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Full text of "A Tibetan-English dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms"

Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from 
the estate of 

Prof. W.A.G.H. Dobson 



DICTIONARY 



SARAT CHANDRA 

BAHADUR 




Published at the BENGAL SECRETARIAT BOOK DEPOT, 
Writers' Buildings, Calcutta. 



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TIBETAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 

WITH SANSKRIT SYNONYMS 

BY 

SARAT CHANDRA DAS, RAI BAHADUR, C.I.E., 

AUTHOR OF "A JOURNEY TO LHASA AND 



ano oite& nkr t|e orkrs of tfre 6oternmeiit of Bengal 

BY 

GRAHAM SANDBERG, B.A., 

CHAPLAIN, H. M. INDIAN 8EBVICB ; ATJTHOB OF "A HAND-BOOK OF COLLOQUIAL 

TIBBTAN," "MANUAL OF THE SIKKIJI-BHUTIA LANGUAGE," "UILABASPA, 

TIBETAN POET AND MYSTIC," ETC., ETC., ETC., 

AND 

A. WILLIAM HETDE, 

ONE OF THE BEVISOBS OF THE TIBETAN NEW TESTAMENT, MOBAVIAN MISSIONARY ON THE 

TIBETAN FBONTIEB. 




CALCUTTA: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BENGAL SECEETAEIAT BOOK DEPOT. 

1902. 

{Price Indian, Es. 32 ; English, 2 5s.] 



CALCUTTA : 
PRINTED AT THE BEKGAL SECRETARIAT PRESS. 




PREFACE. 



I. 

ALEX. CSOMA DE Kb'fib's, the pioneer student of Tibetan, in the 
preface of his Tibetan-English-Dictionary, published in 1834, wrote 
as follows : 

"When there shall be more interest taken for Buddhism (which 
has much in common with the spirit of true Christianity) and for 
diffusing Christian and European knowledge throughout the most 
eastern parts of Asia, the Tibetan Dictionary may be much im- 
proved, enlarged, and illustrated by the addition of Sanskrit terms." 

The result of his investigations, to speak in Csoma's own words, waa 
that the literature of Tibet is entirely of Indian origin. The im- 
mense volumes on different branches of science, etc., being exact 
or faithful translations from Sanskrit works, taken from Bengal, Magadha, 
Gangetic or Central India, Kashmir, and Nepal, commencing from the 
seventh century after Christ. And that many of these works have been 
translated (mostly from Tibetan) into the Mongol, Manchu, and the 
Chinese languages ; so that by this means the Tibetan language became 
in Chinese Tartary the language of the learned aa the Latin in Europe. 
In the year 1 889 I brought these opinions of that original investiga- 
tor to the notice of Sir Alfred Croft, K.C.I.E., the then Director of Public 
Instruction in Bengal, and explained to him the necessity of compiling 
a Tibetan-English Dictionary on the lines indicated by Csoma de Korbs 
for the use of Tibetan students and particularly to assist European 
scholars in the thorough exploration of the vast literature of Tibet, 
which, besides indigenous works, comprises almost all the Buddhist 
religious works of India, including the great collections of the Kahgyur 
and the Tangyur. Shortly before this Sir Alfred Croft had received a 
communication from the late Right Hon'ble Professor F. Max Miiller on 
the desirability of translating into English a Sanskrit-Tibetan work 
on Buddhist terminology, which was looked for with interest, because 
it was expected to throw light on many obscure points of Buddhist- 
Sanskrit literature. The philosophical terms of that literature, many 



VI 

of which were of extremely doubtful meaning, had been translated 
with literal accuracy into Tibetan in early times, and it was antici- 
pated that an analysis of the meaning of these terms would elucidate 
that of the original Sanskrit words, of which they were the equivalent 
renderings. Being impressed with the importance of the proposed work, 
Sir Alfred Croft, in a memorandum addressed to Government, wrote 
as follows : 

" Babu Sarat Chandra Das has brought with him four dictionaries 
of the classical Tibetan ; one of these being a well-known Tibetan- 
Sanskrit Dictionary, compiled from a large number of named Tibetan 
as well as standard Sanskrit works, and dating from the 13th century 
A.D., and another being a Sanskrit-Tibetan Dictionary, which explains 
the Tantrik portion of the Buddhist Scriptures. The external arrange- 
ment of the dictionary will be as follows: The Tibetan words will 
be placed first in alphabetical order; next their accepted Sanskrit 
equivalents ; next the English rendering of the Tibetan terms ; then 
will follow what is to be a special and valuable feature of the new 
dictionary. The meaning of each technical term is to be illustrated 
by extracts, with exact references from Sanskrit-Buddhist and Tibetan 
works. Further, it is proposed that Babu Sarat Chandra Das should 
include in the dictionary words of modern Tibetan which were not 
known to Csoma or Jaschke. The materials which he has amassed 
during his two journeys to and residence in Tibet give him excep- 
tional facilities for making the work complete." 

These recommendations having received the sanction of Government 
in June 1889, I was placed on special duty in connection with the 
compilation of the proposed dictionary. In 1899, when the work of 
compilation was brought to a close, the Hon'ble Mr. C. W. Bolton, c.s.i., 
then Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal, entrusted the revision 
of the work to the Revd. Graham Sandberg and Revd. William Heyde, 
and deputed Professor Satis Chandra Acharya, M.A,,, who had made Buddhist 
Sanskrit and Pali works his special study, to co-operate with me. My 
respectful thanks are, therefore, due to Sir Alfred Croft for the keen 
interest he took in my Tibetan studies and for his kind help at the inception 
of the work, and to Mr. Bolton for securing the services of the two 
Tibetan scholars the Revd. Graham Sandberg and Revd. William Heyde 
for its successful completion. I also record my obligations to Sir John 



Vll 

Edgar, K.C.I.E., formerly Chief Secretary to the Government of Bengal ; to 
Dr. Emil Schlagintweit of Bavaria, and to the Hon'ble W. W. Rockhillj 
Author of The Land of Lamas for encouragement, assistance, and advice 
during the prosecution of my researches. Great is the debt of gratitude 
which I owe to the Revd. Gf. Sandberg for various acts of kindness. 
Without his scholarly and efficient aid this work would hardly have assumed 
its present shape, as he has given a scientific finish to the work which 
it was not in my power to do. 

II. 

In studying the origin and growth of Tibetan literature and the 
landmarks in the history of that language, Jaschke, the compiler of the 
second Tibetan-English Dictionary (published in 1882), noticed only two 
periods of literary activity. Had that critical student of Tibetan been 
in possession of works of modern literature, which dates from the 
establishment of the Dalai Lama's sovereignty over whole Tibet in the 
beginning of the 18th century A.D., he would certainly have modified 
his remarks on the subject. Neither he nor Csoma de Korbs had any 
means or opportunities of studying either the current literature of every- 
day business or the refined, idiomatic literature of Tibet itself, which 
is quite distinct from the Indian literature that was translated or 
imported into the language. They do not seem to have ever during 
the course of their study of Tibetan come across works on drama, 
fiction, correspondence, etc. It is, therefore, no wonder that the compiler 
of the later dictionary should assign only two periods to the history 
of the literature of Tibet, entirely ignoring the third, which is indeed 
not the least important of the three. 

The first period, to describe it in the language of Jaschke, is 
the Period of Translations, which, however, might also be entitled the 
Classical Period, for the sanctity of the religious message conferred 
a corresponding reputation and tradition of excellence upon the 
form in which it was conveyed. This period begins in the second 
half of the seventh century A.D., when Thon-mi Sambhota (the 
good Bhota or Tibetan), the minister of King Srongtsan Grampo, 
returned to Tibet after studying the Sanskrit language under an 
eminent Brahman teacher of Magadha. "His invention of the Tibetan 
alphabet gave two-fold impulse: for several centuries the wisdom of 



Vlll 

India and the ingenuity of Tibet laboured in unison and with the 
greatest industry and enthusiasm at the work of translation. The 
tribute due to real genius must, be accorded to these early pioneers 
of Tibetan grammar. They had to grapple with infinite wealth and 
refinement of Sanskrit; they had to save the independence of their 
own tongue, while they strove to subject it to the rule of scientific 
principles, and it is most remarkable how they managed to produce 
translations at once . literal and faithful to the spirit of the original." 

The Classical Period may be divided into three stages. The first 
or the earliest stage terminated with the downfall of the first histor- 
ical monarchy, when King Langdarma fell by the hand of an 
assassin. The second stage commenced with the introduction of the 
system of chronology, called the Vrihaspati cycle of 60 years, in 
Tibet by an Indian Buddhiat called Chandra Nath and Chilu Pandit 
of Tibet in 1025 A.D. This was the age of Milaraspa and Atisa, 
whose illustrious disciple, Brom-ton Gryalwai Jungne", laid (he founda- 
tion of the first Buddhist Hierarchy in Tibet and established the 
great monastery of Rwadeng, with a library of Sanskrit works. Jaschke's 
second period evidently corresponds with this stage, when " Tibetan 
authors began to indulge in composition of their own" and wrote 
on historical and legendary subjects. The third stage began with 
the conquest of Tibet by the Tartar Conqueror, Chingis Khan, in 
1205 A.D., when Pandit S'akya S'ri of Kashmir had returned to Tibet 
after witnessing the plunder and destruction of the great Buddhist 
monasteries of Odantapuri and Vikrama S'lla in Magadha, and the conquest 
of Bengal and Behar by the Mahomedans under Baktyar Ghilji in 
1203 A.D. In this last stage flourished the grand hierarchy of Sakya, 
which obtained supreme influence over Tibet and the country, which was 
then divided into 13 provinces, called Thikor Chusum, as a gift from 
the immediate successors of Chingis Khan. Among the most noted 
writers of the time were Sakya Pandit Kungah Gyal-tshan, Dogon 
Phag-pa, the spiritual tutor of Emperor Khubli Khan, and Shongton 
Lotsawa, who translated the Kavyadarto, of Dandi and Kshemendra's 
Avadana Ealpalala in metrical Tibetan. With the opening of the 15th 
century Buton-Rinchen Diib introduced a new era in the literature of 
Tibet, and Buddhism received fresh impulse under the rule of the 
Phagmodu chiefs, when Tibetan scholars took largely to the study of 



IX 

Chinese literature under the auspices of the Ming Emperors of China. 
During this period, called the age of Da-nying (old orthography), the great 
indigenous literature of Tibet arose. A host of learned Lotsawas and 
scholars like Tsongkhapa, Buton, Gyalwa Ngapa, Lama Taranatha, 
Desri Sangye Gyatsho, Sumpa Khampo, and others flourished. This 
was the age of the Gelug-pa, or the Yellow Cap School of Buddhism, 
founded by Tsongkhapa with Gahdan as its head-quarters. 

The third period begins with the first quarter of the 18th century, 
when Chinese suzerainty over Tibet was fully established and the 
last of the Tartar kings of the dynasty of Gushi Khan was killed 
by a General of the Jungar Tartars an incident which transferred 
the sovereignty of Tibet to the Dalai Lama, who was till then a mere 
hierarch of the Gelug-pa Church. It is within this period that 
Tibet has enjoyed unprecedented peace under the benign sway of 
the holy Bodhisattvas, and its language has become the lingua 
franca of Higher Asia. 

LHASA VILLA, DABJBELINO, ) 

SARAT CHANDRA DAS. 

July 1902, J 



REVISORS' PREFACE. 



WHEN in December 1899 the Chief Secretary to the Government of 
Bengal handed over to us for revision the Tibetan Dictionary upon which 
Sarat Chandra Das had laboured for some dozen years, we found at our 
disposal a work embracing a mass of new and important collections on 
the language, the value of which was marred by two prominent character- 
istics first, the material had been put together in somewhat heteroge- 
neous fashion, hardly systematic enough for a dictionary ; secondly, the 
vast amount of original matter had been throughout greatly interlarded 
with lengthy excerpts from Jaschke's Dictionary, not always separable from 
the new information, and this imparted a second-hand appearance to large 
portions of the work, which was, in reality, by no means deserved. 
Moreover, in this way, no attempt had been made to improve upon 
Jaschke's definitions of many of the commoner Buddhist philosophical 
terms or to incorporate the later results of European scholarship in these 
instances. On the other hand, one was very often gratified to find, in the 
case of the more difficult philosophical terminology, that the learned 
Bengali had gone to original and little-explored sources of native informa- 
tion, such as Tsongkhapa's Lam-rim Chhenmo, and, by extracts from the 
same, furnished valuable and novel particulars under those heads. 

Accordingly, the task which the Revisors set themselves was directed 
mainly to counteracting the errors of judgment above indicated. Such a 
task proved one of a more laborious character than might be at first 
imagined ; and the fact that the work of amendment and addition has 
taken them upwards of two years of incessant toil sufficiently evidences 
its difficulty. 

First, has come the business of selection and excision. The religion 
and philosophy of Tibetan books are properly confined to the Bon cult 
and to Buddhism. There had been, however, a tendency here to draw 
in all manner of Hindu thought and mythology, because one or two works 
translated into Tibetan from the Sanskrit dealt with these matters. This 
tendency it seemed right to curb except in those instances, not at all 
infrequent, where the Vedic and Puranic Hinduism, in some measure, was 
bound up with, or bore upon, or explained, Buddhist belief or popular practice. 



Xll 



Excision has had to be meted out, further, in the case of unnecessary 
repetition of otherwise properly-introduced information. Secondly, our 
task has been one of substitution. Many articles have had to be freshly 
written, or at least re-compiled. In place of the innumerable excerpts 
from Jaschke, already referred to, we have had to examine and to treat de 
novo the grammar and general usage of a large number of the commoner 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs, notably the verbs. To illustrate these 
new articles, we have had to substitute for Jaschke's examples a largo 
number of original quotations from Tibetan authors as well as a certain 
number of made-up sentences put together to exhibit various phrases 
of ordinary employment. In other articles, also, where Sarat Chandra Das 
had not thought it necessary to do more than repeat Csoma's or Jaschke's 
illustrative sentences, we have looked out fresh examples to replace them. 
Of still greater importance was it in the case of certain doctrinal terms 
and phrases of Buddhism to undertake re-definition and to connote and 
assimilate modern discussion and research on the subject. Among those 
terms may be noted such as ^J3j, rkyen ; ^3j'Q,gQl ( rtcn-hbrel f'3, Ita^wa; ^31, rdul; 
|'X| } bla-ma ; t ^-'^ ) gyun-drun ; ^'q^j^rq } dc-bsMii-pfcrjs-pa. But while 
referring to these substitutions and others of a like nature, we do 
not wish to assume too much. We would rather repeat that, in the 
matter of philosophical definitions also, wo have been frequently surprised 
and instructed by the descriptions and explanations of recondite ideas 
and terms which Sarat Chandra Das has himself succeeded in collecting 
from various native authorities. Such information would have sufficed if 
he had not sometimes confused it by the sudden and inconsequent linking 
on of Jaschke's remarks without curtailment and without any connotation 
of them to that which he had himself just set out. Thirdly, in the way of 
direct addition to the original work, there have been certain moderate sup- 
plementary contributions. Jaschke had dealt very fully with the Western 
colloquial, and we have sought to introduce a number of the colloquial 
words and phrases belonging to the Central and Eastern speech. Other 
additions have been short paragraphs on the mythological pantheon of 
Tibet and Mongolia, together with an attempt to give exact information 
on zoological and geographical points. 

It may be considered by some that there is a certain lack of reference 
to known authorities in support of many of the statements set forth in 
this work. However, it should be remembered that in dealing with a 



xm 

language so little explored as the Tibetan (or which, indeed, in one narrow 
groove that of the Kahgyur translations from Sanskrit has, in some sense, 
been over-explored), the difficulty is to find adequate authorities for the 
real and more current uses of words and phrases. The stilted verbiage 
of the Kahgyur is often mere Sanskrit idiom literally rendered into 
Tibetan, but it gives no idea of the elastic style to be found in the innumer- 
able indigenous productions of native Tibetan writers. Sarat Chandra 
Das has held familiar intercourse with modern men of learning in Tibet 
itself the professors at Tashi-lhunpo, Daipung, Samye, Mindolling, and 
other important monastic institutions. Much, therefore, has been gleaned 
by him which, though absolutely reliable, cannot be given on any stated 
authority, but must be accepted as information obtained at first hand and 
now presented for the first time. This frank acceptance should also be 
extended to much with which the Revisers have been able to supplement 
the Author's original work. Both of them have been located for lengthy 
periods where Tibetan is the language of the people of the place, and have 
been in constant communication with men from Lhasa and all parts 
of Tibet. Under such circumstances, "authorities" cannot of course 
be quoted. 

In dealing with philosophical terms, and in general with the forms to 
be met with both in the old classical works and in modern treatises, it 
will certainly be found, however, that our examples are constantly 
supported by exact references. These have been taken from writings 
of all kinds. Hitherto European scholars seem to have thought of the 
literature of Tibet as one consisting wholly of Sanskritic translation and as 
limited to the contents of the Kahgyur and Tangyur. The Author and 
the Revisers have endeavoured, by widening the sources of their quota- 
tions, to show how extensive a field is covered by mediaeval and modern 
Tibetan writers. Geography, history, biography, political government, 
accounts, astrology, are all represented. It may be remarked, for example 
that the official biographies of the successive Dalai Lamas alone fill some 
32 volumes. Nevertheless, although these scarce memoirs are included 
in Sarat Chandra Das's library, we are sorry to point out that none of 
his examples appear to have been taken therefrom. 

Knowing, however, how scanty is the range of Tibetan works avail- 
able to the majority of students, we have not failed to quote largely in 
our examples from the Kahgyur and Tangyur collections. We may 



XIV 

note on this point that a suggestion has been forwarded to us that, in 
quoting from the former, special references should be given to Mons. 
Feer's Teztes tires du Kandjour. But we are afraid that the scope for 
quotation would be narrowed if our references to the Kahgyur were con- 
fined to Mons. Feer's very limited extracts published in lithograph form over 
30 years ago. As to the Index du Kandjour, which was issued in the pub- 
lications of the Muse"e Guimet 20 years back, it is evident to every 
Tibetan student that this Index was only a rtchauffe of Csoma Korbsi's 
much clearer and fuller analysis of the Kahgyur printed 68 years 
ago in the pages of the Asiatic Researches. We fear, indeed, that reli- 
ance on such works as these would rather expose us to charges of non- 
acquaintance with more recent results of European investigation in the 
present field. Although working in India, we may observe, however, 
that we have done our best to keep pace with what European Orien- 
talists have written on our subject ; but assistance has been mainly derived 
from the many memoirs compiled by Russian and German scholars, 
and we would specially recommend to notice the collections in this 
field made by Prince Ukhtomski and the very recent publications of 
Dr. Albert Grunwedel, Dr. A. Conrady, and Professor Huth. The 
analyses of the Tangyur, issued by Professor Huth during the last 
three or four years, are particularly noteworthy. To return, however, 
to the above-mentioned suggestion, we may say that not only would 
the scope be too restricted, but also there is no necessity, under 
present conditions, to refer to any mere collection of extracts. Nearly 
every capital city in Europe now has obtained possession of com- 
plete copies of the Kahgyur volumes, and in two or three libraries 
the 230 volumes of the Tangyur may be also consulted. In St. 
Petersburg are three full sets of the Kahgyur and two sets of the 
Tangyur; in Paris is a set of the Kahgyur; in one or other of the 
great German libraries both the Tibetan encyclopedia may be seen; 
in England, while curiously enough the British Museum Library 
owns only a small drawer-ful of loose Tibetan book-leaves, the 
India Office Library can boast a perfect series of both Kahgyur and 
Tangyur; and, lastly, in the Vatican Propaganda Library is preserved 
Oratio della Penna's incomplete collection of Kahgyur volumes. 

A word as to the Sanskrit equivalents following each Tibetan term. 
Sanskrit scholars will perhaps consider these equivalents rather 



XV 

unsystematically enumerated. They have, nevertheless, with regard to 
the majority of them, this particular value: they were selected 
by native Indian scholars of mediaeval and later days in collaboration 
with Tibetan lotsawas or translators, as the appropriate Sanskrit 
synonyms of the respective Tibetan words. They have been taken 
chiefly from one celebrated Sanskrit-Tibetan Dictionary, and supple- 
mented by a well-known Calcutta pandit and professor, Satis 
Chandra Acharya Vidyab/iusan, who has also considerable acquain- 
tance with literary Tibetan. The same learned professor has also, 
in numerous instances, appended a literal English rendering of the Sanskrit 
terms. These renderings have been placed within square brackets with 
the initial S outside the brackets, and he alone is responsible for such 
translations. 

The system of transliteration followed is that adopted finally at the 
Vienna Congress of Orientalists ; and this system is observed in the case 
of all Tibetan and Sanskrit words intended to be literally transliterated 
and printed in italics. However, when a Tibetan cr Sanskrit proper 
name occurs in Roman characters, not as a transliteration, but in the 
English explanation of a word, or in any English sentence as an integral 
part of such explanation or sentence, the name is spelled according to the 
conventional English fashion and, in the case of Sanskrit terms or names, 
as in Sir Monier Williams's Dictionary. 

A considerable number of Tibetan words at the head of paragraphs 
will be found in larger type. This indicates either that the word is the 
root of all related terms, or that it is the most common word of the series 
and thus ostensibly that from which the others have been derived. Two 
different arbitrary signs will be found prefixed to many words. The Author, 
it seems, has marked such words as he considers archaic or gone out of 
present use with a swastika (*f,), and those words deemed by him to have 
been imported into Tibetan from the Sanskrit, whether directly or by 
derivation, he has distinguished by a double-headed dagger (*). 

In conclusion, the Revisors would point out that although they have 
been given, and have generally taken, the greatest freedom in correcting 
or rejecting the matter set forth in this work, and for that reason 
cannot justly shift responsibility for the accuracy or non-accuracy of 
that which is herein written, nevertheless they have generally not reversed 



XVI 

the views and statements of the Author wherever these have seemed 
to them reasonable or fairly tenable, and to be the result of deliberately- 
formed opinion. They have felt, even when differing personally from 
the Author, that this Dictionary was Sarat Chandra Das's not their 
own. 

We must not omit to mention that, by the agency of the Chief 
Secretary to Government, certain brief comments on various portions of 
the Dictionary were received from Professor Bendall, and we have to thank 
him for his kind suggestions. 

GRAHAM SANDBERG. 
A. WILLIAM HEYDE. 

DAEJTBELINO, ISDU ; J 
The lit Starch 1903. j 



ALPHABETICAL PLAN OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE, 

g (yang nga). 
The five vowels: 



a, i, , *, 



The four vowel signs that are attached to the basic letter w are called gi-gii, 
shabkyii, deng-bu and naro : 

* ^ ^i 

t, , e, o. 



siim-chu). 
The thirty consonants : 

ij p V K-| * *' E '^1 5 * * ' V ^1 

ka, kha, ga, m. ca, cha, ja, na. ta, tha, da, na. 

q l * q l| ^ ' a ' I ' qj| <E| a ^ - || 

pa, pha, ba, ma. tsa, tsha, dta, wa. sha, sa, ha, ya. 

^ ' 0| ' ^j ' ?I| ^ ' W| 

ra, la, fa, sa. ha, a. 

The Dictionary order of the Tibetan letters, 

with their IndoRomanic equivalents and their pronunciation 

exemplified by English words: 

k in kill, seek 5c(=cA)in porch. 

P Teh ink-horn. &cA(=cM),, church-hill. 

**1 9 gun> go, dog. E j jet, jump. 

K'6(=0),, sing, king. ^ (=) singe. 

lc 



XV111 



5 t in water (in Ireland). ^ 

SI </ nut-hook. 

^ d dice (more like th in this). Q 

3j n not, nut. l 

El ^j pull, page. *s 

5| jaA uphill. 01 

q i, or > ball, boy, bard. -^ 

Si m man, map. 5J 

5 fo parts. ^ 

3 isA (<s aspirated). I?) 

[1 rfs guards. 



sh in shone or s in leisure. 

s azure or s in as. 

h hour, honour. 

y yard, year. 

r ray, rope. 

I last, large. 
(=s/i) sharp, 

s same, soon. 

A half, happy. 

far. 



w 



waft, wave. 



In all the above twenty nine letters the last letter w is inherent, therefore the 
Tibetan Grammarians have included it as a basis both for vowels and consonants. The 
letter * (A) called ('$*') the little a is generally joined to the basic-vowel of a letter to 
make its pronunciation long. When it is subjoined to the letter w the compound so 
formed becomes equivalent to the Sanskrit ^IT a and is pronounced as a in tar, far, or 
father. When it is subjoined to the vowel & the compound so formed resembles the 
Sanskrit ( and is pronounced like i in police and so on. 

The Sanskrit Alphabet and their Tibetan equivalents : 
The vowels : 



a, a, , I. 



u, u, r, ri. I, li, e, e. o, an, am, ah. 



The consonants: 



, kha, ga, gha, Ha. tsa, tsha, dsa } tkha, na. ia, tJia, da, dfia, na. fa, tfia, da, d/ia, na. 



XIX 



pa, pha, la, bha, ma. ya, ra, la, wa. $a, ?a, sa, ha. ksa. 

The consonant signs representing the letters "i, and * : 
ya-tag) and (*ifyq* ra-tag). 






-yig six). 
The six inverted Tibetan letters representing the Sanskrit letters : 



ta,tha,da,na, sa, tea. 



-% six). 

The six aspirates, t'.e., letters having *> subjoined to them, 



a, lha. 



The compounds formed with the four vowel signs of t, , e and o called yi-g 
angle", shabs-kyuthe hook^, hgrefi-bu the 'standing' stroke", and 
sna-ro ' the horns over the nose ' ~ which are joined to the 
consonants including the basic vowel % 



^"' fl ^' , m, ne, no. 

5 1 ci, cu, ce, co. *'g''3B| chi, chu, che, cho. 



jo. ' i e, no. 



XX 



** tu > te > to - T"| thi, thu, the, tho. 

i^ ' i il rf ' rfw > *' rfo - 3' ^ n nf wz nu ' ne > no - 



me, mo. 



fat, dsu, dse, dso. yjJ'QJ'tiJI wi, wu, we, wo. 

shi, shu, she, sho. S"|'i*I| t, IK, , so. 

, , K Ao. ^*raf| y,', yu, y,, ^. 

n, rw, , ro. $''$*2f| K, lu, k, lo. 

1 ', su, BB, so. 



fy seven). 
The seven basic consonants to which the letter "i y is subjoined : 



The four compounds which in their pronunciation resemble 
the four simple letters *, *, 5, 3: 

pya is pronounced as * ca. Q pjiya is pronounced as * cha 







mya 9 na. 



(ra-% thirteen). 

The thirteen basic consonants to which the letter * r may be subjoined and in which 

though the basic constituent is not pronounced, in Tibet proper yet the 

compounds so formed have a pronunciation altogether 

different from that of any of the constituents, 



kra, khra, gra, tra, thru, dra, pra, phra, Ira, mra, fra, sra, hra, 
(ta), (tha), (da), (ta), (tha), (da), (fa), (tha), (da), (ma), (sra), (sa), hra. 



XXI 



The eight compounds of which the pronunciation resembles that of the Sanskrt 
cerebrals , 3, represented in Tibetan by the inverted letters ^, *, ?, : 

m kra (to). K tra (ta). a pra (ta). ID khra (tha). 

qj gra (da). C dra (fa). O bra (da). a phra (tha). 



orc^'lf! (la-tag six). 
The six basic consonants to which the letter *i / is subjoined : 

ariT9'V'9'*l 

Tcla, ffla, bla, rla, $la, sla (da). 

In the compounds the Sc/flj^ i.e., basic are silent except in | which is 
pronounced as d; the letters not pronounced are underlined. 



The same with u subjoined : 



-0 



klu, gju, bin, rlu, flu, zlu (dit). 



trQIJftli (wa-zur tag-pa sixteen). 



The sixteen letters with (i'l*) i.e. 4 which is a corner of the letter v w 
subjoined to them : 

m- ra zn*5''5)'5 T s* ^* ^ *|'a'^'Qi'-fl'5|-?i| 

J4 4' 4 4 4'- 4 <) 4 | .4 4 4 ' 4 4 4' 

kwa, khwa, gwa, fwa, nwa, two, dwa, tstca, tshica, shwa, zwa, rwa, hea, fwa, wa, hwa. 



V*flfq5'iflrSj (ra-go twelve). 
The twelve basic consonants with ^ r on their head, i.e., * surmounting them : 

^ ' flj c ;.t ; i : 5 : vv ^ * * r T n 

rka, rga, rna, rja, rna, rta, rda, rna, rba, rma, rtsa, rdta. 
(the superscribed letter being generally silent is represented by an underlined r) 



xxii 

r*fffa5'tj (la-go ten). 
The ten basic consonants with the letter i / surmounting them : 



Ika, Iga, Ina, lea, Ija, Ita, Ida, Ipa, Iba, lha. 
the superscribed letter where silent is represented by an underlined /. 

srstfj'q^&f^ (sa-go eleven). 
The eleven basic consonants with the letter s surmounting them : 



ska, sga, na, $na, sta, $da, sna, spa, $ba, sma, s.t$a. 
the superscribed letter which is not pronounced is represented by an underlined $. 



g3j'Q^'g (ngon-jug five). 

The five letters which, when prefixed to initial or basic letters to form a word, are 
seldom in Tibet Proper pronounced and are represented by underlined italics : 

frv*'*:qi 

9, d, 6, % h. 



The ten letters which when affixed to initial letters to form a 
word are very softly pronounced : 



</, n, d, n, b, m, h, r, I, s. 



l^'qi'^Sil'^ (dsog-tshig eleven). 

The eleven letters which are reduplicated (to form the preterite) when joined 

with a terminal o : 



go, no, do, no, bo, mo, ho, ro, lo, so, to. 



xxiii 

arXw^si^ (la-don seven). 
The seven postpositions signifying to or at, 

S'VVV^'SJ 

sit, ru, ra, du, na, la, tu. 



Z-#a five). 
The postpositive particles to signify possession : 



gi, kyi, gyi, hi, yi. 



^l'fj'o) che-$a or je-g!a. 
The instrumental particles : 



yis. 



the basic (^ t- 1^) "I and its compounds with the letter b Q prefixed, 

bkah. Z^|C'| bkan. qrf|qj| bkag. qr^^l bkan. 
bknb. qm^JI bkas. 



^S! - ko -' 

bjcye. q^ri 6Ara. ^TI bkmg. 



bkrams. qTQJI **ra^- 6*rz. qTfl bkru. 



bkrol. 



brkum. 



XXIV 



the basic * and its compounds with the letter " prefixed, 

bcah. q3^| bcagg. qSCSJf bean?. q^| bead. 
bcabs. q5^| bear. q50|| bcal. 



bcos. q^fQ] 6co/. q Ucid. 



the basic ^ and its compounds with the letter 1 prefixed, 



brtse. q 6^*o. q*JJ?S brtsams. 



the basic 5 and its compounds with the letter 1 prefixed, 

btags. q5C"| btan. q^qi btab. qKC$|| btifis. 

btu. q^^l btu$. ^'iSI ^twd. ^W| -'"* 

\tul. qRJ^'L 6^M^. q^qi ifei- qj-j^il brtan. 

brten. q3i| 6sto. q3i| 6sfe. qgi W<. 

6/<<7s q^l ^ <ffr - ^^1 --'- - qgSI^I Warns, 

brtun. niOIl ^^. q qi?I I bteg. qSJJI 6?<. 



Wsorf. q3 bison 



XXV 



the basic 1 and its compounds wilh the letter 1 prefixed, 

&s a ff- 



| brgyan. 
^ btgyir. 



9AD OE THE STOPS. 

pronoxuiced shad in Ladak and Amdo but in Tsang and Central Tibet is 
pronounced : ollciy 
'^ or eWj'-*^ single perpendicular stroke J = ( \ Comma. 

double stroke J| = (.) full stop. 

r ~^\ four-fold stroke |||| used at the end of a chapter or section. 
point, dot separating syllables. 
"T'\ 8 *' ro ^ e w ^^- ^ ^ on ^ *P t or ornamental stop. 



ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES. 



A ...................... Ati-$ahi rnam-ttiar 

A. K. ............... Avadana Kalpalata. 

A. E ................ Asiatic Besearches. 

A. S ................... Asta Sahasrika B. T. Society. 

A. O. ............... Anuruddha-Qataka B. T. Society. 

Abhi. .................. Abbidhammattha-sangaho. 

Ar ................... Arabic. 

B. grub ............. Bon-gyi grub-mthah 

B. Nam .............. Bon Nam shag. 

B.T.S. ............... Buddhist Text Society. 

Bal. .................. Baltistan. 

Behu ................... Behu-bum sfion-po 

Beng ................... Bengali language. 

Bhar ................ Bharata, dialogue, ed. by Dr. A. Schief ner. 

Shot ................... Bhotan, province. 

Bodhi ................ Bodhicharyavatara, B. T. Society. 

B.ch ................... Bon-chos 5aj--* | 

Budh ................ Buddhism. 

Bum ................... Wm* 1 '^' Smcm-hbum chuft. 

Burn. I. ............ Burnouf, Introduction au Buddhism Indien. 

Burn. II. ............ Burnouf, Lotus de la bonne loi. 

C ...................... Central Tibet. 

Can ................... Canakya (Tsd-na-ka) 

Cho-zafi ............. Lama Chos-bzafi psufi 

Choi-g ................ Chos-rgyal btfod-pa X 

Cs ..................... Csoma de Korosi's Tibetan English Dictionary 

Cunm ................ Cunningham General, Ladak and the surrounding country. 

Ce or G. don ....... Ce-rab tdon-bu -*| -1 W^'5 1 

G. gya ................ Oes-rab brgya-pa %fH'* 

O. lam ................ Gam-bha-lahi lam-yig 

Qer ................... Qer-gyi me-M 



Div. A ................ Divyavadana. 

D. fel ................ Dwa^el me-M 

D. R ................ Dul-ica Rinpo-che, a Bon religious work. 

Dran ................ Dran-pa far Q$hag W^'flj^fl| | 

Dag ................... Dag-byed. g.sal-wabi me-M tft^^m-tfc&fc \ 



xx vm 



Deb ................... Deb-ther %non-po 

Desg ................... Desgodins, La Mission du Tibet de 1855-1870. 

Dh ................... Dharmasangraha (Max Muller). 

Dham. . ............. Dhammapado, B. Text Society's edition. 

Do or Dom .......... Mdo-man *^', - 1 

Dsam ................ Edsam-gjiii rgyas-bgad ^wfjc. 1 J-MJ^ j 

Dus-ye ................ Dus-hkhor-gyi yc-fes-kyi lehu also Dug-hgrel ye-le. 

Dus-kho ............. V^^'^l Dus-hkhor ti-ka. 

Dug ................... Qdugs-dkar "IV'P'VIM 

Dzl. .................. Mdo hdsafi-blim an ancient collection of Legends of Buddha. 

Ev ...................... E-vam ^'W | 

G. Bon ................ Rgyal-rabs lon-gyi hbyufi- 



0. kah ................ Rgyal-po bkah-than yf^iv^v: \ 



G. Sndg ............. Eevd. Graham Sandberg, B.A., LL.B. 

Gyal ................... Bffyd mtshan rtscmohi gzufig . 

Gyal. S ................ Rgyal-rabs gsal-wahi mc-lon ji|'^qi''J)N's 

Glr ................... Rgyal-rabs, a history of the kings of Tibet quoted by Jaschke. 

Gram ................ Grammar or native grammatical works. 

Grub ................... Grub-mthah $d-gyi mc-lon 9jq'*m'-)'J| i g')-SlE.- 1 

Gul ................... wp^-^'^iscg^ Mk/tas-pahi mgul-rgyan. 

Gya-cher ............. Gya-chcr rol-pa, Tib. version of the Lnlitvistarrc Ed. by Foucaux. 

Glu ................... Rgyal-iea Tshans-dbyans rgya-mtshohi mgul-glu. 

Gser-phreH .......... H'lps-l^fcW^^r^S-a^lC by Nagarjuna. 

Gshon ................ Gshon-nuhi mgul mgyur 

Qyu ................... Gyu-thog-pahi rnam-thar 

Hey ................... Revd. A. W. Heyde of the Moravian Mission. 

Hind ................ Hindi language. 

Hook ............... Sir Joseph Hooker's Himalayan j ournals. 

Hue ................... A.bbe Hue and Gabet's Tibet. 

Hbrom. ............... Bbrom-ston-pahi rnam-thar 

Hbum ................ Yum-chen-mo $w'^'35| 

J. Zan ................ Dpag-bsam IJon-bsan ^twi'eww !( | 

Ja ................ ..... Jachke's Tibetan-English Dictionary. 

Jig .................... Ejig-rten lugs-kyi bstan-bcos 

K.d ................... Bkah-hgyur mdo fv 

K. du ................ Bkah-hgyur hdul-wa 

K. dun ................ Bkah-babs bdun-ldan-gyi rnam-thar 

K. g ................... Bkah-hgyur rgyud 

K. ko ................ Bkah-hgyur dkon-brtsegs 

K. my ................ Bkah-hgyur myan-hdas 

K. phal ............. Bkah hgyur phul-po-che 



XXIX 

K.P Karuna-pundarika, B. T. Society. 

K. than, or Kathan. Padma fykah than. 

Kalac. T. Kalachakra of Taranatha. 

Kh Kham, eastern part of Tibet. 

Kha wp^'Mf'w'qSi* Mkhah hgro-mahi brdah. 

Khrid. Klon-chen Skhrid-yig |^'*S^ < H%R 

Kopp Ko'ppen, die religion des Buddha. 

Jun Kunawar, province under British protection. 

Kye-rim Ejigs-byed b$kyed-rim 

L. V. Lalitavistara. 

Lanka Larjkavatara-Sutra, B. T. Society. 

Lam-rim ByaK-chub Lam-gyi rim-pa sc;$q - ai*r 

Lam. ti. Lam-don ti-ka wf^ '"1 1 

Lat Latin. 

Ld. Ladak. 

Ld. Glr Ladak GyaUrabt, a history of Tibet, Ed. by Dr. E. Schlagintweit. 

Lex or Lexx Lexicon or Lexicons, native Tibetan dictionaries. 

Lh Lhasa. 

Lh. kar Lha-sahi dkar-chag 

Lha. kah Lha-hdre bkah-thaH 

Lif Li-fi gur-khan ^'^'^'f^' a Tibetan glossary. 

Lo Thog-rmhi blo-sbyons lnf&tflfc'* (Lam-rim). 

Lot KM-rdol gsufi-hbum ft^r^ff^f"^^*!^-!-^*^-^-^ 16th 

volume. 

L. kah Blon-po bkah-than 

Ljafii Itjafi-glM-gi bsgrufis < 

M. V. Maha Vyutpatti. 

M. vrtti Madhyamika Vritti B. T. Society. 

M. Wills Sir. Monier William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

Ma Ma-hoAs lufi-b$tan wX^-^-q^ Tibetan Apocalypse. 

M . gu Margyud '^ ! 

Maha. p Mahaparinibbana-sutta, Pali Text Society. 

Maha. v Mabavarhso. 

Mam W35 q^c.'^ Mamo bskari gso. 

Med. Medical works of Tibet. 

Mi. Mihi mtshan-nid *)5'rt^^ | 

Mil Milaragpa's gvigi mgur hbuin hundred thousand songs. 

Mil. nt Mi-la ras-pahi rnam-thar Rir 1 W^*^r*^ Mila's autobiography. 

Min-rda Min-don brdah-sprod ^K.^ 1 ^"'^ (Dag-yig). 

Hong Mongolian. 

Mng Man-Hag rgyud ^ tq I'|S a medical work. 



XXX 

Mgrin Mgrin-snon sla-wahi rtogs-brjod wg^' 

Jlgur Mi-la ras-pahi mgur-hbum *)'orwq5 - W|^'Rj*4 

Mnon Mnon-brjod mkhas-pahi rna-rgyan *&r'4ft'*fanAl*y( | a Lhasa 

block-print work in 80 leaves compiled by Nag Wang Jigten 

Wangchug Tagpai Dorje (*T^" fl ^fa'^'5P'! <l F l l&'^) ^ rom 

Sakya Panohhen's Tshig-gter, Tibetan translation of Amarkosa 

and other lexicons. 

Mtshan Mtshan-ntd *^^ | 

Ndro Na-ro chos-dr 

Nor Nor-lhahi ffzuns 

flag Dag-yig nag-sgron 

Org Original texts. 

Org, in Original manuscripts. 

Pag Etogs-bjrod dpag-sam h 

Pth Pad-ma than-yig 

Pur Purrang. 

Rdo Rdo-rifi sum-rtags 

Edo-phren Rdo-rje phrefi-wa. 

Rdsa Sgom-cJwn daft rdsa-rtsig-gi rnam-thar 

Egyan Rgyan-gyi bstan bcos 

Sje-nam Bje rin-po chehi rnam-thar 

Rnam Rnam-bgad snin-rgyan 

Etsa-g Etsa-rgyud ^'|\ ! 

Etsa . ti Dbu-ma rha hgrel-pa g.ni$-ka, 

Rtsa-shufi Man-nag rgyud-kyi rtsa-wahi gshun 

Rtsi. Rtsis-kyi bstan-bcos |'r| 1 

Etsii Rtsis-yshi phyogs-bsgriys 

S Sanskrit terms from Tibetan-Sanskrit Lexicons of Tibet explained 

by Satis Chandra Acharya, M.A. 

S. del Gsum-hgrel ijgw^ai | 

8. g Shad-gyud, a medical work. 

S. Lex Sanskrit lexicon. 

S. phren Legs-bfad gser-hphren 

S. kar Bsam-yas dkar-chag 

S. lam Sambhalai lam-yig. 

S. leg Sa-skya legs-bgad >nr 

S. o Qser-hod dam-pa 

/S.P Suvarna-prabha, B. T. Society. 

Sama Samadhiraya-sutra, B. T. Society. 

Sdm Samkhya-tattva Kaunwdi. 

Sans Sanskrit or Sanskrt. 



XXXI 

Sch ................... Prof. Is. J. Schmidt, Tibetisch-Deutsches Worterbuch. and 

Tibetische grammatik. 
Schr ................... Dr. A. Scbiefner. 

Schl. .................. Dr. E. Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet. 

Schtr ................ Schrdter, editor of the first Tibetan Dictionary. 

Ser ................... Qser-gyi Melon, 

Shad. .................. Sman-gyi bqad-rgyttd 

Shal ................... s|e% Shal-ke. 

Sikk ................... Sikkim. 

Situ ................... Si-tuhi sum-rt 



Sman. g ............... Sman-rgyud or ffi '19^ '$*\ q ^ I 

Sman .................. Bder-dge sman-b$dus chen-mo 

Stiay ................... Snags-skad g 9 !"'^ a vocabulary of mystic Sanskrt terms. 

Snan ................... Snan flag melon ^Wfif^f: | 

Snid ................... EM-chen snifi-thig-gi theg-mchog mdsod Tje;l 

Snd. HbTc ............. Eev. G. Sandberg's Hand-book of Tibetan. 

Soff ................... Sog-gtam 

Sorig ................ Gso-rig chos-hbyun 

Spyod. ............... Spyod-rnam 

Spyo ................... Spyod-hjug 

Stg ................... Jttfan-hgyur if ^'"l^' collection of commentaries. 

Snkh ................... Sukhavati-vyuha. 

Simtn ................ Surangama Sutra r 1 ^*r''|'.5! 

Tan. d. ............... Bstan-hgyur-mdo iWS^^ I 

Tan. snag ............. Bstan hgyur snags. 

Ta ................... Tara Natha's Rgya-gar c/iog-hbyun, histoiy of the rise of Buddhism. 

Theg ................... Theg-mchog mdsod ^-wXflpS^ j 

Thgr ................... Bar-do thos-grol chen-mo w^^^'^'Sl 

Thgy ................... Thargyan, scientific treatises. 

Tib ................... For Tibetan. 

Trig ................... Triglot a collection of Buddhist terms by Prof. Minayeff. 

Ts. or Tsan .......... Qtsan "!&' Tsang province. 

Ts. kah ................ Btsun-mo bkah-than 

Tshig ................ Tshigs-brgya-pa 

ff. ..................... The province of ^ Dbus, Central Tibet. 

V. C ................... Vajra-chedika. 

Vni. kar ............. Vai-durya dkar-po '|'^'*\''1^'3 1 

Vai. sn ............... .^'l'^'^' 2 " or ( Vhi-dury s.non-po) . 

Visuddhi. ............ Visuddhimaggo B. T. Society. 

W. or W. Tib ..... Western Tibet. 



XXX11 

Was Prof. W. "Wassiljew, Der Buddhismus. 

Wik Wilson's Grammar. 

Wts Wai-tsang thu-shi ; a description of Tibet, Ed. by Klaproth. 

Ya-sel. ..f r ai-duraya-sel^'\'*'*r**3W) 

^ *" AS ** 

TaA-ti W'^'f H Dbt/afa-can tika. 



Yig Rgya-bod yig-tshafi j'S^irdf | 

Yig. k Yig-bskur rnar* 

Yon Yon-gtan mdsod 

Z. Zafis-dkar *w>"N 

Zam Brdah-yi hgtan-^cos Za-ma-tog q^s'^'flf^-rf^^'w^i | (Day-yiy). 



*}, and + prefixed to some words Indicate them as ("^^' brda rnifi) belonging to the 

older orthography. 
1 and + prefixed to some words indicate their Indian or Sanskrit origin. 

* words marked with asterisks were sent by Dr. Albert Grrtinwedel for being incor- 
portated in this Dictionary. They were collected by Dr. A. Schiefner. 



GRAMMATICAL ABBREVIATIONS. 



abbr. abbreviated; abbreviations. 

abstr. abstraction; abstract. 

ace. according to. 

accus. accusative case. 

act. active, actively. 

adj. adjective. 

adv. adverb, adverbially. 

arith. arithmetic. 

b. books. 

c. cum, with. 

c.c. construitur cum, construed with. 

c.c.a. construed with the accusative, etc. 

cf. confer, compare. 

ch. chapter. 

cog. cognate, related in origin. 

col. or colloq. colloquial, colloquially. 

collect. collective, collectively. 

com. commonly. 

comp. compound, compounds. 

conj. conjunction. 

contr. contracted. 

corr. correct, correctly. 

correl. correlative, correlatively. 

dat. dative case. 

demon. demonstrative. 

deriv. derivative. 

dub. dubious. 

E. east. 

e. g. exempli gratia, for instance. 

eleg. elegant, elegantly. 

elswh. elsewhere. 

emphat. emphatical, emphatically. 

erron. erroneous, erroneously. 

esp. especially. 

equiv. equivalent. 

euph. euphemistical, euphemistically. 

ex. example. 

expl. explain, explanations. 

extr. extrimo, towards the end of a 

fern. feminine gender, [longer article. 

fig. figurative, figuratively. 

frq. frequently. 

fut. future tense. 

gen. general, generally. 



genit. 

gram. 

ibid. 

id. 

i. e. 

imp. 

impers. 

incorr. 

inf. 

init. 

bust. 

instr. 

interj. 

interr. 

inters. 

i.o. 

irr. 

lang. 

lit. 

long. 

masc. 

med. 

med. 

metaph. 

met.ormeton 

myst. 

n. 

N.E. 

neut. 

ni.J. 

n.p. 

N.W. 

num. 

obs. 

opp. 

orig. 

orthog. 

P- 

para. 

partic. 

pass. 

past. 

perh. 

pers. 



genitive case. 

grammar. 

ibidem, in the same place. 

idem, the same. 

id est, that is. 

imperative mood. 

impersonal, impersonally. 

incorrect, incorrectly. 

infinitive mood. 

initio, at the beginning of a longer 

instead. [article. 

instrumentative case. 

interjection. 

interrogative, interrogatively. 

intransitive. 

instead of. 

irregularly, irregular. 

language. 

literally, also literature. 

longitude. 

masculine gender. 

medical works, [longer article. 

medio, about the middle of a 

metaphorical, metaphorically. 

metonymical, metonymically. 

mystical or mystically. 

name. 

north-east. 

neuter gender. 

ni fallor, if I am not mistaken. 

noun proper. 

north-west' 

numeral. 

obsolete. 

as opposed to. 

for original work. 

orthography. 

page. 

paragraph. 

participle. 

passive, passively. 

past tense. 

perhaps. 

person, personal. 



XXXIV 



pf. perfect tense. 

pi. plural number. 

pleon. pleonastic, pleonastically. 

p. n. proper name. 

po. poetically. 

pop. popular language. 

poss. p. possessive pronoun. 

postp. postposition. 

prep. preposition. 

pres. pret. present tense, preterite. 

prob. probably. 

pron. pronoun. 

prop. properly. 

pror. provincialism, provincial. 

j. v. quod vide, which see. 

reL relative. 

resp. respectful, respectfully. 

bt, substantive. 



8.E. 


south-east. 


sim. 


similar in meaning, similarly. 


sing. 


singular number. 


sh or a 


for q or f-. 


symb. num. 


symbolical numeral. 


Syn. or synon. 


synonymous. 


termin. 


terminative case. 


trop. 


tropically. 


trs. 


transitive. 


V. 


vide, see. 


vb. 


verb. 


vb. a. 


verb active. 


vb. nt. 


verb neuter. 


vulg. 


vulgar, low expression. 


vulgo. 


in common life. 


W. 


west. 


w.e. 


without explanation. 



TIBETAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 



T| Ka the first letter of the Tibetan 
alphabet, corresponding in sound to the 
Sanskrit 5R or the English K. Of this 
letter we read: *|^-r i ]^*'' { K'W *-' 
rtsci'ica shei-par grags (K. g. "1 4#4) " the 
ka is called the root." As the first letter 
it has the sense of " the beginning " : 
*\W*fl'Qka-nai dag-pa pure from the begin- 
ning. Again, it can signify " power " : 
I^I^t-Jra'*)-*^ snan htsher-nifi ma-shu 
ka-med though unpleasant to hear, I have 
no power not to say it ; wqflffri^ ma 
ka-med powerless not to give ; w*3j' 
ma hgro ka-med. powerless not to go, 
i.e., cannot avoid going. ") ka has almost 
the same sense in "V$ - gfS)-i^S-q-9t &a c it 
kyaft mi-phan hchi-wa la (Lo. 35), no re- 
source avails at death. This letter seems 
to have other metaphorical meanings ; thus 
we read: "V^'a-q-nW"' 5 ^ ka sfiet bya-wa 
Mod-pa yin (K. g. f> 179) "ka, so to be 
called, is desire." 

T] I: 1. when used in indicating 
numbers ka signifies one or first. 2. in 
modern Tibetan as an affix to many words 
it denotes : the, all the, the very, 
fkab$-ka has the same meaning as 

u, on a certain occasion ; \"\ de-ka 



that very ; "ft"'*) g.nis-ka the two. 3. in a 
large number of words we find *| occurring 
as the second syllable. In some of these it 
has been added apparently as a differenti- 
ative particle ; and in the colloq. we often 
find it annexed to the older monosyllabic 
form without explainable reason. 

'Tj II : indeed ; surely : H^ t ^'^ i n i *f 
star yafi dran-du ka sod (Pag. 42) later 
again he indeed recollected (the separa- 
tion). 

"I ka for ; "\t ka-tca a pillar. 

"|'P ka-kha 1. the A-B-C, or alphabet. 
2. a feather: "I^VTTr^lf* bsaft-fkad 
la ka-kha ni sgro-ho (K. g. "1 216) in 
the secret language ka-kha signifies a 
feather. 

"IT" ka-kha-pa a beginner of the 
alphabet ; a child. 



i\f ka-tho, also *[f&.'f ka-khahi tho, an 
alphabetical register ; an index. 

T^"! Ka-thog lit. "on the top of *| "; n. of 
a celebrated Buddhist monastery in Kham 
belonging to the Rnifi-ma School, the Head 
Lama of which is believed always to be an 
incarnation of his predecessor and holds 
the title of njlf'ir^ir'*^* I The hill on 

2 



TO I 



which this monastery was built is said to 
have resembled the letter "\ ka. ^'^' a -^' 
"^^^.^^^^l^-fta.-^m-^] (Deb. "I 
26) On the bank of the Di-chu (Hlri-clui), 
near Pom-po, is the monastery called 
Kathog. 



TV 1 ! ka-dag = T^'^'i ka-naf dag-pa 
pure from the beginning. According to 
the Rnin-ma School of Buddhism it means 
? c -' c| '^ t \ slon-pa-iiid (gunyata) emptiness, or 
the void ; that which is pure from the 

beginning : f'T^f^'fl^TfTSV 1 *'^**' 
S*i' I ( Yig. lli) that which is not com- 
pounded, being evolved of itself, is pure 
from the beginning. 



Tls ka-sde ^tfif 1. the four letters in 
the first group of the Tibetan alphabet, 
namely, Tp'^j't 1 1 2. in astronomy con- 
secutive numbers: 4'5)^'Vnv'$' | |*<''*3*'| 
(Ya-sel. 45) the order of figures in the 
(zodiac sign of the) crocodile is con- 
secutive. 

TI ka-pa the first volume of a work or 
a series of works ; a volume or anything 
else marked with the letter "I ka. 



ka-dpe, also expressed Tf^'^tl ka 
khahi dpe, an A-B-C book ; a primer. 

Tip kj-phrefi (ka-t/teng)=Ti'^ kali the 
series of consonants in the Tibetan 
alphabet. 



ka-mcd helpless, powerless. 

TSY* J '5 ka-smad sum-cu lit. "the thirty 
(letters of the Tibetan alphabet) below the 
letter *|." 



"1'fi ka-rtsom an acrostic; a metrical 
composition in which the initial letters 
of each line form a continuous word or 
sentence. 



T$ ka-li ordinarily written for the 
Tibetan Sanskrt word H' 



I 1'3> kd-li=*\'%t-' ka-phrefi the series of 
letters gen. beginning with "1 ka, i.e., the 
consonants of the Tibetan language : ")'*)' 
ta-3>T$-5)aj yi-g* a-lika-liyin "letters are of 
the w series, i.e., vowels, and of the "| 
series, i.e., consonants" (Situ. 3). 



I : kn-ka qrra 1. the crow. 2. 
the cry of the crow : "I'T^^v^ V^*' I 
( Vat. kar.) "if a crow caws, wealth will be 
found." 

Tj TJ II : excrement (nursery word) ; 
in W. TT^'S ka-ka tan-ce= French faire 
caca (Ja.). 



1. a small 
coin of Ancient India (Cs.) : TT^Ifa'g'y-gS- 
Mf " ka-ka-ni of the value of twenty shells 
(coteries)." 2. <srr^ the fourth part of a 
_pwr/. 3. the quarter of a mdna. 4. the 
seed of Alrm precatoriits, used as a weight 
in medicine. 5. the shell of Cyprwa 
moneta, used as money. 



I" Tj TJ'^C* ka-ka-ran the cucumber is 
so called in Kunawar (Jd.). 

^ Ij'Tj'* ^rarrfK n. of a fabulous snowy 
mountain situated to the north of a river 
called Patru, where a medicinal plant 
called Tujanaya grows (8. Lam. 36). 



lp|' Ka-ki-ni 1. n. of a Buddhist 
literary work. 2. n. of a female Buddhist 
deity: ^q-ifa-wg-.sSc.-jj'ar'iHl-^viijXl (D. 20) 
" (taught) the rites concerning the goddess 
Kakini to the saint Mai-bye Tshan-pa." 

t 7 H''!1'^ Ka-ku-fla n. of a river 

(K.d.^582}. 



3 



n. 



of a plant used in medicine, Tertninalia 
arjuna. 2. = ^l'3 ! i'3 c . t 5)'^ c -'^ dug-mo fiufi- 
gi cifi-nor the " fruit of the tree of little 
poison" (Nag.). 

t T^j ^ Ka-ke-ri-ya ^fw n. of 
a tree which grew on Grdhrakuta, or 
the Vulture-peak Hill of Magadha 
(K.ko.^3). 

* ipf] ka-ko applied in Sikkim for T 
^'^ ka-ko-la. 



ka-ko-la *qft<si 1. cardamom, 
the fruit of Cocculus Indiciis ; a plant with 
a berry, the inner part of which consists 
of seeds with a wax-like aromatic sub- 
stance. 2. TT^fanS 3^ Saccharum munja, 
but is variously described as a fruit used 
in medicine; a poisonous tree-drug; also 
= TH'S the castor-oil plant. 

Syn. **'* tnhan man ; I'S'^l'fa'S s/a-wa 
g*hon-nu ; | - i5-|- sla-icahi bye-ma (4fno.). 

Tj'S /M-m(also T* ka-cha) ^ articles, 
goods, effects, property, furniture: 
nf jfc'trff "^'"frj^fl I the king who follows 
after property; TwSwwSvi property 
causes satisfaction. 

Syn. ^l spyud-lag; ^'^ yo-byad.; 
f^m-3^ dnos-chas (Mnon.). 

Tl'SSj Ka-can n. of a place in Tibet 
(Deb. 1 43). 

Tj'5 ka-ci colloq. T! ka-rji 1. a kind 
of coarse white cotton cloth largely im- 
ported into Tibet from Nepal and used 
for making prayer-flags. A piece of ka-ci 
is generally four to six yards long and a 
foot and-a-half broad. 2. a kind of muslin; 
a very fine cotton cloth imported from 
Benares: "l'^U q |'^''*g'P a ''*'SSI for each piece 
of kft-ci eight bushels of barley. 



TS'|*i - *N ka-ci skyem-ras fine cotton 
cloth or muslin, so called from its resem- 
blance to the superior quality of Tibetan 
paper called skyems; (ft i Wf*^r'T*|r ! Ml| 
(8. kar. 179) different sorts of cotton 
cloth, muslin, &c., brought from Upper 
Tibet ; *!'$' g*r an inferior kind of ka-ci 
cloth. 



Tj''Q ka-ci-K ^f% n. of a flower 
(K. my. "| 20). -*fgf% is identical with ^ 
and ^f^, a plant with an esculent root 
(Anon colocasia) cultivated for food. 

"I'l ka-lci sometimes used for T$. 

^* 
Tj'^ZIJ Ka-lcog an abbr. of the names 

of two celebrated translators of the Kah- 
gyur : T*V"*frf Ka-wa Dpal-brtseg? 
and g'l'^'SlS'jacw^ Kluhi rgyal-mtshan of 
Lcog-ro. 

T* ka-cha -=^*\ '* ka-ca. 

T|'3&'^ ];a-ch-ta a habitation, a hut 
(Sc/itr.). 

^1'$^! ka-ihii(j so, like that, accord- 
ingly ; T^T 5 ^ ka-chug mdsod means 
^^^|^ de-ltar-byed, do liko that, do accord- 
ingly: rlNrfr^T^^'VTWHl "ifAme 
is disinclined let (him) not do like that" 
(A. M). 

T|*^ ka-ta in mystic language a term 
for mother (K. ff. *\ 216). 

a - ta - J;a ! n - of a tree - 



^| if an eye-medicine be made from 
kataka and honey, all eye-diseases may be 
removed (S. Lam. 38). 2. *ficW the 
clearing nut-plant, Strychnos potatorum. A 
seed of this plaut when rubbed on the 
inside of a water jar produces a precipita- 
tion of the earthy particles of water. 



TT| ka-ta-ma-ka n. of a kind of 
bird (K. ko. *| 2). 

+ T5 *** ^a-ta-ya, also "V5 -ffa-fya n. 
of a place in Ancient India, probably the 
country of the Ocetae; according to Cs. 
Scythia ; n. of a district in Tibet. 

+ *I'$' U| '^'*[ <I W Ka-ta-ya-na nog-can lit. 
Katyayana with a hump on his shoulders ; 
one of the six heretical teachers who 
disputed with Buddha. 

J T5*'5 Ka-tahi 6u = 1'5'<*q ka-tya ya-m 
?fTRjniT the son of Katyayanl ; n. of a 
Bhiksu (Buddhist monk) (flag. 3). 

+ "H^'tf Ka-tahi bu-mo JjfTWTT*t, <srr 
the goddess Uma ; also the mother of the 
Hftiksu Katyayana. 

t T5*'g Ka-tyahi bu JffrarRJT lit. the 
son of Katya. It is said that the family 
name of Katyayana was given because 
the patriarch of the tribe took the 
vows of an ascetic from the sage Nada 
(K. d. ^ 127). 

t T5'^ ka-ta-ra n. of a flower 
(K.d.flS). 



\ rehu mig a table 
of figures made of lines crossing each 
other and forming squares. 

Tj'^ ka-ta>i = ** rag cotton cloth 
(fag. 2). 

ka-tam-bha described as sfa' 
(K. d. ' 62), n. of an insect. 

gshofi a basin, 
bowl; ;r^Fcr (also "I'f^ ka-to*ra) the 
Tibetan form of the Hindi word katora. 

t ^1'^ v Ka-ta-ki ^^ a generic 
name for mountain; n. of a mountain 
(8oh.), 



'^ Ka-ta-ki-la f n. of a 
city in Ancient Sind (8. Lam. 35) ; lit. a 
pillar of grass. 

Tj'^'^f'^ Ka-tn Bo-ta Indian n. for 
the town of Paro in Bhutan (Dsam.). 

f ^I'^Jj Ka-tu-ka n. of a fabulous city 

->a 
which is described to have been fifty 

yojana in circumference. 

*R'* ka-to-ra v. *\'^'*- ka-to-ra. 

Tl'^'l, ka-tha-ra in Kunawar a sort of 
peach (Jd.). 

Tj'^'-'q Ka-thi-fi a Chinese minister 
who founded the monastery of Hi kwan- 
xse (Yig.46). 

"I'i ka-the v. T*) ka-ica. 



ka-da-ru-ha m&v (prob. 
a bird nestling on khadira trees) 
n. of a kind of bird (K. ko. "1 2). 



ka-dam-pa ^r?^, fsRfqr 1. n. 
of a tree ; i)^i-i5'>-fii ^^a( -5* the k- 
dtimba flower ; the tree Nauclea cadamba, 
a tree with orange-coloured fragrant 
blossoms. 2. |rite < Vr^?J)c|k < t > CT%te < | 
(ag.) n. of a species of bird of a deep 
blue colour and also that of a tree. 3. a 
kind of grass. 

n|-^wq-^ ka-dam-pa can cloud, v. |^' 
tprin-pa (Mnon.). 

t T^'H ka-da-ka W also "|'^'<i ka- 
da-pa 1. n. of a fruit. 2. n. of a bird 
(K. d. "i 20). 



ka-da-pa *m n. of a fruit 
(K.d.t 202) ; prob. tK the fruit of the 
tree Fi'ms religiosa. 



ka-na-kam ?r*r5F gold; a 
pedantic synonym for l^v gser (Mnon.). 



+ 7 Tj' 3 i' 7 T|' ( J}|j ^*nm n. of an Indian 
paijdit who visited Tibet (J. Zafi.). 

f T|*3j'* ka-na-tsa (prob. *iflfa) lit. 
sprouting; generic name for a tree; the 
plant Abrus precatoriits ; ^ccw&frtyifipw | 
the flowers of the ka-na-tta tree (K. g. 

ka-na-im-na 3>nref n. of 
a tree (K. d. b22) 5t^f the plant 
Commelina Benfjalvnsis. 

Tj'^'^l ka-na-ya n. of a kind of 
weapon ; a short lance attached by a string 
to the arm, by which it can be drawn back 
after having been thrown at an object ; 
aiqi^-^-ab-^qi-q^e.-'fl^-uc^f*^' 3 '^ ^'1 in 
the hands, a sword, a lance and a large 
arrow (K. g. 113). ' 

+ Tj'SJ'T! Ka-ni-ka also T^'l nfo* 
n. of a celebrated Turuska (Tartar) king 
who ruled over Palhava, Kashmir and 
Jalandhara (the provinces of the Panjab 
and Kabul) in ancient times ; he embraced 
Buddhism and is said to have held the 
last great Buddhist Council for the com- 
pilation of the Mahayana Tripitaka in 
the first century B.C. 



JKa-ynam n. of a province of 
Tibet north-east of Kong-po ; "|'R'i ka 
(fnam-pa a native of Ka-ynam. 

* "W"! ka-na-ya smra for T^'" 1 ka-na- 
ya a kind of spear or lance, ^snra and 
are synonymous terms. 

ka-pa-la m\* the skull ; the 
forehead. In Tib. Budh. kapala or 
knpali signifies either the skull or a 
drinking cup made of the human skull. 



I : Kapi n. of the language that 
was anciently spoken in the country of 



Kapistan; n. of a country. The Bon 
Rgyal-rals (a history of the kings of 
Tibet), according to the Bon historians, 
was asserted to have been written in Kapi, 
the language of the gods, in which the 
ancient Bon scriptures were mostly 
written. It is also stated that the Bon 
books were translated into the language 
of the Persians or Tajik people, from 
which again the Tibetans translated them 
into the language of Shan Shun in 
Northern Tibet. 



II ' 1 *>ftw gum, resin (Jd.) ; 
the resin extracted from a medicinal 
plant called fity-pa (Juniper communis). 
The root is gathered in autumn or 
spring and being thoroughly cleansed, is 
cut into pieces and beaten into pulp. The 
juice is squeezed out with a clean cotton 
rag, and being poured into a clean 
dry earthen pot is subjected to a gentle 
heat. As soon as it begins to thicken it 
is stirred with a spoon till it gains the 
consistency of resin. 2. the hog-plum, 
Spondias magnifera ; a tree; Pentaptira 
tomentosa ; the mane-fig tree ; Fiats 
inpectoria. Also a wood-apple tree. 
3. n. of a yellow orpiment. 



ka-pi ka-lsha n. of a medi- 
cinal plant (K. g. * 51) ; ^fftf^f^ the plant 
Mitcuna pruritus. 

J T^ ka-pi-da = ''\'*l ka-pi. 

t T ^ Ka-pi-na *fiH n. of a king 
of Southern India who lived in Buddha's 
time and considered himself the greatest 
monarch of the world. His vanity was 
exposed by the Great Teacher, who con- 
verted him to Buddhism and ultimately 
raised him to the position of an Arhat 



6 



vfin Ifr n. of a 
Brahmanioal sage whose hermitage waa 
at the mouth of the Ganges (-S. Lam.). 



1 H|'^C'S| ka-pM-tha wfr?ir n. of a 
very delicious fruit (K. d. <* 20). 



+ Tfj'q^'^ ka-pin-da-ka *ffo^ n. of 
a kind of bird. 

n]'*}'^ Ka-pu-ta n. of a place in 
Ancient India where, in accordance with 
the curse of a holy sage, adultery and 
incest were punished with the burning of 
the house in which such crimes were 
committed (Dvam.). 



ka-pcd a gourd; a sort of 
medicinal fruit (Lex.). 

TV 5 ! ka-pha a tree. 

Tl'^ I : Ka-u-a n. of the mother of 
Bromton, the founder of the Buddhist 
hierarchy of Tibet (Qbrom. P 37). 



psug-pa 

pillar, column, stake, support ; also tri- 
dent ; "V5| ka-ske the neck of a pillar or 
column; *faka-tked. the shaft; "r^T" 
ka-gpig-ma a small house or temple hav- 
ing but one pillar ; T^ ka-chen the prin- 
cipal pillar, a very large pillar; Tf^ ka-rten 
the base of a pillar ; T^l* ka-$tcg$ the 
pedestal of a pillar; "V*M ka-pdan the 
base or pedestal on which a pillar stands ; 
"Va 6 * ka-spuns a colonnade, a number 
of" pillars ; Ti'fl !'*^ a grooved pillar ; 
n|-q-^K ^ q$ m-q5'3je: ^STOT ^TT: (lit. the town 
of houses built with pillars and king-posts) 
one of the thirty-six holy places of the 
Buddhists ; *r*rg*)'i'*^ ka-wa bum-pa-can 
one of the pillars of the great Jokhang 
temple at Lhasa, with the upper part of 



its capital in the shape of a water-pot ; 
>t|-q-g i-^-^ ka-wa (.brul-mgo-can the pillar 
that had a serpent-shaped capital ; T* 1 ' 
^c.-J6'^ ka-ica qin-lo-can the pillar which 
had designs of leaves of trees round its 
capital ; T^cwSf -*^ ka-wa sefi-mgo-can 
the pillar with a lion's head on its capital. 
These were the names given to the four 
principal pillars of the Jokhaug temple 
of Buddha at Lhasa, built by King Sron- 
btsan ggam-po about 640 A.D., after 
the model of the pillars in the palace of 
the Emperor T'ai-tsung, called Kyii liin 
tin, the palace of the golden dragon. 
qflwjj-tl-q yHtim-gyi ka-ica ^nurraww the 
pillar of heaven ; wSJ'T^ sa-yi ka-wa 
S^nw the pillar of earth; d'wJ'Tq nic-i/i- 
ka-iea gftrww the pillar of fire; $$' 
"I'l e/in-yt ka-ica sr^reiw tlie pillar 
of water, these are the fabulous and 
metaphorical pillars mentioned in the 
astrological works of Tibet. "TO^'^'q 
ffyi<-/ti ka-ifii a pillar of turquoise, or 
one that is studded with turquoises 
(Lha.kar. IS). 

T|-jUar*) Ja khol-ma n. of a historical 
pillar in the grand temple of Buddha 
at Lhasa, inside of which the earliest 
known MS. of Tibet, called qTp-3*rT 
fT*M, and said to be the will of King 
Sron-btsan Rgam-po, was alleged to have 
been found in the middle of the eleventh 
century A.D. 

a-myo the capital of a pillar. 



ka-tca-can lit. with 
a pillar or pillars ; a house. In the sense 
of being the supports or upholders of the 
school of Marpa, the Tantrik sage of 
Tibet, his four disciples were called *W 
1^ ka-can bshi "the four pillars of his 



school." They received his bkah, commis- 
eion, regarding Buddhism, and were also 
called qT^-qq^rq^ " the four commissioned 
ones." The following were the four 
disciples : "e|'r^ Chos-rdur of Bnog ; 
Bsod-i/ams rgy/il-mfs/ian ; 
Mtshur-dican rdo-rj? of 
q Mi-la ra$-/)(t. 



Tol; and 



ka-gciy sgu-g.ciij 1. a small 
house with but one pillar and one door, 
gen. a small prison-house. 2. A mode of 
capital punishment is said to be called so 
when the culprit is fastened to a pillar in 
a dungeon until he dies of hunger (Jd.) . 



kn-hphan the ornamental silk 
fringes aud embroidered hangings made 
in various mythical designs for decorating 
the capitals of pillars. 



*|-q'q3c.-Hj 
pillar. 



a strong well-finished 



ka-wahi sbyar-bkod a cor- 
nice ; the ornamental projections, &c., 
which surmount a pillar ; the decorative 
pieces which are attached to a pillar. 



=.'*< ka-man-ma a house with many 
pillars. 

*V*)"| ka-mig the square space (of about 
twelve feet) enclosed by four pillars is 
called a ka-mig ; the area or enclosure 
of a colonnade is measured by the ka-mig. 

"1't" ka-rtse the top of a pillar. 

"Vt" ka-rtse ("I'uie. 1 !" ka-yan-rfse) the 
upper part or capital of a pillar. 



ka-pshu **isi<si+ capital of a 
wooden pillar ; a piece of timber in the 
shape of a bow fixed on a pillar to hold 
up the main beam (Lex.). 



f)'K'J- the extremity of a pillar which 
projects over the capital (architrave) . 

T3W ka-fitb$=*\-t$--w ka-wahi $ubs 
the cover of a pillar, perhaps the abacus. 

T| ^ III : a particular faculty acquired 
by a mystic process in which the appetites 
hunger, thirst, &c.^ are suppressed. 
This is one of the six practices of the 
Buddhist Tantriks who practise yoga 
(meditative concentration). 

T] Q| IV : ^fWW a large vein or artery 
in the abdomen ; a vessel in the side of 
the breast containing vital air (sniHI0, 
supposed to be brought into action in 
above mystic process. 

^ 
t T^'5 J;a ^ ta *fwi n. of a tree, 

the elephant or wood-apple, Feronia 
Elephantum (S. Lam. 38). 

I ^'q'^'OI ka-bi-ta-la 1. n. of a tree 

(K. d. 400). 2. probably ^ftm benzoin, 
storax. 



'<l Ka-bu-lo, described 
', n. of a Gandhan-a Eaja Prince 
of the celestial musicians (K. my. "1 493). 

*!] H^ ka-bed or S'l ku-wa, gourd. In 
the district of Ped-ma dkod in Tibet, just 
north of Assam, the gourd is called w$ 
a-btim : 1 ^'W r ^^^ : ^^i ! the gourd 
fruit cures fever and diarrhoea : 



burnt or baked gourd eaten with molasses 
cures bloody diarrhoea (K. g. 47). 



a-bel n. of a city in Ancient 
Udyana, i.e., in ur^'^ U-rgyan yul pro- 
bably the modern Kabul. 



Ka-bo-ka n. of a Prince of 
Ancient Kabul (S. Lam. IT). 



8 



Ka-ma-cha or "!''* Ka-mu- 
tsha <tim i gl n. of a sacred place in Assam 
where there is a stone-cut symbol of Kali, 
the Hindu goddess. 

ka-ma-ta the lotus (Nag.). 

ka-ma-tsi **fa a kind of 

medicinal plant: T*^^-q-|-^-g^^-flp)v 
^<^ | " if the root of ka-ma-t&i be placed 
on the top of the head, sleep arises" 
(K. g. * 56). 

t T*^ kama-ru 1. Kamarupa in 
Assam. 2. alabaster (Scii.) ; ^'"VW^i rdo 
ka-ma-ru-pa marble. 

* fl'JTQI ka-ma-la inm 1. the water- 
lily, lotus Nelumbium. 2. a river. 3. = 
3j*rlt*w gros sems a consulting or reflect- 
ing mind (&ag.). The word Kamala is 
variously used by the Tibetans, and the 
following synonyms of it (both symbolic 
and metaphoric) are enumerated in the 
work (flag.) : 

Syn. 8^'* sgrahi gHe-ma soft tones ; 
" a branching tree ; gc-QS-JjVs* 
myos-bum the teats of an ele- 
phant ; yrw*iX| s^^f% n. of a Buddha ; 
n^'H't) bden-$mra-ica one who speaks the 
truth ; fr^r* nam-mkhah the sky ; 
nor-bu a gem ; ^|V"f^' c ' snafi-lyed 
pa the second luminary, the moon ; rgF 
la-plaH a bull; w'*w bar-gyi 
the middle zone or boundary : 
(\aft~pa swan; J|=.'**' sbmn-chafi beer made 
cf honey ; ^Jf5 i\**v dwafi-pohi gsal a 
lamp, that which clears the sight ; '^ w- 

Aeabufialo; *>'^'SI mi-mohi ah a woman's 
^ -\ 

song ; i^VW'5 bshon-pahi rta a riding 
horse ; ^'^ yul-phran a small country ; 
^'Vl*! ri-dbags a deer ; ^c.-*i|N-ci l,,n tshags- 
pa a collected mind ; ^'5'S rin-po die 



precious thing ; ^'^ S'^'9^ ri-rab-kyi 
ri-phran a smaller peak of the mountain 
Sumeru ; %'? fifl-rta a chariot ; " 
gser-gyi kha-dog the colour of gold. 



a celebrated 
Buddhist philosopher of the ancient 
monastery of Vikrama9ila in Magadha, 
who introduced the Yogacarya Mahayaua 
School of Buddhism into Tibet, after 
defeating in controversy a Chinese 
hoshang who wished to convert the 
Tibetans to the doctrine of the " do- 
nothing " school during the reign of King 
B'ST^W'"^ Kliri-sroft gde-^u tyson about 
the middle of the 8th century A.D. 

Tj'^rEj ka-mrt-li a very sharp sword 
(flag. 2): ^^'a1n'"^'t!V^ ^l*^ I 
(Z). R.) grasping in his nine hands nine 
lotus-hafted razors. 



ka-mu-la rdo-rgyad n. 
of a sort of alabaster or steatite found in 
Central Tibet (Jd.). 



*lS'^ ka-tsa rkfd-nng rusty and 
crooked: 8 t '9^' IT I^ : ^S'?' I I'^V ) ' l i* ) * I l "the 
steel ribs of the coat of mail which are 
rusty and bent " (Jig.). 

n- of a kind of 



bird (K. ko. *| 2.). 



ka-tsa-lin-di (prob. 

- J fl' dress made of a 
heavenly stuff, i.e., the finest kind of silk 
which is used for presentation at an 
interview, or when making an application 
for any favour, &c. ; n. of a very fine 
cloth or linen made of Kacilindi (Lex,). 



Ka-tsan-ka-la n. of a 



Bhiksml (Buddhist nun) (K. d. -*\ 18). 



g 



Ka-tsi-li-ban the Kachili 

forest : S'S^'f 1 5S'8*'Rg|*r | T'3> - 9 p q3i 1 qi 1 2rI ; Mr 
^ I on the northern bank of the river 
Rohita there is the Kachili forest and a 
Nepalese stronghold (Daam. 21). 

Tj'S*'^''^ ka-rtsa-tja-la the 
(Scfitr.). 



sea 



ka-rtsam a species of wild oats ; 
it differs from yug-po or Tibetan oats 
and is considered superior to buckwheat, 
but inferior to wheat. 

T| 'ro^l Ka-tshal n. of a place situated 
to the east of Lhasa; ^3'f'S'* wl '5' l 'l'*' 1 '^' 
f^'l the monastery known as Ka-tshal 
Lha-khan of Mal-gro in Upper tJ (Cen- 
tral Tibet). 



Ea-t&higs cheii-po the 
title of a Buddhist work on the genealogy 
of the Kings of Tibet (Gyal. S. 28). 

described as 



(Dsam.) " n. of an Indian Chailya situated 
on the high hill (of Gaya Gauri)." 



I: ka- 



ra 



sugar: 



^wS-Y^ ! having taken sugar and 
arsenic in equal parts, if beer made from 
the root of Colhajana be drunk, the gravel 
of the bladder will be ejected; T^'ST' 
Jj"l ka-ra dkar-smug brown sugar; "|'V 
ST'Sj 1 T9^i! t- r t wn-t!! a kind of brown 
crystallized treacle and honey; T^'^T 
9^ ka-ra tog-tog loaf sugar, sugar in 
lumps; jarfriy* Rgyal-mo ka-ra sugar 
from Rgyal-mo Ron, situated on the con- 
fines of Tibet and China; I'*'*!'* bye-ma 
ka~ra powdered sugar, or granulated sugar ; 
^rT* fel-ka-ra rocky candy (K. y. * 6). 



II : tent-pole ; T^T 2 ^ ka - ra 
sdig-pod a tent-pole with a grooved bulb 
on top used in some countries; T^'tjT 
*\i I or T^-RR-^-q | tt tent-pole without 
a grooved bulb on top. 



ka-ran-dsa 

*f a medicinal fruit or berry ; n. of 
the tree Pongamia glalra and Vcrbosina 
scandem. ^M* | J'<^*?^'|^ I karandsa pro- 
duces natural waimth (in the stomach). 

Syn. ^'Ivl" rul-byed skyes; 
mar-gyi gun ; f'Vl'V* rtsod bycd-ma 
<*g*i'^|'q hjam-hbrus dbye-wa; *ipi 
ts/tiys drug-pa ; 1'rqi'|q^ sno-ma lu-lci/>f 



f T^'S ka-ra-da n. of a bird, the cry 
of which is like the sound of a drum. 
It is described in Buddhist books as like 
fire in colour, and as located in the abodes 
of the Asura (K d. R 15). 

TJ^'^'^I ka-ra-m-jus a kind of fine 
Chinese satin (Ji;/.). *V^'|*r^*rfi'*r?w]*r 
ftr^-I$-$wr|--^rgirttj the kinds of 
satin (called) karanajus and damjus, &c., 
are distinguished by their colour and the 
shape of the figures on them. 

f|'*s'^*^f ka-ra-na-rus a kind of 
Chinese satin: <K. - p>wi'r2vT|-^-$r^-^c 
^ws*! aprons are mostly made of kara- 
narus and ta-shin satin. 



ka-ra-naft in the mystic 
language of the Ddkini of Tibet=the food 
of pigs (K. g. f> 27). 



ka-ra-bi-ra or "I'V^A ka-ra 
wi-ra ^f^^k 1. a fragrant oleander, 
Ner'mm odorum ; a species of soma; a 



10 



particular magical formula or spell for 
recovering a missile of mystic properties 
after its discharge. [The name karavira is 
also applied to the daphne plant, from the 
bark of which Tibetan paper is made. The 
creeper called the white karavira rubbed 
with the blood of the rock-lizard and the 
medicine gmutha rubbed with Bhringiraja, 
when conbined, make an ointment which 
cures venereal eruptions on the skin of the 
penis (K.g.^^9).] 2. a sword or scimitar. 
Syn. *-5ffc-3jS io-sor rgod; -*^'^S so-sor 
Mad; y1*S rta 0od; SW^T" dpah-po 
lag-pn; fllK5 q l*''* ) '?'l'*^ ff s 4 f (a 9S me-tog 
can ; i|S'2*' brgyad gye$ ; *\W ytum-po 



'^'''T ka-ra ru-be-ka 



kind of bird (K. ko. "I 2). 



4- 



ka-ra />a-ri=Z*>* bit-ram 



sugar (Snian. 291). 



lea-ran da-wt 



I : ka-ran-da *K"m 1. a 
sort of wild duck; T^'i^V^'W'^' I 
karanda is the name of a sweet-voiced 
bird. 2. SiTW, also fqr^f, in Sans, a 
basket or covered box of bamboo wicker- 
work used for keeping books in ; a basket 
for flowers ; "X** ir ^f 



n. of a Buddhist work (K. d. i 275). 
II: ^<r, sjgf white. 



V^'*3 Ka-ri'hi bu-mo 
the daughter of Katyayana ; Uma. 

1. a wedge (Jd.). 2. white 



(fag. 3). 



a-re, probably "T^ <?a-re. The use 
of the latter is very common in Eastern 
Tibet. In Sikkim they say TJ? ka-te, what ? 
which? 1 8 >l i' 3 |" f ri5 l V' t l'*''W Upasaka, in 
what do you delight ? (A. 94). 



ka-ras, abbr. of Kaphfihi ra$, 
the Benares muslin which used to be in 
great demand in Tibet. In the sacred 
books of Tibet the gods are generally 
dressed in fine Benares muslin, "fw^' 
nwpr^vng'5^ | for imitation Benares 
muslin the price per piece ia two bre of 
barley. 



1*^ Ka-lu-ta in mysticism T 01 '^' 
| Ka-la-ta is described as a 
man of lovely appearance (K. g. *\216). 



Ka-la.piH.ka wftv a 
sparrow ; a singing bird with a sweet voice. 
According to Lex. the Indian cuckoo. 

Syn. 3r<J|SE.-uuj-'J|<i| rgyal psufi yan-lag; 
t!^!j'*fwi rjef hgro tnklan ; f^oS'S^ srf<m- 
dpe-can; $'^5'q^ rna-n-ahi bcud; fc.3- 
$go-nahi dug na$ gkad gmraht 
diran (Mfion.). , 



l'^g JTfl-fa-jf, ^rg^ n. of a king: 

i^ff%-^irq at t h at 

time (there lived) a king named Kalaputra, 
fierce and wrathful (K. my. "I 209). 



Ka-la ro-zan, lit. 
the black lord of death who eats the dead ; 
n. of a Naga. 



+ T|*Q1'-^ <fi,,rer pitcher, jar ; a large 
waterpot. 



Aa-% in W. mud; earth and 
water used instead of mortar ; also other 
similar compounds (Jd.). 



a species of bird, probably the Bul-bul. 



11 



Ka-lan-da-ka 
1. a town. 2. an individual: T^'VI^ $*' 
^'1^* ! having arrived at the town of 
Kalandaka : ^T'i'atai - v|S'g'*'V i '^r t '' 
wl^2=.-q<fi I then appeared Zan-jin the 
long-lived, son of Kalandaka (K. d. *. 



ka-lan-dsa-ri-ka 

1. a flowering plant ; also the flower 
used in yajna sacrificial fire (K. g. S 33). 
2. belonging to ^rare, an animal struck 
with a poisoned arrow; tobacco. 



(D 



ka-lam-ka, described as W 
', n. of a place in Ancient India 



ka-lam-ba *<?!*>( the pot-herb 
Cotivolvolus repens, Menispermum calumba ; 
a medicinal plant: "pwqS'JS'wwarpw 
R^ni'^j the leaf of Kalamla when eaten 
improves health (K. g. * 4)- 



. ,| q J ka-ld-pa *<?iin 1. an aggre- 
gate of many accomplishments; an 
accumulation of excellent and wonderful 
properties in one place or thing (Lexx.). 
2. the Buddhist Utopia; the capital of 
the fabulous kingdom of S'ambhala. 

T| QJ ] fa .ii an abbreviation of the word 
ka-pa-li, a skull (Lexx.). 

^ T| ^I'T] ka-U-ka 1. described as 
si^qi-^-q-^^gisi-^-^c.- 1 the fruit of the 
Htiiynolia flower-plant ; a bud of that flower 
(Mnon.). 2. prob. *f<a*u, a plant bearing 
a nut which is used as a febrifuge, grey 
Bonduc. 



Ka-M-ga or *\'fo'"i\ Ka-l-in- 
ka ^ftr^? 1. one of the thirty-six Buddhist 
sacred places said to be situated at a 
distance of 60 yojana S. E. of Gaya also 



the birth-place of Vis'wantara (Dus-ye. 
39). 2, a bird, a native of an island or 
maritime province of India bordering on 
the Indian Ocean (K. d. * 15). 

'Tj'Qj ka-le or T^i kaleb saddle- 
cloth (Jd). 

^ T]'-^ *-pa = gt-|" span-rtsi (tfag.) 
a species of grass '(K. d. * 91) fsi 
Saccharum spontaneum. 



l I: *-?*-* the finest Benares 
muslin ; cotton cloth of the finest texture 
formerly manufactured in Benares ; *]'^' 
T* "^ t nil( < is ) i* Benares muslin which 
in ancient times was of great repute. It- 
is said that even the gods longed to wear 
clothes made of this material. According 
to Cs. ka-gi-ka means a kind of flax as 
well as linen cloth; <%*Aftft$l|f4f| white 
Benares linen ; "1 - 3' I ]S-'*g-|i the oil of 

>3 "W 

kagika grain, prob. linseed oil. 

j y^ II: of Kashi (Benares) ; an 
inhabitant of Benares. 

T^'TSi'*' ka-yi ka phra-mo fine flax; 
Benares muslin. 

*|-%i ka-p's, abbr. of T-W-^i, cotton 
cloth. 

1- ^ \ ^ Ka-$i-ru n. of a place or 
island in the Indian ocean (K. d. ^ 319) : 
R5fa one of the nine divisions of Jambu- 
dvipa. 

Tj'^J ka-sa the colloq. form of the 
expression a*p'*pw bkah gsal, a definite 
order or clear message. According to 
Jd. kasa and kaso are mutilated forms 
of qT^-qpi bkah bstsal, meaning in Ld. 
"yes, sir ; very well, sir ; at your service." 

T]'^ ka-sun ka-ra f^''|t.' 
n , of a city of Ancient India" 
(Dsam. 25). 



12 



I Ka.ha-na ya-na fi- 
la n. of an Indian Pandit (Yig. SO). 



' Kak-ku ti-pa n. of an 
Indian Buddhist sage (K. dun. 52). 



t 



Kako-ln *Tl<d a secret 



abode of the ZMvwi (JT. 0. *| 



IT* kag-ma mischief , harm, 
danger (Z.) ; "II or ^"| or ^"1 implies some 
accident or injury; i<i|-|*<-<>iMi: 
had-kyif lant fleeing from harm ; 
a(K.j-ai)A$-q| going from a place which has 
not suited one owing to bad luck or any 
accident ; also to run away from a place 
from fear; adv. II'S)* suddenly (Sch.). 



kog-ka-wa *ir*K* n. of a 
speoies of bird living on the Vulture-peak 
Hill near Gaya (K. ko. "1 2). 



Tp' 7 !] kan-ka n<f, aiarzf 1. crane. 
2. in Tibet a bird that feeds on dead 
bodies and is therefore called ^'9 dur-bya 
the bird of the cemetery. 



kan-ka-ra vg* 1. n. of a 
flower described as growing on the Vul- 
ture-peak Hill of Gaya (K. ko. *| ff). 
2. prob. "fcl^fa the plant Alangium hexa- 
putalum. 



:' Kan-dan-Un prop. n. of a 
terrific deity, a Ddkini. When the monas- 
tery of Sam-ye was built, the image of 
Kan-dan-kin was placed on the first floor 
of the principal temple (Gyal. S. 87). 



Kan-tsha-ranga a place 
in Ancient Bengal, called Gaur in the 
Indian language and Gha-bron in the 
colloq. of Tibet (8. Lam.). 



kad in Ld. sometimes used instead 
of the affix "\ ka, e.g., ^'"R g.ni$-kad, 
fe'"lS tsan-kad; also ^' 1 ^ mnam-kad (Jd.). 



I : kan (see P'^ kJia-na) the side or 
bank : I'l^WJT'^TfA'Vr''^'' 1 ' I on the 
further bank of the river Sri-chu there 
being a country of brigands (A. 27). 



II : also spelt Vft fkan, to cease 
absolutely from : V s ! *"!! ^'1^^ 1^1 " now 
give up anger and passion" ; *i^'*ft cease 
to tell anybody. Here the word "ft 
kan is an emphatical prohibition (Bon.). 



HI : 1- TT^ the palate ; in pad- 
kan phlegm ; lit. the plywer of the palate. 
2. TTTO that seizes or takes away 
by force. 3. *tt** a thorn; an illness; a 
disease (Lex.). 4. n. of the pulse felt 
with the middle finger called kan-ma. 



Kan-ni-ka *f{* district in 
the east of India (K. d. * 267). 

f 'IR'f *1F'^ ( Hi the daughter of 
the hunchback) *|JJjj, also written 
^jS-^m Kar-nyahi yul, a city in Ancient 
India, the capital of which was Kanya- 
kubja, the modern Kanouj (K. du. ^ 
131). 

f|3j'JI kan-ma the middle finger. 

T Tj^'v Kan-tsiq^ n. of aprovim-e, 
and also that of a city of Buddhist fame 
in Southern India (Du$-ye. 39). 

kan-ta-kd-ri <Bir< a 
wild Rubus ; n. of a plant, Solanumjaqui- 
ni; also the fruit of this plant; a drug 
useful in stopping fever ; a thorny stick. 



13 



Syn. M*W*.8tyV Man-ma; 
yttl hkhor gkycs ; ^'^ stag Man; %'%*> ts/ie 
{dan; Iv*r^ tshtr-ma can; $*'%*. **rg 
rtsub-mohi reg-bya; fil*!'*^'* 1 phyogs med- 
ma ; *r^ skill byed (Mnon.). 

TP'^ZJ kab-kob=*i'<r<!i^% hide ; un- 
tanned skin (.Afy/. S). 



kab-fa shoe ; leather shoes of 
Hindu fashion used by the wealthier 
Tihetans (Jd.). 



r*= l p.'*| kafl-ka, i'V^^j 
la ta-mt 5j^tizT crane. 



-./ fl a kind of 

growing on the Vulture-peak Hill near 
Gaya (K. ko. "J 3) ; proh. the plant 
Crinum Amaryllacee. 



Kam-bo-dsa wtw 1. a 
country in the north-west of India ( Vai. 
(A.), written Kampo-rtse (Jd.) ; n. of a 
fabulous city said to have contained an 
area of a hundred yojana (S. Lam.). 
2. modern Cambodia, anciently called 
Champa. 



| Kam-bo-di-ka n. of the coun- 
try, also of the people, as well as of 
articles that come from it (K. du. S 

kahu water-melon (Seh.). 



Kahu-hi? n. of a Chinese 
minister (Yig. 24). 



kar, also kar-kar, great pain ; suf- 
fering (Lex.) ; ip-np-|q|-awi | aching pain 
. 4-). 



a = V;wiMCit nad zug 
(Nag), irritation or pain in sick- 
ness ; exacerbation. 



karka-ta or *pj'? nfc, the con- 
stellation of " Cancer." It is represented 
by the frog ($**) in Tibet. 



described as ^'S'*!*^ 5, a yellow gem or 
precious stone (K. d. " 295). 



^ kar-skyin loan ; in polite lan- 
guage v. 1 ski/in (Jd.). 



Kar-rgyal a Naga (S. kar.). 



members of the 

line of the Karma-pa hierarchy; also an 
abbreviation of the expression Karma- 
pahi-rgyudpa. 



kar-chag (also written 
a register ; list ; index. 

e\ 

f 7 T|^.'^' ; T| kar-ni-ka grp5, fwrr n. 
of aflower of the shape of an ear-ring (K. 
g. * 2) ; the flower of the tree Ptcrospef' 
mum acerifolium and of Cassia fistula. 

, karna k?a-ra=*<* tafia-ia 



borax (Smau. 



karni-ka in mystic language = 
driLbu, a beU (K. g. f> 27). 



* Tjfj kar-ma =^'w hphrin-las. or i* 
qp$ commission, service ; action ; work ; 
that which is produced from action ; 
*j* - Wi Karma-pa (in Nepal called *Pit*) 
n. of a Tantrik school of Buddhism. 
The head of that school in Tibet holds 
the title of Rgyal-wa Karma-pa. The 
followers of the school are generally 
designated by the name of Karma-pa. 



Karma-gfiii-pa the second head 
of this sect, named Pak&i or Baksi, 



14 



was invited to China by the Emperor 
Kublai Khan. The third chief, called Kar- 
ma Rafi-byufi rdorje, was invited to Peking 
by the Emperor Temur Toakwan. The 
fourth Karma Rol pahi rdorje was a 
friend of the last monarch of the Mongol 
dynasty. The fifth Karma De bahin 
flfegs-pa was invited to China in the reign 
of the Ming Emperor Tunglo (Lon. 10). 

*pfQW%*>' Karma bstan fkyofi the last 
of the Sde-ba Gtsafi-pa or rulers of Tsang 
and tJ whom the Mongol Chief Gu-shi 
Khan overthrew (LoH * 15). 

*fiK&]&ttr-ma la-dura *4i=H| n. of an 

o 

Indian pandit who worked in Tibet for 
Buddhism (J. Zan.). 



kar-$mug or T^'OT'i ktt-ra- 
smug-pa brown sugar or treacle (Jig.). 

Tl^'Sfa kar-yol (also written *&&<*, 
meaning white ware) porcelain; china- 
ware ; a china cup. 

Tfj^'OJC'P kar-laA-wa to stand up ; 
to rise suddenly (Jd.). 

t ^^'"T 2 ''^ kar-fa-pa-ni ^fT^nTO 1. 
a coin in Ancient India, or a weight 
of varying value; a Ma or one rupee 
weight of gold ; the value of two Tibet sho : 
ma-nu Ina sags md-sa-ka, 
| de-rnamt bcu-drug kar- 
sa-pa-na, ^q^'Sj^^'^'f | de bshi ni gser- 
xran-no (Nag.) five manu make a mdsaka, 
sixteen mdsaka make a kar-sa-pana, and 
four of these make a gold sran (i.e., half a 
tola of gold). 2. ^KOff^ft 4 ^^ the 
" value of 1,600 emeries." 3. gmnnracoin 
or weight of different values = karsa : if 
of gold, weighing sixteen masa, which are 
variously calculated ; if of silver, in value 
equal to 16 pana of cowrie^, i.e., 1,280 



cowries, commonly termed a knban ; if of 
copper, it weighs 80 raktika, or the same 
as of gold, about 176 grains. 



kar-pibs (abbr. of 
55*1 dkar-yol-gyi fubj) the cover of a 
china tea-cap, generally made of iron, 
brass or silver: "iv-jpurarg'qj kar-qubj-la 
bre-bcu (Rtsii.) "for the cover of a tea-cup 
made of silver (the price is) 10 bre." 



J kar-sa n. of a kind of brick- 
tea; also called ff&'e l/an-ja (green tea) or 
fc.-rT^ lj(tn-/a pa-ri; also the tea that 
comes from the Chinese district of Jan : 



*' I by the Jang route (come) both 
Karsa and Bod-thing (teas), now well 
known as Jang-ja (Jig. 23). 



'] Kar-Sog, an abbr. of Kar-ma- 
pa and Sog-po, followers of the Karma- 
pa sect and the Mongolians. 

as 
'fp Karti sgan n. of a place in 



Tibet. 

1 f|t| kalpa for i^'i bskal-pa w, an 
age ; a mythical period of time. 

T T|'T| kd-ka ^rrat a crow. 



'pT*I ka-khi-la (mystic) door; en- 
trance (K. g. F 28). 

T]'Q^fe ka-hji^ ktca-txi a shirt; a 



. 
Chinese jacket (Seh.). In Chinese Kua-tzn. 



' KMy 1 bu - mo described 
as Vt'fT^' II ft*V tl I tne goddess Uma, 
wife of Dwan dphyug (Mnon.). 

T]''T| kd-ta-ka fish (SaMr.). 



15 



ka-pa-li mm human skull ; 
cup made of skull: ^rnwrgcqvgir^' 
crfe-HHI (A. 121) having made the 
silver pieces green, (he) put them in the 
skull-cup. 

f 7 I1'3'* Kd-bc-ri qntd the river 
q 

Cauvery in Mysore, a river said to be half 
a yojana broad and 300 yojana long. On 
the banks of this river are flower gardens 
(K. d. * 268). 



j. 






kd-tsi-kd 1. JRTflnfT, also as 

, a species of bamboo which when 
bent by the wind is said to emit fire 
(K.d.*287). 2. ffipKr a plant bearing 
a red and black seed used as a weight, 
Arbus precatorius ; or another plant bear- 
ing a pungent seed, Nigella Indica. 



kd-ri-kd -Rifwr aphorism; 
. 
purely Sanskrt yet largely used in 

Tibetan works ( >c > s "Jl'^'"! 7) ; = 
a Sutra or Udana in verse. 



Kd-la-ko a country beyond 
the sea into which the Indus flows and 
where the finest coral grows (probably 
a marine province or island in the Persian 
Gulf) (K. d. * 280). 






ka-la sno-bsafl deep 



blue-black colour (Sch.). 

Kd-fa ^mrl. a city in Ancient 



India which was twenty yojana in area 
(S. Lam). 2. a sort of grass, Saccharum 
tpontanetim. 



* or 3 kye Oh! 
kwahi grogs-po Oh friend ! 



kwa-ye an exclamation used in 
calling some one, generally a subordinate. 



this word in its mystic signifi- 
cation is symbolic of the source of all 
Dharma (matter and phenomena), and 
demonstrates that they are subject to 
eternal change. 



+ j&'SY'* fae-tra pa-la %^wrr (Schr.) 
a deity protecting the fields ; in Budh. a 
guardian of the province of a Buddha's 
work. 



hi numeral for thirty-one. 



ki-ki a hortative utterance in 
the invocation of spirits : $ T) n^-Re, r y*^ | 
" Hail, 0, ye gods ! to-day is warm ! " 



ki-kafi 1. wild leek (Sch.). 2. 
described as v*ft -If** n . of a demi-god, 
a Ndga. It is inauspicious to do any 
work of merit when Kikan comes near. 



ki-gu a hook; the vowel sign i, 
which resembles a hook in shape. 

T[ 5^ ki-rgyufi a mystical invocation 
signifying "Lord": ^c^P^ir'r* I 
" Lord, be appeased by this prostrate 
(devotee)." It is a mystic charm to pro- 
pitiate the Bon-po deity, called Cen-gsrai 
Mi-mgon rgyal-po (D.B.). 



Ki-ta-ka fera 1. 
or cannibal demon (K. d. e. 189). 2. a 
worm or insect (Cs.), 



ki-Uir a shrill shout ; a savage 



ki.pa a volume, &o., maried with 
the letter ^. 



howl. 



16 



ki-ma according to Schr. a cor- 
ruption of the Chinese word khin, a lyre 
with seven strings. (Pilgrimage of Fa- 
Hian. Calcutta, 181t8,p. 265) 

"fj"^ ki-tsi tickling ; 1* 'SS'" ki-tsi bycd- 
pa to tickle (/a.). 

| TJ'^'jB ki-ra-na (mystic) a flower 
(K. g. r> 26). 

ki-ri-kan ssror, w^fT a kind 



of pepper, Piper c/uiba ; 
V -| ^i]acV|V z ' 5 Ti "V-'l (K- g- 210) the 
roots of white arka tree and roots of white 
kiri-kan (are used in medicine). 



kin-kara 



a servant 



or an emissary. 

+ TJ^'^'^1 kin-$u-ka f^n* a kind of 
flower ; the tree Butca Frondosa ; a tree 
bearing pretty flowers. 

* TJJJ'^1 kim-pa a pretty but bitter 
fruit, erroneously for tyrr*| kim-pa-ka. 

J V 1 '"! kim-pa-ka f*li* a fruit, </- 
curbitaccous plant, Triohosanthen palmttta; 
also possibly Cnciimis cohcynthis. 

- 1 



men entertain desires which are 
transient and deceptive like the Kimpaka 
fruit and like fish that eat bait on a 
hook. 



ktm-pa-la or V"' 
a musical instrument ; a cymbal 



fce'-Aw Jj^sw a species of small 
red garlic ; ace. to some carrot. 

kil slowly = |'$ ga-le : vvftyian- 
r%n | crossing a mountain pass (he) 
arrived slowly 



f 'Ql''flJ Kila-kila ftrarfw 1. an 
epithet of S'iva. 2. a town in Ancient 
India. 3. a Eaksasa King (.K". g. * 62.?). 
4. an onomatopoetic for sounds or cries 
(/a.). 



country of the Sapta Kosi in Nepal inha- 
bited by the Kirat tribes and called 
Kiranta ; n. of a district in %W*' Sub- 
Himalaj'a (Duf-yc. 39). 



kt-yahi hdab 

the leaf of the tree Achyran- 
tfif-s axpera used in incantations, in medi- 
cine, in washing linen, and in sacrifices 
(Mnon.). 

' Kifi-kafi v. 



da* 
kin. 

I: ku 1. for the numeral 61. 
2. (mystic) a fairy or dakinl (K. g. f>, 
179) ; 3'1 ku-pa, the 61st (volume). 

I II : a cry, moan ; S'J| ku-fgra 
clamour, noise ; S'S'^'IV" a general cry ; 
the vociferations of many people together ; 

'fc' I the noise of general conversation : 



then, when they arrived at the bank of 
Sog chu, there was the sound of chattering 
in a house (A. 82). 



lda-hu an enigma, a riddle, a puzzling 
question. 

ku-ku f grogs lit. that criea 
bya-gag a grey species of 
duck Ifi-non.). 



Ku-ku-ra-tsa 
teacher or trainer of dogs ; n. of an 
Indian Buddhist sage who was also called 
Kukuripa (3T*'") (K. dun. 45). 



Ku-kur-ta pi-da 

T=^'S'*F' q '^ n. of a hill in Magadha 
(Dsam. 17). 

TT'T| Ku-kR, erroneously for g - | Gu-gp, 
a part of the province of Nga-ri in Tibet. 

TT-6 ku-co <\<d(-*-3, *<i+<!i, 5gi noise, 
clamour; B'W*^^ |'* J i'>T { ' l| P a i' 
VT J*l I when an old dog barks, go else- 
where without explanation (S. leg.). 3" 
X'*^ noisy, clamorous; ^TsTfi'jj'i to 
speak in a loud voice (meaning nothing) ; 
to bawl out ; 5'S'^'i to bawl, to cry 
out, to make a loud noise ; ^'X'fc'q a 
great noise or tumult, an uproar. 

TV 3^ Kn-cor, also 5'*S n. of a place 
in Tibet. 

.- ku-den-ne : See ante 5 ku. 

f***i* mtho-ris rlun 



the heavenly breeze (Mnoit.). 

* Tl'j&'^l Ku-na-la gfwra 1. the 
or Himalayan pheasant ; also, a bird with 
beautiful eyes which lives in the fabu- 
lous mount Sumeru. 2. the eldest son 
of As'oka. 

TTZ3 kit-tea or j'i tku-tca (in Chinese : 
&fl) V51T3, jpsi^i a gourd ; the bottle 
goiird, Lngenaria vtilgaris. In the Pema- 
koi. district this fruit is called i'g*< a-btim, 
i.e., nature's bottle. A bottle made of a 
dried gourd is also called $'1 ku-ica. 



Syn. ^wji rnam-par rgyal; ^'9'^c. 
tdon-bu riti; V'*^ dra-tca-can ; C'l^'IS 
byed; ^ij* 1 ^ AJ/<;s 5ycrf; ^N'^IJ 
aA Ipags (Mnon.). 



fc kn-icahi gsz'n? a float made of 
long-dried gourds. 



4 ^'q'Oj'D'^zq kti-ba-la me,-tog 
also ^R)qf, the water-lily ; also, the jujube 
plant, Zizyphus jujuba and the fruit of 
that plant. 

^ 1]'3'^ JTe-6- f^T, ^Kuvera, the 
god of riches, the chief of the Noijin 
known also as Nnga Kuvera and W?*)''3 
Rnam-thos kyi-bu, the son of Vaiqrmana. 
According to somo Tibetan writers, Kuvera 
is one of the eight keepers of the horses 
of Ifaifrarana. [/utiera, or in later 
Sanskrit Ktmra, originally the name of 
the chief of the evil beings of darkness 
bearing the epithet Vai^ravnna ; afterwards 
the god of riches and treasures, and is 
regent of the northern quarter of the 
world, which is hence called Kulcra- 
gvpta-dik. Kubera is the son of Vifrava 
by Idai-ida, the chief of the Yak? a and a 
friend of Eudra.] (M. Wills.). 

^ 2* 
1]'S'^^' ; T[ Kti-byi mat-ke a Bon 

deity who resembles the Bodhisattta 
Jampal ; the god of learning and wisdom 
among the Northern Buddhists (D.R.). 

ku-ma-ra = "\^ s ~'f^i\ gscr-mclwg 
^ leaf -gold (from China brought 
by way of Ceylon) ; it is described in 
(Mon.): N^JprWrflS'^ta-aiJhl gold ex- 
ported from Lanka (Ancient Ceylon). 

t H'^S l ;u ' mtt .d m% the water-lily 
which opens at the appearance of the 
moon ; said to be Nymphcea cscttli nta ; 
W*iaB3 < w4'qq'r*l a bush or cluster 
of water-lilies. 

Syn. Wi i "i;i l ^ t 3 tit-pa-la dkar-po ; %&\ 
sla-icafyi dri ; w*w sa-mos ; wpf* aa-dgah ; 
^'1^3 sahi gdu-gu ; =.-"=.'ST' ' ttrti hi/tuft 
dkar-po; fWyp sla-tcas dgh; ty sifa; 
W'Jl sa-sgrog; ,'?w s 
mtshan-mo bshad (Mnon.). 



18 



ku-mud grogs =&orK 6sz7-ser 
or 3 '*S zla-hod moonbeams (Mfion.). 

+ 5WMI ku-mud tfyra, v. Y" nt-ww, the 
sun (jMwon.). 

+ s'SV-saj ku-mud can, v. 3'V*' ku-mud- 
tshal (M-non.). 

* JWlfa ku-mud-gnen f<J(*S lit. 
the friend of the water-lily ; the moon. 

1 3'S'^ ku-nmd-ldan, v. 3'V*i ku-mud 
tshal. 

+ 3W*' ku-mud lo-ma = %'^w^'W 
9^ ! a medicinal plant of the lily species 



+ 3'a^** kH'tiuid-tsltal a cluster of water- 
lilies. 

I TJ'E- At<-rfsa gro 1. a tree; lit. that 
which grows on the earth. 2. the planet 
Mars. 

TN, Kuhi a devil or demon in 
Chinese demonology. In Chinese Kitei. 

'H'* v *n^ kuhi-fin a class of evil spirits 
(Grub.). In Chinese Kuei-shen, "devils 
and gods." 

TIQ/^C' kuhi-isaft a Chinese work on 
divination (Grub. 5). 

TT^ A'M-ya sediment of urine from 
which Tibetan physicians diagnose 
disease (Med.). 

t ^'^ ku - } '"- ra 3^ = 3T*'* n. of a 



bird ; an osprey 

1 TT^'^'T] ku-ra-ba-ka J<?* or 
the crimson amaranth ; a purple or yellow 
Barleria ; the blossom of the amaranth or 
Barkria. 

ku-ran-ga T$V$ the deer; 
also arm trog-chag) an insect (5". d. > 



Ku-ru ^ft a city in Ancient 
India near Delhi one yojana in area ; also 
a province (S. Lam. 20). 

I U^IP 1 '^ Eu-ru-kul-le gi^T a 
female Buddhist deity associated with 
Kuvera, the god of wealth; is goddess 
of might and power; she is also called 
^"!3<\'*i (Vidyd). The first sovereign 
Dalai Lama is said to have acquired great 
power by propitiating this deity. 

t 11'^ ^'S ku-ru-pin-da^'^ s/ta-ne 
1. $ir*< lead. 2. a fragrant grass; 
Cyperus rotundus; the bud of a flower. 
3. a ruby ; cinnabar. 

t TT^'^'S ku-rii ban-da, v. Sfy'OT 
mon-litg t the breed of sheep in the sub- 
Himalayan countries (Mnon.). 

ku-re or 3^1 ku-rcs after, fWr, 
sport, diversion, jest, horse- 
play; S^'I'Vi to jest; 3'*3i^ for the 
purpose of amusement or fun ; ;j-^v^w<w 
ft^ijrqi %fia'*)il ^Kfrt: not liking, dis- 
gusted with, amusements. 

Ku-la-ku f^rar. a Srin-mo 

(goblin) that lived only on lotus flowers 
and lotus-honey, and resided in the 
fabulous island of Ramamo (K. d. * 280). 

t TI'^l^'B ku-lan-ta jarm the country 
inhabited by an aboriginal race of people 
(Dus-ye.). 

4 7 TT >I 3'^ Ku-ld-la for ^'"i Ku-na-la. 

TT^'R Ku-lu-ta a place situated in 
the south-east of Kashmir, now called 
Nyun-ti by Tibetans, by Hindus Kulu 
(S. Lam. 19). 

J H"^ *"'f a 1- ' ll ' ^ tbe Bacred 

grass used in certain religious ceremonies 
both by Brahmans and Buddhists ; 



19 



Poa cynosurmdes, a grass with long stalks 
and numerous pointed leaves : S'^*''2' i^ c .' 
$*n}c.*r|rK'^ I the grass kufa ensures 
longevity and increases the strength of 
the body. 2. n. of a city (K. du. p 152). 

Syn. ^-$ij( nan-sel; t'i\*j*i sa-ffna$, t^' 
"xp-ffft bdud hdul gdan; tiSF^Sfr mchod 
gbyin rgyan; ite'SS gisan-bycd; EJ*i''3f 
khrus-kyi rtsa; i'**"] rtsa-mchog ; 
rtsa-dwan (Mnon.). 



it yron-khyer 
(gifHKi) 1. Kus'ianagara, one of the 
thirty-six sacred places of the Buddhists, 
where Gautama Buddha is said to have 
breathed his last. 2. n. of Chakravartl 
Raja (Supreme Ruler of the Universe) ; 
5'^'1^'q Ju-qa cften-po H^lfi*! n. of a 
Chakravartl Raja. 

ku-fa-na n. of a flower ; also 



n. p. t*\ ^ *\ *\ 9 " 

sp'fy \ whence did you bring that Srin-po's 

daughter called Kusana flower (Sbrom. 

121). 

T]'^'^'^ ku-fa-ban-dha fiiw a 
gem which is said to possess the property 
of curing infectious diseases and plague. 



=^ dge-wa 



piety, holiness. 

t 11'"^'^ -Kw-f- ft ', also 
li fWt, a Buddhist sage; the title 
of a Buddhist monk or priest who 
has acquired spiritual knowledge and is 
more devout than learned : 



(Yig.). Generally there are 
among both Brahmans and . Buddhists 
those called Pandita and Kucali. The 



title of Pan-di-ta is applied to one who is 
versed in intellectual science. Those who 
are called Ku-qa-li have attained a high 
spiritual development by abstraction from 
material or intellectual enjoyments. In 
some works it is called Ku-sa-li. 



kit -fit a kind of lime ; a kind of 
fruit; an apple (fa.); "H'^*-' ku-gu fin an 
apple tree ; !3'-$' < ^'S*'|' i fc f J5l'R|5ii*r' ! i|!v 
CR! *w | the fruit of Ku-fu cures griping 
and acute pains in the intestines. 

f Ty^'^I ku-su-lu is a corrupt form of 
$'-<]$ Kti-ga-li. 

B -f* 1 ' **"' n - f a 

kind of blue flower,v. *$=- thin. 

Syn. ^'I'^'Tl dus-kyi me-tog; S'S^'^ 
lya-khyufi. rdo; *>'? q l'a"I'a^ me-tog $mig- 
$man ; d'^'i me-tog ze ; fl[W^ ysal-ldan 
psal-tta-can (Mnon.). 



ku-ge- 9 a- ya ^^^ a kind 
of lotus flower (K. d. * 324) ; a gene- 
ric name for water-lily or lotus. 



an Indian 
pandub who preached Buddhism in Tibet 
(J. Zat.). 



n. of an Indian Buddhist sage (K. dun. 
13). 



1. 



kum saffron. 2. a flower (Sman. 



K u - &u ~ li a Buddhist exorcist; 
a Naljor or Buddhist yogi who carries 
a small hand-drum (called damaru which 
is generally made of a human skull) and a 
thigh-bone trumpet in his hands, and pro- 
fesses power of exorcising evil spirit^ 



20 



aS'SS'i Ku-su-luhi spyod-pa the practice 
of the Shaman or Buddhist exorcists ; 5T5T 
^vjj^q-*i\q!v2| (-4- .^6) when practising 
the rites of a Ku-su-lu exorcist. 

^g-^-q ku-m-lu-p'i is a word of Tantrik 
mysticism, its proper Tibetan equivalent 
being ^^ 0cod-pa, the art of exorcism. 
The mystic Tantrik rites of the Avndhauts, 
called Avadhutipa in Tibet, exist in 
ludia. 



C' Ku-sc-rdsod n. of a fort and 
also that of a district in |**<*i K/iamg 
(S. kar.). 

*** 
Tl'Z^ ku bswo the shrill ejaculation 

su-o, swo, &c., made at the time of sacrifice 
to the earthly gods, demi-gods and spirits 
by priests, &c., in Tibet: ^xir*F 
qwg*j'*rgq wq^V^'j'q'v^ the celestial 
troops in inconceivable numbers surround- 
ing them gave vent to bsico-bswo. 



cuckoo ; 3r5*'*3Jl'^ VT*** the cuckoo, 
i.e., the bird that cries 'koohoo'; ace. to 
Os. a kind of ring dove. 

TJ^' ku-hrnn sheep and goats : 



f?ic.-ai-?iii*i | (G. Bon.) among the 
followers of Shenrab the Bon-po of the 
Rgyu im<\.Bbrris-po sects sacrifice sheep and 
goats, buffaloes, dzo, mules, camels, &c. 

T]5| kiig crooked ; a hook ; SJ'31 gri- 
kug (the kukri), a curved knife ; short sabre ; 
fl"'^"! kags-kug an iron hook; ^"l na- 
kug a fish-hook. 

^1'^, q l'l\ {| kug-kug lyd-pa to bend, 
curve, clinch (a nail) (Jit.). 

5"1'^"1 kug-kug altogether crooked ; 31' 
^S kug-pa-ftid crookedness (Os.). 



IF] 5 kug-rtse cuckoo in W (Ja.). 

TpTT^i Kun-ku-na possibly the pro- 
vince of Konkan in Western India (8. 
Lam. 33). 



kun-kuma f* saffron. 
Tibetan g^'3i is evidently a corruption 
of the Sanskrt word. 



'^s Kun-d*a-ra -WSK a fabulous 
silver mountain situated beyond the great 
sea and at a distance of 2,000 yojana to 
the south of Sima Man, where the sun 
never sets. It is full of precious stones, 
such as lapis lazuli, sapphire, &c., and on 
the sides of this mountain there grows a 
species of tree producing a race of men 
who live only one day; they are born 
at dawn, they begin to walk after day- 
break, in the morning they are youths, 
towards evening they grow old, and at 
sunset they die (K. d. * 276.). 

T^i htn ufc, ^IT, ftfasr, *rt all, 
entire, the whole; H^'B^'UiW I from 
all pores of the hair; ^'VTO all those; 
ifVi^nll the othrrs; ^'aws all, every 
one included ; W 3'3*raai j n the hearing of 
all; d'^T'^'W^'K'S all these flowers 
should be strewn about; ^|*r*?=. 4 q seen 
by everybody; ^^1^ or JF"'^ time 
without interruption ; at all times ; colloq. 
5\i kun-la means " everywhere." 

Syn. w'*S ihams-cad all; ff*1J na- 
tshogs various kinds; *'$** ma-lus without 
leaving anything- behind; ^'^ sad-par 
exhaustively; ^"I'^S lhag-mcd without 
remainder: QW^ lus-mcd nothing left 



kun-dkyil, same as Wl'*^ kun- 
gyi dki/il, in the midst of all ; in the middle 
of all ; at the centre. 



21 



kun-dkris (*Mn-#) = W^* non- 
mons lit. that which binds all ; misery, 
moral corruption, general corruptness, sin. 

^qijs) kun-bkrtim (kun-tam) or JWS'^H* 1 
kun-tu bkram ^)T*t'5 strewn about, spread 
over. 

5^'g kun-gkyc, same as W'| kun-tu skye 
or 5W'r kiin-la-ikye <3infff, 
'JRpfo, grows everywhere : 
W5'5 flowers grow everywhere in summer 
time. 

5^ SS S kun-kycd-bycd $"' $nin the 
heart, mind (Mnon.). 

^ : T q kun-skyo-wa or ^'S'flf' 1 ! kun-tu 
tkyo-ica flfm, ^^nr, 'S'ratf, to become 
penitent; to thoroughly regret: Slw^'fa' 
**^'W5'tfl his mind was filled with regret 
day and night. 

31^'^ kum-skyod agitated, moved; 
agitation. 

5W i ]f'''Ii e '' Kun-skyob g.Un n. of a 
monastery in Tibet. 

cover ; the all-encompassing cover, the sky. 
i: kun-khyab =:*?&?* nam rnkhah 
^THl that which encompasses all 

things ; the void space, the sky, the four 

quarters of heaven. 

3W@ q ii: = ^|" q I'S HpRrog-bycd ^fx he 
that takes away misery ; the all-pervading 
enemy; the snatcher; the lord of death. 

WF^ kun-hkhor v. ^'iw^pfcai kun- 
b_zan hk/tor-lo, a charm in the name of the 
Dhyani Buddha called Samanta Bhadra. 

^'B^'Sfi'S kun-kkyab djtal-mo=si i pt*fA 
nam-mkhah the sky ; n. of a goddess 
(Tig. k. 16). 

W^Bw kun-hkhyams trfr^Jira a wan- 
derer; a beggar, a mendicant who goes 
to every door foj alms. 



W*<||^ Kttn-mkfiyi n= 
t<Z6? mkliycn-pa v^s, ^ the A 11-knowing ; 
the Physician ; an epithet of Buddha and 
also of the highest order of Bodhisattva. 

SW^H^'W^"!* 1 kun-rnkhycn kun-gzigs 
omniscient and all-seeing, referring to the 
attributes of a Buddha or BodMsattva. 

W^^'S^'*^ Kun-mkhyen klon-chcn a 
religious teacher of the Rnin-ma School 
who founded a sect of his own called 
JTtm dgah lugs. 

3fi-wj|^ *rg-*VU Kun-mkhym chos-sku 
hod-ser the Tihetan hierarch of Sa-kya, 
who, at the request of K/nt-ltigs, the Chief 
of Horchen, first shaped the Mongolian 
alphabet. 

!W* l iSW* l ^' q lfa Kun-mkhyen ni-mahi 
gncn 4^ SORST an epithet of Gautama 
Buddha (Yig.k.83). 

5W'*Jll ^S1' q l^ Kun-mkhyen dbyfg-gRen 
n. of a lama who was given the religious 
title of Knn-nikhyen, the all-knowing. 

WW" Jnin-kfirugs 
agitated; anxious: 
the waves of the sea were agitated. 

W*H"i kun-hkhrul ufam blunder; illu- 

o 

sion ; also adj. all- delusive ; all- wandering. 
3^ |-*q kun-gyi mthuh the end or ter- 
mination of all (merits) : *wfl|r<rj^'3'w 
*&' I V* t " r ?Mk^^fl the end of 
accumulation 13 expenditure ; the end of 
rising is fall (K. d. l 330). 

W3'1^*' kun-gyi-ynas the basis or abode 
of all (miseries) : T^'^''^VJ^ > ^r5i|': 
"I^^l the grounds of misery are disease, 
old age, and death (K. d. * 333). 

5^'3'S" 1 ' kun-gyi, rtsa-tra, the root of 
everything; wisdom, divine knowledge. 



This seen or unseen talent has PrajnA 



22 



(absolute knowledge) for its basis, i.e., the 
root of all things is wisdom (prajnd) 

(- 9V*)- 



'" kun-gyig bkur-wa he who is 
respected by all ; a learned man, v. 
rnkhaf-pa (Mnon.). 



kun-gyif phyag-byaf to 
whom all paid homage: ^Tf^'^ 2K3TS* 1 ' 
^ I hjig-rten kun-gyi$ phyag-byuf fiH, to 
whom the world has bowed (K. d. "> 113). 

^'31 kun-grub=$ t >''^ s/a-?fa dgu-pa 
or f^'l'*'^' fton-zla tha-chun the month of 
October 



*' Kun-glin, same as Ttf'^'gj*.' /Twn- 
ftrftf glin, the place or grove of all happi- 
ness; one of the four royal monasteries 
of Lhasa, this one being situated in the 
western suburbs. 

WF ktin-dgah ^TJT^, frfte amuse- 
ment; great merriment or joy. 

* W W3" 1 -w^-VWJK-Zi Kun-dgahrgyal- 
mtshan-dpal-bzanpo vn^gsi the name of 
Sagkya Pandita ('5'iV5)- 



Kun-dgah snin-po n. of a 
celebrated lama of Tibet (Lofi. "* 12). 



Kun-dgah Nor a lake in 
Mongolia (Lofi. * 21) ; probably the 
Gonga-nor (Egg lake). In Mongol nor 
= a lake. 



' c| kun-dgah-wa 
9'* rin-po-che n. of a precious article or 
gem (K. d. * 29$). 

^'W 5 Kun-dgah-bo ^rnn^ the per- 
sonal attendant and cousin of Buddha. 

WWW Kun-dgah-hbar n. of the 
son of Kun-dgah snin-po, one of the 
chiefs of Sa-skya who visited India to 
study Buddhism (Lon. "). 



Kun-dgah hdsin-pa a 
mountain in Uttara Kuru, the fabulous 
continent of the north (K. d. * 318). 

W^ q F' q l'fa'5 kun-dgah 
hu-su coriander (Sinan. 4.28). 

WW*'* '" kun-dgah ra-wa= l^'^ 
dgah ^ii\i*i a grove; any pleasure-grove 
containing groups of trees, flower beds, 
artificial lakes, garden houses, shady walks, 
&c., often surrounded by a wall or fence. 

3K'*\ q l*'S It '* kun-dgahi dican-mo an 
address of courtesy for ^'f*'!'^"!* 1 ladies 
of the class of Lhacham her grace or 
ladyship : ^S'^|TW^'yK''f |l *f%f6'^| 
" at the (feet) of her charming ladyship " 
(Yig.k.49). 

W'S"?*' kun-mgyogs ^n%7r speed; also 
as adv. speedily, at full speed. 

geb$ = *W* nam-mkhah 
the sky; that which covers all; 
the all-covering. 

^"tff"! kun-hgog that which hinders 
physical or moral growth. 



5^'^i i: kun-hgro,v. *pr v F* nam-rnkhah, 
the sky (Mnon.). 



^'"5 n : snake, v. Sji fbrul a serpent 
(Mnon.). 



kttn-hgro hbad VTHPT to be 
assiduous : W%flV' 1 5*if^r^ assi- 
duous in the manner of performance. 



kun-hgrohi sro/=l' lam a 
road, passage (Mnon.). 

$^'$ c -** Kvn-cins ^tiifMH 1. that pains, 
ties or entangles all at all times. 2. ^rg= 
the God of Love ; also for ^'5'?=.> kun-tu 
ctnf. fv* E -i' l V I l<' c W' 5 K^W5"3"M by 
the fetters of misery the mind is always 
fastened down. 



23 



Kun-bcom WiT, 3*T 1. van- 
quished ; suppressed, fully put down. 2 
the vanquisher or killer of all; the lord 
of death. 3. n. of a son of a Brahma? of 
Ujjayani (S. kg.). 

W3 kun-chub -*|w fcs-rab all-perfec- 
tion ; wisdom ; divine knowledge (K. d. V 
26) ; 3W4*>'i ^r^ra he that has compre- 
hended everything. 

kun-mchog-ldan or ^w^'wlflr 
' J < (Mnon.), ^l*Tr^i, the 
Ttntrik doctrine of Kalachakra. 



kun-hjug for 

bringing together; putting in 
harmony with all. 

S^VT^'? kun-hjug pho-na the messen- 
ger of harmony, that which harmonises or 
makes everything agreeable, hence=T* 
ka-ra, sugar. 

5^f*w Kun-hjoms ^rcrasr, ^mtd* 
1. Indra, the subduer of all; that by 
which everything can be subdued or 
controlled. 2. Yoga or the contemplative 
concentration of the mind. 

jflAfswwXfli kun-hjoms mchog the chief 
all-subduing (elixir); < fc"'W5 I V*W' l l 1 M!' 
^qf *w*i<i| | is an excellent preparation 
of mercury, which subdues all evil spirits 
and diseases. 



a. (Td. 28.) 

kun-tu unto all ; in all ; everywhere ; 
in every direction: >'? l T=.'*''rW2J*'! 
flowers were strewn everywhere, above 
and below: *E.-3e.-|^-^-g-qi]i | articles 
of merchandise were spread in every place, 
inside and outside (the house). When 
used in reference to time, 5H' kun-tu 
signifies : continually or perpetually ; dtis 
kun-tu same as V'J^ ^ tgyun-du or 
8> at all times, always. 



kun-tu bskyed producing every- 
where, all-producing, i.e., imagination : 
! 5wJ-^*rw5 s i'5" 'iM imagination is all- 
productive (K. d. f< 36). 



kun-tu hkhyams wandering 
everywhere: tWr^iTU'W*! - the 
fearful world, i.e., in the unhappy states 
of existence, he wanders about (K. d- 
169). 



kun-tu hkhrugs signifies vfi' 
convulsed ; also convulsive, 
subject to agitation and shaking (Mnon.). 



kun-tu jras = ac.'^'t'?i) $pafi- 
rgyan nw-tog or ^'3'>'?' q l (autumn flower), 
lit. the fully developed or blown ; n. of 
a species of daisy which blossoms in 
autumn (Mnon.). 

W' Jf f t ' kun-tu go-ica f%^if well- 
known ; well-understood ; celebrated. 



Kun-tu dgah-war 
gyur-waki glin a fabulous continent situa- 
ted 5,000 yojana beyond the Western 
Ocean of (Jambudvipa) India, where there 
are lions that fly in space: some of the 
wild animals of that continent are said to 
live a thousand years (K. d. * 



kun-tu-hgens-pq, fgrsin; he 
that provides for the world, the All- 
Provider; Providence. 



kun-tu hgyed-pa 
to be diffused ; that which goes in every 
direction : qarq^e:^ spiritual emana- 
tions; envoys : ^'^''I^'^'S'*^ pays of 
light went in every direction. 



kun-tu rgyu-wa 

1. lit. going everywhere. 2. 
as met. wind ; a bird. 3. n. of a 
spirit. 



24 



V c ' kun-tu rgyns-par lycd-pa 
to fully spread ; to make plen- 
tiful everywhere ; to make copious. 

S^'S'' 3 ^*"' kun-tu bsgribs eclipsed; Aiak- 
1M:V^'f i ** f P K W!tfF ft *\ the rays 
of the eun and moon were eclipsed. 

SH'S'iST" kun-tu-bcug-pa or ^'i| q l' l < 
kun-bctig-pa to put in ; to employ, engage : 
$V^'W' l! '5 q l I P ut this vessel (or pot) to all 
uses. 

kun-tu chags-pn W, ^rer, 
anxiety; yearning, clinging to: 
fli*i | the mind remains 
attached to its crooked desires. 



ktnal-u;a misery, sufferings. 

W5' R l q I' | 'l' a ' kun-tu hjug-pa 
f&fti lam-bden-pa the truth about the way 
to Nirvana, i.e., out of misery. 

5W''iVT3S kun-tu hjwg bycd^f!*^* 
ktm hbyun-wa sin. 

W^S"!'^ kun-tu hjug-bral f?rfh free- 
dom from sin, or ^"]i hgog-pa, entire 
stoppage 'of suffering. 

Note. The above four expressions are 
used in the higher spiritual terminology 
relating to Bodhisattm (K. ko. "| 235). 

5fl-$qJH kun-tu bsten^^^v^^t dad- 
gut dan Idan-pa faith and reverence ; also 
possessed of faith, respect, etc. 

Syn. 3'<i gui-pa; g'^ gits-Man; 3^' 
"^'|S gus-par bycd; wK^'W^K. mf.on-par 
Idan; "|%1''^w &cirj-tu sent?; So'q WJO g. 
pa; *r^ ntos-ldan; ^'^ dad-ldan; ft - 
*qi-^ dad-chags-can ; SS'"'*^ dai-jpa-can ; 
S q l'V | phyag-byed-pa; ^'*^'^ she-sa byed 
(Mnon.). 

W5'^ kun-tu hthor ^^^\^ strewn 
over, scattered, diffused, dispersed: >'?1' 



f "1"' W5'^ ! flowers were scattered over 
every place. 

*F'V> kun-tu dor fsrr^I perfect aban- 
donment: V< - i'V'W'Vl all faults 
should be entirely thrown out. 

W5'"^' 1 ' kun-tu bdc-va w*rergg 
general happinese, prosperity; beatitude 
(Spyod). 

JffK*^' 1 '* Kun-tu hdrcs-pa n. of a river 
in the fabulous continent of Godaniya 
(K. d. * 331). 

W5'4?l kun-tu gnts f^lfn, Jnrfa 
stability ; the all-abid.'ng residence, that 
which remains at all times or everywhere. 

W5' q 5 t ' q /'""-'" ktduf>-wa the burning 
rays of the sun ; extremely painful ; all- 
piercing. 

SW'' fl ffS' tR '3*' t| kttn-tu gnod-pnr gyur- 
pa trafiw x to do mischief everywhere. 



1. the sun; n. of a Buddha. 2. all- 
illumined, all-enlightened. 

W5SS kun-tu fpyad an usual duty, 
habitual work ; as a vb. to practise : ^'T 
^,*>'W'9M practise righteousness or reli- 
gious acts at all times. 

W5'9S' q kun-tu fpyod-pa free or 
unbridled behaviour: described as g*)'S5" 
JJS'C 1 " the Brahmam'cal conduct (Mf.on.). 

W59" kun-tu tpra$ ^mj^tf<ici dressed 
in every way; adorning the body with 
precious ornaments. 



giving up everything (Mnon.). 

^'5'^"1'8!^ kun-tu mig-ldan (lit. with 
eyes everywhere), described as ^'5^'f^'^s-', 
n. of a fabulous tree on which grow glit- 
tering gems ; also a plant or tree in full 
bloom ; *V 



25 



this (kind of tree) is 
generally to be found in the lands of gods, 
demi-gods, and in the continent of Uttara 
Kuru (K. d. 1 16). 

SW'S'iTw kun-tu rmofis the all-stunning, 
all-obscuring ; darkness of mind ; igno- 
rance: ^'*JWjlvflp*rtr*<%*-^ j wrr 

*^'M| fyiS-filwI-w&iH 0, best of friends 
who guide th me in precepts, morals, re- 
sources, the weapons for vanquishing the 
all-obscuring enemy ! 

Tfl''*T | i*''5S'3'* 4 S^ kun-tu rmofi$-byed-kyi 
mdah ^nfltTT the all- stupefying fascina- 
tion ; n. of one of the arrows of Cupid. 

^ij'ulf^'w Kun-tu hdsin-ma ^ravrrift 
holding to all or everything ; n. of a 
goddess. 

^g-we.-Ej Kun-tu bzan-po 1. WT^W^ 
lit. good to all and everywhere and at all 
times ; n. of the first Dhyani Bodhisattva, 
the equivalent of Samanta Bhadra; the 
Khamwga-Sain of the Mongols. 2. in the 
Enin-ia sect, n. of the first or Adi Buddha. 

3fl-ij-q*c.-3 Kun-tu bzan-mo W<\*\%\ 
1. is a female figured in conn ection with 
the foregoing Bodhisattva. 2. a kind of 
flower growing on the Sumeru Mountain 
(K. my. *| 80). 

^g'll^m Kun-tu gsigi he who sees 
all things and everywhere by his divine 
eye of knowledge ; n. of a Buddha, also 
that of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. 

3l^'8V4* kun-tu hur-hur flT^l a great 
noise or uproar heard everywhere; the 
rattling of thunder ; also the noise of wind 
or rain. 

^fj-f'< kun-tu ho-ma^'t:^ si-dsa-dsu 
(Mnon.) n. of a tree with milky sap. 

Wfi'*S kun-tu hod *m*flsWT fully en- 
lightened; v^'^il'i sa bcu-ycig-pa the 
eleventh stage of Bodhisattva perfection. 



kun-tu rab-tu hkhrugs 
lit. very much agitated ; n. of the six des- 
criptions of earthquake (K. d. 259). 

3H'5'W5'*3*i kun-tu rab-tu hgul lit. 
moving and shaking very greatly ; n. of 
a form of earthquake. 

5ft'8 - w - Si'l*t kun-tu rab-tu chem-chcm 
surrfa^ lit. roaring all about; n. of a 
kind of earthquake. 

5M'8'*s''^'4* kun-tu rab-tu hur-hur 
loud and fearful rattling or roaring; n. 
of one of the six forms of earthquake in 
which sound comes out of the sea and the 
mountains. 

WJJ'^'S'l'fa kun-tu rab-tu 0i/o$ lit. 
everywhere all shaken very much ; n. of 
universal earthquake in which the moun- 
tains and the oceans are movedprofoundly. 

3^'5'^"I i: kun-tu rig ^rnte=$*i' t r3W>}' 
^*!'i all-knowing ; omniscient; n. of a 
deity. 

^''^"1 n :=*!'** feg-rab wisdom 
(K. d. <* 26). 

kun-tu ffsal ^JT^hr^, ^JUTT, 
, the sky ; clear inside and outside ; 
very clear, lucid, illuminated. 

S^'S'I^ kun-tu g.sun a flower mention- 
ed in the Kahgyur (K. my. *\ 20). 

SW'S'*!^ kun-tu ffso to heal everyone or 
repair everything ; the healer of all. 

Sfl'ISJi ktm-gtum MW^t lit. very fierce ; 
^sic.*r^4|q dmafo-rig$ n. of lowest caste in 
India. 

W* kun-Uus ^re n. of a religious 
work which is full of extracts taken from 
different sacred books (Mfion.). 

S^'Sf"! kun-rtog, same as ^'ifl rnnm- 
rtog f%3f>3i, jf>J, ^^RTX, fancy, illusory 
associations. 



26 



kun-fatags nfiK*W* ideas and 
associations. 

^qtjum'qS'W*^^^ kun-ftrtagt-pabi tntshan 
nit} trftwfwm^reiR one of the three signs, 
characteristics or laksana, v. W *V^ mtshan 



kun~lirtan ^r?%5rr 1. support. 2. 
negligence. 

51^'''^ kttn-bsten ^iTO^nn reliance; re- 
signation ; service or adoration. 



Jftot rnthofi-gyi ifrtsho a 
fabulous fresh-water lake in the land of 
the Lha-ma-yin or Asttra, situated at the 
centre of their chief city Shubhra Malika. 
It is said to be five yojana on each side. 
When the Lha fight with the Lha-ma-yin 
the signs of victory or defeat are said to 
be reflected on its surface. 

m^fqj^-ti kttn-dafl hkhon-pa quarrelling 
with all : l ffW'H'*rf l W^%R^S I a 
person whose lips are black quarrels 
with everybody (Tan. d. 217). 

?W'V*W 1 ' kun-dad mthtMi-pa = wrv\ 
^*W*i harmonious, concordant ; agreeing 
or in harmony with all. 

3tf'*tf kun-don ^W the public weal, 
general interest, cause of all. 

mVri kun-dril-ica = *WQ%*>-q tshan-ma 
b_tdom-pa a-11 taken together. 

S^'"!^ kun-pdufi ^rfri, ^*ff that 
afflicts all ; the all-burning one; Cupid. 

3K'1VI Kun-bdag ftvrf^, frTW the 
Lord of All. ^T^'SWI the Soul of the 
World ; the Supreme Lord of the World. 

^fl|e.' kun-brdufi 1. an oppressor ; a 
tyrant : f^t*f^*f'j<'*Vl i f*'iC^*' 
V. In astronomical calculations the six- 
teenth conjunction ie called Kun-brdun. 



kun-hdar i(<j^!d the pulse that 
always beats = $'*&'*> rtsa dvu-ma n. of 
the central artery. 

?fl'^ Kun-hdren the Supreme Leader ; 
he who leads all into the way of deliver- 
ance ; epithet of Buddha. 

5^'^ kun-nas, same as 5l1'w kun-lat 
*nr*i or fw^rcr from every place or direc- 
tion ; round about ; wholly, thoroughly : 
fqrMlMriror*} > wra)|K ! in every direction 
it was surrounded by railings; S^"'*^'"! 
to wish from the bottom of the heart. 

3^'^* ) '*\5 q l*'' {| kttn-nag d.krig$-pa entirely 
darkened: **%!h* 1 'W<'*\li q !*' rain-clouds 
have darkened all quarters. 

SWS^'S kun-nag &kye WT^IW, <3rtn<f 
produced or grown everywhere (like grass). 

3tf' J \*<''*B*W kun-nas 
3^'S* 1 gur-gum saffron 

5fi'^' < wh! kun-nas hgeg$ = 
a residence that is closed on every side, a 
sanctum ; residence of a queen ; a convent 
(Mnon.). 

Syn. nj<fr-!S-* hkhor-tcahi khyiin ; 'S\ 
N'Ofl** sa-spyod-ma gnas; Jjfw-s^ srun-ma- 
can ; ^i'i5'v^ dag-pahi mthah-can ; 



spco^ kun-nas hgro 



commu- 



non. 



un-nas rgod= 
to laugh out (Jjfnon.). 



^l|^j^yj|^^|^ Kun-nat sgohi lefru 
shet-pahi rndo 



THT 



the "Sutra on the door or entrance firom 
all quarters," i.e., of free entrance 
(K. ko. P 287). 



kun-nat sgrib-par 
to over-shadow all round, to 
put into shade in all directions. 



27 



kun-nas non-mons-pa 
made very miserable ; pained, dis- 
tressed; 3fl-^-ifr*wravq ! entirely free 
from misery (Tlbum. *| 239). 

nfl-aiN'1*W kun-nas snems ^l*-^H 
very haughty ; arrogant. 

'ji kun-nas btags-pa 

fastened or tied up on all sides. 
v 
3fl-^-qij*r<i kun-nas btus-pa tfgsr, 

collected from everywhere ; extracted or 
taken from every work. 

^aj*r^'i kun-nai hdud-pa ^rpog 
venerated by everybody or everywhere : 
^^n|-^-<j|?jr^^'^')| to reverence in 
every manner with body, speech, and 
heart. 

3^*rg;c.-q kun-nas Idan-ica mymuTT, 
*rg*rK raised from every place; set up 
well; got-up: $"!*<' W^'iF 1 *'^ the 
enemies rose up in all directions. 

5fl^w'|Vi kun-nas sdud.-pa 4WIVK col- 
lected from every place ; brought together 
from every place. 

* 3 a V a ^'$ c ' J kun-nas snan-tca = JTS rgyal- 
wa the all-illuminator (Schr.). 

^a^-wprq kun-nas hphags-pa 
sprung from everywhere. 

S^'^^'g" kun-nas bris 
perfectly painted, described, delineated, 
referred to. 

^'^'S!^ kun-nas blans taken from 
every place. 

34^ WK kun-nas hbar 
inflamed ; ablaze : >' 
broke out in every direction. 

5^'|Vn kun-nas tbyor-wa ^IH to 
combine; combination ; fF^'^'l^ to 
compound or mix up medicines. 



fire 



r kun-nas brtsegs-pa 
built up everywhere ; piled up ; erected. 

3fl' a i*'* 1 *'*' kun-nas rndses illuminated ; 
very beautiful: a'tfi'w^'y^W*^ I the 
signs or charms of the moon are exquisitely 
fine ; >-^j|-5|-Sqnq-|^-ijai-^^-w?i-5)t - ^w 

VFi I (the garden) from its collection of 
flowers was lovely and pleasant (Mnon.). 

WWtpf: kun-nas bmn jpjrrfr, pirrPwT 
= ^W3'!5'( dpal-gyi lo-ma n. of a tree the 
leaves of which are sweet. 



Syn. 3S'*r*i lo-ma mfiar ; "5'wqjt lo-ma 

(Mnon.). 

5^*rq3f^xi kun-nas b_zod-pa all-forgiv- 
ing ; very patient (K. d. * 68) . 

3^q-^c,*r*|-q^-q kun-nas yons-su bskor- 
wa entirely besieged, shut up entirely, 
surrounded on all sides. 

kun-nas (tyent gia 
thoroughly ; very excited : 

ri | |the mind agitated (not 
being fixed on any subject). 

?fl-j;i-<wq kun-snaH hbar-wa=^-^^^ 
ni-mahi hod-zer all- illuminating rays ; the 
rays of the sun (Jgfion.). 

%*('%*-* kun-spans W%mfi\; S^' bya 
Uan all-abstracted : ^R^r ; "^"I'f^'i'S'"'^' 
lj=.'i I one who has left off all the concerns 
of this world ; he who has renounced all 
worldly matters, acts and concerns; an 
epithet of Buddha. 

^3j-gMT^-Zi kun-spans chen-po =^'^ 
the all-renouncer ; an ascetic ; a hermit : 
X- i$fl!' w 5*C |q'i5- 3^- gc.j' Ia\-Ej5- (^q- ^.-^ 
before the feet of the Arch Kenouncer who 
in one life has attained to JEhiddhahood. 



T3^ kun-spyad. 1. 
that which is to be practised at all times. 
2. customary or habitual work ; habit. 



28 



^|\t^'ti kun-tpyo(f fian-pfi 
a black or fallen Brahman ; bad habits , 
vicious acts or professions. 

JWsPVi**'" kun-gpyod mtshun$-ma= 
$o|*r grogs-ma a sweetheart, mistress 
(Won.). 

Tj^'s^'q^'^-'^qfEj kun-phan b_du<f-rtsi 
dicafl-po=jft zla-wa the moon (Yig. 
k. 16). 

kun-bor all-renouncer : ifa'S*-'^' 
vij^oX | he cast off relations, 
wealth, properties, realm and all (K. d. 
333). 

^'^'3i'3 kun-byed. rgyal-po 1. SW 
tf-'\ ffio fman spn^-rtsi a medicinal vege- 
table growing in the grass in Tibet. 2. in 
the terminology of the Nying-ma sect, 
the $*w (mind) is called kun-byed rgyalpo, 
the chief agent, the prince of all 
doings. 

growing ; misery ; sin. 

3^'|^ kun-sbyor libertinism (see 5tf''5 
kun-tu-ru). 

kun-mos dri-fysan 
dri-shim-po sweet 
perfume. 

Syu. ^*\'^\ Mod-pa hi-dri ; Jf'^'S^ $na- 
tshim-byed. ; K\WS. nad-bzan ; ^^'^'S 1 ! rin-du 
khyab ; $fl|*rwsi legs-par thul (Jlfnon.). 

^'*fe. kun-rmons wm error ; the all- 

4 

blundering (A. K. 72). 

W*^ kun-hdsin ^WK, $Rff the all-con- 
taining ; that which holds everything in 
itself. 

^'F^'^^'fl kun-rdsob bden-pa ^^.fd^rtj 
conditional or dependent truth ; ace. to 
Was. subjective truth. 

W$ A;MW-g8A'=^w 1 ^^ sems-nid 
basis ; the mind (AJ.non.) ; 



consciousness of 
self ; literally the primary cause of all 
things, the basis of all ; the soul, spirit : 



ti5'^ " gshi is a philosophical term for 
vijnanft, soul, which is considered to be the 
basis of virtue, sin, worldly or spiritual 
existence, &c." 

^'''^'Tl kun-za m*4off*\ 1 f&f^lHfa 
flower of the plant called Spyi-shur, which 
gives blue tint to water (J&fton.). 

Wfi*\* kun-psigs =W*> '1%W who sees 
all ; the All-seeing One ; that is cognizant 
of all (Lon. * 15). 

^qjK." Kun- i/zaA Wrw^ the all-good ; 
epithet of Buddha; a Bon sage and 
teacher. 

nj^qicujifc'Si Kun-bzafl hkhor-lo a metri- 
cal arrangement in several squares 
resembling a chess-board and sometimes 
forming an acrostic. 

^qjc.'|e.' Kiin-bzafi glifi n. of a place of 
pilgrimage in Tibet (Deb. "[ k$). 

^qjc$*ri|}*i Kun-bsan rnam-gmm the 
three good ones ; the Supreme Deity of 
the Bon religion in Tibet who is explain- 
ed as having three manifestations : (1) 
q^q[-l^5^qK.- fHTTsiraf ^ww*^ the imper- 
sonal God or Supreme Being, ">'trr$'*)=.r 
J"'" I, who from eternity has been free and 
all-perfect; (2) *yir$V^w j the personal 
God fcwVitWWrtM as manifest in 
the form of a sentient being (like Shenrab) ; 
(3) ^Sflm-q^-qiB. | the deity represented 
in symbol, i.e., form ; **r*J i^V^'^'oK 
$1N'*S'!T l representations in painting, 
figures in relief or casts. 

^'<f 1 V kun-bzod = 1'1^ sa-gshi flTOTT 
the all-enduring ; a figurative name for 
. the earth. 



29 






Kun-chot g.tsan-wa a Bud- 
dhist sect with a few monasteries border- 
ing on Yunnan. 

31^1 Kun-rig ^4ft^ all-knowing ; n. 
of a god ; a learned man. 

Syn. pr<i mkhas-pa; ^'^N ktm-yeg; 
^i kun-gyi bkur-wa (Mfion.). 

kun-la wkn to every one, to all ; 
to everywhere. 

5Hprty^r^qR-jf* kun-la bkra-fi? dwan- 
Idati-ma she who gives blessings to all : 
^qc.-|U|-9|-^-35-uj-iS-)E.' a name of the god- 
dess Uma, the wife of Mahes'wara (Mfton.). 

W'B q 'SS'^' z ' kun-la khyab-bye.d ser-po 
*ftCNil = Jj"**- ffhi-ieaH (Sman. 107) a 
bright yellow pigment -prepared from the 
urine or bile of a cow, or vomited in the 
shape of scidulae by that animal ; bezoar 
stone. 

3WrH1 kun-la hjug efficient; able to 
enter into anything: ^"TftWJiWIT* 
HI ! the intellect being cultured becomes 
efficient in composing. 

'r^ kun-la bde happiness to all. 

kun-la phan useful or good to 
all. 

5fl'*r*^S kun-la hphrod beneficial ; agree- 
able to all : W**wf*ftf%^pr*&| " cow 
butter being the best of butter is agreeable 
to all." 

^rn?*rci kun-la btscs-pa injuring all, 
all-hurting, hurtful, obnoxious. 

^oi ^uj kun-la reg <3Trerii meddling, 
meddlesome, touching everything. 

^'"1*1 kun-las = 'g* l ' 3 \*x kun-nas 4fi'- 
from every place or thing ; from all ; than 
all. 

^awqijjrii kun-la$ bttis-pa H, ^^g 
selected or compiled from every book ; n. 
of a book. 



kun yes-pa *n!ir all-knowing; 
knowing all, omniscient. 

^H-q5-Jf<|rq kun fes-pahi fo-gam-pa 
a religious man who, being under moral 
discipline, has reduced his desires and 
requirements ; lit. " an all-knowing tax- 
gatherer." 

Sl^-TV" k un fyad-pa *n<^id well 
explained; preaching all the religions, 
one that preaches everywhere. 

^?l*w kun-scms $fa^ to be conscious 
or cognizant of all things ; to think at all 
times. 

$^ f e.- kun-slofi ^"n^, fl^arrf a gene- 
ral rising ; rising from every direction or 
place ;= $*rfl|S sems-bgkyed f^TTfTT? 
conception ; idea ; the notion of a thing ; a 
thought; S^*^hprtf 6 'M* the mind 
which gives rise to thoughts of sins or 
merits, virtue or vice. 

^gc.-S^-Q kun-glofi chen-po comprises the 
three *fl])^c.-jrc. chag$-$dan-rmon, lust, 
anger and ignorance. 

^"1*^ kun-g.sod. TRre all-killing, that 
which kills everybody or thing ; the lord 
of death. 

^qj*im kun-g.sal-=-*p**if>n nam-mkhah 1. 
the sky; that is fully clear, illuminated. 
2. =*y*i ni-ma, the sun, the all-clearer. 

J T]^'5 kun-ta fft : from where ? one 
from an unknown place ; also interroga- 
tively, come from where? It is used in 
mystic language (K. g. f 26). 

TJ^'5*^ kun-tu-ru the union of the 
two sexes, copulation (used only in mystic 
language) (K. g. *\216). 

I U'fS}'^ kun-thi-ra grfar n. of a 
bird : ^V 1 V'ws' iS-a'iS- 

(K. g. * 58). 



30 



'^ kun-da vm 1. mistake, blunder, 
illusion (Lex.). 2. ftmPwif, fi*^ the 
blue jessamine, Jasminum multiflorum or 
pubescens. 

Syn. *'| chu-tkyet; *$*&*&' I* dgun- 
sla tha-chufl fkyeg; vp-ttftf^ fydab mohi 
ipdsotf (Jjffion.). 

!W\ - S I ^w kun-da byafi-sems^WQ 
tffiul-chu quicksilver (Sman. 79). 

'Tpj'S'^ kun-du-ru ^$*5, f*^ sweet- 
smelling tree ; a kind of incense ; the resin 
of Boswellia thurijtra ; gum olibanum (M. 
Wills.). 

Syn. Ji'SVi skyofi-bi/ed-pa; SWS - 
kun-da; ^\ kiut-du (IJlfion.). 

'*^ Att-rf-fe=V'S*Af-&wa cat 



' kun-dofi 



onon. 



kum-pa crooked ; shrivelled ; 
kum-pa-nitf contraction ; 5J'3 
very contracted. 
^x'3 kttm-po cringing; one in a con- 
tracted posture ; 3'2fc kum-por cring- 
ingly; contractedly. 



'^ kum-bha fP 
g3n. an earthen jar; a vessel for water. 

TOJ'Cj'^, kum-bi-ra jj?l< n. of a 
srin-po (demi-god or demon). 



kur-ti to hasten; 
kur-fi lafif-hgro to start or go off on any 
business ; (in colloq. language) to start on 
an errand or mission early in the morning 
without having even a cup of tea. 

TJTf!^ Kul-kar, also 51'VH kul-dkar, 
n. of a place in Tsang ; a kind of shield 
manufactured in Kul-kar: 



the shield manufactured at 
Kul-kar is of superior quality (on account 
of its superior metal) ; $'r'^'Str^vw3( i g- 
as to the Kul-d.kar shield it costs five sho 
for the best. 

'T[ ke numeral for 91 ; ke-pa the 91st 
(volume). 



ke-ka in the dialect of Sphan-yul 

for y\ skya-ka, a magpie. 

1 ^I'TI'^'o) Ke-ka-pi-no ^qrrfrjvi a coun- 
try west of JambudvTpa of romantic 
scenery, said to be filled with gardens, 
dales, fountains, cascades, etc., and inter- 
sected with streams, and inhabited by a 
race of very handsome men who eat red 
rice (K. d. * 179). 

'Tj'TJK'fj ke-kifri-igra the cry of the 
peacock (Schtr.). 

T| *\ ke-ke-ru <t>qt<K or ^TO?TT a 
white precious stone. 

T['3i ke-rgyuA a charm of the Bon 
deity called Qen-srat mi mgon rgyal-po: 



(D. .). 



'ta-ka from %TTO 1. a gem 
which has the property of purifying water ; 
its Tibetan name is y-i'Sl or I^'S^, the 
purifier. 2. a great mountain situated 
north of the great forest plain beyond the 
north bank of the river Sita. Its peaks 
are described as very grand in appearance. 
It contains mines of gold and silver, and 
round its peaks are four fabulous lakes 
which at all seasons remain filled with 
lotuses and lilies. The ruler of this 
country in ancient times was Vatfravana, 
whose army consisted of nmazons of 
great beauty and valour (S. Lam.). 



31 



'^ Ke-ta-ra a mountain, probably 
Kedara (%K) ; part of the Himalaya 
(Jd.). 

J ^)'5 Ke-tu 1. a fabulous planet in 
Brahmaincal as well as in Tibetan astro- 
logy. In Tibet the name Ke-tu is gene- 
rally applied to comets, called also^'i'N&'T^ 
(lit. the long smoke- tailed). 2. a fiery 
meteor ; a shooting star ; the descending 
node. 3. n. of a demon. 



Ke-nehi-bu n. of a sage of 
the time of Gautama the Buddha (K. 



Ke-bye4 Kartika, the god of 
war (Schtr.). 

'"'*3 Ke-rtse-wa n. of a Bon teacher : 
|'$"tr<'| l YV^ (Deb. "I 6) the JBonpo 
priests invited Ke-rtse. 



Ke-tshegi a Ndga ; the quar- 
ter where it resides during a certain astro- 
logical period is considered inauspicious. 



Kehu 1. a tribe in Tibet ( Vat. kar. 
160). 2. MSiH* in classical Tibetan a 
kind of garlic. 3. a cavern, den, hollow 
place (Cs.). 

'Tjl^'s Kebu-rtse, also *Tfr ke-rtse, a 
jacket made in the Chinese fashion ; in 
Chinese kwa-tsu. 

^jfl'dfc' Kehu-tshati (in Chinese K'u~ 
ts'ang, " a treasury ; a store-house ") n. 
of a sacred rock-cavern. 



'^ Kehu-ri n. of a female deity of 
fearful mien. 



'^ Kebu-U the Tibetan and Mon- 
golian name for Corea. In Chinese Kaoli. 



/fe<$ M .fe *)V**'S customary seal 
(/a.). 

'TJ!|'-*j'U^ kejiu-<}a-ya (from *as<fya) 
celestial robes; robes worn by the gods 
(K. my. "| 7). 

e-y wickedness: =^i>*w3-i)-r 
^-w the root of wickedness 

of a bad heart (i.e., envy) having sprung 

forth (J. ZaA.). 



Re-yu-ra-ka %^R 1. a 
kind of grass used in ancient times in 
making garments for a Bhiksu (K. du. 
i 388). 2. n. of a Gandharva. 



Ke-ru 1. n. of a place and 
monastery in the district of Hon in 
Yar-lung (J.Zafi. 217). 2. JJT* sran- 
ma a species of peas: S'"!^' I 5 E -'^'B* I '^'B'V 
^^w^$-#^*rS*-ii|e.^Mi | a fter casting 
water in oblation, he conducted (him) 
inside the house and served him with a 
cupful of pea-soup (Del. *\ 35). 

'TJ A Ke-re, \. {j}'^ kye-ri. 



Ke-la *w*pctft$be; \ n. of a 
tribal clan (Yig-). 

3j'W<\ ke-la-ka = %'% sga-skya ginger 
(Smew. 267). 

ke-la-fa =%i '*) kai-la-fa ^5- 
the king of mountains 
i.e. , Kailasa in the Himalayas. 

'jj''^ Ke-lan, prob. corruption of S*l'^ > 
follower of Tsongkhapa (Hue, vol. II). 

nj'Sj Ke-le n. of a fabulous place or 
country : ^'^'^'-t'^'l'^ 8 ! the country of 
cannibals, Ke-le (D. M.). 



ke-fa ita hair; mane; 
letters which are surmounted with 



double e* sign called hgrefi-bu or o sign 
called naro. Signs for long accentuation 
are also called ke-fa. 

* *)'*!'* ke-fa-ra %m* mane (Schr.). 

i ^\'"^^\ ^ c ~9 u - ka a plant, perhaps 
./4rw/ colocasia, with edible roots ; also 
ftisg^r, v. ^'Q'"| Kifi-$u-ka (gbttm. *| 
17). _ 

^ 'fj'T^ Ke-sa-ra %HT 1. the hair; 
the mane of the lion. 2. the hairy fila- 
ment of the lotus; a celestial flower; 
saffron. 

^j keg =w *^ lar-cha<? danger; 
accident, v. ''PI kag. 

Keg-ma=*W* kag-ma (Lesr.). 
Kefi-ruf ^prer skeleton. 

Ken-qu-ka an evergreen 
tree, i.e., of the colour of the parrot 
(Nay. 3). This is evidently a corruption 
of 



Kcr-ko a cymbal; a musical 

instrument : w|W*K^f'^'$*'8'V 

(carrying with him) a hand-drum, a 
cymbal, a pipe (flute) (K. g. 5 2). 

kcr-gyis suddenly (Sch.). 

Ker-wa to raise ; to lift up ; ^ffiw 
to point the fingers towards 
heaven. 



up: 



ker-lans *(^fH suddenly stood 
"suddenly standing erect 
and still (like a tree ") (flag. 3). 

>^'i3lq'j^ kcr leb tgur metaph. for 
horse, sheep and yak: ^v<^i'U^'flji*r 
3-ajE.-^^v^-|-Rqq | the tax (in kind, i.e., 
one in a hundred) on horse and yak 
from among the three kinds of cattle 
(Btsii.). 



Kd-mag possibly indicates 
the Kalmuk Tartars. 

Kai-ta-ka n. of a mytholo- 
gical demon. 



ne-ya %^i a rishi or sage ; 
also patronymic of Havana (K. d. ?186). 



Kai-la-^a 

Ri-wo yafis-can the huge snowy mountain 
on the north shore of the Manasarowaia 
lake called Gang Ti-se by the Tibetans 
and Kailasa by the Indians. 

'fj I : ko num. 121 ; *T ko-pa the 
volume marked with the letter If ko, or the 
121st volume. 

* II : $ an expletive meaning: 
same, the same, very ; as in ^'1f hdi-ko, 
the same ; as ^'^ hdi-ni, this very : ^'1^1)' 
<^|-3rw | "these same classifications"; 
^'^f de-ko=%.'% de-ni that very. 



III: all, whole; quite, entirely, 
altogether (Schtr.). 



ko-wa 1. hide, leather that 
derived from yaks, buffaloes and horses as 
distinguished from pays-pa the skins of 
sheep, goats, foxes, &c. 2. colloq. for 
ko-gru a hide-boat. 

^'(311 ko-khug a leather purse ; a little 
leathern money-bag. 

^j'jgi ko-khrol (ko-thof) a sieve made of 
hide-strips or strings to clean peas, barley 
grain, &c., of gravel, &c. : ^^jgarwjfl ^N' 
^um-q-ni | (Etsii.) for a hide-sieve for sift- 
ing peas and barley (i.e., price for). 

1]'5 ko-gru (ko-du) a hide-boat a boat 
made of the entire hide of a yak ; a skin 
coracle. 

^f'lg 9 ' ko-btum hide-packing. This is 
said to be a criminal punishment in 



33 



Central Tibet, varying in severity, e.g., 
aii] ci ^j-q*4 -when the culprit's hands are 
cut off, the stumps sewed up in leather 
and the poor wretch thrown as a beggar 
upon public charity, &c. (Ja.). 

If' "I ko-thag strap ; thong. 

Ij'S^ ko-t/md a kind of tea, probably so 
called on account of being sold packed 
in hide cases; an inferior tea : $'$'JV)Y 
tiS-lf'SV 1 *! (Rtsii. 74) "to the cost of 
pressed brick-tea." 

^rS*w ko-thums packed up in hide; 
pfc'Sfg*r- ^(R-ljj-jiir^q a leather 
package containing 30 ounces of gold: 
T*v|'*flwr*QW% > l*'Vi having sto- 
len a bag containing gold, (we) concealed it 
in a marmot's (^ a marmot) hole. 

^wpi ko-hthags a small instrument of 
leather to weave lace with (Cs.). 

^f'Tfl ko-ffdan, pronounced kom-gdan, 
skin-rug or seat; a piece of leather put 
under the saddle (Sch.): ^^'^'^fflf^Hf 
R^'q'^ for each tanned skin-rug or 
leather folding used for cushions (three 
tafika) (Rtsii.). 

'tf'spy*. ko-mdah an arrow bound with 
hide : S^T^f*^, the hide arrow used in 
the north (of Tibet). 

T8F' ko-ldin a vessel or basin made of 
hide to keep or cleanse oil or lime- wash : 
rfr'i|rqS'1i'|t'^ (Rtsii.) for each 
hide vessel for holding sa-rtsi (such and 
such a price). 

ko-lpags hide ; also tanned skin ; 
fassj hide or leather mate- 
rial or stuff included in the fourteen 
materials prescribed for clothing to be 
used by Buddhist monks. 

ff-g|*r*ip^ ko-lpag? mkhan = y*rW 
Iham-mkhan *|ii*TT worker in hide and 
leather ; a shoe-maker. 



If '1*1 ko-fpyin (Jco-pin) glue: 
^ for each stick or cake of glue 
(Rtsii.). 

If 5c.N - ko-phons guitar (gen. made of 
thin belly-skin of a cow) (Ld.) ; it is 
tuned in three- fourths (-/a.). 

^'3* ko-phor a cup made of leather 
and painted to look like a wooden cup ; 
ko-ffshon a basin made of hide. 

ko-wa rnkJian a tanner; the 
steersman of a hide boat. 

ko-wa rnned-mkhan a tanner. 



If'i'gi Ko-wa Irag fvf <I 
n. of a district in Upper Tibet: 
$R-H}-q-qflj-g-jfo then he visited Ko-wa Irag 
in Stod-luA (Lha. kah. 23). 

^f'9>* ko-bubs an entire skin : If-gw^- 
ai'1^-^-4|W ? q)-q,gN ^ an entire skin of 

a sheep holds three khar-nag measure of 
good butter (Rtsii. 7 '). 

IJ'^^N ko-hbtigs an awl ; a three-sided 
needle for sewing leather (ScA.). 

ff'^5 ko-hbo itch scab ; 1|''^v^ gcabby. 
In Sikkim a measure for rice or barley 
made of hide. 



ko-sbrags a hide filled with 
butter ; the whole package is so called. 

ko-tshal pieces of leather or hide : 
^f:*^ for each skin 
of butter and honey, &c., with hide 
wrapping (Rtsii.). 

^f8fi'"l sw ko-rlon gtttms packed in a 
fresh skin: 



like a man packed in a fresh skin, or any- 
thing packed or fastened with raw hide 
which becomes shrivelled when the skin 
dries and illness is induced. 

6 



34 



ko-rul a rotten hide. 

fj-ai ko-la a grub which breeds in hides ; 
a kind of hide-moth; *hW-1*M*t% 
^T)'^")^'^'9 1 the Kola moth, something 
like a species of vermin in flesh (Rtsii.). 

^j -fjsrci ko-$a*n-pa (Lex.) one dressed in 
skin or having a skin for his under- 
clothing, v. ^f*'3 kom-po. 

fj'T| Ko-ka a place in Bengal where 
in ancient times many Tantrik adepts 
lived (S. Lam.). 

4 Jfpf|'hT| Ko-ka-li-ka Tffanfe* a 
Bhiksu of the Buddha's time who sided 
with Devadatta (K. d. *] ^7). 

'fj'^l Ko-kia, wild mountainous country 
east of Bengal in the Chakma and Hamsa- 
vati countries which are east and south- 
east of Haribhadra (Manipur) (S. Lam.). 

^'fj'TJ'^ Ko-ki-la srrfw the Indian 
cuckoo, in books described as a bird that 
sings sweetly (K. du. f> 99). 

* ^'^'^21 ko-ki laksa n. of a tree 
(Mnon.). 



Ko-ko (variously spelt ^f'SI ko- 
?ko, *\t'*\ ko$-ko *}*'% kos-sko) 1. wt? the 
chin ; also occasionally the throat or the 
neck: f'^^*l'= ^T ll '^P r ' to raise 
the chin (fiag.) [see If^'f]. ; i*)-fJ->'S' 
chinless, or one with a small chin : ^f'Sfi' 
fl|c. T^^t? with a slightly perceptible 
chin; tsfi"^'^ SH*<t^ a chin like 
that of a pig; pig-faced (no chin) "be- 
neath the chin." *jr*jS-*r* fof or 
f^f^i the lower part of the chin. 2. a 
Tibetan of mixed breed, i.e., born of a 
Chinese father and a Tibetan mother. 



Kokya xrf^l pure (Lexx.). 

Eo-krad. (ko-tch) 1. fll'wjfi 
lham-gyi akrad the worn out leather of old 
shoes and boots; 2. also a leather- 
shoe (Jd.). 

ff'Sf ko-sko^ *o-*o = *%i neck: *T$f 
^fl| ko-eko hdeg$ = *S! 3 \'i' a Zfl** mgrin-pn 
hdegs raise the neck (Nag. 4). 

5 n Ko-iia qi^T^* yul-shig gi-min 
n. of a place in Tibet (Yig.). 

1y^3j''3 f ko-non-tse, also ^f'^r* ko-nol- 
tse or 1}'%?' ko-lon-tse, the kernel of 
the pine-apple (tfs.) ; more particularly the 
edible seed of the JVeosrt-pine growing in 
the valley of the Sutlej ; it is also called 
VW* ekan-nan-tse in Kunawar (Jd.). 

**5^ A-o-ta=S l 'l *//</ blood in 
mystic language (K. g. *\ 216). 

*fj'?Jrq ko-tam-pa *H1 >lte ' n. of a 
mountain (K. dun. 17). 



ko-tam-pahi-ras 
one of the 41 materials of clothing permis- 
sible to Buddhist mendicants ; a kind of 
grass formerly used in making clothes 
(K. du.f* 388). 

! ko-tam-bhag same as above. 



ko-tra-pa JFHPT, *n?^, in vulg. 
Nepalese Kodu, a kind of millet largely 
used in Sikkim for making wnr.-beer; it 
is mentioned in K. d. ^ 333. A. species 
of grain eaten by the poor; Paspatum 
scrobiculatutn. 



l Ko-ko than-ma a country 
in or near Ceylon (Jd.). 



ko-trog-can ^'S'H'W mi kroy 
krog applied to a thoughtless, childish 
man (K. d. w362). 

*fy| ko-tha *&, fre a kind of leprosy 
(Jd.). 



35 



ko-thal cinders, ashes; 
ko-thal-du byas pa to be reduced to 
ashes : f}' w.3X'qv*,'i ko-thal hthor-war 
gyur-pa scattered about ashes. 



ko-da-la 



or 



tree growing in the moiintain Called 
Kokila Parvata (K. d. * 27 It). 



C'o ko-pafi-tse a sort of tea 
(Schtr.) ; usually called Capinze (Schtr.). 



; Ko-bi-da-ra ^f^K the 
tree of paradise on which grows the Pari- 
jata flower ; also a tree the flower of which 
is pretty and of sweet scent, probably 
Bauhinia variegata (K. my. "H 20) ; ^f' 
*^*' PT I *~ini<* an abode of the gods 
(K. du.^310). 



' Ko-bo prop. n. of a country 
(Vai.kar.). 

^J'goi'i Ko-brag-pa prop, a sect of Tan- 
trik Buddhists; also its founder: ^f'g*]'<r 



Bsod-nams rgyal-mtshan of Ko-brag 
brought Vibhuti Chandra from Bal-po 
(Nepal) to Ding-ri and later on founded 
the monastery of Ko-brag in Upper Myan. 

1 ko-ma a bird (Vai. sfi.). 



ko-tse e'qg^q ja Irgyad-pa the 
Chinese name for the brick-tea used by 
the common people of Tibet. It is called 
ja brgyad-pa, the eighth or the inferior 
quality of tea (8. kar. 80). 



ko-wags is meant to express 
the voice of a raven (e/ci.). 



Ko-rando ^tw prop, a 
country, said to be in the fabulous 



"Western Continent of Godaniya (K. d. 
331). 



C| Ko-raba tsfa the descen- 
dants of Kuru ; their party ; n. of a 
country in the east (K. d. *. 267). 

t] A ko-re or If'* ko-ra cup for drink- 
ing ; 3=-'^ fiii-kor wooden cup which 
every Tibetan carries with him in the 
pocket of his great coat next to his bosom ; 
fd-kor a drinking glass. 

ko-lahi bdab=W& 
pohi pi-pi lift, plantain leaf (Kfion.). 



