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Full text of "The book of record of the time capsule of cupaloy, deemed capable of resisting the effects of time for five thousand years, preserving an account of universal achievements, embedded in the grounds of the New York World's fair, 1939"

THE TIME CAPSULE 




From the collection of the 



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o Prelinger h 
v Jjibrary 
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San Francisco, California 
2006 




THE ENVELOPE FOR A MESSAGE TO THE FUTURE 
BEGINS ITS EPIC JOURNEY 



THE BOOK OF RECORD OF 

THE 

TIME CAPSULE 

OF CUPALOY 

DEEMED CAPABLE OF RESISTING 
THE EFFECTS OF TIME FOR FIVE 
THOUSAND YEARS ' PRESERVING 
AN ACCOUNT OF UNIVERSAL 
ACHIEVEMENTS ^EMBEDDED IN 
THE GROUNDS OF THE 

NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 

1939 



SEPTEMBER 23 '1938 



COPYRIGHT 1938 

WESTTNGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY 
NEW YORK 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



All the. days of my appointed time, will I wait, 
till my change come. 

Thou shah call, and I will answer thee. 

JOB xiv : 14'! 5. 



THE TIME CAPSULE 

A SEGMENT OF OUR TIME PRESERVED 
FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS 




IHEN WE SURVEY THE PAST 

and note how perishable are all 
human things, we are moved to 
attempt the preservation of some 
of the world's present material & 
intellectual symbols, that knowl 
edge of them may not disappear 
from the earth. 
For there is no way to read the future of the world : peo 
ples, nations, and cultures move onward into inscrutable 
time. In our day it is difficult to conceive of a future less 
happy, less civilised than our own. Yet history teaches 
us that every culture passes through definite cycles of 
development, climax, and decay. And so, we must recog- 
niz;e, ultimately may ours. 

By the same reasoning, there will rise again a civilizja- 
tion of even vaster promise standing upon our shoulders, 
as we have stood upon the shoulders of ancient Sumer, 
Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The learned among that cul 
ture of the future may study with pleasure and profit 
things now in existence which are unique to our time, 
growing out of our circumstances, needs, and desires. 

Five thousand years ago, during a period of invention, 
development, and science rivaling that of our day, re 
corded history began. It would be pleasant to believe 

E 5 ] 



that we might leave records of our own day for five thou 
sand years hence ; to a day when the peoples of the world 
will think of us standing at history's midpoint. 

Whether we shall be able to transmit such a segment 
of our time into the future depends not only on our in 
genuity at selection and preservation, on the excellence 
of engineering, metallurgy, chemistry, and other intellec 
tual disciplines, but also in large measure on those who 
come after us, and their willingness to cooperate in such 
an archaeological venture across the reaches of time. 

We pray you therefore, whoever reads this book, to 
cherish and preserve it through the ages, and translate 
it from time to time into new languages that may arise 
after us, in order that knowledge of the Time Capsule 
of Cupaloy may be handed down to those for whom it 
is intended. We likewise ask : let the Time Capsule rest 
in the earth until its time shall come ; let none dig it up 
for curiosity or for any other reason. It is a message from 
one age to another, and none should touch it in the years 
that lie between. 

PREPARATION OF THE CAPSULE 

HOW long the Time Capsule will remain in the earth, or 
what experiences await it, we have no way of knowing. 
But if, as is our hope, it rests untroubled until the year 
A.D. 69 39, there may be people capable of discovering 
and raising it, of reading and studying the contents. 

We imagine they will be able to reconstruct, through 
archaeological techniques like those developed in our 
own time, the hard structures of our culture: our archi 
tecture, our dams and roads, our houses, and our general 

[ 6 ] 



physical appearance, as indicated by our skeletons. But 
certainly many of the perishable things of our culture 
will have been lost in the course of time, unless special 
efforts are made to preserve them. 

In these matters we have taken counsel of archaeolo- 
gists, historians, metallurgists, engineers, chemists, geo- 
physicists, and other technical men of our time. We have 
given much study not only to the selection of the items 
to be preserved, but also to methods of preserving them 
for so long a time & of leaving this message about them. 

Our first concern was the construction of the Time 
Capsule itself, a problem of great complexity. Our experi 
ence with artificial materials is too short to give us certain 
knowledge of their ability to withstand the corrosive 
effects of thousands of years, yet the older mineral ma 
terials, including stone and glass, are too brittle and too 
difficult to work, are liable to breakage from pressure 
or earthquake, and are too difficult to detect when buried 
in the earth. 

We have decided that the best possible material is a 
metallic alloy of high corrosion resistance & considerable 
hardness, of nonferrous nature, and preferably contain 
ing a high percentage of copper. Of all the tools used by 
ancient peoples, those of stone and copper have come 
down to us from farthest in the past. 

It happens that a copper alloy fulfilling these specifi 
cations has recently been developed. Known as Cupaloy, 
it is 99.4 per cent copper, .5 per cent chromium, and .1 
per cent silver. This material may be tempered to a hard 
ness similar to that of mild steel, yet has a resistance to 
corrosion equal to pure copper. In electrolytic reactions 

E 7 ] 



with ferrous metals in the soil, it becomes the anode and 
therefore will receive deposits, rather than suffer cor 
rosion, should such action take place. It is our belief that 
a properly constructed capsule of Cupaloy will with 
stand the naturally destructive forces of five thousand 
years, and by its strength protect the contents from the 
accidents of time. 

The Time Capsule is seven feet, six inches in length, 
and eight and three-eighths inches in diameter. Its Cup 
aloy shell consists of seven cast segments, all segments 
except the last solidly screwed together, sealed with 
molten asphalt, and burnished. The last section, closed 
after the placing of the contents in the Capsule, is shrunk- 
fitted on tapering threads. 

The inner crypt of the Capsule is a space six & a half 
inches in diameter & approximately six feet, nine inches 
in length. Within it is a Pyrex glass envelope embedded 
in a petroleum base wax. The objects to be preserved 
are enclosed in the glass, from which all air has been ex 
hausted. The spaces left between the objects in the crypt 
have been filled with an inert gas, nitrogen, the inactive 
element which makes up four-fifths of our atmosphere. 

The materials inside the crypt have been selected for 
permanence and have been treated, so far as possible, to 
give them resistance to time. Material which would 
ordinarily be published in books has been photographed 
on acetate microfilm ; a method that not only promises 
permanence but also makes possible the concentration 
of much information in small space. Where paper was 
necessarily enclosed, we have used only the finest 100 
per cent rag, fulfilling the specifications of the United 

[ 8 ] 



States Bureau of Standards for permanence. Metal parts 
which might be subject to attack by moisture have been 
coated with a thin layer of wax. No acids or corrosive 
substances are included in the crypt's contents or in the 
materials with which the Time Capsule is sealed, nor are 
any materials included which are known to decay or 
dissociate into corrosive liquids or vapors. 

The Time Capsule is die-stamped with this message : 

TIME CAPSULE OF CUPALOY, DEPOSITED ON THE SITE OF 
THE NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR ON SEPTEMBER 23,1938, 
BY THE WESTTNGHOUSE ELECTRIC &T MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY. IF ANYONE SHOULD COME UPON THIS CAP- 
SULE BEFORE THE YEAR A. D. 6939 LET HIM NOT WAN 
TONLY DISTURB IT, FOR TO DO SO WOULD BE TO DEPRIVE 
THE PEOPLE OF THAT ERA OF THE LEGACY HERE LEFT 
THEM. CHERISH IT THEREFORE IN A SAFE PLACE. 

The Time Capsule was deposited fifty feet deep in the 
earth on the site of the building of the Westinghouse 
Company, on the grounds of the New York World's Fair 
1939, by A. W. Robertson, chairman of the Board of 
Directors of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur 
ing Company, at 12 o'clock noon, September 23, 1938, 
the exact moment of the autumnal equinox of that year, 

RECOVERY OF THE CAPSULE 

WHEN the time has come to dig for the Time Capsule, 
look for it in the area known as the Flushing Meadows, 
Borough of Queens, New York City, on the site of the 
New York World's Fair 1939. 

9 ] 



The appointed year will be, according to our common 
way of reckoning time, the 6,939th year since the birth 
of Christ. According to the Jewish calendar it will be the 
year 10699 i according to the Chinese, the 36th year of 
the i6oth cycle; according to the Mohammedan, the 
6,469 thyear since the birth of the Prophet ; according to 
the Buddist, the 7,50 2 d year since the birth of Buddha; 
according to the Shinto [Japanese], the 7,599 th year 
since the birth of the first emperor, JimmuTenno. 

