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Full text of "Timber conditions in the pine region of Minnesota"

Author . 




Title 



Imprint. 



19— «7872-2 aPO 



DEPAETMENT OP THE INTERIOE-U. g, GEOLOGICAL SUKVET 
CHARLES D. WALCOTT, DIEECTOK 



TIMBER CONDITIONS 



PINE REGION OF MINNESOTA 



BT 



Hv bI^'ayres 



EXTRACT FROM THE TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SURVEY, ]WI«-1<JOO 

PART V, FOREST RESERVES— HENRY GANNETT, CEIIEF OF 

DIVISION OF GEOCiRAI'HY AND FORESTRY 




WASHINGTON 

GOVEBNMENT PBINTING OFFICE 
1900 



SV'-, 



U 



TIMBER COXDITIONS OF THE PINE REdlON 
OF MINNESOTA 



II. ]!. AYKKS 



•21 (iEOL, PT r> 4-3 "''■' 



CONTENTS 



Pasrft. 

Bounilaries 679 

Species 679 

Tiiiiber trees 680 

DistriVmtiou 680 

Exi>laiiatifin of iiia[) 6S1 

Kstiiiiates 682 

Classification of forest latnl 684 

Forest history 685 

Fires 685 

Fires on stump land 687 

Fire protection 687 

New fjnjwth 688 

Value of stump land 688 

675 



ILLI STItATlOX 



1'latk CXLIII. ^lap nf the piiu- rt'jfiiju uf JliniiL't-ota, showing flassifieation 

of htm Is In atlas. 



TIMBER CONDITIONS OF THE PINE REGION OF 

MINNESOTA. 



Bv H. B. Ayres. 



BOUNDARIES. 

The pine lands of Minnesota, as indicated by the earliest surveys, 
extended to the State line on the north and east, while southward 
they merged into the hardwood "park i-egion" along the southern 
lines of Pine and Kanabec counties. Thence westward the irregular 
border passed near Milaca, Little Falls, and Wadena to Frazer City 
and northward to the western extnMuitics of Red Lake and Lake of 
the Woods. 

SPECIES. 

The trees composing this forest are: 

Sjx'ciexfoiiiiil ill pi III' region nf Minnesota. 

White pine Pinus strobus Linn. 

Jack i)ine Pinus di variaita ( Ait. I Du M<:int de Coura. 

Norway or red i>ine - Pinus resinosa Ait. 

Tamaraclc Larix laricina ( Du Roi ) Koih. 

White eedar Tliuja dccideiitalis Linn. 

Red cedar Juniperus viririniana Linn. 

Black spruce Picea niariana ( MilL ) B. 8. P. 

White spruce Picea canadensis (Mill. ) B. 8. P. 

Balsam Abies balsamea (Linn. ) Mill. 

Hemhick Tsuga canadensis (Linn. ) Carr. 

Aspen Populus tremuloide.s ^lichx. 

White poplar Populus grandidentata Jlichx. 

Balm of Gilead Populus Ijalsamifera Linn. 

White birch Betula papyrifera ilarsh. 

Yellow birch Betula lutea Jlichx. f. 

Hard maple Acer saccharum Marsh. 

Red uiaple Acer rubrum Linn. 

White maple Acer saccharinum Linn. 

Basswood Tilia americana Linn. 

Red oak Quercus rubra Linn. 

Burr oak Quercus niacrocar]>a Michx. 

White oak Quercus all>a Linn. 

Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh. 

H79 



680 FORKST KESKRVKS. 

Black ai*li Fraxinus nigra Marsli. 

White ash Fraxinus americana Linn. 

White ehn TJlmus aniericana T-inn. 

Rock ehii ITlmuiJ raceniosa Thoiiia.". 

Slipi)ery ehn Uhuuf piilnwcens Walt. 

Iroinvood Ostrya virginiana ( Mill. ) Koch. 

Hai-kberry Celtis occidentalis Linn. 

Butternut Juglans cinerea Linn. 

Hickory (pig nut ) Hicoria minima ( Marsh. ) Britton. 

Black cherry Prunu.« serotina Ehrli. 

TIMBKII TRKES. 

The trees now used fnv lumlxT are. in order of the amounts cut: 

Timlier trees in pine regioii tif Minnexuln. 

1. White pine. 5. Jack pine. St. Yellow birch. 

2. Norway pine. 6. White elm. 10. Hard Uiaple. 

3. Burr oak. 7. Tamarack. 11. White poplar. 

4. White spruce. S. Basswood. 12. Rock ehn. 

Of these twelve, but three, white pine, No]-way pine, and tnirr oak, 
have been of conimereial importance. 

Tamaraek has been extensi\el_v used iov railway- ties. Cedar is used 
in large quantity for poles, posts, and ties. A small amount of jack 
pine is eut and sold with Norway pine as lumber and many ties are 
made of it for branch railroads, but its principal u.se is for fuel. 

Spruee and a small quantity of aspen are iLsed for pulp. 

Yellow birch, hard maple, basswood. ash. etc., are utilized for lum- 
ber when accessible, but trees suital)le for lumber are much scattered, 
and nntil I'eceutly land owners or l)uyers have paid little attention to 
hardwt)od. 

^lost lumbeiincn ha\e igntired evi-rytiiino- l»ut pine, but some have 
estimated it in cords as fuel. 

DISTRIBUTIOX. 

The trees have their preferences as to soil. sul)soil. and exposure, 
but there is so little ditference in large areas and so much varietj' on 
almost every iO-aere tract that, excepting the larger tracts of sandy 
lands and muskegs, the classes are so intermingled that the}' can not 
be differentiated on a map. 

White pine, like all' other trees, grows best in deep, porous, moist, 
fertile soil, and in this region the effect of the climate and the tires 
have often enabled it to establish itself on the best of the land in com- 
petition with species which in milder climate and freedom from tires 
would have crowded it out. 

While Norway pine and jack pine enjoy good soil, they find most 
fa\(:)rable starting places on sandy and gravelly lands, occasionally 



AYREs,] PINE RP:GI0N of MINNESOTA. 081 

fire-swept, such as the triangular tract of which Sturgeon Lake is the 
center and the large crescent-shaped area extending from Brainerd to 
Red Lake. 

Burr oak also likes a porous soil and is foiuid as a timber tree on 
the l)orders oi the pine land and on alluvial banks and bottoms. On 
shallow soils, with hard clay subsoils, this species becomes a scrub 
oak, notably on the bowlder cla3^s west of Park Rapids. Basswood 
and maple are found on the verj' best uplands. Yellow ))irch, red 
oak, aspen, white birch, and others are found on the medium quality 
or inferior clay lands. Tamarack thrives on the loamy borders of 
swamps, while black spruce is seldom found on dry land, but usually 
borders and reaches out slightly upon the muskegs. 

Within the borders indicated the only natural treeless areas are 
uui.skegs or swamps and tlie few small prairie openings or parks in 
the western portion. 

KXPTvAXATIOK OF IMAP. 

A \'ery prominent feature of the Minnesota pine forest is its variety. 
The so-called original forest, or the forest found by the earliest 
whites, was a complicated patchwork of kinds and conditions due to a 
great variety of surface and soil, to the ceaseless strife between the 
thirty-nine species of trees composing it, and to the effect of ever- 
varying lires. Incidentally, the white man has greatly increased this 
variety of conditions by cutting, burning, and clearing. 

Some of the lines between the differing classes of forest are sharp 
and distinct, but most of them are indetinite. Some areas of each 
class are extensive, but many of them are very small and irregular in 
outline. 

To make a map showing such small details and such interlapping 
and l)lending areas is impractical, not oidy because of the impossibil- 
ity of printing such a map, but also because of the expense of col- 
lecting such minute data. Fui'thermore it would not be good policj' 
to publish a statement of the amounts and exact locations of standing 
timber which timber thieves could use. Therefore the information 
collected has been generalized to show the proportions of original 
forest remaining, the approximate amount of standing pine timber, 
the areas of stump land, and the land burned before cutting. 

In presenting this information on the map the principal color has 
been used to represent the more important feature of the forest and 
the subordinate colors to show as nearly as possible the proportion of 
the classes they each represent. 

For example, a township is reported as cut over, with 10,000,000 
feet of pine left. This township is colored yellow and dotted with 
green, the green representing not the exact location but the general 
proportion of standing timber. Again, where lines in the forest are 



682 FOREST RESKRVKS. 

iiuk'finito, and classes blend oi" natural borders fade into one another, 
the lines must on the map be drawn sharp in order to print them. 
The details of the actual condition are thus lost, but the proportions 
are belie\ed to be approximately correct. 

An unavoidable source of inaccuracy lies in the fact that some of the 
land has not been thoroughly explored and estimated. Some thirty 
townships are yet unsurveyed. and while they have been looked over 
in a general way by timbermen, the estimates do not coverall the land, 
and are.intcndL'd to be less than the actual cut or '"safe estimates." 

Fomier estimates of the amount of pine-log timber in the State liave 
Ijeen small for the same reason. The amounts stated were the amounts 
known, and a large discrepancy often occurred in making allowance 
for the unexplored areas. It is quite possible that the present esti- 
mate may prove less than the cut, especially if tires are efi'ectually 
checked and natural growth be permitted to increase by normal annual 
accretions the size of the trees now standing. 

ESTI>IATES>. 

In making up the present estimate it was found that the comity 
i-ecords were of no' use. but were rather misleading, with the few 
exceptions where special assessments had been made, as in parts of 
Itaska. Hubljard. and Lake counties. Large areas were found assessed 
at a uniform valuation, I'anging from i^l to §3 per acre, whether tim- 
bered or stump land, pine, hardwood, or open bog. 

The areas assigned to assessors are often so large that it is impos- 
sible for them to make a proper estimate of timber with the fluids set 
apart for their remuneration. 

The reports of lumbermen and pine-land owners have been equally 
unsatisfactory for s(>veral reasons. Their lands art> not in large, con- 
tinuous tracts, l)ut are isolated selected 40-acre lots, chosen on account 
of the pine on them from the lands vacant or purchasable at the time. 
Being picked areas, they do not represent the average, and their esti- 
mates can applj' only to the tracts on which thej' were made. 

A serious difficulty was due to the great number of small holdings 
and the distant residence of the owners. This, combined with their 
tjusiness reasons for not making known the amount of pine on their 
lands, has rendered the collection of data from the owners impractical. 

Tlic most satisfactory class of information has been tinit furnished 
bv criusers who have estimated standing timber or looked after cut- 
ting in their several regions. The estimates obtained from them have 
not in all cases been a summary of their own cruisings. Ijut are partly 
rough estimates, based on their general knowledge, in order to cover 
the intei-mediate ground they have not cruised. 

The need of careful estimates and appraisals by township assessors, 
in order to levy a just taxation and f miiisli accurate knowledge of the 



AYKES.] 



PINE REGION OF MINNESOTA. 



683 



forest, is keenly felt by the owners and other taxpayers as well as by 
those who are studying the maintenance of the forest. 

In the following table the attempt is made to show approximately 
the amount of forest material left in the pine region. In preparing it 
especial care was taken to a\'oid making estimates on an imperfect 
basis, such as applying an average of lands held by one person (selected 
areas) to any large contiguous area. O^^enings, swamps, sapling and 
hard-wood tracts must be averaged with these selected areas to secure 
a fair factor for the whole region. 

Tahlf shniriiu/ timher I'cnmiainr/ in jtliw rrtjiini itf Mlnnesotfl. 



Cook 

Lake 

St. Louis 

Itasca 

Beltrami 

Norman 

Becker 

Ottertail 

Wadena 

Hubbard . . . 

Cass 

Crow AVing . 

Aitkin 

Carlton 

Pine 

Kanaljec 

Millelacs ... 

Morrison 

Benton 



Log timber (million ft. B.M.). 



White 
pine. 



900 
400 
440 
500 
400 

50 

230 

3 

6 

300 

850 

40 
160 
250 
450 

70 
1.30 

10 
1 



Norway 
pine. 



Hard 
wood. 



Pulp wood ( thou- 
sand cords). 



Spruce. 



100 

1,000 

1,500 

800 

500 

10 

50 

2 

12 

350 

300 

20 

40 

50 

50 

10 

20 

4 

1 



Aspen. 



Fuel (thousand 
cordsj. 



Hard. 



Total I 11,190 



4,819 



500 


1, 000 


650 


3, 000 


400 


3, 000 


200 


1,000 


5 


1 


30 


5 


80 


.5 


10 


1 


10 


1 1 


100 


500 


20 


200 


50 


1,000 


30 


70 


30 


30 


10 


10 


110 


5 


45 


5 


10 




2,780 


10, 328. 5' 



1,000 

3, 000 

8,200 

8,000 

4,000 

100 

400 

100 

50 

1,000 

2, 000 

2, 000 

3, 000 
500 
400 
200 
100 
130 

2 



5, 000 

10, 000 

18, 000 

17,000 

8,000 

280 

2,000 

800 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

10, 000 

2,000 

3, 000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

1,100 



73, 680 



900 

1,000 

2, 000 

3, 000 

2,000 

20 

5110 

10 

10 

3, 010 

5, 000 

3,000 

1,000 

800 

700 

200 

300 

800 



24, 250 



In comparison with the estimate of standing timber made by the 
Minnesota chief tire warden in his annual report for the year 1S96. viz, 
white and Norwaj' pine, 20,666,475.000 feet B. M., the present esti- 
mate for ISltO of 16,009,000,000 feet B. ^L is less by 4,257,475,000 feet 
B. M. This difference is not far from the cut of the intervening years, 
and as these two estimates were made independently by summing 
detailed data collected by extensive canvass, it seems tliat the amount 
of standing timber has been learned as accurately as possible by the 



(;84 



FORKST RKSKKVES. 



methods onipl<)V«'(l. As .suggested elsewhtTc in this article, township 
assessors might, iit small additional cost in making their assessments, 
collect such data and make our knowledge of such lands much moi'e 
accurate. The estimate would thus be revised with each asscs.sment. 



CT.ASSIFICATIOX OF FOliKST T.,AX1). 

'{"he following table serves to show the general condition of the for- 
est with reference to cutting and burning, with the explanation that 
about '.to per cent of the stump lands are burned and that much of 
the .so-called virgin forest has been burned and is now in the various 
stages of restocking. ]Much of this area is mere bru.sh. and some of 
it is open slough, muskeg, or meadow, which it has been impracticable 
tf) separate. 

Large areas have been burned over and large amounts of log tim- 
ber have been killed and lost, of which there is no record and no 
evidence. The fires occurred years ago and these lands are now 
classed as cut over, because the timber trees that survived have since 
been cut. 

Cltissiji-catioii of jored land in pine region of Minnesolii. 



^■™--- ^o'fis"!' 


KridWii to have 
Stump laiiils. been burned be- 
fore cutting. 


Cook 

Lake 


Square miles. 

1,277 

2, 2.37 

2, .520 

3.744 

924 

20 

lOS 

None. 


Sqttare inilfs. Sqiiarf; viiks. 

4 240 

90 230 

1,.S10 2,232 

1,160 .576 

400 ". 160 


Itasca 

Beltrami 


Norman 

Becker 

Ottertail 




144 


430 
260 


216 
Not, rpcf»rded. 


Wadena 


None. 400 40 
228 .500 324 
.504 1.2KI) 400 


Hubbard 

Cass 


Crow Wing 

Aitkin 


20 
70 
.5.5 
63 
20 
,S2 
10 
None. 


1,080 Not recorded. 
1,,SOO Not recorded. 


Carlton 

Pine 

Kanabec 

Millelacs 

Morrison 

Benton 


790 
1,000 
580 
280 
400 
40 


a 14 
Not recorded. 
Not recorded. 
Not recorded. 
Not recorded. 
Not recorded. 


Total 


11,882 


12, 684 









(I Partly recorded. 



AVKEs.i PINE REGION OF MINNESOTA. 6b5 

FOKEST HISTORY. 

Where undisturbed 1)}- cutting, tlie forest of to-day differs from that 
of a hundred years ago only as affected directly or indirectly by tire. 
The oldest woods are fire scattered, especially where composed of 
young- or middle-aged pine, having large trees scattered among it. 
These large trees have almost invariably been marked bv fire at a date 
older than the younger portion of the forest. 

In the so-called original forest the scarred veterans of old fires 
standing high above the common woods form a prominent feature of 
the landscape. 