* I: ko-lon annoyance; dissatis- 
faction ; the jealousy of demi-gods or of 
Naga, &c. : ^<t'VlT 1 ^r" 1 9 l V 3 rt I "pray 
do not out of dissatisfaction be jealous of 
me." In saying grace at meal time the 
Gods are exhorted by the lamas not to be 
spiteful, jealous or angry, &c. : 



Lord (Atis'a) not being actuated by any 
spite did not express any dissatisfaction, 
&c. (A. 58). 



' n : is a dubious word (Schtr.) ; 
ifj-iSc.-q ko-lofi-wa to hate, envy; but in a 
passage in Mil., where the connection 
admits of no doubt, ko-lon mdsad-pa must 
be taken = disdain (Ja.). In Amdo 
ko-lon = dispute, fight. 



Ko-$a-ld ^t*rar mythical river 
east of Jambudvlpa (K. d. * 267). 

^ ^1 H ^ Ko-fi-la *lfii<( a ceiiain king 
of birds (K. my. *| 18). 



Kondi-nya *( pig 141 the son 
of Upayamatl; in Tib. vwa^'w n. of a 
Muni or sage ; n. of a grammarian ; a 
patronymic of the poet Jayadeva. 



36 



3 ITo-fam-bi, also written *|V 
Kohu-$am-bi *tni^\ the city of 
flowers; n. of an ancient city situated 
on the Ganges in the lower part of the 
Doab, in the vicinity of Kurrah ; ace. to 
. 3 Vatsapattana. 



Ko-<;i-ka, also written 
Ko-hu-fi-ka ^ftrer. 1. an epithet of 
Indra ; n. of a drug. 2. n. of the Vatica 
Robusta; n. of a teacher; an owl; a 
patronymic of Vis'vamitra, who was the 
grandson of Kus'ika ; n. of a river, river 
Kosi (K. d. * 267). 



Syn. q$* na-gti-h- 
khas $dig$-pa; 
rndsod get (Nag.). 



drafi-sron 



Ko-sa-thi-la chen-po 
n. of a Crdvaka attendant of 



the Buddha (K. my. *] 



Ko-sa-la ^ftrar, *rtiwr n. of 
a part of Ancient Oudh which in the Bud- 
dha's time was ruled by King Prasenajit. 



I: kog-pa 1. a cover; 
kog-fog the paper-cover of a letter ; an 
envelope (F>. k. 2): Ift-Jfa ri|*B.-girjr 
Vf* the cover or envelope (of a letter) 
should be neat and clean, K'^f* 1 ! ja-kog a 
hide case in which tea is packed is usually 
called ja-ko ; w1ffl| mar-kog a skin of 
butter : wS'^TV-'* 1 ^ '%^ I (8. leg.) 
"like a stone in water or package of 
butter." ^'^H fun-kog shell, rind; fj'^'^f"! 
phyi-yi-kog exterior shell ; bark. 2. the 
name ^fl'i kog-pa is applied to an old 
man after the age of 85 (Rtsa shufi.). 



l II : 1. vb., to splinter off, to 
chip; ^H"!^' 1 ! to rise suddenly and run 



away (/a.). 2. ^f"!'"'^' 1 ' kog-pa 
peel, pare off. 



kog-tse WM a net : ace. to 
(flag.) S'^'VF'^'SYS'wV* I "a net 
or snare to catch birds or wild animals." 



' I : koti, also ^'^fE.' kod-kofi, concare ; 
excavated; crooked; bent; warped, w^fc.' 
1J*' sa kofi-kofi undulating ground; 
koft-pa-ni4 concavity. 

fJK* II : Hf^'Zi Koft-po, also 
6i^ Ifi^>l 1. cup ; crucible. 2. the country 
of ravines, n. of a province of Tibet 
lying to the south-east of Lhasa and 
east of Tse-thang. ^'"I^ Kofi-psitm 
fsuni the three divisions of Kofi-yul; also 
n. of a kingdom in Ancient India which 
was ruled by King Susanna. ^'Ifo Kvfi- 
(ked a kind of sash or waist-band of fine 
wool manufactured in Kofi-po; If^'j^c 
kofi-mriiifl a kind of spear manufactured 
in Kofi-po (Jig. 32) ; ^'S 1 -' kofi-paft planks 
brought from Koti-po (8. kar. 179) ; ^^gm 
kofi-$prel an ape from Kofi-po; the name 
of an individual who made a donation to 
aid in repairing the monastery of Samye. 
^fe.-ql' kon-bzo a kind of armour or weapon 
manufactured in Kofi-po. 

*1ff^ koArkun *T*fll n. p. (Schr.). 



'R koH-khru (kofi-thu) a kind of 

yellow Tatin : (frrtf**M*W|fc| (8. kar. 
180) a piece or roll of yellow satin for a 
gown. 



Kofi-jo, in Chinese Kung-chu, a 
princess ; the Tibetan name of the daugh- 
ter of Emperor Tai-tsung, who was married 
to King Srofi-tsan Sgam-po, J^T^T^Wj' 
n#v1]E,-I Kofi-jo, from China ; the Chinese 
spouse Kofi-jo (Lod. * 5). 



37 



Kofi-bu a small cup-shaped 
brass or copper oil-burner ; x^^'^Js. mchod- 
kon an offering bowl, a cup for offering 
pure water to any divinity ; ifl'^f 6 -' Say- 
kofi ink-stand, generally for black ink; 
**JJ-^E. mtshal-kofi ink-stand for red ink 
or vermilion ; g*|*r^f|t blugg-kofi casting 
mould, crucible; flj^'tf* gstr-kofi. a gold 
cup or oil-burner placed before Tibetan 
deities ; 3'^' bye-kofl bowl of sand. 

kofi-mo w a cave ; a ditch. 



Kod boiled: 

S'^gw ja de kotf-nag ka-ra bram-po 
Itia byiH-pas JO-IPO dgyeg (A. 95) the tea 
having been boiled (prepared) and given 
with five lumps of sugar, the Jo-wo was 
gratified. 



kon-pa, also called 
kon-pa gab-ski/eg, the name of a plant that 
grows in solitary places, generally in the 
clefts of rooks. This medicine, kon-pa 
gab-tkyei, is used in Tibet for stopping 
hemorrhage. 



kob-kob, same as "F^i kab-kob, 
the noise or sound produced from the 
stretching of hides. 

n]5|Z| kom-pa to tan (skin). 

^fw^Vi kom-pdan a seat made of tan- 
ned skin. 



r5 kom-po skin which has been made 
soft and pliable by tanning ; leather. 



kofi-jo the 
princess Kom, the youngest daughter of 
Wen Chung, the fifth Emperor of the 
Tang dynasty. She was married to King 
Me.Agtshom (J. Zan.). 



kor, same as $X gkor. 1. is used 
as a *|'!fl^ or auxiliary particle used in 
the manner of an affix, as in fS'lf^ 
stod-kor, which signifies a cloth that 
surrounds or covers the upper part of one's 
body ; hence ?S'^ ytod-le a kind of half 
jacket worn by children and also by lama 
dancers ; Jfi'lf* klad-kor the circular dot 
put over the head of certain letters to 
signify the letter *i ma. 2. anything that 
has been cut out by the band or a lathe, 
such as ^'^ fifi-kor a wooden cup ; ST'lj* 
rdsa-kor an earthen cup or vessel turned 
out. 3. n. of a place ; 'f^'V Kw-ni-ru- 
pa n. of a great lama who was a native 
of the place called Kor. (Deb. | 11). 



kor also occurs in *^'Hf* than-kor, 
nen-kor, ^'^ hotf-kor, ^'^ patf-kor, 
f fdub-kor t &c. 



^'^ kor-kor coiled: 
S* ! "a string was wound round the 
(exorcist's) dagger ( Vat. $ft. 82). 



kor-bzo lit. of round make ; a 
kind of shield of round shape (Rtsii.). 

f i a oolloq. form of ^. 
!ffa|-q5-ai kol-wahi foj=w^-<i lam-fan- 
pa, a bad road (Mfion.). 

fj'^*^ kol-sa, T. ( tfFi hgol-sa or ^' 
gol-sa. 



kos-ko wtf the chin. This 
word is also applied to the throat and 
even to the wind-pipe. 

HJ'f'I Kya-la (also called J0 petty; 
n. of a petty state in Tibet, the chief town 
of which is jarite-flftK.- (lit. the lion-face), 
where the Tsang-po, it is said, enters a 
rocky chasm in the mountains. 



TJ-W8JI 



38 



Eya-an n. of a large fort in 
Tibet (Dsam. 32). 

nj*l] kyag or gTg"! kyag-kyag 1. 
throwing obstacles in the way of another's 
work out of spite. 2. thick; run into 
clots; Sl'i'fa kyag-pa nid thickness (Cs.). 



or 

kyog spir curved ; crooked ; not straight. 



" I : kyafi, also ge/ge. kyafi-kyafi or 

-'q kyad-po, 1. straight; right; very 

straight ((?.). 2. slender as a stick 
(J2.). 

H1' II: ^rft ^ 1- and; and also; 
though; although; too; yet more; used 
instead of ^' dad enclitically after the 
letters TV'*. In composition the word 
g^' is placed between the subject and 
the predicate, for example : wftrgfwito 1 
or^*wgc.'qc/ he was beautiful and his 
mind was also good. In the eense of 
" though" g=.' follows the first or contrast- 
ed verb : fl]^c.-ci-?*rg=.-$rZr3j<i| "though 
his face was handsome yet his body was 
crooked." <^'*<r 1 S) 1 ^ I vg c -'*f ! this being 
handsome also sheds lustre. 2. since, 
since that ; then, therefore ; likewise ; 
whereas. 

V" 

'^C. kyan-kyon indolent, lazy, idle 
' 



(Jd.). 



kyar-po, also gvg^ kyar-kyar, 
flat, not globular (Cs.). 



kyar-kyor still feeble as a 
convalescent after disease ( Jd.). 



I: kyal, resp. ^rgl shal-kyal, a 
joke ; also a comic or jocular look : "i^'^l' 
"iTgT^-*!^! (^t. 113) once having a 
jocular smile on his face. 



II : also gi'g") kynl-kyal, sometimes 
written as J^'S 01 rkyal-rkyal, long and flat, 
not globular. Described in (Sag.) ^'?' 
|c,-q-^q|Agq]-S'q^'X 1 ^ | like straw, hollow 
and devoid of meaning ; worthless. 



kynl-ka Sifa, ^mr joke, jest, 
tricks : gri|5-K| kyal-kahi tshiy ^f^J^^rT, 
l-^-355'^ii rtteg-mohi tshiy playful word. 

gTq kyal-pa vain, idle talk, nonsense. 

\ / *' 
^0]'^QJ kijnl-kyal poor; ill-condi- 

tioned. 

* kyi 1. This syllable is primarily an 
inflecting afBx attached to nouns, adj., 
participles, ^-c., indicating the genitive 
case. This affix takes the form S only 
after the final letters ^ *>, or , and is 
varied to 9 where the word to which it 
is attached ends in either ^, , *, or i, and 
to 5) where the preceding final is "I or 
f, or simply to 5 if the final happens to 
be a vowel. Ex. : SV$ of Tibet, Tibetan ; 
w'3 of the way ; 3=-'^ of the north ; ^'*>5'X 
at the time of going. Sometimes, more- 
over, it is elided altogether, as in ^'^ 
Tibetan language. 2. It is annexed to 
verbal roots (with the same variations of 
form) after the manner of a continuative 
particle and imparting the gerundial sense, 
but by some modern writers used as a 
finite verb. Gerundially it generally im- 
plies an antithesis which may be ex- 
pressed in English by " though " followed 
by "yet": 8'lNrffr*r| t *t^TrA^W'^ 1 
*5or3i^ though the girl called to him, yet 
he went on the straight way without turn- 
ing his head. As affix to a finite verb it 
is frequent in the writings of Padma 
Jungnas and Milaraspa, and is also used 
in the C. colloquial. Attached to the 
verbal root it may also carry the sense of 



39 



"as much as," "as far as" : 
|'q'g|E.'9|-|N'jj'?J;- as far as h e remembered 

this road, he followed the ox. 3. con- 
necting the auxiliary verb with the verbal 
root forms a much-used present tense : 
yjc|-I^ I am lying down. But here the 
final vowel does not often take the simple 
' (*)> e -9-> f I'^Vl is seeing ; still we have 
in books SJf ^'^"1 is eating food. [N.B. 
The use with the instrumental form 
will come under that article.] 

N ' 

'3F' kgi-g.M the elbow. 



TJ ^ Kyi-Ice n. of a medicinal plant, 
Gentiana decumbens. The white species of 
this plant called S'l'V'l 1 ^ kyi-lce dkar-po 
is in repute for biliousness. The blue 
called iJ'^'g^' 2 ! kyi-lce snon-po heals swell- 
ing in the throat or glands (Med.). 

CN 

3'^i kyi-bun a chill; a feeling of 
cold (Sch.). 

-3|c.-$ 5'g^Q kyi-lin chu-rta $non-po= 
^'^ dmd-chu quicksilver (Sman. 118). 



3'^S kyi-hud ?r ^< 
1. interj., the sound of weeping, lamenta- 
tion ; an expression of grief, sorrow or loss ; 
Alas ! Ah ! S'^'^'l kyi-hud zer-wa ^T?T 
cnr expressing deep sorrow or lamenta- 
tion. 2. one of the eight cold hells of the 
Buddhist purgatory. 

3^T^~ kyig-rtse unburnt brick 
(Sch.). 



- of a people living in the 
east of Asia (Tig. 8). 



' kyin ser-rlufi a violent 
^ 
wind with hail: ace. to Jd. also 3' kya-sa, 

onomatopoetic word ; a blowing wind. 



Tj'Sj kyin a verbal termination used 
alternatively with ^ gyin and 9|^ gin and 
after a vowel ; ^ yin denoting a partic. 
pres. like the English ' ing ' : gfi^fW'fa'**: 
proceed on your way singing ! With ^ 
yod or ^l Mug it forms a periphrastical 
present tense: ^'II'^KI'^'^ smon-lam 
hdebs-kyin yod he is praying (just now) 
(Jd.). Most probably the common present 
form in kyi, gi, &c., is an excised form of 
this use, e.g., ^^\<vyf\ is coming ; 
looking. 



s 



kyir, also 3^'^ kyir-kyir, round ; 
circular; a disk ; a round thing; S^'' 1 ''^^ 
kyir-wa-nid roundness. 



kyis by, with; the sign of the 
instrumental case, used after the letters 
\ i, or , and generally indicating the 
personal subject of the action. It is called 
the IV'^'U byed-pa pohi $yra (the term of 
the doer). Gerundially kyis is annexed 
to a verbal root to render clauses which in 
English would be introduced with " by," 
" from," &c., e.g., W^Tftf rtpr|cW^^ 
from the sword having pierced the liver, 
he was slain. Of course the prep. " from " 
might be omitted here. Again our "because" 
is often an appropriate opening to clauses 
terminated in |*i ; |*i, &c. : *3je.'q - g^<rjtf*r 
gar^c. the demon coming, he turned aside ; 
or, because the demon came, he, &c. 

^|1 kyu ni^si a hook; giJ*)'S Icags- 

kyu iron hook ; an angle ; a fishing hook ; 
s\Wjl shabs-kyu (i.e., the foot-hook) a 
mark fixed at the foot of a letter to 
signify the vowel ' u ' and written as 

S^'^E^ kyur-kyur twittering ; the cry 
of a small bird : ai'*' q l'3^'3^'^"l byihu 
coga kytir-kyur sgrog the swallow twitters. 



40 



kye %, ft: the vocative sign; 0! 
Holla ! kye is called tf$ViS-| bbog-pabi 
fgra or interjection the word of invoca- 
tion or calling : jj'5rHi'^-Hi | great King ! 

v*) lotus-gem (Chenraisi). 



Kye-kye, also written 3 for 
abbreviation ; conveys the same meaning 

as of. 

3'^'t Kye-rdo-rje % TO n. of a terrific 
Tantrik deity. 

kye-ga n. for the magpie. 



Kye-phafi-pa n. of an idol of 
the Nying-ma sect, consisting, like most 
of the popular idols in Tibet, of an 
enchanted stick or log decked with rags, 
but much dreaded and said to be identical 
with Pe-$kar Gyalpo (Ja.). 



kye-ma fr *nr (interj.) Alas! An 
expression of surprise with sorrow, also of 
misery; jj'wwai kye-ma-ma-la '*Tt3TH but 
oh! an interjection expressive of desire 
for compassion or fatigue: J'WIWJR'B 1 
^ kye-ma ma-la glaft-po hdi alas this 
elephant! (A. K. 1-36). 



kye-re or ^ ke-re, also {I* kyer, 
upright, erect; fl'*'" kye-re-wa or 
kye-re-nitf the act of standing erect. 



( mter i-) 

Woe ! Ah ! What misery ! An expression 
of grief or pain ; 3'? kije-ho What oh ! 
Holla! jt['TT^' JS 'V | '^ l| n kye-ho and ktra-ye 
are exclamatory words. 



kyo-wa ^fV. a pointed iron-hook ; 
a large pin to pierce with. 

' kyo-rafi, v. ffl'i kyo-wa. 



kyog, also 3"l'Z"\ ^W, crooked, 
bent, winding, curved: w^'S'^-jfii's^ I 
having turned his head (sideways), wa"! 
lam-kyog a winding or surpentine road ; a 
zig-zag. 

JJI'Q Kyog-po nir crooked ; 3") '3^ 
kyog-por crookedly, not straight : ^'^ q l*'' 
^Mr^iHrc^-crl^l^-^wVc. (Pag. 133) the 
wild animals that conceal themselves 
bending their necks ran away. 

HJC I : kyoA or flVJe. kyofi-kyofi 1. fira 
hollow ; cavity ; the hollow of a dish or 
tray; cognate to ^j*-' kofi. 2. obstinate; 
unmanageable (Ja.). 3. hard, as in 
4'3 E -' E ', hard water; evidently a colloq. 
form of $'3*.'Q. 



II : or ffl^'3 kyofi-lu a small shovel, 
scraper ; ffl^T 1 kyoA-Ma quarrel 



A-yowi flexible but without elas- 
ticity ; flabby, loose, lax. 

fflVi kyom-pa soft and tough ; fiwi^s 
kyom-pa-ni4 pliancy ; toughness. 



kyom-kyom of irregular 
shape, not rectilinear (Jo.). 

^.^ kyor or JvjX kyor-kyor weak, 
feeble, unfortified (Cs.). 

^^1 *yo/ or a 1 *'!"! kyol-kyol=^*- kyor. 

1| JTra (<) for * - 3, 5' q ^ q l* 1 kra-btsii(js 
established a Dharmas'ala (A. 61). 

TJ' JT-^'P" kra-rm far-sa n. of a kind 
of precious stone : qvwvj*r*-*|rw 
?-fl-T]-w-*|VpS>' l >|i! (B^seV. 4^) a house 
built of ruby made lofty with a dome of 
krama farsa. 

^ krag (tag)=^ brag, signifying 
rock. 



41 



krafi-fie (tang-fa) standing ; 
2'q or je.'fc'q^ an upright posture ; 
S^'i krafi-sdod-pa to stand. 



* Krafi-naft (tang-nang) a gallery 
round a house; a covered passage; evi- 
dently an incorrect form of ^'^'. 

5F'i krafi*wa (tang-wa), prob. wrongly 
written for ^'iVS to make straight. 

Tf^j^ krad-hkhor (tt-Mior) a ring 
used in the exercise of archery as a butt 
for arrows ; a mark ; a target. 

Ifi'l^ kraj-rgyun (tt-gyun) a piece of 
long narrow leather to mend shoes with ; 
ace. to Cs. a long narrow piece of leather 
to fasten the sole to the upper leather of a 
shoe or boot. 



krad-pa (te-pa) a shoe ; a cover- 
ing for the feet of the lower classes 
of people ; a leathern half-boot ; 
kra4-lhan a patch for shoe. 



j'SI kran-ma (tan-ma), colloq. for %*>'* 
sran-ma, peas. 



kmb-kmb (tab-tab) =*|gr<i 
dancing or stamping of the feet : i^'il' 
3T1jq-:f *gq-q ( m ' s ) l egs an( j armg moye( j ag 

in dancing. According to $ag. Ji'jq 
is equivalent to %Q'%Q, flat. 



kt-am (tarn) oa'bbage ; 2]*'*.; sweet 
or fresh cabbage ; H"'|^ kram 9 kyur cab- 
bage-pickle ; cabbage leaked in vinegar. 

\ ^TT^ Kri-ka-ru-ka a^fw n. of a 
monastery in ancient Behar which was also 
known by the names of Samudra Gupta 
and Kusumapuri (A. 60). 

kri-ka Id-sa ^^rjTTJT a 
small lizard. There is an account of this 



animal being once offered as a burnt sacri- 
fice to the gods (K. d. 2U). 

^ 1J'^ Kri.kn ftrf^f, ?if% n. of a Bud- 
dhist king of Benares who is said to have 
patronized Buddha Eas'yapa. In the 
Chinese version of the Vimala-k!rti-nir- 
des'a sutra, he is called Krpin, the kind 
and merciful. 



kri-kha (ti-kha) the magpie; the 
white-breasted magpie ; colloq. called kya- 
ka in Tibet. 



n. of a 



K r i_ wa 
place in Tibet (J. Zafi.). 



. the 
grey duck (MHon.). 2. vfr a worm. 



! kriya ftrcrr; S'^'S'^'I^ the 
ritualistic part of Sambhawa mysticism: 



the krya man-tra having been performed 
by the six-armed deity. 



Kri-(;ofi-ba-ro n. of an indi- 
vidual who did some service to Atis'a 
during his journey to Tibet through Nepal 
(A. 



krig-kng (fig-fig) =W to 
beat or press with the hand or feet ; to 
make the sound tig-tig. 

krig-gi (tig-gi) straight: fipr 
^! the iron arrow when 
quite straight being good (D.R.). 

krig-cags med-pa g^'^N' 
TVr*^-q | not customary 
or purposelessly; for nothing : fl-^-*w|-2j3' 
*4V$YM|V*V<*fQ;*^ | Kj Mongol tribes 
without adhering to custom would always 
be making prayers (D. fel.10). 



42 



' krin-kafi (fifi-kan) a weapon 
like the spear; a forked spear: w^'S*' 
3jc.-T|K.-nv t '-3S-qsw^ ' (to the cost of) a 
spear and lance with saw-like teeth 
(Rtsii.). 



kriA-bag-sgyo (tifi-pag-gyo) 
glue or paste made of flour. 

krin-n4 (tin-tie 1 ) the colic. 

Krisna VFQ n. of sculptor ; an 
image-maker during Atis'a's time about 
1000 A.D. (A. 121). 



Kris-na-sa-ra SjsoflTT the 
spotted antelope ( Jd.) ; a kind of black 
antelope which is said to possess the heart 
of a Bodhisattva. The skin of this animal 
is used by Hindus and Buddhists alike 
to sit upon; the Tibetan lamas attach 
much sanctity to this antelope and its 
skin. 

knt-kru (tu-tu) (W.) wind-pipe 



(Jd.). 

;\ 

* TPITI^ kru-krw Mf (tu-tu ti) 
f^rat a kind of yellow chintz resembling 
satin of great value, formerly highly 
prized in India and Tibet. It is called 



kru-ra (tu-ra) 

rigt the vulgar, or the lowest class of peo- 
ple in the mystical language (K. g. P 28). 

'JjC''nC'|j'i53j Kriin-krufi sgra-can (tufig- 

tufy '-da-can) n. of a country (filled with the 
cry of storks or cranes) said to have been 
visited by the Buddha (K. du. P 302). 

F' Krun-than the chief Chinese 



minister who was resident in Tibet when 
Abbe Hue visited Lhasa ; an official of 



his class (Tig. Ar. 38). Probably an error 
for Chung fang, a title borne by certain 
high officials in China. 

1JJJ ^ krutn-pa (him-pa) broken in the 
edge or side or nibbled, but not entirely 
broken to pieces. 

1JJ11 Erums (turn) meat: in polite 
language it is called |Si'jw (sol-turn), 
the meat that is offered to a respected 
person. 

1|*^ l tj Krc-nag (tc-nay) n. of a place 
in Kham. 



IJ'^j krag-nag (tc-nay) the spout of a 
kettle (Sch.). 

T]'| kre-pa (te-pa) the forehead ; also 
a colloq. spelling for \fri dpral-pa, the 
forehead. 



jfcj Kre-bo (te-o) n. of a place in 
Kham. 



kro dha-na 
a fierce woman ; an amazon 



krog-krog (tog-tog) a kind of 
sound produced by the grinding of hard or 
brittle objects together : ih'^^-^ "tog- 
tog is a sound " (Nag.) tog-tog is an ono- 
matopoetic word meaning a grating sound. 

s^ 

t|' kron (ton) erect; standing: $*rV 
3.' ! the body erectly stood. 



kron-krofi (tong-tong) stand- 
ing; posing still and erect: *''*<'fy**' 

jr^-w-|^Bn|irf'ir** | ri'w i (A. 27) 

"while the two pupils were looking on, the 
deity was able to appear erect as if in 
life." When used of persons, it means 
also standing on one's knees; kneeling 
in an upright position (Jd.). 



43 



IF O* kiofi-rtse (tong-tse) n. of a kiud 
of round writing anciently used in China: 
^^^^t-'^-cr^-S)^-^ | the 
characters of that time were circular letters 
called Toflg-lse. The word 3Ft" krofi-rtse 
seems to be a corruption of the Chinese 
tany-ch'ien, copper cash. Tibetans say 
"a hundred cash." 



kron-kron (ton-ton) in W. hang- 
ing; dangling. 

3T4> kla-rtsi musk : *^<^ this is an 

n 

incorrect spelling of the word S|'|" gta-tsi. 
%* 

SI'S] fc*-*to "i^, a^K, *W*, vtar 

1. a barbarian: S'SYSTST'^V^'ID I kyi-hud 
pla-glo dudhgroklu (Zam. 2) "Alas, the 
Mleccha, the beasts, and the Naga !" 2. 
any Musahnaa of India, a Hwi-hwi or 
Hwi-tse in China. 3. a nation without 
laws ; a barbarous, uncivilized race. 

%'ft'f> kla-klo-kha=*t-q sn fis copper 
(Mfion.). 

*ST!D'VW kla-klo rnams W^T: the bar- 
barians (Sc/tr.). 

Sl'JTST kkt-klohi kha ^g<r a Musal- 
man's mouth ; = P'& kha-che " a wide mouth- 
man," i.e., a Musalman of Kashmir. 

'SraS'X*! kla-Ttlohi chos ^tw (Sc/w.) 
"religion on the lips." 

g'P'?1"5 kla-klohi tig-ta several bitter 
roots growing in the sub-Himalayan 
regions; one is also called %3'^'5 Gen- 
tiana cheretta (Mfion.). 

ffl'jf^-'gi kla-klohi spos = ^f[ garlic 
(Mtioii.). 

g-jf5-^9i kla-klohi hphel g^f^ir, 
?JT^5T n. of a Turuska (Tartar) King ; 
lit. growth of the Yacana or the Mlecc'ia ; 



rtf^f 'W kla-klohi bye-brag 
tribe of Turuska ; a Tartar. 



klnrj-cor T*\sr*a, 
clamour, noise: jprlSX'^'Ji less noisy: 
T**' >Ri WP^ | "having made a row 
about." 



Mag-pa 1. ^ggn study, reading; 
I qrar^rr^ a teaching profes- 
sor, a teacher : ai|'<i5 - *i|ijrgflm - v)5mr^flnrq | 
"has completed his vow of study " (A. K. 
30), v. ffl*i|'i klog-pa to read, peruse; 
klags irf^T, is pret. of sTl'i. 2. 
to incarnate : 



waiting for or expectant of one's advent 



or incarnation; in Asta. 
who finds fault with"; 



one 



not incarnated or obtained an incar- 
nated state : ^^'^^^"rj^ri^ 1 ^ | 
" there cannot be transmigration from one 
to another state of emptiness." (This is 
in reference to the eighteen states of 
Sunyata.) 

SI "I" Wags, v. jf"! 



1. "the word klad means above or up- 
ward" (&ag.) ; SJY 8 ''^'^ revolving 
round overhead^. 155). 2. *r1%g;, H^rar 
head; brain ; it is also written as Siyi 
3JS''f^, same as ^'X, a dot or cypher placed 
on the top or head of a letter to denote 
the abbreviation of the letter * ma, which 
is commonly used in writing and occa- 
sionally in printing. 3. first; BV^N from 
the first : <WW**'^'|^'fy ^vawprvw 
*Wfjr*fcw as to lion's cubs, their claws 
are prominent from the first. 

Sfi'3 klatf rgya membrane covering the 
brain; pia mater; J[Y3'f the bloody 
marrowin the bones (Schr.) ; ^klad ggo 
the fontanel in the infant cranium (Schr). 



44 



Mad child the cerebellum; SS" 
Mad ffshufi the spinal marrow; 
Mad g.zer painful pricking sensation in the 
brain; Jft'^w or Jfi'J the thin covering 
of the brain. 

3]V* Mad-tho the top length of a 
Tibetan "tent, i.e., the distance between 
its two poles. 

Sfi Xfl Mad-don lit. signifies the meaning 
of the text or the original work, but is 
gen. used as a term for the Sanskrit 
names or expressions which head almost 
all the religious books of Tibet. The 
work Won- makes !fi synonymous with 
a V3W the amplification of the original 
text. 

Sfi-q Hlad-pa <sttfr what is uppermost ; 
5IV Mad-ma *rfi[ priority, beginning, 
top. 

jj^q-nq|*rq Mad-pa hgem$-pa lit. whose 
brains have become confounded ; to stun ; 
to surprise; to confound; to overthrow 
in argument. 

1ft *8 Mad-bzo the making of the outer 
side of anything: S*|T^'i q < r 5F'V 
K'Sl Mad bzo sbug tlier $kabs dan bstun-bar 
bya this outer covering and the flannel 
within must be made to fit in their size 
(Yig.SS). 

JIVTl Man-ka ^ran? censure, blame; 
pH'H-R*rfl Man-ka mi htshol-wa one not 
seeking brawls: W'*''f^'*'' w *^ 
R.forq-1*, casting imputations against 
another is called Man-ka htshol-wa ; f*\ 
a n^-"' Q) ' U|C -'a 3 i'' t l' a *' al 80 fomenting a dis- 
pute is called Man-ka ; IFT**'?= ! 1T 
iTj-tiN^'y ; ^<?T?pt^J one who seeks brawls; 

to censure, blame. 



31 

Man-pa 1. revenge ; wrong aveng- 
ed ; to wreak vengeance for : |T 1 &rt*'OT 
tC8 l -.|-3fl-q-i3jrw 3 Ki5''i^ (Lo. 9) the crow 
revenges itself upon the owl by what is 
called flesh-revenge. 

JTjYS Man-bya part to be mended 
or to be patched. 

gpT*! Mam-pa raw?l a thick blanket; 
also &pagri or turban used by Tibetans 
when travelling: a*-^-* 5 ^-^-^^'^' 
eft-Ste- (K. du. | 121) Mam the term for a 
long piece of cloth which is tied round the 
head. 



a or 

bya bsnafis-pa f^ojwn, yawning; 
to yawn. 

"1^1 Mas < *^<> " copious, abundant ; 
an equivalent of " yat* t) e y ond ' W***' 
as in < *S*''a*', ^'a rnthah Mas or w*' 
uw (^jp). In this case SI* may be taken 
to mean "without,' and is an equivalent 
of the Sanskrit ^. 

^v , . /^ fVi 

J]^'*J Min-ma or g) * ** gW^, 
margin of a river or lake. 

5] I : Mu TTI n. of a kind of flower 
(K. my. "I 20). 

Indian Naga, that is, a demi-god having the 
human head and the body of a serpent, 
which is generally supposed to live in 
fountains, rivers, and lakes. The Lu are 
also believed to be the guardian of great 
treasures under-ground; they are ablet 
cause rain and certain maladies, and 
become dangerous when angry. 2. a 
serpent or any snake in general. 

wahi dot-gar the drama of Nagananda; 



45 



dramatic treatise 
(Ya-sel. 230). 



by Harsadeva 



a'P*.' klu-khafi the residence of the Lti 

'o 

or serpent gods. Au imaginary palace 
supposed to exist at the bottom of the sea 
or of some lake where the Naga reside : 
|-pf|^*r|^rgi(-4l^r (Jig.) saw 
the palace of the Lu and their grove with 
delight. 



klu-pfafi nag-po ba-ru 
i=|lito the crab which is called by 
the Tibetans "bull-horned black Lu" 
(Sman. 1M)- 

* STS 1 " klu-rgyal unrusi (Schr.). 



=." Klu-rgyal dkar-po dttfi- 
ski/ofi jrmrraj-^-sii'-crna n. of a certain 
Naga Raja or a serpent demi-god called 

the White Protector of Conch Shells: Sl'ST 

> * 

^7j-^e.-[ii-^-*Evraia|-*K.-S5fl|*i the Lu 
ruler called white S'ankhapala and S'an- 
khadhara Bahu Pani, the deity with many 
arms, and others (Rtsii. M). 



I'M***'** klu-rgyal mthah-yas 

-^ ^ 

infinite ; the king of the snakes described 
in Hindu mythology (Mnon.) ; one of the 
eight JT^ klu-chen, great Lu. 

ffl'jar^flprg klu-rgyal rigs-lna the five 
classes among the Naga Raja or Lu kings 
residing in the fabulous world of the snakes. 

STi^ Klu-sgmb (Lu-dub) niuS.i the 
expounder of the Madhyamika school of 
Buddhist philosophy. 

jj-S^qg^ klu-chen brgyad the eight chiefs 
of the Lu or Naga are *ww 



klu hjog-po <rgw the class of 
Lu or Naga called Takmka. 

ffl'^N klu-thebs the coming forth of the 
ZM in summer from their retreats. This 
time is fixed in Tibetan almanacs for wor- 
shipping them: ^3^ t w|=.'^'Ji''(e.'q'acji^n- 
3* db yar-sa $tefi-du klu hod-tea la klu-thcbs 
zer the coming upwards of the Lu from 
their retreats in summer is called JI'S'W 

-o 

klu-thebs. 

jraf*| klu-ldog the retiring of the Lu 
to their abodes in the nether regions 
is called STlf"! klu-ldog, which time is 
generally calculated by the Tibetan astro- 
logers to fall in December. 

the 



j| - *v3^ klu rnthar byed 

o 

chief patriarch of the Naga ; also 
which is a name of the Garuda bird. 



c, 1. n . of an indolent poison. 
2. n. of a very venomous snake (Smati. 
350). 

JTV!'^ klu dug-can poisonous snakes. 

N 



klu-ydon hjo 

rgyal-po tmug-po lit. that which 
destroys poison or kills Lu demons =STt" 
musk (Sman. 333). 



klu-bdud rdor-je n.of a medici- 
nal plant which is believed to have the 
property of healing all sorts of diseases 
caused by Lu or malignant spirits. 

ST* 1 ^ klu-mdud prob. Codonopsis ovata 
(Jd.) also ffl^'"I^ 1 ^' ; ' kluhi g.nod-pa cures all 
kinds of arthritis and rheumatism ( JF.). 

3r|t*i klu-sdifi$ smrer^ the peaks or 
flanks of a mountain where snakes reside. 



klu-nad itt?lft7r, ^vffri the disease 
caused by the Lu or leprosy. 



46 



the abode of 

the Lu. 

*j|-SS Ttlu-bod Hirnirq one of the 
disciples of Nagarjuna (Sehr.). 

*a'a=> Mu-byaA ^niRtf^ an epithet of 
Nagarjuna" and also that of one of his 
disciples. 

jl-^-fyjarZi 1tlti-4w<Hl-gi rgyal-po a 
Buddha ruling over the Lu, usually depict- 
ed with 4 attendant Bodhinattra (Grub. 

109). 

j|-*S Klu-hbum n. of a section of the 
Sgomdfi division of the monastery of S*" 1 
^Ag^-gm Qpal-ldait Jlbras-spufis 
pungnear Lhasa): *W3F 
fawc*i( | ^oiV^'sT'S'^a*'! tlie 
sections of Daipung "Monastery are the 
Hordong, Sam-lo and Lubum ; n. of a 
treatise on a hundred thousand Nagn. 

g'^S^'H'^ Jfltt-hbum khra-bo 1. n. of a 
religious work among the Son-po. 2. H * 
khra-bo means " mottled." There are also 
a-^w^vzi Mu-hbum 4kar-po, y<w*ft* 
klu-hbum nag-po. Klu-hlum, originally a 
'hooded snake, cobra di capello ; the mytho- 
logical sense, however, is only understood 
in Tibet, where every child knows and 
believes in Lu or Nagas, &c., cobras being 
unknown. 

jr*> Ttlu-mes g-w^'51'^l (Deb. 46) n. 
of a lama of Tibet. 

g-35 klu-mo a female serpent; also a 

> 

serpent demoness. 

jj-^'s^Ti'^'^ klu-mo mu-tig nu-sho- 
cann. of medicinal plant used for wounds 
or sores. Its flowers are of garnet colour ; 
when they are plucked there oozes out a 
milkish sap which is said to possess 
healing power (Sman. 350). 

S'S^ Iflu-iman n. of a medicine. 



Ttlti-g.su.gs the body or likeness 
of a snake; also a Lu in the body of a 
snake; anything with the body or iu 
the guise of a snake. 

flS-fifi Jtluhi skad. the language of the 
N&ga; according to some Tibetan authors 
this is the Nagari language of India which 
they identify with the Prakrit. Accord- 
ing to the earliest historians of Tibet ffl*- 
q-S kltthi stead, i.e., the N&ga bhasd, was 
the language of the Chinese : 3'Wf^' 
*S' W Kgya-nfifj-pa klu-las chad-pas, |*T1T 
a^V^'S I the Chinese having originated 
from the serpent demi-gods, speak the 
Naga krta, the language of the Lu. \\' 
fj'5 naga krta is distinguished from the 
Sanskrit language which is called Leva 
Lhasa, the language of the gods. Naga- 
krta means corrupt language and Sans- 
krta means refined language. 

fflS-fje.'^ kltthi groA-khyer mTpnift, *fti- 
<pft the mythological city of the Naga 
in the nether world ruled by King S'es.a. 
aS^Sqi'^ khihi hjig-rten Tnwtaf the 
nether world or region inhabited by the 
Lu or Naga. 

^c^'if&H Kltthi diig-bcom n. of a fabu- 
lous sea which lies beyond a great sandy 
desert. The Lu chieftain Stobs-Uan (Bala- 
tdn) resides there and excites dissensions 
among living beings (K. d. * 335). 

^UI^^-TI Ttlnhi gdeMia the hood or 
neck of a Naga or of a serpent. 

* JoS'3 Kluhi-sde stroifr (Schr.) n. of the 
celebrated Buddhist sage who answered 
the interrogations of King Menander 
(of Milinda Pannha) ; one of the eighty 
Buddhist saints of the northern school. 
"ftV Mubi g.nod-pa or JjS'sfa Itluhi 
, plague ; a disease of unknown origin ; 



47 



maladies supposed to be originated from 
the malignity of the serpent demi-gods. 

* IT*'& E -'4 ' Uuhi byaH-chub srR%rfa 
(8e*r.). 

ffl^-gui kluhi gbrul TT5T a class of very 
venomous snakes. 

JjS'SV*) kluhi yi-ge ^in ^IW: ace. to Cs. 
the Chinese character ; ace. to some authors 
the Nagari character. 



(Schr.) n. of a Buddhist saint. 

31')' ^ klu-yi skad miwwi the language 
of the Naga: *FF > |'fV^?M < l^R < V 
fl|SMraj-^'flRj* I it is said that (he) under- 
stood (it) when related in the Sanskrit or 
in the language of the Naga. 



n. of a leafy creeping plant (Mnon.). 

l' 5 ^ klu-yi &je = w~ir|R lit. the snake's 
tongue; n. of a plant used in medicine. 

Syn. '*.( <*j|'.J|K. gfo-safis hkhri-fin; 
jTc.*rw)<v<w S no-sans mthah-yas; Ww'r 
rnthah-yas rtsa ; s'gp'qg * la-plait bsruft ; *>' 
fl'S'S me-tog phra-mo (Mnon.). 

jj-^-flj^ k/w- W=sr^ the earth 



lit. the snake- 
tree ; ^<Q<^ the tree of golden bark. 

Syn. S"'*^ bum-can; |'9'**? $kyc$-bu 
mtho; ^5- 
lcitg-ma; 

&/&>' me-tog; fi)'WR'q ge-sar mar-po ; J]'| 
klu-skyes (Mfion.). 

The names of some species of trees 
called df7 r&? are the following: 
a(-a^q'4 tshad-ldan hdab- ma; ^'Tl'f" 

J^'w*^ fc/Ai 



( dsam-bu-ka ^J|*H^;, the plant 
Flacourtia spadia (Jlffion.). 

ffl' 11 !^'^* 1 &/M #fefi? g.sw>w the names of 
three medicines, viz., |l'^ sdig-srin, 
W*,i\ shal-nag and S^'^"I byan-nag (Sman. 
450). 



dri-shim; ^'^' rtsa-wa mad; 



a valley ; river ; $'3F' chu-klud 
a nver in general ; ^"IN'jjc.' nags-klun 
& river passing through wooded tracts ; the 
name SF ifon is seldom applied to small 
streams or rivulets. 

SF'J^ Mun-rgyun a stream, current; 
^ a river. 
a kind of garlic 
growing wild on the margins of rivers in 
Tibet: I*'ft***Hr|'ffMrf^J wild 
garlic cures leprous sores and dries up the 
fluids in swellings (Med.). 

!=.'$ klufi-rta (in Wj'** nag-rtsi? the 
art of divination) = 5^'?' rlufi-rta. 

JF'gl** klun-phyugs cattle living in the 
lower table-lands of Tibet. This term is 
also applied to the yaks which are kept 
in the lower plains of Tibet: 31 E .'|''I'^' 
*fy*'' u ^ I'Ti'^l klufi-phyitgs so-g.ni$ yan- 
gyi ko-wa rer "for (i.e., the price of) each 
hide of cattle of two teeth," (i.e., above 
two years old) (Rtsii.). 

jje.A'W'q khifi hbab-pa the rushing of a 
hill torrent ; the flowing of a river. 

!!='*< klun-ma a river. 

N> 

%z.'i\ klufi-tsfiag a yak of the valley ; 
^^ij ri-tshag a hill yak a yak belonging 
to the higher elevations and hill-tops of 
Tibet (Rtsii.). 

31=.'^ KluH-qod n. of a place in the 
uplands of ^ij'^ (Digun) situated to the 
north-east of Lhasa (Lofi. > 12). 



48 



klufi-fos a kind of plant growing 
on*the margins of rivers in Tibet, and 
said to be efficacious when applied to sores : 
Qt-'jfa kluti-igog garlic of the valley. 



I: ItluHs this term is applied 

to the astrological results arrived at by 
computing one's age in reference to that 
of one's parents by consulting their 
horoscopes. It occurs in the Vaidurya 
Karpo in expressions such 
, ma-k.!ufis. 



II: cultivated lands; a field: 
]tlufis-m skye grow on cultivated 
soil: V^'"*^ S'S'^ ^ * Dkar-mdafis-kyi 
Jtlttfis tshaft-ma all fields belonging to 
Qkar-hdafa. 

f-SP^ Klub-pa, pf. <"' klubs-pa, 
1 . to cover the body with ornaments (<7a.) ; 
to put on luxuriously (Cn.) : 



leb rta fifi dag-las legs grub-pahi sefi- 
khebz rab hbrifi fha-ma ysum-du klitbg (Tig.). 
2. to set up (a tenant). 3. n. of a tribe 
in Tibet (Vai. kar. 160). 



bod smrwi, Ndga-hvaya, 

-\ 

one of the 28 Buddhist sages mentioned 
in the M. V. 

j]*rg,e.'$q Klut byaft-chub 5TTrrrfV, Naga 
Sodhi, one of the chief disciples of Nagar- 
juna. His essence is supposed to have 
been embodied in the late Kusho Seng- 
chen of Tashi-lhunpo. 

Mas a rack for clothes, clothes- 



horse. 



Mog-pa to read, imp. %y*'%*\ 
fif/ also ^""l^'^'n IhogS-pg do read, pf . 
klags-pa or "S^N bk/ags, fut. SH klag 



or 5H11 Wtlog, til'n'^'S bklag-par-bya jh'W 
*\ klog-par-byed is reading; j^I'w^V 
klog-par byed-pa the act of reading, the 
causing to be read; jffTS Mog-bya any- 
thing to be read ; ^"I'S'^II'^ klog-tu hjug- 
pa to begin or cause one to read; JOT''' 2 ) 
klog-pa po or JT"! 5 ^ ktog-mkhan a reader ; 
JSfrS!, klog-grra a reading school, a school 
for reading; \2)'*'^"l'J | i|'J dpe-eha sogs 
Iflog-pa reading books, &c. J'l'^l klog- 
frdon to read aloud ; jfTS^ klog-b_yafi ^nr- 
Pi*l well-read, accomplished in reading, 
a scholar ; ^*m*^'fl klog-pa yafi klog-pa 
to read again. 

SH'ft Kiog-thob n. of a Bodhisottva 
(K. ko. 50). 



' kloft I: or a 6 -'" 
extent ; mass, bulk, body ; depth, abyss. 
Also a wave or any undulating thing : iff*.' 
Vi*"'" nrw with opening or reverting 
folds or coils as in a conch shell. 



II: this word either alone or 
in combination with "w yafig is generally 
used to express the idea of vastness, in- 
finitude or immensity. It also signifies 
"space" as a definite expanse, being in 
a measure synonymous with ^3=.J dbyifls : 
Xw'I'JF"!^ the immensity or profound- 
ness of Dharma ; *T2j';g,c.*i ^qrg the 
expanse of matter or infinitude of pheno- 
mena; '^w'^vl'JF the depth or ampli- 
tude of the mind : '1'*** VK - Xr--ai*r 



-g'2 I this spiritual being of 
Dorje chang developes in the wide bound- 
less sphere of the gods into that jewel of 
the heavens which comprises the five illu- 
sive bodies of Dorje Naljor (Naro. 1). 

oH HI: centre or middle ;=^9 
dbus or *&< dkyil as in VK'SJ* dbah klon or 



49 



5'zf*. rba-klofi the eddy or whirlpool caused 
by 5 rba or *?*>> dbah, the waves ; VK'SF' 
dlah-TtM or 5'3F rba-Mofi is also used to 
signify rba-rlabs, a wave, billow. 

JF"^ klod-khor a whirlpool or eddy 
(Jfrfow.). 



*'i kloA-du gyur-pa 
has the meaning of V^'i^'", under 
one's subjection or power; is equivalent 
to ^fta fully comprehended; over- 
powered. It is also used to signify per- 
fection in mystic arts, as Jaschke renders 
it "a soaring into mystic perfection." 
The work M|'*g)t explains it in the fol- 
lowing manner : J farg'4) - <iw^nr<rae > ' 
HI I " it is also applied (to mean) what- 
ever has arrived at complete perfection or 
become concentrated into one." 



Klofi-ehen n. of a celebrated 
lama of Tibet who was also called 



a*.'}* klon-sde a division of the Buddhist 
writings of the *^1 <5tf%*t class, the 
introduction of which is attributed to 
Lo-tsata Vaira-tsana. 



^ "in this country of Tibet (in books) 
known as the great Man-nag rdsogs- 
pa, there are the Semt section, the 
JjoA section, and the Man-dag section " 
(Deb. 1 3). 

jjjE.-*raai klofi-ma dkyel 1. of great capa- 
city. 2. grf% the cavity of the abdomen. 



Je.WJj kMs-pa ^fe<T, same as 
dkruys-pa. 

*A<i] Klofis rag n. of a place in Tibet ; 
|-p the ferry at KMt-rag 
(Yig.). 



klon-pa to mend, to patch shoes, 
a cobbler, mender of shoes. 



&c ; 

3f ksa in mystic language the term 
signifies an evil spirit. 

p 1 ksaya, pronounced in Tibetan as 
*\' ut , ^1 phthisis pulmomlis ; but accord- 
ing to the Tibetan pathology ywft^ 
denotes a bilious disease, prob. black jaun- 
dice (Jd.). The symptoms of the disease 
ksa-ya, as described in the medical works 
of Tibet, are as follows: *|Tr$r<>rv 



.- "the bile hav- 
ing permeated the body, itching is set 
up, the skin becomes greenish-black in 
colour, the hair and the eyebrows fall off, 
loss of strength, shrivelled flesh, and black 
spots on the nails, will be produced " 
(Med.). 



ksa-su-ra a kind of precious 
stone resembling crystal ; it is very rare 
in Tibet : p-^'fJJC^'p^lr^Kr^iw 
nrZ!^-<iy;-U-<n as to Ksasura, that 
crystal and the genuine gtan-zil stone do 
not occur in Tibet except singly (Yig.). 



1 dkag-wa constipation; obs- 
tructed bowels. 

wf, VT|3j Dkan I : <rrg, ace. to f!ag. 
the palate, the roof of the mouth ; 
the upper part of the palate ; 
the lower part of the palate ; VW!^ cleft 
palate ; VR'S'^'*! HN<<<U the palatal 
letters; Vfl'l?"! l*i#l*J*l** an abscess 
in the palate ; W^ any disease of the 
palate. 

^T|3j II : is sometimes used in the place 
of !h gyen, steep or up hill; 

8 



50 



dkan psar-po a steep declivity; precipice 
(flag. 5). 



Dkah-lhub-kyi gna$ 
the residence of an ascetic; a hermitage. 



Dkah, W q dkah-wa or 
dkah-bo ^, ^tx 1. hard, difficult; used 
as adj. *?' W q hard to understand; w^' 
VP'q very hard or difficult. 2. pains, 
exertions, sufferings ; ^q-a\<K i 'fc-fl 

gain without pain or exertion; 
without hardship or difficulty ; 

difficult of access ; %* ' W" tffrub 
dkah-ira hard to accomplish or to perfect ; 
fig. to propitiate; iISW" hard to ex- 
press or describe ;"VV W" difficult to find ; 
S' W q hard work, or hard to do ; S*!*'"^ 
fi^jW difficulty ; W\ q ^K^r^f one 
who accomplishes a difficult or hard task. 

^<v<i3jai dkah-hgrel nfa*T lit. difficul- 
ties explained; a commentary; explana- 
tion of difficulties (Jo.) : *T 1 WW r 'i' r 
cwqjjorq meanings of terms which are 
difficult to understand are explained in a 
commentary (Nag. 5). 

W"} dkah-bcu ^a&Ft ten ascetical 
hardships; a Buddhist scholar who has 
acquired such great proficiency in sacred 
literature as to he able to interpret the 
meanings of a term in ten different ways. 

WS q i: dkah-thub <rctT; also **ro, 
U^K, fa*, siftra, asceticism, also penance ; 
an ascetic, one who is ahle to stand hard- 
ships or privations : 



(lit. the ascetic's enemy) a name 
of the god of love (If Hon.). 



I "that an ascetic's 
body should be fat, that a pretty woman 
should sleep by herself, and that a hero 
should be without wound-scars these 
three are things the mind does not credit," 

VFS" ii : a name for the first month of 
the Tibetan calendar (Btsii.). 



; 8J'*^ spu-can ; \5 
hlyun-pohi 



t i non- 

mofif-pa *ro^, aift^f one who undergoes 
asceticism ; a hermit ; one who having 
renounced the worldly life has retired to 
solitude ; an epithet of the Hindu deity 
Mahes'vara. 

Syn. a=-li' tpafl 
3r9 drihi-sras-po ; 
ral-pa (Mnon.). 

S"r^'5^TS' q dkah-thub spyotf-pa the 
practices of an ascetic or hermit; ^'S^ 
dran-sron a rishi (1/f.non.) ; ^Fjfne*H'9 to 
embrace the life of an anchorite ; VP'S q 
saffron (Sman. 351) ; *W 
one whose asceticism or 
penitence is either visible or exemplary. 

VP'^TS'* 4 Dkah-dog bla-ma n. of a 
snowy mountain ; it is generally applied 
to ^-5-fl|K.w^ Ri-bo gadt-can (Mfton.). 

S^'ll'* Dkah-xlog-wa n. of the God- 
dess 1'^ Gau-ri (Mfion.). 

tpp-'W^'ldkah-lat che-tca very difficult ; 
'i't\ - q free from difficulty ; easy. 



I: dkar in compounds = 
dkar-po white ; grey. 



II: sincere; W**'* not con- 
fessing one's guilt ; not exonerated ; not 
making a clean breast of anything. 

W5 dkar-skya m*3T light grey : 
S'lp' jf Tnw pale ; white. 

^np-fie. dkar-khafi a lighted house ; also 
a store room (S. kar. 66, 178). 



51 



B^' dkar-khun=^'^F-' window, a 
sky-light ; a hole in the wall of a house 
for the entrance of light. 

"Vl^'BI dar-khyug anything streaked 
or ornamented with diverse colours. 

VP'B q l*' dkar-khrigs (kar-thig) white; 
shining ; bright ; glittering ; brilliant. 

Vl^'^p dkar-gon 1. a kind of white clay ; 
porcelain clay. 2. same as *>'^ me-rdo 
flint: Y1^'fh-^<V q lVr'=i < 'r' I <' tw i I white- 
clay is useful to expel worms and for the 
poison of evil spirits. 

VI*' 3 dkar-rgya rose-coloured; pale 
pink. 

*^'^dkar-rgyan white ornament; the 
butter used in painting offerings made of 
barley flour or rice to the gods : ^'w^v 
5^'W cakes that are painted white and red 
with (coloured) butter (Rtsii.). 

V^'WISS** dkar-bcud-ffsum the triple 
white elixir, t'.e., the cream from the milk 
of the female yak, ewe, and cow : *l'$T q ' 
t/fft^Ktf^V^fff "Khawfa is the mix- 
ed milk of the female yak, ewe and cow." 

^jv*q| dkar-cJiag 'fifafafLI 1. an index; 
register. 2. whitish; grey. 3. morally 
good; standing on the side of virtue; 
sincere ; candid. 

or 



dkar-thag, the string of a bow : 



glittering white rays. 

Dkar-chufi Iha-khafi n. of a 
monastery in Tibet (/. Zafi.). 

V|V^ dkar-ne= VF t ^-q a true friend ; 
one who has come over to one's side out 
of sincere good will ; a friendly relation. 

i^ip,-|e.--i;*< Dkar-stin cha-fiam n. of a 
place in Kham near Ri-wo-che. (Lon. * 
29). 



dkar-dro milk and curd: fs.'?!' 
I it wiU make milk and 
curd of equal value with the above 
(Jig. 30). 

Vl^'8;^ Dkar-ldan ^^( lit. the fan- 
one ; the Goddess Gauri, the wife of S'iva. 

dkar-po, also *\"1*'^ dkar-mo 



1. white ; pure ; fair ; a qualification, 
talent, enlightenment; (sometimes) wise. 
2. ^f, silver ; dub grass ; a learned man ; 
purity: ^ftif^rWflMfrj TJUT f^sn- 
^f% I " complete enlightenment is a stage 
of insight." It is one of the stages of 
perfection of the Hinayana School. 

^fl^-q-Sic^q dkar-po chig-thub a kind 
of medicinal plant ; also, its root, which is 
used to kill worms ; VVfTOfH'*'"! I 
it draws out poisonous matter and sub- 
dues worms which infest one. 

^HVZj-jjsrqWb^-q dkar-po rnams-par 
hchar-pa fT^^t (Schr.). 

*^^-g'Rtff dkar-po hbar itf^tfjr (Schr.) 
white lustre. 

^HVtrgarjq Dkar-po $bab-rgyab ^'U^'^ 9 !' 
5|')t. n. of a medicinal stone (called " white 
frog's back ") (Mnon.). 

^^g5-q^ui'i dkar-pohi bskal-pa ^a*a? 
the enlightened age or Kalpa. 

dkar-phigs used in colloq. for 
dkar-phibs. 

$kar-phib$ a tower or dome 
built on pillars or on the roof of a house 
for commanding a view, generally in the 
Chinese style: ^'%Wlffc'<rU < *f^-f 
in the great domed tower is the tall pillar 
with a lion's mouth. 



52 



dkar-phyogs Jtnfirre the light 
half of a month ; the period from the new 
to the full moon ; the innocent side in two 
contending parties ; Vivf<i)*r^ the gods 
who belong to the side of virtue ; Vl^'i^' 
dkar-phred n. of the mythical capital of 
the Asura (Pag. 30). 

VH'l d.kar-wa jjjjf white, v. VP'VP' 
q'fa uanv whiteness: Xwar^q-^YJW | 
" through sincerity in the doctrine"; " by 
piety " (Pag. 30). 

VH'fc Y q dkar-mi byed-pa to plead 
innocence. Nag. explains it as *6.'r^'^rr 
^qfy-^-wp- jq-qw, to show by signs or by 
oath that he is not guilty. 

*V1^'^ dkar-min ^rftfW, WTM not 
white ; black ; dark ; chaos ; bent ; crooked. 

W*^'5 Qkar-min-bu the son of 
Dkar-min ; the offspring of chaos : ^ an 
epithet of the son of Brahma. 

W** dkar-me = '*> cho g me sacred fire ; 
especially lamps lighted before deities: 
^|V*)-sik-Mr*^flj*> | the kind (of cloth) fit 
for wicks of lamps (lighted before the 
images of saints and deities) (Rtsii.). 

^-)v*i Dkar-med-ma v\*fft*i**:'i\t-% 
(llfnon.) a name of the queen of the Taksa. 

Vfi'tidkar-mo 1. mutton ; a sheep when 
slaughtered ; ^#'i<ir'f' l **'V'^'-'l' a <' l r C) ' l '|S <1 ! 
a shoulder of mutton from the right side 
of a slaughtered sheep (Rtsii.) ; SIT^'VI^' 
33'aiq|-i5-q|?j mutton of sheep slaughtered 
by the hand (as distinguished from the 
meat of a dead sheep) (Jig. 9). 2. *iw- 
fsrar, itfii4?l an epithet of the goddess 
Durga. 3. white rice. 

V|v^w dkar-dmar light red or whitish 
red. 

V|V fr dkar-rtsi, also spelt \T'^ dkar-tse 
1. lime; white-wash; white-paint. 2. a 



kind of coarse cotton cloth ; lint : Wt" 
^$rar^-^-n5ffiijrg^ lint arrests decay- 
ing disease in the flesh and bone (S. 
kar. 3). 3. 5^, *'Wfr white muslin. 

W* dkar-tsis or S|^'S'' astrology: 
J'^'^r^^'^t^r^^^'lwK the sys- 
tem of reckoning introduced in Tibet 
from India is called dkar-rtsit (D- $el- 8). 

Wt"*'" dkar rtser-wa very white or 
fair : $-<r'|afaT<'Wt'V >'3 q l I a young 
maiden of very fair complexion on horse- 
back (A. 135). 

^|V<^ 4kar-hdsin the female breast ; 
teats. 

Syn. ^Vi5 - grg*i hdod-pahi myof-bum; 
^-( lan-txhohi mtshan-ma; 5'w^ 
hdsin; ifaprjw logf-skycg (Mfion.). 

tp\t>'fit^ tfkar-rndsod a dispensary. 

dkar-&od=Jiw*-fr. fire-fly 

dkar-yol procelain (Nag. 5). 

' dkar-ffyen is explained as g*w 
^q - '3Vi a trial or investigation under 
law. 



dkttr-safis pure white ; also V|V 
^c. -6'q or ^ti^-Q-^^'jK.' very white. 



\. 



^-j^ dkar-sob yaft-wahi hod- 
=^'^ alabaster (Sman. 353). 

dkar-gsal fair ; white ; light. 

dkar-psum the three white 
things, viz., curd, milk and butter 
(A. U3). 



f *Q dku ff^; ='8'ra^ (Lea-.) the 
side of one's body: V3 -3 i ^l'if 5-5^'iw- 



is towards the small ribs just above the 



53 



hip, whether on the right or left of 
the body; *\"^ or MT* 1 '^'* 1 to carry 
a thing at one's side (Zam.) ; "tfl'sjfarq to 
open the side; *ttTf a heavy feeling in 
the "side, as a symptom of pregnancy; 
*\5 ^ dku-nad apparently a disease of the 
kidneys (/a.) ; STI" dku-zlum round and 
plump buttocks ; the cavity of the abdo- 
men (/a.); ^lV't'W'^r*f"f for 
example a bell resting on its side (flag.). 

5T*^ dku-mne ^rfR a rug to sit upon ; 
a seat. 

iH *> dku-lto contrivance, stratagem ; 
craft ; trick, especially if under some pre- 
text one person induces another to do a 
thing that proves hurtful to him (fa.) ; 
using a stratagem. 



' dku-ste=?jfi'% 



remaining; 



n excess. 



dku-wa stench ; putrid smell : 
-W) Dku-wa signifies any- 
thing that is not of agreeable smell ; \*~ 
q-ar^-*r^-l, the smell of that which is 
putrid is called dku-iea. M'^w'Tg the five 
kinds of dku-wa, i.e., objects with bad 
strong smell, are the following: ^1'" 
garlic ; ?* onion ; '^1 Chinese garlic ; ^' 
C"l the hill or Tibetan garlic ; and 3*'5W 
asafcetida. The use of these five are for- 
bidden to the Buddhist Bhiksu (K. d. V 
115). 



dkon flfri ^WK 1. adj. rare, 
scarce; hard to acquire: S'^'rv trvf: 
*9'^fal this year rain and grain are 
scarce; ^FW*Yr%5'^|"r5<!l just now 
Tibetan tea is very rare ; 
exceedingly rare in the world; 
^wue.2T| it is of a quality rarely to be 
met with in the world; B 



to see a person like you is nothing 
particularly rare; 1'^'S'r^'*'^ with 
a prattler religion is scarce (/a.). '^fa'i'^S 
rarity; ^fa'^fc valuable property; riches; 
rare things. 2. sbst., a rarity. There are 
said to be seven dkon or rarities. 

^fa's&qj dkon-mchog TH any precious 
object ; anything very excellent or best of 
its kind. The oldest forms of this word 



are 



or 



means 



, the chief of rarities, the rarest 
being or object, the Supreme Being : | V 



"in general in this world a precious jewel 
difficult to procure is a rarity ; that which is 
much rarer still than any rarity is dkon- 
chog." A precious gem of the rarest kind is 
useful only for worldly purposes; but 
Buddha, his church, and creed, are of use 
to all living beings, both here and here- 
after, for increasing and ensuring their 
happiness. Apart from Buddhism, the 
Tibetans appear to have possessed the 
conception of the Supreme Deity in the 
term Dkon-mchog. This term, ^fr*i&i| ) is 
used in Tibetan writings for each member 
of the Buddhist triad Buddha, Dharma, 
and Sangha separately, as also for the 
three collectively ; in the latter case often 
with ffsum annexed. Mr. W. W. Eockhill 
has condemned the use of this word 
by Christian missionaries to signify 
"God." But Jaschke has elaborated 
on the subject as follows: "Buddhism 
has always sought the highest good 
not in anything material, but in the 
moral sphere, looking witA indiffer- 
ence, and indeed with contempt, on 
everything merely relating to matter. 
It is not, however, moral perfection, or 



the happiness attained thereby, which 
is understood by the 'most precious 
thing,' but the mediator or mediators who 
procure that happiness for mankind, viz., 
Buddha (the originator of the doctrine), 
the doctrinal scriptures and the corporate 
body of priests, called f^ncw, dkon-mcftog 
gsum. Now, although this triad cannot, 
by any means, be placed on a level with the 
Christian doctrine of a triune God, yet it 
will be "easily understood how the innate 
desire of man to adore and worship some- 
thing supernatural, together with the 
hierarchical tendency of the teaching class, 
have afterwards contributed to convert 
the acknowledgment of human activity 
for the benefit of others (for such it was 
undoubtedly on the part of the founder 
himself and his earlier followers) into a 
devout, and by degrees idolatrous, adora- 
tion of these three agents, especially as 
Buddha's religious doctrine did not at 
all satisfy the deeper wants of the human 
mind, and its author himself did not 
know anything of a God standing apart 
and above this world. For, whatever in 
Buddhism is found of beings to whom 
divine attributes are assigned, has either 
been transferred from the Indian and 
other mythologies, and had, accordingly, 
been current among the people before the 
introduction of Buddhism, or is the result 
of philosophical speculation that has re- 
mained more or less foreign to the people 
. at large. As, then, the original and 
etymological signification of the word is no 
longer current, and as to every Tibetan 
1 Dkon-mchog' suggests the idea of some 
supernatural power, the existence of which 
he feels in his heart, and the nature and 
properties of which he attributes more or 



less to the three agents mentioned above, 
we are fully entitled to assign to the word 
Dkon-mchog also the signification of God, 
though the sublime conception which the 
Bible connects with the word, viz., that of 
a personal absolute Omnipotent Being, 
will only with the spread of the Christian 
religion be gradually introduced and 
established." 

S^'^I'W^ 1 " dkon-mchog kun-hdu$ the 
three gems, i.e., Buddha, Dharma and 
Saygha collectively: | - wVyrWMrj 
sw^-R^-w-uvT'fa lama is the essence 
of all the Buddhas of the three ages massed 
together ; |*^*5fT^F^"'**VI**lMr^r| 1 
^'!'^fa'* t * q r?fl'^ I the image represents 
the church ; the scriptures represent the 
heart, i.e., the Dharma ; and the holy relics 
(symbolical of the spirit of Buddha) com- 
plete the three gems. 

"^j&u|-9|-*^-q the service or worship 
of the Dkon-mchog. 

Vlfr*iS<j]-ngE.-q]^ Dkon-mchog hbt/un- 
ffnas <w*< a name of the first of the nine 
stages of Samadhi or $ffc-^ the medita- 
tions of a Bodhisattva. 

^}a|-&q|-q$-q|-i ^jf^z a Sanskrit work 
on the names and attributes of Buddha, 
in one hundred chapters, out of which 
forty-nine chapters were translated into 
Tibetan ; of these forty-nine only six are 
now extant in Tibet. The entire work 
was translated into Chinese by Jfiana 
Gupta, A.D. 589-618. 

^-<i]-<i|sj*) dkon-mchog psum ft^w 
the three Batna or Precious Ones. The 
Buddhist triad are (1) Sanf-rgyas dkon- 
mchog Buddha most rare; (2) Dharma, 
called Dam-choi dkon-mchog, the holy Doc- 
trine most rare ; (3) Dge-hdun dkon-rnchog 



55 



body of priests most rare. Colloq. the 
phrase is frequently used as an exclama- 
tion quite in the sense of our "God 
knows !" 



dkon-mchog ysum- 
gyi hbans fa<fl<r (Schr.) lit. a servant of 
the three gems, i.e., a devout Buddhist; 
n. of an individual. 



dkon-gjier =g'1^ a priest who 
is in charge of a Buddhist chapel or 
temple and performs the daily services 
to the deities contained in it. The ku 
gner is also called Am-chod: frww&V^fr' 
q)TOjMry{V*^r*f4rflwqj the priests 
and image-steward and others who con- 
tinually officiate get the customary allow- 
ances (Rtsii.). 

^fr3 dkon-po or ^'^ rare, scarce; 
dear, precious. 

dkon-bu a wreath; 
flower wreath. 



gi* 3*r, dkor is resp. 
f or ^*, substance, wealth, riches, property: 
MT^'^'f* the property of the church or 
that of a monastic congregation ; *flr^f* 
foundation, endowment of a monastery ; 
"K'S^I* additional or occasional gifts for 
the support of a religious institution; 
*'^j* landed endowments of a monastery 
or religious institution. 

^[^"Sl dkor-bda-g lit. the owner of 
property. It generally signifies the spirit 
or demi-god who is supposed to be the 
custodian of the images of all Buddhist 
deities, scriptures, symbols ; in short, of all 
church and sacerdotal properties. In this 
sense the demon called Pehar rgyal-po of 
Sam-ye is a Dkor-bdag -or custodian of 
religious property. 



SlfvJfc dkor-nor church property or 
general wealth: S s l'3^' J fe*riT > i'^K'MJv q r 
*w I (Z>. M.) you possess accumulated 
wealth and church-property. 

^[*'<i dkor-pa a treasurer (Os.) ; one in 
charge of the endowments and properties 
of a temple or monastery. 

^vg dkor-bla or ^'3'5 a lama who 
appropriates sacred property to himself 
(M. V. 66). 

^[^rwm dkor-ma-hbags not misappro- 
priating the treasures, stores, etc.,, of the 
church: ^^^i*^^rt^nWfJ do 
not take wine for drink nor embezzle the 
property of the priesthood (Kathafi. 115). 

^jv*^ dkor-mdsod is a general name 
for wealth or property and hence is 
frequently used to signify ^S^'>n 
treasury; treasure- chest (fiag. 5). 

^v?^m Dkor-rdsogs n. of a monastery 
in Southern Ladak, situated 16,000 feel; 
above the sea level. 



i dkor-sas =%*'* spendthrift 
(fiag.'S). 

^vRq dkor-rigs ft^f, -qsr different 
properties belonging to a monastery. 



dkol-pa ^rm struck by cala- 
mity ; afflicted ; one in suffering. 



dkos-thag=vw**( 1. 
rfl suffering, affliction. 2. 
exciting disgust. 



kyar any appliance for crossing 
snow or glaciers. Stocking boots (Sch.). 
The dkyar used by the Tibetans and the 
Sharpa Bhutias of Nepal in crossing 
glaciers is a light circular disk of wood 
about a foot in diameter, with four holes 
through which strings are passed to fasten 



56 



it to the knee. In climbing up and walk- 
ing down the snowy sides of mountains, 
these boards are attached to the soles of 
the felt boots and are of great assistance to 
the traveller, preventing the feet from sink- 
ing in the soft snow. 



rluft-gi-^kyil-hkhor the atmosphere, >'")' 
^'"^ the sphere of fire ; each forming a 
stratum over the other. The upper stratum, 
t.e., that which is beyond the atmosphere, 
is called the sphere of fire or light. 



or ^ *** tne 

die, centre ; war bottom, base ; 
kyil-nas from the middle or centre ; from 
amidst ; from the bottom ; ^9i'* the mid- 
dle one; the central one; & r ^' : i=f fe ' r 
WKTK B^, ^ffrar with wide base ; spacious 
interior ; comprehensive understanding ; 
also quick comprehension. 

<$r^n dkyil-dkrufis tra, IK^rr, 
TT(\*< a cross-legged posture: ^5j 9 i'*>' i: >3 c >' 
qr^ u <{]${ i jj sitting in a cross-legged 
posture for mystic meditation. 

fipofo dkyil-hkhor TOST, qfr%ir, itfff 
1. circle ; circumference ; globe ; disk : 
rnjW< the disk of the face ft*- 
the full or whole face. 2. espe- 
cially used as the equivalent of the 
Sanskrit Mandate, the magic diagrams or 
figures formed of grain or other materials 
which are " offered " to deities in Tantrik 
Buddhist rites. In Tantrik rites diagrams 
representing supposed mansions of cer- 
tain celestial Bodhisattva and called *^ *pfc 
are traced on the ground or on paper. 
The respective places assigned to the 
different minor deities are painted in 
different colours in the design, and the 
central place in the diagram is occupied 
by the tutelary deity himself, to whom the 
rest are subordinate. 3. region, sphere ; 
surroundings; suburb. According to the 
Buddhist cosmogony there are *r)'*\3K 
*j** the sphere of earth, S'SJ'^T^j'fr, the 
sphere of water, the ocean, S^ 



dkyil-hkhor gru-bshi-pa 
a quadrangle ; square ; a certain mysti- 
cal figure ; diagram or model. The ex- 
pression f^'i^ViS^lT^-q^-ci means 
the gods who constitute the ^ assembly 
in the Vim&na or flivruwrp*, i.e., superb 
mansion represented. 

tfK*fviyv<iS-i^ is a description of the 
eight mansions of eight imaginary Bud- 
dhas (K. d. 72). Whoever utters the 
names of these Buddhas or hears the 
aphorisms about them is liberated from 
dangers caused by evil spirits, snakes, &c. 
By remembering and repeating them, even 
brigands, not to speak of kings, are said 
to be able to make the weapons of their 
enemies ineffectual against themselves. 

^nr^jtfv*^ dkyil-hkhor-can 4TW443 any- 
thing that has a circular and mystical 
figure on it ; also any Tantrik deity 
placed to be worshipped on the plane of 
his fancied celestial mansion traced on the 
ground. 

$9r*j5Vtt Dkyil-hkhor-MA n. of the 
grand central temple of Buddha at 
popularly known as Kinkhording. 

$ar^[&-q|?j* dkyil-hkhor gsum 
three cycles (of offerings) : (1) 
&t^*r<^ S'jq-ti <it the cycle of offerings 
for the Bon gods sprung out naturally 
in course of time; (2) ^' g '^'^i'^' 
MpMT<^-)w^ir<r^j the celestial mansion 
for contemplation formed in the sky (to 
imagine an aerial castle) ; (3) ^i'8i^3l' 
| the mansions of gods 



57 



designed on the ground for placing the 
offerings to them (B. Nam.). 

S 3T5 4kyu rta or S - '^'? dliyu-wahi rta 
a race-horse. 

S3'^ dkyu-pa in Ladak : to lose 
colour by washing ; perhaps more correctly 



SeT*"' d.kyu-wa=.$Q 1. to run a 
race; ^3'W&*< dkyu-sar 4kyus=W\ t ** 

o *o ^! > 

1*< running a race ; *K'**| galloping : 
^W|YMir'rM*'Q!(/9a9.) "forexample 
running a race on horseback." 2. to wring 
out; to filter (Sch.). 3. to caper about 
(Jd.) ; ^3'S^'5 d.kyu-byahi-rta a race-horse. 
^J' dkyu-sa a race-course; the race 
ground (Cs.). 

-pa=^\ to forget; 
1 ! an affectionate 
letter to prevent one being forgotten or a 
letter which love will not forget (Tig. 
k. 37). 

^fl" dkyus imtw 1. length ; length- 
wise. 2. untruth; also adj. untrue; 
spurious (Jd.). 3. bold, insolent (Soft.). 
In lexicons it is synonymous with the term 
IS 61 ' yshurl, meaning "lengthwise." In 
weaving, the threads that are stretched 
lengthwise are called S3"'**! dkyus-thag 
(the woof) and those that pass them 
crosswise are called |fl'| spun-thag: 



I (S.kar.134) upon 

-o Q 

that stood the throne constructed of stone, 
having a lotus cushion, in breadth two 
cubits and a span, in length three running 
fathoms. 

MJ'V1* dkyus-dkar a porcelain cup of 
inferior quality ; a common porcelain cup. 



'* dkyits-ja common or inferior tea. 
Tea served to the public or to the congre- 
gation of monks in a monastery or in a 
religious service. 



'* dkyus-ma srgra common, vulgar, 
inferior ; *>'a*r*i mi-dkym tna an ordi- 
nary man; one who is neither an official 
nor a religious man (jfrag 5) : $N^*r 
W^jJ (Rtsn.) "indigo of inferior 
quality is valued at so much per y\ 
or Ib." ^*rq5*!> dkyug-btags a scarf of 
ordinary quality ; {jwg* dkyus-bur treacle 
of inferior quality : S3rgvs)vfl|r** 
dkyus-bur sgar Mugs rer "" coarse treacle 
for each thick lump " (Rtsii.). 



my yogs-pa 
^o 
quickly, swiftly. 

^3^'^S dkyus-tshad. the dimensions of 
anything when measured lengthwise. 



spacious ; large ; long. 



l=fa Mofi the compass, 
extent, bulk of anything: 
the compass of the heavens : 
the stretch of sea : '\3i 
spacious; of wide capacity (flag. 5). 

^jjpr2p& dkyel-po-che ace. to Sch. is the 
Universe; defined as p* - Krei the wide 
house ( Lex.)' 



dkyor-hbyin swf capable of 
being thrown down ; impelled or driven 
on ; also capable of being felled down. 



^>\ dkram-ko hthno- 

spyi-brtol clw-wa 1. ^lajq 
transgression. 2. adj. very impudent; 
impertinent. 

9 



58 



k Bkras-ljofis, abbr. of 
(Tashi Jong), n. of a district under Lhun- 
grub Rdsofi in Tibet. 



dkri (ti) ifsr anything to wrap 
with ; a tie ; F'^fj a cloth to tie round 
the face or cover the mouth ; muffler; ->fa'*S| 
vb., wrapping or winding up with paper ; 
paper- wrapping ; an envelope (Tig. k. 2). 

Cv 

f, ^U'^ I: dkri-wa (ti-mt) in old 
Tibetan, to conduct one's pupil from one 
stage of learning to another stage ; pf . 
^51 w vb. a. (cf. *'") in modern Tibetan, 
to wind ; to wrap round about ; ^fj'*'S dkri- 
wff-jjoisSfi'wSVM one who wraps up; 
^Sfolw^-en-g'Vti to fold up clothes, etc. 

^tJ'ClII: ^S-i^'i'^g dkri snegs-pa 
Ita-bu a snare, anything to entangle with ; 
vb., to ensnare. 

dkrig (tig) personally : v!Kisv 
is same as tw'fc'^-a'vfw 
not having come personally, can- 
not reply or say decidedly. 



I : dkrigs ft*R, 9T a term 
for a thousand billions. The term 
3*rHHi or $j*nr3^q *<^in<*N< or 
is used for a still larger number. 

^TjJ|^ II:=^q dense; thickly- 
gathered : |fr i; \3H*' sprin-dkrigs (flag. 5) : = 
1^-n.siwq gathering or condensing of clouds ; 
alsovb. darkened, obscured, dim, diffused: 
*-K'V^-*iV i -OT*<- W (^- K- . 47) the 
flashing of his teeth bewildered them ; 
jjn]-iv<*|5vcrc dkrigs-par hgyur-par grown 
dim; ^$<PW'|V<R Dkrigs-par byed-pa to 
obscure. 



^"'i* dpal-gyi$ dkris-gi/itr TTfeTl en- 
circled with glory. 

<=v 

^II'J*^ dkrig-pa ijf<3tM 1. to sur- 
round, encircle, ensnare. 2. = &*.' 1 
^T^f*r to lie round ; to wind up ( Mnon.) : 
^'jpri^jr^S* ser-snag kun-nas dkri? quite 
ensnared in avarice (/a.). 



dkn's-phray n. of a large 
number ($ag. 5). 

*VU*^ dkru-wa ($u-tea)=\'# dri-ma ^fn, 

NO 

VRS abomination, pollution; also dirt, filth 
(Ltests.). 

|'^ dknig-pa (tug-pa) = $*'** g.lofi- 

to disturb, to put in motion ; the 
act of troubling, agitating, churning ; to 
turn ; to turn a lathe. 



T, Ffaf, ^jfew stirred up, agitated, 
troubled, ruffled, disturbed, confused; 
churned ; turned (as in a lathe) ; confound- 
ed : ^)'*'*!1*i 4pe-cha dkrugs the leaves of 
a book are confused or mixed up together ; 
un| - *fl]^'>^5i|'j5'?> lag-chags-kyi$ dkruys 
pahi semi a mind troubled with passion ; 
$K.'i?|wjfl|*ri5'$ rlttfi-gis dkrugs-pahi chu 
water agitated by the wind. 

confounder: 1^' 
ji|N-q-q-l^ the 
man who causes confusion afar off and 
nigh is called tug-papo. 



dkris-gyur (ti-.gyur) q^\ sur- 
rouuded, encircled, encompassed : ^wgw 



*>=.' a kind of character used in Tibet 
which is puzzling. 

STI^r^ dkrum-pa (turn-pa) brittle; 

o ^ 

defined in Lexx. as VP' I 5' j rg'g'jj*\'* l T?i, 

breaking in the manner a porcelain vessel 
does. 



fl 



59 



f 

glans- penis. 



the 



krog-pa (tog-pa) =flPT<J dkrug- 
pa 1. to churn; to agitate, mingle, trouble, 
&c. : ^'SifT* 1 sho dkrog-pa churning curds 
(for butter). 2. to rouse, scare up; to 
wag, e.g., the tail (/a.). Also = *tfT''l*<' c i 
dkrogs-pa, *'*< *\if' l !*<' i ho-ma dkrogs-pa to 
churn milk ; ace. to flag, is equivalent to 
gq|*T) noys-pa. 

t \2f"l*''3*< dkrog$-skyes (lit. anything pro- 
duced from churning) butter (Mnon.). 

ffifapicaft dkrogi-pa-po 'OT'N'^'I'V* 1 !^ 
dkrogs-par bycd-mkhan one who churns. 

^qj^-w dkrogs-ma, v. gPN'w smb-ma, 
the churning rod ; also said to = whey 



'q d.kro6-b$kyed (tong-ke) 

of instantaneous birth ; instanta- 
neous perception. Ace. to Lex. in 
meditating on a certain deity, the act 
of perceiving him to be a reality instan- 
taneously is called *$ c -' t '| l > dkron bskyed. 



dkrol tT?T; pf. and fut. of *$* 
hkrol: ^$V*r9 dkrol-wa-po is defined as 
" one who causes music to sound or be 
sounded." 

CJT] 1 !] I: bkag in q^'ai^ bkag lafis 
the lid or cover of a trunk; the sides of a 
Tibetan leather-trunk. Defined in Etsii. 
as ^aj-i|W-<q%g-'fi-q-n)r<iftrcf'J| both the 
flat pieces of leather which are at the back 
and front on the right and left of a trunk. 

qTj^j II : *f?r? CT, -frfa* ; pf. of MfoN'ti, 
obstructed, opposed; also prohibition, 
obstruction, hindrance. 

p^fll'iijVs^q bkag-skor med-pa=vf\*.'i\\ 
^'Q without delay, as in sending any- 
thing ; also without let or hinderance ; 



<5<-^Em not permissible and per- 
missible, not fit and fit, unbecoming and 
becoming. 

q>Ti<i|-*-|^q bkag-cha byeg-pa to forbid; 
to put a hinderance (Sch.). 

^Ttf* bkog sdom prohibition; pro- 
hibiting one from passing by a road or 
from entering any garden or place. 

qiT|ii|-3r|aii|irq bkag-mo khegs-pa not to be 
observant ; to transgress, to trespass. 

CJTJC' bkafi ace. to Rdo. 46, pf. of 
^"F* 1 dcjan-im -^ftfT , filled to the brim ; full 
to the brim as in the case of a water pot ; 
,-q snod-bkan-ica a vessel filled up ; 
a i) OW w jth an arrow ready to 
shoot; ^-q-q^-q w i s h fulfilled. Ace. 
to Jd. pf. of ^|wq, to fill, make full; and 
used in W. instead of " 



bkad 1. set or placed in order ; 
aiTangement: *3fq^ii|*rq same as 



mgo-spuhi rim-paham gral-lahan, thags- 
kyi fnal-ma phar hgrohi dug-kyi spun hgro- 
wa dc dan, Uags tshar u-ahi snam-buhi 
spun-gyi rj<$ hbur-hbur yod-pafyi mid la 
yafi, thags-kyi bkad aer (flag.) the order or 
row (of plaits) in the hair of the head, 
the crosswise thread in the web of a cloth, 
also the ridge in the cross-wise texture of 
a blanket, are called the bkad of weaving. 

''TV^" bkacl-nas having described; 
represented in any manner. 

EHj^'SJ bkad-sa, **r|-<i|3i*ri (J$ag.) 
1. the place where barley, corn, &c., are 
parched ; a bake-house, kitchen, cook's 
shop ((7s.). 2. ace. to flag. + Vf\vc\ff: 
one's own home or residence. 



60 



3. open hall or shed erected on festive 
occasions (Jd.). 

^Tj^'^l bkan-pa 1. to up-root or turn 
up anything by applying a stick at its 
foot or root. 2. to bend: qF2K^i*K 
($ag.) the body bent backwards: i|'<r 
"H to stretch the arm bending it up- 
wards to pull anything. 3. w$fl|4'3Ti|' 
-q$-*rq-ruifq'Yfl-l>x counting up and then 
backwards is called yang-lkan (S. del). It 
is also applied to counting from right to left 
(Fa*, kar.). 4. to put; to press; to apply 
(/a.) : ^-q- J-fli'tcm-q^^-q to press one's foot 
agaiust a wall. 5. to hold fast ; to extend 



J bkab-pa, pf. of **|wi 
vsra, to cover; to spread over. 

bkab a cover ; a shelter. 
Syn. ^w khebs ; "I^"| (fyogs ; S^* 1 byils 



J bkam-pa pincers or nippers : 
qTjwq -qjjq-q to hold or cut with pincers. 

ZWp bkah I : ( Vat. kar. 60) n. of a 
tribe in Tibet. 



II : *mnr (A. K. XXVI), 

: primarily means simply " word " or 
"speech" ; but being the honorific form it 
usually implies an order or command. 
When used of a sacred personage it means 
his advice or precepts as well as his autho- 
ritative words, e.g., SJ'tS-q^ the lama's 
injunction ; g^'S". Q*^ the king's com- 
mand ; ^aS-qip' the order of the chief. 



III : also signifies, especially, the 
enunciations and pronouncements which 
have issued from the Buddha. They are 
said to be of three kinds ; so *)E.'g*rj(-q'Tp 
has three divisions : 

(1) nm-^-qjsjMrq shal-nas ffsufis-pa pre- 
cepts delivered by the Buddha personally. 



(2) 93'3* r '$ W ' | those conveyed through 
the attendant Bodhisattva and S'ravaka, 
such as Subhuti, S'ariputra, &c., under 
inspiration from Buddha or by his 
sanction expressed or implied or re- 
vealed in such works as 5 - jf^ - 3|* lhahi 
1/on-fM the celestial tree; 6'5'X'w^ rfia- 
bo che mdo the great drum sutru. 
The precepts under this head are sub- 
divided into (1) g^'S'V : '$ i*i the personal 
blessings (of the Buddha), also the bless- 
ings received from his enchanted image ; 
(2) WWTV the blessings derived from 
his teachings ; (3) SiJN'jI'g^'qj^q*) the bless- 
ings of the spirit. This last again is sub- 
divided into the following: (1) S"]*^ 5 ^' 
*^'" S^'fl^* 1 '* 1 the blessings of a contem- 
plative heart as in the work called -*|*r*r 

snifi-po; (2) 31* 1 5"!* 1 1** S^ 3* 1 ' 
H'I the grace of the spirit, as in ftv 
|trq$-gq|*i, the Mantras uttered 
by Noijin and other goblins ; (3) 81'^' 
j5-Jfqr>&rsarqq*rci the blessings inherent 
in a truthful spirit or mind. 

(3) l**'*}'"!^'*! rjeg-su, g.naH-wa anything 
reproduced from memory by the successors 
of the Buddha under inspiration from 
him at the Buddhist convocation 
(J. Zan.}. 

Syn. 3F h<fi ; *rwq^'i Acs-par bstati- 
pa ; yq^'q^'i ne-tcar bgian-pa ; fl| t ;i)'i 
ffdams-pa; tN'^'if^'i rjcg-sti bgtan-pa; |*i 
rjcf-sii gnafi-wa; ^'W^K.'^ ne-icar 

^'^ bkah-luA (Mnon.). 
V kkah-bkod pa to publish, pro- 
claim ; also publication, proclamation. 

qTfvqjj^ bkah-bkyon according to Nag. 
implies blaming; a verbal blow, repri- 
mand, rebuke (given by a superior) (Jd.). 
qTpvqip bkah bkrol (ka-tol) leave of 
absence. 



61 



very im- 
* the 






bkah-skor 
VK without delay. 

qTp'fSai bkah-khol, iprl 
portant order (Tig. Jj 
most important will of King Sron-btsan 
sgam-po. This document having been dis- 
covered within one of the great pillars of 
Kinkhording temple in Lhasa is generally 
known by the name P^'J*rTfr*. 

q-rp-njifc bkah-hkhor, divided into nafi- 
hkor domestic servants; bran-g.yog ser- 
vants, menials ; phyi-hkhor attendants ; 
iTH.'ti('5X'g^ - n|i!5q| those who wait for orders, 
attendants; l^pfc official clerks; also 
private secretaries and personal assistants 
of a high official ; attendants in general. 

qT'S* 1 bkah-khyab a decree, manifesto, 
edict ; a general order. 

qrjivjgw bkah khrims a law, command- 
ment ; HTfVgwq^'5 strict justice ; severe 
punishment: fctt'V^'^W^ITJWl by the 
cmel order of the king (Ja.). 

qnp- g*wti bkah khrims-pa a lawyer ; a 
magistrate. 

qT'5** bkah gro$ (ka-doi) a conference, 
consultation ; ST'll"'^ ^i<sTl 1 ^fi ^nrtfr 
makes consultation; gives advice or coun- 
sel; gives instructions; J*P' 5^'l^'t to 
give advice (/a.). 

q]n-3j*ri bka grog-pa (ka-doi-pa) a coun- 
sellor ; senator. 

q^-q^j'q bkah bgro-wa $-ft debating ; 
considering; taking measures for: ^'Sfr' 
qS^c-q'^q-g-qfq-q-at deliberating care- 
fully with the ten confidential ministers. 

qT'^5 Tq bkah hgrol-im to dismiss ; 
dissolve a meeting or a conference. 

q^'gi)*) bkah-glegs^yy^F* phyag-bris 
or )''P'-^''1 bkah-^og a letter ; an autograph : 



| " great many thanks 
for the gracious letter with enclosures sent 
by the Donner according to the good 
customs" (Tig. k. 12). 

q*p'n<^ bkah-hgyur is generally taken 
as a synonym for "the instructions and 
precepts of Buddha," and means literally 
"that which has become a command." 
This term is in fact the title of the great 
collection of the religious Buddhist 
writings (mostly, but not all, translated 
from Sanskrit into Tibetan) known as the 
Kahgyur. The Kahgyur is divided 
into seven series of books containing 
several hundred treatises, and consists pro- 
perly of 108 volumes, though editions in 
100, 102, and 104 volumes are also current. 

q^'j'qjl'i bkah-rgya bcug-pa issuing 
of an official order ; also the accumulation 
of gold, silver, and grain in a Government 
treasury. 

IT'S'* 1 ^ah rgya-ma *Hmm^, ^TOTfafr 
in Hind. Para-wana 1. public order, 
permit, missive, communication, &c. 2. 
q*i<vj-*r^q>T]'Vii*<c.-q-.5^ (Lex.) in mysticism 
a secret precept; occult communication 
which is made only to the trusted few. 

T'^ i: bkah-rgyud succession or 

*& 

descent of the dogmatic principles of 
Buddha. The principal school of Tantrik 
Lamaism originating from Naro Pan-chen 
of Magadha and alleged by Milaraspa to 
have been introduced by Mar-pa Lo-tsava 
in Tibet in the beginning of the llth cen- 
tury A.D. Its different sects or branches 
are the following : "H^'q^ 5*\ Karma 
Xkah-rgyud, ^'^^T'^ Dge-ldan Bkah- 
rgyud, ^1''IT'^ Dicays-po Bkah Tyyud., 
RD'qjc-qT|<v*5 Hbri-gufi Bkah-rgyutf, *go| % r 
q^'|^ Ebrug-pa Bkah-rgyud., 



62 



np'|^ ii : rF-5J-|S bkah-yi tgyud,, i.e., 
the line or thread of the word, i.e., the 
oral tradition of the word of Buddha 
which is supposed to have been delivered 
through a continued chain of teachers and 
disciples apart from the written scriptures. 



Ht- the illuminator 
of the doctrine of Kahgyud School) a 
general designation of the chief lamas of 
the Bkah-rgyud-pa sect (Tig. k. 67). 

q^'vaV^srj'Ji Bkah-rgyud. riiam-rgyal 
the Bkah rgyutf, Chief Lama whom the 
Mongol Chief Gushi Khan dethroned 
after overthrowing the power of Sdc-pa 
Gtsafi-pa the ruler of Tsang and in 
1643 A.D. (Lofi. 18). 

^'l* bkah-tgyur admonition and 
reprehension ; ^'f^'*!^' 1 ' to issue an 
order ; to admonish ; q*p'gvq to translate 
the words of Buddha, &c. 

qip'l^-qjt-q bkah-sgyur btafi-ica to in- 
struct a subordinate in a rough pointed 
manner, cautioning him against his faults ; 
to counsel against wrong practices. 

q'lp'jfli'tt bkah sgrog-pa to publish an 
order ; to proclaim or read an order or 
edict. 



qjfvq^' bkah bsgo ^JTWT 1. exhorta- 
tion to the deity. When any one falls ill 
either naturally or from the supposed 
malignity of an evil spirit, he goes to 
a lama or a Tantrik priest and begs of 
him for a bkah bsgo permission to invoke 
the deity. The lama touches the patient's 
head with the consecrated sceptre called 
Dorje (vajra), with the sacred dagger 
called the phurbu, a string of beads, 
an image of a Buddha or a deity or a 
holy book, and repeating some charms 



exhorts the deity to be propitious 'to 
the patient. Those who do not actually 
suffer from any kind of illness also ask 
for such protective religious measures. 
2. commandment ; precept (7a.). 

J"ir$* bkah bsgos is pf . of 
bsgo, a sentence passed. 



to send verbal message ; to give a reply. 

IT' *>5 bkah-bcu, also i^'^'i b_kah beu- 
pa, one who has observed the ten command- 
ments of Buddha. The title of Bkah-bcu 
is given to a Buddhist monk-scholar who 
has passed all preliminary examinations 
for a religious degree. There are two 
classes of i*! 1 ^ those of QleH-bsre-s and 
psa6-p/ui ; a ^-q of Tashilhunpo monas- 
tery is called Bkah-chcn on account of 
his superior prestige in religious study 
and practice. 

q'lp-fll^fll'ti bkah gsog-pa to act against 
an order ; to disregard an express order 
or command : wrj^'w^y^ the order 
of (one's father must not be disregarded) 
(Ja.). 

bkah-bcos an abbreviation of 
^-q**, or the two great collec- 
tions of Buddhist writings. 

kah-chem$=aw**w resp. for 
a great man's last will; a royal 
testament or will: iTS'Sswrii'jifai'wlvljqur 
"I" I in the work called Bkah-chcms ka- 
khol-ma, etc. (J. Zafi.). 

+ qT|<vwl^ bkah mc/iid=i"^^ or ^S^' 
5l" a command in reply resp., but also 
word or speech of a superior person. 
The term likewise signifies a conference, 
debate, &c. : qi) | v!'v^-g-s^ what 
conversation did he hold? q*|r*il^srq- 
"^|"^^^'^l "pray, let the nectar of 
pious conversation be uttered !" 



63 



bkah-nan 1. obedient; dutiful; 
submissive ; observant of command. 2. 
one's tutelary deity is also called his bkah- 
nan, because he carries out his protege's 
behest; ^jfS'^sagfjj*! service; doing 
service (Mnon.). 

qTfV^-ci bkah nan-pa to obey; be 
obedient; q'']'*'*^''! to disobey; i"H'3*r 
f^TTI an observer of orders or precepts. 
qT)q-i|^ bkah gftan the cruel commander ; 
ace. to Lex, btsan-pahi sa Mag, "the 
mighty lord of the soil," is said to be a 
pre-Buddhist deity (Ja.). 

qi]n.-ji|^-q bkah gnan-pa 1. severe retri- 
bution from guardian deities for defects in 
worshipping them ; also the injury they 
do their devotees for impropriety in their 
conduct or language. 2. damnation into 
which both a teacher and his pupil fall 
for disclosure of secrets of their doctrine 
without authority. 

qiyvfli^-qfr^ bkah-ffnan brjid a weighty 
command or injunction. 

1. a 



proclaimed order : |wqg<ij*rq { s a l so 
colloq. called ^v^ipi bkar-btags. 2. 
^ftrfrf^ one versed in drawing omens; 
an astrologer (q"]^'i|?<iprci) (jj y. Q2). 

qT|<V5<i|*i bkah-rtags mark seal ; precept ; 
maxim (Cs.) : *ifi^'^v=yi\-^ (Tig. k. 27}. 

iT'ift bkah-stod a subaltern; agent 
(Sch.) 

IT bkah-than =. ew^c. bkah-lun order ; 
edict (Jd.) ; written order ; command ; 
commandment; precept (Os.). 

bkah-t/iam=g,w phyag-dam 
'|"I dam-phrug, seal; chief seal : <w\v 
*ipp3nwiitw4ifi received the 
letter containing the chief seal of the 
Grand Lama and enclosing a scarf with 
charmed knots (Tig. k. 75). 



bkah drag-pa phab-pa to 
command sharply, hastily or severely 
(Sch.) ; to issue an ultimatum. 

IT'V bkah-drin, resp. for \* drin 
TOT?, a favour, kindness, grace, boon: 
trw*<q<i^|?| through the kindness of the 
lama. 



bkah-drin-can= 
byams-pa dan Idan-pa kind; gracious; 
benevolent (Mnon.). 

*vi\*.\s;l, bkah-drin-che very gracious; 
(you are) very kind; the usual phrase for 
our ^ thank you," in acknowledgment of 
a kindness or favour common in letters, 
&c. 



bkah-drin-che shm-pa to 
say it is an act of great kindness ; to 
acknowledge kindness ; to thank. 

TVli-fWi bkah-drin rje$-su dran- 
pa to remember a benefit or kindness 
received. 



bkah-drin smn-dp ya fi s to 
bear in mind or remember the kindness 
obtained of another person. 

*T'V^Y<i bkah-drin mdsad-pa to 
bestow a favour; to show kindness. 

P^VTO*^ bkah-drin gsum-ldan pos- 
sessed of or making use of the three graces 
or courtesies, viz. : (1) ^iftc^jj-c, teaching 
of the sciences; (2) ^|^-q^- f explaining 
the ^aphorisms and the Tantra; (3) ^qe.- 
S ''l^' ' blessing and ordaining. 

bkah-drin &sol-wa to thank ; 
to be grateful for favours. 

bkah-drufi. a secretary of state. 

hkah-gdams an advice; coun- 
sel ; instruction from a high official. 



an 



adviser (Sch.), 2. the reformed Buddhist 



school of Tibet founded by n^ir^ 
*i cq R", the chief disciple of Atisha. It 
was divided into two stages : ^H'Wl*' 
or dUVflRwrSffe,-* the earlier school from 
Bromston to Tsongkha-pa, and dip-fl|S*w 
ijwti or the modern school, said to be 
identical with that now called Gelug-pa, 
dating from Tsongkha-pa downwards. 
The earlier Bkah-pdams-pa were distin- 
guished for their elaborate ritual and for 
their power of propitiating deities. The 
members of the later Bkah-gdam-pa have 
been remarkable for scholarship and 
linguistic erudition. 

qT^-iftw^-gc- frkah-pdamt pho-brafi the 
palace where the Grand Lama of Tashi- 
Ihun-po resides. 

qip-^<i bkah-mdah a contraction for 
"T'sh' 1 ^*"^' 1 ^ bkah-blon-dafi mdah-dpon, 
minister and general (Yig. k. 52). 

qip-^-XwI-j-w* bkah-hdui chos-kyi 
rgya-mtsho a kind of ritualistic obser- 
vance of the Rdsogs-clien sect of the 
Rnin-ma Buddhist School in which a parti- 
cular deity with his followers is depicted. 

q^A-<^*4 ikafr hclogs-pa to make into 
law ; to proclaim ; a proclamation (/a.). 

qnp-q^sw bkah-hdoHit^fV-'W or **ftn 
instruction; order. 

^T'tft bka-idod, also written as ^'P'^, 
one waiting for orders; an attendant 
011 a superior; an aide-de-camp; one's 
guardian deity is also called by this 
epithet : *<*^^|'<rtft < S|VrB| (A. 13) 
"he who has propitiated the lord of 
death to serve him as his attendant 
spirit." 

qip-qjrq tyah bsdu-tca collection of the 
doctrine (Jd.) ; synopsis of the scriptures 
at the grand Buddhist convocations ; also 



the convocations where the precepts of 
Buddha were promulged. 

dip-fl^'d bkah gnafi-ica, vb., to order, 
command, grant, permit ; an order ; per- 
mission : ^>^'8'jrtft'^rlHr*i|'i < ^iiifWj 
I beg you will give her as a consort to 
our King of Tibet (Jd.). 

qn|Vflfi*i Bkah-ffnam = "\'"\f a district in 
the east of Koiig-bu ; also n. of a district 
of Ngari Khorsum in "Western Tibet. 

bkah-phebt a great man's order. 
kka/i-phrin (ka-tin) a message. 

b_kah-hphrm letter of command : 
to write or issue a letter 
containing instructions. 

qip-qq^ I: kah-babs an injunction; a 
direction. 

dip-cm n : bkah-babt the fulfilment of 
a commission ; also the lama or saint who is 
commissioned with some high duty. When 
a lama at the command of his spiritual 
instructor fulfils what was entrusted to 
him, he is said to be a bkah-babs. 

q^-qq^q^j bkah-babs b_dun n. of a his- 
torical work on later Indian Buddhism 
by Lama Taranatha. 

qip-qqw-q^ tyah babs-bshi the four 
commissioned ones (see dip-qq). 

q>r)vq*i bkah-bam^of^-^ order; dip- 
loma: Wjrw-lftijHKrt*'!*-^!! the object 
of sending the autograph letter (Rtsii.). 

^g*! bkah-bris, resp. dip-^flj bkah-yog, 
a letter; a written authority, generally in 
autograph : ^K^I l V* l Vr* l ^'9*' l W*'f i r i ' wr 
prtow^V'S'^P'ry*! it is very gracious 
of you to favour me with your autograph 
and enclosure presented by the hand of 
the Don nyer (F^. *. llf). 



65 



%*i' a minister 
(Mnon.). 

qip-nqq-q bkah-hbab-pa the going forth 
of an order or edict (Schr.). 

q"l<v<*g*i bkah-hbum the hundred thou- 
sand precepts; n. of a religious work. 

q^-ejfq^-q bknh-blo W-?z=qT|<vipSffq 
bkah-blo go-wa; \yfv^n (flag.) 1. at- 
tentive ; executing an instruction or order 
with attention; one who is cheerful at 
heart owing to his attention to ic.'q'*w. 
2. one who easily understands what he is 
ordered to do; one who appreciates his 
superior's instruction. 3. ^^^ speaking 
well; eloquent; q*|VsfS)-q^q bkah-blo 
mi-bde-wa f4^ one whose expression 
or delivery is not good. 



"F'Sfr bkah-blon or H|r$'sft-Zj bkah-yi 
blon-po, the name given to the four Cabinet 
Ministers who assist the Gyal-tshab or 
Eegent in the administration of the Govern- 
ment of Tibet during the minority of the 
Grand Lama of Lhasa. The four Kalbn 
must be laymen and are often military 
officers. Popularly they are styled Shape 
) : qTVfrq|lswr.*|flj bkah-blon gzims- 

the residence of a bkah-blon. 



bkah-blon drufi-hkhor the 
official staff of a Kalon. 



ka-blon-bshi (particularly) the 
four ministers whom the 4tn Manchu 
Emperor K'ien-lung (in Tibetan called 
Lha-skyon Protected of Heaven) appointed 
to conduct the state affairs of Tibet. They 
were S^T W^'f ^ Kim-dgah-bshi No-yon, 
H ^e.^qc.-jai Tshe-rin dwan-rgyal of GyaA 
Ron, Xftt Thon-pa, and '^' Rtse-drun 
of Po-ta-la. These four governed the 
country for twenty-seven years from the 
year of the iron-sheep (Lofi. 16). 



bkah-blon-gsum the three 
ministers who conducted the Government 
of Tibet from the year of the fire-horse to 
the middle of the year of the earth-ape. 
Their names were : **p'sfVQsr<rq bkah- 
blon Lum-pa-wa, i^-^^^n bkah-blon 
Jna-pfiod-pa of Kon-bu, and i^'g^'l^'^'q 
bkah-blon Sbyar-ra-wa. 



spiritual or 
intellectual heir-loom. This -is a philo- 
sophical term of the Snin-ma School, 
meaning the descent of the bkah (Bud- 
dha's word) in an unbroken succes- 
sion or without being kept concealed ' 
for a period. One who has received such 
a succession, or any scripture that has 
come down to him in such a manner. 

qf|rs<E.-3*r:i bkah-man thim-pa to con- 
tain many precepts or commands ; one on 
whom there are instructions or commis- 
sions to perform. 



*i bkah gtsan-ma. one whose 
morals are pure; one who has preserved 
his vows. 

q*p-|Earq bkah-itsol-wa, pf . stsal, to speak ; 
to say (where an honoured person is the 
spokesman) ; according to circumstances, 
to command, ask, beg, relate, answer, 
&c., especially in ancient literature, in 
which it is almost invariably, used of 
Buddha and of kings speaking. 



or 



a reply in the way of instruction : 



" pray favour me with replies on internal 
affairs (uninterruptedly) like the flow of 
the river of gold " ( Tig. k. 15.) 

q*|<v<^ bkah-hdsin letter of authority 
or commission from Government (issued to 
one who is on the move or who is to 

10 



exercise some kind of power over the 
people) to afford facilities for travelling or 
for carrying out a mission : *)'*rti5'rgv 

commission was issued to despatch hither 
a man who would frame settled laws and 
shew energy. 

qT]vqi^'^'q b_kah-bsMn byed-pa to do 
according to order ; doing ; ordered : c ^' 
qi^-^-q to be obedient; a faithful servant. 

qiipAq'^gswci bkah rab-hbyams-pa a doc- 
tor of divinity among the monastic 
scholars of Tibet; one who has acquired 
the highest proficiency in the Buddhist 
sacred literature and is of pure morals. 

tj!|rsWi b_kah-rais-pa one who has 
passed the highest examination in Bud- 
dhist metaphysics ; one who has reached 
the highest of the 13 classes in the 
Sfctshan-nid grva-tshaft, the metaphysical 
school in the great monastic establish- 
ments of Tibet. 

qi^ar^'q bkah-la rtsi-wa to give heed 
. to or attend to an instruction or precept ; 
to listen to any advice. 

q^'^E. bkah-lufi an order ; a precept : 
qiyv^t-qflt/q to command or give orders; 
to issue an injunction. 

qf|n-ajq| bkah-log=1l'*ii\ grla-log (ta-log) 
one who has given up his religious vows ; 
a BuddHist monk turned out of his 
monastery for misconduct. In KIiam$ 
he is called bknh-log; in Middle Tibet 
ta-log. 

qi]V-*jq| bkah-sag the court or council- 
house of the four kildn or ministers of 

0ViHq*r!'*r|.'^sr;ijc.-q^-'^-g,*i |j wne n the 
warrant officer registers the document at 
the court of kaldn he should also verify it 
at the Account Office (Rtsti.), 



b^-ah-fog any writing of autho- 
rity from a superior ; decree ; diploma ; 
passport ; official paper or letter ; *)T' 'vT 
ff* bkah-$og rdsun-ma a fabricated autho- 
rity ; spurious writing or deed ; qiyv-3fa'^*r 
1 bkah-$og rim fkyel to circulate a pass- 
port or an official order ; serial letters sent 
one after another. 

wii-fl^im bkah-gsal= tup'ify order ; official 
message: V^Ftrtir^fimbp to send a 
message or express order one after 
another. 

qT]H r e'J5'S b_kahi-rfia-ico-che proclamation 
by the beat of drum (Yty. k. 18). 

q^'^-ci^ bkahi cod-pan an instruction 
or precept to be received with perfect 
obedience ; to value or honour an order ; 
a command carried out with the same 
respect as that with which a man carries 
his own head-dress. 

qT)5-*(^-e^ bkahi mdun-blon resp. sfa'5 
blon-po minister: 



my humble self bearing the title of 
state minister together with the circle of 
attendants, both lay and clerical officials, 
are in good health ( Yig. k. 6). 

EH] 3 ^ bkar or -n^'t according .to* 
the law ; to legalize ; to make it into law 
(Os.) ; to proclaim, publish (./a.) ; q*|V 
frffl-n^n to publish ; publication : 
, for 



1. W-ar-wrapf.of vb. 

separate, put. aside, select, 
banish: fl]^*r^*rq | ']Vi banished from his 
place. 2. to ask any question captiously ; 
to make a peevish enquiry. 

3Tp'3 bkal-wa, pf. of ^'i, but in 
W. is the primary form of the verb 
meaning 1. to load ;. to burden ; put a load 
on (Cs.) : wqipi'q to load wool : (" 



67 



to load a beast of burden, &c. : 01 Hprq 
to levy a tux. 2. pf. of r>w to spin ; 
| spun; twisted (Nag. 5). 



bkal-thags a kind of 
stuff made of coarse goat-hair about nine 
inches in width: Vi*WJT\Mrt| s r*^r8r 

1* | ra spu nag-lna re, la bkal-thags byas-par 
with every five pounds of goat's hair to 
weave one blanket (Rtsii.). 

3TJSJ bkas, contraction s^' 5 )*) instr. 
of wp. 

PTj^'^J bkas-pa=*cp 1. crack, split, 
cleft. 2. pf. of ^'i. 



bku-wa 1. elixir, quintessence 
(Cs.) ; ffi'13 'medicinal extract. 2. with 
pf. i 1 !!*)' 5 ! to make extract of a drug by 
drawing out the juice (Lex.); wq$ 
melted butter; i^'^i^i to extract the 
spirit of ; ^5T^' bku phyuft spirit extracted 
(Cs.) ; jfl'i:iN'5' ! fc' 1 ' to extract medicine 
by infusion. 

Mug-pa pf. of vyp* '^TWI, 
* 1 , drawn or pulled forward; 
summons (Yig. 7). 



bkum-pa, pf. of ^wi, but 
pres. in W. and according to Lex. fut. 
WMOT, pf. S5*wi, to kill, to destroy ; 
ql* to cut off the edge ; fix a 
boundary to. 

s^'l bkur-sti %, H^^n;, i&^T, uft- 
^aiT honour, respect, homage ; mark of 
honour; respectful reception (by asking 
one to sit on a seat of honour) ; i^'jp'^'S'i 
bkur-sti mchod-pa to distinguish (a per- 
son) by marks of respect (Zam.) ; ^IJTHTJV 
f '^'^ ran-la bkur-sti hbyufi-dus when 
honour is shewn to (one's self) yourself 
((To.) ; ^^'l^^"!^ bkur-tis dreys sense of 
honour ; . self-respect : S'l^ 



| mi chen-po rnamg-fa bkiir-ftt's 
dregs-pa yod great men have the sense 
of dignity. 

Syn. . i*Y<i mchod-pa ; ^ 3] rim-gro ; 
bsnen-bkur ; ^^3*1 ri-mor btjas ; 
s/iabs-tog ; ^WR|f shals-hbrin ; 
bkur-iea; Vwi|^ -> gnff; 
nc-irar spyod ; i\l rjcd-pa (Mnon.). 

l I: 6to--;a=:W*Yi 1. to pay 
homage or reverence ; to esteem. (t'5i' 
qTjvqS-gucQ jrfT<r TTSTT literally "the 
king honoured of many " was the name 
of the first king of the world according 
to the Buddhist legendary account. 2. to 
carry ; to fetch ; to convey in W. being also 
pf. of W 1 ! ; J if E .'^' i^') to carry upward. 



slander ; to blashpheme ; 
not to accept as true or correct (Lif. p 4) 

q^'q^'^'4 bkur-icar byed-pa the act of 
respecting; to do honour; frq. to make 
reverence, to salute. 

1^ ^ bkur-tshig=^'&'**\ bsiod-pahi- 
t&hig words or expressions of honour, 
some of which are: ngqm'ifoi bsfiags- 
hos; flgiJN'i "ifs bsnag-pa brjod; 
stod-$mra; x^'li) mchod-tshig; 
mtho-war-lya ; lfS -{| '9 stod-pa ?mra; ^' 
che-brjod; wSflj'g 
byim; tf^^rmad 

'g legs-smra; "|i=.*roj^'i gzcns-bstod-pa ; 
safi (Mrlon.). 

Aos worthy of respect ; 
respectable. 

"tfjTi bkog-pa, pf. of ^1'i. 



q W-OW-M-O, pf. of ^'P. When 
Q^ 6/;on is joined with a to form the 
compound word sj'i^ it means 
threat, menace. 



*>^ bskos to appoint; to 
raise to the throne. 

ZTfj^'P bkod.-pa, v. I'M w?, iron, 
SJTW 1. sbst. 3J 1 * 1 fi"' a ^ or D"'* 1 arrangement ; 
. fljvq|w order or arrangement ; method of 
Arranging ; applied to mind, as in 
the meaning is meditation, 

. 2. vb. = to build, arrange, plan, 
&c. 

trt^-crsm-urtj ^J^^WT of boundless or 
infinite design ; the universe ; n. of a great 
Bodhisattva. 

qf[yi5'<i|3i|'i}fc bkod-pahi g.tug-gtor= 
^fl|'5' jrZj the prince of learning ; science. 
otj^-^w bkod-hdomi=&\*\'Tfa'i bkod- 
ston-pa (Tig. k. 23). 

o^fS'i?. bkod-blta (colloq. flfr^ b,kob-lta) 
the plan of an undertaking ; design ; plot. 



bcu-ffcig-pa or S$^ I'^S 6 ^ dgun-zla hbriA- 
po the eleventh month of the Tibetan year, 
sometimes corresponding with January 
(Ktsii.). 

^ bkon-pa, pf. of ^' hyon-pa. 



bkor-hdre seems to be a kind 
of goblin (/a.). 

q^jm'g^ bkol-spyod n. of a torment ; 
torture from being boiled in water or oil : 
gr*cfl|('|V!-|W|-qgi byol-son bkol-tpyod- 
kyi sdug-b?nalihe sufferings of the damned 
through the torture of being boiled. 



J bkol-wa occasionally pf . of 
hkhol-u-a, to boil ; usually indicates |ftrfl to 
bind to service ; to employ ; ^'| l \" I ^l' J '' cl 
snod-spyad bkol-ica a boiling vessel ; "I^T 
^n^aj-s. gyog-tu bko-wa to take into ser- 
vice ; l^'S'ilJTs to set aside ; to keep out. 



bkyal-trd 1. to talk nonsense 
(/o.). 2. K-l'ism'P to rave in speech ; to talk 



nonsense : 



, v. 



in the colloq. of 

Tsang= < *J3 l T l < hkhyig-pa to tie (by a 

rope); $! = qSwi bound, tied, 
fastened (Mfion.). 



bkye-wa, pf! and futT of 
but in W. is used as the only form of 
the verb = to send, despatch; to cause to 
come forth: 5 r yqjj pho-na bkye despatch- 
ed an envoy: fS'13 ho$ bkye sent forth 
rays : {jui'Tfljj sprul-pa bkye caused a form 
to emanate: fft^'flji ston-nto bkye made 
an exhibition of. 

^SV^ Wytf-pa, pf- to bend back; 
recline (vb. nt.). 



= ^'i rdufi-wato beat 
(Ja.) ; fl'fp'iijft'i resp. to chastise with 
words, to scold (Jd.). Schtr. mentions 
cq chiding. 



bkra-wa (ta-wa) cog. to H -J 5 
, ftf^H variegated ; beautiful, 
blooming (of complexion) ; glossy, well- 
fed (of animals) ; 13'^ *wf^ a great 
painting ; qj'wut^q f^RfT a painter : 
jj]'i!$'^'?r^ with variegated figures; paint- 
ings : qytW'Sv^'wr^ f^-Miiy^iT a radiant 
or illuminated zone or halo : 15 -U frmfw, 
variegated ; with shades of colour. 

'lw bkra-wahi skad-hbyin n. of 
the bird called Garghotigata ; W^^'ffc 
Sv t (Mnon.). 

a I!'IS bkra-lyed=^' %>'#?>*( ri-mo-mkhun 
a painter (Mnon.). 

*H'^t-^w bkra fintfrnar parti-coloured; 
on a red ground. 



69 



glaring; 
in glare; R'f 1 Hrrf8* 1 *lw3Ftrft 1 

n^q|-H the beauty or effect produced by 
variegated colours as in a painting ; the 
illumination of colours as set forth in a 
rainbow ; hence splendour. 



bkar-<;i$ 

prosperity ; blessing ; good luck : 
jj-^jrJjfli good fortune to my 
people \ may they prosper \ SJT^W'S'S 
holy- water; consecrated water or con- 
secrating water ; qj|'3*r$'wr auspicious 
bed; nuptial bed (Cs.); flST^"'!'**!' words 
of blessing; benediction; ^g'^"'l' q I*T e -' 
bkra-qis-kyi gso fbyofi fl^r iffa^ auspi- 
cious fasting ;i'!\'2\*'% e >' t &' 1 t\'*bkra-fis8ru1i- 
icahi go-cha instruments used for insuring 
luck ; sacrificial ceremony by which 
blessings are to be drawn down (/a.) ; 
qjj-S)-i propitious; lucky; 
good omens; lucky signs; 
bkra-qis-pahi rtags lucky configurations or 
semblances ; happy omens ; flj'^'w n<$<&\ 
n. of a goddess; the goddess of glory 
(7a.) ; *2|'*i'S|r misfortune ; calamity ; 
qjj-D-^wq calamity; adj. wretched; 
unlucky. 

sj|'3|ri|e,' Bkra-fis g.lin n. of a place in 
Khamt (Lon. * 25). 

qj'^-qg^'q?'*^ b_kra-fis brgyad-pahi 
undo n. of a short sutra in K. d. * 76 
which contains the names of eight Bud- 
dhas. Whoever recites it and meditates 
on the perfections acquired by the 
Buddhas escapes from the dangers of evil 
spirits and demons. Such a devotee can 
easily have admission into the courts of 
kings and address the highest authorities 
without let or hinderance. Remembrance 
of this effusion is believed to be a safe- 
guard against bad dreams and also 



mishaps or accidents in war, and in 
repelling offensive weapons. 

nj'^N'^it bkra-fig ^go-man n. of a 
monastery in Amdo. 

qj|'3|*r^ bkra-$i$-can ^i\* n. of an 
incense (Mnon.). 

uj-^'Xsrlrc/ Bkra-gis chos-rdson the 
summer seat of the Government of Bhutan 
where the Dharma Eaja resides. It is 
ordinarily called Tassisudon on English 
maps. 

qj-^-qf^ci bkra-$i$ brjod-pa f<sflf?li 
auspicious expression ; a benediction. 

33j - ^*r?'|*r]J^ bkra-fis rtags-brgyad the 
eight auspicious signs or emblems, viz. : 
(1) ^'^'*|^fl ^siTa the precious or 
jewelled umbrella ; (2) "J^''9 '5^5' 
the golden fish ; (3) fl|3vl^ei5-gr 
grw the pot of treasures; (4) 
TTO the- excellent lotus; (5) 
<P1HW llf the white conch-shell with 
whorls turning to the right; (6) V"' 
S'^'i *51<(<M the auspicious mark repre- 
sented by a curled noose emblematical of 
love; (7) wSfli'fyjirw^ gsr the chief 
standard of victory, i.e., the emblem of 
royalty; (8) fl^vg-^-* ^i^r the 
golden wheel. 

IH'^' W*^ bkra-fis rtags-can possessed 
of auspicious marks: aifli')-ii]'^*)'5ii'^'|i' 
T?! 9'>=.-^^w?q-q^|^-q-^ai| a glossy hand 
possessing auspicious lines will cause one 
to obtain both a son and wealth (K. d. 



-dkar yyas-hkhyil ?f%mic(irt!M(f- a conch- 
shell with its whorls turning to the right 
instead of to the left (Mnon.). 

Syn. ^-*(&i| dun-mchog; |'l'g'i skye-wa 
lna-pa; yt'%'*$t'H rgyal-po hkhyit-wa 
fl (Mnon.}. 



70 



Man 
auspicious ; lucky. 

bkra-cis-pahi rdsas 
w*r, *if<5H'rer lucky articles. 



)'| Bkra-fig-pahi yi-ge n. of a 
kind of (mystic) writing which is consi- 
dered auspicious. 

fll bkra-fis-par gyur-cig 
may you enjoy prosperity. 



n. of a goddess (K. g. S 112). 

"U'^w'Si '**' Bkra-fif blama 1. Tashi 
Lama, the name by which the Panchhen 
Lama of Tashilhun-po is known in India 
and Europe. 2. a lama priest who 
officiates at a marriage ceremony in 
Sikkim : qj^^-g-^-qj^^l'il^-ww^- 5' 
^-a|-|a|-aic.-| the Tashi lama will touch 
with the auspicious offerings (for the gods) 
the head of the bride. 



kra-$is-rtse (Tashi-tse) n. of a 
village in the district of Stod-lufi in Tibet. 

J^'^'it'il Bkra-$is-bt8cgs (Tarfn'&eg- 
pa) n. of a brother of King Skyid-lde 
Rimahi mgon, who settled down in Mfiah- 
ris in Western Tibet (Lofi. * 8). 

ayj\ve>^iH^-cia.-sf^ bkra-fis btsegs-pahi 
mdo n. of a work the reading of which 
produced auspicious occurrences. 



e''' : '5^ the eight lucky articles 
are (1) &'%* mirror; (2) 9|'il, medicinal 
concretion from the brains of elephant; 
(3) 3 curd ; (4) r^ Dai-grass ; (5) 3)f?flj 
^1 the wood-apple; (6) 
a right- whorled conch-shell; (7) 
vermillion ; (8) ^-^f|^ white mustard. 



bkra-$is rdsogs-pa 
completion of an auspicious work 
or event. 



Bkra-yis Umn-po (Tasbi- 
Ihunpo) the seat of the Panchhen Kin-po- 
che, the second Lama in Tibet, ordinarily 
called Tashi Lama, ranking nest to the 
Dalai Lama of Lhasa. The grand monas- 
tery of this name adjoining the town of 
Shiga-tse in Tsang harbours 4,880 monks, 
presided over by the Tashi Lama. 



bkrag (ta 

mdang yod-pa 1. dazzling 
brightness; lustre; *^ mdan$ also 
qjni'*^^ e.g., glitter (of jewels). 2. -^^ 
beautiful appearance ; high colour (of the 
face, skin) ; -|-q;]<J|-*i<^ pure gloss of the 
skin ; i3||-X very bright (Jd.). 

i fair or 



Mxl/rr- 



fine complexion. 

Syn. ^w^ mdan$-can ; 
wa (Itlnon.). 



or 
dull appearance; bad complexion (Milan.}. 

CJTp'tl bkrab-pa (tab-pa) pf. fljwti 
to choose or select from among many ; 
aXl'g'qgi nichoy-tu bkrab exquisite choice 
(Lex.). 

CJ'TJJJ'CI bkram-pa (tarn-pa), pf. JJ*w, 
a form of "H*'" sra?hJr, ^ren, ^^t^ to 
spread over, scatter. 

Syn. *$p*' c i d(jram-pa\ J*,Ti brdal-pa 
also 1?V1 ytor-iva *X*>*\H hthord-pa fttwl* ; 
gtsug^-pa (Mnon.). 

bkral-wa (tal-tva) 1. pf. of 
(Cs.) ^^'|'^'^-aii-wn3 | 3cqi 
elucidation (of the meanings of the terms 
in the Sutra and the Tantra). 2. to 
appoint: warsjor^to engage iij business. 



bkrag in the passage ^w-^-gt- 
<53J here means rolled or 
varnished in variegated colours. 



71 



'<i bkras-pa (te-pa) an abbreviation 
of ^nj'^N'q, according to Sc/t. also pf . of 
the verb ^H'*! : QJJN'SJil** for flJ'3|*i'F' l i5 fl l'' 
an auspicious scarf for presentation on the 
occasion of a visit or some ceremony or 
festivity. 

qj]*r$c.- bkras-lun(Te-lung) n. of a valley 
in Tibet (Deb.U)- 

qijg-aw BJira$-lhun (Tei-lhun) *nf^t=Z a 
contraction of 'T|'^''^'3 (Tashi-lhun-pq) ; 
also a heap or mountain of glory or auspi- 
cious objects. 

c\ ^ 

f ^U'3 bkri-ica (ti-ica) 1. pf. of ^BS'* 1 
to conduct according to order, e.g., one 
after another. 2. for ^' q *H, to wrap. 
3. to draw ; to try ; to acquire ; to search 
for. 

bkrid-dran (ti-dang)^*'^' 1 *''^' 
the black discipliner of the unsub- 
dued; the black and horrible (assumed) 
appearance of Mafiju Ghosa Bodhisattva to 
lead the sinner into the path, of righteous- 
ness and virtue : S*' 1 ' "a^^'^'B'' the 
dreaded (Bon) deity who leads or drags 
the subdued straight onward (D. R.). 

03*1 bkris an abbreviation of sj| - *|w 
bkra-qis. 

qi<j*rq bkris-pa (ti-pd), pf. of a ^\' i . **>' 
q-aj-q^-q thar-pa-la b^kris-pa conducted to 
emancipation or Nirvana. 

^U bkru (tu), fut.of |9 k/irus,v. sy^ 

(jyi ?nod %^s? iTrt washing bowl ; to wash 
a vessel, plate, &c. : "3'S bkru-bya, ^'55il' 
mt,-uic.-|5-*^, clothes, etc.^ to be washed. 

CITJ^tTP bkntg-pa (tug-pa) probably an 

incorrect reading of S3PT1. 

N'l bkrus-pa, pf. of |5 khrus. 



CJTJ Bkre (teh) n. of a place in Khams, 
which is also called ujj'^T^c. Bkre-nag 
tshan. 

q 3'^ Bkre-hor (te-hor) n. of a section of 
the Sgo-man department of the monastic 
school of Dapung. 

. Z^TJ3j'| bkren-pa (ten-pa), ^fa 1. 
poor, indigent, hungry ; ^flfrfl'^fjV 
l ^fl a country where resources are 
scanty (Lex.). 2. WTO miserly, stingy. 

"55^3 bkren-po =*&'* a beggar; desti- 
tute person. 

Syn. Jfc'd'S nor-med; i5wq hphons-pa 
(Mon.). 

tf^/c^K bkres-skom, contraction of ^ ' 
^^q ; hungry and thirsty : WTW^^^T 
^q|c.-ai-uic,-s)-Bi^| this tobacco does not allay 
in any way either hunger or thirst : ilj*'' 
^tarWlq^^T}) leading from hunger 
and thirst to satiety (Ja.) : q'SK-w^g<ii*<- 
D-q^q'^-qTj*r$j*rai | the cow's milk removes 
hunger and thirst and hard breathing." 

qT|*r^ bkres-nas wfam being hungry. 

^, CJT]^'C| bkres-pa (tch-pa) to be 
hungry; also hunger. In. C. resp. for 
"hunger" ; I2iwwi to have ravenous 
appetite (Sch.) ; ^'^'i .the appetite 
or feeling of hunger ; honorific term : 



on arriving .at the top of a barren 
mountain, he felt hungry and was sup- 
plied with food (Deb. *|. 7). 

^, CJTj^^'CJ bkrofis-pa resp. term for 
killed; dead. 



q bkrol-wa (tot) pf. of hgrol-wa 
vb. trs. to untie, to loosen ; also in W. is the 
only form in use : ^^'i'ti^fi'i mdud-pa 
bkrvl-wa the knot untied, 



II 



72 



bf ids-pa bkrol-wa set free from bondage ; 
gm-qjarn khral bkrol-wa remitted revenue 
or rent ; ^wrujarq dyof>s-pa bkrol-wa 
forgiven, pardoned, &c. 

fljw b.kro$ (toi) = **pwn to choose; to 
select; imp. "ifa'^l bkros-fiy (Sit it. 105). 

j|iFi bklays-pa pf. of sS^'i to have 
read ; done reading : ajp!'i'^S wishes to 
read or sing. 



^j rka or $5'*| chuhi-rka or ^'^='H'*'$ a 
gutter; a small channel on the roof of 
a house or at the edge of the roof 
for carrying off the rain ^'iS-jj; small 
furrow conveying water from a conduit 
to trees or plant* ; furrow between the 
beds of a garden ; hence even flower-bed. 

*f$5 - 3fpt Rka chuhi lha khafi n. of a 
monastery near Sam-ye. 

flj' rkad I: 1. marrow, pith. 2. 
descent, extraction, origin : ^ft - ^'S5' 
SOTV&vqpqfr^n^i "for example, 
the mule on which the Goddess Paldan 
Lhamo rides is called rkaA gsttm, on 
account of a so-called three-fold origin " 
(its father is an ass, mother a mare 
but in itself it is neither of them, but 
a mule !). 



Xf II: 1. stuff: *Fw|-Hi-<i^ it is of 
good stuff : *|e.-uiq|-r!r*>-<^fl| jt is not of good 
stuff. 2. bundle ; a collection : 3r*i t ' q lS<| 
a bundle of grass : g^'l^"! a tuft of hair : 
l a skein of yarn. 



J rkafi-pa resp. 
1. foot, leg, hind leg of a quadruped: ff-' 
q-S)-i|^c ^rf*rf%Bi trr?: not throwing the 
foot (Mfion.). 2. lower part, lower end, 
e.g., of a letter : *|=.'^'*^ having a foot, so 
the nine letters are called that extend 



below the line IT'*!, etc. (Jd.). 3. a 
metrical line, verse. 4. base founda- 
tion : r*! a r9'*F' c '' q ^ rdsu-hplmd-yyi rkan- 
pa bshi f%<n^ the four feet (stages) of 
performing miracles. 

gyn. ^W s/iabs; fl'g'S rgyu-byed; *%' 
> hijro-byed; ^'^ byrod-bycd ; |1'S 
rgyuy-byed (Mnon.). 

^'3"I kafi-kyoy bandy-legged. (Jd.) 

*f-' J rkafi-kri (knng-ti) a piece of cloth 
to wrap round the legs (Sch.). 

*f,-tftfa rkafi-bkod i||<(jm the manner 
of walking ; ^fJTqj'tW'w rkafi-pa bkru- 
wabi sa m?'yi<<(i*l the place for washing 
the feet. 

*l*-qj]'*i Rkan-bkra-ma = ^'^ born of 
the hill-rat; a name of Agastya Muni 
(Mnon.). 

'tf.'!*' rkafi-$kyeg n. for the Sudra caste 
(of India) which originated from the foot 
(of Brahma) (Mfion.). 

^t'H Rkafi khra (Kang-tha) n. of a king 
of Ancient India : |'^*|fl" | NF|| > ! W 
pt^tnr^K^rtwycM-tV^ i "like the 
Indian Kings, Rkafi Khra, and Rab snan 
and others, their lineage on the mother's 
side was also from apes, etc." (</. Zan.). 

^'jgi rkan khrab (kang-thab) iron shoes 
worn along with the coat of mail; that 
part of armour worn like boots from the 
foot to the knees ; greaves. 

*FJ9 rkafi-khri (kan</-t/ii=*\^'%i\*>) foot- 
stool (Mffan.). 

*F R B W rkan-hkhum (probably) having 
a foot contracted by disease (Lex.). 

*|C-qjff* rkafi-hk/tor bandy-legged (Sc/t.). 

**{* rkad-gos = *\wy* gos-lham 
Tibetan boots made of felt or of 
coarse serge. 



73 



*j*'flf rlcan-mgo 
of the foot. 



the fore part 



Syn. *)='$ rkan-rtse (Mnon.). 

rkan-mgyogs swift-footed : 13 ' 



mihu-rtsal rmad-du byufl-wa ykan-mgyogs 
rlun-dan mnam-pa gfig spyan-draiis 
invited (brought) one who was swift- 
footed like the wind and possessed of 
miraculous powers : Jp'wJ'ipr^Si'j/q the 
secret blessing of swift-footedness : *f~' 
riftvt^Sr^fWrWII (K. dun. 73) having 
acquired the grace of swift-footedness. 



rkan-hgro (kang-do) xi^n one 
who travels on foot; a vassal or subject 
paying his duty by serving as a messenger 
or porter (Cs.). 

*p,-a$n rkan-hgro$ also ff-'^ rkan-bros 
1. walking on foot. 2. domestic cattle ; 
breeding cattle. 



rkan-glin a trumpet made of the 
human thigh-bone used in temples ; also in 
travelling to keep off evil-spirits. 

rkan-rgyu *j*'W| a foot-soldier, v. 
]: infantry ace. to Cs. 



*)*'" rkan-brgya or=*F' l '' t i a centi- 
pede: ^*,K.-ujj-'>i<i|-qg-^'vciS-*>c.| "the name 

of the worm which has a hundred feet 
and arms" (Mnon.). 

*)C.-qj^-i rkafi brgyad-pa a fabulous lion 
having eight feet. An imaginary lion 
of Buddhist design with eight legs, 
generally found in sculpture and in 
Tibetan mythological pictures. 

*!*. rkafi-fiar the leg (Mnon.). 

*f>'i$*\'Q rkan-g.cig-pa u*M< i l one- 
looted, met. a tree ; the fabulous countries 
of the Hurafi and Tsti-ta, the people of 
which are said to walk on one foot. 



*Fl rkafi-rjes ^tf^si, ff^c footstep, 
foot-mark; a dog; "foot-follower." 

JF'if^'i rkan g.nis-pa mankind ; ^=.'i)^)' 
1^'5 the chief of bipeds; an epithet of 
Buddha or tfSfr^v^ (Mnon.) : Jl)i-qf^- 
^W-Xqi^^-j | San$-rgyas (Buddha) is 
the chief of the human kind. 



*jE.-t]fjq rkafi gtub ^31; a foot ornament ; 
a foot-bangle. 

^'^ rkafi-rten tRTf^'SPT a foot-stool ; 
trestle ; a raised ground or stone step on 
which, at the time of alighting from any 
conveyance, the foot is placed. 

*jc.-^q]N rkan-siegs or ^'1 ^ffl|*r^ 
foot-stool. 

Syn. *F^ rkan-rten ; ^'| rkan-khri ; 
g'q'i]$flj'i zla-wa g.cig-pa; i^tw'fq^ sfmbs- 
stels (Mnon.). 

fj=.'=-'3 rkfin-stcn-lu = ^''^^ the 
star of the golden flight or ^'1, a name 
of a fixed star (Mnon.). 



e star 
of higher flight (Mnon.'). 

^c,-e. rkan-thaA 1. on foot. 2. = ^' 
^1 t^rffW a foot soldier (Mnon.). 

*|C.-!ifq rkan-than-pa a pedestrian; if-' 
''R|m-q one travelling on foot ; to walk ; 
to go on foot. 

^vftm rkan-mthil m<c(<!i the sole of 
the foot ; foot-sole. 

*f,-Q>$z. rkan-hthun m^tf, metaph. for a 
tree, i.e., that which drinks or draws 
nourishment through its feet, or roots: 
^*Se.-^iVEj KHfTT^J, J g?rc^ the red tree ; 
the devil's tree. 

*FST" rkan drug-pa or fFITS;^ the 
six-footed, met. for the bee. 

11 



the described as "Sr*l[ dal-hgros; 

mango tree. bitl-hgros ; o^'^ le-lohi hgrof ; 

FTV r*a*-0rfft *S* foot-ring; ******** j3T*P sgeg-hgros; 
ban-le-like ornament worn on the foot. >'/* *0S ; WN kcjid-pahi hgros ; 

tfi-.flaw qoni-cuqs; %\*r% c W(ioi-$tab$; J fj*r* n " 
**'<Vi rkan-hdren also i^w^Vi, c-0-i 

" ' gom-rlals, JpT 

drawn by the foot ; shame ; disgrace. 

gom-pa hkliyor ; 

*f.-%*i rkan-ldan shoes ; that contains or j v<*|| myttr-hgro ; ^^'"-^ mgyogs-hgro ; 
holds the feet; also metaph. for a road, ^ A JJ ra ^g ro . *q-q rgyug-pa (Mnoti.). 



way, passage; ^ ^ ^.^.^ ^.j^. 

the lion's-tail tree (Mnon.). ^^ ^ ^{^^ 

^lf r*<J-s coarse woollen leg- ^.^.^ rto ^^,- w ^ tf ^ 

gings manufactured m Tibet. can = Q^ poultry ; a fowl (of which the 

i^-irqjui rifj-jw ir^a^f the legs weapon is in i ts feet). 

stretched : *K.'rqHw contracted legs ; ^ ,, 

**& rkan-phytn felt for covering the 
R|3^ = p'fl > \'q to rove, wander; to disperse, 

Ss . -&.X lg^ g 

^^q I banished from their country, by ^'^ ^^ Ul u PP r P art of the foot 

force of Karma they wandered forth and (Ja.). 

came to the country of Tibet. *f-'3! i * rkafi bral ftmi footless; help- 

^c.-q-^c.-q rkan-pa hthen-po UK 3 * 'a^: l e88 ! involved, 
lame. nf^'wan rkan hbam ^\^^\ a disease in 

rkan-pa g.sum-ldan = *pf>*' the foot; swelling in the foot; also 

he who is possessed of gout, 
three legs or three regions; Vishnu; an ^'^^ rkan-hlros or 'F'S*', v. *i e .'^lj'. 

epithet of Vais'ravana. ^.^ r /. afi . s i as M hidden feet) = gi 

^ 

Syn. i*^T | W Byan-phyogs bdag- a snake (Mnon.). 

j;o; jTtfi'joi rgyal-pohi rgyal; *$**'*$*; jfiC.-wifjc.'Sq] Rkan-ma rkan-chig n. of the 

IE.'m l ii dpal-fftt-r pwii-bdag; q l^'3'i*\ < 'l part of the nether world where the Naga 

gter-gyi bdag ; t^'Xi'g)^ mihi chos-ldan ; demi-gods reside. 

vi-q-Q tal-fas-po; i-iMr*-fl hod-yang ^. w r kan-mar pith; marrow: up- 

tsha-bo; w'Ql5.'is^ E-lahi brgud; ^'|^' ^--?.<ncq]E,'gij] 1 u(^'>i<i|^i;i''*|5)]'^'q^'3^| 

%q or-tbytn hdrcn-pa; ^Ifyt od- by mVtiing in any kind O f marrow, 

tbyin-rgyal; WA nor-gyi bdag; $* WHltraoted Iimb8 may be Bmoothened 

^^w rfftw-jr* char-hbcbs; Vfrrfr (,'. e ., straightened). 
byan-phyogs-skyofi (Mnon.). 

Syn. w^* wrfawg; R^IS khu-ica-byc4 

Hf.'VU.'^fK'^ rkan-pahi stabs-sgyttr dan- (Jfnow.). 
cing at the cadence of a song (Mnon.). ^.^ R ka fi_ mi(J ^^^ (TFWK) n. 

^c.-(5'^'|^ tkai-pahi hdu-bycd q<ti^l< of the founder of Nyaya philosophical 

the movements o f the feet which are sect in ancient India, 



75 



tl.zn-dmag infantry; a foot- 
soldier. 

Syn. *)*.* rkan-than *pw& rkan-pas 
rgyu; Vfeq* 3J*rq3ft ran stobs-kyis bgrod- 
<F-]vq rkan <;ar-u-a; qr*rwq lus-kyis 
hthab; WTfr-'Sfr lu$-kyi$ rgol; *i%wr<#-q 
mtshon-chas htsho-ica; '^FS' 1 ^' dpun-bu 
chun (Mf.on.). 

*F3T riian-rtsa, resp. <W|T s^aJs rtsa, 
general name for shoes in Tsang. In 
Tibet the sole of a shoe is generally made 
of a kind of durable grass, hence the name 
*f> $ rkan rtsa, foot-grass, signifies a 
shoe. 

f|*'i- rkan rise n^n? the fore part of 
the foot. 

*JC. - IJN rkafi-tahttgs=<&[*.ft* or yq 1 
C"I"'i to have a firm footing; to take 
root. 



fcran-fu foot-sore. 

r/erafi-fubs socks ; stocking. 
kan-sor toe. 



q^'sdX rkan mdser iron nails or spikes 
fastened to the boot-sole for climbing. 

ff-'uZn flea^-mfket=3fi'ytafi^ the 
As'oka tree, Joncsia n&oka Boxburgh 
(Mnon.). 

tf-'o^ rkan-bshi, *p-q^i four-footed; 
quadruped ; a beast ; also a chair or any- 
thing that stands on four legs; *jC 
m-J^fl-^-q lit. possessed of cattle ; 
a herdsman (Mnon.). 

^'"ic. kan-yan agile; quick in going 
or walking. 

*F'^^ kan-rin i : long shanks. 

*F^* ii : v. 45-g-fl|qi the crane ; ace. 
to some the grey species of duck (Mnon.). 

*je.-mw rkan-lam foot-path; a passage 
where a man can only pass but not ride. 

.^4^-q rkan-yar-pa^^^ a 
soldier (Mnon.). 

^' fkan yin treadle of a loom. 



1. sometimes used in the place 
of fl. 2. ^^ crrg the palate = ^*pj, which 
is an obsolete form: ^'3 - fa( rkan- 
mthahi rnil end of the palate or "gums 
at the end of the palate": yv*^ 9;^-^^ 
%*<Ww5-^-i "the six letters t, th, d, n,' 
r, 1, arise from the tip of the tongue and 
the front palate." 

WI rkan-phugila.Q cavity of the palate : 
TFr**3^, wwHS-ab-wj^-, these 
four letters come out from partly the 
cavity of the palate and partly the tip of 
the tongue. *fl'i the roof or centre 
of the palate: wq's-ab-e'^.^ q^rti^-^m-M 1 
^'S*-' I these seven letters are pronounced 
from the centre of the tongue and the 
middle of the palate. 

*I*TW rkan-mar the butter which is 
mixed with barley-flour to make a paste 
for the food of children and infants; bar- 
ley paste made with water or milk is apt 
to choke infants, so the Tibetan mothers 
mix in butter (Deb. "| 1C). 



| r /cam-pa or *Wfrt of passion- 
ate desire. The latter form q*j*ri is 
generally used; it signifies ^^ 
longing; M^ ^51? greed ; passionate : 
!^$''FKrr*pr<| bkur-sti dan rncd-pa 
la brkam-pa a longing for honours and 
gain : p'J*)-q-q^-j-^^ becomes eager for 
cakes. 



or 



rku-wa 'ft^ffh, pf. qJ*J, f u t. qj 
, imp. JN, to steal, rob; pres. 



S'^'SS steals, robs; qjs brku-bya an 
article to be stolen; ''J'S^'ir*' brku-byahi 
rdsas things that may be stolen ; also stolen 



76 



property. The six kinds of theft ace. to 
Buddhism are (1) wgwj-q hjab-bus 
rku-wa to steal or take away quietly 
another's property; (2) J"'5'*l tgytis-rkn- 
ica to rob a thing knowing all about it 
befcvwhand ; (3) *3*r*v i mthus-rku-wa to 
rob violently one's property; (4) fy* jj^' 
^TW3'-q to rob a thing promising to 
return it; (5) iX"F5'3' q to steal by con- 
cealment; (6) flm-arqjiir^-J-q to rob a 
thing by slandering another person 
(K. d.15). 

j-q^-qjpq rku-war bgraft-wa wnfrgnrf 
to count as stealing. 

3'*l*<i rktt-senif ^wfaw a mind to steal, 
or thievish mind. 



rknr bcug-pa 
rku-t/tabf-8u 

r:, the ten kinds of stealing according 
to Tibetan authors, vis. : *3'3'fl mthtif 
rku-wa to rob by means of incantations ; 
|'w3K3'fl sgyu t/iab$-kyi$ rku-wa to rob 
by producing magical illusions; ^'Wj-q 
hbrid-pat rku-wa to rob one by using 
threats ; apwwjq ^tarn-pas rkti-tca to rob 
by speech (by lying); 8H'S^Mr*rq to 
rob one by soft words ; ^vqwlvdfjrl'q to 
rob by saying that he will return the thing 
afterwards; W^T^-Jvq to steal by 
conjuring; W e ^3'3'i stealing by 
misapproprittion or breach of trust ; 
*E*rEj'j-q ct eating by gentle persuasion; 
Swj'q stealing by (imposing upon 
another in the name of) religion (Lofi. 
*15). 

J'9 rku-bya, same aa K'*i to keep 
secret, hide. 

3^'i^ tkun-sgyig thief's pouch ; a sort 
of smtll wallet. 

,. *j3'<^ rkuu-can a thief. 



rkmi-bcom plunder; highway 
robbery. 

^^q^-jj-gE.-q rkun-thabs-su blafi-tca to 
take away by thievish means. 

3^* rkun-nor stolen goods. 

J^'S rkiiH-po, fern. J^'* rkun-mo ?, 
%IT;, a thief, a robber. 

Syn. Mf'i jag-pa; l^ww yyos-ma; 
m^-m^-K.^ yan-lag fian ; w^'i ar-pa ; wg' 
hjab-bu-pa; Xwjl chom-rkun; *p**\'^- 
(fshan-duA; MwwJ'SS'B mtshams-kyi 
byed-po ; ^1'5' hoy-tu-rgyit ; X'Q chom-po 



.Ja(-3^-q|pq rkun-pot 
5^'i rkun-pos " byetf-pa the harm done 
by a thief. 

3^'^ rkun-dpon the head of a gang 
of wandering marauders. 

3^'* rkun-ma one who steals ; a thief ; 
also applies occasionally to theft. 

3^'f rkitn-rdsas stolen goods or things. 
Syn. 3^^ rkun-nor; ijpT^ Ikog-nor, 
stolen property (Mfion.). 

3^'9 E rkn-irun& guard; a watchman; 
to watch for thieves: jr^*'J<*W&' 
1* rkun-ma srun-rgyuhi ched-du khyi-p*o& 
feeding dogs to guard against thieves. 

JW tkub TH? vulgar word for the 
anus, backside, posterior ; colloq. ^^ or 



rkub-fkyod-par to move or 
shake one's hinder parts, a mode of 
nautch girl's dance in India. 

rkub-rgyag a chair to sit upon. 

rkub-ftegt a sitting bench ; a 
portable rest used by coolies. 

rkub-tshos buttocks (</.). 



77 



(cf.^*i'<i ?kem- 

pa) lean; meagre ((7s.): J'W^'W rke- 
war hgyur-war to grow lean, thin. 

^'^ fked-pa, also lift'" ^, ^T, the 
waist, more particularly that part where 
the girdle is worn ; also the loins ; also 
defined as "IS* n*t q|E. - the ends or notches 
of the bow which hold the string or to 
which the string is attached. 

Syn. q'*opr$*i ske-rags yul; w* 
bar-ma; $'g lus-phra (Mnon.). 

"%f\^ rked_-rgyun an ornament (chain) 
hanging from waist. 

" rked-hchu ftd*r the buttocks. 



rkcd-mdud anything twisted 
at the middle ; knotted- waist ; n. of a 
biscuit (Jig.). 

"^^*^-*l rkcd-nad can-ma, v. SY^YI'* 1 *^' 
^'^'1, a woman who has her monthly 
courses (Mnon.). 



rked-pa gyoii-pa stiff, unyield- 
ing waist: "^Y q 'l*' c i'i5''''^' w ''*i* the 
husband of the woman with a stiff waist 
will die (JT. d.^217.). 

^q-yq rked-pa, rgyur-wa (metaph.) to 
become a slave (female) : "^V"' J^' 5 ''"!!'^' 
qpfrfttv*!* | a woman whose waist has 
become bent like a bow becomes a maid 
servant (K. d. ^ 217). 

%q-*nj t ked-pa chag (lit. broken waist) 
to fail in a great undertaking: $* *(*& 
wrvflfe-^-q-^ if a fox (tries to) leap 
over a place where lions jump, he breaks 
his waist, i.e., dies in the attempt. 

^'"'S rked-pa phra a slender waist. 

n. of a fruit 



^Y^*< rked-sbom one with a large or 
broad waist ; a corpulent person. 

Syn. jf*r&'i Ido-wa che-wa; "jsjN'S'S 
g.m$-poche; ^|^'i lto-ldw-wa\ ij^'ri'^ 
ffsus-rdses can; g'q-^-q Ito-iva hphyun-wa; 
fY"'^'5 grog-pa chen-po; $Y | '^* 1 ' 2 ' grod- 
pa sbom-po (Mnon.). 

T\'>Y*" rke4-me$-ma a pretty woman ; 
=SY>Y*<H a woman with slender 
waist (Mnon.). 

+ "*|Y* rked.-so='*K*i rked-pa the waist : 
|t*f ^nf*'*'^*^ Sde-mig chufi- 
fiu sna-man-pos skuhi rked.-so hkhor-u-a (A. 
133) many little keys of different kinds 
surrounded his waist. 

s^ 

^'3 rko-wa, pf. *mp brkof, imp. W 
3"? rkos-fig 1. to dig, dig out; to hoe 
2. to engrave ; turn up ; till. 



: . = sifl) a 
that which digs; a mattock, shovel. 
2. fafao an arrow. 

*\'*\ n : v. S'fl byi-wa that burrows; a 
rat (Mflon.). 

"h'* rAo-ma a kind of small hoe for 
digging earth; n. of a bird called If * 
ko-ma ( Vat. sti.). 

WW rkoi-mkhan or ^'fMi or ^'> 
a digger ; one who hoes. 

'*| rkog-ma incorrectly for jffll'w 



ringworm ; itch (Cs.). 

V-I^VFV rkofi-po hbras chen n. of a 
skin disease with large eruptions ; also 
eruptions (Fa-.sc/. 



used in fever (Mnon.). 



' rkod-pa engraving; =^'i rko- 
wa, to dig or to engrave (Cs.). " , 



78 



j'^l rkon-pa net ; a fowler's net: 



(Nag.) to set up a snare to catch, birds is 
called rkon-pa hd&ugs-pa. 

Syn. S'S bya-tgya ; (J'^ bya-rkon 



b.rkam-chags VSfi passionate; 
also greedy. 

q^ 6>-fa/s J^wqjtrrf^q rkun-ma brku$ 
char-tea stolen : iWij'tfvq brkus-tc bor-ica 
to abandon or throw away a thing after 
stealing it. 

"i'hT^ brko-tpyod a gouge; an instru- 
ment to scoop out (Sett.) an instrument to 
engrave; Wj's5't fyrko-byahi sa ploughed 
land; tff*ri brkos-pa ^rra dug out; 
^N'5f brkog-p/ior a mould for making 
clay images: ^'tf'tf '^'"l^'^'g^' 



*%& I in the time of the Lhatho- 
thori dynasty there fell on the top of the 
palace a book called Spafi gkon phyag-rgya 
and a mould for clay miniature images 
and brought the commencement of the 
holy doctrine. 

qjjq-N brkos-ma sculpture; anything 
that has been engraved upon. 

^J'^J rkyag-pa, also y\'i skyag-pa, 
dung ; ordure; excrement: Jl'i'i?c.'P 
rkyag-pa ^ton-tea to cause purging, v. 8"! 



I: rkyan ^ar, ii^j Equus kyang, 
e wild ass of Tibet and Higher Asia. 
It is found everywhere in Tibet in large 
droves, and is distinct from the wild ass 
of Sindh and Persia. ^'J 6 , a male kyang ; 
35' J r - a female kyang; Jt'^vw an adult 
tyang; Jj^flfi an old kyang ((?.). 

JC II; or JR-'l rkyafi-pa, also S^'J^ 
rkyan-t kyan ij*\fal, *W, ^J%^r, each; 



single ; simple ; alone : E. - jjfq*r*)'5H I alone 
cannot: ^^'Jt'^ dressed only in cotton 
cloth: |'<VI t |yt*fil I *W will Your 
Honour go thus alone ? $'S^'^3^'^( drink- 
ing water only. $*i'Jj^' naked body ; Sfli'je.' 
only one ; **'5 t- , same as *)'^'3, i.e., a free, 
unemployed man, generally one that 
carries no burden ; )''|'jt'i yi-ge rkyan- 
pa a letter that forms by itself a syllable, 
or one that is not brtcy$-pa (mounted) and 
without any other consonant or any vowel 
sign superscribed; jfcn'sjE.*! said to be 
1, 10, 100, and the further multiples of 
10; ik-|jE.ci a word that has no affix 
denoting case, &c., also a name without 
any titles added to it. 



Syn. 
srab-pa ; 



re-re ; 
9 ffccr-bu. 



gciy-bu ; 



J^'$ Bkyan c/iu n. of a lake in the south 
of Ladak, in the neighbourhood of which 
there are many wild asses. 



) a rope that is lowered from the 
top of a mountain or from the roof of a 
lofty house (Yig.). 

J^'i 1 . rkyan-pa rei prose ; writing. 
2. ffl^-q rkyan-tca = ^' c i rkyon-wa iivtiRd 
extended ; spread. 

je/'Cj*! rkyan-hphycs flfnro an im- 
mensely large number. 

jc.'* rkyan-ma n. of an artery often 
referred to in mystic meditation. It is 
one of the three arteries denominated 
Srog-rfga rin-po, and is asserted to run 
towards the left side. 

jc.-gu| rkyafi-phyag salutation by pros- 
trating one's self on the ground with the 
hands and feet stretched out (A. 8). 



79 



rkyan 1. a brass vessel like a tea- 
pot, with a spout ; in W. "o-kyan," a milk- 
pot. 2. pot-belly ; paunch (Sc/t.) ; **i'$1, 
a vessel for water ; *^'j^ a vessel for wine 
(J3). 

5 T 3 rkyan-bu = ^gw^i hgrim-shal 
a kind of vessel made of brass or silver 
or gold of the shape of a wine glass. 

5pT1| rkyal-ha = 'H'*> vain talk; rkyal- 
ka bycd-pa to play a practical joke on ; to 
make game of. 



J rkyal-pa MHHiii'sfl' a sack or 
leather bag, frq. is poetical term for the 
body or the five aggregates, i.e., ^'q'*)' 
fl|*E.-ffw3-jijrq "the body is a bag of 
unclean things" (Jo..). 

rkyal-tca T)<II to swim; yv 
rkyal-rsted-pa to amuse one's self 
by swimming (Jd.); colloq. "khyal-gyab 
khan " a swimmer. 

5^*' tkyal-bu small bag; pouch; 
colloq. kyal-bu. *>'* a bag of goat skin ; 
3'Ji ; a bag for flour 4 'I 1 " water bag or 
Hindi won/ink ; *vjm butter bag. 



rkyal bycd-pa ^janTWf the act 
of swimming or bathing. In the mystic 
language of the Brahmakayika deva JT 
S rkyal-byed or 5rs signifies |T *)"!'' 
misery; JF^'J^'IS or ^'5'5i'IS means 
5jaj-|E.-q sins; JCi'^'|S denotes J"!'^ 
the exhaustion of misery, '.e., the cessation 
of misery or its ^I'l ftfta ; Ji'*!'^ 1 ^ 
signifies J't'^'IT* 1 '* 1 ! *' e -> * meditate on the 
exhaustion of misery signifies "W or the 
way to Nirvana. These are the terms 
believed to be used in the language of the 
celestial beings who dwell in the heaven 
called *3TV<p Fwfc<cre (K. ko. 1 836). 



rkyen I : In Buddhist science this 
important term expresses any co-oper- 
ating influence which serves to shape and 
bring about an event as distinguished 
from * Tgyu, its direct and obvious cause. 

^s 

In plain language, rgyu is the primary 
cause of anything, but rgyu is frequently 
controlled and modified by a co-ordinate 
influence known as rkyen. As a medical 
term, according to Jaschke, rkyen is 
differentiated from rgyu in that it indi- 
cates the pathological or secondary cause 
of disease, while the latter word denotes its 
primary or anthropological cause. How- 
ever, while assigning to rkyen the primary 
meaning of "cause" and "occasion" in 
the qualified sense of being contributary 
only to that which comes to pass, we have 
to note the apparently contradictory 
signification effect, occurrence, incident, 
event. So we meet with J^'^'i rkyen- 
fan-pa unfortunate accident; ^'*1'w 
*V he has perished by an evil incident ; 
lA^'j^'ift^Wf^wl the adversities arising 
in this life ; **'ft'tf^'ti$ > jaj an event dis- 
agreeable to one's own self ; ^"'9^' J^ bio- 
bur rkyen a sudden accident ; '|^'^' a l of^' 
9f* rkyen de-la bricn-nas owing to that 
circumstance ; $V q S'i^' a r*'?*r$ me-pahi 
rkyen-la bltas-te or s|^'5 brten-te consider- 
ing the case of not being, not having ; 
thus fVSr^rV** 1 *^! stands also for a 
cause of disease and of death ; ^"I'J^ 
bgol-rkyen any circumstance or event 
adverse to the success of an action, any 
obstacle, anything opposed or hostile to 
the existence of another thing : 'S'r'jl 
mthun-rkycn a happy, favourable circum- 
stance ; furtherance ; assistance ; supply ; 
W^'^V rnthun-rkyen byed.-pa to assist 
in; to help to ; wsVj^Ai'q mthun-tkyen 
Reborn-pa altogether successful. 



80 



: -*3j II: 
metaphysics there are 

tkyen, viz, (1) 
relation of causality ; 



In Buddhist 
four kinds of 



(2) 



of posteriority; (3) 
tffa^a relation of 
conditionally ; (4) 
^Ttmroira relation of 
instance the relation of 
and vice versd) : M 



V <fe- 
relation 
bdag-rkyen *ft- 
subordination 



or 



dependence (as for 
parts to the whole 



. Besides the above four there are 
two other subdivisions of Jfi rkyen, viz, 



. 16). 

III : misfortune ; ill-luck ; cakmity : 
fkyen gloij-pa to avert a misfortune : 
r^w <*W-1 to endure misfor - 
tune : i^'l"'" f*r n ^'W*-^ to ^ e 1 ual to 
the occassion, cope with calamity. 

Jf 5" rkyen-gyis, postp. with gen. by 
reason of ; on account of ; by ; 
therefore ; accordingly. 

^^fom rken-gpig rtogs= 
y* an epithet for a Pratyeka Buddha 



ge.-q rkyen-chags hbyuti-tca to 
die or to be abolished (D. pi. 11). 

^jjfq|5i rkyen-stoys ^Wf^ll also the 
contemplation of a Pratyeka Buddha 
and ordinary saint; a class of Buddhist 
devotees who meditate on rkyen, the 
co-operative cause. 

'**'& rkyen-t/mb=^' l >fa:iwnce; for- 
bearance (Mno.). 

*5't| rkyen-pa q=r barley. 



rkyen-rtsi = 

SHJ TOl^ a medicine that is 
administered for determining the co- 
operative cause of a disease. 

*K*q rkyod-u-a, pf. "J^, fut. flS^'" 
or qjjt-qvg, to stretch, extend, stretch 
forth (one's hand to a person) ; put out 
(the tongue) ; spread; distend (the wings, 
a curtain) : *WMV''^'V sliaLs-nit 
brkyofi bskum one leg stretched out, the 
other drawn in. 

Syn. "i" fckyan-wa fljprn brki/afig- 
pa; If*' 1 * rki/afo-pa; ^' rkyofis-pa; 



'-^ rkyon-tse in TT. lamp; candle 

(Ja.). 

q|=.-5)K. brk>/afi-sM 1. literally 'the 
extending- wood," an instrument of torture 
in Tibet; a wooden frame on which the 
extended arms and legs of the delinquent 
are fastened down, whilst burning pitch 
or sealing wax is dropped on his naked 
breast, which procedure is called U|E- - ^=,- 
U^-ti or qjfSjfm-qjfli-q or ^'i, placing or 
stretching one on a cross (<7d.) . 2. in New 
Testament translation adopted to signify 
" cross." 

qjtw brkyans fV*Tft prostrated (by 
fatigue) ; stretched out ; sjjfcn%* 
^ for the purpose of stretching. 



^ a wager: 
gain a wager in dice-playing, &c." 

lku<js-pa 1. dun'); mute; 
S^ kha lkugt-p<*r byed-pa to put 
to'silence ; %\* a dumb woman (Co.). 
2. *$, *J3 dull, stupid (8oh.). The fol- 
lowing examples may belong to either. 
I or 2 : il**' 4 '*'!*' lkugs-par skyt-s bom 
idiotic or mute: ^r^ 



81 



-j&i | if one is born a deaf- 
mute, one's consciousness (soul) not being 
suited to work, one cannot act religiously. 
Syn. ft 1 **^ smra-bcad ; M|'3K^sr flag-gig 
dbul; MI - *>'^ fag mildan; w*r3*r3 sem$ 
bem-po ; 3in*w tshignams ; **|-l>-*mQi tshig 
mi-gsal; **#$*>' jfltm-po Itar Ikug ; $ fj' 
*) mi-smra yes (Mfion.). 



I : = ''! />A-0 yonder. In 
the passage |^^'f^ > ip'<|fc^rnrt^ 
he said "from here look to yonder hill- 
side": sfl'Sr^'lf Ikoy-girisna^vif^'l*. the 
corner of the hill there. 



II: secrecy; lf"I 5|'$t.'< a wife kept 
secretly in Tibet. Where polyandry pre- 
vails any of the brothers who is not satis- 
fied with the common spouse takes to 
himself a wife called Kok-gi chung-ma a 
concubine (Cs.). 

N/" 

^ I f\'*^ lkog-ma, vulg. Ki)'^i og-hjol 
1. gullet, oesophagus. 2. wind-pipe. 3. 
the throat; SpT*^^'^ Ikog-tnahi lha-gon 
the larynx (Sch.)\ also written ifi|'i5-^ ^. 

C"I">"1^ Ikog-dkar the ferret-badger 
(Helictis monticola). 

3TTI* Ikog-gyur, v. sfl'^' Ikog-nrt-ma 
(S[fion.) ; if l| |'i^9*' Ikog-gya byag made 
secret. 

i^fl'SI lkog-g.hi a secret hummed song: 
^jrar^JR'gir^'B-^VarjjVS'* a song 
sung so that others may not hear it is 
called Kog-lu (flag.). 

Ikog-chad secret punishment. 

\i Ikog-chos bycd-pa to apply 
one's self to religious studies secretly. 

ijfl'f^ Ikoy-rnan a reward given secretly ; 
a bribe. 

ifl'g bkog-tu confidentially, secretly ; 
^""I'l^ or ^""I'^'i^'f q<W secret; hidden; 



out of sight (7d.) ; ^-^>I'5i gin-tu tkog- 
gyur very secret ; most confidential. 

8f q l'5' '^' Ikog-tu brkus stolen ; removed 
secretly; JjfTSih'i to converse secretly; 
Sf"I'556i a secret doctrine; to worship 
secretly ; 3fT5'Wi to speak confidentially. 

Sh'"^ !kog-mJud=Kw*^ the larynx. 

^T"!'^^ Ikog-hdun is described as mean- 
ing V*rf'w!|r3Y<i, secret conversation or 
deliberating, so that others may not under- 
stand it. 

STT^* Ikog-na-ma that which is not 
evident. 

Syn. flUlkog-gyur; 25cgc%q ^on- 
sum min-pa (Mfion.). 



or^^Z* rkun-rdag, lit. 
secret articles; stolen property (Mflon.). 



dkritg-fifl byed-pa misunderstanding ; 
difference (between two parties). 

^*\-x^rt\ik g zan-w-ica to take usurious 
interest in secret (Sch.) %H'*v\w%'q to 
watch ; to witness from a lurking-place. 

^wrrq Ikog-zas za-ica to take food 
secretly. 

IFfFg*'VtjrFl lkog-la bra* hbyar- 
gyi rgyal khams the name of a kingdom 
of the Asura (demons) where people have 
no neck, their chins being joined to the 
breast. 

^f'T-'l'*' Ikog-cal WTOT dew-lap (of oxen) ; 

genera] (Mrion.). 

I Ikog-sog craw (of birds) (Cs.). 
Ikob fat, heavy, plump (Sch.). 
^ **V\ lkol-mdud=^ a i'f^ larynx. 
ska this word is thus explained 



12 



82 



1ft I 



shows the complete knowledge of the 
aggregation of all dharma or phenomena" 
(K. d. ^ 11/i). This explanation also 
occurs in the aphorism on the interroga- 
tion of the Naga-raja Samudra (K. d. <| 
178), also in (Sbum. 1 283) : ^R^W ' 
*^'* t |^'*l t "W5'$*|^ "tka is the sym- 
bol of the law of Buddha (Buddhism) as 
it explains mystically that all things are 
(lHl<d*l) not dependant; they are sup- 
portless, i.e., have no real existence." 



ig for 



a moment. 



ska-cog or Til ka-!coy the 
names of two grammarians jointly written 
for abbreviation, Ska standing for ^'f 
nfvn q|-qm an( i Cog for *1 '* 'S '^'J^ '*^ 
Cog-ro klu-yi rgyal-mtsha. 

$^'Q gka-tca thick (of fluids, cf. 
sla-tva) ; ska-slad consistence ; density 
(Ja.). 



also $|' > |*, in resp. lan- 
guage ; g'*1 a girdle : q-vipr^Sfq to put 
on a girdle. W'^l^'O^o (Sch.) a girdle 
with a clasp ; JT*1*'^'3'*^ **J\JK, ^^i- 
TPC ornamental chain worn by Tibetan 
women on the waist. 



-*-* Skt-ragifaan-po ma; 

S* n. of a princess of the 
Noijin demi-gods (Mfion.). 

f^\ Skag = *\*\ kag or ^ keg 
n. of one of the 27 constellations, 
an evil star. 2. mischief; bad luck ; evil ; 
the name of the goddess Bhogavati ; a 
fox tf'^1 lo-gkag an unlucky or bad 
year W\ zla-skag an evil or unlucky 
month ^I'^l shag-skag a bad day ; ^'^| 
dui-skag evil hour ; inauspicious time. 



Syn. iftE.w*v^-tf ffdetis-can lha-mo\ 
wa (Rtsi. and Mrion.). 

Kl 9 !' J"" skag-rtsts astrology which treats 
of the planets and of bad omens, &c. 



qq|-aw| gkag-lat kye$ 5Sg; = V' 

a comet ; born under the constellation 



of 



Syn. 

gtmg-phud-can %*'**\ $brtil-can ; J|'fyr 
(Mnon.). 



1. satisfac- 
tion (Sch.). 2. a kind of expiatory 
sacrifice to make amends for a duty not 
performed (Ja.). 

yf-'-* gkaii-fa sods cut out (Sch.). 

^ skad. I : (keh) m^T, TTnf 1. voice, 
cry, sound. Though ^ and 3 are gene- 
rally used as synonymous words, yet the 
majority of the grammarians of Tibet 
apply the former to all manner of sounds 
and the latter to the sounds uttered by 
animate things only. 2. Hf\ is equivalent 
of 3* in some expressions such as ^'S|S, 
^'mS, which mean " thus he said," " speak- 
ing these words," &c., and in ^'f/f\, fy'V\ 
&c., may be traced similar significations : 
qV^'l^'^yi what is your pleasure ? what 
did you say, sir? 3vr^3'qvfy the 
(words) spoken what speech are they? 
what do they mean? (Ja.) ^Hft^ "in 
these words " is used before a literally 
quoted speech and ^'mV^* 1 after it. %'Sfa also 
often occurs after statements meaning " it 
is said" or "it is rumoured." Other 
phrases are : ^'W*'^ don't do that or so ; 
mVfr 13 to give an account, to relate. 3. 
language : ^-^ the Tibetan language ; 
the Indian language; q 



83 



in the provincial dialect ; "'f^'H speaking 
human language ; ^gT^'^*'^ hbrug-kad 
Idtr zer the voice of thunder rattles; 
gjR.-cj-15'^-^-35'g a voice like the cry of an 
elephant ; |l'ig*i' c i5'^y.g^'i to utter 
painful or lamentable cries ; $ 
to send forth cries for pity; 
the root of a word. 



II: ladder =W*T"1 $ka$-ka (Jd.}. 

! fkad-hgag or q\*BvZi skad hdser- 
po hoarseness of the voice (Cs.). 

yfttfi skad-rgyal, metaph. a donkey 
(Sman. 2). 



one 



who has changed his language. 

^YS'^ $kad,-sgra che (ke' da-che) the vul- 
gar expression for "fame": P'^'WflY!!' 
he is just now very famous. 



skad-nar rough language : Sft't*' 
i-f*-*->^q9qpi| on account 
of their speaking rough speech the name 
of that place was called ffa-ra t/iafi 
(Yig. 65). 



one 



gkad-can having a voice ; sound- 
ing. 

$K'3fl| fkad-ciy 'gw, 
moment; an instant. 
^S'^'i is described as 
g^'*, 'one fifth part of the time required 
for the sound of the snapping of the 
fingers." 

m^&yqXw fkad-cig bcorn, \. rtwi. 

|\'Sl'^V^ fkad-cighdod-ldan, v. 9"!'^ 
a pigeon (Mnon.). 



skad-cig-pa or 

vj fin* instanteneous ; also ephe- 
meral, momentary ; also lightning. 



i|S'$ q rSS q l*' skad-cig-dbugs lit. that takes 
breath only for a moment = 3", an otter 
(Mnon.). 

^'$1'^*) gkad-cig Mod ^wi*r sudden 
flash ; flash of lightning. 

W^TSf"!' 1 ^ skad-cig 
lightning (Mnon.). 

H\*> skad-cha ^w, 
news, report, discourse, conversation, topic ; 
i to converse ; to have a chat. 