If none of these ways of reckoning the years has sur 
vived, it still may be recognised by calculation from 
astronomical data. In the year 1939 there will be two 
eclipses of the moon, falling respectively on May 3 d and 
October 28th. There will be two eclipses of the sun an 
annular eclipse on April i gth, the path of annular eclipse 
grazing the North Pole of the earth, and a total eclipse on 
October 1 2th, the total path crossing near the South Pole. 

The heliocentric longitudes of the planets on January 
ist at ^ero-hours Greenwich [midnight] were 



Mercury 


175 


55' 


42" 


Venus 


124 


43' 


3'" 


Earth 


99 


40' 


29" 


Mars 


192 


4' 


2" 


Jupiter 


339 


12' 


22" 


Saturn 


17 


3' 


45" 


Uranus 


46 


23' 


3i" 


Neptune 


171 


3'' 


3" 


Pluto 


120 


i/ 





The mean position of the North Star [Polaris or Alpha 
Ursse Minoris] on January ist will be Right Ascension, 
i hr. 41 min. 59 sec. ; North Polar distance, 1 i' 3 3 ".8. 

[ "I 



In the opinion of our astronomers, such a combination 
of astronomical events is unlikely to recur for many thou 
sands of years. By computing backward from their time, 
people of the future will therefore be able to determine 
the number of years that have elapsed since our time. 

The Capsule lies buried at exactly the point where the 
centerline of the Westinghouse plot intersects the center- 
line of the great halls of the Westinghouse World's Fair 
building. By A.D. 6939, it is probable, all present-day 
landmarks, city surveys, and other such aids for locating 
such an object will have disappeared. The spot may still 
be discovered, however, by determination of the latitude 
and longitude. The exact geodetic coordinates j^North 
American Datum of 1 9 27 J are : 

Latitude 40 44' 34". 089 north of the Equator 
Longitude 73 50' 4$". 842 west of Greenwich 

These coordinates, surveyed by the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey and given to the thousandth part 
of a second of arc, are accurate enough to locate an object 
one- tenth of a foot or less in diameter at a particular po 
sition on the surface of the earth.* 

It maybe that due to shifts of the earth's poles, differ 
ences in method, or other causes, this calculation will still 
not give the exact spot. It may also happen that the Time 
Capsule will sink or migrate from the point of deposit 
during the ages. Seekers may nevertheless still find it by 
the methods of electrical prospecting such as are used in 
our day for the location of minerals, water, buried metallic 
objects, and deposits of salt and oil. 
*See page 43. 



If elec5hical instruments similar to those of our time 
are used to locate the Capsule, it should be indicated by 
the distortion of a magnetic field, the increased conduc 
tivity of the soil, or other such indications. Certain steps 
have been taken to increase the Time Capsule's respon 
siveness in this respect. The soil in which the Time Cap 
sule is buried is fairly homogeneous, and though there 
are scraps of metals, mostly ferrous, buried in it, these 
should all have disappeared by corrosion before many 
centuries have passed. On account of the softness of the 
soil, however, the Capsule may have settled to a greater 
depth. This possibility should be taken into account.* 

When the Capsule at length has been located, a prob 
lem will still remain, for if the land is swampy &wet, as in 
our day, adequate methods must be devised to recover it. 
The Capsule may be raised by sinking a caisson of such 
a type as to hold back the mud and water during exca 
vation. Should this prove inexpedient, it may be possible 
to freeze the soil by cold brine circulating in pipes driven 
into the earth around the site. When the soil is frozen it 
may then be dug in the same manner as hard earth. 

The Capsule is provided with an eye to which lifting 
apparatus may be attached. It is likely, however, that this 
ring may have disappeared through erosion. In this case, 
the Capsule should be raised gently with a sling. 

When it has been brought up out of the ground, let 
the finders beware, lest in their eagerness they spoil the 
contents by ill-considered moves. Let the Capsule be 
transported with the utmost care, at once, to a warm, 
dry place. Cleanse the outside of mud, slime, or corrosion. 
*See page 39. 



Then cut off the top carefully at the deeply scored groove 
which has been left to guide the saw. 

Should gas rush out when the inner glass is punctured, 
or when the saw penetrates the crypt, let there be no 
alarm, for this is a harmless gas enclosed as a preservative. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE CAPSULE 

WITHIN the limitations imposed by space, the prob 
lems of preservation, and the difficulty of choosing the 
truly significant to represent all the enormous variety 
and vigor of our life, we have sought to deposit in the 
Time Capsule materials and information touching upon 
all the principal categories of our thought, activity, and 
accomplishment ; sparing nothing, neither our wisdom 
nor our foolishness, our supreme achievements nor our 
recognised weaknesses. 

We have included books and pictures that show 
where and how we live : some in apartments like dwell 
ers in cliffs, but comfortably; others in detached houses ; 
still others moving about the country in homes mount 
ed on wheels. 

We have set forth the story of our architecture, by 
which we have reared soaring pinnacles into the sky. 

We have described the offices and the factories where 
we 'work, the machines that write, compute, tabulate, re 
produce manuscript a thousandfold, sort out, and file ; the 
machines that stamp and fashion metals ; the machines 
and methods with which metals are knit together by 
electricity and cut apart by gas; the complex techniques 
of mass production, with -which articles that consist of 
scores of different materials, requiring hundreds of oper- 

[ 13 ] 



ations to assemble, can nevertheless be sold among us 
for a few cents. 

We have described in text and picture the arts and 
entertainment of our day ; the games we play ; the history 
& development & present attainments of painting, sculp 
ture, music, the theater, motion pictures, and radio. 

We have included copies of representative newspa 
pers & magazines of this day, containing news, articles, 
fiction, and advertisements broadly characteristic of our 
period. We have also included a novel, the most widely 
read of our time. For good measure we have added spec 
imens of our cartoons and "comics," such as daily and 
weekly delight millions in our newspapers and in our 
moving picture theaters. 

Ours is a day of many faiths. We have provided de 
scriptions of the world's religions, numbered their follow 
ers, and enclosed the Holy Bible, a book which is the 
basis of the Christian faith. We have provided outlines 
of the world's principal philosophies. We have discussed 
the all-pervading and effective educational systems of 
our time, and told in text and pictures the story of the 
training of our young. 

We have included a copy of our Constitution, and 
something about our government, under which we live 
as free men, ruled by our own elected representatives 
chosen at regular intervals by the votes of all, both men 
and women. We have included, also, a history of our 
country and a chronological history of the -world. 

Our scientists have measured the speed of light and 
compared the distances of the planets, stars, and nebulae ; 
they have charted the slow evolution of primal proto- 

[ MI 



plasm into man, fathomed the ultimate composition of 
matter and its relation to energy, transmuted the elements, 
measured the earth and explored it, harnessed earth 
quake, electricity, and magnetism to probe what lies be 
neath our feet ; they have shifted the atoms in their lat 
tices and created dyes, materials, stuffs that Nature her 
self forgot to make. The stories of these achievements 
have been set forth in the Time Capsule. 

Our engineers & inventors have harnessed the forces 
of the earth and skies and the mysteries of nature to 
make our lives pleasant, swift, safe, and fascinating be 
yond any previous age. We fly faster, higher, and farther 
than the birds. On steel rails we rush safely, behind giant 
horses of metal and fire. Ships large as palaces thrum 
across our seas. Our roads are alive with self-propelling 
conveyances so complex the most powerful prince could 
not have owned one a generation ago ; yet in our day 
there is hardly a man so poor he cannot afford this form 
of personal mobility. 

Over wires pour cataracts of invisible electric power, 
tamed and harnessed to light our homes, cook our food, 
cool and clean our air, operate the machines of our homes 
& factories, lighten the burdens of our daily labor, reach 
out and capture the voices and music of the air, & work 
a major part of all the complex magic of our day. 

We have made metals our slaves, and learned to change 
their characteristics to our needs. We speak to one an 
other along a network of wires and radiations that en 
mesh the globe, and hear one another thousands of miles 
away as clearly as though the distance were only a few 
feet. We have learned to arrest the processes of decay ; our 



foods are preserved in metal or frost and by these means 
we may have vegetables and fruits in any season, delica 
cies from foreign lands, and adequate diet anywhere. 

All these things, and the secrets of them, and some 
thing about the men of genius of our time and earlier 
days who helped bring them about, will be found in the 
Time Capsule. 

How our physicians have healed the sick, controlled 
pain, and conquered many diseases, has been recounted 
there ; how we have suppressed epidemics through the 
enormous undertakings of our system of public health ; 
how our drugs and biologicals are compounded, and the 
enormous and varied list of them. 

There are included samples and specimens of the new 
materials of our time, created in the laboratories of our 
engineers and chemists, on the looms of our mills, and in 
the forges, furnaces, and vats of our factories. 

