp 
IleXoTroi'i'iJtry ical ovy^ ^Kurra rfj eKelvwv y§, 
^wtfov diTorpi-^eiv ainoi)<! /ioKiara, el dvrt- 
■napaXwoUv TTefiy}rapTe<t iirl tow ^u/tfiAj^ous 
348 

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BOOK IV, LxxviH. 5-Lxxx. i 

on the same day on which he had set out from 
Mehteia, and encamped on the river Apidanus ; 
thence he proceeded to Phaciura, and from there to 
Perriiaebia. Here his Thess&lian escort at length 
tamed back, and the Perrhaebians, who are subjects 
of the Thessalians, brought him safely to Dium in the 
dominions of Perdiccas, a small town in Macedonia at 
the foot of Mt. Olympus, facing Thessaly. 

LXXIX. It was in this manner that Brasidas 
succeeded in rushing through Thessaly before anyone 
could get ready to hinder Mm and reached Perdiccas 
and the Chalcidic peninsula. The reason why the 
peoples in Tlirace who had revolted from Athens 
had, in conjunction with Perdiccas, brought this army 
all the way from the Peloponnesus was that they 
were filled with alarm at the success of the Athenians, 
The Chalcidians thought that the Athenians would 
take the field against them first, and the cities in this 
neighbourhood which had not yet revolted neverthe- 
less took part secretly in inviting the Peloponnesians 
to intervene. As for Perdiccas, although he was 
not yet openly hostile to Athens, he also was afraid 
of the long-standing differences between himself and 
the Athenians, and above all he was anxious to 
reduce Arrhabaeus, the king of the Lyncestians. A 
further circumstance which rendered it easier for 
them to procure an army from the Peloponnesus 
was the evil fortune which at the present time 
attended the Lacedaemonians. 

LXXX. For since the Athenians kept harassing the 
Peloponnesians, and especially the territory of the 
Lacoiaemanians, the latter Uiougbt that the best 
way of diverting them would be to retahate by 
sending an army against their allies, especially since 

349 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

avT&v arpartdv, oXXw? t€ KaX krotfiiav Svrav 
Tpetfieui Tc xal eirl airoend<rei a^at eTTtKoKov- 

2 lUvoiv. ical afia twv YiiXaTwv ^ov\ofih>OK f}v 
iirl vpo^^ei cKir^fi^ai, fiij t( irpov t& irapovTa 

3 T^ IIuXou ij(ofUvj]^ ve<aT€pi<xa>a'ar. iirel Kol roSe 
eirpa^av ipo^ov/ievoi avr&v rijv veonjra ital to 
irXiidoi (atei yhp t^ •jroKXa AaKeBM/wvCot^ irpo9 
Tovi ECktoTai rtjti ^vXax^ nipt pAXiara leadi- 
aTrfKipy Trpoeiirov avr&v 5ffot d^iovaiv iv tojs 
■jToXefdot'! yeyevijaSai a^taiv apiOTOi, Kpivevdai, 
MS iKev8iptoaovre<i, trelpav iroiovfievot KtH ifiov- 
/tepoi TouTOi/s (Ttftltriv v-tto tftpop^/iarot, ot'Trep koX 
ri^laaav iipwTot exatrros iKtuSepovffdai, fidXiaTa 

4 &v Kal evtSia-dat, Kai vpoKpivavTtov ii Sta^x'^^'^ 
ol fihr i(TTftf>aviocravr6 re Kal tA lepi vepi^\0op 
is rjXEvOepoifiAvoi, ol Si oil iroW^ vtrrepov rj/fnivi- 
adp re avroti^ xal oiBeU ^ffSerd otji Tpowip 

5 ^Katrros hiet^Odpr). Ka\ Tore Trpodvp-w; Tp "Rpaaiha 
avrSyv fi/i/ewe/i^av eirTaKO<novii ottXitos, tov? h" 
SKKov^ ck t^ JleXoTTOvvijaov fUtrff^ veitra^ ^f7' 
•^ayev. 

LXXXI, AuToc T6 BpaaiBav ^ovXo/ievov ' 
udXtffTa AaxeSatfuvtot airiaTftXav (vpov0v/j.i^ 
Otjffav Se Kal ol X-aXxiBrjij), civBpa !p re r§ XvapTp 

I fiauhi/unir, with the MSB. Hude reads ^wxijuwai. 
350 

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BOOK IV. ucxx. i-Lxxxi. i 

these allies were ready to maintain an army and 
were calling upon the Lacedaemonians for help in 
order that they might revolt. Furthermore, the 
Lacedaemonians were glad to have an excuse for 
sending out some of the Helots, in order to forestall 
their attempting a revolt at the present juncture 
when Pylos was in the possession of the enemy. 
Indeed, through fear of their youth ^ and numbers 
— for in fact most of their measures have always 
been adopted by the Lacedaemonians with a view 
to guarding against the Helots — they had once even 
resorted to the following device. They made pro- 
clamation that all Helots who claimed to have ren- 
dered the Lacedaemonians the best service in war 
should be set apart, ostensibly to be set free. They 
were, in fact, merely testing them, thinking that those 
who claimed, each for himself, the first right t« be set 
free would be precisely the men of high spirit who 
would be the most likely to attack their masters. 
About two thousand of them were selected and 
these put crowns on their heads and made the 
rounds of the temples, as though they were already 
free, but the Spartans not long afterwards made away 
with them, and nobody ever knew in what way each 
one perished. So,on the present occasion, the Spartans 
gladly sent with Brasidas seven hundred Helots as 
hoplites, the rest of his forces being drawn from the 
Peloponnesus by the inducement of pay. 

LXXXI. As for Brasidas himself, the Lacedae- 
monians sent him chiefly at his own desire, though 
the Chalcidians also were eager to have him. He 
was a man esteemed at Sparta as being energetic in 

> Mob6 MSS. read ninrra, B aKoidnrra, but Bonie word 
meaning "bo1diieBg"or " recklessneu " Beoms to be required. 
Hnde adopts Wiedmann's cODJecture laUriniTa. 

351 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

ioKOuvTa BpacrTrjpiov elvat e? ri iravra icaX eireietj 
i^rjXde irXeitrTov S.^iov AaveSaiftoviOK yevofievoi'. 

2 TO re yhp irapavTiKa iaVTOv ■napa<7-)(oi)v Slxacoi' 
Koi fiirpiov it TCL'i TToXcfs airi<jTr}(je to, ttoXXo, tA 
Se TrpoSoaia elXe r&v ')(wplcap, mare tow Aaxe- 
haifiovioK ylyveaSai ^v/j.^aiveiu re 0ov\ofievoK, 
Sirep iiroi/r)<Tav, avTaTroBotrtv koI airoSoy(i)v x^p^^v 
Koi Tov "KoKep-ov a-KO t^s TleXo-novv-^aov Xcotftija-iv 
€! T£ TOV ■)(fi6v^ vajepov /iera ra e'« ScxeXta? 
TTokefiov 17 TOre BpatriSov aperii xai f weo-ts, rmv 
p.iv TTflpq, aiadopivmv, tww hi aKO^ vOfUtrdvrafP, 
/laktaTa iitidvpiav eveiroiet Tot? 'A.drivaimv fu/i- 

S fiay(pK e's Tovt Aa/ceSaifioi/iov?, irprnToi yb,p i^e\- 
ffiiv Kal So^a^ elvai Kara Travra ar/ado'i eXiriSa 
iyKaTeXtire ffiffaiov <u; koX ol aWoi toiovtoi, 

LXXXII. Tore B' ovv a^iKopAvov avrov « rh 
etrX @pifKJ]<i ol 'AOrjvaiot ■irv86p,€voi, tov re IIcp- 
Sixxav woXifiMv iroiovvTai, vopiaavre'j airiov 
elvai riji trapoBov, xal Tap TavTi} ^/ifidj(t»v 

ij)v\aKr]v irXeova Karefrr^aavTO. LXXXIII. Ile^ 
BiKita^ Se 'Bpaa-lSav Kal rifv aTpari^v evdvt Xa0an/ 
p/BTO, T^9 kavTov Svvdp.etD'i (TTparevei iirl Ap- 
pd^aiov TOV ^pop^pov, AvyKr/aT&v M.aiceS6vmv 
^aaiXea, Sp/ipov ovTa, Statftopdi re avr^ ov<Tifv 
2 Koi ySouXo/iei'os KaTauTpi'^aadai.. hrei he iyiveTO 
Tp ffTpaT^ fi^Th. TOV QpaffiSov ivl t!) ea^oX^ Ttji 



35* 



c.C.OOglu 



BOOK IV. Lxxxi. I-Lxxxin. a 

eveiything he did, and indeed, after he had gone 
abroad, he proved invaluable to the Lacedaemonians. 
For, at the present crisis, by showing himself just 
and moderate in his dealings with the cities he 
caused most of the places to revolt, and secured 
possession of others by the treachery of their in- 
habitants, so that when the Lacedaemonians wished 
to make terms with Athens, as they did ultimately,'^ 
they had places to offer in exchange for places they 
wished to recover and were able to secure for the 
Peloponnesus a respite from the war ; and in the 
later part of the war, after the events in Sicily, it 
was the virtue and ta.ct which Brasidas had displayed 
at this time — qualities of which some had had ex- 

Serience, while others knew of them by report — that 
id most to inspire in the allies of the Athenians a 
sentiment favourable to the Lacedaemonians. For 
since he was the first Lacedaemonian abroad who 
gained a reputation for being in all respects a good 
man, he left behind him a confident belief that the 
other Lacedaemonians also were of the same stamp. 
LXXXII. On the arrival of Brasidas in Thrace at 
the time referred to,* the Athenians, on hearing of 
it, declared Perdiccas an enemy, regarding him as 
responsible for his coming, and they established a 
stricter watch over their allies in that region. 
LXXXni. But Perdiccas immediately took Brasidas 
and his army, together with his own forces, and 
made an expedition against his neighbour Arrha- 
baeus, son of Bromerus, king of the Lyncestian 
Macedonians ; for he had a quarrel witli him and 
wished to subdue him. But when he and Brasidas 
arrived with their combined armies at the pass leading 
1 421 B.C.; qf. V. ivii. » t/. ch. Ixxiji. 1. 

353 

:„.„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

AvyKov, B/JOffi'Sa? €5 Xoyov^ ' etfnj ^ovXetrffat 

TTpaiTov e\$a>p Trpo iroXefiov 'Appaffaiov ^Vfifiaxpv 
3 AaxeBaifiovltitv, jji" BvvtjTai, -TToiija-ai. «ai yap n 
Kal 'Appa^aio^ eireKripvicEveTO, erot/to? &)v BpaaiSa 
p4a<p Siiea&Tp eirnpeireiv xal oi S.a\KiBea>v 
itpea^eK ^vp/trapovrei; iBCBafftcov aiiTov /ir) xiire^- 
fXeiv T^ TlipSi/CKa to Betva, "pa npodtip.OTepp 
i iy(pi€P Kol 69 TO, eavTmv y^pfj(70ai. afui B4 ti koI 
eip'^Kerrav tqvqvtov oi Trapi tow U-epBixKOv €v t§ 
AaiceBaip^vi, (is ttoXXA avTolv tSiv irepX avTov 
■)(iiipi(ov ^vp,p.axa Tranjaoi, wffxe e« tov rotovTov 
Kotvfj /iaWov 6 Bpafft'Sas ri tov 'Appa^aiov 

5 ^^iov TrpatTfreLv. HepBiKKa^ Si aire BiKatrTi/v eify^ 
^paaCSav Toiv a-cfserepatv BiaipOpSiV ayayelv, pMK- 
Xov Bi KoSaipeTTiv atv av avTO'i aTTOtpaivr] TroXe- 
fdtov, ahiKTiaeiv re et avTOv Tpeifiopro'; to ij/ittru 

6 TOV arpaTou ^vvirrTai 'AppaScUip. 6 Be axovTOi 
Koi ex Biatf>opd^ ^vyyiyveTai, ical treiffffeli to(5 
Xoyoi^ airr^aye tt)p CTpari^v trplv ea^aXfiv e? 
T^i" j(<itpav. HepBifCKa^ Bi fiera tovto t/mtoi* 
pApoi avff' ffpiaeo^ t^; Tpoi^ri<! eBlBov, vopi^tav 

LXXXIV. 'Ei- Bk T^ avT^ Oepei €U^w? o 

GpatriBa^ e;^eoii ital XaXxiSiat iirl 'Axapffov rifv 
'AvSpiatv airoiKiav oXLyov -rrpo rpvy^Tov etrrpii- 
2 revaev. ol Bi vepl tov Bi-)(ea8at ainhv tear 
• is Kiyovt, van Herwerden'e correction for a J7011 of the MSS. 
354 



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BOOK IV. ucxxiii. 2-Lxxxiv. 2 

to Lyncus, Brasidas said that he wished, before 
appealing to arms, to have a conference with Arrha- 
baeus and make him an ally of the Lacedaemouians, 
if he could. For it seemed that Arrhabaeus had 
made some overtures and was ready to submit the 
questioD at issue to Brasidas' arbitration ; tlie Chalci- 
dian envoys who were present also kept urging him 
not to remove the difficulties from the path of 
Perdiccas, since they wished to have in him a more 
zealous helper in their own affairs. Furthermore, 
the envoys of Perdiccas, when they were at Lace- 
daemon, had given a hint to the effect that he would 
bring many of the places in his neighbourhood into 
alliance with the Lacedaemonians i consequently 
Brasidas was inclined to insist upon having a freer 
hand in dealing with Arrhabaeus. But Perdiccas said 
that he had not brought Brasidas to be a judge of 
their quarrels, but rather to be a destroyer of any 
enemies whom he himself might designate, and that 
Brasidas. would do wrong if, when he himself main- 
tained half the army, he should parley with Arrha- 
baeus. But Brasidas, in spite of Perdiccas and after 
a quarrel with him, held the conference, and finding 
the king's arguments convincing, withdrew his army 
without invading bis country. After this Perdiccas 
contributed only a third instead of one-half of the 
maintenance, considering himself to be aggrieved. 

LXXXIV. Immediately afterwards during the 
same summer and a short time before tlie vintage 
season, Brasidas took some Chalcidians in addition 
to his own force and made an expedition against 
Acanthus, the colony of the Andrians. But on the 
question of admitting him the Acantbians were 



..C.DDgk 



THUCYDIDES 

(IXXjJXou? itTTaala^op, ot re fierii tS>v XaXxiSeav 
^vve■^^arfov^e^ ital 6 Sij/u>^. ofi.a>i Be Bii. rou 
Kafmov TO Seo? en efw ovrov TreiaQkv to v\^m 
inro roO BpaalBov Se^airdai re avrov fi^vov KaX 
dicovcravTe^ ffovXevtraaBai, Bex^eTar xal Karainhi! 
i-rrX rh irXifiot {^v Be ovBe dBuparo^, (is AojceSat- 
/lopioi, eltreiv) eXeye rotdSe. 

LXXXV. "'H fi€v eKTrefi'^jriv fwv kuI t^ 
arpaTtav inro AaKeBatfiOpCtav, & 'AxavBiot, 
yeyivrfTai -n)V alriav eiraXtjOevovaa ^v apxofuevot 
TOW TToX^ftov "Trpoel-rrofiev, 'A^TjiraioK iKeuGepothrre^ 

2 T^v EXXaSo TroXe/iijVetr- el Si XP°''V etr'^KSofiev, 
iT^taKAvreii t§! otto tov exel iroXe/xov Sofijs, ^ 
Bi^ Ta)(pu<i avraX avev tov vfterepov mvSvvov 
■ffKiriaafiev 'Adijvalov^ Kaffaip^iretv, /ujSel; 
/iefitl>ff^- vvv rydp, ore trapea-x^"' ^t^fJ^oi Kai 
furh. iifiwv wetpatTo^da Karepyd^eaffat avrow. 

3 Sav/id^a Bi rp re airo/cX^ffei fWV t&v iruk&v Koi 
i el fxi) da/j-ivoit vftlv difiiyfiai. ^^ei; /j^v yip oi 

AaKeBai/iOVioi olofievoi te napit ^vfipAxovj, KOi 
■n-piv epy<p dipiieitrffai, Ttj yovv yvdifiy ij^tv «ai 
^ovXofUvoK ea-etrffat, kLvBvvov Te rotrovBe aveppt- 
"^afiev Bia t^s aWoTpiai •n-oWSiv rjnepStv oSow 
lopreK Kal irav to irpoOvfiov vapeaX'&f*effa- ' 
B iifieii Sk ei T( dWo hi v^ ^cre ^ el ivavrtmaeaOt 
T7J TE v/ierepa avrStv eX^uSepia leaX t&v SXKwp 

' Rutherford's correotion for ra/icx^fi'si of the MSS. 
356 

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BOOK IV. ucxxiv. z-Lxxxv. 5 

divided among themselves, on tlie one side being 
those who, in concert with the Chalcidians, asked 
him to intervene, and on tiie other side the popular 
party. However, when Brasidas urged tliem to 
admit him unattended and then, after hearing what 
he had to say, to deliberate on the matter, the 
populace consented, for they had fears concerning 
the grapes, which had not yet been gathered. So he 
came before the people — and indeed, for a Lace- 
daemonian, he was not wanting in ability as a 
speaker — and addressed them as follows : 

LXXXV, "Citizens of Acanthus, the Lacedae- 
monians have sent me and my army to prove the 
truth of what we proclaimed at the beginning to be 
the cause of the war, when we said that we were 
going to war with the Athenians for the liberation 
of Hellas. But if we have arrived late, disap- 
pointed as we have been with regard to the war 
at home, where we liad hoped to destroy the 
Athenians quite speedily, by our own efforts and 
without involving you in the danger, do not blame 
us ; for we are here now, having come as soon as 
opportunity offered, and together with you we shall 
try to subdue them. But 1 am amazed at the closing 
of your gates against me, and that my coming has 
been uDwelcome to you. For we Lacedaemonians, 
thinking, even before we actually came, that we 
should find ourselves among men who were allies in 
spirit at least and that we should be welcomed, have 
hazarded the great danger of travelling a journey of 
many days through an alien territory and have shown 
all possible zeal. But if you have aught else in mind, 
or intend to stand in the way of your own freedom 
and that of the rest of the Hellenes, that would be 

357 

D,an:«i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

6 'EkXijvtov, Seivov &v «ij. xal yhp ov^ art aiiTol 
avdLaraaBe, aXK.a. leaX oh &p eVtut, Jjfftrov Tts 
ifuil trpoaetat, Sv<Tj(^cph woiovfievoi el iirl o6s 
'7rpS>Tov ^XSov vfia^, koX -ttoKiv a^io-j^teav Trap^Xfi- 
fiivov! >cal ^vveaiv SoKoviiTa^ e-^eiv, fir/ ihi^aadt, 
Kaif T^v airiap ov ho^tu ^ wtffriiv attoheiKvvfcu, 
uXV t) atiKov TrjV ikevdeptav eiri^epeiv fj aaSevrfi 
KoX ahivaTOi n/J^p^ai. to •npoi 'A0T}vaiov^, rpi 

7 etnmaiv, a,(fity(Oai. Katroi aTparia ye r^S' ffv vvv 
^w etrl NiVotai' e/tow ^oij6^<ravT0'i ovk rfi&cq- 
ffav 'A6j]vaiot TrXiove? Svrev trpoafisl^at, Ztrre 
OVK eiicm vjlrr) * ye aureus rp iv Nto-at^' 
ffTparp taov wXfj&o^ i<f>' vp.ai airoffTeikai. 

LXXXVI. "A^To? re ovk eirl Katc^, in* ekev- 
depmaei Se t&v 'EXXjjikoi' ■rrap€\i}Kv$a, opKoit t« 
AaxeSatfj^vlav xaraXa^aiv ri riXij rolv /ieyicrrot^ 
ij firjv ati &v eyaye irpoaaydyaiftai ^v/iftdj^ow 
eaeaOai avTovofj-ovi, Koi dp,a oipf iva fy/t^^ow? 
vfiai ex^o/ifP 4 ff^f V dira-T^ vpoiT7M^6vTe<t, aXka 
TovpavJtOP vfiiv Se&ovXa/iivoK viro 'AOrivemav 

2 ^fifiaxv'^o''T^'!- ovKovv a^ia oSt aurm Irjrow- 
reveadai, -rritrTeii ye SiSovv ritt fieyitrrwi, oiSre 
Tifitttpixi ahvvaTo^ vop-itrO^jvat,, irpoax^peiv hi 
v/ia^ ffapcnjcravra^. 

3 " Kal et Tti ISiti riva SeStati apa, fit} eyta Titrt 
■trpotrdm Tr}v TroXiVt anrpoffvftK errri., iravrttv 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. Lxxxv. 5-LXXAV1. 3 

moQstrons. For it is not merely that you yourselves 
oppose me, but that all to whom I may apply will be 
less inclined to join me, raising the objection that 
you to whom I first came, representing as you do an 
important city and reputed to be men of sense, did 
not receive me. And it will seem ^ that the reason 
which I give for your refusal is not to be believed, 
but that either the freedom I offered you is not 
honourable, or that when I came to you I was power- 
less and unable to defend you against the Athenians 
if they should attack you. And yet when I brought 
aid to Nisaea with the very army which I now have, 
the Athenians were unwilling, though superior in 
numbers, to engage us, so that they are not 
likely to send against you by sea a number equal to 
the armament they had at Nisaea. 

LXXXVI. " As for myself, 1 have come here not 
to harm but to liberate the Hellenes, having bound 
the government of the Lacedaemonians by the most 
solemn oaths that in very truth those whom I should 
win as allies should enjoy their own laws ; and 
further, we are come, not that we may have you as 
allies, winning you over either by force or fraud, but 
to offer our alliance to you who have been enslaved 
by the Athenians. I claim, therefore, that I ought 
not either myself to be suspected, offering as I do 
the most solemn pledges, or to be accounted an 
impotent champion, but that you should boldly come 
over to me, 

" And if anyone, possibly, being privately afraid of 
somebody is half-hearted through fear that I may 
put the city into the hands of some party or 
' Or, reading obx <f<"i " ^*i 1 shall hftve lo aubroit to the 
charge of not being able to give a reason for your refusal 
that can be believed, but of oneriDg, etc." 

359 



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THUCYDIDES 

4 /idXiena irierrevaaTto. ov yap ^varaaidaotv 
^Kia, ovti av iratfiT}^ rifv eKevOeplav po/u^eo itrt- 
<f)4p«ip, et TO ird'Tpioti Trapett to irXiov tow 
oXiyoK f) TO eKaiTffOP rot? vaai Sov\toaai/ii. 

8 ;(;a\€'n'«Te/jffl ykp &p t^s dXKotftvkov apxrj^ eli), 
Kal fifilv TOK AaitfSatfiodoi^ oiiK &,v aprX •noprmv 
Xdpi<! KaffltrratTo, dprl Be t»/*^? koI Sofij? alHa 
fiaXKov oU re tows 'A^j;w*ious eyieX^fUKTi 
KaTa-rroXe/Mv/iev, avTol &p tf>ai»olf*e0a exBlopa 

6 -^ 6 fiT] vwoSei^a^ apertjii xaTOKToaiitvoi, airarij 
y^p einrpetrel ala'^iOP * to« ye iv a^ito/uiTt 
TrXeoveKTTJerai t) ^Ca ifuftavei- to ftev yhp iiJ-)(VO<t 
Bucaidaei, ^v ^ tu^^ eSmxev, iiripxerai, to Si 
ypw/if}:; aSticov ini^ovXy. LXXXVII. ovrto 
TToXXijv •jrepuaTTtpi tS>v Tjfiiv * e? to. /ieyiara 
hia^opmp TTOiov/teOa, km, ovk av fisL^a irpot 
TOW SpKoiv $€^ata>aiv Xd0otTe, ^ * oh tq epya 
4k tSiv XoytDv apadpov/ieva Soxriaip avayxaiav 
•jiapix^''''*'' ^^ ""■'■ ^vfMpepet ofioiax; ai elivov. 