^flf^N't) $kad-gni$-pa lit. that has two 
kinds of voices, i.e., a parrot. 

Syn. 1'ift*ri lce-gnis-pa; nj$]'3S-<$-^ 
hkhyog-pohi mthu-can; ^o\'.&\'^ tshig- 
hjam-ldan; ^wgc.^^'^ hjam-ljan hdub- 
Idan (Mnon.). 

fV'ft*'!^'^' 1 ' &ad-g.ni$ smra-tcahi 
dwan-po one learned in science ; one who 
has mastered (at least) two languages 

(Yig.k.tf). 

of a 



echo 



*'*' skad-snan bsgyur-wa to sing 
or whistle in a quavering, warbling man- 
ner, of birds, flute-players, &c. (Jd.) : 
SI'S a singing or playing of this kind. 



skad mnen-pa 
gentle voice ; soft voiced. 



an 



(returned by a rock) (Mnon.). 



skad man-pa ^tf%^, <Rijr!K one 
with a sweet voice; spoken of the 
cuckoo. 

^Y?^'* 1 skad-snam-ma the princess of 
the Noijin demi-gods; cf. 



to call 



Skad s 
to a person (Schtr.). 



84 



^wgdfci* skad. rnthun-par with one 
voice ; with one accord. 

qV^S skad-dod.=itft*i an equivalent 
term in another language ; the original 
from which another is translated : Sft^V 
s^V*)^ whether there are any original 
texts : qS'^V*^ it is without the original 
text (Situ. 110). 

'HV3' q K**' $ka<?-kyi (fdads the character 
or tone of the voice: s.i'^ 1 "I'9|'^' l I^' 
^W^t jn'MT*k-g5-qyq|^MrjMirq|wr3. I! 

(Mfsfinn.) when the tone of one's voice 
is that of a goose or dragon it betokens 
the possession of wealth. A voice like 
that of an ass or ox indicates great 
troubles. 



wq skag-ydafis dmah-wa 
low sinking voice ; poor voice. 



IIS'^ fkad-hdon *T* bawling out; 
loud voice. 

qS' fkad-pa i: = ^rg - w shes bya-tcas 
called ; named (A. 120). 

qV*!n:l. vb. to say, tell, relate: ^' 
pw 3<i] <$v^-)j|VKTi that a land (of bliss) 
exists I heard people say. 2. interpreter ; 
language master ; teacher (Ja.) 

^\t'^> skad-pa-cfie or Vft^ $kad.-po-che 
celebrated; famed. 

^V^'* skad-po cht TWTT rumour. 

^'^ fkad-hbyin fa$M singing of a 
bird. 

^S'S t "'^l q l skad gbyafit-fiy cultivate your 
voice ; improve the voice by exercise. 

j^-&-ii)w skad mi-ffsal ^^ one whose 
language is not intelligible ; a barbarian. 

^V^E, skad-riH i.^mv a voice heard 
at a distance ; a high pitched voice. 



fkad-rigg hen-po bsM the 
four great divisions of language (1) g - 5' 
qfi'ttft Sanskrit, the language of the gods; 
(I) a-Jj-'J!^-^^-^ Pifatsl, the language of 
the meat-eating people ; (3) vsty^wtrErj^ 
rafi-bshin shef-pa pra-kr-ta the Prakrta or 
the natural language of the people ; (4) 
wq^*r-j-|V.M|-j| Apa bf,ram-fa corrupt 
language (T. K.). 



skad-lugs = ^' 



dialect. 



s A, id. -rigs 



skad.-log clamour ; screaming. 



a celestial courtezan 



fkan-te, W., instead of *r! ka-wa. 



hgor-po delay: 
^r^'fTWirl^-tc | (Rdsa. 28) the 
swift not hurrying, the lingerers not 
finishing. 



?1T, ?K 1. time, oppor- 
tunity, occasion, circumstance: ?e/n5' 
W* opportunity of seeing : qwlV" skalf 
rncd-pa to find an opportunity : ^1*1' y 
or f)j 'i'^ t '''fj now and then; sometimes. 
qwj or Sl^w with genit. = at the time of, 
on the occasion of, during, while, when : 
^'T$| IW '?J in a moment; instantly: 
fkabs der ^nftf thereafter: 
now ; here ; in this case ; in this place : 
qiiA once for a time ; each time ; wqw 
interval; inter-lapse of time. 2. sphere, 
state, situation: qwrvf|vi fit for; 
adapted ; suited to the occasion. 3. qw 
also means ">4 lehu, chapter, and is 
synonymous with **l* **' "I^* 1 , <%c., 
signifying section : HW^5 fkabs bcu, the 
ten sections of the doctrine ; also he that 
has observed them (Ja.). 4. mode, 



85 



method, way, manner, so the word seems 
to be used in Vaigfio : n*rgS'qwrifl|'V.'|*r 
Q"|'^'K | Idum-buhi skab$ la-phug daft 
gkye$ lugs hdra-war the manner (nature) 
of the plants being similar to that of 
a raddish as to growth (Jd.). 

qqtrqfyirq fkabg gnif-pa ft<u the 
second chapter. 

HfW'*& tkabi-don ^Rmi for the sake 
of leisure ; also circumstance. 

qq-a\ai s kabs hdi-la wfaK s^rrS at 
this opportunity; at this time ; on this 
subject. 

5jq 3 ^ fkabg phye-na VTVni fll<l to 
make opportunity. 



Skam I: 
( Vat. kar. 160). 



$kab$ hbyed-pa ^*fK leisure. 

o gkabs-la babg-pa qrf^[ when 
the time came ; opportunity arrived. 



the drink of the gods ; ambrosia: 



8v fp -ar*^ | pray send ^^ A letterg 
like the flow of the drink of the gods over 
the heads of the good (Yig. k. 78). 






the residence of the gods ; the heaven. 

pw-TO*rq skabs gsmninf.ftfa, fk^i 
a god ; a common name for gods possessed 
of the knowledge of their past and future 
births and also of those of others. 



(-cj : a name O f tb 
musician ; ^'gl'f^ lhahi glu-mkhan (M.non.). 

^q^-qigw^qE. $kabs-gsum-dwafi a name of 
Indra; *>$Ji*i Brgya-byin or ^'^'V^q 



n. of a tribe in Tibet 



II : a pair of tongs ; pincers ; an 
instrument for seizing anything. 

Syn. ^'^ hdsin-byed; *i|t.'SS bsufi- 
byed. (Ijffion.). 

^JJ'21 skam-pa stjg; dry; qi'lfl skatr. 
rlon lit. dry and wet ; all articles (furni- 
ture, chattels, clothes, utensils, &c.) and 
food, drink, etc., being included in the term. 
11" is often used as equivalent to $(**'*', the 
dry land, hence a plain or Wjpri 'fj'wi 
fkam-la slebs-pa]to get ashore ; qwi* jour- 
ney by land, W*\ dry food, W-*\ dry 
meat, $[*'%# fkam-skom the dry or stuffed 

carcass of an animal; "W^TV'^'^*''^' 
WW^'J'fT^I | the dried carcasses of 
beasts and game and of all (others) 
(D..B.)- 

*'!5 I 'I skam-glog a flash of summer 
lightning : J^r^HSfrw^f^fl^wW 
*V3*-%'!|M"on a great flash of light- 
ning coming forth, all his attendants 
became very much frightened " (A. 
17). 

qtraw skam-chas all goods except live- 
stock. 

' corn or 



mtshon-cha 
thunderbolt of Indra. 



i)(*rii 
barley flour to make gruel. 

^* 4 '5 q l skam-thug gruel made of barley- 
flour, dry meat and raddish. 

^w^w gkam-dras neat and clean 
(Jig. 30). 

$kam-pag dry, flour of barley. 
r9 skam-po jjq;, aftftw dry dried. 

W ^l* skam-phogt allowances or wages 
of an officer or inferior servant in 
barley-flour, tea or coin, etc., but not 



86 



cooked food; "ItftwrtWM* according 
to Government order ; dry allowance 

(/. Zafi.) . 

qsrowij-q skam-las gkye-u-a *mf pro- 
duced or born on land. 

qw'HiS skam-bqa$ dry or meaningless 
words; hollow expressions meaning 
nothing: p-|v^5^i-q^vW J 5 "one 
versed in talking nonsense, as if only 
for his mouth's sake" (or "as if on 
account of his mouth") (Eo.). 

qwti skam$-pa=v'1j c ' bleak and barren 
place (Sfrfion.). 

$j^'Q Skar-ica I : pf. m* , imp- Si*, to 
hang up ; to weigh ; ^, ^'"1, ^'l* 
weight ; ^'*S measure ; scale ; qvp (kar-wa 
for St*' 1 "!, ^'^ and qv points on a steel- 
yard for weight or measure : qvg five 
points on the steel-yard weighing two 
annas of silver : ^'*F (one jkar) is equal 
to ten ^ hon, which is a little less than 
an Indian anna. 



a star ; a fixed star ; constellation : 
i'9S, ^'3S J'* 1 *F'V-g > SS ( Foi. tor.) 
the stars that are liberated and that soar 
on high and roam are twenty-eight in 
number : M*''* r ^ $kar-ma-can with stars or 
figures of stars on anything, a shawl, &c. 

1|*'B*' skar-khun TTfTHM, J^TO, arra 
a hole or small opening for the admission 
of light in a house ; a window ; same as 
8f*. v. "VI^S*; qvRc-gj'jfatqm a pi ail k or 
board for a window; shutters ; HH'fl^'V 
*>'*^ ii<aqii<4i lattice window ; a grated 
window. 



skar-khofl$ the sphere of a 
lunar mansion ; a constellation together 
with the minor stars which are included 
within its sphere. 



gkar-mkhan pwf an astrologer. 
skar-lcag a rigorous enquiry ; a 
flogging (Jd.). 

$(*< skar-chu i : literally star-water ; 
bathing when the star Agastya (Ri-byi) 
appears in October, when, according to 
Tibetan astrologers, water becomes pure 
and wholesome. 

qv* ii : generally applied to dew 
which is said to come from the stars : 
tkar-tag tafi che (Jd.) to enquire rigorously ; 
to restrict ; to bind down ; to flog. 

D|V*S* skar-mdah a shooting star; |^* 
Sgron-ma a lamp ; 5' (J '' a ' <5Wf a meteor : 
q*,-*^<vaje.'q or l^'fl ^tmia the falling or 
shooting of a meteor. 

'll tkar-mdahi gdofl-fi> 
'^r or I 3'?s(iTTr^ one having either 
his face or nose glowing as a meteor ; a 
demon ; a meteor-mouthed arrow ; n. of a 
fire-arm anciently used in India. One of 
the ancestors of Gautama Buddha, directly 
descended from Mahasammata, the first 
elected king of the world. 

q^'fl'S tkar-4pya4=1p'tm skar-rtsit 
astrology; ^'^'i=|''' c i an astrologer 
(JGfoM.). 

m*'W skar-phran or %*& a little 
star. 

5|Vje. Skar-hprefi 1. n. of a fabulous 
city situated at the foot of Rirab (Sumeru) 
mountain said to be the residence of the 
Asura King, Kantha-Mali. 2. the squares 
in a chart of the constellations in 
which the figures representing the stars 
are written. 3. the angular distance 
between two stars or planets (Cs.). 



II: (Cs.) 1. a penning of 
cattle ; assortment ; separation ; to pen ; 
to fold ; to separate, v. 



87 



skar-ma stod-phur ^ 
supposed to be Leonis. This star is 
believed to be the most steady among the 
stars and is therefore called the sure-star 
or fixed-star ; also called the crown-star. 



Syn. WQ brtan-pa; ^=.'g rkaft gteti- 
bu; ^=.'gi^-^c.'5 gnan-ldan fin-rta; qipr*- 
*fw)-^ ffzah-yi rten; 
tog; ipTfarg gan-rgyal- 
bu; '&K*V> gsstr-bpkw (Mnon.). 

^Wff^ skar-tna tfsag-rtsig, also ^'<' 
g-ln-1*!, a twinkling star ; painting on a 
canopy or on a ceiling in starry design ; 
J'fl* those constellations through which 
the moon passes in her revolution round 
the heaven; !*** the constellation under 
which one is born ; *l"iE,'fjH a propitious 
constellation ; the constellation under 
which one prospers or which brings 
fortune and good luck to one. 

qv*r<O5 skar-ma htshe tTKliflyr the 
injury caused by a malignant star. 



ahi dpyod tdq an 
examination or observation of the stars. 



t|'9 Skar-mig-bu " son of Star-eye 
or Skar-mig," the eagle. A certain hermit 
called Skar-mig found three eggs. These 
he gave to a woman in distress, saying 
that if she broke them after seven days 
they would bring her happiness. Out of 
impatient curiosity she broke two on the 
third and the sixth day. These turned 
into lightning and the dawn. The third 
she broke on the seventh day, when there 
sprung forth a full-fledged eagle which 
turning round asked what she wanted of 
him. In reply she wished him to kill the 
Lu demons ; and this he accordingly did. 
Thenceforth the eagle came to be known 
as the son of Skar-mig (Jtffion.). 



qvii^ skar-hdsin star-catching ; making 
sure of a propitious constellation, e.g., 
for an intended journey (Jo.). 

*P'*S skar-hod srtf?i:^T the light emit- 
ted by a star ; name of a kind of flower. 



kar-yum works or treatises on 
the stars ; qvj*rfli*-8j*( ^. T ^ workg on 
stars and planets. 



| skat-pa ^f^, sr luck, chance, 
fortune particularly when propitious. 

qr^ $kal-nan ^*rmj wretched; un- 
lucky ; unfortunate. 

pr*?i skal-can-ma, also called qr^r*i 
Skal-ldan-ma 1. nijj<ft n. of a goddess ; 
a blessed lady. 2. =a' a r < W { i spu-la hbab- 
pa n. of a disease in which the hairs are 
affected. 



skal-ldan W, wrsrrn happy; 
blessed ; also n. of one of the 28 ancient 
sages mentioned in Buddhist works. 

*pr^>r3*-$ Skal-ldan fin-rta H*Tk*r n. 
of a king of the solar race who is said to 
have brought the river Ganges to Jambu- 
dvlpa (India) from heaven ; one of the 
ancestors of the Buddha S'akya-muni: 



"favour me with letters uninterruptedly 
like the course of the river BhaglrathI 
(Ganges)" (Tig. k. 17). 



i tkal-ldan fifi-rtahi bu-mo 
, v. $'5'ij5| Gafi-ga, the daughter of 
Bhaglratha, the river Ganges (Mfion.). 

^rr5 skal-pa-can w, tn^H the for- 
tunate : M*' 11 '*^'*!* mf^ft *f?f'H are 
very fortunate. 



very fortunate, lucky ; also powerful and 
rich. 



rq $kal-pa, mnam-pa uniformly 
fortunate or always lucky; f>r<r^'wi 
fortunate : ** *FW* **>>*' 1^1 mi daft skal- 
pa mnam-par fkyeg *M<jqtiii ^HmfftiTW'm 
born with fortune equal to that of a human 
being. 

)l|ui - q-qjE,-!5 skal-pa fyzang-po H^*w good 
fortune; q"< 'I'M'" bad luck, unfortunate; 
X'^^5'^ q l*''^ ll i the matrimonial share of 
the present life; the connubial fate for 
which a person is predestined ; Xw'S'jprq 
religious good luck ; also the merit of the 
pious ; $pr&'i very lucky; ^T*^ unfortu- 
nate. 

tprq-J^-q s kal-pa yo4-pa fortunate ; qT 
v^-tt extra luck. 

$Cr<vn skal-hphar enlarged fortune; 
lucky or of increased luck. 



'i to place a ladder ; 

to come down a ladder ; 
ir to climb up a ladder. 



gkal-wa-=* cha HT7T 1. portion ; 
share ; ^vqSf*rq5 '^'fl* the apportioned 
share of hereditary wealth ; inheritance ; 
rm share or portion of food ; ration; 
f-'W* personal share: jprrr*^'q^ without 
being deprived of any of his portion. 2. 
the portion of good or bad fortune that 
falls to a man's lot as a consequence of 
his former actions ; lot, fate, destiny. 

$|urq p *\q skal-wa chad-pa suppressed 
fortune ; unhappy. 

5^01 qjc. skal-bsafi ^JHTT 1. prosperous; of 
good fortune. 2. a plant Chrysanthemum 
coronarium. 

qr^ skal-rin the valuation of one's 
share of property ; the price of one's share 
in any concern (Jig.). 



skas or q*r*| $kas-ka, also called qw 
rfi) : Swq'N ft:^fa, a stair ; a flight of steps ; 
q*i S'^wi order of steps ; qw'^SI*! the two 
side- pieces of a staircase or ladder (Cs.) ;^' 



S|*i'^'B' w skas-gkor khra-ma the lattice, 
rail or fencing by the sides of stairs. 

^'"I^'S skas-gdafi-bu, abbr. of ^N'^iise. 
^s.'Q, a flight of long steps in a ladder: 
j^Vfl-arqiTififg- ^' ^'*|-^vqi | to 
bring him (here) a seven-step ladder was 
necessary (A. 91). 

W**- skas-tshafi signifies a flight of 
steps (Jig.). 

^'^q fkas-leb the steps of a ladder or 
stair; the planks of a ladder. 

S sku q\TO, JTT^, ?fi, resp. for $*< Ins, 
body. 1. tku may be prefixed to the 
names of parts of the body and even of 
anything belonging to a person, thus 
imparting to them the character of res- 
pectful terms. As honorific particle it can 
also be prefixed to nouns in general : g'$*i 
the person or body of a great man ; g'**< 
goods, stores or property of a man of 
rank ; also the religious robe of a lama. 
'|*> gku-skyi't a present (given to or re- 
ceived from a respected personage) ; g' 1 ^ 
virtue, happiness; g'W] image, statue; 
Jj' 1*^ the wrapper used by a lama or a 
great man ; J'3* the cloak used by the 
lamas when attending a religious service ; 
J'' ; fa the inner lower garment of a man 
of rank. Even buildings (monasteries, 
&c.) are honoured .by this respectful 
expression: g'V'l*''*!^'* 1 '*' to white-wash 
a house, &c. ; *ji'(j| rkos-gku an engraved 
image ; ^'g tapestry ; a figure worked 
upon satin with silk ; wi'JJ an image of 
clay; Tg a woven image; ^'J a stone 
image; 1*<'*j a molten image; g'Sj a 
painted image ; *3*'g a Basso Relievo 



image; ig"!^'! blugs-$ku a cast image; 
"I^ v g.ser-sku a golden image. 2. g or 
|J'i sku-yi may be also used honorifically as 
a poss. meaning "his," "her," "yours," 
&c. 3. It is further employed to express 
the reflective verb khyed-gaft la sku 
hdeg "why are you beating yourself ?" 

g'^i fku-skal portion or share of a 
respected person. 

J'li|* gku-skem the lean slender body of 
a respectable person. 

g'P* 1 " sku-khams a great man's person; 
also the state of health. 



$ku-mched brothers and sisters : 



* $kii-gam do-bear a personal 
interview; to approach or come before a 
great man personally. 

g-qq|a|'*li sku-bgegs chagf disease 
caused by evil spirits. 

g'g'gai'Q ku-lna rgyal-po the five divine 
Buddhas symbolical of the five highest 
moral virtues inculcated in Buddhism. 

g'J $ku-rgyu the matter or substance 
whereof an image is made. 

g' |S ikii-rgyud a scion, descendant, of 
a noble family. 

J'q* tku-^car personal attendant of a 
greatman; gen. the attendant monks of 
the Dalai Lama (S. kar. 181); also same as 
g-*^-ci a8 i n g'qww^^-Hj fku-bcar mkhan- 
po, the domestic priest of the Dalai Lama 
who is also called f * 1 = s < 3 i'*W9. 

jj-qv sku-bcar-nio the raiment worn 
next to the skin 

g'* sku-cfuts 
ll'i the chattels and other possessions of 
any high class person. 

5'X $ku-cho$='&**'%fa robes; dress worn 
by great men or by lamas. 



those who are born the 
sons of kings are 'kum-che,' and the 
pupils of one lama are 'kum-che' (Lofi.* 
%) S'**S "19* the three spiritual sons of 
Bromston (l)Q - f q%S^npwi, (2) f^g'trC""' 
|wws, (3) g'Sfq-Biafrj'jarw^ ; <^-<i|*i*-<sr 
^m't^W|'*^W*< (Lot. * 3) ; these 
three were called the spiritual sons of 
Bromston. 



g'wfa skn-mncd = ifMJ Ito-ras or 
handkerchief (Yig. k. 55). 

g'"]^ sku-yner ^rasrt? keeper of 
images in a temple or monastery. 

Syn. ^"l^ Iha-gner; ^5-n*-q lhahi 
htsho-wa (Mfion.). 

g'^ sku-brna n i : a reflected image, v. 
Sg'^ or "lll^i^ likeness (Mfion.). 

g'^f ^ ii : = '<} the health or flesh of a 
respectable person (Mfton.). 

g'f^ tku-rten an image of Buddha 
or of a saint. It is a contraction of the 
three words : skit, g.sufis, thug-rten the holy 
image, i.e., of a Buddha or saint; the 
sacred books or volumes containing reli- 
gious precepts; and the chaitya (mchorteri), 
the symbol of the resting of the thugs or 
heart. 

f^w $ku-bltams=$ a -& c >'* birth (of 
a great man). 

g'tf"! sku-thog=Q'^' lifetime; age; 
generation; g /3 T'Tg'<='5S' l r^Fi or ftfT 
|fr* former generation ; also ancestor 
or predecessor ; g'3f'Ti*<'**=g' 5 S' < '!''*| ll ]'* suc- 
ceeding generation ; g'?i|'ic.-Q many gene- 
rations : tf\-|i'g'ii*-'^^-g'#Tc.-q-Qqi- 
^ c 'S^'5 q *' ^ q ^ I the three incarnate beings 
of Tibet (i.e., the Dalai Lama, Panchen 
Lama and* Tavanath Lama) having rome 
in many re-births are greatly blessed. 

13 



$&'*] 90 

g'^'fl skit drufi-pa a page ; an attendant 
of a great man ; a private secretary to a 
high official. 

9' TV- tku-gdufi relics, remains; also 
lineage, descendants. 

jj'^ sku-hdra (kunda) sfffjrr, yfiifoiaj, 
^fn image ; statue of Buddha or any 
sainted persons. 

Syn. y 



rqn gzitgs-krnait ; SH' 
*<*\'S mchod-bya ; V w wt ne-war hjal ; 
^qvn^Mi Mra-war fa/ietis ; ^""I Mfa- 
; ^ de-lta ; ^ de-bdfa ; ^*<$M* de- 
; *fi 4pe ; ?*i mnam ; *$** tpts/iufis ', 
i yshi-hdsin; Wfi'** rab-tit 
pra-phab b_shin; %*\vcn*c 
leys-par fyshefis; ^Vflf lder-b.zo; 
-|q-w slar-g rib-ma ; S^'S^'^S^ glar-byag 
ipthun; <j&*-ti-N&M gfios-po mtshufii; *%* 
hdra-wa; g'9 ^a-i; ^'^ ner-tshaj; i'j|^ 



idem-pa to be unwell, ill; 



ill-health. 



Syn. ^'$ri5i naj-kyt's 

phog-pa ; ^'^ w-!Cfl t ; ^'rf'^fq na-tslia 
hbyufi-wa ; ffwtft^'n khamt ma-b_de-ica ; "V 
'q hdu-tca hk/irugs-pa ; V w*|y s <?- 
; ?*''q^'q WO>MJ ma-b.de-tca ; 
htshal-ica; ^'Qsniat-pa (Jjffion.). 
g'^ sku-na a respectable person's age. 

I'Si iku-bub a monkey of the langur 
class found near Bathang. 

g'*S*i Sku-hbum "a hundred thousand 
images," commonly pronounced Kum- 
bum. The name of the birth place of 
Tsongkhapa in Amdo, situated to the east 
of lake Kokonor ; also the name of huge 
monastery built on the spot. Village and 
monastery both derive their names from 



a poplar tree, the leaves of which are said 
to bear miraculous impressions of a hun- 
dred thousand images of Buddha on them. 
Hue and W. W. Eockhill have given 
elaborate accounts of Kumbum monastery: 



(Lofi. 17) he 

erected the gilt dome of the monastery 
of Chambaling above Kum-bum in Amdo. 
g'H*> t'-u-smatf the part of the body 
below the navel ; g'fVffi the upper and 
lower parts of the body. 

g'* sku-tsha a brother's son ; a nephew ; 
called *'S tsha-tco in colloquial language. 

$*Qtku-t8/iab a representative ; deputy. 

8'*ft tku tnAe-sto4=$*F*&-'& during 
the time of his predecessors. 

|'*i*>! sku-mtshal, resp. for H*FH|, the 
blood (of a great man's) body. 

U'V" sku-fhabt lit. "your honour's 
feet," is the correct form of the colloq. 
expression g' J f"I*', meaning your 
honour, your lordship, your worship. It 
is generally pronounced as ku-sho. 

g'"l ja S $ku-g.zani\*3\ gzm shawl wrap- 
per worn by lamas ( Yig. k. 55) . 

$(W^ skti-gzugs b_dc= *K**<n health ; 
also healthy. 

Syn. pw^-q^ khamt bde; fycaX-i^ ner- 
htshe med; *gVE^'|w hbyufi-bsM nomt; 
^a-^<u bro mi-htslxtl (Jgtion.). 

g-5J-qq^e.-q|aj s ku-yi babs daft b_stun 
according as his health permits ; according 
to the state of one's health. 

g-S)T*i^i] fkti-yi zo-mdog, resp. of ^'S' 
P lui-kyi-khamt health : ^' |ST*Vr i ^* ( ' 
g|-^5S-^-fww^-qjt^f | just now your 
health is good like the condition of the 
gold in the Dsam-bu river. 



91 



sku-rags =^'^1 gke-rags, also y 
Ska-rags, a sash (F?#. A. 55.). 

g'^' fku-rtA the period of a life one's 
own or another's. 



g'^ sku-rim, resp. for ^w'3j rim-hgro, 
reverence, respect, and thence the common 
word for any set service in a temple and in 
general for a ceremonial act of worship, 
and particularly in the special sense of a 
solemn sacrificial ceremony. jf^i'j'F'T 
W^T*)'"!^'"!^ indicates the allowance 
granted by the Government of Lhasa for 
Kurim in the different monasteries of 
Tibet. 

gku-ru a water-wheel without a 
rm ; such are the water-wheels of all 
the mills in the Himalaya (Jd.). 

ST^'p sku-ru-kha asterisks; marks 
generally of the figure of a cross, + 
also x . The latter is common in books 
as an abbreviation like "ditto," to save 
the repeated writing at full length of the 
same sentence or word or expression. 
Some authors spell this word as 3'5'P. 

g'$ sku-lits l^k, resp. for $*i, the 
body. 



!' 1 ) corpulent ; also corpulence ; the ori- 
ginal name of Ebrom Rgyal-wahi hbyun 
pnas (Mfon.). 

CQ $ku-ff$egs-pa dying ; death. 

Sku-gfen-gyen Eab the great 
teacher of the Bon : ^'K^W^rt^%irr 
q^'I'qJfr^&rV^ " Ho$-zer 4pal was my 
father, I Sku gyen of Yag g.sher am called 
Sbrom" (Mbrom. P 22). 

1'5^'^JS iku-sras brgyad, the eight 
spiritual sous of Bon-po S'en-rab are the 
following: (1) ' Mu-chos ; (2) 



9 ffol-drug thafi-po ; (3) flif-g-gw^R* Qto-bu 
bum-safis', (4) ^"VS'ii'^ Dpya$-bu khri-fifi ; 
(5) ^-^ lufi-hdren; (6) ^^ Brgyud 
hdren ; (7) fff^^f|*,-q Eoft-tsha dltar-po ; 
(8) ^*-<m a i I 9' c ' Kofi-tsha hphul-bu chuti. 

skit gsufi-thugs, resp. for 
body, speech, thought, which 
constitute the three spheres of a man's 
doings or sufferings ; works in words and 
thoughts. 

g'|g sku-ffsum fiPSfff, f^rra the three 
personal exsistences of a Buddha, viz., 
spiritual existence ; i $=^' 
celestial existence, 
and gTi'S' f^^fw^fni bodily existence; 



also miraculously emanated existence. 

g'i]*tt sku-ffseft rest and gentle exercise 
(of a great man) when convalescent : 



when gout was indica- 
ted in the form of swelling of the body and 
slight improvement approached, it being 
the time of convalescence, he went out 
(Ya-sel.ll). 

g-qjie^ fku-bsrufis or g'liiW! sku- 

-*a ~ ' ~v 

bsrufis-pa tT^RTr, ^fsfi^W attendant ; 
waiter ; body-guard. 



skugs = $*( wager; the stake in a 
game received by the winner. g"!N'j' 
^C'l*''' 1 signifies IS'mTfll^-scai-q^-ei, that is, 
anything placed in pawn: gl^'-^'^'S'M" 
|-*(*-fl(Q( | (D, js.) if the wager is lost he 
will be plunged into an ocean of grief. 

^'3 skufi-wa=%*\-3,w to conceal in 
a secret place (Nag.), pf. sge-w bkung, fut. 
"'S^' bskufi. 1. to hide in the ground ; to 
bury; to inter: <V i r*i*<' q l!?^ c -' ! fc'fl|E.*r'^| 
I have found hidden treasures and 
concealed wealth (nor.). 2. <8TJteiH 
(A. K. 53-55) to fasten down ; to tie, to 



92 



tie on all sides (a corpse in a doubled up 
or twisted position before it is burnt). 

gc.r fkufii-sa lurking place; hiding 
place. 



u or 8V 

1 thread, yarn, wire: gV '*f6*\i to cut 
the thread, i.e., the tie of marriage ; to 
divorce. 5fa'*3fr*$' JV" the thread to sew 
a dress with ; WJS cotton thread, yarn ; 
wg"S woollen thread ; "l^'g'S gold wire ; 
silver wire; g*\'^ yellow thread ; 
silk thread; %gS coloured thread; 
the frayed ends of a seam ; JS'JJ"' 
an embroiderer ; one that makes up a 
picture with threads of different colours ; 
gV^= *pw?i'9'i ?jf^^t needle-work on 
cloth; |Vrif*r spinning thread. 2. 
vb. pf . ^S^, fut. 15, imp. g*<, to smear ; to 
besmear; to daub: ^8V '=| ) S q I'' c ' to be 
smeared with oil: jf a rJ"5V 1 ' to paint a 
door: Tfc'S'fiV to anoint; to apply an 
ointment; 8Vrij|w or ^'tro $*w^ <i 
threads twisted together. 

gViS^g gkud-piihi A6M=V-jfl'g dar- 
gyi srin-bn silk-worm (Affion.). 

$Y^ ikad-po =&*'<&'&'% chufi-mahi 
spun sla 1. wife's brother; brother- 
in-law. 2. ^13* father-iti-law (Jd.). 3. 
in Sikkim a husband's younger brother 
is also called skutf-po. 

tkun-bu is described as OT' >9 i' 
^ smyug-ma-la btays-pahi tnod a 
wicker-work basket ; but a basket or vessel 
made of bamboo is called ^'3 or Vi' 



gkub ^nw very low (Lex.). 

'^J skum-pa, pf. ig*w,fut. ^l", imp. 
, to contract ; also to be drawn up ; to be 
paralysed: q-nrj*ri to draw in the 
limba. 



'ZJ skur-pa VTSTC slander; false 
witness ; blasphemy ; abuse : gv^wq same 
as g^'i'fl^' 1 ) to throw abuse, cast aspersion 
and to bear false witness; to speak im- 
piously of holy things : vK^T"!^'**''^' 
)*,-^c.-g*-cr<^twq to blaspheme by view- 
ing as untrue the three most precious 
Ones. 



S^,'^ I-.gkur-wa or J^'8*'' t i to slander, 
mock, ridicule. 

S^,'^ II:=fl5^'fl srtra a bestowing, 
giving, sending ; also vb. a. to bestow, 
give, send; ^ffl|^'fl ^rfn^^f to furnish 
with power; to empower or instal; "*?K 
J^'i to send intelligence ; J'g* probably 
decorating one with the peacock's feather 
(as in China). 

jjvq'R^wt) gkur-wa hdebf-pa to hold as 
not existing what exists ; to belittle. 

jm'*)"^ skul-mk/ian in W. overseer 
(Jd.). 

jgm'fl skul-rgyu to render service; to 
exact service: T* | frWrf*r'*nF > fT| 
the son-in-law (elect), though he is not a 
slave by birth, must render service for three 
years (to the parents of the bride). 



$pTZJ skul-wa, pf. "$!, *!"i''9, to 
excite ; to exhort, admonish, enjoin : ft' 
^Qurl^qvgorq to exhort a man to do a 
thing ; to appoint : ft'^'WTac^ai'y im- 
posed some work on a person: ^5'fcfl|'8)r 
being induced by his words: ^*r 
frXMr^r^pr^ll the (departed) 
soul urged on by its former deeds and 
sins: flT t *S'f r 3F' though I tried to 
bring round the gods and evil spirits 
by sacrifices: 8i K '* q l* I 'Vr'S a| '3 t ' arousing 
strongly (the actors) with flutes and other 
instruments. iij"i'i and more frequently 
'i exhortation ; admonition, 



11 



93 



*^w also yryn't and f j r*T'V {| to 
expostulate with, rebuke; incite. 

|r\ skul-byed., v. WT^- 
gT3i| skul-tshig a word in the horta- 
tive or imperative mood. 



skyed-dkar same as 



white sash. 



ike ^ra, resp. *yn, neck ; throat : 
with one throat ; unanimously : ")' 
=^-i)5Q-i and "^"l'" to cut one's 
throat ; to behead : l^'wr*! to seize by the 
throat ; to worry (Sch.) : $|v Vl^ to tie 
round the neck (an amulet) ; ^j^ neck- 
lace (Schr.) ; "$!'* ornament for the neck ; a 
necklace : P*ir*SH'j^'g'5 the coral neck- 
lace of a woman of Khams. 

"^'IK ske-tfoA cavity of the throat (Jti.), 
defined in Med. as 8fa'*^ l v3'* q r** ri *i''l|*' ! lf t ' 
^'i the cavity as far down as below the 
larynx. 



ske-tse or^'X rrftraT, ^t?: Sinapis 
ramosa, black mustard; mustard seeds 
(Ja ) : 5<|<ij>N-<^ai gMT^'spT^! it removes 
evil spirits and cures swellings and 
carbuncles (Med.). 

"${***' Ske-ts/iafi n. of an old monastery 
situated in the mountains behind the 
monastery of Sera (Deb. "\ 13). 



a sash; an ornament like a sash worn 
round the waist. 



skeg va<n n. of a constellation: 
*h <9| 'l* skeg-la $kye$ ^wqTffar born in the 
constellation of Aflesd. [The man born 
in the constellation of A9lesa is unfortu- 
nate, inasmuch as his birth is followed by 
the death of himself, his mother or father.] 
^1'**i gkeg-tshos paint, rouge (for the 
face) (Scfi.). 



da-dru 
hjoms n. of a medicinal drug (Mnon.). 

^'^J eked-pa=^f\t ^rfk the waist : 
Sl'IS sku $kyed oi^'W** $ked-$kabs fsra^l', 
the hind parts below the waist ; ^'"^'^"1^ 
^*f^TT waist-band. ^'*S fked-so the waists : 
^|5'^ jj-^E.-3R.^^-w|q-q the length of 
hair reaching down even to the waist 
(Mbrom. f>35). 

"fa* $ked-ma, v. ^'^g, pomegranate 
(Mrton.). 

'^ $kem-nad consumption. 

!'! skem-pa = WQ ^^r, adj. ^i, 
S, wn, vb. pf . *wp jftfoer, fut. tnip or 
'WS, imp. %w skoms, pros. <li'w9vi 

1. to make dry, lean meagre; to dry up. 

2. also as adj. H|*r3 skam-po dry; dried 
up ; meagre. 

q*ri skem-pa = WP>BW* lean, thin 
body (Mnon.). 

^'I'S Skem-byed. n. of a demon that 
causes drought ; ^"'I^'S'"!^^ n. of a 
trouble (in the body of a person) caused 
by an evil spirit. 

^"'SS'VP' 2 ' $kem-byed dkar-po the resin 
of the sal tree, which is burnt as an 
incense; same as Ifr'V]^ white incense 
gum (Sman. M7.) 

'!^'* Skem-byed.-ma n. of a goddess. 



Skefi-lufls n. of a place in 
Tibet (Deb. *{ 11). 



^S'l^'WI an epithet of Kumara, 
the younger son of Mahadeva (Mnon.). 

very thin, lean. 

I|*wi5 - flwi tkems-pahi ebrebs-pa 
the hunger of emaciating disease. 



94 



sker is sometimes written as *)* her. 

j^, gker lebtgur pony, sheep, 
; collectively cattle. 

sko-sko fa.^5 the chin. 

tko-wa, pf. i$f", fut. q ^ or q ^ -tiv 5. 
to select ; also to appoint, nominate, com- 
mission, charge; Wrtf* to appoint a 
person to work : I^'P^ q "^ ST 9*- ^ "^ S ' 
(K. du. *\ 362) should appoint a ge-long 
(Buddhist monk) to arrange for lodg- 
ing; 5"i'''^' :: i^' Q raised to the throne; 
rqijfr^e.- without mandate ; unbidden ; 
w-i'q?f') destined; appointed to the work, 
i.e., destined (to be a man) in consequence 
of his works ; fcvfr"!*' 1 ^ appointed by 
my destiny; fate (Jd.). 



sko-tse a mixture of the leaves 
of various kinds of leeks pounded and 
formed into balls and dried ; when used, 
a small portion is broken off, fried in 
butter, and then added to the food. This 
spice forms a lucrative article of commerce 
and is exported from Ladak to Kashmir 
and from Lhasa to India (Jd.). 



s^l'i or *h'> a hard cover- 
ing; rind; bark ; a shell: ifF** tkogscan 
adj., having a cover or shell ((?.). 

skofi, v. ^ kofi. 



vow ; se.'JW'qmc.'fli'S the ceremony to satisfy 
one's guardian deity by supplementing 
what was wanting and making amends 
for the same: ^Sl*'*!^ is an offering or 
tor ma for a deficiency: i!|(E.'*,w offering 
of some representation of celestial man- 
sions, made of coloured threads, to one's 
guardian deities; fl^'"!* offering to the 
gods and guardian deities. 

w2)n] may your 



t 1. sbst. v. %. 
to dress ; to clothe 



pf. 

fut. F imp. %**, to fulfil; also sbst. 
*r|(k, to fulfil a hope: r^'" to fill up 
what is open ; to make up a deficiency: ^' 
Bfrr^E. dge-u-ahi kha-skofito fulfil perfectly 
the laws of virtue, r^ or l"^*! also P' 
Sf=- signify an appendix ; supplement : *W 
^'P q 'M t '^'' : ''*i l S ""ill be described in the 
appendix below: ^'S'STi^'r*' to do a 
certain ceremony fully according to your 



hope be fulfilled. 



2. vb. pf . and fut. 
another person. 



a !)-) signifies the com- 
ing occasion of doing some difficult work. 

^|*J I : shorn fam*rr, vs\ thirst ; resp. 
fl\c^N shal-gkom, **' <*'%*'' ' t ^f-' tormented 
by thirst; w^'^ food and drink: %**' 
yW>'*f*'V*ltr\4 take milk (lit. "white") 
and tea for thirst: $f*r^*e.-<q*wi gkom-du 
cJuifl-gsol take wine for thirst (Kathaft. 
115). 

"^*J II : the dry land (Jd.). 
fa'Z* skom-gkyur sour beer; sour 

> 

fermented liquor. 

ifw^ kom-da4 or %*''&'* thirst ; %-%*\w 
^jw-l-q one who is very thirsty : ^fi'^V 
-aC5J4 TjrW TTmTfW: (give) drink to the 
thirsty ; V'V^asf^ wishing for 
drink ; f^" mouth drying; thirsty : %*' 
tr^^rq^fTW^ | the thirsty will be 
freed from their thirst. 

fa'sfi gkom-nat eftcf thirsty; imp. 
SjwrSjfll ^H^ become thirsty ; ^'l^'^ 
fnmf thirsty. 

^'^ fkom-yaihe flesh of a calf that 
died or was killed as soon as it was born, 



95 



even before it could suck milk from its 
mother's teat (Sman.). 

%wt skoms-pa ftnTT^ thirsty. 

8yn. Jfr^i btun-wa Mod; 
chuhdog; r$f kha-ikom( Mnon.). 



skor 1. class, order; appertain- 
ing to ; subject ; circle ; body a term often 
used to signify a retinue, a set of atten- 
dants, persons of one class ; **^'$fc class 
of official staff ; also court ( Tig. k. 37) ; 
S'^'ijjX class of husband; that which 
concerns a husband ; SV*^'3'^ class of 
women, about women ; ^'sfvm of that 
order ; with respect to that ; also of that 
subject ; Fr$S-$jVi on the subject of 
litigation ; *Y'$j* the paraphernalia of 
worship ; '$(* circuit, tour : S^qgaprBW 
q^-^V^H^ J*Wf ff*S | "the Eesident 
Amban of Tibet (started) from Lhasa on 
a military tour, &c." 2. anything round, 
a circle ; *>T^ eye-ball. In W. T^ 
hoop of bamboo (Schtr.) ; Sfc'gT^ the 
(circumference) of a man's head ; P^'^l'^ 
the top of a house. 3. section, division, 
e.g., of a book, similar to ">^ chapter. 4. 
repetition ; Sfvgw'Q to repeat (Schtr.). 5. 
religious circumambulation, v. SjVfl. 

Syn. \'*^ sde-tshan, ^"F rigs, 3P gra$, 
^ don (Mflon.). 

^'"W skor-mkhan one who goes round ; 
i(Vq one who turns a lathe ; one who cir- 
cumambulates or walks round a sacred 
object. 

^o^skor-hfo, ^v^fc^n-ifi^ \ (Fa*. 
kar.) classes in -astrology. There are eight 
heads or sections according to Indian 
astrology ; according to Tibetan astrology 
there are fifteen ^'^ heads of astrology, 
such as about kings, ministers, priests, 
B&ges, mystica, queens, &c. ; also about 



birth, growth, maidens, old persons, ill- 
ness, husbandry, houses, service, &c. ; ***' 
about profit in trade ; 
Profit from the com- 
pounding of medicines and drugs ; %i' 
^ra$4r*r|^'? | interest accruing 
from the laying out of silver (money). 

^VfflijN $kor-rgyug$ turning the enemy; 
getting into his rear (</&.). 

skor-tliag the cord of a lathe. 

skor-thafi price or rate; also 
interest on anything in kind ; in grain 
given as loan. 

tkor-thig a pair of compasses ; 
a sling. 

SjV skor-pa or ^' vq or C^'T 1 ^ a turner ; 
also one who goes on his rounds. 

SjVs skor-wa, vb., pf., &c., fut. ^, 
1. to fill with ; to surround, encircle, 
enclose, besiege ; to come again and again ; 
to revolve : r*-q*$jVq5-SF!$^| I (4. K.) 
the town that was encircled (filled) with 
houses: ^c^ ^v-^--S)-fligi-3| the 
three men of those who were surrounding 
them : rt-yrff^WwiP^ | the Chief of the 
Ta-rtse mountains is surrounded by 
rugged rocks: J^fCtffwrJr*^ the 
Ti-rise (Tise) mountain is surrounded by 
glaciers: g-vjarq-aq-i^-q^ the Eyura 
Rgyalpo mountain is surrounded by water 
(D. K). 2. to traverse ; ride round a thing. 
Also metaphorically in the religious sense : 
to'S'^pSvarSjVq to preach, to propound the 
doctrine of Buddhism : *flpr3hj^-< f ijVa 
to make mystic offerings (i.e., the symbo- 
lical offerings representing one's accumu- 
lated merits) to the Tantrik deities, and 
to observe the ceremonies thereof. 3. ^'q 
or ipri(^ s^farr the reverential cere- 
mony of circumambulation which consists 
in walking round a holy object with 



one's right side towards it. This is also 
called *'$* chos-skor ^^f^^K Buddhist 
circumambulation. The Buddhist priests 
of Tibet perform this in contradistinction 
to ^'<S(% or the ceremony of the Son, who 
reverences a sacred object by walking 
round it keeping it to his left. The Bon 
ceremony is also called "T 5 ^'^, walking 
round a holy object keeping it to the left 
jai^c. - i)fviT|'V, as a specification of reli- 
gious duties, to make salutation and cir- 
cumambulations. f-'ifc the inner path- 
way for circumambulating a holy place 
or shrine ; %'$* the outer passage for the 
above object ; **'$* the middle pathway 
for the same ; i^'IS bkor-byeg one who 
goes round or makes a circle or traverse. 
Other usages of this verb are : w^'iifr' 1 ! 
or w^'^'3^'1 to befool, delude, deceive a 
person ; P'^'i khn skor-ica to make one 
alter one's sentiments; to divert one from 
a plan, &c. *>%* $kor in wfl^'^'n?^ signifies 
if all were taken into account; the cir- 
cumstances or things available (A. 



E. 1 tkor-$ifi a turner's lathe or tool. 



Syn. *j*v* hkhor-wa; 
yafi hofi-wa (Mfion.). 

ij|VI^ skor-tshcr on this occasion : ^' 
3,-|^-q-^i| gc- | on this (present) occasion 
prosperity arose. 



courses; n 
rotation, one coming after another and 
again going back. 

SjX'aw gkar-lam a roundabout way; 
the way or passage round any sacred 
place, temple or town for pilgrims to 
circumambulate it; the pathway round 
about a monastery used for holy proces- 
sions. 

qvafiif q gkor-log-pa a wrong turn : fr' 
JSi|-n-^-q to walk round an object in the 
wrong way, keeping it to his left. 



=^t pf. and fut. 
to boil (vb., act., of. *j*r>) : 3/*'** one who 
boils tea. 

Sfa'i skof-pa, v. f " sko-wa. 

& sky a 1. crop ; the produce of 
a year, i.e., H*!; |'3" plenteous crop: 
^i-j-2)-5'gE.-| this year the crop has been 
abundant : ^ J 5'5^w3'gc.- 1 this year the 
crop has been unsuccessful (lit. " a loser "). 
2. a paddle ; also ladle. 3. wall or parti- 
tion, usually wg. 4. plain, without dis- 
tinguishing colour, but see jj'i below : f 
"I a plain unpainted box : | **< a blank 
book : g'<2 a plain hat without riband. 

JCWI skya-bag greyish colour ; iron-grey 
colour (Jig.)- 



= y*\ magpie; in Ld. 
n. of a bird (Cs.) . 

Syn. S'H' 25 bya khra-wo ; w^'a'^'gai'a 
mgron-gyi hphrin-skycl bya; *% 3\*c *^ 
rnfion-fei-can (JHfion.). 

S'5 Ski/a skya pale-white ; grey colour. 

jfjq'y ski/a rgyab-pa to row ; to ladle. 

g'^ skya-chen a superior kind of plain 
scarf (for presentation) (S. kar. 179). 

l^ 1 " skya-nil zinc. 

fro) skya-tha-le of plain white colour. 

3'SS $kya-thud a kind of plain cheese 
made of pounded dried milk with butter 
but not with sugar. 

3'SS ^ skya-thn$-leb a kind of cheese- 
cake made of dried milk and butter. 

5'S* skya-thum a kind of cake or biscuit 
made without sugar or treacle. 

j-lf*r)-i skya thom-me-wa glaring white : 
at all times one of 



97 



skya-nar in^r, tTT^T 1. n. of a 
flower, Bignoma graveolens. 2. brown ; 
buff. 

S'^'H'S fki/a-nar khra-bo, also g'^'^H'^ 
MII, n. of a flower; g'Sf^H'^ 
^T another species of Bigno- 
ii in (jravcoL')is. 

g'^'1'9 Skya-nar-gyi bu mr<!igf n. 
of a city in ancient India, Pataliputra, 
now supposed to be Patna. 

5'^ '8ft'* 1 kya-nar Idan-ma triz<$i <!?), 
also i|i4H<ici1 n. of a river in Ancient 
India ; ace. to Bhavabhuti's description 
the river flowed by miMat or modern 
Narwar in Malwa wrenr (<3^5ifil^). This 
latter name of the river occurs in Bhava- 
bhuti's Halatlmadhava, written early in 
the 8th century. 

S'^ fkya-tcal: 1. vb. pf. ^g" bskya, 
fut. ig bskya, to carry ; convey to a place 
(a quantity of stones, wood, water, &c.). 
2.=*Ti to change place. 

S'^J fkya-wa II : also g'S skyn-ico ITPST, 
fsrsR grey or whitish grey; pale- white; 
**'g a secular personage ; one clothed in no 
particular colour ; a layman, from the grey 
colour of the coarse serge which is gene- 
rally worn by the lay people of Tibet : g' 
n<v^ when (he was still) a layman, i.e., 
had not entered the sacred order (A. 126) : 
j-ofv^*raiw (A. 126) from the time I was a 
layman ; |f'g light blue. !=-'! light green ; 
V'g light red; *'g ^fft^l tawny; light 
yellow ; $'g rice ; barley without anything 
to eat it with ; insipid miserable food ; g 1 
Q^ whiteness ; faintness ; ^'g^ fe.' *fM<*i- 
the city of Kapila ; *'- 
the residence of Kapila; 
the hermitage of Kapila. 
\ skya-wa hdsin=^ i \^ mnati-pa or 
a rower (Mfton.). 



fa pale 
whitish yellow. 

g'^'l skya-wo spyl vulgar people; the 
common worldly men. 

g'* skya-ma hard and rough soil for 
cultivation: w^arj'jr^ywBi (Jig.) 
as to soil, two kinds, the alluvial or soft 
and the hard or gravelly. 

g'* 1 '^'!" Skya-tw na-kha n. of a vast 
grassy plain or common belonging to the 
Government of Lhasa in U (Central 
Tibet). 

g'ST Skya-rtsa dry grass. 

g't" skya-rtse a layman at the top (of 
a row) : qW**$f$f* > ife*7$i| the front 
left hand row of seats should have a lay- 
man heading it (Jig.). 

g'^*i skya-ris outline, sketch, draw- 
ing of the outlines of a picture, which is 
generally done with charcoal in Tibet: 
"fa*T*W*H'fi'^l then outlines of this 
kind are necessary (A. 108.). 

g'^' Skya-refi, also called jj'wv* *i^n; , 
n. of the lake from which (the Yang-tse 
kiang) the Biver of the Golden Sands 
takes its rise. 

g-^sr^-S} skya-rcfis nu-lo ^unit the 
several stages or divisions of the dawn 
whichare g'^w^ trrfrerrcpir the copper- 
red dawn; g'^'V!* nl^T the white 
dawn (the earth) ; g'^c.*)'^ the golden or 
yellow dawn; g-^^^c.-g-^^-q sf^rreir 
the first appearance of the dawn ; g'^e.r 
w w-fj^-q ^cfr^ir the appearance of the 
middle or the yellow dawn; g-^t,rq-< 
*rreT^5 the last (stage of the) dawn. 

| - q skya-lan also g 3 in C. morning ; 
twilight; dawn. 

J-ata skya.leb=y^i\ a rudder. 
g'*E- Skya-scfi n. of a tree (Jd.)-, 
translation of the name Paudu. 



98 



gW| 



U'Sfr-fyg skya-sefi-gi bu m*** the sons 
of Pandu; |*Mfa'#'WT*rS'**' the 
names of Karna, the eldest of the Pagdava 



KVu^'i5-S>e.- the names of Yti- 
qfofo*, 
'S"'*^, **<'' 3 



Bhima-se 






'fte. the names of 
W'^ Klu-yi 



stobs-ldaii, #m -l iN'|m Tshogs-las skycs V*' 
**p, e.'9|'9 troi^f, frfr'tf **" = SV^'fr 
*tc.' Sriil sgrub-kyi min, the names of ^fsffi 



-g, gyjf.B/v!-ta g/w, 
T^^' the names of As'vinlku- 
maras Sahadeva l^'fS 41 Skyes rgu skycs, 



g'^'Sl'g'g^'^'w^-Se.' the names 
of the wife of the five Paijdava R 



*'%'*, V*" Skyid-ma, 



3'^*. skya-ser white and yellow, i.e., 
the laity and the clergy, the latter being 
distinguished from the former by their 
yellow dress. 

3'*w skya-slomg occurs in the pas- 
sage ^t'^N''i(NN'|'ijN'3>^$*'*)VW'iJ l J|'*<5' 

3'5j skya-lham leather boots put on 
by laymen. 

|R|'1 skyag-pa I: same as H*.'*J 1. 
human excrement ; also any kind of ordure. 
2. bad man, the dreg or scum of society ; 
*>1'|"1 secretion from the eyes ; g"I' )'"l?c.'q 
to ease nature. 

Syn. \'%*t dri-chen ; g^ brun (tun) ; %' 
*'** mi-gisafi-ma 



2. pf. ^, fat. 

, imp. jf"! to spend, lay out, expend: 
expenditure or items of expenditure: 
skyag-tho list or account of expenses. 
3. in W. Jl'S^'^ to slaughter, to murder 
(Jd.). 

SI'Q kyag-po n. of a place in Tibet : 
yi|-2jApr* the marshy plain of 5^3. 

|C' sAy^ TTTO?;; NW'S^^'S reddish 
brown. 



iul=' or 

plaster ; also pavement ; clay-flour ; mud- 
flour; |s.-$or3'Vi = is\i -l ' - 3v " to pave; to 
plaster; according to Seh. to rub, polish. 



skijans ashamed ; in shame : 
. being ashamed (A. K.). 

skyabs J^TU protection, defence; 
help, assistance: "J^'qwl'gw protec- 
tion for the place and for the occasion : 
^-gq]-fl]^--jjiw permanent and ever- 
lasting protection which according to 
the Buddhists can only be obtained from 
taking refuge in the three holies: (1) 
Buddha who is the teacher is called 5^*1' 
Ift'i or the Eefuge Master; (2) Dharma 
or the sacred doctrine called jw^w, the 
real protection; (3) Sangha, the priest- 
hood called gtw'|q'i5-f im, the friend for 
gaining protection. Eefuge in these three 
completely liberates ie from the miseries 
of the world and secures the state of omnis- 
cience for the devotee: |W!*J*-^if-iS- 
3o|-ij?j* the three formula or expressions for 
seeking refuge in the three holies : (1) *)* 
^ ) --*43'ii-wur5r'Jrgw t i'*iSS| "I come 
for refuge to Buddha who is the chief of 
the two-footed"; (2) *Sw*fK*n*&*9*l 
i*rarjji!r $}$! "I come for refuge to 
Dharma which separates from desires"; 
(3) #q]--*^'*Vi' 9r 3 {W '3'* ) *' ( I "I come 



99 



for refuge to the priesthood, the chief of 
all assemblies." 

gqr*i5fa skyabs-mgon helper ; protector ; 
deliverer. The Kyap-gon is the popular 
term for the Dalai Lama in Lhasa and 
for the Panchen Lama in Shigatse 
and throughout Tsang. It is also applied 
to other incarnate lamas by courtesy. 

w*<*fo',|"| kyab-myon sbuy original 
or real protector; a complementary title 
of the Dalai Lama: IW^frH'^'^H'^' 
^*r^4^ according to the spirit of the 
letter of command of the Protector. 

f[q*<-a%t"Jft fkyabs-mgon rtse-$o$ lit. 
the Protector (residing on the) top (of 
Potala and the court) below: 



" offer, without fail annually, as 
before, the new year's homage to the 
Grand Lama and his Court." 

gwsfa skyabs-sgron SI^MVWU both pro- 
tector and enlightener. 
i $ki/abs-bcol, 



r*) skyabs bcol-sa the place of 
refuge: fW4Jfr^lft'rtfa|'HW* 1 A^j ex- 
cept the three precious ones there is no- 
place of refuge. 

gw*|i| skyabs-hjttg = *&!'*& a blessing; 
favour ; taken under protection : ^Y^V'tffa' 
*3q - iS'5qr*gflj | blessing attained in accord- 
ance with one's mental prayer (Tig. 
k. 25). 

5q*T*|fl|-g-q skyabs-fyug $hu-wa to ask 
benediction from the higher class of 
incarnate lamas for protection against 
disease, evil spirits, and other enemies, and 
also for a safe journey to heaven without 
falling into hell, &c. 

gqr<ifi skyabs-pnas the place of 
refuge, shelter ; also of persons, helper. 



rgya-chen = 

the great object of worship or 
adoration (JSffion.). 

ywn 8kyabs-pa=.*$*M bskyabs siKm 
protection; saved (Zam.). 

JWS skyabs-bya the person who seeks 
refuge. 

tyw^ skyabs-byed = ^-o, ^r pro- 
tection, defence (Mfion.). 

|q'^ - i skyabs byed-pa to protect, help, 
save. 

|w* skyabs-hos t^m worthy of 
protection ; also gq^-njsj*) f%(S{^ut the three 
protectors, i.e., Buddha, Dharma and 
Sangha. 

|w - g^$'q skyabs-su hgro-wa or yw 
o^'l skyabs hgro-wa stKHT?TTK to seek 
refuge ; a going unto or repairing to for 
protection. snwrR or faumpwr has been 
defined in the Bodhicharyavatara as fol- 
lows : TW3f?f t srT^TfW f^rowiHm i " I 
take refuge in the three gems." In the 
same work f^rsrr has been substituted for it 
and it is found in the list of seven-fold 
highest modes of worship. 

jw^w skyab-seni? fWfptff'fr'Nrflj^l 
the idea of seeking refuge. 

*l T 3i kyar-phu a place in Tibet 
(Deb. 45). 

f^'^1 $kyar-gog naked (in the 
dialect of Purang). 

^^'^S^J skyar-bcag to bring into 
recollection, to bring back into memory 
anything that has been forgotten. 

S^,'J skyar-po snipe ; wood- cock 
(Sch.). 

g^'P skyar-wa^*.'* ^'^ ^: 5*1. 
again and again. 

Syn. |jvq5 f 2flj skyar-wahi tshig; 
sJtyor-tshig ; |*'*"1 slos-tshig; * 



100 



(Won.). 

g^'V skyar-rbab (Cs.) trnJ f 'CfT a kind 
of dropsy ; a greyish rheumatic swelling. 

5*'*) gkyar-mo a kind of water fowl; 
according to Sc/t. a heron. The flesh of 
this fowl is antidote for a poison adminis- 
tered in Mongolia mixed with horse 
flesh (Sman ps/ntfi). $$*> duck (Cs., Sc/t.) ; 
bittern, but the ^TV" of the Lex. is a 
kind of goose. 

gv^q skyar-leb the sheldrake. 



skyal ijtt swimming. 

gi'f skyal-k/ia =RTT leaping ; a boat. 

garg^'lpi $kyal-gyi$ tgrol trf^<ir: cross- 
ing over by swimming. 

g*r^ fkyal-chcn = y a na-pa fish; a 
fisherman (Mnon.). 

S?l skya*. a changing of abode or 
residence ; g*'3^'5 death : g^'^'Q'^ ^Vl** 
the great change of place that uplifts, i.e., 
death ; g^'^iwi to change one's dwelling 
place; (cf. g'") gwS^^flprq to die; vb. 
skyag-pa, pf. qg, fut. g or ig'W9, to 
transfer, and hence to depart this life. 

f^'Si gkyas-ma 1. v. |r. 2. fern 
(in Sikkim). 

S skyi 1. interest on loan; |'^ wealth 
accrued from interest, i.e., money-lending; 
according to some borrowed wealth. 2. 
the outward side of a skin or hide (Cs.). 

g'VT* skyi dkar=f\' e >'$"F'W ? i the white 
fatty side of a skin (flag.) : g'VP''*|rq 
ace. to Cs., dressed leather ; tanned leather, 
sometimes hide: g'Vl^'!i' cw l*''''ft parch- 
ment. 

g'R*-' Skyi-khufi a place in Tibet 
(Deb. 1 34). 



Skyi-mkhar l/ia-k/tafi n. of a 
monastery in Tsang (Deb. "{ 12). 

g'J|w skyi-tgam a box, chest or trunk 
lined outside with dressed hide. 

|-qgw skyi-btumg anything packed 
or tied round with dressed hide ; a skin or 
hide to pack with: tff'=.'t"g'q|*ira dkrofi- 
rtse skyi bstiims-ma. 

g'^"I Skyi-nag or g'g'^'l gkyi-gkyi na-ga 
n. of a pasture land in province Tsang. 

g'gjij*) gkyi-lpags chamois wash-leather 
(Sc/t.). 

5*^ skyi-wa I: a medicinal plant 
(Med.) ; ace. to Jd. potato. 

^'3 II : vb. pf. *g fakyig, fut. ig bskyi, 
imp. 3" tkyis, to borrow, especially money 
or goods (cf. 1"wn and g^'^ skyin-pa). 

g 'fjt' gkyi-bnfi cloud: ^'i'^'J"^^i'g'5i < 
Ej-uifl'gE.-gwJSf^i thereupon the phantom 
King Kong-tse departed with the clouds 
(D. R.). 

'5^ fkyi-bun prob. an itching of the 
skin (7a.). 

j'qjuR tkyi-gi/ha= a *\w c > fear; dread 
(Mfion.) : g'|wq A;^ pyah-ica to shiver, 
tremble with fear (C7.) ; to be struck with 
panic. 

g'-^ A'y fa outward and inward side 
of a hide (Jd.) ; according to Sch. the 
anus. 

Ip]"^ tgyig-pa or g"I'' i skyigs-pa also 
gkyigt-bii vulgo. 'B*I i-khug f^rr> 
hicough ; yex ; also a sob : *|$v 
wj'q'?flm'^N'p'*ii' | T|5)flii' t \' ) | " coughing by 
those who eat the berry (gyer-ma)" (faf.) ; 
jfljwg-q|-fl|*qf skyigs-bu brfaeg-par to keep 
on sobbing. 



101 



skyifi-khab in Hindi Kifikab, 
embroidery inlaid with gold and silk 
manufactured both in India and China. 

J*'ifc skyefi ser eagle; vulture (Ja.). 

skyifls occurs in the passage 
|iMrdfr%^fi' (D. E.). 

"*' Skyid-grofi n. of a well-known 
town in Southern Tib., near sources of the 
Q-anduk on Nepal border, commonly called 
Kirong : |\f^**^rWT^-|?W | 
having come to meditate on the mountains 
of Kirong between Tibet and Nepal 
(Mil). 

|VS skytf gin song of joy; a merry 
song. 

Iv'f skyitf mgo beginning of happi- 
ness. 

%*\$Skyid-chu "the river of happiness," 
n. of northern tributary of the great Yeru 
Tsangpo or Brahmaputra Eiver, on which 
tributary Lhasa is situated. 

* gkyid-hes comfortable : ivi* 
fyd-rnami ski/id ches-pa we have 
been comfortable (A. 129). 

Y*w skyid-thabs comforts ; mode of 
comfortable living: g-^-wr|vwv*r 
nqj-fiff-^-ai bti-de bde-thabs skyid-thabt hjam- 
thabs kho-na-la the son only sought for 
opportunities of happiness and comfort. 

IV*^ skyid-dar a silk scarf presented to 
the bride at the time of marriage as a token 
of prosperity. 

|v|f'y* r * |5 fo Skyid-lde m-ma-mgon n. 
of a King of Tibet : Iv^-waffr^-ww 
^rfj-fcw jarljv 1 '!*'' 1 this Kyi-de Nima-gon 
came into Ngari and seized the kingdom 



circumstances : | I Vf q r3' t '3 t ' whatever 
circumstances may happen : |S'| fl ?''S' 1 ' 
pleasure and pain intermingled. 



happy : 



gkyid-pa or Iv" skyd-po sbst. 
happiness ; adj. tiRK 
S skyid-po Mod- 
sdotf if you wish to be happy, 
live alone, i.e., be a celibate (Lo. 27). 



no, 



' (kyi ftofi-fie 
always happy ; uninterrupted happiness: 
|^'^c,'lf|^') $kyicl sifi-zifi byed-pa to be 
continuously happy. 



kyid-fod the district including 
the tracts in the lower valley of the river 
Kyi ; the central district of l \5J*' or tJ, the 
province of which Lhasa is the chief city. 

VSP skyi-lhan signifies |^HJ'm'^'w 
skyi-po-la hgro-icar, to be prosperous; 
happy (Lo.). 

S^ fkyin the Tibetan ibex, Capra 
sakeen : B^'V|Tt^"TT^'l'V'| < 

yujwcrqi^q] khyehu chufi-ikyin-gyi ral-ka-can 
gser-gyi ral-gri thog$-pa g.cig (D. R.) 
a little boy who had the horns of an ibex 
holding a golden sword. In Ladak the 
female ibex is differentiated as 



M 5 



tkyin-gor or 
rngo a lizard (Lex.); also called 
snow-frog. 



skyin- 



skyid-sduy good and ill-luck, 
happiness and misery; one's general 



%*'i ser-tca hail 
and sleet (Sch.). 

"S^*y (kyin-pa 1. sbst. a loan ; money 
borrowed irrespective of interest; 
w-j^-ci loan producing interest : 
^^ai fa-la hdi fltyin-du htshal grant me 
this as a loan; l^'fjVi fkyin-pa sprod.- 
pa or |^ - i'^E |J l' e l skyin-pa hjal-wa to pay 
back or return a loan ; ^'|^ nor-skyin a 



102 



loan of money or goods ; f'i^ gos-skyin 
a loan of clothes ; p'l'^'i skyin-pa len- 
pa to take on credit. 2. vb. pf. 
to borrow. 



gkyin-po chiefly colloq. resp. ^' 
kar-skyin a loan ; a thing borrowed ; 
money advanced without interest (</.). 

i skyin-mi ace. to Schr. a debtor. 



a\-^q skyin-tshaba-Aebt; anything paid 
as equivalent of thing taken on loan. In 
C. signifies same as **, the pledge for 
loan. 



skyibs a place giving shelter 
(either in a rock, under a tree, roof or 

cause birds dwell in the hollow of an over- 
hanging rock, such rock known as skyibs 
is termed "bird-shelter" for the reason 
that it affords protection (flag.) : 9TV"< 
Irag-skyibg a sheltering place under an 
overhanging rock or a projecting roof : 
nip'lw bkah-skyibs a covered terrace or 
small portico before a house : **'S q ehar- 
gkyib shelter from rain. 

\34 $kyim dressed leather painted 
red or in other colours, japanned or var- 
nished leather. 

STJ'TIC' $kyil-kruA (kil-iun) the posture 
of sitting cross-legged serenely without 
moving the limbs ; Jji'TFlV* 1 skyil-krufi 
byed-jM tnTO to take a particular kind of 
posture practised by ascetics in medi- 
tation; m?i-2|c.-S|-^i-) skyil-mo kruR-gi 
Mug-pa or PJl^'i bshugs-pa to sit in a 
cross-legged posture ; $*wrv&'8 QI '2l*' sentf- 
d.pahi ski, il-knifi the mental concentration, 
or the posture of sitting perfectly still, of a 



JBod/iisattva : ^'i'Si'J* rdo-rjt skyil-kruA 
^m^S^ the posture of sitting perfectly 
still without moving the body ; the un- 
changeable posture of sitting cross-legged ; 
^flUrciS'garip. rdsogs-pahi skyil-kruA the 
posture of perfection, i.e., of a Buddha. 

|(TC| skyil-wa, pf. "Ijarti bskyil-pa or 
q|<jr bskyil-to,fa.t. lyw^'Q, bski/il-icar bya 
or b$kyil 1. to pen up, shut up ; to dam up 
a river ; $'S 8 '' t ' chu tkyU-wa to bank up 
water ; S't^'S 1 *'* chu rdsM-dit skyil-wa 
to collect water in a pond ; $'? C ^'!K > 
chu rjift-bitr gkyil-ica to collect water for 
a pond. When the water collects itself 
into a pool or tank it is called 
chu hkhyil-wa: T*STO'H'V' 
flj i zag-med bdud-rtsihi btufi-wa mtsho- 
Itar fyskyil the exhaustless drink of 
ambrosia stands collected like a sea. 
[2. to bend, esp. the legs when sitting on 
the ground after Oriental fashion ; also 
to bend in another's leg by a kick from 
behind ; to bend the bow (<7a.)]. 

jnrS'ijc skyil-inokruH 9 ^'^^ posture 
of sitting; it is same as ^i'| II i'2p' rdo-rje 
skyil-kruA (Mfion.). 

skytt-gafi 1. ace. to Seh. a 



gulp ; draught. 2. dough made of flour 
with tea: 



(flag.) at the time of eating pap of barley 
flour the dough becomes formed like a 
hollow bowl and the name of the rounded 
buttery lump is kyu-gang : i*r^'*'Srra| 1 - 
a'^NWR'^'t I S'"l c -' t >^* ( '5 on a journey 
when eating barley flour mixed with butter 
and boiled tea the dough so made (Lo.). 
' Skyu-ra-sgafi, one of the six 



-S3 

districts of p*w Klutms designated under 
the name of ?*'%"!. The six Sgafi are the 



103 



following : (1) |'*'IF Skyu-ra Sgaft, (2) 
"W'iF Rab-Sgafi, (3) Ift^'SF Spo-hbyr 
Sgan, (4) piv|wwrs|c Dmar-ETiams Sgafi, 
(5) *$; Tsha-Sgan, (6) aarfrjje. 



I : skyu-ru a kind of medicinal 



IT^N-ci skyug nes-pa 
not be taken or eaten. 



fruit called 



skyer- fun. 



S'^ II : skyu-ru in Sikk. and |V*5 
skyitr-mo in Lhasa, signify a sour liquid or 
vinegar (Ja.). 



S'^'^ kyu-ru-ra 

n. of a sour fruit said to cure the 
diseases of phlegm, bile and blood. 2. 
Ja. in his Diet, says : " In later times the 
word seems to have been used also for the 
olive, and skyu-ru $in, the olive tree, which 
in Sikkim is called kha skyur-pohi qifi." 

Syn. Jr^g*i rgyal-hbras. ; ^'S shi-byed ; 
syVg'i bmd lna-pa; !** q^-^ lan-ts/w 
brtan-lyed; ^'^'"I^ na-tshod-gnas ', *\Wg;^ 
dpal-ldan t^^*?* bcud-g.na ; ww ma-ma 
(Won.). 

3'%* s%w-rm=*S'*<5-a=.- tshod-mahi 
miff (flag.) I- n- of a kind of table vege- 
table. 2. condiment; sauce; pickle (Cs.). 
According to others, at least in W., only 
the resp. word for a"!" $pag$: (Ja.) gV 
IV*! to prepare sauce, &c. ; *T 5 *'g'S* 1 sauce 
made of vinegar for meat ; ^w'l'S* 1 
sauce made of vegetable or pot-herbs. 

g^j'^ tkyug-pa, pf. |'| skriif/s 1. 

to vomit, eject, e.g., blood ; !*|*r' 
skyug-te hjug-pa to cause to vomit ; 
sktjug-pa dren-pa to excite vomit- 
Tng; wj'31*' nan-skyiigs vomit (it is the 
food of certain demons, and being boiled 
in it is one of the punishments of hell) 
(Ja.). 2. to lose colour ; to stain. 



that can- 



skyug-ldad rumination; chewing 
the cud ; ace. to Sch. eructation : gT3|Y 

Na 

to chew the cud as cattle. 



skyug bro-wa (kyug-to-wa) or 

^'3fl| ^-iK'q nausea (Mfion.) ; also what is 
\ / * 

repulsive to taste or sight or smell ; causing 
nausea ; 5*T' w<ffi the disease of nausea ; 
g<i]'sj-q*i from disgust (to eat anything) ; 
SJI'Ef kyug-bro in C. shameful ; impure 
with regard to religion (Ja.). 

STfft skyug-sman = tyy&\ an emetic; a 

> s* 

medicine causing to vomit. 

|*| - iSq| - q skyug log-pa (Sch.) to feel 
disgust, v. f Tjf *i skyug bro-wa. 

S^I^T^I skyugs-po = "I*'"! s gsal-wa 

1. clear; 2. n. of a bird the bill of which 
is of coral colour. 

Syn. g'^'*<$'^ byu-ruhi mchu-can ; ^T 
c^'n5^ yul-fian hbod; 31 K ^19 grafi-reg 
pho-na (Mfion.). 

SC,'Z^ skyun-ica, pf. q|**ri fakyufis-pa, 

^y ~*& 

fut. W&F*' bskyufl, imp. g^ skaufig, to dimi- 
nish or reduce ; i| f{ i b$kum-pa or also ^l'i 
fibri-wa, S^'^' c '5 e '' 1 ' nufi-du btan-ica ; I 6 ** 
skyufis. reduced ; subdued : il 6 .*' bs,kyufis 
c.-*ui'q|E,*i'^*i'^''J| f a.^q|'q'3( (^. J^ "he was 

seated on his cushion after his pride was 
subdued." Ace. to Ja. in C. ekyud-ica, to 
leave behind ; to lay aside, e.g., & task. 

skyud-pa to forget, resp. 



thugs brje4 for-wa forget- 
fulness; ace. to Ja. to leave oE: ^|V 
b$kyud-pa (Zam. W). Ace. to Sch. to 
communicate ; to swallow. 



104 



,'Dj I : skyur-wa, vb. pf. and fut. 

mr to throw, to cast ; to leave 
off; S^Si'S* rgyab-tu fkytir ^M-J^, 
to cast behind; ^W'* rM-tu skyur-ica, 
to throw at a distance: | 
**( Ihuft-bzed nam-mkhah-la 
having flung his mendicant's platter 
towards the sky ; $ - T|VI chu-la gkyur-wa, 
to throw into the water. 3/> skyur also 
implies *5*' btafi, to mix ; throw ; pour out ; 
to throw away ; throw down a stone, a 
corpse, &o.: *W'^tyW^ W a 9 
chafi hthud-rgyu fkynr b_$ha(j-pa yin I have 
left off drinking beer. $ I V t )'5 vq fa4-pa 
skyur-ica to eject a phlegm ; to throw off a 
rider; to give up, abandon a work; to 
forsake a friend ; to abort (A. 155.). 

l^q skyur-pa ^r bleached; bleach- 
ing : S'^'^'S like the moon bleached, or 
white like the moon. %*' 5 skyur-po ^re 
acid; sour. 

|^'H fkyur-k/iu 1. a sour soup ; sour 
juice. 2. "V. 1 !* ran-skyur vinegar (in 
Sikkim "skyitr-nt," in Lahoul "skyur- 
nto"). 

g> ^' skyur-gofi, also 8*'^ skyitr-dad, 
same as 8^'^ skyitr-noii. g^ skyur signi- 
fies "thrown" and J 'F gon over; hence 
one over-powered by wine ; a drunkard : 
sv9fc.'^'q'oi'g^'*)*\' a| 'S1^ q one who is over- 
powered by wine delights in women : ^' 
!*, 5ffe.-3\-m-awjw|f^S a tipsy man is con- 
temptible: 8>^fl| - *e.'8|rJf^|vtfF'* if a 
layman is intoxicated with beef, drunken 
noisiness arises (Bdsa. 11). 

*,'"* skinir-noni or 5^'SS skyur-dad =*>*<' 

T -O 

*4c.'5'.SK.' l \ J ff*' necessity (by habit) to drink ; 
passion for drinking. 

3*'^ skyur-can powerful ; spirited. 



skyur-hjug-pa to leaven to 
turn sour; to take a sour taste; F'S*' 2 ' 
kha-skyiir-po or |"'^"S*>' Ei kha-ya skyur-po 
olive (Ja.). 

I^'5 W skyur-tam ^wr a condiment ; 

Q 

sauce ; fq^'t.' a sour vegetable curry. 

II : V9, ^f adj . sour, acid ; 



more frequently 5**' 3 skyur-po also |V* 
skyur-mo. Also sbst. sourness. 

8*'VW skyur-byed jrs=ig'g'W 
hbras-bu gsum the three sour medicinal 
fruits ; also called !WW ( A'|* < tVW 1 
*UM daft mtliiin-pahi $kyur-byed pmm "the 
three tnyrobolau which agree with all " and 
are : (1) w% a-ru, (2) *$ ba-ru, (3) |'5 
skyu-ru (Suutn. 447). 

v< skyur-ma abortion ; in JF. $'1^ <//- 
&kytt>; l^fi^ gyrd fkyitt; capital punish- 
ment in Tibet, when the delinquent, with 
a weight fastened to his neck, is thrown 
from a rock into a river (/a.). 

gv& skyttr-mo leaf of the Eld plant; 
Skttaria cardamomum, v. fr*fa*f (Mnon.). 

S*>'^ $kmtr-rtsi=% e >'"i\' i > f <* fin-ka pad- 

^ 

tha a kind of lemon (Mnon.). 

S^'t"^ rskynr-rtsi chiiA TTntiF the 
smaller species of orange. 

5^'J"3^'3 skyur-rtsi c/tcn-po *t**(\< n. 

v 

of a kind of lemon. 

Syn. *i so-rtsi; |3 )1'^ leys-Msin ; 
^q-fll^-d'^q) rab-ffna$ mv.-twj ; l^'l snin-rje ; 
"l^'S^'l^ pso-dyah-bi/ed ; Jj*rww r>*- 
par-mdses (Mnon.). 

y>'%F tkyvr-fM=**f1F3lF rag-chuft 
fiti u. of a plant (Mnon.). 

|?J {Ayj, ace. to ScA. l^'^l'" ?*y!s 

N3 

thoy-pa altogether: S^'^'aT" skyug-su 

Mog-pa to pronounce jointly, viz., two 

consonants without a vowel between 
them (/a.). 



105 



skye, v. f S gkyed, and |'i $kyc-wa. 



^ -jfl skye-bo kun 
all beings. This word is sometimes writ- 
ten as |'J skye-rgu. } dgu "nine," in 
the word | -l \3 skye-dgu signifies many: j' 
^j-*)yq skye-dgu marufi-iva or f - \3'*r*.' 
q$-qwq^ gtyg dgu-ma rufi-wahi bsam-pa 
can wicked and vicious animals or sensate 
beings (K. du. *| 453). 



i skye-dguhi 
tkar-ma snar-ma ftlWNwi 1. n. of the 
fourth constellation (Mfion.). 2. *wi the 
god Brahma of the Hindus (Mnon.). 



Skyc-dgu-hi bdag-mo, 
the step-mother and first gover- 
ness of Buddha ; also a name of the 
goddess Paldan Lhamo. 



gro=o^^ hgro-wa 
beings or moving beings; also |'5 skye-bo 
human being (Mnon.). 



skye-hgro yofa-kyi 
honey (Sman. 73). 

, | '^ skye-rgas, contraction of | q^e.-^-q^ 
fkye-wa dnfi rga-icas, by birth and old age, 
i.e., death. 

| 'if skyf-sgo 1. entrance to rebirth, 
viz., to one of the six regions of birth: 
i'^'"l* l V < skye-sgo ^cod-pa to prevent birth, 
to lock it up 2. face: I'^iiwi skye- 
tgo legs-pa a handsome face ; |'f's^'i skye- 
sgo shan-pa an ugly face ; also P'^'g^g"' 
a t q l' ) kha-igo skye-hbras legs-pa is said 
for having a handsome exterior. 

|'^ $kye-fia, flnm.fr lit. "a bad 
man," but also a dwarf. 

I'^S skye-mched 1:=^-% v^ftnf the 
sources and places of origin of the senses. 



Of these there are four : (1) 

"mrj-w!^ nam mkhah tnthah ya$ $kye- 

mched ^rr^ri^i'i>rij|^di a world as infi- 



nite as the sky; (2) 

rnthah ya$ kye-mched 



a world as formless as consciousness ; 
(3) 3-<=.-sl'VC|S-|-*i^ d.yafi me d.pahi skye- 
mched ^f^^r^nm a world as unlimited 



as void; (4) ^ 

yes-med hdw-qes-med mifi $kye-mched 

a world where there is 



neither consciousness nor unconsciousness. 

| '*&S ii : the inner and outward organs 
of sense. 

|-l^-jtj-q^ skye-mchcd mu-bshi is said to 
mean jt^fq-pw! 1 **-, n . of the world. 

|-^-sJ^ q skye-bchi med-pa without birth 
or death ; eternal. 

f'"H*i kye-gna$ 1. birth-place ; station 
or locality of a plant ; also = S'^qc sfffo 
the female generative organ. 2. srrftf the 
state or sphere of birth or rebirth ; gi'SE.'3)' 
f 'S byol-$ofi-gi skye-wa the being born as 
an animal; |'^'^ skye-wa, bshioi |'"I^' 
Q ^ $kye-gna$ bshi the four states or ways 
of being born. 



' mifi-srtfi brother and sister (Mfion.). 
'^ I : skye-wa pf . skyes to be born : 



i fia-la lu skyes-pa yin I have 
given birth to a son, or to me a son has 
been born. wr|*) mftal skyes or wra^r 
g' 1 ! mnaf-nas skye-wa ^n.ijsj viviparous; 
born of the womb, ^'f sgofi skyes or ^" - 
.a(N'|'q sgo fia-la$ skye-wa ^pssi born 
out of an egg or oviparous; ^'ij^^-l^ 
drod-^er skyes ^?sr moisture-sprung; 
born out of heat and humidity; f*'|N 
rdsus-skycs ^MMl^* apparitional ; born 
in a supernatural way like the gods who, 

15 



106 



it is said, spring out from lotus flowers ; 
also the inhabitants of the infernal re- 
gions; souls in that state of existence 
between death and rebirth which is called 
flv^ bar-do ; 5'g! pho-skyes a male ; a 
man; also one who has done a manly 
work; S'jw mo-$kyes a woman; female: 
j|'qg<j| skije-ga-nahchi-icahi gdug- 
the evils of birth old age, sickness 
and death. 

S'C| II : skye-wa arrfr 1. the being 
born ; the birth ; also re-birth ; j'awTfq kyc- 
wa mtho-ica high birth ; of high birth ; 
nobleman; male; jj'q'swn skye-u-a dntah- 
tta or 3'*\* fkye-tfrnah or I'S** skyc-dman 
of low birth ; ignoble ; also a woman : ft' 
qwtfrg* I'l'^^ mi-lu.9 thob-kyafi fki,e-tra 
dinan born a human being, it is true, but 
only a female. 3*1'"^ skyeg-dman, in collo- 
quial kyer-men, a vulgar word for wife or 
woman : He " skycr-mcn " my woman or 
wife: ftvJ'i'Pfa'i mir $kye-wa bshen-pa to 
take or assume rebirth, existence, life. 

M'^ III : 1. to become; to begin to 
exist; to arise: fS*W*'l'|***'^w1^ ut 
w morbus ullus nascatur, natus quoque sedftur 
(Jd.), ^'g'i5^w|- khe-hu khros-pahi 
sems-skyes-te the youth thoughts of wrath 
arising (in him). 2. to grow (0.see') 
I'l valleys where corn grows: 
fu mgo-la skye a horn is growing on 
the head. 3. =^i-q *%*, <5^j, %fprw 
growing up, or grow up; thriving. 4. 
to grow (cresccre) ; ^* cher or ^'efc'j's 
chen-por $kye-tca to grow up ; to grow tall : 
W3E.'$<sr$'.*Y^|*r ras-kyaii lus-kyi tshad- 
du skyeg-so the garment also grew to the 
measure in proportion to the growth of 
the body, i.e., jai'^'W'!*)'* rtul-phod-par 
o, he grew up a valiant man ; became 



a valiant man ; to bud, germinate, sprout ; 
in W. to accelerate the germinating of 
the seed by maceration. 

S'^-J IV: 1. v. 3'"H* skye-ynas in a 
concrete sense the reborn individual : $**' 
g-jj-q 5)^ yum-gyi fkye-tca yin she ie the 
rebirth of the mother. 2. the arising, 
etc 3. the growing, etc. 



J'l'S"! gkye-tca ryal=^'^ skye-pa a 
person. 

jj'p'*<Vap?S $kye-ica ryyun-ffcod to stop 
the continuance of birth to interrupt 
it. 

Syn. STI}*! brag-sprai ; 1r*>c, - gab wifi 
(Mi*.). 



5'1'g'i tkye-wa ina-pa=^'^ J ^'^ u >^' e -^ 
dufi-d.knr gyag-hkhyil ^ftror^asig'a conch - 
shell with its coil reverting to the right 
instead of to the left (Mnon.). 



'*>'g skye-iea ffia srnisj*Jl former 
birth ; anterior birth ; |'i - g'5^'f gkye-ica 
sfia-mahi re-kha the lines or marks in 
the hand or head which are supposed to 
represent the symbols of one's acts in a 
former life. 



tkye-wa rjithun-pa is defined as 



par ski/e wahm niii-gcig skye-wa " the being 
born of one and the same lineage or the 
being born on one day." 



skye-wa dad hjig-pa birth 
and death, or passing away; frequently 
of thoughts, passions, &c. (the person as 
well as the thing in the accusative). 



skyc-tfa dran-pa 
remembrance of a former birth. 



107 



skye-wa b_dun seven periods of 
life. 

|-q-<^s( skye-wa hdi-la in this my 
present period of life. 

'if^ skyc-ldan = $*w - *^ seme-can 
animated beings (llfnon.). 

| '|w gkye-ldum a plantain (in Zayul) 
(Snd. Hbk.). 

to copulate. 

Syn. VP'*<3^'SS dgah-mgur Spyod; *1*T 
gS chags-spyod; "^'^"l'^ hdod-log Spyod; 
^qc,'q-flf^*j-|^ dwan-po gnis sbyor; 
log-yyem; *\^'^ ysiA-spyod; 
mi-t shafts tpyod (Jtfnon.) . 

g'q'^'w skye-wa phyi-ma=.*&\ 
phyi-ma future birth or existence. 



tshe 



an 



animalculoe ; also a small grain 
skye-wa g.shan 



a future 
or previous birth. 

skye-wa rig-pa inherited intel- 



ligence : 

khams thams-rad hbyun-wa Inar yes-pas 

wa rig-pa that all the elements from 

which we spring are known to be five is 

hereditary knowledge. 

g-qiv'-5^ skye-wahi cha-can = Q a dog. 

Syn. ^'|5 - (|ii'4 rdo-rjehi mjug-ma; *' 
5]9.'XfljN sen-gehi rigs; 5^'^'1 s 1 -q l*^ grong-gi 
gcan-gzan (Mfion.). 

|-q5 - aii - f skye-ioahi lani-ster=* ma 
mother (Mnon.). 

of high birth ; man. 



or 



H skye-bo 1. a general name for all 
living creatures: ^'T^isri'1'5 mi la-sogs- 
pa skye-bo man and other living beings. 
2. people; mankind; ^T*is*r|'5 hphrul 
bcas skye-bo infatuated men , |'5'fm'rflpaf 
$w skye-bo mkhas-pa g.shan rnams other 
intellectual people ; |'9 I K'fi5'^S > ^;*l'q 
skye-bo maft-pohi yid-du hofi-u-a beloved 
by many; *>'^"I'|'^ mi-nag skye-bo lay- 
men (on account of the dimness of their 
religious knowledge) ; 5'S'g'Jf so-so skye- 
bo ^WSFT 'the lower clergy, common 
monks, but also simple laymen if they 
are not quite without religious know- 
ledge; not of saintly origin; not an 
incarnate Lama ; j'f'tiW*^'CIH'1^ skye-bo 
t/tami-cfiad la phan-yon ^Trr5re; useful 
to all ; of public utility. 



Syn. 



skye-hgro. 



l'5'q^N'q skye-bo bkres-pa hungry per- 
son: l&^vil^'ffc-l'S-qjm-ti skye-bo bkres-pa 
the people residing in that country (or 
continent) are (always) hungry (K. d. > 



skye-bo fian-pa is*s a charla- 
tan ; a knave : I'^'^^'^frFT^I, |'5- 
^"'i'5 l| I'wS skye-bo f.an dafi hgrogs-pa-yis, 
skye-bo dam-pa rlag-par byetf by friendship 
with a bad man a holy man is spoiled 
(Can.). 



gkye-bo dam-pa ^apr a good 
or holy man ; an incarnate being. 



skye-bo 
place of habitation. 



skye-bo phal-po-chefti 



inheritance; heritage. 



phan-pa w&( 4rlH*|tim 
use to the general public. 



of good or 



108 



| > q*-4^ < Zj-% fkye-bo tshnn-po-che a large 
number of men ; a crowd ; *1'Q tshan-po 
implying a large number. 



$kye-bo g.no-thig n. of a 
treatise on ethics by Nagarjuna (Tan d. 



-bohi gtam 
popular talk ; rumour. 



skye-bohi tshog rT<rr assem- 



bly ; a crowd. 



the harlots (Mflon.). 



n.). 



mahi g.tso-mo queen of 



v. 



smatf-htshon mahi gtso-mo 



j'J5-^-ti skyc-bos dwen-pa a solitary 
man. 



|-*)^-q^-r^-q $kye-mc4 btsau-sa sin-pa 
attained to an exalted state of existence 
from which there is no rebirth. 



skye-r mod '?=$*'$ H wo skyc-bu 
rmofit-pa a stupid man ; one who is sunk 
in pleasures or sordid acts. 



5'* skye-tshe Trfaigrr mustard; J'^5- 
R skyc-tshehi hbru Trf^raT rns^t mustard 
grain. 

S3 skye-zla (keh-dd.) the month or the 
particular phase of the moon in which 
one is born ( Ya-sel. 11). 



(kye-rags, v. $T 1 m for skc-rags, 
girdle. The term in Mil. book, $kye- 
rags-kyi rat hdi, seems an inversion of the 
intended order of the words. 



a tree with a huge trunk. 



rkafi 



I'^'S'Si^' tkye-ser-gyi rlufi the cold 
north wind called skyefi-ner rlufi in Mil. : 



byafi skye-ser-gyi rlufi-po ma, rgyab-na 
Iho-ru tsan-dan-gyi-nags mi-hgul if the 
north wind does not blow, the sandal 
trees in the south do not move. 



fkye-sritf a-ion=i father 



(Mfioii.). 



$kyeg= keg or kag misfortune. 



skyeys 1. n. of a bird; 
clnt-skycgi coot ; water-hen (Sch.) 
ri-ikypgs a large singing bird (Cs.) ; also 
according to Sch. grouse ; heath cock. 2. 
rgya-gkyegt shell-lac (Jd.). 



'3 $kyen-wa or J=.*r<i skycfis-pa 
i to be ashamed ; shame ; bashfuliiess : 
P'ji E -' ' kha skyefi-wa or qr$*'q s/ial 
u-a to be unable to reply out of shame. 



E,- $kyeti-ser rlufi, v. 
fkye-ser-gyi rlufi. 

med 



shameless (Mnon.). 

^ tkyed and | $kye 1. growth; pro- 
gress; increase: 3>'|*\ tshe-skyed longe- 
vity or increase of life : 3!*'f *\ lu$ ?kycd 
growth of the body : ^e.-ic.-|> dwafi-thaft 
fkyetf growth of wealth and power : ?<r 
1^ stobs-skyed increase of strength : $*'"' 
|S nus-pa skycd increase of efficacy or 
ability : jV^v^vq skycd che-war hgiiur- 
wa to grow much : *W'!'| V "<'^' l VTf V* 
gshan-gyi zla skycd-pa$ dc'hi shng-$ky/'4 
che his daily growth was greater than the 
growth of others in a month (Jd.) : $vq5 - 
yur-wahi chu-yis shin 



109 



just as the water of the irrigation 
canals makes growth in the fields ; |V 
5rn-q fkyed-kyis htsho-wa to nurse up; 
IS'^fc' gkyed-yofl shall make progress. 2. 
interest ; profit ; gain : W'|S dnul-gkyctf 
profit in silver or money ; *g'g^ hbru-skyed. 
interest of corn loan ; i'V^'^'i skyed-du 
ytafl-wa to lay out or to give on interest 
(C.) : ^'I'l V'l'S nad-la skyed med. (this) 
is of no use for that disease ( J2.). 

|S'^" skyrd-sgo, not improbably $*'% 
rgyal-sgo, principal door (Ja.). 

f Y^ skyc4-can i : yielding interest or 
profit (Cs.). 

|V^ it : ?kyed-can, v. &Yfi'|"r3e,'3 
tsan-dan fbrul-gyi snin-po, the sandal wood 
called 'snake's heart' (Sj.rton.). 

iS'3*! skyed-cig "H'lvS 1 "! yar-skyed cig 
let it grow up, thrive. 



g^*^ I : $kyed.-pa vb. pf . i|S 
act. to f 'i skye-wa, to procreate, gene- 
rate, and, sometimes, to bring forth ; give 
birth to: ^ST9*'*V$V*' l 'V-' f *ArOfl 

lug Mi, bskyrd-pahi pha dafi ma the 
parents who generated this body of blood 
and flesh : *s.r jr*w*^'i|X'i5 > <w^i i oj*i 
tans-rgyas thams-cad bskyi'4-pahi gab dan 
yum the father and mother who have 
begotten all the Buddhas : fYl'S skyed- 
bycd. tree. 

S^'^J II: 1. to produce, form, cause; 
and metaph. to generate (opposite to *>Viv 
^1 mctf-par lyed-pa to destroy, annihi- 
late), e.g., diseases, fear, roots of virtue, 
merit: n?i^*w'S'*''l*r<'^ the accumula- 
tion of merits or the seed or germ of virtue. 
Fig. *g'9 hbras-bu retribution: !Jf I '' 'i l V 
q^ ^S-ii-*ruiE.-|fr$e.-3^*r<>^ spro-wa btfcyed.- 
pas, dehi pha-ma-yafi spro-wa cufi-sad skyes- 
nas joy having arisen (in him), his parents 



also were caused a little joy : 
if 1'^5^'^gV 1 ^ thams-cad-kyis brtson-hgms 
bskyed-do they all created zeal ; took great 
pains : Swm*rri|Y^*< ces bsam-pa bskyed.. 
nas thus were thoughts generated (Ja). 
2. fS'i skyeg-pa or |^'3 skycd-po 
SM* father. 



skyed-hphel ^n 

H9l5fc.- yod-pas med-la bu-lon gkyed-hphel 
thoft (the rich one) who has' should give 
loan on interest to one who has not 
(Kalhaft. *\ 115). 

i^'l*\ $kyed-byed applies to father or 
earth; also to a tree ; lYlV" skyed lyed- 
pa blowing: ^'SYS^'iVtV./? srid rlun- 
ni skyed byed-pa ii^-ffr |^d: as the wind 
blows (A. K. 2-7). 

I'V* $kyed-ma = %^'^'N skyed-byed ma 
mother ; also T*rr shadow ; shade. 

skyed-tshal f?gi^, ^TR, ^tf?R 
the so-called Tibetan park ; artificial grove ; 
also f v35r<*oi skyed-mos tshal. 

|5'^< tkyed-rim ^q^mK the kind of 
Tantrik meditation in which one has to 
imagine himself to be a god with a view 
ultimately to be changed into a god : 
I*<<|r^* rdsoc/s-rim, *wnjnm, in which 
according to the Tantrik process one has 
to pass through five stages of development 
before attaining the Bodhisatva rank. 

thorn. 



mgyog$-pa 

(&ag.) 1. quick, swift : 0'l'|^ khro-la 
gkyen-pa or ^^'J^''' fdafi gkyen-pa swift to 
wrath : ^'|^' c ' byed fkyen-pa. 2. rash, 
hasty, precipitate. 3. nimble; dexterous: 
tffc.'|^q hphofi $kyen-pa dexterous in 
shooting ; a skilful archer. 

g^'i sky en-la colloq. C. "upwards" 
(8nd. Hbk. 9Q. 



110 



JJ'SJ skycm- ,resp. to be thirsty ; 8w 

p 

ski/ems 1. thirst. 2. drink, beverage, 
especially beer; also <^r|*w shal-skyems or 
s\ar$f*W shal-skomf ; jw^'ti ski/ems hdren- 
pa to offer or set before an honoured person 
something to drink ; |wrq^r gkyems 
bsheg-pa to accept of it; to take it ; *>' 
orfl|lfa'W'V! (kyems-la ffsol-ra$ bycd-pa to 
be permitted to drink beer in company ; 
"J^I^'S'w gfcgs-skyems a carousal on the 
departure of an honoured person ; drink- 
offerings to a lama on his departure (Mil. 
I* 12a) ; |%V|*w ffser-gkycms an offering 
of beer or wine to the gods for the good 
success of an enterprise, a journey, etc., 
also for recovery from illness : "l*K'|*w 
gxer skyems-pa "the offerer of golden 
drink " ; a Tuntrik priest who offers the 
drink to the gods; among the religious 
dancers of Tibet the priest who offers wine 
to the gods for invocation is called Gser- 
skyenig-pa. 

|*r\ skyent-byed-ina i^ the God- 
dess Is'vari. 



Jwj-)j^- fkyems-bzaft pleasant beverage, 
such as good wine or savoury tea. 



skycm-yoff a kind of superior 
paper manufactured in the town of $*w 
Skyems in the district of Dwags-po; this 
paper is of large size, generally measuring 
two feet by six feet in size. 



Skyemt n. of a place in 
Upper Dbags-po. 

|w*t- skyom-chan beer ; ^^'i $kyem$- 
chu drinkable water ; drinking water. 

|*w|fc,-^e.- Skyems-stofi rdsod the fort of 
Skyems-ton ; |'gip<'^- Skyems-spragf 
lufi the place where the finest Daphne paper 
called skyems-fog is manufactured. 

|ww^r| $kyemi-tshug cup ; dish (Sch.) : 
. skyem$-siA small beer-cup (Ja.). 



colour. 



skyems-ffsol resp. beverage, 
drink : *)$'V<3<vg|'urv!*r|*w ij^m mandara- 
wahi fflu ya-rabs fkyet)i( gsol (the lady) 
Mandarava sang and offered drink to the 
superior (personages). 



^^'^ Skycr-skya = 
reddish brown (Nag.). 



S^'S^, skf/cr-skytr solitary; perfectly 
solitary: |^i|VfrV3r*5rt *kyer-tkyer 
mi dan hgul-hgul khyi lonely without men ; 
where not even a dog stirs about. 



skyer-kha a kind of dye ; colour ; 
yellow dye ; a light yellow 



Skyer-chu n. of a river of K'5 
(Pa-ro) in Bhutan. 

S ^'W skyer-pa the barberry ; applied to 
the plant and its wood from which a yellow 
dye is extracted ; the flower of this plant is 
said to be cure for diarrhoea, its fruit draws 
out bilious matters and its yellow bark is 
useful in dropsy, etc. ; Jj*'!"? skycr-khanda 
a confection of 5 vq &yer-pa useful in 
eye diseases. 

Syn. R'T^'5 khu-wa ser-po ; ^'J dug- 
skyes; 3)*'^ fiA-ser; -^'"1'% ci-la-dru 
(Mfion.). 

|v^w( ikycr-dman = %'^''\^ fkyes-dman 
a woman. The former is a corruption of 
the latter and, sounded kyermen, is one of 
the most familiar terms in the colloquial 
for "wife " or " woman." 

n. 



gv^f skyer-fin 
of a tree, Flacourtia catnphracta 



111 



|l'|^ $kyel-gyur \yifH removal of 
articles, furniture, etc. (to another place) : 
jarfc'p skyel che-tca ^fNf, ^jfrisf frequent 
removal or changing. 

IT^S-' skyel thun to accompany or to 
escort one from the place of starting to a 
distance on the way: $*ffWf*&&; 
|q-gE.-j^$j LJid btsun-pas thag rin-por 
Skyel thun mdsadnag Lah tshun-pa having 
accompanied the party to a long distance 
(A. 129) ; ITS^I^I skyel-thun byed-pa or 
q-?|flm'gl'^'i fffegs-skyel bycd.-pa to accom- 
pany one to a short distance (generally 
with some wine for his refreshment). gr 
^ Skyel-clar, ace. to Lex. also in colloq., 
presentation scarf of the departing person 
to those that had accompanied him for a 
short distance. 



'^I I: skyel-wa pf. and fut. 
bskyal, imp. %*skyol 1. to carry, take 
away: ^'q5'X'|Tq $i-wahi ro skyel-wa to 
take away the body of the dead (Cs.) : fy' 
wgai'Sfl) do not bring wood : yn'^*\ bring ! 
gr?if take away ! 2. to send, e.g., clothes, 
to somebody. 3. to risk, to stake (one's 
ran-srog). 4. to use, to employ: 
-oj-g<j) baglan las byed-pa la skyal 
use an ox for work ; aw|'Vr'r*)'S'jjai to de- 
vote one's whole life to work. $'i5'^'^ in 
idleness; a fif**i'3|Vl n '' 1 ' fftor-ma glud skyel- 
wa to cast away as a ransom in the torma 
sacrifice ; p'gTti kha $kyel-wa to kiss (Jd.) ; 
"I^' | 'i' JI ' ' pnod-pa skyel-wa to do harm; 
to hurt ; inflict an injury ; to play one a 
trick; w^rjorq mnah skycl-wa to swear; 
take an oath ; f "I 1 "'" lo skyel-wa to rely ; 
depend upon ; repose confidence. 

I^'CJ II: pf. and fut. )|i bgkyel, imp. 
5"i skyol 1. to conduct ; accompany ; 
resp. IS^'5"''^ pdan-skyel-Ka; frar^"! 
skyol-l-a $og conduct him hither ; 



bsu-bskyal going to meet and to accom- 
pany ; 1-h ! w| a r'V J i ygegs skyal-byed-pa 
resp. to accompany an honoured person on 
departing ; to see him off. 

IT*) skycl-ma ^rrgT^T^ an escort ; 
convoy: Jarw^ sky el-mar yod. he is a 
guide (to me) : rw'9 &kyel-ma shu grant 
us safe conduct. ^lf^P*pr*|r* dmag 
dan bvas pahi skyel-ma a military escort ; 
grXQ|*r\i iskyel-rog$ byed-pa to escort or 
accompany one to a place. 

|T*> skyel-mi an escort : srw<sFr$-^j*r 
^t|^-g^'^-^-S-f 1 q3i-3i^-jq^c.-q-q-q|^ Lhasa 

^( 

nas skyel mi dgos rigs fiar-rgyun Itar mi- 
dpon na fffofi-wa b_cas bgyis the Mi-dpon 
should arrange for the escort (skyel-mi} of 
those formerly entitled to that privilege 
from Lhasa. 



I: skt/es 1. 
skyed. 3. 

If?! II: also 
" skyos-ma, S* 1 '* 
gnafi-$kyc W^H, 
news, tidings; 'M 



v. | ska. 2. v. 



or 



gvw kya$-ma 
khyos-ma, resp. "I^'l* 1 
^TT^ a present; 
hbyon-skyes = 



I N phebs-skyes a present given to or received 
from somebody on his arrival or going 
away ; |"'**' skes-chaft a present of beer : 
|*i'*^ sJ,ycs chen a present sent with a letter, 
etc. ($ag.) ; 1^'S 1 ^ skeg-khur present of 
cakes ; 5*)'!^ kes-lan a present made in 
return (Cs.). 

^5T III : HJ, 9?, WW birth or 
growth ; growing or grown ; *f-'\v rafi$- 
kye? self -grown ; ^'|" s/iifi-$kt/es born in 
a grove ; S^'|*< lhan-kyes T3f or fl^smr 
born together; 5"| pho-skyes male; fr|J 
mo-$kye female ; "I*''i^ siiags-$kyes of 
enchanted growth ; born out of charms : 






112 



I shift-skyea. 
lhan-chigskyes dad gfiagg-skyes-kyi rnkhah- 
hgrohi tshogs-kyig bu-la ma-bshin-du brtse- 
war dgofig nag dfios-grub kun sisal-shin bgcgs 
kun He-war shi-wahi bkah-drin mdsod, as 
the assemblage of khadotita fairies, who 
have been born in groves and born simul- 
taneously and are of magic birth, are medi- 
tating lovingly as a mother towards a son, 
may the grace be granted of all manner 
of perfect knowledge being bestowed and 
of all demons being speedily soothed ! 

!*rj|'-5^ fkyes-ggra can = *' goat (l&fton.). 

jrfci ski/es-det "^pri^tf certain of 
being born or reborn. 

|r^ skyeg-chen a present with or as an 
enclosure to a letter, explained in Nay. 
as s HfaT3'^' q 8*' 1 ' that which is sent as 
a support to a letter. 

|4r3q-gq-q|^i gkyeg-chen fgrub-gnas a 
hermitage of holy persons. 

grl^*rq fkyes-chen dam-pa a holy 
incarnate person: 



Bsod-nainf rgya-mtsho sogs $kye$-chen dam- 
pa brgya-phrag mafi-po In giis-hdtid dad d'td- 
hbul rgya-cher mdse-do " So-uam Gya-ts'o 
and others made salutations and offerings 
in full form to many hundred holy incar- 
nate ones" (LoA. "!). 

|*T*I*<I| gkyeg-mchog UTT or TretT g^r 
an incarnate personage; a Mahatma: |<' 
gkyes-mchog bshi, J'^1 9|'g''4pj-q- 
^ the names of four great 
learned lamas of China, the four incarnate 
ones: (1) S3 3 Ha-phu-p, (2) 
WenwaA, (3) ^-gc,- CM kyuti, (4) 
Khufitsi (Confucius) (Grub. * 7). 



the year-crop; 
adult ; full grown. 
skyes-pa dafl bud- 



mankind 



mi-gpyi 



|*r|!c.' $kcs-sdofi, |*ri'|ft.' skyes-la gdofl 
in Sikkim the banana, plantain; from 
Hindi ke-la and fdofi, a plant : la is dropt 
in conversation, hence ke-la and gdoft 
are abbreviated into "ke-dofi." In the 
districts of Upper Tib. and W. ke-doft 
signifies a layman. 

5'^"I skyes-nag=^'^'^"\ in C. widower 
(/a.). 5'^"1 skyeg-nag stands for J^'S'^l'Q 
gkyeg-bu nag-po (lit. black person) a 
layman = mi-nag: ^'Vf^l'^'tlf\ in the 
country dialect of the lay people. 

$?j3j C| I : ski/eg-pa ] . man ; male 
person. 2.= 
produce. 3. 
Ex. of 1. jw 
med. men and women ; 
rgyal-po man ; gcig-po gkges-pa yin the 
king alone is a man (Jd.) ; j^'i'^'q^' 
3*\'* 1 S tkye.-pa hdra-wahi bud.-med, 
S^tTg^rffW^ a woman resembling a man, 
i.e., possessing masculine appearance and 
virtues. 

Syn. lw'3'9 skyet-bu pho ; li'i'J"! skyes- 
pa rgyal; |rq*r*rtT gkye-icag mtho; H'^' 
^"l^S khu-wahi bdag-nid; j^-g^ skyofi- 
byc$\ *%V hzan-pho; g'|i ina-syes; 8 5 
mi-pho; 3te.'"]'^ lifi-ga-can (Mflon.). 

ST 2 ' II: pf. of |'l skye-wa= ^v q, 
also 'sr???, ^.f^itiM growth or grown up. 

IH:=*|ri hlrunf-pa born. 

skyes-pa dar-ma full ; 
manhood. 

g^'^'(^5^'aC'C| fkyeg-pa Abrug 

phyufi-wa according to some : an eunuch, 
one who is made so artificially. 

Syn. f*|'i)^ hog-mcd; ;qc.'ci'^ii'i dwafi- 
ponams-pa; g^'f'' khyimkhol; 1^ '355'j!5aj'Ei 
btsun-mohi khol-po; 9^^'^ q I^'9 IJ| bud-med. 



113 



dgah bral; w$'^ ral-gu-can; 
hkhrig mi-nus; *g*r^j*'q hbras dbyuH-u'a; 
ST5*'" nug-rum-pa; q**rq$-rJ|* bcos-pahi 
ma-niA (Afnon.). 

*|rq3-^(H skyes-pahi rgyu-skar si^f- 
^tp( (Schf.) the particular star or constel- 
lation under which one is born. 

l^'lfc skyes-spor the measure used by 
creditors in receiving back the loan of 
grain, etc. : Q1fr^Ff*n|CqgK'4t > | : |vl 
lha-spor dan lhas-sran (fsum bshi skyes-spor 
che " a large kye-phor contains 3 or 4 ounces 
in measure or weight." 



l=$Wi skyes-pa 
or %'$ a man or male person (Mnon.). 

a damsel, 



maiden. 



*tye*-bu 5^ man, esp. a holy 
man ; person ; |*''9' q l e '' skyes-bu gan whoso- 
ever; human (Med.) ; one : I'J'g'il'ti'qjc.'H' 
<') skyes-bu lag-pa brkyan-wa tsam-gyi$ 
as quick as one stretches out his hand (Jd.) ; 

q skyes-bu dam-pa ^3^ a saint; 

'9 dad-Man skyes-bu the believing; 
the faithful. According to some Tibetan 
grammarians 3"'9 skyes-bu applies both 
to men and women: 



skyes-bu gati-zag 
da<?-pa-can, gan-shig lha rnam$ mchod 
byed-pa, Ston-pahi bkah bshin byed-pa-ste, 
de ni Safis-rgyas-rnami-kyis bsnags (K. du. 
P 96) that human being who is faithful, 
and who worships the gods (saints) and 
acts according to the commands of the 
Teacher is praised by the Buddhas. 



fkyef-bu tkye me/tog 
the chief among men. 



i*>'9'S ^"l skycg-bu khu-mchog 
the leader of men. 

|)'9'^ skyes-bu can 5'^-qw|5'|i-9 r ta- 
daA beas-pahi skyes-bu a horseman; one 
on horseback. 

Syn. ?'q rta-pa; 5'c^'q rta-la ffshon- 
pa (MAon.). 

l^'9'^l skyes-bu mchog swtTW a 
superior person ; lama ; also B^'H"! Fisnu : 
|*rg'3^-cj skyes-bu chen-po *{TT3Vf a great 
man or saint ; an epithet of Buddha. 

i*rg'*3f skyes-bu mtho=^^ glu-ytA 
n. of a tree supposed to grow in the land 
of the Naga (Mon.). 



bu nag-po, same as 
'9, n. of a kind of flower (Sman. 



'9'5 skyes-bu pho=y*' t i skyes-pa a 
man or male person. 

Iwg'^lK skyes-bu A6n'#5 = |)'9 - q^- 
Skyes-bu bar-ma or JTS'$*r* skyes-bu 
dbus-ma flwr^^T the second person; 
personal pronoun in grammar. 

|-g5^gfl]cq skyes-buhi hkhrugs-pa 
^rftTTT pride, self-respect. 

|-g5if*i skyes-buhi not g^T?, q^w^ 
manliness; manly self-respect or confi- 
dence. 

jjrw skyes-ma 1. fem. of skyes-pa, a 
female ; she that has been born. 2. *yv*i 
a bride. 3. |r*i skyes-ma fern in Sikkim. 

I* 1 '*'"! skyes-ma thag as soon as born ; 
newly born. 

|*r*-M|-ci skyes-ma thag-pa a new-born 
infant. 

Syn. q**rw]'q btsas-ma thag-pa; %' 
< *5 E -' 1 ' sho thun-wa; ^ff^: gtihib-hthuH ; 
itq-^e. hjib-hthuA ; ^BV^' hkhyud-hthufi; 
5(-*i5-*%-q-^ ho-mahimgrin-pa-can (Iffnon.): 

16 



fl 



114 



skyes-dman in the vulg. lan- 
guage a woman ; = $.' or 9*V*>S (Mnon.). 

|W?MI ikyes-rdaofis cultivation; a 
farm. 

|Ti|lfl| skycs-gztif/s sim^q gold; 
birth ; form or born-shape ; stature ; figure 
(gold). 

|*j ri w> fkyi'S-rabg aiid* a series of 
alleged births of an individual, or legendary 
history of these, and especially accounts of 
the different births of Buddha. 

|*r3?nj gkyes-so coy ancestors: |*'*V 
**w*^ skye$ tsliad t/iamf-cad ; g'wr 



sna-rabs-kyi pha dad 
met-po yan-me$ la-sogs-pa $kye$-so-chog 
kyan rim-par fi ste da-tta ni min-gi lhag 
tsam-du gyur father, grandfather, great- 
grandfather, &c., ancestors of the former 
generations having successively died, now 
nothing remains but their names. 

x" 

^ skyo or jf' skyo-wa, ^, *\n, ^rfT, 

VTTT, 'tn, JTRf grief ; sorrow ; grieving ; 
mourning. 

skyo-hgyed weariness dispersed: 



the inhabitants of the land of bliss 
relieved of weariness accept all your 
precepts (Lam-rim.). 



Q semi skyo-wa 
to repent; repentance (Mnon.). 

+ J&HI skyo-nogs quarrel; 
hkhrug-lon (Lex.), esp. g^'i'f^ 
reviving of old feuds and dissensions. 



'^ skyo-wa 1. g^'3'fS'O snar-gyi rtsod, 
j>a old quarrels and feuds. 2. repentance} 
sorrow: |^f-g^prt-jg|f|^| sem* skyo- 
wa bkyed-la ri-khro hgrim he wanders QV. 



mountain ranges to induce repentance 
(Lo.). 

skyo-bran servant; slave: *&'*K'*f' 
-- i a slave for life. 



^'^1 I: $kyo-ma 1. quarrel; litigation. 
2. thin gruel, gruel of rice and tea, thin 
paste of wheat or oatmeal: jf 



shcs-pahi rgya-mthso nub Ba-lan-spyod- 
ki/i fflin hdas na$ yod the ocean called 
Skyoma-wa lies beyond the continent of 
Godaniya (K. d. * 234). 

|'JJ II: v. |") khrim-pa 1. one 
convicted. 2. njT, <5MqTM penitence; 
smaller transgression: jpwg'i^ fkyo-iiui 
fna btsan g^TV c ''g E ''^'^''fJ'^'S''l*\' s ' 
one who was once convicted before on the 
occasion of a former dispute. 

jfw^ skyo-ma can adj. slanderous (Cs.) ; 
^'"'iS'* 1 skyo-ma byed-pa a slandering 
(Cs.). 

3'>S Mv/o-egfe*tf^i'W mtho-riskyi 
$na$ the heaven, where there is no peni- 
tence. 

Syn. isr*%flRrqjs. dal-hdsin 

bde-hgro, ^'^ bdc-ld/-n, 
mtho-rif rgyal-srid, ^w !$ iftv skabg-gsum 
gnaf, |f9|-^-^ sten-gi hjig-rten, gjq'i5-flfti 
grub-pahi g.na$, &il^ hcM-med, q>rf&'&* 
nam-mktiahi khyim, %,#'%*i sum-risen, ^'S)$t. 
llia-yi gron, %:<&*[ fr lhu-yi hjig-rten, $' 
^'^J 1 ?! lha-yi yul, f%^f a semi-divine being 
possessed of supernatural powers (Mfion.). 

f'* t 'VIS : ' Skyo med-khyab \'jji|-9)-fll55-ftf 
n. of Visnit's bow (Mnon.). 

sf'*"! skyo-tshag a light broth made 
of barley-flour with the addition of a little 
butter (A. 155) : Jfav^yrnftqUK* 
(^) ^'S'" tlw-rafa-kyi dus-su skyo-tshag 
Qser-ma (rlun) mi skye-wa early in the 



morning (i.e., at dawn) by taking barley 
gruel, wind is not engendered (A. 155). 

5"' MT *'**[ snyo-ras tsho-tshogs n. of a 
kind of chintz (8. kar. 179). 

*f'Xi*i skyo-rogs a consoler ; one who 
consoles a person during grief: S'^'^f 
XqurwwrSrt^ the mother cannot be the 
consoler of her daughter's grief, i.e., one 
cannot be of service to another in certain 
cases of sorrow. 

sf'-*l*i skyo-^as to be sad ; sorrowful : 
Wq'feryf^--4pF^fVl*' ran Id nes- 
hbyun dan skyo-^as sad-siid fkye$ he felt 
(slight) repentance and sorrow. 

J *)**< skyo-sans to console in his grief 
or sorrow or repentance. 

|-wur"^ skyo-sans nid freedom from 
fatigue. 

Jfcarflfl skyo-sans pnas a pleasure 
garden. 

~<* 

sk yog-nag iron spoon or scoop. 

skyogs 1. a spoon or ladle ; also 

shovel. Wooden spoons for wine measure 
used in Tibet are called *f"|*< skyogs. There 
are three kinds of spoons used in Tibet 
for measuring liquids, salt, &c. those 
which are mounted with copper are the 
largest; those lined with silver are of 
middle size; those of the smallest size 
are tipped with gold and called &scr-$kyogs, 
golden spoons. *>'|T' me-$kyogs coal 
shovel; * t |riSir a '' q5 ' Jt 'i' l| l* 1 the copper 
spoon with which to measure the allowance 
in salt and oil for servants, etc. ; 9'!* 1 !* s ^ u ~ 
skyogs melting spoon or crucible. 2. 
drinking cup ; bowl ; goblet ; l^'I'l'' ffser- 
skyogs 5 &rf!* dmd-skyogs, etc., gold cup, 
silver cup, and wooden cup are now called 



ffzar-bu ; W*fa** shal-skyogs. lip-cup; 
resp. eating or drinking-cup ; sp'!" 9 !" the 
rein of a bridle ; also name of tribe in 
Tibet (Vai. kar.). 

ffim'jjfag skyogs Uo-hbu a snail in W. 
(fa). 



I skyo<ji-pa 1.- to turn: 
i'c) mgrin-pa skyogs-pa to turn the 
neck, i.e., look round, back; also to turn 
away, aside. 2. one who uses or manu- 
factures the coal-shovel or stone scoop, etc. 

|""l*i' ' skyogs-pa |*T'*X 1 <ilrq skyon hdogs- 
pa ; ^|qjfjM4lfd to find fault with. 

$fl*r*)^ skyogs-med f^sllf not curved; 
without any curvature or crookedness. 

!c/gi^'*< skyon Idan-ma n. of a goddess ; 
she who protects. 



S'3 skyon-ica qt, T'W, TTT^T, pf. ^jfe.^ 
bskyons, fut. "g^ bskyan, imp. 0$*.'* bskyons 
or q|k,^-^u| bskyons-$ig, to guard ; to keep ; 
to defend ; to save ; preserve (the life, the 
body) ; to support ; to take care of (poor 
people) :^'mc,'HJ'|=.''] drin b_san-pos skyon- 
ica to support by benefits, favours : wr 
gjrgk.'q thabs-kyis skyon-wa to protect by 
various means; to attend to: STi'V'S' 
{[fc'5 thugs-dam-ghyi skyon-wa to protect 
by the moral force of meditation : W|' 
^' lag-len-gyi by exercise: f^'t^'li 1 -' 1 ! 
igyalsrid skyon-ica to rule ; govern a king- 
dom: S^i'q^aj-^'ql'c.'q chos bshin-tu bskyon- 
wa to protect by justice or justly : $*!'*[*' 
chos-skyon x^f^ra protector, defender of 
religion, is used for a certain individual 
deity or for a class of exorcists in some of 
the monasteries of Tibet. Under this 
head there are certain powerful deities 
who have taken on themselves the duty 
of defending Buddhism against its 



SVI 



116 



enemies. When co-erced they can even 
make their appearance in the person of the 
invoker. The *\W &'*v 'Jt' Gnas-chuH 
chos-skyon living near Lhasa is a deity of 
this class who is generally consulted both 
by the State and the people of Tibet as an 
oracle: ^T^'jj^' hjig-rten fkyon (*h*m*?l 
guardian of the world. There are four of 
these, identical with the j*'^'^ Rgyal- 
chen fyhi, the four great spirit kings: 
\nmij ($i' ( V*vj'*' Tvl-hkJwr fkyon) the 
protector of the country or kingdom ; 
*''3 Sp/iagi skyes-bu) ; ft^- 
.' Spyan mi-bzaft) ^qr (W 
?'5J Snam tho$-sra$). jf^'Sl skyon-dal 
assistance (in the colloquial of W.) ; jf*' 
^'SV 1 $kyon-dal byetf-pa to help; Jf* 
skyon-ma, same as l?^'** brtan-ma, the God- 
dess of the Earth; jTJJYjf*' rgyal-srid 
skyon <l^Ml<jl a defender of the realm; 
same as vic.*)'^ yaiiqi^ a defender or 
protector of the subject or of people : *' 
S skyon-byed OTW* one who supports or 
protects. 

|e.g^- skyoft byeg-ma, v. 3^5 

(Hfion.). 
"^* 
^'^1 skyod-pa pf. and fut. isft bskyod 

*WR(, '^arra, M^^T; "fi'i gyo-wa or *3rq 
hgul-wa to move (trans, vb.) ; also to 
go, pass on: ^'9|'"'<I - jfvi if the wind 
moves the branches. *>'jf\i Mi-fkyod-pa or 
S'l^l mi-yyo-wa ^tr the unmoved; 
he whose mind is not agitated ; n. of the 
second Dhyani Buddha. In W. skyod-pa 
is the general respectful term for : to go ; 
to walk. il^'^S bfkyod-hiod is same as 
^'"^ hgro-hdod desirous to go or about to 
go: ^'Vls "nan-du skyod" step in (if 
you please); "tan-pokyot" tread firmly! 
ifS^i^'ai bskyod skals-la at the time of 
going or coming. 



$kyod-byed=$$ gru-fkya oar 



skyon, }w nef-pa <ta, 



also T"l q rnog-pa 1. a fault, defect: 
g^u]fuiE.-*)^ f kon gan-yaA med. it has no 
fault whatever. The two words jfr skyon 
and $*ri iicg-pa are sometimes used together 
as $*i' jfr ni'S-gkyon, but defects in inanimate 
things are expressed by the word *fr skyon 
and never by the words ^ ncs or ^*<' jfr n^ $- 
{Ayow ; slight defects in honoured persons 
are expressed by the words MT$^ 4ge- 
gkyon, which also signifies faults or sins 
in holy persons, that is, jfr fkyon (fault) 
in *\*| dge or S*|'*^ dge-hdun (clergy) : 
(prl'^'^I'VV $kyon ci yod hkhrul-pa la, 
what harm is there in erring? ^'jfr mi- 
fkyon no harm ; jfr'*^ skyon-med no 
harm, no matter; jfr <*5^i|c.'<iE.-*)^ skyon 
yon gan yati min he is without anv 
imperfection or perfection; jfa'^'*flfc.') 
gkyon-du mthofi-wa to consider as a loss, 
also to find fault with. 2. bodily defect, 
fault, as lameness, derangement, disorder 
in the mixture of the humours. 3. 
spiritual defect, sin, vicious quality ; f \ 
VB'* 1 * Sfa rdsun-du tmra-wahi skyon the sin 
of lying; jfr! - wf! skyon-gyi ma-gos not 
defiled by sin : i^'jf^'S far skyon che but 
that is very bad (of you). gVlV skyon 
lycd-pa to commit a fault ; g^'S^'i skyon 
^pan-tea to leave off a fault or quit it; 
-^flprq mi-la ikyon hbebs-pa 
s-pa to charge one with a crime ; to 
criminate ; *W 'S'f^'S^ '^IV gs/ian-gyt 
gkyon (flefi brjod-pa to name the faults 
of others, to speak ill of them ; to slander ; 
to blame, criticise ; jfa 'a^'F'^V 1 skyor,- 
span kha she incd-pa to do any work with 
application and at the same time without 



117 



any fault or mischief to any body ; $^' 
*t-*4T^-q = :|'^s ' 'f '1, not perceive a fault or 
defect. 



1 ?kyon gnad mcd-pa without 
the least fault or blemish. 



skyon-gkye ^re^or? ^i^^? con- 
ducive of sin ; sin-producing. 

jfte.*! fkyon-nag 3ffl?^ thorny; mis- 
chievous. 

jfr'*^ sA:yo-caw = ^'^' t l*'' c ' skyon-daA 
bcas-pa or jfa 'gf^ skyon-ldan grrf%3\T, <*<sllFt, 
Tf'ft faulty, defective, incorrect, sinful ; 
guilty. 

sp(-q*-q|^ gkyon bco-brgad the eighteen 
defects are the following: (1) ** |T<i mi- 
$dug-pa ugliness; (2) *f| > ws - *i mgo skra 
nan-pa had or bristling hair ; (3) ^sprfl'4*.-q 
dpral-wachun-wa small or narrow forehead ; 
(4) wf'^'j mgo ser-skya brown hair ; (5) 
m igser-ica yellow eyes; (6) ffrMwr 
smin-mtshamf ma-hbyar-wa the 
eye-brows disjoined ; (7) JJ'ta'i ?na leb-pa 
flat nose ; (8) S'^q so Ito-wa bottle-teeth ; 
(9) ^1 1 dig-pa stammering ; (10) S^-gwq 
mig slum-pa round eyes ; (11) Sflj - $fq nrig 
chun-wa small eyes ; (12) g^'i tgur-wa 
crooked or bent body ; (13) f5-X-q If -bo 
che-wa krge or pot-belly; (14) "vgcat'e.*- 
5t.'P dpufi-pa rje fiar thufi-wa small 
shoulders ; (15) sp^ tpu-can hairy body; 
(16) mqi'si^e.-ifiE.-ti-Sl-^wq the arms and legs 
with the feet not proportionate ; (17) **!' 
if* q txhigs fbom*-pa large or swollen joints ; 
(18) pfr\*>W%< bad fcatid smell 
coming out of the body and the mouth. 

ffrqf^q gkyon bryod-pa = ?ft'&''*'i\ $mad- 
pahi tshig to slander or speak ill of others ; 
also slander (Mnon.). 

jfa'^'*SI e .'q $kyon-du hgritfi-wa 
to reckon as or into sin or defect. 

smra-wa 



'^ skyon-pa, pf. *& bfkyon, to put 
astride upon a thing (causative form of 
Jfa'i shon-pa) ; %-1(W*jfa-i mi-shig rta-la 
skyon-pa to cause a man to mount ; to 
ride on horseback ; to fix something on a 
stick ; $ ^ir|w2) E -'r*fr' c i to impale a man 
(Jd.) : S^'^'iV? bod-bur skyon-te having 
caused him to ride a donkey (Pag. 61). 

|aj-'v5f'i] fkyon-med rtog fsHTTO free 
from disease ; thinking or taking as fault- 
less. 

|^)^qflw skyon-med gnas wra^j, ^rra^T 
remaining, living, or dwelling, in a state of 
innocence or faultlessness : jfr'*^ w^")* n 
mcd-skyon par bshugs-pa sifre: residing 
without fault. 

skyon-tshig slander; also scandal. 
(ki/on-hdsin jf^'|''5)'^'ti to find 
fault with. 

l^'-*)* 1 jfcyoM-fcissWpw'i a learned man; 
a critic. 



Syn. ^'^"| kun-rig ; ^'^ kitn-fes ; 
'q kun-kyis-bkur-wa. (Idnon.) 



-ci $kyon fc-jBff = jJ^' i (man-pa ^^T 
a physician (Mnon.). 

^ *ta'q gkyon scl-wa to remove a sin ; 
amend or correct a fault. 



'** skyon-nas 
to ascribe a fault. 



skyob-pa ^W, qrfn, T^^f, pf. 
qgw, fut. 15", imp. g*w or ffw^"!, to 
protect ; to defend, preserve, save ; fre- 
quently *fcflprq'r!q'i bjigs-pa la fkyob- 
pa, to protect from fear or danger or 
destruction : qjiqTi the protecting power; 
the preserving cause : 3|E,'^fl| - *|rarjqr<$V 
q-^l| jqI-|^-q^-^|q-Cw|q-I-g he that 
gives protection to another is called jfc'q 



118 



fkyob-pa : ffw^'*! skyobs gbyin-pa the 
giver of refuge or shelter. 

jf 11 '?^ skyob-ston = jfr<r5 skyob-pa-po 
or fwi skyobs-pa siT^t a protector. 



skyobs help, assistance; seldom 
for JjW s%i? ; Jww skyobs-ma and 5JT 
g^ rog-skyobs in colloq., preservation of 
life ; escape ; also he that saves another's 
life ; a helper (Ja.) ; imp. of j" 5 ''" $kyob-pa 
*tqCTWNN^nr]fcr^q protect from all 
the dangers. 

jf'W'I'S skyob-byed ^T^rnir, TW!', SRHO? 
one who protects ; a name of Balabhadra. 

SJT^J skyom-pa, pf. ijf*w b$kyom$, fut. 
fl|*i bskyom, imp. jfw $kyots to pour; 
to pour out, agitate, stir up ; according to 
Lex. to give ; defined as $'ijw|f II l^'lK 

aE.-^-.*rajc,-vgfl|*rtra'jj c hu snod chu- 

* 

skyogs-ki/i? blafis-te zafix-naii-du bliig$-pa 
Ua-bu, taking from water-pots and water- 
bowls and pouring into kettles (Nag.}. 
Seldom used in colloquial language ; 4' 
3'i to stir the water ; SJV f* - i to shake a 
vessel. 



khyor, the 
chu-skyor 



M^ kyor, same as $ 
hollow of the hand filled : 
a handful of water (Ja.). 

I 1 ? skyor, ^5 q I' w * l '' I l^' q hkhyog-paham 
gner-wa bent, contracted or crooked : -^s^' 
|^ $an$-skyor=sna hkhyog-pa (his) nose 
was bent (A. 106). 



's skyor-skyor again and 
again ; repeatedly. 



skyor-ica, vb. pf. and fut. 
bikyar 1. to hold up, to prop ; to paste., 
2. to repeat; to recite by heart: ''g^''? 
fl^c. bskya.f4e.btan it was repeatedly sent: 



iig $kyor-ica to repeat a word, 
like the reciting of the Mani, i.e., BS'W 
*>'| om ma-ni pad-me hum : %'5jm'tr 
^^^ql-q-fli^-^-IX-qN'^-q an old.sick, 
or drunken person walks being supported 
by another : *R t V E i' a 2' J ' *!r t rar|Vq to prop a 
thing that is falling or tumbling down : 4' 
jfvq chu skyor-ica the pouring of water with 
some force as if through a pipe or the 
mouth of a kettle ; the sprinkling of water 
from a pot or vessel or a scoop ; 5"'p> 
to back ; to help morally or religiously or 
otherwise one who is in difficulty, engaged 
in war or litigation, &c. : 3. enclosure ; 
fence (Ja.). 

|V|c.N gkyor-ibynris repetition from 
memory : gjV^'|V|w*i^ having 
retained in his minds, he repeated it. 

J* *! skyor-tshig, v. g^q (Mnon.). 



' Skyor-mo-lun n. of a village 
with a monastery situated to the west of 
Lhasa containing estate of the Shabs-pad 
Sreschun-pa 



s_kyol-ica sometimes for 



skycl-ica. 

v< 

f ^'^ skyos-pa = 
spoiled; degenerated. 



wasted ; 



skyos-ma, v. | skyes, |'f 
skyos-ma a present made to a friend or 
an acquaintance at the time of his going 
to a distant place, or removal to some place 
of residence. 

$J skra (ia), resp. *\$% the hair of the 
head : g'^'l"'!! skra dan kha-spu the hair 
of the head and the beard : fl"! 't 
skm-bsgril-ica plaited hair or curled hair : 
nag-gpig a single, tuft of 



119 



hair : f^ 

|f*V^ skra-ni hjam rtsub shorn phra snomg- 
ser mdans-can snum Ions spyod-che (he 
whose) hair is neither soft nor rough nor 
thick nor fine but uniform and smooth, 
and yellowish and glossy, becomes wealthy 
and prosperous (Mtshan.), g' 1 ^* skra 
clo-ker the hair dressed and plaited 
together on the crown of the head ; fj '^' 
*)*'*^ kra do-ker can <s*Tj-fsiK - . one with 
long flowing locks; S'3^'*3M'?'g skra 
gyen-du hgrcn-wa Ita-bu whose hairs stand 
upwards as bristles; g'f"! JT^^jft with 
loose or carelessly worn hair ; g'|'l'^ 
?j'3!%si a skein of silk or cotton attached 
to the flowing locks of Tibetan women ; 
g^'S^'a^V $kra la-glan-gi spit hdra-iva 
hair like'that of ahull; !fSip=5^*>S''g 
locks of hair of women ; f'^' thin hair 
(Schtr.) ; g'^V to comb hair ; |'|V^q the 
shaving of one's hair ; |'"|^ %*prfawr a 
barber; also napkin; |5'q^'i ^ft well 
braided hair ; also a braid or fillet of hair. 



Syn. g'*"JN skra-ts/ioys ; SjV| slar-skyc ; 
gV* 1 '- 5 ^ bi/id-u-a-can; i^f'l^ rnyo-skyes ; ^ 
g mffo-spit ; '' 5 'S*' Spyi-bo skyes ; *\$\'$*\ 
gt&ug-pfmd; ^I'l ral-pa; ?^'^1^ tlior- 
t&hugs ; A'^l'^ me-tog-can ; "QWP hkhyil- 
wa; *&\'y* mgo-nal; ^'^ do-kcr; *'& 
*fcw ral-pahi ffdens; ^'^zur-phud; Sf*. 1 ?"! 
thor-cog ; ^9'^ dwu-lo ; f c.'^ Ican-lo (Mnon.). 



= y<$p\'*P 3 \ skra hdreg- 
mkhan a barber (A[non.). 



g'^ skra-can ' 
mane (as of a lion) ; hairy. 

skra-can gnas 
bed-chamber. 



the 



lady's 



g'*^'* skra can-ma a kind of hairy 
worm ; also = g*V^ woman (Jjfnon.). 



skra-can psod %n?T a name 
of Hari, who killed the demon Keci. 

g'lf^N-q sfa-a 
3^*^ a comet 

S'* 1 ^^ skra-mdud hair knot ; ace. to Jd. 
the bow of ribands at the end of the long 
plaits of hair of the women in Ladak. 

|-^*r skra hdrc$-ma = l $*'i!\l'*pi'% c >'# 
a celestial courtezan (Mfion.). 

1'iftN skra-g.nas srftr n. of a species of 
sensitive plant. 

g^Wl skra-hbal wa=%'%i\' t > skra rkog- 
pa or g'TT" skra tog-pa *sTl<8's$T (shaving 
the head clean) ; to pull out the hair : 
m-ijr^sfsq]-ci-rX'<^'arari'g - <vw some sent 
forth cries of anguish, some pulled out the 
hair of their head (Hbrom. 113). 

y&^wS} skra-med mgo "a head without 
hair " ; i'$ dsa-ti arrfw nutmeg ; also Jar- 
minum grandiflorum (Sman. 40%.). 

g'^i skra-tsal false hair ; a peruke. 
lj'3! skra-rtsa SI^T clotted hair. 

skra-tsfiogs, v. g skra (Sfnon.). 

skra-mtshams 3\n-* the 
arrangement of the hair. 

+ g'^'N s*ra-s8ns = =.'f>r'i vanity, 
pride; adj. vain, very proud. 

g'lK' $kra-lzaii a secret or mystic word 
(MM. 4). 



n. of a Yaksa goddess (Mnon.). 

|$j^-a^l^r(ft > ai skrahi khyon-nam 
byis-pahi lam ^RTTO hair parting. 

g5 - jijr3 $krahi rgyal-po = %> f r% Idun-po 
*!H<1 a grove; a garden; n. of a 
vegetable. 

g5'S'^ skrahi byi-dor v. g ! 
(Won.). 



120 



I" I 



fkrahi rtse-mohi mthah or 
* the hair-end. 



U'3'1 skra li-wa or i^**> fkrahi 
rnam-gyur itt curly hair ; to dress the 
hair. 

f< skra-k=y\**^% bud-med kyi-fkra 
woman's hair (S&non.) . 

5'<S skra-shad jramoft hair separator; 
a oomh. 



Syn. *'. so-mad, |S'V^ ?AraA 6y- 
r hair cleaner 4fo.). 



ra-tra hard. 



or 



j'^J tkrag-pa (tag-pa) to be terrified, 
frightened, afraid of something. This 
word is nearly always combined with <&qpx 
q hjigs-pa as in <! |fl|'i hjig$$krag-pa, to 
be panic-struck. 

SiltV* skrag byed-ma^'W'^* ni 
mahi btsun-mo the wife of the sun (4fon.). 

ifj^'^ skran-wa (tan-wn) ^^JT^, $w; pf- 
jc.* jAraw? to swell ; |*.'*fe' skrans-soA it is 
swollen : ^V**fV^'V' 1 *rtH l F 
IE.*) swollen from being suddenly struck 
with a stick or a stone or a sword. 

|t - ^ skraft$-hbur an abscess not yet 
open (Sch.); |Wg;-<w tkrafy-hbur 
hjoms, v. ^'fl'^s,' ba-spru fin, n. of a 
medicinal tree which removes tumours or 
abscess (Jlfnon.). 

|t*l'3'|i;-i) skran-kyi fpyafi-ki, g^5 
jni-<Aar-nM n. of a medicine (Sman. 
126). 

|*.W'Q skrans-po a swelling; tumour 
(Sch.). 

fj3J jArraw (fen) $W$ Ihan-fkren 1. ^n 
tumour or any fleshy excrescence in the 
abdomen ; a concretion under the skin or 
in the bowels, womb, &c. ((7s.) ; a swelling 



of the glands (Sch.). \$F\ skran-nad is 
described as a consequence of suppressed 
wind (Ja.) ; ^'^ rdo-skran *\!fl two sorts 
of steatite. 

^'^J skrab~pa (tab-pa) to beat the 
ground with one's feet ; to stamp, tread ; to 
dance; also bro fkrab-pa : prK-9|-2f|q-rr 
Q'gE.' yesterday's dancing was excellent. 

fj*ri| skras-ka a ladder, v. W*\ fkas- 
ka. 

^vi\ (te-ka) ladder, which generally 
consists of the notched trunk of a tree (Jo.) ; 
5E.'|*< a single ladder, i.e., a ladder with 
one pole; ^'8* rdo skrat (do-te) a flight 
of stone steps ; 3'|*l rgya-skrat a regular 
staircase, as in European houses ; J'^w 
probably a flight of steps at the corner 
of a building. 

Os^ 

f, ^j'^ fkri-tca (ti-tca) to conduct ; to 
send (Cs.) : g"^"I skri-fiy^^'^ tlion-nhig 
let him send: l^'*Y'rt' l '|'** < IWW I 
asked to send him to Tibet (A. 101). 

+ %'Q tkru-tca, pf. *$* bfkrus, fut. i| 

~^5 

bskru, to wait (Sch.) ; to cut ; wi'J zag-la 
$kru to cut meat ; J tkru, ^=.'ji c in 

o 

kruf-pa to cut wood or a tree : fj " 
bskru-ica, W'^'^'^'jj'q-S)*! always being 
smitten by pleasures (Pag. 1-35). 

f SJV^ ?*>W-ja(#M^ r pa)=P^ a i'w' 

^o 
|-^-q to make another run away by 

devices. 

ffSj'^ skrun-pa (tun-pa) = $*\i fkycd-pa 
to produce ; "?*'<< 6s*rw-/)a, i|Yi 6jAryrf- 

"* *\ ^ 

J9 arrff, ftftf, wf'nT grown up : i?^'S^' J 
*\ growing crop. 

^^ skrum (turn) meat; applied to 
the food of the respected; generally 
i)Saj'5j ffsol-skrum is used in colloquial 
language. 



121 



skrcg (teg) to beat (the dram). 

' !| ' 1 '^' 1 ^ dama-ru hkhrol-wahi don 
signifies the beatirg of a skull-drum 



l skrog-pa to churn; stir (with a 
rod) : 5-wjT^'q ho-ma skrog-pa to churn 
milk (Nag.). 



'^J skrod-pa (to-pa) 

to expel, drive out, eject: 
g*\ g.na&. nag-skrod to expel from a place : 
S^'3*> phyir-skrod to drive out : ^"l^'jjf^ 
hgfgs-skrod to eject an evil spirit. 

2$j'1 bska-wa "\^'^, ^psnra astringent ; 
also thick. 

q^c/*^i bkafi mdos a slight frame- 
work made of sticks and coloured threads 
as an offering to the gods in cases of sick- 
ness: ^)-J'Ji^-j-q^-<t,^-^' ig E -^' c i^ Iho- 
yi-phyoys-su bskan-mdos dan bsrttfi hkhor 
bshag place Rskan-mdos and amulets on 
the south side (Jig.). 

CJSC'E? 1 ! bskan-rdaas a sacrificial cere- 
mony (ScM. 360). 

mn-ifi bskun-yso ^?rr^^*'^*V w ' 
a|-q^c>'q|5'5'q to make copious religious ser- 
vices to the tutelar deities, angels, and the 
guardian spirits of the ten quarters 
(Oil. 9). 

3$p$J b$kan 1. rqii|=.*< I 1 ^ full to the 
brim. 2. Sltrswq^, ^wq-ii-q Hams- 
pa gsos-pa fill to the brim (Situ. 74). 

CJ^JJ bskam " q^'g/v^KVq bskam-byahi 
g-fos-po"(Situ.7r). 

bskams past, dried, burnt : Hjf>r 
by the fire (at the end of the 
age) the lakes dried up (flag. 9). 

^S^J'^J bskal-pa ^T a fabulous period 
of time; the various ages of the world, 





each of which has been presided over by 
its own human Buddha respectively : mrr 
^'3 bskal-pa chen-po the great Kalpa ; *>*' 
"Spi lar-bskal the intervening or middle 
Kalpa ; mrnae;Zj bskal-pa bzafi-po q^ttj 
the happy or glorious period in which the 
Buddhas appear ; q^arq'c^-q bskal-pa dan- 
pa the evil Kalpa, in which no Buddhas 
appear (Ja.). 

q^prq-qje, bskal-pa bzan = qSWW $& 
virtuous; also virtue (Mnon.). 

eiyn-irjp bskal-pa fes=$*'i rt sis-pa an 
accountant (Mnon.}. 

q^T** bskal-me = ^' c fo'*l the fire which 
will destroy the world at the end of the 
present Kalpa (Nag. 9). 

qqai-qK. bskal-bzaii fo^ir?)-*^ n . of a 
religious work. 

CJ^ &s*=3<irq byug-pa, fut. 
q rubbed (Sag. 9). 



ivar s'jas-pa concealed ; hidden (Nag. 10.). 

t$&\ bskum, pf. of g*r. 

qgwwjj^ bskum-mkhyid the distance or 
measure between the thumb and the top 
of the forefinger drawn in ; about one- 
half of the measure of a span : ^'Sv^e; 
i$V'|T*tf q 3^ c -' q * r *BV l 'FI (Rtsii.) its 
breadth was one finger (i.e., one inch), 
and length eight spans and one bskum- 
mkhyid. 

la*rg b&kum-khru about a cubit 

* >9 

measure with the fingers drawn in a fist. 

qg*4-<0^*4 bskum-hdom a measure of dis- 
tance by stretching apart the two arms 
(with " fisted hands ") ; a little less than a 
fathom's measure. 

^^i bskttr, sbst. sending, granting; 
;qE.'q$j* to bless; to grant benediction; 
^ijp (fiag. 9). 

17 



122 



bskus, pf. of 1$ btku 
anointed ; stained or poisoned (ffag. 9). 



btkon, pf. ftT 
to be dressed (SWt*. 6Ii). 



: v. grq, q|rqe,R b$kul-brdah signal "|V^'*i$fl|'Ci b$kyur-du bcuy-pa to cause 

to call one to his business ; signal to call any one to cast or fling anything away, 
workmen to their respective duties. ^1 S' 1 ^ bgkyed-hdod HNf: growth or 

qjjT'Ja* bskiil-gshufi, |3s.'9|'aw|']j|'i'*i^ growing; wish to grow, 
one who gets Government works excuted: qlfc'CJ bskucd-va <3trrf%H *H< s^fw 

1. a production, generation, formation- 

2. ^J<vif<.d, ^mrw. ^wqjVi sows bskyed- 
pa f^itTR to form one's mind ; to have 
a conception of ; also technically means 

bskon-to purification of the heart as in ' 

q l^' J ' q 3'^ bskycd-pa byyi-ho 
to have a conception of. 

qg^'R*) b$kyed-n'm 1 3*rf'nnrT the gra- 
dual development of ideas ; powers of an 
occult nature. 

/, pf. 3 
(Situ. 74). 

numberless ; immeasurable (Zam. 10). 

qgtj bskyans lTt%<r protected ; cherish- 
ed ; nursed. 

sj'w bskyabs Tf^ff protected; T q l' tI 3 q *' 
trog-bskyab$ protected, saved life (Situ. 



bskor surrounded: 
surrounded by followers, admirers and 
attendants. 



i ma bfkyod-pa 



bskyod-pa 
moved, agitated; 
^^ter unagitated. 

q|^-|-u)c.- Igkyocl-pa yan-ma 
moving again and again, at paroxysm. 

c| bskyod med-pa, SJ^* grant 
n. of an immensely great 



74). number. 

bskrad and ^' q ift phyir-b$krad= 
phyir-bton turn out, expel (Situ. 
5 h*<' i5i*\ turn out a ghost or devil. 
bgkrus, pf. of tC", waai food cut 
up (Situ. 9). 

man-du btafi-tca to multiply. 2. 

par-du bkod-pa to print, set up in print 
bskyur cast out; eshiled ; driven # ' . ^. q . J , J ,. q d Wrawa q. 

X^ V 

away. ^T'W 1 to-tog b$krun-pa. 



the vessel has not dried. 
water dried up (Situ. 7-4). 

bskyar=%*it-' or w^-uie. 1 again; 
again and again (Zam. 10). 

q|^ f qlf bskyar-bzo repairing; mend- 
ing of. 



P kha I: the second letter of the 
Tibetan alphabet, being the aspirate of 
"1 ka. In sound it resembles *sr, the second 
opnsonant of the Sanskrit alphabet. 1. 
On registers it indicates the second, or 
number two. It is attached, often option- 
ally, as an additional syllable to many 
words, especially in the colloquial: ^^'P 
dgon-kha the price ; *'P cha-kha a thing. 
2. It implies f>*\ kliag, a part: ("'"f^'g 
kha-(fnis-su = F l H' t <p>w$}, khag-gfiis-su into 
two parts (divisions) : P'flp kha-gafl. one 
part. The sixth part of a tafi-ka (Tib. coin) 
is called kha. 3. Origin, source, &c. : iptvp 
j[ser-k/ia= i\*.'' ^'ftm ffser-gyi hbyuft- 
k/tttfis the source of gold, gold-mine : <*'P 
tshica-k/ia salt-pit: *'p tswa-kha pas- 
ture-land, a place where pastures abound. 
4. Time: yT5'^ -l| IV nihchar-kha-ru 
diis-ffdab(SUu. 21) calculate time from the 
moment of sunrise; *5'P^ hgro-khar at 
the time of going ; at the time when he was 
ready to start : *rni-pvXri o^n mo fo^i. 
khar cho$-la Mun-pa she at the time of 
dying became religious, &c. (Pag. 27) : 
S^T* bym-khar when he came; at the 
moment of arrival: fc'p yofi-kha at the 
time of coming; w^fHj'Ifa'p'w sa dafi-po 
Mo6-AAa-ma*B*r^'4fr>r4^ sa dan-po thob- 
ma-thag as soon as he attained to the first 
stage, i.e., one moment before the attain- 
ment: ^^c.-qj-p-^ y un rifi-gi kha na 
W^^'^I'IT'^ yun rin-gi $go nas by little 
and little; gradually (Jd.) ; *>'*$' pi in the 



hope of; w'|'p w ^ just on the oppor- 
tunity ; " in the nick of time." 

P II: 1. the front side: *psr face, 
mouth ; also the surface or upper side. P 
is the ordinary word for " mouth," while 
"ft 6 -' is the commoner term for "face." 
Again, to express the surface as well as the 
front of any inanimate thing, p is the 
usual form: gflrp-arijwj* icicles on the 
face of the cliff; |*Vi^'WkT'MJ'i 
$kyil-krufi mdsad-nas chu-khar byon (Pag. 
117) sitting in a cross-legged posture he 
moved on the surface of the water ; *'3T 
p-ar^V^T^*'*^ ho-thug kha-la hod-zcr- 
gyi ri-mo mthon saw reflection of rays on 
the surface of milk-broth (Pag. 113). 2. 
HTTT language ; conversation; i^& word: 
yrQ-fV*V$'f*'^qc'$K > 'fll the king having 
become powerless at (his) wife's word 
(Pay. 32). 



Syn. 
bt/ed; 



rjod-bycd; 
rtsihi rten; 



smra-wahi sgo ; s'S za- 

0?nfi-icar-byed ; \l shal; 

fam-ffyi hbyufi-g.na$ I^'ls 

9 don; ^Vt-5'^ bdud- 

$kad *\<>*< gtam 



&c. 



Ill : a breadth or a square of cloth, 



In its several inflected forms p is 
often used as if it were a postposition 
governing the accusative case. These 
forms are P'^ kha-na, P'$ kha-ru, and p* 
khar, and take the meaning of " on," " at," 



124 



FBI 



"beside," &o. : *>fv on the fire; T1 on 
the chair; f"F^T5 all round. 

kha kyel-n-a ^m to kiss. 

a krab-pa (kha tab-pa) to smack 
or cluck with the mouth. 

ha dkar-po =^^'^^ $ari- 
1. bright : q] - 2)ri bkra-fis-pa. 2. 
auspicious ; of happy omen ; agreeable ; 
pleasant looking; r r W"$ CL ''V I l kha-dkar 
gjtifmag outside white, inside black, i.e., 
plausible. 

f^5) kha-dkri (kha-ti) neck-cloth, some- 
times worn as a protection against cold ; a 
kind of raw silk stuff of narrow breadth 
manufactured in Assam and largely im- 
ported into Tibet, where it is used as iieck- 
tie and handkerchief: r^'*"*'^'* 1 ^'^' 
*g kha-dkri bcas hdra-wa kha-rer hbru 
(Rtiii.) for each breadth (of cloth), which 
is equal to a kha-ti, price in barley grain. 

P'S*! klia-lkng dumb; also of indis- 
tinct speech: ^'iNiwrlinfrprj^'^ the 
spleen of a goat removes the dumbness of 
children. 

P'tfa kha-skad &m*i oral account; 
tradition ; narrative ; colloquial language. 

f '*f=. kha-skon JUS^, fTir a mouthful ; 
completion ; appendix of a book : P'^'*) 
klia-skon-wa 1. to fill up a void ; to make 
tip a deficiency. 2. to fill up the mouth 
with water, to rinse it. 

P'ifc' 1 ! kha skor-wa = ST*) slu-wa or 

-* 

pqijjk a kha bskor-wa to speak cunningly; 
to circumvent by speech. 

f |^3^ kha skmi'-pon 1. sour; of an 

s 

acid taste. 2. olive ; olive tree (in Sikkim) 
(Jd.). 

C"'|=. kha-skyens shame-facedness : 



to give his garment to another man, and 
that other man having held out his hand, 
it is not given to him, he is ashamed 
that is termed kha-$kyefi$. 

kha-kha I : apart, separately : P'f 
'*>S if (you) sit apart there will 
be no quarrel. 

pTpJ II : or P"T* kha-kha-mo bitter 
mouth; bitter taste. 

p-pqq kha-khebs ^fa a veil ; a cover : 
qHfefr^MTMrp'^ grba-pa rcr kha- 
khebs >-aj kha-re (at every offering) there is 
a square of cloth apiece as a face cover- 
ing to each monk. 

P'j^ fcfo-ifarsWffc tha-hkhor border, 
edge ; also the circumferc nee. 



If a man is about 



^i[^'i kha-thcg 
byed-pa contradict ion ; denying one's 
liability. 

P'ST* 1 Mia-khyag-pa, same as P'^I'SV 
kha-theg byed-pa, to deny having under- 
taken to do a thing; denying one's 
liability. 

r&* kha-k/iycr 1. ^'"1^ lan-krtn ; t!*'g 
itcgs-bu any shelf or box on which birds 
perch; also %f^iT an altar; a raised seat. 
2. *m-niSjV|! mt/iah-skor-kha the surround- 
ing line or circumference of anything; 
the surrounding edge of a cloth, &c. 

^f^Khn-khra (kha-tha] ,v . sfn3 Blokha- 
kfira or ^'P'91 Lo kha-brng; also n. for 
certain wild tribes of the border land of 
Tibet, namely the Aka and Mishmi tribes 
of eastern Tibet and Assam (Ya-sel. 38). 

P'gi kha-kliram (kha-tham) defined as 
p-S}'a|j-*-qj]^-i cunning talk, deceitful 
language. 

p'Bi'i kha-khram-pa = 
ffyorgyv tyad-mkhan one who epeaka 
cunningly so as to cheat. 



125 



P'H 15 ! I : kha-khral (kha-the) M^S^S res- 
pect, regard ; lit. tribute in language or 
in words. 

fig 1 *! II : capitation tax or poll tax. 

prupfo kha-hkhor the circumference of 
the mouth (Cs.) ; p'^fc's kha hkhor-wa to 
surround. 

p'A.gij'q kha hkhyig-pa to bind an ani- 
mal's mouth ; to gag ; to strangle. 

p'ngiw kha-hkhyoms to be agitated 
outwardly: j*'*T l ' 1 V''*'**'F*3 wl fluti 
chen-po des rgya-mtshohi kha hkhyoms the 
surface of the sea was troubled by that 
great wind (A. 16). 

r>'*\'Z kha-ya-po difficult (Sch.). 

r>'"I'x kha-ya-ma or F'flp.'*! Isha-gan-ma 
the square nig that is spread over a great 
man's cushion or seat. 

P'l*. kha-yan a quadrate, square ; one 
sixth of the Tibetan coin called tanka, 
which is equivalent to one anna in India: 
fr<i|c,-q kha gafi-ica adj. square. 

F' q l e >'S q r ti 'I ' a kha-yafi-dyar-smra-wa to 
talk at random; to speak at pleasure 
( thoughtlessly ) . 

F'*p kha-yab cover, lid. (Sch.). 

P'S^'I*!*' kha yyen-phyogs '&W3 with 
the face upwards (in expectation) ; expec- 
tantly, eagerly. 

F'SI 6 * kha-yrafis (kha-dan) enumeration. 

f'5 kha-gru (kha-du) or *W9J mthah-gru 
the corner limit or sphere of a place, also 
of the mouth. The width of the mouth of 
a vessel or pot, also the opening of the 
mouth. r5' <w -''%''VT^ a ''r*>V*i* < '| kha- 
grn yafi$-$ifi dkar-hbol rtsa-med mchog that 
being broad in space, of white and soft 
appearance, and without grass, is best 
(Jig.). 



("|=- Kha-g.M, tm'f6r^r%8K mthah- 
hklidb yul-gi min n. of a border country. 

l"'^'3 kha gjin-sgra is defined as "W^T 
WA|t,'u5-^g-^-8| the noise of the foe which 
arises in a battle-field (Mr! on.). 

f>' e >^i\'ci kha hgoy-pa mute ; one who can- 
not or does not speak; gagged (Mnon.). 

p'^U^'q kha hyyur-wa to change one's 
words or promises. 

P^ll'i kha hgriy-pa (k/ia-dig) = f>'*.wy 
kha hcham-pa of the same opinion or 
disposition. 

f'^g"! kha-hyril (kha-dif) the selvedge or 
loose tufts of thread on either edge of a 
cloth: 3*'5'F*$*' l w8 i r ! SW l 'l the 
fringes of the tent being made with blue 
cotton. 

P'^S kha-ryod ill or rough language; 
also a slanderer (Sch.). 

F*fl kfia-rgan privilege of old age (Jd.). 

P'^^i kha-ryyan rrr^T the betel-leaf 
which the Indians chew ; literally the 
beautifier of the mouth. 

f'JTq kha-ryyal-wa to win a di-pute : 
q^-^'S'^W^'P'S' 5 ' bdud rigs-kyi sems- 
can kha-rgyal the animate beings of the 
demon kind won the controversy. 

I"'!*! kha-rgyug idle talk ; unfounded 
assertion (Jd.). 

r"'|S kha-rgyud, resp. ^i'*^ shal-ryyitd, 
same as m*'^ gtam-rgyud, oral tradition ; 
also certain mystical doctrine not allowed 
to be written down. 

P'sfr kha-sgor the shoulder bone. 

F'!*'*! kha sgyur-wa r*'|^i kha-lo 
sgyur-wa to govern ; to rein the mouth 
(of a horse) ; to lead, guide, influence other 
persons. 

kha-sgrog (kha-doy) p % gfl|-ait-cm- 
-g^'^-q. I n this passage rih kha- 



126 



tgrog means shutting or binding up the 
straps of a trunk or leather box. 

P'lflw kha-bsgos advice. 

P'g'i MM lna-pa = ^'*{ scn-gc the lion 
(Won.). 

P'g'S kha sna-wa or P'gwd kha sfias-pa 
to anticipate or say something before- 
hand ; to speak out inconsiderately. 

P'$1 kha-cig or P -fl $flj kha-gcig 1. or* 
/-/, ^rfa^ a certain person ; P' 4 !" k/uifas 
also ""F^ hgah-re, vp-'Vl hgiih-sliig. 
2. some (7. 2rf.) : P^TS^'S* Ma >- 
fre phur-sgrar vifiiHm*^ "or as some call 
it a flying word"; P'ST^ kha-cig iia-rc 
Komeone said. 

P'i kha-cnl or P'$* kha-ctir Kashmir ; 
a Kashmirian. 

P'1=. k/ta-pcaft clever talking, cf. p'fj*. Q 
kha sbi/an-po eloquent; dexterous in 
conversation. 

P'lJS k/ia-bcud=$*[ e -' cu-yan u. of a 
medicinal substance (Sman. 149). 

Ma-gcod cover ; in Ld. cork. 
A/(o-6w/idle talk, prattle (Sch.). 

P'*^l I : kha-chag defect in the blade 
(of a knife or an axe), but P'*"!'^'^ ! kha- 
i 'hag. na-ral= to get the mouth damaged 
and nose torn ; P'ST^'^fc kha thug-po son the 
edge (of a knife, &c.) has become blunt ; 
p^4|'3fcA:/ja log-son the blade has become 
turned, i.e., bad ; P'^'^l kha mi-Mug the 
sharpness is wanting; ^'P grihi-kha or 
5'li grihi so (in Khams) the blade of a 
knife. 

P'l II : abuse ; ill language (Jd.). 

P'*^ kha-c/tad, i^m'*^ thai-chad agree- 
ment, covenant ; a truce ; P'*^ kha-chad= 
chad-don special object or reason 



kha-char= abbreviation of P'", 
enow and *^'", rain. 

P'at*i k/ia-c/iing the taming or appeas- 
ing of wild beasts, &c., by witchcraft. 

P$ kha-chu (W*n shal-chab) ^rrar, 
VW. spittle; also used colloq. for P'5'$ 
kha-wahi chu snow-water. 

P'$'5J"1 kha chu-plmg n. of a place on 
the uplands of Kha-chu (Lon. *| 32). 

P'ro Kha-che a native of Kashmir; 
a Mahomedan ; a person that has tLe 
command over much ; principal or impor- 
tant things (p'S'H'jj*i kha-thc-ira rnams) ; 
n. of a mask in the religious plays of Tibet. 

prafc-jM kha-che fkyes., p'3'^ij klin-che 
mc/<og, v. 3*'3*< rjur-yuin (Mf.on.), 3C*fi\fVl or 
fiW*T saffron, the produce of Kashmir. 

p'S-^Jfa'pie. kha-che hgron-khan, p'X'J'pt 
kha-che za-khan an inn kept by a Muesal- 
man at Lhasa or in Peking; ffa'*&*lkh& 
che mchog HTfl ^S^TSI the chief article, i.e., 
finffron, which the Tibetans obtain from 
Kashmir; p - S'-] - p - *i k/ia-c/ic <;a-kha-ma a 
kind of yellow flower resembling saffron 
which imported from Kashmir is largely 
grown in Tibet; p-l--*)-p-*raX-^g kha-che 
^a-kha-ma spor rcr hlru the cost of a spor 
of Kashmir ^a-kha-ma flower is a bnt or 
barley flour (Rttii}. 

pT^I*J1 kha-chcm&, resp. ^ - ?w a/.al- 

c/tems, last will, testament : p - 8W^I^'q klia- 
c/tcms hjog-pa to moke a will; p'?**) 
g(c:m'i^ k/ia-c/tcms rlun-la bkur stnt (his) 
last will to the winds (Bchu.). 

P'<6 kha-chos hypocrisy; religion in 
talk only. 

ft-niai /,/<-$<;// ff/Rarfri idle talk, prattle; 
talk as in a delirium : p'<r^ (he) 
prattles. 



Ft! 



127 



pa or 



kha-rnthun. 
kha-mthun- 

thug-pa to agree upon ; 
kha-hcham k/in<gs=%'%'<$^\H'- 
residing together as husband and 
wife; to live harmoniously (Mnon.). 

P'&Q kha hche-wa, same as p'Wi kJut 
thiil-iea, to promise ; speaking sweet words 
meaning nothing or evil. 

kha-hjam g.tin-khag=fr<w 
kha-hjam gtin-miy p^rfftfl*'^j|cai 
go ft an( i polite in language but 
evil at heart. 

rq kha-hjal-ua to measure. 

kha hjug-pa to interfere ; to 
meddle with ; meddlesome. 



P' kha-rje ^3, gg;T the chief of the 
clouds ; cloud-god. Ace. to Cs. great lord, 
mighty personage; good luck, good for- 
tune; ace. to Jd. fortune, good, wealth. 

P'i'l3'**1 kha-rje khyu-mchog= c: ^' s ^ 
bsod-nams Tj<a merit, moral virtue (Mnon.). 

P't'*^ kha-rfe-can=^\^^'^ bsod-nams 
can possessed of moral merit ; virtuous 
(Mf,on.). 

P't'* kha-rje die very powerful ; also 
high moral merit: *'^rtte 1 t* i V'C*^^ 

^c.^E.'p'|'S - 8Hc. if we brother and sister were 
not here, would you have been powerful 
to-day? (A. 18). 

r^'i kha nan-pa or fT^'i kha-la nan- 
pa to obey ; P'^' 2 * kha nan-po obedient. 

P'S^ kha-nun sparing of words ; laconic 
(Sch.) : r>-y.-<n*\-v$*- kha-mifi lag-tsan, frvK^c 
*inif4-*f;*ptciryfn [ B one wno does not 
speak many words and who does not act 
the thief. 

P'?*l kha-nog, v. f>'^"\ kha-nog. 



skad-mnam 
of equal, i.e., same words or opinion : 
%mpmrqrfr*prm jf ( you ) eat together 

(you) should agree in speech. 

Ff* kha-rnin old or second-hand articles. 



k.*i kha-brnons, 

med-pahi kha-la mdse$-po bad at 
heart, but very polite in expression 

(Nmj. 10). 

P'$*w kha-snoms of same height; also 
of level surface : rifWF*y*$'|irq they 
were equal in height; nS|-^-p) - |^-q?-f5it.^- 
1^*1'^ bsil-ri kha-snoms-pahi khon$-$kyibs-na 
in a sheltered corner or cleft of cool moun- 
tains of level surface (Ya-scl. 35.). 

("'5 kha-ta or P'f kha-tta good advice ; 
lesson ; PTl'V kha-ta bycd-pa or 
hjog-pa to give advice ; 
not to give advice to a bad man (Jig.). 



a > P'?, kha-twa, v. f>' 
^'"1 kha-tbam-ga, a club or staff with a skull 
at the top, the weapon of S'iva, also carried 
by ascetics; a trident ; f"'5 -q | kha tam-ga a 
Tantrik club or staff with a skull at the 
top, v. f'^' 1 ^ kha-twam ga, trident ; the 
Tantrik staff with three skulls piled one 
above another at the top, the lowest one 
resting on a pot. This was originally 
introduced into Tibet by PadmaSambhava. 

F'$*l kha-tig bitter ; bitter taste, v. F'3 i : 
kha-ica. 

F'T-^ kha-to fin is said to be same 
as fljw^e, gsal-fin, a pointed stake used 
for the execution of criminals (Jd.). 

P'fa kha-ton or fn&fi kha-hdon <<<i'^m, 
^4Mc5 a reading or reciting from memory 
with a loud voice ; S'T'Pi'P'fa'^'m reading 
or saying by heart; F'ft'V^'* 1 */' ton-du 



FWM 



128 



to know by heart ; P'lft '3=-'" kha- 
ton byafi-ira q^Wf tfftftjrr (mgfw'ar) a 
clear recitation of prayer or hymns. Also 
explained as ^yn^w$**V 1 ^:*r 
<0^-jvg"vq to recite religious tracts from 
memory, without having recourse to 
books: "iC"! Q ' q l' t >f Vf'frSV "by looking 
at scientific works to commit to memory" 
(A. 3). 

P'lSS'l kha gtad-pa, same asP'^S'^ kha 
tprad-pa or vy^'i ra-spr ad-pa 1. to bring 
together personally; to confront: *9j $*< 
qvj'^'p'flpv^fl'qw hgi-o ma-niis-par rta ran 
kha-gtad hdon pas (Yi<j.) not being able 
to go, (he) let the horse go towards you. 
2. to turn one's face. 

P'"15W kha-gtam, resp. *!*'*?>* shal-gtam, 
oral tradition. 

p-qji|rq kha ffti(gs-pa=r>'^'^'^^ //'" 
la ho gtugt-pa or P'T^'IS'" klta-la ho byed- 
pa to kiss. 

(n-fl|ifc.'q ]f] ta gtofi-wa to injure ; to abuse ; 
to call names. 

P'SJI* kha-btag$ anything that is put on 
the face, i.e., presented or placed before 
a person for his acceptance; hence that 
ubiquitous article of Tibetan social inter- 
course, the presentation or salutation scarf. 
These scarves are of various descriptions. 
The longest and the best ones are presented 
to the great lamas, high officials, and to 
other personages ; they carry respect ac- 
cording to their quality, colour and length. 
There are different sorts of P'q5"l*< kha- 
btatjs (silk presentation scarves) p'i5<i|*r 
arl'j^-sjcsigi^Jjq^si kha-btags-la phyi- 
mdnod, nan-mdsod, nin-bde-ma, P 
bsod-btags, *'^'^ tshe-lha-mo or w^' 



brgyad-slags, bcu-sbags, sog sna-Miogs 
yod. 



P'lSf^ kha-stan a soft thin, rug that is 
spread on a cushion ; a cover for a cushion 
or couch. 

F' t '^ kha sten-du above ; besides ; on ; 
upon ; at ; towards : ^'Ft^'V'W (il ' f - li 4/ '- 
Sted-du slniijs he sat upon it (Pag. 64.) 

F'?^ k/ia-ston not yet having eaten any- 
thing ; lit. empty mouth. 

f ?*'*' S Q '** kfiii-stonig rgyab-pa is de- 
fined as ^fcT^rqfcrsr^r^-Avwp-wJ^' 
i'iri, to revile one another for no purpose. 

P'fJJ'^j kha tbam-ga, y%-tj,*\-*i*i lha-yi 
phyag mtshan, v. ^'5**'*! kJm-tam-ga. 

|"'"i kha-thal=zy\'v* thug-thai or 3T 
IT** thug rttam rice or barley particles. 

P wi kha tlial-tca=r r '&'Q kha hchc-tca to 
promise ((/.). 

pTSj kha-thi a kind of satin in variega- 
ted colours. 

P'51 kha-thug to the brim= "lV'3"! g.don- 
thug : P'5"l'^' ' kha-thug skon-wa to fill to 
the brim ; P'^ kha-nafi the inside brim 
P'S*!'" khu thug-pa to meet in a contest, 
in concert with. 

P'3f"| kha-thog top or surface; upon a 
thing =VTP thog-kha on the roof, on the 
upper flat. 

P'* kha-thor pustules in the mouth 
(A*.)'. 

P'3^ kha-mthun, v. P'^*< kha-cham. 

p-wg^-q k/ia-mthitn-pr> = r > '$,*\' c i kha-t hug- 
pa agreeing upon, unanimous ; also 
together with: <-g* ^|*^'fr > W'fr'l > 
in concert with the men of the palace 
they petitioned (Pag. 275). 

p'W) kha-hthal 1. regulating of stores 
by equalizing their quantities : a i'SV* ll !*<' 
*e.-S.-^-<*VVq * yo-byed sogs man nun hdra 
hdra byi-d-pa la, \&&'*;*' 



129 



l^'i rnin-pahi chad dan gsar ^prod-la hthab 
bye4-pa(Rtsii.). 2. p'Wq kha hthab-pa= 
fll^'^'i gyul gprod pa or ^*|' wl dmag 
hthab-pa to fight; to give battle (Mfion.). 

p-^'qsvq kha-hthen btaA-wa=^'^^'^ 
Ion b_taft-wa to send a reply, to reply ; P' 
^'i kha htlwn-pa (to pull the mouth) to 
stop a beast of draught. 

P -( rtfc-q kha-kthor-pa = *'*x.'*Q!*'*i so-sor 
hbral-tca, J*rq gyes-pa to scatter, to sepa- 
rate one from another; also disordered, 
confused, confusion: $'*'pi'<0fvq a book, 
the leaves of which have become mixed 
up together; W<^p-<OM*rfyr* at the 
place there were a few scattered ones 
only (A. 23); ^if^Kt^nVf^f^ft 
ift<r<^ among the beasts there are two 
classes : those that live secluded and those 
that are scattered (in abodes of men 
and gods). 

