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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

EDITED BY 
B. CAPPS, Ph.D., LL.D. T. B. PAGE, Litt.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, Lirr.D. 



THUCYDIDES 

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THUCYDIDES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

CHARLES FORSTER SMITH 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISOONSIK 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 
III 



HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR 

BOOKS V AND VI 




LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

MCMXXI 



:%< ' 



439943 



• • » • h . . 



CONTENTS 



THUCYDIDKS Frontispiece 

PAOB 
BOOK V 1 



» 



BOOK VI 181 



jiAPS : — 



I' 



Amphipolis To face p. 11 

Sicily At end 

Siege of Syracuse , 



THUCYDIDES 



BOOK V 



VOL. III. 



eOYKYAIAOY I2T0PIQN 



E 

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Xifieva, T&v Topoovaicov dirixovTa ov iroXif t^9 



* The truce had really expired, according to iv. cxviii. 12, 
the 14th of the Attic month Elaphebolion (about the end of 
March), but hostilities were not renewed till after the Pythian 
games, which were celebrated in the Attic month Meta- 
geitnion (latter half of August and first of September). 
This seems the most natural interpretation of Thucydides' 



THUCYDIDES 



BOOK V 

I. The next summer the one-year's truce con- 422 b.c. 
tinned till, and ended with, the Pythian games. ^ 
During the suspension of arms the Athenians ex- 
pelled the Delians from Delos, thinking that they 

had been consecrated '^ while in a state of pollution 
from some ancient crime, and besides, that they them- 
selves had been responsible for this defect in the 
purification, in which, as I have before related, they 
believed they had acted rightly in removing the 
coffins of the dead. And the Delians settled, ac- 
cording as each man chose,' in Atramytteum in Asia, 
which had been given them by Pharnaces. 

II. After the armistice had expired Cleon per- 
suaded the Athenians to let him sail to the cities in 
Thrace, with twelve hundred Athenian hoplites and 
three hundred cavalry, and a larger force of the 
allies, and thirty ships. And touching first at Scione, 
which was still under siege, and taking on from 
there some hoplites of the garrison, he then sailed 
down to the port of Cophus, which is not far distant ^^ 

language, but many editors render "The next summer the 
one-year's truce was ended and war was renewed till the 
Pythian games." 

^ Referring to their purification and consecration to Apollo 
four years before (iii. 107). 

 Or, *' was inclined" («c. oliaiffai). 

3 
B 2 



THUCYDIDES 

3 TToXeo)?- 6/c £* avTOv, ala06fi€vo<: vtr a«i^fi//.o\a)i^ 
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XoTTOvvqaiov^ ical el t£9 a\Xo9 ^aXKiBewv fjv, 

^ h added by Bekker. * al added by Haacke. 
4 



BOOK V. II. 2-III. 4 

from the city of Torone. From there, on learning 
from deserters that Brasidas was not in Torone and 
that the inhabitants were not a match for him 
in battle, he advanced with his land-force against 
the city, but sent ten ships to sail round into the 
harbour. And first he arrived at the new wall which 
Brasidas had built round the city for the purpose 
of taking in the suburb, having {)ulled down a 
part of the old wall and made one city of Torone. 

III. But Pasitelidas, the Lacedaemonian com- 
mander, and the garrison that was present came to 
the defence of this wall and tried to ward off the 
Athenian assault. But they were hard pressed and 
the ships that had been sent round were now sailing 
into the harbour ; so Pasitelidas, in fear that the ships 
might take the town, undefended as it was, before he 
could get there, and that if the new fortifications 
were carried he might be captured in them, left them 
and hurried back into the town. But the Athenians 
from the ships forestalled him and took Torone, and 
their land-force, following close upon him, at the 
first assault dashed in with him at the breach in the 
old wall. And they slew some of the Peloponnesians 
and Toronaeans on the spot in hand to hand fighting, 
but others they took alive, including Pasitelidas the 
commander. Brasidas meanwhile was coming to the 
relief of Torone, but learning on the road that it 
had fallen he retreated, having missed getting there 
in time by just about forty stadia. Cleon and the 
Athenians set up two trophies, one at the harbour, 
the other at the new wall, and made slaves of the 
women and children of the Toronaeans, but the men 
of Torone along with the Peloponnesians, and any 
that were Chalcidians, all together to the number of 



THUCYDIDES 

^vfiiravTa^ e? eirraicoaLov^, aTriTrefiyjrav e? Ta<; 
^AOrfvav Kol avTOL^ to fikv TIe7io7rovv7]atov 
iarepov iv Tac<; yevofih'ai^ airovBai^ aTrrjXBe, to 
Se aWo iKOfiicrOrj vir *0\vv6lo)v, dvrjp clvt 

5 avSpb^ Xvdeif;, elXov Se kol UdvaKTOv ^Adr)- 
vaicov iv fieOopioi^ tcIxo^ ^okdtoX vtto top avrbv 

6 'xpovov TrpoSoaia, xal 6 fiev KXecov ipvXaKtjv 
KaTaaTtjadfievo^ t^9 Topdprj^ apa^ irepieTrXet 
rov *'Ad(t)v o)9 €7rl Ttjv ^Afi(f>L7roXcv, 

IV. ^aia^ Se 6 ^Epaai^arpdrov Tpiro^ avTO^ 
^AOrjvaLQiv irefnrovrcou vavai Svo €9 'IraX/az/ /cal 
XixeXiav TrpeaffevTtjS vtto tov avrov xp^vov i^i- 

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ix %cK€XLa<; fiera rr^v ^vfi^aaiv iroXira^ re iire- 
ypdylravTo 7roXXov<; kol 6 Sijfio^ rrjv yrjv ifrevoei 

3 dvaidaaaOat, oi he Bvvarol aladofiepot, Xvpa- 
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0)9 auToiJ9, KoX Karaardvre^ ix t&v t€IX&v iiro- 

6 XifJLOvv. a TTVvOavofievoi oi ^AdijvatoL tov ^alaKa 
TrifiTTOvaLV, ec 7r&)9 ireiaavTe^ tou? (T<f>L<Tiv ovtu^ 



^ i.e. in exchange for Athenian prisoners. 
2 cf. IV. Ixv. inif. 



BOOK V. III. 4-iv. 5 

seven hundred^ they sent to Athens. There, how- 
ever, the Peloponnesians were afterwards set free in 
the treaty that was made, but the rest were brought 
back by the Olynthians, being ransomed man for 
man.^ About the same time Panactum, a fortress on 
the frontier of Attica, was betrayed to the Boeotians. 
As for Cleon, after setting a guard over Torone, he 
weighed anchor and sailed round Athos with a view 
to attacking Amphipolis. 

IV. About the same time Phaeax son of 
Erasistratus and two others were sent by the 
Athenians with two ships on a mission to Italy and 
Sicily. For the Leontines, on the departure of the 
Athenians from Sicily after the general peace,^ had 
enrolled many new citizens,^ and the people were 
minded to make a redistribution of the land. But 
the oligarchs, perceiving their intention, brought 
over the Syracusans and expelled the peqple. And 
the latter were scattered in every direction ; but the 
oligarchs, coming to an agreement with the 
Syracusans and leaving their own city desolated, 
settled at Syracuse on condition of having the rights 
of citizenship. But later some of them, owing to 
discontent, left Syracuse and occupied Phoceae, a 
quarter so named of the city of Leontini, and 
Bricinniae, a stronghold in Leontine territory. These 
being joined by most of the members of the 
popular party who had been expelled, they estab- 
lished themselves and carried on war from their 
strongholds. Hearing of this, the Athenians sent 
Phaeax to see if perchance they might ])ersuade 
their own allies there, and the rest of the Siceliots 

^ This was to strengthen the democratic party, and for 
their benefit a new division of state lands was to be made. 

7 



THUCYDIDES 

avTodi ^/Jb/jbdxov^ Kal tou9 aXKov^, fjv Svvcovrai, 
Xi'fcekiooTa^ Koivfj, d)9 ^vpafcoaioyv Bvva/up irepi- 
7roiovfi€VO)v, iTriarparevaai, hiaafoaeiav rov 
6 hrjfiov T&v AeovTLvayv. 6 Se ^aia^ diptKOfievo^ 
T0U9 fi€V KafiapivaCov^ ireidet /cal ^ AKpayavTL- 
vov^, iv Be TeXa avTiaTavTO^ avT& rod irpwy- 
jxaTo^ ovfciTC eVl TOv<i aX\ov<; ep^^Tai, alaOo- 
fievo^ ovfc av ireideiv avrov^, dXx dva')(topriawi 
Bed T&v Xi/ceX&v €9 Kardvrjv, fcal ap.a iv t^ 
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Oapavva^, direirXei, 

V. 'Ei; Se Trj TrapaxofuSfj rfj €9 rrfv ^ticeXiav 
KaX irdXtv dva')(<jiipr](jei koI iv Ty 'IraXta rial 
iroXeatv ixpvP^'^^^^ frepl <^LXia<i toI^ * A.6rfvaL0i<; 
fcal Aofcp&v ivTvy^dvei tol^; ifc Meaaijvr)^ 
iiroi/coc; i/cireTTTcoKoa-iv, ot /xera rfjv Xi/ce- 
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/cal iirayayop^evtov r&v irepoov Ao/cpoi;^ eirocKoi 
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€9 tA9 ^AOrjva^ XP^^^ vaTcpov d<f>iK€TO, 



^ TOi J of the MSS. before KOfii^ofifvois deleted by Dobree. 
* So corrected by Beloch with the help of coins ; MSS. 
*lT«y^aj. 

8 



BOOK V. IV. 5.V. 3 

if possible^ to make a common expedition against 
the Syracusans on the ground of their continual 
aggression^ and thus save the people of Leontini. 
Phaeax^ on his arrival^ persuaded the Camarinaeans 
and Agrigentines ; but since his undertaking did 
not prosper at Gela he did not go on to the 
other states^ perceiving that he could not persuade 
them, but withdrew through the country of the 
Sicels to Catana, having visited Bricinniae on the 
way and encouraged its inhabitants. He then sailed 
back home. 

V. On his voyage along the coast to and from 
Sicily and in Italy he negotiated with certain cities 
about friendship with the Athenians. He fell in 
also with the Locrian settlers who had been expelled 
from Messene ; for these, after the general agreement 
among the Siceliots, when the Messenians had fallen 
into discord and one faction had called in the 
Locrians, had been sent out as colonists, Messene 
thus coming for a time into the hands of the 
Locrians. Falling in, then, with these when they were 
on their way home, he did them no injury, as an agree- 
ment had been made with him ^ by the Locrians for 
a treaty with the Athenians. For they alone of the 
allies, when the Siceliots became reconciled, made 
no treaty with the Athenians, nor would they have 
done so then if they had not been pressed by the war 
with the Iponieans and Medmaeans, who lived on 
their borders and were colonists of theirs. And 
Phaeax some time after this returned to Athens. 

^ On his way to Sicily. 



THUCYDIDES 

VI. 'O Bi KXitap o»f Tore diro rfp 'Yopdivrfi 
TtepiiirXevaev ivi, rijp ' AfitpiTroXip, opfuifiepo'i eic 
T^5 'Hiovo? Xrayip^ fikv irpotr^dWet 'AvBpiwv 
aiTOtKia Koi oi/x eT\e, raXT/yjrov Se Ttjv Safficav 

2 airoiKiav Xafi^avtl Kara Kpdrot. «al Tfl/ii^a? 
(B! JlepBiKKav itpea^et^, ottq)? Trapayevono 
tTTpaTta Karii to ^vp.jiavi«6v, koi « Tr}v %paiC7iv 
oKKovt trapa HoXXijv top OSofidpTtop ffoffiXea, 
afocTos fUffSov Qpa/cos o>? TrXet'o-Tous, owtos 

3 ijffi/yaje nepifiivap e'l* t^ 'Htovi. QpaaLhat hk 
TTVvuavo/iepo^ Tav-ra dvTeKaStjro leat outo? ^tti 
T^ K.ep&v\i^' eari Se ro j(ii>piop tovto 'Apyi\iwv 
€71% fierempov -n-ipav roO irara/iov ov woKii 
direxov r^ 'Ap.<f>i7f6\e(a^, xal xareifiaipeTO Trdpra 
ainoBeP, &tne ovie &.v e\a$ey auTOP opfKOfifpOt 
o KXeoti' Tp ffTpar^- owep Trpoo-eSej^ero ■n-ot'i](T€tP 
auToi', eVi t^ji ' Ap^i-KoXiv vTrepthovTa a^&v 
TO Tr\r)6o^ Trj irapovo^ mpaTia, dvaffrjceaooi- 

4 a/j,a Bi xal Trape<TK€vd^£TO @pSicd<{ re pAaBtorovi; 
•KevTaKoa uovt Kol y^iXiovi; Koi Toiii 'HSaivai 
wdvTa^ vapaicaXSip, weXTatna^ Kui t-mrSa^- icaX 
MvpKiviti>v Kal XaXfiS«(ui' ^iXt'ow ireXraffThv 

5 elx^ Trpo? TOW iv 'A/*i^(7roXe(. to S' ottXitikop 
fu/:*Troi' ■qdpoLaQri Sto-j;tX*ot fidXia-ra «oi i-rrTrfj^ 
"EXXTji/e? rpia/coiTioi. rovrav SpaffiSai p,ev t)(a>v 
evX KepSuXt'y ixdffrjio ii trePTaicoiriov^ Kcu 
yiXiov;, ol S' aXXoi ep A/iif)tTroXei p,erii. KXca- 
^Bov ereTavaTO. 

VII. 'O ok KXetDi' T^(o5 /iei' ^ffw^afei', eTretTa 
rjvayKdaBr) iroi^ai oirep 6 BpaaiBa'i irpofre- 

' '■/. IV. Ixixviii. 2. ' c/: IV. cvii. 3. 



THE BATTLE OF AMPHIP0LI5. 




Modem Roads. 

-■^^^^^^=nE Ancient Roads. 
1 ThpMiian Gats. 

2. Hrat Gats >n the Lonj Wall. 

3. 6«le from the t«wn Into space inclDtsd by the Palitaile. 
4^ Gate in the Palisade. 



BOOK V. VI. i-vii. I 

VI. Now when Cleon had sailed round from 
Torone to Amphipolis^ as mentioned above^ taking 
Eion as his base he made an unsuccessful attack 
upon Stagirus,^ an Andrian colony, but did take by 
storm Galepsus,^ a colony of the Thasians. Then 
sending envoys to Perdiccas, with a request to join 
him with an army in accordance with the terms 
of alliance,^ and other envoys to Thrace to PoUes, 
king of the Odomantians, to bring as many 
Thracian mercenaries as possible, he himself kept 
quiet at Eion. But Brasidas, on hearing of these 
things, took post over against him at Cerdylium. 
This place is in the territory of the Argilians, on 
high ground across the river not- far from Amphipolis, 
and commands a view in all directions, so that 
Cleon could not move his army without being ob- 
served ; for Brasidas expected that Cleon in contempt 
of the small numbers of the Lacedaemonians would go 
up against Amphipolis, with his present army.* At 
the same time he made further preparations, calling 
to his aid fifteen hundred Thracian mercenaries and 
all the Edonians, both targeteers and cavalry. And 
he had also of the Myrcinians and the Chalcidians 
one thousand targeteers, in addition to the troops in 
Amphipolis. The whole body of hoplites collected by 
him was about two thousand in number, and he had 
three hundred Hellenic horsemen. Of these forces 
Brasidas took about fifteen hundred and stationed 
himself at Cerdylium ; the rest were posted at 
Amphipolis under the command of Clearidas. 

VII. Cleon kept quiet for a while, then was forced 
to do just what Brasidas had expected. For when 

* c/*. IV. cxxxii. 1. 

* I.e. without waiting for reinforcements. 

IT 



THUCYDIDES 

2 Si)(€TO. T&v yap arparctaT&p a')(dofiivtov fikv t§ 
18/oa, ava\oyi^o/jL€V(ov Se rffv iKeivov r/yefioviav 
7r/oo9 oiav ifiTTcipiav xal ToXfiav fi€TCt oia^ dveirc- 
aTtffioavvr}^ Kol fia\aKLa<; yevrjaoLro koX ol- 
Kodev ft)? aKovre^ avr^ ^vve^rjXdov, cdadofievo^i 
TOP 6povv Koi ov /3ov\6fievo^ avrov<: Sta to iv 
T^ avT^ fcaOrjfiipov^ j3apvvea0at, dvaXaffwv 

3 ^yev, Kol i^pvo'CLTO r^ rpoirfp Sirep KaX i^ rrjv 
YivKov evrv')(rj<Ta^ iirLarevai tl cjipovelv €9 /ia- 
'Xrjv fi€v yap ovBe rfKinaev 01 ine^iipat ovheva, 
Kara deav Be fiaXKov €<pr) dvajSaiveiv rov x^P^^^> 
xai Tfjv fiei^Q) Trapatrxevrfv TrepUfieivev, ovx ^^ 
T^ dacjiaXei, rjv dvayKa^rjTai, irepiaxvo'^^Vi oXK! 
0)9 KVK\(p rrrepiara^; j3ia alprjaayv rrjv iroKiv. 

4 ikOwv T€ Kal Kadiaa^ iirl Xo^oi; Kaprepov irpo 
T^9 * Afiif>nr6\€Q)<i rov aTparov, avro^ iOearo to 
\cfivoi)B€<; Tov Xrpvfiovo^ zeal Tr)V deaiv t^9 7ro\€ft)9 

5 €7rl jfi Spa/CTj ^ (09 e%04. dirievai re ivofit^ev, 
OTTorav /3ovXr)Tai, dfiax^i* Ka\ yap ovhk €<f>aip€To 
ovt' iirl TOV Teixov^ ovheX^ ovre fcaTd 7rv\a<; 
i^jjec, KeKXrjfievac re ^aav iraaai, &a'T€ koI firf- 
Xava^ OTi ovfc dvrjXOev e^tov, d/MipTelv iSoxei' 
iXeiv ydp &v ttjv ttoXiv Sid to eprjfiov. 

VIII, 'O 8k B/)a<rt8a9 €^^^9 w elSe klvov- 

fiepovf; TOt'9 ^ A0r)va£ov^, fcaTaffd^ Kal avT09 diro 

tov KepSvXiov iaip^^Tai €9 r^i' ^Kix<f>LiroXi,v. 

2 Kal iiri^oSov fikv Kal dvTiTa^iv ovfc iiroirjaaTO 

irpo^ Tot'9 ^Adtfvaiov^, S€Sici)<; ttjv ainov irapa- 

^ With most MSS. ; Hude reads r^v ^ft^Ktiv with CGo,. 

12 



BOOK V. VII. i-vm. 2 

the soldiers began to be annoyed at sitting still and 
to discuss the quality of his leadership — what experi- 
ence and daring there was on the other side and what 
incompetence and cowardice would be pitted against 
it, and how unwillingly they had come with him from 
home — he became aware of their grumbling, and 
unwilling that they should be exasperated by remain- 
ing inactive in the same place, marched out with them. 
He adopted the same course in which he had been 
successful at Pylos and so had acquired confidence 
in his own wisdom ; for he had no expectation that 
anybody would come against him for battle, but he 
was going up, he said, rather to reconnoitre the 
place ; and in fact he was waiting for the larger force,^ 
not with a view to gaining the victory without risk 
should he be forced to fight, but to surrounding the 
town and taking it by force of arms. Accordingly he 
went and posted his force on a strong hill before 
Amphipolis, and was himself surveying the marshy 
part of the Strymon and the situation of the city in 
respect to the surrounding Thracian country, and 
he thought that he could withdraw whenever he 
pleased without a battle ; for no one was visible 
on the wall or was seen coming out by the gates, 
which were all closed. He therefore thought that 
he had made a mistake in coming up without 
storming-machines ; for he might have taken the 
town, since it was undefended. 

Vni. But Brasidas, as soon as he saw the 
Athenians stirring, went down himself from 
Cerdylium and entered Amphipolis. But he did not 
march out and draw up against the Athenians, 
because he mistrusted his own force, believing them 

» c/. 6h. vi. 2. 

13 



THUCYDIDES 

a/c€vr)v KOL vofii^tov viroheearepov^ elvai, ov r^ 
TrXrjOei (avTLirdka yap tt©? tiv), aWa r^ a^id)- 
fiari {rS)v ycbp ^A07)vaia>v oirep iarpdreve Ka- 
Oapov i^Xde, zeal ArjfjLvicov koL ^IfijSpLoyv to 
Kpariarov), rexyv ^e irapeaKevd^ero iTridrjo'o- 

3 fievo^, el yap Setf etc to?9 ivavrioi^ to t€ irXrjdo^ 
fcal Ttjv OTrXiaiv dvayfcaiav ovaav t&v fieff* 
eavTOv, ovfc av rjyelTO fiaXkop irepiyepeadai rj 
avev IT po6'^e(i><i t€ avT&v Kal firj dwo tov ovto^ 

4 KaTa^povrjaeoD^, aTroXe^dfievo^ ovv avT09 irev- 
TTjKOVTa Kal €KaTOV oTrXtra?, xal rou? aWov^ 
KXeapiBa TrpoaTd^a^, iffovkevcTO iircxeipelv 
al(^vi>hi(io^, irplv direXOecv tov^s ^Adrjvaiov^;, ovk 
av vofiL^cov ofiOLcof; avToif^ diroXa^elv avOt^ 
fi€fjLOVQ}fi€vov<;, el Tvyoi iXBovaa avTol^ t) ^orj- 

6 deia. ^vyKaXeaa^ Se tov^ 7rdvTa<; aTpaTKOTa^ 
Kal fiovX6fjLevo<; TrapaOapavvai t€ koI ttjv eiri- 
voiav <\>pd(Tai eXeye ToidSe. 

IX. ***'Ai/S/>€9 HeXoTTOVvija'ioc, diro fxev oXa^ 
^ft>/oa9 fjKOfiev, OTL alel Bid to eif^vxpv eXevdepa^, 
Kal OTV Aaypirj^; /jueXXeTe *'la)ai fid')(ea6ai, &v 
elciodaTe Kpelaaov^ elvai, dpK€LT(o ^pa')(e(i)^ BeSrj- 

2 Xcofievov* TTJV Be ein'xeipriatv cS Tpotrto Biavoovfjuii 
iroielaOai BiBd^ay, iva fXTj T(p to KaT oXLyov Kal 
fif) diravra^i KivBvveveiv ivBee^ (f)aiv6/J>evov aToX- 

3 fiiap Trapda")(rj. tov^ yap evavTiov^ elKd^ay 
KaTa(j)povr]<T€c t€ rjfi&v Kal ovk av €X7rL<ravTa<; 
(09 &v iire^iXOoi t^9 avTol^ 69 P'd')(r)v, dvafirjvai 
re 7r/0O9 to ^^coyotoi; Kal vvv aTUKTco^i KaTa deav 

4 T€T pa/JLfiivovf; oXiycopelv. oaTL^ Be Ta9 ToiavTa^ 
d/jLapTLa<; t&v ivavTicov KdXXicTa IBcjv Kal dfia 



14 



BOOK V. VIII. 2-ix. 4 

to be inferior^ not in numbers — as they were about 
equal — but in quality ; for the force that was in the 
field were Athenians of pure blood and the pick of 
the Lemnians and Imbrians. So he was preparing to 
attack by means of a stratagem ; for he thought that 
if he showed the enemy the number and the barely 
sufficient equipment of the troops with him he 
should be less likely to gain a victory than if they 
had no previous sight of his forces and did not look 
upon them with contempt from seeing their real 
character. Accordingly, picking out for himself one 
hundred and fifty hoplites and assigning the rest to 
ClearidaS; he determined to make a sudden attack 
before the Athenians withdrew, thinking that he could 
not again cut them off thus isolated if once 
reinforcements should reach them. So calling 
together all the soldiers, wishing to encourage them 
and explain his plan, he spoke to them as follows : 

IX. " Men of the Peloponnesus, let it suffice to 
remind you briefly from what manner of country we 
have come, that it has ever been free because of its 
courage, and that you are going to fight, Dorians 
against lonians, whom you have been accustomed to 
vanquish. I will, however, explain to you in what 
way I intend to make the attack, in order that my 
plan of fighting in detachments and not in a body may 
not seem to anyone poor tactics and thus cause dis- 
couragement. For I imagine that the enemy ascended 
the hill in contempt of us and because they could 
not have expected that anybody would come out 
for battle against them, and now, with broken ranks 
and intent upon reconnoitring, are taking small 
account of us. Now when an assailant having most 
clearly observed such errors in the enemy also makes 

15 



THUCYDIDES 



7r/>09 Tr)P kavTov Bvpa/up rr)v imx^iprjaiv TroteiTai, 
/JL7) awo rod it po<f>avov^ fiaXKov KaX avTitrapa- 
Ta'xO€vro<; ff Ik toO 7rpo9 to irapov ^vfjjf>epovTO^, 
6 ttXcactt' av opdolro* KaX rh KXi/jLfiara Tavra 
KaWiaTrjv Bo^av e^et a tov wo\4fiiX)v fiaXiar 
av Tt9 aTrarrjaa^; rot'? ^tXou9 fi&yiar &v a><f>€- 

6 \T]a€i€P. elw? oZv ert cnrapd<TK€VOi Oapaovai Kal 
TOV vTrainevai irXiov ^ rod iievovro^, i^ S)V ifiol 
(j)aivovTai, rrjv Bidvoiav €')(pv(nv, iv r^ avetfievtp 
avT&v Tr)9 71/W/X179 Kal irplv ^vvradrjvai^ fjb&Wov 
Tr)v So^aVt eyo) fiev e'xjoav Toif^ fier ifiavTov xal 
(f)ddaa^, fjv BvvQ)/jLai, irpoaTreaovfiai hpofitp Kara 

7 fiiaov TO arpdrevfia' <rv Se, YXeapLha, varepov, 
orav ifJbk 6pa(i rjSrj TrpoaKclfievov Kal Kara to cIko^ 
(j)ofiovvTa avT0V9, tov^ fiera a-eavrov rov^ t 
^ A/JL(j)i'iro\LTa9 Kal tov^ aXKovf; ^vfifid'xpv^; aywv 
ai(f>vihi(o^ Ta9 7ri;Xa9 dvoi^a<i iireKdeiv Kal eirei- 

8 yeadai ft)9 rdxio-Ta ^vfifiei^ai, eX7rt9 yetp fid- 
Xiara avTOv^ ovr(o^ f^o^T^Orjvar to yap iiruiv 
varepov Beivorepov toa9 iroXeploi^ tov irapovTo^ 

9 Kal fJLaxofievov. Kal avTO^ t€ dvr)p dyaOo^ yi- 
yvov, &<T7rep ae elKo^ ovTa XirapTidTrjv, Kal v/jl€i^, 
0) avSp€^ ^v/jLfjLaxoi, cLKoXovdrfaaTe dpBpeLco^, Kal 
vofilaaTe TpLa ^ elvai tov KaX&<; iroXe/jielv, to idi- 
Xeiv Kal TO aiaxvveaOai Kal to^ T049 ap'xpvai 
ireiBeaOai, Kal TjjBe vfilv ttj 'qfiepa ^ dyadoi^ 
yevofievoL^ iXevffepiav t€ vTra/o^etv Kal AaKcBai- 
fiovLcov ^Vfifidj(pi^ K€KXrjadah rj ^Adrjvaiayv T€ 
SovXoi^, fjv tA apKTTa dvev dvBpaTroSiafMOV f) 

^ Krliger's emendation for ^vvraxBrivat of the MSS. 
* Omitted by MSS. but rightly restored by Stahl from 
Stobaeus and schol. ^ Added by Kriiger. 

t6 



BOOK V. IX. 4-9 

his attack in accordance with the force at his own 
disposal^ not openly and in array of battle^ but as 
may be advantageous under present circumstances^ 
then he would be most likely to succeed. And those 
stratagems have won the highest credit by which 
a man most completely deceives the enemy and 
helps his friends. While, then, the Athenians, still 
unprepared, are full of confidence and are thinking, 
so far as I can see, more of withdrawing than of 
staying where they are, while their tension of mind 
is relaxed and before they have got their thoughts 
together, I will take my own troops and if possible 
surprise them by a dash upon the centre of their 
army. Then, Clearidas, the moment you see me 
pressing on and in all likelihood striking terror into 
them, do you suddenly throw open the gates and at 
the head of your own men and the Amphipolitans 
and the rest of our allies rush out upon them and 
make all haste to close with them at once. In this 
way there is the best hope to put them in a panic ; 
for a force that comes up afterwards has always 
more terror for an enemy than that with which he is 
already engaged. As for yourself, shew yourself a 
brave man, as becomes a Spartan ; and do you, men 
of the allies, follow him bravely, and bear in mind 
that the three virtues of a good soldier are zeal, 
sense of honour, and obedience to his leaders ; and 
that on this day there is in store for you, if you are 
brave, freedom and to be called allies of the 
Lacedaemonians — or else vassals of the Athenians (if 
you be so fortunate as to escape death or being sold 

17 

VOL. III. C 



THUCYDIDES 

6avaT(0(T€(o^ 7rpd^r)T€, icai hovXeiav ')(a\€iroiTipav 
ff irplv e?^€T€, T0t9 Se Xolttol^ "EiXKr^ai KcoXvTat^; 
10 yeveadai iXevOepaxreco^, aXXa fiTjre vfiei^ fiaXa- 
fCia-OrJTe, 6pa>VT€<; TrepX oaayv 6 aydv iariv, iy(o re 
SeL^co ov irapaiveaat olo^ re S)v fiaXKov tol^ ire- 
\a9 fj KoX avTo^ €py(p iire^eXdelvy 

X. 'O /JL€V B/oacr/Sa? roaavra cIttodv tijv re 
e^oSov irapea-Kevd^eTo avro^ xal tov^ aXXov^ 
fi€Tct Tov KXeapiSa Kadiarrj iirl ra? ^paxia^ 
KaXovfieva^; r&v irvX&v, oirco^ &(nrep etprfTo €7r- 

2 e^lotev, T& Sk KXecopi, (jyavepov yevofievov avrov 
diro TOV KepSuXtou fcara^dvro^ fcai ev rfj iroXei, 
i7ri<}>av€l ovarj €^(o6ev, irepl to iepov t% ^Affrj- 
vaia^ dvojxivov koX Tavra Trpdcraovro^, dyyiX- 
XeTai (npovKex^pVf^^^ yo>p rore Kara rrjv deav) 
OTL i] re (TTpaTid diraaa (jyavepd t&v 'iroXefiicov iv 
rfj iroXei zeal viro ra? irvXa^ lttttcov re ttoSc? 
TToXXol Koi dvdpcoTToyv Q)^ 'i^iovTcov inro^aivovTai. 

3 o fie aKov(ra<; iTrrjXOe, koX ft)9 eZSev, ov ^ovXofievo^ 
fid'XJf hiaywviaaa-Oai irpiv oi /cal Toif<; ^or}doif^ 
7]K€t>v Kol oiofievo^ (^Orjaeadai direXdcov, arj/Maivetv 
T€ dfia eKeXevev dva^copTjaiv kol irapijyyeXXe 
Toh dinovaiv iirX to eifcovv/xov icipa^, &<T7r€p 

4 fiovov otov T fjv, vTrd/yeiv eVl tt}? 'H^oi/o?. (09 S* 
avT^ iSoKCv (T'XpXfi yiypeadai, avro^ iiriarpe'^a^ 
TO Se^ioP KOL Tct yvfiva 7r/0O9 Tot'9 TToXefiiov^ hov<; 

5 dirrjye rrjv arparidv, icdv T0VT(p ^paaiSa^ a)9 
opa TOV Kaipov koX to CTpdrevfia t&v ^ABrjvaitov 
i8 



BOOK V. IX. 9-x. s 

into slavery) and that^ too^ in a harsher vassalage 
than you had before, while for the rest of the 
Hellenes you will prove a barrier to their liberation. 
Nay, then, seeing how much is at stake, do you 
on your part not play the coward ; and I, for my 
part, will show that I am not better able to exhort 
others than to carry out myself in action the advice 
I give to my fellows.** 

X. After this brief speech, Brasidas himself 
prepared for the sally and placed the rest with 
Clearidas at the gate called Thracian, in order that 
they might come out to his support according to his 
orders. But he had been seen when he came down 
from Cerdylium, and again in the city — which is in 
full view from outside — while sacrificing at the 
temple of Athena and busied about these matters ; 
and word was brought to Cleon, who had gone 
forward at that time for the reconnaissance, that the 
whole army of the enemy could be clearly seen 
inside the city, and the feet of men and horses in 
great numbers were visible under the gates, as 
though ready for a sally. Hearing this Cleon came 
nearer ; and when he saw it, being unwilling to risk 
a battle before his reinforcements arrived, and think- 
ing that he could get away in time, he gave orders 
to sound a retreat and at the same time passed along 
word to the troops as they set off to go to the left 
— as alone was possible — upon the road, to Eion. But 
as it seemed to him this was being done too slowly, 
he himself wheeled the right wing, thus exposing 
the unarmed side ^ to the enemy, and began to lead 
off his army. At this moment Brasidas, seeing his 
opportunity and the army of the Athenians on the 

* i.e. the right side, the left being covered by the shield. 

c 2 



THUCYDIDES 

Kivovfievov, \iy6i roh fjued^ eavrov kol T049 dWoi^ 
OTL ** 0/ avhpe^ ^fid<; ov fievovcriv SrjXoi Be r&v re 
Bopdrcov TTf KLvrjfjei KoX tcov K€(j)aXS)V' oU yap &v 
TOVTO yiyvrjTai, ovk el(oda<TL fieveiv tou? eTriovra^. 
dWd Ta9 T€ 7rvXa<; tl^ dvoiyero) efiol a? eiprjrai, 

6 Kol i7r€^La>/j,€V w Td')(iaTa Oapaovvre^*^ /cal 6 
fM€v Kord rd^ cttI to aravpay/xa irvka^ fcal rd^; 
Trp(OTa9 Tov fiaKpov Tei')(pv<; Tore ovto<; i^€\6a>v 
eOei Bpoficp TTjv 6B0V ravrrjv evOelav jfirep vvv 
Kard TO KapTepdoTaTov tov ')((opLOV iovTi Tpoiralov 
€aTr)K€, Kol TTpoo'fiaXobv TOK ^Adrjvaioif;, 'ire<f>ofir]' 
fiivoi^ T€ dfia TTf acfteTcpa aTa^ia KaX ttjv ToXfiav 
avTOv €K7re7rXi]yfjL€V0L<!}, /cara fieaov to aTpdTevfia^ 

7 Tpiirer kolL 6 KXeaptSa?, &<nr€p etprfTO, afia 
fcaTd ra? &pa/cLa<; irvXa^ iire^eXOoov T(p aTpaT(p 
i7r€(l>€p€T0, ^vve^T) T€ T^ dBoK'^Ttp fcol i^aTTLVrjif 

8 dfJL<f>oTepa)0€V tov^ ^ KOrjvaiov^ Oopv^rfOrjvar koI 
TO fiev evcovv/JLov xipa^ avT&v, to tt/oo? ttjv 'Htoi/a 

' oirep Br) xal 'irpovKe')((opi)KeL, evdv<; diroppayev 
€<f>€vye (koI 6 B/>a<7tSa9 V7ro^copovvTO<; rjBrj avTOv 
iiriTrapicbv T(p Be^L& TiTpda/cerai, zeal ireaovTa 
avTov ol fiev ^Adrjvaloi ovk aladdvovTai, oi Be 
irXrjaiov dpavTe^ dirijveyKav), to Be Be^iov t&v 

9 ^A6rjvcu(ov €fi€V€ fidXXov. koX 6 fiev KXicov, eo9 
TO irp&TOv ov BievoeiTo fieveiv, evdif^ (f>evy(ov kclL 
KaTaXi](j)del(} vno MvpKipiov ireXTacTTOv diro- 
6vri<TK€i, oi Bk avTov ^vaTpa^evTe^ oTrXiTai eirl 
TOV X6(j)ov TOV Te KXeapiBav ^/jlvvovto koI St9 r^ 
T/3t9 TTpoa/SaXovTa, Kal ov irpoTepov eveBoaav 

20 



BOOK V. X. 5-9 

move^ said to those immediately about him ^ and to 
the rest of the troops : " These men will not stand 
before us; they show it by the wagging of their 
spears and of their heads ; men who do that never 
await an attack. Somebody open the gates for me 
as I have ordered and let us boldly get at them as 
quickly as possible." He went out then by the gate 
that led to the palisade and by the first gate of the 
long wall^ which was then standings and advanced at 
full speed up the straight road where now, as one 
comes to the steepest part of the hill, a trophy 
stands, and attacking the centre of the Athenians, 
who were amazed at his audacity, as well as panic- 
stricken because of their own disorder, he routed 
them. At the same moment Clearidas, as he had 
been ordered, went out at the Thracian gate and 
bore down with his troops. And so it came to pass 
that owing to the unexpected and sudden nature of 
the attack from both sides at once the Athenians 
were thrown into confusion ; and the left wing, on 
the side toward Eion, which had already gone 
some distance in advance, was at once cut off, and 
fled. (It was just when it began to retire that 
Brasidas, who was pressing forward against the right 
wing, was wounded, and the Athenians did not ob- 
serve that he had fallen, but those who were near 
took him up and carried him from the field.) The 
right wing of the Athenians stood its ground better. 
Cleon, indeed, as he had not intended from the first 
to stand his ground, fled at once, and was overtaken 
and slain by a Myrcinian targeteer ; but the hoplites, 
rallying at their first position on the hill, twice or 
thrice repulsed the attack of Clearidas, and did not 

^ i,e. the hundred and fifty (ch. viii. 4). 

21 



THUCYDIDES 

irpXv fj T€ MvpKiPia koL 17 ^aXKthiKrj ltttto*; koI 
01 weXraaToi Trepiaravre^ xal iaaKovri^ovre^ 

10 avToi}^ eTpeyjrav. ovtcj Brf^ to arpdrevfia irdv rjBr) 
rS)v *Adi]vaL(t)V (j^uyov %aX€7rft)9 fcal iroWa^ oBoif^ 
rpairopLevoi Kara oprj, oaoi fir) Bi€(f>ddprjaav rj 
avTiKa iv '^epaXv fj viro t^9 l^a\KiBiKrj<i ittttov 
Kol T&v TreKracTT&v, ol Xoiirol aireKOfila-Orjaav 69 

11 Tr)v 'Hfcoj/a. oi Be top IBpaaiBai/ apavre^ ix t^9 
fidxv^ Acal Bi^aadxravre^ 69 rr^v iroXiv en efnrvovv 
i<T€/c6fii(rav fcal rjo-dero fxev on vifcaxriv ol fieO^ 

12 avTOVj ov TToXv Bk BiaXnrwv iTekevrrjaev xal rf 
aXKri (npariii dva')(€opriaaaa pLcrh tov KXeapiBov 
i/c T179 Bi(o^€(»)<; vefcpov^ re iaKvKevae KaX rpoiraiop 

€<TT7ja€V. 

XI. Mera Be ravra tov TipaaLBav oi ^vfipwypt 
7ravT€9 ^vv oifKoL^ eiria-Trofievoi Brj/uLoaCa edayjrai/ 
iv T7J TToXei Trpo rr}? vvv a/yopa^ ovat}^' Kal to 
Xoi^TTOv ol *Afi<pL7roXiTai irepLeip^avTe^ avTov to 
fivqpLelov 0)9 ^p<p t€ evTe/juvovcn /cal Tifjicb<; BeB(0' 
fcaaiv ay&va^ kol eTTja-iov^ 6v<Tia<i, icaX ttjv aTroi- 
fciav d)9 olKKrTT} Trpoaedetrav fcaTa/3aX6vT€^ ra 
'Ayvcoveia^ olKoBofiijfiaTa xaX d<f>avL<TavT€^ el tc 
fivijfioo'vvov TTOv efieXXev avTou t?}9 olKi(Tea>^ 
irepiiaea'dai, vofiia-avTe^ tov fiev TApaa-LBav <t(0' 
Tpjpd re (Ti^&v yeyev fjaOai KaX iv t^ irapovTi a/xa 
Tr)v T(ov AaKeBai/jLOVLCDV ^vfifiayiav (jyo^tp to)v 
^AOrjvaiayv OepairevovTe*;, tov Be ' Ayvcova kuto, to 
TToXefJLLov T&v ^AdrjvaicDv ovk av ofwico^ a(l>Lai 
^vpL<\>6p(o<i ovB^ av ^Beo)^ Ta9 TLfutf; ^x^cv. xai 
2 T0U9 veKpov^ To?9 * AOi]vaiot><; direSocrav. aired avov 

^ 5^, Kriiger's correction for Se of the MSS 
2 c/. IV. cii. 3, 4. 

22 



BOOK V. X. 9-xi. 2 

give way till the Myrcinian and Chalcidian horse and 
the targeteers^ who surrounded and hurled javelins 
at them^ put them to flight. Then at last the whole 
Athenian army took to flight, making their way with 
difficulty and by many routes over the hills, until 
finally the survivors — all that were not destroyed 
either at once in hand to hand conflict or by the 
Chalcidian horse and targeteers — got back to Eion. 
Brasidas was taken up by his followers and carried 
safely from the battlefield to the city, still breathing ; 
and he learned that his men were victorious, but 
after a little interval he died. The rest of the army, 
after returning with Clearidas from the pursuit, de- 
spoiled the dead and set up a trophy. 

XL After this all the allies gave Brasidas a public 
burial in the city at a spot facing what is now the 
market-place, following his body in full armour. And 
the Amphipolitans fenced in his monument and have 
ever since made offerings to him as a hero, giving 
honours and instituting games and yearly sacrifices. 
They also adopted him as founder of the colony, 
pulling down the edifices of Hagnon and obliterating 
whatever was likely, if left standing, to be a reminder 
of his settlement,^ for at the present moment they 
courted the alliance of the Lacedaemonians through 
fear of the Athenians, thinking Brasidas to have been 
their saviour, whereas Hagnon, in consequence of 
their hostile attitude towards Athens, would not in 
like manner as before ^ receive their honours either 
with benefit to themselves or with pleasure to him- 
self. The dead they gave back to the Athenians. 

* cf, IV. cii. 3, 4. 

' f.6. as formerly, when their relations with Athens were 
pleasant. Or the meaning may be, *' so advantageously for 
them as Brasidas would. " 

23 



THUCYDIDES 

Sk ^A6rjvaLa>v aev irepl e^aKoaiov^, t&v 8* ivav- 
ritov kirrd, hia to fjurf iK irapard^em^, diro Be 
ToiavTT}^ ^vvTVxia^ KaX 'n'po€K<}>ofii]cr€(t)<; rrjv fjui- 
3 xn^ fiaXKov yeviadai. fierh he rrjv dvaipeo'tv oi 
p^v iir^ oXkov direTrXevaav, oi Se pLera rov KXea- 
piSov TCL irepX rrjv ^ ApL<f)L7roXiv Kadlaravro, 

XII. Kal VTTO Toi)^ avTOv<; %/96i/ou9 rov depov^ 
T€\€VT&pT0^ 'Vap><f)ia^ Kal AvT0')(apLha^ koX 'Ett^- 
Kvhiha^ AaKeSaipovioi e? ret iirl ®paKr)^ X^P^^ 
^orjOevav ^yov ivaKoaiwv ottXctc^v, teal df^iKO- 
pL€VOL €9 'Hpa/cXetai; rrjv iv Tpa^ivi KadiaTavro 6 

2 Ti avTol^ ehoKei pbrj kcCKw gx^^V' ivhcaTpL^omcav 
Sk avTtav €TVX€v f) P'dxv avTT) yevopbivi], kuI to 
^€/909 ireXevTa, 

XIII. Tov S* iTTiyiyvopevov ;^€t/iwi/09 cvdv^ pbi- 
Xpt' p^€if Hiepiov T^9 0€<ro'a\ta9 htrjXBov oi irepX 
TOV *Vap><^Lav, K(oXv6vT(ov he tmv ^eaacCX&v KaX 
dpLa ^paaihov TeOve&TO^, oSttc/o ffyov ttjp aTpa- 
Tidv, dweTpdirovTO iir* otfcov, vopiLaavTe^ ovBiva 
Kavpov €Tt elvaif t&v re ^ AOr^vaLcDV rjacrj direXYf- 
XvffoToyv Kal ovk d^i6xp€cov avT&v ovtcov hpav ti 

2 &v KcLKeivo^; iirevoei, pdXiaTa he dirrjXOov elhore^ 
Toif^ AaKehaipjovLov^, ore i^fjaav, irpo^ Tf}V elprj- 
vqv pLoXXov TTfp yvcop/qv exovTa^, 

XIV. Bvv€/3rj T€ €idv<; p^Tct ttjv iv *ApAf>nr6Xei 
p^XV^ /cal TTJV ^Vapi^Lov dvax<i^pv<^^^ ^^ ®ea<Ta- 
\ta9 &a-T€ iroXepLOV piev pur^hev ctl ayjraa-dai pbrjhe- 
T6/0OU9, 7r/)09 he Ttfv elprjvfjv pioXXov ttjv yvdpLrjv 
elxov, oi pbkv *A0r)vatoi TrXrjyevTe^ eiri t€ t^ 



^ c.f, IV. c, ci. 



BOOK V. XI. 2-xiv. I 

About six hundred of these had been killed^ but of 
their adversaries only seven ; for the fight had been 
made^ not as a regular battle^ but as the result of 
such an accident and previous panic as has been 
described. After taking up the dead the Athenians 
sailed back home^ but Clearidas and his followers 
remained and set in order the affairs of Amphipolis. 

XII. About the same time, towards the close of 
this summer, Rhamphias, Autocharidas, and Epi- 
cydidas, who were Lacedaemonians, were on their 
way with reinforcements, consisting of nine hundred 
hoplites, to the strongholds in Thrace, and arriving 
at Hcracleia in . Trachis they set in order whatever 
seemed to them amiss. It was while they were 
staying there that the battle at Amphipolis occurred ; 
and so the summer ended. 

XIII. As soon as winter came on Rhamphias and 
his followers advanced as far as Pierium in Thessaly ; 
but as the Thessalians hindered their progress and 
Brasidas, to whom they were bringing the army, 
was now dead, they turned back homeward. They 
thought the favourable moment was past, for the 
Athenians had gone away in consequence of their 
defeat, and they were not competent by themselves 
to carry out any of Brasidas' plans. But the chief 
reason for their return was that they knew that the 
Lacedaemonians, at the time when they set out, were 
more than ever inclined to peace. 

XIV.- It so happened, too, that directly after 
the battle at Amphipolis and the withdrawal of 
Rhamphias from Thessaly neither side undertook 
any further military operations, and both were more 
inclined to peace. The Athenians were so inclined 
because they had been beaten at Delium,^ and again 

25 



THUCYDIDES 

^r)\iq> KoX it oXlyov av0i^ iv ^ KjjL^nroKeij KaX 
ovK €'XpvTe^ T^v iX/rriha t^9 pd/JLr]^ ttictt^v en, 
rfirep ov TrpoaeSexpvTO irporepov ra^ airovSa^;, 
S0KOVVT&; Ty irapovarj evTvyia /caOviriprepoi 76- 

2 vrjaetrdat {icaX tov^ ^vfifia^ov^ afia iBiSiaav 
o<f>&v fjLTj Sta ra aifyaXfiara iiraipofievoi cttI irXiov 
aTToarwaL, fieTefjUXovro re on fieTa ret iv livXco 

3 Ka\S><; irapaayov ov ^vvi/Srjaav), ol S* av Aaxe- 
SaifjLovioi irapa yva>firjv fiev airo^aivovro^ (r(f>iaL 
Tov TToXefjLOv, iv o5 wovTo oXlyayv irmv Kadai- 
pjjaeiv TffV r&v ^ AOrjvalayp Svpaficv el rrjv yrjp rifi- 
voL€V, TrepnreaovTe^ Se ry iv rrj vqatp ^vfi^opa, 
o7a oviro) iyeyivrjro ry XirdpTrf, koX Xyarevofiivrj^; 
tt)? 'xjoapa^ i/c t% HvXov kol KvOrjptov, avrofio- 
XovvToov T€ T&v EtXcoTcoi' fcoi olcl TTpoahoKia^ 
ovaTj^ fiTf TL KoX oi vTTo fjAvovTe^ Tot9 €^(o iriavvoi 
7r/)09 TCL irapovra a^i(Tiv, &<nrep fcal irporepov, 

4 vecarepiaayaiv' ^vvi^aive he koX irpb^ tov9 'A/j- 
yeiov^ avrol^ Ta<; Tpia/covrovrei^ airovBh^ €7r' 
i^oSu) elvai, teal aXXa^ ovk fjOeXov (TirevSea'ffai ol 
^Apyeloi, el /jlt] Tt<; avTol<; ttjv Kvvovpiav yrjv airo- 
S(0(T€v (aBvvara S'^ elvai icftaivero ^Apyeloi^ koI 
' AOrjvaLOi^ a/jua iroXefielv), t&v re iv UeXoirov- 
vrj<T(d iroXecDv viroDTrrevov TLva<; airoarriaea'Oai 
Trpo^ Tov<; ^Apyelov^, oirep xaX iyevero, 

XV. Taur' oZv afi(f>OT€poi,9 avTol^ Xoyi^opievoL^ 
iSoKei TTOPjTea elvai 17 ^vfi^aai<i, koX ou^ fjcra-ov 

^ Stahl's emendation for &aT^ ahvyara of the MSS. 

^ i.e. those who had escaped. 

^ The great revolt of the Helots, called the Third Mes- 
senian War; cf. i. ci.-ciii. 

26 



BOOK V. XIV. i-xv. I 

at Amphipolis a little later^ and consequently had 
no longer that confidence in their strength in reli- 
ance upon which they had earlier refused to accept 
the truce, as they then thought that with their 
existing good luck they would prove superior. They 
were afraid, too, of their allies, lest, elated over 
these failures of theirs, the revolt among them might 
spread, and they repented that they had not come to 
terms when a good opportunity offered after the affair 
at Pylos. The Lacedaemonians, on the other hand, 
favoured peace because the war was turning out con- 
trary to their hopes. They had expected that in 
a few years, if they should ravage their territory, 
they could pull down the power of the Athenians ; 
whereas they had met with the calamity on the 
island of Sphacteria, such an one as had never 
before befallen Sparta; their territory was ravaged 
from Pylos and Cythera ; the Helots were deserting, 
and always there was apprehension that those who 
remained, relying on those beyond the border,^ 
might revolt in the present state of affairs, just as 
they had done before. ^ It happened also that the 
thirty years' truce with the Argives was on the 
point of expiring,^ and the Argives were unwilling 
to make another treaty unless the territory of 
Cynuria * were restored to them ; and it seemed 
impossible to carry on the war with the Argives 
and the Athenians at the same time. Besides, they 
suspected that some of the cities in the Pelopon- 
nesus would revolt to the Argives, as indeed did 
happen. 

XV. In consideration of these things, both parties 
thought it advisable to come to an agreement, 

^ It expired the next year {cf. ch. xxviii. 2), and therefore 
dated from 467 b.c. * cf, iv. Ivi. 2. 

27 



THUCYDIDES 

roh AafceSaifwvloi^, iiriOvfiia r&v avhp&v t&v ifc 
T^9 vrjaov fcofuaaadar fjaav yctp oi ^TrapTiarai 
avT&p TTp&TOL T€ fcol ofioio)^ <r<^L<n ^vyy€V€i<;, 
2 rjp^avTO fiev oZv Kal evdv^ fiera rrjv aXaxnv 
avTCJv TTpdaaeiv, aW' ol ^A6rjva2oi outt©? rjOeXop, 
eS <f>€p6fi€P0i, €7rl T§ tarj KaraXveadai, <r<f)a\€p- 
Tcov he ain&v eirX t^ ^rjkitp irapaxp^p^ ol Aaxe- 
Bai/jLovioi yvovre*; vvv jiaXKov av ivSe^afievov^; 
TTOLovvrai rrjv iviavaiov ifcex^tpiav, iv rj eBei 
^vvi6vra<; Kal irepl tov ifKeiovo^; ^/ooi^ou fiovXeve- 
<r6ai, 

XVI, 'Ettc^S^ he KoX rj iv *Afjuf)i7r6\ei fjaaa 
T0?9 ^AOrjvaiot^ iyeyevTjTO fcal eredvrjKei ^Xecov re 
Kal ^paaiha^;, oiirep d/jL<l>OT€po)ff€v fid\i(rTa fivav- 
riovvTO TTj eipTjvTf, 6 fiev hid to evrvxelv re /cat 
TifidaOai eK tov iroXefielv, 6 he yevofievrj^; '^av^ia^i 
Kara^avearepof; vojjlL^cov av elvai fcafcovpy&v xal 
dinaTOTepo^ hia^dWaov, rore hk^ ifcarepa ttj 
TToXei airevhovre^ rd ixoKktt avrrjv^ UXeiaro- 
dva^ T€ 6 UavaavLOV, /SaaiXeif^; Aa/cehaifiovLCiyv, 
fcal Nt/c/a? o NiKrjpdTOV, irXelara r&v rore ev 
<f>€p6fievo^ iv arparrjyiai^, ttoW^ ht) fiaWov 
TTpovdvfjLovvro, N^Acta? fJtev jSovXofievo^, iv c5 dira- 
0r)f; fjv Kal rj^iovro, hiaataaaaOai rrjv evrvxjiav, 

^ So all the better MSS. ; Hude reads 8^. 

^ The vulffate has /idXto-ra r^v riyefiovlav : Stahl deletes 
TiytfJLoviap and corrects r^v to avr-fjv. The vulgate would 
mean: "then those who in either country were most de- 
sirous of taking the lead, namely . . . ." 

28 



BOOK V. XV. i-xvi. I 

especially the Lacedaemonians^ because of their 
desire to recover the men captured at Sphacteria; 
for the Spartiates among these were men of high 
rank and all alike kinsmen of theirs.^ Accordingly^ 
they began negotiations directly after their capture^ 
but the Athenians were not at all inclined^ as long 
as they were getting on well, to make a settlement 
on fair terms. When, however, the Athenians were 
defeated at Delium, the Lacedaemonians knew im- 
mediately that they would now be more ready to 
accept offers, and they concluded the truce for a 
year, during which they were to come together and 
consult about a treaty for a longer period. 

XVI. But when the Athenians had met defeat at 
Amphipolis also and both Cleon and Brasidas had 
been killed — the men who on either side had been 
most opposed to peace, the one because of his 
success and the reputation he had derived from the 
war, the other because he thought if quiet were 
restored he would be more manifest in his villainies 
and less credited in his calumnies — then it was that 
Pleistoanax son of Pausanias, king of the Lacedae- 
monians, and Nicias son of Niceratus, who had been 
of all the generals of his day most successful in his 
commands — men who had most zealously supported 
the cause of peace each in the interest of his own 
state — urged this course with greater zeal than 
ever. Nicias wished, while his record was still free 
from disaster and he was held in esteem, to pre- 

^ i.e. of the Lacedaemonians in authoritv. The Spartiates 
formed a clan ; besides their common descent, they were 
closely connected by intermarriage. Or reading, with the 
schol., ^atuf yhp ot ^jrapTiarai aifrav ktA., ''for there were 
among them some Spartiates of the first rank and related to 
the most distinguished families." 

29 



THUCYDIDES 

Kol €9 T€ TO avTiKa TTOvcov TTeTTavaOav KoX airo^ 
teal Toif<i TToXiTa^ Travaai, teal T(p fieWovri ')(p6v(p 
KaTttXiTrelv ovofia w ovSev (T<f>i]Xa<; rrjv trokLv 
Bieyivero, vo/jLu^mv €k tov afcivBvvov tovto ^Vfi- 
fiaiveiv fcal oa-n,^ i\d)(^iaTa rv^rj avrov irapa- 
SiSoxTi, TO Sk aKivhvvov TTjv eiprivqv irapexeiv 
UXeiarodva^ Bk viro t&p i'xjdp&v BiafiaWofiepo^ 
Trepl T^9 KadoBov /cal €9 evOvpiav rol^ AaKcBai- 
fiovioi^ aUl 7rpol3aW6fM€vo<; vir avT&v, ottotc ti 
TTTaiaeiav, (»9 Biet rrjv eKeivov KoBohov irapavo- 

2 iirjOelaav ravra ^Vfi/Saipoi, rrjv ycip irpofiavriv 
Tf]V iv A€\(f)oi^ iwpTi&vTO avrov irelaai puerr 
* Apia-ToniXeov^ tov dBeXfjyov &ar€ 'xprjaat Aaxe- 
haifiovioi^ eirX iroXv rdhe deeopoi^ d<f>iKvovfi€voi^, 
At09 viov 'qp^iOeov to airepp^a ifc rrjf; aWorpia^ €9 
Trjp eavrcov apa<f>epeip* el Be firj, dpyvpea evXaxa 

3 evXa^eiP' XP^^V ^^ irporpe^ai tou9 AaKeBau- 
fjLoviov^ <f>evyopra air op e9 AvKaiov BloL ttjv ex 
T?79 ^AmKrjf; iroTe puerh Bdypcop BoKovaap dva'XJ^' 
prjatp fcal rjp^iav t^9 OLKia^ tov iepov rore rov 
Ato9 olfcovpra <f>6^<p T(p AaKeBaipLOPicop, eret €Vo<; 
BeopTi eixoar^ T0&9 Ofwioi^ X^P^^^ ^^^ Bvalai^ 
Karayayelp Hawep ore ro irp&rop AafceBaifiopa 
Kri^opr€<; tou9 /SaaiXea^ Kadiarapro, 

^ i.e. as the schol. explains, there would be a pestilence, 
and they would buy food at a very high price, as it were 
using silver tools. 

^ 427 B.O., since he had left the country in 446. cf. I 
cxiv. 2 and 11. xxi. 1. 

30 



BOOK V. XVI. 1-3 

serve his good luck to the end^ and not only at 
present both to rest from toil himself and to give 
his fellow-citizens a rest^ but also to hand down to 
after times a name as of one who had lived his life 
through without injuring the state ; and he thought 
that a man might achieve such a result by keeping 
out of danger and by least exposing himself to the 
caprices of fortune, and that it was peace only that 
offered freedom from danger. Pleistoanax, on the 
other hand, was for peace, because he was con- 
stantly maligned by his enemies about his return 
from exile, and because, whenever any reverses 
occurred, he was always spitefully recalled to their 
thoughts by these persons as though these mis- 
fortunes were due to his illegal restoration. For 
they charged that he, along with his brother Aris- 
tocles, had bribed the priestess at Delphi con- 
stantly to answer the Lacedaemonians, whenever 
they came to consult the oracle : '' Bring back 
the seed of the demigod, son of Zeus, from the 
foreign land to your own ; otherwise you shall 
plough with a silver plough-share"^; and that in 
course of time she had induced the Lacedaemonians 
to bring him back from banishment in the twentieth 
year ^ with like dances and sacrifices as when at the 
founding of Xacedaemon they had first enthroned 
their kings. For he had fled for refuge to Mt. 
Lycaeum,^ on account of his retreat from Attica, 
that was thought to be due to bribery, and through 
fear of the Lacedaemonians had occupied at that 
time a house whereof the half was within the 
sanctuary of Zeus. 

^ A mountain in Arcadia on which was an ancient sanctuary 
of Zeus. 

31 



THUCYDIDES 

XVII. "AxOofA€PO^ ovv TTj BuL^oXy ravTjj teal 
vofd^tov iv elprivri fiev ovSevb^ a<]>d\fiaTO^ yiyvo- 
fUvov xaX afJM rSiv AaKeScufioviayv touv dvBpa<; 
xofu^ofievfov x&p avTO^ tol^ ^Opol'i dveirLXTjirro^ 
ehai, TToXefiov Be KaOear&TO^ alel avdy/crfv elvai 
T0V9 Trpoxrxpvra^ diro t&v ^vpAl>op&v SiafiaWe- 
a0at, irpoi^vpLrfiri Tr)V ^vfifiaaiv. 
2 Ka* TOP re 'xei/jL&va tovtov yaav €9 Xoyov^, icai 
irpo^ TO eapfjBr) irapaaKCVij re irpoeiraveaeiaOT} diro 
T&v AaKeBaifJLOvloDP, TrepiayyeWofJihni /card Tro\€i<; 
0)9 €9 emTeix^afiov,^ o9r<»9 ol *Adf)valoi p,aXKov 
i<TaKOvoi€V, ical iireiBrf ix t&v ^vvoBtov apu iroXKa<; 
BiKaiolxrei^ irpoeveyKovTcov aXXi;\o49 fvi/€%ft)^€tTO 
wo-TC & eKurepoi iroXep^^ eaxov diroBovra^; rrjv 
eip^vffv iroieurdaiy ^iaaiav S* exeiv ^Affrfvaiov^ 
(avrairaiTOvvTiDV yap TlXaTcuav oi Srjfialoi, €<f>a- 
aav ov fiia, aXV op^Xoyia avT&v irpoax^PV^^^' 
Twv Koi oif irpoBovTtav €%€«/ to x^P^^^> ^^'' ^^ 
^AOffvaloi Ty avT^ rpoir^p rrjv Niacuav), Tore Br) 
TrapaKoKiaavTe^; to ^9 eavT&v ^vp,pAxov^ oi Aaxe- 
Baip^oviOi Kol y^(f>i<rap^v(ov TrXrjv ^okot&v xai 
Kopivdioiv Kal ^HXeitov xaX ^eyapecav t&v aXkcav 
Acre KaraXveaOai {tovtois Be ovk fipeaKe ra 
irpaccop.eva), iroiovvrai rifv ^vp,fia<Tiv fcal eairei- 
aavTo 7r/oo9 to^9 ^AOrfvaiov^ xai &p>oaav, eKelvoL 
Te 7r/oo9 T0V9 AaxeBaipxiviov^;, TaSc. 

^ Poppo*8 oonjecture for &s «wi Tcixtc/Arfy of MSS. 

* (j/*. IV. Ixix.  cf. in. lii. 2. 

3* 



BOOK V. XVII. 1-2 

XVII. Vexed, therefore, by this calumny, and 
thinking that in time of peace, when no calamity 
would occur and, moreover, the Lacedaemonians 
would be recovering their men, he himself would 
not be exposed to the attack of his enemies, whereas 
so long as there was war it must always be that the 
leading men would be maligned in the event of any 
misfortunes, he became very ardent for the agreement. 

During this winter they kept attending confer- 
ences ; and toward spring there was a menace of 
warlike preparation on the part of the Lacedaemo- 
nians, orders being sent to the cities as though for 
the erection of a fortress to overawe the territory of 
the Athenians, that they might be more inclined to 
listen to terms ; and at the same time as the result 
of their conferences, in which each party had filed 
many claims against the other, an agreement was 
finally reached that they should make peace, each 
party to restore to the other the territories which 
they had gained by war, though the Athenians were 
to keep Nisaea.^ (For when they had demanded 
back Plataea, the Thebans protested that they had 
obtained possession of the place, not by force, but 
because the Plataeans had come over to them by 
agreement and not through betrayal ^ ; and the 
Athenians claimed to have obtained Nisaea in the 
same way.) At this time the Lacedaemonians sum- 
moned their own allies, and when all the rest had 
voted to stop hostilities, except the Boeotians, 
Corinthians, Eleans, and Megarians — to whom the 
negotiations were displeasing — they made the agree- 
ment, ratifying it by libations and oaths with the 
Athenians, and the Athenians with them, on the 
following terms: — 

33 

VOL. III. D 



THUCYDIDES 

XVIII. "Sttoi/SA? eiroLrjaavTO ^Adrjpaioc kcli 
AaxeSaifiovtoL fcal ol ^v/jLfia)(pi /caret rdBe, koI 
&fio(Tav Kara iroXei^. 

" Uepl fiev T&v lep&v t&v koiv&v, Oveiv i^elvac ^ 
Kol fiavTCveadai koI ffecopeiv /cara t^ Trdrpia tov 
/3ov\6p,€vov Koi Kara yrjv koI /cara ddXaaaav 
dSew. 

2 *' To S' iepov fcal tov veojv tov iv AeX^ois tov 
^ATToWmvof; kol A€\<f>ov<; avTOvofMOtJ^ elvcu Kai 
avTOT€\€c<; Koi avTohLKOv<; fcal avT&v koI ttj^ 7179 
tt)? eavT&v Kara tA iraTpia, 

3 "*'Et97 hi elvat TA9 a-irovBet^; irevTrficovTa ^AOrj- 
vaioif; fcal Toh ^vfifiaxoi^ Tolf; ^AOrjvaitov kclL 
AaKcBaifjiovioif; koI toI^ ^vfifidxoi^ to(9 Aaxe- 
ZaLfwvifov aSoXov9 icaX d^Xa^el^; Koi kutcl yrjv 
Kol Kara ddXaaaav. 

4 "''OTrXa Se p,rj i^iaTO) eTTKbepeiv iirl irrjfiovrj 
fiTfTe AaKehaifioviov^ koX tou9 ^vfipAxpy^ eir* 
^AOrivaiov^ xal tou9 ^Vfipbd^pv^ firiTe ^Adrjvaiov^ 
Kot Toij'9 ^vfjLfjidxov^ €7rl AaK€SaifWVLOv<; xal rov^ 
^v/jLfJLdxov<;, fi7]T€ rexvrj firjTe firjX^^V /^^Se/ita. 
fjv Bi Ti Sid<f>opov n TTpo<i dXKrj\x)v<i, hitcai^ 
Xp^f^Otov fcal opfcoi^, KaO^ o ri &v ^vvdcovTai, 

6 "^AiroSovTdov Be *A0i]vaLoi,<; AafceBaifiovioi teal 
ol ^vfifJLaxoi ^A/jL<f>i7ro\iv, oaa^ Be iroXeif; irape- 
Soaav AufceSaifJiOVioi ^AOrjvaioi^ i^ea-Tto diriAvaL 
OTToi &v /SovXdovrai avTov<; xal Tct iavT&v 
€X0VTa<;. tA9 Be woXei^ <f>€pov<Ta^ tov if>6pov 
TOV CTT *Api(TT€LBov avTovopiov^ clvai, oirXa 
Bk fXT) i^icTco i7ri(f>€p€iv ^Adrjvaiov^ p/rfBi tou9 

^ Eirchhoff's emendation for Ka\ icVai of MSS. 
34 



BOOK V. XVIII. 1-5 

XVJII. " The Athenians and the Lacedaemonians 
and their respective allies have concluded a treaty 
and sworn to it state by state upon the following 
terms : 

1. *^ With regard to the common sanctuaries^^ who- 
ever wishes may offer sacrifices and consult the oracles 
and attend as a deputy according to the customs of 
the fathers, both by land and sea, without fear. 

2. "The precinct and the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi and the people of Delphi shall be independent, 
having their own system of taxation and their own 
courts of justice, both as regards themselves and their 
own territory, according to the customs of the fathers. 

3. "The truce shall be in force for fifty years 
between the Athenians and their allies and the Lace- 
daemonians and their allies, without fraud or hurt, 
both by land and sea. 

4. " It shall not be lawful to bear arms with harm- 
ful intent, either for the Lacedaemonians and their 
allies against the Athenians and their allies, or for the 
Athenians and their allies against the Lacedaemonians 
and their allies, by any art or device. And if there be 
any dispute with one another, they shall have recourse 
to courts and oaths, according as they shall agree. 

5. " The Lacedaemonians and their allies shall 
restore Amphipolis to the Athenians. But in the 
case of cities delivered by the Lacedaemonians to the 
Athenians, their inhabitants shall be allowed to go 
away wherever they wish, having their own posses- 
sions ; and these cities, so long as they pay the tribute 
that was fixed in the time of Aristeides, shall be in- 
dependent. And it shall not be lawful for the Athen- 
ians and their allies, after the ratification of the treaty, 

^ With reference especially to Delphi and Olympia. 

35 
D 2 



THUCYDIDES 

^vfMfid'^ov<; iwl fcafc^, aTroBiSovrcov rov <f>6pov, 
iireiSr) ai airovBal iyivovro. elal Sk ''Apyi- 
\o9, ^rdyipo^i, "Afcavdo^, 2t(BXo9,^ "OXui/^o?, 
27rapTG)\o9. ^VfifJLo/xpVf; B* elvai fMrjBeripdov, fMi]T€ 
Aa/ceBaifiovLdov firjTe ^Adrfvaiayv rjv Bk *A0r]valoi 
ireidcoai tA? TroXet?, fiouXofiiva^ ravra^ i^earca 
^vfjLfid'Xpv^; TTOieiadai avrol^ ^A0n]vaLov^, 

6 " MrjKvjSepvaiov^ Be fcal 't^avaiov^ koX Siyyiov^^ 
olfceiv Ta^ TToXei^ ra<; iavr&v, Kaddirep ^O\vv0iot 
Kal ^AkovBloi, 

7 " ^ AiroBovTCDv Bk *A07}pcuoi^ AaKeBatfiovLot kcli 
ol ^vfJLfiaj^^oi TldpaKTOv, airoBovrtav Be kol ^AOrj- 
vaioc AafceBaifiovLoi^ }iopv(l)daiov xal K.v0rjpa 
Kal M€0ava^ koI UreXebv xal ^AToKdvrrjv, 
fcal T0V9 dvBpa^ o<toi eial Aa/ceBai/wvidov ev 
TO) Bi]fioaLa> T(p ^ AO'qvaicov r] dXKoOL irov oarf^ 
*A0i]vaioc ap'Xpvaiv ev Briixoaitp koX tov<; ev 
'ZKioovrj iroXiopKovfjLevov*; TleXoTrovvrfaidov d<f>e2vai, 
Kal T0U9 dWov^ oaoL AaKeBaifiovicov ^vfifiaxoi' ev 
'Zkkovtj elal Kal oaov<; hpaaiBa^ eaeitefi'^e, Kal eX 
T49 T&v ^vfjifidxcov T&v AaKeBaifWvioov ev ^A0r]- 
vai^ earlv ev t^ Brj/jLoaCa) ^ aXKo0i irov ^9 ^AOr}- 
valoi apypvaiv ev Brj/xoaiip, diroBovrayv Bl Kal 
AaKeBaifiovLoi Kal ol ^vfMfiaxoi ovcTiva^ eypvaiv 
^ AOrjvaicov Kal t&v ^vfipAxj^v Karh ravrd. 

8 " %KiQ)vaLcov Be Kal Topcjvaicjv xal ^epfivXi&v 
Kal ei TLva dWrjv ttoXiv expvaiv *A0r)vatOL, 'A^?;- 

^ KirchhofiTs correction after inscriptions ; MSS. ^k&\os» 
* Kirchhoffs correction for li^iyyaiovs of the MSS. 
^ StahFs correction for M€0<&vri of MSS. 

36 



BOOK V. XVIII. s-8 

to bear arms against the cities to their hurt^ so long 
as they pay the tribute. These cities are Argil us,^ 
Stagirus,^ Acanthus,' Stolus, Olynthus/ Spartolus.* 
These shall be allies neither of the Lacedaemonians 
nor of the Athenians ; but if the Athenians can 
persuade these cities it shall be lawful for the 
Athenians to make them, with their own free will 
and consent, allies to themselves. 

6. " The Mecybemaeans and Sanaeans ® and Sin- 
gians shall dwell in their own towns on the same 
terms as the Olynthians and Acanthians. 

7. "The Lacedaemonians and their allies shall 
restore Panactum '^ to the Athenians. The Athenians 
shall restore to the Lacedaemonians, Coryphasium,® 
Cythera,' Methana,^® Pteleum, and Atalante^^; also 
they shall set at liberty the Lacedaemonian captives 
who are in the public prison at Athens or in public 
prison anywhere else that the Athenians hold sway, 
and the men of the Peloponnesus who are being 
besieged in Scione, and all besides who are allies of 
the Lacedaemonians in Scione,^^ ^n^ those whom 
Brasidas sent into the place,^' as likewise any of the 
allies of the Lacedaemonians who are in the public 
prison in Athens, or in public prison anywhere else 
that the Athenians have sway. In like manner the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies shall restore whom- 
soever they have of the Athenians and their allies. 

8. " As to Scione, Torone,^* Sermyle, or any other 
city which the Athenians hold, the Athenians shall 

• cf. IV. ciii. 4. * c/. IV. Ixxxviii. 2. 

' cf. IV. Ixxxviii. 1. * cf. i. Iviii. 2. * cf. ii. Ixxix. 

• cf. rv. cix. 3, 6. ' cf. ch. iii. 6. ^ cf, iv. ill. 2. 

• rf. IV. liv. ^^ cf. IV. xlv. 2. " cf. ii. xxxii. 
^ cf. IV. cxxxi^ ^' cf. IV. cxxiii. 4. ^* cf. ch. iii. 2. 

37 



THUCYDIDES 

vaiov^ /SovXevea-dai irepX avr&v Kal r&p aX\€i>i^ 
TToXeoiv 6 ri &v Sofcy avroh, 
9 " ''Opfcov^ Se TTOirjaaa-Oai ^A0r)vatov<; tt^oo? Aaxe- 
SaifjLoviov^ Kol Toif^ ^vfifiaxov^; Kara TroXe*?' 
ofivvvrcov Se rov einxoyptov op/cov eKcirepoi tov 
fMcyiaTov, kina fcal Sifca^ eKaa-Ttj^ 7roX6a>9* o 
S' opfco^ eo-TO) oBe* '^EfifievA rai<i ^vv0i]Kai^ xal 
Ta49 (TTrovBal^; raiaBe Bttcaicof; fcal aB67yM<;,* ea-Tco 
Be AaxeBaifiovLoi^ xal toI^ ^v/xfiaxot^ Karh TavTct 
opKO<; 7rpo9 *Adr)vaLov^, tov Be opfcov avaveovaOat 
Kar eviavTov dfi<f>oT€pov^, 

10 " XttjT^m^ Be (TTTJaai ^OXvfnriao'i xal Uvdoi xal 
^laOfiol Kal ^Adrjvqaiv ev rroXei fcal ev Aa/ce- 
BaL/xovi ev ^Ap,VK\ai(p. 

11 "Et Be ri afiv-qfiovovtriv oirorepotovv zeal orov 
trepi, \670t9 BifcaLoi<; ;^/oa)/A6i/o49 evop/cov elvai 
cLfK^orepoi^ TavTrj fieradetvai ottjj &v Bok^ ap.- 
^oripoi,^, ^ Adr^vaioi^ icaX AaKeBaip^ovioi^, 

XIX. " ''Ap'xei Bk T&v <nrovBa>v e<f>opo^ TlXei- 
(TTo\a<;y ^ApTefiLaiov prjvb^; rerdprri ^OLvovto^, ev 
Be ^AOrjvai^ dp^div 'A\«a?09, *E\a<f>T)fio\t&vo^ 
2 p/Tfvb^ efCTTj (f>0LVOvro^, &p,vvov Bk olfBe kol eairiv- 
BovTO* AaKeBaip^ovicov fiev JJXeiarodva^, ^Ayi^;,^ 
JJXeiaToXaf;, Aapdr/rjTo^, Xiovi^, MeTayevrj^, 
"AkuvOo^;, Adi0o<i, *Ia")(ay6pa^, ^iXoxO'pi'Ba^, 
Zev^iBa^;, "'Avrtinro^, T€\X49, ^AXxivoBa^, 'E/a- 
ireBia^, Mrjvd^, Ad<f>i\o^' ^A0r}vamv Bk oije* 
AdfiTTcov, ^l(T0p,i6vifCo<;, Nt^ta9, Ad'^rj*;, Ev^u&y- 

^ itrrh Koi ^txa, Classen and Stahl assume that i(' has 
fallen out of the MSS. 

^ n\€iarodya^, '^Ayts, wanting in all MSS., added from in- 
scriptions. 

38 



BOOK V. XVIII. 8-xix. 2 

determine about these and the other cities as they 
may think best. 

9. " The Athenians shall bind themselves by oaths 
with the Lacedaemonians and their allies^ city by city ; 
and either party shall swear its customary oath in 
the form that is most binding^^ seventeen men repre- 
senting each city. The oath shall be as follows : ^ I 
will abide by this agreement and this treaty^ justly 
and without deceit/ For the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies there shall be an oath^ in the same terms^ 
with the Athenians. And both parties shall renew 
the oath year by year. 

10. *'They shall erect pillars at Olympia, Delphi, 
the Isthmus^ and on the Acropolis at Athens, and 
at Lacedaemon in the temple of Apollo of Amyclae.^ 

11. "If either party forgets anything about any 
matter whatsoever, it shall be consistent with their 
oath for both, by means of fair discussion, to make a 
change at any point where it may seem good to both 
parties, the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians. 

XIX. ''The treaty begins at Lacedaemon in the 
ephorate of Pleistolas, on the fourth day from the end 
of the month Artemisium, and at Athens in the 
archonship of Alcaeus, on the sixth day from the end 
of the month Elaphebolion. The following persons 
took oaths and ratified the treaty : on behalf of the 
Lacedaemonians, Pleistoanax, Agis, Pleistolas, Dama- 
getus, Chionis, Metagenes, Acanthus, Daithus, Ischa- 
goras, Philocharidas, Zeuxidas, Antippus, Tellis, Al- 
cinadas, Empedias, Menas, Laphilus ; on behalf of the 
Athenians, Lampon, Isthmionicus, Nicias, Laches, 

^ The Athenians, in ratifying treaties, swore by Zeus, 
Demeter and Apollo. See Frankel, fftrmea, xiii. 460. 
Ullrich suggests for Sparta the Dioscuri. 

* Two or three miles from Sparta. 

39 



THUCYDIDES 

IJLO<;, MpOK\ri<;, TLvdohtopo^, "Ayvcov, MvpriXo^, 
SpaavKXij^;, Seayevrjf;, ^ ApiaTOKparr)^, ^\<o\klo^» 
TifjLOKpdrrjf;, Aicov, Aa/ia%09, ArffioaOivrj^i,^^ 

XX. AvTai ai <nrovhaX iyevovro reXevT&vTO^ 
Tov 'X^eifjL&vo^ afia ffpt ifc Aiovvaioiyv eifdif^ t&v 
aaTi/c&Vf avToBcKa ir&p BiekdovTcov Kal '^fiepmv 
oXiytop irapeveyfcovo'&v fj d><; to irp&rov 17 ia^oXij 
€9 Tr)v ^Attik7)v koX r) cip^V tov irokifiov rovie 

2 iyevero, afcoireLTa) Be t*9 Kara rov^ 'X^p6vov<i Kal p,r) 
tS)v €Ka(TTa')(pv fj apypvTOiv rj a/iro Tifirj(; rivo^ €9 
ra TrpoyeyevTifjuiva a-rjfMaivovTcop^ Trjv airapLd fj/qaiv 
T&p opofidrcav inarevtra^ ^ puaXXop. ov yap a/cpi/Si^ 
iariv, 61^ koX ap^ofi€Poi<; fcal fieaovai, Kal 07ro)9 

3 €TV)(€ T<p iireyepero ti, fcara dipTj Se koI j^et- 
fJL&pa<; dpid/jL&v, &(T7r€p yiypairrai, evprjaei, i^ 
rifii^aeia^ eKuripov tov iviavrov rrjv hvpafitv 
exovTO^, Bexa fiev Oiprj, taovq Be %6£/Lia)i/a9 tw 
irpdrq) TToXefio) r^Be yeyevrf/jiivov^, 

XXI. AafceBacfjLovioi Be {eXa'Xpv yctp irporepoi 
diroBiBovat h elx^^) tov^ t€ avBpa<; evdv^ tou9 
iraph a<f>iaiv at%yLtaX(BT0U9 a(f)Le<Tav Kal irifi'^av' 
T€9 69 rd eirl SpaKr]<; irpeaPei^ ^laxo^yopav xal 
iirjpdv Kal ^CKcxpiplBav eKekevov tov KXeapiBav 
Ttjv *Afjixf>L7ro\iP irapaBiBovai toU ^Affrjpaioi^ xal 
T0U9 aX\ov<; rd^ (nrovBd^, c&9 etprjro eKaaroi^i, 

2 Bex^o-ffai, ol S' ovk rjdeXov, vofu^ovre^; ovk eiri- 

^ 4s rh , , . ffrifjMiv6vTwy, the order is according to Arnold's 
suggestion ; in MSS. these words come after opofidrav, 

* Hude corrects to iroi^<ras. 
40 



BOOK V. XIX. 2-xxi. 2 

Euthydemus, Procles, Pythodorus, Hagnon^ M3rr- 
tilus^ Thrasycles, Theagenes, Aristocrates, lolcius, 
Timocrates, Leon, Lamachus, Demosthenes." 

XX. This treaty was concluded at the end of the 
winter and the opening of spring immediately after 
the City Dionysia.^ Just ten years and a few days 
had passed since the first invasion of Attica and the 
beginning of this war. But one must reckon accord- 
ing to the natural divisions of the year, not according 
to the catalogue of the names of officials in each 
place, be they archons or others who in consequence 
of some office mark the dates for past events, in the 
belief that this method is more to be trusted ; for it 
is really inexact, since an event may have occurred 
in the beginning of their term of office, or in the 
middle, or at any other point as it happened. But 
reckoning by summers and winters, as has been done 
in this history — inasmuch as each of these divisions is 
to be reckoned as half a year — it will be found that 
there have been ten summers and as many winters in 
this first war.* 

XXI. Now since the lot fell to the Lacedae- 
monians to make restoration first of the positions 
they held, they straightway set at liberty the prisoners 
of war that were in their hands, and sending 
Ischagoras, Menas, and Philocharidas as envoys to 
Thrace ordered Clearidas to give up Amphipolis 
to the Athenians, and the rest of the allies to 
accept the treaty, as it had been prescribed for each. 
But the latter were unwilling to do so, as they 
thought that the terms were unfavourable to them ; 

^ The City or Greater Dionysia began before the vernal 
equinox and lasted several days. 

* Commonly referred to by the Attic orators as the 
Archidamian War. See Introduction, vol. i. , p. xiii. 

41 



THUCYDIDES 

rrjheLa^ elvar ovSe 6 KXeapiBa^ TrapeScDfce rrjv 
iroKiv 'XjOLpL^ofieifo^ toI^ ^aXfciSevai, Xeytov ci? ov 

3 Svvaro^ ettf /3ca iKeivcov TrapaSiSovac, iXOmv Se 
avrb^ fcara Ta^09 /Jiera wpia^etov avroOev airo- 
Xoyqaofievo^ t€ 69 rrjv AaKeSaifiova, rjv KaTrjyo- 
p&aiv oi irepl top ^layayopav on ovk iireiffeTO, 
fcal afjLa 0ov\6/jLevo^ eioevai el en fieraKiVTjrrj eirj 
rf ofioXoyia, iirecSr) rjvpe KaT€v\i]fMfM€POV<;,^ aiT09 
fi€v irdXtv TTefxir6vT(ov tmv AaKeBaifiovlcov koX 
K€\€v6vT€ov fioXiaTa fiev fcal to ^((apiov irapa- 
Bovvai, el Be fitj, oiroaot Ue^OTrovvrjaLtov eveiaiv 
i^ayayeiv, kotcl rdyo^ iiropeveTO, 

XXII. Ol Se ^vfjLfiaxoi iv rfj AafceSaifiovt 
avTol^ en erv^ov ovre^, koI avr&v tou9 fit) 
Se^afjLevov^ Ta9 cTrovSa^ ifciXevov ol AaxeBai- 
/jLovLOi TTOieladai, ol he Tjj avrfj '7rpo(f>daei, ywep 
fcal TO TTp&TOv aTredaavro, ovk e^aaav Se^eadai, 

2 ^v fiTj Tipa^ SiKaioripa^ tovtcov ttoi&vtcu, m S* 
avT&v OVK iaijKOVov, €Keivov<; fiev direirefiy^aVy 

• avrol hk irpo^ rov^ ^A6r}vaiov^ ^vfifiaxlciv eirot- 
ovvro, vofJLL^ovr&; ^Kiara &v <T<f>L<ri tov<; re *Ap- 
yelov^,^ iireiBf) ovk fjdeXov * AfiTreTuSov koI Al'xpv 
iXdovToyv eTTia-TrevSeaOai, vofiiaavTe^ avrov^ avev 
^A6r}vai(ov ov BeLvoix; elvat KaX rrjv aWrjv IleXo- 
TTOvvrjaov fidXiar &v '^av^^d^etv 7r/)09 yctp av 

* Kriiger's correction for KaT€i\rifi/x4vas of the MSS. 
^ avTov, Kriiger's correction for avroi of the MSS., is 
adopted by Hade, ^n was added by Stahl. 

' Hude inserts ivMOecQai after *Ap7c(ous, with Madvig. 



^ The narrative recurs to the end of ch. xvii. 
^ cf. ch. xvii. (end). 



4» 



BOOK V. XXI. 2-xxii. 2 

and Clean das^ to oblige the Chalcidians^ did not give 
up Amphipolis^ sapng that he was unable to give it 
up against their will. And he hastened in person^ 
with envoys from the place, to Lacedaemon, in order 
to defend himself in case Ischagoras and his colleagues 
should accuse him of disobedience ; and he wished 
also to learn whether the agreement could still be 
changed. But when he found that they were already 
bound by oath, he' himself went back again in haste, 
with orders from the Lacedaemonians to give up 
Amphipolis if possible, or at all even];s to fetch away 
whatsoever Peloponnesians were in it. 

XXII. The representatives of the allies^ happened 
to be still present in person at Lacedaemon, and 
as many of them as had not accepted the treaty 
were ordered by the Lacedaemonians to adopt it. 
But they, on the same pretext for which they had 
at first * rejected it, still refused to accept it unless 
a fairer treaty were made. Since, then, they would 
not hearken to them, the Lacedaemonians dismissed 
them, and proceeded to make an alliance with the 
Athenians by themselves, thinking that the Argives 
would by no means make an alliance with Sparta — 
since they had refused to renew the treaty with them 
when Ampelidas and Lichas went to Argos — and 
believing that they would not be dangerous to them 
without the Athenians, and that the rest of the 
Peloponnesians would be most likely to remain quiet ;^ 
for, had it been possible, they might have gone over 

' The text is surely not in order and numerous emendations 
have been offered. The rendering above assumes ^vfifiaxinv 
irotcicrOat as predicate of vQfil(ovr€5, and adds ica(, before vofxl- 
(rayrcs, as correlative to rt — or, possibly, vofiltravrts may be 
causal. 

43 



THUCYDIDES 

3 T0V9 ^Adrfvaiov^, el i^rjv, ')((opeiv, irapovroiv oiv 
wpia^ecov uTro r&v *A07jvaia>v /cal yevofiiveov 
\6yci)v ^vv€l3f)(Tav, teal iyevovTo opxoi /cal ^VfjL- 
p>axicL rjSe* 

XXIII. " Kark rdhe ^vp,fia')(pi, eaovrai ^AOrj- 
valoL KaX^ Aa/eeBaip^ovioi irevT^JKovra eri]: 

" "Hi/ ' TiV€<; laxTiv €9 rijv yrjv iroXip^ioi rrjv Aaxe- 
haip^ovicov /cat Ka/e&<; iroi&ai Aa/e€SaifiovLov<:, a>^€- 
Xelv ^ A6rivaiov<; Aa/ceSaifioviov^i t/oott^ oiroitp &v 
SvvcovTac la-')(ypoTdTfp xaTci to Bwarov fjv Sk 
Brjaxravref; ot'^^eovrai, iroKepiav elvai ravTtjv rrjv 
TToTuv AaxeSaip^vioif; /cal *A07jvaLoi<i xal xaKW 
irda'xeLV viro dfi^OT€pa>v, /carciXveLV Be ap^a apxfxo 
TO) TToXet. ravra B* elvai BcKaico^ Kal irpodvp^oD^ 
Kal dB6\(o<;, 

2 " Kal rfv TLve^ i^ rrjv ^AOfjvoMoov yrjv taxri 7ro\€- 
p^ioi Kal Ka/c&f; iroiSixTiv ^Adrjvaiov^, dxfyeXelv Aa/ce- 
Baipx)viov<; ^AOtfvaiov^^ rpowq) oTtp av Bvvcovrai, 
ia'xyporaT^ /eaTCt to Bwarov, fjv Bk Brjdaavre^ 
ot'XfovTai, iroXepiav elvac ravrrjv rrjv iroXiv 
AaKeBaip^oviois: /cal ^ Adrjvaioi<; Kal KaK&^ irda')(€Lv 
vir dp<f>0Tipa)v, KaraXveiv Be apa ap<f)a> Ta> 
TToXec. Tavra S' elvai BiKaio)^ Kal TrpoOvpxo^ 
Kal aBo\a><;, 

3 ***Hi/ Be 7) Bovkeia iiraviarrfTat, iiriKovpelv 
*A0i]vaLov<i AaKcBaipovioi^ iravrl aOivei xarcb 
TO BvvaTov. 

4 " ^Opovvrai Bk ravTa oXirep #cal t^9 aXXa? 

^ ^MfiVfUoi. Kal, wantine in MSS., added by Kruger. 
2 56, after ijy, deleted oy Boehme. 
' *Mr\vaiovt added by Ullrich. 

44 



BOOK V. XXII. 2-xxiii. 4 

to the Athenians.^ Accordingly since envoys were 
present from the Athenians^ a conference was held 
and they came to an agreement^ and oaths were 
sworn and an alliance made on the following terms : 
XXIII. '^ The Lacedaemonians and Athenians shall 
be allies for fifty years on the following conditions : 

1. "If any enemy invade the territory of the Lace- 
daemonians and be doing them harm^ the Athenians 
shall help the Lacedaemonians in whatever way they 
can most eflTectively, with all their might ; but if the 
enemy^ after ravaging the country^ shall have departed^ 
that city shall be the enemy of the Lacedaemonians 
and Athenians^ and shall suffer at the hands of both^ 
and neither city shall make peace with it without 
the other. These conditions shall be observed 
honestly, zealously, and without fraud. 

2. "If any enemy invade the territory of the 
Athenians and be doing them harm, the Lacedae- 
monians shall help the Athenians in whatever way 
they can most effectively, with all their might ; but 
if the enemy, after ravaging the country, shall have 
departed, that city shall be the enemy of the Lacedae- 
monians and Athenians, and shall suffer at the hands 
of both, and neither city shall make peace with it 
without the other. These conditions shall be observed 
honestly, zealously, and without fraud. 

3. " If there shall be an insurrection of slaves, the 
Athenians shall aid the Lacedaemonians with all their 
might, to the utmost of their power. 

4. " These articles shall be sworn to by the same 

^ i.e. if there should be no treaty between Athens and 
Sparta, any dissatisfied state in the Peloponnesus might join 
the Athenian alliance and cause trouble. This danger would 
be removed by entering into the treaty, and also Ai'gos, whose 
relations continued hostile, would be isolated. 

45 



THUCYDIDES 

(TirovSa^ &IJLVVOV e/eaTeptov. avaveovadai Sk kut 
iviavTov Aa/eeSaifioviovi: fiev l6vTa<: €9 ^Adrjva^ 
7rpo9 tA Aiovvaia, *A0rjvaiov^ Be lovra^ €9 Aa/ce- 
haljjLOva irpo^ rk ^TuKLvOia. 

6 "^T7]\r)v Sk €/caT€pov<: arrja-ai, ttjv fikv iv 
AaKeSaifiovi trap ^ AfroXKwvi iv * Afiv/cKaCq), rijv 
Se iv ^AOrjvai^ iv irokei irap *A0r)vaia. 

6 " *Hi/ Si Tb hoKy AaKeSaifiovLOi^ xai ^AOrjvaioi^ 
irpo(T0elvai xal a<f>€\elv irepl rrj^ ^vp^fia'^ia^, 6 
Ti av SoKy, evopKOV dp^oTipoi^ elvat, 

XXIV. " Tov Sk opKOV &/JLVVOV AaKeSaijjLovitov 
p,€V oiSe* HXeia-Todva^, *A7t9, TlXeiaToXa^:, Aa- 
fidyrjTO^, Xtoi/f9» M€Tay€vr)<i, ''AxavOo^, AdtOo^, 
'lo-^^ayo/oa?, ^£\o;^apt£a9« Zeu^tSa?, ""Avtitttto^, 
^A\KivdSa^, TeWi^, 'E/ATreSta?, Mi]va<i, Ad(f>i\o^' 

A6r}vaia)v 8k AdfiTrtov, ^ladfiiovi/co^y Ady^^, 
Nt/cta9, ^vOvSrffio^, Jlpo/cXrj^, Ilv06Sa)po<i, Ay- 
voDVi MvpTi\o<i, Spaa-v/cXrj^, ^€ay€vrj<;, ^Apiaro- 
KpdTi]<i, 'Ift)X/cto9, Ti/JbOfcpdTrf<i, Aicov, AdpLa')(p^, 
Arfp^(T0ivrj<iJ** 
2 %^vTy 7) ^vfjLp/i'xia iyevero fierd t^9 (TTrovBct^ 
o9^fih^\^ varepov, xal toi;^ dvhpa^ rov^ itc t^9 
vi]<Tov diriSoaav ol *A6r)valoi T0t9 AaK€Saipx)VLOi^, 
Kot TO Oipo^ ^PX^ ''"^^ ivSexdrov erov^, ravra 
Se tA Si/ca irrj 6 irp&ro^ iroKepjo<; ^vv€j(a>^ 
y€v6p£vo<i yey pairrac. 

XXV. Mera Se Ta9 (Tiroviii^ koX ttjv ^vfifiax^^^ 
T&v Aa/eeSaip^VLcov kuI t&v ^AOrjvaicov, at iyi- 
vovTO /a€tA tov BcKirr) irokefwv iirl nXeiaroXa 
pJkv iv AaKehaip,ovi i<l>6pov, *AX/eaiov S* dp^ovro^ 

* The City Dionysia ; cf. ch, xx. 1. 

46 



BOOK V. XXIII, 4-xxv. i 

persons who swore to the other treaty on both sides. 
They shall be renewed every year, the Lacedaemo- 
nians going to Athens at the Dionysia/ the Athe- 
nians to Lacedaemon at the Hyacinthia.' 

5. " Each party shall erect a pillar, that in Lace- 
daemon by the temple of Apollo of Amyclae, that at 
Athens on the Acropolis by the temple of Athena. 

6. "If it shall seem good to the Lacedaemonians 
and Athenians to add or take away anything per- 
taining to the alliance, it shall be consistent with 
the oaths of both to do whatever may seem good 
to both. 

XXIV. " For the Lacedaemonians the following 
persons took the oath : Pleistoanax, Agis, Pleistolas, 
Damagetus, Chionis, Metagenes, Acanthus, Daithus, 
Ischagoras, Philocharidas, Zeuxidas, Antippus, Alci- 
nadas, Tellis, Empedias, Menas, Laphilus ; for the 
Athenians, Lampon, Isthmionicus, Laches, Nicias, 
Euthydemus, Procles, Pythodorus, Hagnon, Myrti- 
lus, Thrasycles, Theagenes, Aristocrates, lolcius, 
Timocrates, Leon, Lamachus, Demosthenes." 

This alliance was made not long after the treaty, 
and the Athenians restored to the Lacedaemd^^ns 
the captives taken on the island ; and thus began €he 
summer of the eleventh year. During these ten 
years the first war, of which the history has now been 
written, was waged continuously. 

XXV. After the treaty and the alliance between 
the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, which were 
concluded at the end of the ten years* war, in the 
ephorate of Pleistolas at Lacedaemon and the archon- 
ship of Alcaeus at Athens, those who accepted these 

' The festival of Apollo of Amyclae in the month Hya- 
cinthiuB (Attic Hecatombaion). 

47 



THUCYDIDES 

^Ad^vr)<Ti, T049 /ii€V ie^afi€voi<; aifrh^ elpjjvr) ffv, 
oi Se KopivOioi icaX t&p iv TJekoTropvija-tp iroKedov 
TiV€^ hieKivovv tA ireirpayfj^eva' zeal evOif^ aWr) ^ 
rapa'XTf KaOiaraTO t&v ^vp^fidyjcov irpo<; t^i/ Aa/ic€- 

2 haipbova, koX apui /cal toI<: *A0i]vaioi^ oi Aaxe- 
Baipbovioi irpolovTO^ tov ^povov vttotttoi iyivovro 
€<TTiv iv 0I9 ov iroioOvTe^; ix t&v ^vy/ceip^evayv 

3 & elprjTO* teal iirl e^ errj p,ev kclL BcKa pLrjva<s 
airic'XpVTO firj inl Ttjv eKariptDv yrjv arpaTevaai, 
e^todev Se puer avoKa^yfi^; ov fiefialov e/SXaiTTOv 
aWi^Xov<: tA pLaKiara' errevTa p,€VTOi teal avcvy- 
xa(r0€VT€<: \v(rai tA? puercb tcL Sixa err) (movSk^ 
av0i^ €9 TroXepuov <f>av€p6v /carea-Tqaav. 

XXVI. r€ypa<f>€ Be /cai ravra 6 auT09 Sovkv- 
BiBi]^ *Adr)vaio^ 6f%, <»9 eKouna iyivero, Kara 

diprf /cai x^ipL&va<:, p^XP'' ^^ '^^^ "^^ ^PXV^ xari^ 
iravaav t&v ^AOrjvaimv Aa/ceBaipovioi xal oi 
^vpupaxoi Kal rci pxucpii tclx^ /cat tov Ilupaid 
xaTiXa/Sov. err) Be €9 tovto tu ^vpiravra eye- 
2 vovTO T^ TToXipup eiTTa /cal et/coa-i. /cal rrfv Bia 
peaov ^vpL^aaiv et t*9 /a^ a^Koaei iroKepov 
vopLL^eiv, ovK op0&^ Bi/caieoaei. T0i9 re yap epyoi^ 
CD9 Bi'ppTjrai aOpeLTd) Kol evprjaei ovk eixo^ op 
eipi^vrjv avrijv KpiOrjvai, iv y ovre aireBoaav 
iravra ovt direBe^avro h ^vviOevro, e^to re 
TovTCDV 7r/709 TOV ^avTiviKov Kol ^EfiTiBavpiov 

^ r(, after iWriy inserted by Hade after Stahl. 