2 " Et S" ifiov Tavra 7r/30t(r;;^o//€i'ou oBvputoi fikv 
^jJ<T6Te elvai, eZvoi B Svre^ d^uoaeTe /iij tcatcov- 
fiepoi BtaffetaOat, Kal ttjp iXevdeplap fir) okIvSwov 
v/iip ifiaipetrffai, BiKatov tc thai, oU icai BwaTov 
Be^ei^Sai airTTiv, tovtoi^ xal iwKftipeiv, axovTa 8e 

' &v aa^j], Bauer's correction {or iva^ of the MSS. 

' Hude writes aXaxiiv ti, after Stobaeua. 

" Uude writes tju*, with Stahl. * Deleted by Hude. 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. -Lxxxvi. 3LXXXV1I, a 

other,* let him most of all have confidence. For 1 
am not come to join li faction, nor do 1 think that 
the freedom I am offering would be a real one if, 
regardless of your ancestral institutions, 1 should 
enslave the majoritj to the few or the minorit}' to 
the multitude. That would be more galling than 
foreign rule, and for us Lacedaemonians the result 
would be, not thanks for our pains, but, instead of 
honour and glory, only reproach ; and the very 
charges on which we are waging war to the death 
against the Athenians we should be found to be 
bringing home to ourselves in a more odious form 
than the power which has made no display of virtue. 
For it is more shameful, at least to men of reputa- 
tion, to gain advantage by specious deceit than by 
open force ; for the one makes assault by the 
assertion of power, which is the gift of fortune, 
the other by the intrigues of deliberate injustice. 
LXXXVIl. Consequently we Lacedaemonians use 
great circumspection as regards matters that con- 
cern us in the highest degree * ; and you could not 
get better security, in addition to our oaths, than 
where you have men whose actions scrutinized in 
the light of their professions furnish the irresistible 
conviction that their interests are indeed exactly as 
they have said. 

" But if you meet these offers of mine with the plea 
that you cannot join us, but, because you are well- 
disposed to us, claim that you should not suffer by your 
refusal, and maintain that the liberty I offer seems to 
you to be not without its dangers, and that it is right 
to offer it to those who can receive it but not to force 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

/iT/Sipa irpoaavayxd^eLp, /j.dprvpa<; fiev Oeoixi Ka\ 
^pui^ tov'i if^atpiov^ voujao/iai mi ew dya$^ 
^Koiv oil TeiBto, yfiv he t^c hixe-repav Bji&v -jreipa- 

3 aofiai &tai^e<r6ai, ical ovK dSiKetP ert vop.t&, 
•npoueZvat B4 t( p.oi. koI ttaret Sw dvar/Ka'i to 
evXoyov, rAv fiiv AaxeSai/iovlcov, ottw? fiij t^ 
vp£Tfp<i> eiivip, el fiij mpoaay9rj!Tta6e, toi? otto 
vp.<av yjiTifiatji iftepo/ievoi'; Trap' ^AStji/atou^ ffKd-7T- 
Tcavrai, ol Be ' EX.X.j)jie9 iva fiij KmXvmvrai iiif) 

4 vfi&v SovXeiai dTraXktvyTJvai. ou y&p 5^ elKOTta^ 
y &v TtiSf trpdaaoiftev, ovBe oi^MLKopiev ol Aeuee- 
Batfiavioi /t^ Koivav Ttiws dyaOov alTia tows ft.r) 

6 ^ov\ofievov<; iXevBepovV ovS' aS ttpy^rfi e<fne/ieda, 
Travaai Si fiaWov eripovi aTrevSovrf; roiii 
TrXelovi &v dBiKot/iev, el ^vp.vaaiv avTOVopiav 
f7ritf>epovTe<; i/fmi tous ii/apTiov/iipov<; vepuBoi/tev. 

6 "TTpcK ravra ^ovKeveaQe e&, Kai dywvlaairSe tok 
T6 "EX\iji7(c ap^at ttp&toi iXevffeptai xal diStov 
Bo^aii uaraBiadoL, it at aurol rd re tSia fitj 
ff\a<j>$rjvai xai ^vp/irdari ttj -jroXei to xdWuiTov 
ovopM irepideivai." 

LXXXVIir. 'O p.ev QpaaiBai Toaaiha (iirev. 
ol Bi 'AKavBtoi, TToWSiP Xexfffi^top trpoTepov itr 
a^iporepa, icpvipa Bia^r]^iadp,(voi, Sid re to 
eTrayayy^ elvelv top SpaniBav xal Trepl tow 
Kapwov <fio0q> eypatrav ol TrXeiof; d^laTaffOai 
'ASijpaUop, xal irtOTwaavre^ avTOP rots op/coiv 
o&? jd TcXij r5>p AaKeBaifioplwp o/iocapra avTOP 
e^iiren^ap, ^ firfv lo-eir^at ^v/it*dxov<t ainopo/iom 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. Lxxxvii. 2-LXXxvm. i 

it on anyone against his will, I shall make the gods 
and heroes of your countrymy witnesses that, though 
I come for your good, 1 cannot persuade you, and I 
shall try, by ravaging your territory, to compel you ; 
and in that case I shall not consider that I am doing 
wrong, but that 1 have some justification, for two 
compelling reasons : first, in the interest of the 
Lacedaemonians, that with all your professed good- 
will toward them they may not, in case you shall 
not be brought over, be injured by the money you 
pay as tribute to the Athenians ; secondly, that the 
Hellenes may not be prevented by you from escaping 
bondage. For otherwise we should not be justified 
in acting thus, nor are we Lacedaemonians bound, 
except on the plea of some common good, to confer 
liberty on those who do not wish it. Nor, again, are 
we seeking after empire, but rather we are eager 
to stop others from acquiring it ; and we should 
do wrong to the majority, if, when we are bringing 
independence to all, we permitted you to stand in 
the way. In view of these things, deliberate wisely, 
and strive to be the first to inaugurate freedom 
for the Hellenes and to lay up for yourselves un- 
dying fame ; thus you will save your own property 
from injury and confer upon your whole State the 
fairest name." 

LXXXVIII. Such was the speech of Brasidas. But 
the Acanthians, after much had been said on both 
sides of the question, took a secret vote, and, on 
accountof Brasidas' impassioned words and their fears 
about the harvest, the majority decided to revolt from 
the Athenians ; then having bound him with the 
oaths which the authorities of the Lacedaemonians 
swore when they sent him out, namely, that those 

363 



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THUCYDIDES 

obv Si/ •n-poaayayr]Tai, ovrat Sey(pVTat rov HTpaTov, 
3 «ol ov iToKii vtTTepov Kal iiToytpo^ 'AvBpitav 
iiroucia ^vvetiTea-rt}. ravra fiiv oip iv Tp Bepei 
Tovrp iyevero. 

LXXXIX, ToO S' eTTirfi.yvo/iei'ov ')(fifjLS)viK eiiS^ 
a.pypii.kvov, oi? t^ 'X-nivOKpaT^i KaX Aij/iOtrBipei 
tTTpaTTiyott oJ/mv ' Adtivait/iv tA ev roi^ BotuTots 
iveStSoTO Koi eSei rov fiev AiffioaO^vji rai^ vavalv 
e? Ttt? St^o? iiiravTTiiTai, top & cttI to At'iKiov, 
'yepOfUvt]'! Sia/uipTta<; rwv r/fifpav e<i S? eSet 
etfitftorepov^ arpaTevetv, 6 fitv Atjiioadivi)^ itpo- 
Tepnv irKevaa'i tt/jo? to.? 2i0a9 Kal e;^ti)i' iv raw 
vavahi AKapvdva'i xal rStv eKei ttoXXou? fv/i- 
fiajfatv, awpaicToi firfviiat fitjvvdivTO^ Toi) 
eTTifiouXev/MiTO^ VTTO J^iKOfidj^ov, avSpb'i ^ei>K4av 
is <t'avOTea>s, S? AaKeSaipovloK eiTTfv, eKta/oi Se 
2 BotwTOts* Koi Qoifiela^ yevopevi}^ iravratv 
BotrdToip {ov yap irm 'l-TTiroKpaTTi^ irapeXvirei hi 
T^ yfj a>v) TrpoieaTaXap^dvovToi aX-re ^i<f>ai leal 
^ ji.aipmveia. ms Bi ^trdopro ol ■npaatrovre^ 
TO aftdprfifta, ovBkv eKittjffav tSiv iv rat; 
TToketriv. 

XC, 'O Be 'liTTTOKparTis avaaT^aai ^ ABr^vedotx; 
iravBrip.n, aiirov^ ical toli? p.eToLitov^ koX ^evoiv 
otrot tvapfiaav, varepoi diptK^fZiai ent to AijKtov, 
^ij Twc BottoToiv avaKe)(a>pTjKOToiv a-no twc 
%ti^mv' Kfli KaSiaas top arpaTov A^~hiov STeij^i^e 
2 Toi^Se TpoTTip.^ Ta^pov fiev ku/cX^ irepl to iepov 
KoX TOP veiap eaKaiTTOP, sk Bk tov opvyfUtTOi 
avi^aXXov avrl relxov^ top "xovp, leaX ffTavpob^ 

' ri IftA, Toi 'AwiMvyoi, after rp6T^ in the MSS., deleted 
by Dobree. 

364 



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BOOK IV. LXXYviii. i-xc. 2 

whom he might win over should be autonomous allies, 
they finally received the army. And not Ion;; after- 
wards Stagirus/ a colony of the Andrians, joined 
in the revolt. Such then, were the events of that 



LXXXIX. At the very beginning of the following 
winter,^ when the places in Boeotia were to be 
delivered to Hippocrates and Demosthenes, the 
Athenian generals, Demosthenes was to have been 
present with his ships at Siphae, the other general 
at Delium. But a mistake was made as to the days 
when both were to start, and Demosthenes sailed 
too soon to Siphae, having Acarnanians and many 
allies l^m that region on board, and so proved 
unsuccessful; for the plot had been betrayed by 
Nicomachus, a Phocian from Fhanotis, who told the 
Lacedaemonians, and they the Boeotians. Accord- 
ingly succour came from all the Boeotians — for 
Hippocrates was not yet in their country to annoy 
them — and both Siphae and Chaeronea were occu- 
pied in advance ; and the conspirators, learning of 
the mistake, attempted no disturbance in the towns, 

XC. Meanwhile Hippocrates levied all the forces 
of Athens, both citizens and resident aliens, and such 
foreigners as were in the city. But he arrived at 
Delium too late, after the Boeotians had already with- 
drawn from Siphae. Then, after settling his army in 
camp, he proceeded to fortify Delium in the following 
manner. They dug a ditch round the temple and 
the sacred precinct and threw up the earth from 
the ditch to serve for a wall, fixing stakes along 



' About twelve miles north of Acanthus, known also ai 

ageira, the birthplace of Aristotle. 

* rEMnmption of the narrative of ch. Itxix. 



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THUCYDIDES 

■jTapaKaTatrrjyi'WTe'i a/itreXov Ko-movTe^ Ttfv irepi 
TO Upov ia€0a\Xov xal XlOovv a/MX xal irXivBov 
eic T&v otieoTreBoiv ra>v ejyvv KaBaipovvre-i, koX 
travTi Tpotvtp iflt^el/)pl^ov to epvfia. irvpyov^ re 
fuXtVocs' KaTea-Tr/aav ij Kaipm V" *'*'■ ''''^ tepoO 
oiKoBofirjpM ovB^v {nrijpxfv ^Tvep yip ^v cttoA 

3 Kareire-nrtoKei. rfpipa S^ dp^dp^epoi Tpirtj wy 
oiKoOev Mpp-Tjaav raurtjv re elpyd^oi/ro ical rt/v 

4 reTdprr/v /cal t^s irepwrr}-; pey^pi dplarov. etreira, 
(OS T^ tr\el<TTa drn'trerfKeaTO, to pkv (npaTOTre^ov 
Trpoa-n-e^tiiprjaev d-iro tow AtjXioii olov hetca 
ffraBtov^ m? eV oXkov wopevofievov, xal ol ftev 
\}ri\ol oi wXtiaTOi eidvv ex^povv, oi S' ovXtrai 
Beftevoi TO oTrXa ^ffii^afoc* 'liriroicpdTr}'; Se 
vtrofiiveop ?T( KadLaTaTO tfivXaxdi tb xat tA vepl 
TO vporeixtirp^i oaa ^v {nroXofrra, ws XP'f" 
etmeXeaac. 

XCI. 01 &i BoMUToi ev rat; fipApaits TavraK 
^vve\4yovTo 4t ttjv Tdvaypav ical iirfiBii 
«7rA iraaStv t&v voXewv vap^aav koI yvOd- 
vovro Toi)^ 'Adrjvalov^ vpo'X'^povvra'i iir oiKOV, 
t€)v aKKmv ffoitDrapx&v, o" eltriv evSexa, oii 
^vvfiraivouvTeav p.d-yetrffai, i-jr eiSi} ovk iv t§ 
BotfUTt'a iTi etai (fiaXiara yelp ev fiedopCoK t^5 
ilpaiiria'; ol Adijvaioi rjoav, oie eBevro ril oirXo), 
JXarfoivha'i o AloXdBov ^olcoTapX&v e« Srjff&v 
fter 'ApiavOiSov toO Avaipax'-^ov kuI riyefiovlai 
ovm]^ aiirov ffovXoaevo^ rijp pd^fiv iroi^trat Kol 
vopi^mv apxivov eluoi xtvSvvevaai, vpoaKokStv 
eKdoTov^ teari \6xouv, ottws fit) d&pooi, eKXiirotev 
tA StrXa, lireiOe Toiit Boioitoij? Uvat cttI tow? 
^ Adrivaiov; xai top offSiva iroieiadai, A.e76n/ jotdBe. 
366 



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BOOK IV. xc. a-xci. 

it; and cutting down the grape-vines round the 
sanctuary, they threw them iu, as well as stones 
and bricks from the neighbouring homesteads which 
they pulled down, and in every way strove to 
increase the height of the fortification. Wooden 
towers, too, were erected wherever there was occasion 
for them and no temple-structure was ready to hand ; 
for the cloister that once existed had fallen down. 
Beginning on tl'.e third day after they started from 
home, they worked that day and the fourth and until 
dinner-time on the fifth. Then, when most of it had 
been finished, the main body withdrew from Delium 
about ten stadia on their way home ; and most of 
the light-armed troops went straight on, while the 
hoplites grounded arms and halted there. Hippocra- 
tes, however, remained behind and was busy posting 
pickets and arranging to complete whatever was 
unfinished about the outwork. 

XCI. But during these days the Boeotians were 
gathering at Tanagra ; and when they had come in 
from all the cities and perceived that the Athenians 
were going home, the rest of the eleven Boeotarchs 
disapproved of fighting, as the enemy were no longer 
in Boeotia — for the Athenians were just about on the 
borders of Oropia when they halted. But Pagondas 
son of Aeolidas, who, with Arianthidas son of Lysi- 
machidas, was Boeotarch from Thebes and then in 
chief command, wishing to bring on the battle and 
thinking it was better to take the risk, called the 
men by companies one after another, that they might 
not leave their arms all at once, and tried to persuade 
the Boeotians to go against the Athenians and bring 
on the contest, speaking as follows : 

367 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

XCir. " Xprjv fiev. Si avtpe^ BottoTot, fi-qh es 
eTrivoidv rtva ^/*o>i/ eK$eiv tS>v apxivTeov (09 ovtc 
et/eo'i 'A0rii/aioi<{, ^v apa /ij? ec Tp BotwTiec eTi 
KaTa\d0o3fi.ev ainovt, hik p.dxv'i eXSeip. ri}p 
yap BotEdTiai' ite t^? ofiopov i\S6vT€<{ 7etj(p^ 
ivoiicoBofiifffdftetioi ft4Wovtri ^eipetv, leal etal 
SiJttow TroXifUOi iv p t« &v xwpitp KajaXi]tf>0w<Ti 

2 Kal 56ep itreXBovre^ ■no'Kifiia eBpaa-av. vvvl &' 
ei ry Kal da^aXearepov eSo^ev elvat, ^mto- 
yvatra. oi) yap to ■jrpop^de'i, oh &v aXXoi; ittij}, 
■rrepl Tij5 a'ipe7ipai 6iioica<; ivSej^erat Xoyt<rfiov koX 
ou-T(? T^ fiev iavTov e^et, rov TrXeiovo^ Bk optyo- 

3 fievoi eKoiv nvi eTripyferai. vdrpiap re vpXv 
a-Tparov dXXoipvXoi' i-neX06vja xal iv r^ oiKelif 
Kal iv rfj Toiv ireXas 6/ioiai^ dfivveaSair 'A^ij- 
vaiov; Si Kai irpoffen ofUpovi ^i^ra? ttoXX^ 

4 fuiXt<TTa Set. -Trpov re y&p toik darvyeiTovas 
itaai TO avTiiraXov Ka\ eXeuBfpov KaOlirraTat, *(il 
Trpo^ TOVTOvi ^ ye S^, ot xal p-tj tows' e77ii9, dXXh 
Kal TOW diroiSev itetp&vTai BavXovirBai, ■rruv oi 
y(pil Kal eirl to ea%aTOV drf&vo'i eXddv {trapd- 
Seiyp.a hi i\op,ev TOVi re avTi-nepa^ Eiv^oea^ xal 
T^S iXXt}^ EXXaSo; to ttoXv w5 avToli SidKeirat), 
Kal yvS)vai oti Tots pev aXXoiii oi ■n-Xrjaioyfriapoi 
Trepl yijs opmv tA? ^lij^a? TroiovPTai, riplv ti e's 
•trdaav, fpi viKtjdSipiev, els opo^ ova dvTiXeKTO^ 
iray^aeTat- e<TeX06vTe<; yap fiia t^ fjp^Tepa 

5 e^ovciv. ToaavT^ eiriKivSwoTspap eTepatv t^h 

' Duker'i ooireotion for ToiTou of the M8S. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. xcii. i-s 

XCll. "it should never, men of Boeotia, have 
even entered the roind of any of us who are in 
command that we ought not to come to battle with 
the Athenians unless we should overtake them while 
still on Boeotian soil. For it was to ravage Boeotia 
that they came from across the frontier and built a 
fort in our territory, and they are assuredly equally 
our enemies wherever they may be caught, and 
especially on that soil from which they advanced to 
do the work of enemies. But as matters stand, if 
anyone did indeed think that course safer, let him 
change his mind. For where men are attacked 
prudence does not admit of such nice calculation 
regarding their o^n land as is permitted to those 
who, secure in their own possessions, in their greed 
for more wantonly attack others. Furthermore, it 
is hereditary with you when an alien army comes 
against you to ward it oflT, alike in your own land 
and in that of your neighbours ; and most of all 
when the invaders are Athenians and moreover 
upon your borders. For in dealing with neigh- 
bours, it is always equality of force that guarantees 
liberty ; and when the contest is against men like 
these, who are trying to enslave not only those 
near by but those far away, is it not necessary to 
fight to the very last ? We have as a warning ex- 
ample their policy toward the Euboeans across the 
strait as well as toward the greater part of Hellas, 
and must realise that, whereas others make war 
with their neighbours about territorial boundaries, 
for us, if we are conquered, one boundary beyond dis- 
pute will be fixed for our whole land ; for they will 
come and take by force all that we have. So much 
more dangerous is the neighbourhood of the Athenians 

369 



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THOCYDIDES 

•trapoiKYfiTiv ToipSe exojiev. eliiiBaai re oi tff^^uoi 
trov 6paff€i Tot<t TreXa?, rtiinrep A0t}vaToi vvv, 
eviovre^ rov fi.ev Jirrv^d^ovTa xal ip r^ eavTOV 
fiovov uftwofievoii aB^earepov eviinpatevei.v, tow 
he e^a op<ov wpoa-rravTrnvra Kai, i^v Kaipo<t r/, 

B TToK^nou ap^ovra ^acrov eToi/im<; /cari^eiv. net' 
pav hk ^Ofiev rjfieti; ai/Tov e? roiJo'Se' w^jJo-aiTC? 
•y^p if Kopraveia Outoi'?, ore rr/v ly^v fi/j-iav 
tnaffta^ovrav jtareaxov, ttoXX^u dSetav t$ 

7 IJoiMTt'a p-eXP'' ToDSe lecneirT^aap.ev. &v ^^ 
p,vi}a6evra^ ^/ta? too? re irpea^uTipov; ofioito- 
Bfjuai Tots' Trplv epjOK, toiJ? re vexoTepov; "TraTeprnv 
TMii Tore a'^aOSiv yevop.iva)V nat&a^ •jreiparrOat /t^ 
ala-)(yvai t^s TrpoarjKovaai dpeTti^, triuTtva avra^ 
Se Tp ^e^ vpot; fiftaiv eaeaBai, ov to Upon dna/iWi 
"Tti^irTavre^ vipomai, Kol rots Upol^ h Vl^" 
6vaap,evoi<; KoKci i{>aiveTai, op-oae xtttpija-ai TOi<rBe 
ical Setfot oTi S>v p.^v eipUnTai Trpo? tows fii] 
dpvpofUvovs iiriopre^ KTatrdav, 0I9 Bi yeupaiov 
T^Jy re ainSiv aiei iXevOepovv p^XV '"*^ ''"'/'' 
aXkiav p.i) SovKov<r0M dSlKoi^, dvavToytovtaTOt 
aw' ainap oirx drr taaiv" 

XCIII. TotoOra o na7wi^? rot? BoKOTot; 
trapatveaai eireiaev levat evl tous 'Adrivalovf, 
Ked KCLT^i Tffl^os dvaaTTiaat ^e tov arpaTov (ifS'; 
ykp leal T^9 rjp^pav o^jri ^v), tcaX i-TretSij itpoai- 
fisi^ev eyyvi tov <rTpaTevpaTos aiiT&v, e? x^P^**" 
icaffiirai 5ffev Xwfiov SpTO<t ftera^v ovk iOewpovp 
dXK^\ov^, irauak re leaX trapevKtva^eTo m; ^ 
370 

D,j™tci;. Google 



BOOK IV. xcH. 5-x<^iii. I 

than that of others. Besides, people who in the con- 
fidence of strength attack their neighbours, as the 
Athenians now do, are wont to march more fearlessly 
against one who keeps quiet and defends himself 
only in his own land, bat are less ready to grapple 
with him who meets them outside of his own 
boundaries and, if opportunity offers, makes the first 
attack. We have a proof of this in these Athenians ; 
for at Coronea,' when owing to our internal dissen~ 
sions they had occupied our land, we defeated them 
and won for Boeotia great security which has lasted 
to this day. Remembering these things, let the 
(dder men among us emulate their former deeds, and 
the younger, sons of fathers who then were brave, try 
not to disgrace the virtues which are their heritage. 
Trusting Uiat the god whose sanctuary they have 
hnpiously fortified and now occupy will be on our 
side, and relying on the sacrifices, which appcarto be 
propitious to us, who have offered them, let us ad- 
vance to meet them and show that if they would 
get what they covet they must attack those who 
will not defend themselves, but that men whose 
noble spirit impels them always to fight for the 
liberty of their own land and not to enslave that of 
others unjustly will never let them depart without 
a battle." 

XCIII. With such exhortations Pagondas per- 
suaded tlie Boeotians to attack the Athenians, then 
quickly broke camp and led on his army, for it was 
already late in the day. When he drew near their 
army he halted at a place from which, because of an 
intervening hill, the two armies could not see each 
other, and there drew up and prepared for battle. 
> 447B.O.; <^. I. cxiii. 2; ni. Ixii. 5. 