P'Vl kha-dag swept clean, cleared up, 
entirely gone: ^v|qr*r*vp-vi|-*, nor 
phyugs thams-cad kha-dag soil his wealth 
and cattle have all disappeared. 

P'^"! kha-dig or P'?*| kha-ldig to stam- 
mer ; P'SJT*^ kha-ldig-mkhan a stam- 
merer. 



MM dug-can 
poisonous mouth ; having poison in the 
mouth. 

P'V'i *^ a dum-pa being in concert 
with ; having agreed. 

P'^TQ kha-dul-po (soft mouth) manage- 
able ; tractable. 

P'^a| kha-dog or P'*^1 Tcha-mdog = **p.'H 
mdafis colour : a - *<^''^ E .'5|'P'' ie i l l''i s -'? the 
hair became blue-black; P'^1'5)' q Il II I*i kha- 
dog-gi pztigs i^^q ; F^TfW 11 kha-dog 
rnthun-pa of one uniform colour: ^'^s.' 
Jhr^Tfljfirp-^^iqafW^N-q dge-sM cfiof- 
gos ffsum kha-dog mtfmn-par ysol-pa he 



wears the three garments of a monk of 
uniform colour. P'^TJ*' 1 ' kha-dog sgyur 
ica to change colour; P'Vr^i* the colour 
changes (Ja.). 

P'^I'S"!^' 2 ' kha-dog dkar-po=*\*\'fr dag- 
byedoT ^'5'"*) rtsba kit-pi the cleanser, puri- 
fier ; also a name for the dub grass (Mfion.). 

P'Vj'^'" kha-dog flan-pa ^Wl of dis- 
agreeable or bad color. 

p'^q|l^-Ei kha-chen-po 
g$er gold (Mnofi.). 

P'^'^'3 kha-dog Ita-bu or P' 
dog hdra-wa dog Ita-bu in colour ; like its 
colour. 



kha-dog fna-tshogs variety 
of colours ; of different hues : P'^ q l'^'*"l*i' 
fl-$*|-*q-<jfyj( kha-dog sna-tshog mu-tig rob 
yin-no an excellent pearl is of a variety of 
colours (Lofi. S 2.). 

P'^l'i kka-dog-pa small hole or narrow 
hole. 

kha-dog mthah yaf-pa 
l 1 variegated colours. 

" kha-dog ysum-pa explained as 
|'(5-)E.- fin ba-gtaftrmig-pahi mid 
a name for the tree called the ox-hoof 

(4000.)' 

P'Vl Ma-drag VS mighty, haughty; 
P'VT* 1 loquacious, talkative. 

P'^' kha-draH just before ; straight on. 

P'X kha-dro in Khams and Amdo signi- 
fies iTr^* bkra-fis auspicious, of good 
omen or appearance. 

P'X^ kha dro-b_o= P'^'5 kha hphro<f-po 
agreeable, amiable, of pleasant company. 

p-nim^-q kfia gdafa-pa fjRrpwur, ^mj 
yawning; opening the mouth; gaping; 
widening the mouth : p'fte.^) kha-g.dai>$ 
na$ having opened the mouth widely, 

18 



130 



kha-mdog, v. F'Vj kha-dog. 

kha-hdar one who speaks too fast 
or too loud. 

P'^l kha-hdig cork, bung, stopple. 



of law or religion. 



tu mthun-pa agreeing in an account. 
kha-hdon, v. P'fa kha~ton. 

kha-hdon byetf-pa to recite or 
mutter a charm or mantra. 

P' 8 ! kha-rda muttering, whispering : P' 
q;q3E.- Ej-|^ to mutter or speak auspiciously. 

F', kha-brda conversation, talk, pro- 
phecy, prediction ; it also signifies i-'lYi' 
*uc/2j tyad-pa bzad-po good explanation or 
utterance : ^FV*^W*JK <a <1!lfrpnH'** < fl 
"may the doctrine (of Buddha) prosper" 
such was his righteous utterance (A. 
U6). 

F'l*^ kha brdah=yf\* $kad-cha verbal 
utterance : S'&'vDiistfc.-uie.-w *tfc.-q'vg*r 
^(q-q^-i)-^ although he had beheld the 
girl's eyes, he acted as if he had not seen 
her and gave no spoken sign. 

?'?*>** kha-sdams = f>'') kha-ta or flftwrp 
gdams-kha advice. 

F'jjw'fl kha sdom-pa ^'^^t kha mnan- 
pa to silence ; to gag or stop the speech. 

t P'l^'^I kha-da-ga JsTfir the scimitar 
or sabre of the Hindus. 



q kha-na ma-tho-wa, lit. 
V^'i kha na ma thon-pa, not confessed, i.e., 
not come out of the mouth ; ^3*1 also w^j, 
a metaphysical term defined as $*Tr^'$w 
i5'i)R, a name for sin and moral corruption. 
There are two kinds, viz., (1) ^'"^'f 'pr 
^*r?'q ran bshin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-wa sins 
which are committed naturally and semi- 
consciously; (2) P'q5-p^--1f-q bcas-pahi 
kha na ma tho-wa sins of overt violation 



q J|-qJ( Householders and monks in general, 
in keeping these sins and failings conceal- 
ed, because they do not issue forth from 
the mouth, such are styled kha-na-ma-tho- 
wa. P' 3 !'*! ?'q')'wq kha-na ma tho-wa mi 
mnah-wa f^<m the sinless; p^'wTq'^'" 
kha na ma, tho-wa mcd-pa ^JT^B without 
sin or moral corruption ; F'^'i'f 5 - flj5i kha- 
na-ma thohi pfewMBVTVtrC^rflWk 1 
sinful or blasphemous speech. 

MI'S kha nag-pa=W c i'*i l '\'% mun-pa 
nag-po darkness ; also of gloomy appear- 
ance ; morose; wicked (4f#ow.). 

f>'*F kha-nan yesterday morning. But 
F'^'^'qjjw kha-nan-du blta$ ^*H^M^: to 
look inwardly: (i^e.- 



gK.'l^'i'? the knowledge gained by intro- 
spection, which is carefully to examine 
how much of good or evil and virtue or 
vice exists in one's own heart, causes rejec- 
tion (of evil) and acceptance (of good). 

kha nad mouth disease. 
v^ kha nar-can oblong. 

kha-nas orally ; by word of mouth ; 
B 31 ^ cuckoo ; also to cry or call like 
the cuckoo; p'^*r3^'q kha-nas ser-tca to 
speak colloquially. 

f'^t kha-nin last year. 



of cotton cloth, etc.; that having two 
colours (Rtsii.). 

P'^l kha-nog or f'^"\ kha-nog clamourous ; 
asking often and often for a thing, etc. : 



the three may be classed together, (namely) 
defilement, importunity, and being strick- 
en by lightning (Rtsii.). 



131 



' kha-nor son he has erred in 
conversation. 

P'W kha mnan-pa=f*'2W' c i kha sdom- 
pa to obstruct the speech ; also to coerce, 
to silence. 

f>'t kha-pa the volume marked with 
the letter P kha, i.e., the 2nd volume. Any- 
thing (book or article) marked with the 
letter f kha. 

r" -2 i kha-po sometimes =F kha speech, 
e.g., p'Q'^arS mild speech and polished 
language. 

P'Q'^ kha-po-che = f>'^\'^ kha rgyag-pa or 
fr*.-g Mia man-po talking much: $" *)'$}!' 
JfvH'qS'p'q*'X rtsi-ge sreg-for zer-wahi kha 
pho-chc a shrew called Rtsi-ge sreg-$or, 
who was very talkative (Rdsa. 31). 

rSI*' kha-lpa(js = rw<i'*\'H khal-pags lip. 

P'3 kha-spu hair of the face; whiskers. 

F* kha-pho boasting: p'9'X kha-pho- 
che one who boasts much; also boasting 
much. 

F'Sn] kha-phog verbal reproof. 
F'* kha-phor W%( ; STPWf a cup ; a 
saucer. 

F% kha-phyi the outer edge. 



mthun-pa unanimity in a conference; 
unanimous vote. 



Fl*'^ kha-phyit- lta=<*'*.'*F'fr\*c pha- 
rol-tu kha phyogs-pa examining by appear- 
ances ; also to look outside (Mnon.) : F'^v 
^'"'S'^i'i kha-phyir bltas kyi yes-pa know- 
ing or judging things by their external 
appearance. 

P'^ kha-phyis napkin. 
P'3'l kha phye-wa=r > '$wi kha rgyas-pa 
1. to bloom or blossom; also 



well developed, full blown. 2. = r 
kha hbye4-pa '^pvw to yawn. 

r!T< kha-phyogs^F^w&P* kha Ita- 
wahi phyogs the direction of one's sight. 

p-wq Mia-hphaA-wa^'^^i to 
divulge ; spread ill rumours (Jd.). 

P'^ kha-hphyur ^air^ a solid mea- 
sure for grain like B fare Jffar ; or *& hlo. 

?>'*%*{ kha hphrod-po, v. P'^'S kha dro-bo. 

P'^ I : kha-wa firw bitter ; P'fa kha- 
tig from (""'*> and ^1'5 bitter, i.e., of 
very bitter taste : X'p'q ro kha-wa bitter 
taste ; p'SKA kha-mfiar bitter and sweet ; 
F'3i kha-mo bitter: *c.'f'S chan kha-mo 
beer that is very strong or of bitter taste. 

pTCJ II: =11=.*' gans f%H snow: r 
(^'^^"l^sf kha-wa dud Itar gsal the snow 
(was) unsullied as shells ; P'^'S kha-wa 
kye f%*?w, ?fa, ^VT snow-born or ocean- 
god; f>'^ kha-goH = f>' c ^'^l c -'^ snowball; 
P'** kha-char snow and rain; ("'** 
>wa <;/)!> sleet; F"'*^ Kha-wa-can 
Tibet, the snowy country : |" - i'*^ jj'$i the 
country oji snow, or snowy country ; c -'^' 
R^-frqj-^p-tr^-l-*^!-^ 100 years (after) 
my time the snowy lakes of Tibet becoming 
dry; P'l's?'*! a swallow, prob. enow- 
swallow. P'^'IOI kha-wahi rtul fV?TH9i. 
f?^^f% lumps of snow: p'nS^-*! kha- 
wahi phye-ma ff^TTT^irr snow dust; flakes 
of snow ; also camphor, 3fqK ; p'W) kha- 
hlab or P'^'^i'i kha-ica hbab snow-fall, 



avalanche ; p^Wt"*| having the name of 
suow; P'^'^S f^M<qfi glare from the 
snow, snowy lustre. 

prq'^vQ Kha-ica tfkar-po n. of an im- 
portant religious institution in KItams. 

!"< Vn kha-wa ri-pa^wfcw Gafit- 
l?ofi$-pa a Tibetan; one residing in the 
snowy mountains (Yig. k. 6). 



132 



P' 2 ^ I : kha-bad. the architectural 
ornament of a Tibetan house formed by 
the projecting ends of the beams which 
support the roof. 



II: the humidity of the air 
caused by snow (fa.). 

P^'SS kha-war byed '=^T 'P*R. - reg-bzA 
of soft or pleasant touch (Jtfnon.). 

P'9 kha-bu or P'S^'" *//a bttb-pa being 
turned downwards : wH' ll *'*f" L '*W4' 
%*** I have fallen headlong into the abyss 
of sin (Pag. 185). 

PS* kha-byaft ^q:n^, Vtfipl with 
the face downwards ; learned, wise. 

F'9' 1 ! Ma bye-tea ft^rfti<T in bloom. 

r"'9"I kha-brag (kha-tag) forked rocks ; 
any forked object; also as adj. %T > '%i\Lo- 
kha-brag, the mountainous wild country 
N. E. of Bhutan inhabited by wild tribes. 

P'gi kha-bral (kha-tal) ftflT divorce, 
separation, especially of lovers or husband 
and wife. 



^' kha-dwaA eloquent: f 
dwan-choy able to epoak powerfully, elo- 
quent (Nag. 11). 

P'Sg"! k/ia-tfbrag literally the mouth- 
split : 'P'*\9 q I chu kha-dbrag a river which 
is divided or branched out; "Wf'^gi a 
road which is branched into several paths ; 
3.'9|-<w*rr>^qq| the branch of a tree which 
divides into several parts ; fiT*'F'^g*J rmig- 
pa kha-dbrag a hoof which is bifurcated 
or split. 

P'WH Kha hbar-ma arrar^^ n. of 
a goddess (Rtsii.). In the Hindu pan- 
theon Jvalamukhi (she with a burning or 
glowing mouth) is worshipped as the 
goddess of cholera. 



3 'i kha-hbu-wa, the opening of the 
buds of flowers. 

p-figq-g-yarq kha-hbub-tu nal-wa to lie 
with one's face downwards. 

l-<*grq Ma-hbug-pa sftr^f, fTF^^-sirff 
unblown flower, buds. 

f^'l kha hbyed-pa = F\* kha-phye- 
wa to open a cover or pasted letter or packed 
article ; is also used of books. 



kha hbrt-tca (kha-di-wa) to make 
less, to diminish; to detract from (in 
quality). 

r=- kfia-tbyafi eloquence; ^'3=-'^ klia 
sbyan-po eloquent. 



kha-fbyar or fl^'l kha fbyar-wa 
the mouth of a vessel or box closed or shut 
up : MriTPV'V*l'* <ril "''* l F s-rtt-chen 
kha-fbyar rin-chen sil-mns bkufi a covered 
copper vessel filled with precious thing.-, 
etc. (G kah. 77). 

f|k 3H'* kha-tbyor ~thig-k *jK-fn^ 
n. pr. (Schr. Td. 2, 275). 

f> '$* kha ibyor ^V^f^fz, mw any- 
thing that is left after eating or has been 
touched by the mouth but not eaten; 
rlV" to kiss. 

rtV*^^ kha-sbyor bdun-ldm=^ 
i.' Rdo-rje hchafi, the Tautrik Buddha 
Vajradhara (Mfion.). 

p-wn*i kha nia-hcham = r>'*)'**i kha mi- 
mthun discordant; P>'*)A* kha mi-hcham 
does not agree or live in harmony. 

P'^'3'i kha ma-phye-u-a fi^Jm an 
opening bud ; one of the twenty-one hells 
in which sinners are punished, being bound 
with ropes. 

P'**'3 kha-ma bye fi1^ a store or 
repository (Lex.). 



133 



frsl i^-n kkami-fes-pa not knowing the 
language. ; 

P'8* kha-mur bit (of a bridle). 

P'*>"S kha-med silent ; cannot reply : w ^ 
"P'*>\ i^'l 'J'*^ lab-na kho-wed, bton-na 
rgyu med if asked there is no reply ; if ran- 
sacked, nothing to produce (from one's 
pocket); P'^'IT", V^'Vl'* 1 (the common 
saying is) "the dumb doss not speak, 
the tongueless stammers." 

P'S kha-mo enchantment; irresistible 
influence. 



kha-dmar lit. "red mouth " ; a 
demon or preta ; a ghostly apparition. 
This word is used in astrology and the 
medical works of Tibet to signify an affirm- 
ative prediction, good or bad. When 
such a prediction is realized it is called 
p <^w5i| kha-dmar phog, when otherwise it 
is called P'V*''? 1 '? kha-dmar tog. 



kha-rtsat=P*K kha sad yester- 
day forenoon : P's.'5)'SW' the boy that 
was here yesterday forenoon (A.) ; also 
the day before yesterday; p*'v;-fl|*v"y*4 
fear-sail gzah ni-ma last Sunday (Jd.). 
kha-rtsod disputation, 



P'* kha-tsha bitter and acrid; hot in 
the mouth; pungent like pepper; ace. to 
Jd. (a) a very acrid sort of radish ; (b) 
aphtha) thrush, a disease of the mouth 
incident to horses, cows, sheep, &c. ; (c) P' 
*-^c.-fc'q kha-tsha rifi-fle-tca daily warm 
food. 

P'**, kha-tshar 1. fringes, such as the 
threads at the end of a web or cloth or 
rug, scarf or sash. 2. minor ingredients 
in a medicinal mixture : f 



having made one drug the principal 
ingredient, on adding thereto another drug 
in less quantity, it is called adding the 
kha-tshar. 

P'^i kha-tshub snow-storm. 
P'* kha-tsho boasting : P'^'-^''^'P kha 
tsho f in-tu che-wa a great swaggerer (Jd.). 
kha-tshod the weighing: P'*V^' 
q-3)-a^-jm'q kha-tshod, blta-phyir Miig- 
gi Ian $mras-pa (A. 6) considering one's 
expression with a view to reply to it. 
(Iqj-qjK^-mtr^-gv^-q tshig gari-hdra lab-yon 
tshod tta-wa.) 



P'*^ kha-tshon= p'^3") kha-hgrig, 
kha-hcham or P'*'3^ kha-mthun unanimous, 
of one voice or opinion. Generally used 
with "f&^'i, meaning 1. as in w*rv*J3^- 
qvpt-qvp'^w^ (A. 3), all unanimously 
and firmly agreed upon ; lit. P' 2 ^ kha-tshon 
colour ; hence to be all of one colour in the 
face, i.e., to be of the same opinion. 2. 
= '"1 "l^V 1 * thag gcod-pa a final decision or 
resolution : ^'3'5 IJ i'^ r |^'Wp'^ iS (A. 
15) they all resolved to forsake their 
kingdoms ; wi|3<!| g'p-^ KVF mthah 
g.cig-tu kha-tshon cho$ dkah it is difficult 
to arrive at a final decision. 3. surface 
or width (Ja.). 



kha-mtshul jpn muzzle ; mouth ; 
the lower part of the human face. 

P'**=.*T kha htshafis-pa=^' c i smod-pa 
to slander ; to curse (Mnon.). 



| kha-htshog abuse : p'^'l^'Q kha- 
htshog chen-po a great abuser, a reviler. 

kha-hdsin *!{* the cuckoo. 

kha-hdsin bye$-pa to receive 
in a friendly spirit ; to be kind ; to assist 
(Jd.) ; also to govern ; p - *2^c 



134 



sent or commissioned for governing 
(Qsarn. 25). 

rragqmqp kha-hdsin psum are the fol- 
lowing three : ^TH 1 " sug-smel f^ small 
cardamom, Convolvulus turpetthum; 3^'*J* 
gur-gum saffron; and %'%'%^ pi-pi-lin long 
pepper (Sman. &50). 

t hdsum-pa to shut the mouth. 
kha-shan of inferior quality 
or of low position : F' l W<*'l[ q !' q a| the mis- 
fortune of being of low birth (Ja.). 

f'Q*i kha-shur water-hen (Sch.). 

f>'$ kha-she mouth and mind : M'**" 
;*) kha-she mi mchung-pa hypocrisy ; 
hypocrite ; r r ^'* ) *V ) kha-she med-pa un- 
feigned ; sincere. 

f^e. kha-shen breadth, expanse, e.g., of 

the heavens. 

("fa kha-shen=kha-hb shan-pa modest 
in speech ; also not able to speak well. 

F'^ kfia-shes food, victuals (Cs.). 

W'3iJl kha zam, P'' kha-che zam 
a kind of chintz from Kashmir ; also a 
kind of cloth or silk stuff in variegated 
colours : ww bal zam chintz from Nepal. 

F'*w kha-zif food, either in general or 
some particular article of food : fw<s - 
n*,srq*-^ kha-zas la brkam-par gyur 
he longed for food ; p'wijie.'** kha-zis 
fftshan-ma clean food, or clean in (taking 
food). In Sikk. khabze sweet cakes, etc. 

F'l^' 1 ! kha sum-pa to close the mouth 
or any opening. 

+ F'S^ kha-zur or f*'$*kha-sur *sr5sk the 
date fruit. 

i kha zer-wa g<3T loquacious. 

^ kha-gzar spoon or ladle. 
F'l^ kha-ffsi or f>'*\$ kha-gze in W. 
rake in gardening ; in Spiti a carrier's 
load ; kha ze-pa a coolie (Ja.).. 



! tshig-gi 

f tad-rag good speech ; one who speaks 
pleasantly (llfnon.). 

ffctft khahi-nin ^<ETq the day before 
yesterday. 

P'^"l kha-hog lit. face downward ; down- 
cast ; P'^1''^51'i kha hog-tu bcug-pa or 
$^'i chud-pa to subjugate one, or to 
enforce obedience upon ; r* q T'* l ?*''5'3' q 
kha hog-tu bttas-te fi-wa to die falling down 
head-long, i.e., with the face downward. 



kha ya lit. being one's partner 
or match as to speaking, but in general 
partner, assistant; p'^'SV^ kha-ya byed- 
pa to assist : p ) ' 5 l' u '' K '&'3 1 ' I am not his 
match, not able to compete with him; 
with regard to things, I am not equal to 
the task ( Ja.). 

f'^I kha-yig <siJ*r. the letter F, a 
label ; a letter or writing on the cover 
of any parcel or letter ; an inscription. 

f'^m kha-yel the spout (of a kettle or 
any other vessel): gw*3*|* - *Jp 1 ffF<Hoi' 
*$-^Wi drawing with his lips at the 
spout which hangs down outside the vessel 
(A. 23). 

("'^"l kha-yog a false charge (Ja) : 'V 
q5-p-IQq]'gt ma ne-pahi kha-yog byun(C.) he 
was unjustly accused (Ja.} ; w^wwjf 1 ^' 



unfounded accusations arise such as those 
coming by word of mouth and by impli- 
cation, though one is guiltlesg. 

kha-ffyel wide mouth : |p - Zr>5e.*r 
^F^frrq-f* the shape of 
Sumeru resembled that of a vessel placed 
with its wide mouth upwards (i.e., like a 
pyramid on a point) (Ya-sel. 3S). 

p-jj|^n]q kha-pyog3 = F'fi c w kha-khebf. 
cover of a vessel or basket (G. kah. 77). 



135 



F'^ kha-ra in TF. for T* Aa-ra, sugar 
(/d.) ; trough ; manger (Sch.). 



Kha-rag n. of a place in Tibet. 
n. of a celebrated lama of the 
Kadampa School of Buddhism. 

f**> kha-ra? neck-cloth ; a towel. 

F'^ kha-ri or (*'$ k/ia-ru, v. pr^ khal-ri. 

F'S'^ kha-ru tshwa-^^^^ black salt 
used medicinally (Mnon.) : *^f, ft^, ft^- 
^I^T a kind of salt (procured by boiling 
earth impregnated with saline particles) ; 
a particular kind of salt of fetid odour 
(used medicinally as a tonic aperient). 
It is black in colour and is prepared by 
fusing fossil salt with a small proportion 
of emblic myrobalan, the product being 
muriate of soda with small quantities of 
muriate of lime, sulphur and oxide of 
iron (M. Wills.). Klia-ru tshtca-yi$ drod 
?kyed $bo$-pa dun sgeg daft hgyin khrog lad 
rlufi hjomx-par byred. flatulence, accom- 
panied with belching, rumblings, phlegm, 
and wind, is overcome by the medicinal 
salt. 



Syn. S'^'T rtt-tsa ka ; jjY* $min-tshba ; 
$?" bi-tam fio (Mfion.). 

p*'|"J kha-re $kyens=r*'$wt kha 
tkyafis-pa or ?#q no tsha-wa to be ashamed. 

F'^Ti kha reg-pa to touch anything by 
the lips ; to put one's mouth to a thing in 
order to eat or drink it. 

P'X kfia-ro taste in the mouth. 



f^FH* 1 kha-btsum silent, 
without reply : ^q'ii-q-i-i-p-Xfl|-^ there- 
fore remain silent with untingling ear ! 
F'^TljX'^l kha-rog sdod-cig be silent ; do 
not speak. F'Xflj'q is also freq. ("'^T^'Ti 
to remain silent. 

r^'i kha rog-pa g?nrar a kind of 
drug, prob. sulphate of copper. 



kJta-rlans TTO vapour from the 
mouth. 

p-r>'<w kha-la me-hbar n. of the King 
of the Yi-dag or Preta. 

p-ar^-ci kha-la r^-^a=metaphi *N zas 
to eat ; do eat (K. g. |" 28). 

P' a ''S|'^'^' ai '^' f P kha-la $Za-te don-la dkah 
easily spoken but difficult in meaning. 

P'^ kha-lan mouth requital; thanks- 
giving ; reply, especially angry reply; 
also requital for food received (/a.) : ^S'W 
p-uj^-q^wt^-Rgqi w hen disordered with evil 
thoughts, the food of faith is my reply 
(Mil). 

(""Wg*. kha-las lyufi sprung forth from 
the mouth. 



P'Qj^'CJ Kha-lin-pa n. of a place in 
Tibet. 

P' 5 * kha-le, v. |S'"> khya-le. 
pi'^q kha-leb cover, lid. 



kha-k 1. =r r fl*' kha-phyog$ 
towards the mouth. 2. prow of the ship 
(Schr.) ; according to others the helm 
aj'^tt. 3. ace. to Cs. and Ja. the glans- 
penis. 

fiS'vq kha-lo sgyur-pa or sgynr-wa 



kha-lo igynr-mkhan one who steers ; also 
a governor, a driver, a charioteer. See 
especially in narrative of early life of the 
Buddha in Dulwa. 

f'Si'i kha fo-/>a=[*'5 q l*'' c| kha phyogs-pa 
^nrftr, wrm; ("'ll*''!^'^^ khi phyogs 
Sgyur-rnkhan one who leads or guides; 
also a shadow. 

p'Sij'ti kha-log-pa to reply; to contra- 
dict: 3'rMj - ^T$X'F'' ! fal' t| phyi-la hgro-na 
tshur kha log-pa walking out he returned 
hither. 



136 



pj'-^ kha-g a the spotted deer (/a.) ; elk 
(Sch.). In Sikk. the common deer of the 
Duars is called P'-q. F-f^THI kha-^a-yi 
ja-khug a tea bag made of deer-skin. 

r^ kha-$ags jest ; joke in W. 

(Ja.). 

F-*pkha-fas (sounded "kha-she") some; 
colloq. in C. 

P'$ q l i ''*1 kha-fitgs-can or P'^V*^ kha 
shetf-can eloquent ; P'^l" >^ ' k/ut-fugt 
meg-pa om who has nothing much to say, 
same as S|Y*' n i t i J'*^ " gkad-cha lub-rgyu 
med-pa. 

p'-ffl kha-qob in colloq. lies ; obscene 
talk; idle talk. 

P ^ kfia-for breach of promise : P ^' 
*te kha-for soA the mouth has run away, 
denoting inconsiderate talk (Ja.). 

p'Jfrs kha-fol-xa ^TOTO rinsing the 
mouth; sipping water and ejecting it. 

iP'"^ Kha-fya n. of a mountainous 

^a 

country in the north-east of India (Ta.) \ 
the Khasya Hills in Assam. 

rough language ; controversy, discussion, 
dispute ; with rgyag-pa to dispute : ^^' 
35'q|e.'^'p'fll^ l 'l*i'51'5'^ pointing his fingers 
he goes to dispute (Rdsa. 17). 
kha-b<;a4 talk, gossip. 



Kha-sag "" 
of a wild country on the border of Tibet 



Mia-sail, v. P'r^ k/ia-rtsafl. 

kha-sadt explained as IWT"!^' 
'^'3'i-'l^ to speak one's mind; to 
tell honestly what has occurred in the 
mind. 

fji kha-sub a bribe : P'fi l ''a^' ' kha-sub 
lyin-pa to offer a bribe. 



W'*i Kha-si n. of a wild hill tribe of 
India (of the Khasya Hills) (Dsam.). 

F*|K. kha-sifi 1. the day before yester- 
day. 2. also = several weeks ago; some- 
time back. 

P'H kha-sur, v. P'l* kha-zur. 

W'^J kha-so 1. abbreviation of P k/td, 
mouth, and* so, teeth. 2. the edge, border 
of a thing : P '" '" ' w>'^ kha-so la hphan-fio 
_p-g l -acm4E.'Jr flung to the border (Pag. 
187) : r^'S'P Q*' 9 '*'' 
kha-khyer las hjah li 
^y* gru-rdsinf-kyi mthah la <;an-rgyab 
lined the border of the ship with iron 
plates (A. IS). 

i kha-sral chufi-flu qfH deaf. 

!>=p'fa kha-ton learning by 



heart ; primer used by children in W. 
\ kha-ff*ng, v. P'l"!"! kha-bsag. 
kha-g.sar new, fresh. 
I kha-g.sal or I^^'P ffsal-k/ta a 
message; clear language; intelligible 
language : p'ft'fljwi'p kha mi-ysal-irti 
obscure; not in clear terms or language. 

P'l* kha-g./<o made full by adding some- 
thing more to it : SV I >*' q y'lT' q l*' filling 
with the best thing and nectar in oblation 
(Rtsii.). 

p'jwfl) kha $<z<7=P I**) kha gsag SIWR 
talkative. 

p'qfj'J kha Ifsre-ica to associate with 
one another, viz., in drinking and smok- 
ing together. 

p-flj5(E.-^ kha-b$lafi-du turned upwards: 
(rq^c.-ci kha b$lafi-pa to lie with the face 
uppermost. 

fig*' kha-bslu? to tempt by false hopes 
and promises ; to deceive by sweet words. 

P'$1 kha-hrag forked mouth or point ; 
the bifurcated mouth or end of anything 







137 



made of iron or wood: 5i'*i'^ 
^T*^ nub-na fifl-ffcig rtse-mo kha-hrag daft 
in the west a tree with forked top, &c. 
kha-lhag remnant of a meal. 

a raven : fJ'^'-^K^^T" khwa- 
4 

skad qes-pafyi rig-pa ^nraf^^T the science 
of drawing omens from the caw of a raven. 



khyag in C. ace. to 
chen important. 



bya-khiva de<$ thub-pa 



able 



to scare a raven used as attribute of Bud- 
dha ; as long as a boy cannot drive away a 
magpie he is not considered ready (by his 
age) to get religious instructions. 

i;'5 khwa-ta the Tibetan magpie : P,' 



khwa-tahi $a-yis g.don-na4 sel-war bye<f, 
khba-tahi sgro-yis $grib-$in byed the flesh 
of the magpie removes diseases caused by 
evil spirits; the feather of the magpie 
prevents the patient seeing apparitions, 
ghosts, &c. ; spotted magpie or ^TH'S 
khwatakhra-wa fuller name for the magpie. 

1 ^^ dpya-tcarent or tax 






in kind : **'^fyr$IJ w SS'*aJ chos bshin-du 
khbaham dpyu-hbul paid rent or tax 
according to religious law. 

I: khag 1. means, resource; 
ktiag-mcd=*RW3)^ without means. 

II : a task, charge, business, duty, 
responsibility ; of importance : FTB*> khag- 
khur=*>*P\ 'R* hgan-khur to take charge of 
a thing or person, to be responsible for 
anything, to be surety for anyone ; FT 
*.'q khag hkhur-ica to assume charge of ; 
i-q khay hgel-wa to place in charge ; 
|'i khagtheg-pa orP"l'S :| I' t| khagrgyag- 
pa to guarantee ; become responsible : 
^v<-q aqc.-q-pi 5ij der htsho-ica yon-tea khag- 
thfg I warrant you will get something to 
eat there. PT^ khag-theg or PTI31 k/iag- 



khag- 



: that which is divided off; a 
class, part, division, section (of a book or 
place) ; "S'P'H bcu-khag the tenth part ; 
tithe: r^T^V"'*'' | fT* May gni$-Za p/wg-sofi 
I have hurt myself in two places. ^'f>"\ 
yul-khag a province, district ; frf"! rgyal- 
khag kingdom; *\3^'pil dpon-khag princi- 
pality; ^%|"i| dgon-khag monastic estate 
or authority. }|' t \5as'|'!j'?i'*r 3 i*r* 3 ^'''l3l'*& t >' 
tf^'^'w the different divisional chiefs 
should make religious offerings (service) 
for one night (Loft. * 17) ; jwilTSwr 
|^'pij'ftf *r*T$*w $kyab$ hgro scms skytd- 
kyi khag kho-mo cag-rnams we who belong 
to the class in whom the inclination (for 
religion) and to seek refuge has arisen 
(A. 19). 



khag-po difficult, hard; colloq. 
" kd-le khag-po." awii-<^-y.5*fw|-Ei-^ this 
work is very hard ; nwpwi'S'^l the way 
is difficult ; P"l' 3 'i^' difficulties arose ; FT 
Q''q khag-po che-ica to suffer from want. 
2. ace. to Jii. bad, spoiled, rotten : wp|' 
5'^=. the butter has become rancid (Jii.). 

a-=f tt ^'Q f * khaa-khyim 



house, residence, home ; a building ; f t-pe. 
Sten-khaA, ^TP^ hog-khafi, nvp* tar-kfiad 
upper story, lower story or ground floor, 
middle story ; IS^'P^ g.shun-khan means 
also the principal or central room. A 
khan-pa is the opposite to SJT" p/ntff-pa, a 
cavern. oS'F** bzo-MaA workshop; i^'pt 
ban-kh an store-house, store-room; if'P 1 - s go- 
khan entrance, vestibule ; SfVp* skor-khaA 
or more properly if^'Bii skor-lam, passage 
running round a building or temple ; -^T 
pt fog-khafi paper house or a house where 

19 



138 



paper is kept or manufactured. In W. 
the scooping form or mould used in the 
manufacture of paper is so called. 
f>*tshafkhafl flower bed (garden) (Ja.). In 
Buddhism P*' khafi signifies F nad, inside, 
,>., the heart: 



inwardly being corrupt, the pus issues or 
drops fromhim; q^^mya-fan-gyiMa* 
mourning house ; also the body ; 1"'* *** 
yla house rent ; P"^' HW small house ; 
a house or room reserved for decrepit 
parents; P*'* 1 ^ khaA chud-pa an occupant 
of such ; "K.'ps."* 1 ^ yafi-kfiafi chuA-pa such 
a person of the second degree (if, during 
his life, his son enters into the same right) 
'(/a.) ; pt'3^ A/ifl c*e a large house; 

fK-latei kliafi chen-pa imw: one taking 
his abode in a great house or mansion 

(Sudh.) ; old, weak persons belonging to 

Gautama's family. 
Syn. 

pshi; 

hdug-sa; 

pp *Afli; l^ 1 ^ rten-gshi; %W* rfen- 

gnas; W* 6' ?*-; lw ^ i'* l ' i> - 
J4o{; (J^non.). 

r*'|>* khafi-gner Jr?^I^, ^^TTB the 
steward of a house; the house-keeper ; the 
person in whose charge a house is kept. 

p*'f* khan-sten ?ra#ttrfr the upper 
roof or terrace of a house, 

p.-fi| khad-thog or p.'i5-*ii MiaH-pahi 

thog' m, i* the roof or ver of a 
house ; the top flat of a house. 

pK.-q-qj|-q khan-pa bkra-ica fH^ >3^ 
a painted house. 

pE,-q-qfcvZS khafi-pa $.tsan-po a consecrated 
house where theives or robbers cannot 
have access. 



'i khad-pa 
a masonry building ; also astoreyed house. 

pt-q-fl)^ khad-pa g.yo $^f the roof of a 
house : P*' fvfi'** to cover a house, to roof 
it ; pcti'wVil*''* 1 khafl-pa ral-shifi gram- 
pa or ^vwi tdrumt-pa ^PB^V a delapi- 
dated house ; a ruined edifice. 

fit.-tfc.-ap. kfiad-pahi tiad ^*ifc*, V\V 
the inside of a house; a room ; an apart- 
ment. 

P*'S Khad-bu n, of a fabulous country ; 
a little house, cottage. 

f*.-to\ khad-mig a room ; a cell. 
p.'r khad-rtsa the foundation of a 
house. 

pf$-4|w k/iad-brtsegs f*nili upper 
house or a storied room, v. pf^qfr'm'w 
khad-pa brtsegs-pa. 

prswm Miad-sfiabs floor ; flooring of a 
room. 

pctjc. Mafl-sMsp^'S^VP khad-pa 
dan shin-kha house and the cultivated fields 
attached to it. 

ficctpc. kkad-bzaii vm^. residence ; 
mansion. In Hud/1, wfa (^*ra), *ftf%, 
monument. 
khan-bso-wa ^WN mason ; 



architect. 

pt^'Z^J */ins-/>a=W rafts-pa 1- 
delay. 2. distance. 



khad1. **\ thag or** /<ar near. 
2. litter harrow. 3. =^ ^<w like, as PS' 
kltad-snamt, v. 
equal, even ; ^'"'PS *- 
ma thag not distantly; instantly; as soon 
as; without delay: S51'*S'''PS^ &W 
chad-ma khad-du as soon as the breathing 
ceases; S'J^'W'PS'^ bu ykyes~ma khad.-ciq 



rvn 



139 



a child born just now ; "mvrp^ kphvr-la 
klia4 about to fly; ^'rp'S hgro-la Mad 
about to go ; H*'"rp^ l/iun-la kha$ near to 
fall ; 8*w*rp^ slebs-la khad as soon as (he) 
arrived ; *S'ar^ hchi-la kha$ when about 
to die: 4*'rpVi5 - J& nub-la khad_-pafri tshe 
when the evening drew near; I S3*1* J '*'S '*' 
^i$-^ d.bugs cha$-la khad-pahi dus when 
the ceasing of the breath approaches ; ^' 
*rpV"iV*r 1 zin-la khatf yod-pa la as we were 
just about to seize him ; rv^ khad.-du as 
far as : S^'i'PV^ rtin-ma kha$-du as far as 
the heel (/a.). 

r*Vl khad-kyit^^'^K dal-but or^*'* 
rim-gyis JPT. slowly, by degrees; PY$i' 
P*V9* kha4-kyis khad.-kyi$ JH 1 . JTH: by de- 
grees ; in slow motion. 



khad.-pa the same as 
hkhod.-pa to stick fast; to be seized, 
stopped, impeded, v. Wi bkha$-pa. 

p^'w^'q Mad-par gyur-pa to be stop- 
ped or hindered ; FYWVi k/iatf-par bt/ed.- 
pa to stop, hinder. 

P<3j khan w&\v bit ; small piece ((7s.). 



I; p^' 1 ^ khan-da *s*i confection; a 
medicinal syrup; treacle or molasses 
partially dried; ^v^fftSvt delakhanda 
^cos-pa the candy made of it (Jii.). 

P^'^J khan-pa also fa' khen-pa, worm- 
wood (Schtr.) ; to add (arith.) ( Vat. kr.). 
khan-man modest in Lh (fa.). 

I: khab^Xy- pho-lraA -5^, if* 
reap, of ^'E* 1 khaft-khyim, a great man's 
residence ; a castle ; court ; residence of a 
prince; jT^rn Rgyal-pohi khab WW1 
metropolis; the capital of Magadha in 
Buddha's time ; the modern town of Eaj- 
gir in Behar : ji - 55fq-|-^*w Rgyal- 



pohi khab-kyi mi-rnams the courtiers; the 
people of Eajagrha. 2. wife, spouse ; P* 1 ' 
3^'* khab chen-ma the first wife (who is 
high in rank) : $rpp$ff|rr|^44 de-la khab 
hog-pa ma rned-nas as there was not found 
a wife worthy of him ; *^'flft*'S.S - pn'g'jc,' 
q'li)'li hdi-ynis fiahi khab-tu byufi-ica rmi$- 
80 I dreamt that these two would become 
my wives (Jd.) ; fw'i^'*' khab-tu bshes-pa 
to take for a wife (Schtr.) ; ^'wpiaq chufi. 
mar khab-pa to marry ; to take one for his 
wife. 



-*< khab b,tsun-ma a married lady ; 

khab &to-ma=JS*'iVT* khyim 
b_day-mo jj^qa^ housewife ; the lady of the 
house. 



II : ^ a needle : P^'S khab-tpu 
a bristle; a needle like hair P'l'S khab- 
phra a small, fine needle ; pq'if* khab-sbom 
a large needle; pJ'*)<i| khab-mig the eye 
of a needle; P^TB'S'Vi'H'Ti khab-mig-tu 
sku4-pa hjug-pa to thread a needle ; Prfr 
kha-rtse ^K*W, TTHT the point of a 
needle. 

pq'^i khab-ral also t"*'P*i'^i rtse-rna 
khab-ral iA-<?tT^* needle-case. 

pl^ khab-le in W. difficult (Jd.). 

pq'$^ khab-len-rcio ^*H* load-stone; 
the metal that attracts a needle : pi'^' 
^tar^l'*i?fWir'M | l tne load-stone 
draws out arrow-heads and removes 
diseases of the brains, bones and veins. 

pfl'^fe khab-lon ^l^Wlfi the magnet; 
lit. the needle-lifter. 

khabs n. of a disease (Jd.). 

kham 1. colour. 2. a bit; a si null 
piece of anything. 3. the point of a 
reed pen. 4. appetite (Jd.). 



140 



kham-kham, ^Cf^f^ ter-kham 
kham or pale yellow: w^if^'fwrwgl' 
*w-^q| zflfo0 ser kham-kham smug- 
mahi mdog the colour was pale-yellow, 
'.., the colour of a dry bamboo. 



kham-khum uneven, explained, 
as wng,vwi$v*r^-cj "in ridge.*, like a 
puckered skin." 

pwfljc. kham-gaft or F*'*|SiJ kham-gcig 
a bit ; wp*i - fliSfl| a mouthful of food: 
rycyri'^'V^tynrqFF&t^ the measure 
of food in each piece that can be put in the 
mouth at once when eating ; r**'4 K kham- 
chufi a morsel. 



kham-star abbreviation of 
i=.'e^'"l kham-bu-dafi star-go, i.e., peach and 
walnut. 

(wgftj knam-ldog faded colour, same as 
pw <$) kham-log, want of appetite; nausea, 
aversion, dislike (Jd.). 



I kham-pa 1. fox coloured ; sorrel ; 
brownish ; P"'^"! kham-nag dark brown : 
<,arq-pw^q] ral-pa kham-nag dark brown 
locks or mane. 2. porcelain-clay ; china 
clay. 3. Tenaeetum tomentostim, a very 
aromatic plant growing on the high mouD- 
tains of Tibet. 4. a native of Kftamf in 
Eastern Tibet. 



if, kham-phor rra, Wl a cup 

or saucer made of (burnt) clay ; a cup made 
of dough, used in sacrifice as lamps (Jo.). 



kham-hphromi-bf ad-pa 
, ***) '$<*' refers to Buddha hav- 
ing enjoined that a monk must not eat a 
fruit or cake, etc., leaving any of it. He 
should not take more than what he can or 
should eat. 



kham-bu apricot; peach; in Stick. 
J"'J kham-buhi rtai-gu the stone of an 
apricot (Jd.) : w^*rp>*'g Mfiah-ri$ kham- 
bu dried apricot imported from Ngari : 
(rg4r| > V^r|'|*ffe : |* the peach dries 
the yellow humour of the body and pro- 
motes the growth of hair on the head 
(Med.) ; (W^| kham-tshig the stone of an 
apricot or peach ; j'$'fwl6i]-S^* the cost of a 
coral of the size of the stone of a large 
apricot. 

pw|u| kham-gyag 1. lit. the Bos grun- 
niens or yak-bull of P*< Khamg, which is 
of a brown colour: i'F**i | ^^fc-pMIV r r 

N 

pwflju]'3^ spu-khahi rndog ser-kham yod-pa 
la kham-gyag ser the colour of the hair (of 
an animal) when pale yellow is called F*' 
"p"! kham-pyag. 2. cherries, morels (Jd.). 

fw^-q kham ran-pa TffTTBwmwtmi 
a horse's bit that fits well. 

pww kham-sa clay for making pottery. 

fwvf.- kham-saft = WVf chab-saH, i\^'i 
ffcin-pa, etc., resp. evacuation ; purging ; 
making water. 

P"'^ kham-ser of a slightly pale-yellow ; 
colour resembling the colour of dried bam- 
boo, v. fW|** kham-kham. 



I: khams= 



tite. 



dafis-ga appe- 



II: ^Tg the health, condition, 
physical constitution of the body ; also root ; 
a constituent or essential part ; that which 
constitutes the nature of a thing. Used 
colloq. as in kus/io, khye'-kyi k/iamf ta-sam ? 
"Sir, how are you ?" (Snd. Hlk.) : 



khams shef-pa 
tpyir rafi-bvhin nam fio-bo la hjng-pahi don- 
can yin-te rlun-gi khamf shes-pahi khams 
de ni rlufi rafl-gi no-bo yin. 



141 



III : the six elements, earth, air, 
fire, water, the heavenly ether, and nam- 
shes or the physical suhstance of the miud. 
For the last two, arterial blood and semi- 
nal fluid are sometimes substituted. Also 
there are the eighteen elements aco. to 
the Buddhists, namely, the five organs of 
sense, together with manas (mind) ; the six 
faculties or senses dependent on these and 
also the six ideas produced by these 
six faculties. Any one of the five proper- 
ties or qualities of the elements observed 
by the organs of sense, viz., sound, tangi- 
bility, colour, flavour and smell, is also so 
called. 



Miami b_co-bryyad.-kyi mig sags rten tfwan- 
pohi khams drug daft mig-gi rnam-par fes-pa 
sogs brten-pa rnam-par fes-pahi khams dan 
pzugs-khams nogs 4>nigs-pa yul-gi khams- 
drug dan bco-brgyad-do may be rendered. 

The eighteen P"w khams or Dhatu 
ace. to the Buddhists are: 

I. The organs themselves : *H mig 
eye ; 1'*' rna-wa ear; If'S sna-wa nose; 
1 Ice tongue ; Q lus body ; and ^ yid_ the 
mind. 

II. |l|w g2ugs bodily form ; 3 sgra 
sound ; \ dri smell ; ^ ro taste ; ^1 rcg 
touch ; *" cftog, iNt attributes. 

III. The n<N'civ-?|ri rnam-par feg-pa 
Vijndna or consciousness produced by the 
organs of sense, &c. The Vijnana of *to) 
mig, of 1'* rna-wa, of ^'^ sna-ica, of f Ice, 
of 1* lus and of "K yicf, i.e., eye, ear, nose, 
tongue, body, and mind. 

P^ll IV : empire ; realm ; territory ; 
domain: ^jTpws yul-kftams political terri- 
tory; empire, in a geographical sense (Jd.); 



rgyal-Mams kingdom: jm' 
rgyal-wahi khams the province or sphere 
of the Buddhas, also of their spiritual in- 
fluence : rpw<r*f]*rti rgyal-khams hgrim- 
pa to roam over the kingdoms, the countries 
(Jd.) : pw3^ empire; also the earth. 



world: P'WISI*' k/tams- 
**<ri*t, '''^Tg the sensual world, 
viz: (1) wrcrrg or sjrmwNr (^'A'fP 
Mdod-pahi khams) the phenomenal world ; 
(2) ^WrJ ; *|lm'3'F*w gzitgs-kyi khams 
the world of astral forms; (3) ^n^wrg; 
3||i|*r*)YI* w *' gzugs-med khams the spiritual 
world, i.e., the world of formless spirits. 



VI : n. of the easternmost dis- 
tricts of Tibet, embracing some dozen 
semi-independent petty states, about half 
of which own allegiance to Lhasa, and the 
rest give joint allegiance to both China 
and Lhasa. pw Khams and Sj K Sgan are 
the two lower regions of Tibet ; these 
constitute what is called 5^-3^ Lo4-chen or 
Greater Tibet. 



-q khams brtas-pa or 
khams-brtas byed-pa one who draws 
omens: *T* r W ir t'P'" r ***'&V q tlicg-pa 
ffsum-gyi khams-brtas byed-pa (J. Zan.). 



=*& a i' dnul-chti 
mercury; quicksilver (MAon.). 



khams 

lihams bde-wa good health. When glass is 
pure -3|9(\*cil\i fel dri-ma metj-pa and clean 
it is called J|atfryrti fel-khams dicans-pa. 
A clear cloudless sky ^ *f*v|fl-j-*)^i i B B aid 
to be Nam-khams tfwans-pa; ^W^'v ^'P 
sems tgrib-pa med-pa the mind when it is 
free from defilement or sin. 



142 



nad mej-pa 
free from disease ; health. 

Syn. J'lll*'^ sku-gsugs bde ; 
ter-htshemed,; \t**fri ne sfios-d.wn ; 
*\ $oofi-med; |^\ snun-mej; WS^S wid- 
bu-med; n^'tfc'ywhbi/uA-bshisnoms; 9'* 1 ' 

i iro mi-htshal (Mfion.). 

dn-smed, |'*IV 

m-q smra-wa daA rjee-su. hbrel-tca 
to inquire of one's health if he is well or 
happy (a complementary expression used 
on the occasion of meeting) (Won.). 

fwnrc^'4 Miami kde-wa or tW^'* z"0s 
fcde-t good health; healthy constitution; 
the happy state both of the body and the 
mind: I^TP* 1 "^'''" 1 !*'*"' RJe-btsiut 
gyi kliams-bde lagt-tam is your reverence 
well? dVP*'^'*" **y^ khatns bde-ham 
are you well ? (Jd.) 

pww^I'i Warnj liifjpif** 1 ^ 1 " **> 
foy-j9fl want of appetite ; aversion, dislike ; 
pw khams-rmya nausea; falling sick 

(Os.)*. 

fwjf#fl|*r*j$ 3 V { &'1f 1 ''' khams $na-tshogs 
wkhyen-pahi {fobs KTmvfQvm* the 
power of knowing the constitution of 
all sorts of bodies. 

pwwS^nj Khams mi-naff n. of one of the 
petty principalities in Khamf. 

fww^^V 11 khatnt mi-hdra-wa, 
pwa-^V^ hjig-rten gyi khams mt hd[a-ica 
different or dissimilar worlds. 

faw*i\ Mtams-tshan this term is 
applied to the quarters in a monastery 
reserved for the accommodation of the 
monks of a particular section of people or 
of some special community or those coming 
from one particular locality. 

fwww kham$-sas rest; health; comfort 
(Sch.) ; recreation ; recovery ; restoration 
of health. 



'q khams-su &togs-pa 
included in the constitution. 

-j/(jn=r i l *''S'8' t khams-kyi 
lla-fia a cooking pan made in Khams. 

pwwiSj khams-fle better kind of coarse 
serge of the pattern coming from Yar- 
kand; blanket manufactured in Khams: 
S1'i5j'rw*''j5j' i:ii *ri* 4 ' C| '* smug fie khams sle 
leas rnam-pa re each piece of blanket 
costs, &c. 

f5*w'fl)^* k/MHis-&sum f^#t* the three 
worlds heaven, earth and the nether 
world. 

pjwfl|gN-nf6V"G'<3|[* Khams-psum AAVior- 
los d$<jyi<r-w(t ^*T?mw a name of thei 
Kalachakra system (Mfion.). 

'(!^'ai' MuiMt-Qxum snftg- 
ifi n. of the temple in the grand 
monastery of Sam-ye (fsam-yas) built by 
one of the queens of King Khri sroA Iden 
Usan (Loft. * 8). 

fqawfligwarwaflHrQ kham&-g.sums-la ma- 
chags-pa fsrsn^rnmr is not passionately 
fond of or attached to the three worlds. 

pawm^-m khams gsos-par to repair 
broken health. 

P^ Khar n. of a city in W. (8. 
Lam). 

(WHjai khar-bkrol fIT (Se/ir. ; 
Lelensh. 93). 

p^' Jf khar-rkyan, v. rj* Ma rkya*. 
fw5fE,- khar-god steatite; soap stone; 
probably ST-'M* dkar-gon (Sch.). 

f^-l^-l Khar chen-bvth the Princess 
of Khar-chen, one of the queens of King 
Khri-sroA ld$u btsan (Lod. * 8). 

pw,'5'5 Khar Ta-ta n. of a city or seaport 
on the mouth of the Indus, Tata (S. Lam,). 



143 



q Khar-pa qta 1. n. of a demon of 
Puranic India who was killed by Krishna. 
2. a compound of copper and zinc; bell 
metal. 



pvrn khar-ica mgar * 
of bell-metal. 



a maker 



p*'>**. khar-san col. 
yesterday forenoon. 

tP^'lf* khar-dsu-ra wStn; ^f9|^g-g 
fiil-gi hbras-bu the date fruit. 

+ pv'q-^ khar-sa pa-ni or P'wrq kha- 
sar pa-na t^ftuw he that moves in the sky ; 
gliding through the air ; a name of Aval- 
okites'vara Bodhisattva ; Vishiju. 



p^-flj^Ji khar-psd frsja the trident 
carried by mendicants of the 
Tantrik School. 



1. primarily a load or burden 
in general : fwofankhalkhyer-wa to carry 
a burden ; prS't^'i khal-gyistefi-la on the 
top of the baggage ; p*r*K*i khai fygel-wa 
to load ; p*r<tf i^rei khal hbogs-pa to take off 
the burden, to unload; $TP J > a sheep 
load; *jjvi3'pr a coolie load. 2. a set 
weight or measure, said to equal 30ft, 
used for dry goods, corn, salt, tea, &c. 
In Tibet 1 khal=2 fo=20 bre; hence 
in Sikkim and W. pr"!*"! "khe-chik" has 
come to mean 20 or a score of anything ; 
^"'P* hdegs-khal a weighing score; 
the weight of 20 points on the steel-yard 
called rgya-ma. 3. a caravan. 



Khal-kha the native name of 
Mongolia Proper, the country of Jenghis- 
khan, the Tartar Conqueror B*'P'f'^ 9 i'3 - 
9* Khal-kha khu-ral Ma-brat, lit. "the 
sacred enclosure of Khal-kha " ; the name 
applied to Urga in Northern Mongolia, 



where the incarnation of the Taranath 
Lama resides. The latter is sometimes 
styled rurp't'P^'Vri Khal-kha Rje-btsun 
dam-pa, the venerable holy one of Khal-kha. 
pr^i khal-khol stunned; insensible 
(Jd.). 

r* J i' <I | khal-cag the best sort of wool for 
manufacturing shawls coming from the 
northern solitudes of Tibet. 



*;r jq do$-rgyab or prw 
5 khal-ma rta, 8=.'^"]^'^'| plan sogs-kyi rje$ 
those who conduct a caravan or follow the 
train of packed animals, such as pony, yaks, 
oxen, &c. ; relay of packed animals : |"*W 
tW^lfsA-lpcyrtvlfrkfonns sogs thag- 
rin-pahi dos-rgya fykhal-rjet the relay of 
beasts of burden when proceeding on a 
long journey to Khamt, fyc. 

fH'ikhal-pa 1. wether; castrated ram. 
2. sow-thistle, Sonchus. 

{**'*&[ Mai-ban jug or pitcher to hold 
wine for 20 persons or a quantity measur- 
ing 20 g bre : viwacparn^-fljc.-^* j U ga 
of ale each sufficient for 20 of the vulgar 
folk of whatever class. 

F*'* khal-ma any draught animal or 
beast of burden: pr*r$*wwr|arq to 
drive beasts of burden to the pasture ; often 
contracted into khal: )'|''srflft 1 3)'S the 
wages of both carriers and beasts of 
burden. 



kfial-ri=W$ khal-ru or F* kha- 
ri or f '% kha-ru a measure of about 20 
bushels. 

pW khas for ("'"to kha-yif instr. of p 
kha. 

P - B^ khaa-khyag!=r>vc*iv khat-ihegt 
or P1'^"IN khag-thcg$ to be witness ; to give 
evidence. 



144 



mse. 



pro- 



fwX'i khas che-wa sfinrr to promise; 
undertake: p'5S'i5-^ - ?Jt khas che-wahi 
4ge-tlofi sfJTmf^J a Buddhist monk who 
has taken the vows. 

Syn. r*'* khag-che; Jl^l* pfiyogs 
bzufi; 6r<iV^'S fog-par mnan-byas; "*=' 
VT?*! yofi-dag-thos; ifW^'Q,* hdag-gir 
byag; <'*v^ so-sor jpnaw ; 



hos-par; ^rw darn-beak; P'fy khat-kn 
(Mnon.). 



song; singng 

p*r^-^qc.-$c.- kha-nan 
4*.' naw cA<^ a humhle man. 



promise; conseut, 
approval; knowledge; acceptance. 

|wsfl-q Ma? shan-pa V>&-' humble. 

pwr^Y^m kha-lan rgan-khur responsi- 
bility. 

r> ^fl A:As fc-ja or p - i=.'<i Ar/<a fo^- 
wa <3mi^frf 1. to promise; to stand bail 
or security. 2. to presume ; to arrogate ; 
to accept, adopt with the mouth ; to ac- 
knowledge, admit (/a.). 

kfii numerical figure 32. 



Khi-bi dsa-la fafmiM n. of 
a city in the neighbourhood of the fabulous 
S'ambhala. 

^ khihu (fc khyin or p'*^' khi-chufi) 
a small cutting-knife. 

{^ khu numerical figure 62 ; also for H'^ 
khu-wa (humour or juice or sap), as in 
B'H q r*"!*< ** kttrag sogs ^rc^rif^, humour, 
blood, &c. 

S3 khu-gu uncle (Cs.). 



H'H 1 '! khu-khrag $3f? the mixture of 
the semen with the uterine blood by which 
process, according to Indian physiology, 
the foatus is formed (Med.). 

I3'5 khu-tu a hut, cottage, constructed 
of branches of trees (Jd.). 

(9' 5'* Khu-thu-chi the title of a Mongo- 
lian nobleman : i^rlfc'B'S'W'Wrtfo Sog-pohi 
khu-thu-chihi cfia$ thob obtained the robe of 
a Mongolian Chief. 

u-rdul= R'l khu-rna water-spray: 
WW^ the water in all 
its particles issued fresh from the clouds 

(A. U9) : ffff^-fWtK a-^WJl^-g^q-gqi-q-^- 

M'<Joii nam-rpkhahi khams mi-dans-par 
byctf-pa smug-pa daA rdttl sogs the firma- 
ment of the sky was obscured by mists 
and fogs. In medical works the seminal 
fluid of the male is called (3 khu and of 
females 5* rdul. 

B'i Khu-nu the districts of Kunawar 
and Bissahar on the Upper Sutlej, border- 
ing Tibet and inhabited in the northern 
part by Tibetans : 3'i^'J^'^* 4 grapes from 
Kunawar. 

B'li khu-rna, v. B'^ 1 " khu-rdul. 

B 3 Rhit-po n. of a place and also of a 
Lama of that place (Deb.). 



khu-wa^S* shu-wa; Tflf, 

:, sj^r, fi^ 1. fluid, liquid: 
^I'4 l/iufi-bzad bkrus-pahi khu- 
tca the liquid (water) which has washed 
a mendicant's bowl; 0i'(3 khrus-khu 

\t 

dish- wash; swill (Jd.); ^9^'B hlras-khu 
rice-soup (Cs.) ; rice-water (Schtr.) ; ^ffj 
fin-k/iu the sap of trees ; J"B rtsa-khu the 
sap of plants (Cs.); -TB fa-khu broth; 
gravy ; WB mar-khu melted butter. 2. 
semen virile. 



145 



.Syn. jftzia-tca; ^'^thig-le; v^ sa- 
bon; fw^ stobz-ldan; Sif3VR^ efrraw- 
l>or A^ro; sf^*wv^'3 byan-scms dkar-po ; 
^'*" dbafig-wa ; pw^'v khams $kar-po 
(Mnon.). 



gpos-dkar fifi the Sal tree, the dried sap of 
which is used as incense. 

Syn. ^-mS-^i;- sha-lahi fin, %$'%*' sra- 
rtsi fin, flVs"!*'^' spos-dkar fid, **v|*ra 
mchod-fbyin $pos (Mnon.). 

khu-wa Idem, v. <V| thar-nu. 



15 'Q^l khu-byug ^tf%^r, ^fr^is cuckoo. 
Syn. SSA'3l' J S'9 dpyid-kyi pho-na; W*' 
nags na dgah-wa ; ^H'm^ii't) Mab- 
mahi thig-pa ; T^S'^P na-tshod gnas ; %*\' 
mig-mdses ; o^'^'fi hdod-pahi tola ; 
3" s *' q l ? '*< pshan-gyis psos; ^'^ nag- 
snan ; ^^'f ^ dican-snan ; flf^ - ar$*w yshan- 
la sems; tff{&'9'^ hdod-pahi pho-na; 
g-q5^g,c,^ gkad-la Ina-pahi dbyafis ; U^ 
sbran-rtsiht sgra (Mnon.). 



sla-wa bshi-pa the fourth month of the 
S'i'I'S khu-wa byed= *]*.'**. marrow; to Tibetan year corresponding with the 
make a soup of; also to make an infusion month of May (Btsii.). 

1 i : khu-byug-mig eyes like those 



or decoction of : J 
(Mnon). 

(3'q'^3<^'i khu-wa hbyin-pa, 
rtfii to emit semen. 

I3'q'^,'cj khu-wa ser-po=^'^ skyer-wan, (g'j 

of a plant from which a kind of yellow herb, 
dye is made in Tibet (Mnon.). 

-q$-q^q|*^ khu-wahi 
$kye$-pa g^ meton. for a male person. 

^q5'^5 khu-icahi hpho I33f 9 fa the dis- 
charge of the semen. 

ft\q5'^qc.'3 khu-wahi dican-po 3 < i*'S, TTTT?- 
K* a kind of mercurial medicine. 

1'" khu-wahi slob-ma sjiR-fiiHi= 
lha-ma-yin ^RJT the class of demi- 
gods on Mount Sumeru who fight with 
the Lha (Mnon.). 



of the cuckoo ; red eyes. 



"! n := 

n. of a tree (Mnon.). 
g"l' khu-byug-rtsa n. of a medicinal 



u-mag purse, money-bag ; colloq. 
for @1' khvg-ma (/a.). 

|3'C^ khu-tshvr ^f%-1^r the clenched 
hands; fist. 

khii-tshur gyi$ htsho=^' 
g$er bzo-ica a goldsmith ; one who 
makes his livelihood by the use of his fist, 
i.e., hand-craft (Mnon.). 

(3'3iVi3t-q khu-tshur boins-pa to clench 
the fist; also to hold with the fist 
(Mnon.). 

khu-tshur bcifis ^ft^y fist ; 



Khu-be n. of a place to the west closed hand (Sehr.; JTalac. T. 131). 



of Lhasa. 

' M khu-ico 



khu-tshur 
uncle on the father's ^u-tshur rgyab-pa to strike with the fist 



side, ,-.., I'M pha-spitn, father's brother, or the half-closed fist (Sch.). 
uncle ; R'^^T khu-dbon also R 1 ^ khu-tshan, fj'^'^w Khu-hod bzah n. of the mother 

uncle and nephew: 5-aarwR 5 ^ 1| F"''|!i - *' 3 * of Bromgton, the founder of the Lamaic 

father's brother is called A-khu or Khu-bo. hierarchy of Tibet. 



20 



U6 



H -I S Ma-yw hornless ; having no horns ; 
also a corruption of the -word khu-byug in 
colloq. Tibetan. 

B'^ khu-ra, |*'R^ $num-khur cakes or 
pastry fried in oil or butter (K. du. 327). 

R'^ khu-lu 1. the short soft hair of 
the yak, also pashm wool in general. 2. 
In Lh. venereal disease ; syphilis (Jd.). 

B'> KJm-le 1. n. of a place in Tibet: 
B'^i'J"! Khu-le rnam-rgyal the Lama 
Namgyal of Khu-le; R-*5-*-y5-q|M!^ 
Habo Gang-ri, a part of Khule. 2. In the 
Deang-lun the word is used to denote 
the pan in an ordinary pair of scales on 
which the weights are placed. 

J^| khug or (3"1N khugs 1. a corner or 
nook ; a creek, bay, gulf, inlet ; $'B"1 chu- 
khug crook in a river : RT5 khug-tu, in the 
inner recess of a cavity. 2. imp. of ^3*1'** 
hgitg-pa ^'^f^ir, drawn or attracted by; 
3^'^'BI gyen-du khug called upward, i.e., 
to good luck or fortune ; RTS* 1 khug-thub 
earned, acquired. 

BTGT* 1 ! khug-khyog solitude ; solitary 
place ; a place with few men. 

l^'j? kfi 'J-r fa > RT5 khug-ta or '$'Bir 
$ ali-khug-ta f<<H*^, ^ia^f, TClf the swal- 
low, Cuculus melanoleitcus, a kind of swallow 
(<?.): R^fwfJJr^ the lungs of BT5 
khug-rta suppress pulmonary diseases 
(Med.). 

Syn. 'fS char-stod; ^'jc- chufi-nufl; 
|a>-a|-g=. sprin-la slot; ^^v sprin-hclegs; 
WXksan-mo; *&' t/iub-pahi-bu; 
Sffra-sgrogs; v^<^ char-dgah (Mnon.}. 

f khug-tna or $TJ khug-rna, 
fog, mist, haze (during a calm, 
especially in spring time) : mentioned also 
as *4^^%4fVt'4)Ni "one of the 
eight varieties of causal concatenation." 



i : khug-pa turning like a zig-zag ; 
also bending like a thread that is trimmed ; 

lam khug-pa the twist of a road ; 
5* M ^ khug-pa entwining of a 
thread ; ^'Hl'" du$ khug-pa returning 
to mundane existence at the expiration of 
each term of life. 

Bl'i ii : to find, get, earn, draw: 3fc' 
gn|*rq-HE.-f[^ nor k/nigs-pa haft srid it is even 
possible that cash may be replenished ; 

gnid k/iugs-pa to get asleep : 
sraft gsum khugs it drew, i.e., weighed 
three ounces (Jd.) : B1'i' l '^'if, l S khug-pa 
hco-brgyatf " the eighteen turns," i.e., 
returns to life in the present kalpa. 

* Wiryvf % Khug-pa lha$-rtsi=^^ a ^' 
5'i'*i Rta-nag 3go$ Lo-tsd-tca (Schr.). 



khug-ma ^(^\ aleo zrav^ pouch ; 
little bag; small sack; J'BI rgya-khug 
Chinese bags made of leather; ^I'BI 
ske-khug neck-bag; a bag with charmed 
objects or important letters hanging 
at the neck; a courier bag; 
g.lo-khug bag carried at one's side ; 
dnnl-klmg pouch for silver, a purse ; 
bul-khttg a pouch containing soda; 
B"I' me-lcags khug-ma tinder-pouch with 
flint ; $'B"| nu-khug sucking bag for 
babies ; JT^'BI rtsam-khug a bag of barley 
flour; 3'B1 iswa-khug a salt bag; 
shib-khug little bag for flour ; 
gyan-khug pouch containing auspicious 
articles to draw good luck. 



l Khugs-pa n, of a dynasty 
originated at a place called KJiugs-pa: 



^ is the n. of a historical work containing 
accounts of the succession, dynasty, etc., of 
kings narrated by Khugg-pa Thugg-rje 
chenpo (Tig. 9). 



147 



k/iufl I : hole, pit, hollow, cavity, 
originally used, only of dark holes and 
cavities: F*'V* khun-nal M*UI that 
sleeps in a lair or hole; a snake; $>$ $na- 
khun nostril ; *i'(5^ c/iab-k/iufl a sink ; **^' 
H 1 ^ mchan-k/iud armpit : armhole ; llfc'B* 
gjtor-khun a sink ; a gutter ; S*'|3* mdah- 
k/mn loop-hole ; a hole made by an arrow ; 
S'ft 6 ' by-ikhiifi mouse-hole; g"I'B^ brag- 
khuft a cleft in a rock ; "&'$*> bso-khufi 
peep-hole ; 5'(3=. hi-khun or ^TH^ mig-k/tufl, 
?'B^ te-khuft are used of any hole in 
walls, clothes, &c., caused by natural or 
artificial causes. 

a root: ^^^c.- 



dehi khuti 

nahan Bo^-kyi scms-can dan Safis-rgyas- 
kyi bstan-pa from that root the living be- 
ings of Tibet and the religion of Buddha 
spread out, &c. (A. 128). 

13^1]^ k/iufi-drogs soot of an oven or 
chimney (Sc/i.). 

R^'i khun-pa or B^ khun-po a large 
hole. 

R^'3 khun-lu=^ khun a small hole 
(Cs.) ; a'v^-g pu-hi khun-bu the passage 
of perspiration ; hair-hole or cavity. 

khufi-lu can full of cavities or 



holes. 



' Khun-tsi or ( 
tsi Confucius, the first law-giver of China 
and founder of Confucianism. 



khufig origin, source : 
khuns-skyel the act of making over the 
charge of any office or store in a faithful 
manner without anything missing, making 
use in full of that bought over as a loan, 
&c.: Ifa'RWVn' chos khun dag-pas pure and 
uninterpolated religious work ; also pure 



religion : l^'jgwvirti rgyud-pa khufo dag- 
pa of pure origin or lineage. The word 
(5t-^i|-( Jthufa dag-pa is also applied to 
articles of the best make and quality from 
well-known centres of trade: ^^' I 5'>' 
&wfr^-Jprt-}ar3q-q*j^Q-ci3i, hdir yod 
rmons-mi-rnams nag khuns-skyel thub-pahi 
snun-shu hbul the benighted people of that 
place petitioned stating the real state (of 
affairs). RWSH khun$-thub pure and real, 
original ; Rr>S khun$-me<} or BW^-ti 
khufi$-ftan-pa having no good origin, i.e., 
mean, inferior : ^5'B^i gtam-khufis histori- 
cal or traditional source ; record ; document : 
"I5*W'^'^ gtam khufi s-canyin the source 
of that speech is divine. n||W't 
JJ^E.-q^-q : ^c.-^-|5-[5^N-|-^^-3i If 

what is the nature of meditation, it is the 
secret source of being able to abandon 
imaginative thoughts (rnam-ttog) together 
with their seed (Lam. ti., 43). 



djiios-na 

yod-pa original and really existing or 8*' 
^'S spits dag-po,o$. excellent quality, same 
as (gc.*J'i]^'i^i|^'^ni'aCflj^'|5c.^'^N^c.'iS-j' 
"^ some of pure descent had reasons 
arising from genuine grounds. 

|jwi$fo khufi$-btsun well-founded ; 
genuine; of un defiled origin: ! 5^'i]gc. > i|5.' 
^^t^-iq^-siN-q^S''' as described in what- 
ever Bon texts that have a genuine origin. 



khud coat-lap or any makeshift 

cloth ; wrapper : 'N'J'R!* VVr&W gos-kyi 
khud-du dril te khur carried wrapped in the 
flap of his coat ; (3^ khud-du aside, apart ; 
secretly; BV^'^I'* 1 khud-du hjog-pa to 
put ; lay aside : EWS**'" khud-du byas-pa 
to have shown one's authority over a 
thing which belongs to many. 



H8 



khu4-pa pocket, pouch (Sch.) : e 
rdsaf or 5*r?* skycl-rdsons *ft<pf any- 
thing sent ; a dowry ; an article presented. 

BV* khttd-ma side ; edge ((7s.). 

BV* khud-ze for BVi'|*S khu$-la gzad 
hold forth the lap of your coat ! 

I5^'5> klnoi-ti or H^'5 khyen-ti is stated 
to be used in Pr. for he or she (/a.). 



khun-pa ^TSR the uttering of 
any inarticulate sound ; cooing ; moaning ; 
the rattling of wheels ; rumbling of the 
bowels ; to grunt (Jd.) ;. to groan (Sch.). 



Khum-bu n. of a place in the 
confiiies of Tibet and Nepal (8. kar. 77). 

k/ntm({) crooked (Jd.). 



g=^' at "\ skyes-lag, *$ 
i|*'^ don b$gyur-yin diminished ; 
changed : Jiv5i - W t i'B* ) <' Q i || l^ if your faith 
be diminished (A. 85). 

1^^ khur or B^' 2 " khur-po m burden ; 
load for men : g^S-B^T* the father's 
burden having fallen on the son (Pag. 23) : 
|3*'5Vcwn*-r^i| one that lives by carrying 
loads (Ja.) : B*'^ kfntr-fM wooden pole 
over the neck from the ends of which loads 
are carried; a milkmaid's yoke-pole is 
called B vq ^ khur-hdsin : BVfjvZi khvr- 
khur-po he who carries the bodily existence 
is Pun-gala ; a corporeal being ; B^'JKV" 
khur-gyis dub-pa *n<P*fl one worn out by 
carrying loads; B^'S^'fa'" khur-gyi$ non- 
pa one drooping under a burden or load, also 
pressed down by responsibilities and suffer- 
ings : l|rJr*K-Hi5-BVrfa w^ were 
pressed down by the weight of many 
miseries; B^'Sl khur-pla HTT?|W the wage 
for carrying a load : B^ khur-rfian. id. 



B* 1 1'* 5 khur ki-wa heavy load or respon- 
Bibility : <p'*5'* l W^f'W being old, 
heavy burdens and death wore them out 
(Lam-rim. 7/i). 



yyar-wa 
(from wft) to borrow ; to take loan of. 



kJiur- 

yoni hdrcn-thag or *3*'M| hphyaA-thag the 
rope used in suspending loads from the 
ends of a yoke-like pole; rope to carry 
loads. 



Me gs-byed giving over 
a charge or responsibility or load. 

(3,-n\,^-q khur hdr en-pa mft^f one who 
carries or draws a load; one who takes 
charge of. 

B*'"' khur-pa and B*'*^ khur-mi a 
load-carrier ; a coolie. 

B^Sfl'" khur hphrog-pa mTTTT the 
depriving of one's charge ; the robbing of 
one's load. 

B^'i khur-wa, v. B*'** khur-tshos. 



khur-bor-tca 



he who 



has laid down the burden, charge or res- 
ponsibility. In Buddhism B*"'^'* khur- 
ftor-M-rtorB^'^'H^n khtir-po bor-wa, one who 
has laid down the five aggregates (skan- 
dha), i.e., he who will not have again to 
take corporeal existence ; one of the perfec- 
tions of a S'rdvaka. 



khur blaii-pa to take over 
charge : *|* r *1 l V|'mirWl hlrel bfad kyi 
khur blafa-pas having undertaken the 
task of expounding (Situ. 2). 

BV*K(I) khur-man(s) or B^'*^'" khur- 
mafi-pa, B^'*S khur-tshod fjrffiT, Tf^<s 
dandelion, or the (l'S|c.'f bo-plan Ice) ox- 
tongue (as it is called in Tibet), used as a 
pot-herb and medicinal plant, a kind of 



149 



edible herb: R*'*K - iVfj l >r*V<rriaj dandelion 
is useful in fever and brown phlegm. 

Syn. R^*S khur-tshad; q'STf ba-glatl 
ice (Mflon.). 

$*'%* khur-tshos or *|!jv*n rnkhur-tshos 
*w ; wift^r the cheek, the ruddy part of 
the face below the eyes. 

Syn. |gvq khtir-u-a. 

(9^-qI^-y khur-bzod-pa HTWT one who 
is able to carry a load, who has patience 
to carry a burden or responsibility. 

RvarSUfcini khur-la mi-hjigs='*-ft sa- 
g.shi the earth (Mnon.). 

H*^'^ khur-len the charge of : ^Ifr*)' 
*^*f I*^^-*rrc^%vi the resi- 
dent officer in the Jong about this date 
of the month and year took over charge 
of the Jong (district). 

ig^-qwl-q khur-bsam che-ica one having 
a sense of responsibility : SV^'p'i^'RV 
WWi-q-^rcA-c^ general instruction for 
the necessity of a sense of responsibilities 
in an office. 



khul 1. jurisdiction ; province ; 
domain ; district : fl l^'t"'B IJ ' Qshis-rtse-khul 
within the jurisdiction or province of Shi- 
ga-tse: g'5'Hi Lha-sahi khul all the places 
belonging to or within the town jurisdiction 
of Lhasa: ^RT'r*V 1 ! dehi khul la hdug 
is subject to him (Jd.). 2. also manner,. 
state, or circumstance : "^.'"'-^'^'-^^^'^ 
if you do not know, act the manner of 
knowing : *>Y^i^S-|s>jr S *, if ( you ) hav0 

(it not), act as if you had: *|$|' **; ga\- 
S'S c Wl'V' 5 ^ I have been doing a little 
business in buying and reselling from 
one party to another. 3. a ravine (in 
Kunawar). 4. the soft down of furs (Sch.). 
5. gTWl khul-mal small basket for wool. 



6. very soft wool of Tibetan goat which 
grows next to skin, and also called |9'$ 
khu-lu or qarwi bal-hjam : Ri'ftf khul 
Sgye-mo made of the softest goat-hair or 
yak-hair : g|-|e, khul-phyifi, felt made of 
the softest wool of goat or yak. 

Syn. wv^w mnah-shabs ; *K*Kv\ mfiah- 
hog (Mnon.). 

RW khul-ma the bottom or the side of 
a thing ((7s.). 

BT!" khul-rtse = V** ha-cafi or % gin- 
tu to a great -measure, lit. from the bot- 
tom to the top; hence entirely, greatly 
(Yig.U). 

B' i rt"S khul-rtsid an abbreviation of the 
words B'$ khu-lu and !"^ rtsid. 

p khe numeral ninety-two (92). 



'[ khe-khye or j*'* khe-ma 1. profit, 
gain ; frs*!** khe-spogs ditto ; ^*e.-gVi 
khe tshon byed-pa to trade ; to traffic ; to 
bargain ; *[*&$> -| ga in ; advan- 
tage obtained by experience. 2. tetter ; 
herpes ; ringworm (eruption on the skin) 
(Sch.). 

fiifr Khe-gad n. of a place, the birth- 
place of *|;q;^'*jpprq Lo-tsa-u-a Ekhor- 
lo grags-pa (Lofi. a 30). 

l 3 '"!^'!" Khe gan-rtse n. of a monastery 
in China erected by the Chinese Minister 
Ka-thi-shee (Tig.). 

jS'tF'i khe sgrub-pa to make profit, to 
gain : ^qjirei khe brgyab-pa to make a 
good bargain (Seh.). 

^'*^ khe-can with profit ; profitable. 

^'^ khe-nen profit and loss ; risk; also 
good and evil, i.e., "wj yag and ^ net. 

P'l khe-pa in Amdo = *. <i tshofi-pa 
tradesman ; dealer ; one who makes profit 



150 



by selling or in business ; tfcq^rp-q tsliofi- 
hdus khe-pa trader ; middleman. 

p - g"T*^ Klie brag-mdo n. of a place in 
Kong-po, where the eighth incarnate Kar- 
mapa Lama was born. 

p'*>S khe-mcd. unprofitable. 

p'5'^lj'q khe-ru hgro-wa to fall in price. 

p p o)'3fy Khe-le man n. of a place in 
Mongolia (Fi'0.). 

p'gqq'^'Zj khe-(leb$ chen-po very profita- 
ble yielding good income. 

P'll* Khe-ysum n. of a place in Tibet 
(S. kar.). 

kheg(, v. P klm. 

vi i : khegt-pa to obstruct ; close : K.r 
J['*rqv|fi<J|*rqv*'v'X (the medicine) will 
certainly obstruct the passage of the womb. 

P1*rq ii: = S^' c ''i mun-pa $pyi a general 
name for darkness, gloom or obscurity 
(Mnon.). 

pw|$i khcfis-fffam boastful words or 
language. 

Syn. Vnr&! dregs-tsig; c.'X fa-ro 



j/i^9'*'^'*i bu-mo 
dar-ma a youthful maiden (4f^o.). 

pu<?J tj khefi$-pa ^c?<?m, ^j 1. pride, 
haughtiness, arrogance. 2. pf. of iprq 
hkheHs-pa to fill ; become replete with. 
3. irfatT puffed up, haughty, arrogant: 
jSm'q 1 ?^ khcfis-pa-can 4\$k*\, one who 
boasts ; braggadacio. 

Syn. ^MTSI refig-pa; \*{Wti dregs-pa; 
^'J"! fia-rgyal (Affion.). 

p^'"-.^ khen-hdra a kind of cotton 
cloth. 



khels *^r, f*rr a cover, lid, 
coverlet : fit an enclosure round the sacri- 
ficial ground ; pq^'S'^q khebs-kyi dra-ita 
srra a net (generally of iron) to cover any- 
thing ; i^'pq*! pafi-khebs a cover for the 
lap ; apron ; napkin ; 3i'pq*> sga-khebs a 
cover for the saddle ; Xfll - 3'pq* cog-rtse 
khebs a table cloth; *vpw char-khebs a 
rain cloak: ^S'l* 1 '*' thod-khebs a cap; hood; 
fl|^c,-|Bq*i pdufl-fchebs a certain beam or 
board above the capital of a pillar ; *|^*' 
pw ffdofi-khebs, veil ; cloth to cover the 
face ; "VTpw mdun-khels in W. 
apron. 

p" W|q - v khebs-hgab-pa to place a cover- 
ing (over a thing) ; to cover. 



khcbs san-ica to take the cover- 
ing off. 

^Wl kJtebt-pa=*fJH'* ^yogs-pa cover- 
ed, veiled ; pww khelg-ma covering ((7s.). 

k/iem, v. gw khyem. 



s' J^ kher-rkyaft alone ; solitary : ft" 
n| there was only one man, a 
solitary man. 

H^'^T 2 ' kjier 
to usurp (Sch.). 



^ khen-pa 1. wormwood (Schtr.). 
2. to lean ; to repose on (erroneously for 
qp'Vi lkhan-pa) (Sch.). 



to defraud ; 



r| Khel-sgo n. of a district, also 
. of a mountain : pl's"'^' 
{go ri-la sdog rgyu-khyod. 

p^J'^I kfiel-ical. to load upon ;=' 
hkhel-tca (Jd.). 2. rely upon ; depend on ; 
Sf&T 1 ! bio k/iyel-u-a, g"'2*j'q bio cnes-ica to 
have confidence in ; qf^'^^'q brten khet- 
wa to be sure ; to be certain ; to be certain 
of anything ; absolutely certain : ^** 
^e/q^'poi'S^ de-rin yofi brtan-khel-yin (his) 
coming to-day is absolutely certain. 



NHi 



151 



khes-nin the day before yes- 



terday (Sch.) 



*l khes-pa 1. to hit (the right 
thing) : |^'i'pi'Q gnad-la khes-pa to 
strike the vital parts ; to hit mortally. 
2. one who makes profit or bargain by 
selling ; a petty dealer, trader. 

^kho I : numeral 122. 

p kho II : the usual word for the pers. 
pron., 3rd pers., meaning he, she, or it. 
Although not an honorific term, it occurs 
in many authors in referring to both com- 
mon personages and respected persons, es- 
pecially in Milarapa and even in much 
earlier works where kho often refers to kings 
and lamas. However ffe' khoft is the 
proper honorific term of the 3rd pers. pron. 
In certain districts and in some popular 
writings % mo is used instead of kho for 
" she," but it is considered a vulgar and 
illiterate usage. The plural takes "| or *, 
e. g., P'*1 kho-cag, they, them; also p* 
kho-tsho, commoner in 7F. In C. fi"*f-' 
kho-rang is the popular form for "he " or 
" she," #c. 

[5*5 kho-ti tea-kettle, prob. Chinese 
(/a.). 



kho-thag geod-pa to 
acquiesce in ; hope for ; be resigned to : 



(Pag. 45) hearing the account of her 
son having usurped the kingdom, JfphreA- 
can acquiesced in it. The word $*w sems 
often precedes this phrase. 

ffr*tfE.-^-|c. Kho-mthin Iha-khafi n. of a 
monastery in Lhobrag, South Tibet. 



sdigpa kho-na sin only ; fl'^'f^ dge-ica kho- 
no, piety alone : S^Tp'^ skad-cig kho-na 
only for a moment ; ^F'^'JJ'"' 1 ' hdodkho- 
nas Irel-ica to be separated even from desire : 
tonrrp-^r^-q*-tf^-j-jj as he intended 
only the welfare of beings : ^'l^'^'l^'f^' 
SJ^K, (Pag. 13!i) it will be the fault only 
of one's own doing : jarcfa''^'^'^^-!^ that 
is just what has been wished for by the 
king (fa.): g'wp^-q^ 1 ^ just as before : 
T$kR't* the very same (man) : 
^V q just like a worm : tfr^'p'^1 by the 
very same process : ^'j^ de-kho-na rer the 
state of being that ; true state ; real state ; 
truth ; reality ; opposed to what is illusory 
or fallacious ; essential nature ; the real 
nature of the human soul as being one and 
the same with the supreme spirit pervading 
the universe ; (in philosophy) truth, reality, 
a true principle. 

Syn. *}?! fa-stag; W^ Mah-shig 
(Mfion.). 

[H'| kho-pa = fi'*>*\ kho-cag or ffc'3? khon 
tsho they. 

pi'H Kho-po a tribal name in Tibet : ?"T 
o)-ai jS-q-^c.-fi^g-fl) 1 ^ Rag-le la kho-po dad kho 
dbra gnis, the 9"T^ Nag-le tribe is divided 
into two p'3 Kho-po and p'^g Kho-$bra. 



j kho-na 1. only, solely, exclusive- 
ly. 2. just, exactly, the very: 



kho-wo *tit I ; myself ; 
kho-wo cag=*f& we : ^rj** 
Mi-la, kho-wos fio-mtshar gyur this pro- 
duced admiration in me : Qflpr^'jffSS' 
^"q-^^ai for this system my enthusiasm 
increased. In 5)-jtf25'v$*r-?| the term 
kho-wo would seem to mean " himself," 
the soul of man himself. 

jffa Kho-lom the early Tibetan name 
for Khatmandu, the capital of Nepal. In 
East Tibet Khatmandu is still called 
Yam-bu. 



152 



jtfw kho-ma=F* khom knapsack ; wallet 

(Ja.). 

jtftf kho-mol; we (feminine). 

jtfflRI kho-g.yu the thrashing process, 
which is done by driving a number of 
oxen fastened together round a pole that 
stands in the middle of the thrashing 
floor. 

jtf* i : kho-ra is evidently a corruption 
of jffv kho-rafi, *>-jtfv*f?| mi kho-ra ran- 
gi of the man himself (Nag.). 

PA n : (Cs.) also *pvw khor-sa circum- 
ference ; circumjacent space. 

pA-pfr/sjil kho-ra khor-yug 1. space; 
also fence ; any surrounding wall ( Ja.) ; 
also a ditch filled with water or moat round 
a city or a fort. 2. WW kiui-tias JTB<T: 
from everywhere, from all directions ; 
pA - pv"jfl|'g kho-ra khor yug-tu in a circle; 
in circumference (frequently in measuring) 
also roundabout, all round, e.g., to en- 
compass : pfc'WWS in the whole circuit, 
roundabout (-/a.): p'^Wff'W^'^'' 
extending over half a yojana or two miles 
all round. 

p'^ kho-re 1. in Khams an expression of 
difepleasure or anger towards a man : " 
Xi| a-rogs Oh friend ! is the opposite of 
p^ kho-re. 2 one of the early kings of 
Tibet, son of King Lde-cug tngon. 

p-arX'q kho-la che-wa 1. a large space 
(Sch.). 2. dough made of r*^ rtsam-pa 
(barley flour) and beer. 



over is called kho-lag che-wa. Also a gene- 
rally well-developed shape is called kho- 
lag che-wa. 

tsho dar-wa youthfulness ; full youth 



kJio-lag=$1F* sku-hts limbs, the 
entire body : pm*!'"*.*^ kho-lag yans-pa 
fully developed body or prominent limbs ; 
j*- l q|-uiW^-l-q-^W^-^'l-qt'V 1 W-q^=. his 
person being well-developed, was large and 
glowed with grace and brightness ;''*' 
q-q ff ain|-l-n'H anything that is large all 



khog, freq. for p*'i khofi-pa 1. the 
interior, inside. 2. for Pl khogs or *P"] 
hkhogs. 3. also for **h*r hgcgs-pa ; 
*|'pfl| ya-khog the carcass of an animal for 

WSM</ khog-pa phycd. dafi lhi<-0zngs sogs 
(Jig.) the entire body and one half of the 
carcass and the parts of the animal (slain). 

ftfu|-iipfc- khog-ycon chronic disease in 
the stomach or internal parts of the body. 

p"]'$S khog-chud for p t '^'^ l > khofi-du- 
chud. 

\ khog-pa \. inside; the stomach: 
J'q the digestion of food in the 
stomach. 2 the trunk of the body, con- 
taining the heart, lungs, liver, &c. : 5 1 "' 
S'*'3l'P q l rus sbal gyi khog the interior of 
the body of a tortoise. 



J khog-ma also rj*>l rdsa-khog 
pot ; earthen vessel generally used in Tibet 
for cooking rice, meat, broth, &c. ; ^'Pl 
rdo-khog a stone vessel or pot used in 
Shams for cooking purposes ; fftq^^ khog- 
clien large earthen or stone vessels for 
cooking the food of a large number. 

puj-uicw khog-yafa or pfarq'fc'q khoy-pa 
che-wa capacious or large interior ( Ya-sel. 
4.8) : jfaf^' khog-fin the core of a tree; 
heart- wood. 

f^W khog- fugs a groan ; a sigh. 



khogs-pa 1. imp. of 



hgg-opa, 



stop 



153 



that goat from eating the flowers. 2. to 
cough (fa.). 

PC I : khofi an honorific equivalent of 
(* kho, he, she: ffc'^-^*'"! khoti-gi thugs- 
la in his thoughts; F^'S'* 
gi sku-mdun-du in his presence ; 
KC'ofy-^jMr^ rgyal-po khofi-rafi yin dgofis- 
nas the king supposing that he himself 
was meant. Plural [*='* khon-tsho they, 
them. 



'^I khoA-pa the interior of anything ; 
the inside ; also as adv. in the forms khoft- 
du, khofi-na, inside, within ; also postp. 
khofi-na, into, within ; khon-nas out of. 
Certain phrases occur : pfc'V#V" to he 
anxious, to bear in mind, be impressed ; 
|fc^*rfj-q to repeat from memory ; ffe'^'^J[' t 
to collect in the mind ; to impress on the 
memory; to learn (by heart); jfe'V'4^'" 
not to appreciate (Hbum. 239 to 2 9) ; j**' 
^w^-q-^'o not that it was not understood 
or appreciated (Hbum. 239 to 249) : j^w 
^e.-Eje.-q 1 ^ khoH-nas sniA phun-wa liar as if 
their hearts had burst out; fi*>'W 
S*'i khoA-nas sdafi-wa wtT to be angry 
or indignant; jfe'^'J 8 -' khoA-nas pyyufi= 
^E/a^'^E. nan-nas phyuA was taken out ; 
ffc-q^-^-orii^ khofi-pahi dro<f-Za phan it 
helps the internal heat, i.e., digestion. 

uneasiness; sorrow; 



anxiety. 

pfc'B khoft-khro (kofi-tho) or fSt-J-q khofi 
khro-wa sfn^ the state of becoming 
angry ; passion ; also inward wrath, malice ; 
j&'K'*^ khofi-khro-can *^^ bitter ; angry ; 
malicious : *JFfm*bftV9 t &' 
%-s$*f3\*-<>swtK-$ft even all the good that 
was done, by one angry outburst may be 
destroyed ; pfe'B^'i khon-khro spoH-tca to 
put away or subdue anger ; jfe'p' j - q khon- 



khro za-wa to conceive anger, take dislike ; 
to be indignant; Mf*TF^t*'*Y khon- 
khrohi rnam hgyur med-pa free from the 
state of passion or anger (Pag. 130.). 

ffe'ij^ Mon-gad full inside ; solid. 

Syn. *V^S tshod-yod; j^l'^ khog-chud 



ffe^' khod-sniH 1. the secret heart ; the 
intention or design. 2. pith ; core ; 
* the pith or inner wood of a tree 

+ ffc'|* A^0n-snoz = ")*V9*i' yid-slmm- 
pa of even temper. 

jife'w khon-mar butter used in making 
cake-like offerings to the gods. 

pfe'8^'*K'Ei khoii-sman ser-po the yellow 
medicine from the intestines, i.e., bile or 
gall (Stnan. 66). 

fit.'f'* khon-tsil suet. 

fff^ hkhon-hdsin-^-^ Mofi-khro 
anger ; vindictiveness (Mfion.). 

ps,'fl|i>K khoft-sen secret holes in rocks. 

ffc'*!^ 1 ! k/wn-ffseb the hollow (of a tree) ; 
the inner recess : 



in ancient times the wife of 
Gautama the sage, Shol-med-ma by name, 
being very pretty and fascinating, was 
concealed in the hollow of a tree (Mnon.). 
[nC?J khofis the middle ; the innermost ; 
ffew'fl or |few^ in the midst: k/wfis-su 
htslmd-pa to go into the midst ; to under- 
stand; bye<i-sgo che phra zom-lug med-pahi 
khons hgros yoh-wa the more and less im- 
portant works, not leaving out the simpler 
ones, should be well studied. Hgro-wa rigs 
drug rtsis pahi skabs-su klu-ni dwt-hgrohi 
khons-su hdus when reckoning the six kinds 
of animated beings, include the Naga 
among the beasts; *|*K|=V 3f|=.-?ifl]*r5iE.- 

, Zang-ling, 
21 



154 



etc., ore included in the continent of 
Dzam-ling: VKS'^'S'*!^'*' (this) is 
contained, i.e., included in, that (Jo.) : 
eiq*wr3ir*'p-f^-jftyir$<rq bsil-ri kha snoms- 
vahi khoHs-sktfibs na in the protected 
oleft of the cool mountain where the snow 
is levelled (Ya-sel. 35). 



khofis-pa *3n 1. highly 
injurious; violent ; cruel ; rough. 2. 
adv. crooked: jfe % *'^1 khofig cha-hdvg 
it is bent, curved, warped. 

ffer*i khods-ril crippled. (Jo.). 

ffcf^ khod=f* Hot 1- the external 
appearance ; outward look ; surface : f*w 
<wj*V sa khod_-$nomt-pa land of even sur- 
face; plains : *S'2T'fpwi even and regular 
teeth: *r*pcflf 1 |"rtl > <i lat-ka la kfwd- 
snoms-po gyit in doing a work (business) 
be of even temper : M'TS**V | i5*'^' q ri*V 
|*wEj-$q shal-ica dad tshon tyafi-rgyu-la 
kho4-snoms-po gyis in plastering and in 
painting make the surface even : ft'wt'Z' 
W4girirfl{ < |bv9 l 9a mi mafi-pohi fyzah 
btuft-la khod gnomf-po gyis in giving 
food and drink to many people make the 
distribution uniform : ^n *STJ | 5vf*r9 srab 
hthugkhog-snoms-po fine and thick levelled 
into one. 2. v. "ffi^ hkhod-pa and "&&<* 
hgo<t-pa. 

f^'P^'^" an average number (Ya- 
sel. 35). 

p3j I : khon $^m sbst. anger ; 
grudge ; resentment ; enmity : fy'ityikhon 
hdsin-pa or f^'^'^'i khon-du fcdsin-pa 
^TT^T^ to feel rancour, hatred ; j^'lSY" 
khon bsod-pa forbear, endure, forgive; 
f^'3 q J'5'S!\ | khon ffug-te sdad-pa lit. to sit 
waiting out of vindictiveness to take 
revenge upon ; fS^'*fl* khon-hbar in W. 
pting ; the burning of anger or hatred in 



the soul (Jd.) ; p^nniftpK^p^K' getting 
more and more spiteful. 

JH^ II: a technical term in Tibet 
and Chinese astrology applying to one of 
the eight mystical signs or parkha of 
divination ; f^'i one whose lot is cast in 
this division. 

P^ khob fat ; heavy ; clumsy (8eh.). 

f&i'jgq k/iob-khrob the sound caused by 
the tapping of one thing upon another. 

[PJ khom wallet ; leather trunk ; felt or 
hide bag : |Sflirj& gzigs-khoms a great 
man's trunk: [fer^flj khom-hbog a bag 
usually made of leather for carrying 
apparel and other articles on a journey. 



I kfiom-pa I. to have leisure, 
time to do a thing. 2. to be enabled 
to do a thing by the absence of ex- 
ternal impediments (Schtr.): pffwer*^ khom- 
pa min I have no time ; I cannot do it now ; 
\s)-|fa gtod mi khom no leisure to stay; 
*'pfa fia khom I am versed in ; 
khom not practised ; ^'^'f^^m 
b_rgyad_ ^NrT^TM the eight obstacles to 
happiness caused by the rebirth in places or 
situations unfavourable to one's conversion 
to Buddhism. Such re-births are: %*w 
^'S^l'S scms-can dmyal-wa i<.*siini as 
hell beings ; ^S'^Ii dud-hgro fa4>Ji as beasts, 
reptiles, flies, etc.; 8 )'<fl* yi-dbags 5rr 
ghosts ; fj'35'^9 lha tshe-rin-po 



the gods who enjoy very long life ; ** 
if?i'i) rptfiah hkhob-mi WHiaR^ the bor- 
der (wild) people ; ffffVfWJK* dican-po ma- 
tshan-wa t(H*i$fi9l those who are defective 
in the faculties of the mind or of the body; 
%i[(i*ci'ti log-par Ita-ica ftn<*l*r following 
false or heretical doctrines or theories; 
^q^aj-i|.?|q|rq'^w*rg=.'i de-bshin fffeg-pa 
rnams ma byufi-wa at|i)niiiiQM<4ifl the 



155 



place where the Tathagata has not (yet) 
made his appearance. 



khor-mo yug incessantly ; 
continually (Sch.), v. J5v$*| khor-yug. 

j^ - 35vj^'ti khor-mor $pyod-pa continual 
and uninterrupted suffering (in the hell) : 



SV^'^'P* when born in hell, being sub- 
jected to torments in the miseries of heat 
and cold, the performance of religion is 
impracticable. 

p^'ll khor-zug an obsolete form of 
p^'31 khor-yug, also V*F^ ne-hkhor tfft- 



khor-yug 1. V^ ne-hkor; 
kun-nag Wfm: M*((<!l the horizon ; 
the outmost limit; the outer line or cir- 
cumference ; "fa'i^'SW'S at all times, day 
and night. 2. VFf*j^W^i^>VJM| 
kept them without sleep at all times, day 
and night (Yig) : ffcajprHfl khor-yug 
chon-po 4i<[-4<MI<d ace. to the Buddhists, 
the outer wall of the world ; the greater 
horizon from the top of Sumeru. 

khor-sa=fi' x * kho-ra. 



khol or pforg k/iol-bu abridgment; 
epitome ; jfi '^ '** '1 khol-du phyun-wa 
abridged (Gs.). 



cW^ khol-meha the mouth of a 
bellows. 

P^l'S A/ioW(=i^'^ stir-du in a cor- 
ner; marginally. 

f^QT^I kliol-pa boiled (Cs .) ; boiling ; 
bubbling (Sch.). 



gyog-po ^TH a 

servant; parq^ khol-bran a slave; f&r3vt*r 
^c^c,'H]chol-por rjes-su bsun-wa to take; to 
hire for a servant : *tT^'iK^'f iflJ < hjig-rten 



sri^-pahi khol the world is a servant 
of the evolving principle. f&r35 khol-mo 
a maid-servant ; a female slave ; f&rHrsH- 
|^'B^'9'^ khol-po sgog-skyahi khur-po-ean 
name of kind of vegetable medicine applied 
to wounds and sores, &o. (Sman. 350). 

khol-bu a bit ; a small piece. 



1. a window; a hole in the wall or roof of 
a house to serve the purpose of a window 
or sky-light ; ace. to Sch. an outlet 
for the smoke in a roof. 2. anything 
boiled: ^ &<i|N'q5JrqS-jjr*i j a dad chu 
sogs bskol-pahi khol-ma tea or water 
that has been boiled : 1 SS Q| ' 1 ^'H'^'P' J| '* < dmyal- 
wahi khro-chu khol-ma the boiling or mol- 
ten matter of hell : Vgifffior** ho-thug 
khol-ma boiling gruel. 

pfortf : khol-mo 1. II^TS yyog-mo zrffr 
maid servant. 2. a coarse sort of blanket 
usually given to slaves in C. (Schtr.). 3. 
mowed corn; a swath (fa.). 4. among 
the herdsmen called Dog-pa, a bellows 
made of an entire goat skin. 

fftf'!^ khos-rgyud, mis-spelt for fi"l'%\ 
a slave family or mean extraction : wp'tf' 
^fftrgVftnFiryvftl mag-pa lo-gsum 
khot rgyud min-kyafi skul-rgyud yin though 
the son-in-law (elect) is not a slave (by 
birth) yet he should be made to serve (the 
bride's parents) for three years. 



ST khos imp. of "l*r<i gas-pa to split: 
gpfcAtyfcr^j dgra-bohi mgo khos fig 
split the head of the enemy. 

-^ ' 
^'K'-5 khya-hi-tse the running hand- 

writing of the Chinese. 

15'* khya-le or P'^kha-k as much as 
fills the hollow of the hand ; handful, e.g., 
of water ((7s.). 



156 



I: khyag-pa, seldom 
khyags-pa 1. frozen. 2. the frost ; ice ; 
igqj 3fn|'|)^ khyag thog-khar on the ice ; *$*f 
q$-q\ojm hkhyag-pahi Bwj-yul, Tibet, the 
country of frost ; Qflrr| 1 v*fc khyag-la 
slyar soil, it has stuck fast by freezing : 
BTS'T^f khyag-shu ko-ko ace. to Jd. in 
Tsang, mud caused by a thaw; snow- 
water; B"W*^ khyag sran-can hardened 
by frost ; BTV khyag-rum or BT** khyag- 
rom ice ; pieces of ice ; floating blocks of 
ice. 



II : to undertake ; to be surety 
for: *WVB*'W^* r *'Bl bdi kkyod-khur 
khyag-gam mi kkyag can you undertake 
to do this or not : s'^-^-urrr igij- v<i to 
stand as security for a loan, etc. 

khyad. 1. difference, distinction : 
*^ gail b_tati-na khyed.-med. it is 
no matter which you give me; t'^'gV"' 
VB^'* 1 ^ A daft phr ad-pa dafi khyad.-nwd 
it is quite the same as if they came to 
myself; ?l*wrg i v e ' sems-la khyetf-byuft 
a difference of opinion arose (Jd.). 2. 
something excellent ; superior ; (3v&*r<v|*rq 
greatly exalted ; ^'B 1 ^ bzo-khyad an excel- 
lent work of art; D|jq-w-|3<v 3 ' c - bsgrubi- 
pafti khyad-yoU there will be some ad- 
vantage in accomplishing it ; BV^ khi/ad- 
nor the principal or chief wealth ; BV^I 
khyad-don the principal sense or reason ; 
advantage. 3. is added to an adj. to 
express the notion derivable from any 
quality: H*'9 thick; ffw'BV thickness; 
UK.WCI wide ; "f^^'B^ width; *j*Wi accus- 
tomed ; ^^'B 1 ^ a habit or custom. 

BM3S khyad-khyud, said to be gj^wj- 
*>=-, n. of a number (Ya-sel. 57). 

B"\ *N khya4-chos superior or excellent 
doctrine ; a good religious discourse, hence 
those who possess special qualification for 



miracles are called 

" in sublimity superior to others." 

BV^ khyad,-du=.$f<*.'* khyad-par-du 
or S'9"I'5 bye-brag-tu especially, particular- 
ly ; also superior and excellent ; BV^'W 
khyad-du ysad-pa to contradict ; also to do 
the contrary (out of pride or vanity) ; to 
despise : ^JT^'SK^warig^-ii^ na-rgynl 
(ftcarl-gi$ dmah-la khyad-du psad from 
pride he speaks ironically to the lowly. 

B'V'^ khy ad-par = khyad-du 1. difference, 
distinction: e ^'B v Vft*''B I V *'* $a dad 
khyod. d.nis khyad-par che between you 
and I there is a great difference; ^'i* - 
BYWWwiwqS-^ de dad khyad-par ma 
mchis-pahi rten an image not differing 
from this ; ^^'^'B^'W 5 )^ min-gi khyad-par 
yin it is (only) a difference of name. 
2. sort, kind : ^g^'S^-gvwjW hbras-buhi 
khi/ad-par kun all sorts of fruit ; ^'^J'3' 
BV^'^I ri-dbag(-kyi khyad-par shig a par- 
ticular kind of game ; ^'S'BS'"^ yl-gyi 
khyed-par a particular place or province. 

(5^-j^-cflj^-q khyad-par bkod-pa, jcHi5- 
*'3F rgyal-pohi pho-brafi an edifice of 
special design ; palace of superb make. 

'4&'4 khyad.-par-gyi hchifi-wa 
that which binds particularly, i.e., 
worldliness. 

g\q^^ khya/i-par-can special ; specially 
good ; superior, excellent, capital : BV W '*V 
-*rfY<i'ift! khyad-par can-gyi mdsad-pa dnis 
the two special achievements or exploits 
(Yig.): ^f(^n^^t\ bla-ma khyad.-par- 
can rig an excellent spiritual teacher. 

BV*'^ khyad-par-du, adv. particularly, 
chiefly, especially: BV CW '^ S " I !*'' C| khyad- 
par-du hphags-pa particularly eminent, 
noble; SV w '^*Y*K'i^ khyad-par-du sod.- 
par byed he scorns, despises, ridicules, 
vilifies. 



157 



khyad-par 
the Bodhi or Pipal tree (Mnon.). 



'iS'^ Khyad-par lo-ma excellent 
leaf; f%H7<sr n. of an individual (A. K.). 



mtshar-can wonderful ; curious ; strange. 

S'VI^ khyad-gshi the superior basis. A 
superior basis is alone possessed of 
khyad-chos, i.e., virtues which cannot be 
found elsewhere. The god Brahma is 
called BS'I^'^' 1 ! Khyad-yshi tshans-pa, 
the god of excellent basis, for Brahma 
is possessed of superior moral merits, 
resplendence, and longevity. 



-pa=$*i rgyas-pa 

a, 4tfc<<v 1 . to fill, penetrate ; also to 
embrace, estimate, comprise: Rgwrw 
Zw'iyj'i hbrum-pa maH-pos khyab-pa full 
of, or quite covered with, pustules; r 
WjS^'* 1 mkhris-pas khyab-pa filled, impreg- 
nated with bile; gj-<^rsi5-q^*ragpr*)'v 
tjf^-J^-mwJjrft-gq-qS-irtarg unnumbered 
immeasurable kalpas ago ; beyond what 
the mind is able to estimate. In grammar : 
capable of being joined to any word, inclu- 
sive of all ; iyi'X'1 khyab-che-wa comprehen- 
sive ; everywhere and nowhere ; to be met 
everywhere ; used also in the way of 
censure (Jd.). *<'*&' fW *'BF*'i'%'* f *' 3* '9' 
wj^-qS-$-J| the wisdom of Buddha 
encompasses the bounds of heaven ; 

J|T|tapr^'^ l F*f l *' l| W**V ; ' l $r*A'E'1 the 
domain of knowledge is commensurate 
with the very extremity of the heavens. 
2. lyJ'Sfc'" khyab sod-wa all-sufficing ; all- 
covering. 

|yj'* khab-cha-=^'^ bya-wa duty, gene- 
ral business (of a man) ; work; lugs sufi-gi 



khyab-cha Ihos med-du mcis am executing 
without relaxation the general duties of 
both parts of life (i.e., the spiritual and 
temporal) (Yig. M.). 



Khyab-hjug f<nm the All- per- 
vading One, i.e., Vishnu. His several 
names are: v i P' t '^'V i; ' e i'ff^'^ Dgah-wahi 
dicafi-po ft1%^ the Lord of Pleasures, 
G-ovinda; 5i|'^-ii-q-i!|-i5-fi| Thig-le drug- 
pa hgro^cahi tog; v^'^'^^b^ Tha- 
guhi Ito-can sre$ med-bu; I^'^'SF'^"!'*^' 
"1^ Qyo-me plafi-rdsi skra-can psod the 
immovable Gopala the killer of Kesi; 
Mi-yi theg-pa dpah-bo 
-a^-)^ Re-dimH dpal- 
gyi behns rntshan < aMTf^4<a 'rH^H the 



sign S'rivatea on the breast of Vishnu; 
qy*iS-!-rifc|-pK-|w Padmahi Ite-wa hog 
4wafl skyes ; ^P^Nf^^PV* 1 ! Dpal-gyi 
lag-pa g.yuft druft can; ^IfSj' 
Dbyig-gi Ito-ica nabs-so skyes ; 

-ica brgya-pa dpal-gyibdag; 
- Sjug-pa bcu-pa mihu thufi 
the dwarf ; he of the ten incarna- 
tions; fri < W > WV^*'fTOI Gom gsum 
g.nan dad $tob$-ldan b$lu; wp^fjorwty 
^^'^'S"I Mk/tah Idin rgyal-mtshan hkhor-lo 
phyag ; |'^'| e ''Q' c )^ - ' ; (''l^'>''I Zla-wahi sniA-po 
pad-dkar mig yiK^iTj the lotus-eyed; 
Vishnu; w^-^^-ynjg-^ Mahdsagdafi ni 



rica g.shu-can; f 
tsfiogg ffzugs can khyu-mtshog Ito. 
I'^'S^'^ Dgah-wa brgya-pa inthon-pohi 
Waji^'lN-^^-^'^'j^ Sbyin-skyes dgra- 
bo gos-ser-can ; )'5'i|'|'' I i'fivq5 I \gj Me-tog 
Ito-ica mkhar-wahi dgra ; 
Mi-yi sen-ge Khyab hjug-go 
Vishflu or Nrisimha. 

Kliyab-hjug rkafi-pa = river 



Granges. 



158 



* khyab-hjug 

$s.'9 tsan-dan sbrul-gyi snin-po 
the fragrant sandal wood tree. Snakes 
generally coil round its branches ; images 
made of it fetch very high prices. 



* ) Khyab-hjug dgah-)>ia= 
khyab-hjug chufi-ma frw 
Vishnu's lover or wife. 



khyab-hjug chuA-ma 
Visnu's wife. Her different names 
are: tV*r** Padma-can, miT^; ^SHlY 
$ ffphrog-byed. yum, SWU Qpat-mo, B q ' 
* 4 Khyab-hjug dgah-ma. 

'flftc khyab-hjuy dregs-pahi 
=$*i* s ( sman-eJicn aconite (Sman. 97). 

B^V! ""ft" Khyab-hjug ffna$ fefl[iK a 
place of pilgrimage in Gaya, the temple 
where there is a footprint of Vishpu. 

S^ET"!^ ^ khyab-hjug g.non-pa=-^f-'^ 
tpan-gyan lit. the ornament of grass or {f'V 
3'*>'? q l ston-gyi me-tog, an autumnal flower 
(ffion.). 

igq^^T^'i Khyab-hjug bshon-pa the 
golden eagle on which Vishnu rides : (3*)' 
fir%tfffV|W%te; the different names 

o 

of Garuda, the conveyor of Vishnu g'^w 
4'' Skya-refls nu-bo the younger brother 
of the dawn; 



phyug, a 'w|S Klu-mthar byed ^ 
i)^-|'^q-^ Qser-gyi hdab can SCi^- 
r;'eAi mchu, ^q'*fl]*)'lt=.'| Bdub-c/tags sen-ye 
'^' J A/<o hgro-za, ^S 11 ^'^^'? Re-dban $m- 
rta, JF^IN 5na; dul-$kye$, H^^^Skar 
mig-bu, ^r^Swa^ Dug-hjoms Man, ^i'|N 
hdul-$kye$, v,q'*T''5 a( ' 2 i Edab-chag? rgyal- 
po, f-|^- Mkhah-ldM (Mfion.). 

B l ''^ q l'1^ Khyab-hjug gser or B q ' q 
khyab-hjug nod, also *''^ ^a-Aw fe 



epilepsy, which is supposed to be tent or 
caused by the planets or the Hindu 
deity Vishnu. 

igq-ipVJi khyab-g.dal spread out slowly 
and uniformly in all directions ; to absorb 
all, as does Qunyuta ; voidity : B q '^' a 



J h ( flag.). 

khyab-bdag f%^ the all-per- 
vading lord. 

QP' BXft khyab-hdotf wishing everything. 

QViffl kkyab-brdal=BP' I >rw khyab-pdal 
all absorbing; all- encompassing : ^-'^ 
VP' 33 Qq- q5,oi- ^ g m wan-wa dkar-pohi khyab- 
brdal du-fpi'l widely diffused like the 
sunlight. 



khyab-par hgro-wa to move, 
covering everything in the way. 



khyab-par hdsin-pa 
to envelope. 

B 1 !'!^ khyab-bye4^ ru-rta 1. n. of 
a vegetable drug. 2. met. the eye. 
3. met. the sun. 



khyams 1. yard, courtyard; 
gallery (0$.);=^'^ sran-ga the hall of a 
house ; impluvium ; (khyams is termed sgo- 
ra in a poor house). 2. open; uncovered 
place in the upper stories of a house where 
people sit for airing or to enjoy light, air 
and sun. t"P^'^rtl - 8 l t^ I *^>WWMf 
^'i'B*<*''!i'^*''^ q I yitl-hhor hdi-na skyee- 
bu ji-gned yod-pa thams-cad hkhor-gi khyam$ 
su hdus-fig bring to the courtyard all the 
people as many as there are in this country 
to be my followers (K. d. 210 to 



?P\ khyams-stod upper courtyard ; 
khyams-smad. the lower courtyard. 



B. 



159 



khyams-pa, B*' q khyar-wa or (S'l'i 
khyal-pa, v. ^gwrci hkhyams-pa, &o. 

B*w*> k/iyams-ra open space before 
a house or on the roof of a house used for 
airing, walking, or sitting; also play- 
ground. 

CV 

[^ khyi, in Tsang pronounced as kyi 
or kih, f^T'-, VI, ^RW, fa#IM hound, 
dog ; B' 35 khyi-mo a bitch ; 
the dog will bite; *MF! 
bos-nag ma-brdun "after calling a dog, 
do not beat him" is a Tibetan common 
saying to explain that it is not proper 
to beat or insult an invited person even 
if he be a bad person. Ace. to Sch. 
Q'*t c;a ft*' khyi-rkan gnis a bastard dog, a 
cur ; prob. an inferior breed is meant. Q' 
8) - |'oJw4'Ji*r*KTiv!S khyi-yi Ice-yis rma 
rnams hdrubs-par byed the tongue of the 
dog causes wounds to heal ; '^'"1'W9'^' 
^3^ khyi-yi rlig-pas bu ro hbyin the testes 
of a dog draw out the dead child (from the 
womb) ; g^lVwS'^"'^'" 1 '^ khyi-yi 
klatf-pas hgrib mig-la phan the brains of a 
dog are useful for the cataract of the eye ; 
j|-i-gfl|-i| - *ig' i aft-$aj dog's blood removes 
leprosy : i|-5l'-r$- > V^w9S a dog's 
flesh dries up water, i.e., heals dropsy; 
|-5)-g-<ffiq-$<i]'awfa khyi-yi spu yshob 
lhog skrans g.non the burnt hair of a 
dog absorbs swollen ulcers ; B' 5 ^'!* 1 ' 
q|1frn2w!5c.N-cr^ khyi-yi drun-gyis ffdon 
hjom skraKs-pa shi the excrement of the 
dog subdues evil spirits in one's body 
and soothes swellings; S'S"I'*' 5 J''P' 5 >'% S <' 
^m'fl]^ khyi-thug chu-yis kha-yi rul-rdol 
ycod. the urine of a dog is a cure for ulcers 
in the gums (Smart.) ; J3' 5 *'9 V V C| khyi-yi 
spyod.-pa the habits of the dog des- 
cribed by Mamraksa are as follows : **' 
mafi-du zad-pa voraciousness, 



cttfl-sad. chog contentment with a small 
quantity, ^i^'Waf^afaj legs-par g.ni$-log 
always sleeping, 3^'*'^'*^ myur-war sa4 
easily wakeful, ^wai dpal-la intrepidity, 
^'^ sniii-ne faithfulness, ^'1 b_rtan-pa 
firmness. S'^'JI'^ khyi-nal rgyug-lhoft is 

l 

a common saying, to cause a sleeping dog 
to get up by poking him with a stick, i.e., 
to rouse to action one who is silent. 



Syn. 3('|5'W|l'w rdo-rjehi mjug-ma ; 

'!^ g.so-byed ^V^ hdod-d.tcafi ; l>^)5- 
seft-gehi rigs; |'l^'*'-8^ skye-teahi 
cha-can ; g" fl|*)t,'n rdsi gsaft-wa ; t}*'5)'*|*^' 
1^ grufi-gi g.can-g.zan ; -*j'0 $a-khyt(%fnon.). 



Khyi-kM n. of a place and 
>o 
valley in Tibet. 



duft-gi thag-pa-can n. of a vegetable pos- 
sessing medicinal properties for healing 
wounds and sores (Sman. 350). 

S'^ khyi-skad the barking of a dog. 

J3'F* khyi-khan dog kennel. 

Q'3 i : khyi-gu in W., bud (of leaves 
and branches, not of blossoms) ; the eye 
(of a plant). 

S'5 ii : a puppy ; a dog. 

Cs^v^ 

0'IB Kyi-kyo n. of a place, also of a 
fabulous country to the east of Asia, prob. 
Kamsohatka (/. Zati.). 

^^f -n) Khyi-stonjo-ye n. of a Buddhist 
teacher of Tibet. 

EJ'*^ khyi-dam lit. dog's seal; a mark 
burnt in ; stigma. 

B'^"l khyi-dng the poison of hydro- 
phobia (Sch.). 

V khyi tndu^-pa pairing of dogs. 

kyi-pal jor in W., Btitum 
virgatam. 



160 



'S 1 * khyi-pul a dog kennel ; dog-house 



(Jd.) 



'S^ khyi-spyafl (khib-jung) a jackal. 
B~'g khyi-bru a vicious, biting dog 



khyi-ra-pa=Z*('<* rfion-pa, 
1. a huntsman; one who kills 
wild animals by chasing them with dogs, 
&c. 2. fy^'5 Kirata (*<! a tribe in 
Nepal who live by hunting. 

'$* khyi-sbrafi a flea; lit. dog's fly. 

*Q'S khyi-mo bitch or female dog: 
5\ )< i^'E J5 ^ w '*%5'* c -' J i*' "the woman 
having transmigrated into a red bitch" 
(Mil.). 



khyi-myoA a rabid dog ; also 
canine madness ; hydrophobia. 

B'** 1 khyi-tshafi a dog-house. 



khyi-htshed vmv the baker 
or seller of parched rice, millet, &c. 



khyihu-ka the remainder 
of anything cut or chopped off. 

B^'B$ khyihuhi-khyihu, '9*1 khyi- 
phrug or S'3 y-khigu, puppy ; pup : B* 5 'BV 
^g^'^'C" 1 '^ khyi-hu-hi-khyihu djbytin-tcahi 
tshul-du *faiifJ|Tf*rf^K<riJli in the man- 
ner of a puppy being brought forth. 

B'* khyi-ra chasing, hunting, espe- 
cially of a single huntsman, not of a 
party ; in W. khyi-ra la ca-ye, to go hunt- 
ing : JS'*' q i'* fl P''* a i khyi-ra la c/tags-can one 
who is fond of hunting ; sportsman. 

fg'QT(JJ'3i khyi-la tra-ri=^ c -'^ sefi Man 
f^T the tree Acacia catechu ; also Terra 
japonica. 

a flea. 



khyi-$ifi a tree-drug which cures 
diseases of the lungs and the eye. It 
also expectorative (Med.). 

B'*'5*'' :| khyiso-rgyab-pa the bite of a 
dog: B '" 5* 1 *! khyiso tab-$e the dog will 
bite Ladak dialect. 



khyig, v. 



hkhyig-pa. 



khyid breadth of the hand with 
the thumb extended to form a span. 



khyim 1. resp. fi khab JJ 
a home, residence, dwelling-place: B**^ 
khyim-na at home ; ftw^khyim-du at home, 
in the house ; B* '*WI '^1'5'i khyim-bdag rin- 
po-che <i^nrd<.*i the ideal householder (of 



the Buddhists). 2. Tifa the signs of 
zodiac ; S**' q 5' q f^" khyim-fyoi-gnis <jK*Krfa 
the twelve signs of the zodiac; ^ifijM* or 
khyim-gyi hkhor-lo the zodiac ; 
the ram ; ^^, $* plan the bull ; 
[i hkhrig-pa (husband and wife 
in union) the twins; w&'Z, T*f<? kar-ka- 
ta the crab ; f^T, ^'*| sefi-ge the lion ; 
3FTT, 9 ^* bu-mo the virgin ; ^j<sii, Jj^ srafi 
the balance ; ^falf, SI'i fdig-pa the scor- 
pion; ^5: "19 ps/tu (or bow) the archer; 
'TCfT, 4'SJ^ chu-srin the sea-monster (capri- 
corn) ; gw, 9*'" bum-pa water-pot ; water- 
bearer ; and iffa, ^ na fish. Besides these 
there are mentioned twenty-four minor 
signs of the zodiac such as ^TJTT, $VS=. 
mihu thun the dwarf ; ^TTfW, V^'S**'* 1 ne- 
u-ahi bum-pa, "$*[* hbrin-gar, &c., which 
raise the list of the signs to thirty-six 
(K. g. *\129). Ace. to Jd. there is more- 
over a division into twenty-seven lower 
mansions much in use, v. *'^ rgyu- 
fkar. 3. double hours ; the time of two 
hours ; the time of the passing of a sign 
of the zodiac through the meridian (Jd.). 



161 



4. halo or circle round the sun or moon 
(Cs). 5. symbolic numeral 21 (/a.). 

E* l 'i*< khyim-sKyes JJ^ST domesticated; 
indigenous. 

|3*rgE.'*] khyim skyon-wa to have a 
household ; to gain a livelihood (Jd.) ; to 
stick to home and look after it. 



.pa hbrus-phyun-wa an eunuch ; 

a domestic slave ; one belonging or related 

to a family. 

B^i^'W^" khyim-gyi kun-dgah ra- 
ra=|S'*M skyed-tshal a grove or garden 
attached to a house (Mnon). 

i*'!'"!^'* khyim-gyi gtor-za $S - S' fl !''l 
chuhi bya-gag a grey species of duck 
(Mnon.). 

i*'i'V!'* khyim-gyi dag-ra, #* dans- 
ra 'i^cjfi yard, courtyard. The *p\^ 
dag-ra of a temple or tomb is called *fi*cq 
hkhor-sa or fyfo ne-hkhor. 

E^'I'^'S khyim-gyi nor-bu (lit. the gem 
of the house) = |fl'*> sgron-med or wfy35?-j;- 
> mtshan-mohi snail byed and wiS'wti 
hbar-wahi ral-pa a lamp, light (Mnon.). 

B*r3j-fl|UBW khyim-gyi nyabs rftr veran- 
dah or portico. 

B*<'i'' ? khyim-gyi sa tsis household ; 
house-keeping ; farming. 

|'9 khyim-na a whale ; a fish of the 
size of a house ; a mythological fish (Sch.). 
^'fy3 - * khyim-ne-wahi rin-po-che 
the perfect ideal of a lay subject 
of a king and second only to the !*r 
q-& khyim-bdag rin-po che. 

'i khyim-thab or 
husband; frequently also wife; g 
i'^'q khyimthab-la slon-wa to give in 



marriage ; to give away a woman for a 
wife; jg*'w*i khyim thab-mo wife; house- 
wife (Cs.) ; |sriq-wsrRj-q tfffnurr a 
devoted wife : t >V!'i5 1 V'^'S* ( ' li W&* let you 
and me be married. 

Sy n - B^ 9 ! khyo-$ug; w# bzan-tsho; 
" bzah-tshan (Mnon). 

"'^ khyim dan khyim-na house 
to house ; each in his house. 

E 
i) '^'?i khyim-du nal= S'*I'J bya-mchil- 

pa the swallow (Mnon.). 

B^'iVI khyim-bdag ij^rrfk a house- 
holder ; a master of the house ; husband ; 
owner of a house ; a citizen. Very freq. in 
the older writings J3**' i*\i''i)'^<ij*r3e.'s'arS- 
** f 9 ! JTTtrKfflTTTra fra the house-holder 
class is like a great Sala tree. 

B* r *V i rV i r3' 1 l'^ khyim-bdag drag-fill can 
a rough uncultured householder. 

W'|^ khyim-bdag dpctl-sbyin, ^' 



n. of a householder who was devo- 
ted to Buddha (K. ko. * 335). 

I^VT* 5 khyim-bdag-mo TZ*$T^ a 
house-wife; also a female householder. 

Syn. qgiw*! brtul shugs-ma gwBfd 
khyim hdsin-ma- pq-^- khab-hdsin-ma ; 
^|V rigs sky on-ma; *w% rigs-kyi- 
ma^ J3-^r khyim-bdag-ma (Mnon.). 

yrW khyim-ldan, v. wi-q rtsat+pa a 
lizard (Mnon.). 

gn-^-^-q khyim-nas byun-wa=^^ 
fr^^** theg-chen byan-chvb Ijon- 
fin-gi lo-ma a leaf of the Bodhi-tree 

" 



khyim-gnax, 

bram-sehi rig-bshi-yi $cig la- 
khyim enas Q^Vnir ace. to Brahmanical 
religion, the worldly life, a house-holder's 
life (Ya-sel.,55). 

22 



162 



khyim-pa layman ; married man : 
im - 3'|^ I q khyim-pahi phyogs-su 
ibyin-pa to give away to a layman : t^'S* 1 
q$'ffcraC < q*r4i*'<l phi/is khyim-pahi tshul 
can-gyi rnal-hbyor-pa a devout man or yogi 
who lives outwardly in the manner of a 
layman. 

J3*rei5' |X'tr^ khyim-pahi spod-pa can he 
who betakes to the life of yogi ; <JKVl'^*' 
51 gshon-nu gdun-dntg an epithet of 
Kumara Shadanana (Mnon.) : jyrqS-qwg- 
w|^-$qj do not revert to the life of a 
layman (Mnon.). 

khyim-pa rtag-pahi dpyad 
the science of discerning the fit 
place for the residence (of a householder) . 

gjcti*,-j|^-q khyim-par gnas-pa ^T^, 
Jjf^j one that abides in his house; one 
living in his house ; a worldly man ; he who 
lives as a layman. 

QW$I khyim-phitb living in divided 
families (K. d. 75). 

j*'S khyim-bya (khyim-cha) fi^z, fWH 
domestic fowl ; cock ; hen ; poultry. 

Syn. W'S'K'flYM'll-if* gtsug-phud; 
mya-nan-med; |=.'|'g'^li zun-gi 
; tf*w$|S t/io-rans skad; w^'S - 

mtshan-mo skad; ^'^1*'^ bde-legs chn ; 
yons-zlum mig; W*\ dgah- 
hphel-byed; ^'^.'^^ nor- 
buhi mgrin-can; ^\' hod-kyi sde ; g'Wfj' 
g""l" sna-war sgra-sgrogs ; aw^'*^ zans-zi- 
can ; : >i\**' i &'''\$'*\'$^ pags-pahi gtsug phud; 
Hi^ SS'^ij mtshan-mo rig; ^c.-q5'i^-.*-^ 
rkan-pahi mtshan-cha can (Ijffion.). 

|wg,-^q-(5j khyim-bya mtshal-lu a very 
large species of fowl which is also called 
^*-*i*i-q. The bile of this bird is believed 
to be a cure for poison. 

|*raS-|Vq khyim-byahi spyod-pa the 
four habits of the cock ace. to Masurakst 



are the following: ? t *=.*rgic.-^ tho-rans 
Itfafi daft crowing before dawn ; wsr^f^ 
hthdb-pa dan-ldan always fighting ; 1^'!' 
p-j f |w'w3^ g.ncn-la kha-zas snoms-par 
byed dividing food equally with his friend ; 
S'ai'*q'oi^'^'!V|ft mola rab-pnon nc-icar 
spyod always keeping the hen under 
control and chucking her. 

j|*c<*c. khyim-tshan a family ; a house- 
hold. 

j|*4'*i3>*) kliyim-mtlics a neighbour ; **' 
*i2i-^\ci'q5c,-<*gai k/iyim-mtshes dus-pa btan- 
fcbrel nearness of residence; neighbour- 
hood so near that the smoke from the fire- 
place of one house mixes up with that of 
another; )'<2*i'q khyim-mtshcs-pa a male 
neighbour; j|*i'*i15rw khyim-mtshes-ma a 
female neighbour. 

khyim-shag a zodiacal day. 
khyim-zla a zodiacal month. 

khyim-la hon-wa, "fr'i gton- 
wa to get married, to be given in mar- 
riage on the female part (/a.). 

gjcuc^q khyim-la shen-pa a lover of 
home ; one attached to his home ; home- 
sick. 

B^'^'^i^'" khyim-sun hbyin-pa grr- 
^^ vituperating or blaming the secular 
state or a domestic abode. 

J3*rS khyim-so Ji^0lf>f%^f homesick. 



khyim so-sor bsgo-ica gra- 
one who creates dissensions in 
a family. 

gs4'<i|W*( khyim-g.i$ar-ma tv*\'** bag-tna 
or ^A&C lag-hdsin-ma, also ff^V* 
lhan-dg spyod-ma a bride ; wife (Mnon.). 

|g kyu flock ; herd: W^I'B %-<7 Myu 
a flock of sheep; 5^-g rtahi khyu a herd 
of horses ; W^I'B ffnag-gi khyu a herd of 
cattle; flS'S byahi khyu or *"! tshogs a 



163 



flock of birds. iS'ip^q khyu ^sags-pa to 
collect or gather in flocks (Sc/t.) ; jjjj fq 
AAyw skyons-wa to keep; tend a flock 
or herd; company; band; gang; troop: 
**' mi-khyu a company of men (Cs.); 
9B bu-mo-khyu a bevy of girls; 
dmag-khyu a troop of soldiers. 
khyu-nas hbud-pa to exclude from the flock 
or company; B'tf'"^'^ khyu $na hdrcn-pa 
to go before ; to take the lead of a troop or 
of a flock; Bya ser-po khyu-re hgrogs 
man-po yellow birds; many companions 
in each flock (A. 3!+). 

khyu-mchog gi^, ^r*r, i^r, 
1. chief ; king ; the bull ; Vishnu. 
2. S'l'IS"'" zla-wa ysum-pa the third 
month of the Tibetan year generally 
corresponding with April. 

Syn. Sift*'* 6 -' dpyid-tha chun 
nag-pa; fl^'| sbran-sla; 3 

dri-shim Man; 
srafts; "^V^ hdod-hdus; 
bzugs; ^gI'| hlrug-zla; 3' 

a, the third month of the Tib. year 






mn- 



lihyu-mchog 

'q byu-mchil pa *<?!<* a kind of swal- 
low (4fno.). 

khyu-mchog rgyal-mtshan 
dicaan-phyag chen-po 
n. of Mahadeva (Mfwn.). 

Q - )Xfl|'^ khyu-mchog can=jt\' 
wa brgyad-pa or ?^'|'^9^'3 ston-zla hbrin-po 
the eighth month of the Tibetan year 
corresponding with November (Rtsii.). 

khyu-mcog mtshan-pa 1. 
one with the marks or signs of a 
bull or one who carries the bull ensign. 
2. n. of a drug called cit* (the plant 
Jastica genderussa), which is used for 
purifying the blood. 



/z!0-w 4ql*i< with a belly 
resembling that of a bull. 

B'^'i khyu hdus-pa &>s. collected in 
a herd or flock ; also heap, multitude ; an 
aggregate. 

B'^ khyit-ldan, v. *i'o)^ tsha-wa Jen 
, the tamarisk (Mnon.). 



u-tyug erroneously used for 
^o 
(3'|1 khu-lyug, n. of a large bird of sweet 

note, which, according to the Tibetans, 
migrates in summer to cooler regions and 
in cold 'weather returns to the warmer 
zones. In Jd. B'il'51'S probably signifies 

\> 

the note of the black Indian cuckoo. 
khyug, v. W" hkhyug-pa. 



khyug-khyug 

- o *. 

glog-<ji hod khyug-khyug byed a zig-zag 
flash of lightning. 

ST& 1 khyug ttampsfaf* tig-tsam oc.)^' 
fa or l'^) srib-tsam a little; a little 
while. 



I : 



herd, multitude. 



so 



II : (Sch. also khyun-mo) the garuda 

bird, mythical chief of the feathered race ; 
the golden eagle: B^'l"! khyun-skyttg a 
kind of gem said to have been brought 
from the Sumeru mountain by Garuda 

and vomited by him: B V W^V' I R'W 

> * 

^IrariH^Qhl khyuft-skyug dug sags nad kun 
hjoms-pahi mchog, the khyun-skyug (the 
eagle's vomit) is the chief remedy against 
the effects of poisonous drugs: E^'Sj'^' 

Va 

wl'Jft'wW khyud-gi sen-mos klu nad 

N9 

hjoms the toe of an eagle is used as an 
antidote for leprosy. E^TSTiS-q^v!" 

N> N> >ft 

awi'Wp'S khyufiphrug skyug-pahi bdutf rtsi- 
chag pahi kha-chu the watery substance 
vomited by locusts ; a mystical expression 
(Min. H). 



164 



i: khyufi sfion-skyef 1. 
the first-born of heaven ; the one 
that was born before garuda; an epithet 
of Aruna, the charioteer of the sun. 2. = 
3'^' skya-refi dawn. 3. B^T*^ khyuA 
fog-can the early morning which advances 
with the wings of an eagle ; a name of 
Vajrapani Bodhisattva. 

B^'l" n : *yiS-f<-*i ni-mahi kha lo-pa 
the charioteer of the sun (IjLHon.). 



^ khyuft-thur can-=%\'* go-cha or 
*f fli go-khrab coat of mail (Mfion.). 

B^*> khyufl-$der claws of an eagle 
(Med.; Cs.); (Guruda-claw) the n. of amedi- 
cinal root: B^'^'W* khyufi-gder dkar- 
mo the white species of this vegetable drug, 
so called on account of its resemblance to 
the claw of an eagle : B^'?^'S1'3 khyuA- 
gder smug-po the dark brown species of the 
root, in appearance like the claws of an 
eagle. Both these roots are used to 
neutralize snake poison, &o. 

B^'q khyun-po many collected or assem- 
bled together. 



khyufi-dpyad a small round 
basket of reed (Cs.). 



monas- 



> 

tery in the valley of Panam in Tsang. 

gc^ai khyun-ril is said to be a large? 
cylindrical basket, the same as kun-dum 
in Ld., v. %i rkon-pa. 



khyud-pa 



to worship, 



adore. 



khyud-mo 1. ?'*" rta-chag the 
equipments of a horse. 2. rim of vessel 
(Sch.). 



khyur-po=*frt ril-po or 
>o 
sgan-po entire ; full. 

l^^'w^'tl khyur mid-pa to swallow ; 

S3 

to eat the food without chewing, in the 
manner of birds, snakes and fish : @*'**V 



^'*=.' khyur mid-du sofi-ste suffering 
himself to be swallowed. 

g,*l khyus wall side (in Tsang) ? (Ja.). 



|,'^ khye-pa SWT wide. 

fy H khye-bo, $* bu-ts/ta children. 

khye-ma n. of a disease (Med.; 



Ja.). 



I: khyed n. of a tribe in Tibet 
(Vat. kar. 150). 

g,^ II : pers. pron. thou, you ; is the 
ordinary resp. form of j$V ifc^khyed-cag, 
plur. of jlS khyed, is generally used in 
addressing lamas, but seldom in addressing 
superiors, such as parents, uncles, and 
brothers ; is used to those senior in age, and 
sometimes contemptuously, llv^ khyed-ran 
is common colloquially for khyed; jl^'^ 
jl'V'i**', H*\'* you or you all: *\*[&r 
S'Vft'' dge-tshul khyed gnis you two 
novice monks; Hs'^'spwv ^'^ it will 
be as you (all) think. 

|^3j'f? khyen-te in Purang he; she 
(Ja.). ' 

ls = fitw khels cover. 



lkhyem=? 1 * khem a shovel: 
*fy'ti to shovel away ; to cast out with a 
shovel ; j|*r'^' khyem-gyi hdab-ma the 
blade of a shovel (Ja.) : *<'!!'^ I > khyem- 
gyi-yu-wa the handle of a shovel (Cs.) ; 
5 &** gru-khyem, 4JI** chu-khyem oar; in 
W. f q ]*<'^* kags khyem iron spade; *>'(!** 



165 



me-khyem fire-shovel ; V$* wa-khyem a 
scoop; $**'9 khyem-bu a spoon (Cs.). 

13,^ khyehu ^n., also *iM<<*, finj 1. a 
boy; an infant child. 2. a youth, esp. 
in Dzang-lun. 



khyehu 

ftVz-fo gsar-du kha hbus-pa the tender shoots 
of leaves JJfnon.. 



eAw mthon-pa, j 
6ye-wa the delivery of a child ; child-birth. 
In Kahgyur and Tangyur jjv***<'*i khyehu 
wzfoas-^a=9'|') 6 skyes-pa the birth of a 
male child. 



khyer-rkyan one who is 
specially authorized or responsible to make 
payment or receive deposits in money or 
in kind in a Jong or district: ^E.'Jpi'jiti'Rflpr 
^'^VS^'S^*'* 1 ^ yon-sgos chephrahi rigs 
Rdson-sdod khyer-rkyan nas bsdu-wa all 
proceeds (collections) large or small should 
be collected by the officer resident in the 
Jong (Rtsii.). 

gof^qi^-q khyel bshugt-pa n. of a posture 
in yoga ; a mode of sitting : 
hdug-stans kyl mifi or ?1'? q l'9 
tsogpur hdug-pa (Mfion.). 

^* 

(5 khyo or J5'' khyo-bo a husband ; 5 

IS'i khyo byed-pa to act as a husband ; also 
to take a wife : khyod-fiahi khyo mi byed- 
na if you do not marry me (Jd.). 

jj'1 khyo-ga husband; also emphatically 
man, as j*rg'*^rJ5 - r"fy $kyes-bu Ha 
Hor-pa khyo-ga yin, I, a Tartar, am a man 
(as distinguished from effeminate people) . 

S'"!' 2 ' khyo-ga-po a hero. 

JJ'*V' N khyo hdam-ma=m'# bag-ma 
a bride. 



$'5 khyo-pho husband : 
if 9 khyod-kyi khyo-pho de che-shig Ita-bu 
what like is your husband (Snin.). 

B'*^'i khyo-med-pa, ^^r, R^^l a 
widow. 

S'^ khyo-re to stand erect, upright 
(IV 51). 

S'-^l khyo-qug ^>^\ husband and 
wife; a married couple; same as w* 
bzah-tshoo? la^'S bzah-mi (Lig. f ^). 

g-^u|-q]^j khyo-sug g.na$ ^m^ the place 
where a married couple pass their honey- 
moon. 



%Z khyog-thofi (abbr. of g^ khyo- 
ga and 5fr ^Ao4) in W. a young man; 
a youth (Jd.). 

"^ *y 

(5^|*^ khyog-po crooked; curved; bent 

((7s.) ; also cunning (Jd.). 

JJ 4 !" AAyogrj, aW9w phebs-byams ^f%, 
ft^T 1. a serfaw chair, palankeen ; also a 
scaffold (Cs.). 2. litter, bier (Jd.). 

*5"1 khyogs %tRf a swing (5cAr.; 
Kdlac. T. U6). 

S"!*'" AAyo^-^as^flj-q theg-pa a vehicle 
or conveyance. 



^, or ffc'i khofi-wa, 
in colloq. "^'B^ nin-khyon, one day's 
entertainment. 



khyod pers. pron., 2nd pers., thou, 
you is the ordinary form of address 
to inferiors or to equals: gv3 khyod-kyi 
your, thine ; BVl'l khyod cag-gi your, of 
you all : 5*V* khyod-tsho or JSVI*" 1 khyoij- 
rnams you, ye: g*>'^ khyod-rafi thou, 
you, yourself very common in the celloq. 
of C. in place of the simple khyod.. 

flX'SI" khyod-fitgs ffr^sr a pair; pair- 
ing, v. S^"! khyo-gug. 



166 



khyon, wre, Ff , V\*l the measure 
or dimensions, area, extent, size ; width ; 
circumference ; height : this term can be 
applied to things material or immaterial ; 
^"'3^'S^'^ ges-byahi khyon-kun the whole 
extent of learning or knowledge; ^'*f<v 
the extent of the void space or sky. 

khyon-sgril altogether; all taken 
together : sfcwg^fjar^^w $don-raf 
khyon-sgril gos snams cotton cloth for wicks 
all together (Rtsii.). 

j^'%'q khyon-che-wa far^bn, *UW broad; 
very widely spread. 

BVif* 1 khyon-idom all together; sum 
total; contents; ace. to Cs. narrow extent. 

fa'W khyon-nas thoroughly; 
$T^ an out-and-out sinner; JS 
not at all (/a.). 



kyom-khyom oblique; awry; 

irregularly shaped. 
v* 
(5^'^ I : to move totteringly ; to stum- 

ble ; be dizzy : defined in a native author as 
*CV>Y<rl! < v { i ^'flpi'^'^'^S'i'S'S'^' 1 ' " mov- 
ing as if one went with a hungry belly and 
without strength"; fK^tr^K^r^r^-yf 
Ipri'B** to walk as an old or drunken 
person; *V<W'^wp'J5* tshad-pas na-nas 
kha khyor speaking irregularly as in a 
feverish delirium ; ^''TSpviS**' fin-gisnof 

khyor-wa bobbing as a wooden vessel. 

v 

JS 3 ^*^ II : as much as fills the hollow 
of the hand; B^'l'ip. khyor-wo gafi a 
handful (of anything) ; 5*'^'^ khyor-ica 
do two handsful. 



l khyol-wa, v. o$vt hkhyol-wa, to 
be brought or carried or BV* khyos-ma. 



]^ I : khra (tha) ^^^ 1. a cheat. 2. a 
kind of hawk or falcon ; sparrow-hawk used 



for hunting: |g-$'^*rr5^i<irrq5jc khra- 
yi ggo-nas sa-bon hd/tag-pa bsrufi the egg 
of the hawk is curative of the disease of 
involuntary discharge of the semen ; H'^ 
|fl|-j-S^V*N the feathers from a hawk's 
tail remove female diseases ; H'")'g^''g=.N- 
l'W' < M3 q l* 1 khra-yi Irun-gyis skrans-pa 
rnay-tu hgugs the excrement of the hawk 
prevents accumulation of pus in a boil ; 
gs)<i|-<jljraj'vnCi$'i|X;^-sq a hawk's eye 
overcomes all demons that produce 
apoplexy. 

Syn. <^q-Mm^ci hdab-cfiags dan-ma; 
^qV* ri-bon-za; S'B bya-khra; "I^'l gyo- 
tca (Mnofi.). 

(^ II: n. of a tribe in Tibet (Vat. 
kar. 160). 

P^ III: ^|<dV* 1. a lie, falsehood; also 
a liar. 2. n. of a Naga Raja (snake king) . 

|^ IV: or R#khra-ma (l/ia-ma) a letter; 
8*'H skyei-k/tra a letter with a present. 

g'B khra-khra ((ha-tha) = $'% k/ira-wo 
party-colour (ffag. 10). 

H'0'^ khra khro-can (tha-tho-cati) 
defined as jfc'B'&'qw^^'&'q a passionate 
or wrathful individual. 

H'* khra-rgyu variegated colour: |*' 
^fl-jrr^K^S mum lag rked 

la dkar-po khra rgyu dgois $in. 

H' 1 )^ khra-brgyan variegating an 
ornament (amulet or bracelet, &c.) with 
precious stones. 

H'fjil's khra-sgrigs (tha-dig) H'^i - i^' 
jj'F'i khra-rim bshin sgrigs-pa arranging 
in variegated colours with rows of tur- 
quoise, corals, pearls, &o. 

H'jf'^'S Khra-sna-ke-ru n.. of a place 
near ^ Jfon in Tibet. 



167 



'i khra-pa a falconer. 

-j *q khra-bo (thd-o) 

3RT 1. many coloured, with one 
predominating colour as in chintz ; party- 
coloured, as in the case of cattle and 
wild animals, such as a tiger or leopard, 
and in birds. In WH dkar-khra, the 
white (dkar) is supposed to predominate. 
In *\*^'H dmar-khra, red predominates. In 
the common saying ? q H'H'^'!' B i' a '\ **'^'|9' 
SJ-^c.-araj^ stag-gi khra-bo phyi-la yod, mi-yi 
khra-bo nan-la yod, the tiger is party- 
coloured externally, but man is so inter- 
nally the meaning, of course, is that 
it is difficult to know a man even by 
the traits of his mind. 2. Ace. to 
Ja. a distinction is to be drawn 
between khra-wo and khra-wa, the first 
signifying only two-coloured or piebald, 
and the second party or many-coloured. 
We have not found this distinction our- 
selves. The significations of the various 
compounds of khra have all a reference 
to the peculiar effect produced on the eye 
by the blending of two or more colours 
together, especially when seen from a 
distance ; so H'3*4'*> khra cem-tne is said of a 
rainbow, tinted meteor, etc. ; H'W*) khra 
lam-me or H'^*'*> khra l/iam-me of a similar 
phenomenon ; |3'wl khra chem-chem of 
a flight of birds : H'**r^|g-S*-*> khra cham- 
se khra ehem-me or g'2*<-$ khra chem-se in C. 
= l*r|g-fjfft chem khra $prin-ne in Ld. 
Such compounds have also assumed the 
character of an adverb, as in 0'*)'^ khra- 
me-re, together ; altogether. 

^ JJ khra-ma 1. a register, index. 2. 
a judicial decree. 3. a kind of grain, *g 
hbru TKWH. 4. ace. to Vat. sn. = ^"\^' 
V mgyogs-nas a kind of barley grain, 



growing and ripening rapidly within 60 
days, v. fl|<^'g*i gyo-khram. 

H'**' q f^^'3*' khra-mag.ni sgrom in jewel- 
lery or lacquer work when there is a 
variegating with two colours. 

H'K khra-mar a kind of biscuit made 
in twisted cross ribs and painted red. 
These are given only to Government 
officials at state dinners in Tibet. 

H't" khra-rtse a kind of biscuit or pastry 
made in the shape of a grating. 

01^ khra-zur a species of eagle (Sch.). 

H'| khra-zla (tha-da) = $wfywci sla-wa 
ffms-pa or si < V l 3' R EJ c -' H ' dpyid-sla hbrin-pofhe 
second Tibetan month corresponding with 
March (Rtsii.). 

H'^*. khra-rin a striped long scarf. 
This is also called *i!J'^*i')g'Rc. bkra-fis 
khra-rin, the auspicious long striped 
scarf which is generally attached to flag 
poles: lhag-par pfw-brad rtse-nas khra- 
rin dan dar-phan dun dan rol-mo sog$ (bro, 
moreover they exhibited from the top of 
the palace long scarves and pendant silk 
and played on trumpets and cymbals, &c. 

0-2H l5 h khra $ig-(;ig in dazzling 
array (J. Zan.}. 

g-^i"^ khra-sems fes n. of a bird 
(K. ko. *\3). 

p^ khrag (thag) $*** $ku-rntshal, resp. 
*fa<, ^*i, ^ftfrcT, T^r, 5tiPna blood : "c.'H"! 
pan-khrag blood of child-bed. \^'S"I shaii- 
khrag or vulgarly i=.'Hi| dsan-khrag 
signifies blood of the menses ; !9=.'0l 
ffshun-khrag healthy and nourishing blood 
((7s.); ^S'HI nad-khrag bad or diseased 
blood. In Sikkim khrag is pronounced 
khyak. H1'"|?\ khrag-g.cod n. of a medi- 
cinal herb which stops bleeding (Med.) : 



168 



to stop bleeding; H 
cessation of bleeding: ft'B| - RJfci'rvi| in 
W. I feel my blood throbbing, e.g., from 
ascending a steep bill. HT^T 81 flowing 
of the blood, generally applied to men- 
struation; BT*"!'" clotted blood; gore ((7s.). 
Syn. ft'| rma-skyef; "^'^'^ gar 
hgyur-byed.; *)'^' < 5^ qa-yi sa-bon ; *^'*lf^' 
f* mtshan-bsiiun fkyef, 'B^'fl*' khyab- 
gnas; *l'^. mi-lhun; $*r|< lus-skyes; to' 
q-q rma-las hbab-pa (Mnon). 

kkray-skem, 8^ upan-rtsi n. of a 
vegetable medicine very useful in stopping 
bleeding (Sman. 86). 






khrag-khrig (thag-thig) 
also sjpr 1. one hundred thousand 
million, or an indefinitely large number 
(Cs.) ; this number has twelve figures ; 
gq-|q|-2^q khrag-khrig chen-po qytfcaa 
this has thirteen figures, cf . ^Sl*'i dkrigs- 
pa. 2. in vulgar language H"1'H"I khrag- 
khrig is expressed as H'^I'H'S) khra-gi 
khri-gi and means moving and oscillating 
about : ^^JMrl^|N > | ! <rWK*^ de-nas 
rdsifa chen-po khrag-khrig tsam yan med- 
par then (in) a large ship which did not 
even roll. 

HTBTIf 11 '* 1 khrag-khrig snaA-wa=il'^ 
smig-rgyu a mirage; an optical illusion 
(Won). 

H^'HI khrag khrug (thag-thug) all in 
disorder ; promiscuous state ; like a troop of 
fighting men, or like the loose leaves of a 
book when out of order (Zam.). 

gi]'H|gi|w khrag-hkhrugs agitation ; flut- 
ter ; orgasm of the blood (Sch.). 



khrag-khrog (thag-thog), v. HT 
E") khrag-khrug. 

HI'^'RI''! khrag-ge khrug-ge (thag.-ge 
thug-ge) when two men do not agree with 



each oher, there is said to be thag-ge 
thug-ge among them a falling-out, dis- 
agreement. 

01'!^ khrag-rgyun i)piidi the run- 
ning of the blood in the veins ; circulation. 

gi|'*n|*i-5 khrag chagt-rta a blood bred 
horse, i.e., a real horse, opposed to a 
metaphysical one (Mil.). 

fiT'S* khrag-hthud 1. a class of terri- 
fying deities of the Bon and TanMk 
Schools. 2. y$* skyu-ru-ra ^n^m^\; 
Myrobalaum emblica (Sman. 30k}. 

fi"I'^3 E -''9 khrag hthun-hbu the worm 
that drinks blood. 

BT^'iKS khrag-hthufi srin-bit a leech 
(Mnon.). 

BTSf^ khrag-ldad vrg tiger; ^c^w 
^*cu]Jj;-2|E.' fifi-dmar ram gyer $ifl n. of 
a red tree ; the red pine called f^ ; a 
species of mahogony (Mfon.). 

BI'S^'w khrag-ldan ma described as y\ 
)^|-i*^-^j| a woman at her monthly 
period (Mnon.). 

gqj-q^-|-D khrag-por skye-wa a botanical 
term applied to the leaves of plants 
(Fat. sfi.). 

HI'W khrag-hbab=$ttij chit-bo si-ta 
a name of the river Sita (Mnon.). 

BT^ khrag-ro clotted blood. 

HT^t khrag-M a clot of blood. 

gqi'-^-X'q khrag- fas che-wa plethoric 
(Med. ; Jd). 

B*I'^ khrag- for hemorrhage; bloody- 
flux (Med.;Jd.). 

gn|-q^]m khrag-bfal flooding after child- 
birth ; profuse mensturation : 9 35 ^'*>y qS-qf 
^"I'^'l'^, Bl'" 4 ! 9 '' 1 '!^ it stops the flooding 
and internal spasms in the blood discharge 
of a healthy woman : *1 rag^khrag. 



169 



(thang), v. *$* mkhran. 



khram-kha la bab$ is 



stretched out: 
to sit with 



the legs stretched out (Jd.). 



khrab (tha'j) ijf*reiTf3T?: shield; 
buckler; coat of mail. The coat of mail 
used in Tibet and Bhutan is generally made 
of iron rings or thin disks resembling the 
scales of a fish netted together. Two kinds 
of khrab are known in Tibet ; one is called 
w^jc,-^-gq j which is made of iron rings or 
scales ; S^'S^'B* 1 ; that made of thin plates 
or iron foils. There are accounts of coats 
of mail made of silver and gold for the use 
of kings. The common quilted cloth 
armour used in Mongolia and China is 
called f^'wpq. In Mongolia it is called 
dam. 

igq'gq khrab-khrab (thab-thab) a 
weeper; one that sheds tears on every 
occasion (Sch.). 

gq'sfi ^ khrab-rnkhan one who makes or 
wears armour. 



khrab-can scaled ; scaly ; wearing 
a coat of mail. 

Hl'S^'S khrab-byafi gu scales or iron foils 
used in a coat of mail (Rtsii.). 

B^'tf Wfo khab-byin ht$ kheb a coat of 
mail for covering the whole body (Rtsii.). 

|5*J khram (tham), g'* phra-ma a false 
word ; 'Kqfz a cunning man. 



kfiram-kha (tham-kha) 1. y*\ 
girSfjg'qS-pi-Vrg-ig lha-hdre bye-brag-gi 
khro-tcahi kha-dog khra-khra (tha-tha) 
spotted and party-coloured appearance of 
the wrathful demi-gods the Lhan-de 
($ag.). 2. chart used in witchcraft or 
necromancy : 5PV*' ^' '*>* I ha hdrehi rfais- 



one's ruin having been incident on the chart 
(of fate). 3. cross marks or lines cut into 
a piece of wood so as to cross one another 
as an ornament : H* r l"' 5 '% khram-khahi-^ii 
a club-like implement, carved with lines, 
representing the attributes of a god and 
containing squares with mystic figures in 
them which serve as a means to make 
attempts of witchcraft to injure a person 
ineffectual ; ^'B 51 nag-khram a notch 
(Jd.). 

B^'H" khram-khrum fragments; baked 

|g-|g^rq^e.^-i$'( (raw) brick containing 
prints or engravings thereon when burnt 
are said to be baked fragments. 

khram-ldan ajTU a tiger. 



khram-pa (t 

gr 1. a liar; a swindler; 
artful person: I'^"IS'frfir* bycd-pahi 
for seducing or deceiving: g*r^w^ khram 
sems-can lying ; mendacious (C f .). 2. 
lively, brisk, quick, like boys, kids, &o. 
(the contrary of sH'i glen-pa, slow, 
indolent, apathetic) : khram-pa che in W. a 
wish of god-speed addressed to one going 
on a journey, such as Good success ! May 
all go well ! 3. modest ; attentive to the 
wishes of others (Jo,). B^'i'"!^ good lit. 
means to get out of mishaps caused by the 
evil machinations of enemies; to make 
the evil-charms of enemies ineffectual. 

H*i'S khram-byed, v. l 3 }'^ gyo-can or 5j' 
**'^ phra-ma byed; g'''ft*!' i Ice g.nis-pa 
double-tongued or double-dealer (flfiion.). 

H*r3|K.' khram-fifioT Hwii'H*''^*' khrims- 
kyi kfiram-fifi a board on which the body 

23 



170 



of a culprit is stretched to flog him on the 
back (Nay.). 



khral (thai) rrf^f, ^3 1. tax; 
tribute ; duty ; forced service. 2. punish- 
ment ; chastisement for sins ; visitations : 
jgurq^arq khral bkal-wa to levy taxes : foi' 
B"i dnul-khral tax to be paid in money : 
<*3 gat hbru-khral tribute paid in corn : f 
^WB*I til-d.mar khral tax to be paid in red 
sesamum. 

Syn. a dpya; g\ sduj-pa; T^'H* 
gyar-khral; ^'"\^ fo-gam; Hi'^l* khral- 
rigs (Mnon.). 

gii *qj khral rgyug-pa to perform forced 
service (*.). 

HOTI^X-H khral-hjal-wa or B"' 
lkor-ua to pay taxes or customs duty. 

Syn. BT^Tq khral hbul-wa; 

hjal-ica ; B 1 * 1 tj'V hfiral ^prod-pa 



g'Ji'^'q khral tdu-wa to collect taxes; pf. 
BTqgN khral-hidui, pf. B IJ| ' q |*' '^ Mra/- 
6?rf? /sAr, fut. fii '' WS Jihral-bfdu war- 
bya. 

gTijN^ ic/iral-gstr levying of a new 
tax: |^ < *^'A'(|V^WWfr^I p ^'fr^'^ < l|'K < 
"15^' by levj'ing fresh taxes to oppress the 
tenants. 

B^'B"! khral-khrug (31**'') n. of a very 
large number (Ta-sel.). 

B^'B 1 " k/iral-khrulja defined as SS^T^'S' 
<im-ISE.-n-ai^E,-3^ applied to any broken 
things, such as furniture or utensils. 

fj I: khri (t/ii), B'0 1 ^ khri-khrag, $'^v 
khri-grafis for number: ^T ten 
thousand; a myriad: H''" khri bye-tea 
ton millions. 



II: TSTS, ^T seat, chair, throne, 
couch ; also frame, sawing jack, trestle ; 
jjj'H an European chair; B 1 ^ khrihu 



1. a bedstead or stool; a small 
chair or table; B' Q| ' t '3f q khri-la bsko-wa 
to raise to the throne; to place on 
the chair; |'"l*^'' khri-la hkhod-pa 
to preside ; to occupy the chair ; ^'*|'B 
sefi-ge khri throne; a chair borne (in 
relief) by a carved lion for rulers and 
incarnate lamas ; ]*!*' B gier-khri golden 
seat or chair; seat for royalty; g'B 
siias-khri a contrivance to serve the 
purpose of a pillow; *' chos-k/iri a 
prof essoral chair ; pulpit ; reading desk ; 
table for books ; school table; ?!' nal-khri 
resp. "I^WB gziiiis-k/tri bedstead. 2. 
*'* I S'^'3' c ' e ''^** the upper pedestal of a 
chaitya or Buddhist votive tomb. 

Syn. ^'B nal-khri; Wi ' tgyitn-khri ; 
^1'B hdug-khri. 

'*l=.'^ khri rkaii can ^TTTIF a seat fur- 
nished with legs ; a bedstead. 

f> khri-kha= 5'p khrihikha or B^'l 8 '' 
khrihi $teft on the chair: B 'f '^ khri kha- 
na, on the chair or seat (A. 57), 

B'*^ khri-chen a great chair; a title of 
the abbot of Galdan monastery. 

-ftqX4r^M#f fq Khri-chen flag- 
dtcan mchog-ldan ^'p^'^-ifl^'^ Drin- 

can flag-dwafi mchog-ldan (Sc/ir. 17 A). 

. |-3^-tfli^ft-^'3ipi Khn-chen fiag-dican 
tnan-grags n. pr. (Schr.). 

*|-^-g-BJE.-0|B^-i5'^-) Khri-chen Bio- 
bstnn-pahi ni-ma=^'^^-^a,-a ] e>^ bio* 
ni-mnhi shals (Schr.). 

B'?^ khri- f nan n. of a Buddhist 
physician of Lhasa; a^-*^-9^e.-9|-^-yq- 
*^''51 W the son of the celebrated physi- 
cian named Xhtn-gi thor-can (Yu thog-pa) 

(Qyu. 33). 

|-|aj-al khri $an sa-le skin of the 
black antelope ; 9iRrn: a devotee sitting 



171 



on it remembers the vows as well the 
duties of a Bodhisattva ; S'tT^^^TIW 
^'ifc spreading a skin of black antelope 
for a seat (A, 11.). 

jg-f^-S^-q k] ir i ? ( an chen-po ti-fHH 
a large couch or bed ; 'f^*%3 kfiri-stan 
mtlion-po ^TIUM a high couch or bed 
(forbidden to the devout). 

'"^"1^ khri-gdugs the sun. 

* g-fffe-qtotfi khri-ldnn scn-gchi mclsod 
^fT5rft?%ni (Schr. ; Td. 2, Mf). 

8'BWiy< khri-phycd dan ffnis two 
thousand and half ; "V& ni-khri twenty 
thousand. 

I'^e. khri-hphaft the height of a chair; 
a high chair (Cs.) ; also the official rank. 

jg'^ = q<?<*n''E.- bison-khan a prison; jail 
(Mnon.) ; also 'S^ khri-mun a prison; 
dungeon. 

jg-ys khri-hur S'H 3 )'*^' n. of a bird 
(Far-sff. 7). 

H' 5 )'^ &/' fc-wa fear, in (7. (Ja.). 

' i : khri-qin or 0$ khrihu a chair. 
' ii : (thi-s'iny) ^fw a creeping 
plant ; a creeper. 

jg'SJV^fq^ Kliri-sroA Ide-btsan the 
celeberated King of Tibet who formally 
introduced Buddhist monarchism into 
Tibet, erected the great monastery of 
Sam-ye, and caused numerous Buddhist 
sacred books to be translated into Tibetan. 
rq khrihi rkan-pa chos-pa TTT^SR- 
a bed furnished with legs or sup- 
ports ; fig. to discipline the mind so that 
religion may take hold of it. 

B^'*Ff^ khrihi rkaft-rten nfJrcjT^f the 
legs of a chair. 



^ Ichrig-khrig bsgrigs-sofi it has 
suited well ; it fits exactly. 2. quivering, 
as of the body with cold, or chattering of 
the teeth. 3. v. | afj* khrib-khrib. 

Cs 

[^^^ khrigs (thig) 3|9|-|qj-ii gralkhrigs- 
pa 1. arranged in proper order or row with- 
out deviation from the right course or line : 
l^-a^rf^-q khrigs chags-su bkod-pa 
seated or arranged in proper order where 
men, women, the old and the young, 
the great and the low, all are put in their 
respective order ; 2. also in reference to a 
priest conducting a religious service, his 
demeanour when he does not look this 
side or that side but is intent on his 
duties and ceremonial observances; he is 
then said to be fipr*TVC^K >e l If/trigs 
chag$-su bkod-pa. 



kharigs-se plentiful, abundant; 
thorough ; jgiprir'qc. khrigs-se gafi quite 
well ; giJN-U-^-l khrigs-se byed-pa to 
treat; to entertain plentifully (Sch.). 



I : khrid. (thi) instruction, tutelage ; 
^"jf^'l yon-tan khrid-pa instruction, 
teaching ; 8^'^rl khrid. hdebs-pa to 
give instruction ; to instruct : fJY w i6fl| 
kfirid-pa$ chog I am willing to give 
instruction ; you may have lessons with 
me (Jd.). pftwZ khrid zab-po thorough 
instruction ; Sj'B^ $Iu-khrid instruction 

Na 

to an evil purpose; seduction; t V c ! J l 1 V i 
khrid tyad-pa to give instruction ; to 
make admonitory speeches. 



Mrig-khriff (tUg-thig) 1. 
proper, suitable; not less nor more : BT 



II: or 5J 15 ) wft row; order; serial 
order or arrangement : ^'!^'S C -''I C '' w' 
R^-q5-g^-ai-q^ i n the same manner there 
are four stages in the way to saintly 
perfection (Lam-rim. &) 



172 



Ill : pf . of "IK*. 
!Va"l khrid-phrug (thi-thug) scholar ; 
pupil (Ja.). 



I khrib-khrib (thib-thib) 
n. of a large number (Ya-sel.). 



khrims (thim), 
law"* or right in general ; the laws of a 
state ; any particular law. There ^are two 

5S khrim-la chos-khrims da'n rgyal-khrimf 
finis yod state law and spiritual j>r reli- 
gious law. The proverb says: $**' 

O rv i 



khrims ffxer-gyi nah <;in, choi-khrims dtf- 
gij i mdud-pa Ita-bu yin the state law is a 
golden yoke, but the religious law is like a 
silken knot : frwS'fWfWt 1 *'''* for 
laws they pass decrees, statutes : B* 
a^v-ci khrims-la gnas-pa to be subject to 

tr$a\ holy personages and the incarnate 
race are also subject to law. 

Syn. for laws of state : W lugs; 
hjig-rtcn khrims ; ^'^ yvl- 
khrimg; 0* 4 * 1 'SI*' khrims-lugy 
(Mnon). 

gjw-pe.- khrims-khan court or place of 
justice. 

Syn. pw^'t^'pfJ khrims-rnahi khan-pa ; 
|'^V*aS sgra-ldfin can; |wc|^-5 khritns-kyi 
ra-wa;^^'* dril-sgrog-sa (Mnon.). 

pwl'p'N khritns-kyi kha lo-pa, %**'% 
Blon-po a minister ; a legal oflicer (Mnon.). 



khrims-hjags = BWs'M'"^ 
khrims kyi don bshin ace. to the meaning 
or spirit of the law (flag.). 



khrims bsgrags-pa, v. 
bkah-U/igs, a proclamation or pro- 
claimed order. 



la skyal-wa to deliver up to justice. 
khril (thi), v. ^|i khril. 



0coc? to inflict punishment (Mnon.). 



I khris (thi), |wtfl- khris hjogs_- 
pa peace, v. HI"'" hjiig$-pa- 

|5 khru (thu) B' khru-ma V* one- 
fourth of a *V" hdom or fathom ; a cubit ; 
t"H rtsc-khrn or the measure of eighteen 
inches, from the elbow to the extremity 
of the middle finger: B'F* khru-gan 
rtsam ^WTW about the measure of 15 
inches from the elbow to the fisted middle 
finger is called "^'0 bekiim-khru, or cubit 
measure ; p''**'"' 1 ' khru hjal-ica to measure 
with a cubit measure ((7s.). 

|5"J khru-wa (thu-ica), sometimes for 

*3'i hkhru-'tca, to wash. 
^ g-flja^ khru-g.zar a kind of stew-pan 

(Scl). 

H'^""l kltru-slog or P'^1 khru-rloff 
tilling the ground; ace. to Sch. a pit 
filled with corn ; B'Sfa'" khru-slog-pa dig- 
ging ; breaking up the soil ; gardening. 

ICC'Rt' khrun-khrufi (thung-thung) 

njfa crane, grus cincrca; also the stork: 
EC^f^rw^l"!*''^' 5 ' khnm-khrun rus-pas 
chu-hgags_ sel the bones of the crane remove 
the stoppage of urine. When milk mixed 
with water is given to a crane it will drink 
the milk, leaving the water in the basin. 
The reason of this, according to K. d.^ 110, 
is that as soon as the bill of the crane 
touches the milk it turns into curds, which 
are eaten up, leaving the water in the 
basin. 



173 



Syn. w^'tr^r^; mgrin-pa rab-riA; *ta|' 
mig sman mjug-ma; 3^-5 krun-ca 
on.). 

Sw khrun-khrufi hjoni8=*fK'$fl' 
tfflft dbati-phyug-gi bu 
chun-ba ffshon-nu gdon-drug a name of 
Kumarathe second son of Is'vara (Mnon.). 



lus khrud-pa to 
wash; cleanse out dirt or filth from the 
body (tfay.). 



constellation : 



19^ khrnn (t/tttit) WlfH, nfwPH height ; 

length ; extension (Cs.) : M'*s.'fjs khrun 
phan srid height and breadth (equal) . 

|9^'|E3^ khrtim-khrum (thum-thum) 

(Sch.) : |L*'!5*<''V' ) khnim-khrum byed-pa or 
|5*)'6*<' i^q khfum-khruHi brdun-wa to 
pound in a mortar. 

khrums ((hum) W^-T? n. of a 
'f^ khriims-gtod the name 
of the 24th constellation, t^-HT^-iJ^. 

Syn. S'**$ bya-mchu ; ^5'^'35 rihi Iha- 
1110 ; *pr*i gitas-M ; Q 'S^'*! 6 -' ba-g.lin rkan 
(Mnon.). 

9'1 khrums-stod-kyi na-wa WT?- 
the full moon of the month 
, July. 

khritm$-smad the name of the 
25th constellation, '^Trrr-iTT^'-TT? ; ace. to 
Hindu astronomy the 26th lunar mansion, 
figured by a conch, and comprehending two 
stars, of which one is Andromeda. 

Syn. 3^ zi'hti ; gor^e, $brul-hchin (Mnon.). 

IS* 1 **'! khrum-zla (thnm da), \. il'^'^JV 
zlti-ba brgyad-pc ftiati^, ^^^T^> the eighth 
month of the Tibetan year. 

Syn. ^gi^'q hbuys-pa ; S'><$ bya-mchu ; 
^ ^ nor-ldan ; IB'*"^ 11 ! '^ khyu-mchog can ; 



of 



q aic if|E, qat- ba-lafi rkafi-bzan ; |l'W sprin- 
bzan ; fyi len-pa ; s5'|'q bya hi sin-tea ; 
ston-zla hlrifi-po (Mfiott.). 



(thul), RVirf** khrul gton- 
ica to let fall ; to drop (several things at 
intervals) ; & > TBr^ mchi-ma khrul 

bshed to shed tears : l'Bi zla-khrul in W. 
> 

intercalary month (Jd.). 



so 

merry. 



i khrul-po in C. 1. cheerful; 
2. fornicator (Jd.). 

I khrul-ma 1. in JF". crooked 

crank, handle (Jd). 2. a whore. 3. fl'S' 
IS 1 "'*" khu-wa khrul-ma rice-water or water 
in which millet is washed. 

^M & 

bath; washing ; ablution. 

\ khru-kyi b_tul-shugs 
drafi-srofi, a Rsi or sage who 
observes the vow of ablution : |5*''! < V c i^' 

XI 

g^'S^ kfirus byed-pahi Itun-byed ^tr- 
ympyf^* faults committed while bath- 
bathed put on clean clothes and take 
milk, curds and butter (Lofi. "\ 32). 