Only a portion of the old burns were restocked with pine, however, 
for large areas severely burned and without seed trees were occupied 
>)y aspen and birch and are as yet very scantily timbered. 

FIRES. 

Thus it is seen that fires are not a novelty in these old woods, but 
have for hundreds of years been a prominent factor in their history. 
The coming of the whites and the general distribution of trappers 
and "couriers du bois" through the woods by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany and the American Fur Company 100 to 140 years ago seem to 
h-Ave been prolific of fires, for a very large proportion of the trees of 
the older uniform forests are 100 to 1-10 years of age, and uuist have 
started during that period. Later fires, especially those of 1840 north 
of Red Lake, those of 1860 and 1878 northeast of Tower, and the gen- 
eral fire of 189-4, have been very destructive, and since lumbering began 
large areas untouched by the ax have been reduced by tire to brush 
land, on which stubs and stumps of the former forest are abundant. 

In the Seventh Annual Report of the Geological and Natural 
History Survey of Minnesota. Prof. N. H. Winchell says: 

During the seasKin [1878] all i)artit'H cdiniected with the survey have liad oi'casion 
to uute the frequent and wanton destruction of the native forests by fire. It is esti- 
mated that annually ten times as nuich pine is destroyed in the State as is cut by all 
the mills. A large part of the triangle north of Lake Superior has been thus dev- 
astated. The State has lost in this waj* more than as much pine as now I'eniains. 

On the western Ijorder of the pine forest from Red Lake to Becker 
County and southeastward to Brainerd, fires have been frequent and 
severe. In this region pine is usually found in clumps that have 
escaped the killing fires. The trees in these clumps are scorched and 
partly killed, while the intermediate areas are open and brushv, with 
many remains of large pine trees. The amount of pine log timbei 
lost by these fires has been enormous, even within the memory of 
lumbermen. Where accessible, much of the log timber can be used 
immediately after being killed by fire, but in remote and undeveloped 
territory losses have been very heavy, as the timber killed has neces- 
sarily been wasted. Only a sTuall proportion of such losses has been 



68n 



FOREST RESERVES. 



o-:timiitt'd <)i- rcoordt'd, but the foUowinjf notes illustrate some of the 
dauiaire: 

Damage from fire m pine region of Minnesota. 



Date. 


Locality. ' Killed. 


1889 

1894 

1894 

Various firet' 


T. 144 X..R.39 W... 
T. US X.,R.38 W... 
T. 149 X.,R. 38 W... 
T. 143X.,R.,S7 W... 
T. 145X.,R.38 AV... 
T.144X.,R.37\V... 
T. 145X.,R.37 \V... 
T. 146X.,R.37 W... 
T. 146X.,R.38W... 
T.144X.,R.31 W... 
T. 144X.,R.32W... 
T. 144X.,R.30W... 
T.144X.,R.29AV... 
T.144X.,R.27 W... 


Feet B. M. 
25, 000. OOO 
9, 600, 000 
55, 740, 000 

105, 000, 000 
10,000,000 

165, 000, 000 
55, 000, 000 
97, 000, 000 
25, 000, 000 

122, 000, 000 
22, 000, (X)0 
70, 000, 000 
45, 000, 000 
90, 000, 000 


Do 

Do 

Do 


Do 

Do 


Do 

Do 

Do... 

Do 

Do 



In these 14 townships there has been a known loss of 836 million feet, 
which to-day would have been worth on the .stump §>3, 344,000. or an 
average of some §1240,000 to each township. 

Fires ha\e been very destructive in the northern part of the State 
also. A large proportion of the area north of Red Lake and eastward 
to Lake Superior (.several thousand square miles) has been reduced to 
brush land, and several thousand acres are now bare rock on which 
dead stubs and partly burned roots show that timber once grew. The 
areas burned over, killing the timber before cutting, are now undeter- 
minable. Those now known and shown on the map are but a fraction 
of the whole. The area of these amounts to about 4, 760 square miles. 
There is no way of closely estimating this amount. Roughly, it may 
be assumed that this land averaged probably 2,00() feet per acre, or 
1,280.000 feet per square mile. The amount killed was probably 8 
billion feet. 

In considering the damage by fires it should be remembered that 
only a small portion of severely burned lands are soon restocked with 
timber trees. This fact is illustrated by the condition of the old forest, 
most of which was probably seeded on burns. The yield on such land 
seldom exceeds 10,000 feet B. M. per acre (though 100,000 feet have 
been cut on exceptional acres), and there are large areas that do not 
average more than 1,000 feet per acre. Some 14,00() square miles of 
original forest in the northern part of the State will not average 3,000 



AYREs.] PINE REGION OF MINNESOTA. 687 

feet of pine per aer(% iind it is proliable thut tlie iiverage yield for the 
■whole pine region has been about this figure. The difference between 
this figure and 10,000 feet per acre, which would be only a moderate 
possible stand for white and Norway pine, may with reason be attrib- 
uted to the effect of fires. 

FIRES ON STUMP LAND. 

Stump land is seldom found unburned. It is roughl}' eistimated that 
!K) per cent of the cut-over land in the State has been overrun by tire. 
In such burning mo.st of the seeds, seedlings, and seed trees are killed. 

Whert> tiri's have been moderate and some seed trees survived, a new 
stand of pine sometimes appears, but where severe the fires are fol- 
lowed by aspen, birch, scrub pine, or brush. 

The loss in liurning stump land is usually greatly underestimated. 
Much of the land immediately after cutting has many saplings, which 
in a few years would make timljer and seed trees. Fires kill these 
and render the land nonproductive, or at least greatly reduce the 
product. 

Perhaps the best way to estimate the damage is to consider the dif- 
ference between fairly stocked land yielding 10,000 feet per acre and 
fire-swept land yielding nothing. About one hundred j'ears are 
required to produce a crop of 10,000 feet per acre. This means an 
average annual growth of 100 feet B. M., or 4:0 cents' worth of log 
timber, per acre each year, besides fuel, etc. This amount, though 
small, is in contrast with lands going delinquent for taxes, the com- 
mon rate of taxation being about "i cents per acre. In the pine 
region of the State there are about 1,000,000 acres of land on which 
taxes are delinciuent. 

In tabulating the delinquent lists it is quite noticeable that a great 
proportion of deliiKjuent lands are in the old pineries, where soil 
is light. The delinquent lands in Cass County number 116,000 acres; 
in Crow Wing County, 08,000 acres, and in Millelacs County, 80,000 
acres. Where exhausted forests and collapsed real estate booms have 
both occurred the highest proportion is found, as in Carlton County, 
where the delinquent lands amount to 10t),000 acres, or nearly 20 per 
cent of the area of the county. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The present system of fire protection is unquestionably a great check 
upon fire, but the few years that have passed since its inauguration 
are not sufficient to show exactly what its effect will be after the fear 
of the people, excited by the fires of 1891r, subsides and a very dry 
season occurs. The present .sj'stem is too much under local influence. 



688 



FOREST RESERVES. 



XKW GUOWTIl. 

On burned stump liiiid the principal stock is aspen. Among this 
are white hirch and send) pine, witli other species and hrush in mix- 
ture. The reappearance of white and Norway pine on severe burns 
is rather unusual. 

VAJA'P: ok .STl'.Mf I.AXI). 

In considering the A'alue of stump land, a comparative \ iew of the 
areas cut over, the areas improved, and the areas on which taxes are 
delinquent serves to show the waste or misuse of land that miufht l)e 
growing timber until needed for agriculture. 

Comparatife lahh' f<hfKrin{/ use of stump hind in the pine refpon of Mimteifota. 



Couniy. 



Cook 

Lake 

St. Louis . . . 

Itasca 

Beltrami . . . 

Bei:ker 

Ottertail 

AVadena 

Hubbard ... 

Cass 

Crow "Wing . 

Aitkin 

Carlton 

Pine 

Kanabec . . . 

Todd 

Millelacs . . . 
Morrison . . . 
Benton 



Areas of 1 .Areas cut 
pine forest. ' over. 



Areas 
assessed as 
improved. 



-Vreason 
which taxes 
are delin- 
quent. 



Stfuare miles. St/uare miUs.tSquare miies. Square miles. 

4 ' 



1,520 

2,380 

5,860 

5,430 

.5,040 

720 

260 

460 

1.000 

2,990 

550 

1,900 

860 

1,400 

522 

280 

580 

400 

40 



I 



Total .32,192 



M 

1,810 

1,160 

400 

430 

260 

400 

500 

1,260 

1,080 

1, 800 

790 

1,000 

580 

280 

400 

400 

40 



12, 684 



I). 42 

8.84 

19.62 

.39 

131. 40 



.55. 23 

117.19 

9.30 

33.40 

11.5.00 

6.70 



1.35. 10 
73. 35 



15. 
134. 
113. 

.31. 
((99. 



68 
37 
62 
60 
28 



a 35. 
25. 
179. 
103. 
110. 
163. 

i i . 

16. 



121. 

SO. 
35. 



56 
62 
30 



a Mostly agricultiiDil. 



AYREs.] PINE REGION OF MINNESOTA. (l89 

It should be remembered that not all the improved lands are assessed 
as improved; only those that have been deeded from the Government. 
On the other hand, in the forest the areas of improved lands not 
deeded are very small; seldom over 3 acres; merely a garden patch. 

With this table it would be very interesting to compare the areas of 
entered lands and to note the great discrepancy between the amount 
of forest land bought or entered (much of it '"honiesteaded") by indi- 
viduals and the amount actually improved liv agricultural use. 

Of Ihe land from which the timber has Ijeen cut off 90 per cent is 
burned over and lies waste, while the remainder is utilized in agri- 
culture. 

If forest land is to be farmed, the farming should begin immediately 
after cutting, as with such practice the land would not lie idle, and 
that would be the easiest time to clear the land. 
21 GEOL, FT 5 44 



INDEX. 



A. 

Pagy. 
AbbotsButle, Oreg,, forest coiidiiionsnear. 309-311 

plate showing view near 22G 

Abies amabilis. Sec Fir, lovely. 

Abies concolor. See Fir, white. 

.\bies grandis. See Fir, silver. 

Abies lasiocarpa. See Fir, alpine; balsam. 

Abies magniiiea, plates showing 570 

See aim Fir, California red. 
.A.bies nobilis. See Fir, noble. 
Acer circinatuni. See Maple, vine. 
Acerglabrum. See Maple, dwarf. 
Acer macrophyllum, range and occurrence 

of 155 

. See also Maple; Maple, Oregon. 
Adams, Mount. .S'cc Mount Adams. 
Alaska cedar. Sec Cedar, .Vlaska. 
Alder, paper-leaf, range and occurrence of . 542 
Alder, white, range, size, and occurrence 

of 533-534,543 

.■\lnus oregona. rate of growth of 109 

.\lnus rhonibifolia. See Alder, white. 
Alnus tenuifolia. Sec Alder, paper-leaf. 
Alpine flr. Sec Fir, alpine. 
Alpine-iir type, composition and character 

in Sandpoint quadrangle, Idaho .594 

Alpine hemlock. See Hemlock, alpine. 
Alpine-hemlock type, composition and 
character of, in Cascade Range Re- 
serve 259-265 

American River, Cal., plate showing views 

of South Fork of 536 

Arbor vitse, PaciHe, amount in Sandpoint 

quadrangle, Idaho 595 

See also Cedar, red. 
Arbutus menziesii. See Madroiia. 

.\sh. plate showing 139 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of. . 105 

rate of growth of 108 

Ashland Butte, Orcg. See Siskiyou Peak. 
.\shland quadrangle, Oreg., map showing 

classification of lands in In atlas 

.\shland Reserve, Oreg,, area of 13 

boundaries of 472 

general description of 472-474 '< 

Aspen, areas covered by 42 ' 

size .of 43 

See also Aspen, quaking. 
Aspen, quaking, range, size, quality, and 

occurrence of lO-j-106 

rate of growth of 109 

See also Aspen. 
Atanum River, Wash., timber conditions in 

walersliedof 122-123 

Ayres, H. B., report on Lewis and Clarke 

Reserve, Mont., by 27-80 

report on timber conditions of the pine 

region of Minnesota 1173-689 

work of 15, 22 



Page. 
Badger Creek, Mont., deadwood in valleyof 62 

estimate of cutting near 63 

timber in valleyof 5,s 

Bald Mountain, Wash., burn on 134 

Bald Mountain quadrangle, Wyo., ela.ssifl- 

cation of lands in 598-600 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Balsam, amount in South Fork of Flathead 

Valley, Mont 70 

areas covered by 42 

size of 43 

Set: also Fir, alpine. 
Barnard, E. C, paper on forest conditions in 

Fiirtymile quadrangle by .V.17 

paper on land classification in Coos Bay 

quadrangle by .576-577 

paper on land elussification in Roseburg 

quadrangle by 577 

Battlement Me.sa Reserve, Colo., area and 

date of establishment of 13 

Bearberry, rate of growth of 109 

Bear Prairie, Wash., section in yi 

BeaverCreek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. 62 
Bighorn Reserve, Wyo., area and date of es- 
tablishment of 13 

Big River, Wash., view of .spruce on 202 

Big trees, character of forest in groves of. .529-530 

groves in Yosemite quadrangle, Cal 526- 

527,572,573 

na mcs ( >f 527-529 

plates showing 574 

range and occurrence of ,526, 543 

size and age of .531 

Big Trees quadrangle, Cal., classification of 

lands in 549 

map showing clas.sification of lands. . In atlas 

stand of timber in 21 

Birch Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. 62 

estimate of cutting on 63 

plate showing view on South Fork of . . 78 

settlement on ,54 

timber in valley of .53 

Bitter cherry, range, size, and occurrence of, 542 
Bitterroot Reserve, Idaho-Mont., area and 

date of establishment of 13 

Black Cottonwood. See Cottonwood, Ijluek. 
Blackfoot River, Mont., plate showing jam 

of logs in 35 

Black hemlock. See Hemlock, black. 
Black Hills Reserve, S. Dak. -Wyo., area and 

date of establishment of 13 

Black Leaf Creek, Mont., deadwood in val- 
ley of 132 

Black Mesa Reserve, Ariz., area and <late of 

establishment of 14 

Black oak. See Oak, black. 
Black oak, California. See Oak, California 
black. 

691 



692 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Blue Creek. Cal.. plate showing California 

red fir near o'S-'2 

Blue spruce. See Spruce, blue. 

Brown, Mount, See Mount Brown. 

Bull Run Reserve, Greg., area and date of 

establishment of 11 

Bumping River, Wash., eharaeter of valley 

of 92 

('. 