37' 
B B 2 



THUCYDIDES 

2 /Mj^v. rq) Se 'IirwoKpaTet^ ovri -nepX to ^iJXtO)' 
W9 auT^ ^yyeX^ij oTi BottDrol eirepxovrai, itifirirek 
e? TO arpd-reviia KeKevtuv I'S Tahiti KoSLaraaOai, 
Kai auTO? 01) TToXXp varepov itrijXOe, KaToKiirutv 
«? rpiCLKoatoix; lirwia'i irepX to A^Xtoy, oirms 
ipvXaKev re a/ta eUv, et t*? eVtot aiir^, Kal tow 
BoiMTot? Kaipov tfiv\a^av7e^ iwiyivoiiiTo iv r^ 

3 fidxs- BofWTOt Se TT/jo? toiJtou^ atTiKareffTifffav 
Toils a.p.vvovpivovii, Kal iireiBi] KaXais avTOK 
elxfp, vTrepe<^dwriffav -rov \6<pov icaX eOevro tA 
oirXtt TBTayfiivoi Siatrep efieWov, dirXtTot 
eTTTaKia-yCKioi pAXiuTa Koi i^iKoX i/irkp fivpiov^, 
'fmr^'i Si ;(;iX(oi /cai TTtXTaaral ■jreuraKoa^ioi, 

4 elxov ^^ ^e^ihv p.iv Kepai; ^rj^aloi iceii oi ^Vfi- 
p^poi avTol^- /j-eaot Sk AXiuprioi /cat Kopavaiot 
Kal Kayirai^s xal ol aXXot ol Trepl rrjv Xifun^v 
TO £e evwvup^v el^ov ^eo-Trtij; ical Tava-ypa^i 
Koi 'OpxpfLevioi. eVi he rp Kepa kicaTip^ oi 
iinn}i xat ^fn\ol ^aav. iiv auwlha.'i hk irhnt 
p^v Kal etxoai %T}^aioi ird^apro, oi Si aXXot to? 

6 ^KaOTOi 'h'vxov. avTT) p^v Bokutcuv wapaaicev^ 
Koi htaKoapo^ f/u. 

XCIV. 'Adt)valot he ol pev OTrXtrot iftl oieroa 
trav TO cTTpaTone&ov ira^avTo ovres irK-^dei 
iffoiraXsh TOts ivavTtoK, (Vtt^s 8e etj)' kxa-riptp 
Tp Kipa, ^jriXol Se eic Trapaa-Ktv^s pip d>irXi- 
ap,evoi ovTe tots trapfjaav ovre eyivovro t§ 
iroXff otTTfp Se ^vveae^aXav, otnei TroXXo- 
■jrXaaioi tS>v ivaPTtwv, aoTrXoC ts noXXol ij«oXou- 
Orjaav, are TTavarpaTiat ^ivmv tS>v ■napovrav^ 
' Hudeinserts (ti before tmi, with Rutherford, and delet«s 
ofrr^ before ^^n*'^9^I. with Bjiiger. ' DelBted by Hade. 



c. Google 



BOOK rV. xcin. i-xciv. i 

Meanwhile Hippocrates, who was at Delium, oa being 
informed that the Boeotians were comiog on, sent 
orders to the army to fall in line, and himself not 
long afterwards joined them, leaving about three 
hundred cavalry at Delium, to guard it in case of 
attack and also to watch for an opportunity to fall 
upon the Boeotians in the course of the battle. But 
the Boeotians set a detachment to ward these otf. 
Then when everything was ready they appeared 
over the hill and halted, drawn up in the order in 
which they were to fight, about seven thousand 
hoptites, over ten thousand light-armed troops, one 
thousand cavalry, and five hundred peltasts. On 
the right were the Thebiins and their allies ; in the 
centre the Haliartians, Coronaeans, Copaeans, and 
the other people around the lake ; ' on the left the 
Thespians, Tanagraeans and Orchoraenians. On 
either wing were the cavalry and the light-armed * 
troops. The Thebans were marshalled in ranks 
twenty-five shields deep, the rest as chance directed 
in each case. Such were the preparations of the 
Boeotians and their order of battle. 

XCIV, On the Athenian side the whole body of 
hopHtes, who were equal in number to those of the 
enemy, were marshalled eight deep, and the cavalry 
on either wing. But light-armed troops, regularly 
armed, were neither then present, nor did the city 
possess any ; hut such lighter forties as had joined 
in the invasion, while they were many times more 
namerous than, the enemy, followed in large part 
without arms, as there had been a levy in mass of 
strangers that were in them as well as of citizens ; 

' Lake Copais. 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Koi ainmv yevofiAvrj^, Kol ant to irpStrov Sipfsr^aav 
2 etr otxau, oh -rrapeyivovro oti fii} oXiyot. xaBe- 
UTmmv hi e? t^h rd^iv Koi ijBr] fieXXovTivv 
^vpiivai, 'iTrTTOKpaTrjii 6 ffTpai^yo^ eTviwapiwv to 
(TTpaTOTrehov tSjv ' ASrjvaLiev TrapeKeKiVf-ro re leai, 
^eye TotdSe. 

XCV, " il 'Adrivaiot, Si oKiyov fikv r] wapat- 

veo'ii ytyverai, to [(tov Bk npoi ye Toils dyaOow 

dvSpas Swarat ita.1 \nr6p;vij<nv p.3.XKov e^et ^ 

2 itnueXevaLV. irapaary Se fi/ijSeiil v/iiav lO! iv ry 

aXKoTpia ov TrpoafiKov ToaovSe kIvZvvov avappi- 



■movp.ev. ev yap tt/ tovtuiv virep TiJ! ^perepaii o 
dyaip earai- Hal ^v viic^aaiiiev, ov /i^ ■nore IpXv 
^eXoTTOvvrjaiQi £? t^jj -j^copav deev t^s T&vSe 
'i-mrov ia/SaXwriP, ev Be fiia fidxv TrfvBe rs 
irpoa-itTaade xal eieeivifv p.S.XXov eXeudepovre- 
3 ■f^tapritTaTe o^v d^CtDf i<i avToim T^s T6 ■7r6'\£ti)S, 
t)v eicaiTTO'i warpiSa rj^wi' irpdiTrfv ev to(s''EX\»j- 
aiv dydXXe-rai, xal twc •jrarepcoi', ot rovcSe /toYJ? 
KpaTOvvTet p.e-rh MvpayviBov iv Oivo<j>vTOK rffv 
BotfUTtai' TTork €a")^ov." 

XCVI. Toiavra tov 'iTTTro/cpaTou? irapaice- 
Xevop^ov «at p-evpi p,h fUtrov tov oTpa-voiriBav 
iweXdovroi;, to Se irXeov qvkbti ^ddaavro^, ot 
BotcoToi, -TrapaKeXevaap-evov Koi ai^iaiv &<! Si& 
layeoiv tcai evTavOa Ylayii>vSov, TraiaviaavTev 
eir^aav dtra rov X6<f>ov. dvTeir^cav Sk xaX oi 

2 ^A$r}vaioi «al •trpocifiei^av Bp6p,q>, Kol eKarkpav 
tSsp ffTpaToweSotv rd ea-)(ara ovie ^XSev is ■)(elpas, 
dXKa TO auTO STraOev ^vaxes ydp ixaiKixruv. 
TO Si dXXo tcaprepa p^XV "''■'■ ^vio'fiy daitiBtav 

3 ^vveiiTT^Kei,. ical to /iev evaietj/wp twv Boiojt&p 
374 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. xciv. i-xcvi. 3 

and, having once started homewards, they were not 
present at the action, except a few. When they 
were arranged in line and were about to engage, 
Hippocrates the general, passing along the Athenian 
line, exhorted them and spoke as follows; 

XCV. " Men of Athens, my exhortation will not be 
long, but to brave men it will mean as much, and 
will be a reminder rather than an appeal. Let none 
of you think that because we are on foreign soil it 
is without cause that we are hazarding this great 
danger. For though the contest is on Boeotian 
soil, it will be in defence of our own ; and, if we 
win, the Peloponnesians, deprived of the Boeotian 
cavalry, will never again invade your territory, and 
in one battle you not only win this land but make 
more sure the freedom of your own. Advance to 
meet them, therefore, in a spirit worthy both of that 
state, the foremost in Hellas, which every one of 
you is proud to claim as his fatherland, and of the 
fathers who under Myronides vanquished these men 
rtt Oenophyta,' and became at one time masters of 
Boeotia." 

XCVI. Hippocrates was thus exhorting his men 
and had got as far as the centre of the army, but no 
further, when the Boeotians, after they too had again 
been briefly harangued by Pagondas, raised the paean 
and came on from the hill. And the Athenians also 
advanced against them and met them on a run. 
The extremities of the line on either side never 
came to close quarters, for both had the same diffi- 
culty — they were hindered by swollen torrents. The 
rest were engaged in stubborn conflict, with shield 
pressed against shield. And the Boeotian left, as 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Koi f'^XP'' A'^'"""'' Ti<rffaTO inro rap ' S.Bi}vaio>v, KaX 
iirieaav tou9 re aXKovi; ravry ical avx ^Kitj-ra 
Toiii; f^euTTiS,';. v-jrovatpTjaairroiv y^p avToli twc 
■jrapaTeTayfi-evaiv Koi icvK\ei>divT€<i^ iv oXiytfi, 
oiirep hie^Oaprjffav Qea-muiv, iv ffepaXv aftvvo- 
ftsvat KareKotrtjaav km Ttvei koX tS>v 'hOrjvatatv 
hi,a Tyv KVK\a>iTtP rapax^^pTe^ ■^yi/6r}adii re KOt 

4 a-Tri/creivav a\XT)\ov<;. to /lcc o^v ravrrf ^tradro 
T&v BofoiTwi' Kal irpb'! to naxof-evov xariiffvye, 
TO Se Seftoc, f/ oi &ri^aioi Tjaav, eKparei t&v 
'AOr]iraCfi>v xal oitTdp£P0i Kara fipayv to vp&Tov 

5 iw'>}Ko\ovdovv. «ai ^vve^t}, Ylaywvbov Trtpfrre/i- 
yjrapTOV Bvo T€kri tw(j iwTreav ck tov a^avov^ 
vepi TOP Xofffov, »»s iirovei to evmvvpav avrStp, 
Kal irTiep^avePTtov ali^pihiea';, to vik&p t&v 

A07}pai'i>p xepat, vofiLaav SXko aTpdrevfta 

6 iirUvai, « tf>6$ov xaTaffTTjirar xal afitporipdydev 
^5j7, vvo t6 tov ToiovTOV xal vtto t&v ^Tj^aiap 
eipeTTOfiivtcp Koi ■n-apapp'rjyvvPTajp, (pvyf] KoOei- 
aTT/Kei TraPTO'i tov arpaTov r&v 'AdrjpaCwv. 

7 Koi, ol fiiv trpo^ TO A^Xtov re Kal t^v 6aKa<T<Tav 
&pp.Tiaav, oi he eVi toO 'Upanrav, 3X\ot S^ itpoi 
Ylapvtida TO Spot, oi Se &<i ^Kaaroi rtpa elxpv 

8 ikiriSa amrijpia'i. SoiojtoI Si e^etrop^pot eKreiPOP, 
KM fidKtara oi nrwjjf oi re awrwi' ical oi AoKpol 
^e^oTiO-qKOTei; apri t^? TpOTr^ yiypop^ptif 
vVKTOt he eviXa^ovatj^ to epyov paov to TrXij^o? 
rav i^u7oi'To(i' Zi^umdij. Kal t0 vtrrepala. oi re 
Ik tov 'ilpoyiTov ifol oi eK tov Ai/Xtov ^vXax^i' 
iyKaraXnroPTe^ (elyop ykp ai/TO Sufi ?t() 
'"^eKopirrSrirTap Kara ffoKaffaap ^tt' oXkov. 






vfeiy of Ibe MSS. 



c. Google 



BOOK rv. xcvi. 3-8 

far AS the centre, was worsted by the Athenians, 
who pressed hard upon all the rest in that quarter, 
and especially upon the Thespians. For when they 
saw that the ranks on either side had given way and 
that they were surrounded, those of the Thespians 
who perished were cut down fighting hand to hand. 
And some also of the Athenians, getting into con- 
fusion owing to their surrounding the enemy, mis- 
took and killed one another. Here, then, the 
Boeotians were defeated and fled to the part of 
their army which was still fighting; but the right 
wing, where theThebaos were, had the better of the 
Athenians, and pushing them back step by step at 
first followed after them. It happened also that 
Pagondas, when their left was jn distress, sent two 
squadrons of cavalry round the hill from a point out 
of sight, and when these suddenly appeared, the 
victorious wing of the Athenians, thinking that 
another army was coming on, was thrown into a 
panic. At this time, consequently, owing both 
to this manteuvre ' and to the Thebans fi^lowing 
them up and breaking their line, a rout of the 
whole Athenian army ensued. Some hastened to 
Delium and the sea, others toward Oropus, others to 
Mt. Fames, others wherever each had any hope of 
safety. And the Boeotians, especially their cavalry 
and that of the Locrians who had come up just as 
the rout began, followed after and slew them ; but 
when niglit closed down upon the action the mass of 
the fugitives escaped more easily. On the next day 
the troops from Oropus and those from Delium, leav- 
ing a garrison at the latter place, which they still 
held, were conveyed home by sea.* 

' i.e. the &Lliiok of the two squadrons of cavalrj. 

' Itia interesting to know that Socrates fought in the battle 
of Delinra and savjd AlcibiadeH* life (Plato, Symp. 221 e). 

377 



THUCYDIDES 

XGVII. Kal 01 BotoiTo^ rpanatov vT'^aavrev 

Koi Toi)'! eavTmv aueXofievoi veicpov<; rov^ re rSiv 
iroKefJ-irov aKvKevnavre'; KaX (fujXatcijv KaraXt- 
iroiiTes avejfmpiiaav e? rifv Tavaypav, teal rp 

2 Aijkitp eireffovKevov dw wpoff^aXovVTe*;. e« 8^ 
Twi" ' Adtjvaiwv KTJpv^ ■nopevofievoi eVl tovi 
vexpoi/^ a-jraVT^ xrjpvKi Bodur^, &i avrav atto- 
ffrpt-'p'a'; Kai eiiroiv on oi/Sev Trpd^ei, irpXv &.v 
avTffi avax<ap^iTTi ttoXiv, KaratrTcti i-jrl tou? 
'A$r)uaiov^ IXeye ra -Trapi, rmv Boie^TW, on oi 
BiKalco<i hpaauav vapaQaivovre'; rh vofUfUt rSiv 

3 'E\X^i«i»w TTaffi yelp elvai tcadeatrjKo^ iVcra? hrX 
Tfiv aXX^Xatv Upatv t&v ivoinciv airi)(evBat, 
'ASffliaiov^ Se ArfKiov Tei^^Ctravrav evotKetv, koI 
oira avBptiyrrot iv Se^tjXq) hpSxri irdvTa yiyveaOat 
avToBi, S&a)p Te S ^v a,yjrav<7rov o'lpio't TrXifv wpo« 
tA lepA xe/)WyS( 'XfiriirBai, avaa-rrda^avrai vSpev- 

4 eaffar mtrre inrip re roO 0eov xai iavr&p 
BotwToiJs, eTruceCXovpAvov^ tov<; oftenj^era^ Sal- 
/lopas Koi TOW 'AiroXXa, wpoayopevetv avTOiK itc 
Tov lepov wiTiovTa^ diro^epea9at -ri, a^irepa 

XCVUI. loaavra tov KrjpVKOt elTroiTOi ot 
'Adj/vaToi ven-^avTei ttaph. rov^ Botrorov^ eavrwp 
K'^pvxa TOV fievUpoO ovre aSiKijaai eiparrav ovSkp 
ouTfi Toii Xonrov ixovTa ^Xd^^eiv ovBe yh.p rijv 
ap')(r}v ia-eXOeli' iir't lovrtp, dX,X' iva ef avTou tous 
2 dSiKovina'i t*aXXov <r0a; apMvaivTai. rov Se 
378 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. xcvii. i-xcviii. 3 

XCVII. The Boeotians set up a trophy and took 
np their own dead ; then, liaving stripped the dead 
of the enemy and left a guard over them, they 
retired to Tanagra, and there planned an assault 
upon Delium. Meanwhile a herald from Athens, 
coming to ask for their dead, met a Boeotian herald, 
who turned him back, telling him he would accom- 
plish nothing until he himself returned.* The 
latter then came before the Athenians and gave 
them the message from the Boeotians : that they 
had not done right in transgressing the usages of the 
Hellenes ; for it waa an established custom of them 
all, when invading one another's country to abstain 
irom the sanctuaries therein, whereas the Athenians 
had fortified Delium and now dwelt in it, doing 
there whatsoever men do in a profane place, even 
drawing for common use the water which was un- 
touched by themselves except for use in lustrations 
connected with the sacrifices. Wherefore tlie Boeo- 
tians, in behalf of the god and of themselves, in- 
voking the deities worshipped at the common altars 
and also Apollo, gave them notice to come out them- 
selves from the teniple and carry olF what belonged 
to them.^ 

XCVIII. When the herald had spoken, the 
Athenians sent a herald of their own to the 
Boeotians, saying that they had done do injury to 
the temple, and would not damage it wilfully in 
the future ; for they had not entered it at the 
outset with any such intent, but rather that from 
it they might defend themselves against those 
who were wronging them. And the law of the 

' i.e. to the Boeotian camp from the Atheniao, to which he 
was carrying a meaaage. " i.e, their dead. 

379 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

vofwv roi<t"EKkvimv elpat, &v &p rj ri KpdTo<; rtj^ 
7^s €«<i(TTi)s, ^v re Trkeoyo^ fpi re ^pa-)(yTkpa<t, 
rovrav koX rh lepk alel yiyveirBat, TpoiioK 
$epairevo/ieva oU av -rrpo toS' eladoiri icaX 

3 Svpavrai. Koi lyap Botoirou; teat roiiv iroXXov? 
Twii aXXtov, iaot i^avaffTtjiraini^ Ttva j8i^ 
viftovrat f^v, aXXoTpiot^ UpoK to irpanov 

4 e-rreX&mTa'; olieeia vvv KeKrfjtrdai. xal avroi, ei, 
piv i-TTi TiXAov Svvrjfffjvat t^j eKeivwv KpaTfjtrat, 
rovT &v ^eip- vvv 8^ ev 5I pspet elffLv, eKovre-i 

6 etvat (u; ex a^eripov ovk aTrihiai. SSwp re 
e'f Tp avdyict} KivTjaat, ^v ovk avrol vffpet 
trpoffffeirSai, aXX,' iKeivovv irporipovi i-rn. rifv 
trifyeripav iXdovTat apwo/uvot ffia^ecrOat XP^ 

6 <T0at. Trap 8' elKW elvat to iroX^fi^ kcu Bav^ rivt 
Kareipyofiepov ^vyyvmfiov ri yCyvetT0at «al irpo<; 
Tov 8eov. xaX y^p t&p aKOva-mv apxipT'Jjp.drtop 
Kwratpvyiip elvat tow /Soi/iou?, -napavopiap re 
^TTi Tot? p.Tf avdyKi) xaicoi'i ovofiairff^vat Kol ovk 

7 itrl TO(5 airo T&v ^vftifiopvv ri roXp-^ffturiv. tow 
re veKpovs iroXv fiet^ova^ eKeivov^ dvrl iep&p 
d^iovPTa^ drroSiSopai dae^etv ^ Toitt fiif iOeKop- 

8 Tos Upoin Tct irpenovTa KOpi^eaffai. aaipw^ re 
iKe\eimv aipLaip elvelv jiij dirtovaip ix rfjij 

' SUhl'B conjeotore tor wfAi toTi of the MSS. 
380 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. xcviii. 2-8 

Hellenes was, they said, that whosoever had dominion 
over any country, be it larger or smaller, to them 
the sanctuaries ai&o always belonged, to be tended, 
BO far as might be possible, with whatsoever rites 
had hitherto been customary.^ Indeed the Boeotians, 
and most others who had driven out any people 
and taken forcible possession of their country, had 
at first attacked the temples as alien but now pos- 
sessed them as their own. And they themselves, 
if they had been able to conquer more of the 
Boeotian territory, would have lield it; but as it 
was, they would not depart from that portion in 
which they were, at least of their free will, consider 
ing it their own. The water, moreover, they had 
disturbed in their sore need, which they had not 
wantonly brought upon themselves; they had been 
forced to use the water while defending themselves 
against the Boeotians who had first invaded their 
land. And anything done under the constraint of 
war and danger might reasonably meet with some 
indulgence, even from the god. For altars were a 
refuge in cases of involuntary misdeeds, and trans- 
gression was a term applied to those who do evil 
without compulsion and not to those who are driven 
by misfortunes to some act of daring. Moreover, the 
Boeotians in presuming to give up the bodies of 
the dead in return for temples were impious in a 
much higher degree than they who refused by the 
exchange of temples to procure that which they had 
a right to recover. And they bade the Boeotians 
plainly tell them they might take up their dead, not 

' Or, reading xpU roit ttmOiirt with the MSS., " to be 
tended, besides the usual rites, with iuch others as they 
night be able to.tue." 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

' "yi]! {ov yip iv Trj ixeivav en etvai, 
iv ^ Se hopX eKT'q<ravTo), aXK.a. KaTi. rii iraTpia 
rov^ pexpavi cfir^vSovo-tv avaipelaBai.. 

XGIX, Ol he BoiciiT'oi aireKpivavTo, el ftkv iv 
T^ BofCdTia elaiv, airtovTa<; ex tij? eavT&ti airo^e- 
peaOai to, ctjieTepa, el Bk eV Tp iiceivwv, ainov^ 
yirfvadKeiv to ■rroir]Teov, vofn^ovjei rifv /i.ev 
'npuiriav, iv y tou? veKpoi)^ iv ficdopioK r^ 
fid')(i)^ y€VO/iepi)^ KeiffBat ^vve^-q, Adrfvaitav learh 
TO inr^Koov elvai, Koi ovk &o avTov<t ffia a^&v 
Kpar^ffai avrS>v (ovS' oC iirvevSopro S^ev virep 
T^9 ireetvwv^y to Sk "ex ttj^ iavr&v^' einrpewev 
elvat d-rroKpivavdai " aniovrai Kal a-rroXaffeiv 
& aTratrovaiP." 6 Si ^^pv^ r&v 'A&i}vaiei>v 
uKovtra^ airrjKBev airpaicTo^. 

C. Kai oi BoicDToi evOv^ fteraTrefiy^dfievoi 
eK Tfi TOv MtjXiws koKttov aKOVTurra^ xal 
o-^evSocjJra?, teal ^fffoTiffrftcormv outok perk 
Tifv (ia.-)(r}v KopivffifDV re Sto-YtXt'oii' oitXitw;' 
Kal TWf eK Nuroia; i^eXTjXvuoTav JleXovov- 
vrjauav <f>povpmp Kal Meyaaewv a/ia, iarpa- 
reva-ap e-rrl ro A^\tov km, irpotre^aKov ry 
T6(^ur/MtTi, a\X^ Tc rp6ir<fi •mipdaavres KaX 
p.y)yaviiv irpoffrfywyov, ffwep elXev miiro, TOtdpSe. 
2 Kepaiap p^ytiXtiP Si^a irplaavre^ eKoCXapav 
atraa-av xal ^Vi^p/ioffav iraXiv axpiffSiv &tTwtp 
avKov,* Koi iir' aKpav X^^ijro Te ijprrja-av aKvaea^ 
«ol aKpoipvaiov a/jTo 7^9 Ktpata^ ffiSripoOv is 
avrov PEvov Kodelro, Kal iaeirtZrjpano iirl pJya 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. xcviEi. 8-c. 2 

" on condition of quitting fioeotia " — for they were 
no longer in Boeotitin territory, but in land which 
they had won by the spear, — but "on making a 
truce according to ancestral custom." 