Syn. ^''J kim-tu rgyu ; ^''P'3^'*^ dkah- 
thub-can ; M| - qs[*ri nag b$dams-pa ; S^'i^'i^c,' 
1 dge-war slon-wa ; ^'SR.'3i non-mons thul; 
ffKCf^ dban-po thul; g' J ''^V c ' smra-bn cad- 
pa ; ife.'q^'l^vi gtan-bar g.nn-pa ; rftww 
I'S'i tshan-par spyod-pa; ^I'lS'JDI'i >'('9 f - 
byed klog-pa (Mnon.). 

15 T 5 8" khrus-kyi rtsa, $,'*] kit-fit the 
grass JTw-f (Mnon.). 

B^'S'?^' khrus-kyi rdsin gN'jq'w^'f'R.' 
rgyab-sahi rdsin a bathing tank. 
'B k/triis-khu water for bathing (Ja.). 
khrus-khan brtsegs-pa the 
making of a bath or bathing place. 



174 



gar I 



washing 



khrus-mkhan ^rra*i one who 

N> 

bathes ; he that has bathed. 

B'w Mtru-chal 
materials, soda, soap, etc. 

|5r$ khrus-chu bathing water; water 
consecrated by a deity being washed in it. 

jS^'"^ khrug-dar scraf or good linen 
towel for the toilet ; scarf of silk used in 
washing the images of deities (Rtsii.). 

Syn. 3"S^ lum-dar ; '*iV|N-ei5<ii*r^ so- 
sor khrug b_tags-ri (Sfflon.}, 

B'$* khrug-gder basin; washing bowl. 

El' c ' khrus-pa (f hug-pa) V^%, q)TS;?m, 
qr* washed; also washing. 

Syn. B'9 khru$-bya ; *.%*> bk/irud ; |'J 
khru-wa (yfion.). 

B^'S" khrug-bum JR*ro<3 washing pot 
or jug. 

g*''*''B j Y* < khrus-ma khrud-ma washings 
of rice or any other millet ; also the rem- 
nant of water in which rice, &c., is boiled. 

|'f " khrug-rdsag articles of washing or 
to wash with such as soap, etc. 

Syn. gfT*m Idag-chal; Br8> khrus-rtsi; 
^'S^ dag-byed_ (MAon.). 

R"' q l^ k/irus-ffs/iofl %^T-trn( bathing 
tub ; basin used for a bath. 

E^'^ Mrus-ras q \-vni A+ a towel; a 
bathing towel. 

E'S'I-*!^ k/D-us-gyer bathing water. Ace. 
to Jd. this word (in Ladak) relates to a 
certain medical procedure or method of 
curing. 

(S*rl*orq khrus-g.sol.wa resp. for B*''S' t ' 
khrus-bycd-pa, i.e., when applied to bathing 
places used by divine beings and great 
men: f*fvl^nrpr|tf l lha-mi khaH-pa 
sogs la khrut byea-pa " gods or men taking 
a bath in their abodes and so forth," to 
administer a bath to another, especially 



as a religious ceremony, consisting in 
sprinkling with water. 

ft Mire (the) millet: | t ^*| I fcrf^ t Wll' 

being both heavy and chilling, causes 
wounds to swell, but bones which have 
been dislocated or fractured it causes to 
unite. B^S khrc-rgod wild millet; gift' 
*|9'3'*fl? l v^'^ q r^ Q r^ wild B stops diarrhoea 
and removes the poison. 

B'S" k/trc-tse Chinese vermicelli (Jd.). 

gil'q khregg-pa (theg-pa), v. B q I*'' q 
mkhrcgg-pa. 

jj*r$*. khrem-giner, v. 4'1^ c/ui-gner 
(Mfion.). 

'H khnl-po shameful. 



kftrems-pa (thcm-pa) 1. irriga- 
tion; also to water gardens and cultiva- 
tions ; to sprinkle water. 2. n. of a book : 
ge. fSaj |*irt > qprtq < fcr > ^ <*$ n byan-khog 
kfircmf-kyi ludrin-chen hod hphro-ica 
(Sorig. 81). 



khrcl (thet) resp. ^v^i thugg- 
klircll. f^fgakindof millet. 2. ^row 
shame ; diffidence ; bashfulness ; modesty. 

3. piety aco. to Jd., especially in W. 

4. in C. disgust ; aversion. 

B^'l^ khrcl-gad a scornful laughter. 

Bi'^ khrel-ean possessed of shame ; 
gTS^ khrel-can bashful (Cs.) ; also earnest, 
conscientious. 

BT5sw k/irel-ltog pusilanimous ; shame- 
faced. 

g^-qi^c, khrel-gdofi (lit. a face capa- 
ble of shame) a bashful face. 

gr^v^ khrel-hdod-can in W. ready 
to shame others. 

B"!'^ kltrel-ldan, v. P^'^m'i fio-ts/ta 
pa ^MsifM't modest. 



175 



IT*! to be ashamed; to provoke shame: 
ftw-^'iZ&Q'd^khrel-wadan no-tsha-ica meg 
he has no shame or modesty. 

g*r)<Vci khrel-med-pa, @*r*>Y*( khrcl-med- 
ma ^HTjsrai immodest, shameless. 



gai 55^ khrel-yod ^ftrsrcri modesty ; chas- 
tity ; decency ; gT^'i khr, l-yod-pa to be 
chaste: gT^'W^'i khrel yod-par bi/cd- 
pa to behave chastely, with modesty. 

p^ khres or (the) jg*r3 khrc-po, (thc-po) 
a load, burden: *)'@*r$c.-s^ mikhrcs chun- 
can a man with a small load (A. 10). 
g^rcr^v^c,-^ Jcrrs-po dehi nan-nas from 
within that package: ^^J'^wr^* 1 
S^'gS g.shun-don-gyi bsans $in khrcs phcd 
half a bundle ( or load ) of fire- wood for 
the use of government (Rtsii.), 

Syn. Epy khur-pa ; B^'"^'^ khur hdren- 
pa ; 4jP'9'3|'ti rgyab-kyis theg-pa ; &^" 
X'V khur stsa-pa (MnonT). 



khres-k/trci (the-the) unable 
to sit erect; falling down : ^'^"I'HN'g^^' 
T^>pr^r|K-rar%rwr^<r4 mi-g.cig khres- 
khres na-wa gzigs nas sman-pa la cis pJian 
dris-pas (A. &b) seeing a man very ill 
so as to be unable to sit erect, he asked the 
physician what would be of use. 



|^ k/iro (tho) w;* a kind of bronze, of 
about same quality and worth as bell- 
metal ('^P 1 *.' 1 ' hkhar-wa), but inferior to 
//. The kind of bronze called khro-nag or 
dark bronze is also called khags khro on 
account of the predominance of iron in 
the compound. The kind called EfST 
khro-dkar, white bronze, has more zinc and 
M<'|5f zans-khro has more of copper in 
it than iron. The dark-bronze is largely 
manufactured in China ; the white-bronze 



is much prized by the Tibetans. Huge 
bronze caldrons used in the great monas- 
teries of Tibet for boiling tea are made of 
the white bronze ; *"!*<' 0" ts/wg$-kfiro large 
bronze caldrons used in cooking tea, &c., 
for the use of the congregation in the mon- 
asteries of Tibet: f'iT^'r^'tfr'V^^f 
^^*"' khro-nag gzer-srin dan dug-nad 
hjoins dark bronze dissipates worm-spasms 
and poisonous complaints. 

B'5^ khro-rgyan ornaments made of 
bronze. B^'S"!'^ khrohi khiig-til bronze 
pot to boil tea. 

$' khro-chu 1. liquid or melted 
bronze ; ace. to some author melted iron 
before it is cast. 2. n. for ^'t t}nul-chu 
quicksilver; (a mystic) term (Min). 

pf $'*<' khro-chu $dom-pa to fill up 
joints, grooves, &c., with melted bronze ; to 
solder. 



hjoms-pa to suppress anger 

or wrath: ^F^r^Km'HT'tiMr^ ^' s t'^'*F 
W^' 1 ^ gan-shig bsgrims-te khro hjoms-pa, 
de-ni hdi-dan g.shan-du bde (Spyod.) he 
who can subdue his anger will be happy 
here and hereafter. 



rnam-brjid or 

rftam-hjigs or jfwit^ rfiom-brjid 
to sit in an angry mood (Mnon.). 

B'"I^ k/iro-ffncr gif, jfz wrinkles 
on the face and forehead expressive of 
wrath, indignation, anger ; also indignant. 

H"' 1$*'*^ khro-gner-can *sjife she whose 
face is wrinkled with anger ; also frown- 
ing. 

* Tl^'*^'*i khro-gncr can-ma (Schr. 
36 C.). 

Sf'l^ ***>'** khro-gftcr med-p<i 
free from frowning or anger. 



If* I 



1T6 



khro-gner ffsi-brjid 
Idan-pa, $'V! cu-daj n. of a medicinal root 
(Sman. 102). 

(ffl khro-pa in W. for g Mro. 

khro-gtum-po furious with rage. 



khro-wa, (tko-wa) "fri brtse-ica 
sbst. anger, wrath ; also 
adj. angry, wrathful: pfc'fT^ khon-khro- 
wa smouldering wrath : p -- i'flS^ t i khro-wa 
fyzod-pa subduing or abstaining from 
anger : j^^r^*rl*m'| t *^'* 
khro-wa- bzod-pa fief ^corn-pa glir-i/nH 
fkye-war mi-hgyur-ro anger having been 
subdued aud inwardly suppressed, it 
will not grow again (K. d. * 68) : B "W 1 
^"1 '^I'H^ 'w*T5'tfV { i th* chief remedy for 
the poison of anger is forbearance (K. d. 
* 68) : jg-n$-*W'^-'|H I '** r ^ ^'ww-*^ 
*-^K.-n^ if the wrathful mind be once 
subdued it is tantamount to subduing all 
the enemies one has. B'wSV or pf' 
^l^' 1 ! to be or to grow angry (C.) ; H"* ) '3 E '' 
8|vSl'g''W9 though angry, to be as if not 
angry; |f-wg=$|'|g''wgr i angry looks ; 
to look back with anger (Mfton.). 

|[-q-* Khro-wa-ma wf^sn n. of a 
goddess. 



khro-wo (tJio-ico) Ji, T<T an 
angry spirit ; a god or Bodhisattva in his 
assumed wrathful mood or manifestation. 



khro-wo 



rnam-rgyal tprul-bgad WT'J- 
(Schr.; Td. 2, 276). 

khro-wo chen-po wvr#tv i l' an 
appellation of Mahakala, the Lord of 
Death the terrific god or guardian of 
Buddhism. 



(Schr. 73 B.). 

*M' J *'*'^VJ"*B 9| ' <I khro-wo b_dud-rt$i 
hkhyil-pa WTiJT^fiT^ (Schr. ; Td. 2, 103). 

*jg'!S^T^-jQ| khro-wo hdod-rgynl i&\T5( 
(Schr. 72 A.). 

*J3'^'^'!'*''* 1 '! khro-wo rdo-rje sa-hog 
?wm?Tra (Schr. 74- B.). 

jiJ-ZJ i^jrg^Q khro-u-o dbyug-pa tfon- 
po sfW?iB (Schr.; T&. 2, 161). 

*^'5-)-fl|^-q khro-u-o mi-gi/o-pn 
(Sehr. 58 C.). 

*B''g' q 'ij""!"'" khro-wo gtne-wfi 
pa (Schr. 58 A.). 

g-ZS-fll^l^'if^'il^ khro-wo gtstig-tor 
hkhor-btgyur ^^I^^W^f (Schr.). 

JPfWivfrf''' khro-wo 
mi-t hub-pa (Schr. 71 A.). 

g-S'nj^ai'l-fli^ 'khro-wa 
UTT^*' (Schr. 71 .). 

H \ khro-byed ftT^T, *rz frightful. 

B'SS'w khro byed-ma *v&\ 1. a name 
of the goddess Paldan Lhamo. 2. SS'**\' 
qi'35 bud-mcd gtum-mo T^ra^n a fearful 
woman (Mnon.). 



rnam-hgyur or Sjt-Stn) $d<ifi-rig an expres- 
sion of the eye; angry eyes 



spirit. 

jg 



khra-wo rta-mgrin 
(Schr. 71 C.). 



khro-mo a female terrific deity or 



khro-mon prison (Sch.). 



khrog ((hog) in BTogn khrog 
brgyab-pa to drink hastily ; to gulp down : 
jgu|-$e. q-5)*r|gq|-.Jj<-q|^-iS-*iXfl| khrog chud-pa 
yi$ khrag-qor-pcod-pahi-mchog. Thog- 
chung is be^t for stopping bleeding. 



177 



khrog-khrog (thog-thog) 1. 
one who speaks irrelevantly and is not 
steady in his acts or words. Described as 



q'!V5'S| 2. 
acc. to Jd. in W. the sound caused 
by something falling heavily on the 
ground. 

HT^' khroy-cltun an herb with leaves 
resembling a saw in shape. 



J khrog-po botanical term, used 
of leaves standing round the stem scattered 
or alternately. 



J'j khrog-sman the raw unpre- 
pared substance of a medicine (Sch.) : fft' 
B"| sman-khrog is defined as fft'wjMrsrjf 
flj*rai smaii-ma brduns-pa sna-ts/iogs-la, the 
unpulverized ingredients of a medicine. 



(thong-ne) upright, 



khroft-fie 
straight, erect (Jd.). 



(Jd.). 



khron-po close-fisted, stingy 



klirod (thod) crowd, assemblage, 
mass, multitude ; *^'P^ mi-khrod a troop ; 
crowd of men ; ^'J3^ ri-khrod a range of 
mountain peaks; X"BS rtsa-khrod a heap, 
stack, rick (of hay) ; ^''l^'ja'S nays-k/irod a 
dense forest ; Wfft mun-khrod thick dark- 
ness ; ^'0^ dur-khrod a cemetery ; 
in the crowd; ^'ff*\ = also a hermit. 



khron (than) claw: Efr$r*f'^ 
kftroU kyis rko-wahi sde the class of galli- 
naceous birds (S.g. ; Jd.). 

vx 

|^'J khron-pa (thon-pa), 

well ; spring : 



khron- 



pahi chu well-water; also called V' 
don-c/iu ; ja^'9 khron-bu, a little well : 
j^'i5'$vB5 khron-pahi snin-po 5j^if|-; ja^' c ''' 
E,'q hron-pas run-tea ^3<HM*W water in a 
well that has been made fit (by the priest- 
hood) for drink. 

B^'9 khron-bu 1. a medicinal root ; a 
vegetable purgative. 2 jg^gN-n**i'Hi > v'|e.- 
g^'^^^'I'^il khron-bus hjam-por $lyon-byed 
grogs-kyi mchog thron-bu acts as a gentle 
purgative. 



khrom (thorn) a market place; a 
bazar ; crowd of people ; multitude of per- 
sons; B**'^ khrom-chen a great crowd; 
n|q-q5'jjjj*4^*w tshogs-pahi khrom-rnams the 
assembled crowd ; %'$** pho-khrom mul- 
titude of men; ^'B* rgyat-Khrom a 
royal gathering : acc. to Cs. jg*'2^g khrom- 
chen-po, chief market-place, also principal 
street : jg^'i^' 1 ! khroin-skor-wa to wander 
about the market ; to ramble through as if 
in a market ; *|*' E ''g' I l*''|i*'^,'5i''l g.*an-$f,ags 
khrom-du klog secret spells (magic 
formulas) are read in the market. 

harlot ; 



khrom-skor-ma 
strumpet; street woman (Cs.). 



khroni-thog chod& person well 
dressed, well equipped, and possessed of 
personal accomplishments ; one above the 
crowd ; above his fellows. 



I Khrom-pa 1. n. of a province 
in Tibet ; jsw'5'i khrom-po-pa, an inhabi- 
tant of Khrom (Thorn). 2. a market 
vendor. 



hrom-dpon officer who is charged 
with the supervision of a market. 



khromr-vne sparkling ; glittering: 
zil p-akhrom-fne sparkling dew. 



24 



178 



drop. ja ^w^|'*j|ri khrom dinar nag 
hkhyil-wa a motley crowd ; a throng, black 



and red intermingled. 



khrom-tshogs (thom-tsho) the 
gathering of buyers and sellers, &c., in a 
market : -TH" qa-khrom the section of the 
market where meat is sold ; meat market ; 
^ gw dpe-khrom book market ; ?'** rta- 
khrom the section where ponies and horses 
are sold. 



khroms, v. 



hgrcm-pa. 



khrol (thai), v. % I *Q hkhrol-ira and 
hgrol-wa 1. a sound (Ja.). 2. 
loosening ; unfastening ; that 
which is unfastened. wf^Jri|rrqflj'flf 
<im-a)q|rwq?*r^r-f$r3S'?i J s'<*3j-q by rngo- 
khrol is meant the separating of meat from 
the bones by the sheep's head having 
been boiled well, ^'jjji nan khrol the con- 
tents of a slaughtered animal, including 
the stomach, entrails, lungs, liver, spleen, 
&c. The expression ^-?|-^-(Ji-|-i-^-q- 
ran-gi nafi-k/irol phyi-la-$ton-pa means 
" one's own blunders exposed to outward 
show" : (Jr 9*'**' khrol-gyis sod (the 
ring) slid sounding (across the azure 
floor). 



khrol-khrol 
khrol-po bright, shining ; B Q ''p' J t'*\' : J 
khrol-khrol bye^-pa=^"\'^'^l parS'g-q mig 
khrol-le khrol-k Ita-wa to stare at. 

jgV 1 ^ 6 . khrol-doA is said to denote a large 
hand-bell. 
sx 
P^*& khrol-cha release (as of monks 

from a religious service or of school-boys 
from class work ; aoo. to Sch, the act of 
forgiving ; pardon, 



: khrol-po (thol-po) 1. cheerful, 
merry ; sparkling, glittering, dazzling. 
2. fornicator. 



II : 1. sparkling : ^'^'9 hod 
khrol-po brightness (on water when the 
sun shines upon it). 2. ace. to Jd. in W. 
distinct ; intelligible. 

Pi' khrol-ma, ^'<*fl]i nni-tshags a seive 
for cleansing and sifting barley, grain, etc. 



khrol-mo in W. brittle, fragile ; 
opposite to ifa'S mnon-po, tough. 

gac^um k/irol tshogs a sieve (Cs.) ; g*|*i 
*"!*' frags tshags iron sieve. 

gi'S khrol-log=$*\'$''\ khrog-khrog in 
W. of. *$!*'* hkhrol-wa. ; also 1. kettle. 
2. a sound. 



khros-pa S^^'B^'i thugs khros- 
pa VI, gif^fi enraged ; wrath-seeming ; 
appearance of wrath : ST' 9 ! ^'t' 5 K'J9*'' )$- 
^Vqji^'q phyng-nn rdo-rjc $iti-tu khrot-pahi 
tshul b$t(in-pa Chagna Dorje in a very 
wrathful form manifested himself : jari<v 
1*. kfiros-pahi gar dance in wrathful mood. 

B' khros-ma (thai-ma) or g' khro-ma 
the wrathful female deity or Rudranl ; 
snch female divinities as outwardly show 
themselves to be of terrific and frightful 
aspect. 

(3*i'* < 'l khros-tshig angry words. 

Syn. ^'^9^ rnan-hphyar or W>Q,*\ n- 
hlyin 



mkhan an affix which, annexed to 
substantives and verbal roots, answers in 
colloq. very much the same purposes as the 
Hindustani appendix wala; '*r^ sa- 
mkhan one who has to do with the soil; 
wf^ lam-mkhan one who knows the 
way, a guide; ^c:*f^ pn-mk/tan A 



179 



worker in wood, carpenter, joiner, &c. 
Affixed to a verbal root, signifies he who 
performs an action, whether only just 
now or habitually; afe'wpwj yon-mkhan 
corner; *gf|m hgro-mkhan the goer; 
one who moves; i'*f>aj bri-mkhan the 
writer, one who has written it ; BMt.'*f^ afi- 
mkhan (in Sikkim) one who speaks false- 
hoods, a liar; 3pc*w ps-mkhan he who 
knows; ^N^ bstan-mkhan the shower, 
explainer ; ^prw hdogs-mkhan one who 
is binding, fastening ; also with an objec- 
tive case, 3-g-*-qi^-*i M ^ a ^ bu _ mo ^ do ^_ 
mkhan, such as are desiring my daughter ; 
WVW bsad-mkhan the man who is killed 
or who kills; a murderer. In colloq. lan- 
guage mkhan seems to have entirely dis- 
placed the termination Q pa, signifying in 
general the agent : ft*'*rj|viraj-jj-i) ydun- 
ma khyer-mkhan gyi mi the men carrying 
the beam. Contrary to its original signi- 
fication, it is even used to form the relative : 
| the sheep which was killed. 



of such as khan-pa, JBalu, etc., predomi- 
nates (Rtsii.). 



*W|S mkhan-rgyud= 
Bli-chen dan mkhan-pohi rgyud the lineal 
spiritual descendants of Bla-chen and 
Mkhan-po, those through whom the vows 
formulated by them are handed down 



| I: mkhan-pa ferns of two 
species. The one growing in Tibet is 
called WV1* mkhan-dkar, or the white 
fern ; the other species belonging to the 
Cis-Himalaya is called Wft mkhan-nag, 
black fern : mkhan-pa is deemed useful in 
healing fresh cut wounds ; it is also applied 
to swellings. 



II : incense ; frankincense : 



various kinds of incense in which the scent 



mkhan-po, srarr^T, ^mwra a 
professor employed to teach ; the head of a 
monastery. In Tibet the head of a parti- 
cular college attached to a monastery, 
high priests who give vows to the junior 
or inferior lamas, and professors of sacred 
literature, are called mkhan-po ; also learn- 
ed men, who as such are endowed with the 
TTI'S mkhan-rgyud or spiritual gifts or 
descended heritage from their spiritual 
ancestors, are called mkhan-po. Again, 
learned men such as are sent to China as 
representatives of the Grand Hierarch are 
also styled mkhan-po. Besides these, those 
who serve the Grand Lama as his domestic 
chaplains, teachers or advisers, such as g' 
wwpwj-q Sku-bcar Mkhan-po Khan-po, who 
sits in company of the Grand Lama ; *]3*)*r 
WW0WW-&0M mk/ian-pothe chamber- 
lain khan-po; viWr3 mchod-dpon 
mkhan-po the domestic chaplain; "i^'^' 
W3 pwl-dpon-mkhan-po the steward in 
charge of the Grand Lama's tea and food; 
TT|*i?| mkhan-sde phyi-ka outside khan- 
po those that enjoy this distinction but 
partially. Other designations of this kind 
are *fwrq-ar$*rq-^ Mkhan-po la rnam-pa 
bs/iiste: (1) TV5'*"$"'gi' a r.K. '**$}% 
^' 3 5'S mkhan-po chos-kyis sdud-la zan-zin- 
gis ma-yin pahan-yod the professor who 
conveys to his pupil instruction, not wealth ; 
(2) K'fe-%r|Vrtr!nr*rwMf^ tafi-M- 

gis sdud-la cho- kyis ma-yin pahan yod the 
professor who gives riches but not religi- 
ous instructions; (3) n'Q'Al'SvK'fe'M 1 
^^^q-uic,'^ mkhan-po chos-kyis sdtid- 
cin san-zin-gis sdud-pa yan yod the professor 
who gives both wealth and religious instruc- 
tion to his pupil; (4) 



180 



p.'it^-rt^ mkhan-po chot-kyis 
kyan mi-sdud-chin zafi-zin-gis kyan mi sdud- 
pa yod the professor who neither imparts 
instruction nor wealth. 

*Wg mkhan-bu pupil, scholar (Jd.). 

mkhan-mo mistress, intructress 



mkhan-rabf the succession of 
khan-po or abbots in a great monastery. 

w^-Rww mkhan-rims the respective 
prospects of being elected abbot as depend- 
ing on the different ranks of the expectant 
candidates ; the order of the succession of 
abbots. 

|*argfq mkhan-tlob for afwj-Q^fi^r* 
mkhan-po dan flob-ma the professor and 
his pupil ; also (according to some) *f ^'2r 
^'SK 1 ^ mkhan-po dan slob-dpon the pro- 
fessor and the teacher: S) '*'*r^'$" 'S'vp 
bla-tiia mkhan-slob-kyi bkah the words or 
commands of the lama, abbot and teachers. 



mkhah ir the heaven ; the sky ; 
generally ^'ir"* nam-mkhah. 

TVjjV mkhah-kM, T"'^ mkhah- 
k/iyab, wp^ttw mkfiah-dbyifl$ the whole 
compass or extent of the heavens (C*.). 

j^'g* mkluth-skyei heaven-born; a 
name for the year Fire-tiger d'fl of the 
Tibetan calendar (Mnon.). 

w^'gq mkhah-khyab ^rr^rrr^^f: that 
vhich encompasses space or the sky : *(*"^' 
gq-^fft'^t^ mkhah-khyab tin-ne hdxin ^PWT- 
Tir^f ?wrfV the all-comprehending (all 
absorbing) meditation ; n. of a Samadlri. 

*V*'fy*'&\ mkhah khyim-can 
he whose abode is in the sky ; the sun. 

*ipn-ipq-^ mkhah-mkhah ro 
(Sctir; Kalac. T. ^6). 

|^'^-*^ mkhah-goi can clouds 



mkhah-hgro (kha-do) lit. "the 
sky-goer " ; a god ; a bird ; arrow. 

Syn. SJ'i*w lha-rnams ; "*^q'*fl| hdab 
chags ; &bya; ^ mdah ; S'S^' bya-khyun ; 
?'i\'\ da-ki-ni; ^f'% gt&o-mo (Sffion.). 



-ft rnkhah-hgro-ma a class, mainly 
of female sprites, akin to our witches, but 
not necessarily ugly or deformed. There 
are two kinds of k/wdowa : those still in the 
world and those that have passed out of the 
world or are about to pass away from it. 
Of the latter or those called ^')*r'*i| i: '* 'n?j *) 
ye-fes kyi mkhah hgro-ma, goddessess of 
wisdom, they are five kinds, viz., Buddha 
Dakinl, Vajra Dakim, llatna Ddkiiii, Pad- 
ma DakiM, and Karma Dakinl. Of these 
Rdor-je Phag-mo, SeA gdon-ma, &c., have 
each a hundred thousand dakinl followers. 
They are said to be possessed of superna- 
tural powers and resemble fairies in their 
attributes. Among the worldly Dakinl 
there are two classes, those belonging to 
the pantheon of the Brahmaps and those 
devoted to the cause of Buddhism. In 
Tibet we read of X'Vwlvg Tshc-riA mched- 
Ifia, the five long-lived sisters : J^''fl'flf^ 
Butan-ma bcu-ffnif the twelve nymph 
si-ters who undertook to guard Buddhi-sm, 
&o. 

Syn. <i3i'nS-jfr) hgro-icahi sgron-me; ^' 
j^'^-> srid-piihi sgron-me, the lamp of the 
world, the light of the universe (Mfion.). 

pv*3f|N mkhah-hfjro $kyes i^R^r 
born of those that move in the sky. 

wpv^-q^ii rnkhah-hbro brd't-yig ^v 
^^^^^fmAf-qR,-^ a form of 
Deva nagari character used by the Rnin-nia 
sect in their mystical writings. 



^-^m ]gkhak-hgro ysan-wa 
ye-qes n. of a deified lady, who was, in her 



181 






former existence, the wife of a king called 
(Ratna Dasa) flfr*i&<i-WMi. She is adored 
in Tibet as the goddess of mystical 
learning. 

El mkhah-hgrohi rgyal-po-= 
!'^'^ &se>'-gyi bya-gtsitg phud- 
can the golden bird (eagle) with a crest : 



the crest of this bird is in colour 
resplendent as lapis l:isuli, and its wings 
are said to be chequered all over. 

sifWutjS-vqt. ^ i: mkhah-hyrohi dican- 
phyiig 1?NT, *3*T, afiHMlfrfl the lord of 
the sky. 

*f n55-^qf|n| 11: = !^; [31 <*l"| khyab- 
hjng Vishnu (Mnon.). 

si,tA'*i}f< rnkkah-mnain like the heavens; 
infinite : *f*vw$wi mklttih mnum-pu a 
name of Buddha (Mnon.). 

*f"*'^ mkhah-rtt'ii <*TlH* the firmament ; 
sky supporting ; a sort of ornament. 

*f'^c.' mkhah-ldin inf , q^l met. the 
eagle, the bird that soars on high. 

iNp'vlic.-^np.-g mlihah-ldin dknr-po S.K.'' 
5 *)f "g^rTf 1 , T^ a general name for the 
swan species (Mnon.). 

wpwvlfyr*)^ mkhah-ldin rgyul-mtshan, 
khi/iil-hjug JlTf^jsi, Visnu (Mnon.). 
.'q mkhah-ldin dican-po=-$f-' 
kliiiun the king of birds (Yig. k. 29). 

Hfm^c.'Qpfa-'i mkhah-hlin Moy-pa, v. w 
iJS mar-gild *T i nRT, n. of a green gem 
(Mnon.). 

mkhah-spyod ^m^^^., %^T, 
1. that which has attained 
to the sky, a gandharva (celestial musi- 
cian). 2. celestial enjoyment ; residing in 

heaven : >^*f YVV r * r H**'**'*'K'' rf l*' 

J - V5'^"'5 1 ' rnkhah-spyod du lug ma-spans par 
bgrod-pa mkhah-spyod kyi dnos-grub the 



blessing of entering into a heavenly exis- 
tence without losing one's present form : 
*f w TV$ l| l-*l l| l*'' e| gone to the state of beati- 
tude, i.e., to heaven. 

wpvifrci mkhah spyod-pa iggiJ'T'. n. of 
Avalokites'vara Bodhisattva. 

|-|f^-^6.-S rnkhah-spyod dwan-mo an 
epithet of the goddess Dorje Phag-mo 
and of the abbess of the Yamdok Samding 
monastery: |'i$ft H^'j^'^q^-fR-i^wq^ 1 ^ 
3'l.q'^c,-^ before the precious lotus feet of 
the venerable one who has attained the 
heavens (Yig. k. 20). 

*ij"m-^fl| mkhah-dbyug w&^f lit. sky- 
sticks ; a bedstead. 

#)fq^-)a| mkhah-mig ^T^. (Schi:; 
KM ic. T. 48). 

wp^'^'I'i mkhah-yi$ne-ma = $*K**\ rgyal- 
rntshtm T$SI the sacred ensign (Mnon.). 

wpw'Xarti mkhah rol-pa divine musician; 
that plays or moves merrily in the sky. 

sfvara 1. rnkhah-la rgyu ^H^K that 

*9 

moves in the sky. 2. 3 bya a bird 
(Mnon.) : ^'i'|i'P mk/ta-la rgyit-ica to 
wander or move in the sky : sfH'T^'q?'")' 
the Preta that moves in the sky : 
i'liE.'q mkhah-la Idin-ica to soar in the 
air. 3. ether, as the fifth element 4. 
symbolical numbers ; cypher, naught. 

mkhah-san = ''H**\ mo-mtshan 
the female sex (Mnon.). 

rnkhahi gos-can Tsrre^ cover 
or dress of the sky ; the night ; W^'JT*)^ 
mkhahi rgyal-mtshan srjffgsi the sky- 
ensign ; *i|^'qo|rci mkhahi pag$-pa = ihei 
space ; ^he void sphere ; the skin or cover 
of the sky, i.e., darkness, gloom ; *f5'^'g 
mkhahi gem of heaven ; the sun, moon, 
star. 

mkhahi ssil-ba = to 



182 



mkhar #t*, f^t a castle, a 
nobleman's seat or mansion ; manor house ; 
freq. a citadel ; fort : T^'S^ mkhar-dpon 
governor of a castle; commander of a 
fortress. 

JlpVp Mkfiar-k/ta n. of a place 
situated, to the north of Gyan-tse in 
Tsang ; the birthplace of Qrtib-chen Gtsaft 
tmyon He-ru-ka, one of the celebrated 
Buddhist Tantrik saints of Tsang. 

jHpK-jS-pm mkhar rgyahi-khal contains 
768 Dbus s/<0=640 mgyur-sho. 

*fV mkhar-rna W*, ^ntf^ a drum ; 
(according to some) a minstrel. 

Mkhar-chen Irag-dkar %*i' 
=.' n. of one of the 
37 sacred places of the Bon (Q. 
Bon. 38). 

sip^-Jaj-^e,- Mk/iar-chcn rdson n. of a 
fort near Tengri Nor. 

Mkhar-chen fcih $w%$*' 
'%**l one of the 
wives of Padma Sambhava (Lon. * 8). 

jjM'^qj'^'pl'TJ mkhar-nay-gi khal on 
the Tibetan steel-yard ifW^^B. mkhar-nag 
gan of gold weight=38 sfw of Dbu$ plus 
8 $kar of gold. 

|iv?m mkhar-nal that sleeps on space ; 
a general name for gods and birds. 

JJR^'E Mkhar-rta n. of a place on the 
confines of Tibet and Nepal (S. kar. 77). 

v*} Mkhar-ltag an abbreviation of 
Tt"l? c '' Mkar-rtse dan Ltag-rtse 
rdson, the forts of Qfkhar-rtse and Jjtag-rtse. 

Mkhar-ihog n. of Tibet. 

^'^ mkhar-rdo (g^ ^frr^ n. of a 
medicine ; a metalic substance in large 
grains j a sort of pyrites. 



*f *.'^ rnkfiar-dcr, ^ 
dish made of bell-metal. 



a plate or 



mkhar-wa I : *fa, SF^> bell- 
metal. 

^Ip^'H II: (also ^^" Mc/iar-ii-a) in 
B. and C'. staff, stick: ***$!* mkhar- 
gsil a staff of the Buddhist mendicant 
priests, the upper part of which is hung 
with jingling rings (Jd.) : S 
mkhar resp. for wp^-q mk/iar-ica. 

uf>*'cR'*$\ mlihnr-bnhi </<ji", 
enemy of Kan9a an epithet of Vtenu 
(Mnon.). 

wp^'l- Mkhar-rtse n. of a = Rdson, or 
fort in Phan-yul in Tibet. 

wp^-w^-|iK.-^- Mkhar-zam L/ia-k/ian 
niton n. of a fort and town in Tibet. 

*ip,-q!'-q mkliar-bzo-tca ^f^raTK, ^fl^^T 
a maker of articles of bell-metal. 

'f'^'If *>'"!* rnkhar-ruhi spor (,an one 
spor of Mk/tar-ru measure is equal to one 
silver sraft. 

f *>'F' mkhar-snin ^ft?Tra the guard 
or garrison of a fortress (Cs.). 

q rnkliar-gnit metal cymbal. 

ynkhal-mdorj kidney-coloured; 
dark red (Cs.). 

WRT^ *Ao#-MS/a:^wriA-J^ mMtal-mahi 
nad disease of the kidneys. 



J mkhal-ma I: the kidneys: 
mklittl-ma gan yin tsha-gran nits pa 
mthvn dan mkhal-nad IgaH-wa rkcd-pahi 
nad-la phan the kidney (of cattle, etc. 
taken as food) equalizes the temperature, 
and is beneficial in kidney disease and 
also for ailments of the bladder and groin. 



l II: said to be kind of fruit 
of two species used in kidney disease. 



183 

mkhas-grub (wp^'tr^'^'fl mkhas- xpurq-fj^q mkhas-pa $mad-pa JT^T of 

pa dan grub-pa) a Buddhist scholar who inferior attainments, 

being learned has attained perfection. x^-tcq^-g^ mkhas-pa bshin byed show- 

I Mkhas-grub rje=^v^'^\' ing as one skilful, but not really so. 

Mkhas-grub Dge-legs dpal-bzcin njn^-q^-wjar ja^ mkhas-pahi mgul rgyan ' 

on.9 of the chief disciples of Tson-khapa. '^N''*g=,'*i|<'\*r'j)'3<'i*r3J''*3pi'q n . o f a 

*<pwr*<<i| mkhas-mc/wg 'f^T{ a profound commentary on Tibetan grammar called 

scholar ; eminent among the learned. wp^'WwjT j^ mkhas-pahi mgul-rgyan by 

*f -qVi mkhas-brtan >?k steady and 8i ~ tu Wos-kyi hbyun-ffnas. 

wise; of reliable knowledge fW'q'q^'q xjwq^qp*^ mkhas-pahi dgah-ston IV 

mkhas-po brten-pa. wpvj''3f*rj8rZi'$j*<'5fl|^'^3jarq'*ip*rq5'yip'^ 

n. of a commentary on Tibetan orthogra- 






,-. ~ -y phy (Sum-rtnq) by Blo-gros rgiial-po of 

t^yr, faTT'L sTir., srsr:, r 

o, ^ . Zur-mkhaf. 

, , ,_, aT<T:, T^-, ^ii, 5TKTH wise, ^ 

wp^'wa^ mkhas-pahi rat/an A'afli'q'iBi'^q' 

learned, sagacious : |J^ q "(w q sman-pa a * 

i -IJL T i. <" nnT f "'3'?1 "'? q l" n. of a grammatical work by 

mkhas-pa skiliul physician : * "i T^ * ' 

i T Karma Rab-rgyas of Ho-phuq. 
chos-la mkhas-pa versed in religion: 

Ijq-ji-jjVq-arnpU'rq efficient in managing fi-q^-^-q^-^ mkhas-pahi ran-bshin 

pupils. can Mfedajicfli) possessed of the nature 

Syn. S^ lya-u-a ; ^'^ rig-ldan ; iff of the ^rned; naturally wise or skilful, 

^w ruam-ffsal; ^*\'V^ rig-pa-can; T^ *^<rft^ mkhas-pahi rigs 

blo-ldan; ^\^ skyon-fes; ^'W-'l*' yon- of the learned class: 

tan-ges ; 9jw'^ grans-can ; e.rq mdsans- mkhas-pahi rigs fas skyes born of the race 

>; ^'^l'* 4 ! 11 ^ snan-nag-mkhan; -?)'^q'^ of Daksa. 

fas-rab-can; S* ) ' c| dam-pa; ^fl|'q$'^vEi wp^-w^'q mkhas-par rlom-pa (fN'^< 

rig-pahi dpah-po ; %\'W( go-wa-can ; ^'^"| mk/ias-rlom$) tff^gd'U'*!, fiJJ conceited 

kun-rig; q^'9 brtan-po; ^w - -Z|'q sewg person; a pedant. 

yes-pa; fw^thos-ldan; |S'S(^ spyod-ldan; f^'ft^fnv mkhas-pas dregs pedantic: 

rnam-par-dbans ; ^s.'^'?t'q rtVi- 25a('5^'l^'5'J\W'ai'wp w^fljwq'^ among the 

mthon-ica ; sjij^-q-'S'q'q grags-pa thob-pa ; cultured there is much pedantry in learn- 

I'^'sT gsal-wahi sgo ; ^I'^T^ dus-yig- ing. 

caw ; ^'^" kun-gas ; ^ - q5'^v5 dran-pahi wp^'ci mkhas-po or wpwq mkhas-pa a 

<?wan-po; sT' t '* c > blo-bzan ; 5'$* blo-gros; *^ learned man; ^'3'i( I '*i'9'^*j snon-gyi 

$>^ mig-ldan; 5^'|'q^'q kun-gyis bkur-wa. mkhas-po rnams learned men of former 

(Mnon.) times. 

(nj'q'^ mkhas-pa-can f^fT*! wise; *|" | *rs^ mkhai-blun wise and foolish; 

learned ; skilful ; experienced ; prudent ; wisdom and folly, 

shrewd. Npww tpMffj-WM^g^VSfS!^'" burf-med. 

wpwq'^'9 mkhas-pa tta-bu M^*w, ii^ui b.lo-ldan ma a noble, learned woman 
like a dexterous man ; appearing skilful. 



184 



mkkag-btsun learned and righ- 
teous; *f*rq^q. mkhas-btsiiH bzaA 
learned ; conscientious and good. 

wpw-J^ mk/ias-fod H^JK-., M*t<nl most 
skilful or dexterous. 

*'|3*i* C ' mkhun-pa (Sch.), v. H^' q khan- 
pa. 

mkhnr-ica the cheeks: WW 
S '9S'8(^ a little fleshiness in 
the cheeks forebodes wealth (Mi.): 
si^-Xq mk/iur-tshos, v. RV#W khur-tshos, 
cheeks: ^.q'^^'*^^'**''^'''!^'^*^'^'^ her 
very ruddy cheeks glow like the rising sun. 



^'1 dpe-mkhyud. byed-pa to be unwilling to 
lend books. 



rnk/w-wa necessary ; desirable ; 
also vb. to want : farwjtfq-*)^ I don't want 
it_ wjtfqS-aj's^ rnkho-wahi yo-byad indis- 
pensable things; necessary articles; \"R 
siftfq fic-tcar mk/io-ica or ^'ff ner-mkho 
requisites, wants, desiderata ; most neces- 
sary things: g'*P' '^ according as was 
wanted before ; as heretofore. 

wp '^ mkho-byed, colloq. kho-che, 
necessary things; what may be needed: 
khyo-la kho-che yb-pe rik di dir nyo ma 
chok the kind which you wanted cannot 
be bought here. 



JEJ mkhos-phab ace. to ay. 
signifies a fancy for a thing ; a liking 
for ; also to wish, want something. 



>o 



pa to keep, to hold, to retain; 

dpe mkhyud-pa, S s >'* < 3*\'^ dpe rnkhyud-can 

unwillingness to lend books (Cs.) ; 



mkhyu<J-spya4 1. a sort of bag 



or vessel for carrying medicine. 2. sorcery, 
witchcraft (Sch.): ^'^'^'^S^'SS'^ a little 

\s 

instruction or various subjects like the 
alms-bag of the saint Phadam-pa (which 
contained different medicines). 



a medicine man; a physician (l&non.). 



mkhyid-gan the measure with 
the fist made with thumb extended, about 
six inches: RqqN'q-jwwgS'ilt' (its) length 
when folded is one mkhyid (Tig. k.). 

j-'i* 

H mkhyud-pa, v. 'W*' i : hkhyud- 



mkycn, v. *^'*J mkhycn-pa. I'l^' 
^-5-fl|'SflI4-q-Q)r|i-) rje tywn-gyis 
thugs rnk/iyen-gyi psigs-pa lags-mm Has 
your reverence seen by your prophetic- 
sight ? g'^S^ sku-tpkhyen form of abject 
entreaty : I appeal to your honour's wis- 
dom ; "I^'*^ to your honour's sacred 
words; SI^'H!^ to your honour's heart; 
**& '**&*\ you know full well ; you will 
understand : T l '&V'j|^'* l iS^ Lama, thou 
knowest all ! *^' :| *>'*'ll^'*'(l^ of your wis- 
dom permit to be done ! 

*JJ^ - T^ mkhyen-nikhan very learned : 
8r|Mr*K < 3 > ri*fg > 7'P l l profound like 
the ocean in every (department of) religion. 

"jl^'J'^ mkhyen-rgya-can possessed of 
much understanding ; very learned : >'*^ 
ye-mkhyen^-t^uifa rnnon mkhyen pos- 
sessed of prophetic knowledge ; fore-know- 
ledge; 3"l*''* 4 il^ thugs-rnkhyen knowledge 
of a higher kind ; prophetic sight. 



^ mkhycn-pa resp. for *\w fcs-j)a, 
^"I'i rig-pa, %\'t go-tea 1. to know ; also 
knowledge ; ^^'V^^^^thams-cadrnkhyen- 
pa ^"S all-knowing. 2 H'-*|i rnam-$es 
rnam-mkhyen ft^r, such terms 
though applicable to Buddha are now 
applied to the Grand Lamas of Tibet out 
of courtesy or for the purpose of flattering 



185 



them: j|i-<r3rfl|rr3'wi-q w h ose know- 
ledge has no bound (Lam-rim.) <^^w^ 
*! superior wisdom ; *)j$^ JS'%^ attain- 
ments ; accomplishments of a high order ; 
*$TW^ perceived, found out, dis- 
covered; wwrVT { K'"il*<i perceived the 
sentiments to be pure. 

"ll^'S'V"' 1 -*-" mkhyen-dpyod yans-pa 
wide and critical knowledge; wide discri- 
minating wisdom. 

fclWiwi mkhyen-spyan yans-pa 
(with) broad views and wisdom; wide 
prophetic vision or sight. 

^lll'it" mkhijen-brtse omniscient mercy. 

*W' q l^ <l !*< mkhyen-gzigs supernatural 
perception ; attributes of a high incarnate 
lama or a Bodhisatha. 

mkhyen-rab the wise; also *|r*ti 
wisdom. 

* 1 mkhyen-y in-fiam= *j$^w 
mkhyen-nam did you understand it ? 

"^"ra* mkhyen g.sum:^^ ys/ii-fes, 
wan, or foni TJM the knowledge of the 
subject; basic knowledge: (*<'-*|4 lam-yea 
knowledge of the way (to Nirvana) ; know- 
ing the way. *?*'*$,*< rnam-mkhyen = ^^ 
*!* rnam-par yes twr* 4hro cognition 
of all things. 

NH*-'" mkhi-aA-pa (thang-pa) ace. to /a. 
is the fourth stage of the development of 
the foetus. 



o=&.-<t hran-pa or 
sra-ica>- hgyur-wa a robust, hard and 
sound constitution : $*r|'-*|v^' ( ''' j r'g c .'2i ; n 
the great strength of his body there is 
sound health (flag). The soundness of one's 
constitution is ascertained by examining 
the urine deposited in a bottle ; when it 
is natural the physician declares 
mkhran-hdug, or colloquially 



hran-gin Mug, it (the constitution) is 
sound, &o. 



mkhran-wa (than-icd), or *| 
mkhrans also Re. khran hard ; solid ; com- 
pact; 5j-*t|gv.6aj-^-i)<; sra-mkhran-can 
bgyur mod firm ; hearty ; sound ; of a 
robust constitution (Jo.). 



l mkhrig-ma (thig-ma) the wrist 
of the hand (Jd.) ; the part of the hand 
which (in women) is adorned with bangles. 
It is also called ^s'^c.-q nor-bu chin-wa, 
the part where jewels are bound. 



mkhrig-pa (thig-pa) some- 
times for *J9T mkhrig-ma. 

^H*'^ mkhris-nad bilious disease. 
ev 

*J[^ ^"^ mkhris-pa (thi-pa) frm 1. the 
vesicle of the gall ; the gall-bladder, as part 
of the intestines. 2. generally the bile 
itself ; the bilious fluid: *tq'<rj - *flpriinr<r 
r^*3fi$4-feF*iq mkhris-pa sna-tshogs 
bsdws-pa rma ditii dug rnkhrig mig-la phan a 
mixture of the biles of different animals is 
useful for sores ; and the bile of poisonous 
animals is useful for eye-disease : aj|*rci' 
"I^i'l^'q^ the four animal biles that are 
used in medicine : (1) Vrwpjw dom-rnkhris 
bear's bile; (2) R-SE.-*<jg*rci ri-bori mkhris-pa 
hare's bile; (3) *|-i-*i|ri hphyi-wahi 
mkhrit-pa marmot's bile; (4) 9'"H na- 
mk/iris fish bile (Sman. 175). 

"N'C ^ mkhris-pa-can splenetic; a 
short-tempered person. 

"H*)'*! mkhris-ma ace. to Jd. = <* 
hk/irif. 

wgw^ mkhris-tsfiag bilious fever ; 5*.' 
"H*) graK-mkhris a feverish chill. 

wgw^wi mkhris-rims applied to a fever 
in which the liver is conjested. 

25 



186 



fis che, 

wn?- 1 ^* one in whose constitution the 
bilious diseases predominate. 



mkhregs-pa (tlicg-pa) 
hard; that cannot be broken ; cannot 
be divided ; also fearless ; and ace. to Ja. 
*itfpijg<i|-s<n mgo mk/ircgs-can obstinate, 
stiffnecked, stubborn. 



Svn. %'* sra-ica ; 'ft'* mi-figs ; 
mi-hjig; **'$*\mt'-p/iycd (Mnon.). 



'q hkhafi-u-a, *wfrwry$ semi 
mi-dgah-ica Ita-bu 1. to hurt at heart or 
offend, also to irritate. 2. vindictiveness : 
^(^^lUr^C^'^^q* k/iyod la hkhaH- 
tshig cig-kyan Mug-pas (Bbrom. 51) you 
use all manner of vindictive words. 3. 
bickering, quarrelling; ^"e.-we. many quar- 
rels: "S^'^'^ ^pc.'^Jt dpon slob re hklian- 
hlyun there arose mutual differences bet- 
ween masters and scholars. ^ 
re hkhan lyed-pa to make mischief (Mil.). 



hkliad-pa, especially in W. 
1. to sit; to sit firm: %wwi 
to sit on the back of a camel. 2. to 
remain sitting ; to stick fast ; to be stopped ; 
kept back (Ja) ; ^ti^f^^ftt to get 
entangled with the foot so as to fall: 
the door sticks. 



brgyal-wa to 
sink or fall down senseless ; to faint away ; 
to swoon. 2. to take into one's mouth 



=fci shen-pa or 
chagt-pa desire; passion; attachment 



hkhar-sgon white pebbles 
Mar yon in medical works : 
gyas-gyon 



gnis-su hkhar-sgon dan sran-ma on both his 
right and left there were white pebbles and 
peas. 

0^^,'q I; 1. hk/iar-tra a walking 
stick, staff, clutcheon: t*^* > ^f*'*'l^rr 

^<j|'^E.'ng^ he met (a man) who carried a 
stick of chu-pn (water-tree) (A. 131). 2. 
?fa, ^rf^i bell- metal: <^-fi-i|<wS)*rD'i|- 
^"S'^i the riist (sulphate) of bronze, or of 
gong-metal, removes eye disease. *f*;n is 
a compound of bell-metal with copper, &c. ; 
<*F*'q5'$ hkltar-irahi chu molten, liquid 
bronze; ^vn5')'aiE. hkhar-icahi iw-loft a 
metallic mirror. 

II. vb. to adhere to; to stick to. 
vg hk/tar-rfiaoT g'C rgya-rfia 1. gong 
used in Tibet and China to call people 
to their work or lamas to religious service. 
2. a drum of bell-metal, large bell-metal 
disk, producing when struck loud sound 
like that of a bell. 

, hkfiar-ffufiofl dish of bell-metal. 
hkhar-zans a metallic kettle. 

k/iar-gsil the staff carried by 
mendicant priests having a chatty a fixed on 
its top end, from which hang down sixteen 
rings : *r*y3F''<piv|$'3!'*)?r<iv!^*wti (^. 
28) they all grasped beautiful mendi- 
cant's staves. 



^ hkhar-g.sil-gyi-mdo (K. d. 
m. 425) a tractate on the merit accruing 
from the use of the mendicant's staff. 



hkhal when spinning the thread 
stretched across is called hkhal, and that 
lengthwise is called sgrim; sometimes 
this word is spelt as ^1 hkhcl (Dag-yig.). 



called 



} hkl,al-u-a 1. to spin: W^aTfl 
la-l hkhel-u-a to spin wool. 2 in W. to 
send ; to forward things. 



187 



hkhu-hkhrig or ^l"*'* 
hkhad-wa denotes certain passions that 
disturb the tranquility of the mind, such 
as malignity and covetousness ; ace. to Cs. 
to emulate, contemn, hate ; also to long 
for; ace. to Sch. pride (Jd.). 



hgran-pa= 

to vie with, contend ; also wrath- 
fully rebelling : 3'^'^ c -' t ' J fi she sdan-du- 
haii fyad, 1^*^ifa'&1*Hw:* don-la 
rgyun-du ynod-pahi sons hchan-pa the real 
signification is always to harbour thoughts 
of doing mischief. Ace. to Jd. to offend, 
insult, injure ; ako injury. 



i hkhu-wahi 
log-ltct f*TOT?iif a false 
(Mton.). 



creed ; heresy 



hkhun-pa 1. groan; a deep 
sigh, from suffering or disease. 2. on 
account of fullness of the stomach, beasts 
such as cows and buffaloes make this hollow 
sound at the time of chewing the cud : W 
|fie,-|-j8K.j hkhun-sgra khan-pa khens he 
filled the house with groanings : SJ 8 -'*)?'^]' 
8i-qjuiq|-n;vm sdan wahi dgra-la gyag liar 
hkhun he groans (or grunts) like a yak 
against a fierce enemy (Jd.). 



l hkhum-pa, pf. B*w khums (cf. 
$kum-pd), "tit'Q thos-pa to comprehend; 
to shrink ; <iai-<J|T*|s*wq yan-lag hkhums- 
pa to be contracted of the limbs ; if-'i*i' 
"ftpw 'i rkan-lag hkhums-pa contracted 
hands and feet : jvw;q^- <SSc^-5)^ 
yur-ra raft-bshin hkhum lyed yin the ditch 
will get narrower of itself (Jd.). 



restricted; deprived of power: iif'|3*i*ri bio 
hkhums-pa a contracted mind ; an easily 
frightened heart ; one who is much afraid 
of (Nag.) : ace. to Sch. to practise ; to 
impress on the mind. 

WV?"!*''^ hkhur-du thogs-te taking 
up in order to carry ; taking on one's back ; 
"Hl'WB*'^ lag-par khur-byes in W. 
to hold in one's hand (Jd.) ; 
sems-la hkhur-wa to bear in mind ; 
hkhur-thag girth or rope ; strap for 
carrying. 



hkhur-ica sbst. pastry; vb. 
to carry, as in RV^wZi khur hkhur-u-a- 
po, one who carries a burden; "^'^ hkhur- 
bycd, B^'tt&fii hkfmr bsMA-pa carrying: 
s^l'W^pjvn mi-theg-par hkhur-wa to carry 
very heavy loads ; to carry what one is not 
able to carry. Khur-$og, bring it ! Khur- 
sony, take it away ! 

'**' hkhur-ts/ws, v. $*>'%* khur-tshos. 



snum-hkhur 
bread or pastry baked with or in oil 



hkhul-wa ace. to Nag. to 
subdue; to subject one by argument and 
language to service ; ace. to Cs. to be 
uneasy about ; H^'^^'q khral hkhul-wa 
ace. to Jd. perh. to force a tax, a rate, on 
a person. 



I hkums-pa 1. shrunk, 
shriveled, contracted ; fig. reduced ; 



l hkhcgs-pa, pf . of ^h hgegs, 
to hinder, stop, shut off, debar : 8'fViJflfl 1 
^*r^qm-qw ji-Uar bkag run-ma hkhegs- 
pas although they prohibited, in whatever 
way, he was not stopped : ^fjV*l 8 *l*<' i'3 
nes-skyon hkhegs-pa-po one who has stopped 
evils and dangers : "Pl^'I'S hkheqi-fiyed 
one who stops. 



188 



hMetis-pa, pf. j^ Metis, to 
be replete ; to be full : HirSur^-^-" was 
filled with blood; Spf*'*^"^ bio-grog 
ma khens-te his mind not being satiated 
(Jd.). 



'P hkheb-pa, pf . pw Mebg, to cover ; 
to spread over ; a ic.*<'j'|**w^ yons-su khebs- 
te being covered all over; p'WMf^Wj 
klia thams-cad kfiebg-tc being covered over 
the whole face; to overshadow (Jo.). 



l hkhel-wa, *<Ki hgel-tra, pf. ^ 
khel, |^e/n|*ai q fdeti hMcl-tra, to put on ; to 
pack on ; to load : P5'Vl'|*i*q beu thog khcl- 
ica when the ten storeys shall have been 
put on (erected). 



J hkho-wa (cog. to wjffl mkho- 
tca) to wish ; to want ; to think useful, ser- 
viceable, necessary ; to have occasion for : 
*j*'!' ! fc it will be of use; he will be able 
to make use of it : RJff'wrR-wpS' w ill it be 
useful or not, or in W. hkho-ce med, 
I do not want it ; I do not like it. ^'flt^ 
fit for use; useful (Jd.). 

QjZt^'ti I: hkhogs-pa very infirm 
from old age ; decrepit ; decayed. Gren. 
tigiiifies *ft rgan or j^'^fffflni rgyas-hkhogs 
worn out by age : i'fin sfio-k/wg, yfi*\ sfya- 
khog complexion blue or pale from old age. 

f^qjSTq II : ^ir, w, ftrn;, wr, 
*mnr migration; wandering; fig. worldly 
existence. 



io hgog-pa 



^ hkhon-wa (cf. jfc'fl syon-tca) to 
draw in one's limbs ; to sit in a cowering 



to cough (Hnon.). 



position ; to squat ; to hide one's self ; V*' 
*jfc'* dpah hkhofi-tca to be discouraged, 
disheartened (Jd.). 



Mod, fut. of ^ ft*orf=ft khod 
1. surface; superficies ; 5'^fiS'^ i |-q sa ^ 
hkhod. snom-pa to remove inequalities of 
the surface ; to level ; to plane ; *f5\|r 
hkhod snoais-pa levelled ; made even ; plain ; 
frequently w|'f&vf*w bar-gyi khod-snoms 
gaps were filled up, i.e., distinctions of rank, 
wealth, &c., were done away with. 2. a 
mill stone ; r*?^ ya-hkhod the upper stone ; 
ma-hkhod. the nether stone (Jd.). 



^i gdod-pa to sit 

down ; to sit ; also to live, to dwell ; to be 
set down ; to be put : rgyal srid-la hkhod- 
pa raised to the throne ; flflwfnpfyti settled 
at a place ; gpr$ijWv<i seated in rank or 
order; f^'^^'ti stefi-tu hkhod-pa placed 
above ; ^T^'^'" placed under. 



I : JHkfion n. of an ancient family 
in Tibet : ws'ifa-jj 1 ^ Sa-gkya hkhon- 
gyi rigs, Sa-fkya (hierarchs) belonged to 
the race of Ekhon ($ay.). 



II: = ^fa she-hkhon malice; 
dispute; war; spite (Nag.); ^'^*J hkhon- 
tiag from the state of dispute or war ; *f&r 
*^w hkhon-ned.-par honestly, without 
evil intentions ; also without quarrel or 
dispute ; ^jfyQ^'ti hk/ion mtys-pa to be 
spiteful or quarrelsome. 



^jfy'i hkhon-pa, also ^(^^S'" hkhon-yod- 
pa to bear a grudge or ill-will against a 
person ; to be dissatisfied with a thing ; also 
to be malicious, spiteful. 

hkhon-po discord; dissension 



(Jd.). 



189 



hk/iolt, S'^^fftw bya-wahi 
hkhols the sphere of one's doing or work 
(Zam.) also = |yr<i khyab-pa. Ace. to t/a. 
to be startled, agitated, alarmed. 

4j&w.qq| hkhobs-<;ag not fitting to a 
place ; become larger or smaller : *|S*m'^' 
*j*fqr-*|l-lv^-E. hkhyags-nas hkhob$-<;ag 
cher-cher son being frozen it does not fit, 
it having grown larger (flag.). 

f ^F^'EI hkhob-wa=t.*< tif<an-pa bad; 
wicked ; low ; barbarous ; rough ; rude ; wv 
*pfc mthah hkhob border ; also border coun- 
try ; uK'iffti yan-hkhob distant border land. 



I: hkhor an attendant who is 
inferior to a friend in rank and superior to 
a servant : '^fh'^-'^T^^' even if he 
be allowed to be among the attendants. 



,11: 1. for ^pfc'S hkhor -lo a wheel ; 
me-hkhor the fire-wheel ; i'^ffo chu- 
hkhor a mill or wheel turned by water ; 
j*'ffe Rhm-hkhor wheel turned by wind ; 
"HT 1 ^ /ag-hkhor a wheel turned by the 
hand; a millstone. 2. circle; circumfer- 
ence ; the persons or objects encircling ; that 
which surrounds (a certain point or place) : 
l'*'V^'*?fc*VW lte-wa dan dehi hkhor- 
rnanig the navel and the circumjacent 
parts ; ^'fi* 1 * de khor-la thereabouts. 
\*$* ne-hkhor retinue, attendants ; also 
waiters : *pSV^E/qwrw hkhor dan bcas-pa 
with the attendants or suite; 
hkhor dgra-bcom-pas sur- 
rounded by the retinue of Arhats: 
^'^'^'S hkhor-du bgdus-po gathered 
round as his retinue ; also frequently the 
train of thoughts, reminiscences, &c., 
which the soul, when passing into a new 
body, cannot take along with it (Ja.), 

hkhor **fa (Schr. ; Kalac. T. 22). 



hkhor kun-tu grags, *$- 
resounding in every 
company. 

^'f> hkhor-kha, ^tc^n^e^n-n z la-wa 
dan shag hkhor-u-a la return or each rota- 
tion (of a month, day, or year) : we,-q5' 
A^V*l?*Vp*^4|rafc%<CT1 man-wahi 
rigs la M;hor-khahi lhag hkhyil yon-gi hdug- 
pa those articles which are found in excess 
at the termination of the period should 
be sent round (Rtm.). 

njtfvwf^ hkhor-mkhan one who turns 
a wheel ; a wheel that is turned ; those who 
cone a ad go with somebody. 

^g-^oc^ hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhir 
the circle of attendants. 
-q hklwr-gyi ske-wa, 
dependants. 

*^--$-S hkhor-gyi skj-bo 
(Schr.; Kalac. T. 21). 

"J^'S^IS*" hkhor-gyi hkhyam court- 
yard ; an open space near a temple or a 
residential hoiue where people assemble 
to witness a spectacle; also the passage 
round a temple or monastery for devotees 
to walk round for religious merit. 



hkhor-gyi gtso-bo the chief of 
the attendants or followers. 



hkhor-gfig one attendant; 
hkhor-riiams domestics ; house- 
hold servants ; 5'^ lo-hkhor a cycle of 
years : **?fc'*|'ft* lo-hkhor bcu-g.nis or 
^15 drtig-bcu a cycle of twelve or sixty 
years. 

^^ hkhor-nan favz the first of the 
seven musical notes. 



hkhor-to n. of a tribe in Tibet 
.(Vai.kar.190). 



190 



tan^^WQ sgohi t hem- 
pa ^?s^ta: steps at the threshold or at the 
entrance of a house. 

^'^'"S" hkhor-du b$du$ to enlist ; to 
recruit ; to take as one's followers. S^Q' 
t*w'Yi-*lr*^iiSV$q3*r^-'^-^ A Bodhi- 
sattva taking animated beings as his fol- 
lowers works for their good ; or a Bodhi- 
sattva having brought animated beings into 
his followers, does work for the cause of 
men : ifSV'^wtr'^l hkhor-hdus-pa hdixj 
all the attendants had collected together. 

*/*vi hkhor-pa or ^fSX'S hkhor-po male 
attendant. 

**pSV|-*J hkhor plutg-mo (&/<;., 
53 A.) 



| hkhor-wa I : to turn round ; to 
circumambulate, to walk all round ; also 
to elapse, to be completed. 2. to be 
formed, perfected : |yn j w*jifc-r^ the frost 
has formed ; iTTuffr, dew has arisen. 



II: the world ; rotatory exis- 
tence ; the round of transmigration within 
the six classes of beings : ^pSvq'arjj"'-^'^ 
hkhor-wa Id skyo-fa? skye$ to repent at 
having come into transmigratory existence. 

Syn. '^1 ma-rig \ nK^'*fl] mnon-c/iags; 
iKi srid-pa ; <&*[& hjig-rten ; "1=-'^ yan- 
srid; i)^^%J gsfii Main-pa; |f|-i|fl|^e.-Ej 
fftsug-lag dan-po; ^*ie,-X thun-mon chos; 
lyn&c *$*:*&* scluy-bsnal hltjun-nas ; *j*VQ 
hkhor-ua (Mnon.). 

<^vq-<^v*^ hkhor-wa hkhar-mor to 
transmigrate in the world (Pa-g. 291). 

Rf^'nA^jj hkhor-wa hjifj TK^^e**. rnrr7T?f 
the breaker or destroyer of transmigratory 
existence ; the name of a former Tatha- 
gata. 

**Ffc-rVB!^-f hkhor-wa, dan-ldan 
chcn-po TfT^ft (Schr.; Kalac T. 145). 



VAJ | fc'9l'^ > 9 < Vjrfe the pass- 
ing of all animals to be followers of the 
thousand past Buddhas. 

ffc-q*jrfq-p< hkhor-mi- las sgrol- 
mkhan one who has been liberated from 
Iransmigratory existence ; also one who 
liberates another from that state. 

ijfcs-qS-gw hkhor-wahi khyim=.*$*\'&*'# 
*' btstin-mohi pho-lran the residence of a 
queen (4fo.). 

n^-q5 $j hkhor-Kahi dym ^mu^ the 
enemy of the world, Mam. 

nfffvq? 5'w* hklior-wnhi rgi/(i-n,ts/,o the 
ocean of worldly existence : Jj*rif'i|'*<'^|'?^ 1 
5'|, j<-q3-3-4*i-|^--|^ (he Viknlpana 
(the wrong impression) ; thrown into the 
ocean of worldly business (Gml. "\ 76). 

Rjtfvqiv*ie.-q hk/tor-miht hchin-wa the en- 
tanglements or ties of the world : spSVsV 
^E.-q^u|-q | > ^w|^^-Ei-^--| the strong 
fastenings to this world are the cause of 
the suffering in hell of all animated 
nature (K. v 114). 

ojG^na. |<J]-qm hkhor-wahi $dttg-b$n(il the 
miseries of the worldly existence. 

' hklior-mihi bl.i-ma 
Mod-Win dy.ih-rul 
Cupid, the god of Love (Mf.on.). 

^fc'jft'&f* hkhor-wahi btson-ra the 
prison-hcuse of worldly existence. 

^fli5-iw hkhor-icahi lam i*TT3sf the 
path of transmigratory existence. 

RJ^'W^jf^ hkhor-mtr hkhor to come in 
and go out of this world very often. 

iffivqv^j^'i'S hkhor-war hkhor-ica-po 
one who transmigrates. 

^f?vtp,'<*g*i*i hkhor-war hkltyams 
wandering purposelessly in this world. 



191 



hkhor-ma tshags without 
interruption. 

^e.-^ hkltor Mfn-crm = % - T l S*'' | gin 
ka-dam-p:i 3f^^ the tree Cadaniba 
(Mnon.). 

^fSV*) ^k/wr-mcd, **V*1^ chad-mcd unin- 
terrupted : qip'^^ffo'sl^ bkah drin hkhor- 
mcd uninterrupted mercy ( Yig. If.2) . 

ij5Vqfl| hkhor-shag the date of return ; 
the term or period for which leave is 
granted to monks or soldiers at the expira- 
tion of which they are bound to return 
to duty. 

^'1"? hk/ior-zitg, v. ij>5VH hkhor-yug. 

RfSVoji) hkhor-yug, MIHl<!l the horizon ; 
the wall surrounding a city or fort ; ram- 
part : '^''STS hkhor-yug-tu or ^'*r?}r 
hkhor-mo yug-tu within the limits of the 
horizon ; everywhere ; at all times. 

* ^^'"J"l hkhor-yug ^T? (Schr. ; K&lac, 
T. 12). 

hklior-gyah latch. 

hkhor-pyog tffcrn;, tffr^ 
attendants and servants, companions and 
domestics : W^'^pfc mdun-hkhor waiting 
servant ; valet de chambre ; ^.'^fc nan- 
hkhor household servants; domestics: "I?' 
^ gtso-hkhor master and servant: \5^ 
*fi*> dpon-hkhor the chief and his servant ; 
f 3 !'^ ston-hkhor the teacher and his 
pupils ; IF'^F^ drun-hkhor a secretary or 
clerk; I'^j^ phyi-hkhor servants outside 
the domestics. 



* e tj5Vw|Sfl]-* hkhor ral-gcig-ma (Schr. 
53 .). 

nfSk-^qj^-q hkhor-legs-pa good atten- 
dants. 



weapons or *i% mtshon cha : " 

yynl-du hdsin-pa; 3fi tho-wa; 

bycd; ^'> hdsom-lyed; I >| I T ) dbyug-pa ; 

jm-n?t (cags-bcins *&'*\-o dbyig-pa ; w 

*^ tyhan-mdufl; ^'^^ <;an-lan\ f^^f. 

gsor-mdun; by tsa-kra *fi*'% hkhor-lo 

(Nnon.). 



II: 1. vii, 

an orb, circle, disk ; a wheel: 



the symbol of entering into the great 
circle. 2. the round of life ; orb or state 
of existence; |vfrffc'< &r\4-pahi hkhor- 
lo H4M<* the chart or cycle of existence : 
^fr$wr5"fflv*-q^ lha dan mi rnams-kyi 
hkhor-lo bshi the four states of existence 
of gods and men: (1) 
mthitn-pahi yul-du gnas-pa 



residence in a place where there is agree- 

ment or which is agreeable ; 

^'^ skyes-bu dam-pa la brt en-pa 

T5T to take refuge with or shelter under 

good men; (3) ^^& 

ned-kyi yan-dag-pahi smon-lam 

5f%>TR perfect determination of one's self ; 

(4) |^-ie.-i^w-g-q snon yan-lsod-nams 

byas-pa -5^5^ 3151 moral merit acquired 

in a former existence : ^pSVtfwf (1) hkhor-lo 

can ^\ one who is possessed of a disk ; 

(2) |i sbrul a snake (Mnon.) ; (3) v. 

by a fiiir-wa '^rsrT^f (Mnon.). 



I : hkhor-lo and other weapons 
of war included in the following list of 



n^ftdi^ hkhor-lo bsgyw, *fi*%wiK 
hkhor-lo$-sgyur ^*e(fM ?^gi an Universal 
Emperor. 

Syn. srgwjTSS ma-lug rgyal-po ; J"!'^' 
^ rgyal-kun hdud; yi-&*f\*.-$fl Ihag-yafri 
divan-phyug W^'^qf sa-kun dicaft ; *K'S1' 
Ji'S yafi-dag rgyal-po; )'^'f mi-yi lha\ 
j pnam-b$ko$ 



1 92 



^peVJforstvjj'jrg'ti^'lS hkkor-los tgyur 
rgyal-gyi btsun-mo the wife of the 
Universal Emperor. 

Syn. *>-5)-f* mi-yi lha-mo; SSA'V^ 
bud-med rin-chen; W ufv ymun b?ko$- 
ma\ ^V^f^P^ Lhag-pqhi dwan-phyug 
ma; ^"I'^'i^ ^ hjig-rten btsun-mo. 
(Afnon.) 

^sfi'.f* hkhor-lo hjotng, v. V% < **"' 
d7-rfr A/O/HS Stf' 1 ^'*, vegetable medicine 
for ringworm. 

*pSV^s. - giar<i3'* Ekhor-lodan Idafipahi- 
ri ^UPWf n. of a fabulous mountain 
situated beyond the great ocean where the 
horizon touches the earth. At its centre it 
has an impenetrable golden hill called 
Vajra nabhi parvata. It is filled with fruit 
trees in consequence of which there are 
innumerable species of monkey living 
there (K. d. * 282). 

*j[Sxc%-*f,-9fi*c%-'$f ( -%-y8.-irfa hkhor-lo dan 
hkhor-lo chen-po lhahi me-iog (K. d. * 368) 
n. of a celestial flower; idem *' 5'^'*' 3' 
3^5 (sa-kra dan tsa-kra chcn-po. (K. d. ^ 

156.) 

^^^)^ hkhor-lo dri-med ^iftPlH-a 

n. of flower. 

c hkhor-lo ffdoH=-t"\' c > phag-pa, 

a pig; one with a circular 
muzzle. 

^jifc-Zf-^q-qj hkhor-lo hdab-brgya ^m- 
n. of a flower. 

hkhor-lo A^rff=^ e ''*l dofi-ga. 
Syn. 3f95-^K.- rgyal-pohi $ in ; H^'R'^'q 
sor-ma g.shi-pa; 5'wu=. lo-ma bsan 
(%non.). 

qjffr,-!5-^-q hkhor-lo hdra-ica ^w?l, 
^Tiraf: like a circle ; resembling a wheel. 

(^(frjiVq hkhor-lo (doma-pa 
n. of Buddhist Tantrik deity. 



^ hkhor-lo dican-sgyw ^''^' 
i'^|1 n. of a Bon teacher (O.Bon. 1). 

a^^-s^n hkhor-lo hbyed-pa ^mwf^ft 
one who can penetrate into the designs or 
machinations of others. 

HfiSVtf-frwfe. hkhor-lo rtsils-$ton the 
fabulous wishing wheel which is possessed 
of one thousand radiating spokes: jurZ&'w^ 1 
f4fe'|'4fftff$*nr|fc'tfv<l in the presence 
of the king was the golden wheel with one 
thousand radiating ribs; $-w**orwjr*- 
^q^qj-^*r<i^'q'ix on each spoke, where it 
touched the felloe, there was placed a 
dainty dish ; ^.''ifK^'^f^i^'fr^fi 
from the wheel was brought before him 
whatever he wished; JU^v^-jq'^^- 
*IT<| that which he did not like turned 
away from him (A. 2). 

ijtfviS nf% hkhor-lo pyo gj*5 n. of a 
flower. 

nj(6X'i55'*|C.' hkhor-lohi rkafi round foot; 
elephant; S^'S glan-po (Mnon.). 

nfU^-i55-^-Ei hkhor-lohi myon-po the lord 
or chief of all: 



before the feet of Kalyanamitra 
who i) the paramount lord possessing the 
grace of the noble, wise, and good, whose 
kindness is unequalled. 

n^'HfiS-sij^ hkhor-lohi mgrin as met.= 
g-Jjf rna-mon the camel, (llfnon.) 

nfUv55-*w hkhor-lohi mthah 
the circumference of a circle. 



a( hkhor-lohi rnam-pa can, 
described as fr5)%*i^*rs' w Vr, a scent 
called " tiger's-claws." 

n^-Hfi5'uni'i<l hkhor-lohi yan-latj=t.c. i 'i 
|5')c.- fiafi-pa spyihi ruin *(ifT$, T^f a general 
term for the goose species (Mnon.). 



193 



^Sa-q^ ! : hkhor-lohi lu$ = g 
fcl tse amber. 

Syn. S'*i bya-za? ; y5)- 
pa ; $^'*toj lui-Han mig (Mnon.). 

^55-qw ii : = qj^m ga%s an umbrella. 

Syn. avsfl char-skyob; ^'1'fjq tsha-wa 
tgrib ; *V|i tshad-$kyob (l$.fion.). 

afi^n-o^-n hkhor-los hffro-wa, -^'S'l'V 
'9"I fifi-rta tpyi-dafi bye-brag wheeled; 
carriage or vehicle (jyfion.). 

"^Jfa'H hkhor-los sgyur, v. ^*|'W 
reg-bzaft (l&non.). 

RJ^-^-H* hkhor-los htsho, v. r'*W r&o- 
mkhan, a potter ; one who lives by turning 
the (potter's) wheel (fiction.). 

a.^'tf hkhor-sa vzfav-vfoftn the path 
for circumambulation round a sacred build- 
ing or other object ; the positions of 
attendant demi-gods of a principal deity 
round his mansion. 



khor-hyswm man, horse and 
cow : cwr^^rf-^ffc'^flW-fl^i^ alight- 
ing from his horse, he presented the three 
objects, viz., a servant, a horse, and a cow 
to him (A. 7). 

^Vfljfiw^ww^flj'ti hkhor-psum rnam-par 
dag-pa the alms-giver, alms-giving, and 
the receiver of alms, when those three are 
of pure motives. 



rq hkhol-wa, pf . &\* bkhol, imp. j&i 
kfiol 1. to make a person a slave; to bind 
as a servant ; to cause to serve one. g^'j** 
Iran-khol or jt'5 khol-po a slave; 6fa>- 
tpyo4-kyi sdug-bsfial the miseries of servi- 
tude ; pshan-dag-gis dwan-med-par b_kol-wa 
to be enslaved by others, without ability 
to help oneself. 2. ace. to Cs. to save ; to 
spare ; to enjoy with moderation. 3. ace. 



to Sch. to become insensible; to be asleep; 
to get benumbed in reference to the limbs. 
In Med. 4. to boil (with pf . [fa khol) : 
if*rn|*|-<i to make one boil; place for 
boiling (Jo,.). 



rn hkholthub-pa explained in rafi- 
gis bfgo-wahi Hag la nan-cifi las gad bkul-wa 
thams-cad f grub-par byed, sems kyaft hgyur- 
wa-med na bran gyog-tu hkhol-thub-pa yin, 
de-ltar ma-byufi-na bran gyog-tu gyur-kyafi 
hkhol mi thub-pa red ($aff.) extracting 
voluntary service, i.e., if a servant 
obediently gives effect to the wishes of 
his master, otherwise, although the servant 
may be in his service, he has not rendered 
service. 



r*i hkhor-ma a female attendant 



(Cs.). 



r?i hkhol-mo ^$\ maid-servant. 



hkhos or ^ "\ hkhos-',M worth, 
value, importance ; also necessity : ifftr*^ 
hkhos-can important; mighty; of great 
influence ; "V"^'*^ hkhos-nwd uninfluential ; 
^-5j-(q-cj hkhos-su phab-pa to draw as a 
blister or poultice; ^"'^'S^'^'^-^-gf 
^'S'^'"]^ dflos-po dgah ts/iafl cig yodkyaft 
inod-kyi hkhos-kaham (A. lJj.2) although 
there have existed some articles pretty 
complete, there was necessity for a vessel 
to receive (deserve) them; *jfcri|'$K'p 
hkhos-ka chufi-tta of less necessity ; 



bya-war chufi-ba less active or less 
energetic (Mfion.). 



hkhoi bstun^fiw hog babs, 
don dad ^stun suited to one's 
intention or object ; fitness ; suitability. 

*j**rS| hkho$-d_pag according to the 
measure of one's ability. 

26 



194 



hkhos-su 
tt^-ct fogs-sit bshag-pa to put in opposition. 



hkhyags-pa *fk, f^T, 
vb. intrans. 1. to freeze either into ice or 
hard ; to coagulate, crystalise : 
the water will be freezing ; 
the soda has congealed on the salt-lake. 
In Sikkim khyek or khek=ioe. 2. to feel 
cold, become numbed : ^"l^i*- hkhyags- 
hlyufi they felt cold 



hkyags-rum or A|yj]*r** hkhyags 
ram an ice-slip ; also ice in blocks. 

hkhyam-kyi a stray dog. 



l I : hkhyams-pa fig. to rove, 
wander: ^-tiw^^-fj-q^-q^w, Ri|-^-RJ*v 
(5rq^-^-R|3*w being completely deluded by 
desire, they rove the world as a wheel 
(K. d. * 380) : j*fr-qv*|s*Wr^ hkhor-icar 
hkhyam$-pa dan or nvV'^B*"''' 1 bar-dor 
bkhyam$-pa to rove (in the world or in the 
interval between death and regeneration) 
for no purpose. 



CI II; = *rt-a^-qfq don-med- 
du bgro-ica ^fora-s^rnr, ^<i*n, f^r, f^*ir^, 
ftriT?; pf. a -$wi*'%*>hkhyai$-par gyitr 1. 
to ramble about ; to wander purposelessly ; 
to wander in a strange country. At 
certain seasons many monks wander about 
Tibet, Mongolia and China, vide Hue. 
frMJTO, f?nj5; $ww*|3W! rnam-par 
^khyams-pa, to wander about continually ; 
to move about unceasingly: < *!S*'V! q !' ! 
hkhyam-du hjiig-pa to cause to ramble or 
rove about; to become strayed, lost; 
wandering ; vagrant ; erroneous ; erring ; 

hkhyam-pa inundation ; flood. 

hkhyams-po 1. erroneous; a 
vagabond. 8. n. of a disease. 



irrelevant : 
tedly. 



hkhyar-ita to err, to go 
astray, to deviate from the right path : &' 
*g*, mi-hkhyar ening or blundering man; 
$'*$*> khyihkhyar a stray dog; 5 J'']'*[3*>'ti t 3 
yi-ge hkhyar -tca-po one who makes 
mistakes in writing (a letter, &c.) ; S^'*'"!' 

do not err in conversation. 

S one should be afraid of 
making mistakes, of going astray ; ^ W 
dpe hkhyar-po a defective simile (Ja.). 

u-a = w* hchal-ica 
speaking unconnec- 

hkhyal-tshig irrelevant speech; 
speaking nonsense : l^^'i'^'^'^'IS'^, 
Rg|-'Xqi-g^-^-;c,-qu|ui if one speak mis- 
leading words which cause the youthful 
not to go straight, it infringes the law (or 
justice). 

ev 

^O' 2 ! bkhyi-wa, ace. to <SM. < @ lj ci 

hkhyil-u'a. 

CS 

*^I5^I'^ kklryig-pa, arw to bind ; to 
take prisoner. =r a ?Titfnn, also in C., to 
strangle ; suffocate ; sn] WRJ|<J|-q-9 thag-pas 
hkhyig~pa-po one who binds with a rope. 

Syn. ^^'i hcMH-tca; jf $dom; 
hdogs; I W\ l * plays; t&^' bcM-iea; 
bkyig-pa. 

Rgl-o hkhyigs-pa, pf. i!*< 
bound. 



^t hbyin-pa 

to draw out ; strain ; also to roll, revolve : 
>1'*B\ { | mig-hkhyid-pa to turn or roll one'n 

eyes : J**^*tf l i* | Ht*IFiF**^ 
Q-^-^-ai hkhor-icar hkhyid-pahi rgyuhigtso- 
bo ni ji-ltar gnan-icahi dnos-po hdi dag la 
the chief of the causes of revolving in the 



195 



world lies in how one appears outwardly 
(Lam. ti, 36). 

9^ 

Q^JTSJ hkhyim-pa=$ e fi** chu hkhor- 
tca to whirl (as of water) (VAon.). 

QV 13*11'^ hkhyims-pa qft^at, ^JTSffl, 
described as ni-tna daft zla-wa soys la hod 
sgor-sgor-du hkhyims-pa, to be encircled 
with a halo, like the sun and moon ; *V 
<j|*r hog-hkhyims Tfrft nimbus; halo : 
w*^g*w hjah-hod hkhyims a rainbow 
encircling (him) : *V9V no-bun or 
*|*w smug-pa khyi-ms sfr^S'w 
hkhyims fog, mist, or smoke enveloped 
him (Jd.). 

Ov 

Q^^'q hkhyir-wa to turn round : "&'T 
fl|^|*rq3jX-qS'<*[|vq dbu-la g.dugs bskor-icahi 
hkhyir-pa ($ag.) to turn a parasol round 
in a circle over the head. 






hkhyil-u-a *lTTn, ^n^f, vb. 
iutrans. to wind ; to twist ; to whirl round ; 
Skra hair (M.f(on.): *'^WtT*BF 1 ' 
chu-ran fugs-kyis hkhyil-tva water of itself 
whirls round, i.e., turns into a whirlpool ; 
^.^>|Vfl| | w*|STfl|' s 5^J3' s i dun-dkar g.yas- 
hkhyil g.yon-hkhyil a white shell wound to 
the right or wound to the left ; |"r*i' j rq 
sbrul hkhyil-u-a to coil up like a snake ; to 
being wound in the manner of a snake : 
$-3afg-<*j|'arn'^i chu chen-po hkhyil hdug 
much water has accumulated surrounding a 
place or inside a place forming itself 
in a whirlpool; *W*&**^' hod-du 
A as if wreathed with light; V 
garq-BJ'S na yser mig hkhyil-u-a yod 
the fish was revolving its golden eyes : **' 
sie.'Q-^'a.gai'qvgv^ mi maii-po dc-ru hkhyil- 
u-ar gyur-te there many people having 
cijowded together or assembled together: 
*rfl|'^p t 'g although 



there was no swirl in the waters they dug 
deeply into the ground. 

Syn. *pSVq hkhor-wa; ^i"!' 5 ' hjug-pa 



j-q-qg hkhyil-wa brgya ajdMW one 
hundred coils: ^B""'!;^ hkhyil-sdan ^*&3\ 
anything that is possessed of coils ; wound 
together. 

"*|grq'-s^ hkhyil-ba crw = ^'J^ rna-rgyan 
an earring. 

Syn. ^'fl'x^'l^ rna-ba mdses-byed; *j'i^' 
rna-war hkhyil; ^'^ $nan-rgyan 
(Mnon.). 

hkhyis-pa, v. "flfti hkhyid-pa, to 
evolve. 



hkhyu-u-a or 



hkhyus-pa= 



kyog-po 1. bent ; not straight ($ag ). 
2. pf. *Q" hkhyu^ run away. 

Syn. ^'^ yo-ica; g^'i lros-pa (Mfion.). 



; pf. "] khyug 
to run, move swiftly ; said to imply SViS - 

NS 

^ myur-wahi-don, the meaning of rapidity ; 
^(5"I'9 hkhyug-po runner. ^"I'^ST" glog- 
hkhyug-pa rapid motion of lightning : 
51'^'^|3 q l' t i glog liar hkhyug-pa to run or 
move rapidly like the flash of lightning : 

^BT^'^S q hkhyug-po hkhyu-pa to run away 


swiftly : "W** hkhyug-tsam in or about 
a moment or in a flash : g - *JSfli - &i'9wi slcu 
hkhyug-tsam phels-pa your honour has come 
for a rapid visit : j|Y*< c -'^ c -''W&'9'W 

\> 

^ q l*' khyetf-rafi, de-rin hkhyug-tsam pheb rog$ 
will you come here to-day just for a trice : 
Rj3*|'l*r*|'im hkhyug-tsam ptsigs see for 

\a 

about an instant : w<r*(S*l sons hkhyug the 
mind travels quickly. H'B"]' 1 ! khra khyug- 
pa to gleam ; to twinkle with light ; to 
shine in various colours: ^'^'^'^"'^Gl"' 

Q 

(Lam. ti. 35.) the mind moves 



196 



(restless) with suffering ; ^Sl'*!'*! glit- 
tering in yellow lustre ; to glitter ; to 
shine (of the rainbow) . 

"^ST 5 )"! hkhyug-yig running hand; 

v 
current handwriting. 

ngq|-^^-^ hkhyug-f ar-can in W. hasty; 
hurrying ; careless. 



ma thag-pa as soon as born (Won.) 

*l3<^-Sfc.-q5'*-^e.' hkhywd. ? Mon-icahi 
ma niti ^mni ?W ^t one that becomes 
an hermaphrodite after being embraced. 

QJZJ^'q I; hkhyud-pa 

1* ifto embrace ; embraced : 
mgul-nas hkhyu<?-pa to clasp round the 
neck; to hug; to encompass by spanning. 
2. to glide in or into (as serpents) : 
wtors^gfi mflal-du hkhyug-pa entering of 
the soul into new conception. 3. to be 
able : is.w8'*|3^ Ian-war mi hkhyud 
unable to rise (from bed). The word is 
also illustrated as HwffWfTrt 
rtsig-pa la rten nas hgro-wa Ita-bu, to 
move supporting himself on a wall, &c. 

'CJ il: =^i hkhrig-pa ***, 
sexual embrace (Won.). 

hkhyur-wa or *B* hkhyur, fut. 
of "3^ bskyur, to be separated ; divorced 
(Cs.): to stop ; to put an end to. Ace. to 
Jd., to be deserted: P^W^WW 
being separated, be was, so to speak, 
bereft. 

=S hkhyus, v. "^O'l hkhyu-wa. 

^=.'1 hkhyefi-wa to be filled up, v. 



this is enough: ^jl^ there is not 
enough. 2. in C. to gain (a law suit) ; 
to be acquitted (Jd.). 3. |*&tf1 phyir 
khyed-pa to bow without uncovering one's 
head, as a less humble way of saluting 
(Jd.). 



'q hkhyer-wa ra to carry 
away, to take away ; sometimes, to bring : 
$-5fa-nj|^ chu-yii hkhyer carried away by 
water ; $ -i! fo<'8* Ic-los hkhyer to be over- 
come, carried away by idleness. ^TiS* 
Ide-mig khyer take the key ; j^"! 
khyer-ff>g bring; $**'**> khyer soft carry 
off, take away; akin to the le-au and 
le-jao of Hindustani. 

0,^'^ hkhyer-so 1. bearing; 
appearance; demeanour; neatness. 2. 
colloq. advantage ; superiority ; pleasant- 
ness. 



'3 hkhyel-wa Ld. to hit, to 



hkhyog-hkhyog bent, 



strike. 



crooked (Nag.). 



QjSc *C| hkhyed-pa 1. to be sufficient, to 
suffice, to be enough ; to hold out ; colloq. 



ipen-pa the planet Saturn or "f"'!^ p<w- 
tfion ; he in blue robe (Man.). 2. =^ 
hbab-chu a stream ; waterfall (Won.) ; 
giji-^l'^f sbrul hkhyog-hgro the snake 
because it creeps in a bent course (Man.). 

^S"!'^ hkhyog-can or ^S^^^l hkhyog- 
hkhyog tortuous. 

nJuj-^-ci hkhyog fton-pa to fly into a 
passion (Sch.). 

0,^1* ^ hkhyog-pa, pf. S^ khyag, imp. 
g^ khyog 1. to lift ; lift up. 2. to 
carry ; tob ring : 1*-B I| I sol-ja khyog 
bring in the tea (C.). 



197 



1'3 hkhyog-po or BT 2 ! khyog-po 
crooked ; bent : gfij'Zi^'R'S khyog-pohi ri-mo 
a crooked figure ; a curve, flourish, crescent, 
&c. : ^^'W^gfl'^'^gpil nas phar hkhog- 
' tshun-hkhyog the fish writhing hither and 
thither. 



i - <i5-*r^ hkhyog-pahi sa-bon 
crooked seeds. 

^S 9 !' 9 hkhyog-po *f-'%'*l*i'i*dran-po min- 
pa ^W, f|5T,w, *ra, faP*:!, fffz^ not 
upright ; not straight, i.e., crooked. 

*15 q r z '*'S'*^ hkhyog-po'hi rnthu-can the 
bent-bill ; a toucan. 

^5"I'ti5^ hkhyog-pohi jrfe = 5'&v* po-son 
chn, **' $ chaft-rtsi a kind of churn or mixer 
to make wine with. 

Syn. ^'9'*^ yoft-bu can ; |Ste''an| gser- 
gyi lag; &"!< '^'3* dbitgs-hbyin fin; **' 
V chan-fifi; i<|-q$'*c^ hg-pahi tshofi- 
diis S*!'!^ myoi-byed. 

^5u]-Ej5-1Si| hkhyog-pohi tshig=.^i\'Vfff^: 
**! tshig-gi ytaA-rag rough language ; not 
straightforward (Milan.) . 

^S"!'*^ hkhyog-dpi/afi a lath or pole for 
carrying burdens (Sch.). 

"5I'gl hkhyog-gral=\^<>^ drafi-lmn 
straight road (Milan.). 

^"1^^ hkhyog-hlar l-|5-*)^- blaze 
or flame (Mnon.). 

"S"!'^ hkhyog-med=\K* drafi-po orife.' 
i firori-pa straight (llfnon.). 

^3U|-q^i hkhyog-tyad a crooked, out-of- 
the-way construction or explanation. 



or 8^ hkhyogs, 
a palanquin ; sedan chair ; litter. 



'q hkhyoft-wa or ^JJ^ hkhyoiif |f 
-^-^R-Nj'R. gkyofi-wa dad gkyofts- 
pahi don-dafl mtshufis to observe : "H*J5 K -*' 



nin-hkhyofl$, 
fl^'S'* 1 4gon-pa la sbyin-bdag-gii ni-ma geig- 
gi bfnen-bkur shu-wa 1. to observe a day's 
religious service in a monastery. 2. ace. 
to Jd. and Ramsay khyong in Ladak 
signifies to bring. 



' hkhyom-pa HT^f, fluid hence 
fig. giddy or giddiness ; also to reel ; to be 
giddy : ^'^Hfi'^iJi't*! bzi hkhyom hkhyom 
. dizzy with intoxication : "K-%-inr 

^e.-<gqj y a fi ^ S oge hkhyos dad 
hkhyor-shin hkhyog the trees being moved 
(by the wind) were bent (wag.) ; so the 
words *i$*< hkhyom and ^JS"! hkhyog are some- 
what similar to each other. $*" 'J5* 4 '^ '** khyom- 
khyom do-wa in C. to reel, stagger : *6,'9|* 
n^Cj-^<i| c han-gi hkhyom-pa hdug he is 
staggering under the influence of beer; 
i&-*.'ftu mtsho-hkhyom dizziness ; vertigo : 
tTfS'*f^'^S*rr'pl lug-gla$ mgo-hkhor 
hkhyom-pa yso the brain of a eheep (taken 
as food) cures reeling or dizziness of the 
head (Med.). 



hkhyor-wa fw^ra to be un- 
steady ; to miss, fail; not to hit (Cs.) ; to 
reel, stagger, from intoxication ; to warp 
(of wood or wooden vessels) : '?fa' J lfN'<r'OJ' 1 N 
in walking his steps reeled (Bdsa.). 



hkhyol-pa, pf. *$r hkhyol, cf . 
1"!'^ skyel-wa,\x> be carried ; to be brought ; 
to arrive at, come to, reach : *v*i <OJarq*- 
^^^c. on reaching the end, it was left 
(unfinished) . 

=^-i hphyos-fa 



(Sch.). 



hkhyos-ma, same as 
$kya$-ma, a present, gift. 



198 



J hkhra'ica (tha-wa), vb., pf. 
probably ^H^ hk/iras, to lean to ; to 
incline towards (Cs.). 

''H'*' hkhra-sa a support to lean against ; 
a prop; the back (of a chair): *g'W*|g 
hkhra-sar i*Araj=^'i'i|^' { i rten-la brten- 
pa firm in support (flag.). 



hkhratis (than) <3T: hard ; 
hkfirafis-ica, *>"$*.'* bkran-ica adj. hard. 



'^ &khrad-pa (t/iad-pa), in colloq. 
Tib. to expel ; turn out : "Sh^HVl'S bgtgs 
hkhrad bycd to expel the devil (from 
one's body). 



hkhrab-pa (thab-pa) <S"iTT, TO; 
pf . sip bkrab or ip'i fkrab-pa, 1. to strike ; 
to beat (in regular strokes, as in swimming 
and rowing) ; to thrust, stamp, tread 
heavily; if *l9 q ' q $> - o hkhrab-pa to dance in 
that manner. 2. to winnow; to fan. 3. 
to blink, twinkle, wink with the eyes. 4. 
to jest; to joke; to crack jokes. 5. to 
leap, jump (Sch)', jump for joy (Sc/tr.). 
6. to scoop out; to bail out (Sch.). 7. to 
fight ; to combat in C. and W. (Jti.). 



hkhral-hkhrul (thal-thuf) = 
**$ 
goj-oj-gai-a) kfiral-le khrul-le (tha-U thu-le) 

confused ; dazed ; confounded ; also as adv. 



-5q-q ' 01 l>v ' iC, 

also applied to one who is confused in 
his ideas and speaks unconnectedly and 
ravingly, and being unable to sit moves up 
and down and cannot even preserve his 
own goods. 



hkhras (the) = 3*w*i|*r ji^o sems- 
ehags sdod-pa hopeful ; also attached. 

hkhri (thi) reduction ; discount. 



hkfiri-rkafi vr, said to be=5' J '' 
*^ rgyal-mtshan, the Buddhist flag of 
victory. 

^B'fi 1 ' hkhri-tgrul payment of stipulated 
revenue or dues : |gTwg - iS!^m khral-ham 
bu-lon sags, W^'t^fvwrv^*!'^ ran-gi 
mgo-la babg-pa-ni hkhri-tra liabilities on 
account of rent or debt, &c. 



| hkhri-wa, pf. *%* hkhris, cf. W 
dkri-wa cognate. 1. to wind; compress; 
entangle ; hold fast : gwi'S'^'q khyiin 
tkab-kyihkfiri-wa conjugal embrace ; "* '-^c. 
hkhri-fin or t|i'^e, hk/iril-fiA a creeper ; a 
creeping plant: "wi?l 1 V'!f*r ( '|t 1 ' to be 
tied by taxes and entangled in debt. 2.= 
*prti chags-pa mostly as a sbst. thrall ; 
attachment, but as vb. also: ^s,'^' '"*|*ri 
van, don-gyi hkhris-pa to be attached to 
one's interest or advantage ; 3'1^'5 bu- 
mcd-kyi to wife and children: ^9"'^ 
hkhri-wa-chod= M'TV.'^rH|-X^ s/ien-pa- 
dan hbrcl-thag cftod fondness ; attachment. 
to'^i shcn-hkhris passionate attachment. 



hkhri-hbub assessment of 
revenue or S"$'^K.'fl|*j*i''*p{'' | yw rtsa-chu 
fin ffsum-gyi hkhri-hbab, levy for the 
three grass, water, wood (to be supplied 
to privileged travellers or officials) 
(Etsii.). 



hk/iril-fin 
a creeping 
plant. 

Syn. uwi-u|5-^|-q yal-gahi ral-pa. 

n|-^c.-wXfll'^ hkJiri-fin mc/iog-ldan, %*' 
ijE,-ci-^ir|-S|-*lc. n . of a kind of tree. 

Syn. %<**.'' pri-yan ku; ^'i>\^'^lvd- 
med win-can; $*1*''lj sna-tsftogs $de; g^' 
QS *>>! hbyun-pohi me-tog; wy*[<&n sa -la 
hyag-htshndl (Iffon.). 



199 



hkhri-fin thogs-med 
. a name for the Sal tree. 



Syn. 
sa-hhi fin; 
(Mnon.). 



sa-lahi IJon-pa; 
sra-rtsi fin Si^T 



hkhrig-pa 1. fti* (Schr.). 
2. "ft*', g.ni mystic number signifying 
" two " (Rtsii.). 3. vb. to cohere ; to stick 
together, become thick, intermingled: 
gnam-hkhrig the sky is thick: 
f< hod-ser dan hjah-hod 
hkhriy-pa beams of light and rainbow hues 
intermingled: ^jgi^'gvo hkhrig gyur-pa, 
$ct5-$|-w*|prq to become adherent 
being intimately mixed up with the saffron 
of mercy. 4. coitus; sexual intercourse: 
^"FaY" to perform such. *$*\'Hfrhkhrig- 
$kad= ^HT^"! hkhrig-tshig amorous speech ; 
obscene language ; *jgflj'w hkhrig-thabs 
q'fjRf amorous dalliance ; ^HT^VV* 4 
hkhrig Mod-ma, *H*1 a voluptuous 
woman. 5. f*nrTTTfr the twins in the 
Zodiac. 



Syn. of No. 4. ^=.-g-iiftr|X ditaH-po 
yor ; ?jc,'ci3-X* grofi-pahi chos ; V SK.W 
nt-stifis ; "I 1 "?!'"' lag-bfdams ; ^'"'I\ hdod- 
pa $pyod;^W bgog-pa ; ^'1^ ye-sbyor; %' 
^e.'|S mi ts/tans spyod; ^e.'S'S g.san-spyod '; 
V^"! ne-reg; *&H dgah; =. r motif, fvq 
sbyor-wa ; 3^'|X kun-sbyor ; g'l'ift skye-wa 
spyod; ^'w^'^dyahmgur-spyod; Wl' 
*><* dgah-wa rol; ^|5S' CJ hkhyud-pa ; s>*\wfc 
c/iags-fpyod ; ^'^"I'gS Mod-log spyod; 
$q|-q|^N log-gyem (l&fion.). 

^HTi-^'^'^-g-q hkhrig-pa daH Man- 
par smra-wa H^TTKT^T speaking of 
copulation or of sexual union. 

*gq-q-$?q hkhrig-pa hbyin-pa to talk 
smut. 



hkhrig-pa $bed 3'^'^^s, n . f or 
the crow (Mnon.). 

*^-q$'V-^-q hkhrig-pahi cftog rten-pa 
to be given up to voluptuousness. 

egn]-cj5-q{wii5^- hklirig-pahi bsam-gtan 
ma, or g^Vi^VSfl'w bud-med hdod-ldan 
ma a voluptuous or licentious woman 



, v. 



'si hkhrig s- 
the wrist 



hkhrig-slad-qn 
hkhrig-pa $bed. 

CS 

Rf^^J'^J hkhrig-ma or 
ma, miJ'Ji^ lag-pahi Jrf^ 
(of the hand). 

"Bl^'q hkhrigs-pa- collected or assembled 
together, of |^ prm (clouds). 

bkhrid.-pa (thid-pa) fWtw, pf. 
>-r, pf. ) */ 5T?jf?T, to lead; to 
conduct ; bring to a place ; especially used 
in connection with animals and children, 
also of leading an army: S'^'^H^'gc.' bu- 
ts/ia hkhrid byufi led out their children. 

Cv 

Q,3*J^ hkhrims (thim), <&*[* Ifl hjig? 
krag (flag.) terror, panic, fear : ^'^^' 

*HN hbrcd-nas hkhrims (Lex.; Jd.). 

^ 
^P-J^r^ Wiril-ica (thil-wa) ^H'l hkhri- 

wa to wind, coil round (of serpents) ; 
draw close; embrace closely; to clasp 
round i^vf^hkhril-mkhan an embracer; 
^ic^ hkhril-ldan a plant furnished with 
tendrils or claspers; n^jgarq kha hkhril-wa 
in W. to speak imperfectly like children ; 
to lisp, to stammer. 

Q,(gO]'g;jJ hkhril-ldem fig. very hand- 

some and young; ifi"! hkhril union. ^ 
Idem waving ; moving. 

- A a 



climbing plant, a creeper. 



200 



hkhrii (thf) ftw*, vii near, 
neighbouring bank, shore, coast; also 
postp. *j|*<'?l and a $'**[ close to ; very near ; 
against: fbrel zla-tca tned-pa rnamf-kyaH 
srid-gkyoAdehi hkhrif-su min-pa sla yod ma 
fftogs raft-ni<f gcig-por gxhun-Ias mi byed 
one should not singly (venture) to do 
Government work unless assisted by a 
colleague under the king (D. $el. 12). 

Syn. ^SI" hgram; IT* rtsar; %*' druA 
(Won.). 

*gV^ khhrii frdsin, * "R ra-gan, 
brass. 



bkhru-wa (thu-wa) = 

N3 

hkhrud-pa TOTWI to wash; to bathe: 
''B^'W hkhrur hjug-pa M^T, 
causing to be washed. 

^B'^'I^V hk/iru-tca pcod-pa 
stoppage of looseness or diarrhoea. 



bkhru-pshi 1. diarrhoaa. 2. 
bysoft, v%*^ khru-nad, ^S'^if 
hk/iru-}kyug ^(fan: diarrhoea with 
vomiting. 



hkhntg 



(Sc/ir.; Kahc. 



T. 

^Pl'f" hkhrug-got = %\'* go-cha or 
go-hhrab war-dress; coat of mail (Sf.non.'). 

^HTS '** hhhrug-lna-pa the drumming to 
battle ; stated (Mnon.) to mean also R}r 
g - , <ge.'q5 g-^ the clamour which arises 
on the battle-field. 



I: hkfiruff-pa (thug-pa) 



, 1. vb. pf. ^H^N'i hk/irugt-pa, cf. 
'i dkrug-pa, SJ"!^ bkrug-pa to be in 
commotion ; commotion ; to be disturbed ; 



to be panic-stricken: 
hkhrug-par mi-hgyur-wa * Tjfa will not 
become angry; get disordered: JTW*V 
q fl1'5' t) q l rtsa t hams-cad hkhrug-tu bcug it 
made all his veins disordered (blood to 
boil). 2. to be angry; also to quarrel, 
fight, contend: ^"f^^'^HI'^ de-g.nis 
hkhrug-nag the two quarrelling. Also as 
sbst. fight, disruption, row: ^H"!"'^ 

5 

hkhrug-pa for disorder arose ; quarrel took 
place. *|| Tr9\i to show fight ; to take up 
arms ; to rebel : *B q l' q ' < V tl H r fj in times of 
war : WiBI dmag-hkftritg=.^^ i\ ht/iab- 
bkhrug war. ftAgom-q Mi hkhrug-pa a 
name of Buddha, who does not become 
agitated or ruffled at heart. *B q l'*'*'' fl ft 
hkhnig-pahi fefiftfMqQVi'4'qfy ffyul-gyi 
sa-ffshi or ^|-5)-Cfl|^ d.nuig-gi, mi-yxhi 
battle-field (Won.). 

^BI'S^ hk/irug-dpon^-Wfi*! . dnmg 
dpon general ; commanding in war. 



1. contest, strife. 2. *rai'|V<i pyul-sprott 
pa or ^fl|^^q-q dnwg-hthub-pa (Mfion.). 

hkhrugs (thug) defined as i'|"9' 
fltfn, quaking, trembling, shak- 
ing (jftioH.) : ^fi"!* 1 '^m hkhrugs-rnkhan in 
W. having small cracks, flaws, of 
potter's ware (Jd.) : ^R^'t) hk/<rngf-pa= 
H^Q (dan-wa also f&.-.^fq khon-nas 
ldan-ua jPmi, *m, ww, ^ffvjr was 

** ' s 

stirred up, agitated, confused, also rage, 
anger ; greatly angry ; passionate. ^H")*'*^ 
hkhrugs-tshad fever caused by overwork 
and fatigue. 

SSt hkhrug-M $** war, fight: 
hkhrug-las work of dispute; 
quarrel. 

'q hkhrun-wa (thufi-wa) or ,%wn 
a resp. for yi $kye-ica arm, 



201 



1. to be born: 8 - *H*'i sku-hk/irufl- 
wa f^*Wi sku bltams-pa to be born ; also 
the birth of a great man, prince or lama : 
khrun$-rab$=\'*'*.'vn skyes-rabs 
birth stories or legends connected 
with one's birth. 2. to arise ; come from : 
j|Y'K% S < I |rR|s.rq3-*<ii W ords as they may 
just arise in the mind of yourself; 
3E.-t*t^|gE.rtw tin-4e-Msin hkhruns-pas 
meditation arising : ^'t'Slvarnge.*^ snin- 
rje thugs-la hkhruns-pa compassion arose 
in his mind. 3. to come up, shoot, 
sprout, grow (of seeds and plants) (Jd.). 

4|gc.ir<wr|9ar^(i hkhnms-rabs #so! 
hdeb$ reverence shown to a great lama 
or saint by enumerating the names of his 
supposed successive embodiments. 



hkhrud-pa (thud-pa) ism, pf. 
o 
hkhrug, fut. 13 bkru, to wash; to 

cleanse; to bathe; to wash off: 3f*i'^'f 
*|3Vivg^ </oj dri-ma hkhrud-par byed the 
dirt of clothes should be washed out : 
dft-m-q.qarjfl-iiSc.-^igvivt^ n ad-la in ill- 
ness, by giving purgatives, one may be 
cleansed: ^BV^'IS cause to be washed. 

vS 

IRS 1 * hkhrud-ma the washings of plates 
and dishes after dinner, which are given to 
pigs, dogs, &c. 



bkhrun-chod 

don dag thag-chod finally decid- 
ing or determining any matter (J. Zaft. : 
W'^T''*<'?'9''> < T*S dmag-daA kha-mehu 
Ita-bu thag-chod to decide upon a war or 
a law suit. 



phan mtho-wa of high rank. 



: hkhrul (tlml) or *| t'i hkrul-pa 

^T, f*WT, 1. ^rf^fsbst. mistake; frenzy; 
madness ; error ; illusion ; also adj. mistaken ; 
deranged ; deluded : *!rS*r5flji-q-*rS^ m j s . 
takes are not profitable ; ^f'l'Rigui'ci hgro- 
u-a hkhml-pa the deluded beings (of this 
world).; *.&*1 hkhrul-wa to be mistaken; 
to be deceived: ** ^e.-ngacq^-^<i| ra fi. 
snan hkhrul-par Mug I have mistaken ; it 
was a deception of the senses; jK. - R|gr 
w*j5arj[*. snan hkhrul-ham hkhrul-snan 
illusion ; delusion : ^Ri'^'^i hkhrul-snad 
can delusive ; erring : as a syn. of ^'1 nor- 
wa\ SFr^^rWfcf^rl hhyod-cag hkhrul- 
pahi hjig-sten pa ye deluded children of 
the world! 2. to be insane, deranged. 
Byn. of jjVRj!jr$ mo$-pa hkhrul-so occa- 
sion for making mistake ; wrong way ; peril. 



ili^&t'^t-'Q dkyus- 
rin-wa lengthwise ; in length. 



II: (thul) in the words 

-T 

mig-hkhrul is a little different from ^"J 
hphrttl; it applies to moral or intellectual 
mistakes as distinct from external blun- 
ders. In the same manner it differs 
from the word ^*'q nor-wa or ^v^E"! nor 
hkhrul. ^vi nor-wa applies to external or 
phenomenal blunders: ^B.'3)'i>*rr^Er^' 
)-g-i-*)-^; jf the inner heart does not err, 
one's doings in the outside world will also 
not be wrong ; ^rf^xjT ignorance : "'' 

dwafi-gis hkhor-ivar hkhyams by the influ- 
ence of unrighteous errors (we) wander in 
the cycles of existence. 

*gar<*jifc hkhrul-hkhor ?J^ machine; 
contrivance; artifice. Ace. to Cs. this is 
same as ^sjTiffc hphrul-hkhor. 

**|5r*f(k hkhrul-hkhor fftn (Sehr.; 
Kdlac? T. 12a.). 

Rgl - Rf6^'|5) hkhrl-hkor-mkhyim, v. 
f- btson-khan, a prison-house (Jlffion.). 

27 



202 



hkhrul-hkhor mkhan a 
juggler. 

^Ssr^flp Hkhrul-dgah (wrongly for 
iSjT'W* hphrul-dgah) $'*&* f'wnir Tuq: 
n. of a celestial mansion. 

IS*'** hkhrul-$nan. v. i.5rq3 ! |K-q hkhrul 
^ ^ 

wahi snan-wa, illusive vision or exhibition. 



Syn. *5arti3-itsw4 hkhml-wahi sems; *$*' 
_ > 

"K hkhrul-pahi yid (Mnon.). 



v%vX<H hkhrul byed-wa 
a woman that decoys others. 

*K hkhrul-med, v. ^'^S mr-med or 
hchug-med, unmistakeably ; without 
mistake. 

^S 1 "^ 9 ! hk/irul-s/tig, WKfor+ryr** 
*\c.'*l $ton-nid rtogf-pahi bla-ma ham gan- 
zag a lama or any person who meditates on 
the theory of emptiness (i.e., the voidity of 
all nature). 

*6 a r fl ft hkhrul-yshi cause or basis of 
error ; fundamental mistake. It is usually 
illustrated thus : If one mistakes a fine 
rope for a snake, the rope is the basis or 
cause of mistake, and *jr-*|w hkhrul-^es 
is the idea or notion of a snake conveyed to 
the mind by the sight of the rope : 



thag-pa mthon-nas 
ibrul-hjin-gyi $es-pa skyes-pa ni hkhrul-qes 
yin-te, de-bshin-du bdag-cag ma-rig hkhor- 
tcahi sem$-can rnains mi-bden-pa bden-par 



fi, mi-rtag-pa la tfag-pa bzufi, $dng-b$nal- 
wa la bde-war bsun-ste hkhrul-was hkhor- 
wa hdi yin in the same manner we 
animated beings, deluded by Aridyd, 
mistake falsehood for truth, the transient 
for the permanent, misery for happiness ; 
hence this transmigratory existence. 

5<aruw hk/irul-yns (gp) a very large 
number. 

< <B q I*' 
stiff or hard. 



=$l sra-ica 



very 



hkhren-pa (then-pa) = fa'Q s/ten- 
pa desire ; passion ; to wish ; to long for : 
1. J4rf^*4'npfl-i zng-skom hkhran-pa to wish 
for food and drink. 2. to look upon with 
envy; jealousy (/a.). 

".g'P hkhro-wa pf. ^ k/iros to be angry. 

^"I'l hkhrol-wa (t/iol-wa), pf and fut. 
"ftf"! dkrol, imp. ^"1 khrol 1. to cause to- 
sound ; to make a noise ; play : rol-mo 
hkhrol-tca to play on a musical instrument ; 
dril-bu hkhrol-wa to ring a bell. 2. vb. 
intrans. to sound ; resound : r'^S'^ 8 ! the 
avalanche resounded ; a'SfRgnj-^K- rgya-lon 
khrog-fin a rumbling in the bowels 
(Med.) ; X'**! fbo-hkhrog in the belly : 
^BI'B"! hkhrog-khrog roaring; rushing; 
buzzing (Ja.). 

hkhrogs dislocated: ^'S'g'JU|- 
ff*'* 1 ^ the old woman yet 

wishes to walk, though her knee has been 

dislocated (Rdsa. 17.). 



^ I : ga is the third letter of the 
Tibetan alphabet corresponding with 
Sanskrit K. It is pronounced as soft k 
when alone or when placed without a prefix 
at the beginning of a word or syllable. 
When used as a final letter it sounds 
as or is often barely pronounced. If a 
prefix precede "I or if it carry a surmount- 
ing letter, it sounds as a hard g. When 
used to represent a numerical figure it 
signifies the third, i.e., the ordinal III, 
and as such is generally used in marking 
volumes of books, &c. *| ga is sometimes 
used as an affixed particle of a word to 
complete it, as in ""T"! yal-ga, the branch 
of a tree. 

*J| II f in mystical language signifies 
born of a goat ; also a he-goat : WC^VST 
,-|*r5^ bsan skad-la ra-$kyeg yin (K, g. f>, 
28). 

^| III : 1. in mystic Buddhism "I ga 
means the hidden entity or the essence of 
Buddha : 



y<i "that which belongs 
to no place anywhere is ga" (Hbrom. 88). 



^y 3*rfc II that which is styled ga being 
the hidden essence of the Tathagata, it 
may be said (Jwi) that all sensate beings 
have the nature of Buddha (K. my. *\ 
207). 2. |-ai t^W^V* 1 ^ as to ga it 
moves and it is also motionless : "*fi' u < E -' q r 
S^-j|-)'P5'y^ "the cause is ga, the real 
nature or origin of sound" (Strom. 88). 
Again we read definitions of this sort : T^' 



ga-khral (go-thai) tax, duty (on 
cattle, butter, &c.) (/a.). 



ga-ga a title of honour in W. 

(Jd.). 

^f 
^'^'coOI ga .ga tshil tickling : If "(I*. 

S^'fl, to tickle: 



II in ancient time 
sixteen monks tickled one monk and from 
the excessive laugther he involuntarily sent 
forth, the mystic wind passing upwards 
inside him, his end came " (K. du. 



Ga-ge-mo 1. n. of a certain 
place in Tibet. 2. '5|'S chege-mo, such a 
one; such a thing; such and such (Cs.). 



Ga-gon *r$q 1. one of the two 
merchants whom Buddha met imme- 
diately after his six years' asceticism under 
the Bodhi tree. 2. T'fa'S'JT 2 ! Ga-gon-gyi 
rgyal-po ifUrra the king of a country in 
Southern India. 3. a melon (ace. Cs., 

Lex., cucumber; others; barley) (Jd.). 

c\ 
z l|' ( ^ t 'l ga-hgrig (ga-dig) a saddle; 

Si' si"! ga-grig equipment of a riding horse. 

^j'^ ga-cen or *|'^ ga-chen some 
or a good many ; good deal (Jd). 

*ir36^ ga-chad involuntarily; without 
cause, e.g., to weep (Med., Ja.). 



204 



T9I 



l ga chad-pa fatigued; very 
tired; ^'Wl'"^ S'S q !' l T*V < giving up 
in despair ; being quite exhausted (D. R.). 



O a ~snod <innfsi cummin seed, 
Nigella Indica. 



+ ^'5 O a ~ ia "nwr or n"n T^T^ ga- 
tahigde tshan a kind of Indian handwriting, 
evidently referring to the Gatha or Kaithi 
character, in which the original Magadhi 
used to be written. The Tibetan *| ga is 
ordinarily pronounced as K, hence T5 
kn-ta, or kaithi. 



1 TS ga-da n*r a club; a mace. 

^I'5^ ga-dur an astringent medicinal 

root : ^w^if ^T^V^i it removes remit- 
tent fever, diseases of the lungs and of the 
bowels. 



ss^^ gwa-dor also f'^ 
go-dor the tender growthof fresh horn in 
the three animals, rhinoceros, stag, and 
antelope : g.wa-dor ffsum-gyis rnag dan chu- 
aer (kern the three ga dor dry up pus and 
yellowish discharges: ^iS'l' 1 ^ the 
growth of a new branch on a stag's horn 
(Sc/t.). 



gnn-hdrag 

(colloq. "gdnde") how? of what kind? 
what sort ? 



sent by all means: <q'^')v iii > q rJ?' :i 5 E ''^ 3 S ! I 
shall give it back at all events (Ja.). 



X Ga-na pa-ti 

e.- Lha-chen Tshoy$-bd'tg-yi min 
the name of the great God, called the 
Lord of the Multitude (Snag.). 

J ^|'q*5'q*^ Ga-wa ta-wa ri-ni 
JTW^f<1% [^Tt?iwf small cardamom]. Also 
the n. of a flower (K. kon. "I, 4). 

T T^ 3 ^ ga-bur I: 1. n. of several 
plants, probably Gentiana cherayta, 
Curcuma, Zemmbet, &o. 2. ?*.'Si'T9* is 
a kind of stone like JJ-^'ic^ui (Min. 4). 



II : *fa, fr$ camphor ; 
fel ga-bur crystal-like camphor; 
mafi ga-bur camphor resembling yak's lard 
in appearance ; ga-bur tsha-wa ryyas-pa 
tltog-hbab good camphor, where the fever 
has increased, cures by lowering its height ; 
rnin-shin shan-pahi tsha-wa rtsa-nadgcod it 
also cures long-standing fever and disease 
of the fundament ; ga-bur ti-log glo-rims 
tishad-pa set the kind of camphor called 
Tilo cures inflamation of the lungs and 
fever. 



ga-na (ka-na) |e.'^ gan-na 
where? "IT" ga-na-wa and "l^'i gan-na- 
wa, the same as a sbst., the whereabouts of 
a person, his place of residence : ji'a'flj'aj 1 
w^'*ic he went here where the king 
was. 

IT*^ ga-na med (in W.) absolutely ; ^|'^ ga-bra (ga-tah) n. of a medicine ; 

at all events : T^'^'<"l"^l it must be a twig ; also the fresh shoot on a tree : 



Syn. F flS'j'w kha-wahi phye-ma ; 
hod-dkar-can ; |'^nwj-Wa 

i snin-po J'j5 - wq zla-wahi tfutl-; 
wa ; *5'*N* rohi-ge-sar ; ^t-q)-|t'Q qin-gi 
(Mnon.). 

ga-bur nag-po defined as il' 
-q5-wq phag-brun me-la bsregs- 
pahi thal-wa. 1. the ashes of the burnt 
dung of pigs. 2. a secret name (Min. 4). 

"I'S^'^'i ga-bur hdsin-pa 
meton. ^'i sla-wa the moon. 



205 



ga-bra rlufi-tshad rims-nad sel-war byeif 
(this medicine) removes the epidemic fevers 
and the heat induced by rlun (wind). 

\ T^S ff a ~ mu from the Sans. JHT go ; in 
mystical language go or go away ! 
(K. g. r 27). 



*'|**r,'^I gn-mo byi-la n. of a species 
of wild cat : **%lrfr<pr|& ! **! the ga- 
mo byi-la catches little birds by lying in 
wait (Rdsa.). 

Ij'cJJ ga-tsam=^'&* ji-tsam how 
much ; how many ; how long ; interr. and 
correl., as much as, e.g., as much as you 
like. 



ga-Uson (in W.) an irruption 
of the skin (Jd.). 

1'*^ ga-tshod how much ; colloq. " rin 
di ka tso " what is the price ; how much ? 
In Sikkim gong-di ka-dso-mo ? (Snd. Hbk.). 

*J| c^i'^ ga-dsan-ta *iaj*ri a precious 
stone used in curing infectious fevers and 
other diseases, also to relieve one from the 
influence of malignant spirits. 



ga-yshah or "M ga-^a, 
more properly the last word, i.e., *!'<] ga-$a 
signifies *^'*R bshad-gad a laughter, jest, 
joke : T^'^'J^'frl" they jest and play : 
^Rf|-^-l)-n^q| ae j s no t ; n good humour, 
or in good spirits, to-day (Jd.) ; also 
"to-day there is no fun." 



ga-zug (in W.) how, interr. 

and correl (Jd.). 
0^ 

ga-gzi squinting (in W.). 

gahu wve an amulet ; a brooch 
containing charms (v. "I" gam). 

Syn. F'f* kha-sbyar (Mfion.). 



hu kha-sbyar charm box the 
lids of a which are joined edge to edge : 



Mi-wang (0 king), thy residence 
is very solitary and so beautiful, as if the 
heaven and the earth kiss each other there, 
like the lids of an amulet (Ilbrom. 89). 



gahu-le account book ; list (of 
cases, also of cash and balance) ; also a short 
note kept on the margin: 5fljrj logs-su 
in a separate place that is not in the body 
of a book, but on the foot or margin or 
corner, i.e., 1^'^ zur-du, of a book or note- 
book : |'2 



since the date 
of the month, etc., of taking over charge 
of the Rdson (District office) as many 
criminal cases as may be, and the receipts 
large and small all bound together should 
be kept in the registration book (Rtsii. ; 
O. Sndg.). 



Ga-ya gau-rihi 
mdo a Sutra delivered by the Buddha on 
the mountain of Gaya Gauri. 

a-yig ?r?'i the letter if g. 



tl ga-ra kha- 

tan du lahi rtsa-wa ^<n?r^?f excel- 
lent rice ; the root of a kind of plant : 



-fey taking 
a confection made of equal quantities 
of the root of Garka Tandula rta-dri; 
sesame, barley and treacle, one becomes 
youthful (K. g. US). 

^|'*> ga-ri, for Sl*'^* dgah-ris, "\"^ ga- 
sha (in W.) dejected : flj'^'ft'^ I am in 
low spirits (Ja.). 



206 



-n in colloquial *p'^ gafi-du 
whither ; which way ; to which place ; 
where ? 

* T^'f^ 9 a --4<* T^r; =Q=- khyuA 
the fabulous chief of the feathered race. 

*?\'*\ ga-re 1. in Lhasa very com. 
colloq. form for " what," sounded kdre. 2. 
where, whence: fll'V^'iV 8 "*'^' 1 ^ 9 ! 'gc, g a . 
re hdi-hdra a-kyafi ran-drag byitn whence 
comes thi} oppression, over-powering 
(Rdsa.10). 

3]'% Ga-ro J'fljM 'S'ViS-ojar'fa '*| *>=. n. of 
a place in India ; the Garo hills (L)sam. 28). 

^'^ ga-la 1. %* whither: 



with the palms of the hands joined 
he bowed in the direction where the Vic- 
torious One was. 2.=^ -a l ji-fa for what; 
owing to what : *Tr^ to what does this 
serve ? of what use is this ? 
where are (you or they) going ? 



| ga-la go-li-ka 

1 1. nl' an insect which subsists, it is said, 
by inhaling the air only (K. d. * 4&). 

^|'l ga-la >nr. >M; slowly, softly, 
gently. To a departing guest one says : 
| a) 3q " ka-lc pe'p " go gently. To the host 
you answer : "I 8( i q3fli " ka-le shu " stay 
quietly, remain in peace ! *T^'^"1 ga-le yog 
come slowly or gently : |5* l '*\'l' a| ' l 'I'^' q I'^' 
*3i' a i'S c ''9*<''^'r t i^*i' t fc it is a common 
saying (in Tibet) that by walking slowly 
and slowly the ass can travel all round 
China. 

ga-log (in W.) squinting. 



^j*"^ I: <7-f a laughter : "IV^'""?^ gad- 
mo bgad, "I' J ]^' 15 11 I ga-$ar bcug to cause 
laughter. 



*!'*!' J"! ga-$a-tgrog loud laughter; 
ga-$a sgrog-cin fflu-gar rol-mo hbul loudly 
laughing they danced, sang, and made 
music (A. 11). 

*J|'"^| II: n. of a place in Upper Tibet 
(A. 20). 

^'^ III: v. T^ ga-sha ^Tifhj^w a 
raiment used by Tantrik priests. 

*^I*"^ IV : a string of beads ; a necklace ; 
a string of human skulls or bone-bits worn 
by Tantrik Lamas : 



, blood drops from her mouth, a 
string of human heads hangs down from 
her neck, to thee be my praise who hast 
subdued the intolerable pride and arrogance 
of the host of demons (Choi-g.). 



ga-<;ar 1. defined in these 
*'1^TW K ' < r i l.pAy0JU-0M> dpun- 
pa la ; f<nrfl|3|-rt^Xq|-at phyogs-g.cig 
mtshan-hog la ; "19'W q $<ir<ir-*]v'^-i gshu-d 
ffdg ga- kar far g yon-pa (A. 135). Girth 
or rope hung across the breast and the 
shoulder in order to draw or carry any- 
thing ; also a dog harness ; a shoulder-belt 
worn as a badge of dignity by constables 
and the like officers. 2. sf'"! sgom-t/iag, 
the cord worn round the shoulder and the 
waist at the time of meditation. 
fl|jpwr-*g*rq ga-$ar dan ft 
mdscf-pa (D. R.) Looking nice (ou account) 
of (his) ga-$ar and petticoat. 

some; 



part ; a few, com. in colloq. 



ga-^ed 1. prob. "l^'-^S gaft-$ed 
uncertain ; not definitely known. 2. an 
approximate but uncertain direction, 
region or quarter : T^fll^'V^S it is at a 



207 



certain place ; it is somewhere : 
w^tivp%'^'j\-*t without explaining 
minutely (i.e., the particulars), he pro- 
ceeded instantly somewhere (A. 135). 

TM^ ff a ~9 e f glass beads; glass pearls 
(Sch.). 



Gd n. of a Ddkini, a goddess (K. g. 



r, 

*l|'| gwa-pa the white mark or patch 

on the forehead of the kyan (the wild ass 
of Tibet). 

f. ^pj gag 1. silver in bars, ingots, 
small pieces, &c., uncoined (in W.). 
2. wad; wadding (for loading muskets) 
(Jd.). 



=^ Ihog-pa or 

gag-lhog is a swelling in the throat; a 
quinsy: nad mi dan dud-hgrohi ske-dan 
mgrin-pa-la $kran-nas rnag thon-te drag- 
yod is a malady of men and animals in 
which the neck and throat become swollen, 
but matter issuing forth, it is eased; 
death occurs from obstruction. 



spyir gag-l/wg-ces min so-sor 
bfad-kyan no-wo ynan-nad du-gpig rim$-nad- 
kyi gras though the disease in general is 
differently expressed by the names gag 
and Ihotj, its real nature is but one among 
pestilential diseases and it belongs to the 
class of (fw^H-^TK) fatal fevers. 



fowl (Cs.). 
gags 



bya-gag a water 

obstructed. 

I : gan-ga-chufi a kind of 
flower which resembles a chorten (chaitya) 
in shape, growing in the sandy crevices of 
rocks in Tibet. It is used as an antidote 



against poison and also diarrhoea, 
i|q-g-*)-ifri!-ar| yyah-g.seb bye-mahi logs-la 
skye ^C^fC^vyj^;**|f^ ga n ga chun- 

4 

gan-ga chun-gi$ dug dan tsha-hkhru g$od. 

^^'^ ganga |S| gafiga JT|fT the river 
Ganges ; l=.'^-^'35 Gan-gahi Lha-mo *TWT- 
%^t the goddess of the river Ganga. Its 
different names are : "^'"iirsj'Vi^ Yan- 
fag brgyan-ldan, ^'l^'*q Hchi-med chab, 
spvpa;^ Nam-mkhahi chu-bo, ^"I'Q^'^ 
Drag-pohi thod, ^'5'g'S Dsa-uuhi bu-mo 
(amrft), |i' fl I?S* l ' :| Rgyun-ysum-pa, wyw 
"'ft Lam-gsum hgro, ^^'^T'^^ Glan-chen 
kha-hbab (jft^sPt), ^N^^ Ejigs-sde ma, 
gq-Rgir^-q Khyab-hjvg rkan-pa, 'a*i' 
Chu-byin-ma, ^v^^^* Sknl-ldan fifi- 
rtahi bu-mo (w?N;^), ij'"^' 2 ? Lha-yi chu-bo 
(Mnon.). 

1^'^'^ i : gan-ga hdsin ir$Vf*. an epi- 
thet of S'iva. He who holds Gan-ga on 
his head, i.e., from whose head the Ganges 
flows : rtf R<rj5 



<r mtho-ris-kyi 
tham$-cad b$kal-pahi mcs bsregs-pahi 
skabs-su Lha-mo Gan-ga lhun-na$ byun-wa- 
na nam-mkhah la ral-pa bkyans-nas ral-pahi 
sten-du bsun-tcas-so when all the celes- 
tial regions were burnt by the fire of the 
Kalpa, Ganga as goddess appeared on 
this earth having fallen from heaven. 
Her locks were spread out in the sky and 
held up aloft by S'iva (for which he is 
called Gangadhara, the holder of Ganga) 
(Mnon.). 

"FU'*^ n : j-#-3^-q rgya-mtsho chen- 
po the great ocean which holds the entire 
discharge of Gagga (Mnon.). 

' gan what, which. 

gan-gi-dus when ; at which time. 



208 



gan-gi-phyir WTS, zrssft for 
which ; for the sake or reason of which. 

^F'^S gan-nid *%$ whichever; what- 
ever. 



gan-hgrigs 
what (you) like; also what suits you? 



even 



if any accident happened to life there, 
to us no hardship occurring, we can do 
whatever suits us, so one Tso-tco expressed 
himself (Jlbrom. 136). 

"FVI gan-dag %^T some; "FVT 9 !'!* 
gan-dag-gi phyir ifat 8i% for whom or 
what ; for the sake of whom or what. 

gan-dag-nid q^? whichever. 

gan-dag-hdir zrrf^f, vx* 
those two who are here; all those here; 
whoever present. 

*F^ gafi-du fiT, qsi where ? where. 
"F^*' gan-duhafi flrf^f at whatever 
time; wherever; seldom; where. 

gan dran-dran-du b$ad- 
brdsttu b. fad-pa to speak at 
random ; to say what occurs in the mind ; 
to speak falsehood. 

gan-hdra gr^ift how, like what : 
.' gafi-hdra mt/iofi what have you 
seen? 

naqn* where? 

gan-rnanii-kyi %^i of what; 
pertaining to what ? 



gan-mgo (in C.) ktwl of 
a tobacco-pipe; I^'WII gan-mjug mouth- 
piece or tip of it. 

gan-por in a lump, mass. 



khefa-pa ^5 
to fill; to make full; filled up; also 



piled up : a|K.-qwflt-fl|rti gaU-waham brt-segt- 
pa piled up or made full. , 

Syn. ^'^ tshan-can; ptw k/tefis; 
byitr-bu; ^'^phyur-lu (Ifnon.). 



finished; comple- 
ted; $t.'$ri|E.'*i litft-chug gan-wa a valley. 
filled with water: I'l'^flje.^ "the moon as 
full fish " ; in the fullness of the crescent. 



n- 



gaU-n-a med-pa 
complete. 

*qie,-q-qjE.-Zj gafi-wa fcafi-po ^iw (Sc/tr.; 
Td. 3, 181) completely happy or gentle ; 
also n. of a serpent demon. 

'Wt&'RQg/in-inihi zla-tva iph^f (Svltr. ; 
Bull. 1848, 298) ; lit. the full moon ; n. of 
a Jiodhisattara. 



ff a "-t>" ^>ft, T^rfx fresh shoots 
of leaves ; a pod or sheath ; also cluster of 
buds. Aco. to Sc/i. flower bud : *g'"Fg *^ 

>j 

hbru gan-bu-can grains which have husks 
such as wheat, sesamum, &c. : ^V^'3'"! 6 -' 
gvi\ac^j enveloping himself in a veil of 
rays; wrapping himself in a sheath of 
light. 

"FlS gan-byed ^ SRXtfir whatever he 
does, has been doing, is doing. 

STPTT 1. various; 
"F"^ gan-Mod 

gan-tsam a small quantity ; not a 
considerable quantity. 



gaU-mos 
different sorts. 2. 
whatever is wished for. 



gan-tsug-yin = "H'W^ yan-nas- 
yin or 'I 6 -'^'^'* 1 ^'^ 3 ! gan-na sdod mkhan- 
yin ; JK^'<1%^*IV*' khyed gan-tsug- 
yin gar-hgro dri-pa$ he asked whence are 
you ; whither are you going (A. 131). 

|K.'^i| gan-shig q: t V^, which. 



209 



u|E/j-qjs3j-i gan-she bstan-pa q 
which has been explained, shewn. 

TlC'a^l I: ("l"!'*'! shal-zag) tobacco- 
pipe, not the hukka, but a long straight 
sort, similar to the European smoking 
pipe, generally made of metal. 



gat-sag II: 1. 

I yfr ifft ^ TfH 3^1^'- that which 
becomes full and then undergoes decay 
(Sam.) ; an animated being ; a corporeal 
being that is subject to decay and 
destruction. 2. man, as an intellectual 
being; a person: flFWT'WlMVfi'V' 1 * 9 an - 
sag gshan-gyis brda gpratf-pa$ another 
person describing it to you (opposite to 
what we know by our own perception and 
observation), hence a philosophical term 
for "self": ^flF^fw^i^F^W 
learned or lettered men ; men of science, 
especially in relation to religion: *'%' 
q^or|;-i5-fl|-9ij|-$*w men who postpone 
religion, not troubling themselves about 
it: eiqnri$-fl|c.'3a|'n*w3|'gijr9 the prince of 
the reverend (band of) persons, i.e., 
Buddha: *TfWf5'^*'.| inferior heretical 
people: fl|*-|'WP gan-zag phal-pa or vwi 
tha-mal-pa, common or vulgar people 
(Jd.). 

fl|t,-q|-q?) gad-sag bshi the four kinds of 
human beings or higher beings are (1) 
JRWH: tmw. ; WrtfVWtKT*!' 1 * mun- 
khrod. nag mim-khrod du hgro-ica that go 
on from darkness to darkness ; (2) *5tfif: 
TCTOT. ; Wp\ a $*''f B;w '*3fa mun-khrod nag 
gnad-tcar hgro-ica that go from darkness 
imto light; (3) ^tfwOTHTrra'ir. ; ^f^ 
S'S'BV^'^'" (nad-ica nag mun-khrod du 
hgro-ica that go again from light into 
darkness; (4) rtfa*fffa:trcrau: ; JM'^'i?* 1 
gnaH-iva. nag gnaft-uw hgro-ica, 



that advance from light to a greater en- 
lightenment. The term fl].'| gan-zag 
has sixteen different synonyms: OVI 
bdag; ^"1 srog; ^wz^scfflg-caii; '1 gkye- 
wa ; |3'J yso-tca ; |N'g skyes-bu ; 
bdag; *Hrw| fcs-las gkycg; 
man; 9^'i'Q lye<j-pa-po; 
lyed-du hjug-pa-po ; *^'i f S tshor-tca-po ; *(' 
i'Q feg-pa-po ; i3fs.'i'3 mthofi-ica-po ; w% za- 
tca-po; ^fq-Ej glod-u-a-po (Mnon.). These 
are all applied to signify an animate 
being. There are two kinds of "l^ 1 *"!, 
ordinary and extraordinary ; the ordinary 
fl]K,-aq| literally means that which is 
subject to decay, from "F gaft, what, and J 
zag, decay. The Buddhist meaning is as 
follows:- (1) WWlK^ 



rafl-rgyud. gdtg-pa non-mods 
kyig gad shift yon-tan dan dge-wahi rigs ysog 
mi-thub-par zag hgro-was sems-can phal-wahi 
gan-zag one's own nature being filled (*[*' 
gan) with sin he cannot acquire and retain 
virtue, which aq l sag leaks out or decays, 
therefore an ordinary living being is called 
^xm gad-sag; (2) l 



ran-rgyud dge-wa dad 
bzan-pohi yon-tan thams-cad-kyig gad-shin 
non-mofig-kyi gkyon thamg-cad zag hgro-was 
sadg-rgyag gan-zag Buddha is flp'| 
because his nature is full of all virtues or 
merits and sin has been thrown out of it 
or has altogether been destroyed ; (3) 



when one's own nature retains whatever 
virtue it possessed undeteriorated and 
whatever faults there was in it have been 
thrown out from exertion, one has entered 

28 



210 



either the Mah& ydna or Elnayana path. 
Persons in such a stage, whatever docrtine or 
theory they may hold for salvation, belong 
indeed of the Mahayana. In "F! gaU-sag 
of the ordinary kind his very nature is F 
gafi, i.e., filled with deeds (las), sin, 
suffering, and misery ; moreover, all virtue 
and talents having become exhausted, i.e., 
"\ sag, his animated being becomes what is 
called Pudgal. In the strict sense of the 
word, a Buddha is also a Pudgala, though 
of the extraordinary kind, he on the con- 
trary being full of virtues and talents and all 
defects, sins, &c,, being exhausted in him. 
The following are the twenty F"I gad- 
tag (Pudgala) of the Qravaka School : (1) 
^WTmf ; l^'gi^ rgyun-du shugt-pa one 
having entered the regular course performs 
Samadhi (deep meditation); (2) **- 
miH ; ^V?i]'N-3i-i| vaiarq i 3<Y i dc-ltar thogs- 
na srid-pa Ian bdun-pa after having thus 
spiritually cultured the mind he has to pass 
into seven births in the world ; (3) 
^-^ . ^q 1 -s i *r^i|*ri-j[-q rigt-nat rigs-su 
gkye-wa after the second stage, his birth is 
ensured in his own state, i.e.,if he is a god 
he is reborn as a god, if man he is reborn as 
a man, but he never goes to any lower stage 
of birth; (4) ^ssmrift; V<f|% < fe'4 ta- 
pe^ phyir hofi-wa (as such) "he has only 
once to come to this world for doing good ; 
(5) T^fftf^i; K-avq3r bar-chad gcig-pa 
he has only one interruption before full 
fruition; (6) ^Rnnf*T; ^^^i phyir mi- 
hofi-wa he will not come again to this 
existence ; (7) 



'*' bar-ma-dor yons-su mya- 
fian las hdah-wa he will attain to Nirvana 
not from this life but from the interme- 
diate state or Bardo ; 



yods-su mya-fian lat hdah-wa he escapes 
from misery save that a vestige of the 
Skandha still remains ; (9) 



mfion-du hdu-byed. par meg- 
par yoUs-su mya-ftan la? hdah-wa he attains 
to Nirvana, the Skandha being utterly 
destroyed, i.e., without the least vestige 
remaining ; (10) ^*^t?K[ ^ E -'^'^' i gofi-dit 
hpho-tca he will in his spiritual progress 
reach up to the Akanistha heavens ; (11) 
irnronft; w$-*i&r5i<^'V<i lut-kyi mfion 
sum-du byed.-pa he will obtain the body of 
supreme intelligence or knowledge ; (12) 
^mgHT^t ; wWK<KV q dad-pahi rjet-su 
hbrafi-iva he will here have completely 
subdued the senses or passions ; (13) ITORT- 
^ift; <'5i - l'^' chos-kyi rjef-m 
hbrafi-ica all his intellectual and moral 
faculties become so as to be directed 
effectually to all good works; (14) rfiz- 
3TO; *rtfe;iw?q-i thoH-ivas thob-pa having 
heretical views or having insight 
into religion ; (15) W*?fttfW; ^'S"'^' 
w^m'i duf-kyi rnam-par grol-tca getting 
salvation in time ; (16) *ifqftnff ; ^'' I \^' 
ft-gX'W^ww^i'H getting salvation not in 
proper time ; (17) 



a-laf rnam-par 
wa getting salvation in time as well as 
without reference to time ; (18) 



Vi-q fkyeg- 

nas yons-su mya-fian las hdah-wa entering 
into the state of Nirvana immediately after 
one's birth; (19) snnf^r; ?! *r3r$w 
w^ni'^ fes-rab kyis rnam-par grol-wa fully 
delivered by means of absolute or transe- 
cendental knowledge ; (20) 
delivered by means of faith. 



mnon-par hdu-byetf-pa dad beat-pat 



fi-ya a very large figure 
number (Ya-sel. 5,6}. 



211 



,-u)e.' gad-yad gff^Tf, ?T9 whosoever; 
whatever ; any one. 

tf-fo gR( where ; in whom. 

gan-lo an empty pod, freed 
from the kernels (in W.) (Jd.). 

F-*p; gafl-gar |fi*wrwi anything 
that occurs (in the mind) ; what is 
thought ; a thought. 

"l^'Sl'V! gan-su dag % ^faq; whichever 
of those. 

ZJJC5^ j/rtwj fV*T 1. glacier; glacier- ice. 
2. snow (usually kha). 3. the sclerotic 
of the eye (Sch.). 

a|c.*r*^ gafis-rgyttd a chain of snowy 
mountains. 

s]c.*r*3( gans-can feT^ 1. one of the 
native names of Tibet. 2. abounding in 
snow ; snowy ; full of glaciers : Gads-can-las. 
fybyufi-wahi chu the water issuing from a 
glacier : Gads-can-gyi skad the language of 
Tibet. 

q|t-.s^-*f!*rci!vi|$<i|'|^ Gads-can tnkhas- 
pahi ytsug-rgyan a complementary name of 
Tsongkha-pa, the great Buddhist reformer 
of Tibet whose religious name was Ji'^'sf 
qjc.-t||q|wci Ryyal-ica filo-bsad. grays-pa; his 
other names were : i'^'3'& Rje rin-po 
che; i'^-p" Rje Tsod-Ma-pa ; qp.nc&tSp:^ 
Gads-can cid-rta ; f^Xi-pn Car Tsod-kka-pa ; 
^'g'< Jljam tngon blama. 

ii|f^-Ei Gdfl-can mgon-po or j^'^w 
Spyan-rat gsigs the patron saint of 
Tibet, Avalokites'vara, also styled : &*!' 
^^q Jfjig-rten mgon-po; S"|'|'3^3 
Thugt-rje chen-po; a^'n^'^^ci Hgro-wahi 
mgon-po. 

IE.'^'gi'Hi Gadf-can rgyal-po King of 
Tibet ; and in books occasionally applied 
to the Dalai Lamas of Lhasa. 

9fm*Fyr&*Q-*W( Gats-can rgyal-pohi 
bsti-pnas. as also *'*j*^ : W'3''* chos-hkhor 



$pal-gyi Lha-sa used to designate Lhasa, 
the capital of Tibet (Yig. k. 31). 

'j]E.N'-5^'S^'Hi gafis-cafi chen-po sometimes 
applied to mountainous region covered 
with eternal snow extending from Ladak 
to the Kailas range. Also the name of a 
fabulous mountainous region the chief peak 
of which is said to be about 1,500 miles 
round and filled with Yatea, Raksa and 
other demi-gods. 

fljt^-l^ Gani-chen any great range of 
snowy mountains or a great glacier; n. 
of a village at the south-western foot of 
theKanchenjunga mountain. *|w3^-*iS ! 'vg 
(Kanchenjunga in Sikkim) lit. the five 
great repositories of snow. 

u|c.-l^-Xwjm Gafls-chen Chos-rgyal 
the Grand Lama of Tibet ; also the name 
of a guardian deity of Buddhism in 
Tibet; a name of Yama, the Lord of 
Death, who is worshipped in Tibet under 
the name of Dam-chen Chos_-rgyal. 

n]W|k-q( Gans-ljofis yul= 
Tibet. 

Syn. |c.*r-s^'1|e. gads-can shid.; 
nft^'^^'pini gads, ri ra-waU skor-wahi 
shin-khams ; ym'W$'<$-ffi-[m gads-can sa- 
Ihahi snwn-ljofts (Mnon. and Yig. k.). 

q|E.-Rqq gads-hbab avalanche ; it snows. 

i^'spi gads-slat, also called ^"i' 1 ^ 
dkyil-hkhor JT^rr, the snow lizard with 
circular marks on its skin resembling 
the common Indian lizard (Lex.) ; a frog 
of fabulous origin : the male frog is said 
to live on the top of the snowy mountains 
and the female frog in the abyss of the deep 
gorge below the mountain ; when the eun 
passes over the tropic of cancer (karkata or 
crab), the male frog descends to the foot of 
the mountain and the female frog ascends 
there to meet him midway. Before 



212 



meeting each other the male frog remains 
more powerful ; but after they have united, 
the female becomes the stronger of the 
two (Snian.). 



i : gang-ri lj, rHr snowy 
mountain or snow-mountains a com- 
mon designation for many of the great 
ranges in Tibet ; l^'V-d gafis-ni-fu the 
twenty principal mountains of Tibet : (1) 
**$ TlnMha, (2) $'* Ti-se (KailSfa), (3) 
*K'*r>* MaA-wkhar, (4) 9'* Sti-le, (5) 
Star-sgo, (6) Pho-la, (7) wpw 
ri, (8) I'frr**! Jo-mo kha-rag, (9) ^| Rdo- 
tye, (10) FW Gafi-bzafi, (11) *"$* Rtse- 
rdmn, (12) r$ La-phyi, (13) I'*f Tsfo-rtVJ, 
(14) if'** Sna-nam, (15) ^"S Te-sgrro, (16) 
*rtyy #orf-<fe gitfi-rgyal, (17) w^-^w 
5 Yar-lha yam-po, (18) qw| Qsal-rje, (19) 
gafo-bsafi, (20) <'V^- 
lahi-gafis (Katltaft. \ 
168). 

njtw^ n : ^^^"i^'Ei fu-dag dkar-po n. 
of a vegetable drug (Sfflon.). 

gant-hpJtred. 



along or across the glacier. 



ai yafif-sritl an avalanche; a slip 
in the snowy side of a mountain ; a snow- 
slip. 



^I gafi$-thig n. of a stone or 
mineral substance resembling stone ; it 
is said to be a cure for fever that is 
produced from the liver. 



Gads-pa $e-hti the name 
of a celebrated lama and philosopher of 
the Kadampa School of Tibet. 



'^> gaii-ji-ra lit. posessed of trea- 
sure or *^K'?^ mdsod-ldan ; an ornamental 
pinnacle on a temple, house or chorten 



constructed after the prescribed model 
given in Buddhist books. This is a 
Sanskrt word though sometimes Tibetan- 
ized, being written as ^fl'^ hgan-hji-ra. 



gad as in "l^'"! 1 ^ gscr-gad 1. pure, 
genuine, unalloyed. 2. a rock. 



gad-skyils a rock cavern; a 
place of shelter under the cleft or nook of 
a rock: ^jT^'^'^'^'S'' 5 !''!^' 1 ! 
kept the bars of silver in the nook of a 
rocky hill. 



P gad-kha uw. wide, broad; 
breadth ; with breadth. 



f gad-mo, TTST a laughing; 
laughter: "IS' 35 '^ gad-mo dgod T^fw 
utters a laugh ; !S'*'W!V3 11 ' gad,-mo-bgad 
b.yuA I have laughed ; i|^'35 nqj^Se.- gad-mo 
bgatf-sofi he has laughed *!S'*''*fa gad-mo 
rgod to laugh ; IS'^'^ g 6 -' gad-mo for- 
lyufi laughter sprang forth; flR'fc'JjVUs.' 
gatf-mo for-sofi idem; ^'tor^Urt gad- 
mot Mclf-pa to laugh at a person ; ^^"1'^' 
)5'fll^'35 hjig rten-pahi ga$-mo laughter of 
worldly-minded people: *S '"IS '355-i^ this 
is to me an object of laughter ; it is ridicu- 
lous to me (Jd.). IVgs.w'* 3 ? gad-rgyaHs-cmi 
. cgfll*!' w'fl|^'35 bsdigs-pahi gad-mo 
Ha Ha) loud laughter; $i|-i3-qft-l$ 
fdig-pahi gad-mo (fVfr hihi) coquettish 
laugh; ^s*r3-u|v35 dgyes-pahi-gad-mo (%% 
he-he) laugh of merriment or rejoicing; 
^gj <i|^-8'<j|^'35 zil-gyi$ giwn-pahi gyad- 
mo Tt T> a laughter of triumph ; B'^5 -q^- 
13^ khro-icohi bshad-pa brgyad the eight 
laughs of indignation and wrath, &c. 

'"ft S" 1 gad-kgyal the walls of conglo- 
merate rock through which mountain- 
torrents have cut their way. 



213 



gad-snigg dust ; refuses ; swept- 
out: phyags-mas </ad-nigs phyags sweep 
with a broom the dust, refuse, etc. 

(fa). 

1YS* gad-dar sweeping, cleansing; 
IV^'SV gad-dar-byed-pa cleansing ; 
sweeping well a place ; keeping it clean. 

Syn. gTS* phyag-dar ; S'^ byi-dor; "IV 
V ga^-dar; |&.w|^ gtsaft-war-byed ; |T 
sit*) rdul-hp/tang (Mnon.). 

"IS'"^' 81 Ga<j-mdah-la n. of a moun- 
tain ; the lowlands at the foot of a C?arf. 

IVSi'i'C^ <7fl(? mdal-la tshun this side 
of the mountain called Ga$-dala. 

*f\i i : gad-pa or TS'iffi gad-mkhan 
a sweeper; a cleanser; ST'^'lY* 4 !" ^, TV 
wyarg^rWqw^rt^q the class (of menial 
servants) requiring wages (such as) 
sweepers, dusters and water carriers. 
u|^q]gc-*i any place or object well dusted 
or cleansed. 

TV n : 1. a precipitous cliff of 
conglomerate such as often walls in the 
mountain rivers : 2. wide crack in a con- 
glomerate rock. 

TV5H gad-phug a cavern or cleft in a 
conglomerate rock : "!!* ' ?|N ' "I ' VH* ' 3 ' TV 
$ q r'^ q rg' I '9 q l* gthufi-gis stag-dkar-gyi gad 
phug-tu shag-lna bshugs meanwhile they 
halted for five days in the rocky cavern of 
Stuy-dkar. 



gan=rtsar near: 

^'X*!' 1 ) dcd-dpon dchi gan-dn son-ste 
pa going near to the chief of the 
merchants (caravan), he asked. "R gan 
(=fll gam in C.) signifying nearness, 
proximity ; is used in such connection as 
^'^ to, towards, up to: ^'l^'^"! come 
up to me ; jTSw-ift'^ he went unto the 



king ; P*'^^'V^' ^ e went towards the 
house; Jrci5'3|^*r^ he came from the 
king; Vl'Zi'flR 1 ^ in W. close by the 
brook; ^'I'i'^ chttr gan-du in W. hard 
by the water; ^vR'i rir gan-pa one 
living close to a mountain or hill. 



gan-kyal or ^^ gan-rkyal, 
supine ; lying on the back with the 
face upward: R'3 a rV9 r * to lie in that 
position : flft'gnr^l"!^ to fall on the back. 



hgan-rgya, 
vulg. 1'3 gam-rgya, a written contract ; 
an agreement (Cs.). 



gan-dar, a silk handkerchief 
offered as a present in exchanging compli- 
ments on meeting (Sc/i.). 



bha-dra 
kind of drug used in liver derangement. 

"l^'^'^'g"!" gan-dha rihi sdags wrft- 
a Buddhist mantra or charm which 

has the power of enabling one to move in 

space. 



'QJ gan-d/io-la, 

the temple of fragrance ; hall of worship 
built after the model of a chaitya 
with many doors. It is generally attached 
to a great monastery. In Tibetan it is 
called V^'pe. Dri ptsafi-k/iafi, the name 
being applied to the particular chapel 
where the image of Buddha is placed. 
The great temple of Buddha at Gaya was 
called Maha gandhola Caitya. Phyi gan- 
dho-la nafi-du Iha-khaft byas-pa its inside 
was a god's house or chapel and the outside 
a gandhola. 

CN 

^^|^'^ gan-dhi irf*Pt a mineral sub- 
stance used as a cure for leprosy. 



214 



j gan-tahi-tog or 
par-na a medicinal plant. 



w^ gan-thi 



- a piece of thick 

plank measuring about 6 feet by 12 inches 
either of white sandal wood or of deodar, 
which when struck with a hammer or 
another piece of thick hard wood, produces 
a kind of ringing sound which is heard 
from a great distance. It is used on 
special occasions to summon the monks of 
a monastery to attend any special religious 
service, &c. 



gaii-gyog or "IP'?'^ gan-ti the- 
hu ^ft? *~|A* the rod or hammer with 
which the ghanti (wooden gong) is struck 
or beaten. 

+ "IJ'i'^ ganda-pa si (mystic) avarice; 
greed for gain (K. g. f> 26). 

c\ 

^ ^ gan-di THTTH in books the 
gong or bell to call monks to monastic 
services. 



gan-rndso4= qcw*^ laft-mdsod. 
store-room, store-house. 



gab-k/iufi, denned as S'S5' 
pus-mohi rgyab-kyi sgyi 
the cavities behind the knee bones. 



'fj gab-sgra a belch (in TF.) 



'ti gab-pa to hide; to conceal one's 



(Jd.). 



self : 



Rgyal-u-ahi hbyufi-gnas hdi yon- 
tan thams-cag gab-nas mi gton-par qdah- 
tcai. This Egyal-wahi hbyufi-g.na$ having 
concealed all his talents does not exhibit 
them (Sbrom. p2). 



Syn. 8|r yib-pa; 8(W slag-pa; 
gyogs-pa; %-vifywyn mi mnon-par bya- 
tea (Ifnofl.). 

W1f>' gab-phyuii n. of a religious 
treatise on the occult doctrine of Bud- 
dhism. 



gab-tse = i\Q;% gab-rtse ^^ or 
gab-tshe a plan or table of points 
for computing the figures of divination in 
magical computations. In this connec- 
tion, 'ai fl)a^-qS-*r]VT*)'t'< sa-la pnas pahi 
sa-bdag-gi rtsis refers to calculating the 
identity and deeds of mischief done by a 
local "god of the soil." Again W|[K:ar 
qRrq$-wqv3J-$- refers to astrological 
calculations worked with the gab-tse. <W 
uifg-S)-j|q-* i a a m y 8 tic chart used for 
bodily prognostics ; "Ii=.'5)'i|p' one for the 
speech ; fT r '^*V one for the heart. 



In the general term gab-tse 
are included many particular significations, 
that for the soil, that for the sky, that for 
the intermediate space, etc. 



gal-tshad slow, insiduous 
fever; according to Sch. a hectic, con- 
sumptive fever. 



gab-tshig Jfil, 9%ftn5T riddle; 
also mystical words or expressions used in 
magic to stupify one's enemies without 
killing them. Also the 16 ornamental 
mystical allusions employed to excite 
laughter in a play, etc., and to convey 
hidden meanings in an assembly, etc. The 
names of these are as follows : ^''^ fl l*<' 
kun-tu ts/iogs pahi gab-tshig; 



flu byed-kyi rim-pa daft bral-wahi gab-tshig; 
rab-bcom-gyi gab-tshig ; *<S^' 
yi gab-tshig; 



215 



rtsub-mohi gab-tshig ; 
kyi gab-tshig; 
rab btags-kyi gab-tshig; *> 
nnfi-du hdus-pahi gab-tshig ; 
$grib-pahi gab-tshig ; 
pahi sgrahi gab-tshig; Sc.*ri5'<i|q'1fc!| 
pahi gab-tshig ; 
phrogs-kyi gab-tshig ; 
bs.grib$-kyi gab-tshig; 
gni-ka b$gribs.-pahi gab-tshig; 
hdreg-kyi gab-tshig. 



tnthun- 
rmofis- 



"jq S)| gab-yig 1. in the medicinal works 
of Tibet the names of certain drugs and 
medicines are written in words which are 
not ordinarily understood, having secret 
meanings assigned to them. 2. in figura- 
tive language, meanings of names and 
words which are not ordinarily understood. 
Such are called flp'fo gab-mid, i.e., secret 
names. 



"P'w gab-sa S(' $la$-sa or ta'w yib-sa 
hiding-place ; place of concealment : 
^^*,t-q-|3V'0;rq-<jr'i|q-^c.-i*3j-rlf > *^ -we 
came bringing much gold with us, but we 
were without a hiding-place or a place to 
go to (A. 120). 



gam ^z near, v. *ffi gan. 



Syn. l*'^ gam-yo ; ^ drufi ; V^j^ ne- 
hkhor (Mfion.). 



gam-gum a number, 
(Ya-sel. 57). 



gam-$pan$ panels or little 
boards beneath the cornice of a roof, often 
filled up with paintings. (Ja.). 



t ^'5'^ gam-bu-ra, wf^n; in W. a 
citron; lemon (Ja.). 



qfJJ'Q,^ 1 ^ gam-hbrog a dairy in the 
neighbourhood of one's residence. Qam* 
hbrog rgyaft hgrog bsafi-wa rtsa-yi dge 
Near and distant dairy farms become 
thriving through the abundance of pas- 
tures (Jig.). 



gam-hdsin abbr. of i 
ganrgya dad hdsin, a receipt, acknowledg- 
ment ; the letter of transfer, exchange, &c., 
for buying and selling or transaction of 
money business, &c. : "l"'''^'! > V i' < ^'Vtl*.' 1 
qty^-Crlfq^WJJr'Vta gam-hdsin bye<j-pa hdod 
sbyargyi bkod-pa go-brdah hphrod fog 
certainly, the receipt and the deed of 
agreement should be satisfactorily ex- 
plained (Btsii ). 

+ fl|*r^ gam-yo (flpr|*fa| gam-giyog) = 
ne-hkhor attendant. 



gahu ?frz 1. a little box or case ; 
when containing a talisman or amulet, it 
is worn suspended round the neck. 



I: gar or *pvf gar-bro ^Rl, frz, 
dance; acting in a dramatic play; 
gesticulation ; flU'W*^ gar-was tbkor 
surrounded by dancing girls or actors ; 
"l^'tV gar-byed-pa to dance ; STT^Vfr 
^'i fflu-gar rtsed.-mo byed-pa to sing ; to 
dance and play ; !*'* gar-zas the food 
given to performers ; gar hkhrab-mkhan gyi 
zas-la for the food of those who perform 
dancing ; ipvaTW 1 ! gar-la 4gah-wa 
fTTStTfara very fond of dancing; "p'vqf 
gar-la Uta 'SW^U attending a dance; 
witnessing a performance. 

fl|,''g\?t gar-gyi ltad.-mo f^S 1 danc- 
ing entertainment or amusement. 

gar-gyi 



grub-chen or 



r.nal-bbyor-pa 



216 



chen-po fig. a yogi or ascetic engaged in 
meditation : j-wK^'S'V*' 5 '** 1 
%* sku-mchog gar-gyi tficaA-po mdsef 
fiotnt-fM your holiness the lord of the 
dancers (peacock), equal in beauty and 
splendour (Yig. k. 28). 



gar-gy 

ffht-gar-gyi rpkhan-po or 
teacher or director of a dance or danc- 
ing performance 



III : or T5 ga-ru, or "F^ gaA-du, 
whither; where; *!*.'<. gar -y a A anywhere: 
flU'uicj'*! gar-yafi skye-wa growing any- 
where : p'K - & - ^'l gar-yaA mi bgro-wa to 
go nowhere. 1*'**^ gar-med. in W. at 
all events ; by all means ; "\'^'^*\ ga-na-metf 
or qvw gar-bab at random ; haphazard 
(Art.). 



gar-rnkhan or ^'"M bro-mkhan 
dancer 1. a dancer, performer, e.g., 
even a Buddha or any saint dances when 
displaying miracles. 2. name of a god, 
ace. to Sch. S'iva (Jd.). 



gar-ma 

dancing girl. The thirteen 
modulations of voice or musical notes : 
(1) "I s -'* gar-ma Sfiwf ; (2) 
rol-rtsed-ma STT^JTT ; (3) 'V'* 4 dal-ma 
(4) S VS) myur-ma nra ; (5) *'* bar-ma 
JTTJJH; (6) **T^1 tshig-rdf,g q*m; (7) S'oS- 
5,1 bya-wahi-dut rrvr; (8) 9'"^'*^ bya-icahi 
tshatj *^T ; (9) 5'5, ta-tva (TT) reality; 
(10) '? o-^a (^H) flow ; (11) ^ ^a-t 
^R compact; (12) I' 1 " &-ya (?ra) 
absorption; adherence ; (13) $'*t sa-mya 
equality. 



i gar-cham the frantic dance of the 
lamas of Tibet which is chiefly observed 



by the Rnifi-ma schools of Tibet. It is of 
two kiuds H'i5 - y*) phur-pahi rtsa hcham 
the dance of the enchanted club, and ^ISi' 
^* hkhrub-heham the dance of the lamas 
at the time of offering sacrifice. 

ijvf<w gar-ftabt dancing gesture or 
motion. 



gar-pa 



a dancer ; also a 



dance. 



II : the encampment of an army ; 
a camp. 

"F'f 1 ! gar-rgyab encampment; 1*'5 c i ' 
gar-tgyab-pa to encamp; also for F 5*1 
gafi-rgyab, ^'^'^ili'flivjo rdo-rndah sogf 
gar-tgyab fling at him stone or arrow, etc., 
whatever (you can) (J^brom. f> 6). 



gar-cg="\ c ~'^ l >\ tjan-s/tig, which 
one ; whichever one. 

O ar pdoA-ktsan the 
famous general of King Srofi-tysan fyam- 
po, who visited the capital of China and 
induced Emperor Taitsung to give one of 
the princesses imperial in marraige to his 
sovereign, about 630 A.D. 



gar-rdvb $*rj|^9|vs 
chus-khyer gar-rdeb-sogs-la lands, fields, 
houses, &c., that have been devastated 
by a river by the over-flowing of its 
banks, &c. (Btsii.). 

gar-nag name of a medicine. 

I: gar-po in colloq. language 
the word *VF-'% dkar-po is pronouned as 
*|*'3 gar-po and also written as such. 
It is usual to pronounce VI*' 5 tfkar-po as 
flp'Q gar-po in the vulgar language 
(Grub. * 2). 



217 



II: gjT, also "!^'# gar-mo, thick; 
dense ; condensed ; not fluid. 



'3 1. gar-tea Sfq bska-tca 
astringent. 2. strong; I*'**' gar-chan 
strong beer (Jd.). 



-q Gar btsan hphags-pa name 
of a monastery and also of a deity in 
Tibet (Jig. 3.). 



gar-dsa or fr*ir bi gar-dsa, irw, 
n. of a tree or kind of wood 3 | e -' 
fin (K. ko. 1, 5). 

zn^'S gar-sha the native name of the 
district called La-hul or La-hol by the 
Hindus (Jd.). 



gar-log ace. to the Tibetans 
rapacious mountain tribes belonging to 
the far north-east of Tibet. - 5M'^ "' 



styled in the Tibetan tongue Gar-log are 
described in the Li-s'i Gur-khang as 
Turushka. The |V*fl| Gai-log were a 
different people from the *<*{'<$*] Mgo-log. 
---'- 



Gar-log gi rgyal-po la sku-lus 
btan-wat chot-phyir srog-kyan bton-icahi 
rgyal-po yin. In Atls'a's biography it is 
mentioned that the King of the Grar-log 
in the first part of the llth century, 
A.D., came from the Indian side and made 
the King of Tibet a captive when he was 
there on a visit to Purang. Probably 
they were the earliest Mohamedan 
invaders of Kashmir. 



'"^ gar-fa the muscles of the thumb 
(Med.) (Jd.). 

^filpjl: gal=W nan pressing; I" 1 ' I** 
gal-gyis pressingly, urgently. 



II: importance flpr^*fyi gal-du 
hdsin-pa to consider of importance; to 
esteem. 

Syn. "flS g.nad; *^ mdo (Mnon.). 



Ill: 1. constraint; compulsion: 
na-la gal-jun in C. "I have been compelled" 
(Jd.). 2. trap; snare: in colloq. 
gal hd&ug-pa to set a snare (Jd.). 

IV: v. "I^'T 



gal-hgag-="\ il \*\^''\ important; 
|-3-q very important. 

1l'4s. gal-chun unimportant ; insignifi- 
cant ; undervalued ; slighted. 



'q gal-che-wa very important : 
^.-^r^iWlfr^fri-q of the two, this 
life and the future, the latter is of greater 
importance : TfoA^igmr*?] 'H -am-^-wqigq- 
^a|a)-^ it is of greater importance to acquire 
accomplishments than to go roving about 
without purpose : e i$ E T3' 1 '! Q r' i important 
moral precepts. 

Syn. "R'V&'q g.na$-che-wa; y^' 1 ) rtsa- 
che-u-a; fl'^'l khag-clie-u-a; I?'*'q yfso- 
che-ica (Mnon.). 



y 



gal-te conj. if; in case of; 
implies a conditional possibility. It is 
placed as the first word in a conditional 
sentence while ^ na, its complement, stands 
after the verb at the end; together they 
signify " if." T 1 '^, however, is sometimes 
omitted, ^ still meaning "if." In colloq. 
expression pr$ gal-te is seldom used; 
but " gal-shi" is a common substitute: 



if you wish to enjoy all happiness, you 
must entirely leave off all desire : "F^T 



29 



218 



if you wish at all 
times to live in friendship (with the three 
Holies), you should avoid the three 
dangers, viz. of looking at your loving 
wife, thinking of profit, and of confiding 
in an envoy. 



gal-wlo=*Fi'* l W gal-hgag or 
! &ad,-hgag 1. really, essentially of 
importance. 2. n. of a disease (Med.). 



gal-po probably same as it gal. 
^Zfy the important, indispens- 
able master of the house (family). 



^ gal- tea to force, to press some 
thing on a person : SN'q^'flpt indoor con- 
finement is forced on men (Jd.). 

flprqvSY" gal-war lyed-pa q?^q$fq 
brtson btan-ica ^1T, ^IT to be assiduous. 



"F^ gal-bzufi (lit. got hold of the 
important thing), = 3^'*i^ renunciation. 



" ^ gal-ro in W. refuse ; rubbish. 



'i hgaf-pa. 



gi I. numeral for 33, v. affix instead 
of 3 kyi after 1 and t ; for signification 
v. 3 kyi. 



^1 *>1 



9i-9 u * ne vowel sign "" for i. 



having a white speck in the eye; 
wall-eyed (of horses) (Sch.). 



gi-lji-big or *T**fl| ko-tsi-lig 
tanned skin of a kind of deer obtained 
from Mongolia and China (Jig.). 



Gu-ne-ru n. of an Indian 
yog-inl or female ascetic (K. dun. 38). 



xx 



''ij^' gi-tcan and also 9|'^' gl-had 
ft^TT, *^f, t%T^f a yellow 
pigment, an anthelminthic medicine; 
^f= n. of a concretion in the 
entrails of some animals, used for 
medicine. Ace. to the medical works 
of Tibet this concretion is formed in the 
liver of certain animals and seldom in 
men, and it resembles in appearance and 
size the boiled yolk of a hen's egg. 
There are also smaller ones. Ace. to some 
lexicographers this concretion is formed in 
two or three strata or folds. The best 
quality of gi-tcafi is that which is 
obtained from an elephant, and those 
obtained from the ox called gorocanA 
are of second quality. A kind of 9|'il^' 
gi-tcaft is also obtained from minerals 
and clay, and is of reddish-yellow colour. 
All these are supposed to be possessed 
of wonderful healing power. 



*' 1 ( (K. g. * 308). 
Gi-ican mixed with honey, if applied to 
both the eyes as a medicine, will give 
one such a clear vision, enabling one to 
see all the treasures which are in the 
earth. 

;%^'f3j' Gin bhan-dha n. of a 
mountainous country: Gi-ri bhan-dha hi 
yiil-gyi mtliahi ri khong-su kla-klohi rigs 
mi-hdra-wa leu yod-par rgya-gar-pa dag-la 
grags-fifi it being known to the Indians 
that in the mountains skirting the country 
of Qiribandha there are ten different 
La-lo tribes (Dsam.). 



(Sch.). 



* gi-Hn a strong-bodied horse 



gi-lin a fabulous animal. 



219 



. 

^'"^'5 Gi-fanrgya n. of a tribe in 
Tibet. 

t N^' 0"* faWTC probably a little 
drum, or the beating of it as an accom- 
paniment in dancing (Jd.). 



Syn. gsrupaj bum-mkhan ; 



gim f3'^'3'3I' s '' q l $gra-nan-gyi 
gra-shig n. of a soft musical tone. 
(K. my. \293). 

M^'*f gi>'-mo, Ld., the Indian rupee ; 
in C. it is called *fjV3S gor-mo or fcV^ 



gi instead of *< kyis after a final 
"lor ^. 

^1 gu 1. numerical for 63 = $ hit. 2. 
sign of diminutives, e.g., 0'3 khyi-gu a 
puppy ; little dog. 3. extension; extent ; 
room; space; fl R"'"'3''^ q ! pna$ sa gu-dog, 
ft-pa gu-dog, w^'^i* 1 ! lai gu-dog, 
\ gu-dog-po narrow-minded ; 
a narrow place, valley or road ; 3 lu K,*ri 
gu-yans-pa spacious ; roomy ; wide ; g -u iw 
st "V gu yans-pa hdug there is much room 
here. 



gu yans-pO^^V'Z'^'l dogs-po 
med-pa spacious; capacious: <T'g'"iE.ri 
sa-cha gu yans-pa a spacious, wide place : 
^'5'<ic.N'i gdod-sa gu yifig-pa a 
commodious residence : ^N'3' U (E.' sons 
gu-yans-pa a broad, generous heart. 