There are also samples of the products of our farms, 
where machinery has turned scarcity into abundance ; 
where research has produced plants never seen in na 
ture ; where science now is able to produce plants even 
without soil. 

There are also many small articles that we wear or 
use ; that contribute to the pleasure, comfort, safety, con 
venience, or healthfulness of our lives ; articles with which 
we write, play, groom ourselves, correct our vision, re 
move our beards, illuminate our homes and work-places, 
tell time, make pictures, calculate sums, exchange values, 
protect property, train our children, prepare our food. 

Believing, as have the people of each age, that our wo 
men are the most beautiful, most intelligent, and best 

[ 16] 



groomed of all the ages, we have enclosed in the Time 
Capsule specimens of modern cosmetics, and one of the 
singular clothing creations of our time, a woman's hat. 

That the pronunciation of our English tongue may 
not be lost, a "Key to English" has been prepared and 
printed in this book. That our vocabulary may not be 
forgotten, we have included in the Capsule a dictionary, 
defining more than 140,000 common words and phrase s . 
That our idiom may be preserved, we have provided also 
a dictionary of slang and colloquial expressions. Finally, 
that our method of writing may be recovered, should all 
other record of it disappear, we have included a book in 
which the Lord's Prayer is translated into three hundred 
different tongues ; also the fable "The Story of the North 
Wind & the Sun" translated into twenty-five languages. 
These may serve, as did the trilingual Rosetta stone, to 
help in the translation of our words. 

In the Capsule there are only two actual books of our 
time, in the siz;e and form to which we are accustomed. 
These are this book and the Holy Bible. All the rest have 
been photographed page by page on microfilm, which by 
the small space it requires has permitted us to include on 
four small reels the contents or equivalent of more than 
seventy ordinary books enough in their usual form to 
fill the Capsule's crypt several times over. A magnifying 
instrument is included, with which the microfilm may 
be read. 

Should those who recover the Capsule 'wish to know 
our appearance, and how we dress, act, and talk, there 
have been provided two reels of significant and typical 
scenes of our time, in pictures that move and speak, im- 

[ 17] 



prisoned on ribbons of cellulose coated with silver. If 
knowledge of machines for projecting these pictures and 
voices has disappeared, the machines may nevertheless 
be recreated, after recovery of the Capsule, from photo 
graphs and descriptions. 

Each age considers itself the pinnacle & final triumph 
above all eras that have gone before. In our time many 
believe that the human race has reached the ultimate in 
material and social development ; others, that humanity 
shall march onward to achievements splendid beyond 
the imagination of this day, to new worlds of human 
wealth, power, life, and happiness. We choose, with the 
latter, to believe that men will solve the problems of the 
world, that the human race will triumph over its limita 
tions and its adversities, that the future will be glorious. 

TO THE PEOPLE OF THAT FUTURE 
WE LEAVE THIS LEGACY 



A KEY TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 
DR. JOHN P. HARRINGTON 

ETHNOLOGIST, BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON, D C. 

Our years are like the shadows 

That o'er the meadows fall, 
Are like the fragile wildflower 

That withers by the wall 
A dream, a song, a slory, 

By others quickly told, 
An unremaining glory 

Of years that soon get old. 

ArTER five thousand years all the spoken languages of 
the present time will have become extinct or so al 
tered as to require a key for their understanding. The 
English language spoken in the United States today, if 
not replaced by some other natural or invented tongue, 
will have suffered complete reforming many times over 
through the laws of linguistic evolving laws which 
though proceeding in regular paths will, because of their 
complexity, work the apparent result of radical havoc. 
Books of the present day, through chemical change, will 
have disappeared. 

Records of the Etruscan language of ancient Italy in 
Greek letters which are easily readable have amply sur 
vived to the present time, but no one has been able to un 
derstand the words and their meaning. We have a whole 
book in Etruscan, but no one can understand it. The key 

[ 19] 



to the deciphering of ancient Egyptian was found in 
a brief chance inscription, the trilingual Rosetta stone, 
made for another purpose and never thought of at the 
time as being useful as a key. If the Etruscans, Egyptians, 
or other ancient peoples had planned to make a key for 
us, what would have been their procedure ? If all con 
necting links had been removed, how could such a peo 
ple have conveyed to us the pronunciation, grammar, 
and vocabulary of their language ? 

This question was propounded to the Smithsonian In 
stitution with the result that it was decided that a mouth 
map would be necessary for the transmittal of pronuncia 
tion, diagrams for the conveying of grammatical catego 
ries, and the coinage of a list of "high-frequency English" 
words for the preservation of essential vocabulary. 

The Rosetta stone was a key in that it gave a brief 
sample of translation. The deliberate scientific depicting 
of English of today for the people five thousand years 
from now will give adequate clues entirely independent 
of any furnishing of translation. It shows by a picture of 
the human mouth where each of the various sounds of 
speech comes from and with such clarity that the articu 
lation can be re-enacted. It shows by cartoon-like dia 
grams the putting together of words. It shows by the de 
velopment of a "high-frequency" vocabulary the vital 
constituents of the English of the present time. 

THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH 

THE present English has thirty- three sounds. It is plain 
that the pronunciation cannot be transmitted to the peo 
ple of the far future by traditional inherited spelling with 

[20] 



its enormous irregularities. It is equally clear that if pe 
culiar symbols be given to some of these thirty-three 
sounds, it will be bothersome for typewriter & news 
paper equipment which has only the twenty-six letters. 
The letter j therefore is used instead of the inverted e, 
which last would require a special type, and digraphs, 
& in two instances trigraphs, are used instead of special 
vowel and consonant letters. 

English has eight vowels or sounds whose hemming 
amounts to mere cavity-shape resonance} and twenty- 
five consonants jjwhose hemming amounts to closure, 
violent restriction, or closure followed by restriction}. 

The vowels are all pronounced between the k and the y 
consonant positions, that is, between the back-of-the- 
tongue and the middle-of-the-tongue positions. The vow 
el with highest raised back of the tongue, that is, nearest 
to the k consonant position, is u; the vowel with the 
highest raised middle of the tongue, that is, nearest to 
the y consonant position, is i. w is here classified as a lip 
sound, though it is simultaneously a back-of-the-tongue 
sound. The other vowels have intermediate positions be 
tween the extreme u and i, a being the most open and j 
the most central positioned. The digraph ae. stands for a 
vowel midway, perhaps, between e and a ; ao, for a vowel 
midway, perhaps, between a and o. Vowels occur short 
and long. Since the letter c always stands for k or s, it is 
not needed for regular consonant duty and is here pressed 
into service as a long mark, being written as a silent char 
acter after a vowel where it is necessary to mark it as 
being long. Many vowels are long in English by simple 
rules, and in such instances the length sign c is not writ- 



ten. In fadl, vowel length needs to be written in English 
only after u and i, to distinguish the long from the short 



varieties. 




ILLUSTRATION 1, SHOWING EXACTLY WHERE EACH OF THE 3 3 
SOUNDS OF 18 ENGLISH IS FORMED IN THE ORAL CAVITY. 






Vowel diphthongs are only four in number: ui {rare}, 
oi, au, ai. 

The complete closure consonants of simple form are 
fe, t, p. Those which have the closure with the voice go 
ing simultaneously are g, d, b. 

Restriction consonants of simple form are h, sh, s, th, hu>. 
Those which have the restriction with voice going simul 
taneously are y, %h, %, dh, 1, r, w. 

Consonant diphthong of closure plus restriction of 
simple form is tsh. The same with the voice going simul 
taneously is dz,h. 

Consonants with the mouth completely hemmed but 
the nose open are ng, n, m. 

The English language, like others, proceeds in sylla 
bles. Each syllable consists of a vowel or vowel diph 
thong, plus or minus consonant trimmings. 

A word consisting of more than one syllable has one 
of its syllables, most commonly the next to the last, high 
and loud. Such a high and loud syllable is said to be ac 
cented. One-syllable words may or may not be high and 
loud, but it makes little difference to the understanding, 
whereas polysyllabic words are distorted if the highness 
and loudness are placed on the wrong syllable. 