^ This chapter forms a kind of second introduction, and 
was probably written after the author enlarged his plan 
from a history of the first ten years to that of the whole 
war. 

48 



BOOK V. XXV. i-xxvi. 2 

were at peace ; but the Corinthians and some of the 
cities in the Peloponnesus attempted to disturb the 
agreements^ and at once other trouble also began be- 
tween Lacedaemon and her allies. At the same 
time, too^ the Lacedaemonians^ as time went on^ 
incurred the suspicion of the Athenians^ by not 
acting in some matters in accordance with the articles 
of the agreement. For six years and ten months the 
two powers abstained from invading each other's 
territory ; in other regions, however, there was only 
an unstable cessation of arms and they kept on 
doing each other the greatest possible damage. But 
at last they were forced to break the treaty which had 
been concluded after the first ten years, and again 
engaged in open war. 

XXVI. 1 The history of these events, also, has been 
written by the same Thucydides, an Athenian, in the 
chronological order of events, by summers and win- 
ters, up to the time when the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies put an end to the dominion of the Athen- 
ians and took the Long Walls and Peiraeus.^ Up to 
that event the war lasted twenty-seven years in all ; 
and if anyone shall not deem it proper to include the 
intervening truce in the war, he will not judge 
aright. For let him but look at the question in the 
light of the facts as they have been set forth ^ and he 
will find that that can not fitly be judged a state of 
peace in which neither party restored or received all 
that had been agreed upon. And, apart from that, 
there were violations of the treaty on both sides in 

 According to Plutarch, Lysandtr 15, this took place in 
April 404. 

' Or, taking ^ 5teb /icVov ^6fipaffis as subject of ^i^prirai, 
"For if he will but observe how the truce was interrupted 
by actual milit'ary operations." 

49 

VOL. III. E 



THUCYDIDES 

TToXefjLov Kal €9 aXXa afKJyoripoi^ afiapTi]fiara 
iyepoPTO, xal oi iirX SpaxTj^i ^vfi/ia'^pi oifSev 
fiaaov TToXefiioi ffaav, l&oicDToi t€ i/ce^eipiav 

3 ie')(rifA€pop ffjov, &(TT€ ^vv T^ irpooTip iro\ip,(p 

T^ S€K€T€l /Cal TJ fl€T aVTOV UTTOTTTft) aPOKai')(^ 

Kol T^ varepov i^ avrrj^ iroKep.(p evprjaei Tt9 
ToaavTa err), \oyi^6fJL€PO<; /carcL tov^ 'xpopov^, koX 
^fiipa<: oif 7roWd<: wapeveyKOva-a^;, /cal Tot9 airo 
XPV^P^Syv Ti la"xypia'ap^€POi^ fiopov Bij tovto 

4 i)(ypa)<i ^vpl3dp. alel yap eyfoye fiifiprjfiai, xal 
ap'Xpfiivov Tov TToXi/iov /cal P'^XP^ ^^ ireT^vrrfae, 

7rpO<f>€p6p€POV VTTO TToW&P OTl T/0i9 ippia CTTf 

6 Sioi yepeaOai avrop. iire^LoDV he Sia Trapro^ 
avTov, aladapop^po^ re t§ rfKiKia Kal irpoaex'^v 
Trjp yp(i>p/qp otto)^ cLKpi^e^ tl eXaoput* Kal ^vpifirj 
pLOi <f>€vy€ip Tr)p ipavTOv errj elKoat p.eTa Tr}P €9 
^Ap(l>L7roKtp (TTparrfyLap, Kal yepopApco irap dp<f>o- 
Tcpoc^ T0?9 irpdypao'c, Kal ovx fjcaop to?9 IleXo- 
iropprjaLoop Sect rrjp <f>vy7]P, Ka9* ^av^^ap ri avT&v 

6 pdWop alaOeadai, ttjp oip pjerd tcl SeKa err) 
Sia(f>opdp T€ Kol ^vyxvaip t&p (tttopS&p Kal tA 
eneira co? iiroXeprjOri i^rjyrjaopMi, 

XXVII. 'Ettc^S^ yap al irepTrfKOprovrei^ airov- 
hal iyepoPTO Kal varepop 17 ^vpp^ix^ci, Kal al diro 
T^9 UeXoTTOPPTjaov TrpeajSelai, aXirep Tra/oe^Xiy- 
Otfaap 69 avrd, dpe)((opow ix t^9 AaKcSaip^PO^, 

2 Kol 01 pep aXKoi eir olkov dirrjXOop, JS^opipOioi Sk 
€9 ''A/>709 rpairop^poi irp&rop Xoyov^ iroiovprai 
50 



BOOK V. XXVI. 2-xxvn. 2 

the Mantinean and Epidaurian wars^^ as well as in 
other matters; the allies in Thrace, too, were no 
less hostile to Athens than before, and the Boeotians 
observed a truce which had to be renewed every ten 
days. So that, including the first ten-years* war, 
the suspicious truce succeeding that, and the war 
which followed the truce, one will find that, 
reckoning according to natural seasons, there were 
just so many years as I have stated, and some few 
days over. He will also find, in the case of those 
who have made any assertion in reliance upon 
oracles, that this fact alone proved true ; for 
always, as I remember, from the beginning of the 
war until its close, it was said by many that it was 
fated to last thrice nine years. I lived through the 
whole war, being of an age to form judgments, and 
followed it with close attention, so as to acquire accu- 
rate information. It befell me also to be banished from 
my own country for twenty years after my command 
at Amphipolis,^ and being conversant with affairs on 
both sides, especially with those of the Pelopon- 
nesians by reason of my banishment, to gain at my 
leisure a better acquaintance with the course of 
events. The difference, then, which arose after the 
ten years, and the breaking of the truce and the 
subsequent hostilities, I will now proceed to relate. 

XXVII. After the conclusion of the fifty years' 
treaty and the subsequent alliance, the embassies 
from the Peloponnesus, which had been summoned 
for this business, withdrew from Lacedaemon. The 
rest went home ; but the Corinthians proceeded first 
to Argos and entered into communication with certain 

^ For these wars, see chs. xxxiii. f. and liii. f. 
* c/*. IV. civ. 4. 

E 2 



THUCYDIDES 

7r/509 Tiva<; t&v iv TeXei Svtcov ^Apyeicov co9 XPV* 
iTreiBt) Aa/eeSaifiovioi ov/e iir* ayadqi aXX' iirl 
/earaSovXdxrei t^9 TJeXoTrovvija-ov (T7rovSct<i koI 
^vfifiax^'CLV TT/oo? ^A07]paLov^ Toi>^ irpXv i'xOiarov^ 
ireiroirjvraii opap tov^ ^AfyyeCov^ ottco? atodrjaerai 
fi JieKoirovvrjao^, xal '>lrr)(f>iaaa'0ai rijv ^ovko- 
fievqv itoKlv t&v 'EXXiJj/ft)i/, ^t*9 avTovofio^s 
T6 iaTc Kol Bi/ca^ laa^ /cal 6jjL0La<: SiSaxrty irpo^ 
^Apyeiov^ ^v jjbjjba'xiav iroielaOai &(TTe ry aXKrfKoiv 
iTTifiax^lv, diroSei^ai Sk avSpa^ 6\iyov<i O'PXV^ 
avTOKpdropa^ xal fiff tt/oo? tov Brjfiov tov^ X070U9 
elvai, TOV fiff /eaTa(f>av€t<i ylyveadai tov^ fit) 
ireiaavTa^ to ttX^^o?. €<f>a(Tav Bk iroXKov^ 

3 Trpoa'xo>pri(Te(T6ai fiiaei t&v AaxeBaifiovicov. /cat 
ol fi€v JS.opivOiot' BiBd^avT€<i TavTa dv€X(opi]a'av 
iir oXkov, 

XXVIII. 01 Be T&v ^ApyeLtov avBp€<: d/cov- 
aavT€^ iTreiBtf dvijvey/cav to 1)9 X070U9 69 re tcL^ 
dpxa-^ /cal TOV Brj/juov, €yln)<l)L0'avTO ^Apyeioi, xal 
avBpa<; eXkovTO BcoBcKa irpo^ 0^9 tov fiovXo/ievov 
T&v 'EXXi]V(ov ^vfifiax^cLV iroieiaOai ttXt^v 'A^iy- 
vaieov koI AaxeBaifiovioov tovtcov Be /MTjBeTipoi^ 
e^elvai dvev tov Brjfiov tov ^Apyeieov (nreiaaadaL, 

2 eBe^avTo re TavTa ol ^Apyetoi fiaXXov, op&vTe^ top 
Te AatceBaifiovitov (T<f>i(TL iroXepLov eaofievov (67r' 
i^oB^ ydp 7rpo9 avToif^ ai airovBaX ^aav) /cal 
afia iXniaavTe^ t^9 UeXoirovviia'OV rjyrjaeaOaL, 
KaTCL ydp TOV %/ooi/oi/ tovtov tj t€ Aa/ceBaifuop 
fidXiaTu Bff KaK&^ rJKOvae /cal v7rep(o<f>67j BicL t^9 

52 



BOOK V. XXVII. 2-xxviii. 2 

of the Argive magistrates^ saying that^ since the 
Lacedaemonians had made a treaty and alliance with 
the Athenians^ hitherto their bitterest enemies^ not 
for the good of the Peloponnesus but for its enslave- 
ment^ the Argives ought to be considering how the 
Peloponnesus could be saved; and should pass a 
decree^ that any Hellenic city which is autonomous 
and offers settlement of disputes by fair and impartial 
trials^ m&y, if it so wishes, make an alliance with 
the Argives for mutual defence of their territories ; 
and that they should appoint a few men with abso- 
lutely full powers^ and not discuss matters before 
the people^ so that any who may fail to persuade 
the popular assembly may not become known to the 
Lacedaemonians. And they asserted that many 
would join them through hatred of the Lacedae- 
monians. The Corinthians^ then^ having suggested 
these things^ went home. 

XXVII I. The Argive magistrates^ on hearing the 
proposals^ reported them to their government and 
people^ and the Argives passed the decree and chose 
twelve men with whom any of the Hellenes who 
pleased might conclude an alliance^ except the 
Athenians and the Lacedaemonians ; neither of these 
should be allowed to make a treaty with Argos with- 
out the express consent of the Argive people. These 
proposals the Argives accepted the more readily, in 
the first place because they saw that they should 
have war with the Lacedaemonians — for the treaty 
with them was on the point of expiring — and, 
moreover, because they had hoped to secure the 
hegemony of the Peloponnesus. For at this time 
Lacedaemon had fallen into very ill repute and 
was despised on account of its misfortunes, while 

53 



THUCYDIDES 

^Vfufiopd^, ol T€ ^Apyeioi apiara 60"%oi/ 70^9 
wdaiv, ov ^vpapujjL€voi tov ^Attikov iroXefiov, 
afi<l>oT€pot<i 8^ fiaXXov evairovBot 6vt6<; iKKapircj- 
aafievoL, oi p^v ovp ^Apyeloi ovTOi><: €9 rijv ^vfi- 
pxi/x}o,v TrpoaeBixovTO tov9 edeKovra^ r&v 
'EiWrjvayv. 

XXIX. MavTivr}^ S* avroi^ koI oi ^vp^p^xoi 
aifT&v irp&TOi Trpo(Tex(i>pV<^civ Zehtore^; rov^ 
AaKeSaip,ovLov<i. Tot9 y^p MavTivevai p^po^ ti 
T^9 ^Ap/caBia^ KariaTpairro virrjKoov, €ti tov 
7r/oo9 ^Adrjvaiov^ iroXip^v 01/T09, fcal iv6p.i^ov ov 
irepioyjreaOai (T<\>a^ tov9 Aa/eeBaip^oviovt: apyjBiv, 
iireiBrj /cat a'XpXriv fjyov* &(rT€ aap^evoi 7r/0O9 tou9 
'A/57€tou9 irpaTTovTO, irokiv t€ p^yaXtjv vopX^ovT€^ 
KOL AaiceBaipx)vioL^ aleX Bid<f>opov hrip^Kparov^ 

2 p^ipTjv T€ &(Tirep koX avroL airoaravTcov Si t&v 
^avnveayv zeal 17 aWrf HekoTTOPvrjao^ €9 Opovv 
/eaOia-raTO w zeal (r<f>ia'i iroirjTiov tovto, vopii- 
aavre^ ifKeov re ri elSoTU^ p^eraarrjvai ainov^ 
/cat TOif<; Aafcehaip^oviov^ ap,a Bi opyrj^ ej^oi'T€9 iv 
aXKoi^ T€ /cal oti iv Tal<; a-TrovBaU rai9 * Att i/cal^ 
iyeypaTTTo evopKov etvai irpoaOelvai /cal axfieXeZv 
o Ti &v ap,ff>olv Tolv TToXeoiv Bofcfj, AaKeBaifiovloi^ 

3 /cal ^A0fjvaLoi<;. tovto yctp to ypdp^pM fiaXurTa 
Trjv TieXoTTOwqaov BceOopv/Sei /cal €9 viro'^^lav 
KaOiaTfi jJLTj p.eTCL ^AOi^valatv (r<f>d<; ^ovXwvTai 
Aa/ceBaip^ovioi BovXaxraaOar Bi/caiov yhp elvai 
irdai Tol^i ^vp,/idxoi^ yeypa<f>6at ttjv p^TaOeaip. 
54 



BOOK V. xxviii. 2-xxix. 3 

the Argives had attained an excellent position in 
all respects, having had no part of the burden of 
the war with Athens, but rather, as they were at 
peace with both parties, having reaped a harvest 
from it. Thus the Argives were ready to receive 
into their alliance any of the Hellenes that were so 
inclined. 

XXIX. The Mantineans and their allies were the 
first to join them, through fear of the Lacedaemon- 
ians. For a part of Arcadia had been reduced to 
subjection by the Mantineans, while the war with 
the Athenians was still going on, and they thought 
that the Lacedaemonians, now that they had leisure, 
would not suffer them to retain their sovereignty. 
So they turned gladly to Argos, regarding it as a 
powerful state, one always at variance with the Lace- 
daemonians, and under a democratic form of govern- 
ment like themselves. And when the Mantineans 
had revolted, the rest of the Peloponnesus also began 
to mutter that they must do the like, thinking that 
the Mantineans had changed sides because they 
possessed some superior knowledge. At the same 
time they were angry with the Lacedaemonians on 
other grounds, and especially because it was written 
in the treaty with Athens that it would be consistent 
with their oaths to add or take away whatever shall 
seem good to both states, that is, to the Lacedae- 
monians and Athenians. For it was this article 
especially that was disturbing the Peloponnesus far 
and wide and causing suspicion that the Lacedae- 
monians wished in concert with the Athenians to 
reduce them all to slavery ; for it would have been 
just, they thought, that the clause should have given 
the power to alter the articles to all the allies. And 

55 



THUCYDIDES 

4 ware <l>ol3ovfi€Poi ol ttoXKoI &pfirfVTO irpo^ tov9 
*Apy€iov^ Kcu ainoX hcaaroi ^viJLfia')(Lav iroieurdtu. 
XXX. AaxeSaifwi'Loi Se aiaOofievoi top dpovv 
TOVTOV iv T^ UeKoTTOvvi^inp KoBearSna koX rovs 
JS.opiv0iov<; StSaa-xaXov^ re yevo^LOfOv^ koX avTov^ 
fieXXovra^ aireiaairdcu irpo^ to "Apyo^^ irefviroviri 
irpea^ei^ €9 rr^v K.6piv0ov, fiovKofietfot Trpoxara- 
Xafieiv TO fieWov, xal yri&VTo Tiyi/ t€ iafjyrfaiv 
Tov 7rai/T09 xal el ^ApyeCoi^ a(f>&v airoaTovTC^ 
^vfifjLaj(pt eaovTai, wapafiija'ea'dai Te e^aaav 
avTov^ Toif^ opKov^i /cai rjSrf aSixelv oti ov 
Se^ovTai tA? *A0r)vaL(ov airovSd<i, elpvjfiipov Kvpiov 
elvai o Ti av to 7r\r]0o<: twv ^vfifid'xa>v y^(l>iai]Tai, 

2 rjv firi Ti 0€&v ff ^pa>a>v KooXvp/i y, K.opCv0ioi Se 
irapovTfov <r(f)iai t&v ^vjjbjjbd'xoiVi oaoL ouS* avToX 
iSi^avTO Ta9 <nrovhd<; (irape/cdXeaav Se auT0U9 
avTol 7rp6T€pov),dvTiX,€yov toi? Aa/ceSaifwvioi^, h 
fiev ^ScKovvTO, ov hrjkovvTe^ avTLKpv<;, otl ovtc 
XoWcov <T(j>Laiv dirikapov irap *A0rjvai(ov ovt€ 

AvaxTopiov, €1 T€ Ti aWo hfop^i^ov eKa(T(Tova0ai, 
irpoa'xrjpM Be iroiovfievoi, tov^ eirl %paKrj<: p,^ irpo- 
Scoaeiv op^oaai yap avTol^ opKov^ ISia t€, ot€ 
psTh TloTeiheaT&v to irp&Tov d(f)ia'TavTO, /cal 

3 aXXoi/9 varepov, ov/covv irapafiaCveiv tov^ t&v 
^vppd')(cov opKOv^ eifxKrav ovk iaiovTe^; €9 tcL<s t&v 



^ In Acarnania, taken by the Athenians in the first year 
of the war (11. xxx. 1). 

56 



BOOK V. XXIX. 4-xxx. 3 

so most of them were afraid and were eager on 
their own part also to make a separate alliance with 
the Argives. 

XXX. The Lacedaemonians^ aware of this mur- 
muring that was going on in the Peloponnesus^ and 
that the Corinthians had been the instigators in this 
matter and were themselves going to make a treaty 
with Argos^ sent envoys to Corinth, wishing to fore- 
stall what was about to happen. And they charged 
them with starting the whole movement^ and said that 
if they should revolt from them and become allies of 
the Argives, they would be violating the explicit terms 
of their oaths, and indeed were already doing wrong 
in not accepting the treaty with the Athenians, 
inasmuch as it had been declared that whatever the 
majority of the allies decreed should be binding, 
unless there should be some hindrance on the 
part of gods or heroes. But the Corinthians, in 
the presence of all their allies who had not them- 
selves accepted the treaty — for they had on their 
own responsibility summoned them beforehand — 
in reply to the Lacedaemonians said in what respects 
they had been wronged, not stating outright that 
the Lacedaemonians had failed to recover from the 
Athenians for them Sollium^ or Anactorium,' nor 
mentioning any other matter in which they thought 
they were getting less than their rights, but making 
a pretext that they could not give up their allies 
in Thrace ; for they said, they had given their 
oaths to these people, both privately, when they 
had first revolted along with the Potidaeans,^ and 
afterwards. They were therefore, they said, not vio- 
lating their oaths to their allies by refusing to join in 

2 </. IV. xlix. * c/". 1. Iviii. 1. 

57 



THUCYDIDES 

*A07]vcUo)v airovBd^' 6e&v yap irlarei^ ofioaavre^ 
ifceivot^ ovfc &v evop/cetv rrpoSiBovre^ auTov^» 
etprjadat 8* on " fjv fitf 0e&v fj '^pcocov fcdXvfia ^* '* 

4 (j)aLV€(T0ai> oJfv (T^iat /ccoXv/ia Oelov tovto, koX irepX 
fi€v T&v iraXai&v opKcav Toaavra elirov, irepl 5e 
T^9 ^Apyeicov ^vfi/xax^a^: fiera r&v <f>i\ci>v fiovXeu- 

5 adfievoi iroirjaeiv o tl &v Sifcatov 17. xal oi fiep 
AafceSaifiovioov Trpia^ei^ avex'^p'H^CLV in ot/cov, 
ervxpv Sk irapovre^ ev K,opiv0<p teal ^ApyeicDv 
Trp€(r^€C^, ot ixiXevov tou9 K,opiv0iov^ iivai €9 
T7)v ^vp,p4i'xiav KoX fiTf p^Wciv oi hk 69 TOV 
varepov ^vWoyov avrol^ top irapib (nfiiai irpoetTrov 

fj/C€lV, 

XXXI. ^UXOe Be ical ^HXeicov Trpea/Seia ev- 
0v^ teal iiroiT^a-aTO irpb^ K.opiv0iov^ ^vfifiaxiap 
TTp&Tov, eireira ifceWev €9 ''Apyo^ iX06vT€^, 
/caddirep TrpoelprjTO, ^Apyeioyv ^vfip^a^oi eyivovro* 
Bia^€p6p£voi yctp irvyxavov to?9 AaKcBaifiovCoi^ 

2 irepl Aeirpeov. iroXip^ov yibp yevop^evov irork irpb^ 
^ApxdBoDv Tiva^ Aeirpedrai,^ xal ^HXeioov irapa- 
/cXrj0ii/Ta)V viro AeirpeaT&v €9 ^vp^p.a'X^av iirl rfj 
rip^Krela t^9 7^9 koI XvadvroDv top Tr6Xep>ov, 
'HXetot Tr)v yrjv vep,op>evoi^ avTol^ Tot9 Aeirpedrai^ 
rdXavTOV h'a^av r^ A*l t^ ^OXvpiiri(p diro^epeip. 

3 Kol P'i'xpi' Tov ^Attikov 7roXep/)v diretpepoi/, lireira 
iravaapAvoDV Blcl 7rp6<f>aaiv tov iroXipov oi 'HXctot 
iwrjvdyKa^ov, oi S* cTpdirovTO 7r/>09 Toi'9 Aatce- 

58 



BOOK V. XXX. 3-XXX1. 3 

the treaty with the Athenians ; for since they had 
bound themselves to those allies by pledges sworn 
in the name of the gods^ it would not be consistent 
with their oaths to betray them. Besides^ the words 
of the agreement were, " if there be no hindrance on 
the part of gods or heroes " ; and it seemed to them 
that this was a hindrance on the part of the gods. 
So much they said in regard to their ancient oaths, 
but as to the Argive alliance they would consult with 
their friends and do whatever was right. So the 
envoys of the Lacedaemonians returned home. But 
there happened to be at Corinth Argive envoys 
who urged the Corinthians to come into the alliance 
without delay; the latter, however, told them to 
come to their next assembly. 

XXXI. Soon after there also came an embassy of 
the Eleans and first concluded an alliance with the 
Corinthians, and then they proceeded to Argos, as 
they had been instructed, and made an alliance with 
the Argives. It seems that at one time the Eleans 
were at variance with the Lacedaemonians about 
Lepreum.^ For when there had been a war be- 
tween the Lepreates and some of the Arcadians, 
and the Eleans had been invited by the Lepreates 
to make an alliance with them, with the offer 
of half their territory, on the conclusion of the 
war the Eleans left the Lepreates in possession 
of their land, but assessed upon them a tax of a 
talent to be paid to Olympian Zeus. Now up to the war 
with Athens they regularly paid the tribute ; then 
on the pretext of the war they ceased to pay the 
tribute, and the Eleans tried to enforce payment, 
whereupon they had recourse to the Lacedaemonians. 

^ In Tripbylia, not far from the boundaries of Elis and 
Lacouia (ch. xxxiv. 1). 

59 



THUCYDIDES 

haifioviov^, KoX Si/cT)^ AaxeSacfiovLOL^ eTriTpa- 
ireiarj^, viroTOirrjaavTe^ oi 'HXeto^ firj laov e^eiv, 
av€VT€^ rifv iinTpoTrr)v Aeirpear&v ttjv yrjv erefiov. 

4 01 Se AaKeSaifwvioi ovhev ^aaov ehiKaa-av axno- 
v6fiov<s elvai AeirpeaTa^ xal dBtfcelv 'HXetou?, xal 
W ovfc ififieivdvTcov rfj iirirpOTr^ (j)poupctv oirXirav 

5 iaiire/JAlrav 69 Aeir p€ov, oi Se ^HXeloi vofii^ovre^ 
TToXiv <r<f>&v d<f>€(TTriKvlav Ke^aadai roif^ Aaxe- 
SatfJLOviov^ teal tt)v ^vvdtjKTjv irpo^epovre^ iv ^ 
etprjTo, a e^ovre^ €9 tov ^Attlkov woXefiov fcaffi- 
aravTo rive^, ravra e^ovra^ kol i^eXffeiv, ©9 ovk 
iaov €X0VT€<; a<fiiaTavTai, irpo^ rov^ ^Apyeiov^, xal 
TtfP ^vp^pxi'xjiav, wairep iroeiprjTO, Kal ovrot hrotrj- 

6 aavTO, iyevovTO Se fcal oi K.opLP0i>oi> eifffv^; fier 
i/c€LVOu<s /cal oi iirl Spaxfj^: HaXKcSrj^ ^ApyeCmv 
^vfifiaxot* BoiwTOi Bk Koi Meyaprj^ to airb 
Xiyovre^ ijo-u^ajbi/, neptopdofievoi ^ xal vofiC^ovre^ 
a(f>L(Ti TY)v ^Apyeicov Brj/jLOKpaTcav, avroi<; 
6\iyapxovfi€voi<:, ^aaov ^vpx^opov elvai t^9 
AaKeBaLfiovicov 7ro\iTeLa<s, 

XXXII. Tlepl Be rov^ avrov^ ypovov^ rov 
ffipov^ TOVTOV ^/cKovaiov^ fiep ^Affrjvaloi eKiro- 
XiopKTiaavTe^ direKTeivav Toif<; ^j3S>PTa^, iralSa^ 
Se Kol yvvatfca^ fivhpairohiaav koX t^v yrjv 
UXaraievaiv eSoaav vifieadar Arjkiov^ Sk /carrj- 
yayov ttoXiv €9 ArjXov, ivOvfiovfiepoi Ta9 re iv 

^ vvh rS»v AaKt^ai/jioviau, in the MSS. after "Kcptopd^fjifvot, 
deleted by Dobree. The sense of the verb, "jealously 
watched" (Jowett), required with that reading, does not 
occur in Thucj'dides. 

6o 



BOOK V. XXXI. 3-XXX11. 1 

The case having been referred to the Lacedaemonians 
for arbitration^ the Eleans^ suspecting that they would 
not receive fair treatment^ renounced the arbitration 
and ravaged the land of the Lepreates. The Lace- 
daemonians^ nevertheless^ gave judgment^ to the 
effect that the Lepreates were independent and the 
Eleans the aggressors^ and as the latter did not abide 
by the arbitration^ sent a garrison of hoplites to 
Lepreum. But the Eleans^ considering that the 
Lacedaemonians had taken under their protection 
a city of theirs that was in revolt, cited the agreement 
in which it was stipulated that whatever places any 
of the confederates had when they entered the 
war with Athens they should retain when they came 
out of it ; and on the ground that they had not received 
fair treatment went over to the Argives, their envoys 
making the alliance as they had been instructed to do. 
Immediately after them the Corinthians also and the 
Chalcidians in Thrace became allies of the Argives. 
But the Boeotians and Megarians, though holding the 
same views, kept quiet, awaiting events and thinking 
the Argive democracy not so advantageous for them, 
with their oligarchical form of government, as the 
political constitution of the Lacedaemonians. 

XXXn. About the same time during this summer, 
the Athenians reduced the Scionaeans by siege, slew 
the adult males,^ made slaves of the women and 
children, and gave the land to the Plataeans to 
occupy ; and they brought back the Delians to Delos,^ 
taking to heart their mishaps in the battles* and 

^ In accordance with the decree moved by Cleon two years 
before (iv. cxxii. 6). At the conclusion of peace they had 
been left at the mercy of the Athenians (ch. xviii. 8). 

* 4^. ch. i. ' At Delium and Amphipolis. 

61 



THUCYDIDES 

Totf; fiaxdi^ ^vfi^opa<: kol tov iv AeXtpoi^ Oeoif 

2 'XpTjaavTO^. koX 4>ci)/c^9 KaX Ao/cpol rjp^avro 

3 TToXefielv. xal KopivOtoc xal ^Apyetoi ^817 ^vfi- 
fUL'Xpi OI/T69 ep'xpvrai €9 T€7€ai' airoaTrjaovTe^ 
AaKeSavfiovicov, 6p&VT€<; fiiya fxepo^ ov, xal el 
a<f>ia-i irpoayivoiTO, vofiii^ovres airaaav &v e'xeiv 

4 JleXoTTowriaov. (09 36 ovSev av etpaaav ivav- 
TLcodrjvai oi Teyeara^ AafceSatfioptoi^y ol KopivOtot 
fiixpi TOVTOV TTpodvfia)^ irpdaaovres avelaav t^9 
(f>i\oviKLaf; Kol ooppcoSrfa'av fxr) ovheX^ a^itriv in 

6 T&v aWcop iTpoax'^PV' ofio)<; Se i\06vT€<: €9 tou9 
Bo£6>TOL'9 iBiovTO (T^&v T€ fcot ^Apyetcov yiyveadai 
^vfifid^ov^ Kal TciWa Kovvfj Trpdaaetv Ta9 t€ 
he'xrjfiepov^ iirLairovhd^, cCt fjaav ^ Adrjvaioi^ KaX 
Bota)TO?9 7r/)09 dXKriXov^ ov ttoW^ vajepov yevo- 
fievai avT&p rSiv irevrrfKOVTOVTihcov airovh&v, 
i/ceXevov oi KopivOioc roif^ Hokotov^ aKoXovdrj- 
aavTa<; ^AOrjvai^e kol a'(f)i<ri iroirja'ai, &air€p 
HoifOToX el^ov, fiff he')(pp^voi)V Be ^Adrjvalayv 
direLirelv tt^v iKex^tpiav fcaX to Xoittov fMrj airiv- 

6 Seadai aveu avr&v, HoiodtoX hk BeofiepcDv r&v 
K.opiv0LG>v irepX fiev rrj^ ^Apyeitov ^ufifiax^^t^ 
eiri,a")(j^lv avToifs ifceXevov, iX66pT€^ Se ^Adtjva^e 
fiercL K.opiv0iG>v ov^ 'n^povro Ta9 SexvM'^pf^^^ 
aTTOvSd^, dXX^ direKplvavro oi ^AOqvaloi K.opiV' 
OioLf; elvai airovhdf;, elirep AaKeBaifiovia)v elaX 

7 ^vfifiaxot, HoicDToX fiev oiv ovhiv fiaXXov direliroi/ 
7^9 hexvi^^pov^id^iovvTcov /caX alrKafievwv K,opiv- 



^ It had always maintained an independent position in 
Arcadia, and in earlier times had been a powerful opponent 
of Sparta. 

62 



BOOK V. XXXII. 1-7 

obeying an oracle of the god at Delphi. Meanwhile 
the Phocians and the Locrians began hostilities. 
And the Corinthians and the Argives^ being now allies^ 
came to Tegea,^ hoping to induce it to revolt from the 
Lacedaemonians^ seeing that it was an important 
part of the Peloponnesus^ and thinking if it should be 
gained to their side they would soon have the whole 
Peloponnesus. But when the Tegeates refused to 
oppose the Lacedaemonians^ the Corinthians^ who up 
to that time had been working zealously^ became slack 
in their ardour and full of dread that none of the other 
Peloponnesians would henceforth come over to them. 
Nevertheless they went to the Boeotians and re- 
quested them to become allies of themselves and the 
Argives, and to act generally in concert with them. 
And the Corinthians further requested the Boeotians 
to accompany them to Athens and procure for them 
also the ten days* truce ^ which had been made be- 
tween the Athenians and Boeotians not long after the 
conclusion of the fifty years' treaty, on the same terms 
as the Boeotians had obtained, and, if the Athenians 
did not agree, to renounce the armistice and for the 
future to make no truce without the Corinthians. The 
Boeotians, when the. Corinthians made these requests, 
desired them to wait awhile in regard to the Argive 
alliance, but they went with them to Athens, where 
however they failed to obtain the ten days* truce, the 
Athenians answering them that there was already a 
truce with the Corinthians, if they were allies of the 
Lacedaemonians. But the Boeotians did not any the 
more give up the ten days' truce, although the Corin- 
thians demanded it and accused them of having 

' ».e. a truce which had to be renewed every ten days ; 
or, perhaps, " terminable at ten days' notice," as Jowett 
thinks, cf. ch. xxvi. 3. 

63 



THUCYDIDES 

fflcDv ^vvdeadai a^iai* K.opiv6iov^ Be dvoKco'xrj 
aairovSo^ ^v irpo^ ^Adrjvalov^. 

XXXIII. Aa/ceSavfiovioi Sk rov avrov Bepov^ 
TravBrjfiel iaTpdrevaaVy U\€iaTodva/cTo<; tov 
TIav(ravLov AafceBat/wvioyv fiaaiKeG)^ i^yovfUvov, 
T?79 ^ApfcaBia^ €9 Uappaaiov^ MavTiveoov virrjKo- 
ovs ovraSi xarit ardaiv iin^KaKeaafievcav <r0a9, 
afia hk KoL to ev Kv^ekots relxo^ dvaip'^a-ovre^, 
rjv hvvoDVTai, h ireixi'O'ap M.avTLvrj^ /cat avTol 
i^povpovv, iv T§ Uappaaitc^ fceifievov iirl rrj 

2 ^KipLTiBi T^9 AaK(ovLK7J<:, tcot ol fi€v AaKcBatfio- 
vioi T^v yrjv r&v TLappaaioiyv iS^ovp, oi Be 
"MLavTivrj^ Ttfv TToKiv ^Apyeioi^ ^v\a^c irapaSov- 
T€9 avTol rr)V ^vfifiaxiav itjypovpovv dBvvaroi- 
S' omes Biaaaxrat to t€ iv Ku-^eXot? Te4;^09 /cal 

3 Tct^ iv Uappao'Coi^ ttoXcv^ dTrrjXOov, Aa/ceBaifio- 
VIOL B^ TO 6^ T€ Uappaalov^ avTOvofiov^ ttoltJ' 

aavre^ /cal to tcIxo^ KaOekovTes dvex^^pv^^^ 
iir oifcov, 

XXXIV. Kal ToO auToO ffipov^, ijBrj '^kovtodv 
avTol^ T&v diro SpaKrj^ fiCTcL UpaalBov i^ekdov- 
TO)!/ aTpaTKOT&v, 0&9 ^XeapLBas fiCTct tcL^ 
(TTTovBdf; i/cofiKrev, oi Aa/ceBaifioviot iyln](l>i(ravTO 
TOt'9 fi^v fiCTCt 'RpaaiBov E2\a)Ta9 /JUiX€a-afiivov^ 
iXevffepov^ elvai /cal oi/ceiv oirov av fiovkfovTar 
KoX vaTepov ov ttoXX^ avToif<: fiSTd t&v veoBafid)- 
Ba>v €9 Airrpeov /caTia-Tfjaav, /celfievov iirl t^9 
Aa/e<ovi/crf^ Kal t^9 *HX€ui9> oi/t€9 fjBrj BLd<f>opoi 

^ The mountainous region between the upper Eurotas and 
the valley of the Oenus, one of the most important districts 
of the Perioeci. 

64 



bOOK V. XXXII. 7-XXXIV. i 

agreed with themselves to do so. Between the 
Corinthians^ however^ and the Athenians there was a 
cessation of activities without an actual truce. 

XXXIII. The same summer the Lacedaemonians^ 
under the command of Pleistoanax^ son of Pausanias, 
king of the Lacedaemonians^ made an expedition 
with all their forces into the territory of the Par- 
rhasians of Arcadia^ who were subjects of the Manti- 
neans. They had been called in by the Parrhasians 
on account of a factional quarrel^ and intended also 
to demolish, if possible, the fort at Cypsela, which, 
being situated in Parrhasian territory, the Manti- 
neans had constructed and themselves garrisoned for 
the annoyance of the district Sciritis ^ in Laconia. 
The Lacedaemonians proceeded to ravage the land of 
the Parrhasians, and the Mantineans, giving over the 
custody of their city to the Argives, tried themselves 
to guard the territory of their Parrhasian allies. 
Being unable, however, to save the fort at Cypsela 
and the towns in Parrhasia, they withdrew. And 
the Lacedaemonians, after making the Parrhasians 
independent and pulling down the fort, then returned 
home. 

XXXIV. During the same summer, on the return 
from Thrace of the troops which had gone out with 
Brasidas ^ and which Clearidas ' had brought back 
after the treaty was made, the Lacedaemonians 
voted that the Helots who had fought with Brasidas 
should be free and dwell wherever they preferred ; 
and not long afterwards they settled them with the 
Neodamodes * at Lepreum on the borders of Laconia 
and Elis, for they were by this time at variance with 

 tf, IV. Ixzviii. 1 ; Ixxx. 6. ' cf. xxi. 3. 

^ The clans of new citizens formed of Helots emancipated 
for service in war. 

TOL. III. r 



THUCYDIDES 

2 *H\€tO£9* TOv<; Be ix rrj^ vrjaov XrjtfidivTaf; a(f>&v 
/cat ra oirXa irapahovra^, BeiaavTC^; fiij ri Bih rr^v 
^vfi<l>opap vo/M<TavT€^ i\a<ra'(o07]ae(r0aL teal ovre^ 
iirLTifioL v€a)T€pi(rQ)(riv, i^Srj fcal cip')(a^ riva^ ^X^^' 
ra^ drijj^ov^ iTroirfaav, arifiiav Sk roidvhe Aare 
fiTjTe ap'XjEiv fi'^Te irpiafievov^ ri ^ TrwXoOi/ra? 
fcvpiov<: elvai, varepov Se av0i^ XP^^V iTTLTtfioi 
iyevovTO. 

XXXV. ToO S' avrov Oepov^ koX ^vaaov rrjv 
ev rfj ^AOodISi ^A/cttj At^9 ^ elXov, *AdrjpaiG>v ovaav 
^Vfifia'x^op. 

2 Kal TO 0€po^ TovTo irdv eTrtfjiei^iai fiev ^aap 
T0?9 ^Adrjvaloi^ KOI HeXoirovvrjaioi^, v7r(OTTT€vov 
Se dXXfjXov^ €v0if<s fiCTa Ta9 airovSd^ ot t€ 
^A07)vaioi Koi AaxeSaifiovioL Karh rrjv r&v 

3 'xcopioyv dXKrfKoL^ ovk diroBoaiv. Tr)v yap 'A/x^t- 
ttoXlv irporepoi Xa^ovre^ oi AafceSaifiovioi diroBt' 
hovai KCLi TCL aXKa ovk direSeSdoKeaav, ovSe tou9 
eVl @pdKi]<s irapeixov ^vfxpbd'xpv^ rdf; airovSa^; 
he'xpixevov^ ovSe Botwroi'? ovSk K,opiv0iov^, Xe- 
yovre^ aUl C3i)9 fier ^A0r)vaioi)v tovtov^, fjv firj 
^0e\(i>aiy Kovv^ dvayKdaovaiv j^/ooi^oi;9 re irpov- 
0€vro dvev ^vyypa^TJ^; iv 0I9 XP^^ tov^ firj iai- 

4 oi/Ta9 dfii^oTepoL^ iroXeixiov^ elvai' tovt(ov oiv 
op&vTe^ oi ^A0r)vaLOL ovhev epyto yiyvofxevov, 
vTr(OTT7€vov Tot'9 AuKehaifioviov^ fitfSev hiKaiov 
Biavo€L(T0aL, &ar€ ovre UvKov diracTOvvTcov av- 

^ 'Aicrp Airjs, Meineke's conjecture for AiKrri^irjs of nearly 
all MSS. 

66 



BOOK V. XXXIV. i-xxxv. 4 

the Eleans. But as to their men who had been 
taken on the island and had given up their arms^ 
fearing that these might expect to suffer some 
degradation because of their misfortune and if they 
continued in possession of the franchise might 
attempt a revolution, they disfranchised them, 
though some of them now held office, and with such 
a disfranchisement that they could neither hold office 
nor have the legal right to buy or sell anything. 
In the course of time, however, they were again 
enfranchised. 

XXXV. During the same summer also the Dians 
took Thyssus, a town on the promontory of Athos, 
which was in alliance with the Athenians. 

All this summer there was intercourse between 
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, but both parties 
began to suspect one another directly after the 
conclusion of the treaty, owing to their failure to 
give back to one another the places specified. 
The Lacedaemonians, though they had drawn the 
lot to make restoration first, had not restored Am- 
phipolis and the other places ; nor had they made 
their allies in Thrace accept the treaty, nor the 
Boeotians, nor the Corinthians, though they continu- 
ally professed that they would join the Athenians in 
coercing these states, if they were unwilling; and 
they proposed dates, without making a written 
agreement, on which those who did not accede to 
the treaty were to be enemies of both. Seeing, 
then, that none of these things was actually being 
done, the Athenians suspected the Lacedaemonians 
of having no just intentions, and so not only did not 
restore Pylos when the Lacedaemonians demanded 



67 

r 2 



THUCYDIDES 

T&v airehihoaav, oKKk kcu tov^ iK rfj^ vi^aov 
SeafjuoTa^ ^refieKovTO airoSeBcoKOTe^, rd re aXXa 
X^P^^ €lxot^9 fiepovre^ Ic09 (T^iaL Kcucelvoi Trocq- 

5 aeuLV ra elfyrjfia/a. AafceSa^fiovioi Bk t^ fiev 
SuvarcL e^aav TreiroirjKevof rovs yap irapci 
a^Lai Sea/uSra^ ovra^ ^AOrjvaLmv arroBovvai xal 
T0U9 iwl Qpa/crj^ arpaTicoTa^ airayayetv seal et 
rov SXKov iyKparel^ fiaav ^Apx^nroXea)^ Se ovk 
€<fia(Tav Kparelv Sare irapaSovvai, Bo£a)TOU9 Be 
ireipdaeaffai zeal Kopivffiov^ €9 Ta9 (TTrovSa^ 
iaayayelv KaX UdvaKTov dTroXa/Setv, teal ^Adrj- 
valoDV oaoL fjaav iv HolchtoI^ aixjJ^XmToi KOfueiv, 

6 JlvXov fievTOi fi^lovv a^iaiv drroBovvat* ei Be fii^, 
Meaaijviov^ ye Kal tov^ EiXwra^ i^ayayeiv, 
&(T7rep Kal avrol rov^ dtro Qpaxtj^, *A0rjvaiov^ 
Be <fipovpelv ro x^P^^^ axnovs, el ffouXoprai* 

7 TToWaKi*; Be Kal iroW&v Xoycov yevofievwv ev t^ 
Oepei TovTtp eireiaav row; ^Adrjvaiov^ ma-re i^aya- 
yelv €K UvXov M.eaaijvLov^ /cal tou^ aWoi;? 
Et\6)Ta9 re teal oaoi TjvrofwXriKeaav eie t^9 
AaKciviKYj^' Kal KartpKiaav avrovs ev K,paviot<; 

8 T^9 Ke(j)aXX7fVLa^, to fiev oiv Bepo^ rovro ^avx^a 
fjv Kal i<f>oBoi Trap dXXriXov^, 

XXXVI. ToO Be iiriyiyvofievov x^^P'&^o^ (eru- 
Xov yap €<f>opoi erepoi Kal ovk €(f>* &v at (nrovBal 
iyevovTO apxovre^ 7]Bij Kai rive^ avj&p Kal 
ivavrioi airovBah) iXOoua-Av Trpeafiei&v utto t^9 
^Vfifiax^^^^ ^^ 'rrapovTCDV ^AOijvaicDv xal Boia)- 
T<ai/ Kal K,opip0ia>v koI iroXXa ev dXXijXoi^ elirov- 

68 



BOOK V. XXXV. 4-XXXV1. I 

it, but even repented that they had restored the 
prisoners taken on the island, and they continued to 
hold the other places^ waiting until the Lacedaemon- 
ians should have fulfilled their part of the contract, 
llie Lacedaemonians said that they had done what 
was possible ; for they had restored the prisoners of 
the Athenians that were in their hands, had brought 
back their troops in Thrace, and had done whatever 
else had been in their power. As to Amphipolis, 
however, they said that they were not in control of it, 
so as to deliver it up ; but they would try to ])ring 
the Boeotians and Corinthians into the treaty and to 
get back Panactum, and would recover all Athenian 
prisoners that were in the hands of the Boeotians. 
Pylos, however, they insisted the Athenians should 
restore to them ; or at any rate, they should 
withdraw the Messenians and the Helots, as they 
themselves had withdrawn their troops from Thrace, 
and the Athenians themselves might garrison the 
place if they wished. After many and frequent 
conferences had been held during this summer, they 
persuaded the Athenians to withdraw from Pylos the 
Messenians, the rest of the Helots, and all who had 
deserted from Laconia ; and these the Athenians 
settled at Cranii in Cephallenia. This summer, then, 
there was peace and mutual intercourse. 

XXX VL The following winter the ephors who 421-420 
happened to be in office at Sparta were other ®*°' 
than those under whom the treaty had been made, 
and some of them were even opposed to it. Em- 
bassies had come from their allies, and there were 
present also Athenians, Boeotians, and Corinthians ; 
and after much discussion, without coming to an 



69 



THUCYDIDES 

roDV Kal oifSep ^vfi^dvrwv, &^ airfjaav iir ot/cov, 
T069 HoicDToi^ Kal K.opiv6ioi^ K\€0)3ouX09 KoX 
BevdpTf^;, ovTOi oXirep r&v i<f)6p(ov ijSouXovTO 
fiaXiaTa Bia^va'aL roi? (TiTOvhd^, X070U9 TTOiovvrai 
ISiov^, irapacvovvTC^ on ixaXiara ravrd re yiyva>' 
(TKetv Kal ireipdaffai Boiorou?, ^Apyeicov yevo- 
fiivov^ irp&TOV avToifs: ^vfifid^ov^, aiOi^; fierh 
HoicDT&v ^Kpyeiov^ AaKeSaifwvioif; irotrjaai ^ufi- 
fidxov^ (ovTCJ yap rfKiar &v avayKaaOrjvat Boia- 
Toif^ 69 tA9 ^ Att iK€t^ (TTrovSa^ iaeXOelv)' eXiadat 
yap AaKeSaifwviov^ irpo t^9 ^AOrjvalfov ^0pa^ 
Kal ScaXvaeco^ r&v (tttovS&v ^Apyelov^ o'^iac 
0t\oi;9 Kal ^vfijxd'xpv^i yeviaOai, to yhp "Apyo^ 
alel ijiria-TavTO iindvpjovvTa^ T0U9 AaKcBaifiovi- 
0V9 KaX&^ (T<f)i(n (j)iXi>ov yeviaOai, riyovpAvovf; rov 

2 6^0) HeXoTrovw^aov iroXcfiov pdcD &v €lvai, to 
fievToi ndvaKTov iSeovro BoioDToif^ 07ro)9 TrapaBd)- 
(Tovai AaKeSaijuLovLoi^, tva dvr avTov UvXov, fjv 
hvvtovraii diroXa^ovre*; paov KaffcarojVTai ^Adrj- 
vaioi^ 69 TToXefiov. 

XXXYII. Kal ol fi€v Boicorol Kal K.opivdioi 
ravTa eTrearaXfievot diro t€ tov Bevdpov^ koI 
KXeo^ovXov Kal oaoi <f)iXoL fjaav avTot^ t&v 
AaKeSacfiovicov Sare dtrayyeTXai iirl rh Koivd, 

2 cKdrepoi dv€X<^povv, ^ApyeicDV Se Bvo dvSpe^ rrj^ 
dpxv^ T^9 jjieyiaTT]^ iireTijpovv dinovTa^ avrov^ 
KaG" 6B0V Kal ^vyyevofievoi 69 Xoyov^ fjXOov, et 
7rft)9 oi BotwTol (T<f)iaL ^vfxfia'XpL yevoivro, &(nrsp 
Kopivdioc Kal ^HXeloi Kal Mai/Tti/^9* vofu^eiv ydp 

70 



BOOK V. XXXVI. i-xxxvii. 2 

agreement^ as the envoys were on the point of de- 
parting for home^ Cleobulus and Xenares^ the ephors 
who most desired to annul the treaty, made private 
proposals to the Boeotians and Corinthians, advising 
them to adopt as far as possible the same policy, and 
that the Boeotians should first become allies of the 
Argives and then try to make the Argives along with 
themselves allies of the Lacedaemonians. For in 
this way the Boeotians would be least likely to be 
forced to come into the treaty with Athens, since the 
Lacedaemonians would prefer gaining the friendship 
and alliance* of the Argives, counting that more 
important than the enmity of the Athenians and the 
disruption of the treaty. For they knew that the 
Lacedaemonians were always desirous that Argos 
should be friendly to them on fair terms, thinking 
that war outside of the Peloponnesus would then be 
an easier matter for them. Panactum, however, 
they begged the Boeotians to give up to the 
.Lacedaemonians, in order that they might, if 
possible, get back Pylos in exchange for it, and so be 
in a safer position for renewing the war with the 
Athenians. 

XXXVn. The Boeotians and Corinthians, being 
charged by Xenares and Cleobulus and the Lace- 
daemonians that were friendly to them with these 
instructions, which they were to announce to their 
governments, now returned to their respective 
cities. But two Argive men of highest official 
position, who were watching for them by the way as 
they went off, joined them and made a proposal to 
them, in the hope that the Boeotians might become 
allies to them, just as the Corinthians, Eleans, and 
Mantineans had done; for they thought, if this 

71 



THUCYDIDES 

&u TOVTOV irpo'x,Q>pi]a-avTO^ paS&6)9 rjSr} koI ttoXb- 
fielv fcal airevheadai koX irpo^ AatceSaifioviovf;, el 
^ovXoiPTo, Koiv^ \o79). %pft)/x-ei/ou9, icaX et riva 

3 TTpo^ aXkov hioi, toI^ he r&v ^olcot&v vpea- 
/SeaLV aKovovaiv rjpea/cev Karh tvxv^ y^P 
iSeovTO TOVTcov &VTrep kcu ol etc t^9 AaKeSai- 
fiovo^ avTOi^ <f>i\o(, iTreaToX/ceaav. /cal oi rtav 
^ApyeLOJv avBpe<; w rjadovro avToif^ he'xpfievov^ 
Tov XoyoVy elirovre^ on irpetr^eis irifiyfrovo'iv €9 

4 Bof6)TOU9» airrjXdov, ca^iKOfievoi he ol HokotoX 
aiT'qyyeiXav T0t9 ^OKordp'x^atf: xa t« ex 7979 Aa/ce- 
Saifiovo<; /cal ra dirb r&v ^vyyevofievcov ^Apyelcjv* 
^al ol ^oicDTap'xat ripeaKOVTO re koX ttoXX^ irpo- 
OvfiorepoL fi<rav, on dfjuf>o7€poi)0ev ^vpe^e^rjfceL 
avTol^ T0i}9 T€ (piXov^ T&v Aa/cehaifiovicDV tS>v 
avT&v heladai Kal tov<; ^Apyeiov^; 69 rd ofiola 

6 airevheiv, Kal ov 7roXX& varepov irpea^ei^ 
vaprjaav ^Apyelcov ret elprjfieva irpoKaXovfievqr 
KoX avToif<; direTrefiyfrav eiraiveaavTe^ roh^ Xoyov^ 
ol fioKordpxcLt KotX iTpea^ei<i v7roa"x^6fi€VOL diro- 
a-TeXelv irepX t^9 ^vfi/juxlcL^ €9 "Apyo^. 

XXXVIII. 'Ei; he rovrq) ihoxei irp&rov T0t9 
/3oioi)Tdpxai<; /cal JLopivOioi^ Kal Meyapevai koI 
Tot9 dirb @paKrj^ TTpea^eatv ofioaai op/cov^ dXXrj- 
Xot9 fi fiffv ev re r^ TraparvxpvTi dfivvelv Ta> 
heofievtp /cal fir) iroXe/iijaeiv to) firjhe ^vfi^tjaeaOai 
avev KOLprjf; yvd)jj,rj<;, /cal oi;Ta)9 ^ht) tov^ BoKOToif^ 
/cal Meyapia^ (to ycip ai/ro eiroiovv) irpo*; rov^ 

2 ^Apyelov^ airevhedOai, irplv he tov<; opKOvs yeve- 
aOai OL fioioordp^ai e/colvoxrav T(it9 riaaapac 

* <^. ch. xxxL 6. 
72 



BOOK V. XXXVII. 2-xxxviii. 3 

succeeded^ ^l^^y niight then readily^ all pursuing a 
common policy, carry on war or make peace with the 
Lacedaemonians, if they should wish, or with anyone 
else with whom it might be necessary. The Boeotian 
envoys were pleased at hearing these things; for 
by good luck these men were asking the same 
things as their friends at Lacedaemon had enjoined 
upon them. And the Argive men, seeing that they 
were inclined to accept the proposal, told them they 
would send envoys to the Boeotians and went away. 
On coming home the Boeotians reported to the 
boeotarchs the proposal made at Lacedaemon and also 
that of the Argives who had met them on the way; and 
the boeotarchs were pleased and were now far more 
eager for this arrangement, because matters had turned 
out to their liking in both directions — their friends 
among the Lacedaemonians wanting the same things 
as they did, and the Argives striving for a like end. 
Not long after this envoys came from the Argives 
with the proposals that have been mentioned ; and 
the boeotarchs assented to their proposals and sent 
them away with a promise to dispatch envoys to 
Argos to negotiate the alliance. 

XXXVin. In the meantime it was deteimined by 
the boeotarchs and the Corinthians, the Megarians, 
and the envoys from Thrace, first, to bind them- 
selves by oaths one to another, that assuredly when 
occasion offered they would assist the one that 
needed help and would not go to war with anyone 
or make peace without a common agreement; and 
that then and only then the Boeotians and the 
Megarians — for they were acting in concert ^ — 
should make a treaty with the Argives. But before 
the oaths were sworn the boeotarchs communicated 

73 



THUCYDIDES 

l3ov\ai^ r&v ^oicoT&v ravra, OLirep airav to 
Kvpo<; exovai, fcal Trap^vovv yeveadai opxov<s Tai<s 
TToXeaiv, oaav fiovXovrai iir m^ekia afpuai ^vvo- 

3 fivvvai, oi S' iv ral^ ^ovXai^ r&v TAoioor&v ovre^ 
ov TTpoaBixoprai rov \6yov, SeSiore^ fifj ivavria 
AaKeSaifioPLOi^ Troirjaaxri roi^ ifcelvcov cuf>€aT&<Ti 
KopivOioi^ ^vvofivvpT€<;' ov yap etirov avToh oi 
PoKOTap'xai ra i/c t^9 Aa/ceSau/JLOvo^, oti t&v re 
i<f>6p(t}V KXeo/SovKo^; /cal B,€vdprj<; kol oi <\>i\oL 
irapaivovaiv ^Apyeioov Trp&rov /cal K-opivOiayv 
y€vofjL€vov(: ^vfifid^ovi; varepov fier avr&v r&v^ 
AaKcSaifiovLcov yiyveadai, oiofievoi rf)v ^ovXrjv, 
Kov fit) eLTTayaiv, ov/c aWa yfrrj^ieitrOai f) h (T<^L<Tt> 

4 TrpoSiayvovre^ irapaivovaiv, co? he avrearrj to 
Trpayfia, oi fiev Kopupdioi Kal oi diro &paKrj^ 
Trpea-fiei^ airpaKTOV dirrfKOov, oi Sk ^oKtyrapxav, 
fieWovre^; ifporepop, el ravra eireiaav, kol rf)v 
^vfjifiax^cLv ireipdaeaOai tt/jo? ^Apyeiov*; iroieip, 
ovKeri iarjpeyKav irepX ^Apyeiayv €9 ra^; ^ov\d(;, 
oifSe €9 ro "Apyof; roi;^ Trpia^ei^ 01)9 vireaxovro 
eire/JLTrov, dfiiXeia Si Tt9 evijp Kal Siarpi^r) r&v 
Trdvrayv, 

XXXIX. K.al iv r& avrtp ^e^/Licoi^^ rovrtp 

MrjKv/Sepvav ^OXvvdioi ^AOrjvaicov (fypovpovvrayv 

iiriBpa/uLOvre^ elXov, 

2 Mera Se ravra {eyiyvovro yap alel Xoyoi Tot9 

re ^ Adrjvaiotf; Kal AaKcSac/jLovioi^ irepl &v elxov 

^ /icr' avruv with Stahl, for fitrh. r&v of MSS. as Hude 
reads. 

74 



BOOK V. XXXVIII. 2 -XXXIX. 3 

these resolutions to the four councils of the 
Boeotians which have supreme authority, and 
recommended that oaths be exchanged with such 
cities as wished to take oaths with them for mutual 
assistance. But the members of the Boeotian 
council did not accept the proposal, fearing that 
they might offend the Lacedaemonians by taking 
oaths with the Corinthians who had seceded from 
their confederacy. For the boeotarchs did not tell 
them what had happened at Lacedaemon — that it 
was the ephors, Cleobulus and Xenares, and their 
own friends who advised them first to become allies 
of the Argives and Corinthians, and then in con- 
junction with these to become allies of the Lacedae- 
monians ; for they thought that the council,^ without 
their making any such statement, would not vote for 
any other course than that which they had previously 
resolved upon and now recommended. But now, when 
this difficulty arose, the Corinthians and the envoys 
from Thrace went away without accomplishing their 
purpose ; and the boeotarchs, who had before in- 
tended, if they carried these measures, to try to 
effect also the alliance with the Argives, did not now 
bring before the councils the matter concerning the 
Argives, nor did they send to Argos the envoys they 
had promised ; and there was neglect and delay in 
the whole business. 

XXXIX. In the course of this same winter, the 
Olynthians by a sudden attack captured Mecyberna ^ 
which was garrisoned by the Athenians. 

After this, while conferences were continually 
going on between the Athenians and Lacedae- 

* The four councils here doubtless considered as one body. 

* A port town of Olynthus ; c/. ch. xviii. 7. 

75 



THUCYDIDES 

aWnkcDv) ikTTL^ovre^ ol AaxeSaifiovioi, el Ila- 
vafCTOv ^AOrjvaioi iraph I&oioht&v airoXd^oiev, 
tcofiiaaaOat av avroX TivXov, ffkOov €9 tou9 Boto)- 
T0V9 irpeo'^evofievoi xal iBiovro (T(^iav Hdva/CTov 
T€ Kol T0V9 ^AOrjvalcDv heafidiTa^ irapahovvai, 

3 Xva avr avr&v TlvXov KOfilaayvrai, ol Sk ^oicotoI 
ov/c e(j)aaav airohwaeiVt fjv fiij (T^iai ^vfifia)(Lav 
Ihiav TTOiri<T(ovTai &(nrep ^Adtjvaioi^;, AaKehat- 
fiovioL he elhores; fiev on aiiKrjaovaiv ^AOrjvcUov^, 
elprffiivov avev aXkrjkriiv firjTe (nrevSeo'Oai rt^ 
fii]T€ iroXjeiMelv, ^ovKofievoi Sk to Hdva/CTOP 
TrapaXa^elv w rrjv HvXov dvr avrov Kofuov- 
fievoi, Koi dfia r&v ^vy^^eai (TTrevSovTODV raq 
o"7roi/S^9 Trpodvfiovfievayv ra €9 Bof6)Tou9, iiroii]' 
aavTO rrjv ^vfifiwx^iav, rod ')(€ifi&vo<; r€X£VT&VTO^ 
rjSr) fcal 7r/oo9 eap' icaX to Yldva/crov ev6v^ xaOrj- 
peiTO. fcal evSeKUTOV ero^ t& iroXifKp ireXevTa. 

XL. "Afia Se r^ ^pi evdv^ rov iinyiyvofievov 
0€pov^ ol ^^pyeioi, (09 01 re irpio'Pei^ t&v Boicd' 
r&v 069 €<^aaav irifiyjreiv oxyy^ fjKov, to re Tld- 
vaKTOv rjaOovTo Kadaipovfievov KaX ^VfjL/jLa^iav 
Ihiav yeyevTffievrjv to 49 Bot(»To?9 irpo^ tov9 AaKe- 
Saifioptov^, eheiaav fifj fiovcod&a-t fcal 69 AafceBai- 

2 fwviov^ TTciaa fi ^vfifia^la X^PV^V '^^^^ 7^P 
Botft)Tov9 (Sovro TreTreio'dai vtto AaKehaifiovicov to 
T6 lldvaKTov KudeXeiv teal €9 Ta9 ^A0rjvaia)i/ 
airovha^ iaUvai, rov^ Te ^AOrfvaiovs elhivat ravra 

76 



BOOK V. XXXIX. 2-XL. d 

monians about places belonging to one or the other 
which they respectively held^ the Lacedaemonians^ 
in the hope that^ if the Athenians should get back 
Panactum from the Boeotians^ they themselves 
might recover Pylos, sent envoys to the Boeotians 
and begged them to deliver up Panactum and the 
Athenian prisoners to themselves, in order that they 
might recover Pylos in exchange for these. But the 
Boeotians refused to give them up, unless they 
would make a separate alliance with them just as 
with the Athenians. Now the Lacedaemonians 
knew that they would thereby be wronging the 
Athenians, inasmuch as it was stipulated not to make 
either peace or war with anyone without mutual 
consent, yet they wished to obtain Panactum in 
order to recover Pylos in exchange for it. Besides^ 
the party that was eager to break the treaty was 
zealous for the connection with the Boeotians. So 
they concluded the alliance, when the winter was 
closing and the spring at hand ; and the demolition 
of Panactum was immediately begun. So ended the 
eleventh year of the war. 

XL. At the very beginning of the following March, 
summer, when the envoys whom the Boeotians *20b.c. 
promised to send did not come, the Argives, 
perceiving that Panactum was being demolished and 
a private alliance had been made by the Boeotians 
with the Lacedaemonians, began to fear that they 
would be left alone and the whole confederacy 
would go over to the Lacedaemonians. For they 
thought that the Boeotians had been persuaded by 
the Lacedaemonians to raze Panactum and to accede 
to the treaty with the Athenians, and that the 
Athenians knew these things, so that it was no 

7^ 



THUCYDIDES 

(3<7T6 oifSe irpo^ ^ Adr^valov^ en (T<f>l(Ttv elvai ^Vfi- 
fiaxiciv TroLtjaaadai,, irpojepov eXirii^ovre^ i/c r&v 
Sia<f>op&v, el fifj fxeiveiav avrol^ al irpb^ AafceSai- 
fiovlov^ airovhal, toI<!; yovv ^KOrjvaioi^ ^^fifjuixoi 

3 eaeaOai. airopovvre^ oiv ravTU ol ^Apyeiot koI 
<f>o0ovnevoi fifj AaKeSaifiovLoi^; koI TeyeaTai^, 
Botfi)Tot9 teal ^AOrjvaioi^ afui 7r6\€/JL&<Ti, irporepov 
ov Bexopspoi Ta9 AaKcBaifiovicov airovSa^, aXV eV 
<f>povt]fjLaTi opT€<; T^9 Ue\o7rovv'i](rov '^yijo'eaOai, 
eirefiTTov (09 ihvvavro Tcixto'Ta €9 rijv AaKeSaifiova 
Trpia/Sei^ EivaTpocjyop koI Atacopa, ot iSoKovv 
7rpo(T(l>tX€<TTaTOL avToh elvai, '^yovfiepoc i/c r&v 
irapovToyv Kpariara, 7r/309 AafccBaifiovLov^ airov- 
8^9 irovrjo'd/jLevoi oirij av ^vy}(a}pV> 'yjcv^iav 
exeLV, 

XLI. Kal oi IT pea ^€1^ d^iKOfievoc avr&v \670v9 
eTTOLovvTO 7r/)09 Toif^ AafceBatfiovLov^; i(f>* ^ &p 

2 a(l>Laiv a I (Tirovhal yCyvotPTO, koI to /jlcv irp&rov 
oi ^Apyelov ri^Lovv Slkt]^ eiriTpoirr^v (t^lo'i yeveaOai 
fj €9 iroXip Tvva rf liioiTqv irepX t^9 KvpovpCa^ 7^9, 
^9 atel irepi 8ta(f>epoPTai fieOopia^ ovai]<; {ex^i Be 
ip avrfj @vp€ap /cal ^Apffrjprjp iroXip, pifioprai S' 
avTTfP AaKeSaifiopioiy eirena S' ovk cooptcop Auks- 
BaifioPLcop /jL€/jLP7]a0ai irepl aifTf]<;, a\V el ^ovXop- 
rat (TTrepBecOai &airep irporepop, eroifioi elpai, ol 
^Apyeloi TTpeo'/Sei^: TciSe ofMo*; eirriydyoPTO tov^ 
AaxeSaifiopiov^ ^vyx(i>prj(rai, ip fiep t^ Trapopri 
anopSa^ iroLrjaaa'dai errj 7r€PTi]K0PTa, i^elpai S' 
OTTorepoiaovp TrpoKoKeo'ajjLipoi^, firjre poaov ovcrj^ 
fitjre iroXefjLov AatceSaifiopc fcal "Apyei, Siafid- 

    

^ ue, of the Lacedaemonians and Athenians. 

78 



BOOK V. XL. 2-XLI. 2 

longer possible for them to make an alliance even 
with the Athenians; whereas they had formerly 
hoped that if their treaty with the Lacedaemonians 
should not continue they might at any rate^ in 
consequence of the differences,^ become allies of 
the Athenians. Being then in such perplexity and 
fearing lest they might have war at once with the 
Lacedaemonians and Tegeates, the Boeotians and 
the Athenians, the Argives, who before this had not 
accepted the treaty with the Lacedaemonians but 
proudly hoped to have the hegemony of the 
Peloponnesus, now sent to Lacedaemon in all haste 
two envoys, Eustrophus and Aeson, who seemed 
likely to be most acceptable to them, thinking it 
best under the present circumstances to make a 
treaty with the Lacedaemonians in whatever way 
might be feasible and to have quiet. 

XLl. On their arrival their envoys made proposals 
to the Lacedaemonians as to the terms on which the 
treaty should be concluded. At first the Argives 
claimed that they should be allowed to submit to the 
arbitration of some city or private person the matter 
of the Cynurian territory — a district containing the 
towns of Thyrea and Anthene and occupied by the 
Lacedaemonians — which being border ground they 
were always disputing about. Afterwards, however, 
although the Lacedaemonians would not permit 
them to make mention of that district, but said that, 
if they wished to make a treaty on the same terms 
as before, they were ready to do so, the Argive envoys 
did induce the Lacedaemonians to agree to the fol- 
lowing terms : for the present that a treaty should 
be made for fifty years ; that, however, either Lace- 
daemon or Argos, provided there were at the time 

79 



THUCYDIDES 

'X^eadai irepX T779 7^9 ravrrjsi, &<T7r€p koI irpoTepov 
TTOTC, 0T€ avTol ixdrepoi 'q^i(oaav vikclv, BiwKeiv 
Se fir) i^elvat TrepaiTepo) t&v irpo^ ''A/0709 fcal 
3 AaxeSaifiova opoav T0t9 Sc AaKeSaifiovioi^ to 
fiev irp&TOv iSofcei fi<opia elvai ravra, eireira 
{i7r€0v/jLOVV yap to "Apyo^; wavTOD^ ^iXov e^x^iv) 
^vpexfopV^dv €0' 0^9 ri^iovv KaX ^vveypdyjravTO, 
iKekevov 8' oi AafceSaifiopioi, irpXv T€\o9 tl avrwv 
ex^iVt €9 TO ''A/0709 irpc^Tov iTravaxo^pwavTa^ 
avToi)^ hel^ai t^ ifKridet, KaX rjp dpiaKOvra rj, 
fJK€i>v €9 Tct ^TaKivdia Toii^ opKOv^ iroirjaofievov^, 
KoX ol fi€V dvexfoprjaav. 

XLII. 'Ei^ Be T^ XP^^V TovT^ & ol ^Apyeiot 
ravra eirpaa-a-ov, ol irpia^ei^ rcov AaKeBaifiovLtov 
^AvSpofievrj^; xaX ^aihifio^ KaX *Avri/jL€PtSa<;, ou9 
eSei ro TldvaKrov Kal roif^ avSpa<i Tot'9 irapci 
Bo^wTwi^ irapaXafiopra^: ^Adrjpaioi^ diroBovpai, ro 
fi€P HdpaKrop viro ra>p Voioor&p avra>p Ka07)prj' 
fiepop rjvpop, iirX irpoi^daeL 0)9 fjadp irore ^AOrj- 
paioi^ KaX TAoL(i>roi<; ck Bia^opa^ rrepX avrov opKoi 
iraXaioX firjSeripov^ olxeip ro ;\;a>/3toi/ dWd Koipfj 
P€fjL€LP, TOL'9 S* aphpa<; 0&9 el^op al'Xjia'Kcarov^ 
BoiwTol \Adi]paL(ap rrapaXafiopre^ ol irepX rbv 
^ Aphpofiepr} iKo/uaap roi^ ^Adqpaioi^ KaX dire- 
So(Tap, rov T€ HapdKrov rrjp KaOaipetnp eKeyov 
avroi<i, pofiL^opre^ xaX rovro dirohihopar rroXi- 
fiiop ycip ovKeri ip avra> Ad-qpaioi,^ olK'^aeip 

^ 550 B.O. ; qf. Hdt. i. Ixxxii. 
80 



BOOK V. XU. 2-XLII. t 

neither pestilence nor war in either place^ might 
challenge the other to decide by battle the question 
about this territory — just as once before,^ when each 
had claimed to be victorious — but pursuit must not 
be made beyond the boundaries, between Argos and 
Lacedaemon. At first this seemed to the Lacedae- 
monians mere folly, but afterwards, as they desired 
under any circumstances to have Argos friendly to 
them, they accepted the conditions demanded and 
joined in a written agreement. But the Lacedae- 
monians urged the envoys first, before any of the 
provisions should be regarded as settled, to return to 
Argos and lay the matter before the people, and 
then, if it should be satisfactory to them, to come 
to the Hyacinthian festival and take the oaths. So 
they withdrew. 

XLIL In the meantime, while the Argives were 
negotiating these matters, the Lacedaemonian envoys, 
Andromenes, Phaedimus and Antimenidas, who 
were to take over Panactum and the prisoners from 
the Thebans and restore them to the Athenians, 
found that Panactum had been destroyed by the 
Boeotians themselves, on the pretext that once in 
former times, when there had been a quarrel about 
Panactufti, oaths had been exchanged between the 
Athenians and Boeotians, that neither should in- 
habit the district, but they should graze it in 
common. As for the men of the Athenians, how- 
ever, whom the Boeotians held as prisoners, Andro- 
menes and his colleagues received these from them, 
and bringing them back restored them to the Athen- 
ians. They also told them of the demolition of 
Panactum, claiming that this, too, was a restoration ; 
for thereafter no one hostile to the Athenians would 

8i 

VOL. III. O 



THUCYDIDES 

2 ovBeva, \eyofiivoDV Se Tovrtov oi ^Adrjvaioi Seiva 
iiroiovv, vofu^ovre^ aSiK€ia6ai viro AaxeSaifioviayv 
Tov T€ HapaKTov rfj Kadatp€<T€i, o eBei opdov 
irapaSovvah fcal nrvvdavofievoL on koX I&oiodtoI^ 
ISia ^vfifiaxI'OV 7r€7roir)vrai (jxifTKovre^ irporepov 
Koivfj Tot'9 fit) he-xppivov^ ra<; (T7rovSa<: irpoaavay- 
fcd<T€LV, rd T€ aWa iaxoTTOvv oaa i^€\€\oL7r€<Tav 
T^9 ^vv07]fcrj^ Kal ivo/jLi^ov i^rjTraTrjadai, &ar€ 
yaXeirw irpo^ tou? Trpec^ei^; dirofcptvafievoi 
direTrep^^av. 

XLIII. Kara Tovavrrjv Bfj Sia<f)ophv omcov r&v 
AaKeBaifiovioov irpo^ tov<: *A07)va[ov<; ol iv ral^ 
^AOrjvat^; ai ^ovXofievoi \vaai tcl^ (nrovia^; €vdif<i 

2 iv€K€tvro, fjaav he aXKoL re fcal * A\Kij3idSrj^ 6 
KXecviov, dvfjp ffKiKia fiev ere Tore &v veo^ (09 iv 
aXKrj iroXeiy a^KOfiari Se irpoyovoDV rifjuofievo^' ^ 
iSoKct fiev Kal afieivov elvat 'rrpo<s tou9 ^ApyeCov^ 
pLoKKov ;^ft)/36tz/, ov fiivTOi dWct Koi (fypovjjfiaTi, 
<^l\ovik&v rjvapTiovTO, on AuKeSaifiovioi Sia 
Nt/ctou Koi Ad^7)ro^ eirpa^av Tct<; ajropBd^, iav- 
rov fcard re ttjv veorrjra v7r€piB6vr€<; fcal fcard 
rr)v TraXacav irpo^eviav irore ovaav ov rifirjaav- 
Te9, rjv TOV Trdinrov aTrenrovTO^ avrof; tov<: ix ttj^ 
vrjtTov avT&v alxP'OX(OTov<; OepaTrevcov SievoecTo 

3 dvavednaaaOai, iravTa')(pd€v re vofxi^cov iXao"- 

^ cf. ch. XXXV. 3. 

^ Born about 450 B.O., and so now about thirty years of 
age. 

82 



BOOK V. xLii. i-xLiii. 3 

dwell in it. The moment this was said the 
Athenians were very indignant^ thinking that they 
were wronged by the Lacedaemonians^ both in the 
demolition of Panactum, which ought to have been 
restored to them intact, and because they heard that 
the Lacedaemonians had made a separate alliance 
with the Boeotians, although they had said before^ 
that they would join in coercing any that did not 
accept the treaty. And they took into consideration 
the other matters wherein the Lacedaemonians had 
failed in their contract and in which they thought 
they had been deceived ; and so they gave the 
envoys an angry answer and sent them away. 

XLin. As now the Lacedaemonians were thus 
at variance with the Athenians, the party at Athens 
that wished to annul the treaty at once became 
urgent in pressing their views. To this party be- 
longed, among others, Alcibiades son of Cleinias, a 
man who, though as regards his age he would in any 
other city have been accounted even at that time as 
still young,* was held in honour on account of the 
worth of his ancestors. To him it seemed really 
to be better to side with the Argives; it was not 
that alone, however, for he also opposed the treaty 
because he was piqued in his pride because the Lace- 
daemonians had negotiated it through Nicias and 
Laches, overlooking him on account of his youth 
and not showing him the respect that was due him 
on account of the old proxeny that once existed^ 
in his family. This relationship, though his grand- 
father had renounced it, he himself was by his at- 
tentions to their captives from Sphacteria now 
planning to renew. And so considering himself in 

• (/. VI. Ixxxix. 2; Plut. Alcib, xiv. 

a 2 



THUCYDIDES 

aovadai to re Trp&TOv avrelirev, ov jSe/Saiov^ 
^d(TKQ)v elvai AaKeSaifioviov^;, a\V iva 'A/yyeiov^ 
a(l>L(Ti aireiadfievoi i^ekaxTt xal av6i<; ctt' ^Adrj- 
vaiov<; fiopov^ ttoai, tovtov ivetca cirivieadai 
avTov<;, fcal Tore, iTreiSrj fi Sca<f>opa iyeyivrfro, 
TrifiTrec evOv^ €9 ^Apyo^ iSta, KcXevoDV w Td')(i<TTa 
€7rl Tr]v ^vfifxa'xiav irpoKaXovfiivov^ fjKeiv fiera 
"MavTivecov fcal 'H\6tft)z/, (09 xaipov ovro<i Kal 
aifro<; ^vp/irpd^cov ra iidXiara, 

XLIV. 0/ he ^Apyetoi dK0v<7avTe<; rrj^ re 
cLyye\ia<i /cal iTrecSr) eyvcoaav ov fier ^Adrjvaioyv 
Trpa')(del(Tav rrjv r&v Hoicjt&v ^v/jLfiaxiciv, a\X' 
€9 hiat^opav jxeydXrjv KadeaT&ra^ avrov^ irpo^ 
TOt'9 AaxeBaifioviov^j r&v fiev ev AaKeSaifiovi 
7rpi(T/3€(OP, ot a<l>lai irepX r&v <nrovh&v erv^^pv 
dirovre*;, rifieXovv, irpo^ Se 70^9 * AOrjvaiov^ fiaX- 
Xov rrjv yvdop/qv el^ov, vofii^ovre^ ttoXlv re ^(lyiai 
(jyvXlav diro iraXavov koX Srffiofcparov/jLevrfv &(nrep 
fcal avrol koI Svvafiiv fieydXrjv e^ovaav rrjv Kara 
OdXaaaav ^vinroXefirjaeiv (T(f>ia'iv, fjv tcaO^Tr&V' 

2 rai 69 TToXefiov, eire/JLTrov oZv ev0v^ irpea^ei^ (2)9 
T0U9 *A0r)vaLov^ irepl t^9 ^v/Xfia')(^[a^' ^vveirpea- 

3 /Sevovro Se /cal ^HXecoi koI Mavri>vr]<;, d(f)iKOvro 
Be Kal AaKeSaifiovioDV irpea^ei^ Karh rd)(^o^, 
BoKovvre<; eirvrrfheioi elvai T049 ^ Adrivaioi^, ^iXo- 
Xa/ot8a9 re Kal AioDv Kal "EavBlo^, Beiaavre^ firj 
rrjv re ^vfifiax^av opyi^ofievoi irpos rov^ ^Apyeiov<i 
iroL'qciovraL, Kai ajxa HvXov dirairrjaovre^ dvrl 

84 



BOOK V. xLiii. 3-XLIV. 3 

every way slighted^ he both spoke against the treaty 
in the first instance^ alleging that the Lacedae- 
monians were not to be trusted, but that their object 
in making the treaty was, that by concluding a treaty 
with the Athenians they might utterly overthrow the 
Argives and then proceed against the Athenians 
when thus isolated ; and at the present time, after 
the difference had occurred, he promptly dispatched a 
message to Argos privately, bidding them come as 
quickly as possible, along with the Mantineans and 
Eleans, and invite the Athenians to form an alliance, 
as the moment was favourable and he himself would 
cooperate to the utmost. 

XLIV. When the Argives received this message 
and realized that the alliance with the Boeotians had 
been made without the consent of the Athenians, but 
that these were involved in a serious quarrel with 
the Lacedaemonians, they took no further thought 
about their envoys at Lacedaemon, who had gone 
thither on the matter of the treaty, and gave their 
attention rather to the Athenians, thinking that a 
city which had been of old friendly to them and was 
governed by a democracy, just as they were, and 
possessed great power on sea, would enter the war 
along with them, should they be involved in war. 
Accordingly, they at once sent envoys to Athens to 
negotiate the alliance ; and there went with them 
also envoys of the Eleans and Mantineans. But thither 
came, too, in all haste, envoys of the Lacedaemonians 
who were, thought to be acceptable to the Athenians, 
Philocharidas, Leon, and Endius, for there was fear 
that the Athenians in their anger might make the 
alliance with the Argives ; and the envoys were also 
to demand the restoration of Pylos in place of 

8c 



THUCYDIDES 

TiavaKTOV, Kal irepl t^<; Bouotui' ^Vfifiaxioi a-rro- 
XoyTjaofi^poir w? ovk ivl leaic^ t&v 'Adijvtuwi' 

XLV. Koi XeyoiiTe? eV Tp ^ovX^ itepl tc tow- 
Twv Ka\ OK aiiTOKpaTope^ ^Kovat irepi traviaiv 
■^vpfi^vai rS>p Btaif>6pav, top 'AXictfiiaBriv e'^o- 
/Sow /i.i} Koi, ^v « TOP Z^p.ov Tovri 'Ke'^amv, 
iTrarfdy«DVTai to ttX^o? icaX dirmcdf} f) 'ApyticDV 

2 ^vp.pM-)(ia. iiTjy(avaTai Se ■trpm auroti? -roiovhe rt 
6 'AX«(;8faSijif' Tous AaiteSatfwviovi "neiffei TrCartv 
avToU Sow?, ^v fth 6p,o\ay^atoaiir iv t^ SiJ/t^ 
ainotcpdrope^ ^kciv, T\v\ov re a^Toi; avoSrao'ed' 
(TretVeti' 7^/j a^TO? Adrjvaiov^, &atrep xal vvp 

3 dvTi\€"/etv) Kal T&Wa ^waXXd^eiv. 0ovX6fi£vot 
Be avTovii Ni/ciov te aTroaT^aai lavra eirpawe 
Kol oir(U9, iv Tip £'f/tf> tia^dXmi' aiiTov^ wi ovBev 
dXijde<i iv v^ exovtriv ovBe Xeyovaiv ovSeTTOTe 
TavTo, Toii? 'Apydov-i leal 'HXet'oi/? Kal Mi 

4 Ttc^a? ^vfipdy(pv^ -noiT^ar]. koX iyiveto ovTmi; 
eTreiSij yap i<; tov Bf/fioi/ TrapeXBovTei iccu, ivepoi- 
Toip'ivoi ovie e^aaav &tnrep iv ry ffovXrj i 
KpaTopK ^leeiv, 01 'AByjvalot ovxeTt rfveixovTo, 
dXKh tov' AX/ciSidBov TroXXy fioXXov ■q trporepov 

" Kara^o&vTo^ t&v AaKeBai/iovLiov iirijKovov t 

krolp.01 'la-av ev9v^ TrapayayovTei tow 'Apyet'ovs 

BkyUoJ Toii\- fitT avTSiv ^vp,fid]^ov^ voteZiidai- atia- 

(10 hi yevofUvov trpiv ti irriKvptaBfitiat, if 

K/eXrjaia aSr^j dceySXij^ij, 

XLVJ, Tg 5' vffrepaif iKKXTfcitf o Ntxtas, 



BOOK V. xLiv. 3-xLVL I 

Panactum^ and to say at the same time^ in excuse 
for the Boeotian alliance^ that it had not been made 
with a view to injuring the Athenians. 

XLV. Speaking in the senate on these points^ and 
saying that they had come with full power to settle 
all their differences, they filled Alcibiades with alarm 
lest, if they should say the same things to the assembly, 
they should win over the people and the Argive 
alliance might be rejected. So he adopted the follow- 
ing device against them : He persuaded the Lace- 
daemonians, by pledging them his faith, that, if they 
would not admit before the assembly that they had 
come with full powers, he would restore Pylos to 
them — for he himself would use his influence with 
the Athenians for them as now he opposed them — 
and would settle the other points at issue. He 
resorted to such methods because he wished to detach 
them from Nicias, and in order that he might accuse 
them before the assembly of having no sincere in- 
tentions and of never saying the same things, and 
thereby might effect an alliance with the Argives, 
Mantineans, and Eleans. And so it turned out. 
For when, on coming before the popular assembly 
and being asked whether they had come with full 
powers, they answered " No," contrary to what they 
had said in the senate, the Athenians could endure 
it no longer, but hearkened to Alcibiades, who 
inveighed against the Lacedaemonians far more than 
before, and were ready at once to bring in the 
Argives and their confederates and conclude an 
alliance. But before anything was ratified an 
earthquake occurred, and this assembly was ad- 
journed. 

XLVL In the assembly on the next day, however, 

87 



THUCYDIDES 

xalirep, tSsv AaiceSaifiopiQ>ii airoip ^vart^fiMviav, 
KaX avTO<! i^f}'^aTi]fiivo<{ jrepi tov fir) avroKpa.- 
Topa^ OfioKQyrjffai. ^keiv, ofiwi -roll AaKeSaifiofioit 
?^ij j^pfjvai ^tXov? fioXXov ytyveffBai, xal eVt- 
irxpVTW Th. TTpo<i 'Apyeiov^ irip/^ai eji tti5 avToiit 
Kal elBevat 5 ti Siavoovvrat, \eya>v iv piv Tp 
<Tif>erip6> KaX^, ev hi t^ exdvayv dirpeirei top 
irokepop avaffdWitrSar <r<piai fitv y^p e5 
iaranav t&v wpaypdrcov d><{ iirl wXelffrov 
dpKTTOv elvai Siaacoaaffffat ttiv evvpaylav, 
fxelvoiv Bk SiHTTu^oOo'tc on rd^^iaja evprjpa 

2 elpai BiaxtvSvvevaai. etreiae Te trepTfrai vpetr- 
^eK, &v Koi aiiToi; ^v, xeKevaovTai Aaxe- 
haipoviov!, et ri htKaiov hiavoovvTai, TldvaKTOV 
Tfi opdhv diroSiSavai ical 'Ap^iTroXiv, koX Trpi 
'Botfar&v ^vppaxiav dveivai, ^v pi) i^ to? inrovBa'i 
fairuat, xaOaTrep £ipi}TO dvev dXXiiXdH' pi^BepX 

3 ^vpQaivetv. et-jretv re eice\evov on Kal ff^ei<;, €t 
i^ovXovTO dSiKetir, ^St/ 6.v ^Apyeiovt ^uppA^ovt 

[TjtT&ai, a>^ irapeivat y avToii^ ainov 

ei re Ti dWo efeicdXovv, trdjna 

dirhiep'^av roit^ irepl rov i^iKiav 

i dtf>ixopevoiv avT&p Koi ditarfyet- 

e uXXa Kal reXos ettrovTrnp on, el pij 



ESSL 



BOOK V. xLvi. 1-4 

Nicias^ although^ as the Lacedaemonians had them- 
selves been deceived, so he too had been deceived in 
the matter of their admission that they had not 
come with full powers, nevertheless still maintained 
that they ought to become friends with the Lace- 
daemonians rather than with the Argives; and ac- 
cordingly he proposed that, deferring the question 
of the Argive alliance, they should again send envoys 
to the Lacedaemonians and find out what their in- 
tentions were. He urged the view that the post- 
ponement of hostile operations was honourable for 
themselves but humiliating for the Lacedaemonians ; 
for as matters stood well for themselves, it was best 
to preserve their good fortune as long as possible, 
whereas for the Lacedaemonians, who were in hard 
luck, it would be clear gain to risk a decisive contest 
as quickly as possible. So he persuaded them to 
send envoys, himself being one, to urge the Lacedae- 
monians, if they had any just intentions, to restore 
Panactum intact and Amphipolis, and to give up the 
alliance with the Boeotians — unless these should 
accede to the treaty — in accordance with the 
stipulation which had been arrived at that neither 
should enter into an agreement with any third party 
without the consent of the other. The ambassadors 
were instructed also to say that, if the Athenians 
had wished to do wrong, they would already have 
made the Argives allies, as their envoys were present 
for that very purpose; and any other complaints 
which they had to make they included in their 
instructions to Nicias and his colleagues and then * 
despatched them to Sparta. When these had arrived 
and had finished reciting tlieir other demands, they 
said in conclusion that, unless the Lacedaemonians 

89 



THUCYDIDES 

TTjv ^v/jLfia')(iav avrjaovai Bo4«t)To?9 firj iaiovaiv €9 
Ta? (TTTOvha^, TTOfqaovTat fcal avTol ^Apyeiov^ /cat 

T0U9 fl€T aVT&V ^VflfJid'XpV^, TTJV fl€V ^vfifiaxl'dP 

oi AuKeSatfiopioi Bo^cwtoZ?, ovfc e(f)aaap avrjaeiv, 
iinKpaTovt/Tcov r&v irepl rbv Sevdprj rov €<f>opov 
ravra yiyveaOai icaX oaoi aWoL T7J<; avrij^ yp(Ofirj<; 
fiaav, Tov^ 8e op/cov<; Beofiipov ^ifciov dveveco- 
aavTO' i(f>o^€tTO yap firj irdvra drekri €')((ov 
direkOri Koi Sia/3\i]0^, oirep fcal iyevero, atrio^ 
BoKMv elvai T&v irpo^ Kaicehaiiioviov^ cttop^cov, 
6 dvax(*>p*]0'civT6<i re avrov w rjKovo'av ol ^ AOrfvatoi 
ovBev ifc T^9 Aafcef^al/Jbovo*; ireirpayp.evoVt evOv^ Si 
6pyrj<; elxov, kol vo/jll^opt€<: dStfcelaOai {eTVXpv 
yap irapovre^ d ^Apyeloi xal ol ^vfifiaxoi, irapa- 
yayuvTo<; *AXKij3id8ov) iirouiaavro airophh^ koi 
^Ufi/jLa^iav 777)09 avTOv<; TijvSe. 

XLVIl. ** ^7rovSa<; eTToirjaavTO efcarop ^ AOr^vatOL 
err} ical ^Apyeioi icaX MavTivrj^ Kal ^HXeloL 7r/309 
aX\r;\ou9,^ vjrep a'(f>(ov avrwv kuI tmv ^f/x/ia;^©!/ 
&V ap'Xpvaiv eKdrepoi, dhokov^; icaX d^Xa^el^ Ka\ 
Kara yrjv fcal rcarh OdXaaaav. 

2 ""OTrXa 8e p.r) i^eaTco iirKJiipeiv iirl Trrjfiovfj fi'^re 
^Apyeiov^ kuI 'H\etou9 koI Mavrivia^ Kal tou9 
^vfifid'x^ov^ €7rl *A0r)vaLov<; koI tou9 ^Vfifid^ovf: 
&v dpxovdLV ^ AOrjpaioi, fi'^re ^AO'qvaLov^ Kal tov9 
^Vfifidxov^ &v dpxovaiv ^Adrjpaloc^ eVt ^Apyeiov^ 
Kal 'HX€toi;9 Kal Mavrivia*; Kal tou9 ^viifid^ov^, 

3 "Kard rdSe ^VfipAxov^ elvai ^AOr^valov^ Ka\ 

^ irphs aXA^Aowj, restored from the inscription recording 
this treaty {G.I, A. iv. p. 15 f., No. 46 b). See nete, p. 96. 

2 &v &pxov(Fiv 'AdriyaTot restored by Kirchhoff from the 
inscription. 



BOOK V. xLvi. 4-XLV11. 3 

should give up the alliance with the Boeotians^ in 
ease these would not accede to the treaty, they 
themselves would make an alliance with the Argives 
and their confederates. But the Lacedaemonians 
refused to give up the alliance with the Boeotians — 
the party of Xenares the ephor and all the rest 
that were of that view carrying their point to this 
effect — but the oaths they renewed on Nicias' re- 
quest ; for he was afraid that he would return with 
nothing accomplished and be exposed to calumny, as 
indeed happened, since he was generally regarded 
as having been responsible for the treaty with the 
Lacedaemonians. On his return, when the Athenians 
Iieard that nothing had been done at Lacedacmon, 
they flew into a rage, and thinking they had been 
wronged, when Alcibiades brought in the Argives 
and their allies, who chanced to be |)resent, they 
made an alliance with them on the following terms : 
XLVn. 1. "The- Athenians, Argives, Mantineans, 
and Eleans have made a treaty with one another 
for a hundred years, on behalf of themselves and 
the allies over whom they have authority respec- 
tively, to be observed without fraud or hurt both by 
land and sea. 

2. "It shall not be allowed to bear arms with 
harmful intent, either for the Argives, Eleans^ 
Mantineans and their allies against the Athenians 
and the allies over whom the Athenians have 
authority, or for the Athenians and the allies over 
whom the Athenians have authority against the 
Argives, Eleans^ Mantineans and their allies, by any 
art or device. 

3. ''The Athenians^ Argives^ Eleans^ and Mantineans 



91 



THUCYDIDES 

*Apy€Lov^ Kol 'HXe/ov? fcal Mavrivea^ ixarov 
€T7)' Yjv irdkefJbiOL ttoaiv €9 ttjv yrjv rrjv ^AffrjvaicDV, 
/3or)0€tv 'A/yyetou? zeal 'HXe/ou? xal MavTiv4a<: 
*A07]va^€, KaS* ti av iTrcuyyiWctxriv *A0rjvaioi, 
TooTTco oTTotft) av BvvG)VTai iayvpordroi kotcl to 
ovvarov rjv oe orjayaavTe^ Oi%G)j/Ta4, iroXe/uav 
elvai Tavrrjv rr^v ttoKlv ^Apyeioi^ koI Mavrivevai 
Koi 'H\eto49 Kot ^A07jvaioi<; zeal KaKw^ irda'xetv 
viro airaa&v t&v iroXeoiv rovrcov* KaraXvetv hi 
fiTf i^eipai Tov iroXe/juov 7rpb<; ravrrjv Tr)V ttoXiv 
firjBefiia t&v TroXeayv, rjv fif) airdaat^ So/cy, 

4 **^or)0€tp Se Ka\^A07ivaiov<i i^'^Apyo^ KoX 69^ 
M.avTLV€iav Kot ^9^ ^HXcv, rjv irokifiioc ieotriv iirl 
Ti)V yrjv Tr)V ^WXeiayv rj Tr)V MavTiveayv rj Ttjv ' Ap- 
yeicDv, Ka0* o ti &v inayyiXXayaiv at iroXei^ 
avTac, Tp6ir(p oiroitp av BvveovTai la'XypoTaT^ kuto, 
TO SvvaTov fjv he hrjcoaavTe^ oXyoDVTai, TroXefiiav 
elvai TavT7}V ttjv iroXiv *A0rjvaLoi^ koI 'Apyeiot^ 
Koi MavTivevai xal 'H\€tot9 fcal kukcj^ irdtT'x^eiv 
viro diraawv tovtcov t&v iroXecov KaTokveiv hi 
fifj i^eivai TOV TroXefiov rrpo^ TUVTrjv tt^v tto\i,v p/q- 
hep^d T&v TToXeayv,^ rjv p/q dfrdaai^ hofcf),^ 

6 '* ' OTrXa he prj edv eyovTa^ huevai iwl iro\ip^ 
hi^ T^9 7^9 T^9 (r<f>€Tepa^ avT&v KaX t&v ^vp,- 
pM/XJ^v &v ap)(pvtTiv CKaaTOi, p^qhe zcaTcb 0dXa(T<Tav, 
rjv prf yjrq^KTapevcav t&v TroXeav diraa&v Trfv 
hiohov elvai, *A0rjvcd(ov Kal ^Apyeicov KaX Mai'- 
Tivecdv Kal ^HXelcDv, 

1 Added by Stahl. • Added by Stahl. 

' firi^tfitq. Tuv if6\9nv restored by Kirchhoff from the 
inscription. 

^ reus ir6\e(riv, after 8ok^, deleted by Kirchhoff acoording 
to the inscription. 

n2 



BOOK V. xLvii. 3-5 

shall be allies for a hundred years on the following 
terms: If an enemy invade the territory of the 
Athenians^ the Argives^ Eleans and Mantineans shall 
bring aid to Athens^ according as the Athenians may 
send them word, in whatever way they can most 
effectually, to the limit of their power ; but if the 
invaders shall have ravaged the land and gone^ that 
city shall be hostile to the Argives, Mantineans, 
Eleans, and Athenians, and shall suffer at the hands 
of all these states ; and to discontinue hostilities 
against that state shall not be allowed to any one of 
these states, unless all agree. 

4. ''Likewise the Athenians shall bring aid to 
Argos and to Mantinea and Elis, if an enemy come 
against the territory of the Eleans or that of the 
Mantineans or that of the Argives, according as 

. these states send word, in whatever way they can 
most effectually, to the limit of their power ; but if 
the invader shall have ravaged the land and gone, 
that city shall be hostile to the Athenians, Argives, 
Mantineans, and Eleans, and shall suffer ill at the 
hands of all these states ; and to discontinue hos- 
tilities against that state shall not be allowed to 
any one of these states, unless all agree. 

5. " It shall not be permitted to pass under arms 
with hostile intent through their own territory or 
that of the allies over whom they severally have 
authority, nor by sea, unless passage shall have been 
voted by all of these states, Athenians, Argives, 
Mantineans, and Eleans. 

93 



THUCYDIDES 

6 "Tot? Bi I3oi]0ov(nv rj itoKl^ rj irifiTTova'a irap- 
e'XJ^ra) fi^XP^ /^^^ rpidfcovra '^fiepMV (tltov iirrjv 
eXOcDdtv €9 Tfjv iroXiv rfjv iirayyeiXaaav ^orjffeiv, 
Kal aTTLOvac Korh ravrd' rjv Bk irkeova fiov- 
\(ovTai XP^^^^ '^V o-Tparca ')(prja0ai, rj iroXi^ rj 
fi€Ta7r€fiy}rafi€vi] SiBotch) cltop, t^ fikv OTrXiTtj 
KoX ylrcX^ Kal TO^oTTj Tpet^ o/SoXov^ Alyivaiov^; 
T^9 ^fi€pa<; eKaarr}^, T(p S' imrec Bpay^ijv Aljt- 
vaiav, 

7 "'H Be 7ro\t9 17 fieTairefiyjrafiivrj ttjv a-Tpanhv^ 
rfjv ffycfiovUiv iyeTO), orav iv rfi avTrj<; 6 iroXe/MO^ 
rj, rjv Be ttoi 00^17 airaaai^^ ral^ iroXeai Koivy 
ajpareveaOai, to taov rrj^; Tjyefiovia^; fieTetvai 
airdaai^ ral'i iroXeaiv. 

8 " ^Ofiotrai Bk Ta9 airovBa^; ^Adrjvaiov^ fiev inrep 
T€ a^&v avT&v Kal tmv ^VfifidxQ>v> 'Apyetov Be 
Kal MavTivi]^ Kal ^HXecoi Kal 01 ^vfifiaxoi tovtodv 
Karh ir6Xei<i o/jlvvvtoov. 6 /jlp vvtcjv Be tov eTri- 
ympiov opKov eKaaroL tov fieyiarov Karh iep&v 
reXeieov, o be opKO^ eaTCt) ooe' r^fifievta rfj 
^vfifiayia Kara ra ^vyKcifieva BtKalco^ Kal d/SXa- 
^0)9 KaL aSoXG)9, Kal ov irapa^rjaofjiai Te)(yri ovBe 
fiVX^^V ovBefiia.^ 

9 " ^Ofipvvreov Bh ^Adrjvrjat fiev ff /SovXtj Kal ai 
€vBr)/jLOi dpX'^L e^opKovvroiv Be oi TTpvrdveL^' ev 
"Apyei Bk 17 ^ovXtj Kal oi oyBorjKOvra Kal oi 
dprvvai, i^opKovvrmv Bk oi oyBorjKOvra' ev Be 
MavTiveua oi Brifiiovpyol koI rj /SovXrj koI ai 
aXXac dpxO'i, e^opKovvrcov Be oi Oetopol Kal oi 



* tV ffrpanhf added by van Herwerden. 