Calaveras grove, Cal.. names of big trees 

in 527-529 

plate showing view of 52S 

California black oak. ^Vr Oak. California 

black. 
California live nak. .svrOak, California live. 
California red fir. See Fir, California red. 
California rock oak. See Oak, California 

rock. 
California scrub oak. Sec Oak, California 

scrub. 
California torreya. Sec Torreya. California. 
California white oak. Sec Oak, California 

white. 
Camp Creek Pass, Mont., plate showing view 

near 42 

Canyon live oak. See Oak, Canyon live. 
Carbon River, Wash., arable land in valley 

of 91 

Cascade Lake, Cal., plate showing view of.. 538 
Cascade Range, Oreg., altitudinal range of 

species on eastern slope of 2-13-244 

un western slope of 242-243 

climatic conditions on eastern slope 

of 234-235 

on western slope of 232-233 

relative proportions of species on east- 
ern slope of 238 

on western slope of 237 

topographical features of eastern slope 

of 228-231 

of western slope of 219-228 

Cascade Range Reserve, Oreg., age, dimen- 
sions, and soundness of trees in,. 274-275 
amount and distribution of timberin. 265-274 

area and date of establishment of 14 

boundaries of 29:3-2% 

climatic conditions in and adjacent 

to 231-235 

forest fires in 276-293 

forest types in and adjacent to 244-265 

geographical distribution of species in 

and adjacent to 238-242 

logging operations in and adjacent to. . . 276 
range of species in and adjacent to .. 242-244 

report on Ashland Reserve and 209-498 

species found in and adjacent to 235-238 

summary of estimates of timber in .. 474-477 

summary of work in 18-19 

topographic features in and adjacent 

to 219-231,296-297 

Cascara sagrada, range, size, and occurrence 

of 535,543 

Cedar, amount in Olympic Reserve, Wash.. 154 
amount in Seattle quadrangle. Wash.. 580 
amount in Tacoma ijiiadrangle. Wash. 578 



Page, 
Cedar — Continued. 

areas timbered by 42 

maps showing distribution of 48, atlas 

plates showing 1S4, 192. 200, 206 

rate of growth of 24 

size of 43 

Cedar, .\laska. amount in Mount Rainier 

Reserve, Wash 127 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of 104, 155 

rate of growth of 108 

Cedar, incense, age, and reproduction of. 521-522 
amount in Cascade Range Reserve, Oreg., 

and adjacent regions. 267,474,478,496,497 

areas timbered by 241, 521 

map showing distribution of 240 

range of 243, 244, 521, &48 

size and (Hialityof 275,521,548 

Cedar, red, amount and percentage in Coos 

Bay quadrangle. Oreg .i77 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

map showing distributiun of 104 

range, size, quality, and occurrence 

of 103-104, 155 

rate of growth of 108 

.Set' aim Arbor vita^, Pacific. 
Cedar, white, amount and percentage in 

Coos Bay quadrangle, Oreg 577 

ChamEecyparis nooikatensis. See Cedar, 

Alaska. 
Chelan quadrangle, Wash., classification of 

lands in 581-582 

map .showing land classification In atlas 

Cherry, bitter. See Bitter cherry. 
Chokecherry, western, range and occur- 
rence of 535, 543 

Cispus Range, Wash., plateshowing view of 142 
Cispus River, Wash., arable land in valley of. 92 

section in valley of 92 

timber conditions in watershed of 115 

Classification of lands 563-601 

Clearwater River. Mont., settlement on 55 

Sec also Swan-Clearwater Valley. 
Cloud Peak quadrangle, Wyo., classifica- 
tion of lands in 600-601 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Coffee berry, range, size, and occurrence 

of 535,543 

Coos Bay quadrangle, Oreg., land classifica- 
tion and stand of timber in 57tW577 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Cornus nuttallii. See Dogwood, Pacific. 
Cosumnes River. Cal., plate showing view 

of South Fork of 546 

Cottonwood, areas timbered by 42,105,155 

range, size, and quality of 105,155 

rate of growth of 109 

See also Cottonwood, black. 
Cottonwood, black, range, size, and occur- 
rence of 533, 543 

Sec also Cottonwood. 
Cow Creek, Cal., plates showing forest 

near 510, 514 

Cowlitz River, Wa^h.. burns near 134 

mineral spring on 95 

timber conditions in watershed of 114 



INDEX. 



693 



Page. 

Cowlitz Valley, Wash., .section in 91 

Coyote Creek, Cal., plate showing view of.. .550 

Coyoteville, Cal.. plate showingview of 5-16 

Crab apple, rate of growth of 109 

Crater Lake, Oreg., description of 222 

Crescent, Lake, Wash. .S'cf Lake Crescent. 

Crow Creek Pass, llont., reproduction on.. 49 

P. 

Dardanelles Creek, Cal., iilate showing view 

near 51(5 

Dardanelles quadrangle, Cal., classification 

of lands in 550 

map showing cla.ssilication of lands. . In atlas 

stand of timber in 21 

Dayton quadrangle, Wyo., classification of 

lands in .597-.59S 

map showing land classification Inatlas 

Dearborn Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley 

of 62 

estimate of cutting on 63 

plate showing view of burn on 46 

settlement on 55 

timber in valley of ,58 

Dearborn Mount. See Slount Dearborn. 
Deep Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. . 62 
See also South Fork of Deep Creek. 

Depuyer Creek, Mont., settlement on .5.5 

See a!so North Fork and South Fork 
of Depuyer Creek. 

Dodwell, Arthur, work of 17 

Dodwell, Arthur, and Ki.xon, T. F.. report 
on Olympic Reserve from notes 

by 14.5-208 

Dogwood, Pacific, range, size, and occur- 
rence of .533, .543 

Dogwood, western, rate of growth of 109 

Douglas spruce. Sec Fir, red. 

Dungeness River, plate showing view near. 196 

Dwarf maple. See Maple, dwarf. 

E. 

Elbow Lake, Mont., plate showing view at. 76 
Elk Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley of... 62 
Ellensburg quadrangle. Wash., classifica- 
tion of lands in 580-581 

map showing land classification In atlas 

El wha River, Wash. .plate showing view on. 184 
Engelmann spruce. .sVc Spruce, Engel- 
mann. 

F. 

Falls Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. 62 

estimate of cutting on 63 

Fencing timber, species used for 546 

Fir, plates showing 184, 186, 192, 198, 202 

Fir, alpine, areas timbered by 101, 241, 594 

plates showing 98, 132 

range of 101, 243, 244 

rate of growth of 24, 107 

size and quality of 101 

See also Fir, mountain; Balsam. 
Fir, California red, range, size, age, repro- 
duction, and occurrenceof .537-638, 543, 548 



I'age. 

Fir, great silver, rate of growth of 23 

Fir, lovely, amount in Mount Rainier Re- 
serve, Wash 127 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of. lOO-lOl 

rate of growth of 107 

Fir, mountain, amount in Mount Rainier 

Reserve, Wash 127 

See also Fir, Alpine. 
Fir, noble, amount in Cascade Range Re- 
serve, Oreg., and adjacent regions.. 267, 
474,478,496,497 
amount in Mount Rainier Re.serve, 

Wash 127 

areas timbered by 100. 240 

map showing distribution of 240 

plate showing 276 

range of 100, 243, 244 

rate of growth of 107 

size and quality of 100, 275 

Fir, red, age and reproduction of 520 

amount in Cascade Range Reserve, 

Oreg., and adjacent region 267, 

474,478,496,497 
amount and percentage In Coos Bay 

quadrangle, Oreg .- 577 

amount in Lewis and Clarke Reserve, 

Mont ...-. 44 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

amount in Olj-mpic Reserve, Wash 154 

amount in Sandpoint quadrangle, 

Idaho 595 

amount in Seattle quadrangle. Wash ... 580 
amount in Tacoma quadrangle. Wash . . 578 

areas timbered by 42, 

103, 1.55, 240, .525-526, 587-590 

maps showing distribution of 94, 248, atlas 

plates showing 44, 50, 74, 78, 96, 110, 130, 256 

range of 103, 155, 243, 244, 525, 543 

rate of growth of 22-23, 108 

.size and quality of 43, .59, 103, 275, .526, 548 

See also Red-tir type. 
Fir, silver, amount in Olympic Reserve. 

Wash 1,54 

areas timbered by 42 

maps showing distribution of 48, atlas 

plate showing 206 

Fir, subalpine, range and occurrence of 155 

Fir, white, age and reproduction of 524 

amount in Cascade Range Reserve, 

Oreg., and adjacent regions 267, 

474, 478, 496, 497 
amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

areas timbered by 101, 155, 240, 523 

map showing distribution of 284 

range of 101, 1.5,5, 243, 244, 523, .543 

rate of growth of 107 

size and quality of 101, 275, 523-524 

Fir, yellow. 5feFir, red. 

Fires, causes of 49, 134-136 

damage from 49, 60-61 , 67, 72, 77-78 

effect of 50, 62, 72, 280-293, 557-559 

oVigin of 278-2S0, .559-560 

precautions against 560 



694 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Fish Lake, Orcg., description of 225 

Fish Lake Keserve. Utah, area and date of 

establishment of 14 

Filch, C. H., paper on land classification in 

Sonoru quadrangle by 569-^71 

paper on land classilk-ation in Yosemite 

qimdrang^le by 571-574 

report on woodland of Indian Terri- 
tory by 603-C72 

work of 19, 22 

Flathead Reserve, Mont., area and date of 

establishment of 11 

Flathead River. Mont. See Middle Fork 

and South Fork of Flathead. 
Ford Oeek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. 62 

settlement-^ on 54 

Sff also North Fork of Ford Creek. 
Forest reserves, map showing national 

parks and In atlas 

names, locations, and areas of 13 

public sentiment toward 06O-.WI 

summary ui work on 13-21 

Forest trees, table showing rate of growth 

of 22-25 

Forest type, conditions determining com- 
position of 245 

Forks Prairie, Wash., plates showing forest 

near 184,186,198 

Fortymile quadrangle, Alaska, forest con- 
ditions in 597 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Fraxinns oregona. Sec Ash. 



Gallatin Reserve, Mont., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

Gannett. H., paper on classification of lands 

by 563-601 

summary of forestry work in 1899-1900 

by 9-25 

Gerlo Creek. Cal., plate showing view of... 540 
Gila Reserve, N. Mex., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

Glacier Point, Cal., plate .showing view 

from 572 

Goat Mountain, Wash., altitude of 88 

Iilatesshowing views from 136,138,140 

v<»lcanic activity on 96 

Gordon Pass, Mont., plate showing view 

near 76 

Grand Canyon Reserve, Ariz., area and date 

of estiiblishmcnt of 14 

Gray pine. Sec Pine, gray. 

Grazing, effect of 140-143, 552-557 

Great silver fir. See Fir, great silver. 
Growth of forest trees, table showing rate 

of 22-25, 107, 109 

HhU Dome, Cal., plate showing view of 672 

HamiU<m quudrangle, Mont. -Idaho, map 

showing land t'las.sification IiT atlas 

topographic features and classification 

of lands in .596 



Page. 
Hemlock, amount in Mount Rainier Re- 
serve. Wash 127 

amount in Olympic Reserve. Wash lot 

amount in Taeonia quudrangle. Wash.. 878 

maps showing distribution of 48.98, atlas 

plates showing... 1,%.192, 198.200, 202,204,206 
range, size, quality, and occurrence 

of 101-102. 1.T.5 

rate of growth of 23. 107 

Hemlock, alpine, amount in Ca.scade Range 
Reserve, Oreg., and adjacent re- 
gions 267, 

474,478,490,497 

area.s timbered by 241 

map .showing distribution of 248 

plate showing 270 

range of 243,244 

size and quality of 27.5 

Stf <iho Alpine-hemlock type. 
Hemlock, black, range, size, age, reproduc- 
tion, and occurrence of . . . 539-&10, »13, .>18 
Hemlock, mountain, amount in Mount 

Rainier Reserve, Wash 127 

areas timbered by 42, 102 

plate showing .- go 

range, size, and quality of 102 

rate of growth of los 

Hemlock, Patton, map showing distribution 

of 40 

Hemlock, western, amount in Cascade 
Range Reserve. Oreg., and adjacent 

region 207,474,496,497 

areas timbered by 241 

map showing distribution of 240 

range of 244 

size and quality of 27.5 

Holland Creek, Mont., settlement on 55 

Holland Lake. Mont., plate showing view 

near 70 

Hood, Mount. .Set Mount Hood. 



1. 



Incense cedar. See Cedar, incense. 
Indian Territory, map showing extent and 

distribution of woodlands In atlas 

report on woodland of 003-672 

summary of work in 21-22 

timber conditions in T. 1 X., R. 1 E 063 

in T. 1 X., R. 2 E 666 

in T. 1 X., R. 3 E 666 

inT.lX.,R.4E B66 

in T. 1 X., R. .5 E 667 

in T. 1 X., R. 6 E 667 

in T. 1 X., R. 7 E 667 

in T. 1 X.. R. 8 E 021, 667 

inT.l X.,R.9E 622 

in T. 1 X., R. 10 E 622 

in T. 1 X., R. 11 E 022 

in T. 1 X., R. 12 E 623 

inT.l N.,R. 13 E 623 

inT.l N.,R. 14 E 623 

in T. 1 X., R. 15 E 624 

inT.lX.,R. lOE 624 

in T.l X..R.17E 624 

in T.l X.,R.]» E 025 



INDEX. 



095 



Indian Territory — Continued. Page. 

limber conditions in T.l X.. U.H) K 025 

inT.l X.,U.20E G26 

in T. 1 N., R. 21 E 625 

inT.lN.,R.22E 620 

inT. 1 N.,K.23E 62B 

in T. 1 N., R. 21 E 626 

in T. 1 N., R. 25 E 626 

' in T. 1 N., R. 26 E 62(; 

in T. 1 N., R. 27 E 627 

in T. 1 N., R. 1 W 661 

in T. 1 N. , R. 2 W 661 

in T. 1 N. , R. 3 W 661 

in T. 1 N., R. -i W 662 

in T. 1 N., R. 5 VV 662 

inT.lN.,R.6W 662 

in T. 1 N., R. 7 W 663 

inT.l N.,R.8W 663 

inT.lS.,R.l E 668 

in T.l S.,R.2E 668 

in T. 1 S., R. 3 E 668 

in T. 1 S., R. 4 E 669 

in T. 1 S., R. 5 E 670 

inT.lS.,R.6 E 670 

in T. 1 S., R, 7 E 671 

inT.lS.,R.8E 610,671 

inT.lS.,R.9E 611 

in T. 1 S., R. 10 E 611 

in T.1S.,R.U E 611 

in T. 1 S., R. 12 E 612 

in T. 1 S., R. 13 E 612 

in T. 1 S.,^. 14 E 612 

in T. 1 S., R. 15 E 613 

in T. 1 S., R. 16 E 613 

in T. 1 S. , R. 17 E. . . -■ 613 

in T.l S.,R. 18E 614 

in T. 1 S., R. 19 E 614 

in T. 1 S., R. 20 E 614 

in T. 1 S., R. 21 E 614 

in T. 1 S., R. 22 E 615 

inT.l S.,R. 23 E 615 

inT.l S.,R. 24 E 615 

in T. 1 S., R. 25 E 615 

inT.l S.,R. 26 E 615 

in T. 1 S., R. 27 E 616 

in T. 1 S., R. 1 \V 658 

in T. 1 S., R. 2 \V 658 

in T. 1 S., R. 3 \V 658 

in T. 1 .?.. R. 4 \V 658 

in T. 1 S., R. 5 \V 659 

inT.lS.,R.6\V 659 

inT.lS.,R.7\V 659 

inT.lS.,R.8 W 660 

in T. 2 N., R. 1 E 665 

in T. 2 N., R. 2 E 666 

inT.2 N.,R.3E 066 

-in T. 2 N.. R. 4 E S66 

inT.2N.,E.5E 667 

in T. 2 N., R. 6 E 667 

in T. 2 X., R. 7 E 667 

inT.2X.,R.8E 621,667 

in T.9X.,R.9E 622 

inT.2 N.,E. 10 E 622 

in T. 2 X., R. 11 E 622 

in T. 2 X., R. 12 E 623 

inT.2X.,R. 13E 623 

in T. 2 X.. R. 14 E 623 



Indian Territory— Continued. I'age. 

timber conditions in T. 2 X., R. 1.') E 624 

in T. 2 N., R. 16 E 624 

inT.2N.,R.17E 624 

in T. 2 N., R. 18 E 625 

in T. 2 N., R. 19 E 625 

in T. 2 X., R. 20 E 625 

in T. 2 X., R. 21 E G25 

in T.2X.,R.22E 626 

in T. 2 X., R. 23 E 626 

i II T. 2 N., R. 24 E 626 

ill T. 2 X., R. 25 E 626 

in T.2X.,R.26E G26 

ill T.2X.,R.27E 627 

in T.2X.,R.l \V 661 

inT.2N.,R.2 \V 661 

in T. 2 X., R. 3 \V 662 

inT.2X.,R.4 W 662 

in T.2X.,R.5 W 662 

in T. 2 X., R. (J \V 662 

in T. 2 X., R. 7 \V 663 

inT.2N.,R.8 W 663 

in T. 2 S. , R. 1 E 60S 

in T.2S.,R.2E 668 

in T. 2 S., R. 3 E 668 

in T.2S.,R.4E 609 

in T. 2 S., R. 5 E 670 

in T. 2 .S., R. 6 E 670 

inT.2S.,R.7 E 671 

in T.2S.,R.8E 610.671 

i 11 T. 2 S. , R. 9 E Oil 

in T. 2 S.. R. 10 E 611 

inT.2S.,R.ll E 611 

in T. 2 S., R. 12 E 612 

in T. 2 S. , R. 13 E 612 

inT.2S..R.14 E 612 

in T.2S.,R.15E 013 

in T. 2 S., R. 16 E 613 

in T.2S.,R.17 E 613 

in T. 2 S., R. 18 E 614 

in T. 2 S., R. 19 E 614 

in T. 2 S., R. 20 E 014 

inT.2S.,R.21 E 614 

in T.2S.,R.22E 615 

inT.2.S.,R.23 E 015 

in T. 2 S., R. 24 E 015 

in T. 2 S., R. 25 E 615 

in T. 2 S., R. 26 E 016 

in T. 2 S., R. 27 E 616 

inT.2S.,R.lW 6.58 

inT.2S.,R.2\V 058 

inT.2S.,R.3W 658 

in T. 2 S., R. 4 W 658 

in T. 2 S., R. 5 W 659 

in T. 2 y., R. 6 W 6.59 

in T. 2 S., R. 7 W 659 

in T. 2 S., R. 8 W 660 

inT.3X.,R.l E 665 

in T. 3 X., R. 2 E 666 

in T. 3 X., R. 3 E 666 

in T. 3 X., R. 4 E 666 

in T.3X.,R. 5E 667 

in T. 3 X., R. 6 E 667 

in T. 3 X., R. 7 E 667 

in T. 3 N., R. 8 E 621, 668 

in T.3X..R.9E 622 

in T. 3X..R.10E 622 



696 



INDEX. 