All sounds are made in the tract between the larynx 
and the lips. The points of articulation are the glottis of 
the larynx, the back of the tongue, the middle of the 
tongue, the front of the tongue, and the lips. Only h comes 
from the larynx. Only three consonants fe, g, ng} come 
from the back of the tongue. Only^ comes from the mid 
dle of the tongue. By far the greatest number of conso 
nants come from the flexible front of the tongue. That 



is why "language," derived from the Latin word lingua, 
"tongue", is frequently called "tongue" in the various id 
ioms of the world. From the front of the tongue come 
thirteen consonants [t, d, sh, ^h, s, 3, tH, dh, tsh, d^h, I, r, nj. 
From the lips come five consonants [p, b, hu>, u;, m.} 

Exercise on the Provenience of Vowels and Consonants 
Vowels Consonants 



put 


pit 


hit 


den dhen 


pin 


not 


hui 


kit 


shin tshin 


bin 


waotjr 


boi 


get 


aezjhur d^hin 


faen 


fadhjr 


bau 


sing 


sin letjr 


hwen 


bjrd 


bai 


yuc 


z;ingk rjn 


\ven 


maen 


mucn 


ten 


thin nic 


men 


men 


mict 









THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH 

THE noun shows only two forms : singular, referring 
to one object, and plural, referring to two or more ob 
jects. This difference is shown by Illustration 2 which 
depicts the singular, "bird," as distinguished from the 
plural, "birds." A possessive case is the only remnant of 
earlier case formation and is formed like the plural by 
adding s, but distinguished orthographically by placing 
an apostrophe ['} before the added s in the singular and 
after it in the plural : "bird's," "birds'." 

Singgyular aend Plucral Singular and Plural. 





The personal pronoun distinguishes three persons, see 
Illustration 3: The first person is the self of the speaking 
subject ; the second person is the speaking subject ad 
dressed ; the third person is the person neither originat 
ing the speech nor directly addressed. These three per 
sons also have plurals : "I we," "you you," "he, she, 
it they." It will be noticed that only in the third per 
son singular is gender distinguished: "he," masculine 
animate ; "she," feminine animate ; "it," inanimate, also 
sometimes used when a lower animal is the object re 
ferred to, as : the sheep, it graces. 

The demonstrative pronouns have only two degrees 
of remoteness : "this" hereQ, and "that" [there]. The 
demonstrative adverbs "here" and "there" correspond. 



Pjrsjn Person 



Rjmoctnes Remoteness 




yuc dhaet 




Illustration 3 



Illustration 4 



Adjectives express permanent or acquired attributes 
of an object. They are often explained by giving the op- 
posites, as in Illustration 5, where "young" and "old," 
"black" & "white," "short" & " tall" are contrasted. 




ymg 



odd 



Opjzits Opposites 





short taol 

Illustration 5 




blaek hwait 



Adjectives have three degrees of comparison, as in 
Illustration 6, good being the positive, better indicating 
that good is excelled as one racer excels another, & best 
indicating that good is excelled as one racer excels all. 

Kompaerisjn Comparison 
gud 

betjr 

best 

Illustration 6 

Frequent verbs, that is, words denoting action or sta 
tus, are shown graphically in Illustration 7, which gives : 
I lie, I sit, I stand, I walk, I run, I kick, I jump, I crawl, 
I climb, I descend. 






f 



ai lai ai sit ai staend ai waok ai rjn ai kik 





ai dzhjmp ai kraol ai klaim ai djsend 

Illustration 7 

[26] 



Tensez Tenses 



paest prezjnt fyuctyur 

Illustration 8 

The verb has three main tenses or times, well shown 
in Illustration 8, where the steamer in mid-water is the 
present, the port left behind indicates the past, and the 
port which is the destination is the future of the action. 

The verb in 1 9 3 8 English has still another expression : 
it is principal or subordinate. Illustration 9 shows the 
sentence: "Running he aimed," in which "aimed" is the 
principal verb and "running" the subordinate. 



Sjbordinecshjn 

Subordination 




Rjning hie ecmd 

Illustration 9 

To illustrate these elements of English grammar, and 
as an exercise in 1938 English pronunciation, we give 
next a little story, The Fable of the Northwind and the 
Sun, written first in neo-phonetic spelling, followed by 
the ordinary English spelling. 

['7 I 



DHJ FECBJL JV DHJ NORTHWIND AEND DHJ SJN 
The Fable of the Northwind and the Sun 

Dh] Northwind aend dhj Sjn wjr dispyucting whitsh woz dhj 
stronggjr, hwen j traevjljr kecm jlong raepd in j worm klock. Dhec 
jgricd dhaet dhj wjn hue fjrst meed dhj traevjljr teck of hiz klock 
shud bic konsidjrd stronggjr dhaen dhj jdhjr. Dhen dhj Northwind 
blue widh aol hiz mait, bjt dhj mocr hie blue, dhj mocr klocsli did dhj 
traevjljr focld hiz klock jraund him, aend aet laest dhj Northwind 
gecv jp dhj jtempt. Dhen dhj Sjn shocn aut wormli, aend imicdijtli 
dhj traevjljr tuk of hiz klock; aend soc dhj Northwind woz jblaidzhd 
tj konfes dhaet dhj Sjn woz dhj stronggjr jv dhj tuc. 

The Northwind and the Sun were disputing which was the 
stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. 
They agreed that the one who first made the traveler take off his 
cloak should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North- 
wind blew with all his might, but the more he blew, the more closely 
did the traveler fold his cloak around him ; and at last the Northwind 
gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shone out warmly, and immedi 
ately the traveler took off his cloak; and so the Northwind was 
obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two. 



As a further aid to translation and pronunciation, we 
have enclosed in the Time Capsule reproductions of this 
simply worded fable in twenty-five languages. We fol 
low, here, with the English vocabulary most used in 
1938 the thousand words most essential to our daily 
speech and thought. Taking a suggestion from the elec 
trical engineers, we have named the vocabulary "High- 
frequency English," We attach, also, two more illustra 
tions, one showing an exterior view of 1 9 3 8 life, the other 
an interior view, with common terms indicated. 

[28] 



VOCABULARY OF HIGH-FREQUENCY 
ENGLISH 

THE THOUSAND MOST-USED WORDS OF ENGLISH 
IN NEO-PHONETIC SPELLING 

(Editor's 7v(ote Dr. Harrington has compiled this list follow 
ing detailed statistical study of newspapers, magazines, boo\s 
of varying calibre and purpose, and most especially the silent 
stream of thought, the words spo\en every day, and the words 
most frequently used on the radio and recorded by phonograph. 
The list has been further improved by comparison with vocabu* 
laries given in the various boo\s used for learning foreign Ian' 
guages, and especially with the statistical wor\ of Professor 
Curme in determining the commonest words of German). 




Illustration 10 

Autdocr Necmz (Outdoor Names) 

I smock (smoke) 2 skai (sky) 3 klaud (cloud) 4 barn (barn) 

5 hecstaek (haystack) 6 trie (tree) 7 wudz (woods) 8 haus (house) 

9 kau (cow) I field (field) I I fens (fence) 1 2 rocd (road) 

I 3 hors (horse) 14 aotomobicl (automobile) 




Illustration 1 1 

Indocr Necmz (Indoor Names) 

I pot (pot) 2 tecbjl (table) 3 bocl (bowl) 4 ridzhpocl (ridgepole) 
5 tshimni (chimney) 6 fairplecs (fireplace) 7 naif (knife) 8 fair (fire) 
9 r Jg ( ru g) ' tshaer (chair) I I bed (bed) 1 2 waol (wall) 
I 3 doer (door) 14 windoc (window) I 5 raeftjr (rafter) 1 6 gjn (gun) 
1 7 aeks (axe) I 8 kaet (cat) 



aeftjr (after) aeks (axe) 
ailjnd (island) ais (ice) 
aem (am) aend (and) 



a 

ai (I, eye) aidicj (idea) aijrn (iron) 
aekjmpjni (accompany) aekt (act) 
aengkjl (ankle) aenimjl (animal) 



aenjdhjr (another) aensj'r (answer) aent (aunt) aepjl (apple) 
aer (air) aesk (ask) aet (at) aez (as) aol (all) aolredi (already) 
aolwecz (always) aot (ought) ar (are) arm (arm) art (art) 
aut (out) aur (our) awr (hour) 