' aitiffais according to the inscription ; M8S. omit. 



94 



BOOK V. XLvii. 6-9 

6. " For the relieving force the state which sends 
for them shall furnish provisions for thirty days after 
their arrival in the state which sent for succour, and in 
like manner on their return ; but if they wish to use 
the army for a longer period, the city which sends 
for it shall furnish provisions for heavy- armed or 
light-armed troops or bowmen, three Aeginetan 
obols ^ per day, and for a cavalryman one Aeginetan 
drachma.^ 

7. " The state which sent for the troops shall have 
command whenever the war is in its territory. But 
if it shall seem good to all the states to make a joint 
expedition anywhere, all the states shall share the 
command equally. 

8. "The Athenians shall swear to the treaty for 
themselves and their allies, but the Argives, 
Mantineans, Eleans, and their allies shall swear to it 
individually by states. And they shall severally swear 
the oath that is most binding in their own country, 
over full-grown victims. And the oath shall be as 
follows : ' I will abide bv the alliance in accordance 
with its stipulations, justly and without injury and 
without guile, and will not transgress it by any art or 
device.' 

9. "The oath shall be sworn at Athens by the 
senate and the home* magistrates, the prytanes 
administering it ; at Argos by the senate and the 
eighty and the artynae, the eighty administering the 
oath ; at Mantinea by the demiurgi and the senate 
and the other magistrates, the theori and the 

^ About Sd. or 16 cents. 

^ About la. 4d. or 32 cents. 

* t.e. those whose functions were restricted to the city. 

95 



THUCYDIDES 

m'dXefiapxoi' iv S^ "HXiSi ol Srjfiioupyol^ Koi oi 
i^afcoatoi, e^opicovvTwv Be ol BrjjuLiovpyol fcal ol 
0€<Tfio(f>v\afce^, 

10 " ^ Avav6ova0ai Be Toi'9 opKov<;*A0r]vaiOv<; fiev 
iovTa^ €9 *H\4i/ ical e? MavTiveiav koX €9 "Apyo^; 
Tpidicbvra r^fiepai^ trpo ^OXv/jlttlcov, ^ApyeLov<; Be 
KoX 'H\e/oi;9 fcal MavTivea<; lovra^ ^AOrjva^e Bcku 
r]pApai<; irpo Ilava07jvalo)v t&v fieyaXayv. 

11 '^ TA9 Be ^vv0'qKa<; Ta9 ire pi r&v tnrovBcjv kol 
T&v opKCDV Kal T?)9 ^v fjLfiaxlcL^i dvaypdyjrai ev 
orTrjXrj \L0ivrj ^ A07)vaiov<; fiev ev TroXei, ^Apyeiov<; 
Be ev dyopa ev tov ^AttoWcovo^; t^ lep^, Maj/- 
Ttvea^ Be ev tov Af09 t^ lep^ ev rfj dyopa* 
KaTa0€VT(ov Be icaX ^OXv/HTriaai (TTrfK'qv x^XKrjv 

KOCvfj '0\v/JL7rL0L<; T0?9 vvvL 

12 " 'Eai; Be tc Bokt} dfieivov elvai Ta?9 iroXeo'i 
Tavrai^ 7rpoa0€2vai irpo^; Tot9 ^vyKeifievoi<;, o ti 
av ^ Bo^Tj Tat9 iroXeatv dirdaat^ fcoivfj fiovXevo- 
fievai^, TOVTO Kvpiov eivair 

XLVIII. Al fjuev aTTOvBal Kal f) ^vfi/xaxlcL 
oi5tq)9 iyevovTO, Kal al r&v AaKeBatfiovlcov kclI 
*A0r}vaLO)v ovK direiprjvro tovtov eveKa ovS* vcj)* 
2 erepaov. Kopiv0coL Bk ^Apyeicov ovre^ ^^/^/^^X^t ovk 
e<TrjX0ov 69 avrd^, dXXd koX yevofievr)^; irpo 
TOVTOV ^YiXeioi<; Kal ^Apyeioi^ Kal MavTivevai 
^vfi/ia'x^ia';, toi<% avTol^ iroXefxelv Kal elprjvrjv 
ayeiv, ov ^vvwfwarav, dpKelv 8' ecj^aaav a^laL ttjv 

^ /col ol rh. ri\7) ^xo»"rej, in MSS. after Br}fjLiovpyoif deleted 
by Kirchhoff as gloss on that M'ord. 
« g Ti y &v MSS., 8* deleted by Bekker. 

^ A fragment of the official document recording this treaty 
was found by the Archaeological Society at Athens in the 

96 



Book v. xlvh. g-XLVm. i 

polemarchs administering the oath ; at Elis by the 
demiurgi and the six hundred^ the demiurgi and the 
thesmophylaces administering the oath. 

10. " For renewal of the oath the Athenians shall 
go to Elis, to Mantinea, and to Argos, thirty days 
before the Olympic games ; and the Argives, Eleans, 
and Mantineans shall go to Athens ten days before 
the great Panathenaea. 

11* "The stipulations respecting the treaty, the 
oaths, and the alliance shall be inscribed on a stone 
column, by the Athenians on the Acropolis,^ by the 
Argives in the market-place, in the temple of 
Apollo, by the Mantineans in the market-place, in 
the temple of Zeus ; and a brazen pillar shall be set 
up by them jointly at the Olympic games of this 
year. 

12. " If it shall seem advisable to these states to add 
anything further to these agreements, whatever shall 
seem good to all the states in joint deliberation shall 
be binding." 

XLVIII. Thus the treaty and the alliance were 
completed ; but the treaty between the Lacedae- 
monians and Athenians was not on this account 
renounced by either party. The Corinthians, 
however, although allies of the Argives, did not 
accede to the new treaty — even before this when an 
alliance, offensive and defensive, had been made 
between the Eleans, Argives, and Mantineans, they 
had not joined it — but said they were content with 
the first defensive alliance that had been made, 

Bpriiig of 1877 upon a marble slab on the southern slope of 
the Acropolis. The text of the inscription has been restored 
by Kirchhoff, Schone, Foucart, and Stahl in substantial 
agreement. 

VOL. III. H 



THUCYDIDES 

TTpoDTrjv yevofievrjv iinixa')(iav, aXKrjKoi^ ^orjOeiv, 
3 ^vveTTKTT pareveiv Be firfSevL ol fiev Kopivdcoi 
ovTa)<; airearrjaav r&p ^v fifidytov koX irpo*; tov9 
AafcehaifWPLOV^ irdXcv ttjv yv(Ofii]v elx^^' 

XLIX. ^OXvfiina S' iyivcTo tov Oepov^; tovtov, 
oh ^AvSpo(T0€vri^ 'Ap/ca9 TrayKpdriov to irpSnov 
ivUa' fcal AaxeBatfiovcot tov lepov vtto 'HXetwi' 
€tp')(6'qaav oxttc fit) dveiv firjS* ar/ayvi^ea-ffai, ovic 
eKTivovTe^ T7]v SiKTjv avToh rjv iv T(p ^OXvfJLiriKCp 
vofitp ^HXeloi /careScKdaavTo avr&v, (l)daK0VT€<i 
a(f)(ov iirl <Pvp/cov re tcIx^^ oifKa iireveyKeiv koX 
€9 AeTTpeov avr&v oTrXtra? iv rah ^OXvp/iriical^ 
airovhah iairefjuy^ai. 17 Se /caraSL/CTj Siax^Xiai 
fival ^aav, Karh rov OTrXirr^v etcaaTOV Bvo fivai, 

2 wcTTre/) 6 v6fio<; ex^c* AaKehaifJuovioi he Trpea/Sei^ 
irifiylravre^; dvreXeyov fir) Sc/calayf; o'(f>&v KaraBeBi- 
KaaOai, Xeyovre^ fir) iirrjyyeXdac ireo €9 AaKcSaL- 
fjLova ra? a-irovSd^, or eaeTrefiyjrav Toif<; oTrXtra?.' 4 

3 ^HXecoi Se rr)v irap avroi^ eKex^tpiav rjBrj e^acav 
elvai {irp(i>T0i<; yap a(f>iaiv avrol^ eirayyeXXovai), 
KoX Tjavxct^ovrayv tT(f)a)v Kal ov TrpoaBexofievoyv co? 

4 iv (TVovSah, avrov<i Xadelv dhiKrjaavTaf;. ol Be 
AafceBaifiovioi vTreXdfifiavov ov XP^^^ elvai avrovf^ 
iirayyeTkai en e? AaKeBaifiova, el dBiKelv ye fiBrj 
€v6/JLc^ov avTov^, aW' ovx ft>9 vofjLi^ovTa^ tovto 
Bpdaai, KaX oirXa ovBajJboae en avrol^ iireveyKelv, 

^ The niODth of the festival was sacred {Upo!X7\via) and all 
warfare was stopped for that time. To enter the territory of | 
Elis with an armed force during that month was sacrilegious. 

9^ 



BOOK V. XLViii. 2-xLix. 4 

namely to aid one another^ but not to join in 
attacking any other party. Thus, theD, the Corin- 
thians held aloof from their allies and were turning 
their thoughts again to the Lacedaemonians. 

XLIX. This summer the Olympic games wereOi.oo,i; 
held, in which Androsthenes an Arcadian won his 420 b.c. 
first victory in the pancratium. The Lacedaemonians 
were excluded from the sanctuary by the Eleans, 
and so could neither sacrifice nor contend in the 
games, as they refused to pay the fine which had 
been assessed against them according to Olympic law 
by the Eleans, who alleged that they had attacked 
the Elean fortress of Phyrcus, and sent a force of 
their hoplites into Lepreum during the Olympic 
truce. ^ The fine was two thousand minas,^ two 
minas^ for each hoplite, as the law ordains. The 
Lacedaemonians sent envoys and urged that the fine 
had been unfairly imposed upon them, claiming that 
the treaty had not been announced at Lacedaemon 
when they sent the hoplites into Elis. But the Eleans 
said that the truce was already in force in their 
country — for they proclaim it among themselves first 
— ^and while they were keeping quiet and not ex- 
pecting any attack, as in time of truce, the Lacedae- 
monians haVi done the wrong, taking them by surprise. 
The Lacedaemonians replied that they should not 
have gone on and announced the truce at Lacedae- 
mon if they were of the opinion that the Lacedae- 
monians were already wronging them, but they had 
done this as though they did not think so, and they 
themselves had not kept on bearing arms against 
them anywhere »fter the announcement of the truce. 



s About £8,125 or $38,840. 
» About £8 28. 6e2. or $39. 



^0 
H 2 



THUCYDIDES 

6 fiXetoi he tov avrov \6yov elxovro, o>^ fiev ovk 
dStKovci fit) av 7r€i(T0rjvac, el Se /SovXovrai a<l)i(n 
Aeirpeov diroSovvai, to T€ avr&v fiipo^ d(f>cevai 
TOV dpyvplov Kal o tw 06^ yiyverai avTol virep 

eKelv<OV €KT€ia€LV, 

L. fl9 S' OVK ia"i]Kovov, aiOi^ rdSe rj^lovv, 
Aeirpeov fiev firj diroSovpai, el firj ^ovXovrat, 
dva^ama^ hk iirl tov ^topbov tov Aio^ tov '0\i;/i- 
TTLov, iireiBrf irpodvpiovvTat 'Xpri<T6ai tw lep^, 
iTTopboaai ivavTLOP t&v ^EXXijvcov i} p,rfv dirohdixTeiv 

2 vaTcpov Tfjv KaTaSiKr^v. w? Se ovSe TavTa rjOeXov, 
AaKcBaip^ovioc fiev etpyovTO tov iepov Ovaia^ Ka\ 
dy(ov(DV^ fcal oiKOi eOvov, oi hi aXKoL'T^XKrive<i iOed)- 

3 povv TrXrjv AenpeaT&v, opo)^ Se ol 'HXetot hehcoTe^ 
pff fiia dvaioai, ^ifv 07r\ot9 tcjp vefOTepcov (jivXafctfP 
etxov' fjKdov Sk avTOi^ fcal ^Apyeioi Kal MapTivrj<;, 
'X^iXioi €KaTepQ)p, Koi ^Adrjpaicop iTnrr}^, ot ip 'A/>- 

4 TTiPTf^ virefiepop ttjp iopTijp. S€09 S* iyepeTO t§ 
iraPTfyvpei peya pi) ^vp'ottXoi^ ekOtoatp oi Aukc- 
Baipopioi, aWa)9 t€ Kal eTreiSt) Kal At%a9 o 
^ApKcaiXdov, AaKeSacpoPto^, iv to) dy&pt virb t&p 
pa^Sovy^cDP 7r\T}yci<; eXa^ep, otl pikcjpto^ tov iav- 
TOV ^evyov^ Kal dpaKfjpv')(0€PTO^ Bo^wtwi/ hTjpLoaiov 
KaTCt Tr)p OVK i^ovaiap Tf]^ dyo)piae<o<;, TrpoeXdobp 
€9 TOP dy&pa dpe&rjixe top r}pio')(pp, l3ovX6p,€Po^ 

* 0v(rlas Koi hrf&vwv bracketed by Hude following Kiuger. 

* Michaelis* correction for "Apyti of the MSS. 

loo 



BOOK V. xLix. 5-L 4 

But the Eleans persisted in the same statement^ 
saying that they could never be persuaded .that the 
Lacedaemonians were not guilty; if, however, they 
were willing to restore Lepreum to them, they would 
give up their own half of the fine, and what was due 
to the gods they would themselves pay on their 
behalf. 

L. When the Lacedaemonians refused this offer, 
the Eleans proposed that they should not restore 
Lepreum, if they objected to that, but, as they 
eagerly desired to have access to the sanctuary, that 
they should go up to the altar of Oljnoapian Zeus and 
swear in the presence of the Hellenes that they would 
assuredly pay the fine later. But as they were 
unwilling to do even this, the Lacedaemonians were 
excluded from the temple, from the sacrifice and the 
contests, and sacrificed at home ; while the rest of 
the Hellenes, except the Lepreates, sent represen- 
tatives to the festival. Still the Eleans, fearing that 
the Lacedaemonians would force their way and offer 
sacrifice, kept guard with the young men under arms; 
and there came to their aid also some Argives and 
Mantineans, a thousand of each, and some Athenian 
cavalry that were at Arpina^ awaiting the festival. 
And great fear came upon the assembly that the 
Lacedaemonians might come with arms, especially as 
Lichas son of Arcesilaus, a Lacedaemonian, received 
blows from the umpires on the course, because, when 
his own team won and was proclaimed as belonging 
to the Boeotian state on account of his having no 
right to contend, he had come upon the course and 
crowned the charioteer, wishing to show that the 

^ In the valley of the Alpheua, twenty stadia above 
Olympia 

lOI 



• • ' 



THUCYDIDES 



' hfjXMtra^ OTL kavTOv fjv to apfiw &<rr€ iroXK^ Srj 
fiaWov €'fr€<f>6l3r)VTo iravre^ Kol iSoKci ti veov 
eaeaOai, oi fiivroi AuKeSacfiovioi 'qav)(^aadv re 

6 fcal 17 iopTTf avTOt<% ovtco SirjXdev, €9 Se Kopivdov 
fjjera ret ^OXvfnria ^Apyeloi T€ koI ol ^vfiiJba')(pi 
a^iKOVTO Serjaofievoi avr&v irapa <r(f>d<i ekdelv (^KaX 
AaKeScufLovLcov irpeafiei^ ervxov Trapovres:)* Koi 
iroW&v Xoycov yevofievcov T€ko<; ovoev iirpd^Or), 
iWa aeiafiov yepo/ievov SieXvffrjaav e/caaToi iir 
oLKov, Kol TO 0€po<; ireXevTa. 

LI. ToO B* i7rcyiyvofi€vov 'xeifi&vo^ 'HpaKXefa- 
Ta*9 TO 49 iv TpaylvL fidxv ^yevero irpo<; klvtava^ 
KaX Ao\o7ra9 fcaX Mi/Xm? icaX ^eaa-aX&v riva^' 

2 irpoaoLKovvra yap rh effprj ravra t§ TroXei ToXe- 
fua ffv ov yap iir oKXri nvX yfj fj t§ tovtodv to 
X'^piov iTeixl'O^^V' ^^^ €v0v^ t€ KaBiaTajxevy rf} 
iroXei '^vavTiovvTO, €9 oaov ihvvavro (jiOeipovre^, 
KaX Tore rfj fidxfj ivifcrjaav tou9 'HpafcXedra';, KaX 
Scvdprjf; 6 KviSio<;, AaKcBaifiSvio^, dp^j^v avrSyv 
diri0ap€, ZieifiOdpriaav Be KaX dXXoL t&v 'Hpa- 
KXeeoT&v, KaX 6 %€4/ift)i/ ireXevra, KaX ScoSeKarop 
Ito9 t^ TToXi/jL^ ireXevTa, 

LTI. Tov S* iTTLycypofiivov 6epov^ evOv^ dp)(pfi€Pou 
TTjp 'HpdKXetap, 0)9 fierct rrjv fid^V^ KaK&<i e^^et- 
p€To, Bo46)Tol TrapiXa^op, KaX nyrjaiTrTriSap top 
AaKeBaifWPiov a><; ov KaX&^ ap^opra i^iire/jAlrap, 
Bciaavre^ B^ irapiXafiop ro ^J^P^^ M AaKeBai- 
fiopifop tA Kara HeXoTropprjaop dopvfiovplptap 
*Adr)paioi Xd^coaiP' AaKeBavjJbOPioi fiepTOi wpyi- 
^OPTO avTol^. 

2 KaX TOV avTOv Oipovs 'AXKc/SidBrj^ 6 KXeipiov, 



102 



BOOK V. L. 4-Lii. 2 

chariot was his. And so everybody was much more 
afraid, and it seemed that there would be some 
disturbance. The Lacedaemonians, however, kept 
quiet, and the festival went through in this way, 
as far as they were concerned. But after the Olympic 
games the Argives and their allies came to Corinth, to 
ask them to join their league. Lacedaemonian 
envoys also happened to be present. Many 
proposals were made, but nothing was done ; for an 
earthquake occurred and they dispersed severally to 
their homes. And the summer ended. 

LL During the following winter, there was a battle 
between the people of Heracleia in Trachis and the 
Aenianians, Dolopians, Malians, and some of the 
Thessalians. For these were neighbouring tribes and 
hostile to the city of Heracleia, since the fortress 
there was established as a menace to no other territory 
but theirs. Accordingly, as soon as the city was 
founded, they began to show opposition to it, 
harassing it as much as they could ; and at this 
time they defeated the Heracleotes, Xenares son of 
Cnidis, a Lacedaemonian and tiieir commander, being 
killed, as well as some of the Heracleotes. And the 
winter ended, and with it the twelfth year of this war. 

LIL At the very beginning of the following 4i9B.a 
summer, as Heracleia was in a grievous plight after 
the battle, the Boeotians took possession of it and 
dismissed Hegesippidas, the Lacedaemonian, for 
misgovernment. They occupied the place through 
fear that, while the Lacedaemonians were disturbed 
alx)ut matters in the Peloponnesus, the Athenians 
might take it ; the Lacedaemonians, however, were 
angry at them for this. 

During the same summer Alcibiades son of 

103 



THUCYDIDES 

CTpaTTfyo^ &v ^AdrjvaLOOv, ^Afyyei&v /cal r&v ^vfifjbd' 
j(pov ^vfiirpaaaovTfav i\0a)v €9 TleXoTrovinjaov fier 
oXiycav AOfjvataov ottXit&v koi to^ot&v koI r&v 
avToOev ^vfifidj(^a>v irapaXa^wv rd t€ aXXa 
^vyKaOiaTfj irepl rffv ^vfifuix^v 8ia7rop€v6fL€vo<i 
UekoTTovprjaov t^ crpaTia koI HaTpia^ re reixv 
KaOelvtu hreicev €9 OdXaaaav kclI avTo^ erepov 
Bievoelro Tei')(iaai, iirX t^ *Vi<p t© 'A^ai/cfil). 
'KopivOioi Se Kol Xlkvcovioi teal ol^ fjv iv 
ff\d/3rf TeiX^aOev fiorfO'qaavTe^ Bi€K(i)\vaav» 

LIII. ToO S' ainov depov^ ^EiTrtBavp[oc<: koI 
^Apy€L0i<: 7r6\€fio^ iy€P€TO, 7rpo<f>da€i fxev irepl tov 
0vfiaTO^ TOV ^AiroWayvo^: tov UvOaiWy^ o Seov 
dirayayelv ovtc aireTrefiirop virep l3oTav&v ^ 'Ett*- 
Savpioi {/cvpicoTUTOi Be tov iepov rfaav ^Apyeloi)' 
iBo/cei B^ /cal avev t^9 aiTia^ ttjv ^FiiriBavpop r^ 
T€ ^AXKificdSj} /cal T0?9 ^ApyeiOL^ TTpoaXa^elv, fjv 
BvvcavTai, Ttjf} re Kopivdov eve/ca rjavxi'd^ ical i/c 
Try; Alyivrj^ ppaj(yTepav eaeaOai, ttjv fio^deiap rj 
'SiKvWaLOv irepiirXelp to?9 ^A0r)vaioi<;, Trape- 
a/cevd^opTO oiv oi ^Apyetoi c!)9 avrol €9 ttjp 

* Correction of Ci, TivBitos AEFM, UiOitas B. 
^ Stahl's correction for fiorafilwv of MSS. 

^ A low point of land at the mouth of the Corinthian 
Gulf ; on the opposite side of the strait was the Molycreian 
Rhium. The fort would have given the Athenians entire 
control of the entrance to the Gulf, 

104 



BOOK V. LII. 2-LIII. 

Cleinias^ who was then a general of the Athenians, 
acting in concert with the Argives and their allies 
went into the Peloponnesus with a few Athenian 
hoplites and bowmen^ and taking with him some of 
the allies from that region helped to settle matters 
pertaining to the alliance as he passed through the 
Peloponnesus with his army ; coming to Patrae he 
persuaded the inhabitants to carry their walls down to 
the sea^ and intended himself to build another fort at 
the Achaean Rhium.^ But the Corinthians, Sicyonians, 
and all those to whom the fortification of Rhiura 
would have been a menace, went in force and 
prevented it. 

LI II. During the same summer war broke out 
between the Epidaurians and Argives. The alleged 
ground for this was that the Epidaurians were not 
sending the sacrifice to Apollo Pythaeus, which 
it was incumbent on them to render in payment 
for pasturage, and the Argives exercised chief 
authority over the sanctuary ; ^ but even apart from 
this motive Alcibiades and the Argives deemed it 
advisable, if they could, to bring Epidaurus into 
the Argive alliance, both for the sake of keeping 
Corinth quiet, and because they thought the Athen- 
ians would be able to bring aid to Argos by a shorter 
way, from Aegina as base, than by sailing round 
Scyllaeum.^ The Argives, then, were preparing, as 

^ Probably the temple of Apollo Pythaeus referred to is 
that which alone of all the buildings in Asine the Argives 
spared when they destroyed that town ; cf. Pans. ii. xxxvi. 5. 

• A promontorj' between Hermione and Troezene. The 
short route was from Aegina to the neighbouring coast of 
Epidaurus and thence to Argos ; if Epidaurus was hostile or 
neutral, reinforcements hacTto be carried round Scyllaeum 
to the Gulf of Nauplia and thence by land to Argos. 

«o5 



THUCYDIDES 

*]&TriSavpov Siii rov Ovfiaro^ rifv Sinrpa^ip 

LIV. ^E^eaTpdrevaav Sk xal ol AaxeBaifiopiot 
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oTTOi arparevovaiv, ovSe ai iroXet^i i^ &v inrefi- 

2 (f>0r]aav. c!)9 S' aifroi<: ra hi^a^aT-qpia Ouofiivoi^ ov 
irpovx'^p^^i avToi re dirrjkdov iir oXkov KaX rol^ 
^vfifidxoi^ TrepiiJYyetXav fiera rov fiiWopra {Kap- 
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3 ^eaffai d}<; aTparevaofiepov^. ^ApyeloL S' dpa- 
'XODpTfadpTayp avT&p, tov irpo rov J^appeiov fjL7jpo<: 
i^eXOopre^ rerpaSi (f>dipoPTO^ Kal ayopre^ t^p 
Tjfiipap ravTTjp irdpra top ^/ooi/oi^, eai^oKop €9 

4 TYiP ^EiriSavpiap fcal ihrfovp, ^l^iriSavpioi Bk 
T0U9 ^vfifid)(pv^ iireKaXovPTO* &p tip€^ ol fikp 
TOP firjpa 7rpov<f>aai<raPTO, ol Se fcal €9 fieOopiap 
Trj<; ^EiriBavpia^; i\06pT€^ r}(rir)(afyp, 

LV. Kal Kaff* hp j^popop ip tjj *Fi7nSavp^ ol 
^ApyeloL Tjorap, €9 MaPTipeiap irpea^elai diro twi/ 
iroXeoriV ^vprjXOop, ^Adrjvalcop TrapaKaXeardpToyv. 
xal yepofiipcop ^ Xoycop Ev(f>aixiha<; 6 Kopipdio<s ovk 
€<f>7] TOt'9 Xoyov^ T0t9 €pyoi^ ofioXoyetP' a(f>€l^ fiep 
yap irepl elpripr)<i ^vyKaOrjaOai, tou9 S' ^EinSavpL' 
ov<s Kal T0U9 ^vfifid^^^ov^ /cal tou9 ^Apyetovf} pueO^ 
oirXap dpTiT€Tdxdo,i'' BiaXvcrai oip irp&TOP XPV' 
^ MSS. yivofifvuVf Hude y€vofi4v<ov, 

^ The sacrifices offered to Zeus by the Spartan kings before 
crossing the border. 

^ Corresponding to the Attic Metageitnion, nearly our 

August. 

106 



BOOK V. Liii.-Lv. I 

of their own motion^ to invade Epidaurus for the 
exaction of the offering. 

LIV. About the same time the Lacedaemonians^, 
too, marched out with all their forces to Leuctra, a 
place on their own borders opposite Mt. Lycaeum, 
under the command of King Agis son of 
Archidamus ; and no one knew whither they were 
marchings not even the cities from which they were 
sent. But as the sacrifices for crossing the border^ 
were not favourable, they went back home themselves, 
and sent word to their allies, after the coming month — 
the Cameian month,^ a holiday among the Dorians — ^to 
prepare to take the field. When they withdrew, the 
Argives set out on the twenty-seventh of the month 
preceding the Carneian, and continuing to observe 
that day during the whole time,^ invaded Epidaurus 
and proceeded to ravage it. The Epidaurians called 
upon their allies for help ; but some of these made 
the month an excuse, while the rest went merely to 
the borders of Epidauria and there remained quiet. 

LV. While the Argives were in Epidaurian 
territory envoys from the different cities came 
together at Mantinea, on the invitation of the 
Athenians. And in the course of the conference 
Euphamidas the Corinthian said that their words did 
not agree with their deeds ; for they were sitting in 
council on the question of peace, while the 
Epidaurians with their allies and the Argives were 
arrayed in arms against each other ; they ought to go 

• They called every day the 27th as long as they were in 
Epidaurian territory and thus postponed the beginning of 
the following month until their work was done. Probably 
the Argives, on religious grounds (as Dorians), took holiday 
as soon as the Carneian month began. 

107 



THUCYDIDES 

vai ^^* ^ kKaripcav e\66vra<; ra arpaTOTreSa, zeal 

2 ovro) ttoXlv \iyeiv Trepl tt;? elprjvr)^, Koi Treca- 
Bepre^ a/)(pvTO koi tov<: ^Apy€LOV<; dirijyayov i/c 
T^9 'ETT^Saf/^/a?. vaTcpov Se i^ to uvto ^vveX- 
66vT€^ ovS* &9 ihvvrjBriaav ^v/i^rjvai, aXX* ol^ 
^Apyetoi iraXiv €9 ttjv ^RinSavpiav iae/SaXov Kal 

3 ihr)ovv, i^eaTpdrevaav Se koI ol AaKcSav/jiovioc 
€9 Kapva^' Kal w ovS' ivravffa rd hiafiarripia 

4 avTot? iyipeTo, iiravex'^p^orcLv, ^Apyeloi Se re^p- 
T69 T^9 ^EiriBavpia^; a>^ to rpuTOP jiipo^ dirrjXJBop 
iir oXkov, koX ^A0r}pal(op avroU ^tXfo& i^orj- 
Brier OP oirXlrai xal ^ AXKL^iahr)^ aTpaTqy6<;, ttvBo- 
p£POL 8^^ T0W9 AaKeSaifiopiov^ i^earparevaOar 
KoX w ovhhf en avr&p eSei, dirrjXdop, xal to 

0€pO<; OVTG) Strj\0€P, 

LVI. Tov S* i'TnyLypofiepov 'xetfx&po^ AaKehai- 
fiopioi \ad6pT€<; *A0r]paLov<; (f>povpov^ re rpuiKO- 
aiovi /cat ^ Ayqaiinrihap apy^oPTa Karh OaXaaaap 

2 €9 ^EiriSavpop eaeirefi'^^ap. ^Apyeloi S i\06pT€^ 
Trap *A07jvalov<; iirefcaXovp on, yey pa/jL/xipop ep 
Tat9 aTTOphal^ Bid t^9 iavr&p eKaarov^; firj idp 
iroXep^iov^ huepai, edaeiap Kard 0d\aa(Tap irapa- 
ifKevaai,* Kal el firj Kaxelpoi €9 TIvXop KOfiiovaip 
€7rl AaKehaifiopiov^ tou9 M€0'0"i;i/tou9 Kal Et\ft)Ta9f 

3 dhiKrjaeaOai avroL *A0r)Paloi 8k ^ AXKi^tdhov 
ireiaaPTO<; Tfj fiep Aa/ca>piKy aTrjXri VTreypayp-ap on 
ovtc ipefieipap ol Aa/ceBaifWPioi T0t9 opKoi^, 69 Be 

^ supraacr. g,, all other MSS. i^'. 
^ Hude's correction for Se of the MSS. 

* Or, reading TvdSfAwoi 8e, with the MSS. , ** but learning that 
the Lacedaemonians had left tkefield^* — which the verb means 
nowhere else — ** and that there was no farther need of them." 

io8 



BOOK V. Lv. i-tvi. 3 

first to the camps of the two parties and disband 
them^ and then they might come back and talk about 
peace. Adopting this suggestion^ they went and 
induced the Argives to depart from Epidauria. 
Afterwards they came together again, but not even 
then were they able to agree, and the Argives again 
invaded Epidauria and began to ravage it. The 
Lacedaemonians, too, marched out to Caryae; but 
as not even there the sacrifices for crossing the 
boundaries proved favourable, they returned. And 
the Argives, having ravaged about a third part of 
Epidauria, also went back home. Moreover, there 
had come to their aid one thousand Athenian hoplites, 
under the command of Alcibiades, on learning that 
the Lacedaemonians had taken the field ; as now 
there was no longer any need of them these with- 
drew.^ And so the summer ended. 

LVL During the following winter, the Lacedae- 
monians, eluding the vigilance of the Athenians, 
sent a garrison of three hundred men, under the 
command of Agesippidas, by sea to Epidaurus. And 
the Argives, coming to Athens, made complaint that, 
although it was written in the treaty that they were 
not to allow enemies to go through their respective 
territories,^ the Athenians had permitted the Lace- 
daemonians to go past their territory * by sea ; unless, 
then, the Athenians should bring the Messenians and 
Helots to Pylos to annoy the Lacedaemonians, they 
themselves would feel aggrieved. So the Athenians, 
on the advice of Alcibiades, inscribed at the bottom 
of the Laconian column that the Lacedaemonians 
had not kept their oaths, and they brought to Pylos 



■c/. ch. xlvii. 5. 
* t.e. past Aegina, 



now Athenian territory. 

lOQ 



THUCYDIDES 

UvXov itcojXKTav tov<; ix K.pavLwv E?X,<»Ta9 Xi;- 
4 ^€a0ai, ra S' aWa f}(TV)(a^ov, top Se ')(€i/iS)va 
TOVTOP TToXefiovvTiov ^Apyeiayv Kal ^EiriSavpicov 
/iidxv H'^v ovSefiia iyepcTO ex irapaaKevi)^, ipeBpai 
Se Kal KaraSpOficd, ip ah (09 Tvxoiep ixaTipayp 
6 riv€<; 8i€^0€LpopTO. Kal reXevT&pro^ rov %6t/AWi/09 
7r/oo9 cap rjBrf KXtfiaxa^ €Xopt€^ oi ^Apyeloi fjXdop 
iwl TTjp ^EtiriBavpop <»9 iprjfiov ov(T7}^ hia top tto- 
\€/jbov fiia alprjaopTe^i' Kal atrpaKToi aTrrj\Bop» 
Kal 6 x^ifioop iT€\€VTa, Kal TpiTOP Kal ScKaTOP 
€709 TO) TToXe/i^ ereXeuTa. 

LVII. ToD S* iwtycypofiepov Oepov^ fieaovPTo^ 
AaKeSai/jbOPioi, 0)9 avTol<; 01 re ^EiriBavpioi ^v/jl- 
fia'xpi' 6Vt69 eTaXatTrdpovp Kal ToiWa ip t^ Yleko- 
7roppi](T<p TO, fi€P a(f>€iaTr]K€t, tA S* ov KaXa)<; eZ^e, 
pofjLiaaPTef;, el fiij 7rpoKaTa\7]y]ropTai ip raj^ct, iirl 
ifKeop ;)^G)/)?;<Te<T^at avTa, iaTpaTCVOP avTol Kal oi 
EtXQ)T69 TrapSrj/j^l iir* ^'Apyo^' rf/elTO he ^Ayt^ 6 
^Apxihdfiov, AaKeSat/jLOPLcop jSacriXev^, ^vpecTTpci- 
2 T6V0P B* avTols Teye&Tai re Kal oaot aWoc ^ApKci- 
B(OP AaKehaiiJLOPiots ^vfifiaxoi rjaap, oi S' eK t^9 
aW?79 YleXoTTOPprjaov ^vfifiaxot Kal oi €^a>0€P e9 
^XeiovPTa ^vpeXiyovTo, Boteorol fxep irepTaKiaxi- 
XiOL oirXiTai Kal togovtol '^CXol koX iirirris irev- 
TaKOdiot, KoX afiiiTTroc taoL, Ji^opipOioi Se S^<T;^t\*ot 
OTrXiTat, oi 3' aXXoi (09 CKaaToi, ^Xeidaioi he 
irapaTpaTid, oti ip ttj iKeipcop Ijv to aTpaTevfxa, 



no 



BOOK V. Lvi. 3-Lvii. 2 

the Helots from Cranii,^ to plunder the country ; but 
in other respects they kept quiet. During this winter, 
although the Argives and Epidaurians were at war, 
there was no pitched battle, but there were 
ambuscades and forays, in which some perished on 
either side as the chance might be. As winter was 
closing and sjmng at hand, the Argives came with 
scaling-ladders against Epidaurus, supj^osing, as it was 
stripped of its defenders by the war, that they could 
take it by assault ; but they accomplished nothing 
and went back home. And the winter ended and 
with it the thirteenth year of the war. 

LVII. In the middle of the following summer, the 4i8B.a 
Lacedaemonians, seeing that their Epidaurian allies 
were in distress, and of the other states in the 
Peloponnesus some had revolted, while others were 
not well-disposed, and thinking that if measures of 
precaution were not taken quickly the evil would go 
yet further, marched against Argos with all their 
forces, themselves and their Helots, under the 
leadership of Agis son of Archidamus, king of the 
Lacedaemonians. And with them went the 
Tegeates and all the rest of the Arcadians that were 
allies of the Lacedaemonians. But the allies from 
the rest of the Peloponnesus and those from outside 
mustered at Phlius — five thousand Boeotian hoplites. 
§nd as many light-armed troops^ with five hundred 
cavalry each with his foot-soldier ; ^ two thousand 
Corinthian hoplites ; the rest of the allies in vary- 
ing numbers, but the Phliasians with their whole 
force, since the armament was assembled in their 
territory. 

* c/l ch. XXXV. 7. 

' iniTwoi, light-armed men, one with each horseman, run- 
ning alongside or riding behind. 

Ill 



THUCYDIDES 

LVIII, ^Apyeioi Sk irpoaiaOofievoi to t€ irp&TOV 
TTjv irapaatcevTiv t&v Aa/ceSacfWPifov fcal iTreiSt) €9 
TOP ^Xeiovvra /3ov\6fL€voi rot? aXXoL^i irpoa-fiel^ai 
ex^povv, Tore Sij i^eaTpdrevaav /cal avroL ifiot]- 
Orjaav S' aifTol<: xal ^aprLV7]<: ex^ovre^ Toif<; 
(T<l>€Tepov9 ^vfjLfJLdxov<: Koi ^HXeiayp T/ot<T;;^t\tot 

2 oirXiTat, Kal 7rpoi6pT€<; airaPTSyari Tol<i AaKcBai- 
fiopioL^ ip ^eOvhpifp t^9 *ApKaBia<:, /cat Kara- 
Xa/jL^dpovcrip i/cdrepoi \6<f>op' koI oi fup ^Apyeloi 
(09 fi€fiop(i)fAipovs T0t9 AaKehatfjLOpioi,<i irapeaKevd- 
foi/TO /jLdx€<T0ai, 6 Be *A7t9 t% pvkto^ dpaarrjaa^ 
TOP (TTpaTOP teal XaOcDP eiropeveTO €9 ^XeiovPTa 

3 irapa tou9 SXKov^ ^vfijxdxov^, /cal oi 'Apyeloi 
aiaffofiepoi afia e^ exd>povp, irp&TOP fiep €9 ^'Apyo<;, 
eireiTa he fj irpoaehexopTo Tob^ AaKehaifiopiov^ 
fieTh T&p ^vfifidx^typ KaTafirjo-ecOaiy ttjp Korh 

4 ^efiiap oSop. *Ayi<i Bk TUVTtjp fiep fjp irpoae^ 
SixoPTo ovK cTpdirero, irapayyeCXa^ Be toI^ Aaxe- 
BatfiopCoi<; /cal ^ApKaai Kal ^EiriBavpioc^ oWtjp 
ix^pv^^ ;)^aX67r^i/ Kal KaTcfirj e9 to ^Apyelcop 
ireBiop' Kal KopipOioi' Kal JleWrjprj^ Kal ^XeidatOL 
opOiop eTcpap iiTopevoPTO' T0t9 Be Bo*a)Toi9 kcli 
Meyapevai xal Xckvodploi^ etprjTO ttjp eirl Nefxea^ 
oBop KaTa^aLpeiv, fj oi ^Apyelot eKddrjpTO, oiro)^, 
ei ol ^Apyeioc eirl a<f>d^ loPTa^^ €9 to ireBiop 

5 ^or]0oi€P, €<f>e7r6fjLepoc Tot9 nr7rot9 X/o^^to. Kal 6 
fiep oSto) Bi^ard^as kclL ea^aXoiP 69 to ireBiov 
eB'pov ^d/MP06p T€ Kol aWa, 

LIX. 0/ Be ^Apyelot ypopTes efiorjOovp rjjxepa^ 
i]Br) eK T^9 N€/i-ea9, Kal rrepi.TvxoPTe^ tw ^Xeiaaiiov 

Badham's correction for I6vrt% of the MSS. 

ZZ2 



BOOK V. Lviii. i-Lix. I 

LVIII. The Argives had heen aware of the pre- 
parations of the Lacedaemonians from the firsts and 
when the latter were on the march to Phlius where 
they intended to join the rest, they now took the 
field themselves. And the Mantineans came to 
their aid with their own allies and three thousand 
Elean hoplites. As they were going forward they 
came upon the Lacedaemonians at Methydrium in 
Arcadia. Each party took position on a hill, and 
the Argives prepared to fight with the Lacedae- 
monians, thinking to find them still isolated ; but 
Agis, rousing up his force during the night and 
eluding detection, marched to Phlius to join the 
rest of the allies. The Argives, perceiving this, 
set out at daybreak, marching first to Argos and 
then taking the road to Nemea, where they expected 
the Lacedaemonians with their allies to come down. 
Agis, however, did not take the way they were ex- 
pecting him to follow, but giving the word to the 
Lacedaemonians, Arcadians, and Epidaurians, he ad- 
vanced by a more difficult route and descended to 
the Argive plain. The Corinthians, Pellenians, and 
Phliasians advanced by another steep road ; while 
the Boeotians, Megarians and Sicyonians had been 
told to come down by the road to Nemea, where the 
Argives were posted, in order that if the Argives 
should attack their main force as it advanced 
into the plain, they might hang on their rear and 
use their cavalry against them. Having, then, so 
disposed his troops, Agis came down into the plain 
and proceeded to ravage Saminthus and other places. 

LIX. The Argives discovered this and, it being 
now day, came to the rescue from Nemea, and falling 
in with the force of the Phliasians and Corinthians 

VOL. III. I 



THUCYDIDES 

fCal K,opiv6i(ov arparoTTehtp r&v fiev ^XeicuTLajv 
oXiyov^ aireKTeivav, viro Be r&v JS^opcvdicov avrol ov 

2 TtoW^ TfKeLov<; Bi€<pffdpr}(rap, koX oi Bo^corol KaX oi 
M.€yaprj^ Kal oi Xi/cv(ovioi i')(a)povv, &<nr€p etprjTO 
avTol^, cttI t^9 Ne/iea?, /cat tov? ^Apyeiovf; ovkcti 
KateXa^op, dWa Kara/Sdpre^;, co? ecopcop rd iavrcop 
Srjovfiepa, 69 P'dxn^ iraperdaaoPTO, dpriirape^ 

3 (TKevd^opTo Sk Kal oi AafceSaifiopioi, ip fiia-m Se 
direvXrjpLfiepoL ficrap oi ^Apyelor ix fiev ydp rov 
ireBCov oi AaxeBatfiopiOL elpyop t^9 TroXeo)? Kal oi 
/ji€T avT(op, KaOvirepOep Se Koplpdioi Kal ^Xeidaioi 
Kal UeXXrfpi]^, to Si 7r/3o<? Ne/itea? Botwrol Kal 
XcKvcopioL Kal Meyaprj^, ittttoi Se avTol<: ov irap- 
fjaav' ov ydp irco oi ^ ABrjpaloL, fiopoi t&p ^vfi- 

4 pbd'x<i>v> fiKOP, rb fi€P ovp 7rXrj0o<; t&p ^Apyeicop 
Kal T&p ^v ijiijid')((dp ovx ovTco SeLPOP TO irapop 
ipofii^op, dXX ip KaX& iSoKCi 17 fid'xrj eaeaOat, 
Kal Totr? AaKcSaifiopLOV^ d'n'€LX7]<f>€pai iv TJj avT&p 
T€ Kal TTpo^ Trj TToXei, T&P Sc ^Apyeicop Svo 
apSpe^, ®pdavXX6f; t€, t&p iripTc crTpaTijy&p el^ 
&p, Kal ^AXKL(l>pa)P, irpo^epo^ AaKehaifxoplwp, rjBr) 
T&p (TTpaTOTriScop oaop ov ^vpioptcdp irpoaeXOoPTe 
^ ' Ay lSl SieXeyeadrjp [irj iroielp fidy(r)p' eTolfiov^ 
ydp eipav ^Apyeiov^ hUa^ Sovpac Kal Bi^aaOai 
iaa<; Kal ofjuoia^, et ti einKaXovaLP ^ApyeCoi^ 
AaKehacfxovLOL, Kal to Xolttop elpijptfp ayeip airop- 
8d<; 'TTOLTjaafiipov^. 

LX, Kal oi fi€P TavTa eliroPTe^ t&p ^Apyeiayv 
a^ kavT&p Ktii ov tov irXtjOovt; KeXevaapTO^ elirov 
114 



BOOK V. Lix. i-Lx. I 

slew a few of the Phliasiaiis^ but had rather more 
of their own men slain by the Corinthians. Mean- 
while the Boeotians^ Megarians and SicyoniaAs ad- 
vanced toward Nemea as they had been ordered, but 
found the Argives no longer there ; for these had 
gone down and, seeing their country being ravaged, 
were forming for battle, while the Lacedaemonians 
were preparing to meet them. The Argives were 
hemmed in on all sides : in the direction of the plain 
the Lacedaemonians and their associates shut them 
off from the city ; above were the Corinthians, 
Phliasians and Pellenians ; towards Nemea were the 
Boeotians, Sicyonians, and Megarians. They had no 
cavalry at hand, for the Athenians^ alone of their allies 
had not yet arrived. The main body of the Argives 
and their allies thought their present situation was 
not so very dangerous, but that the battle was likely 
to be fought under favourable circumstances, and that 
the Lacedaemonians had been cut off in their 
country and close to the city of Argos. But two of 
the Argives — Thrasyllus, one of the five generals, 
and Alciphron, proxenus of the Lacedaemonians — 
when the two armies were all but in collision, went 
to Agis and urged him not to bring on a battle ; 
for the Argives were ready to offer as well as to accept 
a fair and impartial arbitration of any complaint 
which the Lacedaemonians had against the Argives, 
and for the future to make a treaty and keep the 
peace. 

LX. Those of the Argives who said these things 
spoke on their own authority and not by order of 

* Upon their cavalry the Argives had relied. Their coming 
is announced ch. Ixi. 1. 

I 2 



THUCYDIDES 

Kal 6 ^Ayi^ Se^dfievo^ rov^ \6yov^ avro^, koX ou 
fi€T€t T&p irXecovmv oi/Se ai/ros ^ovXevadfjLevo^ 
aW' Yj evl apSpl KOLvdxTa^ t&v iv reXet ^vaTpa- 
revofievoov, airevherat riaaapa^ firjva^ iv oU eSei 
iiriTeTUaai, avTOv<; ra prjffepra. Koi aTTTfyaye top 
(TTparop €v6vs, ovSepl <f>pd<ra<; t&p aWcop fv/x- 

2 fid^oDP,^ oi Se Aa/ceBaifiopioi koI oi ^vfxpM'XpL 
eXiroPTO fi€P CO? rjyelro hia top pofiop, ip aiTia 8' 
€ly(^ov KaT dWi]\ov^ ttoXX^ top '^Ayip, po/ii^oPT€S» 
iv KaX^ TrapaTVXOP a'<f>Lai ^vfi^akelv xal irav- 
Ta^odev avT&v d7roK€K\rf/jL€veov xal vtto iirirewv 
teal 7r€^S>v, ovBev SpdaavTe^ a^iov t^9 irapaaxevij^ 

3 diriivai, (TTpaTOirehov yap Bij tovto KdWiaTov 
^EXXrjviKOV tS>v l^ixP'' ^ovSe ^vvrfhjSev* &<f>Or) Se 
fidXiaTa ?ci)9 cti fjv dOpoov iv ^efiea, iv ^ Aa/ce- 
Sai/jLovioi T€ TravoTpaTia ^aav koI ^Ap/edBe^ koX 
Boia)Tot KoX KopivOiov fcal SiKViaviot koI HeWrjprj^i 
xal ^Xecdaioc /cal Meyaprj^, xal ovtoi irdvTC^ 
XoydBe^ d<f> cKdaTfav, d^iofiwxpi Boxovvtc^ elvai 
ov Tjj ^Apy€i(i)p fxopop ^vfifiax^o,, dWct k&p aWy 

4 €Ti irpoayepofiiprj, to fup oip aTpaToirehop out©? 
ip cuTia €X0VT€s Tov *Ayiv dv€x<opovv t€ /cal 

6 SceXvdrjaav iw oXkov CKaaTor ^Apyeloi 8k teal 
aifTol €Ti iv iroW^ irXeiopi ama elx'^v tov^ airei- 
(xapApov^ apev tov irXrjOov^, vofiC^ovTe^ KaKelvoi 
firj &v a'<f>iai ttotc koXXiov irapaaj^ov AaKcBai- 
jULOVLOv^ Sia7r€<l>evyivai* Trpo? T6 yhp Trj (T(f>€T€pa 
TToXet Kal fJb€Tct TToXXcov Kol dyaO&v (v/ifidxo>v 

^ ^vfifidxco^t Hade deletes, after Kriiger. 
ii6 



BOOK V. Lx. 1-5 

the people; and Agis^ receiving the proposals for 
himself alone^ not conferring with the majority, and 
without any deliberation on his pwn part further 
than to communicate the matter to a single one of 
the magistrates who accompanied the expedition, 
made a truce with the Argives for four months, 
within which time they were to fulfil their agree- 
ment. And so he led off his army at once, without 
explanation to any of the allies. The Lacedae- 
monians and their allies followed his guidance out of 
respect for the law, but among themselves they 
loudly blamed Agis, considering that when there 
was opportunity for them to join battle under 
favourable conditions, and the Argives were cut oft 
on all sides both by cavalry and infantry, they were 
going back home without doing anything worthy of 
their preparations. For this was indeed the finest 
Hellenic force that had come together up to that 
time ; and this was seen especially while it was still 
united at Nemea, including the Lacedaemonians in 
full force, the Arcadians, Boeotians, Corinthians, 
Sicyonians, Pellenians, Phliasians, and Megarians, 
all of them picked men from each nation, who felt 
themselves to be a match, not for the Argive 
confederacy only, but even for another such force 
in addition. The army, then, thus blaming Agis, 
withdrew and dispersed severally to their homes. 
But the Argives also on their part held in far 
greater blame those who had made the truce without 
consulting the people, as they too thought that the 
Lacedaemonians had escaped, though circumstances 
could never be more favourable for themselves ; for 
the contest would have been near their own city and 



117 



THUCYDIDES 

6 TOP arf&va &p yiyveadai. rov re SpdavWov 
ai'a%G)/}?7(7ai/T69 ip r^ XapdSpq), ovnep rh^ airo 
arpareia^ hiKa^ irpXp iaUpai Kptpovaip, fjp^avTO 
\ev€ip. 6 Sh KaTa(f>vya)p iirl top jSw/jlop nepiylype- 
Tar Tct fiePTOL 'x^pijfuiTa iS^p^vaap avrov. 

LXI. Mer^ Sk tovto ^Ad-qvaitdP jSorjdrjadpTcop 
^tXto)!/ oirkiT&p Kal TpiaKoaieop iTnricop, &p 
eaTpaTTfyovp Ad'^r}^ fcal NiKoarpaTO^;, ol ^Apyeloi 
{ofuo'i yap ra? airopS^^ &kpovp Xvaai tt/oo? tov^ 
AaKcSacfiopLovf;) uTrUpai ifceXevop avTOv^ Kal 
irpo^ TOP BrjfjLOP ov irpoarjyov j3ov\ofiivov^ XPV' 
fiaTLaai, irpip hi) ^apTivrj^ Ka\ 'HXetot (ert yhp 

2 Traprjaav) KaTrjvdyfcaaav heojxepov. KaX eKeyop ol 
^AOrjvaloi * AXxtjSidSov Trpea/SevTOv irapoPTO^ hf 
T€ Tot9 ^Apyeioi^ fcai ^vfj.fid'x^oL^ TavTa, oti ovk 
6p0&^ ai (TTTOpSal apev t&v oXKcop ^vfifid'XODP Kal 
yepoiPTO, Kal pvp (iv Kaip& yap napeipat a<f>€l^) 

3 aTTTcadai XP^^^^ '^^^ iroXe/JLOv. Kal ireiaapTe^ ck 
T&p Xoyayp tou9 ^vixfid')(ov^ evdv^ e'xdipovv iirl 
^Opxofievop TOP ^ ApKahiKOP irdpTe^ irXijv ^Ap- 
yeieop' ovtol he oficj^; Kal ireiadePTe^ vireXeiiroPTo 

4 irp&Tov, eireiTa 8' vaTepop Kal ovtol fjXOop, Kal 
irpoaKaOe^ofiepoi top ^Op^ofiepop irdpTe^ iiro- 
XiopKOVP Kal TTpoa^oXh^ iiroLovPTO, ffovXofiepoi 
aXXco^ T€ irpoayepeaOai <T<f>Lai Kal ofir)poi ix ttj^ 
^ ApKa^ia^ rjcrap avToOi viro AaKehaifiovieop Kei- 

5 fxepoi, pi he ^Op^ofiepioc heiaaPTe^ Tiffp re tov 
reixov^ dadepeiap Kal tov arpaTov to ttXtjOo^, 
Kal ft)9 ovhel^ avToh e^orjdei, fit) irpoairoXoypTai, 

ii8 



BOOK V. Lx. 5-Lxi. 5 

in concert with numerous and brave allies. And so 
on their return they began to stone Thrasyllus in the 
bed of the Charadrus/ where before they enter the 
city all causes are tried that arise from an 
expedition. But he fled for refuge to the altar and 
was saved ; his property however was confiscated. 

LXl. After this, when Athenian reinforcements 
arrived, consisting of one thousand hoplites and 
three hundred cavalry, under the command of Laches 
and Nicostratus, the Argives — for they shrunk in 
spite of all from breaking off the truce with the 
Lacedaemonians — bade them go away, and would 
not comply with their wish to be brought before the 
people for negotiations, until the -Mantineans and 
Eleans, who were still present, constrained them by 
their entreaties to do so. The Athenians, then, 
through Alcibiades, who was present as ambassador, 
protested before the Argives and their allies that it 
was not right even to have made the truce without the 
consent of the rest of the allies, and now, since they 
themselves were present opportunely, they ought to 
resume the war. Having persuaded the allies by 
their arguments, all of them except the Argives 
proceeded at once against Orchomenus in Arcadia ; 
the Argives, though convinced, remained behind at 
first, then later came on too. Taking post before 
Orchomenus, they all proceeded to besiege it and to 
make assaults, being especially desirous of getting 
possession of it because hostages from Arcadia were 
deposited there by the Lacedaemonians. But the 
Orchomenians, fearing the weakness of the wall and 
the number of the enemy, and being apprehensive lest 
they might perish before relief came, capitulated on 

* Close under the north-east wall of the city. 

119 



THUCYDIDES 

^vvi/Stfo-av &(TT€ ^vfifiaxoi re elvai koX ofirjpov^ 
a(f>&v T€ avT&v Sovvai ^avripcvai /cal ot><: 
KarWevTO AafceSaifiovLOi, irapaSovvai, 

LXII. Mer^ Be tovto exovre^ fjSrj tov ^Op^p- 
pjevov i/3ov\€vovTO ol ^vfifiaxoi 6<^' o rt XPV 
irp&Tov levai r&v Xoiircov. Kal 'HXetot fiev iiri 
Aiirpeov ifciXevov, Mam-ivij^ Bi eVt Teyiav /cal 
TrpoaiOevTO ol ^Apyeloi fcai ^AOrfvatoi Tot<: Mav- 
2 TLvevaiv, Kal oi fiev 'HXetot opyiadevre^; oti ovk 
iirX Aiirpeov i'\lrrj<f)LaavTO, avex^^pv^^^ ^'^' oIkov* 
oi he aXKoi, ^vfifiaxot TrapeaKevd^ovro ev rfj 
MavTiveia a>9 iirl Teyeav lovre^, xaL rive^ avTol^ 
Koi avT&v T&v^ ev rfj iroXei evehihoaav rh 
Trpdyfiara, 

LXIII. AaxeSaifioptoi Be eTreiBij avex(opv^o,v i^ 
"A/yyou? Ta9 Terpapirjvov^ (rirovBh^ iroiriadfievoi, 
*Ayi,v ev /MeydXr) airia elxov ov ^e^/ooxra/ici/oz/ 
a^laiv "Apyo^, irapaaxpv Ka\&^ w ovir(o w po- 
re pov avTol ivofii^ov adpoov^ yap roaovrov^ 
^vfifidxov^ KaX ToiovTOv^ ov pdBiov elvai Xafielv. 

2 iireiBfj Bk fcal irepX ^Opxofievov rjyyeWeTO eaXoD- 
Kevai, TToXX^ Brf fiaXkov exoXiwaivov Kal ejSov- 
Xevov ev0v<; vtt 6pyrj<i nraph rov rpoirov rov 
eavT&v ft)9 XPV '^V^ '^^ ol/ciav avrov KaTaaKdyfrai 

3 Kal BeKa fivpidai Bpax/^&v ^rjfiiSxTai. 6 Be 
TraprjretTO firjBiv tovtcov Bpav epytp yhp dyad^ 
pvaeaOai rdf; atrial arparevadfjievo^, fj rore 

4 TToielv avTov^ o ri ^ovKovrai. oi Bk rifv fiev 
^rffilav Kal rrfv KaTaaKa(f>rfv eneaxov, vofiov Be 
edevTO ev rtp irapovri, S? ovirco irporepov eykvero 

* Stahl and van Herwerden's correction for avrSiv Teytar&p 
of the MSS. 

120 



BOOK V. Lxi. 5-LX111. 4 

condition that they should be received as allies^ should 
give hostages for themselves to the Mantineans^ and 
should deliver up those whom the Lacedaemonians 
had deposited with them. 

LXI I. After this^ being now in possession of 
Orchomenus^ the allies deliberated which of the 
remaining places they should next proceed against. 
The Eleans were urging them to go against 
Lepreum^ the Mantineans against Tegea; and the 
Argives and Athenians sided with the Mantineans. 
The Eleans^ then, becoming angry because they did 
nut vote to go against Lepreum, went off home ; but 
the rest of the allies began to make preparations at 
Mantinea to go against Tegea ; and there were even 
some of the inhabitants of the town who were in 
favour of yielding the place to them. 

LXI II. But the Lacedaemonians, on their return 
from Argos after making the four months' truce, 
blamed Agis severely for not subduing Argos, when, 
in their judgment, the happy opportunity was such 
as had never been offered before; for it was not 
an easy matter to get together allies so many and so 
good. But when the tidings came about the capture 
of Orchomenus also, they were far more angry, 
and in their wrath, contrary to their habit, at once 
resolved to raze his house and to fine him in the sum 
of ten thousand drachmas.^ But he besought them 
to do none of these things, promising that he would 
wipe out the charges by some brave deed when he 
took the field again ; if not, they might then do 
what they wished. So they refrained from the 
fine and the razing of his house, but for the 
present enacted a law which had no precedent 

1 About £6,730, 132,000. 

121 



THUCYDIDES 

ainoU' Sixa yap avhpa^ ^irafyriar&v irpoaeiXovTo 
avT^ ^VfiffovXovf;, avev &v fir/ Kvpiov elvai 
dird/yeiv arpaTiav Ik t^9 TroXeo)?. 

LXIV. 'Ei/ TOVTO) 8' a(f>iKV€iTcu avTol<; ayyeXXa 
irapa r&v iTTiTrjSeitov etc Teyia^ on, el firj irapi- 
aovrai iv rdyei, diroarria'eTat avr&v Teyea tt/oo? 
'Ap7€tov9 /cai Toiff: ^vfipA^ov^ koX oaov ovk d<f>€- 

2 (TTfjKev. ivTavOa Stj ^orfdeuL t&v AiuceScufiovicop 
yiyverat avT&v t€ koI t&v EeXcorcoi/ TravSrjfiel 

3 o^ela xal oia ovirto irpoTepov, i)^copovv Bi £9 
^Opeadetov Ti;9 ^aivdXiav fcal to?9 fiev ^ApKaBeov 
o-<f>€T€poif; oval ^vfifid'xpt^ irpoelirov dOpoiadelaiv 
levai Karh iroSa^ avr&v €9 Teyiav, avTol Be fiexpt' 
fiev Tov ^Opeadeiov irdme^ €\06vt€<;, ifcetdev Be 
TO eKTOV fiepo^ a(f>a>v avrSiv diroTrep/^^avre^ eir 
OLKOV, iv ^ TO Trpea/Sirrepov t€ kol to veoDTepov 
^v, &<TTe TCL otxoi (fypovpelv, t^ Xoitt^ aTpa- 
TevfiaTi d^LKVovvTac e9 Teyeav, xal ov ttoXX^ 
vaTepov oi ^vfi/iaxot d-rr *Ap/cdB(ov iraprjaav, 

4 irefiTTOvai Be /cal €9 ttjv T^opivdov xal Botci)TOU9 
/cat 4>G)«€a9 /cal AoKpov^, ^orjOelv Ke\evovTe^ xaTa 
Ttt;^09 €9 M.avTLpeiav* dWd Tot9 fiev i^ oXlyov 
T€ iyiyveTO Koi ov pdBiov r/v fit) ddp6oL<; KaX 
dXKrfKjov^ irepifieLvaai BieXdeiv Ttjv noXe/uav 
(^vvixXije ydp Bid fieaov), ofico^ Be rjireiyovTO. 

5 AaKeBaifiovioi Bk dvatXa^ome^ tov^ irapivTa^ 
^ApKdBtov ^v/jLfid)(ovf; iae/3aXov €9 T7)p Mamivi- 
Ki]v, Kai (TTpaToireBevadjJLevoL wpo^ t& ^HpaKXeiay 
eBriovv T^z/ yrjv, 

^ Compare similar proceedings in ii. Ixxxv. 1 ; in. Ixix. 1 ; 
VIII. xxxix. 2. 

122 



BOOK V. Lxiii. 4-LXIV. 5 

among them> for they chose ten of the Spartiates 
as counsellors ^ for him without whose consent it 
was not lawful for him to lead an army out of the 
city. 

LXIV. Meanwhile word came from their friends * 
in Tegea that^ unless they should come quickly, 
Tegea would go over to the Argives and their allies, 
and already had all but done so. Whereupon succour 
was sent, both of the Lacedaemonians themselves 
and of the Helots, in full force, promptly and on 
such a scale as never before. These advanced to 
Orestheum in Maenalia, and gave orders to their 
allies among the Arcadians to get together and come 
close upon their heels to Tegea. After going, all 
together, as far as the Orestheum, they sent home 
from there a sixth part of their force — in which were 
included the older and younger men — to keep guard 
at home, and with the remainder of their army 
reached Tegea, where not long afterwards the allies 
from Arcadia arrived. They sent also to Corinth 
and to the Boeotians, Phocians and Locrians, 
bidding them bring aid in all haste to Mantinea. 
But to some this was a sudden call, and it was not 
easy for them, except in a body and after waiting for 
one another, to go through the enemy's country; 
for that closed the way, lying just between. 
Nevertheless they hurried on. But the Lacedae- 
monians, taking up the allies of the Arcadians that 
were present, invaded Mantinea, and encamping at 
the sanctuary of Heracles proceeded to ravage the 
country. 

® As opposed to the faction mentioned at the end of 
ch. Ixii. 

123 



THUCYDIDES 

LXV. Ol B* 'A/yyetoi fcal oi ^v/jL/Maxoi <»9 elBop 
avTOV^, KaraXafiovTC^ X<opiov ipvfivov /cal Sucr- 

2 TrpoaoSov iraperd^avro eo? €9 p^X'^^' ^^^ ^*' 
AaxeSaipovtot evOif^ avTol^ in^aav kuI p^^XP^ 
phf \l9ov Kol cLKOvriov /3o\rj^ i^f^pv^^^' cneiTa 
T&v TrpeajSvripoyv Tt? "AyiSi iire^oriaev, op&v 
irpo^ ^topiov Kaprepov l6vTa<; atpd^, on Siapoetrai 
Ka/cov KaK& iaadai, Srj\&v rrjf; i^ ''Apyov^ inai- 
riov ai;a%a)/});(76G)9 rrfp Trapovaav axaipov irpo- 

3 6vpiav avdXrjylriv /3ov\op.ivr)v elvai. 6 Si, elre 
Kol Sea TO eirL^o'qpa eire /cat avr^ SXKo ri ff^ 
Kara to avTO So^av i^aufyvff^, iraXiv to aTpd- 

4 T€vp4i KttTCt Ta^p^ TTplv ^vpp>et^ai dTnjyev, koI 
d^iKop^evo^ 7rpo<; tyjv TeyeaTiv to vScop i^eTpeirev 
€9 T^i/ ^avTLVLKrfv, nepl oiirep ft)9 t^ iroXKa 
fiXdnTOVTo^ OTTOTepmae &v iairiirTT) MavTivrj^ xal 
TeyeaTai iroXep^ovaiv ifiovKcTO Sk Tot'9 dirb tov 
X6<I)0V ^orjOovvTa^ iir\ Tr)V tov vBaTO^ iKTpoirijv, 
iireihdv TrvdcovTai, fcaTajStfida'ai ^ koX iv t^ opuK^ 

5 T7JV P'dxvv TTOtelaOai, xal 6 p^v t^i/ rjpApav 
TavTTjv p£Lva^ avTOV irepX to vBcop e^iTpeirev* oi 
S* ^Apyeioi xal ol ^vpp^ixoi to pev irp&Tov fcaTa- 
7r\ayevT€<i t§ i^ oXiyov al<f>viSi(p ain&v ai/aj^o)- 
pri<Tei ovK elypv o ti elfcdamo-iv cIt iireiStf 
dvax^povvTe^ ixeivoL t€ direKpyylrav Kal a-Kfyei^ 
rjo'VXO't^ov icaX ovk iirrfKoXovOovv, ivTavda tou9 
eavTCJV (TTpaTrjyov^ aiOi^ iv aiTia el^ov to T€ 

^ But Hude deletes ^, making the sense to be, " had 
altered his views in a like manner." 

^ robs *Apy«iovs koA robs ^vfifUxovs, in MSS. after Karafiifid- 
am, deleted bj van Herwerden. 

124 



BOOK V. Lxv. i-5 

LXV. But the Argives and their allies, on seeing 
them^ took up a position that ^as steep and difficult 
of access^ and drew up for battle. The Lacedae- 
monians went against them at once^ advancing 
within a stone's throw or a javelin's cast ; then one 
of the older men^ seeing that they were going 
against a strong place^ called out to Agis that he 
thought to cure one ill with another^ meaning that 
the motive of his present unseasonable eagerness 
was to make amends for the culpable retreat from 
Argos.i Agis, then, whether on account of this 
call, or because it suddenly struck him, too, that 
some other course was better than the one he was 
following, led his army back again in all haste 
without coming into conflict. Then when he had 
reached Tegean territory he set about diverting 
into Mantinean territory the stream of water about 
which the Mantineans and Tegeates are always 
warring, on account of the harm it commonly does 
to whichever country it empties into. He wished 
to make the troops on the hilP come down to 
prevent the diversion of the water as soon as 
they should hear about it, and thus force them to 
fight the battle in the plain. So he lingered for 
that day in the neighbourhood of the stream and set 
about diverting it; but the Argives and their allies 
were at first amazed at their opponents' sudden 
withdrawal after coming close, and were at a loss 
what to make of it ; afterwards, however, when the 
enemy had withdrawn out of sight, while they them- 
selves kept quiet and did not follow after them, they 
began again to find fault with their own generals 

^ c/l ch. Ixi. 1 ; Ixiii. 2. 

' t.e. x^p^oi' ipviiiv6v mentioned above. 

12'* 



THUCYDIDES 

irpoTepov KaX&^ Xri^devra^ irpo^ '^Apyei AxuceSai- 
/lovCov^ cujieOijvaL /cal vvv on airoSiSpdaKOvra^ 
ovSel^ i7riSi(o/c€i, aWct xad* ^atrxiav ol fJL^v 
6 atp^ovrai, 0*^649 Be irpoSiSovrai. ol Se aTparrfyol 
i0opv/3i]9r)aav phf to Trapavri/ca, varepov S^ 
aira/yovaiv avToif^ diro tov\6<I>ov xal irpoeXBovre^ 
€9 TO op^dKov iarpaTOireBevaavTo 0)9 lovre^ iirl 
T0U9 7ro\efiiov<;, 

LXVI. Tfj S' varepaCa oi re ^Apyeioi xal ot 
^vp.p.a'xpt ^vp€Td^avTo, 0)9 epeXXov pAX^icdai, 
fjv irepiTVXtoaiv 01 re AaKehaip^oviot airo tov 
i5SaT09 7rpo9 TO ']lpdKK€iov irdXtv €9 to auTo 
arpaTOirehov lovre^ op&ai hC 6\iyov tov<: ivap- 
riov^ iv rd^ei t€ rjSr) irdvra^ /cal diro tov \6<f>ov 

2 irpoekTfKuOoTa^^ pATuaTa Bk AaK€Baip,6vioi €9 
o ipApvr)VTO iv TovTtp Ty Koup^ i^eTrXdyrjaav (Sta 
I3pax€ia<; yap /Lte\Xi;creG)9 17 irapaaKevt} avToh 
iyCyvcTo), xai evOv^ viro a-irovhrj^; KadlaTavTO e9 
Koapov TOV iavT&v, ''AyiBo^ tov fiaaiXio)^ ocaaTa 

3 i^fjyovp,€Vov fcaTa tov vop^ov. /3aai\ea)<: yap 
ayovTO^ inr ixeLvov ndvTU apx^Tai, Kal to?9 p^ev 
iroXepApxoi^ avTO^ (l>pd^€i to Siov, ol Sh toZ? 
Xo%a70i9, i/c€ivoi Sk T0t9 irevTrjKovT^patv, aiOi^ 
S' oSto* T0Z9 ivtopoTdp^ai^, /cal ovtoi t§ ivcDp^oTta. 

4 /cal al irapayyiXaei^, rjv ti /SovKeovTai, xaTct Ta 
avTCL x^povai xal Ta%etat iiripxovTar (rxeBov 
ydp TC irdv nXrfv oXiyov^ to aTpaToirehov t&v 

^ icK^v ixiyov, deleted by Hude, after Badham. 
126 



BOOK V. Lxv. 5-LXV1. 4 

because on a previous occasion the Lacedaemonians^ 
when fairly caught near Argos, had been allowed to 
escape^ and now when they were running away no 
one pursued them ; on the contrary, the enemy 
were quietly making good their safety, while they 
themselves were being betrayed. The generals 
were confounded for the moment by the outcry, 
but afterwards they moved the troops from the hill 
and going forward into the plain encamped there, 
with the intention of advancing against the enemy. 

LXVI. On the next day the Argives and their 
allies drew up in the order in which they intended 
to fight if they fell in with the enemy ; and the 
Lacedaemonians, going away from the stream and 
back to their old camp at the sanctuary of Heracles, 
suddenly saw the enemy close at hand, all by that 
time in order of battle and occupjring an advanced 
position away from the hill. Never had the Lacedae- 
monians, as far back as they remembered, been in 
such consternation as on this occasion. Their pre- 
paration had to be made on short notice ; and at 
once in haste they fell into their own array. King 
Agis directing each movement as the law prescribed. 
For when a king leads all orders are given by him : 
he himself gives the necessary order to the pole- 
ntiarchs,^ they to the commanders of battalions, 
these to the captains of companies, these again to 
the commanders of platoons, and these to the 
platoons. So the special orders, if they wish to give 
any, proceed in the same way, and reach their 
destination quickly; foi almost the whole army 
of the Lacedaemonians consists of officers over 

^ Commanders of the six morae, according to Xen. Reap, 
Lac, XI. iv. 

127 



THUCYDIDES 

AaKeSaifJLOvUov ap^ovTe^ apxovTtov eiai, xal to 
inifieXh Tov Bpeofiivov 7ro\\oi<; irpoarjK^L, 

LXYII. T0T6 hk K€pa<; fiev eifdvvfiov ^Kiplrai 
avTol^ KadiaravTO, aUl ravrijv ttjv rd^iv fiovot 
Aa/ceSaifiopioDv inl a<l)&p avrwv €')(pvT€^* irapa 
S* avToi^ oi airo &paKr}^ IRpaaiBeioi arpaTi&rai 
KoX P€o8afjLoi)S€t<; fier avr&v CTreir ^8?; AaxeBat- 
fiovioi avToX k^iy; KaBiaraaai tov^ Xo^ov^ kol 
Trap avTOV^ ^ApxaScav ^HpaiTJ^;, fjuerk hi tovtov^ 
MaivdTuoi, koX iirl r^ Se^i^ xipa Teye&Tai xal 
Aa/ceBaifjLOPLOiv oXiyoi to ea'XCLTov expvTe^, Koi oi 

2 tTTTT^? avT&v €<^' ixaT^p^ ry xepa. AaxeSai- 
fwvioi fikv ovTO)? eTci^avTO' oi K ivavTioi airol^ 
Se^iov fikv /cipa^ M.avTivrj<; elxov, oti iv ttj eKeivtov 
TO epyov iyiyifCTo, iraph S* aiTol<; oi ^vfi/JMXoc 
^ApKahtav fftrav, eneiTa ^Apyeitov oi j^tX^ot XoydSe^, 
0I9 V 'Jr6\c<; ix ttoWov aa/cr)aiv t&v €9 tov iroXefiov 
Brjfioala napelx^f ^^^ ixofievoi avT&v oi aWoi 
^Apyeloi, Koi fi€T aifTov^ oi ^vfifiaxoi avT&v, 
K\€ei>i/aiOi KaVOpveaTUi, eirecTa * AOrjvaloieo'XCi'TOi 
TO eifdvvfiov Kipa<; €xovt€<; koI /tttt^? /act' avT&v 
oi oixeioi. 

LXVIII. Taft9 flip fjSe xal TrapaaKevt) afi^o- 
TepcDV fjv, TO Sk (TTpaToireSov t&v AaxeSai- 

2 fiovitov fiei^ov i<fidv7j, aptOfiov Se ypd'^ai, fj Kaff* 
€KdaTOV^ exaTipoov ^ ^vfinavTa^, ovk &v iSwd/irfv 
aKpijSw' TO fiev yctp AaxeSatfAovioDv TrXtjOo^ Biii rrj^ 
TToXtma? TO KpvTTTov riyvoelTO, t&v S' a5 iih to 
dvdpcoTreiov KOfiir&he^ €9 tA olKeia irXrjOfj tjiri- 

128 



BOOK V. Lxvi. 4— Lxviii. 2 

officers, and the responsibility for the execution of 
orders devolves upon many. 

LXVll. On this occasion there were posted on 
the left wing the Sciritae,* who alone of the Lacedae- 
monians always have that post by themselves ; next 
to them the soldiers who had served with Brasidas 
in Thrace^ and with them the Neodamodes ; next 
the Lacedaemonians themselves^ with their battalions 
posted one after another^ and by them the Heraeans 
of Arcadia; after these the Maenalians; on the 
right wing the Tegeates, with a few of the Lacedae- 
monians holding the end of the line ; and on either 
wing the cavalry. The Lacedaemonians were thus 
arrayed. On their enemy's side the Mantineans 
had the right wing^ because the action was to be 
fought in their country; by their side were their 
Arcadian allies; then the thousand picked men of 
the Argives^ for whom the state had for a long time 
furnished at public expense training in matters 
pertaining to war ; next to them the rest of the 
Argives; after these their allies^ the Cleonaeans 
and Orneates ; then the Athenians last, on the left 
wing^ and with them their own cavalry. 

LXVin. Such was the order and the composition 
of the two sides. The army of the Lacedaemonians 
appeared the larger ; but the number^ either of the 
separate contingents or of the total on either side^ I 
could not possibly state accurately. For on account 
of the secrecy of their polity the number of the 
Lacedaemonians was unknown; and that claimed 
for the others^ on account of men's tendency to boast 
with regard to their own numbers, was discredited. 

^ Inhabitants of the rough hilly country towards the 
territory of Tegea. 

129 
VOL. III. K ' 



THUCYDIDES 

cTTetTO. ix fievToi roiovBe Xoyiafiov e^eari rtp <tko- 
irelv TO AaxeSaifiovLeov Tore napayevofievov TrXrj- 

3 ^09* \6xoc fiev yhp ifiaxovro kinh avev X/ctpiT&v 
opTcov i^aKoaioov, ev he efcdaTq) \6x<P irevTrjKoarve^ 
fftrav Tcaaape^;, Koi iv rfj 7r€VTr)fcoa7m ipcofwriaL 
jiaaape^. t?}9 t€ ipcofiOTta^ ifid)(pvTo iv r^ 
TT/owTG) ^vy^ reaaape^' iirX he /3ado^ ird^avro 
fiev oif irdvT€^ OftOLO)^, d\7C cw? \o;^a709 e/caaro^ 
i/SovKero, iirl irav he fcaTeaTrjaav eirl 6/ctco. irapct 
hi airav ttXtjv Xfcipircjv TeTpaKoacoi koI hvolv 
heovre^ irevrriKOVTa avhpe<i 17 irpcorrj rd^i^ ffv. 

LXIX. ^EnreX hk ^vvcevai cfieWov ^hrj, evravOa 
fcal Trapaiveaei^ Ka6* e/cdarov^ viro t&v olfceicov 
aTparrjy&v roiaihe eyiyvovro, MavTivevat fiev on 
virep T€ Trarpiho^ fi fid^V ca-rai /cat virep dp^^^ 
afia fcal hov7i£La<:, ttjv fiev firj iretpaaafievoif; d^ai- 
peOrjvah rrj^ he firj av0i<; necpaadar 'A/yyetot? he 
virep T^9 T€ 7ra\aia<; riyefioviwi /cat t^9 iv UeXo- 
TTovvrjafp irork l(TOfioipia<; firj hia Travro^ arepL- 
(TKOfievov^ dvex^a-Oai, zeal avBpa^ afia exOpoif^ zeal 
daTvyeirova^ virep ttoW&v dhi/cr)fjbdTa)V dfivva- 
aOar to?9 he *Adi]vaLoi<;, /caXov elvai fierd ttoW&v 
/cat dya0&v ^vfifid'yjodv dycDVi^ofjAvov^ firjhevo^i 
\eL7rea0ai, Kot on iv JleXoTrovvijaa) AaKehaifiovC- 
0U9 vi/crjaavTe^ ttjv re dpyr^v /Se/Saiorepav /cat 
fiei^to e^ovai, xal oif fir] irore Tt9 avT0L<; a\Xo9 €9 

2 Ttfv yrjv ikOrf* T0t9 fiev ^KpyeioL^ KaX ^vfifidy(pL^ 

^ The sum- total of the whole army was 4,184 men 
(7 X 4 X 4 X 4=448 X 8=3,684+600=4,184). 

130 



BOOK V. LXVIII. 2-LXIX. 2 

However^ from the following mode of computation 
it is allowable to estimate the number of the 
Lacedaemonians that were then present. I'here 
were engaged in the battle seven battalions^ without 
the Sciritae^ who numbered six hundred^ and in each 
battalion were four companies of fifty^ in each com- 
pany four platoons. In the first rank of each 
company fought four men ; in depths however, they 
were not all drawn up alike, but as each battalion- 
commander preferred — on the average eight deep. 
Along the whole line, then, exclusive of the Sciritae, 
the first rank consisted of four hundred and forty- 
eight men.^ 

LXIX. When they were on the point ot engaging, 
exhortations were made to the several contingents 
by their own generals to the following effect : The 
Mantineans were reminded that the battle would 
be for fatherland, and, moreover, for dominion or 
servitude — that they should not be deprived of the 
one after having made trial of it, and should not 
again experience the other; the Argives, that the 
contest would be both for their ancient hegemony ^ 
and for their old equality of influence * in the Pelo- 
ponnese, that they must not brook being deprived 
of it forever, and at the same time must avenge 
themselves for many wrongs on men who were 
enemies and near neighbours at that ; the Athenians, 
that it was glorious, contending along with many 
and brave allies, to be inferior to none, and that if 
they should conquer the Lacedaemonians in the 
Peloponnese they would have a greater empire and 
hold it more securely, and no one would ever invade 
their country again. Such were the admonitions 

^ Under Agamemnon. ^ Before the Persian Wars. 

K 2 



THUCYDIDES 

TOiavra irapr/vWrj' AaxeSai/iovioi Si Koff hcaa- 
Tov^ T€ xal fiera r&v iroXefuxAv vopuov hf a^>iaiv 
ainol^ &v fpricrravro rrjv irapaxiXevaiv r^ /jLiri^firj^ 
arfadok ovaiv hroiovmo, elSore^ epytov ix ttoXXou 
fieXerrfv irXeUa amt^ovaav fj Xoyaav Si okiyov xaX&^ 
(yqdelaav wapaiveaiv. 

LXX. Kal fiera ravra 17 ^uvoSo^ rjv, *Apy€ioi 
fuv Kol 01 ^vfifiaxoc ivrovo)^ xal opyy %(ii»/)oi)in'€9> 
AaxeScufiopioL Si jSpaSeto^ xat inro aifXriratv ttoX- 
\&v vofjLtp iyKaOeardTfav, ov tov Oeiov xa/oti', 
a\X' Xva ofiaXm fiera pvOfiov fiaivovre^ irpoaiK- 
doiev ^ xal fit) SuKriraa-ffeLi] avTol^ 17 rd^i^, oirep 
^iKei rh fieyaka arpaToireSa iv rat? irpoaoSois 
iroielv, 

LXXL BiVviovTfov S*€Ti*Ayi<: 6 /3aai\€v^ roiovSe 
ifiovXevaaro Spaaai, ra arparoTreSa Troiel fiev 
xal airavra tovto* inl ra Se^ia xipa tcL avr&v 
€v Toi^ ^uvoSoL^ fiaXXov i^QyOelrai, xal irepdaxovcri 
xarit TO r&v ivavri(ov eitivvfiov ap/^orepoi, r^ 
Se^i^, Sth TO <l>oj3ov/i€vov^ Trpoa-ariWeiv rh yvfivcL 
exaarov &<: fid7u<TTa ry tov iv Se^ia irapaTeTay- 
pAvov do-TTiSi xcu vopit^eiv ttjp irvxvoTijTa t^9 
^vyxX'paetof; evaxeiraaTOTarov elvar xal ffyeiTai 
/ihv T^9 aLTva^ TavTTi^ 6 irptoToaTaTrj^ tov Se^tov 
xipa>^, irpoOvp^ovpsvo^ i^aXXdaaeiv aiei t&v ivav- 
tUov ttjv eavTov yvfivayaiv, eirovTai Sk Std tov 

2 avTov (f>6/3ov xai oi a Wot. xaX Tore irepiea'xpv 
p,€v oi MavTiv^^ TToXv T^ xipa t&v XxiptT&v, €TI 
Si irXeov oi AaxeSaip^ovioi xal TeyeaTai t&v 

3 *AOt}vaia}v, oatp p^ei^ov to aTpaTevp^i el'xpv, Sei- 
aa^ Si *A7t9 /lij a<l)&v xvxXaoOfj to eifdvup^ov, xal 

1 With Gellius and the Schol. for icpoixBoi^v of the MSS. 

132 



BOOK V. Lxix. 2-Lxxi. 3 

addressed to the Argives and their allies; the 
Lacedaemonians^ however^ exhorted one another 
man by man, using also their war-songs — as brave 
men to remember what they had learned^ knowing 
that long-continued actual practice meant more for 
their salvation than any brief admonition, however 
well spoken. 

LXX. After this the conflict commenced, the 
Argives and their allies advancing eagerly and 
impetuously, but the Lacedaemonians slowly and to 
the music of many flute-players placed among them 
according to custom, not with any religious motive, 
but in order that they might march up with even 
step and keeping time without breaking their order, 
as large armies are apt to do in going into battle. 

LXXI. But while they were still closing. King 
Agis resolved to make the following manoeuvre. 
All armies are apt, on coming together, to thrust 
out their right wing too much ; and both sides 
extend with their right beyond their opponents' left 
wing, because in their fear each man brings his 
uncovered side as close as possible to the shield of 
the man stationed on his right, thinking that the 
closer the shields are locked together the better is 
the protection. And it is the first man on the right 
wing who is primarily responsible for this, since he 
always wants to withdraw from the enemy his own 
uncovered side, and the rest, from a like fear, follow 
his example. And so on this occasion the 
Mantineans extended with their right wing far 
beyond the Sciritae ; and the Lacedaemonians and 
Tegeates further still beyond the Athenians, 
inasmuch as their army was larger. So Agis, in fear 
that his left might be encircled, and thinking that 

133 



THUCYDIDES 

vofiica^ ayav irepU^^iv tou9 ^avTwea^^ toi? ^v 
XxipLTai<: KOI ^paaiSeioi^ ia-ijfirfvev iire^ayayov- 
Ta9 aTTo <r<f>&v i^ur&aai to?9 MavTivevtriv, e? Si 
TO Sidfcevov TOVTO Tra/y^yyeWev airo tov Se^iov 
/C€/>a>9 Bvo Xo^ov^ T&v TToXefidp^fov ^iTnrovofSa 
fcal ^ApiaToxXei exovai TrapeXOeiv xal iafiaXov- 
Ta9 irXrip&aait vofii^cov t^ 0^ kavT&v Be^i^ ert 
irepiovaiav eaeaOai KaX to Kara tou9 ^avTivea*; 
iSeffaioTcpov reTd^eadai, 

LXXII. Bivvefitf oiv auroG are iv airrfj rfj i<f)68(p 
fcal i^ oXiyov TrapayyeiXavri tov t€ ^ApiaroKXia 
fcal TOV ^IinrovotSav fit) ^OeXrjaai irapeXdetv, dXXct 
fcal Si€t TOVTO TO aiTiafia vaTcpov ^evyeiv ix 
ItTrdpTf}^, Bo^avTa^ fjLaXaKKrd^vai, koI tou9 froXe- 
fiiov^ ^Odaai Tjj irpoa-fiel^ei, fcal /ceXevaavTo^ 
avTOv, iwl TOL'9 ^KLpiTa^ (09 ov TraprjXdov oi X6')(pL9 
irdXiv aJf a'<j>ia'i frpoa-fiel^ai, firj Svvrjdrjvat €TI 

2 fir}Sk TOVTov^ ^vyfcX^aat* dXKh fidXiaTa Sf} /caTa 
irdvTa Ty ip/rreiplq Aa/ceSaifiovioi iKao'aoodevTe^ 
t6t€ TJj dvhpeia eSet^av ov;^ ^aaov ireptyevofievoi,, 

3 iiT^iir) yctp iv x^palv iyiyvovTO TOi^i ivavTLoi^, to 
fikv T&v ^avTivimv Se^iov Tpeirei, avr&v tou9 
^fciplTa^ Kol T0U9 ^paacBeioxj^:, koI iaireaovTe^ oi 
MavTivij^ Kol oi ^vfifiaxoi avT&v Koi t&v ^ApyeloDv 
oi xl'^oi XoydSe^ KaTct to Bidxevov KaX ov f 1/7- 
fcXyaOev tov^ Aa/ceSaifioviov^ Sii<j)0€tpov k<u kv- 
KXacdfievoi eTpeyjrav fcal i^iaxrav 69 t^9 dfid^a^ 
KoX T&v TrpecfivTcpcov T&v ifrtTeTorffievoDv diri- 

134 



BOOK V. Lxxi. 3-LXXI1. 3 

the Mantineans were extending too far beyond it, 
gave orders to the Sciritae and the soldiers of 
Brasidas to move out, away from his main body, 
and make the line equal to that of the Mantineans ; 
then he directed two polemarchs, Hipponoi'das and 
Aristocles, to cross over with two companies from 
the right wing, throw themselves in and fill up the 
gap thus created, thinking that his own right wing 
would still have more than enough men, and that 
the line opposed to the Mantineans would be 
strengthened. 

LXXII. It turned out, then, as he gave this order 
at the very moment of the attack and on a sudden, 
that Aristocles and Hipponoi'das refused to move 
over — for which offence they were afterwards exiled 
from Sparta, as they were considered to have acted as 
cowards ; and that the enemy were too quick for 
him in coming to close quarters ; and then, when 
the companies did not move over to replace the 
Sciritae, and he gave orders to the Sciritae to join 
the main body again, even these were now no 
longer able to close up the line. Yet in the most 
striking way the Lacedaemonians, although they were 
in all respects proved inferior in point of tactical 
skill, did on this occasion show that they were none 
the less superior in courage. For when they came 
to close quarters with the foe, the right wing of the 
Mantineans routed, it is true, the Sciritae and the 
Brasideans, and then the Mantineans and their allies 
and the thousand picked men of the Argives, 
rushing into the gap that had not been closed, 
played havoc with the Lacedaemonians; for they 
surrounded and put them to rout, and drove them in 
among the wagons, slaying* some of the older men 

135 



THUCYDIDES 

4 Kreivdv riva^, teaX ravTrj fi€v iQaaAirro oi Aaxe- 
Saifiovior r^ Bk aWto arparoTriSqi, fcal fiaKiaTa 
T^ jjueatp, yirep 6 fiaaiXeif^ fjv *Ayi<; fcal irepl 
avTov oi rpuifcoaioi itttt^? fcaXovfiepoi, TrpoaTre- 
aovre^ r&v re 'ApyeUov rot? irpealSvTepoL^ koI 
iremeKo'Xpi^; aivofjuurfjiivoi^ Kal KXeayvcuoi^ xal 
^Opvedrai^ xal ^Affrjvaitov rot? irapaTerayfiivoi^ 
erpe^av ovhi €9 X^^/>«9 tou? ttoWou? virofLelvavrw;, 
aX)C 609 iTTJjo'ap oi AaxeBaifiopioi, evOv^ ivSovra^ 
Kol ecTiv oft? Koi KarairaT'qdevTa^ tov fiif <f>0r]vai 
t})v iyfcardKrfyfnv. 

LXXIII. 'fl? Bk ravrj) iveSeSfoxei to t&v 
^ApyeUov xal ^Vfifid)(€ov arpaTevfia, irapeppij' 
yvvvTO 7j8r) afia Kal i^* ifcdrepa, Kal a/ui ro 
Se^iov T&v AafceBaifjbovioDV kcu Teyear&v e/ev- 
kXovto t^ irepiexovTi aip&v tou9 ^Affrfvaiov^, Kal 
dfi<f>oTep(o0€V aifToif^ xivSwo^ irepieKTTijKei, rfj 
fiev KVKXovfievov^, r^ Se ijBrj '^aarjfiivov^, Kal 
fidXiar &v rov arpaTevfiaro^ iTaXanrdapviaav, ei 

2 jjLTf oi /tttt^? irapovre^ aurot? o^eXifioi fftrav, Kal 
^vve/Sf) TOi' ^Ayiv, co9 ^adero to evoavvpLov a^&v 
iTovovv TO KaTk T0U9 Mai/T4V€a9 Kal T&v ^Apyeitov 
T0U9 XAXtou9, irapayyeiXai iravTi t^ trrpaTevfiaTi 

3 yedprjiTai iirl to viKa>fjuevov. Kal y€vop,ivov tovtov 
oi fi€v ^Afftfvaloi iv TOintp, c&9 TraprfXde Kal i^i- 
kXivcv aTTo a^&v to aTpoTevfuij Kaff fiav^Lav 



136 



BOOK V. Lxxii. 3-LXX111. 3 

stationed there. In this quarter, then, the 
Lacedaemonians were worsted ; but in the rest of 
the army, and especially in the centre, where King 
Agis was, and about him the three hundred who 
were called knights,^ they fell upon the older men 
of the Argives, the so-called five companies, and 
upon the Cleonaeans, the Omeates, and those of the 
Athenians that were arrayed with them, and routed 
them. Most of the enemy did not even wait to come 
to blows, but when the Lacedaemonians came on gave 
way at once, some of them being trodden underfoot 
in their effort to get out of the way before being 
hemmed in by the Lacedaemonians. 

LXXII L When the army of the Argives and 
their allies had given way in this quarter, their line 
was on the point of being broken in both directions ; 
and at the same time the right wing of the 
Lacedaemonians and the Tegeates was beginning to 
encircle the Athenians with the outflanking part of 
their own line ; and so danger beset them on both 
sides, for they were being surrounded in one quarter 
and had been already defeated in the other. And 
they would have suffered more than any part of the 
whole army if their cavalry had not been present 
and proved helpful to them. It happened, too, that 
Agis, perceiving that the left of his own forces, 
which was opposed to the Mantineans and the 
thousand Argives, was in distress, gave orders for 
the whole army to go to the assistance of the part 
that was in danger of defeat. When this was done, 
the Athenians, as the enemy's force passed on and 
moved away horn them, quietly made their escape, 

^ Chosen from the flower of the Spartan youth and serving 
as a royal body-guard, on foot as well as on horseback. 



THUCYDIDES 

iatoOtfaav xal r&v ^Afxyeiwv fier axnSiv to 'qtra-rj' 
0€v» oi Sk MavTivrj^ xal oi ^vfifiay^oi koI t&v 
*Apy€L(ov olXoydSe^ ovkSti irpo^ to iy/celaOai toi<; 
ivavTLoi^ TTjv yvd)fir}v €l)(^ov, aW' 6p€ovT€^ tov? t€ 
(r<f>€T€pov^ veviK7}fi€vov<; Kal tov^ AaKeSaifioviov^ 
4 €7n^€pofiivov^ 69 <j>vy7jv irpaTTovTO. Kal t&v fi€v 
M.avTiv€(ov Kol 7r\€tou9 St€(f>ddp7faav, t&v Sc 
^ApyeLODv \oydSQ}v to ttoXv iaddr). 17 fJbivTOL 
ij>vyrj Kol d7rox<^pV^^^ ^^ l3iaio<; ovSe fjua/cpa ^v 
oi yip Aa/ceSaifiovioi fiexpt fJ^v tov Tpeyfrat xpo- 
viov^ tA? /laya? KaX jSe^aiov^ t^ fieveiv TTOiovvTai, 
Tp€y^avT€<: Be /Spax^ui^ /cal ovk iirl iroKv tA? 

LXXIV. Kal 17 fiev /a^X^ TOiavTtj Kal oti 
iyyvTUTa tovtoov iyiveTO, irXeiaTov Brf XP^^^^ 
fieyiaTtf Srf t&v *^WrjviK&v koI vtto d^io- 
2 \oyQ}TdT(t)v irokeoDV ^vveXBovaa* oi he Aaxe- 
SaLfjLOVioL irpoffefievoi t&v iroXefUoyv veicp&v to, 
oirXa Tpoiralov ev6v^ itXTaa-av /cal tov? v€Kpoif<; 
eafcvXevov koI TOv<i avT&v dveiXovTO koL dirrj- 
yayov 69 l^eyeav, ovirep eTdtfjfqaav, kol tou9 t&v 
TToXefiLcav viroaTrovBov^ direhoaav. airedavov Sh 
^Apyeitov fiev koI ^OpveuT&v Kal KXecovaicov 
eiTTaKoaioi, M-amiveayv Se Scafcoaioc, teal *A0r)- 
vaitov ^vv AiyLvrjTav^ Siafcoatoi Kal oi OTpaTrjyol 
d/jL<j>6T€poi, AaKeBaifiovicov Se oi piv ^vfifia^oi 
OVK eTdkanrii>pr)<Tav &aT€ Kal d^ioXoyov ti diro- 
yeveaOar avT&v Be x^Xeirov fiev ffv ttjv aXiy- 
detav TTvdeadaiy eXeyovTO Be irepl TpcaKoaiov^ 
diroffavelv, 

LXXV. T^9 Bk fid^V^ p^Wovtrtf^ eaeaOaL Kal 



1^8 



BOOK V. Lxxiii. 3-Lxxv. i 

and with them the part of the Argives that had 
been worsted. The Mantineans and their allies^ on 
the other hand^ and the picked men of the Argives^ 
were no longer disposed to press home the attack on 
their opponents^ but seeing their own side defeated 
and the Lacedaemonians bearing down upon them^ 
turned to flight. On the part of the Mantineans 
the losses were more serious^ but of the picked men 
of the Argives the greater part was saved. The 
flighty however, was not hotly pursued^ nor did the 
retreat extend to any great distance ; for the 
Lacedaemonians fight their battles long and 
stubbornly, standing their ground until they rout 
their foes, but when they have routed them their 
pursuits are brief and only for a little distance. 

LXXIV. Such, then, was the battle — or as like as 
possible to this description — being the greatest that 
had occurred within a very long time between Hellenic 
forces, and fought by the most famous states. The 
Lacedaemonians, halting in front of their enemies' 
dead, straightway set up a trophy and stripped the 
slain, then took up their own dead and withdrew to 
Tegea, where they buried them, giving up under 
truce those of the enemy. There were slain, of the 
Argives, Orneates and Cleonaeans seven hundred, of 
the Mantineans two hundred, of the Athenians, 
together with the Aeginetans,^ two hundred, and 
both their generals. On the side of the Lacedae- 
monians, the allies did not suffer so that any number 
worth mentioning was missing ; about themselves it 
was difficult to learn the truth, but near three 
hundred were said to have been killed. 

LXXV. As the battle was about to take place, 

^ Athenian colonists settled in Aegina ; r/ ii. xxvii. 1. 

139 



THUCYDIDES 

UXeiaToava^ 6 erepo^ PaciKeif^ tx<idv rov^ t€ 
irpeo'lSvTepov^ Koi vetorepov^ i/Soi^ffrjae, xal p^xpi 
fi€V Teyia^: a^i/cero, irvdofievo^ Bi rifv vIkt^v 

2 a'jTe)((ap'q<T€v, KaX tov? airo Kopivdov xal e^a> 
ladfJMV ^vp»iJLa/)(pv^ airerpeyfrav irifiylravTe^ oi 
AaKcSaifiovtot, koI avTol dvax^pi^travref; kcu 
Toif<; ^vfifid'^ov^ oApivre^ (K.dpv€ia yhp avToh 

3 iTvy')(avov ovto) ttjv eoprifv Jffov. kcu Tr)V viro 
T&v 'ISiWtjvcov t6t€ €7n<j)€pofi€injv alriav I9 re 
fiaXaxiav Sid rifV iv rfj vrjctp ^vfi<f>opdv koI 69 
rtjv aWr)v d/SovXiav t€ koI /SpaSvTrjra ivl Ipy^ 
Tovrtp dTreKvaavTo, tv^V f^^ ®? iSofcow xaxi- 
^ofievot, yv(ofir} Sk ol avrol In 6vt€<:. 

4 T§ Sk irporepaia r)iiipa ^vvifir} rrj^ f^XV^ 
TavTTj^ fcal T0U9 ^EinSavpiov^ TravSrffiel ialSaXeip 
€9 Tr)V ^ A.py€Lav 0)9 iprjfiov oiaav koX tou9 
virokoiiTov^; <f>v\aKa<: t&v ^Apyeicov i^eXdovrayp 

5 avT&v htcufidelpai iroXKov^. fcal 'H\aa)i/ rpia'yi,' 
\ia>v ottXit&v j3or)ffr)advTcov Mavrtv€V<n,v vaTepop 
T^9 JJ'dxv^ ^^ ^Adrfvattov x^Xicov 7rpo9 tol<; irpo- 
repots, earpdrevaav airavTe^; oi ^vfifiaxoi ovrot 
€v0if^ iirl ^ETriSavpov, €G)9 oi AaKeSacfiovioL Kdp- 
veia fjyov, fcal BieXofievot rrfv iroKiv irepieTeLyi^ov. 