XCIX. The Boeotians made answer, if they were 
in Boeotia, they might carry off* their dead on 
quitting their land ; but if they were in their own 
territory, they could determine themselves what to 
do. For they thought that though Oropia, in which 
the bodies happened to be lying — for the battle 
occurred on the bouodaries — - belonged to the 
Athenians by right of its subjection, yet that they 
could not get possession of the bodies without their 
leave (nor indeed were they going to make a, truce, 
forsooth, about territory belonging to the Athenians); 
but they thought it was fair to answer, "when they 
had quitted Boeotian territory they could get back 
what they asked for." And the herald of the Athen- 
ians, on hearing this, went away without accomplish- 
ing his object. 

C. The Boeotians sent off at once for darters 
and sliogers from the Maliac Gulf, and with two 
thousand Corinthian hoplites, who reinforced them 
after the battle, as welt as the Peloponnesian garrison 
which had evacuated Nisaea, and some Megarians 
also, made an expedition against Delium and attacked 
the fortification. After trying other forms of assault 
they took it by bringing up an engine made in the 
following manner. Having sawed in two a great 
beam they hollowed it throughout, and fitted it 
together again nicely like a pipe ; then they hung a 
cauldron at one end of it with chains, and into the 
cauldron an iron bellows-pipe was let down in a curve^ 
from the beam, which was itself in great part plated 
^ i.e. it waa bent into the oauldron. 

383 



THUCYDIDES 

3 Koi TOW aWov f iJXow. irpoafifov Bi ex iroXXov 
dfjA^aK T^ Tfixei, jj fidXiina t$ o^TrA.p Aral 
TOt? fuXot! i^KohofirjTo- KtLi. OTToTe ett] iyyvv, 
ipvffU'i fieyaXa<; eaBivTei e? to tt^o? eavrmv diepov 

4 T^s leepedat eifiiiffav. y Sk ■nvoi) toiiaa a-reyavw 
es Toi* XeQijTa, e-)(ovra avffpaxaii re ■^p.fievov^ 
wot deioiJ xai. Trinffav, i^Xoya eTroUi ficyaKtfv KaX 
^tjre rov Tet^^ou?, dXTTe p.rjSiva en eV avTov 
fiietvai, aWa airoXnrovTa'; e'v Avyriv KaTaaTrjvat 

5 Kai TO Teiy^itT/ia rour^ rp rpoTrtfi akSivat. rS>v 
he if>povpSii' 01 pxv airiOavov, hiaKoaioi &k 
eXij^pijtrac- Twc fie aXKmv ^o TrXijdo^ €s ra? 
vav9 iaffav atreKo/xitrdTi stt' oXkov. 

CI, Toi) Sc Ai7X^ou e^&op/p leai BeieaTj)^ ^pepa 
Xr}<p0ivTo^ fiera ri/v ftdvTjv xal tov diro twv 
'AffijfaLoiv (KjJpufO? oiibiv iiritnapevov tS>p 
yeyevtjfievotp iXdovro^ ov -n-oXv varepov aS^t; 
irepl tSiv veKpSiv, airehoaav ol Boin>Tol KaX 

2 oiK4r( ravr^ direKplvavTo. diridavov Sk Bodurwn 
ulv en rji pdxj} oXiyi^i iXdtraov'; ■KevTaKoatrcv, 
Affrjvai'tov Se 6Xlya> eX^o-troir; j^tXiwv xal 
ItTTTOKpaTT^'i o (TTpaTTjyo'i, ifriX&v Se kcu tTKevo- 

<fi6pti>p TToXijf dpi.dpo'i. 

3 Mera Ee t^v iLa/)(r)v TavTijv xai a Ai]fioa0iviji 
0X1.7P varepov, mi aurp tote 7rXc(J<Ta»^t t«. Trepl 
T^? St</»tts TJ;? TTpoBoaiai Trepi ov 'Kpov)(<opTiaev, 
ey(a>P toii aTparov err\ rSiv ve&v raip re 'Axap- 
vdvwv KoX 'Aypaimv, ical ABr^vaLiov Terpaicoffiov^ 
OTrXtra?, diroffaaiv inoi^a'aTO es' tijc ^(KiKovtov. 

4 xal iTplv ■jratrat tAs vaS? KatairXevaai ^oij^ij- 
(TaiTes 0( StKfwi'tat Toiii d-rro^e^tjKOTai erpe^^v 
KCU KaTe&i<a^ap i'i Ta? cau!, «o( tou? /tip dire- 

' Kriigor'B oorreolioo for iwrMaiSiKir^ of the MSS. 
384 



BOOK IV. c. 2-ci. 4 

withiron. Tbisenginetfaeybroughtup from a distance 
on carts to the part of tile wall where it was built 
chiefly oi vines and wood ; and when it was near, 
they inserted a large bellows into the end of the 
beam next to them and blew through it. And the 
blast passing through the air-tight tube into the 
cauldron, which contained Lghted coals, sulphur, and 
pitch, made a great blaze and set fire to the vail, 
so that no one could Stay on it longer, but all left 
it and took to flight ; and in this way the fortifica' 
tion was taken. Of the garrison some were slain, 
and two hundred were captured; but most of tlie 
rest got on board their ships and were convejEed 

CI. So Delium was taken seventeen days after the 
battle, and when the Athenian herald, who knew 
nothing of what had happened, came back not long 
after to ask for the dead, the Boeotians did not agaia 
make the same answer but gave them up. And 
there were slain in the battle, of the Boeotians a 
little more than five hundred, of the Atbeniaus a 
little less than one thousand, including Hippocrates 
their general, besides a great number of light-armed 
troops and baggage-carriers. 

Not long after this battle Demosthenes, since be 
had failed in his negotiations about the betn^al of 
Siphae, when he sailed thither at the time mentioned 
above,' took on his ships his force of Aoamanians 
and Agraeans and four hundred Athenian hoptiles 
and audi a descent upon the territory of Sicyon. 
But before all his ships had come to shore the 
Sicyonians came to the rescue, and routing those 
who had disembarked pursued them to their shjps, 
* cf. ch. Ixxxix. 1. 

3«S 

VOL. IL O C 

:„.„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Tou! Se ^&vraii eKa^op. rpo'jraTov Si 
<rr^<ravTe? toui veKpow VTrotrrropBovi; aireSotrav. 
C 'Airedave Be kuI XiTdXKijt 'OBpva&v /SatriXev; 
vTro Ta9 avra<i ^p.epas rot? eVt Aj^Xt'p, aTpajevirat 
eVt T!pt0aX\ov<; Koi viKtjdeXt f-ayv- Sev^ijs fi^ o 
^TtapaSoKov oSeX^tBoO^ av avTov i^aaiXevo'ev 
'OSjOi/ffWc T6 Kol T^s aW);? ^patcr}^ ^a-itep kcu 

CII. Tou £ airrou ')(ei.p,S>vo'i BpatrLSa^ tX""' 
TOW eVi 6p«»«j? ^Vftfidxov^ eaTpdrevaev es 
'AfitfiivoXiv Tjjv eirl %-rpvp.6vi ■rroTa/i.^ 'ASrj- 

2 itumi' a-TTotKtav. ro Be ^ci)/}^of tdvtd e'^' o& vvv 
^ 7roX(9 eVTic iveiipaae p,ev irporepov xal 'Apt- 
ffTo/yopa^ 6 M(Xjjff(o¥ if^vyav ^aatXia (^apeiov 
KaToiKiaai, aXKa biro 'HSfunoiii e^eJcpova&Ttt 
cTTdTa Bk Kot ol A$7]vaioi efeai Bvo teal Tpid- 
Kovra Sffrepop, c'jtoI.kovs p,vpiov<; <r<f>&p re avT&ir 
Kal Tiov aXKaiv rov ^ov\op.fvov Trep,\frapTe^, ot 

Z Bie<ft0dpr]<j-av iv Apa^r/iTK^ v-ttq &pa/c&v. Kai 
avOvi kpo'i BeovTi TpuLKoaTa erei iXdovTe<i at 
'Adtjvalot, "Aypiovo<i toO Ntuctou olKiinov eKirepr- 
^evro';, HBrnvai l^'K.aaavTQ'i e/critrap to ■)(topiov 
rovTO, Sirep trpoTepov 'Ewea oBdl eKoXovvro. 

4 aip/^aivro Be ex t^? ^litovoi, i}v ainol elyov ipr- 
tropiop cTTt T^ (TTo/iaT* rov voTa/ioO eirtuaXaa- 
<TiOP, TTQire Kol eiKoat araSiou^ a'rri-)(pv dvo t^s 
vvv woXews, ^v Afi<f>f!ro\iv "Ayvatv aivoftaaev, 
in iir' d/itjiOTepa Trepippeowof rov XTpufiovoi * 
Tti^ft puiKp^ diroKa^^v etc iroTapav ii iroTaphv 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. a. 4-CTi. 4 

killing some and taking others alive. Then setting 
up a trophy they gave up the dead under truce. 

Sitalces,' loo, king of the Odrysians, was killed 
about the same time as the events at Delium, having 
uiade an expedition against the Tribal li,^ who 
defeated him in batt)e. Seuthes ^ son of Sparadocus, 
his nephew, now became king of the Odrysians and 
of the rest of Thrace over which SiUlces had 
reigned. 

ClI. During the same winter, Brasidas, with his 
alhes in Thrace, made an expedition against Amphi- 
polis, the Athenian colony on the river Strymon. 
This place, where the city now stands, Aristagoras • 
the Milesian had tried to colonize before,' when 
fleeing from the Persian king, but he had been 
beaten back by the Edonians. Thirty-two years 
afterwards the Athenians also made another attempt, 
sending out ten thousand settlers of their own 
citizens and any others who wished to go; but 
these were destroyed by the Thracians at Drabescus. 
Again, twenty-nine years later, the Athenians, send' 
ing out Hagnon son of Nicias as leader of the 
colony, drove out the Edonians and settled the 
place, which was previously called Ennea-Hodoi or 
Nine-Ways. Their base of operations was Eion, a 
conmiercial seaport which they already held, at the 
mouth of the river, twenty-five stadia distant from 
the present city of Amphipotis,' to which Hagnon 
gave that name, because, as the Strymon flows round 
it on both sides, he cut olT the site by a long wall 
running from one point of the river to another, and 

' cf. II, livii., xcv., oi. " cf. ii. xcvi 

» eK II. ci. 6. ■• <■/. Hilt. V. 128. • 497 B.C. 

' The name means "a city looking both ways." 

38; 

c c 2 

,„,.u. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

irept^av^ i<i 0d\a(r<rdv re Kal t^k ^vetpov 

cm. 'EttI TavTTiv oBv o Bpa<riSa^ &pa<t i^ 
'Apv&v T% XaX«i8(K^s iwopevero ry arpar^. 
«ai aipiKOfievoi irepl SeiXT/v itrl tow A.vXmva xai 
BpofjXffKOP, p ij BoX;857 Xip-vt] e^irjatv ii Sd- 
"Xaaaav, koI ttf7ivQTroi-i}adfievo^ e-)(<i>pei rijv vvkto. 

2 "xeifjiaiv Se ^v koX infivettfiev- ^ xal /ioXXov 
topfir/af, povKopsvat ~ka6eh> rovt iv rp A-fufu- 

3 -iToXei wX^v T&v irpoSiSoirrav. ^aav yitp 'Ap- 
yiXiav re iv aiir^ otK-^TOpe<; (elal Be ol 'ApyiXiot 
'AvSpiav awoiKoi) ical dXXoi at ^vv^Trpaavov 
ravra, ol /tev TlepStKxa ireiSofixvoi, oi Bk XaXxt- 

i BeuiTtv. ixaXiara Be oi 'ApyiXioi, eyyv^ re irpotrot- 
Kovvre^ Kal aUl ircne TOt? 'ASTjpatoiv ovrei 
vitoTTTOi Koi itri^ouXevovTei xy "xtapitp, iirtthii 
TTapirvxf o Kaipit^ ical Bpofft'Sa? ^XBev, hrpa^dv 
Ts iie irXetovo<; tt/jos tov'; ep-TroXnevovra^ trtftStv 
ixel oirtas evBoQ-qaeTOi i} TroXis, Koi tots Be^dfiepoi 
ainov t§ TToXei «ai dito<rTdvTe<! rS>v ABr/valmv 
itceiVj} Tp in/KTt KaTianjirav to» iTparov vpo Itt 
iirl Tijv ye(j>vpav tov ttoto/xou (direj(ei Bk to ttb- 
■ fl Xia-fia TrXeop Trj<; Bia&daeaxty koI ov leaOeiro 
reixf) Sio-rrep vvv, t^vKaKrj Si th fipaj(eta Kadei- 
ar^Kei, flv ffiaudpevo<i paBt6)v 6 BpaaiBav, afia 
flip Trji TTpoBoaiwi ovoT)^, dfut Se Kal ^ei^uco? 
6vT0'i Kal dwpoffBoKtjTo^ Trpoffvearaiv, Bieff'^ Ti)v 
y&ftvpap.Kalfi e^ttt t&v 'Ap/^nroXtT&v oucowTav 
KarA TTov TO ■)(iiaplQv ev$ii^ ^X^v, 



i;. Google 



BOOK IV. cii. 4-ciii. s 

so cEtablished a city which was conspicuous both 
seaward and landward. 

cm. Against this place Brasidas marched with his 
army, setting out from Amae in Chalcidice. Arriving 
about dusk at Aulon and Bromiscus,' where the lake 
Bolbe has its outlet into the sea, he took supper and 
then proceeded by night. The weather was bad 
and somewhat snowy, and for this reason he made 
the more haste, wishing to escape the notice of the 
people in Amphipolis, except those who were to 
betray it. For there were in the place some settlers 
from ArgiluG, an Andriaii colony ; these and some 
others were his accomplices in this intrigue, some 
instigated by Perdiocas, others by the Chalcidians. 
But the chief plotters were the Argiliaus, who dwelt 
near by, were always suspected by the Athenians, 
and were secret enemies of the place ; now that 
opportunity offered and Brasidas had come, they had 
some time before negotiated with their countrymen 
who resided in Amphipolis with a view to the sur* 
render of the place. So at this time they received 
Brasidas into their town, revolted from the Athenians 
that same night, and before dawn brought his army 
down to the bridge over the river, which is some dis- 
tance from the town and not connected with it by 
walls as now. Brasidas easily forced the small guard 
stationed at the bridge, partly because there was 
treachery, partly because he had fkllen upon them in 
stormy weather and unexpectedly ; and as soon as 
he had crossed the bridge he was at once master of 
the property of the Amphipolitans outside the walls; 
for they had houses all over the neighbourhood. 

e of the death of Enri- 



c. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

CIV. T^9 &i Bta^dtreto^ avrov a<pvm tow o* 
ry iroKet yeyeinj/j^vri^, ical tSiv efw iroWmv fiev 
aXKTKOfievwv, t&v Si Kol KaTa<f)evy6vTiov if 
TO TcZx*"' "' '^f^iiroXiTat es Oopv^ov fieyav 
icaTeartiaav, aWtos tc koX aXXijXoi; vitotttoc 

2 Qvrev. icai X^yerai BpairiSav, el ^BiXtftre /iii eib' 
apTtaiytjv rp trrpar^ TpaTriadai, dXV evOv^ 

3 %w/j^(7a( 7r/3os T^v Tr6\iv, SoKflv &v cX^hj. i^ 
Se 6 fJ.ep iSpvaai rov OTpa-rov, eVel' ri I^m 
iiriSpafte icai oiiBev avr^ u-tto t&v evBov b>9 

i •n'poaeBe-)(eTO aTri^aivev, rjavj(a^ei'- ot Se ivanriot 
TOK •wpoSiSovirt, KpaTovvTff t^ TrXiJ^ei wtrTe p^ 
aiirixa ra? TTtJXa? avolyeadat, -jrip-vovat p^erh 
EvkXeou; tow trTpaTtjyov, 89 ex twii 'ASi)v&v 
vapfjv awTOK ifivXa^ tov ^(apiou, iwl tov irepov 
(TTparij'yop tuiv iirl QpaKr/^, QavKvSlS-rjP TOv 
'OXopov, 8e ToBe ^vviypa-^ev, ovtu irepl Qaffon 
{la-rt Be ^ vrjtTo<! Tlapiav a-Trotitia, direxovffa t^s 
'A/i^tTToXeiDs fipiueot ^/iSpas fidXurra irXovv), 

5 KeXevofTc; ffiplai ^o-r)6elv. Koi a pxv OKOvaav 
Kwrh. Tayp^ ewtA vava\v at erv^ov Trapovtrat 
ftrXei, Kal iffovXero ^ddaai p.dXiara fiep ovw 
TTjv 'AfupiiroXtv, TTp'ui ti evSovvai, el he /t^, t^v 
Yitova irpoKaraXapdv. 

CV, 'Ev Toiirp 8^ B/JOfftSas SeSiis «al t^i» 
aiTO Tq? &dtrov rav veSiv $o^0eiav icaX irvvdava- 
ftevo^ TOP ^oVKvBiBr}v KTfja-Lv tc ^etv twb Xpv- 
aeltap peToXXav ipyaaia^ ev t^ irepi TavTa 
SpdiCT) Kal air' avrov Svuaaffat ip TOit TrpwToit 
Ttun i^etpa>Ta>p, •qvelyero TrpoKaraffvelp, el 
BvpaiTo, rijv voXip, fii} dtpLicpovfiivov avrov to 
ttX^os Toil' 'AfitfitTroiuriop, iXtrtaap iie $a\daafj^ 

1 hrfi, with F and (ex oorr.J C ; other MS8. twl. 
390 



BOOK IV. CIV. i-cv. I 

CIV.': His crossing had surprised the people inside 
the city, and of those outside many were captured, 
while others took refuge within the walls; hence 
the Anphipolitans were thrown into great coniiision, 
especially as they were suspicious of each other. 
Indeed the genend impression was, it is said, that if 
Brasidas, instead of turning to pillage with his army, 
had decided to march straight against the city, be 
could have taken it. But as it was, when he had 
overrun the country outside and found that none of 
his plans were being carried out by his friends 
within the city, he merely settled his army in camp 
and kept quiet Meanwhile the opponents of the 
traitors, being numerous enough to prevent the gates 
being opened to him at once, acting in concert with 
Eucles the general, who had come from Athens as 
warden of the place, sent to the other commander 
of the Thracian district, Thucydides son of Olorus, 
the author of this history, who was at Thasos, a 
Parian colony, about a half-day's sail from Amphi- 
polis, and urged him to come to their aid. And he, 
on hearing this, sailed in haste with seven ships 
which happened to be at hand, wishing above all to 
secure Amphipolis before it yielded, or, failing in 
that, to seize Eion. 

CV. Meanwhile, Brasidas, fearing the arrival of 
the ships trom Thasos, and hearing that Thucydides 
possessed the right of working the gold-mines in that 
part of Thrace and in consequence had influence 
among the first men of the mainland, made haste to 
seize the city if possible before he should come ; for 
he was afraid that, if Thucydides should arrive, the 
popular party in Amphipolis, in the expectation that 

39» 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDKS 

^Vfj.ftMj^iK^ fcai avo t^ QpaKjjs ayetpaifTa avrov 
2 weptTTOi-^aetv rrtfta^, ov/c^rt itpoaympoiri. teal t}]v 
^vfi^aiTiv fieTpLav eTroielro, K'^pv^fui roSe avei- 
trao', ' AfufniroXiTav Koi A&rjvatav t&v evovToiv 
Tov fiev ^ovXoftevof eirl to(9 iatnov ttj^ iotj? koI 
iftola^ /terexoma fUveiv, rhp Si p,if i$i\ovTa 
atrUvai fk eavrov eKtf>ep6pm'0P itevre rifiepStv. 

CVI. Oi 8e TToyiXoX aKOvaavTet aXXotorepot 
eyevovTo tAs yva>pa<t, oXXtas re xal &paxv fiiv 
'A0ifvaimv ^fiiroKtrevov, to Se wXeoc ^vnftencrov, 
KaX tAv ef« \ij<fiB evrmv avyyol^ oiKetoi epSov 
^av ical TO Kifpuypa Trpii riv ^o^ov Bitauov 
etvai iXafi^avov, oi fiiv ' \.9r}valoi hia. to aap/epot 
&» i^Xdelv, ^yovpepoi ouk iv o/iotp <rrf>iai ra 
Betvk etvai koI ajta ov -npoahexop-evoi ^o-qdetav 
iv Ta-xth o hi aA,Xo! opiKo<t iroXewt tc ev Tp 
liTtp oil iTTepKTKOfievoi Mai kivSvuov Trapk So^av 

2 atfiiiftevoi. &are r&v trpatraovTtiJv r^ ^pafftSei 
^Sri Kal 4k tov tftavepoO SiaSiKaiovvTav aiira, 
eitei^ Kai rh ttXi/So^ eiitpwv rerpa/ip^eov ical roO 
trapomo'! 'AffTjvaiap or partly ov oinceri axpom- 
psvov, iyivero ^ opaXoyla xal Ttpoa^i^avro e(f>' 

3 oti iit^pv^fv, KaX oi ftiv rifv tt^Xip roiovrp 
rpowrp irapiBoirap, 6 Se ^ovKvSlSrfii xal at v^c? 
ravrij T'p fjpepa o^e KareirXeov e? Trjp 'Htova. 

4 Kai. rijp fiev ' A/i<f>lTroXip BpaoiSa; dpri eij^e, rifv 
Se ^Htopa rrapei pvxra ir/hiero Xa^elp- ei yap 
fiil iffoijffriffap ai r^e? Bta To^fov?, &fta ep ttv 
et;^eTo. 

39" 

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BOOK IV. cv. i-cvi. 4 

he would collect an allied force from the islands 
and from Thrace and relieve them, would refuse to 
yield. Accordingly, he offered moderate terms, 
making proclamation to this effect, that any citizen 
of Amphipolis or any resident Athenian, if he chose, 
might remain there, retaining possession of his own 
property and enjoying full equality; but that anyone 
who was not inclined to stay might go away within 
five days and take his property with him. 

CVl. On hearing this the majority became irreso- 
lute, especially as few of the citizens were Athenians, 
the greater number being a mixed multitude, and a 
consideraUe number of those who had been captured 
outside had relatives inside the city. As compared 
with their fears they conceived the proclamation to 
be fair — the Athenians, because they were only too 
glad to be able to leave, since they realized that 
their shave of the dangers was greater, and besides, 
did not expect any speedy relief; the general 
multitude, because Uiey were not to lose their civil 
rights but to retain them as before and also, con- 
trary to their expectation, were to be released from 
peril. And so, as the partisans of Brasidas were 
already quite openly justifying his proposals, since 
these saw that the populace had changed its attitude 
and no longer hearkened to the Athenian general 
who was in the city, the capitulation was made, and 
BrasidaB was received on the terms of his proclama- 
tion. In this way they gave up the city, and on the 
evening of the same day Thucydides aad his ships 
sailed into Eion. Brasidas had just got possession of 
Amphipolis, and he missed taking Eion only by a 
night ; for if the ships had not come to the rescue 
with at] speed, it would have been taken at dawn. 



393 

/ 

c.Googk 



J 



y 



THUCYDIDES . 

CVir. MerA Bk TovTo 6 fikp ri iv rg 'Htoi-. 
KoffiffTaro, 5va<; Kal to avTiica, i)v iwltf 6 
B/iairt'Sa?, xal to hreira atrtfiaX&v ?^ei, Be^dfitvov 
T0W9 iBeX'^ffavTat eiriX'^pV'^a'i avaiBev Karh tA? 