C ^' \r"^ yu-gu-$a enamelled plates, 
cups, &c. ; generally enamels on copper. 



9 u -9 lli or S"!! 01 gug-gul, fiH, 
a costly incense, one kind of 
which is white, another black. It is used 
in medicine and its smell drives away evil 
spirits. 



(Mnon.). 



*T* git-gul-fin 
Amyris galloca the plant from which the 
incense is obtained. 

^ ^| Gu-ge n. of a province in the 
West of Tibet. Also n. of a section and 
school in the Sera monastery. The people 
of the province of 3'| Gu-ge are called 
^'1 Go-ge-pu. 

^J'*?^ Gu-tan also called Go-tan, the 
elder grandson of ^^^Jen-ghis Khan, 
who invited Sakya Pandita to Mongolia 
in order to introduce Buddhism there. 

=0 ffu-tiin W. deaf (Jd.). 



? Gu-na mi-tra gtufr=f a 
Buddhist monk about whom mention is 
made in the Phar-pliyin section of the 
sacred books of Tibet. 

^J'|^I gu-zul (for w^i*!'* ,-al-gu ztii- 
ma) hair-pendants of precious stones of 
women in Tibet: frwll'WJ'irg^Jprfsi 
taking off her hair-ornaments, she offered 
them (A. *\ 102.). 



gu-yar in W. slowly; gently; 
without noise (Sch.). 

gti-yn TH^; quick-silver. 



Gu-yog 1. sS-jarEj^flj byah\ 
rgyal-po shig n. of a king of birds (K. my. 
18). 2. n. of the second son of Jengis 
Khan, who ruled over Eastern Mongolia. 

t Z \r^ ( J u - ru ^ spiritual teacher; a 
teacher ; father-confessor ; 5J'*i bla-ma, %Q' 
^ slob-dpon. Often in Milarapa. 



220 



g'S'w^'qj^ Gu-ru ifits/ian-brgyad the 
eight manifestations of the Great 
Teacher ; also the eight names of Padma 
Sambhava. 



(ju-rug 1. in Ld. a oolt or foal 
of an ass (Jd.). 2. n. of a celebrated lama 
who was tutor to Roy Qtt-rab. 



' gu-ian n. of a deity propitiated 
by mothers (in Tibet) for the well-being 
of their children. According to some this 
deity blesses mothers with children. 

31 '^C' ytt-HA 1. pure gold picked out 
from a mine. 2. also spelt g'S 
gold embroidered cloth or silk: 
Sf'ii|$q| SJIJT^ having presented a reli- 
gious garment of embroidered silk (to 
him). 



^'Q! gu-le in W. for 
softly ; gently. 



ga-le slowly; 



i ^T"^ Gu-fn said to be a corrupt 
form of the Chinese title of Kau$iri, 
which is conferred on Buddhist monks and 
religious men, but it is evidently the 
corruption of the Sanskrit title of gau- 
fn, the lord of religion or guna-frt: 
in Tibetan ^'WV yon-tan-dpal, the 
blessed, learned or talented one. In 
Mongolian Kau-$ri signifies a Pandit or a 
learned man. 



Gu-fri soff-po Gus'ri the Mon- 
golian, in Tib. called 3'f '^H 1 **!***^ 

Gu-sri bstan-hdsincfios-fgyal,t}ie Dsunga- 
rian Chief, who conquered Tibet and esta- 
blished the supremacy of the Dalai Lama 
in 1643 A.D. over all Tibet; also an 
CEleuth Mongolian who belonged to Gus'ri's 
banners. 



'^ ( J U ~ SU occurs in (Vai. kar.) a 
garment, dress (Jd.). 



f/ucj-gti, b$a>i an oblation 
cup: STSflf'I'f*'*^ >J>J-H 
b^an-ni Hor-gyi tin las lo<? this name 
is now applied to enamelled cups made in 
China (Jig.). 

l, v. 3'3l gi(-(jvl 

gug-pa 1. ^V dud-pa, ^'w' 
3"!' 1 ) dad-pas gug-pa ^wr-srw bent as in 
reverence, to bend in salutation : *JTI* 
yug-t>ca$ with humility, humbleness, 
modesty. 2. In W. to rub or scratch 
gently ; to tickle. 



bend low: 
mgo-lus gug-gug 
gyt't phyag-byas he saluted thrice, bending 
low his head and body. 

SI'*!'" guy-ge-wa bent ; bent down- 
wards (of leaves) (Vai. $fi.), v. 3|'i 
gug-pa. 



' gug-sran weight of gold 
according to the standard formerly used 
in the province of 3'*| Gu-ge, a Srafi or 
ounce of *J - *I Gu-ge : l^'S^F'^l^^f <FV 
having presented gold of the weight of 
300 ounces (of Gu-ge) (A. 79). 

Q]K* I: GuA an imperial title, belong- 
ing to the second class of nobility in China ; 
it is second only to the distinction of 
Wang or Prince, and is very much prized 
in Tibet. The recipient wears a ruby 
button and three plumes of the peacock. 



II : fsftr^ variously applied (1) 
to a species of leopard- cat found in 
Tibet. 



221 



which is smaller than the Himalayan leo- 
pard, and (2) to the broad-headed tiger of 
Central Asia, kharakula of the Mongols, 
which lives in the forests of the Amur 
and of North- Western China. The flesh 
of latter is used in paralysis, and also as 
an antidote against evil spirits. 

^1^' III: the middle; central; also 
generally the meridian ; noon ; midday ; 
as well as, less frequently, midnight ; *fa' 
$* nin-gun midday ; noon ; w^'ge, mid- 
night. 

3=. r|J i gun-la in the middle : fS'S'3 E> ' 
Wfy stod-kyi gun-nag thon taken or come 
out of the middle of Upper Tibet. 

3^ ^'*\ | gun-du byed-pa to divide 
through middle ; to dissect anatomically ; 
^S*'3'3 c ' -a| divyar-gyi gun-la in the middle 
of summer ; ^srjgfai nam-gyi gun-la at 
the midnight hour; the middle watch of 
night. 



Gun-rgyal n. of one of the 
early kings of Tibet ( Yig.) . 

3^'* gun-ja midday tea ; also the reli- 
gious service conducted in a Buddhist 
monastery at midday when tea is served to 
the congregated monks. 

gfflft*i gufi.gni the two middle times, 
midday and midnight. 

PJC'^C' Gun-tlian lit. central plain, 
n. of a part of Ngari Khorsum ; n. of a 
monastery in Ngari. 

jm-qjE.-^- district of Gungthang in 
western Tsang, the birth-place of Ncig- 
ts/io Lo-tsa-wa Tshul-khrimi rgyal-ica, 
who brought Atis'a to Tibet. 

sjE-E.AW^gc.*t Gun-than Sjam-dbyans 
n. of an incarnate Lama of Amdo, who 



became the high priest of Tashi Gonian 
monastery of Amdo and erected a lofty 
chorten-temple 360 feet high ; and founded 
a monastery with a library containing 
20,000 block-print volumes. 

g^w5-^-^ Guft-than Rtsahi ko ron 
the birth-place of Milaraspa the poet and 
saint. 



3=-'i gun-pa =^'^ hbrin-po wn the 
second of three brothers ; the middle one. 

qjE.-Wi g u fi hbab-pa to take rest at noon 
on a journey; g=.'2i|*i g un .t s higg dinner 
(8eh.). 

g^ '*gi\ gun-hdsug wq^ffei also gung-mo, 
the middle finger. 

jft'^-jC^ Gun-ri gun-^tsan the son 
and successor of King S'sT^V^ Khri- 
sron Idehu-btsan who reigned in Tibet 
about 733 A.D. 

qj'0]'5JZlj g un .l a ph u g or ^^wai'sii 
gun dmar-la phug carrot. 

^e.-Nt.-acn$-q gun-sans la hgro-wa to 
take a walk about midday, also generally 
to take a walk g^'^ gun-Ion at noon. 



gud 1. slope; declivity (Cs.). 
2. separation; solitude; seclusion (Sch.). 

3\^ gvd-du = ^i\v^^-^ logs suham 
sger-du aside; apart: "is.'f'^N'gii'^'jfacg-iJc 
3'\'^' I W' C| again Jobo spoke to Phyag-dar 
Ston-pa while alone in a solitary place 
(A. 5). 

qj^JJ^q gud-du hbor-wa 1. to place 
aslant or to one side ; g^'"!^"!*^ gud-du 
g.egs-pa to separate (Jd.), disperse. 2. to 
buy dear, at a loss ; synonymous with 
2fl -J ft gun-god; in Lad. heavy or thick of 
hearing ; gv^flj gud-nag quite deaf ; deaf as 
a post. 3. g^^VP gud-du hjug-pa = 
j - i logs-su bshag-pa or 



222 



gfian-du bcug-pa to humiliate ; deprecate ; 
to place in a false or inferior position. 
=*y\i hgud-pa. 



'H gud-po dear ; expensive, v. 3j*V 
rgud-po. 



gun loss; damage: f-'^'^'^i\ da-la 
gun-phog in W., I have suffered loss 
(prop, damage has come to me) (Jo.). 
3 a n9"1*<' q to make up a loss : W^'^'Wr*.' 
j<X'3' : V)Hrq-q?R.WW'^ - <*l - 9'3^B1W in all 
other places, on the other hand, they out of 
pride almost daily tried to replenish their 
loss (Blrom. P 33). 



(jnH-diim a bottle-shaped or 
cylindrical hasket for fruit in Ld. (per- 
haps akin to rkon-pn) (Jd.). 

'9 gun-po in Ld. expensive ; dear. 



or 



having died or heen dead : ^'fl-*Kcqv 
g'i'51'| dc-nas yun mi-rtfi tear Bram-ze 
gum-ste then, not long after, the Brahma? 
having died (Hlroin. 162). 

\ gum-pa, v. *3' hgum-pa. 



a tent ; 

also a house made of hay or straw or grass ; 
&'3* dicu-gur a sleeping tent; 19|T3* 
fa/ntgs-gur a tent used by a great man for 
his residence ; ^'^ gur-yol the ceiling of 
a tent ; $v^w gur-khebg the cover or 
canopy ; W3* ras-gur tent of cotton cloth ; 
501 3*; rgyal-gur royal pavilion; ^"I'^ 1 ^ 
4mag-gwr a military tent; gv**i| gur- 
mchog a magnificent tent ; 3^'"1 gur-thag 
tent robes; 3*.'^ tjtir-bcr in W., or ^'^ t - 
gur-yin, the tent poles ; g^Vl yitr-t/iog the 
upper covering or outer-fly of a tent ; w'3* , 
ilab-gur hearth-tent ; that which is used 



as a kitchen ; ^'I'-^^g gur-gyi yam-bit 
the outer canopy -like cover of a tent ; the 
upper part of a double tent ; 3*'3* giir- 
phnr the pegs or pins used for pitching a 
tent SJ^'l'i 8 ' ffur-ffshol the walls of a tent ; 
"1^3^ gur-gjad the top or crown of a tent; 
the passage for the smoke out of a tent ; 
^VRgjw gur-hgram lattice in the side of a 
tent ; 3^ S" gur-kam stakes supporting 
the roof of a tent (Sch.). 

gvpc.- yur-klian the imaginary pavilion 
or mansion of the gods, which is formed 
iu the sky, canopied by rain-bows, walled 
by rays of light, supported by diamond 
posts and carpetted with variegated clouds, 
for the use of the gods when they 
come to witness religious entertainments 
or performances of the pious on this 
earth. 



Gur-gyi mgon-po a divinity 
of the Sakya-pa School. 

3*'^! Gur-drag n. of a Buddhist deity 
of the Sakya-pa School. 

3* ^"1 gur-nag those of the black tent, 
or the Black-tent Mongols ; 3*'VP gur- 
dkar the White-tent tribes of Mongolia ; 
"l^'3* ffcod-giir the tent used by itiner- 
ant mendicants or Shamans. 



congregation at 



grba-tsltan a Buddhist 
'^ Gyan-tte. 

giir-lpags a perforated skin ; a 
hide full of holes (Sch.). 

3*'iK gur-scr the tribe of the Mongols 
who used to live in yellow tents. The 
Taranatha Lama of Urga (Tah Khureh) 
in Mongolia still uses the yellow tent. 

gttr-gum or ^'^ gur-kum 
saffron, crocus, marigold, 



223 



calendula, and similar yellow flowers 
(Jd.) : S^SWwfcrwgH^'CFlfc gur-gum 
mckin-nad kun sel rtsa kha sdom saffron 
cures liver-disorders and contracts the 
surface of the bowels (Btsii.). There are 
three kinds of saffron known to the 
Tibetans ; wS'g'vgw Bal-po gur-gum 
the saffron of Nepal; F'^'3^'3* 4 kha-clie 
gur-gum the Kashmir saffron, which is the 
best, and fr^'S or '""'"1, that is brought 
from distant regions (Spice-islands). 



Syn. *w|vp tshim byed dinar; ffl' 
sj'*l hdab brgya-wa; 6"^'%^'!" rdsin drun 
skyeg ; *>'f"I'^'^ me-tog don-can ; nfl^T 
=>|9*w kun-nas hkhums; d'jfl'y*' me-tog 
Hi-ma; j'N'-5^ phra-ma-can ; F'^'gi kha- 
chc-gkye? ;\'fy dri-shim; ^'^ lus-dmar; 
*>5'$"35 mehi rtse-mo ; ^'^ bde-byed; *5*'S 
hthun-byed; *ff>*\'^mchog-ldan; 
dpah-po brtan-pa (Mnon.). 



gur-gur in Lil. a small 
churn used for preparing tea. (Jd.) 



^| giir-tig a kind of drug used 
for healing or drawing sores, &c. ; Ji'l^'S' 
*S'*'H*''^'^' S ' rnta gas rtsa tshad rnkhris 
nad-sel it inflames sores, cures bilious 
fever. 

^^I'^^I gul-gul& quaking; shaken as 
if by a strong wind : pp$-f*-fw*<*v t r 
ajai-l^-g-fll^qi-^ai-^ai-gc.-^ khro-bohi stan-stabg 
rndsa</-pa$ yulvhen-po gfig gul-gulbyun sl;ad 
It is said that because they assumed the 
attitude of a wrathful deity, a great 
country trembled (as if by an earth- 
quake) . 

^^'^qj gul-nag, lit. the black g'gi 
gu-gul or gi'^'^"!' 2 ! gug-gul nag-po, n. of a 
medicine. 



(jus-pa 

R*ff, 5wr1%, JT^, HM, sbst. 
humility, respect, reverence, devotion ; also 
adj. respectful, devout; very common in 
the phrase gus-pas phyag htshal-lo, saluted 
with reverence ; *rg'i ma-gus-pa unsub- 
missive, undevout; gx - ^t-qwq gus-pa daft. 
b_ea$-pa ^T^^ respectfully; with dignity 
and honour ; grw*gvq gu$-par hgynr-wa 
to be respectful ; to humble one-self ((7s.) 
llW^^f^ni^'WffMr^ I offer salu- 
tation reverentially with the three my 
heart, speech and body : g*rq'3aj-jq-q^- 
ft*8^*'jwi gus-pa chcn-pos bsten-par 
byin-gyis-rlobs may the blessing be granted 
to maintain the greatest devotion, g^'iv 
fl gws-par bsg rim-pa to behave with 
respect ; 3riv^ gus-par Ran Jj^'n to 
serve or attend respectfully ; to listen with 
respect ; 3'^'|\i to regard. 



gus-po in C. and W. expensive, 
costly, dear, v. 3^9 gud-po or 3h'3 
rgud-po. 

3^'* gus-so JRfa becomes very dear; 
respects ; worships. 

ge num. for 93. 

^ gc-u-a is an auxiliary particle 
signifying did (emphatically) : r$5'iX q- 



mche-was bran kha non, ma-sohi mche-was 
dpral-ica na yar-la lhag ge-ica by the upper 
tusk he pressed on his breast, by his lower 
tusk he opened asunder up to the forehead 
(Hbrom. 139). 



Ge-ra n. of a country : $*$' 
||-ci-^-ciRcgfR^| Ge-rahi rgyal-po s/ies- 
pahan byun-hdug also there was one, called 
the King of h Ge-ra (K. du. 281). 



224 



^v^j'ti Ge-ra lha-pa name of a Tibetan 
chief, said to have descended from the 
royal line of kings, i.e., from Srofl-btsan 
igam-po, and belonging to a place called 
*T*'q Ge-ra lha situated to the east of 
Lhasa on the Yaru Tsang-po beyond 
Chethang. 



ge-fa a kerchief for the head 
hanging down behind from the shoulders. 



I : ge-sar 

flhw, fv^^r saffron, the 
corolla of a flower. There are three 
kinds of ^'W ge-sar viz: ^'"M'W na-ga 
ge-sar srm^HT, SM'^'W put-pa ge-sar 
and v^ - w pad-ma ge-sar 
(MiA.). Ace. to Cs. *T is 
a flower ; it is said to grow in Nepal 
and is called w\*'*\'*** pad-ma ge-sar; ace. 
to Sch. pistil, but like l'9 se-hbru it sig- 
nifies undoubtedly the organs of fructifi- 
cation in general. 



II : Ge-sar n. of a powerful 
king ruling in Shensi in China, who on 
account of his martial valour was deified 
and raised to the position of the God of 
War. There are various accounts of him. 
The people of Kham in Tibet own him 
for their national war-god, while the 
Mongolians say that *T* Ge-sar was a 
king of Mongolia. According to some 
authors, he lived in the 7th century A.D. 
According to the collection of heroic songs 
called the fiV Rgyal-druA, King Ge-sar 
lived in the 8th century A.D. His origin 
is, however, lost in myth. 

5|-w|-gE. ge-sar-gyi sgrun stories from 
the works' called sjs-'^'g*' Ling and Jang; 
also extracts from the fabulous history of 
Ge-sar. 



gc-sar-can %*rc the lotus flower; 
the filament of a lotus. 

qpti^wZi ge-sar dmar-po, 31'^ ffli<-$in, 
Naga Vrksa (Mfion.). 

^('^ ge-hya, Ri ynai a secret abode 

4 
used as 1*^'5|S ffsafi-skad. (a mystic word) 

in the Tantra (K. \ g. 215). 

^N gf<jf=iC^ gags fairer, 
hindrance ; stoppage ; obstacle : 
gegs-c/iags 1 ^'^ bar-chad, interruption 
by an accident; danger; Wr^'^rlN 1 * 
to remove doubts and hindrances (Mil.) ; 
fy\w,\ Q^*lt a malignant spirit causing 
mischief or impediments; Xr*i^ >*5wjr 
^)'\'t) to hinder effectually religious 
doings; HMTflrfMftnil'^r^ four obs- 
tacles to the attainment of Buddhahood : 
^q|-^l^|Mr^rf*4| thol-pahi grogs 
hgroham gegs-su hgro will you help me or 
hinder me in obtaining ; <*3|rci'v)<J]*i 
hgrub-pahi gegt impediment to the 
attainment of perfection. 

.f, ^J^'^ gel-pa the trunk of a tree with 
a spiral top: ^*$JKV >l!>r r*l*^**" 

* S*" 1 gel-wa ni fid phufi Ham risa-wa shorn 
fid rtse-mo rgyas-pa the term gelwa is when 
the stem or thick roots of a tree grow into 
a branching top. 

gel-fiA WK a log ; a post. 



I Gain-dar-pa g5 joc 
n. of a king of birds. (K. my. "1, 18). 

H[ I: go 1. numerical sign for 123. 
2. abbr. for ^'^ dgu-bcu in the nineties ; 
^'"iS"! go-g.cig 91; also ^'"1^*' go-puts 
92, etc. 

3| II: = in mystic language S'**"! 
khyu-rnchog g|F, ^H, ^ the chief of 
a herd or company (K. g. P, 28). 



225 



sf III: 1. place; room; space (prob.= 
30) ; in this sense it is used in W*wfcyH 
nttshams med-par, without intermediate 
space, t.e., close together, continuous : ^'Sf' 
yflmiff-wtowi^-qvlw hbru sna-tshogs go 
nttshams med-par gkyeg grain of every kind 
grew densely, luxuriantly : IfMwwA^W^* 1 
q go-msthants med-par gaft-wa closely filled. 
An important compound of go is found in 
fj'S^ go-chod., the space is cut off, or filled, 
i.e., the matter is done with, settled; satis- 
faction has been made ; colloq. also I have 
got enough ; I am full : ^ryu-qS-Jfa-Syq 
des rgyal-tcahi go-mi chod-pa by this the 
victory has not yet been fully decided : 
yrwN'^w f *|i*''3fIX thos-bsam sgom g.sum- 
gyi go-chod there is intermission of hear- 
ing ; thinking ; meditation : JIV'^'^' 
i5'I khyed-la go-mi-chod pahi chos doc- 
trine not satisfactory to you : g-iq'Cf fl|ir 
S'lvSf*)^ bit-tshab ((a spyugs ci-phyir go- 
mi-chod why should it not be sufficient that 
I be banished instead of my son? 2. 
place, position, rank, condition of life: 
j - 5t^ pha-yi gor in the place of his 
father; f'^" go-nas according to; in 
proportion to (Jd.) : *i'W*ffO rgag-na when 
rank and dignity are grown old and gone ; 
when the position in life has been lost: ^ - 
1 Jff-^n| that is my place; my business. 3. 
a way, a space, in the more general sense : 
|jaj-|-J|f q^-cj'^'Xc.^ gprin-gyi go-war phyc- 
na$ hofis have come parting the clouds : 
w5 - 1f n a-mahi go na at the place of my 
mother ; with my mother (Jd.). ^'^\' go 
ldog-pa to change place, especially to turn 
to the contrary (Sch.) ; ^ -!f f nad-go the seat 
of disease (Sch.). 



go-skabs 

interval ; leisure ; space ; 
opportunity ; in the meanwhile : 



occasionally with companion words g 
signifies slowly, at leisure, or in power ; 
just at the time : q^q^q^-ciS-tff^qr!<; 
bde-war bdad-pahi go skabs-med there is 
no chance of my sitting at ease : ^'g^' 
Wf fWH-$|*l de-phyir bdag-la go- 
kabs gtsal-du g.sol (A. 16) therefore I 
pray for leave to avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity. 

*f'^ a| go-kal the share or portion due to 
a person in accordance to his rank (Jd.). 

^pc.' go-Man, Sf 5'f-q go-chahi khafi- 
pa arsenal (Schtr.). 



^'B q go-khrab = %\' &'*?-' $Q yo-cha dafi krab 
coat of mail with helmet ; armour, v. f'* 
go-cha. 



Sf'^'i go-gyon-pa, ^a^'q go-cha gyon- 
pa to wear a coat of mail, etc. ; to put on 
war dress. 



Syn. *f[-ttf go-bgos ; 

gyi chas shugs-pa; ^'"l^'q 5 ^ ya-lad bgos 
(Mnon.). 



go-gral or ^\'^ go-gras rank; dig- 
nity (Cs.). 



-q go-bgos pa ^fNf^u the act of 
equipping or arraying :=3j'*'g^q go-cha 
gyon-pa to equip with armour ; put on 
harness, v. *f'* go-cha. 

f' go-ca, v. ff* go-cha. 



go-cha 

5Tf H ; 3ra^ armour ; harness ; gear ; 
implements ; tools ; i3J'3)*'$'f'* bkra-yis-kyi 
go-cha the implement of good luck ; an 
amulet. 

Syn. ""'IS ya-lad; *%|q; mtahon- 
Skyob; ^'^ hg-tJcyob; QVqg* luf-srun; 
'Jf Ichags-gos; gq'*^ shu'>-can; V^''1 

30 



226 T^ | 

dra-wa can; *S1 -J fa hk/irug-gos ; $"!*'$' fsH go-snod ^wnft cummin seed 

flf ' Icags-kyi bgo-ica; H*5 khrab; to*\rmog; (Zam. 2$). 

w'f'fi W0o sAyoJ; *T"I'9 rmog-shu; f*|<'9 i^'V'^ 00-flfo wa-rt the Godavari river. 

khyufi-thur can ; f'Rl go-khmb (Mfion.). thugt-kyi pitas brkyad kyi-gcig, be-tahiyul- 

Jff-*-g^-( (jo-cha gyon-pa, v. "f'^'i 170 gyi Iho-thag ne sar-yod, T*w'$'$ 

gyon-pa or 9f'q*fri </o bgos-pa. wmiq^tK ho-mahi chu-mig sogs 

lf- v -qw ^cAa <fafl few ^r (ScAr. ; mtshan-can mrf Godavari, one of the holy 

JTa/ac. T. JJ9) with a ball. rivers of Southern India, a place on its 

bank near Vidharva where there is spirit- 
~*MflW go-chahi Skrag byed-nui. , . r 

/c ; \ symbol of Buddha. It contains a milky 

\<t& Ji.) (ocA-r.) . . . 

spring (Dsam. 36). 

(Schr.) (22 C.) 1 ^'S^'^ go-dam bd n. of a drug 

* qf-rf-f-wXqi go-chahi Rta-rpchog. (Schr.) Syn. wi-q-^ ^s-^ crt; **< rf-w 
(^1 ^4) Cff " > *'S Ei ^1 ba-plad mig; wXflj'g^'N rnchog 

>x -jfa.i. fbmn-ma; ^qe. 1 3'H f ? d.ban-po bkra-wa ; *\'*\' 

*9j'*^'f|y< go-chaht Rdo-rjc nt-nw. - . . 

(&Ar.) (0 C.) ^' 5 * ffWJ '* fl cAe ^ ^^ 

^f'ti^'q go-bde-wa simple; easy; that 
]-*ivf g-wj > ^ go-chant Rdo-rje sem$- . ^ , 

. ' . which is easily understood : ^ ^ 1 "> w*' 

</r?A. (19 ^.) , 

" a^-^q^-qf^-^ go-bde-ua la bsam-nas dpcr-bjod 

* ^-n-ji . f/o-chahi Rnai-$nafi. (19 C.) .,, 

a he uttered an example with a view to 

fit-qYrqS-qm go-chahi Pad-ma gar- mftke it easil understood (Situ. 101). 
dwan. (Schr.) (20 A.) 

. ^ ^ + If'^W go-hdun, defined as ^flm'wwflp' 

* <n'*i'4 ^^'SS'", go-chahi RmoHs-bi/ed-mc. ,, 

'q gna-tshogs-sam grin mot-pa what you 

like of diiferent kinds. 
^abfHj'^ go-chahi Tsan-di ka. (Schr.) af- * -ft fcrf ' t* ^n"v5'?!r 

(23 A.) 

. ^ ^ .. ^'^S'" to be friendly; intimate (A. 1&5). 

*qj'ivflp^'f'*< go-chaht G$in-rje-ma. 

(Schr.) (21 C.) * tfr"2 go-da ?ftf^g*f; ffyAto'S^ Go-da- 

*^*5'V5'"I'^T Z ' gt-chhi Hc-ru-ka nag-po. hphel-byed n. pr. (Schr.) (Td. 2, 82). 

(^') (^-> tff-^- j W ^* 8 d = lf W i rank; place; 

*S-a go-chod-po= i phan-thog-po gition . ^r^n^S^tf < ^ 1 ^^^lt<r 

useful ;serviceable. iir^r^tS'9r|nv ^ may ^ bleg8ing be accorded me 

{j^WK^'S^'WW'91'^f ^S " ^ /f/5 rfow nun-bvcd > T> T n 

to gain the rank of an omniscient Buddha 
kyafi bsgntb-mispaham mtharphyin-pahi mi- . ,,.. , 

la go-chod-po zer the term go-chod-po is 

applied to a man who is successful or who ^ff'CJ yo-wa to understand ; to perceive 

accomplishes any business or duty sue- mentally: ^'S'^'^^'^^'S^^S^ dan-po 

cessfully: ft'^'^f'X^'^w mi-Mi go chod.-dam pan-ti-ta kun-gyi go wa byufi first of all it 

will this man be of service ? (A. 127). was understood by all the Pandits. 



227 



headed person; 



'i a learned, clear- 
wise men. 



go-bo or S'*f ^ bya-go-bo a kind of 
vulture: *f5S-gj-q*r-pi-g-r^-, wa^S^ipr 
^w.|'qvg^ go-wohi gre-was fa-ma shu-wa 
dan, ma-shu-wahi rig$-rnam hju-icar byed. 
the larynx of the vulture causes indiges- 
tible meat and different kinds of food 
which are not digested, to become digested 
(man.). 

f S go-byed ace. to Jd. is a quality of 
the air. 



yo-bzlog (go-acg} = ^^ go-log 
misunderstand ; misapprehend ; to attach 
a wrong meaning (Situ. 110). 

+ ^ go-yu (Beng. ^T) areca nut: 
3j'-api-*<pQrt4'aft%ar)!'$'''*&4| areca nut is the 
best essence for the tee'h and cures kidney 
disease (Sman.). 

+ %f*. yo-ra= c &% s < bison-ra jail; prison. 

Jff^w go-rim order, arrangement : 3f^*r 
i^c.-j^cn.-jc.-a'vqfft'w have arranged it so 
as to agree with the order of things, etc. 
(Situ. 101) . 

+ ^ go-re = ^"\^' c > rdsogs-pa perfected; 
finished ; completed. 

+ Sf^Jfc.' go-re fo==.T^9"l - i mnag 
pshtig-pa or ^f^qe/i^q raii-dican med-pa 
spontaneously ; as a matter of course; 
without power to exert one's self in any 
matter; necessarily (K. du. p 175). 

*f<* go-la, I'^'fH'l*^^!'*! rgya- 
nag gi sra-rtsihi rgyu-se qifi-gi khu-wa 1. a 
kind of gum, prob. acacia imported to Tibet 
from China ; ashes which have burnt with- 
out ignition. 2. ilfayiKJjpf&irv* lime 
of burnt shell or cowries. 3. the areca nut 
brought from the sub-Himalayan district 
or from India is called fffi'^' 8 ! $man go-la, i.e., 
the globular medicine ; 5'* l l^ t{ f''8 rgya-gar 



go-yu the Indian areca nut, or *i^'f $, areca 
nut from the sub-Himalaya; these two 
are called f^'^'"! $man-go-la (Sman.). 

ffi'Sjc. go-lahi-rlufi "Vg"'^'^'^*^'^ 
"1'*^ the wind which, ace. to Tibetan 
astronomers, keeps the sun and the 
stars moving in space : 9q*r^N'gK,*Sf ai^'gjK.* 
^gVgvtfffsI'v^'ii phebs-tshogs kyan Qo-lahi 
rlun-hyros ttar hgog-nwd-du shu your letters 
should also be without let or hindrance, 
like the wind which keeps the heavenly 
bodies always in motion (Yig. k. 87). 

*I (70-fe = 3|'^ ga-le or ^'Q dal-po 
slowly. 



go-sa, 

n. of a town in the way to Udyana, prob. 
in Ancient Kabul (S. Lam. 17.). 

3f #"1 go-log the reverse ; opposite to what 
was ; back again ; also for ^irawj'si go-sa 
log-pa degraded; position changed as in the 
case of a superior officer subordinated, or an 
inferior officer promoted to a higher posi- 
tion : ^'q-<)5}'>| dpon-po g.yog master 
made a subordinate or servant, or i^ij'^^ 
g.yog-po dpon, a servant raised to the 
position of a master; 'J^'^'gN'tcai'ii^-q^-Sf- 
q'^'3 phan-par smras-pa la gnod-par go-wa 
tta-bu to take a useful advice as intended 
for mischief; also g^i'ff 1 ^ opposed to 
charity or misunderstand charity ; iVgwr 
Jffi5| reversing, misinterpreting character 
or morality jq^'q'^^ bzod-pa go-log - t ^f^' 
R|i'Sff'i5i| brtson-hgms go-log to misunder- 
stand one's forbearance or industry ; w*r 
fl)5^-^-8iqj performance of the wrong 
Dhyana ; ^m'^q-^5i| perverse or distorted 
knowledge or wisdom; 1 c .'i*f2fat snifi-rje 
go-log tired of showing sympathy or 
compassion; S**rq3ffo| byam-pa go-log 
tired of loving. 



228 



5ff' go-so, = J fffli or If'wt- rank; office; 
dignity : g-srsf^S-jorspi i^W^f tl 
b('i-i(i mkhan-po rgyal-blon sogs-kyi go-sa 
Ua-bu-la like unto the position of the 
lamas, professors, officers, etc. 



Gohu-ta-ma, 

n. of a family in 
Ancient India (K. du. ) 183) ; n. of Buddha 
S'akyamuni. 

^1 gog in W. for ^'5 gofi-po a lump. 
5ffl|'w gog-thal ashes ; burnt fragments. 

"ri'" gog-pa 1. to crawl. 2. to crumble 
off ; to scale off (of the plaster of a wall) 
(JO.). 

^I'Q </o0-j90=^| l T*>' s rg^' l shig-ral byun-u-a 
or 9*w'qi-gE.'q nanis-cltag byufi-wa dilapi- 
dated ; damaged ; in ruins ; worn out : 
^pt-JIfqi'Ei a temple in ruins : i^Y^'TTQ a 
chorten in ruins: p'$fli'Sffl|'3'^ffli'<r^S'W, - 
^S there are some who even die worn 
out when they crawl about (as little 
children) (Khrid. 13). 

* J( f'*i| fl I'^'5'' go-bslog l/utn-skyes (Schr.) 
(30 A.). 

!! (Kalac. 

* gon 1. price ; value ; also ff*'t gon- 
t/utfi ^-^ gon-tshad; ^r'3J'^'*M > <S 
nor-rdsas kyi rin gon-gi tshad. the price 
or valuation of things or property : J f^ - 
^\i gon dpy ad-pa to apprize ; to fix a price : 
fp/qjq'q gon brgyab-pa or ^'|1'i gon 
sgrig-pa id. In Sikkini : " di gon ka dzo 
mo" what is the price of it ? (Snd. Hbk.) 
2. = g=- steil or g^ $non or I*T*< thag-ma 
also !0^ fc^arf ^Tfr, ^3^ the above ; in space 
as well as in tune (in Khams, e.g., it is used 
as a sbst. signifying elevated, alpine pasture 



*Sf'iJi5-R'S go-lahi ri-mo 
I. 52 58) a circle ; circular. 



grounds). Sfc'^'*^ gon dan mt/mn, ^'^ 
*V* yon- dan hdra-icar, f 6 ^^ gon-bshin, 
Jffn-n^tw god-rnt shuns as above (men- 
tioned) ; like the above or aforesaid similar 
to the above. 

*fc'*i*S gon-hkhod stated above; ^'^ 
^S'i gon-du yo$-pa existing above ; ^f t- ^' 
l*<9rq^ gon-du psal war, set forth or elu- 
cidated above ; 1fc'9| ^on-jrz the former ; the 
above; ^')'^'$*w gon-gi de rnamt those 
preceding; 5fff3)'3*r$jVi gon-gi sites smot- 
pa the above statement that ; g'^'^'S 'J 71 '% 
ffia gon Bod,-kyi rgyal-po the ancient or 
former Tibetan kings; fF'^l'i^V'l^ gon- 
gi fy ad-pa liar as has been stated above ; 
ff^ gon-du over it; above; ^f^w^y 
gon-du hphagi-pa ^nra taken upwards; 
gone upwards ; improved ; progressed ; *f*' 
^'3^ gon-du phud placed in a position of 
dignity ; kept on the top; fj^'^J-q gon-du 
hpho-u-a, wi'^tar: spiritually developed, 
lit. gone upwards; J f E ^'|f*' t ' gon-du byor- 
wa <s^W ready; ^'^'^q gon-du mos-pa 
the above mentioned; ^'^ goft-na on 
it; above; f^'^" gon-nag from above; 
^^ii'i^k.-^ goft-nat gon-du vst(<!iTH more 
and more ; higher and higher, ^'i gon-pa 
^rfff very much (Lex.) ; one above ; the 
senior (one) = if *!]=' ^ $yo gon-du over the 
door; "W'l'IfE.'^^^ yab-kyi gon-du hda$ 
died before his father; ^ - 8f*-^ dehi gon-du 
before that or that time; '*i|-5lff^ 
ma-tshogf gon-du before they assembled or 
congregated together. 

Sfjr^H'^f Gofi-dkar-rdson n. of a fort 
and town on the Tsang-po, where con- 
victs are generally sent for punishment. 
It is situated S.-E. of Lhasa, in the 
district of Mal-gro. 

flp'jjj'^q'JC^W Gon khri-bdal, hod-hbar 
n. of a Bon saint believed to exist in astral 



229 



form in the north-west quarter. ( G. things of the %q Bon-po are the follow- 

B H - 0- in g : "jwq'^-o gsan-wa hdu$-pa mysti- 

^'3 gon-po = ^'3, gon-bu TOT a cism; |'^ sti-ghar; )'^' 

meeting ; assembly ; fame ; renown ; glo- Qsam legs ; w^-|c.-q yi.^ 

bular. s^'saj $nan-wa mdog-can. 



gon-du 

phud-pa to lift up ; to ride up. po the Tibetan name of the fourth Man- 

Jffc.-Qq gon-phebs, or ^=.-5)-q^-Qq gon-gi ctu Emperor Kyun-lun is ^|Vg>jrEf Lha- 

bkah-phebs, the instructions from higher sk y oSi fffy al ~po, the king protected by the 

authorities ; also those arrived or received gods.^ 

earlier. ^ 



gofi-wa in W. collar: Sfjk- 
gon-ica nas hdsin-pa to seize 
collar. 



by the 



goA.hu 1. ft*?, 

TTf a globular mass, lump, heap; ffs.' 
9'*^ gon-bti-can ftpg^q clot; clotty; in 
lump; in heaps; S^'9'35'35 gon-bu so-so 
sfdSid, sfdsgiq catarrh or cold; ^'Q^'S^ 
gon-bur-byas made into globular mass or 
lump. 2. agglomeration of atoms ;\^T 
q|^rq^-|--f*rqj^4^ri^-cr$q dri ro reg 
ffstig$ bshi-te rditl-rdsag brgyadhdu gon-ica 
yin ace. to the Buddhist metaphysical con- 
ception that which produces the sensation 
of smell, taste, touch and sight is formed 
of the following eight atoms : (1) |i ' 
rdul phra-rab, (2) ^'g^ rdut-phran, (3) 
51 Icags-rdul, (4) $%* chu-rdul, (5) 
$* ri-boti-rdul, (6) W* lug-rdul, (7) g^' 
|f pM-rdul, (8) ^^^^'|'Ji ni-mahi 
hod-zcr-gyi rdul (Sorig. 7.) 



JJ god-ma 

superior ; the former ; the first-named ; %{*' 
"'^ gon-ma-che or fp'wS^'Ei gon-nta chen-po 
the most high; J'^l'^'* 1 ?ffy a -off gon- 
ma the Emperor of China; Sf^wjjsw gofi- 
ma-rnams the gods and superior beings. 
'qj gofi-ma che drug, the six superior 



He became 
very powerful, was devoted to Buddhism, 
invited the Pan-chen Ein-po-che called 
Tashi Lama Pal-dan Ye-s'e (friend of 
the first Governor General of India, 
Mr. Warren Hastings). He erected 
many temples and chaityas, and his life 
was a record of miracles. He reigned 
upwards of sixty years. 



n-ma mchod-yon the Dalai 
Lama being the spiritual lord and the 
Emperor of China being the temporal 
lord : ^- 



mchon-yon-gyi thugs-rjer hdir-yafi htsho- 
kham? bdc-s/iin hphrin-la$ shabs-hdegs la 
Ihod-med-du mchi$ by the grace of the 
Grand Lama and the Emperor (of China) 
here too I being in good health have 
been in the discharge of public service 
without relaxation (Tig. k. 18). 



q sfion-ma 

bshin ^t?^ as before ; as the above men- 
tioned ; like the aforesaid ; as the previous 
one. 



M gon-nwhi gofi-ma ^flTR: a 
superior's superior; also more and more; 
more in future. 



230 



I 1. gon-mo the upper one; 
lag-pahi gofi-mo wnjf^S the middle 
finger. 2. the white grouse, but applied 
to various birds in Tibet of the Tetraonidce 
family : lha-bya gofi-mo is the Crossoptilon 
Tibetanum, and gong-g.yag the Ithaginis 
geoffryoi, etc. (Snd. Hbk. pp. 170-1). 
S^ ^ "*! <I P)*' S*' "f 1 " 1 ^* ^ 8" ^ byihu co-ka puts 
kyif yod-mo la gmrag-pa the two little 
Coka birds said to the grouse (Rdsa.). ^' 



t $a-yi$ ro-tsa chu-ser mo-nad. sol the 
flesh of the grouse stimulates the sexual 
desire and also cures discharge of whites : 
3fs. > tf5 i i5fl| : |j5-?r^vitoi goU-mohi rnjug sgrohi 
mo-na4 set the feathers of the grouse 
cure female diseases : ^rtfc 1 | t wr* t fj^fo l 
f\'"^ goft-mohi ego-fag me-lhahi ffdon-nad 
ffso the eggs of the grouse cure illness 
caused by the demons of the fire-god. 

^c.'35'jjfl) gofi-mo sreg a pheasant, Phasi- 
anus decollatus. 



gofl-du shu 1. as 
stated or prayed above. 2. a paper lantern 
(<7a.) ; in colloq. Tibetan " gam-shit," a 
lantern. 



ffe.-^il gon-hog^'^ Itag-hog 
upper and lower; "1^'^' ffshi-gofi folio; 
i(fE.-g-fl|^iI gon-skn ffshogs a title of honour, 
signifying his highness, excellence, etc. 

Jfjk-Xac^ gofi-rol-du=1>'%'*'^$fia-rol-du or 
gf'at sfton-la, before, prior to: W*'^'*!' 
J([fXai'^before the war took place. 

^'J god-la above. 

'fe'" gofi-sa ^^ps one in supreme autho- 
rity or position; the sovereign. 



ft'w ya-rabs gofi-ma those superior persons 
gone before ; persons in superior or more 
exalted stations. 



yd loss; damage; ^'^'q god 
hgyur-ica to suffer loss; ^'I'^K loss of 
money and property; 3j*VF god-k/ta, ^' 
^'^'^'q norphyugs la nad 
byun-nas fi-wa loss in property 
or in cattle by disease and other accidents : 
Ufa 3q'3'gwgc,'3jY)^ gom sgrub ci-byas kyaft 
god-med there was no loss whatever 
whether he performed meditation or 
propitiation. 



^S'w god-ma 
fear, loss. 



Ti hjig-pa 



gon the common gourd; pump- 
kin in W. (Jo.). 



J ,j on .p a (J^-q) to put on clothes, 
shoes, etc.; ^T*T*V*^ gon-pa hdra-wa 
re-re the cost of a set of anything to wear 
(Btsii.) ; *tffor<v5ffrq to put a cap on the 
head. 2. coat, clothing (Sch.). 

"Pi'JC 4 gon-snam (3'Jf) serge or broad- 
cloth for making robes, etc. (Rtsii.). 

*fo'E*' gon-phyiH felt used for wearing. 

frfMfON-ftanv^Vf gyon-lham shoes 
to put on. 



I gob-non (spelling uncertain) in 
W. to tease; vex; irritate (Jd.). 



H gom-pa TR", T?, <n--i*^, Tfn 
a pace ; step : *jc.'^w rkan-hgros to make 
a step; ^'^'^' ^gotn-pa bar-tea to pace: 
i^irq-q^-qX'q gotn-pa bdun bor-wa to 
make seven steps (as a ceremony, which 
may also be counted equivalent to a 
religious pilgrimage, the actual perform- 
ance of which is not possible). 



i gom-pahi stabs any peculiar 
manner of stepping whether in proces- 
sion or in dancing. 



231 



gom-hgros walking in step like 
soldiers or a procession : ^3r^' J ff*r ( M6*r'vJ^ 
hgro-na gom-hgros hkhyor in walking he 
missed the measure of the paces. 

5^*rjBc.*i gom~s_tans M<(*f the manner of 
pacing ; walking in measured step. 

qf*ro|j* gom-ffsiun ftTK three paces ; fig. 
the heavens, earth and the nether region. 

tffwojsjjcq gom-g.sum-pa one with three 
steps. 



a name of 
Vishnu when he deceived Bali in his 
Bamana or Dwarf incarnation (Mnon.). 

S|JJ5J | goms-pa 1. ^uqTS one prac- 
tised in any work; skilled; wont ; Sfl' 
crar3j*wq practising or practised in the art 
of reading ; Sf*w*r*^ goms-pa-can ^^\ 
one who is skilled or practised in any art, 
Qf*wci*'3Y < i goms-par byed-pa ^fwrer one 
who is skilled or accustomed ; 3pwci^'g,ry 
goms-par byas-pa ^^nft^raW one who has 
practised or studied. 

H]^> gor or *|W^ phyugs.-gw=^'3f\ 
nor-nad murrain (A. "1 103). 

3j^> 5 9 0> '-b u 1- ^3<*l^ quadrangle. 
2. *<?ir*<*i wisdom. 

S^s'iW gor-ma ^T^'S^'i rdo-la she-sa 
byas-pa a term of respect for stone, or 
a general name for stone (Cs.) ; large and 
small pebbles ; stones ; rubble ; boulder 
stones (Sch.). 

gor-ma bkum-pa, $'*'*>S the-tshom med 
or fc*rq nes-pa 3-r, f^r.'ftPT certain ; sure ; 
indubitable : ^ngcq-JIff w*oi'3ff de-hbyun-tca 
gor-ma mchag-go his coming is quite cer- 
tain. 

sdaft-wahi sems-la yan hjug *j"vtf gor- 



mo is also applied to signify an irritable 
or angry temper. 

+ tff^'^-^j gor-fi-^a, Tt^i^' a kind of 
sandal wood. 

*fat'q gol-tca, v. ^ai'q hgol-wa. 

f"pe,^w,^ 

cover ; dress ; garment. 
The common word for coat or clothing ; 
there are seven kinds of stuffs for priests, 
&e. : q^'^ bal-gos woollen cloth ; -]'^5 i Sffw 
$a-nahi gos cloth of flax; ^'<Mpl zar- 
mahi gos linen ; ^'U.'"!^^ du-khw lahi gos 
silk cloth ; wqors'^ ras-lal-gyi gos 
cotton cloth ; 1]'5*rq5'*ff*j ko tam-pahi 
gos jute cloth; y*aj'T|'ifjiw ni-hog-gi gos 
European cloth, &c. ^N'^'^'^g^'^^i'q^' 
gos-ki/i rgyuhi hbyun-khuns btan-pa 
enumeration of the materials for cloth : 
Ifa'9 srin-bu silk-worm ; ^'^l'^'^'^"^ 
g'^c.-)i|N'i'^'^am ra tug dafi ri-dbags-kyi 
spit-dan pags-pa sna-tshogs various hairs 
and skins of sheep, goats and wild animals ; 
bark or fibres ; ^ c ''I' 9 'g*''5 fruits ; 
zar-ma sogs fibres, etc. ; WIT 
ras-bal sogs wool, cotton, etc. ; ^''S.' '^' 
*>^' du-khu-lahi min silk cloth, satin, etc. ; 
tff*rim, gos-g.sar new cloth; \*>S dri-med 
clean cloth ; ^N'S'^ gos-so-mo new or 
fresh cloth ; \'*'^ dri-ma can dirty cloth ; 
8ffr|c.-i gos rnin-pa old, worn out 
clothes ; 'S'l sad-pa or $*% hrul-po rags 
or ragged dress ; lj f \^'* stod-gos <3MTW^ 
upper garment of Buddhist monks ; i'5f*i 
bla-gos = $*<'!$, K - nam-bt/gr the sacred rai- 
ment containing thirty-two patches; ?S' 
a]i^i|( tod-g.yogs upper cover ; fft'l^ 1 * 
smad-pyogs or iCV^ mad-gos. lower gar- 
ment ; qyi'Sl' l | ban-tsa-li-ka an apron of 
five colours ; ^m 1 ^" hdoms-dkris folds 
round loins like the dhuti of the Hindus ; 



232 



tmad-tfkrif the back folds of dhuii; 
gmad-fam under cloth or garment ; 
*wE,-Jff or -<]*rnq the petticoat-like clothes 
worn by the Tibetan monks; ryyaii-gog 
fine dressing clothes ; rgyun-gog an every- 
day coat (Jd.) ; chog-gog clerical garb or 
garment ; pho-gog male dress ; bla-gog an 
upper garment, a kind of toga ; mo-gog a 
woman's gown ; pzab-gog holiday or gala 
clothes ; fi'^'i gog g < yon-pa to put on 
dress ; fj^gvi gog hbu^-pa to take ofE 
dress ; ^'P|'l gog fyrje-ica to change dress 
or clothes; 5f*rqJ-i|*rq gog brtsegg-pa to put 
one garment over the other ; ^'fl^T^ gog 
tyeg-pa to tuck up, by drawing the front 
skirts under the girdle ; 9f*i'3;q'i gog Idab- 
pa to lay or fold a coat together. 

fo'S'B* 4 gog-kyi khyim (<rtf) TT&t a 
tent; a diseased man's wardrobe ; 3f*rS'*n 
gog-kyi gar ^Hi'st a bamboo or bar to 
hang or keep the dress ; ^'3'X|'J)'fl gos- 
kyii c/iog fes-pa ^faxflsgs one who has 
enough of clothes ; *frS - fl|S*'2)s. gos-kyi 
ffdafi-fin iTW<H a rope or string to hang 
clothes. 



gog-dkar white dress ; 
gog-dkar can fjr^K<r\f^l^[. one dressed in 
white ; the Goddess Sarasvati. 

f^'S^ gos-$kitd yarn or silk thread. 

J^-p-qj-wci goi-kha brgya-tham-pa one 
hundred breadth-measure of blankets. 

f'Bwq gos khums-pa ^Vfi^n-yi.-^ 
'*<$( a cloth folded as to look like waves or 
wrinkles. 

fjV$^ go-gur a tent of cloth or satin ; 
S^'S* phyin-gur a tent of felt ; J| fbra or 
^'3^ re-gur tent of yak-hair blanket or 
felt. 

SfjV^-q go$ hgyed-pa ^kxflTSRr the 
folds in the garment of a monk ; one who 
folds clothes. 



^"'5*" gos-gnun a square rug made of 
Chinese satin. 

? fa - 3j E ' gog-ggab skirt or flap of a coat or 
robe. 

^'If* gos-fgam box ; chest or press for 
clothes ; wardrobe. 

J f"'^'* a i gog-sfion-can spt^rr^T 1. one 
dressed in a blue dress ; the sky. 2. JT^ 
rf^^ Chag-na Dorje Bodisattva, 
stobs-bzad, s^rvnf the brother 



of Krishna said to be an acatdra of Vishnu. 
3. fljwg^'q gzah tpen-pa the planet Saturn. 

T'*i gof-can ^^i a kind of sandal. 

***\v'**igos-can 1. trf^T (Schr. ; 
86) a tablet ; a piece of cloth. 2. 
VI* gog-can tsan-dkar qfAM satin. 

f^ gos-chen silk fabrics; Chinese 
satin, of which the different kinds known 
in Tibet are : ^'^ hor-gog, ty3 thon-thi, 
T* nor-bu c/iab bdun-ma, w^-ftfN 
^'fti fkyin-khab (Kineol) em- 
broidered satin; | jug, g^'q^'*) rgyan 
bshi-ma, J^T" rgyan drug-ma, *ay*,wti 
hbrug ri$-ma, ^gfli'flj-w frbrug brgya-ma. 

^1^'Q gos-clien-po = ^'5'i5-^j du-ku 
lahi rag silk-cloth (Mfion.). 

H\n'fft*\ gos-mchog the finest satin or 
silk-cloth. 

Syn. *fwiae, gog-bzafi; W'\*$-*\v kttn- 
ijgahi gof ; Jjq't^-2f) srubs-med gos (Mfion.). 

Kjwy gog-tio j-4<w a purchased dress ; a 
cloth fit to be purchased. 

s ff'f e ' gog-rnin = ^%f.'ii gog rnifi-pa or 
q*rci bem-po in Ld. dialect, an old coat 
or dress. 

Syn. *i'9 zad-po; $*% hrul-po; 'yn't 
dug-pa (Mnon.). 

^* ) ' q f^ gog-brftan ^<<<.^ii* a mendi- 



cant who puts on a ragged garment; a 
ragged dress. 



233 



go$-th^ln trousers. 
gos-mthah skirt of dress or robe. 

fjV^flp go? dug-pa old cloth ; ragged 
cloth ; torn cloth ; 3f\r*^ go$ dri-ma- 
can dirty clothes ; ^f*<\*l^ go$ dri-med. 
clean cloth. 

"r^VI gos-hdug or $'*f chu-gos bath- 
ing cloth. 

fi'ti 1. gos-pa ftnr, pf. of I'f'i bgo-iea, 
to apply on; to paste or rub. 2. <sqtr a 
liniment. 



gos-phyed p/m-lufi sleeveless 
robe or garment (in Sikk.). 

I*' 3 gos-phra ^JTS fine-silk ; muslin. 
^4'\ gos-byed sffnrftr gain; accept- 
ance ; performance ; honour. 

f'gi gog-bral sni, fleiw naked ; with- 
out dress or cover for the body. 

3fT8lY<i got sbyed-pa ^hrc-jfhrer one 
concealing his mendicant's clothes. 

<ffw*)^ gos-mMT&s a roof; veil; film 
over the eyes ; multitude. 

3jV*^ gos-mcd <**, sw>, fsnTf^f 
a devotee who has cut off worldly ties. 

JfjV^w"^ gog-dmar gde mMSHlA'J classes 
of Buddhists who are dressed in red. 
gos-tsam ^13* satin. 

i gos-btsems net-pa,^*' 
badly-sewn clothes. 
^^flj'ci gos-shig-pa wPS^fT a wave, a 
plait or fold in a garment. 

j go$ sad-po worn-out clothes. 



'^'R^*i - go$-za$-kyi htshos-ma ffz- 
a female mendicant clothed in suit- 
able dress ; one who lives doing nothing 
more than eating and dressing. 



5fj*r3i]*i f/os-zegs worn out clothes ; old 
clothes (Rtsii. 5). 

fr$fl| gos-yug piece or cloth or satin, 
enough for making a robe. 

ffraifll gos-lag colloq. (in Sikk.) 
" ko-lnk, " a coat ; dress ; clothes. 



r'^ gos-ser can, qdi^i. a name 
of Vishnu, one covered with a yellow 
cloth. 

^njV' gos-lhod-pa to let go a robe 
which has been grasped : ^JT'pr*HI'l | t'X6.' 
^'I'VlV^'F'WV^^Kl^T'WS gos- 

nas hjus-par thon zer flu-rin sprod-zer sran- 
ff-mm sprad-de go l/iod ^go-bead one said : 
" see you are held fast by your clothes ; " 
and he said : fix a price for the ensnare- 
ment ; " and three srang being allotted, 
the cloth was let go and the door shut. 
(0. Sndg.). 



gos-po or S'3 gyos-po 
father-in-law ; tfjVqwqj) wigos-po bsruns- 
pa ^j^f^ci protected by one's father-in- 
law. 

^ gya num. used in the abbreviated 
form, in the place of "JYS brgyad-cu 80 ; 
gya-g.cig 81; 3'"ft gya-g.nis 82; 
gya-asum 83 ; 3'^ gya-fahi 84 ; S 'g 
fj!/a-lna85; 3'^ gya-drug 86; yf^ 
bdun 87 ; 3^5^ gya-brgyad 88 ; 5^3 
89. 



^yon-can w^r, 

dissimulation ; crookedness ; intrigue ; 
secret machinations: ^'VV3'i' tI V c ''^*rrS^- 
IT de-nid gya-gi/u med-pahi rnam-pa 
yin-pas he was a person absolutely free 
from deceitful intentions, 'ftv^* 1 *''^' 
g q5'5''$'|i gtiod-semt dafi slu-wahi gya- 
gyu sogs malice and beguiling intrigues, 
etc. 

31 



234 



gya-gyi-can 
crafty, deceitful, fraudulent. 

S'S'SV gya-gyu byed-pa to intrigue ; 
to plot. 

3'v*3j gya-gyur hgro that which goes 
not in the direct way ; a frog ; smoke ; a 
snake ; a river : 3'|^li' I < gya-gyur hgro- 
wa serpentine-motion; to move cir- 
cuitously. 

3'"'? gya-ma gyv, (meandering of rivers, 
&o.) quiet; calm; gently flowing along 
(Ja.). Of a man: cautious; scheming so 
that one does not know what to think of 
him. 



3' 9^ gya-fiei marvellous; inexplica- 
ble, of men, occurrences, &o. 



*;^ rna-rgyan an 
ornament for the ear ; an ear-ring. 

2J i gya-do vj<!$< a breast plate. 



* S'T?^' M a - n ff > mti 
tiful ; of nice appearance. 

2J'dfjT|'C'C! gya-nom fnafl-tca n. of a 
celestial mansion, the residence of the 
gods. 



gya nom-pa, 

phun-sum tshogs-pa ^sirer, Bw 
e.'S f q dwan-thaft che-tca one in abundance ; 
in plenty ; possessed of wealth and power. 



gya-pa or 3'P 

nams-pa TB spoiled; degenerated. Ace. 
to Cs. deformed ; disfigured ; having lost 
bis or her former beauty. 



gya-tsom or 3?" gy 

yyq (to become dry ?) aco. to Cs. haste ; 
hurry ; rashness. 



ma 

brtags-pa momentary ; unstable ; without 
deliberation ; consideration : 3 < #w^MS'*w**' 
9^ gya tshom-du hgro-war mi-byaho should 
not go all on a sudden, without delibera- 
tion. 

3'*'^ gya-tshom-can 1. ^z^f a bard 
of the Magadha tribe. 2. one in doubt. 



gyag-pa=*s$F\' c *brlag-pa 
destroyed ; ruined ; ace. to Cs. diminished, 
hgyag-pa. 



v. 

3^* gyaft or y-' gyifi clay stamped 
into moulds, and frequently used as build- 
ing material in Spiti, Ladak and other 
parts of Tibet; 3*'$j* gyafi-skor earthen 
wall round an estate or village; S^'i** 
gyafi-ggrom pise" mould. 

3*.'? gt/afi-tse pise terrace ; wall of dry 
earth in Ladak. 

3^ gyaft-ra cattle-yards constructed 
of clay or mud. 

3*'^" gyaft-rim pise layer or one layer 
of pise, i.e., as much as is stamped in at a 
time, about one ell in height; this fre- 
quently serves for a measure of the depth 
of the snow (Ja.). 



c-^w gyan-ris fresco or wall painting : 
*w]rai phug-pahi gyaft-ris sogi- 
la in the frescoes, &c., of the caves (Ya- 
sel ^5. 



gya,4 TV, ^N a champion ; a man 
of great physical strength ; an athlete : V 
^'3S'3'i'^9I^ da dun gyad-kyi rtsal hgran 
let us compete once more in athletic dex- 
terity. 3 < V3'i^'f M < gyad-kyi hdsin ftafif 
'&UTft HWr, Jwnt the mode of seizing 
in wrestling ; SS'S'^"!*' gya4-kyi fugs the 
prowess or strength of a champion. 



235 



gyad-rdo 1. giant stone; a quoit. 
2. n. of a tribe in Tibet. 



t hub-pa, state of inactivity, idleness : 



gyad 

(Schr. ; Lebensh. 98) n. of a bar- 
barous tribe. 



gyi-nahi g.yan la b$kyur threw all heretical 
doctrines into the abyss of inaction. 
(A. 158.) 



' a shelter ; a recess in a rock, 
large and wide but not deep; g"l'S brag- 
gyam a shelter under a rock: T\'S" gad- 
gyam a grotto beneath a conglomerate 
rock; a shelter in the steep side of a rock; 
^'3* phoA-gyam or TSc/g* pha-bofi gyam 
a shelter under a beetling rock (Ja.) ; S'3 
gyam-bu a little cover or shelter (C*s.). 



yi-M name of a good breed 
of horses from Amdo where there are 
twelve different breeds, '3k gyi-Kft and 
WTT ynam-sa being the best among them 
(Jig.) 



probably 
gyod-kha *ffci god-pa, loss, damage (Ja.). 

g 5-yt for 5) gi, after *i, , i, f, v. I 



Oyi-glm Kulti, n. of a place. 
' Gyi-ljafi. n. of a place in Tibet. 



quick-silver (Smaii. 118). I'^f 
gyi-M chu-rta dkar-po= a %*\ 
Msin-pa dkar-po n. of 'a mineral 
medicine, probably mercury. (Sman. 



fft/iff caoutchouc ; India rubber. 

gyig-idofl 



gyig-fifi or 
caoutchouc tree (Sikk.). 



Gyifl. n. of a deity, prob. 



-ffin-A-a/2. 

'*J ( jyin-mo in TF. gently sloping ; 



v. 



gyhn-lag amalgam; 
yq to gild in the fire. (Schtr.) 



5'^ Qyi-than n. of a place and also 
of a tribe in E. Tibet : w^X'at'^'Sl'flftw 

in the middle (country) are the two, viz., gradually descending or subsiding. 
Eo-hje and Eag-fi; 8V^'?T3'**' q ft*' c\,_ 

$mad-na Mi-nag Gi-than gfii$ in the lower 
country are Mi-nag and Gyi-than (Tig.). 

S'^T^ gyi-na-wa 1. coarse ; poor ; 
miserable, of food, clothes, &c. : '^ < 0^q 
a miserable, starving life. 2. unsteady; 
fickle (Sch.). Rin-chen spufi$-pa n. of an astrological 

work. 

J, ^JT-fcjC gyim-$in, Ki'35 rol-nio 
music, cymbal. 

3^ gyis 1. instead of 3* kyi$, after 
the letters ^ na, ma, ^ ra, i /a. 2. 
imp. of 13^ bgyid.-pa, work honestly; 



y* bphyo, in 
^' gcam-yas bgran-ya$ gyi-hpho dan, n. of 
a number inconceivably large (Ta-sel. 
57). 



gyi-naht 
l/'tom las-pa, or WrT^'I'SM la$-ka cher-ma 



236 



behave well ; do (so) ; 
gyig do it straight : j 
or let him do. 



'S*' draA-piir- 
] gyif-fig, f* do 

b_kur-ua to 



gyur-du 
if it so hap- 



honour ; to esteem. 

S*'* gyun-ro, v. J 6 -'^ gyofi-ra. 

51^ f/# M '' imp- and pf. of 
*'^ ^ gyur-du zin= 
chug. 

5*'^ gyur-na ^m 
pened ; if it became so. 

5*'i5'^rfl gyur-pahi rnam-pa 
anything changeable ; subject to change. 

3'^H y^'ff" 1 s * crookedness; curve; 
hunch; hump; crooked back ; 3'3^'S*'* 1 
gye-gur gytir-pa frysr double hump-back ; 
met. a Bactrian camel. 

3'^ Gye-gor n. of a Bon-po deity. 

2|'* Gye-re n. of place on the T&ang-po, 
to the south-east of Lhasa: ^T^'i Gye-re 
Lha-pa n. of a very old noble family 
of Tibet. 



gyeti, v. g* gyafi. 



v - 



bgyed-pa. 



u up; iipward ; uphill : S^' 
gyen-du-hgro ^qrr, li|flH going 
or flowing upwards ; S^'"! climb up ; 3^' 
3'\ gyen-gyi-dri ^rf^j fragrance; sweet 
scent; fragrant; 3^'V* 1 ?'* gyen-du lta- 
-ff=wg-q yar Ita-ica 'swfaK to look 
upwards. 



^'S^'9' 1 *! yyen-rgyuhi 
bu-ga (F'Vlf kha-dad-sna) the mouth and 
the nose through which the wind passes 
upwards or downwards; ^'J^-stg gyen- 
rgyuhi mthu n. of a disease (Med.). 



gyen-rgyu ^^TT that runs up- 
wards ; fire ; names of the five vital (VTT- 
^T*j) winds in the human body. 

3^'fll'i gyen-rgyug-pa to gallop uphill ; 
to pass upwards ; to climb up. 

2^'*^ gyen-chag in W. (opp. to *<^' 
*S man-chad) 1. the upper part of a coun- 
try; iJ'^IS^*^ Pu-rig Gyen-chaif, the 
Upper Purig (Jd.) 2 an ascent. 

?KV^ q l*'' l gyen-du hdegs-pa to lift 
high ; to praise. 

"SI'V 9 ^ gyen-du hdren ^uv* drawing 
upwards ; also marriage. 

3^' < 5, q f '" gyen-du brdsi(-pa ^TIT^I 
to turn up; to cock (a hat or cap). 

JK^* 1 '" gyen-du hit-pa to keep above 
(water). 

"3^'^ Gyen-mig f<TTr, fg?w the second 
of the seven lower regions under the 
earth. 

i gyen psar-po a steep ascent, 
i gyen-fyzlog-pa ^?TTT, to vomit. 

3^ '* 'V- % gyen-la dran-po in W. 
perpendicular ; vertical. 



gyer, v. S3*'^ dgyer-ita. 

gyer-bggom the kind of medita- 
tion practised by the Bon-po. 



!I gyer-lin 
breed horse, or pony. 



rta f^^r a high 



so-sor, v. ^3 q hgye-wa. 
x 5-q| gyes-brjeg <S*?T raised up; mag- 
nanimous ; noble. 

3*1 "i gyes-pa f'l'^'T'. to analyse, resolve, 
separate ; to split asunder. 

j* 

S' i, gyo-dum=*\' lc < ka-ra W^T, ^*T5i 

1. rngar. 2. potsherd. 3. brick tile (Sch.). 



237 



21! 



v^^ n 

qj'Uf gyo-nio ^npt 1. gravel; grit. 2. 
potsherd. 3. =3'*^ gye-mgo clay vessel. 

2J5|'E1 gyog-pa crooked; curved: ^'S*! 
rftan-gyog bent or crooked leg. 

f"l'3 gyog-po left-handed ; awkward 
(Sch.). 



9>Jys for ^l* SflWS cannon; a 



large gun. 



' gyofi -want ; need ; indigence : 3=-' 
/i hkhur-wa to be reduced to 



want. 



gyon-po 13*, IWj's'W*^ 

dkah-ica crooked; rough; hard to under- 
stand ; pg^'Q A7i gyon-po hard-mouthed 
(i.e., pulling at the reins) ; **"T fr'% sem$ 
gyon-po harsh; resembling a horn or 
hide that can hardly be made soft ; 
S)-gV3 mi gyon-po a crooked man; an 
obstinate man (A. 13Q ; -HR^* skad 
gyon-po imperfect language ; *1'3=-'3 tshig 
gyon-po impolite words ; ^'3=-' dgra gyoft 
a hard, cruel, dangerous enemy. 

jc.- q gyon-wa ^ITfJif ; P'S*-'^ Jtha gyofi- 
che very rude; impudent (Jd.). 

3* e ''%' 11 gyofi-ru-ica **5l rough. 



a/=*'44! sa-shag a 
film of dirt, formed of dust and other 
substances, on the surface of water ; scum. 



yyofi-ro dried body; a mummy 



(S?*.). 



'P gyod-kha remorse; quarrel; 
law-suit. 

3*S'1^ JFfOrf-jA'=*BT*8'*" | l hkfirug- 
pahi rtsa-wa the basis or grounds of a 



quarrel or fight : '''FS!*'5|'3 l V l| ft the 
last is the ground of contention between 
lust and passion. 



ff</on-pa 

to put on ; to dress; to wear: ^'i'^'"!' 
3^'ti^'JfN gyon-pa lu$-la gyon-pahi go$ 
putting on the garment that one wears : 
gy n -vgyu materials for clothing. 



na-bzah 
worn. 



or twigs ; 
necked jay. 



-po=WWi g. nobs-pa or ^'fl 
the garment or dress to be 



green shoots of leaves 
gyol-po ^^RPB a blue- 



I: gyos-po wjx wife's 
father; father-in-law : fc!5'qge.'q 'sij?;- 
^f^<l protected by the father-in-law. 

gVS gyo$-mo mother-in-law ; the 
matron of a family ; also any old lady of a 
family : S*'!*! gyos-sgyug parents-in-law. 

5J gra (da) one of the six early tribes 
of Tibet : ^friift^q > frir|^fi;Y?9 > ^f'fq: 

|"I'l^ bod-mi mchcd-pa se-rmu (don ston daft 
gra hbm-gte rug-drug zcr, the six tribes : 
Sbru, Gra, Ston, Ldofi, Emu and fife (ori- 
ginated from) the five Tibetan brothers 
(bearing the same names) (J. Zaft.). 

SI'S*' />' a -rgy a ? thick and abundant (as 
of the mane on the neck of the lion, horse 
etc.) : ^' l ^'"''\ c/1 W ll 1 M rarjF*V sho-grod 
bkal-dafi gcan-gsan gra-rgya$ hdra (the 
land is well-preserved) as curds carried in 
a sheep's paunch or like the thickly-grown 
mane of wild animals (youth in good 
circumstance is also so described) : f^ar 
JN Hj-R^i] kho gra-tgya$-po hdug he is very 
bright and cheerful (Jig.). 



238 



3TS"! gra-sgrig to make proper pre- 
paration or arrangement or equipment 
for any business, &o. 

gj'fjI'Zi gra sgrig-po everything put in 
order ; also looking neat and clean. 

5'MHrZi gra-chags-po 1. nice and 
smooth or glossy ; very fine ; fit and out- 
wardly appearing nice. 2. appropriate; 
elegant; looking well (A. 126}. 

ST^i gra-dol abbr. of the two names of 
places called Lho-gra (Lho-da) and Nang- 
dol (Rtsii. 25). 

9I'? q * ) gra-fdebs proper order, arrange- 
ment ; also $'*e.f'j|w mi-mad k/ta-gdebs 
uniform deposition : w=^E.'5<i] 1 '|'wqf%3- 
3Tf w the arrangement in the front and 
of the right and left sides (Rtsii.). 

31'^ gra-pad 1. n. of a great Lama who 
is said to have unearthed many Buddhist 
religious and medical works. 2. a net 
before the window to prevent passers-by 
from looking into the room. 3. carvings 
in wood ; 9l'*i |> |**'Sr '*V2i'^ c; 51 q !'^ < 'l*' gro soys 
gra patf kyi fifi phug rigs films and 
hollowed pieces of wood with carvings, 
etc. (Rtsii.). 



5)'^ gra-phub, 9T^'3 q gra-daH phub 
the bristles of barley grain and its chaff : 



5J', Gra-phyi (da-chyi) and *Q'*F-' Gra- 
nafi (da-nan) are names of two villages in 
Lho-kha (Rtsii.). 

gj-^-*E.-<^ Gra phyi tshofi-kdu$ n. of a 
great mart of trade in Lho-kha during the 
llth century A.D. (A. 90). 



gra-sbug, also called 

tgya-nag gi gbug-cha, a musical instrument 
of Chinese make, perhaps the cymbal : 



'^'^ gra-$bug cha-rc-re the cymbal 

N 

each pair (Rtsii.). 

5]'5J gra-ma (ta-ma) i^irra, SJ3? 
1. awn, beard, bristle, the ears of cereals 
and wild grasses have: 3fa 



"when the fruits of wheat and barley 
spring forth, to those which come in points 
like the Poa grass, the name of bearded 
grain is given." The term ^g/ST*'*^ hbru 
gra-ma-can, bearded, awned plants, is opp. 
to ^'"Fg'^ hbru gaft bti-can, leguminous 
plants. 2. trellis-work, lattice. 3. a tree 
or shrub, probably the Tibetan furze, 
Caragana versicolor. 



gra-ma 

Hams gra-zur mi mail gruii-po rnam-day ni 
in the (irregular cornered) cell many 
learned and holy men lived (Jig. 36). 

g-wl Gra-ma c/ie n. of a king of ancient 
time ; S-uWf^r^'SJ'*'* mi-las skal-ldan 
gra-ma che among men the blessed Grra- 
ma-che (Yig.). 



3'S^ gra-sur (da-stir) ^1^t the corner or 
junction of sides also called Sj grwa. 

g r a lcg$-pa (ta leg-pa) or 3] '**' 
gra ma-legs-pa the hairs of wild 
animals such as tiger or leopard, &c., when 
thick and glossy are called gra-leg$-pa. 



I: grwa (to) 1. %ta angle ; corner; 



side 2'^'^ q l^'?'3^'5' U|C '' Grwa is quarter or 
direction 2. lap; lappet; extremity; fw 
S'3J gos-kyi-grwa coat-tail : ^'W*^*'5' 
gj-^-q|c.-|-q^'zm'jjt.'W'Jj^ Lo-tsa-wa$ 

chog-gos. kyi gnca-na$ bsufi-ste b$um$-pat 
kyaft ma-g.nan though the Lo-tsa-wa wept 
seizing the lappet of his garment, yet 
he (Atis'a) would not bestow it. 



239 



II : a school ; aft'SI klog-grwa & read- 
ng school (Cs.) ; $*'2J sgom-grwa a school 



for meditation; g"I'S $fiags-grwa a school 
for mystical Buddhism (Cs.) ; ^'5J MuL 
grwa a training school; seminary; Jffi'SJ 
sman-grica a medical school ; t**J'21 rtst's- 
grwa a school where mathematics is taught ; 
k|'9I yig-gnca a writing school ((7s.). 

SIT* grwa-khan *nRT, TOT 1. top- 
house ; a dome. 2. school-house, some- 
times also monk's residence. 

3JSF" grwa-grans (ta-dan) the number 
of candidtae monks in a monastery. 

ST'^' grwa-thaft (da-than) ^Mref<jf 
corner or nook in a plain. 

Sl'i gnca-pa (ta-pa) WTt 1. a school boy ; 
a scholar ; disciple. 2. generally a monk- 
pupil or novice belonging to a monastery. 

5|'^ gnra-dpon schoolmaster; chief fa- 
pa or monk. 

91' |"I grwa-phrug a little boy who reads. 

n-*i- grwa-tshaft (ta-tshaff) ^g^T^t 
school where monks are instructed in sacred 
literature ; a section in a great monastery, 
where the monks belonging to one parti- 
cular school of studies live together. 

gj-um r/rwa-tshogs (ta-tshog) a congre- 
gation or convention of monks. 

9}'"^ grwa-bshir (ta-shor) Mjjgjt'Jtg in 
the four corners : the real meaning accord- 
ing to Tibetan authors is ^pTTOg, on the 
four sides of a house. 



grwa-zur a corner room or monk's 



cell 



9I'*i grwa-sa (ta-sa) a monastery; 
U'T^'Zi grwa-sa chen-po (ta-sa chen-po) 
great departmental school attached to 



large monastery ; ^ < V2J* r ^] mt&han-ni$ 
gnca-sa sMg a school where the Buddhist 
metaphysics is taught. 

grwa-ti plate; dish in Ld. (Jd.). 



SJI'f c -' grag-stoft echo ; described 
^'^'S'^^S'^'g brag-cha tta-bu ston-nid kyi 
sgra, a name for anything of empty sound 
as an echo from a rock : skye-mcd grag- 
ston tshig-gi na-ro sgrogs an echo without 
any real existence proclaims a loud cry of 
words (A. llf) ; lo shes bya-ica grag-ston 
snan-pahi ylu-dbyafis a low noiseless refrain 
is called lo (A. 146) : jIvS'SI'T?*'* 1 $*1W 
^ pf^i|-f^prWBKI khyed-kyi grag-ston 
bsgrags-pa yi$ ; kho-bohi blo-gros gas-war 
byas the echoes (or reverberations) of the 
sounds you sent forth have split my senses 
(Bbrom. FlO). 

' grag-pa OT *H*P*'i grags-pa 1.= 
'1 sgra hbyind-pa sfi? the tone ; pitch 
of a sound or voice. 2. fame ; noise; 
rumour; talk. 3. the principal or most 
distinguished amongst several persons 
(Jd.). 4. occasionally = 



grags ftra hope ; contempt, 

I I : grags-pa 1. ace. to Jd. to 
bind or fasten up a load ; so also in the 
colloq. 2. pf. of *S]*r hgrag-pa. 



II: 

f, *nrr, 'RTTH glory ; also fame, 
reputation, character by report ; gj^^'i'^'q 
notoriety ; ill name ; bad repute ; rumour ; 
report: ^gjiprfra^Zi-gc the report of it 
spread, was circulated (in most cases it 
signifies good name, renown) : farr\*'spnr 
m-&^-*m'*flfri ^nan-pa dad gragt-pas 
sahi $teft thams-cad khyab-pa the whole 
earth was filled with his fame and renown ; 
snan-grags reputation. 



240 



an 1. famous ; renowned ; 
beautiful; splendid; glorious; proud; 
haughty ; aj*!"'^ grogs chen *TTl*ror. ; of 
great fame ; celebrated ; renowned ; well 
known. 2. flliftT* a merchant; 9I|'f^ 
yi|Vfl grags-SHdit dkar-wa sofV^f: good 
name ; pure fame ; reputation ; 9H" - * 1 ^'^ 
grogs-hdod-can ambitious; desirous of 
gaining glory, of being famous; SW'3^ 
grags-ldan w\, *m^T^ one who is 
celebrated or possessed of fame : f^iS-gpur 
wfniwijw^'g'lfflm sfian-pahi grays-pas 
phyogs-rnams kun-tu tyrogi (his) fame 
spread in all quarters (everywhere). 

-q-jocwfcj Grogs-pa rgyal-mtsfian 
(8chr.;Ta. 31), lit. banner of 
glory ; n. of a governor of Tibet. 



grags-can 

illustrious; renowned; j^-gjflnrtrl'q of 
great renown; of celebrity, fame, glory; 
l^q'i^.-3jijnrc|-ar*flnrq greedy of gain and 

fame. 

gpprqlfq 1 *! grogs-pa tJiob-pa = pwi 
mkhas-pa, a learned man. 

* gpm'q'^vK Grogs-pa hod-ser n. pr. 
(So/ir.). 

ctvi' n2\wvpA Grags-pahi b<;es-g.nen 
n. pr. (Schr.; Td. 2, 205). 
8^ Grag$-byin gvl^i one of the 
devoted attendants of the Buddha: 



SJi)N'*i grags-ma Paldan Lhamo, also 
called V 01 '^'^ Dpal lha-nw, i.e., Cri-Dcvl. 

SJI^'S'B^ Grags inu-khyud qjtt^ffl n. of 
a legendary king, the sphere or circle of 
whose fame was very wide. 

rut^'w Grags hdsin-ma (dag-dsin-ma) 
the wife of the Buddha S'akya- 
muni. 



Grag$-yas 1. f^^nTT of world- 
wide fame; of boundless celebrity. 2. 
n. of a number. 3. n. of a district in 
JDiamt. 

ZJJC'q gran-wa (tang-tea), also 21=-'^ wfa, 

adj. cold, cool; colloq. partakes of the na- 

ture of a verb in such phrases as SF 

gruA-gi hditg, he feels cold; ^' 

it is cold. In such phrases, however, it is 

common to insert the word R< nam, the 

sky, e.g. (oolloq.) nam tang-mo re, the sky 

is cold, i.e., "it is cold"; gj^'jf*) grafi-ikyob 

a^m protection from cold ; warm woollen 

clothes: SJ.'r l \*'X' q '^'8^'S gnm-ica dan 

dro-ica s/tcg-byahi bya the bird called 

the jftwtat cold and warmth; this fabu- 

lous bird is a native of the forest 

called in Tibetan f|u-rg^q$^a|j Sgrib-pa 

ffion-pahi nags, the primeval shady forest ; 

its sight relieves one from the effects of 

cold or heat : 31 E -' 1 '^'X' t '^'* the cold will be 

changed into warmth; sic.'W'i'i*, frozen 

or congealed by cold ; 91* *!j w^i| it will 

grow cold. 

Syn. Sjl^'SF Ihags-graA ; *$*]* hkhyags ; 
'q lhags-pa ; &T) bsil-ica ; P^'i bser-ica ; 
gran-reg ; 9J*' R S gran-dad (Mnon.). 
ii gran-tea scl ^jfnfT 1 C warm ; 

where there is no cold to remove. 

3j^'q5'^ gran-u-ahi dug frtftlT, flrf-qiT^i 
the cold season. 

gjftwafi fjran-icahi-nad sifai^ff the 
cold fit of the ague ; 5'9 grum-pu gout ; 
rheumatism ; arthritic pain ; 51^'X yran-dro 
cold and warmth, temperature; 9J*'3*i'3v*i 
grafi-fum bycd-pa to shiver with cold. 

gjc.'n5'fl]^ gran-u-ahi pnas a cool place. 

gjc,'a=-' gran-klun lit. cold valley; n. of 
a large village under Kamba Jong on the 
other side of the Kangchen Juftga 
mountain. 



241 



rq^ gran-dmyal brgyadihe eight 
cold hells, v. W** dmyal-wa. 

9F*ft graH-ffshi disease induced by cold, 
gen. dispepsia. 

gjc^i) Zr^ bran-reg pho-na=Q^, c <'''\ bya- 
kyun-ka the jack-daw (Mnon.). 

SPS^ gran-rlun ^TJT a disease allied to 
rheumatism, also cold in the stomach. 






gratis (dafig) <fc?TT number ; &i' 
a multiplied number, many 
times ;3iw\q* innumerable; gjMrwwiw 
R gra3$ ma-mchis-par having no number 
or without number ; numberless ; 5J*r 
<^qwo grafts hdebs-pa or fri'i rtsis-pa 
to count; also an accountant; SIWR, 
grans-brda symbolical numerals of certain 
nouns, which in some books are used 
instead of the usual numerals, for instance 
ft| mig, the eye for "two" (C.). 1. 
t%f= sign . 2. nira> astrologer. 

gjMr5'j|r3|Mi grans-kyi rnam-grafts. 
arithmetical enumeration ; enumeration 
of the numbers used in the sacred books 
of Tibet as compiled from the work 
called (w*V*9f mdsod-hgrel are : (1) *|3ij 
gcig one ; (2) bchu 10 ; (3) 1J brgya 
100 ; (4) ?=' stofi 1000 ; (5) g *Ar 10,000 ; 
(6) a AiztOT 100,000; (7) 'i s-y 
1,000,000 ; (8) 3' 1 bye-tea 10,000,000 ; (9) 
Kf|, dun-phyur 100,000,000 ; (10) ^^w 
ther-hbum 1,000,000,000 ; (11) U-8r^-5 
ther-hbum chen-po 10,000,000,000; (12) 
BTll khragkhrig 100,000,000,000; 
(13) H q l'H q l' 3 ^ khrag-khrig chen-po, 
1,000,000,000,000 ; (14) vrvsp rab-bkram 
10,000,000,000,000; (15) wqnjw^'Zi rab- 
bkram chen-po 100,000,000,000,000; 

(16) T5W gtamt 1,000,000,000,000,000; 

(17) fl|5'ia\ - a g.tam$ chen-po 
10,000,000,000,000,000 ; (18) \3^ dkrigs 



100,000,000,000,000,000; (19) 
dkrigs chen-po 1,000,000,000,000,000,000. 
Next, the following are progressive 
numbers increasing by multiples of ten up 
to 60 figures: 20, **-*B*l mi-hkhrug; 21, 
fKj5fl|'i^Z5 mi-hkhrug-chen-po ; 22, 0*^3^ 
khyatf hbyin ; 23, BS'^I^'^'S khyad-hbyin 
chen-po; 24, g^'^ $pan-rten; 25, gf^-^-Zj 
$pan-rten chen-po ; 26, ^V^ ded-hdren ; 
27, ^V^'^'Zi ded-hdren-chen-po; 28, 
w^m^AaA-sna^; 29, wv^'S^JS mthah- 
$nan chen-po; 30, J^l" rgyu-rigs; 31, *' 

_ ^ 

^i|q-s^-g rgyu-rig$ chen-po; 32, ^'^ 
hod-mdses ; 33, X\ ?^-la|-JJ hod-mdses chen- 
po; 34, ^=--g dwafi-po; 35, ^q^JJ-a^'Q 
dwan-po chen-po; 36, o)"Jl*r.S^ legs-hbyin; 
37, ^im-^-laj-g legs-hbyin chen-po; 38, 
<^ rtogs-hgro ; 39, vn^'^-^-Hi r ^^- 
chen-po; 40, ^S^'l"! hbyin-rdtil; 41, 
.^i'X^-Ei hbyin-rdul chen-po ; 42, J'5m 
rgya-rtags ; 43, |'5'i'S^-2i rgya-rtags chen- 
po; 44, |w^|*i $tobs-hkhor; 45, fqw^v 
^'Q (tobs-hkhor chen-po; 46, qs^'-<) 
brdah-qes.; 47, q,*'i|r^'Zj brdah-feg chen- 
po; 48, ^'^=. - rnam-hbyun; 49, ^-R|=,-^- 
9 rnam-hbyufl chen-po ; 50, ^q')'>) $06j- 
witjf; 51, Ifi"' )l'^'5 stobs-mig chen-po. 
Up to this number there are Sanskrit 
equivalents; from 53 to 60 there are 
no Sanskrt equivalents, the Tibetans 
having introduced new names to replace 
lost originals. 53, 5*wt byams-pa ; 54, 
gWra^Hj byam$-pa, chen-po ; 56, s.'| s.nin- 
rje; 56, ^'I'^'Q snin-rje chen-po; 57, 
^^q dgah-wa; 58, ^ip-q'^-Q dgah-wa 
chen-po ; 59, i5^'|w btan-snoms ; 60, 15 s -' 
|Wa^'Zi btan-noms chen-po. These sixty 
numbers are used in astronomical and 
astrological calculations. 

gjtjr^ grans-can HTPTO 1- a countless 
number. 2. wp^'i mkhag-pa or 



242 



pa-can 
man 



an intelligent man ; a learned 



^-i graf\s-can-pa nfl the oldest 
of the atheistic philosophical sects of the 
Brahmans, called Safikhya. 



w grafig-bcai 1. <s^T the dawn, or 
the goddess of the dawn. 2. lit. "together 
with the number." 



grani-hbyaim 
berless; countless. 



num- 



grafts mafi-cha 
repeated four times] S. 

g]E.*r>^ grafis-med. 1. *rt*5? countless; 
numberless. 2. ^n 1 a crawling; 'PMilJT 
white leprosy: SF*''* 1 V'|3S'i* grafy-metf 
kyi khyad-par the distinction of being 
countless, numberless; SF'*)^ grafit- 
tnetf-can qXT supreme. 



grans-med gcig (the num- 
berless one). In the work called Manju frt- 
m&la Tantra (wr^Ty^) the following 
numbers are said to have been in use 
in Ancient India among the laity for 
worldly purposes: From 1 to 10, i.e., 
i^"\ gpig to Sv*5 ther-hbum, and 
11, fJ'zTil g u-rfiog ; 12, w^T}* mc/iog-nal ; 
13, g'^l" skya-hphyis ; 14, '* lye-ma ; 15, 
nub-nub; 16, *'"i mtsho-ya$; 17, 
N Idabg-phyor ; 18, f rdsi, all these 
being each a multiple of another by ten. 
In the work called wHj - l phal-po-che the 
numbers vary after the eighth, i.e., 'J 
bye-wa; such as j*V|*S khod-khot}, 
thad-dgu, gl'g'n khrig-khrig, 
thams-tham? and so on up to 128 places, 
increasing by multiples of one hundred. 
In the Lalita Vistara, there are thirty-two 
numbers, also increasing in multiples of a 
hundred. 



' 1 "!-^ grans-jjifer to enumerate ; count 
the number one by one. 

grafa-su hgro ^?rt l^fw goes 
into numbers ; is counted : 5] c '*''9' t '5 q l' t| 
grafii-su bmg-pa, put into numbers ; count- 
ed: 5js.'fl' u is. grafis-su yafi ^srnrftr even 
in number. 



grab-rgyab pride ; boasting 



(&*.) 



: grabs "(^^ g[fO)n-byc<j; 
gra-sgrig 1 . preparation ; arrangement ; 
measures; contrivance; 9J t WV to make 
preparation for; Mt^MpStSS to prepare 
to go: ^K"V*IVfrjl'fl just as prepara- 
tions were being made for slaughtering 
them(J/t7). 2. denned as ^*nw|-fc<-iv*|=.- 
&' 1 tfi "signifies the certainty about the 
time of immediate action": a fc'SI t W' : ^, < 'l 
yon-grabs hdug was on the point of coming, 
or am just coming; ^'gpw'a^'ge.' brdufi- 
grabs byas-byud was about to beat or 
strike; Sj'gjws"'^ fi-grabs byas-byun 
was almost dying or dead; "WSI'WS^'S*'' 
Lyas-byun, was about to kill: 
5^ was about to get or gain; J ^' 
is about to slip or run away; *^' 
is about to finish; ^^flftirgiw 
^'^ on mutual agreement. 3. delibera- 
tion: ^-l^-gjw^-S^^ they were deli- 
berating about me (in W.). 



II. fa*srera place or object of 
reflection, thought, etc. : SJW^'^'g ffrabs- 
yulita bu, gjw'3 grabs-gyig, ff^'g'S ston- 
mo Ita-bu. 



J gram (dam) 1. *'^'9|'^ chu naft-gi 
rdo a kind of stone found in water (Nag). 
2. 9pr grandpa s-v?amp; marsh; fen 
(Lex.). 3. 'wK" hgrem-pa (MM.). 



243 



Gram-pa kham-bu one of the 
places of pilgrimage of the Bon (0. 
Bon. 38). 



gram-sa 



stony. 



gral (dal) "%*'* hphreft-wa rffw 
row, range series; also a rope, cord; 
, class, stratum. 



9p'*<f gral-mgo or gp''3fl'w gral-gyi 
thog-ma the upper end of a row; the 
uppermost place ; the seat at the head of 
a tahle ; *| u w'31 l> i yyas-gral the right hand 
row ; I'fy'SJ 9 ' g. yon- gral the left hand row ; 
*<I*rgpi tshogs gral 1. the order or file of 
monks in a religious congregation ; 9J'r*iR.' 
S I r<5 i >v t *'aT^' l '9 q P'' q many novices 
sitting in rows without being awry ; *8l*r 
3J" bshugs-gral the order of seats, also the 
order or row in which lamas and chiefs, 
high and low, sit according to their posi- 
tion or rank in any public or social gather- 
ing ; ^TSPI row of religious symbols ; *^' 
SJi row of offerings for- the gods or offer- 
ings placed in one or more rows ; ^'9J"t the 
order or row in which the images are placed 
in a temple; S'S] 8 ' row or order in which 
men are seated; 9P | ' q I5*' house-talk (Jd.) ; 
^qc/gjai the row of supplicants waiting for 
benediction : *V^f'^F'V t '^ | f*WV' l! % 
when you are sitting with your brethren 
(fellow-believers) in one row. 



gral-sgrig or Spr^'lT" gral-dtt 
$ grig-pa to arrange in order, dispose in 
rows. 

tshei-grans 



date ; a consecutive date. 



r^i i: gral-rimn'fa line; row; file in 
which monks sit in any religious service 
or congregation: Sft'.l'fa'Spi'^*' rgan-gshon 



gral-rim the order in which the young and 
old sit ; the right of seniority ; jq'lfq'^wlf' 
9pi'^*!'q^j the religious services of the per- 
fected saints according to the order of 
seniority (Zam.). 

Syn. gp|-^8q-i gral-du f grigs-pa ; ^'^ 
*f* tshar-du dnar ; ^'^^phrefi-bkod; $'$ 
^lu-gu rgyud; lij-*^'^ khrig chags 
bkotf (Mnon.). 

gjai'^n ii : (dal-rim) ace. to Jd. claim ; 
title. 

gjr|Vq gral skyofi-ica WTOT a shadow. 
'^J gral-pa a beer-house customer 



a . 



J gral-ma a small beam; rafter 
(Cs) ; 3]ni'9'2I('4 gral-bu gral-phyam roof- 
laths ; sticks which are laid close together 
and covered with earth (Jd.), 



grai class, order, series; rank, 
dignity; tribe (Cs.). 



TJ gras-pa 1. to bind, for ^'f dra- 
pa. '2. (Bengali) ^iid*(X wooden beams 
or rails. 



5J gri (di) iif, mB, vffl a knife, wea- 
pon; '8WJT sabre. Different kinds of 
weapons : 4'5 chu-gri, 5'^c. gri-thufi, ^i' 
|5'9 rai-grihi bu, g'3"I' gri-gug, ^'^S q l' 2 ' 
gri hkhyog r po, S3I'? dgra-ta, f '^ sta-ri, ?' 
fta-gri, ^^^Rf^ ral-grihi hkhrul- 
hkhor, 3'H^ gri-sgur, *'** sa-raH. 

Syn. ^=- - aic.' $afi-M; qs,T* fodeg-cha; 
|'j'<J]^ rjef-su g.cod; "l^'g^ lag-skyod g'q' 
<1 C* I 'I 1 S zla-wa hdsum-byed ; flRJT^'^ g.yul- 
du hdsin; <5?^'5'fl|^ mtshon-chahi (fshi; j"!' 
5 sgrol-byed. ; V'l'S'^e.'Zj dpal-gyi $nifi-po; 
"l^S'lS g.co$-byed; ; s i^'"\ fa-ma-ka (Mfion.). 

SJ'P' gri-kha the edge of a knife. 



244 



m-qi gri-gu=W%1 khug-cig niche; 
corner (A. 57) : K.'^1 1W JT3 ^ 8S ^ 
yafi Rdo-rje gdnn-gyi gri-gu na bu^-med cig 
again a woman in a niche of the temple, 
&c., at Vajr&sana. 

tjj-qr$e. gri-gu churl ^f* small knife. 

ij'3*! gn-gug flft a Bnort crooked 
sword. 

g)-qj*cq^-Q Qri gum-ktsan-po one of the 
ancient kings of Tibet, son of Srib-khri- 
tyaan, who was assassinated with a knife. 

3T 3 fa gri-non VI n. of a disease. 

| g-ip|'5ri-' l fa' c i'^'9 gri bya gag-gi g$og- 

i -f 

t)fi lta-bu <^-8 7T* ^?iRZ-^tg<at?^ a Kniie 
the shape of the wings of a cook. 

|]'3'Xfl]') '*<$ gri bya rog-gi mchu '3^'JT- 
jRTifi-^iR a knife of the shape of the 

N* 

crow's bill. 

fj-iq| gri-mag, v. iK* grib-ma. 

gj-^w gri-dmar (lit. the red knife) knife 
of superior quality manufactured in Tibet. 

gp'?i grihi-so sharp edge of a knife. 

|)5'?'35 grihi tse-mo nftvv the point of 
a scimitar or sword. 

3ft grihu a small knife. 

gj-.q gri-ya explained as |''^v*T3)' a r 
^ti5'-<i $kye$-pa dar-ma gri-la fi-tcahi fa, 
flesh of an adult man who has been killed 
with a sword (this flesh being used in 
sorcery) . 

|jV*rq grir rfiam-pa or SJvflSS'i grir 
atod-pa or tj*'*$*i'q grir hgum-pa to kill 
(or being killed) with a knife. 

^OT^ grin-pa (din-pa*) prob. ^'3 tgrin- 
po skilful; clever (/a.). 

5]^ grib (dib) shade ; defilement ; stain 
or spot; filth; contamination, mostly in 



a religious sense: 51 "'^ grib-yon^ con- 
tamination, pollution will arise : ^'1" ro- 



ib-sel the removal of defilement ; also one 
in whom there is no defilement ; n. of a 
Buddha. w$i sas-grib unclean food 
or pollution of food ; ^wlp dirty clothes, 
or defilement in clothes; <H*FS] ! ytigs- 
grib or pollution of widowhood; IT 
|q or the defilement that is brought by 
different people assembled in a marriage ; 
(vip dmar-yrib or pollution of blood or 
anything slaiu red-handed ; *\*''3I i pollution 
by the breach of a vow ; unchastity ; *j*V 
tp defilement by quarrel or fight ; ^'^ 
defilement in slaughter pertaining to 
butchers, or defilement from murder ; *^' 
tp defilement caused by oath or by the 
barbarous custom of killing animals and 
swearing over their blood (prevailing 
among the Kham-pa tribes) ; ^*rip defile- 
ment from incest. 

IKS'S! grib-kyi phu shady valley, gene- 
rally on the north side of a mountain 
range (cf. fl"* sribs) ; ip'S*!*' grib-phyogs 
the shady side of a hill or mountain, the 
side not exposed to the sun. 

gq'EW grib-khrus the washing of defile- 
ment. 

|q &( grib-can stubborn ; refractory 
(Jd.). 

tjjq-s^q grib-rndos offerings made to Bon 
deities for removing some defilement. 

|jq f q|^ grib-ynon 1. ^iwn*, WT9T sha- 
dow, or 2. *i$i|' { i5'gj 1 ' btsog-pahi grib defile- 
ment from unclean things, filth, night-soil, 
&c. : <6*T5J*''3j' J i'5* | '2i c ''' I Pfa' q 5! c -*' chos-grwar 
grul-bum grib-gwon bsrufig in a religious 
school there should be protection against 
defilement from harpies (Zam. 2.). 



245 



ib-gnon gyi ydon a demon 
that defiles and poisons food ; a harpy. 

SF*i grib-ma shade ; shadow ; SP'^'S^' 
w'$i grib-darl grib-mahi grol (Zam. 2) 
wnir ; 3|K.'9|'ip'i fiti-gi grib-ma the shadow 
of a tree. 

gjq-wg^-qS-^qm Grib-ma gnon-pohi nags 
forest of the dark-blue shade in the fabu- 
lous northern continent of Uttara Kuru. 

gjq'a/ij|*i grib-mahi lam *l<Jinsj the 
milky-way ; also a path by the shady side 
of a mountain or in the valley. 

g)j'*)5'$ grib-mahi lu$ ^|i|l$-, the 
shadowy body, i.e., body of defilements. 

gjq'^m grib-selthe removing of pollution 
or defilement of any symbol, image, sacred 
books, or offerings by religious rites. 

SP'* grib-so the quickly vanishing, at 
sunset, of the shadows of trees, &c.; sK"' 
*<Bj-tiwrij-q<wq ^jfifsi^r*5?% hanging down, 
also lengthening of shadows before they 
vanish in the shade of night ; 2jq-S-S^-ir*i 
long projection of shadows. 

. grib-sruA guarding against defile- 
ment. 

)q-qie.w grib-bsan$ cleansed or purified 
of defilement ; purification of defilement. 
grib-lhags cool shade (Sch.}. 

fl grim-pa to hasten; to hurry 

(Sch.). 

* grim-tse, ace. to Jd. a pair of 



scissors (in Sikkim sounded "kyimtse"). 
es 
ZJ]<JWC| g r ims-pa, M3X, TT$ clever; 

skilful; dexterous; also careful; on the 
alert; ^ip'ipwi rig-pa grims-pa to be 
careful; on the alert: gj^lw 5 )"! grwa-sa 
grimt-fig be attentive in the monastic 
school: ^'B*\'3*'*''^* I I on a hill range take 
care! 



*JJ'3I gril (dif) (of. fif*'* hgril-wa) a roll ; 
qog-gril rolled paper ; a paper roll : 
'2! a| ''^'' i; ' (i VT c ' kept rolled up in paper : 
gos-gril a roll of satin or cloth; a 
garment folded up (Cs.). 

gi'p'IV" gril-kha byetf-pa to make up a 
parcel. (Sch.) 

51 I: gru 1. a figure, corner, tip, any- 
thing with length and breadth ; fj'i^ gru- 
bshi a figure with four corners, gen. a 
square; WQ yul-gru a country with 
certain dimensions, i.e., the division of a 
country in provinces or districts. 2. 
lustre ; 5A W gru-^mar a reddish lustre 
from precious stones. 3. a district of 
Tibet lying to the east and north of Dbug 
(Jiff.). 

SJ II: sfh, Jjra, **&, "far, *rnr 
general term for boat, raft, vessel; also 
5'-^ grit-fan a boat, ferry. 

Syn. $|r*l$*ri rtags gsum-pa; j'^'W 
gru-yi rab; ai'w3*s sgrol-war bye$; f 
*x ^ pha-mthar sgrol; ^'^'^seA-ge-can; 
5'5ff'^ rta-mgo-can ; ^'^'^ ehuhi-fifi-rta 
(Mnon.). 

S'^TI 3 ^ gru-dkar (du-kar) a kind of 
turquoise. 

S'| gru-fkya wriT'l that which falling 
on water strikes it; an oar 

Syn. SV!\ skyo4-byed ; 
bsgral-wahi $ifl-rta. 

5'f gru-kha or y-WF gru fan-kha or 
^q5c.-) gru btafi-sa landing place on the side 
of a river, eto. ; a ferry. See maps in 
Survey Report of A. K.'s journey. 

S'B"! gru-khug the keel of a slip. 

gru-mkhan ilfot navigator ; 



a ferry man. 



246 



Sr^ Gru-ga 1. clew; hank. 2. n. of 
a country. 3. stone or paint of whitish- 
blue colour. 

ST^n gru-gu 1. a thread-ball; yarn in 
round ball. 2. *TSU'3 Wshon-gyi gru- 
gu n. of a village in Tibet (Jig.). 

a'3'3'* Qru-gu Bgya-ra n. of a village 
in Kham (LoH. 27). 

5'S gru-g.lt passage money at a ferry ; 
a boatman's fee. 

.char 1. rains ; rainy season: 

, v -^r 'hbebs-pahi char rains that fall 
over the whole country and produce a good 
harvest. 2. a fine, fertile rain (Sch.). 

WZlgru-ma (du-ma) angle; corner; 
convex or concave ; also edge, border, brim. 



in %nr 



grit-btsa? boatman's fee; 
ri grit btsas-pa, ^'VffU'^'f^ chu- 
sdud-pa-po tol collector of a ferry. 

f fl]*i gru-tshugs, $tf^* gru-gioA-sa a 
ferry or ghat : de nas. Se-dmar gyi-gru- 
tshugs-la byon-nas, then he arrived at the 
ferry of Seminar (A. 91). 

gru-t8hums-pa=P'$w' 1 or T^l 



(Ot.). 

5-^ gru-chod. or 5 q '^ 
corner ; angle. 

g-qj3N gru-psum f^nt a triangle; 5'^ 
gru-bshi a square ; f ** gru-draH a right 
angle ; 5'^^ gru-yon or fT^ gru-g.yel obli- 
que angled. 

5'P^ gru-bshi n. of a stone: Sp^'JIV"' 
[ V*'^* 1 '^ gru-bshis ltlad-pa g.so shin- 
chu-ser hden the stone called Grub-kshi 
heals the brain and draws out pus. 



1. n. of 

a mountain in the south of India ; also 
the residence of Avalokites'vara on the 
small island of Puto off Shanghai ; n. of 
the residence of the Grand Lama at 
Lhasa. 2. an harbour. 

m-SJ-ui^'niq) gru-yi yan-lag=%^ gru-ikya 
an oar (JJfnon.). 

= 5'-*ff grit-$cm a ship 



gru-yt 

z = 5' 3 gru-sliya 
oar; the wings of a boat (Mfion.). 

Syn. 5^'uni'miJ gruhi yan-lag; "fii'^ 
gyob-byc; g'^ $kya-iva (Mnon.). 

' gru-yis sgrol Trft^f a navigator. 
gru-las hdas-pa ^fNu 1 . one 
i a 



3'*Vi gru-hdren ft^THW, denned 

-g-J55-)s, ^ r nafi-du hjug-pahi ?kye- 
lohi tnM, person conveyed in a boat. Peo- 
ple who journey by boat are : *f *i* 
guest; <Aw^ merchant, trader; ^^ 
boat passengers. 

5'< gru-pa ferryman. 
5'^S ^/M-6o=5'"l^ c - gru-pzins ship 
a.. 



c/ia=5j c ''15 c ''* grufl-gtan 
sa starting or landing place of a ferry ; 5' 
*fl'f| gru fan-pa ferryman; S}'i''fa' ' gru- 
la shon-pa to go on a ferry-boat. 

2 *J gru-mo (du-mo) the elbow ; 5) ' 
gre-mo, ^ ku-ni, ff^T the elbow, or *PQ' 



pahi-tshig$-pa lar-pahi rise-tog the top- 
most piece of the middle joint of the arm : 
m-^wwcJ3K. > J gru-mor kha tvam-ka hold- 
ing a trident in the hollow of his elbow. 
a(q|-q5'5'?i lag-pahi gru-mo is defined as ne- 
tcahi dpufi-pa ; 5'^ 5 'S1 the hollow of the 



247 



elbow joint: 
^"1 lag-pahi gru-mo re jo-wohi pus-mohi 
sten-na bshag resting each elbow on the 
knees of the lord (A. 135). 

^T^ gnig-pa to break into small 
pieces; to crumble; to bruise; jflj'qS'ngw 
grug-pahi hbras bruised rice (Sch.) ; SJI^'g 
grugs-bu something broken. 

S^'^J I: grun-po (dun-po) = ^'^ grun- 
tca, I^S $byan-po, ^flr^fwrq rig-pa grims- 
pa 1. very intelligent!; -qg^ clever ; wise ; 
prudent. 2. meek; mild; gentle (Cs.). 

5J'^J II: the corn seed that is not 
rotten (Jig.)- 

3J^ grub I : (dub) pronounced rub, in the 
upper Himalaya's and Shar-Khombu, 
signifying in Ld. all: ^jq'^'Sfc- grub-fi-soU 
all are dead (Ja.). JRub-te : altogether, 
jointly. 

3p II: firs; V<r5-sSrg-^-qv^-^-g)r 
5*'' c ' bycd-pa-po dnog-su med-par raft-raft gis 
grub-pa anything accomplished or done 
by itself without any agent. 

^q-flSij (jrub-mchog=^^ a great saint; 
5q-*i|-*t grub-mchog-ma f^hiTT a female 
saint. 

sprlfa grub-thob, ftryr a saint, occurs in 
the following passage of (Zam. 2) : |r 
Ifq-RjcJg-gjoc^^-q^ g ru b.thob rim-gro gral-rim 
bshin Qfo^W grub-brne$ one who has 
gained perfection. 

3rw i: grub-ynthah 1. ftajpa, rznnr 
established conclusion ; opinion ; theory 
(Zam.) : ^^3)-!q-*w*r<**WK there being 
no conformity of doctrinal principles 
between the Brahmans and the Buddhists. 

$q-*m ii : = *)$ $! thar-pahi blo-gros 
resolution for liberation from miseries ; 
determination for obtaining , Nirvana 
(Mnon.). 



grub-pa I: 1. ft*, ftfT, 

, g^f ; pf . of *3ri to accom- 
plish 2. $r t | l VH'| grub-par byed. hzug 
^ra, i%^> a saint : 5q')'q5im - i grub-pas 
b_tags-pa f%rt tj-fo accomplished by a saint ; 
taught or preached by a saint ; 
grub-par gyur-cig ff^^ be 
it ready, complete, perfect. 



H: ^'q mt-pa fiw^ ftrft exist- 
ing; success; wvjQ't ma grub-pa not exist- 
ing (Ja.) : 5q-)'ic-i^q grub-pa daft bde-wa 
3fr[ f^ the happiness arising from yoga 
or union with the supreme spirit (in Brah- 
manism) and with the eternal Cunyata or 
void in Buddhism : QW lit grub-pa lus, the 
formed body, either the frame, the struc- 
ture, the body, or more prob. an abbre- 
viation of ^fVfrfV^^Fi the body that 
is made of the five skandha (aggregates) ; 
gq-qS-'fyf*^ grub-pahi don-can what is neces- 
sary in the charms of necromancy for pro- 
pitiation ; wv mustard. 



grub-pahi d 
grub-chcn great saint (Tig. k. 11). 



Grub-pahi rail- 
byon pyan-ra$ yzigs the saint originated or 
existing by himself ; the self-formed 
Avalokites'vara ; |[^'| 1 ' Ihun-grub or S^'jj' 
5^'i Ihun-gyi grub-pa ^rfsrfts[ self-origi- 
nated or self-formed : *tf 'Sji Don-grub or 
^w'^'5) - Son thams-cad grub-pa *wfv- 
ftf5 a name of the Buddha, in whom there 
is the fulfilment of every purpose ; also the 
name of a magic spell or formula. 

grum-pa the Tibetan badger: 



sems hdsin-pa phyi-ba-dafi grunt-pat kyan- 
yes gsufi he said both the badger and tho 
marmot know how to suspend animatipn 



248 



and rlung a reflection upon the the prac- 
tices of Tibetan ascetics or nal-jor (A. 
70) : gwnS-a-swa'iKRfw grum-pahi rgyu 
ma itgyu-ffzer hjoms the intestines of the 
badger overcome colic. 

grum-po a maimed person ; a 



cripple. 



u (dum-bu) or 3**'^S grum- 
na4 also called "$# trem, gout or rheumatism. 
*j'5 fa-grum, ace. to Jd. "VT5** dreg-grunt 
podagra ; a feeling of lameness in the limbs ; 
5i'5 rus-grum gout affecting the bones ; 
S"$*< tsa-grum rheumatic pain in the 
muscles. 4 $* chu-grum, $*< VI* gmm-tfkar, 
5* l '^ q l grum-nag seem to be varieties of 
email-pox. 



grid-bum (ditl-butn) 
a class of vampire-ghouls feed- 
ing in cemeteries; 5rgw grul-bum-ma 
females of the above. 



3j Grul-bun-can n. of a medi- 
cinal drug ; an esculent root, Arum cam- 
panulatum (a cure for piles). 



Syn. yi'S rtsub-mo; 1'ffa ga-gon; VK-^' 
arfa-hjomt ^ffa that which cures 
piles: g'S'^K bra-b_o rgoj; 
6ygf SpoH-po (If Aon.). 



z /7- 



Syn. **'|" mtsho-gkyef ; ?'* rta-chu ; *.* 
J htsho-skyeg (Mfion.). 

5'5*> gre-skyet ^i^mw^sfhr^ born in 
the constellation of 



M sho-can are the following three : 
ST^I Itlu-dug (11 na//), |^'^1 gzah-dug (^T 
rf*> 4 ), "IW'^"! g.nan-dug (P) */; (Sman. 
350). 



w (du-po) a yak only two or 
three years old (Jd.). 

Ore (deh) y<*i<ay?l the eleventh of 



the twenty-seven constellations mentioned 
in works on astronomy. 



'^ gre-ga a sheet of paper (Ja.). 



]'^ Ore-tna n. of a place in the pro- 
vince of Koft-po in Central Tibet. 



gre-wa de-wa) = *W* ip grin-pa 
or S^^ fflo-yu ^^r, ^e the fore part of 
the neck, the throat, both wind-pipe and 
the gullet ; voice : Ij'fl'^'R gre-wa bde-mo 
a good voice ; i)'i'fl]i|ri gre-wa gags-pa 
obstruction in the throat; hoarseness; fj' 
gre-wa, dur-ica a stertorous voice ; 
q^-g^ grc-bsal b.tan-bye$ in TF. to 
hawk; to hem; to clear the throat (Jd.). 



] M gre-fto a species of demons;!]'* 
gre-mo female demons of this kind. 



gre-mag vulg. for 3J'*< gra-ma 
awn of barley or of Poa grass. 

MM in W. ant; 



emmet (Ja.). 



gren occurs n 
5^ gren-gyi don-du bcifit-pahi ri-mo can. 
(Jig. 32). 



gren-tshag plaited wicker- 
work in straight rows. 



f *3J$ I : grehu, or Vi drehu, a young 
bear : X'X*ri)V q l^ q r>i*''* w ' co-rog grehu-gcig 
phul-wag Cho-ro having presented a young 
bear (A. 63). 



II : n^ pea, peas ; ^^'4 - 
sran grehu a kind of pea growing in the 
Sub-Himalayas. 



249 



*l gres- ma 1. the flashing light- 
ning (Schtr.). 2. V*'* 1 dres-ma a kind of 
plant: ||*'A ^wST'CKV^'W^'W gres- 
mahi ge-sar srin-ffsod fflafi-thabs hjotm the 
pistil of drcsma kills worms and overcomes 
the diseases called glan-thals. 



a/ yr 
dry wheat. 



gro-skam 



wheat ; 



gro-ga (do-fja) or Iff gro-kha '< 
or ^e.'ffl|'ti5'tnrq $in-tag pahi pags-pa, 
white birch bark used for writing charms 
on ; also ace. to /a. used for ornamenting 

these mantras on white cloth or paper or 
leaves of the palmyra or the bark of the 
birch which grew in their country (Swan.). 

3j V gro-don the winter granary of 
wheat in Tibet; an under-ground cell 
where wheat is kept during the winter. 

U'**| gro-tshag sieve for sifting wheat. 
fi'q gro-u'a or 3j'?i gro-mo reddish grey. 

Zfl'^^^ Gro-bshin ^icpiTT TW) the twenty- 
second or twenty -third constellation in the 
astronomical work* of Tibet and India. 

Svn. "igilS hphrog-byed ; "5^'q bon-po; 
3'8( bya-glo (Mnon.). 

H'q^'ST* 1 Gro-bshin gyi na-ica 'TT^'ft 
^[f^ffT the full moon in the month of July- 
August. 

5'S^''8' q Gro-bvhin-gyi zla-wa or |'q' 
*^'i zla-wa bdun-pa the month of Crdvana. 

M' q ^^'S gro-bshin-bycd (do-shin-eM) 
hole under the ground where wheat is 
kept in winter (A. JT.). 

3j a i gro-yos (do-yo) parched wheat 
or corn. 



Ij'^f gro-ril ball of dough, or lump 
made of moistened wheat flour. 

3J'*faf gro-sog (do-soa) stalks of wheat, 
wheat-straw. 



J gro-ma (do-ma) 

1. the sweet potato of Tibet. 2. name 
of a herb (Vai-sfi.) [the grass Scirpm 
Kysoor"]S. '15 rgya-gro or 5^5 ' rgyahi 
gro-ma the potato introduced from India : 
f*)-ic,^-un-m-ti^aca-R|g-q|^ the potato being 
sweet is cooling and stops diarrhroa. 

Hj'^'tt}^* Gro-ma Inn n. of a place in 
the north of Tibet (Ka-thafi. 168). 



' Gro-lufi, n. of a village in the 
province of Lho-kha. 



J gro-lo-ma (do-lo-md) ff"'^ go$- 
chen a kind of satin ; silk stuff. 

Gro-sa village in the district of 



Phenyul. 



Gro-ho (do-ho) STJ'^*'* phyag- 
rgya rnams-so a mystical word used in the 
Mah&nmdra Tantrik rites (K. g. | 215). 



grog-ma or 

ant ; emmet. 



mo (dog-mo) 

Syn. ^'9^' w srin phran-ma ; J'5,'^ ti 
rgyu-ra; ^^'l^-g ^in-rjehi-bu (Mnon.). 

^T^ grog-gked waist of the ant; also 
narrow as that is. 

Jfqj'wp^ grog-mkhar ^wNf ant-hill. 

Syn. sj'S^'lr^ brgya-byin tpyi-ico; "$(*' 
^q-q|*) nor-ldan brtsegs ; $fl|'w - *R' grog- 
tnahi-tahhft ; !|l'i5-p^ grog-maty rnkhor 
(Mnon.). 



grog-po 1. V4 a deep ravine 
in which a torrent flows ; the sides of snch 

83 



250 



ravines are termed gad-pa, 
qS 3jn|-eft*i ? "IV U(E -'^ chu chen-pos brus-nas 
byufl-teahi grog-poham, gad-pa yafi-zer, that 
which is caused by the erosion of great 
waters is also styled grogs-po or gad-pa. 

STS to grog-flu, v. 9JT* grog-nut, ant 
(fag. 6*). 

$fl]'<*e. grog-(s/ian = ^"\' s ^ i ^ grog-muhi 
ts/tan ant-hill. 



' I : grog-shifl or "^T V' cultiva- 
tion in uneven narrow ground away from 
villages or gen. in wild places where cattle 
are pastured. 



' II: *T I \ t ' q l'v|Mr*'ij'* l >' rma- 
daH gser skrafis chu sri-scln. of a medicine 
which cures obstruction of the urine ; a kind 
of moss growing on the sides of chorten, and 
old walls, etc. 

3jqj-fl|uie.- grog-ffyafi lateral gully on 
hill-side: $T* gi-og-c/iti, brook; rivulet, 
v. lj T^ grog-po. 

3jo|-q| grog-sizar a torrent pouring down 
a ravine. 



grogt W> 

a friend, companion, fellow- 
labourer, assistant; paramour, also hus- 
band ; F'3h kha-grogs a seeming friend ; 
a friend in words; a false friend; 5^' 
<H*\'* rtin-grogs or *'3J1*< sfiin-grogs 
true friend, bosom friend, associate, com- 
panion, comrade, fellow ; SJI^'JI grog-khye 
playmate or playfellow; ^3 c -'5l' s ' dpun- 
grogs, fellow combatants comrades ; "^"l 
f"l hdug-grog$ or PSIJN'^II^ bshugs-grogg 
fellow-lodger ; *WH'% I* dgah-grogs, 
^tan-grogs spouse ; husband ; wife ; 
I]"]* hdod-grogs or ^'Xij*! hdod-rogs sweet- 
heart; *<v3h mdsah-grogt a lover ; 



!5"1 ffzim-grogt bed-fellow (not only con- 
cubine) ; ^"I'^i)*! dmag-grogs ally, confe- 
derate (in war) ; l >W'9i l '|*< lag- grogs colleague; 
journeyman ; under- workman ; '^Tlil*', 
tshig-grogs an auxiliary word. \_N.-B. In 
pop. works and colloq. language the word 
Hl*i sounded ro or rog is combined with 
verbs in the imp. To give a polite 
turn to any request ; " nang-ro-nang " 
please give ; " ton-rog-nang " " will you 
kindly show," etc. 

'^ grogs-fan a bad friend. 

''*tf grogs-dan Ti<nT help or assis- 
tance. 



! grogs-hdrt's mutual friend- 
ship, 

5li'3 grogs-po (tog-po) aT, fnr, im 
friend; ally. 

Hlw'^Yi i : grog-byed-pa to be friend; 
to make friendship ; to assist j to be friends. 

^'^'^I^'SV 1 to cultivate friendship, to 
be mutual friends. 

5*!* 'S H : vra, T^ assistance ; aiding. 

^iJ^'SS'" grogs-bycd-pa is synonymous 
with X|^ rogs-ram ; in writing some- 
times i|E.*r3j l '!*< sdofls-grogs is also used. 

f<qrli grogs-mo a female friend; also 
a mistress. 

Syn. |'*i sla-rno; ^^*<na mnam-ma\ 
S'^35 pho na-mo; ^'|\'*C E -''w kun-$pyod. 
mt shuns- ma \ < *|j^'5' J i'* hphrin sky el-ma 
(Mnon.'). 

^n|Wijc.- grogs-bzaii or ?S q I*'' liE -' i grogs- 
bzan-po ^fa^m, wren friendship, also 
sweetheart. 



' I: gron or grons pf. of 
to die; IF'*!"! grnn-hjug resurrection 
bringing life to a dead body, translating 



251 



the soul from one body to another : 



c. having done service to religion, 
and living beings he is said to have four 
times performed the noble work of transla- 
ting a soul from one body to another 
(J. Zan.). 



' II : 1. *TR, gft an inhabited place ; 
a village ; hamlet ; also house ; ^g'Sfc' brgya- 
gron a place of a hundred; ?=>'?=' ston-gron 
thousand houses or households (Jd.) ; IK' 
^'iH gron-la-hgro *lT*f n^t^ going or gone 
to the village : IK q l* l '*^'S gron-gsum 
mthar-byed fagvn^f he who has destroyed 
the three habitable spheres, the god S'iva. 



gron-khycr (don-khycr) gr, 
tm^, SK a town or city; 
a place which is surrounded by a 
wall, originally a palace. That is called 
a country or ^ yid where there are 
100 lakhs of households, a place where 
there are 100,000 households is called 
ojar^jifo yul-hkhor or province. In a city 
(?='(!* gron-khyer] which is gen. fortified 
there should be at least 10,000 households ; 
a town with population less than 800 is 
called a 3K' gi'on in Sans. ?rw. 

Syn. 5 - ge/npS< pho-lran hkhor; *>'3K' 
mi-gron ; IK'B* gron-khyim ; ^'^'"fi hi$- 
can-gna$ ; ^^.Vf^'^'K dmans-hdiil-gnas ; 



spyod-pahi phur-ltu ; ^ii*)'*l\q^^ hjigs- 
med-gna$; ^'^'"1^ mi-bskyod-gnas; 3=-' 
|i srun-byed; l^'l^ $kyon-byed (Milan.). 

^fi 6 '^'^ Gron-khycr dgra grrft the 
enemy of the city, S'iva. 

fjc.'j|vOsii Gron-khyer hjig g^^ 
Indra. 

5^'B^'I gron-khycr rje = '^'^' c >^\' yul- 
gyi bJag-po or V*ffc'^W yul-hkhor du-an 



sheriff, also the chief of a city ; also J^rg^i 
rgyal-phran a petty Raja (Mfion.). 

H^'^'ls Gron-khyer $pyod met. for a 
crow. 



can 



gron-khycr dpal-yon- 
(Sc/ir. ; Ta. 2, 166). 



*f c -'H^'* ) 'Tl gron-khycr me-tog 
(Schr.) lit. the city of flowers ; it is the 
same as Patalipulra or Patna. 



3JE.'j'ij^'i]3^ gron-gi g.can-gzan 
met. for dog (Mnon.). 



gron-gi brjod-pa inx* pro- 
vincialism ; country or rural language ; 5=-' 
*i)'y*p* gron-gi ne-hkhor ^TtTt^^w the 
suburbs: Jf^SfwH gron-gi hthab-mo 
feuds and qiiarrels (among villagers). 

3jc.-5)-q^<i| Gron-gi bdng 
the headman of a village. 

J(jc.-^-q-^ (j r on dra-wa-can 
ww^-q-qiflVq yron-mthah la-dra-ica 
wa) a town surrounded with fortifications ; 
l(jc.-tr|-,-q gron-gi dra-wa *eps a circle or 
circuit of a village ; fortification round a 
city: 3} c ^' (: u| c :^'* ( gron-gi hphrefi Idan- 
ma, g<.ifl*ft the village flower- woman : 
^c.'S)'")?^ Gron-gi giso-wo the ohief man 
in a town or village ; a headman. 

Jflc.-g]c. gron-grans the number of houses 
in a village or town. 

ij]c.-s<1b*i| gron-mchog chief city ; also 
scene ; sphere. 

$c.-q-|af grofi-bsnen a ^'^rfw-i^|q- 
t^'t' a lama who performs meditations or 
asceticism remaining inside a village 

or town; $R$*Wfi'f^W*^ ^ en ~ 
na mibstcn-pahi grofi, bfiien dar-wa daft one 
not performing the practice of asceticism 
by going to any solitude (Ta-sel. 2T). 



252 



t]E.'*|5*< gron-gtam country speech or 
language. 

ljs.-q*i| grofi-kdag=z$ t '' t fo'*ft'V gron-pahi 
ptso-bo the headman of a village or city. 

3K',I groH-rdal=^'*^n gron-brdal afjf- 
tf^, f*i*iH a large town (which is not 
enclosed by a wall) together with its 
suburbs. 

gron-edchi phra-ma mkhan 
dkrugs-fifi byetf-mkhan 
one who causes or excites brawls, 
feuds, etc., among village people or com- 
munities. 

tfc-ti gron-pa a villager ; one holding a 
house ; a tenant. 

|je.-qS-* gron-paht aAoi^W'H'^^-fl pho- 
hkhrig-pa sexual union (SJ.Hon.). 

H*'cfr*r|^rtf gron-pahi chos kyig- 
ma gas-pa = $%'*^-u-%\ii bu-mo pho-dan 
tna phrad-pa virgin purity ; a maiden not 
touched by a male (Sman 289). 

%*'*&* gron-dpon JnWt", 3TO, 
the chief of a town or village. 



'CJ gron-wa (dong-wa) in C. ace. to 
Jd. used for SF' q graft-tea : cold. 

Jgc.-q^ graft-war the middle of a village 
or hamlet. 



ro- $pan$ fsrHW one who is 
liberated or has abandoned the life of a 
layman or householder. 

?5c.-3i| gron-tahig irlRJ provincialism: 
%c,-"*,v\ ?) -wjj^-q^ groA-tshig gis-ma sla-dpar 
= f .'i)|\3l-r^i-w gron-skad kyig-nia-hdret 
par not mixed up with provincialisms. 

3fc* gron-tsho large village; town; 
several hamlets taken together. 

3jc.-*iX-*>v*i Grofi-mtsho mer-mo n. of a 
village in the district of w E in Lhokha : 



E lab-kyi hdab Grofi 
qitstio mer-mo (Lon. * 30). 

$fil^ gron-ffsfti an estate ; farm (Sc/i.). 
grofi-yul country place (Jd.). 

91 jrro#?s (dong), v. ^'o re^p. to 
die ; ^R-3|-3)-q-i^ -w^-Ji i s regp. f or natural 
death. 



grocf-pa or *IW puttf-pa belly; 
generally the paunch of ruminating 
animals; in collcq. language it is 
sometimes applied to the stomach or 5 1 
p/io-ica : w3ft mar-grod butter kept in 
the dried paunch of a sheep. 



S'!?* grod-gbom (dot-bom) a large belly ; 
also the dried paunch of a bullock to keep 
oil. 

3]3j'53j gron-can (don-can) disadvan- 
tageous ; injurious. 

!fa'^ gron-che very noxious (Jd.) ; 3^'*^ 
gron-mcd harmless ; innoxious (Lex.). 

SJ^'^I I : gron-pa (don-pa) explained 
as *3rif^'3 bgro-tgo chcn-po, much expen- 
diture ; expensive ; also to expend, squan- 
der : *Vl*?&VWrtMh'V botf-kyi mi nor 
man-po gron-pa dan having squandered 
much wealth and men of Tibet: $"!' 
Jfl'lfa'i fnag-i;ofj gron-pa (Nag.) waste or 
expenditure of much paper and ink. 



II: explained by *>-*j-* W '^' 
q mi-tshan cheham bzod-cheham 
bsran che-tca, applied to a great or illustrious 
family, to one who is very patient or for- 
bearing, a thing that is very durable and 
hard. 



gron-qas *%'$ hgro-sgo item of 
exppnditure ; also the account of tlxe dis- 
tribution and lending of grain. 



253 



' Grom-pa rgyad (tom-pa- 
gyang) n. of a place in Tsang which con- 
tained one of the twelve temples said to 
have been erected by King Srofi-btsan 
sgam-po (Ya-sel. frl). 



grol (dol) ffw (Schr.; Kalac. T. 5} 
release; deliverance. 

1K'"^ Grol-iiin (dol-nin) the day when 
the annual assembly of the lamas dissolve. 

IKf^ Grol-ston (dol-ton) a festival on 
the day when lamas relax after the term of 
the special devotions is over. 

HT*^ grol-hdod ^w^ wishing to be 
emancipated or set free from transmigra- 
tory existence and misery, etc. ; abbrevia- 
tion of *^'fl'^'p'*t i l'*|W'wr^TW* 1 fa > l 
hkhor-wa dafi-sdug-bsfial oy-las grot-tear 
Mod-pa. 



P grol-ica (dol-tca) pf. of 
hgrol-ica ; also sbst. fsr.HKT, fr^, an:, 
5% deliverance ; deliverance from worldly 
existence. 



Ifr'a^ grol-ica can wtfnn 1. relating to 
emancipation ; deliverance. 2. sbst,. pearl : 
vwr that has been delivered from the 
oyster. 

Syn. S'5l mu-tig; ^^^ na-le yam 



Ch-ol-buhi lha-lfia the five 
demigods or, perhaps, Naga demi-gods. 

Gh-ol-med hjoms n 



the killer of Namuci ; an epithet of Indra. 



l: grog (doi) = %WP mol-wa 1. 
advice; counsel. 2. = "15* gtam speech; 
talk; T^'f b.kah-gros conference; com- 
mittee. 

3J" II : aco. to Cs. care, heed, caution. 



$^'$"1^ gros-grogs (doi-dog) a consult- 
ing friend ; anyone consulted with. 

M* 1 '-^ gros-can careful ; cautious. 

+ f'i|i gro$-gcam 1 consultation. 
2. = 5^'*\' i gros byed-pa to consult. 

IJ<r5^en g ros mthun-par unanimously ; 
by unanimous decree. 

3j*rY*j gros hdri-sa (doi-di-sa) the place 
where advice may be asked ; an oracle. 

gtrtf^trq g r0 g hdebg-pa giving advice. 

5'^\'q gros hdri-ica to ask (a person's) 
advice ; to consult (with one). 

%*ci gros-pa (doi-pa) adviser; coun- 
sellor ; senator ; also advice ; 3irg*ri grog 
byas-pa (doi-je-pa) to have consulted ; 
#NTT consultation; conference; tj*J''Y c J 
gros byed-pa (doi-je-pa) fl*qyr^H to con- 
sider ; to deliberate ; to resolve ; decide 
after consderation, deliberation, etc. 

3j*r*> Gros-mi (dot-mi) consulting man; 
an adviser; sometimes in Sikkim the 
headman of a village. 

3j*rl<; gros-mcd without asking or con- 
sulting anybody ; self-sufficient ; careless ; 
heedless. 

Hr*S gro$-t$hod (doi-tshoi) the real 
points or object of a conference: 5'*^'^' 
^c.-uc^qN'|X' q gros-tshod hdsin-daft ya-rabs 
spyod-pa to catch the leading and salient 
points in a conference (J>g-)- 

5'<( gros-ya (doi-ya) a secretary ; a 
councillor. 

3J g.la wages ; pay ; fee or remuneration 
for any work done: ^'Ii c '' '3" q 3 t V3'^' 
S'S'^'I* dgc-slon brgya-rtsa brgt/ad-kyi 
htsho-u-a gla-nas sbyar the maintenance of 
one hundred and eight monks was met 
from the fees (he received) (A, 61). 



254 



3J'^ 0/a-wa st^f^nr the musk deer, 
Moschusmoschiferus, of which there are three 
varieties or perhaps even species in Tibet. 
Another species occurs in Amdo : Moschn? 
Sifanicus; g'n3'<j gla-rnahi pags , SH'^ *>' 
q$-qoprq gfa-tca dad rna-tcahi pags-pa the 
skin of the Nao antelope and the musk- 
deer. 

Syn. \-q*=.-^qc.-Ei dri-bsan facan-po; gfj" 
**i gla-rtgi can ; *' V sa-h<i ; S^^T rlufi- 
bsreg (Mnon.). 



pla-gor sho-fa n. of a fruit. 
gla blaits-pa has taken or 
received his wages for work. 

S|'5j=.' ffla-sgaft ^8, *nn: n. of a med- 
cinal herb ; ^rr Cypenis rotundas : *rniT 
Ihe root of Cyperus pirlennis. 

S(t>\ pla-rfan, abbr. of fl' ve^-q ffla-dafi 
rfian-pa, wages and remuneration. 



or S'Q gla-po or a'9 - 
one who works on wages ; a servant em- 
ployed on a fixed salary; also a day- 
labourer or hired workman ; "I^Tg gyog- 
gja rjm service money ; salary. 



gla-phor a kind of tree the wood 
of which is good in turning and for making 
plates and cups. 

gj-|n| yia-phrug the young one of a 
musk-deer. 

8 ') gla-mi MW, CW a servant ; a hired 
workman. 

Sj'35 g.la-mo 1. a hired female servant. 

2. musk-doe: f*'^E*f<'*W3^ 
gla-wahi nor-bus gbrul-sogs dug-sruii byed 
the jewel of the musk deer (the musk- 
pod) is a protection against snake poison, 
etc. 

5'S" pla-rtsi H^, ^TTrfk, ^^^t musk: 
fflo-rtsi gro-yi tshig-ma 



hdra musk is like burnt-wheat grains : 
gl-S"wr*ijii|i\*-w the musk that is 
slightly soft, tough besides being of 
strong scent, is good : grfr^VT 3 i'*'l I!a| ^' 
q IW*S'^ q ' musk eradicates snake-poison, 
kidney disease, plague. 

Syn. M q l*''$' q ri-dbags Ue-u-a ; Qvyn is 
tbrvl-skrag byed; iw&'**%* myos-pahi 
mtshan-ma;\.'^ dri-yi thod; \^^^ 
dri-yi gog-can ; ^I)'*E.' ri-deags clan; *' 
\"\'*'$' ri-dbag$ rtsi; S'^'^'S g.la-wahi nor- 
bu 



gj-! L 5 i )-1pi| Gla-rtsihi me-tog n. of a 
flower, the Pediculans mcgalantha. 

8J'^ g.la-lto food and wages. 

3J I f yhm or S'S"I bya-gfag a bird des- 
cribed as resembling an eagle, but smaller 
than the vulture and larger thnn the hawk, 
of blackish chocolate colour; carries away 
kids and lambs. This bird is numerous in 
Mongolia, Central Tibet and Kham. Pro- 
bably the lammergayer. 

plag-k/ira-mo a spotted species 



of eagle. 



a^V Itag-pa upper 
or back part or side : Mftl^fl mgohi Itay- 
pa the crown or upper part of the head. 
Defined as I'VS'^'g"!'", the upper back 
part or blunt side of a knife or axe. 

gJSJj'CJ'^JJJ Q lag-pa lam n. of a place in 
Tibet (Deb.). 

ilj 1 ^ fffaOS ^^fHE opportunity, occa- 
sion, possibility: sopr***'*! ylags htshol- 
tca to eeek for an opportunity: \'a q l r |'s 
tR'^"] da glagi rned-par hdug now the 
favourable time seems to have come ; esp. 
opportunity of doing harm to another, 



255 



of getting a hold on him (Jo) : 
** '*3* gfags hned-par mi hgyur he will not 
get an opportunity to do you harm. |Sy 
^ intolerable; insupportable: *l*f' 
^ there is no possibility of helping 
him; he is incurable (Jo) : a"!*'*^" 1 not 
able to do injury or some interruption to 
one's actions. 



f (HPJ^r^ gJags-pa to go ; be going ; 
proceed ; to be on the point of. 

' I : Glan n. of a place in Tibet. 



to 



* II: r, <e*fl 1. ox; buUock. 
2. one of the signs of the Zodiac, 

the Bull: BV% f $F* r 8*'W*H'' r *'r < *''^ 

glan-gi mkhris-pag fbyar-dug mig-la phog- 
par phan the bile of the ox is useful when 
contagious poison strikes upon the eye : 
gf^idwW^CCTViq the spleen of the 
ox is useful in sores and poisons : g^'S)'*^' 
MCfW4qv*iN the kidney of the ox re- 
moves kidney diseases: a^'BT'KVr^'l^ 
the blood of the ox (with food) draws out 
blood poison. 

Syn. "^'^\ hgro-lyed; ^ *\ hdren- 
byed; fWSfl stols-ldan ; ^=-'3 bmn-po; 0' 
*Xfl| khyu-mchog (Mnon.). 

3JC' III: orW-'wW(tlan-t/iabs,a\ao called 
fllfc'gc g.zer-fflan, colic, gripes, spasms in 
the stomach and similar affections (<7a.). 

g|c.-vw gM-thabs=lsi'$*>, glo-lur 1. 
sudden; suddenly: s^'w^'S'S^"'^'* 1 was 
suddenly defeated by the enemy. 2. n. of 
a disease, prob. hysterical fit. 

SFB* glan-khyim ifrgft', iflft* a shed 
or fold where cows are kept ; an orna- 
mented gateway. 

S^'Q'N&'I glan-khyu tnchhog 
bull; ox. 



fflaft-khyu-ica ^i!gcfj\ a bull 
kept for breeding purpose. 

81 c a*> glan-g.lad 1. the brains of the 
bullock or ox. 2. in Tsang=soap. 

a^'^ft glan-rgod a wild ox. This term 
is applied in Tibet to the buffalo (in Tib. 
$'^ mah-he). 

^'V'* glan-po-che 



the elephant ; elephant 
in rut: f.^i^ffVlf^fn^9fifViH the skin 
of the elephant is useful in black small- 
pox : S^'Zi'iwg-ws^S-g- - * 1 *5'S>e > - gfaH-po 
rjes-su mthun-pahi rd$a$ so-sohi mifl, i.e., the 
names of various apparatus necessary for 
an elephant are the following : g gram 
*W; i^'"!'** frim-ga-ma ^f=; a^'^'g^ glan- 
pohi rgyan ; ^qm'q5'i]-q fydogs-pahi ka-wa ; 
wn'^ a-la-na ; ^r<siM the post to which an 
elephant is tied; fl^'S Icags-kyu the 
conductor's hook ; ] '^, 1% ; "larq rnchil- 
tca ; l'jB'"l'(B' t i'^'? bri-kfa ka-ksa la-ra-ta 
i'q gjan-pohi thag-pa. 
i\i-i Mk-ko pdsa-dsa %^ftT9sr='tfK ''^' 
hbod-pa shie-hdug (Mfion.). 



Syn. *'^ so-Waw ; *'^ so-g.ni$ 
lag-Man ; "ft'^S c - gni$-hthufi x^ti'^ 
po hthufl ; S^'S^'-s^ myos bum-can; 

nags-tshal dgah; w^'i'fq^'^^ rnche-wa 



K hkhor-lohi rkafi ; 
dsa-la ka ; ye !'^ myo-rnul can ; 
T*^ dbyug-pahi rna-can ; ^*\'f^'*i mchod- 
rten byed; Ijw^ stobs-ldan. 

^laj-HQr<vi* glan-chen thal-dkar -the 
white elephant, or one having a white fore- 
head; the chief of the elephants ($ag.)-. 
^^^w^^K'^^-i^ the bile of the 
elephant cures emaciation caused by poison, 
etc. : V&fifaP&PRlteKto the flesh of 



elephant (taken as food) cures the diseases 
attributed to devils (in W-). 

gE.'&Vt' glan-chen rtsi jflffaTT the 
secretion of the elephant ; also elephant- 
musk. 

Syn. 5|''ME." gi-icafi (in magic) or "P'^"! 
mystic term (Mid S). 

g|c.-*E.-<!fy Qlan mjin-yon a name of 
Prince Satf-na Icgs-mjiA yon, son of King 
Khri-sron Idehu-btxan. He was so called 
on account of his prowess : wSc.'er'fy 'rjj'^P.' 
*-q*rj|c.-*iSc. aj^-^-2[q|i rnjin-pa yon-la $ku- 
dtcan che-was fflan-mjin yon-du gragg. 

55=. '? glan-to the Indian bull (Bos 
taurus Indicm). 

gent- Qlan-than n. of a plain to the 
east of Lhasa. 

SJ^'S"! ffltin-tAug or S^' 1 *"!'*^ plan-hog 
can a bull (not castrated) : S^'ST* * *tff 
*ij|-is|-*f^ fflan-thug ru-a-cos mgo-chag-la phan 
the horn of uncastrated bull is useful in the 
fracture of the head : glan-thuy nag rwa-cos 
mdse-la phan-par-byed the horn of a black 
uncastrated bull is used in leprosy: S 1 -'^!' 
yij^q-wl^o^-^-q'^ui plan-gi nca-g.shob rnchin- 
pahi tsha-tca-sel the ashes of a burnt bull's 
horn taken internally cures inflamation of 
the liver. 

gFSV* Glan-dar-tna 1. a youthful ox. 
2. n. of the King of Tibet who persecuted 
the Buddhists in the ninth century A.D. 

Sl 6 -'^ yM-hded^^K^ thon-rnkhan 
the husbandman, a rustic. 

g^Ei-flfc.- g/an-j)o-?/iyo^=a=.T yltn-rdsi 
*\\1\<4 a cow-herd; one who tends or 
looks after cows ( Mnon.). 

gt.-q-wig<i| glaft-po-mc/wg w^f%f the 
chief of the elephants, lit. a scent-elephant. 

Syn. gc.'Hi'Vj'Ji Hi g_lan-pohi rgyal-po; T* 1 ' 
spo-kyi ylan-po; (3'^'^*, 5 ; khyu- 



yimgon-po; 
*1* thal-kar ; 



khyu-yi b_dag-po; W 
mchc-aic drug-ldan ; 
(Mnon.). 



myon-pa a wild, mad elephant 

(400ft.). 

gfEj-R^-qN^ii^-ci gM-po hdod-pas drcgs- 
pa= a^'Q'^S (flan-po ryod wild elephant ; an 
elephant turned wild and mad for union 
with a she-elephant. 

Syn. *ir!i 1 *j'U'q chac/$-pft$ myos-pa; 
|^ar^jrq Icnys-kyiis ydttl-dkah-mt ; 
gyo-wa-can ; g^'Q'Sft glan-po ryod; 



chan-git dregs-pa .; Sl^'i^ #M-$zt ; 
fflad-po $myon-pa. 

S=-'S'j;5-|f^ Qlan-po snahi fflin-smad n. 
of a place within the district of Shiga-tse 
in Tsang. 

gjc.-E|-^c.) Qlaf>-po $ofi$ n. of a place (in 
Tib.) ; also one which was situated near 
the ancient city of Kapilavastu. 



glr<n-rd>ii conductor of an elephant 
(Mnon.). 

jjjc,-Eft'j<jr5 (fl:m-pohi rgy(il-po=^'^^"\ 
fflan-po-mchog (Afnon.). 

g]E.-qiv^q*i Qlan-pohi $tob, tfist'd n. of 
a very powerful giant-like king ; ge.'^ =.' 
^'S^' 'fc'f'W ipan-rten man-hdsin gjan-pohi 
Stols (Ya-sel. 57). 

5^-35-01^ gM-pohi-pnas= gt-g-l^-ai^ 
g.lan-po-chehi ffnag the stable where ele- 
phants are kept (Afnon.). 

gjfg^ (flan-phran = $*-'Qi{ glan-phrug a 
young elephant (Mnon.). 

SF'Sj" plan-Ires jilmiijl ox-manger; Sl^' 
5$'*i g.lan-pohi Ires elephant-stall. 

g) 1 -'^ g.lan-ma 1. a medicinal plant: 8)=.' 
w?i-^-^E.-^-^-q-tui ^Ian-ma cures fever and 



257 



flc- 



female diseases. 2. a large kind of alpine 
willow. 

g=.'# glan-mo or "W]'^' lag-ldan-ma she- 
elephant: s^^-wwij-^-wg^ the milk 
of a she-elephant is very sustaining : gjfS?* 
q^-qrX-jft-^-^-q-lN the skin of a she- 
elephant cures female disease and fever. 

8^'S*n glah-dmar a stallion ox : 8*,' V*' 



"^'3^ with the warm hlood of a living stal- 
lion ox the circulation of poison in the 
blood can be neutralized. 

8^'r i : glan-rdsi Jttft^ a cow-keeper ; 
a chief, herdsman. 

8=.'g" n : jfarra the keeper of an ele- 
phant ; keeper of cows ; Krishna. 

Syn. jjfEiS-p-zS-Ji glan-pohi kha-lo-pa; 
SCcrjE.- plan-po tkyoft (Mnon.). 

gp-q|u|-V^ glan-ffyay dri-ldan 1. %\'W* 
gi-wan fl)0^il the musk-like, scented 
secretion in the brains or in the stomach 
of an elephant. 2.=V<'*iH dom-mkhris 
bear's bile (Sman. 353). 

S^'V-'iW Qlan-ri lud-bstan n. of a 
Sutra in the Kahgyur, said to have been 
delivered by Buddha when on a visit to 
Li-yul. 

g|=.'5 fflan-ru a bullock's horn ; also a 
large forked stick used by the Tibetan 
soldiers to rest the musket on when firing. 

gjV$e,-q|^-|g-3$ QlaH-luH g.nas-khra-mo n. 
of a place in Kham. 

VF^F fflaH-fin = $*.-K-2ic. ghfi-ma-fifi or 
*!?% mdso-mo-fin a kind of tree grow- 
ing largely in Tibet, the leaves of which 
are burnt as incense ("prfo' mystical 
term) (Min.). 

ytan-fu a kind of sore-hoof. 



Qlan-khams, who was invited by King 
Khri-srofi Idehu-btsan to his capital on 
account of the fame of his learning. 



fflad or SIS'" glad-pa v^^ the head ; 
brains; cf. Jfi klad: ^"H glad-la on the 
top, on the head ; also used as postposition 
in the sense of over, close over : <|5-g|^-Qr 
chuhi ^lad-la close above the river or water. 

STVJ lad-rgya=S&% g.lad-pahi rtsa 
the veins of the brain. 

SIS' 1 ! glad-pa generally written as JjVi 
khd-pa (Sch.), cf. ^ lhad or J|Vi glad-pa. 

ffi'Q (flan-pa also 8>'i glon-pa 1. to 
patch up ; to mend : ^)'Si|ci'^ofgqj 5}^-ti = 
y*t'W> lhan glan-pa to sew up or patch up 
torn clothes, etc. (flag.} ; j|^-cjq-q to sew 
on a patch. 2. to return; i^ Ian an answer 
to reply; rejoin (Lex.). 3. colloquial for 



SIVa 3 ! g.lun-glen, v. gfi' g.len-pa dumb. 

f 31*1'^ lam-pa or ^S'^^-ei gnam-bu 
hthug-po a kind of thick blanket. 



fflal-u-a ^nr 1. to yawn or gape : 
mfoal dor-hgyin icahibrdah 
a relaxation of the body by stretching the 
limbs and yawning. 2. a terrific attitude 
or posture of sitting : &E.'n)'jj*rq^c.j sen-ge 
tnam-bsgyifi$=^*\-%'*ti sefi-ge $lal-iva 
a lion's attitude on his vanquished foe is 
called g.lal-ica. 



Glanf-kham$-pa n. of a 
learned lama come from a place called 



htsho-ica one who subsists 
on salary or wages. 

g|* I: glin 5H, fir a kind of sacred 
grass. 

8J* II: 1. ^T, is island; isolated 
place; limb or part of the globe; divi- 
sion of lands, large or small ; continent, in 

31 



258 



311 



fabulous Indian sense: gj 
g^-*l n^q gii n gs/ian-nas sfeyeg-pa tshul-bycd- 
mi hdra-wa fTff*w^qi*iTT : being of other 
continents they are of a different manner 
of birth. 



' III : a large monastery ; a monas- 
tery isolated in its greatness and separate 
from other jurisdiction. 

gjE.-^'q5-flf^) glin-chen bcu-gnit the 
twelve continents according to Bon cosmo- 
graphy are the following : (1) W^^V 
ruA Vtt+pa&Ml (2) 
("I 1 "*') Qgah-ldan lha-yi 
(3) A^acq'^*w5'5|c ^flj^) Jldul-ba 

kyi glin ; (4) aV^V'S"!"'^ ("I" 1 
hdul Sfiags-kyi glin ; (5) ^VS'i'lK ( 
Tsad-ined bya-u-a gM ; (6) |f* > WWi*f6 
Sbyin-pa rpthah-yai gM ; (7) S 1 *^' 
Mt-gyo bsam-gtan g.Un ; 
(8) Mi'JT'frwSi* (*?**) Dgr.-rgyas yon-tan 
ffliti; (9) ^^8ww'|c. ( ^) Tthad-mcd. 
byatns-pahi ylin ; (10) ^S'l'i'^'Si^ O 15 -') 
Gnod-sbyin nor-gyi fflin; (11) %H'J >|i *' 
o-/ rgyas-pahi fflin ; (12) s ^' 
^C'r 1 '^) Rin-chcn spun$-pahi g}ln ; 
or i- - c. C\3i) Sol-mo glin (G. Bon. 5). 
The seventeen sub-continents attached 
to the twelve continents are the follow- 
ing: (1) iprtfirfwr*^*'! 
rgyal-m hdsin-pahi glin ; (2) 
Rjehu b_ko4-paM g.M; (3) 
Drafi-srofihgro-bdul-ffM; (4) 
Mya-fian mej-pahi glin : (5) 
Eram~ze gtsaA-wahi gM; (6) 
Bram-ze has~mo gM ; (7) 
Bbri-mig mtsho-yi gM; (8) 
qj^ai-q^-gf Qmags-rigt gdol-wahi gM ; (9) 
^W^'SvS'S 6 -' Stob-chen gyad-kyi glin; 
(10) wi'S'^-gf A-ba-da-rahi glin; (11) 
^q-^q-qS-gf Bgro-wa hdul-wahi glin; 
(12) 1'V.AWqS'fjn- Rhri dftn htftab-pahi 



M; (13) J'a|-<\i5-gc Rgya-latj hod-mahi 
glin ; (14) $*% '*'H '!=- Kgyal-mo tno-khros 
glin; (15) f'^' a '3^a B - - J&khah-hgro mi- 
rkun glin ; (16) *>w3'5)-jc.- Miham ci-yi 
glin ; (17) qjT^lft'a^ Lha-klu man-dha 
Sprehu glin (G. Bon. G). 

I 1 -'"! Qlin-ka a garden or pleasure 
grove. 

jje;^ gliii-nan dispute ; quarrel. 

iKWfc Qlin-dkar fdsofl n. of a 
district in Tibet. 

l*' 1 ^ glin-dar 3^ n. of a kind of cloud. 

gjfg^-w glin-ldan-ma, * jp^A 
a lake which contains islands. 



glin-bu ?f>t, ^finra a reed-pipe; 
a musical reed; flageolet; the common 
musical instrument of herdsmen, and con- 
sists of two pipes joined together ; ^Yfj 11 ' 
phred-glin flute; piccolo-flute, mostly of 
metal; ^'l*.' dge-glift, generally written 
S'S*' tyya-yti't a larger musical instru- 
ment like a hautboy, used in sacred cere- 
monies ; *t*'Sj*' rkan-gM trumpet made of 
the human femoral bone. 



S^'* 1 glin-ma 
lake or river. 



the margin of a 



Glin-yagt-pa n. of the 
chief preist of Galdan who was bom at 

Qlin-yags. 
e> ^-f, 

gjC'(5[^J glin-log revolution; inteinal 

d-'ssension: ^IW"r*t*^T > f l 'y there 
arose much civil disturbance there in 
Dikhun, i.e., among the members of 
the Ebri-khun monastery. 



3| glu fttf , Tftl, ^H, TfW song ; 
ditty; also a tune; jJ-^'Vi|-?j-^j-q^| 
accompaniments of musical performance, 
etc.; ?'*'$ bha-ra-ta, *TOf; 1^"! gar-dag an 
actor; a stage-player; ^'iS'fqirn rkan- 



259 



pahi ftabg-sgyur falling of the feet at the 
music or cadence of the song ; |*'5' "1^ 
gar-gyi gtso-bo stage-master; C'9 rfia-pa 
the drummer ; C'H^'irna brdufi-ica drum- 
beater ; to'Kp'i pheb rdob-pa, n^f ; w* 1 ^ 
thal-mo rdob the clapper; Sj c 9' q $Un-buwa 
trombone blower; fKS'* 1 ^ g.M-bu tnkhan 
the flute-player ; *>'iff. ^t-wafl guitar, violin ; 
S-ijjc/sf!^ pi-wan-mkhan the violin player; 
gj'i 0/M->a the singer; |*>'*f^ gar-mkhan 
dancer; ^l^'i"!'"^ hgyur-bag-mkhan one 
who shows various appearances in different 
dresses, such as the clown, etc. 



ni, Ina-pa dan-ni bar-mahi tfb 



S'S glu-egra time in singing, 
g)'$e. - glu-chufi a little song ; ditty. 

S'?^'" gtwnan len-pa to sing ^ a 
sweet song. 

gj-w ylu-dbyans SnVfa singing ; ST 
^,cV-e*rq-q5fl glu-dbyanf-kyi fie$-pa- 
Qdun the seven kinds of harmonical pitch 
or measures of the compass of the musical 
tones. These are: ^' bar-ma 
V=-'5jV drafi-sron irw, "'^ sa-hdsin 
^1-^ drug-ldan ww; g" ?-;? 
g-i]ni blo-g.sal V&K, ^'W hkhor-nan 
ft^K. Then, too, there are various 
dennitions of sengs and modes of sing- 
ing. Such are: 
rgyud-dad mgrin-la$ 
^gcgS'i'g-g hkhor-nan ylan-pohi $gra Ita- 
bu, Q'i$^'V^-'Vf\^ff khyu-mchog 



ra-yi skyad, 
drug-skyes rma-byahi skad-Uar sgrogs, 

^ bar-ma khrufi-khrufi sgra- 

bski, i^ 
Ita-bur btsher, 

me-tog-ldat} 
byitg tgrogsrpa Ita-buho S\* 

tsed-tno r lorn-par bla&tra- 



\3 

drag-po xo-mtshar-du, drug-$kye$ khyu- 
mchog de-bshin-no T^%fV^*9 l H|W^ I 1 -' 

I5'X'aj'gE,*)'q^'5 hdsin-pa daft kkhor-Kan 
dbyans, nin-rjehi ro-la blans-par bya .W$' 



S5'^i glu-rcg alternate songs. 

Sl'fyw ght-len-ma = gf 
ma a songstress. 



mo hjigs-dan bcas-pa-la, blo-g.sal 
blang-vaho. 

5]'* ; iS c -*''S'P c -''' fflu-dbyans kyi khan-pa 
^fir-vwr^ a stage ; a place where sing- 
ing is done. 

I5]'^gc.r*f ^ glu dbyafts-mkhan a singer ; 
one who sings or instructs in singing. 

Syn. gj'^'i glu len-pa, STT^ plu-mkhqn 



lu rnkhan- 



fflud. a thing given as a ransom ; 
. 

^ a ransom for life : 
khohi gjud-du lug 
slaughter a hundred sheep as a ransom 
for him, gft' 8 !' 1 ^' giud-la btaft to ranspm a, 
scape-goat, 

g^'rfq alud-tshab the ransom offered to 

N 

some malignant spirit, consisting of one's 
effigy made of barley or wheakstraw, and 
its interior filled with grain, edibles, cloth, 
medicines, and precious articles such as 
gold, silver or coins, and then thrown in 
the direction from which the evil spirit 
is supposed to have come. There are 
several varieties of this kind of ceremony. 



glum or 



fbafi-glum fresh 



fermented rice, barley, or wheat, used 
instead of malt in brewing beer. 



260 



chaA btsot phdb btab biual-nag lang-pa chaA- 
gi glum-mam sbafi glum yaft-zer. 

~s 

3] Ole a small uncultivated island; 
also a grove; same as ** tnhal org"^'*! 
ffliH-ka. 

gj-^www gle hdants-ma 1. one having 
the disease in which urine and foecal mat- 
ter pass together, i.e., by the rectum (K. 
du. \blS). 2. = *faa-TOT; w^-^'wK 
mtshan-meg ma-nifi a hermaphrodite; 
having neither the sign of male nor of 
female. 

3JTJ glfgt table; plate; board; any 
flat piece : if'S q F q l3 li r J| f tyo-glegt gshug-go 
there was a door panel placed. 

gjqproq glegs-c/iab a buckle, clasp or ring 
attached to the thong. 

SI"'*"! glegs-thag a thong, &c., fastened 
round a book. 

gjoprqw glegs-bam S^W, gftr a volume ; 
a book ; leaves placed between flat boards. 

S1"'S glegt-bu 1. a label ; explained as 
I-!frrge.-j(C5'q^ - qviS - g| > q | ||'i chos-gos la 
glin-gM gm-bshi bcad-pahi gra bkag-pn, a 
square or rectangular piece of cloth or 
paper put as label containing the name of 
books, chapters, pages, etc. (Sag.), 2. a 
tablet. 3. q^-g^wg bk/ihi-glegs-bu or np- 
J{ "{ bkah-$ og a diploma; *e.'3'gT'9 copper 
plate or tablet. 

rw gkgi-ma, v. ai" glcgs. 

f g.leg$-$ifi the wooden boards 
which iu a Tibetan book supply the 
binding. 

Jljt'Z^ plefi-wa or gJMTi glefi$-pa ^qij to 
say, converse, relate, describe: 15**'^'^ ^ 
giam-du glen-wa or l^'iS^'q psuft plefi-wa to 
relate a etory : i) ai-ww^'aR*-^ hm-la, 
ma-thar sheg glens-no f as the word was sent, 



the road is not passable! 

9|'gN I have made this speech: 



rumour spreading from one to another, 
until it came before the lady. *'3'ifrii*' 
Vi cho$-kyi tgrog-pleA byed-pa to preach 
religious discourses ; 5^'a R ' gros-gkft coun- 
cil ; consultation. 

gcq-ZJ gM-wa-po or S! 6 ''*'"! 1 ^ gM-mo 
mk/uin a story-teller. 

gj^S* 4 Glefi-hbuni a hundred thousand 
stories; the title of a book in the Sdul-wa 
division of the Kahgyur or Tibetan Bud- 
dhist scriptures, which contains different 
stories on the behaviour of devotees, monks, 
nuns, &c , who adopted the Buddhist faith, 
and who violated the rules of monastic 
discipline laid down by Buddha. 



*'* glen-mo or *qijf laJb-glefi ^'1^ 
gkH-brjod qnrr, ^rrfV^>, Tnrf, ^mm talk ; 
conversation ; story ; account. 

S t ' q l ? l gM-gshi or 8^q5^'i gkA bglafii- 
pa #!^, fsr^R any subject ; primary cause : 
H-qfl-^-ai gkfi-gshi hdi-h ^^ forft i n 
this narration. 1. narration. 2. the 
subject of a discourse ((7s.). 3. table of 
contents ; index. 4. place, scene of a con- 
versation or discourse. 



(flen-lkug, abbr. of 
Sj]*ti glen-pa daft-lkugs-pa, very stupid and 
idiotic: ^|^'^^i-gT ig'i glen-lkugs 
bkol tpyod-kyi $dug-bsftal the misery of 
being stupid, of dumbness and servitude. 



eJJJj'^ glen-pa gjl, sry, *rss 
stupid, foolish, ignorant ; a thick-headed 
fool; an idiot: **^HlV^'fl more 
stupid than a brute : B^'^*"^'^'a^ fools that 
you are each of you: g^'"'"I?'il'^ mud- 
dled ones. 



261 



Syn. gK'i Idar-wa ; Sfi'lh plan-glen ; *>' 
' g.sal-wa; ^^=. Ito-hgeng; %'%'*> 
le-lo-wa; v^v tha-fal (Afnon.). 



glo-rdog = jfg^ gto-bur sudden 



g.lo-rdol=*{*\'K*irnag-rdol excessive 



ffleb-pa, pf. gw gtebg, to make expectoration. 



flat, plain ((7s.); 
make flat. 



leb-mor-yleb 



glo-spir n. of a kind of shield : 



f- (JPW^ fflebf-pa, fsrum to trample; 
to tread down ; to press down by the feet 



flo-wa ^5^ fs^ the lungs ; 
' g.lo-wa bu-Ma the five anterior 
lobes of the lungs ; if <r*rg" plo-wa malna 



kul-dkc,r phub-ni rab-la sho-lna-ste, 

sho-re pfiub-skor sho-phyed yin the best 'Kul- 

dkar shield costs five sho and that of Glo- 

spir costs a sho for each disk on it (Jig-), 
alem-pa to press, squeeze; to 5- 

SI 511 fflo-phtig place where things are 

crush, squash kept-either in a wall or a corner of a 

ij glo or if Ido, in Zrf. resp. *$"!*< house, &c.: S^'i'^N'si^'jjwrifgflj'Sfjj- 

ffshogg, 1. the side,esp. of the body : ifw'ii'^ that boy kept the gold in a niche. 

glo$-phab-prt to lie down on one's side. 

2. a cough. 

SfVP' g.lo-dknr or *fa'*\ hthofi-ka I=M^I 

a small window in (the side of) a house to the five p08terior lobes of the lungs 

let in light. arnr 

a\ > glo-bur ^(**J)|<^ sudden ; adv. 

^Glo-bkra n.of acountry in Tibet J-g^^gfo^r-dii suddenly ;all on a sudden; 

instantaneously : Jgv^'S'Wf Z}'3) - q5 jflj'qgai 

'i glo-lkog$-pa ^^qiir to cough ; g.lo-bnr-du mt-man-po fi-wahi fdug-b$fialthe 

to clear the throat. misery or calamity of many men dying 

jf?p ylo-skar^'^ fflo-dkar or 1^'BF-' suddenly. j 1 8'V$ 1 fc* I <l ylo-bur-du hofi$-pa 

tkftr-khuft a small door or window. ^T^^^r one who has come all on a sudden ; 

iff glo-kha n. of a colour like the blood S'3^'* 1 ^'^ plo-bitr-wahi don the signification 

of the lungs ; pale-red. of suddenness. 

ifrai fflo-khug a small money-bag ifg^jarZ! Qlo-bur rgyal-po a name of 

attached to the sash or girdle of a lhe King of Tibet atout 900 years ago 
Tibetan. 

5"| ' gjlo rgyag-pa to cough ; to feel stifled 
(Hfnon.). 

fflo-hgrams 



gfo-bur-nad a disease that arises 



suddenly. 



g.lo bur-wa suddenness. 



n. of a disease. 

If5*< ylo-rgyas a disease of the lungs; uprising: 
asthma. 

Ifl**' &k>-ficon a disease of the lungs 
which increases during the night. 

SI V-' gJo-doft wind-pipe (Cs.). 



g.lo-hbur Wf(* a projection ; 
f i hbur-du sdod-pa to rise 
up into sitting posture. 
|fgn g.lo-$bub wind-pipe. 
jjfarn glo-la-wa convulsions of the lungs; 
cough. 



262 



gkg 



lightning ; flash of lightning ; 
^^q-q-ai^-gc.-q $prin-phan-tshun hthab pa 
las byud-wa that produced from the con- 
cussion or collision of clouds. The names 
of different kinds of lightning are men- 
tioned in the Kah-gyur: sf l T q l^' t '!'V^ glog 
gsi-t/rjid-can the lightning with flash ; lj*f 
IT*! ffloy-stuy hog the lightning of dense 
lustre, sheet-lightning ; J|'I3irje. ^ gfog- 
qidses phrefi-can the lightning of beautiful 
strings or zig-zags, &c. (K. g. \ 115). 
The lightning that comes from the south is 
called ^'"3'" tkag-fyrgya-pa, that of a 
hundred rattles ; that coming from the 
west is called K^w* hotf-nnms-pn, that of 
fading lustre ; that which comes from the 
north is called W'S'^SI'B rgyun-gyi kdag- 
po, lord of streaming flashes (K. g. *t, 32!i). 



Syn. ^"T^S'" hjug-pa bryt/a-pi; 
JS ffshi-snon $kyef ; ^''|"|'< tprin-gyi 
Ipug-nw ; f?K'^'^ yser-hod can ; ^'g lug- 
phra ; ^'*S*' ^de-hthuA ; f>'?1' 
hod; isrS'^"] "Io('J tka$-cig ffsal-wa 

m^ ylog-ldan wf^; full of light- 
ning ; flashed cloud. 



' GM-tliaH n. of a place in 
Tibet proper and also in Kham. 



''?*' Qfoft-thafi tgron-mahi 
lha-khan n. of a monastery and temple in 
Kham. 

sH'" gJog~p<* 



fffog-pahi-natf n. of a disease 
mentioned in grammar, but not found 
in the medical works. Ace. to fa. Sffl'^ 
is another name of the disease called SJI'i 
)hog-pa= cancer. 



to relax; to 

loosen &Wr<jfc Qcifie-pa-plocf 
bsdams-pa-ffhd slacken binding; 
to relax the mind, be at ease ; 
^'^'^91" fflof-h rgywi-du bshugs you 
may stay here always with easy mind ; 
tr^ptrfa^ ma-bsuft ma-fflotf-par without 
any regard to taking or giving. 



J fflon-pa or JJ^'l glan-pa 1. to 
return an answer ; to reply. 2. to patch, 
mend. 



^ ffkf-pa or ifrw' 1 ! f mods-pa 
stupidity ; ignorance. 

Jj*rq-q fflos-phab-pa to lie on one side or 
on the side : qm'3'flft|rw^rg|i > ?arq < f 'a to 
lie on the side like an ox lying down. 

J't! <jg<ig-pa, fut. of <&W* to hinder. 

cqarq d gag-pa dnd bral-wa^W 
%*\'i dgag-pa metf-pa fsrsf?^ open ; with- 
out let or hinderance ; unobstructed. 

VH 3 4gg-pltye, v. ^ll'^l'Ss dgiiy-flye 
byed.. 

-dliye^W^ dgag-phye 
W stopped; obstructed. 

W$l^ $gnff-$by byc$ TfK* one 
who stops or obstructs 

SIT*"] dgag-tshig or ^"1' j5-^f dgag pahi 
tshifj f %?t word of prohibition ; objection. 

VFST'*f dgan-dkah-wa, 
dkah-wa ^H\<TT hard to fill up. 

^] ZJ 4gaH-wa t fut. of 
wa, to fill ; fill up. 

dgan-blug ^i^fcmN a ladle 



to pour butter in sacrificial fire. 

^c.-q|w, dgad-gsar frnft sacrificial spoon 
or ladle: |^'9<V > fP'ft*l'^'A'V|f'f 1 

fbyin-sreg b_lugs byed.-kyi &zar-bu dafi ekyog 
Ita-bu there are two kinds of spoons in homa 



263 



sacrificial fire, one is large called Dyaft- 
gsar, and the other smaller blug-gsar, 
which is used to pour butter on fire. 

^qpqSV^' Dgan-yzar <;in n. of a 
tree, the tree resembling tiger's feet. 

Syn. fr3)'*Fi stag-gi rkafi-pa ; *v*r V 
tshcr-tna shim; *<'"* sa-htsho; B^'wc.' tshig 
ma ft (Knon.). 

VF'ST*' dgan-sh-wa full to the brim; 
replete: jjV 1 3,'l ae -*<'* r l te *' inotf-du khefts-ma 
khen$. 



'EI dgal>-pa, fut. of <tf|wi hgebs-pa. 

W S dgab-bya garment ; dress 
(Jfnon.). 

^ dg'ih-wa 



delight ; happiness ; joy. 2. vb. neut. to 
rejoice ; vqrr5^-q to be pleased ; VTVW 
^^ J ) to be displeased; also S^'l^'gS'" to 
make glad: *Kl* was displeased: 
^uj^-^w rejoicing greatly. 

Syn. q'l mgu-wa ; ^t-q rant-pa ; 
ipro-wa ; fy'SW- fin-tu dgah ; " 
yan-dag dgah, 5 )S'^ C ' yid-raA ; ^Si'ti dgyeg- 
pa ; w^J'Q mnet-p* ; ^' 6I tshim-pa ; 
bde-fkyid; ^'"^ yid-bde; ^*W|wi 
snum-pa ; *P -I V^ rab-rdgab ; rf'f^'fl ^rfso- 
tter-wa (lff.non.). 

Wlf. dgih-rkyafi CF*r*W*) n. of a 
large numerical figure (Ya-sel. 75). 



ye3 f very pleased; glad. 

d.gah-$kyo sul-ysum the 
abbreviation of the names of the three 
places situated to the west of Lhasa, 
viz., VF^'"!^ 11 Dgah.wa-g.dofi, $'%'%* Skyo- 
mo-luft and lJ'5 Zul-po, in each of which 
there is a monastery. 



dgah-grogt lover; Bpouse; 
wife ; an intimate friend (Jffton.). 

S"1^'*\5 dgah-dgu tsqft intercourse ; asso- 
ciation ; merriment ; SI^J^'SS'* 1 dgah-dgur 
spyotf-pa i^[i^arr to perform conjugal 
rites ; also to indulge in sexual enjoyment. 

<fl<V^3'*^ Dgah-can gyi-mdo, the S&- 
tra of ^ip'i'*^ Qgah-wa-can in (K. d. <* 
4%1), which contains: if l T q l*\ ' 
15 srog g.cod.-pahi ne$-dmig bcu (10) ; 
W'^'^'ipcqj rdsun-du gmra-wahi ne$-dmig$ 
bcu (10) ; -^E>-q5-^-^qj-gcn5-li-g c haA 
hthun-ivahi nes-d.mig sum-bcu so-lfta (35) ; 
rx^nq ma-byin-par len-pahi 
igs bcu (10) ; 'Sl'Wfl|^i'i5 I ^^S)flm-q5 
log-par giyem-paht fie$-$mig$ bcu (10). 



festival. 
Syn. 



dug-ston; 



'i mchod-pa; 
ner-4gah 

'WJ*' dgah-fton-skyeg producing 
mirth. 

*\^'l^'i^ dgah-ston sbyin ^t< an astro- 
loger ; water. 

W 1 ^ dgah-lide, eolloq. "gan-de," 
joy and happiness. 

W"S* dgah-dar or "S^'qS'p-flpflm ^aA- 
wsrAt kha-giags a scarf presented for pleas- 
ing or consoling ; a scarf of congratulation. 

Wft e ' Dgah-pdoft n. of a monastery 
near Dapung which has an oracle and a 
divinity called Ga-dong Chokyong, whose 
duty it is to cause rain during a drought. 