Indian Territory — Continued. I'age. 

timtier iimditions in T. 3 N..U. 11 E G22 

in T.:iX.,R.12E 623 

in T. 3 N.. R. 18 E 623 

in T.:!N".,R.11E 623 

inT.3X..R. IftE 624 

in T.3X.,R.16E 624 

inT.3N..R.nE 624 

in T.3N..R.18E 625 

in T.3X..R.19E 625 

inT.3N..R.20E 625 

in T.;iN..R.21E 625 

in T.3N'..R.22E 626 

in T.3N..R.23E 626 

in T.3N..R.24E 626 

in T.3X..R.25E 626 

in T. 3 N., R. 26 E 627 

in T.3N.,R.27E 627 

in T. 3 N., R. 1 W 661 

in T.3X.,R.2 W 661 

in T. 3 X., R. 3 \V 662 

in T.3N..R.4 \V 662 

in T. 3 X., R. 3 \V ... 662 

in T 3 X.. R. 6 W 662 

in T. 3 N., R. 7 W 663 

in T. 3 S., R. 1 E 668 

in T. 3 S., R. 2 E 668 

in T. 3 S., R. 3 E 668 

in T. 3 S. , R. 4 E 669 

in T. 3 S., R. 5 E 670 

in T. 3 S., R. 6 E 670 

in T. 3 S., R. 7 E 671 

in T. 3 S., R. 8 E i;iO. G71 

in T. 3 S., R. 9 E 611 

inT.3S.,R.10 E 611 

inT.3S.,R.ll E 611 

inT.3S..R.12 E 612 

inT.3S..R.13 E 612 

in T.3S.,R.14 E 612 

inT.3S.,R.15 E 613 

inT.3S.,R.16 E 613 

inT.3S.,R.17 E 613 

inT.3S.,R.18 E 614 

inT.3S.,R.19 E 614 

inT.3S.,R.20 E 614 

inT.3S.,R.21 E 614 

inT.3S.,R.2-2 E 615 

inT.3S.,R.23 E 615 

in T.3S.,R.24 E 615 

inT.3S.,R.25 E 615 

inT.3S.,R.26 E 616 

inT.3S..R.27 E 616 

inT.3S.,R. 1 \V 658 

inT.3S.,R.2 \V 658 

inT.3S.,R.3 W 6.5S 

in T. 3 S., R. 4 \V 659 

in T. 3 S.. R. \V 659 

inT.3S..R.6W 659 

in T. 3 S., R. 7 \V 659 

in T. 3 S.. R. 8 W 660 

inT. 4N., R. 1 E 665 

inT. 4X.. R. 2 E 666 

in T. 4X., R. 3E 666 

in T. 4X., R. 4 E 666 

in T. 4N.. R. E 667 

in T. 4 N., R. E 667 

iuT. 4X., R. 7 E 667 



Inflian Territor.v 
timber eondi 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T.4X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X. 
in T. 4 X 
in T. 4 X 
in T. 4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S.. 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
in T.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
in T.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
in T.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
in T.4S., 
in T.4 S.. 
in T.4.S., 
in T. 4S., 
in T.4 S., 
in T.4S.. 
in T.4 S., 
in T.4 S., 
inT.4S., 
inT.4S., 
in T.4 S., 
inT.SX., 
inT.oX., 
iu T. 5 X 
in T.o X 



"ontinuiMi. Page. 

tion.s in T. 4 X.. K. S E .. 622. 66S 

,R.9E 622 

. R. 10 E 622 

. R. 11 E 622 

,R. 12E 623 

, R. 13 E 623 

, R. 14 E 624 

.R.15E 624 

. R. 16 E 624 

,R.17E 624 

. R. 18 E 625 

.R.19E 625 

.R.20E 625 

. R. 21 E 625 

, R. 22 E 626 

.R.23E 626 

,R.24E 626 

. R. 25E 626 

. R. 26 E 627 

,R.27E 627 

.R.IW 661 

,R.2VV 661 

,R.3\V 662 

,R.4W 662 

R.5VV 662 

,R.6W 662 

,R.7\V 663 

R. 1 E 668 

R. 2E 668 

R.3E 669 

R. 4E 669 

R.5E 670 

R. 6 E 670 

R.7E 671 

R. 8E i;n.671 

R. 9E 611 

R. lOE 611 

R.llE 611 

R. 12E 612 

R. 13 E C12 

R. 14E 612 

R. 15 E 613 

R.16E 613 

R.17E 613 

R. 18E 614 

R. 19 E 614 

R. 20 E 614 

R. 21E 615 

R.22E 615 

R.23E 615 

R. 24 E 615 

R.2aE 615 

R.26E 616 

R.27E 616 

R. 1 \V 658 

R. 2 W ■ 658 

R. 3 W 658 

R.4VV 659 

R.5W 659 

R.6W 659 

R. 7 W 659 

R.SW 660 

, R. 1 E 665 

,R.2E 666 

,R.3E 666 

, R. 4 E 666 



INDEX. 



697 



Indian Territory — Continued. Page, 

timber conditions in T. ■=. X.. R. .i E . . . 627, 667 

in T..5X.,R.C E 627,667 

in T. 5 N., R. 7 E 627, 667 

in T. .5 N., R. 8 E 628, 668 

in T. 5 N., R. 9 E 628 

in T. .5 N., R. lO'E 628 

in T. .=) N., R. 11 E 629 

in T.5N.,R.12E 629 

in T. .5 N., R. 13 E 629 

in T.5N.,R. HE 629 

in T. 5 X., R. 15 E 630 

in T.5X.,R. 16E 630 

in T. 5 N., R. 17 E v 630 

in T. 5 N., R. 18 E 630 

in T. 5 N., R. 19 E 631 

in T. .5 N., R. 20 E 631 

in T. .-i N. , R. 21 E 631 

in T. .5 N., R. 22 E 631 

in T. .5 X., R. 23 E 632 

inT.5N.,R.24 E 632 

in T. 5 N., R. 25 E 632 

in T. 5 N., R. 26 E 632 

in T. 3 X., R. 27 E 632 

inT.5N.,R. 1 \V 663 

inT.5X.,R.2 \V 663 

inT.5N.,R.3 \V 663 

inT.5X.,R.4 W 664 

inT.5X.,R.5 W 664 

in T. 5 X., R. 6 W 664 

in T. 5 X., R. 7 \V 664 

inT.5S.,R.l E 668 

in T.5S.,R.2 E 668 

inT.5S.,R.3 E 669 

inT.5S.,R. 4 E 669 

in T. 5S.,R.5 E 670 

in T. 5 S., R. 6 E 670 

in T. 5 S., R. 7 E 671 

in T. 5 S., R. 8 E 616, 671 

in T. 5 S., R. 9 E 616 

in T.5S.,R.10E 616 

in T. 5 S., R. 11 E 617 

in T. 5 S., R. 12 E 617 

in T.5S.,R.13E 617 

inT.5S.,R. 14 E 617 

in T.5S.,R.15E 618 

in T. 5 S., R. 16 E 618 

ip T. 5 S., R. 17 E 618 

in T. 5 S., R. 18 E 618 

in T. 5 S., R. 19 E 619 

in T.5S.,R.20E 619 

inT.5S.,R.21 E 619 

inT.3S.,R.22 E 619 

in T.5S.,R.23 E 619 

inT.5S..R.24 E 620 

in T.5S.,R.25E 620 

in T. 5 S., R. 26 E 620 

inT. 5S.,R.27 E 621 

inT.5S.,R.l W 658 

inT.5S.,R.2 W 658 

inT.5.S..R.3\V 658 

in T. 5 S., R. 4 \V 669 

iuT.5S.,R.5 \V 659 

in T. 5 S., R. 6 W 659 

in T. 5 S., R. 7 W 659 

in T. 5 S., R. 8 \V 660 

inT.6X.,R. 1 E 666 



ndian Territory— Continued. 

timber conditions in T. 6 X., R.2 
inT.6N.,R.3E 


Page. 

E C32 

666 


inT.6X.,R.4E 

inT.6N.,R.5E 

in T.6 X.,R.6E. 


666 

627 

027 


inT.6X.,R.7 E 


G27 


in T.6N.,R.8 E 


628 


inT.6X.,R.9E 


628 


inT.6X.,R.10E 


628 


in T. 6X.,R. 11 E 


629 


inT.6X.,R.12E 

in T.6N.,R. 13 E . 


629 

629 


inT.6X.,R.14 E 


629 


inT.6X.,R.1.5E 

inT.6N.,R.16 E 

inT.6N.,R. 17 E 


630 

630 

630 


in T. 6 N.,R. 18 E 


631 


inT.6X.,R.19E 


631 


in T.6 X.,R. 20 E . .. 


631 


inT.6N.,R.21 E 


631 


inT.6X.,R.22E 


632 


inT.6N.,R.23 E 


632 


inT.6X.,R.24 E 


632 


in T.6N.,R.25 E .. 


632 


in T. 6 X., R. 26 E 


632 


in T.6X.,R.27 E 


633 


in T. 6N.,R. 1 W 


.... 663 


inT.6X.,R.^2\V 

in T.6X.,R.3 W 


663 

663 


in T. 6 X., R. 4 W 


664 


inT.6N.,R.5\V 

in T. 6 X.,R.6 W 


664 

664 


.inT.6N.,R.7 W 

in T.6S.,R. 1 E 


664 

669 


inT.6S.,R.2E 

inT.6S.,R.3E 


669 

CC9 


in T.CS.,R.4 E 


670 


in T.6S.,R. 5 E 


671 


in T.6S.,R.6 E. 


672 


in T.6S.,R.7 E 


672 


in T.6S.,R.8 E 


616, 672 


inT.6S.,R.9E 


616 


in T. 6 S., R. 10 E 


616 


inT.6S.,R.12 E 


617 


inT.6S.,R.13 E 


617 


in T.6S.,R.14 E 


617 


inT.6S.,R.15E 


618 


in T. 6 S.,R. 16 E 


618 


in T. 6S.,R.17 E 


618 


in T.6S.,R. 18 E. 


618 


in T.6S.,R. 19 E 


619 


in T.6S.,R.2DE 


619 


inT.6S.,R. 21 E. 


619 


inT.6S.,R.22E 

inT.6S.,R.23 E 


619 

620 


in T.6S.,R.24E 


620 


inT.6S.,R. 25 E 


620 


inT.6S.,R.26E 


620 


inT.6S.,R.27 E 


621 


in T. 6S.,R.l W 


660 


inT.6S.,R.2W 

in T. 6 S.,R.3 W 


660 

660 


inT.6S.,R.4 W 


660 


inT.6S.,R.5 W 


6G1 


in T. 6 S. , R. 6 W 


661 


in T. 6 S., R. 7 \V 


661 



698 



INDEX. 



Indiim Territory— Continued. 

timber conditions in T. 6 S., R. 8 W 

inT.7N.,R.5E 

inT.7N.,R.6E 

inT.7N.,R.7E 

inT.7N.,R.8E 

r N.,R.9E 

■N.,R.10E 

■X.pR.llE 



Pnge. 

661 

627 

. 627 

628 

. 628 

. 628 

. 628 

. 629 

X.,R.12E 629 

X..R.13E 629 

X.,R.14E 630 

X.,R.15E 630 

X„R.lliE C30 

X.,R.17E 630 

X.,R.1SE 631 

X..R.19E 631 

X.,R.20E 631 

X.,R.21E ; 631 

N.,R.22E <'>32 

N.,R.23E 632 

N.,R.24E 632 

N.,R.25E 632 

N.,R.20E 632 

X.,R.27E 633 

N.,R.2\V 663 

N.,R.3\V 663 



inT. 
in T. 
in T. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
in T. 
inT. 
in T. 
iiiT. 
inT. 
in T. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 
inT. 

in T. 7 N., R. 4 VV 664 

inT.7N.,R.5\V. 
inT.7N.,R.C\V. 
inT.7N.,R. 7\V. 
inT.7.S.,R.l E.. 



in T.7S.,R.2E 

inT.7S.,R.3E 

inT.7S.,R.4E 

inT.7S.,R.5E 

inT.7S.,R.6E 

inT.7S.,R.7E 

inT.7.?..R.8E 

inT.7S.,R.9E 

inT.7S.,R.10E 

inT.7S., R.12E 

inT.7S., R.13E 617 



. . 604 
664 
665 
.. 669 
.. 669 
.. 669 
.. '670 
.. 671 
.. 672 
.. 672 
616, 672 
.. 616 
.. 616 
.. 617 



617 
618 
618 
618 
619 
619 
619 



inT.7S., R.14E 
inT.7S.. R.15E 
inT.7S., R.16E 
inT.7S., R.17E 
inT.7i«. 
inT.7S. 
in T. 7 S. 
inT.7S. 
inT.7S. 
inT.7S., R.23E 
inT.7S.,R.24E 
in T.7S., R.25E 
inT.7S., R.26E 
inT.7S., R.27E 
inT.7S., R.l W 
inT.7S., R.2 W 
inT.7S., R.3VV 
inT.7S.,R.4 W 
inT. 7S.,R..5\V 
inT.7S.,U.6\V 
inT.7S.,R.7 W 
inT.SN., R..TE 627 



R.18E 

R.19E 

R.20E 

R.21E 619 

R.22E 619 

620 

620 

620 

620 

621 

660 

660 

060 

660 

661 

661 

661 



inT.8X..R.0E . 
inT.8X.,R.7E . 



627 
628 



Indian Territory — Continued. Page. 

timber conditions in T.KX..R.SE 628 

in T. 8 X.. R. 9 E 628 

inT.8X.,R. lOE 628 

• inT.8X.,R.ll E 629 

inT.8 X.,R.12E 629 

inT.8X.,R.13E .. 629 

inT.8N.,R.14E 630 

inT.8N.,R.I.TE 630 

inT.8N..R.16E 630 

iuT.8N.,R.17 E 630 

inT.8N.,R.18E 631 

inT.8X..R.19E 631 

inT.8X.,R.20E 631 

inT.8X.,R.21 E 631 

inT.8X.,R.22E 632 

inT.8X..R.23E 632 

inT.8N..R.24 E 632 

inT.8X.,R.2.5E 632 

inT.8N.,R.26E 632 

inT.8N.,R.27E 6:« 

inT.8N.,R.2\V 663 

inT.8N.,R.3 W 663 

in T.8N.,R.4W 604 

in T. 8 X., R. 5 \V 664 

in T. 8 N., R. 6 W 664 

inT.8N.,R.7 W 665 

inT.8S.,R.l E 669 

inT.8S.,R.2 E 669 

inT.8S.,R.3 E 670 

inT.8S.,R.4 E 670 

in T. 8 S., R. .1 E 672 

in T. 8 S., R. 6 E 672 

inT.8S.,R.7 E 672 

inT.8S.,R.8 E 616,672 

inT.8S.,R.9 E 661.672 

inT.8S.,R.10 E i'.16,672 

inT.8S.,R.ll E 672 

lnT.8S.,R.12 E 617 

inT.8S.,R.13 E 617 

inT.8S.,R.14 E 618 

inT.8S.,R.1.5 E 618 

lnT.8S.,R.10 E 618 

inT.8S.,R.17 E 618 

inT.8S.,R.lS E 619 

inT.8S.,R.19 E 619 

inT.8S.,R.21 E 619 

in T. 8 S., R. 22 E 619 

in T. 8 S., R. -23 E 620 

inT.8S.,R.24 E 620 

in T. 8 S., R. 25 E 620 

in T. 8 S., R. 20 E 620 

in T. 8 S., R. 27 E 021 

inT.8S.,R.l\V 060 

in T. 8 S., K. 2 W 600 

in T. 8 S., R. 3 \V 0«i 

in T. 8 S., R. W 001 

In T. 8 S., R. 7 \V 001 

in T. 9 X., R. 5 E 033 

in T. 9 X., R. E 033 

in T. 9 N., R. 7 E 633 

in T. 9 X., R. S E 633 

in T. 9 X., R. 9 E 634 

in T. 9 X., R. 10 E 034 

inT.9X.,R.ll E 634 

in T. 9 X., R. 13 E 635 

in T. 9 X., R. 14 E 635 



INDEX. 



i\\)\) 



Indian Territory— Continued. 

timber conditions in T. 9 N.. R. 15 E . - 

inT.9N.,R.16E 

inT.9N.,R.17E 

inT.9N.,R.18E 

inT.9N.,R-19E 

inT.9N.,R.20E 

inT.9N,,R.21E 

in T. 9 X., R. 22 E 

inT.9N.,R.23E 

inT.9N.,R.2-lE 

)nT.9N.,R.25E 

in T. 9 N., E. 20 E 

inT.9N.,E.2-E 



rage. 
. 635 
. G3G 

036 
. 630 
. 036 
. 637 
. 037 

637 
. 638 

638 
. 638 
. 638 
. 638 



inT.9N.,E.3\V 665 



inT.9N.,R.4 W. 
inT.9N.,E.5 W. 
inT.9N.,E.6W. 
inT.9N.,E.7\V. 
inT.9S..E.lE.. 
inT.9S.,R.2E .. 
inT.9S.,R.8E .. 