[3] 



baed (bad) baeg (bag) back (back) baengk (bank) baer (bear) 
baeth (bath) bai (buy, by) baind (bind) bait (bite) baol (ball) 
baot (bought) barn (barn) bau (bow) baujlz (bowels) baund (bound) 
becbi(baby) becdh (bathe) beck (bake) bees (base) bed (bed) 
beg (beg) bel (bell) beli (belly) beri (bury, berry) best (best) 
betjr (better) bic (be, bee) bicf (beef) bicnz (beans) 

bict (beat, beet), big (big) bilding (building) bin (been) bitjr (bitter) 
bizi (busy) bizniz (business) bjfocr (before) bjgin (begin) 
bjhaind (behind) bjkazo (because) bjket (bucket) bjkjm (become) 
bjlicv (believe) bjloc (below) bjrd (bird) bjrth (birth) bjsaid (beside) 
bjt (but, butt) bjtjr (butter) bird (beard) bjrn (burn) bjrst (burst) 
bjtjn (button) bjtwicn (between) black (black) blaenket (blanket) 
blaind (blind) bleed (blade) blecm (blame) blecz (blaze) bljd (blood) 
bloc (blow) blue (blue) bocld (bold) bocn (bone) bocr (bore) 
bocrd (board) boct(boat) bodi(body) boi (boy) bocl(bowl) 
boks(box) born (born) boroc (borrow) botjl (bottle) botjm (bottom) 
brait (bright) brau (brow) braun (brown) breck (break, brake) 
brecn (brain) brecv (brave) bred (bread, bred) brest (breast) 
breth (breath) bridzh (bridge) brik (brick) bring (bring) 
brjdhjr (brother) brjsh (brush) brock (broke) brockjn (broken) 
buk (book) bynctiful (beautiful) 



daens (dance) daotjr (daughter) dark (dark) daun (down) 
daut (doubt) dec (day) ded (dead) def (deaf) det (debt) deth (death) 
dhaen(than) dhaet(that) dhec(they) d hecr (their, there) d hem (them) 
dhen (then) dhis (this) dhicz (these) dhj (the) dhoc (though) 
dhocz (those) dicl (deal) dicp (deep) dicr (dear, deer) did (did) 
d if jrjnt (different) dig (dig) dim (dim) dish (dish) djl (dull) 
djn (done, dun) djrt (dirt) djrti (dirty) djst (dust) djz (does) 
docr(door) dog(dog) doktjr (doctor) doljr(dollar) draeg (drag) 
drai (dry) draiv (drive) drao (draw) draun (drown) dres(dress) 
dringk(drink) drjngk(drunk) drop (drop) dzhob (job) dzhoin (join) 
dzhjdzh (judge) dzhjmp (jump) due (do) 

[31 ] 



ecbjl (able) eck (ache) ecm (aim) ect (eight, ate) ecti (eighty) 
ecticn (eighteen) edzh (edge) eg (egg) empti (empty) end (end) 
enemi (enemy) eni (any) entjr (enter) evjr (ever) evri (every) 



fadhjr (father) faekt (fact) faest (fast) fact (fat) fain (fine) faind (find) 
fair (fire) fait (fight) faiv (five) faol (fall) far (far) farm (farm) 
fees (face) fedhjr (feather) fel (fell) fens (fence) field (field) ficl (feel) 
ficr (fear) ficst (feast) fifti (fifty) fifticn (fifteen) fiks (fix) 
fmggjr (finger) finish (finish) fish (fish) fjrst (first) flaeg(flag) flaet (flat) 
flai (fly) flaur (flower, flour) fling (fling) flocn (flown) flocr (floor) 
floct (float) flue (flue, flew, flu) focld (fold) focr (four) 
focrticn (fourteen) fols (false) for (for) fork (fork) form (form) 
fors (force) forti (forty) forwjrd (forward) frend (friend) fresh (fresh) 
fric(free) frjm (from) frjnt (front) fruct (fruit) fucd (food) fuel (fool) 
fuclish (foolish) ful (full) fut (foot) fyuc (few) fyuctyur (future) 

g 

gaedhjr (gather) gaes (gas) gaid (guide) gaon (gone) gardjn (garden) 
get (get) gecv (gave) giv (give) gilti (guilty) gjn (gun) 
gjrl (girl) gjts (guts) glaed (glad) gljv (glove) glaes (glass) goc (go) 
gocld (gold) goct (goat) got (got) graes (grass) grec (gray) 
grecp (grape) greet (great) gricn (green) grip (grip) groc (grow) 
gud (good) gudbai (good-bye) 



haef(half) haemjr (hammer) haend (hand) haendkjrtshif (handkerchief) 
haeng (hang) haepi (happy) haer( hair) haet (hat) haev (have) 
haez (has) haed (had) hai (high) haid (hide) hard (hard) hart (heart) 
hau (how) haus (house) hect (hate) hed (head) held (held) 
helth (health) hie (he) hicl (heel, heal) hip (hip) hicr (hear, here) 
hict (heat) hidjn (hidden) hil (hill) him (him) hit (hit) hiz (his) 
hjndred (hundred) hjnggjr (hunger) hjnggri (hungry) hjnt (hunt) 
hjr(her) hjrt(hurt) hjzbjnd (husband) hocl (hole, whole) hocld (hold) 



hocp (hope) holoc (hollow) hop (hop) horn (horn) hors (horse) 
hot (hot) hue (who) hucm (whom) hucz (whose) huf(hoof) 
huk (hook) hwaer (where, wear, ware) hwai (why) hwail (while) 
hwait (white) hwedhjr (whether) hwen (when) hwicl (wheel) 
hwiskjrz (whiskers) hwiski (whiskey) hwisjl (whistle) hwip (whip) 
hwitsh (which) hwjt (what) 



i 

icr (ear) icst (east) ict (eat) icvn (even) icvning (evening) if (if) 
il (ill) in (in) ingk ( ink) it (it) its (its) iz (is) 



j 

j (a) jbjv (above) jdhj'r (other) jfrecd (afraid) jgen (again) 
jgenst (against) jgoc(ago) jkaunt (account) jksept (except) 
jkros (across) jlaiv (alive) jlektrik (electric) jlevjn (eleven) 
jmjng (among) jn (an) jndjr (under) jndjrstaend (understand) 
jnjf (enough) jnkjl (uncle) jntil (until) jp (up) jpjr (upper) 
jraund (around) jrli (early) jrn (earn) jrth (earth) js (us) jv (of) 
jvjn (oven) jwec (away) jweck (awake) 



kaebedzh (cabbage) kaef(calf) kaen (can) kaer (care) kaeri (carry) 
kaet (cat) kaetj I (cattle) kaetsh (catch) kaind (kind) kaof (cough) 
kaol (call) kaot (caught) kar (car) kard (card) kau (cow) 
kaunt (count) keck (cake) kecm (came) kept (kept) ketjl (kettle) 
kic (key) kik (kick) kicp (keep) kil (kill) king (king) kis (kiss) 
kraek (crack) krai (cry) kreczi (crazy) kraim (crime) krjsh (crush) 
kruked (crooked) kjmpaenyjn (companion) kjntri (country) kjp (cup) 
kjt (cut) klaim (climb) klaud (cloud) klicn (clean) klicr (clear) 
klocs (close) klok (clock) klocz (close) kloth (cloth) kocld (cold) 
kocm (comb) kocrn (corn) koct (coat) kofi (coffee) koljr (collar) 
kopi (copy) kopjr (copper) kornjr (corner) kost (cost) 

kotjn (cotton) kucl (cool) kud (could) kukd (cooked) kuk (cook) 
kwaijt (quiet) kwait (quite) kwestshjn (question) kwicn (queen) 
kwik (quick) kwoliti (quality) kworel (quarrel) kyucr (cure) 

[ 33] 



I 

lee (lay) laef (laugh) laend (land) laengwedzh (language) 
laemp(lamp) laest (last) lai (lie, lye) laif(life) laijn (lion) 
laik(like) lain (line) lait (light) lao (law) lecdi (lady) leek (lake) 
lecm(lame) lect (late) led (lead, led) leczi (lazy) left (left) leg (leg) 
les(less) let (let) letjr (letter) levjl (level) lied (lead) lief (leaf) 
lien (lean) licst (least) licv (leave) lift (lift) lip (lip) list (list) 
litjl (little) liv(live) Ijk(luck) Ijmp(lump) Ijv (love) Ijrn (learn) 
loc(low) locd (load) locjr (lower) lok(lock) long (long) 
los (loss) lost (lost) lots (lots) lues (loose) luk(look) lucz(lose) 



maed(mad) maen(man) maeri (marry) m act] r( matter) maetsh (match) 
mai (my) mait (might) mark (mark) mauntjn (mountain) 
maus (mouse) mauth (mouth) mec (may) mecbic (maybe) 
meed (made, maid) meek (make) medisin (medicine) melt (melt) 
men (men) meni (many) mesh (mesh) met (met) metjl (metal) 
mezhur(measure) mic(me) mjd(mud) mjdhjr (mother) mjni (money) 
mjnth (month) mjsh (mush) mjshicn (machine) mjst (must) 
mjtsh (much) micl (meal) mien (mean) mict (meet, meat) 
midjl (middle) milk (milk) mis (miss) mocr(more) mocst (most) 
morning (morning) mucn (moon) mucv (move) 

n 

naif (knife) nain (nine) nainticn (nineteen) nainti (ninety) 
nais (nice) nait (night) nau (now) necbjr (neighbor) necl (nail) 
necm (name) necshjn (nation) nefyu (nephew) nek (neck) 
nektai (necktie) nic(knee) nicd (need) nicdjl (needle) nicr(near) 
nies(niece) njmbjr(number) njn(none) nj'rv(nerve) njthing(nothing) 
njt (nut) noc (no) noct (note) nocz (nose) noiz (noise) nok (knock) 
north (north) not (not, knot) nucn (noon) nyuc (new) nyucz (news) 



ocld (old) ocn (own) ocnli (only) ocvjr(over) of (off) ofis (office) 

ofjn(often) ofjr(offer) oil(oil) olsoc(also) on(on) opjzit (opposite) 

or (or) ordjr (order) ocpjn (open) 