2 airovBdv' a Si Trpoi flip ti}v 'Htova itara re tow 
iro-rafjutv iroXKol<; v\oCoiv a^vta KaravKewrwi, st 
TTffls T^n irpovxovaav &Kpav a/iro rov Tei^^ou? 
Xafftop KpaTolt) Tov ^ffirXov, leal xari yijv diro- 
treipaaas afia, ap/^OTepaidev a/ireKpovvdr), t^ Se 

S irepi T^v AfiiipfiToXiv i^pTvero. teal Mupxivo^ 
re aiirp ■irpotTexa>pv<^^i 'UStoviKTf ttoKk, 11*t- 
ratcov rov 'HSeocMc ^aaiXSan airo6av6vTO<! inrh 
TWO Foaftos rralBaiv leal Bpaupow? t^? yvvatKo^ 
airov, xal FaX^^o? ov noXX^ vmepov KaX 
OlffVfif)- etffi Be a5rai Saa-iav d-Troiidai. wap<i>v 
Se Kol HepBiKKa^ evOi>i fierd rifv iXtaaiv ^vy- 
tcadCffrt} ravra, 

CVIII. 'E^^o/iei^T? Be t^i 'AfuPnroXeai ot 
'Affrjvaioi e's fiSya Beo<: icarktrrqaav, SthXai re 
KoX art {) TToXt? ?j» avroK &<piKt/M^ fiJXaw rs 
vavm^yrjaiiuov irofiiri} Koi y^tjftdrap irpo<roBq>, 
Kol on p-expt p^v rov %rpvnovo<; ^v irapoBot 
^eaaaiiMV Bia/y6vTa>v cttI tovv ^vfLfj,dj(pv<; v^Stp 
rolt AafeeBaifiovioii, t^; Bk •yetftvpat /j.^ xpa- 
Tovvrtov, avwBev fiiv ^leyaXjj? oStnj? irrX rroXi) 
Xf/wij? TOO -TTorafiov, tA Bk wpof 'Hiova rpi^petrt 
rtipovfUvav,^ ovk Ac BvvaaBai irpoeXdelv rare Si 

' Hudfl smenda to 'niptvfi4r»v. 
394 



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BOOK IV. cvii. i-cviii, I 

CVII, After this Thucjdides proceeded to arrange 
matters at Eion, in order to insure its safety for the 
present, if Brasidas should attack, and also for the 
future, receiving those who chose to come thither 
from the upper town according to the terms of the 
truce.* And Brasidas suddenly sailed down the 
river to Eion with many boats, in the hope that by 
taking the point which juts out from the wall he 
might gain command of the entrance, and at the 
same time he made an attempt by land ; but he was 
l>eaten back at both points, and then proceeded to 
put matters in order at Amphipolis. Myrcinus also, 
an Edonian town, came over to him, Pittacus, the 
king of the Edonians, having been killed by the 
sons of Goaxis and his own wife Brauro ; and not 
long afterwards Galepsus and Oesume, colonies of 
the Thasians, also came over, Perdiccas,* too, came 
to Amphipolis directly after its capture and joined in 
arranging these matters. 

CVIII. The Athenians were greatly alarmed by 
the capture of Amphipolis. The chief reason wag 
that the city was useful to them for the importation 
of timber for ship-building and for the revenue it 
produced, and also that, whereas hitherto the Lace- 
daemonians had possessed, under the guidance of 
the Thessalians, access to the Athenian allies as far 
as the Strymon, yet as long as they did not con- 
trol the bridge — the river for a long way above 
the town being a great lake and triremes being 
on guard in the direction of Eion — they could not 
have advanced further ; but now at last the matter 



i;. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

pa,Bta • i]Br] yeyeinja-Oai,^ Kal tov9 ^fifidypv^ 

2 itftoSovPTO fii] d-JTOtrr&iTiv, 6 y^,p BpaaCSav h> 
T6 TOis SXKoi'; fiirpiov eavTov trapetx^ *'»i ip 
Totf Xayoii wavraxov eSij\ou W5 ekev9epaiao)v 

3 Tijc 'EXXffSa i/CTrefupOeti}. koI al TToXeti trvv- 
$av6fttvat al t5>v 'Affrjvaiwv inr^Kooi ' t^? tc 
'A/*^ixoXe(U9 T^f SXaxTtv Koi h Tro/jeverat, Tijif 
TC eiceivov irpacm^Ta, /idXiirra Btf iin]p0t}aav i^ 
TO featTC/K^iEtv, /cai. iveK^pVKevovro wpo? ayTOV 
icpwfia, evitrapihiai re KeXevovrei ical ^ovXoftevot 

4 auToi sKaaroi irptiTOi iWoffT^wit. leoi -/ip «a« 
aBeia iipaivero avroli, i-^evap£VQi<; * fiiv t^ 
'A0i)vaUov Zvvdpxw<t ^ttX Totrovrov oar} ^arepov 
Sieipdvt}, TO Si irXeov ^ovX^trei xpivovrei da-eufttl 
^ trpovoia airi^aXer, eleaOoTS'i ol avBpairoi oS (tip 
eviffv/wOiTiP iXwiBi dTrtpia/eeTTT^ SiSovai, S fie 
fiT} TT poaievTat, Xoyifffi^ avroKparopi SiwSeladai. 

5 dfia Se rmv 'AffijvaCrDU tp rot? BokutoIV veatTTX 
ireirX'Tj'yfievtav koX tov BpaaLBov e^oXich, Koi oil tA 
oVTa XeryoPToi, ws airr^ eVt ^iaaiav t§ eavTOV 
fiovj) aTpaTia ^ ovk ■^OiXT/aai' ol A6r}naioi ^vfi- 
^dkfiv, eddpa-iivv koX itrlareuov /iriBeva ap hrX 

6 tripdi 0OT)9ii<rai. rb Sk fi^ytarop, Sti to ^Sov^v 
exov ^v T^ avTiKa Koi ot( to irpSiTOP AaxeBai- 
fiovitop opyaaiTinv i/ieXXov wetpwretrffai, kiv- 
BweieiP wavrl rpowtp eToifioi ^<rav. &v aiaOavo- 

> Kistemaohflr's correctioD for ^^iU or ^Glu of the HSS. 

' Supply in thought here iviiuiat before ytyinitiat. Mcwt 
MSS. hBva M^iit, (Vulg. i,>,^l{,To) ; Kistemaoher deletes. 

' al Twv 'Aijivixlar Mjiiooi, Hude deletes. 

* Hade reads ^if<ti<r>i/v>i, with B. 

' Liowood, followed hy Stabl and Hnde, inserts BmiH- 
irtwTi, as indeed seems to have bees in the mind of thJe 
author. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cviii. 1-6 

had become easj.^ And they feared, too, the re- 
volt of their allies. For Brasidas in other things 
showed himself moderate, and in his declarations 
everywhere made plain that he had been sent out 
for the liberation of Hellas. And the cities that 
were subject to Athens, hearing of the capture of 
Amphipolis and the assurances that were offered, 
and of the gentleness of Brasidas, were more than 
ever incited to revolution, and sent secret messen- 
gers to him, urging him to come on to them, and 
wishing each for itself to be the first to revolt. 
For it seemed to them that there was little ground 
for fear, since they estimated the Athenian power 
to be fi^ less great than it afterwards proved to be, 
and in their judgment were moved more by illusive 
wishing than by cautious foresight ; for men are wont, 
when they desire a thing, to trust to unreflecting hope, 
but to reject by arbitrary judgment whatever they 
do not care for. Furthermore, because of the recent 
defeat of the Athenians in Boeotia and the enticing 
but untrue statements of Brasidas,^ that the 
Athenians had been unwilling to engage him when 
he came to the relief of Nisaea with only his own 
army, they grew bold, and believed that nobody 
would come afiainst them. Above all, they were 
so moved by the pleasurable anticipations of the 
moment, and by the fact that they were now for the 
first time going to have a proof of what the Lace- 
daemonians would do when on their mettle, that 
they were ready to take any risk. Being aware of 

' Or, retaining PfSla of the MSS. and the Vnlgate readJDg 
inftiitre, " but now the accaaa waa thoaght to have become 

* <if. ch. lixiii.; Ikxxv. 7. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

fievoi ol li^v 'Adrjvatoi ipuXaKav, w^ i^ oKtyov Kat 
eV ')(eiiJ.uivi, hUirefiTTOV e? tA? TroXet?, d hk if rr/v 
AaxeSaifMva etfuifievo^ trTparidv tc irpoaavo- 
arekXeiv ixekeve ical avro<; ev t^ %Tpvfiovt 
7 vavTriTyCau Tpn^piav irapea-ieevd^fTO. ol Si Aaxe- 
Batfioyioi tA fikv Kal tJiSoPip diro t&v Trpantov 
apSpaiii oirj^ vvripirriaav avr^, ra he Koi ^ovKo- 
fievot /taWov tou9 re dvBpa'; tovi ex tiJs v^trov 
KOfiiaaadai koL tov voXefiov Ka-raXvaai. 

CIX, Tow 5' aiiTov x^ifj.wvo? Me'yap^ re ri 
fuucpei TeixVi & Ttfiav ol 'Adijuaioi el^ov, xari- 
iTKO^av eKoPTe<! eV eha^m, icaX Bpatri'Sa? pxrk Trjv 
^ Afji^nra\ea>i SXatviv ^\o>v to us ^vp.p.dxov^ 

2 OTpaTevei sttI rijv 'AKTt)v KaXovfievr^v, €<tti Sk 
aTTo TOV ^aaiKewi SiopvyfiaTO"; eerin Trpouxovtra, 
xal o "ABatt avTij'i opo<i v-xfrrjXov reXevTa ee to 

3 Alrfotov •jriXayos. TrdXet? Si ?x^' Xdvtjv /ih> 
'Av&pimv airoiicLav trap a\iTT]v ttjv Sitopv^a, c? 
TO TT/sos EiSySoiai' weXayo^ TeTpafi/ieinjv, to? Se 
aX\a<; Qvaaov xal KXcuvd; xal ' AxpoO^v; xal 

4 'OXoiftv^ov xal Aiov at oixovvTai ^Vfi/ieixTOVt 
edveai 0ap^aptau StyXaxrawv, koi t( xal XoX- 
Ki&txap evt ^payv, to hi -TrXelarov ^eXaaytxov, 
T&v xal Afip,v6v IT ore xal 'AOijva^ Tvparjvav 
oix^trdvTwv, Kal Bta-aXTtxhv xal KprjaToiviKOP 
xal ^aSo>v£i- Kara Be fMxpd iroXla/iaTa oixovaiv. 

5 KaX oi fisv TrXeiovi; 'jrpoiTexd>pv'''<^i' Tf> BpairiBa, 
^dvi] hi xal Alop avreavr}, xal aiiT&v tt/p ;^c«^av 
ep.p^iva'i T^ o'T/saT^ eh'^av. 

398 



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BOOK IV. cviii. 6-c«. 5 

theee things, the Athenians, so far as was possible at 
short notice and in the winter season, sent out gar- 
risons among the cities; while Brasidas sent to Lace- 
daemon and urgently begged them to send him 
reinforcements, and was liimself making preparations 
for building ships in the Strymon. The Lacedae- 
monians, however, did. not comply with his request, 
partly on account of the jealousy of the foremost 
men, partly also because they wished rather to re- 
cover the men taken on the island and to bring 
the war to an end. 

CIX. The same winter the Megarians took and 
razed to the ground their long walls' which the 
Athenians had held ; and Brasidas, after the capture 
of Amphipolis, made an expedition with his allies 
against the district called Aete. It is a promontory 
projecting from the King's canal* on the inner side 
of the isthmus, and its terminus at the Aegean Sea 
is the lofty Mt. Athos. Of the cities it contains, one is 
Sane, an Andrian colony close to the canal, facing the 
sea which is toward Euboea ; the others are Thyssus, 
Cleonae, Acrothol, Olophyxus and Dion, which are 
inhabited by mixed barbarian tribes speaking two 
languages. There is in it also a small Chalcidic 
element ; but the greatest part is Pelasgic — belong- 
ing to those Etruscans that once inhabited Lemnos 
and Athens^ — Bisaltic, Crestonic, and Edonian ; and 
they live in small towns. Most of these yielded to 
Brasidas, but Sane and Dion held out against him ; 
so he waited there with his army and laid waste their 
territory. 

' ef. oh. btii. 4. = Xeries' canal ; c/. Hdt. vii. 22 ff. 
' According to Herodotus (vi. 137 ft.), thej were expelled 
from Attica, and afterwards, hj Miltiades, from LemooB. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

ex. 'fl5 S" ovie iffi'jKovav, ev6vt arpaTevei ewl 
Topann]v rifp XakiciSiKijp, KarexofitP^v tnro 
Adrfvaioiv leai avrbv dvSp€^ oXiyoi hnffovTo, 
erolfioi ovrei Ttiv voKiv irapaSovvat. ical a^iKO- 
lievo<; vvKTo<; Sn xal irepi SpBpov rp arpar^ 
iKadi^eTO Trpo<t to ^toa-Kopetow, S a-Trexet rijit 

2 woXeox; Tpel-i pAXta-Ta ffroStows. t^v p^v ovv 
aXXr)v iroKiv twc Topovatcop xaX rotiv 'A0Tjvaiovv 
T0U9 ift^povpovvra<; ekaBev oi Se irpdavovrev 
aiiT^ etSdre? oti ^foi, ical "rrpoeXdovrev tiv^ 
avratv \dBpa oXtyoi eTqpovv ttjv trpoaoSov, koI 
liw rftrOoi/TO Trapovra, ea-Kopil^ovai trap avrow 
eyy(etpiBui exovrai dutpav ■^iXov'i eard (roaovTOt 
ykp fiopoi dpSpStv elKoai to irpmrov TayBkvrav oii 
xariSeurav ice^eiv ^px^ ^f avrotv Ava-iiTTpaTo^ 
OXvpfftov'), oi hiaSuere^ S(A rov tt/jo? to Trekwfo^ 
T&xovi /cal Xo^ofTCS Toijs T6 inl tov dvteTaTta 
<f)v\aKTr)plov ijipovpovs, ov<nj^ t^ troXeai iTp6v 
\6(f>ov, dva^dvreit hte^deipav koX t^k Karh Kaca- 
arpodov TTuXt'So Bi-ppotju. 

CXI. 'O Se BpaaiSa<t t^ fiiv d\X^ cnpar^ 
^avxa^e" oXiyov TrpoeXOiiiv, iKariar Bi TreXraffrA? 
•jTpoirifnrei, owco?, oirore irvXtu TtPf<i dvotx^^iev 
KoX rb ffrjp^iop dpOeit) b ^wexetro, trpSsroi 

2 iaSpdftoiev. xai ol /ihi XP^""^ iyyiypOfiSvov Kai 
Oav/id^opTSi xard fuxpop erux"^ iyyiit t^s 
TToXcm; ■7rpotT€X$6pTe'!- ol Si t&p ToptopfUwp 
evooB.tv wapatTKevd^oPTei fierit r&p eo'eXijX.v- 
400 



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BOOK IV. ex. i~cKi. 2 

ex. SiDce, however, thCT would not yield he 
inarched at once against Torone,* in Cbalcidice, 
which was held by the Athenians ; for a few men, 
who were ready to. betray the town, had invited 
him over. Arriving with his army toward dawn, 
but while it was still dark, he encamped near 
the temple of the Dioscuri, which is about three 
stadia distant from the city. The rest of the town 
of Torone and the Athenians of the garrison were 
unaware of bis approach, but his partisans, knowing 
that he would come, and some few of them having 
secretly gone forward to meet him, were watching 
for bb approach ; and when they perceived that be 
was there, they introduced into the town seven 
light-armed men with daggers, under the command 
of Lysistratus an Olynthian, these men alone of the 
twenty first assigned to the task not being afraid to 
enter. These slipped through the seawara wall and 
escaping the notice of the guard at the uppermost 
watch-post of the town, which is on the slcme of a 
hill, went up and slew these sentinels, and broke 
open the postern on the side towards the promon- 
tory of Cuiastraeum. 

CXI. MeanwhUe Brasidas, having gone forward a 
little, kept quiet with the rest of his army, but sent 
forward one hundred targeteers, in order that as soon 
as any gates were opened and the signal agreed upon 
was raised they might rush in first These now, as 
time elapsed, were wondering at the delay and had 
come up little by little close to the town. Mean- 
while the Toronaeans inside who were co-operating 
with the party which had entered, when the postern 

' Tb« chief towii on the Sithonian peuinsala. 8m Map 



i;. Google 



THDCYDIDES 

Sirav, <i? ainoK fl re TrvXi? Bt^ptfTO «al al Karh 
Ti]v dyopav wv\at tow /toyXoi) oiaKotrhn-ov ave^- 
yovTo, TTpSnov fiiv tcara t^v TrvXiSa Tivas 
•jreptayayovTei; itreKofutrap, Sirav icarA, vmrov «ai 
d/j^Tipa>$ev Toi><t ev r^ TroXet ovhiv eiBoTai; 
«fairtMj5 (poffijtretap, e-rreiTa to aiiiielov re toO 
irvpov, a>; etprfro, avi(ry(pp icai Bia rSiv xara rifv 
afOphv TruXwi" tows XotTroy? ^Sj; twi' ireKratrTSiv 
€<Te6ij(^ovro. CXII. koI 6 Bpao-t'Sa? iSa>v to 
fvw^ij/io efiei Spoft^, apaen^aa^ rov (rrparop 
ifi^o^aavrd^ tg ad poop xtd £kit\>}^ip ttoXX^v 

S TOts ip Tfj TToXet Trapaaj(opTav. xal oi fikv KaTh 
T^S iriiXo? eu^ws eaiwiti-rop, ol Si icaTcL Sokoik; 
Terpayatpoui;, at eTV)(pP t^ reip^et TTCTTTUjeoT* 
KaPOiKoSopavftevip wpo^ \L6av avoXxrfP Trpoffteet- 

S fiepcu. SpaffCBa^ fxev o5p /cal to irXijOoi evBi>q 
&pa KoX errl rh ptTewpa rijs TroXews eVpoTreTO, 
ffovKofitvoi Kar dxpai; ical 0(^am^ ekelv aiiT^v 
6 Si aXXov 6fii\o^ KOTO. itdvTa ofiolwi iuKeSdv- 
pvvro. 

CXI II. Twv Si Topoipaltov ytyvop^vTj'i t^? 
aXoJo'Cb); to itev irxiKv ovSkv elSa^ effapv^ttTo, ol 
Si irpdtytrovTe^ KaX ol? Tairr^ ^peaxe fieT^ t&p 

2 iaeXdoPTfDV evOvi ^rrap. ol Si 'Affrivaioi (€TV)(pp 
y&p ip Tn d/yopd otrXiTat KoBevSovre^ a>9 
•rrePT'^KOPTa) etreiS^ ^uOopto, ol p^v Tivev okiyoi 
Siaif>0tipopTai ip X^/xrli' aiTcip, tS>p Si XonrSw ol 
fiiv ire^ii, ol £^ i^ t^9 paw, ai iippovpovv Svo, 
KaTail>vy6pTe<t Suurm^oprat iv t^v Ai)kv0ov to 
ifipovpiov, h elypp avTol KaraXajSorres, axpop t% 
voKeati ^9 Tipi 8aKaaao.v dtrzCKr^fi.pivov ep trrep^ 



c.Googlu 



' BOOK IV. cxt. a-cnn. 3 

had been broken dowD mnd the gates near the 
market-place had been opened by cutting the bar, 
first brought some men around to the postern and 
let them in, in order that they might take the 
townsmen unawares by a sudden attack in their 
rear and on both sides and throw them into a 
panic ; after that they raised the fire-signal agreed 
upon and received the rest of the targeteers through 
the gates near the market-place. CXII, firasidas, on 
seeing the signal, set off at a run, calling up his force, 
and they with one voice raised a shout and caused 
great dismay to the townsmen. Some burst in imme- 
diately by the gates, others over some square beams 
which chanced to have been placed, for the purpose 
of drawing up stones, against the wall that had fallen 
in and was now being rebuilt. Brasidas, then, and . 
the main body made at once for the high points of 
the town, wishing to make its capture complete and 
decisive ; but the rest of the mnltitude ' scattered 
in all directions. 

CXIII. While the capture was being effected, most 
of the Toronaeans, who knew nothing of the plot, 
were in a tumult, but the conspirators and such as 
were in sympathy with the movement at once 
joined those who had entered. When the Athenians 
became aware of it — for about fiftf of their hoplites 
happened to be sleeping in the market-place — though 
some few of them were slain in hand-t(>-hand conflict, 
the rest fled, some by land, others to the two ships 
which were on guard, and got safely into the fort of 
Lecythus, which had been occupied and was held 
by their own men. It is the citadel of the city, 
projecting into the sea — a separate section' on a 

' Macedoniao and Thracian irregulars. 

■ There wag probably a wall across the isthmus. 



THOCYDIDES 
3 Itrd/i^. KarStfivyov Se koI r&v Topavattov es 

CXIV. Verfeprffievti<! Bi rjiUpat ^Stj teal ^e^ioti 
T^S irokeat ^o/tewje o ^paalSa^ tok fiev fierei 
T&v 'A0T}valtav TopQ)paioi9 Karaireifievyatri Kij- 
pvy/MX ^TTOiiJiraTO tow ffovXofievov iirl tA iavrov 
e<7eK06vTa aSeuf tToXtreveiv, toi; H ' ASrfvaioi^ 
icqpuica TrpoffTT^/i-^? i^Uvai iKiXevev ck t^s 
AjjkvOov vTToirjrovBov^ Koi rh eavTO>i' ^avra^ A? 

2 ova-Tjii XaXxfSerou. ot Bi eK\ei-\lreiv /Lev ovk 
4<Paaav, a-KeiaaaOat Bk <r^atv eKsKevov ^fiepav 
TOV? vexpoii^ aveXeadai. 6 Be iaivfiiTaTO Bvo. 
iv TavTaK Bk avroii re r^9 iyyu<i olKtai ixparv- 

3 vara Koi 'Adijfaiot tA tr^erepa. KaX ^v\Xor/ov 
rwv Topiovaiiov 7ro(^<ras A-efe tok iv rij 'AKav0^ 
■jrapair\^<Tia, on ov Biicaiov eiij ovje roi/v irpa- 
^apTtK irpov ainov Ti]» Xv^*" ''Vt woXew? x^ipovi 
oiiBi TT/ToSoTa? ^yetir0ai (ov yhp iirl SovKeia ouSi 
')(P'qpa(Ti TretffdivTa'! Spacrai tovto, dW' ewi 
dyaO^ Ktu i\ev6epla rrji TroXew?), ovts Toi)^ p,ri 
p.era(r')(QVTa'; otetrffai /i?) tS>v aiiT&v rev^taOtu' 
dipi'j^ai ycLp ov BiaifidepSiv ovre iroKiv ovre ISuo- 

4 Tijn ouS4va, TO Bi K^pvypM Troi^iTaaBat rovrov 
Iptxa TOK itap 'ASrjvaiov'i KaTaTTetjtevyoiTtv, dt9 
^yovfxtvo^ avBh> xapov<! tj exeivtap i^tKif ovS' 
&v trtft&v wetpairafth'ow ainow t&p AaxtBat- 
fioplwp^ Soiceip ^traov, oKkit •jro'KK^ fiaXXop, Saip 

' iStr Aanttaiiiorlitr, deleted by Cobet, followed by Hnda. 
404 



1;. Google 



BOOK IV. cxm. a-cxiv. 4 

narrow isthmus. Aod such of the Toronaeans as were 
friendly to the Atheotaas took refuge there also. 