665 

665 

065 

665 

669 

669 

, 672 

inT.9S.,R.9E 672 

, 072 

072 

021 

621 

621 

621 

621 

633 



inT.9S.,E.10E 

inT.9S.,R.ll E 

inT.9S.,R.23E 

inT.9S.,R.24E 

inT.9S.,E.25E 

inT.9S.,R.26E 

inT.9S.,R.27E 

inT.10N.,E.5E 

inT.10N.,R.0E 633 



633 

633 

634 

634 

634 

635 

635 

inT.10N.,R.15E 635 

inT.10N.,R.16E 

inT.10X.,R.17E 

inT.!0N.,R.18E 



inT.lDN.,R.7E .. 
inT.10N.,R.8E.. 
in T.10N.,R.9E.. 
inT.10N.,R.10E. 
inT.10X.,R.ll E . 
inT.10N.,R.13E . 
inT.10N.,E.14E . 



inT.10N.,R. 19E 

inT.10N.,R.20E 

inT.10N.,E.21E 

inT.10N.,R.22E 

in T.10N.,R.23E 

inT.10K.,R.24E 

in T. 10 N., R. 25 E 

in T.10N.,R.26 E 

inT.10N.,R.27E 

inT.10N.,R.4W 

inT.10N.,R.5W 665 

In T. 10 N., R. ^V 665 

in T. 10 N., E. 7 W 605 

in T. 10 S. , R. 2 E 069 

in T. 10 S., R. 9 E 672 

in T. 10 S. , R. 10 E 672 

inT.10S.,R.24E 621 

inT.10S.,E.25E 621 

inT.10S.,R.26E 621 

inT.10S.,R.27E 621 

inT.llN.,R.5E 633 

in T. 11 N., R. 6 E 633 

inT.llN.,E.7E 633 

inT.llN.,R.8E 634 



Indian Territory— I'ontinued. I'age. 

timber eondition.s in T. 11 N., R. 9 E . . . . 034 

raT.llN.,R.10E 034 

inT.nN..R.ll E 634 

inT.llN..E.13E 035 

in T. 11X.,E.14 E 035 

inT.nX.,R.15E 636 

inT.llX.,R. 16E 636 

inT.llX.,R.17E 636 

inT.ll X..R.18E 630 

in T. 11 X., E. 19 E 637 

inT.llN.,R.20'E 637 

inT.llN.,E.21 E 637 

in T. 11 X., E. 22 E 637 

inT.llX.,R.23E 63.S 

in T. U X., R. 24 E 038 

in T.n X.,R.25E 638 

in T. 11 X., R. 26 E 638 

inT.nX.,R.27E 638 

in T. 11 S., R. 27 E 621 

inT.12X.,E.0E 633 

inT.12X.,E.7E 633 

in T. 12 X., E. 8 E 634 

inT.12X.,R.9E 634 

inT.12X.,E.I0E 634 

inT. 12X.,R.12E 634 

inT.12X.,R.13E 635 

inT.12X.,R.14E 635 

inT.12X.,R.15E 636 

in T. 12 X., R. 10 E 636 

inT.12X.,R.17E 636 

inT.12X.,R.18E 636 

inT.12X.,E.19E 037 

in T. 12 X., E. 20 E 637 

inT.12X.,E.21 E 637 

inT.12X.,R.22E 637 

inT.12X.,R.23E 638 

inT.12X.,R.24E 638 

inT.12X.,R.25E 638 

in T. 12 N., R. 26 E 638 

inT.12X..R.27E 638 

inT.13X.,R.6E 639 

in T. 13 X., E. 7 E 639 

in T.13X.,R.SE 639 

inT.l;iX.,E.9E 039 

inT.13X..E.10E 640 

inT.13X.,E.llE 640 

inT.13X.,R.12E 640 

inT.13X.,R.13E Ml 

inT.13X.,R.14E 641 

in T.13X.,R.15E 641 

inT.I3X.,R.16E 641 

inT.13X.,E.17E 612 

in T. 13 X., R. 18 E 642 

inT.13X.,R.19E 642 

in T. 13 X., R. 20 E 643 

inT.13X.,E.21E 643 

inT.13X.,E.22E 643 

inT. 13N.,R.23E 644 

in T. 13 X., E. 24 E 644 

inT.13X.,E.25E 644 

inT.13X.,R.26E 644 

inT.13X.,R.27E 645 

inT.14X..R.6 E 639 

inT.14X.,R.7E 639 

in T. 14 X., R. 8 E 639 

in T.14 X..R.9 E 039 



700 



INDEX. 



Indian TiTrilnry — CoiUiiiucHt. Page, 

timber conditions in T. U X., R. 10 E . . . ©40 

inT. 14X..R.11 E MO 

inT.H N'..R.12 E WO 

inT.14N'.,R.13 E 6U 

in T.14X.,R. HE Ml 

inT. 14X.,R. 15E 641 

inT.14X.,R.16E 641 

inT.14X.,R.17 E 642 

in T. 14 X.. R. 18 E 612 

inT.14X.,R.19E 612 

inT.14X.,R.20E 6J3 

inT.14X.,R.21 E 643 

in T. 14 X., R. 22 E 613 

inT.14X.,R.23E 644 

inT.14X.,R.24E 614 

inT. 14X.,R.25E 614 

in T.14X.,R.26E 644 

inT.14X.,R.27E 645 

inT.1.5X.,R.6E 639 

inT.15X.,R.7E 639 

inT.15X.,R.8E 639 

in T. 15 X., R. 9 E 639 

in T. 1.5 X., R. 10 E 640 

inT. l.SX.,R.ll E 640 

in T.15X.,R.12E : 640 

inT.l.TX.,R. 13E 611 

inT.15X.,R.14E 611 

inT. l.iX.,R.15E 641 

inT.15X.,R.lGE 6U 

inT.15X.,R.17E 642 

inT.1.5X.,R.18E 642 

inT.l.iX.,R.19E 643 

inT.15X.,R.20E 643 

inT.15X.,R.21E 643 

inT. I5X.,R.22E 643 

inT.1.5X.,R.23E 644 

inT. 15X.,R.24E 644 

inT. 1.5X.,R.2.5E 644 

inT. 15X.,R.26E 645 

in T. 16 X.. R. 7 E 639 

inT.16X.,R.SE 639 

inT.16X.,R.9E 640 

inT.16X.,R.10E 640 

inT.l(;X.,R.ll E 640 

in T. It; X., R. 12 E 640 

inT. 16X.,R.13E 611 

in T. 16 X., R. 14 E 6U 

in T. IC X., R. 15 E 641 

in T. 16 X., R. If. E 641 

in T. 16 X., R. 17 E 642 

in T. 16 X., R. IS E 612 

in T. 16 X., R. 19 E 643 

in T. 16 X., R. 20 E 613 

in T. 16 X., R. 21 E 613 

in T. 16 X., R. 22 E 644 

in T. 16 X., R. 23 E 614 

in T. 16 X.. R. 24 E 644 

in T. 10 X., R. 25 E 544 

inT.16N.,R.26E 645 

in T. 17 X., R. 7 E 645 

inT.17X.,R.8E 646 

in T.17X..R.9E 645 

in T.17X.,R.10E 645 

inT.17X..R.ll E 646 

in T.17X.,R.12E 646 

inT.17X.,R.13E 646 



Indian Territory — Continued. Page, 

timber conditions in T. 17 X..R. 14 E ... 646 

inT.17X.,R.15E 646 

in T. 17X.,R.16E 647 

in T. 17 X., R. 17 E 647 

in T. 17 X.. R. 18 E 647 

in T. 17 X., R. 19 E 648 

in T. 17 X., R. 20 E 648 

inT.17X..R.21E 648 

in T. 17 X., R. 22 E 648 

inT.17X.,R.23 E 649 

inT.17X.,R.24E 619 

inT.17X..R.25E 649 

inT.17X.,R.26E 649 

inT.lSX.,R.7E 645 

inT.18X.,R.8E 645 

• inT18X.,R.9E 645 

in T. 18 X., R. 10 E 645 

in T. 18 X., R. 11 E 646 

inT.18X.,R.12E 646 

inT.18X.,R.13E 646 

inT.18X.,R. 14E 646 

inT.18X.,R.15E 647 

inT.18X.,R.16E 647 

inT.lSX..R. 17E 647 

inT.18X.,R.18E 617 

in T. 18 X., R. 19 E 618 

inT. 18X.,R.20E 648 

in T. 18 X., R. 21 E 648 

inT.18X.,R.22E 649 

inT.18X.,R.23E 619 

inT.18X.,R.24E 649 

inT.18X..R.25E 649 

inT.18X.,R.26E 650 

inT.19X.,R.7E 645 

inT.19X.,R.8E 645 

in T. 19 X., R. 9 E 615 

in T.19X.,R.10E 645 

inT.19X.,R.ll E 616 

inT.19X..R.12E 646 

in T. 19 X., R. 13 E 646 

inT.19X.,R.14E 646 

inT.19X.,R.15E 647 

in T. 19 X.. R. 16 E 617 

in T. 19 X., R. 17 E 647 

inT.19X.,R.lSE 647 

inT. 19X.,R.19E 648 

in T. 19 X., R. 20 E 648 

inT.19X.,R.21 E 618 

inT.19X.,R.22E 649 

inT.19X.,R.23E 649 

inT.19X.,R.24E 649 

inT.19X.,R.25E 649 

inT.19X.,R.26E 650 

in T. 20 X., R. 12 E 646 

in T.20X.,R.13E 646 

in T.20X.,R.14E 646 

inT.20X..R.15E 617 

in T.20X.,R.16 E 617 

inT.20X..R.17E 617 

inT.20X.,R.18E 648 

in T.20X.,R.19E 648 

in T.20X.,R.20E 648 

in T.20X..R.21 E 618 

inT.20X..R.22E 649 

in T.-20X..R.-23 E 649 

in T.2t)N.,H.24E 649 



/ 



INDEX. 



701 



Indian Territory — Continued. Page, 

timber conditions in T. 20 X.. R. 25 E ... ti49 

in T.20X.,R.2i;E 650 

in T. 21 X., R. 12 E 650 

in T. 21 X., R. 13 E 650 

in T. 21 X., R. 14 E 6.50 

in T. 21 X., R. 15 E tSO 

in T. 21 X., R. 16 E 651 

in T. 21 X., E. 17 E 661 

in T. 21 X., R. 18 E 651 

inT.21N.,R.19E 652 

in T. 21 X., R. 20 E 652 

in T. 21 X., E. 21 E 652 

inT.21N.,E.22E 652 

inT.21X.,R.23E 053 

inT.21X.,R.24E 653 

inT.21 X.,R.2oE 653 

inT.22X.,E.12 E 650 

in T. 22 N., R. 13 E 650 

in T. 22 X., R. 14 E 6.50 

inT.22X.,R.15E 651 

inT.22X.,E.16E 651 

inT.22X.,R.17E 651 

in T. 22 X., E. 18 E 651 

in T. 22 X., R. 19 E 652 

in T.22X.,R.20E 6.52 

in T. 22 X., R. 21 E 652 

inT.22X.,R.22E 653 

inT.22N.,R.23E 653 

inT.22X.,R.24E 653 

in T. 22 X., E. 25 E 653 

in T. 23 X., E. 12 E 6.50 

in T. 23 X., R. 13 E 6.50 

inT.23X.,E.14E 650 

in T. 23 X., E. i5 E 651 

inT.23X.,R.16E 6.51 

inT.23X.,R.17E 651 

inT.23X.,E.18E 651 

inT.23N.,E.19E 652 

inT.23X.,R.20E 652 

inT.23X.,R.21 E 6.52 

inT.23X.,R.22E 653 

inT.23X.,E.23E 653 

inT.23X.,E.24E 653 

in T. 23 X., E. 25 E 6S4 

in T. 24 X., R. 12 E 650 

in T.24X..E.13 E 650 

in T. 24 X., E. 14 E 650 

inT.24X.,R.15E 651 

inT.24X.,R.16E 651 

in T. 24 X., E. 17 E 651 

inT.24X.,R.18E 651 

inT.24N.,E.19E 652 

in T. 24 X., R. 20 E 652 

inT.24X.,E.21 E 652 

in T. 24 N., E. 22 E 6.53 

in T. 24 X., E. 23 E 653 

inT.24N.,E.24E 653 

inT.24X.,E.25E 654 

inT.25X.,R.12E 654 

inT.25X.,R.13E 654 

inT.25X.,E.14E 654 

inT.25X.,E.15E 665 

in T. 25 X., E. 16 E (65 

in T. 25 N., R. 17 E 655 

inT.25X.,R.18E 6.56 

in T.25X.,R.19E 6.56 



Indian Territory — Continued. I'age. 

timber conditions in T. 25 X.. R.20 E . . . 656 

in T.25X.,R.21E 657 

inT.25X.,R.22E 657 

inT.25X.,R.23E 657 

in T. 25 X., R. 24 E 6.57 

in T. 25 X., E. J5 E 658 

in T. 26 X., E. 12 E r 651 

in T.26X.,R.13E 654 

in T. 26 X.. R. 14 E 6.M 

in T. 26 X.,E. 15E 655 

in T.26X.,E.16E 655 

inT.26X.,E.17E ....• 655 

inT. 26X.,E. 18E 656 

in T. 26X.,R.19E 656 

inT.26X.,R.20E 6o6 

in T. 26X.,R.21 E 657 

in T. 26 X., R. 22 E 657 

in T. 26 N., R. 23 E 657 

in T.26X.,R.24E 657 

in T.27X.,R.12E 654 

in T. 27 X., R. 13 E 654 

in T.27^.,E.14E 655 

inT.27X.,E. 16E 655 

inT.27X.,R.16E 655 

inT.27X.,E.17E 655 

in T.27X.,R.18E 656 

in T. 27 X., R. 19 E 656 

in T.27X.,E.2DE 656 

in T.27X.,E.21 E 657 

inT.27X.,E.22E 657 

in T. 27 X., E. 23 E 657 

in T. 27 X., R. 24 E 658 

in T. 28 N., E. 12 E 654 

in T. 28 X., R. 13 E 6M 

in T. 28 N., E. 14 E 6.55 

inT.28X.,E.15E 655 

inT.28X.,R.16E 655 

in T.28X.,R.17E 6.55 

inT.28X.,R.18E 656 

in T. 28 X., E. 19 E 656 

in T. 28 X., E. 20 E 656 

in T. 28 X., E, 21 E 657 

in T. 28 X., E. 22 E 657 

in T.28X..R.23E 657 

in T. 29 X., R. 12 E 654 

inT.29X.,R.13E 651 

in T.29X.,R.14E 655 

in T. 29 X., R. 15 E 655 

inT.-29X.,R.16E 655 

in T.29X.,R.17E 656 

in T.29X.,E.18E 656 

in T. 29 X., R. 19 E 656 

inT.29X.,R.20E 656 

jnT.29X.,R.21 E 657 

in T. 29 X., R. 22 E 6.67 



Jaclison quadrangle, Cal., ela-ssiiication of 

lands in 549 

map showing classification of lands. In atla.s 
stand of timber in 21 

Jeffrey pine, ^yc Pine. .Tetlrey. 