5;1|<2;13J I; Dgah-ldan Od-dan) 
a paradise of the Buddhists ; the residence 
of those sainted beings who enjoy beati- 
tude, which is the peculiar privilege of 
the Mahayana Buddhists. It is presided 



264 



over by the coming Buddha, now the 
Bodhimttva Maitreya. The gods residing 
in it are said to live 4,000 years, the 
duration of a day of which is equal to 400 
human years ; and the length of one's 
body is a furlong (Sorig.). 



q^ f t jq-S owing to Lord 
Maitreyas' spiritual and temporal rule 
the celestial people are possesstd of the 
joy of a righteous life. 

^qp/gjaj II: (pronounced Gandan) the 
great monastery of Gandan situated 35 
miles N.E. of Lhasa, which was founded 
by the Buddhist reformer Tsong-kha-pa. 
It contains twenty-six divisions or wards 
for the residence of monks. 3['*<'VF3f*i 
Grva-sa Qgah-ldan the quarters for the 
residence of the monks of Gandan are 
divided into two sections 1. called f['**' 
^'S^'l" prva-tshad goft Byafi-rtse which has 
the following divisions or p*w&\ klinms- 
tshan:(\) SVflftc Rar-g.dofi; (2) w*< gf 
Bsam-ylo; (3) %* Kre-ko; (4) * Tfha- 
pa ; (5) !**( Qser-khafi ; (6) %* Rdo- 
ra; (7) y*q, Klu-hbum ; (8) gft Brag-Hi; 
(9) xtSpn-ti; (10) yX^ Rgyal-rofi; (11) 
*fq Go-wa ; (12) 'f^'Q KoA-po ; (13) *w 
^w Mnah-rii (Lofi. * U). 2. called 
n'ate,'Hc-p' J 1 grva-tshaft hog Car-rise, which 
has the following divisions or p*w^ 
khams-Mian:(l) %r* Rdo-khafi; (2) 
WT*.' Pho-khafi; ($) %-Qjfho-pn; (4) 3T* 
Sag-re; (5) t'\ Co-ne; (6) V* The-bo; 
(7) 1^' Zufi-chu; (8) *1'S Sog-po; (9) 
**i Rta-hon ; (10) w^ Mfiah-rii ; (11) 
*-i Cha-pa; (12) ^'3 tfaX-po; (13) 
5^'%' (?#!-/ (Zo/5. e, 1^). The name 
.G&ndan is generally fixed before the 



names of monasteries and institutions 
which belong to the Dgah-ldan-pa or 
Gelug-pa sect. 

W^'P^'T^ Qgah-ldan Khafi-psar 1. 
formerly the residence of King Qpon-po 
Mi-Qwat : qto&tfif^Xep: Dpon-po dwafi-gi 
p/w-braA near Lhasa (Loft. *, 15). 2. the 
residence of King Qgah-ldan Tshe-wafi is 
situated to the back of the royal monastery 
of Tsho-mo-ylM in Lhasa: jm'^^-^-*- 
^K<^V-qf^f-4jnf'|K-^-j**-^ (Rtsii.). 

^np^-g-q Qgnh-ldnn khri-pa the lineal 
successor of Tsong-kha-pa in the ecclesias- 
tical throne of the great monastery of 
Gandan. He is the chief of the ordinary 
non-incarnate lamas and occupies the 
third place in the hierarchical precedence 
of Tibet. 

WV^-Xr<ijlfc-ijf Qgih-ldan chot-hkhor 
g.lin n. of a monastery in Higher Tibet. 
It is a very common name by which 
several monasteries are designated. 



Dgah-ldan Phun-tshogi 
glifi the monastery of Phunts'o Ling situa- 
ted to the west of Tashi-lhunpo in Tsang. 
It contains a large number of block-prints 
and religious works. It was (formerly) 
Lama Taranatha's monastery. fl|<fqj}' 



iikri<-fi$-l/tun-pohi nub-la yod, Jo-naA 
tha-rhn-nha tliahi dgon-pa yin, J' fl Kl*'Sfl|r 
^'^-, Xw%tK*K-*-^sku-psug thugs-rten 
daft, cho$-kyi phar mafi-pa yod. 



<\i^ '^ '5-ge.' Dgah-ldan pho-braA also 
called f 'fl'igs.' Sde-pa gshufi the Govern- 
ment-house in Lhasa, also the Government 
of Lhasa (Rtrii. U). 



dgih-$pyod i^PTOr entertain- 
ment ; merriment ; also good behaviour. 



265 



dgah-spro-can 'wl^fo: possessed 
of cheerfulness and enthusiasm. 

^n|n-q-<*j|orq dgah-wa hkhyil-wa 1. ^rftnif 
the all-good ; that exists by itself ; the em- 
blem of purity; purity typified. 2. n. of 
a gem. 3. the king's palace. 

Syn. W%=-' Qyun-druH ; 
tgyal-pohi ' pho-brafi (Mnon.). 

^np-q-qj-q Dgah-wa brga-pa ( 
one of the names of Vishnu ; one of a 
hundred joys (Mnon.). 

VF'r^ dgah-wa-can wvrg cheerful; 
merry. 



Syn. fflvq'SR.' dgah-wa 
hkhrigpa or gwiS'**! khyim-pahi cho$, 
sexual enjoyment (Mnon.). 

^-q^w\-{| dgah-wa, dman-pa sordid 
pleasure; one delighting in sexual plea- 
sures ; met. a cock. 



dgah-wa bshi the four pleasures 
or delights are the following : (1) 3f l T*<'^' 
Ikog-ma, mi-lde glu-la dgah ; (2) 
|sft'*<]SV^fl]n dmafi$-riy? stan-mtho 
la dgab; (3) *&*'%' '$*>''*'*P(*> dbiil-po gton-la, 
4<jah; (4) ^W%-'ifii*($*''*'W>- shin-rgan-po 
gshin-nu-ma-la dyah (Can.}. 

^qjn-q-^'vj Dgnh-ica hod-hphro n. of 
Atis'a's residence at Nye-thang near 
Lhasa : t-8$-^Vir^-V|W*V*5 > $r*-| R1 1 
Jo-bohi yzims chun Dgah-wa hod-hphro 
shts-pthi glin (A. 98). 

;flp-q5'3]fl]^'i ii ; Dgnh-wahi gr,ig$-pa ^Tfl'- 
3HT the Brahmana at whose request the 
Kashmirian poet Kshemendra wrote Ava- 
dana Kalpalata and several other Sanskrit 
poems. 

(Sohr.; Butt. 



^n|^-q5-g-ij| dgah-wahi ht-ga Tft^fT the 
female organ. 

i; dgah-wahi dwafi-po 
Miyab-hjvg a name of 
Vis-hnu (Mnon.). 

^|<vqS-*J| Dgah-wahi t&hal jac35-|\^m 
rgyal-pohi kyed-tshal royal gardens ; also 
the celestial gardens. 

Dgah-wahi bshin (?J9l'|e. yul- 
ljofi) n. of a place ;-*]Vg < >i*i far-phyogs the 
Orient, the East (K. d. *, 267). 

^ii|H-q5'X dgah-wahi ro xfsr^ sexual 
enjoyment. 

* ^qp'q5'iJ|rfl|^ dgoh-wuhi b$c$-gften -f^- 
ft^ (Schr.). 

^uj^-q3;--fli^ dgah-ivahi sti-gs/ti the female 
organ. 

Syn ?i'5 l 'l*' mo-rtags ; 35 x*^ mo-mtshan 
(Mnon.). 

^qp-q$'S^ dgah-wahi skid ftn?I for the 
sake of pleasure. 

^qp-q,-|^ dgah-icar l>yed=*^''*FH dgah- 
grogs or ^'$n) mdsah-grogs or S'^ kyoh-bo 
a friend; sweetheart; a hubsand (Mnon.). 

f^afn-i^vn dgah-icas bcinf ^T^5^ love- 
bound ; bond of love. 

*^ip-5 i: dgah-wo Jf^ {Schr.; Td. 2, 
69). 



fl<*, <:iffl<a, ftw^fTT, gf<K Eama, the hero 
of the epic Eamayana ; n. of a cloud. 

"WSS'tH'i dgah-lyed snan-pa f^fvT 
n. pr. (Schr.; Td. 2 102), dear to or fond 
of Nanda (the delightful). 

VFl'VWf'^ Dgah byed Dgra-$ta-c<tn 
flTirrm the third accepted incarnation of 
Vishnu; his other names are >wO 

35 



266 



Dpah-po dsa-ma; w|^-g Ag-nihi srat ; 
V*-*<i Dwan-chen; 5rw$*> Ktul-bsan 
ikyes ; *%*'r^ ytsfion-cha mkhan ; !Kf q 
Srij-sgrub ; W%* Lus-styes ; |*V3\ Qcod- 
byetf; yr^'wS'g Rdul-can-mahi lu; ^ifc' 
3J $an-$poft styes; ^ Pha-lad; w^' 
VP*'*\ Apa-ni d.gah-b_yed (Mnon.). 

W9V^ t- dgah-byed fin fifa the tree 
called tj'S*'^ spyi-shw yifi. 

Syn. "I^'SS gflfafl fywf; V -t ^ /? >< ; 
*T> *-'; *V9fl ho4-ldan ; ^""I'Q hkhyog-po 
(Mnon.). 

^vfi-HQW dgtih-hbyams WJf^r she who 
is full of enjoyment ; a number. 

V^'*4 Dyah-ma Kfh, ^IT, ^BT, *fsnu 
the beautiful ; a name of ati, the wife of 
Cupid; ^flp'wS'q^i Qgah-mahi bdag \fafo 
the husband of Kati. 

S q P'" dgnh-mo ^i^fk good ; lovely. 

t^-Az. dgah-tshftf> = a < l i\'Z ya<l-po, ^^' 
bsm-po and ">*pr legs-pa good; fine; 
handsome : ^K > T l !Pr^'*5'V| ^3=. 
among them there was one article which 
was very pretty (A. IJf). 



dgah-rins ^xfn met. for the 
hog [" long in copulation " ; a dog]S. 



to be sufficiently pleased (Khrid. 32). 

^qjn'^'q dgah bsh i-pa fsra-^WTT'- possess- 
ed of the four joys piety, wealth, men 
and lands: **r3^-*>--^**rjS-vP' ^' ) 
cftos nor mi sa-bshi hdsom-pahi dgah b&hi-pa. 

^q|H'um dgah-yas ft^ boundless joy 
or pleasure. 

S^-S)-|-qf dgah-yi stye-war fsqai^i 
born or grown out of joy or enjoyment. 

^qp-^q ^-| Dyah-rab Rdo-rje n. of a 
celebrated Lama of the Rdsog-chen sect 
of the Rnin-ma School (Grub. f> 13). 

WW^'^ Dgah-rab dicaH-phyug 
the Lord of Love, Cupid. 



9 ar 1- n - ^ tt place; n. of a 
district in Tibet. 2. = f \*p'Q* dgnh-war 
**. ^i\* raU'dgar at pleasure, ad libitum ; 
frq. $A*p chi-dgar what is your pleasure ; 
according to Jd. why ? 



tfgar-wa 's^zsi to separate; 
confine ; place apart (men, cattle, goods) : 
V"1*'S5 '|"1' dgar-byahi phugs cattle to be 
penned in a fold (Cs). ^'^'^1^'P pnas- 
itfis $gar-wa to banish from a place; to 
exile; '^"^^^ dgar-wahi don-du in 
special sense; in particular (Sch.). In W. 
"gar-tc bor-ce"to set apart, exclude, shut 
out ; to lock up, shut up ; to lay up or by ; 
to preserve (Jd.); J}gar-rgya co-ce to 
store up. 

V!" 1 '" dgitl-wa, fut. of ^TJ hgel-wa. 

ga$-pa,\. v^Kt hgaf-pa; ^'"l 
ser-ga dgas-pa to have cracks or be 
cracked. 



1- nine; ^'IJ d.gu-bvu or S^' 
dgii-bcti tham-pa ninety. 2. as met. 
= many: ;3-q-i|!fli dgug-t/tabs ffwgf 
gathered by many efforts, with great diffi- 
culty. 3. also sign of plural : |*wi|<j*- 
$'S*| khanif-gsum skye-dgit the people of 
the three worlds: ft-<^'&-.J)*r^-.?|*rcj-q^q| 
this man says many things he knows 
not. $-.?|r^[--J)rHi one who knows every- 
thing ; 3*^3 or U**' 1 ^ many talks ; many 
things to say; |'^'^j - 5 Skye-dguhi 
bdag-po srarnjfir the lord of all living 
beings; J'^'^"!'^ Skye-dgM bdag-mo 
yiilL|fa ) ssjr^tft the name of the step-mother 
who nursed Gautama Buddha; ^'S3 
those that are; the existing many or 
beings ; ^'^'^qj'^"! the goods that one 
has; property; W*\g the many good 



267 



and brave ; also fT^'^jpf** lu?-Mod 
dgur igyur-wa to be changed, trans- 
formed ad libitum ; ^'^'W 1 * nan-jgu thub- 
pa one who can suppress the wicked ; also 
to overcome every evil: ^IS'^'SV**'"^^'^ 
fc' n-bye4 dgu-byecf mi-yofi dgu-yon, 
according to (7s., Jd., if you do many 
things which ought not to be done, many 
things will take place which ought not to 
take place ; 3) -q '^'9'*flr a i' S) 'a l V^ not count- 
ing upon death among things to be 
thought of; ^' dgu-khri the chair or 
conveyance for the many, i.e., for the 
dead ; litter ; bier (Jd). ^^wstfj* d.gu- 
glin bcu-ffiiis the twelve continents 
inhabited by living beings. Here $gu 
would seem to act as mere plural sign. 

flJ'lT* dgu-gjtor offerings made to evil 
spirits on the 29th day of the last month 
of the Tibetan calender in the monasteries 
of Tibet. yffr 



stooping, bowing; inflection. 3. adj. 
bent ; stooping. 

' dgu-rtsegt n. of a yellow flower 



"S^'S* 1 dgu-thub able to subdue the 
many ; one full of resources ; the all- 
conquering one. 

^T" dgu-pa the ninth; having, com- 
prising, measuring nine, e.g., 0^3" khru 
dgu-pa, measuring nine cubits (in length, 
height, etc.) ; S^ dgu-po *im the ninth, 
the nine, those nine; *%*& lan-dgu nine 
times. 

< \3'5J q l** dgu-phrugs or S5'^* w dgu-$deb$ 
a stage of meditation which is dependent 
upon the regulation of the breath ; &*' 
|*rq3-^*rj^c.-cj r lun $gom-pahi dug-su dafi- 
po. The first stage in the regulation of 
the breath in the art of meditative con- 
centration. 



dgu-wa 1. vb. to bend; to make 
crooked. 2. sbst. the act of bending, 



u-tshigt or ^T'T*' 0.9"- 
tshigs skya-mo the milky-way constella- 
tion. 

Syn. IprtffrJ^pl nctm-mk/iahi fkye- 
rags; "l^'i^T 1 '^*' g.nod~$byin k/ia-rlafi? 
(Mnon.). 

^^'a=.'5^ dgu-zi gli/n-po ? n. of the 
enchanted sword of Gri-gum btsan-po ; one 
of the early kings of Tibet who was assa- 
sinated (Yig. 58). 

^ujgc.- Dgu-gzhiifi n. of a place in 
Tibet (Rtsii. 70). 

P a > v - "S"!'" hgug-pa. 
1 '&' dgug-byafi urgent call; ^31 "19"! 
dgug-ptgs id. 

generally applied to 

nlidnight, but at times to noon as well. 
Sometimes is made equivalent to 3 s -' guti, 
but properly speaking ^3*.' dgun signifies 
sublimity, loftiness and also profundity; 
and S 6 -' gun signifies the middle part, 
centre, "fa' 5 ^'*^'*^' is sometimes writ- 
ten as "VV^'*^'^' I The direct sense occurs 
m ^*rtS'aj'Zr^jc,-ar1flj*ri ri mthon-po dgufi-la 
fftcgs-pa, a high mountain rising aloft; 
^ E -'^' 3 i* ( '* l l Ii ^i c '*''?J=^?' 3!i5 ' t \3 c -' at noon, 
the middle of the day (Nag.). 

dgufi-khag division of time. 
d.giifi-mkhah midnight sky. 
dguft-char^**' 1 * char-pa raiu 
(Won.). 

*fty-' dyufi-snifl a year; a year of 
one's life. 

fi-thig the meridian line ; 

d.gitfl ihig-gi dkyil-hlthw the 
meridian circle. 






SRI 



268 



or 



>V ( f ' Jv 



night. 



gone to heaven, i.e., dead. 

tfgufi-kdun seven nights ; a 

dgufi-do-nub this evening ; to- 



seated steadily without moving or leaning 
on any side; raised to the sky. 

*$*'% dguH-mo xrf% the early night ; 
evening ; the time from 4 P.M. to 7 P.M. 

Sgf^qj dguft-shag a day's halt ; halt. 

Sg^'i'^l'i dgitfi-la reg-pa touching, the 
sky ; the meridian. 

S3^'^ dgufi-lo the age of a respectable 
or high personage : g'<vw3'^3 c -' i! fi $ktt shab$- 
kyi dguH-lo what is your honour's age P 

^qjcBrttif^'ci dgufl-lo nithon-pa-=.Wt rgan- 
pi an elderly person, 61 to 72 years old 



or 
rfkyil the middle of the sky. 



winter. 



C.). 



4gun-ka the 



d,gun-gyi rgyal-mo (Schr. ; 



dgun-ni Idog the winter sol- 
stice : ^^C q l' 9 l'^ fl l 4gttn-ni Idog-gi thig or 
p^'^1 khor-thig the line of the winter 
solstice ; the tropic of Capricorn. 

WfS dgitn-ttod the first part of winter. 

S^'V}* 4 dgun-hbrum winter grapes. 

^ 8*\ dgun-smad firfin the after part 
of the winter season ; S3*i'? 1 Vr^*''^*' l $ dgun- 
ttod kha du$ hemanta time of snow in the 
beginning winter; "^'Jft'^'V time of 
cold, about the end of the winter 
(Btsii.). 

^*i| dgun-tshigs='\^'^ (dgitn-dus) 
winter time. 



3 dtjun-zla the mid-winter months, 
$*'*$'*$$ zla-wa 
i zla-wa bcu-g.nif-pa. 
' d,gun-sla t/ta-chufi *rr^ the 
month of January-February. 

W3'*9 t -' E ' dgun-zla hbrin-po ^ De- 
cember-January. 

W 18 ^ 'Qftun-sla ra-wa wif'tfrf Janu- 
ary; lit. the beginning of the year, i.e., 
November-December. 

^ d.gun-8a %HfW Win winter 
residence. 

dgum-pa, fut. of ^gwi bgum- 



pa. 

S^ I: ^ M)- crooked: 
dbyibg-dgur wa of crooked stature : 
C q I"'3 K ''9*' - S'''Sg^' ( 'C''P' sems-kyis tshugi- 
kyafi ltts-ki/is dgur-tna tshugs although the 
mind may bend, yet do not let your body 
bend (Rdsa.) : **'Vl rgur-shig stoop 
down ! U*'? sgur-te writhing (with pain) ; 
wJ( f Sg*'" to bend ; to submit ; to humble 
one's self; ^1*''^^ a crooked-back; 
i*rsg* drawn bent hands. 

Syn. f* rgur; |^ sgur (Mfion.). 



II : many ; all ; 

f, hkhor-kyi dkyil-hkhor yod- 
dgur yatt yod dgiir signifies ^'"'^ yod-pa 
kun all or all of those existing. 

^gv3j dgur-hgro a snake; one of a 
stooping gait. 

^J*'3 dgitr-po anything crooked; a 
crooked man ; U*'5 sgur-po hump-backed ; 
'*' dgur-mo a crooked woman. 

: dge-wa 



happiness, welfare, virtue; also adj. 
happy, propitious, virtuous: 



269 



dge-wahi sent? a virtuous mind; ffffrw 
**'*$' t las dge-wa mi-dge-wa virtuous and 
evil actions; ^|'q5 - yq dge-wahi rtsa- 
wa fundamental virtues: ^'^^q-jl^-q- 
*$T2F'9' i; \ 5f f l 'i some mighty act of virtue 
should be performed (A. 65) ; *^)'3" 
*;'" dge-rtsa skyed-pa to conceive the idea 
of a meritorious act. There are two kinds 
of S*|'q dge-wa, wyQW^'tftQ sag-bcas kyi 
dge-wa and T^'3'^l'^ zag-med-kyi dge-wa ; 
the former, called j or q^*m bsotf-namt, 
belongs to the world of desires and is sub- 
ject to decay ; the latter is undestructible, 
consisting of the enduring works of piety 
performed by saints belonging to the pwr 
fp-'" khnms gon-ma superior states of exist- 
ence. There are two other kinds of tfge-wa, 
viz.: *V*'9*>'S'S*I'S hdus-byas-kyi dge-wa 
and *^'*i'Sr $'$'* hdus-ma byat-kyi dge- 
wa, the former consists of works done for 
gain or happiness in this world; ^V^'9"' 
ci3^j)'q hdun-du byas-pahi dge-wa consists in 
paying reverence to and worshipping the 
Tathagata and the incarnate saints. ^|'*> 
may mean fasting, abstinence, as in 'the 
phrase ^'q'jj^'p dge-wa srufi-wa, to fast, 
to abstain from food. Also alms, charity ; 
that which is done as a religious work. 
3'^'*!^'*$ ft dge gson dge benevolences 
bestowed or given in one's life time when 
dying ; S ^"V^V* 1 *^ dge-wa Mod-par byed 
wishes for prosperity; ie.'^)'q'ar 



yan dge-wa la hjig-rten-pahi dge-wa dufi, 
hjig-rten-las hdas-pahi dge-wa yod. Dge-wa 
are of two kinds the worldly religious 
works, and the same for spiritual cul- 
tures ; the former consists in w-*) - ci phar- 
feg-pa, appreciating or regarding one's 
father or knowing him as such ; w-*|*ri 
marges-pa knowing the mother, i.e., to be 
grateful to her ; to regard as one's mother ; 



'*' dge-byofi-dufe$-pa to venerate 
or revere one as a member of the Buddhist 
church ; g*rl vJ|*'i bram-ser yes-pa to respect 
or pay homage to a Brahmaij ; ^*|''^'*" 
^q-ai-^^-^-|^-q rig-kyi nafi-na rgan-pa la 
rim-gro byed-pa to pay respect to the elders 
of a family ; |^'i'1?=.'q sbyin-pa gton-wa 
to give alms in charity; ^)'i$ dge-bcu the 
observance of the ten virtuous acts ; ^'*)*' 
' hdu-yes dgii-drm the nine Samskara ; 
dran-pa bcu the ten remembrances. 



2 ^ dge-skyes niw charm; good 
appearance ; n. of a goddess. 



1=^*^3, &_kyon phran- 
bti jf-TS^S fkyon cud-sad slightly defec- 
tive ; a little fault. 

S'Tjf* dge-skyos or ^'"S* 4 dge-bskyos, 
'STTfwfT^r a supervisor or director of 
monks in a monastery. A sort of pro- 
vost-sergeant in the larger monasteries 
who keeps strict order and punishes trans- 
gressors. He is also called **r*jg*rq C/ios- 
hkhrims-pa in some monasteries. Eockhill 
calls this officer at Kumbum the Ge-kor. 



Syn. ?'3ft tse-rgod (Mnon.). 



Dge-rgan I: surety; moral 
bail ; a monk that is made answerable for 
the moral conduct of another who is 
placed under his care (Ja.). 



ffi II: lit. an old man of the 
religious order. ^'*VS'fi'i dge-hdun 
rgan-pa ordinarily signifies a school- 
master, tutor: rfq^'^'^-^-ftr^-qjcj^w 

both the spiritual teacher and worldly 
teacher. 

^J*J Dge-rgyas n. of a celestial region 
(B. ch. 6) ; one of the Rupa-dhatu or 
worlds of form. 



270 



Dge-rgyat bye-ma 
n. of a monastery near Sam-ye founded by 
Sbron-za, wife of King Khri-son d'hif 

btsan. 

nal-wa=*\^'^' novice monk. 



dge-wa-bm the 
ten virtues, which are as follows: (1) ifa'**' 
ifS^t srog mi-g.co4-pa, (2) r|>fwMf mn- 
lyin-par mi-len-pti, (3) *MTWjX -q ts/iafis- 
par fpyod.-pa, (4) J^'W||'i bdcn-par (mra- 
wa, (5) 3^'wrZfc'j-q (ghig hjam-por $mra- 
wa, (6) Mi'fc-wrn fag mi-hchal-wa, (7) |' 
*'*> V phra-ma mi-bye^-pa, (8) *w8'^v 
ar^*)-;r*)g\ci ffs/ian-gyi nor-ln tuiin-pa MI- 
byed-pa, (9) ^T^V^^Hr^^S^ g.hnn- 
li g.nod-pahi scms mi-bfkyed-p i, (10) K.'^' 
i5'^'q yaH-dag-pahi Ita-wa. Those are : 
not taking life ; not to take what is not 
given; to observe purity of morals; to 
speak the truth ; to speak gently, politely ; 
not to break a promise ; not to speak slander ; 
not to covet another's property ; not to do 
mischief or think of doing injury to others ; 
to regard the purest doctrine. 



dge-chu sacred water. 

^'4^' Dgc-chufi one of the celestial 
regions. 



-l-i^-q dge-che meij-pa 
don-dag chen-po med_-pa without some im- 
portant object or business : 3Ti|*rw^'&' 
*)VW$|W^E.-j^ if there be nothing very 
important to be done quickly, work accord- 
ing to circumstance (D. yd. 7). 



Dge-bfSen <strRf Buddhist 
devotee with only eight vows to observe. 



tfm Qge-bsnen C/ios-hphcl the 
original name of 'rtjwfVjTq* jc/ift 
Rgyai-wahi hbyan-gnat the 



founder of the Buddhist hierarchy of 
Tibet (Grub. "| 5). 

^q|-q|^'w Qge-btnen-ma, ^rTrrftt^r R 
female Buddhist devotee. 

**i*l' tI ^'V* Dge-bsnen d/Kin>ia=^v^c> chos- 
fkyob (Schr.). 

rkyen-gsan, *$' 



dge-bton rkyen gsafi- 
gi mthun-hgyur kgs-spcl bya-rgyu r>tai$- 
khyed-rafi la bkod-mnags $fwn yon-liar. 

^*t'?" dge-ltat propitious prognostic. 

MT*^ dge-hthud=*ftv*3St dge-tcce 
Mhu$-pa an uninterrupted payment of 
allowances or endowments attached to 
religious offices or institutions ; a connected 
series of pious actions or works ; also the 
performance of some religious observances 
by several persons one following another: 
|E.-RJ6v^-<>j^E.-q8^-rn- qV^-^-qqw^R.' f 
drun-hkhor-du yun-rin b$d(ttf-pn htsho-war 
dge-hthudbabs dtifi the estimated permanent 
allowances to the Druii-hkhor (civil em- 
ployes) for food and lodging (D. get. ft). 



11 ' Dgc-drufl l/ia-Miad n. of a 
monastery in Tsang. 

^'^ dge-hdun, fff 1 the third com- 
ponent of the Buddhist triad or ^fa' 
*Sfl|'fl|*j* may be rendered as " the priest- 
hood," " the assemblage," or "the church." 
The term d.ge-hdun is composed of two 
words, ^ dge and ^ hdun ; ^^ hdun 
means ^\i hdod-pa desire : ^'fl'^'Wi' 
|q-w^VW'^-^'^ dge-wa-dati thar-pa 
$grub-par hdod-pas na dge-hdun he is $' 
^^ dge-hdun jvho longs for piety and 
emancipation : ^^^i-|(WW^^-fl|*r 
dge-hdun b_tsun-pa rnanii bsan-du gsoF 
I beg the venerable body of monks would 
hear me. In this sentence dge-hdun has 



271 



the general meaning of an assembly of 
religious folk. There are in particular two 
kinds of fl -l ^ dge-hdun: *r*v|'*5-^|- 
^^ so-sor gkyebohi dge-hdun the ordinary 
clergy, and W^*"fc'^*fl hphags-pahi 
dge-hdun the sainted clergy. Four indivi- 
duals of the former class collectively, i.e., 
when they assemble together, form what 
is called Saygha-ratna ^T^Vfa'**"! dge- 
hdun dkon-mchog. An individual of the 
latter class, i.e., the sainted clergy, may 
singly form the Saygha-ratna. The 
Saijgha of the Mahayana School differed 
from that of the Hinayana School. In the 
Abhisatnaya of Maitreya, twenty classes 
of Sarjgha are enumerated as belonging to 
the Hinayana School. The S'ravaka, Pra- 
tyeka Buddha, Bodhisattva and the Dhar- 
mapala, who protect Buddhism, are also 
included in the Saygha-ratna. *ft*y[f**( 
^* I ' C| dge-hdun-la ray-lug-pa wfft[\* be- 
longing or subject to the church ; S*T^' 
i V* 1 dge-hdun-la run-u-a a^qnrc suitable 
for the use of the clergy. 



^'^'1* dge-hdun 
n. of a medicinal plant ; p'8*' gab-min 
(Min) mystic. 2. n. of a lama. 



dge-hdun-gyi du$ 
belonging to the months following autumn 
when the lamas perform religious medita- 
tions, &c. 



dge-hdun-gyi $de the clerical 
order or class of the clergy. 



dge-hdun-gyi dben byed- 
pa ^-W^sff one who produces differences 
or disunion among the clergy ; to produce 
such disunion. 



Dge-hdun grul-pa the 
founder of the hierarchy of the Dalai 
Lama. 

^)-^'qjrcw-|^ dge-hdun bsdu-wah- 
phyir for the purpose of assembling the 
clergy. 

MT^i'*** 1 '^'* 1 dge-hdun phal-chen-pa the 
clergy of the Mah&sanghika School. 

**^' < ^'^*( dge-hdun hphel ics(^^ n. 
of a Buddhist saint; pr. (Schr.; Ta. 278}. 



Dge-hdun 
n. pr. (Sch.; Td.2,127). 

*^v=^o^^'*\ dge-hdun bsruii-tva Khr- 
<fj^ n. of a Buddhist sage pr. (Scfir. ; Ta. 
2, Wit). 

^'^ dge-ldan=*$'Q'&\ dge-wa can 
possessed of virtue or of piety ; pious. 

^gi^-q Dge-ldan-pa a name of the *^' 
^il't| Dge-lugs-pa sect of Lamas founded 
by Tsong-kha-pa. 



Dge-hdun Egya-mtsho n. of 
the Dalai Lama who died in 1851. 



dge-$pyod religious acts; ace. to 
the Bon-po S*|'Ss dge-spyod consists in erect- 
ing tombs, images, caitya, painting of 
holy personages and printing of the sacred 
texts, making moulds of images of gods 
and saints, uttering nianfras and, generally, 
acquiring moral merits. 

^'|1 dge-phrug pupil-monk; young 
boy trained as a novice monk. 

^Tr|c.' dge-wa sbyon or ^|'|t' dge-$byoA 
^TO a religious ascetic. In this term are 
included all those who have taken the vows 
of renouncement, i.e., TUWT ; so both ^'C" 
dge-tshul and *&'$*>' dge-slon are within 
its signification; in the Southern School 
only the *$'(*' dge-slon, i.e., the Bhikshu, 
can have claim to this title provided they 
live in conformity with the rules of the 
Vinaya, The qualifications of a dge-sbyoft 



272 



are the following: *fr*p: dul-pa daA 
moral discipline; **'J|rtr^' caft yes-pa 
daA wisdom; ^r|"r|lH 1 t > WMrfrVr ir V 
tshul-khrims kyi phufi-po yofi$-su dag-pa 
dad purity of morals ; |it*OSp|-^WJ|irq 
fie hdsin-la hjug-pa feg-pa knowing to per- 
form Samadhi or meditation. 



wa 



!'*''S*' C| dge-wn tbyotti-pa, explained as 
^q-|*-rXr*^ q *'4W*'|^ < ' dge-wa byas-pa 
don-med.-par g.shan-la f grog-pa, to trumpet 
or advertize one's acts of charity ; 
gwwq dge-wa mi-gbyomt-pa 
to do virtue secretly, i.e., without any 
fuss or trumpeting or advertizement. 

^q5 q^ni'y^ dge-wahi gag-md. w* for- 
tune ; good luck. 

^q)-q5 -fl|^ d.ge-icahi-gna! a place of 
piety ; a pious man. 

dge-wahi dban-po, f^'^-iK\- 
r snan-fiag mfiou-brjod. 
fdeb-sbyor ysiim-la mkhas-pa one versed in 
poetry, Abhidhdna, and in rhetoric like 
the great poet Kshemendra of Kashmir. 

$-qS-$-q-qj^j$-qjj'V ; < dge-wahi rtga-tca 
bskrttn-pahi bfkyed-pa 



one who has done some religious acts. 

^q$'W 4ge-wahi las WS-*^ good 
actions. 



-tR-g-q dge-wahi 
mgu-tear bya-tca *^im^M 



paying reverence, &c., to please a Kalya- 
namitra (a Buddhist monk-scholar). 

^-qv|v3| dge-war gyttr-cig ?j*r^ 
good luck to you. 

vta* 4ge-bral <vre>^ devoid of vir- 
tue or piety. 

tf'S^'H 9 Dge-sbyod chena-po 
an epithet of Buddha ; ^-|e.-g^ q? q 
slyon tiar bcot-pa ^^sipd^M^ in the 



-q dge-sbyofl-du khtifhehe- 
one who has avowed to 
betake to the life of a dge-$byofi or Cramana. 

ft 'gVl^-q dge-fbyoA byed-pa ^flUT-^TT^T 
the performance of asceticism in the 
manner of a Buddhist Cramana: *$'!= 
g^q5-X*|-q^ dge-sbyofi. byed-pahi chos-bx/ii 
^anr-. ^inraTT^fT giif:, the frnir duties of 
a true Qramana, which are as follows: (1) 
fll-^s.'jjvS'fli-Jj'qvg fffehati-slar mi-gfe war 
lya ^inifOT srajnifnwt do not curse others 
though you have been abused by them ; 
(2) ItaFl^jr'Wf Mrvf-Aytfl slar-ma 
khro-ivar-bya ^tfo^VJifwcrfaJT?!^ do not 
be angry with others though you have been 
enraged by them ; (3) wte.-qwgfgn'Sl-g- 
<K'9 mtshafi-bnts kyan tlar-mi bru-wr-bya 
i do not commit injury 



to others though you have been injured 
by them; (4) iVl"!^^'^^-^ brdvg- 
kyun slur mi-brdcg-par bya Hrf%aa sffraTf?- 
mm do not beat others though you have 
been beaten by them. 

r%qR dyc-slyon ma-yin-par 
not being a Gramana. 



tfJX bge-sbyor X-^-wvq c /tos dge- 
lag bycd-pa one who has attained to a 
stage of holiness by religious devotion 
and works: "*Vyt*ft&>'fVf*'i*'*{lFtr 
5'X mtshan-dut dge-$byor-gyi rgyun-la 
cbfi-sad ffnag-pahi tshe at night when he 
was absorbed in the state of pious 
devotion (Ya-sel. 11). 

^ dge'tna=i$*('*bt&ttn-ma 1. a Bud- 
dhist nun. 2. urpff peace. 



manner of a religious ascetic. 



Dge-tshul IH^ generally a 
novice-monk; the first stage of a monk 
after he has taken the vow of Pravrajya 
or renunciation, when he has to observe. 



273 



thirty-six vows before he is qualified to be 
ordained as a *$%*' Qge-sM; as long as 
he is not admitted into the latter order 
he will continue as a Qamanera though 
even to eighty years old. 

^$r>i Dge-tshul-ma ^m^(<*i a nun 
young or old that has not yet taken the 
vows of ordination belonging to the order 
of Bhiksuni. 



^4|'w4^ dge-mtshan 
lucky omen ; also entertainment, amuse- 
ment or amusing; ^|'*tf^'^ dge-mtshan- 
can Jigw bearing lucky marks. 

S^l'l'il Dge-pshon a young student who 
is studying under a tutor called *$'3fl dge- 
rgyan, who is responsible for his education, 
behaviour and moral training. He is 
required to attend, when necessary, his 
monk-tutor as a servant. When he is very 
young he is called ^'|1 dge-phrug. 

^-u|!Qm Dge-yyog boy or youth attend- 
ing upon a monk and who works with a 
view himself to enter the holy order. 
When he has passed the prescribed examin- 
ations for admission, he gets the position 
of a S*I'*I^ Dge-pshon. 

^j'qiqwcil: Dge-lug$-pa. Tsong-kha-pa 
founded the monastery of Wi^'Jisrwj'Jr 
*)5 - ge, - ]}gah-ldan rnam-parrgyal-wahig.lifi, 
situated on the hill called ig*|'^ - 5-l Hbrog- 
ri-bo che, and resided there during the last 
part of his life. His school was called 
fcrtWYftftf^l choi-rje Dgah-ldan-pahi 
lugs and vulgarly ^p'g|^'i5 - $m Dgah- 
Idan-pahi-lugs or ^^-gf^'^"!*)-*! Dgah-ldan 
lugt-pa, which term has assumed the form 
(^qqprq Dge-lugs-pa (Grub. 1 1). 

^$i|-i II : Dge-lugs-pa one belonging 
to the sect of Dgab-ldan-pa founded by 
Tsong-kha-pa. 



dge-kgs or *n ** dge-wi 

piety; good and auspicious 
action. 

Syn. *i^'"top* bde-legs; ^'1 shi-wa; y^ 
myan-hdas; ^'^' re-skon; "ft*i'lijjV g.nam- 
bs/cros; g^'WI^'iS snon-bsags-mthu; ft 
kha-rje ; Wflgfl|l rab-bsnags ; ^Tl'S'^Ji gkal- 
wahiphul; qg'jN''?*! bsnags-hos ; 5)\q^'^5) 
yid bshin-hgrub ; ^'l5'sgc.''>fti bde-wahi 
hbyun-gnas; ^q'^ rab-shi; ^"1^'g;^ legs-ldan; 
hun-tshogs (J^non.). 



r*^ dge-kgs-can *n?ft blessed; 
glorious. 

* i^-alJipri^m-qje,- Dge-kgs dpal-bza6= 
spw^q'l Mkhas-grub rje (Schr.; Org. 
105, 5). 



Dge-legs b$es-$ncn 
(Schr. ; Td. 2, 211) a good coun- 
sellor ; a pious Buddhist monk. 



i ; ^-q-^-^-q dge-wa 
dan yif-pa piety and blessedness. 



Dge-bges ^gjmm a con- 
traction of ^'tfc'^W&^dge-wahibfes-gnen, 
a Buddhist gelong who has mastered meta- 
physics and the important branches of 
sacred literature. Monks, also, who have 
got the titles of W*g*wi Rab-hbyam$-pa, 
^**wq Rdo-rams-pa, &c., are by courtesy 
addressed with the title of ^ i-*)** Dge-bqes 
^giiirft'r ; others who lead a pure life and 
are possessed of learning and good charac- 
ter are also generally addressed as I ^)'I^N 
Dge-bqes, i.e., "Sft^fc 1 *^^ Dge-wahi bfcs- 
giien. 

^5|'gc.- i; dge-srufi sRWiiigH n. pr. 
(Schr. ;^Ta. 2, 219). 

*^'|=- - n : fJraxf^T (Schr.; Bull. 
W8, 292). 

36 



274 



" Qge-glofl ^t^r, ft^ a Bud- 
dhist monk who after finishing his proba- 
tionary period in a monastery has been 
ordained into the highest order. He has to 
observe 253 vows. S't'^'i'^'^'i^'^'^f 
^ 3^ t fftn '*$ 'c. 'sfW^ among aelona 

o 9 y 

there are two classes : para martha Bhiksu 
and Samvrtt Bhiksu. The following seven, 
'.<?., Buddha and Bodhhatlta, Pratyeka 
Buddha, Arhats, such saints as on account 
of their pious acts will not be born again or 
will be born only onoe, those who have 
attained to the stage of Srotapanna, i.e., 
gone on the path of Nirvana, belong to the 
higher class or Paramartha Bhiksu. These 
or some of these while even they reside in 
human habitation, being possessed of 
divine knowledge and wisdom, continue 
in the class of Paramartha Bhiksu. 
Ordinary gelong or Bhiksu, such as wear 
the yellow garments, have shaven their 
heads and betaken to the life of Pravrajya 
or renunciation of all worldly concerns, 
and observe the vow belonging to the 
order, are called Samvrti Bhiksu. 



^'$ E -' q dge-thH-du nri-run-wa, 

'i dge-slofi ma-yin-pa 
unworthy the position of a gelong. 



one 



Dge-sM-ma f*w<^ an ordained 
nun ; she has 364 vows or restrictions to 
observe; S*|'*.'*i'$W^'9 dge-lon-ma sun- 
phyuft-ica fr-fl'fl^* one who finds fault 



with or slanders a Buddhist nun. 

V*Tc.'^E.' dge-lon-fin ace. to Jd. is a 
provincial name for the (Cedrus deodara) 
J)eodar tree. 



Dge-slob-ma fl^*<Hf a pupil 
monk ; one who is preparing himself for 
being admitted into the higher order. 



1 d_gen-la, more properly 
dgafi-la on ; upon ; in ; at (in Ts., Jd.). 



a = i\^'a gyo-wa to parch 
or fry (food) ; wr^Ki to fry pastry. 

tfvws dgfr~hbad=.*$;w*!o^ dge-wa la- 
hlad to exert one's self in acts of piety ; 
a pious man. 



a or 

"^'^ mnef^pa or Vf** 3 dgnh^wa delighted, 
pleased or cheered. 

$-cr^i Dges-pa Rdo-rje, also written 
as ^"'"'K t Vgy f $-P Rdo-rjc, name of 
the Tantrik deity V"S He-vnjra : tfl'"!^' 
^fK^^fV^tfr^lHfn rnal-hbyor- 
gyi dwafi-phyug dycs-pu Edo-rje s/tal-gzigs- 
j>a he saw (miraculously) the face of the 
deity Qgc^pa Rdo-rje, the Chief of the 
Nalvjor (A. 28). 



dgo-wa a species of antelope 
living on high mountains, Procapra picti- 
caudata (Hodgson) ; colloq. "go-a " Mongol ; 
gura. *ff*\' dgo-wa-tna, female of theabove 
((?.): ^-Z55^5-ig-q-^ dgo-tmht rba-hi 
hkhru^wa gcod the horn of the go-a taken 
as medicine cures diarrhoea. 



dgog-du phyin-pa 1. TJI^- 
to become aged, 2. ace. Lex. ~%*\ '' 
'1 Ikog-tu phyin-pa. 

Syn. 3\w r gas-pa (Mnon.). 



dgog-pa abstraction: 
q dgog-pahi $noms-hjug ceg-pa 
sat perfectly abstracted, being absorbed in 
meditation on the emptiness of all worldly 
things. 

"^ "^ opinion. 



dgon-mo or \i*> * qgons-mo 
the evening; the junction of 



275 



the day and the night ; I' 
dro nin-mohi mthah the evening which is 
the end of the day (Rtsii.) ; ^F* ^gon-ja 
eveuing tea ; ^f^'^1 dgon-shog evening 
and morning. 

S^^'Sl^ dgons-skor leave in general ; also 
leave (from a superior official) ; suing some- 
body in a court to do him harm. 



r)^q dgons-hgal 
jg'trfi^'ci thugs khro-ica mcd-pa without 
incurring displeasure, or displeasing. 

^ffc,rq^ dgons-bcad judgment; deci- 
sion on any case or law-suit. 



dgofis-pa 1 : 1. vb. to think, 
reflect, meditate, consider : 2. sbst. the 
act of thinking, reflection, cogitation. 
glrflE,M thugs-4gofa=$W<>Xfi wish, 
consideration ; *$wi'y^or^fwi mnam-pa 
nid la dgons-px, to take one as his equal 
or as a match for him ; ^rfwr^ffwq 
to think of or at other times; I^'WT'W 
ac^Jfjc.q-q jo thi u k O f another person ; X^' 
q|^-ai-^S^-q to reflect on some other object 
or business; "\3fwcrjgsrq dgofi$-pa khrel- 
iva resp. ffc'jjfrq khon-khro za-wa to 
become angry ; to take offence ; pip.'aw^*r 
if)-R^-^^Jfje.-q-gacq ^kah-las nam-yad 
mi hdah-shin dgons-pn khrcl-wa never to 
be disobedient and to be angry (Ya-sel. 
16) : S*fwfprr*ri dgofis-phyogs ma-log- 
na if his opinion does not change. 



II ; ^rfiitjni vb. to purpose, 
intend ; usually with terrain, of the inf. 
* intended to fight. 



dgofa phyogs-ri to be 
partial ; to act with partiality. 

^jc.*r dgons-mo^^-X dgob-mo 
night. 



'*gJ dgons-hbrel ^f%, zlwi com- 
mentary. 

^j**'9 dgofi$-shu to ask for leave or 
permission to do any thing. 

^Jc.sraq dgofis-zab serious consideration ; 
as very important. 

:, pr. tense, f^T, 



to laugh ; laughter. 



mi: a jest; joke (8eh.)\ of. 
Vi bgad-pa ; ^VV^^V^ bde-wa la 
$go$-kyin hdug laughing, being in 
happiness ; TV^'^'I^VI gad-mo dgod~ 
kyin hdug laughing a loud laughter. 



dgod-yas (9JM grafts) **T n. 
of a very large number. 

S 8 ^'* 1 dgod-ra " ^""w^fcrqwiirMiw 
f^'^' dgod-ra-la hkhor rnams mahtsham- 
par rtsod-cin (Yig. 28). 



dgon-dun 4'*>yqS'*rffl|i 
chu-med-pahi sa-phyogs a desert ; a desolate 
wilderness where there is no water. 



4gon-pa (pr. "gom-pa ") or *3fy\ 
dgon ^T'B, ^rsftTT, SfZ^ 1. wilderness ; soli- 
tary place, waved-leaf fig-tree. Hence 2. a 
vihara ; a monastery, a hermitage, so called 
on account of its original situation in 
earlier times in lonely places abounding 
in Bodhi trees. A gom-pa should be 
situated at least a thousand yards distant 
from a village or town (K. du. *, 304). 
Later on these hermitages became 
converted into monasteries. Monasteries 
in later times assumed the size of large 
castles and collections of dwelling houses. 

Syn. **'3'i^' cho$-kyi hdun-sa ; *'' 
Sfcqs/Ji chos-kyi tshon-brdal; jfa'a5'flRi klog- 
grbahi-g.na$ ; Npurq^ngc.-'^ mkhat-pahi 



276 



kbyun-ffnag ; **<'5'S*'9 chog-kyi phur-bu ; 
n^j|-q5-qp^ hdul-wahi-ynas (Hfnon.}. 

S^'i'i dgon-pa-pa ^JTTOW one residing 
in the wilderness, or in a hermitage or 
g'ompa; ^fa'i'* dgon-pa-ma a female of 
the above. 

*\ { f j r fl ft dgon-pshi landed endowments 
of a monastery ; an estate belonging to a 
monastery for the support of its monks. 



^5ff-)-)^ na-la gyu dgos-px mcd I have no 
use for the turquoise, I do not want it. 



(P rob - for 

gna-re bgdug kyaft fna-re dgol 
when some are collected, others disperse. 



dgot-fos urgent necessity; 
urgently needed. 

^fj*r dgog-cha necessary objects; in- 
dispensables. 

S^jV^S 1. dgog-hdotf necessary 
expenses ; what is wished for as very 
necessary (Cs.). 2. ^'^"\ wishes and 
wants: ^^gc-q5^cw( dgog-hdod 
hbyun-tcahi ifpil a treasure out of which 
all wishes and wants are met. 



1 1 : dgos-pa (goi-pci) <T|aM, 'VQ, 
implies necessity and what is due 
or desired ; to be necessary ; to be obliged 
or compelled ; to want ; to stand in need of ; 
also where we use ' ought' dgos is generally 
used added to the verbal root, e.g., "'*\ J f*', 
must eat : far^ffi fia-la dgos I want ; I 
stand in need of : $'^*]''*^fa ci-shig-tu 
dgoi for what purpose did he want them ? 
q^MCW^|fl bshefo-ma-dgog he was not 
obliged to erect. In commanding, the 
word is used to paraphrase the imperative 
of a verb: tt'PV^ff hon-war gdog come! 
i.e., you must come. In entreating, the 
respectful term is chosen : ^'Sf* hbyon- 
dgos -should practise good works: 



II : necessary ; due ; needful ; 
useful ; fcW^^^WfS med-kyafi dgof- 
pthi k/iral bgduc? a tax necessary to be 
paid ; unrelentingly exacted : 
WQ the portion due to you: 
for what purpose? ^q'$e.'flR being of 
little use ; ^ffrr>s dgo$-pa-med. not neces- 
sary : ^f*rt('5^ dgos-pa-yin it is requisite ; 
*)'^fj*rq mi-dgog-pa useless ; unnecessary ; 
S)'^3[rci5 > S| > )q >ni-dgos-p:ihipfira-mcn perni- 
cious witch-craft ; ^"'"^'"Si^ 'S dgos-pahi 
bfhl-bya useful doctrines; ^i'3s dgos- 
bycd useful : ^'^"'SS'^'^I don-dgos-lyed 
ci-hdug what is there in it of useful con- 
tents. 

^S'S3 a f jye-dgye = '^i9fr^\v^%n mgo- 
rgyab-phyoyt-su d.gye-wa to bend the head 
backwards. 



' dgyc-u-a to bend; to be curving 
or crooked ; *d i*'*is'i dbyibg dgye-wa 
stooping ; cringing ; writhing : 'fj^ JQ fl 
iX3' t ' ia-sdod rgyab phyogg-su dgye-wa 
don't wait, turn and go away : ^3'^3'^5'gf 
w 'fa dgye-dgye-icahi braft-ma-ston do not 
stretch or heave up the breast by bending 
or stooping backwards. ^'^'3 -goj -R*JI 
dgur <jgur-gyi phyag htshal salutation by 
bending the head low. 

^S' 5 dgye-wo ?f%:fw a bent man. 



dgyer-waoi 
tca for a'^'i g.lu len-pa to sing, chant ; an 
expression of the Bon-po. 



'" dgycl-wa or |' J i' l sgycl-wa to fall 
down, tumble down. 



g-pa (ge-pa} (elegant term) 
dgah-wa a 1. to rejoice ; to be 



277 



glad ; also cheerfulness : S"!**' 1 ^*''*' thugs- 
dgpe$-pa the heart cheered: t'*'4Vr* r ^3*<' 
^Rg*c^'-5^ rje-btsun Bla-ma dgyes-pahi 
hdsum-dktir-can the reverend lama smiled 
with cheerfulness. 2. to be pleased to ; to 
choose : l'**|q-r<r^C^K^'*V| the Lord 
in walking is pleased, i.e., likes to walk. 
** A3*<'^ ini-dgyes-te sorrowful, sad, dis- 
comfited, dejected ; angry, indignant. 

^Jr<r^'t Dgyes-pa Rdo-rje the Tantrik 
god called He Vajra ; his other names 
are: V^'HT^'V^'*! Dpal-ldan khrag 
bt/mii he-ra-ka ; slv^'t Dpyid Rdo-rje ; ^'|' 
'31 Rdo-rje gri-gug; Xi'j5'^-| Rol-pahi 
Rdo-rje; !j'3('i Kye Rdo-rje (]&non.). 



dgyes-pahi rdo-rje 
rgyan-kyi snin-po %=('*) d-*( (Schr.; Ta. 2, 
192, 275) n. of a Tantra work. 

^j api dgyes-shal cheerful countenance : 
gvqv^N'SYsr^'Ne'sri'S'pJ myur-war dgyes 
shal dnos-mjal shu chog-pa may soon be 
permitted to have an interview ; may meet 
or see your cheerful countenance soon. 



dgyes-su hjitg-pa to bend; 
to double down (Sch.), v. *^J' t > dge-wa. 



dgra (da) also ^91'^ dgrn-wo SR, ^^, 
^ft, ^p, fcs, VHifiiw enemy; 
foe ; ^'^3J hchi-dgra mortal enemy ; ^ E >' 
q^'^31 sdan-wahi-dgra the hating enemy, 
opp. 9*wqS'|^ byams-pahi-g.nen, the loving 
friend; V*\3J da-dgra or V$5'*i3I da-It a hi 
dgra present enemy ; g'^91 sna-dgra former 
enemy ; l'*\5J phyi-dgra a future foe ; more 
properly the outer enemy, i.e., an ordinary 
enemy, not the inner foe ; also a foreign 
enemy. 



^'^t phyir-rgol\ "i^'S'^'i phas-kyi rgol 
wa; \9J'| dgra-slct; igfl'| hgran-ssla; ^'Is 
hkhu-byed (Mnon.). 

*$'?*' dgra-khan an enemy's house or 
camp. 

^'"F dgra-gan=1'^** tea-gam ^rcr^T; 
^?f a dome, a turret built on the top of 
a castle. 



\9J'^ Dgra-fian ^sffasr bad or ungene- 
rous enemy; a name of the king of the 
Kaurava, son of Dhrtarastra. 

Dgra-bcom-pa *r*?t, v?^, 
-^f q dgra-bcom tshar-wa one 
who has subdued his enemy ; one who has 
subdued his inner enemy (that brings 
on sufferings) and by practising religion 
becomes an Arhat of the Mahayana 
School. The Arhat of the Mahayana 
School is he who has attained to the first 
stage of Bodhisattva perfections. An Arhat 
of the Tantrik School is one who has 
attained to the fourth order in the five 
orders of the Tantrik School, i.e., l?1*r 
rim-gyi rim-pa bshi-pa. 

Dgra-bcom-pa ffsod-pa 
killing of an Arhat or Buddhist 
saint. 

^ST* dgra-chas the equipments of war; 
weapons; arms. 

dgra-hjom f<g<Hnjta one who 



Syn. $*'i\ sdafi-byed; *jfy*t^ hkh<m- 
hdsin; nifl'fl'^ fycs mi-bytd; w^'gi mdsah 
bral; t&K&^mdsah-med; i'Xi'S pha-rol-po; 



has subdued his enemy; subduing the 
enemy. 

^3]-n*wq dgra hjoms-pa ^ffr^T*, ^rf*- 
^TfftR killer or subduer of one's enemy. 

* fln**i dgra-nams JT^TTII (Schr. ; Ka- 
lac. T. 110) destruction of the enemy. 

^9*WW|v3<i| dgra Hams-par gyur-cig 
i&^\ (let the enemy be destroyed or in- 

\| 

juriously dealt with). 



278 



4yra-bo (da-o) enemy: 



to whatever 
enemy one does good with an unruffled 
mind, even to him all the enemies also 
will show reverence. 

dgra-lha the war-god. 
'V*'"fS dgra-lha dpafi-bstod hymns 
to the war-god ; religious service for the 
war-god. 

*\3T(? dgra-sta IJTTJ an axe the blade of 
which is semi-circular ; a sector-like disk ; 
a weapon of war. 

Syn. f '^ fta-re ; ^3J'? jgra-tta \ f'l tho-ica 
(Mfion.). 

*\3I'f'^ tfgra-tta-ean Sims, 1*5, msjrex 
frightful. 

\3T' q dgra-fta-wa trr^fasr one who 
holds the axe (such as Paras'urama). 

^9TW 4gra-dag-pa fsramrr giving 
pains ; taking vengeance on an enemy. 

d.gra-rdel (Rtsii. 51.). 

a hdul-wa ^ft5T to sub- 
due an enemy. 

*\5J'^'1^ E '' q dgra-wo gdun-tca u^fitr, f^s- 
*!PI one who has destroyed his enemy; 
lit. foe-paining. 

W3*\' q dgm-bye<j-pa, ^^^^ dgra Idafi- 
i lan-wa to act in a hostile manner. 

dgra-zon always on guard ; careful. 
dgra-zla (^'^^'l' 5 dijra-bohi sla 
bo) ^finrf*!^ rival ; opponent ; adversary. 

'SST^'S* 1 dgra-yi khyim 1^%W, r<aH4l 
(Schr.; Kalac. T. 137) the enemy's house. 

SSl'Wj'scq dgra-las rgyal-ica ftidi(\, 
ipr^q triumphant over an enemy. 

^'^"iw dgoa-f(ig a substitute in cattle 
supplied for killing another's horse, yak or 
eheep, etc. : 



wa, 



if you cannot give a substitute do not call 
me by my name. 

S3J'^E.'t $gra slon-wa to search for one's 
enemy. 

^^^V-^^-q dt/ra-psod dpah-wo 
d]ttir-po-=i\'^ go-bur *5^ camphor (Satan. 
107). 

dgraf-pa, (da-pa) f%W?T spread. 



ii-zl (dan-da) = ^5 5 dgra-b.o 
or ^31' J dgra-zl'i enemy ; adversary ; rival ; 
foe (3fnon.). 

"S3*" 1 dgram-pa (dam-pa) fut. of o^N'i 
hgretn-pn *)'"r^2J*i'<J me-tog d.gram-pa ^R- 
^tVi, flowers to be strewn ; ^spw dgrami 
that which is to be arranged or set out. 

^femrtRf* dgrar sentg-pa hdsin-pa to 
look upon one as an enemy. 

^gj'C| dgrofi-pt resp. of 3 - <i fi-wa 
to die ; da dgrofi-gin hdug now he is dying. 

dgrol-wa,i\ii. of ^5J') hgrol-wa 
:, to set free; also free-will; 
bcins'dgrol a knot or tie loosened. 

6 ! bgag-po pf. tense of 



bgags-su gyur-pahi (cha bshay-pa) rug lu%-pa 
settled or decided upon obstructing or 
hindering, opposing, etc.; w*jnj'N-nwrj 
hm-sogs bgagt-pa fd4-*i obstructed the road. 

bgqd-p't to laugh; a laugh; 
byad-mu bgad-pa id. cf. *ffi\ 
dgod ; t '^'"I*i bshad-gad ^ir^Trft a smile ; 
laughter. 



l bgnm-pd to eat; to gobble; 
to throw into the mouth. 



I: bgegs 



gegs a demon. 



279 



gan-say dan-gan sag-ma yin-pa g.nis-yod the 
bgeg are of two classes, those mortal and 
those spirit-like ; these cause hinderance, 
obstruction. q^^'garS bgegs-kyi rgyal- 
po 3'| - <T'| vi-nd-ya-ka, Ganes'a, the remover 
of obstacles, the leader of the Gana class 
of demons. 

II: f^j, far hinderance; 
obstacle; ^ipr^J""!'*! bgegs-kyi rgyal-po 
Hy<tai is the chief of the evil spirits who 
are of 80,000 different kinds. Some cause 
heavy rains, hail storms, etc., to injure the 
crops ; some bring on famine and so on. 



skal-ica de-la spyod-pa) 
enjoy one's own share. 



l'3i bgegs-kyi bdag-mo 
a goddess. 

qj|qj-qqrci bgegs bag-pa fl|^-q^\rfjq-q- 
81 gjiod-pahi hdre$ grib-pa-l.i ^'ftofynw 
qfvftrovwitaprrtira^roi' bdi-k bgegs 
bag-pi min-na chufi-wahi hjam-pa tsam- 
hdug-rufi (Rtsii.). 



byed-pa 

that which cause3 obstruction ; to cause 
obstruction. 



ui-q bgegs sel-wa ; g^'^'i skyonsel- 
wa to remove obstruction, calamity, disease, 
epidemic, &c. : V^K^K^ffi^^^^fi 
^"f nan-lam s/ttigs-mi yon-ioahi ched-du bgeg$- 
sel performed some religious ceremonies 
that no mishap may occur on the way, 
etc. (Rtsii. 65). 



bgo-skal 5'^S'* so-sohi-cha 

portion ; a kinsman or 
claimant. 1. M'fJ > w3'i J lfq a the portion 
or lot on account of one's former acts ; 
also share, lot. 2. the doctrine of strict 
retribution. 

bgo-ikal-la sbyod-pa (^'3|w 
nan-gij gan-thob pahi- 



to 



I : bgo-wa ^ff clothes ; clothing ; 
c.-qwq bgo-wa dad bzih-wa food and 
clothes (Ja.). 



II; l. to put on clothes, pf. 
imp. 1^ bgos ; ^"'5' I I'5' i ?i f' lham-rtag-tu 
bgos always wear shoes. 2. subst. apparel, 
etc. : ^ff'^'^'i bgo-wa fian-pa finm.u. 

q^'q III: fut. of tffr'l bgod.-pa. 

q3fg, b go-by a dividend; the number or 
quantity to be divided. 

,, Z$]'A, bgo-re = ^'i\^ ba-gam also the 
parapet on the roof of a house ; a square 
turret or castellated room on the top of a 
castle : *W*i*F r**V- t W'&** K *' 
" it is applied to a building four-cornered 
in shape with an edge of crockets on the 
top." 

qtffq-q bgo-bfa= c &\'Q J ]* bgo-byah or ^ f 
bgo-skai, flfVflTTr, ^'?i. 

qjff-qjj^-g^-q bgo-bfa/i byed-pa to distri- 
bute, allot, apportion. Often also ^ffvfv 
jrq. 

'^ bff4-P a > fut.fjflfo, pf. 1% bgos 
to divide; K*'*^' q nor-bgo-wa 
to divide property ; to divide in ciphering 
a 9J* grails number ; to distribute ^'^'g 
into shares ; fc'^W"! among people. 

q^'q-ti bgod-pa-po the divider; *^'SS 
bgod-byed divisor. 

q3fVw bgod-ya? ^TT 1. protection. 
2. n. of a number (S. Lex.). 

* bgod-ra apportionment ; share : 



nafi-zan gtan sdod rnam$-la $nom$-l>rdad 
yeft-yoft-wahi bgod-ra byed divide every- 



280 



thing (that is left over) equally among 
the permanent residents of the family, &c. 
($tsii. 61). 

bgom-lya TJU way ; road. 



| bgotns-pa srysr, irfw, also 
bgom-pa, to walk, to step, to stride, 
to pace : "Awq'arqSjwrq stepped over the 
threshold, qfw^j'q to pace ; to walk slowly. 



bgor, supine of i*fa fygo-wa. 
bgor-wa or *f*fl hgor-wa (Cs.)\ 
lum-du hgor to linger or loiter in 
the way ; delay. 

'q bgyafit-pii, v. jf c 'S rgyon-tca. 



'. fut - "3 

6#y, imp. * <72/<?. Is elegant form of 
S'i ^mr: 1. to do; to act; to perform. 
2. to make ; to manufacture : 'H - q5 - 
111*' the images regarding which there 
had been said, 'make them,' i.e., the 
bespoken, ordered images (Jd.). W'i3\i 
to do a work; ""H'^'^'iS* according 
to order, it will be done ; V q R*' q 8S' {| 
to act the disciple ; to be a disciple. 
a-Cfl|^-q-q I have hurt the man ; I have 
done him harm; 5 ^'w^'^l make, bring 
it about, that a child be (born) : JTZra^v 
3r2|4| rgyal-po mn-nor gyi$ fig see that you 
do not let the prince escape ; ^'i|'P the 
so-called (Jd.). 

13*1 bgyig <?}, SiTt a deed, act. 



bgyer-wa, past, of 



hgyer- 



ejaculating ; chanting : 
njv^, X 1 <fl|'i'n^ <{| '^ q l'8 c accordingly in 
the chanting of the Mantra, there was some 
mistake (A. 66). 

' kgrafi ^igfT number; figure. 



bgrafi-rtogs n. of a very great 
number (Ya-sel. 57). 

n3)E,-q|j bgrati-hpkyef n. of a great num- 
ber ; 03je.'<*S bgrafi hphyot n. of a great 
number occurring in the passage *igp'*fr 
qgju-^-ai-Bil^-q bgraft-gphyof bgran-hphye$- 
la ksgref-pa (Ya-sel. 57). 

tjj[e.'<*gf bgrafi-hphrefi ^wrmi, anmr^rr 
rosary-beads. 

J3je.'fl bgrafi-wa JrftnT to number, count, 
calculate: igE.-p'qgje.-q-g hphraft-wa bgrafi-iva 
by a should count the beads of his rosary. 

qsgc-q-uiE.- ft graft-tea yan *l<flli*lfM even 
counting. 

qjJ^'S bgraft-bya what may be 
numbered ; numberable years, time. 

qgjE/uMi fygriift-yal ^R^ low ; n. of a 
great number (S. Lex.). 

cq-K^nr bgrati-yol *fat that cannot be 
measured: ^C^r^Mr^l'iNw^yi bgrafi- 
yol fffiis dan mi-mjul ynis (Ya-sel. 57). 

qgjwrq bgrafis-pa ^sf^f capable of 
being counted. 

rq^-q ^grafts-pa la hda$-pa JPH- 
that is past counting. 

bgra4-p=l. "RW pdafe-pa 
to open wide ; ftl'^'" mig-bgrad-pa to 
stare ; to goggle ; r*^'" kha-bgrad-pa 
to gape; *f>' t r'Wi rkafi-pa bgrad-pa to 
part the legs wide; to straddle. 2. to 
scratch (Sch.), spelt more correctly *gv> 
hbrad-pa (Jd.). 

qqjJJ'q bgram-pa n* separated; 
anxious. 

q|^q bgril-wa to fall down; to drop 
down: l^-acqi^ fell into the abyss 
(Situ. 74). 



281 



bgruA-wa or 
?J'*>T i dbans-su bcug-pa to strain ; to depu- 
rate ; ^'^'I^I'X'^w'fl'iJ1 1 chu-yi rfiog-ma 
dvafis-su bcug-pa to strain the impurities 
out of water. 



*!?}*''' bgroA-iva 
wa to count (Jd.). 



l bgrud-pa, pf. "5" 6^s, fut. 
bgru to clear of husks ; to shell ; 
bgnts-pahi hbras husked rice. 



bgre-ica resp. fljWi rgas-pa or 
old ; grown in age. 
Syn. *i%'9p*'i na-so rgn$-pa old; 
bgret-po; Jfi'5 rgad-po or 3fl -E i rgau-po 
(Mnon.). 

0>'! occasionally for 1. S^'S 
; 2. i3J=.-q bgran-wa. 



fl^^l 1 -' bgren-phreft 3|<?*rraT a rosary 
to count the names of saints, Buddhas, &c. 



^'i bgren-pa (den-pa), \. flj^'i bkren- 
pa (Sch.). 



bgro (do) 



a song. 
n = %w&\'y gros-byed- 



pa to argue, discuss: ffc'^ - 
i^'S^'IS'^'l^ f kfion-gi grba-pa rnkhas-shig 
Iha-rjc-h bgro-ffleg byed-du byufl-ste one of 
his learned scholars having come to confer 
with Lharj'e (Deb. "I 8). 



bgro-toa (do -wa) (pf. 'iff*' bgro$), 
resp. vp'5" bkah-gro$ with 5=.'*' glen-wa 
1. to argue, discuss, confer with, consider: 
^r*^^ - itjr^i she$ phan-tshun-du bgros- 
nas thus mutiially discussing; ^'^^'3'^' 
ci$WfF*ji-ltr-bya s/ies bgros-nag deliberat- 
ing what they should do. 2. to resolve, 
decide. 



the 



.-q bgro-wahi 
'i glu-dbyafis-kyi khan-pa 
fctage; a music booth. 



bgran- 



b_ ( J ro $- (4i) frf"" 1 progress ; gait 
^"a/ac. T 25); going. 2. it also 
signifies the number 2 (Rtsii.). tlfrvf|rq 
bgrod-dkah-wa ^H difficult progress; 
difficult to pass ; ifWp-i5-ifi) bgrod-dkah- 
wahi g.nu ^nr'rir'C a wilderness ; a place or 
desert which is difficult to traverse; liY 
^<vqivai bgrod-dkah-wahi lam ^TJJTOSJ a 
difficult passage ; an inaccessible path. 



* ! to walt ; to 
get over; wander: *i$^'('i^ bgrod-la-phan 
is useful in getting along. WflHv" lam- 
bgrod-pa to travel over ; to get through : 
$'o|ft'cj*,'^ii'vq chu-bgrod-par dkah-icn a 
river difficult to cross. 2. declination ; ^ra^r ; 
"ywoj'qSfo ni-ma Iho-bgrod the sun's going 
to the south ; the sun's south declination ; 
9=.'i3ft byafi-bgrod. the sun's north declina- 
tion; t $]'VV'' I fy*' bgrod-dus g.nis both 
declinations ; 9\*\i''J|[\i btid-med-it 
bgrod-pa to lie with a woman ((7s.). 

"'M'VS bgrod-bya (doi-ja) ^f^ra a road in 
general ; met. a woman (l&non.). 

dlK" 1 * 1 bgrod-yas ft^fn: walking; a 
mover (Lex.). 

t%\aw bgrod-lam 1. a road; passage. 
2. met. the female organ (Mnon.). 

i?J bgros (doi)=- e v\^^ bknh-gros con- 
ference, consultation (Situ. 75) ; o!j*''M' 
9*< bgro$-fian byais made conspiracy ; hold- 
ing unlawful conference : uie.-^c.^aj-jft,- 
^^q$^-^'3-q yaH san-nin khoti-gnis 
kyis bgros-ftan byas-pa$ (Rdsa. 1^) again 
yesterday both of them held evil confer- 
ence. 

mgar the work or craft of a smith ; 
ywr-mgar goldsmith. 

37 



282 



e. mgar-khan or wqvw rpgar-sa 
smithy. 

"P'S'S'fr'W Mgnr-khri tgfa-dsi thun; 
n. of a celebrated minister of Tibet. 



'gX rngm'-tpyod (gar-choi) 
the practice or craft of a smith. 



mgur-wa 

blacksmith ; one of low caste. 
Syn. fflm - q?'ti kags-bzo-pa ; fil*r*w]vq 
Icags-mgar tea; w#^*'*fi^ mtshon-cha- 
rnkhan; ^T*'*^ rdeg-cha-mkhan 



N-q jfgar-rtsan g.nah 
n. of the celebrated minister Gar of Tibet, 
who was sent to China to negotiate for 
the marriage of the daughter of emperor 
Than Tai-tsung with his master king 
SroA-btsan eyam-po. 



mgal-wa jaw ; jaw-bone ; 
ya-mgal the upper jaw-bone; *wprq 
tra or w*wpi ma-mgal the lower jaw-bone. 
In colloq. both jaws together are called ""^ 
*'> ya-le mtt-le. ""["I'MI mgal-chag a broken 
jaw-bone; * q j"i'9^ mgal-bu4 a dislocated 
jaw-bone. 

mqor^w mgal-dum 4^i<^ra a large piece 
of wood split or cut, or half burnt. 



pri rngal-pa or 
of wood. 



hgtl-pi a billet 



mgal-ine ^rTTT, fire-brand ; torch 
consisting of long chips of wood. 

w)in-*)-q$[Vq mgul-me bikor-ica 
to whirl round a fire-brand. 



^fiSVJS mgal-niehi hkhor-lo a circle 
of light produced by whirling round a fire- 
brand. 



(Schr. ; Kdlac. T. 3). 



mgu-ica 

1. to rejoice; to be glad, joyful, 
content ; 5'^" nigu-nas delighted : *j'*w' 
"i^'wjc. mgu-teahi Ian ma-byufi did not 
receive a gratifying or satisfactory answer. 
2. to exhilarate ; to gladden ; to make 
content. W^'* dgah-dgu-wa, W\$ 
vq dgnh-dgu ran-tca, wj'q'3'q mgn-iea 
bya-tca ^)H.iyii are frq. intensive forms 
to express joy or exultation in the older 
classics. 

Syn. W 1 " dguh-wa (Mnon.). 



I. = i5'q^ mgu-war. 2. 
3TO throat ; neck ; that which comes out of 
the *<3* mgur is called a wg^'i mgur-ma, & 
song : I'n^'S'ai^'*^^ rje-btsun mi-lahi mgur 
the venerable Mila's songs. 3. voice ; 
*wj*.'?fl' i mgur-snan-pz sweet voice ; harmo- 
nious voice. 4. song, air, melody; hence 
a religious song. Used as honorific form 
for a, especially in Milarapa, each of 
the doctrinal ditties in that work being 
preceded by the words *j*'<^,'<|?jt'*i, he 
uttered this song. 



[satisfied] 8. 



*"3*' mgur-chu, **V^''g*<'|'fl rnchod. 
rten-gyi bum-gdan the pedestal on which 
the cupola of a chaitya rests. 

*3*'^'13 K '*'' {| mgur-du ffsunf-pa anything 
sung or put into verse. 

"3^'^'H mgur na-pa =**$"!' Ifi mgul-rgyan 
ornament worn round the neck (Mfion.). 

*wj*,'^*i mgur-hbum the hundred thou- 
sand sacred songs ; name of one of Mila- 
ruspa's two great works, which are 
both interwoven with numerous religious 
songs. 

*3*'f mgur-sho or ^'q se-tea 24 ; of the 
weight of 24 rattee ; a weight equal to 
71 (kar-ma H^*). 



283 



mgur-bsal-wa 1. to deliver 
a song with emphasis. 2. to clear the 
throat ; to hawk ; to hem ( Ja.). 

"3 v 3f mgur-lha a god of hunting with 
the Mongol Shamans (Sch.). 

qyvgrife^ mgur-lha mched-bshi the 
four brothers (sylvan gods) from whom 
the four great tribes of Tibet are said to 
have originated. 



I mgul-p.t 

neck ; throat ; resp. for 2ft'i mgrin-pa ; 
Tr^V!^ w^Ww hdogs-pa to tie,' 
fasten on the neck, e.g., magic objects; 
V^ganr^-" ran-gi mgul-pa gcod-pa 
to cut one's own throat ; to commit sui- 
cide, suicidal; wgarq-^-^-ci mgul-pa n -/s 
hkhyud-pT, to fall on a person's neck ; to 
embrace; wgorq-^Sj-ti or ,|-q to geize by 
the throat. 



/i; w;* mgur; 

i mgo-rten ; *flf<^ mgo-Mmi ; resp. ^ > 
*rJJri ri-mo ^urn-pa; ^vvj% dufi- 
hdrahi mgrin ; g^'^-^q-^ l um .pahi rngul- 
can (Mf,on.). 

I'i mgul-plu, re^p. gj g/^, ^N'^gt- 
Wja,-^ Tshans-dbyats rgya mtshohi 
mgul-g.lu, n. of a work of the cecond Dalai 
Lama Tshan-dbyans rgya-mtsho. 

**$*$*( mgul-rgymi ^STHTir, <f^r neck- 
lace ; a neck ornament. 

Syn. ^'frj^ mgrin-pihi rgyan, *jv 
1^9 mgur-na, spi ; ^'^ skchi-rgi/an ; 
W'fl mgul-pahi-rgynn (Mnon.). 



aj mgnn-snon 
l. he with a "blue neck. 
2. a peacock. 

wgari^ip-q mgul-chM dkar-pa a white 
neck-cloth. 

*3<"^ mgul-chun a small amulet wo:n 
on the neck. 



mgul-dar or ^<R'^ dpah-dar 1. 
a silk scarf tied round the neck as a badge 
of honour. 2. the shoulder of a moun- 
tain ; ipfy-ngsrai pyon-mgul na on the left 
slope (Ja.). 

^3"'"I^ ' mgul-ydub *f the neck- 
bangle or necklace worn by the Indians. 
mgul-nad disease of the throat. 

hi-rgyan = **$*$( mgul- 
rgyan or %^'J^ mgrin-pahi rgmn 
(Mfion.). 

mgul.rti ^pnfl^ a long neck. 



same as 



fire, 



v. 



I; 

the head: ^w^-^ mgo-hjog-pas 
lus-f -s by the movement of the head the 
body is known; stffara-wq-^-g mgo-ln 
me-hbar-wa Ita-bu ^T^hr-fjtfT^tcuT as if 
glowing with five on his head. flf-* mg o- 
rus <*w<3 the head-bone; frontal bone; 
rfpfeW* mgo lofi-lu Ita-bu wvftf a head 
like that of an ass: i^'g^'^'^'q^-qsii 
mgo-sgyur slog-slog bsdad-hdug he sat (at 
times) bending his head (Rdsa.). 



II : 1. summit, height, top: 

snow. 2. first place; principal part; 
^^1 mgo-bycd-pa to lead ; to command ; 
to be at the head of ; ^^i dwu-mdsad-pa 
to inspect, look after, superintend, control : 
S-H-H^iSfa^a-^-ij bu-mo shig-gis 
mgo-byed-pahi mi-man-po a numbor of 
(labouring) people were superintended 
by a girl (the farmer's daughter) (Ja.). 
3. beginning: ^^ gros-m ffo the begin- 
ning of a consultation. flf ngiij-q m g _ 
hdsug-pa to begin: ^Bqj-cjq-^^gm ^^ 
Sdug-pahi mgo-hdsiig that was the 
beginning of the misfortunes of Tibet; 



284 



brtan-gyi tkyid-ipgo 
de-naf tshugs with this my constant good 
fortune commenced; S'ff'i lo-rngo In at 
the beginning of the year ; #$** mgo-tuit 
from the beginning. 4. in grammar a 
superscribed r,l,s,e,i; "VW^S"! ra-ntgohi 
ka; \ k with r superscribed; ^ww 
jiJCf^S-mH de-rnams las-phul sa-mgohi 
k<tho these are the words beginning with 
i r*l 6, , * (Jd.). 



III : CTftn: n. of a constellation 
(the 5th) consisting of stars resembling the 
head of an antelope. 

Syn. ^"l*)-*^ ri-dtyigi-rngo; *f'j 
mgo-ski/ef, 



"f'SS ntgo-klud the brain. 



mgo-dkyil colloq. crown of the 
head ; vertex. 

^ mgo-?kor imposture, deceit: ^S' 
-*) <0^ bdud-kyi wgo-skor du fai- 
nti-hdod I detest these diabolical tricks 
(Jo.). 

iJf-^-q mgo-ikor-wa to cheat, swindle, 
confuse ; S *^'*'^. nri-mgo ma-skor do not 
cheat people. 



*\5' q dgu-ica. 

**f'S w?fl'o-J*// a g ra 7 head; 
rr<go-$kya-can a gray -headed person. 

" rngo-skyes, v. "^ rngo in. 



rgyan-pa or i*'' 5 ' rgyns-pa an old man; 
gray hairs (jgfnon.).' 

^3=. mgo-$kyoft or **f ^ mgo-hdren 
a protector ; patron. 

fg'' rngo-$kyob = to'*\ rmog a helmet. 
mgo-khra (yo-tha) scald-head. 



mgo-tnkhreg$-crtn (go-theg- 
chf.vi) obstinate, pertinacious, stubborn, esp. 
in buying and bartering ; selfish ; bargain- 
ing; haggling. 



rnyo-rgynn giimT^T, ^KT 1. 
head ornament. 2. n. of a place in Tibet. 



mgo-lji yog-pi 
heavy head. 

myo-iiul hair of the head. 
m go-nog bewildered, confused ; 
troublesome : \**>' '3' 13 ^ J f'?'"I dn-res-kyi 
bya-wa Mi-ip-go nog work at these times is 
very troublesome (Rdsa. 26). 

stf\ *9*rq|?j*< mgo-mnam-gsum the three 
things of simultaneous occurrence ; they 
are : (l) tf-q^JfrK'*'!*' 4 hchi-wa dran- 
1> < tgyu4-l.i skyit-pi the thought of death 
arising in the mind ; (2) *<^-|V*Mrti 
tx/te-hdi blo$-thon?-u~a renouncing of 
worldly affairs ; (3) *<r3V<i cho$-l>ycd-pa to 
practise religion. The contrary of the 
three are the following: (1) *>**$ 
tiu-hc/ii-gnam-pa the thought that one 
will not die ; (2) 35'^ rwwq tnhv-hdi-ln 
hthamt-pa to remain attached to worldly 
affairs; (3) ?"!' IV sdig-pa lycd-p:i com- 
mission of sin (Lo. 45). 

wSf'qgf mgo-bi/un f^rg=ifhrf(TT: stiff- 
neck. 

wJrfqS'jjwg-q rngo-btugs shu-wa to seek 
protection under one who is superior to 
himself; to seek refuge under such. 

*tff$<| S\q mgo-rtag-chod-pt one who 
can give decided advice. 

^ 'fa mgo-rtttn that on which the head 
rests, i.e., the throat or w'ff^ mgo-hdsin 
that holds the head ; 3fa the neck (Mnon.) . 



mgo-stoH a giddy-headed man ; an 
idiot ; one who cannot think for himself. 



285 



hdra-hdra an 
equal, a match, a rival. 

*&\ '^S mgo-thod ii^sT top or crown of 
the head; on the summit. 

^-fyq mgo-thon-pi one who by his 
own ability can direct others. 

*)3f<Uf*rq rngo-hthom-pa confounded. 

nSlf^-q mgo-hdon-p'i= s ^\'^',\ c i mgo- 
hdren byed.-pn to favour, preserve, make 
safe : Mr^o^-35 sv**w-5V*flf'*Vi''5i' t 'l 1 T 5i f 
all the properties of four TJpasakas he caused 
to be kept secure (A. 22). 

wJ fa rngo-na pg-raT headache. 

wf fl mgo-nan, Vl'w thog-ma sreiT first, 
foremost. 

if' HI mgo-sbvg the head together with 
the meat of a slain goat, sheep or yak, &c. 

*f q tngo-wft f*TK: the head. 

r* l ' 4 | yan-lig rnehog 
the chief of the limbs of the body 
(Mnon.) : ^*-^^H"l* r ****S* R *'^ 
he who has a round head resembling an 
umbrella becomes a lord of men. 

nff S'l'Svq mgo-wo spyi-ther-ioa a bald- 
head. 



does not change his residence or head- 

quarters. 

rngo-nto-g.yog head-cover. 
^fq mc/o-s>nos-pa$ go-wa=$ e - i *<\ 
q cuji-&t<f lib-pa tsam-kyis yo- 

wa to easily perceive the meaning from a 

slight movement of the head. 

mgo-tsog round protuberant head: 
f* i r*l l fV | l on the heads of 
whatsoever things that may be round. 

* |J f' 1 *'^ mgo-hdsin fsittrtft the head of 
an office, or work-leader. 

* ? f'*C q r c| mgo-hdsug-pa ^Tf*m to begin 
(a work or subject, etc.). 



wftfi mgo-sla-wa 

November-December of Indian calendar. 
The eleventh month of the Tibetan 
calendar. 



" mgo-zlum (go-dum) or wf'^1 mgo- 
reg ^"5^, sraftm, tjf^r?i%sf shaven head, 
also round bald-head ; a Buddhist monk ; 
^ l* 1 '"!^*' mgo-zlum-ffn(t a place where the 
shaven heads reside ; a monastery ; *flf'|*rq 
mgo-zlum-pa a shaven head ; a monk. 

mgo-zlum lM3t-nag=sf^f( 

the sounding planet ; a comet 



* mgohu-chun ^^^ with a small 
or no head ; the running-hand character of 
Tibet. 



or 



mgo-skor to cheat, deceive; *^f - 
3-qsrJlK mgo-gyog mgo-$kor-gyi 
bslii-khrid to rob one by deception or 
cheatin. 



mgo-yuy 

(jug bycd-pa to bend the head ; to bow down 
the head: fgvuVr^'*^ %"l g^'i jn-wur 
hdren-pahi mgo-rug byed-p:i he made 
obeisance presenting tea and treacle. 

mgo-lin-can ftrz'fl'; ^ fifl a 
Man-pa shaking the 
head as a signal or from illness. 

"f '*"! mjo-reg or ^f'gi myo-breys Bud- 
dhist monk. 

"^ ^Tl'V mgo-lhng phyed-pa or wff'fw*!' 
t^ q ffi(/o-$!lom$ byed-pa to make all equal ; 
not to make any invidious distinction bet- 
ween parties; to deal evenly : <*w*^'*<3fgp]' 
\w'^*> thams-cad mgo Ihag-phijed-pitr- 
gyig shcg thus commanded, all behave 
fairly among yourselves (A. 115). 

"flfrW^'^'^M mgon-dkar yi$- 
bshin nor-bu (Schr. ; 77 A.). 



28Q 



mgon-po according to some 
grammarians the word w'fa myon is an 
abbreviation of the words f'^ mgo-hdrcn 
(*\ hdre being eliminated), signifying Tra 
protector, patron, principal, master, lord, 
tutelary god; so the word is applicable 
to Buddha, saints, and also ordinarily to 
any protectors and benefactors in general. 
When %5 occurs as a proper name it 
denotes either Buddha or Avalokites'vara 
or Mahadeva. Among the f^'Q mgon-po 
are also classed Ganes'a, the Dikpala or 
guardians of the world and of Buddhism, 
besides many other spirits who are repre- 
sented as possessing four, six, and some- 
times eight arms. This class of gods is also 
numerous in both the Tantrik and Bon 
pantheon. fl|WV''l'W**'*|fi mgon-po 
ahal-bshi phyag bco-brgyad the Lord with 
four faces and eighteen arms. Sambhara 
(q^-*fi6fl|) of the Bon-po has three faces 
and six arms. In Buddhist India there 
were worshipped three Natha smj, or ^Ifa' 
3 mgon-po, viz. : (1) W^'*^ Ebab- 
gtcgs mgon-po the spirit invoked to ins- 
pire one by entering one's body ; (2) VT' 5 ' 
w%3 Nfig-po mgon-po the black-spirit ; (3) 
gwl'wlft'3 Bram-se mgon-po the Lrahma 
natha, i.e., Brahmana's spirit (K. dun. 50). 

* 3fo'Ei%*jai Mgon-po gri-gug n. jr. 
(Schr.). 

ffSfa'U'WU'WycQ'i mgon-pa rta-nag 
canphyng bshi-pa (Schr.). 

* *i5fa-q fq - ^^ Mgon-po ftag-sfwn (Se/n:; 

87 A.). 

Mgon-po Spi,an-rci9 
1*< Epfiags-pa Spi/un- 

ras g.zigs <tH<dlfo<faT the patron Lord Ava- 



-q lfgon-po phyag-bshi-pa 
(Schr.; 81 C.). 

c Mgon-po SeA (Schr.; 85 C.). 
wi]|ii| Mgon-po Iram-gzitgs n. 
pr. (Schr.). 

*i^-2j-&-6twj Mgon po mi-pham-pa ^rf%a- 
(Schr. ; Ta. 2, 111) [invincible Lord]. 

'^'^qq]'*)^ MffOn-pO hod-dji/HJ nnd 

lit. immeasurable light ; a n. of 
the 4th Dhyani-Buddha. 

-ij^flj Mgon-po shal-gcig (Schr.). 
Mgon-po shal-bshi (Sc/ir.). 
i^ Mgon-po legs-ldan (Schr. ; 
(Org. m. 110, 20). 

Jfa'*4Mj tngon-mans many pattons or 
defenders of religions ; many small pyra- 
midal sacred erections (Os.). 

* )J f^'**S mgon-med ^n^i unprotected, 
helpless; w^'^^'wg^ Mgon-mcd za$-$byht 
wrrjf-fms? n. of a certain house-holder 
who accommodated Buddha in the Jota- 
vana grove of S'ravasti. He was the chief 
house-holder devotee of Buddha. 

^'^S^'S^'^'lS* Mgon-btmn phyahi 
gron-kliycr n. of a city in the paradise of 
the Bon-po. 

si5jifrnlj myt/ogs-hgro horse, wind. 

Syn. 5 t- rlun; *> rta (Mnon.). 

ngo)i'^$5'g^ mayogs-hgrohi brun, met. 
for 5i'gt rta-yi $bnns, horse-dung 
(Sman. 186). 



lokites'vara (Miton.). 

*si<!\3 l -Z-$v\-'gi\-ti Mgon-po pJujaij-dnig-pa 

(Schr,). 



* w ( jyogs-p fl ^ 

a, wr^i, gij adj. and adv. rapid, swift, 
quick; speedily: ^ij^-ci-^^^-^fgi^-?^ 1 *^, 

going the horse and the elephant become 
prostrate ; by slowly walking the donkey 
travels round a kingdom. In modem 
works and colloq. ^'F 2 ' as adj . and *&p\**' 
%* &'i the adv. are the commoner forms. 



287 



mgyog$-pa dri-ldan, ^'^ 
assafcetida (Sman 109). 

mgyogs-por quickly, speedily, 



soon. 

*i|<j]?4-ij(i mgyogs-lam a straight, short 
way ; Jf'*^"!^ r.kyan-mgyog, v. if-' rkaft, 
a short-cut; '5' 1 ?*' su-mgyogs a race; a 
running-match (<7a.). 

ii-skyes = yw* klu- 
song; music (Mnon.). 

mgrin-snon ?l<i*i3 Mahadeva; 
he with a blue neck ; the peacock- When 
the ocean was churned by the gods and 
the Asuras, there came out the sun and 
moon and then Laksml the goddess of 
wealth and fortune, and afterwards nectar 
was the result. Lastly came forth a 
pot of poison which would have destroyed 
the world. The God Mahadeva out of 
compassion for all living beings of the 
world, himself drank the potion, in conse- 
quence of which his neck turned blue. 

Syn. Sj'^'ll Lha-dwan-phyug ; *i'S 
rma-bya (Mnon). 

*1K "$"!' rngrin g.cig-tu with one voice ; 
unanimously. 

*"3K q 5 Mgrin-bcu <si^P a name of 
Havana, King of Ceylon and the son of 
Pulasta. 

wqjaj-q|iv$]'3! mgrin-bcuhi dgra-bo, 5"i'5' 
*'*( Rgyal-po Ramana, King Eama 
(Mnon.). 

HJft'y^'i mgrin thun-wa a short neck, 
throat, or voice. 

*<3K2f^ mgrin-ldan, *<?!*'* the cuckoo or 
Indian koel. 

Syn. R'|*| khu-byug, 
c\ 

mgrin-pa (din-pa) 

*g the neck ; 
rin-wa a long neck. 



Syn. HT*! gre-wa; **$* mgur; *JT1 mgul- 
pa ; *^'^ mgo-rten ; flf - ^ mgo-hdsin ; "^ 
g*e; R'tf'flRprti ri-mo p&um-pa; *'"'' *$l*i 
dun-hdrahi mgrin ; 8#A<^j"T*| bum-pahi 
mgul-can the last three are used in polite 
language (Mnon). S)' 1 ) gre-wa is a corrupt 
form of the Sanskrt word ?fNr 



mgrin 



'*r^ nigrin-pa-can peaked mountain. 
mgrin-pa btegs raised head 
(as if out of panic or alarm). 

q^TW^t' mgnn-pa rab-rin $F-'$f-' 
khrun-khrun the stork (Mnon.). 

Wjft'qev^ mgrin-pahi rgyan = *^'9fi 
mgitl rgyan or^'^'g^ skye-yi rgyan neck- 
lace (Mnon.). 

^'i5 - g mgrin-pahi sgra voice. 

mgrin-pahi phyogs, ^ the 
mouth [the collar-bone] S. 

wgh'qS'y mgrin-pahi rtsa <tiv^<<< the 
root or base of the neck. 

wgfi'i^'Sc; mgrin-pahi rlufi <&%rj 
breath. 

*i3^'S*^ mgrin-dmar TWsTta red-throat ; 
n. of a bird. 

3ft-*iS mgrin-mdses <g?fhr a hand- 
some neck ; ^ - qaf Mgrin-bzan n. of the 
friend and general of Eama in his exile. 

wfft-euE.- mgrin-bsufi one with a loud, 
clear voice. 

aj-qjc.-* mgrin-bsan-ma (Schr. ; 92 2J.) . 
'3!i mgr-in-bsan btsun-mo 1. 
n. of a goddess. 2. 1\'v*-' gi-wan Ttr^T^TT 
n. of concretion found in the brains of 
elephants or stomach of cows (Sman. 94) ; 
a bright yellow pigment. 

^KfeirWfp<fc Mgrin-snon zla-wahi 
rtogs-brjod n. of a Tibetan romance con- 
taining 133 block-print leaves, composed 



288 



by Lama Blo-bzaft Bstan-pahi rgyal-mtshan 
of Tshor-phu in Tibet. 



I: mgron (don) is also sometimes 
wrongly spelt as *^ hdron ^firfir, PwnVi) 
feast, treat, banquet, entertainment, resp. 
$'**9h sku-mgron ; J'*flfa'*9i'^ fku-gron 
hbul-wa to entertain; w^'r*5\i mgron- 
l'i hbod-pa, resp. "Ifa'^'S^' 1 ^ mgron-du 
spyan-hdren-pa ^ufa^-pCH to invite to an 
entertainment ; <?fa'^'*|^'3 to regale, treat 
(IT. du. , 87). 



II: in Buddhism signifies object 
of invocation ; and any person ,'nvoked is 
called *3fa'i mgron-pi. The latter are of 
four classes: (1) *^fa'*^TV5^'* l ?h d.kon- 
mchog srid shuhi mgron the holy ones 
form the object of invocation in the 
world. The holy ones are: Buddha, 
Dharma, Sangha, one's lama (Guru) and 
one's tutelary deity : (2) fifr'B^'5^ - *i?fa 
mgon-po yon-tan-gyi mgron, the Natha, who 
are a class of fearful deities, the celestial 
Ddkmi, the Dharmapala and the guardian 
gods of Buddhism; (3) . ^|W'%*r$*'t<i'!fa 
rigs-drug $nin-rjehi mgron the six classes of 
animate beings such as human beings, gods, 
demons, the animal kingdom, the Preta 
or ghosts, and the hell-beings ; (4) *)^' 
'W)Q]*r i >i^'* | >j*riJ'*<5ft pdon-bgcgs Inn-chags-kyi 
mgron ; here the invoked are 360 demons 
called fa Gdon and 80,000, evil spirits 
called qh*< Bgegs. These do mischief to 
all living beings on account of their own 
misdeeds of a former existence. It is 
necessary to invoke such and to appease 
them by offerings. According to the Bon- 
po there are chiefly two kinds of *!fa mgron, 
i.e., objects of invocation: (1) a person 
or deity invoked for worship ; (2) a person 
invoked out of compassion (D.R.). 



*i'r>t-' mgron-khnU ^f<rftTFJJT a house 
for the accommodation and temporary 
board of guests, strangers, &c. 

*?fa-3J-<%|9r a mgron-gyi hphrin-fki/rl 
bya; 8'| - "| lya gkya-ka the mag-pie 
(Won.). 

"Ul'* 1 !^ mgron-ffue-r or xlf^'g^^q 
mgron-bu hbod-pa to invite or call a guest ; 
"Sh'S'"!^ *> mgron-bu giier-wa lit. the 
receiver of guests; an officer whose duty 
it is to introduce others to the king or 
to the great lamas of Tibet. He is also 
called <w|wr8-^ yar-psal shu-mkhan, he 
who communicates the wishes or mandates 
of a superior person to an applicant. 

w^fa-^-nlj-q rntjron-du hgro-wa to go to an 
entertainment ; *rwfa a feast ; w?fa a tea 
party ; *f*lft a treat with beer or wine. 

*>!h 3 mgron-po ^jffrfir, ^ii?rR^ one 
newly come ; a guest. 

Syn. 4jw^->(cq ysar-du hofi-ica; jf'SV 
**'*> glo-bur hon-wa; "^'^'^e.' 1 * mgron-du 
hon-wa (Won.). 

w$^-Q -iSwq mgron-po bos-pa to call or 
invite a person. 

"Ifa'S'W*' mgron-bu thal-wa name of a 
medicinal drug which is alleged to stop 
bleeding ; it is useful in fracture and sores. 



hgag 1. obstruction; stoppage; 
yid-hgag want of appetite ; 1^'^lf 
ycin-hgag also *"|| hgag strangury. 2. a 
place or spot that has to be passed by all 
that proceed to a certain point : wA'^f 
' W I1'^'3'* I '^'3 1 ' sam-pahi hgag-tu hgug-na 
rku-mi hdsin-thub a thief may be arrested 
if you be on the look-out for him in the 
passage of a bridge; W"^irM"r| > *^ the 
place on Pal-Mar mountain where there 
is a narrow passage ; sf^ll igo-hgag the 
door of the house because through it 



289 



all that enter or leave have to pass; 
f^!1 kha-h(jcig the mouth, through which 
everything must pass that is eaten ; fig. 
ss;ai*i-qj-<i|a(^i|q| thar-lam-gyi g.nad-hgag the 
main point for salvation. *W^T5't** 
hgag-ffcfg-tit dril-wa to unite ; to be concen- 
trated in one point (Ja.). 

"ITS* hg.ig-skyor anything like a 
fencing that is put round a field or garden 
or a house to stop ingress from outside. 

J **H' i hgag-pa, or **\*\v hgags fsm 1. 
pf. form of ^li'i hgcgs-pa to stop, to 
cease ; to be at a stand-still ; mostly in the 
perfect form : p'^1"!^ the appetite is 
gone ; the passions having been suppressed. 
2. door-keeper, v. ^11 sgo-hgng. 

qnpl ci-)^ hgag-pa med ^ffsnf? free, 
unobstructed ; the sky ; also voidity or that 
which is in a simple or uncompounded 
state. 



of an 



v. *F rgafi. 

(P) tne 
office, business, commission. 

(^J|C?T^ hgcms-chen also iip?^ hgan- 
rlteH important ; very valuable ; iptf '^E.*)' 
la^si^-er(|*rq^e.-2r-lfc's) I > ffdcin hgafts-chen 
rnams bkol bde daft fio-nor med, flj^'^e.^' 
S^'^w piuis hgan$-chen rnams important 
or chief places of pilgrimage, &c. ; |^'^W 
*^ very sacred symbols; g^aiflj'^^^ 1 ^ 
valuable things; ^^'<ii)c.^'S^ important 
meaning or object. 

Syn. l'^' 1 ' rtsa che-wa; ^"l'i drag-pa; 
(Mfion.). 

hgans-mthun equal ; wl^*in 
phal-chcr mthim in thorough agreement; 
in harmony: f'l^Vr^Hy^fr^W' 

ojc.-qq|c.sj-*)^ lho-g.Un-g.sum gcig-tubyas-pahi 
(shad-daft yaft hgms-mthun (it was about) 



equal to the area which the three southern 
places together occupy (Ya-sel. 19). 

ng]wci hgafis-pa difficult, troublesome 
(Sch.). 

^"l^' a '^' i hgan-hkhur-wa to stand secu- 
rity for ; to guarantee ; to take respon- 
sibility on one's self; ^"l^' t '|^' c ' hgan- 
bkyur-wa to impose responsibility. 

^l 3 )'^" hgnn-dkris (gan-ti) making 
over charge ; making responsible. 

"fl'S hgan-rgya='*fi$ gan-rgya agree- 
ment, covenant. 

^ q W'*^ hgan-can responsible. 

qq|^'5i|'q hgcm-theg-pa to undertake any- 
thing; to take charge of: V^ac^si^N- 
s fc'9*''3F'''*''R'3 q | ^en self-interest is con- 
cerned even the donkey understands his 
duty. 



| hgam-pa to cram into the 
mouth, especially of dry edibles; !'w|*rtrEi 
plnje hyam-pa-po an eater of nour (Situ. 
84). 



to contradict; to disagree; to mistake; 



pon-tca not to make mistake ; to avoid 
errors ; |T!^ hgal-med without miitake. 

^l 1 "'! hgril-zla=v\v^'^' s \^ hgnl-vahi 
grogs or S'ws^'i^'^im mi-rnthun-pahi grogs 
an enemy : v.'^ "5^ ^m-|'^-^-q^- 
*p having joined with such of the enemy 
as were not in agreement with one another 
(K/irid.. 116). 

Q*l|?rcj hga$-pa to eplit, to crack, to 
burst apart. 

\<i hgud-pa, v. g\'i fjud-pa. 

ci hgitgs-pa to summon ; bring 
back ; ^gi^'i'Q hyuys-pa-po one who is 
called to ; a waiter (Situ. 8^). 

38 



290 



l'CJ dgiim-pa to die (of natural 
death, of disease) : ^Rft-ir^^-^^WK^I 
S^'^^-qN'^^N at that time most of those of 
the attendants of the Lo-tsa-tra who were 
smitten with fever died (A. 05). 

Q^QTZJ hgul-ica to move, quake, 
shake ; wfi aa-gyo^wm* sa-hgul earth- 
quake; *gTrQ hyul-ica po or ^"I'lS hyul- 
bi/ed shaker; fut. ( wjrfy hgul-bthin^y* 
|^, hgul-gi/in. 

'f hgiir-n/to, same as Q^'^ mgur-sho 
ql^ tain-kfi brgyad-la mgtir- 
s/io-gcig, one Myw-sho is equal to eight 
tan-ka. 

^l* 1 '^ hgeg-bye = $% khyo-wo or I**' 
'&i\'* mdmh-grogs husband (Mnon.). 

uf, 0,^*1^' CJ hgems-pa= a &W'i bjoms- 
pa to confound; to subdue swfara ; sflf^w 
i'3 mgo hgcms-pa-po one who confounds or 
bewilders. 

qo)wq*,-gv<J hgeats-par bycd-pa f^?s;^ 
repeatedly bites ; ace. to Cs. another form 
for *3*ri hgiiui-pr/, to kill, to destroy 
(Sett.) ; Ji'vy^wq kltd-p-i hge>$-pa to sur- 
prise; to over-throw an argument by 
reason; if'^w! myo-gems stupid (Sch.). 



hgegt-pa 

to hinder, obstruct, keep back or in; fut. 
dg.'gs, pf . ^1 bkaj : ^wd^'wy 
*'' a i l S dgng pa-la med-dgtig dan 
ma-yin dgag gnis-yod )^'**^'^'9 yin-min Ita- 
bit preventing what is and what is not, 
etc., in Buddhist metaphysics. 



q hgefapa, pf. <W bkan, fut. 
dyan, imp. pt 1 A7ww, to fill up ; also 
to satiate. 



EI hgel-tca^Vi hyyel-ica, pf. 
"I" bkal, fut, V^ otyrt/, imp. pm A//o/: 1. 
to load ; to lay on a burden ; gi'^Tq khral 
hf/cl-ica to impose tax or rent ; to commis- 
sion; to charge with; to make, appoint, 
constitute ; to put ; to place on or over : 
fl)^E.'*rqf|arq' gdun-ma bkal-ica a beam placed 
over it ; to set or put on, e.g., a pot ; to 
hang up ; 5fj*rw)'Tflfte.' go$ hgd-gdan a 
stand to hang clothes on ; fig. ^8'WfVflS' 
yqi'^ai'^w hvhi-irnr nus-pnhi thoy-hycl dgos 
one must set on it the roof of being 
able to die, i.e., one must crown the whole 
edifice of life by being free from fear of 
death (Jd.) ; to impose a fine ; to give 
punishment. 

^Kg* hyel-brel old ; w)rgir^ hycl- 
brel na-ldtin the old, aged. 



laden yaks. 

<w)irqq|i hyul-lnys the method of im- 
posing fine or punishment. 

Q5f*r^ Ayes-p'i, pf. H| bkas, fut. ^ 
clyas, imp. P Mas, to split, cleave, divide ; 
wim^e.- bkas-fifi (Lex.) cleft or chopped 
wood; ^I'S^'S*!*!'* 1 tlniit-biir dyes-pa to 
divide into pieces ; to cut up or open. 



q hgebs-pa, pf. HI< AAi, fut. 
imp. P 5 ' Mo6, to cover up ; 
to put on ; to conceal. 



f hyo, same as if mgo, origin, source ; 
1. foremost; in front; wtff dmny- 
hyo commander of an army ; ^'"tf mkhar- 
hgo or ?R.'*f rdson-hyo commander of a 
fort, of a district: X'|-^i-5-i-3ij 
c/io-kyi hyo sans-rgyas-h t/mg the origin of 
D/tarma (Buddhism) is traced to Buddha ; 
^5)-^-i]c.i-a|-a<i| the source of a river is 
traced to the snows. 2. beginning; the 
first : if* hyor in the beginning ; ta'ift 1 ^ 
sertirahi hgor the beginning of the hail. 

Syn. ?1'i thoy-ma ; *^' di/n-po; ?"3 
rtsa-mi (Afnon.). 



291 



^q'q hgo Itub-pa apricots ? 

=%*\'* thog-ma beginning; 



'^l I; hgog-pa 



first. 

^'Sf" hgo-snnm broad-cloth ; also the 
superior kind of blanket. 

*f 'i hgo-pa the headman of a village. 



bgro-dpon rector, director, head- 
master, principal. 

^\ ^ q hgo-phib *\ '$1 ya-sub a cover; also 
a canopy or dome over a temple or tomb. 

<rtfn5-$jj-g Ego-waki lha-lna the five 
superior demi-gods, which are the follow- 
ing: (l)*'<%<W9p-'ymo-lhaham&hafi-lha, (2) 
SPTS sroy-l/ia, (S)W%dgra-l/ia, (4) X^pho- 
Iha, (5) ^i'5J yul-lhci. These are the insepa- 
rable companions of humanity, and rejoice 
when we do good actions and become sorry 
when we sin. There are several treatises 
on the rites to propitiate them. 



go chod-pa useful: 
from early years, i.e., from 
boyhood, he has been useful. 



J hgo-ica T, pf. ^ yos, or <tfffw 
hgos, cf. isfa bsgo-ica 1. to stain ; to 
lose colour ; to dirty, sully one's self. 2. 
'V* to infect with a disease; ^fqS'^ 
hgo-wahi nad, ^lf'^5'^w hgo-wahi rims a 
contagious or epidemic disease, a plague ; 
*8\'*ft or < fif&-^, ^'^T^ 1 ^*, ^tr^n: an 
infectious disease ; also a contagious disease. 

^f i hgo-ma beginning, origin, source. 
e tf'*l hgo-mi headman. 



hgog-ku prob. derived from the 
Chinese, signifying the goddess of the ele- 
ments. Ace. to the Chinese the funda- 
mental elements are tree, fire, earth, iron, 
and water. Each of these is presided over 
by a goddess. 



v. 



bar-du bcod-pci, ^ij^'i hgegs-pa. 



II : = ^q|'ti hjog-pa 

to keep ; to place ; to arrange ; 
a deposit ; pledge. 



! Ill: pf. h frog, fut. 
dgog, imp. f^I khog 1. to take 
away forcibly ; to snatch, tear away, 
pull out ; ST'T^fT" rtsa-wa hgog-pa 
to pull up the root; ^Tn^'Q hyog-pa-po 
one who takes or draws out. 2. to take 
off a cover, a lid, a pot from the fire, in W. 
(Jd.). 

oftfa-qr^ ffgog-po-ri the hill on which 
the monastery of Gahdan is situated : ^T 



pa ri-nas Rje bla-mas dgah-ldun-gyi dun 
gtcr-nas bton (J. Zun.}. 



hgog-spyod-pa 
^T"l' R ^PI' q scms-kyi rnam-rtog hyo r j-pa to 
stop the arising of imaginations or fancies 
in the mind. 



* 5f f q T3'S hgog-bycd ^qcf discipline, and 
from tfffiri hyag-pa, there arise 1. ^'^ shi- 
wa srrffi peace ; 2. g'Sfcri gya-nom-pa=<*\ 
j-fq]^-q phun-sum tshogs-pa 'srfwfVct per- 
fected state ; 3. fcrcivn|t.-q fles-pir hbyun- 
ica fsf:flT<ir firm conviction. 

I : hgogs=o?Wi bkng-pa (Mnon.). 



II : i4g, ^T passing over ; 
transit ; crossing ; getting over. 



T^I hgog-pa=*3\'Wti hgeg$-pa to 
prevent ; to avert unfortunate events, as 
danger, fatal consequences ; to suppress 
the symptoms of a disease by medicine; 
to drive back or away ; to expel, e.g., spirits, 



292 



ghosts; to repel people that are trying to 
land : ^V^ g' 5 )*''^ | bdud rnam-pa 
Ifia-yis hgog-ste it having been averted by 
the five kinds of demons (D.R.). 



i5fc-Q'^ hyoft-po rdo, 
ton-bu, a kind of stone of liver colour, 
believed to be sacred to the God Dam-ohen 
who rides on a goat the peculiarity of 
this stone being that it breaks in cube-like 
pieces (Sman. 



a = <*?-* hdah-wa or 
to bewitch, enchant; also 
to pass over, get the better of: ^ig5) 
q^c.q^m hdi-la 8tt-yit hgofi-war nut who 
can overpower this, i.e., who can enchant 
him; <tffe.r^i hgofls-nag V^Tff having 
crossed, passed over. 

nSfjc.-q -21 hgofi-wa po or "tf^ '% hgofi-po an 
enchanter ; ^ffe/q'S hgofi-wa nto an en- 
chantress, a sorceress. 



"&}*>'% hgofi-bo faTTJ a class of demons 
which bring disease on men and cattle. 



| hgod-pa, pf . fl|S bkod, fut. 
dgod, imp. j*S k/iod, cf. j*V khod-pn 
vv 1. to design ; to project ; to plan (Sch.). 
2. to found ; to establish ; to lay out (a 
town) ; to build (a house) ; to manufacture ; 
to form ; to frame. 3. to put ; to fix ; to 
transfer into a certain state or condition ; 
n^qui^ places in a state of happiness; 
svw'W ni A^ puts into the way of salva- 
tion ; Mrjrt' t 'flfV* safa-ryyag-kyi 
sa-la hgod-pc, establishes in the realm of 
Buddhahood. 4. to set or place in order : 
3]m g^-qtfj^-cr^ (iral-phyam bgod-pa hdra, as 
the rafters of a roof are placed side by side 
(S.g.) ww^fY*! mthar dgod-po to add, 
place at the end (Vai-kar.); flf\n'<rr<i 
bkod-par mdscs-pa beautiful as to arrange- 



ment; nicely ordered; J^S ? ft' { ' brgyan 
dgod-pa to arrange ornaments (tastefully); 
to decorate, adorn ; to construct or adjust 
grammatical forms, sentences (Zani.}. 
5. to set down in writing ; $ n| m'^ o yi. 
ge-la hgo^-pa to record : Sc. t] q i n^ ti 
mid ka-wn-li hgod-pa to write name on a 
column; to compose, draw up, write a 
narrative, etc. Frequently to mention; 
to insert in a writing ; to publish ; to make 
known. 6. to rule ; to govern (Sch.) : IT 
*t-qi|fri5-jflrZj-8^ byol-sofi bkod-pahi rgyal- 
pa yin he is king over all subjugated ani- 
mals (Jd.). The participle pf. zffj^'i bkod- 
pa is also sbst. : (1) ground-plan ; outline of 
a building; delineation; sketch; V' 81 ^ 
shinkkod map ; design ; (2) form, shape, 
figure (Sch.) ; sample ; copy ; even of one's 
own body, e.g., where a person multiplies 
himself by magic virtue Q"*' 1 * sprul-wa; 

(3) building ; edifice ; structure : ^fvi'w?* 
bkod-pa mdsi'i the structure is beautiful ; 

(4) frame; form; tpffv^'S*' bkod-pa lug the 
structure of the body: KA'q^'ti '3(wn|,'*c.-q^ai 
fuihi bkod-pa nam-mkhahi ran-bshin my 
form of an etherial nature. 

1. to tread : g'w#as5^ 



iq-4flfM'4 > }wi bli-ma flob-dpon 
grib-mn d'ifi, bnling$-^d:in nti-bz'ih sogf dun 
z i-b(un-sog$ hgom-na itcs-pa-c/Hi treading on 
the shadows of lamas, teachers, &c., also 
on their chairs, seats or clothes, or objects 
of food and drink, is sinful. 2. ace. to 
8ab.*t*^pt* hgcm-pa, "Wjsrq hgum-pa to pass 
over; *fj*ri hgom-pa ^^ hgro-wa to go ; 
going (by passing) ; ff^ASfw^-ew stim- 
na$ hgom s/ies-pai = ^' c >'^ f (^' ! ^' t > to pass 
over a thing ; leap over it. 



hgom-yug-pa = 
hphar-hgom tthnr-hyom byed-pa to cross 



293 



or pass orer from one side to another 
(Kin-id.): ff|C.-m-^^-^c.-^ walks pacing 
with the feet. 



hgor 1. in the beginning ; 
at the top or head of a row or order : 
at the Bource of a river. 2. supine 
of "tff q hgo-u-a. 



a^tnw thogs-pa 

TT - . to tarry, linger, loiter : isw^'^vq lam 
dti hgor-ica to linger on the way. 

Syn. 3"! i gul-u-a. 

nSljVflft hgor-ffshi delay; RSfvflft'*vi 
hgor-gshi mtd-pa without delay. 

Q,^PI'CJ hgol-wa 'snts3 ; pf. ^ gol 1. to 
part, to separate; vb. n. "^ q^'ij^ ^JFO/- 
<?$' gs a hermitage ; <&(*'% hgol-po 
hermit, recluse. 2. to deviate; err; go 
astray. 

Rffj|'*i hgol-sa 1. the place where two 
roads separate so as to create doubt in the 
mind regarding the right path. 2. error ; 
mistake. 



Egos n. of a monastery, Ta., 
also n. of a tribe and of a minister 
of Tibet: a^3^*r3K^'r*-V|'V'iI*i*r^ t q) 
Blon-chcn hgos-kyis shal-che dgah ysum-du 
bead (Ya-sel. 4). 

^5fw hyos-pa 1. v. ^\^ hgo-ica: ^1f'i5' 
^'^*i'>^E. hgo-icahi nad hgos-yofi it will 
catch contagion. 2. f^fcrff a liniment; a 
medicine to be rubbed on ; fw anointed, 
besmeared. 

*f^,-q|?ft-^tw( ffgos Qs/ton-Hu dpal n. 
pr. (Schr. ; Ta. 2, 60). 

Q^qj'q hgyng-pa, cf. g^'f tkyag-pa, to 
be sold, spent, expended ((?#.). 

? q hgyan-wa, pf. *2^l A(/^a; 
to be delayed, 



deferred, postponed ; farthest : l*'""; 6 ^ 
phyir hgyan-na if one defers it ; 5 fle.'Zf*)- 
not many years shall have passed ; 



a lon g time after. 



without delay 



(Yig, k. 26). 

R^C'^I hgyins-pa 
appearance of greatness or of pride. 



an 



^S^'^ hgyin-ica 1. to assume air or 
appearance of greatness ; to sit lifting up 
the body in the manner of a lion. 2. to 
look haughtily ; to look down upon ; to 
slight a person ; 8'i'ifq mi-la hgyiA-wa 
also of things, to despise, contemn, neglect 
them. ^N'J <*|c, - q seems to be an intensified 
form, meaning to scorn loftily ; to look 
down on as from a summit. 



hgyin-bag attitude ; posture ; 
gesture ; also manner in reference to. 
*ll*l*< ffsugs form, or *&<'*< dbyib$, appear- 
ance. 



1 !^ hgyiH-hkhar a staff consecrated 
to a fearful deity, or having on its top a 
head with wide yawning mouth or in some 
fearful attitude. 

^S^^'^ hgyins-pa, v. "^'H hgyift-wa. 

P-S^T^ hgyim-pa trfvfa the circum- 
ference. 

"v3T^ hgyu-wa, pf. a ^hgyu$, to move 

quickly to and fro, e.g., as lightning, the 
quivering air in a mirage, the motion and 
versatility of the mind, &c. 

Q^V^ hgyur-wa TH%, ^^r!%, pf. 
v ? gyur-to or ^'i gyur-pa, imp. ^'S"I 
qyur-cig, cf. |V*i gyur-wa 1. to become; to 
grow, increase, change : S^*'3*H'^ dge- 
floii-dti hgyur-tva to become a monk ; 



294 



*'" rgyal-por hgynr-tva to become a king ; 
g'Wt|^'q sbrniH-nvir hgyur-ira to get with 
child ; *>VW*3* bdnn-dit hgyur to reach the 
numher of seven: g^WMpSVtw^flrqv 
qjc. q tQ^ khyod-pat brga hyyur-pas I/tag-par 
bzafl-wa yod there are those which grow a 
hundred times better than you ; W^T 
9*. ffxniii bgyur Ita-lur three times as much ; 
^qj^ir^v j*r^4| da gnt's-hgynr txnm-s/itg one 
twice as large as that ; *$*ift a changing 
voice. 2. sbst. change, alteration, revolu- 
tion, vicissitude : ^ fl^5'H|^ q du buhihi 
hgynr-was through the change of the 
fourth season ; <*|v^-qv>l fi hyyur-brten 
b$hag-pa to pay money in' hand as an 
earnest that the bargain is not to be re- 
tracted. "i^'^'^V hgi/nr-ifu nu'd-pa 
unchangeable, invariable : *5'? 
a)1t'V'5E.*rj-<3vq mthtt-stob? nnd wed- 
pa, yzi-rjid yofis-sii hyyiir-ira the total 
decay of strength, health and esteem (in 
old age); *W%*W^,'irfWHI bday-gi 
*ems ma-yyur ia-iia ing-pa my mind has 
not been altered nor weakened; ft" 
qirit'qprw^'lq dtid-pa Mi-las ma-hyyur- 
cig do not depart from this belief. "*5*'^ - 
^S'* 1 hgyur-du yod-pa changeable, variable : 
5 35 ^'ci jiho-<o h<n/r-pa male changing 
into female and via- rrrxti ; ^N ^|^'q 
to change the mind ; ^K w*vq to become ; 
begin to exist ; to gain possession : sT*!'"!'*)' 
^q>'i|vci5^ir-g-^^n) these acts of having 
become indifferent to life; *=-) g-qv^-^ 
can mi sira->rar ijyxr-to he became speech- 
less. 3. "*vi hgyur- tea annexed to an infi- 
nitive may denote either the perfect or the 
future tense, the context deciding in every 
instance how it is to be understood : 
Vtasytito&tK*!* an-s/iig ryyal-srid lyed- 
par hcjyur who shall have the Government ? 
who shall rule ? ^3THft'*|VK-.J)-* dr. 
rgyal-por hgyur-icar $<>s-so they knew that 



this man would become king. r*i 
ya-intshan-du hgytir-wa to be surprised, 
astonished; IWfj'^g^' 1 * g.nas-su hgyitr-ica 
to come to a place ; to arrive at : ^\rft'^6i' 
jq^'^l^'q hdod-pahi Mot-grub-tu, hyyur-ica 
to be endowed with the perfect gift of 
wishing, viz., of having every wish fulfil- 
led; ^ffK^pm to become moving; to 
begin to move. 4. to bo translated ; 
*1*'* to be translated into Tibetan ; qi 
bkah-hyyur the translated word ; 
hgyur-lyun was translated. 

ng^'q5-X hyyur-wahi-cho$ changeable 
(and therefore perishable) things ((?*.). 



hyyur-tcar hgyur 
(Schr. ; Kdldc. T, 89) it will become. 

* v !^ hyyur-byed. a changer ; one who 
brings about changes. 



hyynr-mcd 



infallible. 



unchangeable; 



^*| hgyur-tshiy the translated 
words; according to some authors words 
that have been translated into another 
language : *\ wf|'*v3fli'\iJVq|a(r*j-qSif 
ryyud mft-gi hyyur-tshiy dno$-g.nas-su hjoy 
keep the original terms of the Tantra 
intact with their translation (Ya- 
sel. S8). 



= *\ hod ^fc light; a whip. 



hgye-wa, pf . and imp. *}i gycs, 1. 
to be dispersed ; to be divided, e.g., a river 
that is divided into several branches ; tffv 
flfV'fl rnam-pa g.ni-su (a ray of light) 
divided into two parts; to separate; to 
part : q*c^fl| -< *3*r^* bem-rig hgyes-dus when 
body and soul part from each other. 2. 
to issue, proceed, spread, branch from: 
^fwg*rV they have proceeded from 
those (their ancestors). 



295 



k ( Jy C( J 1^ &>id the sense ; the 
real meaning; essence: %swsv^3T 
*i^efl|'rgq|-q Bon thams-cad-kyi hgyeg- 
man-nag-la thug-pas the essence of all the 
Bon meets in the Man-nag. 



1. n. of a district in north 
Tsang: l 4fc?%f ! 4t*'8tW < fV 1 ifc Qtsan- 
gi Bit giiis-ni JRu lag Can hgyed (Lon. *> 
6). 2. alms in money or eatable things ; 
'*3^' q !? e;t i hgyed gion-pa to distribute alms. 
This expression is denned by Tibetan 
writer as *"^' 1 ?W$^'^' a S*i*'*l'f*rc 
to bestow silver and the like in an assem- 
bly, distribituting to each man. 

iSVfw hgyed-stols TTfrraro athletic 
feat ; exercise of arms. 



bgyed-pa, pf. 03*1, bgyes fut. 
q S bkye ftnT; f^RTC, 3^^ 1. to divide 
(trs.), to scatter, disperse; ^'iv^^'i hod- 
scr ht/yed-pa to diffuse rays of light : SjTi' 
q '3S sp nil-pa -hgyed sends forth an emana- 
tion ; f 'y^V pho-iia hgycd-pa to send a 
messenger ; to dismiss ; ^^ an assembly. 
2. to institute, set going ; wS-eSjV" to 
start a combat ; flRji'vjv* 1 to fight a battle ; 
fljajsrs^-q-g one who gives battle ; hgyed- 
pahi tshe in the dispute. 3. to give an 
entertainment, banquet ; to hold a feast. 

"S'V* 1 hgyed-ma = $* i3 \Q phra, men-pa n. 
of a goddess one that brings on divi- 
sion, dissension, or disunion. 



Q^'P hgyer-wa or a' 1 ) spon-wa 
to drop or let fall ; to throw down ; to 
quit, abandon, throw away (Soft.). 



J hgyel-ica to fall; to tumble 
down : ^Pi' Jl'^S 1 * 1 gan-rkyal hgyel fell on bis 
back, face upwards; wrar^m sa-la-hgyel 
tumbled on the ground; g^*a]*riN'RS' j r ' 
rlun-sogs-kyi hgyel-wa to be thrown by the 



wind, &o. ; WS^^J'^r^nV'^ stricken 
down by illness so as to be unable to walk : 
^q-^^N'^-q he fell by stumbling on a 
stone ; ^Hh^X^|iw|'tW:si|wv^ then 
I, fainting away, fell to the ground. 



I hgyes-pa, another form of 
hgye-wa ij^'^'S'^'oigN't) phan-tshun so-sor 
hgyes-pa, to separate asunder or between 
two parties. 

0,^5) '0] hgyo<j-tliel='W*p las-dam 
seal ; "Sjq'lvaww* propeities under seal 
(Rtsii.). 



hgyog-pa to ascend ; l^'^.'^'fl'B 
gyen-du hyyoy-pa-po one who climbs up 
(Situ. 8^). 



hgyod-pa 

to repent; to grieve for. 1. 
lament, relent, not only for bad, but also 
for good actions, when the latter are 
attended with disadvantage. 2. sbst. 
regret: q; 3 l S' c ''^|V | hgyod-pa b$kycd-pa 
regret arises at last ; e.'^vri|^'<i da hgyod- 
pa bskycd-pa I felt regret; *-i<ijvq5-*w 
s)^'Wi$*V>r|^ na hgyod-pahi sems med-par 
khyod-l'i sbyin-no I gave it to you readily 
without regret. 



hgyod-pa rnam-ffsum the 
three kinds of regret are illustrated as 
follows: (1) tfr!ri-*r*3' j r^'$'>r'^ not 
being able to defeat an enemy out of one's 
country, or ^fWWg^nB s ?** w ' ! ^ to 
be sorry for an occasional defeat after one 
has behaved himself as a hero ; (2) *flV 
q^q-j}-*rg,N'!N'i''vs to be sorry, when out 
on a journey, at not being properly equip- 
ped with provisions, etc ; w3fa'6*rp - fl|$flrgf 
^WR-'^'si^ to be sorry on inviting an im- 
portant person when there is no proper 



296 



arrangement for his entertainment or re- 
ception; (3) $5'*|^*i'$'*' | il*i 1 |*rj''vfi, to be 
sorry for not having fed one's horse when 
on a journey; also $'^'3TR v i c; ^,*'' E - '^' q 'S 
to be sorry when the horse dies, one has 
to carry the saddle on one's own back ; 
(4) S'^^'l^'^N'wg^'ajw^wo.gS to be sorry 
in old age for not having done religious 
works as a youth ; (5) '^'^ST^V^'^'S^V ' 
*>$ft " when that Devil the lord of death 
has come, he repents." 

"5'V C) S\*i hgyod-pahi dri-ma regret after 
a gift has been made; 3fr*>^ hgyod-me^ 
*im<t without regret or repentance. 

'*5 l V*r*' hgi/od-rino-wa to cause repent- 
ance ; to make one suffer, feel, or pay for a 
thing: q ffi E -''*3' <; i hnoft-hgyod repentance 
proceeds from consciousness of guilt (/a). 
9,^-^c.'g^-q hgyod-tshan$ byed-pa to apo- 
logise : ?ffrj!Mr3v w ' q K e ''*i to accept an 
apology. 

"HJV^'" hgyod sin-pa having repented. 

i'5Vfl-'| q | hgyod-kfags confession and 
repentance. 



hgrags-graf, 
, very bright. 



I: hgrags-pa (dag-pa), ft 
grags 1. to sound forth ; to utter a cry or 
sound, of men, animals, thunder, &c. ; to 
shout: $*'|'<*'VW < K' < <i^ if it should 
be shouted into his ear. 2. to be famous ; 
to be called ; ^'9J q l*' shes-grags so it is 
called ; so he was called ; by this name he 
goes ; under that name he is known. 

II; hgragt-pa to bind, v. 



gragt-hgrags 



I grags-pa. 



to satisfy with food; to satiate; 
hgmns-rjes after having eaten one's fill ; 
-frq'tw^'tur*) ^3je.*rfc not vet having enouerh 

/ O O 

of deer killing. 

Q^C*! hgrafis (dang) ^n fully fed; 
eaten to the full extent ; filled up. 



hgefis or 
stomachful ; 
one's fill ; also 
satiety ; with ^ 



gi'od-pa 
g.sns-pa hguns bellyful, 
Ito-wa hgefis eaten to 
fioif-pa eaten to 
tshim-pa satiated ; ^"l'i 



chog-pa contented (Jjfflon.). 



bgrad-pa or 
(depa) to spread ; to enter. 

hgran (den), v. 

^ , ^, 'ft, 'ft, ^ challenged ; 
invoked. 

^'S'V*^ hgran-gyi do-n>ed=^^' u >'^'\ 
bgran-ya me4 without a rival ; matchless ; 
unequalled (applied to things). 

Syn. *3fl'3"Vi3'* t V q hgran-gyi do-dt nu-d- 
pa; ^3^'S'^S y hgnm-zla med-pa (Ifnon.). 

ng^-gq-ci hgran t hub-pa =^2J^t'i hymn 
nits-pa or ^gj^'^S'* 1 hgran bzod-pa to suffer 
rivabry ; to stand rivalry. 

'Sfl'^W 1 hgmn-du hjug-pa 1. to place 
in opposition ; to enter into competition. 
2. in a general sense, to defend one's self ; 
to make resistance (Rdsa.). 



hgran-tva (dang-u-a) 1. to 
number ; to count, v. S3J.' bgran-wa. 2. 



hgran-pa (den-pa) 
W (1) to vie with, contend with ; 
to strive (for victory) ; g'W'F**' 'Si* ^' 
"^'^ phyug-khyotf rnam-thos sraf-d/tfi 
hgran-te to cope even with Vais'ravapa as 
to riches : ^V^' 1 ^ b$tod-par hgran let us 
vie with one another in uttering praise ; 
n3^-q*ro| let us now draw a parallel 
between (these two). 



297 



hgran-tshig words of conten- 
tion, bickering. 

R 3fl'l hgran zla (den-da) 1. rival, com- 
petitor. 2. equal match; *3fi'i3'*^'9 lj r ' 
wa unrivalled; matchless. 

Syn. *W* hgran-ya; ^'S'^'l hgran- 
gyi do-zla ; "^'^ hgran-do rival ; match. 

*3ft'^* w hgran-sems 1. contention ; 
emulation. 2. jealousy. 3. quarrelsome 
temper; spirit of controversy; *Sfl'$w 
flpfflj'q to stop ; put an end to contention, 
rivalry. 

Q^Jl hgram (dam) bank ; shore ; side ; 
neighbourhood, as J-|'qS'H3|*i the foot 
of the wall ; S'^'^SJ** chu-yi hgram river- 
side or bank; &-8Ngj*t me-yi hgram 
fire-side; ^%WA3jw dgon-pahi hgram 
neighbourhood of a monastery ; I|cq5 - <*g]*< 
aroA-pahi hgram vicinity of a village ; w' 
i hgram roadside: ^'I'^'^N'ip.' 
if the river fills the valley, 
a stone on its bank does not remain dry 
(a proverb). Often used as a postp. with 
or without du or la annexed : ija^'B^'vjp^ 
at the brink of the precipice ; w*5'<vjjwi a t 
the lake ; close to the lake ; i3I*r^ is also 
used as adv. meaning near ; close by. 

hgran-dkym = e 3p' t * hgram-pa. 

hg&am-fiogs <?Kr, ?rz a bathing- 
place ; a shore. 

*3J*<'f "1 hgram-khag a slap on the face ; 
a box on the ear. 



l hgram-pa tf^, ^ms cheek (of. 
k/iur-tshos) nrtr<*g|*rtrr^-q lag-pa, 
hgram-pa la rten-pa to lay one's hand on 
the cheek ; as vb. to proclaim, publish. 

^3j*r3 hgram-po apw^fi one living or 
residing in the neighbourhood; one pos- 
sessing crushing teeth ; a demon. 



hgram-gshi foundation; basis; 
.-q hgram-g.shi hdin-wa to lay a 
foundation. 

^2j-5)i| hgram-yig edict, proclamation, 
publication; '$'|j*ri|3ir$!'3'^'^S]*< c i lo- 
rgyusynas-tshul-gyiyi-ge hgram-pa to pub- 
lish accounts of biography or history, &c. 

<'5*< hgram-rus cheek-bone ; jaw-bone. 

hgrctm-gfog the hinder part of 
the jaw-bone (Sc/i.). 

*3F*< hgram-so ace. to Jd. cheek-tooth ; 
molar-tooth ; grinder. 



hgrams-pa to spread over; 

q-cj me-tog sogs hgrams-pa-po 
one who spreads or scatters flowers, etc. : 
^ft-ocqpwci this will be spread over the 
man ; *rr<*3pwq to spread on the ground ; 
^prynrf*Spwrl phyogs-phyog-su hgrams- 
pa to scatter to the different quarters ; q*r 
ac^-qg|wi-q l us .l a m d hgram$-pa to infect 
the body with disease. 

^Jjpwr^ hgram-tshad over-mastering 
fever. 



gya-gyu; 



J hgras-pa (de-pa) ^'C^'* ) ' ( 3 3 i' ; ' 
phan-tshun mi-mthttn-pa 1. disagreement ; 
difference between two parties. 2. f%ft, 
fo*?^ to hate ; to bear ill-will ; to have 
spite against. 



serpentine, crooked, bent. 



bgng-tgrig (dig-dig) 1. 
arranged properly ; 3*|'*{j)*|'*gj*|'q t s /iig 
hgrig-hgrig-pa to arrange words properly. 
2. gelatine; jelly of meat (Jd.). 



hgrig-pa (cf. 1^1 sgrig-pa) to 
suit, agree, correspond ; to be right ; fw 
^fK^ stabs hgrig-pa suitable occasion ; 
rten-hbrcl hgrig-pa good or 
39 



298 



auspicious coincidence; ^''V^T" dug- 
tshod. hgrig-pa the time suits; 2pr*3Jiri 
gral hgrig-pa to make everything ready ; 
P'^jll'i kha hgrig-pa unanimity in deposi- 
tion ; all of one expression or speech ; if' 
it*i*iAfjq|-q bio-semi hgrig-pa to agree in 
opinion; p'$'*)^'i kha-ntchu hgrig-pa 
compromise in a law-suit or case (civil or 
in criminal). 

ifjtrq hgrib-pa 1. yif* to grow dim ; to 
get dark (Cs.) (cf. i^'i tgrib-pa). 2. *mm 
loss; diminution; also to grow less; to 
decrease, to be diminished, to decay ; *>'*)$ 
ft'QVi mi-hgrib mi-ltttf-pa neither to grow 
less nor to flow over; *ta'fl hphel-wa is 
opposed to 5ri hgrib-pa; qqarq'w*)irq 
bgkdl-pa mar-hgrib-pa the kalpa (period) 
diminishes. 



, \. * ' hgrim-pa in w|' 
*)*< lag-hgrim *T l 4 ir i* r Y r ' 11 lag-hgrim 
gyis brgyus-pns, passing from hand to 
hand. 

*f|*i'*5' s < bgrim-hgrul communication ; 
also travellers, either merchants or pil- 
grims: ^i''! l fl-^*4Vti5-*2]*rRsjar*^ Rdo-rje 
pdan-du sog-pohi hgrim-hgrul chad. the 
communication of the Tartars with Dorje- 
dan (Gaya) was interrupted (A. 19). 



h grim-pa 1. sometimes for 
*!* hbrim-p:t. 2. pf. "3w hgnmt to 
march about, perambulate ; to rove or stroll 
about; walk round; jurpwwRgjwq rgyal- 
ichamf hgrim-pa to rove over the countries ; 

i-khrcd hgrim pa to wander on 



chu-dafi lun-la yafi hgrim not hgro-wa to go 
about crossing rivers and valleys, &o. 

*) *'S^ hgrim-mod doing or accomplish- 
ing any work: wr$<l<l$ > p*'%rwo 1 j|f 

fa-la ni las-kyi 



is mfial-$go gshan-yaft hgrim-moJ- 
kis rnthar bde some in consequence of laf 
(i,e. karma) entered the womb, others 
having accomplished good deeds, were 
happy enough to escape (here =) 
(Sbrom. r, A). 



hgrims (dim) or *3J*w hgrimf- 
pa vwt, vw inferiority; inequa- 
lity or also less in quantity or quality; 
^flj-q - nfjrq rig-pa hgrimt-pa failing in 
intellect ; growing foolish. 



hgril-wa (dil-tca), pf. |i gril 
(cf. ii'J tgril-iea) 1. to be twisted or 
wrapped round, for ^"1 hkhril (Sch.), to 
be collected, concentrated; to flock or 
crowd together; 3M'*|rai* kun hgril-nag 
all in a heap; all together. 2. to be 
turned, rounded, made circular or cylin- 
drical, e.g., a stick (Ja.). 3. to fall, drop 
down. 



is (dt), v. 

'' 18 '' hgris-ma thag-tu $nin- 
gtam mi-l}$ad.-cin immediatly after acquaint 
tance not expressing one's heart's words, 
(i.e., revealing one's secret) (Jig-)- 



J hgru-wa, (du-tca) pf. 5* 1 ff r "8 1- 
to bestow pains upon a thing ; jfr*rsr*5'fl 
to take pains in studying. 2, n. of a tribe 
in Tibet: ^9^' < MJ'g(*i'*i)?J*<'g|'*\ E .' c !^ d,irah-hgru 
ldom-g.sum Iga-dafi bshi (Jig.). 

0,5^'^! hgrub-pa (dub-pa) pf. 5 q 9 ru ^ 
(Situ. 69) to be accomplished without any 
perceptible agent ; to be made ready ; to 
be finished ; "i^ <ff'*3vX hgrub-par hgyur- 
ro will be finished : ^5rwv3fl| hgrub-par 
gyiir-cig let it be finished or performed ; 
s^q'W'.g^ or '^''fc' will be finished, perr 
formed ; ^JVi'ft'flS hgrub-pa mi-sritf it can-i 
not be accomplished or done ; wj^'W ma* 



299 



grub-par before accomplished or per- 
formed: r*fq-crqmr*fW*fV'< let those 
deeds not yet effected he accomplished. 
^'^'3 q ^ Ihun-gyis grub-pa spontaneously 
grown or produced, i.e., in a supernatural 
way : ^I'WJfflj hgrub-par fog WiWiJ may 
it he accomplished ! 

*3*r|k i: hgrub-sbyor or *sjar^c|Vq 
hgrub-pa dad tbyor-wa anything accom- 
plished and perfected (as a reward). 

< *5 q T^ n : is an expression occurring in 
almanacks relative to the proving true of 
certain astrological prognostics of good 
luck ; similar to, hut not identical with, 
froQ* rten-hbrel. 

Q^^T^I hgrum-pa, (dum-pa), pf. SJ* 

grum (cf. J*i'i grum-pa), to pinch or nip 

off (the point of a thing) ; to cut off ; to 
prime, lop, clip the wings (Jo,.). 



hgru$ assiduity, industry. 



hgntl-pn ( 

lim-gyi mgron-po a traveller, passenger; 
also a pilgrim: ^rV 1 W^<JW** 
igq^-gc., (^KVaMfQ'f*? Bog-la da-lo sog- 
po hgrul-pa mati-po skbe-byufi, hgyed 
mafi-ja yag-po byuft this year many 
Mongol pilgrims have come to Tibet ; there 
were liberal alms-doles, and tea for many. 

Q^T^ hg-rul-wa 1. to walk ; to pass ; 
to travel ; ^TWlV" hgrul-war byed-paio 
cause to go; to send off, despatch, a 
messenger ; ^JT^'S hgrul-wa po a walker, 
post, traveller, pedestrian ; sbst. ^51 
hgrul passage ; the possibility of passing : 
q|yvj;e.'9|'a.3pr*V W Gnah-nafi-gi hgrul chad.- 
pai the passage from Nyanang being 
stopped (by snow). 2. fig. to walk; to 
live, act, or behave. 3. to pass as good; 
to be current (of coins) . 

^l 81 9S hgrul-shiid passage, communi- 
cation. 



brtsvn- 



I hgrus-pa (dui-pa) 1. pf. 5' 
hgru-wa. 2. sbst. zeal, enthusiasm, dili 
gence, endeavour; more frequently 
*5*J brtson-hgrus (Jo,.) 



a (de-wa) (^n^'g"9 rigs Ita- 
bu) WRt to roll one's self ; ^T'W)' 5 ' sa-la 
hgre-wa to roll on the ground ; ^ij'afcf hgre- 
Idog or ^f ^|^'i hgre-hg byed-pa to roll 
on the ground from pain or despair, &c. ; 
also of horses, &c. 

<*2)-(jfr|-3&j-i hgre Mog-ldog-pa to roll on 
the ground from pain, etc. ; to wallow : 
$-?w|s<-&<vg<-R2)'ifr!|'jq-ci rta-sogs phar-tshur 
hgrc-log rgyab-pa the horses, etc., roll 
hither and thither; |T*1*'&'SW*$' 
^"I'^l'l^'S^'^l dtig-bsnal mi-bsod-pas 
hgre Idog-ldog byed-kyin hdug unable 
to bear pain they were rolling (on the 
ground) (Khrid. 39). 

<3,g)C'q hgrefi-iva (defi-ica) (cf. ||e;q 
$grefi-wa) vt'^T, ^cjfsicr to stand: ^'5)' 
^n|c.-^ standing at the mouth of the 
pit ; ^wcr^'^-m-q^ dnafig-pa ttar 
hgrefi-icar hgyur they started up as if 
afrighted. ^'i^'IS* 1 mi-hgrefi, ffsttm three 
lengths of a man (Jd.). 

wJl^'S hgrefi-bu (den-bii), also ^^.'3 hgrefi- 
po, sign of the vowel ~ "e." 



'CJ hgrem-pa, pf. iTjw blcram, fut. 
(/gram, imp. B**" khroms 1. to 
spread (as of grain, for drying), or *3J*W'<i 
hgrem?-pa (dem-pa) (4'f 9 chu Ita-bu) 
^uPtKil to sprinkle (water). 2. to put or 
lay down in order, e.g., beams, &c. ; to 
spread out; to display; to scatter; to 
draw (a curtain). 

* H3jai-$c,-'^ t i|w hgrel-chun do 
W n. pr. (Sc/ir.; Td. 2, 200). 



300 



hgrel-pa l. = rft'i htshol-pa 
to beg, supplicate. 2. to put 
in, arrange ; *|''M'*i|ri tshig-don hgrel-pa 
the arranging or paraphrasing the mean- 
ings of words. 3. to explain, comment 
upon. 

|C^S hgrel-fyad ^ifm (Schr.) 

a^vi hgreg-pa e#-officer ; late officer. 

*MJ'|e: ffgro-glin Jffw n. pr. (Schr.; 
Ta. 2, 222), n. of a country (prob. 
Tamil) ; of a lexicographer [prob. *Tf%f]. 

^'^ hgro-sgo = "$ '**'*! hgro-sod-ica 
expenditure, cost ; anything expended. 

Mj'^t' i; Sgro-ldid n. of a country in 
the south of India, i.e., Dravira. 

*!r^- i I: ufrsi (Schr.; Ta. 2, 27). 

Q^j'Q hgro-wa, pf. ** sod, imp. *=' 
sod, but negative form of imp. *'<>$ 
ma-hgro 1. to go, in all its significations, 
i.e., to go away, proceed to, walk, &c. 2. 
ebst. a living creature ; that which moves ; 
*|f -q ^"|'%"I the six classes of living 
things. 3. to live ; be living ; move ; 
exist ; to be. 

Syn. '* rgyu-wa ; ^'i hdod-wa 



i$ti3 hyro-wa 2>o=% 'IS hgro-byed one 
who goes ; goer ; walker ; traveller ; passen- 
ger; pres. ^^^"1 hgro-kshin hdug= 
a$ ^^"l hgro-gin hdug proceeding ; 
going ; fut. ^-^^l^ hgro-war h'jyxr. 

n!|j-q'Rq]N-%il hyro-ica rigs-drug the six 
kinds of moving beings: (1) $ lha $n the 
gods ; (2) Sj'*' 5 ^ lha-nw. yin ^^T the de- 
mons ; (3) S mi JTgsr humanity ; (4) ^'Mf 
dud-hgro fa^ beasts, etc. ; (5) 5 )^ i q' yi- 
dbags $* the ghosts ; (6) ^gi'i dmyal-wa 
sfT^ hell-beings. 

tg-q^-^jj-g hyro-wahi myon-po 
epithet of Avalokite9vara ; 5 



Syan-rag gzigs a name of Buddha, of 
Vishnu (Iffion.). 

"^'tfc'X hgro-myoft! = c *$'9 e '' hgro-nofi 
previously visited. 

n|}-nrX hgro-las che-= e >$'- t \**''& hgro-fa$ 
che or Mf'^'l hgro-nen che, adv. very pro- 
bably; in all probability ; also w& alone 

i'^ (fso-tca rig-pa hdi bod-na gman me4- 
pag nub-nas. hgro-las che the science of 
healing, there being no medicine in Tibet, 
may in all probability disappear (A. 35). 



an 



hgrogs-pa to associate with ; 
to keep company ; to be in the company of ; 
to accompany : 1 >*<' c 'A q l ' V*!hr 'i^ 
d.mn-pa dya-daft hijroys-par, bain try to 
associate with the holy ones. 

^SfjiprtrZi hyrogs-pa-po or ^Ifa^'w!^ 
hgrogg-par byed associate ; one who accom- 
panies, goes together. 

Syn. !*] rjes-chagi ; ^'^ yofis- 
tbyor; we.'^-^'"!* y ad-dag hgrogi (JffAon.). 

"?'^1*' hgro-lngs (custom) manner. 

*f^'9 hgron-bu * 55'wJS^ cho-lohi sa-bon 
cowries; dice (Mnon.). 

*^!fi-w hyro-im ?n*rsn (Schr.; K&lac. T. 
119). 

bzan-ma (Schr.; 92 A.). 

^'^ glaft-po an ele- 
phant (Mnon.). 

Q.jJpTEl I : hgrol-tva, pf. ij"!' WTO/, fut. 
^5i rf^ro/, to unravel ; to make loose ; to set 
free; to unfasten; ^^^"'^^ don- 
du mdud-pa hgrol-ica to cut the knot ; iffa' 
i'3 hgrol-tta po or ^"'iS hgrol-byed one 
who unravels, loosens ; ^'IT^"! hgrol- 
gyin Mug is being set free ; ^ 
fcgrol-icar hgyur will be set free. 



301 



'^ II : to escape, be liberated, be 
released from. The pf . here is If* grol. 
Generally used in the distinctive Bud- 
dhist sense of escape from the necessity of 
living, re-birth, etc. 



yros '?'^-' W mi-rta sogs- 
kyi hyro-lays gait; manner of walking of 
men, horses, etc. : \f V^fp'l ni-g.zlah kar 
la : *c.-q|jr icMhT'ft*'^''^ ran-hgros 

o 

rlun-hfjros gnis re-yod those that are self- 
moving, euch as sun, moon and planets, 
etc., and those that are moved; .-cr^'?a. - 
*$*rTVt*r^ those whose manner of 
walking is like the goose or the parrot are 
respected by all; |*'H* f %Hr*T!J*'^ 
Dj ) r8wjjfv *fq!vq,<i|-g-|^-w<O^ glafi-chen 

sen-ye khyu-mchog hgros-ldan mis, Ions-spy od 
man-pohi bdag-po byed-par Mod those that 
walk in the manner of elephant, lion or 
bull become rich and wish to be master of 
many people; & - 'T* M <r*W 1 |T*B | r* J & 
whosoever walks in the manner of dog, 
pig and donkey gains unhappiness (Mi.). 

3j'^ rga-u-a, pf. j' rga$ sixr 1. to 
be old, aged ; also sbst. old age. 2. to go 
down ; to set (of the sun, etc.) (Ja.). 

afa^'vS rga-u-afi krad-kyi bat, flitter- 
mouse (Ja.). 

flj'iS rga-lo (Schr.; Ta 2, 252). 

*'^ rga-$i 3HI*Hil old age and death ; 
^^-o|'|K,-q rga-qis yzir-tca to suffer under 
the infirmities of old age. 

4j' rgaH also <|fi|l*'w hgafi-gser-ma 
hedge-hog, the second term designating 
two species : Erinaceus auritus and 
Erinaceus anutrensis, the latter found in 
Kokonur district. 

rgad-pa=Te>&f. W tgan-pa old; 



\'^) rgad-po=^' c > rga$-pa also = 
s'ci bgres-po an old man ; a man gray 
with age. 

Syn. aK'S'Jfa lan-tsho yol; *('%\'% a i na- 
tshod yol; <5'*'|3*,'^ lo-mafi khur-ldan ; *&*<' 
ei'9*m dwon-po nam ; a fi*\'*' c i hkhogs-pa ; 

W* bshi-pahi gnas-skabs ; g'^'fH' 1 ' ku-na 
Smin-pa ; ^gc3r3f^'Zi dgun-lo mthon-po; Sj^'i 
rgan-pa (Mnon.). 

S'S r gad-mo an old woman. 



rgan-rgon (<R'5'<P'II rgad.-po 
rgad-po) old man and old woman. 



3^"^ rgan-pa *rar, fl^r an elder; 

senior. In Tibetan astrology a person 
agedbetween 60 and 72 is called ^'i. 

^j3j'| rgan-po ?$, ?^r, sftw 1. an old 
man ; elder. 2. the headman of a village. 

gj^q^'S'Jj rgan-pohi thiy, ^'1 go-wa vul- 
ture; also met. for rainbow (Mfion.). 



ij'o) rgan-pohi thig-le 
met. an old man's son. 

3fi-Zi5-iiw rgan-pohi las the work of an 
elderly man. 



rgan-mo sraK^rr, ir, 55T an 
old woman ; one infirm and worn out. 

^'9"!" rgan-shugs w%m> those that 
are grown old ; elderly people. 

rgan-rabs *ff& the venerable, 



rgan-rims 



class. 



aged. 



of the older 



^ac^-q rgan-la nam-pa 4*1 4: to listen 
to the advice of the old. 

rgan-son ^rarar has become old. 



302 



rgal KVX, ^RW ; = *" rah a ford ; 
chu-rgal the ford in a river: fl'ST*'* 
rgal gkah-wa difficult to ford or to cross. 

*jr i rgal-pa or 9(*'* rgal-u-a pf . and fut. 
ji 6r0/, imp. ^ r00f, to ford (a river) ; to 
travel through ; to pass over ; to surmount 
a pass: j - *i*'r$'l*"r8'|' I 5 rgya-mtsho la 
pru-0zMe-kyi rgal-te after having crossed 
the sea in a ship ; arwprqS-gK'S la b_rgal- 
wahi byafl fios the north side (face) of the 
mountain-pass that has been crossed. 

S^'*"!* rgal-tshigt ivtrt*, *f* the 
joints of the back ; hip-joint ; according 
to Sch. 9/*'**f* rgal-t8higs = % l *''**\* tgal- 
tshigs the spine. 



rgal-cig a lizard; g- 
bla-ma rgal-cig the chameleon. 

*\i rga-wa old, ripe. 



*l rgas-kii old age. 

rgat-pa=1R$ rga<j-po 
afh$ aged, old ; exhausted ; infirm ; sbst. 
an old man. 

^q-qti-q rgag-pa, buo-wa an elixir 
(which has the property of giving the 
appearance of youth in old age) ; *$vfy'3' 
$* bcucf-lengyi skor (Mfig. 90). 

*j'3\ rgas-bycd ajtrf%cr that makes 
one look old and haggard. 

qq'S'Vw rgas byed-ma smfVift a woman 
whose company makes a youth look old. 

ijj^-*)^ rgas-nied fswr that never 
grows old, a name of the celestial beings. 

%\ rgu=*^-dgu many; S3' 5" dgu-ihub 
one able to overcome many. 

T$* rgu-drus a mixture of many ingre- 

N 

dients healing sores, joining veins and 
removing pains in the intestines, as in 



rgu-drus rma- 
hdrub rtsa-mthud rgyu-gser hjoms (Med.). 

^lV^ r giid-pa ^RPT, ftrrfii, f?r, ^TTT[I: 

N3 

1. disadvantage ; trouble. 2. to dec- 
line, to sink, grow frail: jN'q^c.-^'q-;c.-^- 
'U^F'IVViVV^NFgS'*! r gas-pa dad tia- 
wa dan uiya-nan dan $ditg-bnal gyt'e liif- 
sem$ rgutf-pa (his) body and mind become 
deteriorated from misery, sorrow, disease 
and age ; ^'JS dar-rgiidj rise and decline. 
^'3 ryiid-po, v. 3V 5 gtid-po. 



photis-kyi mun-pa a destitute person ; des- 
titute. 

3^ rj7 = ^^i rgun-hbrum ?O^T 

grapes; 5^'^^ rgun-dkar the white spe- 
cies of grape: $^g'lf<'fi 1 N 
rgun-hbrum fflo-nad sel-shin tshad-pa 
the grape removes diseases of the lungs 
and cures fever. 

g^tw rgiiH-skcis wine or drink made 
from grapes. 

$^'<lS rgun-rgo$ wild grapes ; according 
to Jd. raisins in W. 



rgur-po or j^' sgw-po gr* 
>o 
hunchback ; one bent by age, v. "^ dgvr. 

5^'^ rgur-re ^'^'WW^f rgur-rgur 
byas-mi sdad-pa sit downcast, bending 

the head downwards. 
~v* 
zf\ rgo, sometimes for sf sgo. 

^'1 rgo-wa= f ftl dgo-wa a species of 
antelope Procapra picticaudata v. Jd. 



rgon-mo=- ^*F'S dgofi-mo in 

older writings the evening. 
^^* 
4|^ r^orf 1. adj. wild ; S'^S a vulture; a 

bird of prey ; Mfc wild goat ; t*\'3fa wild 
boar ; T"T3ft= "&' a wild yak. 2. *>' 



303 



mi-rgod. Ita-lu like a wild man ; a savage ; 
a robber; a ruffian; I'^'IV mi-rgod 
byed.-pa to rob (usually named together 
with murdering and lying). 

N rgod skam-ma a barren mare. 



r god-pa 1. to laugh. 2. = *|^' t > 
gyefi-wa to grow weak, languid, or in- 
dolent. 

+ ^ - qi]'*^ rgod bag-can, described as % 
5Ji'*)^$flwriq E -'*#' 1 ' yon-tan med-ciA sems 
dwaft mtho-ica 1. a vain person pretend- 
ing to be great and powerful, but devoid 
o wisdom. 2. = il*r$*rwl'^'q sems rnam- 
par mi-shi-wa the disturbed state of the 
mind (K. d. * 555). 3. weak; languid 
(Ja.). 

aft'S^ rgod-bycd. -ssgirqH laughing ; laugh- 
ter. 

^V* 4 rgotf-ma ^nfl", 41341 a mare. 

sfo'Sf | rgod.mz $kye$ 1. a name of the 
physician of the gods. 2. born of the 
mare. One of the wives of the God of the 
Sun who, unable to bear the glare of his 
rays, ran away in the guise of a mare to 
the northern continent, Uttara Kuru. 
The sun followed there, and caused her to 
give birth to the celestial twins called 
As'vini kumara. 

^jiS-m rgod-mahi tshogi TT^ a herd 
of mares. 

^u rgod-yas a numerical figure. 

3f rgol, v. 3^'fl rgol-ica. 

^nr^'sfai rgol-phyi rgol a posture of witch- 
craft against evil spirits: ^r%'3pi'9' q W 
q.*j*w rgol phyi-rgol gyi-g.dan b$ams (A. 33) 
prepared the seat for a defiant attitude to 
suppress evil spirits. 

Sb[y\'t\ rgol-wa^f^ to4-pa n%, pf. 
and fut. fl^ brgol, to dispute, combat, 



fight, make controversy; **| 9)w3jari to 
hold discussion, verbal disputation ; ^9^' 
^c/jfqsrl^arq to fight by means of troops 
and powers ; ^T i5'!J'' i ^ rgol-tcahi, shu-don 
a challenge ; a speech provoking a quarrel ; 
wSjai a quarrel or contest begun by the 
counter party (Sch.) ; wSfarft an adver- 
sary, opponent ; g'^f"! sna-rgol tjpt^r^ the 
plaintiff in a law suit, but generally signi- 
fies an aggressor, assailant; %'3|ai phyi-rgol 
HT^r^lr defendant; %^-Jj'acq5''J|^-ci phyir- 
rgol-wahi ynod-pa is an external danger 
against which every one tries to protect 
himself and chiefly by charms and witch- 
craft ; g'^oi $fia-rgoZ and %'3fa phyi-rgol are 
also said to signify such students as hold 
religious controversies with one another. 
g'Spi sna-rgol is the party putting the 
questions; %'^J phyi-rgol is the party 
answering the questions. 

3jar3ta| rgol-tshig threatening words. 

Syn. ir**! tpyo-tshig; 
tshig (Mfion ). 



token, 

mark, sign; J'^wi rgya-hdebs-pa to 
seal; to stamp: yf6*fn rgya geog-pa to 
break or open a seal; *'3'<Ss.'3'iOT'i ri- 
rgya lun-rgya bshug-pa to seal up hills and 
valleys, i.e., to protect the living beings 
inhabiting them from being harmed by 
huntsmen or fishermen ; an annual reli- 
gious performance of the Dalai Lama, 
consisting in a variety of spells and 
incantations for the safety of animals. 

Syn. H'* thehu-tse ; {J*|'V phyag-ddmi ; 
dam-phrug 



& II: animal of the deer class, in 
appearance Eke the Nilgai, possibly the 
saiga-antelope. 



304 



III: iw, ^f a net, a trap; }'$ 
fia-rgya a fishing net; S'J bya-rgya a 
fowling net ; ^'^1*<'3'3 ri-dwags kyi rgya a 
net or trap to catch birds or wild animals. 



IV: 1. extent; size: 
rgyahi tshad-nichi-tsam how much was its 
extent ? 3'W'***\'<< rgya tfpag-tii wed-pa 
immeasurable in extent. 2. *TTCfl a 
name for India but sometimes for China, 
which are both vast countries ; also full- 
ness, complete state, or perfection. j'Vrr 
I| ^'S*"'5 t ' q rgya rim-pa b.dun-rgya$ ^tab- 
pa there are seven kinds of mark used 
in dividing a volume ; they are the fol- 
lowing: (1) Stai-njj-JU|5fl|r*fl|-9|-3 tshig-hbrtt 
nri-ffk/irugt tshig-gi rgya the sign or mark 
for distinguishing one verse from another, 
so that the verses may not be confused ; 
(2) H-'* ) '*5 I "]*<''''-'ft'3'3 tshig-rkaH mi- 
hkhntgs-pa facf-kyi rgya the marks or stops 
used at the end of a sentence or the line of 
a verse ; (3) *ir%* ) '*!V'!*'' c '% 5 '3 tshig-don 
nti-hkhrttg$-pa khuhi rgya to mark the 
chapters: (4) Jf*-T*>-*|gi|rrwZi$-3 fo-lo- 
ka mi-hk/irugs-pa bam-pohi rgya the marks 
so that the lines may not be carried from 
one chapter to another; (5) *w 'Q *)" QI\W 
q-qwQ5'3jc.'5'5 bam-po mi-hk/irugs-pa bam- 
pohi graHs-kyi rgya marks to shew the 
number of parts in each volume ; (6) wv 
*J-R*cq-^-?ij]-5)-j rnthah mi-hchal-wa gne 
thig-gi rgya the marks to shew the end 
of book, part or chapter; (7) jj|nw*)- 
ngnm-q-fl]^c,-5)<i|-q||-|^-j|x;-|-| gjegi-bam mi- 
hkhrugs pa gdofi-yig gam fpyan-khyer-gyi 
rgya the serial number used in marking 
the volumes of a collection. 

S'3I* rgya-yram (gya-tam) a cross; the 
Svastika sign; ^'I'J'9I< rdo-rje rgya-gram 
a cross made of two Vajra, one placed 
upon another crosswiso. 



5'S^S rgi/a-skad Indian or Chinese lan- 
guage. 

5'^" tgya-skag a staircase, cf. D^'*| 
fkas-ka. 



rgya-skypgs ^frT, srg lac; a 
kind of resin ; S'|*] - 5h*r*S* tgya-$}<yegs 
kyi rnam-hgyur ara; a sort of lac of the 
colour of Manjistha. 

S'S"!*"'^' rgya-skyeg fid H(!T, ^hf, 
RT a kind of tree the twigs of which are 
used to clean the teeth. 

g-qgwcj rgya bskum-pa to contract ; to 
diminish in extent. 



j-'VH rgya-dkar large orb ; diski'Vl'V 
g V|V-f, ni-slahi rgya-dkar far the bright 
orbs of the sun and the moon appear 
(Jd.). 

J'i|Vi rgya bskyed-pa to widen, 
enlarge, extend, augment. 



d r gya khnms-pa the Ehampa 
tribes residing on the confines of China 
and Tibet. 

S'S rgya-khyi a Chinese lap-dog. 

3'Gft tgya-khyon or J'^i'S^' rgya ham 
khyon, v. 3 rgya. 



Bgya-gar said to stand for 
Rgya-dkar, because 4kar becomes "J^ gar 
when joined to the word 3 ryya fK<T; 
Tibetan n. for India, the extensive country 
where the people dress in white. The 
different names for India are (I) 
Jlpliags-yul ^)Tg^w Arya des'a; (2) 
<*|gc Bp/iags-hkhrufls birth (place) of the 
Holy ones; (3) <*V^Wrflfl fjsoj-namt 
sa-yshi yupjfii Punya-bhu-mi for Magadha ; 
(4) 5^c.-c3 Sahi snin-po n 

^ 



305 



* S "!* 9"!'^ Rgya-gar phyag-na (Schr. ; 
Ta. , 249). 

tgya-gram, v. J'gi rgya-kram. 
rgya-grol^tm set free, liberated. 
rgya bgyab-pa or j'^'i r<W- 
btab-pa to lay a net or trap. 

51* rgya-tgyw-ra, met. for HT* 
grog-ma the ant (Mnon.). 

S'*T tgi/a-igo ^r* a gate ; a principal 
door or entrance. 

S'f* tgya-sgyttr met. an ant (flfnon.). 
3j'5C' rgya-caft $'V| - gjq'cw 
i^'i tke-rags tbub-can ab btab-pa narrow, 
long money-bag made of net and securely 
joined to the sash. 

Tgya-lcog Chinese table. 

rgya-chad partiality ; invidious 
distinction. 

j'fc'q rgya che-wa or S"i ^'^ ffthul che-wa 
great, large, copious, diffused; f^'i'J'i'i 
fton-pa rga cJie-wa a great master or 
teacher. 

j'2*'Xr<i Rgya-cher rol-pa Tibetan 
edition of the Lalitavistara. 

j-^-9( rgya-che lam H^pm=5'l*' rgya- 
litm main road. 

rgya-chen-po=$^>'i rgya che-wa 
large, copious, wide ; *r*'j'3^q 
sa-cha tgya-clien-po an extensive country 
or large place ; *to*' J'2^'9 sem$ rgya-chen-po 
a generous broad heart ; ^'5'^'Qc/<oj rgya- 
chen-po a voluminous religious work ; reli- 
gious observances on a large scale. 

j-l^qgq|rjj rgya-cher bsfiags-pa f^h$ 
copious or abundant description. 

rgya-jog or f '^ rgya-hjoya a 
long table ; a bench. 

J'W rgya-rtag$ 1. w^i mark, sign, 
signature, stamp. 2. (3jc. gratis) n. of a 
numeral. 

S'?* 1 rgya-tam the Indian rupee. 



rgya-thcl a kind of seal or stamp. 
c,^ rgya-mthofis lit. wide view ; a 
platform or open pavilion on the top of a 
house. 

f*^ Rgya-mdah n. of a district in 
upper Kong-po (Yig. k. 25). 

S' 9 ^ rgya-hdre or f*r^ rgyam-hdre a 
quarrel. 

S'^1 Sffya-twg *TfT^5T China, z.c., the 
great and extensive country where people 
dress in black. 

J'$w Rgya-rnams or g')'Jiw Rgya-nri- 
rnams the Chinese people. 

3T5 rgya-sna ru in mystic language 
copulation (<p-l^-^-r^|^-i| gab-tshig don- 
I'.i hkhrig-pa), 

5'aV rgya-$pos <nPC: the Chinese 
incense stick or c/bss-stick. 

! rgya-phugs 5T?T a full covering. 



bsam-pa, hbad-pa to be useful and of service ; 
to exert one's self : *^- jr3'qjH\ - crar j-q-ufy- 
< safi-rgyas-kyi bstan-pa la rgya-wa yin- 
pag (A. 133) he was of great service to 
the religion of Buddha. 

5'5 rgya-wo the beard ; colloq. " gyan." 
J'^ rgya-bod or 3^1'\.'^ Rgya-nag-daA 
Bod China and Tibet. *)f%tffe; also 
Ulterior or Chinese Tibet. 

S'l^'ia rgya-byin g.shu T*T^: rain- 
bow. 

S'*< rgya-ma a steel-yard. IQ Amdo 
the term 3'*i rgya-rma signifies secondary 
syphilis. 

5'*ty *>'*] rgya-men me-tog a flower used 
as medicine: 5'*>^'*''?''|'H q ) lt *H l 'I'^'fV q l^'' J '' li < a i, 
the flower Oyamen mctog is useful in 
diseased blood and in pains in the 
shoulders. 

S'" tgya-mo a net; also a Chinese 
woman. 

40 






306 



S'JJI rgya-snntg of the colour oi the 
liver ; purple. Ace. to Jd. violet colour. 

S'tf*-" rgya-rtsafis a kind of lizard 
(Sman 322). 

3$" rgya-rtsi (H'$ sa-rtsi) a Chinese 
Tarnish: |*lvH m f t Jirf|T| rgya-rtst's 
rma-fii hbrag-$kro>i rfio-fa phan Chinese var- 
nish cures sores, wounds, skin-irruption, 
itch, etc. 

3 - i?f 3*>'^.'*| Rgya-brtson hgrus Sefi-ge 
n. of the learned Tibetan Lo-tsa-ica who 
twice visited Vikramas'ila in Magadha with 
a view to take Atls'a to Tibet. 

y* 4 rgya-tshba= 3 \* ( '''H*i'* 4 'i yin-tu lan- 
tshba-wa sal-amoaiac. 

Syn. TS'5 ka-po-ta; |'<rtfl) frhe-hbigs 
(Won.). 

J'*" rgya-tshot vermilion. 

3'** rgya-mtsho n^, flr^sw'* 1. the 
ocean; the sea. 2. dropsy. 3. it also signi- 
fies the number four: HW* 
j- *<*$)*) r*Wj-)^ mkhaf-pa 
mi-fiomf, rgya-mtsho chu-yig Horns-pa 
metf no amount of elegant sayings or writ- 
ings is adequate for the learned; no 
quantity of water is sufficient for the ocean. 
5'*)* is a common personal name in Tibet. 

Syn. $'"|5* chu-gter ; $'V1 chu-dng; $5' 
^'5 chuhi phufi-po ; ^^ < ^'fiN rin-chen 
hbyud-ynas ; |' i*'' li <Qi sla-icaf hphel; |'i5' 
f"l sla-wahi grogs ', TXar$'n^ pha-rol mi- 
mfion; Wjm^ip-q rgcil-dkuh-ica; - ^'^' 
1^* chu-srin hbyufi-g.na$ ; $'^' i^' I l chtt-srin 
bdag ; 55'^'55'$e.-^ c/jMAz srin-pohi gron- 
che ; ^'^5'^fl|'Ei sin-dhuhi bdag-po ; *I|'^^ 
yan gha-hdsin ^'5)'^'*^ >'-/' hod-can X' 
8f^'*i ro Idan-ma ; r*ti6\i sa-mchod ma ^"|' 
^'"I^*i dug-can pna$ ; yi'^^'flj^ nal-hgrohi 
gter; ^m^wi*s dal-hbab mdsod; 4^f c/<- 
sfe/; ^'^'Ji'w^'^ c/.u srin rgyal-rntshan 
can ; |'q5 - w) sla-icafii ma-ma. 



rgya-mtsho dgah ^TOSH^JT the 
moon; 3><*5'3 rgya-mtshohi zla ^fwfo^ 
reflection of the moon in the ocean; '**' 
rwrtl^'l'^ rgya-mtsho pa-ham mcrtod-gyi 
4pyad *<^<!i*|'U a seaman or anything 
belonging to the sea. 

* j-#-jnrq Ergya-mtuho fbas-pa Samu- 
dra Gupta ; w^rWf n. of ancient monas- 
tery found buried under sand by King 
Dharmapala, near site of which was found- 
ed the monastery of Vikramas'ila. 
+ j-*5-*iK.- rgya-mtshohi 
rgya-mtshohi ipjitis or J 
e vast expanse of the sea. 

< rgya-mtshohi dufi-phrefi = 
*'( tsha-la billows ; waves of the sea ; also 
borax (Sman. 166). 

4j-*iS-^-q Egya-mtshohi rdo-ica n. of a 
medicine. 

jj-*)*virq rgya-mtshohi wu-u-a, v. j'w*?' 
^S'* 1 rgya-mchohi (fbu-u-a ^^sr, a kind of 
medicine [(1) sea-foam, (2) cuttle-fish 
bone]& 

3'*^ rgya-bshiin W. is stated to be a kind 
of f tor-ma offering to demons and demi-gods 
as a substitute for animal sacrifice (Jd.). 

5'lli rgya-p&eb ace. Sch. a large net; a 
large rake used in reaping. 

3'"^ rgya-yan="^ c -'f> pyefi-u-a laziness; 
remissness: ^'^'5'"'^'^*' rnam-kun rgya- 
yan du$ during the time I am found negli- 
gent (of religious duties) (Yig. k. 22). 

+ J'")''*^ rgya-yi-hbur engravings on a 
seal; S' 5 *'"^ rgya-yi hbur=zW%*\-^% 
dam-phrug gi ri-mo the raised figures or 
inscriptions on a seal ; gl'g phyag-rgya in 
mystic rites the symbolical gestures 
of the hand or the fingers, to express cer- 
tain charms and language. 

S'^i 1 " rgya-yul the country of India or 
China. 



307 



a portion of meat (Jd.). It also denotes a 
measure = half dutn or one fourth of Ihu. 
S'^1 rgya-rog=vn\-'SK aga-tsom beard. 
3'mq rgya-lab talk, gossip. 
3'" 1 * 1 rgya-lam high road, main way. 
$'"! rgya-qug the juniper tree ; a 
species of fir from China and the Hima- 
layas; a species of jujube ;'5'*JV^K.'XB,'3)' 
$J q I' J i'*g*!'g'$c.'$*'<^5' t| '^ q I rgya-gar-dan ron- 
gi fug-pa hbras-bu chun-chun yod-pa shig 
(Khrid. 33) ; 5'31'9|'vj rgya-yug-gi hbru 
3>^r, ~%%\ qra jujube, fruit. 

Syn. S'^Y^'S bya-rijod sen-mo; ^g^'!* 1 ' 
5^ hbras-slum-can ; ^W|*i ddal-skycs ; *rfqi 
sa-stobs (Mnon.). 

3'3T*i$'* rgya-pig hkhyil (j'^f^'l^'B' 
JUC.-Q rgya-fug-gi gdoii-po bzan-po) a species 
of juniper. 

S'^w rgya-fub$ or ^'^^ pits-fiib? light 
trousers worn by the Chinese. 
rgya-qog Chinese paper. 
rgya-$os=$%'$ rgya-tshos vermi- 
lion. 

j'ik rgya-ser 1. gap, cleft, fissure 
chasm in rocks, glaciers, &c. 2. a dog 
with yellow spots about the nose. 3. 
5'^ P J a Russian. 