CXIV. When day had come and the town was 
securely in his possession, Brasidas made proclamation 
to the Toronaeans who had taken refuge with the 
Athenians, that whoever wished might return to his 
property and exercise citizenship without fear ; but 
to the Athenians he sent a herald, ordering them to 
come out of Lecyth us under truce, bringing all their 
property, as the place belonged to the Chalcidians. 
They, however, refused to leave, but requested him 
to make a truce with them for a day, that they 
might take up their dead. He granted a truce for 
two days, during which he himself fortified the 
bouses near by and the Athenians strengthened 
their defences. Then calling a meeting of the 
Toronaeans, Brasidas spoke to them much as he bad 
done to the people at Acanthus.' He said that it 
was not just either to regard as villains or as 
traitors those who bad negotiated with him for 
the capture of the town — for they had done this, 
not to enslave it, nor because they were bribed, 
but for the welfare and freedom of the city — or to 
think that those who had not taken part would not 
get the same treatment as the others ; for he had 
not come to destroy either the city or any private 
citizen. He explained that he made his proclama- 
tion to those who had taken refuge with the Athen- 
ians for the reason that he thought none the worse 
of them for their friendship with these ; and when 
they had proved his countrymen, the Lacedaemonians, 
they would not, he thought, be less but rather far 
more kindly disposed toward them than toward the 
' ef. aha. Ixixv.-lxszvii. 

405 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

2 iTotri<7aa0ai Kal es rov wXetw \p6vov. tous yetp 

Si} avSpa<; Trepl ■rrXetovo'i etroiouvTO KOfiLaacOai, 

jxe'iXov ■xayp'rjaaino'i ai/Tou Kal dvTiTraXa Kara- 
aT^aavTO'i t&v ftev arepeadat, tok B' in rov iirov 
a/ivvofj^vot KivBvvevetv, el^ Kal KpaT^aetav. 

3 fLyverai ovv eKej(ei(»,a owrots re Kal roll fw/*- 

CXVIII. " IIe/;i fj^ev rov iepov ical tov ftavretov 
rov 'AwoXXffli'o? tov HvSCov Sokei ri/uv •yp^Seu 
TOV &ov\6fievov 080X009 xal aSew xarh tow? 

2 TTO/rpiov^ vQfiov^. Toi^ pev AaKeSaifiovioii ravra 
So/cel Kal Toll ^vfiftdxot^ toi^ Trapovaiv Bohotous 
Se Kal *Q>KEa9 Treia-eiv ^aaXv i<; Svvafiiv trpotTK^- 
pvKevopevoi. 

3 " J\.ep\ Sk tSiv ■)(py}pdTQiv t&v tov 0eov iTttfiA- 
\eadai OTrQ)<; Toti^ dSiKovvra'i i^vpijaopei', opBSn 
Ka\ SiKaLtD^ TOK TraTpioi'i vopoK XP^I^""^ "^^ 
vp£K Koi rjpeK ical t5>v 3.\\mv 0( ^ouXofievoi, 

4 Tolt TraTpiois voftofi ■ypiofisvot iravT€<t- TtepX fiiv 
o5p tovtcdv eSofc AaKeSaip.ovioi^ koI toIs a\Xot9 
^v/ipdj^K KaTa TUVTa. 

" TaSe Be eBo^e AaxeSaifiovioi^ Kal Tott aXKoK 
^vppdj^oi^, e^v arrovBet^ iraiaprai 01 'AQvjvalot, 
eirl TV5 avT&v fiiveiii exaTepov^ ^'^ovTa^ dwep vw 
e-yoftev, Tovi pxv iv rp K.opvif>atri^ iiTOi t^ 
Bov<ppdBov Kal tow To/tea>9 phrovrat, to^s Si hi 

' iat, BO Hade and van Herwerden from schol- od At. 
Pax 479 ; MSS. it. 

* (J ™1 upaHiBtiay, Madvig'a conje«tm^, tor «■! 'parliaum 
of the MSS. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxvii. i-cxviii. 4 

a truce for a longer time. For it was their men they 
made a special point of recovering, while Brasidas 
w«a still in good luck. If he were still further suc- 
cessfiil and established the contending forces on an 
even footing, the likelihood was that they would still 
be deprived of these men, and it would be doubtful 
whether, fighting on equal terms, thej could 
prevail with the remainder. Accordingly an armis- 
tice was concluded for them and their allies on the 
following terms ; 

CXVIII. "Concerning the temple and oracle of the 
Pythian Apollo, we agree that whosoever will 
shall consult it without fraud and without fear, 
according to the usages of our forefathers. These 
things seem good to the Lacedaemonians and the 
allies that are present ; and they promise to send 
heralds to the Boeotians and Phocians and persuade 
them so far as they can. 

" Concerning the treasure of the god we agree to 
take care to find out all wrong-doers, rightly and 
justly followingthe usages of our forefathers, you and 
we and all others that wish to do so, all following the 
usages of our forefathers. Concerning these things, 
then, it is so agreed by the Lacedaemonians and 
the rest of the confederates on such terms. 

"The following agreements also are made by the 
Lacedaemonians and the rest of the confederates, 
that in case the Athenians make a treaty, we shall 
each of us remain on our own territory, keeping 
what we now have : the Athenian garrison in Cory- 
phasium ^ shall keep within Buphras and Tomeus ; 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

KvO^poii fit} iirifturyo/Uvov^ H rifv ^ufiftax^f^v, 
lnrfTe r)iia.^ wpoi aurou? fujre avrav^ vpov VM^^i 
TOM? B' 4v tiifTola /cai Mtv^a ftrf trtrep^alvovra^ 
rifv oSov rifV a-rro rStv tvvXmv rmv napi.^ tou 
NiiTOV hrl ro TloaetSaiptov, airo Si rov Hoaei- 

(jifjSe MeyapieK xal tovs ^vp.^X"^'' virep^aCvetv 
rifV oBop ravTt)»), xal rijv v^iaov, {^v-rrep eKaffop 
ol 'AGi}vcuot, ey(pvTa^, p,i}Sf eiTtfuayofievov^ p,r}Se~ 
repovt p.7)BeTeptoae, koX rii iv Tpa^TJvi, otrairep 
vvv exovai Ka$' a^ ^vyiOevro irpoi 'ASijwu'oue. 

S " K.al rfj 6aXaiT<Tt) ^a/tivou^, Sa-a &v tcara 
T^v kavrSiv KaX icara Tt/v ^vfifia'xiav, AaKeSat~ 
fwvwvv Koi TOW ^i>ii,iia/)(av^ irKeiv ftr) ftaitpa i/t/i, 
aXXip Si letdiT'qpei wXotp es irevraKoaia roKavra 
ayovTi p^Tpa. 

B " KijpvKi Si xal irpeapeLa xal aKo\ov0ot9, 
oTrotroii; &p Sotc§, vepl KaToKvaemt rov wo\4fiov 
Kol SiK&p iv '[le\ov6pvT)iTov Koi 'Atfijuafe inrovSi^ 
eipai lovai xal awiovtrt, «al JcarA fi}p Koi xarit 
BoKaaaav, 

7 " Toif Se aiiropaXow p.ii BixetrOai iv rovrp t^ 
Xpop^, juijTe ikevffepop /iijre oovXov, /*7Te iiftd^ 
/MjTe ^/ta;. 

S " Atwa; re BtSopat v/M<t re fi/up /cal ^/ta; vfuv 
Kari ri vdrpia, tA ap^i\oya Sijctj Siakvovrai 
avev iToXeftov. 

> M reads (Ink toD Nuralav. 

^ Kirchhofirs correution for lol oTa of the USS. 



I ^ cba. liii., lir. * t^. ch. liii. 

* Lit. "the ^tes leading from the •brine [or »tatite, as 
wapi might indioale] of Niaas." 



c. Google 



BOOK IV. cxviii. 4-8 

that in Cythera * shall have no communication with 
the territory of the I^ocedaemonian allies, neither we 
with them uor they with us; that in Nisaea^ and 
Minoa ' shall not cross the road leading from the 
gates of the shrine of Nisus* to the Poseidonium, 
and from the Poseidonium straight to the bridge ^ 
at Minoa (nor shall the Megarians or their allies 
cross this road) ; as to the island" which the Athen- 
ians took, they shall retain it, and neither party shall 
communicate with the other ; and finally, in the 
territory of Trocicn,' the Athenians shall retain 
whatever they now have in accordance with the 
agreements which the Troezeniana have made with 
the Athenians. 

" As to the use of the sea, in so far as they use it 
along their own coast and along that of their con* 
federacy, the Lacedaemonians and their allies may 
sail, not with a ship of war, but with any rowing- 
vessel up to five hundred talents burden.^ 

" There shall be safe conduct for herald and envoys 
and their attendants, as many as shall seem proper, 
on their way to the Peloponnesus and to Athens for 
the purpose of bringing the war to an end and for the 
arbitration of disputes, both going and coming, by 
land and by sea. 

" Deserters shall not be received during this time, 
whether freemen or slaves, either by you or by us. 

" You shall give satisfaction to us and we to you 
according to our ancestral customs, settling disputed 
points by arbitration without war. 

' Connectinc Minoa with the mainland ; cf. iii. 11. 3. 

* Probably Atalante ia meant ; <^. m. Ixxxix. 3 ; T. xviii. T. 

' The Athsnian fortification on the iatbrnuB of Methana ; 
cf. ch. xIt. 2. 

' Abont 12i tons. 

4'3 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

" Tot; /liv AoKeSaiftovion xal rot? ^v/ifidj(pi9 

6 ravra SoKel' el Se ti VfiSv fire koXXiov eire 

SifcatoTepop rovTtuv Soxet elvat, tovre^ e; Ao/ce- 

BedfMva htSatTKere- ovSevo<i yap aTvoaTrjaotrrat, 

oaa &v SiKaia Xfyqre, ovre oi AaxeBaiiioviot 

10 ovre oi ^v/i/uixoi- ol Sb (oktc? t^Xo? exovrei 
iovraiv, rrwep xaX v/Leii ^fidt ixeXevere. at Si 
ff-TfovBal iviavTov eaovTai" 

11 "ESofev Tp S'^p,^. 'AKapiavrlii iTTpvraveve, 
^aiviirTTO's iypa/ifiaTeve, NtKwifii)? ivea-Tarei. 
Aaj^5 elfre, Tvjfrf aya0y ry 'Aflijcaton', TTOLelt^Bat 
TTpi iKe^eipiav, koB' h ^vy)(Qipovat AaKehaipoviot 
Kcu ol ^vp.fj.a'xpi ainSiV xaX i>p,oKoyi)aav ev r& 

12 Sijjuw T^f^ ^Ktxeipiav eicat hiiavrov, S.pxetv Se 
TJjfoe T^v tip,epav, TerpaSa ivl Bexa tov 'EXa^- 

13 ^o\i&vot pjqVQ'i. ev TOUT91 T^ XP"^'? tovrai a>? 
aXX»JXou? irpia^ei^ ical K'^pvKa^ ■jroieurdai TOt>s 
Xoyow, xaS' 5 ti Itrrat ^ xaTd\vtn<i rov -noKeftov. 

14 €KK\r)ffiav Bi rrroi^o-aprai roir^ aTpa-njyovs kuI 
To^5 TrpvTdvei^ ^ vpSiTov vepX rr/'i eipijiiijf ^ovXev- 
aaa$ai 'A^i^j-oiovs Kad' 5 ri &v iait}^ ij -rrpea^eCa 
frepX T^s KaraXviTiW! rov TroTt^p/jv. irjreiaaffBat 
Bk avTiKa paKa rai irpeff^eCwi iv t^ S^p^ T&i 
vapovvai ^ /i^v epfieveiv ev raJj (nrovBai'i toi* 



CXIX. Tavra ^vveBevro AaKehaipJtvioi Ka\ 
d>/M)0'ai'* Koi ol ^vpfiay(oi AOrfvaioii Koi TOtv 

' Hude ioaerta S", after Kirehhoff. 

' The change of Bubjact impliea a relativB clause ; some- 
thing like if fmaj have dropped out. 

^ Hude rt'iida &y fTirir, after KlrchhoS. 

• Koi Sfioaaw (Vulg. xol Sifuixiynirar) daleted bjHnde, after 
Eircbhoff, 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxviii. 8-cxix. i 

"To the Lacedaemonians and their allies these 
things seem good ; but if anything seems to you 
fairer or juster than these things, come to Lace- 
daemon and set forth your view ; for neither the 
Lacedaemonians nor their allies will reject any Just 
proposal you may make. And let those who come 
come with full powers, as you also desired of us- 
And the truce shall be for a year," 

' Decreed by the people. The tribe Acamanlis 
held the prylany, Phaenippus rvas clerk, 'Siciades 
ma* pretidenl. Laches, invoking good J'ortvne for 
the people of Athens, moved to conclude the armistice 
according to the terms to mkick the Ijocedae- 
monians and their allies had consented; and it 
was agreed in the popular assembly that the 
armistice should be for a year, and should begin on 
that day, the fourteenth of the month Elaphebolion.- 
During this time envoys and heralds were to go 
from one state to the other and discuss proposals 
looking to the termination of the war. And the 
generals and prytanes were to call an assembly 
in which the Athenians should deliberate first of all 
about peace, on what terms the Lacedaemonian em- 
bassy for ending the war should be admitted. And 
the embassies now present should pledge themselves 
at once, in the presence of the people, to abide by 
the truce for the year. 

CXIX. These agreements the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies made with the Athenians and their allies 

I The prescript of tlie Athenian decree which ratified the 
truce is quoted verbatim (Jtolica shove). 

4"5 



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THUCYDIDES 

^vfifia.j(pK /ifjvo^ if AaKeSaifiovi Tepavrlov 

2 StDBe/caTt). ^vveriffemo Se koI iaivhihovTo Ao«e- 
hatfj-ovlmv ftep o'iSe- Tavpoi 'E;i^eTt/uSa, 'AOij- 
vaioq HepticXeiSa, ^(Xo^^a^tSa? 'Epv^iX^Sa' 
K-opu/diav Si Alviav 'Hkvtov, EvtftapXBa^ 
'Apiariavvfiov XitcvrnvCoiv Sk AafMn/to^ Nav- 
Kparovi, 'Ovdci/Wi MeyaxXiov^- tierfapeuv Si 
Ni/eoffos KextiXov, Meve/cpdriiv 'Afj^^iSatpov 
^FtTriSavpitovhe'Xfitftia^EvirdKlSa''- 'Adr^vauov Si 
ol (TTpaTrjyol Ntic6a'rpaTo<i AteifTpei^ovit Ni/cuis 
NifojpaTov, KvtokKt}'! TdX/uudv. 

3 'H piev B^ iKe')(€ipia av-n} iyePSTo, leai ^vi^aap 
iv airp itepX Tav fui^ovav airovB5>v St^ ttohto? 
i^ Xoyovt. 

CXX. Hepl Si T^? r/fiipaii touto? al? iwj}p- 
j^oiTO ^icuovT} ev Tp IlflXXjJi^ ttoXii aire<m) air 
'ABrjva'iMiv ■n-pbi BpatriSav. ipaal Si ol ^lettavatot 
IIeXXj;i^! /Mc etpai iie II eXoTTo vvijcrou, 7rXioin-a? 
5' amo Tpoiai <T<j>tov tow? wpioTovi KaTevej^ffrjpcu 
es TO j^tDpCov rovTo Tp ^^ei^uiji ^ eyjyriaavTO 
2 'A\aioi, Koi avTov oiKyaai. a-noaraai S' avroXt 
6 BpoffiSas SUtrXevae puktov e? rijp 'S.Kitovtip, 
Tpf^pei ii€V ^OUa vpotrXeovtrti, avro^ Si e'c «eXij- 
Ti^ aireadev i^errap^vo^, oiria;, el /^iv rtvt tov 
> Hude'B oonjeolnre; Bekker Eivatia, for EhraiSa of 



' Gtote ia probablv right in aaBnniing that the IweUlh of 
OentBtius correBpoaclad to the fourteeoth of Elaphebolioo. 
' These cODBWted of formal libaliona. 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxix. i-cxx. 2 

nnd ratified them by oath at Lacedaemon on the 
twelfth day of the Spartan month Gerastius.^ And 
those who concluded and ratilied the truce on be- 
half of the Lacedaemonians were the following : 
Taurus son of Echetimidas, Athenaeus son of Peri- 
cleidas, Pbilocharidas son of Eryxilaidas; on behalf of 
the Corinthians, Aeneas son of Ocytus, Euphamidss 
son of Aristonymus ; on behalf of the Sicyonians, 
DemotimuE son of Nau crates, Onasimus son of 
Megacles; on behalf of the Megarians, Nicasus son 
of Cecalus, Menecrates son of Amphidorus ; on be- 
half of the Epidaurians, Amphias son of Eupalidas ; 
on behalf of the Athenians, the generals Nicostratus 
son of Diitrephes, Nicias son of Niceratus, Autocles 
son of Tolmaeus. 

Such, then, were the terms on which the armistice 
was concluded, and during its continuance they 
were constantly conferring about a truce of longer 
duration. 

CXX. About the very time when they were 
performing the rites of confirmation,^ Scione, a city 
in Pallene, revolted from the Athenians and went 
over to Brasidas. The Scionaeans asserts that they 
came originally from Pellene ' in the Peloponnesus, 
and that the first settlers in Scione were driven to 
this place on their way back from Troy by the storm^ 
which the Achaeans encountered, and settled here. 
On their revolt, Brasidas crossed over^ by night to 
Scione, a friendly trireme sailing ahead and he 
himself following in a skitT at some distance behind. 
His idea was that, if he should meet with any boat 

* Fellene woa in Achaea, near SicyoD ; tbe people are 
mentionad aa alliea of Sparta In ii. ii. i. 

' Referred to again in vi, ii. 3. • i.e. from Torone. 



..Google 



THUCYDIDES 

hc^Xtjto? fiti^ovt TrXoioi Ttepnvyxdvoi, tj 7pii]pti<; 
ajiwot avT^,^ avTttraKov Be aXXjjs rpi^pov^ 
i'jrtyevofiivT]^ ov ttoo? to eXaaaov vo/u^iov 
rpe^fretySai, aXK' rrri t^ii vavv, Kal ev rovrtp 

3 avTOV Siaff^treiv. wepaiaydeli Se xal ^vWoyov 
iTOi'^ffa<! TMV XKiiavaMv iXeryev a Tt eV t§ 
'AfcavBtp Koi Topati/i), xal -Trpoaeri irdv-rmv^ d^i<o- 
rdrovv ainom elvai eiraivov, o'lTive^ t^5 IlaX- 
\^VT)<; ev rfp iirBp^ a.-n£i\/qp.p,evy)^ vtto 'Affrpiaitov 
UoTeiBatav ixofTtnv xal ovret ovBiv dWo 1} 
V7)<rimTai avTeTTdyye\TOt ep^mjOTjirai' tr pbi Tijv 
i\ev0eplav ical ouk dvipeivav aroKp,ia dvdr/xTfv 
<T^iai irpoayeviffSai irepi tov (fiavepati otKeiov 
dya&ov' <T-r)p,eiQV t elvai tov xal aXXo rt &v ' 
avrovi rS>v /leyitnav auBpeta"; vTrofKivar etre' 
Te^^(T6Tot Kari vovv tci trpdypara, TrtffTOTaTow? 
T6 Ty aKT/deia riyi'jerea&ai avrov^ AaKehatfiOvi.iav 
ipCkovv Kal raWa Ttp.ijativ, 

CXXI, Kal 01 pev ^Kiwvaiot i-m^pOTjadv re 
TOts \Qyoii Koi Bapa^aavre^ trdvre'i ofioiai, «al 
ol? irpoTepov /ii) Tjpeaxe ra •jrpaa&opeva, top t€ 
TToXepiOV BievoovvTo -n-poffv/MDi olaetv koX tov 
BpairiBav rd t aXka xaXm^ iBi^avro xal S17- 
pnoiria ftkv ^pvo*^ o'Tc^av^ aviBrfaav mi iKevBe- 
povvTa Ttjv 'EXXdSa, iSia Be eTatviovv Tt /cal 

2 •rrpoa^pxovTO &inTep d&Xr}T^. 6 Bi to re wapav- 
TiKa K^vXaKijv Tiva at/rot; eyKaTcCXiTrinv BU^ 
irdXtv leal varepov ov iroXX^ o'TpaTietv trXeiw 

' The oorrected reading of two minor MSS.; alt the better 
MSS. abr^. Huiie deletes, after Puppo. 

' nirrKr, Eude adopts Krfiger'a conjecture, ifiaiiaiii. 
* Tt added by Kruger, 



1;. Google 



BOOK IV. cxx. 3-cxxi. 3 

larger than a skiff, the trireme would protect him, 
but if another trireme of equal strength should come 
along it would turn, not against the smaller boat, 
but against the ship, and in the meantime he could 
get safely across. He succeeded in crossing, and 
having called a meeting of the Scionaeans repeated 
what he had said at Acanthus and Torone, adding 
that their own conduct had been most praise- 
worthy of all Iwcause, when Pallene was cut off at 
the isthmus by the Athenians who held Potidaea 
and when they were nothing but islanders, they had 
not supinely awaited the compulsion of necessity in 
a matter that was manifestly for their own good, but 
had of their own free will taken the side of freedom ; 
and that, he said, was a proof that they would endure 
like men any other peril however great ; and if 
things should be settled according to his wish, he 
would consider them in very truth most loyal friends 
of the Lacedaemonians and would honour them in 
other respects. 

CXXl. The Scionaeans were elated at his words, 
and all alike, even those who before were not 
satisfied with .what was being done, took courage 
and determined to carry on the war with spirit. 
Brasidas they not only welcomed with other honours 
but publicly crowned him with a golden crown as 
liberator of Hellas, and privately decked him with 
garlands and made offerings as for a victor in the 
games. And he, leaving them a guard for the present, 
crossed back, but not long afterwards he led over a 



„-,:„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

hrepaiwae, ^ovKofievo^ ftcT avrmv t^? tc MivSt}^ 
Koi T^5 IioT€iSaia<i aTTOTTeipaaai, ^yovfievoi Kai 
TOW! 'Ad7}vaiov^ ^orjffiiaai av d>^ eV vijaov koX 
$ov\6fi£vos <f>ddaai- leaL tl ain^ xal itrpajTaero 
it tAs TtoKeK lavTa^ irpohoaia'; trepi. 

CXXII. Kflt o fiiv eiieXKev e7;^6tp)J<Te(c rai<; 
irokeat Ttturdw iv rovry Si Tpi^qpei at rr}v 
€Keyeipiap -n-eptayyeXKovre^ dtftutvovvrai, trap 
aiiTOv, 'AOijvalav p,ev ' A.ptaTO)wpM<;, AaKeSat- 
2 uovifDv Se ABrjvaio';. Ka\ fj p,kv txTparta -rroKiv 
Biefit] e? ToptucTjc, oi Se t j> ^ BpairiSa dv^yyeWov 
rifv ^vvd'^K'rfv, xal i&i^aiTO irdvre^ ol dni SpaKiji 

5 ^vftp.a^ot AaKehaifiovLav ra Treirpay/ieva. ^Apt- 
rraivv/io'; Se -totf ftev dXKoK Kar^vei, %Kia>- 
valovt Se al<T$6p.evo'i ix \oyiafioO rmv rjfi^p&v 
OTi vtTTepov a^ea-T'^KOuv, ovk e<fii) iverwovSovi 
eaeadai. B/io<7tSa? Be diiTeXeye troXKd, ok 

4 trporepov, koX ovk ddiiet Tr/v trokiv. &is S' ditrf^- 
TcXXev i% -rat 'Affijva? o ' ApiaToivvpai; Trepi 
avT&v, oi ASrjvaioi evOvi erot/ioi rjsav a-vpa- 
reveiv M rt)P ^Kitovrfv. ol Se AaxeSai/ioPtoi 
TTp^trffei^ Trep/^avTet; irapa^riaeaQai. e^arrav ai>- 
TOus T^? attovhd'i, KoX Ttj'i TToXecn'i dvrenoiowTO 
Bpaai&a •maTevovre';, SCict} ts eroTp^oi ^trav irept 

ainTJi KpiveaOai. oi 8e BiKrj p.ev ovk rjOeKov 
KivSvveveiv, a-TpaTsveiv Be wt rdxioTa, opyijv 
TTOtovfievoi el Koi oi iv Tali v^trois f/St) oct« 
a^tovtn iT^Stv d^KnaaOai, ry Kara yfjv Aatee- 

6 Baipjovteav la%vt dvatpeXel ■n-iffTevovTei- elj(e Bi 
Koi 7) oK'^Beta -n-epi rif} dvo<rrd<Tea<; paKKop $ 

> t4 deleted by Hude, after SUbt. 