Jesus Maria Creel;, Cal.. plate showing ef- 
fect of fires and grazing on .626 

Juniper Mountain, Wash., burn on i;J4 



\ 



702 



INDEX. 



Juni|)erus occidental is. See Juniper, west- 
em. 

Juniper, westeni. area& timbered by.. 2-!l-242,540 

range of 243,244,540,543 

sizennd reproduction of 541 

K. 

Kaliiwa River, \Va?;li. .^>^ North Fork of 

Kalrtwa River. 
Klamath Gap, Oreg., topographic features 

of 220-221 

Klamath Lake. Oreg. ,*^r Upper Klamath 

Lake and Lower Klamath Lake. 
Klaiimih quadrangle. Oreg., map showing 

elassifieation o£ lands In atlas 

Klickitat River, Wash., character of valley 

of 92 

mineral springs on 95-96 

timber conditions in watershed of ... 121-122 

I- 

Lugging, price oi 545 

Lake Crescent, Wash., plate showing view 

on 1% 

Lake Tahoe Reserve, Cal., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

boundaries of 506 

classification of lands in 550 

stand of timber in 21 

Sec also Stanislaus and Lake Tahoe 
reserves. 
Litkf Tenaya, Cal.. plate showing view of. . 572 

Lands, classification of 563-601 

Lii Push, Wash., plate showing view at 186 

Larch, amount in Lewis and Clarke Re- 
serve, Mont 44 

plates showing 44, 68, 74 

Larch, Lyall, rate of growth of 25 

Larch, mountain, areas timbered by 42 

map showing distribution of 40 

size of 43 

Liirch, western, areas timbered by 41-42 

map showing distribution of 40 

rate of growth of 25 

size of 43 

Larix lyallii. See Larch, mountain. 
1-arix occidentalis. .See Larch, western. 
Leiberg, J.B.,pflper on forest conditions in 

Sandpoint quadrangle 583-595 

report on Cascade Range and Ashland 
reserves, Oreg., and adjacent re- 
gions 209-498 

work of 18 

Lewis River, W'ash., character of valley of. 92 

timber conditions in watershed of 116 

Lewis and Clarke Reserve, Mont., accessi- 
bility of timber in 51-52 

agricultural and grazing lands in 39-40 

area and date of establishment of 14 

boundaries of 35-36 

climate in 53 

cutting in 46-17 

dead wood standing in 49 

distribution of forest trees in 41-42 

estimates of timber in 44 



Page 

Lewis and Clarke Reser\'e — Continued. 

explanation of maps of 56 

fires in 47-50 

fish and game in 35 

forest trees in 41 

humus in 38 

litter in 38-39 

map showing land clasbificatiim In atlas 

maps sho^\^ng distribution of trees 

species 40. 48, 70 

markets for timber from 52 

mining in 53 

rate of growth of tr*»es in 49-50 

report on 27-80 

reproduction in 49 

rock found in 37 

scenery in 55-56 

settlements in 51-55 

size and quality of timber in 42-43 

soil in 37-38 

suggestions for management of 52-53 

summary of work in 15-16 

topography of 3*5-37 

undcrbrui^h in 45—16 

young growth in 44-45 

Libocedrus deciurens. See Cedar, incense. 

Lightning, fires started by 136 

Lillian Creek, Wash., plate showing view 

near hwxd of 180 

Ijly Creek, Cal., plate showing forest near. 510. 

512,514 

Limber pine. See Pine, limber. 

Little Badger Creek, Mont., deadwoi>d in 

valley of 62 

plate showing view near 56 

Little Butte Creek, Oreg., description of 225 

Little White Salmon River, Wa.sh., charac- 
ter of valley of 92 

timber conditions in watershed of . . . 119-120 

Live oak. California. Sec Oak, California 
live. 

Live oak, canyon. See Oak, canyon live. 

Lodgepole pine. See Pine, lodgepole. 

Longmire, James, reference to M 

Longmire Springs, Wash., plate showing 

view of 88 

Love Creek, Cal., plate showing sawmill on. 526 

Lovely fir. Sec Fir, lovely. 

Lumber, uses and prices of 544-517 

Lumbering, effect of, on forest growth . . . 551-552 

Lyall larch. See Larch. Lyall. 

M. 

McDonald Peak, Mont., plate showing view 

of 66 

Madrofla. range, size, and occurrence of,. 155, 

534,543 

Maple, plate showing 130. 132 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of. 105 

rate of growth of 109 

See also Maple, Oregon. 
Maple, dwarf, range, size, and occurrence of. 542 
Maple, Oregon, range, size, and occurrence 

of 533,513 

See alifo Maple. 



INDEX. 



703 



Page. 

Maple, soft, range and occurrence of Ino 

Maple, vino, range and occurrence of 155 

rate of growth of 109 

Mariner, G. A., analysis by 95 

Mariposa grove, Cal., plates showing views 

in 574 

Markleeville quadrangle, Cal., classifica- 
tion of lands in 550 

iiiup sliuwing classification of lands.. In atlas 

stand of timber in '2\ 

Marsh willow. See Willow, marsh. 
Marshall. R. B., paper on land classification 

in Mount Lyell quadrangle .by... 574-.575 
Middle Fork of Flathead VaUey, Mont., 

area burned in 47 

cutting in >» (57 

deadwood in 49, 07 

estimate of timber in valley of 44 

fires in 67 

litter and humus in G6 

plate showing view of 60 

rock and soil in 65 

topographic features of 65 

tranportation facilities in 67 

trees and timber in (^i^ 

underbrush in 07 

ynimggroA\'th in 66 

Miildle Fork of Stanislaus River, Cal., plate 

sliowing views on 510, 512, 514, 516, 518 

Middle Fork of Sun River, Mont., plate 

showing view on 50 

timber in valley of 58 

Mill Creek, Oreg., plates showing views 

near 250, 2.56 

Mineral springs in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

^^"ash 95 

Minnesoti), map of pine region, showing 

classification of lands In atlas 

report on timber conditions of the pine 

region of 67^-689 

summary of work in 22 

Minnesota pine region, classification of for- 
est land In GS4 

distribution of species in GSO-aSt 

estimates of timber in 682-t.S4 

explanation of map of 681-682 

extent of 679 

fires in 685-687 

fire protection in 687 

forest history of GSo 

map showing olassifieation of lands.. In atlas 

new growth in 688 

species found in 679-ti80 

timber trees in 6S0 

value of stump land in 688-689 

Mission Range, Mont., plate showing view 

of 38 

Missouri Riverdrainage, Mont., agricultural 

land in 64 

cutting in 62-63 

deadwood in 49, 62 

fires in 60-61 

irrigation in 64 

litter in 58 

reproduction in. 61-^52 

rock, soil, and subsoil in 57-58 



Page. 

Missouri River drainage — Continued. 

topographic features oi 57 

transportation facilities in 63-64 

trees and timber in 58-60 

water power in 65 

young growth and underbnish in BO 

Mokelumne River, Cal., plate showing vrew 

on South Fork of 530 

Montour Creek, Mont., plate showing viev/ 

on 64 

Mount Adams, AVash., altitude of IG, 88 

plates showing views of 140, 142 

volcanic activity on 96 

Mountain hemlock. Sr.e Hemlock, monn- 
tain. 

Mountain larch, y^rc Larch, mountain. 

Mountain pine. Src Pine, mountain. 

Slount Aix, Wash., al titiide of 88 

Mount Brown, Oreg., volcanic activity near 221 

Mount Dearborn, Mont., plate showing view 

from 56 

Mount Hood, Wash., plate showing -view of. 132 

Mount Lycll quadrangle, Cal., map show- 
ing classification of lands In atlas 

topographic features and forest condi- 
tions in 574-575 

Mount Pitt, Oreg., composition of forest at 

various altitudes on 261 

effects of fires near 281 

elevation of 221 

plate showing views of 406 

volcanic activity near 221 

Mount Rainier, Wash., altitude of 16, 88 

plates showing views of 88, 136 

Mount Rainier Reserve, Wash., arable lands 

and soil formations in 91-93 

area and date of establishment of 14 

boundaries of 87-88 

caves in 96-97 

climate in 89-90 

coal indications in 93-94 

commercial uses of timber in 127-128 

cutting in 138-139 

defects and diseases of timber trees in. 110 

estimates of timber in 111-130 

evidences of volcanic activity in 96 

fires in 133-137 

grazing in 140-143 

humus in 132-133 

litter in 132 

logging conditions in 139 

map showing classification of lands. .In atlas 
maps showing distribution of species . . 98, 

104,134 

markets for watersheds in 128 

mineral springs in 94-95 

minerals and mining claims in 94 

mountain parks in 97 

rate of growth of timber trees in 106 

plate showing range of tree species in. . 102 
prices of lumber in markets adjacent 

to 129-130 

report on 81-143 

restocking in 136-137 

settlements and improvements in 140 

summary of work on 16-17 



704 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Mount Rainier Reserve — Continued. 

timbcrle>*s areas in 137-138 

topopra])hie features of 88-S9 

tree species in 9H-10G 

underbrlLsh in 130-132 

Mount St. Helens, Wasli., plate showing 

view of 9> 

Mount Stuart quadrangle, Wash., classifica- 
tion of lands in .^0 

map .showing land cla.s.siflcation In atlas 

Mount Thielsen, Oreg., forest conditions 

near 299,300 

Mowieh River, Wash., arable land in valley 

of M 

N. 

National ]>arks, map showing forest re- 
serves and In atlas 

Xtiehes River, Wash., timber conditions in 

watershed of 124-125 

Narada Falls, Wash., plate showing view of 90 
Newcastle quadrangle, Wyo.-S. Dak.,cla.ssi- 

fication of lands in GO! 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Nevada Falls, Cal., plate showing view of. . 572 
Nisqually River, Wash., timber conditions 

in -watershed of 113 

arable land in valley of 91 

Noble fir. ,S( c Fir, noble. 
North Fork of Depuyer Creek, Mont., dead- 
wood in valley of 62 

timber in valley of 58 

North Fork of Ford Creek, Mont., timber in 

valley of 58 

North Fork of Kalawa River, Wash., plate 

showing timber on 186 

North Fork of Rogue River, Oreg., plate 

showing view on 276 

North Fork of Sun River, Mont., estimate of 

cutting on 63 

plates showing views of 36, 58, 60 

timber in valley of 58 

North Fork of Tetoh Creek, Mont., dead- 
wood in valley of 62 

estimateof cutting on 63 

plate showing mountains on 36 

timber in valley of 58 

North Fork of Tuolumne River, Cal., plate 

showing views on 506 

Nut pine. See Pine, nut. 

O. 

Oak. range, size, quality, and occurrence of. 106 

Oak, black, size and occurrence of 519 

Oak, California black, range, size, age, re- 
production, and occurrence of. 532,543,548 

ttak, California rock, areas timbered by 518 

range, size, and character of 518 

Oak, California scrub, range, size, and occur- 
rence of 534-535, 543 

Oak, California white, range, size, and oc- 
currence of 518-519 

Oak, California live, range, .size, and occur- 
rence of 319,533 



I'age. 
Oak, tan-bark, range, size, and occurrence 

of .'134,543 

Olympic Re6er\'e, Wash., agricultural land 

in 1.53-154 

area and date of establi.shment of 14 

iKiundaries of 1.51-1.52 

detailed description of townships in.. 1.59-208 

forest fires in 1.5.5-156 

grazing lands in 157 

humus in 156 

litter in 156 

logging in 157 

logging facilities in 158 

map showing classification of lands. . In atlas 
mapsshowingdistributionofspecies. In atlas 

mining in 157 

navigation in 158 

plants and shrubs in 155 

reduction of 13 

report on 145-208 

roads and trails in 1.58 

summary of work in 17-18 

stand of timber in 154 

timber trees in 155 

topographic features of 153 

underbrush in 156, 157 

Oregon, climatic conditions in southern.. 231-235 
maps of part of .southern, showing distri- 
bution of species 240, 248, 284, 320, 440 

timber conditions and composition of 

forest in T. 2S S.. R. 5 F, 269, 

297-299, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

inT.28S..R.6E 263, 

299-300, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

inT.28S..R.6i- E 300-301, 

475,470,477,479,480,481 

inT.28S.,R.7 E 301,479,480,481 

in T. 28 S., R. 8 E 302,479, 480, 481 

inT.29S.,R.3 E 302-303, 

475, 476, 477, 479. 480, 481 

304-305, 

475,476,477,479,480,481 

R.5E 263, 

305-306, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

R.7E 306,479,480,481 

R. 8 E 306-307, 479, 480, 481 

R.l E 308-309, 

475,476,477,479,480,481 

inT.30S.,R.2E 254, 

309-311, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480. 481 

in T.3;1S..R.3 E 312-314, 

475,476,477,479,480,481 

inT.30S.,R.4 E 311-315, 

475,476,477,479.480,481 

inT.30S.,R.5 K 315-317, 

475, 476, 477, 479; 480, 481 

317-318, 

475.476,477,479,480,481 

318-320, 

475, 470, 477, 479, 4.S0, 481 

R. 7 E 320, 479. 4S0, 481 

R.8E 321,479,480,481 

R. 9 E 321-322, 479, 480. 481 

R. lOE 322-323,479,480,481 



in T.29S..K.4 K . 



in T.29t 



inT.29S. 
in T. 29 S. 
in T.30S. 



in T.30S..K. C K 



ill T.SOf 



. R. 11; E . 



in T.30S. 
in T. 30 S. 
inT.30S, 
in T..30S, 
inT.30S.,R.ll E 323,479,480,481 



INDEX. 