6 KoX oi fikv aWot i^erravaavrOi ^Affrjvaloi Be, 
&a"irep irpoa-eTd'xd'n^cLVt rifV axpav to "Hpaiop 
€v0if^ i^eipydaaPTO, fcal iv TovT(p ^vyKaraXi- 
irovre^ airavre^ t^ rcL'xio-fiaTi <f>povpdv dv€Xo>pi]' 
aav Kara iroKei^ e/caaToi. fcal to depo^ irekevra. 

* c/. oh. Ixiv. 3. * c/. ch. Ixiv. 4. 

140 



BOOK V. Lxxv. 1-6 

PleistoanaX; the other king^ set out with the older 
and younger men ^ to bring succour^ and got as far as 
Tegea ; but learning there of the victory he 
returned. The allies^ too, from Corinth and from 
outside the Isthmus ^ were turned back by mes- 
sengers sent by the Lacedaemonians, who then 
likewise withdrew and, dismissing their allies, cele- 
brated the festival of the Carneia ; for it happened Aug. 
to fall at that time. And the charge brought *^^^*^- 
against them at that time by the Hellenes, both of 
cowardice because of the calamity on the island of 
Sphacteria, and of general bad judgment and dilatori- 
ness, they had wiped' out by this one action ; they 
were thought to have incurred disgrace through 
ill-luck, but to be still the same in spirit. 

The day before this battle it happened also that 
the £pidaurians in fiill force invaded the territory of 
Argos, thinking to find it now undefended, and slew 
many of those who had been left behind as guards 
when the main body of the Argives had taken the 
field. And now, since three thousand Elean hoplites 
had come to the aid of the Mantineans after the 
battle, and also one thousand Athenians in addition 
to their former contingent, all these allies marched 
at once against Epidaurus, while the Lacedae- 
monians were celebrating the Carneia, and proceeded 
to build a wall round the city, dividing up the work. 
The rest indeed left off, but the Athenians soon 
finished the fortification of the promontory on which 
stood the Heraeum, which was the part that had 
been assigned to them. In this part of the 
fortification they left a garrison, to which all 
contributed, and then withdrew to their several 
cities. And so the summer ended. 

141 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXVI. Tov S' iiriycyvofievov j(€ifi&vo^ ^PX^' 
fiivov evdv^ oi AaxeSaifiovioL^ i^eaTpdrevaav, 
KoX a^iKOfievoi €9 Teyeai' Xo^yov*; irpovTrefiTrov €9 

2 TO ''A/0709 ^vfijSaTTfpLOv^. f^aav he avTol^ irpo- 
repov T€ avSp€^ iinTijSeioi fcal fiovXofievot tov 
Sfjfiov TOV iv ''Apyci KaTokvaai, koI iireiSrf rj 
fidxv iy^evrjTO, ttoW^ fiaXXov ihvvavTO ireiffeiv 
T0U9 7roA\ot'9 €9 Ti)v ofioXojiav. ijSovXovTO Se 
wp&Tov fTTTOvha^ Troiri<TavT€<; irpo^ Toif^ AaKcSai- 
fioviov^ aiOi^ vaTepov koX ^vfifiaxio^Vf fcal ovto)^ 

3 ^Sr; Tc5 Bi^fitp eTTLTideadai, koX dtfiiKvelTav irpo- 
^€V0^ cjv ^Apyelcov At;^a9 o ^ ApfceaiKdov irapd 
T&v AaxeBaifiovitov Bvo Xoyoo <f>iptov £9 to *'Ap709, 
TOV fiev KadoTi el fiovXovTat TroXepslv, tov S' 0)9 
€t eiprjvriv ayeiv, koI yevopAvrj^ 7ro\X^9 avTi- 
\07ta9 {erv-^e yctp fcal 6 * AXKijSidSrff; wapdv) oi 
avBpe^ oi to?9 AaKeSaifiovioi^ irpdaaovTe^, tjSt) 
Koi i/c TOV ^avepov To\fi&vT€^, eireiaav tou9 
^Apyeiov^ irpoaBe^aadai tov ^vfijSaTijptov \6yov. 
€<TTi Be oBe, 

LXXVII.^ " KaTTaBe Boxet Ta eKKKrjaia t&v 
AaKeBaifiovLODv ^Vfi/SaXeaOaL ttottw ^Apyeio)^. 

" 'A7roStSoi'Ta9 tc!)9 iraiSa^ T0t9 ^Op^ojievioi^ 
KaX Ta>9 avBpa<; T0&9 Mati/a\to£9j teal Ta)9 
dvBpa^ T6i>9 ev MavTiveia toI^; AaKeSaifiovioi^ 
dfroBiBovTa^;. 
2 " Kai ef *l&7nBavpoi) €fcj3&vTa^ fcal to Te«%09 
dvaipovvTa^. al Be xa firj eiKoyvTi toI *A07}vaioi 
ef ^EimBavpo), 7roXe/Uft)9 elfiev T0t9 ^Apyeloi^ koX 

^ iiruh)) rik Kipveia Ijyayov, in the.MSS. after ol AaK€9atfi6- 
vioi, bracketed bv Hude, following Kriigor. 

^ The dialect in chs. Ixxvii. and Ixxix. is Doric. 

142 



BOOK V. LXXVI. I-LXXVII. 2 

LXXVI. At the very beginning of the following 
winter, the Lacedaemonians led out an army and 
came to Tegea, whence they sent on to Argos 
proposals for peace. There had been before this 
partisans of theirs at Argos who wished to put down 
the democracy there, and after the battle had been 
fought they were far better able to persuade the 
people to come to an agreement with Sparta. They 
wished, after they had first made a treaty with the 
Lacedaemonians, to conclude later an alliance also, 
and having done so to attack the democracy. And 
now there arrived at Argos Lichas son of Arcesilaus, 
proxenus of the Argives, bringing from the 
Lacedaemonians two proposals : the one stating on 
what conditions they should make war, if they 
wished that; the other, how they should keep the 
peace, if they preferred that. And after much 
opposition — for Alcibiades chanced to be present — 
the men who were working for the Lacedaemonians, 
venturing now to act openly, persuaded the Argives 
to accept the proposal for peace, which was as 
follows : 

LXXVn. " It seems good to the assembly of the 
Lacedaemonians to make an agreement with the 
Argives on the following terms : 

1 . ^^ The Argives shall restore to the Orchomenians ^ 
their children and to the Maenalians ^ their men, 
and to the Lacedaemonians ^ the men they deposited 
at Mantinea. 

2. "They shall evacuate Epidaurus and demolish 

the fortification there. And if the Athenians do 

not withdraw from Epidaurus, they shall be enemies 

* c/. ch. Ixi. 5. 

^ cf. ch. 1x1. 4, though the Maenalians are not expressly 
mentioned there. ' q/". ch. Ixi. 6. 

143 



THUCYDIDES 

T0t9 AaKeSaifiovioi^ xal rot? r&v AaKeSaifiovloDv 
^vfifid^oi^ Kal Tot9 T&v ^Afyyeitav ^v^fm'xpi^;. 

3 '' Kat al Tiva toI AaKehaifiovioi iralBa exovri, 
dwoBofiev ral^ iroXleaa'c 7rd<rai^, 

4 " Hepl Be T& <Ti& avfiaro^, al jjuev \rjv, T0t9 
^EiriBavpLoi^ opKov Bofiev, ai Be, avTco^ ofioa-ai. 

5 *' Td<; Be 7r6\ca<; Td<; ev TleKoirovvaafp, Kal 
fit/cpct^ Kal fieydXa^, avTOVofuo^ elfiev irdaa^ 
Karrh irdrpta, 

6 " At Be Ka T&v iKTo^ UeXoTrowdao) Tt9 ifrl rav 
UeTi^oirowaaov ydv tj) iirl KaKw, dXe^efievai 
dfioffi fiovKeva-afievm^, oira Ka BiKatorara Boktj 
Toi^ HeXoTTovvaa-Lot^. 

7 "^^Oaaoi S' 6^T09 HeXoirowdaa) t&v AaKcBai- 
/loVLfov ^vfjLfiaxoL ivTL, ev T^ avT^ iaaovmai ev 
T^irep Kal toI t&v AaKeBaifiovitov Kal toI t&v 
*Apyei(ov ^vfifiaxoi ivTt, tclv avT&v e)(pvTe^, 

8 " 'E7rt86tfai/Ta9 Be toI<; ^VfipAxoi^ ^vp^^aXe- 
aOai, at Ka avTOi^ Bokt}, al Be tl Boktj tol^ f^A*'- 
p.dxpt^t ol/caB^ dfridXXTjv.^* 

LXXVIII. Tovtov p>ev tov Xoyov irpoaeBe^avTO 
irp&Tov oi *Apyeioi, koI t&v AaK€Bai>px)vla>v to 
<TTpdT€vp,a dvex^pV^^v ^^ tj}9 T€7€a9 eir oXkov 
p^Tct Be TOVTO eTnp,ei^ia<; ovcq^; tjBrj irap oKKr^- 
Xoi;9* oi> TToKK^ vaTepov enrpa^av avdi^ oi avTol 
avBp€<; &<TTe tt^v TAavTiveaov Kal Ttfv *Adr)vala>v Koi 
^HXeitov ^up^fba^iav d^evTa^ ^Apyeiov^ CTrovBit^ 



144 



BOOK V. LXXVII. 2-LXXVlII. 

to the Argives and Lacedaemonians, and to the allies 
of the Lacedaemonians and to the allies of the 
Argives. 

3. '^ If the Lacedaemonians have in custody any 
chOdren, they shall restore these in all cases to their 
cities. 

4. *^As to the offering to the god,^ if they wish they 
shall impose an oath upon the Epidaurians ; but if 
not, they shall swear it themselves. 

5. "The cities in the Peloponnesus, both small and 
great, shall all be independent according to their 
hereditary usages. 

6. "If anyone from outside the Peloponnesus 
comes against Peloponnesian territory with evil 
intent, they shall repel the invader, taking counsel 
together, in whatever way shall seem to the 
Peloponnesians most just. 

7. " Such states as are allies of the Lacedaemonians 
outside of the Peloponnesus shall be on the same 
footing as are the other allies of the Lacedae- 
monians and of the Argives, all retaining their own 
territory. 

8. "They shall communicate this agreement to 
their allies and make terms with them, if it seem 
best. But if the allies prefer, they may send the 
treaty home for consideration." ^ 

LXXVII I. The Argives accepted this proposal at 
first, and the army of the Lacedaemonians returned 
home from Tegea. But not long after this, when 
there was now intercourse between them, the same 
men again brought it about that the Argives 
renounced the alliance with the Mantineans, Eleans, 

* Apollo Pythaeus ; c/. ch. liii. 

' i.e. may refer it back to the states for their decision. 

145 

VOL. III. L 



THUCYDIDES 

Kol ^vfifiaxicLV iroirjaacdav irpo^ AaK€Saifioviov<;. 
Kol iyevovTO aiSe, 

LXXIX. " KaTTaSe eSo^e roi^ AaKeSaifiovioL^ 
Kal ^Apyeioi^ <Tirovha<i koL ^vfifiax^ov elfiev irev- 
rrjKOVTa eriy. 

" 'EttI T0t9 ?<rot9 Kai ofioioi^ hixa^ SiBovra^ 
fearrh irarpia* ral Be aXkai ttoXlc^ ral iv 
TleXoTTouvdao) KOivaveovrayv rav airovhav koX 
Ta9 ^vfifia'x^La<; avrovofioi Kal avT07r6\L€^, rctv 
avT&v €')(ovT€^, Karra iraTpia hiKw; BlS6pt€<: ra? 
iaa^ Koi 6fioLa<;. 

""Oero-ot Se €^a> ll€\oTrovvd<T(o AaK€Sai^VLOi<; 
^vfifiaxoi ivTi, iv rot? avTOL<; ia-aovvrai Tolairep 
Kal Tol AaKcBaifiovior Kal toI t&v ^ApyeLojv 
^vfMfia)(pt iv T^ avT^ iaaovvrai rSurep kcli toI 
^Apyeloi, TCLV avT&v e^ovTe^;, 

" At Se TTOi o-TpaTcia^ Birf Koiva^y /SovXeveadai 
AaKeBaifiovCo}^ Kal ^Apyeiw^ oira Ka BtKaioTara 
KpivavTa<; tol^ ^Vfifidxpi^* 

"At Be TLVL rav ttoXlodv y djj^iXoya, ^ rdv 
ivTo^ fj rdv 6/CT09 YleXoTrovvdaco, aire irepl op(ov 
aire irepl aXKov tivo^, BiaKpiOfjfiev, al Be rt? 
T&v ^vfifjud^f^v 7roXt9 TToXi epi^OL, 69 TToXiv eXdelVf 
av riva taav djj,(f>OLV ral^ TroXieaai Bokcloi. 

" T(i!)9 Be eTa9 ^ KaTrd irdrpia BiKd^etrffai** 

LXXX. At fi€v airovBal Kal rj ^Vfifiaxia avrr) 
iy€yevr)TO' Kal onoaa dXXtjXeov iroXefitp fj el n 
SXKo eixpv, BieXvaavTo, koiv^ Bk i]Br) rd irpdy- 

^ Poppo'8 correction for rois 8^ $rais of the MSS. 
146 



BOOK V. Lxxviii.-Lxxx. I 

and Athenians and concluded a treaty and an 
alliance with the Lacedaemonians to this effect : 

LXXIX. " It has seemed good to the Lacedae- 
monians and the Argives to conclude a treaty and 
an alliance for fifty years on the following terms : 

L "They shall offer settlements by law under 
conditions that are fair and impartial^ according to 
hereditary usage. The rest of the cities in the 
Peloponnesus shall share in the treaty and alliance^ 
being independent and self-governed, retaining their 
own territory, and offering settlements by law that 
are fair and impartial according to hereditary usage. 

2. ^' Such states as are allies of the Lacedaemonians 
outside of the Peloponnesus shall stand upon the 
same footing as the Lacedaemonians ; and the allies 
of the Argives shall be upon the same footing as 
the Argives, all retaining their own territory. 

3. ''If there be need to send a common expedi- 
tion to any quarter, the Lacedaemonians and the 
Argives shall consult and adjudge to the allies their 
allotments in whatever way is fairest. 

4. " If there be any dispute on the part of any one 
of the cities, either of those within the Peloponnesus 
or without, whether about boundaries or anything 
else, the matter shall be judicially decided. But if 
any city of the allies quarrel with another, they shall 
appeal to some city which both deem to be impartial. 

5. "Individual citizens shall conduct their suits 
according to hereditary usage.*' 

LXXX. Such was the treaty and alliance that was 
concluded ; and all the places which either side had 
acquired from the other in war they restored, or 
if there was any other ground of difference between 
them, they came to an agreement about it. Acting 

147 



THUCYDIDES 

fjMTa Ti0€fJL€voi iylrr}(f>ia'avTO Kijpvxa koI irpea- 
^eiav Trapa ^A0r]vaL€ov fitf 7rpo(TS€)^€<T0ai, fjv firj 
€K HeXoirovvyjaov i^iwai, tcl tclxv i/cXiTTovre^, 
xal fit) ^vfifiaivetv T(p firjSe TrdKejJLelv aXV ff cifia, 

2 Koi TCL T€ aWa dvfiA €(f>€pov Kal €9 ra iirl 
^paKTj^ ')(wpla Koi 0)9 TlepSiKKav hrepA^av apxj)6- 
T€poi irpia-^ei^. /cat aviireLaav WepiiKKav ^vvo- 
p,6aai (T<f>[<Tiv' ov p>€VTOL €v0v^ ye aTreaTi] t&v 
^A0i]vaLcov, aWa Sievoelro, on koX roif^ ^Apyeiov^ 
eiopa' ^v Se Kal avrb^ to ap'ycuov i^ '^Apyov<;. 
Kal Tot9 HaXKtSevai rov^; re 7ra\aiov<; opKOV^ 

3 dvevedxravTO /cal aXXov^; &p,o<TCLv^ eirep/^av Be 
Kal Trapa roif^ ^A0r)vaiov^ ol ^Apyeioi Trpea^ei^, 
TO e^ ^EiriBavpov rel^o^ K€\evovT€<; eKXtirelv oi 
8' opcovTe^ oXiyoi 7r/309 7rX€toi;9 oi^T€9 toi;9 ^vp,- 
^vXaKa^ eirep^yjrav Ar)p^a0€vr] tov<; <T<^eTepov^ 
i^d^ovra, 6 Be df^LKop^evo^ Kal a/^&vd riva 
7rp6(f)a<Tiv yvp,vLKOv e^co rov (f)povp[ov Troiija'a^, 
ft)9 e^riK0e to aXKo <})povpiov, direKXrjae Ta9 
7ri;\a9. Kal va-repov ^EiiriBavploi^ dvavecoadp^evoi 
Ta9 (TiTovBd^ avTol oi ^ A0rjvaloL direBoaav to 
T€t;\;t(7yLia. 

LXXXI. MeTa Be ttjv t&v ^Apyelfov diroa-Taciv 
€K T?j9 ^vppa')(ia^ Kal oi MaPTLvi]^, to p,ev irpcoTov 
dvT€)(0VT€<;, eireiT ov Bvvdpevoi avev t&v 'Ap- 
yeitoVy ^vve/Srja'av koI avTol Tot9 AaKeBaipbOvioi^ 
2 Kal Tfjv dp^rjp dffielaav t&v iroXecov. Kal AaKe- 
BaipLovioL Kal ^Apyeloi, 'x^iXioi e/idTepoi, ^vaTpa- 

* cf. II. xcix. 3. • cf. ch. Ixxv. 6. 

148 



BOOK V. LXXX. I-LXXXI. 2 

now in concert in their affairs, they voted not to 
receive herald or embassy from the Athenians, 
unless they evacuated their forts and withdrew 
from the Peloponnesus ; also not to make peace 
or carry on war with anyone except together. 
And not only did they prosecute other matters 
with energy, but both of them sent envoys 
to the places in Thrace and to Perdiccas. And 
they persuaded Perdiccas to swear alliance with 
them. He, however, did not desert the Athenians 
at once, but was thinking of it, because he saw the 
Argives had done so ; for he was himself of Argive 
descent.^ With the Chalcidians, too, they renewed 
their ancient oaths, and swore new ones. The 
Argives also sent envoys to the Athenians bidding 
them evacuate the fortress at Epidaurus ; - and 
these, seeing that their contingent was small in 
comparison with the rest, sent Demosthenes to bring 
away tlieir men. On his arrival he made a pretext of 
some gymnastic contest outside the fort, and when 
the rest of the garrison had gone out closed the gates 
behind them. Afterwards the Athenians renewed 
the treaty with the Epidaurians and of their own 
accord gave up the fortress. 

LXXXI. After the withdrawal of the Argives 
from the alliance, the Mantineans also, although at 
first opposed to this course, afterwards, finding 
themselves unable to hold out without the Argives, 
likewise made an agreement with the Lacedae- 
monians and relinquished their sovereignty over 
the cities.' And now the Lacedaemonians and 
Argives, each a thousand strong, made a joint 

'^ i,e. over the Parrhasians and others in Arcadia; c/. ch. 
xxix. 1 ; xxxiii. 1 ; Ixii. 1. 

149 



THUCYDIDES 

fiara riOifievoi iyjrr)(f>L<TavTO /crjpVKa Kai irpetT' 
fieiav Trapa ^KOr^vaitov firj irpoahex'^aOai, fjv pJq 
ifc TleXoirovpijaov i^icoai ra tclxv ifcXtTTovTe^;, 
Kai fifj ^vfi^aiveiv T(p firjSe iroXefieiv aW r) a/ia, 

2 Kol rd T€ aWa 6vfia> €(f>€pov Kai €9 T<i iirl 
&pdKr}<; 'x^fopia Kai o)? TlephlKKav €7r€fiyfrav dfjxpo- 
repot irpea^ei^, Kai dviireKrav UepSiKKap ^vvo- 
fioaai (T<f>Laiv' ov jMevroi evBv^ ye direaTr} tS}v 
^Adijvaicov, dWd BievoecTO, ort Kai tou? ^Apyeiovs 
€(opa' ^v he Kai avro^ to dp')((iiov i^ "Apyov^, 
Kai Tot? XaX/ftSeOcrt rov^ re 7ra\aiov<; opKOV^ 

3 dvevecoaavTO Kai dXXov^ wfioaav^ eire/nyfrav Be 
Kai rrapd roif^ ^AOr^vaiov^ ol ^Apyeloi Trpea-jSei^, 
TO i^ ^EiriSavpov rel^o^ Ke\evovre<; €K\i7reiv ol 
S* opcovTe^ okiyot, irpo^ 7r\€Lov<; ovref; tov^ ^^f^- 
<^vkaKa^ eirefiyjrav AijfioaOevr] Toiff; aKperepov^ 
i^d^ovTa, 6 Se df^iKOjjLevo^ Kai dy&vd riva 
7rp6(f>aatv yvfiviKOV e^co rod (ppovpiov TroLrja'a^, 
ft)9 e^rfkOe to SXKo <f>povpiov, direKXrjae Ta9 
7ri;Xa9. Kai vaTepov ^Fmihavpioi^ dvavedoadfievou 
Ta9 (TTTovBd^ avTol ol ^ AOrjvaloL direhoa'av to 

TeL')(L<TpAl, 

LXXXI. Mera ik rrjv t&v ^Apyeicov diroa-Taciv 
€K T?}9 ^vfipxi'x^iaf; Kai oi Mavrivij^, to fiev TrpcoTov 
dvTe'XpvTe^, eirevT ov Bvvdfievoi dvev t&v 'Ap- 
yeicov, ^vve^rja'av Kai avTol Tot9 AaKeBai/JLovLoi<; 
2 Kai Tfjv dp)(f}v d(f>eLaav t&v iroXetov, Kai AaKe- 
BaifjiovLov Kai ^Apyeloi, 'ytXioi, e/cdrepoi^yaTpa' 

* cf. II. xcix. 3. 
148 



BOOK V. Lxxx. i-Lxxxi. 1 

now in concert in their afTairs, they voted not to 
receive herald or embassy from the Athr^niatiD, 
unless they evacuated their forts and withdraw 
from the Peloponnesus ; also not to cnake fn^iux 
or carry on war with anyone except together. 
And not only did they prosecute other niatt«r« 
with energy, but both of them sent envoy* 
to the places in Thrace and to Perdicrav And 
they persuaded Perdiccas to swear allianc'r with 
them. He, however, did not desert the .Ath':niatu 
at once, but was Ihinkinj; of it, Itecaus* lie ww th* 
Aigives had done so : for he was hirn>i*:]f iif Arji/T 
descent.^ With the ChaSc-idiam, Um, they rt-rj'Twwl 
their ancient oiths, airi sw>re new (i*i»r*. 'I't^ 
Argives a\si> sent enror; t/i trie A-Seniam b.'M,.-,if 
them evacuate the 'J/nr^-ji a* Y.:,.-U-tT-i'. ; - asA 
these, seeing thrt ti.'ra' -r-r.* .-.i-'rr.'*. »ii ir/-* . .t, 
comparison withttientt. vx.'. lr^-:y/-::^.t.'^ V, -^.rg 
away their men. (hlAtcr.i*: -^ K^e a fx-^^r'. -k 
some gymnastic coMea -^-.i i^ -„-,* ?v-. »:y. ■.- -. 
therest ofthegarre/tVK j « '>.- - ■f*f.:fi>::^ 
behind them. AfUrwri, -.j. 4--^-j.-i "~^-A 

the treaty with iht E^aj^^.j ^.^- .y ,,^ 

accord gave up the Wp^ 

LXXXI. After lU r^„i,^^ ._^.., ,.,..^ 
from the alliance, ih* Hj^^^^^ ^ ' ^ \ . . ' ^ 
first opposed to tla^ ,,,^ \,^'., - " 'iwiJo? 
themselves "i^We to W,<^^;,_ , ,_'.' .^,va 
likewise made sn »grw*ar , ■""--,; >-'*^ 
monians and relin,iM4(j 3-_ " '" ' -- -"^ 



cities.' And dm 



Argives, 






^ I-b-- 



?fi-' 



r^ 



THUCYDlbES 

T€v<ravT€^, Ta t iu ^ikv&vi e? oXiyov^ fidWov 
KaTiarrjo'av avroi oi AaKeSaifiovLOi, iXjSovre^, fcal 
fi€T eKelva ^vva/KpoTCpoi rjSr) xal rov iv ^Apyei 
Srj/Mov KaTcXvaav, koI oXtyapx^o, iinT'qheia toi? 
Aa/c€SaifjLOVLOL<; KaTeaTrj, koI tt/oo? eap T]Srj ravra 
7iv Tov x^t/M&vof; XrjyovTO^, Kal Teraprov koI 
heKarov eVo? t& iroXi/JLtp ireXevra, 

LXXXII. Tov S* iTTiyiyvofievov Oepov^ Ai7]<; t€ 
oi iv'^Adfp aireaTrjaav^ A6r)vaLO)v irpo^ ^aXKiSia^ 
/cat AaKcSai/iovioi ra iv ^Axaua ovk iTriTrjBeLtof; 

2 Trporepov e^ovra KaOiaravTO, fcal ^Apyeiwv 6 
Brjfio<; Kar oXlyov ^vviard/uievo^: re koI avaOaparj- 
aa^ eirWevro rol^ oXiyoi^t T'rjpi]aavT€^ aura? ra^ 
yvfivoiraihla^ r&v AaKehavfiovimv, koX fid^V^ 
y€vofi€vrj<; iv ry iroXei iireKpdrrjaev 6 Sijfio^, Kal 

3 T0U9 fi€V d7rifCT€iv€, Tov<: Se i^rjXacrev, ol hi 
AaKehaifi6vi,0L, eiw? fiev avToi)^ /jLeTeirifiTrovTO oi 
(l>iXoi, OVK fiXOov €K irXeiovo^, dva/3aX6fi€voi Be 
TCLf; yvfivoiraiBia^ i^orjOovv^ koX iv Teyea irvOo- 
fievoi on vevLKijvTaL oi oXiyot,, irpoeXOelv jxev 
ovKerv rjOeXrjaav Beofievoiv t<ov Sia'ireKpevyoTcov, 
dva')(o>pVO'CLVT€^ Be iir^ otxov ra^ yvfivoiraiBia^; 

4 fjyov. Kal varepov iXffovTcov Trpiaffeayv diro re 
T&v iv TTJ TToXei KaX dyyiXfov ^ rav e^fo *Apy€L€0Vy 
irapovToyv re rSiv ^v/JLfidxoyv Kal prjOevrayv ttoXXcov 

^ Miiller-Striibing's order, for ayytKuv koI of the MSS. 

ISO 



BOOK V. Lxxxi. 2-Lxxxii. 4 

expedition^ the LacedaemoniaDS first going alone 
and setting up a more oligarchical form of govern- 
ment in Sicyon, afterwards both together putting 
down the democracy • at Argos and establishing 
an oligarchy favourable to the Lacedaemonians. 
These things occurred when the winter was closing 
and spring was now near at hand ; and so ended the 
fourteenth year of the war. 

LXXXII. The next summer the people of Dium ^ 4i7 b.c. 
on Mount Athos revolted from the Athenians and 
went over to the Chalcidians ; and the Lacedae- 
monians arranged matters in Achaea^ which had 
before this not been favourable to their interests. 
And now the popular party at Argos, gradually 
consolidating its strength and recovering boldness, 
waited for the celebration of the Gymnopaediae ^ 
by the Lacedaemonians and attacked the oligarchs. 
A battle occurred in the city and the popular 
party got the better of it, slaying some of 
their enemies and expelling others. The Lacedae- 
monians, although their friends kept sending for 
them, did not come for a long time ; but at last they 
put off the Gymnopaediae and went to their aid. 
But hearing at Tegea that the oligarchs had been 
conquered, they refused to go further, in spite of the 
entreaties of the oligarchs who had escaped, and 
returning home proceeded with the celebration of the 
Gymnopaediae. Later, when envoys had come from 
the Argives in the city and messengers from those 
who h^ been driven out, and their allies were 
present, and much had been said on either side, they 

* r/. ch. XXXV. 1. 

2 A festival in which boys and men danced naked. While 
it lasted the Lacedaemonians (as at the Cameia, cf, chs. liv. 
and Ixxv. ) abstained from war. 



THUCYDIDES 

axpi* ifcarepcov eyvtoaav fiep ahiKelv tov^ iv rfj 
TToXei Kol eBo^ev avTol^ aTpareveiv €9 ^Apyo<;, 

5 Siarpt^^al Bh fcal fieXX'^aei^; iylyvovTo. 6 Se 
Srj/JbO^ T&v ^Apyeicop iv toutg), (fyo^ovfievo^ tou9 
AaKeSaifjboVLOV^ koI ttjv r&v ^ AOr^vaioiv ^vfi/xaxiav 
iraXtv 7rpoaay6fjb€v6<; re koI vo/u^cov fiiyiarov av 
a^a^ a><f>€\rjaai, rei'xll^^'' fJ^ctfcpa Tei^r) €9 OaXacr- 
aav, OTTQ)^, fjp T?79 yrj^ etpycovrai, rj Kara daXaa- 
aav (T(f>a^ /jbCTa t&v *AOr}vaLQ)v iiraycoyrj t&v 

6 iTTtTrjBelcov oi>(f>€\y. ^vvpSeaav Be top Tei^^tr fiov 
KOI T&v iv Il€Xo7rovvi](r<p tiv€<; ircikeoDV. koX oi 
fi€V *Apyeioi iravBrffiei, koX avTol Kal yvvavKe^ 
Kol OLKeTai, iT€LXi'^ov' Kal iK T&v ^AOrjv&v avTOi<; 
TfKdov T€KT0V€^ Koi \i0ovpyoL Kol TO dipo^; 
iTcXevra, 

LXXXIII. Tov S' iTnyiyvofxivov 'X^ifi&vo^ Aa- 
fceBat^fiovioi ft)9 rjadovTo T€L')(L^6vT(i)V, iaTpaTevaav 
€9 TO "Apyo*; avToi t€ koI ol ^v/i/ia'x^oi irXrjv 
Kopivd i(ov' VTTTJp'x^e Be tl avToh fcal ix tov "A/o- 
yov^^ avToOev Trpaaaopjevov. ^ye Be ttjv aTpaTtav 
^Ayi^ 6 *Ap)(^iBd/jbov, AaKeBaifiovLoyv ^aaiKev^. 

2 Kal TO, /M€v iK T?}9 7ro\ea)9 BoKovvra irpovTrdpyeiv 
ov 7rpov')(wpW€V €Tr Tci Be ocKoBofiov/ieva tclxv 

" €\6vT€<; Kal KaTa^a\6vT€^ Kal 'T(rt<i9 %ct)/)tov t?}9 
^Apyeia^ Xa^ovTe^ Kal Toit^ eKjevOepov^ a7ravTa<; 
ov^ eXa^ov diroKTeivavTe^; dvex^^pv^^^ "^^^ ^*^" 

3 \v0r)aav KaTcu 7ro\et9. iaTpaTevaav Be ficTct 
TOVTO Kal ^Apyeloi €9 ttjv ^XeiaaiaVf Kal Brfd- 
aavT€^ airrjXdov, otl a<f>&v tov<; ^vydBa<; vireBe- 
XpvTo* ol yap TToXXol avT&v ivTavda KaTWKrjvTo, 

4 KaTeKX'pa'av Be tov avTov xj^l^i&vo^ Kal Ma/c€- 

^ 4k rov ^Apyovs deleted by Huker, followed by Hude. 



BOOK V. Lxxxii. 4-LXXX111. 4 

decided that those in the city ^ were in the wrong and 
determined to make an expedition to Argos ; but 
delays and postponements occurred. Meanwhile, 
the democracy at Argos, fearing the Lacedaemonians 
and again courting the alliance of the Athenians, 
because they believed that it would be of the greatest 
benefit to themselves, proceeded to build long walls 
down to the sea, in order that, should they be cut off 
from the land, they might with the help of the Athe- 
nians have the advantage of importing supplies by 
sea. Some of the cities in the Peloponnesus, too, 
were privy to their fortifying. The whole Argive 
people, men, women, and slaves, set to work upon 
the walls ; and from Athens also there came to 
them carpenters and stone masons. So the summer 
ended. 

LXXXII I. The following winter, when the Lace- 
daemonians becanae aware that they were fortifying 
Argos, they made an expedition thither, themselves 
and their allies, except the Corinthians ; and there 
was also a party in Argos itself that was working 
in their interest. The commander of the army was 
Agissonof Archidamus, king of the Lacedaemonians. 
The support from the city which they expected to find 
ready failed them, but they seized and demolished 
the walls that were being built ; and they also seized 
Hysiae, a place in Argive territory, slew all the free 
men whom they caught, and then withdrew and dis- 
persed to their several cities. After this the Argives 
in their turn invaded Phliasia and ravaged it before 
they returned home, because the Phliasians had re- 
ceived fugitives of theirs, most of whom had settled 
there. Also during the same winter the Athenians 

* The popular party. 

153 



THUCYDIDES 

Sova^; *A0r)valoL, TlepSixKif iiriKakovvre^ Trjv re 
7r/0O9 ^Apyelov^ xal KaKehaLfioviov; yevofiivriv 
^vvQifioaiav koI otl TrapaaKevaaafiivcov avTcov 
arparcav ayeiv iirl HaXKiSea^; tou9 eVt @paK7)^ xal 
* A/JXl)L7ro\tV NlKLOV TOV NlKTjpaTOV <TTpaTr]yovvTO<; 

ey^evaro ttjv ^vp,p,a'x^iav kol r) arpaTia fidXiara 
hieXvOrj ixeivov airdpavro^'^ TToKejJLio^ ovv fjV 
KaX 6 'X€Lpja>v ireKevra ovto^, koI TrifiirTOP kol 
SeKUTov 6X09 T^ 'TToXifiqy ireXevTa. 

LXXXIV. Tov 8' iTnyiyvop^evov depov<; ^AXkl- 
ffidhrj^ T€ irXevaa^ €9 "Apyo^; vavalv etfcoat 

^Apy€iQ)V Toi'9 SoKOVPTa^ €TL U7Cfi7rX0l'9 slvaL KoX 

Tct AafceSaifiovicov ^pov^ eXa^e, rpiaKoa-iov^ 
dvSpaf;, Koi. KareffevTO avTOv^; ^Adrjvaloi e9 Ta9 
iyyv<; vriaov^ &v rfp')(pv' Koi iirl M.7JXov rrjv vrjaov 
^Adrfvacoi iarpdrevaav vavalv eavr&v fxev rpid- 
Kovra, l^iai^ Se e^, Aea^laiv he Svoiv, xal 
oirXiTaif; iavrcov fiev hiaKoaioi^ ica\ ^')(vXioi^ kcll 
TofoTafc9 Tpiafcoaioi^ koi iinroTO^OTat^ ecKoai, 
2 Tcov Be ^vp,fid)(^cov fcai vrjaicoToyv oirXiTac^ pboXiara 

2 irevTaKoaloi^ kol 'x^iXlol^. oi he yirjXLOi AaKchai- 
jjLovidDV fiev elat^v diroucoLy tcov S' ^Adrjvaitov ovk 
'qdeXov VTrcfjcovetv &(nTep oi dXXoL vrjai&Tat, dXXa 

' o '^^ t^^ irp&Tov ovherepcov ovt€<; ri<TV)(a^ov, eireiTa 

^Y W avTov^ TjvdyKa^ov ~ol ^AOrjvaloi hrjovvre^ rrjv 

3 yrjVf €9 TToXefJiov ^avepov KaTearrjaav, (rrparo- 
TreSevadfievoi ovv i^ rrjv yrjv avTa>v Ty Trapacxev^ 
ravrrj ol (TTparriyol K.Xeofi'qSr}^ re 6 AvKOfjLtjhov^ 
KaX Teiaiaf; 6 Teiai/jud'^pv, irplv dSiKelv xt t^9 
yrjf;, Xoyovf; Trpcorov 7roirja'op.evov<; eirefx^^av Trpec- 
y8€49. 0U9 oi Mi]Xioi Trpo^ fiev to irXrjOo^ ovk 

^ i,irdpayros is probably corrupt. 

154 



BOOK V. Lxxxiii. 4-LXXXIV. 3 

shut off the Macedonians from the sea, charging 
Perdiccas with the league which he had made with 
the Argives and the Lacedaemonians ; also that 
when they had prepared to lead an army against 
the Chalcidians in Thrace and against Amphipolis, 
under the command of Nicias son of Niceratus, 
he had been false to the alliance, and the expedi- 
tion had been broken up chiefly because of his de- 
fection. Accordingly, he was regarded as an enemy. 
So this winter ended and with it the tenth year 
of the war. "^Hy 

LXXXIV. The next summer Alcibiades sailed to i^ch, 
Argos with twenty ships and seized such Argives as 
seemed to be still open to suspicion and to favour 
the side of the Lacedaemonians, to the number 
of three hundred men ;^ and these the Athenians de- 
posited in the adjacent islands over which they had 
sway. The Athenians also made an expedition / 
against the island of Melos^ with thirty ships of ^ 
their own, six Chian and two Lesbian, and twelve 
hundred Athenian hoplites, three hundred bowmen, 
and twenty mounted archers, and from their allies 
and the islanders about fifteen hundred hoplites. 
Now the Melians are colonists of the Lacedaemonians, 
and were unwilling to obey the Athenians like the 
rest of the islanders. At first they remained quiet as 
neutrals; then when the Athenians tried to force 
them by ravaging their land, they went to war openly. 
Accordingly, having encamped in their territory with 
the forces just mentioned, the Athenian commanders, 
Cleomedes son of Lycomedes and Tpisiag son of 
Teisimachus, before doing any harm to the land, sent 
envoys to make proposals to the Melians. These 
envoys the Melians did not bring before the popular 

* c/. III. xci. 1 ; xciv. 2. 



C^' 


^^^^' 


• 


* 


S^' 


\xK 






^y -v 



>r'- 



c^ ^ 



THUCYDIDES 

rjyajov, iv he ral^ ap')(al^ KaX rol^ oXlyoi^ Xeyecv i 
ixeKevov irepX &v iJKovaLV, oi Se rSiv ^AOrfvaioyv 
7rpeafiei<; eXeyov ToidSe. ' 

^ LXXXV. ** 'ETretS^ ov tt/oo? to ttX^^o? ol \6yoi \ 
yiyvovrai, oirto^ Sij /jlt) ^vjifi%el prjaei oi iroXKoi, 

^) iiraycoya- fcal aviXeyxra "€? aira^ , dKOvaavre^; 
ri/i&v a7r q/TY)0a )ai (yiyvwaKOfiep yap otv tovto 
ippovel r)fiS)v r) €9 tov<; oKiyov^ aycoyrj), v/xei^ ol 

Ka07Jfl€VOl €TL d(T<f>a\€(TT€pOV TTOirjo'aTe, Ka6* 

€Ka(TTOV yhp KaX p.r)K vfiel*; evX Xoytp, dWct/Trpo^ 

TO > fjLV -hoKOVV ^T TlTnhf i(0<i— \€y€<T0aL /evff if <: VITO- 

Xa/jb^dvovre^y tcpLvere, KaX irp&rov el dpeaKet w? 
Xiyofiev eiirjiTe.^^ ?c^-i ^t> 

LXXXVI. Ol Se rmv ^rjXitov ^vveSpoi dire- 
KpivavTO' "'H pJev eirieitieia rov SiSdcKCiv xaO 
"•" rjavxlav dXX'qXov^ ov y^t eyer ai, rd he rov 7ro\€-\, V 
fiov, irapovra 7]hr) koX ov fieXXovTa, hiaJpipovTa - 
avTOv <f>aLifeTai. op&fiep yap avrov^ re Kpna^f^y 
rjKOvra^ vfid<; r&v Xe')(07}aopLev(av, KaX rrjv reXfvrfjv 

Jim y r> \\>V/ JL< ^< if v/r \ \ « 

€f avTov Kara to eiKod TrepLyivofievoi^; fiev tm 
hiKalo) KaX hi* avTo fifj ivhovai ^ TroXefjLov^r/fJblv 
(f>€povaav, TreLadetaL he hovXeiap,^^ . .r^.-- 

LXXXVII. A0. Et /juev Toivvv virovoia^ t&p 
fieXXovTtov Xoyi^ovpuevoL jq dXXo ti ^vv/}K€T€ ^ €k 
Twu TrapoPTcop KaX wp opaTe trepi acoTtjpLa^ ^ou- 
XevaopTe^ t^ ttoXci, TravoCfied^ av el S' iirX tovto, 
Xeyoifxep dp, 

^ Probably ihe chief governing body, a chamber of 
oligarchs, to which the magistrates (at ^px^) belonged. 

156 






BOOK V. Lxxxiv. 3-Lxxxvn. 

assembly^ but bade them tell in the presence of the 
magistrates and the few ^ what they had come for. 
The Athenian envoys accordingly spoke as follows : 

LXXXV^. "Since our proposals are 'not to be made 
before the assembly, your purpose being, as it seems, 
that the people may not hear from us once for all, in 
an uninterrupted speech, arguments that are seduc- 
tive and untested, 2 and so be deceived — for we see 
that it is with this thought that you bring us before 
the few — do you who sit here adopt a still safer 
course. Take up each point, and do not you either 
make a single speech, but conduct the inquiry by 
replying at once to any statement of ours that seems 
to be unsatisfactory. And first state whether our 
proposal suits you." 

LXXXVI. The commissioners of the Melians 
answered : *' The fairness of the proposal, that we 
shall at our leisure instruct one another, is not open 
to objection, but these acts of war, which are not in 
the future, but already here at hand, are manifestly 
at variance with your suggestion. For we see that 
you are come to be yourselves judges of what is 
to be said here, and that the outcome of the dis- 
cussion will in all likelihood be, if we win the debate 
by the righteousness of our cause and for that very 
reason refuse to yield, war for us, whereas if we 
are persuaded, servitude." 

LXXX VII. Ath. " Well, if you have met to argue 
from suspicions about what may happen in the 
future, or for any other purpose than to consult 
for the safety of your city in the light of what is 
present and before your eyes, we may as well stop ; 
but if you have this end in view, we may speak on." 

'^ i.e. not questioned or put to the proof. 

157 



THUCYDIDES 



LXXXVIII. MHA. EtVo? fiev xal ^vyyvco/jur} 

iv Tc5 TOL^Se Ka0€<TTMTa^fi7rl iroWa xal Xiyovra^; 

^ Kal SoKovvra^ rpeireaOaf riaivToi ^vvo&o<; koX 

' ^ irepi <T<OTrjpia^ rjoe irapeaTi, fcai o X0709 a) irpoKa- 

\ela6e t/oott^, el Sokci, yiyveaOeo, 

LXXXIX. A®. 'HfieU tolvvp ovt€ avrol yuer' 
ovofjudrcdv fcaXeov, co? fj BiKaCco^; top M.7]Sov Kara- 
\v<TavT€<; ap'xppjev fj aSiKovfievot vvv iire^ep^o- 



Q ^,.V-. fJueOa, \6jeov /i^09 airicnov irape^ofiev, oiG* v/jud^ 
a^iovfiev rj on AaKeSacfiovlcov a-rroifcoi ovre^; ov 
^vP€<TTpaT€v<TaT€ fj ft)9 ij/^a? ovSev '^BiKi]KaT€ Xiyov- 
Ta9 oteadai ireia-eiv, ra Svvara 8' ef &v ifcdrepoi 
d\r)0&^ <f>popovfi€V Si^airpdo'aeadai, eiTi,<napAvov<; 
irpo^ eihora^ ort SuKaia fiev iv T<p dvdpcoireitp 
\6y<p diro T% larj^ dvdyKr)<; Kpiverai, Sward 
Se ol irpovxovre^ Trpda-aovat Koi oi da-devel^ 
^vyxcopovaLv, 

^C MHA. *Ht juL€v Sfj uop,u^op,€v y€, XPV^'" 

OOP {dvarffcrj ydp, iTretSrj vfiel^ ovro) irapdjp hucat- 

\^^' ov no ^vii(f>epov Xiyevv vTr^Q££rde) p,rj KaraXveiv 

v/i.a9 TO Koivov dyaOov, dWa T(p aleX iv KivSvvq) 

Tyiyvop>€V€p elvai rd euKora koI Si/caia ^ Kai ti koL 
ivTo^ Tov d/cpi^ov<; ireia-avrd riva OD<})€Xr)drjvai. 
^ Kal 7r/oo9 vficov ov^ ^o-aov tovto, oatp xal iirl 
^ Kol B'lKata deleted by Hude, after G. Hermann. 



' cf. VI. Ixxxiii. 2. 

^ ivrhs TOV kKpi^ovs, lit. ^* short of exactness." 



158 






.M 



v^- 



BOOK V. Lxxxvin.-xc. 

LXXXVIII. Mel. '^ It is natural and pardonable 
for men in such a position as ours to resort to many 
arguments and many suppositions. This conference, 
however, is here to consider the question of our 
safety; so let the discussion, if it please you, 
proceed in the way that you propose." 

LXXXIX. Ath. " Well, then, we on our part will 
make use of no fair phrases, saying either that we 
hold sway justly because we overthrew the Persians,^ 
or that we now come against you because we are 
injured, offering in a lengthy speech arguments that 
would not be believed ; nor, on the other hand, do 
we presume that you will assert, either that the 
reason why you did not join us in the war was 
because you were colonists of the Lacedaemonians, 
or that you have done us no wrong. Rather we 
presume that you aim at accomplishing what is 
possible in accordance with the real thoughts of 
both of us, since you know as well as we know 
that what is just is arrived at in human arguments 
only when the necessity on both sides is equal, 
and that the powerful exact what they can, while 
the weak yield what they must." 

XC. Mel. " As we think, at any rate, it is expedient 
(for we are constrained to speak of expediency, since 
you have in this fashion, ignoring the principle 
of justice, suggested that we speak of what is 
advantageous) that you should not rule out the 
principle of the common good, but that for him 
who is at the time in peril what is equitable 
should also be just, and though one has not entirely ^ 
proved his point he should still derive some benefit 
therefrom. And this is not less for your interest 
than for our own, inasmuch as you, if you shall 

159 



^•>" 



j^*< THUCYDIDES 

/jbeyiaTTj TLfi(opiaj(T<\>a\evT€^ av^rol^ a Wo 6? Trapd- 
Seiyfia jevoiade. 

XCI. A0. 'HfieU Be t^9 r^jMerepa^ ^PXV^» V^ 

Kal Travad'ff, ov/c aOvfiovfiev rrjv TeKevrrjV' ov 

yap oi ap')(pvTe^ aKK(ov, Aairep xal AaKeSaifiovioi, 

ovTOt Seivol T0A9 viKrjdetaiv (can Se ov 7rpo9 AaK€- 

Sai,fJLOVLOv<; rfimtv 6 dywv), dXV rjv oi virrjKooi irov 

2 T&v dp^dpTcop avTol iirj^dijiepot, Kpanjcfoa-ip. zeal 

/ Trepl fi€P TOVTov rjjup df^eig-Bto KivhvpeveaOar (5)9 

, /. hi iir d)(f>€\La re ird^aficp Trj^ r) fieri pa^ ^PXV^ 

^ Kol iirl a-corripLa pvp to^9 \6yov^ ipovfiev rrj^ 

vfieripa^ 7roX€a)9, ravTa BrfK(t)aofi€P, fiov\6fi€Poi 

dirgpa)^ fiep vfi&p ap^au, 'xp^iaifuo^ S' v/L6a9 dfi(f>0' 

repots <T(t)6ripai. 

XCII. MHA. Kai irw XRV^^'H^^ ^^ ^vfi^airj 
fjfilp BovXevo'ai, &<nr€p Kal vfilp dp^ai; 

XCIII. A©. '^Ota vpZp flip irpo tov to, Beipo- 
Tara iraOelp viraKovaai av yipoLTO, r)pj6l^ Se firj 
8ia<f)0€LpaPT€<; v/id<; KepSaipoi/iep dp. 

XCIV. MHA. "Ilo-Te Se rjavxl'O.p ay opt a^ 
rffidf; (f>iXov<; /lep elpai dprl TroXefilcjp, ^vfifid^ov^ 
8k jir)herep(dPy ovk dp Si^aiaOe; 

XCV. A0. Ov yap roaovTOP rjp^^ ^Xdirrei 
7) €x"pO' vficop oaop 7} (piXia fiep aauepeia^y to 0€ 
filaos Svpdfi€Q)'i TrapdSeiyfia to 69 dp^ofiepoi^ 
SrfKovfiepop. 

^ t.e. cruel coDduct on your part would justify others in 
inflicting like punishment upon you should you ever be 
defeated. 

i6o 



BOOK V. xc-xcv. 

ever meet with a reverse, would not only incur 
the greatest punishment, but would also become 
a warning example to others." ^ 

XCI. Ath. "But we on our part, so far as our 
empire is concerned, even if it should cease to be, 
do not look forward to the end with dismay. For 
it is not those who rule over others, as the Lace- 
daemonians also do — though our quarrel is not now 
with the Lacedaemonians — that are a terror to the 
vanquished, but subject peoples who may per- 
chance themselves attack and get the better of 
their rulers. And as far as that is concerned, you 
must permit us to take the risk. But that it is for 
the benefit of our empire that we are here, and 
also the safety of your city that we now propose 
to speak, we shall make plain to you, since what 
we desire is to have dominion over you without 
trouble to ourselves, and that you should be saved 
to the advantage of both." 

XCIL Mel. " And how could it prove as advan- 
tageous for us to become slaves, as it is for you to 
have dominion ? ** 

XCIIL Ath. "Because it would be to your 
advantage to submit before suffering the most horrible 
fate, and we should gain by not destroying you." 

XCIV. Mel. "And so, you mean, you would 
not consent to our remaining at peace and being 
friends instead of enemies, but allies of neither 
combatant ? " 

XCV. Ath. "No; for your hostility does not 
injure us so much as your friendship ; for in the 
eyes of our subjects that would be a proof of our 
weakness, whereas your hatred is a proof of our 
power." 

i6i 

VOL. III. M 



THUCYDIDES 



v*-'* 
k 



> * 



^-•^ 



i 



/ 



XCVI. MHA. XKoirovac S' vfi&v ovroo^ oi 
vinjKOoi TO cIko^, &<TT€ TOV^ T€ fltf TTpotrrjicovTa^ 
KoX oaot UTTOiKoc 01/769 ol TToWol Koi aTToaTcivTe^ 
Ttvk^ /cej^pojinaui^ to uvto TcOeaaiv; 

XOVII. A0. ^tKat(OfiaTC yctp ovB€T€pov<: iXXei- 
iretv '^yovvTat, Karh Svpajuv Bk Toif<; fikv nepi- 
yiyveaOai, rjfia<i Bk <^6^^ ov§c iinepar &<tt€ e^ao 
KoX Tov irXeovtov ap^ai koX to aa^aXi^ rifilv Bict 
TO KaTa<TTpa<f)rjvac av irapdaxotTe, aWa)9 t€ koX 
VTjai&Tat vavfcpaTopcop, koI daOevia-Tepot eTip(ov 
6vT€^, el fitf irepiyivoiade. 

XCVIII. MHA. 'Ei/ S' ixeivcp ov vopi^eTe aa<f>d' 
Xeiav; Bet yhp av Koi evTavOa, &<nref>Jffie2^ t&v 
Bi/eaiaov \6ya)v fifia<; €K^ij3d<TaVTe^/r^ ^vfieTeptp 
^Vfujyop^ viraKoveiv ireiOeTe, xal ffpLa^ to r)fiiv 
'Xpri<TLiMov BiBdaKOVTa^, el Tvyxjdvet koX vpZv to 
avTO ^Vfifiatvovif neipaaOai TreiOetv. 6<T0t yhp vvv 
firjBeT€poi<; ^vfifw/xpv(n,, ttw? oif TroXe/JUoaea-Oe 
aifTov^, OTav e^ TdSe ^\e'^avTe<i rjyrjacovTaL iroTe 
vfia^ KcCl eirX <r<f>d<i V^eiv; xdv toiJtj) tl aWo fj V 
T0U9 fi€v v7rdp)(pvTa^ iroXefiLov^ fJ^S^ohjivere, Tot'9 
Bk p/qSe fieXKrjaavTas }^yevi<T0ai axovTa^ eird- 
yeaOe; 

XCIX. A0. Oif yap vofu^op^ev rfpHv tovtov^ 
BeivoTipov^, oaoi rjire^p&Tai irov ovtc^ t&v ekev- 



^ Reiske's correction, for ii^W^iaomas of the MSS. 

« For T# i\€v04p<p of the MSS., Stahl following the Schol. 

162 



BOOK V. XCVI.-XCIX. 

XCVI. Mel. "Do your subjects regard equity 
in such a way as to put in the same category those 
that do not belong to you at all and those — ^your 
own colonists in most cases and in others revolted 
subjects — who have been subdaed by you ? " 

XCVI I. Ath. " As to pleas of justice, they think 
that neither the one nor the, other lacks them, but 
that .those who preserve their freedom owe it to 
their power, and that we do not attack them 
because we are afraid. So that, to say nothing of our 
enlarging our empire, you would afford us security 
by being subdued, especially if you, an insular power, 
and weaker than other islanders, should fail to show 
yourselves superior to a power which is master of 
the sea." 

XCVIII. Mel. " But do you not think there is 
security in the other course ? ^ For here also it is 
necessary, just as you force us to abandon all pleas of 
justice and seek to persuade us to give ear to what 
is to your own interests, that we, too, tell you what 
is to our advantage and try to persuade you to adopt 
it, if that happens to be to your advantage also. 
How, we say, shall you not make enemies of all 
who are now neutral, as soon as they look at 
our case and conclude that some day you will 
come against them also? And in this what else are 
you doing but strengthening the enemies you 
already have, and bringing upon you, against their 
inclination, others who would never have thought of 
becoming your enemies ? " 

XCIX. Ath. " Not so, for we do not reckon those 
as the more dangerous to us who, dwelling somewhere 
on the mainland and being free men, will defer for a 

^ I.e. in neutrality, referred to in ch. xciv. 

M 2 



.s 



THUCYDIDES 

<f>v\a/erj^ iroirja-ovTai, aWib tou9 vrjaidra^ t€ ttov 
avjdpKTOv^, &<nrep vfia^, kclL tou9 ^817 t% ^PXV^ 
T^ dvayKalq) irapo^wofiivovS' oinoi yctp TrXeto-r' 
&v T^ dXoyL<TT€p iiriTpiylravTe^ a-<f>a^ t€ avrov^ kclI 
fffia^ €9 irpdnrirTov Kivhvvov Karaa-TTJa-eiav. ^ 

C. MHA. 'H TTOV apa, el TO<ravrrjp ye Vftei^ 
T€ fit) TravaOrjvai dpxv^ fcaX oi Sov\evovTe<i rj^ 
aTraWay nvat rr^v 7rapaKivBvvev<riv Trotovvrai, 
^^i^ ye ToZ? €Ti iXevOepoi^ ttoWt} xaKOTrj^: xal 
BeiXia f^rjirap irpo rod SovXevaai iire^eXdelv. 

CI. A0. OvK, 7]v ye 0*0x^/001/0)9 ffovXevrjade' 
ov yctp irepl avSpafya6ia<i 6 070)1/ dirb rod laov 
vfilv, fi^ alax^^V^ o<f>\et,v, ire pi Se a-xoTrjpLa^ fiaX- 
\ov f) jSovXi], 7r/oo9 TOi'9 KpeLaaova^ ttoW^ /jlti 
dvOiaraaOai. 

CII. MHA. 'A\X' eTTta-Tdfieda rd t&v iroXi- 

f fjuav ^ ear IV ore KOtvorepa^ Ta9 riya^i \afij3dvovTa 

J ^ Kard TO Sia^epov eKaripoav ttXtjOo^. koI rfpZv 

* TO phf el^L evQ\)<i dveKirKTTOv, fieTd Sk tov Bpa>' 

fiivov €Ti Kal (TTrjvai eXirU 6p6&<;, 

cm. A0. 'E^jrl9 Si, Kivhvv(p irapafivOiop 

oxKraTrov^i'fiev airo Trepiovaia^ ')(p€Ofievov^ avTrj, 

KCLV jSXdyjrT), ov /caO^Xe, T0t9 Bk €9 dirai/ to xjirdp- 

"x^j^oi/ dvappiiTTova-i (hdiravo^ ydp f^vaeC) dfia re 

yiyvdiXTKeTai a^aXevrtov koI ev OT<p cti (fivXd- 

1 For iroKtfjduv of the MSS., with Valla. 
164 



BOOK V. XCIX.-CIII. 

long time taking any precautions against us^ but rather 
those who dwell in some of the islands^ both those 
who, like you, are subject to no control, and those 
who are already ^e xasperated by the necessity of sub- 
mission to our ruleT l^^or it is these who are most 
likely to give way to recklessn ess and bring both 
themselves and us into danger which they cannot but 
foresee." 

C. Mel. " Surely, then, if you and your subjects 
brave so great a risk, you in order that you may not 
lose your empire, and they, who are already your 
slaves, in order that they may be rid of it, for us 
surely who still have our freedom it would be the 
height of baseness and cowardice not to resort to 
every expedient before submitting to servitude." 

CI. Ath. ^' No, not if you take a sensible view of 
the matter; for with you it is not a contest on 
equal terms to determine a point of manly honour, 
so as to avoid incurring disgrace ; rather the question 
before you is one of self-preservation — to avoid 
offering resistance to those who are far stronger 
than you." 

CII. Mel. '^ But we know that the fortune of war 
is sometimes impartial and not in accord with the 
difference in numbers. And for us, to yield is at 
once to give up hope ; but if we make an effort, 
there is still hope that we may stand erect." 

cm. Ath. " Hope is indeed a solace in danger, 
and for those who have other resources in abundance, 
though she may injure, she does not ruin them ; but 
for those who stake their all on a single throw — hope 
being by nature prodigal — it is only when disaster 
has befallen that her true nature is recognized, and 
when at last she is known, she leaves the victim no 

165 



THUCYDIDES 



^ 



; 



^€Tai Ti^.avTTjv yvoopKrOeia-av ovk eXKeiirei. h 
vfieh d(TU€V€i<: re fcai ^irl po7rrj<; fitd^ ovre^ fit) 
^ovXeaOe iraOeip, firjBe ofioi^ayOrjvai toI<; ttoXXo??, 
0I9 irapov avOpcoiTjiUo^ en a-€i^€<T0ai, iiretB^v irie- 
^ofiivov^ avTov^ iiriXLirtoaLV ai <f>aP€pal iXnCBe^, 
€7rl tA? d<f>av€L^ KadLaravTai, pMVTiKi]V re fcal 
XpV^M^^^ ^^* ^^* ToiavTa psr iKiriBcov Xu/icU- 
verai. 

CIV. MHA. Xa\€7roi/ p,h teal '^fiei^, eS ta-re, 
vopi^ofiev^Tfpin^ ivvapiun[€ Ttjv vfieripav xal ttjv 
TVXV^» et fit} dno tov laov^lkrixUr^i^yL^eadai,' 
ofito^ hk TncTevop^v ry p^ev tvxv ^^ '^^^ 6elov p,rf 
iXaaa-coaea-Oai, on oaioi irpo<; ov Sixaiov^ la-rd' ^^ 
p^Oa, T^9 Sk Svvdp^Q)^^ T^ iTiXeiTTOVTi r»i/ Aa/ee- 
Baip^ovicov rjpliv f i'/x-/ia;^tcMrVji53^eo-^at, dvdyKfjv 
€')(pvaav, KoX el p^rj tov dXkov, rrj^ ye ^vyyevela^ 
evefca fcal aia^vvr) /SorjOetv. koI ov Travrdiraa-iv 
oiiTa> d\6y(o^ Opa avvopeO a, 

C V. A0. T^9 pbiv foivvv tt/oo? to ffeibv^vp^e- 
vela^ ouS' fjpel<; oi6pLe6a_'ke\ei'>^ea6ai. ovSev ydp 
e^cD Trj<; dv6 ptoireia^; r&v jiev €9 to delov v^pX<X€C(f<; c - 
T&v S' €9 <T<f>d^ avToif^ PovXrjaeco^ hiKaiovp^ev fj 
2 irpd<T<rop£jf, fiyovpeOa yap TOTe delov So^rj, to 
dvOptaireiov t€ (ra<f>w Bed iravTO^; viro <f>va€a)^ 
dvay/eala^, ov dv KpaTfj, dp'X^eiv, koL rjpLelf; oirre 
devTe^ TOV v6p,ov ovTe Keipivcp irp&Tot XPV^^f^^^^f-^ '• 
ovTa Bk TrapgXajSovTe^ fcal ecopsvov €9 alel Kwra- 
166 



BOOK V. ciii.-cv. 2 

resource wherewith to take precautions against her 
in fiiture. This fate, we beg of you, weak as you are 
and dependent on a single turn of the scale, do not 
willingly incur ; nor make yourselves like the com- 
mon crowd who, when it is possible still to be saved 
by htmlSn^eans, as soon as distress comes and all 
visible grounds of hope fail them, betake themselves 
to those that are invisible — to divination, oracles, 
and the like, which, with the hopes they inspire, 
bring men to ruin." 

CIV. Mel. " We, too, be well assured, think it 
difficult to contend both against your power and 
against fortune, unless she shall be impartial ; but 
nevertheless we trust that, in point of fortune, we 
shall through the divine favour be at no disadvantage 
because we are god-fearing men standing our ground 
against men who are unjust; and as to the matter 
of power, that the alliance of the Lacedaemonians ^ 
will supply what we lack, since that alliance must 
aid us, if for no other reason, because of our kinship 
with them and for very shame. So our confidence is 
not altogether so irrational as you may suppose'.'*' 

CV. Ath. " Well, as to the kindness of the divine 
favour, neither do we expect to fall short of you 
therein. For in no respect are we departing from 
men's observances regarding that which pertains to 
the divine or from their desires regarding that which 
pertains to themselves, in aught that we demand on 
do. For of the gods we hold the belief, and of men! 
we know, that by a necessity of their nature wherever! 
they have power they always rule. And so in our* 
case since we neither enacted this law nor when it 
was enacted were the first to use it, but found it in 
existence and expect to leave it in existence for 

167 



THUCYDIDES 

aX\ov<i ev ttj avrfj Svvdfiei rj^lv yevojiipov^ Bpcjv- 

3 Ta9 &v ravTo, Koi irpo^ fikv to 0€lov ovtq)^ ifc 

Tov gIkoto^ ov (fyofiovfieOa iXaaaaxreaOar rrj^ 8k 

€9 AaKeSaifiovLov^ Sofiy?, fjv Sch to alaxpov S^ 

^orjd^aeiv vfilv/7na-T€V€T€ avTOv^, jjbaKapLaavre^ ; 

•^ vp^&v TO aireipoicaKov ov ^ifKovfiev to a(f)pov. 

AaKeBaifioviqt yap irpo^ a-(f>d^ fiev avrov^ koX ret 

■s > V J TTi'Xcop ta vofiifjua TrKelara aperf} 'XP&VTaL* irpo^ 

T he T0U9 aWof ? iroXKa civ Tt9 e'Xjoav eiireiv &^ 

'7rpocf(f>€povTaL, ^yveXobv fiaXiara av hrjkdixTeiev on ^. y 
liri^avkfTTaTa &v Xapsv to, fiev r)hea fcdX^ vojjlI- \^'* 
^ov<Ti, tA Bk ^vfi(f>€povTa Blicata. Kairoi ov irpo^ 
T^9 vfieripa^ vvv dXoyov aoDTrjpia^ rj rocavTi] 
Bidvoca, 

CVI. MHA. 'H/x€t9 Be kot avTo tovto rjBr) 
Kol fidXiara TnaTevofiev t^ ^VfKJyepovTi avTCJv 
MrjXiov^ diroLKov^ ovra^ fitf ^ovXi^a-ecdat irpo- 
Bovra^ Tot<; fjuev evvoi^ t&v '^XX'qvtov dirlarov^ 
fcaTa<TTrjvai, T0t9 Be iroXefiioc^ dy^eXifiovf;, 

CYII. A®, OvKovv oleaOe to ^vfju^epov fiev 
fiercb da^aXeia^ elvai, to Be Bifcatov kol fcaXov 
fiera klvBvvov BpaaOai; b AaKeBaifiovioL fiKtara 
009 eirX TO iroXv ToXfiaxrtv, 

CVIII. MHA. 'AWa fcal Tot'9 KtvBvvov^ re 
rjfi&v^eveKa fiaXXoi/ rjyovfieff* &p eyx^i^picaa-Oai 

.J ' ' • 

i68 ' 



BOOK V. cv. 2-cviii. 

all time^ so we make use of it, well aware that 
both you and others, if clothed with the same power 
as we are, would do the same thing. And so with 
regard to the divine favour, we have good reason 
not to be afraid that we shall be at a disadvantage. 
But as to your expectation regarding the Lacedae- 
monians, your confident trust that out of shame for- 
sooth they will aid you — while we admire your 
simplicity, we do not envy you your folly. We must 
indeed acknowledge that with respect to themselves 
and the institutions of their own country, the Lacedae- 
monians practise virtue in a very high degree ; but 
with respect to their conduct towards the rest of 
mankind, while one might speak at great length, in 
briefest summary one may declare that of all men 
with whom we are acquainted they, most conspicu- 
ously, consider what is agreeable to be honourable, 
and what is expedient just. And yet such an atti- 
tude is not favourable to your present unreason- 
able hope of deliverance." 

CVL Mel. '^ But we find in this very thing our 
strongest ground of confidence — that in their own 
interest the Lacedaemonians will not be willing to v 
betray the Melians who are their colonists, and so 
incur, on the one hand, the distrust of all the 
Hellenes who are well-disposed towards them, and, 
on the other, give aid to their enemies." 

CVn. Ath. '^ Do you not think, then, that a 
self-interest goes hand in hand with security, while * 
justice and honour are practised with danger — a 
danger the Lacedaemonians are in general the least 
disposed to risk ? " 

CVin. Mel. " Nay, but even the dangers we 
believe they would be more ready to incur for our 

169 



THUCYDIDES 

^ avTov^j KoX ^€l3aiOT€pov^ ^ 69 aWov<: vofiietp, 
oatp irpo^ fi€V ra efyya rrj^ TleXoTrovvi^a'ov iyyv^ 
KCL/jieffa, T^9 Se yvco/irj^ t^ ^vyyevet Tria-Torepoi 



/jj* 



CIX. A0. To S' i^vpov ye to?9 ^vvayoDviov- 
fiivoi^ ov TO 6VV0VV T&v iTTtfcoXea-afiivayv ^aiveTai, 
aW' ^j^ T&v €py(ov ti^ Bvvdfiei ttoXv irpoxryV* h 
AafceBai/jLovtoi xal irXiov ^t t&v aXXmv a-Konovai 

1 (t^9 yovv olfcela^ irapaafceyrp airiaTia /cal ficTct 
i ^vfifia/x&v TToXK&v Toly 7re\a? hrepxovTai), wo-re 

ovK eiKo^ €9 VTjaov ye avTo\f^lf)fi&v vavxpaTopcov 
ovT(ov/TT^am67}vai» ^o" - * • ^ * , • ' ' ^ ^ 

Ca. MHA. 0/ Se «al. aWov9 Ai' expiev 
Trefiyfrai* ttoXv Se to KprjTiKOV iriXayo^, Si ov 
T&v KpaTovvTcov awopciOTepo^ r) Xrj^^i^ fj t&v 

2 XaOelv fiovXofievav i) acrrrfpia, koI el TOvSe 
a<f>dXXoiVTO, TpdiroivT &v koI €9 Ttfv yrjv vp,&v 
Kcu €7rl Toif^ XotTTOv^ T&V fiz/A/xa;^©!', oa-ov^ p,rj 
3pa<TlBa^ iirrjXOe, kcu ov ire pi t^9 p^rj irpoa-- 
rffcova-r)^ pdXXov fj t^9 olfceiOTCpa^ ^vp^p^ax^^o^ t€ 

KOL 7^9 6 TTOVO^ vpUV €<TTat. 

CXI. A0. TovTODV p,ev KaX 'ireir£Mpc(fiievoL<; civ 

Ti yevoiTo, KOI vac^^ ovfc dveingjTrip^oaLV oti ovS^ 

diro p^td^ TTcoTTOTe iroXtixptcitxT^iCuijvatoi Si aXXmv 

2 <l>6^ov direxd^p^o-av. ivOvp^ovp^eda Se Sti (fit]' 

^ Koi in MSS. before ouk, deleted by Stahl. 
170 



BOOK V. cviii.-cxi. 2 

sakes^ and that they would consider them less 
hazardous than if incurred for others^ inasmuch as 
we lie close to the Peloponnesus when anything is to 
be undertaken there and on account of affinity of 
sentiment are more to be trusted than any others." 

CIX. Ath. " But for men who are about to take 
part in a struggle, that which inspires their con- 
fidence is clearly not the good will of those who call 
them to their aid, but such marked superiority in 
actual power of achievement as they may possess ; 
and to this superiority the Lacedaemonians give heed 
rather more than do the rest of mankind. At any 
rate, they sq mistrust their own resources that they 
always associate themselves with many allies when 
they attack their neighbours ; so that it is not likely 
they will ever cross over to an island while we are 
masters of the sea." 

ex. Mel. '^But there are others whom they 
might send ; besides, the Cretan sea is wide, so that 
upon it the capture of a hostile squadron by the masters 
of the sea will be more difficult than it would be to 
cross over in security for those who wish to elude 
them. And if they should fail in this attempt they 
could turn against your territory and against any of 
the rest of your allies whom Brasidas did not reach ; 
and then you would have to exert yourselves, not 
for the acquisition of territory that never belonged 
to you, but for the preservation of your own con- 
federacy, aye, and your own country." 

CXI. Ath. " Of thesie contingencies one or another 
might indeed happen ; but they would not be new to 
our experience, and you yourselves are not unaware 
that the Athenians have never in a single instance 
withdrawn from a siege through fear of any foe. 

171 



JCHUCYDIDES 

aavT€^ irepl acjTrjpia^ ^ovXeva-eiv ovBkv iv 
TO(TOVT(p \of^€o eipyfcare ^ avBptoiroi &v irLdrev- 
aavTG^ vofiiaeiav aaOrjaeadai, a\V vfi&v ra fjJev 
la-'XvpoTaTa i\7n^6fi€va fieWeTCuT^it ovirdp- V 
Xovra Ppa'Xj^a irpo^ ra TjBrf avrLTerayfiiva irept- 
rfir^veaOaL, irciKKriv re, aXoyiav ttj^ hiavoLa^ 
» <^ •-> Tra/o^^ere, el fjurf //j,€ Ta<rT 7j a dfievoi en '^fid^/dWo 
^ ^ 3 Ti T&vSe <ra)(f>pov€<rT€pov yvdxrea-de. ov yhp Srj 
iiri yerijii^iv to?9 ala")(poL^ kuI irpovTrTOi^ kivSv- 
voc^ TrXecara Bia(f>6€Lpov<Tav av0p(O7rov^ ala'X^'^nj^ 
TpiyfreaOe. iroWol^ yctp irpobpayfiivoL^ / CTt €9 
ota <f>€povTai -TO aia-^bv^ fcaXdvfievovr ovofiaro^ 
C^^"' ,V''^£3jraya)yov Bvvi^^ iTrecrjjida'aTO, 'na-avOeiai rov 
' V -^ pTjiiaTOf;, €py(p ^vtKpopai^ auTitcecTOL^ eKovra^ ^ 
s^ . ^ Trepnrea-elv j Kal ai<T'xyvr}v aiayici /jlctcL avoia<i 'fj'^'- 
4 Tvxv^ ^ *7rpoa\al3€LV. o vfieh, fjv cS jSovXevrjaOe, 
(fyvXa^eaOe koI ovk aTrpeire^ vofiielre TroXeoi? re 
TTJ^ fieyiarri^ rjaaaa-daL fiirpia Trpo/caXovfiivrj^, 
. ^vfifid'xpv^ yeveaOai e'xpvra^ rrfv v/nerepav avr&v \ 
V*"* virojeXeh, Koi Sodeiarris^ alpe aeayy TroXifiov^iript 
^ Kol a(T<f>aX€ia^ fit) rh x^^P^ <l>LX(fi^iKrj(Tar ay; 

oLTive^ Tot^ /JL€V laoi^ fjLTf eiKovai, to2^ Se KpeLa' 

^ Hude reads twxPi afrer Schol. 



^ See chs. Ixxxvii., Ixxxviii. 

^ I.e. men who expect to be saved by human means^ not by 
divine intervention ; </. ch. civ. f. 

172 

'- *^\^ U-t n^i^ <^ ' -^ ^' ''  ' 




^ 



BOOK V. CXI. 2-4 

However, we cannot but reflect that, although you 
said ^ that you would take counsel concerning your 
deliverance, you have not in this long discussion 
advanced a single argument that ordinary men^ 
would put their confidence in if they expected to be 
delivered. On the contrary, your strongest grounds 
for confidence are merely cherished hopes whose 
fulfilment is in the future, whereas your present 
resources are too slight, compared with those already 
arrayed against you, for any chance of success. And 
you exhibit a quite unreasonable attitude of mind if 
you do not even now, after permitting us to with- 
draw, come to some decision that is wiser than your 
present purpose. For surely you will not take refuge 
in that feeling which most often brings men to ruin 
when they are confronted by dangers that are clearly 
foreseen and therefore disgraceful — the fear of such 
dis grace . For many men, though they can still 
clearly foresee the dangers into which they are 
drifting, are lured on by the power of a seductive 
word — the thing called disgrace — until, the victims 
of a phrase, they are indeed plunged, of their own 
act, into irretrievable calamities, and thus incur in 
addition a disgrace that is more disgraceful, because 
associated with folly rather than with misfortune. 
Such a course you wOl avoid, if you take wise counsel, 
and you will not consider it degrading to acknowledge 
yourselves inferior to the most powerful state when 
it pfEers^ou moderate terms — to become allies, 
keeping your own territory but paying tribute — and, 
when a choice is given you of war or safety, not to 
hold out stubbornly for the worse alternative. Since 
those who, while refusing to submit to their equals, 
yet comport themselves wisely towards their superiors 

173 



THUCYDIDES 

aoai KoXw 7rpo(r(f>€povTai, npo^ Se tov9 fjaaov^ 
j^bjjtArpLoi elcc, irXeia-T av opOolvTO. atcoTreire oiv 
.^^ ' Kal p^TacTcivTcop fip&v ical ivOvpelaOe iroXKaKL^ 
oTi irepX irarpiho^ jSovXeveaOe, ^^ ^ p^La$ nipt fcal 
€9 piav Pov\r)v TVj(ovar:av t€ koI p,r) KaTop0d!>' 
aaaav €<nat. 

CXII. Kal oi p^v ^AOrfvaLot perex^pV^^^ ^^ 
T&v \6yQ)v' oi Be M.i]\coi Karh (T<f>d<; avToi>^ 
yevopevoi, ©9 eho^ev avTOL<} irapct^Xijaia fcal 
2 dvTeKeyov, aireKpivavTO rdhe, " Ovre aXXa Sok€L 
rjpZv rj ajrep fcal to Trp&TOv, & ^A0r)vaioc, ovt^ iv 
V oXiy^ XP^^V 7r6X€ft)9 eirraKocia €Trj ijBrj oIkov- 
I ^-^ ^pevTj^ TTjv iXevOepiav d<l>qipr]a6p€0a, a\Xh t§ re 
^ H'^XP^ TOvSc aq>^ov<r7j Tvyrj ck tov deiov avrrjv 

Kcbl rfi diro t&v dvOpwirw^v Kal^-AafceSacpovicov 
 ri^TLpoipia TTia-revovTe^ irecpcAropieda a(p^€<r0ai. 
^^tiJ-V" 3 irpOKaXovpeOa Be vpa^ <^i\oi pev elvac, TroXApioi 
Be prfBeripoi^, koI ix rrj^ 7^9 '^pi&v dva'XOip^o'CLi /■ 
^ ^(TTTOvBa^ iroiTja'ap^ivovt; aiTive^ BoKovaiv eTnTrj-'^ 
'^ ^ Becoi elvai ap^orepoi^,^ 

CXIII. Oi pev Btj M7]\ioi Toaavra direKpi- 
vavTO' oi Bk ^A0rjvaioi Bia\v6p€vot ijBri e/c t&v 
Xoycjv €<f>a<Tav' " 'AW' oiv povoi ye airo TOVToyv 
T&v ^ovXevpaTcov, 0)9 '^piv SofcetTe, Tct pkv pe\- 
\ovTa T&v 6p(dpev(ov a a<^ ears pa xpiveTe, tu Be 
d<l>avrj T& fiovXeaOai ©9 ytyvop^va ^Bi] dedtrOe' 
KOl AafceBaipovLoi^ koI tvj^i; kclI iXiriaL TrXetaTOV 

^ f s for ^v, as the Schol. seems to have read. 
^ Koi AaKciaifioviwy deleted by Hude, after Stahl. 

174 



BOOK V. CXI. 4-cxiii. 

and are moderate towards their inferiors — ^these^ we 
say^ are most likely to prosper. Consider^ then^ once 
more after our withdrawal^ and reflect many times 
in your deliberations that your fatherland is at stake^ 
your one and only fatherland^ and that upon one 
decision only will depend her fate for weal or woe." 

CXI I. So the Athenians retired from the confer- 
ence ; and the Melians^ after consulting together in 
private^ finding themselves of much the same opinion 
as they had expressed before^ answered as follows : 
" Men of Athens, our opinion is no other than it was 
at first, nor will we in a short moment rob of its 
liberty a city which has been inhabited already seven 
hundred years ^ ; but trusting to the fortune which 
by divine favour has preserved her hitherto, and to 
such help as men, even the Lacedaemonians, can 
give, we shall try to win our deliverance. But we 
propose to you that we be your friends, but enemies 
to neither combatant, and that you withdraw from 
our territory, after making such a truce as may seem 
suitable for both of us." 

CXIII. Such was the answer of the Melians ; and 
the Athenians, as they were quitting the conference, 
said : " Then, as it seems to us, judging by the 
result of these deliberations of yours, you are the 
only men who regard future events as more certain 
than what lies before your eyes, and who look upon 
that which is out of sight, merely because you wish 
it, as already realized. You have staked your all, 
putting your trust in the Lacedaemonians, in fortune 

^ Evidently a merely general statement, carrying us back 
to the time of the Dorian invasion. Conon, Narrat. 36, 
mentions the Spartan Philonomus as founder of Melos, soon 
after the Dorians settled at Sparta. See Mtiller, Orchomenos, 
p. 317. 

»75 



r. V 



^\*V ^ ^^ ^- THUCYDIDES 
S^ Trapa^e^Xrj/jiivot, koX TncTeva'avTe^ irKelo'Tov 

CXIV. Kal oi fiev ^AOrjpaiciiv irpea^ei^ dve^c^- 

ptjaav €9 TO aTpdrevfia' oi he arpaTrjyol avT&v, 

li^i^ - ft>9 ovSev vT nJKoy ov oi Mi;Xi04, tt/oo? iroKefiov^, 

€v6v<; irpeirovTo /cal BieXofievoi /caret "TroXei.^ 

2 7r€pi€T€LX^aav KVKK(p Tov^ MTyXtoi;?. Kal varepov 

(fyvXaKTfp a(f>&v re avr&p koI t&v ^vfifid')(^Q)V 

KaraXiTTOPTe^ oi ^AOrjvaloi koX Kard yrjv Kal 

, V Kard ddXaaaav dv€)((i)pri<Tav t& irXeiovi tov 

arparov. oi Be Xenrofjuevoi Trapafiivovre^ iiro- 

y ^XlOpfCOVV TO ')((i)piov, 

CXV. Kal ^ApyeloL Kard tov xpovov tov avrov 

6o•)9aXo^T€9 69 T^z^ ^Xeiaalav Kal Xo^i'^^^^Te^ 

xrrro T€ ^Xecaalayv Kal t&v a<f>eT€p(ov (f)vydS(OP 

2 Bi€(l)6dpr)aav ft)9 6yBor]KOVTa, Kal oi ck t^9 TlvXov, 

^A6r)valoi AaKeBaifiovLcov iroXXfjv XeLaV^tXa^ov, 

Kal AaKeBaifiovioi Bi avTO ra? fjLcv a'7rovBd<i ovB* 

f .^ 0)9 d(j)€VT€^ iiroXifiovv avTol^, eKrjpv^av Be, el Tt9 ^" 

l^v'' 3 ^ovXcTai irapd a(f>&v, ^ AOr^valov^ Xrji^eddaL.-^'^fcal 

K.opLvdLoi iiroXifirjaav IBLoav tiv&v Bia^op&v evexa 

Toi^ ^ AdY}vaioi<;* oi S' a Wot TieXoirovvrjaLOL f\av' 

4 ')(aX,ov, elXov Bk Kal oi M'^Xioi t&v ^Adrfvaicov 

TOV irepLTeL'xta fULTO^ to Kard ttjv dyopdv irpoa- 

^aXovre^ vvkto^, Kal dvBpa^ re dircKTeivav Kal 

\\ ^ iaeveyKdfievoc alTOV re Kal oaa irXelaTa eBvvavTO 

\^j^' XP'H^^l^cL dvax(op7]aavT€^ ^cvya^ov Kal oi ^AOrj- 

valoi dfieipov ttjv (jyvXaKrjv to erretTa irapea-Kevd- 

^ovTO, Kal TO Oepof; eTeXevTa, 

CXVI. ToO S' eTTiycyvofievov vetjJL&vo^ Aa/ce- 
BaLfjLovLOL fieXXTjaavTet; €9 Tfjv Apyeiav aTpa- 

176 




BOOK V. cxiii.-cxvi. I 

and in fond hopes ; and with your all you will come 
to ruin." 

CXIV. So the Athenian envoys returned to the 
army ; and their generals, as the Melians would not 
yield, immediately commenced hostilities, and drew 
a wall round about the city of Melos, distributing the 
work among the several states. Afterwards, leaving 
some of their own troops and of their allies to keep 
guard both by land and by sea, they withdrew with 
the greater part of the army, while the rest remained 
behind and besieged the place. 

CXV. About the same time the Argives invaded 
Phliasia ; but being ambushed by the Phliasians and 
the Argive exiles they lost about eighty men. Also 
the Athenians at Pylos took much booty from the 
Lacedaemonians ; but even this did not move the Lace- 
daemonians to renounce the treaty and make war upon 
them. They made proclamation, however, that any 
one of their own people who wished might make re- 
prisals upon the Athenians. The Corinthians also went 
to war with the Athenians on account of some private 
differences ; but the rest of the Peloponnesians kept 
quiet. The Melians, too, took the part of the Athe- 
nian wall over against the market-place by a night 
assault ; then having slain some of the men and 
brought in grain and as many other necessaries as 
they could, they withdrew and kept quiet. After 
that the Athenians maintained a better watch. So 
the summer ended. 

CXV I. The following winter the Lacedaemonians 
were on the point of invading Argive territory, but 

177 

VOL. III. N 



THUCYDIDES , .^ - '^ 






V 



r 



K,.' 



reveiv, civ avrot? tA Sia^ari^pui^ ovte iyiyveTO, , 
av€')(oi}pri<rav. KaX *Apy€ioi Bict Tr)V ixeiytov fieX-' 
Xfjaiv T&v hf T^ iroXet rtva^ VTroTrrewavTe^^ rov^ 

2 fiev ^vvekapov, oi S' avTov^ /cal iie^vyov. Koi oi 
M.rjkLOL irepX tov^ avrov^ %poi/ou9 ai0i<; Ka0* 
erepov rv tov irepcTecx^afiaTO^ elXov t&v ^Adrj- 

3 vaitov, irapovTcov ov iroXK&v t&v ^vXdfctov, xal 
iXjOovarjt; (TTpaTia^ vaTcpov i/c t&v *A0rjv&v 
aWrj^, C&9 TavTa iyiyvcTO, ^9 ^PX^ ^iKoKpaTtj^ 
6 ^rffiiov, Koi KaTCL fcpaTb^ rjBrj irokiopKOV/xevot,^ ' ' 
yevopAvr}^ koX irpohoa-La^ tivo^ a^ iavr&v, ^vve- 

-^X^PV^^^ T0A9 ^Adrjvaioif; &<TTe ifceivov^ wepl avT&v 

4 ^ovXevaai, oi Be diriKTeivav MrfXiayv oaov^ 
^V^&VTa<; eXajSov, iralBa^ Be xal yvvaltea^ rjvBpa- 

iroBiaav. to Be ^©/Jtoi/ avToX ^Kiaav? olttoIkov^ 
vo'Tepov 'irevTaKoaiov<: TrifiyjravTe^, 

^^ ' Up^ ip rois dplots, in MSS. after ^ia$ariipia, deleted by 
Cobet as a gloss on that word. cf. ch. liv. 2, Iv. 8. 
' Meineke's conjecture for vworaiHiiravrts of the MSS. 
' ^iciffap, several good MSS. for the Vulgate j»Ki}<rav. 



178 




BOOK V. cxvi. 1-4 

as the sacrifices for crossing the boundaries were not 
favourable they returned home. On account of this 
intention on the part of the Lacedaemonians^ the 
Argives^ suspecting certain men in their city^ seized 
some of them^ but the rest escaped. About the same 
time the Melians again at another point took a part 
of the Athenian encompassing wall^ the garrison not 
being numerous. But later^ in consequence of these 
occurrences^ another force came from Athens^ of 
which £lilloorales son of Demeas was commander^ 
and the Melians^ being now closely besieged — some 
treachery^ too^ having made its appearance among 
them — capitulated to the Athenians on the condition 
that these should determine their fate. The Athe- 
nians thereupon slew all the adult males whom they 
had taken and made slaves of the children and women. 
But the place they then peopled with new settlers 
from Athens^ sending thither at a later time five 
hundred colonists. 



179 
N 2 



BOOK VI 



I. Tou 8' airroS j(tifiS)voi 'KOrjvalot i^ovXovTo 

Evpv/te^ocTO? ivl £ixeX/av vKevaavTev xara- 
atp^i^affSai, el hvvaano, aireipoi ot ttoXXoI Sirrev 
rov fteyeffavv Tip vrfcrov icaX rmp ivoiKovvrav ToiJ 
irXijdov; KaX 'KXK-qvav KaX ^ap^dpatv, xal on ov 
iroXXy rtvt vfroSeetrTepov ttoKefuiv avjjpovmo f] 
Tov irpo^ JJ.eXoTrovvr}aioit^. SiKcXta? yhp nepi- 
2 irXou? /lev iimv oXko^i ov iroXX^ rait eXaaaov ^ 
OKT^ fjpMpav, Koi TOtravTH oSffa ev eiKotTttrTaSlfp * 
fidXitTTa fiirp^ * t^? 0aXaiT<Tr}<; SieCpyerat to /t^ 
ijwetpov elvai? 

II. 'SliKitrffi} Si mSe to dpxaiov Koi ToadSe 
iffpf] ^a-}(e rk ^vfiiravra. traXaharot p.hi Xeyop- 
Ttu if pipei Tivi T^t X^P'*'' Ki5«Xto7re? xal Aaiv- 
Tpvyove-i OhKriaai, &v eyo> ovre yevo^ i^"^ fl'Jreiv 
oire OTToBtv iafjKBov fj otto* aTrext^pijaav apieei- 
To> Si (ii? TTotrjTaK Te etpr/rai «al «5 eKatrTo^ ttjj 

2 ytyvwTKei irepl avr&v. ^iKavol Si fier avToir^ 

* For the usufti dicaa'i aToXtar [CF Corrected, f,) adopted 
after M and Sohol. Patm., lUoai o-tiUKoii AB. 

" ^irpf deleted by Hucie as not read by SchoL Patm. 

• ttni, no nearly nil reeeiic editors following H (RUfmucr. 
man. ^.1, neiiictriitn and Procnpiiu, for olra of the M8S. 
Shilleto, Badlikin, and othera prefer ifwiif^iaBtu. 



^ 



BOOK VI 

I. During the same winter the Athenians wished to 4i6 b.c. 
sail again to Sicily with a larger armament than that 
conducted by Laches and £urymedon^^ and subdue it^ 

if they could, most of them being ignorant of the 
great size of the island and of the large number of 
its inhabitants, Hellenic as well as Barbarian, and 
that they were undertaking a war not very much 
inferior to that against the Peloponnesians. For the 
voyage round Sicily, for a merchantman, is one of 
not much less than eight days ; and although it 
is so large only a distance of about twenty stadia 
of the sea divides the island from the mainland. 

II. Sicily was settled originally in the following 
manner, and the whole number of the nations 
that occupied it were these. Most ancient of all 
those who are reported to have settled in any part of 
the island were the Cyclopes and Laestrygonians,as to 
whom, however, I am able to tell neither their stock 
nor whence they came nor whither they went ; let it 
suffice as the story has been told by the poets,^ and 
as each man has formed his opinion about them. 
The Sicanians appear to have been the first to settle 

^ Two separate earlier expeditions, one under Laches and 
Oharoeades, 427 B.C. (in. Ixxxvi. 1), the other under Pytho- 
dorus, Sophocles and Eurymedon, 424 b.c. (iv. ii.), are here 
comprised under the one formula. 

2 Homer, no doubt, especially, qja s^lno in i, x. 1 ; xi. 3 ; 
xxi. 1. 

183 



THUCYDIDES 

irp&TOt (fyaivovTai evotxiadfievoi, cb? fiev avroi 
<l>aa't, kclL irporepot Sih to avro'xPove^ elvai, 609 
Sk 17 oKrfieia evpiafceTai, "I^Siypc? opt€<: teal aTrb 
rod Xixavov iroTUfiov tov iv *I^rfp[a viro Aiyvaav 
avaaravre^, koI air avT&v Si/cavia Tore fi vrjao^ 
iKcCKelro, irporepov Tpivaxpia KoKovpAvr)* ol/covat 
Sk eri Koi vvv tcl irpo^ ia-irepav rrjv Xtxekiav. 

3 *lXtoi; Se akia/cofiepov t&p Tpdxop TtP€<i hia^v- 
y6pT€^ 'A^a^ou? ttXoloi^ a^ixvovpitii irpo^ rrjp 
%LKeKLap, KoX ofiopoi to£9 ^tKavoh oiKTjaapTe^ S^M'' 
irapTe^ fihf **Ekvfioi i/cXTjOtfo-ap, 7ro\6«9 S* avT&v 
"Epv^ T€ Kol "^Eyea-ra, irpoa^vpeoKrjaap Bk avToh 
xal ^(OK€(dP Tiph T&v airo Tpoia^ Tore 'Xjecfi&vi 
69 Ai^vrjv irp&TOp, eireira €9 ^ixeKlap air avrrjf; 

4 KaT€P€X0€VT€^. Xc/ceXol Se ef ^IrdXia^; {ipravOa 
yhp ^Kovv) Sii^rjaav €9 ^t/ceXiav, (fyevyovre^ 'Ott*- 
/eov^, c!)9 fiev eUo^ kuI Xiyerai, ivl a'xeSi&p, Ttjp^- 
aapre^ top nropOjJLOP /cariopro'i rod dpifwv, rd^a 
&p Bk Kol aX\o)9 7r<k)9 i(T7r\€vaaPT€^, eial Be xal 
pvp €Ti ip TTJ *lra\La ^ixeXor koI rj %co/)a diro 
^ItoKov, ^atrikito^ tipo^ Xi.x€\o)p, roupofia tovto 

6 exovTO^, ovT€o 'IraXta iircopOfidaOri, iK06pT€<; Be 
^9 Ttjp XixeXlap (TTparo^ 7ro\u9 •toi;9 re Xiicapovf; 
Kparovpre^ fuixj) dveareiXap 7rpo9 ret fjuearifippiph 
Kot icirepia avrrj^ fcal dpri XiKUpia^ ^ixeXlap 
TTJP prjaop iiroirjaap KokelaOai, fcal ret Kpariara 
T^9 yrj^ ipxtjaap e^ppre^;, eirel Bie^rjaap, errj iyyv^ 
rpiaKotria nrp\v^Et\\7ipa<i €9 ^iKeXiap eXOelp* Itl 
Bk Koi PVP ra fieaa /cat ret irpo^ jSoppdp t^9 ptjo-ov 

6 exovaip. <p/covp Be koX ^oipiK€<; irepl irdaap fxep 
rrjp Xc/eeXlap a/cpa^ re enl Trj BaXdatrri diroXa^op- 
T€9 fcal T^ iirixelfjiepa prjalBta ip/iropia^ IpeKa t^9 

184 



BOOK VI. II. 2-6 

there a^r them^ indeed^ as they themselves assert^ 
even before them, as being indigenous^ but as the 
truth is found to be, they were Iberians and were 
driven by the Ligurians from the River Sicanus in 
Iberia. From them the island was then called 
Sicania, having been called Trinacria before ; and 
they still inhabit the western parts of Sicily. But 
on the capture of Ilium some of the Trojans, who had 
escaped the Achaeans, came in boats to Sicily, and 
settling on the borders of the Sicanians were called, 
as a people, Ely mi, while their cities were named 
Eryx and Egesta. And there settled with them also 
some of the Phocians, who on their return at that 
time from Troy were driven by a storm first to Libya 
and thence to Sicily. The Sicels, again, crossed over 
from Italy, where they dwelt, to Sicily, fleeing from 
the Opicans — as is probable and indeed is reported — 
on rafts, having waited for their passage till the wind 
was from the shore ; or perhaps they sailed thither in 
some other way also. Even now there are Sicels still 
in Italy ; and the country was named Italy after 
Italus, a king of the Sicels who had this name. These 
crossed over to Sicily in a vast horde and conquering 
the Sicanians in battle forced them back to the 
southern and western parts of the island, causing it 
to be called Sicily instead of Sicania. They settled 
there after they had crossed and held the best parts 
of the land for nearly three hundred years before the 
Hellenes came to Sicily ; and even now they still 
hold the central and northern parts "of the island. 
Phoenicians, too, had settlements all round Sicily, 
on promontories along the sea coast, which they 
walled off, and on the adjacent islets, for the sake 



185 



THUCYDIDES 

frpo^ Tois XiKeXov^' ivetStj Sk oi "EXXrjve^ ttoX- 
\ol Karh OaKaaaav iireaiirXeov, iKkiirovre^ tcl 
irXeUo M.OTvrfv xai XoXoevra xaX Ilavopfiov iyyif^ 
T&v ^Ekv/Mov ^voiKvaavre^ ivifiovro, ^v^fiayCa 
T€ nrlcvvoi t§ t&v ^^Xvfjmv koL on ivrevOev ika- 
yioTov irXovv Kapxv^^^ XifC€\ia<: airi^ei, /Sap- 
0apot fiev oiv roaolSe Xifcekiav xal ovrto^ mxtja'av. 

III. *E\\?7i/a)i/ Si irp&roL Xa\/ciS^9 ef Ev^ola^ 
TrKewrapref; fierct SovKXiovf; oIkiotov Nafoi^ ^kl- 
aav Kol 'A7r6Wa)i/09 ^Apyiryerov ^tofiov, oari^ vvv 
ef fi> T^ TToXcci? icTip, iopvaavTO, i<f>^ ^, OTav i/c 

2 XtfceXia^ Oetopol irXiaxTi, irp&Tov Ovovaiv. Xvpa- 
Kovaaf; hk rod ixofievov erou? 'A/};^/a9 t&p 'H/oa- 
kXsiS&v €/c KopuvOov wKiae, ^ixeXoif^ i^eXdaaf; 
irpSnov €K Trj^ vqaov, iv ^ vvv ovKert Trepi/cXv- 
^ofievrj ^ rj iroXi^ 17 €j/to9 itrriv varepov Se xpov^p 
fcal 17 Iffi) irpoarecX'^aOelaa iroXvdvOpmiro^ iyi- 

3 V€TO, 6ov/cX^9 8k Koi ol Xa\/ci8rj<; ifc Na^ov 
op^rjOevre^ erei vefiTTTtp fierh .^vpoKovaa^ oIki- 
adelaa^ Aeovrivov^ re, iroXefiqt tov<; XixeXov^ ef 6- 
Xa<rai/T69, olfci^ovai xal fUT avrov^ K-aravrfv 
oIki<tt7)V Sk avToX Karavaioc iiroirjo-avro Evap^pv 

IV. Kara Se tov avrov 'vpovov koI Aa/u9 ifc 
M.€fydpa}v airoiKiav ay<ov 69 ZtiKeXiav d(f>iK€To, Koi 

^ With CG, the other MSS. inpiKXvCofitPfi. 

^ On the little island of S. Pantaleon near the promontory 
of Lilybaeum. 

^ East of Palermo, now Salanto. • Now Palermo. 

^ 735 B.o. The site was the best point for landing from 
Hellas, near Tauromenium (Taormina). 

^ A leader appointed by a state to conduct the people sent 
out to establish a colony. He probably received material 

186 



BOOK VI. II. 6-iv. I 

of trade with the Sicels. But when the Hellenes 
also began to come in by sea in large numbers^ the 
Phoenicians left most of these places and settling 
together lived in Motya,^ Soloeis^ and Panormus' 
near the Elymi, partly because they trusted in their 
alliance with the Elymi and partly because from 
there the voyage from Sicily to Carthage is shortest. 
These^ then^ were the barbarians and such was the 
manner in which they settled in Sicily. 