[34] 



paek (pack) paents (pants) paes (pass) paest (past) pai (pie) 
part (part) paudjr (powder) paujr (power) paund (pound) 
pec (pay) pecn (pain) pecnt (paint) pecpjr (paper) pecst (paste) 
pen (pen) picl (peel, peal) picpjl (people) pics (piece, peace) 

pictsh (peach) pig (pig) pin (pin) pjmp (pump) 
pjrhaeps (perhaps) pjrpjs (purpose) pjrsjn (person) pjtecto (potato) 
plaent (plant) plau (plow) plec (play) plecn (plain, plane) 
plecs (place) plect (plate, plait) plezhur (pleasure) plicz (please) 
point (point) poket (pocket) pot (pot) praud (proud) prec (pray) 
precz (praise) pres (press) prezjnt (present) print (print) 
prucf (proof) prucv (prove) pruti (pretty) pucr (poor) pul (pull) 
push (push) put (put) pyucr (pure) 



raebit (rabbit) raen (ran) raer (rare) raet (rat) raid (ride) 
rais (rice, rise) rait (write, right) raiz (rise) rao (raw) raund (round) 
rec(ray) reed ioc (radio) recn (rain, reign) recndzh (range) 
rect (rate) recz (raise) red (red) red! (ready) rent (rent) 
rest (rest) ricd (read) rictsh (reach) riczijn (reason) ring (ring) 
rip (rip) ritjn (written) ritsh (rich) rivjr (river) rjb (rub) 
rjf (rough) rjmecn (remain) rjn (run) rocd (road) rocl (roll, role) 
rocz (rose) rok (rock) rong (wrong) rot (rot) rotjn (rotten) 
rucl (rule) ruf(roof) rum (room) rut (root) ryucl (rule) 



saed (sad) saek (sack) saend (sand) saet (sat) said (side) sain (sign) 
sait (sight, site) sao (saw) saujr(sour) saund (sound) sauth (south) 
sec (say) secf(safe) seem (same) secv (save) sed (said) 
sekjnd (second) sel (sell) self (self) send (send) sens (sense) 
sent (cent, sent) set (set) seventicn (seventeen) sevjn (seven) 
sevjnti (seventy) shaedoc (shadow) shael (shall) shain (shine) 
sharp (sharp) sheck (shake) shecm (shame) shecv (shave) shel (shell) 
shic (she) shicp (sheep) shier (shear) shict (sheet )ship (ship) 
shjrt (shirt) shjt (shut) shoe (show) short (short) shuc (shoe) 
shucr(sure) shuct (shoot) shud (should) shugjr (sugar) sic (sea, see) 

[35] 



sicd(seed) sicm(seem) sicn (scene, seen) sict(seat) sik(sick) siks (six) 
siksti (sixty) si ksticn (sixteen) sili (silly) silvjr (silver) singk(sink) 
sistjr (sister) sit (sit) siti (city) sizjrz (scissors) sjdjn (sudden) 
sjfjr (suffer) sjk(suck) sjm (some) (sjmjr (summer) 

sjmthing (something) sjn (sun, son) sjrv (serve) sjtsh (such) 
skai (sky) skecl (scale) skin (skin) skjrt (skirt) skocld (scold) 
skraetsh (scratch) skruc (screw) skucl (school) skwaer (square) 
skwicz (squeeze) slaotjr (slaughter) slicp (sleep) slicpi (sleepy) 
sling (sling) slip (slip) sloe (slow) small (smile) smaol (small) 
smart (smart) smel (smell) smock (smoke) smucdh (smooth) 
sneck (snake) snicz (sneeze) snoc (snow) snocr (snore) soc (so) 
socldzhjr (soldier) socp (soap) soft (soft) soc (sew, sow, so) 
socl(soul) sok(sock) solti (salty) solt (salt) song (song) 
sort (sort) spend (spend) spick (speak) spictsh (speech) spil (spill) 
spin (spin) spit (spit) split (split) spoil (spoil) spraut (sprout) 
spring (spring) staemp (stamp) staend (stand) staerz (stairs) star(star) 
start (start) stec (stay) steck (stake, steak) step (step) 

sticl (steal, steel) sticm (steam) stif (stiff) stik (stick) stiki (sticky) 
stil (still) stingk (stink) stitsh (stitch) stjdi (study) stocn (stone) 
stocr (store) stbcri (story) stocv (stove) stop (stop) storm (storm) 
straik (strike) straipd (striped) strecn (strain) strecndzh (strange) 
street (straight, strait) stretsh (stretch) strict (street) string (string) 
strip (strip) strong (strong) stucpid (stupid) sucp (soup) sun (soon) 
swel (swell) swet (sweat) swicp (sweep) swict (sweet) swim (swim) 
swoloc (swallow) swop (swap) syuct (suit) 



taeks(tax) taer (tear) taim (time) taird (tired) tait (tight) 
taok(talk) taol (tall) taot (taught) taun (town) tecbjl (table) 
teck(take) teckjn (taken) tecl (tail, tale) teem (tame) 

tecst (taste) tel (tell) ten (ten) thaot (thought) 

thauzjnd (thousand) thief (thief) thik (thick) thin (thin) 
thing (thing) thingk (think) thjm (thumb) thjndjr (thunder) 
th red (thread) throe (throw) thric (three) thjrst (thirst) 
thjrsti (thirsty) thjrti (thirty) thjrticn (thirteen) thorn (thorn) 
throe (throw) throct (throat) thruc (through) tic (tea) tictsh (teach) 
til (till) tin (tin) tip (tip) tjb(tub) tjdec (today) tjgedhjr (together) 
tjmoroc (tomorrow) tjng (tongue) tjrn (turn) tjtsh (touch) toe (toe) 

[36 3 



tocld (told) top (top) torn (torn) towjrdz (towards) trai (try) 
trip (trip) true (true) tshaens (chance) tshaer (chair) 

tshaild (child) tshecs (chase) tsheindzh (change) tshick (cheek) 
tshicf (chief) tshicp (cheap) tshimni (chimney) tshin (chin) 
tshicz (cheese) tshecn (chain) tshock (choke) tshuc(chew) 
tshucz (choose) tuc(to, two) tucth (tooth) tuk(took) twelv (twelve) 
twenti (twenty) twenti-faiv (twenty-five) twenti-wjn (twenty-one) 

twist (twist) 

V 

vain (vine) veri (very) vesjl (vessel) 

W 

waid (wide) waif (wife) waild (wild) wain (wine) waind (wind) 
waiz (wise) waok (walk) waol (wall) waotjr (water) 

wee (way, weigh) wecst (waist) wecdzhez (wages) 
week (wake) wect (wait, weight) wecv (wave) wed hjr (weather) 
wel (well) went (went) west (west) wet (wet) wic (we) 
wick (weak) wicp (weep) widhin (within) widh (with) 

widhaut (without) wil (will) windoc (window) wind (wind) 
wing (wing) wintj'r (winter) wish (wish) wjn (one) wjns (once) 
wjr (were) wj'rd (word) wjrk(work) wjrld (world) 

wjrs (worse) wj'rst (worst) wjrm (worm) wont (want) wo r (war) 
worm (warm) wosh (wash) watsh (watch) woz (was) 

wud (would, wood) wudz (woods) wul (wool) wumen (women) 

wumjn (woman) 

y 

yaon (yawn) ye I (yell) yeloc (yellow) yes (yes) 

yestj'rdec (yesterday) yet (yet) yicr(year) yj n g( voun g) 

yocr(your) yuc (you) yucs (use) yucz (use) 



UNITS OF LINEAR MEASUREMENT 
ENGLISH SYSTEM 



< 1INCH > 

12 inches = i foot 

3 feet = i yard 

5,280 feet = i mile 

i inch 2.54 centimeters 
METRIC SYSTEM 



1 CENTIMETER 

i centimeter = 10 millimeters 
100 centimeters = i meter 
1000 meters i kilometer 
i centimeter = .3937 inch 

i meter is equal to 1,553,164.13 wave 
lengths of red cadmium light 



SEEKING METALLIC SUBSTANCES 
BENEATH THE GROUND 

SHERWIN KELLY 

CHAIRMAN, COMMITTEE ON GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF 

EXPLORATION, AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING 

AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERS 

THOUGH in all probability methods more sensitive 
than any we have today will be employed in the fu 
ture to seek for metallic bodies beneath the earth, it is 
possible, too, that this will become a lost art. It is there 
fore suggested that the Time Capsule may be discovered 
by detecting the secondary electromagnetic field induced 
in it by a strong primary electrical field created at the 
surface of the ground. 