705 



Oregon— Continued. Page, 

timber conditions and composition of 

forest in T. 30 .S., R. 12 E 32a-32J, 

479, 480, 481 

in T. 30 .S., R. 13 E 324, 479, 480, 481 

inT.30S.,R.14E 324-32.5, 479, 480, 481 

ill T. 30 S., R. 1 W 307-308, 479, 4S0, 481 

in T. 30 S., R. 2 W 307, 479, 480, 481 

inT.31S.,R.lE 326-328, 

47.5, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

inT.31 S.,R.2 K 32.S-329, 

47.5,476,477,479,480,481 

inT.31.'<.,K.3E 329-331, 

475, 47B, 477, 479, 480, 481 

in T.31 S.,U.4 E 331-333, 

475,476,477,479,480,481 

in T.31 .-^..R.oE 260, 

333-334, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

ill T.31.'i.,R.6E 270, 

335-336, 475, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481 

in T.31 S.,E.6JE 336-337,479,480,481 

in T. 31 S., R. 7 E 337-338, 479, 480, 481 

in T. 31 S., R. 8 E 338, 479, 4.S0, 481 

inT.31S.,R.9E 3*8-339, 479, 480, 481 

in T. 31 S., R. 10 E. 246, 270, 3:39, 479, 480, 481 
inT.31S.,R.llE. 246, 339-340, 479, 480, 481 

in T. 31 S., R. 12 E 340-341, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 31 S., R. 13 E 341 , 482, 483, 484 

in T.31 .S., R. 14 E 341-342,482,483,484 

in T. 31 S. , R. 1 W 325, 479, 480, 481 

in T. 31 S. , R. 2 W 325, 479, 480, 481 

in T. 32 S., R. 1 E. . 268, 343-344, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 2 E 344-345, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 3 E. . 2.53, 345-346, 482, 483, 484 

inT.32S.,R.4E 269, 

346-347, 475, 476, 477, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 5 E 260, 

347-349, 475, 476, 477, 482, 483, 484 

inT.a2S.,R.6E 349-351, 

475, 476, 477. 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 7 E 3.52-353, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 7i E a51-3.52, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 8 E 3.53, 4.82, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 9 E 3.53-351, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 10 E 354-3-55, 482, 483, 484 

inT.32S.,R.ll E 355,4,82,483,484 

in T. 32 S., R. 12 E 3.5.5-3.50, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 13 E 3.56, 482, 483, 4Si 

inT.32S.,R. I4E 3.57,4.82,483,484 

in T. 32 S., R. 1 W . 2.52, 342-313, 4.S2, 483, 484 

in T. 32 S., R. 2 VV 342, 482, 4.S3, 484 

in T. 33 S., R. 1 E 3.58-3.59, 4.82, 483, 484 

in T. 33 S., R. 2 E 3.59-360, 482, 4,83, 484 

in T. 33 S., R. 3 E. . 2.53, 360-361, 4.82, 483, 484 

inT.33S.,R.4E 361-362, 

475, 476, 477. 482, 483, 4M 

in T.33S.,R.5E 200, 

362-364, 475, 476, 477, 482, 483, 484 

inT;33S.,R.6E 364-366, 

475, 476, 477, 4,82, 483, 484 

in T.33S.,R. 7 E 367-368,482,483,484 

in T. 33 S., R. 7i E 366-367, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 33 S., E. 8 E 368, 482, 483, 484 

inT.33S.,R. 9E.^ 369,482,483,484 

in T. 33 S. , R. 10 E. 246, 369-370, 4,82, 483, 484 
inT.33S.,R.llE 370,482,483,484 

21 GEOL, PT 5 45 



Oregon— Continued. Page, 

timber conditions and composition of 

forest in T.33S.,R. 12E. 371,482,483,484 

in T. 33 S., R. 13 E 371-372, 482, 483, 484 

ill T. 33 S., R. 14 E 372, 4.82, 483, 4.84 

in T. 33 S., R. 1 \V 358, 482, 4s:!, 4S4 

in T. 33 S., R. 2 W 357, 4,82, 4s;i, 4S4 

in T. 34 S., R. 1 E 374, 485, 48(1, 187 

in T. 34 g., R. 2 E 375,485, 486, 487 

in T. 34 S., R. 3 E 2.53, 376, 485, 486, 487 

inT.34S.,R.4E 260, 

376-377, 475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 487 

in T.34P.,R.5E 265, 

378-380, 475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 4.87 

inT.34S.,R.6E 3.81-383, 

475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 487 

inT.34S.,R.7E 383-381,485,486,487 

inT.34S.,R. 7JE 383,485,486,487 

in T. 34 g. , R. 8 E 384-385, 485, 486, 487 

inT.34.S.,E.9E 385,485,486,487 

in T. 34 S., R. 10 E. 240, 385-386, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 34 S., E. 11 E 270, 386, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 34 S., E. 12 E 387, 485, 480, 487 

in T. 34 S., R. 13 E 387-388, 485, 486, 487 

inT.34S.,R.14E 388,485,486,487 

in T. 34 S. , R. 1 \V 373-374, 482, 483, 484 

in T. 34 S., R. 2 W 372-373, 482, 4S3, 484 

in T. 35 S., E. 1 E 390, 485, 4.86, 487 

in T. 35 S., E. 2 E 253, 391, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S., R. 3 E 391-392, 485, 4.S6, 487 

inT.35S.,R.4E 392-394, 

475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 487 

inT.35S.,R.5E 394-396, 

475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 487 

inT.35.S.,R.0E 396-397, 

475,476,477, 485, 486,487 

in T. 35 S., R. 7 E 398, 4.85, 486, 487 

inT.35S.,R.7i E 398,485,486,487 

in T. 35 S., R. 8 E 398-399, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S. , E. 9 E . . 248, 399-100, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S., R. 10 E 400, 485, 486, 487 

inT.35S.,R.UE 401,485,486,4,87 

inT.35S.,R.!2 E 401-102,485,486,487 

in T. 35 S. , R. 13 E 402, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S., R. 14 E 403, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S., E. 1 W 3.89-390, 485, 486, 487 

in T. 35 S., R. 2 W 389, 485, 486, 4.87 

in T. 36 S. , R. 4 E. . 247, 404-405, 485, 486, 487 

inT.36S.,R.2 E 40.5-406,485,486,487 

in T. 36 S., E. 3 E 406-407, 485, 486, 487 

inT,36S.,R.4E 269, 

407-409. 475, 476, 477, 485, 486, 487 

inT.36S.,R.5E 409-411, 

47.5,476,477,485,486,487 

ill T.36S.,R. 6E 411-413, 

475, 476, 477, 488, 489, 490 

in T. 36 S., R. 7a E 413, 488, 489, 490 

inT.36S.,R.7b E 414,488,489,490 

in T. 36 S., R. 8 E 414-115, 488, 489, 490 

in T. 36 S., E. 9 E 248, 415, 488, 4.89, 490 

in T. 36 S., E. 10 E 416, 488, 489, 490 

in T. 36 S., E. 11 E 416-417, 488, 489, 49^* 

in T. 36 S., E. 12 E 417-118, 488, 489, 490 

inT.36S.,R.13E 418,488,489,490 

in T. 36 S., R. 14 E 418, 488, 489, 490 

inT.36S.,E.lW 404,486,486,4.87 



706 



INDEX. 



Oregon — Continued. Page, 

timber conditions and composition of 

forest in T. 36 S., R. 2 W. 403, 48.5, 486, 487 

inT.37S.,R.lE 420,488, 

mT.37S.,R.2 E 420-421,488, 

inT.37S.,R.3 E 421-422,488, 

mT.37S.,R.4E 

422-423, 475, 476, 477, 488, 

inT.37S.,R..5E .' 

423-125, 475, 476, 477, 488, 

inT.37S.,R.6E 

475,476,477,488, 

inT.37.S.,R.7 E 426-427,488, 

lT.37S.,K.8E 427,488, 

lT.37S.,R.9 E 428,488, 

lT.37S.,R.10E 428-429,488, 

lT.37S.,R.ll E 430,488, 

lT.37S.,K.ni E 429,488, 

lT.37S.,R,]2 E 430,488, 

,R.13E 430,488, 

,R.14 E 431,488, 

, R. 1 W 419-120, 488, 



T.37S., 
T. 37 S., 
T.37S., 
T.37S., 



R.2 W 418-119,488, 

T.38S.,R.l E 432,488, 

T.38S..R.2E 432-433,488, 

T.38S.,R.3E 433-434,488, 

T.38S.,R.4 E 434-135,488, 

T.38S.,R.5E 435-130,488, 

nT.38S.,R.6 E 436-137,488, 

nT.38S.,R.7 E 437-138,488, 

nT.38S.,R.SE 438-439,488 

nT.38S.,R.9 E 439,488 

nT.38g..R.10 E 439-140,488 

nT.38S<.,R.ll E 440-441,491, 

nT.38S.,R.lU E 440,491 

nT.38S.,R.12 E +11,491 

nT.38S.,R.13 E 441,491 

nT.38S.,R.14 E 442,491 

n T. 38 S., R 1 W 432, 488, 

nT.38S.,R.2\V 431,488, 

nT.39S.,R.lE 443-144,491 

nT.39S.,R.2E 444,491 

n T. 39 S., R. 3 E 445, 491 

nT.39S.,R.4 E 445-140,491 

,nT.39S.,R.3 E.. 269,440-447,491 
nT.39S.,R.6 E.. 2.>4, 447-448, 491, 

n T. 39 S., R. 7 E 448-H9, 491 

nT.39S.,R.8 E 449,491 

nT.39S.,R.9 E 449,491 

nT.39S.,R.10E 449-4.30,491 

.nT.39S.,B.ll E 450,491, 

nT.39S.,R.n;- E 450,491, 

nT.39S.,R.12 E 450-151,491, 

nT.39f>.,R.13 E 451,491 

nT.39S.,R.14 E 451,491 

n T. 39 S.. R. 1 W 443, 491 

nT.39S.,R.2W 442,491 

nT.40S.,R.lE 453-l.>l,491, 

nT.40S.,R.2 E 4.>4-15.5,491, 

nT.40S..R.3 E 4.55-456,491, 

nT.40S.,R.4E 247,4.56,491, 

nT.40S.,R.5 E 457-1.58,491 

nT.40S.,l:.6 E 247,4.58,491 

nT.40S;.,R.7 E 254,459,491 

nT.40S.,R.S E 459-460,491 

nT.40.S.,R.9 E 460,491, 



489,490 
489,490 
489,490 
... 251, 
489, 490 
... 2.56, 
489,490 
425-126, 
489, 490 
489,490 
489, 490 
489, 490 
489,490 
489,490 
489,490 
489, 490 
489, 490 
489, 490 
489,490 
489, 490 
489, 490 
4.S9, 490 
489,490 
4.89, 490 
489,490 
489, 490 
489, 490 
489,490 
489,490 
489,490 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492,493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
489,490 
489.490 
492, 493 
492,493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492,493 
492,493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492,493 
492,493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492, 493 
492.493 
492,493 



Oregon — Continued. Page, 

timber conditions and composition of 

forest in T. 40 S., R. 10 E. 460, 491, 492, 493 

inT.40S.,R.ll E 460-461,491,492,493 

inT.40S.,R.12 E 461,491,492,493 

in T.40S.,R.13 E 461,491,492.493 

in T.40.S.,R.14 E 462,491,492,493 

in T.40S.,R.14S E 402,491,492,493 

in T.40S.,R.l VV . 253,452-153,491,492.493 

in T. 40 S., R. 2 \V 451-152, 491, 492. 493 

inT.41.S.,R.l E 464-165,494,495,496 

inT.41S.,R.2 E 405-406,494,49.5,4% 

inT.41S.,R.3 E.. 247,269,406,491,495,496 

inT.41S.,R.4 E 406-107,494,495,496 

inT.41 S.,R.5 E 467-108,494,495,4% 

in T. 41 S., R. 6 E 468-169, 491, 495, 4% 

inT.41S.,R.7 E 469,494,49.5,4% 

in T. 41 .S., R. 8 E 469-170, 494, 495, 4fti 

in T. 41 S., R. 9 E 470, 494, 495, 4% 

in T.41S.,R.10 E 470,494,495,490 

in T. 41 S., R. 11 E 470, 494, 495, 4% 

inT.41S.,R.12 E 470,494,495,4% 

in T.41S.,R.13 E 470-4n,491,495,4% 

inT.41S.,R.14E 471,494,495,4% 

in T. 41 S., R. 14J E 471, 494, 493, 4% 

in T. 41 S., R. 1 W 463-464, 494, 495, 4% 

in T. 41 S., R. 2 W 462-463, 494, 495, 4% 

Oregon maple. See Maple, Oregon. 

Ozette Lake, Wash., plates showing views 

near lw.206 



P. 



Pacific arbor vitse. See Arbor vita, Pacitic. 
Pacific dogivood. See Dogwood, Pacific. 
Pacific plum. Sic Plum, Pacific. 
Pacific yew. .SV*^ Yew, Pacific. 
Paper-leaf alder. &« Alder, paper-leaf. 
Parks, national, map showing forest reserves 

and In atlas 

Pattou spruce. See Spruce, Patton. 

Pecos River Reserve, Ariz., area and date 

of estitblishment of 14 

Piceaalba. 6Vc Spruce, white. 
Pieea engelmanni. :^i: Spruce. Engehnnnn. 
Pieea sitchen^is, amount in Tacomn quad- 
rangle. Wash .578 

.Sec Spruce; Spruce, tide-land. 
Pikes Peak Reserve, Colo., area and date of 

estjiblishment of 14 

Pine, gray, range, size, character, and occur- 
rence of 617, 543 

Pine, Jelfrey. range, size, age, reproduction, 

and occurrence of 524-525. 543, 548 

Pine limber, areas timbered by 41 

map showing distribution of 70 

size of 42 

Pine, lodgepole, amount in Lewis and 

Chirke Reserve, Mont 44 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

areas timbered by 41,99,240,537 

map showing distribution of 440 

plates showing 50, 62, 68, 72, 74. 276 

range of 99. 243, 536. 543 

rate of growth of 23, 107 



INDEX. 



707 



Page. 
Pine, lodjiei'ole. size. «ge. quality, and re- 

pnnluetion of 42, 59, 99, 537 

Pine, mountain, plate showing 98 

rateof growlli of 107 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of.. 100 
Seeal^io Pine, white-bark; Pine, nut. 
PineMountJiinanc) Zaca Lake Reserve. Cal.. 

area and date of establishment of . . 14 

Pine, nut, areas timbered by 41 

plate showing 50 

size and quality of 42, 59 

Sceattio Pine, mountain; Pine, white- 
bark. 

Pine, sugar, age, and reproduction of 522-523 

amount in Cascade Range Reserve, 

Oreg.. and adjacent region 267, 

474,478,496,497 

areas tm:bercd by 238-239, 522 

map showing distribution of 240 

range <»f 243, 522, 543 

size and quality of 275,522,548 

Pine, western white, range, size, age, repro- 
duction and occurrence of 539,543,548 

rate of growth uf 24 

.See also Pine, white. 
Pine, white, amount in Cascade Range Re- 
serve, Oreg., and adjacent region... 267. 
474,478,496,497 
amount in Lewis and Clarke Reserve, 

Mont 44 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

amount in Sandpoint quadrangle, 

Idaho 595 

areas timbered by 41, 98, 155, 239, 590-^94 

map showing distribution of 48 

plate showing 96 

range of 98, 155, 243 

rate of growth of 107 

size and quality of 42, 98, 275, 548 

See also Pine, western white- 
Pine, white-bark, areas timbered by . . 239-240, 541 

maps showing distribution of 70, 320 

range of 243, 541, 543 

rate of growth of 24 

size and reproduction of 541-542 

S€€ also Pine, mountain; Pine, nut. 

Pine, yellow, age and reproduction of 520-521 

amount in Cascade Range Reserve, 

Oreg. , and adjacent region 267, 

474,478,496,497 
amount in Lewis and Clarke Reserve, 

Mont 44 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

amount in Sandpoint quadrangle, Idaho 595 

areas timbered by 41,99,238,520,585-587 

maps showing distribution of 70, 134, 320 

plates showing 38, 

42, 44, 68, 72, 74. 78. 96, 246, 250 

range of 99 242, 243, 520, 543 

rate of growth of 23, 107 

size and quality of 42, 99, 275, 520, 548 

See also Yellow-pine type. 
Pinus albicaulis. See Pine, white-bark; 
Pine, mountain; Pine. nut. 



Page. 

Pinus flexilis. See Pine, Umber. 

Pinus jeffreyi. See Pine. Jeffrey. 

Pinus lambertiana. See Pine, sugar. 

Pinus monticola. See Pine, white; Pine, 
western white. 

Pinus murrayana. See Pine, lodgepole. 

Pinus ponderosa. See Pine, yellow. 

Pinus sabiniana. Str- Pine. gray. 

Pitt, Mount. See Mount Pitt. 

Placerville quadrangle, Cal., classiti cation 

of lands in 549 

map showing classification of lands. In atlas 
stand of timber in 21 

Placid Creek, Mont., plate showing view on 46 

Placid Lake, Mont., plate showing views at 

and near 42.50.74 

Pliun Creek Reserve, Colo., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

Plum, Pacific, range and occurrence of. . . 535. 543 

Plummer, F. G.. report on Mount Rainier 

Reserve, Wash., by 81-143 

work of 16 

Populus angustifolia. See Cottonwood. 

Populus tremuloides. See Aspen; Aspen, 
quaking. 

Populus irichocarpa. See Cottonwood; Cot- 
tonwood, black. 

PortOrford quadrangle, Oreg., forest condi- 
tions in 576 

map .showing land classification In atla^ 

Prescott Reserve, Ariz., addition to 13 

area and date of establishment of 14 

Priest River Reserve, Idaho-Wash., area and 

date of establishment of 14 

Prunusdcmis-sa. SceChokechcrry, western, 

Prunus emarginata. See Bitter cherry. 

I 'run us subcordati*. Sec Plum. Pacific. 

Pseudotsuga mucronata. See Fir. red. 

Pseudotsuga taxifolia, amount in Seattle 

quadrangle. Wash 580 

amount in Tacoma quadrangle, Wash . 578 
See (ifs'i Fir. red. 

Ptarmigan Peak. M(tnt., plate showing view 

of burn neur 46 

Puyallup River, Wash., timber conditions in 

watershed of Ill 

Pyramid Peak quadrangle, Cal., classifica- 
tion of lands in : 549 

map showing classification of lands. . In atlas 
stand of timber in 21 

Pyrus rivularis. See Crab apple. 