III. Of the Hellenes^ on the other hand^ the first 
to sail over were some Chalcidians from Euboea who 
settled Naxos ^ with Thucles as founder^^ and built an 
altar in honour of Apollo Archegetes.® This is now 
outside of the city, and on it the sacred deputies,^ 
when they sail from Sicily, first offer sacrifice. The 
following year Syracuse® was founded by Archias, 
one of the Heracleidae from Corinth, after he had 
first expelled the Sicels from the island, no longer 
surrounded by water, on which now stands the inner 
city ; and at a later period also the outer city was 
connected with it by walls and became populous. 
In the fifth year afber the settlement of Syracuse, 
Thucles and the Chalcidians, setting forth from 
Naxos, drove out the Sicels in war and settled 
Leontini, and after it Catana.^ The Catanaeans, 
however, chose for themselves Evarchus as founder. 

IV. About the same time Lamis also came to 
Sicily with a colony from Megara and settled in a 

Srivileges and grants while . alive, and certainly was paid 
ivine honours — sacrifices and games — after death. If a 
colony afterwards founded another colony, it was customary 
to ask a leader from the mother city. 

• So called as "founder " or protector of a new settlement. 
7 On missions to games or oracles. 

• 734 B.C. 8 729 B.O. 

187 



THUCYDIDES 

irrrkp Tlavraxvov re irorafiov TpatriXov ri ovo/na 
^(opiQV 01x10" a^ Kal vtrrepov avToOev rol^ ^oKki- 
BevaLV 69 AeovTLVov^ oXiyov xpopov ^vfiiroKLTevaa^ 
Koi VTTo avTfav iKireawv xal Sdylrop olKiaa^ avro^ 
fjLCV airoOv^a'K€L, oi K aXKot i/e t^9 Sdyfrov ava- 
ardirre^t'^TlSXcovo^ jSaaiXiax; XifceXov irapaSovro^ 
rrjv yoipav Kal KaOriyrjaafiivov, M.€yap€a<: Axtaav 

2 T0U9 *TySXmou9 KXrjdivra^, Kal errj olKijaapTe^ 
7r€VT€ Kal TeaaapaKOvTa Kal hiaKoaia viro VeXtovo^; 
Tvpdvvov^vpaKoaUov dviarrja'av iK rrj^ TToXeoj^ Kal 
yd>pa^, nrplv he dvaaT^vai, ereaiv varepov eKarov 
T) avToif^ 01x10" ai, Udfi/jLiXov irefiyjravTe^ SeX^- 
vovvra ktI^ovoi, Kal €k M-eydpcop t^9 firfrpoTroXea)^ 

3 ovarj^ avroi^ eireXjOmv ^vyKaT<pKia-ev. TeXap Se 
^Apri^rjfio^ €K *PoSoi; Kal ''Ej/TA/Lto9 €k K.pi]Trj^ 
iiroiKov^ dyayopTe^ Koipy eKTioap erei irep^irTcp 
Kal TeaaapaKoar^ fiera ^vpaKova&p ockktip. Kal 
TJj fjL€P TToXei diro rov TeXa iroTafiov rovpofia 
iyipero, to Se ^©/otor ov pvp rj 7roXt9 eoTl Kal o 
irp&TOP ereL'viau'q AlpScoi KoXeirar pofiifia Se 

4 ^^aypiKCt ireurj avroi^. ereai Se iyyvrara okto) 
Kal CKarop /uLera Ttfv a^eripap oiKiaip TeX^oi 
*AKpdrfaPTa tpKioap, ttjp fiep iroXip diro tov *AKpd' 
yaPTO^ iroTafiov ovofidaapre^i, olKioTct^ Be iroirj' 
aavre^ ^Apiaropovp Kal TlvarlXop, po/ufia Be ret 

6 TeXfptop B6pTe<;, ZdyKXrf Be Ttjp fiep dp^V^ dfiro 
Kvfiff^ T^9 €P ^OiriKia ^aXKLBiKri<; iroXeo)^ X'ffor&p 
d<l>i,KOfiepa)p wKiaOr), varepov Be Kal diro Xa\A:tSo9 
Kal T^9 aXXtft; FiV^oia<; TrXrjdof; eXdop ^uyKarepei' 

^ A peninsala just north of Syracuse (now called Isola di 
Magnisi). 

i88 




BOOK VI. IV. 1-5 

place called Trotilus, beyond the river Pantacyas; 
but afterwards, having removed from there and 
joined the settlement of the Chalcidians at Leontini, 
he was a little later driven out by them, and 
then after colonizing Thapsus ^ met his death. His 
followers were expelled from Thapsus and settled 
then at a place called Megara Hyblaea,^ since 
Hyblon, a Sicel king, gave up the land to them and 
led them to the site. After dwelling there two 
hundred and forty-five years, they were driven out 
of the town and country by Gelon, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse. But before they were driven out, a hundred 
years after they had settled there, they founded 
Selinus,^ sending thither Pammilus, who came from 
the mother-city Megara and joined in the settle- 
ment. In the forty-fifth year after the settlement 
of Syracuse Gela * was founded by Antiphemus from 
Rhodes and Entimus from Crete, who together led 
out the colony. The city got its name from the 
river Gela, but the place where the acropolis now 
is and which was the first to be fortified is called 
Lindii.^ The institutions given it were Dorian. 
Just about one hundred and eight years after their 
own foundation, the Geloans colonized Acragas ^ ; 
and they named the city after the river Acragas, 
making Aristonous and Pystilus founders, and giving 
it the institutions of the Geloans. Zancle was 
settled, in the beginning, by pirates who came from 
Cyme, the Chalcidian city in Opicia ; but afterwards 
a large number of colonists came from Chalcis and 
the rest of Euboea and shared the land with them, 

• 728 B.O. « 628 B.C. * 689 b.c. 

* So called evidently from Lindus in Rhodes ; cf, Hdt 
VII. cliii. '581 B.O. 

189 



THUCYDIDES 

fiavro TTjp yrjv xal oUiaral Ilepi'^prf^ koI Kpa- 
raifiivfjf; iyivovro avTtj^, 6 fikv airo Kvfirf^, 6 Si 
dvo XaXxiSo^;, opofia Be to /t^j/ irp&rov Tiar^icKt] 
f\v VTTO T&v ^i>fc€\a>v K\i]0€i<ra, on SpeiravoeiBk^ 
TTfv IBeav TO 'Xj^piov iari (to Sk Bpiiravov oi XiK^koX 
^dy/cXov KaXovciv), vaTepov S' avTol phf vtto 2a- 
fuav fcal aXKcop ^Idpav iKTriTrTovatv, ot iAijSov^ 
^evyome^ irpoa-i/SaXov XiKcXia, tou9 Be ^afdov^ 
6 'Ai^aftXa? 'VrjyLvayv Tupavvo^ ov iroXX^ varepov 
iK^aXobv teal ttjp ttoKiv aino^ ^vfifieuKTav dvOpoi>' 
irayp olxiaa^ Meaa'^vrfp airo Ttj^ eavTOV to ap'xjouov 
iraTpiBo^ avTayvofiaa-ev, 

V. Kal ^Ifiipa diro Zdr/KXrf^ ^KvaOrj vtto 
EixXeiBov koI %lfiov Kal XaKCOvo^, koI X.a\xiBrj^ 
piv oi TrXeZerroA fikdov €9 Trfv diroiKiav, ^vptofctaav 
Be avTol^ Kal ix ^vpuKova&v (f>vydB€^ aToaei 
vtKi]0€VTe<:, oi Mv\r]TiSai xaXovp^vor xal ijxovif 
p,€V peTa^i T^9 T6 XaX/ctSeo)!/ Kal 6^topiBo^ 
iKpdOf), vopbip^i Bk Tct XaXKiBiKct eKpaTtjaev. 

2 ^AKpat Be Kal Kaapivai xnro ItvpaKoaLttiv (pxi- 
aOffaap, "Axpai p^p e^BoprjKOPTa ereai p^erit 
XvpaKOvaa^, KaapAvai S" iyyv^ eiKoat p^Tct 

3 ^AKpa^, Kal K.apdptva to irpSnop virb XvpaKO^ 
emp fjpKLadi], eTeaip eyyinaTa iriirre Kal TOid- 
KOPTa Kal exaTOP p^Td XvpaKova&p KTuaiP* 
olKiaTal Bk eyepOPTO avTrj^ Ada-Koyp Koi Mei/e- 
/ca>\o9. dpaaTaTtop Bk K.ap>aptpai(OP yepopbhffov 
iroXiptp VTTO XvpaKoaitop Bl* diroaToaiv, XP^^^ 
^liriroKpaTf}^ vaTepop TiXa^ T;^pappo^, \vTpa dp^ 
Bp&p %vpaKoaLo)P a^'x^paXayTtop Xa^oap TtfP yrjp Tifv 
Kap^apipaUop, avTo^i olKiaTrj^ y€p6p£P0^ KaTfjpKiae 



190 



BOOK VI. IV. s-v, 3 

the founders being Perieres and Crataemenes^ the 
one from Cyme^ the other from Chalcis. Its name at 
first was Zancle^ and it was so called by the Sicels 
because the place is sickle-shaped : for the Sicels call 
a sickle " zanclon." Afterwards these settlers were 
driven out by Samians and other lonians^ who in 
their flight before the Persians landed in Sicily ^ ; 
but the Samians were expelled not long afterwards 
by Anaxilus^ tyrant of Rhegium^ who colonized the 
place with a mixed population and changed its 
name to Messene^ after his own original father- 
land. 

V. Himera* was colonized from Zancle by Eu- 
cleideSj Simus and Sacon. Most of the colonists 
were Chalcidians ; but there settled with them also 
fugitives from Syracuse who had been vanquished 
in a factional quarrel^ the Myletidae as they were 
called. Their language was a mixture of Chalcidic 
and Doric^ but Chalcidic institutions prevailed. 
Acrae and Casmenae were colonized by the Sjn-a- 
cusans: Acrae* seventy years after Syracuse^ Cas- 
menae ^ nearly twenty years after Acrae. Camarina * 
was first colonized by the Syracusans^ just about one 
hundred and thirty-five years after the foundation 
of Syracuse^ its founders being Dascon and Mene- 
colus. But the Camarinaeans were driven out by 
the Syracusans in a war which arose from a revolt, 
and some time later Hippocrates, t3rrant of Gela/ 
receiving the territory of the Camarinaeans as 
ransom for some Syracusan prisoners of war, him- 
self became founder and recolonized Camarina. 

1 c/. Hdt. Yi. xxii., xxiii. « 730 b.c. 

» 648 B.C. * 664 B.C. » 644 b.c. 

^ 509 B.O. ' Dates 498-491. 

191 



THUCYDIDES 

Kafidpivav, koI aidi^ viro TeXoavo^ avdararo^ 
yevo/jbivT) to rpirov /carayKLaOrj vtto TeXcocJv^ 

VI. Toaavra eOvrj E\\i]voi)V koI ^apBdpoov 
^itcekiav wfcei, fcal iirl Toarjvhe oiaav airijv oi 
*A9rjvatoi (TTpareveiv &pfirjvTO, e<\>LefJLevoL fxkv rfj 
dXTjOeaTdrrj 7rpo(pda€C Trj<; irdarff; dp^ai, ^orj0€iv 
Si afia evTrpeirw ^ovXo/nepoi to?9 eavT&v ^vy- 
yeviai /cal to?9 7rpoy€y€vrj/jL€voi<; ^ ^v/jL/jud'XpL^i. 
2 fidXiara S' avrovf; i^cop/jbrjaap^Kr/earaicov^ Trpitr- 
fiei<; irapovref; /cal irpoOvjjborepov iircKaTijovfievoL. 
o/iiopoL yap oi/re? to?? XeTuvovvrioif; €9 TroXefiov 
KaOecTaaav irepi re ya/jut/c&v tlv(ov koI irepl yrjs 
d/ii<l)ia^r)T'^TOv, fcaX ol XeXcvovvrioi XvpaKoaiovs 
iirayayofievoi ^v/ii/jLdj(pv<; /careipyov avrov^ t^ 
iroXepxp KaX /caret yrjv /cal /card OdXaaaav Zare 
rrjv yevofievrjv iirl Ad^rjTo^; /cal tov irporipov 
iroXifiov AeojrrLPODV^ ol ^Kyearacoc ^v/jufiax^^^ 
dva/jLi/jivya/coPTe<: tou9 ^AOrjvaiov^; iSeovro a^iac 
vav<; wifiyfravra^ ina/jLvvai, \€yovT€<; dWa re 
TToXKd /ccii Ke<\>dXaLov, ei Xvpa/coaioL Aeovrlvov^ 
re dvaarrjcavre^ drificoprjroL yevrjcovrai Kal roif^ 
Xoiirov^ €rc ^vfi/jbd'x^ovf; avr&v hLa<\>deLpovre<; ^ 
avrol rrjv drraaav Bvva/niv rrj^ Xi/ceXia^ <^XV' 
<T0v<TL, Kivhwov clvai fii] TTorc fieydXr) irapaa/cevy 
Acjpir]^ re Acopievai /card rb ^x)yyeve<: /cal dfia 
aTTOC/coi Tot9 i/C7re/jLyfraaL HeXoTropprjaLOL^;^ fior^- 

^ DodwelPs conjecture for r€\(uvos of the MSS. 
^ With EGM and Valla; Hude reads trpo<ryey€vij/A4yois with 
the other MSS. 
' T€ after *Ey€<rrai<op omitted with three inferior MSS. 
^ Aeovrivoov, Hude deletes, following Classen. 
' 9ia<p0tlpoyT€s, Hude reads 9ia<p0€lpavr€s with Cod. Clarend. 
* Ut\oirovrn(rtois, Hude deletes, following Cobet. 

192 



BOOK VI. V. 3-vi. 2 

And again the place was depopulated by Gelon^ 
and was then colonized for the third time by the 
Geloans. 

VI. Such were the nations^ Hellenic and barbarian^ 4i6 b.c 
that inhabited Sicily ; and such was the magnitude 
of the island which the Athenians were bent upon 
invading. To give the truest explanation^ they were 
eager to attain to empire of the whole of it^ but they 
wished at the same time to have the fair pretext of 
succouring their own kinsmen and their old allies.^ 
But most of all they were instigated by envoys of 
the Egestaeans who were present and invoked their 
aid more earnestly than ever. For bordering as they 
did on the Selinuntians they had got into war with 
them about certain marriage rights and about dis- 
puted territory; and the Selinuntians^ bringing in 
the Syracusans as allies^ were pressing them hard in 
the war both by land and by sea. And so the Eges- 
taeans^ reminding the Athenians of their alliance 
which had been made with the Leontines in the time 
of Laches and the former war^^ begged them to 
send ships to their relief; saying many other things 
but chiefly this^ that if the Syracusans should go 
unpunished for depopulating Leontini^ and by 
destroying those of their allies that were still left 
should get the whole of Sicily into their power, 
there was danger that some time, lending aid with a 
great force, both as Dorians to Dorians on account 
of kinship, and at the same time as colonists to the 
Peloponnesians that had sent them out, they might 

* Or, reading irpoffytytPij/A4poiSf — **the allies they had ac- 
quired besides"' — the Camarinaeans and Agrigentines (v. iv. 
6) and some of the Sicels (iii. ciii. 1 ). 

• c/. III. Izxxvi. 1. 

'93 

VOL. III. O 



THUCYDIDES 

07]aavT€^ fcal Tr)v i/eeCvav Svvafiiv ^vyKaOikwaiv 
aSi^pov B* elvai fierct r&v viroXoiircov €tc ^v/jl- 
fidycDV avrixscv T0t9 XvpaKoaioi^, aWw? T€ /cal 
'XpTjfiaTa <r<f>&v irape^ovrayp €9 top ttoXc/jlov l/cavd, 
3 &v OKOVOVTC^ ol ^AdrjpaLoi ip ral^; i/c/cKrjaiai^; t&p 
T€ ^Erf€(naL(ov iroXKaKL^ XeyoPTtop /cal t&p ^vpa- 
yopevoPTCDP avToU i'>^^i(TaPTo irpia^ei^ irepL^^ai 
irp&TOP €9 Tr)P ''Eyeo'Tap irepi t€ t&p yprffiaTCDP 
aK€yfto/jLipov<; el virapx^i) Sairep ^aaip, ip t^ 
KOLP^ tcaX ip Tot9 iepoL^, koX Tit Tov TToXifiov a/jLa 
wp6<; T0V9 X€\ipovpTLov<; ip 0T(p iaTlp elao/jspov*;, 
VII. Kal ol fikp irpia^ei^ t&p ^ AOrjpalcop aire- 
{TToKrjaap 69 t^p 2,1/ceXiap, AaKehaiixopioi he 
TOV avTov )(€c/jL&po<; Kal ol ^v/n/naxot irXi^p Ko- 
pcpdiayp aTpaT€vaaPT€<; t'9 Ttfp ^Apyeiap t?79 t€ 

79)9 €T€/JU)P OV TToWrfP Koi (tItOP CLPeKOjUaaPTO 

Tipa ^evyrj /cofuaapTef;, /cat €9 ^Opp€a<; KaTOCfci- 
aapT€<; tou9 ^Apyeicjp <f)vydha<; teal 79)9 SXKti^ 
<TTpaTia^ irapaKaTaXtTTOPTe^ avToU 0X4701/9, xal 
o'lreio'dfiepoi Tipa 'x^popop &<tt€ fit) dSixeip ^Opped- 
Ta9 /cat ^Apyeiovf; ttjp dXKijT^MP, direxoyprjaap t^ 

2 (TTpaT^ iir oXtcov, iXSoPTCDP Be ^AOrjpaiayp ov 
TToW^ varepop paval TpidxopTa fcal e^atcoaioL^ 
oirXiTai^, ol ^Apyeloc /jl€tci t&p ^AOrjpalcop irap- 
(TTpaTiai i^e\6oPTe<i tov9 pip ip ^Oppeat^ piap 
'qp.ipap iiroXiopKOVp* viro he pvKTa, avKLaafUpov 
TOV <TTpaTevpxiTO<; diraOep, iKSiSpdafcovaip ol ix 
T&p *Opp€&p, Kal T§ vaTepaia ol ^Apyetoi €09 
paOopTo, Koraaxd'^apTe^i Ta9 '0^1/6^9 dpe^dtpria'ap 
Kal ol ^AOrjpaloL vaTepop Tat9 pavalp iir oXkov, 

3 Kal €9 MeOcopijp ttjp ofiopop Maxehopia lirirea^ 



194 



BOOK VI. VI. 2-vii. 3 

help to pull down the power of the Athenians. It 
would be wise, therefore, with their allies that 
were still left, to oppose the Syracusans, especially 
as the Egestaeans would furnish money sufficient for 
the war. And the Athenians, hearing in their assem- 
blies these arguments of the Egestaeans and their 
supporters, who constantly repeated them, voted first 
to send envoys to Egesta to see whether the money 
was on hand, as they said, in the treasury and in the 
temples, and at the same time to ascertain how 
matters stood with reference to the war with the 
Selinuntians. 

VII. Accordingly the Athenian envoys were 
despatched to Sicily. But during the same winter 
the Lacedaemonians and their allies, except the 
Corinthians, invaded the Argive territory, ravaged a 
small part of the land and carried off some corn in 
wagons which they had brought with them ; then 
having settled the Argive fugitives at Orneae, leav- 
ing with them also a small body of troops, after 
they had made a truce for a certain time, on condi- 
tion that the Orneates and Argives were not to 
injure one another's land, they went home with the 
rest of their force. When the Athenians came not 
long afterwards with thirty ships and six hundred 
hoplites, the Argives, in company with the Athenians, 
went out in full force and besieged the garrison at 
Omeae for a single day ; but under cover of night, 
when the besieging army had bivouacked at a dis- 
tance, the garrison of Orneae escaped. The next 
day the Argives, on learning this, razed Orneae to 
the ground and withdrew, and later the Athenians 
also went home with their ships. 

The Athenians also conveyed by sea some of their 

195 
o 2 



THUCYDIDES 

Karh OaXaaaav KOfdaavre^ ^AOrjvaloL a^&v tc 
avT&v /cal MafceBovoDV tov? napct a<l)iai ^vydSa<; 
4 ifcafcovpyovp rrjv TLepSifCKOv, KaKshaifiovioi Be 
7rifiylravT€<; irapa ^aKKihia<; rov^ eifi &paKr}<;, 
ayovTa^ irpo<: * AOrjvaiov^ Se^ry/Ae/oou? (TirovBd^;, 
^vfiTToXefielp ixeXevop TLepSifCfca' oi S' ovk fjOeXov, 
Kol 6 x^^f^^ iTcXevra, seal etcrov koH BexaTov 
€T0<; TcS TToXififp ireXevra r&Be hv SovKvBiBrj<; 
^vviypayjrev. 

VIII. Tov S' iTTLyiyvofiivov Bepov^ a/na ffpi oi 
T&v *A6r)paL€ov irpea^ei^ fjKOv ex t^9 XifceXia^ 
Kol oi ^Eyearacoc psT aifr&p ayopT&; k^rjKovTa 
rdXavra daij/nov dpyvplov dx; €9 e^rjKopTa pav<; 
p/qpos fiicdop, a9 efieXXop Berjaeadai irip.iretp, 

2 Kot oi ^Adi^paLOC i/CKXrjaLap Troirjaapre*; koX dtcov- 
aapre^ t&p tc ^Kyearaiayp /cal tS>p af\>erepo)P 
wpeafieeop rd re aXXa iiraycoya Kal ovk dXrjdrj, 
Kol irepX T&p XPVH'^'^^^ ^^ ^^V ^Tolpxi ep re roh 
iepoU iroXXct Kal ip t^ koip&, €yjrr)(j>[a'apTo pav<; 
k^'qKOvra Trip^ireip 69 ^iKeXiap xal arpaTrjyoif^ 
avroKpdropa^ ^AXKi/3idBrfp re top KXciplov Kal 
^LKtap TOP NcKTjpdTOv Kal Adpxi^op TOP Sepo- 
<f>dpov^, ^orjdoif<: fi€P ^Ey€a'Taiot<; npo^ XeXipovp- 
Ttov9, ^vyKaToiKiaat Bi Kal A€OPTipov<;, rjp^ tl 
irepiyLyprjTaL avTol^ tov voXep^v, Kal ToXXa tA 
ip T§ ZiKeXia irpd^ai OTrrj &p yiypaxTKcoaip apiaTa 

3 ^ AdrjpaioL^. p>€Tct Be tovto r^p^epa TrepnTTtj €K- 
KXrjaia avdc<; iyir/peTO, Ka6^ tl xpfj Ttfp irapa- 
(TKevrjp Tal<; paval Td^to'Ta yiypeaOai, koI tol^ 
(TTpaTrjyol^;, el tov irpoaBeoiPTO, '^<\>La6riPai €9 

^ Hude inserts re after ffv. 
196 



BOOK VI. VII. 3-viii. 3 

own cavalry and the Macedonian exiles that were 
with them to Methone^ which borders on Macedonia^ 
and ravaged the country of Perdiccas. And the 
Lacedaemonians sent to the Chalcidians in Thrace^ 
who were observing a truce renewable every ten 
days with the Athenians^ and urged them to join 
Perdiccas in the war ; but they were unwilling. So 
the winter ended^ and with it the sixteenth year of 
this war of which Thucydides wrote the history. 

VIII. The next year at the opening of spring the JJj^^^ 
Athenian envoys returned from Sicily, and with them 
the £gestaeans, bringing sixty talents ^ of uncoined 
silver as a month's pay for sixty ships, which they 
were to ask the Athenians to send. And the 
Athenians, calling an assembly and hearing from the 
Egestaeans and their own envoys other things that 
were enticing but not true, and that the money was 
ready in large quantity in the temples and in the 
treasury, voted to send to Sicily sixty ships, with 
Alcibiades son of Cleinias, Nicias son of Niceratus, 
and Lamachus son of Xenophanes as generals with 
full powers, to aid the Egestaeans against the 
Selinuntians, and also to join in restoring Leontini, 
in case they should have any success in the war ; 
and further to settle all other matters in Sicily as 
they might deem best for the Athenians. But on 
the fifth day after this a meeting of the assembly 
was again held, to determine in what way the ships 
could be equipped most speedily, and in case the 
generals should need anything further for the 

1 £12,000, $67,360. 

197 



THUCYDIDES. 

4 Tov eKirXovv. tcaX 6 N^^ia? a/covaco^ fikv 'ffprj- 

fl€VO^ ap')(€LV, VO/JLl^COP Sc TTJV TToXlV OVfC 6p9ct)^ 

^e^ovXevadai, dWa it po<\>d<Tei ^pa')(€ia koX ev- 
irpeirel t^9 %iK€Kia^ aTrdar)^, fieydXov epyov, 
i(pL€a0ai, irapeXOoov dTroTpe-^aL i^ovXero koX 
iraprjvei rol<; ^A9rjpaioi<; ToidSe. 

IX. "'H /jL€v iKfcXtjala irepl TrapaaKevrj^ t^9 
'^/j.eT€pa<; rjBe ^vveXeyrj, KaS* o tl xPV ^^ Xi/ceXiav 
ifCTrXeiv i/jLol fievroi SokcI fcal ire pi avrov tovtov 
€Ti XP^^^^ a/ciylraaOai, el koI cifiuvov iariv 
iKiri/jbTretp Ta9 vav<;, fcal jjlt) ovtco^ ^paxcia ^ovX^ 
irepl fi€ydX(ov Trpay/jbdrap dvBpdaip dXXo<l>vXoLf; 
Treidofiepov^ iroXefJiop ov TrpoaijKOPTa alpeaOai. 

2 Kairoi €70)76 /cal-rifi&fiai iic tov tolovtov koI 
rjaaov eriptop irepX t^ i/jLavrov aa>fiaTL oppcoSA, 
pofu^oop ojjLoia)^ dyadop TroXirrjp elpai 69 oLp koI 
TOV cdifiaTo^ ti teal t^9 ovaLa<; rrpoporJTar fid- 
XiaTa yhp ap 6 tocovto^ kuI Tct t^9 TroXeay*; Bi 
iavTOp fiovXoiTO opOovaOai, ofxo)^ Be ovt€ ev t^ 
irpoTcpop xpoptp Bih TO TrpoTLjidadaL elirop irapd 
yp<op/qv ovT€ vvPy dXXa j) &p^ yiypcoa/cco ffiXTiaTa 

3 €p&. fcal 7r/)09 fiep tou9 Tpoirov^; tov^ vfJueTepov^ 
dad€Prj<; ap fiov 6 X0709 etr), el Td t€ virdp^opTa 
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d^av&p /cal jMeXXovTcov KLpBvpeveip' a>9 Be ovTe ep 

* iAAA J &y, with the MSS., Hude adopts Saa' ^ hv from 
Reiske and Madvig. 

198 




BOOK VI. VIII. 3-ix. 3 

expedition, to vote it for them. And Nicias, who had 
been elected to the command against his will, and 
thought the city had not come to a right decision, 
but that, with a slight and specious pretext, it was 
the conquest of all Sicily, a great undertaking, at 
which they aimed, came forward with the purpose 
of averting this, and advised the Athenians as 

r follows : — 

IX. '''This assembly was convoked with reference 

^ \ to our armament, to consider in what way we should 
make the expedition to Sicily; to me, however, it 
seems that we ought to consider yet again this very 
question, whether it is best to send the ships at all, 
and that we ought not, on such slight deliberation 
about matters of great importance, at the instigation 
of men of alien race, to undertake a war that does 
not concern us. And yet from such an enterprise I for 
my part get honour, and have less dread than others 
about my life,^ although I consider that he is quite as 
good a citizen who takes some forethought for his 
life and property; for such an one would, for his 
own sake, be most desirous that the aflTairs of the 
city should prosper. But nevertheless neither 
in the past have I, for the sake of being preferred in 
honour, spoken contrary to my judgment, nor shall 
I do so now, but I shall speak just as I deem best. 
Against tempers, indeed, like yours my words would 
be unavailing, if I should exhort you to preserve 
what you have already and not to hazard present 
possessions for things that are unseen and in the 
future ; that, however, neither is your haste timely, 

^ He may have been suffering already from the kidney 
trouble of which he complained the next summer in his letter 
to the Athenians (vii. xv. 1). 

199 



THUCYDIDES 

Kaipt^ aTrevSere ovre paSid iari /caraa^etv i<f) a 
ApfirjaOe, ravra SiSd^co. 

X. ** ^rjfil yap v/xd*; ttoXc/uou? ttoXKov^ ivddSe 
v7ro\nr6vTa<; zeal eripov^ iiridvp^elv ifceiae irXev- 

2 aavTUf; Sevpo iirayayiadac. fcal oteade ?o*g)9 tAv 
y€vo/iiipa<; v/mv a7rov8ii<; e%€ti/ rt ^e^aiov cu 
'^avxa^ovrcop fikv vfi&v ovofiari (XTropSal eaovrac 
(ovTCi) yap ivOevSe t€ avSpe^ eirpa^av avra xal 
etc r&v ivavTmv), a^aXevToov Si ttov d^ioxp^tp 
Svpdfiei ra'xelav Tr)v eTrt^et/oiyciv '^p/iv oi i'^Opol 
7roi7]aovTai, 0I9 irp&TOV p^kv Sea ^vp,(f)op&v 17 
^vp>l3aaif; /cal €k tov ala')(iovo^ fj ripHv kot 
dvdyKTiv iyevcTO, cTreira iv avrfj Tavrtf TroXkct tcl 

3 dp,(f>La'^f)Tovp,€va l^o/icv. elal S' ot ovBk Tavirjv 
TTco Ttjp op^oXoyiav iSi^avTO, teal ov)^ oi dadevi- 
araror d\\' oi p,€v avTiKpv^ 7ro\€p4)vaiv, oi Be 
fcal Sih TO AaKcBaip^ovLov^ en rjavxd^eiv Be^V' 

4 p,€poi^ airovBal^ teal avTol KaTexovrai, Ta;^a S' 
av Xa(0(;, el BLj(a r)p,&v ttjp Bvvap,tv Xd^oiev, oirep 
vvv (TirevBop^ev, Ka\ irdvv av ^vvenrLdoLvio psr^ 
^iK€\ia)T&p, oft? irpo iroW&v av iTipnTjaavro ^vp,- 

6 p^d'xpvf; yeviadat iv t^ irplv xp6v<p, Sare XPV 
(TKOirelv Tiva aifTct /cal p>fj psredoptp t§ ttoXsl d^iovv 
KivBvveveiv /cal dpxv^ aWrj<; opeyeaOai irplv fjv 
expp^v ^€^cua){r(op,€da, el Xa\KiBi]<; ye oi iwl 
^pa/cq^i €T7f ToaavTa d<f>€(rT&T€^ fjp&v, en aj^et- 
parot elai xal dXXoi Tcvk<; /caret rit^ fjireLpov^ 
200 



BOOK VI. IX. 3-x. 5 

nor is it easy to attain what you are striving for, 
this I shall show. 

X. "I say, then, that you, leaving behind you 
many enemies here, are bent upon sailing there and 
bringing upon you here still other enemies. And you 
think perhaps that the treaty which has been made 
affords you some security — a treaty which indeed, as 
long as you are quiet, will be a treaty in name (for 
so certain men here and among our enemies have 
managed these matters) ; but should you perchance 
suffer defeat with a considerable force, our foes will 
be quick to make their attack upon us. For the 
compact in the first place was concluded by them 
under compulsion through stress of misfortune and 
with less credit to them than to us ; and, besides, in 
the compact itself there are many disputed points. 
There are also some states which have not as yet ac- 
cepted evien this agreement, and these not the 
weakest ; on the contrary, some of them are at open 
war with us, while others again, merely because the 
Lacedaemonians still keep quiet, are themselves also 
kept in restraint by a truce renewable every ten 
days. But very probably, if they should find our 
power divided — the very thing we are now so 
anxious to bring about — they would eagerly join 
in an attack upon us along with the Siceliots, 
whose alliance they would heretofore have given 
much to obtain. And so we must consider these 
matters and resolve not to run into danger while 
the state is still amid the waves, and reach out 
after another empire before we have secured that 
which we have, seeing that the Chalcidians in 
Thrace, after so many years of revolt from us, are 
still unsubdued, while others at various points on 

201 



THUCYDIDES 

evBoiaaTW aKpoSnnai. rjfiel^ he ^Er/eaTaioi^ Sij 
oval ^vfijjMXOt^ ay; aSixov/ievoL^ of eo)9 fiorjOovfiev, 
v<f>* &v B* avTol TToXat a<j>€aTa>TOi}p aSiKovfieOa, 
€Ti fUWofiev afiiveadat. 

XI. " K^aiTOi T0V9 fiev Karefrfcurdfievoi k&v Kard- 
<r^oifjL€V T&v S' el fcal fcparTjaaifiep, Scd ttoWov ye 
Kol TToWcjv opTcov ^aXcTTO)? civ ap'xeiv SvvaifieOa, 
dvofjTOP S* iirl TOiovTov^ ievat &v Kparrjca^ re fiff 
KaTa<T')(riaei Tt9 kclL firj /caTopOcoaa^ /li) ev r^ o/Moitp 

2 Kol irpiv i7n)(€i>prjaai earai, XifceXicorai S' av 
fioi SoKovaip, a>9 ye pvp e)(pvai, koX en ap ^aaop 
SeLPol rjpZp yepeaOai, el ap^eiap ain&p ^vpafcoaioi, 
oirep oi ^^Sr/e<TTalot fidXiara fjna^ eK<f>ofiova'ip, 

3 PVP flip yap /cap eXOoiep lao)^ AaKeBatfiopiayp eica- 
aroi 'x^dpcTi, i/ceipa>^ S* ovk elxo*; dpxvv €7rl dp')(Yjp 
(TTpaTevaai* ^ yap ap Tpoircp rrjp rjfieTepap fierh 
HeXoTTOPPrjaLCop d(f>€\Q)VTat, el/co<; viro t&p avr&p 
/cal rrjp a^erepap Bta tov avrov /cadaipeOrjpai. 

4 i7/L6a9 S' ap oi i/cel "EW^i/e? fidXiara jjbep eKire- 
TrXrjyfiipoL elep, el firj d(f>iKoifie0a, eireira Be xal 
el Bei^apre^ rrjp Bvpafiip Bl oXiyov direXBotfiep 
{ra yap Bib, irXeiarov irdpre^ ta/xep davfia^ofiepa 
fcal tA Treipap rjKKrra rrj^ Bo^rjf; Bopra)' el Be 
c^aXelfMep ri, Tdyi(TT hp wrepiBoPTe^ fiera t&p 



202 




BOOK VI. X. s-xi. 4 

the mainland render us a dubious allegiance. But 
we^ it seems^ must rush to bring aid to Egestaeans^ 
being, forsooth, our allies, on the ground that they 
are wronged, while on those by whose revolt we 
ourselves have long been wronged we still delay to 
inflict punishment. 

XI. *^Andyet these, if once brought under control, 
we might also keep under control ; but the Siceliots, 
even if we should get the better of them, we should 
find it hard to govern, far off as they are and for- 
midable in numbers. But it iis folly to go against 
men when victory will not bring control over them 
and failure will not leave matters in the same con- 
dition as before the attack was made. The Siceliots, 
moreover, it seems to me, at least as things now 
stand, would be even less dangerous to us if the 
Syracusans should acquire rule over them — that 
prospect with which the Egestaeans especially try 
to terrify us. For now they might perhaps come 
against us singly out of regard for the Lacedae- 
monians, but in the other case,^ it is not likely that 
an imperial city would make war against an im- 
perial city ; for by whatsoever means they, in con- 
cert with the Peloponnesians, might despoil us of 
our sway, by the same means very likely would 
their own empire be pulled down by these same 
Peloponnesians. And as to us, the Hellenes there 
would be most in awe, first, if we should not come 
at all ; next, if after showing our power we should 
after a brief interval depart. For it is, as we all 
know, things that are farthest off and least allow 
a test of their reputation which excite wonder ; but 
if we should suffer a defeat, they would very quickly 

^ i,e, in case the SyracuBans acquired sway over them. 

203 



THUCYDIDES 

6 ivOdSe iniOoivTo. oirep vvv vfiei^, & ^AOffvatoi, €9 
Aa/ceSacfWpiov^ koI Toi»9 ^vixfid')(ov<i TreirovOare, 
Sect TO Trapct yvco/jLfjv avrjov irpos cl e^o pelade to 
irpcjTov nepiyeyevrjo'dai KaTa<\>povri&dvT€^ HSrj koL 

6 StAreXta? i<\>U<76€} XPV ^^ M ''^po^ ra? Tifxp,^ 
T&v ivavTLCDv eiraipeaOaiy aXKh rd^ Siavoia^ 
KpaTqaavra^ Oapaeiv, /nrjSe Katcehaifwviov^ aXKo 
Ti riyqaaadai rj Bui to ala'xpov a/eoTrelv OT<p 
rpoirtp €Ti Koi vvv, fjv BvvoDvrai, a<f>i]\avT€^ flfias 
TO a^€T€pov dirpeire^ ei OrjaovTai, oatp xaX Trepl 
ir\d<TTov KaX Sid irXeiaTOv So^av dperfj^: p^eXe- 

7 T&atv, &aTe ov irepX t&v iv XtfceXla ^FrfecTaitov 
rfpHv, dvSpMV ^apfidpeov, 6 dya>v, cl aaxjypovovfiev, 
aW' OTTO)? iroXiv St' 6\iyapxia<: iirt^ovXevova-av 
of €©9 (l)v\a^6/JL€6a. 

XII. " Kal fie/xvrja-dai XPV VH'd^ or* vecDa-TL 
diro v6<T0V' fjL6yd\ri^ koX noXifiov ^pa^v tl \e- 
\a>{f>7J/cafi€V, &aT€ fcal 'x^prip/iai /cat to2<; adfiaa-iv 
Tfv^TJadar Kol TavTa virep rjfi&v Si/caiov ivOdhe 
dvaXovv, KoX fiij vTrkp dvhp&v <l>vydSa)v T&vBe 
eTTiKOvpia^ Beop^evcov, ol^ to t€ ylrevaaaOai /ca\&^ 
'X^pi]{ri,/JLOv, Kol T^ Tov TreXa? KivSvvq), avToif^ 
Xoyov^ p^ovov wapaa^^op^evov^, fj fcaTopOdxravTa^ 
Xdpiv p^tf d^iav elhivai fj irTaiaavTd^ ttov tov9 
2 ^t\ov9 ^vvawoXiaai.^ el t€ Tt9 dp')(€iv acpsvo^ 
alpeOeh irapaivel vpZv iKTrSjelv, to eavTOv pivov 

^ For i^U<r$ai of the MSS., after Schol. 

' For ^vyairo\4v0at of the MSS., Reiske's correction. 

204 



BOOK VI. XI. 4-xii. 2 

despise us and join our enemies here in attacking 
us. And just this has been your experience^ men 
of Athens^ with regard to the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies : because you have got the better of them 
beyond your expectation — in comparison with what 
you feared at first — you despise them now and aim 
even at the conquest of Sicily. You have no right, 
however, to be elated at the misfortunes of your 
opponents, but only when you have mastered their 
spirits should you feel confidence ; nor must you 
believe that the Lacedaemonians, on account of 
their humiliation, have anything else in view than 
to discover in what way they may even yet defeat 
us and retrieve their own dishonour — the more so 
as they have been in the highest degree and for 
the longest time courting a reputation for valour. 
And so the issue before us, if we are prudent, is not 
the fate of the Egestaeans, a barbaric people in 
Sicily, but how we shall keep a sharp watch upon a 
state which is intriguing against us with the devices 
of oligarchy. 

Xn. "And we should remember that we have 
but lately recovered somewhat from a great pesti- 
lence and war, so as to recruit our strength both in 
money and in men; and these resources it is but 
right to expend for ourselves here, and not for 
these fugitives that are begging our aid, whose 
interest it is to lie cleverly, and, at their neigh- 
bour s cost, supplying nothing but words them- 
selves, either, in case of success, to show no proper 
gratitude, or, in the event of failure, to involve 
their friends in ruin. And if there be anyone here 
who, elated at being chosen to command, exhorts 
you to sail, considering — especially as he is too 

205 



THUCYDIDES 

(TfcoTreav, aWw? re fcal v€(OT€po<; cov en €9 to 
dp')(etv, OTTG)^ davfiaadfj fiev aTro rrj^ l7nroTpo<f>La<;t 
Sia Se TroXvreXeiav fcal Q>(j>€\.rf07j n ifc Trj<; ap')(rj^, 
firjSe TOVTtp i/M7rapda")(i]Te t& ttj^ TroXeo)? KivSvpcp 
ihia eKXajjLirpvveo'Oai, vofjuLaare Sh roiff; toiovtov^ 
ra fjb€P Srjfioaia dSi/ceip, ra Se iSia avaXovv, koX 
TO irpayfia fiiya elvai KaX firj olov vetorepcp ^ 
^ovKevaaaOai re fcal ofeo)? p,€Ta')(eLpi<raL» 

XIII. "Ou9 670) op&v vvv ivddSe rm avT& dvhpl 
irapaKekevcTTOV^ /caffrjfiivovf; (f)o/3ovfiac, koX to?? 
irpea-^vrepoi^ avTiirapaKeXevofiat firj /caTataxw- 
Brjvai, €1 TO) Tt9 irapaKadrfrai T&vBe, otto)? firj 
S6^€i, av firj '<^<f>i^r}TaL iroXefjueiv, /MaXaxo^ elvac, 
fir]S\ oirep av avrol irdOoLev, hv<rep(OTa^ elvai r&v 
dirovTcaVi yvovra*; on iiridu/jLia fiep iXdj^iara 
/caropOovPTai,^ irpopoia Se irXetara, aW' virkp 
T^9 irarpiho^, cw? jxeyLarop hrj t&p irpXp klpBvpov 
dpappiTTTova-Tjf;, dpTtx^tpoTOveip xal 'sjrrj<f>L^€(r0ai, 
Toif^ fiep ^iKeXicoTa*; olaTrep pvp opoi<; ;^pfi)/xii/oi;9 
7ryoo9 Tjixa^i, ov fiefjuTTTOL^, t^ re ^lopitp tcoXircp, 
irapd yrjp fjv T69 'JrXerj, KaX rep ^itceXiK&y hid 
ireXdyov^, rd avr&p pefiofi€Pov<; Koff* avroiff; KaX 
2 ^v/M(f>€p€a0ar toa9 ie * EyearaLoif; Ihia elirelv, 
iTreiSrj dpev ^Adrjpaieop KaX ^vprjyjrap '7r/?09 2e- 
XvpovPTLOV^ TO TTp&TOP TToXefjLOP, fierd acfyeap avr&v 
KaX KaTaXveaOar KaX to Xoittop ^vfifid)(^ov<; fxr) 
iroielaBaii &(nrep elcoOafiev, oh KaKW fiep irpd- 

^ MSS. ; Hude adopts Pluygers' correction, vftarfpous. 
* KaropQovvrai MSS., Koropdovrai Goeller's conjecture. 

206 



BOOK VI. XII. 2 -XIII. 2 

young to command — only his own interest, how he 
may get admiration for his raising of fine horses, 
and then, because that is very expensive, how he 
may also get some profit from his command, do not 
afford this man, at the cost of the state, opportunity 
to make a personal display, but rather consider 
that such men damage the public interest while 
they waste their own property, and that the matter 
is one of great seriousness, and not such as a youth 
may decide and rashly take in hand. 

XIII. "It is of such youths, when I see them 
sitting here in answer to the appeal of this same 
man, that I am afraid; and I make a counter- 
appeal to the older men, if any of you sit by 
one of these, not to be shamed into fear lest 
he may seem to be a coward if he do not vote for 
war, and not, though that may be their feeling, to 
have a morbid craving for what is out of reach, 
knowing that few successes are won by greed, but 
very many by foresight ; on the contrary, on behalt 
of our country, which is now running the greatest 
risk it has ever run, hold up your hands in opposition 
and vote that the Siceliots, keeping the same boun- 
daries with respect to us as at present — boundaries 
no one can find fault with — namely, the Ionian Sea, 
if one sail along the coast, and the Sicilian, if one 
cross the open deep — shall enjoy their own posses- 
sions and settle their own quarrels among them- 
selves. But tell the Egestaeans in particular that, 
as they went to war with the Selinuntians in the 
first place without the Athenians, so they must bring 
it to an end by themselves ; and for the future let 
us not make allies, as we are wont to do, whom 
we must assist when they fare ill, but from whom 

207 



THUCYDIDES 

^cunv dfivvovfiev, dxpekia^ £* aifrol heqOevre^; ov 
r€v^6fi€0a, 

XIV. " Kol av, & irpvravi, ravTa, elirep rjyei 
aoi irpocrjKeLV KrjhecrOaL re t^9 7ro\€a)9 k<u ^ovkei 
yeveadai TroXirrj^ a/Ya66<;, eTnyjnjcfyi^e Kal yvcofia^ 
TTporiBei av0i<; ^Adr)vaLoi<;, vopi<ra<i, ei oppcoSei^ to 
avaylrrf(f>ia'ai, rb ^ fiev Xveip rov^ vofiov^ firj fjuerh. 
Toa&vS' av fiapTvpcDV airiav cr^eti/, t^9 hk TroXew? 
/3ov\€vaafi€V7)^ ^ iarpo^ &v yeveaOai, xai to xaXw 
ap^ai TOVT €ivai, 09 av Trjv irarpiha wf^eXrja'ri 0)9 
irXelcra fj ixoyv elvat fitfSev fiXdyjrrj^** 

XV. 'O fi€v Nt/cta9 ToiavTa elirev t&v Se 
^AOrjvaicov irapiovre^ oi fiev irXeiaTot <rTpaT€V€tv 
Trapi^vovv Kal rk iyjnj(l>c(rfi€va fiij Xvetv, oi Si Tive*; 

2 teal avriXeyov, ivrjye Be TrpodvfioTaTa rrjv CTpa- 
reiav ^ AXKi/SidSrj^ 6 KXeiviov, ^ovXofievo^ t& re 
^iKLCL evavTiovo'dai, &v /cal €9 rd dXXa hidf^opo^ 
Ta TToXtTCKd Kal on avrov Sia/SoXo)*; ifivrjaOrj, Kal 
fjudXiara arparrjyrja'aL re eiriOvfi&v xal eXTri^cov 
'ZiKcXiav T€ Si' aifTOV Kal K^apyi^Sova Xrjylreo'dai 
Kal rd I8ta afia evrvxtjaa^ %/>?7/L6a<rt t€ Kal So^j) 

3 axpeXijaeiv, (ov ydp iv d^icofiarL viro r&v dar&v, 
Ta?9 iiriOvfiiai*; fiei^oaiv fj Kard rrjv vTrdp^ovcav 
ovaiav ixpv'^o €9 re rd^ i'mroTpo<f>La^ kclL rd^ 
dXXa^; Sairdva*;* oirep Kal Ka6eTXev varepov rrjv 

4 T&v *A07fi'ai(ov iroXtv ov^ fJKia-ra. (f>o^rf0€VT€<; 
ydp oi TToXXol to fieyedo^ t^9 T6 Kard to iavTOv 
aAfia irapavofua^ €9 t^i/ Biairav Kal 7^79 Siavoia^ 

^ rh fihy \v€iVt Hude substitutes rov, following van Her- 
werden. 

' fiov\€v<rafx4yi/is, inferior MSS. and the Scholiast KaK&s 
fiov\€v<rafi4tnis» 

208 





BOOK Vi. XIII. 2-xv. 4 

we shall get no help when we are ourselves in 
need. 

XIV. ^^And do you, Mr. President, if you think 
it your duty to care for the state and you wish to 
prove yourself a good citizen, bring these matters 
again to a vote and lay the question once more 
before the Athenians. If you fear to put the issue to 
vote again, reflect that it would involve no guilt to 
break the law in the presence of so many witnesses, 
but that you would thus become a physician for the 
state when it has taken evil counsel ; and remember 
that this is the part of a good governor — to benefit 
his country as much as possible, or willingly at least 
to do it no harm." 

XV. Thus Nicias spoke. Most of the Athenians 
tliat came forward advised the people to make the 
expedition and not to rescind the vote, while some 
spoke against it. But most zealous in urging the 
expedition was Alcibiades son of Cleinias, wishing as 
he did to oppose Nicias, because, along with their 
general political disagreement, Nicias had made 
invidious reference to him,^ and above all he was 
eager to be made general and hoped thereby 
to subdue both Sicily and Carthage, and in case 
of success to promote at the same time his private 
interests in wealth as well as in glory. For being 
held in high esteem by his townsmen, he indulged 
desires beyond his actual means, in keeping horses 
as well as in his other expenses. And it was 
precisely this sort of thing that most of all later 
destroyed the Athenian state. For the masses, 
afraid of the greatness of his lawless and sensual 
self-indulgence in his manner of living, as also of his 

^ c/. ch. xii. 2. 

209 

VOU lit. P 



THUCYDIDES 

avTTj tcxy^ ^aiverai. xal ovk axp'H^TO^ fiS fi 
avoia, 09 av rol^ t8ioi<; TeXeai fjutf iavrov fiovop, 

4 aW^ Koi TTjv ttoXlv axf>€\rj, ovSi ye aSiKov i(f>* 
iavT^ fiiya <f>povovvTa firj Icrov elvai, iirel koX 6 
K(LK&^ Trpdaacav irpo^ ovheva Trj<; ^v/jujyopd^; iao- 
fiotpel* aW' &a7r€p 8v<ttvxovvt€^ ov irpocayo- 
p€v6/j£0a, iv T(p ofjLoitp Tt9 avex^cOo) koX virb rSyy 
€V7rparfovpT(ov \nrepif)ppvovp€vo^i fj ra Xaa vifipp 

5 Ta ofioia dirra^LovT(o. olSa Se tov^ toiovtov^, koI 
oaoi €V Tivof; Xa/MTrporrfTt irpoiaxov, iv 'fiev t^ 
Kar avTovf; ^ca> Xvirrjpoif^i oj/ra?, toi^ Ofioioi^ fiev 
fiaXio'Ta, enetra B^ Koi toi<; dWoi^; ^vvovra^, tcjv 
Be eireira avdpfoiroiv irpoairoL'qaiv re ^vyyevela^ 
rial Kol fiTf ovaav KaraXiTrovra^, xal ^9 av &ai 
irarpLio^, Tavrrj avxtja-iv, <09 ov irepl aXXorpicdv 
ovS* afuipTovTmv, aW' c&9 ^epl a^repcov re xal 

6 /caXct Trpa^dvTcov. &v eyi) opeyofievo^ fcal Bid 
ravra rd iBia iTri^oeofievo^ rd Brffioaia akoTreire 
et Tov %€t/)oi/ /jLerax^cpl^co, HeXoTrow^o'ov ydp 
rd BwarcoTttTa ^va-njaa^ avev fieydXov vfuv 
KLvBvvov /cat Sa7rdvr](; AaKeBaifiovlov^ 69 fiiav 
rjfjLepav KaTe<TT7j<ra iv Mavriveua irepl t&v dirdv- 
T<ov dya)PL<ra<r0ar ef o5 xal Trepiyevojuevoi ry 
fidxj) ovBeiro) /cat vvv /Se/Saico^; Oaparovaiv. 

XVII. " Kal ravra rj ifir) ve6r7)(; xal dvoia 
rrapd <f>v(nv Bo/covaa elvai 69 rijv UeXorrovvqaixov 
Bvvafiiv Xoyoi^ re irpeirovaiv w/jilXtjae fcal opyy 



aia 



BOOK VI. XVI. 3-xvii. I 

strength. And that is no useless folly^ when a 
man by his private expenditures benefits not him- 
self only but also his state. Nor is it unfair, either, 
that one who has a high opinion of himself should 
refuse to be on an equality with others, since 
he who fares ill finds no one to be an equal 
participator in his evil plight. On the contrary, 
just as in misfortune we receive no greetings, in like 
manner let a man submit even though despised by 
those who prosper ; or else, let him mete out equal 
measure to all, and then claim the like in tuni. I 
know, however, that men of this stamp, and all others 
who have in any way stood out as illustrious, are 
indeed in their own lifetime an offence, most of all 
to their equals, then also to others, while still among 
them, but that they leave behind to those who come 
after the claiming of kinship even where there is 
none ; and, whatever their fatherland, to it they leave 
exultant pride in them, as men who are not aliens or 
offenders, but who are their own and have done well. 
And such being my ambition and these the grounds 
on which I am decried in my private life, look at my 
public acts and see whether L execute them worse 
than another. I brought together the greatest 
powers ^ of the Peloponnesus without great danger 
to you or expense and forced the Lacedaemonians to 
stake all upon a single day at Mantinea^; and in 
consequence of this, though victorious in the field, 
even yet they have not firm confidence. 

XVII. "Thus did my youthfulness and my seem- 
ingly abnormal folly cope with the power of the 
Peloponnesians in fitting words and with a spirit that 



' Argos, Man tinea and Elis ; c/! v. xlvi., Hi. 
 c/. V. Ixvi. ff. 



ai3 



THUCYDIDES 

iricTiv irapaaxofieini eireiae' koI vvv fi^ Tre^o- 
firjaffe avTrjv, aW e©? iyd re hi aK/jud^o) fier 
avTTJff KaX 6 HiKLa^; evTvxv*: Bofcei ehai, airo-xjyq' 

2 aa<T0€ rfj i/caripov rj^&v a)<f>€Xia. koX tov €9 rriv 
XifceTuap ttXovv fir] fieTayiyvaxTKcre <09 iirl fieyd- 
Xrjv Svpa/MV i<r6/j£pov, o)(\oi^ re yhp ^vp^fieiKToi^ 
7ro\vav8pov(riv al iroXeif; koX paSia^ expva-i r&p 

3 noXiT&v ^ Tct^ fierafioXh^ koX iniSoxdr Kal ovSeU 
Sl avTO <»9 Trepl olKeia^ irarpiho^ ovre ret irepl to 
cAfia 07rXot9 i^rfprvrai ovre rh iv rfj xy^P^ fiovl- 
fioi<;^ KaraaKeval^, 6 rt Se eKaa-TO^ ^ ix tov 
Xiycov ireiOeiv oterat ^ a-raaid^cDv diro tov kolvov 
Xa^oav dXXrjv yrjp, jii) KaTopOcoaa*;, olxTJaeiv, raOra 

4 €T0i/jia^€Tai. Kal ovk ei/co^ tov toiovtov OfiiXov 
0VT6 Xoyov fiia yvwfjLrf aKpodaOai ovt€ €9 ri epya 
KOivm rpeirea-Oac' raxi> S' Ai/ w exaaTOi, el ti 
Kaff 7)hov7]V XiyoiTo, irpo<rx(opoi€v, aXXa)9 t€ koI 

5 el a-Taa-id^ovaiv, wairep irvvffavo/ieOa, xal firjp 
ovS* OTrXiTai ovt eKeivoi^ oaonrep KOfnrovvTai, 
ovreofc aXXo**'EXXi7i/e9 Si€(l>dvr)a-av ToaovTOi ovTe^ 
oaov^ €Kaa-Toi cr^a9 avTov^ '^piOfiovv, dXXh /li- 
ytCTOV hrj avTOV^ iyfteva-fieinf rj 'EWA9 fioXi^ iv 

6 T^Se T(p ttoTU/jl^ Uav&f; &TrXL(T07), rd re oZv i/cei 
cf &v iyo) aKofj alaOdvofiai ToiavTa Kal cti einro- 

^ With B, the rest of the MSS. itoXiruSov, 

* Hude adopts yofxifxois, Dukas' conjecture, which is sup- 
ported by the Schol., who explains yo/Jfiois by ov rais 
yofitCofxfvats, &A\^ rais iKuyaU' ovrct jcai y6fUfiov ^ropa rhy 
Uayhy Koi ydfufioy iL$\fir^y ^a/i€y, 

214 




BOOK VI. XVII. 1-6 

inspired faith ^in assent. And now be not afraid of 
it, but while I am still in the flower of youth, and 
Nicias has the reputation of good luck, make the 
most of the services of us both. And as to the 
voyage to Sicily, do not change your minds on 
the ground that you are going against a formidable 
power. For it is only with a mixed rabble that the 
cities there ^ are populous, and changes and acces- 
sions in the body of their citizens ^ are easy. And 
for this reason no one is equipped, as he would be 
in behalf of his own country, either with arms for 
personal protection or with permanent improvements 
for the cultivation of his land ; but whatever each 
one thinks he can obtain from the common stock by 
persuasive oratory or by sedition, in the expectation 
that if he fails he will settle in some other land, this 
he provides himself with. And it is not likely that a 
rabble of this kind would either listen to counsel with 
one mind or turn to action with a common purpose ; 
but quickly, if anything were said to please them,* 
they would each for himself come over to our side, 
especially if they are in a state of revolution as we 
hear. Further, as regards hoplites neither have 
they as many as they boast ; nor have the rest of the 
Hellenes proved to have such numbers as they each 
reckon ; on the contrary, Hellas has been very 
greatly deceived in its estimates of hoplites and in this 
war has with difficulty been adequately equipped with 
them. Such, then, is the situation in Sicily, to judge 
from what I learn by report, and it is likely to be 

* Referring to Syracuse and its dependencies. 

* Or, reading woKireiuUf "changes in old forms of govern- 
ment and adoption of new." 

* f.e. by Athenian representatives. 

215 



THUCYDIDES 

• 

fmrepa ecTai {/Sap^dpov^ ^ yap woXKov^ e^ofjLev 
01 XvpaKoaioyv fuaet ^vveinBriaovrai avrotf;), koI 
ra ivOdhe ovk i7nK(o\v<T€i, fjv vjnei^; op6m ^ovXev- 

7 rjcOe. oi yap iraripe^ rip^&v tou9 avTov<; tovtov^ 
ovairep vvv ^act TroXepiov^ vTraDwrrovra^ &v rjp.a^ 
irkelv KaX irpoaeri rov M^Soi/ ix^pov exovre^ ttjp 
apxv^ ixTrjaavTO, ovk aXKtp tlvX fj Trj irepiovala 

8 Tov vavTiKov laxvovTCf;, koI vvv ovt€ dviXina'Toi 
ireo fiaWov HeXoirovv^jo'ioi e? i7/>ta9 iyivovTO, €i 
re Kal irdvv eppeavrai, rb fiev €9 rrjv yrjv r/fjL&v 
ia/SdWeiv, koLv p^rj eKTrXevacop^v, iKavoi eltri, tw 
Se vavTLK^ OVK civ SvvaivTO /SXdifreiv inroXonrov 
yhp r}pZv ear IV dvTLTraXov vavriKov, 

XVITI. '*''fl<TTe TL &v XeyovTC^ cIko^; rj avrol 
airoKvolpjev ^ tt/oo? tou9 ^Kel ^vp,p,dxovf; aKfjiTTo- 
fi€VOi fifi ^orjdolp^v; oh XP^^^> ^'^^iSij ye Kal 
^vv(op>6<rap.ev, eirapvveiv Ka\ p»rj avmiOevai oti 
ovSe €K€ivot TjpHv. ov yap Xva Sevpo dvri/Sorjd&o'i 
irpoo'eOep.eOa avTOv<{, dXX* Xva Tot9 eKel ex^poh 
fip,&v XvTTfjpol ovre^ Sevpo KcoiXvcoaiv avroif^ eir- 
2 levai, Trfv re dpxvv ovTa)<; ixrijadp^eda Kal 'qp.eh 
Koi oaoi Srf aXXoi fjp^av, irapayiyvopjevoi mpoOvpjdn^ 
roh alel ^ /3ap/3dpoi<; ^"EXXiycrti/ eirtKaXovp^evoi^, 
eirei, et ye ^avx^'^oip^ev trdvre^ * ^ ^vXoKpivoip^v 
oh XP^^^ Porfdelv, /Spaxif dv ri TrpocKrafp^evoi 
avrfj trepl avrr}^ &v ravrr)^ p,dXXov KivSvvevoip^v, 
rov ydp irpovxovra ovpuovov iinovra Tt9 dp^vverat, 
dXXd Kal 07rG)9 pf)^ eireKTi irpoKaraXapL^dveu 

^ Tff of the MSS. after fiapfiApovs bracketed by Haacke. 
 Tdvres, Hude emends the MSS. reading to irdyrvs. 
' Transposing fi^ 5irwf of the MSS., after Kriiger. 

3l6 



BOOK VI. XVII. 6-xviii. 2 

still more easy to deal with — for we shall have many 
barbarians^ who from hatred of the Syracusans will 
join us in attacking them ; and matters here will be 
no actual hindrance, if you are rightly advised. For 
our fathers had as enemies these same men whom, 
as they say, you would be leaving behind if you 
should sail thither, and the Persian besides as a foe, 
yet acquired their empire without being strong in 
anything else than in the superiority of their fleet. 
As for the pi^esent, never were the Peloponnesians 
more hopeless against us ; and let them be never so 
confident, they can invade us only by land — and that 
they can do even if we do not make this expedition ; 
but with their fleet they cannot hurt us, for we have 
in reserve a fleet that is a match for them. 

XVIII. "On what reasonable plea, then, can we 
hold back ourselves, or make excuse to our allies 
there for refusing to aid them ? We ought to assist 
them, especially as we have actually sworn to do so, 
and may not object that they did not help us, either. 
For we took them into our alliance, not that they 
might bring aid here, but in order that by annoying 
our enemies there they might hinder them from 
coming hither against us. It was in this way that 
we acquired our empire — both we and all others that 
have ever won empire — by coming zealously to the 
aid of those, whether barbarians or Hellenes, who 
have at any time appealed to us; whereas, if we 
should all keep quiet or draw distinctions of race as 
to whom we ought to assist, we should add but little 
to our empire and should rather run a risk of losing 
that empire itself. For against a superior one does 
not merely defend oneself when he attacks, but even 
takes precaution that he shall not attack at all. 

217 



THUCYDIDES 

3 Kol oifK eartv fifuv Tafii€V€(r6ai 69 oaov ffovXofieda 
apx^iVi dWct avdyKt), eireiZtiirep ev T^Be KaOe- 
arafiev, to* 9 fJthf iTriffovKeveiv, tov9 Se fiif avUvac, 
Sid TO apj(6r]vai av i^' kreptov avrol^ xivSwov 
etvai, el fit) avTol aW(ov ap'xpifiev. KaX ovk ix 
rov avTOv eTna-Keineov vjmp T0t9 aWoi^ to rjav^^ov, 
el fitf /cat TCL iTnrrjSevfiaTa €9 to ofwtov jjLeTCLkrj' 

i " Aoyi(rdfi€voi oiv TdSe fiaWov av^rjtreiv, iir 
ixelva fjv loofiev, TroirofieOa top irXovv, Xva IleXo- 
irovprjaiayv T€ (TTopeccofiev to ^povtfjbLa, el So^Ofiev 
vrrepiSovTe^ ttjv ev t& irapovTL viavxiav /eal eTrl 
SifceXiav irXevaai, xal afia rj Ttj^ 'EXXdSo^, t&v 
ixel Trpoayevofievtov, irdarj^ t^ cIkoti ap^aofiev, fj 
Kaiedae^fiev ye XvpaKoaiov^, ev cS koX avTol xal 

5 oi ^vfifjuixoi' a)<f>e\i]a6fie0a. to Be d(r<f>a\e^, xal 
fieveiv, fjv Ti TTpox^^pv* ^^* direSJOelv, ai vrje^ nape- 
^ovaiv vavKpdTope^ ydp iaofieOa koX ^vfnrdvTcov 

6 XiK€\ici>T&v. KoX fit) vjjM<; fj NiKiov T&V Xoytov 
dirpayiMoavvf) koX SidtTTaai^ Tot9 veoc^ 69 tou9 
TTpeafivTepov^ dTroTpeyjrrf, t^ Be elcoOoTi Koafitp, 
iairep kcu ol irarepe^ rjfjL&v dfia veoi yepanepoL^ 
PovKevovTe^ 69 TdBe fjpav avTd, xal vvv t^ uvt^ 
Tpoirto ireipdcrde irpoaya^elv ttjv iroXiv, xal vofii- 

^ The other Hellenic states, it would seem, were preaching 
the doctrine of non-interference or self-determination ; 
Athens, according to Alcibiades, cannot accept this doctrine 




BOOK VI. xviii. 3-6 

And it is not possible for us to exercise a careful 
stewardship of the Hmits we would set to our empire; 
but^ since we are placed in this position^ it is neces- 
sary to plot against some and not let go our hold 
upon others^ because there is a danger of coming 
ourselves under the empire of others^ should we not 
ourselves hold empire over other peoples. And you 
cannot regard a pacific policy in the same light as 
other states mighty unless you will change your prac- 
tices also to correspond with theirs.^ 

^' Calculating^ then^ that we shall rather strengthen 
our power here if we go over there, let us make the 
voyage, that we may lay low the haughty spirit of the 
Peloponnesians, as we shall if we let men see that in 
contempt of our present peaceful condition ^ we even 
sail against Sicily; and that we may, at the same 
time, either acquire empire over all Hellas, as in all 
probability we shall, when the Hellenes there have 
been added to us, or may at least cripple the Syra- 
cusans, whereby both ourselves and our allies will 
be benefited. And as to safety — both to remain, 
if things go well, and to come away — our ships will 
provide that ; for we shall be masters of the sea even 
against all the Siceliots combined. And let not the 
policy of inaction that Nicias proposes, or his putting 
the younger at variance with the older men, divert 
you from your purpose ; but in our usual good order, 
just as our fathers, young men taking counsel 
with older men, raised our power to its present 
height, do you now also in the same way strive to 

without accepting the consequences and relinquishing her 
empire. 

' Which WAS in reality an armed truce renewable every 
ten days. 

219 



THUCYDIDES 

care veSrrjTa fiev /cal yrjpa^ avev aKKrjkaiv fiijSev 
Svvaadaif ofiov Se to re <f>av\ov koI to fiiaov KaX 
TO irdvv aKpi/Se^ av ^vyxpaSev jxaXiaT &v iaxveiv, 
KoX T7IV TToXiv, CLV fikv iJo^i/Yafi;, Tpiyjrea-dai T€ 
avTtjv irepl avTtfV Aairep koX aXKo tc, koI irdvTtop 
T7}v iin<TTrjp/qv iyyrjpdo'ea'OaL, dycavi^ofievrjv Be 
alel irpoaXyjyjreo'OaL t€ ttjv ifiireiplav Koi to afiv- 
veaOai, ov \6yq> aXV €py^ /xaXXov ^vvtjde^ e^eiv, 
7 trapdirav re yiyva}aK(0 ttoXlv firj dir pdy fjLOva Td- 
%ifTT av fioi SoKciv aTrpay/jLoavvrff; fieTa/SoXfj 
hta<f>6aprivai, koX t&v dvdpayrrav da'<f>aX€a'TaTa 
TOVTOV^ oIk€IP ot CLV Tol<i TTapouciv ^^€<rt fcal 
v6fioi<;, fjv /cal X^lpco rj, riKia-Ta Sia<f>6pa)^ iroXt- 
TevaxTiv** 

XIX. ToiavTa Si 6 *AXKt^id87]<; elirev, oi S* 
*A0rjvaioi dicovaavTe^ eKeivov t€ koI t&v ^E^ye- 
CTaicov KalA€ovTLV(M}V(f>vydS(it}v, ot TrapeXdovTe^ eSe- 

OVTO T€ KaX T&v OpKLWV VTropLljULVpaKOVTe^ Ik€T€VOV 

jSorjOrjaai (T^iati iroXX^ fiaXXov fj TrpoTcpov &p- 
2 firjvTo CTpaTeveiv. fcal 6 Nt^ta? yvov<i oti diro fihv 
T&v avT&v Xoytov ov/c &v ert diroTpe'^eie, irapa^ 
aKCvrj^ Se irXrjBeiy el ttoXXtjv cTri^Td^ece, Tdx av 
fieTadTricetev avTov<;, irapeXOoDV avTol^ av0i^ eXeye 
ToiaBe. 

XX, "'ETretS^ irdvT(o^ 6p& vfm^, & ^AOrjvaJoi, 
mpfirffievov^ (TTpaTeveiv, ^vveveyxot /lev TavTa C09 
jSovXofieOa, iirl Be t& irapovTi & ytyvda/co} (rq/jLav&. 

2 €7rl yap 7ro\et9, 0)9 iyoo aKofj alaOdvojxai, fieXXo- 
/lev ievai fieydXa^; KaX ov0* vir'qKoov^ dXXrfXtov 
ovBe BeopAva^ p^eTa/SoXrj^, rj hv ex ^laiov Te9 Sov- 
7\jeia^ acp^evo^ €9 pdca p,eTd<TTa<nv ympoitf, oIjt* &v 
Tfjv dp')(7}v Tr/v fipjBTepav elKOTdas avT iXevOepla^ 



BOOK VI. xviiL 6-xx. 2 

advance the state. And consider that youth and 
age without one another avail nothing, but that the 
simple, the mediocre, and the very subtle tempered 
together will have most strength ; and that the state, 
if she remain at peace, will, like anything else, wear 
herself out upon herself, and her skill in all pur- 
suits will grow old ; whereas, if she is continually at 
conflict, she will always be adding to her experience, 
and will acquire more, not in word but in deed, the 
habit of defending herself. In short, I declare that a 
state which is accustomed to activity would very 
quickly be ruined by a change to inactivity; and 
that those men live most securely whose political 
action is least at variance with existing habits and 
institutions, even when these are not the best." —- 

XIX. Thus Alcibiades spoke. After hearing him 
and the Egestaeans and some Leontine exiles, who 
coming forward, besought them and implored them 
for succour, reminding them of their oaths, the 
Athenians were far more eager for the expedition than 
before. And Nicias, seeing that he could no longer 
deter them with the same arguments, but thinking 
that by the magnitude of the armament, if he insisted 
upon a large one, he might possibly change their 
minds, came forward and spoke as follows : 

XX. " Since I see, men of Athens, that you are 
wholly bent upon the expedition, I pray that these 
matters may turn out as we wish ; for the present junc- 
ture, however, I will show what my judgment is. The 
cities we are about to attack are, as I learn by report, 
large, and neither subject to one another nor in need 
of any such change as a person might be happy to 
accept in order to escape from enforced servitude to 
an easier condition^ nor likely to accept our rule in 

221 



THUCYDIDES 

irpoo-Be^afieva^, to re Trkijffo^, eo? iv fu^ vrjam, 

3 7roWa9 tcl^ 'E\X7yi;t8a9. ttX^i/ 7^/0 iid^ov /col 
KaTavrj^, a? eXTr/fo) iJ/iZv /cara to Aeovrivfav ^vy- 
y€V€^ irpoaea-eaBai, aWai^ eialv iirrd, koI irape- 
CKevaafiivai T0Z9 iraatv Ofioiorpoirtd^; fiaXiara r^ 
'^fierepa Swdfiec, koX ovx fj/ciaTa iirl a? fiaXKop 

4 TrXiofiev, "^eXivov^ /cal ^vpaKovaai, iroXkoX fikv 
yhp oirXlrat eveitn koI ro^orac xal aKOvriarodt 
iroKKaX he Tpirjpei^ koI o;)^\o9 irXT^poxTiov avrd^, 
')(^prifiaTd T exovai, tcL fiev iSia, tA Se xal iv TO69 
iepoi^ cart XeXtvovvrioi^i' XvpaKo<rioi<; Sk koL diro 
^ap/3dpa)v Ttv&v dir €Lpyr\^ ^kperai} ^ he fidXiara 
fip.S)V irpov'Xpva'iVf iinrovf; re ttoWov^ KeKTrfprat 
zeal airtp OLKeiq) Koi ovk iira/cT^ %/>a>in'af. 

XXI. " 11/009 ovv ToiavTfjp hvvafitv ov vav- 
TiKr]<; fcal (f>av\ov trrparia^ fwvov hel, dWh koX 
ire^bv TToKvv ^vfiTrXeiv, eiirep ^ovXofieOa d^iov t% 
Siavoia^ Spdv koI firj viro iTnrecov iroXX&v eipye- 
aOac T^9 7^9, aWft)9 tc koI el ^var&aiv ai voXei^ 
<l>ol3ri0€ta'ai xal fiff dvTi7rapda-)((o<rip rnxlv <f>CKoi 
Tive^ yevofievot aXXoi rj ^r/etrTaioi cS dfivvovp,€0a 
2 IwiTiKov aldxpov he ^laadevra^ direXOelv 17 vtrre- 
pop eirifieTaireixirecBai to irp&Tov daKeTTTO)^ /Sou- 
Xevaafievov^. avioOev he ^ irapaaKevfj d^c6)(p€<p 
eirtevaij yvovra^ on iroXv re airo t^9 rtfierepa^ 

^ &ir* &/>x^' <t>^p€rai, the reading of G (adopted by some of 
the best editors), for awapxris ^dptrai ABCEFM, kicapxh 
i<r<p4ptrai vulg. 

^ Understanding Zti from § 1, which Hude inserts with 
Tftn Herwerden and Madvig. 




BOOK VI. XX. 2-xxi. 2 

place of liberty ; and the number is large^ for a 
single island^ of cities of Hellenic origin. For except 
Naxos and Catana^ which I expect will side with us 
on account of their kinship to the Leontines^ there 
are seven others;^ and these are equipped with 
everything in a style very like to our own armament^ 
and not least those against which our expedition 
is more immediately directed^ Selinus and Syracuse. 
For they can supply many hoplites^ archers and 
javelin-men^ and possess many triremes and a multi- 
tude of men to man them. They have wealth, too, 
partly in private possession and partly in the temples 
at Selinus ; and to the Syracusans tribute has come in 
from time immemorial from certain barbarians also ; 
but their chief advantage over us is in the fact that 
they have many horses, and use grain that is home- 
grown and not imported. 

XXI. "To cope with such a power we need not 
only a naval armament of such insignificant size, but 
also that a large force for use on land should accom- 
pany the expedition, if we would accomplish anything 
worthy of our design and not be shut out from the 
land by their numerous cavalry; especially if the 
cities become terrified and stand together, and some 
of the others, besides Egesta, do not become our 
friends and supply us cavalry with which to defend 
ourselves against that of the enemy. And it would 
be shameful to be forced to return home, or later to 
send for fresh supplies, because we had made our 
plans at first without due consideration. So we must 
start from home with an adequate armament, realiz- 
ing that we are about to sail, not only far from our 

^ Syracuse, Selinus, Gela, AgrigeDtum, Messene, Himera, 
Camarina (Schol.). 

223 



THUCYDIDES 

avT&v fieWofiev irXeiv xal ov/c iv t^ 6/jLoiqi arpa- 
T€V(r6fjL€V0t Kal ^ el Tot<; rfjSe v'jn]K6oi<; ^vfifia^oi 
fjkdeTe iiri riva, oOev p^Btai ai xo/JLiBal ix t^9 
<f)t\Ca^ &v irporreSei, dX7^ €9 aWorpuav iraaav 
aTrapTTjaavre^i^ ef ^9 p/rjv&v ovSe T€<Tadp(ov r&v 
X^ifJiepiv&v ayyeXov pahtov iXOeip. 

XXII. "'07rXtTa9 re oiv iroXXov^ fiot BoK€i 
XPV^^^ Vf^^^ ^y€tv Kal riiJL&v avr&v Kal t&v 
^vfijj.d'XwVi T&v T€ vTTtjKocov Kal 7]v TLva CK IleXo- 
TTOvpijaov hvvwfieOa fj irelaai rj }li(t6^ Trpoaaya- 
yiadai, Kal ro^ora^ iroWoif^; Kal (r^evBovijTa^, 
07rci)9 7r/)09 TO ixeiveov lirinKov dvT€')((o<TV, vavaL 
T€ Kal TToXif irepieivai, Xva Kal to, iTnrijSeia poop 
iaKOfii^ao/ieOa, top Be Kal avroOep (tItop ip oXKoai, 
TTupov^ Kal 7r€(f)pvyfji€Pa<; KpiOd^, dyetp Kal aiTo- 
TTOiov^ CK T&p fivXwpojp 7r/)09 fiepo<i ffpayKaa jxepov^i 
ififiiaOov^, ipa, rjp irov viro dirXoia^ dTToXajx- 
fiapoDfieOa, exff V o'Tparcct ret eTriTi^Beia (ttoXXtj 
yap oiaa ov irda-i]^ earai 7ro\€G)9 viroBe^aa-Oai), 
rd T€ aXXa orrop BvpaTOP eTOLjidaaaBai Kal fifj 
iirl erepoi^ ylyveaOai, fidXiara Be XRVM^^a avro- 
Oep c»9 irXelara €')(eLP. rk Be irap ^Eyea Taltoi/, 
a Xeyerat eKel erolfia, pofuaare Kal Xoy^ q,v 
lidXiara erolfia eJpai. 

XXIII. "*Hj/ yctp aifTol eXBwfxep epdepBe fjurj 

dpTLiraXop fiovop TrapaaKevaadfiepOh ttXtjp ye tt/oo? 

TO fidxi'P'O^ avT&p TO oirXcTiKOP, dXXa Kal virep- 

^ Kot ti for Kol ovK iv of the MSS., with Classen. 
* itfrapr'fi<rayT€Si with ABF and Schol. {iurrl -rod itirapT7i04yT9s, 
iLire\$6vrts)f dirop'Hicr^KTfi OEM. 

824 



BOOK VI. XXI. 2-xxm. i 

own land^ but also on a campaign that will be carried 
on under no such conditions as if you had gone 
against an enemy as allies of your subject-states over 
here, where it would be easy to get whatever further 
supplies you needed from the friendly territory ; nay, 
you will have removed into an utterly alien land, from 
which during the winter it is not easy for a messenger 
to come even in four months. 

XXII. "And so it seems to me that we ought to 
take hoplites in large numbers, both of our own and 
of our allies, and from our subjects, as well as any 
from the Peloponnesus that we can attract by pay 
or persuade ; many bowmen, and also slingers, in 
order that they may withstand the cavalry of the 
enemy. And in ships we must have a decided 
superiority, in order that we may bring in our supplies 
more easily. And we must also take with us in 
merchantmen the grain in our stores here, wheat 
and parched barley, together with bakers requisi- 
tioned for pay from the mills in proportion to their 
size, in order that, if perchance we be detained by 
stress of weather, the army may have supplies. For 
the force will be large, and it will not be every city 
that can receive it. And all other things so far as 
possible we must get ready for ourselves, and not come 
to be at the mercy of the Siceliots ; but we must 
especially have from here as much money as possible ; 
for as to that of the Egestaeans, which is reported to 
be ready there, you may assume that it is indeed 
chiefly by report that it will ever be ready. 

XXIII. " For if we go from here provided with an 
equipment of our own that is not only equal to theirs 
— except indeed as regards their fighting troops of 
heavy-armed men— but that even surpasses it in all 

225 
VOL. III. Q 



THUCYDIDES 

/8aXXoj/T€9 TO?? iraai, fioXi^ outo)? oloi re eaofieffa 

2 T&v fiev KpaTctv, to, Be zeal Siaa&aai. irokiv re 
vofjiaai XPV ^^ dWo^vXoi^ koX TroXe/uoi^ oIkl- 
ovvTa^ levai, 069 Trpeirev rfj irpoiTy ^fiipa 7} av 
«aTa<7%G)<rti/ evOv*; tcparetp t§9 7^ fj elSivai on, 

3 fjv a<f>aXXa>VTai, iravra iroXifiia e^ovatv, oirep 
iyo) ^o^ov/JL€vo<: /cal eiSo)^ iroXXci fiev ^fia^ Biov ev 
^ovXevaaadai, eri Be irXelto evrvxv^cLh xaXcTroi/ 
Se avdp(OTTov^ ovra^, ort eXd^iaTa rfj tvxj) frapa- 
hov<; ifiavTov /3ovXofiai ixTrXelv, napaaxevy Se 

4 anb T&v elKOTODv da^aX^^,^ ravra yap ttj t€ 
^vfj/rrdari iroXei fiefiaiorara ^yovfiai xal rijuv rot? 
aTparevao/iiivoL^f atoT'^pia. el Si r^ aXXct)9 BoKei, 
Trapirffii avr^ rrjv dp')(r\vr 

XXIV. 'O pkv NiKLa^ Toa-avTa elvre, vo/jli^cdp 
T0U9 *A0rjvaiov<; t^ irXrjOei t&v irpayfidTcov rj 
diroTpiyfreiv rj, el dvayKa^oiro (npareveadai, fid- 

2 Xi<TT &v ovTO)^ da<f>aX&<; eKirXevaai. 01 he to fiJkv 
eiriOvfiovv rov wXov ov/c e^pedrjaav viro rov 
oy(X(oBov^ T^9 irapaaKevri^, iroXv Sk fmXXov &p- 
fiTjvTO Koi TOvvavTLOv TrepUaTr) avT^* ev t€ yap 
irapatveaai eSo^e xal da'(f>dXeia vvv St) /cal ttoXX^ 

3 laeadai. xal epoD^ evetreae rol^ irda-iv 6fioi(o<^ 
e/cfrXeva-ai, T0t9 j^ev yap irpeafivTepoc^ m rj Kara- 
<npe?^oixevoi<; i<f) h eirXeov rj ovSkv &v a^aXelaav 
fi€ydXr)v Bvva/iiv, T0t9 S' ev rfj ffKiKia t^9 re dirov- 

^ iK7c\9vtrai of the MSS., after &<r^aA^Y, deleted by 
Kriiger. 

226 





BOOK VI. XXIII. i-xxiv. 3 

respects, scarcely even so shall we be able to conquer 
Sicily or indeed to preserve our own army. It is, in 
fact, as you must believe, a city that we are going 
forth to found amid alien and hostile peoples, and it 
behooves men in such an enterprise to be at once, 
on the very day they land, masters of the . soil, or 
at least to know that, if they fail in this, everything 
will be hostile to them. Fearing, then, this very 
result, and knowing that to succeed we must have 
been wise in planning to a large extent, but to a 
still larger extent must have good fortune — a difficult 
thing, as we are but men — I wish, when I set sail, 
to have committed myself as little as possible to 
fortune, but so far as preparation is concerned to be, 
in all human probability, safe. For these precautions 
I regard as not only surest for the whole state but 
also as safeguards for us who are to go on the 
expedition. But if it seem otherwise to anyone, I 
yield the command to him." 

XXIV. So much Nicias said, thinking that he 
would deter the Athenians by the multitude of his 
requirements, or, if he should be forced to make the 
expedition, he would in this way set out most safely. 
They, however, were not diverted from their eager- 
ness for the voyage by reason of the burdensomeness 
of the equipment, but were far more bent upon it; 
and the result was just the opposite of what he had 
expected ; for it seemed to them that he had given 
good advice, and that now certainly there would be 
abundant security. And upon all alike there fell an 
eager desire to sail — upon the elders, from a belief 
that they would either subdue the places they were 
sailing against, or that at any rate a great force could 
suffer no disaster ; upon those in the flower of their 

227 
Q 2 



THUCYDIDES 

(Ta}0ij<r€<T0ai, 6 Be ttoXv^ ofii\o<i Koi arpaTKOTf)^ 
€v T€ T^ irapovTc dpyvpiov otaeiv xai irpoaKTijae' 
aOai Bvvafitv o0€v aiStov fii(T0o<f>opav virdp^etv, 
4 &(rT€ Btct Tr)v ayav tS>p irXeiovav e7n0vpiav, el Ttp 
apa fcal fifj rjpeaKe, BeBim^ firj avri'XGLpOTOV&v 
KaK6vov<; Bo^eiev elvai ry iroXei fiavxjiav ^yev, 

XXV. Kal T€Xo9 TrapeXffcov t«9 t&v ^XOrjvctUov 
Kcu TrapaKoXiaaf; top Nt^/ai/ ovfc €<f>7f XPV^^'' 
7rpo^aaifya0aL ovBk BcafiiWetv, dXX' ivavrLov 
airdvTwv fjBr} Xeyeiv rjvrtva avT^ TrapaaKevrjp 

2 *A07jvaXoi, ylrr]if>i<T(DVTai, 6 Be aKoav fiev elirev on 
Kal fJL€Tct T&v ^vvapxovTtov KaS* f]cv^iav fxaXXov 
^ovXevaoiTO, oaa fiivTOL ffBrj Boxelv. avr&, rpi'^- 
pea- 1 fiev ovk eXaaaov fj ^ eKarov wXevarea elvai 
(aifT&v S' ^ ^A07jvaLa)v eaetjOat oirXnayoDyov^ oaat 
av BoK&(n, Kal dXXa<; €K t&v ^vfifid'x^cov fjLCTa- 
irefiTTTia^ elvai), oTrXtrat? Be toi^ ^vfiTraaiv *A0r)' 
val(ov KoL tS)v ^v/jLfidxo>P TrevTaKiax^Xieov fih/ oix 
eXdaaoaiv, fjv Be ti BvvtovTai, xal TrXeioaiv Trfv 
Be aXXi]v irapaaKevijv w xaTct Xoyov Kal to^ot&v 
T&v avTodev Kal €k KprJTf)^ Kal <T^evBovr}T&v Kal 
fjv Ti dXXo wpiirov BoKJj elvai eTOifiaadfievoi a^eiv. 

XXVI. ^AKOvaavTe^ S' oi ^A0r)vaioi e'^<f>iaavTo 
€v0v^ avTOKpdTopa^ elvai Kal irepl (TTpaTia<; ttX?;- 
0ov^ Kal irepl tov iravTo^ irXov tou? aTpaTtfyov^ 

^ I) Hude omits with E. 

' 8* Hude brackets and iuserts &v after 'ABrfvaivPf on 
Kriiger'e suggeBtion. 

228 





BOOK VI. XXIV. 3-xxvi. i 

Age, through a longing for far-off sights and scenes^ in 
good hopes as they were of a safe return ; and upon 
the great multitude — that is, the soldiers^ — who 
hoped not only to get money for the present, but 
also to acquire additional dominion which would 
always be an inexhaustible source of pay. And so, on 
account of the exceeding eagerness of the majority, 
even if anyone was not satisfied, he held his peace, 
in the fear that if he voted in opposition he might 
seem to be disloyal to the state. 

XXV. Finally a certain Athenian came forward and, 
calling upon Nicias, said he ought not to be making 
excuses and causing delays, but should say at once 
before them all what force the Athenians should 
vote him. He then, though reluctantly, said that he 
would prefer to deliberate with his colleagues more 
at their leisure ; so far, however, as he could see at 
present, they must sail with not fewer than one 
hundred triremes — there would also have to be as 
many transports as should be determined upon, 
furnished by the Athenians themselves and others 
they must call upon their allies to supply — and with 
hoplites, both of the Athenians and their allies, in all 
not fewer than five thousand, and more if possible ; 
and the rest of the armament which they must get 
ready and take with them must be in proportion — 
bowmen from home and from Crete, and slingers, 
and whatever else should be determined upon. 

XXVI. Upon hearing this, the Athenians straight- 
way voted that the generals should have full powers, 
with regard both to the size of the armament 

1 Taking (rrpaTi<i>T7}SAB predicate ; or, **bhe great multitude 
and the soldiery were hoping to get money for the present," 
etc. 

229 



THUCYDIDES 

irpdaajEiv rj av avToU Bokj} apirrra elvat ^AOijvai^ 
2 049. Kal fJLera ravra rj irapaaxevff iyiyvero, Koi 
e9 T€ Tou? ^v/jLfidxov^ eTTefiTTov Kal avToOev Kara- 
\6yov^ iiroiovvTO, dpri 8' dv€i\i](l>€i 77 ttoX*? 
kavTtiv diro t% vorrov /cal tov ^wexov^ irdkefiov 
69 T€ f}\LKia^ ir\Yj0o<; i7riy€y€vrffi€vr]<; xal €9 X/^^A^a- 
TODv aOpoiacv Bca rr}v i/cex^ipCav, &aTe paov iravra 
iiropL^ero, koX oi fikv iv irapaaKevrj ^aav, 

XXVII. 'Ei; hk TOVTfpfOaoL '^pfiai^a'avXiOivoi 
iv Tji TToKei TJi *A07jvcU(i}v (elai Se Kara to eirtx^' 
piov f} T€TpdyG)vo^ ipyaaia ^ ttoWoI koI iv ISioi^ 
irpo9vpoL<; Koi iv Upol^;) fitd vv/ctI oi irXelaroi 

2 irepieKoirriaav rd TrpoatoTra. Kal rov^ hpdaavra^ 
rjSet ovSei^, dWd fieydXoi^ p/qvvrpoLf; Brffioaia 
ovToi re i^njTovvro koI irpoaeri i^^<f)La'avTO, xal 
€1 T«9 dWo Ti olBev dailSrjfia yeyevrj/iivov, fir)vv€iv 
dSeA^ TOV fiov\6fjL€vov Kal d<n&v Kal ^ivav koi 

3 SovXoDV, Kal TO wpdyfjui fi€i^6voi)<; i\dfi/5avov tov 
T€ yap €ktt\ov oicovb^ iBoKCi elvai, Kal iirl ^vvay- 
fioala afia veonTeptov irpayfidrayv Kal hrjfiov Kara- 
\v(T€(o^ yeyevrjadai, XXVIII. /j.r)vv€Tat oiv diro 
fieTOLKmv T€ Tiv(ov Kal dKo\ov0(ov irepl fiev t&v 
'Epfi&v ovSiv, aWcov Be d^aXfiaTCJV irepiKoiraL 
Tcve<; TTpoTepov viro vecoTepeov fierd iraiBid^ Kal 
otvov yeyevrjfievai, Kal Ta fivaTrjpLa dfjua a)9 iroiel- 
Tac iv oiKiai^ icf)^ v^pei* S)v Kal tov ^AXKiffidBtjv 

2 iTrrfTi&VTO. Kal avrd viroXafi^dvovTe^ oi fidXiara 

^ T\ rtrpdyuvos ipyaala, deleted by Hude, as not read by 

Sohol '^ 




BOOK VI. XXVI. T -XXVIII. a 

and to the whole expedition^ to act in whatever 
way might seem to them best for Athens. After 
this the preparation was begun; and they sent 
notice to their allies and made levies at home. Now 
the city had just recovered from the plague and from 
the continuous war, both in point of the multitude of 
young men who had grown up and of the money 
that had accumulated in consequence of the truce, 
so that everything was provided more easily. So 
the Athenians were engaged in preparation. 

XXVII. But in the meantime the stone statues of 
Hermes in the city of Athens — they are the pillars 
of square construction which according to local custom 
stand in great numbers both in the doorways of 
private houses and in sacred places — nearly all had 
their faces mutilated on the same night. No one 
knew the perpetrators, but great rewards were 
publicly offered for their detection ; and it was voted, 
besides, that if anyone, citizen or stranger or slave, 
knew of any other profanation that had been done, 
whoever would might fearlessly give information. 
The matter was taken very seriously ; for it seemed 
to be ominous for the expedition and to have been 
done withal in furtherance of a conspiracy with a 
view to a revolution and the overthrow of the 
democracy. XXVIII. Accordingly, information was 
given by certain me tics and serving-men, not indeed 
about the statues of Hermes, but to the effect that 
before this there had been certain mutilations of 
other statues perpetrated by younger men in drunken 
sport, and also that the mysteries were being per- 
formed in private houses in mockery ; and Alcibiades, 
among others, was implicated in the charges. They 



231 



THUCYDIDES 

Toj ^ PiXKL^idhri d)(j96fi€VOi i/inroSoov ovtl (T<f)iai firj 
aifToU Tov hrjfjLov ^efiaiw^ irpoeaTdvai, kuI vofiL- 
aavTC^, el avrov i^eXdaeiav, irp&roi av elvai, ifieyd- 
\vvop Kal iffotop c!)9 €7rt Sij/jlov KaraXvo'ei rd re 
fivcTiKa Kal 17 T&v 'EpfJL&v irepiKOTTTf yivoiTo Kal 
ovSev eirj avrtav tl ov fier eKeivov iirpd'XJSri^ 
iirChiyovre^ T€Kp,7]pia rrjv aWr)v axrrov 69 rh iiri-. 
TfjSevfiara ov Br)fioTiKr)v Trapavopiav. 

XXIX. 'O S' €V T€ T^ irapovri tt/oo? rd p^rjvv- 
para direXoyeiTo Kal eTolpx)^; fjv irplv eKifKelv 
KpLvea-Oai, ei tl tovtcdv elpyaapivo^ fjv (rjBfj yap 
Kal rd T% irapaa'K€VYi<; iirewopia'To), Kal el pev 
TovTfov Tl eipyaa-TO, Siktjv Bovvai, el S* dirokvdel'q^ 

2 apx^iv- fcal iirepapTvpero p>rj dirovTO^ irepl avrov 
hia^okd^ dTToSe^^ea^at, aXV fihri diroKTeiveip, ei 
aZiKel, Kal on <TO)<f>pove<rTepov etr) pi} perd roiav- 
Tr)<; alria^, irplv hiayvtaaty irepireiv avrbv iirl 

3 Toaointp arpaTevpaTi. ofc,5' i'xjSpol BeSiore^ to 
Te aTparevpa prj evvow exv> V^ V^V dyoavifyiTat, 
o T€ Srjpo^ prj paT^MKL^rjTai, ffepairevav oti 81 
eKelvov oL t ^ Kpyeioi ^vvea-TpaTCvov Kal t&v Mav- 
Tivemv Tivh, direrpeiTOv Kal direaTrevhov, aWov<; 
f)f]Topa<; iviipre^ ot eXeyov vvv pev irXeiv avTov 
Kal pr) KaTaax^lp ttjv dvayayyi]^, iXOovTa Se 
Kplveadai iv fipipai^ prjTat^, jSovXopevoi €k peC- 



1 Notably a certain Androcles (viii. Ixv. 2) ; cf. Pint. 
Alcib. 19. 

232 



BOOK VI. XXVIII. 2-xxix. 3 

were taken up by those who were most jealous of him ^ 
as an obstacle in the way of their secure preeminence 
among the people ; and these men^ thinking that if 
they could get rid of him they would have first 
place^ magnified the matter and shouted that both 
the mockery of the mysteries and the mutilation of 
the Hcrmae had been committed with a view to the 
overthrow of the democracy, and that there was none 
of these things but had been done in collusion with 
him, citing as further proofs other instances of his 
undemocratic lawlessness of conduct. 

XXIX. He defended himself at the time against 
the informers* charges, and was ready before sailing 
— for already the preparations had been completed — 
to be tried on the question of his having done any of 
these things, and if he had been guilty of any of them 
to pay the penalty, but demanded that if he were 
acquitted he should keep his command. And he 
protested that they should not accept slanderous 
charges against him in his absence, but should put 
him to death at once if he were guilty, and that it 
was wiser not to send him at the head of so great 
an army, under such an Imputation, until they had 
decided the question. But his enemies, fearing that 
the army might be favourable to him if he were 
brought to trial at once and that the populace might 
be lenient, inasmuch as it favoured him because it 
was through his influence that the Argives and some 
of the Mantineans were taking part in the campaign, 
were eager to postpone the trial, suborning other 
orators who insisted that he should sail now and not 
delay the departure of the expedition, but that he 
should come back and be tried at an appointed time. 
Theii purpose was to have a more slanderous charge 

233 



THUCYDIDES 

^ovo^ Sia^o\r]<;, fjv e/JieXKov paov ainov a7r6vTo<i 
TTopieiv, fieTdirefiTTTOV /cofitaOevra avrov dyeopi- 
aaaOai, Kal eSo^€ irXelv tov ^AXKi^idhrjv, 

XXX. MerA hi ravra Oepov^ fieaovvTO^ rjSr) 17 
dvaycoyrj iyiyvero e? rrjv XiKcXiav, T<av fxkv oiv 
^Vfifidx(*)V TO 69 7rXei<7T0t9 fcal ral^ a tray my ol^ 
oXxdai Kal T0?9 7rXotot9 fcal oarj dWrj irapaafcevrj 
^vveiirero irporepov elprfro €9 KipKVpav fyXXe- 
yeaffai, c»9 i/cetOev dOpooi^ iwl aKpav ^lairvyLav 
TOP *I6plop Sia^aXovaip' avrol S' ^Affrjpatot xaX 
€0 TiP€^ T&p ^Vfifjudx^yv Traprja-ap €9 top Ileipaia 
KaTa^dpT€<s ip ^fiipa pV^V ^/^^ ^V eifhrfpovp Ta9 
2 pav<; 0)9 dpa^oficpoi, ^vyKaTi^rj Bk xal 6 aXXo9 
o/itXo9 a7ra9 w eiirelp 6 ip Tjj iroXei xal daT&p 
Kal ^€P(op, oi fJLCP iinx^pioc tov9 a'<l>eTepov^ avT&p 
€Ka(TT0i 7rpo7rifi7roPT€<:, oi fikp eTaipov<;, ol he 
^vyyepeh, ol hi vi€l<;, xal fi€T €X7rtSo9 t€ afjui 
l6pTe<; Kal 6\o(f>vpfjL&p, ra fiep c»9 kti](toipto, tou9 
S' et iroTe oyfroiPTO, ipOvfiovfiepoi oaop irKovp ix 
T^9 (rif>€T€pa<; dneaTiWoPTO, xal ip t^ irapovTi 
Kaip^, 0)9 7]hi] e/ieWop fiCTct Kiphvptop aXX^^Xot;? 
diroXiTrelp, fiaXKop avTOv<; ia^€L Tct hetpd tj ore 
iylrr)(f>i^0PT0 irXetP' ofiw^ he t^ irapovtrri pco/Mp hia 
TO 7r\rj6o^ cKdaTcop &p icopeop tjj oyfrec^ dpeOdp- 
aovp. oi hk ^€Poi> Kol 6 aXXo9 0^X09 KaTd diav 
ffKCP 0)9 €7rt d^i6xp€0)P Kal aintTTOP hidpoiap, 

^ tJ ty^fi, Hude inserts iv, 

234 



BOOK VI. XXIX. 3-xxx. 2 

— and this they would find it easier to procure in his 
absence — and then to have him recalled and brought 
home for trial. So it was determined that Alcibiades 
should sail.- 

XXX. After that^ when it was already midsummer^ 
the departure for Sicily was made. Orders had been 
given beforehand for most of the allies^ as well as 
for the provision-ships and smaller boats and all the 
rest of the armament that went with them^ to assemble 
at Corcyra, with the intention that from there they 
should all cross the Ionian Gulf to the promontory of 
lapygia in one body. But the Athenians themselves 
and the allies that were present went down to the 
Peiraeus at dawn on a day appointed and proceeded 
to man the ships for the purpose of putting to sea. 
And with them went down also all the general 
throng, everyone, we may almost say, that was in 
the city, both citizens and strangers, the natives to 
send off each their own, whether friends or kinsmen 
or sons, going at once in hope and with lamentations 
— hope that they would make conquests in Sicily, 
lamentations that they might never see their friends 
again, considering how long was the voyage from 
their own land on which they were being sent. 
And at this crisis, when under impending dangers 
they were now about to take leave of one another, 
the risks came home to them more than when they 
were voting for the expedition ; but still their courage 
revived at the sight of their present strength because 
of the abundance of everything they saw before their 
eyes. The strangers on the other hand and the rest 
of the multitude had come for a spectacle, in the 
feeling that the enterprise was noteworthy and sur- 
passing belief. 