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BOOK IV cxxi. 2-cxxu. 6 

larger army, wishing in concert with them to make 
an attempt upon Mende and Potidaea; for he thought 
the Atlienians would bring succour to Pallene as 
though it were an island, and he wished to anticipate 
them ; besides, he was negotiating with these towns 
with a view to their betrayal. 

CXXII. So he was about to attack these towns; 
but in the meantime those who were carrying round 
the' news of the armistice arrived at his head' 
quarters in a trireme, Aristonymus from Athens 
and Athenaeus from Lacedaemon. Whereupon his 
army crossed back to Torone ; and the messengers 
formally announced the agreement to Brasidas, and 
all the Thracian allies of the Lacedaemonians ac- 
quiesced in what had been done. Aristonymus 
assented for the other places, but, finding on a cal- 
culation of the days that the Scionaeans had re- 
volted after the agreement, he said that they would 
not be included in the truce, Brasidas, however, 
earnestly maintained that they had revolted before, 
and would not give up the city. Whereupon Aris- 
tonymus sent word to Athens about these matters, 
and tlie Athenians were ready at once to make an 
expedition against Scione. But the Lacedaemonians 
sent envoys, saying that the Athenians would be 
violating the truce, and trusting the word of Brasidas 
they laid claim to the town and were ready to 
arbitrate about it. The Athenians, however, were 
inclined, not to risk arbitration, but to make an ex- 
pedition! as quickly as possible, being enraged to 
think that even the inhabitants of the islands now 
presumed to revolt, relying on the strength which 
the Lacedaemonians had on land, useless though it 
was to them.' Moreover, the truth about the 

' BeonuM the Athenians commanded the sea. 

421 



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THUCYDIDES 

01 'ASrivdiot iSticalovv Svo yhp ^fiifMK varepov 
airevrrjaap ol J,Ki<ovaXoi. i^'^HTixa t ei0ii^ 

vaCovj i^eXelv tc Kal airoKTetvai. ical riXka 
^iTvxd^ovTei e<; tovto Ttapeaxeva^ovTO. 

CXXIII. 'Ek Tovry Se M-ivBr} dtf>iaTaTat 
avrmv, TToKii e'f t§ Ila\\ijvp, 'EpeTptwv diroiKia. 
teal ainoii^ eSe^aro 6 BpaclSai, ov vofii^tav 
aZiKeiv, oTi iv rj] iKex^tpi'^ tpavepmi irpotre- 
vaip}](Tap- eart yap & ital ainoi ivcKoXet tok 

2 AurfvaCoiv vapa^aiveiv ra? trirovBat. St & koI 
ol MevSatot ftaXKov irokfiTja-av, Tt)V re tov 
'Qpaaihov yva>p.Tiv opS>vTe<! eroifi^p, TCKfiaipoiievoi 
Koi a-TTO T^7 '%iua>vr]<i on ov TrpovSiSov, xal a/*a 
T&v irpaatrovTav fftjiio'iv * okirfwv re ovratv Kal 
<&9 rare epAWijaav, ovK^ri avevrojv, a\X^ vepi 
tT<^i<riv avroK tpo^ov/ievotv to KaTaSrjKov xol 
Karaffiaffafiipaiv -jrapii yvmp/r)v tous' iroWov^. 

3 ol Bk 'AOi]vaioi evdvi trvBop^voi, woXX^ rrt 
fi&Wov opyiffdevTe's iraptaKevd^ov^o eV a/vpori- 

4 pat T^; waXeit- Kal QpatrtBa^ irpotrBeyofitvoi 
TOV iirlirXovp ai/Ttov inreKicafu^et e? OXvvffov Ttjv 
XakKiBiKijv TratSa? «al yvvaiKai rav XKiavaiav 
Kal MevSaMv, xal r&v UeXoTromitja'Ctiiv airroK 
■nevTaKoaiov^ o'TrXiraf; BUvep,\}re teal TreXraoTi? 
TptaKOtriovi XaXKiSfoyp, dpxovTo. re rap diravrtap 
tloXvBa/xiSav. leal ol piv rd Trepl <r^a^ ootow, 
ai5 ev Tdj(et irapeaophiav rSiv ' A-Bifvaltav, KOivg 
TjvTpeirl^ovTO. 

CXXIV. SpaalSai Se ical TlepBiKKa^ iv rovr^ 
(TTpaTevovffiv ap,a eVi 'Appd^aiov to BevTSpov 

' ir^oiv. Kciiger deletes, followed bj Huiie. 
432 



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BOOK IV. cxxii. 6-cxxiv. i 

revolt was rather as the Athenians claimed ; for the 
Scionaeaos revolted two days after the agreement. 
The Athenians, then, immediately passed a vote, on 
the motion of Cleon, to destroy Scione and put the 
citizens to death. And so, keeping quiet in other 
matters, they made preparations for this. 

CXXIII. Meanwhile Mende revolted from them, 
a city in Pallene, and an Eretrian colony. And 
Brasidas received them, thinking they were not 
doing wrong in coming over to him, though clearly 
it was in the time of the armistice ; for there were some 
points in which he himself charged the Athenians 
with breaking the truce. Wherefore the Mendaeans 
also became more bold, for they saw the resolute 
attitude of Brasidas, and also inferred it from the 
fact that he did not give up Scione. Moreover, the 
conspirators among them were few in number, and, 
once they had formed the design, from that moment 
showed no slackness, but were in fear of their lives 
in case of detection and coerced the multitude even 
against their will. But the Athenians, when they 
heard the news, were far more enraged, and straight- 
way made preparations against both cities. And 
Brasidas, expecting their coming, conveyed away to 
Olynthus in Chalcidice the women and children of the 
Scionaeans and Mendaeans, and sent over to protect 
them five hundred Peloponnesian hoplites and three 
hundred Chalcidian targeteers, with Polydamidas 
as commander of the whole. And the two cities 
together made preparations for their defence, in the 
belief that the Athenians would soon be at hand. 

CXXIV. Brasidas and Perdiccas meanwhile 
marched together a second time ' to Lyncus against 
' I-/, ch. Jiixiii, 

423 



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THUCYDIDES 

eV AvyKov. wot ^ov 6 /tec uv eKparei Mokc- 

^ovfiiv Ti/v ovva/tie koI tqjc eirottcoWTtup EXXiji'fijv 
ojrXiTa?, D Se vpo^ TOi? aiiTov wepiXotTrot? twi» 
HeXovroi'i'jjfftti)!' Xa\«(Se'os /cat ^ A.Ka.v6iov<i xaX 
tS>v aKKcov Kara hvuafiiv eKOLaTaiv. ^vfi-trav Be 
TO oirXirtKov toip 'iLXKijva>v Tpiay^iXioi fidXioTa, 
tTTTrij? S" oi iravTe^ ijfcoXovOovv MaKeSovoiv ^vv 
X.a\Kt&euiTti' oXiyou ev ^iXiou?, koI aXXoi OfuXoi 

2 TWi/ ^ap0dpti)v TToXw- ecr/3aXofT69 S^ (S t^v 
'Appa^aiov ical evpovret avTetrTpaioireSev/jUvovi 
avTol<i Tov? AvyK'^aTiiv, dvTeKaOi^opro leal 

3 ainoi. Kai exovTtnv -t&v fiev tre^wp X6^op exari- 
prodev, Tre&lov &e roD p-eaov ov-roi, ol tV??^? e« 
aina KarahpaptavTet; iTTropdx''l'^av Trpara dfi/po- 
repicv, eirena Se koX 6 BpaulSa'i xal 6 IIepSt«Ka?, 
irpoeXSoPTfop TrpoTepruv airo tov Xoipov fierd t&v 
iTnreiap tS)v Avyicija-Tav ovXtrav xai erot/uuv 
6pra>v pa-)(ia9at, dpTeTrayayovre^ ical avrol ^vp- 
i^aXov Ka\ ^rpfy^av Toii'; AvyK^a-id-i, koI woX- 
Xou? fiev SiiipOeipav, ol Sk Xotirol bia^vyopre^ 

4 trpo<i th, /ieTetapa riffv-j^a^ov. fierh, oi tovto 
TpoTTalop m^tJavTef hvo p.ep fj rpet^ rjftepa^ 
iir€a-)(OP, rov^ 'iXXvpiovi fihiovTei;, oi ertry^otr 
Tq> iiepBifCfca fiiadov ftiXXopre^ i^^eip, etrena 
6 XlepSiKKas effovXero irpolevai eVi tui tow 
'Appa^aiov /cajp^i ital fit) icaOfjaffat, RpaaiBa^ Si 
T^? Te MecSij? irepiopai^epo'i, fiij tS)p ABrjvaiwv 
irpoTtpov i-n-nrXfVtfdvTaiv Ti vaffrj, koX 'S.fia rStv 
'IXXupiStv ov vapovTiiiV, av trp6dv/io<; ■^v, dXX^ 
dvaxaypetv fioXXop. 

CXXV. Kal iv T0UT9) EitK^epop-evtap dinav 
^yyiXffj] oTi xat oi 'IXXvpiol p-er 'Appa^atou, 
434 



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BOOK IV. cxxiv. i-cxxv. i 

Airhabaens. The latter led the force of the Mace- 
donians, over whom he held swaj, and a body of 
Hellenic hoplites resident among them ; the former 
led not only the Peloponnesian troops which were left 
in the country, but also such forces from Chalcidice, 
Acanthus and the other towns as they could each 
furnish. The total Hellenic force was about three 
thousand ; the cavalry that went with them, Mace- 
donians and Chalcidians, were all told a little less 
than one thousand, and there was besides a great 
multitude of barbarians. Invading the country o> 
Arrhabaeus and finding the Lyncestians encamped 
against them, they also took up a position facing 
tliem. The infantry occupied a hill on either side, 
with a plain between, while the cavalry of both 
armies at first galloped down into the plain and 
engaged in battle ; then Brasidas and Perdiccas, 
after the Lyncestian hoplites had come forward from 
the hill in conjunction with their own cavalry and 
were ready to fight, advanced also in their turn and 
joined battle, routing the Lyncestians and destroying 
many, while the rest escaped to the high places and 
kept quiet. After this they set up a trophy and 
halted for two or three days, awaiting the lllyrians, 
who had been hired by Perdiccas and were momen- 
tarily expected. Then Perdiccas wished, on their 
arrival, to go forward against the villages of Arrha- 
baeus instead of sitting idle ; but Brasidaa was soli- 
citous about Mende, fearing that it might suffer some 
harm if the Athenians should sail there before hb re- 
turn ; and, besides, the lllyrians had not appeared, so 
that he was not eager to go on, but rather to retreat. 
CXXV. Meanwhile, as they were disputing, it was 
announced that the lllyrians had betrayed Perdiccas 

435 



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THUCYDIDES 

TTpoSAi'TtvIIepSiKKaVi'yeyivrivTaf &aTe^^afi^- 
ripOK l*iv hoKOVu dva-)(tipear Si^ to £eo? ainSni, 
SvTtav avdpmirasv fuiy^lfji^v, Kvpadev Se oiiSev ix 
T^ Statfiopai oirrfviKa XPV opftao'Sai, vvicroi; re 
iwiyevofUinji, oi fiiv MaKfSope^ xal to ttXtjOo^ 
rav ^ap^dpav evSv^ tpo^-rjffevTe^, Strep ^iXet 
p£yaKa arpaTOTreBa dffotft&'i eKwX-ijyvvffdai, koX 
vopiiravTeV TroXXnTrXatri'ou? fikv ^ ^\Bov itnifai, 
Sffov Se ov-rra TTapeivai, KaTacTavrei i<; al<t>vtStop 
<f>ufi)v ^(i>povP iir' oiKov, leaX rov TlephiieKav to 
irp&TOV OVK tu<r6avofievov, (ti? eyvw," tivarfKaaew 
•trplv Tov Spao'iSav ISeiP (avoid fv y&p iroXv 

2 aW^Xwv ia-TparoireSevovTo) irpoaveKBttv. Bpa- 
<riBa^ Bi a/ui t§ ip wi elhe ToviTMaieeBovtK 
vpateeveapriKOTa'i,^ tov? tc IWvptat/^ teal tov 
^Appdpaiov /liXXovTav iiriivat, ^vvayoffmv koX 
auTo9 i<; rerpafyavov rd^ip tov? owXirav xal rov 
"^iKov Qp.iKov et peaov Xa^an/, Biepoetro aiia- 

3 ^(oipetv, fxSpop^vt Se, ei wj) TrpotrffaXKoiev 
avTOK, erafe tous vewTarav^, ical avro^ XiyydSai 
€)(aiv TpiaKotriov^ TeXevraio'i yv^p.'qv et^fi" viro- 
y^topuiv Toi; twv evavriiov irpwroi^ irpoaKetao- 

4 fiivoK av6iaTdp^vo<i dfiVveffOai. koI irplv roin 
■KoXepiovv iyyvs elpai, wt StA Ta;^^(iii' irapeKeXev- 
ffaro roli arpaTuarai^ roidSe. 

CXXVI. " E( p,iv fj.^ inraynTevov, avSpev 
HeXovopv^iTioi, vpSi<; r^ re p.efMv&<T$ai, xai ort 
^dp^apoi oi ijnoPTev ical troXKol exTrXtj^iv ^av, 
OVK &v Qfiolat SiSaxvi* ^1^"- "^V ""apaneXeiJo-et 



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BOOK IV. cxxv. i-cxxvi. i 

and taken sides with Arrhabaeus ; consequently, 
because of their fear of these people, who were 
warlike, both generals dow agreed that it was best 
to retreat. But in consequence of their dispute 
nothing had been determined as to when they should 
set out ; and when night came on the Macedonians 
and the mass of the barbarians immediately took 
fright, as large armies are wont to be smitten with 
unaccountable panic, and thinking that the advanc- 
ing enemy were many times more numerous than 
they really were and were all but on them, betook 
themselves to sudden flight and hastened home- 
wards. Perdiccas, who at first was not aware of 
their movement, was compelled, when he did learn 
of it, to go away without seeing Brasidas ; for they 
were encamped far away from each other. But at 
daybreak, when Brasidas saw that the Macedonians 
had alreiidy decamped and that the lllyrians and 
Arrhahaeus were about to come against him, he 
formed his hoplites into a square, put the crowd of 
light-armed troops in the centre, and was himself 
intending to retreat. He so stationed the youngest 
of his troops that they might dash out against 
the enemy, in case they attacked at any point, and 
proposed to take himself three hundred picked men 
and, bringing up the rear, to make a stand and beat off 
the foremost of the enemy whenever they pressed 
him hard. And before the enemy were near he 
exhorted his soldiers, so far as haste allowed, in the 
following words : 

CXXVI. " Did I not suspect, men of Peloponnesus, 
that you are in a state of panic because you have 
been left alone, and because your assailants are 
barbarous and numerous, I should not offer you 

427 

D,j™tc C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

iirotovfi,r}V' vvv Se wpos fi^v rrjv dwoXet^ti' rav 
^fitreptav /fol to ttX^^o? rmv ivavritov ffpaxet 
intoforqiiart koI irapaiviirfi tA fieytffTa treipd- 

2 rro/uxt TTeiffeiv. ayadoZt yh,p elveu vpXv -Trpotr-^Kei 
ri wo\i/iia ov Si& ^vp.p.dx'^'' irapowiav eted- 
trrore, aXX^ St otxeiav dper^v, Kai /LJjSew irXijOoi 
ir€<f>o^^<T$at eripoiv, o'Oye fMjBe utto iroXiTeiwv 
TOiovTwv TJieere, ev al? ov ' ttoXXoI oXlyeav ap- 
j^ovffiv, oXhA ■ ■jr\€t6va)y fiaXXov iKatrirav^, o^k 
SXKtp TivX KTijffdfiepoi rijv SuvaaTeiav ^ t^ pMXo- 

3 ftxvoi Kpatelv. ^ap0dpow Bi obi pvv diretpl^ 
BSBtre, /ioffelv XPV< ^*f ''"' "^^ TTpoi)ja)vi<T0e rot? 
MaiceS6(ri.v airav teal d<f)' &v iy^ etied^oiv re Koi 

i aWoiv aKo^ hrltTrapMi, ov Seivovi etroftevovs. itai 
fhp otra p^v TQ} 8tnt daSevr} ovra r&v iroKepiav 
BoKJifftv l)(ei ia")^voi, Bihaj^f) aXrjdrii Trpoayevofteirr)^ 
vept avraiv iddpavve fjuSWov tov; dfivvo/tevovs' 
0I9 Sk ^e^alw; Tt irp6<re<rTiv dyaSov, pjf TTpoeiBoK 

S T*5 &v airroK roX/iJjpoTepav -irpocrifi^poiro. oOrot 
Se TTjv p4XXf}mv piv e^ovin tok dveipoi^ tfio- 
^epdy ical ydp ttXiJ^ei o-^gj; Sccvoi icat ^otf^ 
fteykdei d^oprjToi, ^ tc Bid kcv^ iwavd<reiaK 
tS>v SirXtav l;^e( rivd S^\ei>mv QTresX^?. irpoa- 
fiel^ai Bh Tol'i viropAvovaiv aiird ovy^ opaloi' o-^re 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxxvi. 1-5 

instruction combined with encouragement. But as it 
is, in view of our abandonment by our allies and of 
the multitude of our opponeols, I shall try by a 
brief reminder and by advice to impress upon you 
the most important considerations. For it is proper 
that you should be brave in war, not because of the 
presence of alhes each and every time, but because 
of innate valour ; nor should you be afraid of any 
number of aliens, you who do not come from states 
like theirs, but states in which, not the many rule 
the few, but rather the minority rule the majority, 
having acquired their power by no other means but 
superiority in fighting. And as for the barbarians, 
whom now in your inexperience you fear, you ought 
to know, both from the contest you have already 
had' with tile Macedonians among them,^ and may 
gather from the knowledge 1 gain by inference and 
from reports of others, that they will not be formid- 
able. For whenever the enemy's power conveys an 
impression of strength, but is in reality weak, correct 
information about them, when once it has been 
gained, tends rather to embolden their opponents ; 
whereas, when the enemy possesses some solid ad- 
vantage, if one has no previous knowledge of it, 
one would be only too bold in attacking them. 
Now as for these Illyrians, for those who have had 
no experience of them, the menace of their attack 
has terror ; for their number is indeed dreadful to 
behold and the loudness of their battle-cty is in- 
tolerable, and the idle brandishing of their arms has 
a threatening effect. But for hand to hand fighting, 

' I.e. the Lvncotians, who, according to ch. lixiiii. 1 and 
IL xoix. 2, belonged to the Macedonians, uid had been beaten, 
a* stated in ch. oxxiv. 3. 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

yap rd^iv i^oine^ tua^vtSeXev &v Xiirelv ripa 
■)(iopav ffia^oftevoi, ^ re (fivyi} xal t) e<fioBo^ avTwv 
X<7r]v e^ovaa So^av tov koKov ape^iXeyjcTov »al 
TO avSpelov l^e* {avTOKparap h^ P^W /mKitt' 
hv Kcu. ■jrp6<fiaaiv rov aa^eadai tivi vpe-Tovras 
■nopiaete), toO tc «s X^tpo? ikdelv TTiaTOTepov to 
iic^oS^aeip ' iifiat oiavBvvttK! rfyovvTtu' ixeivtp j^p 

B &v -n-po TOVTov expStvTo. tra^w re "Tran to 
'rrpov'7rdpj(pv Setvov d-rr avrSfv opare epy^ fiev 
Ppaxii Sv, &^ei Bi xal aKofj Kwvaatripxov. S 
virofieLvavTe<! i-7riif>ep6/iepop xaC, orav leaipo^ 3, 
KotTfjL^ Koi Tofei aStfi; vtraya-yopTei, ?? tc to 
da^aXi^ daaaov d<j>i^ea8e xal ypaiaeaBe to 
Xottrov 0T» oi ToiovToi oy(\ot tok p^v Trpi wpwnpf 
eiftoSov &e^a/tevoti aTttoBev dveikoK to dvBpelov 
fieXK'^aet hrtKOfiirovtriv, ot ^ &p el^aiv avTot^, 
Kard iroSa; to eviffvy(pv i» t^ di7^Xei d|^e(9 
ivBeCKPVvriu" 

CXXVII. ToMvra o SpaalBat irapcuviiTtK 
vTrfjyt TO arpdreupM, ol Si fidpfiapoi tSovrei 
voWt] /3o0 xal 0opv^^ TtpoaiiceipTO, popiacanet 
^evyeai re airrov xai /eardKa^ovTe^ Bia^epdv. 

2 Ka\ i^ airroZ^ a" re itcBpofioi Sirt} irpotrrtlirTouv 
dw^pTwp, Kol avTO^ ^X""' ■'""^^ Xo7tiSas hrueet- 
fiaiOK iKf>i<rraro, t§ re irpari} oppL^ irapd yvwp/ifv 

' Hude emqnda to ituptiBJini, after Toratrick. 



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BOOK IV. cxxvi. s-cxxvii. 3 

if their opponents but endure such threats, thej are 
not the men they seem; for having no regular order, 
they would not be ashamed to abandon any position 
when hard pressed ; and since flight and attack are 
considered equally honourable with them, their 
courage cannot be put to the test. Besides, a mode 
of fighting in which everyone is his own master will 
provide a man the best excuse for saving himself 
becomingly. They think, too, that it is a less risky 
game to try to frighten you from a safe distance 
than to meet you hand to hand ; otherwise they 
would not have taken this course in preference to 
that And so you clearly see that ail that was at 
first formidable about them is but little in reality, 
startling merely to eye and ear. If you withstand 
all this in the first onrush, and then, whenever 
opportunity offers, withdraw again in orderly array, 
you will the sooner reach safety, and will hereafter 
know that mobs like tliese, if an adversary but 
sustain their first onset, merely make a flourish of 
valour with threats from afar in menace ' of attack, 
but if one yields to them, they are right upon his 
heels, quick enough to display their courage when 
all is safe," 

CXX VH. After such words of admonition, Brasidas 
began to withdraw his army. On seeing this the 
barbarians came on with a mighty shouting and up- 
roar, thinking that he was fleeing and that they 
could overtake and destroy his army. But the 
troops who had been selected to dash out met them 
wherever they charged, and Brasidas himself with 
his picked men sustained their attack ; and so the 
Peloponnesians to their surprise withstpod their first 
' PoMibly /iiAAV" = " without coming to action." 

4$> 



C.Google 



THUCYDIDES 

Kara t^v oSof ^eiiyeffip ainSsv ^oeiKoi^ ^ et tivi 
ffxevet iKTretrTtOKOTi, ota ev vvKrepiv^ koX <f)O0epa 
avaytop^ffet eUw ^ ^vfL^^vai, rh ftkv inroXv- 
ovre^ KariKOTTrop, t&v Si olKeiwaiv hroiovmo. 
fi airo Tovrov re irpSnov JlepSitcica^ "BpaaiSav t€ 
iroXifUov ivofiiae Kal e? t6 Xoiirbv lle\oirov- 
vijaitav rfi p^v •yvatpig St 'A0r}vatov<i ov fwi'ijtfe? 
p.i<TO<; el;\;s, t&v hi dpayicatiai' ^Vfi<f>6pioy Sia- 
vaara,'; ' etrpaaaev orqi ipoir^ Taj^tara Tot5 pep 
fu/t/SjJfferat, rav Se diraWd^eTai. 