Q- 



Quaking aspen. See Aspen, quaking. 
Quercus califomica. See Oak, California 

black. 
Quercus chrysolepis. See Oak, canyon live. 
Quercus densiflora. See Oak, tan-bark. 
Quercus douglasii. See Oak, California 

rock. 
Quercus dumosa. See Oak, California .scrub. 
Quercus garryana. See Oak. 
Quercus lobata. See Oak, California white. 
Quercus morehus. size and occurrence of. . . 519 
Quercus wislizeni. See Oak, California live 



708 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Qiiillayute Prairie, Wash., plate showing 

view of 184 

Qiiillayute River, plate showing \iew on. . . 186 

K. 

Rainier, Mount. Scr Mount Rainier. 

Red eedar. See Cedar, red. 

Red fir. Src Fir. red. 

Red fir. California. Sec Fir, California red. 

Red-fir type.eomposition and character in 

Cascade Rantje Reserve. Oreg., and 

adjacent region 251-259 

composition and character in Sandpoint 

quadrangle. Idaho 587-590 

Redwood, rate of growth of 24 

Rluimnus purshiana. Sec Bearberry. 

Ri xon , T. F. . work of IT 

Rixon, T. F., and Dodwell, Arthur, report 

on Olympic Forest Reserves. Wash.. 

from notes by 145-208 

Rock Creek, Wash., timber conditions in 

watershed of 117-118 

R(iek oak, California. Sec Oak. California 

rock. 
Rogue River, Greg., description of drainage 

area of 223-225 

plates showing views in valley of 250 

plate showing view t)n North Fork of- . . 27G 
Roseburg quadrangle, Oreg. .classification of 

lands in 577 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Rubic-on River, (.'al., plate showing view of. 538 



Salix lasiandra. Sfc Willow, marsh. 

San Bernardino Reserve, Cal.. area and date 

of establishment of 14 

Sandpoint quadrangle, Idaho, classification 

of lands in 595 

estimates of mill timber in 595 

forest conditions in 584-^594 

map showing land classification In atlas 

topographical features of 583-584 

San Francisco Mountains Reserve. Ariz.. 

area and date of establishment of . . 14 

San Gabriel Reserve, Cal., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

San Jacinto quadrangle, Cal., forest condi- 
tions in 575-576 

map showing land classification In atlas 

San Jacinto Reserve, Cal., area and date of 

establishment of 14 

Santa Inez Reserve, Cal., area of 13,14 

Scrub oak. California. Srr Oak, California 
scr, 1>, 

Seattle quadrangle. Wash., classilivation of 

lands in 579-580 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Sequoia gigantea. Sec Big tree. 

Shake timber, price of 545 

Sierra Nevada, Cal., summary of work in... 19-21 

Sierra Reserve, Cal., area and date of estab- 
lishment of 14 

Silver fir. See Fir, silver. 



Page. 
Siskiyou Mountains, Oreg.. plate showing 

view of 226 

topographic feature.*' of 226-227 

Siskiyou i*eak. Oreg.. elevation of 226 

Smith Creek, Mont., deadwood in valley of. 62 

estimate of cutting on 63 

plate showing view of mill on 44 

timber in valley of 58 

Snow, Oreg.. plate showing method of haul- 
ing logs near 296 

Snow Range. Wash., plate showing view of. 196 

Soap Creek. Cal.. plates showing forestnear. 520 
Soleduck River. Wa.^h.. plates showing 

views on 184, 186 

Sonora quadrangle, Cal., classification of 

lands in 571 

map showing classification of lands . In atlas 

stand of timber in 20 

topographic features and forest condi- 
tions in 569-570 

South Fork of American River, plate show- 
ing views of 536 

South Fork of Birch Creek, Mont., plate 

showing view on 78 

South Fork of Cosumnes River, Cal., plate 

showing view of 516 

South Fork of Deep Creek, Mont., timber in 

valley of .58 

South Fork of i)epuyer Creek, Mont., esti- 
mate of cutting on 63 

timber in valley of 58 

South Fork of Flathead Valley, Mont.. 

agricultural land in 73 

area burned in 47 

deadwood in 49. 73 

estimate of timber in 44 

fires and reproduction in 72 

humus in 69 

irrigation and water power in 73 

litter in 69 

rock. soil, and subsoil in 69 

topographic features of 68 

transportation facilities in 73 

trees and timber in 70-71 

young growth and underbrush in 71 

South Fork of Mokelumne River, Cal., plate 

showing view on 530 

South Fork of Stanislaus River. Cal.. plate 

showing views on 508 

South Fork of Teton Creek. Mont., dead- 
wood in valley of 62 

estimate of cutting on 63 

plates showing views on 44, 54, 58 

timber in valley of 58 

South Gerl6 Creek. Cal., plate showing 

view of 540 

South Platte Reserve. Colo., area and date 

of establishment of 14 

Spokane quadrangle, Wash., classification 

oflandsin 5S2 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Spotted Bear, Mont., reproduction near 49 

Sprague River. Oreg., terrace near 231 

Spruce, amount and percentage in Coos Bay 

quadrangle, Oreg 577 



INDEX. 



709 



Page. 
Spruce, amount in Lewis and Clarke Re- 
serve. Mont 44 

amount in Olympic Reserve. Wash 154 

amount in Taeoma quadrangle, Wash. . 578 

map showing distribution of In atlas 

plates showing 184,202,204 

rate of growth of 24 

See afofj Spruce, tide-land. 

Spruce, blue, rate of growth of 24 

Spruce, Douglas. .SVr Fir. red. 
Spruce, Engelmann, amount in Cascade 
Range Reserve. Greg., and adjacent 

region 267, 474, 478, 496, 497 

amount in Mount Rainier Reserve, 

Wash 127 

areas timbered by 41,102,241 

size and quality of 43,59,102,275 

plates showing 64, 100 

range of 102, 243, 244 

rate of growth of 24, 108 

Spruce, Patton. rate ("f growth of 25 

Spruce, tide-land, range, size, quality, and 

occurrence of 102-103 

See also Spruce. 

Spruce, white, areas timbered by 41 

Stampede Tunnel, Wash., temperature and 

snowfall at 90 

Stanislaus grove, Cal., names of big trees in 529 
Stanislaus Reserve, Cal.. area and date of es- 
tablishment of 14 

boundaries of 506 

classification of lands in 550 

stand of timber in 21 

Stanislaus River, Cal. See South Fork and 

Middle Fork of Stanislaus River. 
Stanislaus and Lake Tahoe reserves. Cal., 
agriculture and agricultural lands 

in 511-512 

character and distribution of species 

in 517-544 

character of forest in 514-515 

compositi jn of forest in 516-517 

effect of industries on reproduction in 551-557 

forest tires in 557-560 

forest land in 514 

grazing in 510-511 

lumbering and timber industries in.. 512-514 ; 

mining in 509-510 

report on 499-561 

settleu.ents in 508-509 

standing c immercial timber in 547-550 

tables showing size and density of trees 

in 548 

topographic features of 507-508 

uses and market prices of timber in.. 544r-547 

water supply in 508 

Steamboat Mountain. Wash., burn on 134 i 

Storehouse Creek, Mont., plate showing 

view of valley of 38 

settlement on 54 

Studding, price of 545 

Sudworth. G.B., report on Stanislaus and 

Lake Tahoe reserves by 499-561 

work of 20 

Sugar pine. Sec Pine, sugar. 



Page. 
Summit Creek. Cal., plate showing forest 

near 518 

Summit Creek, Wash., mineral spring on . . . 95 

Sun River, Mont., deadwood in valley of. . . 62 

settlements on 54 

See also North Fork and Middle Fork 
of Sun River. 
Swan-Clearwater Valley. Mont., areas 

burned in 47 

agricultural land and grazing in 80 

deadwood in 49, 79 

estimate of timber in valley of 44 

fires in 77-78 

humus in 75 

litter in 75 

means of transportation in 79 

reproduction in 78-79 

rock, soil, and subsoil in 74-75 

topographic features of 74 

trees and timber in 75-76 

water power in 80 

young growth and underbrush in 76-77 

Swan Lake,Mont.,platesshowing views of. 52,66 
Swan River, Mont., plates showing forest in 

valley of 38, 42, 54, 62, 68, 72 

reproduction on 49 

Sycan River, Oreg., effects of fires along ... 282 

terrace near 230 

T. 

Tacoma quadrangle. Wash., classification of 

lands in , 578-579 

map showing land classification In atlas 

Tamarack, amount in Mount Rainier Re- 
serve, Wash 127 

amountinSandpoint quadrangle, Idaho 595 

plate showing 93 

range, size, quality, and occurrence of.. 104 

rate of growth of .' 108 

Tan-bark oak. Sec Oak, tan-bark. 

Tannum Lake, Wash., cutting near 138 

Tatoosh Range, Wash., plate showing view 

of 92 

Taxus brevifolia. See Yew; Yew, Pacific. 

Teton Creek, Mont., settlement on 54 

See also North Fork and Soutli Fork 
of Teton Creek. 
Teton :^eserve, Wyo., area and date of estab- 
lishment of 14 

Thuja plicata, amount in Seattle quad- 
rangle, Wash 580 

amount in Tacoma quadrangle, Wash, . 578 
See also Cedar; Cedar, red. 
Tide-land spruce. See Spruce, tide -land. 

Tieton River, Wash., cutting along 138 

mineral springs on 95 

plate showing view of headwaters of .. 138 
timber conditions in watershed of ... 123-124 

Timber, uses and prices of 128, 544-547 

Timber trees, defects and diseases of 109-110 

table showing rate of growth of 107-109 

Torreya, California, range, size, and occur- 
rence of 535, 543 

Trabuco Canyon Reserve, Cal., area and date 

of establishment of 14 



710 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Tsuga heterophyllrt. .Srr Hemlofk. 

Tsuga mertensiana. amount in Tacoma 

quadrunglu, Wash 678 

.S(r atmlivm Iwk : Henilwk. western. 

Tsuga pattoiiiaim. .S'/- Hemlock; Hemlot^k, 
mountjiin. 

Tsuga pattonii. .*y(Hcuil(X'k,alpiue: Hem- 
loc-k. black. 

Timiion oalifornifuni. St-e Torreya, Cali- 
fornia. 

Tuolumne River. Cal.. plate showing views 

on North Fork of 506 

Two Medicine Creek. Mont., deadwood in 

valley of 62 

f. 

Uinta Reserve, Utah, arett and date of estab- 
lishment of 14 

Union Peak, Oreg.. altitude of 333 

Umpqua divides, tireg., plale showing view 

of summit of 226 

Umpqua Mountain.s. Oreg., topographic fea- 
tures of 227-22S 

Upper Klamath Lake. Oreg., terraces near . 230 

V. 

Vernal Falls, Cal., plate showing view of. . . 572 
Vine maple. .Sff Maple, vine. 

W. 

Washington, timber c{)ndilions in T.21 N.. 

R.oW 159 

iuT. 22 N'.,R.5 W 159-160 

in T. 23 X.. R.5 W 160-161 

inT. L>:)X.,R.6 W 161 

in T . 24 X. , R . 4 VV 162 

in T. 24 X., R. 5 \V 162-163 

inT.24X.,R.6W 163 

in T. 25 X., R. 3 W 164 

in T. 25 X., R. 4 W 164-165 

in T. •25X..R.5 W 165 

in T. 26 X., R. 3 \V 166 

inT.26X.,R.4 W 166-167 

in T. 26 X., R. o W 167 

in T. 26 X., R. 6 W 168 

in T. 26 X., R. 7 W 168-169 

iuT. 26X.,R.12 \V 169 

iu T. 26 X., R. 13 W 170 

in T. 26X.,R. 14\V 170-171 

in T. 27 X., R. 3 W 171 

in T. 27 X., R. 4 W 171-172 

in T. 27 X., R. 5 \V 172 

in T. 27 X., R. 6 W 172-173 

in T. 27 X., R. 7 W 173 

in T. 27 X., R. 8 W 171 

in T. 27 X.. R. 10 \V 174-175 

in T. 27 X., R. 11 \V 175 

in T. 27 X., R. 12 \V 176 

in T. 27 X.. R. 13 W 176-177 

in T. 27 X., R. 14 \V 177 

iu T. 27 N., R. 15 W" 178 

inT.28X.,R.3W 178 

in T.28X.,R.4 W 179 

inT. 28N.,R.5 \V 179-180 



Page. 

Washington, timber conditions in T. 28 X.. 

R.6W 180 

in T. 28 X., R. 7 W 1,S0-181 

in T. 2XX.,R.8 W 181-182 

in T.28 N.,R.9 W 182 

inT. 28X.,R.10 W 183 

in T. -28 X..R. 11 W 183-184 

inT. 28X..R.12 W 184 

in T. 28 X., R. 13 W 185 

inT.28X..R.14 W 185-186 

inT.28X.,R.15W 186 

inT. 29X.,R.S W 187 

in T. 29 X.. R. 4 W 187-188 

in T. 29 X., R. 5 W , 188-189 

in T. -29 X.. R. 6 W 189 

i n T. 29 X . , R . 7 W 1 89-190 

in T.29X.,R.8 W 190-191 

in T. 29 X., R. 9 W 191 

iu T. 29 X., R. 10 W 192 

in T. 29 X., R. 11 W 192-193 

in T.29X.,R.12 W 193-194 

in T. 29 X., R. 13 W 194-195 

in T. 29 X.. R. 14 W 195 

inT. 29X.,R.15 W 196 

in T. 30 X., R. 9 W 196-197 

in T. 30 X.. R. 10 W 197-198 

inT.30X..R.ll W 198-199 

in T. 30X..R.12 W 199 

iu T. 30X.,R.13 W 200 

inT. 30X.,R. 14 W 201 

in T. 30 X., R. 15 W 202 

in T. 30 X.. R. IC W 202-203 

inT.31 X.,R.14 W 20S-2O4 

inT. 31 X.,R.15 W 204-205 

inT. 31 X., R. 16 W 205 

i n T. 32 X . , R . 1 4 W 206 

inT.32X.,R.15 W 206-207 

inT.32X.,R.16 W 207-208 

inT. 33X..R.14 W 208 

Washington Reserve, Wash., area and date 

of establishment of 14 

Washougal River, Wash., timber conditions 

in watershed of 117 

Wawona, Cal.. plate showing view of .572 

Western chokeeherry. See Chokecherry, 
western. 

Western dogwood. See Dog^vbod, western. 

Western hemlock. See Hemlock. western. 

Western juniper. S^r Juniper, western. 

Western larch. See Larch, western. 

Western white pine. See Pine, western 
white. 

White alder. See .\lder, white. 

White-bark pine. See Pine, white-bark. 

White cedar. .Sec Cedar, white. 

White fir. See Fir, white. 

White oak, California. See Oak, California 
white. 

White pine. See Pine, white. 

White-pine tjiM?. composition and character 

iu Sandpoint quadrangle, Idaho. . .590-591 

White pine, western. .Sec Pine, western 
white. 

White River. Wash., timber- conditions in 

watershed of Ill 



INDEX. 



711 



Page. 
White Salmon Rirer, Wash., timber cnndi- 

tions in watershed of 120-121 

White spruce. .See Spruce, white. 
Williamson River, Oreg.. plate showing 

view on 250 

Willow Creeli, Mont., character of valley of. 68 

reproduction on 49 

settlements on .W 

Willow, marsh, rate of growth of 109 

Wind River, Wash., character of valley of.. 92* 
timber conditions in watershed of llS-119 

Y. 

Yakima River, Wash., limber conditions in 

watershed of 125-126 

Y'ellow fir. Sec Fir, red. 

Y'ellow piue. See Pine, yellow. 

Y'ellow-pine type, composition and eharac- 
terin Cascade Range Reserve. Oreg., 
and ad,iacent regions 24r>-2.'il 



Page. 
Yellow-pine type, composition and char- 
acter in Sandpoint quadrangle. 

Idaho 585-587 

Y'ellowstone Reserve, Wyo.. area and date 

of establishment of 14 

Yew, rate of growth of 109 

Seeafso Yew, Pacific. 
Yew, Pacific, range, size, quality, and oc- 
currence of 105, 53.5-536, .M3 

See also Y'ew. 
Yosemite National Park, Cal., plates show- 
ing views in 570,572 

Y'oseraite quadrangle. Cal., classification of 

lands in 574 

map showing classification of lands. . In atlas 

.stand of timber in 20 

topographic features and forest condi- 
tions in 571-573 



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'^NTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT PARTV PL CXLI 



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