235 



IS 



THUCYDIDES 

XXXI. UaparrKevf) yap avri] rj ^ irpcoTrj ck- 
TTXevaaaa fua^ iroXeta^ Bvvdfjiet ^EiWijviKfj'^ 
TTokvTekeardTq Sij xal evTrpeTTeardrr} t&v €9 

2 eKelvov Tov ')(fi6vov iyivero, dpiOfi^ hk ve&v 
KoX ottXit&v kol ri €9 *E7riSavpov fiera Ilepi- 
KXiov^ Kal 7) avTTf e? TJoTeiSaLav fi€Tct "Ayi/c^z/o? 
oifK iXdaaoiv ^v T€TpdKi<i yap 'Xps.ioi ottXI- 
rat avT&v ^ KOrjvaitov Ka\ Tpiaxoaioi iirwrj^; koL 
TpirjpeL^ eKUTOV /cat Ae<r/8ta>v xal Xta>i/ Trei^r?;- 
Kovra KOI ^vfifjui'xpi €tl ttoXXoI ^vveirXevaav 

3 aXXa iiri re ^pax^t ttX^ wpfiijdrja-av Kal irapa- 

aKcvfi (fyavXr}, OUT09 Bk 6 <rToXo9 a)9 %/)oi'to9 re 

ia6fJL€Vo<; Kal Kar dfufyorepa, oi av Sejj, xal vavtri 

Kal Trefft) afia i^apTvdei^, rb fiev vavTiKov fjLeyd- 

Xat^ hairdvai^ t&v t€ rpi'qpdpx'^v Kal t§9 7roXeG>9 

iK7rovr)0ev, tov filv htifioaiov BpaXP'tjv rrj^: ^fiepa^ 

T^ vavTf} eKdcTq) SiSovTOf; Kal vav<; irapatrxovTo^ 

K€va<; e^rjKOVTa fiev Ta^cla^, reaaapdKOvra Se 

oirXnaycoyov^ Kal virrweala^ ravrat^ t^9 KparC- 

<7Ta9, T&v Se^ TpLTjpapx^v iiri^opd^ t€ irpo^ 

T& eK ZrjfjLoaiov fiia0& StSovTcov Tot9 0pa- 

viTai^ T&v vavT&v^ Kal TaXXa ar^fieioi^ kclX 

KaTa<TK€vaU iroXvTeXeai j^pr/o-a/iei/ct)!/, kal €9 ra 

fiaxpoTaTa TrpoOvfjuijOivTO^ evb^ cKdaTov ottw? 

avT^ TLvi evTrpeireia re ^ vav^ fidXiaTa irpoe^ei 

Kal T^ TaxyvavTelv, to he ire^ov KaTaXoyoi^ re 

XPV^Tol^ iKKpiOey Kal oirXcav Kal t&v irepl to 

<r&fia <TK€v&v fieydXrf (nrovhfj irpo^ dXXrfKovs 

^ 7} added by Dobree. 

'^ 'EWriPiK^f Hude writes 'EWriviKriSf after Haacke 
' 5€ adopted from Schol. Patm. 

* Koi reus iirripeaiats after rcov vavrStv is deleted as not read 
by the Scholiast. 

236 



BOOK VI. XXXI. 1-3 

XXXI. For this first armament that sailed for 
Sicily was the costliest and most splendid^ belonging 
to a single city and with a purely Hellenic force, 
that had ever up to that time set sail. In number 
of ships, however, and of hoplites the expedition 
against Epidaurus under Pericles, and the same one 
afterwards under Hagnon against Potidaea, was not 
inferior ; for in that voyage four thousand Athenian 
hoplites and three hundred knights and one hundred 
triremes had participated, and from Lesbos and Chios 
fifty triremes, and allied troops besides in large num- 
bers. But they had set off for a short voyage with 
a poor equipment ; whereas this expedition, as one 
likely to be of long duration, was fitted out for both 
kinds of service, according as there might be need 
of either, with ships and also with land-forces. 
The fleet was built up at great expense on the part 
both of the trierarchs and of the city : the state giving 
a drachma per day for each sailor and furnishing sixty 
empty ^ warships and forty transports, with crews to 
man them of the very best; the trierarchs giving 
bounties to the thranitae ^ or uppermost bench of the 
sailors in addition to the pay from the state, and 
using, besides, figure-heads and equipments that 
were very expensive ; for each one strove to the 
utmost that his own ship should excel all others 
both in fine appearance and in swiftness of sailing. 
The land-forces were picked out of the best lists, 
and there was keen rivalry among the men in the 

^ i.e. empty hulls without equipment, which the trierarch 
was to furnish. 

2 In the trireme there were three ranks of oars : the 
thranites rowed with the longest oars ; the Z3^gite8 occupied 
the middle row ; the thalamites the lowest row, using the 
shortest oars and drawing least pay. 

237 



THUCYDIDES 

4 dfiiXXrjdiv. ^vv€/3rj Se irpo^ re a<f>df: avrov^ a/jua 
epiv yeveadai, ^ Tt9 cKaaTO^ irpoaeTaydr}, koL is 
T0U9 a\Xou9 "EXXiyi/a? iiriSei^iv fiaXKov elfca- 
aOrjvat t^9 Bvvdfieay^ xal i^ovaias rj inl noXe/uov^i 

5 irapaaKevrfV. el yap rts iXoyiaaTO rrjv re rrjf; 
TToXeo)? dvaXacriv hr)p,oalav KaX t&v aTparevo- 
fiepeav rrjv ISiav, ttj^ /jl€v ttoXco)? oara re 'i]Srj 
irpovrereXeKev Kal & e^ovTas tou9 arparrjyovf; 
aTriarTeWe, r&v Se ISlcotcov a re irepl to a&fid ris 
Kal rpirjpapxos €9 t^i/ vavv dvrfKcoKet xal ocra en 
efieWev dpaXaxretv, x^pi? B\ a elfco<; ^v fcal avev 
Tou CK Srjfioaiov jMiadov irdvTa Tivd irapdcrfeevd' 
aaarffac i^oSiov (09 eirl 'x^poviov (npareiav, KaX oaa 
itrl fi€ra/3o\fj t^9 17 arpaTKOTrj^f fj efiiropos e^cwi; 
eirXei, TroWd dv rakavra rjvpedrj ex t^9 TroXeto^ 

6 rd iravra e^ayofieva: koI 6 o"to\o9 ovx fjcaov 
ToXfirj^ T€ ddfijSei koX oyfretos Xafi7rp6Tr)ri wepi- 
fiorjrof; eyevero fj aTparids irpos 069 iir^aav 
vTTep^oXfjy Kal OTi fieyca-ros ijSrj SidirXov^ diro 
T^9 olK€La<; Kal iirl fieyiaTj) iXiriSc r&v fieX- 
XovTcov 7r/)09 T^ virdp'XpvTa eirex^^'P'n^V' 

XXXII. 'Ettc^S^ he ai vrje^; 7rXi]pei<; fjaav Kal 
iaeKeiTO iravra rjSi] oaa exovres e/ieXXov dvd- 
^eadai, ry fiev adXTriyyi a-Koirr) virea'qfidvOrjt 
ev^ds Se 7^9 vo/JLi^ofjL€va(: irpo t/}9 dvayayyrj^ ov 
238 



BOOK VI. XXXI. 3-XXX11. I 

matter of arms and personal equipment. And so it 
came about that among themselves there was emula- 
tion, wherever each was assigned to duty, and the 
whole thing seemed more like a display of wealth and 
power before the rest of the Hellenes than an under- 
taking against enemies. For if one had reckoned the 
public expenditure on the part of the state and the 
private outlay of those who made the expedition — on 
the part of the city, both what it had already ad- 
vanced and what it was sending in the hands of the 
generals, and on the part of private individuals 
whatever a man had expended on his own person 
or, if trierarch, on his ship, and what they were 
going to spend still, and, besides, the money we may 
suppose that everyone, even apart from the pay he 
received from the state, provided for himself as travel- 
ling expenses, counting upon an expedition of long 
duration, and all the articles for barter and sale mer- 
chant or soldier took with him on the voyage — it 
would have been found that many talents in all were 
taken from the city. And the fame of the armament 
was noised abroad, not less because of amazement at 
its boldness and the splendour of the spectacle than 
on account of its overwhelming force as compared 
with those whom they were going against ; and also 
because it was the longest voyage from home as yet 
attempted and undertaken with the highest hopes 
for the future as compared with their present 
resources. 

XXXII. When the ships had been manned and 
everything had at last been put aboard which they 
were to take with them on the voyage, the trumpeter 
proclaimed silence, and they offered the prayers 
that were customary before putting out to sea, not 

239 



THUCYDIDES 

Kara vavv eKciarrjv, ^vfjuTravre^ Se virb Kijpvxof; 
inoiovvTO, Kparripd^ t€ icepdaavre^ Trap dirav to 
arrpdrevfia fcal cKTrcofiaaL 'xpvaok T€ Kal dpyv- 
pols oX T€ iTn^drai Kal oi ap^ovre^ airivBovre^. 

2 ^weirqif^ovTO hk Kal 6 aWo9 op,i\o^ 6 ck t^9 yrj^ 
r&v T€ iroXiT&v Kal e? rt? aXXo? euvovf; iraprjv 
<T<])iartv. 7raiavLaravT€<; Se xal TeXedxravref; ra^ 
arirovShf; dvijyovTO, Kal iirl Kepo)^ ro irp&Tov 
eKtrXevaavre^ djuXKav fjhr} P'ixP'' ^^yi^V^ itroi- 
ovvTO. Kcu oi p,€v €9 Tr)v KipKVpav, evdairep koX 
TO aXKo crrpdrevfia r&v ^vfipA^oyv ^vveXeyero, 
rfireiyovro o^iKeardai. 

3 'E9 Se Ta? SvpaKOvaa^ TjyyiWero fiev TroWa- 
^odev Ta irepl tou eTriirXov, ov pAvroL €7rc(n€v€To 
iirl iroXvv ;^/>6i^oi/ ovhev, dXKa Kal yevopAvrjf; 
iKKXtjcriaf; iki'xO'qaav roioLhe Xoyoi aTro re aXXtov, 
r&v P'CP iricrrevovTcov r^ irepl t^9 arpareias rrj^ 
r&v ^AOrfvaitov, r&v Sk ra ivavri'a Xeyovrcov, xal 
*^pp>OKpdrri(; 6 ''Ep/x-a)j/09 irapekdayv avrol^; a>9 
aa(f>&^ oi6pjevo<; elSivat ra irepl avr&v, iXeye Kal 
irap^vei roidSe. 

XXXIII. " "Amara p^ev lao!)<;, &crir€p Kal dWot 
rivi^, Bo^ao vp!tv irepl rod eTrirrXov t% dXq0ela<; 
Xiyeiv, Kal yiyvaxTKco on oi rh p,f) mark SoKovvra 
elvai rj Xiyovre^ fj dirayyiXXovre^ ov p>6vov ov 
irelOovaiv, dXXh Kal a<f)pove<; SoKOuaiv elvar 
o/xa)9 Be ov Kara<f)0^r}6€l^ emo'XVO'O) KivBvvevovar)^; 
T^9 7ro\ea)9, ireiOoav ye ip^avrov aaKfyearrepov Tt 
2 erepov elSo)^ Xeyeiv, *Adrfvaioi yap €<^' vpM^, o 

240 



BOOK VI. XXXII. I— XXXIII. 2 

ship by ship but all together, led by a herald, the 
mariners as well as the officers throughout the 
whole army making libations with golden and 
silver cups from wine they had mixed. And the 
rest of the throng of people on the shore, both 
the citizens and all others present who wished the 
Athenians well, also joined in the prayers. And 
when they had sung the paean and had finished the 
libations, they put off, and sailing out at first in single 
column they then raced as far as Aegina. The 
Athenian fleet, then, was pressing on to reach 
Corcyra, where the rest of the annament of the 
allies was assembling. 

But meanwhile reports of the expedition were 
coming to Syracuse from many quarters, but were 
not believed at all for a long time. Nay, even when 
an assembly was held speeches to the following 
effect^ were made on the part of others, some 
crediting the reports about the expedition of the 
Athenians, others contradicting them, and Hermo- 
crates son of Hermon came forward, in the convic- 
tion that he knew the truth of the matter, and 
spoke, exhorting them as follows : 

XXXIII. "Possibly it will seem to you that what 
I and certain others say about the reality of the 
expedition against us is incredible, and I am aware 
that those who either make or repeat statements 
that seem not credible not only do not carry convic- 
tion but are also regarded as foolish ; but neverthe- 
less I will not be frightened into holding my tongue 
when the state is in danger, persuaded as I am that 
I speak with more certain knowledge than my 
opponents. For it is indeed against you, much 

^ i.e. like those of Hermocrates and Athenagoras^ 

241 
^OL. III. R 



THUCYDIDES 

irdvu Oavfid^ere, iroWy arpoTia &pfii]VTat, fcal 
vavTi/cfj Kal ire^iK^, 7rp6(f>aaiv fiev ^EyeaTaiwp 
^v/Jifiaxio, Kal AeovrivoiP /caTOiKtaei, to Se d\rj0€<; 
%iK€\ia^ iiridvfua, fjudXiaTa Se ttj^ fifierepa^ 
7r6X€6)9> r}yovp,€voi, el TavTTjv ax^lev, paSia}^ xal 
3 ToWa €^€LV. (09 oiv iv rd'xei Trapeaofievtov, opare 
diro T&v virapxovTcov OT<p rpoirm KdXKiara 
dfivvelaOe avroif^ Koi p,i]T€ Ka7a(j>povi]a'avT€f: 
d<f>apKTOL \r)if>drj(Te<T6e p^rfre dmaTija'avTe^; tov 

4 l^vp^TTaVTO^ dp,€\l]<T€T€. €1 84 T(p Xol TTtCTTa, rT)V 

ToXpuv avT&v Kal Svva/iiv p^rj iKirXayfj, ovt€ yhp 
^dirreiv ij/xa? irXeia) oloi r caovrat rj irda")(€iVy 
OV0* ort peydXep aroXtf) iTripxovrai, dva)<]>€\e^,^ 
dWd TTpo^ T€ T0U9 aXXou? XcKcXidna^ iroXv 
dpeivov {jxaXXov yhp edeXriaovaiv iKirXayivre^ 
fiplv ^yppxixj^lv), Kal ffv a pa fj Karepyacrcop^Oa 
avToif^ fj dirpuKTOVf; &v i<]>L€VTat dircoaaypev (ov 
ykp Sfi pt) Tvxoyo-^ y€ &v TTpoahexovTai (f>o^ovpai.), 
KoXXicrrov ht) epyayv f}plv ^vp^rjaerai Kal ov/c 
5 dpiX7rt<TT0V epoiye, oXiyoi yap Sf) aroXoi p,eyd\oL 
fj 'EXXi]va}v fj /3apj3dpa}v ttoXv aTro t^9 eavr&v 
dirdpaPTc^ Karcopdcoaap. ovre yap irXeiovf: r&v 
epotKOVPTiop Kal darvyeiropcop epxoprai (irdpra 
yhp viro heov^ ^vpiaTarat), ffp re hC diropLap r&p 
iiTLTriZeifOP ip aXXorpia yfj <T(l>aX&ai, rol^ iiri- 
^ovXevOeiaiP ovopa, kclp ire pi a'(f>iaip avToh ra 

^ iivta<t>4\t5, Dobree's correction, for aifu<p€\€7s of the MSS. , 
which Hude retains. 

242 



BOOK VI. XXXIII. 2-5 

as you wonder at it, that the Athenians have 
set out with a large armament for use on land 
as well as on the sea^ on the pretext of an 
alliance with the Egestaeans and the restoration 
of the Leontines, but in truth with a covetous desire 
for Sicily, and above all for our city, thinking that 
once in possession of it they would easily get pos- 
session of the rest also. With the certainty, then, 
that they will soon be here, consider in what way 
with your present resources you can best ward them 
off, and may neither by despising them be caught off 
your guard nor through incredulity neglect the whole 
matter. If, however, anyone does find my words 
credible, let him not be dismayed at their daring and 
power. For neither will they be able to inflict more in- 
jury upon us than they will suffer, nor is it without 
advantage for us that they are coming with a great 
armament; on the contrary, it is far better so as 
regards the rest of the Siceliots, for in their consterna- 
tion they will be more inclined to join our alliance ; 
and if in the end we either overpower them or drive 
them off baffled in their designs — for I certainly have 
no fear as to their attaining the success they anticipate 
— ^it will prove the most glorious of achievements 
for us, and one which I at least do not despair of. 
For few great armaments, whether of Hellenes or of 
barbarians, when sent far from their own land, have 
been successful. , The reason is that they are not, in 
the first place, superior in numbers to the people 
against whom they go and the neighbours of these — 
for fear always brings about union ; and if, in the 
second place, they fail on account of lack of supplies 
in a foreign land, they leave a proud name to those 
whom they plotted against, even though their failure 

243 
R 2 



THUCYDIDES 

6 rrXeio} TrrcUacoaiv, o/ko^ Kardkeiirovaiv. oirep 
KaX *A0rjpaloL ^ avTol ovroi, tov M1780U irapa \oyov 
TToWa a(f>a\€PTO^, iirl t^ ovofiari w iirl 'A^i/i/a? 
rjei 'qv^rjO'qaav, Kcu ^/up oitc avikiTKTTOv to toiov- 

XXXIV. " Sap<TOVPT€^ ovv to, t€ avTOv irapa- 
afc€va^(o/i€0a koX €9 tou9 2t«e\ou9 irifiirovTe^ 
T0V9 jM^v fiaXXov ^€l3ai€oa'd)fjL€0a, toi^ Se <l>iXiav 
Kol ^v/jLfjLaxio,^ 7r€ip(Ofi€0a Troiela0ai, e^ re tt^v 
SXKr)v %iK€\iav irifiTrcDfiev irpeajSeif;, BrjXovvT€<: 
(i? Koivb^ 6 KLvhwo^, KCU €9 TTjv 'IxaXtai/, 07ra)9 
fj l^vp.p^i'xLha iromiie0a riplv fj fii) Si'^^ayvrai 

2 ^A0rjvacov^, So/c€i Be fioi, fcai €9 K.apxv^ova dfiei- 
vov elvcu irepAlrai. ov yap avekiriaTov auroi?, 
aW' aleX Sia i^ofiov elal firj ttotc *A0rfvaToi avTol^ 
€7rl TTjv TToKiv €\0a>aiv, &<TT€ Tax av icra)^ vofii" 
aavT€^, el ToBe irpoijaopTai, xal &v a<l)€i^ iv irovtp 
elvai, iffeXijaeiav rjfilv fJTOi Kpwf>a ye ^ (j>av€pw 
rj i^ 6J/09 ye TOV Tpoirov dfiuvai. BvvaTol Be elai 
fidXiaTa T&v vvv, pov\r)0ivTev XP^^^"^ y^P '^^^ 
apyvpov 'irKeuj'Tov Ke/crrjinat, o0ev 6 Te irokefio^ 

3 Ka\ riXKa eimopel* irepm-fopjev Be xal C9 rifv 
AaKeBalfjLOva xal €9 K6piv0ov, BeofJLevoi Sevpo 
tcaTCL TOLXO^ I3arf0€iv fcal tov CKel irokefiov Kivelv. 

A o Be fiaXiara iyd) T€ vofd^ta iwLKaipov vfiei^ tc 
Bia TO ^vvTj0€^ Tjavxov fjKiaT av 0^60)9 'irei0oia0€^ 
op,(Of; elpijaeTai* XiKeTu&Tai ydp el e0€\,oifjL€v ^vfjL- 
7ravT€<i, el Be /ii;, ota TrXelaTOi fie0* 'qp.&v, 

^ 'A^KoTot, Hude deletes with Bftdham. 
244 



BOOK VI. XXXIII. 5-XXXIV. 4 

be due chiefly to themselves. These very Athenians^ 
for example^ when the Persians contrary to expecta- 
tion signally failed^ grew great on the repute that it 
was Athens they went against ; so in our case a like 
issue is not beyond hope. 

XXXIV. "With confidence, then, let us make our 
preparations here, but also send envoys to the Sicels, 
to confirm the allegiance of some and to endeavour 
to make friendship and alliance with others ; and let 
us despatch envoys to the rest of Sicily, to show that 
the danger is a common one, and to Italy, that we 
may either secure their alliance for ourselves or else 
prevent their receiving the Athenians. And to me 
it seems best to send also to Cartilage. For the 
Carthaginians are not without expectation, or rather 
they are always in fear, that some time the Athen- 
ians may come against their city ; and so they will 
probably feel that if they shall leave things here to 
their fate, they may be in trouble themselves, and 
therefore will be inclined to assist us, secretly perhaps, 
or openly, or by some means or other. And they, of 
all men of the present day, are the most able to do 
so, if they will ; for they have an abundance of gold 
and silver, 'by which war arid everything else is 
expedited. And let us send also to Lacedaemon 
and to Corinth, begging them to bring aid here 
with all speed, and to stir up the war over there. 
And now the measure which I think would be 
most opportune, but which you on account of your 
habitual love of ease would be least likely to adopt 
promptly, shall nevertheless be proposed , If we 
Siceliots — all together, or, in default of this, as 
many as will join us — were willing to launch all our 



245 



THUCYDIDES 

KaOekKiKTavre^ airav to virdp'xpv vavTLKov fiera 
BvoLv firjvolv Tpo<f>7]<; airavTrjaai ^Adrjvaioi*; €9 
Tdpavra xal axpav ^lafrvyiav, fcai SrjXov irocrja'ai 
avToi^ on ov irepi ttJ? ^i/ceXia^ ^ irporepov earai 
6 070)1/ fi Tov ixeLVov^ irepaicoOrjvai top ^loviov, 
p^aXiar av avrov^ i/CTrXtj^aifiev xal e? XoyLtr/Moi/ 
KaraaTTjaaifiev on 6pp^/i€0a pkv ix <^i\ta9 
')((ji>pa<; <f>v\aK€<; (i7roS^;^€Ta* yap rj/jbd^; Tdpa^), to 
8e 7reXayo<; avTOi^ ttoXu Trepatovaffai fierct irdar)^ 
T^9 irapaaKevrj^, ^^aXcTroj/ Ze hik irXov firj/co^ ev 
rd^et fielvat, xal r/fuv av eveiriOeTO^ ecrj, ^paheld 

5 Te xal xar oKiyov TrpoavLTrrovaa, el S* ai tw 
Tax^vavTOvvn ddpocoreptp xov^iaavre^ irpoa^d- 
Xotev, el p^v xcoTrat^; ;^p/;o'ati/TO, einOoLped^ av 
x€xp,r)x6<Ttv, el he pi) BoxoLrj, can xal vTro'x^coprja'ai 
rfplv €9 Tdpavra* oi he p,eT oXtycov €(f>o8icDV 0)9 
ivl vavpax^a irepaccodevTef; diropolev &v xar a 
X^P^ ipHH^t fcal 7j pevovre^ iroXiopxotvTO av fj 
Treipcop^evoi irapairXelv Trjv re aXXrjv Trapaaxevrjv 
dTToXeiirotev &v xal ra r&v TroXecov ovx av ^ejSaia 

6 €X0VT€^, el virohe^oiVTO, dOvpolev. &(tt eyioye 
T0VT(p rq) Xoyiap^ tfyovpai diroxXyopevovf; axnov^ 
ovh* &v dirapai diro K.€pxvpa^, aXX* rj hiajSovXeV' 
aap&fov^ xal xaraarxoirai^ 5^(i)/Aei;oi;9 oTroaoi r' 
iapev xal ev cS X^P^V' ^^^a-Orjvat. av rfj &pa e9 

^ rrtpX rrii 2tKf\las, Duker's correction for vepl r$ SiKcAfa 
of the MSS. 



^ The Athenians would naturally expect to cross from 
Corcyra to Tarentunii then follow the coast to Messene. By 

246 



BOOK VI. XXXIV. 4^6 

available naval force and with two months' provisions 
go to meet the Athenians at Tarentum and the 
promontory of lapygia, and make plain to them that 
the contest will not be first for Sicily, but before 
that for their passage across the Ionian Sea, we 
should mightily astound them and force them to 
reflect that we have as our base a friendly country 
from which to keep watch and ward — for Tarentum 
is ready to receive us — whereas for them the open 
sea is a wide one to cross with all their armament,^ 
and it is difficult on account of the length of the 
voyage to keep in formation ; consequently, coming 
up slowly and few at a time, they would be at the 
mercy of our attack. But if on the other hand they 
should lighten their ships and attack with the 
swift-sailing part of their fleet in a more compact 
body, then, in case they used their oars, we should 
set upon them when weary with rowing ; or if it 
did not seem wise to attack them, we could retire to 
Tarentum again. They, however, having crossed 
with slender supplies in the prospect of a naval en- 
gagement, would be in distress in uninhabited 
regions, and either would remain and be blockaded, 
or trying to sail along the coast would leave behind 
the rest of their equipment, and, having no certainty 
as to the temper of the cities, whether they would 
receive them or not, would be discouraged. And 
so I for my part am of opinion that, deterred by 
this consideration, they would not even put out 
from Corey ra, but either, after taking time for 
deliberation and spying out how many we are and in 
what position, would be driven into winter-quarters 

making Tarentum their base the Siceliots would force the 
Athenians to cross the open sea — a hazardous undertaking. 

247 



THUCYDIDES 

X^ifJi&pa, fj KaTaTrXayevra^ t^ dBo/ci]T(p Kara- 
Xvcrai av top ttXovv, aWw? t€ kol tov €/jl- 
Treipordrov r&v o-TpaTtfy&v, c»9 €70) aKOvto, 
axovTO^ rjyovfj/evov koI dafiepov up TTpo^f^aa-iv 
XajSoPTO^, €1 ri d^i6xp€(*yp d(f>^ rjfi&p d(f>0€Li]. 

7 dyyeWoifieda 8* ap ev otS' on iirl to ifKeop* t&p 
S' dpOpcoircop 7rpo<; tu Xeyofiepa Koi ai yp&fiai 
caTaPTaL, koI tov^ it po€Tn')(eipovPTa^ fi toI^ ye 
€7n)(€ipov<Ti, irpoSrfXovpTa^ OTt dfivpovPTat fmXXov 
7r€(f>6l37]vTaL, iaoKLphvpov^ riyovfiepoi, oirep av pvv 

8 WOrjpaloc 7rd0oi€P. inep'^oPTai yap fjfup C09 ovk 
dfivpovfiepoL^, SiKaio)^ KaTeyvcoKOTe^ oti avToif^ ov 
ficTa AaKeBaLfiopLcop it^OeipopLev el S* iBoiep irapa 
ypwfirjv ToXpLri<TaPTa<i, tc5 dhoKrjTtp p,aXXop av 
KaTairXayelev fj ttj dno tov dX7j0ov<: Svpdfiei, 

9 " TleiOeaOe ovv, /idXiaTa fiep Tavra ToXfirj- 
aapTe^, el Se fiij, otl Ta'XJi^aTa TiXXa €? tov 
TToXe/jLov €Tocfid^€ip, fcal irapaaTijpat naPTi to 
/x€i/ KaTa^popelp tov<; ifrioPTaf; ip t&p epyeav Ty 
dX/cfj SeLKPVaOai, to S* rjSrj ra? fieTct ipo/Sov 
7rapa<TK€vd^ da(f)aXeaTdTa^ popLiaavTa^; e!)9 €7rl 
Kiphvpov TTpdaaetp ;^/)»/(r4/Ac6TaTOj/ ap ^v/i/3fjvai,, 
ol Be apSp€<; Kal iirep'XppTai Kal ip irX^ ev oih* 
oTi TjSrj elcrl Kal oaov oviro) trdpeiaiv.^^ 



248 



BOOK VI. XXXIV. 6-9 

by the lateness of the season^ or in dismay at the 
unexpected turn of events would abandon -the expedi- 
tion, especially as the most experienced of their 
generals takes command^ as I hear, against his will, 
and would gladly seize upon an excuse to abandon it 
if any considerable opposition on our part were 
observed. And reports otour strength would, I 
am convinced, be exaggerated ; the opinions of men 
are apt to veer according to what they are told ; 
and those who are first to attack, or those at 
any rate who in advance make it clear to the 
aggressors that they will defend themselves, in- 
spire the greater fear in the foe, who thinks them 
equal to the emergency. And precisely this would 
be the effect at this time upon the Athenians. 
For they are coming against us in the belief that we 
shall not defend ourselves, rightly contemning us 
because we did not join the Lacedaemonians in the 
effort to destroy them. But if they should see us 
unexpectedly displaying courage, they would be more 
dismayed by this unlooked for resistance than by 
our real power. 

" Be persuaded, then, as best of all to take this 
bold step, but if not that, to make all other prepara- 
tions for the war with all speed; and let it come 
home to everyone that contempt of invaders is shown 
by valour in actual conflict,^ but that at this present 
time, realizing that preparations made with fear are 
safest, it would prove most advantageous so to act as 
though in imminent danger. For the Athenians 
are surely coming against us ; they are, I am quite 
certain, already under sail, and all but here." 

^ Or, '* by an energetic defence." 

249 



THUCYDIDES 

XXXV. Kal 6 fjL€v' Epfw/cpdrr)^ Toaavra elirev, 
T&v Se XvpaKoaicov 6 S^/io? iv ttoW^ Trpo^ aXKi]" 
Xou? epihi fiaav, oi fiev w ovhevX av rpofrtp 
eKdoiev oi ^Affrfvaloi ovS* d\rf0rj iartv a Xiyerac, 
01 0€, 64 Kai eKuoiev, tl av opaaeiav avrov<; o ri 
ovK civ fiel^ov avTiirddoiev; oKKoi hk fcal irdvv 
KaTa(f>povovvT€^ 69 yiXcoTa erpeirov to irpayp^a. 
oXiyov 8' ^v TO iri(TT€vov t& 'lEpfjLOKpdrei xal 

2 <f)offovfi€vov TO fieXXov. TrapeXBayv i' avTotf; ^A0r)- 
vayopa^, 09 hrjpjov T€ TrpOGTaTr)^ fjv KaX iv t^ 
irapovTt, inOavtoTaTo^ toi<: iroWotf;, eXeye ToidSe, 

XXXVI. " Tou? fjL€V ^A0r)vcuov^ octtl^ firj fiov- 
XeTai ot;Ta)9 KaKW (^povrjaat /cal vTTO^ipiov^ 
^fuv yeveaOat, ivOdSe iX06vTa<;, ^ SeiXo^ eaTiv tf 
Ty TToXei OVK evvov^* tov<; Se dyyeXXovTa^ tcl 
ToiavTa KoX irepi^opov^ vfia<; iroiovvTa^ r?}? fieu. 
ToXfirjf; ov ffav/jbd^co, tt)? Se d^weaia^, el firj 

2 otovTai evSrjXoi eTvai, ol yap SeStoTC^ ihia Tk 
l3ovXovTat TTfv TToXiv 69 eKirXfj^Lv xadiaTdvai^ 
07rG)9 t£ Koiv^ (f>60(f> TO a^CTepov iTr^jXvyd^covrai^. 
Kai vvv avTat al dyyeXLai tovto SvvavTai, at^ 
OVK dirb TavTOfidTOV, ix Se dvSp&v oXirep aUl 

3 TdSe Kcvovai ^vyKCiVTai, vfiei<; Be fjv ev /Sov- 
XevTjaOe, ovk e'f &v ovtoi dyyiXXovat, crKOTrovvre^ 
Xoytelade tcl elxoTa, dXTC ef &v av avOpfOTTOi Seivol 
Kai iroXX&v e/nretpot, Sairep iycb 'AOtfvcUov^ 

4 d^i&, Spdaeiav. ov yap avTov^ clko^ HeXoiroi^ 
vr^aiovf; t€ vTroXiirovTaf; xal tov ixel iroXepLov 
p^ijiroD pepaifo^ KaToXeXvfiivov^ iir* aXXov TroXe- 
p^ov OVK iXdaaa) eKovTa^ iXffeiv, iirel ^ft>76 

^ at added by Classen. 

250 



BOOK VI. XXXV. I -XXXVI. 4 

XXXV. Such was the speech of Herinocrates. 
But the Syracusan people were at great strife among 
themselves: some maintained that the Athenians 
would not come at all and that the reports were not 
true ; others asked^ even if they did come, what 
could they do to them that they would not them- 
selves suffer still more ; others quite contemptuously 
turned the matter into ridicule. There were, how- 
ever, a few who believed Hermocrates and feared 
what was coming. But Athenagoras, who was a 
popular leader and at the present time most in- 
fluential with the masses, came forward and addressed 
them as follows : — 

XXXVI. " As to the Athenians, whoever does not 
wish them to be so ill witted as to come here and 
fall into our hands, is either a coward or not loyal to 
the state ; as to the men, however, who tell such 
stories and fill you with fear, I do not wonder at 
their audacity so much as at their simplicity, if they 
fancy we do not see through them. For men who 
have sdme private grounds of fear wish to plunge 
the city into- consternation, in order that in the 
common fear their own may be overshadowed. So 
now this is the meaning of these reports, which are 
not spontaneous, but have been concocted by men 
who are always stirring up trouble here. But you, if 
you are well advised, will examine and form your 
estimate of what is probable, not from what these 
men report, but from what shrewd men of much 
experience, such as I deem the Athenians to be, 
would be likely to do. For it is not probable that 
they would leave the Peloponnesians behind them 
before they have yet brought the war there surely 
to an end, and voluntarily come here to prosecute 

251 



THUCYDIDES 

ayaiTuv oiofiai avTOv^ on ovx V/^€i9 €7r' €/C€Lvov<i 
ep)(6^€0a, 7roX€i9 roaavrai xal ovt(o fierfdXa^i. 

XXXVII. " Ea he hrf, &<nTep Xeyovrcu, eXOoiev, 
iKavaoripav ^yovfiai ^ixeXiap TleKoTTovvqaov Sia- 
TToXefifjaaL oaco Kara irdvTa afietvov i^rjprvrai, 
TT)v Se ^fi€T€pap iroXiv avrrfv T179 vvv (TTparid^, 
G19 <f>a<nv, i-rriova'rjf;, kov el Si<; TOaavTf) eXOoc, 
TToXu Kpeiaato elvar 0I9 7' €TrL<TTap>ai ouff^ iirwov^ 
dKoXov0i]<rovTa^ ovS* avTodev iropiaOrjaofiivov^ el 
fit) 0X1701/9 Tivaf; trapa ^FiyeaTaLcov, ov0* OTrXira^ 
laoTrXrjdei^ roh rjfi€T€pOL<; inl ve&v ye eXOovra^ 
(fieya yap to fcal avral^ ral^ vaval Kov(l>ai<; 
ToaovTov irXovv Sevpo xofuaOrjvat), rriv re aXXrjv 
TTapacrKevqv, oatfv Sel €7rl ttoX^v ToaijvSe iropi- 

2 <T0rjvai, ovK oXiyqv ovaav, Hare (irapd tocovtov 
ycyvaxTKCf)) poXi^ dv fwi Sofcovcnv, el iroXiv eripav 
ToaavTijv oaai ^vpdxovaaL elaiv eXOoiev e'xpvre^ 
Koi op.opoi olKijaavre^ tov iroXefiov iroiolvro, ovk 
av iravrdiraat hiaffiOaprivai, ff ttov ye Sij ev irdarf 
TToXefiia XifceXla {^var'^aeTai ydp) arparoireSfp 
re ex ve&p iSpvffevrt /cal etc afcrfviSiayv xai 
dvayKala^; irapaa/cevrjf;, ovk eirX iroXv virb r&v 
rfp^eripayv iiriTetov i^iovre^. to Te ^vfiirav ouS* &p 
fcparrjaai avroi)^ rrj^ yf]^ rjyovfiaf roaovrc^ Tt)v 
'fjfieripap TrapaaKevijv fepelaa'a) vop^i^to. 

XXXVIII. " 'AXXa ravra, Zairep eyoD Xeyoi, oX 
Te ^AOrjpaloL yiyvwaxovT€<; Ta a^erepa avr&v eC 
olS^ OTi aoi^ovai, Kol ivdevhe dvhpe^ oine ovra ovre 
dv yevofxeva Xoyoiroiovaip, 0^9 iy^ ov vvv irpcorov, 

252 



BOOK VI. XXXVI. 4-xxxvin. i 

another war quite as great ; for I myself think that 
they are content that we do not come against them, 
being so numerous and so powerful. 

XXXVII. " If, however, they should come, as it is 
reported, I think Sicily more competent to carry 
the war through than the Peloponnesus, inasmuch as 
it is better provided in all respects, and that our 
city by itself is much stronger than this army which 
now, as they say, is coming on — aye, even if it should 
come in twice the number. For I know that neither 
horses will accompany them — and from here also 
none will be provided, except a few from Egesta — 
nor hoplites equal in number to ours, since they have 
to come on ships ; for it is a great thing to make the 
long voyage to Sicily even with their ships alone, 
lightly laden. And the rest of the equipment which 
must be provided against so large a city as ours is not 
small. So much, then, do I differ in my judgment 
from these men that it seems to me, if they brought 
with them another city as large as Syracuse and 
settling here on our borders should wage the war, 
they would hardly fail to be utterly destroyed ; much 
less, then, when all Sicily is hostile — for it will be 
united — and they are in a camp pitched just after 
landing from the ships and cannot venture far from 
their wretched tents and meagre supplies by reason 
of our cavalry. In short, I think they would not 
even get a foothold on the land ; so much do I judge 
our forces to be superior. 

XXXVIII. " But of these things, as I maintain, the 
Athenians are aware and they are, I am quite sure, 
taking care of their own interests, and men from here 
are fabricating stories neither true nor possible, men 
whom not now for the first time but always I have 

253 



THUCYDIDES 

2 riW' cdel iiTLa-Ta/JLaL tjtoi \6yoi<i ye roiolaBe Koi 
en TovTcov KaKovpyorepoi^ rj epyoi^ fiovXofiepov^: 
KarairXri^avTa^ to vfjArepov TrXrjdof; avrov^ t/}? 
7ro\€ft)9 ap'xeiv. koL SiSoifca fiivroi fitj ttotc iroWa 
ireip&PTe^ xal /caTopddxrtoaiv ^fiel^ Se Ka/col, 
irpXv ev T& iradelv &/jLev, irpo^vXd^aadai re xal 

3 aladop^voi €TT€^e'\J9elv. rotydproi 8i avra 17 ttoX*? 
7]fiafp oXiyuKi^ fi€P ^trvx^d^ei, ffTdaei^ Se TroXXa? 
fcal dy&va^ ov irpb^ tou? irdXepiov^ TrXeLova^ fj 
7r/)09 avTT)v dvaipeiTai, TvpavviSa^ Se eartv ore Kot 

4 hvva(Treia<; olSlkov^;, &v eyo) ireipdaofiai, rjp ye 
v/jielf} edekrjTe eireaOai, firfirore €<^' fifi&v ri irepi- 
iSeiv yevecOai, vfid^ fiep tov^ ttoWov^ ireid(op 
T0U9 he ^ ra Toiavra firj^apayfiepovf; koXA^cdp, firj 
fiopop avro^(opovq (j^aXeTrop yap ifriTvyxapeip), 
dXXa Kal &p fiovXoprai fiep Svpaprai S' ou {top 
yap i'XJSpop ovx ^v Spa fioPOP, aXXa teal rrj^ 
hiapoia^ Trpoafivpeadai XP^* elirep koL fit) irpo^v- 
Xa^dfiepo^ rt? ir poireiaeTaC), tou? S' ai oXlyov^ 
Ta fiep eXeyx^op, ra Se jivXdaaayp, tcl Se koI SiSd- 
aKcop* fidXiara yap Sok& dp fioL ovtod^ diro- 

6 rpeireip t^9 Kaicovpyia^. kol Sfjra, o TroXXdfci^ 
ea-Keylrdfirjp, tL koI ^ovXeaOe, & P€(OT€poi; iroTepov 
apxetp ^Srj; aXV ovx eppofiop, 6 Sk p6fio<i ex rov 
/jLTj SvpacOat vp,a<; fiaXXop rj Svpafi€P0V<; eTedt) 
drifid^eip, dXXcL Srj fii) fierci t&p ^ ttoXX&p tao- 

^ Hude follows Weil in bracketing 94 and changing iroXa- 
^uv to Kohd^fty, 
° rwy added by Hude as probabl}' read by the Scholiast. 




BOOK VI. xxxviii. 2-5 

known to be wishing, either by reports such as these 
and still more mischievous than these, or by overt 
acts, to frighten the mass of you and themselves 
dominate the city. And I fear, moreover, that some 
day, by dint of repeated attempts, they may actually 
succeed ; for we are poor hands at taking precautions 
before we are at their mercy, and, if we have dis- 
covered their plots, at dealing conclusively with the 
plotters. Therefore it is on this very account that 
our city is seldom quiet, but is subject to frequent 
feuds and conflicts — not so much with the enemy 
as with itself — and sometimes to tyrannies and 
wicked oligarchies. But if you will only follow me, 
I will try to see to it that never in our time shall 
any of these things come to pass, persuading you 
who are the mass of the people, but chastising the 
men who devise stich things, not only when they 
are caught in the act — as it is difficult to come upon 
them — but even for what they would but cannot do. 
For an enemy one must forestall, not only in what 
he does, but even in his designs, since indeed a 
man who is not first to safeguard himself will be 
first to suffer. As to the oligarchs, on the other 
hand, I shall sometimes expose them, and sometimes 
watch them, but sometimes also I shall instruct them, 
for in this way I think I could best deter them from 
evil-doing. And now — a question which I have often 
asked myself — what do you want, you young men ? 
To hold office already ? But that is not lawful ; and 
the law was enacted in consequence of your incompe- 
tency, rather than to keep you from office when 
competent. Well, then, you do not want to be on an 



255 



THUCYDIDES 

pofielaOai; /cal ttw? Bifcaiop rov^ avTOvs ft'/ tojv 
avT&v a^iovaOai; 

XXXIX. " ^Tjtrei ti<; htifjuoKpaTLav ovre ^vverov 
OUT laov elvat, tol'9 Se exovra^ tcl 'X^prjfiaTa xal 
ap^eiv apiara /SeXriov^. iyo} Si ^rffit irp&Ta fiev 
Srjfiov ^tifiirav d)vofid(T0ai, oXiyapxictv Be fiepo<;, 
eireira ^vXa/ca^ fiev apicnov^ elvai 'Xp'qpArcov tov^ 
ifKovaiovs, ^ovXevaai S' ap fiiXria-Ta rov^ ^vve- 
rov^, Kplvau S' otv aKOvaavra^ apiara tov^ ttoXXoiJ?, 
Kol ravra ofioicofi koI Kara fiepi] koX ^vfiiravra 

2 iv SfffioKparia laofioipelv, oXtyapxid Be t&v p,ev 
KivBvvcov T069 iroXXoh fieTaSiSaxTL, r&v S' a>0€- 
Xifiayv ov irXeoveKrel pLovov, aXXk Kal fv/ATraj/r' 
a<peXop,€vrj 6;^€^* h vpL&v oX Te Swdfiepoi fcal ol 
veoL irpoOvpiovvTai, aBvvara iv p^eydXtf iroXei 
KarcuTX^lv, 

XL. " 'AW' €Ti Kal vvv, & iravrtov a^vperco' 
TUTOC, &v iycb olBa 'EXXrjvcop, el p^rj pavddvere 
KaKCL cirevBovTe^} rj dBcKwraroi, el elBore^ toX- 
pcLTe, dXX* fJTOt paOovre^ ye ff p^rayvovre^ to t^9 
7ro\€a>9 ^vpiraai koivov av^ere, rfyrfadp^voi tovto 
pep ap Kal itrop koI irXeop ol dyadol vp&p ijirep 
TO T^9 TToXeo)^ TrXrjOo^^ peTa^)(€ip, el S' aXTyxi 
PovXtjaeade, kcLp tov iravTO<i KtvBvpevo'ai (rrepr)- 
Orjpar Kal t&p Toi&pBe dyyeXi&p d)9 tt/jo? alada- 

2 vopApov^ Kal pfj eiTLTph^opTa^ diraXXdyqre, ?; 
yap 7ro\i9 fjBe, Kal el epxovrai *A0i]paloi, dpvpelrai 
avroi)^ a^tft)9 avrrffi, Kal arpaTriyoL elacp ripuv at 

^ ^ iL/xa04ararol iffT€, before fj iLBiKwrarQi in the MSS. , 
deleted by Dobree and Madvig. 

'^ ijirtp rh rrjt irdKeuts irA^^oy, Hude deletes, following 
Krttger. 




BOOK VI. XXXVIII. 5-xL. 2 

equality with the many ? And how is it right that 
the same folk should not be deemed worthy of the 
same privileges ? 

XXXIX. "Some will say that a democracy is neither 
wise nor equitable, and that those that have property 
are more competent to rule best. But I say, first, 
that democracy is a name for all, oligarchy for only 
a part ; next, that while the wealthy are the best 
guardians of property, the wise would be the best 
counsellors, and the many, after hearing matters 
discussed, would be the .best judges ; and that these 
classes, whether severally or collectively, enjoy a like 
equality in a democracy. An oligarchy, on the other 
hand, gives the many a share of the dangers, but of 
the advantages it not merely claims the lion's share, 
but even takes and keeps all. And this is what the 
powerful among you and the young men are bent 
upon — a thing impossible to attain in a great city. 

XL. " Still, even now, O ye most senseless of all 
Hellenes that I know, if you do not see that your 
designs are wicked, or most criminal, if you know 
and yet dare to persist in them, — even now, I say, 
either learn wisdom or repent of your folly and strive 
to advance the common interests of the state for 
the good of all, reflecting that the good among you 
would share this in equal or larger measure than the 
mass of the people, whereas if you have other aims 
you will run the risk of losing all. So have done 
with such reports, understanding that you are dealing 
with men who are aware of your designs and will 
not put up with them. For this city, even if the 
Athenians come, will ward them off in a manner 
worthy of herself; and we have generals who will 



257 

VOL. HI. S 



THUCYDIDES 

• 

aKky^ovrai aird. xal el firj ri avT&v dXrjdi^ 
iarip, &aTr€p ovk olofiai, ov npo^ -ra? vfieTipa^ 
dy^ekia^ KaTairXafyelaa koX eXofievrj vfid^ ap^ov- 
ra^ avdaiperov BovKeiav iiri^aXelTai, avTrj S* €(f}* 
auT^9 (TKOirovca rov^i re Xoyov^ dff vfi&v w epya 
PovKojJLevov^ Kpivel koI ttjv virdpxovaav iXevBe- 
piav oifX} ifc tov dxoveLV d<l}aip€0j]a€Tai, e/c Se 
Tov €py(p (f>v\aa(TOfjLevrj fit) iTrirpeTreiv ireipdaerai, 
acoi^eiv. 

XLT. Toiavra H ^AOrjvayopa'i elTrev. tcjp Se 
(TTparrfyo^p el^ dvacTct^ aXXop fiev ovSeva €ti 
etaae TrapeXBelv, avTo<; Be 7r/309 rd irapovra eXe^e 

2 TOidBe. " Aia^oXd<; fiev ov a&^pov ovre Xeyeiv 
Tivd^ €9 a\\?y\ou9 ovre Toif^ dfcovovra^ diroBe- 
'XeaOaii irpo^ Bi rd icayyeXXofieva fjuaXXop opdvs 
OTTO)? eh re eKaaro^ koI rj ^vfJiiraaa TroXt? koXS}^ 

3 Tou? eiriopra^ Trapaa-xevaaofieda dfivpeadai, koX 
fjp apa fiTjBep Be'qar), ovBefda l3Xd^rj tov t€ to 
Koipop fcoa/nrfOrjpai xal lttttoi^ koI ottXoi^ kcu tol^ 
aXXoi^ 0I9 TroXefMO'i dydXXeTai (ttjp S' eTrifie- 
Xeiap Koi e^eraaip avTfav rjixeh e^ofiep) koX t&v 
7r/}09 Ta9 7ro\e*9 Bcairofnr&p dfia 69 re KaTCUTKOTrrjv 
fcal fjv Tt dXXo ^aiprjTai iTriTrjSeiop, Td Be xal 
ifrifiefieXi^fieda tjBti kuI o ti up aladdfieOa €9 vfid^ 
ocaofiev, 

Kal oi fJL€P Xvpafcoatoi Toaavra eliropTO'i tov 
(TTpaTTjyov BieXvOrjaap ifc tov ^vXXoyov. 

XLII. 01 S' 'ABrfpaioi rjBr) ep t§ l^epKvpa avToL 
T€ KoX oi ^vfifjufxpi airaPTe^ rjaap* Kal irp&Tov 

258 




BOOK VI. XL. 2-XLlI. I 

look after these matters. And if none of these 
things be true — as indeed I think they are not— the 
state will not, through terror at your reports and by 
choosing you as rulers, place on her neck, of her 
own choice, the yoke of slavery, bpt looking at the 
matter for herself she will pass judgment on your 
words as if they were deeds ; and will not by listening 
to such reports be deprived of her present liberty, but 
will try to preserve it by taking active precautions so 
as to frustrate your designs." 

XLI. Such was the speech of Athenagoras. 
Whereupon one of the generals rose up and forbade 
any one else to come forward, but himself spoke as 
folfows with reference to the matter in hand : " Per- 
sonal imputations it is not wise either for any speaker 
to utter against another or for those who hear to 
tolerate ; but in view of the reports that are 
coming in, we should rather see how we, each person 
and the city as a whole, shall prepare to defend our- 
selves effectively against the invaders. And if after 
all there shall be no need of it, there is no harm 
in the commonwealth being equipped with horses 
and arms and all other things wherein war takes 
pride — the provision and inspection of such equip- 
ment we shall have in charge — and in sending men 
round to the cities for observation as well as for any 
other purpose that may seem expedient. These 
provisions we have in part already made, and what- 
ever we find out we will bring before you." 

And the Syracusans, when the general had said 
thus much, dispersed from the assembly. 

XLI I. Meanwhile the Athenians themselves and 
all their allies also were already at Corcyra. And 



259 
s 2 



THUCYDIDES 

fiev eire^eraaiv tov arparevfuiTO^ xal ^uvra^cv 
&(nr€p cfieXXov opfiieladai re KaX a-rpaToireSev- 
aeaffac oi arpar'qyoX iiroiija'ain'o, xal rpia fieprj 
veifiavTC^ Iv i/cdartp iKXijpGxrav, tva fiijre afia 
irXeovTe^ airop&aiv vSaTO^ kcli Xifievcov fcal r&v 
iTnrrjSeitop iv ral^ Karaycoyalq, irpo^ re raWu 
evKoa-fjLorepoi xai paov^ ap')(eiv &(ti, Kara reKTj 
2 (TTpaTTjy^ irpoareTayiJiepor eirena Se ir povTrefi- 
yjrav Kol €9 rijp ^iToKiav Kal ^i/ceXiav rpei^ vav<; 
elaofMeva^ aXrive^ <r^a^ tcjv iroXeayv Si^ovrai, 
KaX eXprjTO avTat<; irpoairavTav, oircof; iirKTrdfievoL 
KaraTrXeaxnv, 

XLIII. MctA Se raxha Toafjhe rihrj ttj irapa- 
(TfcevTJ ^AOrfvaioi apavre^ ix t% KepKvpa^ 69 
Tf)v XifceXlav eirepaiovvTo, rpirjpeai fiev Talf; 
irdaaL^ Teatrapai koX rpuiKOVTa kuX eKarov KaX 
SvoLv 'PoSioip TrevTf}KovT€poi>p (tovtcop ^AttikoI 
fjL€P ^cap ixaTop, &p ai fjLCP i^tjKOPTa raxcuu, 
ai S' dWat cTparicoTLBef;, to Se dXko pavriKov 
\lq)p KaX T&p dWcop ^ufi/j.d'x^cop), oirXirai^ Se tol<^ 
^vfiiraaip eKarop KaX TrepTaKia')(tXioL^ (/cat TovrtDV 
^ X6r)pai(0P fiep avr&p rfaap irePTaKoaioi fiep Kal 
yjXioL €K KaroCXoyov, eTrraKocrtoi Se dTJre<i €7ri- 
Pdrai T&p pea)P, ^v/J>fMa'Xpc Se oi aXXoi ^vpe- 
(TTpaTevop, oi flip tcjp virrfKocop, oi S* ^Kpyeicov 
TrepTaKoaioi KaX Maprtpecov KaX fiiaffotfyopcop Trep- 
TTjKOPTa KaX SiaKoaioi), To^oTai^ Se rot? iraaiv 
oySoTjKopTa KaX TeTpaKoaioi^ (KaX tovt<op K/oiJtc? 
oi oySorjKOPTa ^aap), KaX a<l>€pSopi]Tai^ 'PoSlfop 

260 




BOOK VI. xLii. i-XLiii. 

first the generals held a final review of the afmament 
and made disposition in what order the forces were 
to anchor and to encamp. Making three divisions 
they allotted one to each general, in order that they 
might not, by sailing together, be at a loss for water 
and ports and provisions when they put in to shore, 
and that they might in general be more orderly and 
easy to control, being thus assigned in divisions to 
separate commanders. And next they sent forward 
to Italy and Sicily three ships, to ascertain which 
of the cities would receive them. And orders were 
given to these ships to come back to meet them, that 
they might know before putting to shore. 

XLII I. After this the Athenians weighed anchor 
and crossed over from Corcyra to Sicily with a force 
that was now of this strength : Of triremes there 
were in all one hundred and thirty-four, and two 
Rhodian fifty-oared galleys — one hundred of these 
Attic, sixty of which were swift vessels, the others 
transports for soldiers, the rest of the fleet being 
furnished by the Chians and the other allies. Of 
hoplites there were all together fi\e thousand one 
hundred — and of these, fifteen hundred were Athen- 
ians from the muster-roll and seven hundred Thetes ^ 
serving as marines on the ships, and the rest allies 
who shared in the expedition, some from the subject- 
states, others from the Argives to the number of five 
hundred, and of Mantineans and other mercenaries 
two hundred and fifty. Of bowmen there were in all 
four hundred and eighty, and eighty of these were 
Cretans ; of slingers, seven hundred Rhodians ; one 

^ Citizens of the lowest property-class, who served usually 
as oarsmen, but in extraordinary cases, as here, served as 
marines with hoplite armour. 

261 



THUCYDIDES 

eirraKoaioiSy ical ^eyapevai y^iXol^ (f>vydari,v eifcoai 
fcal ifcarop, fcal iirirayayya fiia TpidxovTa ayovay 

XLTV. ToaavTTf 17 tt/owtj; irapaaxevr} 7r/)09 
TOP TToXe/jLop SUirXei, tovtoi<; Se ra iTriTfjSeia 
ayovaai oXfcdSe^ fikv rpiaKOPra aiTaywyoi, xal 
Tot'9 aiTOTTOtov^ €)(pv<TaL tcoL XidoXoyov^ KoX 
r€Kropa<i koX oaa €? Tei'^^tafiop ipyaXeia, irXola 
Se ixarop, h ef updyKfj^i /juera T(op oXkoZiop 
^vpiirXer TroWa Se xal aXXa irXola fcal oXxaSe^ 
€KOV(Tioi ^vprj/coXovOovp T§ aTparia ifjuropia^ 
epeica* a Tore irdpra etc Try; l^epKvpa^ ^vp- 

2 iie^aXXe top 'Iopiop koXttop. kclL irpoa/Sa- 
Xovaa 71 iraca irapacKevrj irpo^ re axpap ^lairv- 
yiap KoX irpo^ TdpapTa xal w? e/cacToi 'qifiroprjaav, 
Trape/cofiL^oPTo ttjp 'IraXtai/, tcop fiep TroXetop ov 
he')(pp.ep(ap avTOv^ dyopa oifSe aaTCt, vBaTi Be Kai 
opfio), TdpapTo<i Se koX Koicptap ovSe toutoi^, &>9 

3 d(j>LKOPTo €9 'FijyLOV T% 'IraXta? ciKpmTripiop. /cal 
ii'TavOa 7]Sr) 'qOpoi^oPTO, Koi €^(o tP]<; iroXeto^, <»9 
avTOv^ €(T(o ovK iSixpPTO, aTpuToireSop t€ kutc- 
afC€vd<raPTO ip t^ t% 'Apre/itSo? Up^, ov ainol^ 
KoX dyopap irapelxop, fcaX ra? pav^ dpeXKvaapTe^ 
r)(TV')(aaap, koX irpo^ ^ tov<; 'Prjyivov^ Xoyov^ 
iiroiijaaPTO, d^tovpT€<; XaXxthea^ optu^ XaXxi- 
BevaLP ovai A€0PTLP0i<i ^orfOeiP' oi he ovhe /xed' 
erepcop e^aap eaeadai, aK)C ti clp koX toI<; 

4 a\Xo£9 'lTa\ift)Tat9 ^vpBoKy, tovto iroirjaeip. 01 
Si 7r/}09 tA €p Tfj %tKeXLa irpdyfiaTa iaKoirow 
OTtp TpoTT^ apKTTa TTpocTOLaopTar fcal ra? irpo- 

^ T« of the MSS., after irphs, deleted by Kriiger. 
262 




BOOK VI. xLiii.-XLiv. 4 

hundred and twenty light-armed Megarian exiles ; 
and one horse-transport carrying thirty cavalry. 

XLIV. Such was the strength of the first ai*ma- 
ment that sailed over for the war.^ And for these, 
thirty food-bearing transports brought supplies, 
having also bakers, stone-masons, carpenters, and all 
tools for wall-building; and there sailed also one 
hundred boats that were pressed into service, along 
with the transports. But many boats Resides, as 
well as transports, voluntarily accompanied the ex- 
pedition, for the sake of trade. All tliese, at that time, 
sailed together from Corcyra across the Ionian Gulf. 
And when the whole armament reached the lapygian 
promontory, or Tarentum, or wherever they severally 
found opportunity to make land, they sailed along 
the coast of Italy — some of the cities not receiving 
them with a market nor into the town, though fur- 
nishing them with water and anchorage, and Tarentum 
and Locri not even with these — until they came to 
Rhegium, a promontory of Italy. There they now 
assembled, and, as the Rhegians did not admit them 
within the walls, they pitched a camp outside of the 
town in the precinct of Artemis, where a market 
also was provided for them ; and so drawing up their 
ships on shore they took a rest. And they also held 
a conference with the Rhegians, claiming that they 
as Chalcidians^ should aid the Leontines who were 
Chalcidians. They, however, said that they would 
be neutral, but would do whatever the rest of the 
Italiots should decide. The Athenians now con- 
sidered what would be the best course to take with 
reference to affairs in Sicily ; and at the same time 

' c/. ch. XXX i. 1. 

* (/. Strabo vi. 257 o, Krltr^a iffr\ rh 'Pi'}yiov XaXKi^fMV. 

263 



/ 9 



THUCYDIDES 

ttXovv vav^ ix rrj^ ^Frfianj^ afia 7rpo<ri/j,€POV, fiov- 
\6fievoi elhevai irepl r&v 'XprffidrfDv el earcv a 
eXeyop iv ral^ ^KOrjvai,^ oi ayyeXoi, 

XLV. Tor? Se 'ZvpaKoaioif; ev Tovrtp iroXku- 
ypdev T€ rjSr) koI Atto twv KaraaKOTroDV aaf^ri 
rjyyiWero oti iv ^PtfyLfji) at vrjif; elai, xal 019 €7ri 
TOVTOL^ irapeatcevd^ovTO irdaij tjj yv<o firj xai 
oitKeru rftridTOVv, KaX e? t€ tov^ 'StiKekov^ irepi- 
iire/JLTTOv, evOa fiev <f>v\aKa^, irpo^ Se tov^ irpea- 
ySe*?, Kcu €9 ra TrepnroKia ra iv rfj %ci/5a ^povpa^ 
iacfcop^^ov, rd re iv ry iroXei onXayv i^erdaei xal 
ifnTcov icTKOTTOvv el ivTeXrj iari, KaX rSXKa a>9 
iirX rax^l TroXifKjo xaX oaov oi irapovri xaffC- 

(TTaVTO. 

XLVI. At S' i/c T^9 'E>y€(rT?;9 rpel^ V7J€<; ai 
irpoTrXoi irapayiyvovrai rol^ ^Adrjvaioi^ €9 to 
'P'^yiov, ayyeWovaai oti ToXXa pev ovk ecTi 
')(pripxLTa h viria'XpVTO, TptdxavTa Se ToKavTa 

2 p,6va ^alv€TaL, /caX oi (TTpaTrjyoX evdv^ iv ddvpia 
ffcrav OTL avTOif; tovto t€ irp&Tov dvTe/ceKpovxei 
KaX oi 'Prjylvoi ovk ideXrjaavTe^ ^varpaTevetv, 
P&9 TTp&TOv fjp^avTO TTeideLV KaX cIko^ ffv pAXiara, 
AcovtIvcov t€ ^vyyevel^ ovTa^ KaX a-<f>Laiv aleX €7r*- 
TTjSeiov^, KaX T(p pev.^LKia irpoahe'XPP'ivcp ^v to, 
irapa t&v ^EyeffTaicov, Totv- Bk eTepoLv koX dXoyoo-- 

3 T€pa, oi Be *Erf€(TTaloL ToiovBe tl i^ere^ija-avTo 
Tore 0T€ oi TrpcjToc Trpiafiet^ tcov ^AOrjvaLcov ^X9ov 
264 




BOOK VI. xLiv. 4 XLVi. 3 

they were awaiting the arrival from Egesta of the 
ships that had been sent ahead^ wishing to know 
about the money, whether there actually was what 
the messengers had reported at Athens. 

XLV. Meanwhile, through spies, as well as from 
many other sources, positive information was already 
coming in to the Syracusans that the Athenian fleet 
was at Rhegium ; and under these conditions they 
began to make preparations with all zeal, and were 
no longer incredulous. They sent around also to 
the Sicels, to some places guards, to others envoys ; 
they brought garrisons into the forts in the outlying 
districts ; as to affairs in the city, they made an in- 
spection of arms and of horses, to see whether 
everything was up to full strength ; and all other 
matters they were arranging with a view to a war 
that was imminent and all but upon them. 

XLVI. The three ships that had gone ahead to 
Egesta met the Athenians at Rhegium, announcing 
that the rest of the money which the Egestaeans 
had promised was not there, but only thirty talents 
were to be found. And the generals were at once 
out of spirits, both because this had turned out con- 
trary at the start, and because the Rhegians, the 
first people whom they had tried to persuade to join 
the expedition and with whom it was most likely 
they should succeed, seeing that they were kinsmen 
of the Leontines and always friendly to the Athen- 
ians, refused their consent. Nicias, indeed, was 
expecting this news from the Egestaeans, but for 
the other two it was actually somewhat of a surprise. 
The fact was that the Egestaeans had resorted to 
the following device at the time when the first en- 
voys of ^he Athenians came to them to see about 

265 



THUCYDIDES 

avTot^ €9 Trjv KaTaafcoirrjv t&p xPVH'^t^^* ^9 T€ 
TO ip ^Epv/ci lepov ttj^ ^A^poSiTrjq wyayovre^ 
avToi)^ hrihei^av rh dvadrjfiaTa, (ptaXa^ re 
Kul oivo'XpcL^ fcal OvfiiaTtjpia koL aWrjv Kara- 
afcevTjp oif/c oXiyrfp, a opra dpyvpd iroWo) irXeia) 
Tfjp oyjnp dir 0X^7179 Svpdfiecof; xPV/^^t^^ irapei- 
;^€T0, KoX ISla ^€Pia€t<; 7roiovfjL€POi tojp rpirjpcTCJp 
rd T€ i^ avTr]<; ^Ey€(TT7}<i ifCTTclo/iiaTa xal y^pvad 
Kol apyvpd ^vWi^apre^ xal rd €k t&p iyyi/^ 
TToXecop Kol ^oiPi/ciKCjp fcal 'KXXrjpiBayp airr)- 
(rdfiepoi iaei^epop €9 Ta9 €(TTid(T€t<; ft)9 olfceia 

4 €fca<TTOi, fcal irdpTODP 01)9 iirl to iroXv rol^ avTol^ 
'X^pdyjxipcdP KoX irapraxov ttoWmp (f)at>pofi€P€op 
fji>€yd\r]p TTjp €K7r\rf^ip tol^ ix tS)p rpiTJpcop ^Kdrj- 
paioL^ irapel'xe, /cal d(f>LK6fiepoi 69 Ta9 ^ Pidrjpa^ 

5 hteOporjcrap 0)9 %/0?;/iaTa TroWd tSoiep. kol oi fiev 
avToi T€ d7raTi]0€PT€^ /cal tov<; dWov<; t6t€ irei- 
aaPT€^, iiretSr) hirfKOep X0709 otl oif/c eirj ip rfj 
^Er/eaTTf rd )(^pi]fiaTa, TroXkfjp ttjp curiap el'^op vtto 
T&p aTparicoTcop* 01 Sk a'Tparijyol 7r/309 rd ira- 
popra il3ov\evovTo, 

XLVTI. Kal l^t/ciov /jl€p tjp ypcofirj irXeip inl 
XeXipovPTa 7rd(T7j rfj arpari^, €^' oirep fidXiara 
iirefJi.ipOrjcrap, /cal fjp fiep 7rap€')(^co(Tc XPVI^^T^ 
iraprl t& arparev/jiaTL ^Eyearaloi, irpb^ Tavra 
^ovXeveadai, el Se firj, Tai^ e^rjKOPTa pavaiv, 
oaaairep 'prijcrapTO, d^tovp SiSopai avToif^; Tpo<l>i]v, 
/cal irapafjueipavTaf; XeXiPovpriov^; rj ^ia fj fw/i.- 
fid(T€c BiaXXd^at avTOL^, Kal ovrcoy TrapairXev- 
(TaPTa<i Ta9 aXXa<i 7ro\fA9 /cal i'ni,h€i^apra<; fiev 
TTJP Svpa/xLP T^9 ^AOrjpaicop 7roX€ft)9, irfXcoaaPTa^ 



266 



BOOK VI. xLvi. 3-xLvii. 

the money : they brought them into the temple ot 
Aphrodite at Eryx and showed them the dedicatory 
offerings — bowls, wine-ladles, censers, and not a little 
other table-furniture, which being of silver made, 
though of small value in money, a much greater 
display. And in giving private entertainments for 
the crews of the triremes, they not only collected 
the gold and silver drinking-cups from Egesta itself, 
but borrowed those from the neighbouring cities, 
both Phoenician and Hellenic, and brought them 
each to the banquets as though they were their own. 
And as all used for the most part the same vessels 
and there was a great display of them everywhere, 
it caused great astonishment to the Athenians from 
the triremes, and they on returning to Athens spread 
the report of how much treasure they had seen. And 
these men who had been themselves deceived and 
had at the time persuaded the rest, later, when the 
story got out that the money was not at Egesta, were 
much blamed by the soldiers. The generals, how- 
ever, took counsel in view of the present situation. 

XLVII. It was the judgment of Nicias that they 
should sail with their whole armament against 
Selinus, which was the object for which they had 
chiefly been sent out, and if the Egestaeans should 
furnish money for the whole army, they should then 
determine accordingly ; otherwise, they should de- 
mand that . they give maintenance for sixty ships, 
the number they had asked for, and remaining there 
they should reconcile the Selinuntians to the Egesta- 
eans, either by force or by agreement. This being 
accomplished, the Athenians should sail along by the 
other cities, displaying the power of the city of 
Athens and making manifest their zeal towards their 

267 



THUCYDIDES 

Be TTfv €9 T0V9 <^iXou9 Kol ^vfifjLa')(ov^ wpoffvfuap, 
aTTOTrXelv oixaSe, fjp fi-q n hi oXiyov xai airo tov 
aSo/cqTov ^ Aeovrivov^ oloi re &aiv oiff>€\TJaai ^ 
rStv aXXayv riva iroXjeav irpoaafyarfia^ai,, xaX Trj 
TToXei Bairav&VTa^ ra oiKcia /i^ Kivhvveveiv* 

XL VIII. *A\KifiidSi]^ Se ovK €<f>T) p^^i^oi Toa- 
avTTf Svvdfiei eKirXevaavTa^ aur^p^^ xal airpaK- 
Tov^ aireXjOeiv, aW 69 re ra^ iroXei*; eiriKTj- 
pviceveadai irXijv ^eXivovvro^: Koi ^vpafcovo'&v 
Ta9 iXXa^, xai Treipdaffai xal tov9 ^i/c€Xov<: tov9 
fi€P a<f>iaTdvai diro twi/ ^vpaxoalcov, rov^ Se 
<f)LXov^ TTOieUrOai, Zva alrov koi orpaTiav irape- 
;^a)<7t, irpanov Se TreiOeiv Meaarjviov^ {iv iroptp 
f^ap p^XcaTa xal irpoafioXy elvai avToif^ T/J9 
^i/ceXia^, xal Xifieva koX iif>6pp/riaiv ry arparid 
l/cavwTaTTjv eaea-Oai), irpoaayayop^evov^ Se Ta9 
7ro\€*9, elSoTa^ fi€0* &v Tt9 iroXep^ijaei, ovro)^ t^St) 
Xvpaxovaai^ /cai XeXivovvri iTrix^ipelv, ^v fATj 01 
fjL€v *Fr/€<TTaLOi<; ^vfifiaivcDaiv, oi he Aeovrivov^ 
i&ai /caToiKL^eiv. 

XLIX. Aa/L6a^09 he avriKpv^ e^ j(pr]va4> vXelv 
iirl ^vpa/covaa^ xal irpo^ t§ iroXei ©9 rd^t'O'Ta 
Trjv P'dyjqv iroieio'dai, eao^ en dirapdaKevoi re 
2 etai tcaX jidXiaTa i/CTreirXrjyfjbevoi, to yap tt/oo)- 
Tov irdv (TTpdrevfia heivoraTov elvar fjv he Xpo- 
vLari TTplv €9 oylriv eXOelv, ry yvoofirj dvctOapaovvra^ 
dvdpwirov^ KoX^ T§ o-^ei /caTCuf>pov€iv fidXXov, 

* Kai, Hude reads xav after van Herwerden. 

a6S 



BOOK VI. XLVII.-XLIX. 2 

friends and allies^ and then should sail back home — 
unless perchance they should be able quickly and 
unexpectedly either to aid the Leontines, or to bring 
over some of the other cities — and not imperil the 
safety of the state at the expense of their own 
resources.^ 

XLVIII. Alcibiades insisted that they ought not, 
after sailing out with so great an armament, to go 
back in disgrace without effecting anything; but urged 
rather that they send heralds to the other cities, except 
Selinus and Syracuse, and try to detach some of the 
Sicels from the Syracusans, and to make friends of 
others, in order that these might furnish grain and 
troops, but first of all that they try to persuade the 
Messenians ; for their city, he urged, was most con- 
veniently situated on a line of traffic ^ and at the 
approach to Sicily and would be a harbour and a 
most suitable watch- station for the armament. Then, 
after they had brought over these cities and knew 
with whose assistance they would carry on the war, 
they should proceed to attack Syracuse and Selinus, 
unless the latter came to terms with the Egestaeans, 
and "the former permitted them to restore the 
Leontines. 

XLIX. Lamachus maintained that they ought to 
sail direct for Syracuse and as soon as possible make 
the fight near the city, while the Syracusans were still 
unprepared and their consternation was at its height. 
For every army, he argued, is always most formid- 
able at first, but if it delay before coming into sight, 
men recover their spirit and even at the sight of it 
are more inclined to despise than to fear it. But 



* As opposed to those of the Egestaeans. 

^ iv •k6p<p is used of the position of Corinth, i. cxx. 2. 



269 



THUCYDIDES 

al(f>vLStoi Se rjv TTpoaTreaaxriv, eiw? ert TrepiBeel^ 
TTpoaSexovTai, fJuaXiar &v (T<f)€i<; TrepiyeviaOai koI 
Kara Trdvra av airov^ eK^o^rfaai, t§ re oyjrei 
{irXelaToi jap av vvv <f>avrivai,) xal rfj irpoaSoKLa 
&v ireiaovrai, /jLaXiara S* &v t£ airriKa kipSvvo) 

3 Ti)? fidxv^' et/co9 Se elvai Kal iv roh dypoi^ 
iroWoif^ airo\r]<^6rjvaL e^(o Bid to dTrtarelv a<l>a^ 
M'V V^^^^f ^^* iafcojjLc^ofiivayv aifTa>v rifv arpaTidv 
ovK diroprjaeLv xPVf^drayv, fjv irpo^ ry iroXei 
Kparovaa tcade^r^raL, tou? re dXKov^ St/^eXtcara? 
oi;Tft)9 fihr) fidWov Kal €K€LVoi^ ov ^vfifiaxv^cip 
Kal acftiai Trpoaievai Kal ov hiafieSXrjdeiv irepi- 

4 (TKOTTovvTa^ OTTOTepoi Kparrj(Tov(Tiv, vavaraOpjov Se 
iTTavaxfoprjaavra^ Kal iffyopfirjaiv ra ^ Meyapa 
e^T] XPV^^^ iroistadai, & ^v iprjfia, aTre^oi/ra 
XvpoKovaayv ovre ir\ovv iroXvv ovre 6S6v» 

L. AdfjLa'Xp^ fiev ravra eiirwy ofiax; irpoaWeTO 
avTo^ rfi ^ AXKi^cdSov yvcofirj. fierd oi tovto 
* AXKL^LaSrjf; rfi avTOV vql SiarrXevtra^ 69 Mecr- 
<Tt}vr]v Kal \6yov<; 7roir)(rd/JL€VO^ irepl ^vfifiax^cL^ 
7rpo9 avTov<;, a)9 ovk eireiOev, dX>C direKpivavTO 
irokei fjbkv av oif Si^aadai, dyopdv S* e^ao irapi^eiv, 

2 dfreTrXeL 69 to 'Vrjyiov. Kal eidv^ ^vfi7rXr)pa>a'av' 
T€9 k^rjKOvra vav<; ck iraawv ol aTparrjyol Kal rd 
iiriTijBeia Xa^6vT€<: irapeirXeov €9 Nafoz/, rrjv 
aX\7}v arpartdv iv 'Prjyitp KaraTuirovTe^ Kal eva 

3 {r(f>a>v avT&v. Na^t6)i/ Se Sc^afieveov ttj iroXei 
irapiirXeov 69 KaTai/T/i/. Kal w aifToif<; ol Kara- 



^ i<p6pfiriffiv rd, Boehme's correction for 4<ftopfiri$4vras of the 
M8S. Schaefer's conjecture, 4(f>opfjn(r64v7asy gives the same 
Reuse. 

270 



BOOK VI. xLix. 2-L. 3 

if it attack suddenly^ while the enemy are still in 
terror of its comings it will have the best chance for 
victory and in every way will strike fear into them, 
both by the sight of it — for at this moment it would 
appear most numerous — and by the expectation of 
the fate in store for them, but most of all by the 
immediate peril of the battle. And, he added, pro- 
balily many people have been left behind on their 
farms outside the city on account of the disbelief 
that the Athenians will come, and while they are 
bringing in their property the army will not lack 
supplies, if it once controls the land and invests the 
city. And as for the rest of the Siceliots, if we follow 
this course they will at once be more likely, not to 
make an alliance with the enemy, but to come over 
to us, and not to make delays, looking about to 
see which side will be the stronger. And he said, 
finally, that they should return and make a naval 
base and a watch-station at Megara, since it was 
uninhabited, and not far from Syracuse either by 
sea or by land. 

L. Lamachus, though speaking to this effect, 
nevertheless gave his support to the opinion of 
Alcibiades. After this Alcibiades sailed in his own 
ship over to Messene and made proposals to the 
Messenians for an alliance ; but as they could not be 
persuaded, answering that they would not receive him 
within the city, but would furnish a market outside, 
he sailed back to Rhegium. Then the generals 
straightway manned sixty ships out of their whole 
number, and taking provisions sailed along the coast to 
Naxos, leaving at Rhegium the rest of the army and 
one of the generals. The Naxians received them into 
their city, and they sailed on then to Catana. When 

271 



THUCYDIDES 

pcuoi ovK ihexpvro (ivrfaav yap avroffi avSpe^ ra 
^vpaKoaUjv fiovXofLevoi), ixofua'Orfaav iiri top 
Tfipiav irorafiov, xal avXio'dfievoi Tp varcpaia 
iirX XvpaKovaa*; eirXeov, iirl Kepw^ exppre^ ra^^ 

4 aXXa9 vav^' Sexa Se r&v ve&v irpoimep.'^av 69 
Tov pJ^av Xifieva irXevaai re koI /carao'Khp'aa'daL 
el Ti vavTUcov iari KoffeiKKvapepov, koX /crfpv^ai 
airo T&v vemv irpoairkevaavra^ ori ^Adrjvaioi 
rjKOvai Aeovrivow; 69 ri^v eavrSiv KaroiKiovvre^ 
Kara ^vp,p£L')(lav koX ^vyjeveiav tov9 oiv ovra^ 
iv ^vpaKOvaai<; Aeovrivmp g>^ irapa ifUXov^ xal 

6 eifepyira^ *A0vjvaiov<; dBcm^ airievcu, eireX S' e/ciy- 
pv^f] icaX icaT€<rK€ylravTO rrjv re irokiv kcu tou9 
\ip,€pa<; Kal ra irepX rr^p )((ipap, ef ^9 avToi^ 
oppMp^oi,^ TToKep'Tfrea ^p, aireirXevaap iraXiv €9 
^jCLrdvqp, 

LI. Kai eKKX/qaia^ yevopAptf^ rrjv p^p arpanap 
ov/c iSixoPTO ol K^arapaloi, tov9 Se aTparrjyov^ 
iaeXOopra^ i/ceXevop, e? ri fiovXoPTai^ eiirelp, koI 
XiyopTo^ Tov ^AXKij3id8ov Kal rmp ip t^ iroXet 
7r/)09 TTfP iKKXTjalap T€Tpap,p,ipa)p ol aTpaTi&rai 
TTvXiBa Tipa iptpKoBopTfpApffP KaK&^ eXaOop See- 

2 XoPTc^ Kal eaeXdopre^ '^yopa^op.^ r&p Se Kara- 
paiKop ol p.€P Tct T&p Xvpaxoaitap Spopovpref; (09 
elSop TO arpdrevpa cpBop, €v0if<: irepioeel^ yepop^epoi 
vire^riXdop ov iroXXoi tip6^, ol Sk aXXoi iy^(f>L- 
aapTo T€ ^vp.pxi'xiap T0i9 ^AOrjpaioi^; Kal to dXXo 

3 arpdrevpu eKcXeuop ck ^Prjyiov xopi^etp, p>€Ta Se 
TOVTo TrXeva-apTe^ ol ^Adrjpaloi €9 to 'Pijyiop, irday 

* is rriif rr6\iVf after i]y6pa(ov in the MSS., deleted by van 
Herwerden. 

272 



BOOK VI. L. 3-Li. 3 

the Catanaeans would not receive them — for there 
were in that place men who favoured the cause of the 
Sjnracusans — they moved on to the river Terias, and 
having bivouacked there sailed next day to Sjnracuse 
with all their ships in single file^ except ten^ for this 
number they had sent forward to sail into the Great 
^m^rbour and observe whether any fleet was launched. 
After 3r»iling up the commanders of these were to 
proclaim from the ships that the Athenians had come 
to reinstate the Leontines in their own country on 
the ground of alliance and kinship ; any Leontines 
therefore! who were in Sjnracuse should come over 
without fear to the Athenians as friends and bene- 
factors. When this proclamation had been made 
and they had observed the city and the harbours and 
the features of the country which they would have 
to make their base for warlike operations, they sailed 
back to Catana. 

LI. An assembly being held there, the Catanaeans 
would not receive the army but bade the generals 
come in and say what they wanted. While, then, 
Alcibiades was speaking, and the attention of the 
people in the city was wholly directed to the assembly, 
the soldiers, breaking unobserved through a postern- 
gate that had been badly built into the wall, entered 
and were walking about in the market-place. Those 
Catanaeans who were partisans of the Syracusans, 
seeing the soldiers inside, at once became much 
frightened and slipped away, not in any large numbers ; 
the others voted alliance with the Athenians and 
bade them bring the rest of their army from Rhegium. 
After this the Athenians sailed back to Rhegium, 
then putting out from there with their whole 



273 

VOL. III. T 



THUCYDIDES 

^Brj TTJ arpaTia apavre^ e? rifv K^aravrfp, eTreiBi] 
a<f>LKOVTO, KaTeafcevd^ovTO to aTpaTOireSov. 

LII. ^EarfyyeWcTO Se avTOL<; etc re KafJLapLvr)<; 
w, €1 €\j0oi€v, irpoa'XJ^polev av koX on ^vpaxoaioL 
trXrjpovai vavriKOV, airdari ovv ry (TTparca 
irapeirXevaav tt/owtoi/ fiev inl XvpaKovaa^;' kol 
<i9 oviev rjvpov vavTtKov 7r\r]povp,evov, irapefco- 
fiL^ovTo avdi<: eVl KafiapLV7)<; xal <7^oj^t€9 €9 top 
alyidkop ijreKTjpvKevovTo, ol S* ovk iSi'^ovro, 
\iyovT€<; a<f>iaL ra opKia elvai fiia vrjl KaraTrXeov- 
TCdV ^AOrjvaicov 8€)(€<Tdai, fjv /jlt) avrol Trkeiov^ 
2 fieTaTrifiiraxriv. airpaKToi he yevofjievoL aTreTrXeov 
Kol diTo^dvT€^ Kara ri t% ^vpaKoaia^ KaX 
dpirayrjv Troirja-dfiepoi xal rtov XvpaKoaicov iinrecov 
^O7)07j(7dvT(ov fcal Tcov ylriXcov Tiva<: iatcehaafxivov^ 
Sia(f)0€LpdvTcov direKOfiLaOrjaap 69 HardvTjv. 

LIII. Kat KaTd\afi0dvov(Ti t?;!/ ^dkafiiviap 
vaifv €K T(op *A0i]V(ov ijKOvaav iiri re ^A\fcifiidS7)v, 
0)9 /ce\€vaovTa<; diroTrXeLv €9 diroXoyiav &v r) 
770X^9 evetcdXei, KaX iir* a\Xov<; rivas rSyv arpa- 

Tl(OT&V, T&P fieV^ IJL€T UVTOV p,€firfVV/jieV€OV 7r€pl 

T&v fivarijpveov a)9 dae^ovvroav, rcov Sk/cal irepX 
2 Tcov 'EpfMcop, oi yctp ^ AOrjpoioi, iveihr] t) arpaTia 
dTreirXevaep, ovSep fjaaop ^rirrjaip iiroLOVPTO r&v 
irepX ra fivari^pia KaX t&p irepX tou9 ^Epfjua^ 
SpaaffePTcop, KaX ov BoKifid^ovre^ tov<; /JLrjPvrd^, 

^ fx^v added by Hude. 




BOOK VI. LI. 3-Liii. 2 

armament for Catana^ on their arrival they set about 
arranging their camp. 

LII. Meanwhile news came from Camarina that 
if the Athenians would go thither the Camarinaeans 
would join them^ and also that the Syracusans were 
manning a fleet. Accordingly they proceeded with 
their whole army along the coasts first to Syracuse ; 
and when they found no fleet was being manned^ they 
again continued along the coast t6 Camarina and 
putting to shore sent forward a herald. The 
Camarinaeans, however, would not receive them, 
saying that the terms of their oath were to receive 
the Athenians only if they put in with a single 
ship, unless they themselves sent for more. So the 
Athenians sailed away without accomplishing any- 
thing ; and after landing at a point in Syracusan 
territory and making raids, when the Syracusan 
cavalry had come to the rescue and killed some of 
their light-arme4 troops that were straggling they 
went back to Catana. 

LIII. There they found that the galley Salaminia^ 
had come from Athens for Alcibiades — to order him 
to come home and make his defence against the 
charges which the city was bringing — and for certain 
of the soldiers also, some of them having been 
denounced with him as guilty of profanation with 
regard to the mysteries, and some also with regard 
to the Hermae. For after the armament sailed, the 
Athenians had been pursuing with no less zeal than 
before their investigation of what had been done in 
the matter of the mysteries as well as the Hermae ; 
and as they did not test the witnesses, but in their 

^ One of the two swift Athenian state triremes kept always 
manned ready for extraordinary occasions and purposes. 

275 
T 2 



THUCYDIDES 

d\X^ irdvTa inroTrrtof; airoSexofievoi, Sia irovrfp&v 
avdptOTTfov iriaTLV irdvv ^prfcroif^ tS)v noXirafv 
^uWafifidpovre^ fcariBovv, ;^/)»7<7t^tciT6/ooi/ rjr^ov- 
fievoi elvai ^aaaviarai, ro irpay/ui kuI evpelv fj Sia 
p^rjwrov TTovripLav riva koX ')(pr}<TTOV hoKovvra 
3 elvai alriajBivra dveXeyKTOP huiff^vyelv. iTriorrd' 
p,€vo<; yap 6 Sr]jjLo<; dxoy Tr^v Heiaio'rpdTov xal t&v 
TTcUScov rvpavvLha )^aXeTrtfv reKevrwaav yevo- 
fievTfv Koi Trpoaeri ovS* u^' eavr&v teal ^ApfioBiov 
fcaraXvOeiaav, aXX' vtto t&v AaxeSaifiovitov, 
€^o^€LTO alel /cal irdvTa uttottto)? iXdfifiavev. 

JAY, To yap * ApiaToyeiTovo^; xal ^ApfioSCov 
ToXp^ijfjLa Bi* ipcDTiK^p ^vvTVX^f^v iirex^iprfit}, ^v 
t"7ft) eni wXeov Sirfyrfad/ievo^; dtro^avS} ovt€ tou9 
aX\ov<; ovT€ avroh^ ^AOr)vaiov^ irepX t&v a<p€- 
ripwv Tvpdvvoav ovSe irepX rov yevofievov dfcptjSe^ 

2 oifBep \eyovTa<;, HeiaiaTpdrov yap yrjpaiov reXeu- 
TTjaavro^ iv ry TvpavvCBi oifX ^I'mrapxp^, &<rjr€p 
01 TToXXoi oiovTai, dWd 'iTnria^ irpea^vTaro^ &v 
eaxc Ti}v dp^iiv- yevop,€vov Be 'App^Biov &pa 
rfKiKia^ Xapnrpov ^ ApiaToyelroav, dprjp twv daT&v, 

3 fieao^ TTokLTq^, ipaarij^ &v elxev avrov, iretpaOeX^ 
Be 6 ^ApfwBio^ viro ^Imrdpxov tov Heiaiarpdrov 
Kol ov ireiaOeX^ Kara^yopevei r^ ^Apia-royeirovL. 6 
Be ip(OTtK&^ TrepiaXyrjaa^ KaX <f>ofir]0€X<; rrjv 
^Iinrdpxov Bvvap^tv fit) /Sia irpoaaydyrirat avTov^ 
iirifiovXevet €v0v<; (»9 diro rrj^ virapxpwtj^ d^ito- 

4 0*60)9 KardXyaiv rfj TvpawiBi* kol iv tqi/tw d 
276 



BOOK VI. Liii. 2-Liv. 4 

state of suspicion accepted everything, on the credit 
of bad men they arrested and threw into prison very 
excellent citizens, thinking it more expedient to sift 
the matter to the bottom and find out the truth, 
than that anybody, even one reputed to be good 
and accused only through the villainy of an informer, 
should escape without close investigation. For the 
people, knowing by tradition that the tyranny of 
Peisistratus and his sons had become galling at the 
last, and moreover had been put down, not by them- 
selves and Harmodius, but by the Lacedaemonians,^ 
were in constant fear and regarded everything 
with suspicion. 

LIV. Now the daring deed of Aristogeiton - and 
Harmodius was undertaken on account of a love 
affair, and by relating this at some length I shall prove 
that neither the Hellenes at large nor even the 
Athenians themselves give an accurate account about 
their own tyrants or about this incident. For when 
Peisistratus died,^as an old man, in possession of the 
tyranny, it was not Hipparchus, as most suppose, 
but Hippias, as eldest son, that succeeded to the 
sovereignty. And Harmodius, being then in the 
flower of youthful beauty, had as his lover Aristo- 
geiton, a citizen of the middle class. An attempt to 
seduce him having been made by Hipparchus son 
of Peisistratus without success, Harmodius denounced 
him to Aristogeiton. And he, lover-like, deeply 
resented it, and fearing the power of Hipparchus, 
lest he might take Harmodius by force, at once 
plotted, with such influence as he possessed, to 
overthrow the tyranny. Meanwhile Hipparchus, 

* \ .Under Cleomenes, .510 b. c. 

^ 514 B.C. * Probably 627 B.C. 

277 



THUCYDIDES 

''iTnrapxo^ ft>9 avOi<; ireipda-a^ ovSev fiaXKov eiretOe 
TOP 'Ap/jLoSiov, /3laiov fiev ovSev iffovXero Spdv, iv 
rpoTTG) ^ Se TLvi a^avel w ov Sia tovto Si) ttape- 

5 (T/cevd^CTo irpoirrfKaKi&v avrov, ovSe yap riji/ 
aXXrjv dpxv^ iirax^V^ V^ €9 tov<; ttoXXoiJv, aXV 
av€iri(f>06v(o^ /carecTTijaaTO' xal iireTrihevaav iirX 
irXelarTov Btf Tvpawoi ovroi dpeTtjv koX ^vpeatv, 
Koi ^Adrjvaiov^ e lfcocr rTfv fiovov irpaaaofievoi t&v 
yiyi^ofievcov Ti]P t€ irokiv avT&v ^aXw? SceKoafjir)- 
aav fcal tou? iroXefiov^ Sii(f>€pov xai €9 ra iepa 

6 €0vov. ra Se aXXa avrr) r) iroXi^ toa9 irpXv K€ipAvoi<i 
v6fioL<; ixp^TO, TrXfjv KaO oaov aieL rtva iirepAXovro 
(Tffy&v avTcJv iv rat? dp^O'^^ elvai, KaX aXXoi re 
avTcbv rjp^av rrjv iviavaiov ^ KdrjvaLoi^ ^PXV^ '^^^ 
UeKrlarpaTOf; 6 ^IttttLov rod rvpavvevaavro^ vlo^, 
Tov TrdTTTTov €%fi)i' Tovvofia, 09 Tojv ScoScKa 0€&V 
^ayfjLOP TOV iv TJj dyopa apx^^ dviOrfKe xal tov 

7 TOV 'AttoWoji/o? iv Uvdiov. koX t& jxev iv ttj 
dyopa Trpo<ToiKoSo/jL7]aa<; varepov 6 Sijfw^ ^AOt)- 
vaicov fJLel^ov firJK0<;'^ 'q<f>dvL(T€ T0V7riypap,fia' tov 
Se iv Hvdiov €Tt KaX vvv SrjXov iaTiv dfivSpotf; 
ypdfjLfjLao'c Xeyov raSe* 

fivrj/ia ToS' ^9 dpx^^ Tleia-iaTpaTOf; ^linriov vio^ 
df]K€v ^A7r6XXa)vo^ UvOiov iv TCfievei, 

LV. "Oxi Se irpea^vTaTo^ &v 'Yinria^ ^p^eVfClBa)^ 
fiev fcaX aKofj aKpt^eaTcpov dXKoiv laxvpi^ofiai, 

^ Levesque's correction for rJirtp of the MSS. 

'^ rod fiufiov, in the MSS. after firjKoSy deleted by Kriiger. 

^ This seems to point to a near relationship of the his- 
with the family of the Peisistratidae, so that more 




BOOK VI. Liv. 4-Lv. I 

having in a second attempt met with no better 
success in persuading Harmodius^ although he had 
no intention of offering violence, yet laid a plan to 
insult him in some covert way, as though it were not 
for this reason. For he did not generally so exercise 
his authority as to be oppressive to the mass of the 
people, but maintained it without giving offence. 
And indeed the Peisistratidae carried the practice 
of virtue and discretion to a very high degree, 
considering that they were tyrants, and although 
they exacted from the Athenians only five per cent, 
of their incomes, not only had they embellished their 
city, but they also carried on its wars and provided 
sacrifices for the temples. In other respects the city 
itself enjoyed the laws before established, except in 
so far that the tyrants took precaution that one of 
their own family should always be in office. Amongst 
others of them who held the annual archonship at 
Athens was Peisistratus, a son of the Hippias who 
had been tyrant. He was named after his grand- 
father and, when he was archon, dedicated the altar 
of the twelve gods in the Agora and that of Apollo 
in the Pythian precinct. The people of Athens 
afterwards, in extending the length of the altar in 
the Agora, effaced the inscription ; but that on the 
altar of the Pythian Apollo can still be seen in in- 
distinct letters, reading as follows : 

^^This memorial of his office Peisistratus son of 
Hippias 
Set up in the precinct of Pythian Apollo." 

LV. That it was Hippias who, as eldest son, suc- 
ceeded to the sovereignty I positively affirm because I 
know it even by tradition more accurately than others,^ 

exact knowledge had come to him by word of mouth («oi 
aKo^) ; cf. Marcellinua, § 18, and Schol. on i. xx. 2. 

279 



THUCYDIDES 

ypoitf S' av tk xai ain& tovtw' ircuZe^ yap avrq^ 
fwvov <f>aivovTai rSnf yvr^trledv oBcXxfmv yeuofievoi, 
m o T€ fitufw trfffiaivei /caX 17 arijXrf irepX t^9 
rSnf rvpdwmv aSi/cia^, 17 iv rfj *A0r)V€U<ov axpo- 
iroXei aTodeura, ev y ^etraaXou fJLCv ovB 'Itt- 
'jrdpxpv ovSel^ jral^ yiypairrai, 'linrLov Se irevre, 
ot auT& ifc ^vpaivri^ t% KaXXtot; rov ^Tirepo- 
^lSov ffvyarpo*: iyevovTO' €lic6<: yap rjv tov 

2 Trpeo'^VTarov irp&Tov yrjfiai. xal iv ry avT'p 
(TT'qXrf irpSno^ y&^fpairrai pj^ra rov irarepa^ ovSe 
TOVTo aireiKOTG)^ Sia to irpea^eveiv re air* axfTov 

3 KaX Tvpawevaai. ov p>rjv ouS* av xaracr^clv fiot 
SoKci irore ^ImrLa^ to irapaxpripa paSio)^ t7)v 
rvpawiSa, el '^lirirapxo^ pev iv ry dp'^rj &v dnre- 
Oavev, avT09 ^6 avBr)p^pov KadiuTaro* aXKa Sia 
TO TTpoTepov ^vvr)0€<; to?9 pev 7ro7uTai<; ^o^epov, 
€9 hi T0V9 iiTLKOvpov^ aKpi^€<;, TTOXX^ T^ irepiovTL 
TOV aa^aXov^ KaTeKpa/rqae, koL ou^ w aie\<f>6^ 
veoDTCpo^ &v rjiroprfaev, iv cS ov irpoTCpov ^vve')(&<: 

4 d)pi\7]X€t Tjj dp')(^, 'Iinrdp^a) Se ^vvejSrj tov ird- 
Oov^ Trj Sva-TVX^O' ovopxiadevTa xal rffv So^av t^9 
Tvpavviho^ €9 TCL ejreiTa irpoaXa^elv, 

LVI. ^ov S' oiv ^AppoSiov dirapvrjOevra ttjv 
'Treipaaiv, wairep Sievoelro, irpovTnjXd/ciaev dSeX- 
<f>i]v ycLp avTov Kop'qv iirayyeiXavTe^ rjKeiv Kavovv 
oXaovaav iv iropirfj Ttvt, aTnJkaaav \iyovTeq ovSe 
2 ifrayyeTXai Tr}v dpxv^ StA to prj d^iav elvai, %a\€- 
7rfi9 Be iveyKovTO^ tov 'AppoSlov iroWat St} pboKKov 
280 



BOOK VI. LV. I-LVI. 2 

and anyone might be convinced of it also by this simple 
fact — he alone of the legitimate brothers appears to 
have had children^ as not only the altar signifies^ but 
also the column commemorating the wrong-doing of 
the tjrrants that was' set up on the acropolis of Athens, 
on which no child of Thessalus or of Hipparchus is 
inscribed, but of Hippias five, who were borne to him 
by Myrrhine daughter of Callias son of Hyperochi- 
das ; for it was natural for the eldest to marry first. 
And on this same column his name is written first 
after his father's, this also not unnaturally, as he was 
the eldest after him and had been tyrant. Nor yet 
again would Hippias, as it seems to me, have obtained 
the tyranny at once with ease, if Hipparchus had been 
in power when killed, and had had to establish him- 
self therein on the same day. Nay, it was owing to 
the habitual fear which before that he had inspired 
in the citizens, and the strict discipline he had main- 
tained in th6 bodyguard, that he got the upper hand 
with superabundant security and was at no loss, as a 
younger brother would have been, since in that case 
he would not previously have been regularly used to 
power. Hipparchus, however, as it fell out, having 
become famous by his tragic fate, obtained in after- 
time the credit also of having been tyrant. 

LVI. So, then, when Harmodius had repulsed his 
suit, Hipparchus insulted him, as he intended. For 
after summoning a maiden-sister* of his to serve as a 
basket-bearer ^ in some procession, they rejected her, 
declaring they had never summoned her at all, because 
she was unworthy. As Harmodius was indignant at 

^ This service of carrying at festivals baskets containing 
the requisites for religious ceremonies was a great distinction, 
so that the rejection of the maiden was regarded as a bitter 
insult to the family. 