CXXIX. B/jatrtSa; Si apaxtop^ffai eV Maxe- 
Sovia<; « Topd)VT)v ieara\ap.^dpei 'ABijvaiovt 
tAevSrfv ^817 exoi/Tai, Kai a*)Tov ijtTV)(a^itip es piv 
ri/v IlaK\r}VT)v dSvparov ^2^ ivopi^ev etpai hut- 
y9^; TtpMpeli', riiP Bi Topwp^p ev ^vKoKfj elyev, 

2 viTO y^p TOP avTov ypovop Tots iv t^ AuyKip 
i^evXevaav eVi te Trjv MevSijP leal rijv ^kuoptjp ol 
'Aftjuatot, mvnep irapecrKevd^ovro, pav<rl piv 
irevT-qicoPTa, &v Tfirap Sitca Xtat, oirXtrai? Si 
j(i\loK eavTUP Koi ro^oTat; e^oKotrCoLi xal Op^^l 
pMrdaroK ;t(Xtoi? xat SX\ok t&v avToOep fv^- 
pAj^ap •7Te\Ta<TTai<;' ea-Tpar^yei Bi N(*:ta9 o 
^ucrjpaTou ical KtK6trrpaT0<; 6 ^lenpeipoV^. 

3 apavret Si i/c lioTeiSaia'i TaK pav<rl Kai trvoi'Tes 
xari TO Tloo'ei&aivtov e\a>povv e^ rovv Mevoatot/;. 
ol Si airrol re xaX %Kia>vaiap TpioKoaioi ^e/3oi}- 
0i}K6r€<! HeKoTTovvJiaitav re oi iirlKOvpoi,, fu/wrox- 
TEf ^ evraKoaioi ovXlrai, xal TlokvSapiSat 6 
apxtBv ain&p, ervxop i^einpaToireSevp4pot ef w t^? 

' Hade adopts Madvia's corraotioD, t$ B1 inyxal^ (u^f ^ 
Iiorr^t, " However, anoh wu the urgency of hit aituation 
that he stood aside and began to devise how ..." 

' Si, iu the M8S. after (Cfinms, deleted by Kiiiger. 
434 



C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxxviii. 4-cxxtx. 3 

theirs in the road or upon any baggage that had 
been dropped, as was likely ta liappen in a retreat 
made by night and in a panic, of their own accord 
they loosed the oxen and slaughtered them, but 
appropriated the baggage. And from this time 
Perdiccas began to regard Brasidas as an enemy, and 
thenceforth he cherished a hatred of the Pelopon- 
nesians, which was indeed not consistent with his 
feeling against the Athenians. However, disregard- 
ing his own argent interests, he was devising how 
he might in the quickest way come to terms with 
the latter and get rid of the former. 

CXXIX. Returning fi*om Macedonia to Torone, 
Brasidas found the Athenians already in possession 
of Mende ; and thinking it now impossible to cross 
over to Pallene and give aid, he remained quiet 
where he was, but kept watch over Torone. For 
about the same time as the events in Lyncus the 
Athenians had sailed against Mende and ScJone, as 
they had been preparing to do,^ with fifty ships, of 
which ten were Chian, and with one thousand hop- 
lites of their own, six hundred bowmen, a thousand 
Thracian mercenaries, and in addition targeteers 
from their allies in that neighbourhood. They were 
under the command of Nicias son of Niceratus and 
Nicostratus son of Diitrephes. Setting out with the 
fleet from Fotidaea and putting in at the temple of 
Poseidon, they advanced into the country of the 
Mendaeans. Now these and three hundred Scion- 
aeans who had come to their support, and the 
Peloponnesian auxiliaries, seven hundred hoplites in 
all, with Polydamidas as their commander, had just 

' ^. ch. cxxiL 6 ; exxiii. 3. 



„-,:„. Google 



THUCYDIDES 

i TToXeoi; inrl \a<f>ov xapTepou. Ktd avroi; Ntxtas 
fiiv, MeOtiivaioi/^ tc exfv eiKoiri Kal eieaTov y^tXovi 
xal XoydSa'! rwv' A.8rjvattov oTrhnStv e^^icovra koI 
toIk TofoTfls atravTa'i, /caret aTpairov Tiva rav 
\6^v ireipwfievo^ irpoff^fjvai Koi Tpav/iaTi^o/ievo^ 
Inr' ain&v ovK ^Svv^ffi] ^tdaaadaf 'NiKoaTpaTOV 
Be aWy i^6B(fi ix itXelova<t -rTavri t^ aXX.^ arpa- 
TVtrkh^ iiTtaiv Tf> X6<f>^ ai^t SvairpoirfidT^ xol 
•jrdvu i&opu^^Or}, xat es oXiyov a0(«eTO ttov to 

S ffTpdreVfia toiv A07}»ai<Dv viKijOrpiai. «ol t«.utjj 
fikv Ty Tjfiipa, ail OVK evehaaav o'l MefSaeot Koi ol 
^v/jtfiay^oi, Ol Affrjvalot avaxop^o'avTe^ iffrparo- 
treSevaavTO, ical ol MevSaloi (O'ktos ^TreX^otwrj;? 
e? "rffv TToXtv dmjXdop, 

CXXX. TJ S' vaiepaia oi p.ev 'Affrjviuot Trepi- 
irXeviravres e? to ■n-poi Sikiwj't)! to re irpodaTetov 
etXov Kal 7i]v ^fUpav atraaap eB^ovp r}}P yijv 
ovBevo^ eire^iovTOi (7)v ydp ri ical araffiaiT/tov iv 
T§ iroXei), oi Si TpiaKoaioi tS)p ^KKapaieav ri}^ 

2 iiTiov<T7}v vvierbv avexatpiia-ap stt' oXkov. koX t§ 
ewtytyvoftevTi rjfiipa ^iiciai fiev Tp rifiiaei tou 
arparav vpotoiv afui ii t^ fueOopia tAv ^Kiaivaiav 
rijv y^v ehtfov, Niic6aTpaTo<i Se Tot? Xoiiroti Kark 
T^; ava TruXa^, ■§ ewl IIoTEtSata; epxoPTdt, irpoa- 

3 sKaBifTO T^ -KoXei. o Si YloXvhaplttK (Srvve yip 
rairri rot? MeptaLoi<i Koi eirixovpOK evTo<i tou 
rei'Xovt ri oTrXa Kei.fi.eva) hiaTaaaei re dt^ eV 

4 pM)(7)V Kal wapyvei toi<{ Mgi'Soioi; eve^ievai. /cat 
Ttcos avr^ rial) dtto rav Srjfiou dpretrrovro^ /eari 
ro araaifuriKov Sri qvk etTe^iaiv ovBi &4otTO 
voXefKiP, Koi (&? apreirrep i^tairaadhrro'i re ry 

436 

D,j™tc C.Google 



BOOK IV. cxxix. 3-cxxx. 4 

encamped outside tlie city in a strong position on a 
hill. Nicias tried to reach them by a path up the hill, 
having with him one hundred and twenty light-armed 
Methonaeans, sixty picked men of the Athenian 
hoplites, and all the bowmen, but his troops suffered 
in the attempt and he was unable to carry this 
position. Nicostrfttus, however, with all the rest of 
the army, advancing against the hill, which was 
difficult of access, by another and longer route, was 
thrown into utter confusion, and the whole Athenian 
army narrowly escaped defeat. So on this day, 
as the Mendaeans and their allies did not yield, 
the Athenians withdrew and encamped, and the 
Mendaeans, when night came on, returned to the 
city. 

CXXX. On the next day the Athenians sailed 
round to the side of the town facing Scione and took 
the suburb, and all that day they ravaged the land. 
No one came out against them, as there was some 
sort of uprising in the town ; and during the fol- 
lowing night the three hundred Scionaeans returned 
home. On the next day Nicias with half of the 
army advanced as far as the boundary of the 
Scionaeans and ravaged the land, while Nicostratus 
with the rest sat down before tlie city at the 
upper gates, on the road leading to Potidaea. But 
it chanced that in that quarter of the town !—'J- 
the walla, the arms of the Mendaeans am 
auxiliaries were deposited, and Polydamid 
there drawing his troops up for battle and ex. 
the Mendaeans to make a sortie. Some one 
popular party mutinously answered him t 
would not go out and had no use for war, 
sooner had he answered than Polydamidas 



C.Google 



. THUCYDIDES 

yeipi inr airrov xal ffopv^rtOiino^,^ 6 Sf}/iO<! evOi><f 
avakaffmp tA, ov\a •neptopyrff; ^ympei itri re 
TltXo'TTOVvrfa'iovv Kcil TOus t^ ivavria ff^ttri /ler' 
6 axnStv tr pd^avTa<i. koX TrpaaireffovTes rphrova-iu 
afia /tkv pii^XV <^t^vL^a, ap,a he toi; ^ASijiraioi^ 
r&v trv^av avovyofievriiv tpoffijdii/Tav oi^ffrjaav 
ryh'p airii vpoctprjfievov Ttvoi avTOK "rijv eirij^eipr)- 

6 ffip yevtffffat. /eal ot /tev es t^i* aKpowoXiv, 5<70t 
fii} ainUa BiitbBapTjirav, ttare^v^ov, ijviTep ical to 
trpoTepov auTot el)(pv o'l Se 'Affj]vaioi (//Sr} yap xal 
6 N(«ta9 iiravaffTpey^ai irpm rfj iroKei ^v) io'tre- 
(TOUTes it TT/v TToXiv? S,re ov« avo ^vfi0dtreat<j 
avoij^detaav, aTrdtrp Tp ffTparid ois tcari Kpdro^ 
i\6iT€'i Biijptraffav, Koi p.oKi'i ot aTpaTijyol Kare- 
avov wffTe p.i} Koi tou? dvffpanrovi Biatjidelpetrffat. 

7 «at Toiji p,hi MEi>Saiou9 /lera ravTa woXiTeveiv 
iKiXevov wairep tladeaav, aurou; KptpavTuf ev 
atfiKTiv avrOK ft nvat rjyovvTai alriovi elvai tt}? 
aTTOiTTda-eojf TOt^? S' ev r^ dxpotToXei dtreTei' 
j^iaav eKaTepiaffev Ttij(€i e; ddXaaaav Kat (jtuXaK^v 
iiriKaOiuTa-vTO.^ eveiBij Si tSl trepl tijv MevSi}v 
Kariffx^f, eVt rijv Xi<:ia>injp €)(iopovp. 

CXXXI. Oi Se dpreTre^ekBopre^ airrol xal 
YleXoTTovp^frtoi tSpvOtjaav itri \6<f>ov Kaprtpov 
trpo 7^9 TTcXew?, op el fii] SXoiev oi epavrloi, aiiK 
2 ey'iyveTo a^Siv 7reptTetxii7(5. tr potr^aXavTe^ & 
aiir^ Katk Kparoi oi 'AO^vaioi xal ftdx'S iKKpov- 
ffopTtt; raini iiroPTav * iaTparotreSevaavro re xal 
it TOP •n-fpiTeixterfiov rpotraiop trr^aapTf; irape- 

' Tftv tMrinr nfAif, MS8. ; Dobree deleles M/rlqr. 
' Poppo'B oOlrectiOD for tmHoUvam of the M88. 
* Dobree's correction for ItUnat of the M8S. 
438 



■tcc.Gooijk' 



BOOK IV. cxxx. 4-cxxxi. 2 

him with violence and roughly handled him; 
whereupon the populace in great anger at Once 
caught up their arms and advanced upon the Pelo- 
ponnesians and the opposite party who were in 
league with them. Falling upon them they put 
them to rout, partly by the suddenness of their 
onslaught, partly because the others were terrified 
when the gates were opened to the Athenians ; for 
they thought that the attack had been made upon 
them by a preconcerted agreement. Those of the 
Peloponnesians who were not killed on the spot 
took refuge on the acropolis, which they already 
had possession of ; but the Athenians — for Nicios 
had already turned back and was near the city — 
bu'rst into the city with their whole force, and, as 
the gates had been opened without an agreement, 
plundered the city as though they had taken it by 
storm ; and the generals with difficulty kept them 
from destroying the inhabitants also. They then 
directed the Mendaeans henceforth to retain their 
former constitution, and bring to trial among them- 
selves any whom they thought guUty of the revolt ; 
but the men on the acropolis they fenced off with 
a wall extending on either side down to the sea, and 
set a guard over them. And when they had thus 
secured Mende, they proceeded against Scione. 

CXXXI. The Scionaeans and the Peloponnesians 
had come out against them and taken posit' 
strong hill before the city, which had to be 1 
the enemy before the city could be investei 
wall. So the Atlienians made a furious assa 
the hill and dislodged those that were upon 
then encamped and, after raising a trophy, ] 



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THUCYDIDES 

3 ffteevd^ovTo. koj, avrSiv ov woKv Sirrepov ijBti iv 
epytp ovrfov oi ix Tijj a/cptnrokeoi'i iv ttj MivBtf 
iTo\i.opKovftevot itrl,KOvpoi ^laaafievot irapit da- 
"Kacffap rijv ^vXaxiiv fv/cro; d^iKvoviirat, xai 
hia^vyovTe^ oi -n-XeiaToi to inl rp ^leiuivr] arpa- 
TOTTfiSoc iafiK$Qv es avTrjv. 

J\ephlKKa<s Tolt rSiv 'Adr)vaia>v aTpaTijyoli «7rt- 
leqpvtccvrrdfievo^ ofioXoyiav TroieiTot irpot tows 
'AOtjuaiov^ Sid T^K Tov BpaaiBov e-)(dpav irepX 
T^? €ic TTfi Avy icov dfa-yayp^aeco^, ei^us tot« 

2 dp^dfi£vo<; irpdaaeLV. /cat irvyxave ydp tot€ 
'\<r')(<vy6pa'i o AaKeSaifiomo^ (rrpartdv fieWtav 
7re^^ ■TToptveretv a>? BpatrlSair, o Se ^ IlE^St«cxa$, 
afta /Mv «eXeiJoi'Tos toD Ni/ctou, eVetSij ^vve^e- 
ff^Kei, lvBtj\6v 71 TTOielv toi? 'Adijpaiois fie- 
fiaiOTtiTOi irepi, apa S" avrot oiixeri ^avKopxvm 
YleKo'7royv'))<Ti.ov<t e? ri)v atnov d^ifepetaSat, 
Ttapa<TKevd<Ta'; tows ev %e<Tira)da fe'you?, Xp^- 
fj£vov alel TO(s iTpioTOtf, Bie/ctoKvtre to arpd-reup^i 
Ka\ rifv vapaaKevqv, SiaTe p/ijSh ireipaadat ^ea- 

3 aaXSiv, 'lo'Xcyopa'i fiee-roi Kal 'A/Aeivia^ xol 
^Apia-rew avToi re (i? Bpaai&av dt^bKovro, eirtZelv 
irepAlrdvTcov AaKehaip.av'nav rd irpdyp^ra, teal 
Ttbv ■^0(ovT(OP avT&v ' irapapofiw^ dvSpa^ i^tjyov 
iic %irdpTTj<;, mtrTe twc TToXewv dpxoPTtK KaSi.- 
trrdvai koX p.Ti toI<; evTvxovatp iirnpiwea'. koI 
KXeapiSav p,ev tov KXeuiiu/iov Kadi<TT'qaiP iv 

ApifinroXei, VlatriTeKiBap ^ Bi top '}iyr)ffdphpQv 
ev Tapavr). 

' It, deleted by Hude, folktwiag Dobree. 

' nirSv, Hude reads «6t#, after Stahl. 

* Dol»«e's oorreotion for 'ErmXlSw of th* M68. ; of. t. 3. 
440 



,;. Google 



BOOK IV. cxxKi. 2-cxxxii, 3 

for the circumvallation. But not long afterwards, 
when tliey were already at work, the auxUiaries who 
were besieged on the acropolis of Mende forced 
their way by night along tjie shore through the 
guard and reached Scione ; and most of them escaped 
through the besieging army and got into the city. 

CXXXII. White the circumvallation of Scione was 
in progress, Perdiccas sent a herald to the Athenian 
generals and made an agi'eement with them ; he 
was moved to this by the hatred he bore Brasidas 
for his retreat from Lyncus, at which time indeed he 
had begun his negotiations.' Now it happened at 
that time that Ischagoras, the Lacedaemonian, was 
on the point of taking an army by land to join 
Brasidas, but Perdiccas, partly because Nicias urged 
him, since he had made terms with the Atheuims, 
to give them some token of his sincerity, partly also 
because he himself no longer wished the Pelopon- 
nesians to enter his territory, now worked upon his 
friends in Thessaly, with the foremost of whom he 
was always on good terms, and effectually stopped 
the army and the expedition, to such a degree that 
they did not even try to obtain permission from the 
Thessalians. Ischagoras, however, with Ameinias 
and Aristeus, came by themselves to Brasidas, having 
been commissioned by the Lacedaemonians to look 
into the situation. And they brought from Sparta, 
contrary to custom, some of their young men, in- 
tending to place them as governors over the cities 
instead of entrusting these to anybody that might 
chance to offer. Accordingly, they placed at Amphi- 
polis Clearidas son of Cleonymus and at Torone 
Pasitelidas son of Hegesander. 



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THUCYDIDES 

CXXXIII. 'Ev Bi Ty ainp dipet ©i)/9a(ot 
©effwtwi' Tei;^o? irepteTKov eiriKaXeaavTe^ arriKi- 
CTfUv, 0ov\6/ievoi fikv ical aUl, TrapeffTrjKoi Sk 
p^v ewetSi) leal ev Tji irpos 'ABijvaiovi f*^X,V ^ ''■* 

2 ^v avrStv av0o<s atroKtiiKei. Kal 6 yeais t^? "Hpas 
TOM airrov 0epov<! iv'Apyet icaT€Kav0T], XpvaiSo^ 
T^? iepeia^ \v)(yov TLvit Oetati'; ■^fip.evov npoi tA 
vrefifiaTa ical eirticaTaBapdouffij'i, ware eXaffev 

3 oKJtdevTa irauna Kal KaTaip\exffcvTa. xal ^ X.pvtrl^ 
phi evdiK T7J? CWKTO? SeCa-aaa tovs 'Apyelou^ iv 
0\eiovvTa ifievyer at Sk aXA.Tji' lipeiav ix tov 
vopMv TOV irpoKetfiivov icaTeaT^aavTO ^attviSa 
Svofta. erq Be 17 Xpuffl; rov iroXepav TovBe 
eiriXaffeir okt&> koL Ivarov ek fiiaov, ots eire- 

4 ^evyei,. icaX 1} ^Ki<i)V7] tov Sepovi ^Sij reX^VT&vrov 
TrepiereTttxto'i'o re TiavreXS)^, Koi oi Affrjvaiai €ir 
av7p ^v\ait7]v icaTaXftroinei apex'^p^'^'iv t^ aXX^ 
orpaTp. 

CXXXIV, 'El* S^ TcS i-movTi j(eiftwvi rk fiev 
'A6i}vai<ov KaX AaKeBaip-ovCfov rj<TV)(aXe Bik rrfv 
exex^tpiav, ^avTur^i Bi xal Teyea-rai xal ol ^v/t- 
futxot exaTepav ^vve^aXov iv AaoBoKeiip ^ t^9 
'Op«rdiSos, Kal viicri ap^tB^ptro^ eyevero- icipat 
fhp eKoTipoi Tpe-^vre^ to xaO' avToi^ jpotraXa 
Tt a/nPoTtpoi eiTTqaav ical oKvXa it &eX(^ov<t 
2 dviireff^rav. Bia^&apevTwv pAvTot TroSSKav kxa.- 
ripoK ical tvyp^ea^aXov r^v fid-xpr; yevofiivr)^ xal 

' Bursian'* correction for AaaliKl^ of ihe tSBS. 
44« 

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BOOK IV. cxxxiii. i-cxxxiv. a 

CXXXIII. la the same summer the Thebans 
diemftiitled the wall of the ThespiaDs, accusing tliem 
of favouring the Athenians. Indeed they had al- 
ways wished to do this, but now found it easier, 
since the flower of the Thespians had perished in the 
battle with the Athenians.' In this same summer, 
too, the temple of Hera at Atgoe was burned down, 
Chrysis' the priestess having placed a lighted torch 
near the garlands and then gone to sleep, so that 
the whole place took fire and was ablaze before she 
was aware. And Chrysis that very night, in fear of 
the Argives, fled to Phlius; but they appointed 
another priestess according to the custom prescribed, 
Phiieinis byname. Chrysis had been priestess during 
eight years of this war and half of the ninth when 
she fled. Toward the close of the summer Scione 
was at length completelyiiivested,and the Athenians, 
leaving a guard there, withdrew with the rest of 
their anny. 

CXXXIV. In the following winter, on account of 
the armistice, matters were quiet with the Athenians 
and the Lacedaemonians ; but the Mantineans and 
the Tegeans with their respective allies fought a 
battle at Laodoceum in the district of Oresthis. 
The victory was disputed ; for each side routed the 
wing opposed to themselves, and both set up trophies^ 
and sent spoils to Delphi. Certain it is at any rate 
that after many had fallen on both sides and night 
had cut short the action, the issue of battle being 

■ At Delium ; r/. ch. sciii. 4 ; icvi. 3. 

' The same who in 431 B.C. hod lield her office forty-eight 
years ; c/. n, ii. 1. 

■ It seem« that tfaaMantiDuatiBand Tegeana each defeated 
the other's allies, which were on the left wings of the 
oppoaing armies. 

443 



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THUCYDIDES 

a^eXofi4in)^ vvK-rbi to ffrfov oi Teyearai /tiv 
itti}v7dffavr6 re koi euBvi eartja'av rpoiralov, 
MavTiv^^ Si (iire^^fu/jjjo'ai' T€ e? BovKoXtwva teal 
varepov avrtimjiTati. 

CXXXV. 'Aireweipaae &^ to5 airoO j^eifiwvm 
zeal 6 3paiTiSa^ Te\evr&vroi Kol irp^ tap ffStj 
JloTetSaia^. irpoae\0tiiv yatp vvktov xal KXlfiaxa 
irpoffSeit p^'Xpt /«" rovrov i\a0ev tov y^p 
KtoSwvo^ iTapevE-j(0evTOV ovrm^ ^; to hiaKevov, 
irplv evaveKBeZv tov •n-apaSiSovra ainov, ij trpotr- 
deffii; iyevsTO- etteiTa fUvToi evOli<; ataffofteitau, 
TTplu vpoirfffjvai, air^yaye ttoKiv Karh. Tdj(09 ri/v 
2 crrpaTiitv koX oiiie avefieipev jjfiepav yevitrOai. xal 
6 "yeifiioitv ireXevTa, xal evarov ero^ t^ troKift^ 
ireXevTa TpSe hv 0ou«vSi&j9 ^vveypa-^ev. 



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BOOK IV. cxxxiv. a-cxxxv. 2 

still undecided, the Tegeans bivouacked on the field 
and set up a trophy at once, while the Mantineans 
retreated to Bucolion, and afterwards set up a rival 
trophy. 

CXXXV. Toward the close of the same winter, 
when spring was near at hand, Brasidaa made an at- 
tempt on Potidaea. He come up by night and placed 
a ladder against the wall, up to this point escaping 
detection ; for the ladder was planted precisely at the 
interval of time after the bell had been carried by 
and before the patrol who passed it on had come 
back.* The guiutls, however, discovered it imme- 
diately, before an ascent could be made, and Brasidas 
made haste to lead his army back again, not wait- 
ing for day to come. So ended the winter and with 
it the ninth year of this war of which Thucydides 
wrote the history. 

' It app«&ra that the bell was paaaed from ods sentinel to 
the next. Another, and probably more common, way of 
testing the watchfuIiieBS of the sentiiielB was to have a patrol 
with a bell make the round, each sentinel having lo aoawer 

the signal. 



445 

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