S'^1 rgya-sog or J'Si] n) rgya-sog-le 1. 
a saw imported from India or China. 2. 
a Tartar of Turkistan. 

J'JJs. rgya-sran a wide opening or 
passage ; a street ; a balance. 

5'S1^ rgya-sran ff^rw (^g hbru) a kind 
of pulse ; gram. 

^, '|'^ rgyag-pa am-ther form for $3 v 
rgyab-pa, used esp. iu C., to throw, cast, 
fling ; *<^<vjn|'q rndah rgyag-pa to shoot 
arrows ; ^'i'^ TiT J dgon-pa shig rgyag- 
pa to found a monastery. Has, in 
general, all the significations of 



provisions, 

victuals, food; ^Safi-jupi htsho-tvahi 
rgyags provisions for living; "W'l^ lam- 
rgyags provisions for a journey ; < S3^'"I*i 
dgun-rgyags provisions for the winter; 
JP']fe: rgyags-zon merchandise to buy 
or barter victuals with. 

^^^1 ^ II ; *r^ ^, KT*f ; "v^'i dregs- 
pa arrogance, pride. Adj. arrogant and 
inebriated. There are eight kinds of gil*ro 
rgyags-pa : (1) ^flnrwrj[<iprci rigsbzan- 
tcas rgyags-pa pride of high birth ; (2) IHIJW 
51^ - i g.zugs-kyis rgyags-pa pride of appear- 
ance ; (3) oic.-^-|q]^-q lan-tshos rgyags-pa 
pride of youth; (4) afi-d'vqirjuprti nad med- 
pas rgyags-pt pride of freedom from sick- 
ness ; (5) ^^'I^'J 1 '!^ nor-gyis rgyags-pa 
pride of wealth; (6) ^'^'W^wi dwan 
yod-pas. rgyags-pa pride of power ; (7) ^ 
"I -!*rcrgij*!'q bzo-rig yc-pas rgygas-pa 
pride of technical knowledge ; (8) w^y^r 
fN'giiN'ti man-du thos-pa rgyags-pa pride 
of versatile perception. 

J^'Bfi'^sv'Ift rgyags-pahi dgah-ston 
fat, stout (Sch.) ; also mighty, powerful, 
proud. 



= -^' rgyafi 1. wall. 2. 
distance. 

JB-'SJipi rgyan-grags ifrta the distance 
of about two miles ; the reach of hearing. 

2E,-s&c.'q5c.-fyj rgyafi-mchofi btaA-gin 
moving forward by long leaps. 

jt-gt/q rgyan thud-tea near; ^^"gc,' 
mig-rgyaft distance of sight, i.e., the 
distance from which a man may be well 
distinguished. 

|E.-^-^N-q rgyan-du lu$-pa lingering 
behind (Sch.). 

|C^r3q-q rgyan-nas phog-pa 
ear shot ; hit from a distance. 



308 



'CJ rgyad-pa, used for "jj^'i brkyan- 
, stretched: tf.-W^Vrgyan-nasbsliaff- 
pa they laid him down stretched out 
(Jd.). 

je. -n^-cr Rgyan phan-pa or 3=- 9c. <i rgynn 
phen-pa a sect of Hindu philosophers who 
were scorned by the Buddhists and called 
atheists ; ^oi'^-jf^-q lit. the cast out by 
the world, i.e., the despised of the people, 
the Lokayata sect of Ancient India. 

jc.-** rgyan-ma distance ; great way off ; 
4jc.-*4-^i rgyan-ma-na$ at a distance; from 
afar, JfCWJ^f^rvl'l rgyan-ma-nas gragt- 
pa chc-wa famous, celebrated ; heard from 
afar. Very common in older as well as 
in modern works. 



fc.-Hfiq rgyan-mig ini-rttthon- 
rnk/ian short-sighted. 

3 K '^ Rgyan-tse ordinary pronunciation 
of 3 l *ry Rgy<il-rtse,the chief town in the 
district of Nyang in Southern Tsang. 
rgyan-tvhas not far from. 

rgyan-rin-po far, remote ; Jt 
?e,-Q-^w^-o rgyan rin-po-na} len-pa taken 
or brought from a great distance. 

4jc.Rc.-j5 rgyan-rin-ua faMB, <3T3a, 
VTia delaying ; procrastinating. 

jjc.qfjc. cj rgyan bsring-pa lengthened 
to a great distance. 

5 C " rgyan s adv. f ar ; JW^QV^ rgyafa 
bkyed-de moving far away, e.g., in order 
to increase one's distance from an unplea- 
sant neighbour at table (Jd.). 

rgyafis-te arriving as in haste: 



gyi hkhar-u-a-shig thogi-na khon-gi rtsar 
rgyan-te bytin carrying a crystal staff he 
arrived near him (A. 138.). 

JWS|*' rgyan-gin, also wrongly written 



Iri-rgyuhi ras-gslti rgyon-wahi fifi sags daft 
mi-sog rgyans-ica 1. castle. 2. the board 
on which the body of a culprit is stretched 
for flogging ; the board or canvas on which 
cloth or pasteboard is placed for making 
a picture. 



; rgyan, colloq. rgyan-cha 
fa^T, ^WT ornament, decor- 
ation; garl'WlJ^ rgyan-gyis b_rgyan-pa 
decked with ornaments; *'f^ dwu-rgyan 
the ornament of the head; a diadem; 
$*r3'j^ sems-kyi rgyan a blessing ; an 
ornament of the heart : ^W'^VV'S'S^ 

flpfl-a^ Hw^-^-^-^-5'|I|-q'|-li ) no 

ornament of the body equals mental talents; 
the miseries of the body are not equal to 
anxiety of the mind (Qe. 13). 

Syn. * chat; >"1<'^ kgs-byed; ?'SM 
mdset-bya$; J^'S* rgyan-byed; ^f^'i dkod- 
pa; f} spras (Jjfnon.). 



as 



skii-than ri-mo 



II : g""!*! $kiig$ 1. a stake or pledge 
at play. 2. lot ; f ^'5 q g tgyan-rgyab-pa, 
to cast lots without religious ceremonies. 

j^wp^-Zj rgyan mkhan-po ^f\TKTfe<T 
(Sc/tr. ; Ta 2, 187) one versed in rhetoric. 

5^3Vi rgyan hgyed-pa ^fr?T to lay 
a wager. 

^siXij rgyan-mchog ^v%*. earring. 

S^'V*** Tgyan-du hcltar it proves a 
blessing for the heart ; a moral advantage. 

f ^ '%"! rgyan-drug ^wr^I the six kinds 
of ornaments used by the Aryan people of 
India. 

f^'^l**'" rgyan-hdogs-pa to adorn 
one's self. 

8^V^'*^ Tgyan nehu le-can Tff^i^f 
ornament made in the shape of a weasel's 
head. 

3^1 rgyan-pa=*W\'<i bshag-pa 
adorned, bejewelled. 



309 



^ 5 rgyan-po ^<r\ip throwing dice; 
also ^-q^-.^ rgyan bskag-mkhan one 
who joins in a wager; gambler. 

5 J T J'5 I Vq rgyan-pa byed-pa to lay a wager. 
ylfi'1 rgyan dor-wa or ^i) bshag-pa 
'qsnrw a dice-rogue ; a gamester; one who 
throws dice. 

3^ rgyan-phran TPW commonly or 
slightly ornamented. 

2^'S* rgyan-byas, v. f^ r</*/. 

S^'ii"!* 1 rgyan zla-gam -^JR a semi- 
circular necklace. 

3 r^6 w, wa 1. the back of the 
body ; the back part of anything ; 30 $ 
*! tgyab-kyi phyogs behind ; gqiwfiiN- 
iviyo rgyab-kyis phyogs-par byed-pa to 
put to flight ; jq-fn rgyab-khal a burden 
carried on the back; sq^vZi rgyab gur- 
po haunch-back; jq'g*i rgyabsfai a 
cushion or pad for the back. 2. a load; 
""'" a load or pack of wool ; \t'3i'W 
three mule-loads. 

3"' rgaab-tu jP'^ rgyab-na, and gq'( 
rgyab-la are in common use both as adverbs 
and as postp., in the latter form governing 
the genit. case, signifying afterwards or 
after, behind, at the back, etc. : 3w*flf 
rgyab-la rgyug run behind ; j^S' jq^-^m ?ic.- 
they lay down behind him ; ^%q?-lfii|-$'j||- 
&$<*W after building the roof of the 
monastery. 

S q '5'^ rgyab-tti shon mounts on the 
back. 

2 q f *i cgyab-rten VT^g a back-support ; 
something to lean against ; a safe retreat ; 
prop, support. 

gq-f^ci rgyab rten-pa to lean one's back 
against; to lean or rest on; to rely upon, 
confide in. 

3^'3Vi rgyal-rten byed-pa to make 
a support ; to back. 



Ji'R-q rgyab s ton-pa to turn one's 
back; to turn round. 

rgyab-g.non confirmation. 
_ tgyab-pa, p f. and fut. qgq 

brgyab, imp. fq rwo j f to throw, to fling 
to hit, to beat, to strike ; ^jq-q rdo-rgyab- 
pa to throw or pelt stones at ; % -jq-tr <;in- 
rgyab-pa to put wood (on fire, &c.) ; *<! 
ho-r gyab-pa to kiss ; "praiMq--jq-, 
ftyugt-nagi seb-tur gyab-pa to let the 
cattle run into the thickets, qjfrq-jq-q 
bzlog-pa rgyab-pa, also <vpo ftab-pa to 
clap ; K'iryrv ho-ma-r gyab-pa to pour or 
mix milk; <-jq-q Mba-rgyab to salt (a 
curry or meat). 

jq-Jfcrq rgyab phyog$-pa to turn one's 
back to a person or thing; to leave it 
behind ; to be indifferent. 

}*'&' rgyab byed-pa to protect; to 
back. 

S"'^ 5 " rgyab-hicol, jq-^ rgyab-rten 
cushion for the back. 

S^* 1 "! rgyab-dmag=^-^ti\ rjes-dmag 
re-inforcement ; reseive. 

S q J* 1 rgyab-rtsi$ intend to make; hint. 

S"'r rgyab-rdsi one standing behind 
working people in order to watch and 
superintend them. 

F'^ rgyab-phufi the spine, the 
backbone. 

a number. 

' rgyab-rifi ffat the long-back; 
met. a fish or a snake. 

Sq-ferfro rgyab-log byed-pa to turn 
one's back ; to rebel ; revolt. 

Jr*| rgyab-log$ the back; back part; 
the reverse of a " ' 



y* rgya-tshba 
a kind of rock-salt 
(brought from Sind) used in medicine. 



310 



I : rgyal (M*' w gkar-ma) f<rajt, 3HH drum of victory diffusing far and wide 

Tthe eighth constellation in the Hindu proclaims your fame all over the world 

and Buddhist astronomy. (Yi(J- k). 

Syn. 5'wS-^-^-w bla-mahi Iha-ldnm-ma ; I^HI*^ Rgyal-chcn j 

Vgiaci sbyor ldan-ma ; **ry fshim-byed- Rgyal-chcn b$hi 

ma ; 3vr grub-pa-ma ; Ji'lft rgyal-smaj *fft* 5 they are : (1) JFWffcy Ynl-hk/ior 

(Won ). *-"" ^<T^Tf > (2) wi*i'|*>'cj Sphags fkye$-po 

ft 4^4<h, (3) j^')'q*6' Spy an mi-bsan fV^m^, 

^^ II: 1. TO. 2. the five penalties (4) ijwft-^q Rnam-thos sra$ t^nr 

for theft. j'Ji'wXfli rgyal-mchog ^PT^T, 'assiq*! n. 

^ HI: (used only in compounds) P- (Schr.; Ta. 2, 3) victoiious; subduer. 

royal, victorious ; also great, chief . *F"*T^'* I 1 Rgyal-mchog rin-chen 

R Ik hd/id= a J e *%*'8.* (Schr.; 27 A). 

ui^'Ji'Hi yk/ior-los tgyur-icahi rgyal-po ji'^^ rgyal-Mab i&vi n. of a tree 

a Chakravart! Eaja (Won.). [a lotusJ-S. 

gi'^T^ Rgyal-dkah ^Bf^ra, ^5W, '"ssil *3"l'^'S''l^'i| e '' Rgyal-s.de dkar-c/mn siq- 

invincible ; the unconquerable. %T (Sc/ir. ; Ta. 2 t 212). 

*ij|-jj-*i^-?i rgyal-gyi mtshait-mo in^Krfi 5i f ^l'^I: raval-vo TTWT ^f*a^ ^fiizi 

f ^U ' ~JJ f 9 t ""I 

a December night ; 31'3'i'* 1 rgyal-gyi zla- ^j king, chieftain, ruler ; Ji'^'tif Q 
wu tn^'HW the month of December; 3^' ryyal-por fako-wa to inaugurate a king; 
*<T *> rgyal-gyi na-wa fa ^rtm the to raise (him) to the throne : S^'S 
full-moon day of December- January. ^c.-^-ojac^-qnj^ a ' a i'5 a ('^ a i' c J'!!l 3 i'' i: i!!l^ the king 

*ai pot.' rgyal-khafi = 31 35 5 gt.' rgyal- is honoured in his own country, the li arned 
pohipho-bran the king's residence; palace. is everywhere respected; *3j'K 3| 3*1 Q the 

ruling deity of Do-thang : e^'Hrs) R^ I 
do not wish to be king : ji'q-sHSV^ if I 
do not attain royalty. 

Syn. *<'*[*' sa-$ki/on; '*ft'jfe.' sa-gshi 



Syn. jTZft-ptq rgyal-pohi khab; )5S 
,^ bso<J-nam$ khafi-pa (Won.). 

jui'^q'^'S rgytil-kfiab clien-po the main 
government; imperial government (Yig. 
k. 18). 



fkyofi; 



rgyal- 



'-' sa-bsrun ; *)' 5S''l sa-bdag; 3*)'5 
sa-dicafi ; S^'^'l*' dpuft-pa 

gkyes.; mil'mN'**) lag-las skycs; ^i - tiv|i 
wo^t khrims court law ; the king s law : w* , 

rnam-par skyes; "% q^'^qc. hgro-icahi dican; 

7-po ; *>'i mi-rje ; 
I mihi dwan-phyug ; 



'^c.' the law is a golden yoke. 
rgyal-rnkhan-po Tifei (Schr.; 
Ta. 2, 230) learned. 

^' ffi Tgyol-rgyud royal family or line- 
age. 

JTE rgyal-rna siq?i^i drum of victory : 
rrw*iW^tTO w |"| rgyal-rfia rob- 
hbyamt $hin kun-khyab par-bsgrags the 



j mi-bdag; 

ihi dwan-po ; $$'<*%$' 1 mihi hdren- 
pa; 1^*<'3'3' 1 i'3 gnam-gyi rgyal-po; ^Si'^m' 
1^ hjigs-sel byed ; ^"'|<i dmah-kyob ; fj^v 
spyi-wor dwan-bskur ; )'5)-iSfo-Q 
rngon-po ; '^^ sa-hdsin ; '^ sr?- 
| sahi dwan-phyug (Mnon.). 



311 | 

J^l H II: that which is excellent; CVn-rta bcu-pahi srag; ^^^ Mgrin 

something superior in its kind; fc'S-^- bcuhi-dgra-wo ; Srfcaw* Si-tahi bdag-po ; 

3|-3 tin-ne-hzdsin rgyal-po Samadhi-raja, ^'^'$v% Hwm-#lin rgyal-po ~'^-'\w 

the excellent work on meditation. 3 dgah byed-bsan-po ; f qr*y^| Pho-brafi 

gorg-a.^-tr^-t^w rgyal-po hkhun-pa mi -tog can (Mflon). 

gros M>6s=Vf^-i<J|-gq dkar-po chig-thub i q^q^c. Egyal-po rab-snafi described 

n. of a medicinal root (Sman. 104). as q ^^^^ ^5^*'' ) '^*<'?J'g c -' w' Q r i'^'q' 

garg-ojjjarq rgyal-po hkhyil-wa 1. a H*T*<^ n - of aki _ 

medicine. 2. TTWrn, Tram a kind of day Buddha was bom. 

precious stone said to be brought from 5*"^'^'* Rgyal-pc 

Viratdes'a; a royal fillet. **W*p*^WVtl*-i 

Syn. '>^ WJM-WJCW (Mflon.). 3l'q-fl|^^-q-|^q, Egyal-po 

<* q rgyal-po nes-par htsho- , ' fan " r ^ dmar-po 

_t j v ii. i a. Of. a medicine (Sman. 2% A). 

supported by the king. <* 

fTW'I'Wrtrq rgyal-pohi $ku-bsruri$-pa 

rgyal-po-can royal ; kingly. a king > 8 body-guard. 

w rgyal-po hjoms TTOS one who Syn. qg c.'^-^^^ bsrun-mihi tshogs-pa ; 

has killed the king ; regicide. 8'iS^-<i ffe< bsritfis-pa ; ^'^ la-trahi $de 

gai-q-aqj-q rgyal-po snwg-po=%% gja-rhi "^'^ b&iufo-wa (Mnon.). 

musk (gwMTO. J^). ^ gucqq-|^^ai rgyal-pohi $kyed-tshal=*p- 

-,..=:.,.^-. ft , ej^'iai rgyal-pohi tshal or "Nil^'q^'^aj ////* 

gal : mq g; rgyal-po mtshon-byed f!z Sy- 

the cock. "*** ** ftal ro ^ al g arden s; park (4Wan.). 

L,.K.^%, *l'q3'i N '9 rgyal-pohi $kves-btt = WZ$.-& 

q l* rgyal-po bshin^wcw^'z*. , , * 

7 ,, , , ." , J rgyal-pohi nn ?T5JH^ personage of the 

I'C^KT m " m " ner 0| k ^''i mi1 ^ - 

5^-q^-pq rgyal-pohi khab T.raw the 

' rgyal-po bshi,g S -pa KTai^ king's residence ; palace ; capital Eaiagir 

the race of kings. in Magadha. 

301-Zi-w^e. Egyal-po zag-fftsan King S J n - S^^'l^V khyad-par bkod-pa ; "flar 

S'uddhodana; ^i-^^^-|-(q bcom-ldan "'^ hphel-wa-can ; ^^^ bkra-$i$ can; 

hdas-kyi yab the father of S'akya-muni. J^^ii^e.-q bsod-nams khan-pa ; QT4K-IUK 

||-q-q|iy^'c.-u|^-^ Egyal-po ayu-sdoA kun-nas bzan ; 1 '"Ii '-s^ ba-gam-can ; K'QFwfc* 

ffser hgo ^rftr^n n. of a medicinal plant sa -^ a ff khyim; t W\f> i *&f4 g.yun-drun 

(Sman. 77) [the plant Justicia ****" J S" 1 '^' rgyal-khan; ji-i5^-gR- 

Janderussa]S. rgyal-pohi pho-bran; gacc^-^-- 

*M-ri-*-xi-x r> ^ Z bsti-gtnas (Mnon.). 

p Egyal-po Ea-ma-na King rH$ 1 iwi 7 

Eama-chandra of the Eamayana. rgyal-pohi 

rgyal-snd xr*tT kingdom. 

Syn. *|*i Ea-huhi-bu ; ^^ Dkah- y*t*w rgyal-pohi rtags the signs of 

<b-can; *rK rA4 ; W^ ^A- royalty, such as the umbrella, the ohoury, 

* $** Sphofls-skyen; ^ q-qS-jj*i etc. ; royal paraphernaHa. 



il'qi 



312 



$<*'%* rgyal- 
sras the son of a king ; a prince ; a scion 
of the royal family ; a royal descendant. 

jTZiS-^SA rgyal-pohi dpyad *d%, <ymr 
present ; tribute (to a king). 

5rZi$'3 - g rgyal-pohi myn-gu the son of 
a king ; a prince. 

+ jarzfrjjiw rgyal-pohi s/rts = i'^'*'5-^- 
btsun-mohi gdod-sa the queen's apartments 
in a palace, also her attendants. 

Syn. qg^'tf^pfr btsun-mohi hkhor; S'gf 
^pho-bran hkhor (Mnon.). 

jacZivqjjqwq rgyal-pot bjcrabs-pa = y*%** 
^ni'Q rgyal-pos hdam$-pa chosen, selected 
gain and loss ; win by the king. 

jjiriw rgyal-pham victory and defeat; 
wining and losing. 

5rg^ rgyal-phran (gyal-than), a petty 
king ; a feudatory prince. 

Syn. JT^'l*)'*'-'!*' rgyal-rigs cha-fas ; 
ojq ^-^qe.- yul-hkhor-dicafi ; ^Ji'l'iS"! '" 
yul-gyi bdag-po; H^jJ^'l' grofi-khyer-rje ; 
^'S^ ide-$pon; vc.\v\-%<&*i sa-yi tihg- 
le hdsin; pnw%$*-% khams-kyi rgyal-po 



I : rgyal-ica am, v. neut. 1. to be 
victorious ; to win ; to conquer ; to subdue ; 
to overpower ; l fl' l ^'V l<l ' nr y* nag-pohi 
phyogs-las rgyal-tca to be victorious over 
the powers of sin, i.e., the side of darkness ; 
fljojurawjm-q $yttl-las rgyal-wa to be vic- 
torious in battle; #<V^q wjJiq tslwd Ita- 
ica Itf rgyal-ica to pass an examination 
successfully ; f S'" ' wj^'i rtaod-pa-la rgyal- 
wa to win a contest. 2. the number 
twenty-four. 

*7I*q II; aro 1. the act of conquer- 
ing; victory. 2. the conquering party or 
person; he that prevails; the conqueror 
(opp. to w * pfiam-pa, the vanquished). 



*3 III: faT, H?W v 1. the con- 
queror, most high, i.e., the Buddha. 2. 
the earliest known Buddha, Adi-Buddha ; 
the conqueror of passions. 

^jQJ'q IV: adj. victorious ; superior ; 
eminent; excellent: jwen-jarqS-pifws. 
rtiam-par rgyal-wahi k/tafi-bsan the man- 
sion completely excellent. 

*5rq-a\ rgyal-wa can, n. p. (Scfir.; 
Still. !S!t8, 288). 

*jm-q-)Xq|-5|-g'\wiS rgyal-ica mclto</-<i<' 
(kye4-mdsa$ fsimrvx* (Scttr. ; Kalac. T. 

21). 

jurq-flf^-q Rgyal-wa g.ni$-pa the second 
Buddha of this age; an epithet which 
onoe belonged to Nagarjuna, now given 
to Tsong khapa, i.e., i'^'H'* Rje-rin-po- 

che, yrwftw&nipi'&'y*'***^'**'' 1 **'* 
rgyal-wa gni$-pahi bstan-pahi rgyal-niishait 
srid-rtwr bgyrefts, he uplifted in the king- 
dom the banner of the creed of the second 
Buddha (Tsong-khapa) (Tig. k. 22). 

* n-q-girH*( rgyal-wa tshul-khrims one 
of the four great Teachers of the Bon 
religion (0. Bon. 35). 

jrq-3!-^|-^ Ryyal-ica tshc-dpag-med 
t*R-^ftnT5: (Schr.; 29 A.) n. of a 
Dhyani-Buddha. 

*rq'-3'3q' Rgyal-ira fhakya thiib-pn, 
5'5'<'8'1 ta-tya-thha ntu-ni (Schr. ; 33 A). 

jm-q-^-q-i Rgyal-wa Rin-po-che the 
"most precious Jina" is the ordinary title 
in Tibet of the Grand Lama of Lhasa 
the Dalai Lama. 

jq-qS-^Vm Rgyal-wahi cod-pan awrifa 
n. of a famous king of Kashmir who reign- 
ed about the seventh century A.D. 

vq<tqgari Rtjyal-wahi bstan-pa=^w 
jw3'q^'i sans rgyas-kt/i bg'an-pa the reli- 
gion of Buddha ; Buddhism (Yig. k. 10). 



313 



i thugs-sras 
W: the spiritual son of Buddha. 

gorcw'|Sj rgyal-wahi spyan = ^' 
^"1 Itig-mig me-tog a flower resembling in 
appearance the eye of a Buddha and used 
in medicine (Sman. 421). 

garqS^qcg Egyal-u-ahi du-an-po far^ 
the chief Buddha; also an occasional appel- 
lation of the Grand Lama of Lhasa : JT 
^'SwQ^w^'^^vflil^^-Saj-Ei the 
Gyal-wai Wang-po is the great seer and 
one who knows all things (Yig. k. 1). 

*Jr** > W'ff rgyal-icahi dwan- 
pohi blo-gros fsj^^fcf (Schr. ; Bull. 1848, 
9^) one whose mind is devoted to the 
Lord Buddha. 

JprqA'3'3 rgyal-ivahi myu-gu, v. g'Ji'jj*) 
rgt/al-.<tra$ fsr^r^ [a nascent Buddha.jS. 
*q rgyal-wahi rgyal-tshab=^'^ 
Rrjyal-icarin-pochchi sku-tshab 
the Eegent of Tibet who administers the 
country during the minority of the Dalai 
Lama; now called Rgyal-tshab Rin-po che 
or Bod-Rgyal-po (P6-gye po.). 

jurqS-^q rgyal-wahi tshnb the vice-regent 
of Buddha ; a name of Maitreya Bodhi- 
sattva. 

yn -qivii^ rgyal-u-ahi yshi ftjJfTWTT byan- 
chub sems-dpah or Bodhkattva. 

g-Ji ti5-^ Rgyal-u-ahi hod srasmi, fsnr- 
isf^ the glory of Buddha ; name of a 
Bodhisattca. 

jui-qqg^ rgyal-wahi sras=$V%*i rgyal- 
u~a ftjs\5p5( ; Hodhiitattta, a Buddhist monk ; 
an ordained Bhiksn. 



* jisruS-^ ryyaJ-wahi lha sjg|^ (Schr. ; 
Td. 2, U6). 

*5l'l^ip rgyal-war dkah ^r (Schr.; 
Kalac. T. 22) one of the ten stages of 
perfection or 



S^'S' rgyal-bu TTSJ^^ f HIT the son of 
a king ; a prince ; 1 g'ft'ift rgyal-bu rgyal- 
bycd n. of a prince in Kos'ala in Buddha's 
time. 

Syn. qX^-ajw^qsr bsod-nams tobs; 
lci|^-g zil-gnon-bu ; W^i\w''i\ ^ rgyal- 
rigs thig-le; jartjS'i)^- rgyal-pohi ffdun; 
f^'JJN rgyal-sras; ^%^iy^\-'^-^n nor . 
hdsin bdug-pohi sras ; gT^'S'g rgyal-pohi 
myu-gu (Mnon.). 

J^lY* Rgyal byed-ma ^rar, ^rcfTTfsjfrr 
n. of a goddess. 

fTgy*!! Rgyal-byed-tshal ^ag^ n. of 
the grove which was purchased by Anath- 
pi^idada a merchant of S'ravasti and where 
the Buddha resided for a long time. 

Ina-pa chen- 
zifj blo- 
bzan rgya-mtshohi sfiabg (Sc/ir. ; 16 A). 

gfl|-^qc.'i^ Rgyal-dwan pa 
"ftN'| sans-rgyas ffms-pa or 
Slob-dpon Rin-po-che an epithet of the 
saint Padma Sambhava given him by the 
Ruin-ma sects (Yig. k. 27). 

"i'fr rgyal-blon the king and his 
minister, also the state minister. 

jar* rgyal-mo xr^ the queen; wife 
of the king. 

yrtf'T*' Rgyal-mo ka-ra (%*(' man) a 
sj^T, a coarse sugar used in medicine. 

j'y ? Rgyal-mo-ron = 1p.'^' Rgyal- 
ron n. of a country on the confines of S. E. 
Tibet (Situ. 56). 

garJ&^-i^ rgyal-mohi ga-gon 5raf^<T n. 
of a place. 

gai^q rgyal-tshab g?TT5i 1. the Desi 
(Bde-srid) or regent of Tibet. 2. the 
would-be successor of a king ; crown 
prince. 

jar*^ j : rgyal-mtshan gsr, $g, %$*, 
1. the armorial flag or banner of 

41 



314 



victory of Buddhism; is the orthodox 
standard of the Buddhist. 2. used as a 
personal name of Bodhisattvas and indivi- 
duals such as: se.-$q-?to*rq-fVi|'VErvj'Jr*4^ 
Byan-chub semi-pa mi brjed-pahi rgyal- 
mtshan, if<t|wqVg<jr*^ Rtogs-pahi rgyal- 
mtshan, ajE.WJj-Jffli'ti'^-g'Ji-^^ai-^ Yons-sit 
rtogs-pa daft bral-wahi rgyal-mtshan. 3. 
^^f-'p/iod'icaU, The Gyal-tshan or Bud- 
dhist banner is seen as a kind of decoration 
of cloth in various colours and of cylindrical 
shape erected upon a flagstaff or carried on 
a pole. It is also made in brass and wood. 
In Tibetan Buddhism the following are the 
jarai^ rgyal-mtshan, to combat with the 
powers of evil: (1) tfjrjgwS'j'srw^ tshul- 
khrims-kyi rgyal-mtshan, (2) ^e.'i'rf^'jar 
*^ tin-nc-hdsin-gyi rgyal-mtshan, (3) -*|*r 
vrS'Ji'w*^' fct-rab-kyi rgyal-mtshan, 

(4) fij-J^'J-jarw*^ ye-fef-kyi rgyal-mtshan, 

(5) ^wwJurqS-jurw^ rnam-par grol-icahi 
rgyal-mtshan, (6) Irj'lfBt'fCWlf snin-rje 
chen-pohi rgyal-mtshan, (7) f^i^'V^*^' 
trA; > <A > |'fcrJI^A < |pr*b{ > ttofi-pa-nid-dafi. 
mtshan-ma med-pahi fion-pa med-pahi 
rgyal-mtshan, (8) 

rgyal-mtshan, (9) 

fl]c.-jiq -;'|5' jacw*^ sams-can med-pa-dan sroy 

rned-pa-dafi gad-sag med-pahi rgyal-mtshan, 



goi'nS; jiscw^ rfen-cin hdrol-par hbyufi-ica 
khofi-du chud-pag rnthar Ita-bu dan bral-icahi 
rgyal-mtshan, (11) W^twrfWCV*' 
WK*' j^'S'g^'^'fl^qw ran-gi sem$-gisem$ yons- 
SH dag-pas sans-rgyas-kyi byin-gyi brlabf. 

jar*i*^gpnr rgyal-mtshan grags 
fame ; ornament. 

jB(-M^'i rgyal-mtshan-ma 
(Schr. ; 99 ) ensign of good fortune. 
yrfrfq-fe, 1 ^ rgyal-mtshan sen-ge 
> (Schr.; Org. m. Ill, 25). 



the month of 
December. 

rgyal-rabs. genealogy of kings. 

Rgyal-ralg Bon-gyi 
hbyun-g.na$ n. of a work on the origin of 
the Bon religion. 

5r^<m rgyal-rigs Traif^C; "B^, flfsiq the 
military caste of India ; royal race ; the race 
of a king. 

jj<JT^il*rjN rgyal-rigs Sty/ex Jmn* ^fas 
born of the military caste, also of the 
royal family ; resident of Magadha. 

jj|-^uij--j) rgyal-rigs cha-fas =$*'%*( 
rgyal-phran a petty king ; a vassal or feu- 
datory prince (Affion.). 

yr^rt^-4 ryyal-riys thig-le = $$ 
r.gyal-bu the son of a king ; a prince. 

jrRu|*rJi rgyal rigs-mo ^fsrai^ a lady 
of the military caste of India. 

jorXf ryyal-rofi, v. j't'JS'Xe,' ryyal-mo-rofl. 

S* 1 '" T.gycil-$ci capital seat of Govern* 
ment, royal place ; the place or position oE 
a king. 

tyi'W* ryyal-sr a$ $*?$.$* ryyal-pohi 
sra$ the son of a king or prince. 

* Ji'* 1 !*' rgyal-b$e$ 5Bffm n. pr. (Sc/ir. ; 
Was. 55). 

S"'^ tgyal-srid TTW, *TT^ a kingdom ; 
empire ; state. 

S^'t'VS*''' 1 rgi/al-srid rgyas-pa imr*i 
empire. 

jur^-^-l^-fq^ rgyal-srid Rin-chen sna- 
bdun the seven different precious articles 
of royalty, viz: jf*'f hkhor-to ^w the 
wheel ; ^'9 nor-bu rftr gem ; ^'# btsun- 
mo, qft queen; SH^ blon-po nih minis- 
ter ; 5| t '3 fftan-po f^ft elephant ; $'*rtE| rta- 
mchog ^ffl spirited horse; B^""^ khyim- 
bdag Jjfqfs' house-holder; ^"f^SfV*! 
gmagpon rin-po che t)t(Mf?f commander-, 
inichief. 



315 



rgyal-srid snin-wa 
to defend a state against enemies. 

jq^ijui rgyas-hgrel= tfC^^^'ifc.'^' 1 * 
rgyas-par b$ad-pahi hgrel-pa comprehen- 
sive commentary: frfH^f^prt^mtft 1 
flJ3c.-3|-jrivj)m an elaborate commentary on 
the texts of Sum-cu-pa and Stays hjug-pa 
(Situ. 137). 

Syn. ^"M'P hphel-wa ; f^N'ti rdsogs-pa 
*|=.'P gah-wa ; f ''<! kha-lye-wa ; g^'i khyab- 
pa; i'l che-tca ; "&*'$ tshim-pa (Mnon.). 

^i^T^l I: arm n. of a great sage of 
Ancient India, the reputed author of the 
Mahabharata ; ^/sffyrti Dran-sron rgi/as- 
pa snwzfV the sage Vyasa. 

^JST^I II: (prop. pf. to $<* rgya-ica) 
1. vb. to increase in bulk or quantity; to 
augment ; to spread : tf$*ff*'J*< la-yi nit- 
Itar rgyat swells like a cow's dug; s?f 
crg^-^c: bstan-pa rgyas-qin the doctrine (of 
Buddha) spreading ; to grow, develope. 2. 
adj. extensive, large, ample, wide, mani- 
fold, numerous, copious, complete, full; 
H'q'j^'q zla-wa rgyas-pa full moon ; the 
adverbial form is frequent : *W*^'<5 
rgyas-par hdo^-na if you wish to know 
it fully. 

jN'i^ g\y rgyas-par bycd-pa 1. to make 
bigger ; to augment ; to increase. 2. to 
describe, narrate, state at large. 

jN'WWft'i rgyas-par bqad-pa fn^siJf 
elucidation; full explanation; *tf'|^ - qv 
g^i don rgyas-par byed-pa to be very use- 
ful ; to exert a beneficial influence. 

J*' l*> Tyyas-byed nx<T the land of 
plenty ; a name of India. 

5*''IS'^ c -' '^ ' a ' 9 I q V.<jya-byed hbyun-pohi 
lag-pa='\ l * c -' a l' l \ dicafi-lag n. of a medicinal 
plant growing below the limit of snow in 
the Himalayas and resembling the human 
hand in appearance (Smait. 416). 



^'|\ Rgyas-byed-ma flTT^ n. of a 
goddess Cornocopia, the goddess of 
plenty. 

* S*'3*' rgyas-fin gfk (Schr. ; Kalac. T. 
110) thriving. 

5 I : rgyu WRTR* a kind of blanket. 

3l II: 1. matter; substance; material; 
\ 'Q rgyu-wa superior quality: Qtfa. rgyu- 
gtmn any stuff, wool or cotton, &c., when 
cleansed and washed for making cloth ; 
also pure origin, g'^"! Tgyu-igog n. of a 
medical drag ; wild garlic. **'* chaA-rgyu 
ingredients for making beer: '^ - P'W^I' 
Wlfrr^ rrjyu dge-wa bsags-paj thob-pa yin 
the substance has been obtained by means 
of accumulated merits : t' !' 1 ^'^'^ 1 -' fia-la 
tfgos-rgyu chun I have few wants. i^'J bzo- 

^> 

rgyu material to make or manufacture any- 
thing with ; * J'*>S za-rgyu-med nothing to 
eat : S'^ s >''^i q l'^'^' da-ltar rgyu-shiy snan-no 
an opportunity will presently offer itself 
(Jd.). 2. In W. arrangement ; preparation. 
In a special sense material ; stuff for weav- 
ing; warp; chain (Jd.). 

3| III : T3 1. cause, namely, the primary 

cause as distinguished from $*! the second- 
ary or co-operating cause ; the direct 
cause for any event ; also reason, motive, 
main condition : B'Wrw^rAy^' mya- 
nan las hdas-pahi rgyur-hrgyur it becomes 
the cause of passing out of misery, i.e., 
Nirvana; K^C'y^ nan-son rgyu-ru hgro, 

^3 

s* rgyus with genit. by reason of ; on 
account of ; in virtue of ; in consequence of ; 
?^'5^ cihi rgyus, why : '*t\^ rgyu med-du 

$9 ^S 

= ')^i^ rgyu med-par without any actual 

cause ; spontaneously ; without sufficient 

reason; without good cause; J'^'J^ 

rgyu-dan rkyen primary and secondary 



316 



cause, which sometimes coincides with 
4 cause and effect '; ft '*'%$ ^'3* tffyv-dat 
rkyen-dehi phyir, *$ | dchi rgyu, ^'| i V3*< 
dehi rkyen-gyis, ^'|'|^ dehi rgyu-rkyen 
therefore ; on that account. V^'| fie-tcahi 
rgyu in medicine the three anthropological 
causes or conditions of diseases ; the three 
humours,' wind, bile, and phlegm ; ^'w '| 
rin-wnhi rgyu the ultimate cause of diseases 
and of every evil, viz., ignorance ; w^l'i ma 
rig-pa, gS'lS'l *kyed bycd-rgyu the creative 
cause ; '^TU'Va'^'q hphcl-wahi rgyu-ni lt<'- 
iva the efficient cause of growth is the 
navel-string ; '3*V q rgyu bycd-pa to be the 
principal cause of ; to lie at the bottom of 
a matter ; ft^S'" rgyu fkyc.d-pa to lay the 
foundation of. There are six kinds of ^ 
rgyu, i.e., ft^"! rgyu-drug:%K t &'^ lyed- 
ahi rgyu, ^'3*| i^'iS'ft^ Uian-cig hbyun- 
tcahi rgyu ? V'fta'5'*^ rnam-smin-gi/i rgyu, 
w^c.N'1^ gJJ\ i^'S mtshuftS-par Idan-pahi rgy 
^'S^? Q ^ 5 kiin-tii hgro-wahi rgyu, 
3'ft jA; il-mnim kyi rgyu. 2. attached to a 
verbal root rj/.'/w often indicates the 
Hupine and, colloquially, the infinitive ; 
'^Ifsr'^''! wishes to go. Also forms a 
future tense when connecting the root 
with tin auxil. verb. ' |'"^ will eat : tS'ie.- 

tho c e that will come to me ; 

S'*'i when the government was 
to be entrusted to him ; ? ^'J'*^ horses 
were not to be had (Jd.) ; S^ft'*'*^ dkon-rgt/u 
med that is not a very precious thing ; there 
is nothing particular in that ; ^^'W^T 
*-l^ gshan-pis lag$-rgyu med he is not 
more beautiful than others; i'*^'*'*)^ 
ya-niitshan rgyu-med that is not to be won- 
dered at. 



to me the connection, ft'* rgyu-chn colloq. 
that which belongs to a thing ; appurte- 
nance ; nece3sary implement, &c. ; also pro- 
perty. J'^S* 1 rgyu-hbrjs cause and effect 
or consequence ; gen. in a moral sense ; 
actions and their fruits (*wj''*g lis-kyi 
rgyit-hbras) ; owft^gn'S'*'* I is rgyu hbras- 
kyi-cho$ the doctrine treating on tins 
subject ; the doctrine of retribution ; 
the principal dogma of Buddhism ; 
ani-*-ngrm-5^-r{i I'S-rgyu hbrag la-yid 
cfics-pt to believe in the doctrine of 
retribution. 



stars-" The constellations through which 
the moon passes in her revolution round 



rgyu-fkar lha-mo ni-fit rfsa-br<jyad, the 
twenty-eight goddesses, moving-stars, be- 
lieved to be the daughters of the four 
guardian-kings of the world. The cons- 
tellations are thus named: (1) *'%*> Afiiii 
C^Vydbyug-gu); (2) ^ Bharatii; (S) gi' 
%"1 Krttiki the Pleiades; (4) Rohini (*\ 
bc-rdae) ; (5) ^ Mrgiifnn ($*' snial-po) ; 
(6) Ardra,^; (7) ^' Paiiarvaisu; (.S) 



tgyu-rkycn %gsaju reason ; cause ; 
ace. to Jii. connection : f/J a i' c i-'JV3,''l^' J ' 
rtjyu-rkyen bs/tad-du gaol please explain 



80)-, (9) W A?!esa (>*tca); (10) 
(5'1 rta-pa) or 5'^ rta-chen with Regulus 
bright star; (11) Piircaphnhjifnl or ft 
rtahu or ?'$= rta-chun; (12) "^ Utlara^ml- 
gtini or khra; (13) )'q^ Hasra or S 
lyn-ma ; (14) V>\ ' Citra (or S'i byahu with 
Spica); (15) ^ Sc&ti; (16) vy Vi^akha 

(17) ^'w* Antird'iha or <*v\'%* lig-sor; 

(18) f* Jyttha, or I'i Ide-hu (with 
Antares); (19) f w Mula, or %*[ srog-pa ; 
(20) 4'fs Purea asadha ; (21) 'fft w/^ont 
dsaJAa or 9" J>/</ 5 (22) 3'^ Abhijit ; 
(23) |'i^ Gravana ^ g.nis; (24) ^'51 
Manama or %1 mon-dre; (25) *<V3 



317 



Catacisd or ff"f s^roi; ; (26) B*rijs Purca- 
bhddrapada or (27) H*W|fi uttaralhadra- 
pada; (28) F9J JBtaoft or ^ fe-na. 

*|'^'^ rpyu-gkar dug (Sch. ; Kalac. 
T. 48). 

|'^''13^ rgyu-skar mu-khyud irgn%fa 
the moon which is surrounded by the 
constellations. 

|-^-c,-i R Rgyu-skar man-po ri n. of a 
mountain ; the fabulous north polar moun- 
tain (K. d. * 3^2). 

^'^ !* rgyu-skar lam the milky-way ; 
5r^=*-u[ the starry path. 

^'"F' rgyu-gan for what reason. 

|'^ s L'ljyu-nes the certain or real cause. 

l'* 1 ^ rgyu-mnah = ^^ rgyu-mtshan 
cause; reason. 

l'-^ rgyu-can = ^^ one who knows 
about a thing; well-informed. 

|'*W rgyu-mthun cause sufficient to 

^3 

produce observed effect. 

|'^ tgyu-ldan 1. f^T [a cavejtf. a 
hill, also a fountain; a rich man. 
2. = |'^. 

|<*fi rgyu-nad disease of the bowels. 
Symptoms are : 3ft<n rgyu-khrol causing 
much sound in the stomach ; S'^f 15 ) rgyu- 
hkhril causing much griping in the 
stomach; p|e.i rgiju-hgyin where the 
stomach or the intestines remain swollen 
and stiff with wind, etc. ; fl 1( wiij rgyu- 
hgaijs obstruction of the bowels; t'*!^ 
rgyu-gzer aching or pains in the stomach. 

|'a^ rgyu-spun the threads stretched 
lengthwise and crosswise to make cloth. 

5'^ rgyu-wa -^w, ^K to go, walk, 
move, wander, range; $'rj - i5'<^q' *qjj 
chu-fa rgyu-ioahi hdab-cags birds frequent- 
ing the water; ^''|'" kun-tu rgyu-ica 
to wander from place to place. This verb 
is generally used instead of %n in Sikkim. 



-q-l^-g rgyu-wa med-pa ^lq^ that 
not move; motionless, still. 
'fi'^'OT" rgyu-u-ahi btul-shugs 
the vow of walking. 

|'*> rgyu-bycd *wx, qr? feet; that 
which moves. 

S'lh tgyin ^Tft^ met. the cloud. 

*3 

|-|"vq rgyu-sbyor-wa fytKfl sbyin-bdag 
an alms-giver ; the maker of a gift. 

5*^ rgyu-ma ^^ entrails ; intestines ; 
bowels, more especially the email intes- 
tines ; l^ia"!'" rgyu hkhrogp:i the croak- 
ing of the bowels; |'g""I rgyusgrog the 
envelope of the lower intestines; * ^ 
rgyu-stod the upper bowels. Colloq. 
rgyu-ma is also a term for " sausages." 
(Q. Sndg.). 

|'i^q rgyu med-pa without cause; 
evidence devoid of (laksmana) or charac- 
teristic. 

Sy.n. J'twfc.' rgyu-yis ston; Maj^^goi 
mtsJian-nid Iral (Mnon.). 

l'* 1 ^ rgyu-mtshan firfrfr 1. cause; 
concatenation of events; circumstances; 
|'*^'<*yq rgyu-mtshan hdri-ica to ask after 
the cause : E 3' a F^'g'$Vl<v*-srf3j-.J^ f ia j lt - 
nan-m,s phye khyer-wahi rgyu-mtshan fed 
tell me the circumstances of your fetching 
the flour from my house 2. SHTTIT token, 
sign, characteristic, proof, evidence ; "^I'tfr 
|'*^ Mu 'g-pnhi rgyu-mtshan as an evidence 
of being (Jo..). 

|'**l"^i rgyu-mtshan riij qfTCftraf: rela- 
ting to proof or cause or reason. 

I'"! 1 * rgyu-gser ^fatrnRf colic; 
[dysentery ]<S. ^I'S'^-^^-^w^l^ 



ni rime-Mad spi/i dan hdra-ua h, 

la ba'jg-na rgyu gcr she-paho, no-ico 



318 



mchin-tsha4 thuMu babf-pa la gnatt-na^ 
chu-ser mk/irig-tshad bglafl-tca yif rgyu-ma 
gzer-sMA hkhru-was rgyu-gzer yin, ^'I'^'^B' 
JjV^H'f'W'HV de-li don-hkhrn-$nod hkhru 
ttobs-chen daft, Q'fi^r.gyu 
hkhor l^fT"! rgyu-hkhrol 
We read of, also, 
rgyu-gacr gcog-pahi tho-tca gsum the three 
hammers to break the nails of colic. 

|^'|^ rgyuhi rgyitn sfiHfluifld-. the 
stream of cause. 

$5'9S rgyuhi byed %7j-?jH that has 
become a cause ; excuse. 

^5-ipfq" rgyuhi gtso-bo srtrr*f-%g the 
chief or primary cause. 

$3'^flj rgyuhi rig ^g-fwtjr the science 
of reasoning. 

^uK.'vi'Eivtwvei rgyn ym-dag-par bead- 
pa that has fully stopped or terminated 
the cause ; the consequence. 

^'"ta'SS'i* rgyu-yis khyad-par wr^i the 
chief cause ; the agent. 

rgyu-Hg cen-po (3J^ grafts) 
number. 

rgyu-la hlrag-bu btsays 
to attach a fruit to cause, 
^wgc.' rgyii-las byufi %?pR produced 
or originated from cause. 

*-^*)--5gc.-q rgyu-lus-kyi hbyuii-u-a= 
fl||fl|-pi pzuy$-k/iat the body ; form. 
S'" rgyu-s/i = ("iH l;tm) road, passage. 
*'5js.' rgyu-sran track, passage, road: 
1^'3'5/SF' btsnn-gyi rgyu-srnn the road 
that is frequented by a Btsan (demon). 

5S Tgyud I : <P? a string ; chain ; that 
which joins things together ; a connection, 
whether physical or mental ; ^ f *^ chain of 
hills. 

5^ II : <tT* Tantrik treatise ; ritual 
book for coercing deities and for other 



magical ceremonies. One of the large 
divisions of the Kah-gyur is styled JS 
because it contains innumerable magical 
treatises. There are said to be four 
classes of Tantras, I'VS*' 1 ^, namely, (1) 
S'" 5 '|S (2) frfr|S, (3) IF^|S (4) 
frjSvf'^av*'!^ In the Tan-gyur the 
collection of Tautras is named i|S brgyud. 

5^'^ tgyttf-pa I : vb. to tie, fasten, 
connect together. 

5S'^ II : religious teacher ; especially 
a teacher of mysticism. 

^^'^JlII : extraction ; lineage ; belong- 
ing to a family or race ; family. 



Syn. 
hkhrid; 



brijyitd-pa; 
rit/s-kbyitfi; 
R >' m-bon las-byitn 



rttsa- 

r/</s- 



c/io- 



hbrafi; -*\'y fa-ne 
^i\v rigs (Mfion.). 

^'"'1^** rfjyud-pa gmm the three kinds 
of lineage are: (1) I'^'J'S gdufi-ri/yud 
family ; descent ; personal ; (2) g'S'S sku- 
rgyud descent (of the spirit in emaciations, 
etc., as in the case of incarnate lamas) ; 
(3) Sj 1 !'^ $k>b-ryyud spiiitual descent 
(ministerial succession by disciples). 

5^i WV un continuity ; rgyun-du always ; 
at all times ; continually. 

' 1 *' settled seat or throne ; 
'B dus-rgyun sa- 
pnas gciij-tu hjoy-pahi khri the chaii 1 which 
always remains in one place. 

S^'li" 1 rgyun-k/iyons always to protect. 
5^''S'3 Wjun-'.llli mt/u-fiu = s ^'^ char- 

e Na 

zil rain-drops or dews (Mnoit..). 

a^'qq'i ryyun-ba'j ttt/ia = **>'^'<\ char-dray 
heavy rain (Mnon.). 

|^'"15^ ryynn-fftan = '^'^ dus-ryyuit 
at all times ; the stream of time : 



319 



^5^ iUrij*w real business ; transactions of 
a public cbaracter must always be reliable 
(D. fel. 7). 

**rci rgyus-pa sinews ; tendons. 



rgyo ftfr, sffTt (a colloq. and 
obscene term) sexual union ; copulation. 

^ -v-i 

rgyo-wa, pf. "|* brgi/os, fut. ^J 
imp. < rgyos, to have sexual inter- 
course ; ace. to Cs. to deflower, ravish. 



mergyogs rdo-rgyoys gun ; missile. 



a, pf. *I3=.* brgyafis, fut. 
.' brgyan, seems to be a secondary form 
of jf^'i rkyon-u-a, to extend, stretch, 
spread forth, distend. 



rgyor-ica *TTT3 to kill. 



j /<; this word is seldom used, its 
modern form being t| sga. 1. ginger fresh 
or dried ; j'3(^ Iga-rlon fresh ginger. In 
medical works both. i| ^a and S( g^cr are 
used to imply H'^l sga-smug, the brown 
ginger. 2. %''*>=' rus-kyi mifi n. of a 
tribe; ^^S'^'^^'SI'V^ dlrah-hgru 
ldon-g.sum Iga-dan bshi the four tribes were 
Qbrah, Jfgrit, Ldon and Lga. 



gj'5'S Iga pho-che = fp' rgyam-tshba 
a mystical word ; oxide of mercury ; also 
signifies fj^'Sj sman-gga, medicinal ginger. 



jC'C lgaft-ne marble white. 
$kya Igafi-fie is stated to mean perfectly 
white (Ja.). 



9|C'| lgan-pa or ^'$1 Igan-phug ace. 
to i/a'. the urinary bladder (Med.). 

Syn. 4'^ chu-so; %*>'% lgafi-bu (Jjffion.). 



JC"2J lgan-pa relating to the bladder 
(Lex.). 

Si^'S Igafl-bu urinary bladder ; same as 
Sjt'tj IgaA-pa ; ace. to Ja. husk, pod, shell. 

S^'S"! l(/an-bttg=\'$.'}>'\ dri-chuhi (nod 
the bladder (Sman.). 

gj'i'l^ /^^z-g!fe- = }|'^ sga-rlon fresh 
ginger. 

g|Vi - )'Zi Lgar-ma me$-po patriarch of 
the tribe of Lyar-ma ; a tribal name : |'^' 
o]^-4'l-ti-'5'q Iga-yi Igar-ma mes-po thob the 
tribe of Lga obtained the name of Lgar- 
ma mespo. 

NX 

| Igo a common kind of fungus like 
the lycoperdon or puff-ball. 

i"'^ Igyam-tshta, H*i'3| sman-ga 1. gin- 
ger, v. SJ'f '^ ^a pho-che. 2. ace. to <7d. a 
kind of rock salt. 



^ ga=:^ Iga ^IT^, ^fa, sjf'ia 1. 
ginger. 2. saddle, resp. Strsj chib-sga, a 
saddle for a horse; ^'^'Q^'Qchib-sga b&tatf- 
pa to lay the saddle on ; to saddle ; *|r9| 'J( 
ffi/ag-gi $ga a saddle for a yak. 

SfS ?g&-$kya ginger : ^'g^'^S S^ ^ ^ E 
0T R !3 I T'*E sga-skyas bad-rlufi sel-shifi khrag- 
hkhyag hju ginger removes phlegm and 
wind and liquifies the blood. 

5j~pq*j ga-kbebs saddle cloth ; the leather 
cover or coating of a saddle. 

Ij'gf ga-glo saddle girth. 

D'fjV*! $ga-sgron-pa described in Hlrom, 
as meaning : to saddle a horse. 

H'^T 3 !"!' 2 ' Sga-tig nag-po the flower of 
a bitter species of ginger : SC^'^'S^'^S't^" 
$"tK<<^ $ga-tig nag-pos d.mu rdsin cfm-ser 
hdren the flower of Sgatic used as a 
medicine draws out the yellow water of 
dropsy. 



IF I 



320 



H "1 fga-thag ropes or straps used in 
adjusting a saddle. 

l)i tga-pa I. a young horse just fit for 
the saddle. 2. Tl'' 3 f l V { r'NV z <''>rj|'<r (also 
1'"')^ 9!/ag t hod-pa dkat-po la $ga-pa zer 
a yak with a white forehead is called 
tga-pa (Rtsii.). 

jfiSf fija-phoA bat; flitter-mouse 
(&*.). 

*rSJ"l sgii-tnuig, also written fll'll $mug- 
fga, brown ginger. 

$* sga-tsha the flower of ginger plant: 
|'4 J $VVr4f\'t'tft*$| sga-tshai dro$- 
fkyed rul-gcod chu-ser hdren ginger flower 
(used) as a stimulant, cures sores and draws 
out pus. 

)'* tga-tsha *jftK^ pungent ginger. 

H' a|q l ?9 '-lag i'rame of the saddle ; sad- 
dle-bow; saddle-tree (Cn). 

|('^ fga-ser ^fc^T turmeric; yellow 
ginger ; a spice used in cooking meat for 
the table. 

H'-*! tgi-<;a straps for fastening the 
travelling-baggage to the saddle, cf. -Tfl 
fa-stag. 

Ij^j'^C' Sgay-tliuii n. of a small silk 
scarf used in religious services in Tibet: 
^qcgj^-w^e., jjfl) 3=.-, IK'fl^*) diran-ldan nia- 
dait, igag-thufi, srid bde-ma (S. kar. 179). 

Sjli sgag-pa sjffR to ravish ; to 
copulate ; to embrace in sexual union. 

JC' sgan 1. a hill-spur ; the ridge or 
top of a hill : **| ^-JJE, ai q^ cog-tschi 
fgafi-lu shag keep on the top of the table. 
2. time ; occasion : t OIN "i ; w'j|i.- m n 
lat-ka byed-pahi ?gan to-morrow at the 
time of doing work ; *\'1>'%'* '*&'%*' da-lta 
ito-za-wahi sgan just now while taking 
food. 3. ^'Sj^' chu-sgaft a blister caused 
by manual work, by long marches, &c., 
cf. ijj 



Syn. =' $tef\, *?i mtho-ica (Mnon.'}. 

K^T" sgan-khaqt-'R 1 * syan-khiil 1. n 
hill-spur : H=.'r a "' t 5S the (village) is situated 
on a mountain spur. 2. full, entire : 



srog-chags ycig bsad-kyan sdig-pa syan- 
kha re so-sor yofi even if (you) kill one 
living being there will be the full (amount 
of) sin in each separate case. 

Sf^H" 1 ?gan-khul ace. to Jd. same as 
JFT sgan-kha. 

KE,-)-5|e,- fgafi-gi-HA a species of par- 
tridge. 

j|c.-*fyZi (gad mthon-po a high hill. 

l^'fl sgaft-u-a, pf. *)!(=. bsgans, fut. ojjt 
b$g/ifi, to grow or become full (Cs.) : 9S*>S 
^^jjc.' lud-nied na so-sgan a full grown 
woman ; marriageable girl. 

SF'S $gafi-bu full quantity ; entire piece : 
fj>riFg-wK-wv5*i has not his pride 
been entirely broken-down within (A. 
11). 

j|ffl|Jfc' sgvfi-g<;on ^s^-T^^^^l ele- 
vations and depressions on a hillside. 

JC$J *g:int gf^R 1. bank or elevat- 
ed place on the margin of a river. 2. 
n. of districts in S.E. Tibet. 



a class of demon; a 
ghost that remains concealed : g*|r**e,'q|)' 
^e.-*^ j*rsjq'".v tl aS snags-hchafl lugs-dan 
mthun-pas sgab-hc/re bskrad if the Tantrik 
priest properly performs exorcism, the 
ghosts are scared away. 

spo sgab-pa 1. secondary form of w|wi 
hgebf-pa,to cover ; covering : 8'wg - rjjP'i 
bya-mas bu-la sgab-pa the covering of a 
young bird by its mother. 2. ^"'Sp gos- 
gab skirt or lap of a coat; $*'$*' igab-thitA 
a short skirt. 



321 



sg&m *T^T, ^rfa, ftf^ box, trunk, 
chest ; ako the testes : Ij^'if'*^' sgam- 
sgo marl a chest of drawers; gl^'i)*' Icags- 
sgam an iron-chest; Tsp< ko-sgam a 
leather trunk; ^'3)*' ro-gams or 
Spitr-sgam a coffin. 



Syn. |j*< sjrwx ; jf5 orf; *A mdsod; 
Sgroin-bu; ^'1 ban-pa ; Wjfw thab-sgrom. 

%#'&' sgam-chuft a small box. 



jf^'i fga>n-pa=wi sab-pa i\3\K deep; 
profound ; *>'tj*rci sgam-pa = *>'ri mi 
sab-pa shallow ; not deep. 

SP'3 sgam-po, adj. full or fully accom- 
plished; one who is deep: 5>rer$[s.'rffi|W 
Q Rgyal-po Sron-btsan sgam-po, King 5rotf- 
6<sa who was Sgam-po, i.e., fully accom- 
plished. Aco. to >ScA. prudent, quiet : 5p 
S('i /o Wa-ptf=OT'''^K5'f 1 ' thugs qin-tu 
sgam-po he (the prince) was very profound. 



fgar-mn 
watch- word; parole (Jd.). 



sgar, defined as 
gur maft-po phitb-nas bfdad-pa, pitching 
many tents (at a place) ; camp ; encamp- 
ment ; "Wil* a military encampment ; Sj^ - 
to encamp ; to pitch a camp. 

f c Syar-siian respectable men. 

f bso-sgra) 

sgal a load that is carried on the 
back ; load of a beast of burden ; ^i rta- 
sgal a horse-load ; ^ c -'$5'|j'!i $in-rtahi gal 
cart-load ; waggon-load. 

IP' 5 sgal-rta pack-horse. 

ifsi'l"!*? sgal-phyugt beast of burden. 

jjm'^sic.-q $gal hphan-wa to throw a load 
off ; SjTitfSinrq ggal hbogs-pa to take out a 
load ; SCV'i^=.'i sgal bsrafi-u-a to adjust or 
balance a load. 



tft'Q sgal-pa 1. the back of man or 
beast of burden; gtWRvaj^f't! rgijab-la 
hk/iur-nag hgro-tca = S l a i' f >'>t' a ^'^' 1 ^ sgal-pa 
la hkhitr-te bgro the carrying a thing on 
one's back. 2. the small of the back ; Jj"!' 
"v^<w $yal-Mabs the lumber region. 3. 
croup ; crupper. 

tjTq sgal-wa to carry a load (on one's 
back) or to cause a load to be carried on 
the back of a beast of burden ; SJT^TI 
sgal hgel-ica to put on a load. 

Ijarfc sgal-rnia a sore on an animal's 
back caused by the load. 

!ji5rl<j|^ sgal-tshigs the spine in general ; 
the backbone of a beast of burden. 



S sgal-tshigs ni-yu rtsa 
brgyad the twenty-eight joints in the 
backbone ; $'5)'Sjai'3ij*i mi-yi yal-tshiy the 
joints in the human spinal column. 

jjar^Uqq'y^-g-q^ sgal-tshigs ni-fu rtsa- 
bshi there are twenty-four joints in the 
backbone of a beast of burden. 



jjc.-q sgal-tshigs srad-wa a beast 
of burden of which the backbone is 
straight, i.e., not bent by work. 



s sgtr-mo 3i^'Si*> 
round ; orb-like ; globular. 

%sgu, adj. bent; U'^1*' sgu-stegs 1. a 
foot-stool. 2. ace. to Sch. elbow ; angle. 

g'^ sgu-rdo sling-string, explained as 
$V^' | v^'^'iJ'9il' i hur-rdo hphan byed-kyi 
thag-pa the string that is coiled round a 
stone for flinging it ; a sling. 

U '"!*' sgu-phyogs (|J'5 q J*' $yye-phyogs) = 
* t ^' a| '^s""! ' q mdun-la khyog-pa bent- 

p///ojr sgu-phyogs yes-pa fin-tit pees those 
that are bent forward and bent round 
were valuable ? (Jig.). 

42 



322 



-mo=y e >'K t hur-rdo a sling. 



, fut. 



$gu 



to wait, pf . ifl 
imp. "!* J<7!7S (or 

D ^f'|ii-q^- mi yoii-rgyu fgug bfdad-pa, 
to wait for a man's arrival ; g"! <* I"S ?<7<7- 
par bycd one who waits for ; or f I'l'B s<70- 
7;a j?o a waiter ; "w^'STi /aj-wi <7wjf-^n to 
wait on the road; STS'HT" ?</jM *>0- 
/> to cause to lie in wait (for a person) ; 
to cause to way-lay. 

SIC' tgiiii in Ld. clap ; crack ; crash ; 
report (of a gun) (Jd.). 

|^'2J fyud-po, aco. to Sch. father-in- 
law; IS'* $ynd->i>o mother-in-law. 



I- the grace or charm of youth: 



SJT*!^ fgum-mduh, aco. to Schr. the 
lautt-end of a gun ; gun-btock. 

|^ gym; v. ^ dgiir. 

S^ S q 'Jto'-TOttGb a tent-back. 

|^'5 sgur-po f w, VBfW bent ; crooked 
back. 

Syn. |^'W sgur-hkhyog ; g */ 



r q (gur-tra, ?ta, ftwf to become 
afraid. 

JS tgul-fkyod ^tfl agitation. 

Tl sgul-ica, pf. ^"i &S<7J, fut. og"! 
f. ^m'q hgul-wa) to move, agitate, 
put in motion: |'V3 t '* l 'S QI T tgyud-ki/tm 
ma-sgul-to he could not even move the 
bow-string : T***'C I V'^ lag-pas rdo 
bsgul-to with his hand he shook the rock. 

]|'RC* fge-k/nifi, %'&' sgo-cfnifi a small 
door ; a window. 

|j^] sgeg Ml^Cti grace, charm in the 
person. 



pa is the fascination arising at the appear- 
ance of a body of beautiful shape. 2. 
sensual enjoyment ; flirtation. 3. aoc. to 
C*. to brag, boast ; airs of coquetish girls 
(Jd.). 

Syn. ^"Ti rol-pri', ^-' t) hjo-ica (Mnon.). 
|-q5'^'| Sgeg-pahi Rdo-rje T5ia^^, 
n. of a Buddhist sage of Ancient 
India who visited Udyana (Ancient 
Cabul) and spread Buddhism there. 

^i|'*< Sgey-iiia n. of the goddess of 
beauty. 

jjijS sgeg-mo ?TT^ii iwft a dnncing- 
girl ; a charming damsel. 

^i) f fgeg-rdnfig perfumery, pomades, 
&c., articles which (according to Buddh- 
ism) are incentives to sensual pleasures. 

IjK'QI sgcn-li or ^'"i dgcn-lu, ace. to 
Jd. on ; upon ; perhaps a wrong spelling of 
the word H*' ?{/" 

fte sgchu 1. diminutive of a sya, 
ginger. 2. v. afT" i : fii/o^-^ (-^ 9- * 46) 
-' sgehn-chun ^TO^ garlic. 
sgchu-fffcr ^iT?^f ginger. 



private; semi- independent; 
^ S ger-da specially ; privately. 

3 V 5 tger-rta a horse for the use of a 
private party, not for a public officer. 

jj*'^ sger-don one's own interest, pri- 
vate or special reason or object : S^'"^'*^' 
^q-q|3j*rti5c.' fger yshun mod du-ica ynam- 
btafi neither private nor public (but an in- 
dependent family) sending forth smoke 
from house-fire. 

ajvi sger-pa a private land-holder ; 



yshun-khral chen-po med-par ran-la 



323 



nri-scr yaft yod-pa las khral-btdus. na$ sa 
b$dad-khan a land-holder who without 
paying a large tax to Government enjoys 
an estate is called |^'i sger-pa, also one who 
holds land fee-simple; S v ^ sgcr-l/ta or 
IvgN'w&Vf'V^ ?gcr-gyi mchod-pahi lha, a 
special deity, i.e., a deity specially adored 
by a class of people or by an individual or 
by a particular family ; ^'F"! sgcr-khag 
semi-independent estate. 



sger-gi/og private servant, also 
one who does his own work ; servant or 
employe of an independent party or estate 
which has no connection with the Govern- 
ment. 



S^'iS sger-lo, V.'iv-^c,-Sr'i><i| ran-sgcr 
gyi shin lo-tog the produce of a private 
estate. 



sgo TTC, 3% sraTTC, m a door; 
an entrance or doorway ; the aperture 
itself as well as the wood-work of the 
door; ST*^'" sgo bead-pa or S^TT" sgo 
dgag-pa to shut or close a door ; 5"'S' q 
sgo phye-ica or S'^S'V'' sgo byed-pa to 
open a door ; S^W" syo hjug-pa to put 
in a door ; to hang a door ; sT'S^i sgo rgyab- 
pa to shut a door; if'W s/jo gtan-pa 
ace. to Sch. to lock up, to bolt, to bar ; 
% nip*' i sgo bkum-pa or^l* bskum, ace. to Cs. 
resp. to shut (a door) ; If *^' q sgo bdun-ica 
to knock or rap at the door ; J'lj rgya-sgo 
large, or the principal, door or entrance ; ?' 
the gate or gate-way ; %'JSphyi-tgo the outer 
door ; wlf bar-sgo the middle door ; ^'^ 
nan-sgo the inner door ; I^'IH psafi-sgo the 
secret or private door; ^'K mdsod-sgo 
the door to the store-room; iRW'lf g.nam- 
sgo an aperture in the roof for light ; sky- 
light; f *.$" steii-sgo the upper door; ^'S' 
hog-sgo the lower or under door; flf^f^'J' 



tnchod-klaft $go the chapel-door; 
thab-tshan sgo kitchen door; 1$*'*^ gner- 
tshaft sgo the store-house door; *q'( I '^' 
chab-khaft sgo the bathroom door. In 
Sikkim 



^j II : often Sgo-mo, the admission to, 
the medium or means of, the passage of, 
knowledge or learning and, as such, the 
science itself, &c. ; %**' i"'# chos-kyi sgo-mo 
the service of Dharma (religion) ; t^'S'S^ 
rtsis-kyi s<jo-mo the science of arithmetic 
or numbers; sWjJ'H'*' s.man-kyi sgo-mo 
science of medicine: |>('*<5-J'-^N'q} | y)X 1 ^' 
"fife," Sgrol-mahi igo-nas pytil-mdos gjton in 
the religious service of Dolma the rndos 
for victory (in war) should be offered: 



rgyas kyi bstan-pa la hjug-pahi sgo dam-pa 
skyabs-su hgro-wa as a door for entering 
the religion of Buddha, it is necessary 
to take refuge in the holy ones : ^'S^'ORi*!' 
i5'S''gE.'&*i''^*!*i theg-chen-la hjug-pahi sgo 
byan-chnb-kyi semg for entering the 
Greater Vehicle doctrine the means is a 
saintly heart (the purified heart of a Bodhi- 
sattva); a 5'V5^''*g c -' '5'J''qm i Rgj^ yon-tan 
hbyuft tocthi sgo brtson-hgrus the means of 
acquiring learning is diligence and indus- 
try; $*W*gc.'H'v|fo)'i3rqij t )VJ nes-pahbytm 
tcahi-sgo le-lo bag-med-pa being idle and 
immodest forms a way to the springing up 
of vice. 

SfW^j sgo kun-gro ^r^\^s in every 
way. 

$"'3^' sgo-skyofi Tt^m^T porter; door- 
guard. 

^|X $(/o-s.kyor, v. a"'S sgo-fpe. 

T*? sgo-k/ian or S"'^ 6 .' s.go-$tefi fsngf the 
entrance into a house ; vestibule ; porch ; 
portal ; also a small house on the gate. 



324 



if'R^' tgo-khuft opening of the door; an 
apperture in a door ; aTf ='$= ^'^fcrp*' $go- 
khan tfcA-gi gail-khan the verandah room 
on the porch of a house. 

sf'S sgo-khyi watch-dog. 

Sf'^pfai $go-hkhor hinge of a door or gate ; 
the pivot on which the door turns. 

*T'SJ q !*' Sffo-fflegs a small beam used to bar 
or bolt a door. 

jjf'*31 sgo-hgram the space near the door. 

if' Ji sgo-rgyab the space behind the door 
or within the door. 



the board or plank of a door; the 
lintel ; frame work on the four sides of a 
door [a bier, the bed on which a dead body 
is carried] S. 

v; 

f ' fgo-fia ^vs eggs, spawn ; 8"'*-*^ sgo- 

$a-can egg; producing or possessing or 
having spawn. 

JH'E.S-*^ ggo-fiahi mdsod ^ the testi- 
cles. 

'S'8 q l*' sgo-kags ?rra* the lock of a 
door. 

jpfc sgo-cftor, v. if fi sgo-tpe. 



seed. 



d=^^ fgo-?n od cummin 



S'jo b$nan n. of a Bon deity who 
has eighteen hands and holds eighteen 
different weapons of war, which are as 
follows: (1) ^Ti5-)^ bteg pahi mdah 
an arrow for shooting ; (2) igfljri$-*<^i;- 
hbiigs pahi rnduA a spear to pierce with ; 
(3) 1 <]'$r<M-|jr^ ffcog pahi tta-re an axe to 
split with; (4) 1*V | '*'3r? gcod-pahi gra- 
ita a chopper to cut off; (5) *f*'<fc'W 
hthub-pahi ral-gri a sword to cut into 
pieces ; (6) q|wi$'$-| bftim-pahi chu-yri 



a dagger to pierce through ; ( 
W* hchog-pahi tho-ltim a cannon ball 
for battering in; (8) <*gflnrciS-ii]*Sv3^ 
hbiigs-pafii gxor-e/ien a pin to bore through ; 
(9) *grn5'*fflj'$ hbral-wahi sog-le the saw 
to separate or cut asunder; (10) SW^'H'SI 
4yra-wohi fpu-gri a razor-knife to cut the 
enemy; (ll)iifr' | W'<*fivi$ b_tko>--irahi hklior- 
lo a disk to whirl round ; (12) |va<vi i^ 
fgyur-wahi ya-lad an armour to ward off ; 
(13) 3*-<i|-i|t<veiS '*\ nam-thag pcod-pahi 
ka-ma-li a sword to cut off; (14) 
i^'t sreg-pahi giar-to ; (15) 
hchid-wahi Icags-ggrog iron chain to bind 
with; (16) \<wK3''i*l dpnl-ser-gyi chu- 
khol boiling water; (17) ^ 3.''l-^f /, d- 
zer-gyi me dpufi a heap of glowing fire ; (1 8) 
^y^'3'Yl'*^ drag-rtital gyi thog-ntdnh a 
thunder-bolt for chivalrous exercises. 

if' q |M sgo-pfan a bar or bolt of a door ; 
S'iw fgo-thcm threshhold; also the head- 
piece of a door. 

*\* fgo-dor the scarf that is attached to 
the door at the time of a marriage in 
Sikkim. 

sf'^ Q {go-deb enumeration of persons ; 
the counting of persons of a village or 
town, &c. 

if'WI 1 -'^ tgo-gd'in zttfi-can ^Tw[ a 
circular disk with string attached to it that 
is put on each side of the door to open it 
by the hand. 

jf'^l tgo-hgrig door-frame; window 
frame. 

jT'SJ^' igo-ldafi each side of the door. 

f'fl tgo-nag the dark door, i.e., the 
door of the dark room where a dead body 
is kept before disposal (D. $el. 8). 

%'*[* tgo-rnarn a single board, i.e., of 
the floor. 



325 



an 



sgo-pa r^f, or %'*$$ $go-dpon or 
if 1^*1 sgo-bd r ig 1. the door-keeper, porter; 
2. also the headman of the village. 

Syn. ^S =' $go-sntfi ; if jfc.' sgo-skyon ; *V 
$"'*> chab-$go-wa ; f : 5)'*)or3> i *f^ s^o-yz ;e/- 
tshe-rnkhan (Mfion.). 

if 5* tgo-pur fore-skin ; prepuce. 

if' 2 ' go-po also fT^?<7o-60 outward looks ; 
stature; bodily appearance (Jd.) ; %'% $kye- 
fgo the face; countenance; |'^)"|*' skye 
sgo-l.'g$ & beautiful face ; Qfi' 
ugly face. 

v sgo-ipan 1. lintel. 2. 

sgo-yi them-pa span-pahi 
rnal-hbyor-pa yan-yod there are even yojrz 
who have only left the lintel and thres- 
hold of their home (and no more). 

^B ?go-spe a projection of the roof of 
a house above the principal door of a 
house, under which one can sit or sleep, 
or where servants wait : ^'$1 3'l]'*<S'SJ"'a$' 
^ q l''?' j ' do-nub bi-kra-mahi sgo-spehi hog-tu 
nol (A. 130) to-night sleep under the 
portico of Vikrarnas'ila. 

Syn. sfg* sgo-skyar; %'*&*> sgo-mchor; 
ST^S*' sgo-hbyar (Mnon.). 

jp^ ggo-phar, ^^f*c.'Ei sgo-rim man-po 
the name for a series of doors. 



* sgo-hphar ^qis-gz, v. "I $go- 
[the junction of the leaves of a 
doorJ-S. 

S"'i tgo-wa pf. f bsgo also 1^ bsgos, to 
say; to speak, mostly to bid; to order (used 
in old works, now become obsolete) . 

sT"S* sgo-hbyar, v. %'S $go-fpe. 
if q S tgo-hbyed a kind of grass used as 
a medicine in eye-disease (Sman. 353). 

if* ? go-ma 1. panel or square of a door; 
the fold of a folding door. 2. = 



3'}fg^'9)'^ fftor-rgyab $kab$-kyi sgo-srufi-gi 
lha, the deity who guards the door on the 
occasion of offering torma; W^'JpcJ' 
|p-q^5'i)c sprul-pa i/e-$c$ kyigo-ma bshihi 
min the names of the four miraculous divi- 
nities (of the Bon-po) : (1) fT"! 1 ^' W^' 
fl^'S'it^ Stag-ydon dkar-mo kags-kyu 
banda-hdsin; (2) W|'*fte.-$v35-(VTq Phag- 
geloft scr-mo shag-pa, (3) ^^'"|'^c.-^)^-g-|iim- 
81, Sen-ffdon dinar-po Icags-sgro; (4) 8!' 
"l^^is.'B^l'g sbrul-gdon liati khu dril-bu. 

%'% sgo-mo (1) a large door : a gate ; 
castle-gate ; town-gate ; (2) the beginning : 
^'S'^S rtsi-kyi $ go-mo the beginning of 
a new epoch. 

f* sgo-tsam a little (Sch.). 

Jp?" syo-rtsa = %%'$'Q sgohirtsa-wa at the 
door ; ^|T^ near or at the door. 



fgo-mtshams door-junction ; also 
the chink left between a door-post and the 
door, when the latter does not perfectly fit. 
if^'CT Iffo-hi Icog ?5=Tz^r raised place or 
stools placed on either side of a door [a 
place where four roads meet]& 
jj5'3*)-ci tgohi them-pa the threshold. 
s"-5)-*sr2-*i|q tffo-yi mel-the mkhan, v. if<i 
igo-pa. 

ST^I igo-yig 1. inscription. 2. lam- 
poon; label on the door; sign -board. 3. a 
magisterial advertisement fastened at the 
door. 

sT*'" tgo-ra-wa=sf'%^'i $go sruA-wa & 
door-keeper ; a door-guard. 

if* $go-lo 1. body. 2. face (Jd.). 

if "'ft ?go bfad=$v*-tftei sgo -la bfad- 
pa an inscription on the door; a sign- 
board. 

Ifij^w ego-ffsum the three media, i.e., 
of body (v* lu$), speech ( ^ flag), and the 
mind 



320 



sgo bs 
a door-keeper. 



$yo ra-wa 



sgog sk//aoi-y^"]s/-'l/-sgoff white 
garlic used in medicine ; Allium nirul 
Jacqm; Jh'H^ syoy-snon a blue species of 
garlic, very common in the Himalayas, 
Tperh.Alliumrubellum (Jd.) ; ^T^T* 4 sgog- 
gciy-ma a garlic grown on a singb root ; 
IVlV^V syoy-bcnd ffsiim three species of 
garlic which have three different proper- 
ties : (1) **.- V tsoii-diiiar rod onion ; (2) 
$fa'3 sgog-fkya the common white garlic ; 
(3) sTTc^ $gog-$fion the blue species of 
garlic. 

^T^' sgog-tin mortar; fl'"!^ syog- 
fftun pestle for bruising leek (Jd.). 

^TS" sgog-tum or sT")'^*! syog-rc/oy a 
number of garlic roots bunched in one. 



I: syog-pa STCFT, ^^f garlic; 
leek ; alliuin ; ^'Spf ri-syoy Allium sphacro- 
ceph a species of garlic growing wild in the 
hills of Tibet. 

Syn. 31^6. kun-dofi ; ^'^ ro-ldan; 33'C^ 
gun dswi ; f a f(?A ; s^ sgchu ^'^'^ 
lha-min khrag; S'jfSlfN kla-klohi fpo$ 
(Mnon.). 

%* 

tj 5 !)'^ II: ace. to C. pf. *9f<\* bsyags, 

fut. ^Si"! bsyag, to make one swear; S""1'5 
fgog-po one that makes a person swear 
(Jd.). 

tyqfiq ggoy-gsil a single garlic root or 

seed. 
^^ 
tj c ' I: syon also ^'f sgon-na an egg. 

In Sikkim "$gon-do" (Slid. Hbk.). 

^s* 

|j' II : n. of a country, prob. ^'S 



bom of or produced 



aj^'fj $gon-spri the white of an egg or 
more properly the thin film which wraps 
the contents of an egg. 

J sgon tliog-pa n. of a plant. 



IjC'CJ sgon-u-a, pf. ^^ bsyoris, fut. 

bsyon, imp. ^.' (") ?</o/? (?) or ^^'^ 
fiy ftcsq 1. to make in tea balls to eat ; to 
make round balls of dough (<7.). 2. to 
hide; to conceal (a thing) (Sch.). 3. 
^C4W^M fgofis-pahatit gor-mo a 
laughing speech or exclamation. 

syod-yas n. of a numeral *:**' 
(Ya-sel). 



sgob-sgob unable; deficient; 
wanting in strength (Sch.). 

syom, ECO SI* 1 '" fgom-pa. 



la ikycs-pa 
from an egg. 



sgom-chcn 1. a Buddhist ascetic 
who remains absorbed in deep meditation. 
2. species of fieldmouse, Lagomys badius, 
so called from its hybernating disposition. 
See Hooker's Himalayan Journals. 

iT*'^'" sgom Mes-/? = *tw'ai - wcqim^i-q 
scms-la bsam-liifj ncs-pa or ^ P i nor-wa t to 
blunder in meditation. 

j[w*| sgom-thftg iTl'IMS meditating- 
cord ; a long piece of cloth about four 
inches wide which is worn by the Yogi 
when he sits in meditation ; it is stretched 
round the neck ana under the knees while 
sittin g. About the 1 Oth and 1 1th centuries 
A.D. Buddhist ascetics used to wear it in 
the manner the sacred thread is worn by the 
Brahmans, passing round the right shoul- 
der to the side below the arm-pit : i^'^'M' 
Q-^^g^iq-^rMiC^v^'qpj let a large 
sgom-thag pass from the shoulders over 
the bosom (A. 11). Ace. to Jd. a cord 
or rope is slung round the body in order 



327 



to facilitate the effort of maintaining an 
erect and immoveable posture during medi- 
tation, which expedient of course is scorned 
by the more rigid devotees. 

^*'1 Syom-sde n. of a section of the 
school of monks called Uvgq'gj'ie. 1 Ser-byas 
grba-tshan of Tibet (Lori. * 16). 



I $gom-pa Hnffr, vb. pres. 
sgoms-gyin, or S*i'*i^ sgom-bshin, pf. 
bsgoms, fut. SS** bsyoni, imp. Oft sgom or 
af*< sgoms, resp. 3*prsf*< thugs-sgom 1. 
originally to fancy, imagine; now to 
meditate, contemplate systematically (c. 
accus. and dat.) ; to have ; to entertain ; 
to re-produce (in one's mind), with the 
accus. termin. or with double accus. 
2. sbst. 3*<' i sgom-pa, has come to signify 
systematic meditation of the Buddhist 
saint. Four degrees of this meditation are 
to be distinguished, viz., %'Q Ita-ica contem- 
plation ; Jfwi sgom-pa meditation, properly 
so called (which requires 
q|$c*rii|j*i gsal-dun mi-riogs 
i.e., that it be so performed in a clear and 
decided manner without suffering one's self 
to be disturbed or distracted by anything) ; 
the third degree sft' 1 ) spyod-pa consumma- 
tion ; and ^g^'S hbras-bu fruition. 

3Jrq-q sgoi-papo=%*''\ sgom-lyed, i.e., 
jjVwp^ sgom-mkhan an ascetic who medi- 
tates. 

j|*rq-dfc' Sgom-pa tshan the term used in 
Amdo to signify wl^ sgom-chen, a Bud- 
dhist ascetic who meditates, &c. 

sKs sgom-bya and ^'f^ sgom-rten the 
object of meditation. 

^Rg"i) sgom-hbrog 1. the wilderness or 
solitude where hermits dwell for medi- 
tation. 2. holly in Sikkim (7a.) ? 

fjVui^-mq| gom yan-lag ^^cm: a branch 
or form of ascetical meditation [lit. burn- 



ing the limbs; it is a kind of penano3 in 
which the whole body is exposed to four 
heaps of fire in four quarters and to the 
sun on the head]& 

|*rm*i sgom-lam the practice of ascetical 
meditation, also ^'l'^^ sgom-gyi lam, the 
way to Nirvana by means of meditation : 
wflf^'q'^'ws^'q'sjsrjjjrawariqUi from the 
second stage of perfection free from 
defilement he entered on the practice of 
meditation. 



sgom-fifl, *n<|<ig the stick on 
which the ascetic fixes his gaze while 
engaging himself in meditation. 

^'"|i* sgom-g.sum three kinds of f*r q 
sgom-pa or mystical meditation, viz. : (1) 
meditation performed in the three, four or 
six periods into which a day may te 
divided for that purpose S^'IV^ wvvq-^- 



thun-sgom-ni, las dan-po dm gnen-po phar 
hdebs-kyi dran-pa yin-pas, thun-tshamsphye- 
la bsgom-paho ; (2) -gsi- 



9|*i'u]^'S fian-sgom-ni, myon-tshur hdebs-kyi 
dran-pa yin-pas, hgro-hdug za-nal las pyod 
ci-byas-kyan hlral med-du fian-gi$ gnas-so, 



tgom-ni ci-yaft mod-pa la nan-dan fian-gij 
nan-thag bsrifi-bsrefi ; (3) 5f=.'a'^, ^^wy 
iT^'w, ^S^I'S'l'^^'g''!'^ klon-tgom 
ni, nan-sems mu-thag chod-pas, bsgom bya- 
gom-lyed-kyi bio-dan Iral-icaho. 



sgoms (^^'9 lha lta-bu} w*t a 

deity thought of for propitiation. 
^v* 

sgor a spindle in a turning-lathe 



sgor-$gor round. 



sgor-sgor hkhyil forming into 
an eddy or whirlpool (flag. 12). 



328 



$gor-ica J. pf. and fut. 
b_igar to boil down ; to condense by boiling, 
e.g., 9'^ bu-ram sugar. 2. to turn on a 
lathe (Ja.). 

SJ*'**S sgor-incd without interruption or 
break: (*w)vw<i!f n's-mcj lam-hgro) to 
go on a journey without break, i.e., with- 
out having to turn back. 

}|VS sgor-mo,v, 1. jf t *' sgong. 2. 5*1 a 
ball, globe ; also a disk ; hence an Indian 
rupee is called fyti^'fc'X p/iyi-plM tgor-mo ; 
bu-ram igor-mo a ball of treacle ; 
$gor-thitj a pair of compasses ; IV 
1 E q sgor-thig phye-wa or 3\^ phyetf-ka 
Bemi-circular ((7s. ; Schtr.}. 



?f/os=$*?^iger-dn or fJfW lltag-pur, 
specially, particularly, chiefly, &c. ; in com- 
pounds and as adverb: private, separate, 
distinct; also as opposed to g spyi, e.g., 
8 '"I VI* spyi-ffdugs a parasol for several 
persons; awning ; shelter ; 5VlV!i sgog- 
ydugg a parasol for one person ; JVrqi sgot- 
fkal share of a single person ; individual 
lot. 

3f*W Sgot-khur *w'*ft 9|'>E.- n . of a 
yi-dwag or preta. 

Sf'i i^oj-joa to choose ; to find the right 
thing (8ch.). 

' u or | 



khya$-par du or jj^'^ sger-du (opposite to 
\* ipyfr), particularly, especially. sT^'S^^ 
sgoi-kyi dpon a subaltern officer (<?*) : 



gdams-kyt bstan-pa rin-po che particularly 
the precious doctrine of the Bkah-pdam-pa 
School (A. 124). 



or 



sgyihu a bag, 

purse: <T5V'V*'^l sgyig-gu chaj 
pohi dwaH-du, son-nas our purse being in the 



way of breaking, i.e., at low ebb ; 
dnul-sgyig purse to keep silver pieces. 

C ' 2 ' sgyin-wa, pf. fl|< btgyiAt, fut. 
^l^' bgyiii. 1. ^m to yawn, gape. 

d *~ 

byn. 3^ ** hgyin-ica ; y*'Q glal-ica 

(Won.). 
cv 
S^ IS'ytrf 1. the hollow of the knee ; 

bend of the knee ; or |*\'" sgyid-pa knee- 
joint; |V^!*S'^ tggid-pa ycod-pa, to lame 
the knee-joint; hamstring (a horse). 2. 
the calf (of the leg). 

^ira^J idleness ; 

langour : |V3*'^'8' l >'lSl'Y (l lf I'^I'SV'?' 
? aj E.^') (flay.) S^'5^ sgyid-igyur is the 
vicious indolence of beginning a new 
work before he has finished the one he 
has in hand. 



IS'S^'" tgyid. $kyur-pa acute pain in the 
knee and leg, e.g., of a woman with child. 

IVR*' sgyid-khun the hollow of the 
knee. 

iKlS"! sgyid-khyol one lame in his legs 
(&,). 

IVH" sgyid-hkltril ^VSIT^ (lit. raised 
knee, that is, squatting and doing nothing) 
langour ; laziness. 

Syn. Vf*w fgyid-SHoms; !v$| ?,/y/rf- 
%; iI-n rmugs-pa; *Mrq hjas-pa 
(Mnon.). 



id-bu, also |vg igyej-bu ^fw 
a hearth, fire-place, consisting of three 
stones on which the kettle is placed ; 
|^ Icags-sgyid iron trevet, tripod, cf. 



!'" syyid-lug-pa TO slothful ; idle 
Cs. and Lex. S^'S"'" y?'o? shum-pa prostrate 
with fatigue or mental lassitude. 



329 



the fringe that is 
attached to the border of robes or of 
tents, &c. 

fij0yt=|f| gyo-sgyu craft; decep- 
tion ; pretext. |'^ sgi/u-can artful ; 
crafty ; cunning ((?) 

H^goi sgyu-hp/irul JTTOT magical decep- 
tion ; ft'*s|' a r*< tgyu-kphrut-ma *rr*JT the 

*s ,j 

name of Gautama, Buddha's mother. 

| ' sgyu-ma WTOT illusion; fancy; 
imposition whether natural or intentional ; 
jr*4 -*^ sgyu-ma mkltan F'PJT^rpC a juggler; 
H'N'^ sgyu-ma-can ns3f an imposter ; 
one who plays deception; g'^'g'S sgyu-ma 
Ita-bu HWfaT like illusion ; illusive ; |'' 
}mq sgyn-ma sprul-wa to exhibit a false 
show (C*.) : vtCjm*C&[f*t*H nas 
nan-tea thnms-cad tgyu-mar $es I know 
that all phenomena are only illusions. 
g'W'l^'i sgyu-ma byed-pa mST^, *nzjT^T 
one dexterous in magical .'how ; a magician ; 
|-N-*)\i sgyu-ma med-pa iimgT^t free from 
guile; guileless; J'&'^ sgyu-mahi nor 
illusive riches, hence general wealth : g' 



-^|^|-m the mind is not sa- 
tisfied with the illusive wealth, though 
accumulated by desire it remains behind, 
and though acquired by yourself it is 
enjoyed by others. 

!'j4<v^c)'H3'<if^ sgyn-m'ihi dpe-bcu-gnis 
the twelve expressions illustrative of illu- 
sion: (1) 1'i'^'S tgyu-nifi ita-bu; (2) $'| 
chu-zla the image of the moon in water ; 
(3) sH^ mig-yor scenes that appear in a 
vision ; (4) STfi smiy-rgyu mirage; (5) *' 
i" rmi-lam dream; (6) S q H sgra-brnan, 
echo ; (7) V*5 ^'H^ dri-zahi gron-khyer 
castle in the air; (8) ^ij'-^g"! mig-hphrul ; 



(9) VK'35'113 duc.fi-pohi ff.<shu rain-bow; (10) 
81 'I g.k>g lightning ; (1 1) ^'9^ c/m-btir bub- 
ble; (12) *' ! fc'% > Rpr*iTfg me-M-gi 
yzugs-brnan Ita-bu reflection or reflected 
image in a mirror. 

'^ a| Sgi/u-rtsril ^iwr art, skill, dexterity: 
g'^'l^'S^'^'^'l^ sgyu-rtsal g.nas-kyan 
dran-por rgyi/r ^i^'ra^tjf'T flK^f though 
dexterous (artful) he was sincere. There 
are 64 arts, of which 30 are distributed in 
handicrafts, 18 in music, 7 in singing, 
9 in dancing. 

|'gT sgyu-rtsal sa=^ tjS'jf V*J| rgyal- 
pohi kycd-tshal the royal gardens where in 
ancient time kings used to try feats of 
arms, etc. (Mnon.). 

U'^* 1 gyu-lu 1. the immaterial 
body of the soul while in the Bar do. 
2. the animal and human body in general, 
inasmuch as it is only an apparent body ; 
a phantom, when considered from a higher 
philosophical point of view. 



sgyug-mo 

mother-in-law; wp'|"l mnah-sgyu both 
daughter-in-law and mother-in-law : SH'Sfo" 
q^c-N'd sgyvg-mos bsruns-pa 'STsy^-KfaffT 
watched by one's mother-in-law. 

H'vu'fft sgyur-bkod strong advice. 

S^,'C| sgyur-u-a ^71, pf. and fut. "l^ 
bsc/yur, traus. form of ".^'q hgyur-ica. ]. 
to transform, alter, change (colour, one's 
mind) ; to correct; to translate; to revise. 
2. to cast aside ; to dissuade, divert ; 
to turn; to cause to turn; ^ffo'Srg^-q 
hkhor-lo sgyur-ica or ifc'q skor-u-a to 
turn a wheel; S(S'|^' t ' kad sgytir-tca to 
-ttry or modulate the voice, also to 
hum a tune; to sing or whistle. 3. 
to govern, steer, control: ^'f'Jj^'SM'g^, 
rtahi-kha srnl-kyis sgyur a horse's mouth 
by a bridle: nX^-*i|*re^ c^'pra 1 ; hdnd- 

43 



330 



ehags nan-pas kha-sgyttr he is governed 
by evil passions; p'iS'gvq kha-lo tgyur-wa 
to govern; also a driver; F^^Tf*^ 
kha-lo fin-rta syyur-wa to drive a carriage ; 
V*'fi*'i dwaft sgytir-tra to have command, 
control of ; to dominate ; to command. 

WJ e (ifr WoJ), vtofr, *%* a vessel 
[a sack ; a Catheru bottle]S. 
!'* sgyc-syitr crooked (Sch.). 



^ egyoys-tndah 
lac. T. 12S) catapult. 



(Schr.; Ka- 



bent forward and hump-backed. 

"^W 

H'^ sgyc-bo ^fv:gf 1. hump-back; 

ace. to Jd. 2. one of the lower classes of 
officials or noblemen. 



>o RT q khug-pa, 
1. sbst. a small pouch; MT| ras-sgye a 
bag of cotton stuff. 2. adj. quiet, gentle 
(in Spiti) (Jd.). 

|^ $gy e b u a small bag. 

^>. ~*^ 

JS'^ sgucd-po *rg a small fire-place; 
*0 * 

hearth-stone. 



sgyed-bu 



a make-shift 



fire-place. 



sgyen-pa to be on the move. 

fgyel-ica, pf. and fut. 
bsgyel, transit, form of ^WQ hgyel-ica, to 
throw down; to over-turn; to lay or put 
down (a bottle, a book) ; to thwart (the 
charm of an enemy) ; to kill (horses) ( Jd.). 



a warlike 

engine to shoot darts or to fling stones 
with; mortar; cannon: ifti^fWp* 
sgyogs-kyi hphrul-hkhor id ; f"P<'^ sgyogs- 
rdo stone flung from such a machine. 
*> |"1*< me-sgyogs and ^l"!*' rdo-$gyogs= 
cannon : >'f "I" me-sgyogs now called ^ 
dob in Tibet; ^'^1" rdo-sgyogs a stone- 
thrower is used in Bhutan. 



tgyofi-tca, pf. i|w) bsgyon?, fut. 
perh. originally =J=.'i sgoil- 
tca to hide. 1. to fill; to stuff (a sausage). 
2. colloq. in W. to put into (the pocket) : 
S'! v S^' q ffla-p/iyfr sgon-ica to return the 
wages due to another person (Sch.). 

(da) 



1. sound, 

noise, voice: far1aj-ci'vg-'^-*r^'w^-q|V 
^S fgra-la sin-pahi sgra-daft ma-zin-pahi 
Sgra-pni$ yod there are two kinds of sound, 
viz : ^'w'|| zin-pahi fgra, i.e., sound that 
can be caught or heard and understood ; 
wl^-qq'fi wii-zi/i-pahi sgra which cannot 
be heard or understood ; indistinct sound ; 
^'U niiil-sgra a mere word. 2. word, 
syllable. 3. a language. 

g'SCS $gra-$kad sound ; voice ; fame ; g' 
^V^'" $gra-$k'id $nan-p:i sounding; sono- 
rous. 

S'qsi/q sgra bkyun-wa ^(wi^i one 

V 

who speaks few words. 

fi'ij'" Sgra brya-pa= a '3i] hbruy JRn^T 
thunder. 

* a'"!*; wq % S</ra-bsyyi<r mar-pa lots 
ts/ia = **' c i Mar-pa the translator and lo- 
tsa-wa. 

S'SI"'" tgra sgrags-pa (da-dag-pa) <3>z- 
*< the sound returned by the target 
when the arrow hits it. 

S'l'l'ivIS sgra sgrog-par lyc.d (da-dog- 
par cch) TT^H one who proclaims much; 
a great self- advertiser. 

S'lfl 5 ' gra-sgrogs aj, TT?tr, afjfs^ 
1. the famous. 2. n. of the king of Lanka 
(Ceylon) with whom Rama waged war, 
described in the epic of Eamayan by 
Valmiki. 



331 



sgra-sgrog pa (da-dog-pa) to 
produce sounds, noises, etc. 

3j-$r^-|Vq sgra nes-par sbyor-wa ^' 
Sl'f'SI'i*'!'*' 1 ' tshi'j-gi sgra dag-par sbyor- 
wa fsrvt? the correct formation of words. 

Ifl^ Sgra-ffcan TTf, <% ^^W 1- 
n. of an Asitra demon, who fought with 
the gods and drank nectar obtained 
by churning the ocean. 2. fabulous 
planet of Chinese and Brahminical astro- 
logy which exercises malignant influences 
on the destinies of mankind; specially 
known by being at enmity with the sun 
and the moon, on whom it is continually 
wreaking vengeance. Eclipses are caused 
by Sgra-ffcan swallowing the sun or moon. 
His different names are the following : 
sfli^wrgfl Bsod-nams Man; W^^Mm-pa 
can; stf^'^'lv Mtho-ris snan-byed; n5' 
aj'q Bzahi rivi-wa ; *#f'3* Mgo-zlum ; w^ 
L>im-iwg; U'^'SSI Zla-wahi dgra ; ifc'^liS'fl 
Sen-go mohi bit; 3'^'^Iw Zla-ica hjoms; 
\ ww^lj Rc-tcar hphar-hgro ; *!'* Qa-sa; 
^QlN-^'|i Sprin-las rnam-rgi/al; g'Vl* 1 
Bra-ne skyes; (W^'fli^'^'jui K/iams-gsum 
rnam-rgijal (Mtion.). 

g-fl|5^n^ Sgi-a-g.can-hdsin TTS5T the only 
son of Gautama Buddha who, accord- 
ing to the southern Buddhists, was born 
on the day Siddhartha left the world. 
According to the northern Buddhists he 
was conceived in the womb of his mother 
Yasodhara long before the renunciation 
took place, and saw light six years after, 
on the day when Buddha finished his six 
years asceticism, on the bank of the river 
Nairanjana ; he was so named being born 
on the day when there was an eclipse. 

ni$q Sgra-pcan hdsin bfcf- 
(Schr.; Ta. 2-2&9) [friend 
of EahulaJ/S. 



u$ hjoms 

N the god who subdued Eahu, the 
demon, by cutting him into two. 

|j'<S gra-che far-famed, renowned; 3' 
^ sgra-chen H^K=) great; sound; S'^' Q 
sgra chen-po W?KT5f high loud sound; 
jj'lvgjij^'q sgra-cher grags-pa well-known, 
famous; g'^'i sgra nan-pa to hear; to 
hear sound; f9Wi sgra nams-pa ^qsi^ 
sinking voice; low sound; fj'?|^ sgra-snan 
3^T3PJ3, 'ft a well-sounding, agreeable 
voice; a guitar; iHH sgra-brnan (^'* 
Irag-chd) sfn^eT, s?Rrst^ an echo. 

fT?"! $gra-tog sound made by the tongue 
striking on the roof of the mouth : p'5' 
frfl(i;'*ft-X ! 5B^^-X'9rilfff^'rl when I 
happened not to see him he by striking the 
roof of the mouth with his tongue signi- 
fied the relish of meat, &c. (Bbrom. 118). 

3' W sgra dag-pa pure ; clear-voiced. 

tj'^ sgra-don TH^m meaning of a word. 

S'VT 2 ' sgi'a drag-po pTmcf sound made 
by a sudden blow. 

3'SI^ sgm-ldan 1. noisy. 2. (9'Xi| by- 
rog) Tt^T, vt^ met. a crow. 

fj ';*, sgra-ldar sounding ; sonorous. 

* g'H sgra-wa wm (Schr.) [speech](S. 

I'^S^'y sgra-hbyin-pa tjaiT^ir ^fir; ^\ 
^q $kad hdon-pa to resound, groan, cry 
loudly. 

a'S 6 -'* sgra-byun lo fl^T [resounded] S. 

3'^ sgra-byed sound-maker; SJ'S'S'^ 
Sgra lyed-do *!aers?t makes sound. 

!'*&=" sgra-dbyans fsr^N pleasing 
tone; harmony; euphony (A A. 111-8). 

*3'SS^"'S a ' ie i Sgra-dbyans rgyal-po 
(Schr.; (46 S.). 

g-t^w^-SS ^rd dbyafis lha-mo the 
Goddess Svarasvati. 



332 



Sjn. 5f*i^gc. f ^-i Lha-mo dbi/anf-can- 
ma; SS^*'*^'* 4 Dbyafi$-cr/n-ma ; dwjgwS 
Tshnns-srfis-mo; * ='$ * Mts/to-byun Iha- 
mo; dwqS'^wtf T^/iaA-icahi sras-mo; *T 
VR-^'S fiay-dwah l/ia-mo (Mnon.). 

U'gVw j</ra fbyor-ma & coalition or 
connection of letters. 

S'*>fft Sgra-nu-tnan $* of disagreeable 
voice. According to the fabulous geo- 
graphy of the Buddhists the northern 
continent which is said to be square in 
shape, and where a language is spoken 
not intelligible to the people of India. 

S^sgra-med^^^ soundless; voiceless. 

fl *"\'fj^ $gra-med sprin a cloud without 
thunder. 

8' to sgra-tsam ^r^f only a voice. 

S'*^ sgra-tshad (||'V*\w igra-daA 
ts/iad-ma) grammar and logic. 

S'^i $gm-hdsi>i=*i'l rnawa V*%$TS tbat 
catches the sound ; the ear. 



metaphor 



the origin or root of a word. 

S^'f^ sgrahi-rgyan ^q^ 
in rhetoric. 

S^ 'f '" sgrahi $nc-ma tender tones and 
half tones, &c. ; also the name of a book 



i-a hod-zcr psum the three 
raj-s of sound which are incident on the 
soul in the Bardo: f$r^Mr sgra-yis 
dfiafi$-so; ^'^' a ^^'^ hod-kyfs hpgs-so; U' 
awgl'^f ser-gyis sgrag-go. 

S' 5 )'^ sgra-yi sde srafl^r (Schr. ; Kalac. 
T. 12Jf) [soldiers of the adversary]& 

*S' 5 ^' q l^*' sgra-yi-gna$ = ii'i rna-ica 
the ear. 



" sgra-rig-pi 

the science of words; grammar 
[one versed in lexicography] 8. 



mkha$-pa mfs^qj one 
versed in the science of words; a gram- 
marian. 

I'te'tofcft'g'-fll Sgra-scfi rig-pnhi blo- 
^ross^w^l^S^ Ejnm-dpal dbyant 
fl^T^ a Boddhiaattva and God of Learn- 

N 

ing of the northern Buddhists. 

g'lpw sgra-gsal wlz articulate; intel- 
ligible. 

fj 1 ^ igrags 1. together with ; jointly. 
2. n. of a place in Tibet. 

iqr)'^'^ Sgrag$-kyi dar-phug n. of a 
sanctuary situated in a rock-cavern of 
Tibet (Deb. "I U). 

gqi^-uiffe; Sgrags-kyi Yan-rdnon dis- 
trict in Lho-lrag in S. Tibet. 

fjC'CJ sgraH-wa (gang-tea) pf. ig=- 
bsgrafis, fut. gc.' Ingraft, imp. Je.' ?<7>-o>5 1. 
to enumerate; to reckon up separately. 
2. to upbraid; to reproach. 

fpj'*3 sgral-tca (dal-wa) 1. to cut into 
small pieces, viz., the picture of on enemy 
whom one wishes to destroy (<7a.). 2. 
ftAfrtmft'q chu-sogs las sgral-tca to pass 
over or travel upon a river or sea. 



bycd 



i Hi 



sgrtt mron-par go-war 
?! by voice or sound 



he causes to be understood. 

I"! sgn'g (dig) or 3Jrfj<>r gral ^grig-pa 
well arranged; good arrangement; v. |i 



Q Wig-pa, pf. l|) bsgrigs, fut. 
s.9> > fl r ) imp. fj"? ?^rt> or I"!*' sgrigs jfi' 

gral-du fgrig-pa, to arrange in order 
or row ; to lay or put in Older ; to arrange, 
adjust ; to put or fit together ; to join (the 
separate parts) ; tl*rwS' c| sgrigs-par 
byed-pa *r*jfTfa to compile (books) ; to 
stitch close (books, &c.) ; Hi^fei<*lfa covers. 



333 



I"! ^ sgrig-lad defect in fixing gems 
on ornaments : ''Y1|<ir a iV' vi r v Vri c '''^' i r 
5*' even though there was some defect in 
fixing a sapphire (Rtsii. and Tig. 17). 

f|4]'Qisi sgrig-lam arrangement according 
to usage; custom: l^'W^'^c.'*) sgrig-lam 
hig son-ifa there was a custom. 

!"!*< Si/rigs, imp. of |"I'i s^riy-pa. 

Cs . ,~- 
f$' C l sgrin-po (din-po) ^ skilful, 

clever, prudent, expert. 

Syn. p*i mklws-pa; g*,'5 spyan-po 
(Mnon.). 

c\ 

fj3 sgrib (dib), "yi'fWifKi fii-sla 

tgra-can-gyi sgrib-pa, to eclipse ; to cover 
over, v. jjl'fl i : syrib-pa. 

fjq-sfl] sgrib-chag, ^rj<V3'i"*rr*vsiq- 

^ 

?K,-*q)-q dus-rgyun-gyi rtsi-las mar-hgrib cifl 
chag-pa reduction ; anything below the 
average calculation ; also discount. 

$*tyr$*d'*Sffri&~9&itJtyi dbyc-tca dis- 
tinction between the two defilements. 



\\igrib-pi 1. sbst. 

tRTTii, jfftgrT sin ; mental and 
moral defilement ; the state of being 
obscured, darkened ; obscuration. 2. 'fz^f, 
[a roof, cover] S. w^rr^'a'e.5-|jflpr'fjq'ti 
ma-rig pahi sgo-nahi sbugs-kyi sgrib-pa 
hidden inside the egg of ignorance. 



II : 1. vb. pf . ifi^ bsgribs, fut. )|ti 
bsgrib, imp. fj 1 ' sgrib (^ s) to obscure ; to 
cover; to darken, defile: ^5''(^-l;-u|q-^ 
ni-mahi hod-scr bsgrib-nas the light of the 
sun being obscured : |^'tiN^'(|q'j sprin- 
pag ni-ma sgrib-pa the sun is covered by 
the clouds. 2. S=,T5j-qfjq*J yoiis-su bsgribs 

utterly obscured or covered. 

III: adj. dark; sbst. darkness; 



sgrib-pa lf,a the five kinds of 
moral obscurations are the following : (1) 
ai^-|-|q-| ln$-kyi sgrib-pa, or ^''S''1 I '' J I 
hdod-srid-kyi sgrib-pa defilements or sins 
of passiou ate desires ; (2) iftvt>* w ''fl t ' { i 
gnod-sems-kyi sgrib-pa sins of an evil heart, 
i.e., of the wish to do evil to others ; (3) 
&''|*r3j'Yl)'fjq rmugs-rgod-kyi sgrib sins of 
laziness and indolence ; (4) II f^vS'S q ' c ' ffnid- 
kyi sgrib-pa sins of sleep; (5) !'^'3'jjati 
the-tshom gyi sgrib-pa sins of doubt. 

|q-q-"|^5q sgrib-pa gnis or l^'if^^ sgrib-puis 
the two kinds of moral and mental obsou- 
ations are: (1) 'SfrSMrcjivfjq'q "^urrfa 
defilement of misery that caused by 
habits, etc.; ^'N-gS t^ iN*fa the sin 
produced from the objects of cognition ; 
ace. to the Mahayana doctrine these 
two sins vanish as soon as one has attained 
to the eight stage of Bodhisattva perfec- 
tion ; ace. to the Hinayana these remain 
even when one has become an Arhat. 
Ace. to the Bon religion, sins which bring 
sufferings encompass the living beings of 
the three worlds, sins that appertain to 
knowledge only affect such saints, "Ri=.' 
Qyun-druft sems-pa and ^i)'^^- 
Eig-hdsin sems-pa, as belong to the 
tenth stage only. 

jjq-q-3j*ri Sgrib-pa sgrib-pa rnam-sil 
n. of a Bodhisattva. 

|n'%" Sgrib-fin (dib-fing) invisible by 
the power of charms or by certain articles 
of influence on men and devils : p'55-|f-S)r 
3|q-^f|^ khwa-tahi sgro-yis grib~fifi byed. 
made invisible by the feathers of a mag- 
pie. 



snner. 



I sgrim-pa (dim-pa), pf. Jfj*W bsgrimf 
(dim), fut. *$* bsgrim, imp. $ () sgrim (s). 



334 



1. to hold fast; to force or twist together; 
to endeavour; ((7.4.) to squeeze in, crowd 
in; (Sch.) to be confused: g^V^T"'!*''' 
bio-dan rig -pa sgrim-pa to be careful both 
in mind and intelligence, that is, not to 
forget any important point or say a 
foolish word in conducting a case ; to bring 
all the intelligence into play; gS'i'^wi 
skud-pa sgrim-pa to twist the threads 
together that they may become a compact 
plait. 

^'P sgril-kha a piece rolled together : 



yod-pahi sgril a roll containing twenty- 

one pieces. 
c\ 
fj^I'EJ sgi-il-wa, pf.and fut. s|t bgril 

(of. ^spri hsgnl-wa and *j|>i'i hkliril-ira). 
to make a roll of; to roll, wrap up; to 
wind into a spool ; T^T^'JJwIWR ^tag- 
pa dan yog-bu tgril-mkhan he who rolls up 
ropes or paper ; ^r^v jjorq ril-bur sgril-tca 
to roll or form into a pill ; ip'jj vi'fjTi 
gun l/io^-pa sgril-wa to roll up tightly 
what has got slack. 

^jjjsw egris-skhrims rules or regu- 
lations of admission ; $*>'*>|'i sgris bciig- 
pa to admit ; to introduce. 



f rug-pa (dug-pa) = *3,'i bt/ni-tca, 
xr> 
pf . njoi^'y bsgrug-pa, fut. i|| bsgrug, imp. 

U"! sgrug or gl" fyntgs to collect, gather, 
pluck, pick up, e.g., wood, nuts, vermin, 
#o.: 3*'!"! fifi-sgrug=*-' a -$'* fin hthu- 
wa; ^*'Vf|WSF^FS* f* "9 Sgruys- 
dan ffwfi-na having requested that some 
wood should be collected. 

fp* I: Sgrun (dung) n. of a Tibetan 

NO 

king of the Ben period. 

fp' II: 01 J^*' sgruns, described as 
9*on-gyi lo-rgyus 



bden-rdsun sna-tshog$, various anecdotes, 
true and false, of former times ; fj=.'M 
syntn-mkhaii one who narrates fables or 
stories (Cs.) : ^'^ sgriifi-rgyutf the stories 
or fables that have come down to us ; =-' 

>a 

^*^ - tj gniii hchad-pa to relate fables, stories, 
&c. ; l^'^l^* 1 sgnifi-ptai/i legends ; tales of 
ancient time. 



sgnin-lclchi g.nam-bon the 
heavenly or celestial Bon-po teachers who 
flourished before the time of King Di-yum 
btsan-po and his successors in the mytho- 
logical period. 

'i S(jrtift-pa a relater of legends. 

=^ '^NW sgnm b^nd- 
mJ;/taii 1 . one who relates fables or stories. 
2. vb. pf. ^S 1 ^ bsynins, fut. 3%^' bsgntn, to 
mix ; to invent ; to feign (Cs.) ; 3 *.' w*i stjrun- 
babs the inspired story-tellers of Tibet, 
whose profession it is to narrate fables for 
a living; he puts a rquare cap on his 
head and goes on telling stories without 
pause. 

^ tgrun-pa (dun-pa), pf. and fut. 
1. to resound; to reply 
in the same tone; to rival. 2. to compare; 
to emulate, vie, contend with (Cs.) . 
Syn. ^SR'i hy>'(tn-pa (Mnon.). 
fj^'^l synib-pa, vb. pf. "3^ bsyrubs, 

N3 

fut. if! 1 ' bsgrub, imp. |1 sgrub (cf. 
<*gjq'i hgrub-pn) f^m, ^IT, *rrK to com- 
plete, fuiish, perform, carry out, accom- 
plish ; to achieve, manufacture, attain to ; 
^'l*''" don $grub-pa to attain to one's aim ; 
to obtain a blessing, a boon ; X'^5'^'|jq'j 
tshe-hdihi don sgnib-prt to care for the 
wants of this life ; to accomplish the ends 
of this life ; JI^'I'S^'" rgijays-phye sgrub- 
pa to procure flour as provision for a jour- 
ney ; ^v|^'i nor sgrub-pa to gain riches ; 



bsgmn 



335 



also to furnish "with, to supply; Sf'Sii 
lha $grub-pa to propitiate a god. Ace. 
to Jd. ^'IJ^' 11 lha $grub-pa implies, in accor- 
dance with Bramanio-Buddhist theology, 
not so much the making of a deity propi- 
tious to man, as rendering a god subject to 
human power, forcing him to perform the 
will of man. Whilst the conatus, the 
labouring in this arduous undertaking is 
often called SP'q syrub-pa, the arriving at 
the wished-for end is designated *ji'i 
hyrub-pa. 

^q-^i<vq sgrub dkah-ica ^-.HTJ very 

N> 

difficult to propitiate, to perform, to exe- 
cute. 

gq-pc.- sgrub-khcm the house or place 
where one sits to meditate or propitate a 
deity, or where the rites and ceremonies 
are observed for the same. 

jjq'*f^ wub-mkhan iy* one who 
propitiates ; a propitiator. 

S q 'S sgrub-gja = ^'^ sgntb-yon remu- 
neration for propitiating (Mnon.). 

gq-WJl sgrub-hchag building or making 
and dismantling or destroying ; the term 
is defined in qw*|T'^|*'V^rwWM 
(fnar-ic(i sgrub-rgyu dan rnin-pa nas mar- 
he hag rgyu constructing a new one and 
breaking down the old one. 

gi'^ijsi sgrub-rtags token ; proofs of the 
attainment of perfection in accomplished 
saints. 

|q'w sgrub-thabs Hiqi, WR the 
method of effecting the propitiation of a 
deity, of obliging a god to make his 
appearance. There are two kinds of 8 
sgrub-thabs : ^qS'fjq-siq^c.-jif q' 
shi-trahi sgrub-thabs dafi khro-wahi 
thabs gjnis the propitiation or co-ercion 
of gods in their mild aspect, and of those 
of wrathful aspect. 



rg'# sgrub-thabs rgya-rntsho 
(Schr. ; Ta. 2, 330) the ocean 



of coercion. 



tgnib-dan sun-hbyin pro- 
pitiating and discomfitting. 

S ''5*' igriib-nut TV^5I the power to 
perform or propitiate. 

gq-q-^^-ng'S Sgrub-pa dkah-brgyad the 
eight gods who according to the 1=-'* Enifl- 
ma sect of Tibet are difficult to propitiate. 
They are the following: ^n'^wg Ejam- 
dpal slm, tiV'IJ=. Pad-ma ffsun, vi^^*\-i\n 
Yan-dag thugs, t ^'t'' a i^'W Bdud-rtsi yon- 
tan, ^t*^VKtS^^Vffi^^ Phur-pa 
hphrin-las hjig-rten hdasrpahi $de-lna, '^' 
5\l?E.- Ma-mo rbod-gtofi, f jfa\ e *'Wt''\* 
Qmod-pa drag-snags, ^Sij'^'wX^ 1 ^ Bjig- 
rtcn mchod-bstoti (Grub, f 11}. 

^q'ti^'g^'i tgrub-par byed~pa to cause 
ecstasy in meditation. 

ljn-cj-*^ii| grub-po mchog ^iTif highest 
stage of consummation. 

|P'S sgrub-bya ffi[^iT, qr<q anything 
to be propitiated ; a god. There are two 
kinds of deities, male and female, who 
having in view the good of all living beings 
do many kind services when invoked ; they 
are manifested in aspects, calm and peace- 
ful, or terrific and wrathful. For instance, 
the Goddess Dolma when she is propitiated 
is a mild deity and is called ^'55 1^' 9 lha-mo 
igrub-bya, i.e., the goddess to be propitia- 
ted ; the man who propitiates being called 
jq-q-q ggrub'-pa-po, and the manner of ex- 
horting her is called 'C a ' sgom-tshul; the 
propitiatory rites are called S q'*q*i sgrub- 
thabs. S l *' lV| I vq sgrub-par byed-pa in- 
cludes the persons who observe tho rites, 
who meditates on her and officiates at the 
service. When the goddess has been pro- 
pitiated, i.e., iyw bsgrubs, she appears 



336 



before the devotee and grants him his 
prayers or wishes. 

| q 'S sgrub-byed ^*f, tfwrqrTT, fffiarPJK 
1. he that accomplishes the propitiation 
or coercion. 2. a kind of bile. 

J q M sgrub-ran or S q ' R ^ ^grub-nan ^ft^ 
cannot easily be propitiated or accom- 
plished. 

J!'* tgrub-le ^qta(^-|q o dicttfi-le ilafi 
sgrub-le. 

^'^^ Sgrub-gpn a deity of the Bon 
to be propitiated ; the Bon doctrine (Ja.). 

U q 'S|' q sgrub sla-wa %TWI easy to per- 
form, or easy of accomplishment. 
^ 
|)'^ sgre-wa (dc-ica) 1. uncovered : *' 

HpOPT|'*'**W^$V cho$-kiji plegs-bam 
tgre-wa la Baling mi-ruA a sacred volume 
should not be kept uncovered. 2. adj. 
gen. + U'S sgre-bo bare; naked; ]jj'* 
tgre-mo, wfi' 2 * s j^rc-6o='^) / |'w< *a- 
/tAogf mi-snomg-pa or w*$vg, a ym-r-bu 
bare uneven ground. 3. vb. pf. and fut. 
q j) $?" to repeat; to put or place in 
order ; to put together ; to collate. 

^ 

fPJ' 8 ! sgreg-pa (deg-pa) vb. pf. |li 

tgrcgs, sbst. ijnc, fsriTT to belch; also 
ebst. eructation. 

Syn. "13V 1 Wd-pa or ^^'"'S^'^ 
gsu$-pa gyen-bzlog eructation that rises 
upwards. 

> "s 

I^C'ljC sgren-sgrcn firm and well-fixed : 

| l Tf'l lt 'l t ' 1 ^' i K'* r ^ r ^ Itag-rtsa 
sgren red mcd-pa hdi$-len. 



or erect the house-flags and the sacred 
standard. 2. to stretch out. 



gycn-du slan-wa 

bsyrcns, fut. q|c.' bsgren, imp. fj c ^-fl or g=. 

eyrens, cf . ^e. - i hgrcn-pn 1. to lift, heist or 

rise up: 





fj3j**i sg>'f>t->o (den-mo) STTJ; 

gos-med gcer-bu naked; without cover; 
destitute; bleak. 



fgren-mo gston (dcn-nw sum) 
the three denmo according to a Tibetan 
sa^ying are the following: (1) JI^'Sj's 
*>VIH'*' kl/tii-ni cliu-mcd egren-iiio stc a 
valley is bleak when it is without water ; 
(2) qTijSVwffravifl-S yul-hMor mgron- 
med sgren-mo a country without a protect- 
ing deity is destitute; (3) spr^-Sk Zj-qj- 



yod-kyan, khyo-med bud-med $gren-moho 
that woman who is without husbnnd 
though she may have got ten brothers is 
dcnmo, i.e., destitute. 



sgres-pa (dch-pa) n. of a numeral 
figure used in Buddhist astrology: |TI 



igs--^- (Ya-8d.57). 

** 

^ tgro 1. a large feather, esp. quill-fea- 
ther, used for an ornament of arrows, as a 
charm, etc. : jf Sj^ sgro-ldan feathered race ; 
ageneral name for birds as being possessed 
of feathers ; also an arrow. 2. J'l fgro-tra 
to elevate, exalt, increase (Cs.); to exagger- 
ate (Ja.). 3. sack; bag; wj tknl-sgro a 
sac-k full of ashes (Ja..), v. J'l sgro-ica. 



sgi'O-rkan (do-katig) a ejiecies of 
tall fir ; the feather-fir. 

^s* 

tj ^^ sgfo-skur (do-kiir) is an abbrevia- 
tion of the expression; jp^ij^'T^f 
g^'i'^q'i $gro hdogs-pa dan slmr-pa hdeb?- 
pa decorating with feathers and casting 
abuse, i.e., exaggeration and depreciation: 
na-ni sgro-skur med- 



337 



pahidge-slonyinlama. monk (Bhiksu) who 
neither natters nor speaks ill of ethers. 

sgro-khyim (do-khim) |"'| 
^ (Jig. 32). 



(do-ga) 1. the little bubbles 
in sparkling beverages. 2. the ropes used 
to pack cloth ; cord, fetter ; f 1r ijj /cff^fs- 
J5f/-o iron fetters; fi|*rfj'an|-i %<* -^ kags- 
$gro l:ig-pa sbrel-nas the hands chained 
together ; ^'|f Iham-sgro shoe-strap ; lace ; 
latchet. 

J'3 sgro-gu (do-yu) string; strap for 
binding, fastening, strapping : fj'g'f^ 1 sgro- 
gu rten-pa the steel point or Kade of an 
arrow to which a feather is attached. 

I'^"!^'" sgro ^tags-pa ^nrrT vb. to 
make a false show ; to protend much ; sbst. 
vanity ; presumption : ^ civf<!]*rw|-q5<i|*r 
iS-qVOV*^ (Latu-ti. 42) imaginary 
thoughts are possessed of the nature of 
vain and unreal assertion. ' 

jf^il*! sgro-hdogs (do-ddg) doubts ; g' 
sgro-hdogs gpod free from doubts : 
*!'^-^- J'R^qi-fl|^'q-5}a\ by 
the (upadefii) precepts of the holy Lama 
his doubts were dissolved (A. 77). 

j'<0^i|r*rX^ sgro-hdogs ma-ehod his 
doubts were not cleared (A. 27). 

if 3"! sgro-phug n. of a place in Tibet. 

tjSTi n. of a celebrated Nying-ma 
Lama who lived in Dophug : J'lKl'Sj'l 1 *' 
f^TS ^^' ) ' Q " I 1*''* the temple of Do-ton 

was built atDo-phug (Dub. 1 6). 
^~ 
fj'P I : sgi'o-wa (do-tca) a leather or 

hide bag for keeping barley-flour, peas, 
etc. Those that are carried on horseback 
are called ?'ff rta-sgro ; small leather bags 
are called W|'9i lig-sgro hand-bag; "J^'lj 
g.san-sgro or the mystic bag is a term for 
the scrotum. 



Syn. \% sgye.-mo; \\ sgyehu; 
tshugs-snod; ^1 phad-tshe (Mnon.). 

v^- 

fj J II: sbst. 1. ace. to Vai-sn. and 
Seh. the bark of a species of willow. 2. 
in C. Tib. the penis. 



III: v\>. pf. flfjij bsgros, fut. if' 
-0, imp. |f s^-o, to debate, discuss, 
chatter freely. 

jg-*^Mq sgro-mdotls (dom-dofiy) a pea- 
cock's plumes or feathers (Hbrom. f -ZJ) ; 
a Chinese decoration used to adorn the 
hat worn by the chiefs and noblemen of 
Tibet, China, &c. 

x/* 

ffll sgrog (day) strap, as in ^if"! llnnii- 

sgrog (Iham-doy) ; shoe-strap ; f "]*)'ff"l Icags- 
syrog iron fetters or chain; HJWF^^rj^ 
brgyans-fin-la sgrog. 

ff q r fl M sgrog-ydan (dog-dan) the trian- 
gular patch generally made up of satin 
on the "^'"IVi pan-ydan, i.e., the bibu which 
covers the front of a woman's petticoat. 



sgrog-ydub (dog-dub) a bangle 
made of cord or straps also of jade. 



IP}' 2 ! ?grog-pa (dog-pa) finr 
f'l-l^, pf- "SI"* 1 ' b&gnigs, fut. Hffi\ bsgnig, 
imp. |"I sgrag or gi*i scjrags to call, shout 
forth ; to publish, proclaim, declare ; IjT'J 5 
Sgrog-pa po a declaimer, preacher; "1^=.' 
UTI !* sgi'og-pa to read the bacred words. 
Used in Mil., also, of birds sending forth 
their cries. J^prwrJJWq sgrogs-pahni 
XN'Jfl|i - <i c/tos sgrogs-pu or 



mdaad-pa to preach ; ^T j^i'i dril sgregs- 
pn to publish by ringing a bell. 

ffuj'^ai sgrog-ril (doy-ril) button, round 
button ; |"1'^^'|''I' ) sgrog-ril sgrog-pn to 
button up (Sch.). 

44 



338 



(doy-riii-pa) V 



[a shelter for swans] S. 

ffl^'S^ sgrogs-ldiin waftfMt a river. 

) sgrog$-s/nii (dog-s/iui) scream. 



tiS'^ sgi'od-pa (dot-pa) another form 
of i^V hgrod-pa as in j'^'iV* 1 phyi-la 
syrod-pa to go outside ; not much used. 



sgron-bgkal (don-leal) the en- 
lightened age, opp. to W^i mun-bskal or 
the dark age. 

Jv* fgron-clias the articles such as 
butter, oil, &o., for lighting lamps in a 
chapel during the eight holy days in a 
month. 

fV$ tgron-te=y*'i> phul-te having offer- 
ed : V*K* ) * q l'''!5F a ^*<'*'V^ <i riK^ having 
offered to the Triratna (the three precious 
ones) a wick (Btsii. 32). 



sgron-dcb the list of people ahle 
to give lamps in a town or on a large 
estate. 

^^i) sgron-dregs lamp-black. 

|^'i ggron-pa, vb., pf. and fut. tffa 
bsgronl.to cover; to lay over, adorn, 
decorate ; to light ; to kindle. 2. n. of a 
kind of arrow which shoots like a meteor. 

*^* 

lj^'51 I: sgron-ma (don-ma) light, lamp, 

lantern, torch. The word |fr sgron is used 
to various persons as a title of honour ; *|*fc' 
f^'lfl ffser-snan sgron is intended for 
royalty ; ^i'*K'|^ ahal-yner sgron the golden 
enlightener, term of address to great 
lamas ; ^' W^ na-bzah sgron is applied to 
the dress of royalty; i^srq^ psol-wa sgron 
to the food served to a prince ; 
yso'-;a sgron to his tea. 



f fjV II 
291). [light]S. 

S^'* 1 '^*! Sgron-ma drug the six lamps 
used to signify the six religious discourses 
of Panchen Naropa generally called ^'^' 
**'%1 Na-ro chos-dfiig. 

i^'** syi'on-ine ^ta, SJ^TI, g^T a burning 
lamp ; prop, a lamp as religious offering : 



though a lamp be in his hand, the blind 
will not see the way (Ce. don. 16). ^'^' 
jfr'd rin-chen tgron-me ^ws^hr the precious 
light ; name of a book. 

Syn. <^'S5'j|B.'^ mtslian-mohi 
bycd; |i'l^flB snum-la hgah; Qi' 
l;l<>iii-gyi nor-lu ; JJ"'* gnum-sa ; 
'^ hbar-wahi ral-pa can ; Ij^'iwi $nan-g.?al; 
w> Mttr-nie (Slnon.). 

^)-%- fgron-me-fifi, v. g^'%' ggron-fin. 

&'*ft'F Sgron pshi-kha n. of a large 
estate in the district of Lhun-tse in Tibet. 



'-^' sgron- fin or jfr'>'2|s.' sgron me- fin 
the yew-leaf fir, Pinus picea ; in Sikkim 
Pinus longifolia is so called. jfa'^'^'S^-^- 
*t^'5]E,-q-^a( sgron-fin removes mucous, wind, 
and cold in the stomach. 

^^ 

5^ sgrob (dob) haughtiness, arrogance, 

pride. 

|q-X-q ggrol che-ica=^^'^ nams che-wn, 
one with great airs; bumptious, preten- 
tious person: fr^ftr^^'Jj'i'Wrv^ 1 
5}c.-5)'^-^qi-ci-qj*j (D $el. 7) Some Jong- 
pons are as over-bearing, as if the whole 
country belonged to their circuit. 

S q '^ syrol-chen and sometimes |*'3^ 
?r]rom-chcn are provincial words used to 
signify pretentiousness or Felf -assumption ; 
J'S'ti sgro che-wa=^'^' t > brdsu byas-pa 
pompous : S'Jq-lf ^c.-g-laj-?ii|'qg-gN 1 o5-^- 
IK'SPV 5 ^ ($ag. 18) mi dob-chen^and dom- 



339 



chen etc. signify pretentiousness in pro- 
vincial language. 

N^- 

|jl sgrom (doi) fq*^, ifz^f a trunk or 
portmanteau ; a box the inside of which is 
made of wood or wicker work and the out- 
side lined with leather; a large leather 
box. [fresR may be regarded as the Pali 
form of Sanskrit tfta^i, a seat, an altar] 8. 
i^S'I* 1 mcho-sgrom a chest to keep articles 
of religious service ; w|*i thab-sgrom a 
box to keep utensils, plates, &c., for 
cooking, generally covered with tanned 
tiger skin. 

Syn. S| sgam. 

!F9 sgrom-bu a small box; HTff** 
imywg-igrom=tfpr* g.sheb-ma a chest made 
of wicker work. 

fTV|*> Sgrol-dkar and fjr|=.' sgrol-ljan 
1. are known as the White and Green 
manifestations of the Goddess Dolma or 
Tara, the two wives of King Sron-Btsan 
Sgam-po, being deified and worshipped as 
their incarnations. 2. names of females 
of frequent occurrence in Tibet. 

$r^TOf fp Sgrol-dkar kun blo-ma, Jc 
*r>j*j-|ora Sgrol-ma kun-rgyal-ma, $rrar 
qac/n Sgrol-ma rgyal-bzan-ma are other 
different manifestations of the Goddess 

Dolma. 
^*- 

aj^'CI sgrol-wa, pf. and fut. flfpi bsgral 

1. to save, rescue, deliver; to set free; 
to liberate; $' I ^.'J|Tq'5r t ^<irq^c.''*j'6X-q- 
wjarq to save from the water, from 
misery, fear, and from transmigratory 
existence: f' | fr^VS?T5*H sgrol-wahi 
dad-dpon du hgyur he becomes a guide to 
salvation. 2. to transport, carry ; to cross 
(a river) by boat or ferry: ifSVq'qfprq^' 
fl|lc.*r^ hkhor-wa bsgral-wahi gru-yzins yin 
it is a boat that will carry you over the river 
of transmigration. 3. to remove, expel, 



drive away: ^^?j-|5-g 1 
rnams phyihi rgya-mtsho chen-po Li bsgral, 
the demons were banished to the uttermost 
parts of the sea; s^'jar^ bdud sgrol- 
wa to expel the devil. 

Jsrq-q sgrol-wa-po <nw. the deliverer, 
met. for saviour. 

sgrol-wahi dwun-phyug 
(Schr. ; Butt. 1898, 295) 
the Lord of final deliverance. 

ifi'l^ sgrol-byed mK^i:, K^ a deliverer; 
met. for a boat, ship. 

|r*) sgi-ol-ina (Dol-ma) HTTT, crrfr^t the 
Goddess Dolma, she that saves from trans- 
migratory existence; one of the most 
popular deities in Tibet, and of whom 
there are supposed to be many sprul-ku or 
branch emanations. Some Sgrol-ma kyil- 
hkhor exhibit twenty-one different mani- 
festations of the goddess. The several 
appellations of fpr*< Sgrol-ma are : w'*i^ 
Om-mdsad; "1^*1 Rgyal-yum; 
Mchog-gi ma ; y$Q Myur-skyob; 
^qc,-jj*r?i Ejig-rten; Dwan sras-mo; ^'w 
5w|q Shi-ma phons-skob ; at"!^'^'*) Le gs- 
byin ma ; X^'^'^wS Chos-kyi dpal-mo 
(Mnon.). 

|a|--Tj-^-ijQi'a) Sgrol-ma ku-ru kulle one of 
the twenty-one manifestations of the God- 
dess Dolma (K. g. =- 266). 

|ar*rl grol-ma che JTfTcTTTT Maha Tara 
or the great Goddess Dolma. 

* |jar*)"^^-*i^-|jf Sgrol-ma nin-shi 
ndshan-khro (Schr. ; J/.5 A) " Dolma, mild 
by day and wrathful by night." 

*ljV*^*.'|^* Sgrol-ma nor-$byin-ma 
(Schr. ; J+6 B) Dolma, the wealth-giver. 

^(H--^qoc5^ Sgrol-ma dpal-c/ten 
JTTT'ft Dolma, the most glorious. 

* jjarw^wS Sgrol-ma dmar-mo (' 
sa-lugs) (Sehr. ; &6 A) the Eed Dolma. 



340 



|r*r\< Sgrol-iua s/ii-iua 
Dolma in her mild aspect. 



Sgrol-ma yid-bshin 
nor-bu (Svhr.; 46 C) Dolma the wish 
giving gem. 

jjVw^-a Sgrol-ma ser-mo (46 C.; 
Schr.). 

* fT wvgi 'WTflj jr Sgrol-mahi sgrub- 
tha!>$ bri/a-rtsa dHmiyU(ff* (Td 2, 156) 



n. of a book consisting of one hundied 
stanzas composed for propitiating the God- 
dess Dolma. 

if"!'-*!* Sgrol-ffr abbreviation of the 
expressions JV*!'* 1 ^'* (grol-ma hdon-rgyu- 
aud %f*'* 



sgros (dot) manner ; method ; way ; 

bftid-sgrot manner of explaining ; 

fftaiii-sgros way of speaking (Cs.) ; 
g'w^wjj'ij^fjf*! bla-ma rnams-kyi g.mn- 
?gro$ conference of the lamas; ^1*1'*^' I"* 
tgi'ogs bfad-sgro! the method of instruction 
which is to be proclaimed (Se/t.). w%'J*i 
mclni-sijros is same as $'*'i q l*'' S| mehu- 
bsijfigs-pa, W4'8*'^'*j'^ mclni-sijros lint-la 
Mm-, his gruceful lip was like the fruit 
called Bimla. 1. edge, brim, lip (Cs.). 
2. scar, also a mark from a wound (Sch.). 



brgnd-pa=Vf\ t i bynd-pa to 
smile ; smile on. 



brgnl, pf. of ^i'" r^al-ica wpc^ 
brgnl-len, controversy, disputation. 

QSjuc^T^'q bryal dkah-wa the ocean 
(that which is difficult to cross) (Mnon.). 

o^ct brgtil-pa ^gg^f [enjomed ; asked ; 
censured] <S. 

Qiii<*'Q brgol-wa to disagree ; to act in 
opposition ; to be disposed to contrariety. 

^^ brgya HH one hundred; Jj'iX^ 
brgya-mchod a hecatomb of 100 lamps ; one 



hundred offerings ; t Wj? c ' brgyn-ston 
V^^ one hundred thousand; g' 
brgya t ham-pa full one hundred ; ^ 
brgya-ttod = ^'I'flJ'^'iN'g'Rwg^-q^- 
remuneration to one hundred monks for 
conducting a religious service ; U| ^' '5 S^' 
9'^S'% a| ' R 9 *'' I I N , &C-, remuneration in 
silver, grain, etc., for conducting the 
religious service of one hundred offerings ; 
qj'<^E.w brgy:i-hdtm$ about a hundred; 
nearly one hundred. 

q S' q bryyu-pi srfk*, smTrg-. cen- 
tenarian ; one of a hundred years of age. 

Qjj'3 brgya-po consisting of one hun- 
dred. 

*'S'3 q l fyryi/a-plirig Vff the hundred; a 
century ; ^^'^^'^'W^p/timi-Micgs 
brgyn-phrag iiii-phiini mgon (A. 21). 

ij'tw brgyti-bam anything kept in 
groups of one hundred; flg'^'lH'i'jq'^*!' 
iVH'i (Ztiin. 4). 

Q S 9^ Brgya-byin 1. n. of a medicinal 
root; ^T^'S 6 '' dug-mo nun a mystic word 
o r n]tr5)qi (Min. 3). 2. v?mq one 
who has performed one hundred yujna 
(sacrifices) ; an epithet of Indra. Ace. to 
Buddhist mythology there are two 
Indras, the senior Indra rules over the 
gods, the junior, riding on the great 
elephant called Airavata, keeps guard over 
the celestial regions, having in his imme- 
diate chwrge the quarters of the East. 

"S'S^'S* 1 brgya-byin skye$ siura Indra's 
son ; born of Indra. 

"5'S^*' brgya-byin gron spBTI^ the 
residence of Indra; the celestial metropolis. 

Syn. ii'3'^'^ hchi-ica med-ld'in; ^'^'|"I 
Ita-na sdug; fli'i'y' q I3* 1 sum-cu rtsa-ysum; 
^E.-qsf^-q^'j'n-q khan-bsan rnutn-par rgynl- 
wa ^'W^'l^'^'ge,' rnam-pw rgi/al-byf.d 
p/io-'raH (Qlnon.). 



341 



''S'S^'S'^ brgya-byin 
grog-mkhar ant-hiil ; also ant's foot. 

"5't^'fj'*' brgya-byin spros ; w^ 1 * Myra- 
balan arjuna the delight of Indra. 

"J'i^'" Brgya-byin B7=^5'S^^j'^ 
Brgya-byin btsim-nio HjTm the celestial 
queen ; the wife of Indra. Her different 
names are : ^S'A^qR'H Echi-med dwan- 
HIO; SjS-q^'S Lhahi btsun-mo ; nl^'ql^*) 
Lfgs-brjod ma ; ^qc.' J<^) Dican-ehen tna ; 
cj-^-jj^ 35 Pu-lohisras-mo: ; ^'Sinr*t Bde- 
sogs ma (Mnon.). 

q 5'i^"!3 brgya-byin yshu T*?^: 1. the 
bow of Indra, i.e., rainbow. 2. a kind of 
medicinal fruit. 

qg'|^3j')' V^'5^ ***' Brgya-byin Lhn-yi 
bienn-pohi min the different names of 
Indra : sflf^T"^^ MtJio-ris hdrcn-pa ; *# 
^w^n Mfho-ris rgyal; ^'")'5i'3 Lhit-yirgyal- 
po- aM^a.^^ Hjt'.r-hjigs; ^5'8'*| Lhahi-rna- 
van ; ^^'I^'^'S Qtsan-byed mt/on-j/o ; ^i'^ 
Rdo-rje-can ; ^'g^'^'S Sfobs-ldun dgra-wo ; 
^"J'^"! Lhn-yi bdig; ^i'*^'gl'3 Echi-med 
rgynl-po; ^<l*)'|*i'i)? Lcgs-bris gtso; 3J1*)' 
w'S'BS Grngs-pahi mu-khyud; ^Y|^-qg-ci 
Mehod-sbyin brgya-pa ; q^'JSfl]i - q^fl| Bde-sogs 
Mug ; Sj'VK' Lha-dwM ; "I'q^'g' 1 ] L-gs-skyob ; 
qq*ra|!}*i-vic.- Sknbs-gsuin dwan ; ^jafi'W 
7?j7 /-/( nr/w ; ^N'q|^'^ Qis-brjod nan ; t\W 
-q=^i|-Hi GiMS-ki/i bdag-po ; ^'i'^ Sprin-la 
nhoii ; t&^*W*.m Bzod-dkus runs ; 
^ Bs/icn-bsnems bzod; s^adn 
Chur-hbels gron-hjoius ; 5"i'IS'^* M ' Grol-byed 
hjo/ns; g'^'"'^ P-fo nm-dgrn; fljc.'q A^ 
Gim-po hbod; V^ '?'M Ha-rihi rta-chnn; 
Smin-pn ysod; lij-sc^'w^-g ^//'</- 
f mgon-po ; %*\'^'*3 Mig-ston-can ; ^V 
^'1 XbA fj'-A (Mnon.). 

"5'^ brgya-hdsin H<nffH that contains 
or holds one hundred objects, etc. 



brgya-las. hdam-pa ^ 
brgya-tham-pa las g.cig-hdum- 
pa. 

^SJ^J kJ^'j Brgyag-brnim n. of a wBo/ 
god who is also called ^'q=-N Lha-bnans. 

ZJJZIj^J brgyags fl^^r victuals; provi- 
sion, us in w^wrnj^m mts/ifis-brgyags, w 
n-brgyngs provision for the journey. 

brgyan-wa flfWT, pf. 1JC.N 

^"^ '^ 

brgy/ins, fut. ^5=-' brgyafi, imp. |^* rgtjons 
or ^z.w%\i\rgyons-<;iy \. to extend, stretch 
out, set out or arrange; If q'^'^'q qgt-'q 
ko-wa dan thag-pa brgyan-wa to stretch hide 
and rope ; jjX'^' 1 ! mod rgyan-wa to set out 
a vessel; ^'l'qgc.'q mchod-me brgyan-wa 
to put in array lamps as offerings. 2. to 
call a person from a distance. 

Symbolic Syn. ig'-^N bkra-qis; <$ lha; 

3 hlu ;; ^ nor; tfcwz^ adefis-can; Ss' 11 
^ ~ r 

sr id-pa ; % Ito; "^ htjro (Rtsii.). 

bkyon-pa f^nr? rebuke ; reproof ; reflection 
on one's conduct or act. 

''S'V 1 '^' 1 ! brgyad-bkug or IV'sfVi ! skud- 
pa. brgyad-sgril thread in eight-fold twists. 
brgyad-bcu ^^tiTr eighty. 
l ' Brgyad-chnn n. of a kind of tea 
which is of inferior quality, largely con- 
sumed by Tibetans in general. 

''V? C| ' C ' Brgyad-ston-pa ^^^r?f^rarr 
one of the abridged sacred scriptures of the 
northern Buddhists containing 8,000 
s'lokas. 

fl "V?^ Brgyad-ston tnnfNi the festival 
on the eighth lunar day of the month. 

"S'V" brgyad-pa ^J^T 1. the eighth. 
2. <*vq-5^'t tshar bead-pa he who finishes 
or puts an end to ; the destroyer. 



342 



brgyctd-po consisting of eight; 
the eight. 

q S'V9i a l brgyad-lhag lit. eight in excess 
(of one hundred) ; frq; a rosary which 
consists of one hundred and eight heads. 

qS3|'| brgyan-pa ((/yen) ^ra^, ^sIl'T^i 
H!gr, vb. to adorn, decorate ; to provide 
with : ^-1^5^g*rti5^i rin-chcn rgy/m-gyis 
brgyan-pa adorned with precious orna- 
ments, cf . J^ rgya n ; sbst. 



myog- 

ches byed-pa q^t It ! to fall down 
senseless ; to lie senseless ; to sink down 
unconscious ; to faint. 2. to howl, of a fox 
(Sch.) ; ^-qgm^ ho brgyal-te fainting with 
fatigue ; ^jarS^'i brgyal log-pa laid pros- 
trate nnd unconscious: tWT^'fr*r*<!|H 
th(tm$-cad brgyal bog-pa bshiii all as if pros- 
trate and senseless (A. 76). 

"S* 1 brgyas = Wy* Ihtin-rgyas together 
with. 

brgyugt, pf. of |1' WH, 

w 

used as sbst. a race ; also running a 



race. 



J brgyuns-pa the marrow in the 

back-bone (Cs.). 

q*^ brgyud, cf. |S rgyttdTTtm, iv, 



turgbyud-pn descent from one to ano- 
ther. 1. family, lineage, ancestors, off- 
spring. 2. race, people, nation : ^vS'^'i^S 
bod-kyi mi-brgyud the Tibetan nation, 
people. ^1*'' c i|*\ riys-brgyud relations ; "1^.' 
***f\ ffdun-brgyud descendants; J' q ^ bla- 
bryyud the succession or line of Lamas. 3. 
Tantras and mystic manuals, v. ^ ; ** 
nj-qs^-q chos-kyi religious arguments and 
deductions. 

"5*V q S q l*' b.rgyud-brgyiig a continuous 
succession (Sch.). 



brgi/ud-cfin possessed of descen- 
dants ; fruitful. 

q SS' q brgynd-pa 1. belonging to a race 

^( 

or family. 2. v. **\ rgyitd and 5^'^ rgynd 
^ ^ 

pa. 

q*^'i'^4'q'g) brgynd-pa riiam-p-r /natheie 
were fivo different schismatic successions 
among the Buddhists in Aucient India; 
they were the following: (1) ^"I'i5-|i 
ftdul-wahi rgyud or rM<in**( tlie generation 
observing moral discipline ; (2) fli^fgi)*) 1 ^ 
tS ffwn-fnagi-kyi rgyud or y^diM the 
mystical succession ; (3) j'^'iVS^ tUU"~ 
chenfpyod-rgyitdor ^gwwsthe succession 
of abundant performances; (4) w^'g'JS 
zab-mo Ita-rgyud irirtKn'S [the profound 
succession] <S. ; (5) ^'^'M'lS siiin-op don- 
rgytid or the Occult race TTHn? (Grub. 



ai't) brgyud hplicl-wa to increase 
the race or progeny ; to multiply ; to 
increase the family. 

tffiibrgi/ud-tna 1. one belonging to a 
family ; a scion ; one well acquainted with 
the secrets, well informed ; ace. to Cs. 
W<V^ brgyud-can. 2. in W. fruitful ; 
fertile. 3. WV^'Ji'l brgyud-ma rgyab-]iu 
to perpetuate family lineage; WV"^ 
brgyud-hdsin ^!^T heir ; successor. 

flflS'""" brgyud-yas f^iR n. of a 
numerical figure (Ya~si'L 56). 

^&3^'^ brgy us-pa ^fticf to make a 
string of ; to stitch together. 

2 3ij z 'j' t l bsgag-pa, v. ^i^'q hyeys-pa and 
sgog-pa. 

' bsgnnorSf-' sgfin=^-*ft dnos-gshi 
point of time ; moment ; instant ; conjunc- 
ture : 'frSWVlflT* 1 lo-gsar bsyan-gi Ihags- 
pa a chilling gale on the opening of the 



343 



new year; S'^'tifp the proper time for 
doing a thing; 4h'$ g ^F the time for 
writing; *'frqjp- the time of eating. 
d^^I'CI bsgans-pa to form into ; 
< gon-bu bsgans made a ball of ; 
geig-tu bsgons collects into one. 
bsgar, pf. of 



T^I bsgngs-pa pf. of 
to wait (for one's arrival or return). 

"S a| ' q |S bsgal-bskyod tremulous; to 
shake and tremble : ^^'-s^'^'^ij'^'qHac 
Q gY^ the living beings move, stand 
and tremble (Khrid. Iff]. 

P^'CJ bs.gul-.pa sr^wj to shake, trem- 
ble, quake, quiver Gen. 



I bsgo-wa ^repr 1. to direct, 
instruct, v. 5T* 1 sgo-wa. 2. to rub with ; to 
apply on t^cq^Vq mum bsgos-pa ; to stain, 
anoint ; to infect with disease ; isjVi bsgos- 
pa pf. of ^y to command, order; also 
4^*'m-q bkah bsgos-pa to give directions ; 
issue commands ; also the coercive bidding 
of the mystic exorcist towards an evil 
spirit. JW]-*^-q|Vci bag-chags 
defiled with moral impurity (Nag. 19). 



Syn. TW&M'^Mas-blans byed; ^TR?aj 
dul-wa hdsin Iflj'q^-q tshig brtan-pa ; oSf? 
WV bsgo-wa nan-pa V^'^'|* dwan-du gyur ; 
^'Q bsnen-pa ; ^'i shi-wa ; ^'fl dul-wa ; ^ - 
^'" Her shi-wa (Mnon.). 

q|fq-raq|-j, bsgo-wa bcag-pa ^fr^rf%%^ 
to disobey ; to disregard directions. 

qjfq'^ni'ij^'ci bsgo-wa rna-h gzon-pa= 
q^q-D-^-q bsgo-wa mi-nan-pa not listening 
to instructions or directions. 

^T^npW^fN i : bsgo-wa rnam-pa gsum the 
three religious instructions or directions : 
1. ^^rt*^T^ instructions issued by 



the church. 2. ^-qsf-q those issued by a 
section of the church. 3. ^^'iRW'^' 
Si-qjf-q directions emanating from the 
senior member of the holy order. 

"fr'VW'W (n) : 1. 9<rV5?9<rq4|-4 the 
order of the principal of a college or the 
superior of a monastery. 2. wpwrcfa-qifq 
the command of the Khanpo (abbot). 3. 
f* dge-hdungyis bsgo-wa. 

m: 1. ^^8-qfj the 
vows of the holy order. 2. 
vows of ordinary men. 3. 
vows for individual emancipation in the 
ordinary way (K. du. $). 

"-j bsgo-wa bshin nan-pa or|*c 

to 



f oUow, do as directed. [One who acts as 
directed]& 

OjfetfWWH bsgo-wa la mi-nan-pa ifttry 
breach of religious discipline ; ^IT^T- 

not to act according to instruction. 
- 

bsgom-pa r^ contemplation ; = 



bsgom-pa and goms-pa in their 
appHcation to road have one and same 
meaning. 

*>!'' bsgom-skyes W^si, JTRTST pro- 
duced from contemplation, also reflection 
* W I" 1 bsgom-pa byun-wa w^T*^ 
sprung from contemplation ; q^-ccai^^-q 
bsgom-pa la dgah^wa delighting in contem- 
plation. 

ijw<i bsgoms-pa, pf. of jfrq 8 gom-pa. 

bsgyins-ya = &:n hgyin-wa 
to yawn. 2.=^'i sio-jca. 
I: bsgyur-wa, another form 
of |^-q sgyur-wa qrf^irm^, ^t^ro, to 
change; r^rJ|^J kiw-dog bsgur-ba 
changing colour; ^^n to change 
clothes ; to change the cover (like a snake); 



1. 



344 



to translate ; j'fl|MN'Srqjvq rgya-gar naf 
c/tos bsgyur-wa to translate books brought 
from India; ^T 11 !* tshig-bsgyur to 
translate words ; ^'"g* don-bjgyiir to alter 
the meaning ; ^'i|^ t/tad-bsgyitr to change 
the direction ; ** T^ hc/iol-bsgyur, %*'** 
lu?-bsgyur to change one's body (mira- 
culously) ; *te.'t>H )>iin-bsgyiir to change 
one's name ; wXfl'qj* mdog-fogyitr to 
change the complexion or colour ; a 
tpuf-bgyttr to change the quality ; 
bsnos-bsgyin; i.e., to change one's intention ; 
E'^'iJ* p/iyi-min bfgyur to invert the 
object ; Xw$fljrqn chos-lngs bggynr con- 
version; qV 3 !^ tkttd-bggyur to change 
the language. 

S ^ ^ : ^^^ 
Syn. *fi** b_snnn; 
{pel-tea; *ffa'i> psil-wa (Mflon.). 

^S^'^ b$gyu$-pa WXQ muscle. 



multiply, increase. 



^ffl^l'^^* Bsgrag-phrun (diuj-theny) n. 
of a Jong in Tibet. 



proclaimed; 



(dag) 

klog-tshttr-wti) qftffCK, 
read or recited loudly. 

3fjij*T) bsgmgs-pa sung ; diffused. 

ClfjC't! bsgrafi-pa 1. to enumerate, 
count up (".). 2. to cause to grow cold. 

qgVi bsgrdd-pii='^' ; \ c > byrtid-pa to open 
wide ; ^I'q^'i mig byrtid-pa to stare ; *f-'i' 
i^'y rkfin-pa bgrad-pa to part the legs 
wide ; to straddle. 
fl|i bsgralvv, <ft^ [crossed ; passable]^. 



bsgral-tca 



to pass; cross 



over. 



W^E.'? bsgrdl-wahi fin-rta a boat, 
also=5i gi'u-fkya an oar of a boat 
(Mon.). 



fl^TS bsgral-bya ijT^t, ^ met. a boat. 
qjjacuwi bjgral-yas ^f^-. a numerical 
figure used in Buddhist astrology. 

3f|*lpl bsgrigs (dig) jfcjrr, ?*,, vfax 
put in order, arranged, arrayed ; q||*rci 
bf grigs-pa qfo* formed into string. 

-q bsgribs-pa (jib-pa), pf. of |q 
i, frtnfil?r, ^TT^ff, ^vT^I covered. 
) -j^-q bsgnbs-pahi litn-dn 
mi-$ton-pa ft<4d^i*^r to abstain from 
obscure predictions : ^|')-$-ijc.-uic.'S^ -q- 
acqt-wq^ : do not prophesy or predict 
what is not known either to be good or 
bad. 



l bsgritns-pa (dim-pit] 
fprag-pa) i^^'^'S*)' 1 ) brtan-brtun 
v. i w 'i sy>'im-pa t rig-pa bsgrims-pa perver- 
ted skill ; also chaotic acquirements ; con- 
fused information. 



bsgrttn-pa, akin to *3fl hiji-ni 

, to rival, vie with ; to reply to : ^i^' 
**'^ brgrin mi-phod= a -1^^'\^'^'H' c t hymn- 
zla byed mi-mis-pa cannot compete or be a 
match for. 



fi=n&l*'ti btmi</s-pa, 
g'Q rgyal-mtshan Ua-bti W^f^tT, 'a'jn 
up-lifted; hoisted. 

fl|c.i bsyrefit (deng), pf. of !=' syren, 
imp. i^'^I egretis-fifo *'&*& $***( 
bsyrens-byahi rgyal-mtshan, a flag that is to 

be hoisted (Situ. 77). 
^*. 

^fjl bsyres (de) (qj ftsyre) old, aged; 
|'q| skit-bsgres, t&pf*'**^* de-byras 
mu-yal bsgres (Ya-sel.). ^9'*"' *f^* rfA- 
c7<o fisyre? r/w aged respectable lamas. 

n|j'i bsgres-pa trfr^ff changed. 

q|'w bsgres-yas a numerical figure 
used in Buddhist astrology. 



K* fia I : is the fourth consonant of the 
Tibetan alphabet. It corresponds to the 
Sanskrit letter w and sounds like ng in 
the English word "song." As a final the 
pronunciation is therefore easy enough; 
but in its frequent occurrence as an initial 
letter the difficulty of sounding it properly 
comes in. As an initial *.' must be pro- 
nounced as a nasal g. To acquire the 
sound, first say un-ga ; and then, dropping 
the u, try to say the nga. 

' II : 1. it represents the numerical 
figure 4. 2. stands for '*! in the conse- 
cutive numbers ^vfa 51 ; *'*ft 52; cijgs 
53 ;^ 54; ^55; ^<! 56; *^ 57; 
fc'ij^ 58 ; e-'Sg 59. 

' III : in mystical Buddhism is sym- 
bolical of the dissolution of all Samskara 
(combinations either phenomenal or mate- 

rial). *'^^'|y^'^'r** l ^'^l 

" the term *' is the sign of the synthesis of 
all matters which phenomenally exist in a 
compounded state " (K. my. "1 207). *'% 
*fcj-cr*>V<i5-|f, *rgrtwr^^wf^ (K. g. v 
h2) " *' is symbolical of the state where 
there is no cohesion ; it explains that all 
that are without adherence (attachment) 
will be liberated." 



K* IV: 

singular I : 



?gam-po; 
my, mine: 



pers. pron., first person, 
'*fi old man that I am ; 
"I ^h SroA-Usan 
I the Lama. .$ or ^') 
my charming (wife), 



i.e., dearest ; ^S^an fluffy it is mine ; 
)-c.'jj*r.?| sou l O f me a man . c.5-n^ 
this my; w'i'q^ m y venerable master. 
Colloq. the common form for *' nga is 
"i'V fia-ran "I." 

^'ff'^ fia kho-na I myself ; I alone. 



I myself. 

Syn. p' 2 ? kho-wo. 

^*"I na-cag, c* fia-tsho, t-'ipw na-rnams, 
are the several plurals of *' signifying we. 

R " na for ^'") na-yis by me, v. *' na. 

=.1 na-rgyal ^Jif, <zv, flrsf, ^'S^K (lit. 
"I, the chief"), i.e., pride, arrogance: 
R 'Jl'S'i*'r*5T5ct < * I pl I " on the height 
of pride the water of merit does not 
accumulate" ; K '5 Q i'|'V c i to be proud. *'Jr 
"I^l'i to break (another's) pride; to 
humble ; **'f*iSx-ji=the pride of asser- 
tion of self; lit. the pride of reflecting "I 
am." 

Syn. "]N rgyags ; \"|" dregs n^^'^^f 
!* hphyar-ffyen-snems; wBcq^'K'jai rnfion- 
pahiAa-rgyal; ^'^da-ldan (Mfion.). 

fjm 1 ^ fia-rgyal-can ^^ti^, 
flTTW^f ; proud, boastful ; rivalling. 

Syn. K-'J"!'^' Ha-rgyal-ldan, 
dreg$-ldan (Mfion.). 

e.'5aci'j[c.'c.'gm nti(<i<ii<i supreme 
pride. 



^'^^ ffa-phod n. of a district in the 
province of Kong-po (Lofi. <*, 16). 

45 



346 



C'CJ <5a-w>fl= u '' t 'S ya fia-ica jlhu^i 1. 
bad ; dangerous ; fearful. 2. rarely for 
Ti bad ; V*' 1 * a bad smell. 

*'*>> fia-med ^m lit. without self ; 
without vanity ; not thinking of one's 
self or self-interest. 

e.-)^-Zj na-men chos-po (he who is 
personified by worldliness), the name 
by which Mara, the lord of worldliness 
of the Buddhists, is known to the Bon 
(B. Nam.). 



na-nur a species of duck, v. 
nw-pa, perh. Anas casarca. 

K.'^ wff-fi', lit. I die ; cry of fear with 
wonder ; evidently a Bengali expression of 
wonder " rft or TT *ft I die, alas ! I die," 
which Atis'a introduced in Tibetan wT 



" Oh, I die from wonder ! yet there are 
wonderful stories in India (to be told)." 



na-mo for '# the camel: 
s.-fJrw'Jaii khiir-wa nttr fkyer drafts 
f w na-mo mgyag the camel, grunting with 
loads, travels quickly (Jig. 22). 

f<U6c na-htsheft self-sufficient or self- 
sufficiency; pride; egotism (A. 90). 

r.-Slv*>S na-yir wed i|nq want of self- 
ishness: e.'^ -l *Evq=qvir8|v*&i-q or *p - |- 
^I'S'*^'* 1 the cognition of personality 
which may be styled the self or 1V|. 

fia-ra 1. noise; sound. 2. cold 
-f wa-<&ipi | I am D0 t afraid 
of the air of the glaciers (Mil.). 

s.'V^ i: fia-ra-can 1. loud, noisy, 
roaring. 2. a crier, brawler, noisy fellow. 
*'V*^ ii : rarified ; cold. 
C VV." fia-ra than n. of a place in Tibet : 



(Jig. 65) when the lid of the 
copper- coffin was opened, there came out 
from it the cry fia-ra-ra ; hence the name 
of that place became known as fla-ra-than. 

**'*'* far ra-ra expression of extreme 
pain and suffering. 

C ^ Na~ru n. of a place in Ancient 
Tibet, which Hod, one of the four sons of 
King Se-gbrcg-pit, had chosen for his 
residence (Deb. *], 19). 

C'^s wi-ro, ^T 1. a loud, deep voice; 
a cry ; qvS'*'^' VW the pitch of the voice 
loud and low. 2. = visarga, i.e., t. ftw 
3e/q-gSwH*-cX-^vaE.i ( a t ibe end of 
the five short vowels, there being the 
visctrga dots (they should be regarded as 
a) vowel (Ya-sel. 47). 3. ^3|-^-f|'5|- 
^-vqS! the roaring sound of the lion or 
the tiger : w5|--^-^'q-^ |4^fq|-J-^- 
^' I the tiger's growl issuing forth, the 
monkey drops down from the top of the 
a tree ; |v3'V*'^ - Ziriffl|r* they pro- 
claimed, shouting at the top of their voice ; 
voices foreboding mischief ; 
< V q to raise woeful cries. 



fia-ro sgrog-pa 1. to roar; to 
rage. 2. the circlet used on the top of a 
letter to signify * turns into *, ?, ^ and 
before words beginning with any of these. 

c'^S^q da-ro byin-pa ^TflTR, ^Tfl^T, 
IK^ST crying ; bewailing ; to cry or bewail 
loudly on account of pain or grief. 

^'"'l jfta-la nu also *'lr$ $a-las nu 
*il*lMl n. of a mythological king who ruled 
as a Chakravarti-raja over heaven and 
earth and shared the celestial throne with 
six successive Indras. N. of an ancestor of 
Gautama Buddha : s^'W^'ivJi 5'<i|*ji;*ri 
, the child having 



347 



cried " give me suck," was called Na-la-nu 
(Pag. U). 



speech ; talk ; word; ^'^N'ti sins com- 
mitted with the tongue (in words) ; *T 
polite speech ; gentle words ; toj-^'q 
or E.o|'i^'i HHsicf silence, 
observed as a monastic duty or religious 
exercise ; the vow of not speaking, i.e., of 
keeping silence for a definite time. 

Syn. *qj tshig; IflS'" sgra-bjod-pa ; 
j^jc.q-^ dbyans-can ; "15* 1 giam; %'W* lo- 
rgyus; Sl'ViJ'*' skad-smra-ica (MHon.). 

t-Ti" nag-skyes mvfrsi born or pro- 
duced from speech. 

f^-<>Q<H nag-hkhyal WTO, frgSTTC, ftf3- 
?rm delirium ; unconnected speech ; foolish 
talk ; ravings (flag.). 

j'ii)' jm'5 Nag-gi rgyal-po TW^tf ; '' E * 4 ' 
the Bodhisattva Manju-s'ri ghosha, 
who is believed by Buddhists to be the god 
of speech; ^"H^ nag-gi-rgyan ^txf^ a 
figure of rhetoric or speech ; gen. amplica- 
tion of an idea by the use of apt expressions ; 
.fl|'3| - 3q'5 ^i^T the symbolic speech 
or mode of expression by the configuration 
of the fingers ; this is described as ^R^R 1 
ne,- ^q-fj^-q- 1$-%^ mystical language in which 
expression by signs, i.e., with the confi- 
guration of the fingers, forms the prin- 
cipal feature; "] -9| V^'!"!, *rTft^ the 
lord of speech Jam-yang or Mafi-ju-s'ri 
ghosha : B^^'ITWreS'SBM'''''^** 1 '*! 
salutation to Jampai-yang, the prince of 
speech (Situ. 3) ; MT^Sf 1 nag-gi dbul one 
poor in speech ; a dumb person, v. ^"I'l 
lkug-pa (Itnon.). 

V^O^K nug-hgros manner of speaking or 
uttering words (Cs.}. 



c."l'5'i fiag rgyas-pa ^TTrfw* too 
much talking ; full and detailed discussion. 

*T^ nag-rgyun si^j a discourse ; also 

^{ 

oral tradition, not recorded history. 

E,u]-a,*m nag-hchal=^"\'^ irregular or 
senseless speech. 

Syn. "warSij hchal-tshig; *'>\fll5i cha- 
ined gtam ; 31'^ klag-cor ; w Ji bab-col; 
S'^ mu-cor (Mnon.). 

=-1'^ nag-snan l. = as met. the cuckoo. 
2. pleasant voice or sweet language ; one 
who speaks in sweet language. 

e.u|-q|5N nag-gtam verbal message; also 
oral tradition. 



nag-bsdams-pa 

one who has controlled his speech or 
tongue. 



fiag-hdab or Mr3)'*sr*i fiag-gi 
hdab-ma (lit. the leaf of speech) Tfl^rr the 
organ of tasting; X 1 ^ the tongue, v. | 
Ice : (Mnon.). 



t&i'affin nag-hdon-pa 
words ; to cry ; to speak. 



to express in 



nag-Man ^T^flTS[, Trfw^ elo- 
quent ; possessed of (the power of) speaking. 

^I'lS iiag-byed <dnHT1 ; the speaker. 

e.ij]-^ic.- nag-dwan a title of learning 
given to some of the Grand Lamas of 
Tibet. Is also the first name of the present 
or 14th Dalai Lama of Lhasa. 

t.n|-^qE.-)'-?|q'| t *i fiag-dwafi Ye-$esryya- 
mtsho the Lama who with the help of 
Lhabzan, King of the country round lake 
Kbkbnor, conducted the Government of 
Tibet for thirteen years (Lori. *, 16). 

MI'VK^'* fiag-dwan lha-mo 
^\ the goddess of speech; 
an epithet of Sarasvati (Mnon. 



348 



MI!* dag-sbyor llfl^aw arrangement 
of speech (Cs.). 

tfl|'w dag-ma TT^t the speech itself. 



one of imperfect or defective speech; 
a stupid person. 2. indistinct speech. 

M]-3-g^ fiag-mi-ldan a dumb person ; also 
one who cannot express himself in clear 
language. 

Syn. 3r fl lkug-pa; *]> T"* tshig-mi- 
ffsal; ^*wq*'fi semi-bem-po (Mfion.). 

"r^ fag-med wrfa meditation ; a state 
in which there is no use of speech. 

E.l'a&q fitig-tshab representation in writ- 
ing : *1'*''5''C**I tne principal points in 
a representation or petition. 

e.iq-w$e. fiag-mtshuni V*ft of uniform 
and consistent speech, i.e., where there is 
no contradiction, redundancy, or irrele- 
vancy. 

MT^S fag-yid ^r*^: the speech and 
the heart. 

e.q|-wg-q fag-lam shu-wa to apply, or 
pray to, verbally. 

Mj-qfl* nag-fffcr in vulg. P 1 '"!-^ or 
qj^ffli^^j in Sikk. cross-examination ; also 
deposition of the plaintiff and defendant in 
the presence of each other. 

=.T^ fiag-for committing to words ; a 
promise. 

Ml'qpw nag-psal l\<tf#W, 3Ff$V clear 
speech or lucid language. 

Mj-^j'S flag lha-mo Tm^ft the Goddess 
of Speech. 

CC' I: fian=VF or & fsnenft 1. the 
nature, being, idiosyncracy ; the very 
essence of any person or thing. 2. sphere ; 
province ; domain : IK<I$-E,E.= JKCI-;|E^ the 



essentiality of vacuity (C&nyata) : 
**.' the sphere of the void space : 
= $*W3)'(gE.* the natural constitution of 
the mind : 3<i|'*<^*rq^'')5'E.e.'ai j n a cheerful 
state of the mind (Thgr.) ; |cq5 - .-^ the 
very essence of vacuity itself (Glr.) : ?*'' 
nS^-|-E.c.-acgq|-q to enter into the state of 
deep meditation : *<i|r)\3J'c.e.'ar|^*rwgi | 
continue in that state of mind which is 
free from attachment, etc. : 

to die of fear or panic. 



II : character ; disposition : 
or ".v e ^' C| a naturally bad disposition ; 
E.fA - qK.'2i a naturally good disposition 
(Sc/t.; Jd.). 

c.f9| nafi-gif adv. spontaneously; 
naturally; also, ace. to Jd. and Sc/tr., 
slowly, gradually, gently. 

Han-can natural capacity ; 1?t'i5' 
vmi<.ft one who is naturally capa- 
ble of renouncing or giving up; able to 
abandon, evafw is generally used like ^'sp*. 

nfnui 1?^ fian-lag-yod naturally modest : 
.E.-qn)-^vl'? 3 i*'' a i'H*'^! his moral character 
in regard to his natural modesty (A. 53). 

tc/wge.' nun ma-thud do not be short- 
tempered : jfrJSN-apw^-w'JrQ-Sta-tfv^-l*,- 
^ I when I had said to the kha-do-ma " pray 
be not short-tempered" (Bbrom. S3). 

c.t'3fui nan-tshul natural disposition or 
temperament ; c,fa^rqEc.'9 1. good con- 
duct ; a naturally good disposition. 2. n. 
of a Buddhist sage and author of Ancient 
India, included in the list of twenty-three 
sages (M.V.). 

c.s.-^c.- fian-rin or Wl^R"^ forbearing; 
long-suifering ; of cool nature : ^'^'fj'''"' 
C,E,'?,C. - | S'*\*'l*' I in accomplishing import- 
ant business one should work with great 
patience. 



crqi 



349 



'^I nan-pa & the male goose. 

.-if|E.- nan-rkan ^VT that which 
waddles. 

.'J nan-sky a q<di*l grey teal of 
Tibet. 



Syn. iS'|''g^^a#-3^/ mgrin. 

=='$ nan-sgro the quill of the goose. 

'^ nan-far -qJffTnfi the ruddy goose, 
realy Tadorna rutila, the sheldrake. 

-8|-^iK^ nan-pa pser-ldan 1. th