281 



THUCYDIDES 

Si' ixelvov KoX 6 ^ApKTTojeLrwv trapto^upero. xal 

avrol^ ra fuv SXKa irph^ rov^ ^vv€7ri0i]aofi€pov<; 

Tw epyo) iTrerrpa/CTo, 'jrepii/ievov Se Havadijvcua ra 

fieydXa, iv y fiovov '^fiipa oix VTranrov eyiyvero iv 

o7rXot9 T&v iroXiT&v roif^ rifv irop/rrifv irefju^vra^ 

/ aJdpoov^ f^eviaOar xal eSei ap^ai pJkv airovf;, ^we^ 

y im^iMveLv Se €v0v<; ra irpo^ tow Sopv<f>6pov<; exei- 

3 vov<:, rjaav Se ov iroXXoi oi ^ wofitofLoseoTes aaifya- 

Xeia^ €v€fca' TjXiri^ov yap xai tov^ p,rf irpoei- 

SoTa^, el Kol oiroaoLovv roXfi^aeiav, i/c rov 

vapaxp^iP^f cxovto.^ ye oirXa, iOeXijaeiv a<f>a^ 

aifToif^ ^vveXevOepovv, 

LVII. Kal CO? iirrjKOev 17 ioprr], 'iTnrta? p-ev 
€^a> iv T^ ^epapjeiK^ KoXovpevtp pjera r&v So- 
pv^oponv SceKocpec w Ixaara ixPV^ '^V^ iropiTrrj^ 
Trpolivar 6 Se ' AppoSio^ Koi o ^ApiaToyeirayv 
exoPT€^ tjStj Ta i yxeipi SLa e? to epyov irpo^aav. 

2 Kal w elSop Tipa rSiv ^vvtopLor&v a<f>L(7i SiaXeyo- 
pevov olKeiiOf; t& 'iTTTrta {^v Se Trdaiv einrpoaoSo^ 
6 'iTTTTta?), eSeiaav xal ivopiaav pL^pLaffvmrdai re 

3 Kal o<TOv ovK fih-q ^vXXrj^ffTjaeadai. rov Xvtttj- 
aavra ovv a(j>d^ /cat Bi ovirep irdina i/civhvvevov 
i^ovXovTO irporepoVy el hvvaivro, nrpoTipLoyp-q- 
aaaOai, koI &a7r€p €Z%oi/ Sypprjaav ea-co r&v 
irvXcjv, fcal irepiejvxop rw '{inrdpx(p irapa to 
AecoKopeiov KaXov pevov. ev6v^ S'^ dTrepLaKeirrto^ 
Trpo<TiTea6vre<; koX ft>9 civ pdXiara Si ooyrj^;, 6 piv 

^ f added by Pontus. 



\Z 



r 



\ 

\ 
V 



BOOK VI. Lvi. 2-Lvii. 3 

this^ Aristogeiton for his sake was far more exasperated. 
And now the details had been arranged by them with 
those who were to take part in the execution of their 
scheme ; but they were waiting for the great Pana- 
thenaea^ for on that day only it excited no suspicion for 
the citizens who were to take part in the procession 
to be assembled in arms. They were themselves to 
begin the attack^ but the others were to join them at 
once in dealing with the bodyguard. The conspirators 
were not many, for better security ; for they hoped 
that^ if ever so few made the bold attempt, at once 
even those who were not before privy to it, having 
arms in their hands, would be inclined to bear a part 
in winning their own freedom. 

LVI I. And when the festival came on, Hippias 
with his bodyguard was outside the walls, in the 
place called the Cerameicus, arranging the order in 
which the several parts of the procession were to go 
forward ; and Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who 
were ready with their daggers, stepped forward to 
put their scheme in effect. But when they saw one 
of their accomplices talking familiarly with Hippias, 
who was accessible to all, they took fright, thinking 
that they had been informed upon and would in 
a moment be arrested. So wishing first to take 
vengeance, if they could, upon the one who had 
aggrieved them and because of whom they were 
risking all, they rushed, just as they were, within 
the gates and came upon Hipparchus at the place 
called Leocorium.^ And at once falling upon him 
recklessly and as men will in extreme wrath, the one 

^ The sanctuary of the daughters of Leos, an ancient Attic 
king, who in a famine were sacrificed for the state. It was 
iu the Inner Cerameicus, near the temple of Apollo Patrons. 

283 



THUCYDIDES 

eptDTUCTf^, 6 Be vfipuTfievo^, erirmov Kai airoKTeL- 
4 vovaiv avTov. xal 6 fiev tou9 8opvif}6pov^ to 
avTLKa SuL^euyei, 6 ^ApioToyeCTtov, ^vvSpafiovro*; 
Tov o'^Xov, KOI voTcpov Xi^^^ei? ov paSLG><: hierWr)' 
*Apfi6Sio<; Be avTov irapa^^prjfia airoWvrcu, 

LVIII. ^AyyeXffipTo^ Be 'linria 69 tov K^epa- 
fieiKov, ovK €7ri to yevofievov aXX iirl tov^ 
irofiirea^ tou9 oirXiTa^i irpoTepov rj alaBeadai 
airrov^ airfodev oi/ra?, ev0if<; i^^wprjae, xal aBi]X(o<i 
ry o-^ei irXaadfietfO^: irpb^ ttjv ^vfi<f>opap exe- 
Xevaev avrov^, Bei^a^ ri •)(G)piov, direXOeiv e? 
2 avTo avev Toav OTrXmv. xal oi fiev airej^dtpffa'av 
oiofievoi tl ipelv avTov, 6 Se TOt9 eiriKovpoi^ 
^pdaa^ ra oirKa v7ro\aj3e2v i^eXeyero ev0v<; 0&9 
€7rrjTidTO Kol et Ti9 rjvpiOi] eyyeiplZiov e^tov 
fierd yap dairiZo^ kcu BopaTo*; elfodetrav ra? 
TTOfiira^i iroieiv, 

LIX. ToiovTG) fiev rpom^ Bi epcoTiKrjv Xinrrjv 
rj T€ dp)(7f T^9 iTTifiovXrjf; koI rf oKoyiaTO^ 
ToXfia ifc TOV .Trapwxprjfia irepiBeovf; 'ApjjLoBCay 

2 KoX ^ ApLaToyeiTovL eyevcTo. toI^ 8' ^A6r)vaLoL^ 
')(aKeiT(oTepa fieTa tovto r) TvpavvX^ KaTecTrj, 
fcal o 'I7r7rta9 Bid <j>6j3ov tjBt] fidXXov &v t&v 

T€ TToXlT&P 7r0\X0U9 €KT€LVe KOI TTpO^ TO, 

€^o> dfia BceaxoireiTO, et iroOev daif^dXeidv Tiva 

3 optf^ fJLeTa/3o\rj^ yevofievq^ virdp'xpvadv oL 'Itt- 
^okKov yovv TOV Aa/iiyjraKf}vov Tvpdvvov Aiav- 
TiBri T^ TraiBl OvyaTepa iavrov /neTa TavTa 
^ApX^BiKi^v, ^AOrjvalo^ ojv Aa/Myfra/cijv^, eBtoKev, 

284 




BOOK VI. Lvii. 3-Lix. 3 

inflamed by jealousy, the other by insult, they smote 
and slew him. Aristogeiton, indeed, escaped the 
guards for the moment, as the crowd ran together, 
but afterwards was caught and handled in no 
gentle manner ; but Harmodius perished on the 
spot. 

LVII I. When the news was brought to Hippias in 
the Cerameicus, he went at once, not to the scene of 
action, but to the hoplites in the procession, before 
they, ]>eing some distance away, had become aware 
of what had happened, and, disguising his looks so as 
to betray nothing in regard to the calamity, pointed 
to a certain place and ordered them to go thither 
without their arms. So they withdrew, thinking that 
he had something to say to them ; while he, ordering 
the mercenaries to take up the arms of the others, 
immediately picked out those whom he held guilty, 
and anyone besides who was found with a dagger ; 
for it was customary to march in the processions 
armed with shield and spear only. 

LIX. It was in such wise, for an affront in love, 
that the plot of Harmodius and Aristogeiton was 
first conceived and their reckless attempt made 
under the influence of their momentary alarm. After 
this the tyranny became harsher for the Athenians, 
and Hippias, being now in greater apprehension, 
not only put to death many of the citizens, but 
also began to look abroad, to see if in any quarter 
he might find any door of safety open to him in case 
of a revolution. At any rate after this he gave his 
own daughter Archedice in marriage to Aeanitides 
son of Hippocles, tyrant of Lampsacus — an Athenian 
to a Lampsacene ! — perceiving that this family had 



285 



THUCYDIDES 

al(T0av6fi€vof; avTov<; fieya irapa fiaaiKel Aapeitp 
SuvacTdai. KoX avTrj<i crrjfia iv Aafiy^aKcp iarlp 
iirCypafM/Jia e^ov roSe* 

dvSpb^ apiGTevtravTOf; iv ^RWdSi t&v €0' eavrov 
'Ittttlov ^ Ap^feSi/crfv ^Be k€K€v0€ kovc^* 

f) irarpo^ re fcal dvSpo^ dB€\<l>a)v r ovaa Tvpdvva>v 
iraiScov t ovk ijpOrjvovv e? draaOdXirjv. 

4 TVpavv€vaa<: Be errj rpLa 'iTTTTta? €tl ^AdrfvaCaop 
Kol iravtrdeX^ iv ro) rerdprq) viro AaxeBaifiovioDV 
Koi ^AXKfieojviB&v tcou (ftevyovrcov i'X^dopei viro- 
airovBo^ 69 T€ XLyeLOV koI irap AtavTiBrjv €9 
AdfjL'sjrafcov, ifceWev Be w /Saa-tXea Aapelov, odev 
KaX op/KOfievo^ 69 M.apa0&va varepov erei eiKoar^ 
7]Bf} yepcov oSv fierd yirjBwv iarpdrevaev. 

LX. ^riv €vdvfiovfjLevo<; 6 Brjp,o^ 6 t&v ^AOrfvaitov 
Kol fiLfjLVTjaKOfievof; oaa aKofj irepl avT&v ^Triararo, 

%a\€7r09 ^V TOT€ KOL VirOTTTr)^ €9 TOV<: irepl TCJV 

fjLvariK&v TTfv alriav \a /Sovran, fcal iravra ainol^ 
iBo/cei iirl ^vvcofioaia oXiyapx^fcfj koX rvpavvixfj 
2 TreTTpd'^dai. fcal w avr&v Bid to toiovtov opyi^o- 
fjLevfov ttoWoL t€ kol d^ioXoyot dvdptairoL ^Brj iv 
T^ Beo'ficoTrfpLq) rjaav Koi ovk iv iravKrj i(fiaiV€TO, 
dXkd Ka0* rjiiepav iireBiBoaav fiaXKov i^ to 
dypKOTcpov T6 Kal 7r\€toi;9 €Tt ^vWafi/Sdveiv, 
ivTavda dvaireiOeTai el^ t&v BeBcfievcov, oairep 



^ Ascribed to Simonides of Ceos (Aristotle, Rlut, i. 9). 
• 610 B.C. 



286 



BOOK VI. Lix. 3-Lx. 2 

great influence with King Darius. And there is 
at Lampsaeus a monument of her bearing this in- 
scription : ^ 

" This dust covers Archediee daughter of Hippias^ 
Who was foremost in Hellas among the men of his 

time : 
Her father and husband, her brothers and children 

were tyrants, 
Yet was not her mind lifted up to vainglory." 

Hippias, however, after being tyrant for three years 
more at Athens, was then deposed ^ in the fourth 
year by the Lacedaemonians and the exiled Alcmae- 
onidae, and retired under truce to Sigeium, from 
there to Aeantides at Lampsaeus, and thence to the 
court of King Darius ; whence twenty years later, 
being already an old man, he went with the Persians 
on the expedition to Marathon. 

LX. With these events in mind and recalling all 
that they knew of them by report, the Athenian 
people were in an ugly temper at this time and 
suspicious towards those who had incurred blame in 
the matter of the mysteries ; and the whole thing 
seemed to them to have been done in connection 
with a conspiracy that aimed at an oligarchy or a 
tyranny. So when, in consequence of their anger 
on this account, many noteworthy men were already 
imprisoned and there seemed to be no end of the 
matter, but day by day they were growing more savage 
and still more men were being arrested, then at last 
one of the men in confinement,^ the one in fact who 

' The orator Andocides, who gives his account of the 
matter in his speech De Myattriis. The man who persuaded 
him was, according to Andocides, his cousin Charmides ; 
according to Plutarch (Alcih, ii.), it was Timaeus. 

287 



THUCYDIDES 



iBoxei alrKoraro^ elvat, inro r&v ^vvheaficoT&v 
Tivo^ etre apa xal ra ovra fir)pvaai etre xai ov' 
hr d/jL<f)6r€pa yctp elxd^erai, ro Bk aa<f>h ouSei? 
oijT€ t6t€ ovre varepov e%€* elirelv irepl tS>p 

3 SpaadvTcov rb epyov. Xiytov Sk eireiaev avTOV 
tt)9 X/3^5 €i firj KaX BeSpaxev, avrov re aBeiav 
TTOirjadfievov a&frai, koX Ttfv ttoTuv rrj^ irapovat}^ 
VTToyjriaf; iravaar ^e^aioripav yap avT^ a-coTfj- 
piav elvai ofJLoXoyrjO'avTi, yjerr dBeia^ ^ dpvqdevrt 

^ Sict Slktj^ i\J9elv. KoX 6 fjikv avTO^ re fca0* kavrov 

KoX KOT aXXoDV fJLTJVVeC TO T&V '^pfl&V 6 Si BrjfJLO^ 

6 T&V *A0r]vaicov ^ a<rfievo<: Xaficop, 0)9 cSero, to 
aa<f>i^ Kul ScLVOV iroiovp^evoi irpoTepov, el TOU9 
iirt^ovXevovTa^ a(l>&v Tcp irXijdei fiij etaovTai, 
Tov fM€v firjvvTr}v €vOif<; KaX tov^ aWou^ /^er' 
avTov oatov fit) fcaTTjyoprjfcei eXvaap, tov<; Be 
fcaTavTtadevTaf; Kpiaei^i TroirjaavTef; Toif<i fiep 
aTrifCTecvav, oaot ^vve\ri(f>6rja'av, toov Be Bia<j>v- 
yovTcov OdvaTOV tcaTayvovTC^ iTraveiirov dpyvptov 
6 T^ diroKTeivavTi, Kav TovT(p oi fiev naOovTe^ 
aBrjXov fjv el dBiicto^^ eTeTcpxoprjvTO, fi fievTOi, aXKrj 
7roX*9 ev T(p TrapovTi irepi^avm axjyeXrjTO, 

LXI. Tlepl Bk TOV ^AXxt^idBov evayovTcov t&v 
i'xOp&v, oXtrep kcli irpiv etcirXelv avTov eireOevTOy 
XaXenw oi *A07jvaloc iXd/juffavov Kal eTreiBrf to 
T&V 'lEpfJL&v (povTO aa^e^ ex^iv, iroXif Brj fiaXXov 
fcal Td fxvaTixd, &v eiraiTLo^ fjv, ficTd tov avTov 

1 6 rS»v 'Adrjialup Kriiger deletes, followed by Hude. 
288 



BOOK VI. LX. 2-LXI. I 

was regarded as the most guilty^ was persuaded by 
one of his fellow-prisoners to make a confession^ 
which may have been true or not ; for there are 
conjectures both ways, but no one has been able, 
either then or afterwards, to tell the truth with 
reference to those who did the deed. At any rate, 
the other prisoner persuaded this man that, even 
if he had not done the deed, he ought, having first 
secured immunity,^ to save himself and free the state 
from the prevailing suspicion ; for, he said, he had 
a surer chance of saving his life by confessing, with 
the promise of immunity, than by denying the 
charge and undergoing trial. Accordingly he in- 
formed against himself and others in the affair of 
the Hermae; and the people, delighted at getting 
the truth, as they thought, and already making 
much ado that they should not discover those who 
were plotting against the democracy, at once set free 
the informer and with him all the rest whom he had 
not denounced ; but with regard to those who were 
accused they instituted trials and put to death all 
who had been arrested, while on those who had fled 
they passed sentence of death, offering a reward in 
money to anyone who killed them. And in all this 
it was uncertain whether those who suffered had not 
been punished unjustly ; the city at large, however, 
at the time was clearly benefited. 

LXI. With regard to Alcibiades, the Athenians took 
the matter seriously, being urged on by his enemies, 
the men who had attacked him before he sailed. And 
thinking now that they had the truth about the 
Hermae, they were far more convinced that the profa- 
nation of the mysteries also, in which he was implicated, 

^ i.e. promise of a free pardon. 

289 

VOL. III. U 



THUCYDIDES 

\6yov KOi Ttfi ^vvwfioaiiK iiri rat S^fj^ air* 

2 txeipou i&oKCi irpaydrivai. kcu f^dp ri^ koi 
arparia AaiceSaipopuov ov iroXKi} erv^e Kara 
Tov Kaipop TOVTov iv cS vepi ravra iOopvfiovvTo 
p^ixpi laOpjov irpoekBovaa irpo^ BotcuTot^ ri 
irpdaaovre^. iBoKei ovv iKcivov irpd^amo^ kcu 

ov Bo£6>T6>2/ €V€Ka OTTO ^UvO^qfUlTO^ fJK€lV, KCU cl 

fiij €if>0aaap S^ avTol Kara to firjpvfia fi/XXa- 
ffopre^ Toi'9 avipas, irpoBodijpai ap rj iroKi^. kcu 
Tipa piap pvKra koI KaTeSapOop ip STjaeitp t& ip 

3 TTokei ip oirXoi^. oX T€ l^ipoi tov *AXjci^idSov ol 
ip "A/yycA Kara top avrop 'x^popop {nrto'irTevdrjaap 
T(p hrip,<p iirLTideadar xal tov9 ofi'qpov^ r&p 'A/o- 
yCLCOP T0V9 ip Tal<; ptjaoi^ xeifiepov^ ol *Adr)paiot 
Tore TrapiBoaap t£ ^Apyeicov hrjiMtp Sia ravra Sia- 

4 ')(^pria'a(TOat, irapraxoO^v re irepiuarriKei vrroy^La 
€9 rop ^AXKc/SidBrfp. &ar€ j3ov\6p>€poi avrop e? 
KpL(TLP ayayopre^ diroKTelpat, irip^irovavp ovrcj 
rtjp %a\ap,iPiap pavp 69 rr)P XiKeXiap iiri re 

6 ixeipop Kal &p iripi aXXxop ifi€p,i]Pvro. etpr^ro Se 
irpoenrelp avr^ a7ro\oy7)a-op>epq> dKo\ov0€ip, ^vX- 
\ap,j3dp€ip Be p,rj, depaTrevopre^ ro re rrpo^ rov^ 
ip rfj "StiKeXicL arpartdra^ re affyerepov^ xal iro- 
\efJLL0vq p,7} OopvjSetif, koI ov^ rjKiara roi>^ Map- 
riP€a<; Kal ^Apyeiov^ /3ov\6p£Poi Trapapsipai, Bl* 
ixeipov pofiL^opre^ Treia-drjvat atfyiai ^varpareveip. 

a Kal 6 p,€p ix^^ '^V^ eavTOv pavp Kal ol ^vpBia- 



290 



BOOK VI. Lxi. 1-6 

liad been committed by him with the same intent^ that 
is of conspiring against the people. For it so happened 
that a small Lacedaemonian force^ at the moment 
when they were in commotion about these matters, 
had come as far as the Isthmus in pursuance of some 
arrangement with the Boeotians. The opinion pre- 
vailed^ therefore^ that it had come on agreement at 
his instigation^ and not in the interest of the Boeo- 
tians; and that^ if they had not themselves been 
beforehand in arresting the men on the strength 
of the information given, the city would have been 
betrayed. And once for a whole night they lay 
under arms in the precinct of Theseus within the 
walls. Furthermore, the friends of Alcibiades at 
Argos were at the same time suspected of a design 
to attack the people; and on this account the 
Argive hostages who had been deposited in the 
islands^ were at that time delivered by the Athenians 
to the Argive people to be put to death. Thus from 
all sides suspicion had gathered about Alcibiades. 
And so^ wishing to bring him to trial and put him 
to death, they had sent the Salaminia to Sicily for 
him and for the others who had been informed upon. 
And the orders were to give him formal summons 
to follow, that he might make his defence, but 
not to arrest him ; for they were solicitous about 
both their own soldiers in Sicily and the enemy, 
not wishing to - stir up excitement among them, and 
they were especially desirous that the Mantineans 
and Argives should remain with them^ thinking that 
it was through him that they had been persuaded 
to join in the expedition. So he^ in his own ship, 
and those who were accused with him, sailed off in 

* c/. v. Ixxxiv. 1. 

291 

T7 2 



THUCYDIDES 

/Se/SXijfJiivoi aireifKeov fi€Ta rrj^ %cLKa^iivia^ e/c 

iyevovTO iv &ovpioi,^, ovKert ^vveiTrovTo, aW 
d7r€\d6vr€<; airo rrj^ vew ov <f>av€pol ^aav, Sei- 
aavT€^ TO iirl Biaj3oky €9 BiKtjv KarairXevaai. 
7 ol S' ix T^9 XakafjLLvta^ reo)? /iei' i^tJTOvv top 
^ ATucijSidSrjv KoX T0U9 /ier' avTOV' w S' oviafwv 
(f>av€pol fjcav, (p'XpvTO atroirXeovTei, 6 Be ^A\ki- 
l3idBi]^ 7]Sr) <l>vyct<; tov ov ttoXv vtrrepov iirl 
irXoiov iirepaiwOr) i<; IleXoTroi/i/iyeroi/ ck t^9 &ov- 
pLa^' oi K ^AOrjvaioi ip'^firj SiKt) Bdvarov Kari- 
yp(t)aav avrov t€ koI t&v fier i/eeivov. 

LXII. Merh Be ravra ol \onrol r&v ^AOrjvaioDv 
arparrfyol iv rfj Xi-fceXLa, Bvo fJ^pv Troirjaavre^ 
Tov aTparevfiaro^ koX Xa'xj^v eKarepo^, cttXcop 
^vp^iravTi iiTi ^eXivovvro'i KaX ^Ky€aTr]<;, ^ovXo- 
fievoi fJLCV elSivac rd ')(prjp,aTa el Bwaovaiv ol 
^Ftyearaloi, KaraaKe-^aadai Be koX r&v XeXivovv- 
TLcov rd TTpdypLOTa /cat rd Bid<f>opa fiadelv Ta 

2 7r/)09 ^Ey€araiov<;. iraparrXeovre'i 5' iv dpiarepa 
rrjv ^iKeXtav, rb p>epo^ ro irpo^ rov TvpcTjvifcov 
KoXirov, eaxov 69 'Ifiipav, fjirep fMovrj iv rovr<p r^ 
fiepec T^9 ^ifceXia^ 'EWa9 7roX«9 icriv* koL C09 

3 ovK iBe'Xpvro avrov<;, Trapefcofxi^ovro, koI iv tw 
rrapdirXcp alpovciv '^TKKapa, iroXitTfia Xifcavi/cbv 
/jbivf ^Etyearaiot^i Be TroXifMiov* ^v Be irapadaXaa- 
(TiBiov, KaX dvBpairoBiaavre^ rtjv rroXiv irapeBoa-av 
^Eyearaioi^ (irapeyevovro ydp avr&v linrrfsi), avroX 
Be irdXiv rtp fiev Trefw ix^i^povv Bid r&v XiKeX&v, 

292 




BOOK VI. Lxi. 6-Lxii. 3 

company with the Salaminia from Sicily^ as if for 
Athens. When, however, they reached the territory 
of the Thurians, they followed no further, but left 
their ship and disappeared^ being afraid to sail home 
for trial in the face of the existing prejudice. The 
crew of the Salaminia sought for Alcibiades and his 
companions for some time ; but when these were 
nowhere to be found, they sailed home. Alcibiades^ 
however, being now an outlaw, not long afterwards 
crossed over by boat from Thurii to the Pelopon- 
nesus; and the Athenians through a judgment by 
default^ sentenced him and his companions to 
death. 

LXI I. After this the two generals who were left in 
Sicily, making two divisions of the army and each 
taking one by lot, sailed with the whole force for 
Selinus and Egesta, wishing to know whether the 
Egestaeans would give the promised money, and to 
look into the affairs of the Selinuntians and learn 
their points of contention with the Egestaeans. So 
sailing along the coast, with Sicily — that is, the part 
of it which faces the Tyrrhenian gulf — on their left 
hand, they put into Himera, which is the only 
Hellenic city in that part of Sicily ; and as Himera 
would not receive them, they proceeded along the 
coast. On their passage they took Hyccara, a petty 
town by the seaside, which, though Sicanian, was 
yet hostile to the Egestaeans. They enslaved the 
inhabitants, and turned the town over to the Eges- 
taeans, some of whose cavalry had joined them, but 
themselves went back with their land-force through 
the territory of the Sicels until they came to Catana, 

^ Given in cases where the person indicted failed to appear 
for trial. 

293 



THUCYDlbES 

^0)9 a<f>lKOvro 69 Kardvrjv, ai hi i/^€9 rrepiiirXevaav 

4 tA avBpdiroSa ayovorai. Ni/cia<; Se eifOv^ ef 
'TxKcipcov cttI ^Ftyiarrj^ irapaifKevaa^ koI riXKa 
%/5i7yLtaTt(ra9 icaX \a^it>v raXavra rpcdKOvra Traprjv 
€9 TO arpdrevfia* koI rdvhpdiroha dirkhoaav, koX 
iyipovTO ef avT&p eiKoai koX ifcarov rdXavra. 

5 Koi €9 T&v z,iK€\&v T0U9 ^vp^fid'^pv^ TTepiiirXeva-av, 
arparictp KeKevovre^ we/jLTreiv rfj re ^/uaeia rrj^ 
eavT&v ffKJBov eirl ^'T/SXav riiv TeKeariv iroXefdav 
oiaav rcai ov^ etXov, /cal to dipo^s ireXevra. 

LXIII. ToS S' iTTiytyvo/iivov ^eifi&iH)^ eWif^ 
T7JV €<f>oSov ol ^Adrjvalot inl 'SivpaKovaa^ irape- 
axevd^ovro, ol Bk Xvpaxoaioi koI avrol (09 67r* 

2 €Kelvov(; iovre^, itreiBrj yctp avrot^ 7rpo<; top 
irp&TOP <f>6fiop fcal TTfP ^ irpoaSofciap ol ^Adrjpaloi 
ovK evdv^ iniKeiPTO, Kard re rr^p rjfikpop ixdo'rrjp 
irpolovcrap dpeddpaovp fiaXXop, xal iireiBrf TrXe- 
opre^ T€ ra iir ixelpa t^9 ^iKeXia^ iroXv otto 
a'<f>&p i<l>alpoP70 kcu irpo^ rr^p ^'T/SXap iXdopre^ 
fcal ireipda-apre^ ov^ elXop /Sia, en irXiop /care- 
<l>p6prjaap seal fj^iovp tou9 (rrpaTriyov^, olop Bij 
6xXo<; <l>iX€l Oapcrfaa^ Troielp, ay up a'<f>a^ cirl 
Kardpi^p, iTreiSt) ovte i/celpoi e<f> kavrov^i ep^oprat. 

3 Imrrj^ t€^ irpoaeXavpopre^ aiel KardaxoTTOi t&p 
XvpaKoaleop 7r/oo9 to (rrpdrevfia t&p ^AOijpaUov 
€(l>v/3pi^op aXXa re teal el ^vpotKiqaopre<i a<f>iaiv 
avrol pJaKXop '^koicp ip rfj dXXorpia ^ AeoPTipov^ 
€9 rrjp olxetap KaroiKiovpre^. 

LXIV. '^A ytypcoaKOpre^ ol arparrfyol r&p 
^Adrjpaieop zeal ffovXofiepot avrov^ ayeip iraphrifxel 



^ r)]Vf Hude deletes with E. 

^ re is indispensable, but omitted in all MS8. 



294 



BOOK VI. Lxii. 3-Lxiv. I 

while the ships sailed round to Catana with the 
captives. Nieias^ however^ had sailed at once ^ from 
Hyccara for Egesta^ and after transacting his other 
business and receiving thirty talents had rejoined 
the army. Their slaves they sold, receiving for them 
one hundred and twenty talents. They sent round 
also to their allies among the Sicels, bidding them 
send troops ; and with half of their own force went 
against Hybla Geleatis, a hostile town, but failed to 
take it. And so the summer ended. 

LXII I. The following winter the Athenians began 
at once to prepare for the advance upon Syracuse, and 
the Syracusans also, on their side, to go against them. 
For when the Athenians did not, in accordance with 
their first alarm and expectation, at once attack them, 
with each successive day their courage revived ; and 
when the Athenians sailed along the opposite coast 
of Sicily and showed themselves only at a distance 
from Syracuse, and going against Hybla failed in 
the attempt to take it by storm, the Syracusans had 
still greater contempt for them, and, as a crowd is 
wont to do when it has become elated, demanded 
that their generals should lead them against Catana, 
since the Athenians would not come against them. 
Moreover, mounted Syracusan scouts constantly rode 
up to the Athenian army and amongst other insults 
asked them: '^Are you come to settle yourselves 
here with us, on land which belongs to other 
people, instead of resettling the Leontines on their 
own f 

LXIV. The Athenian generals were aware of all 
this and purposed to draw the whole of the Syra- 

* i.e. without waiting for Ilyccara to be reduced and its 
inhabitants disposed of. 

295 



THUCYDIDES 

itc TTJt iro\6a)9 oti ifKetaTOv, avrol hk rats vava\v 
€V TOtTOxnta vito vvKTa irapairkevo'aine^ arpaTO- 
TTcSov /carakafx/Sdvetv iv iTriTrjSeLG) /caff* rjavxiav^ 
etSore^ oir/c civ OfLoio)^ 8vvr)0€PT€^,^ el i/c r&v v€&v 
7rpo9 irapeaKevadfievov^ ifc/Si^d^oiev tj Kara fyrjv 
iovre^ yvtoaOeiev (roif^ yhp &v yfriXov^; tov9 ck^Av 
real TOP 6y(kov t&v XvpaKoarimv tou? lirirea^ 
TToXKovs Svra^, a<l>i<n S* ov irapommv iTriremv, 
fiXdirreiv &v p^eydXa' ovtco Se Xij-slreaffat yjcopLov 
offev VTTO T&v iirirecDv ov ^d'>^ovTai a^ia \6yov 
iSiSaaxov S* avToif<: irepl tov irpo^ t^ *0\vp,7rieitp 
'X<opioVf oirep icaX xaTeKaPov, ^vpaKoaicop <f>vyd8€<; 
ot ^vpeliropTo), TOiopSe ti oip irpo^ a i^ovkopTO oi 

2 oTpaTriyol p^rj^av&VTai. TripTrovaip apSpa a<f>La'i> 
p€V TTiaTop, T0t9 Be T&p ^vpaKoaLdop aTpaTTjyoh 
TTj Sofci](r€C ovx fjo'aop iinTfjSeiop, rjp he Kara- 
palo^ 6 dp7]p, Kot dir dpSp&v etc ttj^ Karai^? 
7]fC€iP 6^77 a>p ifceipoi Tct opopaTa eyiyvaxTKOP Koi 
ffiriaTapTo ep TJj iroXei eTt viroXoLirov^ Sptu^ t&p 

3 a<f>L(np evpcop. eT^e Be tov9 ^AOrjpaLov^ avXi- 
^eaOai uTro t&p oirXtop ep Trj noXei, kol el ffov- 
XopTUL i/celpoi irapBrjpel ep vp^pa prjTfj apa cg) 
eirX TO (TTpdTevpa eXffeip, aifTol pep diroKXriareLp 
T0U9 irapct a<f>Lat> koX tcl^ pav^ epirprjaeiv, eKeivov^ 
Be paBto)^ TO aTpdTevpa Trpoa^aXoPTa^ t& aTav- 
pcopaTc alprjaeip* elpai Be TavTa tov^; ^vpBpd- 
aopTa^ 7roX\ou9 l^aTapaitdP fcai "^TOipdcrOai ijBr), 
d(f>^ &v auT09 fJKeiP. 

^ Koiy before d in MSS., ignored by Valla and the Sclioliast. 
296 



BOOK VI. Lxiv. 1-3 

cusan force as far as possible away from the city^ and 
themselves meanwhile to sail down under cover of 
night and undisturbed to occupy a camp at a suit- 
able place, knowing that they would not be able to 
do this so well if they should disembark from their 
ships in the face of an eniemy prepared to meet 
them, or should be detected going by land. For 
being without horsemen themselves, their own light- 
armed troops and their mob of camp-followers would, 
they thought, suffer great harm at the hands of the 
numerous Syracusan cavalry ; but in the way pro- 
posed they would take a position where they would 
not suffer any harm worth mentioning from the 
cavalry; and certain Syracusan exiles who were 
with them gave them information as to the position 
close to the Olympieum, which in fact they subse- 
quently occupied. So then, in furtherance of their 
plan, the generals devised some such scheme as 
this : They sent a man loyal to themselves, but in 
the opinion of the Syracusan generals no less a friend 
of theirs. The man was a Catanaean, and said that 
he had come from men at Catana whose names 
they recognized and whom they knew to be the 
remnant of those who were still loyal to them in 
the city. He said that the Athenians were in the 
habit of passing the night in the city away from their 
arms, and if the Syracusans would come in full force 
at dawn on an appointed day against their army, 
they would close the gates on the Athenians in 
their city and set fire to the ships, and the Syra- 
cusans could attack the stockade and easily take the 
whole army ; for there were many Catanaeans who 
would help them in this undertaking, and the men 
from whom he himself had come were ready now. 

297 



THUCYDIDES 

LXV. Oi Be arparrfyoX r&v '^vpaicoa-Uov, fiera 
Tov Koi €9 ra aXKa Oapaetv kcu elvai iv hiavoLa 
xal avev TOVTa>p livai^ €7rl KaTavrjv, iiriarevadv re 
T^ dvOpdyirq) troWof direpKTKeirroTepov koI evdif^ 
Tf/jbipav ^w0€/jL€voi 11 irapitrovrai aTriaTciXavavrov, 
Koi avroL {fjir} yap fcal r&v ^vfifiaxo>v XeKivovv- 
Tioi KaX SXKoi rivh TrapTjaav) irpoeiTrov TravBrjfjLei 
ir&aiv i^ievai ^vpaKoa-ioi,^. iTrel Be erolfia avTol<: 
KaX rh T^9 7rapa<rKev7J^ f)v xaX ai rfjiApai iv al? 
^vviOevro ij^eiv iyyv^ fjaav, iropevop^vot iirX 
JSiaravt)^ f)v\L<ravro iwX t& ^vfiaLOtp iroTafi^ iv 

2 rfi Aeovrivp, oi S' ^KBrjvaloi m ^aOovro avrov^ 
TTpoa-iovra^, avaXa06vT&: to re trrpdrevfia S/rrav 
TO iavT&v KaX o<roi ^ikcX&v uvtol^ fj aWo^ ri^ 
TTpotreXrjXvOei KaX iTn^i^dcavre^ iirX t^9 vav^ 
KaX rh irXolay vtto vvKra eirkeov iirX t^? ^vpa- 

3 Kovaa^, KaX ol t€ *A0r)va2oi afia €<p i^ifiaivov 
69 TO ^ Karh TO ^OXvfiTrietov ft)9 (nparoirehov 
KaraXffylrofievoi, KaX oi iinrrj^ oi ^vpaKoaicov 
TTp&TOC irpoaeXda-avTe^ 69 rrjv Kardvrjv^ koi 
acaOofievoi on to arpdrevfia airav dvrJKrac, dirO' 
arph^avre^ dyyiWovai toa9 Trefo^, koI ^vp/iravre^ 
nffhrj aTTOTpeTTOfievoi i/SotjOow iirX rrjv ttoXav, 

LXVI. 'Ei/ TOVTfp S' oi ^AOrjvaioc, fjMKpd^ ovtrr}^ 
T^9 ohov avTol^i KaS* riavyiav KaOlaav to arpd- 
revfia 69 X^P^^^ iiriTriBeiov KaX iv ^ P'cixV^ T€ 
ap^eiv €fi€Wov ottotc /SovXoivto KaX oi iwir^^ r&v 
ZvpaKoaloDv fjKKTT ^ avroif^ KaX iv r^ ^py^ fcal 

^ wa^iTKtvdffBaif in MSS. after icyai, deleted by Dobree. 
'^ With E, all other MSS. rhv, 

* ^f r^v Kardtrnv, Hude corrects to tJ Kardvrj. 

* &!/, after fiKiar* in MSS., deleted by Stahl* 

298 




BOOK VI, Lxv. i-Lxvi. I 

LXV. And the Syracusan generals^ who were 
already confident as to the general situation^ and 
intended even without this help to go against 
Catana^ trusted the fellow much too incautiously^ and 
at once^ agreeing upon a day on which they would 
be there^ sent him back; and themselves — the 
Selinuntians and some others of their allies being 
already present — made proclamation for the whole 
force of the Syracusans to take the field. And when 
their preparations were made and the days were 
near on which they had agreed to come^ they pro- 
ceeded towards Catana and bivouacked at the River 
Simaethus in the territory of Leontini. But the 
Athenians^ when they learned of their approach^ 
took all their own army and such of the Sicels or 
others as had joined them^ and embarking on their 
ships and boats sailed under cover of night against 
Syracuse. And they disembarked at daybreak at a 
point opposite the Olympieum, where they pro- 
posed to occupy a camping-place; but the Syracusan 
horsemen^ who were the first to reach Catana and 
found there that the whole army was gone^ turned 
about and announced this to the infantry^ and all 
then turned back at once and hastened to bring aid 
to the city. 

LXVI. Meanwhile the Athenians, undisturbed, as 
the Syracusans had a long way to go, settled their 
army in a suitable position, where they could begin 
a battle whenever they wished and the Syracusan 
horsemen would annoy them the least either in the 



299 



THUCYDIDES 

npo avTov Xvnrfaew r^ fikv yitp reix^ t* ^^^^ 
olxiai elpyov koX SivSpa Kal XlfMVff, irapii Bi to 

2 KprifivoL Kal tA iyyif^ SevSpa Kor^avre^ kcu 
fcaTeveyKome^ iirl rrjv ffaXaaaav irapd re T€t<; 
vav^ (TTavptafia hrq^av xaX iirl t& ^da/eavi epvfid 
T€, y €if€(f>oS(OTaTOP ffv TOA? TToKefiLoL^y iddot^ 
\oydSrjv fcal fvXot? Sia rax^cop &p0a><rav teal rrfv 

3 Tov*Avd7rovy€<f>vpaveXv<rav. irapao'/ceva^ofiet/ayp 
Be ix fiev rrj^ TroXeo)? ovSel? i^La>v ixtaXve, Trp&roi 
Be ol iinrrj^ r&v ^vpaKotritov TrpoaejSoijdrfaav, 
eireira Be varepov /cal to ttc^ov airav ^vveXiyrj. 
Kal irpoa-rjXjffov p^v eyyij^ tov crrpareiJ/uiTO? t&p 
^AOffpalayv to np&TOP, hrei/ra Be, w ovk avTi- 
irpoyaap avToi^, dpaxo>pv^o,^Te^ /cal Bia/SdpTe^ 
Tr}p *EXa>pCprjp oBop rjvKiaaPTO. 

LXVII, T^ S' vaTepaia ol ^A0t}paloi xal ol 
^vp^pMXOi TrapetTKevd^oPTo w €9 fidxv^ ^** ^vverd- 
^aPTo eoSe. Be^Lop phf xepa^ ^Apyeioi elxop fcal 
MaPTiPT]^, *A0r}paioc Be to p^aop, to Bk aWo ol 
^vp'P'axot ol aXKoi, Kal to fiep fifiiav ainol^ tov 
aTpaTevpuTO^ ep t^ irpoaOep ^p, T€Tayp,epop iirl 
oKTco, TO Be ffp^iav eirl rat? evpal^ ep TrXaitri^, 
€7ri oKTcb Kal tovto T€Tayp>€vop' oh eiptfTQ, fi tip 
TOV <7T/)aT€i5/iaT09 Ti iropj) p,d\i(TTa, e<f>op&PTa^ 
TrapayiypeaOai, Kal tov9 aK€VO(f)6pov<: €pto<; tov- 
2 T(OP T&p iTTiTdKTCOP eTTOLrjaaPTO. ol Be ^vpaKoaioi 
era^ap tou? p,kp OTrXtra? irdvTa^ i(f> cKKaiBeKa, 
8pTa^ 7rapBr)psl Xvpaxoaiov^ Kal oaoL ^vfifiaxoi 
nraprjaap {ifiorjOrfa'ap Bk avTol^ '^eXiPovpTioi fihf 

300 




BOOK VI. LXVI. I-LXVII. 2 

actual fighting or before ; for on one side walls and 
houses and trees and a swamp furnished a barrier^ 
on the other side a line of cliffs. They also cut 
down the trees near at hand and bringing them 
down to the sea built a stockade by the ships ; 
and at Dascon^ where the place was most accessible 
to the enemy, they quickly erected a bulwark of 
stones picked up in the fields and of timbers, and 
pulled down the bridge over the Anapus. While 
they were making these preparations nobody came 
out from the city to hinder them; the first that 
came against them were the horsemen of the Syra- 
cusans, but afterwards the infantry also gathered in 
full force. And at first they drew near the Athenian 
camp, but later, when these did not come out against 
them, they withdrew across the Elorine road and 
spent the night. 

LXVI I. On the next day the Athenians and their 
allies made preparations for battle, and were drawn 
up in the following order: On the right were the 
Argives and Mantineans, the Athenians had the 
centre, the other allies the rest of the line. Half of 
their army was in the van, arrayed eight deep ; the 
other half near their sleeping-places, formed in a 
hollow square, these too arrayed eight deep ; and 
the orders of the latter were, to be on the alert to 
support any part of the army that was most in dis- 
tress. And the baggage-carriers they put inside 
the body of reserves. The Syracusans, on the other 
hand, arranged all their hoplites sixteen deep, that 
is, the whole force of the Syracusans and as many 
of their allies as were present ; for they had received 
some reinforcements, chiefly from the Selinuntians, 



301 



THUCYDIDES 

/juikiaTa, eireira Se fcal FeXcoav iTrirrj^, to ^vfjurrav 
€9 SiaKoaiov^, km JS^afiapivaiav /tttt^ oo-qv eXieoai 
KoX TO^orai w ir€vri]/covTa), tov? Sk iinrla^ eTre- 
rd^avTO iirl r^ Se^i^, ovk €\aa<rov ovra^ ^ 
Siaxotriov^ koX yCKiovs, traph S* avTov^ fcal tov9 
3 aKovTiard^, {/ueXXovai Se toc^ 'AOrfvaioi^ irpo- 
repots iirif'xetpTiaeiv 6 ^i/cia^ Kara re edvrj 
iirnrapioDv ?/caaTa fcaX ^vfiiraai roidSe Trapexe- 
\€V€ro, 

LXVIII. " HoWy fiev napaiveaei, & avhpe^, tl 
hel XprjaOai,, oi irdpeafiev iwl tov avTov^ dy&va; 
avTTj yiip r) irapafTKevrf iKavayrepa pLOi hoKel elvai 
ddpao^ irapaax^iv ^ xaXw Xex^evre^ \iyoi fiera 

2 aaOevov^ <rrpaT07reBov, oirov yap ^Apyeioc seal 
MavTivrj^ Koi ^AOrjvacoi Kal vrfo-ctor&v oi irp&roC 
i<rp£v, 7ra)9 ov XPV P'^t^ rot&vhe koX roa&vSe 
^u/i/iav6t>i/ irdvra riva fieydXrjv rrjv ikirlha rrj^ 
VLKT)^ ex^tv, aWo)9 re xal irpo^; avSpa<: TravSr^fjiei 
7€ dpvvopAvov^ Kol OVK diroXeKTOV^ &<r7r€p koi 
i7/ia9> Kal irpoacTi XcKeXicora^, oc vtrepfjypovovai 
p,iv f}p>a^, vTTop^evovat Si ov, Sia to t^v iwiarijfJLfjv 

3 TW9 ToX/ii79 fj<r(Ta) i^l^Lv. irapaarijTa) Si rivt xal 
ToSe, iroXv re aTro rrj^ rip£T€pa<; avr&v elvau. Kal 
irpb^ ryjj ovSep^ia (fyiXla, fjiniva p,rf aifTol pwvppuevoL 
Kri]a€<T0€. Kal rovvavriov v7ropip,vij<rKG} v/ia9 'fj 
oi iroXip^Lov (r<f>iaiv avTol^ eS oW on TrapaKeXev- 
ovrar oi phfyAp on nepl iraTpiSo^; e<nat 6 dya>v, 
iyo) Sk on ovk iv TraTpiSi, i^ fJ9 Kparelv Set ^ put) 
paSioa^ dirox^p^'iv* oi ycLp iinrrj^ iroXKol iiriKei- 

4 aovrai. rrj^ t€ oiv vp^ripa^ avr&v d^ia^ funj- 

^ rhy abrhVf Hade changes to roiovrov. 
302 




BOOK VI. Lxvii. 2-LXviii. 4 

but next to them some cavalry from the Geloans^ 
about two hundred in all^ and also from the Camar- 
inaeans about twenty horsemen and fifty bowmen. 
Their cavalry, which was not less than twelve 
hundred in number, they placed on the right, and 
on its flank the javelin-men. As ^ the Athenians 
were on the point of beginning the attack, Nicias 
went along the line and exhorted them, nation by 
nation as well as all together, in the following 
manner : 

LXVII I. " What need is there, soldiers, of long 
exhortation, when we are all here for one and the 
same contest ? Our array of itself seems to me more 
calculated to inspire confidence than well chosen 
words with a weak army. For where are Argives 
and Mantineans and Athenians and the best of the 
islanders, why should not everyone, in company with 
allies so brave and so numerous, have great hope ot 
victory, especially against men that meet us in 
a mob and are not picked men as we ourselves are, 
and against Siceliots, moreover, who scorn us, indeed, 
but do not stand their ground against us, because 
the skill they have is not equal to their daring. 
This, too, must be fixed in the mind of everyone, 
that we are far from our own land and not near to 
any friendly country, unless you shall win such by 
your own swords. And my admonition is the 
opposite of the exhortation which, I am sure, the 
enemy is addressing to his troops ; for they urge 
that the contest will be for fatherland, but I remind 
you that it will be, not in our fatherland, but whcte 
you either must win victory or may not easily get 
away; for their cavalry will be upon us in great 
numbers. Be mindful, therefore, of your own repu- 

303 



THLCYDIDES 

trdhnes iireXdere T0t9 evavrioi^ irpoOvfJuo^ xal ttjv 
irapovaav avdyxrjv teal airopiav <f>o0€f>G>T€pav 
Tfyrjo'dfievoi r&v iroXefuavJ*^ 

LXTX. 'O fLev ^iKia^ roiavra TrapaxeXevad- 
fjLCvo^ eTTTJye to aTparoitehov eiffv^. ol Se Xvpa- 
KO(Tioi airpoaSoKrfToi ph/ iv t& xaipw rovrtp Ija-av 
<»9 fjSff paxovpevoi, xai rive^ aurow iyyv^ T179 
TToXeo}^ 01/(7179 Kcu aireX'rfKvOeaav' ol Se kolL Sia 
airovSrj^ irpoafioridovvTes hpopxp vaTipi^ov fiev, 
ft)9 Se ixcuTTo^ 7177 TOt9 nXeioai irpoapei^ie KadL- 
aravro, ov yap S^ irpoOvpia iKKiirek ^aav ovSe 
ToXpjf ovT iv TavTTf T§ p^XO ^^* ^ '^^^^ aXX^M?, 
viXKa T§ pev dvSpeia ou^ fjaaov^ €9 oaov 17 
iinarripTj avTe)(pL, T6> he iWeiirovTi auT^9 fcal 
Tr]v ffovXijaiv aKOvre^ TTpovhihoaav opa>^ he 
ovK av olopevot a^iai tou9 ^AOrfvaiov^; irporepovf; 
eireXffelp xal Sia Ta'Xpv^ avayxa^opevoi dpvvaadat> 

2 avaXaPivre^ rh oirXa ev0xf<; ameir^aav, tcaX 
irp&TOv pev avr&v eKareptov ol re Xiffo/SoXoi xal 
a(f>€vSopi)Tai KoX TO^orai irpovpaxovro xal rpoird^, 
oJa9 eiKO^ yfriXov^, dXX^Xav eiroiovv eirei/ra he 
pdmeL^ T€ <r<f>dyia irpov^epov ra popi^opeva xal 
a-aXTTi/CTal ^vvohov iircorpwop Tot9 oirXiTai^, 01 

3 S* €xd>povp, ^vpuKoaioi pev irepi re irarpihofi 
pa')(^ovpepoi Kal t^9 tSta9 eKaaro^ to pep avTiKa 
<T(DTr)pia<;, to he peXXov eXevOepia^, t&v 8' evav- • 
tLcov *A0rfvaioL pJev irepi re t^9 dXXoTpia^ oyKeiav 
a)(€lv KoX Tr)v oiKeiap pi) /SXdylrai rjaadpevoi, 

f&o^ hk Koi T&v ^vppd^iov 01 avTOVopoi 




BOOK VI. Lxviii. 4-LXIX. 3 

tation, and attack the enemy with spirit and with 
the thought that our present necessity and the 
straits in which we stand are more to be feared than 
our foes." 

LXIX. After such an exhortation Nicias straight- 
way led on his army ; but the Syracusans were not 
expecting to fight at just that moment, and some 
of them, as the city was near them, had even gone 
home ; and these, though they came running to the 
lines as fast as they could, were late, and had to fall 
in wherever each one happened to reach the main 
body. For they were not lacking in zeal nor in 
daring either in this battle or in those which 
followed ; nay, in bravery they were not inferior to 
their enemies, so far as they had experience, but 
through their lack of experience in spite of them- 
selves they failed to do justice to their good in- 
tentions. Nevertheless, though they did not expect 
the Athenians to be the first to attack, and though 
they were forced to defend themselves in haste, they 
took up their arms at once and went against them. 
And at first the stone-throwers and slingers and 
bowmen skirmished, driving each other back, first 
one side and then the other, as light-armed troops 
would be likely to do. Afterwards the soothsayers 
brought forward the customary sacrifices and trum- 
peters stirred the hoplites to the charge. So they 
advanced — the Syracusans, to fight for fatherland 
and every man for his own present safety and future 
freedom ; on the other side the Athenians, to fight 
for an alien land in order to win it for their own 
and to save their own land from the disaster of 
defeat; the Argives and those of the allies that 
were independent, to help the Athenians in securing ' 

305 

VOL. III. X 



THUCYDIDES 

^vyicniaoirOal re ixeivoi^ e^' a fiXBov xaX Ttjv 
V7rdpj(pvaav a^uri irarpiSa vucfjaavre^ iraKiv 
iiriSeiv TO 5* {nri]xoov t&p ^viLfiaymv fie^fiarov 
fiiv Trepi Ttjq airrixa aveXvLarov aanripias, vpf ftij 
xparSKri, to irpoOvfiov elxop, eireira Se hf irapep^tp 
K(u el Ti aXkjo ^vytcaraaTpe^jrapjevov paov airroZs 
viratcovaerai, 

LXX. Tevofievi]^ S* ev X^P^^ '''V^ H^XV^ ^^*^ 
TToXif avT€%xov oKKriKoi^i koX ^mfifirf ffpovrd^ 
re afia riva^ yepeadai tcaX aarpairasi xal vSap 
iroXv, &<rr€ rol^ fiep irp&rov p/ixofievoi^ koX 
iXdxKTra troXifnp wfuXi^tcotri koI rouro ^vv- 
etriXafieaOai rov (f>6fiov, roU S* ifnreiporepoL^ ra 
fiev yiyvo/j^va xal &pa erou^ irepeUveaffai SoKeiv, 
T0V9 Be avOetrr&ra^ iroXif fiei^o) eKirXtj^iv fxi) 

2 viKcofUvov^ Trapex^iv. axra/JLCvtav Se r&v ^AfrfeCtop 
irpatTOv TO evtovvfiop xepa^ t&p ^vpafcoa-Caop xal 
fier ainov^ Ta>p ^Adrjvcdayp ro Kara a^a^ avrovs, 
irapeppijryvvro 17S17 /cal ro dXXo arpdrevfia r&p 

3 XvpaKoaioDP kgX €9 ^xfyr}P Karearrf, kcu eir\ ttoXv 
flip ovK iSito^ap 01 ^AOrjpaloi {pi yap iirirrj^ r&p 
^vpa/eoaitov troXXol ovre^ xal drjatTTiroi etpyop 
Kal eafiaXovre^ e? roif^ owXira^ avr&p, ei ripa^ 
wpoBidixopra^ iBoiev, dviareXXop), iiraKoXovffij- 
trapre^ Sk dffpooi oaop da'<f>aX&^ elxe rrdXiv 

4 i7rapex(opovp xal rpoiratop Xaraaap. 01 Bk Xvpa- 
Koo'ioi adpoi(T0evr€^ €9 rr^p ^^Xa>pLPf)p oBop teal d)? 
ix r&p irapoprtop ^vpra^dfievoi €9 re ro 'OXvfjL- 

306 



BOOK VI. Lxix. 3-Lxx. 4 

the objects for which they had come^ and having 
won victoiy to see again their own fatherland ; the 
subject-allies^ above all zealous for their own imme- 
diate safety, for which there was no hope unless 
they conquered, then also with the secondary 
motive that having helped the Athenians to over- 
throw another power they might find the terms of 
their own subjection milder. 

LXX. When they had come to close combat, they 
held out for a long time against one another ; and 
there chanced to occur at the same time some claps 
of thunder and flashes of lightning and much rain, so 
that this too contributed to the fear of those who 
were fighting for the first time and were but little 
conversant with war, whereas to those who were 
more experienced ^ the storm seemed of course to 
be due merely to the season of the year, but the 
fact that their antagonists were not overcome caused 
them far greater alarm. When, however, the Argives 
had first driven back the left wing of the Syracusans, 
and after them the Athenians had repulsed their 
own opponents, then the rest also of the Syracusan 
line began to break and was reduced to flight. But 
the Athenians did not pursue far ; for the Syracusan 
cavalry, being numerous and undefeated, held them 
in check, and falling upon their hoplites, if they saw 
any ahead in pursuit, drove them back. They only 
followed up in a body as far as it was safe, and then 
drew back and set up a trophy. The Syracusans, on 
the other hand, collecting on the Elorine road and 
drawing up as well as possible under the circum- 
stances, in spite of their defeat sent some of their 

^ i.e. the Athenians. 

307 
X 2 



THUCYDIDES 

TTLelov ofKo^s a(f>(ov avT&v irapiireixy^av <f>v\afer)v, 
heiaavre^ firj ol *AOf}vaioi t&v ')(pr)fidra>v & ^v 
avTodt Ktvri(T(0(Tii KCii 01 XoiTTol iiravex^pV^ciV €9 

LXXI. 01 Be ^AOr)vaioL tt/oo? fi€P to iepov ov/c 
riXdovy ^vyKojJLi(ravT€<; Be tov<; kavr&v vefcpov^ xaX 
iirl TTvpcLP iTTidevTe^i rjvXiaavro avTov, ry S* 
vaTepaia to*9 P'^v SvpaKoaiot^ atrehoaav viro- 
(TTToi/Sof 9 T0U9 v€fcpov<; {cLTTedavov Be avr&v koX t&v 
^vppA')((ov irepX i^ijKovra koI Biafcoaiov^), t&v Se 
(T^eripwv ra oard aveke^av {aTriffavov Be avr&v 
KoX T&v ^vp,p,d')(€ov 0)9 TrevTriKOVTo), KaX Th t&v 
TToXepifov (TfcvXa e^oi^T€9 dweTrXevaav €9 K.aTdvrfv, 
2 'XjEipcov T€ yap yjv KaX tov iroXep.ov avToOev Troiei- 
aOai oi/TTft) iBoKec BvvaTov elvat, nrpXv &v iiTTria^ 
T€ p-eTaTripAJraxriv iic t&v ^KOriv&v KaX €k t&v 
avToOev ^vp,p,dx<^v. dyetpcoaiv, 07ra)9 P'V TravTci- 
iracnv linroKpaT&vTai, KaX 'x^p'qp.aTa Bk dp,a avTo- 
6ev T€ ^v\\e^a)VTai KaX Trap ^Adr^vaitov i\0r), 
T&v T€ TToXe&v Tiva<; irpoaaydycovTai., ^9 ffKmtl^ov 
pjeTCb Trjv P'd'xr)V fidWov a<^&v viraKOvaeadat, Ta 
T€ aXXa, KaX aiTov KaX oacov Beoi, irapacKevd- 
acovTai, a>9 €9 to eap inri'^eLpfjaovTe^ Tat9 2f/>a- 

KOV(Tai<i, 

LXXII. Kai ol pev TavTj) Ty yv(op,rj diriTrXevaav 
69 Ttfv Nd^ov KaX KuTdpffv Biax€cpdaovT€<;' Xvpa- 
Koaioi Be T0V9 atfyeTepov^ avT&v vcKpov^ ddyjraVTe^ 
2 eKKXrjaiav iiroiovv, KaX irapeXdoDV avTol^ Epp^- 
KpdTrj<i 6 "EppMVo<;, dvrjp KaX €9 ToXXa ^uvecriv 
ovBevo^ XetiTop^vo^ KaX KaTd tov iroXepxiv ip/treipta 
T€ lKav6<; yevopevo^ KaX avBpeta €'m(f>avi^^, iff dp- 

308 



BOOK VI. Lxx. 4-LXX11. 2 

own men to the Olympieum as a guard, fearing that 
the Athenians might disturb some of the treasures 
which were there ; and the rest withdrew to the city. 

LXXI. The Athenians, however, did not go to the 
temple, but collecting their own dead and placing 
them on a pyre they passed the night where they 
were. But on the next day they gave back under 
truce the Syracusan dead, of whom and of their 
allies about two hundred and sixty were slain ; then 
gathering up the bones of their own dead — of them- 
selves and their allies about fifty — and taking with 
them the spoils of the enemy, they sailed back to 
Catana. For it was winter, and it seemed as yet 
impossible to carry on the war from this base until 
they should send to Athens for horsemen, besides 
collecting them from their allies in Sicily, that they 
might not be altogether at the mercy of the enemy's 
cavalry. And they wanted at the same time to col- 
lect money from the island itself, and to have a 
supply come from Athens ; also to bring over some 
of the cities, which they hoped would be more 
ready to listen to them since the battle ; and to pre- 
pare other things, both food and whatever was 
needed, with a view to attacking Syracuse the next 
spring. 

LXX II. With this purpose they sailed away to 
Naxos and Catana to spend the winter. The Syra- 
cusans, on the other hand, after burying their own 
dead, called an assembly. And there came before 
them Hermocrates son of Hermon,^ a man who was 
in general second to none in point of intelligence, 
and had shown himself in this war both competent 
by reason of experience and conspicuous for courage. 

* c/. IV. Iviii. ; vi. xxxiii. 

309 



THUCYDIDES 

<rvvi re koX ovk €ia r^ y€y€injft€v& ivSiBovai' 

3 r^i^ fuv yhp fiffOfLtiv axn&v ot^ ^traifaOa*, rifv 
Se ara^iav ffXA^fnu, ov fiarroi roaovrov ye 
\ei<l>0fiv€U oaov etxa^ elvai, aXKm^ re rok irfmroi^ 
T&v ^EXKrjw»v ifiireipia, liuira^ 09 elrrelp %6c/>o- 

4 rexvai^, avraywvio'apevov^. A^a ^ fikdyfrai seal 
TO irX^ffo^ T&v arparrjiy&v coi ^ riiv iro\vapj(iav 
(jiaav yhp vevre xal Seica oi trrparffyol airroZ^)^ 
Tcov T€ woXK&v T^v a^WTOiCTov avapxioV' fjjv Be 
oXlyoi T€ arparfjyol yhfmprai efiireipoi xal ev rm 
jdEi/iMVi Tovr^ vapaaK€vd(r»(n to ivXiTucoVt 0I9 
T€ oirXa fiij earip iiciropL^ovr^, air»9 m vKAftol 
etrovrai, xal r§ aXX|7 fAeXery wpoaavePfKa^opres, 
etf^rf Kara to €iico9 KpaTqaeiP a^as r&v evavrUuv, 
avSpeia^ fiep tr^Laiv inrapxovarf^, evra^ia^ S* e? 
TCL epya trpoayevofUtnj^' inr^Swreiv yap afufwrepa 
avrd, rifv ftev pLcra KwSvptov fLeXermfUvfiv, rifv 
S* einfrv)^iav avrrp^ cairr^ fiera rov irurrov rrj^ 

5 eiria'njp.fi^ dapaaXewrepav eaeaOai. tov9 t€ arpa- 
TTjyov^ tcaX oXlyotf^ Koi auroKparopa^ XP^^^ 
kXeadai kcu opLoacu ainok to opsciov ^ piiv idaeiv 
ap)(€iv Sinf &v eTrio'TwvTai' ovrn ykp a re Kpvn- 
readai hel fiSXkov av areyeaOai /caX raXXa xara 
Kwrpov KoX airpoifMaUrr^^ 7rap€urK€vaa0vjviU. 

^ r^ vAiits rmw wrpttnrt^ k^ deleted by Tan Herwerden, 
followed by Hade. 

3x0 



BOOK VI. Lxxii. 2-5 

He encouraged them and protested against their 
giving way because of what had happened: their 
spirit^ he told them^ was not defeated ; it was their 
lack of discipline that had done mischief. They had 
not^ however^ been so much inferior as might have 
been expected, especially as they had been pitted 
against troops who were the foremost among the 
Hellenes in experience, mere tiros so to speak 
against skilled craftsmen. Much mischief had also 
been caused by the large number of the generals 
and the division of command — for they had fifteen 
generals — and the disorder and anarchy among the 
troops. If only a few men of experience should be 
chosen as generals, and during this winter they 
should get the hoplite-force ready, providing arms 
for those who had none, in order that the number 
might be as large as possible, and enforcing the 
general training, in all likelihood, he said, they would 
get the better of the enemy, if to courage, which 
they bad already, discipline were added when it 
came to action. For both these things would im- 
prove of themselves ; their discipline would be 
practised in the midst of dangers, and their courage, 
in proportion as their confidence in their skill in- 
creased, would prove more self-reliant than ever. 
The generals, then, whom they should elect 
ought to be few in number and clothed with full 
powers and they should give them their oath that 
they would in very truth allow them to command 
according to their judgment ; for in this way what- 
ever ought to be kept secret would be better con- 
cealed, and their preparations in general would be 
made in an orderly way and without evasion^. 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXIII. Kat oi XvpoKOfriot avrov atcovaavres 
€'sjnjihL<TavTQ re travra 0)9 i/ciXeve teal arpaTrjyov 
avTov T€ €i\ovTO Tov 'KpfioKpaTT) Kcu ^HpaKXelStjv 
Tov AvaipA^^ov koi Xi/cavov tov ^TSt^Kio-rov, 

2 TOVTOV^ Tpet^, Kul €9 TtJV l^OpivOoV 'KoX ^9 TTJV 

Aa/eeBalfjLova Trpeafiei^; aTriareiXap, ottg)^ ^v/M/xa- 
yla T€ avTol^ Trapayevijrai xal tov irpo^ ^Affrfvaiov^; 
TToXe/jLOv /Se/SaioTcpov ireCOttxrc 7roi€i<r0aL ix tov 
Trpo<f>avov^ virep <T(f>cov Toif<; AaxeBaifiovLov^, iva 
fj airo T^9 'XiKeKia^ airayd'^oixriv avTOv^ rj 7rp6<; 
TO iv SifceXia (XTpdrevp^a fjaaov ia^eXLav SXXrjv 
eTnTTep/iroxrLv. 

LXXIV. To S' ev tj) KuTavy aTparevfia tmv 
^AOrfvaiayv etrXevcrev evOif^ iirl Meatnjvrfv 0)9 tt/oo- 
So0r}<rofiivi]v. ' Koi a piv iTrpdaa-cTo ovk eyevero' 
^AXKijSidSrj^ yap ot* dirriei ix t% dp'xfj^ fjSrj 
/x^Ta7r€/i'7rT09, iTria-Tdpsvo^ oti (j)ev^oiTO, firjvvei 

T0t9 T&V ^VpaKO(TlWV <f>lXoi^ T0?9 eV TJ) M€(T<n]V7f 

^vveiScb^ TO p,eXXov oi he tov^ t€ avhpa^ Si&f>d€i- 
pav wpoTcpov /cal t6t€ (TTaaid^ovTe^ xal iv oirXoi^ 
ovT€^ €7r€KpdT0vv p,^ Scx^o^Oai T0U9 ^AOtfvaCov^ 
2 ol TavTa 0ovX6p£voi, rip,€pa<i S^ p^ivavTe^ irepl 
Tpel^ fcal BcKa ol ^Adrjvaioi w ix^t-pd^ovTO /cal 
T^ itrcTijSeia ovk elxov xai irpovx'^p^t' oviev, 
d7r€X06vT€<; €9 Nafoi/ Kal opia /cal a-Tavpdp^iTa 
irepl TO aTpaToireSov Troinjo'dpevoi avrov Siex^i- 
pa^ov Kal Tpirjpr^ direcTTetXav 69 rd^ ^Adi^va^ 
iirl T€ X/>i7/AaTa Kal iTnria^y 07rci)9 dpa t^ fjpi 
irapay€V(0VTai. 

LXXV. ^^Tcixt'^ov Be Kal ol XvpaKoaioi iv t^ 
XJ^ip&vi irpo^ T€ Trj TToXei, tov Tep^viTrjv ivTO^ 




BOOK VI. Lxxiii. i-Lxxv. I 

LXXIII. The Syracusans^ when they had heard 
him, voted everything as he advised, and chose three 
generals, Hermocrates himself, Heracleides son of 
Lysimachus, and Sicanus son of Exeeestus. They 
also sent envoys to Corinth and Lacedaemon to 
induce an allied force to join them, and to persuade 
the Lacedaemonians to prosecute the war with the 
Athenians -openly in their behalf and more per- 
sistently, in order that they might either draw them 
away from Sicily, or else to some extent prevent 
their sending reinforcements to their army in Sicily. 

LXXIV. The Athenian army at Catana, directly 
after its return,^ sailed to Messene, in the hope that 
it would be betrayed to them. But the negotiations 
were not successful. For as soon as Alcibiades left his 
command under summons from home, knowing that 
he would be an exile, he gave information of the 
plot, of which he was cognizant, to the friends of the 
Syracusans at Messene ; these had previously put the 
conspirators to death, and at this time, when the 
Athenians arrived, those who were of this faction, 
being already in revolt and under arms, were strong 
enough to prevent their admission. So the Athen- 
ians stayed there about thirteen days, and as they 
were vexed by storms and without provisions and 
were making no progress at all, they retired to 
Naxos, and constructing dock-yards and building 
stockades round their camp, went into winter- 
quarters there. They also sent a trireme to Athens 
for money and cavalry, that these might be on 
hand at the opening of spring. 

LXXV. During this winter the Syracusans also 
proceeded to build a wall next to the city, along 

* cj. ell. Ixxii. 1. 

3^3 



THUCYDIDES 

iroiffa'dfievoh Tcix^ irapa irav to irpo^ ra^ 'Ett^- 
iroXai^ op&v, ovo)^ p,^ Si* i\daaovo^ evairoreCy^io'TOir 
SnTiVt fjv apa a^dXKanrrai, seal rh ^iyapa ^pov- 
piop Kol iv T^ ^OXvprtneupaXXo' teal rtjv OaXtta-aav 

2 irpovtrravptaaav vavraxfi V dirofidaei^ ^cav, teal 
T0U9 *A0ffpaLOV^ elBoTC^ iv ry Nafoi) "xeipbdl^ovTa^ 
iarpaTCvaav iravSffp^l iwl rifv Karavrfp, teal t^9 
T6 7^9 ain&v ercfiov Kal ra^ t&v ^AdrfvcUoov 
a-Kfjva^ Kol TO arpaToireBov ifjtirpijaapTe^ avej^co- 

3 pfqaav hr oikov. /caX irvvOavofievoi tov^ *A.0rjvai- 
01/9 69 Tffp ^apApivav Kara rifp iwl Ad)^rjTO<: 
y€POfUpffp ^vfJLpMxiov irpeafieveaOai, ei 7rG>9 rrpotr- 
aydryoivTO auTov<;, dvreirpea'/SevovTO fcal avToC* 
fjaav yhp vwotttoi ainol^ oi Kafuipivaioi fiij irpo- 
0vpM>s a'<l>ia'i /jLiJT €7rl rifv irpWTrjv p^dyfrjv wepAlrai 
h €Tr€p,ylrav, €9 t€ to Xoittop p^if oukcti jSouXtoVTai 
ap,vv€iv, opSiVTes rov^ ^A0fipaLOv<: iv t§ p^d'^r^ ev 
TTpd^avra^, irpoax^p&ai S* avToh /carh rifv irpo- 

4 ripav (f>i}dav ireiaOivTe^. d<f>iKopAv(ov oiv iK pukv 
XvpaKova&v ^Epp^xparov^ fcal aXXtov €9 rijv 
Kapdpivav, diro &€ r&v *A0r)vaL(ov lSiv<f>ijp^v pL€0* 
ereptov, 6 ^EppoKpdrrf^ ^vXKoyov yevopAvov r&v 
Kap^pivaimv fiov\6p£vo^ TrpoSia/SdWeiv tov9 
^AdrfvoLov^; eXeye roidBe. 

LXXVI. " Ou T^i; irapovaav hvvapAv r&v 
^AdrfvaloDv, & Kap^ptvaioi, pi} a\nr)v KaTairXa- 




BOOK VI. Lxxv. i-Lxxvi. I 

the entire extent that faces Epipolae^ taking in the 
Temenites preeinct^^ in order that^ in case of a 
possible reverse^ they might not be so easily shut 
in as if the circuit of the town were smaller ; and 
they also put a garrison at Megara and another at 
the Olympieum^ and fixed palisades on the sea-shore 
at all points where landings were possible. And 
knowing' that the Athenians were wintering at 
Naxos^ they went out with all their forces against 
Catana and ravaged some of its territory, then having 
set fire to the tents and the camp of the Athenians 
they returned home. Moreover^ on learning that 
the Athenians had, in accordance with an alliance 
concluded with the Camarinaeans in the time of 
Laches^^ sent envoys to these^ in the hope that 
they might win them to their side, they them- 
selves sent a counter-embassy ; for they had sus- 
picions that the Camarinaeans had not been zealous 
in sending such help as they had sent for the first 
battle, and might not wish to aid them in future, 
seeing that the Athenians had fared well in the 
fight, but might rather be induced, on the plea of 
their former friendship, to go over to the Athenians. 
Accordingly, when Hermocrates and others had ar- 
rived at Camarina from Syracuse, and from the 
Athenians Euphemus and the rest, an assembly of 
the Camarinaeans was held and Hermocrates, 
wishing to prejudice them against the Athenians, 
spoke as follows : 

"" LXXVI. '' We have come on this embassy, men of 
Camarina, not because we feared that you will be 

^ The temple of Apollo Temenites and the suburb which 
had grown up about it, the later Neapolis. 
2 427 B.C. ; c/. III. Ixxxvi. 2. 



THUCYDIDES 

yrJT€ heiaavre^ iTrpeaPevfrdfieda, aXka fiaWov 
TOt'9 fJtlWovra*; an avr&v Xoyov^i, irpiv ri kul 

2 rjfi&v dfcovaac, fiff vfias TreLaooaw. fjicovai yap 
69 rfjv SiKeXiav irpotfidaGt piv fj irvvOdvecOe, 
hiavoia Be fjv iravre^ vrcovoovpev Koi p,oi SoKOvaiv 
ov \€OvtIvov^ fiovKeaOat fcaTOiKta-ai, oKX* rjpLa^ 
p,dWov i^oiKiaai. ov yap Srj evkoyov ra^ puev 
CKel 7roXet9 dvacrTaTOVf; iroielv, Ta9 Se ivOdhe 
KaroiKi^etv, koX AeovTivcav p,ev XaXKiBStov ovrtuv 
Kara to ^U77ei;€9 /cijBeadac, Xa\/cf8€a9 Be tou? 
iv Fivffoia, &v oUSe airoiKoi eici, BovXaaapLCj/ov^; 

3 ex^i'V. rfj Be avrfj IBea ifcetvd re ea^ov kol to 
evddBe vvv ireip&VTav 'qyep6ve<; yctp yevopiei/oi 
eKOVTWv Tcbv T€ ^IdvoDv Kul o<TOi dwo a(f>&v yjaav 
^vp'PUiX^^ ^ ^'^'' '^^^ MrjBov TLpLtopla, rovs pLev 
XiTToarpaTiav, to ^9 Be in dXXi]Xov<; crrparevetp, 
T0t9 S' (09 eKaaroi^ rivet elxov airlav eifTrpeiri) 

4 etreveyKOVTe^ Karearpe'^avTo. Kal ov irepl t^9 
eXevdepia<i apa ovje ovrot tcov 'EKXi^vayv ovd* oi 
''EW97i'€9 T^9 eavT&v t^ M?yS^ dvTea-Trjaav, irepl 
Bk oi pL€v aifyiaiv dXKa p,rj eKeiv(p KaTaBovXdaeo)^, 
oi 8' eirX Bea-irorov pLerajSoXfj qvfc dJ^vvercorepov, 
KaKo^vverwTepov Be. 

LXXVII. " ' AXV oif yap Btf rriv T(av ^AOrfvaitov 
ev/carrjyoprjTov oiaav iroXiv vvv rjfcopsv dTro<f>a- 
316 



BOOK VI. Lxxvi. i-Lxxvii. I 

dismayed by the presence of the Athenian force, but 
rather through fear of the words that are going to 
be said on their part, lest these persuade you before 
3^ou hear anything from us. For they are come 'to 
Sicily on the pretext that you hear, but with the 
design that we all suspect; and to me they seem 
to wish, not to resettle the Leontines, but rather to 
unsettle us. For surely it is not reasonable to 
suppose that, while desolating the cities in their 
own country, they are resettling the cities of Sicily, 
and that they care for the Leontines, on the score 
of kinship, as being Chalcidians, while holding in 
slavery the Chalcidians in Euboea, of whom these 
are colonists. Nay, one and the same design has 
guided thenr in acquiring their possessions over there 
and is now guiding them in their endeavour to 
acquire possessions here : after they had become 
leaders, by the free choice of their associates, both 
of the lonians and of all those, descendants of the 
lonians, who were members of the alliance that was 
concluded, avowedly, for revenge upon the Persians, 
they charged some with refusal to serve, others with 
warring upon one another, others with whatever 
specious charge they had at hand, and so reduced 
them to subjection. And so, after all, it was not 
for ^freedom* that they withstood the Persians, 
neither the Athenians to win it for the Hellenes 
nor the Hellenes to win it for themselves, but they 
fought for the enslavement of the rest to themselves, 
and the Hellenes for a change of master, not to one 
more unwise, but more wickedly wise. 

LXXVn. " But we are not come now, easy though 
it be to denounce the Athenian state, to declare 
before those who know already how many are its mis- 

3^7 



THUCYDIDES 

vovvre^ iv elSoaiv oaa aiiKei, irokv hi iiaXKov fifjuas 
avToif^ alriaaofievoi on exovre^ irapaBetyfuiTa 
T&v T ifcei 'EXXijvoDV e&9 iSov\<odrf<Tav, ov/c dfMv- 
vovre^ <T<f>L<nv ainoi^, koI vvv €<!> fifia^ raira 
irapovra aoffyia/xaTa, Keovriwov re ^uyyev&v 
fcarotfciaei^ fcal ^ErfeaTaicov ^vfjLfidx<^v iiritcovpla^i 
ov ^va'Tpa<f>€pr€^ /3ov\6fi€0a vpoOvfioTepov Sei^at 
aifTOi^ OTi ovK *'Ift)i'€9 TaSc eldXv ovh* ^EKKriairov- 
Tioi KaX vTfai&Tai, ot hea-TroTrjv fj M^Soi/ fj (pa 
yi Tiva aUl fieTa/SaXXovre^ BovXovvrai, dWa 
Acopii]^, iXevOepoi dir avTOPOfiov rrj^ IleXoTrov- 
2 vqiTov rifv XtfceTdav oIkovvt€^. fj fievofiev &>9 &p 
Ifcaaroi Karh iroXei^ \7j(f>0&fiev, etSore^ on ravTrj 
fiovov aXtoTOL ia-fiev xal op&vre^ avrov^ iirl tovto 
TO €ZSo9 rpeirofievov^ &<tt€ rov^ fiev \6yoi^ rifi&v 
Suardvai, roif^ Si ^ufifidx^ov iXTriSi iKiroXefiouv 
7r/)09 dWijfKov^ rov^ Be W9 eKaaroi^ n Trpoarjvk^ 
\€70i'T€9 Svpavrai xaKOvpyelv; KoiX otofieOa rov 
arrtaOev ^vvoUov irpoairoXKvp^ivov ov xal i^ avrov 
nva rj^eiv to heivov, irpo Sh avrov /jlSXKbv tov 
Trdaxovra KaS* eavrov hvarvyelv; 

LXXVIII. "Kal el Ttp apa TrapiarrfKe rov fiev 
Svpaxoaiov, eavrov S* 06 rroXi/jLiov etvai r^ 'A^iy- 
va(^, Kal Beivov ^yetrai virep ye t^9 ifirj^ kipBv- 
veveiv, €v0vfii]0'^ro> ov rrepl rfj^ i/irj^ fiaXKov, iv 
Xatp hk KaX rrj^ eavrov afia iv r^ ifiy fjLaxovfi£vo^, 
Toaovrtp Se xaX da<j>a\i<Trepov Satp ov rrpohiei^ap- 

318 



BOOK VI. Lxxvii. i-Lxxviii. I 

deeds ; but much more to blame ourselves^ because^ 
though we have warning examples in the way that 
the Hellenes over there have been enslaved because 
they would not defend one another^ and though the 
same sophisms are now practised upon us — restorings 
of Leontine kinsmen and succourings of Egestaean 
allies ! — we are unwilling to combine together and 
with more spirit show them that here are not lonians 
nor yet Hellespontines and islanders^ who are always 
taking some new master^ Persian or whoever it may 
be^ and continue in a state of slavery^ but Doriang^ 
free men sprung from independent Peloponnesus, 
and now dwelling in Sicily. Or are we waiting until 
we shall be taken one at a time, city by city, when 
we know that in this way only can we be con- 
quered, and when we see them resorting to this 
policy, endeavouring to cause division among some 
of us by means of cunning words, to set others at 
war one with another by the hope of obtaining allies, 
and to ruin others in whatever way they can by saying 
something alluring to each } And dp we think that, 
when a distant compatriot perishes before us, the 
same danger will not come also to ourselves, but 
rather that whoever before us meets with disaster 
merely incurs misfortune by himself alone ? 

LXXVII I. "And if the thought has occurred to 
anyone that it is the Syracusans, not himself, who 
are enemies to the Athenians, and thinks it pre- 
posterous that he should incur danger for our 
country, let him reflect that it will not be chiefly 
for our country, but equally for his own at the same 
time that he will fight in our land, and with the 
greater safety, too, inasmuch as he will enter the 
contest, not when we have already been ruined, 

319 



THUCYDIDES 

fievov ifiov, €X<^v Be ^vfifiaypv ifie koX ovk iprjfjLO^ ^ 
aytovielrai, rov t€ *Adt)vaiov fiij t^v tov 2v/>a- 
tcoaiov exOpcLV Ko\(i<Ta<rdai, ry S' ififj irpof^daei 
TTjv iKclvov (f>i\Lav ovx ^(Taov /Se^cuaxraaOcu 

2 jSovXea-dai. et ri Tt9 (fyOovel fi€v ^ koI (fyo/SeZrai 
(a/JLiboTepa yap rdSe Trda)(jei. rh fjuei^eci), Sia Be 
aura Ta(; ^vpaKovaa^; Kcucfodrjvai fiep, tva aoa^po- 
vtadAfiev, fiovXerai, irepiyeveo'dai Sk €V€/ca t^9 
avTov aaKpdkeia^, ovk avdpoDTriPi]*: Suvdfieo}^ /3ov- 
Xrjaiv iXiri^ei, ov yap olov re afia t^9 t€ iiridv- 
fxias KaX T^ Tvxn^ '''ov avrov ofioica^i ra/jUav 

3 yeviadai. Kal el ypdfitf dfidproi, roi^ avrov 
Kaxoi^ o\o<f>vpd€i^ rdy civ ta-oo^s xal to£9 ipiol^ 
dyaOol^ TTore fiov\r}0€i,ij aidi^ ^Oopijaai, dSv- 
varov Se irpocfiiv^ xal /Mtf tov^ avrov^ kivBvvov^, 
ov irepl T&v ovo/jbdrayv dWa irepl t&v efyycov, 
idekriaavTi irpooKa/Selv \6y^ fiev ydp rtfv r^ie- 
ripav Svvafuv atp^oc dv Tt9, epy^ Be t^v avrov 

4 atorripiav. Kal frnKiara eiKo^ ^p vfia<;, S> Ka/jua- 
ptvaloi, 6fi6pov<; oina^ KaX rd Bevrepa KivBvvev- 
aovra^, Trpoopdadat airrd Kal /n^ p.a\aK&<: SarTrep 
vvv ^v/JLfiax^iv, avTov<; Be irpos ^fia^ fJidWop 
lovra^f direpy el €9 rtfv KapLapivaiav irpcorop 
d(l>iKOvro oi *A0rjvaioi, Beofjiepoc dv iireKaXeltrOe, 
ravra eK rov 6/jlolov koI vvp 'rrapaKe\evojj,4vov<:t 
07ra)9 firjBev evBdaofiev, (fya^veaOai, dW* ov0^ 
vfiet^ vvv ye ttg) ov0* oi dWoi iirl ravra Appur^aOe, 

LXXIX. "AetXia Be lato^ ro BUaiov irpo^ re 
rip&^ KoX irpo^ T0V9 iiriovTa^ Oepairevaere, Xeyojrre^ 

^ ipTJfMSt the reading of some inferior MSS. , seems to be 
rightly preferred by Bekker, Stahl, and Hude to ^prifjtoy of 
all the better MSS. 

320 




BOOK VI. Lxxvni. i-lxxix. i 

and not isolated himself^ but having us as allies; 
and that the object of the Athenians is not to punish 
the enmity of the Syracusans^ but having us as a 
pretext to make your ' friendship * still more secure. 
If, moreover, anyone is envious, or even afraid of 
us — for greater states are exposed to both these 
passions — and for this reason wishes that the Syra- 
cusans shall be humbled, indeed, in order that we 
may be sobered, but shall survive for the sake of 
his own safety, he indulges a wish that is not within 
human power to attain. For it is not possible for 
the same person to be in like measure the controller 
of his own desires and of Fortune ; and if he should 
err in judgment, when he has to lament his own 
ills he may perhaps some day wish once more to 
become envious of our good fortune. But that will 
be impossible, if he abandons us and does not con- 
sent to incur the same dangers, which are not 
about names but about facts ; for though nominally 
a man would be preserving our power, in fact he 
would be. securing his own safety. And most of all it 
were fitting that you, men of Camarina, who are on our 
borders and will incur danger next, should have fore- 
seen these things and not be, as now, slack in your 
alliance, but rather should have come to us of your- 
selves, and just as you, in case the Athenians had 
come against Camarina first, would be calling upon us 
and begging us not to yield an inch, so should you 
be seen in like manner now also using the same 
exhortation. But neither you, so far at least, nor 
the rest have bestirred yourselves for this. 

LXXIX. " But through timidity, perhaps, you will 
make much of the point of right as between us and 



J2I 
VOL. Ill ^ 



THUCYDIDES 

^Vfifiaxiav elvai v/uv 7rpo<s ^AOrjvaiov^' fjp ye ovk 
iifi Tols <I>l\ok iTTOci^aaaOe, t&v Se €j(j9p&p ijv ri^ 
e^' vfjbd^ Irj, Kol T0Z9 ye ^A0r)vaLOi<; fiorjOeiv, orav 
im aWfi)!/, KoX lit} avTol Sairep vvv tou9 ireKa^ 
aoifCODaiv, eirei ovo 01 rtjyivoi ovt€^ XaX/ciSij^ 
"KaXxiSia^ ovrcc^ Aeovrivov^ iOiXovai ^vyKaroi/ci- 

2 ^eiv. Kol Seivbv el cKeivoi fiev to ipyov tou xaXoO 
SiKaiw/JUiTo^ vTTOTTTevovTe^; aXoyoi^ (Tonffypovouaiv, 
vfiel^ S' ei/Koyq^ 'rrpo<f>da€i tov<: pJev (jyvaec iroXe- 
fiiov^ PovkeaOe ox^cXcir, tou9 he en jjloXKov (f^vaei 

3 ^vyyevelf; fierct t&v e')(jSi(TTWV Sia<f>0€ipai. dXX* 
ov SifcaioVt dfivveiv Se kul firj ^ofielaOai ttjp 
irapaaxeinfv avr&v ov yap, fjv f}nw ^vaT&puev 
7rdvT€<:, Beivi] iariv, d\X' ijv, oirep oiroi airev- 
Bovai, ravavria SiaaT&fiev, eTrei ovSi npo^ i/fta? 
pJivovs ekdovre^ koX fidxV ffepiyevofiepoi hrpa^ap 
a e^ovXovTO, airrjXffov Se Sid rdxov^. 

LXXX. "'^ilaTC ovx dOpoov^ ye ov'ra^ elxo^ 
d0vp.eiv, ievai Be €9 rffv ^vp.p<ixio,v irpoOvpLorepop, 
aXXo)? T€ KoX diro TLeXoirovvija'ov irapeaopApri^; 
w^eXia^, 01 r&vSe Kpeitraov^ elal to wapdirap rd 
TToXefAia^ Koi firj e/ceiinjv Tr^v irpop^rfOiap Soxeip 
r<p r)pAV pJkv i(rr)v clvai, vfiiv Se da(l>a\rj, to 
p,rjSeT€poi^ Stj €09 Kal dp^fyoTepoDV ovTa^ ivp,fidypv^ 
2 J3ofj0€iv, ov ydp epy^ laov &(nrep t^ SiKauo/iuTi 



t iBtK&yrat n to be understood. For similar ellipses, ej, 
I. Ixxviii. 10 i II. xi. 34 ; vii. Ixix. 3. 





BOOK VI. LXXIX. l-LXXX. 2 

the invaders, alleging that you have an alliance with 
the Athenians. That alliance, however, you made, 
not against your friends, but in the event of any of 
your enemies attacking you ; and you were to aid 
the Athenians only when they were wronged^ by 
others, and not when, as now, they are themselves 
wronging their neighbours. Why, not even the 
Rhegians, themselves Chalcidians, are willing to 
help to restore the Leontines who are Chalcidians. 
And it is monstrous if they, suspicious of what this 
fine plea of right really means in practice, are un- 
reasonably prudent,* while you, on a speciously 
reasonable pretext, desire to aid those who by nature 
are your enemies, and in concert with your bitterest 
foes to ruin those who by a still closer tie of nature 
are your kinsmen.^ Nay, that is not right ; but 
it is right to aid us and not be afraid of their 
armament. For if we all stand together, it is 
not formidable. The only danger is — and this is 
just what they are eager for — that we may stand 
opposed to each other ; for not even when they came 
against us alone and proved superior in battle did 
they effect what they wished, but quickly went away. 
LXXX. " So then, if only we be united, we have 
reason not to be disheartened, but rather to enter into 
the proposed alliance more heartily, especially as aid 
is sure to come from the Peloponnesians, who are 
altogether superior to these people in matters of 
war. And no one should regard as fair to us, while 
safe for you, that prudent course of yours — to aid 
neither, forsooth, as being allies of both. Indeed 
it is not as fair in fact, as when urged to justify 



2 i.e. discard logic and obey policy. 
' As Dorians and Sicilians. 



323 
Y 2 



THUCYDIDES 

icTiv, el yhp St' v/m^ firj ^vfifiax'n^cLvra^ 8 re 
iradwv (x^aXrjceTai xal 6 Kpar&v irepiiarai, ri 
aWo fj Tji avTTj airovaia to?9 fiiv ovk '^fivvare 
a-aoOrjvai, rov<i Se ovk iKtoXvaare xaKoif^ yevitrOai; 
Kalroi KoXKiov rol^ ahiKovfievoi^ koX afia ^vyye- 
viai TTpoaOepAvov^ rrjv t€ xoivffv i>(f>€\lav t§ 
%LK€KLa (f>v\d^aL Kal tou9 ^AOrfvaiov^ <f>i\ov^ Sij 
opra^ fiif iaaai dfiapreiv, 

3 " Svpe\6vT€^ T€ \eyo/jL€v oi ^vpaKocioi eKSiSd- 
CKew fi€V ovhev epyov elvai a-a(f>&<s oiire vjxa^ ovre 
roif^ aWov^ irepX &v avroX ovhkv ^^ei/ooi^ yv^von- 
axere* Seofieda Se Kal fiaprvpofieSa afia, el piif 
ireio'o/jLev, on iiri/SovXevofieda fiev viro *Id)V€ov 
aUl TToXefjiLcov, irpohihofxeOa he viro vfi&v ^copir]^ 

4 ^(opi&p. Kal el KaraaTpeylroprai fifia^ *Adr)pa2oi, 
Tat9 fJi^p vfierepai^ ypdfiai^ Kpar'^covai, r^ 8' 
avT&p opofiari Tip'TjOija'Oprai, Kal rrj^ plkt)^ ovk 
aWop Tipci adXop fj top Trfp pUrfp irapaaxopra 
XijyjroPTac Kal el aJ> rjfiel^; irepieaofieOa, tQ? 
alria^ r&p kipBvpcop ol avrol ttjp Tifuopiap v<f>€' 

6 fere. aKoirelre ovp Kal aipelaOe ijBr] ^ tt}p 
avriKa aKipSvpco^ SovXeiap fj k&p Trepiyepofievoi 
fied* rjfi&p TovaBe t€ /jlt} alaxp^^ Becnrora^ \afielv 
Koi TTJP irpo^ fjfia^ ex^pO'V M ^^ /Spax^^v yepo* 
fiiprjp Sm^V7etj/." 

LXXXI. ToiaOra fiep 6 ^EpfioKpaTfj^ elirep, 6 

324 



BOOK VI. LXXX. 2-LXXXI. 

you.^ For if through your failure to take sides as 
allies the sufferer shall be defeated and the con- 
queror shall prevail, what else have you done by 
Uiis selfsame standing aloof but refused to aid the 
one to secure his salvation and to prevent the other 
from incurring guilt ? And yet it were more honour- 
able for you, by siding with those who are being 
wronged ^ and are at the same time your kinsmen, at 
once to guard the common interest of Sicily and 
not suffer the Athenians, seeing that they are your 
^ good friends,' to make a serious mistake. 

'' Summing up, then, we Syracusans say that it is no 
hard matter to demonstrate, either to you or to others, 
what you yourselves know as well as we ; but we do 
entreat you, and at the same time we protest, if we 
fail to persuade you, that while we are plotted 
against by lonians,^ our inveterate enemies, we are 
betrayed by you, Dorians by Dorians. And if the 
Athenians shall subdue us, it is by your decisions 
that they will prevail, but it is in their own name 
that they will be honoured, and the prize of victory 
they will take will be none other than those who 
procured them the victory ; if, on the other hand, we 
shall conquer, you also will have to pay the penalty 
of being the cause of our perils. Reflect, therefore, 
and choose here and now, either immediate slavery 
with no danger or, if you join us and prevail, the 
chance of not having to take, with disgrace, these 
men as masters, and also, as regards us, of escaping 
an enmity that would not be transitory." 

LXXXI. Such was the speech of Hermocrates ; 



* Or, "as the plea of right represents it." 

* The Syracusans. ' The Athenians. 



325 



THUCYDIDES 

S' 'EtVif)fffio^ o T&v *AOi]vaimv trpeafievrrf^ pter 
avTov TOidSe, 

LXXXII. "*A<f>tK6fi>e0a fiev iirl rr)^ Trporepov 
ovar)^ ^Vfifxa'xjias avavedxreii rov Be SvpaKoa-iov 
KaOa'^afievov dvayKt] koI rrepl rrj^s apxrj^ elirelif 

2 a>9 elKoro)^ exofiev* to fiev oiv fiiyitrTOV fiaprv- 
piov avT09 elvev, on oi ^Imve^ aUL irore woXifuoi 
Tot9 AoDpievaiv elciv, e^ei Be koi ovrto^, ^j/nel^; 
yap "Icove^ ovre^ HeXoTrovi^rjaloi^ Atopievai, Kal 
irXeiodiv ovai Koi irapoiKovtnv, icKe-^p-dfieffa ortp 

3 TpoTTtp rjKcaTa^ irrraKovaofieda' xai p^rk ra 
MffBiKci vav^ /errfadpevoi rrj^ p^v AaKeBaipovitov 
dp-)(fi^ Koi fiyepovia^ aTrrjWdyrjfiev, ovBkp irpoari- 
Kov paWov rt ifC€Lvov<; 'qplv fj koX fipa^ eKeivoi^ 
iiTiTdaaeiv, '!r\i)V KaS" oaov ev t^ irapovTi pec^ov 
taxvov, avTol^ Be t&v vtto fiaaCKel irporepov ov 
raop ryyepove^ KaraaTdvre^ olKovp^ev, vopX<ravT€^ 
riKiar* &v inrb Tl€\o'nrovin]aioc^ ovrto^ elvat, Bvvapnv 
expvTe^ y dpvvovpeda, koX 0)9 to dxpifie^ eiireiv 
ovBe dBv/cco^ Karaarpey^dpevoi rov^ re ''Itova^s xal 
vrjartwTa^, ob^ ^vyyevel^ (fyaciv ovra^ rjpa^ ^vpa- 

4 KotnoL BeBovX&crdai, ffKBov yap eirX rijv p^rjTpo- 
TToXiv €<f ' ^pa^ p£rh rov MiJSou Kal ovk eroKp/ri' 
aav diroardvTe^ ra olfceia (jyffelpai, &<nrep rjpLel^ 
ixXiirovTe^ rfjv iroXtv, BovKeiav Be avroi re i/Sov- 
\opro Kal fipiv TO avTO €7reveyK€iv. 

^ alnr&¥, in MSS. before fiKurra, deleted by van Herwerden, 
followed by Hude. 

' aifTol, Hude emends to avT6vofiot, 



BOOK VI. LXXXI.-LXXXII. 4 

after him Euphemus^ the envoy of the Athenians^ 
spoke as follows : — 

LXXXII. ^'We had come here for the renewal 
of the alliance ^ which formerly existed^ but as the 
Syracusan has attacked us it is necessary to speak 
also about our empire^ showing how rightly we 
hold it. Now the strongest proof of this the speaker 
himself stated — that lonians have always been 
enemies to the Dorians. It is even so. Accordingly, 
we^ being lonians, considered in what way we should 
be least subject to the Peloponnesians who are 
Dorians and not only more numerous than we 
but our near neighbours.* And after the Persian 
wars we acquired a fleet and rid ourselves of the rule 
and supremacy of the Lacedaemonians, iti^Mngnot in 
any way more fitting that they give orders to us than 
we to them, except in so far as they at the time were 
stronger. Having, then, ourselves become leaders of 
those who were before subject to the King, we so 
continue, thinking that we should in this way be least 
subject to the Peloponnesians, because we have power 
with which to defend ourselves. And to say the 
exact truth, not unjustly, either, did we subdue both 
the lonians and the islanders, whom the Syracusans 
say we have enslaved though they are our kinsmen. 
For they came against us, their mother-city, along 
with the Persians, and had not the courage to revolt 
and sacrifice their homes, as we did when we aban- 
doned our city, but chose slavery for themselves and 
wished to impose the same condition upon us. 

* c/. ch. Ixxv. 3. 

' Or, retaining ainuv, '*For we, being lonians in the eyes 
of Peloponnesians who are Dorians, not only more numerous 
than we but also our near neighbours, considered in what 
way we should be least subject to them." 

3«7 



THUCYDIDES 

LXXXIII. "^Av$*&v a^ioi t€ opre^ afia apxpfiev, 
on T€ vavTiKov irXeiOTov t€ xal irpoOvfiiav airpo" 
^aawTTOv irapeaxofjueda i^ rov^ "EKXijva^, /cat 
SiOTi icat T^ Mi}^^ erolfiM^ tovto Bp&vre^ ovroi 
i7/ia9 epKairrov, a/ia Sc rrj^ w/>o9 HeXoirovvijariov^ 

2 lax^o^ opeyofievoi, koX ov /caXKieTrovfLeda w ^ 
rov fidp^apov /liomoi /caOekopre^ elxora^ apxpp^v 
fj €ir' i\€v0€pia t§ t&pSc paKKov fj r&v f u/iTrav- 
To>v re KOI T§ fip^repa avr&v Kivivvevaavre^. 
iraai Be av€iri<^dovov rifv irpoa'q/covaav awrrjpiap 
etciropL^eaOtu. Koi vvv rrjf; ^psripa^ da<f>a\€ia^ 
€V€/ca Koi ivOahe irapovr&i op&pev koX vpiv ravra 

3 ^vp^epovra* airo^aivop^v he i^ &v oiSe re Sia^ 
fidXXovai /ecu vpei^ p^Xiara iirl to ipofiepcorepov 
virovoelre, elSoTe^ rov^ wepiBeA^ inroTrrevovra^ ri 
\6yov pJev fihov^ to Trapavrixa repTropepov^, t^ 
S' i'^'x^eipriaei varepov rd ^vp<})€povTa irpdaaopra^, 

4 Ti]v T€ yhp i/cel dpxv^ elpij/capev Bid Seo9 ex^iv 
/cal rd evddhe hid ro avro rJKUv pjerd r&v (fyiXtav 
daffyaXA^ KaTaarfjaopevoi, /cal ov hovXaoaop^voi, 
prj iradelv he pJaXKov tovto /caoXvaovre^. 