Construct a loop some ten feet in diameter, composed 
of several turns of well-insulated wire, fashioned in such 
a manner that it can be moved systematically over the 
area within which the Capsule is believed to lie. While 
the loop stands vertically, pass through it an alternating 
current of 1,000 to 5,000 cycles, using a power source 
of 200 watts. The primary electromagnetic field thus set 
up around the loop will intersect any metallic material 
in the vicinity, such as the Capsule, and will induce in it 
a secondary current. This current will produce a second 
ary electromagnetic field such as will distort the pri 
mary field of the "energising" loop. This distortion, prop 
erly interpreted, will indicate the location of the Capsule. 
To investigate this phenomenon, construct a second, 
smaller coil, approximately a foot in diameter, made up 
of a large number of turns of insulated wire. To the coil 

[39] 



should be connected an amplifier which in turn is con 
nected to some type of current indicator, such as a galva 
nometer or telephone receiver. Some means should be 
provided for accurately measuring the strike or direction 
of the coil in the horizontal plane, as well as its dip or 
deviation from the vertical position. On level ground, 
where there is nothing to distort the primary field, the 
current generated in the small, or pickup coil will be at a 
minimum jthat is, produce the least deflection of the gal 
vanometer needle or the least sound in the telephone re 
ceiver] when its plane is perpendicular to that of the 
large coil. Conversely, the maximum current will be ob 
served when the two coils are in the same plane. It is 
well to take both observations as a checkup before begin 
ning the search for the Capsule. If the instrument is work 
ing properly, the positions of minimum and maximum 
current in the pickup coil should be at right angles to 
each other. 

In exploring for the Capsule, observations may be 
made with the pickup coil in two ways. 

First : Take measurements in the plane of the energiz;- 
ing loop, moving farther and farther away from it in short 
stages of five or ten feet. Do not work too close to the 
energizing loop. If during this survey the pickup coil 
passes over buried metallic material it will be noted that 
the positions of the coil do not correspond to those de 
scribed for an undistorted field. The divergence from the 
normal dip will be at a maximum over the hidden body, 
\vhereas the deviation from the normal strike will in 
crease as the metallic substance is approached, reverse to 
a maximum in the opposite direction as the spot is passed 

[40] 



over, and then decrease as the coil moves farther away. 

Second : Take readings along lines at right angles to 
the measurements suggested in the first method above. 
These readings should be taken approximately five to 
ten feet apart, extending fifty to one hundred feet each 
side of the plane of the energizing coil. The lines of ob 
servation should cross the first line every five feet. Ob' 
serve the position of maximum current in the pickup 
coil. In an undisturbed field the coil should stand verti 
cally. As the metallic body is approached the position of 
maximum current in the pickup will stand at an angle 
from the vertical, and its plane will point roughly to the 
buried metallic mass. When it passes over the Capsule, 
the plane of maximum current of the pickup coil will 
again become vertical. As the coil passes beyond, it will 
reverse & point in the opposite direction. The strike will 
undergo a maximum deviation from its normal position 
as the Capsule is passed. 

By a combination of these two methods it should be 
possible to locate the position of the Time Capsule within 
a few feet. However, if any other metallic objects lie with 
in the area, they may also give indications. In our day we 
know of no way to distinguish by geophysical prospect 
ing between different types of metallic substances when 
they are concealed beneath the ground. 



74(00' 



73|55' 73ISO' 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 



73145' 



40S5J_ 



4050]_ 




<1040' 



SPRINGFIELD 



74 e loo' 



73l55' 



73l50' 



73[<I5' 



DETERMINATION OF LATITUDE 
AND LONGITUDE 

COMMANDER C. L. GARNER 

CHIEF, DIVISION OF GEODESY 
UNITED STATES COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 

C. H. SWICK 

CHIEF, SECTION OF GRAVITY AND ASTRONOMY, DIVISION OF 
GEODESY, UNITED STATES COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 

HPHE geodetic latitude and longitude of the Time Cap- 
-L sule has been determined by the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey by means of precise triangulation 
measurements from nearby stations of an extensive rigid 
Federal net comprising more than fifty thousand stations 
distributed over the United States. The net extends from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, across the entire North 
American continent, and is included between latitudes 
25 and 49 north of the Equator, and longitudes 6 8 and 
125 west from Greenwich, England. The net has been 
extended into Canada and Mexico by the two countries 
involved & the datum on which it is based is called the 
North American Datum of 1 9 27. 

The accompanying sketch shows the first-order sta 
tions of the national net in the general vicinity of the 
Time Capsule. It should be noted that the latitude and 
longitude furnished for the Capsule are geodetic & may 
differ by as much as five seconds or more from the lati 
tude and longitude determined by astronomical obser 
vations alone. This is due to deflections of the plumb line 
from the vertical, which are caused by the attraction of 
mountain masses or other topographic features & by the 

[43 ] 



unequal distribution of mass in the crust of the earth. 
These deflections can be determined only by compari 
son of geodetic and astronomic latitudes and longitudes 
at identical or nearly identical stations. No astronomic 
observations have been made at the point above the 
Capsule. However, at station Forest Park, shown on the 
sketch, observations for astronomical longitude, latitude, 
and az;imuth have been made and furnish the following 
comparison : 

Geodetic latitude 40 41' 49". 518 

Astronomic latitude 40 41' 42". 38 

Geodetic longitude 73 51' 43^.966 

Astronomic longitude 73 51' 42^.30 

Geodetic azimuth to station School 190 07' 54". 20 

Astronomic azimuth to station School 190 07' 55" .28 

Any operations for locating the Capsule by astronom 
ical means should be started as nearly as possible at sta 
tion Forest Park. After this point has been located the 
measurement of a base line for the determination of dis 
tances and the extension of triangulation to the position 
of the Time Capsule can be done without difficulty. 

A study of conditions in and around New York City 
would indicate that there will be no chance five thousand 
years from now of recovering any of the triangulation 
stations shown on the sketch except possibly Forest Park. 
This station is located in Forest Park, Borough of Queens, 
New York City, six meters north of Park Lane and 70 
meters east of the easterly line of Forest Parkway ex- 
tendedj. It is marked by a cross in a granite post o.i 5 
meter square and 0.6 meter long embedded in a mass of 
concrete 0.9 meter square and 1.2 meters deep. 

[44] 



It should be noted that according to the present sys- 
tern in use in this country, the distance from the Equator 
to either pole is divided into 90 degrees J and each de 
gree is equal to 60 minutes ['] or 3 600 seconds "}. The 
unit of length is the meter 3.28083 feet J . At station For 
est Park one second of latitude equals 30.846 meters, 
and one minute equals 1 8 50.77 meters. 

A more detailed description of the triangulation net 
of the United States and of the North American Datum 
of 1927 will be found in the Capsule. 



MESSAGES FOR THE FUTURE FROM 
NOTED MEN OF OUR TIME 

TN ORDER that peoples who live long after us may see 
J_ our world somewhat as we see it, and understand at 
least some of the viewpoints of our contemporary world, 
three men, chosen for their high reputation among us, 
have summed up in their own words the strengths and 
weaknesses of our age, pointed out the discernible trends 
of human history, & envisioned something of the future. 
The messages follow. 

[45] 



THE MESSAGE OF DR. ROBERT A. MILLIKAN 

AT this moment, August 22, 1938, the principles of 
representative ballot government, such as are represent 
ed by the governments of the Anglo-Saxon, French, and 
Scandinavian countries, are in deadly conflict with the 
principles of despotism, which up to two centuries ago 
had controlled the destiny of man throughout practically 
the whole of recorded history. If the rational, scientific, 
progressive principles win out in this struggle there is a 
possibility of a warless, golden age ahead for mankind. 
If the reactionary principles of despotism triumph now 
and in the future, the future history of mankind will re 
peat the sad story of war and oppression as in the past. 