LXXXIV. " 'Tiro\dj3y he prjheh a»9 ovhev irpoa- 
rj/cov vp&p KTjhopeda, yvov^ on a^^opivtav vp&v 
KaX hid TO pi) dadevel^ vpd^ ovra^ dvTeyeiv 
Xvpa/coaLoi<: ^aaov dv tovtcov Trepyjrdvrcov nvd 
hvpapip Il€\o7rovvi](Tioi<; fipel^ fiXairjoip^da. xal 
2 iv T0VT<p irpoarjKere rjhr) rjpXv rd perfiara^ hi 
928 



BOOK VI. Lxxxiii. i-Lxxxiv. 3 

LXXXIII. " We have dominion, therefore, both 
because we are worthy of it — seeing that we fur- 
nished the largest fleet and unhesitating zeal toward 
the Hellenes, and that they, readily taking the course 
they did in the interest of the Persians, were doing 
us harm — and at the same time because we aimed at 
strength with which to resist the Peloponnesians. 
And we do not say in fine phrases that we deserve to 
rule either because we alone overthrew the Barbarian 
or because we incurred danger for the liberty of these 
men more than for that of all the Hellenes, including 
our own. But no one can be reproached because he 
makes provision for his proper safety. And now when 
for the sake of our own security we have come here 
also> we see that your interests also are the same as 
ours. And this we prove to you both from these 
men's calumnies and from those suspicions of yours 
which most tend to undue alarm, because we know 
that those who are suspicious through excessive fear 
may indeed take delight for the moment in seductive 
speech, but afterwards when it comes to action con- 
sult their own interests. For just as we have said 
that we hold our dominion over there because of 
fear, so we say that for the same reason we have 
come here with the help of our friends to place your 
affairs on a footing of safety for us, and not to enslave 
you, but rather to prevent your being enslaved. 

LXXXIV. ''And let no one object that we are 
solicitous for you when it does not concern us ; let 
him reflect that, if you are preserved and by not 
being weak are able to offer resistance to the Syra- 
cusans, we should be less liable to injury through 
their sending a force to aid the Peloponnesians. 
And herein you become at once our chief concern 

329 



THUCYDIDES 

orrep xal tou9 Aeovrivov^ evXoyov Karoi/ci^eiv, fit) 
virrj/coov^ &air€p rov^ ^vyyepet^: avr&v tou9 iv 
lEv/3ol(f, aXX* e!)9 SvpaTaTarov^, Zva itc t^9 o"^€- 
repa^ ojjLopoi ovre^ rolaBe virep ripL&v Xvirrfpol 
3 &a-iv. ra fikv yap itcet xal avrol aptcovfia^ 7r/909 
T0^9 TToXefiiov^, Kol 6 XaXKiBev^, iv aX6ya>^ rip>d^ 
(jyyjat SovXcoaafiivov^ tov9 ivOaZe iXevOepovv, 
^vfKJyopo^ 7)p!lv airapcuTKeva^ iiv xal ;^/)i;/iaTa 
IJLovov <f>€p(i)v, Tct Bk iv6abe Koi Aeovrlvot ical 
ol aWoi <I)l\oi oTi frnXiara avrovofiovfiepoi, 

LXXXV. " *ApBpl Be rvpdppcp fj iroXu ap'xjqv 
i'Xpvar) ovBep aXoyop o ri ^vp,<f>€pov ovS* olfceiop 
o Ti firj TTiarop* irpo^ exaara Be Bet fj e^dpov fj 
<f>iXop fiera xaipov yiypeaOai, koX fifia^ tovto 
w<f>€X€t ipOdBe, ov/c fjp roit^ ^iXov^ tcaxdacofiep, 
dXX* fjp ol ex^poX Bid ttjp t&p ^iXav p(!>fir)p 

2 dBvparoL &aip, diriarelp Be ov XPV' ^^^ y^P 
rou9 ifcei ^vfi/id)(pv^ e[)9 e/caaroi )(^pi]aip/)i i^rjyov- 
fieda, Xtoi;9 p^ep koI MrjOvp^paiov^ pc&p irapOKtaxV 
avTop6p>ov^, T0V9 Be TroXXob^ XPVP^'^^^ fiutio- 
repop if>opa, a\Xoi/9 Be koX trdpv eXevdepto^ f^^A*" 
pxtxovpja^, Kaiirep p-qamra^ opra^ KaX evXrpTTOv^:, 
BioTi €P 'ycopioi^ eiTLKaipoi^ elal irepl ttjp IleXo- 

3 TTOPPrjaop, &<TTe koX rdpOdBe elxb^ wpo^ to 
XvaiTeXovp Kai, o Xeyop^p, e9 XvpaKoaiov^ Beo^ 
Kadiaraadai. dpx^^ ydp i<l>i€PTat vp,&p koI 



330 



BOOK VI. Lxxxiy. a-Lxxxv. 3 

For £))is very cause^ too^ it is reasonable that we 
should restore the Leontines^ so that they shall not 
be subjects like their kinsmen in Euboea^ but shall 
be as powerful as possible^ in order that^ bordering 
as they do on the Syracusans^ they may from their 
own territory be troublesome to these in our behalf. 
For as to matters in Hellas^ we by ourselves are a 
match for our enemies^ and in regard to the Chal- 
cidians/ whom he says we are inconsistent in free- 
ing here after enslaving them at home^ it is to our 
interest that they should possess no armament and 
should contribute money only; but as to matters 
here^ it is to our interest that both the Leontines and 
our other friends should enjoy the fullest measure of 
independence. 

LXXXV. "To an autocrat or an imperial city 
nothing is inconsistent which is to its interest^ nor is 
anyone a kinsman who cannot be trusted ; in every 
case one must be enemy or friend according to 
circumstances. And in Sicily it is to our advantage, 
not that we should weaken our friends^ but that our 
enemies should be powerless because of the strength 
of our friends. And you must not mistrust us ; for 
we lead our allies in Hellas as they are each useful 
to us: the Chians and Methymnaeans as indepen- 
dent^ on the condition of furnishing ships; the 
majority on more compulsory terms, with payment 
of tribute in money ; others, though islanders and 
easy to be reduced, on terms of absolute freedom as 
our allies, because they occupy strategic positions 
along the coast of the Peloponnese. So that it is 
natural that matters here also should be ordered with 
an eye to our advantage, and, as we say, with refer- 
ence to our fear of the Syracusans. For they aim at 

3V 



THUCYDIDES 

fiovXovrai iirl r^ fifierip^ (vanja-avre^ vfia^i 
VTToiTTtp, Pia.fj Koi Kar epfjfiiav, airpaxTtov rjiiSiv 
airekOovTdJv, avrol ap^ai rrj^ '^ucekia^, avafyxTf 
a, rjv fv<rT^T€ 7r/)09 avrov^' ovre yap fipXv en 
earcu iaxv^ Toaavrq e? ev ^vardaa evfierax^i' 
piara^, ovff otfi" aadevel^ av ripAv fiif irapovrtov 
irpo^ v/ia^ eUp, 

LXXXVL "Kal ory ravra fiij Sok€i, avro 
TO epyov iKeyxjEi. to yhp irporepov rjfia^ iir- 
rjyar^eade ovk aWov riva irpoaeioPTe^ <l>6/3ov tj, 
el ir€pio'^6fieda vfia^ viro Xvpaxoaioi^ yeve- 

2 <r0ai, on Kal avrol KipSwevtrofuv, teal vvp 
ov Si/caiov, &irep KaX ijfia^ ^^lovre \6y^ ireiOeip, 
T^ avT^ airiareiv, ovS* on Svvdpst fiei^ovi irpo^ 
Tfjv T&pBe i<T')(vp irdpeap^ep inroTTTeveaffai, ttoXv 

3 Be fiaXKop rolaBe aTnareiP, ^fiei^ /jlcp ye ovre 
ififulpai Bvparol /it) fie0* vfi&p, el re fcal yepo- 
fiepoi tcaKol KarepyaaaifieOa, dBvparoi Karaa"xeiv 
Bia fiijKo^ re irXov fcal diropiq, <l>v\aKr]<; iroKetop 
/leydXfop koI rfj irapaaKev^ rjireipairlBcDP' oXBe Be 
ov arparoireB^, mXei Bk fiei^u^ rrj^ ^/lerepa^ 
Trapovaia^ eiroiKOVpre^ vp2v alei re^irifiovXevovai 
fcai, orap /caipop Xdficoatp CKdarov, ovtc dpiaaip 
{eBei^ap Be Kal aWa '^Brj Kal rd €9 Aeopripov^;), 

4 xal pvp To\/i&<rip iirl rov^ ravra KcoXvopra^ fcal 



^ In 427 B.O., when Camarina stood with the Leontines aud 
other Chalcidians against Syracuse ; c/. iii. Ixxxvi. 2. 

' f.6. with infantry and cavalry, our forces being purely 
naval. 

332 




BOOK VI. Lxxxv. 3-iJtxxvi. 4 

dominion over you, and wish^ afler uniting you with 
themselves on the ground of your suspicion of us, 
then by force, or because of your isolation when we 
shall have gone away unsuccessful, themselves to rule 
Sicily. And that is sure to happen if you unite with 
them ; for neither will so great a force, if once com- 
bined, be any longer easy for us to handle, nor would 
the Syracusans lack strength to deal with you if we 
should not be present. 

LXXXVI. " And if there be anyone who docs not 
accept this view, that which has taken place will 
itself prove his error. For you brought us over 
before,^ flaunting in our faces no other terror but 
this, that we ourselves should be in danger if we 
should permit you to come under the power of the 
Syracusans. And it is not right for you now to 
distrust the very argument by which you thought it 
right to persuade us then, nor to be suspicious 
because we are present with a force out of all pro- 
portion to the strength of the Syracusans ; far more 
should you distrust them. We certainly are not able 
to maintain ourselves in Sicily without you; and 
even if we should prove false and subdue Sicily, we 
should be unable to hold it on account of the length 
of the voyage and the difficulty of guarding cities 
that are as large and well equipped as continental 
cities^ ; whereas these Syracusans, in hostile proximity 
to you, not with a mere army in the field, but a city 
greater than our present force, are always plotting 
against you, and whenever they get an opportunity 
against you singly, do not let it slip, as they 
have shown several times already and especially in 
their dealings with the Leontines; and now they 
make bold to urge you to oppose those who seek to 

333 



THUCVDIDES 

avtxopTiK rtjp XuceXiav fUxpi rovSe fit) tnr' 
ainovi elvai ■jrapaKoXclv tifia^ ^ avaKrd^rov^. 
5 noXit hi ettI aKt^dea-Tepetv ye attTijpiay ^/Mi; 
avTiirapaKoXovfiev, Seo/tevoi rijv virdpjfpvirav aTr' 
dWijKat' afitf>oT€poiv /tt) vpoSiSovai, vofutrai re ^ 
TOiaSe fuv «al avev ^v/i/idxt^v aitl e<ft' Vfiai 

€ToifirfV St^ TO 1lXTJdo<t t7w»( o&ov, Vfiiv B' ov 

iroXXaxK trapaaxn""^ ftera ToaijaBe iviKOvpiai 
afLVPaaOat' t^v el t^ vTromat r} dnpaiCTOV eatreTe 
aire\0elv 4 ««' a^aXelaav, en ^ovkrjaeaBe Koi 
TToXXoaThv ftopiov avTrp iZeiv, ore ovbhi eri ire- 
pavei wapayei/oftevov vfuv. 

LXXXVII. " ' AXXA firiTE iifteK, & Kafiapivaioi, 
Taii TtovBe 8(tt/3oXa« avatrelBeaBf /iijVe oi aWof 
etp^KOfiev S' ti/itv traaav t^k aX^Seiav Ttpl &v 
vTroTTTtvofieffa, koI eti ev Ketf>a\cuoK virofiv^- 

2 travre^ a^iwaofi^v ireidetv, ifM/iev yetp apj^ew fiip 
T&p eicei, 'iva p.tj uTraicovafiev aXkov^ ektvBepovv 
£i tA evffdBe, Strttt^ p,T) vtr avrSiv ^Kanr-yoip/^a, 
TfdKKa S' avayKa^eadai •Kpdo'auv, Stort xtU ttoXXA 
ij)vKai7tr6fie6a, ^vp-fia-xpt Se xal vvp KaX irporepop 
TOK ivddSe iipMiv dhtKovpLevom ovk ojcXtitoi, irapa- 

3 KXifOivret hi ^Ketp. Kal iifieK fitjO' as SiKaa-Tal 
yevoftepot roiv ijpXp iroiovfihfwp p.-qS' u><i aai<ppo- 

^ Ti, Hade read* tt with M. 

' *tA\i wpiaaiu, an well hi toKinrfa-r^tgirn Mow, U mad 
Q ft0M)d MMO, ohftrnoteriziiig the policy of the Athenimm at 
***■—— ^ — ^ d««rifaed by FericlM in the fuaeral orjUoa, 




BOOK VI. Lxxxvi. 4-LXXXV11. 3 

prevent these things and who up to this time have 
kept Sicily from being under their dominion^ as 
though you were without sense. But it is to a safety 
far more real that we in our turn invite you^ "begging 
you not to throw away that safety which we both 
derive from one another ; and to consider that for 
them, even without allies, the way is always open 
against you because of their numbers, whereas for 
you the opportunity will not often present itself to 
defend yourselves with the help of so great an 
auxiliary force. But if through your suspicions you 
suffer this force to depart with its object unaccom- 
plished, or, worse still, defeated, you will hereafter 
wish that you could see even the merest fraction of it 
when its presence will no longer avail you aught. 

LXXXVI I. "Nay, be not moved, men of Camarina, 
either you or the other peoples of Sicily, by the 
calumnies of these men. We have told you the whole 
truth concerning the matters of which we are 
suspected, and now again briefly recalling to your 
minds the chief points of our argument, we fully 
expect to convince you. We say, namely, that we 
hold sway over the cities in Hellas in order that we 
may not have to obey some other power, but that we 
are trying to free those here, in order that we may not 
be injured by them. We are obliged to be active 
in many matters,^ because we have many dangers to 
guard against; and we come as allies, now as before, 
to those of you here who are wronged, not uninvited, 
but by your express invitation. And do not you, 
by constituting yourselves either judges of our con- 
duct or by tutoring us in moderation ^ — a hard task at 

^ ffto^poviffToi as in iii. Ixv. 3 ; viii. xlviii. 6 ; c/. Plato, Bep, 
471 a tvfjLtv&s trwippoyiovaipf ovk 4nl 9ov\ti(f Ko^diovrts, M* iir* 

335 



THUCYDIDKS 

piaraij h \akenov ^Si|, avorpeweiv ireipaaffe, Kaff 
Saov Se Ti vfJMf T^ ^fJL€T€pa^ iroXvirpajfioawrj^ 
/cai rpoTTov ro avro ^ufi<l>€p€i, rovrtp airoXafiovre^ 
')(prj<r€UT0€, /cai voidaare fi^ iropra^ iv Xatp fiXd- 
irreiv aind, iroXv Se irXdov^ r&v 'EXXiji/coi/ fcal 

4 oMfteXeiv. iv vaml yap ird^ ^^fiopta), xdv m /it) 
inrdfy)^ofi€P, o re olofievo^ aSiKijaeaOai teal 6 iiri- 
fiovXewov 8ia to eroifirfv^ inretvai iXiriSa t^ 
fihf avTiTVX€iv iiriKOvpia^ dff> ^pAv, r^ 84, el 
ff^ofMCv, fiTj dSeei elvai KivSvvcveiv, dfju^oTepoi 
dvaytcd^oprai 6 piv axtov amff^povelv, o £' air pay- 

6 pivta^ a^^eadai, ravrqv oiv Trfv xoivifv t^ t€ 
Seopepqt xai vpXp vvv irapovaav daff^dXeiav pLtf 
dwdarfaOe, aXX' i^i<rwaavT€^ rol^ aWoi^ p^6^ 
flpAv TOi9 ^vpaxoaioi^, avrl rod aUl ^v\daae<T0(u 
airrov^, xal avT€infiov\€v<rai ttotc ix tov ofioiov 

LXXXVIII. Toiavra Be o Kv^po^ clirev, ol 
Se ^apapivaioi erreirovdeaav roiovBe, roi^ p,€v 
* A6r)vaioi^ evvoi fjaav, irXifV kuO^ oaov ^ riyi/ 
'l.iKeXlav wovro avrov^ BovKdHreaOai, rot? Se 
^vpa/coaioi^ aUl Kara to opopov Bid<f>opor SeSi- 
0T69 S' ovy v^o'ov T0U9 XvpuKoatov^ iyyv^ ovra^ 
pff kclL av€v (Tip&v irepiyepaPTUi, to re irp&rov 
auTo?9 TOW? okiyov^ iTnria^ eTrepyjrav koI to Xocttop 
iSoKei avTol^ inrovpyeiv pkv toI^ ^vpaKoaloi^ 

^ Hiit, rh irot/jLiiv dirctvax i\irllia . . . ctfi^^^^h ^^ text is 
probably corrupt. Hude follows van Herwerden in reading 
&i{ri]rvxc<i'» and, with Kriiger, emends AScctt of the MSS. to 
AScfi, and deletes Kivhwtv^w, Steup, m also Stahl, adopts 
Reiske's conjecture i,Ms and deletes kivZw^I^iv, 

a ci, after Kaff Zwp in MSS., deleted by Reiske, followed 
by Kriiger. 



BOOK VI. Lxxxvii. 3-LXXXVU1. T 

this late day ! — make any attempt to divert us, but 
in so far as any tiling in our busy activity and our 
character is at the same time to your interest, take 
this and make use of it ; and think, not that these 
quaUties of ours are hurtful alike to all, but that they 
are even profitable to far the greater part of the. 
Hellenes. For everyone in every place, even where 
we are not already present, both he that thinks he 
will suffer wrong, and he that plots to do wrong— on 
account of the certain prospect that is ever present in 
their minds, in the one case that he Avill obtain succour 
from us in return for his allegiance, in the other that, 
if we shall come, he will run the risk of not escaping 
unscathed for his wrongdoings — are both alike under 
constraint, the latter to be moderate however unwilling, 
the former to be saved without effort of his own. This 
common safety, then, which is now offered to anyone 
who may ask for it as well as to you, reject not ; but 
availing yourselves of it as others do, join forces with 
us and instead of having always to be on your guard 
against the Syracusans, change your course and at 
length plot against them even as they have plotted 
against you." 

LXXX VIII. Thus Euphemus spoke. But what the 
Camarinaeans had felt was this : They were well 
disposed to the Athenians, except in so far as they 
thought that these would enslave Sicily ; but with 
the Syracusans, as is usual with next-door neighbours, 
they were always at variance. And it was because 
they were more afraid of the Syracusans, as being 
so near, that they had in the first instance sent them 
the few horsemen,* lest they might prove superior 
to the Athenians even without their aid ; and they 

^ 1 Oh. Ixvii. 2. 

337 

VOL. HI. Z 



THUCYDIDES 

fiaWov epytp, co? av Svvcovrai fieTpicaTara, it/ Se 
T^ frapovTi, Xva firjBe toI? * AOtjvoloi^: cKaaaov 
SoK&ai velfiai, iireiSij xal iiriKpaTea-Tepoi t^ f^^XO 

2 iyepoPTO, \oy^ arrofcpipaaOai laa afju^oT€poi^. koI 
OVTO) ffovKevadfiePOi aireKpipapro, iiretBr] rvy^^aj/et 
afi<f>oT€poi^ ova I ^vfifidxoi^ <r<l>&p tt/oo? dWijXov^ 
TToXe/Lto? &p, evopfcop Boxeip elpai a<f>io'ip iv t& 
irapoPTi pLTfBerepoi^ dfivpeip, xal oi irpiapei^ 
ixariptop dirrjXdop, 

3 Kal oi fJL€P ^vpaKoaiot rd tcaO^ €avToif<; i^T/prv- 
OPTO €9 TOP TToXefiop, ol 8' ^A0T]paloL iv T§ Na^G) 
iarpaToireSev/iepoi rd tt/oo? tov^ ^ixeXoif^ eirpaa- 
aop, 07rG)9 avTol<; co? TrXeiaTOi irpoa^y^aypTjaovrat, 

4 /cat oi pip 7rpb<; rd ireBta p,aX\op tmp 'S,tK€\&v, 
vrrrjfcooL 6pt€<; tcop ^vpaKoaLtap, oif^ iroWol aKfyei- 
arriKeaav t&p Be ttjp p,€<r6y€iap ixoPTO>p avrovopLoi 
ovaai Kal irporepop alel ai ^ olKrjaei^ €v0v^, 7r\i)v 
okiyoi, p^erd T€0P ^AOrfpaicap fjtrap, icaX alrov re 
KaTCKopi^op rq) arparevp^Ti kcu elaXv o'i kol 

6 xprifxara, iirl Be rov^ p,fj irpoa^wpovPTa^ oi 
*A0r)paloi (rTparevaapref; roif^ phf Trpoarjpdy/ca^ov, 
Toif^ Be Kal viro tcjv ^vpaKoaiayp, <f>povpou^ t 
iaTrep^TTOPTcop Kal ^or)0ovpT(op, diTeKcoXvoPTO, top 
T€ x^^l^^v^ p,edopp>iadp>€POi> ck rrj^ Nafou €9 rffv 
JS,ardp7jp Kal to aTpaToireBop 8 KaTexavdr) viro 
TCOP Xvpafcoaicop av0i<; dpopdaxraPTe^ Bi€')(€LpLa^ov. 

6 Kal eirep^^ap p.ep €9 Kapxv^opa Tpiijpt) irepl <pi\Ca<}, 
el BvpaivTo Ti a>(l>€\€2<T0ac, eirep^yfrap Be fcai €9 
Tvparjpiap, eaTip S)p iroXecap iirayyeWop^ipcop fcal 



* Canter's correction for ol iroWoi of the MSS. 

* at added by Bekker. 



338 





BOOK VI. Lxxxviii. 1-6 

now resolved for the future to keep on giving to them 
rather than to the Athenians assistance i^ fact^ 
though as moderately as possible^ and for the present^ 
in order that they might not seem to show less favour 
to the Athenians, especially since these had proved 
the stronger in the battle, to give in word the same 
answer to both. Having thus determined, they 
made answer, that, as they were allies of both parties 
that were at war, it seemed to them to be consistent 
with their oath to aid neither at present. So the 
envoys of both sides went away. 

The Syracusans on their side were getting ready 
for the war, while the Athenians who were encamped 
at Naxos were negotiating with the Sicels, in the 
effort to bring over as many of them as possible. 
Now, of the Sicels that lived more toward the flat 
country and were subjects of the Syracusans not 
many ^ had revolted ; but the Sicel settlements in the 
interior, which even before had always been indepen- 
dent, with few exceptions straightway sided with the 
Athenians, bringing down grain for the army and in 
some cases money also. Against those that did not 
come over the Athenians took the field, and compelled 
some to do so, but were kept from compelling others 
by the Syracusans, who sent garrisons to their relief. 
Removing also the anchorage of their fleet from Naxos 
to Catana, and restoring the camp which had been 
burned by the Syracusans, they passed the winter 
there. They sent also a trireme to Carthage on a 
mission of friendship, in the hope that they might be 
able to get some aid; and they sent one also to 
Tyrrhenia, as some of the cities there offered of 

^ Or, retaining ot voWolj ^^most had held aloof," i.e. from 
the alliance with the Athenians. 

339 



THUCYDIDKS 

avrmr ^vfivoXs^Leaf* vepiifyyeXXjop ik xai rok 
^dxeXoli Kol 69 TVfp "E/feaTiuf Trifiy^atrre^ iiceKeuov 
vnrov^ a^iaiv 109 ttKeuttov^ 'irefiireiv, teal ToXXa 
e9 Tov Tr€piT€i')(iaiiov, irXtvOia ^ maX aiSffpov, ^Toi- 
fta^ov, xai oaa eSeh ^ S,fui r^ rjpi e^ofuvoi tov 
iroXifiou. 

7 Oi S* 69 TTfp Koptvffov KoX Aojcehaipuova t&v 
XvpaxoaiiDPairoaraXevre^ irpiaffcK rou^ re'IraXi- 
orra^ ap4i irapaifkiovTe^ hreip&vro ireidetv fit) 
ireptopav ra ^lyvopeva inro t&v *Adtfpaiav, <&9 teal 
i/ceCvoi^ 6fiouo<; iirifiovXevopjeva, kclL iire^S^ iv ry 
^opivOtp iyevovTO, Xoyov^ iiroiomrro a^ioihrre^ 

8 a<f>Lai Kara to ^i/TTCve^ fiorjffelv. xai 01 K^oplv- 
Oioi, €v0if^ yfn)<l)ia'dp.€voi auroi irp&Toi &aT€ trcurp 
irpoOvpla afjLVveiVy KaX 69 rriv Aaicehaipava ^vvair- 
eareWop ainok irpiafiei^t oira^ xal ifceivov^; 
^wavanciOoiev tov t€ airrov ir6\€px>v aa^earepov 
iroieurOac irpo^ Toif^* AOfjvaCoi/^ xal 69 Ttfv 'EiKeXiav 

9 aHf>€\iav Tiva irifiTreiv. xal 01 t€ ix T7}9 TS^opivOou 
trpea^ei^ iraprjaav 69 Tr}v XaKehaipjova kcu *A\fci^ 
fiidSfj^ fieTa T&v ^upxf>vydB(av, Trepaitoffa,^ tot 
eudv^ iirl irXoiov <l>opTiKov ck T179 ^ovpia^ €9 
KvWi]vijv TTJ^ 'HX6ia9 irp&TOv, eireiTa vaTepov 
69 Trjv AaxeSaifiOva avT&v t&v AaxeBcufiovCfov 
pjETaTrep^^avTrnv inroaiTOvho^ iXOdv i<f>ofi€lTO yap 

10 avToif^ Sia Tr^v irepi t&v MavTivifc&v irpa^iv. scat 
^vveffff iv T§ iKfcXi]<ria t&v AaKeSaifiovitov T01/9 
T€ KopivOiov^ Kol Tov^ Xvpa/coaiov^ Ta aura Kal 
TOV ^AXKifiidBfjv heopivov^ ireiBeiv tov^ AafceSai- 
p^oviou^, Kal Siavoovp4vG)v t&v t€ if^optav koi 

^ Hude writes irXiyecia, after the Schol. Patm. (rk iv rvwois 
iAXa, ots r^f wKivBovs Kart€Ktua(ov). 




BOOK VI. Lxxxviii. 6-1 o 

themselves to join them in the war. They also 
despatched messengers to the various Sicel tribes^ 
and sending to Egesta urged them to send as many 
horsemen as possible ; and they were getting ready 
for the circumvallation bricks and iron and whatever 
else was needful^ with a view to taking the war in 
hand as soon as spring opened. 

Meanwhile the Syracusan envoys, who had been 
sent to Corinth and Lacedaemon^ as they sailed along 
the coast tried to persuade the Italiots ^ not to tolerate 
the conduct of the Athenians, as the plot was aimed 
equally against them; and when they reached Corinth 
they made an appeal to the Corinthians, urging them 
to send them aid on grounds of kinship. And the 
Corinthians at once took the lead in voting to aid 
them with all zeal themselves, and also sent envoys 
along wilh them to Lacedaemon, to help in persuading 
them not only to prosecute the war at home more 
openly against the Athenians, but also to send aid 
in some form to Sicily. Accordingly there were 
present at Lacedaemon these envoys from Corinth, 
and also Alcibiades with his fellow-exiles. He had, 
at the time of which we have spoken,^ at once crossed 
over on a freight-boat from Thuria, going first to 
Cyllene in Elis, and had afterwards, on the summons 
of the Lacedaemonians themselves, come to Lace- 
daemon under safe-conduct ; for he feared them on 
account of his intrigues in the affair of the Mantineans. 
So it happened that in the Lacedaemonian assembly 
the Syracusans, the Corinthians, and Alcibiades, 
making the same appeal, were prevailing upon the 
Lacedaemonians. The ephors indeed and others in 

^ Greek colonists settled in the part of Italy called Magna 
Graecia. * c/. ch. Ixi. 6. 

341 



THUCYDIDES 

T&v iv rikei ovrtav irpia-ffei^ ire/jLireip e? Si/oa- 
Kovaa^ KoaiKvovra^ fii) ^Vfij3aiv€iv ^Adrjvaioi^, 
fioffdeiv Be ov wpodvfJL&v ovrtov, wapeKBoiv 6 ^AXkl- 
fiidSrf^ vapw^vvi re roif^ AaKehcufioviov^ teal 
i^wpfirjae Xeyav TOtdSe, 

LXXXTX. " ^Avay/caiov irepl t^ €fifj^ Bia/So- 
Xrj^ irptarov €9 v/ia? elirelv, Iva fiij 'XJ^lpov ra 

2 Koivit Ta> vTroirrq) fiov dicpodarjaOe. twp Stj ifjL&v 
irpoyovtav rffv irpo^eviav v/i&v xard rt eyKXrjjjui 
diretirovrdyv avTo^ iyo) irdKiv dvaXafifidvtov idepd- 
wevov vfid^ aWa t€ xal irepX rijv ix TlvXov 
^vpj^opdv, K(U BiaTeXovvTo^ p,ov irpoOvfiov vfiel^ 
irpo^ * AOrjvaiov^ KaraWao'a'Ofievoi toI^ fiev ifioZ^ 
i'XOpot^ Svva/iLv, Bi iiceivtov irpd^avre^, ifiol Be 

3 dripiav irepieffere, koX Biol ravra BiKaiay^ vir 
ifiov irpo^ re rd Mavrivecov /cal ^ApyeCtav rpairo- 
fiivov ical o(Ta dWa '^vaPTiovfir)v vfuv i/SXdirrea'ffe' 
/cal vvv, el rt? xal Tore ev t& irda'^eiv ovk eiKorco^ 
wpyi^CTo fioi, fiercL rov dXrjOov^ (tkott&v dvairei- 
OeaOco' rj et ta9, Bioti xal t^ B-qfitp irpoaeKeifirjv 
fiaXXov, xeip(o fie evo/ii^e, fjLfjB* ovra^ ^yi^<Trfrai 

4 opOw axOecdai. toZ? ydp rvpdvpoi^ alei nore 
Bid<f>opoL ecTfiev {irdv Be ro evavTiovpuevov r^ Bvva- 
arevovTi Brjfio^ oDVO/iacTcu), /cal dir e/ceivov ^v/i- 
Trapifieivev 17 TrpoaTaaia rjfilv tov wXijdov^. a/ia 
B^ /cal T^9 7ro\€ft)9 Brjfio/cparovfiepTff; rd iroXXd 



342 




BOOK VI. Lxxxviii. lo-Lxxxix. 4 

authority were already intending to send envoys to 
Syracuse to prevent their making terms with the 
Athenians, but were not disposed to send them aid ; 
Aleibiades, however, coming forward, inflamed the 
Lacedaemonians and goaded them on, speaking as 
follows : 

LXXXIX. " It is necessary first of all to speak to 
you about the prejudice against me, in order that 
you may not through suspicion of me give a less 
favourable hearing to matters of public concern. 
When my ancestors on account of some complaint had 
renounced their office as your proxenoi, I myself, 
seeking to revive the relationship, courted your favour 
in other matters and especially in regard to your mis- 
fortune at Pylos.^ And although I continued zealous, 
you, in making peace with the Athenians, by negotia- 
ting through my personal enemies conferred power 
upon them but brought dishonour upon me. For 
these reasons you deserved the injury you suffered 
when I turned to the side of the Mantineans and 
Argives, and when I opposed you in other matters.^ 
And if anyone at the actual moment of suffering was 
unduly angry at me, let him now look at it in the 
light of the truth and be led to a different con- 
viction ; or if anyone thought worse of me because 
I was more inclined to the cause of the people, 
let him not even on that ground suppose that he 
was rightly offended. For my family have always 
been at variance with tyrants, and as all that is 
opposed to despotic power has the name of democracy, 
so from the fact of that opposition of ours the leader- 
ship of the people has remained with us. Besides, 
while the city was a democracy, it was necessary in 

» cf. V. xliii. 2. « c/. V. liii. ff. 

343 



THUCYDIDES 

5 avdyfcrj ffv Tol<i irapovaiv eirecffai, rrj^ Se vTrap- 
j(pva'7i<; aKo\acrla<i iireipcofMeOa fierpi^corepot €9 tA 
TToXiTiKct elvai, aXKoi S* fjcav koX iirX r&v irdXai 
Kol vvv OL iirl rcL Trovrjporepa i^rjyov top oj(\ov 

6 oLTrep Koi e/xe e^rfKaaav, rjixel^ he rov ^vp/iravro^ 
7rpova'T7)fj£v, BiKaiovvre^ iv & (T'xrifiaTi fjueyitTTT] 17 
7roX«9 ervyxcLve kcu iXevOepayrdTYj ovaa xaX oirep 
iBi^aro Tt9, tovto ^vvBiao'^^eiv (eTrel^ h'qfiotcparLav 
ye iyiyvdxTKOfiev ol <f>povovvT€<i ri, xal auTO<; 
ovBevb^ av x^^P^v, o(tw KaX\ Xoihoprjcaifxr aXKa 
irepl 6fio\oyovfi€vr}<; dvoLa^ ovhev av kulvov Xe- 
yoiTo), Kal TO fieffiO'Tdvat avrrfv ovk iBoxei rjixlv 
d(T(f>a\€<; elvac v/jl&v TroXe/jbioyv it po<TKa6r)p.evo>v. 

XC. " Kal ra fiev e? t^9 6/xa9 Biafio\a<; roiavra 
(vvefirf TTepl Be S)v vfup re /SovXevreov Kal ifjuol, 

2 et TL TT\eov olBa, etrrjyrjreov, fiddere rjBrj, irrXev- 
aajjLev €9 ^iKeXiav Trp&rov fiev, ei^ BvvaijjLeffa , 
Xt^fc eXicoTat; KaTatTTperirofxevoi^ fierh S' ifceivov^ 
av6i^ Kal ^\TaXL(i>Ta^, eireira Ka\ t^9 Kapxtf' 

3 BovLcov dpx^^ Kal avr&v diroTTetpdaovre^. el Be 
irpox^pV^^cie ravra ^ Trdyra fj Kal T^ TrXeto), fjSr) 
Ttj HeXoTTovvqa-q) ifieXXofiev e7nx^^PV<^€iv, KOfiL- 
aavre^ ^Vfiiraa'av fiev rrjv eKeWev irpoa-yevofievrjv 
Bvvafitv T&v 'EX\7;i;a)i;, ttoXXov^ Be ^ap^dpov^ 
fiiaOcoa-dfjLevoi Kal "Ifirfpa*; Kal a\Xou9 t&v exei 
6fJLoXoyovfiev€0<: vvv fiap^dptov /xa;)^4/xG)TaToi;9, 

* Hude writes ivel lirjuoKparias yt Karayiyv^ffKOfitv ol fppo' 
vovyr4s ri, Kal avrhs oh^tyhs hv x^^pov, Zvif khv AoiSop^O'iu/Ai, 
which must be about the meaning of the passage. 

344 



BOOK VI. Lxxxix. 4-xc. 3 

most respects to coDform to existing conditions. We 
tried, however, to pursue a moderate course in politics 
in contrast with the prevailing licence./But there have 
been others, both in the time of our forefathers and 
now, who led the masses into more evil ways; and 
these are the very men who have driven me out. 
But it was of the whole people that we were leaders, 
deeming it right to help to preserve that form of 
government under which the state had, as it chanced, 
attained its highest greatness and completest freedom, 
and which had come down to us — for as to democracy 
of course, all of us who have any sense well understood 
what it was, and I better than anyone, inasmuch as 
I have greater cause to abuse it ; but indeed nothing 
new can be said about an admitted folly — and it did 
not seem to us wise to change our democratic con- 
stitution when you, our enemies, were waiting at 
our gates. 

XC. " With regard, then, to the prejudices against 
me, that is how things fell out ; but with reference 
to the matters about which you must take counsel and 
which I, if I have any superior knowledge, must bring 
to your notice, give me now your attention. We sailed 
to Sicily, first, to subdue the Siceliocs, if we could, 
and after them the Italiots also ; and tiien to make 
an attempt upon the empire of the Girthaginians 
and upon the city itself. If these things, either all, 
or at least the greater part of them, succeeded, then 
we intended to attack the Peloponnesus, bringing 
here the whole Hellenic force that had joined us 
there, hiring besides many barbarians, both Iberians 
and others of the peoples there that are admittedly 
the most warlike of the barbarians at the present 



345 



THUCYDIDES 

Tpi7]p€L^ T6 7r/>09 Tttt? i7/A6T€/)a«9 TToXXa? vavirrfyr)- 
(rdfievoi, i'XpixT'q^ t^9 'IraX/a? f uXa a<f>6ova, al^ 
rrjv HeXoTTovvrjo'ov Tripi^ Trokioprcovvre^ koI t^ 
TTcJo) cifjLa ire yrj^ i<f>opfiai<i tS)v iroXeayv Ta<; fxkv 
PLa \al36vT€^, T^9 S' ivT€ix^<Tdfi€voi ptzBia)^ TJKirL' 
^ofjL€P K aTa7r6\€/j,va€ iv teal fierh ravra koX rov 
4 ^vfJiiravTO*; ^XKr}viKov ap^eiv. %/?7;/iaTa Se teal 
alrov, ware eiiropcoTepov yLyveaOai ti avr&v, 
avra tA irpocyevofieva eKsWev %o)pAa e/ieXXe 
htap/crj avev t^9 ivOevhe irpoaohov irape^eiv, 

XCI. " ^otavTa fiev irepX tov vvv olxofievov 
(TToXov irapb. rov rh dxpi/SearaTa etSoT09 ft)9 
Bv€vorj0rjfi€v dfcrjKoare* xal otroi VTroXonroi arpa- 
TffyoC, fjv BvpcovTai, ofioio)^ avrh irpa^ovatv. cw9 
Se, el fiTj PoyfBrjGere, ov irepiea'Tai raKel, fMaOere 

2 7]Srj. ^i/c€\ia)Tai yap direiporepoi fiev elcrvv, ofiw^ 
S* &v ^vcTTpa^evTe^i dOpooi koX vvv en- irepi- 
yivoivro* ^vpaKoaioL he fiovoi P'dxv T€ rjSrj 
7ravSr)fi€l ri<T<T'qp.evoi KaX vavaXv dfia /caretpyo- 
psvoL dhvvaTOL etrovrai rfj vvv ^ AO'qvaLcov ifcel 

3 napacKevfj dvTiaxj^iv, kclL el avTV v 7roX^9 
\ rf^di]a'€Tai, e^erai jcal y ir daa ^i/ceXia , kol 
eWv^ teal 'IraXia' koX ov dpri /clvSvvov exeWev 

4 TrpoeLTTOv, ovK &v Sid parcpov vp.iv iiriTrea'oi. &a"Te 
p,rj irepX t% 2t/c£Xia9 Tt9 olia0a> povov /SovXeveiv, 
dXXd KaX irepX rrj^ UeXoirovvija'ov, el p,7j TroLijaeTe 
rdSe ev Ta%6t, crrpaTidv re iirX ve&v irep,y^ere 
TOcavTTfv exelae oiTive^ avTeperai KopnaOevre^ 
KaX 0TTXiT€v(T0V(nv eifffik, xaX o T779 (nparid^ en 

34^ 



BOOK VI. xc. 3-xci. 4 

day^ and building many triremes in addition to our 
own, as Italy has timber in abundance. Laying a 
blockade with these triremes round the Peloponnesus^ 
and at the same time attacking it with our infantry 
by land^ having thus taken some of its cities by 
assault and walled in others, we expected easily to 
reduce it, and after that to have sway over the whole 
Hellenic race. As to money and food, for making 
any of these projects more feasible, the additional 
territory acquired in Sicily would of itself furnish 
these in sufficient quantity, independently of our 
home revenues. 

XCI. "That such were the objects of the expedition 
which has sailed, you have heard now from one who 
knows most accurately what we purposed ; and the rest 
of the generals will, if they can, carry out these plans 
without change. But that the people over there can- 
not hold out unless you aid them, let me now show you. 
The Siceliots have indeed less military experience than 
the Athenians, yet if they were united in one body 
they could, even as it is, gain the victory. But the 
Syracusans alone, being already worsted in battle with 
their full force and at the same time hemmed in at 
sea, will be unable to withstand the army of the 
Athenians now there. And if this city shall be 
taken, all Sicily is theirs, and so presently will Italy 
be also ; nor will it be long before the danger which 
I have just now predicted from that quarter would 
fall upon you. Therefore let nobody think that 
you are deliberating about Sicily only, but about 
the Peloponnesus also, unless you do quickly the 
following things : send thither by ship such a body 
of troops as, after working their own passage at the 
oar, can at once serve as hoplites ; also what I 

347 



THUCYDIDES 

j^pr)(Ti/jL(OT€pov elvai vofii^o), avSpa XTrapridrrfv 
apxovra, m &v Tovf; re irapovra^ ^vvrd^y xal 
T0V9 fjLf} ^0€\ovra<; irpoa'avayKda'Tf ovreo ycip o1 
re V7rdp^ovT€<} ufiiv (f>L\oi daparfaovtrL fjuoKKov 
6 KaX oi ivSoid^ovTe<; aSeeo'Tepov Trpoaiacriv, KaX 
ra ivOdhe 'x^prj ap^a ^avepayrepov iKTrokefielv, Zva 
^vpaKoaioL T€ vopll^ovTe^ vp,a^ eiripAXecrOai fjLoX- 
\ov dvT€)(W(TL KCii ^ KdrjvoioL Tot9 iavT&v fiaaov 

6 aXkrjv iiriKovplav Trip^ircoo'Lv. ret'^L^eiv t€ ^rj 
/^exiXeiav t?;? ^Attiktj^;, oirep ^Affrjvaloi p^dXiara 
aleX <^o^ovvTai koI p,6vou avrov vopL^ov<n rS>v iv 
T& 7ro\ip.<p ov htaireireipaadai, /Se/SaioTara S' 
dv T«9 ouTft)? Toi? TToXe/xtof? pKdinoi, el, & fid- 
Xiara SeStora? avrov^ aladdvoiro, ravra a'a<f>cj<: 
TTVv6av6p.€vo^ iiri^epoL" elKO<; yhp avroif^ dfcpi- 
/3ia'TaTa efcdcrov^ ra (T(\>iTepa avr&v Seivd iiri- 

7 (TTapevov^ (f>ofi€L(T0av» h S' iv t§ i7nT€ix^€i 
avTol Q)(f>€\ovp£POL TOi'9 ivavTLOv^ KcoXvaere, 
TToWa irapeX^ ra pkyia-ra K€(f>aXaLd><T(M), 0I9 re 
ycLp 7) x^P^ KareaKevaarai, ra ttoXKcl rrpo^ vfid^ 
ret p£v \rj(^6evTa, rib S' airop^ara ij^er xaX ra^; 
Tov Aavpeiov r&v dpyvpelcjv pcTdWoav irpocT' 
ohov^ KaX oaa dirb yT]^ KaX BtKaaTrjpLCOv vvv ox^e- 
\ovvTai €v0if^ dTToareprjCovTaiy pdXiaTa he t^9 
ttTTo 7(ov ^vp^pd'X'^v TTpotTohov fjacov av ^opov- 

^ The occupation of Deceleia took place in 413 B.o. (e/. 
VII. xix.). 
' i.e. a fortress built to dominate an enemy's territory. 

348 



BOOK VI. xci. 4-7 

consider even more indispensable than the army^ a 
Spartan as commander^ that he may organize the 
forces already present and press into service those 
that are unwilling. For in this way the friends you 
have already will be encouraged, and those who are 
in doubt will come over with less misgiving. And 
the war here you must at the same time prosecute 
more openly, in order that the Syracusans, 
convinced that you are really concerned, may offer 
greater resistance, and the Athenians be less able 
to send reinforcements to their own troops. You 
ought likewise to fortify Deceleia in Attica,^ the 
very thing the Athenians are always most in dread 
of and reckon the only peril of which they have not 
made full trial in this war. And the surest way in 
which anyone can hurt his enemies is this: acting on 
certain information, he should inflict upon them that 
which he perceives they most fear ; for it is natural 
that every man should have the most accurate know- 
ledge of his own dangers and should fear them 
accordingly. But as to the benefits which you 
yourselves will gain by this menacing stronghold ^ and 
will prevent your opponents from obtaining, I will 
pass over many and sum up only the most important. 
Whatever their country is stocked with will for the 
most part come into your hands, either by capture 
or by voluntary surrender.^ And the revenues of 
the Laureian silver mines and whatever profits they 
now derive from their land and from their courts,* 
they will at once be deprived of, and above all 
of the tribute from their allies, that would be less 

• avT({/iiaTa, refers to slaves, who were part of the ** stock." 

* The fees and fines arising from the adjudication of cases 
brought by the allied states. 

349 



THUCYDIDES 

fiiurj^, oi Ta trap Vfi&v vofdaavTe^ ijBif scara 
Kparo^ 7r6\efi62(T0ai oKiyQ>pi]aova'iv. 

XCII, " rlyveadai Se ri avrSyv KaX iv rd'x^ei 
Kol irpoOvfiorepov iv vfuv itrriv, & AaKeSatfjLOPioc, 
eVel &<; ye hvvard {koI ovx afutpTrjaecrOaL olfiai 

2 yva> fiT]^) iravv 6apa&, koX ')(eip(ov ovSevl d^iw 
hotcelv vfi&v elvai, el rfi ifiavrov fiera r&v iroXe- 
fiKOTarayv, <\)i\6tto\i^ irore So/c&v elvai, vvv 
iyxpaTO)^ iirep^o/JMi, ovSe vTroirrevea'dai fiov €9 

3 rr)P ^vyaBiKtfV 7rpo0vfuav tov \6yov, <j>vyd^ re 
yap el/jLL t^? t&v i^eXaaavrayv irovrjpia^ koI oi 

TTj^ V/JL€T€pa^, fjV TT €107)0-0 € flOl, (W^gXta?' fCOl 

TToXe/jLKorepoL ovx oi rov^ wdkejjLiov^ irov fiXd- 
yjrapre^ vfiel^ rj oi to if*; (l>L\ov<i dvayKoaavref; 

4 iroXefiiov^ yeve(T0ai, to t€ (fiCKoirolu ovk ev m 
aSiKOVfiaL €%«, a\X' iv ^ da^a\&^ iiroXtrevffrjv. 
ouS' iirl irarpiha ovoav en fiyovixat vvv levai, 
TToXit Be fiaXKov rijv ovk ovaav dvafCTa(T0ai. koX 
(piKoTToXi^ o5to9 6p0&<i, ovx ^^ ^^ ''"^^ eavTOv 
dBtKeo^ diroXeaa^ firj iTrlrf, aW' S9 av ifc iravrb^ 
rpoTTOv Bia TO iTTi0vfielv Treipa0fj avTtfV dvaXa/Selv, 

5 ovT(o^ ifiOL T€ d^c& v/ia<; koL 69 kLvBvvov KaX 69 
TaXaLTTcopiav iraoav diew 'xprjo'0ai, & AaKC- 
Saifiovioi, yv6vTa<; tovtov Btj tov u^' dirdvrtov 
irpo^aXXofievov Xoyov 0)9* €6 iroXefiio^ ye a)v 
o(f)6Spa elSXaiTTOv, kcLv <f)iXo^ &v iKavw axfieXoLrjv, 
oatp Tci fjLev ^A07fvaicov olSa, tu S' vfierepa jJKa^ov, 

350 



BOOK VI. xci. 7-xcii. 5 

regularly brought in ; for these^ convinced that the 
war is now being prosecuted on your part with all 
your mighty will take their obligations lightly. 

XCII. ^^The accomplishment of any of these pro- 
jects promptly and more zealously depends^ men of 
Lacedaemon^ upon you, for that they are possible — 
and I do not think that I shall prove wrong in my 
judgment — I am fully assured. And I claim that no 
one of you shall think more harshly of me because 
I, who seemed once to be a lover of my city, now 
make assault with all my might upon her, in concert 
with her bitterest enemies ; nor do I think that my 
word should be suspected on the score of the outcast's 
zeal. For outcast as I am from the villainy of those 
that expelled me, I am not ousted from doing you 
good service, if you will but hearken to me ; and the 
worse enemies are not those who, like you, have merely 
hurt their enemies, but those who have forced their 
friends to become foes. And as to love of country — 
I have it not when I am wronged, but had it when I 
possessed my civil rights in security. And it is not, 
as I conceive, against a country still my own that I am 
now going, but far rather one no longer mine that I 
am seeking to recover. And the true patriot is not 
the man who, having unjustly lost his fatherland, re- 
frains from attacking it, but he who in his yearning 
for it tries in every way to get it back. So I urge you, 
Lacedaemonians, to use me without misgiving for any 
danger and for any hardships, recognising that, accord- 
ing to the saying which is on everybody's lips, if as 
an enemy I did you exceeding injury, I might also 
be of some sufficient service to you as a friend, 
in so far as I know the affairs of the Athenians, 
while I could only conjecture yours. And I urge, too, 

351 



THUCYDIDES 

Kai avTOv^ vvv, vo/uaavTa^ irepX fieyiaTcav Btf tcjp 
hia(fi€p6vT(av PovKeveaOai,, /jltj airoKvelv tt^v €9 
Tr)P ^iKeKiav Te kcu €9 rrjv ^ATTCKffv arpaTeiap, 
tva rd re ixel /Spax^l fiopLtp ^vfiirapayevo/jLevoi 
fieydXa acoarfre xal ^A0r)vai(M)v Trjv re ovaav xal 
Ttjp fieWovaav hvvafiiv KaOiXrjTe, /ecu pier a 
ravra avroi re a<T<f>dKS)^ olKtJTe xal ttj^ airda"q^ 
£\\a£o9 CKOvar)^ fcal ov ^la, kot evvoiav Be 
7)yi^(Tr}(T(7€. 

XCIII. 'O pL€v *A\fCLffidSi]f; Toaavra elirev, oi 
Bk AaKeBaifiovioi Biavoovpjevoi pLcp koi avToX 
irporepov arpareveiv iirl Ta<; ^A0i]va^, /xeWoi'Te? 
Be €Tv Kol TTepiop(i>pbevoi, TToXK^ p,aXKov iirep- 
paxrOrja'av BiBd^avro^ ravra exaara avrov xal 
vop^Laavre^ irapa rov a'a<f>€(Trara elBoro^ dfcr)- 

2 Koevar &<Tre rfj iirireix^aeL rrj<; /^eKeXeia^ Trpoa- 
el^ov ^Brf rov vovv KaX ro irapavrixa /cal roZ^; ev 
T§ ^LKeXia irifMireLp riva ripeopiav, xal ri5Xt7r- 
iroi/ rov KXeavBpiBov irpoard^avre^ dp)(pvra to?? 
XvpaKoa'LOt<; itceXevov pier etceivtov KaX r&v Ko- 
pivdicov ^ovXevopevov Troielv onrf etc r&v irapovrtov 
paXitrra KaX rdx^'O-'^d rt^ ox^eX^a ij^ei rol^ CKel, 

3 6 Bh Bvo piev vav^ rou^ J^opivduov^ f]Brj eKiXevev 
oi TripLireiv €9 'Aaivqv, ra<; Be XoA7r<i9 TrapaaKevd- 
^etrOai oaa^ Btavoovvrac irepmetv KaL, orav KOipo^ 
y, iroLpM<; elvai irXelv, ravra Be ^vv6epi€voi 
av€X<^povv eK rrjf; AaKeBaipovo^. 



352 



BOOK VI. xcii. 5-XC111. 3 

that you yourselves now, convinced that you are de- 
liberating about interests that are of the greatest im- 
portance, shrink not from sending an expedition into 
Sicily, and also into Attica, in order that, by keeping 
a small detachment on the island, you may preserve 
the large interests you have over there and may over- 
throw the power of the Athenians both present and 
prospective, and after that may yourselves live in 
security and be accepted by all the Hellenes of their 
free will, not by force but through affection, as their 
leaders." 

XCIII. Such was the speech of Alcibiades; and the 
Lacedaemonians, who had already before this been 
disposed to make an expedition against Athens, but 
were still hesitating and looking about them, were 
now far more encouraged when Alcibiades himself 
explained these matters in detail, thinking that they 
had heard them from the one man who had most 
certain knowledge. And so they now turned their 
attention to the fortification of Deceleia and, in 
particular, to sending immediately some assistance 
to the Sicilians. Having appointed Gylippus son of 
Cleandridas commander of the Syracusan forces, 
they ordered him, in consultation with the envoys 
of tlie S3rracusans and Corinthians, to devise how 
under present circumstances help might come to the 
Syracusans in the best and quickest way. And 
Gylippus bade the Corinthians send to him at once 
at Asine^ two ships, and to equip all the rest they 
intended to send, and to be ready to sail whenever 
opportunity offered. Having made these arrange- 
ments the envoys left Lacedaemon and set out for 
home. 

* Probably the harbour in Messenia (iv. xiii. 1). 

353 

VOL. III. A A 



THUCYDIDES 

4 ^A^Lk€to ik KoX r) €K T^9 XtfC€\ia^ Tpirjprjf: T&V 
^Adr^valtov, Tjv airio'Teckav oi (rrparrfyol iirL re 
'XprifuiTa teal iTnrda^. xal oi *Adrjvaloi olkov- 
aavre^ €ylrr)<j>ia-avTO tt^v t€ Tpo<l>rjp irefnreiv t§ 
(TT pared KoX row: iTnrea^. teal 6 %€t/ia>i' ireXeura, 
Kol efi&Ofiov /cal Bixarov Ito? t^ iroXefitjp ire- 
\evra r&Se hv SovKvBiSrj^ ^vveypayjrev, 

XCIV. "Afia Sk r£ fjpL evOb^ ap')(pfiev{p rod 
iinyiyvofjLevov ffepov^ oi iv rfi XifceXia ^A0r)valoi 
apavre^ ix rrj^ KardvTj<; TrapeTrXevaav €7rl Me- 
jdpcov,^ otf^ €7ri TeXxovo^ rov rvpdwov, &a7rep Koi 
nporepov fioi etprfrai, avaarrjtravr^^ ^vpaKoaioi 

2 avroX exovai rrjv yijv. diroPdvre^ hi iS'pcoa'av 
T0V9 re dypov^ KaX iXOovre^ iirl epufid ri rcjv 
^vpaKoaicov teal ovx eXovre^ av0i^ kclL irei^fj kcu 
vaval TrapaKOfMiaOcvre^ iirl rov Trfpiav worafjuov 
ro re rrehiov dva^dvre^ iSrfovv Koi rov alrov 
eveTripLTrpaaav, koX r&v SvpaKocitov Trepirvxpvre^ 
rialv ov rroXXol^ koX diroKreCvavri^ re rLva<; xal 
rpoiralov arrjaavre^ dvexdiprjaav iiri rh^ vav^^ 

3 KoX aTTOTrXevaavre^ e? K.ardvr}v, ixetOev Sk iiri- 
<riri<fdjievoi irdari rfj arparca eyoiypovv iirl Kei/- 
ropiira, ^iKeX&v iroXiap^a, KaX Trpoaayayofievoi 
ofioXoyia dirfiaav, iripmpdvre^ apxi rov alrov r&v 

4 re ^\v7]<Taai(ov KaX r&v 'TffXaiayv. KaX df^iKo- 

fjLevoi 69 K,ardvrjv KaraXa/j>0dvova'v rov^ re iinrea^ 

fJKovra<; ex r&v ^A0r]vS)v rrevrrjKovra koX hta- 

Koaiov^ dvev r&v Xttttcov fiera (TKevrjf;, cd? avjoOev 

^ r&v iv rp XiKtXiti^, after Mtydpwv in MSS., deleted by 
Kriiger. 

354 



BOOK VI, xciii. 4-xciv. 4 

A% this time also there arrived at Athens from 
Sicily the trireme that had been sent by the generals 
for money and cavalry. And the Athenians^ hearing 
their request, voted to send* to the army both the 
supplies and the cavalry. And the winter ended, 
and with it the seventeenth year of this war of 
which Thucydides wrote the history. 

XCIV. At the very beginning of the following 414 b.c. 

spring, the Athenians in Sicily set out from Catana 

and proceeded along the coast toward Megara, from 

which, as has been stated before,^ the Syracusans in 

the time of the tyrant Gelon had expelled the 

inhabitants, holding their territory themselves. Here 

they landed and ravaged the fields ; then, attacking 

a stronghold of the Sjrracusans without success, they 

went back again along the coast with both land-force 

and fleet to the river Terias, and going inland 

ravaged the plain and set fire to the grain. Meeting 

with a small force of Syracusans, they killed some 

of them and after setting up a trophy withdrew to 

their ships. Having sailed back then to Catana and 

supplied themselves with provisions from there, they 

advanced with their whole army to Centoripa,* a 

Sicel town ; and when they had brought it over by 

capitulation they returned, burning at the same time 

the grain of the Inessians^ and Hyblaeans.* On 

their arrival at Catana they found that the horsemen 

had come from Athens, two hundred and fifty in 

number — with accoutrements but without the horses, 

for it was expected that horses would be procured 

1 c/. ch. iv. 2. 

' Now Centorbi, twenty-aeven miles north-west from 
Catana and near Mt. Aetna. 
^ The site of Inessa is doubtfal (c/. iii. ciii. 1). 
* Hybla Geleatis (ch. Ixii. 6). 

355 



*THUCYDIDES 

iTTTTcov Tropia6r)aofiAv(ov, koX ImroTO^OTa^ Tpid- 
Koma KoX ToXavra dpyvplov rpiaKoaia. 

XCV. ToO S' avTov ^po<; xai ctt' "Apyo^ aTpa- 
revaavre^ AafceSaifiovioi P'^XP'' /^^^ KXecoi^ci)!/ 
fp^ov, aeiap^ov he yevop^ipov airex^PV^^^' ^^^ 
^Apyeloi p€Tct ravra ia^aXovTe^ €9 rijv Qvpedriv 
opopov ovaav \eiav r&v AaxeBaipovifov iroWrjv 
€Xa/3ov, fj iirpdOr) rdKavTcov ovk eXaao'ov irevre 
2 KOI SLKOo'i, Kol 6 SetTTTi&v Brjpo<; iv t^ avT^ 
6€p€L ov TToXif varepov iindipepof; rol^ rd^ 
dp^d^ eypvcTiv ov Korecryev, dXKa /SorfOrfadt/Ttop 
Srjffaiotyp^ oi p^v ^vve\i]^0i]aav, oi K i^eireaov 
^AOrjva^e, 

XCVI, Kal oi XvpaKOfTioi tov avrov Oipov^ 
0)9 iirvOovTo T01J9 T€ iTTTria^ ijKOVTa^ T0t9 *A.0r)' 
vavoi<; xal peWovra^ i]Bri itrl <r(f)d^ tevai, vopu- 
aavT€^, idv prj r&v ^ETmrdX&v Kparrjamaiv ol 
^Adfjpaioi, %a)/?fcou diroKprfpLvov t€ xal vTrep t^9 
trokeo)^ €v0v*i KCipepov, ovk &v paSioj^ a(f>a^, ovB^ 
el KparolvTO pdxv* diroTetxt'O-ffv^cLh SievoovpTO 
rd<; 7rpoa'l3d<T€i<; avr&v (f>v\daa'€iVi oirto^ prj Kara 

2 ravra XdOcoai a^d^ dva/Sdvre^ oi rroXepior oi 
ydp dv dWrf ye avroif^ ivvqOrjvai, e^'qprriTa^ 

yap TO aWo x^P^^^* '^^^ f^^XP*^ '^V^ iroXeco^ iiri- 
KkLve^ re i<m koI eirK^avk^ irdv eaiO' tcaX 
d)v6paarai viro r&v ^vpa/coaicov Sid ro i'mrroXij^ 

3 rov dWov elvat 'ETr^TroXot. xal oi pkv i^eX- 

^ eriBaiuv, so B alone correctly against *A0iivaleep of all the 
other MSS., which gives no satisfactory sense ; for in case of 
a real interference on the part of the Athenians, which 
would have meant an infraction of existing peace relations 
with the Boeotians (cf. y. xxxii. 5), more exact information 
was to be expected. 

356 



BOOK VI. xciv. 4-XCV1. 3 

in Sicily — as well as thirty mounted archers and 
three hundred talents ^ of silver. 

XCV. During the same summer the Lacedaemo- 
nians^ making an expedition to Argos^ got as far as 
Cleonae^ but when an earthquake occurred they 
retired. After this the Argives invaded the Thy- 
reatis, which lies on their borders^ and took much 
booty from the Lacedaemonians^ which was sold for 
not less than twenty- five talents. ^ And in the course 
of the same summer, not long afterwards, the people 
of Thespiae attacked the government but did not 
succeed ; for succour came from Thebes and some 
were arrested, while others fled for refuge to Athens. 

XCVI. During the same summer the Syracusans, 
on learning that the Athenians had received their 
cavalry and that they were about to march against 
them immediately, thinking that unless the Athen- 
ians should get possession of Epipolae, a precipitous 
place lying directly above the city, they themselves, 
even if they were defeated in battle, could not 
easily be walled in, determined to guard the 
approaches to it, in order to prevent the enemy from 
ascending secretly by that way, since they could ot 
possibly do so by any other road. For at all other 
points the place overhangs the city and slopes right 
down to it, the whole height being visible from it ; 
and it is called Epipolae by the Syracusans be- 
cause it lies as an upper surface above the rest of 
the country. So they went out at daybreak in full 

1 £60,000, $344,160. » £6,000, $28,680. 

357 



THUCYDIDES 

06vT€^ TravBtffiei €9 rhp Xeifi&pa rbv^ irdpit rov 
"Avairov irora/jubv &fia rp ^/ie/>a {irirfxcLvov y&p 
avToU teal ol irepl rbv ^Ep^KpaTfj arparrfyol 
apTi irapeCK'q^OTe^ rrjv ap^Vi^t i^iraaiv re 
oirXtov iiroiovvTO xal e^axoaiov^ XoydBa^ r&v 
6ir\iT&v €^€Kpivav irporepov, &v VPX^ AiofiiXo^, 
(l>uyh^ i^ "Ai/S/oou, ottq)? t&p re 'ETrtTroXwv elev 
<f>v\aKe^ Kai, fjv i<: akXo ti Sirj, ra'yif ^vvetrT&Te^ 
irapayLypayvrai. 

XCVII. 01 Be ^AOrjvaloi ravrrj^ t% vvkto^, 
$^ rfj iiriyiyvofiivp rjfiipa i^rd^ovro, ekaOov^ 
avToif^ iravrl rjSrj r^ arparevfiaTi i/c rrj^ Ka- 
Tavrj^ a")(pvre^ Karh, rov Aiopra KoXjovfievov, 89 
dire'xei r&v ^¥iirnrdK&v ?^ fj kirra araSiov^, /cat 
Tou? Trefou? aTTofiilSdaavTe^ rai^ re vavalv €9 r^v 
0a'\|roi/ Kadopfiiadfxevot' eari he y^epaovfjao^ jjuev 
ev arev^ ladfi^ irpovxpvaa €9 to ireKayo^, t^9 
he XvpaKoaiayv irokeo)^ ovre irXovv oiire ohov 

2 7roWr)v direx^t' fcal 6 fikv vavriKo^: arparb^ r&v 
'Adrjvaicjv ev rfj &dylrq) htacrravptoadfievo^ rbv 
ladpxtv '^avxa^ev' 6 he Trcfo? €')((i>p^^ evdv^ Spofitp 
7r/309 tA9 'E7r47ro\A9 fcal ^Odvet dva^h^ xarct rbv 
FiVpvr)Xov irplv to ^9 XvpaKoaiov^ aiadofievov^ ex 
rod \eip,&vo^ koX t^9 i^erdaeo)^ Trapayeviarffac. 

3 e^orjOovv he oX re aXKoi a)9 exaaro^ rd^ov^ eZve 
KoX ol nrepl rbv AiofiiKov . e^aKoaior ardhioi oe 
irplv irpoap^el^at €k rov \€ip,&vo^ eyiyvovro airroh 

4 ovK eXaaaov rj irevre koX eiKoat. irpoaTreaovre^ 
ovv avroL^ roiovrq) rpoirtp draxrorepov xal puijffj 
viKrjBevre^ ol ^vpaKoaioi eTrX ral^ 'E7rt7roXat9 



^ Added by Kriiger. '-* Added by Madvig. 

' Koi, before iKaBov in the MSS., deleted by Madvig. 



358 



BOOK VI. xcvi. 3-XCV11. 4 

force to the meadow along the river AnapUs— for 
Hermocrates and his fellow-generals, as it chanced, 
had just come into office — and proceeded to hold 
a review of the hoplites. And they selected first 
six hundred picked men of these, under the command 
of Diomilus, a fugitive from Andros, that these might 
be a guard for Epipolae, and if there were need of 
them anywhere else might be quickly at hand in 
a body. 

XCVI I. And the Athenians during the night 
preceding the day on which the Syracusans held 
their review, came from Catana with their whole 
force and put in unobserved at the place called Leon, 
which is six or seven stadia distant from Epipolae, 
disembarking the land-force there and anchoring 
their ships at Thapsus. That is a peninsula, with 
a narrow isthmus, extending into the sea and not far 
distant from the city of Syracuse, either by sea or 
by land. The naval force of the Athenians, having 
run a stockade across the isthmus, lay quiet on 
Thapsus ; but the land-force advanced at once at a run 
to Epipolae, and got up by way of Euryelus before 
the Syracusans, when they became aware of it, could 
come up from the review which they were holding in 
the meadow. They brought aid, however, everyone 
.jvith what speed he could, the others as well as the 
six hundred under Diomilus ; but they had not less 
than twenty-five stadia to go, after leaving the 
meadow, before they reached the enemy. Conse- 
quently the Syracusans fell upon the Athenians in 
considerable disorder, and being defeated in battle 

359 



THUCYDIDES 

avex^P'n^o,^ 69 TTjv iroktv xal S re /^lofiiKo^ 
5 aTTodinjaKei xal t&v aXKoov co9 rpiaKoaioi. teal 
fi€TcL TovTO oi ^AOrjvaioi rpoiralov re arijaavre^ 
Koi T0U9 veicpov^ viroairovhovf; aTroSovre^ roi^ 
%vpaicoaiot^, irpo^ rrjv iroXiv avrtjp ry vaTcpaia 
iiriKarafiavTe^, «b9 ovk iire^fiaav aifroi^, iirava- 
^(op^aavTe^ <l)povptov iirl r^ Aal3Bd\(p wkoSo- 
firjaav eir' axpoi^ rol^ Kprifivoh t&v ^^ttvjtoK&v 
op&v 7r/)09 Tct Miyapa, 0710)9 elrj avroi^, oirore 
TTpotoiev ff p.a')(pvijj$,voi ^ Tei')(iovvTefi, 7049 t€ 
aKeveai xal T0J9 XPVP'^^^^ airodrfKr). 

XCVIII. Kal ov iroKK^ varepov aurol^ ffKdov 
€fc T€ ^Fiyearrj^ iirTrrj^; rpiaKoffioi Koi ^iKeKSiv 
Kal ^a^i(ov xal aWayv tiv&v q)9 eKarov kcu 
*A0rjvai(t>v virrjp'X^ov irevTrfKOvra xal BiaKoaioi, 0I9 
iTTTTov^ T0V9 fi€V TTap ^Frf€aTai(i)v Kal KaravaCcov 
eXajSov, 701)9 S* iirpiavro, koX ^vfiiravre^ nevrij' 

2 tcoma koi e^axoaioL iTnrrj^: ^vveXiyrjaav. teal 
KaraaTTjaavre^ iv r^ Aa/SSdX^ (f>vXa/crjv i')(a>pow 
7r/oo9 T^P ^VKTJv oi ^AOrjpaloi, Xvairep xaBe^ofiepoi 
ireLxto^o^p rov kvkXop htk Taj^ov9. icaX eKTrXrj^iv 
7049 ^vpaKoaioi^ irapiaxop r^ 7a^€t 7% oIkoSo- 
fiua^' Kal ine^eXdovTe^ P'^XV^ SievoovvTO iroi- 

3 elaOai Kal firj irepiopav, Kal rjSr) dvTnraparaa''- 
aopApwv aXXrjiXoi.^ oi t&v ^vpaKoaicov (TTpaTfiyoi 
(09 idpayp o'tfyio'i to aTpaTevfia Sceairatrfievov T€ 
Kal ov pa^Uo^ ^vpTaa-a6p,€vov, dvifyayov TrdXcv €9 



360 




BOOK VI. xcvii. 4-xcviii. 3 

on Epipolae^ retired into the eity^ Diomilus and about 
three hundred of the rest being slain. After this 
the Athenians, having set up a trophy and given up 
their dead under truce to the Syracusans, next day 
went down against the city itself; but when the 
enemy did not come out against them they withdrew 
and built a fort at Labdalum, on the verge of the 
bluffs of Epipolae looking towards Megara, that it 
might serve as a magazine for their baggage and 
stores whenever they advanced either to fight or 
to work at the wall. 

XCVIII. Not long afterwards there came from 
Egesta three hundred horsemen, and from the Sicels, 
Naxians, and some others about one hundred ; and the 
Athenians had already two hundred and fifty, for 
whom they received some horses from the Egestaeans 
and Catanaeans and purchased others ; so that alto- 
gether six hundred and fifty cavalry were mustered. 
Placing a garrison at Labdalum, the Athenians ad- 
vanced to Syce, where they took position and built 
the round fort ^ with all speed. The Syracusans 
werc.struck with consternation by the rapidity of their 
building ; and they went out against them, deter- 
mined to give battle and not look on idly. And 
when they were already drawing up for the conflict 
the generals of the Syracusans, seeing that their own 
army had become disordered and did not readily get 
into line, led them back to the city, all save a 

* Syke (i.e. a place sit with fig-trees ; see Steph. «.v. 
2vKa() is probably to be located in the middle of the plateau 
of Epipolae. Here the Athenians built first a circular fort, 
which aater was the starting-point for the wall of circum- 
valUtioh extending northward towards Trogilus and south- 
ward to the Great Harbour. See Map, and also Holm 
ii. 387 and Freeman, Sic. iii. 662 ff. 

361 



THUCYDIDES 

rifv TToXiv 7r\r)v fiipov^ tipo^ t&v imriwv ovroi 
S^ v7rofi€POVT€^ i/cciXvov T0U9 ^Adrjvaiov^ 'Xido- 
4 <f>op€iv re Kal airoaKiSvaadai fiaxpoTepav. xal 
rodv ^Adrjvaicop (fivXtj fila r&v ottXit&p kcll oi 
iinrrjf; ficT avT&p Trai^re? irpi'^apTo tou^ t&p 
XvpaxoaUop iinrea<i irpoa^akoPTG^, KaX airiKrei' 
pap T€ TLPa^ Kal Tpoiralop t^9 iinrofJLa')(La^ 
eaTYjaap. 

XCIX. Kal rfj varepaia oi fiep irel')(^i^ov t&p 

Adrjpaicop to tt/oo? /Sopiav rov kvkXov rel^o^, oi 

8k XiOovf; Koi fiJXa ^vp,4>opovPT€^ irapi/SaWop 

iirl TOP TpdyyiXop KaXovfiepop, aleX rjirep I3paxv- 

TaTOP iyiyp€To ai/Toc^ iK tov fieydXov Xifjuepo^ 

2 eVl Trjp €T€pap ddXaaaap to aTroTciy^cafia, oi Se 
'^vpaKoaioi ovx ^fctaTa ^^ppfOKparov^ t&p <TTpa- 
Tqy&p ia"i]yr}aafi€POV fidxctt^ fi^p irapSrjfiel 7rpo<; 
^AOrfpaiou^ oif/ceTi i/SovXovTO Sia/cipBup€V€ip, inro- 
T6£^t^6£Z/ Be apueipop iSo/cei eipai y ixelpoi c/ji^XXjov 
d^eip. TO T€ft%09 Kal, el ^dda-eiap, atTOKXr/aei,^ 
ylypeaOai, Koi dfia Kal ip tovt^ el ein^oTjOolePt 
fiepo^ dpTiTrifiTreip aifTOi<: ^ t^9 aTpaTid^' xal 
(f>ddpeip ap TO 49 (TTavpoU irpoKaTaXafi^dpovTe^ 
TCL^ i(f>6Bov^, ixelpovf; Sh ap iravofiipov^ tov epyov 

3 irdpTa^ ap irpo^ a(f>d^ Tpeireo'dai. eTeixt^op ovp 
e^eXOoPTe^ diro t^9 cr^CTepa? TroXeo)? dp^dfievoi, 
xdTfoOep TOV kvkXov t&p ^A0r]paL(OP iyKaptriov 
Teixo^ dyome^i Td^ t€ iXda<; eKKoirroPTe^ tov 

4 T€fi€P0v<; Kal irvpyov^ ^vTdpov^ Ka6iaTdpT&;. ai 

^ airroTsy Bekker s conjecture, for avrovs of the MSS. 
362 



BOOK VI. xcviii. 3-XCIX. 4 

part of the cavalry. These remamed behind and 
tried to prevent the Athenians from bringing stones 
and scattering to any great distance. But one tribal ^ 
division of the Athenian hoplites^ and with these all 
their cavalry^ attacked and routed the Syracusan 
cavalry, killed some, and set up a trophy of the 
cavalry fight. 

XCIX. On the next day some of the Athenians pro- 
ceeded to build the wall to the north of the round fort, 
while others brought together stones and wood and 
began to lay these down along the line towards the 
place called Trogilus, in which direction the line of 
circumvallation would be shortest from the Great 
Harbour to the outer sea. But the Sjn^acusans, at 
the suggestion of their generals, and especially of 
Hermocrates, were no longer inclined to risk pitched 
battles with their whole force against the Athenians. 
It seemed better to build a wall across the line where 
the Athenians were going to bring their wall, so that 
if they got ahead of them the Athenians would be 
blocked off, and they decided at the same time, if 
the Athenians should attack them while at this 
work, to send a part of the army against them ; and 
they expected that they would get ahead of the 
Athenians in occupying the approaches with their 
stockades, and that they would cease from their 
work and all turn against them. Accordingly they 
went out and proceeded to build, starting from the 
city and carrying a cross- wall below the round fort 
of the Athenians, chopping down the olive-trees 
of the precinct and setting up wooden towers. The 

^ ^vX-fi is here used for rd^is, the term being borrowed 
from the civil classification. Each of the ten tribes famished 
a division (rd^is). 



THUCYDIDES 

Be vi)€^ tS>v ^AOffvtuwv ovirea i/c rtff; ^d'^ov 
TrepieTreirXevKeaav €9 rov fieyav Xifiiva, aW* eri 
oi ^vpaKoa-ioi ixparovv r&v vepl rrjv ddXarraav, 
Kara yrjv 8k i/c t^9 ^dyfrov oi ^ABrjvaloi ra 
iiTLTrjSeia iir'qyovTO. 

C. ^EireiSff Se roh ^vpaKoaioK apKovvrto^ 
iSoKei e'XjEtv oaa re iaravpdOr) koI ^KohopLriOrj 
Tov vTroTeiyiafiaro^, koI ol ^Adrjvaloi avToif^ ovk 
rfkOov KtoKvaovre^i d>o^ovp>€voi firj a^ltTL 8i')(a 
yiyvop^ivoi^ paov p.ayjcovTat, xal afia rifv Ka0* 
avroif^ irepireixto'iv iireiyofievoi, oi piv Xvpa- 
Koaioi <l>v\r)v piav KaraXiTrovre^ (fyvXaxa rov 
olKohoprjpxLTO^ avex'^pV^o^v €9 t^i/ iroKiVt ol Si 
^AO'qvaloi Tov^ T€ 6x€Toif^ avT&v, 01 €9 Ttjv iroXiv 
virovop,r)hov irorov vSaro^ ^yp^evot ^aaVf SU- 
<f>6€ipav, Kol Tf) pi] a avre^ rov^ t€ aWov^ ^vpa- 
Koaiov^ Kara aK'qvh^ ovra^ iv p^arjpjSpCa kclL 
Tiva^ Kai ^9 Tr)v irokiv a7ro/tfe%6)/)»7/co,Ta9 Kal tou9 
iv T^ aTavpdpaTi apeXw ^vXdaaovrw;, rpia- 
Koaiovf; pev a<f>&v avrmv XoydSa^ xal r&v yln\&v 
Tiva^ iKXcKTOv^; wirXicp^ivov^ irpovra^av Oelv 
hp6p(p i^airipaLG)^ Trpb^ to vTroTtixf^o-pcLt V ^^ 
aXXr) (TTpaTih Bix^> V f'^^ p>era tov eripov 
aTpairjyov 7r/oo9 ttjv ttoXlv, el €Tril3on]0otev, €X<0' 
povv, r) hi p,€Ta TOV CTCpov 7r/oo9 TO (TTau/ow/ia to 
2 napib tt]v irvXiSa, teal irpoa^XovTe^ oi Tpia- 
Koaioi aipovai to aTavptopxi* xal oi ^vXaxe^ 
avTo iKXi7r6vT€<: KaTe<f>vyov 69 to irpOTeiyto'pM ro 
irepl TOV Tep^eviTijv. /cal airrol^ ^weaeireaov oi 
Sid>K0VT€<i, Kal ivTo^ yevopsvoi ^i(f i^expov- 
aOrjaav irdXtv vtto t&v 'ZvpaKOO'iwv, xal t&v 



364 



BOOK VI. xcix. 4-c. 2 

Athenian ships had not yet sailed round from Thap- 
sus into the Great Harbour^ but the Syracusans were 
still masters of the parts about the sea^ and the 
Athenians brought their supplies from Thapsus by 
land. 

C. When it seemed to the Syracusans that enough 
of their counter-wall had been constructed with 
stone-work and stockade^^ and the Athenians did 
not come to hinder them — for they feared that the 
enemy might more easily deal with them if their 
forces were divided^ and at the same time they were 
pushing on their own wall of circumvallation — leaving 
one division as a guard for their cross-wall^ they 
withdrew to the city. Meanwhile the Athenians 
destroyed their pipes which ran underground into 
the city and supplied it with drinking-water. Then 
watching when most of the Syracusans were in their 
tents at midday — some of them having even gone 
to their homes in the city — and when those at the 
stockade were guarding the place carelessly, they 
stationed in front three hundred picked Athenians 
and a chosen body of the light-armed troops 
in heavy armour to go at a run suddenly against 
the counter- wall ; while the rest of the army 
advanced in two divisions, one with one general 
against the city, in case they should come to the 
rescue, the other with the other general to that part 
of the stockade which is by the postern gate. The 
three hundred attacked and took the stockade, the 
guards leaving it and fleeing to the outwork around 
Temenites.^ And their pursuers burst in with them ; 
but these, after getting in, were forced out again by 

^ The ^ortix^fffM seems to have consisted partly of 
palisading and partly of stone-work. ' c/. oh. Ixxv. 1. 

365 



THUCYDIDES 

*Afyy€LQ)v T«/€9 avToOi fcal r&v ^AffrjpaioDP ov 
3 TToXXol Si€<l)0dpv}aav, kcu i'irava')(€opria'aaa rf 
iraaa (rrparia rrjv t€ vTroTelx^a-iv KaOeiXop kcu, 
TO aravpdDfia avea-iraaav koX Stetfioprja-av tov9 
(TTavpoxf^ Trap kavrov^, koX Tpoiralov ea-rrjaav. 

CI. T^ S' vaTepaia airo rov kvkXov irel'Xi^ov 
01 ^Affr^valoi Tov Kprjp,vov rov virkp rov eXov^, 09 
T&v ^EfTt'rroX&v ravry tt/oo? top fieyap XijuUpa 
opa, /cal fjirep avrol^ ^pa'xyTCLTOP iyiypeTO fcara- 
jSaat Bi€t rov opxCkov KaX tov eXov^ 69 top Xi/jUpa 

2 TO irepiTcixf'O'fia, xal ol ^vpaKOtnoi ip Tovrqx 
i^ekdovTS^ KaX avToX aireaTavpovp avOi^ ap^d- 
fjuepoi OTTO T^9 9r6X€ft)9 Bia pMaov tov eXov^* fcaX 
Ta^pop afia irapcopuaaop, oiro)^ firj olop re y Tot9 

3 ^A0r)paioi^ t^XP'' "^^^ 0a\d(ran]<s diroT€i')(ia'ai. oi 
S', eireihrj to irpo^ top fcprjfipop avToX<: i^etpyaa-TO, 
i7ri)(€ipov(np avdi^ T(p twp XvpaKoaioop aravpa)- 
fiaTt Kal TOf^ptpi Ta9 p^P pav^ KeKevaapre^ irept- 
irKevaai ifc ttj^ Sdyjrov €9 top pAyap \ip.€pa top 
T(ap XvpaKoaicop, avToX Be irepX opdpop Kara- 
PdpTe^ diro t&p ^EttittoXAp 69 to 6p,aXop koI 
Sih TOV eXov^y rj irrjX&Be^ fip KaX aTepKJxoTaTOP, 
Ovpa^ KaX ^vXa irXaTea i7n0€PT€<: KaX iir^ avT&p 
Bia^aSiaaPTe^, alpovaip apxL eq) to t€ (TTavpmfJLa 
irXrjp oXiyov KaX ttjp Td(f>pop, KaX vo'Tepop Kal to 

4 v7roX€i<j)0ep elXop* KaX p^d^V iyepero, KaX ip airrf) 
ipLKcop ol ^ Adrjpalof KaX t&p '^vpaKoaioDP oi pJev 
TO Be^iop K€pa^ ej^oPTe^ irpo^ ttjp ttoXip ef^vyov^ 
oi S' iirX T^ €V(OPvp,(p irapcL top TroTapLOP, koX 
avTOV(; ^ovXopLCPOt diroKXrjtTaaOa^ t^9 Biafida-cw^ 
oi T&p ^AOrfpaioDP TpiaKoaioi XoydSe^ Bpopup 

6 fiirelyoPTO npo^ ttjp yiffyupap, Seltrapre^ Se oi 




BOOK VI. c. 2-ci. 5 

the Syracusans, some of the Argives and a few of 
the Athenians being slain there. Then the whole 
army withdrew and pulled down the counter-wall 
and tore up the stockade^ bringing the stakes over 
to their own lines, and set up a trophy. 

CI. The next day the Athenians, starting from 
the round fort, began to fortify the bluff which is 
above the marsh,^ where on this side of Epipolae 
it looks toward tlie Great Harbour, and where 
they would find the line of circumvallation shortest 
as they came down through the level ground and 
the marsh to the harbour. The Syracusans mean- 
while also went out and proceeded to build another 
stockade, starting from the city, through the middle 
of the marsh ; and they dug at the same time a 
ditch alongside, that it might not be possible for 
the Athenians to complete their wall to the sea. 
But the latter, when their wall to the bluff was 
finished, again attacked the stockade and ditch of 
the Syracusans, having ordered their ships to sail 
around from Thapsus into the Great Harbour at 
Syracuse and themselves gone down about daybreak 
from Epipolae to the level ground. Laying down 
doors and planks through the marsh where the soil 
was clayey and firmest and crossing over on these, 
they took at daylight the ditch, and all but a little 
of the stockade, and later the remaining part. A 
battle occurred also, in which the Athenians were 
victorious, those of the Syracusans on the right 
wing fleeing to the city,^' those on the left along 
the river. Wishing ti cut ofl^ the latter from the 
crossing, the three hundred picked men of the 
Athenians pushed on at a run to the bridge. But 

* The Lysimeleia. 

367 



THUCYDIDES 

^vpaxoaioi {fi<rav yap xal t&v liriretov auroZ^ ol 
iroWol ivTavdd) ofioae ^w/joOcrt rol^ rpuucoaioi^ 
TOVTOi^, Kal Tpeiroval re avrov^ koX iafidWovatp 
69 TO Se^iov icepa^ rwv ^AOrjvaioiv. teal irpoawe- 
(TOPTfov avr&v ^vv€<l>o^i]0rf xal 17 irpwrr} Kf>v\ff 
6 Tov K€pa}^, IBwv Be 6 Kdfia'xp<i irape^orjdei, airo 
rov evtovvfiov tov eavr&v ficrct to^otwv re ov 
TToW&p Kol T0U9 ^Apy€Lou<; irapaXa/SwVg seal 
iinSia^a^ rdifypov riva Kal fwpcjffel^ fier oXiycop 
T&p ^vpBiafidpTWP dirodpTpaKti avro^ re /cal irevre 
fj If rS)P fjLer* avrov, Kal tovtov^ fihf ol 2i/- 
paKoaioi €vOv<: xarct rdxo^ ffyOdpovaip dpirdaavre^ 
irepap rod TrorafAOv 69 to .ao'^aX69« aifrol Se 
iirtopTO^; rjSrj Kal tov aWov (TTpaTCVfUiTo^ rwi/ 
^AdrfpaLtop direx'^povp, 

CII. 'Ei/ TOUT^ he oi irpb^ ttjp ttoXip ain&v to 
irp&TOP KaTa(j>uy6pT€<: 0)9 etopmv Tavra ytypofjuepa, 
avTOL T€ irdXiP airo t^9 7r6\€ft)9 ^ dpadapai^a'apTe^ 
dpT€Td^apT0 irpb^ tov<; KaTa (r(f>a^ ^ A07jpaiov<s, 
Kal fiepo^ Ti avT&p irep/irovaip etrl top kv/c\ov 
TOP etrl Tat9 ^^TrnroXavi, riyovfjuepoi ipfjfiop alprj- 

2 0-641'. Kal TO fiep BeKairXeOpop irpoTeiyiajjia 
avT&p alpovai Kal Sieiropffrjaap, avTOP $e top 
kvkXop ^iKia<; iteKoaXvaev eTVXfi yap ip avT^ hC 
daOepeiap viroXeXeifip^ipo^* Ta9 yap fjLrj'x^apa^ xai 
^vXa oaa irpo tov Tei^ov^ fjp KaTa/Se/SXrjfieva, 
ifiTTprjaat TOt'9 VTrqpeTa^ eKeXevaep, c»9 eypta 
dBvpdTov<; eaofiipov^ eprfp^ia dpBp&p aXX<p Tpoirt^ 

3 irepiyepeo'Bai. Kal ^vpe^tf o£!r6)9' ov yitp €Ti 
TrpoarjXOop ol ^vpaKoaioi Bict to trvp^ aXKik 
direxf^povp irdXip, koI yhp irpo^ t€ top kvkXov 

^ iixh rrjs rAc«i| omitted by Hade with C. 

368 




BOOK VI. CI. s-cii. 3 

the Syracusans became alarmed^ and^ as most of 
their cavalry was there, closed with these three 
hundred, routed them, and attacked the right wing 
of the Athenians. On their charge the first division 
of this wing also became involved in the panic. And 
Lamachus, seeing this, came to their aid from his 
own place on the left wing, with a few bowmen and 
the Argives, whom he took with him ; and advancing 
across a ditch and being cut off with a few of those 
who had crossed with him, he was killed himself 
and five or six of his followers. These the Syracusans 
at once hastily snatched up and succeeded in carry- 
ing over the river to safety, themselves retreating 
when the rest of the Athenian army began now to 
advance. 

CII. Meanwhile those of them who had fled at 
first to the city, seeing what was going on, them- 
selves took courage, and coming back from the city 
drew up against the Athenians in front of them; 
and they sent a part of their number against the 
round fort on Epipolae, thinking that they would 
find it without defenders and be able to take it. 
And they did indeed take and demolish their out- 
work of one thousand feet in length, but the round 
fort itself Nicias prevented their taking; for he 
happened to have been left behind there on account 
of illness. He ordered the attendants to set fire to 
the engines and wood that had been thrown down 
before the wall, seeing that they would be unable 
through lack of men to be saved in any other way. 
And it turned out so; for the Syracusans, coming 
no nearer because of the fire, now retreated. And, 
besides, reinforcements were already coming up to 

369 

VOL. in. B B 



THUCYDIDES 

^OTjdeia fihr) fcdrayOev t&v ^Adrivaiayv airoStm- 
^dvTcov T0U9 ifcel iTravpei, koI al vrjef; a/JM avr&p 
ix rrj^ &dylrov, &a7r€p etprjro, /caTeirXeov €9 tov 
A fiiyav Xi/iiva, a 6p&VT€^ oi avoadev xarii rd^o^ 
dtr^aav KaX rj ^vfiiraa-a arpaTta t&v XvpaKoaitov 
€9 TTjv TToXtv, pofiLaavTC^ firj av en diro t^9 irap- 
ovar}^ acfUai Svvdfieco^ Ifcavol yeviadai. KtoXvaai 
TOV iirl rrjp ddXaaaav rei'^^UTfiop, 

cm. McTCt B^ TOVTO oi ^AOrjvaioL rpoTralop 
eaTfjaav xal roif^ pexpoif^ vTroairopSov^ dire- 
Soaap Tot9 ^vpaKocrioi^ /cat tou9 fierd Aafid- 
'Xpv Kol avTol ifcofiiaapTO. xal irapovro^ ijSrj 
(Tff>i<Tt irapTo^ TOV (TTpaTev/jLaTO^, xal tov i/av- 
TiKOv fcal TOV Trefofi, dirb t&p 'ETriTroXoii/ xal tov 
Kpr)fiP(i>Bov^ dp^d/jicpoi direrel'Xi'^ov fiixP^ ^^^ 

2 OaXdaarj^ Tci'xei BtTr\& tou9 Svpaxoaiov^, Ta S' 
iiTLTrjieia t§ anpaTid iaijycTO ifc ttj^ 'lTa\ta9 
iravTaxoBcp, ffKSov oe xal t&v Xc/ceK&p noWdi 
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p&VTO, Koi ix T% Tvparjvia*; 1/^69 nevTrjKovTepot 
Tpel^, Kol ToXXa npovx^i^pci ai/Toc^ €9 iXiriSa^, 

3 Kol yibp oi Svpafcoaioi noXefitp /jl€v ovk€tl ivo- 
fu^ov av Ttepiyepeadai, a>9 auT0?9 ovhe diro Ttf^ 
HekoTTovv^aov axf>€\La ovhepia ^xe, Toif^ Sk 
Xoyov^ €V T€ affyiaiv avTol^ iiroiovPTo ^vfi/Sa- 
TiKoif^ KaX 7r/)09 top Ni/ciap* o5to9 yap Sif fiovo^ 

A eZve Aafid^ov tcOvc&to^ ttjv dpxv^* fcal icvpcoais 
fi€P ovhepia iyiypcTo, ola hk elKo^i dpOpanrtop 
diropot/PTtov fcal fiaXKop ^ irplv ^ TroXiopKOVfieptDv, 
iroWcL iXiyero irpo^ t€ i/celvov xal 7rX€ta> eri 

^ wplvf Hude omits, with C. 



BOOK VI. cii. 3-ciii. 4 

the round fort from the AtheniaDS below, who had 
chased away the enemy there, and their ships at 
the same time were sailing down, as they had been 
ordered, from Thapsus into the Great Harbour. 
Seeing these things, the men on the heights and the 
main army of the Syracusans hastily withdrew into 
the city, thinking that with the force they then had 
at their disposal they could no longer prevent the 
building of the wall to the sea. 

cm. After this the Athenians set up a trophy and 
restored their dead to the Syracusans under truce, 
themselves getting back the bodies of Lamachus and 
his men. The whole of their armament being now 
present, both fleet and land-force, starting from the 
bluff of Epipolae they proceeded to cut off the 
SyracusansT by a double wall down to the sea. 
Provisions were coming in for the army from all 
quarters of Italy. And there came also as allies 
to the Athenians many of the Sicels, who before 
had been hesitating, and from Tyrrhenia three fifty- 
oared galleys. And other matters were progressing 
according to their hopes. For the Syracusans no 
longer thought they could win at war, as no 
aid had come to them even from the Pelopon- 
nesus; and indeed they were discussing terms of 
agreement, not only among themselves, but even with 
Nicias, who now since the death of Lamachus had 
sole command. No decision was reached ; but, as is 
natural when men are in perplexity and more straitly 
besieged than before, many proposals were made to 



371 



THUCYDIDES 

Karh Tfjv TToXiv. xa\ yap riva xal viro'^Lav inro 
T&v irapoinreov xax&v €9 aWijXov^ el^^oi/, koI tov9 
aTparrjyov^ re 60' &v avroh ravra ^vvil3rf eirav- 
aav, &^ fj ivaTV')(ia fj Trpohoaia ttj itceiv&v 
ffKaiTTOfievoi, fcal aWov^ av0€L\ovro, ^HpcueXeC- 
Br}V Kot EvKXia xal TeWiav, 

CIV. 'Ei/ Sk rovTcp TvKLinro^ 6 AaKcSaifiovto^ 
Koi ai airo t^9 KopCvdov vi]€<; irepl Aev/cdSa rjStj 
^aav, l3ov\6/J>€vot €9 Tr)V ZifceXiav Sict Ta%oi;9 
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hetvaX Ka\ iraaai 67rl to avTO iyjreva-fiivai m 'IfSrj 
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rdxt'f^Ta inepaKoOrjaap top ^ I op top €9 Tdpavra, 
oi Sk Kopipdioi 7r/909 TaU a^eripai^ Sixa Aev/ea- 
8ta9 Svo fcal * Apirpa/cidriSa^ Tpeh irpoairXriptO' 

2 crai/T€9 varepop €p,eWop irXevaeaOai. KaX 6 p,€P 
rvXA7r'7ro9 €K Tov TdpaPTO^ ^9 rrjv Qovplap 
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iroTC TTokiTelap KaX ov hvpdpGPO^ avTov^ irpoa-- 
aya/y€a0at, dpa<: irapiirXei ttjp ^iTaXiap, koL dp- 
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/Sopiap e<TT7}K(ii^, d7ro(f>€peTai €9 to TriXayo^, kuX 
naXip xj^ip^iaOeX^ ^9 tA p^aXiCTa t^ Tdpavri 
Trpoa-pia-yei* KaX TA9 pav^; oaat iiroprjaap inro tov 

3 %6i/i6t>i'09 dp€XKV<ra^ iireaKcva^ep, 6 Sk tJiKta^ 
TTvdopepo^ avTOP irpoafrXioPTa vrrepelBe to irXrjOo^ 

* Korii rhv Ttpiycuoy K6\woy, in MSS. after Mfiov, deleted 
by Goeller. 




BOOK VI. cm. 4-civ. 3 

him, and still more were discussed in the city. For 
under their present evils they had some suspicion even 
of one another; and the generals under whose lead 
these things had happened were deposed, on the 
ground that their disasters w^ere due to their ill-luck 
or treachery, and in their stead were chosen Hera- 
cleides, Eucles, and Tellias. 

CIV. Meanwhile Gylippus the Lacedaemonian and 
the ships from Corinth ^ were already at Leucas, 
proposing to bring aid to Sicily in all haste. As the 
reports that were coming to them were alarming and 
all to the same false purport, that Syracuse had 
already been completely walled off, Gylippus no 
longer had any hope of Sicily, but wishing to save 
Italy, he himself and Pythen the Corinthian, with 
two Laconian vessels and two Corinthian, crossed 
the Ionian gulf to Tarentum as quickly as possible ; 
while the Corinthians, after manning, in addition to 
their own ten, two Leucadian and three Ambracian 
ships, were to sail later. From Tarentum, Gylippus, 
after first going on a mission to Thuria, on account of 
his father having been once a citizen there,* and 
failing to win them over, weighed anchor and sailed 
along the coast of Italy. Caught by a wind, which 
settling in the north blows violently in that region, 
he was carried out to sea, and then after a most 
violent storm again reached Tarentum; and there 
hauling ashore all of his ships that had suffered from 
the storm he set to repairing them. But Nicias, 
although he heard that he was sailing up, despised 

* c/. ch. xciii. 3. 

^ Or, reading, with BH, Kal rijv rod trarphs ^LvavtMad/xtvos, 
"and having revived the sometime citizenship of his 
father." 

373 



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BOOK VI. CIV. 3-cv. 3 

the small number of his ships^ just as the Thurians 
had done^ and thinking they were coming equipped 
rather as privateers than as men-of-war^ he took as 
yet no precautions. 

CV. About the same time in this summer^ the 
Lacedaemonians and their allies invaded Argos and 
ravaged most of the country. And the Athenians 
brought succour to the Argives with thirty ships^ an 
act which violated their treaty with the Lacedaemo- 
nians in the most overt manner. For before this 
they waged the war, in cooperation with the Argives 
and Mantineans, by predatory excursions from Pylos 
and by making landings round the rest of the Pelo- 
ponnesus rather than in Laconia; and although the 
Argives frequently urged them only to make a land- 
ing with arms on Laconian territory, devastate in 
concert with them even the least part, and then go 
away, they refused. But sit this time, under the 
command of Pythodorus, Laespodias, and Demaratus, 
they landed at Epidaurus Limera, Prasiae, and other 
places, and laid waste some of their territory, and 
so gave the Lacedaemonians from now on a more 
plausible excuse for defending themselves against 
the Athenians. After the Athenians had withdrawn 
from Argos with their ships, and the Lacedaemonians 
also had retired, the Argives made an incursion into 
Phliasia, ravaging part of their land and killing some 
of the inhabitants, and then returned home. 



375 



PBnmD IN OBBAT BRITAIN BT 
THB COBNWALL PBESS, LTD., PABI8 GABDBN, 
STAUrOBD STBSET, LONDON, 8.E. I 




an 



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Stanford UniTcnity tflwarieg 
Stanford, CaUfomia 



MAR 1-1977 
'OCT 12 1930 
NOV 22 1981 

ll.rvY 19158; 



JUL 2 198/ 
,)UN 17 1990 
TEB 



56 1989