ROBERT A. MILLIKAN 1868- }, physicist, isolated and meas 
ured the ultimate electric unit, the electron; contributed greatly 
to other fields of research, especially photoelectric phenomena 
and cosmic rays; awarded Nobel Priz;e in physics, 1923; chair 
man, Executive Council, California Institute of Technology, Pas 
adena, California. 

[46] 



THE MESSAGE OF DR. THOMAS MANN 

WE know now that the idea of the future as a "better 
world" was a fallacy ofthe doctrine of progress.The hopes 
we center on you, citizens of the future, are in no way 
exaggerated. In broad outline, you 'will actually resemble 
us very much as we resemble those who lived a thou 
sand, or five thousand, years ago. Among you too the 
spirit will fare badly it should never fare too well on 
this earth, otherwise men would need it no longer. That 
optimistic conception of the future is a projection into 
time of an endeavor which does not belong to the tem 
poral world, the endeavor on the part of man to approxi 
mate to his idea of himself, the humaniz;ation of man. 
What we, in this year of Our Lord 1938, understand by 
the term "culture" a notion held in small esteem today 
by certain nations ofthe western world is simply this 
endeavor. What we call the spirit is identical with it, too. 
Brothers of the future, united with us in the spirit and 
in this endeavor, we send our greetings. 








THOMAS MANN [ 1 875- }, German novelist & essayist ; awarded 
Nobel Priz;e in literature, 1929. Now living in the United States. 

[47] 



THE MESSAGE OF DR. ALBERT EINSTEIN 



3?n imferer 3eit gibt e3 biele erfinbungfreidje $b'pfe, beren 
(Srfinbungen unfer eben in fyofyent SOfaffe erleidjtern fonnten. 
SBir burdjqueren Me SWeere mit 9#afdjinenfraft unb benutgen bie 
letjtere audj, urn bte Sftenfdjen bon alter anftrengenben SOfoffel- 
arbett p befreten. SSir (jabett fliegen gelernt unb fenben un$ be- 
quem alle ^a^rtc^ten iiber bte ganje @rbe burd^ eleftrif$e SSellen. 

5lber bte ^robitftton unb ^Sertetlitng ber liter ift toollig 
ttnorganiftert, fo bafe jeber in ber 5lngft leben mufe, au8 bent 
f >ber SBirtfc^aft aufgefd^altet su tuerben unb an allent 
p Ietben 5lufferbem toten etnanber bte SWcnf^cn, bte 
in tierfc^tebenen Sftnbern h)o^nen, in unregelma'fetgen 3 e ^ab- 
fc^nttten, fo ba^ and) au^ biefent runbe alle in ^urcfit unb 
c^recfen leben, toeldje fic^ irgenbrt)ie uber bie ^uteft ebanfen 
macfien. 2llle6 l)angt batnit jufammen, bafe bie Intelligent unb 
(l)arafter-33ilbung ber 9^a[(en unt)erglei($li(^ tiefer ftef)t al 
bie entfpred^enben igenfcfyaften ber luenigen, bie filr bie 
e(amtf)eit SSertbolle^ Ijerborbringen. 

^offentlid^ lieft bag fpatere efc^lec^t biefe $onftatierun- 
gen mit bent efiiljl ftoljer unb berec^tigter Uberlegenljeit. 



"% 



ALBERT EINSTEIN [ 1 879- ], theoretical physicist ; discoverer and 
exponent of the theory of relativity; life member of the Insti 
tute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. 

[48] 



AUTHORIZED ENGLISH TRANSLATION 

Herewith follows Dr. Einstein's message in authorised 
English translation : 

OUR time is rich in inventive minds, the inventions of 
which could facilitate our lives considerably. We are 
crossing the seas by power and utilise power also in or 
der to relieve humanity from all tiring muscular work. 
We have learned to fly and we are able to send mes 
sages and news without any difficulty over the entire 
world through electric waves. 

However, the production and distribution of commod 
ities is entirely unorganised so that everybody must live 
in fear of being eliminated from the economic cycle, in 
this way suffering for the want of everything. Further 
more, people living in different countries kill each other 
at irregular time intervals, so that also for this reason any 
one who thinks about the future must live in fear and 
terror. This is due to the fact that the intelligence & char 
acter of the masses are incomparably lower than the in 
telligence and character of the few who produce some 
thing valuable for the community. 

I trust that posterity will read these statements with 
a feeling of proud and justified superiority. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

AvfONG the scientists, scholars and other persons of 
special skills of our time, several hundred have co 
operated with men of the Westinghouse Electric & Man 
ufacturing Company to shape the Time Capsule, deter 
mine its contents, and guide the writing and making of 
this book. To all of them we give acknowledgment and 
gratitude, and especially to the following : 

JOHN ARCHER, Superintendent of the Printing Office, The New 
York Public Library. 

HOWARD BLAKESLEE, Science Editor, The Associated Press. 

ALLYN BUTTERFIELD, Editor, RKO-Pathe News, Inc. 

LAURENCE V. COLEMAN, Director, American Museums Association. 

L. O. COLBERT, REAR ADMIRAL, Director, U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. 

R. D. W. CONNOR, Archivist of the United States. 

ROBERT TREAT CRANE, Director, Social Science Research Council. 

WATSON DAVIS, Director, Science Service. 

DAVID DIETZ, Science Editor, Scripps-Howard Newspapers. 

ALBERT EINSTEIN, Institute for Advanced Study. 

ALDEN H. EMERY, American Chemical Society. 

MORRIS FISHBEIN, M.D., Editor, Journal of the American Medi 
cal Association. 

LESTER D. GARDNER, Secretary, Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences. 

C. L. GARNER, COMMANDER, Chief of Division of Geodesy, 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

G. LEONARD GOLD, Prestige Book Company. 

FREDERIC W. GOUDY, Typographer, Printer and Type Designer. 

JOHN P. HARRINGTON, Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institu 
tion. 

MAURICE A. HECHT, LIEUTENANT, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

J. F. HELLWEG, CAPTAIN [Retired], U. S. N., Director, U. S. Naval 
Observatory. 

[50] 



HARRISON E. HOWE, Editor, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 

E. EASTMAN IRVINE, Editor, World Almanac. 

JOTHAM JOHNSON, Classical Weekly, University of Pittsburgh. 

SHERWIN KELLY, Chairman, Committee on Geophysical Methods 
of Exploration, American Institute of Mining and Metallur 
gical Engineers. 

A. V. KIDDER, Chairman, Division of Historical Research, Carne 
gie Institution of Washington. 

A. E. KIMBERLY, Chief, Division of Repair and Preservation, The 
National Archives. 

CUTHBERT LEE, Director, American Documentation Institute. 

HARRY M. LYDENBERG, Director, The New York Public Library. 

F. D. McHucH, Managing Editor, Scientific American. 
THOMAS MANN, Novelist and Essayist. 

C. E. K. MEES, Director, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak 
Company. 

CARL H. MILAM, Secretary, American Library Association. 

ROBERT A. MILLIKAN, Chairman, Executive Council, California 
Institute of Technology. 

ROBERT OLESEN, Assistant Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health 
Service. 

THOMAS PARRAN, Surgeon General, U S. Public Health Service. 

H. G. PATRICK, COMMANDER, U.S. Navy, Acting Superintendent, 
U.S. Naval Observatory. 

JAMES ROBERTSON, Director, Nautical Almanac Office, U. S. Naval 
Observatory. 

JAMES T. SHOTWELL, Chairman, The American National Commit 
tee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. 

ARTHUR SNOW, Assistant Director, Nautical Almanac Office, U. S. 
Naval Observatory. 

MATTHEW STERLING, Director, Bureau of Ethnology, Smithson 
ian Institution. 

GEORGE C . VAILLANT, Associate Curator of Mexican Archaeology, 
American Museum of Natural History. 

C. G.WEBER, Paper Technologist, U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

CLARK WISSLER, Dean of the Scientific Staff, American Museum 
of Natural History. 

[ 51 1 



THIS BOOK and the Time Capsule which it describes 
have been prepared by the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, as a contribution to the peo 
ple of a future age. The book has been produced by G. 
Leonard Gold of the Prestige Book Company; printed by 
Howard Coggeshall at his Press in Utica, New York, on 
types* designed & arranged by Frederic W. Goudy at the 
Village Press in Marlborough, New York. The frontis 
piece was produced by Charles Furth at the Photogravure 
& Color Company, and the binding was planned and 
produced by Randall W. Bergmann of the Russell-Rutter 
Company, New York, in September, 1938. The paper 
is Permanent Ivory Wove, manufactured under the di 
rection of Fred W. Main, especially for this book, by the 
Hurlbut Paper Company, South Lee, Massachusetts. 

* The Vocabulary of High-frequency English, Monotype set, is in 
Gill sans-serif.